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EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

A.D. 500 TO 1286 



*EARLY SOURCES OF 

SCOTTISH HISTORY 

A.D. 500 TO 1286 



COLLECTED AND TRANSLATED BY 

ALAN ORR ANDERSON 

AUTHOR OF 
Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers 



VOLUME ONE 



OLIVER AND BOYD 

EDINBURGH: TWEEDDALE COURT 

LONDON : 33 PATERNOSTER ROW, E.G. 

1922 



This Work was begun during tenure of a Carnegie 
Research Fellowship ; was continued with the aid of 
Grants, and has been published with the aid of a 
Grant, from the Carnegie Trust for the Universities 
of Scotland. The Editio?i is limited to 600 Sets, 
and the type has been distributed. 



PREFACE 

The chronicles tell of events ; but they show also the succes- 
sive influences that were at work upon Scotland — Irish, 
Scandinavian, English, and Norman. 

From the time of the Norman conquest, foreign influences 
prevailed at the Scottish court. The kings were partly of 
English blood ; the queens were English or French ; the nobles 
were imported from northern France. French manners were 
cultivated. There was little national spirit, as opposed to 
tribal or local patriotism, until after the events that followed 
the competition for the crown. Then the experience of true 
feudal inferiority galled the people, and diverse native and 
foreign elements combined to throw off the yoke. Thence- 
forward the common desire to remain independent was a 
generally unifying influence among the Scottish peoples ; 
and national spirit arose. 

The sphere of the present work is the period of foreign 
settlements, foreign encroachments, foreign influence, and 
intermittent submissions to a foreign power : the period also 
of assimilation of peoples, centralization of government, and, 
in the end, unification of territory, by which the way to 
complete independence was prepared. 

It is not the period of Scotland's greatest importance, 
although the part she played in English politics was not a 
negligible one. Nevertheless, it is a period of more than 
local interest : since it includes the formation of a state, out of 
a group of small and antagonistic nationalities ; and shows on 
a small scale a phase of development through which many 
other countries have passed. 

At the beginning of our period, Scotland was in a semi- 



vi PREFACE 

barbarous condition. We follow the advance of ideas in this 
country from the misty dawn, to the noon, of medieval 
civilization. We must watch with understanding the policy, 
whether humane or harsh, by which life was regulated upon 
paths less free, but more secure, leading a long stage forward 
upon the way to modern civilization. At the end of our 
period, it was possible for a Scottish noblewoman to found a 
college at Oxford. 

Evidences of this gradual change appear in the chronicles; 
but unfortunately the native chronicles that have survived are 
few. The architecture and the writing of the thirteenth 
century show a perfection of the medieval spirit that was not 
accidental or isolated. Other phases of human effort showed 
the same completeness of achievement. 

The feudal system was an organization of stability in the 
state, and made these developments possible ; but its results 
contained the germs of its decay. The nobles grew more 
powerful in prosperity, and by claiming a voice in the govern- 
ment diminished the power of their suzerain, and weakened 
the whole structure. This tendency followed different lines in 
Scotland and in England. The Scottish parliament was not 
established until forty years after the close of the period 
included in this book. 

In Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers (London, 1908), 
my purpose was to translate from chronicles written in 
England or by Englishmen, before the year 1291, all passages 
that had immediate bearing upon the history of Scotland, 
within the period A.D. 500 to 1286. The present work is 
intended to be a similar collection from chronicles of other 
nationalities ; and in addition, from chronicles that are later 
than the year 1291, when they appear to draw information 
from previously existing writings, or from strong traditions. 
I have also referred in the notes to charters and other docu- 
ments, in so far as available time and space allowed. 

In defence of the translation of historical materials, I would 



PREFACE vii 

say that these collections are intended to be a guide to the 
sources, rather than a substitute for them. For special 
points the historical worker will not trust to a translation ; 
neither will he be content with extracts removed from their 
context. The purpose of a book of translated selections is 
to give a primary interpretation of the principal materials ; 
to be a convenient book of reference for the worker; and at 
the same time, to bring before tho.se who are unfamiliar with 
foreign tongues, or who have no large library within their 
reach, the sources from which history is drawn. 

In translating, I have endeavoured to give as literal a 
rendering as I could ; not forsaking the style of the originals, 
except with a view to avoid obscurity. I have translated 
historic present by past tense ; have divided sentences ; and 
have sometimes made changes in order, and occasionally in 
mood, when otherwise the meaning would not have been 
clear. I have supplied within square brackets words that 
are needed to complete the interpretation of the text. 

The rule of the schools, that classical Latin words should 
not be translated by their derivatives in English, is reversed 
in the translation of medieval Latin ; because the changes 
in meaning that are apparent between the usages of classical 
and modern times have, to a great extent, already taken 
place in medieval times. In some cases where the medieval 
and modern usages differ it is necessary to retain a word in 
its medieval sense, in order to convey a medieval idea. 

The editions of many of the Scottish, and some of the 
Irish sources, are lamentably inaccurate. Although I have 
checked some of these editions, it has been impossible for 
me to examine the originals of all. 

With regard to emendations of the text, I have noted 
emendations that are not absolutely obvious. When a passage 
can be translated as it stands, it must not be altered without 
sufficient proof that correction is required. When the reading 
is in doubt, the passage can hardly be accepted as evidence. 



viii PREFACE 

Ingenious emendations cannot produce evidence, unless they 
are supported by other writings. 

Contemporary documents, such as letters, grants of various 
kinds, proclamations, and treaties, are the bed-rock of history, 
and by them the trustworthiness of chronicles is to be tested. 
The present collection is primarily a compilation of chronicles. 
Documentary evidence, before the I2th century, is scarce; 
and insufficient to provide a continuous narrative, throughout 
the early middle age. Chronicles are in general of a traditional 
nature ; but they have value as evidence when the tradition 
is not remote, or when it is of events that were within the 
common knowledge of the people. There is great divergence 
in value among the authorities collected here. 

We must distinguish between (a) authorities of highest 
rank (accounts written within the life-time and under the 
influence of men who remembered the events; also works 
that faithfully represent these accounts) ; (b) the earliest writers 
of less immediate tradition ; and (c) later writers who use 
works of either of the preceding classes, but do not exactly 
reproduce the works they use. The last class may be 
valuable for the interpretation of history, but does not give 
historical evidence. 

Few of the facts of history are related by eye-witnesses ; 
many have a half-legendary setting. Unless an account has 
been written down soon after the event described, it has little 
value as evidence. 

The faculty of memory, however, was in the middle ages 
more cultivated than it is now. Local or family traditions 
were often preserved with scrupulous care. Nevertheless, 
oral tradition was literary in character ; it required as its 
motive some central figure, or heroic event. This bias must 
be allowed for, when we use written versions of tradition, 
such as the Icelandic literature. Also the mental atmosphere 
of written tradition is that of the writer, rather than that of 
the time described. 



PREFACE ix 

The contents of a work give some indication of its historical 
value. Anachronisms may prove it to be unauthentic or late. 
Allowance may have to be made for bias, or (as in Adamnan) 
for credulity in marvellous episodes : but these tendencies do 
not necessarily discredit a writer's work in parts where they 
are absent. Balance of judgement and clear sense legitimately 
claim, as in the case of Bede, belief; sometimes, however, 
they may plausibly cover the absence of knowledge. 

Apart from statements that are obviously biassed or 
absurd (and their boundary-line is less clearly defined than 
might be thought), we must not reject the account of a good 
authority, except when it is contradicted by an equally good 
authority, or when it is inconsistent in itself And here is 
the proper place of conjecture in history: — to reconcile 
apparently conflicting statements. Wherever two divergent 
statements can be reconciled by simple conjecture, such as 
arises naturally from other evidence, we are not justified in 
rejecting one of them on the ground that it is apparently 
contradictory of the other. On the other hand, our acceptance 
of a statement that is not confirmed by another independent 
witness must always be provisional. It is scarcely critical 
to be most certain of the facts of history in those periods 
for our knowledge of which we rely upon accounts derived 
from one authority only. 

In questions of fact, if two authorities differ, and neither 
account is supported by other evidence, the evidence of 
the earlier writer must be preferred, notwithstanding that 
the later account may have been written on purpose to correct 
the earlier : except in those cases where the later writer has 
obtained information from an earlier source, or from a more 
immediate tradition. 

The more closely a later writer represents the work of an 
earlier writer, the greater value he has as a witness. The 
Irish annals are remarkable for their fidelity to their sources. 
Fordun lived a century earlier than the compiler of the 



X PREFACE 

Annals of Ulster ; but Fordun has practically no value for 
early times, for which the value of the Ulster annals is 
extremely high. 

The relation between events cannot be established unless 
the order of events is known ; that is to say, unless they can 
be dated with relative accuracy. 

When an earlier and a later chronicle differ in dating an 
event, the earlier account must be preferred, if it is consistent, 
and not opposed by other evidence. Unsupported dates can 
never be relied upon. But even if the chronicle errs in 
numbering the years, it may yet be right in the order of 
events. The only utility of dates is to establish the order of 
events : if we accept the dates of the oldest chronicles, we 
may be wrong in detail, and yet right in the general view. 

The works of later chroniclers, such as Fordun, Bower, 
Wyntoun, are to be consulted in conjunction with the earlier 
and more authoritative works used here ; and for Irish affairs, 
Geoffrey Keating's History of Ireland. 

The invaluable collections made by Haddan and Stubbs, 
Lawrie, Bain, Bliss, Theiner, should also be used. For kings, 
and for the history of the royal family, Dunbar's Scottish 
Kings must be consulted ; for nobles, the Scots Peerage, and 
the Complete Peerage (G.E.C.) ; for ecclesiastical history, 
Dowden's Bishops of Scotland, and Keith's Historical Catalogue 
of the Scottish Bishops ; for abbots of lona, and heads of the 
Columban order, Reeves's Vita S. Columbae (B.Cl. 103, 369- 
413 ; partly also in Skene's edition, 334-342). For popes, see 
Jaffe's and Potthast's Regesta Pontificum Romanorum. 

For persons, the indexes of the editions and calendars 
of the public records should be consulted ; and for persons 
and places, the chartularies and registers of monasteries and 
bishoprics, published by the Scottish historical book-clubs. 
The dating and indexing of these charters are, for this period, 
unsatisfactory. Since the datable charters are of special 
value for the building of history, and for the accumulation 



PREFACE xi 

of evidence with which to date other charters, a separate 
index of these would be a useful aid to historical work. Such 
an index I have made, but too late to have its much-needed 
assistance in this work. Other valuable indexes are those 
of Bouquet's Recueil, the M onumenta Germaniae Historica, Petrie 
and Sharpe's Monuinenta Historica Britannica, Langebek's 
Scriptores Reruni Danicaruin, and Hennessy and MacCarthy's 
Annals of Ulster. The indexes to the volumes of the Rolls 
Series are useful ; among them may be mentioned the index 
to Matthew Paris. 

I have seldom given references to modern histories, except 
when they cite original sources. The student will consult, 
stage by stage, such works as the histories of the late 
Professor Hume Brown, Andrew Lang, Hill Burton, Hailes, 
and Skene. Skene's work must be used with caution. 
Although it contains many valuable suggestions and theories, 
they are not always very soundly based. 

There are many other works that should be consulted ; 
among them the various county histories of Scotland and 
England. 

Of special value among bibliographies are the works of 
C. Gross, A. Potthast, and Professor C. Sanford Terry. See 
also the lists of authorities in the works of Professor Hume 
Brown, and Sir Archibald H. Dunbar. For Irish subjects, 
see the Bibliography of Irish Printed Books, by Mr R. I. Best 
(Dublin, 1913). 

A collection of sources is not easily made; and compila- 
tion is only a small part of the labours it involves. As in 
the collection from English Chroniclers, I have tried to make 
the chroniclers speak for themselves : but even the arrange- 
ment of material is part of the work of history. 

The work should have been done by a specialist in all 
the languages, and in the history of all the countries, and of 
all the different periods, with which it is concerned. Since 
such a person has not undertaken the task, I hope that the 



xii PREFACE 

faults that specialists will find in the book may not very 
greatly interfere with its general usefulness. 

The materials have not been chosen for their interest. 
But the reader may be encouraged with the assurance that 
in these pages he will find, among the necessarily dull building 
material, some brighter fragments of history, adventure, and 
romance, reflecting the life of other days. 

I have pleasure in acknowledging occasional assistance 
received : — in translations from Berchan's Prophecy, from 
various courteous Dublin scholars, including Professor Bergin 
and Miss E. Knott ; in translations from Welsh sources, from 
Mr H. J. Bell ; in some points of Latin, from Mr E. C. W. 
Hannan ; in translation from Old-French sources, from 
Miss E. Ower, of Edinburgh. Dr Stefansson has helped me 
over several obstacles in the Icelandic sagas. I have benefited 
from discussion of various questions with Professor W. J. 
Watson, with Miss E. Hull, and with Miss M. F. Moore. To 
all these I am indebted for the elimination of some errors. 
The index has been kept within the smallest bounds com- 
patible with the inclusion of all proper names. The indexing 
of the second volume has been done by Mrs M. A. Preston 
of Edinburgh, to whom my thanks are due for her care in the 
tedious task. 

Impeded by my defective sight, the work has occupied me 
for more than seven years, not counting the time of seeing 
it through the press : a still longer time might with advantage 
have been spent upon it. It has been made possible by grants 
received from the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of 
Scotland, for whose generosity I express my gratitude. The 
Carnegie Trust has also contributed a large grant towards 
the cost of publication. 

A. O. A. 

St Andrews, 1922. 



CONTENTS 



VOLUME I 

Preface . 
Abbreviations . 
Bibliographical Notes 
Calendar Notes 
Orthographical Notes 
Tables of the Succession of Kings, in Northumbria, 
Dalriata, Pictland, Scotland, and England 

Introduction— 

Kings' Reigns, Districts, and Pedigrees ; with a collation of 
the unexpanded Chronicles of the Kings 



the Kingdoms of Dalriata and 



Early Sources of Scottish History- 

Part 

I Establishment of 

Northumbria ..... 
Kings of Bernicia ..... 
II. Christianization of the Picts. Life of Columba 
ni. Affairs before and after the Council of Druimm-Ceta 
IV. Death of Columba ..... 
V. Zenith and Decline of Dalriata 
VI. Zenith and Decline of Northumbria 
VII. Domination of the Picts over Dalriata 
VIII. Recovery of Dalriata. Norwegian Invasions, 
the Kingdoms of the Scots and the Picts 
IX. Scandinavian Settlements . 
X. Harold Fairhair. Orkney and the Hebrides 
XI. Iceland and the Hebrides . 
XII. Ketil Flatnose establishes Scandinavian Rule 
Hebrides ..... 

XIII. Thorstein the Red becomes master of Caithness and 

Sutherland. Turf-Einar in the Orkneys 

XIV. Harold Fairhair's Invasion. Reign of Constantine II 
XV. Battle of Vin-heath ..... 



Union of 



the 



PAGE 

v 

XV 

xxi 
ciii 
cix 



I 

12 

17 

72 

103 

118 

173 
196 

245 
276 

313 
335 

346 

370 
392 
410 



CONTENTS 



XVI. End of Constantine's Reign. Reign of Malcolm 
XVII. Eric's Sons ..... 
XVIII. Reigns of Indulf, Dub, and Culen . 
XIX. Reign of Kenneth II 

XX. Reigns of Constantine III and Kenneth III 

XXI. Reign of Malcolm II ; and the Danish Conquest 

XXII. Reigns of Duncan, Macbeth, and Lulach. History of 

Northumbria ...... 



425 

455 
468 
478 
517 

525 

576 



VOLUME II 

Early Sources of Scottish History- 
part 

I. Reign of Malcolm III ; and the Norman Conquest 
II. Life of Queen Margaret 

III. Reigns of Donald Ban, Duncan II, and Edgar. First 

Invasion of Magnus 

IV. Second Invasion of Magnus, and end of Edgar's Reign 
V. Reign of Alexander I. History of Huntingdon 

VI. Reign of David, and the Wars of Stephen . 

VII. Reign of Malcolm IV 

VIII. Reign of William, and the Wars of Henry . 

IX. Scotland in feudal subjection to England, 1175 to 1189 

X. Latter part of William's reign 

XI. Reign of Alexander II, and the Invasion of Louis 

XII. Reign of Alexander III, to the year 1263 . 

XIII. The Invasion of Hakon 

XIV. End of Alexander's Reign, and extinction of the Royal 

Family ..... 

Appendix— Religious Houses .... 
Index ..... 



59 

89 
126 

142 
169 
223 
263 
292 
322 

403 
562 
607 

643 
697 
701 



ABBREVIATIONS 



A-I . . see Bibliographical Notes, under Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 

A-N . . see ibid., under Chronicles of the Kings. 

A-P . . see ibid., under Icelandic Annals. 

a-h . . after page nos., indicate columns in the page. 

a. . . abbot (of). 
A.B. . . Annals of Boyle. 
A.C. . . Annales Cambriae. 

AC. . followed by a number, annus {a?zno) Christi " (in the) year 

of Christ." See Calendar Notes. 

A. CI. . . Abbotsford Club. 

A.D. . . annus {anno) Domini, "(in the) Dionysian year." 

A.E. . . Ramsay's Angevin Empire. 

A.I. . . Annals of Innisfallen. 

A.K. . . Miss Norgate's England under the Angevin Kings. 

a.l. . . arf /ocawz " at the corresponding place." 

A.L.C. . Annals of Loch Ce. 

AM.. . annus {anno) miindi " (in the) year of the Creation." 

A. N.G. . Liebermann's Ungedruckte anglonormannische Geschichts- 

quellen. 

A.N.S.B. . Altnordische Sagabibliothek. 

A. P. . . a7z«?<j (a««<?) Pfljj/o/zzj "(in the) year of the Crucifixion." 
A.R. . . Ailred of Rievaulx. 

A.S. . . Bollandists' Acta Sanctorum. 

A.S.C. . Anglo-Saxon Chronicle(s). 

A.U. . . Annals of Ulster. 

A.U.C. . ai5 «ri5^ co;z^z'/a " from the foundation of Rome." 

B. . . Bodleian Version of the Verse Chronicle. 

b. . . bishop (of). 
B.Cl. . . Bannatyne Club. 

B. P. . . Benedict of Peterborough, 

B.R. . . Bouquet's Recueil. 

br. . . brother (of). 

B.S. . . Brut y Saesson. 

B.T. . . Brut y Tywyssogion. 

c. . . count (of). 

c, cc. . chapter, chapters. 

ca. . . circa "about," "approximately." 

CA. N. . Michel's Chroniques Anglo-normandes. 

CC. . . Chalmers, Caledonia (1887). 



ABBREVIATIONS 



cf. . 


confer " compare." 


C.H. . 


Chronicle of Holyrood. 


C.L. . 


Chronicle of Lanercost. 


CM. . 


Chronicle of Melrose. 


Contin. 


Continuation of. 


C.S. . 


Chronicon Scotorum. 


d. . 


duke (of). 


D.A.I. 


Dublin Annals of Innisfallen. 


dau. . 


daughter of. 


D.B. . 


Dovvden's Bishops of Scotland. 


D.K. . 


Dunbar's Scottish Kings. 


d.l. . 


dominical letter(s). 


D.M. . 


Dugdale's Monasticon. 


D.M.F. 


Duald Mac-Firbis. 


D.N.B. 


Dictionary of National Biography. 


E. . 


Eirspennill. 


E., N., S., 


W. east, north, south, west. 


e. 


epact. 


e. 


earl (of). 


E.G. . 


Anderson's Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers 


ed. . 


editor, edited (by), edition (of). 


E.E.T.S. 


Early-English Text Society. 


e.g. . 


exempli gratia "for instance." 


E.H.R. 


English Historical Review. 


E.H.S. 


English History Society. 


F. . 


Fagrskinna. 


f. 


father of. 


F.A.B.W. 


Skene's Four Ancient Books of Wales. 


ff. . 


" and following pages." 


Fl. . 


Flateyiarbok. 


fl. 


floruit " was of middle age (in)." 


F.H. . 


Flores Historiarum. 


F.M. . 


Four Masters. 


f.n. . 


ferial number. 


fo., fos. 


folio, folios. 


Fr. . 


Frisbok. 


fr. . 


Arna-Magnaean MS. fragment, 325, fascicle 10. 


F.S. . 


Fornmanna Sogur. 


F.W. . 


Florence of Worcester. 


G.C. . 


Gervase of Canterbury. 


G.E.C. 


Cokayne's Complete Peerage. 


gf. 


grandfather of. 


G.P.R. 


Gesta Pontificum Romanorum. 


gs. . 


grandson of 


H. . 


Snorri's Heimskringla. 


H. &S. 


Haddan and Stubbs, Ecclesiastical Councils. 


H.H. . 


Henry of Huntingdon. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



H.N.S. . Duchesne's Historiae Normannorum Scriptores. 

'•a- • ■ inter alia {alios) " among other works (or writers)." 

ibid. . . ibidem " in the same work (or writer)." 

i.e. . . id est " that is to say." 

J.B.A.A. . Journal of British Archaeological Association. 

J-H. . . John of Hexham. 

J-S. . . Jonsson's Skjaldedigtning. 

J.W. . . John of Worcester. 

K.B. . . Keith's Catalogue of Scottish Bishops. 

K.S. . . Unger's Konunga Sogur. 

1., 11. . . line, lines. 

L.A. . . Lawrie's Annals of Malcolm and William. 

L.B. . . Lebar Brecc. 

L.C. . . Lawrie's Early Scottish Charters. 

I.e. . loco citato " in the place referred to." 

L.H. . . Bernard and Atkinson's Liber Hymnorum. 

L.L. . . Lebar Laigen, Book of Leinster. 

L.U. . . Lebar na hUidre. 

M. . . Morkinskinna. 

M.A. . . Jones etc., Myvyrian Archaiology. 

M.Cl. . Maitland Club. 

M.G.H. . Pertz etc., Monumenta Germaniae Historica. 

M.H.B. . Petrie's Monumenta Historica Britannica. 

M.P. . . Matthew Paris. 

n. . . note. 

N.C. . . Freeman's Norman Conquest. 

N.S. . . New Series. 

O.S. . . Orkney inga Saga. 

O.V. . . Ordericus Vitalis. 

P. . . Proceedings (of). 

p., pp. . page, pages. 

P. & S. . Skene's Chronicles of the Picts and Scots. 

P.L. . . Migne's Patrologia Latina. 

p.l. . . paschal letter. 

q.v. . . g'uod vide " which see." 

R.B.H. . Evans's Red Book of Hergest. 

R.C. . . Revue Celtique. 

R.D. . . Ralph de Diceto. 

R.H. . . Richard of Hexham. 

R.LA. . Royal Irish Academy. 

R.S. . . Rolls Series : Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain 

and Ireland. 

R.T. . . Robert of Torigni. 

R.W. . . Roger of Wendover. 

s. . . son of 

s., ss. . . section, sections, 

s.a., s.aa. . sud anno, sud aimis " under the ye&r{s) ..." 

b 



ABBREVIATIONS 



S.A.S. 

S.C.S. 

S.D. . 

s.f. . 

S.H.F. 

S.H.R. 

S.H.S 

sis. 

Sk. 

s.l. 

S.P. 

s.s. 

St. 

S.V., 

T. 

Tr. 

tr. 

U.S. 

V. 

V.C.H, 

V.I. 

w. 

W.C. 

W.J. 

W.M. 

W.N. 

Y.B.L. 



Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

Skene's Celtic Scotland. 

Simeon of Durham. 

sub fine " near the end." 

Societe de I'Histoire de France. 

Scottish Historical Review. 

Scottish History Society. 

sister of. 

Skdlholtsbok. 

sic lege " so read." 

Paul etc., Scots Peerage. 

Surtees Society. 

Stockholm MS. 20. 

sub voce, sub vocibus " under the vvord(s) or name(s)." 

Tigernach. 

Transactions (of). 

translated (by), translation (of). 

lit supra "as above." 

vide " see." 

Victoria County History of . . . 

varia lectio " another reading (is)." 

wife of 

Walter of Coventry. 

William of Jumifeges. 

William of Malmesbury. 

William of Newburgh. 

Yellow Book of Lecan (facsimile). 



> 



'the death of," "his death in.^ 
. . and not later than . . ." 



"died (in)," " who died in . . . "; 

between dates, " from . . . to . . 

between dates, "not earlier than 

between pages, " between." 

after a date, "not earlier than." 

before a date, "not later than." 

before a date, indicates that the date has been deduced from 

incomplete evidence, 
between dates implies that the first number is given in a chronicle 

but the second is the number of the year intended by the 

chronicler, 
between dates, " or less probably." 
" therefore." 

before a word, "a conjectural or pre-literary form." 
"gives origin to the later form ..." 



Small Roman numerals are used to indicate volumes. Numerals in 
black type indicate divisions of a volume, either separately published or 
with independent pagination ; also the numbers of works published in a 



ABBREVIATIONS xix 

series. Large Roman numerals followed by Arabic numerals indicate 
books and chapters of a work ; chapters and verses of books in the Bible ; 
fragments and pages of D.M.F. Arabic numerals not preceded by a large 
Roman numeral are either the numbers of pages (or columns, or folios, 
when these are numbered in the edition), or else the A.D. numbers of 
years. An Arabic numeral placed before the name of a king or pope 
indicates the number of a year of his reign. 

Chartularies, Registers, and Martyrologies, are referred to by the 
distinguishing name of their title. E.g. "Oengus" means "Calendar" or 
"Martyrology of Oengus" ; " Kelso " means Liber S. Marie de Calchou ; 
"Dunfermline" means Registrum de Dunfermelyn. 

In the following Bibliographical Notes, works are entered under the 
names by which they are commonly referred to here. It has not been my 
intention to include in the list all works that are referred to once only, nor 
all works that are already entered in the Table of Reference in E.G. 

This is primarily a list of editions referred to, and is not a complete 
list of works used or consulted. Still less is it a complete bibliography of 
works relating to the subject of this book. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Abbo Floriacensis (abbot of Fleury, t 1004) : Passio S. Edmundi. 
Edited by T. Arnold, in Memorials of St Edmund's Abbey, R.S. 96, i, 3-25. 

Aberdeen, Registrum episcopatus Aberdonensis. Edited by Cosmo 
Innes, M.Cl. 63 (1845). Also in Spalding Club 13-14. 

Aberdeen, see Breviary of. 

Aohery, see D'Achery. 

Acta Sanctorum, quotquot toto orbe coluntur. Edited by J. Holland 
and others, known as the Bollandists. Antwerp, 1643-igio. See Gross, 
no. 603. 

Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland. Records Commission (folio 
series). Vol. i. (i 124-1423), 1844. 

Adam of Bremen (t ca. 1076) : Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiae 
Pontificum [788-1072], Edited by J. M. Lappenberg, in M.G.H., Scriptores, 
vii, 267-389 (Hannover, 1846). Also in P.L. 146, 451-668. Translated by 
J. C. M. Laurent : Adams von Bremen Hamburgische Kirchengeschichte 
(Berlin, 1850; Die Geschichtschreiber der deutschen Vorzeit, X I Jahrhundert, 
7 Band). 

This is a valuable work, for its subject, and the countries included 
under the archiepiscopate of Hamburg. It is not very exact in the 
employment of other sources. It was written in 1075. 

Adamnan (t 704) : Life of St Columba. Edited by Dr. W. Reeves for 
the Irish Archaeological Society, and the Bannatyne Club (no. 103 : Vita 
Sancti Columbae. Dublin, 1857). Re-edited by W. F. Skene, in altered 
form, in vol. vi of the Historians of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1874), with a 
translation by Bishop Forbes. An excellent and convenient edition is that 
of J. T. Fowler (Oxford, 1894), with translation (London, 1895). I refer to 
Reeves's chapters, which will be found also in Fowler's edition. 

The Life is in the Bollandists' Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. ii, from p. 195 
onwards (1867): also in Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga ; Pinkerton's Vitae ; 
Metcalfe's Lives, i, 73-209. For MSS. and editions see Fowler's ed., 
pp. viii-x. The proper names have been published, with their context, in 
Stokes and Strachan's Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, ii, 272-280. 

The earliest MS. (in Schaffhausen public library) is said to date from 
the beginning of the 8th century. It is believed to have been written by 
Dorbene, abbot of lona (1713), to whom it is apparently attributed in the 
colophon. 

It seems probable that Adamnan finished the work in the year 691. See 
below, years 679, 688, 691, notes. 

Adamnan was in the direct line of the tradition that he has preserved. 



xxii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

But tradition has selected for memory principally such episodes as might 
appear to be miraculous. Few facts of historical importance are given ; 
but much light is thrown upon the life of Adamnan's time, and the time 
immediately preceding it. A collection of deducible facts will be found 
in Reeves's Introduction. Here I can include only such passages as have 
more definite relation to events, persons, or places. 

Other Lives of Columba are to a great extent derived from Adamnan's, 
and are in other respects untrustworthy. 

Of his authorities, Adamnan speaks thus, in his Secunda Praefatio 
(Reeves, 8 ; Fowler, 5) :— " Let none esteem that I shall write either what 
is false, concerning this man so worthy of renown, or anything that might 
be doubtful or uncertain ; but let him know that I shall relate, and shall 
write without any ambiguity, the things that have been handed down in 
the concordant narrative of the elders and the faithful men who knew about 
them [expertoruni] ; and either from what we have been able to find com- 
mitted to writing before our time, or from what we have learned orally, by 
very diligent inquiry, from the unhesitating narration of certain faithful and 
aged men, who knew the facts [expertis]." 

In part, Adamnan relied upon a Life written by Cummine, abbot of 
lona (ca. 657-669). This was probably not the work now associated with 
Cummine's name (see below : Cummine). 

Adaranan. Cdin Adamnain ("Adamnan's Law"), edited and translated 
by Kuno Meyer, primarily from MS. Rawlinson B 512 ; Anecdola 
Oxoniensia, Oxford, 1905. This tract is assigned by its editor to 
probably the ninth century (p. viii), although the law may be attributable 
to Adamnan. 

.ffithelweard (t?998): Chronica (to 975), ed. Petrie, in M.H.B., 499- 
521. Previously ed. in Savile's Scriptores. Tr. by Giles, in Six Old 
English Chronicles (1848), 1-40 ; and by Stevenson, Church Historians, ii, 
2 (1854), 407-440. This represents a lost version of A.S.C., with some 
additions (from 892 onwards). 

Agrip af Noregs Konunga-sogum. Edited in Fornmanna Sogur, x, 
377-421 : and diplomatically by V. Dahlerup, in the Samfund (Copen- 
hagen, 1880). 

This work was written in the end of the 12th century (probably by a 
Norwegian in Iceland, about 1190), at a time when few of the sagas had 
yet been committed to writing. See Dahlerup's ed., p. xxxii. Ari and 
Theoderic are among its sources. 

Ailred of Rievaulx (abbot of Rievaulx ; til67, q.v.) : Eulogy of St 
David. Pinkerton's Vitae, 439-456 ; Metcalfe's Lives, ii, 269-285. 

The Life of Margaret attributed to him is in Pinkerton's Vitae, 373-383 ; 
Metcalfe's Lives, ii, 199-209. 

His Life of Ninian is in Pinkerton ; Metcalfe, i, g-39 ; Historians of 
Scotland, v, 137-157. 

Alberic of Trois Pontaines (tl252x): Chronica [1-1241]. Edited by 
P. Scheffer-Boichorst in M.G.H., Scriptores, xxiii (1874), 674-950. Parts 
are in B.K., ix-xi, xiii, xviii, xxi. 

Alexander Malfe or Maufe : see Maufe. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xxiii 

Altnordische Sagabibliothek, ed. Cederschiold etc. (Halle). This is a 
well-edited series of Icelandic texts. 

Amiens, Guy of. See De Bello. 

Amra Colulmchille. This is a eulogy upon Columba, attributed to 
Dalian Forgaill, or Eochaid, son of Colla, son of Ercus ; and said to have 
been composed at the time of Columba's death. 

The Amra Coluimchille (primarily from Trinity College, Dublin, MS. 
E. 4. 2) with the glossators' commentary upon it is edited by Bernard 
and Atkinson, Liber Hymnorum, i, 167-183 ; and is translated by Atkinson, 
ibid., ii, 60-80 ; and by Stokes (as below). It is too obscure to be given here 
in full. Although it is an early work, it was written some centuries later 
than the period to which its composer assigned it. 

The version from Lebar na h-Uidre was published by J. O'Beirne 
Crowe (Amra Choluim Chilli of Dalian Forgaill, Dublin, 1871). A version 
is contained in Rawlinson B 502 (facsimile) ; ed. Stokes, R.C., xx, 30 x 473. 

Anderson, A. O. : Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers (500-1286). 
London, 1908. A collection of translations from chronicles of English 
origin, and written before 1291. Late works were generally excluded for 
the period before 1000. 

Anderson, James ; Selectus Diplomatum Thesaurus (Edinburgh, 1739)- 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Edited by B. Thorpe, R.S. 23 (1861) ; versions 
ABCDEF printed in parallel columns, with translation and indices (cf 
J. Ingram's Saxon Chronicle, London, 1823). Versions A and E are the 
basis of C. Plummer's Two Saxon Chronicles Parallel (Oxford, 1892-1899 ; 
cf. J. Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles, Oxford, 1865). Plummer's 
edition has very valuable notes. See his Introduction (in vol. ii) for an 
account of the manuscripts. 

Starting from a common origin, the chronicle was continued in various 
monasteries. Information was conveyed from one house to the others ; 
nevertheless the versions tended to differentiate. These versions are 
distinguished by letters. 

A (MS. C.C.C.C. 173) was written by one hand down to 891 ; and 
continued more or less contemporaneously, at Winchester, to looi. 
Continuations were written, much later, at Canterbury, for the years 
1001-1066, 1066-1070, 1070. There are some gaps and interpolations. 
Version W (Cottonian MS. Otho B XI) was copied from A. 

B (Cot. MS. Tiberius A VI), to 977, was probably written ca. iioo. 

C (Cot. MS. Tib. B I), to 1066, was written by various hands ; probably 
from about the middle of the nth century to 1066. 

D (Cot. MS. Tib. B IV) runs to 1079, with an addition for 1088=1130. 
From 1067 onwards, it was probably written after 1 100. 

E (Bodleian MS. Laud 636), to 11 54, was written by one hand to 1121 ; 
by three or four contemporary hands from 1122 to 1131 ; and after 1154, by 
another hand from 1 132 to 11 54 : at Peterborough. 

F (Cot. MS. Domitian A VIII), to 1058 (the remainder being lost), was 
written in the iith-i2th centuries by one hand (perhaps the interpolator 
of A), with added notes. 

H (in Cot. MS. Domit. A IX), a fragment of years n 13-1 1 14, was written 



xxiv BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

early in the 12th century. It was edited by Zupitza, in Anglia, i, I95-I97 ; 
and by Plummer, i, 243-245 ; ii, p. xxxvii. 

I (Cot. MS. Caligula A XV, fos. 133-138 verso), nth- 12th century Anglo- 
Saxon notes for 925-1109, and I2th-I3th century Latin notes for 1110-1202, 
written in a 10th-century Easter table of 988-1193 ; edited by Liebermann, 
A.N.G., 1-8. 

The common source of the Anglo-Saxon chronicles was begun in the 
reign of Alfred. It was probably based upon 7th and 8th-century notes, 
some of which were used also by Nennius (see under Historia Brittonum). 
The Anglo-Saxon chronicles are our principal authority from the death 
of Bede down to the Norman Conquest. They are original and nearly 
contemporary from the time of king Alfred to the death of king Stephen. 

Versions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle were used by ^thelweard, and 
Florence of Worcester. Versions used by Simeon of Durham and the 
Annals of St Neots were in some respects more correct than any existing 
text of the chronicle. 

For the chronology of the 8th to 9th centuries in the Chronicle see L. 
Theopold, Kritische Untersuchungen Uber die Quellen zur Angelsachsischen 
Geschichte des achten Jahrhunderts (Lemgo, 1873). Theopold's conclusion 
is (p. 65) "that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle proper (excluding all later 
additions of whatever kind) has suffered a [backward] displacement in the 
annals for 754-828 of 2 years, in the annals for 829-839 of 3 years, perhaps 
at 840 of 4 years and at 845 of 5." 

Annales Anglo-Saxonici Breves, see Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, version I. 

Annales Cambriae (MS. A, 445-954 ; with continuations in other MSS. 
to 128S). MS. A (to 954; with appended pedigrees) is edited by E. 
Phillimore in Y Cymmrodor (the journal of the Cymmrodorion Society), 
ix, 141-183 (London, 1888) ; and after Phillimore's text in Loth's Les 
Mabinogion (1913), ii, 370-382, and 326-348 ; D'Arbois de Jubainville's 
Cours de la Litterature Celtique, iv, 345-357. This and its continuation 
in later versions (to 1066) were edited by Petrie, M.H.B. (1848), 830-840 ; 
and re-edited, with the continuations to 1288, by J. W. Ab Ithel, in 
R.S. 20 (i860). 

An index to the pedigrees that follow the chronicle in MS. A has been 
published by A. Anscombe in the Archiv fur celtische Lexicographie, i, 
187-212 (cf. his indexes to other Welsh pedigrees, ibid., i, 513; ii, 147; 
iii, 57). From these pedigrees Skene drew up a genealogical tree of the 
kings of Strathclyde, in P. & S., p. xcv. 

The version called MS. A (Harleian MS. 3,859, fos. 190-193) is an 
nth century copy, entered among the additions to the Historia Brittonum, 
of a chronicle that was finished 954 x 989, and perhaps 954 x 955 (according 
to Phillimore). The original source was an annotated paschal calendar of 
533 years ; it ran from 445 to 977, and was therefore a Victorian table. 
Tenth-year numbers are entered from it in MS. A ; but, probably owing to 
a copyist's errors, these numbers do not coincide with the tenth years of 
the annals. One year was dropped between the years numbered 40 and 
50 ; one was added between 60 and 70, 220 and 230, 250 and 260, 280 and 
290, 340 and 350, 460 and 470, 490 and 500. Three blank annals follow 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xxv 

the year numbered 530 ; therefore the total number of annals ought to be 
533 : but it is actually 539. 

The year-numbers are more nearly correct than the actual numbers of 
the annals would be. The change of Easter [in 455] is the first entry, and 
stands under the 9th annal. Bede's death [in 735] is entered under year 
[291], the 294th annal ; king Edmund's death [in 946], under year [503], 
the 509th annal. 

In Petrie's and Ab Ithel's editions the ist annal is wrongly equated with 
444 A.D. ; the 9th annal, correctly, with 453 A.D. 

The Annales Cambriae probably contain a few contemporary notes 
from the early part of the 8th century ; and may contain genuine notes of 
a still earlier date. Irish and some Scottish events were entered from an 
early collection of Irish annals. 

MS. A is the earliest chronicle of Wales. 

MS. B is " prefixed to an abridged copy of Domesday Book in the 
Public Record Office, in the custody of the Master of the Rolls." It is 
written "in a hand of the close of the 13th century" (Ab Ithel, p. xxv). It 
contains (in addition to a copy of the earlier chronicle, with added notes) 
an undated chronicle running from 955 to 1096 (and spelling Welsh names 
in a manner much later than the spelling of MS. A), and a continuation, 
with dates, to 1286. 

MS. C (Cottonian MS. Domitian A I) runs to 1288, and is written "in 
a hand of the end of the 13th century" (Ab Ithel, p. xxvii). This version is 
independent of MS. B from 1204 onwards. 

Annales Colonienses Maximi, or Chronica Regia Coloniensis (to 1238). 
Edited by K. Pertz, M.G.H., Scriptores, xvii, 729-847 ; xxiv, 4-20. These 
annals are original for 1144-1175, with continuations to 1238. See Potthast, 
Bibliotheca, i, 239-240. 

Annales de Monte Pernandi. See Annals of Multifernan. 

Annales Dorenses (to 1283 ; continued to 1362). Extracts (687-1362) 
ed. R. Pauli, M.G.H., Scriptores, xxvii, 514-531 (1885). 

Annales Egmundani. See Annals of Egmond. 

Annales Fuldenses. See Annals of Fulda. 

Annales Gandenses (1297-1310) ; ed. Lappenberg, M.G.H., Scriptores, 
xvi, 559-597 (1859). Written by a Franciscan of Ghent. 

Annales Lambert! (of Hersfeld, to 1077) ; ed. M.G.H., Scriptores, iii, 
22, 33, 90 (1839) ; V, 136-263 (1844) ; P.L. 141, 146 ; extracts in B.R., iii ; 
v ; vi ; vii ; xi, 59-69. See Potthast's Bibliotheca, i, 705-707. 

Annales Lundenses. See Annals of Lund. 

Annales Quedlinburgenses (to 1025) ; ed. M.G.H., Scriptores, iii, 

22-69, 72-90 (1839) ; P-L. i4ii 449-560. 

Annales Regii, see Icelandic Annals, version C. 

Annales Reseniani, see Icelandic Annals, version K. 

Annales S. Nicasii Remenses (Annals of Rheims, 1 197-1309); ed. . 
Waitz, M.G.H., Scriptores, xiii, 84-87 (1881) ; (1197-1222) in B.R., xviii, 
699-700. 

Annales S. Rudberti Sallsburgenses (to 1286). Edited by Wattenbach, 
in M.G.H., Scriptores, ix, 760-843 (1851). 



xxvi BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Annales Stadenses (to 1256), or Albert of Stade : Chronicon ab Ortu 
Christi ad a. 1256. Edited by Lappenberg, M.G.H., Scnptores, xvi, 
283-374 (1859). Albert was abbot of Stade. The chronicle bears upon the 
history of Denmark and the archbishopric of Bremen, from the nth 
century onwards. 

Annales Uticenses (1-1503). Edited by Le Prevost, Ordericus Vitalis, 
V, 139-173 ('855)- This chronicle has used an earher and trustworthy 
source for the history of the Scandinavians in France. 

Annales Vetustisslmi, see Icelandic Annals, version B. 

Annales Weissemburgenses (Annals of Wissembourg, or Weissenburg, 
708 to 984, 107s, 1087, 1 147), ed. M.G.H., Scriptores, iii, 33-65, 70-72; 

(1839); P.L. 141,465-517- 

Annalista Saxo : Chronicon (741-1139) ; ed. Waitz, M.G.H., Scriptores, 
vi, 553-777 (1844). Extracts in B.R., vi-xi, xiii. 

Annals in the Book of Leinster. Edited by Stokes, R.S. 89, ii, 512-528. 
Book of Leinster, facsimile, pp. 24-26. These are a list of the kings of 
Ireland, ca. 432 -ca. 1189. Events are entered under the kings' reigns, 
and are mostly undated. 

Annals of Boyle (so-called; A.M. i-A.D. 1270). Partly edited (420- 
1245) by C. O'Conor, in Scriptores, ii, 4, from Cottonian MS. Titus A XXV. 
This MS. was "transcribed towards the close of the 13th century" (J. T. 
Gilbert). See National MSS. of Ireland, ii, no. 91 ; Catalogue of Irish 
MSS. in the British Museum, 4-14. The monastery of Boyle was founded 
in 1 148. These annals deserve to be re-edited. 

Annals of Chester (1-1297). Edited by R. C. Christie: Annales 
Castrienses (Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 14; 1886- 1887). 
This was the chronicle of St Werburg's abbey. It is preserved in a 
manuscript copied or compiled by four hands in the I5th-i6th centuries, 
but the original chronicle was certainly of much earlier date. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise (to 1408). Edited by Denis Murphy (Royal 
Society of Antiquaries of Ireland ; 1896). This is an English translation, 
made by Conell Mageoghagan in 1627, of a work now lost. In quoting it, 
I modernize the spelling, normalize (when I can) the names, and translate 
unintelligible Irish idioms. These annals are of a rather late type. They 
do not adhere to their sources so closely, and have not such authority, as 
the older Irish annals ; and the translation is not always accurate. There 
are gaps between the years 11 82 and 1199, 1290 and 1299. 

Annals of Bgniond (875-1205 ; with additions for 1207-1315). Edited 
in M.G.H., Scriptores, xvi, 443-479 (1859). Also edited by B. J. L. de Geer 
van Jutfaas (Werken van het Historisch Genootschap te Utrecht, N.S. 1 ; 
Utrecht, 1863). This is the oldest chronicle of Holland. 

Annals of Fulda (680 to 838, 863, 882, 887, and 901) ; ed. B.R., ii, v, vi, 
vii, viii ; ed. Pertz, M.G.H., Scriptores, i, 343-415 (1826). 

Annals of Purness (1199-1298), a continuation of William of Newburgh. 
Edited by R. Hewlett, R.S. 82, ii, 503-583. 

Annals of Innisfallen (or Inishfallen, in Lough Leane, Kerry Co.). The 
only edition is that of C. O'Conor, Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores, vol. ii 
part 2, pp. 1-122 (Buckingham, 1825). Skene published extracts in his 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xxvii 

Picts and Scots, pp. 167-170; for these he had compared O'Conor's text 
with the manuscript, and had attached dates taken from the Annals of 
Ulster. A specimen of the handwriting is given by J. T. Gilbert in the 
National MSS. of Ireland, ii, no. 89. 

A new edition of these annals is much needed. I have checked 
O'Conor's edition by the manuscript in almost every instance where I 
quote from them. 

This is one of the earliest existing collections of Irish annals. Prefixed 
to it was a compiled chronicle of no original value, from the Creation to 
the year 432 ; of this the part from Abraham is preserved. The chronicle 
proper begins in 432. Patrick's mission is described three times : at the 
end of the prefixed chronicle, in a passage written between the two 
chronicles, and at the beginning of the chronicle proper. 

The Annals of Innisfallen are written in different hands. Before the 
end of the nth century the chronicle becomes a more or less contemporary 
work ; and even from the 5th century it contains copied contemporary 
notes. It is based upon annotated paschal calendars ; first Patrick's, then 
the Victorian, finally the Dionysian. 

This chronicle exists in one manuscript (MS. Rawlinson B 503, in the 
Bodleian Library). Its pages are written in two columns to O'Conor's 
year 650 ; in three columns from O'Conor's year 651 to the true year 1 130 ; 
from the year 1 1 60 they are written in two columns, in later hands. The 
annals for 1131-1159 are missing. 

One section of the chronicle closes at 1 102 (O'Conor's 1085), where the 
writer states that he wrote in that year. The writing is nearly contem- 
porary at the year 11 14 (O'Conor's 1097). From ii6o onwards the 
chronicle is carried on by so many hands that it seems to have been 
written almost contemporarily with the events. O'Conor prints the Annals 
down to 1 196, and points out that the events spoken of there had happened 
not long before the time of writing (Scriptores, ii, 2, 122). The hand that 
takes up the work after that date had written several columns before. The 
last year legible is 1319 ; a few years are added in later hands ; but the 
last entry has completely faded, and the remainder is lost. 

The chronology of the early parts of the Annals of Innisfallen (as in 
other Irish annals) is confused through events having been entered from 
different sources. One event has sometimes been entered by counting 
backwards from another event, without allowing for gaps in the sequence 
of the year-sections. 

A few years between 432 and 442, and after 798, are indicated by ferial 
numbers and epacts (see Calendar Notes, p. civ) ; and after 973 (O'Conor's 
955) the years are regularly so indicated. Between 442 and 798 some 
years are indicated by their number in lunar cycles, and one or two are 
dated from the Passion ; some others are fixed by original records of 
eclipses, or of foreign events. 

It is noteworthy that the beginning (457) and end (559) of Victorius's 
paschal table are indicated. Under 437 (O'Conor's 438) is noted "the 
beginning of the great circle," which should refer to some pre- Victorian 
calendar ; and since (in IVIacCarthy's tables) the 84-year cycle did not 



xxviii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

begin in that year, it may possibly refer to the beginning of Cyril's paschal 
table of five 19-year cycles (437-53i)> "sed by the Eastern Church. The 
beginning of a Dionysian cycle of 19 years is marked in 608. 

The chronological data of the Annals of Innisfallen have not been 
interfered with by the compilers. They do not follow an erroneous system, 
like Tigernach's ; they have not been adapted to a correct system, as in 
the beginning of the Annals of Ulster. But they have been ignored by the 
editor. 

O'Conor begins his edition of part of these annals with the year before 
that dated in the prefixed chronicle "from the Lord's Incarnation 430"; 
the year-numbers he gives to the sections that follow are reckoned inexactly 
by sequence from that date. He ignores the fact that the year 432 is 
doubled ; therefore his years 434 to 458 are by one ahead of the year 
intended. (Nevertheless O'Conor's 445 contains an eclipse of 453, and his 
455 a notice of Easter of 455.) 

The years that are clearly indicated in this chronicle are 432-457, 559, 
599-608, 779-800, 817, 847-963, and from 973 onwards. Between O'Conor's 
458 = 457 and 554 = 559 the chronicle has 95 years instead of 102 (O'Conor's 
503 is part of the previous year in the MS.). Between O'Conor's 554 = 559 
and 591 = 599 the chronicle has 37 years instead of 40. Between O'Conor's 
591 = 599 and 765 = 779 the chronicle has 174 years instead of 180. Between 
O'Conor's 786 = 800 and 804 = 817 the chronicle has 18 years instead of 17. 
Between O'Conor's 804 = 817 and 832 = 847 the chronicle has 29 years 
instead of 30 (O'Conor also omits a year between his 829 and 830). Between 
O'Conor's 947 = 963 and 955 = 973 the chronicle has 8 years instead of 10. 
O'Conor jumps from his year 833 to 835 ; repeats his years 908 and 909 ; 
and jumps from his year 1002 to 1004. 

Between O'Conor's 458 and 554, 7 years have been omitted. They were 
probably blank, and most likely dropped at one or other of the places 
where two blank years are marked together ; these are after O'Conor's 472, 
480,485, 511, 514, 521. There are not among these more than two blank 
years together. It happens that O'Conor's 472 = the Annals of Ulster's 471, 
and his 475-480 are nearly parallel to their 480-485. After O'Conor's 472 = 
471, the Annals of Innisfallen may have dropped 6 years. (Between 469 
and 479 in the Annals of Ulster 8 years are blank or contain alternative 
entries only.) O'Conor's 483 and 484 are parallel to the Annals of Ulster's 
488 = 489 and 489 = 490; so that the Annals of Innisfallen seem to have 
missed a year at the same place as have the Annals of Ulster (between 
481 and 487). But we cannot with certainty correct the Innisfallen by the 
Ulster annals. The Annals of Ulster have an excessive number of alterna- 
tive entries about this period ; and their year-numbers here advance far 
ahead of the years intended by the Annals of Innisfallen. (The Ulster 
Annals' dates of events in the 5th and 6th centuries are not very trust- 
worthy. An eclipse placed by them under 496 (corrected date) occurred 
in 497; an eclipse under 512, in 509 (both of these being taken from 
Marcellinus) ; another under 591, in 592 ; and under 592, in 594.) 

Between O'Conor's 554 = 559 and 591=599 3 years have been missed, 
probably after the end of the Victorian calendar (559). But no gap appears 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 



there in the sequence of events ; the error must have been present in the 
earliest compilation. The compiler has entered many events before 559 
at the correct distance not from 559 but from 599. Events entered thus 
belong to the earliest compilation ; and events entered correctly before 559 
may have been in the original annotated calendar that forms the basis of 
the compilation. 

Between O'Conor's 600 = 608 and 765 = 779 6 years have been missed. 
Of these, 3 seem to have been dropped between O'Conor's 635=643 and 
674 = 685 ; another, between 694 = 705 and 723 = 735. 

Between O'Conor's 786 = 800 and 804 = 817 the MS. has one year too 
many. We must read K for KK in the MS. at O'Conor's 801 : this will 
agree with the bissextile numbering. O'Conor's 785, 790, 794, 798, 803, 
807, 81 1, are marked "bissextile." Between O'Conor's 804 and 832 the MS. 
omits a year ; and after O'Conor's 811 the bissextile notes go wrong. 

The dates deducible from the chronicle may be found by making the 
following changes in O'Conor's year-numbers : — 



434-458 


deduct I. 


801-804 


add 


13- 


459-472 


J 


I (probably). 


805-811 




13 (or possibly 14) 


475-480 


add 


5 (probably). 


812-829 




13-14- 


483-502 




6 (probably). 


830-831 




14- 


503-554 




5- 


832-833 




15- 


555-635 




8. 


835-909 




14. 


636-673 




8-11. 


908-947 




16. 


674-694 




11. 


948-954 




16-18. 


695-723 




11-12. 


955-1002 




1 8. 


724-764 




13-14. 


1004-1113 




17- 


765-786 




14. 


1160-1 196 


are correct. 


787-800 




14 (or possibly 13). 









Annals of Loch C6 (1014-1 138, 1 170-1590) (i.e., Lough Key, Roscommon 
Co.). Edited by W. M. Hennessy, R.S. 54 (1871). For the earlier centuries, 
these are mainly based upon the Annals of Ulster ; and have preserved a 
version of that chronicle for six of its missing years (1133-1138). The 
Annals of Loch Ce have also preserved some details from sources that have 
been lost. But they are less trustworthy than the earlier compilations. 

Annals of Lund (Annales Lundenses, Annales Esromenses) : to 1265, 
continued. Edited by Waitz, M.G.H., Scriptores. xxix, 188-210 (1892). 

Annals of Margan (1066-1232 ; incomplete). Edited by H. R. Luard ; 
R.S. 36, i, 3-40 (London, 1864). See ibid., pp. xiii-xv. The surviving MS. 
of these Annals is written in a hand of the 13th century. The monastery 
of Margan (Margam Abbey, Glamorganshire) was founded in 1 147. One 
of the sources used by the compiler was the Chronicle of Holyrood (see 
below). These Annals are valuable for local affairs, but not for Scottish 
histor)'. 

Annals of Multifernan (Annales montis Feranandi). Edited by Aquilla 
Smith for the Irish Archaeological Society (Dublin, 1842), as the second 
part of vo). ii of Tracts Relating to Ireland. They run from A.D. 45 to 
1274, and were apparently written about the latter date. 



XXX BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Annals of Norwich, partly edited in M.G.H., Scriptores, xxviii, are the 
source of years 1066-1291 in Bartholomew Cotton, R.S. 16. 

Annals of St Neots (to 914), or Chronicon fani S. Neoti. Inaccurately 
edited in Gale's Scriptores XV, (iii) 141-175 (Oxford, 1691). Part critically 
edited by W. H. Stevenson, in Asser's Life of king Alfred, 1 17 (Oxford, 1904). 
This is an early 12th-century compilation, said to have preserved the true 
chronology of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a version of which it uses 
(Plummer, Two Saxon Chronicles, ii, p. ciii). Stevenson says that "the 
MS. of the chronicle used by the compiler was. nearer to the original than 
any extant copy." Unfortunately the compiler did not give a complete 
rendering of this source. Other sources used were Bede ; Asser ; Annales 
Uticenses ; and some Frankish chronicle. The Annals of St Neots gave 
material to the Annals of Lund. 

Annals of Southwarb, Cottonian MS. Faustina A VI II (13th century). 
Among the sources used by Matthew Paris. Selections ed. M.G.H., 
Scriptores, xxvii. 

Annals of Stanley (to 1271), ed. (1202-1271) by R. Howlett, R.S. 82, 
ii, 506-558 (1885). 

Annals of Ulster (431-1132, 1156-1540). "Otherwise Annals of Senat ; 
a chronicle of Irish affairs from A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540," edited (vol. i, to 
year 1056) by W. M. Hennessy ; and (vols, ii.-iii) by B. MacCarthy (Dublin, 
1887-1895). The fourth volume of this edition (Dublin, 1901), by B. 
MacCarthy, contains an Introduction, valuable for the study of chronology ; 
and an index, which is a useful dictionary of dates. 

An earlier edition (to 1131) by C. O'Conor, in his Scriptores, vol. iv 
(Buckingham, 1826), is inaccurate. Extracts were printed in Johnstone's 
Antiquitates Celto-Normannicae ; in Pinkerton's Enquiry, ii, 307-320 ; in 
Skene's Picts and Scots, 343-374. 

Hennessy and MacCarthy's edition is the only trustworthy one. It has 
an English translation, and many useful cross-references and notes. Some 
additions are printed as if they had formed part of the original text. The 
first volume was severely criticized by Stokes in the Academy of 1889 
(pp. 207-208, 223-225, 240-241) : the second and third were denounced by 
him in the Revue Celtique (xviii (1897), 74-86). But Stokes's own edition 
of Tigernach is by no means perfect as an edition for the historical 
worker. 

The Annals of Ulster were compiled in Shanid or Belle Isle, Upper 
Lough Erne, Fermanagh, by Cathal Mac-Manus, a Mac-Guire, in the end 
of the 15th century. The manuscript (A) (Trinity College, Dublin, 
MS. H. I. 8) is written in his own hand to A.D. 11 14. Cathal's death in 
1498 is recorded by his continuator. MS. B (a Bodleian MS., Rawlinson 
B 489) extends to 1588; it is, down to the middle of the nth century, 
a close copy of MS. A. 

The original compiler copied his materials with close fidelity. Notwith- 
standing the late date of the Annals of Ulster, they rank among the most 
ancient sources. But since it is a compilation of various collections of 
historical notes, the same event is frequently entered two or three times 
under different years, in the earlier centuries. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xxxi 

The chronological system of these annals is more correct than that of 
the earlier collections. It must, however, be kept in mind that the events 
were copied from earlier collections, in which the chronological system was 
less perfect. The dates are the result of the compiler's interpretation of 
the dates of previous chronicles. This interpretation appears, on the 
whole, to be remarkably correct. Errors and deviations occur, especially 
in the 5th, 6th, and early part of the 7th, centuries. In these centuries it 
is necessary (for more than approximate accuracy) to compare all the 
survivins' Irish annals. 

In the Annals of Ulster, the year-sections are arranged consecutively 
under Dionysian numbers ; with added ferial numbers and epacts, which 
are all entered, according to Hennessy (i, 4), in a later hand. The epacts 
are incorrect for the years 1235 to 1412 (cf. MacCarthy, Todd Lecture 
Series, iii, 379). 

The year-numbers are too low by one year from 486 to 1012. In order 
to correct this error, no annal was written for the year 1013. The 
year-numbers, therefore, are not only later than the time of Bede, as 
O-Maille says ; they are later than the year 1013, and are probably 
attributable to Cathal Mac-Manus himself. 

Notwithstanding these errors, the year intended by the compilers is 
never in doubt. It must not be assumed that this was invariably the year 
intended by the annalists from whom the compilation was made. 

The accuracy of transcription is so great that it has been possible to 
deduce from the spelling (of the Irish entries, and of Irish names in the 
Latin entries) that original notes began to be written, in the sources used, 
almost contemporaneously with the events described, in the last years of the 
7th century. At that time, some compilation of earlier notes was made. 
This first compilation was added to subsequently, down to the 9th century, 
in the language of the time, several centuries after the events described ; 
but there seems to be reason to believe that these additions, as well as the 
original compilation, were translated from earlier written records. 

The chronicle becomes continuously contemporary, or nearly con- 
temporary, from the end of the 7th century onwards. See T. 0-Maille's 
Language of the Annals of Ulster (Manchester, 19 10). Cf Stokes's 
Linguistic Value of the Irish Annals, in the Transactions for 1890 of the 
Philological Society. Since some of the sources used by the Ulster annals 
were used also by the other Irish annals, the same statement of date is to 
some extent applicable to the other Irish annals also. 

For the sources of the Annals of Ulster, see O-Maille, pp. 5-10. Native 
sources quoted by name are : — Mochta's Epistle (at 471 and 535 ; Mochta, 
a disciple of Patrick, died in 535 or 537) ; a Book of the Monks at 512, and 
Book of Mochod at 528 ; Cuanu's Book (from 467 to 629 ; see below, year 
630, note); the Book of Dubdaleithe (from 629 to 102 1 ; probably 
Dubdaleithe was the abbot of Armagh who died in 1064). Foreign 
sources used are sometimes named, where Tigernach quotes them without 
naming them. Marcellinus, Bede, and Isidore, are named. A copy of the 
Liber Pontificalis also was used. 

In referring to the Annals of Ulster, I usually give both the uncorrected 



xxxii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

and the corrected year-numbers. When one number only is given, for 
a year between 487 and 1013, it is the corrected number (unless s.a. 
precedes it). 

Anselm (archbishop of Canterbury, fiiog): Letters. Ed. P.L. 159. 

Also in D'Achery. 

Antlquitates Amerioanae, ed. C. C. Rafn. Det Kongelige Nordiske 
Oldskriftselskab, Copenhagen, 1837. 

Arbroath. Liber S. Thome de Aberbrothoc, Edited by C. Innes and 
P. Chalmers. B.Cl. 86 (1848- 1856). 

Ari Pr6di ("the Learned"), Thorgils' son (1067-1148) : Islendingabok. 
This work runs to the year ii20. I refer to the edition of Mobius (Leipzig, 
1869). A later edition is that of W. Golther, in Cederschiold's Altnordische 
Sagabibliothek, part i (Halle, 1892). Also edited in Islendinga Sogur 
(1829), i ; (1843), i : and in Origines Islandicae, i. 

The Islendingabok is a revised abridgement of a previous work (written 
1122x1133), now lost, of the same writer (see Ari's preface; p. 3). The 
earlier version was probably an earlier work than the Korftingabok and 
Landndmabok ; both of which, composed by Ari, have survived in later 
recensions only. These last-named works were perhaps extensions of parts 
of the lost book. The surviving Islendingabok (with those parts left out) 
was written 1134X ; and, according to Golther, x 1138. 

See under Landnd,mab6k, and Snorri. 

Ari, a noble and priest, was the first historian of Iceland. He 
endeavoured to obtain from good authorities (several of whom he names) 
an exact account of the settlement of Iceland, and its history down to his 
own day. He was not only a careful collector of facts ; he was also a 
pioneer of Icelandic writing, and father of the written literature of Iceland. 
Cf. Snorri's Preface to HeimskringIa ; and Ari's Islendingabok, c, 9. 

While Ari's works contain a marvellous amount of trustworthy informa- 
tion, for the period 870-1130, they contain also much that is legendary. 
Legendary material is often distinguishable (in works derived from his 
Konungabok) by the style and character of the narrative ; by direct 
quotation of speeches, rounding-off of incidents, and antithesis and 
parallelism of cause and effect. Details of the story tend to grow larger in 
later accounts. 

Art de Verifier les Dates. See L'Art. 

Asser: Annales rerum gestarum vElfredi Magni. Edited by W. H. 
Stevenson (Oxford, 1904). Previously edited by Petrie, M.H.B., 467-498 ; 
and in Camden's Anglica Scripta. 

This life of Alfred was written in 893 (c. 91, p. 76), but is of uncertain 
authority. 

Atkinson, J. 0. The Coucher Book of Furness Abbey. Chetham 
Society, 9, 11, 14 (1886-1887). Continued by J. Brownbill, no. 74 (191 5). 

Bain, Joseph: Calendar of Documents [l 108- 1509] relating to Scotland, 
preserved in H.M. Record Office, London. Edinburgh, 1881-1888. This, 
with its indices, is an invaluable work. 

Balmerino. The Chartularies of Balmerino and Lindores, ed. W. B. D. D. 
TurnbuU ; A.Cl. 22 (Edinburgh, 1841). 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xxxiii 

Banquet of Dun na n-Ged, and the cause of the Battle of Moira. This 
tale is edited by O'Donovan from the Yellow Book of Lecan (see " Battle 
of Moira"). Its historical value is almost null. 

Bartholomew Cotton: Historia Anglicana (to 1298), ed. H. R. Luard ; 
R.S. 16 (1859). 

Battle of Moira. This tale is edited by John O'Donovan from the 
Yellow Book of Lecan (The Banquet of Dun na n-Gedh, and the Battle 
of Magh Rath ; Dublin, Irish Archaeological Society, 1842). O'Donovan 
considers it to have been composed originally in the 12th century. It has 
little historical value, but some details of fact are derived from earlier 
accounts. 

Bayeux Tapestries. F. R. Fowke : The Bayeux Tapestries reproduced 
in autotype (Arundel Society, London, 1875). Photo-lithographs in Sir 
Alexander Malet's Conquest of England ; see under Wace. 

Beauly. E. C. Batten : The Charters of the Priory of Beauly (Grampian 
Club, no. 12 ; 1877). 

Bede (+ 735) : Chronicle (to 726). This chronicle is part of his De 
Temporum Ratione, and is an extension of his Shorter Chronicle (to 707), 
which was part of his De Temporibus. Both chronicles are edited by 
Mommsen, in M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 223-354. 

Among many sources from which Bede's Chronicle is derived, the 
following may be named : Constantius, and Gildas ; Prosper, and 
Marcellinus ; Isidore, and the Liber Pontificalis. 

Bede : Historia Ecclesiastica (to 731). Edited by C. Plummer (Oxford, 
1896), with very useful notes and indices. J. A. Giles's edition (Patres 
Ecclesiae Anglicanae, i-ii ; London, 1843) has text and translation on 
alternate pages. For other editions see Gross, no. 1355. 

The early part of Bede's History is partly derived from Orosius and 
Gildas. In the later part he uses the same sources as in his Chronicle, and 
many other written sources and documents. 

Bede's work is, for his own time, of the highest authority. It is the 
principal source of succeeding chronicles for the same period. Other 
works by which its accuracy might be tested do not exist. Bede's clear 
style and judicial mind gave an admirable model to his successors. 

Bede : Vita S. Cudbercti. This Life is based upon the more authoritative 
Anonymous Life of St Cuthbert (written 698x705). Both Lives are edited 
in Stevenson's edition of Bede, vol. ii (E.H.S., 1841)- Bede's is edited 
with a translation by Giles (Patres Ecclesiae, ii) ; and is translated by 
J. Stevenson in Church Historians of England, i, 2, 546-603 (London, 

1853). 

Benedict of Peterborough. Gesta regis Henrici Secundi (1169-1192), 

ed. W. Stubbs (R.S. 49; 1867). This is a very valuable contemporary 

work, of unknown authorship. I have thought it convenient to retain the 

name (B.P.) by which it has been known. The true author may have been 

Richard Fitz-Nigel, treasurer of king Henry II : v.i.a. R.S. 99, i, p. xxix. 

In his introduction, Stubbs has given an Itinerary of king Henry II 
(ii, cxxix-cxlviii). 

Benolt de Sainte-Maure (t 1 189 x ) : Chronique des Dues de Normandie 

c 



xxxiv BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

(to 1135) ; ed. F. Michel (Paris, 1836-1844)- Partly based upon Uudo and 
William of Jumieges. An extract is in C.A.N. , i, 166-303. 

Berchan, Prophecy of. The so-called Prophecy of Berchan is preserved 

in MS. ^ of the Royal Irish Academy (Skene's MS. a), which was copied 
(from a book written by Michael O'Clery in 1627) by John O'Kane, and 
finished on 29th September, 1722 ; and in a copy of that MS., made by 
Peter O'Connell, and finished on 7th May, 1803 (MS. R.I.A., H. & S., 
no. 221 ; Skene's MS. 6). Stanzas 102-204 were edited by Skene, with 
a translation, in his Picts and Scots, pp. 79-io5- Versions of stanzas 
7, 9, 8, 69, 71, and an additional stanza, are quoted in the Wars (R.S. 48, 
10, 204) ; stanzas 7, 9, 8, also in the fragment of the Wars that is preserved 
in the Book of Leinster (facsimile, p. 309 ; Wars, 225). This part of the 
Book of Leinster was perhaps written ii66x 1171. It has been alleged, on 
insufficient grounds, that the Wars were composed early in the nth 
century, and that therefore part of the Prophecy was composed earlier still 
(O'Curry, MS. Materials, 413-414). A copy of the Prophecy existed in 
1518; see Hyde's Literary History of Ireland (1899), 611. A fragment, 
ending in the middle of stanza 66, was copied by Peter O'Longan, "about 
the year 1760 "(O'Curry, Catalogue of the Betham Collection in the R.I. A. 

23 
Library, ii, 341) : this is in the R.I. A. MS. ^,-~- It was copied by Peter's 

son, Michael O'Longan (R.I. A. MS. j^g)- 

This is a Middle-Irish historical poem, written in the form of a prophecy, 
and ascribed to an abbot Berchan. 

The Prophecy consists of 204 debide stanzas (nos. 128 and 168 being 
incomplete). There is considerable displacement of stanzas, especially 
among stanzas 17-42. The verse was originally of fairly precise construction ; 
but the text is now very corrupt. There are many errors throughout, in 
numbers and facts. It is not improbable that the original source of the 
existing text was written from memory. 

The poem is divided into two parts. The first part (stanzas 1-96) 
professes to have been composed by Berchan, an Irish abbot, 60 years 
before his death; and 120 years before the dissolution of his monastery, 
which was apparently dispersed by the Norwegians. It is addressed to 
a boy, who is not named. It describes the history of Berchan's monastery ; 
the arrival of the Norwegians in Ireland (led, according to the Book of 
Leinster, by Tuirgeis) ; their overthrow after seven years (in ? 845, when, 
according to the Annals of Ulster, Tuirgeis was drowned) : the death of 
Colman Mor, son of Aed ; and the reigns of 19 Irish kings. 

The second part (stanzas 97-204) does not name the composer ; but 
purports to have been spoken on the eve of Patrick's death [.''461], 60 years 
before the composer's death and the birth of Columba [? 521]. It describes 
the life of Columba, the reign of Aidan in Scottish Dalriata, and the reigns 
of 24 kings of Scotland, from Kenneth Alpin's son to Donald Ban. 

The composer of the Prophecy has obscured its meaning by usino- 
metaphors freely, and by omitting the narnes of most of the kings. In the 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xxxv 

first part, however, many names of kings are supplied in glosses, which 
were probably an original part of the work, and are equally authoritative 
with the text ; although a few of them are incorrectly placed. Because of 
the style of the work, its confused order, and its inaccuracy, it is often 
difficult to ascertain whether the glosses are correct, or not. 

The 17th Irish king is the last whose name is supplied in a gloss : 
he is said to have been Muirchertach, son of Toirdelbach Ua-Briain. 
Muirchertach died in 11 19; therefore O'Curry thought that the poem in 
its present form was written about 1120 (MS. Materials, 413-414). The 
i8th is said to become king loi years after the death of the i6th (Aed 
Ua-Neill, + 1033), and to reign for 35 years : he is probably Toirdelbach 
Ua-Briain, who was deposed in 1165, and reigned again from 1166 till his 
death in 1167. 

The 19th king is called the "Grey-chested one, from Cloitech"; 
presumably the wearer of a cuirass. It is foretold that his reign will 
begin 140 years after the reign of the i8th king, and that he will be king 
of Ireland for 13 years. In his reign. Antichrist will be born in the east. 
He will be the last king killed by the Leinstermen : very soon afterwards 
the Day of Judgement will arrive. If the numbers be correct, and if I have 
identified the i8th king correctly, the 19th would have reigned from 1307 to 
1320. 

Within that time, Edward Bruce was the crowned king of Ireland 
(1315-11318). These stanzas were probably added at the time when 
Berchan's works were collected, in 1317 (see below). Before 1190, however, 
some prophecies attributed to Berchan foretold the coming of a king from 
Downpatrick to Offaly ; and the expulsion of the English from Ireland 
(Giraldus Cambrensis, v, 385). 

The last Scottish king whose reign is described is Donald Ban. For 
this reason it has been assumed that the second part was written 1094 x 1097 
(Picts and Scots, p. xl). But in the description of the last Scottish reigns 
there are errors that could not have been made by a contemporary ; such 
as, for instance, the statement that Malcolm III died in Rome. It is 
foretold that four or five unnamed Scottish kings will reign after Donald, 
in Ireland, before the Judgement Day (see year 1094). The fifth king 
of Scotland after Donald would have been William, who reigned 1165-1214. 
Thus both the Irish part and the Scottish part appear to extend beyond the 
year 1165. It is possible that the poem was composed between that year 
and the time when it was quoted in the Book of Leinster. Since no 
mention is made of the English invasion of Ireland in 1169, th^ 
original composition of the Prophecy may be dated conjecturally 1 165 x i i6g. 
In its present form, it dates probably from 1315 x 1318. 

The Berchan to whom the first part is ascribed is supposed to have 
spoken in ?7i8 ; and to have died in ?778. The prophecy of the reigns of 
Irish kings begins in stanza 15, and includes kings who lived in the 5 th 
century, in the time of St Patrick and of St Bridget. The prophet of the 
second part is supposed to have spoken in .''461, and to have died in ? 521. 
It follows that stanzas 1-14, or some of them, belong to a pre-existing 
nucleus upon which the later work was imposed. Berchan's monastery is 



xxxvi BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

mentioned also in stanzas 29 and 32 ; and the glosses in this part of the 
work (stanzas 1-32) may be incorrect. 

The pedigree of "Berchan, prophet and bishop and poet," in the Book 
of Leinster, p. 350, column 5, makes him a great-grandson of Ainfcellach 
[king of Dalriata 696-697 ; 1719] : this was Berchan of Clonsast, in King's 
County. See Oengus (1905), 256. He was no doubt the prophet to whom 
the nucleus of the Prophecy was ascribed. 

Another "Berchan, son of Beoaid Barrfind, of Corcothri" in Sligo, is 
also named "Mobi of Glasnevin among the Foreigners" (near Dublin), 
in the Book of Leinster, p. 351, column 7, Cf. Oengus (1905), 322-224. 
This Mobi was called "the Flat-faced." He was the son of Uanfind, 
daughter of Findbarr (ibid., 372, column i). He died in 545 (according to 
the Annals of Ulster ; but in [546] according to Tigernach and the 
Chronicon Scotorum, both of which identify him with Berchan, and appear 
to speak of him as a poet). Mobi and Berchan are entered consecutively 
but separately in the Martyrology of Tallaght under October 12th (Book 
of Leinster, 363, column 7 ; Brussels version, ed. Kelly, p. x.\xvi). The 
identification of these two men is almost certainly erroneous. 

Berchan Beoaid's son may possibly have been the Berchan upon whom 
the whole Prophecy was fathered ; but it seems incredible that the writer 
should not have known the legend of Mobi's Girdle (cf. Stokes, Lismore 
Lives, 26-27 ; L.H., i, 87), and the facts that it contains : that Mobi was a 
teacher of Columba, and died immediately before Columba established his 
first monastery in Derry. 

The saint who died on the day of Columba's birth, and who is said to 
have prophesied of him, was Buitte, the first abbot of Monasterboice. It is 
possible that the introductory stanzas (97-113) of the second part contain 
verses that existed previously, and may have been attributed to Buitte. 

The historical value of this Prophecy is very low. 

For other prophecies ascribed to Berchan, see O'Curry, MS. Materials, 
417-418, 628 ; and Giraldus Cambrensis, v, 384-385. Cf. i.a. the Martyrology 
of Donegal, pp. xxxii-xxxiii. In O'Reilly's Irish Writers, p. xliv, it is stated 
that "Ware says, that the prophecies of Braccan were collected and 
published by Walter de Islip, in the year 1317 " (before the death of Edward 
Bruce). 

Bernard of Clairvaux (tii53): Vita S. Malachiae. In A.S., Nov., ii, 
1, 143-146; P.L. 182, 1073-1118. See Potthast's Bibliotheca, ii, 1445-1446. 
An excellent translation with critical notes has, since this work was finished, 
been produced by Dr H. J. Lawlor (" St Bernard of Clairvaux's Life of 
St Malachy of Armagh" ; 1920). 

This Life of Maelmaedoic, bishop of Armagh, was written 1148X 1152. 
Maelmaedoic had twice visited Clairvaux ; on the second occasion in 
1 148, he died there. ' 

Bernoldus (fnoo ; a monk of Saint-Blaise, afterwards of SchafFhausen)- 
Chronicon (to iioo), ed. Pertz, M.G.H., Scriptores, v (1844), 400-467. Also 
in P.L. 148 (1853), 1299-1432. Extracts in B.R., xi, xiv. For other works 
see Potthast, Bibliotheca, i, 154-156. ' 

Bertholdus (tio88 ; pupil and continuator of Herimannus Augiensis); 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xxxvii 

Annales (1054-1080), ed. Pertz, M.G.H., Scriptores, v (1844), 267-326. Also 
in P.L. 147 (1853), 343-442. Extracts in B.R., xi, xiv. 

Blskupa Sogur, ed. G. Vigfusson, J. Sigurdsson, G. Hansen. HiS 
Islenzka Bokmentafelag' (Copenhagen, 1858-1878). 

Black Book. See Black Book of the Exchequer. 

Black Book of Carmarthen. See Welsh Triads. 

Black Book of Paisley. See Bower. 

Black Book of the Exchequer, The Smaller. T. Hearne : Liber Niger 
Scaccarii (Oxford, 1771, or 1774). This was perhaps compiled by Alexander 
de Swereford (t 1246), before 1216. See R.S. 99, i, pp. xxxv-xlix ; Hi, Ivi, 
Ixii, etc. 

Bliss, W. H. : Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers, relating to 
Great Britain. Rolls Series. Vol. i (i 198-1304), London, 1893. 

Bond, J. J. : Handy-book of Rules and Tables for verifying Dates 
within the Christian Era (London, 1889). 

Book of Armagh. Liber Ardmachanus . . . edited, with Introduction 
and Appendices, by John Gwynn (R.I. A., 1913). See also Life of St 
Patrick. The Book of Armagh was written in 807 by Ferdomnach, a 
scribe of Armagh (t 846 ; A.U.). See P.R.I. A., iii, 316-324; Tr. R.I. A.. 
XX, 329-332. 

Book of Ballymote, published in photo-lithographic facsimile under 
the title "The Book of Ballymote, a Collection of Pieces, Prose and Verse, 
in the Irish Language, compiled about the beginning of the fifteenth 
century : now for the first time published from the original manuscript in 
the library of the Royal Irish Academy, by the Royal Irish Academy. With 
Introduction, Analysis of Contents, and Index, by Robert Atkinson . . ." 
(Dublin 1887). Cf. the facsimile pages in National MSS. of Ireland, iii, 
nos. 25-27. 

This is a miscellaneous collection, compiled and translated from various 
sources at different times. Part was written 1384x1406 ("about 1400" 
Atkinson). 

Book of Coupar. .See Bower. 

Book of Deer. This is an incomplete copy of the Gospels, in Latin ; 
written in the 9th century. Notes of grants, and translations of charters, 
have been added, in early G.nelic, or middle-Irish ; also a copy of a Latin 
charter, confirming the rights of the clerics of Deer, as written in their 
book. If this charter is genuine, and the book referred to is the present 
Book of Deer, the Gaelic additions would have been made before the 
year 1 1 50. 

The edition referred to here is that of J. Stuart : The Book of Deer 
(Spalding Club [no. 36], Edinburgh, 1869). This edition contains text and 
translations (pp. xlvii-lvii), with facsimiles, of the additions. The additions 
had previously been edited and translated : — by C, Innes, Scotland in the 
Middle Ages (i860), 321-325; [by Stokes?] in the Saturday Review for 
i860, 734-735 ; [by Joseph Robertson] in Illustrations of the topography 
and antiquities of the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff, iv, 545-550 (Spalding 
Club [no. 32], 1862) ; by C. Innes, in National MSS. of Scotland, i, nos. i, 
18 (Southampton, 1867), with facsimiles. Text, translation, and glossary, 



xxxviii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

are given by Whitley Stokes, in Goidelica (1872), 108-111, 115-121 ; and 
by Alexander Macbain, Gaelic Society of Inverness (1885), xi, 144-149, 
158-166. Translations and some texts are in L.C., nos. i, 95, 97, 107, 224. 
All these editions have valuable notes. Cf. L.C., 219-220. 

The grants recorded in the additions are tabulated in Stuart's Preface, 
pp. Ixi-lxiii. Cf. Macbain's ed., 151. 

These additions appear to be written at a later date than the charters 
copied in the Book of Kells (q.v.). Cf. below, note under no. 7 ; year 
1131X. 

Book of Kells Charters in the Book of Kells, ed. J. O'Donovan, in 
Irish Archaeological Society, Miscellany, i, 127-158 (Dublin, 1846). These 
were copied, according to J. T. Gilbert, " towards the latter part of the 
i2th century." Cf. National MSS. of Ireland, ii, nos. 59-61. 

Book of Leinster (R.I. A. MS. H. 2. 18). " The Book of Leinster, some- 
time called the Book of Glendalough, a collection of pieces, prose and 
verse, in the Irish language, compiled, in part, about the middle of the 
twelfth century. . . . With introduction, analysis of contents, and index by 
R. Atkinson" (Dublin, 1880). In facsimile. 

This collection was written at various times. A note on p. 275 fixes the 
date of that part of the MS. as ist August, 11 66. A note on p. 288 (written 
1166x1167) laments the expulsion of Diarmait Murchaid's son (tii7i). 
The original book ends on p. 354. It was added to at various times. 

See Todd, R.S. 48, pp. ix-xii ; O'Curry, MS. Materials, 184-186. Cf. 
above, under Berchan. Facsimile pages are given by Gilbert in the 
National MSS. of Ireland, ii, nos. 53-55. 

Book of Lismore. W. Stokes : Lives of Saints from the Book of 
Lismore. Anecdota Oxoniensia, Medieval and Modern Series, part 5 
(Oxford, 1890). The Book of Lismore "was compiled from the lost Book 
of Monasterboice and other manuscripts, in the latter half of the 15th 
centuiy" (Stokes). 

Book of Iilandaff : edited by Evans and Rhys, Welsh Texts, iv (Oxford, 
1893). Previously edited and translated by W. J. Rees ; Llandovery, 1840. 

A collection of various historical materials, made about 1132. 

Bouquet, Martin; and others. Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et 
de la France. Paris, 1738- 1876. 

Bower, Walter : Scotichronicon [to 1437]. Edited by Walter Goodall 
(Edinburgh, 1759) ; previously by Thomas Hearne (Oxford, 1722). 

This is a recension of Fordun's work. Fordun's continuator (to 1437) 
was born in 1385, and began to write his compilation in I44r. He may 
have been named Bower, Bowyer, or Bowmaker. It is convenient to retain 
the name by which he has been known. 

Goodall's text is based upon a MS. in Edinburgh University Library. 
The "Book of Coupar" (Advocates' Library MS. 35. i. 7) is, according 
to Skene, an abridged text by the same compiler. Another abridge- 
ment (the "Book of Perth") was made by a Carthusian at Perth probably 
before 1451 (Advocates' Library 35. 6. 7 ; paper). In this MS. the 
statement appears that the first 5 books had been written by "John 
Fordoun, a priest" ; the other 11 books by "the reverend father in Christ, 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xxxix 

sir Walter Bowmaker, formerly abbot of the island of St. Columba 
[Inchcolm], who died in the year of the Lord 1449." In another paper MS. 
(Adv. Lib. 35. 5. 2), Fordun's continuator is called Walterus Boware. 

Another text is the "Black Book of Paisley" (British Museum, Royal 
Library MS. 13 E X). 

For the various manuscripts see Skene's Preface to Fordun. 
Bower's work is not included here ; but is occasionally quoted and 
referred to, principally for ecclesiastical details. He drew from sources of 
information that have now been lost. 

Brandkrossa Thdttr, ed. G. Thordarson, in Nordiske Oldskrifter, v 
(1848) ; Vigfusson, Origines Islandicae, ii, 533-536 ; J. Jakobsen, Samfund, 
29, 183-191 (Copenhagen, 1903). This is an unhistorical fragment, con- 
taining some genealogical details. It may have been composed originally 
in the 13th century ; but survives in manuscripts of the 17th and i8th 
centuries. 

Brechin. Registrum Episcopatus Brechinensis ; ed. C. Innes, B.Cl. 
102 (1856). 

Brenna Adams Byskups (t 1222), in Fl., ii, 529-530; ed. Vigfusson 
and tr. Dasent, R..S. 88, i, 229-230 ; iii, 232-233. Also in Collectanea, 
355-356. 

Breviary of Aberdeen. Edited by William, bishop of Aberdeen ; vol. i 
(the winter part; December to June) published on 1st February, 1509; 
vol. ii (the summer part) published on 4th June, 15 10 (Edinburgh). Both 
volumes were reprinted in facsimile for the Bannatyne Club (and simultane- 
ously for the Spalding Club and the Maitland Club) in 1854 (London). 
This contains a collection of local traditions of saints' lives, preserved 
orally or in writing ; it is of value as evidence of the existence of traditions 
in the beginning of the i6th century. 

The martyrology is the 3rd section with separate pagination in both 
volumes. 

Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris. Edited by J. A. 

Giles, Scriptores Rerum Gestarum Willelmi Conquestoris, 1-23 (Caxton 

Society, 1845). Apparently written in the time of his son, king Henry I. 

Brompton, John of (fl. 1437): Chronicon (to 1198). Twysden, 

Scriptores, 721-1284. An inaccurate compilation, of uncertain date. 

Brut d' Angleterre. See Wace. 

Brut y Saesson. Two Welsh chronicles are called by this name. One 
(to 1 197) was edited from Cottonian MS. Cleopatra B V, fos. 109-162, in 
Myvyrian Archaiology, 652-684 (Denbigh, 1870). This is part (Brenhined 
y Saesson) of the chronicle beginning on fo. i, and entitled the Brut, or 
Ystoriaeu Brenhined Ynys Brydeyn. 

Another (850-1382) is edited from the Red Book of Hergest (a MS. of 
the end of the 14th century), by J. G. Evans, in Rhys and Evans's Bruts 
from the Red Book of Hergest, 385-403 (Oxford, 1890). 

Brut y Tywyssogion ("Chronicle of the Princes"). Two Welsh 
chronicles have been called by this name. One (running from 680 to 
1282) has been edited by J. G. Evans, from the Red Book of Hergest, a 
MS. of the end of the 14th century (Rhys and Evans, Welsh Texts, vol. ii : 



xl BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Bruts from the Red Book of Herg-est, 257-384 ; Oxford, 1890). It was 
previously edited, from the same MS., in Myvyrian Archaiology (1801 ed., 
ii, 391-582 ; (1870 ed.), 602-651 ; from the same and other MSS. by J. W. 
Ab Ithel, in R.S. 17 (i860) ; and, to 1066, by Aneurin Owen, in Petrie's 
M.H.B., 841-855 (1848). 

The value of extracts given from this chronicle is uncertain. I refer to 
the pages of Evans's edition. For the MSS. used by Ab Ithel, see his ed., 
pp. xlv, xlvii-xlviii. 

According to Liebermann (M.G.H., xxvii, 444-446) the nucleus of this 
work is a Welsh translation (ascribed to Caradoc of Llancarvan) of the 
Annales Cambriae to 954; probably also of their continuation, to 1 100, 
although it is uncertain whether the continuation is not derived from the 
Brut. From iioo to 11 20 the Brut is ascribed to Caradoc (who died about 
the middle of the 12th century). From 1120 to 1282, the chronicle is the 
work of various hands ; the part relating to the 13th century being attributed 
to Cistercians of Strata Florida. 

None of the surviving copies appears to be earlier than the 14th century. 
Another chronicle of the same name (from 660 to 1196) was edited by 
Owen Jones in the Myvyrian Archaiology (1870 ed., pp. 685-715). 

Cambuskenneth. Registrum monasterii S. Marie de Cambuskenneth, 
ed. Sir William Fraser. Grampian Club, 4 (Edinburgh, 1872). 

Camden, William : Anglica, Normannica, Hibernica, Cambrica, a 
veteribus Scripta (Frankfurt, 1602, and 1603). Britannia (London, 1586; 
latest ed., 1607 ; tr. R. Gough, 1789, and 1806). 

Carmen de Morte Sumerledl, by William, a priest of Glasgow. Edited 
by Skene, Fordun, i, 449-451 (1871), from MS. C.C.C.C. 139, fo. 133 (the 
12th-century MS. of S.D., s.f.) ; independently by J. Raine, S.S. 70, 78-80 
(1880 ; cf. S.S. 51 (1868), p. Ixix) ; by T. Arnold, R.S. 75, ii, 386-388 (1885) ; 
and from Skene, in L.A., 80-83. 

This "Song upon the death of Someried" is written in doggerel Latin 
verse, m lines of 15 syllables, with artificial alternate accent. There is 
usually dissyllabic end-rhyme or assonance, in couplets. The rhyming 
syllables would be unaccented in prose. There is usually also internal 
rhyme or assonance of syllables 3-4 with syllables 7-8 in each line. 

Chalmers, George : Caledonia. New edition. (Paisley, 1887-1902) 
First published in London, 1807-1824. 

Chronicle in Edinburgh University Library MS. no. 27 (1057-1401) ; 
ed. Miss C. R. Boriand, Catalogue of the Western Medieval MSS. in 
Edinburgh University Library, 329-332 (Edinburgh, 1916). 

Chronicle of Anjou (to 1057, with continuation to 1251). Called also 
Chronicle of Vendome ; ed. Marchegay and Mabille, Chroniques des 
Eghses d'Anjou, 155-177. Selections are edited in B.R., vi-viii, x-.xii. xviii 

Chronicle of Anjou. The chronicle quoted under 1174 is one' of the 
chronicles of St Albinus' abbey in Angers. It runs to the year 1200 and 
has later additions. It is edited in Labbe's Nova Bibliotheca, i 27C-280 
(Pans, 1657). ^ 

Chronicle of Carlisle, ed. Palgrave, 68-76. This chronicle was sent to 
king Edward on 20th May, 1291, by the canons of the cathedral church of 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xli 

Carlisle. The seal of the chapter was attached. The manuscript was 
endorsed Cronica de Karleolo. It has much in common with the Chronicle 
of Huntingdon. See also Chronicles of 1291. 

Chronicle of Dalriata. See Chronicles of the Kings. 

Chronicle of Holyrood. The edition referred to here under this name 
is that of C. W. Bouterwek : Monachi anonymi Scoti Chronicon Anglo- 
Scoticum. Elberfeld, 1863. This version is inaccurately edited from a MS. 
(Durlacensis, no. 38 ; Karlsruhe, no. 345) in the Karlsruhe library of the 
Grand-Duke of Baden. The chronicle runs from before the Christian era 
to 734, and from 1066 to 11 89, all written in one hand, of the 12th (or early 
13th) century. Additions have been made, for 1286, in a I3th-I4th century 
hand ; and for 1266, 1296-1318, 1355, in hands of the I4th-I5th centuries. 

The version in Lambeth MS. no. 440 (beginning on fo. 122) was edited 
by Robert Pitcairn for the Bannatyne Club (no. 20; Edinburgh, 1828), 
under the title (borrowed from Wharton) : Chronicon Coenobii S. Crucis 
Edinburgensis. Part of this version, from 596 to 1163, had previously been 
edited in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i, 152-162 (London, 1691). The whole is 
translated by Joseph Stevenson, in his Church Historians of England, iv, 
1, 61-75 (London, 1856). The Lambeth version breaks off, incomplete, in 
the year-section for 1163; but otherwise has the same contents as the 
Karlsruhe version. According to Henry Petrie, the writing of the Lambeth 
version appears to belong to the I2th century. 

On foho 2 of the Lambeth MS., this note is written, in a hand of the 
13th century: "Book of St Mary of St Serf's [Liber S. Mariae de S. 
Servand], by gift of William, Duncan's son, formerly parson of that church." 
It seems, therefore, that the MS. volume (or part of it) in which the Lambeth 
copy is now bound was presented, in the 13th century, to a church of the 
parish of St Serffs, dedicated to St Mary. This parish is now included in 
the parish of Redgorton, near Scone. A William, Duncan's son, probably 
a churchman, flourished in 1202 ; North Berwick, no. 6 (cf. Moray, no. 50 ; 
1206x8). 

Both versions are probably copied from one source. Errors are common 
to both codices under the years 668, 685, 1068, 1153, 1160. But the Karls- 
ruhe copy has preserved the true reading under 1162 ; the Lambeth copy 
under 11 54. The error at 1153 (where the age of king Malcolm at his 
accession is said to have been 42 years, instead of 12) shows that the 
common source cannot have been written contemporaneously with this 
event. 

The source copied in the Karlsruhe MS. was probably compiled in, or 
soon after, 1189. It was derived from various chronicles, and from original 
notes made or preserved in the monastery of which the writer was an 
inmate. 

That the chronicle was written at Holyrood abbey is fairly deducible 
from original notes in the year-sections of 1150, 1152, 1154, 1155, 1160, 
1 161, 1 163 (cf. the borrowed notes under 1178, 1180; and original refer- 
ences to Lothian affairs, under 1125, 1163, 1164. The words apud Scotiam 
— s.aa. 1 153, 1 154 — suggest that the place of writing was to the south of 
the Forth). Bouterwek (p. viii) argued that the writer was a monk of 



xlii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Coupar-Angus (cf. year-sections 1164, 1170, 1186, 1187). It is possible 
that the chronicle was begun at Holyrood (which was founded in 1 128), 
and continued at Coupar (which was established in 1164); but the connection 
with Coupar is by no means proved. 

The Chronicle of Holyrood, though brief, is valuable. It is the only 
early Scottish companion to the Chronicle of Melrose. Unfortunately, 
there is no satisfactory edition of either : the sources have not been 
critically traced. 

The notes entered in the Holyrood chronicle are often so curtailed that 
it is difficult to ascertain their origin. Original notes appear from the 
year 1136 to the end. The Chronicle of Melrose has been borrowed from, 
down to the year 1169; but the indebtedness may in some cases be 
reversed : the Melrose chronicle having made use of the notes upon which 
the Holyrood chronicle is based. 

Bede, with his continuator, is the principal source of the Chronicle of 
Holyrood down to the year 734. Other sources drawn from independently 
(not merely through the Chronicle of Melrose) are : — a list of popes (1084 ; 
the other papal successions may have been derived from the Chronicle of 
Melrose); some Salisbury source (1078, io8g, 1092; cf 1099, 1102, 1107, 
1 138, where the Salisbury events may have been derived from various 
chronicles) ; the Translatio S. Cuthberti (1069 and 1104) ; the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle (version E? ; to 1109) ; Florence of Worcester (to llio) ; Simeon 
of Durham (to 1123) ; William of Malmesbury (1133) ; John of Worcester 
(to 1 140) ; John of Hexham (to 1152) ; and a history of the crusades (iioi, 
nil, 1118, 1152, 1187. Cf notes otherwise obtained under 1096, 1098, 
1099). 

From 1066 to 1102, 1107, and perhaps later, the Chronicle of Holyrood 
appears to have been used by the Annals of Margan. 

Chronicle of Huntingdon ; Cronica Canonicoriim Beaie Marie Hunting- 
donie. Edited in Palgrave, 98-104; and in Skene's Picts and Scots, 
209-213. I refer to the pages of Skene's edition. 

This is one of the chronicles of 1291. It concludes thus : "And at the 
command of our noble king the common seal ... [of the chapter of the 
canons] of St Mary of Huntingdon has been appended to this." 

It appears to derive much of its information from the Chronicle of 
Melrose. 

Chronicle of Lanercost (1201-1346). Joseph Stevenson : Chronicon de 
Lanercost. B.Cl. 65 and M.Cl. 46 (Edinburgh, 1839). This work, in its 
survivmg form (Cottonian MS. Claudius D VII), was written in the 14th 
century ; but it is in part copied from an earlier chronicle. It borrows 
material from a source that is used by the Chronicle of Man, and from that 
part of the Chronicle of Melrose that ends in 1264; see below, and year 
1251, note. Down to 1273, the original version was written x 1275 (see 
below, year ?I266). Down to 1279 or further, it was written before 1296 
(see below, year 1279). Verses that are entered 1280-1290 were written 
by Henry de Burgo, who became prior of Lanercost in 1310 (f 1315) The 
section for the year 1289 was (? partly) written by a contemporary of 
iatrick, 7th earl of Dunbar (+1289) (cf year-sections 1248, 1267 1289)- 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xliii 

and (? partly) during the lifetime of Duncan, loth earl of Fife (earl 
1288-1- 1353): therefore 1289x1353. Part of the same year-section was 
written 1306X. 

From 1272 to 1346, the chronicle has been translated by Sir Herbert 
Maxwell in S.H.R., vi-x ; reprinted, Glasgow, 1913. 

Chronicle of Maillezais (Vendee) (to 1134); ed. B.R., vii, ix-xii. The 
writer borrows from Julius Florus, who wrote of affairs of Aquitaine to 
1 140. 

Chronicle of Man (to 1257, with additions to 1376). Chronicon Regum 
Manniae, ed. Goss : Chronicles of Man and the Sudreys, vol. i ; Manx 
Society, 22 (Douglas, 1874. No. 23, vol. ii, contains an appendix of 
documents). Goss gives a translation. His edition is based upon the 
edition and notes of P. A. Munch (Christiania, i860). Text also in J. R. 
Oliver's Monumenta de Insula Manniae, Manx Society, 4, 127-205 
(Douglas, i860) ; part in Camden, in Johnstone's Antiquitates Celto- 
Normannicae, and in Langebek, iii, 209 (1774). Translated by Stevenson, 
Church Historians, v, 1. 

This chronicle is part 3 of Cottonian MS. Julius A VII. It dates from 
the middle or latter half of the 13th century, with additions of the 13th and 
14th centuries. It begins at the year 1017, and is carried down by 
successive hands to 1257, 1274, and 1316. A list of bishops appended to 
it was begun by the first chronicler, and continued by various hands to 1376. 

There are considerable errors in the year-numbers. The years numbered 
1000-1023 are intended for 1017-1040; 1027-1056=1046-1075 ; 1073-1077 = 
1093-1097. 1140=1148, 1141-1144=1151-1154. Calculations of the duration 
of reigns and bishoprics are inaccurate. 

The Chronicle of Man uses, for the history of the islands, a source that 
is used also by the Chronicle of Lanercost. It borrows, down to 1190, from 
the Chronicle of Melrose, edition to 1197 ; and adds original material from 
1066 onwards. 

Cf. Alunch's ed., pp. xxvii-xxviii. 

Chronicle of Melrose (731-1263, with continuation 1263-1270)- The 
edition used here is that of Joseph Stevenson : Chronica de Mailros 
(Bannatyne Club, no. 49), Edinburgh, 1835. The chronicle was previously 
edited by William Fulman, in his Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores, i, 135-244 ; 
Oxford, 1684. I refer to Fulman's book under the usual but incorrect 
designation of Gale's Scriptores, vol. i. Joseph Stevenson translated this 
chronicle in his Church Historians of England, iv, 1, 79-242 ; London, 1856. 

The chronicle with its additions (fos. 1-74) occupies folios 2-75 of the 
Cottonian MS. Faustina B IX. This is the original codex, to which 
additions were made from time to time, during perhaps a hundred years, 
by successive historiographers of the monastery of Melrose. 

The changes in handwriting should be an aid towards determining the 
times at which the various parts were written. This is a matter for a 
palaeographical expert. The same hand varies at different times, and with 
different pens, inks, and qualities of parchment. Writers of one school 
form characters in similar ways ; and, in finishing a partly-filled page, 
a writer sometimes imitates his predecessor's style. 



xliv BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

So far as I can tentatively judge, new hands appear in the following 
year-sections of the chronicle (to 1263) 1—956 ; 970; 1017 ; 1172; 1198; 
1215; 1215; 1216; 1217; 1218; 1221 ; 1222; 1223; 1234; 1234; 1240; 
1244; 1245 ; 1246. 

Each year-section is begun upon a new line. From 974 onwards, a line 
is frequently left blank after year-sections. A half-page was left blank after 
1016. From 1171 onwards, space is left at the end of the year-sections, for 
the accommodation of additional notes. These spaces have sometimes 
been filled up afterwards. 

The first edition of the chronicle (to 1171) was completed 1178x1198, 
and perhaps 1185x1186. See below, year 1170, note. This section of 
the chronicle was used (down to 1169) by the compiler of the Chronicle 
of Holyrood ; and (from 1141 to 1 168) by Roger of Hoveden. 

Original material appears under the years 1128, 1134, 1136, and from 
1 140 onwards. Probably the compiler of the 1171 edition utilized historical 
notes made and preserved in the monastery of Melrose, which was founded 
in 1 136. 

Among the sources used are : — Bede, and his continuator ; the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle ; Florence of Worcester ; Simeon of Durham ; William of 
Malmesbury ; John of Worcester ; John of Hexham. 

From 1 172 onwards, the work was continued by various writers, more or 
less contemporaneously with the events described. The chronicle to 1263 
was completed after 21st January, 1264. It ran to folio 62, but did not 
include folios 60 and 61. It contained three added leaves : — folio 13, 
written in 1263 (or 1264), and added to the year-section of 1056 (see below, 
year 1249); folio 37 (on the capture of Damietta, in 1219), inserted in the 
middle of the year-section of 1221 ; and folio 53 (in an early 13th century 
hand; relating to years 945-1193), inserted between the year-sections of 
1245 and 1246. 

In the blank space after year 1016, on folio 10 verso, this note has been 
added, in a late 13th-century hand: — "Memorandum: that the abbot of 
Dundrennan has borrowed the chronicles of Melrose, in which were 14 
quires, 1 19 leaves " (i.e., 28 folded sheets, bound in fours ; and 3^ single 
leaves: in all, 119 pages, or 59^ folios). The book borrowed must have 
been the 1264 edition of our Chronicle of Melrose ; because it contains 59i- 
folios, of which three were added leaves. 

In the lower margin of folio 45 verso, under the year-section of 1243, the 
following note has been written : " The abbot of Dundrennan has received as 
a loan the remainder of these chronicles. Vide." The two year-sections that 
follow, 1244 and 1245 (folios 46-52), were probably copied in 1263. 

In the upper margin of folio 52 verso, the writer who copied the 
year-section of 1245 (folios 48 verso-52 verso) has written the date : "Henry, 
the king of England, the son of king John, has now reigned for 47 years" ; 
and in the lower margin, the note : "Alexander, king of Scotland." King 
Henry IPs 47th year was completed on 27th October, 1263. 

The 1264 edition of the chronicle was used (down to 125 1) by the 
writer of the Chronicle of Lanercost. 

The added folios 60-61 were written after [263. They describe miraculous 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xlv 

incidents of life at Melrose ; and contain additional year-sections for the 
years 1260 and 1261. 

On folio 62 verso, lists of Melrose abbots, and promotions of Melrose 
monks, have been added. 

The continuation (for years 1263-1270 ; folios 63-73) contains, under the 
years 1263, 1264, 1268, a treatise upon the affairs of Simon de Montfort. 
Folio 74 is entirely occupied with the history of the crusades. It ends 
incomplete ; the remainder of the chronicle is lost. This continuation has 
probably been copied by three hands, which have written respectively folios 
63-68, 69-71, and 72-74. Part of the annal for 1265 was written 1267 x; 
perhaps 1270 x. 

Notes for the years 1271-2, 1275= ?i272, 1272-3, and 1274-5, have been 
added on folios 62, 59 verso, and 51. 

A Prose Chronicle of the Kings of Dalriata and of Scotland has been 
inserted under their death-years, from 741 to 1165 ; and, along with this, a 
Verse Chronicle (called by Stevenson and others the Chronicon Rythmicum 
and Chronicon Elegiacum) has been inserted, from 843 to 12 14. These, 
and many other marginal notes (indicating successions of bishops and 
abbots, deaths of kings and popes, etc.), have been added to the chronicle 
in hands of the early 14th century, and later (cf. Stevenson's edition, p. xiv). 
There are several erased or illegible notes, in margins and blank spaces. 
Some added notes have been entered by a contemporary reviser ; some, by 
the next continuator. 

The Chronicle of Melrose is the principal early monastic chronicle of 
Scotland. Its only companion, later (for the period it covers) and briefer, 
is the Chronicle of Holyrood. Unfortunately, neither of these chronicles 
has been edited in such a manner as to indicate the parts that are original, 
or the sources from which material has been derived. 

In addition to Scottish affairs, the Melrose chroniclers have described 
events in England, Ireland, France, and Palestine ; and have had access 
to documents relating to the crusades, and the quarrel between the empire 
and the papacy. 

Chronicle of Peterborough (654-1 368) : Chronicon Angliae Petriburgense, 
ed. J. A. Giles. Caxton Society (London, 1845). This is a compilation of 
little value. It is largely derived from chroniclers of Northampton and 
Huntingdon shires. The earlier part of the work has been ascribed to a 
John of Peterborough (John de Caleto, abbot of Peterborough 1250-1262 ; 
or John Deeping, abbot 1410-1439). The fact that the writer borrowed 
from CM. under 1244 does not prove that the annal for that year was 
written after 1263. See under Chronicle of Melrose. 

Chronicle of Saint-Aubin of Anjou (to 1200) ; ed. Labbe, Nova 
Bibliotheca. See Chronicle of Anjou. 

Chronicle of the Picts. See Chronicles of the Kings. 

Chronicle of Vendome. See Chronicle of Anjou (to 1251). 

Chronicles of the Kings. These are divisible into three groups :— lists 

of the kings (i) of the Picts ; (2) of the Scots of Dahiata ; (3) of Scotland, 

after the union of Picts and Scots. In dealing here with different versions 

in each group, I find it necessary to distinguish the versions by group- 



xlvi BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

names (" Chronicles of Dalriata," " of the Picts," and " of the Kings of 
Scotland") and letters, which unfortunately do not correspond with the 
letters used in D.K. 

These chronicles were named by Skene : " Pictish Chronicle" ; " Chronicle 
of the Scots " ; " Chronicle of the Scots and Picts " ; " Chronicle of the 
Picts and Scots," according to the contents of their earlier parts. I have 
rejected these names, because I found their use impracticable. 

The Chronicles of the Kings of Scotland (after the union) are preserved 
in several versions. These vary from mere lists of reigns to meagre 
histories ; and are carried down to different periods, according to the time 
of their composition. I refer to the following versions by letters : — 

A. Colbertine MS., Bibl. Imp. Paris. 4126 ; ed. Innes, Critical 
Essay, 416-418 ; Pinkerton, Enquiry, i, 494-497 ; and Skene, Picts and 
Scots, 8-10, no. I. See version E. 

This is a considerably expanded version. It ceases before 995. Van 
Praet's description of the MS., corrections of Innes's transcripts (in ist ed.), 
and diplomatic copy, were printed in Pinkerton, i, 476-487. A facsimile is 
in P. & S., 2 X 3. 

B. Bodleian MS., Laud 610 ; ed. O'Donovan, in Todd's Irish Nennius, 
p. Ixxv ; and Skene, P. & S., 29-30, no. 5 c. 

This is an unexpanded version, preserved as an addition to the Irish 
version of Nennius. It was composed before 1093. 

C. Trinity College of Dublin MS., H. 3. 17 ; in Todd, u.s., 162 ; and 
P. & S., 400, Appendix no 2. 

This also is a mere list, an Irish version, composed before 1093. 

D. Advocates' Library MS. 34.7.3 ; in Skene, P. & S., 151-152, no 23. 
An expanded version, running to 1058 ; probably composed before 

1093. 

Version D begins with this prologue (Skene's P. & S., 148) : " Short 
Chronicle. The sum of the years of the first Scots, who reigned before the 
Picts, 260 years and 3 months. The sum [of the years] of the Picts, 1061 
years. The sum [of the years] of the Scots after the Picts, 337 years and 
5 months. The sum total, 1,668 years and 8 months. 

" It is to be noted that the kingdom of Scotland began 443 years before 
the Lord's Incarnation." 

Skene dates this in 1187. 

The "sum total" shows error in addition, or in the transcription of 
some of the figures. 337 years 5 months from 843 would give 1180 or 1181 ; 
but the chronicle stops at 1058. It is probable that this prologue is later 
in origin than the chronicle. 

E. Colbertine MS. (as A). In Innes, Critical Essay, 419-420 ; Skene, 
P. & S., 130-133, no. 16. 

Unexpanded to 1005; much expanded from 1018 to 1165, as if in 
continuation of A. Composed before 1214. 

F. Register of the priory of St. Andrews, Harleian MS. 4 628 In 
Innes, Essay, 423-425 ; Skene, P. & S., 174-176, no. 29. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xlvii 

A somewhat expanded version, composed before 1249, and continued 
to 1255. 

G. Cottonian MS. Vitellius A XX. In P. & S., 301-303, no. 39. 

This is the second version in this MS. See under version M. Version G 
is an expanded one from 1057. It was composed before 1249, and after- 
wards continued to 1286. 

H. John of Eversden's version, in E.H.S. ed. of Florence of Worcester, 
ii, 252-253 ; E.G., 2-3. 

This version is unexpanded, and seems to have been composed originally 
1281 X 1286. 

I. Sir T. Phillipps MS. 31 19. In P. & S., 288-290, no. 36. 
An expanded version, composed 1286 x 1292. 

K. Thomas Gray's Scalachronica, in the Corpus Christi College of 
Cambridge MS. Edited by J. Stevenson, M.Cl. 40 (1836), 116-118; and 
by Skene, P. & S., 204-208. 

This is an Old-French rendering of an expanded version composed 
1292 X 1296. 

L. Cottonian MS. Claudius D VII ; ed. Stevenson, M.Cl. 28, 137-139; 
Skene, P. & S., 295-297, no. 38. 

This version goes down to 1334, and was probably written 1334 x 1335. 
It is expanded at the end. In addition to its primary source, version L 
refers also to a secondary source (L 2), which runs to 1249. 

M. Cottonian MS. Vitellius A XX. In P. & S., 299-301, no. 39. 
This version is expanded from 1057 ; it stops at 1290. The MS. appears 
to have been written 1348 x . Cf. under version G. 

N. Harleian MS. 1808. In P. & S., 305-307, no. 40. 

This version (slightly expanded) is dated 1465, in a different hand ; but 
the last king mentioned is Robert III, who died in 1406. There are some 
strange errors in this version. It is probably based upon a version that 
ran to William's reign. A Sumnia annoivm is entered after William's 
death. See below, year 859, note. 

I refer generally to the editions in Skene's Picts and Scots. 

Prefixed to their Chronicles of the Kings of Scotland, versions ABC 
contain a Chronicle of the Picts ; versions EN, a Chronicle of Dalriata ; 
versions DFIK, Chronicles of the Picts and of Dalriata. 

The three sections are distinctly separated in FIK. In A, the Chronicle 
of the Picts (with a title) forms the preface. In ABC, the conclusion of the 
first section is marked by the word "and" preceding the last king of the 
Picts. In E, the kings of Scotland follow the kings of Dalriata without 
interruption ; but the title of the whole is applicable to the Chronicle of 
Dalriata only. In N, the Chronicle of Dalriata (with a title) forms the 
preface. In 'D,_filius, in patronymics of the Pictish kings, gives place to mac 
in patronymics of the kings of Scotland. Filius appears throughout in 
AEILM. In the Chronicle of Dalriata in N, mak appears. In the 
Chronicle of the Picts in BC, 7nac is used down to Nechtan Mor-brecc ; 



xlviii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

fiUus, afterwards, except for Brude Maelchon's son, Gartnait Foith's son, and 
Giric Dungal's son. Mac (or ua) appears in B from 1034 to 1058 ; in C, 
from 1005 to 1058 ; in D, from 843 to 1040 ; in F, from 843 to 1097 {filius 
from 1 165) ; in G, from 843 to 997 ; in H, from 843 to 1058 (except at 1034, 
nepos); in K, from 877 to 997; in N, from 843 to lo\o ijilius ixom 1 165 
onwards). 

Fordun in his Ciironicle (IV, 10, 12; i, 152-155) gives a version of the 
Chronicle of the Picts. It stops at the union, with the words "Deo gratias." 
Some of the notes are attributable to Fordun himself. Skene's edition does 
not profess to give the exact spelling of Fordun's words. 

Versions of the Chronicle of the Kings of Scotland are the basis of the 
Duan Albanach (which contains also the kings of Dalriata) ; the Chronicle 
of Huntingdon ; the Verse Chronicle ; and the Chronicon Rhythmicum 
(containing also the kings of Dalriata). 

Chronicles of 1291. In obedience to king Edward's command, search 
was made in the chronicles that were preserved in religious houses ; and 
abstracts of material pertinent to the relations between England and 
Scotland were sent in from Bath, Battle, Bridlington, Burton-upon-Trent, 
Carlisle (see Chronicle of Carlisle), Crowland, Dover, Evesham, Faversham, 
Gloucester, Huntingdon (see Chronicle of Huntingdon), London, Malmes- 
bury, Newburgh, Norwich, Reading, Salisbury, Sawtry, Tewkesbury, 
Worcester (these are edited in Palgrave, 56-134) ; Chester (noticed in Bain, 
ii, 313-214) ; and others. 

These abstracts are generally derived from surviving chronicles (notably 
F.W., H.H., W.M.), and have no special value. 

The commissioners appointed for the purpose made a summary return 
of the salient contents of these abstracts ; ed. Palgrave, 134-137. 

King Edward's letter to pope Boniface was based upon the finding of the 
commissioners, and states the case of England in her claim to superiority 
over Scotland. 

Chronicon Fiscanense (Chronicle of Fecamp; to 1220), ed. Labbe, and 
P.L. 147, 479-484. Extracts in B.R., xi, xii, xviii, xxiii. 

Chronicon Hanoniense (to 1278). Extracts ed. J. Heller, M.G.H,, 
Scriptores, xxv, 419-467. 

Chronicon Rhythmicum (to 1437) ; ed. Skene, P. & S., 332-340. Previ- 
ously ed. in the Appendix to Innes's Essay, 426-431. Written ? 1454 
(1437x1460). 

This verse history is preserved in MSS. of Fordun. It contains versions 
of the Chronicles of Dalriata and of the Kings of Scotland. Innes (331) and 
Skene (p. Ixx) claim part to have been written before the death of 
Alexander III ; but the poem appears homogeneous. I give very few 
references to this chronicle, and have not collated it with the Chronicles 
of the Kings. 

Chronicon Scotorum (to 722, 804-1135, 1141-1150), ed. W. M. Hennessy 
R.S. 46 (1866). ' 

This contains a somewhat inaccurate abridgement of Tigernach's 
Annals, or copy of Tigernach's source. It preserves a version of the years 
804-973, and 1004-1016, that are missing in the surviving copy of Tigernach. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xlix 

Down to 643, the years are indicated by frequent ferial numbers ; but these 
have been carelessly copied, and are almost valueless for the identification 
of the years intended. See under Tigernach, below. From 1098 onwards, 
the years are sufficiently indicated by calendar data. 

The year-sections are dated in the edition by sequence, without regard 
to the ferial numbers, down to 1131 = 1135. Hennessy has added one year 
between the sections numbered by him 429 and 431, and between his 471 
and 473. Otherwise his dates are useful, because they show the interval of 
years in the chronicle between events. Hennessy's years 1012-1061 are 
behind the true number of the year intended by 2 years ; 1063 - ca. 1069, 
by 3; 1092-1131, by 4. His year-numbers 1141-1150 are correct. 

Chronicon Vizeliaeense (Chronicle of the monastery of V^zelay). 
Partly edited (660-1316) in Labbe's Nova Bibliotheca, i, 394-398 (1657). 
Extracts in B.R., xi, xii, xviii. 

Chronlque de Normandle. Extracts (to 1174) in B.R., xi, 320-343 ; xiii, 
221-256. Written in the 13th century ; a version (to 1106) and continuation 
of Wace's Roman de Rou. 

Chronlque de Saint-Denis (to 1223, with continuations to 1461), ed. B.R., 
iii, v-viii, x-xii, xvii. 

Cistercian Foundations to 1234. Cottonian MS. Faustina B VII, 
fos. 36-39; ed. W. de G. Birch, J.B.A.A., xxvi, 281-292. Folio 39, for the 
years 1191-1234, is written in a later hand than that which wrote the 
previous folios (for 1098-ligo). 

Cistercian Foundations to 1247. Cottonian MS. Vespasian A VI, 
fos. 55 verso-60; ed. W. De G. Birch, J.B.A.A., xxvi, 357-365. 

These lists of foundations were derived from a complete list which 
appears to have been kept in the monastery at Cileaux. 

Claudian (Claudius Claudianus Alexandrinus, t in the beginning of the 
5th century) : Carmina, ed. T. Birt, in M.G.H., Auctores, vol. x (1892). 
Claudian speaks several times of the British islands and their inhabitants, 
but in a manner difficult to turn to historical use. He is one of the sources 
for the history of Britain under the Romans. Some of his writings were 
known to Gildas. 

Close Rolls, i (1204- 1 224), ed. T. D. Hardy (Record Commission, folio, 
1833). The following volumes of the octavo series (H.M. Stationery Office) 
are distinguished by their years of publication : — 1902 (1227-1231), 1905 
(1231-1234), 1908 (1234-1237), 1911 (1237-1242), 1916 (1242-1247) ; and the 
Calendars of the Close Rolls, (abstracts of their contents) ed. W. H. 
Stevenson: — 1900 (1272-1279), 1902 (1279-1288), 1904 (1288-1296), 1906 
(1296- 1 302). 

Clyn, John: Annales Hiberniae (to 1349), ed. R. Butler, in Annals of 
Ireland. Irish Archaeological Society (1849). 

Colgan, J. : Acta Sanctorum Veteris Scotiae seu Hiberniae (Louvain, 
1645). 1st January to 31st March. 

Colgan, J. : Trias Thaumaturga (Louvain, 1647). Contains Lives of 
Patrick, Columba, and Bridget. This is vol. ii of Colgan's Acta Sanctorum. 
Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, ed. lona Club. W. F. Skene contri- 
buted to the contents : — extracts translated from Icelandic literature ; Iri'sh 

d 



1 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

materials reprinted from O'Conor's Rermn Hibernicarum Scriptores, with 
translations ; some Higliland pedigrees ; and a late history of the origin 
of the Macdonalds. 

Corpus Poetloum Boreale, ed. G. Vigfusson and F. Y. Powell (Oxford, 
1883). A collection of Icelandic verse ; now more critically edited by 
F. Jonsson. See under Jonsson. 

Coupar. Rental Book of the Cistercian abbey of Cupar-Angus, with 
the Breviary of the Register ; ed. C. Rogers. Grampian Club, 17 (London, 
1 879- 1 880). 

Cuanu's Book. See under Annals of Ulster. The book was written in 
the 8th century, or later. There is nothing to show from which Cuanu this 
work took its name : possibly he may have been the abbot of Louth, who 
died in 825. 

Oummine (abbot of lona, ca. 657-669). The Life of Columba attributed 
to Cummine is the First Life in Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga, 321-324. It 
is also in Pinkerton's Vitae, and Metcalfe's Lives (i, 51-69). 

Cummine wrote a Life of Columba, which was used by Adamnan. A 
quotation from Cummine in Adamnan's Life of Columba (III, 5) does not 
represent the exact words of the Life attributed to Cummine, but is in 
Adamnan's own style. See below, pp. 55, 160-161. There are one or two 
points of difference between Adamnan and the earlier part of the Life 
attributed to Cummine, where it might be thought that that Life had been 
earlier than Adamnan's ; but if the earlier part was written by Cummine, 
the last chapters must have been added later : they are abridged from 
Adamnan. The only distinct evidence of Cummine's authorship of any 
part is the fact that his name appears in one of the MSS. 

The Life attributed to Cummine frequently omits proper names which 
Adamnan gives. This would prove that Cummine's Life was derived from 
Adamnan's, but for the fact that Adamnan wrote on the spot where such 
information could have been obtained. 

Transcribers might have been responsible for the later spellings of 
names in Cummine than in Adamnan (cf. e.g. Hyona in Cummine with 
loua in Adamnan ; Fernaus in Cummine, c. 1 5, with Virgnous in Adamnan, 
III, 19). 

The parts of Adamnan's Life that might have been derived from the 
Life attributed to Cummine are shown by itaHc type in Dr Fowler's 
excellent edition of Adamnan. It seems to me, however, that the 
attribution to Cummine must be rejected, since there is practically no 
evidence in its favour. 

D'Achery, Luc: Veterum Scriptorum Spicilegium (Paris, 1655-1677 ; 
and 1723). 

Daventry, Chartulary of the Priory of Cottonian MS. Claudius D 
XII. 

De Bello Hastingensi Carmen, ed. M.H.B. ; Giles, Scriptores, 27-51 ; 
and C.A.N., iii. The author was Wido (? Guy of Amiens, t ca. 1075). 

De Domibus Religiosis. De Partitione Anglie per Comitatus, et 
domibus religiosis in eis contentis. Cottonian MS. Cleopatra A XII, 
fos. 46-57 ; ed. J.B.A.A., xxviii, 61-62. The Scottish part was edited by 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES li 

Stevenson, Gray's Scalachronica, 241-242 ; in H. & S., ii, 181-182 ; part in 
Skene's Celtic Scotland, ii, 510. Lothian, Scotland, and Wales, are placed 
at the end of the list. 

On the page preceding this tract, a list of the archbishops of Canterbury 
is brought down by the original hand (a hand of the latter half of the 13th 
century) to 1279 (written 1279 x 1292 ; with additions to the i6th century). 
Before the list of archbishops is the chronicle of Henry de Silgrave, carried 
down to 1272 ; with a space left blank for additions. 

Deer. See Book of 

De Inventione S. Crucis Walthamensis. Edited by W. Stubbs : 
Foundation of Waltham Abbey (Oxford and London, 1861). Part in 
Michel's C.A.N. , ii, 223-254. 

De Miraculis, see De Translationibus, and Miracula. 

De Morte Sumerledi. See Carmen. 

De Obsessione Dvmelmi, ed. T. Arnold, R.S. 75, i, 215-220 (also in 
Twysden). Composed in the lifetime of a grandson of a granddaughter of 
Uhtred (t ioi6) ; preserved in a late 12th-century MS. 

De Origine Comitum Andegavensium. Edited as Historia Comitum 
Andegavensium, in Marchegay and Salmon's Chroniques des Comtes 
d'Anjou, 319-363 (S.H.F., 1871). Partly ed. in B.R., xii, 534-539. This is 
an early work, attributed (without evidence) to Thomas Pactius or de Parce, 
prior of Loches (t 1168). Cf. Potthast, Bibliotheca, ii, 1066. 

De Origine 'Willelmi. See Brevis Relatio. 

De Primo Saxonum Adventu, ed. J. H. Hinde, S.S. ed. of S.D., i, 
202-215 ; and T. Arnold, R.S. 75, ii, 365-384. 

Dermot and the Earl, Song of: ed. G. H. Orpen, with translation 
(Oxford, 1892). Previously ed. F. Michel : An Anglo-Norman poem of the 
Conquest of Ireland (London, 1837). 

This is an Old-French poem, incomplete at the beginning and end ; it 
does not extend to the death of Strongbow. It was written ca. 1225 
(Orpen, pp. xx-xxii). The writer claims the direct authority of Morice 
Regan, Diarmait's interpreter (Orpen's ed., 2 ; cf 32, 122), who was sent to 
demand the surrender of Dublin in 1 170. 

De Situ Albanie, ed. Skene, P. & S., 135-137 ; previously by Innes, 
Critical Essay, Appendix, 411-413. Van Praet's corrections of Innes's 
text are published in Pinkerton's Enquiry, i, 477. Also in Johnstone's 
Antiquitates. 

This is a geographical tract, taken from the same Colbertine MS. that 
contains versions AE of the Chronicles of the Kings. It is dated by Skene 
in 1 165, because it sums up to that year the years of the Scottish dynasty. 

De Translationibus S. Cuthberti, ed. T. Arnold, R.S. 75, i, 229-261, 
ii, 333-362; J. H. Hinde, S.S. ed. of S.D., i, 158-201. Part at least of this 
work is earlier than S.D.'s Histories. 

Dlceto, Ralph de (t 1202 or 1203): Ymagines Historiarum (i 148-1202), 
ed. W. Stubbs. R.S. 68 (1876). 

Diouil: Liber de Mensura Orbis Terrarum, ed. G. Parthey (Berlin, 1870). 

This is a geographical work, written by an Irishman in 825 (p. 85). In 
speaking of the smaller islands of Britain, Dicuil says (41) : " In some of 



lii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

them I have dwelt, others I have visited, others only seen ; of others 

I have read." 

Diplomatarium Norvegicum, ed. C. R. Unger, etc. (Christiania, 

1849 etc.). 

Donegal. Martyrology of Donegal, ed. J. H. Todd and W. Reeves. 
Irish Archaeological and Celtic Society (Dublin, 1864). This is a calendar 
of saints, compiled from various sources (many old, some lost) by Michael 
O'Clery, in 1630. 

Doomsday Book. Domesday Book, seu Liber Censualis Wilhelmi 
Primi, regis Angliae, ed. A. Farley and H. Ellis ; Record Commission 
(1783-1816). Edited also in facsimile, for the different counties separately 
(Southampton, 1861-1864). Translated (with indices) in the Victoria 
County Histories. See under Ellis. Cf Gross, 319-321. 

This book contains the records of the survey of 1086 (cf. F.W. ; CM.). 

Dowden, Ep. John: The Bishops of Scotland, ed. Dr J. Maitland 
Thomson. Glasgow, 1912. 

Droplaugarsona Saga, ed. J. Jakobsen, Samfund, 29, 141-17S (Copen- 
hagen, 1902-1903). Previously ed. K. Gislason (Nordisk Literatur-samfund, 
Copenhagen, 1847); Mobius, Analecta Norrcena (1859), 184: Th. Jonsson 
(Reykjavik, 1878); and (with translation of part) by G. Vigfusson, in 
Origines Islandicae, ii, 536-561. An English edition is being prepared. 

This is a romantic tale with an historical basis. It is preserved in a 
13th-century form. 

Dryburgh. Liber S. Marie de Dryburgh, ed. W. Eraser. B.Cl. 83 
(Edinburgh, 1847). 

Duald MacPirbis (Dubhaltach mac Firbisigh) : Annals of Ireland, 
Three Fragments copied from Ancient Sources ; ed. J. O'Donovan, Irish 
Archaeological and Celtic Society (Dublin, i860), with a translation, and 
corrected dates supplied from the Annals of Ulster. Extracts in Skene, 
P. & S., 401-407. 

These Fragments are preserved in an early copy from Duald's copy. 
They run : (I) from 573 to 735 ; (II) from 662 to 704 ; and (III) from 851 
to 913 (according to the dates of A.U.). Duald's dates are rare, confused, 
and untrustworthy. The Fragments are interesting, but legendary rather 
than historical. The date of the sources from which Duald copied them is 
unknown. They appear to favour the Ui-Neill, in opposition to Munster. 
The language is late, with few survivals of early forms ; there seems to be 
in it nothing that would prove great age. Tradition, handed down in 
Duald's family, is without doubt a main source of these annals. 

Although the Fragments have preserved some valuable scraps of 
history, their trustworthiness is never certain. When they contradict other 
sources (such as the sagas), they must be taken with reserve. 

Duan Albanach, ed. Skene, P. & S., 57-64. Previously ed. by Pinkerton, 
Enquiry, ii, 321-326 ; O'Conor, Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores, i, 
pp. cxxiv-cxxx ; and Skene, Collectanea, 70-76. 

It was edited by O'Conor from Stowe MS. XLI, fo. 237, and from 
a transcript made by his grandfather : the latter version had previously 
been printed in Pinkerton. ©'Conor's text was reprinted by Skene in the 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES liii 

Collectanea ; Skene's text in the Picts and Scots was taken from Duald 
Mac-Firbis's version, which had previously been edited in the Irish 
Archaeological Society's ed. of Duald. 

This is a verse chronicle, composed 1058 x 1093, of Dalriata and the 
Kings of Scotland. 

Dublin Annals of Innisfallen (to 1318) ; ed. (from 250 to 1014, with 
extracts to 1088) by C. O'Conor in his Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores, 
vol. ii, part 3, pp. 1-83 (1825) 

The MS. was written by John O'Conor in 1775, ''•nd is apparently a copy 
of an earlier chronicle, probably compiled in Munster (perhaps in 
Inishfallen), in the 14th century, but including older annalistic notes. 
Years are dated by Dionysian numbers. 

The MS. (B.M. Additional MS. 4787, fos. 86-91) quoted by O'Conor in 
his notes upon these Annals is an abstract, copied in 1624 from the 
Bodleian MS. of A.I. 

Ducliesne, Andr6 : (H.N.S.) Historiae Normannorum Scriptores 
Antiqui (1619). 

(i-v) Historiae Francorum Scriptores (1636-1649). 

Dudo of Saint- Quentin : De Moribus et Actis Primorum Normanniae 
Ducum, ed. J. A. Lair, M6moires de la Societe des Antiquaires de la 
Normandie, 23 (Ser. 3, vol. iii, part 2). Also separately published in the 
same year (Caen, 1865). The two publications have the same pagination, 
but different appendix and corrigenda. Part was edited by Duchesne, 
H.N.S., 51-151 ; reprinted in P.L. 141, 609-758. Years 936-960, in Pertz, 
M.G.H., Scriptores, iv, 93-106. 

Dudo was born shortly after the middle of the loth century, and died 
before 1043. Scandinavian writers justly deny the trustworthiness of his 
account of the early Scandinavian settlements in France. 

Dunbar, Sir ArcMbald H. : Scottish Kings (1005-1625), 2nd ed. (Edin- 
burgh, 1906). A very helpful work, with useful chronological apparatus. 

Dunfermline. Registrum de Dunfermelyn, ed. C. Innes. B.Cl. 74 
(Edinburgh, 1842). 

Badmer (til24): Historia Novorum (to 1122), ed. M. Rule, R.S. 81 

(1884). 

Badmer : De Vita et conversatione Anselmi, R.S. 81, 305-424. 

Badmer : Miracles of St Anselm, ed. F. Liebermann, in Ungedruckte 
Anglonormannische Geschichtsquellen (1879). 

Edward I, Letter to pope Boniface VIII ; in Foedera, i, 2, 932-933 
(first edition, ii (1705), 883-888). Written 7th May, 1301. This is a 
statement of Edward's claim to superiority over Scotland. It is based 
upon the results of searches made by the king's orders, in the records 
and chronicles, in 1291 (see above : Chronicles of 1291), and again in 1300 
(September 26th ; Foedera, i, 2, 923 ; cf. 924). 

Egils Saga. The edition referred to here is that of Finnur Jonsson in 
part 3 of the Alt-nordische Saga-Bibliothek of G. Cederschiold, etc. ; Egils 
Saga Skallagrimssonar (Halle a. S., 1894). The edition with readings of 
different MSS. is that of F. Jonsson, in the Samfund til Udgivelse af 
Gammel Nordisk Litteratur, 17, 1-3 (Copenhagen, 1886-1888). The text 



liv BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

is also published by V. Asmundarsson in the Islendinga Sogur, no. 4 
(Reykjavik, 1892) ; an English translation by W. C. Green (London, 1893). 
After c. 56 Jonsson's and Green's chapters differ. 

This saga was perhaps written towards the end of the 12th century. 
It is one of the less historical of the great Icelandic sagas. It gives a 
clear narrative, but with literary tendencies that reduce its historical value : 
the narrative is frequently extravagant and untrustworthy. While it doubt- 
less contains much genuine tradition, it has not great authority for the 
history of Britain. Its evidence, when not otherwise corroborated, has 
little value. 

Eglnhard (Einhard) : Annales Francorum (to 829), ed. and tr. A. 
Teulet, Einhardi Opera, i (S.H.F., 1840), 1 18-401. Also ed. G. H. Pertz, 
M.G.H., Scriptores, i, 134-218 (1826) ; in Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum 
(1839) ; and in P.L. 104, 368-508 (1851). 

Bginhard (Einhard): Vita Karoli Imperatoris (750-814), ed. and tr. 
A. Teulet, Einhardi Opera, i, 2-1 15 (S.H.F., 1840). Also in P.L. 97, 25-62 
(1851); ed. Pertz, M.G.H., Scriptores, ii, 443-463 (1829); A. Holder, 
Biicherschatz, ii (1882) ; Garrod and Mowat (Oxford, 1915). Several 
translations and other editions. 

This Life was written in the 9th century. 
Eginhard was abbot of Seligenstadt. 

Biriks Saga RauSa, and Eiriks Th^ttr RauBa. See Eric the Red's 
Saga. 

BlrspennUl. This is an early manuscript, containing versions of the 
histories of Norwegian kings from Magnus the Good to Hakon Hakon's 
son ; but the last part of the latter saga has been lost. From Sverri's Saga 
onwards, Eirspennill has been edited by C. R. Unger ; Konunga Sogur, 
1-449- 

Bkkehard : Chronicon Universale (to 1106, and continued to 1125), 
ed. G. Waitz, M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 17-265. Also in P.L. 154, 499-1060 
(1853). 

Ellis, H. : General Introduction to Domesday Book. Record Com- 
mission, 8vo (1833). Contains indices of tenants-in-chief and under-tenants 
in 1086 ; and of holders of land before 1086. 

Encomium Bmmae, ed. M.G.H., Scriptores, xix, 509-525 ; also in 
Duchesne's H.N.S. ; Langebek, ii ; Maseres ; P.L. 141. 

Brie the Red's Saga, Karlsefni's Saga ; Tale of Eric Red, Tale of the 
Greenlanders. 

Two Icelandic accounts of the discovery of America are preserved. 
(1) The first is in two sagas, in most respects identical: (i) Thorfinn 
Karlsefni's Saga, in Hauksbok, ii, 425-444 ; and (2) Eric the Red's Saga, in 
the Arnamagnaean MS. 557, a 15th century copy. These sagas belong 
originally to the latter part of the 13th century. A reconstructed text has 
been edited by G. Storm (Eiriks Saga RauSa ; Samfund, 21, Copenhagen, 
1891). I refer to both versions in Storm's edition, by the name "Eric the 
Red's Saga " ; and give preference to Hauksbok. A large part of the 
version in A.M. 557 is published in Vigfusson and Powell's Icelandic Prose 
Reader, 123-141 (see Origines, ii, 595-597). It is translated into English 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Iv 

by Vigfusson in Origines, ii, 610-625, under the title "Thorfinn Karlsefni's 
Saga." 

Both these versions are edited, with translation and facsimiles, in 
Reeves's Wineland the Good, 104-139, 28-52. Eric the Red's Saga is 
translated by G. Storm : Erik den Rodes Saga, eller Sagaen cm Vinland 
(Christiania, 1899). 

Hauk, Erlend's son, for whom Hauksbok was written, traced his descent 
from Karlsefni's son, born in America (cf. Reeves, 22 ; Landnamabok). 

(II). The second account (of lower authority) is in the Flatey-book 
version of OlafTryggvi's son's Saga. It is in two parts : — (i) the Tale of Eric 
the Red ; and (2) the Tale of the Greenlanders. Both parts (Flateyiarbok, 
i, 429-432, 538-549) are edited under the latter title by Storm (u.s.) ; and 
with translation and facsimiles by Reeves (u.s., 140-158, 60-78). They were 
translated by Vigfusson under the name "The Wineland Voyages," in 
Origines Islandicae, ii, 598-609. 

Both accounts are of very great interest. 

V.i.a. Gustav Storm's Studies on the Vineland Voyages (Oldskriftselskab, 
Memoires, N.S., 1888, pp. 307-370 ; Copenhagen) ; Fischer's Entdeckungen 
der Normannen in Amerika (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1902 ; tr. B. H. Soulsby, 
London, 1903). 

Evans, J. Gr. Bruts from the Red Book of Hergest. See Brut y 
Saesson, Brut y Tywyssogion. 

Eversden, John of (fl. 1300): Continuation (1265-1296) of the Chronicon 
ex Chronicis of Florence of Worcester. See Sir Ernest Clarke's Bury 
Chroniclers of the 13th century, 4, 8-10 (Bury, 1905) ; Gross, Sources (1915), 
397-398. Edited by B. Thorpe, E.H.S. ed. F.W., ii (1849). 

Extracta e Variis Cronicis Scocie, ed. W. B. B. Turnbull. Abbotsford 
Club, 23 (Edinburgh, 1842). This is a I5th-i6th century compilation, 
seldom referred to here. 

Eyrbyggla Saga. Ed. H. Gering, Altnordische Sagabibliothek, part 6 
(Halle, 1897). 

Parts of this saga were edited and translated by G. Vigfusson in 
Origines Islandicae, i, 252-266, ii, 93-135; cf ii, 88-93. The text had been 
published by Vigfusson and Mobius (Leipzig, 1864); but this ed. I have 
not seen. A translation appears in Morris and Magnusson's Saga 
Library, ii. 

Vigfusson attributed the first 1 1 chapters to Ari. But they appear to 
contain a later version of the story of the Hebrides than is found in 
Landnimabok ; although not so late as that in the Laxdoela Saga. 

Eyrbyggia Saga is one of the greater Icelandic sagas. It may, in its 
present form, have been composed before the end of the 13th century. It 
is more literary than historical ; but contains traditions of some historical 
value. 

Eyton, R. W. : Court, Household, and Itinerary of king Henry II 
(London, 1878). 

Paereyinga Saga. This is found in the Flatey-book, which is the 
principal text of the edition quoted here : that of CC. Rafn (Copenhagen, 
1833), with Faroese and Danish translations. 



Ivi BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

This is one of the historical sagas, but it magnifies the deeds of its 

heroes. 

Fagrskinna, ed. F. Jonsson ; Samfund, 30 (Copenhagen, 1902-1903). 

This is the name given by Torfaeus to a version (Noregs Kononga tal) 
of the kings' sagas, from Halfdan the Black to \\^^. It was written by 
an Icelander in Norway, about the year 1240 ; in the time of king Hakon 
Hakon's son (t 1263), and probably for king Hakon himself. 

This version is contemporary with the earlier written sagas, and is a 
work of some authority and importance. 

A previous edition (with different capitulation) was made by P. A. 
Munch and C. R. Unger (Fagrskinna : Kortfattet Norsk Konge-Saga, fra 
Slutningen af det tolfte, eller Begyndelsen af det trettende, Aarhundrede), 
under the auspices of Det kongelike norske Frederiks - Universitet 
(Christiania, 1847). 

Pantosme, Jordan (de) : Chronique de la Guerre enlre les Anglois et 
les Ecossois (1173-1174). Edited and translated, by F. Michel, in Surtees 
Society, 11 (1840); and in his ed. of Benoit, iii, 531-613 (1844): and by 
R. Howlett, in R.S. 82, iii, 202-377 (1886). Partly edited in M.G.H., 
Scriptores, xxvii, 54-59, by F. Liebermann (1885) ; and a specimen in 
Paget Toynbee's Specimens of Old French, 111-114 (Oxford, 1892). 
Stevenson's translation, in Church Historians, iv, 1, 245-288 (1856), is 
based upon Michel's. The selections translated in Lawrie's Annals, 
between pages 119 and 188, are derived from Michel and Howlett. 

Fantosme was a clerk of Henry of Blois, bishop of Winchester ; and 
may have become chancellor of that diocese. 

PlandMainlstrech (i.e. "of Monasterboice") : Synchronisms. This is a 
list of the kings of the different parts of Ireland, and of Dalriata. The parts 
that relate to Scotland were edited by Skene (Picts & Scots, 18-22) from 
the oldest manuscript, Advocates' Library Gaelic MS. 28 (Kilbride 24); 
he collated it with and supplemented it from the Book of Lecan, and 
Rawlinson MS. B 512. A version is in the Book of Ballymote, 11-13. 
Eland's Synchronisms are incorporated in the Annals of Clonmacnoise. 

Skene's edition gives no indication of the parts that he omits, and is 
not very accurate. 

Eland died in 1056 (A.U., C.S., D.A.I.) ; on 25th November, 1056, 
according to Tigernach (where for moon xui we must read xiii) ; on 
i8th November, according to F.M. (where perhaps this date, 14 kal. 
Dec, has been erroneously assimilated to a date given a few lines before, 
14 kal. Jul.). He is said to have been a lector in the schools of Monaster- 
boice. 

Eland's work, like the Duan Albanach, is older than most of the other 
lists of kings, and is valuable for comparison with them. 

Platey-book Annals (to 1394). See Icelandic Annals, version A. 

Plateyiarbbk, ed. C. R. Unger and G. Vigfusson (Kildeskriftfond ; 
Christiania, 1859-1868), from Royal Library of Copenhagen MS. 1005 folio. 

This is a collection of Icelandic literature, written some years befoi'e and 
after 1380. It is a valuable work, but has not so high authority as the 
earlier written sagas. See Vigfusson's description of it in R.S. 88, i, pp. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ivii 

xxv-xxx (on XXV, 1. 8, read "A veritable" instead of " Available " ) ; and the 
Fortale, in Fl., iii. 

Plbamanna Saga: ed. Vigfusson and Mobius, Fornsdgur, 119-161. 

This is a late and very fabulous story of early times in Norway, Iceland, 
and Greenland. Its authority is generally null ; but it may contain some 
genuine traditions. 

Plodoardus (priest of Rheims ; 1 966) : Annales (919-966), ed. Pertz, 
M.G.H., Scriptores, iii. This is a primary and trustworthy source for the 
Lotharingian period. 

Florence of Worcester (filiS): Chronicon ex Chronicis (450-1117), 
ed. B. Thorpe, E.H.S. (1848-1849). Florence was a collector and careful 
editor of materials drawn from earlier sources. He was continued by John 
of Worcester (to 1141), John of Taxter (to 1265), and John of Eversden 
(to 1295). 

Floras Historiarum (to 1326). Chetham MS. (with additions from 
Eton MS.) ed. H. R. Luard, R.S. 95 (London, 1890). Eton MS. (to 1306) 
ed. M. Parker (London, 1567) ; reprinted (Frankfurt, 1601). See Luard's 
ed., i, pp. xii-xvii, xliii-1. This work was written from time to time, between 
1259 and some date soon after 1326. 

Poedera. I refer to the Record Commission's edition (1816-1869). Cf. 
under Hardy. 

Pordun, John of (i.e., of Fordoun in the Mearns) ; Chronicle (referred 
to here by books and chapters), and Annals (referred to by chapters). 
Edited by W. F. Skene, Johannis de Fordun Chronica Gentis Scotorum, 
with translation, notes, and index (Historians of Scotland, i and iv ; 
Edinburgh, 1871, 1872). To 1066, ed. Gale, iii, 565-699. For other 
editions, see under Bower. 

The Chronicle (to 1153) contains five books, and appears to have been 
concluded 1384x1387 (V, 30; i, 251, xiv). It is continued by the Annals 
(Gesta Annalia, to 1385). Chapters describing English history, down to 
1066, were prepared, according to Skene, for a 6th book of the Chronicle 
(i, 387-401). Chapters prefixed to the Annals (i, 406-437) describe English 
and Scottish affairs, to 11 53: these seem to have contained an (earlier?) 
edition of book V. In them, and in book V, Fordun claims the authority 
of a work written by Turgot. This work has not been preserved. It is 
uncertain how much Fordun took from it. 

The edition of Fordun is considered to have been Skene's best work. 
Whether it can be trusted might appear if another edition were brought out. 

For an account of the manuscripts, see Skene's Preface. His text is 
primarily based upon 

(A) the Book of St Andrews, entitled Liber monasterii Santi Andree 
in Stocia (a MS. in Wolfenbiittel library) ; with collation of: — 

(B) Cottonian MS. Vitellius E XI (paper, i6th century) ; 

(C) Trin. Col. Camb. MS. Gale O IX. 9 (paper) ; 

(D) Trin. Col. Dublin MS. E 2.28 (paper, i6th-i7th c.) ; 

(E) Harleian MS. 4764 (apparently written in 1497) ; 

(F) Edinb. Cath. Lib. MS. (apparently written in 1509) ; 
numerous 15th-century MSS. being rejected. 



Iviii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Fordun's name is preserved in an acrostic at the beginning of his 
1st book. 

Fordun is the earliest Scottish historian. His work is not a mere 
repetition of earlier authorities. He has attempted to synchronize events 
in Scotland with events in other countries ; and to explain the course of 
history according to his own theories. It is difficult to distinguish between 
his statements that rest upon ancient authority, and those that are derived 
from his own speculation. 

He must be consulted, like a modern historian, in conjunction with the 
sources. I do not as a rule quote his words. My references to him are 
not to be regarded as in any way complete. 

Pornaldar Sogur Nordrlanda, eptir Gomlum Handritum ; ed. C. C. 
Rafn (Copenhagen, 1829-1830). This is a collection of Icelandic Sagas, 
most of them translated into Danish by Rafn in Nordiske Fortids Sagaer 
(Copenhagen, 1829-1830). 

Pornmanna Sogur, ed. for Det Kongelige Nordiske Oldskriftselskab 
(12 volumes ; Copenhagen, 1825-1837). Translated into Danish for the 
same Society: Oldnordiske Sagaer (Copenhagen, 1826-1837) ; and into 
Latin under the title : Scripta Historica Islandorum (Copenhagen, 
1828-1846). 

This is a collection of kings' sagas taken from early manuscripts. It 
was well edited for its time ; but most of the texts have been superseded 
by later editions. The translations of verse-passages are not trustworthy. 

Pornsogur, ed. Vigfusson and Mobius (Leipzig, i860). Contains 
Vatnsdoelasaga, Hallfredarsaga, Floamannasaga. 

Fountains, see Walbran. 

Pour Masters. Annals of the kingdom of Ireland (to 1616), ed. J. 
O'Donovan (Dublin, 1851). To 1171, inaccurately edited by O'Conor 
(Scriptores, iii). 

This is a compilation made from all available Irish annals, and from 
tradition, by Michael O'Clery, and two other O'Clerys, and Forfeasa 
O'Mulconry, in the years 1632-1636. It is a valuable collection ; but the 
compilers have given theoretical dates of their own to all the annals down 
to 658 ; and have altered their materials to make them agree with these 
dates. 

No other collection of Irish annals draws from so large a number of 
sources ; but in no other have the compilers taken such liberties with their 
materials. 

Freeman, B. A. : History of the Norman Conquest (Oxford, 1867-1879 ; 
3rd ed. of vols, i and ii, 1877). 

Frisbdk. C. R. Unger : Codex Frisianus, en Samling af norske Konge- 
sagaer (Christiania, 1871). 

This is a valuable collection of the kings' sagas, written early in the 
14th century. It omits St Olaf's Saga, and includes Hakon Hakon's son's 
Saga. Down to the end of Harold Hardradi's Saga it follows the 
Heimskringla version ; after Hardradi, it agrees with Heimskringla less 
closely. 

Purness. See Atkinson. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES lix 

Galmar, Geoffrey : Estorie des Engles (495-: loo), ed. T. D. Hardy and 
C. T. Martin, R.S. 91 (1888-1889). Previously ed. T. Wright, Caxton 
Society (1850); to 1066, in Petrie's M.H.B., 764-839; from 1066 to iioo, 
in Michel's C.A.N. , i, 1-64. Translated in Stevenson's Church Historians, 
ii, 2 (1854) ; and by Martin in R.S. 91, ii. 

Gaimar wrote 1135 x 1147. For his sources, see R.S. 91, ii, pp. xvii-xxiii. 
They included Geoffrey of Monmouth, A.S.C., F.W., S.D. 

G-ale. The titles Gale's Scriptores, vols, i, ii, iii, indicate : — 

(i) William Fulman's Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores (Oxford, 1684) ; 
(ii) Thomas Gale's Historiae Anglicanae Scriptores Quinque (Oxford, 

1687); 
(iii) Gale's Historiae Britannicae . . . Scriptores Quindecim (Oxford, 
1691). 

G.E.C. Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, 
and the United Kingdom (London, 1887-1898). New ed., 1910-1921 
(incomplete). 

Geoffrey of Bruil. See Geoffrey ofVigeois. 

Geoffrey of Monmouth (t 1 1 54) : Historia Regum Britanniae, ed. J. A. 
Giles. Caxton Society (Condon, 1844) ; ed. San-Marte (Halle, 1854). 
Translated into 14th-century Welsh, ed. Rhys and Evans, in Bruts from 
the Red Book of Hergest ; into English, by J. A. Giles, in Six Old English 
Chronicles (London, 1848). 

Geoffrey wrote x 1 147. 

He used as his authority " a very ancient book in British speech," 
brought from Brittany, and given to him by Walter, archdeacon of Oxford 
(I, I ; XII, 20). The antiquity of this book is unknown. Geoffrey did not 
always adhere to it (cf. XI, i : " Concerning this . . . Geoffrey of Monmouth 
will be silent"). So far as can be judged from Geoffrey's paraphrase, his 
Welsh book can have had but little age or authority. 

Geoffrey's work is historically valueless. Some of the persons named 
by him may have existed. The popularity of Geoffrey's History submerged 
any previous legends that may have existed, concerning king Arthur. 

Geofftey of Vigeois (or of Bruil ; prior of Vigeois, in diocese of 
Limoges): Chronicon Limovicense (Chronicle of Limoges, 996-1184). Ed. 
in B.R., x-xii, xviii ; previously in Labbe, Nova Bibliotheca, ii, 279-342 ; 
part ed. Holder-Egger, in M.G.H., Scriptores, xxvi, 199-203. 

This somewhat credulous chronicler has value for English affairs in 
France. 

Geoffrey the Pat. See Life of Bernard. 

Gerald du Barri. See Giraldus Cambrensis. 

Gesta Here-wardl, ed. F. Michel, Chroniques Anglo-Normandes, ii 
(1836). 

Gildas (born ? 490x500; f 57o) : De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, 
ed. T. Mommsen, M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 25-85 (1898). Previously ed. 
Stevenson (E.H.S., 1838); and in Petrie's M.H.B. (1848). Translated by 
T. Habington (1638, 1652) ; and J. A. Giles (1841 ; and 1848, in Six English 
Chronicles). See H. & S., i, 108-113. 

This is the only contemporary British authority for the history of the 



Ix BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Saxon conquest of England. Gildas's work is presumably genuine, but is 
absolutely untrustworthy for events that occurred before his own time. 
It is a sermon, rather than a work of history. 

Gildas wrote before 547. In the Rhuys Life of Gildas (ed. Mommsen) 
he is stated to have been the son of Caw {Caunus), king of Dumbarton 
{Arecluta). But Anscombe says that Gildas's "name does not occur in 
any list of the children of Caw " (Archiv fiir celtische Lexicographie, ii, 184). 

Gildas speaks of Latin as "our tongue." This may mean that Latin 
was in his time still studied by nobles in Britain, as in the time of Patrick. 
Gildas was perhaps the last British writer of empire Latin. His style is 
florid, metaphorical, and obscure. His meaning is often doubtful, yet he 
seems to have expected British kings to understand it. 

Giles, J. A. : Patres Ecclesiae Anglicanae (1843- 1848). 

Giles, J. A. : Scriptores Rerum Gestarum Willelmi Conquestoris, Caxton 
Society (London, 1845). 

Glllacoemain : chronological verses, ed. from the Book of Leinster by 
W. Stokes ; R.S. 89, ii, 530-540. These are calculations of periods, 
composed in 107 1, of little value. 

Gillacoemgin, translation of Nennius. See Irish Nennius. 

Giraldus Cambrensis (" Gerald the Welshman " ; also Barrensis, " de 
Barri"). Works, ed. R.S. 21 (1861-1891). Gerald wrote voluminously in 
the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century (born ?ii47, 
■|-ca. 1220). 

His Topographia Hibernica and Expugnatio Hibernica (in vol. v, ed. 
J. F. Dimock ; 1867) were completed ii88x 1189. They show bias against 
the Irish, and in favour of his kinsmen. His De Principis Instructione 
(in vol. viii, ed. G. F. Warner ; 1891. Also in Anglia Christiana Society), 
probably concluded about 1217, contains out-spoken criticism of king 
Henry II and his family. It is translated by J. Stevenson ; in Church 
Historians, v, 1. 

The Descriptio Cambriae (written ca. 1194 ; 2nd ed., ca. 1215) is in 
vol. vi ; Vita S. Hugonis (bishop of Lincoln, t 1200), in vol. vii (both ed. 
Dimock); De Vita Gaufredi Archiepiscopi (of York, ti2i2), in vol. iv 
(ed. J. S. Brewer). 

The Irish and Welsh works were edited in Camden's Anglica Scripta ; 
and have been translated by T. Forester and R. C. Hoare. See also Gross, 
nos. 1782, 2242. 

eialber, see Rodulphus. 

Glasgow. Registrum episcopatus Glasguensis, ed. C. Innes. B.Cl. 
75, and M.Cl. 61 (Edinburgh, 1843). 

Gorham, G. 0. : History and Antiquities of Eynesbury and St Neot's in 
Huntingdonshire (London, 1824), 

Gorman, Martyrology of: ed. from Brussels MS. 5100-4 by W. Stokes. 
Henry Bradshaw Society, 9 (London, 1895). 

The manuscript was transcribed ca. 1630 by Michael O'Clery. The 
author was Maelmaire Ua-Gormain, or Marianus Gorman ; he wrote 
ii66x 1 174. 

Grace, James: Annales Hiberniae (1074-1370), ed. R. Butler. Irish 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES hi 

Archaeological Society (Dublin, 1842). Written ca. 1538. For our period, 
parallel with the Annales Hiberniae edited in Camden's Britannia. 

Graenlendinga Thdttr. See Eric the Red's Saga. 

Green, J. R. : The Making of England (London, 1897). 

Gretti's Saga, ed. R. C. Boer. Altnordische Saga-bibliothek, part 8 
(Halle, 1900). Other editions are those of Magnusson and Thordarson, 
with Danish translation (Nordisk Literatur Samfund : Nordiske Oldskrifter, 
16, 25; Copenhagen, 1852, 1859). There is a translation into Norwegian 
(Landsmaal), by Ola Rokke : Soga um Grette Aasmundsson (Gamalnorske 
Bokverk, 11. Oslo, 1912) ; an English translation by E. Magnusson and 
W. Morris (London, 1869 ; reprinted, 1900). Boer's differs from previous 
editions in the chaptering, after c. 71. Boer has drawn up a chronological 
table, on pp. xxxv-xxxvi. 

Gretti's Saga was composed about the middle of the 13th century. Its 
surviving form is somewhat later. 

This is one of the greater Icelandic Sagas. It contains much that is 
fabulous ; but its historical preface (cc. 1-13) has no less authority than the 
best of the sagas. 

Gross, C. : Sources and Literature of English History (to 1485). London, 
1900 ; 2nd ed., 1915. This is a most useful book. 

Guibertus (abbot of Nogent-sous-Coucy ; +1124): Historia Hieroso- 
lymitana (1095-1110), ed. P.L. 156, 679-838. 

Guisbrougli. Cartularium Prioratus de Gyseburne, Eboracensis 
Dioceseos, Ordinis S. Augustini ; fundati 11 19. Ed. W. Browne. Surtees 
Society, nos. 86 and 89 (1889, 1891). 

Guisbrough, Walter of. See Hemingburgh. 

Gunnlaug Serpent's-tongue's Saga. Saga Gunnlaugs Ormstungu, ed. 
Mobius, Analecta Norroena, ist ed., 135-166 (Leipzig, 1859) ; also ed. in 
Sigurdsson and Rafn, Islendinga Sogur, ii (Oldskriftselskab ; Copenhagen, 
1847) ; and in V. Asmundarsson's Islendinga Sogur, 9 (Reykjavik, 191 1). 

This is one of the shorter early Icelandic sagas. It has literary and 
some historical merit ; but (like most sagas) tends to eulogize its hero. 

Gutliorm Sigurd's son's Saga. See under Hakon Sverri's son's 
Saga. 

Haddan, A. W., and W. Stubbs : Councils and Ecclesiastical 
Documents (Oxford, 1869-1878). 

Hakon Hakon's son's Saga is preserved in Frisbok (Unger's Codex 
Frisianus, 387-583); in Eirspennill (Unger's Konunga Sogur, 239-484); 
in the Flatey-book (Vigfusson and Unger, Flateyiarbok, iii, 3-233) ; and 
in Skalholtsbok (Kjser, Det Arnamagnasanske Haandskrift 81 a Fol., pp. 
292 onwards). Notwithstanding its omissions, Eirspennill seems to 
represent an early text of the saga. It may be a later abbreviation ; but 
(errors apart) it may be the most authoritative text. Passages omitted by 
it are under the suspicion of not having belonged to the earliest edition of 
the saga. I have therefore given preference to the text of Eirspennill. 

This saga has been translated by A. Bugge, in Norges Kongesagaer, 
iv, 57-295 (Christiania, 19 14). Parts were edited, and translated into 
English, by J. Johnstone :— Anecdotes of Olave the Black [1229-1231] 



Ixii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

(1780) ; The Norwegian Account of Haco's Expedition against Scotland, 
A.D. 1263 (1782). 

The whole saga, ed. Vigfusson, tr. Dasent, is in R.S. 88, ii, iv. 
Hakon Hakon's son's Saga was composed by Sturla, Thord's son, as he 
(or a continuator) says in the Islendinga Saga (Sturlunga Saga, ed. 
Vigfusson, ii, 272): "And a little later, Sturla came into the greatest 
friendship with king [Magnus] ; and the king had him much in his counsels, 
and laid upon him the task of putting together the saga of king Hakon^ 
his father, following [Magnus's] own advice, and the accounts of the wisest 
men. But before the king caused the saga to be put together, king Hakon 
had died in the Orkneys ; and men thought that great tidings, through all 
the northern lands ; and the greatest loss." Sturla's saga of Hakon was 
therefore composed 1263 x 1284. 

Sturla had abundant materials, documentary and oral. The verses 
included in the saga are embellishments, introduced after the model of the 
verse-quotations in the older sagas, but are not, as in the older sagas, 
quotations of earlier sources. 

Hakon (Sverrl's son), Guthorm, and Ingi's Saga. This saga is 
preserved in the Eirspennill ; ed. Unger, Konunga Sogur, 203-238. It 
was edited previously by Thorlacius and WerlaufF (Noregs Konunga 
Sogur, iv) ; and in F.S., ix, 1-56 ; and tr. into Danish and Latin in 
Oldnordiske Sagaer, ix, and Scripta Historica Islandorum, ix. Another 
version (entitled Boglunga Sogur, or Sagas of the Croziers) is preserved 
in Skalholtsbok, ed. A. Kjsr ; and tr. A. Bugge, in Norges Kongesagaer, 
iv, 1-56 (Christiania, 1914). 

Hakon Sverrl's son's Saga ; Guthorm Sigurd's son's Saga ; and Ingi 
Bard's son's Saga. The original of these sagas is lost, but there is an old 
Danish translation in Peter Clausson's Snorre Sturlesons Norske Kongers 
Chronica, pp. 528-587 (Copenhagen, 1633). Reprinted in vol. iv of 
Schoning, Thorlacius, and WerlaufPs Noregs Konunga Sogor (Copenhagen, 
1813), and in vol. ix of the Fornmanna Sogur (Copenhagen, 1835). They 
have been translated into modern Danish in Oldnordiske Sagaer, vol. ix. 
They were translated into Icelandic and Latin by Sveinbiorn Egilsson, in 
Fornmanna Sogur, vol. ix ; and Scripta Historica Islandorum, vol. ix. 

Hardy, T. D. : Descriptive Catalogue of Materials relating to the 
History of Great Britain and Ireland (to 1327). R.S. 26 (1862-1871). 

Hardy, T. D. : Itinerary of King John, in Introduction to his Patent 
Rolls in the Tower (1835, folio) ; and after his Description of the Patent 
Rolls (1835, 8vo). Cf Archaeologia, xxii (less comprehensive). 

Hardy, T. D. : Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae (to 1715). 
Oxford, 1854. A useful collection of dates. 

Hardy, T. D. : Syllabus of Documents in Rymer's Foedera. London, 
1869-1885. This corrects some (but not all) of the errors in the editions 
of Rymer. 

Hartshorne, C. H. : Itinerary of King Edward I. British Archaeological 
Association : Collectanea Archaeologica, ii, 1 15-136 (London, 1863). 

Hauksbdk, ed. E. and F. Jonsson. Oldskriftselskab (Copenhagen, 
1892-1894). This is a collection of Icelandic literature partly written by. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixiii 

partly for, lawman Hauk, Erlend's son, an Icelander in Norway, who died 
in 1334. Cf. under Eric the Red's Saga. 

Heimskrlngla. See Snorri Sturla's son. 

Hemingburgh, Walter of (or of Hemingford, or of Gisburn) : Chronicon 
de Gestis Regum Angliae (1048-1346), ed. H. C. Hamilton. E.H.S. 
(London, 1848-1849). Parts (1066-1273) in Gale, ii. 455-594; (1274-1346) 
ed. T. Hearne (Oxford, 1731). 

Years 1316-1326 are missing. A continuator may have written the part 
for 1 3 14- 1 346, or 1297-1346. This chronicle becomes of value for Scottish 
history after the period of the present book. 

Henry of Huntingdon: Historia Anglorum (to 11 54). Ed. T. Arnold, 
R.S. 74 (1879). Except for the period 11 26- 11 54, Henry usually follows 
earlier sources. When original, his information is not always correct. 

Herimannus Augiensis (1013-1054); Chronicon de Sex Aetatibus 
Mundi (to 1054), ed. Pertz, M.G.H., Scriptores, v, 67-133. An excellent 
source for continental history of the period 1039-1054. 

Herimannus Tomacensis (Herimann of Tournai ; abbot of St Martin's 
of Tournai, 1127-ca. 1138; tii47x): Narratio Restaurationis abbatiae 
S. Martini Tornacensis, ed. G. Waitz, M.G.H., Scriptores, xiv, 274-317. 
Partly ed. in B.R., x, xi, xiii, xiv. Also in D'Achery's Spicilegium, xii ; 
2nd ed., ii, 882, ff. ; P.L. 180. 

Higden, Randolph (f 1364) : Polychronicon (to 1352), ed. (with Trevisa's 
translation) by Babington and Lumby ; R.S. 41 (1865-1886). A compilation, 
used by Fordun. 

Hinde, J. H. : History of Northumberland (Newcastle, 1858). 

See also under Simeon of Durham. 

Histoire de Guillaume le Mar6ohal (earl of Pembroke, 11219), ed. P. 
Meyer, S.H.F. (Paris, 1891-1894). Written ca. 1225 ; a valuable work. 

Histoire des Duos de Normandle, et des Rois d'Angleterre, ed. F. 
Michel. S.H.F. (Paris, 1840). According to Michel, the first part, to 1199, 
is an unimportant analysis of William of Jumi^ges, with some continuations. 
The second part, from 1199 to 1220, is interesting and valuable, the work 
of a contemporary. 

Historia Brittonum, cum additamentis Nennii ; ed. T. Mommsen, in 
M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 143-219 (1894). Previously ed. J. Stevenson, 
E.H.S. (1838) ; in Petrie's M.H.B. (1848) ; also in Gale, iii (1691). For 
other editions, and a conspectus of opinions, see Gross, no. 1375. 
Translated by J. A. Giles (Six Old English Chronicles ; London, 1848). 
See also under Irish Nennius, and Map Urbagen. 

Nennius thus describes his work and its sources (143): "The island 
of Britain's briefest eulogy, which Nennius, pupil of Elvodugus, has 
collected. 

" I, Nennius, pupil of Elvodugus, have endeavoured to write some 
extracts, which the stupidity of the nation of Britain had cast aside ; 
because the learned men of Britain had no skill [in writing] \j)erifiain\ 
nor did they place any commemoration in books. But I have collected 
all that I have found, from the annals of the Romans as well as from the 
chronicles of the holy fathers, that is of Hieronymus Eusebius, of Isidore, 



Ixiv BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

of Prosper ; and from the annals of the [Irish] Scots, and of the Saxons ; 
and from the tradition of our old men \veierw)i\. 

"What many learned men and transcribers [doctores atque librarii] 
have attempted to write, they have (I know not why) left more difficult ; 
whether because of the most frequent mortalities, or the most numerous 
slaughters in war. I ask every reader who reads this book to pardon me, 
who have dared to write so great matters after such great men, like a 
chattering bird, or like some inconclusive witness \guasi garrula avis vel 
quasi quidam invalidiis arbiter]. I yield to him who is more sufficiently 
skilled in these matters \_qui plus noveritin ista peritia saiis] than I." 

Genealogies of the Saxon kings appended to the Historia " were put 
together at various times between the end of the 7th and middle of the 8th 
centuries" (Phillimore). 

The Historia Brittonum was probably written before Bede's History ; 
it borrowed from a Life of Germanus. This work was probably edited 
by Nennius, with materials added from a Life of Patrick, traditions of 
Arthur, and Anglo-Saxon historical notes. 

Historia Nonvegiae, ed. G. Storm, in his Monumentahistorica Norvegiae, 
71-124. Only a fragment of this work is preserved. It was originally 
written, according to Storm, towards the end of the 12th century : later 
than Ari's work, Adam of Bremen, and an English chronicle of about 1170 
(De Legibus Angliae ; used by Hoveden, ii, 215) ; but earlier than the time 
when most of the sagas were first written. It has therefore value from its age. 

History of Northumberland (Newcastle and London, 1893-1907). E. 
Bateson edits vols, i and ii ; A. B. Hinds, vol. iii ; J. C. Hodgson, vols, iv, 
vii ; H. H. E. Craster, vol. viii. 

Hodgson, John: History of Northumberland (Newcastle, 1820-1858). 
Completed by J. H. Hinde and J. Raine. 

Hogan, E. : Onomasticon Goedelicum Locorum et Tribuum Hiberniae 
et Scotiae. Dublin and London, 1910. 

Holyrood. Liber cartarum Sancte Crucis, ed. C. Innes. B.Cl. 70 
(Edinburgh, 1840). 

Homily on St Columba, in Lebar Brecc (q.v.), the Book of Lismore 
(q.v.), and the Advocates' Library of Edinburgh Gaelic MS. no. 40. Trans- 
lated by W. M. Hennessy in Skene's Celtic Scotland, ii, 468-507. 

Horoy : Medii ^vi Bibliotheca Patristica (Paris, 1879-1880). Contains 
letters of pope Honorius III, from 1217 to 1225 (in ii, 2, iv). 

Horstmann, C. : Sammlung altenglischer Legenden (Heilbronn, 1878); 
Altenglische Legenden, Neue Folge (Heilbronn, 1881) ; Barbour's 
Legendensammlung (Heilbronn, 1881-1882). 

Hoveden, Roger of: Chronica (to 1201), ed. W. Stubbs. R.S. 51 (1868- 
1871). Previously ed. in Savile's Scriptores. Tr. H. T. Riley (London, 
1853). Down to 1 192, this work is copied or compiled from other sources. 
The part for 734-1148 is based upon a Historia Anglorum sive Saxonum 
post Bedam (written x 1161; i, 129, and preface), derived from S.D. and 
H.H. For Hoveden's sources, see R.S. 51, i, pp. xxv-lxxi. 

Hrblf Gautrek's son's Saga, ed. F. Detter, in Zwei Fornaldarsogur, 
3-78 (Halle, 1891). This is an unhistorical saga of early times. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixv 

Hraifs Saga Kraka, ed. F. Jonsson. Samfund, 82 (Copenhagen, 1904), 
This is a story of early kings of Denmark. 

Huntingdon Chronicle : see Chronicle of Huntingdon. 

Icelandic Annals. Edited by Gustav Storm : Islandske Annaler 
indtil 1578 (Det norske historiske Kildeskriftfond, Christiania, 1888). A 
previous composite edition was made by E. C. Werlauff and others : 
Islenzkir Annalar, sive Annales Islandici, ab anno Christi 803 ad annum 
1430 (Legatum Arnse-Magnceanum, Copenhagen, 1847). The Annales 
Regii (C) were edited, from a manuscript in the Royal Library at Copen- 
hagen, by Vigfusson, in his Sturlunga Saga, vol. ii, pp. 348-391 ; and the 
Flateybook Annals (A) were edited in Unger and Vigfusson's Flateyiarbok, 
vol. iii, pp. 477-583- 

WerlaufPs edition was based upon the Flateybook Annals, with collation 
of 13 other versions ; and it distinguished the different versions arbitrarily, 
and sometimes incorrectly, by letters. These letters I have thought it 
convenient to retain. 

Storm edited the versions named in Werlauffs edition KBOCDNEP, 
with parts of A and L, and with collation of I and H. See Storm's preface 
for a detailed account of the manuscripts used ; and, for a general account 
of the annals, ibid., pp. Ixviii-lxxxiv. 

The earliest of these annals are versions KBOCDE. 

K (Annales Reseniani) runs to 1295. Compiled after 1303. 

B (Annales Vetustissimi) jumps from 999 to 1270; runs to 1306; and 
is continued to 1313. It is based (to 1290) upon K. Edited also in 
Langebek, ii, 177. Written before 1319. 

O (Henrik Hoyers Annaler) runs to 1310. It is a late copy, largely 
derived from B. 

C (Annales Regii) runs to 1306, and is carried on to 1341. Edited also 
in Langebek, iii, 12. 

D (Skalholts-Annaler) runs to 1356 = 1362. It contains an earlier 
version that ran to 1348. 

E (Logmanns-Annall) runs to 1362, and is continued to 1392. 

A (Flateybook Annals) runs to 1394. It was perhaps written con- 
temporarily from 1390. It is based upon a version parallel to C, and D. 
Storm edits selections from 1150 to 1269, and a complete text from 1283 to 
1394 ; and gives (492-497) corrections of Vigfusson's edition. The year- 
letters of one year, 1007, were omitted by the compiler : the year-numbers 
were counted backwards, without this omission being observed. There- 
fore from 520 to 1006, the numbers are too large by one. They were 
corrected by Torfaeus, and Arngrim Jonsson. In Vigfusson's edition, the 
corrected year-numbers are printed. Storm gives the uncorrected numbers 
in his index. But the year-letters indicate the correct year ; and I have 
preferred to give the corrected numbers. 

P (Gottskalks-Annall) contains a version that ran to 1394. I (to 1394), 
F (to 1396), and H, are cognate with this source. L (Oddverja-Annall) 
may contain a version that ended in 1313. M runs to 1400. 

e 



Ixvi BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

The years in K are indicated by Dionysian numbers and dominical 
letters ; in O, by numbers only ; in BCDEAPL, by dominical and paschal 
letters, with occasional Dionysian numbers. See the Calendar Notes, 
pp. civ-cv. The system of distinguishing the years by dominical and 
paschal letters suggests that in Iceland, as in Ireland, the annals had their 
origin in annotated Easter tables. They are later than the sagas, and 
derive much of their information from them. The common source of the 
annals was compiled not long before 1300. Among its sources were Ari ; 
Adam ; Ekkehart ; and an erroneous list of Wessex kings, which was used 
also by the writers of the sagas (see Storm, pp. Ixxviii-lxxix). 

Icelandic Sagas. The sagas were derived from tradition ; from poems 
(frequently cited) ; and probably from chronological jottings (preserved in 
the 14th-century annals). A chronicle of English kings was used both by 
the saga-writers and by the annalists. 

The Icelandic Annals were generally later than, and largely derived 
from, the sagas. The verses quoted in the sagas were often genuine, and 
contemporary with the events ; but they are obscure. Their meaning is 
frequently too uncertain to be of much value as historical evidence. They 
do not add to, but must be explained by, the prose narrative in which they 
stand. They were part of the large oral literature of Iceland : a literature 
which developed among the Icelanders remarkable tenacity of memory, 
and gave exceptional value to the traditions preserved among them. 

None of the sagas is historical throughout. Several of them have, 
however, a common historical framework, which is remarkably consistent 
and uniform ; and which is full of genealogical details, many of them 
unnecessary to the story in which they occur. 

The style of the narrative very often shows whether the composer aimed 
at historical veracity or at literary effect. The larger is the element of 
romance, adventure, and marvel, the smaller is the element of history. 
As a general rule, the sagas' evidence is good for events that are narrated 
briefly, without romantic setting ; and not good for events that cannot be 
removed from their romantic setting. 

Their reckoning of time is not, as a rule, to be relied upon without 
other support, in the earlier centuries. Dates given or implied by them 
for events in the British Islands are frequently erroneous (for instance, the 
date of the battle of Clontarf). 

Icelandic literature is among the most notable of all traditional heroic 
literatures, centring round certain families and men ; and is one of the 
most remarkable phenomena in the literary history of Europe. 

The best editions are published by the Samfund til Udgivelse af 
gammel Nordisk Literatur ; by Det kongelige nordiske Oldskriftselskab ; 
and in the Altnordische Sagabibliothek. The best edition of the verses is 
that of Jonsson in his Skjaldedigtning. Cheap reprints of the sagas are 
edited by V. Asmundarson, in his series of Islendinga Sogur. The first 
place among translations must be given to G. Storm and A. Bugge's Norges 
Kongesagaer. 

A complete collection from the sagas of all the passages that touch 
upon Scotland could not be given here ; the most important of these 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixvii 

passages could not be left out. I have given a liberal selection, which 
will, I hope, be found interesting and useful. 

Ideler, Ludivlg : Handbuch der Chronologie (Breslau, 1883). 

Inchafifray. Charters, Bulls, and other Documents, relating to the 
Abbey of Inchaffmy, ed. W. A. Lindsay, J. Dowden, J. M. Thomson. 
S.H.S. 56 (Edinburgh, 1908). 

Ingl Bard's son's Saga. See under Hakon Sverri's son's Saga. 

Innes, Cosmo, and others : Origines Parochiales Scotiae. B.Cl. 97 
(Edinburgh, 1851-1855). 

Innes, Thomas : Critical Essay on the Ancient Inhabitants of Scot- 
land, ed. G. Grub, Historians of Scotland, viii (Edinburgh, 1879). 'st ed., 
London, 1729. 

Irish Annals. V.i.a. under Annals of Innisfallen, Annals of Ulster, 
Tigernach. 

The Irish annals are based upon historical notes kept in monastic 
houses, and often entered in the margins of paschal calendars. See 
A.S.C., version I ; and cf. A.C., A.I., and Icelandic Annals. 

In the end of the 7th century, collections of these notes were made, and 
were continued as yearly chronicles. The earliest surviving collections 
are compilations and continuations of these chronicles. From the 8th 
century onwards the Irish annals contain approximately contemporary 
records of events. 

As a survival of their origin in annotated paschal calendars, Irish annals 
indicated the years by data copied from a calendar : such as the number in 
the week of the ist of January (the ferial number), and the age of the moon 
on that day (the epact) ; and sometimes the concurrents, and Dionysian 
Golden Numbers. (See below, under the Calendar Notes.) But copyists 
often omitted these data, and indicated a new annal solely by the 
abbreviation K., or Kl., i.e. ," Kalends of January." Years entered in this 
way without events were in danger of being omitted altogether by later 
copyists. When several years in succession were entered without events, 
errors were sometimes made in the number of K's transcribed. The result 
is that the sequence is an insufficient indication of the years intended. 

Events copied from annotated calendars were not always correctly 
placed. Conflicting accounts are sometimes entered from different sources. 
Foreign events were generally entered by the compilers from foreign 
sources, and are of little value in distinguishing the years. More help is 
obtained from notes of eclipses. 

The early annals are brief, and frequently refer to events instead of 
describing them ; so that it is sometimes impossible to tell what person or 
place is spoken of: but their brevity has not been embellished by the 
compilers. The compilations of Irish annals as a whole show extraordinary 
fidehty to their sources. With small variations, the Irish annals generally 
support one another ; and the early collections when used together provide 
a very valuable body of evidence, from the year 432 onwards. 

So long as lona was a link between Ireland and Scotland, Scottish affairs 
received considerable attention from the Irish monks. The later annals 
become more exclusively histories of Irish affairs. 



Ixviii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

O'Conor's editions, in Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores, are very 
inaccurate ; but have not been superseded for the Annals of Innisfallen, 
Dublin Annals of Innisfallen, and Annals of Boyle (all in vol. ii). Skene's 
extracts in Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis (212-280) are taken from 
O'Conor. Excerpts from the annals, relating to lona, were edited by 
Dr Reeves (as a " Chronicon Hyense") in his edition of Adamnan ; and 
aftervi'ards by Skene. 

Irish annals have hardly yet received the editing that they deserve. 
The Irish type used in the editions favours misprints, does not lend itself 
to the devices of editors, and is unnecessary. It is to be hoped that 
critical editions of those Irish annals that remain practically unedited will 
be produced ; especially of the Annals of Innisfallen. Stokes's edition of 
Tigernach also is a mere transcript with translation. 

For the language of the Irish annals, see Stokes's Linguistic Value of the 
Irish Annals, in the Transactions of the Philological Society for 1888-1890, 
pp. 365-434 ; and T. 0-Maille's Language of the Annals of Ulster (1910). 
The Annals of Ulster are so faithful to their sources that 0-Maiile has 
endeavoured to date from them the times of changes that gradually took 
place in the Irish language. 0-Miille's work confirms the belief that the 
sources were generally written at a time nearly contemporaneous with the 
events described. Both age of language and style of writing must be 
considered in judging particular entries in the annals. Those that are 
proved in this way to be ancient have special value. Those vv'hose 
language is later may have been taken from a source whose spelling had 
been altered by copyists ; they may be equally early ; but their antiquity 
IS not certain. 

In the early Irish annals, the year begins on ist January ; and the day 
(in winter-time at least) at 6 p.m. The "night of Christmas " means the 
night before Christmas, from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. An eclipse of the moon 
noticed by A.U. "in the first hour of the night" of Tuesday, i8th December, 
921, took place, according to L'Art de Verifier les Dates, about 7 p.m. 
(Paris time ; 36 minutes earlier at Armagh) on 17th December, which was 
a Monday. The same Annals note an eclipse of the moon in 1023, on the 
14th day of the January moon, January loth, a Thursday : but it occurred 
at 8 p.m. (Paris time), of Wednesday, 9th January (the 13th day of the 
calendar moon). For an instance of Sunday beginning before sunset, see 
below, vol. i, p. 163. 

According to the Cdin Domnaig, Sunday was observed "from vespers 
on Saturday to the end of matins on Monday" (Anecdota from Irish MSS., 
iii, 21) ; but " to sunrise on Monday," in L.B., 204 (Atkinson). 

The Scandinavian invaders of Ireland are spoken of by various names 
which I have translated as literally as possible. At first Gaill " Foreigners " 
and Gente "Gentiles" mean the Norwegians. Later, they may mean 
either Norwegians or Danes (and, finally, English) : but distinctive names 
also &^^ft2ix -.—Nortmamia '' tionhmen," Fmd-gaill "White Foreio^ners " 
and Find-gente " White Gentiles," mean Norwegians ; while Dub-^aill 
"Black Foreigners," and Dub-gents "Black Gentiles," mean Danes. 
Lochland I have generally translated by "Scandinavia"; Lochlaind, 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixix 

Lochlaniiaig, by "Scandinavians": these names usually mean "Norway" 
and " Norwegians," but the meaning in early times is somewhat uncertain. 

Irish Life of Columba. See Homily on St Columba. 

Irish Life of Patrick. See Homily on St Patrick. 

Irish Nennius. Edited and translated by J. H. Todd and A. Herbert 
(Leabhar Breathnach ; Irish Archaeological Society, Dublin, 1848) from 
three manuscripts :— (D) Trin. Col. of Dubl. MS. H. 3. 17 ; (B) the Book of 
Ballymote ; (L) the Book of Lecan. A fragment occurs in Lebar na h-Uidre 
(facsimile, pp. 3-4), and has been edited by E. Hogan (Todd Lecture Series, 
vi, 1-16 ; Dublin, 1895). The Irish Nennius was translated into Latin by 
H. Zimmer, under the title Nennius Interpretatus, in M.G.H., Auctores, 
xiii, 147 ff. (parallel with the Latin Nennius). 

The Irish Nennius was translated from a version of Nennius's Historia 
Brittonum. It is uncertain whether the occasional additions that occur in 
the Irish version were written by the Irish translator (Gilla-Coemgin), by 
Nennius in a later edition, or by a later editor of Historia Brittonum. 

Isidore of Seville (t636). Isidorus Hispalensis : Chronica Majora 
(to 615). Ed. T. Mommsen, in M.G.H., Auctores, xi, 394-410 (Berlin, 1894). 
In the same volume are Isidore's Chronica Minora ; and additions to his 
Chronica Majora. 

Isidore's chronicles were used by Bede, and by the Irish annalists. 

Islendlngabdk. See Ari. 

Islendlnga Sogur (1829- 1 830), ed. Hit Konungliga FornfraeSa F^lag ; 
(1843- 1 847), ed. Sigurdson and Rafn, Oldskriftselskab. See Icelandic 
Sagas. 

Jaff6, P. : Regesta Pontificum Romanorum (to 1198), (Berlin, 1851) ed. 
W. Wattenbach (Leipzig, 1885-1888). Very valuable to chronology. See 
Potthast. 

Janauschek, P. L. : Origines Cistercienses, vol. i. Vienna, 1877. 

larla Saga. See under Orkneyinga Saga. 

Jocellne of Purness. See Life of Kentigern. 

John of Eversden. See Eversden. 

John of Peterborough. See Chronicle of Peterborough. 

John of Salisbury (tii8o): Historia Pontificalis (1148-1152), ed. 
M.G.H., Scriptores, xx, 515-545. This is a continuation of Sigebert. 

John of Salisbury: Letters (1155-1180). Ed. J. A. Giles, Joannis 
Saresberiensis Opera Omnia, i-ii (Patres Ecclesiae ; Oxford, 1848) ; also in 
P.L. 199 (1855). Some are in R.S. 67, v-vii (1881-1885) ; and in B.R., xvi, 
489-625 (1814). 

John of Salisbury was an associate of Thomas Becket. In 11 76, he 
was made bishop of Chartres. 

John of Taxter. See Taxter. 

John of "Worcester: continuation of Florence of Worcester (to 1141). 
In E. H. S. ed. of F. W. Separately ed. J. R. H. Weaver (Oxford, 1908). 
Written before 11 54. 

Johnstone, James : Account of Haco's Expedition, and Anecdotes of 
Olave the Black ; see under Hakon Hakon's son's Saga. 

Johnstone, James : Antiquitates Celto-normannicae (Copenhagen, 



Ixx BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTP^S 

1786). Contains the Chronicle of Man ; extracts from A.U. ; De Situ 
Albaniae ; and Chronicles of the Kings, AEF. 

Johnstone, James: Antiquitates Celto-Scandicae (Copenhagen, 1786). 
Contains selections from sagas, relating to British history, to 1066 ; with 
a Latin translation. Among the sources used are Heimskringla ; Landn^- 
mabok ; Egil's Saga; Nial's Saga; Olaf Tryggvi's son's Saga ; Knytlinga 
Saga ; Orkneyinga Saga. 

Idmsvlkinga Saga (saga of the pirates of Wollin island). Ed. from 
Arna-magnffian MS. 291 (of the I3th-I4th century) by C. af Petersens, in 
Samfund, 7 (Copenhagen, 1882 ; a diplomatic edition). The same version 
had been edited in F.S., xi, 1-162 (Copenhagen, 1828). Another version is 
inserted in the Flatey-book's Olaf Tryggvi's son (Fl., i, 96-106, 153-205). 
The shortest and probably earliest version was edited by G. Cederschiold, 
from the Royal Library of Stockholm MS. 7 (Lund, 1875 ; I have not seen 
this edition) ; and later by A. Joleik (Gamalnorske Bokverk, 9 ; Christiania, 
1910; with Landsmaal translation). C. af Pedersens published a 
15th-century text, from A. M. MS. 510, in 1879 ("o* seen). A. Jonsson's 
Latin translation is edited by A. Gjessing in Det Norske Historiske 
Kildeskriftfond, 11 (Kristianssand, 1877). 

Jones, Owen. See Myvyrian Archaiology. 

Jdnsson, Flnnur : Den norsk-islandske Skjaldedigtning (Kommission 
for det Arnamagnseanske Legat ; Copenhagen and Christiania, 1908-1916 : 
incomplete). This work supersedes the editions in the Corpus Poeticum 
Boreale. 

Keith, Robert : Historical Catalogue of the Scottish Bishops (to 1688). 
Ed. M. Russel (Edinburgh, 1824). Contains (383-480) An Account of all 
the Religious Houses that were in Scotland at the time of the Reformation, 
by John Spotiswood. 

Kelso. Liber S. Marie de Calchou, ed. C. Innes. B.Cl. 82 (Edinburgh, 
1846). 

Kemble, J. M. : Codex Diplomaticus ^vi Saxonici. E.H.S. (London, 
1839-J848). 

Kinloss. Records of the monastery of Kinloss, ed. J. Stuart. S.A.S. 
Publications, 9 (Edinburgh, 1872). 

Kialnesinga Saga. This is one of the less trustworthy of the historical 
sagas. It appears to have been written in the end of the 13th century, or 
early in the 14th. The manuscripts are later, and mostly corrupt. 

The text used here is that in Islendinga Sogur, vol. ii, pp. 395-460 
(Copenhagen, 1847). 

Knytlinga Saga: ed. Fornmanna Sogur, xi. A fragment ed. and tr. 
in Antiquites Russes, i, 66-86 (Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord, 
Copenhagen, 1850). 

This is an Icelandic history of Danish kings. 

Konunga-tal, Ndregs. This is an enumeration in verse of the reigns 
of kings in Norway, from Halfdan the Black to Sverri. It was composed 
between 1 184 and 1202. The earlier part is based upon Saemund Prodi's 
work. It has been edited in Fornmanna Sogur, x, 422-433 ; in Vigfusson 
and Powell's Corpus Poeticum Boreale, ii, 310-321 ; in Flateyiarbok, ii. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixxi 

520-528 ; and (the best edition) in Jonsson's Skjaldedigtning, i, 575-590. 
Jonsson calls it : "a poem about Joan Lopt's son, ca. 1190." 

Krlngla. This is a manuscript written about the year 1260 ; the 
surviving leaf contains a fragment of Hakon Hakon's son's Saga. It is 
edited in photo-lithographic facsimile by F. Jonsson, for the Samfimd, no. 
24 (Copenhagen, 1S95). 

Krlstnl Saga. Ed. B. Kahle, Altnordische Sagabibliothek, xi (Halle, 
1905). Also ed. by Vigfusson in Biskupa Sogur, i, 3-32 ; ed. and tr. in 
Origines Islandicae, i, 376-406; and ed. F. Jonsson in Hauksbok, 126-149. 

This is a collection made in the 13th century. Its historical value 
varies. The most historical part deals with the period of the Christianiza- 
tion of Iceland (before and after 1000 A.D.). 

Labbe, Philippe : Nova Bibliotheca (Paris, 1657). 

Landndmabdk, ed. F. Jonsson (Oldskriftselskab ; Copenhagen, 1900). 
Ed. also in F. Jonsson's Hauksbok (Oldskriftselskab, 1892-1894): in 
Islendinga Sogur (1829) i, (1843) '> and by V. Asmundarson. An abridged 
text and translation are in Origines Islandicae, i. There is a convenient 
English translation by T. Ellwood : Book of the Settlement of Iceland 
(Kendal, 1898). 

Hank's version is the earliest, and is the one referred to here where 
another version is not indicated. Hauk (t 1334) says that it was com- 
pleted "according as learned men have written : — first, the priest Ari the 
Learned, Thorgils' son ; and Kolskegg the Wise. And [1,] Hauk Erlend's 
son, have written the book, after the book that has been written by the 
most learned man Sturla the Lawman, and after the other book written by 
Styrmi the Wise. And I had [copied] it from which of the two was fuller ; 
but much the greater part was what they both related alike. And there- 
fore it is not to be wondered at that this Landnamabok is longer than any 
other." 

No doubt much of the work is derived from Ari. 

Lanfranc (archbishop of Canterbury; t 1089) : Letters, ed. J. A. Giles, 
in Patres Ecclesiae ; Beati Lanfranci Opera, i, 17-81 (Oxford and Paris, 
1844). Also ed. P.L. 150. 

Langebek, Jacob : Scriptores Rerum Danicarum Medii JE\\ (Copen- 
hagen, 1 772- 1 878). 

Langtoft, Pierre de : Chronicle (to 1307), ed. T. Wright. R.S. 47 
1866-1868). Part ed. in C.A.N. , i, 127-165. Langtoft is a contemporary 
authority from 1272 onwards. 

Lappenberg, J. M. See Thorpe. 

Lappenberg, J. M. : Hamburgisches Urkundenbuch (Hamburg, 1 842). 

L'Art de V6rifer les Dates (Paris, 1750, 1783-1787, and 1818-1844). 
This contains a valuable list of eclipses, calculated to within a quarter of an 
hour, in Paris time. 

Lawrie, Sir Archibald: Early Scottish Charters (to 1 153}, with notes 
and index (Glasgow, 1905) ; Annals of the Reigns of Malcolm and William, 
Kings of Scotland (1153-1214, with notes and index (Glasgow, 1910). These 
are most useful works. 

Laxdoela Saga, ed. K. K^Iund, A.N.S.B., iv (Halle, 1896). A comparative 



Ixxii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

edition by the same editor is in the Samfund, no. 19 (Copenhagen, 1889- 
1891). Incomplete text and translation are in Origines Islandicae, ii, 141- 
187. A translation into Landsmaal was made by S. Frich in Gamalnorske 
Bokverk, no. 3 (Christiania, 1907) ; into English, by M.A.C. Press (Temple 
Classics; London, 1899: the earlier saga); and by R. Proctor (Chiswick 
Press ; London, 1903). 

This important Icelandic saga was written before the end of the 13th 
century, and was continued about the middle of the 14th century. It has 
greater literary than historical merit. 

Lebar Brecc. " Leabhar Breac, The Speckled Book, otherwise styled 
Leabhar Mor Diina Doighre, The Great Book of Dun Doighre ; a collection 
of pieces in Irish and Latin, compiled from ancient sources about the close 
of the fourteenth century" ; published in facsimile from J. O'Longan's copy 
by the Royal Irish Academy (Dublin, 1876). Cf. facsimiles 28-29 in the 
National MSS. of Ireland, iii. 

This is an Irish manuscript collection (R.I.A. MS. 23. P. 16), probably 
of the 15th century ; drawn from older sources. The subjects are principally 
ecclesiastical. 

Lebar Brecc. Stokes, Three Middle-Irish Homilies on the Lives of 
Saints Patrick, Bridget, and Columba. Privately printed (Calcutta, 1877). 

Lebar Lalgnech. See Book of Leinster. 

Lebar na h-Uldre (R.I.A. MS. 23. E. 25). Leabhar na h-Uidhri . . . 
compiled and transcribed about A.D. iioo, by Moelmuiri mac Ceileachair 
. . ." ; ed. in facsimile by the Royal Irish Academy (Dublin, 1870). 

Maelmuire died in 1 106, according to the Four Masters, ii, 982. This 
is a collection of Irish literature, made from earlier Irish manuscripts. 

Legend of St Andrew, ed. Skene, Picts and Scots, 183-193, from the 
i8th century abstract of the Register of St Andrews (Harleian MS. 4628). 
Previously edited by Pinkerton (Enquiry, i, 456-466). See below, p. Ixxxii. 
A legend from the Colbertine MS. was edited by Pinkerton (ibid., 496-498) ; 
an Old-Scots legend, by Horstmann (Altenglische Legenden, N.F., 3-10). 
The readings in the Breviary of Aberdeen (i, 3, Ixxxii) are also ed. in 
Metcalfe's Lives, ii, 289-290. 

Liber Hymnorum. J. H. Bernard and R. Atkinson : The Irish Liber 
Hymnorum . . . with translations, notes, and glossary. Henry Bradshaw 
Society (London, 1898). Much of this work was edited by Dr Todd, under 
the title : Leabhar Imuinn, the Book of Hymns of the Ancient Church of 
Ireland ; Irish Archaeological and Celtic Society (Dublin ; part i, 1855 ; 
part ii, posthumously, 1869). The hymns that are written in Irish, and the 
prefaces that are partly so written, were edited by Stokes in his Goidelica 
(2nd ed. ; London, 1872). The Irish hymns are also edited by E. Windisch, 
in Irische Texte, i, 5-58 (Leipzig, 1880). 

The earliest manuscripts of this Liber Hymnorum are the Trinity 
College of Dublin MS. E. 4.2, and a MS. in the Franciscan Convent, 
Dublin. The former is somewhat earlier than the latter. Both are of the 
nth century. According to Bernard, the Trin. Col. MS. "perhaps belongs 
to its earlier years." Some of the contents appear also in the Lebar Brecc. 

Atkinson (ibid., ii, p. xxxiii) dates the earliest MSS. "about the year 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixxiii 

lioo"; and says that "the prefaces are quite unhistorical, and the verses 
contain abundant proofs of middle Irish forms, so that they are assuredly 
not to be taken as mere copies of Old Irish poems." Bernard is disinclined 
to admit that the text of the hymns is earlier than the notes and glosses 
(i, p. xii). 

The prefaces have historical value only as evidence of traditions. 

There is no proof of the authenticity of the hymns attributed to 
Columba. 

Liber Pontificalis, ed. (to 530) by T. Mommsen : Gesta Pontificum 
Romanorum, i (Berlin, 1898). 

This is a collection of popes' lives, written at various early times. It is 
a contemporaneous source for periods in the 6th and 7th centuries, and 
from the 8th century onwards. Versions of this work were used i.a. by 
Bede, and the early compilers of Irish annals. 

Liber Vitae Eoclesiae Dunelmensis, ed. J. Stevenson. Surtees Society 
no. 13 (1841). 

Llebermann, Felix; Ungedruckte Anglonormannische Geschichtsquellen 
(Strassburg, 1879). 

Life of Adamnan. A fragment of an Irish Life was edited by Skene 
from Reeves's transcript (Picts and Scots, 408-409). The source is Brussels 
MS. 5101-4. The Life is edited by R. I. Best, in Anecdotafrom Irish MSS., 
ii, 10-20 (1908), from the Royal Library of Brussels MS., 4190-4200 (a 1628 
transcript) ; and tr. by M. Joynt in Celtic Review, v, 97-105 (1908). 

Life of Baithine, in the Salamanca MS. ; ed. Smedt and de Backer, 
Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae ex Codice Salmanticensi, 871-878. This Life, 
though late, may have some more ancient basis. 

Life of Bernard, abbot of Tiron (t 1148), by Geoffrey the Fat ; ed. A.S., 
14 Apr. ii, 220-254 ; P.L. 172, 1363-1446. 

Geoffrey was a monk of Tiron, and disciple of Bernard. 

Life of Brendan of Clonfert, ed. Plummer, Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae, 
i, 98-151. Cf. the Irish homily on Brendan, ed. Stokes, Lismore Lives, 
99-116 ; tr., 247-261 (beginning : Beatus vir qui timet Dominum). 

Life of Buitte (+ ca. 521), in Rawlinson MS. B 505. Extracts ed. Skene, 
Picts and Scots, 410-41 1. Ed. Plummer, Vitae, i, 87-97, from a paper MS. 
in the Franciscan convent library at Dublin. 

Life of Catroe. Ed. Colgan, Acta Sanctorum, i, 494 ff. Part was 
reprinted by Skene in Picts and Scots, 106-116. A better text (but not 
complete) is that of the BoUandists ; A.S., March, i, 473-480 (1865). 

Kaddroe, or more correctly Catroe (perhaps a Brythonic parallel of 
Irish cathroe " battlefield "), was a Pictish saint. The Life was apparently 
written by one Reimann, or Ousmann, who lived at a time when and in 
a place where he might have been Catroe's pupil, but yet knew about him 
only by hearsay (Dedicatio). The author writes as a contemporary 
(in c. 24) ; and in the life-time of a man who had in his youth been cured 
of a fever by Catroe (c. 29). The Life is dedicated to Immo, probably the 
abbot of Wassor from about 982. 

Life of Columba. See Adamnan, Cummine, Lebar Brecc, O'Donnell. 

Life of Columba in the Salamanca MS., ed. Smedt and De Backer, 



Ixxiv BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae ex Codice Salmanticensi, 845-855. This is 
Colgan's Vita Secunda S. Columbae, in Trias Thaumaturga, 325-330. ^ 

This fragment is considerably more ancient than the manuscript in 
which it occurs. It is derived in great part from Adamnan, or from some 
source used by Adamnan. 

Life of Harold, Godwine's son (t 1 066), ed. F. Michel, Chroniques 
Anglo-Normandes, ii (1836) ; ed. and tr. W. de G. Birch : Vita Haroldi 
(London, 1885). The MS. is Harleian MS. no. 3776. 

Life of Kentigern (anonymous). Ed. by C. Innes, Register of Glasgow, 
i, pp. Ixxviii-lxxxvi ; revised, by A. P. Forbes, Historians of Scotland, v, 
243-252 ; and by Metcalfe, Lives, ii, 99-109. 

This Life was written at the suggestion of Herbert, bishop of Glasgow 
(1147-t 1164). A fragment only is preserved, in a corrupt copy of the 
beginning of the 15th century. It is quoted by Fordun (III, 9) ; and was 
the basis of the Life of Thanea or Thenew in the Breviary of Aberdeen 
(ii, 3, 34-36) ; and in part of the Life of Kentigern given there (i, 3, 28). 

The author says in his Prologue (ed. Forbes, u.s., 243-244): "I have 
wandered through many districts, diligently investigating their manners, 
and the devotion of their clergy and people : I have found every country 
venerating its own provincial saints, with the laudation of its own people 
and of others [alternis, for alienis]. But now that I have come at last to 
the kingdom of the Scots, I have found it very rich in the relics of saints, 
illustrious in its priests, famous in its princes ; nevertheless, it was still, in 
comparison with the other kingdoms, indolent, almost torpid in the sloth of 
neglect, in the veneration of its saints. Indeed, when I observed the 
dearth of honour paid to the saints in wide areas [in spaciosisj possibly 
for " in high places " ?], I took my pen ; and, as Simeon, former monk of 
Durham, composed a history of his saint, Cuthbert, so I too (a cleric of 
St Kentigern) at the suggestion of Herbert, the venerable bishop of 
Glasgow, have devoutly composed, as well as I could, from the materials 
found in a pamphlet of his virtues, and from the spoken words communicated 
to me by the faithful \de . . . viva voce fidelium viicM relata], some kind 
[of history] to the honour of the most holy confessor and bishop, Kentigern ; 
who shines beside the rest like Lucifer among the stars. . . . Let all in 
general know this, that for the sake of brevity I pass over many things that 
are worthy of commemoration, in writing concerning the man of blessed 
memory ; and shall publish in writing but a few out of very many things, in 
order to avoid wearying those who are to read. This also any one can 
faithfully observe, if he will apply his diligence to [Kentigern's] miracles 
that still appear throughout Cambria. . . ." 

Life of Kentigern, by Joceline of Furness ; ed. from Cottonian MS. 
Vitellius C. VIII, fos. 148-195, by Pinkerton in his Vitae Antiquae, 191-297 ; 
and by Metcalfe, Lives, ii, 1-96 : and from a Dublin MS. (Marsh V. 3.4. 16) 
by Forbes, with collation (by Travers) of the Cottonian MS., in Historians 
of Scotland, v, 159-242. Another version of this Life was edited in 
Capgrave's Nova Legenda (1516), 207-212 ; and in A.S., 13 Jan. ii, 98-103. 
See Hardy, Catalogue, i, 1, 207-209. Hardy remarked that these lives were 
written during the episcopate of bishops who built the cathedral of Glasgow 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixxv 

(dedicated 1197), and that they may have been intended to arouse interest 
in the collection of funds for the building. Joceline's Life is dedicated to 
Joceline, bishop of Glasgow (consecrated 1175 ; 1 1199). 

Joceline claims to have had two authorities as materials for his work. 
He says in the Prologue :"...! have explored the squares and streets 
[plaieas et vicos\ of the city, according to your command, seeking the 
written account of St Kentigern's Life, which your soul loves. . . . Therefore 
I have sought diligently, if it should chance to be found, for a Life which 
should seem to be supported by greater authority and more evident truth, 
and to be written in a style more elegant, than is that which your church 
employs ; because that [Life], many think, is stained throughout and 
discoloured by inelegant speech, and beclouded by an ill-arranged style ; 
and, what indeed every wise man abhors more than all these things, in the 
very beginning of the narrative there appears plainly a thing which is 
opposed to sound doctrine and to catholic faith. 

"And I have found another pamphlet, dictated in the Scottish style," 
(i.e. written in Gaelic ?) " swarming with errors throughout, but containing 
at greater length the life and acts of the holy bishop. Therefore seeing 
that so precious a bishop's life (glorious in signs and prodigies, most 
renowned for virtues and doctrine) should be blotted by a relation perverted, 
and diverted from the faith, or should be exceedingly obscured by 
barbarous speech, I grieved, I confess, and suffered. And therefore I 
determined to restore and put together material collected from both these 
books ; and, after my measure and according to your command, to savour 
with Roman salt what had been barbarously written. I hold it absurd that 
a treasure so precious should be wrapped in so worthless coverings ; and 
so I shall endeavour to clothe it, if not in gold embroidery and silk, at 
least in clean linen. . . ." 

(The scandal referred to had not been sufficiently removed from the 
version given by the anonymous Life.) 

Life of Machar. An Old-Scots verse life of Machar (wrongly attributed 
to Barbour) is edited by Horstmann in his Alt-englische Legenden, Neue 
Folge, 189-208 (1881); by Dr W. M. Metcalfe, in his Legends, ii, 1-46 
(1896), and in his SS. Ninian and Machor, 87-134 (1904). The conclusion 
of this Life is the same as that of St Ninian's Life in the same (14th- 
century) collection ; see Horstmann, u.s., p. cvi. The Life of Machar was 
probably, like the lections in the Breviary of Aberdeen, based upon a lost 
Latin Life. 

Life of Maelmaedoie. See Bernard of Clairvaux. 

Life of Magnus, earl of Orkney (t 1 1 16). Edited in Pinkerton's Vitae, 
387-435 ; Metcalfe's Lives, ii, 214-258. See Magnus Erlend's son. 

Life of Margaret, queen of Scotland. See Ailred of Rievaulx ; Turgot. 

Life of Ninian, by Ailred of Rievaulx. Ed. from a 12th-century 
Bodleian MS. (Laud Misc. 668, fos. 78-89), by Pinkerton in his Vitae 
Antiquae ; revised, by A. P. Forbes, in Historians of Scotland, v, 137-157 ; 
and in Metcalfe's Lives. 

In his Praefatio (ed. Forbes, 140), Ailred, describing his sources, quotes 
from Bede, and says : " But that which he [Bede] seems merely to have 



Ixxvi BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

touched upon, briefly (as the course of his History appeared to require), a 
book concerning [Ninian's] Life and Miracles, written in barbarous language 
\barbarioj read barbarice ? ] proposes to relate to us more fully. This book, 
however, (while nowhere deviating from the foundation of [Bede's] testimony) 
only describes in historical manner how [Ninian] had such origin, how he 
achieved such success, how he attained an end so praiseworthy" (cf. 
Breviary of Aberdeen, ii, 3, 107). This earlier Life was perhaps written in 
Anglo-Saxon. Ailred says : " ... Barbarous speech obscured the Life of 
the most holy Ninian ; . . . and the less it delighted the reader, the less 
it edified him." Ailred proposed to translate the Life into good Latin : 
"... and to rescue it from rustic speech as from darkness, and bring it 
forth into the light of Latin diction." 

Ailred's Life was the basis of the Life of Ninian in the Old-Scots verse- 
collection. 

Life of Ninian in the Scottish verse Lives of Saints. C, Horstmann 
summarized the contents of this Life in his Altenglische Legenden, Neue 
Folge, pp. cii-cvi ; and edited it in his Barbour's Legendensammlung, ii, 
121-138. It is edited by Dr Metcalfe in his Legends, ii, 304-345 (S.T.S., 
1896) ; and again in his SS. Ninian and Machor (Paisley, 1904). Buss and 
Metcalfe have shown that Barbour was not the author. 

Life of Serf, ed. from Marsh MS. V. 3. 4. 16 (assigned to the 13th 
century), by Skene, Picts and Scots, 412-420; and by Metcalfe, Lives, ii, 
1 19-128. This Life was the basis of Wyntoun's account. 

Life of Thanea (or Thenew), in the Scottish verse Lives of Saints. Ed. 
Horstmann, Barbour's Legendensammlung, ii, 79-83 ; and by Metcalfe, 
Legends, ii, 215-222. 

Life of Waltheof, ablbot of Melrose (tllS9), by Jordan, a monk of 
Furness ; ed. A.S., 3 August, i, 249-278. This work is quoted by Bower 
(VI, I, etc.) ; who calls the author Jocelin. The Life was written ca. 1207. 
The author addresses his work to William, king of Scotland ; and his 
son, Alexander ; and brother, earl David. It was written at the request 
of Patrick, abbot of Melrose ; and was finished after Patrick's death 
(.•. 1207 X 1214). 

Cf. the Life in Capgrave's Nova Legenda (1516), 293-295. 
Life of Waltheof, Siward's son (t 1075). Edited by F. Michel, in 
C.A.N. , ii, 99-142, from a manuscript of the I2th-i3th century (Library of 
Douai MS. no. 801). This Life appears to have been compiled from 
previous Lives. It contains these sections : Epitaphium (prose ; 99-103) ; 
Epitaphium (verse; 103-104); Gesta Antecessorum (104-111); Vita et 
Passio (111-120); Epitaphium (prose; 121-123); Epitaphium metricum 
(123); De Comitissa (123-131) ; Miracula (t3[-i42). There is an edition 
in Langebek's Scriptores, iii, 288-300 (1774). 

Llna, B. H. : Norsk-islandska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn fran 
Medeltiden (Uppsala, 1907-1915). 

Llndores. Chartulary of the Abbey of Lindores, 1195-1479; ed J. 
Dowden (Edinburgh, 1903). 

List of Bishops and Archbishops of Norway (written in 1325) ; ed. 
Langebek, Scriptores, vi, 615-621. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixxvii 

List of Bishops of Man. See Chronicle of Man. 

Lorenzen, M. : Gammeldanske Kroniker. Samfund, no. 18(1887-1913). 
These Danish chronicles are later than the early Icelandic Annals, and 
have little value for the purpose of this book. 

Magnus Erlend's son's Saga : Saga of St Magnus, ed. Vigfusson, R.S. 
88, i, 237-280 ; tr. Dasent, ibid., iii, 239-282. 

Magnus Erlend's son's Saga : Shorter Saga of St Magnus, ed. Vigfusson, 
R.S. 88, i, 281-298 ; tr. Dasent, ibid, iii, 283-301. 

For the Latin Life of St Magnus, see under Life of Magnus. 

Magnus Hakon's son's Saga. Only a fragment of this saga has been 
preserved. It is edited in Thorlacius and WerlaufPs Konunga Sogur, v, 
384-392; Rafn's Fornmanna Sogur, x, 155-163; Vigfusson's Icelandic 
Sagas, R.S. 88, ii, 361-368. An additional fragment believed by Vigfusson 
to belong to this saga is published ibid., ii, 368-373. Translations into 
Danish and Latin accompany the Danish editions ; a translation into 
English, by Dasent, the English edition (ibid., iv, 374-386). It is translated 
into Danish by A. Bugge, in Kongesagaer, iv, 296-305 (Christiania, 1914). 

This saga was composed by Sturla, Thord's son. See the Islendinga 
Saga (Vigfusson's ed. of Sturlunga Saga, ii, 272) ; where, after telling of 
his being commanded to write the saga of Hakon Hakon's son, Sturla (or a 
continuator) says : "And then, upon the second of Sturla's expeditions, he 
was with king Magnus again, well esteemed and held in high honour. 
Then he put together the saga of king Magnus, in accordance with 
documents [eptir brefu7n\ and [Magnus's] own advice. Then he became 
a guardsman of king Magnus, and afterwards his cup-bearer. . . ." 

Malmesbury, see William of. 

Mantissa. This is a name given to a collection of historical notes, 
originally written in Icelandic in the 12th century ; they are of some value 
and fair authority. I have used the composite edition of Vigfusson 
(Origines, i, 267 ff.). 

Map-Urbagen (Filius Urbacen) : the Chartres MS. of the Historia 
Brittonum ; Mommsen's MS. Z (written in the loth century). This is 
represented by cc. 38-48 of the Historia Brittonum. Ed. L. Duchesne, 
Revue Celtique, xv, 174-180 (1894). 

See L. Duchesne, in R.C., xv, 187 ; L. Traube, in Neues Archiv der 
Gesellschaft fiir altere deutsche Geschichtskunde, xxiv, 721-724 ; and 
T. Mommsen, ibid., xix, 285-293. 

Marcellinus Comes (t?534): Chronicon (379-518, continued to 534), 
ed. T. Mommsen, M.G.H., Auctores, xi, 60-104 (1893); the anonymous 
continuation (to 548), ibid., 104-108. 

Marcellinus continued the work of Jerome. Both MarceUinus and his 
continuator are valuable authorities for the history of the empire. 

Marianus Soottus (1028-1083) : Chronicon (to 1082 ; with continuations 
for 1083-1106, 1 133, and 1083-1087). Edited by G. Waitz, in M.G.H., 
Scriptores, v, 495-564 (Hannover, 1844). Also published in Migne's 
Patrologia Latina, 147, 623-796 (1853). Selections in Bouquet's Recueil, 
v-viii, xi. 

The original manuscript — Codex Palatino-Vaticanus, no. 830— was 



Ixxviii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

partly written by Marianus himself, and has additions made by him. 
Many of these additions do not appear in the copy preserved in the 
Cottonian MS. Nero C. V ; this also being an nth-century MS. Perhaps 
the Cottonian MS. was copied before Marianus had inserted the additions 
that it does not contain. For the first MS., see B. MacCarthy : The 
Codex Palatino-vaticanus no. 830 (Dublin 1892). Part of it was copied in 
1072, by an Irish monk who went to Mainz from Scotland in that year. 

Marianus was an Irishman. He was called, in Irish, Maelbrigte the 
Recluse. He became a monk at Koln, on ist August, 1056 ; was con- 
secrated priest at Wiirzburg on 13th March, 1059; and became a recluse 
at Fulda on 14th May, 1059. Released after 10 years, he was again 
immured, on 3rd April, 1069, at Mainz ; and remained a recluse until 
his death. 

The first edition of his chronicle appears to end in 1073. The initial 
letters of the words of verses entered under 1076 form an Irish sentence 
indicating the author's name : " Maelbrigte the Recluse compiled me." 
His work was the nucleus of Florence of Worcester's chronicle. 

Martyrologies, see Donegal, Gorman, Oengus, Tallaght. 

Maseres, Francis : Historiae Anglicanae . . . Monumenta (London, 
1807). An edition of parts of Duchesne's H.N.S. 

Mas Latrie: Tresor de Chronologie (Paris, 1889). 

Matthew of Westminster. See Flores Historiarum. 

Maufe (or Malfe), Alexander: Statement regarding the foundation of 
Sawtry abbey, Huntingdonshire, ed. R.S. 79, i, 160-166 ; D.M., v, 523-525. 
This statement was written 1147X 1153. 

May. Records of the Priory of the Isle of May, ed. J. Stuart. S.A.S. 8 
(Edinburgh, 1868). 

Melrose. Liber S. Marie de Melros, ed. C. Innes. B.Cl. 56 
(Edinburgh, 1837). 

Metcalfe, W. M. : Legends of the Saints, In the Scottish Dialect of 
the 14th century. Scottish Texts Society, is (Edinburgh, 1896). Legends 
of SS. Ninian and Machor, from an Unique MS. in the Scottish Dialect 
of the 14th century (Paisley, 1904 ; a corrected text). Both works are 
edited with notes and glossary. 

Metcalfe, W. M. : Pinkerton's Lives of the Scottish Saints, revised and 
enlarged (Paisley, 1889). Regrettably few copies of this valuable work 
were published. 

Metrical Chronicle of York, ed. Raine's York, R.S. 71, ii, 446-463. 
Written during the archbishopric of William III of York; i.e., either 
W. Wykewane (1279x1285), or W. of Greenfield (1306x1315); probably 
the latter. 

Michel, Prancisque: Chroniques Anglo-Normandes (Rouen 1836 
1836, 1840). 

Migne, J. P. : Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Latina (Paris, 
1844-1864). Series Graeca (1857-66; 1912). This immense collection, 
principally of reprints, has the merit of being generally accessible. 

Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Auctores Antiquissimi (Berlin, 
1877-1905); Gesta Pontificum Romanorum (Berlin, 1898); Scriptores 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixxix 

(Hannover, 1826-1905) ; Scriptores Rerum Merovingicarum (Hannover, 
1885-1909) ; etc. Series of critically edited texts. 

Monumenta Hlstorioa Britannica (to 1066), ed. H. Petrie and J. Sharpe. 
Record Commission (1848). A collection in one volume of the principal 
sources for the history of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom, elaborately edited, with 
a useful index. 

Moore, Miss M. P. : The Lands of the Scottish Kings in England : the 
Honour of Huntingdon, the Liberty of Tyndale, and the Honour of 
Penrith (London, 191 5). A very useful work. 

Moray. Registrum episcopatus Moraviensis, ed. C. Innes (Edinburgh, 
1837). 

Morkinskinna (Royal Library of Copenhagen MS. 1009 folio), ed. 
C. R. Unger (Christiania, 1867). 

Morkinskinna contains an early version of the kings' sagas, written in 
the first half of the 13th century (from Magnus the Good to Sigurd 
Bad-deacon). 

Morton, James: Monastic Annals of Teviotdale : or, the History and 
Antiquities of the abbeys of Jedburgh, Kelso, Melros, and Dryburgh 
(Edinburgh, 1832). 

Mothers of Irish Saints, a tract written after 927, and wrongly attributed 
to Oengus the Celede, in the R.LA. MS. Book of Lecan, and MS. Rawlinson 
B 512 ; accessible to me only in the fragments in L.L., 372-373, and B.B., 
212-214. 

Muirchu Maccu-mactheni : Memoirs of the life of St Patrick, ed. 
Hogan (see Life of Patrick in the Book of Armagh) ; ed. Stokes, R.S. 89, 
ii, 269-300 ; tr. A. Barry (Dublin, 1895) ; tr., with notes, by N. J. D. White, 
in St Patrick : his Writings and Life (1920), pp. 68-137. 

According to Duchesne (R.C., xv, 188), Muirchu's work dates from the 
end of the 7th century. 

Munch, P. A.: Det Norske Folks Historic (Christiania, 1852-1863). 

Myvyrian Archaiology. Owen Jones, E. Williams, and W. O. Pughe : 
The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, collected out of Ancient Manuscripts 
(Denbigh, 1870; ist ed., 1801). 

National Manuscripts of Ireland, ed. J. T. Gilbert (H.M. Stationery 
Office). 

National Manuscripts of Scotland, ed. C. Innes (H.M. Stationery 
Office). 

Nennius, see Historia Brittonum ; Irish Nennius ; Zimmer. 

Newminster. Chartularium abbathiae de Novo Monasterio ordinis 
Cisterciensis, ed. J. T. Fowler. Surtees Society, 66 (Durham, 1878). 

Nicolas, Sir Harris: The Chronology of History (London, 1833; 
1838, etc.). 

Nielsen, O. : Old-danske Person-navne. Universitets Jubilaeets dansk 
Samfund, xv (1882). 

Nidi's Saga. K. Gislason and E. Jonsson : Njala. Oldskriftselskab 
(Copenhagen, 1875, 1889). This is a composite text. Gislason's cc. 68-159 
are cc. 69-160 in Olafsson's edition (Copenhagen, 1772) ; Gislason's cc. 58- 
159 are cc. 57-158, and Gislason's cc. 97-104 are differently arranged, in 



Ixxx BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

G. W. Dasent's translation (The Story of Burnt Njal ; Edinburgh, 1861 : 
the text reprinted in Everyman's Library). 

A good and convenient edition is that of F. Jonsson : Brennu-Njalssaga 
(A.N.S.B. 13; Halle, 1908). This text is based primarily upon Arna- 
magnaan MS. 468, 4° (for MSS. and editions, see the Einleitung ; pp. 
xxxix-xlv). A description of the MSS. is given in the Oldskriftselskab ed., 
ii, 649-787 ; facsimile specimens appear at the end. 

Extracts are ed. and tr. in R.S. 88, i, 319-340 ; iii, 344-365 ; in 
Johnstone's Antiquitates Celto-Scandicae ; and in Collectanea de Rebus 
Albanicis, 334-338. 

This is one of the greatest sagas of Iceland. According to Vigfusson 
(Prolegomena, p. xliv), it was composed between 1230 and 1280. Although 
its basis is historical, its character is less historical than literary and 
romantic. It is not very trustworthy for Scottish history, which it touches 
incidentally. The last chapters, describing real events of 1013 and 1014, 
are partly fabulous. 

Norgate, Miss K. ; England under the Angevin Kings (London, 1887). 
John Lackland (London, 1902). 

Northampton. Register of the Priory of St Andrews of Northampton. 
Cottonian MS. Vespasian E XVII. 

Northamptonshire, see Surveys. 

North Berwick. Carte monialium de Northberwic, ed. C. Innes. 
B.Cl. 84 (Edinburgh, 1847). 

O'Clery's Calendar. See Donegal, Martyrology of. 

Odd's Olaf's Saga (Oddr Muncr : Saga Olafs Konungs Tryggvasonar). 
Ed. P. Grot : Det Arnamagnaeanske Haandskrift 310, 4to. Norsk Historisk 
Kildeskriftfond (1895). Previously ed. in F.S., x, 216-376. The beginning 
of this version is lost. A complete version from a somewhat different' text, 
a MS. in the Royal Library in Stockholm, was edited by P. A. Munch 
(Christiania, 1853). 

These are Old-Norse translations of a saga written in Latin by Odd 
towards the end of the 12th century. Odd's work was used by Snorri 
Sturla's son in the Heimskringla. 

Cf. the Latin legends in Langebek, ii, 529 ff. 

O'Donnell's Life of Columba, partly ed. R. Henebry, in Zeitschrift fiir 
celtische Philologie, iii-v ; and by A. O'Kelleher, ibid., ix, x. Large extracts 
from it were edited by John Colgan in his Trias Thaumaturga. Since the 
conclusion of the present work, a complete edition (from Bodleian MS. 
Rawlinson B 514), with translation, glossary, etc., has been produced by 
A. O'Kelleher and G. Schoepperle (Urbana, Illinois; 1918). 

This Life was written in 1532. It is derived from previously written 
Lives, and from tradition. It is only exceptionally cited here. 

Oengus, Martyrology of. First edited by W. Stokes for the Royal 
Irish Academy, Irish Manuscript Series, 1 : — On the Calendar of Oengus 
(Dublin, 1880). Three versions are printed in parallel, with many notes 
from the Lebar Brecc. Again edited by the same scholar : — Felire 
Oengusso Celi De : The Martyrology of Oengus the Culdee. Henry 
Bradshaw Society, 29 (London, 1905). In the latter edition, the text is 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixxxi 

corrected by collation of ten manuscripts ; selected notes from different 
versions, and a translation, are given. 

This is a versified calendar of saints, composed originally about 
800 A.D. The earliest (but not always most accurate) of the manuscripts 
is the Lebar Brace. According to Stokes, the notes date from the 13th 
century. The 2nd edition, with notes, glossary, etc., is a very valuable 
book. 

Olaf Tryggvi's son's Saga (Olafs Saga Tryggvasonar). Edited in 
Fornmanna Sogur, i-iii ; tr. in the corresponding volumes of Oldnordiske 
Sagaer and Scripta Historica Islandorum ; and into English, by J. Sephton 
(London, 1895). Selections are ed. and tr. in Johnstone's Antiquitates 
Celto-Scandicae ; and tr. in Collectanea. 

This is a 13th-century collection of histories of the kings of Norway, 
from 862 to 1045. It was nearly contemporary with the Heimskringla, and 
they are both derived from the same sources. See also Odd's Olaf's Saga. 

Oldskriftselskab. Det Kongelige Nordiske Oldskriftselskab. Many 
excellent Icelandic texts are published by this Society. 

Oliver, J. R. : Monumenta de Insula Manniae. Manx Society, 4, 7, 9. 

Orderlous Vitalis : Historia Ecclesiastica (to 1 141), ed. A. Le Prevost. 
S.H.F. (Paris, 1838-1855). This excellent edition was unfortunately 
inaccessible to me when I compiled Scottish Annals from English 
Chroniclers. Other editions are in H.N.S., 321-925 (1619) ; P.L. 188, 
15-984 (1855). Tr. by T. Forester (London, 1853-1856). Fragments ed. 
B.R., ix-xii ; M.G.H., Scriptores, xx, xxvi. 

Of English birth, Orderic lived in Normandy from an early age. 
His work is valuable for the history of England after the conquest. He 
derives material from William of Poitiers and William of Jumieges. 

Origines Islandicae, edited and translated by G. Vigfusson and F. York 
Powell (Oxford, 1905). 

Origines Paroehiales Sootiae ; B.Cl. 97 (Edinburgh, 1851-1857). 

Orkneyinga Saga (to 1222), ed. G. Vigfusson, tr. G. W. Dasent. R.S. 
88, i, iii (1887, 1894). This is a composite text. A better edition, but also 
composite, is being brought out by S. Nordal, in the Samfund, 40. Nordal's 
chapters are not the same as Vigfusson's. The whole Orkneyinga Saga is 
distributed through the Flatey-book (ed. C. R. Unger) ; and a translation 
by J. A. Hjaltalin and G. Goudie is edited by Joseph Anderson (Edinburgh, 
1873). Extract tr. Skene, Collectanea, 339-346. 

Vigfusson's text is constructed from Arna-magnsean MS. 332 (MS. A ; 
a paper MS. of the end of the 17th century) ; A.M. MS. 325 (MS. C ; of 
the end of the 13th century) ; a vellum fragment (MS. 6 ; of the same date) ; 
a 16th-century Danish translation ; and Fl. (the O.S. part of which was 
written, according to Vigfusson, ca. 1380). Fl. alone contains the whole 
saga. 

A larla Saga existed at the time when Landndmabok was written. The 
form in which we have it, however, (to 1064 ; O.S., cc. 4-38 ; i, 1-59) is of 
much later and uncertain date. A late version of c. 6 occurs in the 
surviving Landndmabok. The earliest version is that which is given by 
Snorri in the Heimskringla (St Olaf, cc. 96-103, represented by O.S. in 

/ 



Ixxxii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

cc. 4-9, 12-22 ; while cc. 4-8 and 12 appear more fully in H., Harold 
Fairhair, cc. 10, 22, 24, 27, 30-32 ; Hakon the Good, cc. 3, 4, 5, 10 ; Olaf 
Tryggvi's son, cc. 30, 46, 47). 

Chapters 9 (Ragnhild) to 11, and 22 (Karl Hundi's son, etc.) to 38, 
appear not to have been among Snorri's materials. With cc. 4-12 of O.S., 
cf. cc. 95-98 of Olaf Tryggvi's son's Saga (F.S., i, 192-202). 

Snorri's version is briefer than O.S., and written in a more restrained 
style ; although there is often a close verbal resemblance between the two. 
Snorri seems to have used an earlier and less legendary version, presumably 
the version that he found in Ari's larlabok. The chapters omitted by 
Snorri are generally more romantic in subject and manner, and must take 
a lower place as historical evidence, than those that he gives. In the 
chapters that are common to H. and O.S., preference must be given to H. 

The chapters of Orkneyinga Saga's larla Saga that are not in 
Heimskringla contain :— the story of Ragnhild (also in Olaf's Saga, c. 97) ; 
Skull's battles with Liot and earl Macbeth at Skidmoor (in Olaf's Saga, 
c. 97) ; the raven banner episode ; Thorfinn's battles with Karl Hundi's 
son and earl Moddan, and king Karl's repeated defeats ; Thorfinn's advance 
to Fife ; Thorfinn's generosity to his men. Also the affairs of Ronald, 
Brusi's son, in Russia and in Norway ; his league with Thorfinn, and 
peaceful acquisition of two-thirds of the islands ; their common plunderings ; 
their campaign in England ; the quarrel between them over one-third of 
the islands, and its dramatic result, whereby the islands became subject to 
king Magnus ; the dramatic attack of Ronald upon Thorfinn, and Thorfinn's 
equally dramatic reprisal ; Thorfinn's triumphal progress through Norway, 
Denmark, and Saxony, and his absolution at Rome : — all these stories are 
brilliantly told, and highly interesting ; but they cannot be accepted as 
history. 

Paisley. Registrum monasterii de Passelet, ed. C. Innes. M.Cl. 17 
(Edinburgh, 1832). 

Palgrave, Sir Francis : Documents and Records Illustrating the 
History of Scotland, vol. i. Record Commission (8vo, 1837). 

Paris, Matthew ; Chronica Majora (to 1259), ed. H. R. Luard. R.S. 57 
(1872-1883). Part ir. J. A. Giles (London, 1852-1854). 

Paris, Matthew: Historia Anglorum, or Historia Minor (to 1253), ed. 
F. Madden. R.S. 44 (1866-1869). 

For his own time (1236-1259), Paris's works are of very great value. 

Patent Rolls, i (1201-1216), ii (1224-1227), ed. T. D. Hardy (Record 
Commission, folio, 1835, 1844). The following octavo volumes (pubhshed 
by H.M. Stationery Office) are distinguished by their years of publication :— 
1901 (1216-1225), 1903 (1225-1232); and the Calendar of the Patent Rolls 
(abstracts of their contents) :— 1906 (1232-1247), 1908 (1247-1258), 1910 
(1258-1266), 1913 (1266-1272), 19C1 (1272-1281), 1893 (1281-1292), 1895 
(1292-1301). 

Pictish Chronicle. See Chronicles of the Kings. 

Pingr6 : Cometographie, ou Traite Historique et Theorique des Cometes 
(Paris ; vol. i, 17S3). 

Pinkerton, John : Enquiry into the History of Scotland preceding the 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixxxiii 

Reign of Malcolm III (London, 1789). "A new edition, with corrections 
and additions," Edinburgh, 1814. The 1814 edition is the one referred to 
here. 

Pinkerton, John : Vitae Antiquae Sanctorum qui habitaverunt in ea 
parte Britanniae nunc vocata Scotia, vel in ejus insulis (London, 1789). 
Re-edited by W. M. Metcalfe (Paisley, 1889). 

Plummer, C. See Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and Bede. 
Plummer, O. : Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae (Oxford, 1910). Latin Lives 
of Irish saints, well edited. 

Pontifical of St Andrews. Pontificale Ecclesiae S. Andreae : The 
Pontifical Offices used by David de Bernham, ed. C. Wordsworth (Edin- 
burgh, 1885), from Bibliothfeque Nationale of Paris MS. fonds Latin no. 
12 18. See years 1240- 1249, below. 

Potthast, August : Bibliotheca Historica Medii Mvi (2nd ed., Berlin, 
1896). A very valuable historical bibliography. 

Pottbast, August: Regesta Pontificum Romanorum (i 198-1304; Berlin, 
1874-1875). See Jafife. 

Procoplus Caesarlensls (f ca. 562) : Historia sui temporis (De Bello 
Persico, De Bello Vandalico, De Bello Gothico), ed. B. G. Niebuhr, Corpus 
Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae [no. 10 in British Museum] (Bonn, 1833- 
1838). Procopius was not well informed regarding British affairs. 

Prose and Verse Chronicles. See Chronicle of Melrose, and Verse 
Chronicle. 

Ragnar Lodbrok's Saga, ed. Magnus Olsen. Samfund, xxxvi, 2, lll- 
175 (Copenhagen, 1907). 

This is an unhistorical tale of Ragnar and his sons, and their warfare 
with king ^lle in England. The Tale of Ragnar's sons, a shorter account, 
is in Hauksbok, ii, 458-467. 

Raine, James (the elder) : History and Antiquities of North Durham 
(London, 1852). With a valuable appendix of documents. 

Raine, James (the younger) : Historians of the Church of York. R.S. 
71 (1879-1894). The Priory of Hexham. S.S. (1864-1865). 
Ralph de Diceto. See Diceto. 

Ralph Niger (" the Black"): Chronicon a Christo nato (to 11 70; with 
continuation, 1162-1178; and additions made by a monk of Coggeshall). 
Chronicon ab initio mundi (to 1199). Ed. R. Anstruther. Caxton Society, 
13 (London, 1851). Extracts, and the continuation, ed. R. Pauli, in M.G.H., 
Scriptores, xxvii, 331-344. 

The continuation seems not to have been written by Ralph Niger, and 
was presumably written after 1194. Ralph Niger describes affairs of the 
empire and of Rome, and is not trustworthy for British history. 
Ramsay, Sir J. H. : the Angevin Empire (London, 1903). 
Ramsay, Sir J. H. : The Foundations of England (55 B.C.-11S4 A.D.) 
(London, 1898). 

Ramsey, Chartularies of. Cartularium monasterii de Rameseia, ed. 
W. H. Hart and P. A. Lyons. R.S. 79 (1884-1893). Chronicon abbatiae 
Rameseiensis, ed. W. D. Macray. R.S. 83 (1886). Of the latter, pp. 7-180 
were previously edited in Gale's Scriptores, iii, 385-462. 



Ixxxiv BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Rawlinson B 502, ed. in facsimile by Kuno Meyer (Oxford, 1909). A 
collection of Irish writings, compiled in the nth and 12th centuries ; with 
an index to the genealogies. 

Records, Public. The following published records may be enumer- 
ated : — 

Pipe Rolls (etc.), for 1130-1131, 1155-1158 (ed. J. Hunter, Record Com- 
mission, 8vo ; 1833 and 1844) ; 1158-1185 (Pipe Rolls Society ; 1884-1913) ; 
1189-1190 (ed. J. Hunter; 1844); 1201-1203 (Antigraphum. Record 
Commission, 8vo ; 1833). Abstracts of 1154-1155 are in the Red Book (q.v.). 

Fine Rolls, 1182-1199 (Pipe Rolls Society, 17, 20, 23, 24) ; 1195-1214 (ed. 
J. Hunter, Record Commission, 8vo ; 1835) ; king John's reign (ed. T. D. 
Hardy, Record Commission, 8vo ; 1835). 

Curial Rolls, 1194-1195 (ed. F. W. Maitland, Pipe Rolls Society, 
14 ; 1891); 1194-1195, 1 198-1200 (ed. F. Palgrave, Record Commission, 8vo ; 
1835)- 

Liberate Rolls (etc.), for king John's reign (ed. T. D. Hardy, Record 
Commission, 8vo ; 1835). 

Charter Rolls, 1199-1216 (ed. T. D. Hardy ; Record Commission, 1837) ; 
Calendar, 1226-1300 (i, ii ; 1903, 1906). 

Patent Rolls, 1201-1232 ; Calendar, 1232 onwards (see under Patent 
Rolls). 

Close Rolls, 1 204- 1 224, 1 227- 1 247 ; Calendar, from 1272 onwards (see 
under Close Rolls). 

Calendar of Inquisitions post Mortem, for the reigns of Henry III and 
Edward I (i-iv ; 1904-1913). See under Inquisitions. Calendar of Inquisi- 
tions (Miscellaneous), 1219-1307 (i ; 1916). 

Calendar of Chancery Rolls, 1277-1326 (1912). 

Red Book of the Exchequer, ed. H. Hall, R.S. 99 (1896). Originally 
compiled by Alexander de Swereford, ca. 1230 (see above : Black Book). 
The 1 166 returns are copied from the Black Book. 

Red Book of Hergest. See Brut y Saesson, Brut y Tywyssogion, Welsh 
Triads. 

Reeves, A. M. : The Finding of Wineland the Good (London, 1890). 
See under Eric the Red's Saga. 

Reeves, William : see Adamnan. 

Reeves, William; Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, Connor, and 
Dromore (Dublin, 1847). The Culdees of the British Islands (Dublin, 
1864 ; also Tr. R.I. A., xxiv. Antiquities (1873), 119-264). 

Richerus: Historiae (884-995); Annales (995-998); ed. Pertz, M.G.H , 
Scriptores, iii, 568-657 (Hannover, 1839) : in Scriptores Rerum Germani- 
carum (1840, 1877) ; in P.L. 138, 17-17° (1853). Tr. by W. Wattenbach 
(Leipzig, 1892) ; E. Babelon, Les derniers Carolingiens (Paris, 1878). See 
Potthast, Bibliotheca, ii, 971. 

Richer, a monk of Rheims, is an original and important source, the sole 
authority for the close of the Carolingian period. His work was used by 
Ekkehard. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 



Ixxxv 



Rishanger, William (tafter 1312; perhaps 1327X): Chronica (1259- 
1306), ed. H. T. Riley. R.S. 28 (1865). 

To 1272, completed after 1290 ; the remainder, after 1327. Trivet is 
among the sources used. 

Robert of Torlgni (Robert de Monte; f 1 186) : Chronica (to 1 186), ed. 
R. Hewlett. R.S. 82, iv (1889). Also ed. Leopold Delisle, Societe de 
I'Histoire de Normandie (Rouen, 1872-1873) ; L. C. Bethmann, M.G.H., 
Scriptores, vi, 476-535 (Hannover, 1844); P.L. 160, 411-546 (Paris, 1854). 
Tr. J. Stevenson, Church Historians, iv, 2. 

This is a continuation of Sigebert of Gemblours. 

To Robert is ascribed book VHI of William of Jumieges (q.v.). 

Rodulfus Glaber (t ? 1047) : Francorum Historiae Libri Quinque (ca. 
923-1044), ed. Maurice Prou : Raoul Glaber ; Les cinque livres de ses 
Histoires (Paris, 1886). Also ed. B.R., x, 1-63 (viii, 238-240) ; in P.L. 142, 
611-698; in Duchesne, H.F.S., iv, 1-58. Selections ed. Lappenberg in 
M.G.H., Scriptores, vii, 51-72. 

This History is confused in order, and mixed with fable ; but is never- 
theless valuable for its period. Even in the end of the work (which appears 
to have been written before Christmas of 1046), the year-numbers are 
inaccurate: — its years 1041, 1045, 1046, stand for 1039, 1043, 1044, A.D. 

Rolls Series. Rerum Brittanicarum medii ^vi Scriptores : Chronicles 
and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages 
(London, 1858-1911). Lists of the series are appended to the volumes; 
and are in Potthast's Bibliotheca, Gross's Sources, Reading-room Catalogue 
of the British Museum (Authors). 

Since I sometimes refer to the books by their serial numbers, I give an 
abbreviated list here : — 



3 Lives of Edward Confessor. 
6 Hector Boece. 

16 Bartholomew Cotton. 

17 Brut y Tywyssogion. 

20 Annales Cambriae. 

21 Giraldus Cambrensis. 
23 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 
28 Registers of St Albans, 

William Rishanger, 
John ( f Trokelowe, 
Thomas Walsingham. 

36 Annales Monastici ; — 

i Margan, Tewkesbury, Burton, 
ii Winchester, Waverley. 
iii Dunstable, Bermondsey. 
iv Osney, Worcester, Wykes. 

38 Itinerarium regis Ricardi. 
41 Higden's Polychronicon. 
44 Matthew Paris : Historia. 



45 Book of Hyde. 

46 Chronicon Scotorum. 

47 Pierre Langtoft. 

48 Wars of the Irish. 

49 Benedict of Peterborough. 

5 1 Roger of Hoveden. 

52 William of Malmesbury ; 
Gesta Pontificum. 

54 Annals of Loch Ce. 

57 Matthew Paris : Chronica. 

58 Walter of Coventry. 

61 Raine's Northern Registers. 

66 Ralph of Coggeshall. 

68 Ralph of Diceto. 

71 Raine's York : — 

Eddi ; Thomas Stubbs. 

73 Gervase of Canterbury. 

74 Henry of Huntingdon. 

75 Simeon of Durham, 
John of Hexham. 



Ixxxvi 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 



76 



79 
81 



Chronicles of Edward I and II: 

i Annales Londonienses, 
Annales Paulini. 

Chartulary of Ramsey. 

Eadmer. 

Chronicles of Stephen : — 

ii William of Newburgh. 

ii Annals of Stanley, 
Draco Normannicus, 
Etienne de Rouen. 

iii Gesta Stephani, 

Richard of Hexham, 
Ailred's De Standardo, 
Jordan Fantosme, 
Richard of Devizes. 

iv Robert of Torigni. 



84 
88 



90 



91 
93 
95 
96 

99 



Chronicle of Ramsey. 
Roger of Wendover. 
Letters of Canterbury. 
Icelandic Sagas : — 
iii Orkneyinga Saga, 

Magnus Eriend's son, 
, iv Hakon Hakon's son. 
Tripartite Life of Patrick ; 
Patrick ; Muirchu ; Tirechan. 
William of Malmesbury : 
Gesta Regum, 
Historia Novorum. 
Geoffrey Gaimar. 
Adam of Murimuth. 
Flores Historiarum. 
Annals of St Edmund's. 
Red Book of the Exchequer. 



Romsey. H. G. D. Liveing : Records of Romsey Abbey (Winchester, 
1906). 

RotuU de Dominabus, et Pueris et Puellis, de donatione Regis, in XII 
Comitatibus, ed. S. Grimaldi (London, 1830). Abstracts of the Inquisitions 
made in 1185. 

Bound, J. H. : Ancient Charters, prior to 1200 (Pipe Rolls Society, 1888). 
Calendar of Documents preserved in France, illustrative of the History of 
Great Britain and Ireland (vol. i, 918-1206 A.D.) (Record Commission ; 
London, 1899). Commune of London (Westminster, 1899). Feudal 
England: Historical Studies in the Xlth and Xllth Centuries (London, 
1895; re-issued, 1909). Geoffrey de Mandeville : A Study of the Anarchy 
(London, 1892). All very valuable. 

Buodolf of Pulda : Annales (838-863). See Annals of Fulda. 

St Andrews. Liber Cartarum prioratus S. Andree in Scotia, ed. T. 
Thomson. B.Cl. 69 (Edinburgh, 1841). From a Panmure MS. The 
folios containing notices of gifts to the celide of Lochleven are written 
in a hand of the latter part of the 13th century; and purport to be an 
abbreviated translation from an old volume, written in the ancient idiom 
of the Scots (p. 113. See facsimile, 112x113). 

St Andrews, 17th century abstract of the Register of. Harleian MS. 
4,628, part 4, contains an early 18th-century copy of a 17th-century abstract 
of the lost original Register. From this MS., Pinkerton edited "The 
Contents of, and Extracts from, the Register of the Priory of St Andrew's" 
(Enquiry, 2nd ed., i, 450-470). Cf. under Chronicles of the Kings, version F. 

St Neots, Register of the priory of. Cottonian MS. Faustina A IV. 

St Olaf s Saga (Saga Olafs bins Helga). 

The shorter St Olafs Saga (written 1160X iiSo) was edited by R. Keyser 
and C. R. Unger (Christiania, 1849). 

Snorri's (the longer) St Olafs Saga, ed. in F.S., iv and v (1829-1830) ; 
and by P. A. Munch and C. R. Unger (Christiania, 1853). This is a version, 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixxxvii 

separately published, of St Olaf's Saga in Heimskringla (not in Frisbok). 
It is probably earlier than the completed Heimskringla. 

St Olaf s Saga in the Platey-book, ed. Fl., ii, 3-394. 

Samfund til Udgivelse af Gammel Nordisk Litteratur (Copenhagen). A 
series of critical texts is published by this Society. 

Savile, Henry : Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores post Bedam praecipui 
(2nd ed. ; Frankfurt, 1601). 

Saxo G-rammaticus (t 1204) : Gesta Danorum, or Historia Danica 
(to 1 185), ed. Alfred Holder (Strassburg, i886). Part ed. in M.G.H., 
Scriptores, xxix, 43-161 (1892). The first nine books tr. Oliver Elton ; with 
notes on Saxo's sources, and valuable commentary, by F. Y. Powell 
(London, 1894). For other editions and translations see Potthast's 
Bibliotheca, ii, 999-1000. 

Scone. Liber ecclesie de Scon. B.Cl. 78 ; JM.Cl. 62 (Edinburgh, 1843). 

Scots Peerage, ed. Sir James Balfour Paul (and others). Edinburgh, 
1904-1914. 

Scottish Chronicle. See Chronicles of the Kings. 

Searle, i : Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum (Cambridge, 1897). 

Searle, ii : Anglo-Saxon Bishops, Kings, and Nobles (Cambridge, 1899). 

Senchus Albanach. A genealogical tract, edited by Skene in P. & S., 
308-317, from three MSS. : — Trinity College Dublin, H. 2. 7; the Book of 
Ballymote ; and the Book of Lecan (in R.I.A., Dublin). This is a traditional 
account of the origins of the families of Dalriata, and contains numbers of 
their houses, with a view to military service. See below, pp. cl-cliii. 

Sifridus de Balnhusln (a priest of Grossballhausen in Thiiringen) : 
Historia Universalis (to 1304). Increased, and continued to 1306 (with 
addition for 1307), under the title : Compendium Historiarum. Incom- 
pletely edited (more completely from 1140) by Holder-Egger, M.G.H., 
Scriptores, xxv, 684-718. See Potthast's Bibliotheca, ii, 1015-1016. 

Sigebert of G-emblours (Sigebertus Gemblacensis ; tiil2): Chrono- 
graphia (381-1111), ed. L. C. Bethmann, M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 300-535. 
Reprinted in P.L. 160. Parts ed. also in B.R., iii, v-viii, x, xi, xiii. There 
are many additions and continuations. The Auctarium Affligemense 
(1005-1163) is partly ed. in M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 399-405 (1844); the 
Auctarium Aquicinense (651-1168), ibid., 393-398. See Potthast, ii, 
1016-1017. 

Sigebert is one of the great medieval historians of Europe. He is not 
always accurate. 

Sigebert says (s.a. 735) : " Henceforward I desist from noting [affairs of] 
the kingdom of the English, because I have not histories written by our 
ancestors [historias majormii\ to follow" (M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 331). 

Simeon of Durham: Historia Dunelmensis ecclesiae (to 1096, with 
continuations to 11 54), ed. T. Arnold, R.S. 75, i (1882) ; also in Twysden. 
Translated by J. Stevenson, Church Historians, iii, 2 (1855). 

This work was written 1 104 x 1 108. 

Simeon of Durham: Historia Regum (to 1129), ed. T. Arnold, R.S. 75, 
ii (1885) ; also in Twysden. Part ed. J. H. Hinde, Surtees Society, i 
(Durham, 1868) ; and in M.H.B. Tr. Stevenson, u.s. 



Ixxxviii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

The Historia Regum is based upon Florence of Worcester's chronicle. 
It contains also versions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and of a 
Northumbrian chronicle ; both of value. See R.S. 51, iv, pp. xxviii-xxxi ; 
735-802. 

Sk^lholtsbdk : Det Arnamagnseanske Haandskrift 81 a Folio (Skil- 
holtsbok yngsta), ed. A. Kja5r (Det Norske Historiske Kildeskrift- 
commission ; Christiania, 1910). See under Hakon Hakon's son's Saga; 
Hakon (Sverri's son), Guthorm, and Ingi's Saga; Sverri's Saga. 

Skene, W. P. See Fordun, and Collectanea. 

Skene, W. P.: Celtic Scotland (Edinburgh, 1876-1880 ; 2nd ed., 1886- 
1890). The sources used are quoted in the notes. 

It has become the custom to condemn Skene for uncritical work. It is 
true that his theories must not be accepted without examination of their 
bases ; and that later writers have frequently been misled by his errors. 
But it is also true that some of Skene's theories will stand examination, 
and that in spite of errors he did much useful pioneer work in Scottish 
history. All those that condemn him use his books. He had to rely upon 
untrustworthy editions of the Irish annals ; and in his own editions he 
suffered from lack of the most necessary aids to Celtic study. 

Skene, W. P. : Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots, and 
other Early Memorials of Scottish History (Register House, Edinburgh ; 
1867). Principally valuable for its collection of Chronicles of the 
Kings (q.v.). 

The literal accuracy of Skene's transcriptions is not certain ; and this 
must be remembered in using such comparisons of proper names as those 
I give under the Chronicles on pp. cxx-cxl. I have not verified these 
forms in the manuscripts. 

Snorrl Sturla's sou (Sturlusonr ; 11 78-1 241): Heimskringla, ed. Finnur 
Jonsson ; Samfund (Copenhagen, 1893-1901). The edition by C. R. Unger, 
Det Norske Oldskriftselskab, Samlinger, nos. 4, 7, 9, 10 (Christiania, 1868), 
was reprinted by Schultz (Uppsala, 1869-1872), in better type, without the 
preface and indices. S. Laing's English translation (London, 1844) was 
revised by R. B. Anderson (London, 1889) ; and the Olaf Sagas have been 
re-edited by J. Beveridge in Everyman's Library (1915). A more correct 
translation is that of William Morris and E. Magnusson, in vols, iii-vi of the 
Saga Library (London, 1893-1905), with valuable Indices, an Introduction, 

and Genealogies. The best translation is Gustav Storm's : Snorre 

Sturlason : Kongesagaer (Christiania, 1899; with also a cheap edition, in 
the same year ; reissued as vols, i and ii of the collected edition, Norges 
Kongesagaer, in 1914). An English version of Storm's translation of Olaf 
Tryggvi's son and Harold Hardradi was made by E. M. Hearn (London, 
191 1 ). Storm's translation follows the capitulation of Jonsson's text ; and 
has useful maps, and a good account of Snorri in the introduction. 

The Heimskringla is a collection of sagas of the Norwegian kings. It 
was carried down from mythical times to the reign of Magnus Erling's son ; 
that is, down to the beginning of Sverri's Saga. In its completed form,' 
Heimskringla is later in date than Sverri's Saga. It is based upon earlier 
histories ;— Ari's Konungabok, which it follows, more or less closely, down 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Ixxxix 

probably to the time of Magnus Bareleg and Sigurd Crusader : but Ynglinga 
Saga in Heimskringla has other sources, and St OlaPs Saga has Odd 
Snorri's son's work behind it ; while Eric Odd's son's work was a source 
for Harold Gilli, and his sons. 

See under Eirspennill, Fagrskinna, Frisbok, Kringla, Orkneyinga Saga, 
St Olafs Saga. 

The Heimskringla was begun after 1220, and finished after 1237. The 
sagas were probably published separately, from time to time, as they were 
written. Cf. St Olafs Saga. 

As a collection of traditions, the Heimskringla is perhaps unrivalled 
in European literature. The materials used had probably high authority. 
Notwithstanding the presence in it of much that is obviously fabulous, the 
Heimskringla is a very valuable historical work ; not only for Norway (the 
basis of whose history it is), but also for neighbouring countries, including 
England and Scotland. It is one of the most remarkable productions 
of Icelandic literature. 

Soutra. Registrum domus de Soltre . . ., ed. D. Laing. B.Cl. 109 
(Edinburgh, 1861). 

Spotiswood (Spottiswoode). See Keith. 

Statistical Account of Scotland, New (Edinburgh and London, 1845). 

Steenstrup, J. C. H. R. : Normannerne (Copenhagen, 1876-1882). 

Stevenson, Joseph : Church Historians of England ; Pre-Reformation 
Series (London, 1853-1858). 

This is a collection of translations, including :— (i, 2) Bede ; (ii, 1) 
A.S.C., F.W. ; (ii, 2) ^thelweard, Asser, Book of Hyde, John of Wallingford, 
Gaimar; (iii, 1) W.M. ; (iii, 2) S.D. ; (iv, 1) J.H., R.H., C.H., CM., 
Fantosme ; (iv, 2) W.N., R.T. ; (v, 1) R.T., G.C., Chronicle of Man, Gesta 
Stephani ; etc. 

Stevenson, Joseph : Documents Illustrative of the History of Scotland, 
1 2 86- 1 306 (Treasury Commission; Edinburgh, 1870). 

Stevenson, Joseph: Illustrations of Scottish History, from the 12th 
to the 1 6th century. M.Cl. 28 (Glasgow, 1834). 

Stokes, Whitley. See Annals in the Book of Leinster ; Gorman ; 
Muirchu ; Oengus ; Tigernach ; Tripartite Life. 

Stokes, VHiitley : Goidelica. See Liber Hymnorum. 

Stokes, Whitley : Lismore Lives. See Book of Lismore. 

Stokes, WTiitley : Three Homilies. See Lebar Brecc. 

Storm, G. : Islandske Annaler indtil 1578. Det norske historiske 
Kildeskriftfond, 21 (Christiania, 1888). The best collection of Icelandic 
annals (q.v.). 

Storm, G. : Monumenta historica Norvegiae. Kildeskriftfond, 14 
(Christiania, 1 880). Latin writings of the history of medieval Norway. See 
Historia Norwegiae ; Theoderic. 

Storm, G., and A. Bugge : Norges Kongesagaer (1914)- Vols. 1 and n, 
Heimskringla (previously published separately) ; vol. iii, Sverri's Saga ; 
vol. iv, Hakon, Guthorm, and Ingi's Saga ; Hakon Hakon's son's Saga ; 
and Magnus Hakon's son's Saga. This is the best translation of the most 
notable historical sagas. 



xc BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Stubbs, Thomas: Chronica Pontificum Ecclesiae Eboracensis (1147- 
1373), ed. J. Raine, York, R.S. 71, ii ; also in Twysden. 

Sturlunga Saga, ed. K. Kalund. Oldskriftselskab (1906-1911). 
Sturlunga Saga, eSr Islendi'nga Saga hin mikia, ed. B. Thorsteinsson ; 
Islenzk Bokmentafelag (Copenhagen, 1817-1818). The edition by G. 
Vigfusson (Oxford, 1878) contains Prolegomena, which give a survey of 
Icelandic saga literature. Sturlunga Saga has been translated into Danish 
by K. Kalund and O. Hansen (Oldskriftselskab, 1903-1904). Maps of 
Iceland are given at the end of Vigfusson's ed. and KAlund's tr. 

Sugerius (abbot of Saint-Denis, Ii22-tii5r): Life of king Louis VII. 
Ed. A. Molinier (Paris, 1887). 

Surveys. The following are early surveys : — 

X 1075 : Northamptonshire Geld-roll. Round's Feudal England 

(1895), 147-156- 

X 1086 : Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis, ed. N. E. S. A. Hamilton 
(London, 1876). 

1086 : Doomsday Book (q.v.). 

1108x1118: Worcestershire Surveys, ed. Hearne's Heming (1723), i, 
313-316; tr. J. H. Round, V.C.H. Worcestershire, i, 324-326 (cf. ibid., 
327-331 ; Round's Feudal England, 170-175). 

iii5x?iii8: Lindsey Survey, ed. Hearne's Liber Niger, ii, 399-423 
(see Black Book); tr. R. E. C. Waters (1883); ed. in facsimile by J. 
Greenstreet (London, 1884). 

1124x1129: Leicestershire Survey, ed. Round, Feudal England, 
197-203 ; tr. Stenton, V.C.H. Leicestershire, i, 344-354. 

Originally XI135: Northamptonshire Survey, in Cottonian MS. 
Vespasian E XXII ; tr. J. H. Round, V.C.H. Northamptonshire, i, 
365-389 (cf. Feudal England, 215-219). 

1 166: List of Knights' Fees; ed. in Hearne's Liber Niger, i, 49-340; 
Red Book of the Exchequer, i, 186-445. 

13th century: Testa de Nevill, sive Liber Feodorum, tempore Henrici 
III et Edwardi I. Record Commission (1807). 

Sven Aggl's son, ed. S. J. Stephanius : Svenonis, Aggonis filii, . 
Opuscula (Sora, 1642). 

Sverri's Saga (i 175-1202). 

There are four published versions of Sverri's Saga : that in the 
Eirspennill, edited by C. R. Unger (Konunga Sogur, pp. 1-202. Det Norske 
Oldskriftselskabs Samlinger, nos. 13 and 15; Christiania, 1870- 187 1); that 
in the Flatey-book, edited by Vigfusson (Flateyiarbok, vol ii, pp. 533-701) ; 
that in MS. A.M. 327, 4°, edited in the Fornmanna Sogur (vol. viii, pp. 
5-448) ; and that in the Skalholtsbok, edited by A. Kjffir (Det Arnamag- 
nasanske Haandskrift 81 a, Fol. ; Skalholtsbok Yngsta, pp. 1-254. Det 
Norske Historiske Kildeskriftfond. Christiania, 1910). 

The saga was translated from the F.S. text into Danish, in Oldnordiske 
Sagaer, viii ; into Latin, in Scripta Historica Islandorum, viii. There is 
an excellent English translation, composite, but with the same text as 
basis, made by J. Sephton (Sverrissaga : The Saga of king Sverri of Norway. 
London, 1899). There is an excellent and cheap translation into Norwegian 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xci 

(Landsmaal) by Halvdan Koht (Sverresoga. Det norske Samlaget ; 
Gamalnorske Bokverk, 12-13. Christiania, 1913). Koht's translation is 
made from Eirspennill and A.M. 327. The standard translation is Storm's, 
in Norges Kongesagaer, iii (1914). 

I have given the preference to Eirspennill's text, which, with errors of 
omission, probably represents an earlier version than that represented by 
the other manuscripts. 

Sverri's Saga is based upon information given by Sverri himself to Karl, 
Jon's son, abbot of Thingeyri in Iceland, and upon accounts given by 
contemporaries of Sverri (see the Prologus ; F.S., viii, 5-b). Fl.'s version 
declares itself to be copied by priest Magnus ThorhalPs son, from the copy 
made by priest Styrmi the Wise (F.S., viii, i ; FL, ii, 533). 

Sverri's Saga was composed earlier than Snorri's recension (the 
Heimskringla) of the earlier kings' sagas. The Heimskringla was brought 
down to the beginning of Sverri's Saga. 

Symeon. See Simeon. 

Tale of Cauo, in Y.B.L , 128-132. See below, vol. i, p 122. 

Tale of Kagnar's Sons. See under Ragnar Lodbrok's Saga. 

Tale of the Greeulanders. See Eric the Red's Saga. 

Tallaght, Martyrology of Fragments of the larger version are in the 
Book of Leinster ; 25th December to 29th January, on pp. 355-356 ; nth 
March to 20th May, on pp. 357-360; ist to 20th August, on pp. 361-362 ; 
22nd September to 30th October onpp. 363-364 ; and 17th to 24th December 
on p. 365. 

An abridged version, less incomplete (but jumping from 31st October 
to 17th December), was published by M. Kelly from manuscript 5104 in 
the Burgundian Librar)', Brussels, (from a transcript made by Tinbroeck, 
and revised by E. O'Curry) in a small volume entitled : Calendar of Irish 
Saints : the Martyrology of Tallagh (Dublin, 1857). The martyrology of 
Tallaght occupies pp. xi-xlii. 

The Brussels version is an abridgement of the version in the Book of 
Leinster. Under April 17th, the Brussels version speaks of Donnan's 
fellow-martyrs, " whose names we have written in the larger book " ; under 
October 21st, of Fintan or Munna's fellow-martyrs, " Lasrian and Comain, 
etc. ; the others' names we have written in the large [book]." Their names 
appear in the Book of Leinster, 359, 364. 

Tallaght Discourse, ed. and tr. E. J. Gwynn and W. J. Purton : The 
Monastery of Tallaght (P.R.I. A., xxix (191 1), Archaeology, 127-164). An 
account of the practice of the celide of Tallaght, written probably 830 x 841. 

Taxter, John of: Chronica Abbreviata (to 1265), ed. (i 152-1265) by 
B. Thorpe, E.H.S. ed. of Florence of Worcester, ii, 136-196 (1849) ; P'""'' 
ed. (1258-1263) by H. R. Luard, R.S. 16 (Bartholomew Cotton), 137-140 
(1859). Taxter borrows from Paris, and becomes original after the period 
of Paris's Chronicle. 

Terry, C. S. : A Catalogue of the Publications of Scottish Historical and 
Kindred Clubs and Societies, and of the volumes relative to Scottish 
History issued by His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1780-1908 (Glasgow 
1909). A very useful guide. 



xcii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Theiner, Augustinus : Vetera Monumenta Hibernorum et Scotorum 
(1216-1547) (Rome, 1864). A collection of papal letters. 

Theoderic (Theodricus, Thiodrik) : Historia de Antiquitate Regum 
Norwagiensium, ed. G. Storm, Monumenta, 1-68 (1880). Also ed. P. F. 
Suhm, in Langebek's Scriptores, v, 311-341 (1783)- 

Theoderic was a monk at Nidarholmr. He wrote before 1188 (probably 
1177x1180; see G. Storm's introduction, p. viii). His sources were 
Icelandic poems and unwritten sagas. Theoderic's History is earlier than 
the Agrip and the Historia Norwegiae, and is the oldest Norwegian 
historical work. These three 12th-century works prove the existence of the 
sagas before they were written down, but the 13th-century sagas are more 
directly representative of the old traditions, and the 14th-century annals 
are more in ag'reement with the sagas' dates. Some of the materials 
included in the annals were also used by the saga-writers. Nevertheless 
for the first three reigns we must prefer the chronological details of the 
12th-century writers. 

The dates of the reigns of early Norwegian kings are important for 
British history. I give on the next page a table of their reign-lengths and 
accessions, according to the different accounts; placing under the kings' 
names the deducible years of their reigns. 

The three first reigns have 97 years in Theoderic and the Agrip ; 99 
years in version K of the Annals ; loi years in Historia Norwegiae and 
the sagas. 

The points of divergence are : — 

(i) Most of the sagas, with Snorri, say that Harold reigned for 70 years, 
and lived for 3 years afterwards ; some, with the Historia Norwegiae, (not 
really differing) say that he reigned for 73 years, including 3 years of Eric's 
reign. But Ari, Theoderic, and the Agrip, say that Harold died 70 years 
after his accession : and their account must be preferred. 

(2) Theoderic and the Agrip say that Eric reigned for 3 years after 
Harold's death. Their account must be accepted. The sagas, after adding 
Eric's 3 years' reign to Harold's 70, say that Eric reigned for 2 years after 
Harold's death ; and practically the same account is in the Historia 
Norwegiae. 

(3) King Hakon's reign (after Eric's flight) is 24 years in Theoderic and 
the Agrip, 26 years in the Historia Norwegiae and the sagas. Adam of 
Bremen makes it 35 years. If 35 is a mistake for 25 (including Hakon's 
first winter in Norway), the latter number would support Theoderic. 

Fagrskinna and Heimskringla (below, 950x955) imply that Eric's death 
was in Hakon's i6th year (it probably occurred in 954) ; Hakon's accession 
would then have been in 939. But the sagas err in dating British events. 
Here again the preference must be given to Theoderic and the Agrip. 

(4) The Historia Norwegiae, the Agrip, and the sagas, agree in giving 
earl Hakon 20 years' reign ; but the annals give him 19. Theoderic (p. 11) 
says that he reigned for 30 years (read 20?) ; and (p. 13) says that Hakon 
heard in his 29th year (read 19th?) that Olaf was in England, and "after 
great and long deliberation" sent Thori Klakka to him : no winter passed 
between Thori's finding of Olaf and Olaf's journey to Norway. Hakon 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 



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xciv BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

died in the beginning of his 20th winter. His reign began in summer, and 
ended in the beginning of winter. The Trondhjem river Gaul was frozen 
when he died (Heimskringla, Olaf, c. 53). 

(5) The duration of the reign of Hakon's sons is 14 years in the 12th- 
century histories ; 15 years, in Fl.'s Konungatal and the annals. We can 
hardly reject Olaf's Saga's statement that the battle of Svoldr, where Olaf 
Tryggvi's son fell, was fought on Monday, '9th September, A.D. 1000 ; 
and it is established that St Olaf reigned 1015-1030; therefore the period 
is in fact 15 years. The explanation of this divergence is given by Snorri, 
who speaks thus of the second-last year of St. Olaf's reign (Heimskringla, 
St Olaf, c. 179) : " St Olaf had then been king in Norway 15 winters, includ- 
ing that winter when earl Svein and he were both in the land ; and this 
winter, of which we have now for a time been speaking, and which had 
then passed Yule when he left his ship and went up on land, as was 
previously said. This part [_^r«'«y record?] of his reign was first written 
by priest Ari the Wise, Thorgils' son, who was both truthful and of retentive 
memory ; and so old a man that he remembered (and had received 
histories from) men who were so old that by reason of their age they could 
i-emember these affairs, as he himself has said in his books. And he has 
given the names of the men from whom he has taken his knowledge. But 
most people say [e?z hitt er althy^u s'dgii] that Olaf was 15 winters king over 
Norway before he fell ; but those that say so reckon to the dominion of 
earl Svein the winter when [Svein] was last in the land : because Olaf was 
king for 15 winters after that, so long as he lived." 

We are therefore justified in assuming that a year between the reigns 
of Hakon's sons and of St Olaf has not been counted in either reign by the 
12th-century writers. 

Taking the above considerations into account, the deducible reign- 
lengths would be:— 68; 5 ; 24 or 26 ; 15 ; 19 ; 5 ; 15 ; 15 : and the 
accessions :— 864 or 862 ; 932 or 930 ; 937 or 935 ; 961 ; 976 ; 995 ; 1000 ; 
1015 ; 1030. 

The oldest version of the annals (K) has (following Landnamabok) 
accepted the second year in the alternatives ; but the first is more in 
accordance with Islendingabok, Theoderic, and the Agrip. The first year 
must therefore be preferred. 

Th6mas Saga Erkibyskups, ed. and tr. by Eirikr Magnusson, R.S. 85, 
with a careful introduction in vol. ii. 

The earliest MS. in which this saga is preserved was written in the 
14th century. The saga is based upon the Lives of Thomas Becket by 
Benedict of Peterborough, and by Robert of Cricklade. 
Thorflnn Karlsefni's Saga. See Eric the Red's Saga. 
Thorpe's Lappenberg. History of England under the Anglo-Saxon 
Kings (2 vols. ; London, 1845). History of England under the Norman 
Kings (Oxford, 1857). By J. M. Lappenberg, tr. and ed. by B. Thorpe. 

Thorstein Side-Hall's son's Saga, and Thorstein's Dream, ed. J. 
Jakobsen, in Austfirdinga Sogur, 215-236. Samfund, 29 (Copenhagen, 
1903). These were ed. by G. Vigfusson in T. Mobius's Analecta Norrcena, 
169-186 (Leipzig, 1859), from A. Jonsson's transcript of the solitary parch- 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xcv 

ment MS., which was burnt in 1728. The saga is ed. also by K. Gislason, 
Prover af oldnordisk Sprog (Copenhagen, i860) ; and by V. Asmundarson, 
Islendinga Sogur, 33 (Reykjavik, 1902). 

Thorstein's Saga belongs to the early cycle of historical sagas, and in 
the events of 1013-1014 is parallel with Nial's Saga. 

Thorvald "Wide-farer's Tale (Thorvalds Thdttr Vi'Sforlu), ed. B. Kahle 
in Altnordische Sagabibliothek, xi, 59-79. The tale is also to be found in 
Olafs Saga, cc. 130-138 (F.S., i, 255-276) ; and in Biskupa Sogur, i, 33-50. 

Tigernach (t 1088) : Annals (? 489-766; 974-1003; 1017-1088 ; and 
Continuation, 1088-1178), ed. W. Stokes, Revue Celtique, vols, xvii (1896), 
and (the continuation) xviii (1897). The earlier edition of O'Conor 
(to 1088) in his Scriptores, ii, 1 (1825), is very inaccurate. Skene edited 
extracts in his Picts and Scots, 66-78, and (the continuation) 141, also 
inaccurately. 

At the end of year 1088 (R.C., xvii, 420), Tigernach's continuator has 
written : " Down to this, Tigernach wrote. In [io]88 he rested." Cf. R.C., 
xviii, 303, Addenda. "Tigernach Ua-Broein, airchinnccli of Clonmacnoise, 
rested in Christ " in 1088, according to the Annals of Ulster, ii, 44. How 
much of the collection was compiled by Tigernach, is uncertain ; but it is 
convenient to refer to the compilation by his name. 

The surviving fragments of this work are preserved in a Bodleian MS., 
Rawlinson B 488 (cf. National MSS. of Ireland, ii, no. 90; "transcribed 
ca. 1280" J. T. Gilbert). Stokes's edition is a transcript of the text, with 
English translation of the Irish parts, and with added numbers of the 
corresponding year-sections in other Irish annals, according to their 
editors. Stokes gives no indication of the times of composition of 
Tigernach's Annals, or of the sources from which they are derived. 

Frequent details suggest that the time of composition of the continua- 
tion was not remote from the events (cf. e.g. weather notes, under 1098, 
1 107, nil, 1 130, 1 149, 1 156, 1165, 1 177). The annal for 1096 was 
apparently composed in 1096; for 11 70, considerably after 11 70. 

Deriving information from various sources, Tigernach sometimes enters 
the same event at diiiferent places, two or more times. Foreign events 
(taken principally from Bede's Chronicle, Isidore's Chronicle, and the 
Liber Pontificalis) are often misplaced by several years. Tigernach 
frequently quotes historical verses, which differ sometimes from his prose 
authorities. 

A critical edition, showing the sources used and explaining the system 
of chronology, is greatly needed. 

The Chronicon Scotorum is a copy, somewhat abridged and not very 
correct, of a version of Tigernach's Annals. It has preserved some parts 
that have been lost in the Bodleian version. The Annals of Ulster used a 
copy of Tigernach, or his source ; and have sometimes preserved a better 
reading than that of the Bodleian MS. 

Down to the first quarter of the 7th century, the years are not ascertain- 
able from the sequence, which is imperfect ; but are indicated by ferial 
numbers for the ist of January. For some reason these ferial numbers do 
not follow a true course. 



xcvi BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

The years indicated by the ferial numbers are incorrect after the middle 
of the 6th century ; nevertheless they are of value in showing the intervals 
between events. 

Every year entered by the compiler without a ferial number would have 
pushed the ferial scale one place down. A leap-year deferred by one year 
would have substituted for the correct scale the scale of 99 years earlier 
(this may have happened at 540) ; the same displacement would have 
occurred if the ferials had been written in backwards, and a leap-year had 
been entered too soon (this may have happened at 521, and in the 
Chronicon Scotorum at 442). 

Such errors are perhaps the true origin of Tigernach's calendar. In 
that case, the ferial numbers were added by a careless compiler, and are 
evidence only of the number of year-sections in his compilation. This 
theory is supported by the still greater confusion of the ferial numbers in 
the Chronicon Scotorum before 413 ; confusion so great as could not have 
resulted if any sort of calendar had been followed. 

It is, however, possible that Tigernach should have used, or found in 
use as a repository for notes, an incorrect calendar. Leap-years were 
found from the year-numbers in the era of the Creation ; these numbers 
were divided by 4, and the remainder showed whether the year was 
bissextile, or not. But some systems gave one remainder, some another, 
when leap-years occurred ; and among these divergences there was 
opportunity for a theorist or a blunderer to place leap-years at the wrong 
time. 

Tigernach's numbers are very often incorrect, through copyists' con- 
fusion of ii and u, iii and ui, iiii and uii. There are one or two instances 
of transposition. Allowing for these textual errors, I have endeavoured to 
tabulate his system on the next page. 

Tiron. Cartulaire de I'abbaye de la Sainte-Trinite de Tiron, ed. L. 
Merlet. Societe Archeologique d'Eure-et-Loire (Chartres, 1883-1884). 
Todd, J. H. : Leabhar Breathnach. See Irish Nennius. 
Todd, J. H. : Leabhar Imuinn. See Liber Hymnorum. 
Todd, J. H. See Wars. 

Trivet (or Trevet), Nicholas (t 1 328) ; Annales Sex Regum Angliae 
(i 135-1307), ed. T. Hog. E.H.S. (London, 1845). Also in D'Achery's 
Spicilegium, iii (1723). 

Turgot (Thurgot) : Life of queen Margaret (t 1C93), ed. J. H. Hinde, 
S.S. 51, 234-254 (cf pp. Ivii-lxi). Also ed. Papebroch, A.S., 10 June ii, 
324-331; Pinkerton, Vitae, 329-355; Metcalfe, Lives, ii, 135-182; tr. 
W. Forbes- Leith (Edinburgh, 1884, 1896). 

Twysden, Roger: Historiae Anglicanae Scriptores Decern (London, 
1652). Includes A.R., G.C., J.H., R.D., R.H., S.D., Thomas Stubbs. 

Upphaf Rlkis Haraldar HArfagra, ed. Fornmanna Sogur, x, 177-197. 
This belongs to the cycle of the historical sagas, and contains some details 
that do not appear elsewhere. 

Verse Chronicle (called Chronicon Elegiacum by Pinkerton and Skene ; 
Chronicon Rythmicum, by Stevenson). There are two versions of this 
chronicle: — (i) one (to 1214) inserted in the Chronicle of Melrose, 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Ferial Numbers of the \st of Jatiuary. 



xcvii 



o 


28 


56 


I 


29 


57 


2 


30 


58 


3 


31 


59 


4 


32 


60 


S 


33 


61 


6 


34 


62 


7 


35 


63 


8 


36 


64 


9 


37 


65 


10 


38 


66 


II 


39 


67 


12 


40 


68 


13 


41 


69 


14 


42 


70 


15 


43 


71 


i6 


44 


72 


17 


45 


73 


i8 


46 


74 


19 


47 


75 


20 


48 


76 


21 


49 


77 


22 


50 


78 


23 


51 


79 


24 


52 


80 


25 


53 


81 


26 


54 


82 


27 


55 


83 


28 


56 


84 



Clironicon 
Scotorum. 



413 

to 

441 



443 
to 

485 



Tigernach. 



487 

to 
499 



2 
3 

4 
5* 



500 
to 
524 



524 
to 

539 



540 
to 

599 



600 
to 
650 



Correct Calendar. 



400 
to 
499 



500 
to 
599 



600 
to 



* If the erroneous system had been in use, the years whose ferial 
with a star would have had 1st January upon 31st December of the 



numbers are marked 
Dionysian Calendar. 



xcviii BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Cottonian MS. Faustina B IX, by a hand of the early part of the 14th 
century (Stevenson) ; edited (to 1165) by Stevenson, in the Appendix to his 
edition of the Chronicle of Melrose (1835). It was previously printed in 
Gale's Scriptores, i, 595-598 ; and reprinted in Pinkerton's Enquiry, ii, 
330-334- Cf. David Macpherson's notes, in Stevenson's CM., 237-238. It 
was collated, to 1165, in P. & S., 177-182. 

(2) Another version (to 1249) is preserved in a Bodleian Library MS., 
C. IV. 3, of the middle of the 14th century (Skene). This is edited by 
Skene, in his Picts and Scots, 177-182 (1867). Cf. Pinkerton's Enquiry, 
334-337 ; P- & S., pp. Ivi-lvii. 

The Verse Chronicle (to 1093) is also quoted by Wyntoun ; and 
(to 1249) by Bower. It is perhaps referred to by version L of the Chronicles 
of the Kings, s.f. (P. & S., 297). 

The Verse Chronicle is a chronicle of the kings of Scotland (from 843), 
written in elegiac verse. It was inserted in CM. under the successions of 
kings, and on fos. 15 and 16. The writer was certainly not the author of the 
verses. He has prefixed to some of the insertions a few words of prose, 
which are distinguished by the name of the Prose Chronicle inserted in the 
Chronicle of Melrose. Neither the Prose nor the Verse Chronicle contains 
any dates. 

A mark of antiquity in the Verse Chronicle is the spelling of the name 
lona. This name occurs twice, and is both times spelt loua, in the CM. 
version. 

At 1093, both versions were originally written 1098x1263; at 1165, 
after 12 14. The whole of the CM. version was probably composed 
1214X 1263. The Bodleian version v/as concluded 1249 x 1286. 

The parts of the Bodleian version that do not appear in CM. are perhaps 
written in a different style (P. & S., p. i8l, 11. 21-31 ; p. 182, 11. Il-end). 

Victoria County Histories. Victoria History of the Counties of England 
(London). A large series, as yet incomplete. A Guide (1912) contains 
information for historical workers. 

Vigfusson, Gr. : Prolegomena, see Sturlunga Saga. 

Wace: Roman de Rou, ed. H. Andresen (Heilbronn, 1877-1879). Part 
previously ed. F. Pluquet (Rouen, 1827). Pluquet's text, with verse 
translation, ed. Sir Alexander Malet : Conquest of England (London, i860). 
Translated also (ca. 1064-1087) by E. Taylor : — Master Wace; his 
chronicle of the Norman Conquest, from the Roman de Rou (London, 
1837). C£ Chronique de Normandie. See Round's Feudal England, 
409-418. 

An extract from an anonymous continuation of Wace's Brut d' Angleterre 
was edited by F. Michel, C.A.N., i, 65-117. 

■Walafrldus Strabo : Vita Sancti Blaithmaic Martyris, ed. Pinkerton, 
Vitae, 459-463 ; Metcalfe, Lives, ii, 293-297. 

WallDran, J. R. : Memorials of the abbey of St Mary of Fountains. 
Surtees Society, 42 (1863, 1878). 

Walsingham, Thomas (tea. 1422) : Historia Anglicana (1272-1422), ed. 
H. T. Riley. R.S. 28 (London, 1863-1864). Previously ed. in Camden's 
Anglica Scripta. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES xcix 

Walter of Coventry: Memoriale (to 1225), ed. W. Stubbs. R.S. 58 
(1872-1873). Part in B.R., xviii. The author is unknown. 

Walter of Hemingburgh, see Hemingburgh. 

Wars of the Irish with the Foreigners (812-1014), (Cogadh Gaedhel 
re Gallaibh) ed. J. H. Todd, R.S. 48 (1867). Todd's text is composite, 
based upon (i) a 14th-century manuscript, Trinity College of Dublin MS. 
H.2. 17 ; (2) a copy made by Michael O'Clery in 1635, from a previous 
copy made by him in 1628 ; and (3) the Book of Leinster. The Book of 
Leinster fragment is given on pp. 221-235 j P^^^ °f 'he Brussels MS. 
version, on pp. 250-262. See Douglas Hyde, Literary History of Ireland 
(1899), 434-442 ; R.S. ed., Preface, and 225 ; O'Curry 3 MS. Materials of 
Irish History (1873), 412. 

The earliest version is the fragment in the Book of Leinster. This 
version was composed 1014 x ca. 1166, probably in the 12th century, and 
perhaps 1165X. See under Berchan. The later versions may represent 
the version of which this fragment was a part. The value of the work is 
reduced by its bias and unbalanced style as much as by the lateness of and 
interpolations in the surviving texts. 

Welsh Pedigrees, see under Annales Cambriae. 

Welsh Romances. J. Loth : Les Mabinogion traduits en entier ; in 
D'Arbois de JubainviUe's Cours de la Litterature Celtique, vols, iii and iv 
(Paris, 1889) ; and in a revised edition (1913). 

Welsh Triads. The historical triads were edited in My vyrian Archaiology, 
ii (1801), 1-22. The triads from the Red Book of Hergest (a 14th-century 
MS.) have been edited by J. Rhys in Y Cymmrodor, iii, 52-63 (Honourable 
Society of Cymmrodorion, 1880) ; also ed. diplomatically in Rhys and 
Evan's Mabinogion, 297-309 (Oxford, 1887). The version of these triads in 
Hengwrt MS. 202 was edited by E. Phillimore in Y Cymmrodor, vii, 
126-132 (1886). 

Triads from a 14th-century MS., Hengwrt 536, were published in Skene's 
Four Ancient Books of Wales, ii, 456-465. A few triads are in the Black 
Book of Carmarthen (ed. J. G. Evans, Pwllheli, 1906 ; facsimile, Oxford, 
1888). 

J. Loth's translations of 153 triads may conveniently be consulted 
(Mabinogion, 1889 ed., ii, 205-301 ; 1913 ed., ii, 227-325. The triads are 
numbered alike in both editions). Cf. also 1889 ed., i, 22-25 5 1913 ed., i, 
76 - 78, 223 - 226 ; T. Stephens, Literature of the Kymry, 429, 493-494 
(London, 1876) ; Gross, Sources, no. 1489. 

The triads, though ancient, are of little historical value. 

Wetherhal, Register of the priory of; ed. J. E. Prescott. Cumberland 
and Westmoreland Archaeological Society, no. 12 (London, 1897). 

Wharton, Henry : Anglia Sacra, sive Collectio Historiarum . . . de 
archiepiscopis et episcopis Anghae ... ad annum 1540 (London, 1691). 

Wido. See De Belle Hastingensi. 

William of Jumifeges (Guilelmus Gemmeticensis) : Historia Norman- 
norum (or: De Gestis ducum Normannicorum) (851-1087, continued to 
1137); ed. Duchesne, H.N.S., 215-317 (1619). Reprinted in P.L. 149, 
777-910 (1853). Another edition is in Camden's Anglica Scripta, 604-691. 



c BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

Parts ed. B.R., viii, x, xi. Tr. in F. P. G. Guizot's Collection de Memoires, 
29, 1-316: — Histoire des Normands (Paris, 1826). 

William's account of the affairs of the Northmen in France has been 
discredited. 

Books I-IV are based upon Dudo. Book VIII (1087-1137) was written 
by Robert of Torigni ; it is translated by Stevenson in Church Historians, 
V, 1 (1858). See the valuable Materiaux pour I'edition de Guillaume de 
Jumifeges, of J. Lair, ed. L. V. Delisle (Nogent-le-Rotrou, 1910). 

William's History was revised and continued by Ordericus Vitalis, at 
Evroul, ca. 1130; and by Robert of Torigni, at Bee, ca. 1140. R.T.'s 
version contains V, 3-17 ; VI-VIII, of Duchesne's edition. See the preface 
to the Societe de I'Histoire de Normandie's ed. of R.T. 

■William of Malmesbury : Gesta Pontificum, ed. N. E. S. A. Hamilton. 
R.S. 52 (1870). Also in P.L. 179 (1855) ; parts in Savile's Scriptores (1596), 
Gale, iii, and Wharton's Anglia" Sacra, ii ; fragments in M.G.H., Scriptores, 
X, xiii. Gesta Regum Anglorum (449-1127), and Historia Novella (1125- 
1142), ed. W. Stubbs, R.S. 90 (1887-1889). Also ed. T. D. Hardy, E.H.S. 
(London, 1840) ; P.L. 179 ; and in Savile's Scriptores. Selections in 
M.G.H., U.S. ; B.R., x, xi, xiii. Tr. J. Sharpe (London, 1815) ; J. Stevenson, 
Church Historians, iii, 1 (1854) ; J. A. Giles (London, 1848). 

I refer to pages of the volumes of 1870, 1887, 1889, after the abbreviations 
W.M. ; W.M., i ; W.M., ii, respectively. 

William of Malmesbury is one of the soundest of medieval historians. 
His work is original for the 12th century. 

William of Newburgh : Historia Reruni Anglicarum (1066-1198), ed. 
R. Hewlett. R.S. 82, i-ii (1884-1885). Also ed. H. C. Hamilton (E.H.S., 
1856); and T. Hearne (Oxford, 1719). Tr. J. Stevenson, in Church 
Historians, iv, 2 (1856). 

For the continuation (to 1298), see Annals of Furness. 

William of Poitiers : Gesta Willelmi, ducis Normannorum et regis " 
Angliae (1035-1067), ed. A. Duchesne, H.N.S., 178-213 (1619) ; and in 
Maseres (1807), and in P.L. 149 (1853). Also ed. Giles, Scriptores; and 
tr. Guizot, Collection de Memoires, 29, 325-439 (Paris, 1826). 

William the Breton (the Armorican) ; De Gestis Philippi Augusti 
(to i2ig; continued to 1222), ed. B.R., xvii. Also ed. H. F. Delaborde : 
Oeuvres de Rigord et Guillaume le Breton, i (Paris, 1882). Selections in 
M.G.H., Scriptores, xxvi. William borrows from Rigord, whose Gesta 
Philippi Augusti runs to 1208. 

Wimmer, L. P. A., ed. Lis Jacobsen : De Danske Runemindesmsrker 
(Copenhagen and Christiania, 1914). 

Worsaae, J. J. : Minder om de Danske og Nordmaendene i England, 
Skottland og Irland (Copenhagen, 185 1) ; tr. into English : An account of 
the Danes and Norwegians in England (London, 1852). Another useful 
work by Worsaae is : Nordens Forhistorie, efter samtidige Mindesmarker 
(Copenhagen, 1881) ; tr. Simpson, The Prehistory of the North (London, 



Wyntoun, Andrevir of: The Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland (to 1408), 
ed. D. Laing, Historians of Scotland, ii, iii, ix (1872-1879). A better edition 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ci 

by F. J. Amours, Scottish Text Society, nos. 63, 50, 53, 54, 56, 57 (Edin- 
burgh, 1 903-1914). 

Wyntoun's work is outside the scope of the present collection, and 1 
have seldom referred to it. Wyntoun was prior of St Serf. 

Yellow Book of Leoan, the Trinity College of Dublin MS. H. 2. 16. 
Edited in facsimile for the Royal Irish Academy : The Yellow Book of 
Lecan ; a collection of pieces, prose and verse, in the Irish language, in 
part compiled at the end of the fourteenth century. . . . With introduction, 
analysis of contents, and index, by R. Atkinson (Dublin, 1896). Cf. the 
facsimile page in National MSS. of Ireland, iii, no. 24. 



CALENDAR NOTES 

In the Roman calendar, the days are numbered backwards from the 
Kalends, Nones, and Ides, of each month. These are the ist, 5th, and 13th 
days of the month ; except in March, May, July, and October, in which 
they are the 1st, 7th, and 15th. The day reckoned from is included in the 
number. In leap-years, the i4th-24th of February are numbered as if 
February had only 28 days. 

The day was reckoned to begin in the evening : either at sunset, or at 
6 p.m. Cf. under Irish Annals. 

In chronicles that use the Dionysian system, the year is reckoned to 
begin variously on ist January, 25th December, or 25th March. 

The year-numbers given by Marianus Scottus are greater by 22 than 
the year-numbers of the Dionysian era. 

In the era of the Passion introduced by Victorius, i A.P. is equivalent 
to 28 A.D. in the Dionysian system. In the system of Isidore, i A.P. is 
36 A.D. according to Dionysius. The year of the crucifixion is reckoned 
to be A.D. 29 of the Dionysian era, but the 33rd year of Jesus' life. 

1st January, i B.C., in the Dionysian system, is ist January, 3 A.C., in 
the "year of Christ" system (both systems beginning the year on 25th 
December) ; ist Jan., Era 38, in the Era of Spain (used by Isidore ; 
beginning on ist January) ; 1st Jan., 752 A.U.C. ("from the foundation of 
Rome"; the year beginning on 21st April, although the consular year 
began on ist January) ; 1st Jan., 2015 of Abraham (an era used by Jerome ; 
the year beginning on ist October). The Dionysian year i B.C. is equiva- 
lent to 3951 A.M. ("year of the world"), in the system of Bede ; 4204 A.M., 
in some Irish annals ; 5198 A.M., according to Jerome and Isidore ; 5201 
A.M., according to Victorius and Prosper. 

To find the Dionysian number of a year dated in olympiads, multiply the 
number of the olympiad by 4 (adding the number of the year in the 
olympiad) ; and deduct 780. The remainder is the A.D. number for the 
1st of January (the Olympic year began in July). 

The following formulae are useful when chronological tables are not 
immediately at hand. In these formulae, A.D. stands for the number of 
the year, according to the Dionysian system ; R, for the remainder (fractions 
being neglected). When R = o, substitute for o the divisor. 



civ CALENDAR NOTES 

A.D. + 3 



15 
A.D. + 9 



R = number of the year in the Roman indiction. 
R = number in the solar cycle of 28 years. 



T 


W 


e 


F 


S 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


I 


F 


E 


D 


C 


B 


A 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 



28 

(A.D.- [)x io-^8 . j^^fgj-i^i number (see the Bibliographical Notes, 
7 
under Irish Annals). This is the number in the week of the day upon 
which ist Januai-y fell (in the Old-Style calendar) ; the Dominical Letter is 
(in alphabetical enumeration) the number in the month of the first Sunday 
in January. 

To find on which day of the week any given day fell, find the ferial 
number of the year ; and add up the days from ist January to the day in 
question, including both days. The formula is : — 

— '- ^ '—^ ; R = number of day in week. Only the excess 

7 

over multiples of 7 days need be counted in each monlh. 

From the ferial number, the Dominical Letter of the year is found ; 
also the concurrent. These are the equivalents : — 

1st January on . . 2 M 
Ferial number ..12 
Dominical Letter . . AG 
Concurrent ... 6 7 

Leap-years have two Dominical Letters : the first, for ist January- 
24th February; the second, for 25th February- 31st December. The 
second Dominical Letter is the one to the right (in the above table) of that 
which is equivalent with the year's ferial number. The second Dominical 
Letter must be used in calculating Easter in leap years. 

All years whose A.D. number was evenly divisible by 4 were leap years 
in the Dionysian system (Old-Style calendar). 

The Golden Number is the number of the year in the lunar cycle of 
19 years. The formula is : — 

— — '- — ; R = Golden Number. 
19 

The Roman epact was the calendar age of the moon on ist January. 
The formula is : — 

Golden Number x 11 -2 „ 

— — ; R = epact. 

30 

See the Bibliographical Notes, under Irish Annals. 

Paschal new moon fell i to 29 days after 7th March. Easter Sunday 
was 14 to 20 days after the Paschal new moon. 

32 ~ epact = number of the day in March of the calendar new moon. 
(i) If this number is above 7, add 13 days; next Sunday was Easter. 
(2) If the number is below 7, add 43 days ; next Sunday was Easter. 



CALENDAR NOTES cv 

The following is a Table of the Paschal letters used by the Icelandic 
annalists (in the first column), with the corresponding Dominical letters 
and Golden Numbers : 





Easter. 


D.L. 




Gol 










March. 


April. 


3en ISuuiuera 




b. 

c 


22 
23 




D 

E 




'5 








16 
16 


d. 
e. 


24 
25 




F 
G 




5 
5 






13 


16 
16 


f. 


26 
27 




A 
B 


2 
2 


5 

5 






13 
13 


16 
16 


h. 
i. 


28 
29 




C 
D 


2 
2 


5 
5 




10 
10 


13 
13 


16 


k. 
1. 


30 

31 




E 
F 


2 
2 




7 


10 
10 


13 
13 


18 
18 


m. 
n. 




I 
2 


G 

A 


2 




7 
7 


10 
10 


15 


18 
18 


o. 
P- 




3 
4 


B 





4 
4 


7 

7 


10 


15 
15 


18 
18 


q- 

r. 




5 
6 


D 

E 




4 
4 


7 
7 


12 

12 


15 
15 


18 


s. 
t. 




7 
8 


F 
G 




4 
4 


9 


12 
12 


15 
15 




V. 

.a 




9 

10 


A 
B 




4 


9 
9 


12 
12 




17 


.b 
.c 




II 

12 


C 
D 




6 
6 


9 
9 


12 




17 

17 


.d 
.e 




13 


E 
F 


3 


6 
6 


9 
9 




14 
14 


17 
17 


.f 
■g 




15 
i6 


G 

A 


3 
3 


6 
6 




II 


14 
14 


17 
17 


.h 
■i 




17 
i8 


B 
G 


3 
3 


6 




II 
II 


14 
14 


19 


.k 
.1 




19 

20 


D 

E 


3 
3 






II 
II 


14 


19 
19 


.m 
.n 




21 
22 


F 
G 




... 




II 

II 




19 
19 


.0 

•P 




23 

24 


A 
B 




... 
... 








19 
19 


•q 




25 


C 




i 


i 









cvi CALENDAR NOTES 

Cf. e.g. Cottonian MS. Caligula A XV, fos. 123-124. 

The above may be used as an old-style Easter Table, in conjunction 
with the formulae previously given. With the aid of tables of Dominical 
Letters and Golden Numbers, it shows in which years Easter fell upon a 
certain day. 

Ash Wednesday (Caput Jejunii), is 46 days before Easter ; 

Maundy Thursday (Coena Domini), 45 „ ,, 

Quadragesima (ist Sunday in Lent), 

Middle of Lent (Laetare Jerusalem), 

Passion Sunday, 

Palm Sunday (Rami Palmarum), 

Good Friday (Parasceve), 

Low Sunday (Pascha Clausum), 
Rogation Sunday, 
Ascension Day, 
Pentecost, or Whitsun-day, 
Holy Trinity, 

Other movable feasts, and saints' days, will be found in books of 
chronology, such as J. J. Bond's Handy-book of Rules and Tables for 
verifying Dates ; Sir Harris Nicolas's Chronology of History ; Dunbar's 
Scottish Kings ; A. Giry's Manuel de Diplomatique ; and L'Art de Verifier 
les Dates. 

For systems of computing Easter followed before the Dionysian system 
was adopted, see MacCarthy's Introduction to the Annals of Ulster (vol. iv). 

For instance, to find Ash Wednesday in the year 1250 : — 

(0 



42 „ 


5J 


21 „ 


); 


14 „ 


5) 


7 ,, 


») 


2 „ 


)) 


7 days 


after Easter ; 


35 ,, 


)) 


39 „ 


5) 


49 „ 


)) 


56 „ 


5) 



19)1251 
6 




(4) 


8) 1 2490 
7) 1561 


III 
5 




(5) 


R = 7 = f.n. 

Jan. 3 days 
Feb. „ 


R = 16 


= G.N. 




Mar. „ 
f n. - 1 6 „ 


i6x II - 


2 _ 174 . 






30 


30 ' 




9-7 = 2 


R = 24 ^ 


= epact. 




.'. 21 Mar. = Monday. 
.'. 27 Mar. = Easter. 


32 - 24 


= 8 March ; 


(6) 


27 Mar. = 55 Feb. 


8+13 


= 21 March. 




55-46 = 9 Feb. = Ash Wednesday. 



(2) 



(3) 



To find the calendar age of the moon on any given day, in years whose 
Golden Number was not 5, 8, 11, 16, or 19, add up the days from ist 
January to the day in question, including both days. The formula is : — 

no. of days -t- epact - i -n -o ..-l r ■, 

'- ; R, or R - 30, was the age of the moon. If 

R is o, her age was 29. Only the excess over 59 days in each couple of 



CALENDAR NOTES 



months need be counted in the sum. Only 28 days are to be counted in 
February. 

The following Table gives the new moons in the other years : — 



G.N. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


s 


7 


9 


7 


7 


s 


5 


3 


2 


2, 31 


30 


29 


8 


b 


4 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


I, 30 


29 


28 


27 


2b 


11 


3 


2 


?. 


2 


I, 31 


29 


29 


27 


2b 


25 


24 


23 


lb 


8 


6 


8 


6 


6 


4 


4 


2 


I 


I, 30 


29 


28 


19 


5 


3 


5 


4 


3 


2 


I, 31 


29 


28 


27 


25 


24 



These seem to have been the lunations that were accepted in early 
times. The matter requires further investigation. 

Regnal years of Scottish kings will be found in Dunbar ; of English 
kings, in Bond or Nicolas, after the Preface to Hardy's Syllabus, and in 
Selby's Date-book (1887) ; or J. E. W. Wallis, English Regnal Years and 
Titles (S.P.C.K., 1921). The dates of papal accessions will be found in 
the Regesta Pontificum of Jaffe and of Potthast, and in Dunbar. Dates of 
early popes (to 816); emperors (to 944); and consuls (to 613), will be 
found in the index-tables of Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Auctores 
Antiquissimi, vol. xiii. For consuls, see T. J. Almeloveen, Fasti Consulares 
(Amsterdam, 1740) Lists of popes are given by Nicolas ; of popes, 
emperors, and consuls, by Cappelli (Cronologia Calendario Perpetuo). 
Blair's Chronological Tables also are useful, and there are several historical 
dictionaries, the most valuable of which is the Dictionary of National 
Biography. 



ORTHOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

The principle that names should be spelt according to the normal usage 
of the time to which they belong cannot be systematically obeyed in 
practice. It is impossible to follow from generation to generation the 
changes that were made. There was frequently no normal spelling. Names 
printed upon coins do not always conform to the standards that are now 
accepted for the languages of their inscriptions. The same name is 
frequently spelt in various ways in one charter. 

My method is either to use the modern form of a name (when there is 
a modern English form in common use), or (when there is not) to give an 
early form, in normalized spelling. For the sake of consistency, I have 
here generally rejected intermediate Latin forms, which are more con- 
venient to pronounce, and are a guide to the pronunciation ; and which 
I adopted (for Anglo-Saxon names) in Scottish Annals from English 
Chroniclers. Here I follow with reluctance the established custom of 
rendering the different values of Anglo-Saxon S by th. 

There are, however, several exceptions to this method. Some inter- 
mediate forms of well-known persons' names are too familiar to be rejected. 
I retain, for instance, the name Alcuin, instead of the theoretically correct 
Ealhhwine ; the names Siward and Turgot, instead of the Danish spellings 
Sigwarth and Thurgot ; Somerled, instead of the Norwegian Sumarlidi. 
I have not discriminated between Icelandic and Norwegian spellings of 
names, nor in all cases between Norwegian and Danish (e.g., Halfdan, for 
Danish Haldan ; Olaf, instead of Danish Anlaf, which appears on coins). 
I have used Anglo-Saxon forms of Danish names, when their bearers were 
English-born (e.g., Tostig and Waltheof, for Danish Tosti and Valthiuf). 
For Scandinavians in Ireland I have generally preferred Norwegian names 
(e.g., Norwegian Sigtryggr, for Danish Sigtrigg, Sigtriugg, Irish Sitriuc). 
I do not generally discriminate between Northumbrian and West-Saxon 
spellings. 

I have allowed many unusual or doubtful names to stand as they appear 
in the original spelling ; as, for instance, in some pedigrees. Also in notes 
I have occasionally followed the various spellings of different writers, when 
the variations are not entirely equivalent. 

Epithets (excepting Irish and Welsh adjectives), whether standing after 
or before the name, I have translated into English, when that could 
satisfactorily be done. In other cases, I have given them untranslated, in 
normal spellings. 



ex ORTHOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

In place-names also, I generally use either the modern or an ancient 
form, notwithstanding considerable variations in the extent of the territory 
that they denote at different times. These must be understood according 
to their meaning in the time at which they occur (e.g., Lothian, Strath- 
clyde, Galloway, Argyle, Ulster, Cumbria, Northumbria). 

I have retained also a few intermediate forms, on the ground of their 
familiarity : e.g., John of Fordun (instead of Fordoun) ; Annals of Innis- 
fallen (instead of Inishfallen) ; Roger of Hoveden (instead of Howden). 

Accents are not regularly used in old texts. I have thought it better to 
use them as seldom as possible. 

I have omitted the nominative case-ending -r in Scandinavian personal 
names ; and -us, in several Latin names. 

In spelling Danish names, I have preferred to use the letter v instead 
of w, because v had the sound of w in Icelandic and Norwegian also. 

In reading early Irish, Welsh, and Scandinavian names, in normal 
spelling, it should be remembered that certain consonants have two 
functions. The letters b d g p t c have more or less the same value as in 
English, when they stand at the beginning of a word. When they do not 
begin words or syllables, Irish and Welsh p t c (written singly) have the 
sound of b d g (except p t c after 1 r s ; p after m ; and in Welsh, t after 
n) ; while b d g are usually spirants, somewhat like /3 5 7 in modern Greek 
(except d g after 1 n r ; b after m). In the Scandinavian languages also, 
d g, when they did not stand at the beginning of a word, were usually 
spirants (except after 1 n). 

In all these languages, g and c are never sibilant. 

There were analogous variations, in Irish and Welsh, in the sounds of 
1 m n r. The spirant sound of m was somewhat like v. Single 1 was 
unvoiced, in Irish and Welsh (like modern Welsh //-), at the beginning of 
words. 

Thus the name Tadc is pronounced TaSg. F is silent in Derbforgaill ; 
s, in Maccintsacairt. 

Scottish Gaelic names begin to be distinguished from Irish names in 
the twelfth century. 

Many errors have resulted from neglecting the values of Irish letters. 
The adoption of a standard system is necessary. Adhering as closely as 
possible to early Middle-Irish forms, I have written in some words «rf where 
nil would have been more correct (as in cend, dond). Standard spelling is 
equally necessary in the case of Welsh names ; but the sources of informa- 
tion with regard to them are scanty. 



TABLES OF THE SUCCESSION OF KINGS 



KINGS OF NORTHUMBRIA. 



Bernicia. 


NORTHUMBRIA. 


Deira. 






Ida 


547-559 




Clappa 


? 559-? 560 






^lle 559-588 


Adda 


? 560-7568 








Theodric 


?568-?575 








Frithweald 


? 575-? 581 








Hussa 


?58i-?588 


yEthelric 

^thelfrith 

Edwin 


588-593 
593-617 
617-633 




Eanfrith 


633-63+ 


Oswald 


634-642 


Osric 633-634 


Oswiu 


642-671 


Ecgfrith 

Ealdfrith 

Osred 

Coenred 

Osric 

Ceolwulf 

Eadbeorht 

Oswulf 


671-685 
685-705 
705-716 
716-718 
718-729 
729-737 
737-758 
758-759 


Oswine 642-651 
^thelweald65i -ca. 655 
Ealhfrith - ca. 664 






/Ethelweald Moll 759-765 








Ealhred 


765-774 








^thelred 


774-779 








^Ifwold 


779-789 








Osred 


789-790 








^thelred 


790-796 








Osbeald 


796 








Eardwulf 


796-806 








^Ifwold 


? 806 - ? 809 








Eardwulf 


?8o9-?8io 








Eanred 


?8io-?843 








^thelred 


?843-?85o 








Osbeorht 


?850-?863 








^lle 


? 863-? 868 





TABLES OF THE SUCCESSION OF KINGS 



KINGS IN ARGYLE. 



Kings of Dalriata. 
Loarn, s. Ere. 
Fergus, s. Ere. 
Angus, s. Ere. 
Domangart, s. Fergus 
Comgall, s. Domangart 
Gabran, s. Domangart 
Conall, s. Comgall . 
Aidan, s. Gabran 
Eochaid Buide, s. Aidan 
Connad Cerr, s. Conall 
Donald Brecc, s. Eochaid 
Ferchar, s. Connad Cerr 
Conall Crandomna, s. Eochaid 
Duncan, s. Duban 
Domangart, s, Donald Brecc 
Maelduin, s. Conall Crandomna 
Donald Dond, s. Crandomna 
Ferchar Fota, s. Feradach 
Eochaid, s. Domangart 
Ainfcellach, s. Ferchar Fota 
Fiannamail, s. Ossene, s. Duncan 
Selbach, s. Ferchar . 
Dungal, s. Selbach 
Eochaid, s. Eochaid , 
Eogan, s. Findan 
Dungal, s. Selbach . 
Muiredach, s. Ainfcellach 
Alpin, s. Eochaid 
Indrechtach, ? s. Fiannamail 
Eogan, s. IMuiredach 
Aed Find, s. Eochaid 
Fergus, s. Eochaid . 
Eochaid , . , 
Donald, s. Constantine 
Dondcorci . 
Conall Coem, s. Tadc 
Conall, s. Aidan 
Constantine, s. Fergus 
Angus, s. Fergus 
Aed, s. Boanta . 
Eoganan, s. Angus . 
Alpin, s. Eochaid 
Kenneth, s. Alpin 



House. 



ca. SOI- tea 


506 




ca. 506 - 1 ca. 


537 




ea. 537- tea 


559 




ca. 559 -tea. 


574 


Cowal. 


ca. 5 74 -tea. 


608 


Knapdale. 


? -tea. 


630 


Knapdale. 


tea. 630 




Cowal. 


ca. 630- tea. 


643 


Knapdale. 


?ca. 635- ?t 


ca. 651 


Cowal. 


?ca. 651 -tea. 659 


Knapdale. 


?ca. 651 -?ca 


•659 


? 


? -tea. 673 


Knapdale. 


ca. 673 -tea. 


688 


Knapdale. 


? -tea. 


696 


Knapdale. ' 


ca. 677 -tea. 


697 


Lorn. 


ca. 695 - 1 ca. 


697 


Knapdale 


ca. 697 - ca. 698 


Lorn. 


.' - 1 700 


Antrim. 


ca. 701-723 




Lorn. 


? 723-726 




Lorn. 


726-t733 




Knapdale. 


-?733 




J 


733-736 




Lorn. 


733-?736 




Lorn. 


?736-?74i 




Knapdale. 


t74l 




Antrim. 


? 741-747 




Lorn. 


?748-t778 




Knapdale. 


?778-t78i 




Knapdale. 


?78i 




? 


?78i-?8os 




Scone. 


? -t792 




? Antrim. 


? 805 -t 807 




? Scone. 


8o7-?8ii 




? Knapdale. 


?8ii-t82o 




Scone. 


82o-t834 




Scone. 


?834-t839 




? Scone. 


?836-t839 




Scone. 


? 839 -.'841 




Knapdale. 


?84i-?843 




Knapdale. 



TABLES OF THE SUCCESSION OF KINGS 



CXIII 



KINGS OF THE PICTS. 



Brude, s. Maelchon 


ca. 555-t584 


Angus, s. Fergus 


729-750 


Gartnait, s. Domelch 


t?6oi 


Brude, s. Maelchon ( ? ) 


?75o-t752 


Nechtan, gs. Verb 


?5oi-t?62i 


Angus, s. Fergus 


752- + 761 


Kenneth, s. Luchtren 


?62i-t633 


Brude, s, Fergus 


76i-t763 


Gartnait, s. Foith 


633-t637 


Kenneth, s. Feradach 


763 - + 775 


Brude, s. Foith 


637-1642 


Alpin, s. Wroid 


? 775- + 780 


Talorc, s. Foith 


642 -t 653 


Drust, s. Talorcan 


?78o 


Talorcan, s. Eanfrith 


653-t657 


Talorcan, s. Drostan 


?78o- + 782 


Gartnait, s. Donald 


657-t663 


Talorcan, s. Angus 


? 782-784 


Drust, br. Gartnait 


663-672 


Conall, s. Tadc 


? 784-789 


Brude, s. Bile 


672-1693 


Constantine, s. Fergus 


789-t82o 


Tarain, s. Ainftech 


693-697 


Angus, s. Fergus 


?820-t834 


Brude, s. Derile 


697 -t 706 


Drust, s. Constantine, and 




Nechtan, s. Derile 


706-724 


Talorcan, s. Wthoil 


?834-?836 


Drust 


724-726 


Eoganan, s. Angus 


? 836 -1-839 


Aipin 


726-728 


Wrad, s. Bargoit 


839-842 


Nechtan, s. Derile 


728-729 


Bred 


842-843 



KINGS OF SCOTLAND. 



Kenneth, s. Alpin 843-1858 

Donald, s. Alpin 858 - 1 862 

Constantine, s. Kenneth S62-t877 

Aed, s. Kenneth 877 - + 878 

Eochaid, s. Run 878-889 

Donald, s. Constantine 889 -f 900 

Constantine, s. Aed 900-943 



Malcolm, s. Donald 
Indulf, s. Constantine 
Dub, s. Malcolm 
Culen, s. Indulf 
Kenneth, s. Malcolm 
Constantine, s. Culen 
Kenneth, s. Dub 



943 - + 954 
954 - + 962 
962 - 1 966 
966- + 971 
971 - + 995 
995 - + 997 
997- + 1005 



KINGS OF SCOTLAND. 



KINGS OF ENGLAND. 



Malcolm II 
Duncan I 
Macbeth 
Lulach 
Malcolm III 
Donald Ban 
Duncan II 
Donald Ban 
Edgar 
Alexander I 
David I 
Malcolm IV 
William 
Alexander II 
Alexander III 
.Margaret 



1005-1034, 
103 4-1040, 
1 040- 105 7, 
1057-1058, 
1058-1093, 
1093-1091, 
1094, May- 
1094-1097, 
1097-1107, 
1107-1124, 
1124-1153, 
1153-1165, 
1165-1214, 
1214-1249, 
1249-1286, 
1286-1290, 



Nov. 25 
Aug. 14 
Aug. 15 
Mar. 17 
Nov. 13 
May 
-Nov. 12 
Oct. 
Jan. 8 
Apr. 23 
May 24 
Dec. 9 
Dec. 4 
July 8 
Mar. 19 
Sep. 



Cnut 


1016-1035 


Cnut's sons 
Edward Confessor 


1035-1042 
1042-1066 


Harold 


1066 


William I 


I 066- I 08 7 


William II 


1087-1100 


Henry I 


1100-1135 


Stephen 
Henry II 
Richard I 


1135-1154 
1154-1189 
1189-1199 


John 


1199-1216 


Henry III 
Edward I 


1216-1272 

1272-1307 

h 



INTRODUCTION 

A. Kings' Reigns, Districts, and Pedigrees 

with a collation of the unexpanded Chronicles of the Kings 

De Situ Albanie, Skene's Picts and Scots, pp. 135-137 

Of the situation of Scotland, which is shaped in tlie figure of a 
man ; how it was first divided into seven districts ; by ivhat name 
it was formerly called, and by whom inhabited. 

I consider it worth while to give to memory how Scotland 
was first inhabited, and by what inhabitants ; and by what 
names it was called, and into how many parts it was divided. 

We read in the histories and chronicles of the ancient 
Britons, and in the ancient histories and annals of the Scots 
and Picts, that the district that is now corruptly called Scotia 
was of old called Albania, after Albanectus, the younger son 
of Brutus, the first king of the Britons of Greater Britain ; and 
after a long interval of time it was called Pictavia, from the 
Picts, who reigned in it for a period of 1070 years (according 
to others, 1360) ; and now it is corruptly called Scotia.^ 

And the Scots have reigned [there] for a period of 315 
years, in the year in which king William the Ruddy, brother of 

' Bede gives a legendary account of the settlement of the Picts in Scot- 
land (HistoriaEcclesiastica, I, r; cf. below, p. 252). He says that the Pictish 
nation put to sea from Scythia, in a few long ships ; and were driven by the 
wind beyond Britain, to the north of Ireland. The Irish Scots refused them 
settlement, but sent them to Britain, and promised them assistance, if they 
should be opposed. The Picts went to the northern part of Britain, since 
the Britons possessed the southern. And because the Picts had no wives, 
the Irish Scots gave them these, on condition that Pictish kings should inherit 
the throne through their mothers : a custom that prevailed in Bede's time 
(A.D. 731). Cf the verses in the Irish Nennius, in Slcene's P. & S., 39-40. 
See below, p. 252. 



cxvi INTRODUCTION 

Malcolm, that man of honourable life and virtue, has received 
the kingdom. 1 

This district bears the form and figure of a man. Its chiel 
part, that is to say, the head, is in Argyle, in the western part 
of Scotland, above the Irish Sea; and its feet are upon the sea 
of Norway. And the mountains and deserts of Argyle resemble 
the head and neck of a man. And his body is the mountain 
[range] that is called Mound, which extends from the western 
sea to the eastern sea ; and his arms are the mountains that 
divide Scotland from Argyle. The right side extends along 
Moray, and Ross, and Mar, and Buchan ; his legs are the two 
principal and notable rivers which descend from the mountains 
named above, that is, the Mound, and which are called the Tay 
and the Spey : one of them flows to this side of the mountain, 
and the other beyond it, into the Norwegian sea. Between 
this man's legs are Angus and Mearns, to this side of the 
mountain ; and beyond the mountain other lands, between 
Spey and the mountain. 

Now this land was divided anciently by seven brothers into 
seven parts. Of these the principal is Angus with Mearns, 
so named after Oengus, the eldest of the brothers. And 
the second part is Athole and Gowrie. The third part is 
Strathearn with Monteith. The fourth of the parts is Fife, 
with Fothreff; and the fifth part is Mar, with Buchan. The 
sixth is Moray and Ross. The seventh part is Caithness, 
to this side of the mountain, and beyond the mountain ; 
because the mountain of Mound divides Caithness through 
the middle. 

Each of these parts, then, was called a district^ ; and rightly, 
because each of them had in it a subordinate district.^ For this 
reason were these seven brothers aforesaid regarded as seven 

^ William the Lion became king in 1 165. 

' regio, used in the sense of Irish rige. 

5 subregionem. There is little doubt that these words ("district" and 
"subordinate district") are used in the sense of "kingdom" and "sub- 
ordinate state" or "duchy," districts ruled over respectively by a king and 
a duke {toisech or dux). These two rulers (king and toisech or duke) 
were required to complete the native idea of a kingdom. The toisech was 
very often preferred to take the risks of war ; when he was successful, he 
became a dangerous rival of the king; when he was unsuccessful, the 
king's position was shaken. 



INTRODUCTION cxvii 

kings, because they had beneath them seven under-kings. These 
seven brothers divided the kingdom of Scotland into seven king- 
doms,^ and each of them in his time reigned in his kingdom.^ 
As a trustworthy narrator has told me — Andrew, a 

1 regnicm Albanie in septem regna. 

^ in suo regno. 

A different (and older) account appears in the Chronicle of the Picts, 
version A, in Skene's P. & S., 4 : " Cruidne, Cinge's son, the father of the 
Picts that dwell in this island, reigned for a hundred years. He had 
seven sons. These are their names : Fib, Fidach, Floclaid, Fortrend, Got, 
Ce, Circinn. 

" Circin reigned for 60 years, Fidaich for 40, Fortrend for 70, Floclaid 
for 30, Got for 12, Ce for 15, Fibaid for 24." 

In the additions to the Irish Nennius in the Book of Ballymote, the 
Book of Lecan, and the Trinity College (Dublin) MS. H,2.i7, the legend 
stands thus (Skene's P. & S., 24-25) : " Of the origin of the Picts. 

" Cruithne, son of Cinge, son of Luchtai, son of Parthalan, son ot 
Agnoinn, son of Buain, son of Mais, son of Fathecht, son of Jafeth, son of 
Noah. [For Parthalan, cf. P.R.I.A., xxviii, C, 6 (1910), 125-127, 145-146.] 

"[Cruithne] was the father of the Picts, and he had 100 years in the 
kingdom. The seven sons of Cruithne here : Fib, Fidach, Fotla, Fortrend 
of battles \caihach\ Cait, Ce, Cirig. And they divided the land into seven 
divisions, as Columcille said : ' Cruithne's seven children divided Scotland 
into seven parts : Cait, Ce, Cirig (a warlike family) ; Fib, Fidach, Fotla, 
Fortrend.'" (For cethach in the parenthesis reading cathach "warlike." 
The parenthesis is a cheville, but is connected by alliteration with the sons 
previously named. The third and fourth lines of the stanza are completely 
alliterative.) "And the name of each of them remains upon his land, e.g., 
Fib, and Ce, and Cait, and the rest. . . . 

" Fib was 24 years in the kingdom ; Fidach, 40 years ; Fortrend, 70 ; 
Cait, 22 years ; Ce, 12 years ; Cirig, 80 years. ..." 

Cf. also the Chronicle of the Picts, version C ; Skene's P. & S., 396 : 
" Cruithne, Cinge's son, father of the Picts that dwell in this island, reigned 
for 100 years. He had seven sons. These are their nannes : Fib, Fidach, 
Foltlaig, Fortrend, Caitt, Ce, Circing. 

" Circing reigned for 60 years. Fidach reigned for 40 years. Fortrend 
reigned for 40 years. Foltlaid reigned for 30 years. Gatt reigned for 
12 years. Ce reigned for 12 years. Fidbaiid reigned for 24 years. ..." 

Cruithne and his sons were invented as eponymous rulers of the 
kingdom and its districts. The legend is evidence only of the early 
divisions of Scotland, and their names. 

See the verses in the Irish Nennius, in Skene's P. & S., 41-44- It is 
there said (43) that after the Picts left Ireland, "from [Islay] they seized 
Scotland, high and clear, [a land] which nourishes fruits, without loss of 
their people ; with its dwellings, from the territory of Cath to Foirciu " 
(read Foirtriu f). 



cxviii INTRODUCTION 

venerable man, bishop of Caithness ; by nation a Scot, and a 
monk of Dunfermline— the first kingdom [extended] from the 
excellent piece of water, called in Scottish the Froch, in British 
the Werid, and in Roman Scottewattre, that is. Aqua Scottorum'^ 
(which divides the kingdoms of Scots and of English, and runs 
near the town of Stirling) ; as far as to another noble river, 
called the Tay. 

The second kingdom [extended] from the Tay to the Hilef^ 
encircling [the first] like the sea, as far as the mountain that is 
called Athran^ in the northern part of Stirling. The third 
kingdom [extended] from the Hilef to the Dee. The fourth 
kingdom [extended] from the Dee to the great and wonderful 
river that is called the Spey, the greatest and best [river] in all 
Scotland. 

The fifth kingdom [extended] from the Spey to the mountain 
of Druimm-nAlban. 

The sixth kingdom was Moray and Ross. 

The seventh kingdom was Argyle. 

The name Argyle means the shore of the Scots or the Irish, 
because all Irish and Scots generally are called Gaels, from one 
of their primeval leaders, Gaidel Glass. And the Irish used 
always to land there, to do injury to the Britons. Or for this 
reason, because the Scots [and] Picts first dwelt there after their 
return from Ireland ; or because the Irish occupied these parts 
in opposition to the Picts ; or because of what is more certain, 
that that part of the district of Scotland is nearest to the land 
of Ireland. 

Fergus, Erc's son, was the first of the descendants of Conaire 
to receive the kingdom of Scotland ; that is, from the mountain 
of Druimm-nAlban * to the Irish Sea and the Hebrides. There- 
after, kings of the line of Fergus reigned in Druimm-nAlban or 
Druimm-nErenn^till the time of Alpin, Eochaid's" son. Kenneth 

1 I.e., the Forth. 

2 According to Skene, the river Isla or the Liff, Perthshire ; apparently 
modern Glen Isla, according to Professor W. J. Watson, Celtic Review 
1912, p. 383. 

3 According to Sl<:ene, Airthrey, near Stirling. 

^ a monte Brutialban usque ad mare Hibernie et ad Inchegall. 

'" in Brunalban sine Brunhere. Read Drumalban and Drwnheren f 

Eochal. 



INTRODUCTION cxix 

this Alpin's son, the first king of the Scots, reigned prosperously 
in Pictland for sixteen years.^ 

Chronicle of the Kings of the Plots, version A ; Skene's 
Picts and Scots, pp. 6-8 ^ 

Talorc, Achivir's son, reigned for seventy-five years.^ 
Drust, Erp's son, reigned for a hundred years, and fought a 

hundred battles. In the nineteenth year of his reign, the holy 

bishop Patrick came to the island of Ireland.* 
Talorc, Aniel's son, reigned for four years.^ 

^ 843-858. 

^ The previous part of this list of Pictish kings contains certainly 
fictitious matter, but is not necessarily all fictitious. 

In these chronicles, the number of a king's last year on the throne is 
often given as the number of years in his reign. 

The spelling of names varies, and is often corrupt. I give in notes 
variations in the printed texts, except in cases where they lead to no 
uncertainty. 

Versions B and C agree generally with A, and still more closely with 
one another; versions DFIK represent a somewhat different original, 
and generally agree among themselves. ABC frequently present names in 
a Welsh form, when DFIK give them in forms derived from the Irish spelHng. 

^ Talore, A ; Talorc, B ; Tolorc, C ; Balarg, D ; Talarg, FK ; Talargh, 
I ; Thalarger, Fordun. 

filius Achivir, A ; mac Achiuir, B ; mac Aiihiuir, C ; filius Keothere, 
D ; filius Keother, F and Fordun ; filius Keocher, I ; le fits Kecter, K. 

75 years, ABC ; 25 years, DFIK and Fordun. 

* Similarly in versions B and C. Down to "battles," also in DFK ; 
down to "years," also in I. 

"Reigned" ABC [IK]; "lived" DF and Fordun. 

" Fought " iperegii) ; " gained " K. 

"Erp's" ABC ; Ws,^); Irb, FK ; Yrb, I. 

Patrick went to Ireland in 432. If 432 was Drust's 19th year, he would 
have become king in 414 or 413. 

Fordun's version of the Chronicle of the Picts reads (Chronica, IV, lo ; 
>> 153): "To [Talorc succeeded] Drust (he was otherwise called Nechtan, 
Irb's son), for 45 years. He (it is asserted) lived for a hundred years, and 
fought a hundred battles. While he reigned, St Palladius, the first bishop 
of the Scots, was sent by the blessed pope Celestius, to teach the Scots, 
though they believed in Christ long before" (Fordun confuses Irish with 
British Scots). 

5 "Talorc" BCDFIK; Talore, A, ^xongXy. Thalarger,Yoxd.\xa.. 

"Aniel's" AC ; Ainel, B ; Aniif, D ; Amile, F ; Aniil, I ; Amil, K ; 
Anile, Fordun. 

4 years, ABC ; 2 years, DFIK and Fordun. 



cxx INTRODUCTION 

Nechtan Morbet, Erip's son, reigned for twenty-four years.i 
In the third year of his reign, Dairlugdach, abbess of Kildare, 
came from Ireland to Britain, in exile for Christ. In the second 
year of her arrival, Nectonius offered up Abernethy to God and 
to St Bridget, in presence of Dairlugdach, who sang Alleluia 
over this offering.^ 

■ "Nechtan": Necton, A; Nectan, BCI ; Nethan, D; Netihan, F; 
Nectane, K and F"ordun. 

Morbet, A ; mor-brec, B ; mor breac, C ; cheleiiwf, D ; thelchamoth, F ; 
celchamoch, I ; Celtaniech, K ; Chaltamoth, Fordun. B and C have 
substituted Irish forms for the word in their exemplar. 

"Erip's" AB ; Eirip, C ; omitted, DFIK. 

24 years, AB ; 34 years, C ; 10 years, DFIK. 

^ This paragraph stands also in B and C. After "offered up," B adds 
"in one year." Instead of "second year of," C reads "next year after" 
(Skene). This paragraph, with the next two, is an insertion in the original 
chronicle. In this insertion Nechtan's name is spelt Nectonius in all three 
versions (ABC). 

The monastery of Kildare was founded by Bridget, who was abbess 
there till she died about the year 524 (see below, p. 17). The mention 
here of a later abbess is an anachronism. 

The Aberdeen Breviary (i, 3, xxii, December 23rd) says that Domath, 
king of the Picts, while fighting against the Britons, was warned divinely 
to call Bridget from Ireland. She founded the church at Abernethy, and 
the king and all his household were baptized. 

The Life of Buitte says that Nechtan reigned over the Picts when Buitte 
returned from Italy to Ireland. Buitte sailed from Germania to the land 
of the Picts, and finding that Nechtan had just died resuscitated him. 
Plummer's Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae, i, 88-89 (and Skene's Picts and 
Scots, pp. 410-41 1) : " [Buitte and his companions] coming to the sea took 
ship, and after a prosperous voyage landed in the territories of the Picts. 

" How he raised king Nectan from death. 

"It happened at that time that Nechtan, the king of that land, had gone 
the way of all flesh. They also were invited to his exequies to watch over 
the dead king and pray to the Lord for him. And when they came to the 
house where the dead body lay, the man of God, Buitte, shut out the others 
and began to pray. When the pra>er was finished, behold, the dead man 
rose again from the jaws of death. All were amazed ; grief was turned 
into joy ; and God was glorified in his saint. 

" Finally the king gave the castle in which the miracle had been done 
with all that pertained to it to the blessed Buitte ; and [Buitte] consecrated 
it as a church, and left one of his companions to keep it." 

This is surmised by Skene to have been a legend of the foundation of a 
church at Kirkbuddo (which he says means " Buitte's church"; but it is 
more probably a corruption of Carbuddo), near Dunnichen (which may 



INTRODUCTION cxxi 

So Nectonius the Great, Wirp's^ son, the king of all the 
provinces of the Picts, offered to St Bridget, to the day of 
judgement, Abernethy, with its territories, which are situated 
from the stone in Apurfeirt to the stone beside Ceirfuill, that is, 
Lethfoss, and thence upwards to Athan. 

Now the cause of the offering was this. Nectonius, . . } 
when his brother Drust expelled him to Ireland, begged St 
Bridget to beseech God for him. And she prayed for him, and 
said : " If thou reach thy country, the Lord will have pity upon 
thee. Thou shalt possess in peace the kingdom of the Picts." 

Drust Gurthinmoch reigned for thirty years.^ 

mean " Nechtan's castle")- Buitte died in the year of Columba's birth; 
see year 521. This story implies that Forfarshire had become Christian 
some time before that date. We may compare with this the story that 
Palladius founded a church at Fordoun in 432. 

Whether Buitte ever was in Strathmore or not, this story, taken with 
that of Palladius, suggests that one route of the Irish between the north of 
Ireland and the continent passed through Strathmore. During the 5th 
and 6th centuries they would have preferred to go through Pictish territory 
rather than through the land in which Britons and Saxons were at war. 
If any part of Pictish territory had respect for Christianity, they would 
naturally have gone through that part. 

Ninian had introduced Christianity into Galloway in Roman times, and 
also apparently into Strathmore, which seems to have been the country of 
the "southern Picts" converted by him. Though not incorporated in the 
Roman empire, Strathmore had doubtless been considerably affected by 
Roman influence. 

Perhaps ships were to be had at Stonehaven. Perhaps the causes thai 
kept Saxons from settling there made the passage from that district more 
secure. 

1 Wirp appears to be a later form than the Erip or Erp of the original 
chronicle. It seems also to show that the writer of the insertion spoke a 
Welsh, not a Gaelic, language. The insertion was written at Abernethy ; it 
suggests that a Welsh language was spoken in Abernethy at the time 
when version A was written — the end of the tenth century. But the equation 
Erp > Wirp assumes that the £ of Erp was long ; and that is very doubtful, 
seeing that Erp was in Welsh speech the equivalent oi Ere in Irish. 

2 in vita Julie m[a\nens. The text is corrupt. (Cf. Skene, P. & S., p. 
xix, note ; and his facsimile of A.) 

2 Drest Gurthinmoch, A ; Brest Gurthimoth, B ; Dartguitiimoth, C ; 
Durst Gemot, F ; Drust Gocineht, I ; Drust Cortinoch, K ; Durst Gornoth, 
Fordun. 

The name "Drust" occurs (in Skene's texts) as Drest 10 times in A, 
9 times in B, 4 times in C (there also as Drerst and Derst). It is spelt 



cxxii INTRODUCTION 

Galan Erilich reigned for twelve years.^ 
Two Drusts reigned together; Drust, Girom's son, for one 
year, and Drust, Wdrost's son, for five.^ 

Drust, Girom's son, reigned alone for five years.^ 
Gartnait, Girom's son, reigned for seven years.* 
Cailtram, Girom's son, reigned for one year.^ 

Drust in the prefixed part of ABC ; in B ; so read for Druse in C ; 5 times 
in D ; 6 times in F ; 9 times in I ; 10 times in K. It is spelt Durst 3 times in 
D, 2 times in F ; Drost, once in C. Drest s&tms to be an earlier form oi Drust. 

For Gurthinmoch cf. Stokes, Philological Society, 1890, p. 395 : "boch 
= Welsh boch, Latin bucca" ; and ibid., p. 406: "The gurth may be = 
V^e.]sh gwrdd 'fortis, robustus, strenuus,' and the imjioch may be = Cornish 
envoch (gl. facies), the Irish scribe writing (infected) m for v, as in 
Catmolodor and Simal." 

30 years, ABCFIK and Fordun ; omitted, D. 

Counting the regnal years backwards from Brude (f 584), we find that 
Drust's death should have occurred a few years before the year 500. 

' Galanan Erilich, A ; Galan Arilith, B ; Galamarbith, C ; Gulam, F ; 
Galany, I ; Galan, K ; Galaam, Fordun. 

12 years in A and 25 years in F are probably textual errors ; 15 years, 
in BCIK and Fordun. Omitted, D. 

^ " Girom's " : Gyrom, Girom, A ; Giron, Girom, B ; Girtim, Girom, C ; 
Gurum, Gigurum, D ; Gigurum, F, Fordun ; Gygurn, I ; Gigurnus, K. 

"Wdrost's": Wdrost, A; Budros, BC ; Hudrossig, D; Hudresseg, F; 
Hudrosig, I ; Hidrofigus, K ; Otlttred, Fordun. Perhaps in the source of 
ABC a final syllable was contracted by suspension. 

I year, 5 years, A : in text id est (facsimile z'.) ; read uno. B and C 
read: "Two Drusts . . . reigned for 15 years." DF and Fordun give 
Girom's son a reign of 5 years ; I, of 6 years ; K, of 50 years. DFIK and 
Fordun give Wdrost's son a reign of 8 years. 

^ 5 years, ABC ; 4 years, DK and Fordun ; omitted, FT. 

* 7 years, ABC ; 6 years, DFIK and Fordun. 

This name occurs 20 times in versions ABC. In Skene's texts, it is 
spelt Gartnait once in A, 7 times in B, 5 times in C ; and no two of the 
remaining seven spellings are alike. The form Gartnait does not occur in 
versions DFIK. The spellings Garnard, occurring in Fordun, once in A, 
twice in F, and once in K ; Garnart, Gartnart, in A, Gartnairt in C, 
Gernerd in F, Garnarde twice in K, seem to indicate the existence of a 
variant form of the name. Other forms, derived from Gartnait, are 
Gartnaith, Gartnaich, Garthnach, in A ; Gernath, in D ; Garnath, twice 
in F; Gercnath, Garnach, in I. 

^ Cailtram, A ; Cailtarni, B ; Cailtaine, C ; Kelturan, DI, Fordun ; 
Kelhiran, F; Kylmrcait, K. For "Girom's son" DFIK read "his 
[Gartnait's] brother." 

I year, ABC ; 6 years, DFIK and Fordun. 



INTRODUCTION cxxiii 



Talorc, Muircholach's son, reigned for eleven years.^ 

Drust, Munait's son, reigned for one year.^ 

Galam Cennaleph reigned for one year,^ and with Brude one 
year.* 

Brude, Maelchon's son, reigned for thirty years/' In the 
eighth year of his reign he was baptized by St Columba.'' 

I Muircholack, A ; Murtholoic, B ; Murtolic, C ; Mordeleg, D ; Madoleg^ 
F ; Tauxdelog, I ; Mendeleghe, K ; Mordeleth, Fordun. 

II years, ABCDFIK and Fordun. 

- Alunait, A; Munaith, B; Manaith, C; Moneth, DF, Fordun; 
Monehet, I ; Meneck, K. 

I year, ABCDFIK and Fordun. 

^ Galam Cennaleph, K'K ; Galuin Cenamlapeh, C. Talalad, D ; Tagaled, 
F ; Tagalad, I ; Talagach, K ; Thalagath, Fordun. 

I year, A ; 4 years, BCDFI and Fordun ; 3 years, K. C places this 
reign between those of Drust and Gartnait, Girom's sons. 

^ "With Brude i year" ABC; omitted, DFIK and Fordun. Perhaps 
this was the Cennalath who died in Brude's reign ; see year 580. 

^ In the chronicle of the Brudes, prefixed to A (Skene's facsimile), this 
name is twice spelled in full, Brude ; once. Brute. In Skene's text of the 
same part of C, Bruide appears 6 times, Bridge 3 times, and Bruigi 
23 times. 

In this (the original) part of A, the name occurs in the form Bredei 
3 times ; also in the forms Breidei, Bridei, and (in the ablative) Briduo. 
In Skene's texts, the spelling Brude occurs once in B, twice in D, 7 times in 
F, 9 or 10 times in I, 3 or 4 times in K. Forms allied to those in A occur 
in BCK. Fordun uses the forms Brud, Brude, Brudeus. 

Forms of the type of Bredei are difficult to account for. Adamnan's 
Brudeus and Bede's Bridius forbid the equation *Brede > Bruide. 

" Maelchon's " : Mailcon, A ; Me Icon, B ; Mae Icon, C ; Me than, D ; 
Melcho, F ; Melcon, Malcon, I. Drust fitz Methor, K. Merlothon, Fordun 
{Meilothon, in insertion from Bade). This may have been the same person 
as Mailcun of the Annales Cambriae, Maglocunus of Gildas ; the king 
of North Wales who died in 547. 

30 years, ABCDFI ; 25 years, K ; 19 years, Fordun. 

See years 554, 559, 584- 

" So in AB ; so read in C. (This is derived from Bede ; see 
below, p. 20.) 

DF read: "St Columba converted him to the faith" (" . . . came to 
Scotland, and ..." in Fordun, who cites also Bede here directly). I reads : 
" St Columba converted him," with additions quoted below at years 563, 597, 
and 603. K has here a still later addition (P. & S., 200-201), which declares 
that the Scots were converted only once. 



cxxiv INTRODUCTION 

Gartnait, Domelch's son, reigned for eleven years.^ 
Nechtan, Verb's grandson, reigned for twenty years.^ 
Kenneth, Luchtren's son, reigned for nineteen years.^ 
Gartnait, Foith's son, reigned for four years.* 
Brude, Foith's son, reigned for five years.^ 
Talorc, their brother, reigned for twelve years.® 
Talorcan, Eanfrith's son, reigned for four years.'' 
Gartnait, Donald's son, reigned for six years and a half^ 

' Do?nelch, A ; Domech, B ; Domnach, C ; Dormafh, D ; Dompneth, F ; 
Donaih, I ; Dompnach, K, Fordun. 

II years, ABC ; 20 years, DFI and Fordun ; 30 years, K. 

See year ?6oi. For additions in DK and Fordun, see year ?6oi, note. 

^ Nectu nepos Uerd, A ; Nectan nepos Verb, B ; Neachtan nepo[s] (Jerp, 
C ; Netthadfilius Irb, F ; Nactanfilius Yrb, I ; Nectane filius Jrb, Fordun. 

20 years, ABC ; 21 years, FI ; omitted, DK ; 11 years, Fordun. 

See year ?62i, note. For additions in F, see year ?6oi, note. 

^ Cinioch filius Lutrin, A ; Ciiiiath filius Ltitrin, B ; Cinhoint filius 
Luitriu, C ; Kynel filius Luthren, D ; Kinet filius Luthren, F ; Kynel 
filius I.ttchrem, I ; Kenechfits Sugthen, K ; Kenel filius Luchtren, Fordun. 

19 years, ABC ; 24 years, DK ; 14 years, FI and Fordun. 

See year 633. 

^ Instead of " Gartnait," DFIK and Fordun read " Nechtan, Foith's son." 

" Foith's" : Wid, A ; Uuid, BC ; Fide, D ; Fotle, F ; Fochle, I ; Fode, 
K, Fordun. D spells Nechtan here Nethan. 

4 years, A ; 5 years, BCF ; 8 years, DIK and Fordun. 
See year 637. 

f^ "Foith's": Wid, A; Fruth, D; Fathe, FK ; Fochle, I; Fachna, 
Fordun. 

5 years, ADFIK and Fordun. BC in error omit this reign. 
See year 642. 

" "Their brother" ABC ; "son of Fethar" DFI {Fethar, D ; Fetebar, 
F ; Feckarus, I ; Farchar, Fordun). K has instead of Brude " Drust, his 
brother," with the years of Drust, Gartnait's brother (below), omitting the 
reigns between. 

12 years, ABC ; ii years, DFI, Fordun. 

See year 653. 

" " Eanfrith's " : Enfret, AC ; Enfretk, B ; Amfrud, D and Fordun ; 
Confrud, F ; Anfrud, I. This name seems to be the Anglo-Saxon 
F.anfrith ; its bearer was almost certainly Eanfrith, king .(Ethelfrith's son. 

4 years, ABCFI and Fordun ; omitted, K. 

See year 657. 

8 " Donald's " (Irish annals) : Donnel, A ; Donuel, BC ; Dunal, D ; 
Donnall, F (omitting 7f/z'«j-) ; Domnal, I ; Domptial, Fordun. (The forms in 
ABCDF look more like Dungal than Donald.) 

6^ years, ABC ; 5 years, DF and Fordun ; 6 years, I ; omitted, K. 

See year 663. 



INTRODUCTION cxxv 

Drust, his brother, reigned for seven years.^ 
Brude, Bile's son, reigned for twenty-one years. ^ 
Tarain, Ainftech's son, reigned for four years.^ 
Brude, Derile's son, reigned for eleven years.* 
Nechtan, Derile's son, reigned for fifteen years.^ 
Drust and Alpin reigned together for five years.^ 
Angus, Fergus' son, reigned for thirty years.'' 

I 7 years, ABC ; 6 years, DFIK and Fordun. 
See year 673. 

^"Bile's": Bill, A; File, B; Fie, C; Bile, DPI and Fordun; 
Hole, K. 

21 years, ABFI ; 20 years, CDK ; 11 years, Fordun. 

See year 693. For additions in DFK, see year 693, note. The variations 
between version A and later versions, from this reign -onwards, were 
tabulated by Skene in his Picts and Scots, pp. cxxiii-cxxiv. (Cf. his account 
of them, ibid., cxxv-cxxvi.) 

^ "Tarain" : Taran, ABCDI ; Turaii, F ; Tharan, K ; Gharan, Fordun. 

" Ainftech's " (year 693) : Entifidich, A ; Enfidaig, B ; Enfidaid, C 
(to be read as B) ; Amfredeth, D (attracted to Amfrud, above) ; Amsedeth, 
F ; Anfudeg, I ; Amjodech, K ; Amfedech, Fordun. 

4 years, ABCK and Fordun ; 14 years, DFI. 

See years 693, 697, 699. 

* "Derile's son," ABC ; filius Dergard, D, fitz Dergert, K, i.e. "son of 
Dargairt" ; filius Decili, FI and Fordun. 

II years, ABC ; 31 years, DFIK ; 21 years, Fordun. 
See year 706. 

° " Nechtan," ABCI (spelt in A Necthon) ; Ferthen, F, Jactan, K, 
erroneously. 

"Derile's son" ABC; "his [Brude's] brother" DFI and Fordun; 
" Brude's brother " K. D puts Nechtan's reign before Brude's, as if Nechtan 
had been Tarain's brother. 

15 years, A ; 10 years,, BC ; 18 years, DFIK and Fordun, correctly. 

See year 724 ; also the note below. 

^ Congregavermit, A ; Cotiregnaverunt, B ; eonneganaveint, C. D 
reads here instead : " Gartnait, Ferath's son, reigned for 24 years " ; 
similarly also in FIK. {Ferath, DF ; Ferach, I ; Feradhegh, K ; Feredach, 
Fordun.) Cf. the reign of Kenneth, Feradach's son, below, omitted by 
versions DFIK. 

Fordun : " To this Nechtan succeeded Gartnait, Feradach's son ; and 
he reigned for 14 years." 

See years 724, 726, 728. 

'■ These Irish names occur in peculiar forms, such as for " Angus " 
(Irish Oengus) : Onnist, A ; Unuist, AB ; Onuis, Uidnuist, B ; Onus/, 
Uidnust, C; Hungus, DIK and Fordun; Teiiegus, etc., FK and Fordun; 
Onegussa, DF ; Oengusa, Oengus, Engus, I ; Oengussa, Fordun. 

" Fergus' " : Ur-, Wir-, Wrgust, A ; Ur-, Uurguist, B ; Ur-, Uurgtist, 



cxxvi INTRODUCTION 

Brude, Fergus' son, reigned for two years.^ 
Kenneth, Feradach's son, reigned for twelve years.^ 

C ; Fergusa, FK and Fordun (the Irish form) ; Fergus, I (as nominative in 
DK, correctly). Fergusagiji in K is perhaps for Fergusan. 

The forms in ABC are probably of a primitive Welsh type (unless the 
early Welsh forms were originally derived from Pictish), and seem to show 
that the original of these versions of the chronicle was composed in, or 
transmitted through, a district whose language was allied to Welsh ; that is 
to say, in a district where Pictish or Strathclyde Welsh was spoken. It is 
to be observed that Irish forms predominate in DFIK, and that the usual 
spelling of the name Nechtan is Irish in all the versions. 

30 years, ABC ; 16 years, FIK and Fordun ; omitted, D. 

The annals imply that Angus reigned from 729 to 761, with an interrup- 
tion from 750 to 752 (see those years, below). 

Versions FIK and Fordun place after Angus's reign the reign of 
" Nechtan, Derile's son, for g months." {Decili, F ; Derili, I ; Fergaleg, 
K, Derelz, Fordun. Nechtan is spelt Neithan in F ; read Necthan ?) 
Nechtan reigned before Angus, from 728 to 729 ; see those years, below. 

Here DFIK diverge from ABC. They place the following reigns before 
that of Brude : 



D 

Angus, son of 
Brude, reigned 
6 months. 



I 



K 



Fordun 



Angus, son of Fergus, son of Angus, son of 
Brude, 6 months. Brude, i month Brude, 6 months. 
[vn; read vif] 



Alpin, son of Alpin, son of Alpin, son of 
Feret. Feret, 5 months. Angus, 8 years. 



Angus, son of 
Fergus, 10 years. 



Alpin, son of Alpin, son of 

Feradach, 5 months Feredeth, likewise 

at one time ; he 6 months. After 

was expelled, but him, Ae same 

afterwards reigned Alpin reigned 

30 years. again for 26 years. 



Angus, son of Angus, son of 

Brude, 6 months. Brude, again. 

The same again 36 years, 
reigned 36 years. 

Corrupt and discordant as these accounts are, they contain evidence of 
rival claims laid to the kingdom by the rulers of its parts. 

1 "Fergus' son" ABC; "Angus' son" DFIK and Fordun, wrongly. 
Brude, Angus' son, had died during his father's reign ; see year 736. 

2 years, AIK and Fordun ; 15 years, BC ; 8 years, DF. 
See year 763. 

2 " Feradach's " : Wredech, A ; Uuredeg, B ; Juuredeg, C. 

12 years, AB ; 15 years, C ; omitted, DFIK and Fordun. Cf the 



INTRODUCTION cxxvii 

Alpin, Wroid's son, reigned for three years and a half.^ 
Drust, Talorcan's son, reigned four or five years.^ 
Talorcan, Angus' son, reigned two years and a half^ 
Conall, Tadc's son, reigned for five years.* 
Constantine, Fergus' son, reigned for thirty-five years.^ 
Angus, Fergus' son, reigned for twelve years. '^ 
Drust, Constantine's son, and Talorcan, Wthoil's son, 
reigned together for three years.'^ 

"Gartnait, Ferath's son" to whom DFIK give a reign of 24 years, after the 
first reign of Nechtan, Derile's son. 

See year 775. 

^ "Wroid's son" ABC ; "Angus's son" IK and Fordun, this being in I 
a repetition of the reign entered before. Cf the Alpin of DFK and Fordun 
in the table above. 

Wroid, A ; Uuroid, B ; Uuoid, C ; (cf. C's Uugtit for Fergus, Brude's 
father, where B has Uurgut, and A Wirguist ;) and above, Feret, DF ; 
Eferadkeche, K. Wroid, Fe?-ef, and Ferath, appear to be different forms 
of one name, which K thought to be the same as the Irish Feradach. Cf. 
" Wrad," below. 

3j years, A ; 6J years, B ; 8 years, I ; 2 years, K and Fordun. C reads 
" 3 years and half the reign " ; Todd and Skene would read anni for regni 
(i.e. 35 years) ; this is probably the true reading. 

See year 780. 

^ 4 or 5 years, A ; I year, BCDFIK and Fordun. 

The text of A is to be corrected by the reading of B : " Drust, Talorcan's 
son, reigned one year. 

" Talorcan, Drostan's son, reigned four or five years." 

4 or 5 years, B ; "or 15 " C (omitting the first number) ; 4 years, DFIK 
and Fordun. 

See year 782, note. 

^ ^\ years, A ; 12^ years, BC ; 5 years, DFIK and Fordun. 

See year 782, note. 

■• Canaul filius Tarl'a, A ; Canaul filius Tang., C. 

5 years, ABC ; omitted, DFIK and Fordun. 
See years 789, 807. 

= 35 years, ABC ; 45 years, D ; 42 years, FI ; 40 years, K and F"ordun. 
Read 32 years. 

See years 789, 820. 

For additions in DFIK and Fordun see year 820, note. 

^ 12 years, ABC ; 9 years, D ; 10 years, FIK and Fordun. 

See year 834. For additions in DFI and Fordun, see year 834, note. 

' " Drust, Constantine's son " ABC. 

"Talorcan" A ; "Talorc" BC. 

Wthoil, A ; Uuthoil, BC. 

3 years, ABC. 

DFIK and Fordun run the two kings into one, who is construed in D 



cxxviii INTRODUCTION 

Ewen, Angus' son, reigned for three years.^ 
Wrad, Bargoit's son, reigned for three years,^ and 
Bred for one year.^ 

and Fordun with a singular verb. DFIK : " Drust-talorc [reigned (D)] for 
4 years." To the same effect in Fordun. {Dostolorg, D ; Drustalorg, F ; 
Dustalorg, I ; Durstolorger, Fordun ; Duf Tolorg, K, i.e. " Dubthalorc") 

The period of their reign appears to have been from 834 to 836 
or 837. 

1 " Ewen " : Uven, A ; Utten, B ; Uuen, C ; Eogana, D ; Coganan, F ; 
Dogatian, I ; Eggamis, K ; Eoghane, Fordun. 

3 years, ABCDFIK and Fordun. E wen's reign would thus have been 
from about 836 or 837 to 839 (q.v.), when he died. 

2 IVrad, A ; Uurad, B ; Urad, C ; Fergus, D ; Ferat, F ; Ferach, I 
(read Ferath) ; Feradagus, K ; Feredetli, Fordun. 

Bargoit, ABC ; Barot, D ; Bafot, F ; Bacoc, I ; Badoghe, K ; Badoc, 
Fordun. 

3 years, ABCDFIK and Fordun. This would place his reign from 
about 839 to 842. 

3 "And" ABC ; omitted, DFIK. 

Bred, AB ; Brod, C ; Briid, D ; Brunde, F ; Brude, IK and Fordun. 

DFIK add "Wrad's son" {Feraiit, D ; Ferat, F ; Ferech, I ; Feradhach, 
K ; Feredeth, Fordun). 

I year, ABCI ; i month, DFK and Fordun. This reign may have been 
about 842-843. 

Here the list of Pictish kings ends in versions ABC. But DFIK and 
Fordun continue it, still in close agreement with one another. 

D reads (P. & S., 150-151): "Kenneth, Wrad's son, reigned for one 
year. 

" Brude, Wthoil's son, reigned for two years. 

" Drust, Wrad's son, reigned for three years. He was slain at Forteviot, 
some say at Scone, by the Scots." 

F omits "by the Scots" ; IK and Fordun omit the last sentence, and K 
reads instead : " He was the last king of the Picts, and was killed at Scone 
by treachery." Fordun reads in place of this : " Also in this king, Drostan 
\Druskeri\, the power of the Picts to reign came to an end [regnandi defeat 
potestas], and the kingdom was altogether transferred from them to the 
king of the Scots, Kenneth, and his successors ; and the kingdom of the 
Scots became thenceforward one. Thanks be to God." 

" Wrad's," both times, is spelt in all versions as before (in Skene's texts). 

"Wthoil's" : Fodel, D ; Fetal, F ; Fokel, I ; Fochel, K. 

I, 2, 3, years, DFIK. 

Most likely these three were kings of some Pictish district. Probably 
Kenneth did not at once obtain dominion over all the Picts. (Cf. the 
Huntingdon Chronicle, year 843, note.) With the treachery involved in the 
death of Drust, Wrad's son, cf. the treachery described by Giraldus 
Cambrensis ; year 843, note. 



INTRODUCTION cxxix 

Chronicle of the Kings of Dalriata, version E ; in Skene's 
Picts and Scots, pp. 130-131^ 

Chronicles of the kings of the Scots for three hundred and 
four years?- 

Fergus, Erc's son,'* was the first of Conaire's race to receive 
the kingdom of Scotland ; that is, from the mountain of 
Druimm-nAlban* as far as to the sea of Ireland, and to the 
Hebrides.^ 

He reigned for three years.'^ 

Domangart, his son, reigned for five years.' 

^ In the notes upon Chronicle E, the Duan Albanach is cited, but ahnost 
solely for the lengths of reigns. The Duan has little value for numbers. 

^ Cf. the conclusion in I ; " The sum of the years from the time of Fergus, 
Erc's son, to the time of Alpin, 307 years and 3 months." In K : "The sum 
of the years of the reign of the Scots before the Picts, 305 years and 
3 months." 

D has this title and preface : " Short Chronicle. The sum of the years 
of the first Scots who reigned before the Picts, 260 years and 3 months. 
The sum of the years of the Picts, 337 years and 5 months. The sum 
total, 1668 years and 8 months. It is to be noted that the kingdom of 
Scotland begins 443 years before the Lord's Incarnation." This calculation 
would date version D in A.D. 1225, if its numbers and arithmetic are 
correct. 

F has this title : " Names of the kings who first reigned in Scot- 
land." 

3 " Erc's " : Eric, E ; Herth, D ; Erth, F ; Here, I ; Ferthair, K ; Her, 
N. (With this exception, N omits all the notes of relationship.) This is a 
typical example of the variations in spelling, which will not be noted here 
unless some possible difference of meaning is involved. 

■• Instead of " from the mountain of Druimm-nAlban" (i.e., the "ridge of 
Scotland"), D reads: "beyond Druimm, and from Druimm-nAlban"; FI, 
"beyond Druimm-nAlban"; K, "beyond Dumbarton." 

° usque ad mare Hibernie et ad Inchegal, E. For ad mare Hibernie D 
reads Scicagh munere ; F, Sluaghmaner ; I, Stuagmuner. 

N reads : " Now the first of the Scots to reign from the mountain of 
Scotland to the Irish Sea \_Mare Scoticum'\ was called Fergus, Erc's son ; 
and he ruled for three years only. And he was killed by his followers." 

^ 3 years, DEFIKN ; 27 years, Duan. See year 501. 

The Duan places before Fergus a 10 years' reign of Loarn. 

After Fergus, Fland (below) places "Angus Mor, Erc's son." 

7 "His son" E ; "son of Fergus" DFIK. 

5 years, DEFIKN and Duan. See year 506. 

N adds : " And he was killed." 



cxxx INTRODUCTION 

Comgall, Domangart's son, for thirty-three.^ 
Gabran, Comgall's brother, for twenty-two years ; ^ 
Conall, Comgall's son, for fourteen years ; ^ 
Aidan, Gabran's son, for thirty-four years;* 
Eochaid Buide, Aidan's son, for sixteen years ; ^ 
Connad Cerr, Conall's son, for three months ;^ 
Ferchar, his son, for sixteen years ; '' 
Donald Brecc, Eochaid's son, for fourteen ;^ 

' 33 years, E ; 22 years, DK ; 24 years, F and Duan ; 12 years, I ; 
30 years, N (after Gabran). See year 537. 
N adds : "And he was killed." 

2 "Comgall's brother" E ; "Domangart's son" DFIK. 

22 years, DEFK ; 34 years, I ; 20 years, N (before Comgall) ; 2 years, 
Duan. See year 559. 

N adds : " And he was killed." 

^ 14 years, DEFKN ; 15 years, Duan. Misplaced in K ; omitted by I. 
See year ?574. 

N adds : "And he was killed." 

* 34 years, DEFIK ; 33 years, N ; 24 years, Duan. Misplaced in F, 
after Eochaid Buide, with the note: "ought to be transposed." See year 
?6o8. 

N adds : " And he was killed." 

^ "Buide" (i.e., "yellow") DFIK ; flavus, E ; omitted, N. 
16 years, EFI ; 15 years, D ; 14 years, K ; 6 years, N ; 70 years, Duan 
(read 17). See year 630. 

« "Connad": " Kenneth" DEFIKN. 

"Cerr" (i.e., "askew"), DFIK; j?«f.r/^r ("left-handed"), E; omitted, 
N. 

3 months, DEFIKN and Duan. See year 630. 
N adds : " And he was killed." 

' "His son" {films eius) E ; "Ewen's son" DFIK (for Cuitt in I read 
Euin as in D). Probably E has the correct reading. Fland (below) reads 
" Conaing's son," meaning doubtless that he was the son of Connad Cerr, 
as the Duan says. 

16 years, DEFNK and Duan ; 21 years, I. See years 643 note, 694. 

N adds : "And he was killed." 

» "Brecc" (i.e , "freckled" or "pock-marked") FIK ; varius, E; 
omitted, N. 

"Eochaid's son" E ; "son of Eochaid Buide" FIK. 

14 years, EFK and Duan ; 4 years, I ; 13 years, N ; omitted, D. 

N adds : "And he was killed." 

This reign appears to be wrongly placed in all the lists. Thus : — 



INTRODUCTION 



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cxxxii INTRODUCTION 

Ferchar Fota, for twenty-one ; ^ 

Eochaid the Crooked-nosed, son of Domangart, son of 
Donald Brecc, for three ;2 

Ainfcellach, son of Ferchar Fota, for one year ; ^ 
Ewen, Ferchar Fota's son, for thirteen ;* 

Skene thought that the names omitted by version E were the names of 
rulers who had not the title of king, Dalriata having fallen under the 
dominion of Northumbria (655-685). But there is no Hkelihood that the 
title of king of Dalriata was given up during that time. 

After the reign of Donald Brecc, F reads : " Maelduin, son of Donald 
Dond, [reigned] for sixteen years," 

"Son of Donald Dond" FI ; '=son of Donald Brecc" K. Fland, the 
Duan, and the Irish annals, call Maelduin the son of Conall Crandomna, 
in likelihood correctly. Donald Dond was the name of one of Maelduin's 
successors that have been omitted. 

16 years, FIKN ; 17 years, Duan. See year 688. 

N adds : "And he was killed." 

Maelduin is omitted by DE ; his predecessors Conall Crandomna, and 
Duncan (see year 659), and Domangart (year 673), are omitted by DEFIK. 

1 " Fota" (i.e. "tall") DFIK ; longus, E ; omitted, N. 

K places Ferchar Fota before Donald Brecc, and after Ferchar, 
" Ewen's son." 

21 years, DEFIK and Duan ; 20 years, N. See year 697. 

N adds : " And he was killed." 

The Chronicles of Dalriata omit Ferchar's predecessor, Donald Dond. 
See year 695, and Fland. 

^ Eochal habens curvuni nasum, E ; Heched nionanle^ D ; Heoghed 
Monanel, F ; Heochet Rotmaicel, I ; Eorhetinen Da?iel, K ; Etal, N. The 
epithet is obscure; for ;«£>«- read sron-t This seems to be the "Eochaid 
na n-ech " of the Duan ; the Eocho Rianamhail {inac Aeda Find) of Fland 
(although in that case Fland is wrong in calling him "Aed Find's son." 
Eochaid, Aed Find's son, is entered by Fland more correctly later, without 
any patronymic). 

3 years, EFIKN ; 22 years, D ; 2 years, Duan. See year 697. 

^ "Ainfcellach": Arinchellac, E; Amernikellethe, D; Arenkelleth, F; 
Armkellach, I ; Armelech, K ; Ormekellet, N. 

"Son of Ferchar Fota" E; "son of Findan" DFIK. E's reading is 
supported by the Senchus. 

I year, DEFIKN and Duan : i.e., 697-698. See years 698 ; 719. 

N adds : " And he was killed." 

■* "Ewen" E ; "Eogan" DFIK. 

"Ferchar Fota's son" E ; "Findan's son" DFIK. 

13 years, E ; 16 years, DFIK ; omitted, N and Duan. The Prose 
Chronicle in the Chronicle of Melrose says that Ewen died in 741 (see 
year 736, note). 



INTRODUCTION cxxxiii 

Muiredach, Ainfcellach's son, for three years ; ^ 

Ewen, [Muiredach's] son, for three ; ^ 

Aed Find, son of Eochaid the Crooked-nosed, for thirty;^ 

Fergus, Aed Find's son, for three ;* 

Selbach, Eogan's son, for twenty-four ; ^ 

Eochaid the Poisonous, Aed Find's son, for thirty ; •^ 

See Fland, who diverges here from the Chronicles of Dalriata (below, 
p. cxlvii). Fland places here Alpin, Eochaid's son, instead of Ewen, after 
Selbach, Eochaid, and Dungal, all of whom the Chronicles of Dalriata omit. 
Cf. the table, below. See years 733, 736. 

1 "Muiredach" DFIK and Duan [Murechat, E ; Murdac, F ; Minredh- 
ach, I ; Moredath, K). Fertham filius Murdathe, D. 

"Ainfcellach's son" EFIK [filius Arinchellac, E; filius Arinkellath, 
F; filius Armkellach, I; fitz Arnikelec, K) ; "Ewen's son" Prose 
Chronicle. 

3 years, EFIK, and Duan (misplaced) ; 2 years, D ; omitted, N. This 
reign is placed 741-744 in the Prose Chronicle. But Muiredach, Ainfcellach's 
son, reigned in Lorn from 733 to 736. See the table, below. 

- "Ewen" EN ; " Eogan " FI. 
" Muiredach's " FI ; " Muirchertach's " E. 

3 years, EN ; 2 years, FI ; omitted, DK and Duan. The Prose 
Chronicle says that this Ewen reigned 744-747 (see year 736, note). 
N adds : " And he was killed." 

3 "Aed Find" (i.e., "Aed the white"): Edalbus, E; Hethfyne, D; 
Hethfin, F ; Edhfin, I ; Hedaldus, N. Aed Airectech (v.l. Airgnech) 
in Fland. 

" Of Eochaid the Crooked-nosed " ; Eochal curvi nasi, E ; Heorghet 
rannal, D ; Heochetramele, F ; Heochet \ininiele inter-lined], I ; Heochet 
roimauel, K. 

30 years, DEFIN and Duan ; omitted, K. See year 778. 

N adds : " And he was killed." 

^ 3 years, DEFIN ; omitted, K and Duan. See years 778, 781. 

^ "Selbach" EIKN ; Sealthant, D ; Tcalulanc, F. 
"Eogan's son" EIK ; "Eoganan's" D ?, F. 
24 years, EFIK ; 14 years, D ; 20 years, N. See year 781, note. 
Here Fland and the Duan give an entirely different account. See 
below. 

" " Eochaid the Poisonous " : Fochal venenosus, E ; Herghed annum, 
D ; Heogled annine, F ; Heochet anuine, I ; Ergheche, K. 

DFIK add "Aed Find's son." 

30 years, DEFIK ; omitted, N ; omitted by Fland and the Duan, 
unless this be the Eochaid who succeeded Fergus in 781. See the table, 
below. 



CXXXIV 



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cxxxvi INTRODUCTION 

Dungal, Selbach's son, for seven ;i 

Alpin, son of Eochaid the Poisonous, for three.^ 

1 "Dungal, Selbach's son" DEI; "Dungal, son of Eochaid Annine" 
F ; " Donald, Selbach's son " K {Donald; but K spells Donald Brecc 
Dopnaldebreck) ; Conegal, N. 

7 years, DEFIKN, and (differently placed) in. the Duan. See the 
table on p. cxxxv. 

N adds : " And he was killed." 

2 " Of Eochaid the Poisonous " : Eochal venenosi, E ; Hethed anmine, 
D ; Heogled annine, F ; Heochet anuine, I ; Beghach, K. 

3 years, DEIKN ; 5 years, F (read 2?). See the table, below. For 
additions in DFIK see year 843, note. 

N adds: "And he died." 

"Almost all these were killed; but they were not kings, because 
they did not rule by election nor by descent, but by treason" {j)er 
prodicionem). 

We have contradictory accounts of the kings who reigned in Argyle 
from 741 to 843. At 741 begins the Prose Chronicle inserted in the Chronicle 
of Melrose : it agrees substantially with the Chronicle of Dalriata, but 
gives neither reign-lengths nor dates. 

The Chronicle of Dalriata and the Prose Chronicle record a continuous 
succession of native kings, while in reality Dalriata had been annexed to 
Pictland, and there were native kings at intervals only. See Skene's 
Introduction to Fordun, Historians of Scotland Series, iv, pp. xH-xlvi ; and 
Skene's Celtic Scotland, i, 292-294. 

It is necessary to tabulate the principal statements for the sake of 
comparison. There are three groups of authorities : (i) the Irish annals. 
Of these, Tigernach fails us from 766 to 974 ; and the Chronicon Scotorum, 
from 722 to £04. (2) Eland's Synchronisms, and the Duan Albanach. 
(3) The Chronicles of the Picts and of Dalriata, with the Prose Chronicle 
inserted in the Chronicle of Melrose. See the table, on the preceding pages. 

Down to the year 781, the divergence is not very great. From 781 to 
841, group (3) has nothing in common with the other two groups. The 
Irish annals support to some extent the account of Eland and the 
Duan. 

Genealogies form another source of information. The only complete 
one here is that appended to Chronicle E (below, p. clvii). It gives the 
succession thus : Donald Brecc, Domangart, Eochaid, Eochaid, Aed Find, 
Eochaid, Alpin, Kenneth. (Cf. also the Genealogies that follow the 
Senchus, II ; below, p. cliv : and the Genealogy given by Ralph de Diceto ; 
English Chroniclers, p. I.) 

There were two Alpins, sons of Eochaid ; one, the father of Kenneth, 
may have reigned before Kenneth in Dalriata ; the other, the brother of 
Eochaid, Eochaid's son, reigned in Pictland from 726 to 728, and may 
have reigned nominally in Dalriata before 741. See years 841, 858, 
notes. 



INTRODUCTION cxxxvii 

Chronicle of the Kings of Scotland, version B ; Skene's Picts 
and Scots, pp. 29-30^ 

Kenneth, Alpin's son, reigned for sixteen years.^ 
Donald, Alpin's son, reigned for four years.^ 
Constantine, Kenneth's son, reigned for twenty years.* 
Aed, Kenneth's son, reigned for two years.^ 
Giric, Dungal's son, reigned for eleven or three years.^ 
Donald, Constantine's son, reigned for eleven years.^ 
Constantine, Aed's son, reigned for forty years.^ 

' Also in Todd's Irish Nennius, p. Ixxvii, 

Variations in the lengths of reigns in all the Chronicles are noted here. 
The expanded versions are entered below, usually under the death-years 
of kings. 

Version F has this title : " [Here] follow the names of the kings of the 
Scots." L has this title : " Names of the kings of Scotland who reigned 
after the Picts " ; and speaks sub fine of " other chronicles of the kings of 
Scotland." 

2 16 years, ABCDEFGHIKLMN ; 30 years, Duan ; 28 years, Hunting- 
don Chronicle. 

See years 843, 858. 

^ 4 years, ABCDEFGIKLMN and Duan ; 3 years, H ; 13 years 
Hunt. Chr. 

See years 858, 862. 

* 20 years, BCEN ; 16 years, AFGIKM ; 15 years, D ; 19 years, 
H ; 20 or 6 years, L ; 30 years, Duan ; 23 years. Hunt. Chr. ; 5^ years, 
Berchan. 

See years 861, 877. 

'■> 2 years, B, Duan, and Hunt. Chr. ; I year, ACDEFGHIKLMN. 

See years 877, 878. 

° Giric, B ; " Ciricius " A ; Girig, C ; Girg; DI ; Grig, ELMN ; C<irus, 
F ; Girgh, G ; Tirged, H ; Tirg, K. 

"Dungal's son" BCDEFGIKN ; "Dugall's son" H; "Donald's son" 
LJVI and Hunt. Chr. (wrongly). 

II or 3 years, BC ; ii years, A, given to Eochaid, Run's son ; 12 years, 
DEGHIK; 10 or 18 years, LM ; 15 years, N; 13 years. Hunt. Chr.; 
omitted, Duan. 

See years 878, 889. 

''11 years, ABCDEFHIMN and L (secondary source) ; 2 years, GK ; 
4 years, Duan ; 9 years. Hunt. Chr. L's primary source omits Donald, 
Constantine's son, and says that Giric's successor was Constantine, Donald's 
son, who reigned for 2 years. 

See years 889, 900. 

8 40 years, ABDFGIKN ; 45 years, CHLM and Hunt. Chr. ; 25 years, 
E; 30 years, L (secondary source); 46 years, Duan. (For "Beth" in H 



cxxxviii INTRODUCTION 

Malcolm, Donald's son, reigned for nine years.^ 
Culen, son of Indulf, son of Constantine, reigned for three 
years.^ 

Kenneth, Malcolm's son, reigned for seven years.^ 
Culen, Indulfs son, reigned for four years.* 

read Heth "Aed" ; there is frequent confusion between the letters B and 
H.) L's primary source omits Constantine (but see the previous note). 
See years 900 and 943. 

' 9 years, BCDEFGHI and Hunt. Chr. ; 11 years, A ; 10 years, K ; 
20 or 9 years, L ; 20 years, M ; 8 years, Duan ; omitted, N. 

See years 943, 954. 

Version L concludes thus (ibid., 297) : " It is to be noted that in other 
chronicles of the kings of Scotland, variations occur as well in the names 
of certain of the kings written above, as in the numbers of the years during 
which they are said to have reigned. 

" Also it is to be noted that this name Malcolm, in the names of the kings 
mentioned above, is versified in metre as a name of four syllables ; because 
it is placed at the end of pentameter verses ; and the penultimate [syllable] 
is short. But commonly it is pronounced in three syllables, and the second 
syllable ends in / and the third begins with the letter m ; so that it is 
pronounced Mal-col-mus." (The form Malcolomus occurs in the Verse 
Chronicle, ibid., 180; sic lege, 182. The name is derived from Irish 
Mael-coluimb, " devotee of Columba.") 

2 " Culen, son of Indulf, son of Constantine " BC ; " Indulf, son of 
Constantine" DEFGHILM and Hunt. Chr., correctly ; " Indulf " AN and 
Duan. Omit " Culen, son of." 

3 years, B ; 8 years, A and Duan ; 4 years, C ; 9 years, DEFGHILMN 
and Hunt. Chr. ; 10 years, K. 

See years 954, 962. 

3 "Kenneth": "or Dub" interlined in later hand in BC. This is a 
confusion with the Kenneth who followed Culen, and arises from the 
previous mistake of Culen for Indulf in BC. Read "Dub" (i.e., "the 
Black"): Niger, A; Duf, DEHIKLMN and Hunt. Chr.; Buf, F; 
Diibhoda, Duan. 

7 years, BC and Duan ; 5 years, A ; 4 years, 6 months, DEFGIKLM 
and Hunt. Chr. ; 10 years, L (secondary source) ; 3 years, 6 months, H ; 
4 years, N. 

See years 962, 967. 

^ " Culen" (i.e. "whelp") : Caniculus and Culenring in A. 

" IndulPs son" BCDEFHIKLM and Hunt. Chr. 

4 years, BN and Duan ; 5 years, A ; 4 years, 6 months, DEFGHILM ; 
4 years, 7 months, K ; 10 years, L (secondary source) ; 5 years, 3 months. 
Hunt. Chr. C omits everything between this occurrence of the name 
"Culen" and the next, and reads : "Culen, one year and a half" : this is 
to be corrected to " [Constantine, son of] Culen." See below. 

See years 967, 971. 



INTRODUCTION cxxxix 

Kenneth, Malcolm's son, reigned for twenty-four years.^ 
Constantine, son of Culen, [reigned] for one year and 
a half.2 

Kenneth, Dub's son, reigned for eight years.^ 
Malcolm, Kenneth's son, reigned for thirty years.* 

' "Malcolm's son" ADEGHIK and L (secondary source); "Colum's 
son" BF. 

24 years, BN and L (secondary source) ; 24 years, 2 months, DFGIK ; 
22 years, 2 months, EH ; 27 years, Duan (read 24) ; blank, A ; omitted, 
CLM and Hunt. Chr. 

See years 971, 995. 

^ I year, 6 months, BDFGHIK and L (secondary source) ; i year, 
4 months, E; 2 years, N; 7 years, Duan. In C, read: "[Constantine, 
son of] Culen, i J years." 

See years 995, 997. 

3 " Kenneth, Dub's son " BCE. 

8 years, BC ; i^ years, E ; omitted, DN. 

LM read (after the reign of Dub, Malcolm's son) : "To Dub succeeded 
Kenneth, his son ; and he reigned for i year and three months." 

FGIK place here instead : "Giric, son of Kenneth, Dub's son " {Girus, 
F; Grig, GI ; Grige, K.) L's secondary source reads : " after [Constantine, 
Culen's son]. Grim, Kenneth's son, 8 years." 

8 years, FGIL ; 9 years, K. 

See year 1005. 

« 30 years, BCDEFGHIKLMN, Duan, and Hunt. Chr. Malcolm 
reigned 1005- 1034. 

Versions E and H give the kings in correct order from Malcolm I to 
Malcohn H : 

1. Malcohii I, son of Donald II . . [943-954 

2. Indulf, son of Constantine II . . . 954-962 

3. Dub, son of Malcolm I . . . 962-966 

4. Culen, son of Indulf .... 966-97 1 

5. Kenneth II, son of Malcolm I . . 971-995 

6. Constantine III, son of Culen . . 995-997 

7. Kenneth III, son of Dub . . . 997-1005 

8. Malcolm II, son of Kenneth II . . 1005-1034] 

1 is omitted by N. 

2 is falsely given by BC as Culen, son of Indulf, son of Constantine. 

3 is called Kenneth, son of Malcolm, by BC. 
Between 3 and 4, N inserts Malcolm. 
Between 4 and 5, A inserts Culenring. 

5 and 6 are omitted by C (through a scribal error). 

7 is omitted by N, and is called Girus, Grig, and Grim, son of Kenneth, 
in F, GIK, and L's secondary source. 

L's primary source, M, and the Huntingdon Chronicle, omit 5 and 6, 
and place 7 between 3 and 4. 



cxl INTRODUCTION 

Duncan, Malcolm's grandson, reigned for six years.^ 
Macbeth, [Findlaech's] son, reigned for sixteen years.^ 
Lulach [reigned] for five months.^ 
Malcolm, Duncan's son, afterwards.* 

Chronicle of the Kings of Scotland, version L ; Skene's 
Picts and Scots, pp. 296-297 

Malcolm, Duncan's son, succeeded Lulach, and reigned for 
thirty-seven years and four months.^ And this Malcolm was 
the husband of the queen St Margaret, and had by her four 
sons, Duncan, Edgar, Alexander, and David." 

Donald, Malcolm's brother, succeeded him, and reigned for 
three years and six months ; in another book, for six months 
only.^ 

1 "Malcolm's grandson" BC ; "his grandson" HLM. (For Enis in 
text of H read ejus.) 

6 years, BDFGIK, and L (secondary source), and Duan ; 7 years, C; 
5 years, 9 months, LM and Hunt. Chr. ; 5 years, N ; omitted, E. Duncan 
reigned 1034- 1040. 

2 " Macbeth " : — Macbethad, B ; Macbeathad^ C ; Mecbeathaidh (in 
genitive case), Duan ; Maket, D and Hunt. Chr. ; Macheik, EG (a 
copyist's error, k for b) ; Macbeth, FL ; Machet, H ; Macbet (and 
previously Macbeth) in I ; Machbeht, M ; omitted, N. BC and Duan give 
the name in Irish dress. 

" Findlaech's " : — Fin mic Laig, BC ; Fytigel, D ; Findleg, E ; Finlen 
(and previously Fialeg), F ; Fingel {Fyngel), G ; Fineleih, H ; Fynleth 
(without "son of"), LM ; Fingel, N; Fionnlaoich (in genitive case), in 
Duan. (These are the spellings in Skene's texts.) 

16 years, BCK ; 17 years, DEFGHIKLMN and Duan; 15 years, 
Hunt. Chr. Macbeth reigned 1040-1057. 

3 "Lulach": Luluch, B; Lulach, CDFIK ; Lulac, E; Dulach, G; 
Lusach, H ; Luchlach, L ; Luthlach, M ; Gulak, N ; Lughlaigh (in 
genitive case), Duan. 

5 months, BC ; 4 months, DFGI ; i,\ months, E ; 4^- years (read 
"months"), H; I month, K; 3I months, LM ; 4 years, N; 7 months, 
Duan ; omitted, Hunt. Chr. Lulach reigned 1057-1058. 

* " Malcolm, son of Colum, son of Duncan, afterwards" C. 

■' 37 years, 4 months, L ; 37! years, 4 months, E ; 37 years, 8 months, 
FGI ; 37 years, H and Hunt. Chr. ; 37 years, 6 months, K ; 36 years, 
4 months, M ; 30 years, N. Malcolm III reigned 1058-1093 (Nov- 
ember 13th). 

L and M are here the only unexpanded versions. 

•^ Duncan was the son of a previous wife. A similar error occurs in M. 

' " Malcolm's brother " : "his brother" EHLM ; " Duncan's son " FGI. 



INTRODUCTION cxii 

Duncan, Malcolm's eldest son, succeeded Donald, and reigned 
for half a year.^ 

Edgar, Duncan's brother, succeeded him, and reigned for 
nine years; elsewhere it is said that, between Duncan and 
Edgar, Donald reigned again for three years.^ 

Alexander, the third brother, succeeded Edgar, and reigned 
for sixteen years and three months ; in another book, for 
[seventeen] years.^ 

David, Alexander's brother, succeeded him, and reigned for 
thirty-nine years ; in another [book,] for twenty-nine.* 

Malcolm, son of Henry, earl of Northumbria, king David's 
son, succeeded David, and reigned for twelve years and a half, 
and three days.^ 

3i years or 6 months, L ; 3 years or 6 months, M ; 3 years and 7 months, 
E ; 1 5 years, H ; 4 years, N (including Duncan's reign). 

The 3 years belong to Donald's second reign. The Huntingdon 
Chronicle places the sum (3^ years) under his second reign. Donald 
reigned during the winter and spring of 1093-1094, and from late in 1094 
to late in 1097. 

1 "Malcolm's eldest son" LM ; "Malcolm's son" EFGI ; "illegitimate 
son of Malcolm" H. 

i year, ELM ; 6 months, FG and Hunt. Chr. ; omitted, HN. Duncan 
reigned during the summer and autumn of 1094. 

^ To the same effect in M. 

FGIK place Donald's second reign (3 years) before Edgar's, correctly. 

"Duncan's brother": "his brother" LM ; "Malcolm's son" EI ; "son 
of Malcolm and Margaret " H. 

9 years, FHILM and Hunt. Chr. ; 9 years, 3 months, G ; 9 years, 
4 months, K ; 10 years, N. Edgar reigned 1097-1 107 (January 8th). 

^ For " 71 years " in text read 17. 

i6years, 3 months, LM ; i7years, 3 months, EFH ; I7years, 35 months, 
GIK ; 16 years. Hunt. Chr. ; omitted by N. Alexander 1 reigned 1107-1124 
(April 23rd). 

* 39 years, LM and Hunt. Chr. ; 30 years, E ; 29 years, 3 months, FGl ; 
29 years, HL ; 39 years, 3 months, K ; 20 years, N. (N transposes David 
and Malcolm, and, after David's reign, reads : " Henry reigned for 20 
years, and was buried at Dunfermline.") David reigned 11 24- 11 53 (May 
24th). 

^12^ years, 3 days, LM ; 12 years, 6 months, 13 days, E ; 12 years, 
6 months, 20 days, FGIK ; 12^ years, H ; 12 years, N (before David's 
reign); I2| years, 14 days, Hunt. Chr. Malcolm IV reigned 1153-1165 
(December 9th). 



cxlii INTRODUCTION 

William, Malcolm's brother, succeeded him, and reigned for 
forty-nine years but sixteen days.^ 

Alexander, William's son, succeeded him, and reigned for 
thirty-six years and nine months ; and in another [book,] 
for thirty-five.^ 

Alexander, Alexander's son, succeeded him, and reigned for 
thirty-six years and nine months.^ 

John de Balliol succeeded Alexander, after seven intervening 
years, and reigned for four years.* 

Robert de Bruce, usurper, succeeded John, and reigned for 
twenty-four years.^ 



Fland Mainistreoh, Synchronisms ; Skene's Picts and Scots, 

pp. 18-22 

Forty-three years from the time when Patrick came to 
Ireland, to the battle of Ocha.'' Twenty years after the battle 
of Ocha, the children of Ere, son of Eochaid Muin-remar, went 

' 49 years but 16 days, L ; 52 years, FG ; 49 years, HM ; 50 years, 
IKN ; 48 years, Hunt Chr. ; left blank in E, which stops here. William 
reigned 1165-1214 (December 4th). 

2 36 years, 9 months, LM ; 32 years, G ; 35 years, HLN ; 33 years, I ; 
37 years, K ; 26 years, Hunt. Chr. N confuses Alexander II with 
Alexander HI, Avhom it omits. Alexander II reigned 12 [4-1249 (July 8th). 

3 36 years, 9 months, L ; 36 years, G ; 39 years, I ; 37 years, KN. 
Alexander HI reigned 1249-1286 (March l6th). 

Version I concludes thus: "The sum of the years from the time of 
Kenneth to the time of the last Alexander [is] 567 [years]. .And the land 
has been quiescent [si7uii] without a king for as many years as have 
intervened." The number is wrong. 

* 1292-1296. 

^ 27th March 1 306 -f 7th June 1329. 

L continues to the reign of David Bruce [1329-1371], and to the appear- 
ance of David's opponent, Edward Balliol. 

•^ Patrick went to Ireland in 432 ; the battle of Ocha is placed in 
482 or 483 by A.U. (i, 26), i.e. 482x484. (In the Ulster Annals the 
year 481=481, but 486 = 487; the intermediate years are not clearly 
indicated.) The Chronicon Scotorum (28) places the battle in [484] (f.n. i, 
Hennessy's year 484). A.I. (O'Conor's year 477) place it 77 years before 
559, i.e., in 482. Eland's calculation would place the battle in 474 or 475 ; 
the Annals of Clonmacnoise's version of Fland seems to have dated it in 
478 (apparently reading xhn instead of xlh'i). 



INTRODUCTION cxliii 

to Scotland; namely six sons of Ere : two Anguses, two Loarns, 
two Ferguses.^ 

Twenty-four years from the battle of Ocha to the death of 
Diarmait, Fergus Cerr-bel's son.^ . . . 

In this time five kings [reigned] in Scotland : Fergus Mor 
Erc's son ; Angus Mor, Erc's son ; Domangart, Fergus' son ; 
Comgall, Domangart's son ; Gabran, Domangart's son.^ . . . 

' Cf. Genealogy II after the Senchus (below, p. cliv). Fland's calcula- 
tion would place the arrival of Fergus in Scotland in the year 495. But 
cf. the version in the Annals of Clonmacnoise, pp. 71-72 : "There reigned 
in Munster two kings, Angus and Felim, 20 years after the battle of Ocha, 
where Ailill Molt was slain. 

" The sons of Ere went over into Scotland in the year 498, which is the 
year 478[-l-]20, that is 483 [-f] 15" [anjio 498 qui est anno 478, 20 sed so 
483-15). I.e., the calculation is 20 years from 478, but has been corrected 
in a gloss to 15 years from 483, the date of the battle of Ocha, derived 
from some other source. But that battle is placed by the Annals of 
Clonmacnoise in 487. 

^ Diarmait's death is recorded by A.U. (i, 60) under the year 564 = 565 
(with f.n. and e. of 565) ; by A.I., in O'Conor's year 556 = 564 (35 years before 
599). The period from 482/483 to 564/565 is 82 years ; Fland's 24 must be 
the result of an error in transcription. 

^ Loarn, Fergus, and Angus, may have reigned together. Loarn's reign 
is said to have preceded that of Fergus. Angus's reign is not indicated by 
the chronicles. 

For the deaths of Fergus, Domangart, Comgall, and Gabran, see below, 
years 501, 506, 537, 559. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 72 (after the voyage of Erc's sons to Dalriata) : 
"Pope Hilarius died, to whom succeeded pope Simphcius [468]. 

" The city of Ravenna was quite destroyed by an earthquake " (467 ; 
Marcellinus Comes, M.G.H., Auctores, xi, 89). 

" During the reigns of the said kings, that is to say the reign of king 
Lugaid, Loegaire's son" (king of Ireland, 484-1507, 508, or 512), "king 
Muiredach, king Tuathal Maelgarb [537-544], and king Diarmait [544 or 
545 - 1565 or 572], there reigned in Scotland five kings, who were Domangart, 
Fergus (whom I should first name), Angus, Comgall, son of Domangart, 
and Gabran his other son ; during which time there reigned in Ulster four 
kings, namely Eochaid Conla's son [f 558], Fergna [f 557], Deman [f 572], 
and Baetan, Cairell's son" (t58i or 587. These four kings have 46 years' 
reign in the Book of Leinster's list of kings (facsimile, 41c) : 20, 5, 11, 10.) 

" In Munster there reigned three kings : Eochaid, Crimthan, and 
Scandlan. In Connaught also there reigned five kings, namely Owen or 
Oilill [t 550], Fitz-Owen or Duach Tenga-umai [f 502], Eochaid Tirm-charna, 
and Feradach Mac- Rosa." (Eochaid and Feradach have 20 and 30 years' 
reigns in the Book of Leinster, 41a.) 



cxliv INTRODUCTION 

Thirty-six years from tlie death of Diarmait, Cerball's son, 
to the death 1 of Aed, Ainmire's son.^ . . . 

Two kings reigned in Scotland in that time: Conall, 
Comgall's son, and Aidan, Gabran's son. Aidan had five years 
after Aed, Ainmire's son.^ . . . 

Sixty-three years from the death of Aed, Ainmire's son, to 
the death of Donald, Aed's son.* . . . 

Four kings [reigned] over Scotland in that time : 
Eochaid Buide (Aidan's son ^) ; and Connad Cerr, [Eochaid 
Buide's] son, who killed (Fiach[n]a^) Deman's son; and 

' Down to here the Edinburgh MS. is hardly legible ; Skene's text is 
taken from the Book of Lecan. Henceforward the Edinburgh MS. is the 
basis of Skene's text : additions from the other MSS., d and c (the Book of 
Lecan and Rawlinson B 512), are indicated by round brackets. 

1 have compared Skene's text with the Edinburgh MS. The quotations 
from the other MSS. are taken uncorrected from Skene's notes. 

2 Aed died in 597 = 598, according to A.U., i, 76 (with f n. and e. of 598) ; 
in [596] = 6oo? according to T. and C.S. (Hennessy's year 598, f.n. i). A.I. 
(O'Conor's year 593) place Aed's death 2 years after 599. Eland's calcula- 
tion of 36 years after 564/565 would place Aed's death between 599 and 601. 
Perhaps 601 is the true date. 

^ Conall died ca. 574, Aidan ca. 608. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 80, s.a. 547: "Diarmait, Fergus Cerball's son, 
began his reign [544 or 545] immediately after king Tuathal was killed [544] 
and reigned 20 years ; from the beginning of the reign of king Diarmait to 
the death of Aed Ainmire's son \_Hugh mcAinnreagh\ was 36 years, during 
which time there reigned in Ireland the number of seven kings, viz. Donald 
[7566], Fergus [1567], Baetan [t 572], Eochaid [t 572], Baetan [f 586], 
Ainmire [t575], and Aed his son. There reigned also in Scotland two 
kings, Conall Comgall's son, and Aidan {HugKl Gabran's son. There 
reigned likewise in the province of Ulster two kings, Daig Cairell's son" 
{David mcConnell; 1587], "and Aed Dub, Suibne's son [t 588]. In 
Leinster there reigned two kings, Colman [t 555, 558, or 563] and Aed 
[t 598] ; in Ossory two kings, Colman and Cendfaelad \Ceanfoyld\ ; and in 
Munster four kings reigned, Felim, Aed, Garvey, and Amalgaid \_Atiley\ ; 
and in like manner in the province of Connaught there reigned two kings, 
that is to say Maelcathaig {Moylecahy\ and Aed." 

* Donald's death is placed by the Irish annals in the same year as 
Donald Brecc's ; see year 643, below. The length of Eland's next period 
shows that the number here is wrong. We should probably read xliii for 
teVz, i.e. ca. 600 - ca. 643. 

'" "Aidan's son" not in the Edinburgh MS. (Skene's MS. a). 
° " Fiacha " omitted by MS. a. See year 627. 



INTRODUCTION cxiv 

Ferchar, Conaing's son ; and Donald Brecc, Eochaid Buide's 
son.i . . . 

A hundred and five years from the death of Donald, son of 
Aed (son of Ainmire ^), to the death of Aed Alddain, the son of 
Fergal.^ . . . 

There were nine kings over Scotland in that time : Conall 
Crandomna, and Duncan, Duban's son, and Duncan Dond,* 
and Duncan,^ and Ferchar Fota, and Eochaid Rianamail,^ and 

^ Eochaid Buide died ca. 630 ; Connad Cerr died in the same year. 
Ferchar's reign is not noticed in the annals, but his death is entered by 
A.U. 50 years after Fland's Hmit of his reign ; see year ?65i. 

Donald Brecc died (apparently) ca. 643. For the divergence among the 
chronicles see the table, above, p. cxxxi. For the divergence among the 
Irish annals, see year 643, note. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 97, s.a. 590 (after the death of Columba [f 597], 
and the battle of Dunbolg [598]) : " Colman Rimid and Aed Slane reigned 
jointly seven years. There were 43 years [ca. 600-643] froni the death of 
king Aed Ainmire's son to [the death of] Donald, Aed's son" (in text 
mcEarckd) ; " during which time there reigned in Ireland seven kings, viz. 
Colman [578 -f 604], Aed Slane [598-1604], Aed Uairidnech, Maelcoba 
[6i2-t6i5], Suibne Mend [615-1628], and Donald. There reigned in 
Scotland four kings, Eochaid Buide, Connad Cerr, Ferchar Duncan's son, 
and Donald. There reigned in Ulster four kings : Fiachna Baetan's son 
[t ca. 626], Fiachna [Deman's son, f 627], Congal [Caech, f 637], and Duncan 
[Fiachna's son, t647]. In Leinster three kings, Brandub Eochaid's son 
[1605], Ronan [1624], Crimthan [1633], Cualann, and Faelan" (king in 
628). " In Ossory three kings : Scandlan Cendfaelad's son \incKinley\ 
Tuaimsnama [Twayntsnawa, 1678], and Faelchu l^ffoylcha^; and in the 
province of Munster, Cathal, Failbe [t637], Curaw, and Maenach son of 
Fingin [f 662] ; and lastly in the province of Connaught there reigned 
Uata [ffwadagh; t6oi or 602], Colman Cobthach's son [t622], and 
Ragall[ach] (of whom the O'Kellys) son of Uata [1649 or 656]. ..." 

2 Not in MS. a. 

= I.e., from ca. 643 to 743 (A.U., i, 202, s.a. 742 = 743). 

* Read with MSS. b and c " Donald Dond." 

° Read with MSS. b and c " Maelduin, Conall's son." 

° Eocho rianamhail. "Aed Find's son" is added in MSS. b and c 
(or one of them), incorrectly. 

Eochaid, Aed Find's son, appears from the pedigrees to have been the 
grandfather of Kenneth, Alpin's son. The present Eochaid (t ca. 697) 
was Domangart's son, and Aed's Find's grandfather. See year 697, and 
p. cxxxii. 



cxlviii INTRODUCTION 

A hundred and thirty years from the death of Aed Find-liath 
to the death of Brian Boroime.i _ _ 

by Conall, Aidan's son, who may be the " brother " referred to (i.e., cousin, 
or brother-in-law? Cf. year 713, note). 

Constantine has g years' reign over Dahiata in the Duan (?8ii -fSao). 
He was king of the Picts 789-1820. 

Aed, Boanta's son, has 4 years' reign in the Duan. He died in 839. 

Eoganan has 13 years' reign over Dalriata in the Duan. He was king 
of the Picts ?836-t839. 

Alpin n probably reigned for a time in Dalriata before Kenneth. 

Eoganan II is not elsewhere mentioned. 

Kenneth, Alpin's son, was king of the Picts and of Argyle from 843 to 
858. Fland's reckoning would place Kenneth's death about 879, i.e. about 
21 years too late. 

The Duan Albanach agrees closely with Fland from the reign of Ferchar 
Fota onwards, but omits Selbach and Eochaid, and Fergus and Eochaid ; 
in Skene's P. & S., -61-62 : "Seven years of Dungal the impetuous, and 
Alpin had four ; three years of Muiredach the good, and Aed had thirty as 
sovereign. Donald passed twenty-four years with might. Two years of 
Conall (a brilliant step), and four of another Conall. Nine years of the fair 
Constantine, nine of Angus over Scotland ; four years of glorious Aed, and 
thirteen of Eoganan. Thirty years of severe Kenneth. . . ." 

The epithets in the Duan (Dungal Dian, Muiredach Maith, Cusaintin 
Cain, Aed An, Cionaith Cruaid) are selected for assonance. Sometimes 
perhaps the Duan's numbers also have been adapted to the metre. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 115-116, s.a. 734 = 737: "Aed Alddain {Hugh 
Allari\ reigned 9 years. 

"There was 132 years between the death of Aed Alddain and the death 
of king Aed Find-liath [743-879]. During which time there reigned in 
Ireland 8 kings, which were Fergal, Niall Frossach [763 - f 769], Aed 
Oirdnide \Hughornye; fSig], Duncan [t797], Connor Duncan's son [7833], 
Niall Glundub \Glunduffe ; read " Caille," f 846], Maelsechlaind [f 862], and 
Aed Find-liath [j 879]. 

"There reigned in Scotland 26 kings, videlicet: Dungal, Alpin, Muire- 
dach, Conall, Conall, Angus, Fergus, Eochaid, Donald, Constantine, Eogan 
{Oweri^, Alpin, Eogan Cendbuide" {Owen Kymboye, as if one man), 
" Fiachna, Eochaid {EochyX Tomaltach \ffomaliagh\ Carcall, Maelbressail 
\Moylebressal\ Muiredach, Matadan Lethlobar \Morieagh Madadan, 
Leathlovar], Anfith [Ainvith\ Eochagan, Eremon, Fiachna Eremon's son, 
Muiredach, and Eochaid" {Ahagh; 878-889. This is a padded list.) 

" There reigned in Leinster 13 kings, videlicet: Cellach [t776], Ruadri 
\Rory ; 1785], Bran [f 79S], Findachta [f 808], Muiredach [t 829], Cellach 
[t 834], Bran [835 - 1 838], Ruarc [f 862], Dunlaing, Tuathal [t 854], Dunlaing, 
and Donald {Daniell ; f 884]." These annals proceed to give lists of the 
kings of Ossory, of Munster, and of Connaught, within the same period. 

' I.e. from 879 to 1014. (Skene's text reads " 138 years," which is 
doubtless the reading in one or both of the other MSS.) 



INTRODUCTION cxlix 

Fourteen ^ kings reigned over Scotland in that time, namely 
Donald, Alpin's son ^ ; and Constantine, Kenneth's son ^ ; and 
(Aed, Kenneth's son *) ; Giric, Dungal's son ^ ; and Donald 
Dasachtach (Constantine's son^); Constantine, Aed's son''; 
and Malcolm, Donald's son^; and Indulf, Constantine's (son^); 
and Dub, Malcolm's son i" ; and Culen, Indulf's son"; and 
Kenneth, Malcolm's son ^^ ; and Constantine, Culen's son ^^ ; and 
Kenneth, Dub's son " ; and Malcolm, Kenneth's son. . . . ^^ 

Continuation of Fland Mainistrech ; Skene's Picts and 
Scots, p. 119^'^ 

A hundred and four years from the battle of Brian to the 
death of Muirchertach, Toirdelbach's son.^' . . . 

Five kings reigned in Scotland during that time : Duncan, 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 116: "There are 138 years from the death of 
king Aed Find-hath to the death of king Brian Boroime [879-1014], that 
was killed by the Danes in the battle of Clontarf. During which time 
there reigned in Ireland 6 kings, viz. : Fland, Maelsechlaind's son [t9iS], 
Niall Glundub [1919], Congalach [t956], Donald [1980], Maelsechlaind 
Donald's son [f 1022], and king Brian [f 1014]." 

1 "Fifteen" in MSS. b and f. "Fourteen . . . time" is now illegible 
in MS. a. " Fifteen " is the correct reading ; MS. a has omitted Aed, 
Kenneth's son. 

2 Donald reigned probably 858-862. 

^ Constantine reigned probably 862-S77. 
* Not in MS. a. Aed reigned probably 877-878. 
^ Giric and Eochaid reigned 878-889. 
" Not in MS. a. Donald reigned 889-900. 
' Constantine, 900-943. 
^ Malcolm, 943-954. 

" Not in MS. a. Indulf reigned 954-962. 

1° Dub, 962-966. After his reign, MSS. 6 and c insert: "and Aear, 
Malcolm's son" (Skene, P. & S., p. xxxi). 
" Culen, 966-971. 
12 Kenneth, 971-995. 
'^ Constantine, 995-997. 
" Kenneth, 997-1005. 
15 Malcolm, 1005-1034. 

1" Edited by Skene (with a translation) from the Book of Lecan, and 
MS. Rawlinson B 512. 

" Muirchertach Ua-Briain died in 11 19, according to A.U., ii, 100; 
the continuation of Tigernach, Revue Celtique, xviii, 40 ; A.I., O'Conor's 
Scriptores, ii, 2, 103 ; Chronicon Scotorum, 320 ; and F.M., ii, 1008. The 
period intended is therefore 1014-1119. 



cl INTRODUCTION 

Crinan's son 1 ; Duncan, Malcolm's son 2; Macbeth, Findlaech's 
son 3; Lulach, Macbeth's son*; Malcolm, Duncan's son.^ He 
it was who was killed by the French, along with Edward, 
his son. 

Senchus Fer n-Alban, in the Book of Ballymote, facsimile, 

p. 148 « 

Here begins the abbreviation of the history of the men of 
Scotland. 

Two sons of Eochaid Muin-remor, namely Ere and Olchu. 
And Ere, Eochaid's son, had twelve sons ; six of them took 
possession of Scotland ; — two Loarns, Loarn Bee and Loarn 
Mor ; and two sons of [Nes],^ Macc-Misi Bee and Macc-Misi 
Mor ; [and] two [sons] Fergus, Fergus Bee and Fergus Mor. 
Six others were in Ireland, namely Macc-Deichill ; Angus, 
whose descendants are in Scotland ; Enda, Bressal, Fiachra, 
Dubthach. Others say that Ere had another son, whose name 
was Muiredach. 

Olchu, Eochaid Muin-remar's son, had eleven sons, who 
inhabited Muirbolg with the [men of] Dalriata ; namely Muir- 
edach Bole, Aed, Guaire, Daire, Angus, Tuathal, Anblomaid, 
Eochaid, Setna, Briasomu, Cormac. 

Fergus, Erc's son, was another name of Macc-Misi Mor. He 
had one son, Domangart. Domangart had two sons, Gabran ^ 
and Comgall, both sons of Fedlim, daughter of Briun, son of 
Eochaid Muigmedon. Comgall had one son, Conall. Conall 
had seven sons : — Loingsech, Nechtan, Artan, Tuathan, Tutio, 
Coirpre. 

Gabran had five sons : — Aed Find,'' Eogan, Cuiltech, 
Donald, Domangart. 

' Duncan, Crinan's son, reigned 1034-1040. 

^ Duncan, Malcolm's son, 1094. 

^ Macbeth, 1040- 1057. 

^ Lulach, 1057-1058. 

^ Malcolm III, 1058- 1093. 

^ Skene edited this tract, with a translation, from the Trinity College 
(Dublin) MS. H.2.7, collating the versions in the Book of Ballymote and 
the Book of Lecan, in his P. & S., 308-314. 

' For Misi read Nisej so also below. 

^ In MS. Garbanj so also below. 

^ Read " Aldan " ; so also below. 



INTRODUCTION cli 

Aed Find had seven sons : — two Eochaids, Eochaid Buide 
and Eochaid Find ; Tuathal, Bran, Baithine, Conaing, Gartnait. 

Eochaid Buide, Aidan's son, had eight sons : — Donald Brecc, 
and Donald Dond, and Conall Crandomna, Conall Breg, 
Connad Cerr, Failbe, Domangart, Cu-cen-mathir. 

Eochaid [Find] had eight sons; — Baetan, Pertan, Pletan, 
Cormac, Cronan, Feradach, Fedlimid, Caplen. 

These were the sons of Conaing, Aidan's son: — Rigallan, 
Ferchar, Artan, Arthur, Duncan, Domangart, Nechtan, Nem, 
Crumene. 

Four sons of Gartnait, Aidan's son, namely [ . . . ].^ 

Two sons of Tuathal, son of Morgan, son of Eochaid Find, 
son of Aidan, son of Gabran, [grandson of Fergus Mor]. Now 
[Fergus Mor's] brother was Fergus Bee, son of Ere Geodnaid. 
He had one son, Setna, from whom descend the tribe of Setna, 
or Setne, son of Fergus Bee, son of Ere, son of Eochaid Muin- 
remor. 

Angus Mor and Loarn and Macc-Misi Mor were three sons 
of Ere, on that side. 

Angus Mor, Erc's son, had two sons, Natsluaig and Fergna. 

Fergna had seven sons: — Tuathal, Aed Letho, Riagan, 
Fiachu, Guaire, Canntann, Eocho. 

And Natsluaig had two sons, Barrfind and Caiblene. 

Two sons of Barrfind, Naem and Tulchan. 

Tulchan had four sons : — Cronan, Breccan, Domancon, 
Mend. 

Other people say that Natsluaig had three sons: — Lugaid, 
Conall, Galan. 

Caiblene, Natsluaig's son, had four sons: — Aidan, Lugaid, 
Crumaine, Gentine, who was also called Min.^ 

Barrfind, Natsluaig's son, had three sons: — Lugaid, Conall, 
Canan. Their mother was a Pict,^ and they divided the land in 
Islay.* 

Now Angus Bee, Erc's son, had one son, Muiredach. 

[There are] a hundred villages in Islay: — in Odeich, twenty 

' There has been some omission in this sentence ; but no gap appears 
in the text of the Book of Ballymote. 
^ qui et inin. 
^ Cruithneach. 
* orba anili. 



ciii INTRODUCTION 

houses; in Freg, a hundred and twenty houses; in Clad-rois, 
sixty houses; in Rosdeorand, thirty houses; in Ardbes, 
thirty houses ; in Loichrois, thirty houses ; in Ath-caisil, 

thirty . . .^ 

The tribe of Angus :— thirty houses in Caillnae, but the 
holdings are small, namely thirty-one men. The fighting- 
strength ^ of the army of the tribes of Angus, five hundred 
men. The fighting-strength of the tribes of Gabran, three 
hundred men ; but if the expedition be by sea, forty-two 
men (?) go from them upon the campaign.^ 

Now the three parts of Dalriata are the tribe of Gabran, and 
the tribe of Angus, and the tribe of Loarn Mor. 

These were the sons of Loarn Mor: — Eochaid, Cathba, 
Muiredach, Fuindenam, Fergus Salach, two Maines. Others 
say that Loarn had only three sons, Fergus Salach, and Muire- 
dach, and Maine. 

These are the three divisions of the tribe of Loarn : — the 
tribe of Fergus Salach, and the tribe of Cathba, and the tribe 
of Eochaid, Muiredach's son. The tribe of Fergus have sixty 
houses. The fighting-strength of the tribe of Loarn is seven 
hundred men ; but the seventh hundred is composed of the 
people of Oriel.* But in the case of a sea campaign, fourteen 
go still from every twenty houses.^ 

Fergus Salach had five sons: — Caeldub, who had thirty 
houses ; Eogan Garb, who had thirty houses ; and his wife was 
Crodu, daughter of Dalian, son of Eogan, son of Niall ; Fergna, 
who had fifteen houses ^ ; Eogan, who had five houses ; Baetan, 
who had five houses. 

Muiredach, Loam's son, had two sons, Cathba and Eochaid. 
Eochaid, Muiredach's son, had five sons: — Feradach, who had 

1 ininsinj possibly read inmsin " in that [land] " ? 

2 fecht airmi. 

^ mad fecht imorro for imramh, uiishese\r\ uaidib i fecht. Skene's text 
has : vij. vij. sese uaidibh, which he translates " twice seven benches of 
them." The text is probably corrupt, and my rendering of it is merely 
conjectural. The calculation below gives 392 men. We might have 
expected here a number 140, or 150. 

* dinib Airgiall. 

^ da secht bes o each xx. iteach dib. 

" Fergna coig tigi dh ~ lais. 



INTRODUCTION cliii 

twenty houses ; Cormac, who had twenty houses ; Pletan and 
Cronan, who had twenty houses between them. And three sons 
of Cathba: — Brenaind, Ainmire, Cronan. 

A hundred and fifty men were the navy that went with the 
sons of Ere ; the third fifty were Coirpre with his people. 

The tribe of Gabran [has] five hundred and sixty houses 
[in] Kintyre, and [in] the territory of Comgall/ with its islands. 
Fourteen to every twenty houses, for sea campaign. The tribe 
of Angus has four hundred and thirty houses ; fourteen to 
every twenty houses, for sea campaign. The tribe of Loarn 
has four hundred and twenty houses ; fourteen to every twenty 
houses, for sea campaign. 



Genealogies from the Book of Ballymote, pp. 148-149^ 
Here begins the genealogy of the men of Scotland. 

I 

Constantine, son of [Culen],^ son of Indulf, son of Con- 
stantine, son of Aed,* son of Kenneth, son of Alpin, son of 
Eochaid, son of Aed Find, son of Eochaid,^ son of Domangart," 
son of Fergus, son of Ere, son of Angus, son of Fergus Ulach, 
son of Fiachra Tathmael,'' son of Fedlimid Lamdoit, son of 
Cince, son of Guaire, son of Cindtai, son of Coirpre Riata, son 
of Conaire Coem, son of Mug-lama,^ son of Coirpre Crom-chend, 
son of Daire Dornmor,^ son of Conaire Mor, son of Eterscel, son 
of Eogan, son of Ailill, son of lar, son of Dedad, son of Sin, son 

' I.e., Cowal, Argyleshire. 

2 Skene edited these pedigrees from the same three MSS. as the 
Senchus, to which they are appended, in his P. & S., 314-317. Cf. the 
slightly varying pedigree in Rawlinson B 502, facsimile, 162. 

^ Coluim; read Coliuin ? 

* "son of Aed," omitted by other pedigrees, is erroneous. 

■^ Add here " son of Eochaid." 

" Add : " Son of Donald Brecc, son of Eochaid Buide, son of Aldan, 
son of Gabran, son of Domangart," as in Rawlinson MS., and in B.B. 
pedigree II. 

" "Ere . . . Tathmael," to be corrected by pedigree II. 

^ " Conaire ..." The Rawlinson MS. reads " Conaire Coem, son of 
Lugaid." 

^ The Rawlinson MS. inserts "son of Coirpre." 



clvi INTRODUCTION 

mother was Fedlim Folt-choem, daughter of Briun, son of 
Eochaid Muigmedon. 

IV 

Congus, son of Consamla, son of Conai Garb, son of Gartnait, 
son of Aidan, son of Gabran. 

V 

Genealogy of the children of Loarn Mor. 

Ainfcellach, son of Ferchar Fota, son of Feradach, son of 
Fergus, son of Nechtan, son of Colum, son of Baetan, son of 
Eochaid, son of Muiredach, son of Loarn Mor, son of Ere, son 
of Eochaid Muin remor. 

Morgan,! sg^ gf Don[ald], son of Cathma[il], son of Ruadri, 
son of Ferchar, son of Muiredach, son of Baetan, son of Eochaid, 
son of Muiredach. 

VI 

Genealogy of the children of Comgall. 

Eochaid, son of Nechtan, son of Ferchar, son of Fingin, son 
of Eochaid, son of Loingsech, son of Comgall, son of Domangart, 
son of Macc-Misi Mor, son of Ere. 

VII 

Genealogy of the children of Angus. 

Angus, son of Boib, son of Ronan, son of Aidan, son of 
Coiblein, son of Natsluaig, son of Ronan, son of Angus, son of 
Ere, son of Eochaid Muin-remor. 

VIII 

Maelsnachtai, son of Lulach, son of Gillacom[gain],2 son of 
Maelbrigte, son of Ruadri, son of Morgan, son of Donald, 

1 The r in Morgan has been added above the line. The Book of Lecan 
has Moganj MS. a has Mongan (Skene, u.s., 316). 

^ Gillicom. Skene reads Gillicomgan, presumably from the Book of 
Lecan. 



INTRODUCTION clvii 

son of Cathmail, son of Ruadri, son of Aircellach, son of 
Ferchar Fota.^ 



Pedigree of the Scottish Kings, appended to version E of 
the Chronicle of the Kings of Scotland ; Skene's Picts 
and Scots, pp. 133-134^ 

King William the ruddy [was] the son of Henry, the son of 
David, the son of Malcolm, the son of Duncan, who was the 
grandson of Malcolm, the son of Kenneth, the son of Malcolm, 
the son of Donald, the son of Constantine, the son of Kenneth, 
the son of Alpin, the son of Eochaid, the son of Aed Find, the 
son of Eochaid, the son of Eochaid, the son of Domangart, the 
son of Donald Brecc, the son of Eochaid Buide, the son of 
Aidan, the son of Gabran, the son of Domangart, the son of 
Fergus, the son of Ere, the son of Eochaid Muin-remor, the son 
of Angus Fir, the son of Fedlimid Aislingech, the son of 
Angus Bujdnech, the son of Fedlimid Ruamnach, the son of 
Sen-chormac, the son of Cruitlinde, the son of Findfece, the son 
of Achircir, the son of Eochaid Antoit, the son of Fiachra 
Cathmail, the son of Eochaid Riata, the son of Conaire, the son 
of Mug-lama, the son of Lugaid, the son of Ellatig, the son of 
Coirpre Crom-chend, the son of Daire Dorn-mor, the son of 
Coirpre, the son of Admor, the son of Conaire Mor, the son of 
Eterscel, the son of Eogan. . . .^ 

Pedigree V appended to Annales Cambriae ; Y Cymmrodor, 
vol. ix, pp. 172-173* 

Run, son of Arthgal, son of Dumnagual, son of Riderch, son 
of Eugein, son of Dumnagual, son of Teudebur, son of Beli, son 

1 Pedigree VIII is not in MS. a (Skene). For "Aircellach" read 
" Ainfcellach." But this is not in agreement with pedigree V, above. 

- Also edited by Innes in his Critical Essay, 420-421. 

^ The pedigree is carried up to "Adam, the son of the living God." 

Cf. the pedigree in Fordun, Chronica, IV, 8 (i, 151) : "For this Kenneth 
was the son of king Alpin, son of Eochaid \Achay\ son of Aed Find, son of 
Eugenius, son of Findan, son of Eugenius, son of Domangart, son of Donald 
Brecc, son of Eugenius Buide, son of Aidan, son of Gabran, son of 
Domangart, son of Fergus, son of Erth." 

^ Also in Skene's P. & S., 15 ; Loth's Mabinogion (1889), ii, 308-309. 

I give the names here as they are spelt in the pedigree. 



clviii INTRODUCTION 

of Elfin, son of Eugein, son of Beli, son of Neithon, son of 
Guipno, son of Dumngual Hen, son of Cinuit, son of Ceretic 
Guletic,! son of Cynloyp, son of Cinhil, son of Cluim, son of 
Cursalen, son of Per, son of Confer. . . } 

1 This seems to have been the Coroticus of Patrick's Epistle. See 
R.S. 89, ii, 375-380; N. J. D. White, St Patrick (1920), 52-55, 111-112. 
Muirchu calls Coroticus Coirthech regem Aloo, i.e. "king of Dumbarton"; 
R.S. 89, ii, 271 ; White, U.S., 100. 

^ This pedigree continues thus : ipse est uero olitauc. dimor. meton. 
uenditits est. 



EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

A.D. 500 TO 1286 



EARLY SOURCES OF 
SCOTTISH HISTORY 

VOL. I— PART I 

Establishment of the Kingdoms of Dalriata 
and northumbria 

Giraldus Cambrensis, Topographia Hibernica. Opera, 
vol. V, p. 147 

Note that the northern part of Britain is called Scotland, 
because it was inhabited by this nation of the Scots. 

The northern part of the island of Britain also is called 
Scotland, because a nation originally sprung from [the Irish] 
is understood to inhabit that land. And this is shown even to 
the present day by their affinity both in language and in 
culture, also both in arms and in customs.^ 

ca. 501 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 124, 
s.a. [501]^ 

Fergus Mor, Erc's son, with the nation of Dalriata, held part 
of Britain ^ ; and there he died.* 

^ Cf. Giraldus's account of the Irish occupation of " the northern parts 
of Britain" ; ibid., 162. See also below, year 843, note. 

^ With f.n. I (see pp. xcvi-xcvii for an account of Tigernach's chronology). 
This stands 5 year-sections after the record of an eclipse of the sun in 
[496], perhaps that visible at Rome in 496, on 22nd October, at 8 a.m. 
(Solar eclipses visible in Ireland occurred in 498, 499, and 502.) The 
A.U. record the eclipse under 495=496 (with f.n. and e. for 496). 

Tigernach and C.S. notice in the same year-section as the death of 
Fergus, the battle of Druimm-loch-muide, which A.U. place under 
502 = 503. 

At the beginning of year [501] Tigernach quotes a passage about pope 
Symmachus [498-514] (his buildings, and his generosity to the bishops in 
exile in Africa) from the Liber Pontificalis, LIII, 10, 11 (M.G.H., Gesta 
Pontificum Romanorum, i, 124, 125) through Bede's Chronicle (M.G.H., 
Auctores, xiii, 306). The death of Symmachus's predecessor is noticed 



2 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

under [498], and the succession of Symmachus under [499]. The latter is 
placed by A.U. in 498 = 499 ; but the accepted date is 498. 

3 Bede (H.E., I, i), says : " . . . Britain received a third race, after 
the Britons and Picts, that of the Scots, in the region of the Picts " (E.G., 4). 
The earlier inhabitants of Kintyre were a Welsh-speaking race (K. Meyer: 
Zur keltischen Wortkunde,§ 41 ; Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich preussischen 
Akademie der Wissenschaften, xxv, 445-446). 

1 This annal appears similarly in C.S., 34, s.a. [502] (f.n. 3 ; Hennessy's 
year 499). It is placed by P.M. under 498 (i, 160). 

Fland places Fergus's accession about [495] ; the Annals of Clonmac- 
noise's version of Fland, in 498. 

Version D of the Chronicle of Dalriata, in Skene's P. & S., 148 : "The 
sum of the years of the first Scots that reigned before the Picts, 260 years 
and 3 months." This would place Fergus's accession about 583. 

Version I of the Chronicle of Dalriata, in P. & S., 288, concludes : "The 
sum of the years from the time of Fergus, Erc's son, to the time of Alpin 
is 407 years and 3 months." Alpin died probably in 843 ; therefore this 
summation would place Fergus's accession about 436. 

Scots from Antrim had been settling in Kintyre long before 500. 
Probably at the same time Picts from Down had been settling in Wigton- 
shire ; from which they had originally gone to Ireland. 

The Chronicles of Dalriata give Fergus a reign of 3 years [ca. 498- 
ca. 501] ; the Duan, of 27. His date is very uncertain. See ?So6, note, 
for his successor. For the extent of his kingdom cf. the Chronicle of 
Dalriata, above, p. cxxix, which erroneously implies that he reigned over 
the whole of the lands that belonged to Dalriata a century later. 

Fergus's predecessor appears to have been his brother Loarn. Duan 
Albanach, in P. & S., 59 : " Three sons of Ere, the son of pleasant Eochaid, 
three men who got the blessing" (? beannachtair, read bea7i7iacht) "of 
Patrick, took Scotland — great were their deeds — : Loarn, Fergus, and 
Angus. Ten years Loarn, with distinguished renown, was in the kingdom 
of Argyle \Oirir Albati\ : Fergus for twenty-seven years, after generous 
Loarn, with vigour." The Duan's numbers are not trustworthy. 

Loarn was the father of Ere (see below). Ere was the mother oi 
Muirchertach (t ? ca. 537), whose sons won the battle of Sligo (? ca. 542). 
Other grandsons of Ere were Columba (born ca. 521), and Baithine (t ca. 
601). Ere must have been born before 481, and have flourished in or 
before 500. Loarn probably flourished about 470, or earlier. 

The battle of Sligo is placed in 543, 547, or 548, by A.U. ; in [542] by 
T. and C.S. (Hennessy's year 543); by A.I., in O'Conor's year 536 = 541 
(or =541x544). 

Tripartite Life, i, 108 : " [Patrick] went to the sons of Ere [Eochaid's 
son]. They stole Patrick's horses, and Patrick cursed them, saying, ' Your 
descendants shall serve your brother [Fergus's] descendants for ever.' " 

Another account of Fergus's relations with Patrick (Tripartite Life, 
i, 162) is given below, year 573, note. 



KINGS OF ARGYLE 3 

Loam's daughter Ere was, according to Irish traditions of doubtful 
value, the ancestress of many families. 

Cf. the story preserved by D.M.F., in Todd's Irish Nennius, pp. ci-cii : 

" Muiredach, Eogan's son, had four sons ; and they had one mother : 
[they were] Muirchertach, Moen, Feradach, and Tigernach. The mother 
of these four was Ere, the daughter of Loarn, king of Scotland. . . . 

"After the death of Eogan's son, Fergus, Conall Gulban's son, took Ere, 
Loarn's daughter ; and she bore him four other sons : Fedlim[id], Loarn, 
Brenaind, and Setna. . . ." 

Cf. a poem ascribed to Fland Mainistrech in Advocates' Library Gaelic 
MS. 28 (Kilbride, 24), p. 4 ; and a poem edited by Todd in his Irish 
Nennius, civ-cix. Ibid., cvi-cvii : " Fedlim[id] left no children but Eogan 
Bee and Columba. Brenaind . . . left none but Baithine Frithbertach (or 
Frithcertach). Loarn, of strong grasp, noble Avas the firstborn of his sons, 
Ronan, the father of illustrious sons, Colman [St Columbanus], Segine, and 
Laisren. . . . From Setna, son of Fergus of Fal [i.e. of Ireland], are the 
noble descendants of Setna from the east, the tribe of Lugaid in the east 
[i.e. in Scotland] ; and on this side [i.e. in Ireland], the people of 
Fanat" etc. 

From these and other sources quoted by Todd (ci-cvi) the following 
table may be drawn up : — 

Eochaid Muin-remor 



Niall Nine-hostager 

I 
Conall Gulban 

I 

Fergus Cendfota 



lall Nine-hostager 
1 


Ere 
1 


1 

Eogan 

1 


Loarn 
1 


Muiredach = 


1 
Ere 



Muirchertach Moen Feradach Tigernach Fedlimid Loarn Brenaind Setna 



Kings of 
Ailech 

(Northern 
Ui-Neill) 



Ronan Baithine 



Eogan Columba 
Bee 



Colman Segine Laisren 



Cenel Ceuel Sil 

Moin Feradaig Tigernaig 



Sil 
Setnai 



Cenel 

Lugdach 

(in Scotland) 



Sluag 

Fanat 

(in Ireland) 



Cland 
Ciarain 



Cland 
Crundmail 



Cland 
Loing-sich 



(Tirconnell and Tyrone) 
The fabulous tale of Ere (quoted below) in the Book of Ballymote says 



4 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

?ca. 506 

Tigemach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 125, 

s.a. [506] 1 

The death of Domangart, Ness's son, king of Scotland.^ 

that Erc's son, Muirchertach, was expelled from Ireland, then killed his 
grandfather Loarn and was expelled from Scotland also. 

According to the fabulous 14th-century tale of Sin and of Muirchertach 
Erc's son, in Y.B.L., 317, Muirchertach says: " It was prophesied to me 
that my death would be like the death of Loarn, my grandfather ; for 
he did not fall in combat, but was burned none the less." Muirchertach 
was, it is said, drowned in a vat of wine in a burning house at Cletty. 
His death is placed in 534 or 536, or after 537, by A.U., i, 44i 46 ; see T., 
s.a. [532] (fn. 5 ; so also in C.S., Hennessy's year 531) ; and F.M., s.a. 527. 
See Annals of Clonmacnoise, 77, s.a. 529. 

Fordun's account (II, 12, 13; III, i) differs from that of the older 
authorities. 

For the history of Ere, Loarn's daughter, cf the Book of Ballymote, 208 
(Skene's P. & S., 52) : 

"Then Sarran took kingship over Britain, and took authority over the 
Saxons and the Picts. And he married the daughter of the king of Scotland, 
Babona, the daughter of Loarn, Erc's son. 

" It was not she that had been given to him, but her sister. Ere, daughter 
of Loarn ; but Muiredach, son of Eogan, Niall's son, had seduced her to 
Ireland, and she bore him four sons, Muirchertach, Erc's son, and Feradach, 
and Tigernach, and Maian. And Sarran impregnated Babona, and five 
sons were born to them : Luirig, and Cairnech, and bishop Dalian, and 
Coemlach ; and he died after victory and triumph [over this world,] in the 
house of Martin " (i.e. at Whithorn). 

The remainder of this story is quite mythical (ibid. 53-56), and perhaps 
the part quoted above has little foundation in fact. (The text, with 
translation, was edited by Todd, Irish Nennius, 178-180. Skene's translation 
is based upon Todd's.) For Saran's pedigree, see 1905 Oengus, 72 ; 1880 
ed., Ixxxix. 

According to the tract on the Mothers of Irish saints (L.L., 372 ; cf B.B., 
212), "Pompa, daughter of Loarn, son of Ere, [was] the mother of Carnech, 
and Breccan, son of Saran, and Ronan [Find, B.B.], son of Saran " ; and 
" Ere, daughter of Loarn, son of Ere, king of Scotland, [was] the mother of 
Maelumai, son of Baetan." The " elopement of Ere, Loarn's daughter, 
with Muiredach, Eogan's son," was one of the subjects of Irish literary 
compositions ; Book of Leinster, 190a. 

1 F.n. I. In the same year-section Tigernach places the death of Brude, 
Maelchon's son ; see year 586. 

^ A.U., i, 36, place Domangart's death in 506 = 507 : "... the 
death of Lugaid, Loegaire's son ; and, as others say, Domangart Ness's 
son died at Rete [?] in his thirty-fifth year \_Domhangart mac Nisse reti 
secessit^ Repose of Macc-Nisse, bishop of Connor." (Again under 513 = 



KINGS OF ARGYLE 5 

ca. 517 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 38, s.a. 516=517^ 

The repose of Darerca of Cell-Slebe-Cuilind,^ on the third 
day ^ before the Nones of July. 

514 : " Macc-Nisse, i.e. Oengus, bishop of Connor, reposed.") At 506 = 507, 
in margin of MS. A, erroneously, "bishop Domangart." 

With reti secessit, literally, "withdrew from Rete" (or possibly "with- 
drew from the net " [of the world ; or as a pun on a place-name ?]), cf. 
A. I., below, year 537, note, where this king is called " Domangart of Rete " 
{refis). This seems to show that Rete was a place. (Whitley Stokes held 
that reti secessit, "like the resticuit oi \.\\^ Book of Armagh, ff. iia i, 14a i, 
seems for reciescit, the Irish spelling of reguiescit, as in the A.L.C., i, p. 53, 
n. 5." The Academy, 1889, p. 208.) 

Also under 466 = 466 (but with e. 20 in MS. A, instead of 29) : " Doman- 
gart, son of Nes, reposed" {quievit) ; and so also in C.S., 26, f.n. 2 = 468, 
Hennessy's year 464. 

A. I., 5, O'Conor's year 495=?5oi (58 years before 559) : "The repose of 
Domangart of Kintyre." " Repose " {quies) usually means the death of a man 
in religion. Seven years before this, these annals record Patrick's death. 

The deaths of Brude, Maelchon's son, king of Pictland ; and Doman- 
gart, son of Ness, are erroneously placed in one year, s.a. 509, in the 
Annals of Clonmacnoise, 74. 

The Chronicles of Dalriata (above, p. cxxix) say that Domangart was 
the son of Fergus : Ness (or Cness ?) was apparently his mother's name. 

Fland places the reign of "Angus Mor, Erc's son" between the reigns 
of Fergus and of Domangart. 

The Duan Albanach, in P. & S., 59 : " Domangart, a son to high 
Fergus, [was in the sovereignty of Argyle for the] number of five ever- 
turbulent years." 

All the Chronicles of Dalriata, and the Duan, and Tigernach, agree 
that Domangart reigned for 5 years. For the date of his son's accession, 
see year 537, note. 

A chronological tract in Debar Brecc (R.S. 89, ii, 552) in an unhistorical 
passage says that Domangart, Fergus' son, was king of Scotland at the 
time of Patrick's death. 

^ With fn. and e. of 517. Darerca's death is repeated in A.U., 40, 
under 518 = 519 (with f.n. and e. of 519) :—" The repose of Darerca, who 
was called Moninne." 

A.I., 5, O'Conor's year 507 = 512 (47 years before 559) : "The repose of 
Darerca." 

C.S., 38, Hennessy's year 514 = 516 (fn. 6): "The repose of Darerca, 
of Cell-Slebe-Cuilind ; she was afterwards named Moninne (Aninne 
Sanatho)." The last words seem to be the beginning of a Latin hymn {0 
Ninne Sanato). 

2 "Church of the mountain of Cuilend." 

^ 5th July. Moninne (Darerca) is entered at 6th July by the Martyr- 



6 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. 521 

Tigernacli, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 128, 
s.a. [520] 1 

Buitte, son of Bronach, died ; Columcille was born. And of 
them it was said : " The fair birth of Columba, our priest, [took 
place] to-day, upon learned Ireland, on the same festival^ (no vain 
saying) as the death of Bronach's fair-haired, victorious son."^ 

ologies of Oengus, Gorman, Tallaght (Brussels version ; ed. Kelly, 
p. xxviii), and Donegal. 

Darerca, Moninne, Modwena, or Medana, is said to have founded 
many churches in southern Scotland ; many churches were dedicated to 
her. Besides Kirkmaiden, near the Mull of Galloway, there was an 
ancient parish of Kirkmaiden, now included in Glasserton parish, also in 
the south ofWigtonshire. 

1 For f.n. 7 (uii) in Stokes's text read 4 (iiii, with O'Conor), i.e. [520] 
instead of [522] : otherwise the order of the annals is incorrect. 

2 Buitte's death-day was the 7th of December, according to the 
Martyrology of Oengus (7th December 520, according to the Martyrology 
of Donegal). The Martyrology of Gorman, p. 234, places Buitte's death 
and Columba's birth on 7th December. Cf. Stokes, Lismore Lives, 308. 

For the year, cf. years 563, 597, notes. 

^ The passage in inverted commas is in verse in the original. 

The whole passage stands similarly in C.S., 38, Hennessy's year 518 = 
520 (f.n. 4). 

A.U., i, 40, enters these deaths twice ; s.a. 518 = 519 : "The nativity of 
Columcille, on the same day upon which Buitte, son of Bronach, slept" ; 
and s.a. 522 = 523 : " Buitte, son of Bronach, died. Columcille was born" 
(with f.n. and e. of 519 and 523). The latter entry appears in A.B., 3, 
O'Conor's year 499. 

A.I., 5, O'Conor's year 511 = 516(23 years after 493, 43 years before 
559) : " The birth of Columcille. The slumber of Buitte, Bronach's son." 

A.C., s.a. [521] (7 years after the "70th year" after 444): "St 
Columcille was born." 

Columba's birth is placed 4 year-sections before Bridget's death, in T. 
(but the ferial numbers are here confused) ; 5 years before Bridget's death, 
in C.S. and A.B. ; 3 years, in A.I. The two events are erroneously 
placed in the same year by A.C. See below, p. 17. 

The Tripartite Life (ii, 150) quotes a stanza in which Patrick is said to 
have prophesied the birth of Columba, and another stanza in which Bridget 
is represented as welcoming Columba in his infancy. 

Berchan's Prophecy (stanzas 3, 97, 102) places Columba's birth 60 years 
after the death of Patrick (t?46i). 

See an account of St Patrick's prophecy of St Columba's birth in the 
Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 92. 

Ibid. 93 : " He was born the 17th of the Ides of December, on 



IRISH AND GALWEGIAN SAINTS 7 

Early 6th century : ca. 525 ? 

Preface to the hymn Parce, D online ; Liber Hymnorum, 
vol. i, p. 22 ^ 

Parce, Doniine. Mugint composed this hymn in Whithorn. 
The cause [of its composition was that] Finnian of Moville^ 
went forth [from Ireland] for instruction to Mugint ; and with 
him [were] Rioc and Talmach and others. The king of the 
Britons at that time was Drust, and he had a daughter whose 
name was Drusticc.^ And [Drust] gave her to Mugint for 
[instruction in] reading. And she loved Rioc, and said to 
Finnian : " I will give thee all the books that Mugint has to 
write* if thou give me Rioc in marriage." And Finnian sent 
Talmach to her that night in Rioc's shape, and he knew her, 

Thursday, in a place called Gortann ; and as soon as he was born he was 
brought to that venerable and worthy priest Cruinneachan mcKellaghan, 
who christened him by the name of Columb. . . ." 

Buitte was the founder of Monasterboice. For the story of Buitte's 
raising king Nechtan from the dead, see above, p. cxx. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 76, s.a. 519: "St Columcille was born this 
year. He was born the night that St Baithine" (Boyhinn, but read 
"St Buitte") "died. They were of one family, and both of the families 
of O'Donnell of Tirconnel, as may appear by St Columba's genealogy, as 
Columcille was son of Felim, who was son of Fergus Cendfota, who was 
son of Conall Gulban, who was son of Niall of the nine hostages, etc. We 
will leave to speak here of St Columb, until we come to make mention of 
him at the time of his death. St Baithine \_Boghinn\ was his cousin- 
german (he errs)." Baithine, not Buitte, was Columba's first cousin ; 
their grandfather was Fergus Cendfota. 

' Also in Todd's Book of Hymns, i, 95 ; Stokes, Goidelica, 96-97. See 
Todd's Notes, u.s., 97 ff. ; and Bernard and Atkinson, ii, 112-113. 

This story is mere legend. 

- Finnian of Moville's death is placed by A.U. s.a. 578 = 579 ; by T., 
s.a. [577]; by C.S., under Hennessy's year 578 = 577 (f.n. 5); and in A.I., 
under O'Conor's year 572 = 580 (19 years before 599). 

^ Book of Leinster, 373a (list of mothers of saints) : " Dustric, daughter 
of Drust \Truist\ king of the Britons of the north, and mother of Lonan 
Talmach's son. Of her it is said: 'Drust, king of the free estuary 
from the shore [Trust rt in tsaer inbir ontraig\ had one perfect daughter, 
Dustricc, very haughty to others ; the mother of Lonan, Talmach's 
son.' " 

^ Quos hahet Mugint scribendicm ; possibly books lent by her to 
Mugint to be copied. 



8 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

and thereby Lonan of Treoit ^ was conceived and born. But 
Drusticc imagined that Rioc had known her, and she said that 
Rice was the father of her son. This was false, because Rioc 
was a virgin. 

Then Mugint was angry, and sent a lad to the church, 
and said to him : " Whoever comes first this night to thee 
in the church, strike him with an axe." He said this because 
Finnian used to go to the church first. Nevertheless that 
night, by the Lord's instigation Mugint himself reached the 
church first; and the lad struck him, according to the words 
of the prophet : " His sorrow shall be turned about, and his 
wickedness shall fall upon his own head." And then Mugint 
said the Parce, because he thought that enemies were harry- 
ing the people ; or else [it was] that this hymn was composed 
for this reason, that his fault should not be visited upon the 
people. 

Or Ambrose composed it when he was ill. Or David 
composed it, as others say, but not truly ; but from [David] 
was taken [the part] from Die angelo tuo percutienti to 
populo tuo} 

' Treoit seems to have been a place in Galloway. 

Martyrology of Oengus, 4th December: "The modest Fer-da-leithe" 
("man of two sides") "was one of our noble elders"; with this note in 
L.B. (1880 Oengus, clxxx) : "Berchan of Clonsost in Offaly"; and in 
Laud MS. 610 (ibid.) : "or Fer-da-leithe in Laid- Treoit in Scotland; he 
was a priest. ' Man of two parts,' that is [he spent] half his life in the 
world and the other half in pilgrimage, as they say." The Franciscan 
MS. (ibid.): "half his life in Scotland, and the other half in Ireland.'' 
(Cf. 1905 ed., 256.) 

Cf. the Martyrology of Donegal, December 4th, p. 327. 

Another Galloway saint was apparently Colman. Cf. a note in the 
Franciscan MS. of the Martyrology of Oengus (1905 ed., 246) : "Colman 
of the ink of Cuilend in the Rhinns, that is of Dunragit [duib 
Chicili?td isna Remiaib a. Dhun Reichef], and of Belach Congais in 
Leinster, and of other places. . . ." But MS. Rawlinson B 505 calls him 
"Colman Dub of Cuilend, that is a mountain at Belach Conglaiss, in 
Leinster." Cf the notes in L.B. (1880 Oengus, clxxi), with an account of 
Colman's miraculous conception from ink, through virtue of Comgall of 
Bangor. 

2 The hymn Parce, Domine is in Bernard and Atkinson, i, 23-24 ; Todd's 
Book of Hymns, i, 95-96. It is quite unconnected with the story in its 
preface ; see Bernard and Atkinson, ii, 113. 



KING ARTHUR 9 

?ca. 537 
Annales Camtoriae, Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 154; s.a. [537]^ 

The battle of Camlann,^ in which Arthur and Medraut fell ; 
and there was a plague in Britain and Ireland.^ 

1 Placed 3 years after " the 90th year " after [444]. Geoffrey dates this 
battle in 542 ; see below. 542 would have been 93 years after 449, which 
Geoffrey may have thought to have been the initial year of the A.C. (cf. 
Bede's rendering (I, 16) of Gildas). 

2 Gueith Camlann ; bellum Camlan in MS. B, which reads (Ab Ithel's 
ed., 4, note): " The battle of Camlann, in which the renowned Arthur, king 
of the Britons, and his betrayer Medraut, fell by mutual wounds." This 
is derived by MS. B from Geoffrey of Monmouth, who places the battle 
beside the river Camel {flumen Cambuld) in Cornwall. Geoffrey's evidence 
is not conclusive against the identification of Camlann with Camelon near 
Falkirk. But there is a 13th-century family name, de Camelyn (or 
Camelin) ; and if that is "of Camelon," the form of the name would 
absolutely rule out any connection between the names Camlann and 
Camelon. The land of Camelyn was in the fee of Calacmane, i.e. presum- 
ably Clackmannan (St Andrews, 398-399). 

3 The last sentence is not in Ab Ithel's MSS. BC. In MS. A, "the 
battle . . . plague " is written over an erasure. 

A plague reached Ireland, according to A.U., in 544 = 545 ; cf A.I., 
O'Conor's year 534 = 539 (20 years before 559; 57 years before 599); and 
T. and C.S., under f.n. i (Hennessy's year 54i) = [54o]. This was the 
plague in which Mobi died. 

The battle of Camlann is mentioned in the Welsh Triads. See M.A. 
(1870), 396, 397, 398, 393 ; Loth's Mabinogion (1913), ii, 237, 246, 253, 265, 
283, 290 ; cf i, 269-270, 277, 353-354. 

The "slaying of Arthur" is placed last among the destructions that 
were the subjects of Irish literary compositions : L.L., igo. 

W.N., i, 14, says in his Preface : " It is quite plain that everything that 
that man [Geoffrey of Monmouth] took pains to write concerning Arthur 
and his successors and predecessors, after Vortigern, was invented, partly 
by him, partly also by others ; either in unbridled lust of lying, or also for 
the sake of pleasing the Britons [i.e. the Welsh] ; of whom we hear that 
very many are so irrational that they are said to await Arthur as still to 
come ; and they will not hear of his being dead. . . ." 

For an instance of this belief, in Cornwall, shortly before Geoffrey 
wrote, see Hermann of Laon, De Miraculis S. Marie Laudunensis, II, 15 ; 
P.L. 156, 983. Cf i.a. R. H. Fletcher, Arthurian Material in the Chronicles 
(1906), lOI. 



10 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. 537 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 136, 
s.a. [S37]i 

Comgall, Domangart's son, king of Scotland, fell in the 
thirty-fifth year of his reign.^ 

546 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 50, s.a. 545 = 546 ^ 

Derry of Columcille was founded.* 

1 F.n. 5. The previous year-section records the death of Pope Agapitus 
(+ 536), and the next contains the death of Pope Silverius after a pontificate 
of " I year, 5 months, and 11 days." (Similarly A.U. under 537 = 538 and 
538 = 539.) This is taken from the Liber Pontificalis, LX, i ; M.G.H., 
G.P.R., i, 144. Silverius was deposed in 537. 

^ A.U. also read (i, 48, s.a. 537 = 538): "Death of Comgall, son of 
Domangart, in the thirty-fifth year of his reign," although "thirty-second" 
would be in agreement with the dates they give ; and in order to allow 
him a reign of about thirty-five years they repeat, s.a. 541 =542, " Death of 
Comgall, son of Domangart" (i, 48). Again, i, 50, s.a. 544 = 545 (with fn. 
and e. of 545) : "The death of Comgall, Domangart's son, as others say." 
Under the same year (545), A.U. place: "The first mortality, which is 
called blefed ; and in it Mobf Clar-ainech died." 

A.I., 6, O'Conor's year 531 = 536 (23 years before 559): "The death of 
Comgall, son of Domangart of Rete." This stands 35 years after the death 
of Comgall's predecessor, Domangart (see above, ca. 506). 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 78, s.a. 539: "Comgall, Domangart's son, 
king of Scotland, in the 35th year of his reign, died." 

The Duan Albanach, in Skene's P. & S., 59 : " Comgall, Domangart's 
son, had twenty-four [years] without contention [in the sovereignty of 
Argyle]." 

The Chronicles of Dalriata are at variance about the length of 
Comgall's reign, giving him 33 (E), 22 (DK), or 24 years (F). See p. cxxx. 
The Irish Annals are in agreement about it ; they say that he died in his 
35th year, which not only does not agree with any of the Chronicles of 
Dalriata or with the Duan, but also does not agree with their own dates. 
T. says that he reigned from [506] to [537] ; A.U., from 507 to 538, but with 
alternative death-dates 542 and 545 ; the Annals of Clonmacnoise, from 
509 to 539. A.I. alone give him unequivocally 35 years' reign, from 
501 to 536. For the succession of his brother Gabran, see year 559, note. 

In his De Bello Gothico, II, 6, Procopius says that the Roman leader, 
Belisarius, in jest made over Britain to the Goths in 537 (Hodgkin, 
England, 112-113) ; Niebuhr's Procopius, ii, 171. 

' With f.n. and e. of 546. 

* F.M., i, 178, s.a. 535 (and "the 8th year of TuathaP'as sovereign 



KINGS OF ARGYLE AND NORTHUMBRIA 11 

547 

Annales Camlbriae, in Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 155, s.a. [547]^ 
A great mortality, in which Mailcun, king of Guenedota, 
reposed.^ 

547 

Historia Brittonum, Genealogies; in M.G.H., Auctores, 
vol. xii, p. 205 

Ida, son of Eobba, held the districts in the northern part of 
Britain ; that is, [to the north] of the sea of Humber. He 
reigned for twelve years ; and he united Dinguayrdi [and] 
Guurth Berneich.^ 

At that time Dutigirn fought valiantly against the nation 
of the Angles, At that time Talhaearn Tataguen was renowned 
in verse ; and Neirin, and Taliessin, and Bluchbard, and Cian, 

of Ireland): "The church of Daire-Calgaig was founded by Columcille, 
after the place had been offered up to him by his own tribe, the kindred of 
Conall Gulban, Niall's son." 

Cf. the Irish Life of Columba, Stokes's Three Homilies, 106-108 ; and 
Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 94. 

'■ Placed 3 years after the " looth year" after 444. 

2 MS. B, Ab Ithel's ed., 4, adds : "Hence it was said, 'The long sleep 
of Mailcun in the castle of Ros ' " (ffir hun Wailgun en His Ros j evidently 
the title of an elegy). 

^ The version of Nennius (ibid.) is : " Ida, son of Eobba, held the 
districts to the northern side of the sea of Humber, for twelve years ; and 
he united the citadel, that is. Din Gueirm, with Curd Birnech. These 
two districts were in one district, that is Deura Bernech, in English Deira 
and Bernicia." 

With this union, compare the separation mentioned in the Historia 
Brittonum's Genealogies, u.s., 204: "... Sebald begot Zegulf, [who] 
begot Soemil. [Soemil] first separated Deira and Bernicia \Deur o 
BirneicK], Soemil begot Sguerthing, [who] begot Guilglis, [who] begot 
Usfrean, who begot Ififi, [who] begot Ulli, [who begot] Edgum, [who begot] 
Osfird and Eadfird. Edgum had two sons . . . ." See year 633, note. 

Soemil appears to be omitted by the pedigree in A.S.C. (B, s.a. 560 ; 
C, s.a. 559) ; Sguerthing seems to be the Westerfalca of A.S.C., which 
reads : "MWe was Yffe's son, Yffe Uxfrea's son, Uxfrea Wilgils' son, Wilgils 
Westerfalca's son, Westerfalca Ssefugal's son, Saefugel Sasbald's son. . . ." 

Ida's death and file's succession are placed by A.S.C. in 560 (ABE) 
or 559 (CF). See year 559. 

C.H., 8, s.a. 547, notes the reign of Ida verbatim from Bede's 
Recapitulatio. 



12 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

who was called Gueinth Guaut, were famed together at one 
time in British verse. 

The great king Mailcun reigned over the Britons, that is to 
say, in the district of Guenedota. . . . ^ 

559-685 

Kings of Bernicia 

Historia Brittonum, Genealogies; in M.G.H., Auctores, 
vol. xiii, pp. 206-208 

Adda, Ida's son, reigned for eight years.^ 
^thelric, [Ida's] son, reigned for four years.^ 
Theodric, Ida's son, reigned for seven years.* 

1 Here (205-206) follows the account of Cuneda's migration from Manau 
(East Stirlingshire) : "because his grandfather's grandfather [atavus], 
Cunedag, had formerly come with his sons (whose number is eight) from 
the northern region, that is to say, from the district that is called Manau 
Guotodin, 146 years before Mailcun reigned ; and they expelled the [Irish] 
Scots from these districts [of Gwynedd] with the greatest slaughter, and 
never again did [the Scots] return to dwell there." 

Mailcun is made the great-grandson of Cuneda in the genealogies after 
A.C. They seem to have omitted two generations, 

Genealogy XXXII, after A.C; Y Cymmrodor, ix, 182-183: "These 
are the names of Cuneda's sons, whose number was nine : Typiaun " 
(in text Typipauii) "the eldest, who died in the district that is called 
Manau Guotodin [Guodottn'], and he did not come hither with his 
father and with his brothers afore[said] " (in text pre ; read predictis, 
with Meyrick, Phillimore) ; " Meriaun, [Cuneda's] son, divided the 
possessions among his brothers, 2nd Osmail, 3rd Rumaun, 4th Dunaut, 
5th Ceretic, 6th Abloyc, 7th Enniaun Girt, 8th Docmail, 9th Etern. This 
is their territory [terminus], from a river that is called Dubr Duiii to 
another river, Tebi. And they held very many districts in the western 
part of Britain." 

^ I.e. in Bernicia ; while ^Ue reigned in Deira, from 559 or 560 to 
588 (A.S.C., ABCEF). 

The reign of Clappa for one year has been omitted from this list. Cf. 
E.C., 5. Other kings have been omitted ; and probably for several years 
yEUe reigned over Bernicia also : but early evidence is scanty for this 
period. 

^ For "Adda's son" in the text, read "Ida's son"; cf ibid. 202, and 
A.S.C. s.a. 593. /Ethelric reigned over Northumbria from 588 to 593 
(A.S.C., ABCE). 

* Probably before 588. This appears to have been the same Theodric 
who was the opponent of Urbgen (below). 



KINGS OF BEENICIA 13 

Frithweald reigned for six years.^ In iiis time the kingdom 
of Kent received baptism, at tlie sending of Gregory.''^ 

Hussa reigned for seven years.^ Four kings strove against 
him : Urbgen, and Riderch Hen, and Guallanc, and Morcant.* 
Theodric fought manfully against this Urbgen and his sons. 
And in those days sometimes the enemy, sometimes the 
citizens, conquered.^ And [Urbgen] shut them in for three 
days and nights in the island called Metcaud.'' And while he 
was upon the expedition, he was assassinated by contrivance 
of Morcant, through jealousy ; because among all the kings 
[Urbgen] had the greatest courage in conducting war. 

1 I.e. ca. 593-599 : perhaps in northern Bernicia. 

^ Augustine was sent by Pope Gregory I in 596, and arrived in 
spring of 597. 

' I.e. ca.599-ca.606. But the same authority (below) implies that 
Hussa's reign ended in 605. 

yEthelfrith appears to have been king of all Northumbria at this time, 
from 593 (Bede, I, 34; E.G., 11) to 617 (A.S.G., E). But probably Hussa 
held the northern part of Bernicia under him ; and Hussa's son, Hering, 
led the Northumbrian forces against the Scots in 603 (E.G., 12, note). 

* Apparently these were kings of Welsh districts of Gumbria and 
Strathclyde. 

For Riderch Hen, cf Adamnan, below, p. 73 ; also years 573, 612, notes. 

The Genealogies that follow A.C. (P. & S., 15) give this king's pedigree 
thus : "Riderch Hen, son of Tutagual, son of Clinoch, son of Dumnagual 
Hen." For Dumnagual Hen, see above, p. clviii ; and cf the pedigree 
(u.s. 15-16) : "Clinog Eitin, son of Ginbelim, son of Dumnagual Hen." 

Ginbelin, son of Dumnagual Hen, is mentioned in Welsh Triads ; 
Loth's Mabinogion, ii, nos. 16, 38 ; M.A., 396 (u), 397 (31). 

Aidan, Gabran's son, appears to have been Dumnagual Hen's grandson. 
See S.C.S., i, 160, note. 

Urbgen's pedigree also appears after A.G. (u.s. 16) : "Urbgen, son of 
Ginmarc, son of Merchiaun \_Merchianunt\, son of Gurgust, [son of Ceneu] 
son of Goil Hen." 

For " Guallanc " we should read Guallauc. Guallauc's pedigree (ibid. 
16) : " Guallauc, son of Laenauc, son of Masguic Clop, son of Geneu, son 
of Goyl Hen." See year ?632. 

Morcant's pedigree (ibid. 16) : " Morcant, son of Goledauc, son of 
Morcant Bulc, son of Cincar Braut, son of Bran Hen, son of Dumnagual 
Moilmut, son of Garbaniaun, son of CoyI Hen " ; and Coil Hen's pedigree 
is carried back through 15 generations to Beli. These are pedigrees VI -X 
after A.C. in Y Cymmrodor, ix, 173, 174. 

° I.e. the Welsh of Cumbria or of Strathclyde, regarded as survivors of 
the Romans. This is an echo of Gildas. 

^ I.e. Lindisfarne ; cf the Irish Annals, below, year 634, note. 



14 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

iEthelfrith Flesaurs reigned for twelve years in Bernicia, 
and other twelve in Deira ; he reigned for twenty-four years, 
between the two kingdoms. And he gave Dinguoroy to his 
wife. She was called Bebbab ; and from the name of his wife 
[the castle] received its name of Bebbanburch.^ 

Edwin, son of ^lle, reigned for seventeen years. And he 
occupied Elmet, and drove out Ceretic.the king of that district.^ 

Eanflffid, [Edwin's] daughter, received baptism on the twelfth 
day after Pentecost, and all her people with her, both men and 
women.^ And Edwin received baptism on the following 
Easter ; and twelve thousand men were baptized with him.* 

If any wish to know who baptized them ^ : Run, Urbgen's 
son,^ baptized them ; and for forty days he did not cease 
baptizing the whole race of Ambrones.'' And through his 
preaching many believed in Christ.^ 

' According to A.S.C., Bamborough Castle was built by Ida ; it took 
the place of the British capital of Deira. See year 547. yEthelfrith (here 
called Eadfered Flesaurs ; cf. ibid. 202) reigned for 24 years in Northumbria 
(593-617). According to this authority, he was sole king there only from 
605 to 617. 

^ Edwin would thus have reigned from 5i6 to 633 : perhaps, however, 
617 is the true year of his accession (A.S.C., E). 

A.C., 6, s.a. [616]: "Ceretic died"; and immediately after, s.a. [617]: 
" Edwin began to reign." 

^ Nennius adds : "And she was the first to be baptized." 

Pentecost in 626 was June 8. Eanflsd was baptized in her infancy on 
that day, with eleven others, according to Bede. She had been born on 
the night of Easter (April 19 x 20). 

* Nennius adds (ibid. 207) : " in one day." Edwin was baptized in 627 
(A.S.C.), on April 12 (Bede). 12th April was Easter in that year (Dionysiam 
system). See the account in Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica, II, 9-14. 

= Nennius adds (u.s,): "Thus bishop Renchidus, and Elbobdus, the 
holiest of bishops, have related {iradideruni) to me." Possibly these were 
the writers of the Genealogies in Historia Brittonum. 

•^ Rum map Urbgen. Nennius adds (u.s.) ; "That is to say, Paulinus, 
archbishop of York." Bede implies that Paulinus was the baptizer. From 
this passage of Historia Brittonum it has been deduced that Paulinus was 
the assumed name of Run ; for whom see below, p. 150. 

' genus ambronum, an echo of Gildas. Cf Adam of Bremen's crudelis- 
simi ambrones (M.G.H., Scriptores, vii, 375) ; rendered by Wilmans, 
Latrones, i.e. "robbers," which would agree with the meaning in Gildas. 
But here, and in Geoffrey of Monmouth (VIII, 8, 14, 23 ; XII, 15) the word 
seems to be used as a proper name, perhaps equivalent to Angles. 

8 Here Nennius continues (ibid. 207) : " But since the genealogies of 



KINGS OF BERNICIA 15 

Oswald, ^thelfrith's son, reigned for nine years ; he is 
[called] Oswald Lamnguin.^ He slew Catguollaun, king of 
the district of Guenedota, in the battle of Catscaul, and made 
a great slaughter of his army.^ 

Oswiu, ^thelfrith's son, reigned for twenty-eight years and 
six months.^ While he reigned, and Catgualart after his 
father reigned over the Britons, a pestilence came, and in it 
[Oswiu] died.* And [Oswiu] killed Penda^ in the plain of 
Gai ; and now was made the slaughter of Gai Plain.'' And 
[there] were slain the British kings, who had gone out with 
Penda^ upon this expedition, as far as the city that is called 
ludeu. Then Oswiu rendered all the riches that were with him, 
in the town, as far as Manau, to Penda ; and Penda distributed 

the Saxons and the genealogies of the other nations seemed useless to my 
master, the priest Beulan, I have refrained from writing them ; but I have 
written about the cities and marvels of the island of Britain, as the writers 
before me have written." 

' In L.B.'s notes upon Oengus, the name Fland Fma is given to 
Ealdfrith Oswiu's son (1880 Oengus, cxxix ; Flann Fma in the Franciscan 
MS., 1905 Oengus, 182), apparently in error. See year 704, note. 

2 In the battle of Denisesburna, in 634 ; Bede, H.E., III, 1-2. Oswald 
reigned from that battle to 642 (A.S.C., A ; 641, BCEF). He was killed in 
the battle of Maserfelth (perhaps Oswestry) on 5th August, 642 (Bede, 
H.E., III, 9). See years 634, 642. 

3 Oswiu reigned from August 642 to 671 (A.S.C., ABCEF), February 
15th (E; Bede, H.E., IV, 5). 

Historia Brittonum's Genealogies, U.S. 203 : " And Oswiu had two 
wives : one of them was called Riemmelth, daughter of Royth, daughter of 
Rum ; and the other was called Eanflsed, daughter of Edwin, son of ^Ue." 

■• Robertson (Early Kings, i, 17) and Skene (F.A.B.W., i, 73-74) under- 
stand this to mean that Catgualart died of the pestilence. The passage is 
so understood by A.C. ; Y Cymmrodor, ix, 159, s.a. [682] (8 years after the 
" 230th year " after 444) : " There was a great pestilence in Britain ; and in 
it Catgualart, Catguollaun's son, died." And immediately afterwards, s.a. 
[683] : "Pestilence in Ireland." A.U. record, s.a. 683 = 684 ("bissextile"), a 
" mortality of children," which began in October of the previous year. Under 
the succeeding year both A.C. and A.U. record an earthquake in Man. 

We should have to read regnans for regnante in the text of Historia 
Brittonum, to make it agree with the statement in A.C. ; and even then 
A.C. must have misplaced Catgualart's death. A.C. has no independent 
authority when it uses the Historia Brittonum, as it seems here to do. 

^ Pantha. The receiver of the concession at ludeu is called Penda; 
possibly for Peada (king of Mercia, 655-656) ? 

^ See year 655. 



16 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

them to the kings of the Britons; that is, the "restitution of 
ludeu."! And Catgabail alone, the king of the district of 
Guenedota, fled with his army, arising by night; wherefore 
he was called Catgabail Catguommed.- 

Ecgfrith, Oswiu's son, reigned for nine years.^ In his 
time, the bishop St Cuthbert died in the island of Medcaut* 
Ecgfrith is he who made war against the Picts, and fell there.^ 

1 Aibret ludeu. Skene (F.A.B.W., i, 87-89 ; S.C.S., i, 253-256) explains 
the text without verbal alteration, by placing the "ransom of ludeu," as he 
translates it, before the battle of Gai. This is possible. Bede (H.E., III, 
24 ; cf. E.C., 24, note) says that Oswiu offered Panda a large price for 
peace, but that Penda refused it ; Skene's account would imply that Penda 
accepted the price without giving peace. If this is right, the six sentences 
in the above paragraph should be re-arranged in the order r i, 5, 6, 3, 4, 2. 
Perhaps the writer combined accounts taken from different sources. Cf. 
year 642. It seems more reasonable to read " Peada " in sentence 5. 

ludeu may be Giudi on the Forth ; Manau may be the Manau on the 
Forth, but, since a wide distribution of lands seems to be indicated, may 
also mean some other Manau, perhaps the island of Man. The British 
kings seem to have received their lands in subjection to Oswiu throughout 
northern Britain, perhaps from the Forth to Man. No reliance can be 
placed upon this passage. The words "as far as Manau" may be a 
displaced gloss upon "as far as . . . ludeu," and may mean no more than 
that ludeu was within Manau. 

Bede says that the battle in which Penda was killed was fought "to the 
great benefit of both peoples : because [Oswiu] both freed his own nation 
from the hostile ravaging of pagans, and (by cutting off their faithless 
{perfidus] head) converted that nation of the Mercians and of the neigh- 
bouring provinces to the grace of the Christian faith" (H.E., III, 24). 

Oswiu gave Peada, Penda's son, rule over the Mercians to the south of 
the Trent, " because he was his relative " ; also, perhaps, because Oswiu's 
son, Ecgfrith, was a hostage in the hands of the Mercians. Peada was 
killed in spring, 656 (ibid.). 

2 This probably means " the battle-fighter who evades battle." 

^ Ecgfrith reigned 15th February 671 to 20th May 685 (E.G., 43). . 

* I.e., in Lindisfarne ; see above. But Cuthbert died in Fame Island 
on Wednesday, 20th March [687] (or rather the preceding evening ; con- 
suetum nocturncE orationis tempus. Vita S. Cudbercti, XXXVI, XXXIX. 
H.E., IV, 29), after two years in the episcopate (Anonymous Life ; E.H.S. 
Bede, ii, 281). He had been made bishop during Ecgfrith's reign, but 
survived Ecgfrith by 22 months. 

^ See year 685. For the continuation of this passage, see year 642. 



PART II 

Cfiristianization of the Picts. Life of Columba 

Before 524 and before 558 

Life of Brendan, in Plummer's Vitap Sanctorum 
Hiberniae, vol. i, p. 143 

After this/ [Brendan of Clonfert] came to a certain island 
of Britain called Auerech,^ and there he founded a church, 
proposing to remain there to the end. . . .^ 

' After an episode related of Brendan and Gildas (for whom see year 
570). Cf. another Life, quoted in S.C.S., ii, 77, note. 

^ In three versions this name appears as Ailech, which would stand for 
one of the Garvelloch Islands. It is almost certainly the island called 
Elachnave {Eileach nan naoinh). 

For a short description of the ruins in Elachnave see Cosmo 
Innes, Origines Parochiales, ii, 1, 277 (Edinburgh, 1854). Cf. Joseph 
Anderson, Scotland in Early Christian Times, i, 95 ff.' (Edinburgh, 1881). 
These so-called bee-hive structures had no arch. The existing chapel 
has a small window at the east end. 

^ A miraculous incident sent him back to Ireland, to consult St Bridget. 

A.U., s.aa. 523 = 524 and 525 = 526: "Repose [524; Sleeping 526] of 
St Bridget, in the 70th year of her age"; s.a. 527 = 528: "Or in this 
year the sleeping of Bridget, according to the Book of Mochod." 

T. (R.C., xvii, 129) under fn. 2 = 524: "Sleeping of St Bridget in the 
88th year of her age ; or the 70th only, as others say.'' Similarly in C.S., 
40, Hennessy's year 523 (between years with fn. 3 and 4) ; but with the 
false reading " or 77th '■' for " 70th." 

Bridget's death stands in A.I., 5, under O'Conor's year 514 = 519 (40 
years before 559); in A.C., under [521], with the birth of Columba; but 
A.C. places her birth in [454], and its Irish source might have been 
expected to have had her death under 524. 

Alberic of Trois Fontaines (M.G.H., Scriptores, xxiii, 692) notes 
Bridget's death under 519. 

Gilla-Coemain (R.S. 89, ii, 536): "From the death of Patrick" 
(traditional date, A.D. 493) ". . . 30 years to the death of Bridget. 20 
years after the death of Bridget . . . the death of Tuathal Maelgarb with 
horror, a year before Ciaran's decease." Tuathal died in 544 or 549, Ciaran 
in 549, according to A.U. Both these deaths are placed in A.I. under 

1^ B 



18 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

St Brendan set out again for Britain, and founded a church 
there, called Bledach, in the district that is named Heth ^ ; and 
there he worked many miracles. . . . ^ 

Sigebert of Gemblours, Chronica ; Monumenta Germaniae 
Historica, Scriptores, vol. vi, p. 318, s.a. 561 

At this time Brendan was renowned in Scotia [Ireland]; 
and he sought the Fortunate Islands in a seven-years' voyage, 
and saw many things worthy of marvel. 

Macutes, also called Maclovus, regularly trained by him, 
and the companion of his voyage, was famed in Britain for 
sanctity and miracles^; but provoked by the Britons, he cursed 

O'Conor's year 538 = 543 (16 years before 559). Interpreted by A.U., 
Gilla-Coemain places Bridget's death 523x524. It maybe dated with 
sufficient accuracy in or before 524. Therefore the biographer places 
Brendan's first visit to Scotland before 524. 

" Ninnid, Eochaid's son, from the regions of Mull" {de partibus Mula), 
also called "Ninnid Lam-idan" (clean-handed), left Britain to administer 
the communion to Bridget before she died. " Mull " may have been the 
island of that name. (See Colgan's Acta Sanctorum, i8th January, 112, 
113-114.) Ninnid's pedigree stands thus in the Book of Leinster (347d) 
and the Lebar Brecc (13 f.) : "Ninnid Lamidan, son of Eochaid, son of 
Aed, son of Loegaire, son of Niall Nine-hostager. He had a sister, Cere, 
Eochaid's daughter" (in Lebar Brecc, "Ere, daughter of Eochaid, son 
of Aed, was his sister"). 

1 Tiree. " In the district of Heth, he dedicated a church, and a village 
around it" Life quoted in S.C.S., u.s. This means that a monastic settle- 
ment was established. 

2 A vision caused him to return to Ireland. This stands before the 
foundation of Clonfert in 558 ; see below, p. 55. 

The Brussels Life of St Brendan says (Smedt and De Backer, Acta, 
769 ; S.C.S., ii, 77) :— "■Afterwards, while all wept, [Brendan] set out and 
returned to Britain, and founded two monasteries, one in the island of 
Ailech, the other in Tiree \terra Ethical in the place called Bledua. And 
being warned in dreams, he returned to Ireland. . . ." 

Various churches in Scotland were dedicated to Brendan of Clonfert. 
For Kilbrandon, see Cosmo Innes, Origines Parochiales, ii, 1, 102 

3 Down to this point Sigebert is copied by Forduii, Chronicon, III, 23 
(1, 108). Fordun imagined that Scotia meant Scotland here. 

Immediately before this, Fordun reads : "And at this time in the city 
of Rome [Dionysius] constructed the decemnovenal cycle of Easter and it 
began in the year of the Lord 532." Hence the Breviary of Aberdeen 
says that St Brandanus, confessor and abbot," flourished A D 532 

Breviary of Aberdeen, i, 3, 98-99 : " Brendan flourished among the 



BRENDAN AND MACHUTUS VISIT SCOTLAND 19 

them, and crossed over to France ; and was renowned for 
virtues for a long time under Leontius, bishop of Saintes. The 
Britons were afflicted with various disasters because of his 
curse ; and he gave them again his blessing, and absolved and 
cured them.^ 

5S3 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 52, s.a. 552 = 553^ 

Thus I have found in Cuanu's Book : 

Patrick's remains were placed in a shrine by Columcille, 
three score years after Patrick's death.^ Three noble relics 

Scots when 532 years from the birth of Christ had passed : a man 
renowned for great abstinence and virtues ; the father of nearly three 
thousand monks, he was held in the greatest esteem during those times for 
his extreme sanctity and his doctrine. Of him some marvels are written, 
in the little book about his life. 

" He also explored in a seven-years' voyage the Fortunate Islands, and 
saw very many marvels ; and by him St Machutus was baptized, and 
regularly trained in Christian doctrine, and [made] the companion of his 
voyage ; and we read that he was distinguished in Scotland for many 
miracles. . . . 

" St Brendan . . . saluted the brethren and commended them all to 
the prior \j>reposit6\ of his monastery, whom afterwards he left as his 
successor in the same place. And he set out towards the western district 
or region {partem sive plagani], with twenty-four brethren, to the island of 
a certain holy father, by name Penda \_nomi71e Pende] ; and there he stayed 
for three days and three nights. 

" After this he received the blessing of the father and of all the monks, 
and set out to the remotest part of his province {in ultimam partem 
regionis sue\, where his relatives \_parentes eiiis] lived ; yet he would not 
see them, but he pitched his tent upon the summit of a certain mountain 
which projects into the ocean, in the place that is called Brendan's Seat 
[sedes Brandant]. There was [room for] the entrance of [but] one ship." 

Breviary of Aberdeen, ii, 3, v-vii : " Molocus, who had had his birth 
from a noble family of the Scots, was from his infancy instructed in liberal 
and divine studies under the blessed abbot Brandanus, a man of great 
sanctity and devotion." Molocus sailed on a rock to Lismore. He 
became a monk in Melrose, and was sent to convert the people of Lismore. 
Then he went to Thule {Tyle, Iceland), and afterwards "went to the 
northern parts of Scotland, namely Rossia," or Ross. He died in old age 
on the 25th June, and " was buried in great veneration in the church of 
the blessed bishop Boniface, in Rosemarkie." This is a tradition of 
Moluoc; see year ca. 592, 

1 Machutus is the St Malo of Brittany. 

2 With f n. for 553. 

^ Reckoning from the traditional date, 493. 



20 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

were found in the sepulchre : his cup, and the Gospel of the 
Angel, and the Bell of the Testament.^ Thus did the angel 
divide the relics for Columcille :— the cup to Down[patrick], 
and the Bell of the Testament to Armagh, and the Gospel of 
the Angel to Columcille himself It was called the Angel's 
Gospel, because Columcille received it from the angel's hand. 

553 
Tirechan's History of Patrick ; in Stokes's Tripartite Life, 

vol. ii, p. 332 

Columcille, inspired by the Holy Ghost, showed Patrick's 
burial-place, and confirmed where it is, namely in Sabal 
Patraic,^ in the church nearest to the sea, where is the 
collection of relics, that is, of the bones, of Columcille [brought] 
from Britain, and the collection of all the saints of Ireland on 
the day of Judgement. 

?555 

Herimannus Augiensis, Chronicon ; M.G.H., Scriptores, 

vol. V, p. 88, s.a. 557 
In Britain, Brude became king of the Picts.^ 

1 The bell may be that preserved in the Royal Irish Academy's 
collection (see Coffey's Guide (19 10), 47-48). The Gospel of the Angel 
was a book preserved mitil 1007 (q.v.) : it has been supposed to be the 
Book of Kells, but without evidence. 

For Patrick's Bell, cf. Stokes's Tripartite Life, i, 114, 170. 

2 Saul, county Down. 

^ This is derived from Bede's clear statement that 565 was Brude's ninth 
year (English Chroniclers, 8). (Hermann's Chronicle was edited as a 
continuation of the Chronicle of Marcellinus Comes, e.g. in Bouquet's 
Recueil, ii, 20). ' 

The Chronicle of the Picts (ABC) says that " Brude, Maelchon's son, 
reigned for thirty years. In the eighth year of his reign he was baptized 
by St Columba." This statement appears to have been derived from 
Bede's, with the change of "ninth" to "eighth." (Fordun, Chronica, IV, 
10, quoting Bede, reads " ninth.") 

If Brude's ninth year was 564-565, his thirtieth would have been 
585-586. But the A.U. and the A.I. place his death in 584 (below). If 
his thirtieth year began in 584, his ninth would have been 563-564 ; and 
his first, 555-556. It seems probable that Columba came to Dalriata in 
563 ; and that Bede's statement applies to that year. But Coltunba may 
not have visited King Brude until the following summer. Adamnan does 
not say that Brude was baptized in the year of Columba's arrival in 



KING BRUDE AND KING GABRAN 21 

ca. 559 

Tigernach, Annals; in Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 142^ 

The death of Gabran, Domangart's son, king of Scotland.^ 
Flight of the Scots before Brude, Maelchon's son, king of 
the Picts.3 

Scotland, or even upon Columba's first visit to the Pictish court. See 
below, years 563 and 584. 

^ Under f.n. i, which may indicate a continuation of year 557 ; but 
placed between years [559] and [560]. Perhaps we should read f.n. 4, 
i.e. 559 ; and (with C.S.) attach the previous year-section (which has nofn.) 
to the one before it (fn. 3, i.e. 558). 

2 The Chronicle of Dalriata allows Gabran a reign of 22 years ; i.e., 
perhaps 537-559- 

The Duan Albanach (P. & S., 59) : " Gabran had two years [of 
prosperity?] without reproach, after Comgall" {Da bhliadhan Conaing gan 
fair [read tar\ \ far es Comhghaill do Gobhran ; which as it stands would 
mean : " Gabran had . . . two years of Conaing," and is here senseless. 
Skene translates it "two prosperous years," following O'Conor, Scriptores, 
i, 2, cxxvii. If this is the meaning, we should read chondigh for 
Conaing. Pinkerton's transcript (Enquiry, ii, 323) has chonnail ; wrongly 
(O'Conor). The facts seem to require the substitution of fichead for 
Conaing; i.e. "22 years" ; but that is not what the writer intended). 

^ Both events are similarly entered in C.S., 52, s.a. [559] (Hennessy's 
year 560). Both events appear twice in A.U. (i, 54, 56); s.a. 557 = 558 
(with fn. and e. of 558): "... A flight before Maelchon's son ; and the 
death of Gabran, son of Domangart"; and s.a. 559 = 560: ". . . The 
death of Gabran, son of Domangart [according to others, MS. B]. An 
expedition by Maelchon's son, king Brude." A.U. allow Gabran a reign 
of 20 or 22 years (counting from their earlier date of Comgall's death). 

A.I., 6, O'Conor's year 551 = 556 (three years before 559) : "The death 
of Gabran, son of Domangart" (for Garbain in MS., read Gabrain). This 
stands 20 years after the death of Comgall. 

The Annals of Clonmacnoise, 88, place both events under 563, in the 
same year-section with Columba's journey to Scotland. 

Under the same years, T. and A.U. place the Feast of Tara. It is 
placed by A.I. in the previous year. 

A.C., in Y Cymmrodor, ix, 154, s.a. [558] (4 years after the "iioth 
year" after 444): "Gabran, Dungart's son, died." MS. B (Ab Ithel's 
ed., 4) : " Gabran the treacherous [Gawran Wradoiic\ son of Dinwarch, 
died." The annal is not in MS. C. The same epithet is given to Aidan, 
Gabran's son, in the Welsh Triads. 

Fordun's account is fabulous. He says (III, 21) that Gabran was 
"a man advanced in age" when he came to the throne ; and (III, 24) that 
he was killed by Eochaid Hebdre, Comgall's son, who succeeded him. 
For the succession of Gabran's nephew, Conall, see year 574, note. 



22 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Adamnan, Life of Columba ; Secunda Praefatio, pp. 4-5 ^ 

There was a man of venerable life and blessed memory, 
father and founder of monasteries," having the same name as 
the prophet Jonah ; for although it sounds differently in the 
three different languages, yet this signifies one and the same 
thing, which in Hebrew is called lona, in Greek Peristera, and 
in the Latin tongue Columba. . . .^ 

Adamnan, Life of Columba; Secunda Praefatio, pp. 8-9* 

St Columba, then, was born of noble parents, having as his 
father Fedelmid the son of Fergus ; as his mother, Ethne, 

' Skene's edition, 106. 

2 For a list of foundations ascribed to Columba, see Reeves' Adamnan, 
276-285, 289-298 (Skene's edition, xlix-lxxi). 

^ This paragraph is copied by Fordun, III, 26 (i, 113). It is derived 
from letters of Columbanus ; M.G.H., Epistolae Karolini Aevi, i, 169, 176. 

The name Colum meant " dove." This etymologizing may have helped 
to give lona its present name. The earliest text of Adamnan reads always 
loua insula \ later texts read lona insula. The Verse Chronicle reads 
loua. Cf. Eiieam insulam, quae nunc lona dicitur, in the Life of Catroe 
(below, p. 44). Irish writers spelt the name i or hi (later Hii or Hith, 
with similar sound), and in the genitive ia, iae, ia Coluim chille. 

Notes on Fiacc's Hymn, Franciscan Liber Hymnorum, Thesaurus, ii, 
306 : " Columcille. His baptismal name was Cremthand ; but he read his 
psalms at Telach Dubglase, to the priest of the church ; and he came 
frequently to the plain beside the church " (remainder illegible). 

Cf the Lebar Brecc, margin of p. 89 ; 1880 Oengus, p. xcix : — " He was 
called Colum'' [a dove] "because of his simplicity ; cille" [of the church] 
" because he often came from the church, where he had read his psalms, 
into the company of the neighbouring children. And they used to say 
this among themselves, ' Has our little pigeon come from the church?"; 
that is, from Telach-Dubglaisse in Tir-Lugdach in the [land of the] tribe 
of Conall" [Temple Douglas in Tirconnell]. "But Columcille's original 
name was Crimthan. And this Columcille from his youth gave very great 
love to Christ. . . ." Cf the other versions, 1905 ed., 144-146. Adamnan, 
Praefatio II, states that he was called Columba not only "from the days of 
infancy," but even prophetically before his birth, by St Mochta, Patrick's 
disciple. 

Calum at the present day passes as the Gaelic equivalent of " Malcolm," 
which was oxx^mzWy Mael-Coluimb, " Columba's devotee." In this work, 
I translate Colomb, or Colum, by "Columba" when St Columba is meant ; 
and give the compound name " Columcille " when it occurs. 

* Skene's edition, 107-108. 



ORIGIN OF COLUMBA 23 

whose father may be called in Latin Filius Navis, but is in 
the Irish tongue called Mac Naue.^ 

^ "Noah's son." For Columba's birth, see year ca. 521. 

Cf. also the Continuation of Adamnan (in MS. B), in ed. Reeves, 246- 
247) (Stokes and Strachan, Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, ii, 281): "St 
Columba's relatives : — Fedelmid, his father, the son of Fergus ; Ethne, his 
mother, the daughter of Filius Navis. logen, Columba's younger brother 
german. Also his three sisters german, Cuimne, the mother of Macc-Decuil's 
sons, who are called M'Ernoc, and Cascene, and Meldal, and Bran (who 
was buried in Derry), St Columba's cousins ; Mincholeth, mother of 
Enan's sons, of whom one was called Caiman ; Sinech, mother of Mocu- 
Cein's sons in Ciiil-uisci, whose names are the monk Aidan (who was buried 
in Cuil-Uisci), and Conri Mocu-Cein (who was buried in Durrow), and 
grandmother of To-cummi Mocu-Cein, a holy priest, who ended the present 
life in the island of Zona, very wearied with age." 

(The expression "brother german" stands for Irish derb-brathir "full- 
brother " ; brathir " brother " sometimes means " cousin.") 

Cf. the note in L.B. (1880 Oengus, p. xcix) : " . . . Columcille, son of 
Fedlimid, son of Fergus. Columcille's name was Crimthan at first. 

"And Columcille's mother was Ethne, daughter of Dimma, son of 
Noah, son of Etine, son of Coirpre the poet, son of Ailill the great, son of 
Breccan, son of Fiacc, son of Daire Barrach, son of Cathair the great. 
And Columcille's three sisters were Cumfne, Minchloth, and Sinech." 

For Columba's kindred, cf. the Book of Ballymote, 84-85. Cf the Life 
in the Salamanca MS., Smedt and De Backer's Acta, 845. 

Genealogies of Saints, in the Book of Leinster, facsimile, p. 347, column 
2 : " Columcille, son of Fedlimid, son of Fergus, son of Conall Gulban, son 
of Niall of the Nine Hostages, son of Eochaid M[uinremor], son of Muire- 
dach Tprech], son of Fiachu Srop[tine], son of Corpre Lifechar, son of 
Cormac UI[fota], son of Art Oenfer, son of Cond Cetchathach, son of 
Fedlimid R[echtaid]." (Cf. also ibid. 366, top margin. For these kings, 
from Fedlimid to Niall, cf. Coir Anmann, Irische Texte, iii, 2, 334-338.) 
The first part of the pedigree is also in L.B., 12 d; B.B., 215 f. Cf. 
A.U., s.aa. 546 = 547 and 585 = 586; and the Irish Life, in Stokes's Three 
Homilies, 100 (below). 

Cf. the verse in the preface to the Amra, Liber Hymnorum, i, 165 : 
" Ethne, distinguished in her time, the queen of the Corpraige, was the 
mother of Columba, a bright conjunction ; the daughter of Dimma, Noah's 
son." (Cf. Book of Leinster, 366, top margin.) 

She is called "long-sided Ethne" {Eithne idebfhotta) in the verse in 
which Bridget welcomes Columba, in the Tripartite Life, i, 1 50. 

Amra Coluimchille, Liber Hymnorum, i, 182, Atkinson's translation, 
ii, 80 : " May the descendant of the body of Cathair with nobility see me 
without stain. (I.e., may he look on me without stain, a descendant of 
Coirpre Nia-fer of Leinster ; for Ethne daughter of Dimma macc-Noe was 
his [Colum Cille's] mother, of the Carburys of Leinster ; and he [Coirpre] 
was a descendant of Cathair Mor, son of Fedelmid the All-wise.") 



24 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

In the second year after the battle of Cuil-dremne, in the 
forty-second year of his age, he sailed over from Ireland to 
Britain, wishing to live in pilgrimage for Christ's sake.i 

For the story of Columba's grandmother, Ere, see above, p. 4- 

The Lebar Brecc (facsimile, 236 b, foot) represents Columba as saymg : 

" The Irish are dearer to me than [the rest of] the men of the world ; and 

the tribe of Conall, than the [rest of the] Irish ; and the tribe of Lugaid, 

than the [rest of the] tribe of Conall." 

Columba's uncle, Ernan, is mentioned by Adamnan, I, 45 (below, p. 63). 

Adamnan speaks also of a relative of Columba's mother (II, 40; ed. 

Skene, 184). , ,■ a ■ i -n 

Columba's sister, Uthende, and her six sons, are mentioned in L.B. 
(1880 Oengus, p. liv) : "Their mother was of the eminent descendants of 
Conall IVIor" (i.e. of Conall Gulban, ancestor of the Cenel-Conaill). Cf. 
"Seven sons of Uthenne, Fedlimid's daughter," in MS. Rawlinson B. 512 ; 

1905 Oengus, 78. 

Reeves has drawn up a genealogy of Columba and the abbots of lona 
(Adamnan, after p. 342 ; Skene's ed., p. clxxxv. Cf. ed. Reeves, 8 ; ed. 
Skene, 249. See also Fowler's ed., after p. xciv). 

1 Cuil-dremne was in Carbury, between Drumcliff and Sligo ; see 
Hogan's Onomasticon. 

Tigernach dates the battle of Cuil-dremne in [560] (f.n. 5) ; Revue 
Celtique, xvii, 143-144: "The battle of Cuil-dremne [was gained] over 
Diarmait, Cerball's son. Forgus and Donald, two sons of Muirchertach, 
Erc's son ; and Ainmire, Setna's son ; and Nindid, Duach's son ; and Aed, 
king of Connaught, son of Eochaid Dry-flesh, were the conquerors, through 
the prayer of Columcille, who said : ' O God, why clearest thou not away 
the mist, that we might reckon the number of the host that reaps judgements 
off us? 

"'A host marching round a cairn, the son of storm [i.e. the wind] 
betrays them ; [because] my wizard, who will not deny me, is God's son, 
who will assist me. 

" ' Baetan's steed before the host makes the advance beautiful ; Baetan 
of the yellow hair thinks it well, it will bear its burden upon it.' 

" It was Fraechan son of Teniusan that made the Druids' Fence for 
Diarmait. It was Tuatan, son of Dimman, son of Saran, son of Cormac, 
son of Eogan, that overthrew the Druids' Fence. Maiglinde went across 
it, and he alone was killed." 

This passage appears with little difference in C.S., 52-54, s.a. [560] 
(Hennessy's 561). 

A.U. give two dates for the battle; i, 56, s.a. 559 = 560: "The 
feast of Tara [was held] by Diarmait, Cerball's son. . . . The battle of 
Cuil-dremne." Ibid. s.a. 560 = 561 : "The battle of Cuil-dremne [was 
gained] over Diarmait, Cerball's son, and there three thousand fell." 

A.I., 7, O'Conor's year 553 = 558: — "[A year] in which the battle of 
Cuil-dremne was fought ; and in it Ainmire, Setna's son, and Ainnedid, 



BATTLE OF CUIL-DREMNE 25 

Fergus's son, and Donald, were the conquerors ; while Diarmait fled. And 
on that day Clonfert of Brendan {Bre/nmui] was founded, at an angel's 
command \angelus iniperante\. 

[O'Conor's 554 = 559] "The end of the cycle of Victorius." The 
Victorian paschal cycle, introduced in 457, was issued as a calendar of 
532 years, from 28 to 559 A.D. (1-532 A.P., Victorian system). Although 
Victorius numbered his years from the Passion, he made them correspond 
with the consular year, and therefore begin upon ist January. In the 
same year-section [=559] is noticed (from Bede's or Isidore's Chronicle) 
Tiberius' succession to Justinus, an event of 578. 

The year-section preceding that describing Cuil-dremne in T. contains 
the "flight of the Scots" (above, year 559), and the following (R.C., xvii, 
142-143): "The last Feast of Tara [was held] by Diarmait, Cerball's 
son. . . . 

" The death of Curnan, son of Aed, son of Eochaid Dry-flesh, [king of 
Connaught,] by Diarmait, Cerball's son, [although Curnan was] under 
Columcille's protection. And this was one of the causes of the battle of 
Cuil-dremne." So also, with little diflference, in C.S., 52, Hennessy's year 
560 = 559. 

The Annals from the Book of Leinster (p. 246; R.S. 89, ii, 514), s.a. 
565 : "The battle of Cuil-dremne [was gained] against Diarmait, Cerball's 
son." (The date 566, attached to this event in Stokes's edition, belongs to 
the next entry, the one-year reign of Donald and Fergus, Erc's grand- 
sons ; in these annals dated 565-566.) 

F.M., i, 190-192, s.a. 554 (and "the 16th year of Diarmait," sovereign 
of Ireland) : " The last Feast of Tara was held by Diarmait, king of 
Ireland. 

" Curnan, son of Aed, son of Eochaid Dry -flesh, that is to say the son 
of the king of Connaught, was killed by Diarmait, Cerball's son, in spite of 
Columcille's sureties and protection, after having been dragged out of his 
hands ; and this was the cause of the battle of Cuil-dremne." And ibid., 
192-194, s.a. 555 (and "the 17th year of Diarmait"]: "The battle of 
Cuil-dremne was gained over Diarmait, Cerball's son, by Fergus and by 
Donald, two sons of Muirchertach, Erc's son, and by Ainmire, Setna's son, 
and by Ninnid, Duach's son, and by Aed, Eochaid Tirmcharna's son, king 
of Connaught. The clans of the Ui-Neill, of the north and of Connaught, 
fought this battle of Cuil-dremne against the king, Diarmait, because 
he was guilty of the slaying of Curnan, son of Aed, son of Eochaid 
Dry-flesh, in Columcille's protection ; and further because of the unjust 
judgement given by Diarmait against Columcille, concerning Finnian's 
book (which Columcille had copied without letting Finnian know), when 
they asked for Diarmait's decision : and Diarmait had pronounced the 
famous judgement, 'To every cow belongs her calf,' etc. . . ." (Here 
follows, with little difference, the verse passage translated above from 
Tigernach.) 

O'Donnell, Life of Columba, in Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga, 409 a: 
"The king . . . pronounced judgement for Finnian, and he uttered the 



26 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Devoted even from his boyhood to Christian discipleship/ 
and by gift of God, through his zeal for wisdom, preserving 
integrity of body and purity of soul, he showed himself fitted 

judgement in Irish verse, famous to this day among the Irish, in this 
fashion : ' Lc gach boin a boi?tin, agiis le gach leabhar a leabhran' ; that is, 
'Let the calf belong to its mother, and the copy to its original.'" 
O'Donnell's, though late, is the fullest account ; q.v., u.s., 408 a -409 b. 

Immediately after the battle of Cuil-dremne, Tigernach gives under 
[561] (f.n. 6): "The battle of Cuil-Uinnsenn in Teffia [was gained] over 
Diarmait, Cerball's son, by Aed, Brendan's son, the king of Teffia ; and 
there Diarmait fled." So also in C.S., 54, s.a. [561] (Hennessy's 562). Aed 
had previously granted Durrow to Columba, for the foundation of a 
monastery ; see T. and C.S., in their notice of Aed's death, s.a. [587] ; 
MS. A of A.U., i, 72, s.a. 588 = 589. 

Immediately after the battle of Cuil-Uinnsenn, both T. and C.S. place 
Columba's voyage to Scotland. 

These events appear in A. I., 6-7 ; the Feast of Tara under O'Conor's 
year 550 = 555, the death of Curnan under O'Conor's 552 = 557, the battle 
of Cuil-dremne under O'Conor's 553 = 558, the battle of Cuil-Uinnsenn 
under O'Conor's 554 = 559. A.I. agree with the other Irish Annals in 
placing Columba's arrival in Scotland two years after the battle of Cuil- 
dremne. (So also in the Annals of Boyle.) 

See also the Preface to the Altus Prositor, below, p. 97. 

Chronological tract (of nth century ; Stokes) in Lebar Brecc ; Stokes, 
Tripartite Life, ii, 552: "33 years from Patrick's death" (placed by this 
tract in [493]) "to the death of Bridget, in the 70th year of her age [526] 
in the same year [were] Bridget's death and [that of] the first Ailill, 
abbot of Armagh. 

" 36 years from Bridget's death to the battle of Cuil-dremne [562]. 

"35 years from the battle of Cuil-dremne to the death of Columcille, in 
the 76th year of his age [597]. 

"43 years from the death of Columcille to the battle of Moira [640]. 

" 25 years from the battle of Moira to the pestilence \buidechar\ of which 
died Diarmait and Blathmac, two sons of Aed Slaine [665]. . . ." (They 
died in 665 or 668, according to A.U.) The dates in square brackets are 
those deducible from the tract. 

Marianus Scottus, in M.G.H., Scriptores, v, 546, s.a. 585 = 563, and the 
37th of Justinian, inserts : " Columcille fought the battle of Cuil-dremne." 

^ Tirocinia, the monastic noviciate. 

A.I., 5, O'Conor's year 527 = 532 (64 years before 599), read: "Loss of 
bread of Columba." A.U., i, 46, s.a. 535 = 536, read simply "loss of bread" ; 
but possibly Columba's dedication may be meant (cf. Ecclesiastes, XI, i). 
Columba would in 536 have been about 15 years old. There seems to be 
nothing else in the Lives to which these words could refer. (Under the 
same year, A.U. notice the death of Pope John II, an event of 535. This 
is taken from the Liber Pontificalis ; M.G.H., Gesta Pontificum, i, 141.) 



CHARACTER OF COLUMBA 27 

for heavenly customs, though placed on earthly soil. For he 
was angelic in appearance/ polished in speech, holy in work, 
excellent in intelligence, great in resourcefulness ; having lived 
for thirty-four years as an island soldier. He could not pass 
the interval of even one hour without setting himself either to 
prayer, or to reading, writing, or even to some [manual] labour.^ 
He was also so constantly occupied, day and night, without any 
intermission, with indefatigable labours of fasts and vigils, that 
the weight of each particular labour seemed beyond human 
capacity to bear. And with all this he was dear to all, showing 
his holy face ever cheerful ; and he rejoiced in his inmost heart 
with the joy of the Holy Spirit.^ 

^ Cf. verses in L.B. (1880 Oengus, p. ci) and in IMS. Laud 610 (1905 
Oengus, 148), thus translated by Stokes (1905 Oengus, 149); "Colum, fair, 
mighty form, face ruddy, broad, radiant, body white, fame without false- 
hood, hair curly, eye grey, luminous." 

" vel etiam aliciii operatio7ii. <Zi. the fratres operarii mentioned by 
Adamnan, III, 23 ; below, year 597. 

Cf. the account given by Sulpicius Severus of the constant activity of 
St Martin, in prayer and reading (Life of Martin, P.L. 20, 175, 176); a 
passage doubtless known to Adamnan. 

^ Cf. the Life in the Salamanca MS., Smedt and De Backer's Acta, 853 : 
'■'■Note Columba's inanner of life. He applied his mind more indefatigably 
than could be believed to fasts and vigils and prayers, also to meditations 
upon the scriptures and to preachings of the faith, and to the other works 
of charity. And when he did allow himself some time for sleep, he lay with 
his head supported on a stone and his body thrown upon the bare ground, 
with nothing but a skin between. But although he afflicted his body with 
such labours, yet by provision of divine favour he was held worthy of 
admiration by all for beauty of countenance, ruddy cheeks and condition 
of body." 

Amra Coluimchille, Liber Hymnorum, i, 178 : " He assailed the fatness of 
his side (i.e., he betrayed the fatness of his side ; for the mark of his ribs 
was apparent through his linen shirt \bldi'\ upon the shore). The desires 
of his body, he destroyed. (I.e., he destroyed the desires of his body.)" 

Cf. a verse in the preface to the Amra, i, 166 : "[Columba] used to lie 
bare" {gle ; " openly," Atkinson) " in the sand; in his resting there was 
much affliction. When the wind blew his clothing, the course of his ribs 
was visible through it." 

The Amra Coluimchille, ibid., i, 170: "He kept vigil as long as he 
lived ; (i.e., he made twelve hundred genuflexions daily, except only on 
festivals ; so that his ribs became apparent through his linen shirt [bldi b'?t\). 
He was of brief age (i.e., straight, or trifling, or small, i.e. 76 years, as 
the poet said) ; he was of small sufficiency (i.e., trifling was [the amount 
of food] that satisfied him)." The same, ibid., i, 172 : " He suffered briefly. 



28 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

and conquered. (I.e. fairly he has conquered his desires in the short time 
during which he existed.)" Most of this obscure composition is eulogy of 
Columba. See Atkinson's and Stokes' translations. 

Amra Coluimchille, Liber Hymnorum, i, 173, 174 : " He commented on" 
{sluinnsiusj Atkinson's translation) "law-books, books which Cassian 
loved [?]. (I.e., he so read books of law, as he read books of John Cassian 
for their clearness ; or he read books of law as John Cassian did.) ... He 
divided part from figure, among the books of law. (I.e., he put the history 
of the law on one side, and its meaning on the other side.)" 

For his knowledge of the calendar, we may compare the same work, 
ibid., i, 174, translated ii, 68-69. 

Amra Coluimchille, Liber Hymnorum, i, 180: "He conversed with an 
angel. He discussed [? atgailt\ Greek grammar. (I.e., he held converse 
with an angel, and he studied grammar like the Greeks. Or, he conversed 
with grammarians and with Greeks)" ("grammatically and in Greek," 
Atkinson. The meaning is obscure.) 

Amra Coluimchille, Liber Hymnorum, i, 180-181 : "Not with Niall's 
strength is he, . . . who injured not, when he died [Stokes' translation ; 
R.C., XX, 407]. ([I.e.] he did not commit any injury for which he should 
have died, if it were a cause for [death] in other cases.)" The glossator 
means that Columba did nothing for which a smaller man would have 
died. Atkinson follows the glossator, though doubtfully, in translating 
the text : " He did not commit an injury for which one dies." Cf. with 
this^Adamnan, below, years 686, 688. 

Amra Coluimchille, Liber Hymnorum, i, 176: "The art of his priest- 
hood" (i.e. hymn-writing?) "was melodious, was unique. (I.e., all thought 
that his voice was sweet ; and all were satisfied with the unique art which 
he had of priesthood. Or priesthood was only one of his arts, because he 
was a poet, he was a prophet, he was a sage.) 

" To mankind he was unintelligible. (I.e. his hymns were unintelligible 
to other people.) 

" He was' a shelter to the naked, a shelter to the poor. (I.e., clothing 
and feeding them.)" 

With the words " He was a poet . . . prophet . . . sage," cf. the 
second line of the stanza in which, according to the Tripartite Life, i, 150, 
Patrick foretold the birth of Columba (" He will be a sage, a prophet, a 
poet" tr. Stokes) ; and the first line of stanza 103 of Berchan's Prophecy 
(P. & S., 79). The notator of the Amra seems to quote some verse that 
has been copied also by the writers of Berchan and the Tripartite Life. 

According to Adamnan, I, i (ed. Skene, 113-114), Columba had from 
early years the gift of prophecy, or rather of second-sight There are many 
stories of this faculty in Adamnan and in the Irish Life. According to 
Giraldus Cambrensis, Columba was one of the four prophets of Ireland 
(Expugnatio Hibernica ; v, 384-385, cf. 341-342). 

Adamnan says also (I, i ; ed. Skene, in): "And he by himself alone 
repulsed, with God's aid, and drove back from this our primary island [of 
lona], attacking and innumerable troops of demons fighting against him, 
seen by his bodily eyes, and beginning to bring upon his monastic company 



CHARACTER OF COLUMBA 29 

Irish Life of Columba; Stokes's Three Homilies, pp. 122-124I 

Now there never was begotten of the Gael a person nobler, 
or wiser, or of higher descent, than Columcille : there never 
came to them one more lowly, more humble, more modest. 
Great indeed was Columcille's modesty, since he used himself 
to take off his monks' sandals, and to wash them for them. He 
used often to carry his share of corn on his back to the mill, 
and he ground it and bore it back to his house. He never 
wore linen or wool next his skin. He slept not except with his 
side against the bare earth ; with nothing under his head but a 
pillar of stone for a pillow. And he slept not at all, except for 
the time that his disciple Diarmait chanted three chapters of 
the Beaius. After that he rose up, and made lamentation and 
hand-clapping like a loving mother weeping for her only son. 

deadly diseases." This story is told more fully, and attributed to Columba 
himself, in III, 8 ; it is also in Cummine, IX, who attributes their repulse 
to the assistance of angels (Pinkerton, Vitae, 32-33). 

Poems written by Columba were believed to have miraculously protective 
powers in battle (Adamnan, I, i). 

When Columba was a boy novice, he had a tutor \7tutritot-\ called 
Cruithnechan, according to Adamnan, III, 2 (ed. Skene, 195). Later, 
while he was a young man and deacon, he had an old man Gemman as 
instructor (Adamnan, II, 25 ; ed. Skene, 169). Afterwards St Finnian 
[of Moville] was his teacher (Adamnan, II, i. III, 4; ed. Skene, 152, 196. 
Cf Cummine, III, IV ; and the Salamanca Life, ed. Smedt and De Backer, 
847). Finnian died in 579, according to A.U. ; in [577] according to T. 
(an old entry ; but without year-heading. Supply f.n. 5, as in C.S., 
Hennessy's year 578). 

The Lebar Brecc, in a mythical account, says that Columba received 
priest's orders from bishop Etchen of Clonfad (1880 Oengus, pp. 1-li ; 
other versions in 1905 ed., 72. Cf. J. H. Todd, Introduction to Obits and 
Martyrologies of Christchurch, pp. liii-lv. Cf also Martyrology of Donegal, 
44 ; Colgan's Acta Sanctorum, 304-306 ; and O'Donnell's Life of Columba, 
in Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga, 396-397). Etchen died on nth February, 
according to the martyrologies and F.M. ; in 577 = 578, according to A.U. 
and F.M. ; in [576] according to T. (R.C., xvii, 152) and C.S., 60, Hennessy's 
year 577 ; in the same year as Brendan of Clonfert, according to A.B. 

For Columba's creation of the monastery of Derry, see year 546 ; for 
his elevation of Patrick's remains, and distribution of relics, see year 553. 
His life-history is traced by Reeves (Adamnan, Ixviii-lxxx ; ed. Skene, 
xxxiii-lxxix). Cf. the Irish Life, below. 

1 Very similarly also in the Book of Lismore ; Stokes, Lismore Lives, 

32-33- 

With the Irish Life, cf. the life in the Annals of Clonmacnoise, 92-96. 



30 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

After that he sang the hundred-and-fifty [psalms] until morning, 
[lying] in the sand of the shore, as [the poet] said : " The three 
fifties, heavy was the vigil ; in the night, the torment was great. 
In the sea by the side of Scotland, before the sun had risen ; 
bare he laid himself, noble afflictions, in the sand ; great was 
the affliction. The course of his ribs was plain through his 
clothing, when the wind blew it." 

That was his night-work. In the day he attended at the 
canonical hours ; he offered the body of Christ, and his blood. 
He preached the gospel, baptized, consecrated, anointed ; he 
healed lepers, and blind, and lame, and all other diseased 
persons ; he raised the dead. 

Irish Life of Oolumba ; Stokes's Three Homilies, pp. 96 ff.^ 

The time when the Christians keep the festival and 
celebration of Columcille's death is the fifth day ^before the 
Ides of June, as regards the day of the solar month. Every 
year on this day,^ etc. 

And the wise men of the Gael relate at this season every 
year an abridgement of the exposition of the nobility * and noble 
parentage of St Columcille, and moreover of the innumerable 
miracles and wonders that the Lord worked for him while he 
lived in this world ; and of the perfecting and distinguished 
conclusion which [the Lord] gave at last to [Columba's] 
victorious career, when he reached his own true fatherland and 
true native country, the abode of Paradise, in the presence of 
God for ever. 

Columcille's descent was noble, as the world is concerned ; 
he was of the descendants of Conall, Niall's son. He had by 
descent the right to the kingship of Ireland, and it would have 
been offered to him had he not renounced it for God. But it 
is clear that he was a chosen son of God, because the elders of 
Ireland prophesied of him before his birth. . . .^ 

^ Also (a somewhat later text) in the Book of Lismore ; Stokes's 
Lismore Lives, 22 ff. 

- 9th June. 

^ This Life was meant to be read on 9th June. 

* shocheneoil "noble descent" in L.B. ; shochair "privilege" (Stokes), 
in Book of Lismore. 

'' Here are cited predictions of Columba attributed to Mochta of Louth, 
Patrick, Bee Macc-De, and Eogan of Ardstraw. 



BIRTH OF COLUMBA 31 

Buitte, Bronach's son, prophesied of Columcille, and said to 
his household : " This night has been born a son, glorious, 
honourable before God and men ; and he will come here thirty 
years from to-night, accompanied by twelve men ; and he will 
reveal my grave and point out my burial-place, and we shall be 
one ^ in heaven and on earth." 

As Columcille's birth was foretold by the elders of Ireland, 
so also it was displayed in visions and in dreams. Thus it was 
displayed in the vision that was shown to his mother. She 
imagined that a great mantle was given to her, and that it 
stretched from Insi-Mod to Caer-Abrocc,^ and every colour was 
present in it. And a youth saw the splendid garment, and took 
the mantle from her into the air. And Ethne was sorrowful 
because of it. And she imagined that the same youth came 
to her again, and said to her : " Good woman," said the youth, 
" thou needest not to grieve, but gladness and delight are 
meeter for thee ; because this cloak portends that thou wilt 
bear a son, and Ireland and Scotland will be full of his 
doctrine." 

Likewise the v/aiting-woman ^ saw a vision; she imagined 
that the birds of the air bore Ethne's bowels throughout the 
territories of Ireland and Scotland. Ethne herself interpreted 
this vision, and spoke then thus : " I shall bear a son, and his 
doctrine will extend throughout the territories of Ireland and 
Scotland." 

As it had been predicted by the elders of Ireland, and had 
been seen in visions, so Columcille was born. And Gortan is 
the name of the place where he was born ; and he was born 
upon the seventh day * before the Ides of December, as regards 
the day of the solar month, and on Thursday, as regards the 
day of the week. 

Wonderful was the son who was born there ; a son of the 
king of heaven and of earth : Columcille, son of Fedlimid, son 
of Fergus, son of Conall Gulban, son of Niall Nine-hostager. 

1 diaid ar n-oentu, literally " our unity will be " ; Stokes translates this 
" our union shall abide." 

' CO Caer nambrocc in Lebar Brace ; co Caeir n-Abrocc in Book of 
Lismore, i.e. "to York," The Insi-Mod are Inishymoe, the islands in Clew 
Bay, off the coast of Mayo, according to Reeves ; Adamnan, 191. 

^ anben imtha sin, Lebar Brecc ; a ben imthasi, Book of Lismore. 

■* 7th December, a Thursday in 521. 



32 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

His mother was of the Corprige of Leinster : Ethne Olmar, 
daughter of Dimma, son of Noah. 

Immediately after his birth he was taken [away], and 
Cruithnechan, Cellachan's son, the noble priest, baptized him ; 
and thereafter he fostered him, at the command of angels 
of God. 

Now when he reached the age for study, the priest went to 
a certain seer,i to ask him when the boy ought to begin. When 
the seer had scanned the sky, he said : " Write his alphabet 
for him now." Thereupon it was written on a cake.^ And 
Columcille consumed the cake thus, half of it to the east of a 
water and half of it to the west of a water. 

The seer said, by grace of prophecy, " So shall the territory 
of this boy be, half of it to the east of a sea, that is, in Scotland, 
and half of it to the west of a sea, that is, in Ireland." . . .^ 

Thereafter [Cruithnechan] offered Columcille to the Lord of 
the elements, and [Columcille] asked three boons of [God] : 
charity, and wisdom, and pilgrimage. All three were granted 
to him in full. 

He bade farewell to his foster-father, and his foster-father 
gave him leave to go, and blessed him fervently. Then 
[Columba] went to study wisdom with the noble bishop, 
Finnian of Moville. . . .* 

[Columba] then bade farewell to Finnian, and went to 
Gemman the Master. . . . ^ 

He then bade farewell to Gemman, and went to Finnian of 
Clonard. . . ." 

Columcille then bade farewell to Finnian, and went to 

^ fdith ; "spaeman," "prophet" Stokes. 

- I.e., that time was propitious, and his education was symbolically 
begun. 

5 Columba chanted a psalm for Cruithnechan, although he had learned 
only the alphabet ; and he raised Cruithnechan from death caused by 
falling in a wood. 

* Columba turned water to wine for the mass. 

'' Here is related the episode, told also by Adamnan, of Columba's curse 
killing a man who had killed a girl in his presence. 

^ Finnian bade Columba build his hut in the door of the church. 
Columba was relieved by an angel of his share in the quern-grinding. 
Finnian had a vision of a golden moon and a silver moon— Columba and 
Ciaran, the Wright's son. 



COLUMBA IN IRELAND 33 

Glasnevin; because fifty were studying there with Mobi, 
including Cainnech and Comgall and Ciaran. . . } 

On one occasion a great church was built by Mobi, and the 
priests were considering what each of them would like to have 
the church filled with. "I should like," said Ciaran, "to have 
it filled with sons of the church to attend at the canonical 
hours." " I should like " said Cainnech, " to have it filled with 
books for the use of the elect." ^ " I should like " said Comgall, 
"to have it filled with tribulation and disease, that they might 
enter my own body to oppress and to chastise me." But 
Columcille chose that it should be filled with gold and silver 
with which to cover relics and monasteries. Mobi said that it 
would not be so, but that Columcille's community would be 
richer than any other congregation, either in Ireland or in 
Scotland. . . .^ 

Then another time when he was in Derry, he planned to go 
to Rome and to Jerusalem.* On another occasion he went 
from Derry to Tours of Martin, and took away with him the 
gospel that had been in the earth on Martin's bosom for a 
hundred years. And he left it in Derry. 

God did many miracles and wonders for Columcille in 
Derry. [Columba] loved that city greatly, and said : 

" I love Derry for these reasons : for its smoothness ; for its 
purity ; because it is full of holy angels, from one end to the other." 

Thereafter Columcille founded Raphoe. There he raised 
the carpenter from death, after he had been drowned in the 

1 Columba miraculously transferred monastic huts across a flooded river. 

^ do macaib bethad. For the meaning of this expression cf. the Life of 
Cainnech, Plummer's Vitae, i, 167, where films vitae means " one of the 
elect." 

^ Mobi predicted plague ; Columba stopped it at the river Biur. Derry 
was founded (see year 546) ; see the preface to the hymn Noli, Pater. 
Wattles were taken without permission, and paid for with barley seed. 
Columba drew water from a rock to baptize a child. 

* nosiniraid dula do Roim ecus do Jerusalem, Lebar Brecc ; no 
imraideth dula, Lismore Life. " He bethought him of going " Stokes. 
This surely means that he went. The same expression is used of his going 
to Britain, below. 

This voyage to Rome never occurred. An altogether miraculous visit 
to Rome (through the air, fighting for king Brandub's soul) is described in 
O'Donnell's Life (III, 45); Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga, 439a. See 
Reeves's Adamnan, 205. Cf Tallaght Discourse, 133. 

C 



34 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

mill-pond. Still in Raphoe his community needed a plough- 
share ; and he blessed the hands of the little boy that was with 
him, Fergna by name, and he made the ploughshare; and 
through [Columba's] blessing [Fergna] was skilled in metal 
work thenceforward. 

Then [Columba] went on a preaching-circuit to the king of 
Teffia, who was named Aed, Brendan's son. And [Aed] gave 
him the place where Durrow is to-day; and a monastery ^ was 
made there by [Columba]. . . } 

After that he blessed Durrow, and left there as keeper one 
of his community, Cormac Ua-Liathain. 

Then he went to Aed Slane, Diarmait's son ; he came to 
the place where Kells is to-day. It was a castle of the king of 
Ireland at that time ; the castle of Diarmait, Cerball's son. . . ? 

There was a great oak under which Columcille remained, 
so long as he was in that place. This oak lasted for many 
ages, but fell in the uproar of a great wind. A certain man 
took some of its bark to tan his shoes ; and as soon as he wore 
his shoes after they had been tanned, leprosy seized him from 
his soles to his crown. 

Then Columcille went to Aed Slane, and prophesied on his 
behalf, and said that he would live long unless he committed 
parricide ; but if he did parricide, he would live only four years 
afterwards. And he blessed a cowl for him, and said that he 
should not be wounded so long as he wore that cowl. But Aed 
Slane did do parricide, contrary to the word of Columcille, 
upon Suibne, Colman's son ; and after four years he went upon 
an expedition ; he forgot his cowl ; he was killed upon that day. 

After that, Columcille founded many churches in Brega. 
He left in them two elders and many relics. He left Ossine, 
Cellach's son, in Clonmore of Ferrard ; [and] he went after 
that to Monasterboice. There his staff struck the ladder of 

' redes. 

^ He turned bitter apples sweet; he sent to Colman Mor, Diarmait's 
son, a sword so blessed that none could die beside it. 

^ Columba foretold the future of Kells and Killskeer ; and " he marked 
out that city [of Kells] as it is now ; and he blessed it earnestly ; and he 
said that it would be the chief possession he should have among the lands, 
although his resurrection would not be there " (i.e., although he should not 
be buried there). But the Columbite monks did not get Kells until the 
year 804, q.v. This was written long after that date. 



COLUMBA IN IRELAND 35 

glass by which Buitte had climbed to heaven ; and the sound 
of it was heard through the whole church. And he revealed 
the grave of Buitte. And he marked out [Buitte's] church/ as 
Buitte himself had prophesied upon the day of his death. 

For he marked out many churches, and wrote many books,''' 
as the poet has said : " He marked out, without relaxing,^ three 
hundred fair churches (it is true) ; and he wrote three hundred 
bright, noble, miracle-working books. . . .* " 

Any book that his hand had written, though it were long 
under water, not even one letter in it was washed out. 

He founded a church in Rechraind ^ in the east of Brega, 
and left deacon Colman there. . . .^ 

He founded a church in the place where Swords' is to-day. 
He left there an elder of his community, Finan Lobur ; and he 
left the gospel which he had written with his own hand. And 
he marked out a well there, called Sord, that is " pure." And 
he blessed a cross. For he was accustomed to make crosses 
and book-satchels and book-covers ^ and altar vessels,^ as 
[the poet] said : " He blessed three hundred miracle-working 
crosses, three hundred rushing wells ; and a hundred splendid 
. . . satchels,^" and a hundred croziers, and a hundred book- 



' dororaind a chill; Stokes's translation. Not in the Lismore Life. 

^ The Lismore Life adds, " namely three hundred churches and three 
hundred books," and omits the stanza quoted in Lebar Brecc. 

^ cen mannair " without loosening " Stokes. 

* trebon; "lasting(?)" Stokes (z'j'CCir. buadach trebon. lebor solas saer roscrib). 

8 irrachraind oirthir breg ; " now Lambay, Adamnan's Rechrea insula" 
Stokes. This is Lambay, but in Adamnan Rathlin may be meant. 

^ Cainnech and Comgall saw a pillar of fire over Columba's head while 
he celebrated mass there. See Adamnan, below, pp. 55-56. 

' " About seven miles north of Dublin " Stokes. 

^ polaire ocus tiaga lebor; "writing-tablets and book-satchels" Stokes, 
Lismore Lives. 

" aid7ne eclastacda. 

'" cSt ipolaire an anathach; " a hundred tablets," Stokes (Lismore 
Lives). This seems an unlikely meaning here. 

" cet Hag; " satchels," Stokes. The Lismore Life omits the quotation, 
and reads: "and he blessed 300 crosses and 300 wells, and 100 polaires 
and 100 tiag%." 

'^ Two instances of second-sight stand here, one in connection with 
Cainnech's monks, another with Bridget (who died ca. 524 ; see above, 
p. 17). 



36 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Afterwards he went to Leinster, and left many churches 
founded there, including Druimm-Monach, and Moone, and 
many other churches. 

Afterwards Columcille went to Clonmacnoise, with the 
hymn that he had made for Ciaran/ for he made many 
praises for God's community ; as [the poet] said, " Noble 
hundred-and-fifty [hymns], nobler than [those of] any apostle ; 
the number of miracles are [as] grass ^; some [of the hymns 
were written] in Latin, which was obscure^; others in Irish, 
fair is the tale." 

Now in Clonmacnoise a little boy came to him and took a 
small hair from [Columba's] clothing, without his perceiving it. 
But God revealed the matter to [Columba.] He prophesied of 
the boy that he should be a wise man and religious. That is 
Ernan of Clondara to-day. 

Afterwards Columcille went into the territories of Connaught 
on a preaching-circuit, and he founded many churches and 
establishments in that province-; among them Assylyn* and 
Drumcliff And he left Mothoria in Drumcliff,^ and left with 
them a crozier which he himself had made. Columcille then 
went past Assaroe and founded many churches in Tirconnell 
and Tyrone. He founded [the church] in Tory Island, and left 
in it an elder of his community, Ernaine. 

Now when Columcille had made the circuit of all Ireland, 
and had sown faith and belief, after he had baptized many 
peoples, after he had founded churches and establishments, 
after he had left in them elders and relics of saints and of 
martyrs,^ there came to his mind the resolution he had deter- 
mined upon from the beginning of his life, namely to go into 
pilgrimage. Then he planned to go across the sea to preach 
God's word to Scots and to Britons and SaxonsJ 

1 Cf. Liber Hymnorum, i, 157. 

2 itUn ferta fer ; Stokes's translation (Lismore Lives.) 
^ soebail J "beguiling," Stokes. 

* Ess-mic - Eire. Assylyn, on the Boyle, according to Reeves, 
Adamnan, 281. 

^ This clause is not in the Lismore Life. 

^ minda ociis martire ; perhaps " reliquaries and relics," with Stokes. 

■ Similarly in the Life of Columba in the Salamanca MS., Smedt and 
De Backer's Acta, 847-848 : "And after the holy man saw that a fitting 
time had arrived to carry out what he had formerly purposed, that is to 



COLUMBA EXCOMMUNICATED 37 

?56i 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book III, c. 3 ^ 

Concerning the apparition of holy angels, that St Brendan 
had seen passing along the plain in company of the blessed ^nan. 

After the interval of many seasons,^ when St Columba was 
being excommunicated by a certain synod for some venial and 
indeed excusable causes, unjustly, as afterwards became plain 
in the end, he came to the same assembly that had been 
collected against himself. And because St Brendan (the 
founder of the monastery called Birra in Irish ^ ) had seen 
him coming, far off, he quickly rose and bowed his face, and 
reverently kissed him. Some of the elders of the assembly 
separated from the rest, and rebuked him, saying, " Why dost 
thou not refuse to rise in presence of one excommunicated, and 
to kiss him?" Then he spoke to them and said, "If you 
could see what the Lord has not disdained to reveal to me this 
day concerning this his chosen one, whom you dishonour, you 
would never have excommunicated him whom God by no 
means excommunicates in accordance with your unjust decree, 
but even exalts by more and more." They retorted, saying, 

say for his purpose to go into pilgrimage, and for converting the Picts 
to the faith, he left his native land and sailed with prosperous passage to 
the island of lona, which is situated in the northern ocean between Ireland 
and Britain ; and there he built a most noble monastery, and fed white 
flocks of monks with the salutary nutriment of doctrine. He also converted 
the Picts to the faith of Christ." 

' Reeves's ed., 192-194; Skene's, 195-196. 

2 After the time of a miraculous occurrence in Columba's boyhood. 

^ The death of Brendan of Birr was revealed to Columba in lona 
when it occurred, according to Adamnan, III, 11 (ed. Skene, 201), and 
Cummine, VII ; and Columba instituted the .day as Brendan's festival. 
Cf. the Life in the Salamanca MS., ed. Smedt and De Backer, 851. 

Brendan died either in 564 = 565 or in 571 = 572, according to A.U., 
i, 60, 62 ; in [565] or [572], according to T., u.s., 147, 150, and C.S., 56, 58, 
Hennessy's years 566 and 573. A.I. place his death under O'Conor's year 
565 = 573 (26 years before 599). Cf. A.C. s.a. [574]. The Annals from the 
Book of Leinster, R.S. 89, ii, 514, place his death in 580; F.M., on 29th 
November 571. 

Brendan of Birr died in the year of the battle of Femin, according to 
D.M.F., I, p. 6, first year-section ("about the year of Christ 571"). This 
battle was fought in 573, according to A.U. and A.I. Perhaps 573 is the 
true year of Brendan's death. 



38 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

" How, we should like to know, does God glorify, as thou sayest, 
him whom we have excommunicated, and not without cause?" 
"I have seen" said Brendan, "a column streaming with fire, 
and exceedingly bright, preceding this man of God whom you 
despise; and holy angels accompanying him on his journey 
through the plain. So I dare not slight this man whom I perceive 
to be preordained by God to live as leader of the peoples." 

After he had said this, they not only desisted, without ventur- 
ing to excommunicate the holy man further, but even honoured 
him with great reverence. This affair occurred in Teltown.^ 

563 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book III, c. 4^ 

About the same time ^ the saint sailed over to Britain with 
twelve fellow-warriors as his disciples.'*' 

' The later accounts which give Columba's share in the battle of 
Cuil-dremne as the cause of his departure from Ireland may have 
justification ; Adamnan touches this matter very gently. It seems probable 
that the synod here spoken of had assembled after that battle. 

An account somewhat similar to Adamnan's appears in the Salamanca 
MS., ed. Smedt and De Backer, 221-22;). 

Cf the notes on Oengus, in MS. Rawlinson B 512 (R.S. 89, ii, 
556; 1905 Oengus, 204): "The cutting-off of Ciaran's life, Columcille's 
being sent across the sea, and Mochuta's being driven from Rahen, these 
are the three discreditable stories of the saints of Ireland." To similar 
effect in L.B. (1880 Oengus, cxliv), Avhich says that these were "the three 
worst counsels carried out in Ireland by advice of saints." But the 
annotator of the Amra puts a different complexion upon it. Amra Coluim- 
chille (Liber Hymnorum, i, 179) : " In Scotland, fear of hell. (I.e. for fear 
of hell he went into Scotland.)" 

Cf. the glossator's note in the Amra Coluimchille, i, 173: "[Columba] 
conquered in the battles of the three Culls ; the battle of Cuil-Dremne, 
against the Connaught-men ; and the battle of Cuil-Feda, against Colman 
Mor, Diarmait's son ; and the battle of Cuil-Rathin [Coleraine], against the 
Ulstermen, in the contest between Columba and Comgall for Ros-Torathair." 

The Metrical Dindsenchas (from the Book of Leinster), ed. Gwynn, Todd 
Lecture Series, 8, i, 26 : " Columcille (who used to ransom captives) 
gained the battle [of Cuildremne] against Diarmait ; before he went out 
across the sea, the lord of Tara had yielded to him." 

^ Reeves's edition, 195 ; Skene's, 196. 

^ The previous passage (the previous chapter in Cummine) relates how 
Finnian [of Moville] (called "bishop Finnio" by Adamnan) saw Columba 
escorted by an angel. Adamnan places Finnian's vision vaguely ("at 
another time ") after the synod of Teltown. 

* With the word "fellow- warriors" {commilito7ics) compare Adamnan's 



FOLLOWERS OF COLUMBA 39 

Continuation of Adamnan's Life of Columba, Reeves's edition, 

pp. 245-246 1 

These are the names of the twelve men who sailed over 
with St Columba from Ireland, in his first crossing to Britain : 
The two sons of Brendan : Baithene, who [was called] also 
Conin, St Columba's successor ; and Cobthach, his brother ; 
Ernan, St Columba's uncle ; 
Diarmait, his attendant ; 
Rus, and Fechno, two sons of Rodan ; 
Scandal, son of Bresal, son of Enda, son of Niall; 
Lugaid Mocu-Themne ; 
Echoid ; 

Tochannu Mocu-Fircetea ; 
Cairnan, son of Brandub, son of Meilge ; 
Grillan.2 . . . 

description of Columba as an " island soldier." The meaning is " soldiers 
of Christ" ; but here the word suggests that Columba and his followers 
had taken part in the battle of Cuil-dremne. 

The number "twelve" appears also in the Irish Life; Stokes's Three 
Homilies, 100 ; but see the same work below. 

' Skene's ed., Ixxi-lxxii ; Stokes and Strachan, Thesaurus, ii, 281. This 
is taken from Reeves's MS. B (for which see Reeves, xxiv-xxv). 

2 This list is copied imperfectly by Fordun ; III, 26 (i, 113). 

It is probable that these are all names of men who were associated with 
Columba in Scotland at one time or another. 

The Irish Life in Lebar Brecc ; Stokes's Homilies, 118 : "the monks he 
had with him in [the church of lona] were a hundred and fifty for contem- 
plation" {ri ieoir, i.e. theoria; Stokes's translation) "and sixty for active 
life " {ri achtdilj Stokes \actualis\, but possibly laymen are meant) ; " as 
said the poet : 'Wondrous were the youths that were in lona ; a hundred 
and fifty in monasticism, with their curachs over the sea ; sixty men 
rowing.' 

" When Columcille had founded lona, he went upon a preaching-circuit 
through Scotland and Wales and England. And he brought them to faith 
and belief, after performing many miracles, after raising the dead from 
death." 

Similarly also in the Book of Lismore ; Stokes, Lismore Lives, 30 (for 
" sixty " above, the Lismore Life reads " forty " ; perhaps this is a printer's 
error. Stokes translates it "sixty"; ibid., 178). For the numbers, cf. 
below, year 575. 

Lebar Brecc, 19b,: " Colum of Terryglass, son of Nindid, son of 
Naxair, son of Crimthan, son of Eochaid, son of Oengus, son of Crimthan, 
son of Cathair Mor. 



40 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

" My Maedoc of Fid-duin, son of Midgna, son of Meti, son of Nindid, 
son of Naxair, son of Crimthan, son of Cathair Mor. 

" Colman Cuile, son of Midgna ; i.e., brother of My Maedoc of Fid-duin. 
And their sister was Conchend." 

This pedigree (corrected) places Maedoc in the gth generation from 
Cathair Mor, from whom Columba was descended by ii generations. 
Cf. the pedigree in the Book of Leinster, 351 d. (Cf. Forbes, Kalendars 
of Scottish Saints, 412.) 

Martyrology of Oengus, 23rd March : " My Maedoc, diadem of Scot- 
land, relates loftiness from Christ." Notes in the Franciscan MS. (1905 
Oengus, 100) and in L.B. (1880 Oengus, Ixiv) give his pedigree. Cf. 
Tallaght, in L.L., 357 d. 

According to the Book of Deer, Drostan was a pupil of Columba. Cf. 
the Breviary of Aberdeen, i, 3, xix (14th December) : " St Drostan, abbot." 
" Blessed Drostan, sprung from royal ancestry of the Scots." "... He 
took the habit in Dalquongale. Upon the death of the abbot of that place, 
the blessed Drostan was elected abbot." "... He removed himself to a 
desert place in the regions of Scotland ; and leading there the life of a 
hermit he built a church in a place that is called Glenesk." "And the 
bones of the most holy confessor Drostan are preserved at Aberdour in 
a tomb of stone, and there many suffering from various oppressions of 
disease are restored by his merits to health." See below, ii, 174-181. 

One companion of Columba was Munnu or Fintan. Cf. the Breviary of 
Aberdeen, ii, 3, cxxxi : "The abbot St Mundus, at Kilmund and Dissert." 
(See Martyrology of Oengus, 21st October.) 

A pupil of Congall and Sillenus, he received the habit from Columba, 
according to this Breviary. 

Fintan was Aed's son, according to Adamnan, II, 31 (see below, p. 61). 

Machar also is said to have been one of Columba's companions on the 
voyage from Ireland. 

According to the Scots Life of Machar (Horstmann, Altenglische 
Legenden, Neue Folge, 190-207 ; Metcalfe, Legends, ii, i ff.), Machar 
[Sand Morys\ was the son of an Irish king and queen, Syaconus and 
Synchene ; he was called by them Mochumma [Mocwnma, Mocumba] ; he 
was fostered by Colman \Telemane\. As a child, he restored to life his 
infant brother. He was miraculously saved from death by fire and by 
water. He became a disciple of Columba, who called him Machar 
{Machore) when he reached full manhood. Sent by Columba to preach in 
Mull, he cured seven lepers there. (Cf. the Aberdeen Breviary.) 

When Columba and his followers set sail for Scotland, Machar was the 
first to embark. " Then, God helping, they sailed a while, till they came 
near to the island of lona [Ty], and there struck sail ; then they thought to 
land there. One Maelumai [Mellumd] at that moment came to the sea 
and saw them there, and knew St Columba, and was glad ; and asked him 
at once if he wished to land, and he said ' Yes.' Then the peasant [carle] 
waded to the boat without delay. And when he had [carried] them to the 
land, then said St Columba: 'Are we all here?' Maelumai said, 'Yes, sir. 



ST MACHAR 41 

now.' St Columba made them pass before him to see ; and he missed 
St Machar, who still lay in his prayers. Then St Columba said to the 
peasant : ' One still is wanting, who is more to God of heaven than we all 
are.' Then the peasant went over, and asked if he wished to be carried 
dry to land. ' Yes,' said he ; and straightway he carried him dry to the 
land. . . . 

" Then said St Columba : ' Brothers, blessed be this place ; and pray to 
God that he send his angel to bless it, since it has chanced that we have 
come here.' And after they had done as he said, they presently passed 
over the whole island ; and found it very productive, and good and suit- 
able to dwell in. And in a while one may easily sail to that isle out of 
Ireland." They found a "fair stead," and built mansions for Columba and 
Machar, and dwellings for the remainder of the company. 

After some time Machar left lona, and " God helping, sailed the sea, 
in three days, without difficulty ; and arrived by a straight course in the 
north of Scotland \_e'wine north in 5.], where they found dwelling a 
Christian man, whose name was Ferchar \^Farcare\ and who had riches 
and great power" in the country of the Picts. Ferchar received Machar 
gladly, and brought him "to his town," and provided him with all that he 
needed. Ferchar let Machar choose any place out of all his heritage. And 
Machar searched till he found " a place that was suitable for him ; beside 
the bank of a water that ran into the sea, and looked as if it had been a 
bishop's staff." He built the necessary dwellings. "And after that he 
caused a costly church to be built by craftsmen, and it men called still 
St Machar's See or Seat." A religious man dwelling near, called Devenick 
{Dewynik), went to convert the Picts of Caithness. " Devenick went over 
to Caithness, to folk who were then without the truth ; and he prospered 
so well in short time there, that he made them perfect in God's lore. 

" St Machar continued to preach to the Picts, as he had done before, 
and so prospered that he caused the greater part of them to become 
Christian. And notably he brought to the truth leading men, who had 
till then been without the truth ; both through the teaching he gave them, 
and by showing several miracles. And far and wide he destroyed their 
temples, and the idols which were in them." 

He turned a boar to stone, 

A sorcerer, Dinone, dwelt in that country ; he appeared to have seven 
heads, but when Machar repeated the psalm Exsurgat Deus (Psalms, 
LXVIII ; in Vulgate, LXVn) he was seen to have but one; and he 
became a Christian. Machar performed miracles of healing, and raised 
from death a relative of Columba called Synchenus. Those who opposed 
him lost their lives. One spring, he sent to his bishop " to my lord 
Ternane" for seed, and produced a miraculous crop of bere and rye in 
waste land. 

A man refused Machar ground for a church ; but a fish-bone stuck in 
the man's throat, till he yielded. " St Machar then measured the place, 
which was long and broad and very smooth : and in a short time he 
had a comely church built there, of fair trees." 



42 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Machar received a visit from " St Ternan, the bishop near." 

"Not long afterwards, upon a day a man said to St Machar that St 
Devenick in Caithness had perished of age, and was dead ; and while he 
lay on his death-straw he had said to those beside him: 'When you see 
that I am dead, I conjure you for God's sake that you let no labour weary 
you, but carry my body to a certain church of which St Machar knows, and 
pray him for the sake of heaven's king that he remember and be mindful 
of the promise which he made to me of his good will, at our parting." 
Machar had promised to bury him where he had laboured, and where 
he had parted from Machar, near the place of Machar's first church 
among the Picts. The bearers of the body were resting near the hill 
of Crostan iCreskane). Machar directed them to take it to Banchory, 
where they buried him, and built a church above him. There miracles 
appeared. " Men call the place wherein he .lay Banchory-Devenick to 
this day." 

Columba entered Scotland, intending to go to Rome. Machar went 
with him, and they came to pope Gregory, who made Machar bishop of 
all the Picts, and changed his name to Mauritius {Morise). Gregory 
instructed Machar and blessed them both, and they returned, visiting 
on their way the tomb of St Martin at Tours ; the bishop of Tours 
received them with great honour, and wished them to remain with 
him. Martin appeared to Columba and gave him " the book of the 
Gospel which had been laid in the grave for some time, beside him, 
where he was buried"; "which all his lifetime [Columba] held in 
great liking, as a relic ; and when he died, he left it to his church, as 
was reasonable." 

Machar remained in Tours for three years and a half, as the bishop's 
administrator, as "father and soul-herd." Then he died, and was 
embalmed and sumptuously buried beside Martin. There his remains do 
miracles ; his intercession is obtained by suppliants. 

This Life has very little authority, and is in some respects palpably 
false. In general agreement with its earlier details is the office for the 
festival of St Machar in the Breviary of Aberdeen (ii, 3, 154-157; 12th 
November, a " double principal [festival] in the church of Aberdeen," 
which was dedicated to this saint): "As his true History relates, we 
learn that St Mauricius was born of a father Syacanus, a regulus of the 
Irish ; and of a mother Synchena, his queen. . . ." (This office is also in 
Metcalfe, Scottish Saints, i, 217-221.) 

For S. Ternan, see i.a. A. P. Forbes, Liber Ecclesie B. Terrenani de 
Arbuthnott (1864), Preface, pp. Ixxii-lxxxiv. 

Ternan may possibly have been the Torannan who is commemorated 
under June 12th, in Oengus (1880 ed., xciii, cccxxiv. ; 1905 ed., 140,447; 
" Long-lived, active Torannan, over a wide sea of ships " ; see the notes 
variously identifying him, 1905 ed., 148, 149; Donegal, 166, 167, 168); and 
in Gorman, 114. 



MONASTERY OF lONA 43 

563 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 144, s.a. [562] 

The sailing of Columcille to the island of lona, in the 
forty-fifth year of his age.^ 

1 F.n. I. 

2 In text " forty-i5fth " (xlu) ; probably we should read "forty-second" 
(xlii), as in C.S., and in Adamnan. A.U. also read "forty-second," in spite 
of the fact that this number is not in agreement with the dates they give. 
"42nd" is also the reading of the Annals of Clonmacnoise, 88, s.a. 563 (cf. 
82 : " St Columcille being then banished into Scotland . . ."). 

C.S., 54, s.a. [563] (f.n. I ; Hennessy's year 563), and A.U., i, 60, s.a. 
562 = 563 (with f.n. and e. of 563) : "Voyage of Columcille to lona in the 
forty-second year of his age." MS. B of A.U. reads only : " Voyage of 
Columcille from Ireland." This stands 44 or 40 years after A.U.'s date of 
Columba's birth. 

A.I., 7, O'Conor's year 555 = 563 (36 years before 599, i year after 559) : 
" Columcille in pilgrimage. His first night in Scotland was Pentecost." 
This is placed 44 years after his birth. According to MacCarthy's tables 
(N and O, in A.U., iv, Introduction), the Celtic Pentecost in 563 was 
13th May, the same as Roman Pentecost. Tigernach's reckoning (below, 
year 597) requires an earlier day of arrival than 9th June. 

Columba's voyage is used as an era to reckon from, but erroneously, in 
A.U., ii, 310, s.a. 1249. 

F.M., i, 196, s.a. 557: "Columcille went to Scotland, and afterwards 
founded a church ; and it is named after him." 

A.C., Y Cymmrodor, ix, 155, s.a. [562] (8 years after the "iioth 
year" after 444): "Columcille went forth in[to] Britain." In MS. B 
(Ab Ithel, 4) : " Columcille came out of Ireland in[to] Britain." The annal 
is not in MS. C. 

Bede's date 565 is given by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and by the 
Annals of St Neots (Stevenson's Asser, 120). Bede's account implies that 
Columba passed some time in Britain before his settlement in lona. It 
seems possible that Columba may have remained from 563 to 564 with the 
king of Dalriata (see Adamnan, below, p. 48), and from 564 to 565 in 
Pictland ; and that he did not finally settle in lona until 565. (We may 
note that Maelrubai passed about two years in Britain before establishing 
his monastery at Applecross ; below, years 671, 673.) 

Version I of the Chronicle of the Picts, in Skene's P. & S., 286 : 
"The arrival of St Columba to the Picts, 565 ; and he lived with them 
for thirty-two years afterwards. Columba died in the time of Brude, 
Maelchon's son, 592." (The first sentence is taken from English, the 
second, erroneously, from Irish, sources.) 

C.H., 8: "In the year '565, father Columba came from Ireland to 
Britain, to teach the Picts ; and he made a monastery in the island of 
lona." This is taken from Bede, H.E., Recapitulatio ; i, 353. The Annals 



44 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Preface to the hymn Alius Prositor ; Bernard and 
Atkinson's Liber Hymnorum, vol. i, p. 63 

Columcille went to lona in the 565tli year after the birth 
of Christ. According to Bede, in the year of the Lord's 
Incarnation 565, at which time Justinus the younger received 
the helm of the Roman empire, after Justinian, he came 
from Ireland to Britain, a priest and abbot, noted for the habit 
and life of a monk, with the name of a dove, to preach the word 
of God to the provinces of the northern Picts. At that time 
Brude, Maelchon's son, reigned over the Picts ; and he granted 
lona to Columba. And there Columba was buried when he 
was seventy-six 1 years old, thirty-four years after he had come 
to Britain to preach.^ 

of Lund (M.G.H., Scriptores, xxix, 191, s.a. 567) quote from the same 
source. 

Columba's mission is entered (from Bede) by Marianus Scottus, in 
M.G.H., Scriptores, v, 546, insertion s.a. 587 = 565 (and ist of Justinus II). 

Herimannus Augiensis, Chronicon ; M.G.H., Scriptores, v, 88, s.a. 
565: "St Columba, priest and abbot, came from Ireland and preached 
the word of God to the Britons." Columba's mission is mentioned also 
under 565 by Bernoldus, Chronicon ; ibid., v, 413 ; and by Alberic of 
Trois Fontaines ; ibid., xxiii, 693. 

Sigebert of Gemblours, M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 318, s.a. 566: "St 
Columba, a priest, coming from Ireland was held in renown in Britain." 

Life of Catroe, in P. & S., 108-109 (reprinted from Colgan's Acta 
Sanctorum, p. 495, 6th March) : " Several years passed," [after the Scottish 
settlement in Ireland ; reading aliquot ior guot] "and [the Scots] crossed 
over the sea that is beside them, and occupied the island of Eu, which is 
now called lona \Eueam insulam, quae nunc lona dicitur, repleveruni\ 
Not resting there, they passed \j)erlegentes\ the neighbouring sea of 
Britain, and over the river Rosis, and settled the district of Ross" (^er 
Rosim amnem, Rossiam regionem manserunt j for which Skene would read 
invaserunt, " invaded "). " They went also to the cities of St Andrews 
[^Rtgmonat/z] and Belachoir [Bellethor], situated far apart, and overcame 
them, to hold them [ever after]. And thus they called the whole land 
Scotia [which previously had been] called by its own name Chorischia . . ." 
This curious account does not distinguish between ecclesiastical and civil 
occupation. 

■ " Seventy-seven " in Reeves's quotation (Adamnan, 435) : this is the 
reading of the Franciscan MS. (used by Colgan, in Trias Thaumaturga). 

^ This account is derived from Bede ; see E.C., 6-8. The first sentence 
is in Irish, the rest is in Latin. 



CONSECRATION OF lONA 45 

563 

Irish Life of Columba, in Lebar Brecc ; Stokes's Three 
Homilies, pp. 116-118^ 

So he went upon an expedition. His age was forty-two 
when he went ; he lived thirty-four years in Scotland ; his 
complete age was seventy-seven years. ^ 

And the number [of those] that went was twenty bishops, 
forty priests, thirty deacons, fifty students. As said [the poet] : 
" Their number was forty priests, twenty bishops (noble was 
their power) ; for psalm-singing, without doubt, thirty deacons, 
fifty boys." 3 

Then he went in cheerful mood, and came to the place that 
is called to-day lona of Columcille.* He arrived there on the 
night of Pentecost. 

Two bishops that were in the land came to send him away 
from it. But God revealed to Columcille that they were not 
really bishops ; therefore they abandoned the island to him 
when he related to them their history, and their true 
performances.^ 

Then Columcille said to his community : " It were well for 
us that our roots should go into the ground here." And he 
said to them, " It is permitted you that some one of you should 
go into the ground of this island, to consecrate it." 

Oran rose up readily, and spoke thus : " If I should be 
taken," said he, " I am ready for that." 

" Oran," said Columcille, " thou shalt have reward for it. 
No prayer shall be granted to any one at my grave, unless he 
first make it to thee." 

Then Oran went to heaven. Then [Columba] founded 
the church of lona.^ 

1 Also in the Book of Lismore ; Stokes's Lismore Lives, 30. 

2 The Lismore Life reads here erroneously : " Then he went upon an 
expedition. He was 45 years in Scotland ; his complete age was 77 years." 

3 Cf. the Liber Hymnorum, below, year 575, note. 
* In modern Gaelic 1-Chohdm-chille. 

5 atindrium n-diles ; " what they ought to perform," Stokes. 

^ This is a late authority for an old legend. Cf Stokes, Lismore Lives, 

This story (in Lebar Brecc, facsimile, 33 a) is to some extent supported 
by the name of the graveyard in lona, Reilig Odhrain, at the present day. 



46 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Berclian''s Prophecy, stanzas 1 02-1 13; in Skene's 
Picts and Scots, p. 79 

Three score years from to-morrow,^ pleasant to my 
heart . . . ^ till a son will be born in Raith-cro,^ of whom 
Ireland and Scotland will be full. 

He will be a scholar, a seer, a poet, a sage of the son of 
the God of heaven ; he will be a warrior and cleric, pure and 
fierce ; a celibate, a priest. 

He will be a chief prophet beyond measure ; he is not a 
bishop, through neglect.* Heaven and earth will be full of 
him, of the son who has the prophecy. 

Ireland will not be without a wise one, after Bridget, and 
Patrick of great deeds ; with the youth . . . ^ the battle of 
Cuil-dremne . . .^ 

But Adamnan, III, 5, gives a different account of the first death in the 
community of lona, of a monk Brito (perhaps " a Briton " ; not certainly 
different from Oran). 

There are, however, other places named after Oran, and the legend 
may be dismissed as unhistorical. 

The Martyrology of Oengus commemorates Oran at 27th October : 
"Oran, a noble champion" {sab; cf ibid. loth November, and in 1880 ed. 
p. clxvi, a gloss in Lebar Brecc) " [and] a good swimmer." There is this 
note in Lebar Brecc (ibid., clx) : " By swimming he went into Gair-maicc- 
Moga (an island in Corkaguiny). Oran, a priest of Tech-Airerain in Meath ; 
or of Latteragh of Oran in Muscraige-Tire, and of lona of Columcille, that 
is to say [of] Reilic Odrain " [" Oran's graveyard," still so-called] " in lona. 
Or he lies in Gair-maicc-Moga, an island in Corkaguiny; and he went there 
by swimming, as they say." That is to say, the annotator was uncertain 
which of two Orans was commemorated on this day. 

Oran of Latteragh's death is recorded by F.M. under 548, October 
2nd ; i, 186. 

27th October would have been a most unlikely time of year for 
Columba's first settlement in lona. 

1 I.e., from the death of Patrick (stanza 97). Patrick probably died in 
461, Columba was probably born in 521. 

^ cia raladh, rhyming with bdrach. 

2 Glossed above : "i.e., Columcille." See year 521. Raith-Cro was in 
Brega. 

■* Bishop Etchen is said to have conferred upon him priest's orders, 
instead of bishop's orders, by mistake. See 1905 Oengus, 72. Cf. above, 
p. 29. 

° athbuir aimne j a cheville, " I speak thus " (reading aibiur) ? 

" ni anbhadh cath Ciila Dreimne : read dm m-biadh cath " by whom the 



COLUMBA LEAVES IRELAND 47 

Alas for Ireland, which will hear of the battle ! Alas, 
alas for her sons; alas for her kings; alas for freemen, 
alas for bondmen ; alas for the people ; sea and land be- 
wailing it. 

The youth Columba will go from the centre of Derry, past 
Cuaile-Ciannacht ; he will hear three shouts behind him. He 
will speak to his boatman, consulting him (?).^ 

Loch Foyle under waves of blood ; the wailing of the birds 
(it is not falsehood), the wind rises against the Oakwood,^ 
lamenting over the pilgrim. 

Then he will speak a true message, which I shall not 
conceal, to the sons of heaven and earth, with a shower of 
tears upon his pure wan cheek : 

" My fortress in lona, without a fault, and my soul in 
Derry ; and my body under the stone under which are Bridget 
and Patrick.^ 

"The angels will carry me from the east to Ireland out of 
Scotland : dear the death that shall take me out of Scotland 
to Ireland ! " 

And I am certain, although he comes, he will not be absent 
in lona, every day in his choir in Derry, and his body in 
Downpatrick. 

I beseech the Father and the Son, and the equally powerful 

battle . . . will be caused"? The initial vowel of anbhadh is elided, 
therefore ni is not the negative particle. 

' adbJier fria churc\K\air na adhrns, rhyming with dia cis. The initial 
vowel oi adhrus is elided, therefore na is not the negative particle. With 
adhrus cf. Windisch, Worterbuch, s.v. athreSs ; O'Donovan, s.v. aitreos. 
This and the previous imperfect rhyme are marks of age, in the nucleus of 
the Prophecy. 

^ an ghaothfri Dhoire at asfraigh. (For the rhyme with ailithrigh cf. 
similar imperfect assonance in stanzas i, 99, 100.) Perhaps a/ was originally 
a gloss, intended to correct asfraigh to atfraigh. 

There is perhaps in the previous stanza the same play upon the 
meaning of Derry ("a dove will go from the Oakwood "). 

^ I.e. in Downpatrick : see stanza loi. This stanza (no) is quoted 
in the Irish Life of Columba (Lismore Lives, 317) ; and by O'Donnell. 

This was probably written before the time when, according to Giraldus 
Cambrensis (v, 163-164, 387), during John de Courcy's rule over Ulster, 
the bodies of Patrick, Bridget, and Columba, (called contemporaries) were 
found in Downpatrick, and translated. 



48 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

gentle Spirit, that it may be a long time before the pilgrim 
goes to death, to his new healing.^ 

563 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book I, c. 7 - 

Of tlie blessed man's prophecy concerning the clash of battle 
fought far away. 

After the battle of Cuil-dremne, [and] at the time when the 
blessed man first sailed away from Ireland ^ on pilgrimage, the 
same man of God dwelling with king Conall, Comgall's son, in 
Britain, told him in full one day (that is, at the same hour in 
which the battle called in Irish Ondemone was fought in 
Ireland^) all about the battle's being fought, and even about 
the kings to whom the Lord granted victory over their 
enemies : and their proper names were Ainmire, son of Setna; 
and the two sons of [Muirchertach] Erc's son, Donald and 
Fergus.^ Further concerning the [Irish] Picts' king, who was 

1 ddicc uir inn ailithrechj read da uc ur, unelided? MS. B has Daigh 
uir i n-ailithreach. Read in t-ailitker, as in stanza 154 (year 942), to rhyme 
with ar ceal of the previous line. 

2 Reeves's ed., 31-33; Skene's, 120. This passage is abbreviated in 
Fordun, III, 26 (i, 113). 

3 Scotia; so also below. For the date, see pp. 43, 104-105. 

* The battle of Moin-daire-lothair was gained " by the Ui-Neill of the 
north, over the [Irish] Picts" (T., R.C., xvii, 145, q.v. ; cf. C.S., 54 ; A.U., i, 
58 ; and P.M.). This is the battle that the Irish annals record in the 
year of Columba's departure from Ireland, and it must have been the 
battle intended by Adamnan. (A.U. place it also under the previous year ; 
i, 56.) 

5 years before 563 (s.a. [557], fn. i ; R.C., xvii, 141-142) T. records: 
"The slaughter of Colman Mor, Diarmait's son, in his chariot, by 
Dubslait, Tren's grandson, of the [Irish] Picts." Cf C.S., Hennessy's year 
558 ; A.U., s.a. 557 = 558- Diarmait, of the southern Ui-Neill, was succeeded 
in the sovereignty of Ireland by Fergus and Donald, who were in 563 the 
chiefs of the northern Ui-Neill. 

^ According to T. (u.s., 146), Donald and Fergus {Fergus) succeeded 
Diarmait Cerball's son in the sovereignty in [564] (f n. 3 ; but under the 
same year-heading have been inserted foreign events of 565 and 552, taken 
through Bede from Isidore and the Liber Pontificalis). Similarly C.S., 56 
(Hennessy's year 565), but without notice of foreign events. A.U., i, 60, 
place Fergus and Donald's accession in 564 = 565 (with fn. and e. of '565). 
The Annals from the Book of Leinster (R.S. 89, ii, 514) say: "Donald 
and Fergus, two sons of Erc's son, [reigned] one year." 

Donald and Fergus, of the northern Ui-Neill, won the battles of Sligo 



COLUMBA VISITS KINGS CONALL AND BRUDE 49 

called Eochaid Laib/ the saint likewise prophesied how he was 
conquered, but escaped, sitting in his chariot. 

ca. 564 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book 11, c. 35 ^ 

Concerning the sudden spontaneous opening of the gate of a 
king's fortress? 

At another time, that is, on the saint's first laborious 
journey to king Brude, it happened that the king was uplifted 
by royal pride and acted arrogantly, not opening the gates 
upon the blessed man's first arrival. 

As soon as the man of God saw this he went with his 
comrades to the wings of the gates, and first pressed upon 
them an image* of the Lord's cross, then laid his hand upon 
them, striking against the gates; and immediately, of their own 
accord, the bolts were forcibly withdrawn, and the gates opened 

and Cuil-conaire over Connaught in 543 and 550 ; of Cuil-dremne, over 
the sovereign of Ireland, in 561 ; and of Moin-daire-lothair, over Dalaraide, 
in 563 (A.U.). They were the first of the northern Ui-Neill to become 
sovereigns of Ireland. 

Ainmire Setna's son became king of Ireland after Donald's death in 
566 or 573 (A.U., i, 60, 64 ; according to T., in ?[565], R.C., xvii, 148, under 
f.n. 7, for which read 4, as in C.S., 56, Hennessy's year 566). 

Adamnan here presumably calls these three men kings, because they 
reigned over Ireland afterwards. 

Ainmire's father Setna was the brother of Columba's father Fedlimid. 
Ere, Loarn's daughter, Muirchertach's mother, was Fedlimid's mother also. 
Ainmire was Columba's first-cousin ; Donald and Fergus were Columba's 
half cousins. 

' The death of king Eochaid's son is recorded by A.U., i, 86, s.a. 610 = 
611 (with fn. and e. of 611) : "The death of Eogan, son of Eochaid Laib." 

^ Reeves's ed., 150-152 ; Skene's, 176-177. Adamnan is here copied 
by the Life in the Salamanca MS., ed. Smedt and De Backer, 850 ; and 
by Fordun, IV, 11. 

' Reeves identified Brude's castle with the site on Craigphadrick, 
two miles south-west of Inverness (Adamnan, 151); but the identity 
is uncertain. The Amra suggests that it may have been in Strathtay. 
See R.C., xx, 400-401. 

* signum. Cf. with this the statement in the Life attributed to 
Cummine, c. XXV (Pinkerton's Vitae, 43), that Columba "very often 
unlocked the church when it was not opened for him, without a key, 
without spoiling the lock ; by merely pressing upon it the image \effigiein\ 
of the Lord's cross." Cf. the Salamanca MS., u.s., 850. 

D 



50 



EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 



with all speed. And immediately after they were opened, the 
saint entered with his companions.^ 

Learning this, the king and his council ^ were much afraid ; 
and he left the house, and went to meet the blessed man with 
reverence, and addressed him mildly with peaceful words ; and 
thenceforth from that day all the days of his life the same ruler 
honoured the holy and venerable man befittingly with very 
high esteem.^ 

1 The Life of St Comgall says that Columba's companions on this 
occasion included Comgall of Bangor and Cainnech of Aghaboe ; Plummer's 
Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae, ii, i8 : "On one occasion three most blessed 
abbots, St Comgall, St Columba, and St Cainnech, came to the heathen 
king called Brude ; and [the king] commanded the doors of the fortress 
to be shut against them. But St Comgall broke the gates with the sign 
of the holy cross, and they fell broken to the ground ; and St Columba 
broke the door of the king's house with the same sign, and St Cainnech 
also signed the king's hand, which was flourishing a sword to slay them. 
And immediately the king's hand was dried up, and so remained, until he 
believed in God. But when he became a believer in God, his hand was 
released." See also below, year .■' 564. 

An Edinburgh MS. makes the king's son, Maelcu, the opponent of 
Columba on this occasion ; Stokes, Lismore Lives, 315. 

^ cum senatu. 

^ According to the Life of Cainnech (Plummer's Vitae, i, 159) that saint 
gave sight, hearing, and voice, to the daughter of the king of the Picts ; 
in the island of lona, according to the Salamanca MS., etc. ; Smedt and 
De Backer's Acta, 373. 

Adamnan relates (II, 33 ; Skene, 174-175) that Columba once asked the 
wizard Broichan to release a female slave, and, when he refused, cursed 
him in presence of king Brude : Broichan should die before Columba left 
that country. Columba proceeded to the river Ness, picked up a white 
pebble, and blessed it. It became lighter than water, and the water in 
which it floated had the power of curing disease. Broichan' immediately 
fell ill in Brude's fortress, but was cured by this pebble after he had freed 
the slave. Preserved among the king's treasures, the pebble wrought 
many cures (so also in Cummine, XXV ; Pinkerton, Vitae, 43) ; but when 
a sick man's time had come, the pebble could never be found. " So also 
on the day of king Brude's death it was sought, but was not found in the 
place where it had before been kept " (Adamnan). 

Broichan is spoken of here as Brude's tutor or guardian (nutricius) ; 
this may imply that Brude was still a minor when Columba visited him 
first. But later accounts do not agree with this. 

In spite of this lesson, Broichan stirred up a contrary wind against 
Columba, who nevertheless sailed away against it (Adamnan, II, 34 ; 
Skene, 175-176), on Loch Ness. 

Adamnan locates two other episodes in the same neighbourhood. 



MIRACLES OF COLUMBA 51 

?564 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book I, c. 37 ^ 

This also we ought not to hide, which has been indubitably 
handed down by certain experienced men concerning the 
blessed man's voice in psalmody. For the voice of the 
venerable man, when he sang with the brethren in the church, 
was heard raised in an inimitable manner sometimes four 
furlongs off, that is, five hundred paces ; sometimes even eight 
furlongs off, that is to say a mile. Yet strange to say, in the 
ears of those that stood with him in the church his voice 
exceeded not the volume of human voice in magnitude of 
sound : although at the same time those that stood beyond 
the distance of a mile heard the same voice so clearly that they 
could distinguish even every syllable of the verses that he sang ; 
for his voice sounded alike in the hearers' ears, both near and 
far away. But this marvel concerning the voice of the blessed 
man is proved to have taken place not always, but rarely ; 
without the favour of the divine spirit, however, it could not 
have occurred at all. 

This, too, must not be hid, which is related to have occurred 

Once " when the blessed man stayed for some days in the province of the 
Picts, he had to cross the river Ness. But when he reached its bank, 
he saw some of the inhabitants burying an unfortunate little man, whom, 
as the buriers themselves related, an aquatic beast had caught as he was 
swimming, a short while before, and had bitten most savagely." Columba 
bade Lugne Mocumin swim over for the ferry-boat, and protected him 
miraculously from the beast. (Adamnan, 11,27 ; Skene, 170-171.) 

The Irish Life gives a somewhat different account ; Stokes, Three 
Homilies, 118; Lismore Lives, 31. Cf. the Life in the Salamanca MS., 
Smedt and De Backer's Acta, 849. 

Probably the same Lugne is spoken of in Adamnan, II, 18 (Skene, 163) : 
"... a youth of good ability, Lugne by name, who afterwards when an 
old man was prior in the monastery on the island of Elena." This Lugne 
was cured of a tendency to bleeding from the nose. {Elena insula: 
perhaps a variant form oi Ilea insula, II, 23, for I slay. Cf. Hinbina insula 
and Hinba insula for Hinba. Eilean, "island," is of Norse origin, and 
could hardly have entered in Adamnan's day into local nomenclature.) 

At Airchartdan (Urquhart), "near the lake of river Ness," he baptized 
an aged man, Emchat, who immediately died. " Also his son, Virolec, 
believed, and was baptized with his whole house." (Ill, 14 ; Skene, 203.) 

A similar episode is related as having taken place in Skye ; below. 

1 Reeves's edition, 72-74 ; Skene's, 137-138. 



52 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

once beside the fortress of king Brude, in connection with such 
an inimitable elevation of his voice. For while the saint with 
a few brethren was singing evening praises of God, according 
to custom, outside the king's fortress, some wizards came near 
to them and endeavoured, as far as they could, to prevent them, 
that the sounds of divine praise might not be heard among 
heathen peoples. Understanding this, the saint began to sing 
the forty-fourth psalm,^ and in marvellous fashion his voice 
was the same moment so raised in the air, like some dreadful 
thunder, that both king and people trembled in insufferable 
fear.^ 

?S64 

Life of Comgall of Bangor; Plummer's Vitae Sanctorum 
Hiberniae, vol. ii, p. 1 1 

Also in the seventh year after the monastery of Bangor had 
been founded^ the holy father Comgall .sailed to Britain, 

1 Psalm XLV, in the English version ; XLIV in the Vulgate. 

2 Cf. the Liber Hymnorum, i, 165 : "The voice of Columcille was 
audible to a distance of a mile and a half, while he celebrated [ic celebrad], 
as the poet has said : 'The sweetness of the sound of Columcille's voice 
was great, [rising] above every choir ' " {hi'ias cech cliir, " above every 
(bard's) train" Stokes; "above every company" Atkinson. But in the 
context, clergy must be meant :) " 'to the distance of fifteen hundred steps 
(marvellous the range) it was clear.'" This verse appears also in Lebar 
Brecc among the notes on the Martyrology of Oengus-(i88o ed., p. ci), and 
in other MSS. (1905 Oengus, 148, 149). 

In the Irish Life in Lebar Brecc this verse is quoted of a definite 
occasion, when Columba was a child : Stokes, Three Homilies, 102 (cf 
Lismore Lives, 25). 

Amra Coluimchille, Liber Hymnorum, i, 179 (cf Atkinson's translation, 
ii, 76) : " Blessing subdued fierce lips that were at Toi — a king's will ! 
(I.e., he subdued the lips of barbarous [men] whom the sovereign of Toi 
had, although their desire was to say evil things ; so that they spoke 
blessings, as in Balaam's case.)" 

Amra Coluimchille, Liber Hymnorum, i, 169 : " For [we have] not 
[now the] teacher who taught the tribes of Toi. (I.e., him whose words 
helped the nations, teaching them to be silent ;" (the glossator understands 
Toi as toi^ silence) " or, the teacher who sang [to] the nations that were 
about the Tay — the proper name of a stream in Scotland.)" 

^ The foundation of the church of Bangor is placed by A.U. (i, 54, 
56) under 554 = 555 or under 558 = 559 (with earlier spelling at 555); by 
A.I., 6, under O'Conor's year 548 = 553 (6 years before 559, but 43 years 



ST COMGALL VISITS SCOTLAND 53 

wishing to visit there certain saints,^ and to remain there for 
a time. And he founded a monastery there, in a certain 
village in the district of Heth ; there he remained for a while. 

One day, while St Comgall was alone at work out-of-doors 
in a field, he placed his chrismal [pall] over his robe. That 
day many heathen robbers of the Ficts invaded the village,^ to 
carry off everything that was there, both human beings and 
cattle. But when the heathen came to St Comgall where he 
was at work out-of-doors, and saw his chrismal over his gown,^ 
they thought that the chrismal was St Comgall's god ; and the 
robbers dared not touch him for fear of his god. But the spoilers 
took to their ships St Comgall's brethren with all their substance. 

Now when the holy father Comgall saw this, he was enraged, 
and said : " The Lord is my support and my refuge and my 
deliverer." * And worshipping the Lord he signed the sky and 
the earth and the sea ; and immediately the heathen were 

before 599). It stands under f.n. i =[557] in Tigernach (R.C., xvii, 142) 
and C.S. (52 ; Hennessy's year 558). The original annal from which these 
are derived is probably old. The 7th year after 557 would have been 
563-564. Comgall is said to have been with Columba when Columba first 
visited Brude, probably in 564 : we may provisionally assume that this 
was about the time when Comgall came to Scotland and lived in Tiree. 

Comgall had been an abbot for several years before he founded Bangor 
church. The length of his abbacy was 50 years, 3 months and 10 days, 
according to T. and C.S. ; that is to say, from 1st March [551] to loth 
May [600], when he died, in his ninety-first year ; R.C., xvii, 163, s.a. [600] 
(f.n. 6). This is perhaps an old entry, and the year may be correct. So 
also in C.S., 66, s.a. [600] (Hennessy's year 602), and in F.M., i, 224, s.a. 
600. A.U. place his death in 601 = 602 ; and also, from Cuanu's Book, in 
600 = 601 (with f.n. and e. of 602 and 601); and his birth in 515 = 516 or 
519 = 520, perhaps wrongly. 

Martyrology of Tallaght, May loth, in Book of Leinster, 360 c : 
" Comgall of Bangor, in the 91st year of his age, and the 50th year, 3rd 
month, and loth day, of his abbacy." Similarly in the Brussels version, 
Kelly, p. xxiii. May loth. 

See below, year 575, where it appears that Comgall was an Irish Pict. 

' Brendan had visited Tiree before 558 ; apparently disciples of his 
had remained there. The occasion of Comgall's coming to Scotland may 
have been the same as that described by Adamnan in the passage 
translated next below. 

^ This may mean that Comgall was regarded as a trespasser. 

^ crisfnale eius super capam suam. 

« Psalms, XVII, 3. 



54 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

struck with blindness, and moreover the sea swelled dreadfully, 
so that it cast the ships upon the shore, and the bodies of the 
heathen were severely injured. Then they abandoned all that 
they had taken, and with earnest prayers begged for pardon 
from St Comgall : and the saint, moved with pity, prayed for 
them. And they recovered their eyesight, and calm was 
restored, and they returned, empty and feeble. Afterwards 
St Comgall was conducted back to Ireland by many holy men. 

563x567 ?S64 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book III, c. 17^ 

Regarding the pillar of light seen to blaze from the holy 
man's head. 

At another time, four holy founders of monasteries came 
over from Ireland to visit St Columba, and found him in the 
island of Hinba ^ ; these distinguished men's names were 
Comgall Mocu-Aridi,^ Cainnech Mocu-Dalon,* Brendan Mocu- 
Alti,^ Cormac, grandson of Lethan.'' 

' Reeves's edition, 219-222; Skene's, 205-206. 

This narrative appears also in the Life attributed to Cummine, XII 
(Pinkerton's Vitae, 34) ; but Cummine does not name the visitors. The 
Life in the Salamanca MS. follows Adamnan, more briefly (Smedt and 
De Backer, Acta, 850-851). The Irish Life places the occurrence in 
Rechraind (Lambay?), and makes Cainnech and Comgall witnesses of 
the light. 

^ In Cummine, here, and again in chapter V, this name is spelt 
Hyinba, according to Pinkerton's text {Himba in Colgan's Trias Thauma- 
turga, 321). In Adamnan it is Hhiba and Hinbina insula (but the 
Capitula to book III have Hinibd). 

Hinba has not been identified. It was most likely a small island given 
up to monastic use. It may have contained the harbour of Muirbulc-mar 
("great sea-pouch"), or Muirbolc Paradisi (see Adamnan, III, 23), and if 
so was not far from Ardnamurchan (ibid., I, 13). From the narrative 
given here (III, 17) one might perhaps infer that the island was near 
some populous region. 

^ For Comgall of Bangor see the passage last quoted. 

* For Cainnech, abbot of Aghaboe, compare the pleasant anecdotes in 
Adamnan, I, 4; II, 13; II, 14 (Skene, 118- 119, 160-161, 161). See 
Reeves's edition, 121, 220-221. Cf the Irish Life; Stokes, Three 
Homilies, 118-120; Lismore Lives, 31. 

Cf. the later stories in the Salamanca MS., Smedt and De Backer's 
Acta, 371-375 ; and in Plummer's Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae, i, 158-161. 

Oengus places Cainnech's death on October nth : " Cainnech, descen- 



IRISH ABBOTS VISIT COLUMBA 55 

These all with one consent chose that St Columba should 
celebrate in their presence the sacred mysteries of the Eucharist 
in the church. And in obedience to their command he entered 
the church with them, on Sunday, as usual.^ after the reading 
of the Evangel. And there, while [Columba] was performing 
the ceremony of mass, St Brendan Mocu-Alti saw, as he after- 
wards imparted to Comgall and Cainnech, a radiating globe of 

dant of Dala" (Stokes). This note appears in Lebar Brecc (1880 Oengus, 
p. civ): " Cainnech, descendant of Dala; he was a son of Aed Alaind, and his 
chief church \_primcheir\ is Aghaboe, and he has an abbey-church {redes] 
in St Andrews \cill rigtnonaig] in Scotland. 

" When Cainnech went to Finnian, he asked of him a place to live in. 
' I see none now,' said Finnian, ' because the others have taken them 
before thee.' 'There is an empty place' said Cainnech. . . ." See the 
1905 Oengus, 222. 

The Martyrology of Donegal (270, October nth) says : " His principal 
church is Aghaboe, and he has an abbey-church in St Andrews [z cCitl 
RighmanadH\ in Scotland." 

Tigernach places Cainnech's death in [599] ; C.S., in [598] (Hennessy's 
year 600) ; A.U., in 599 = 600, and, from Cuanu's Book, in 598 = 599 ; the 
Annals of Clonmacnoise, in 599. Under the same year, Tigernach and 
A.U. place the battle of 603 (below). A.I. place his death four years after 
599, i.e. in 603 (O'Conor's year 595). 603 is probably the true date. 

° Brendan founded the church of Clonfert in [558], according to 
Tigernach, R.C., xvii, 142 (f.n. 3), and C.S., 52 (Hennessy's year 559). 
A.U. place the foundation in 557 = 558. Probably 558 is the true date 
of the foundation, although A.I. place it on the day of the battle of 
Cuil-dremne. The Life of Brendan (in Plummer's Vitae Sanctorum 
Hiberniae, i, 145) says : "When the man of God was seventy-seven years 
old, he founded a church at Clonfert, saying : ' Here shall I dwell for 
ever.'" (Cf Psalms, CXXXI I— Vulgate, CXXXI— , 14.) 

See above, p. 18. 

See Reeves, Adamnan, 55, 221-222. Cf below, p. 64. 

Brendan's death is placed in 576 = 577, and alternatively in 582 = 583, 
by A.U. ; under fn. 3 =576 in Tigernach (R.C., xvii, 152), and C.S. 
(60, Hennessy's year 576) ; in A.I., (" Repose of Brendan of Clonfert, in the 
94th year of his age") under O'Conor's year 570 = 578. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 89, s.a. 579 : " St Brendan of Clonfert died, 
577, 1 6th of May, or 583." 

" For this Cormac (" Cormac Ua-Liathain") see below. 

1 In the Life attributed to Cummine : " This too he did one Sunday. 
And after the recitation of the Gospel, they saw . . . ." Cummine omits 
reference to the custom of reading the Gospel in the open air, and 
finishing the service of mass inside the church. This is probably one of 
several indications that Cummine's Life is later than Adamnan's. 



56 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

fire, exceedingly bright, blazing from St Columba's head, and 
rising Hke a pillar, so long as he stood before the altar, and 
consecrated the holy oblation, until he had concluded the same 
sacred ministries. 



564x583 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book 11, c. 42 ^ 

The blessed man^s prophecy concerning the voyage of Corniac, 
grandson of Lethan. 

At another time Cormac, a soldier of Christ, of whom we 
have made some brief commemoration in the first book of this 
work,^ attempted for a second time to seek a desert in the 
ocean. 

And after [Cormac] had sailed away from land with full 
sails over the limitless ocean, about the same time St Columba, 
staying beyond the Ridge of Britain, commanded king Brude 
in presence of the kinglet of the Orkneys, saying, " Some of us 
have recently sailed out, desiring to find a desert in the 

1 Reeves's edition, 166-168 ; Skene's, 185-186. Of. Fordun, IV, 11. 

^ Adamnan (I, 6; Skene, 119) relates that Columba saw clairvoyantly 
Cormac's second expedition to seek a " desert in the ocean," and foretold 
that it also would be unsuccessful ; " and for no other fault of his than 
that he has received in his expedition the monk of a religious abbot, 
wrongly departing to accompany [Cormac] without the abbot's permission." 

Cormac was left as guardian of the monastery of Durrow when 
Columba departed from it ; Reeves, 365 (in Skene, 241-242). Irish Life, 
Stokes's Three Homilies, no. In the previous passage (above) Cormac 
appears as the successful founder of a monastery. He was Columba's 
successor in Durrow. 

Martyrology of Gorman, p. 120, June 21st: "Pious Cormac Ua- 
Liathan," with the note : " abbot of Durrow, and bishop, and this Cormac 
was also an anchorite." Martyrology of Oengus, June 21st: "Cormac, 
the fair descendant of Liathan, was a beautiful cleric." Brussels 
Martyrology of Tallaght, Kelly, p. xxvii, " Cormac Ua-Liathain in Durrow." 
See the Martyrology of Donegal, p. 174: Adamnan, Reeves, 264-274 
(Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, ii, 272, 273, 279). 

Cf the notes on Oengus, 1905 ed., pp. 156-158 ; 1880 ed., cvi. The 
Lebar Brecc says that Cormac " rests in Durrow of Columcille." 

" Cormac Ua-Liathain " appears also in the Brussels Martyrology of 
Tallaght, Kelly, p. xxvi, at June 8th. 

Cormac's pedigree is given in the Book of Leinster, 351 b. 



ORKNEY SUBJECT TO KING BRUDE 57 

impassable sea ^ ; and in case they chance after long wanderings ^ 
to come to the Orkney isles, command this chieftain earnestly, 
since his hostages are in thy hand, that no harm befal them 
within his territories." 

The saint said this because he foreknew in spirit that after 
some months this Cormac would come to the Orkneys. This 
occurred afterwards, and because of the holy man's aforesaid 
commendation [Cormac] was saved from imminent death in 
the Orkneys. . . .^ 

563x597 

Adamnan, Life of Oolumba, book II, c. 1 1 * 

Concerning another^ malign springing water which the holy 
man blessed in the district of the Picts. 

At another time, when the blessed man abode for some 
days in the province of the Picts, he heard a rumour spread 
among the heathen people concerning another fountain, which 
the stupid folk reverenced as a god, the devil blinding their 
senses ; because those that drank from that spring, or 
assiduously washed their hands or feet in it, were struck by 
demoniacal art, God permitting it, and came away leprous or 
partly blind, or else infirm or affected by some other disease. 
By all this the heathen were led astray, and gave honour to 
the stream as to a god. 

Understanding this, the saint one day went boldly to the 
spring. And the wizards, whom he had often driven from him 
in confusion and defeat, seeing this rejoiced greatly, since 
they thought that he would likewise suffer from touching the 
baleful water. 

He first raised his holy hand, invoking the name of Christ, 
and washed his hands and feet ; and thereafter drank, with 
his companions, of the same water, blessed by him. And from 

' inpelago intransmeabili ; i.e., over the Pentland Firth? 

2 post longos circuitus : " by circumnavigation " .? 

2 Cormac's arrival in Zona on his return is related, and his interesting 
experiences on the third journey, into the Arctic Ocean, are described. 
Ibid., 186-187. 

* Reeves's edition, 119; Skene's, 159-160. 

5 The previous spring mentioned had been produced by Columba out 
of a rock : Adamnan, II, 10. 



58 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

that day the demons departed from the spring ; and not only 
was it permitted to hurt no one, but even, after the saint had 
blessed it and washed in it, many diseases were cured by the 
same spring among the people. 

563x597 

Adamnan, Life of Columlba, book II, c. 1 7 ^ 

Concerning a vessel that an evildoer named Silnan had filled 
with milk taken from a bull. 

This is related to have occurred in the house of a rich 
plebeian called Foirtgirn, who dwelt on mount Cainle.^ While 
the saint was a guest there he judged with true judgement 
between two peasants who were at strife ; and one of them, 
who was a wizard, took at the saint's command, by diabolic 
art, milk from a bull which was near. This the saint com- 
manded to be done, not to confirm these evil deeds (heaven 
forbid), but to refute them in presence of the multitude. And 
so the blessed man asked that the vessel which appeared to be 
full of this milk should quickly be given to him ; and he 
blessed it with this statement, saying, " Now it will be proved 
that this is not true milk, as it is supposed to be, but blood 
bleached by deceit of demons to beguile mankind"; and 
immediately the milky colour was changed to the proper hue, 
that is to say, to blood. The bull, too, which in the short space 
of one hour, wasted and shrunk with wretched leanness, was 
upon the point of death, when bathed with water blessed by 
the saint was cured with marvellous rapidity.^ 

563x597 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book I, c. 34* 

Of a boat removed at the saints command. 

At another time when he journeyed over the Ridge of 

1 Reeves's edition, 126-127 ; Skene's, 163. 

^ Adamnan relates an episode connected with the death " in the 
district of Cainle " of an enchanter, Neman son of Gruthriche ; I, 39 
(Skene, 138). 

^ Wizardry or druidism and the study of omens were characteristic of 
the Picts. See the verses in the Irish Nennius, Todd, 142-144 ; in Skene's 
P. & S., 41-42. 

* Reeves's edition, 64 ; Skene's, 134-135. 



COLUMBA'S TRAVELS AMONG THE PICTS 59 

Britain, he found an [empty] hamlet among deserted fields, 
and the saint made his abode there, beside the bank of a 
stream there entering a lake.^ The same night he roused his 
sleeping companions, who had tasted drowsiness, and said, " At 
once, at once, go out swiftly, and bring hither quickly our boat 
which you placed in a house beyond the stream, and place it 
in a hut near by." 

And they obeyed at once, and did as they were commanded. 
And after some interval, when they were at rest again, the 
saint struck Diarmait silently, saying, " Now stand outside the 
house, and see what is being done in the hamlet where before 
you placed your boat." And obeying the saint's command he 
left the house, and looking back saw that the village was being 
wholly burned down by attacking fire. And he returned to 
the saint and informed him of what was passing there. Then 
the saint related to the brethren concerning a certain envious 
pursuer who had set fire to those houses that night. 

563x597 



Adamnan, Life of Columba, book I, c. 46 



2 



TJie holy maris prophecy concerning the little family of a 
certain plebeian. 

At another time also a certain plebeian came among the 
rest to the saint when he lodged in the place that is called in 
Scottish Coire-Salchain.^ And when the saint saw him coming 

1 In book I, Capitulationes, the name of the place is given : " Of the 
removal of a boat beside the lake Lochdiae." (" Otherwise, Nigra Dea 
{loch i. dub) ; now the Lochy, Gaelic Lochaidh, in^Lochaber, or the Lochy 
at Tyndrum " : Professor Watson, Celtic Review, 1912, p. 383.) Adamnan's 
Nigra Dea was a river in Lochaber. 

Adamnan mentions also visits of Columba to Lochaber {Regie stagno 
Aporum contermina, II, 29 ; regio quae stagni liioribus Aporici est conter- 
inina, II, 37, i.e. "the district bordering the lake of Abers," which is 
presumably Loch Lochy). A very interesting tale of a miracle (in 
Cummine, XIV ; Pinkerton, Vitae, 35-36) is located by Adamnan (II, 37) 
in Lochaber ; Adamnan translates the name of a salmon-river there by 
nigra dea "black goddess" ; i.e. the Lochy, which connects Loch Lochy 
with Loch Linnhe. 

2 Reeves's edition, 88-89 ; Skene's, 143-144. 

3 Perhaps Coire Salachain in Morvern, north-west of Loch Creran 
across Loch Linnhe ; but the name is not distinctive. 



60 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

to him in the evening, he said, " Where dwellest thou ? " He 
said, " I dwell in the district that borders upon the shores of 
lake Crogreth."^ "That little province thou namest" said the 
saint, " is at present being ravaged by barbarian plunderers." 

And hearing this the unhappy plebeian began to lament 
for his wife and sons. But the saint, seeing that he was in 
great grief, said consoling him, "Go, little man, go, all thy 
little family has escaped, fleeing into the mountain ; but the 
invaders have driven off all thy little cattle,^ and likewise the 
cruel ravagers have plundered all the furniture of thy house." 
Upon hearing this the plebeian returned to his country, and 
found everything fulfilled as the saint had foretold. 

563x597 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book i, c. 33 ^ 

The holy man's prophecy concerning one A rtbranan. 

When the blessed man was staying for some days in the island 
of Skye,* he struck with his staff a spot of land in a certain 
place, near to the sea, and spoke thus to his companions : " Strange 
to say, my children, to-day on this spot of land a heathen old 
man, who has preserved what was naturally right through his 
whole life, will be baptized, will die, and will be buried." 

And behold, after the interval of about one hour, a boat 
reached that harbour ; and in its prow was carried a decrepit 
old man, the chief of the army^ of Geona ; and two youths 

^ Professor Watson thinks that Crogreth was " most likely Loch 
Creran, formerly L. Creveren, connected with L. Etive by Glen Salach " 
(Celtic Review, 1912, p. 383). No more probable identification has been 
made ; but the names are not so similar as to prove the conjecture. 

^ pecusctda, possibly "sheep" (cf. Gaelic meanbh-chrodh "sheep or 
goats," literally "small cattle"). The diminutives in this passage are 
usually explained as a characteristic of Adamnan's style ; they may how- 
ever be meant literally, or they may represent Columba's manner of 
speech to a rustic. 

3 Reeves's edition, 62-63 ; Skene's, 134. Cf. the Life in the Salamanca 
MS. ; Smedt and De Backer, 852. 

* " When he was staying for some days in the isle of Skye " he killed 
by words a boar that was charging him ; Adamnan, II, 26. Cf. Cummine, 
XXV ; Pinkerton, Vitae, 43. 

* Literally " cohort " {Geonae pritnarius cohoriis). Possibly this word 
implies that Artbranan belonged to a British community where Roman 
military traditions survived ; but this is altogether uncertain. 



COLUMBA'S TRAVELS AMONG THE PICTS 61 

lifted him from the ship and laid him down in front of the 
blessed man. And immediately upon receiving the word of 
God from the saint through an interpreter/ he believed, and 
was baptized by him ; and, as the saint had prophesied, after 
the ceremony of baptism had been completed, he presently 
died in the same spot, and there his companions heaped a pile 
of stones and buried him. It may be seen even to-day on the 
shore of the sea. And the river in the same locality in which 
he had received this baptism is to the present day named by 
the inhabitants Dobur-Artbranain,^ after his name. 

563x597 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book II, c. 23 ^ 

Also at another time the holy man earnestly consigned a 
certain exile of noble Pictish race, Tarain by name, into the 
hands of a rich man called Feradach, who dwelt in the island 
of Islay ; and instructed that he should live for some months 
in [Feradach's] retinue as one of his friends. But although 
[Feradach] had received him commended with such recom- 
mendation from the hand of the holy man, after a few days 
he acted treacherously and slaughtered him, by a cruel 
command. . . .* 

563x597 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book II, c. 3 1 ^ 

Of the healing of Finten, son of Aed, when he was at the point 
of death. 

Also at another time when the saint travelled across the 
Ridge of Britain, a certain youth, called Finten, one of his 
companions, was troubled with sudden sickness and brought 
to the point of death ; and his fellow warriors sadly begged 
the saint to pray for him. And immediately he took pity upon 
them and spread his holy hands to heaven in earnest prayer, 

' Cf. below, p. 62. Evidently Columba did not know the language of 
Geona. Artbranan's name is Celtic. 
2 I.e. "Artbranan's Water." 
^ Reeves's edition, 134-135 ; Skene's, 167. 
* The offender's death follows. 
" Reeves's edition, 144 ; Skene's, 173. 



62 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

and blessed the sick man, saying, " This youth for whom you 
plead shall live a long life ; he shall remain as the survivor 
of all of us who are present here, and shall die in good old 
age." 

This prophecy of the blessed man was completely fulfilled ; 
for the same youth, afterwards the founder of the monastery 
that is called Kailli-auinde, ended the present life in good 
old age. 

563 X 597 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book II, c. 32^ 

At that time,2 when St Columba stayed for some days in 
the province of the Picts, a certain plebeian with his whole 
family heard and believed the word of life when the holy man 
preached through an interpreter,^ and believing was baptized, 
the husband with his wife and children and friends. . . .* 

563x597 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book I, c. 31^ 

The holy maris prophecy concerning his monk Cailtan. 

At another time the saint sent two monks to another of his 
monks, called Cailtan, who was at that time prior in the cell 
that is to-day also called by the name of his brother Diuni, 
beside the lake of river Awe*"; and by these messengers sent 
the following commands : " Go quickly, hasten to Cailtan, and 
bid him come to me without any delay." 

And following the saint's instructions they departed, and 

^ Reeves's edition, 145 ; Skene's, 173. 

^ The time of Finten's sickness ; above. 

^ Cf. above, p. 61. From these two passages we may conclude that 
some dialects at least of Pictish were not intelligible to an Irishman in 
the 6th century. 

* One of the sons died soon afterwards, and blame was laid upon 
Christianity ; Columba brought the boy to life. Adamnan, u.s., 145-146 
(Skene, 173-174). This episode is mentioned by Cummine, XXV; Pinkerton's 
Vitae, 43. 

Cf. the Irish Life ; Stokes, Three Homilies, 118 ; Lismore Lives, 30-31. 

Cf. the Life in the Salamanca MS. ; Smedt and De Backer's Acta, 
849-850. 

^ Reeves's edition, 60 ; Skene's, 132-133. 

" Stagno . . . Abae fluminis. Cf. year 676. 



PRIORS OF LOCH AWE AND HINBA 63 

arriving at Cill-Diuni they imparted to Cailtan the nature of 
their message. And he delayed not at all, but followed the 
saint's messengers that very hour, and accompanying them on 
their journey quickly came to [Columba] where he dwelt in 
the island of lona. 

And seeing him, the saint spoke to him in this fashion and 
addressed him in these words: "O Cailtan, thou didst well in 
hastening obediently to me ; rest for a little. I sent to invite 
thee for this cause, loving thee as a friend, that thou mightest 
finish the course of thy life with me here in true obedience. 
For before the end of this week thou shalt pass in peace to 
the Lord." 

Hearing this, [Cailtan] rendered thanks to God, and weeping 
kissed the saint, and went to the hospice, after receiving his 
benediction : and the same night following he fell ill, and he 
passed to Christ the Lord within the same week, according to 
the saint's word. 

563x597 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book I, c. 45 ^ 

The holy man's prophecy concerning the priest Ernanp- 

Also at another time the venerable man sent the priest 
Ernan, an old man, his uncle, to the priority of the monastery 
that he had founded many years before in the island of 
Hinba.3 

When the saint kissed him and blessed him at his departure, 
he pronounced this prophecy concerning him, saying, " This my 
friend now departing I have no hope of seeing again in this 
world." 

And so after not many days this Ernan was troubled with 
a certain disease, and was carried back, wishing to go to the 
saint ; and [Columba] rejoiced greatly in his arrival, and began 
to go to meet him at the harbour. And Ernan, although his 
steps were feeble, attempted nevertheless very eagerly to go 
from the harbour on his own feet to meet the saint. 

But when there was a space of about twenty-four paces 
between the two, he was taken by sudden death, and fell 

^ Reeves's edition, 86-88 ; Skene's, 143. 
^ For Ernan see above, p. 39. 
See above, p. 54. 



64 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

expiring on the ground before the saint had seen his face in 
life, that the saint's word should not in any way be vain. 

And hence a cross was set up in that place, before the door 
of a kiln ^ ; and another cross likewise stands even to-day, set 
up where the saint was when [Ernan] expired. 

563x597 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book I, c. 26 ^ 

Of a guesfs arrival that the saint foretold. 

Also at another time, on the third day of the week, the 
saint thus prophesied to the brethren : " To-morrow, being the 
fourth day of the week, we intend to fast ; nevertheless an 
inconvenient^ guest will arrive, and the customary fast will be 
relaxed. ... * 

563 X 597 

Adamnan, Life of Columlba, book I, c. 21^ 

At another time the saint came to the island of Hinba, and 
on that day ordered that some indulgence in food should be 
allowed even to penitents. 

But there was among the penitents there one Neman, son 
of Cathir, who refused to receive at the saint's command the 
offered consolation. And the saint addressed him in these 
words : " O Neman, thou receivest not any indulgence of 
refection granted by me and Baithine ; a time will come 
when thou shalt chew mare's flesh in the woods secretly 
with robbers." 

Accordingly he returned afterwards to the world, and was 
found sharing such flesh in a pass with thieves, according to 
the saint's words, taking it from a wooden gridiron. 

^ ante januavz canabae. See Reeves, 88, 440. 

' Reeves's edition, 54-55 ; Skene's, 129. 

^ " dangerous " Fowler (jnolesto). 

* The guest was Aidan, Fergna's son, " who, it is said, for twelve years 
had been the attendant of Brendan Mocu-Alti," abbot of Clonfert. 

Cf. the Irish canons ; Wasserschleben, Irische Kanonensammlung, 
XII, 15. 

^ Reeves's edition, 50-51 ; Skene's, 127. 



MONASTIC CUSTOMS 65 

563x597 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book II, c. 3 ^ 

At another time the saint sent his monks to bring from a 
plebeian's field bundles of twigs, with which to build a hospice. 

And when they returned and came to the saint, having 
a freight-ship filled with the aforesaid building-material of 
twigs, and told that the plebeian was greatly grieved because 
of this loss, the saint in consequence bade them, saying, " Then 
lest we offend the man, let six pecks of barley be taken to 
him by us, and let him sow them at this time in ploughed 
land." . . } 

563 X 597 

Adamnan, Life of Oolumba, book I, c. 41 '' 

The holy maris prophecy concerning the thief Ere Mocu-druide, 
who dwelt in the island of Colosus.^ 

At another time, when the saint abode in the island of 

' Reeves's edition, 106 ; Skene's, 153. 

For the use of wattles in building see S.C.S., ii, 57-59. 

^ The corn was sown after 12th June, and reaped in the beginning 
of August ; this was regarded as a miracle. The plebeian is called 
Findchan, his place Delcros. In Adamnan, II, 44 (below, p. 186) seed of 
some kind was sown in lona late in April or early in May According to 
Reeves, 107 : " In the neighbourhood of lona barley is occasionally sown 
early in July ; but the usual time of sowing is June ; of reaping, the early 
part of September." 

In the Irish Life the episode is placed in the neighbourhood of Derry : 
Stokes, Three Homilies, 108, Lismore Lives, 27. 

^ Reeves's edition, 77-79 ; Skene's, 139-140. 

^ In Coloso insula. Below, de i7isula Coloso; and in II, 22, (below,) 
inter Maleam et Colosum insulas. The nominative postulated was there- 
fore Colosus insula. 

Adamnan's general practice is to give islands' names in quasi-adjectival 
form, or at least as nouns with a feminine termination : Egea insula, for 
Eigg ; Elena insula, II, 18 ; Ethica terra, for Tiree ; Hinbina insula once 
for the usual Hinba insula; Ilea insula for Islay ; loua insula for lona ; 
Longa insula for the Long Island or Luing, II, 24 ; Oidecha insula for 
Aithche, II, 14 ; Rechrea insula, II, 41, for Rechru, I, 5 ; Saifiea insula for 
PShuna, II, 45 ; Scia insula for Skye ; see above, p. 51. Another exception 
to this practice is Ommon insula, I, 36. 

Coloso is perhaps the form from which Adamnan has constructed his 
Colosus insula. 

From this narrative Colosus insula appears to have been within so 



66 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

lona, he called to him two men of the brethren, their names 
being Lugbe and Silnan. And he bade them, saying, " Cross 
over at once to the island of Mull, and in the little plains near 
the sea look for the robber Ere ; for he came secretly alone 
last night from the island of Colosus, and endeavours to hide 
during the day among the sand-dunes, under his boat, which he 
has covered with hay, intending to sail over by night to the 
small island where the seals belonging to our sealing rights 
breed and are bred, and to kill some of them violently, and 
after very greedily and predaciously filling his boat to return 
to his habitation." 

Hearing this they obeyed and sailed over, and found the 
thief hidden in the place indicated beforehand by the saint ; 
and they brought him to the saint, as he had instructed 
them. 

And seeing him, the saint said to him : " Wherefore dost 
thou often transgress God's command and steal what belongs 
to others? When thou needest anything come to us, and thou 
shalt receive what is necessary by asking for it." 

And so speaking he ordered that wethers should be killed 
and given to the poor thief, that he should not return home 
empty. 

And after some considerable time the saint foresaw in spirit 
the thief's imminent death, and sent to Baithine, who was at 
that time dwelling as prior in Mag-Luinge [in Tiree], and bade 
him send the thief as last gifts a fat sheep and six pecks 
of corn. 

And when Baithine had sent over as the saint had 
commanded, the miserable robber was found on that day 
taken by sudden death, and the gifts sent over were used at 
his funeral. 

short a distance from a sandy shore of Mull that one man in a coracle 
could cross over in the night. It was also near Tiree. 

In II, 22, (below,) a ship was between Mull and Colosus insula after 
sailing for a few hours, on a quiet day, from a harbour in Ardnamurchan ; 
and visible (apparently) from a hill there. Colonsay is some fifty miles 
from the present Ardnamurchan, and some thirty-five from Tiree. Coll is 
at a suitable distance from Ardnamurchan, and is near Tiree. The name 
has been regarded as pointing to Colonsay (modern Colasa), but this is 
very doubtful for phonetic reasons ; and the context seems to indicate 
Coll. (Cf. also the editors of the Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, ii, 276, 278.) 



CURSES OF COLUMBA 67 

563 X 597 

Adamnan, Life of Columtoa, MS. B, book II, c. 20 ^ 

On the other hand he pronounced the following prophetic 
sentence concerning a certain very niggardly rich man called 
Fingen,^ who had despised St Columba and had not received 
him as a guest : " The riches of that greedy man who has 
despised Christ in pilgrim guests, from this day shall gradually 
decrease, and shall be reduced to nothing ; and he shall beg ; 
and his son shall run from house to house with a half empty 
wallet ; and he shall be struck by a rival [beggar] with an axe 
in the pit of a threshing-floor, and shall die." And all this was 
completely fulfilled, according to the holy man's prophecy, in 
the case of both. 

Adamnan, Life of Oolumlba, book II, c. 22 ^ 

Of the death of wizards that had scorned the saint. 

The venerable man greatly loved the above-mentioned 
Columban,* whom the virtue of his blessing had made, from a 
poor man, rich ; because he offered him many pious services. 

But there was at that time a certain man, a wizard, a 
persecutor of the good, by name John, the son of Conall, son 
of Donald, sprung from the royal race of Gabran. He perse- 
cuted St Columba's friend, the Columban mentioned above ; 
and he had plundered his house, carrying off all that he found 
in it, acting as an enemy not once, but twice. 

And hence it happened not undeservedly to this malignant 
man that the third time, after the third despoliation of the 
same house, as he returned to his ship, laden with spoil with 
his associates, he met the blessed man [Columba], whom he 
had imagined far away, approaching close at hand.^ And 

1 Reeves's edition, 131 ; Skene's, 165. 

This chapter is wholly omitted by the oldest MS. The preceding 
passage describes Columba's blessing of his host Nesan Cam's five cows, 
that they should increase to 105 ; an episode that is related also in con- 
nection with the cows of a poor man, Columban, in II, 21 (Skene, 165-166), 
and is spoken of also by Cummine, XXV, in Pinkerton's Vitae, 43. 

^ Ingenio ; Uigeno in the Capitulationes of book 1 1 (Skene, 1 50). 

^ Reeves's edition, 132-134; Skene's, 166-167. 

* See the note on the preceding passage. 

^ In X^yX proprius ; re.a.d propius. 



68 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

when the saint upbraided him for his wicked deeds, and asked 
and urged him to abandon his booty, he remained cruel and 
obdurate, and scorned the saint ; and entering his ship with 
the booty, scoffed and mocked at the blessed man. 

And the saint followed him down to the sea, and entering 
the green sea-waves up to his knees raised both hands to 
heaven, and prayed earnestly to Christ, who glorifies his elect 
that glorify him. 

The harbour in which he stood after the departure of the 
persecutor, and for a while prayed to the Lord, is in a place 
that is called in Scottish Aithchambas of Ardnamurchan.^ . . . 

After some interval of a few short hours,^ the day being 
quite serene, behold a cloud arisen from the sea, as the saint 
had said, driven with great roaring of wind caught the 
plunderer with his booty between the isles of Mull and 
Colosus,^ and swamped him in a sudden squall in the middle 
of the sea; and of those that were in the ship not one, in 
accordance with the saint's word, escaped. . . .* 

1 Aithchambas Art Muirchol. Reeves reads Ait-chamas, "pleasant 
bay"; and the editors of the Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (ii, 278) would 
correct the text to Aithchamba sive Art Muirchol, "Aithchamba or 
Ardnamurchan." But emendation is perhaps unnecessary. 

Ardnamurchan is called by Adamnan Artda muirchol, apparently a 
plural, which forms the plural dative Artdaib muirchol. 

Columba and his companions watched from high ground ; Columba 
promised the immediate destruction of the robber, and it seems to be 
implied that the catastrophe occurred while they were there, and within 
their sight. 

^ moranim, read horarum. 

' See above, p. 65. 

* A visit of Columba to Ardnamurchan took place shortly after the 
deaths [in 572] of Baetan, son of Muirchertach Erc's son, and Eochaid, 
son of Donald [Muirchertach's son] ; Adamnan, I, 12 (Skene, 122). A 
harbour in this district is there called AfwzVi^o/c /"anzi/zj-/ ("heavenly sea- 
pouch"), being apparently named after the Muirbolc (now Murlough) in 
Antrim. 

On a visit to Ardnamurchan Columba drew water from a rock to 
baptize a child : "This [child] was Lugu Cen[n]calad [i.e. Hard-head], and 
his parents were in Ardnamurchan, where even to-day a spring is seen, 
distinguished by the name of St Columba." Adamnan, II, 10 (Skene, 
158-159). Cf. the Irish Life; Stokes, Three Homilies, 108; Lismore 
Lives, 27. 



PERSECUTION BY SCOTS OF ARGYLE 69 

563 X 597 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book II, c. 24 ^ 

Of another wicked man, persecutor of churches, whose name is 
called in Latitt Manus Dextera. 

At another time, when the blessed man, dwelling in the 
island of Hinba, had begun to excommunicate some^ perse- 
cutors of the churches, the sons namely of Conall Donald's 
son, (one of whose sons was John, of whom we have related 
above,) one of their companion malefactors upon instigation 
of the devil ran up with a spear, to slay the saint. And one 
of the brethren, Findlugan by name, to prevent this interposed, 
wearing the holy man's cowl, ready to die for him. But in a 
marvellous manner this vestment of the blessed man, like 
some very strong and impenetrable coat of mail, could not be 
pierced, even by the strong cast of a sharp spear from a strong 
man's hand, but remained uninjured ; and he that wore it was 
preserved safe and unhurt through its protection. And the 
villain, who [was called in Latin] Manus Dextera, went away 
again, thinking that he had transfixed the holy man with 
the spear. 

After completion of a year from that day, when the saint 
was dwelling in the island of lona, he said, " It is an entire year 
to this day from the day when Lam Dess ^ slew, to the extent 
of his power, Findlugan in my stead ; but he too, as I think, 
is slain in this hour." 

And this occurred according to the saint's revelation 
at the same instant in the island that in Latin may be called 
Longa*; there this Lam Dess alone had perished, in a 
fight between two companies of men, pierced by the 
spear of Cronan Baithan's son, thrown, it is said, in the 
name of St Columba. And after his death the men ceased 
to fight. 

' Reeves's edition, 135-137 ; Skene's, 168-169. 

^ alios, 

' Lam dess "right hand" is the Old Irish form of the name previously 
given in Latin {nia7tus dextera). 

* I.e. "the long [island]." Possibly the Long Island of the present 
day (the Outer Hebrides). 



70 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

565x588 

Adamnan, Life of Columlba, book I, c. 36 ^ 

The blessed man's prophecy concerning the priest Findchan, 
founder of the monastery that in Scottish is called Artchain, in 
the land of Tiree? 

At another time the above-mentioned priest Findchan, 
soldier of Christ, brought with him from Ireland ^ to Britain, 
in the habit of clergy, Aed, surnamed the Black, sprung from 
royal blood, an [Irish] Pict by race, to be a pilgrim with him 
for some years in his monastery. This Aed the Black had 
been a very blood-thirsty man and the slayer of many ; and 
he had also killed Diarmait, Cerball's son, ruler over all Ireland,^ 
appointed by God's authority. After this same Aed had 
passed some time in pilgrimage, a bishop was called in, and 
[Aed] was ordained priest in presence of* Findchan aforesaid, 
although not rightly. But the bishop dared not place his hand 
upon [Aed's] head until the same Findchan (who loved Aed 
after the flesh) had first placed his hand in confirmation upon 
his head. 

When this ordination was afterwards announced to the 
holy man [Columba,] he was ill-pleased. Thereupon he 
pronounced this terrible sentence concerning Findchan and 
Aed, who had been ordained, saying : " The right hand that 
Findchan, contrary to right and to ecclesiastic law, has placed 
upon the head of that son of perdition, shall presently decay, 
and after great torture of suffering shall precede him to the 
ground in burial ; and he surviving shall live for many years 
after his hand has been interred. But Aed, undeservedly 
ordained, shall return to his vomit like a dog ; and he shall be 
again a bloody murderer, and at last, slaughtered with a spear, 
he shall fall from a log into water, and shall sink and die. He 
has long ago deserved such termination of his life, because he 
slaughtered the king of all Ireland." ^ 

■ Reeves's edition, 66-71 ; Skene's, 135-136. 

^ In Adamnan, Ethica terra or EtJika rcgio. 

^ Scotia. 

^ Apiid^ in Irish writers often = "by." The form of ordination was 
here gone through by the abbot, without validity, to relieve the bishop 
of responsibility in the subsequent valid ordination performed by him. 

*• Scotiae. 



ABUSES IN MONASTERY OF TIREE 71 

And this prophecy of the blessed man was fulfilled in both 
cases ; for the priest Findchan's right hand decayed from the 
effects of a blow and preceded him to earth, being buried in 
the island that is called Ommon ; while he lived for many 
years afterwards, according to St Columba's words. And Aed 
the Black, a priest only in name, returned to his former crimes, 
was pierced by treachery with a spear, fell from the prow of a 
raft into the water of a lake, and perished. 



PART III 

Affairs before and after the Council 
OF Druimm-Ceta 

ca. 568 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 60, s.a. 567= 568 ^ 

A campaign in the western world [was led] by Colman Bee, 
Diarmait's son, and Conall, Comgall's son.^ 

ca. 570 

Tigernach, Annals; in Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 149, 
s.a. [568] 3 

And Gildas [died].* 

1 With f.n, and e. of 568. 

^ Also ibid., s.a. 566 = 567 (with f.n. of 567); "A campaign in the 
western world " {Jecht in lardoman), as in the passage translated above). 
Probably lardoman was the name of a district. 

P.M., i, 204, s.a. 565 : "A fleet [was led] by Colman Bee, son of 
Diarmait, son of Fergus Cerr-bel, and by Conall, Comgall's son, prince 
\toiseacK\ of Dalriata, into Soil and into Islay ; and they took from 
them many spoils." 

The battle appears thus in A.I., 7, O'Conor's year 560 = 568 (31 years 
before 599) : "The battle of Ard-Tommain [was fought] by Colman Bee, 
son of Ailill, son of Comgall." 

The Annals from the Book of Leinster, R.S. 89, ii, 514: "583. 
A battle in the western world (that is, in Soil and in Islay,) [was fought] 
by Colman Bee, D[iarmait's] son, and by Conall, Comgall's son." 

Colman Bee was responsible for the death of Baetan, Ninnid's son, 
king of Tara, and was himself killed the next year by Aed, Ainmire's son. 
A.U., i, 70-72, s.aa. 585 = 586 and 586=587. 

2 F.n. I. 

* A.U., i, 62, s.a. 569 = 570 (with f.n. and e. of 570) : "Gildas died." 
In MS. A, Gildas's death is placed alternatively under 576 = 577. 

A. I., 7, O'Conor's year 559 = 567 (32 years before 599 ; and s.a. 562 in 
Harleian MS., ibid., note) : "The repose of bishop Gildas." 

Annals from L.L. (R.S. 89, ii, 514); "Gildas the Wise reposed," 
72 



GILDAS. KING RIDERCH 73 

?573 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book I, c. 15.^ 

The blessed man \Columbd s^ prophecy concerning king Roderc, 
Tothail's son, who reigned in the Rock of Clyde?' 

At one time this king, since he was a friend of the holy 
man [Columba], sent to him a secret message by Lugbe 
Mocu-Min, wishing to know whether he should be slaughtered 
by enemies, or not. And when Lugbe was questioned by the 
saint regarding the same king, and the kingdom, and the 
people, he replied as in pity, saying, " Why dost thou inquire 
concerning that unfortunate man, who can by no means know 
at what hour he may be slain by his enemies?" Thereupon 
the saint foretold : " He shall never be given up into the hands 
of enemies, but shall die in his own house, upon his pillow" 
And this prophecy of the saint regarding king Roderc was 
completely fulfilled ; for according to his word, [Roderc] died 
a placid death in his own house. 

573 

Annales Cambriae, Ab Ithel's edition, p. 5, s.a. [573]^ 

The battle of Arterid* [between the sons of Elifer and 

without date ; placed immediately before the death of Aed Suibne's son 
(t585;A.U.). 

Probably the best authority is the Annales Cambriae. A.C., MS. B 
Ab Ithel's ed., 5, s.a. [565] (121 years after 444) : " The voyage of Gildas 
to Ireland." (Many canons of the Irish church are attributed to Gildas 
see Wasserschleben, Irische Kanonensammlung (1885), g, 35, 73, 133, 139 
150, 151, 154, 212, 237.) 

A.C., Y Cymmrodor, ix, 155, s.a. [570] (6 years after the " 120th year'' 
after 444): "Gildas died." (MS. B adds, "the wisest of the Britons" ; ed, 
Ab Ithel, 5.) 

The Martyrology of Donegal, 296, enters his death under November 4th 

Fordun, III, 22-23, places the death of Gildas erroneously in the 
reign of Gabran. For his birth, see his De Excidio, c. 26 ; M.G.H 
Auctores, xiii, 40. 

' Reeves's edition, 43-44 ; Skene's, 123-124. 

2 Petra Cloithe j i.e., Ail-Chluaide (Dumbarton). For Roderc or 
Riderch, see years 573, 612, notes. 

^ Placed 9 years after the "r20th year" after 444 (Y Cymmrodor, ix, 155). 
"i Armieridm MS. A ; Erderit, B ; Arderit, C. 



74 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Guendoleu, the son of Keidiau. And in this battle Guendoleu 
fell. Merlin became insane].^ 

1 The part within brackets is taken from MS. B. 

According to Skene, Four Ancient Books of Wales, i, 66, the battle was 
fought "between Gwenddolew, whose name is surrounded by bardic 
tradition with every type and symbol of a semi-pagan cult, and on the 
other side three leading chiefs, who each became the founder of a 
kingdom — Maelgwn Gwynedd, Rydderch Hael, and Aedan, son of Gafran, 
called Fradawg, or the treacherous." 

But Mailcun, king of Gwynedd or Guenedota, had died in 547. 
Riderch, king of Dumbarton, died ca. 612 ; see also above. 

The success of this battle may have strengthened Aidan's hold of the 
kingdom of Argyle, and improved his position in the negotiations with 
Ireland. See year 575. 

In an article published by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 
(Proceedings, vi, 91-98), Skene argued with all likelihood that the place 
of this battle was the "Roman Camp" or "Moat of Liddel," near 
Carwhinelow, near Arthuret, in the valley of the Liddel, eight miles 
from Carlisle, and within sight of Burnswark. Skene further derived 
Carwhinelow from Caer Guendoleu or Gwenddolew, and Ridding from 
Erydon, a name which occurs in the Cyvoesi Myrddin, a dialogue between 
Merlin and his sister Gwendydd ; "the battle of Ardderyd and Erydon" ; 
"... Gwendolau was slain in the blood-fray of Ardderyd." (Skene, 
U.S., 94-95-) 

Skene cites six Welsh Triads that refer to the battle or to people 
who fought in it ; U.S., 92. 

The battle of Arderydd is mentioned in Welsh Triads ; Loth's 
Mabinogion, ii, triads no. 16, 48 ; M.A., 396, 397-398. It is named second 
among the " three frivolous battles of the island of Britain " : " the battle 
of Arderydd, fought because of a lark's nest." M.A., 391. Loth's 
Mabinogion, 1913 ed., ii, 283 (triad no. 79). 

A Welsh Triad mentions an expedition of Aidan to Strathclyde : 
"The third [costly plundering expedition of the island of Britain] was that 
in which Aidan the Traitor went into Alclut to the court of Riderch Hael : 
after it, there remained neither food nor drink, nor any living thing." 
M.A., 391. Loth's Mabinogion (1913), ii, 248 (triad no. 19). Cf. M.A., 
406. 

The legends that grew up around Merlin, his remorse over causing the 
battle, and the deaths resulting from it, and his subsequent attachment, 
upon Kentigern's recommendation, to Riderch's court, are scarcely to be 
regarded as history. Cf. Joceline's Life of Kentigern, c. 45 ; Historians 
of Scotland, v, 241 (118, 371-374), and below, p. 139, with Bower's 
Scotichronicon, III, 31 (Goodall's edition, i, 135-137; Edinburgh, 1759). 
But if Merlin composed the prophecies ascribed to him, he was certainly 
insane. 

For the sons of Elifer, see year 580. 



DEATH OF KING CONALL 75 

?S74 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 151, s.a. [573] 1 

The death of Conall, Comgall's son, king of Dalriata, in the 
[sixteenth] 2 year of his reign. He gave as offering ^ the island 
of lona of Columcille.* 

ca. 574 

Berchan's Prophecy, stanzas 114-118; in Skene's 
Picts and Scots, pp. 82-83 

Alas for the Picts to whom he ^ will go eastward, if they 
knew the thing that approaches them (?).^ He will not be 

1 With f.n. 7. Under f.n. 3=575, with the marginal date 4437, Tigernach 
notes tlie reign for 7 years of Tiberius. This is taken from Bede's 
Chronicle (M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 308, s.a. 4536). Tiberius II was emperor 
from 578 to 582 ; Bede says, from 4529 to 4536 ; Isidore, from 5772 to 
5779 (Auctores, xi, 477). 

^ In the text, "thirteenth"; read "sixteenth" (no. xui for xiii). 
"Sixteenth" in C.S., A.U., and the Annals of Clonmacnoise. 

^ ofenxvit ; offerebat in C.S. ; obtulit in A.U. The word is translated 
by F.M. ro edhbair. 

* To the same effect in C.S., 60, s.a. [573] (fn. 7 ; Hennessy's year 
574). So also in A.U., i, 64, s.a. 573 = 574 (with fn. and e. of 574). A.I., 
8, O'Conor' s year 566 = 574 (25 years before 599) : "The death of Conall, 
Comgall's son. He reigned for sixteen years" (this is placed 15 years 
after Gabran's death). F.M., i, 208, s.a. 572 (and the " 15th year of Aed, 
Ainmire's son " as sovereign of Ireland) : " Conall, Comgall's son, the king 
of Dalriata, died. He offered up lona to Columcille." 

Soon after he left Ireland, Columba had been Conall's guest ; see 
Adamnan, II, 7 ; above, p. 48. As Reeves has pointed out, the grant of 
lona must rather have been made by Brude, with Conall's consent. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 89, s.a. 569 : " Conall, son of Comgall that 
gave the island of lona \_Hug}i\ to Columcille, died in the i6th year of his 
reign over Dalriata." 

The Duan Albanach, in P. & S., 60 : " Five times three years, without 
a verse [of eulogy] \^gan roi?7?{], Conall, Comgall's son, was king" (Skene 
translated gan roinn " without interruption." But cf the Duan Albanach, 
below, years 607, 630, notes. For the gender, see Irische Texte, iii, 1, 128). 
"Without division" of spoils or of territory is also a possible translation. 

The Chronicles of Dalriata give Conall a reign of 14 years ; but the 
Irish Annals and the Duan seem to prove that he reigned for over 15 years. 
Fordun's account (III, 26) of Conall's death and successor is incorrect. 
For the succession of Conall's cousin Aidan, see year 607, note. 

^ Apparently this was Aidan, Gabran's son, before his accession to the 
kingdom. 

'' da bfestaois aim ni da bfuil. 



76 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

satisfied that an Irishman should have been i<iiig in the 
east in subjection to the Picts.^ 

He will be a short while in the east, according to his will ; he 
will not come against his word. At the time when they molest him 
he will not be king. He will cast the Picts into insignificance.^ 

He is the first man who will rise _ in the east, after his 
molestation by the Picts: the distressed traveller^ will be the 
red flam.e that awakens war.* 

A dart will glance from the shield's edge,^ with whom will 
be wanderers his grey [horses]^: a rider of the swift horse' 
(it is not falsehood) which will seek Ireland in one day. 

Thirteen years (one after another) [he will fight against] 
the Pictish host (fair the diadem).^ He will not be king at the 
time of his death, on a Thursday, in Kintyre.^ 

^ nir ba sdnih leis gorbd righ thair \ eirinnech fa chruithnechaibh. 
The first of these hnes has a syllable too many. Ba has probably been 
written twice, in error ; read ni sdmh leis (or gor-rigthair, " that an 
Irishman should have been subject to the Picts " i"). 

^ attrdth no craidlifeadh, ni ba righj \ fo-ciochra cruithnecha i nemhbrigh. 

^ in t-aistearach inuiedhach. 

■* Here is the note : "i.e. Aidan, Gabran's son. But Aidan belongs to 
Leinster, according to his genealogy." This gloss has been placed at 
Aidan's accession, not where he is first mentioned. 

^ do bhile sgiaith. In MS. B do bhilibh Sciath, with O'Connell's note 
" do bhile sceith perhaps." O'Connell's emendation is correct. This phrase 
is a play upon Skye's name (in the genitive Sceth, Sgiad, A.U. ; 
modern nominative Sgiath, like sgiath " shield." The '' dart " was surely 
Cano, Gartnait's son, who fled from Skye to Ireland in 668 and died in 
687. The Tale of Cano (Yellow Book of Lecan, 128-132; Kuno Meyer, 
Anecdota from Irish MSS., i, I- 1 5) says that Cano escaped from Aidan, 
Gabran's son ; and the writer of the Prophecy has had the same false 
idea. See year ?6oi, note. 

The Tale implies that Cano was king for a time. 

« Or "[men]"? 

'' Presumably a wooden ship. The Tale speaks of curachs. The 
journey from Skye to Ireland would have been a very long one for one 
day ; but Dunskey, near Portpatrick, is so near to Ireland that this stanza 
shows it is not meant. 

* Tri bliadhna deg,cinn archinn, \ fri shluagh cruithnech, cAin in inhind. 
MS. B has ceatiii ar cheann, . . . cain an Meunn, with O'Connell's note 
" i. caoin." Such chevilles are used for verse-building without much 
regard to their meaning. 

The Prophecy seems to have reverted to Aidan. 
" The Prophecy is continued at year 843. 



SUCCESSION OF KING AIDAN 77 

ca. 574 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book III, c. 5 ^ 

Of the angel of the Lord who appeared in a visioti to Si 
Columba ivhile he dwelt in the island of Hinba, being sent to 
appoint Aidan as king. 

At another time, when this excellent man [Columba] was 
dwelling in the island of Hinba, one night in ecstasy of mind 
he saw an angel of the Lord sent to him ; and [the angelj had 
in his hand a glass book of the appointment of kings. And 
when the venerable man had received it from the angel's hand, 
at his command he began to read it. And when he refused 
to appoint Aidan as king, according to what was commanded 
him in the book, because he loved Eoganan^ [Aidan's] brother 
more, suddenly the angel stretched out his hand and struck the 
saint with a scourge, from which a livid scar remained in his 
side for all the days of his life. And these words he addressed 
to him, saying, " Know surely that I have been sent from God 
to thee with the book of glass, that according to the words thou 
hast read in it thou shalt appoint Aidan to the kingdom. And 
if thou refuse to obey this command, I shall strike thee again." 

So when this angel of the Lord had appeared to him for 
three successive nights, having in his hand the same book of 
glass, and had given him the same commands of the Lord 
concerning the same king's appointment, the saint followed the 
Lord's word, and sailed over to the island of lona ; and there, 
as he had been commanded, he ordained Aidan, who arrived 
about the same time, as king. And among the words of the 
ordination he prophesied the future concerning [Aidan's] sons 
and grandsons and great grandsons ; and laying his hand upon 
his head, he ordained and blessed him.^ 

' Reeves's edition, 197-198 ; Skene's, 196-197. This anecdote is given 
more briefly in Cummine's Life (below). It is abbreviated from Adamnan 
by Fordun (III, 27 ; i, 113-114), who omits the words of the prophecy, and 
its fulfilment. 

''■ Eogan or Eoganan's death is noted under year 597, below. Cummine's 
Life omits the name. 

2 For the fulfilment of this prophecy see year 639. 

This incident appears thus in the Life attributed to Cummine, c. V ; in 
Pinkerton's Vitae, 30 : — 

''''\Colu7nbd\ consecrates Aidan as king, and predicts the future concerning 
his sons. 

"At another time the holy man, dwelling in the island of Hymba, saw 



78 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. 574 

Tigernach, Annals ; u.s., continued. 

The battle of Delgu ^ in Kintyre ; and in it Duncan, son of 

one night, in ecstasy of mind, an angel of the Lord sent to him. And [the 
angel] had in his hand a glass book of the appointment of kings. 

" [Columba] received it from the angel's hand and began to read it. 
But he refused to appoint Aidan as king, according to the commandment ; 
for he loved [Aidan's] brother more ; and suddenly the angel stretched 
out his hand, and struck the saint with a scourge, from which a livid scar 
remained in his side for all the days of his life. And in these words [the 
angel] addressed him : ' Know surely that I have been sent by God to 
bid thee appoint Aidan as king ; and if thou refuse, I shall strike thee 
again.' 

" When for three successive nights the angel of the Lord had given 
him the same commands concerning the appointment of Aidan, the saint 
sailed over to God's island of lona ; and upon Aidan's arrival there, 
appointed him as king." 

Tripartite Life of St Patrick, i, 162 (and Skene's P. & S., 17) : "Patrick 
was welcomed in the land [of Dalaraide] by Erc's twelve sons. And 
Fergus Mor, Erc's son, said to Patrick, ' If my brother should respect me 
in the division of his land, I would give [my share] to thee.' And Patrick 
offered that part to bishop Olcan ; that is, Airthir Maige. 

" Patrick said to Fergus : ' Though to-day thy brother have little esteem 
for thee, yet thou shalt be king, and from thee shall come the kings in this 
country and over Fortriu for ever.' And this was fulfilled in Aidan, Gabran's 
son, who took Scotland by force. And Patrick left many churches and 
establishments in the territory of [Irish] Dalriata." 

This story has no more authority than the other version given by the 
same Life : see above, p. 2. 

Cf. Colgan's 7th Life of Patrick, Trias Thaumaturga, 147 b ; and the 
still more extended account in Joceline of Furness (ca. 1 185), Life of 
Patrick, ibid., 95 b, and in P. & S., 142-143. 

Cf year 575, note. 

A story of Columba is told in the Yellow Book of Lecan, 164 a, 
beginning : " Columcille, Fedlimid's son, was the confessor of Aidan, 
Gabran's son, king of Scotland." 

According to a fabulous tale in the Yellow Book of Lecan (facsimile, 
128 a), Aidan was the son of Eochaid, son of Enda Gen-salach : Aidan was 
fostered from his birth by Gabran's wife, Ingenach. Aidan's twin brother 
was Brandub, king of Leinster. This alleged relationship caused recon- 
ciliation and peace between Aidan and Brandub after Aidan's successful 
invasion of Brandub's land (ibid.). The same story appears in Keating's 
History of Ireland, at the end of the first book (ed. Dinneen, iii, 408- 
412). 

1 cath Delgon: but in A.U., bellum Telocho. 



CONVENTION OF DRUIMM-CETA 79 

Conall, son of Comgall, and many others of the allies of the 
sons of Gabran/ fell.^ 

ca. 575 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 64, s.a. 574=575 ^ 

The great convention* of Druimm-ceta,^ in which were 
Columcille and Aed, Ainmire's son.^ 

ca. 57S 

Adamnan, Life of Columtaa, book I, c. lo'^ 

Of Donald, Aed's son. 

Donald Aed's son, still a boy, was brought to St Columba 
in Druimm-ceta by his foster-parents,^ and, regarding him, 
[Columba] asked, saying : " Whose son is this,- that you have 

1 In text Garbain ; read Gabrain, as in A.U. 

2 Similarly in A.U., i, 66, s.a. 575 = 576 (with f.n. and e. of 576). Also 
ibid., s.a. 576 = 577 (with f.n. and e. of 577) : " The battle of Telocho." 

3 With f.n. and e. of 575. 

■* Glossed "assembly" in Irish in MSS. A and B. 

° "Identified with the mound called the Mullagh, in Roe Park, near 
Newtownlimavady in the Co. Derry " ; Bernard and Atkinson's Liber 
Hymnorum, ii, 225. 

^ Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 90, s.a. 587 (the year-section begins with 
the mission of Augustine): "Aed Ainmire's son succeeded in the 
kingdom, and reigned 25 years" [592-1598 ; A.U.] 

" In his time the meeting was between him and Aidan, Gabran's son, 
king of Scotland, in Druimm-ceta \promkehaire\ with divers of the 
nobility both spiritual and temporal of Ireland and Scotland, in their 
company, for deciding the controversy between the said kings for the 
territory and lordship of Dalriata. St Columcille and St Baithine were 
present at that meeting." 

The Annals from L.L. (R.S. 89, ii, 514) place the council of 
Druimm-ceta immediately after the death of Daig, Cairell's son (1586 = 587, 
A.U. ; under f.n. i =585, in T. and C.S., Hennessy's year 586; 586 in 
F.M. ; in A.I., O'Conor's year 581 = 589). Lebar Brecc, 238 Ca: "The 
king of [the tribe of] Coirpre, Aed, Gabran's son ; Aidan, son of Gabran 
of the warriors, was sovereign of Scotland, full of arms. . . . They were 
all . . . in the assembly of Druimm-ceta, making peace between Aed 
. . . and Aidan." 

For this conference cf. O'Donnell's Life of Columba, in Colgan's Trias 
Thaumaturga, 430-431. 

■^ Reeves's edition, 36-37 ; Skene's, 121-122. 

* j>er nutritores. 



80 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

brought?" They replied: "This is Donald, Aed's son, who 
has been brought to thee for this, that he may return enriched 
with thy blessing." And immediately after the saint had 
blessed him, he said : " This [boy] shall survive after all his 
brothers, and shall be a very famous king ; and he shall never 
be given into the hands of his enemies, but shall die a placid 
death in old age upon his bed, and within his own house, 
surrounded by a crowd of his intimate friends." All these 
things were truly fulfilled of him according to the blessed man's 
prophecy.i 

ca. 575 

Adamnan, Life of Columtoa, book i, c. 1 1 ^ 

Of Scandlan, Colinan^s son. 

At the same time and in the same place he went to 
Scandlan, Colman's son,^ kept in chains by king Aed, desiring 
to visit him. And after blessing him he said comforting him : 
" Son, be not sorrowful, but rather be glad and of good comfort ; 
for king Aed, by whom thou art enchained, will precede thee 
from this world ; and, after some seasons of exile, thou shalt 
reign as king over thy nation for thirty years. And again 
thou shalt escape from the kingdom and be in exile for some 
days ; after which recalled by the people thou shalt reign for 
three short seasons." And all this was completely fulfilled 
according to the saint's prophecy. For after thirty years he 
was expelled from the kingdom, and was in exile for some 
space of time ; but afterwards he was recalled by the people 
and reigned, not, as he had imagined, for three years, but for 
three months, after which he immediately died.* 

' See year ca. 643, note. 

'^ Reeves's edition, 38-39 ; Skene's, 122. 

3 For Colman, Feradach's son, cf. the Life of Cainnech, Acta Sanctorum 
ex Codice Salmanticensi, 384-385. He is called Cendfaelad, below. 

* While Columba stayed at Druimm-ceta for the council he cured 
many sick people, according to Adamnan, II, 6 (Skene, 156-157). 

Many visits to Ireland are spoken of by Adamnan (I, 3, 9, 38, 40, 42 ; 
II, 19, 36, 43) ; one, perhaps upon the way to Ireland, to Kintyre {caput 
regionis, I, 28). A late and fabulous account of Columba's leaving and 
returning to Ireland [in 563 and 575] appears in the Life of Farandan ; 
C. Plummer, in Anecdota from Irish MSS., iii, r, ff. 



QUESTIONS IN DISPUTE 81 

The second Preface to fhe'Ajnra Coluiinchille ; in Bernard 
and Atkinson's Liber Hymnorum, vol i, pp. 163-164 ^ 

The place of this poem was Druimm-ceta, where the great 
assembly was. It was composed in the time of Aed, Ainmire's 
son, and of Aidan, Gabran's son. The person [who composed 
it] was Dalian, Forgall's son, of the Masraige of Mag-Slecht in 
Breifne of Connaught. The cause, to obtain heaven for himself 
and for others through him.^ 

Now the three causes of Columcille's coming from Scotland 
to Ireland at that time were, to release Scandlan Mor, son of 
Cendfaelad, king of Ossory, to whom he had given security ; 
and to keep the poets in Ireland, because they were being 
expelled on account of their oppressiveness, since thirty [men] 
composed the full retinue, and fifteen the half retinue, of a 
master-singer,^ and the number of the poets was twelve 
hundred, as someone said . . .*; and to make peace between 
the men of Ireland and of Scotland with regard to Dalriata.^ 

^ Also in Stokes's Goidelica, 156-157. 

^ Cf. below. Cf. also a verse in the preface to the Amra, Liber 
Hymnorum, i, 166. 

3 i. md ollamain. Lebar na h-Uidre (p. 5) reads "because there were 
thirty in the retinue of every ollam" (i.e. master-poet ; i cleir cac\K\ 
olloman) "and fifteen in the retinue of every anrad" (i.e. champion-poet), 
and omits the next clause and the verse-quotation. 

* Here two stanzas of verse are quoted : they are translated ibid., ii, 55. 

The case of the poets is described in the first preface to the Amra, in 
Liber Hymnorum, i, 162-163. I' 's there stated (162) that "Columcille 
then came as he came from his cicrack, with a hundred and forty followers ; 
as the poet said : 'Their number was forty priests, twenty bishops, noble 
was their power ; at the psalm-singing, without a doubt, fifty deacons, 
thirty sons ' " {mac, i.e. novices). Cf. the Irish Life, above, p. 45. 

^ It is implied that the " men of Scotland " {_firu . . . Alban) were 
Aidan's subjects, the "men of Ireland" Aed's. Aidan's subjects were the 
Irish in Scotland. It is implied that Dalriata is not here synonymous 
with the "men of Scotland," or the Irish in Scotland. Here and below the 
subject of dispute appears to have been Irish Dalriata, which the king of 
Scottish Dalriata claimed as part of his kingdom, while the Irish king 
resisted his claim. If these earlier accounts are correct, later writers must 
erroneously have imagined that Scottish Dalriata was the subject of 
dispute, and therefore that it was only a part of Aidan's kingdom 
(cf. Keating, History of Ireland, II, 9, 10 ; Dinneen, iii, 80-86, 94-96). 

The three reasons appear similarly in the Lebar na h-Uidre version, 
which diverges after this from the Liber Hymnorum. 



82 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

And then Columcille came into the assembly, and some 
people in the assembly rose to greet him ; and the poets 
came to make music for him. . . } 

For the question of Dalriata cf. the first preface to the Amra, Liber 
Hymnorum, i, 163, ii, 54. 

Liber Hymnorum, i, 187 : "Once Columcille and Aidan, Gabran's son, 
went to an assembly at Druimm-ceta, to Aed, Ainmire's son ; and the 
men of Ireland, both laymen and clergy, were there to the end of a year 
and four months. [Columba and Aidan] came to ask for truce for the 
men of Scotland, but it was not given to them. 'Yet there shall be truce 
for ever,' said Columcille, ' without invasion from Ireland eastwards.' 
Because Aed, Ainmire's son, had many grounds of dispute there ; such as 
driving the [men of Irish] Dalriata across the sea, and the expulsion of 
the wise men, and of Dail-Osraige after the fall of their hostage, Scandlan." 
After describing the imprisonment of Scandlan, and his miraculous 
release by aid of Cummine, son of Feradach, son of Muiredach, son of 
Eogan, the same passage continues (ibid., 188): "Columcille had three 
successes from this journey : peace regarding [Irish] Dalriata, namely 
that its expeditionary and military service should belong to the men of 
Ireland, but its tribute and tax to the men of Scotland ; and the retaining 
of the wise men in Ireland ; and the release of Scandlan." Columba then 
made peace with Cummine, and gave his staff and his blessing to Scandlan. 

' Here are verses, translated ibid., ii, 55. 

In the Introduction to the Amra in Lebar na h-Uidre, p. 5: "And 
Columcille came afterwards into the assembly, and some rose before him, 
to greet him. But according to another version no one rose before him 
but Donald, the king's son ; for the king had said that no one should rise 
before him, because he knew the reason why he came, and his coming 
displeased him, and he did not wish to retain the poets or to release 
Scandlan. 

" So then Columcille blessed this Donald, because he had been cowardly 
till then. And the queen was ill-pleased at his being blessed, because he 
was her step-son ; and the priest was angry with her ; and she said to the 
priest, ' Great is the warranty under which thou art.' The priest said, 
' Thou too mayest be under warranty.' " (There is a pun here upon the 
word corraigccht " warranty," which is used in the second instance as 
if it meant " cranishness," from corr " crane.") 

" So then she was turned into a crane, and her maid took to reviling 
the priest ; and she was turned into another crane ; and from that time 
onwards are [spoken of] the two cranes of Druimm-ceta, as some say. 

" After that the poets came into the assembly with a eulogy upon 
him. . . . 

" The quartering of the poets was made after that through Ireland, and 
their retinues were reduced, to twenty-four in the train of a master-singer 
and twelve in the train of a champion-singer. . . ." 

Cf. Lebar Brecc, 238 C b : " . . . The second cause was to keep the art 



DECISION REGARDING DALRIATA 83 

After that, Columcille besought Aed for Scandlan, but [Aed] 
did not give him to him. And then Columcille said to Aed 
that [Scandlan] should take off his shoes about nocturns in 
whatever place [Columba] should be ; and so it was fulfilled.^ 

Colman, Comgellan's son, of Dalriata, gave the judgement : 
that [Dalriata's] campaigning and military service should 
belong to the men of Ireland, because military service always 
goes with the soil - ; but their tribute and taxes should belong 
to the men of Scotland. 

[of poetry] in Ireland. [The poets] were a troublesome tribe ; they had 
thirty men in one retinue, and whatever they asked of any one he had to 
give it them, else he was summarily disposed of \_no gldm dkciid do 
dcnam do]. They made three blisters in the face of any whom they 
satirized ; that is to say, from life, lack of life. . . ." 

' The preface to the Amra, in Liber Hymnorum, i, 163: "Columcille 
released Scandlan, Cendfaelad's son, from his hostage-ship, and he bowed 
down to the gospel ; . . . and he gave him eight score of plough-oxen [da/u 
riatai\ ; . . . and therefore eight score plough-oxen are still owed [as 
tribute] to the congregation of lona, by the [men of] Ossory." 

Cf. Lebar Brecc, 238 C b : " The third cause was to relieve Scandlan 
Mor, son of Cendfaelad the king of Ossory. [Scandlan's] father had given 
him as a hostage into the hands of Aed Ainmire's son, the king : and 
Columcille had given him warranty that he should be set free at the end 
of a year, or that another hostage should be taken in his stead. And Aed 
took none but him; and an enclosure of wattle was made round him, with 
no way out. . . ." Cf. ibid., 238 D a-b. 

^ This sentence proves that the Dalriata in dispute was part of the 
land of Ireland, not a province outside Ireland. These are the words of 
the judgement : a fecht ociis a slogad la firu Hereitd, ar is slogad la fo?inaib 
dogrisj a cdin ocus a cobach la firu Alban. Similarly in Lebar na h-Uidre, 
p. 6a; but there is added, no ain-muir-coblach nainind la firu Alba?z, 
shein initnach imorro la firu h-Erenn (i.e. " or their fleet only [went] with 
the men of Scotland, but from that time forward with the men of Ireland.") 

Lebar Brecc, 238 C b : " The cause of writing the Amra was Columcille's 
coming from Scotland to the assembly at Druimm-ceta, where the men of 
Ireland were. 

" There were three causes why Columcille came out of his pilgrimage. 
The first cause was the dispeace between the men of Ireland and the men 
of Scotland concerning Dalriata, because it was free from law and from 
military service till then. And Columcille made peace in the council. 

" Now this is the judgement which Colman Comgellan's son made for 
the Ulstermen : that Dalriata belongs to the men of Ireland. . . ." 

This extract might suggest that Scottish Dalriata was in dispute, since 
Irish Dalriata can hardly have been exempt from military service ; but 
the following extract clearly indicates that Irish Dalriata is meant. 



84 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

This was the Colman whom Columcille fondled ^ when he 
was a little boy, saying : " O clear conscience, O pure soul, 
here is a kiss for thee ; give thou a kiss to me ! " And 
Columcille said that [Colman] should make terms of peace 
between the men of Ireland and of Scotland.^ 

Then Dalian came to speak with Columcille, and thereupon 
sang the prologue to him ; and Columcille permitted him not 
to compose more than that, but to compose it at the time of 
his death, and said that it was fitting for a dead person. 

Now Columcille promised to Dalian riches and the fruits 
of the earth, and Dalian accepted nothing but heaven for 
himself and for every one who should sing it, and understand 
it, both sense and sound. 

[Dalian said,] " How shall I know of thy death, while thou 
art in pilgrimage and I in Ireland?" 

And Columcille gave him three signs, of the time when he 
should compose the eulogy : that the rider of a piebald horse 

Lebar Brecc, 238 D b : "As for the [men of] Dalriata, there was 
contention concerning them between the men of Ireland and of Scotland. 
The [men of] Dalriata and the men of Scotland were of the race of Coirpre 
Rigfota son of Conaire, Mug's son. They were together in Munster ; but 
a great famine came into Munster, and the race of Coirpre Rigfota came 
out of it : and the one part of them went into Scotland, and the other part 
remained in Ireland, and thence are the [men of] Dalriata to-day. There- 
after they sowed in those lands till the time of Aidan, Gabran's son, king 
of Scotland, and of Aed, Ainmire's son, king of Ireland Contention arose 
between these two kings concerning them : and this is the third reason 
why Columcille came from the east, for peace between the men of Ireland 
and of Scotland regarding the [men of] Dalriata. . . . Now Columcille 
came to the conference, and brought with him Colman, Comgellan's son. 
And they said to Columcille, ' Give them thy judgement regarding the 
Dalriata.' 'It is not I who shall give it,' said he, 'but yonder youth, 
Colman, Comgellan's son.' So then Colman gave judgement, and this is 
the judgement that he gave : their tax and tribute and customs and military 
service belong to the men of Ireland. And when one of the men of Scot- 
land comes from the east, the [men of] Dalriata must provide for him, 
whether one or many come, so long as they are on this side ; and must 
convey them also, if that be needed. Thus have been enumerated the 
three questions for which Columcille came westwards . . ." Cf. R.C.,xx, 424. 

1 dori^ni . . . in m-boide j Atkinson (literally) "to whom Columcille 
did the kindness." 

^ Colman seems to have been chosen to give a decision because he 
belonged to Irish Dalriata, the country in dispute, and therefore not to 
either of the disputing parties. 



PROPHECIES OF COLUMBA 85 

should tell him of the death of Coluracille ; and the first word 
that he should say would be the beginning of the eulogy ; and 
that [Dalian's] eyesight would be granted him so long as he 
was composing [the eulogy]. 

The eulogy was sung in Ath-Feni in Meath, as Mael- 
Suthain said. But [Columba's] successor Ferdomnach ^ relates 
that it was sung upon the Ass's Way, from Dun-na-n-Airbed to 
the cross at Tech-Lommain.^ 

ca. 57S 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book l, c. 49 ^ 

The blessed maris fore-knowledge of the battle that was fought 
after many years in the fortress of Cethirn, and of a spring close 
to its land. 

One time when the blessed man was returning to the plains 
by the sea after the conference of kings in Druimm-ceta, 
(namely of Aed, son of Ainmire, and Aidan, Gabran's son,) he 
and abbot Comgall rested, one fair day in summer-time, not 
far from the aforesaid fortress. So then water was brought to 
the saints in a bronze vessel from a spring close by, for them 
to wash their hands. And when Columba had received it, he 
spoke thus to abbot Comgall,* who was sitting by his side ; 
" The spring, O Comgall, from which this water has run and 
has been brought to us, a day will come when it will be fit for 
no human use." "By what cause," said Comgall, "will its 
springing water be polluted ? " Then St Columba said, 
"Because it will be filled with human blood: for the friends 
of my kindred, and thy relatives after the flesh, will be at war, 
and will fight a battle in this neighbouring castle of Cethirn : 
that is, the Ui-Neill and the [Irish] Pictish peoples. , . ."^ 

1 Ferdomnach, abbot of Kells, died in 1008. 

2 " Portloman on L. Owel, county Westmeath" Hogan. 
^ Reeves's edition, 91-93 ; Skene's, 145-146. 

■* Comgall was the first abbot of Bangor ; see above, pp. 52-53. 

» That Columba's prophecy had been fulfilled was attested to Adamnan 
by an eye-witness " Finan, a soldier of Christ." Ibid., 93-97. 

In the battle of Dun-Cethirn, Congal Caech, king of Ulster, was defeated 
by Donald, Aed's son, king of Tara. Cf. A.U., i, 98, s.a. 628 = 629; T., 
R.C., xvii, 181, s.a. [627] (f.n. 5) ; C.S., 82, Hennessy's year 629 ; A. I., 12, 
O'Conor's year 623 = 631 (32 years after 599). 



86 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. 580 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 68, s.a. 579= 580 ^ 

A campaign in the Orkneys [was conducted] by Aidan, 
Gabran's son.^ 

ca. 580 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 153, 
s.a. [578]^ 
Cennalath,* king of the Picts, died.^ 

580 

Annales Cambriae ; Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 155, s.a. [580]^ 
Gurci and Peretur died.^ 

1 With f.n. and e. of 580. Under the same year is placed the death of 
Cennalath. 

2 Also ibid., under 580=581 (with f.n. of 581) : "A campaign in the 
Orkneys " (^fecht Ore, as in the previous passage). 

^ F.n. 7. In the previous year-section (with f n. 5 in O'Conoi-'s edition, 
i.e. [577]) is placed the death of pope Benedict I : " Benedict, a Roman by 
race, sat [four] year[s], one month, twenty-nine days, and was buried in 
the church of blessed Peter the apostle." Benedict died in 579. (The 
text is corrected by that of A.U., which place his death in 578 = 579.) This 
is derived from the Liber Pontificalis, which says that Benedict was pope 
for 4 years, i month, 28 days (M.G.H., Gesta Pontificum, i, 159). 

* Cindaeladh, possibly attracted to (the genitive of) Cendfaelad; in 
A.U. Cennalath. The Chronicle of the Picts (ABC) says that " Galam 
Cennaleph " shared Brude's kingdom for i year. 

^ To the same effect in A.U., s.a. 579 = 580. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 8g, s.a. 580 : " The departing of Ulstermen 
from Emain" {Eawyn. In A.U., "Return of the Ulstermen from 
Eumania," s.a. 577 = 578.) "... Kenneth, king of the Picts, died. 
Baetan Cairell's son, king of Ulster, died. 

"The battle of the Isle of Man was given by Aidan. Gabran's son 
was victor." 

^ Placed 6 years after the " 130th year" after 444. 

' " Sons of Elifer," adds MS. B (Ab Ithel, 5). See above, year 573. 
Cf. Genealogy XII appended to A.C., Y Cymmrodor, ix, 175: — "Gurci 
and Peretur, the sons of Elifer Cascord-maur [i.e. "of the great retinue"], 
son of Gurgust Letlum, son of Ceneu, son of Coyl Hen." 

Gurci and Peretur are mentioned in a Welsh Triad (M.A., 396 (11); 
Loth's Mabinogion (1913), ii, 243 (triad no. 16). Cf. Skene's F.A.B.W., 
ii, 454)- Cf. M.A., 394. 



KINGS CENNALATH AND BAETAN 87 

Before 581 or before 587 

Berchan's Prophecy, stanzas 23-26 

After that,^ a king from the north ^ will take [the sovereignty 
of Ireland]. His hosts will be wanderers from the great fort of 
Mag-Line^; by him every tribe will be drained. 

The pale-yellow Shouter*will be sovereign of all Ireland; 
he will be king of Scotland in the east ; he will be a foe to the 
Saxons. 

A king who wins three battles in the east, three fatalities 
in Scotland. By him are collected into his presence the relics 
of the saints of Ireland. 

Twenty-five years (it is not weak) [he will be] in the 
sovereignty of Ireland.^ He dies of disease in his house ; his 
grave [is] above Allabair. 

S81 

Book of Lecan, in Skene's Picts and Scots, pp. 127-129^ 
Baetan, Cairell's son, was king of Ireland and Scotland.^ 

' There appears to be a gap in the narrative before the events spoken 
of in these stanzas. 

^ Probably Baetan, Cairell's son. 

Glossed above : "i.e., Fiachna, son of Baetan, son of Cairell" ; and in 
the margin, " king." The next king spoken of is glossed " i.e., Baetan, 
son of Cairell"; but stanza 30 says that he "dies of a draught of 
poison in the east, in the castle of Lethet [z" n-diin leitheid], in Ulster." 
Poison may be a metaphor for a violent death. Fiachna was killed in 
Lethet-Midenn. It seems probable that the order of these stanzas (23-30) 
is correct, but that the two glosses have been transposed by some copyist. 
(The glosses are probably as old as the Prophecy.) 

^ Moylinny (Hogan). 

^ Perhaps " the Laugher " : an gairechtach glas-bhuidhe ; doubtless the 
same " king from the north." 

^ The list of kings of Ulster in the Book of Leinster, facsimile, 41, c, 
says that Baetan reigned for 10 years, his brother Daig for 10 years, 
Aed the Black, Suibne's son, for 5 years, before the reign of Fiachna, 
Baetan's son. 

^ Versions of this passage occur in four other MSS. (Skene, ibid., 127) ; 
the Book of Leinster, facsimile, 330, b-c ; the Book of Ballymote, facsimile, 
152, c ; and the Bodleian MSS. Rawlinson B 506, and Laud 610. 

' According to A.U., i, 68, Baetan, Cairell's son, died in 580 = 581 ; 
but his death is repeated there (i, 72) alternatively under year 586 = 587 
(with the addition, "king of Ulster.") Probably 581 is the true date. 
A.L (O'Conor's year 573 = 581) say that Baetan fell in battle. 



88 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Aidan, Gabran's son, yielded to him at Ros-na'-Rig in 
Semniu.^ 

Of [Baetan] was sung, when he carried the tribute of 
Munster^ northwards: "There are many scores of miles 
between Dun-Baetain and Lethet^; long land, wide sea, are 
to the west between us and Imlech-Ibair.-* 

" Although I have come here from fair Raith-Cruachan with 
my tributes, my face is long after dinner in the castle of 
Baetan, Cairell's son. Although I have come from Skye, I 
have come twice and three times guarding jewels that had 
changed their colour ; the Scot is very cold.^ 

" Fifty, sixty are under the water between Man and Ireland ; 
nine here have gone to heaven ; dreadful is their pilgrimage. 

" Though I [have come] from the mountain of Alps I saw 
many hardships^; I gave much silver and gold, without 
receiving honour."'' 

And Man was cleared by [Baetan] of foreigners,^ so that 
dominion over it has belonged to the Ulstermen from that 
time forward ^ ; and in the second year after his death the 
Gaels abandoned Man.^" 

' The battle of Ros-na-rig was probably fought before 575. 

2 " of Man," wrongly, in Book of Ballymote. 

^ According to Skene (S.C.S., i, 240, 241, note), Lothian "appears to be 
meant" by this Lethet. Perhaps he meant to identify the word with 
Leith (modern Gaelic Lid). This is certainly wrong. Lethet is the 
dt'm-leitheid of Berchan's Prophecy, the Lethet-Midend of Tigernach. 

■' Emly, in Tipperary county. 

° aduar, here " cunning " ? 

^ ?nor n-[d]eaccra. 

' " Although I have come here . . . honour," in the Book of Lecan 
only. 

s These " foreigners " Cg-fl:z7/), the "Saxons" of Berchan (above), must 
have been Angles of Northumbria. If these not very trustworthy sources 
are to be believed, Man had been occupied by English about 34 years 
after the definite establishment of the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. 

"The Hosting of Fiachna, Baetan's son, to Dun-Guaire in England" 
(i Saxanaibh) was the subject of an Irish literary composition ; Book of 
Leinster, 190 a. 

° " of foreigners . . . forward" in Book of Lecan only. 

'" In A.U., sa. 576 = 577: "The first peril of the Ulstermen in 
Eufania " ; " in Emain [Macha]," i.e. Navan, in Armagh, according to 
Tigernach (R.C., xvii, 152) and C.S. (60), and the translator of the Annals 
of Clonmacnoise. But Stokes, comparing the Book of Armagh's Evonia 



ISLE OF MAN 89 

?S83 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol xvii, p. 153, s.a. [579]^ 

The battle of Man,^ in which Aidan, Gabran's son, was the 
conqueror.^ 

(Tripartite Life, ii, 288), would identify Eufania with Man. A.I. (O'Conor's 
year 571 = 579) : "First peril of the Ulstermen." 

A.U., s.a. 577 = 578: "Return of the Ulstermen from Eumania"; 
similarly in T. ; " from Emain " in C.S. 

Navan was within Ulster, therefore perhaps Man was meant. 
Cf. year ? 583. 

1 With f.n. I. 

^ Cath Manandj so also ibid. 125 ; cath Mana?in ibid. 154, and in A.I. 
and D.M.F. In A.U. at 582 bellum Manonnj at 583 belhcm Manandj at 
504 bcllinn Mhanann. These are genitive forms of Mano, equivalent to 
the Welsh name Manau. 

^ This event is noticed by Tigernach in the same words (in Latin) 
under the following year (for f.n. 5 in the text read 2 [=580], with O'Conor); 
ibid., 154. The same event is wrongly entered (in Irish) by Tigernach 
under [505] (fn. 6; ibid., 125): "The battle of Man [was fought] by 
Aidan, Gabran's son " ; it is followed there by the death of Brude. 

Similarly A.U. place the battle under years 503, 581, and 582, =504, 
582, and 583. S.a. 581 = 582 (i, 68): "The battle of Man, in which the 
victor was Aidan, son of Gabran, son of Domangart." S.a. 582 = 583 
(i, 68): "The battle of Man [was fought] against Aidan." S.a. 503 = 
504 (i, 34): "The battle of Man [was fought] by Aidan.'' The earliest 
spelling is at 581 = 582. 

Immediately after this battle is noticed the death of " Fergna, son of 
Caiblene," in T., s.aa. [579] and [580], and in A.U., s.aa. 581 = 582 and 
582 = 583 : but s.a. [580] Tigernach adds, "and this is the truth of it," a 
remark that may be taken to apply to the battle also, and to support the 
later date. 

A. I., 8, O'Conor's year 575 = 583 (16 years before 599) : "The battle of 
Man [was fought] by Aidan, Gabran's son." 

D.M.F., I, p. 6 (Skene's P. & S., 401): "The battle of Man, in which 
Aidan, Gabran's son, was the conqueror." This stands 8 years after the 
battle of Femin [573], and one year before the death of Feradach Find, 
Duach's son, king of Ossory [t 583 or 584, A.U. ; in A.I., O'Conor's 577 = 
585. See below, p. 91, note]. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 74, s.a. 504: "Aidan, Gabran's son, king 
of Scotland, fought a battle in the Isle of Man." 

Annales Cambriae, Y Cymmrodor, ix, 155, s.a. [584] (the " 140th year" 
after 444) : " A battle against Man " {bellum contra Euboniam). 

There seems to be no doubt that the Afano referred to here was the 
same place as that referred to under year 581. The place intended in 



90 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

the verse-passage there, and in the Annales Cambriae, is certainly 
the island of Man : and that is without doubt the meaning of Mano 
here. 

The names of Manau on the Forth and of the island of Man were 
essentially identical, so that these writers might very easily have confused 
the two. Skene thought that this battle was fought in Manau upon the 
Forth, a district certainly in danger of invasion by Angles after 547. 

Aidan's victory over the Miathi may have been gained in or near 
Manau on the Forth, perhaps near Dunmyat, or Dumyat, which is upon 
the borders of Clackmannan. 

From 603 (if not before) to the time of Catguollaun, Manau south of 
the Forth must have been under English authority. In 655, perhaps from 
633, it may have belonged to Strathclyde. From 655 to 685 it belonged 
probably to Northumbria ; and from 685 until 711 it may have been 
re-annexed to Pictland. 

Upon what authority I do not know, Fordun identifies this battle with 
the British defeat at Fethanleag, recorded thus in A.S.C. ABCE, s.a. 584 : 
" In this year Ceawlin and Cutha fought against the Britons in the place 
that is called Fethanleag ; and Cutha was slain [there BC], and Ceawlin 
took many towns, and incalculable spoils ; and dispersedly \_erre, yrre\ he 
went thence home." 

Fordun places this battle in Aidan's 15th year, which would be, accord- 
ing to his reckoning, 584-585. He says (III, 28) that " Malgo, king of the 
Britons" asked for Aidan's help against "the heathen nation of a wicked 
race " ; and Aidan " sent his son Griffin, a distinguished knight, and 
Brendinus, regulus of Man \_Eiiboniae\, his nephew by his sister, with a 
powerful force." They were joined by " the Britons of the north." On 
the third day, after they had passed Stanemore (or Mora lapidea), they 
encountered the heathen army, led by Ceawlin, king of the West Saxons, 
in Fethanleag. The enemy's front line was destroyed ; but after a 
stubborn battle the Scots and Britons were defeated with great slaughter. 
Griffin was killed (see below, p. 96). 

This story is probably fabulous, and Malgo may be the Mailcun who 
died in 547. 

Fordun (III, 28), quoting from Vincentius Bellovacensis (who died in 
1264), says that the regulus Brendinus had a brother, Adelfius, whose 
daughter Gelgehes was (by " the king of Ireland, Philtanus") the mother 
of St Furseus, Foylanus, and Ultanus. See below, p. 231. 

This passage was derived from Sigebert of Gemblours, Chronica, 
M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 320, s.a. 593. Cf. Bede's account of Furseus 
(H.E., III, 19) ; the Life of Furseus in the Salamanca MS., Smedt and De 
Backer's Acta, 99, 106 ; and the Life of Cuanna, in Colgan's Acta 
Sanctorum, 251. 

These three saints went on pilgrimage from Scotland, according to 
Fordun (III, 37) ; but in reality from Ireland. Furseus founded a 
monastery at Lagny in France ; Foylanus founded Fosses-la-ville in 
Belgium. Fordun's account is borrowed from Sigebert (u.s., 324, s.a. 648), 



KINGS BRUDE AND CONSTANTINE 91 

ca. 584 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 154; 
s.a. [S8i]i 

The death of Brude, Maelchon's son, king of the Picts.^ 

ca. 589 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 72, s.a. 587 = 588 

The conversion of Constantine to the Lord ; and great 
snow ; and the slaughter of Aed Dub, Suibne's son, in a ship.^ 

who takes it from Bede. Cf. the Additamentum Nivialense to the Life of 
Furseus, in M.G.H., Scriptores Rerum Merovingicarum, iv, 450-451. 

Fordun says that about the same time " Dido, bishop of Poitou, was 
sent as an exile to the king in Scotland" ; but he should say, in Ireland. 
He takes this from Sigebert, s.a. 657, who takes it from the Liber Historiae 
Francorum ; M.G.H., U.S., ii, 316. 

1 For f.n. 6 in Stokes's text read 3, with O'Conor ; i.e., [581] {iii for ui). 
In the same year Tigernach notes ; " The death of Feradach, Duach's 

son, the king of Ossory, slain by his own people." Feradach's death is 
entered by A.U. under 582 = 583, and under 583 = 584; by A.I., under 
O'Conor's year 577 = 585 (14 years before 599, but 23 years after 559) ; in 
D.M.F., 9 years after the battle of Femin (573 + 9 = 582). 

Under the same year-heading, Tigernach notes the pontificate of 
Pelagius II [t ?59o] for 10 years, 6 months, 10 days. This is derived from 
the Liber Pontificalis (M.G.H., Gesta Pontificum, i, i5o), which reads 10 
years, 2 months, 10 days : and which is correctly copied by A.U., under 

582 = 583. 

In the next year-section (with f.n. 5 =582) Tigernach notes the reign of 
Mauricius, who was emperor from 582 to 602. A.U. place this under 

583 = 584, thus : " Mauricius reigned for 21 years, as Bede and Isidore say.' 

2 This event is wrongly entered by Tigernach (u.s., 125) in similar 
words, under f.n. 2 =506. 

It appears similarly in A.U., i, 70, s.a. 583 = 584 (with f.n. and e. of 584) ; 
and, omitting "king of the Picts," in A.U., i, 34, s.a. 504 = 505 ; and in 
A.I., 8, under O'Conor's year 576 = 584 (5 years before 599). 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 89, s.a. 584 : " Brude, Maelchon's son, king of 
Pictland, died." 

See year ? 555. 

■^ i luing. Possibly " in [the island of] Luing " ? For Aed see 
Adamnan, above, pp. 70-71. Aed was ruler of the Picts of Dalaraide 
(Down), and he had killed Diarmait, Cerball's son, king of Ireland. 

Excepting Aed's death, the same annal is in Tigernach, R.C., xvii, 157, 
s.a. [586] (f.n. 3) ; and (from A.U.) in the Annals of Clonmacnoise, 90, 
s.a. 587. " Constantine's conversion to the Lord" is in A.C., s.a. [589] (not 
in MS. C ; ed. Ab Ithel, 5). 



92 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

There appears to have been some confusion between different 
St Constantines. 

This Constantine may have been the first of the five kings that Gildas 
denounced, in De Excidio Britanniae, c. 28 (M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 41-42). 
E.g. : " Constantine, the tyrannical whelp of the foul lioness of Damnonia, 
is not ignorant of these monstrous crimes." Damnonia was the region of 
Devon and Cornwall. (There was also a Damnonia in Pictland ; possibly 
in Perthshire, about the parish of Glendevon, beside the rivers Devon and 
Black Devon ; bordering upon Clackmannan and Fife.) 

Gildas warns another of the kings of Britain, Cuneglasus, against the 
"foul lioness that will one day break thy bones " (c. 32) ; but in both cases 
perhaps "lioness" is a metaphor for the land of Devon. In c. 23 Gildas 
calls the Saxon's land on the continent a "barbarous lioness" (u.s., p. 38 ; 
cf p. 39 at top). 

According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, that Constantine's father was the 
foster-father of Guanhumara, king Arthur's wife. In the Welsh Triads, 
a St Constantine appears as king Arthur's grandfather (see Loth (1913), ii, 
233 ; cf i, 244-246). 

Oengus places the death of " Constantine, king of Rahen," on 
March nth. Note in the Martyrology of Gorman, March nth, p. 52: 
" Constantine, Fergus's son, of the Picts ; or a Briton, according to others. 
Abbot of Rahen of Mochuta." 

Brussels version of the Martyrology of Tallaght, Kelly, p. xviii, 
Maixh nth : "[Festival] of Constantine, a Briton \Consta?itini Briio\, or 
the son of Fergus of the Picts." 

Notes in MS. Rawlinson B 512 (1905 Oengus, 92): "Constantine, i.e. 
the son of Fergus, and successor of Mochuta of Rahen, in Delbna-Ethra 
in Meath : a king of Britain who left his kingdom and came for pilgrimage 
to Rahen in the time of Mochuta. And he was also king of Scotland " 
{rig Alban e bcus\ "and he sold the riches of the world for- pilgrimage, in 
order to gain heaven. . . ." Cf the notes in L.B. (1880 Oengus, Ixiii). There 
are fabulous stories about Constantine in the notes in Rawlinson B. 512, u.s., 
pp. 92-94. It is there said that Constantine died before Mochuta (94). 

Mochuta flourished ca. 630, and died in 637, according to A.U. 
Therefore the Constantine of the Calendars can scarcely have been the 
Constantine that entered monastic life in 589, and certainly not if the 
latter was adult before 547, when Gildas wrote. Probably two or three 
Constantines have been confused. Joceline's Life .of Kentigern would 
perhaps identify the Constantine of 589 with Constantine, son of Riderch 
of Cumbria. See below, p. 135. 

Cf the Breviary of Aberdeen, i, 3, 67, under March i ith : 

" St Constantine, king and martyr," 

" Constantinus, the son of Paternus king of Cornwall, married the 
daughter of the king of Lesser Britain. But fortune was averse, and the 
queen died. The king, grieving for her death, refused to be consoled, 
and deliberately entrusted and gave up to his son the kingdom and his 
sovereignty. 

" Then he bade farewell to all, and, leaving the kingdom, sailed across 



ST CONSTANTINE 93 

to Ireland ; and coming to a certain house of religion he humbly endured 
labour there, carrying all the grist to and from the mill for seven years ; 
descending from a kingdom to a mill. 

"And one day when Constantine of the mill sat in the mill and saw no 
one, he said, 'Am I Constantir.e, king of Cornwall, whose head has 
sustained so many helmets, his body so many coats of mail? Am I ?' he 
inquired of himself. And he replied, ' I am not.' 

"And when he had debated this with himself, a man who, hidden in the 
mill, had heard it all, revealed to the abbot What he had heard. All came 
quickly and drew him from the mill, and led him to the cloister ; they 
taught him letters, and by inspiration of the holy spirit raised him 
to the rank of priesthood. 

" Immediately he bade farewell to all, and departed thence and came 
to St Columba, a man most dear to God ; then he was sent into Galloway 
by St Kentigern, to preach the word of God. There he was elected 
abbot, and laboured to reform with word and example the flock entrusted 
to him. 

" Constantine had already reached decrepit old age ; he had long had it 
in mind, and had prayed to the Lord, that he might die as a martyr for 
Christ's Church : and he heard a voice from heaven saying that it should 
be so as he had asked. 

"And while the man of God had journeyed here and there through the 
land, preaching the word of God, and was making a sojourn in the island 
of Kintyre, certain wicked men collected together and hastened to the 
island, wickedly to fulfil what the man of God had piously prayed for. 

" So they came to the man of God, and cut off the hand of his 
attendant ; and immediately, merely by a touch, he cured it. So. they 
raged against the man of God, and afflicted him Avith various torments ; 
and among other mortal wounds they also cut off his fore-arm. And they 
went away, leaving him for dead. 

"Then the saint called together his brethren, and consoled them in 
charity ; and so among his prostrate brethren he slept in peace, worthy to 
be reckoned among the saints and chosen martyrs of God. And he died 
about the year of the Lord 576." (Cf the Bollandists' Acta Sanctorum, 
March, iii, 62.) 

This date of Constantine's death would fit the Constantine of Gildas, but 
it cannot stand against the Irish Annals' date of Constantine's conversion. 

A St Padarn (Paternus) is mentioned in a Welsh Triad ; M.A., 391 (43) ; 
Loth, Mabinogion, ii, triad no. 77. There is nothing to show whether this 
was the Paternus called by the Aberdeen Breviary the father of Constantine. 

Fordun, III, 25, MSS. CF (i, in, note): "Arthur was a contemporary 
of St Columba. Also at the same time St Constantine, king of Cornwall, 
left his earthly kingdom, cleaving to and invoking the heavenly king ; and 
came to Scotland with St Columba, and preached the faith to the Scots. 
He founded the monastery of Govan and was its abbot, and he preached 
to the Picts. He converted the whole land of Kintyre, and succumbed 
there to martyrdom ; etc." 

According to Reeves (Adamnan, 371) the church of Kilchousland in 



94 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. 590 1 

ca. 591 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 158, s.a. [588]^ 

The battle of Leithrig [was fought] by Aidan, Gabran's son.^ 

Kintyre was dedicated to him. Cf. Cosmo Innes, Origines Parochiales, 
ii, 1, 19. 

" Kirk-constantine of Galloway " appears to have been the Kirlc of Urr, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

' Alberic of Trois Fontaines, Chronica ; M.G.H., Scriptores, xxiii, 695, 
s.a. 602 : " The blessed Columbanus, coming from Scotland and Ireland, 
founded Luxueil in Burgundy." Annales Uticenses, s.a. 611 ; in Le 
Prevost's O.V., v, 147 : "In this time, St Columbanus was renowned, and 
built Luxeuil ; and afterwards, Bobbio, in Italy." Cf Fordun, III, 32. 

The letters of Columbanus are edited by W. Gundlach in M.G.H., 
Epistolae, iii, 154-190. The Rule and Penitential attributed to him are in 
P.L. 80, 209-230. 

^ F.n. 5. In the next year-section is recorded an eclipse of the sun in 
the early morning. 

A.I., 29, under O'Conor's year 586 = 594 (5 years before 599) enter an 
" eclipse of the sun in the morning hour." There seems to have been no 
eclipse before 6 a.m. within the possible period ; but there was a visible 
eclipse in 594 on July 23rd at about 8 a.m., Paris time — i.e. about 7j a.m., 
at Inishfallen (the appearance of the eclipse would have been earlier than 
the calculated time). Probably this was the eclipse recorded here ; possibly 
" morning hour" here is equivalent to " first hour of the day," 6-7 a.m. 

There was also an eclipse in 592, visible at Inishfallen about 8^ a.m. 

Both these eclipses (of 592 and 594) seem to have been recorded by 
A.U. ; s.a. 590 = 591 : "Defection of the sun, i.e. a dark early-morning" 
{inane tenebrosimi). S.a. 591 = 592 : "a dark morning" {inatutina tenebrosd). 
Of these, the later corresponds with the entry in A.I. ; the earlier, with 
that in T. 

Two years after the eclipse of 592, T. and C.S. enter s.a. [591], from 
the Liber Pontificalis (M.G.H., Gesta Pontificum, i, 161, 162), a note of 
the pontificate of pope Gregory I [590-604] (for 16 years, 6 months, 10 days, 
according to T. ; read 13, 6, 10, as in C.S. and A.U.). A.U. enter this 
under 592 = 593. A.I. read, under O'Conor's year 596 = 604 (5 years after 
599) : "The repose of Gregory of Rome" ; i.e., in the correct year. See 
year 608, note. 

^ A.U., i, 72, s.a. 589 = 590 (with fn. and e. of 590): "The battle of 
Leithreid [was fought] by Aidan, Gabran's son." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 91, s.a. 589 : " Felim, Tigernach's son, king 
of Munster, died, [t 590 ; A.U.] 

" The battle of Leithrig \Leihrye\ was fought by king Aidan of 
Scotland." 



BATTLES AND SONS OF AIDAN 95 

ca. 592 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 159; s.a. [590]^ 
The death of Lugaid of Lismore ; that is, Moluoc.^ 

ca. 574x597 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book I, c. 9 ^ 

Si Columbds prophecy regarding the sons of king Aidan. 

At another time, before the above-mentioned battle,* the 
saint questioned king Aidan concerning the successor to the 
kingdom. When [Aidan] replied that he knew not which of 
his three sons would reign, Arthur, or Eochaid Find, or 
Domangart, the saint immediately prophesied in this fashion : 
" None of these three will be the ruler ; for they will fall in 
battles, slain by enemies. But now if thou hast any younger 
[sons], let them come to me ; and he whom the Lord has 
chosen of them as king will suddenly fall upon my knees." 

And when they were summoned, according to the saint's 
word Eochaid Buide came and rested upon his bosom. And 
at once the saint kissed and blessed him, and said to the father : 
" This is the survivor, and the king that shall reign after thee ; 
and his sons shall reign after him." 

Afterwards, in its own time, all this was exactly fulfilled. 

' With f.n. I ; one year after the eclipse of 592. 

2 Also in Tigernach, u.s., 158, s.a. [588]: "The death of Lugaid of 
Lismore." Similarly in C.S., 62, s.a. [589] (f.n. 6, with a note of the eclipse 
of 592 ; Hennessy's year 590) ; and in A.U., i, 74, s.a. 591 = 592 (with f.n. 
and e. of 592, and a note of the echpse of 594). 

F.M., i, 212, s.a. 588 : "Lugaid of Lismore died." 

Martyrology of Oengus, June 25th : "with Moluoc, pure and fair \_glan 
n-geldae\ the sun of Lismore of Scotland." " Moluoc of Lismore in 
Scotland " Rawlinson B 505 ; " namely of Cell Delga in Ardgal " 
Franciscan MS. ; 1905 ed., p. 158. 

Martyrology of Gorman, p. 122, June 25th : "Moluoc modest, white- 
headed" {fial, findchemi) ; with the note : "of Lismore in Scotland." 

" Moluoc of Lismore " Brussels Martyrology of Tallaght, Kelly, p. xxvii, 
June 25th. 

"Moluoc of Lismore in Scotland" Martyrology of Donegal, p. 178, 
June 25th. 

Moluoc was the founder of the monastery of Lismore. See year 61 r. 
Cf. p. 19. 

^ Reeves's ed., 35-36 ; Skene's ed., 121. 

* Of king Aidan with the Miathi ; below. 



96 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

For after a short interval of time, Arthur and Eochaid Find 
were killed in the above-mentioned battle with the Miathi ; and 
Domangart was killed in a rout of battle .in England i ; but 
Eochaid Buide succeeded to the kingdom after his father.^ 

ca. S74XS97 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book I, c. 8 ^ 

Of the battle of the Miathi. 

At another time, that is after the course of many years from 
the above-mentioned battle [of Ondemone],* when the holy 
man [Columba] was in the island of lona, he said suddenly to 
his attendant, Diarmait, "Strike the bell" And summoned by 
its sound the brethren ran very quickly to the church, preceded 
by the holy abbot himself And when they had knelt down 
there, he addressed them : " Let us now pray earnestly to the 
Lord for this people, and for king Aidan ; because they enter 
battle in this hour." And after a short interval he left the 
oratory, and looking again upon the sky, said : " Now the 
barbarians are put to flight ; and victory, although a sad one, 
has nevertheless been granted to Aidan." And also the holy 
man related prophetically the number of the slain in Aidan's 
army, three hundred and three men.^ 

' See below, year ? 598. 

^ This passage is quoted from Adamnan by Fordmi, III, 31 ; i, 116- 
117. But at the end he reads (i, 117): "And all this was completely 
fulfilled in its own time. For after a short interval of time Arthur and 
Eochaid Find were slaughtered in the battle of the Maythi ; Arthur also" 
(read "Domangart") "was slain [MS. C : in the war with the Saxons, as 
also long before had been slain his older brother Grififin] ; but Eochaid 
Buide, which in our tongue is sounded Eugenius " (this is wrong, because 
" Eugenius " was the Latin equivalent of Eogan ; but Fordun errs similarly 
elsewhere) " succeeded after a year to his father's kingdom. 

"Now Conrad \Conanrodus\ the son of the king of South Wales, took 
as his wife the daughter, by name Fynewennis, of this Grififin, the son of 
king Aidan, Gabran's son. And he had by her a son, very dear to God, 
St Drostan, who living in the monastic habit ofifered himself as an 
acceptable offering to God." 

^ Reeves's ed., 33-34 ; Skene's, 120. 

* See above, p. 48. 

° This incident is more briefly narrated in the Life attributed to Cummine, 
XXV (Pinkerton, Vitae, 44) ; but the Miathi are not named there, except 
as " a barbarian force." 

The Miathi may have been the same people as the Maeatae, who lived 



BATTLES OF AIDAN AND OF COLUMBA 97 

? 590x597 

Preface to the hymn Alius Prositor ; Bernard and Atkinson's 
Liber Hymnorum, i, 62-64.'^ 

The place [of composition] of this hymn was lona ; the time, 
[that of] Aidan, Gabran's son, and of Aed, Ainmire's son, king 
of Ireland. And the king of the Romans at that time was 
Mauricius, or Phocas.^ The person [composing it] was 
Columcille, of the noble race of the Scots. He is called 
Columba,^ according to the words : " Be ye wise as serpents, 
and simple as doves."* The cause [of its composition was] 
that he wished to praise God. 

He spent seven years producing this hymn, in a little black 
chapel without light,^ to beg for forgiveness on the score of the 
battle of Cuil-dremne which he had won against Diarmait, 
Cerball's son : and of the other battles that had been fought 
because of him.® 

to the north of the southern Roman wall. Dumyat or Dunmyat is supposed 
to have been their border stronghold ; but this is not certain. Dumyat is 
on the border of Clackmannanshire, the northern division of Manau on 
the Forth. Nevertheless the battle with the Miathi is not to be identified 
with the battle of Mano (above, year ? 583). It was not the battle of 
Circhend (below, year ? 599) ; and there is nothing to connect it with the 
battle of Leithrig (year 591). 

Not far from Dumyat are the battle-fields of Ardoch and Sheriffmuir ; 
the "battle of the Miathi" may have occurred in a locality not far remote 
from these. But this is mere conjecture. 

Again without traceable authority, Fordun (III, 29) connects this 
battle with the defeat of Ceawlin (t 593) recorded by A.S.C. ABCE under 
the year 592 : " In this year was great slaughter [in Britain E] at Woddes- 
beorge [Wodnesbeorge E], and Ceawlin was driven out." The name is 
no doubt " Woden's castle." 

' Also in Todd's Book of Hymns, ii, 204-205, and in Stokes's Goidelica, 
100-102. This legend is of value, if at all, as evidence of communication 
between lona and Rome. Gregory I was pope from 590 to 604. 

See O'Donnell's Life of Columba, in Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga, 412. 

2 Aidan, Aed, and Mauricius, all reigned throughout the possible 
period for this legend. 

5 Coltcinba; below, Columbus. 

* Matthew, X, 16. 

^ in Nigra Cellula sine lumiiie. 

° These paragraphs appear thus in L.B., ii, 237 ; L.H., i, 63 : " In the 
time of Aidan, Gabran's son, king of Scotland, and of Aed, Ainmire's son, 
king of Ireland ; further, Phocas was king of the Romans at that time. 

G 



98 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Or as others say, it was composed suddenly. One day 
Columcille was in lona, and he had no one with him but 
Baithine, and they had no food but a sieve-ful of oats. Then 
Columcille said to Baithine, " Noble guests are coming to us 
to-day, Baithine"; Gregory's people, who had come to him 
with gifts. And he said to Baithine, " Stay here to wait upon 
the guests, that I may go to the mill." He took up the load, 
which was upon a certain stone within the church ^ ; [the stone's] 
name was Blathnat, and it exists yet. Upon it division is made 
in the refectory. Now he felt the burden heavy, and he 
composed this hymn ^ in alphabetical order, [on the way] from 
there to the mill: Adjutor laborantium, etc. And when he 
put the first grist into the mill, at the same time he began the 
first chapter ; and the grinding of the corn and the composing 
of the hymn ceased together. And it was composed thus, 
suddenly. . . ? 

The cause [of composition,] because [Columba] wished to praise God, in 
order to beseech forgiveness for the three battles that he had fought in 
Ireland ; the battle of Coleraine in Dalaraide, between him and Comgall" 
("of Bangor," interlined above), "in contention about a church, namely 
Ros-torathair ; and the battle of Belach-feda of the weir " {arradj Todd's 
translation) " of Clonard, and the battle of Cuil-dremne in Connaught, both 
of which were fought against Diarmait, Cerball's son." See also R.C., xx, 

434- 

The order of the parts of this preface in L.B. is different from that in 
the Liber Hymnorum. The preface begins thus in L.B., u.s. ; Todd, ii, 
223; L.H., i, 62: "Alius Proseior. Columcille composed this hymn to 
the Trinity, during seven years in the little black chapel \in cellula 
nigral, t'^^' 's, in the Dub-recles in Derry of Columcille." 

1 isindrecles. Redes " abbey-church " frequently signified " monastery." 

- The Adjutor laborantiiim seems to have been another poem in 
chapters whose first letters followed the order of the alphabet. 

^ Here follows a notice of Columba's arrival in Scotland ; see above, 
year 563. 

The alternative account of the hymn's composition appears thus in 
L.B. (Todd, ii, 223-224; L.H., i, 62-63): "Otherwise, it was composed 
suddenly, as others say, while Columcille was alone in lona, with none 
beside him but Baithine only. Then it was revealed to Columcille that 
guests were coming to him, seven of the community of Gregory, who came 
to him with gifts for him from Rome : the great jewel of Columcille, that 
is to say a cross [preserved] to-day ; and a hymn of the week, that is, a 
hymn for every night of the week ; and other gifts. 

"And Columcille asked Baithine what food was in the monastery" 
{isin choitchendj perhaps " in the common stock," with Bernard and 



COLUMBA AND POPE GREGORY 99 

Now this hymn was given to Gregory in the east, in return 
for the gifts that had been given by him — the cross, named 
the Great Jewel, and the hymns for the weei^.^ 

But the bearers, to test Gregory, interpolated in it three 
chapters which Gregory had made, [in place of] Hie sublatus 
and Orbem and Vagatur. But when they began to repeat the 
hymn to Gregory, angels of God had come and were standing, 
till they reached that chapter ; and Gregory stood in their 
honour" till then. But when that was reached^ the angels sat, 
and Gregory sat, and the hymn ended in this fashion. Now 
Gregory asked for their confessions, because he knew that they 
had made the interpolation. And they said that they had ; 
and they were forgiven for it. 

And [Gregory] said that there was no fault in the hymn 
except the small extent to which the Trinity was praised in 
it directly,* although it was praised in its creations.^ 

Atkinson). " ' There is a sieve of oats in it,' said Baithine. ' Do thou wait 
upon the guests, Baithine,' said Columcille, ' while I go to the mill.' 

"Thereupon Columcille took up the sack" (i.e. the "sieve" of oats, 
the sieve-ful being used as a rough measure of quantity,) " from the stone 
which is within the refectory in lona ; and the name of that stone is 
Moelblatha, and it bestows good fortune upon all food that is placed upon 
it. Thereupon, while going to the mill, he then composed' this little hymn, 
the Adjutor laborantium ; and it is in alphabetical order. 

" When Columcille threw the first grist into the mouth of the mill, then 
he entered upon the beginning of the Alius;" (i.e., the first chapter) "and 
the composing of the hymn and the grinding of the corn ceased together : 
and [the hymn] was not composed as the fruit of lucubration, but 
through the grace of the Lord." 

1 There may have been some foundation for these legends of intercourse 
between Columba and Gregory. 

- Bernard and Atkinson, no doubt correctly, read ar a n-on[oir\-seom, 
and translate " in their honour " ; Stokes read with Todd araroinnseotn, 
and translated it "for his part." (This would have meant "for [Columba's] 
part [of the work.] ") 

^ Oroseched . . . sett; Bernard and Atkinson's translation. Stokes 
translated this "when that was said" (Goidelica : see also O'Davoren's 
Glossary in Archiv fiir celtische Lexicographic, ii, 449-450). But the 
meaning would in this case be " when this had been said," which does not 
agree with the context. 

* per se. 

^ trianadulib : "through its creatures," Stokes. 

The last two paragraphs appear thus in L.B. (Todd, ii, 224 ; L.H., i, 
63-64) : " It was taken to Gregory, and the attendants stole three chapters 



100 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

And this rebuke reached Columcille ; and this was the 
cause of the composition oi In te, Christe} 

There is alphabetical order here,^ in Hebraic fashion. The 
basis of this chapter ^ was drawn from the catholic faith — belief 
in the unity with confession of trinity. It was composed in 

from it : Hie sublatus and Orbem i7ifra and Christo de ccelis. And they 
inserted three chapters in their place. And while the attendants sang the 
hymn to Gregory, Gregory rose until he heard the three alien chapters ; 
and sat again, until [he heard] the true [chapters]. He rose again, and 
said to them, ' Confess what you have done.' They confessed ; and he 
said to them, 'Then sing the hymn in the manner in which its author 
composed it.' And they sang it ; and afterwards he praised the praises. 
But he said, ' God is mentioned in it less than he ought to have been 
mentioned.' " 

In O'Donnell's Life, u.s. : " The messengers . . . boldly struck out 
three chapters from its contents, and substituted as many, which they 
themselves had concocted ; intending by this to make trial whether 
Gregory, the fame of whose sanctity had at that time arisen, would 
distinguish the substituted verses from the rest, or whether he would 
commend both with equal praise. But . . . the great bishop rose to his 
feet and so continued standing reverently, until he came to the apocryphal 
verses ; when these began to be read, he immediately sat down ; and after 
they were concluded, he rose again, and received the rest standing. . . ." 

^ The alleged criticism would seem to have been directed not against 
the hymn, but against its title ; Todd, ii, 205, and L.H., i, 66: — "This is 
the title, De Unitate et Trinitate trium Personarum " — a title applicable 
only to the first chapter. 

The hymn /n te, Christe, is in Todd, ii, 256-257 ; L.H., i, 84-85. The 
preface is in L.H., i, 84 (less completely in Todd and in Stokes's Goidelica, 
103) : — "/« te, Christe. Columcille composed this hymn. He composed 
it in rhythm, sixteen syllables to each line. But some say that Columcille 
was not the author at all, except from Christus Redempfor" [i.e., the second 
half] "and Christus Crucem. And therefore many repeat that part [only]. 
The place [of composition was] lona ; the time, [that] of Aed, Ainmire's 
son ; the cause, that he had praised the Trinity so little in the Alius ; and 
that Gregory had reproved Columcille for it." 

2 I.e., in the Alius Prosiior. This hymn is edited by Bernard and 
Atkinson, L.H., i, 66-81. Chapters ABCDEFGHIKLMNYZ are taken 
from the Trinity College MS., chapters OPQRSTUX are supplied from 
the Franciscan MS. The Lebar Brecc implies that there were 23 chapters 
(facsimile, ii, 237 b; L.H., i, 65): "The number of the chapters in this 
hymn is the number of the letters of the alphabet. . . . That the Romans 
have 23 letters is caused by the ten senses of man, the ten commandments 
of the law, and the Trinity." 

^ Foiha in chaipiilse : evidently referring to the ^rj/ chapter. 



HYMNS OF COLUMBA 101 

rhythm ; and there are two types of [rhythm], correct and 
ordinary.! The correct [type is that] in which the feet are 
equally timed, equally divided, with equivalence in arsis and 
thesis, so that in resolving them the latter would fit into the 
former's place.^ But the ordinary [type occurs] where there is 
correspondence of syllables and of quarter-lines and of half- 
lines : and that is what we have here.^ [There are] six lines 
in every chapter, and sixteen syllables in every line ; excepting 
the first chapter, which has seven lines, because it contains the 
praise of God. . . .* 

Many manifestations of grace attend [the singing of] this 
hymn : angels are present so long as it is being sung ; no 
demon shall learn the road of him that sings it daily, and 
enemies shall not make him blush upon a day in which he 
sings it, and there shall be no quarrel in the house where it is 
frequently sung. It protects against every kind of death except 
death on a pillow^ ; and there shall not be hunger or nakedness 
in the place where it is often sung. And there are many other 
[manifestations of grace].^ 

' artificialis et vulgaris. 

2 I.e., the caesura is in the middle of the line, both halves contain the 
same number effect, and all the feet are alike. 

^ This seems to mean that the line is divided by three caesurae (or by 
four accents ?) into four parts of the same number of syllables. In this 
hymn there is usually a caesura in the middle of the line. The lines 
contain sixteen syllables, without elision, composed without regard to the 
position of stressed syllables in the usual pronunciation of Latin. The 
metre is one adapted for singing. 

* Directions for singing the hymn follow. With these and the passage 
above cf. the Lebar Brecc, u.s. 

' I.e., death from natural causes. Morte absque pretiosa in L.B., which 
continues : — " And he [that sings it often] shall not be in hell after the day 
of judgement, even if he have done many things that are wrong ; and he 
shall have great riches, and length of life." Cf. the remainder in L.B. 

Cf. the legend quoted by Todd through O'Curry from the Liber Flavus 
Fergusorum, in the Book of Hymns, ii, 249-251. 

" The preface to the hymn Noli, pater, also in the Liber Hymnorum, 
i, 87 (Todd, ii, 262 ; Stokes's Goidelica, 103-104,) has to do with the 
foundation of Derry; '■'■Noli, pater. Columcille composed this hymn, in 
the same measure as the In te, Chrisie. The place [of composition] was 
the door of the hermitage of Daire-Calgaig [Londonderry] ; the time, [that] 
of Aed, Ainmire's son. The cause [was this] ; Columcille came once to a 
conference with the king, to Derry ; and the king granted him the place, 



102 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

with its appurtenances [conairliud]. Then Columcille refused the place, 
because Mobi had forbidden him to receive [property in] the world, until 
he should hear of his death. 

" Thereupon Columcille came to the door of the town ; and three of 
Mobi's people met him there, with the girdle of Mobi. And they said : 
' Mobi is dead.'" After a quotation from a poem, ascribed to Columba, on 
Mobi's Girdle, the preface proceeds: "Columcille went back to the king, 
and he said to the king: 'The offering that thou gavest to me recently, 
\imbiiaruc\Ji^ give me it now.' ' It shall be given,' said the king. 

" Now the place was burnt up, with everything that it contained. 
'That is useless' \espach\ said the king, 'for if it had not been burnt 
there would not have been lack \tachd\ there of mantle or food for ever.' 
' But there shall not be [lack] there henceforward,' said [Columcille] ; 
'whoever dwells there, there shall not be a night of fasting.' 

" Now the fire was so great that it threatened to burn the whole 
oakwood" [or, "all Derry"?], "and it was to save it on that occasion that 
this hymn was made. 

" Or he had the day of judgement under his consideration ; or the fire 
of [St] John's Eve. 

"And it has been sung [in protection] against every fire and every 
thunder[-storm] from that time forward. And whoever sings it at bed- 
time and on rising, it protects him against the fire of lightning ; and it 
protects the nine of his household whom he wishes [it to protect]." 

A somewhat similar account occurs in the Irish Life ; Stokes, Three 
Homilies, 106-108 ; Lismore Lives, 26-27. 

Derry was founded in 546 (see above) ; Aed, Ainmire's son, reigned 
592-598 (A.U.). 

The hymn Noli, Pater, is in Liber Hymnorum, i, 88 ; in Todd's Book 
of Hymns, ii, 262-263 ; and in Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga, 476. 

For the death of Mobi, see A.U., i. 48-50, s.a. 544 = 545. 

For a story of Columba's relations (after his banishment) with Diarmait, 
see the Annals of Clonmacnoise, 82-83. FoJ" Columba and Aidan, see 
Yellow Book of Lecan, 164, a. For Columba's miraculous visit to Rome, 
assisting Maedoc to fight with demons in the air for Brandub's soul, see 
Colgan, Trias Thaumaturga, 439. 



PART IV 

Death of Columba 
597 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. i6o, 
s.a. [592] '=596? 

The repose of Columcille [occurred] on the Sunday night 
of Pentecost, the fifth ^ before the Ides of June, in the thirty- 
fifth year of his pilgrimage, and the seventy-seventh of his life. 

1 F.n. 3. (It happens that 3 was the true f.n. of 597.) 

2 I.e. between 6 p.m. of 8th June and 6 a.m. of 9th June. 

Adamnan clearly states that Columba died after midnight, i.e. on 
Sunday morning, of the 9th June, therefore in 597. MacCarthy (A.U., iv, 
p. Ixxviii) understands Tigernach to mean that Columba died on Saturday 
evening, of the gth of June, and therefore in 596, in which year the Roman 
Pentecost was the loth of June. But if this had been the true date, the 
9th of June after sunset would certainly have been reckoned as June loth. 
See Adamnan's narrative, below, If Columba had died on Roman 
Pentecost, Adamnan would surely have mentioned it. 

The word "Pentecost" may have been added in agreement with the 
statement that is made in A.I., and in the Irish Life, that Columba 
arrived in Scotland on the day before Pentecost. Adamnan's account 
suggests that Columba expected to die on the anniversary of his arrival 
in Britain. It maybe that T. or whoever added the word "Pentecost" 
believed that Columba died on gth June 596, and had found that the loth 
was Whitsunday. 

According to MacCarthy's tables (N and O, in A.U., vol. iv) Irish 
Pentecost would have fallen on the 26th May in 597, the 3rd June in 596. 

The office for Columba is entered under June 9th in the Breviary of 
Aberdeen, i, 3, 102-104. 

Columba's death and Baithine's death are noted in the Martyrology of 
Gorman, p. 112, under June gth. So also in the Brussels Martyrology of 
Tallaght, Kelly, p. xxvi ; and in the Calendar in the Karlsruhe Bede 
(Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, ii, 283). 

Cf. Oengus, under June gth (1905 ed., I3g ; tr. Stokes): — "May they 
convoy us to the eternal Kingdom, wherein is ever a lucid light, Baethine 
high, angelical, Colomb Cille the lustrous ! " (The last word, caindleck, 
may have reference to the miraculous lights spoken of by Adamnan.) 

Adamnan too (II, 45) says that Columba's day was Baithine's day also. 

103 



104 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Cf. the Chronological tract in the Lebar Brecc, above, p. 26. ^ 

Gilla-Coemain, chronological verses, in Stokes's Tripartite Life, ii, 536 : 
"... the battle of Cuil-Conaire ; in that year, verses tell, [was] the death 
of Diarmait, Cerball's son. Thirty years [and] three years (it is just to 
proceed from that) to the death of Fedlimid's son [Columba] in lona, and 
to Gregory's decease." The battle of Cuil-Conaire is placed in 549 = 550 
by A.U. ; in A.I., under O'Conor's year 543 = 548. Diarmait lived several 
years longer. Gregory died in 604. Gilla-Coemain (u.s., 536-538) reckons 
41 years from Columba's death to the battle of Moira ; see below, year 639. 
A.B., 5 (O'Conor's year 568), place Columba's death 5 years before 
Gregory's, in 604. 

The Martyrology of Donegal, 152, puts Columba's death in 599. 

Columba's death is placed by T. 3 years, by C.S. 4 years, by A.U. 4 or 
10 years, after the eclipse of 592 ; by A.I. 3 years, by A.U. 3 or 9 years, 
after the eclipse of 594. 

A.C. notes his death s.a. [595] ; in the same year as the death of 
"king Dunaut" (the son of Pappo, son of Ceneu, son of Coil Hen). 
Y Cymmrodor, ix, 156, 174. 

Version G of the Chronicles of the Picts (P. & S., 286) places Columba's 
death in 592, in the time of Brude Maelchon's son (erroneously). Fordun 
(111, 31) places it in 600. 

Marianus Scottus, M.G.H., Scriptores, v, 546, in an insertion s.a. 
620=598 (and the i6th of Mauricius) : " Columbanus died." 

Columba's death is entered under 596 by Herimannus Augiensis, 
M.G.H., Scriptores, v, 90 (in the same year he records the mission of 
Augustine ; and says that "a comet and many signs appeared in the sky" : 
cf. Paulus Diaconus, IV, 10 ; M.G.H., Scriptores Rerum Langobardicarum, 
ii, 120) ; and by Bernoldus, M.G.H., Scriptores, v, 414. It is placed under 
597 by Alberic ; ibid., xxiii, 694 ; and under 598 by Sigebert, ibid., vi, 320. 
Sigebert misrepresents Bede's words with characteristic inaccuracy, and 
says that Columba " with rustic simplicity neither learned nor taught that 
Easter should be celebrated on Sunday." 

Columba's birth is placed upon December 7th (see year 521), and he is 
stated to have come to Scotland in his 42nd year. If we denote the 
number of his birth-year by n, he came to Scotland between the year n + 41, 
December, and the year «-t-42, December; and his death, in the begin- 
ning of the 35th year of his pilgrimage, must have been between n + y^, 
December, and n + yy, December. And since his death took place upon 
the 9th of June, it must have been either in June, n+y6 (in agreement 
with A.U., which say that he died in his 76th year), or in June, n + yy 
(in agreement with T., C.S., and A.B., where they say that he died in his 
77th year). Allowing for the tendency to round up the ages of saints, we 
are led rather to accept A.U.'s year of his age : so that if he died in 
597 we should place his birth in 521 and his arrival in Scotland in 563. 

Adamnan says that Columba passed 34 years in lona, and died at the 
end of his 34th year in Britain : that is to say, Adamnan places Columba's 
arrival in 563 and his death in 597. Bede places Columba's arrival 
definitely in 565, and his death about 597. 



YEARS OF COLUMBA'S MISSION 105 

" Columba was three years without light in his dark church ; 
he went to the angels out of his bondage after seven and 
seventy years." ^ 

For the so-called Rule of Columcille, see Zeitschr. f. celt. PhiloL, iii, 28- 
30 (ed. K. Meyer, from Rawlinson B 512) ; Acts of Archb. Cotton, 108-112 
(Ir. Archaeol. Soc, 1850 ; ed. W. Reeves, from O'Clery's MS.) ; H. & S., ii, 
iig-i2i; and a tr. by E. O'Curry, in S.C.S., ii, 508-509. Cf Reeves, 
Adamnan, 336-339. The practices of Columban monks are to be sought 
rather in other Irish Rules, comparing the Rule of Columbanus. They 
were derived from the monastic customs of the western church, under the 
influence of southern Gaul, which was in turn influenced by the eastern 
church ; and they were partly based upon pre-Benedictine writings, 
notably of Cassianus. They were revived by the celide, and may be 
studied in the Tallaght rules. See below, vol. ii, p. 73. 

^ The whole passage appears similarly in C.S., 64, under f.n. 4 =593, 
Hennessy's year 595. 

The passage in inverted commas is a stanza of verse in the original. 
The "dark church" {dubrecles) intended is the Dubrecles at Derry ; this 
account contradicts the trustworthy account of Adamnan. This stanza is 
taken from the Preface to the Amra ; in Liber Hymnorum, i, 165 : but the 
reading there is " after six and seventy years," which is probably correct. 
F.M. quote it from T. 

Amra Coluimchille, Liber Hymnorum, i, 172: "His burial-place is 
known ; his wisdom is known. (Le., the place where he is buried is 
known ; namely, lona, or Down[patrick], as others say. Or, he was 
known as far as Rome, and his wisdom was known.)" 

Cf a verse in the Preface to the Amra, L.H., i, 165 : "With its great 
number of relics, lona, of which Columba was the dear foster-son ; 
[Columba] departed from it at the last, and the chapel of his old age 
\a slun-nemed] is Down[patrick]." Cf Berchan, above, year 563, p. 47. 

Irish Life of Columba, Stokes's Three Homilies, 124 : " His body is here 
on earth, in honour and respect from God and man ; with miracles and 
wonders every day. . . ." Similarly in the Book of Lismore, Stokes's 
Lismore Lives, 33. 

The relics of Columba were removed in 849 from lona, part to 
Ireland, part to Dunkeld. 

A.U., i, 74-76, s.a. 594 = 595 (with fn. and e. of 595): "The repose of 
Columcille on the fifth day before the Ides of June, in the 76th year of his 
age." Also i, 78, s.a. 600 = 601 (with fn. and e. of 601) : "Otherwise, in 
this year [was] the repose of Columcille, on a Sunday night." 

A.I., 9, under O'Conor's year 589 = 597 (2 years before 599): "The 
repose of Columcille on Sunday night, the fifth before the Ides of June, 
in the 35th year of his pilgrimage, aged 76 [years]." (For aetatis in 
O'Conor's text, the MS. has aetate.) 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 91-92, s.a. 590: "St Columcille died on 
Whitsunday eve, the 5th of the Ides of June, in the island of lona, in the 



106 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

35th year of his pilgrimage in Scotland, and his banishment [s. 1.] thither ; 
and in the 77th year of his age, as he was saying his prayers in the 
church of that isle, with all his monks about him ; and was interred in 
the place where the abbey of Down is (before the abbey was founded by 
Sir John Courcy), where St Patrick and St Bridget were buried 
before. . . ." 

F.M., i, 214-216, s.a. 592 (and the " 25th year of Aed " Ainmire's son as 
sovereign of Ireland) : " Columcille, Fedlimid's son, (the apostle of 
Scotland, and head of religion in the greater part of Ireland and of 
Scotland, after Patrick) died in his own church in lona in Scotland, after 
[completing] the 35th year of his pilgrimage, on Sunday night, the 9th 
day of June. ']^ years was his whole age, when he sent his spirit to 
heaven ; as it is said in the verse : ' Columba . . . years ' [as in T.]. 

" Dalian Forgaill said this of the death of Columcille : ' The physician's 
cure without physic'" (? les j "without an ale-bag," Atkinson), " 'removal 
of marrow from marrow ' " {is dedhail smera re snmais : " like the separation 
of marrow from the bone" O'Donovan), " 'a song to the harp without the 
f/w'" (probably some necessary part of the harp), "'[so are] we, without 
our noble organ'" (? see below). For the meaning of ce'is cf. L.H., i, 
165 ; ii, 57. 

Cf the Amra Coluimchille, L.H., i, 170 : — " It is a harp without a ceisj 
it is a church without an abbot. (I.e., ceis was' the name of a little harp 
accompanying the great harp when it was played ; or a name for a pulley 
\tharraing\ over which is the cord \leiihriii\ ; or it is a name for the small 
peg ; or it is a name for the bass-strings, or the heavy string, which is 
better, as the poet said.)" 

This is continued in the preface, ibid., i, 167: "A physician's cure 
without physic, seeking marrow where none is, \is cuinchid smera cen 
smuaisj " without a bone " Atkinson] so is our existence, in the absence 
of our noble organ " \d'eis ar n-organ huais ; Atkinson's translation]. 

Cf. the Amra, ibid., i, 169 (from Atkinson's translation, ibid., ii, 62-63) : 
" No (more) is our sage the profit of (our) soul, for (he hath gone) from us 
to a fair land. . . . He who preserves alive has died. . . . For he hath 
died to us, who was destined to secure our forgiveness. . . . For he hath 
died to us, who was a messenger to our Lord. . . . For now we have no 
more a sage who should avert terrors from us. . . . For we have no king, 
who shall explain word-truth. For (we have) no teacher who used to 
teach tribes of Toi. . . ." 

Amra Coluimchille, L.H., i, 176: " It was abstemiousness" {h-anmni; 
Atkinson) "of which he died. (I.e. ... he died of paucity of drink, for 
he did not consume ale or food in the year of his death except on 
Saturday and on Sunday)." Cf. the story of his having died of hunger 
from living upon nettle-broth, in the notes upon Oengus (1880 ed., c-ci ; 
1905 ed., 147). But cf. the Tallaght Discourse, 161. 

Notker Balbulus, Martyrologium, June 9th; P.L. 131, iioi : "In 
Scotia, the island of Hibernia, the death \depositio\ of St Columba, 
surnamed among his own people Columbkilli, because he was the 



COLUMBA FORESEES HIS DEATH 107 

597 

Adamnan, Life of Oolumba, book III, c. 23 ^ 

Of the passing to the Lord of our holy patron Columba. 

As the end of the four years above-mentioned^ approached, 
after whose completion the truthful seer long in advance 
foreknew that the end of his present life would be, he went, 
drawn in a cart, since he was an old man wearied with age, to 
visit the brethren at work,^ on a certain day in the month of 
May, as we have written in the preceding second book.* And 
to those that were labouring in the western part of the island 
of lona he began that day to speak thus, saying : " In the 
celebration of Easter lately past, in the month of April ^ I 
desired with desire to depart to Christ the Lord, even as he 
would have granted to me, had I chosen. But lest the festival 
of joy should have been turned for you to sorrow, I have 

establisher, founder, and ruler, of many cells, that is, monasteries or 
churches : with the result that the abbot of the monastery that he ruled 
last, and where he rests, is contrary to ecclesiastical custom held to be 
the primate of all the bishops of Ireland; and not unjustly, because 
through the in-dwelling of the holy spirit this saint seems second to none, 
after the apostles and the excellent Martin, in doctrine, in prophecy, and 
in the performance of miracles : and in the visitation of angels." Notker 
proceeds to tell stories about Columba, taking them from Adamnan 
(ibid., 1101-1103). 

^ Reeves's ed., 228-235, 239 ; Skene's ed., 210-214, 216, 217. Somewhat 
more briefly in the Life attributed to Cummine, cc. 17-23 ; Pinkerton's 
Vitae, 38-42. Cf. also the Salamanca MS. ; Smedt and De Backer's Acta, 
862-865. 

^ I.e. after the thirtieth anniversary of his arrival in Britain, upon 
which day he had prayed that he might die ; but four years were added 
to his life, in response to the prayers of the churches. Adamnan, III, 22 
(Skene, 209-210) ; Cummine, XVI, Pinkerton, 37-38. Cf the Life in the 
Salamanca MS., 860-862. 

^ operarios fraires, the workers in the fields. In Adamnan, II, 28 
(Skene, 171) : "to visit brethren who were working at wood-cutting" 
{opus materiale exercebant ; see above, p. 27) " in the little western plain 
of the island of lona." Cf also the agricultural workers mentioned by 
Adamnan in Clonmacnoise : Vita Columbae, I, 3 ; Reeves, 24, and note. 

* Adamnan, 11, 28. See below, in note. 

^ According to MacCarthy's tables (N and O, A.U., iv) the Celtic Easter 
was 7th April in 597, a week before Roman Easter. In 596 also it was in 
April, on the 15th. 



108 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

preferred to postpone a little longer ^ the day of my departure 
from the world." 

Hearing him speak these sad words his friends the monks 
became very sorrowful ; and he began to cheer them in so far 
as he could by consolatory words. After concluding, while he 
was sitting in his waggon he turned his face to the east, and 
blessed the island with those that dwelt in it ; and from that 
day, as has been written in the book mentioned above, even to 
the present time the venom of three-forked tongues of snakes 
has been powerless to hurt either men or cattle.^ After 
pronouncing this benediction the saint drove back to his 
monastery.^ 

Then after a few days, while the celebration of mass was 
held upon the Lord's day, according to custom, he raised his 
eyes, and the venerable man's face appeared to be suffused 
with a glowing flush ; because, as it is written, the countenance 
glows when the heart is glad.* For he alone in that hour saw 
an angel of the Lord flying above, within the walls of the 
chapel ; and because the dear and pleasant sight of holy angels 
causes joy and exultation in the hearts of the elect, this was 
the cause of that sudden gladness caused to the holy man. 
And when those that were present there inquired concerning 
the cause of his inspired gladness, the saint, looking upwards, 

' In the Irish Life in Lebar Brecc, Stokes's Three Homilies, 120: 
" But I did not wish you to have sorrow or grief after your labour ; 
therefore I have remained with you, to comfort you, from Easter to 
Pentecost." Similarly in the Book of Lismore ; Stokes, Lismore 
Lives, 32. 

2 Adamnan, II, 28 (Skene, 171): "... He raised both his holy 
hands and blessed the whole of this our island, saying : ' From this 
moment of this hour the poison of all kinds of snakes shall be in no way 
able to hurt either men or cattle in the lands of this island, so long as the 
inhabitants dwelling in it keep Christ's commands.'" 

Cummine's Life, u.s. "... and from that day no serpent has harmed 
[there] man or beast." 

In the Irish Life, Stokes's Three Homilies, 120: "Thereupon he 
turned his face to the west [siar], and blessed the ... of the island, with 
its inhabitants. And he banished from it toads and snakes." Cf the 
Book of Lismore ; Stokes, Lismore Lives, 32. 

Cf the Life in the Salamanca MS., Smedt and De Backer's Acta, 862. 

^ da redes in the Irish Life. 

■■ Cf. Proverbs, XV, 13. 



COLUMBA BLESSES lONA 109 

gave them this reply : " Wonderful and incomparable is the 
cunning of angelic nature; for behold, an angel of the Lord, 
sent to seek again some deposit ^ dear to God, looking down 
upon us from within the church and blessing us, has returned 
again through the roof of the church, leaving no trace of such 
exit." 

Thus [spoke] the saint. But none of the by-standers could 
understand the nature of the deposit that the angel was sent 
to seek. But our holy patron called his own soul, entrusted to 
him by God, a holy deposit. And it passed to the Lord on 
the next Lord's night, as shall be related below, after an 
interval of six successive days. 

At the end of the same week, therefore, that is on the 
Saturday,^ the venerable man himself and his faithful attendant 
Diarmait went to bless the nearest barn. And after entering 
it and blessing it and two separated heaps of corn in it, the 
saint pronounced these words with his rendering of thanks, 
saying, " I much congratulate my friends the monks, that this 
year, even if I must depart anywhere from you, you will have 
a sufficient year's supply." ^ 

Hearing these words, Diarmait his attendant began to be 
sorrowful, and spoke thus : — " Thou saddenest us very often, 
father, this year, because thou remindest us frequently of thy 
departure."* 

And the saint gave him this answer : " I have some little 
secret speech which, if thou promise me truly to disclose it to 
none before my death, I may communicate to thee somewhat 
more clearly, concerning my departure." And when the 

1 See 2 Timothy, I, 12 ; and cf. Bernard's Vita Malachiae, s.f. 

2 Literally " on the day of the Sabbath." 

^ The blessing of the barn is not in Cummine. 

* Within the same year, the priest St Columbanus had left lona, and 
Columba had foretold that they should not meet again. , This was apparently 
Colman Mocu-Sailni, Beogna's son. Both in his voyage from Ireland, and 
on his return, he was helped by Columba in weather (Adamnan, I, 5 ; II, 15). 
He is identified with the Colmanele to whom some Scottish churches were 
dedicated (Colman Elo, of Land-Elo, in Meath (Lynally, King's co.) ; born 
October 3rd; died in his 56th year (T. ; C.S., Hennessey's year 611); 
t6ii (A.U.), September 26th; see 1905 Oengus, 136, 196, 212, 214, 220). 
Mocholmoc of Lismore (Colman Maccu-Beognai, t January 22nd ; 1905 
Oengus, 37, 50, 409) was presumably his relative. 



no EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

attendant bending his knees had concluded such a promise as 
the saint wished, the venerable man proceeded to speak : " In 
holy books, this day is called Sabbath, which means rest : and 
truly this day is Sabbath to me, because it is my last day of 
this present laborious life, and I hold Sabbath in it after my 
painful labours ; and in the middle of this following venerated 
night of the Lord I shall, in the language of the Scriptures, go 
the way of the fathers. For already my Lord Jesus Christ 
deigns to invite me ; and at his invitation, in the middle of 
this night, I say, I shall pass to him. For so it has been 
revealed to me by the Lord himself." 

Hearing these sad words, his attendant began to weep 
bitterly. And the saint endeavoured as best he could to 
console him.^ 

After this the saint left the barn ; and returning toward 
the monastery he sat down mid-way, in a place where after- 
wards a cross, fixed into a mill-stone and still standing, is seen 
at the side of the road. And while the saint rested there, 
sitting for a little while, wearied with age, as I have said above, 
behold a white horse met him, the obedient drudge that had 
been accustomed to carry the milk-vessels between the byre 
and the monastery^; and coming to the saint, strange to say 
placed its head in his bosom (being inspired as I believe by 

' The Life attributed to Cummine, XIX, in Pinkerton's Vitae, 39-40 : 
" He reveals to Diarmait the day of his death. 

" In the end of the same week, that is, on Saturday, the holy man 
called his servant Diarmait secretly, and thus addressed him : ' In holy 
books this day is called the Sabbath, which means rest. And for me this 
day is Sabbath indeed, because it is the last day of my life ; and in it 
I keep Sabbath, after my painful labours ; and in this Lord's night 
following I shall go the way of the fathers. For already Christ invites 
me : and so it has been revealed to me by him.' 

"The attendant was grieved by this ; but the father consoled him." 

The Irish Life reads (Stokes, Three Homilies, 122): "And not long 
afterwards came the close of the Sabbath and the beginning of the 
Sunday. . . . After that, he went to bless the barn. And he said to his 
servant, Diarmait, that he should depart to heaven in the night of 
Sunday." Similarly in the Book of Lismore ; Stokes, Lismore Lives, 32. 

2 Adamnan's anecdote (II, 16; Skene, 162-163) of the expulsion of 
a demon from a milk-pail, implies that the milk was carried by human 
hands, and that monastic milk-cans were signed with the cross as part of 
the process of cleaning them. Cf. the Life in the Salamanca MS., Smedt 
and De Backer's Acta, 848-849. 



COLUMBA'S HORSE Ul 

God, by whose will every animal is [made] wise with such 
perception of things as the Creator himself has decreed^) ; and 
knowing that its master was soon to depart from it, and that it 
should see him no more, began to lament, and like a human 
being to pour tears copiously into the saint's lap, and to foam 
much and weep. And seeing this the attendant began to drive 
away the tearful mourner; but the saint forbade him, saying, 
" Permit this our lover to pour the torrents of its bitterest grief 
into my bosom. See thou, man as thou art, and with a rational 
soul, thou couldst know nothing of my death except what I 
myself have recently disclosed to thee; but to this brute and 
irrational beast the Creator has clearly revealed, in whatever 
way he wished, that its master is about to depart from it."^ 

And so speaking he blessed his servant the horse, as it 
turned sadly from him. 

And he departed thence and climbed a little hill above the 
monastery. He stood for a little while upon its summit, and 
standing raised both palms, and blessed his monastery, saying : 
" Upon this place, small and mean though it be, not only kings 
of the Scots with their peoples, but even rulers over strange and 
barbarous nations, with the peoples subject to them, will bestow 
great and especial honour ; especial reverence will be bestowed 
also by the saints even of other churches." ^ 

After these words he descended from the little hill and 
returned to the monastery, and sat in his hut* writing a 

' Cui (read quia f) omne animal rerum sapit sensu quo jusserit ipse 
creator. 

2 Cf. the Irish Life, Stokes's Three Homihes, 122 ; Lismore Lives, 32. 
The incident of the weeping horse is not in Cummine. 

The discovery of a horse's sepulchre in lona, near to the traditional 
site of Columba's cell, was announced by Miss N. F. Layard in a letter 
published in the Scotsman of 30th July, 1906 (cf ibid., August ist and 7th). 
Miss Layard has now withdrawn her suggestion that these remains might 
have been of Columba's horse ; since examination has proved that they are 
a deer's {Scotsman, 5th April 1920). 

2 This stands thus in Cummine, XIX ; Pinkerton, Vitae, 40 : " So then 
the holy man of God went out and climbed the hill above the monastery, 
and stood for a little while upon its summit ; and raising his hands he 
blessed his monastery ; and, concerning present and future [times], he 
prophesied many things, which the result afterwards justified." 

* in tugurio (in Cummine, in cella). Elsewhere Adamnan uses the 
diminutive tuguriolum {tegoriolum in MS. A), as in III, 22 (Skene, 209): 



112 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

psalter; and reaching the verse of the thirty-third psalm 
where is written " They that seek the Lord shall not lack any 
good thing," he said : " Here at the end of the page I must 
cease ; let Baithine write what follows." 

The last verse that he had written well befitted the holy 
predecessor, who will never lack eternal good things ; and the 
following verse aptly fitted the father his successor, the teacher 
of spiritual sons : " Come, sons, hear me, I shall teach you the 
fear of the Lord." For, as his predecessor had commanded, he 
succeeded him not only in teaching but in writing also.^ 

" His hut, . . . which was built in a more elevated place." The tuguriolum 
was a place for writing and reading (see Adamnan, I, 25 ; I, 35 ; II, 16 ; 
III, 15). Columba's sleeping-place is called hospitiolum and hospitium 
below (cf. also III, 2). The tuguriolum was erected upon a planked floor 
{in tuguriolo tabulis sujfulto, I, 25 : "in his cell that was raised on 
a platform" Fowler). 

That some of the huts forming the monastery were built of basket-work 
is shown by Adamnan, II, 3 ; above, p. 65. The library was probably 
more solidly built, to keep out rain and rats. 

When Columba, surrounded by miraculous light, was inside a church, 
{domus) in Hinba, the light escaped " by chinks of the doors and by the 
key-holes" (III, 18; cf. Ill, 19, and III, 2i) {per rimulas valvarum et 
claviuni foramina; but clavorum in the text of Cummine). Windows are 
not mentioned. The custom was to read the gospels outside the church, 
and afterwards to enter the church to celebrate mass (III, 17). The 
oldest surviving ("bee-hive") Irish churches have one narrow window, in 
the eastern end ; but the light inside them would usually have been faint. 

' Columba had appointed his pupil Baithine, then prior of Mag-Luinge 
in Tiree, as his successor in the abbacy of lona. Adamnan, I, 2. 

This episode stands thus in the Life attributed to Cummine, XX ; 
Pinkerton's Vitae, p. 40 : 

" The hour of death approaching, he niakes division of a psalm. 

" After this he came down from the hill, and, returning to the monastery, 
sat in his cell, writing a psalter. At last he came to that verse of the 
thirty-third psalm, where it is written : ' But they that seek the Lord shall 
not lack any good thing ' ; and he said : ' Here I think I must stop ; what 
follows Baithine must write.' Indeed the last verse that he had written 
befitted the saint well ; for in truth eternal good things will never be 
lacking to him. And the following verse no less aptly suited his successor, 
the true father of spiritual sons : ' Come, sons, hear me, I shall teach you the 
fear of the Lord.' For, as his predecessor commanded, [Baithine] succeeded 
him not only in writing, but also in the labour of ruling the monastery." 

Cf. also the Life in the Salamanca MS., Smedt and De Backer, 853- 
854 (" on the day before he passed from the habitation of this world"). 



COLUMBA APPOINTS HIS SUCCESSOR 113 

After finishing the writing of this verse above-mentioned at 
the end of the page, the saint entered the church for evening 
mass of the Lord's night; which presently concluded he 
returned to his little dwelling,^ and rested over-night in his 
bed, where in place of bedding he had a bare rock, and for 
pillow a stone which also to-day stands as some kind of 
monument beside his grave.^ Thus resting there he gave his 
last commands to the brethren, his attendant alone for audience, 
saying, " I commit these last words to you, my children, that 
between you you have mutual and not pretended charity, with 
peace ; and if you observe this, after the example of the holy 
fathers, God, the gladdener of the good, will aid you, and I, 
dwelling with him, will intercede for you ; and not only will 
the necessaries of this life be sufficiently provided by him, but 
also the prizes of eternal good things will be assigned, prepared 
for those that uphold what is divine." 

Thus far have been brought the last words, related briefly, 
of the venerable father, as of one passing over from this weary 
pilgrimage to the heavenly country.^ 

After this, his happy last hour gradually approaching, the 
saint was silent. 

Thereafter when the bell that struck at midnight resounded,* 

John's Gospel in the Book of Durrow may have been an autograph of 
Columba, but was more likely a copy of his autograph (cf. Fowler's 
Adamnan, i66). 

At the end (originally) of the Book of Durrow was written the following 
(Reeves, Adamnan, 243, note) : " I beseech thy blessedness, holy priest 
Patrick, that whoever holds in his hand this little book may remember me, 
Columba, the writer, who have written for myself" (^m{\himet) "this gospel 
in the space of twelve days." " Below which " says Reeves, " in a more 
angular, but not later, hand, follows, Ora pro me frater mi Doviinus tecum 
sit." That is "Pray for me, my brother ; the Lord be with thee." These 
last words seem to have been addressed to a living person, not to Patrick. 

' ad hospitiolu7)i. In Cummine hospitiuin, as also in Adamnan below. 
These words mean the hut in which Columba slept, distinct from the hut 
in which he wrote itugicriuni). 

" In the chancel of lona cathedral a stone called Columba's pillow is 
still shown. 

3 This sentence is not in Cummine's Life. 

* "At midnight, when the bell sounded" Cummine's Life. 

In the Irish Life (Stokes's Three Homilies, 124) : " When the bell for 
nocturns had been struck on the night of Pentecost Sunday." Similarly 
in the Book of Lismore ; Stokes's Lismore Lives, 33. 

11 



114 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

he rose quickly and went to the church, and running faster 
than the rest he entered alone, and, kneeling in prayer before 
the altar, lay back. Diarmait the attendant, following more 
slowly, at the same moment saw from afar the whole church 
within filled for the saint with angelic light ; but as he 
approached the door, the same light very quickly vanished: 
but a few others also of the brethren, also at a distance, had 
seen it.^ So Diarmait entered the church, and cried in a 
tearful voice, " Where art thou, father ? " And feeling in the 
darkness, because the lanterns of the brethren had not yet been 
brought, he found the saint lying on his back before the altar ; 
and he raised him a little, and sitting beside him placed the 
holy head in his lap. And meanwhile the company of monks 
running up with lights saw their father dying, and began to 
lament.^ 

And, as we have learned from some who were present 
there,^ before his soul departed the saint opened his eyes, 
and looked about to either side with a countenance of wonder- 
ful joy and gladness, for he saw the holy angels coming to him, 

Then Diarmait raised [Columba's] holy right hand to bless 
the saintly man's choir of monks ; and the venerable father 
himself also, so far as he could, moved his hand at the same 
time, so that he appeared to bless the brethren even by the 
movement of his hand, since in the departure of his soul he 
could not do it in speech. And after the holy benediction 
thus signified he presently breathed out his spirit. 

And after he had left the tabernacle of the body, his face 
remained so glowing, and marvellously made joyous by the 
vision of angels, that it appeared not as of one dead, but as of 
one asleep and living. 

Meanwhile the whole church resounded with sad lamenta- 
tions. . . .* 

1 " But first it had been seen by several of the brethren " Cummine's 
Life. 

2 "The rest of the brethren arrived, and seeing that their father was 
dying they grieved exceedingly for the death of him whom in life they had 
loved" Cummine's Life. 

3 These words imply that Adamnan's source of information was speech, 
not writing. The passage stands more briefly in the Life attributed to 
Cummine ; and these words are absent there. 

* Lugaid Tailchan's son in Cloni-finchoil in Ireland had a vision of 



DEATH AND BURIAL OF COLUMBA 115 

Meanwhile after the departure of the holy soul, when 
morning hymns had been concluded ^ the sacred body was 
carried back with tuneful psalmody of the brethren from the 
church to the dwelling ^ whence he had come a little while 
before, alive ; and reverent obsequies were properly conducted 
with honour for three days and as man}^ nights. When this 
period was over, passed in savoury praises of God, the 
venerable body of the holy and blessed patron was wrapped 
in clean linen cloths and placed in the coffin ^ prepared, and 
buried with due reverence, to rise again in bright and eternal 
glory. . . .* 

angels coming to Zona for Columba's soul. He told it to Fergna ( Virgnous) : 
" In the same days Fergna rowed over from Ireland [^Scotia], and passing 
the remaining days of his life in the island of Hinba he very often related 
to the monks of St Columba this vision of angels, as it has been described 
above ; and he had undoubtedly learned it from the mouth of the holy 
old man to whom it had been revealed. And after many years passed 
irreproachably in subjection among the brethren, this Fergna completed 
other twelve years in the place of the anchorites in Muirbulcmar, leading 
the life of an anchorite, as a victorious soldier of Christ. 

"We have not only found this aforesaid vision inscribed in writing, but 
have heard it told without any hesitation by some experienced elders, to 
whom Fergna himself had related it." 

Ernene Mocufirroide (buried at Druimm-tomme, i.e. Drumhome, in 
Donegal) in the valley of the Finn in Donegal, and other fishers, saw a 
fiery column in the east at the time of Columba's death ; Adamnan in his 
youth heard it from Ernene himself when he was very old. 

These visions are not in Cummine's Life. 

Amra Coluimchille, L.H., i, 171 : — "His death [was] good; . . . God's 
angels [were present] when he ascended. (I.e., the angels of God of 
heaven met him when he ascended.)" 

The Irish Life makes Diarmait live for seven years after Columba's 
death; Stokes, Three Homilies, ii8: "A violent disease attacked his 
attendant, named Diarmait ; and he died. And [Columba] prayed for him, 
and he awoke out of death. And not this only, but [Columba] asked seven 
years' life for him after himself." To the same effect in the Book of 
Lismore ; Stokes, Lismore Lives, 31. See Adamnan, II, 30. 

Diarmait was doubtless the authority for the tales of Columba in 
connection with which his name is mentioned. 

^ I.e. after the midnight service for which the monks had assembled. 

^ kospiiium. 

^ ratabiista. 

^ During the three days of Columba's obsequies, in accordance with 
his prophecy storm raged and kept all visitors from lona (so also in 
Cummine, XXIV, p. 42). 



116 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Adamnan, Life of Oolumlba, book III, c. 23 ^ 

After the reading of these three books, let each studious 
reader observe of what and how great merit was the holy, 
venerable prelate, oft-times above-mentioned, in what and 
how great honour he was esteemed by God, what and how 
great visitations were vouchsafed to him of angels and 
lights ; how great gift of prophecy he had, what power of 
transcendent miracles; how greatly and how frequently the 
glory of divine light gleamed round him while he still 
dwelt in mortal ilesh : and even after the departure of his 
most gentle soul from the tabernacle of the body, this 
same heavenly brightness ceases not unto this day, nor the 
visitation of holy angels, to frequent the place where his 
holy bones remain, as is held to be proved, being shown to 
certain chosen persons. 

And upon the same man of blessed memory this great 
favour also has been conferred by God, that his name 
has been worthy not only to be proclaimed with renown 
through our whole Ireland,^ and Britain, the greatest of 
the whole circle of all the islands, although he dwelt in 
this small and outermost isle of the Britannic ocean, but 
even to reach as far as triangular Spain and to Gaul, and 
to Italy, beyond the Pennine Alps ; also to the city of 
Rome itself, which is the head of all cities. Among the 
other ^ gifts of God's granting, such and so great honour of 
renown is known to have been bestowed upon the saint by 
God, who loves those that love him, and glorifying more 
and more those that with savoury praises magnify him 
exalts them to unbounded honours : and He is blessed 
through the ages. Amen. 

I beseech all those that may v/ish to copy these books, nay 
rather I conjure them through Christ, the judge of the ages, 
after carefully copying them to compare them with the 
exemplar from which they have written, and to correct them 

1 Reeves's edition, 241-242; Skene's, 217-218. Cf. the first sentence 
of Cummine's chapter XXV, in Pinkerton, Vitae, 43. 

2 Scotiani. 

^ In text ceterae J read cetera, as in MS. B. 



SANCTITY AND FAME OF COLUMBA 117 

with all heed, and also to append this conjuration in this 
place.^ 

^ Here the scribe of MS. A adds ; — "Whoever reads these books of 
the virtues of St Columba, let him pray to the Lord for me, Dorbene, that 
after death I may possess eternal life." (Cf. facsimile in Fowler's edition, 
p. i66). This Dorbene is supposed to have been the abbot of that name, 
who died in 713 (see that year, below). MS. A may have been in Dorbene's 
own writing, and copied directly from Adamnan's. Cf W. M. Lindsay, 
Early Irish Minuscule Script, 2-3 (Oxford, 1910). 



PART V 

Zenith and Decline of Dalriata 

?S97 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. i6o, 
s.a. [592] = S96?i 

The death of Eogan, Gabran's son." 

?ca. 598 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvh', p. 160, 
s.a. [594]'= 598? 

The slaughter of the sons of Aidan, namely Bran and 
Domangart and Eochaid Find and Arthur, in the battle of 
Circhend,* in which Aidan was conquered.^ 

' Placed in the same year-section as the death of Columba, and immedi- 
ately after the notice of that event. 

^ Similarly in A..U., i, 76, s.a. 594 = 595- 

See above, p. "j"], where Eogan's name is given in the diminutive 
form, Eoganan. 

There is uncertainty in the dates of the last decade of the 6th century, 
and first decade of the 7th century. With exception of A. I., the Irish 
annals' dates fall behind at this time ; and it is possible that A.I.'s dates 
are a year ahead of the year intended (as at 613). I imagine that for a 
score of years T.'s and C.S.'s dates (between [588] and [608]) of Scottish 
events at least are 4 years behind the year intended by their source; I 
give the equations, and have with considerable hesitancy arranged events 
of the next ten years under these conjectural dates ; not so much because 
I think them more trustworthy ihan the dates of A.I., as in order to retain 
the sequence of the events as they stand in the Irish annals. 

^ F.n. 6. From the sequence of events and A.I.'s dates, this annal may 
belong to 599. 

■* i cath Chirchind^ although the sentence is constructed in Latin. This 
battle was perhaps fought in the Mearns : the Howe of Mearns was at 
one time called Mag-Circin. Cf below, year 752, and above, p. 96. 
Tigernach has named here too many of Aidan's sons. But if Adamnan 
and A.U. are both right, the battle must have been fought in England. 

5 A.U., i, 76, s.a. 595 = 596 (with fn. and e. of 596) : "The slaughter of 
the sons of Aidan, namely Bran and Domangart." 
lis 



BATTLE OF CIRCHEND. DEATH OF BAITHINE 119 

?6oo 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. i6i ; 
s.a. [596]! = 600? 

The repose of Baithine, abbot of Zona, in the sixty-sixth 
year of his age.^ 

Life of Baithine ; Smedt and De Backer's Acta Sanctorum 
Hiberniae ex Codice Salmanticensi, columns 871-872 

The reverend father abbot Baithine was actively instructed 
from his infancy in the word of God, and in discipline, by the 
most renowned abbot, Columba ; and as he grew in bodily age. 

According to Adamnan (above, p. 96), Arthur and Eochaid Find had 
been killed in the battle with the Miathi, before 597 ; and Domangart was 
killed " in England," probably at Degsastan in 603 (below, and in English 
Chroniclers, 11). Tigernach has therefore added names here incorrectly ; 
and perhaps A.U. have added Domangarl's name incorrectly. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 96, s.a. 590 (after the death of Columba) : 
" The battle of Kirkynn in Scotland was fought, where the sons of king 
Aidan — namely Brian, Domangart, Eochaid Find, and Arthur — were 
slain, and king Aidan himself overcome." 

1 F.n. I. 

- A.U., i, 76, s.a. 597 =598 (with f.n. and e. of 598) : "The repose of 
Baithine, abbot of lona." So also in C.S., 64, s.a. [596] (f n. I ; Hennessy's 
year 598). 

A.I., 9, O'Conor's year 593=601 (2 years after 599): "Baithine 
reposed in Christ, the years of his age being 66 " (for anno in O'Conor's 
text the MS. has annis). 

F.M., i; 220, s.a. 595: "St Baithine, Brendan's son, abbot of lona of 
Columcille, died on the gth of June." 

The Annals of Clonmacnoise, 97, s.a. 590 (a section in which several 
years are run together ; it contains Columba's death) : " St Baithine 
abbot of lona in the 66th year of his age died." 

The Annals from L.L. (R.S. 89, ii, 516) place under one year "the 
repose of Columcille and of Baithine." Baithine's day is said by Adamnan 
to have been the same as Columba's (below, p. 189). Cf. Oengus, above, 
p. 103, note. A.B., 5, place Baithine's death 3 years after Columba's, and 
two years before Gregory's in 604. The Martyrology of Donegal, 164, says 
that Baithine died 4 years after Columba, on June 9th, 600. Possibly 601 
is the true year (as in A.I.). 

T. places Baithine's birth in [534], with f.n. i (R.C., xvii, 135) : "Birth 
of Baithine, Columcille's disciple." So also in C.S., 44, s.a. [536] (fn. 3 ; 
Hennessy's year 535); and the parallel year in A.U. is 535 =536. It is 
entered from T. in the Annals of Clonmacnoise, 78, s.a. 536. No doubt 
the birth was entered 65 years before the death of Baithine. 



120 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

he practised faithfully works so much the more strenuous and 
more perfect. For no one could ever catch him idle ; because 
he passed the [leisure] time allowed him, in reading, or in 
prayer, or in bodily labour, except that he sometimes inter- 
rupted these pursuits to help the necessities of his neighbours. 
When he made a journey or spoke to any one, he raised 
meanwhile his hands beneath his robe, to pray to the Lord 
with active mind. And thus he was so devoted to prayer that 
in taking food, between raising two mouthfuls to his lips, and 
so too between two sips, he repeated that verse well-known 
to holy men : " [Come] O God to my aid ; hasten. Lord, to 
help me." ^ 

And what is more difficult, at harvest-time when he was 
carrying to the stack a sheaf collected in his [one] hand, he 
meanwhile raised the other to the sky, and appealed to the 
Thunderer ; and in his devotion did not remove the midges 
that settled on his face. 

He showed the same diligence also in fulfilling all the 
commands of God, and in so far as the ability of human frailty 
allowed he subdued his flesh, and aroused the inner man with 
spiritual arms against the foe. Yet with all these merits none 
was as anxious to protect earthly treasure as he to hide the 
miracles that God worked through him. And thus so far as 
he could he refused to divulge his miracles, for the sake of 
humility, and to avoid pride.^ 

Life of Baithine; Smedt and De Backer's Acta Sanctorum 
Hiberniae ex Codice Salmanticensi, column 878 

On the third day of the week, while St Baithine was praying 
to the Lord in the church beside the altar, stupor almost of 

' Psalms, LXX, i (in Vulgate, LXIX, 2). 

2 Cf. the testimonium Fintini^filii Lippani, to this effect: "Know that 
none on this side of the Alps is found equal to him in acquaintance with 
the divine scriptures, and in the greatness of his knowledge." Smedt and 
De Backer, 876 ; cf. 876-877. 

Ibid., 877-878: "To this must also be added the testimony of St 
Columba himself concerning him. For he said that his pupil Baithine, 
and John the Evangehst, Christ's pupil, were not dissimilar in purest 
innocence, and in wisest simplicity, and in the discipHne of the severity of 
perfect works ; that nevertheless their teachers were widely different 
in their customs." 



ABBOT BAITHINE. KING GARTNAIT 121 

death fell upon him there. And when the brethren were 
lamenting around him, Diarmait, Columba's attendant, said : 
" Behold, brethren, you see that there will not be a great 
interval between two festivals of our elders." 

As he said this, Baithine awoke as it were out of a deep 
sleep, and said : " If I have found grace in the eyes of God, and 
if I have run to this day a perfect course in his sight, I trust 
in him that I shall not die till the nativity of my predecessor." 
And it occurred thus, after about six days. 

The pang of unendurable pains did not deter him from the 
work of writing and praying and teaching, until the hour in 
which he slept and was added to his fathers. 

This little of the life of St Baithine.^ 

?6oi 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 162 ; 
s.a. [597] ^ = 601 ? 

The death of Gartnait, king of the Picts.^ 

1 This Life from the Salamanca MS. is too late to have much 
authority, but some incidents in it may rest upon early tradition. 

The description here given of Baithine's death implies that he died on 
June 9th, about six days after a Tuesday ; if this were right, June 9th 
would have been about Monday ; but it was Friday in 601. It would have 
been Monday in 598, which was probably the year intended by the 
biographer. 

2 F.n. 2. Under the same year is placed a note "the Saxons came to 
the faith," which probably refers to Augustine's mission of 597. Similarly 
in C.S., 66, s.a. [597] (Hennessy's 599): "The Saxons received the faith " 
("the Catholic faith" in the Annals of Clonmacnoise, 97, s.a. 590). Cf. 
A.U., i, 76, s.a. 597 = 598 (with f.n. and e. of 598): "Augustine came to 
England." But Scottish and Irish events have been entered too early 
in the Irish annals, and probably 601 or 602 is the year of Gartnait's 
death. 

2 Annals of Clonmacnoise, 97, s.a. 590 (after the death of Columba 
[t 597] and the battle of Dunbolg [598], and the kings of [ca. 600-643] ) : 
" Gartnait \Garnat\, king of the Picts, died." 

The Chronicles of the Picts (ABC) give Gartnait a reign of 11 years, 
after the reign of Brude, Maelchon's son. See above, year 584. 

Version D of the Chronicle of the Picts, in Skene's P. & S., 150, says : 
"He built Abernethy." Fordun's version, IV, 12; i, 154 (not in Skene's 
MSS. BE) : "He founded Abernethy." Version F (P. & S., 172) attaches 
this note to Gartnait's successor, Nechtan. Version H (ibid., 201) reads : 
" [Gartnait] built the church of Abernethy, 225 years and 11 months before 



122 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

the church of Dunkeld was built by king Constantine, king of the Picts." 
Versions ABC give a mythical account of the foundation of Abernethy, in 
the reign of Nechtan Mor-brecc, Drust Gurthinmoch's predecessor. See 
above, p. cxxi. 

An insertion in version A of the Chronicle of the Picts (Skene's P. & S., 
6-7) describing the legendary foundation of Abernethy, says : " Thus 
Nechtan the great, Erp's son, king of all the provinces of the Picts, gave 
Abernethy as an offering to St Bridget, to the day of Judgement, along 
with its territories, which extend from the stone in Apurfeirt as far 
as the stone beside Ceirfuill, that is, Lethfoss, and thence upwards as 
far as Athan." See above, p. cxxi. 

The identification of Apurfeirt with the junction of the Farg and the 
Earn, if correct, would require the reading Apurfeirc. Skene wished to 
identify Ceirfuill with Carpow, Athan with Hatton. 

The fabulous Tale of Cano, in the Yellow Book of Lecan, 128-132, says 
that "there was contention for the kingdom of Scotland between Aidan, 
Gabran's son, and Gartnan, son of Aed, son of Gabran ; and in the battles 
and contentions between them, half the men of Scotland fell." According 
to this story, Aidan killed Gartnan, in the crannog of Inis-meic-Uchen, and 
would have killed Cano, Gartnan's son, but that Cano made curachs, and 
escaped with his followers to Ireland. A description of their accoutrements 
is given there, 128 b. (Anecdota from Irish MSS., i, 2. Cf O'Curry, Manners 
and Customs, iii, 164-165.) 

The Tale of Cano is interesting and old, but has no historical value. 

It contains verses in which Cano is called " Cano, Gartnan's son, from 
Skye" {Sci; Anecdota, i, 6 ; cf. 80, 14). The Tale implies that Cano fled 
to Ireland in the reign of Aidan, and after the death of Aed Slaine 
(t6o4 ; A.U.), and that he returned to Scotland in the time of Diarmait, 
son of Aed Slaine (Diarmait became king of Ireland in 643, according to 
A.U.). It is implied that Cano's return was not long after Aidan's death. 
It would seem, from the Tale, that Cano's father was the Gartnait, king cf 
the Picts, who died (ca. 601) in Aidan's reign. Nechtan, Cano's son, 
appears from the annals to have died (?62i) about the same time as king 
Nechtan, Verb's grandson, the successor of Gartnait. 

But this king Gartnait was Domelch's son. It is possible that 
Domelch was his mother's name ; and it is possible that Verb was 
Nechtan's grandmother. Ferb (genitive Feirbe) was an Irish woman's- 
name ; Gartnait's connection with the house of Dalriata might have been 
through her, and not through his father. More probably, the pedigree in the 
Tale is fabulous. 

There are irreconcilable divergencies between the Tale and the Irish 
annals. The annals appear to place Cano's escape, with his brothers, from 
Skye, in 668 ; and his death in 687, his daughter's in 689, and his son's in 
705. These dates, along with the capture of Cano's son in 673, would 
suggest that Cano's father was king Gartnait, Donald's son (t 663). But the 
annals imply rather that Cano's father was Accidan's son (see year ca. 649). 
Even if the annalists had entered these events about 43 years too late (see 



BATTLE OF DEGSASTAN 123 

603 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 163, 
s.a. [599] ' = 603? 

A battle with the Saxons [was fought] by Aidan ; and there 
Eanfrith, ^thelfrith's brother, fell, [slain] by Maelumai, Baetan's 
son ; and there [Aidan] was conquered.^ 

603 

Chronicle of Holyrood, p. 9 

In the year 603, Aidan, king of the Scots who dwelt 
in Britain, came against .(Ethelfrith,^ the king of the 
Northumbrians, with an immense and powerful army; but, 
beaten, he fled away with few. For in a very renowned place 
called Dexastan, that is to say Dexa stone,'' almost all his army 
was slain. And ^thelfrith accomplished this battle in the 
eleventh )-ear of his kingdom, and in the first year^ of Phocas, 
who then occupied the summit of the Roman realm. And the 
aforesaid king ^thelfrith reigned for twenty-four years." 

year 643, note), they would not agree with the statement that Cano fled 
from king Aidan. 

There were at least two Canos ; but the Tale appears to have placed 
the later one more than 60 years too early, in order to make him a 
contemporary of king Aidan, who was a prominent figure in Irish tales. 
In any case the Tale does not affect the authority of the annals. 

See years ca. 574, ?62i, 668, notes. 

' F.n. 5. Other events placed by Tigernach in this year-section .Tppear 
in C.S., 66, s.a. [598], Hennessy's year 600. 

^ A.U., i, 78, s.a. 599 = 600 (with f.n. and e. of 600): "The Saxons' 
battle, in which Aidan was conquered." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 97, s.a. 603 : " The battle between king 
Aidan and the Saxons was fought, where Aidan had the victory, and 
Eanfrith \CanfritJi\, brother of king yEthelfrith, was slain by the hands of 
Maelumai, Baetan's son " {Moyleawa mcBoylan\. 

The death of Maelumai Baetan's son is placed by T. (u.s., 169) s.a. 
[609] (for f.n. 6 read 3 : [609] and [608] are transposed). Cf. A.U., i, 86, 
s.a. 609 = 610. It is placed by C.S., 72, s.a. [608] (f.n. 5, read 2 ; Hennessy's 
year 610). 

3 "Alfred" in MS. 

* Degsastan may have been at the head of Liddesdale, near Dawston 
Burn, within the Catrail ; not far within the present boundary of Scotland. 

5 I.e., 603 A.D. 

^ This passage is derived from Bede's H.E., I, 34 (E.C., 11-12). 

Chronicle of the Picts, version I, in Skene's P. & S., 286: "Aidan, 



124 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

?6o4 

Tigernaoh, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 164; 
s.a. [600] 1 = 604 ? 

The battle of Cuil-coel, in which Fiachna Baetan's son was 
the conqueror. Fiachna Deman's son fled.^ 

Gabran's son — 513 [years] from the Incarnation, when Aidan and ALthel- 
frith [Cad/red] fought a battle in the place that is called Dexastan." For 
dxiii read dciii. 

Herimannus Augiensis, Chronicon ; M.G.H., Scriptores, v, 91, s.a. 604, 
says that " In Britain, ^Ethelfrith, king of the English, conquered Aidan, 
king of the Scots, invading the island" {insulam petentemj Hermann 
regards the Scots as living outside of Britain), " [Aidan's] strong army 
being destroyed in battle." 

Fordun, III, 30 (i, 116) : "And at another time the army of king Aidan 
was conquered while he was present ; namely in the 33rd year of his 
reign. In the nth year after he had conquered Ceawlin, king of the 
Saxons [West Saxons MSS. BCEF], it was at last agreed between [Aidan] 
and the Britons that they should meet at a place fixed upon with faithful 
promises, to attack in both quarters — he on the north, they at the same 
time on the south — the Northumbrian peoples, who were ruled at that 
time by yEthelfrith, a king strong in forces and discreet, who annoyed the 
Britons and the Scots with constant injuries. So the king [Aidan], 
although very old in years, invaded the districts of Northumbria when the 
time appointed came, hoping that [the Britons] on their part would do 
what they had undertaken in the agreement ; and while from day to day 
his army employed its leisure in burning and spoiling, on one of the days 
[of waiting] king jEthelfrith with a massed army came upon the Scots, who 
were scattered in this manner for robbery through the villages and the 
fields ; and conquered them, not without great slaughter of his men. . . ." 
Here follow quotations from Bede. 

For the alleged defeat of Ceawlin by Aidan, see above, p. 97. Fordun 
appears to draw upon his imagination in his account of these affairs. 

1 F.n. 6. 

^ Similarly in C.S., 66, s.a. [600] (Hennessy's year 602). 

A.I., 10, O'Conor's year 597 = 605 (6 years after 599): "The battle of 
Cuil-coel." 605 may be the true date. 

A.U., i, 78, s.a. 601=602 (with f.n. and e. of 602): "The battle of 
Cuil-coel, in which Fiachna Deman's son fled. Fiachna Baetan's son was 
the conqueror." Also under the previous year : " Thus I have found in 
Cuanu's Book : that . . . the battle of Cuil-coel . . . took place in this 
year." 



DEATH OF KING AIDAN 125 

?6o7 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 167, 
s.a. [603] ^ = 607? 

The death of Laisreri, abbot of lona.^ 

?6o8 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 167 ; 
s.a. [604] 8 = 608? 
The death of Aidan, Gabran's son, in the thirty-seventh* 
year of his reign, and the seventy-fourth of his age.^ 

' F.n. 3. Perhaps the true year is 608 (as in A. I.). 

At the beginning of the same year-section is noted (ibid., 166) : " Phocas 
reigned for eight years." This is taken through Bede (M.G.H., Auctores, 
xiii, 309, with date 4565) from Isidore (ibid., xi, 478). In Tigernach's 
previous year-section (R.C. xvii, 165, with f.n. 5, for which read 2, i.e. [602]), 
with marginal date 4566 : " Mauricius died." Mauricius was emperor 
from 582 to 602, Phocas from 602 to 610. 

- Similarly in C.S., 70, s.a. [603] (Hennessy's year 605) ; and in A.U., 
i, 82, s.a. 604 = 605. A. I., 10, under O'Conor's year 600 = 608 (g years after 
599): "Repose of Laisren." F.M., i, 228, s.a. 601 : "St Laisren, abbot of 
lona of Columcille, died on the i6th of September." 

Oengus places his death on September i6th : "In lona, Laisren the 
happy" (with the note "Laisren, abbot of lona of Columcille" in Lebar 
Brecc, 1880 Oengus p. cxlvi ; in other versions, 1905 Oengus, 208). Laisren 
is commemorated under September i6th in the Martyrology of Gorman 
(178), and the Martyrology of Donegal (248). The latter says : "He was 
of the kindred of Conall Gulban, Niall's son." 

' With f.n. 4. Under the same year Tigernach reads : " In the 2nd 
year of Phocas, pope Gregory departed to the Lord " ; A.U. add, " accord- 
ing to Bede." This is derived from Bede's Chronicle (M.G.H., Auctores, 
xiii, 309) ; Bede uses the Liber Pontificalis (M.G.H., Gesta Pontificum, 
i, 164). Events of various years are entered by Tigernach in the next 
year-section, from Bede (u.s., 310), who takes them from the Liber Ponti- 
ficalis and Isidore. Gregory I died A.D. 604. 

* For "37th" in T. and C.S. we should probably read "34111," {xxxiiii 
for xxxuii) as in the Annals of Clonmacnoise. The Chronicles of Dalriata 
give Aidan a reign of 34 years. If he reigned 33x34 years after 574, he 
would have died 607 x 608. 

^ C.S., 71, s.a. [604] (f.n. 4 ; Hennessy's year 606) : " The death of Aidan, 
Gabran's son, in the 37th year of his reign, and the 88th, or 86th, of his age." 

A.U., i, 84, s.a. 605=606 : "The death of Aidan, son of Gabran, (son 
of Domangart, king of Scotland)." The words mic DoniMigairt righ Alban 
are placed within brackets by Hennessy ; presumably he means that they 
are a later addition to the MS. A.U. call Aidan's son, Eochaid Buide, 
" king of the Picts " at the time of his death ; see year ? 630. 



126 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. 6ii 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 169, s.a. [608] ^ 
Neman, abbot of Lismore, rested.^ 

ca. 612 

Annales Cambriae, in Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 156; 
s.a. [612/613]^ 

The death of Conthigirnus.* 

A. I., 10, O'Conor's year 601 =6og (10 years after 599): "The death of 
Aidan, Gabran's son." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 98, s.a. 604 : " King Aidan of Scotland died in 
the 34th year of his reign, and in the 78th year of his age. . . . 

" The end of the Chronicles of Eusebius" (i.e., of Isidore ; 615). 

The Annals of Boyle, 5, (O'Conor's year 580) place Aidan's death 7 
years after Gregory's, which they date A.M. 58o5 = A.D. 604; borrowing 
events but not the date from Bede. 

Annales Cambriae, Y Cymmrodor, ix, 156, s.a. [607] (3 years after the 
" i6oth year" after 444) : "Aidan, Gabran's son, died." (The word "Aidan" 
is not in MS. C ; ed Ab Ithel, 6). 

Sigebert of Gemblours (M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 322, s.a. 615) confuses 
Aidan's death with the battle of Degsastan [603] and the battle of 
Chester [613]. 

Fland (above, p. cxliv.) seems to place Aidan's death in 606. 

The Duan Albanach, P. & S., 60, says: "Twenty-four years yonder" 
(i.e., in Argyle) " Aidan, of many eulogies, was king " (ntz n-iol-rann, literally 
"of the many verses"; or perhaps, as Skene translates it, "of many 
divisions." Yor ficheat " twenty-" read trichat " thirty- " ?). 

Fordun (III, 31) says that Aidan died in the second year after the 
battle of Degsastan, and was buried at Kilkerran. 

A late account appears in the Life of Berach, of Aidan's being con- 
sulted as arbitrator in an Irish difference ; Plummer, Vitae Sanctorum 
Hiberniae, i, 80-81. 

The "History of Aidan, Gabran's son" was the subject of an Irish 
literary composition ; L.L., 189 c. Cf. Zeitschrift fiir celtische Philologie, 
ii, 134-135. He is a figure in Welsh literature also. Cf. the Gododin of 
Aneurin, LXI (ed. Stephens, 284). A fabulous Welsh pedigree is given 
in Skene's F.A.B.W., ii, 454. Cf. the Welsh Triads, in M.A., 397, 401 ; 
F.A.B.W., ii, 460 ; Loth's Mabinogion, ii, triads 48, 113. 

The name of "Aidan, Garban's son" is entered under April 17th in 
the Martyrology of Tallaght (L.L., 359 a). 

' F-n- 2. - Cf. below, year 637. 

^ Placed 2 years before the " 170th year" after 444 ; but 9 years after 
the " 1 60th year." 

* This appears to have been Kentigern, the patron saint of Glasgow. 
His festival is January 13th. 



ST THANEA AND ST SERF 127 

According to the Anonymous Life of Kentigern (I) : "King Leudonus, 
a man semi-pagan, from whom the province that he ruled, Lothian, in 
northern Britain, got its name, had a daughter ruled by a step-mother 
\_novercaiani\ ; and her name was Thaney." She is called Thenew in the 
Aberdeen Breviary, Taneu in Joceline. 

Leudonus appears to be the same person as Geoffrey of Monmouth's 
Lot; Historia Regum Britanniae, IX, 9 (Giles, 165-166): "There were 
there [i.e. at York] three brothers born of royal stock ; Lot, and Urianus, 
and also Auguselus. These had held the principate of those regions, 
before the Saxons had prevailed [over them]. So wishing to present these 
like the rest with their paternal rights, [Arthur] restored to Auguselus the 
royal authority over the Scots ; and he honoured [Auguselus'] brother 
Urianus with the sceptre of the Moravians ; and he restored to the con- 
sulate of Lothian and its sister provinces \Londonesiae ceteraruviqtte coin- 
provinciarujii], which pertained to him, Lot, who had married [Arthur's] 
sister in the time of Aurelius Ambrosias, and had had by her Walgannus 
and Modredius. Finally after restoring the state of the whole country to 
its former dignity, he married a wife, Guanhumara. . . ." See Fordun, 
Chronica, III, 24, 25. Notwithstanding the difference in names, the 
anonymous Life has been influenced here by Geoffrey's History. 

The anonymous Life says that this Thanea was a Christian, and wished 
and prayed that she might emulate the virginity and motherhood of Mary. 
She rejected a suitor whom her father favoured : " For her suitor was a 
certain most elegant youth, Ewen, the son of Erwegende, sprung from the 
most noble blood of the Britons. . . . Ewen is called the son of king 
Ulien in the Gesta Historiarum." (He is called "Ewen Eufurenn, king of 
Cumbria," in the Aberdeen Breviary, i, 3, 28.) Rather than marry, she 
chose to be the slave of a swineherd, who "gave all the honour he could to 
the girl, because he was chaste, and secretly a Christian ; and indeed, in 
the fields and house he taught her with diligence daily in the things that 
he had learned from his Christian teachers. He had received teaching in 
the Christian law in Scotland, from St Serf, a sacred teacher of the faith. 

" This Serf [Servanus] had been a disciple of the venerable Palladius, 
the first bishop of the Scots, in the original church of the Scots. [Palladius] 
was sent by pope Celestine to the Scots who believed, as their first bishop, 
in the year of the Lord's Incarnation 430. He found the blessed Serf in 
Scotland [A/danid] before him, a Christian man: and afterwards he 
initiated him sufficiently in church doctrine, and made him his suffragan, 
to teach those whom he could not." (This paragraph is quoted by 
Fordun, III, 9 (i, 94), in nearly the same words.) The Life falsely imagines 
that the Scotia to which Palladius was sent was Scotland, instead of 
Ireland. 

Cf the Book of Lecan, fo. 43 bb : "And [Serf] is the ancient elder that 
possesses [as patron] Culross in Strathearn in the Comgellaig, between 
the Ochil Hills and the Firth of Forth " (acus ise sin in sruiih senoir congeb 
Cuilendros hi sraith Hirend hi Comgellgaib itir sliab n-Ochel acus muir 
n-Giudan; Reeves, Culdees, 124, note). Cf B.B., 214. These MSS. say 



128 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

that Serf was the son of Proc, king of Canand (Canandan, in B.B.) of Egypt ; 
and Alma (Alma, in B.B.), daughter of a king of the Cruithni. A fabulous 
Life of the saint says that he was a son of Obeth, son of Elind, king in 
Canaan ; and of Alpia, daughter of a king of Arabia (Reeves, u.s.). The 
Comgellaig [hostage-lands?] of Strathearn are apparently the district in 
which Culross stands, now an isolated part of Perthshire. 

Reeves compares the Latin Life of Serf (ibid.) : " Thy followers shall 
inhabit the land of Fife, and from the mountains of the Britons to the 
mountains that are called Ochil" {Habitent terrain Fif, et a monte Britann- 
orum ad monieni qui dicitur Okhelj P. & S., 416). The "mountain of the 
Britons" may have meant Dumbarton. 

For St Serf, cf. the Breviary of Aberdeen, ii, 3, 15. See the pleasant 
description of St Serf and his tame robin, in Joceline's Life of Kentigern, 
V ; Historians of Scotland, v, 170, 42. 

The anonymous Life goes on to say (II) that Ewen persevered in his 
attentions. He dressed himself as a woman, and ravished the girl. 

(III) "When the king her father learned that she was pregnant 
and that she invoked the name of Christ, he ordered her to be crushed 
with stones \lapidibus obrui\ according to the law of his country, as 
a daughter who had acted wantonly and had transgressed her father's 
law. For a decree of their law at that time commanded that every 
woman born of noble parents, if she were caught in fornication, should 
be crushed with blows of stones ; while a serving-maid was to be branded 
in the face with a mark of wickedness, and held in scorn by all." 

(IV) But because each of her executioners was unwilling to be the first 
to be guilty of shedding royal blood, " she was taken to the brow of 
a mountain which is called Kepduf, so that she might be placed in 
a chariot and, hurled down from the summit of [the mountain], might be 
consigned to a dreadful death, while so the executioners \exactores\ seemed 
innocent of her end." She commended herself to St Mary's protection, 
and was unhurt ; the wooden chariot-wheels made ruts in the hard stone. 

(VI) But her escape was attributed to magic art ; " and the king, not to 
appear to place affection for his daughter before the justice of his realm, 
said : ' [To find] if she be worthy of life, let her be given up to Neptune ; 
and let her God deliver her from the danger of death, since he will.' 

" So she was taken to the firth that is about three miles distant from 
the mountain of Kepduf, to the mouth of a river which is called Aberlessic 
— that is, the 'river-mouth of stench,' because there abounded at that time 
so great plenty and quantity of netted fish that it was too much trouble to 
the inhabitants to carry away the multitude of fish cast out of the boats 
upon the shore ; and so much decomposition set in among the fish left 
behind upon the shore of the river's mouth that the sand was cemented 
with the putrescent fluid, and the stench of violent rottenness used to send 
away very quickly many who came there." 

The girl was accompanied by many sympathizing men and women to 
this place. She called to God for judgement upon her persecutors. 

(VII) While the swineherd was being pursued, he threw a thonged javelin 



BIRTH OF KENTIGERN 129 

and killed the king. "And the king's friends set up a great stone in the 
place where he fell, as a mark of his royal rank ; and they placed above it 
a smaller stone, [fitted] by mason's craft {arte cavatorid\ ; it still stands 
there, about one mile distant from the mountain of Dumpelder, on the 
southern side." (I.e., Dunpender or Traprain.) 

"... Meanwhile the mother of a blessed child (who, though still 
unborn, was divinely directing his mother) was put into a coracle \in laubo\ 
that is, a boat made of hides, and towed out into the deep sea beyond the 
island of May. 

" But when the pregnant girl left the estuary of the aforesaid shore, all 
the fish of that margin of the sea accompanied her in procession, as their 
mistress. And after the day of her departure, the take of fish there 
ceased. And the estuary of the described fecundity remains sterile to 
this day, because it received the child unjustly condemned. And the fish 
that followed the woman remain where she was cast adrift. Indeed from 
that time to this day there abounds there so great plenty of fish that from 
every sea-coast very many fishermen, English and Scottish, and also from 
the shores of Belgium and France, come there to fish " {sic lege) ; "and all 
these the island of May receives fitly in its harbours. 

"The mother of the blessed child was left alone in the middle of the 
sea. To God, who made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in 
them ; who guards the truth, and does justice to those that suffer 
injustice, she most devoutly committed her purity of conscience. And 
when morning broke, she came to land safely in Scotland" (i.e. north of 
Forth) " upon the sand of the sea near Culross \Collenross\ which is 
thirty miles distant, according to sailors' reckoning, from the island of 
May. She was suffering greatly from the pangs of child-birth, and 
torturing pain." 

(VIII) Commending herself to God, she found and rekindled a half- 
extinguished fire ; and her child was born. Herdsmen found her, and 
told it to St Serf, who remarked: '■'■A dia, cur fir sin!" ("O God, may 
it be true " ; the only Gaelic speech quoted in this Life.) "... And he 
said, ' Thanks be to God ; for he shall be my [dear] son.' Because at the 
time of the boy's birth, [St Serf] had been in his oratory, praying alone, 
after matin lauds ; and he had heard in the sky Gloria z« excelsis solemnly 
sung. He remembered therefore the joy of the angels and the visit of the 
shepherds at Bethlehem, in the case of the boy Christ and his mother 
Mary ; and he saw that in some sort the birth of the servant was like to the 
Nativity of the Lord ; in the angelic celebration, in the visit of herds, in 
the solitude of the place. Triumphantly with his clerks he raised his 
voice and sang those hymns of praise, Te deum laicdamus, and Gloria in 
excelsis?' The Life ends with a dissertation upon the real chastity of 
Kentigern's birth, which had been the answer to his mother's prayers. 

Joceline's account omits mention of the rape ; he suggests that an 
anaesthetic might have been used. (163 : " It is well known to us that 
many, after taking a draught of oblivion, which the physicians call 
Letargion, have fallen asleep ; and have had incision made in their limbs, 



130 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

and sometimes cauterization, and abrasion in their vitals, without feeling 
anything ; after arousal from sleep they have been ignorant of what had 
been done to them.") He does not name Kentigern's father, but admits 
the virtual fulfilment of Thanea's prayers for a maiden conception. He 
omits also her father's death in answer to her prayer. There is no doubt 
that the anonymous Life follows the older version of the legend, which 
Joceline wished to improve. 

For the remainder of Kentigern's life we have only Joceline's authority. 
According to him, (IV) St Serf b.aptized both mother' and child, "calling 
the mother Taneu and the boy Kyentyern, which is interpreted Chief 
Lord." Kentigern grew up to be so gifted in intelligence and disposition 
that Serf "called him also customarily in his native tongue Mungku, 
which is in Latin Karissimus Amicus''^ (" dearest friend"). "The common 
people have been accustomed to call him by this name very frequently, 
down to the present day, and to invoke him [by it] in their difficulties." 
(This identifies Kentigern with Mungo, patron saint of Glasgow. Perhaps, 
however, Mungo was his original name ; Kentigern, his later name.) 

(V) Kentigern's miracles began with the restoration to life of Serf's 
tame robin. This was followed by many other miracles (VI, VII, VIII, IX). 
(VIII) He left Serf secretly. "Setting out, he came to the Frisian 
Shore ; and there the river named Mallena overflowing its bed because 
the water of the sea was flowing in, removed all hope of gcing across." 
The water parted to let him cross. "Then passing over a little arm of the 
sea by a bridge which is called Serf's Bridge by the inhabitants, he looked 
back to the shore, and saw that the waters, which had before stood up in 
a heap, had advanced again and filled the bed of the Mallena ; they had 
also poured over the bridge named above, and altogether refused a 
passage to anyone." Thus Kentigern was parted from Serf, and they never 
met again. "And the place through which St Kentigern had crossed 
became thenceforth altogether impassable. For the bridge was ever 
afterwards covered by the water of the sea, and gave no one any longer 
the opportunity to cross it ; and the Mallena also changed the direction 
of its course from its own place, and from that day till now turned back 
into the bed of the river Ledo. So indeed the two rivers, which had till 
then been separated, became combined and united." (The river-names 
Mallena and Ledo are fanciful ; see Forbes, ibid., 328. Forbes thinks the 
Forth and Teith are meant ; but probably some stream with tidal estuary 
nearer to Culross is indicated.) 

(IX) Kentigern came on the same day to Carnock {Kernach), and took 
thence the body of an old man (Fergus, who had lived long enough to see 
Kentigern and die in his presence) in a wagon drawn by "two untamed 
bulls," " as far as Cathures, which is now called Glasgow " : and buried 
hrni there, in "a certain cemetery formerly consecrated by St Ninian." 

(X) Here Kentigern took his abode. (XI) " The king and clergy of the 
Cambrian district, with the rest of the Christians— although they were 
very few— ": elected him their bishop. He was consecrated (although only in 
the twenty-fifth year of his age ; XII) by one bishop, "after the custom of 



LIFE OF KENTIGERN 131 

the Britons and the Scots of that time." This bishop was brought from 
Ireland. "[Kentigern] appointed his cathedral see in the village named 
Glesgu, which is interpreted the ' Dear Family ' ; it is now called Glasgow 
[Glasgu\. There too he united to God a very numerous" (reading 
plurimain) "family dear and renowned, of men serving God in continence, 
and living after the manner of the original church under the apostles 
without property, in holy discipline and godly obedience. 

" And the diocese of his episcopate extended to the boundaries of the 
Cambrian kingdom. This kingdom [extended], as did formerly the 
rampart [built] by the emperor Severus, from sea to sea ; afterwards, by 
aid and counsel of the Roman legion — to check invasion by the Picts — 
there was built in the same place a wall, eight feet in breadth, twelve feet 
in height. It reaches to the river Forth [flumen Fordense], and as a 
boundary-line divides Scotland from England." Joceline calls the kingdom 
" the district of Cambria" (but Cambrma in the Dublin MS.). 

Joceline next describes (cf. also XXVI I) the mythical conversion of 
Britain in the time of pope Eleutherius (who was pope for 15 years from 
176, according to Prosper; M.G.H., Auctores, ix, 431). This story passed 
from the Liber Pontificalis (M.G.H., G.P.R., i, 17) to Bede and Nennius 
(M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 288, 164). See Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, 
i, 25-26 ; Forbes, Historians of Scotland, v, 342. 

(XII) Kentigern lived with great austerity, eating only bread with 
milk, cheese, or butter, and pottage [pulme7itun{\ ; and only on one day 
in three or in four. When he relaxed his abstinence upon a journey or 
dining with the king, he made up for it afterwards. (XIII) "He was clad 
in rough horse-hair next his skin, then in a tunic [ifielote] made of goats' 
skins, then in a cowl drawn like a fisherman's ; above this he wore a white 
alb, and always carried a stole, placed upon his head. And [he had] 
a pastoral staff not rounded and covered with gold and jewels as one sees 
now-a-days, but of plain wood, bent only. He had in his hand his 
manual-book, ever ready to perform his office, when necessity or cause 
required. And so in the whiteness of his apparel he expressed the purity of 
his inner mind, and avoided vain-glory." 

(XIV) He slept in a stone, hollowed like a sarcophagus. Rising before 
day he prayed and sang " until the second cock-crowing." Then he stood 
naked in a river, while he repeated the whole of the psalter ; and after this 
"he sat, drying his limbs, upon a stone on the brow of a mountain called 
Gulath, beside the river and near his hut." (This place Skene would 
identify with the Penryn WIeth of Taliessin ; F.A.B.W., i. 276, ii, 404.) 
Kentigern did this in all weathers. Thus he overcame bodily lusts. 

(XV) He weighed his words, but gave all his substance to the poor. 

(XVI) Marvels appeared in his celebration of mass. (XVII) He withdrew 
to desert places during Lent in rigorous fasts, returning before the Lord's 
Supper, afterwards on the Saturday before Palm-Sunday. He celebrated 
these occasions with great zeal, washing the feet of poor men and lepers, 
and fasting from Thursday till after mass on Easter Sunday. 

(XVIII) " St Kentigern is said to have been, in bodily form, of medium 



132 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

stature, but rather approaching to tallness. He is stated to have been 
physically strong, and almost indefatigable in enduring every kind of 
labour, whether in body or in spirit. For he was beautiful in face, and fair 
in form. He had a countenance full of grace and reverence, and with his 
dove-like eyes and turtle-dove cheeks drew the hearts of all beholders to 
affection for him." His cheerfulness was the mark of gentleness and 
spiritual joy. He detested hypocrisy. 

(XIX) He set himself to the work of the bishopric. "The renowned 
warrior began to make war upon the shrines of demons, to throw down 
images, to build churches, to dedicate those he had built ; to mark out 
parishes with fixed boundaries in the cord of distribution ; to ordain 
clergy ; to dissolve incestuous and unlawful marriages ; to change 
concubinage into legitimate wedlock," and to estabhsh ecclesiastical 
usages. He did all this, travelling about on foot. 

(XX) He trained his disciples to the principles of the primitive church ; 
"... possessing nothing of their own, . . . they lived in separate huts, as 
soon as they had grown to age and wisdom, just as St Kentigern dwelt 
himself. And so the separate clergy \singulares clerict\ were called by the 
people Celi-de {Callideiy Cf. Reeves, Culdees, 27. 

He worked at agriculture. Having no oxen, he once employed wild 
stags. One was killed by a wolf; the wolf was yoked with the other to 
the plough. Having no seed, he sowed sea-sand and reaped good wheat. 

(XXI) "A considerable period of time having passed, a tyrant called 
Morgan \_Morken\ had ascended the throne of the Cambrian kingdom." 
This worldly man opposed Kentigern, and refused him the necessary alms ; 
saying that his poverty proved his teaching to be false, and taunting him 
that his God could not transfer the corn from the barns of the king to those 
of the bishop. But the Clyde rose and did transfer the corn. Kentigern 
remonstrated with the king, who accused him of sorcery and kicked him. 
The king's abettor Cadvan [Cathen) fell with his horse and broke his neck ; 
Morgan himself died of gout, which became hereditary in his family. He 
died in a place called Thorp-morgan {Thorp -mor ken ; unidentified). 

Kentigern had a time of peace. (XXIII) But Morgan's relatives still 
hated Kentigern, and conspired to kill him ; and Kentigern escaped to 
bishop David in Menevia. 

On his way, Kentigern visited Carlisle, and erected in the mountains 
a cross, which gave its name to Cross Fell : thence he proceeded by the 
shore. He gained the friendship of the people of Menevia, including their 
" king Catguollaun [Cathwallaij{\, who was the ruler in that district." This 
king granted him the site of a monastery at Llancarvan ; thither he went 
with his disciples, leaving St David. 

(XXIV) Led by a white boar to a spot beside the river Elwy {Elgu), 
they began to build a monastery. The prince of the district interfered, but 
was afflicted with blindness until he repented. .(XXV) Many disciples 
flocked to the monastery. One of them was the boy, St Asaph, who in 
early youth began to perform miracles (cf. Aberdeen Breviary, i, 3, 92). 

(XXVI) Kentig-ern saw the reception of St David in Heaven. (David died 



KENTIGERN, MORGAN, AND GREGORY 133 

in [6oi], according to the Annales Cambriae. He was a grandson of Ceretic, 
Cuneda's son. Cf. Anscombe, Archiv fur celtische Lexicographie, i, 534, 
from a pedigree at the end of De Situ Brecheniauc.) 

XXVII (Historians, V, 209-210) : ". . . Lastly Britain- was vanquished by 
the Angles, who were still pagans, and from whom it was called Anglia ; 
the natives were driven out, and [the land] made subject to idols and 
idolatry. And the natives of the island fled across the sea to Lesser 
Britain, or into Wales. But although fugitives from their own land, they 
yet did not all wholly abandon the faith. 

"And the Picts received the faith first, in great part, through St Ninian ; 
afterwards through saints Kentigern and Columba. And then they fell 
into apostasy, but .were again converted to the faith (as we have said 
already and shall say more fully), or confirmed in the faith, through the 
preaching of St Kentigern — not only the Picts, but the Scots, and innumer- 
able peoples placed in various regions of Britain. 

"And St Augustine, renowned for monastic habit and life; and other 
religious servants of God, came to England, being sent by the blessed chief 
pontiff Gregory. . . . 

" Because, then, Britain had been exhausted by so many troubles, and 
Christianity had been so often beclouded there, or even destroyed, different 
rites had appeared in her at different times, contrary to the standard of the 
holy Roman church and to the decrees of the holy fathers. In order, 
therefore, to have knowledge and ability to face and to remedy all these 
things, the blessed Kentigern left his monastery mentioned above, and 
went to Rome seven times ; and he learned at Rome and brought back 
the reforms that Britain needed. But returning home the seventh time he 
fell ill of a very serious malady, and arrived there with the greatest difficulty. 
" On one occasion he went to Rome while the blessed Gregory ruled 
the apostolic see [590-604], a man in office, authority, doctrine, and life, 
apostolic ; and the special apostle of England, because the English are 
the tokens of his apostolate. . . . 

" The holy pope, excelling in the spirit of counsel and discretion, and 
as it were being filled with the holy Spirit, recognized in [Kentigern] a man 
of God, and one full of the grace of the holy Spirit ; and he confirmed his 
election and consecration, because he knew that both had come from 
God ; and at [Kentigern's] request, many times repeated and with difficulty 
obtained, he supplied what was lacking in his consecration, and sent him 
to the work of the ministry laid upon him by the holy Spirit. After 
receiving apostolic absolution and benediction, the holy bishop Kentigern 
returned home, carrying with him books of canons, and as many other 
books as possible of holy writings ; also privileges, and many relics of 
saints ; and church decorations, and the other things that belong to the 
adornment of the house of the Lord. And he gladdened his disciples with 
his return, and with holy gifts and presents. 

" He passed some considerable time there" (in Llancarvan) " in great 
quiet, and [religious] life. And he ruled with sanctity and vigour, and with 
great solicitude, both the monastery and the episcopate." 



134 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

(XXVIII) He had a gift of insight that detected crime and 
heresy. 

(XXIX) While Kentigern remained in Wales, his enemies in Cumbria 
(the Cambrina regid) perished by various deaths ; and those who had 
returned to idolatry were victims of death and famine. " But when the 
time arrived to have mercy upon them, when the Lord should remove from 
them the rod of his indignation, and when they should turn to the Lord 
and he should heal them, he raised up as king over the Cumbrian kingdom 
\regnum Cambrinuin\ a man called Riderch \Rederec}i\, who had been 
"baptized in the faith in the most Christian manner by the disciples of 
St Patrick in Ireland ; and one that with his whole heart sought after the 
Lord, and endeavoured to restore Christianity. And truly it is a manifest 
indication of divine mercy when the Lord has appointed as rulers and 
kings to the control of the holy church and to the principate of the land, 
men who make just decrees, and who live holily : men who seek their 
people's good, and who judge with justice in the land. . . ." 

(XXX) Riderch, desiring to resuscitate Christianity in his kingdom, 
invited Kentigern to return ; Kentigern was bidden by an angel to go 
back to his church in Glasgow. (XXXI) He therefore enthroned Asaph 
as his successor, and departed, by the north door of the church, taking 
with him to Strathclyde 665 of his disciples. (These all rest " in the 
cemetery of the church" of Glasgow ; XLV.) In memory of this occasion 
the north door of that church (of Llancarvan) was opened only once each 
year, on St Asaph's festival (May ist). "When king Riderch and his 
people heard that Kentigern had arrived from Wales in Cumbria, from 
exile into his own country ; the king with great gladness, and a very great 
crowd with joy and praise, went in procession to meet him. . . ." 
(XXXII) Kentigern exorcised many demons from the crowd. In Hoddam 
{Holdelm) the ground where he had sat down to teach rose into a high 
knoll {monticuhim aliuni). 

" And after the inhabitants of Cumbria had turned to the Lord, and 
been washed in the saving laver, all the elements, which appeared to have 
conspired for their destruction in vengeance for the wrong they had 
done to God, now put on a new face towards them, for the salvation of 
both soul and body. . . ." 

(XXXIII) "And so king Riderch, seeing that the hand of the Lord 
was good to him, and was working with his wishes, was filled with great 
joy ; and he was quick to show openly how great devotion burned within 
him. He divested himself of the royal robes, and, bowing his knees and 
joining his hands, with consent and counsel of his nobles offered homage 
to St Kentigern, and gave up to him dominion and sovereignty over his 
whole kingdom, and wished [Kentigern] to be called king, and himself 
ruler of the country under him ; even as he knew the former emperor, 
Constantine the Great, had done to St Silvester. 

"And so the custom sprang up, [and continued] during the course of 
many years, so long as the Cumbrian kingdom lasted unimpaired, that the 
prince was always subject to the bishop." 



KENTIGERN, RIDERCH, AND CONSTANTINE 135 

Riderch said that St Serf had given Kentigern his name prophetically 
(A'sw, capud I,atine ; tyern Alba7iice, dominiis Laiine, interpretatuf). 

"St Kentigern, as if being made a new Melchizedech, refused not to 
receive what the king so devoutly offered him, to the honour of God ; 
because he foresaw that this too in the future would benefit the church of 
God. 

" He had also a privilege sent him by the chief pontiff, to the effect 
that he was subject to no [other] bishop ; but rather was called to be, and 
was, the lord pope's vicar and chaplain. 

"And the king who had raised the holy bishop in glory and honour got 
from the Lord glory in return for glory, and greater honours and riches." 

The queen {Langaueth, Dublin MS. ; Languoreth, London MS.) after 
long barrenness was blessed with a child, who was named Constantine, 
after the emperor. 

" [Constantine] grew in age and grace, [and became] a boy of excellent 
disposition, beloved of God and men ; and after his father had yielded to 
fate he succeeded him in the kingdom by hereditary right ; and he was 
always subject to the bishop, as was his father. And because the Lord 
was with him he reduced to his own nation, without shedding blood, all 
the neighbouring barbarous races. He excelled all the kings that had 
reigned before him in the kingdom of Cumbria, in riches and glory, in 
dignity and (what is more noble) in sanctity. Hence he was renowned for 
his merits, and used his days for good ; and merited to triumph over the 
world, and so be crowned in heaven with glory and honour ; and to this 
day many are accustomed to call him St Constantine. [Cf year 589, note.] 
" This we have said as in anticipation, because we made mention of 
Constantine's birth at the prayers of St Kentigern, and his baptism and 
education by him. 

"The holy bishop Kentigern built churches in Hoddam, and ordained 
elders and clergy ; and he fixed his episcopal see there, for a certain reason, 
for some time. Afterwards instructed by divine revelation he transferred 
it, as justice required, to his city of Glasgow." 

(XXXIV) Kentigern visited his diocese, cleared away remnants of 
idolatry and " restored Christianity generally to a better state than it 
had ever been in there before. 

" Then the soldier of God, kindled with the fire of the holy Spirit — like 
[fire] which burns up wood, and flame burning the hills — , after he had put 
right what was nearest to him (that is, his own diocese) advanced to 
things more remote, and purged from the filth of idolatry and the contagion 
of heretical doctrine the country of the Picts, which is now called Galloway 
[Galwiethial, and its neighbourhood. And all that he found [there] contrary 
to the Christian faith and to sound doctrine he brought with shining 
miracles to the rule of truth, and corrected to the best of his power. 

" In all this the fervour of his devotion was not turned aside, but his 
hand was still extended to works of power, and to the extension of the 
glory and honour of the highest name ; his feet being shod in the prepara- 
tion of the gospel of peace. 



136 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

" For he went to Albany, and there with excessive and almost 
unbearable labour, frequently risking his life in the barbarians' toils, yet 
standing fearless in faith, the Lord helping him and giving power to the 
voice of his preaching, he converted the land from the worship of idols and 
the profane rites almost equivalent to idolatry, to the [true] lines of faith, 
and ecclesiastical customs, and canonical decrees. For there he built many 
churches, and dedicated them after they were built ; he ordained elders 
and clergy, and consecrated as bishops many of his disciples. In these 
parts also he founded many monasteries, and placed over them as fathers 
some of the disciples whom he had instructed." 

He also sent missionaries to Orkney, Norway, and Iceland. 

He returned to Glasgow, and performed there as elsewhere daily 
miracles of healing. (XXXV) His faith protected him and his companions 
from rain, snow, or hail. 

(XXXVI) Queen Langueth (she is called "the queen of Cadzow" in 
the Aberdeen Breviary, i, 3, 29, where this story is quoted " from the 
history of the blessed Kentigern,") had given the king's ring to a lover. 
Learning this, Riderch took the ring while the man was asleep, and threw 
it into the Clyde ; then he threatened to put the queen to death unless she 
brought him the ring. In extremity, the queen appealed to Kentigern ; he 
sent her messenger away to fish. A salmon was caught, and the ring was 
found in it. Reconciled to her husband, the queen sinned no more, and 
Kentigern kept the secret. (This is grafted upon Kentigern's Life from an 
old heroic story ; compare the story of Fraech and Findabair's ring in the 
Tdin bo Fraich. Y.B.L, 58.) 

(XXXVII) To save the king's honour, Kentigern provided a dish of 
mulberries demanded by a jester who had been sent by an Irish king to the 
Cumbrian court for the Christmas holidays. 

(XXXVIII) Kentigern lived upon milk. He sent some to a smith 
whom he employed, and it was accidentally poured into the Clyde, where 
it was not lost, but turned into cheese. 

(XXXIX) "In the time when the blessed Kentigern, placed in the 
Lord's chandelier, like a lantern glowing with celestial desires and shining 
with salutary words, with exhibitions of virtues, and with miracles, shone 
upon all that were in the house of God, the holy abbot Columba (whom 
the Angles call Columkill), miraculous in doctrine and virtues, renowned 
for predictions of the future, filled with prophetic spirit, dwelling in that 
glorious monastery which he had built in the island of lona [insula Yi\ 
wished to exult in St Kentigern's light not for an hour, but continually. 
He had heard for a long time the report of his holy renown, and desired 
to come to him, to visit him, to see him, to obtain intimate friendship with 
him, and to consult the sanctuary of his holy bosom concerning the things 
that lay next his own heart. 

"And when a fitting time arrived, the holy father Columba set out ; and 
a great crowd of his disciples, and others who desired to visit and see the 
face of the notable man, accompanied him. And when he had approached 
the place called yiAXvaAo^ox" {MelUvdenor in Dublin MS.) "where the 



MISSION OF KENTIGERN 137 

saint abode at that time, he divided all his followers into three companies, 
and sent a messenger before him to announce to the holy bishop the 
arrival of himself and his followers." 

Kentigern advanced with three companies to meet Columba ; both 
sides sang psalms ; the saints met and embraced. Columba distinguished 
Kentigern from the rest by seeing him " clothed with light, as with a 
garment, and with a golden crown placed upon his head." 

(XL) Two of Columba's followers, being naturally thieves, stole the fattest 
wether from one of Kentigern's flocks. The shepherd bade them ask for it ; 
but one of the thieves insulted him while the other cut off the ram's head. 
But the decapitated ram ran away and fell beside his flock, while his head 
turned to stone and refused to leave the robbers' hands. They were 
compelled to implore Kentigern's forgiveness. They received it, and also 
the ram's carcase; "but the head, turned to stone, remains there to the 
present day in witness of the sign ; and mutely preaches the merit of 
St Kentigern." 

" In the place where this miracle was performed by St Kentigern, and 
made apparent in the sight of Columba and many others, each took the 
other's staff, as a pledge and witness of their mutual love in Christ. The 
staff that St Columba gave to the holy bishop Kentigern was kept for 
a long time in the church of St Wilfrith, bishop and confessor, at Ripon ; 
and it was held in great veneration because of the sanctity both of the 
giver and of the receiver. 

" So these saints stayed there together for several days, and mutually 
conferred upon the things which are God's, and which belong to the saving 
of souls ; afterwards they bade each other farewell, never to meet again ; 
and giving each other benediction in love, they departed homeward." 

(XLI) Kentigern erected many crosses throughout the country. 
" Among many crosses which the man of the Lord erected in many places 
he put up two that to the present day work miracles." One was of such 
size that men with machinery failed (on Saturday) to set it up ; but an 
angel raised it " in the following night, which was regarded as Sunday 
[night]." " When the people came to the church in the early morning 
and perceived what had been done, they were amazed, and glorified God in 
his saint : for [the cross] was very large. And from that time it never 
lacked great virtue : for many men delirious \arrepticii\ and tormented by 
unclean spirits are customarily bound to that cross on Sunday night ; and 
on the following day they are found in their right minds, delivered and 
cleansed, or else frequently dead, or about to die by a rapid death. 

" He constructed another cross — unbelievably, if it could not have been 
examined by sight and touch — of sea-sand alone, while he meditated 
righteously and rehgiously upon the resurrection, in Borthwick \Lothe- 
ververd\ And he dwelt in this place for the space of eight years. Who 
indeed should doubt that the Lord will restore our mortal bodies, although 
resolved into dust, since he has promised this with his blessed mouth ; 
when in his name this saint, of like sufferings to us, through prayer to 
the Lord has set up a cross of the sand of the sea .''... 



138 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

'■ To this cross also are bound in the evening many that are afflicted by 
various diseases ; but especially maniacs, and those that are tormented by 
a demon : and frequently in the morning they are found well and unhurt, 
and they return home in freedom. 

" There are also many other places vi'here he used to dwell ; and places 
unknown to us, which (especially in Lent) the saint sanctified with his 
presence and holy habitation." (He used to live, in Lent, in caves : XVII.) 
But many places retain his influence, in curing the sick and in other signs. 

(XLII) Kentigern's body began to show signs of approaching dissolu- 
tion : he was extremely old. Cf. chapter XII : "To depict his whole life 
briefly, he broke his fast only after three days or frequently four days of 
fasting, from the time of his ordination, which befel him in the twenty-fifth 
year of his age, until the very end of his life, which lasted for a space of a 
hundred and sixty years. . . ." (The two numbers — 25 and 160 — are not 
here to be added together. But in chapter XLIV Joceline says : "And so 
the blessed Kentigern passed to the Father in such manner from this 
world, full of days, since he was a hundred and eighty-five years old ; ripe 
in merits, renowned for signs and prodigies and prophecies. . . ." The 
number 185 is accepted as Joceline's meaning by Skene and Forbes ; 
Historians, v, 369-370. But Joceline gives in reality two conflicting 
accounts, in the later of which the number may have arisen from the 
addition of a pa.rt to the whole of the earlier number — such an error as has 
occurred e.g. in the traditions of Patrick's age, and of Harold Fairhair's 
reign. In such cases the lesser number is the earlier ; in this case it too 
may have been increased by similar means. The Life of Kentigern is not 
of such authority as to justify any argument of the possibility of so long a 
life.) Kentigern was so decrepit that he had to support his chin with a 
linen bandage ; but he was still able to speak : and he instructed his 
disciples to practise the Christian virtues ; and more especially to adhere 
to the laws and customs of the church, and to have no dealings with 
heretics. Then he kissed and blessed them, and laid himself down " in his 
noble stone couch." (XLII I) His disciples, seeing him about to depart, 
begged that they might accompany him. An angel announced that this 
prayer should be granted : (XLIV) "And when the octave of the Lord's 
appearance dawned" (i.e. the 13th January) — "the day on which in every 
year the gentle bishop had been accustomed to wash a multitude of the 
people with holy baptism," Kentigern entered a warm bath, in which, as 
if falling asleep, he died. Then (following the angel's instruction) his 
disciples entered the bath, one after another, struggling for precedence ; 
and so long as the water remained warm, all who entered it died. " But 
after the water had cooled, there was cessation not only of the obtaining of 
death, but also of every smallest spark of discomfort." The remaining 
disciples preserved some of Kentigern's garments as relics. Kentigern's 
body was buried under a stone to the right of the altar ; his disciples' 
bodies were placed "in the cemetery, in the order in which they had 
passed from this world, after the holy bishop." (This story might possibly 
rest upon some basis of a real epidemic.) 



DEATHS OF KENTIGERN AND KING RIDERCH 139 

Miracles wene still performed at his tomb. " From the day of his burial 
to the present time, his sacred bones are known to blossom in their place 
with very frequent miracles. ... At his tomb sight is restored to the 
blind, hearing to the deaf, walking to the lame, speech to the dumb, clean 
skin to the leprous, control of limbs to the paralytic, senses to the maniacal. 
The impious, the sacrilegious, the treacherous, and violators of the peace 
of his church, and defilers of the holy place, are punished with deserved 
penalty." The theft of a cow was punished with death. " Many also who 
have ventured [to violate] with any servile work the day of his festival, 
when a crowd is accustomed to gather from different quarters to the church 
in Glasgow where his most holy body rests, to beg his intercessions and to 
see the miracles that commonly take place there, have very often suffered 
the vengeance upon themselves of their crime." 

(XLV) " In the same year in which St Kentigern was removed from 
earthly things and departed to the skies, the often mentioned king Riderch 
stayed longer than usual in the royal village which is called Partick " 
{Perlncch, Dublin MS. ; Pertinet, London MS.). " In his court lived a 
weak-witted man, named Laloecen," {Laloicen in London MS.) "who 
received the necessaries of food and clothing from the king's munificence. 
(For the nobles of the land, the sons of the kingdom, being addicted to 
vanity, are accustomed to keep men of this kind about them ; so that they 
may move their lord and his household to jests and loud laughter by foolish 
words and acts.) After the death of St Kentigern, this man took to the 
most grievous lamentations, and he would receive no consolation from 
anyone. 

" When he was asked why he mourned so inconsolably, he replied that 
his lord king Riderch \Rederech\ and one of the nobles of the land, called 
Morthec, could not delay very long in this life after the death of the holy 
bishop, but would yield to fate in the same year. 

" Since this saying of the fool had been spoken not foolishly but rather 
prophetically, it was clearly confirmed by the deaths of the men named, 
within the same year." (See above, year 573.) "... In the same year, 
therefore, in which the holy bishop Kentigern had died, the aforesaid king 
and prince departed ; and they were buried in Glasgow." Joceline con- 
cludes with a peroration upon the merits of Glasgow church and its patron 
saint. 

In the office for Baldred, the Aberdeen Breviary (i, 3, 63) says that 
Kentigern died on 13th January, 503, "at the city of Glasgow, which he 
ruled, in the 183rd year of his age" : and that Baldred was his pupil and 
suffragan. (For Baldred's death, see year 756.) 

For the Aberdeen Breviary's 13th January, 503, Skene reads Sunday, 
13th January, 603 (F.A.B.W., i, 176, note). Even with this correction the 
authority of the Breviary cannot stand against that of the Annales Cambriae, 
if there St Kentigern is meant. 

The Breviary of Aberdeen mentions a disciple of St Kentigern, 
Conuallus (ii, 3, 112), under September 28th. 

Fordun, Chronica Gentis Scotorum, 111,29 ('> nS): "Contemporarily 



140 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. 613 
Annales Oambriae, Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 156, s.a. [613] ^ 

The battle of Chester ^ ; and there fell Selim, Cinan's son. 
And the repose of Jacob, Beli's son.^ 

with St Columba flourished the most blessed Kentigern, bishop of Glasgow, 
a man of marvellous sanctity, and a worker of many miracles. His 
venerable bones rest there entombed, made famous by many miracles to 
God's praise. His bishopric's furthest boundary towards the south was at 
that time, as it ought now to be, the royal cross below Stanemor. 

" One of his principal disciples was St Convallus, famous for miracles 
and virtues, whose bones therefore rest buried at Inchinnan, near 
Glasgow." 

The southern boundary was the " Rerecross on Stanemoor" H. & S., 
ii, I [ ; i.e., Rere Cross on Stanemore, in Westmoreland, near the border of 
that county and of Skipton Parish in the North Riding of Yorkshire. 

' 10 years after the " i5oth," i year before the " 170th year" after 444. 

2 Gueith cair legion. This is the battle described by Bede, Historia 
Ecclesiastica, II, 2 (i, 83-84) : "To these [bishops of the Britons] the man 
of the Lord, Augustine, is said to have foretold threateningly, that if they 
refused to accept peace with brethren, they should have to accept war from 
enemies ; and if they refused to preach the way of life to the race of the 
Angles, through their hands they should suffer the vengeance of death. 
And through divine judgement this was entirely accomplished as he had 
foretold. 

" For after this the English king of whom we have spoken, ^thelfrith, 
collected a great army to the city of Chester \ad civitatem Legionujit], which 
is called Legacaestir by the English race, and by the Britons is more 
correctly called Carlegion, and he made the greatest slaughter of the 
faithless race. And when (setting out to the battle) he saw their priests, 
who had assembled to pray to God for their army during the battle, he 
enquired who these were, and what they had assembled there to do. Very 
many of them were from the monastery of Bangor, in which there is said 
to have been so great a number of monks that after the monaster'/ had 
been divided into seven parts with the rulers placed over it, none of these 
parts had less than three hundred men ; and they all used to live by the 
labour of their hands. Very many of these, then, had assembled to the 
aforesaid action, with others, to pray, after accomplishing a three-days' 
fast ; and they had a defender called Brocmail, to protect them from the 
swords of the barbarians while they were employed in prayer. 

" When king ^thelfrith had understood the cause of their coming, he 
said : ' If then they cry to their God against us, they also indeed fight 
against us, although they bear not arms, since they pursue us with adverse 
prayers.' Therefore he commanded the sword to be used against them 
first ; and so he destroyed also the rest of the forces of the wicked army, 



BATTLE OF CHESTER 141 

not without great loss to his own army. It is said that of those who had 
come to pray about a thousand and two hundred men were killed in that 
fight, and that only fifty men escaped. At the first arrival of the enemy, 
Brocmail and his followers turned their backs, and left those whom they 
ought to have protected, naked and unarmed, to the blows of the sword. 

"And so the prophecy of the blessed bishop Augustine was fulfilled, 
although he had been raised to the heavenly realms already a long time 
ago ; so that the treacherous ones might feel, in the vengeance of temporal 
death, that they had despised the counsels offered to them of perpetual 
salvation." 

Since Augustine had been for a long time dead, the battle must have 
been fought several years after 26th May 604, when he died. 

A note of this battle is entered in A.S.C. A (insertion under 607) and 
E (s.a. 605). Cf. Giraldus Cambrensis, vi, 217. According to Sigebert 
(M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 321), s.a. 602, Augustine's prophecy was directed 
against the Scots as well as the Britons. In fact the "Britons" would at 
that time have included the Britons of Strathclyde. 

^thelfrith's victory over the Welsh separated North Wales from 
Cumbria and Strathclyde. 

^ MS. B reads (Ab Ithel, 6) : "The battle of Kairlion, in which Seysil, 
Cinan's son, and Jacob, Beli's son, died, with many others." MS. C (ibid.) : 
"The battle of Caer-Legion, in which Silla, Cinan's son, fell." 

A.I., II, O'Conor's year 606 = 614 (15 years after 599) : " The battle of 
Chester \Cath Legeoin\ in which hosts of saints fell, [was fought] in Britain 
between Saxons and Britons." 

Tigernach, Annals; R.C., xvii, 171, s.a. [611] (fn. 6): " The battle of 
Chester [cath caire Legio7i\ where the saints were slain ; and [where] 
Solon, Conan's son, king of the Britons, and king Cetula fell, ^thelfrith 
was the victor ; and immediately afterwards he died." (Omitted in C.S.) 
^thelfrith died in 617 (A.S.C. E). 

A.U., i, 86, s.a. 612 = 613 (with fn. and e. of 613) : "The battle of 
Chester \belhim Caire legiori\ in which the saints were slain, and Solon, 
Conan's son, king of the Britons, fell." (This is followed by : "Heraclius 
reigns for 26 years " ; derived from Bede's Chronicle, M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 
310. Heraclius reigned 610-641. Tigernach places this reign ( " 22 years " ) 
at the beginning of the year-section, and continues with further extracts 
from Bede, ibid., 3 10-31 1. T. gives the marginal date 4592 ( = 641) ; Bede, 
4591 ( = 640).) 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 99, s.a. 613: "The battle of Carleil or 
Carlegion, where Folinn, Conan's son, king of the Britons, was killed by 
yEthelfrith ; who having the victory died himself instantly." 

In 614, the West Saxons under Cynegils and Cuichelm inflicted a 
heavy defeat upon the Welsh, at Beandune (A.S.C, ABCE, s.a. 614). 
Fordun, III, 33, says that Catguollaun fled to Scotland, obtained aid 
there and from Ireland and Armorica, and was afterwards able to hold 
his own. 



142 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

616-617 

Annales Cambriae, Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 157, 
s.aa. [616] and [617] ^ 
Ceretic died. 
Edwin began to reign.^ 

?6i7 

Annals of Innisfallen ; Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores, vol. ii, 
part 2, p. II ; under O'Conor's year 610 = 618^ 
The death of Talorcan.* 

?6i8 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, pp. 171-172, 

s.a. [61 5] 5 
The burning of Donnan of Eigg, on the fifteenth^ before 

' Placed 2 and 3 years after the "170th year" after 444. (Not in 
MS. C ; Ab Ithel, 6.) 

^ For the death of king ^^thelfrith in 617 in the battle of the Idle, and 
the escape of his children to Scotland, with their subsequent conversion to 
Christianity, see Bede, H.E., II, 12, III, i ; A.S.C. E, s.a. 617 ; F.W., 
s.a. 616. (From these sources Fordun, III, 33, derives his account.) See 
E.G., 12-13; and for ^bbe, step-daughter of king ^thelfrith and grand- 
daughter of king .^Ue, E.G., 13, 39. 

Aberdeen Breviary, ii, 3, 87-88, under August 23rd : " Ebba, a glorious 
virgin, uterine sister of Oswald, king of Northumberland, was sent with 
her seven brothers to exile in the land of the Scots, and, along with her 
brother king Oswald and his brothers, was received and cherished with 
honour by Donald Brecc, king of the Scots. And like her brothers and 
many more, so she too received the faith of Christ from the Scots." She 
became a nun, taking the veil from " St Finan, a Scot by race, bishop of 
Lindisfarne." She died [+683] four years before St Cuthbert [1687]. Her 
remains were found "by the prior and convent of the monastery of 
Coldingham, by command and revelation of the same holy virgin," and 
transferred to the church of St Mary of Coldingham, where the oratory was in 
ruins. After a few days, Ebba appeared to a monk Henry, "and commanded 
that an oratory should be built to her in that place," in the year 11 88. 

^ Placed 19 years after 599. 

'' In MS. Tolorggain. 

'" F.n. 4. The remainder of the year-section appears thus in Tigernach 
and in A.U. : "Down to this year Isidore wrote his chronicle, thus 
speaking : ' From now Heraclius is in the fifth year of his empire,' that is 
to say m the fifth year of the empire of Heraclius and the fourth year of 
the most religious prince Sisebert. From the beginning of the world to 
the present year of Heraclius, his fifth, are 5814 years." This is taken 
from Isidore, Chronica Majora, 480, s.a. 5813 = 615 A.D. 

" 17th April. 



^THELFRITH'S SONS. ST DONNAN 143 

the Kalends of May, with a hundred and fifty martyrs ; and 
the devastation of Tory Island, and the burning of Connor.^ 

' This passage appears similarly in A.U., i, 88, s.a. 616 = 617 (with f.n. 
and e. of 617). They prefix the sentence : "The burning of the martyrs 
of Eigg." 

C.S., 74, s.a. [615] (Hennessy's year 617), agrees with T., but does not 
mention Connor. (For xii in the text read xu.) 

A.I., II, O'Conor's year 611=619 (20 years after 599) : "The slaying of 
Donnan of Eigg, on the fifteenth before the Kalends of May." 

The Martyrology of Gorman, April 17th, p. 78 : " Great Donnan and 
his monks, to our assistance, the devout ones " ; with the note : — " The 
number of their congregation was 52, and the sea-pirates came to the island 
where they were and killed them all. The name of that island is Ego'' 

Oengus, April 17th : "Donnan, of chilly Eigg, \Ega ; Eca in L.B.] with 
his followers, a fair company" [dinej perhaps "garrison"?]. In the notes 
it is suggested that Eigg was "a spring" (L.B. ; so also in L.L., 359a) ; 
"a spring in the [land of the] Old-Saxons, or in Caithness" (Laud 610) ; 
"a river in Scotland" (Rawlinson B 512). But the annotators also identify 
the place as an island, and there is no doubt that the island of Eigg is 
meant. See the notes in 1880 Oengus, Ixxi ; 1905 Oengus, 116. 

Upon "followers," L.B. notes: "i.e., fifty-four"; and gives the 
following account in the margin (L.B., 86 ; 1880 Oengus, Ixxiv-lxxv) : 
" Donnan of Eigg, i.e. Eigg is the name of an island in Scotland, and 
Donnan is in it ; or in Caithness ; and St Donnan died there with his 
community, fifty-five [in number]. 

"This Donnan is he who went to Columcille, to take him for his 
confessor. And Columcille said to him, ' I will not be a confessor,' said 
he, ' to people who are to suffer violent martyrdom ; for thou shalt enter 
violent martyrdom, and thy community with thee.' And that is what was 
fulfilled. Donnan went after that among the Gall-gaidil, and took up his 
abode in the place where the queen of the country's sheep used to be. 
This was told to the queen. ' Kill them all ' said she. ' That is not devout ' 
said the others. 

" Thereafter men go to them, to kill them. The priest was then at 
mass. ' Grant us peace till the mass is ended ' said Donnan. ' We will ' 
said they. Thereafter they were all killed, as many as were there." 

Of the above, only the sentence that says that Donnan died in Eigg is 
in Latin ; the rest, in Irish, is a different account and is fabulous. 
(Similarly in Rawlinson B 512 and Laud 610; 1905 Oengus, 116.) For 
the Gall-Gaidil see below, year 856. 

Cf L.L., 371 : "Do!inan of Eigg" (with this note between the lines by 
the compiler : — " That is, a rock between Galloway and Kintyre, standing 
out opposite [Galloway]"' — inacamair imniuich — surely meaning Ailsa 
Craig :) " Eigg is the name of a spring in Aldasain, in Caithness in the 
north of Scotland. And there Donnan with his community endured 
martyrdom. It happened thus that a certain rich woman dwelt there 
before Donnan, and there her sheep used to be fed. For the ill-will there- 



144 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

fore which she had against them she persuaded certain robbers to slay 
Donnan with his followers. But when the robbers came there, they found 
them in the oratory, singing psalms ; and there they were not" (for nunc^ 
reading «o«) "able to kill them. But Donnan said to his disciples, 'Let 
us go into the refectory, that these men may be able to kill us where we 
used to live after the flesh ; because so long as we are where we have 
endeavoured to please God, we cannot die. But where we have favoured 
the flesh we shall pay the debt of the flesh.' And so they were killed, on 
the night of Easter" (i.e., the night before Easter), "in their refectory. 
And they that suffered with this Donnan were fifty-four in number." A 
similar account (but omitting "in Aldasain" and "on the night of Easter") 
is given by Rawlinson B 505 (1905 Oengus, 114-116). The number 54 is 
also given by Laud 610, 1905 Oengus, 116. 

April 17th was Irish Easter in 623 ; April i6th was Irish and Roman 
Easter in 618 (MacCarthy). 

The Martyrology of Donegal, April 17th, p. 104, has a more credible 
account: "Donnan of Eigg, abbot. Eigg is the name of an island in 
which he was after he left Ireland. And sea-robbers came one time to 
the island, while he was celebrating mass ; he begged them not to kill him 
till he had concluded the mass ; and they gave him this favour \cairde\. 
And afterwards he was beheaded, and 52 of his monks along with him. 
And all their names are in a certain old book of the books of Ireland. 
A.D. 616." 

A list of Donnan's fellow-sufferers is given in the Martyrology of 
Tallaght (L.L., 359). 

Brussels Martyrology of Tallaght, Kelly's edition, p. xxi, April 17th: 
"[Festival] of Donnan of Eigg with his 52 companions, whose names we 
have written in the larger book." This seems to show that the writer of 
this version had written also the version fragments of which occur in the 
Book of Leinster. 

An alternative date is given by the Brussels Martyrology of Tallaght, 
Kelly, p. xxii, April 30th : " The household of Eigg, [familia Eago] as 
some say." Similarly in the Book of Leinster version, p. 359 : " The 
household of Eigg, \^Egd] as others say." 

Cf the Breviary of Aberdeen, i, 3, 87. 

Donnan's death was the subject of an Irish literary composition 
(L.L., 190). 

A barrow in Eigg is said to be Donnan's tomb. 

The death-years of some other saints of Eigg have not been recorded. 

" Berchan of Eigg " is commemorated on April loth ; Franciscan MS., 
1905 Oengus, 114; Brussels Tallaght, xxi ; Donegal, 98 : and in Gorman, 
74, "Gracious Berchan, to whom I stretch" (tr. Stokes), has the note: 
"of Eigg" {Aego). 

"Festival of Enan of Eigg" {Enani Eago) Brussels Tallaght, xxii, 
April 29th. Enan's name stands under^ the same day in Gorman, 86, with 
the note " of the island of Eigg " {insi Aego). 

" Congalach, from Ard Aego " {o Ard Aego) Donegal, 344, December 



BATTLE OF CEND-t)ELGtHEISf 145 

?62I 

Tigemach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, pp. 174-175, 

s.a. [619]! 

Duncan, Eoganan's son,^ and Nechtan, Cano's son,^ and 
Aed, died.* 

?622 

Tigemach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, pp. 175-176; 

s.a. [619]^ 

The battle of Cend-Delgthen, in which fell the two sons of 
Libren, son of Illann, son of Cerball. Conall, son of Suibne, 
was the conqueror, and with him Donald Brecc." . . . 

22nd. This is derived from Gorman, 244, same day : " High Congalach 
oi A&§" {Congalachard Aegoj tr. Stokes). 

"Conan of Eigg" Donegal, 14, January 12th. 

1 F.n. 2. 

^ "Eogan's son," in A.U. His father may have been the Eogan or 
Eoganan, Gabran's son, whose death is placed above in 597. But the last 
Eogan mentioned in A.U. was the son of Eochaid Laib, and probably the 
king of Dalaraide. See above, p. 49. 

** This name is spelt in T., mac Canand; in A.U., mac Cattonn; in C.S., 
mac Cananainn, "the son of Cananann." See year ?6oi, note. 

This Nechtan has been regarded as the same as " Nectu, grandson of 
Uerd" or "Uerb," whom the Chronicle of the Picts places for twenty years 
at this time on the Pictish throne ; i.e., perhaps from 601 to 621. If Verb 
was his grandmother's name, his claim to the throne would have been 
through his father. 

Nechtan Cano's son may have been the father of Angus, who died 
? 636 ; and possibly the father of Lochene, Nechtan Cendfota's son, who 
was killed in the battle of Segais ; below, year ? 637, note. 

The legend of St Boniface (t March i6th) in the Breviary of Aberdeen, 
i, 3, 69 (P. & S., 423) says that king Nechtan received pope Boniface [IV] 
and many followers at Restennet in Pictland, beyond the Scottish sea. 
This Boniface is stated to have set out on a missionary enterprise, 
emulating the work of his predecessor, Gregory I (pope, 590-604). 
Boniface IV was pope from 607 to 614 ; if he sent a mission to Pictland, 
it would have been between those years, and within the reign of Nechtan 
(?6oi-?62i). But Skene erroneously places the mission a century later, 
ca. 710, in the reign of Nechtan Derile's son (706-724). S.C.S., i, 277-278. 

* This passage appears similarly in C.S., 76, s.a. [6i9](Hennessy's year 
621) ; and in A.U., i, 92, s.a. 620 = 621 (with f.n. and e. of 621). 

5 F.n. 2. 

" Similarly in C.S., 76. s.a. [620] (Hennessy's year 622). 

K 



146 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Conaing, son of Aid an, Gabran's son, was drowned. This 
is what Ninnine the poet sang : 

" The great clear waves of the sea reflected the sun's rays ; 
they flung themselves upon Conaing, into his frail wicker 
coracle. 

"The woman who threw her white hair into Conaing's 
coracle, her smile has beamed to-day upon the tree of 
Tortu."! . . . 

The death of Colgu, son of Cellach.^ 

A.I., II, under O'Conor's year 615=623 (24 years after 599): "The 
battle of Cend-De[l]gthen, in which fell two sons of Libren, son of lUedan, 
son of Cerball. Conall, son of Suibne, son of Colman, conquered." 

A.U., i, 92, s.a. 621=622 (with f.n. and e. of 622) agree with T. and 
C.S., but do not mention Donald Brecc. 

F.M., i, 240, s.a. 617: "The battle of Cend-Delgthen [was fought] by 
Conall, Suibne's son, and by Donald Brecc ; and there were slain two sons 
of Libren, son of lUann, son of Cerball." 

Donald Brecc was not yet king of Dalriata ; he seems to have reigned 
from 630 to 643. 

Cend-Delgthen seems to have been in Meath. Conall, Suibne's son, 
was the great-great-grandson of Fergus Cerrbel or Cerball, king of Ireland, 
through that king's son Diarmait, who was defeated in the battle of 
Cuil-Dremne (see above, year 563). 

Suibne, son of Colman Mor, was killed by Aed Slaine, joint-king of 
Ireland with Colman Rimid (A.U., s.a. 599 = 600). Aed Slaine was killed 
by Conall, Suibne's son (A.U., 603 = 604).; Angus, Colman Mor's son, 
king of the southern Ui-Neill, was killed (A.U., 620 = 631) ; and in the 
next year Conall, Suibne's son, (the nephew of Angus,) won the battle of 
Cend-Delgthen, aided by Donald Brecc. Two sons of Aed Slaine were 
killed by Conall, Suibne's son (A.U., 633 = 634). Diarmait, son of Aed 
Slaine, killed Conall, Suibne's son (A.U., 634 = 635). 

After this, Donald Brecc invaded Meath and was defeated in the battle 
of Moira by the king of Ireland and the sons of Aed Slaine. See below, 
year 639. 

' The passage in inverted commas is in verse in the original. 

The whole account of Conaing's death appears similarly in C.S., 76, u.s. 
A.U., U.S., say : "Conaing, Aidan's son, was drowned," and give (somewhat 
differently) the first of the two quatrains translated above. 

^ Similarly in C.S. and A.U., u.s. ; F.M., i, 240, s.a. 617. 

Colgu, Cellach's son, is twice mentioned by Adamnan, but there is 
no indication of the place of his monastery. 

Adamnan, I, 35 (Skene, 135) : " Concerning Gallan. son of Fachtna, who 
•was in the district of Colgu, Cellach's son. 

"Again one day the saint, sitting in his little hut, said in prophecy to 



CONAING. COLGU. FERGNA. MONGAN 147 

ca. 623 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 176, s.a. [619]^ 
The death of Fergna, abbot of lona.^ 

ca. 625 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 178, s.a. [624] ^ 

Mongan, son of Fiachna Lurgan, was struck with a stone 
by Arthur, Bicoir's son, a [north] Briton,* and perished. 

the same Colgu, who was reading beside him : ' Now demons are dragging 
to hell a grasping chief from among the governors of thy district.' 
[Literally " diocese."] 

" And, hearing this, Colgu wrote down on a tablet the time and hour ; 
and returning to his country after some months he found, on enquiry of 
the natives of that district, that Gallan, son of Fachtna, had died at the 
same moment of the hour at which the blessed man [Columba] had related 
to him that [Gallan] had been seized by demons." 

In Adamnan, III, 15, this Colgu was one of those to whom in lona 
Columba described a miracle which he perceived by second-sight at the 
time it occurred, in Durrow. (Skene, 203-204.) 

' F.n. 2, as above. One or two year-headings have been omitted 
here in our text of Tigernach. 

'•^ Fergna's death is noted to the same effect in C.S., 76, s.a. [621] 
(fn. 4; Hennessy's year 623), and in A.U., i, 92, s.a. 622 = 623 (with fn. 
and e. of 623). 

A.I., II, ©'Conor's year 616 = 624 (24 years after 599): "The repose 
of Fergna, abbot of lona." 

F.M., i, 244, s.a. 622 (and "the twelfth year of Suibne" Mend as 
sovereign of Ireland) : "St Fergna the Briton, abbot of lona and bishop, 
died on the second day of March." 

The Martyrology of Oengus places "the white festival of Fergna of 
lona" on the 2nd of March, with this note in Lebar Brecc (1880 Oengus, 
p. Ix) : " Fergna the Briton, abbot of lona of Columcille " ; to which note 
Rawl. B 512 adds this pedigree : " Fergna son of the poet, son of Finntan, 

son of -, son of Cuinnid, son of Daithem, son of Cas, son of Fraech, 

son of Cumscrach" (1905 Oengus, 86). 

The death of " Fergna of lona" is placed in the Martyrology of Gorman, 
p. 46, under March 2nd, with the note: "a Briton, abbot of lona of 
Columcille, and bishop also." He is called "abbot of lona" in the 
Brussels Martyrology of Tallaght ; Kelly, p. xvii, March 2nd. Fergna's 
death is placed on 2nd March, 622, in the Martyrology of Donegal (60). 
He is the Uirgnous of Adamnan. 

' F.n. I. The year-section begins with the note "a dark year" 
(ibid., 177) ; so also in A.U. This appears as "an eclipse of the sun" in 



148 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

And hence Bee Boirche ^ said : " The wind blows cold 
over Islay ; there are youths approaching in Kintyre : they 
will do a cruel deed thereby, they will slay Mongan, son of 
Fiachna."^ . . . 

A.I. The year meant must surely be 625, when a solar eclipse occurring 
on June loth at 5 p.m., Paris time, according to L'Art de Verifier les 
Dates, was visible all over Europe. 

From here to the end of the early years indicated in Tigernach by 
ferial numbers, the years intended are uncertain ; events are entered in 
general from three to six years too early. 

Tigernach enters in the same year-section : " The baptism of Edwin, 
file's son, who was the first in the districts of the Saxons to believe." 
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle places this event in 627 : Annales Cambriae, 
6, under [626] ("the 182nd year"). 

'' ab Artuir filio bi coirpre tene in MS. (Stokes): C.S. and F.M. read 
Britone for pretene. Professor K. Meyer translates pretene "a Pict" ; see 
(comparing his Bran, i, 84 ; and Rhys, Y Cymmrodor, xviii, 83) his Zur 
Keltischen Wortkunde, II, 39 (Sitzungsberichte d. Konigl. preuss. Akad. 
d. Wiss., phil.-hist. Klasse, 12th December 1912). 

' Bee Boirche, king of Ulster, died, according to A.U., i, 166, in 
717 = 718. 

^ The passage in inverted commas is in verse in the original. 

The whole passage stands similarly in C.S., 78, s.a. [623] (f.n. 7 ; 
Hennessy's year 625), and in F.M., i, 242-244, s.a. 620. 

Mongan's death is noted by A.U., i, 94, s.a. 624 = 625 (with f.n. and e. of 
625) ; and in A.I., II, O'Conor's year 618 = 626. 

Later we find the king of Dalriata avenging the death of Mongan's 
father, the king of Dalaraide ; below, year 627. Mongan early became 
a hero of romance. See Nutt and Meyer's Voyage of Bran (1895), e.g. i, 
137-139- 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 100, s.a. 627 : " Mongan, Fiachna's son, 
a very well-spoken man, and one much given to the wooing of women, was 
killed by one Bicor, a Welshman, with a stone [625]. 

" Cathal, Aed's son, king of Munster, died. 

"Saint Maedoc \^Mayochus\ of Fearns died [t625]. 

" The battle of Lethet-midind [Leheid-jnynd] was fought, where Fiachna 
Demman's son, called Fiachna Baetan's son, king of Dalaraide, was killed 
[626], ar,d in revenge thereof those of Dalriata challenged Fiachna 
Demman's son and killed him in the battle of Corrann, by the hands of 
Connad Cerr {Conard KearcY [627]. (The dates in brackets are supplied 
from A.U.) See below, ca. 627, note. 

For Mongan, cf. the Yellow Book of Lecan, facsimile, 135-136, 192-194 ; 
Lebar na hUidre, 134 ; S. H. O'Grady, Silva Gadelica (1892), i, 391-392. 

The "History of Mongan son of Fiachna" is one of the historical 
works enumerated in the Book of Leinster, i8qc. 



BATTLE OF ARD-CORRANN 149 

ca. 625 

Tigernach, Annals; u.s., p. 177 
. . . Colman, Comgellan's son, departed to the Lord.^ 

ca. 627 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 179, s.a. [625] ^ 

The battle of Ard-Corann, in [which the men of] Dalriata^ 
were the conquerors, [and] in which Fiachna, the son of Deman, 
fell, [killed] by Connad Cerr, king of Dalriata.* 

' Similarly in A.U., u.s. F.M., i, 242, s.a. 620 : — "Colman, Comgellan's 
son, died." 

Cf. above, year 575, notes. 

^ F.n. 2. 

' This sentence is divided here by another (noting the death of abbot 
Lachtnene). 

* The battle is similarly described in A.U., i, 96, s.a. 626 = 627 (with f.n. 
and e. of 627) ; but they do not mention the king of Dalriata : also in C.S., 
80, s.a. [625] (f n. 2 ; Hennessy's year 627), which mentions the king but 
omits his name. 

F.M., i, 248, s.a. 624: "The battle of Ard-Corann [was fought] by 
Connad Cerr, lord of Dalriata ; and there Fiachna, Deman's son, king of 
Ulster, was killed." 

Connad Cerr seems not to have become the principal king of Dalriata 
until a few years after this battle : see below, year 630. He may, however, 
have been king of a part of Scottish Dalriata at this time. 

The battle of Ard-Corann followed " the battle of Lethet-Midenn, in 
Drong ; in which Fiachna, Baetan's son, the king of Dalaraide, was slain. 
Fiachna, Deman's son, was the conqueror " ; Tigernach, u.s., s.a. [624] 
(f.n. i). C.S., 80, s.a. [624] (fn. i, Hennessy's year 626), calls Fiachna, 
Deman's son, "the king of Dal-Fiachach." A.U. give a similar account, 
i, 94-96, s.a. 625 = 626 (with f.n. and e. of 626) ; they call the place Leithet 
Midind, and name the conquered king " Fiachna Lurgan." Fiachna Lurgan 
was the father of Mongan, for whom see above, year 625. 

Lethet-Midenn is called " the castle of Lethet " in Berchan's Prophecy, 
stanza 30. (The glosses there indicating Baetan and his son Fiachna have 
been transposed.) See year 581. The Prophecy implies that this place 
was in the east of Ulster. 

The Book of Leinster (facsimile, 41, c) says that "Fiachna, Baetan's 
son, was killed in the battle of Drong." The two Fiachnas stand there 
among the kings of Ulster. They were followed by Congal Caech, who fell 
at Moira (see below, year 639). 

Fiachna Lurgan, king of Ireland, son of Baetan, son of Cairell, is said 
to have obtained authority over Scotland, in a fairy-tale of the Yellow Book 
of Lecan, facsimile, 212-313. For his brother Maelumai see year 603, note. 



150 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

627 
Annales Cambriae, Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 157, s.a. [626] ^ 
Edwin was baptized ; and Run, Urbgen's son, baptized him.^ 

627, 640 

Bede, Chronica; M.G.H., Auctores, vol. xiii, p. 311. 

At this time there had arisen among the [Irish] Scots the 
error of the quartodecimans in the observance of Easter. 
Pope Honorius ^ refuted it in a letter ; but John, who succeeded 
[Honorius'] successor Severinus, while still elect to the 
pontificate, wrote for their benefit concerning the same 
Easter,* and of the Pelagian heresy, which was reviving among 
them.^ 

ca. 627 
Annales Cambriae ; Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 157, s.a. [627]" 

Belin died. 

ca. 629 
Annales Cambriae, Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 157, s.a. [629]' 
The besieging of king Catguollaun in the island of Glannauc. 

1 Placed 2 years after the " i8oth year" after 444. Not in MS. C. 
MS. B reads instead of the second sentence : " by PauHnus, bishop of 
York"(ed. Ab Ithel, 6). 

2 See above, p. 14. 

3 Honorius I was pope from 625 to 638. According to A.S.C. E, this 
letter was written in 627 : "And [Pope Honorius] sent the [Irish] Scots a 
writing, that they should turn to the right Easter." See Bede, H.E., II, 19. 

* Severinus was buried on 2nd August, [640] ; the see was vacant for 
4 months, 28 days. Then John IV held it, for i year, 9 months, 18 days ; 
he was buried on 12th October, [642]. This letter was therefore written in 
640 after August 2nd and before December 24th, which was the day of 
John's consecration. 

5 This passage is quoted in Hugo's Chronicon, M.G.H., Scriptores, 
viii, 324 ; the Chronicon Universale, ibid, xiii, 14 ; Gesta episcoporum 
Neapolitanorum, in M.G.H., Scriptores Rerum Langobardicarum, 415. 

Tigernach (R.C., xvii, s.a. [6n], fn. 6 ; in the section with the reign of 
Heraclius [610-641], and the marginal date 4592 A.M. = 641 A.D.) copies 
Bede, omitting " while . . . pontificate." 

6 3 years after the " 180th year" after 444. 

7 Placed 5 years after the " i8oth year" after 444. 



EASTER CONTROVERSY. KING EOCHAID 151 

?630 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. i8i, s.a. [627]^ 
The death of Eochaid Buide, Aidan's son.^ 

? 630 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 98, s.a. 628 = 629 ^ 

The death of Eochaid Buide, king of the Picts, the son of 
Aidan. So I have found in Cuanu's Book.* 

1 With f.n. 5. 

^ Eochaid's death is placed in T., C.S., and A.U., 23 years after the 
death of Aidan, and immediately after the battle of Fid-eoin. But Connad; 
Cerr, who is said to have been killed in that battle, appears to have been 
Eochaid's successor. 

C.S., 82, s.a. [627] (Hennessy's year 629) : " The death of Eochaid 
Buide, Aidan's son, in the 20th year of his reign." 

A. I., 12, O'Conor's year 623 = 631 (32 years after 599) : "The death of 
Eochaid Buide, Aidan's son." This is placed 22 years after the death of 
Aidan. 

A verse relating to Eochaid Buide is quoted from B.B. 289 a, and a 
Dublin MS. (Trin. Col. H. 2.12.8), in Irische Texte, iii, 67 (ed. R. 
Thurneysen). 

The Duan Albanach, in P. & S., 60 ; " Seven times ten years," (for fo 
seacht r&2.A aciis seacht, i.e. "seventeen years"?) "a course of renown, in 
the sovereignty of Eochaid Buide." 
^ With f.n. and e. for 629. 

* This is the last reference to Cuanu's Book in A.U. : if it is used 
afterwards, it is not named. It may have ended about this date. The first 
quotation from it is at the year 467. There is no indication of the date 
at which Cuanu's Book was written, except that some Irish words in the 
quotations from it were not written before the 8th century ; the)' may, 
however, have been translated into Irish from a Latin original by an 8th- 
century (or later) compiler. 

The oldest Chronicles of Dalriata give Eochaid Buide a reign of 15 or 
16 years (see p. cxxx) ; the Duan, of 17 years (s.l.). He does not seem there- 
fore to have reigned over Dalriata during the whole period between his 
father's death and his own. 

Eochaid was evidently very young at the time when Columba chose him 
as Aidan's successor (above, p. 95). 

According to Fordun, (i, 84, 119) the hand of Eochaid Buide (or of 
Eochaid Domangart's son ; 1 697) was cut off and buried on his extreme 
frontier, at Stanemore. 

The words " king of the Picts," {rex Pictorum) if not a mistake for 
"king of Scotland" or Dalriata, would imply that Eochaid had reduced 
some part of Pictish territory to his dominion. We may compare with this 



152 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. 630 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, pp. 180-181, 

s.a. [627] 1 

The battle of F"id-eoin, in which Maelcaich, Scandal's son, 
king of the [Irish] Picts, was the conqueror. [The men of] 
Dalriata fell. 

Connad Cerr, king of Dalriata, fell, and Dicull, Eochaid's 
son, king of the kindred of the Picts,^ fell ; and Aidan's 
grandsons fell, Rigullan, Conaing's son, and Failbe, Eochaid's 

implication the statement of Tigernach (above, year 627) that Connad Cerr 
was king of Dalriata during Eochaid Buide's life-time. (The conjecture 
in S.C.S., i, 241-242, that Eochaid reigned in Galloway, Connad in Argyle, 
would imply either that Aidan had ruled over Galloway, or that between 
607 and 630 the Scots had encroached upon the kingdom of Bernicia ; the 
former is improbable, the latter is expressly denied by Bede (E.C., 12). 
It seems more likely that Connad ruled some part of Dalriata under 
Eochaid. The Picts of Galloway at least were subject to Oswald (634-642) 
and his successors.) 

It is probable that Irish emigrants from Dalaraide had settled in 
Galloway, as emigrants from Irish Dalriata had settled in Argyle. The 
settlers in Galloway might have had relations with their kinsmen in Argyle. 
But they can hardly have been the Picti of whom Eochaid Buide was the 
king, since they (like the Picts of Dalaraide) would have been called 
Cruithni, not Picti, by the Irish annalists. 

Some division of Dalriatan territory had probably been made ; and a 
more Pictish part was probably ruled by Eochaid Buide, while a southern 
part was under Connad Cerr. It is possible, however, since Connad's 
subjects were twice in conflict with the Cruithni of Dalaraide, that the 
annalists thought him' the king of Irish Dalriata ; and that Eochaid's 
subjects are called Picts in distinction from the Irish Dalriatans. 

1 F.n. 5. 

2 ri ceneoil Cruithne : i.e., a claimant of the kingdom of Dalaraide, and 
possibly the son of Eochaid Buide. In that case he would have been the 
brother of Failbe, and might have had some hereditary claim, perhaps 
through his mother. 

Fiachna, Deman's son, king of Dal-Fiatach (a section of Dalaraide), 
had killed Fiachna Lurgan, Baetan's son, the king of Dalaraide, in ?626; 
and had made himself king of the Cruithni of Dalaraide. Connad Cerr 
had defeated and killed Fiachna Deman's son in the following year ; and 
presumably had set up Dicull as king in his place. Maelcaich, Scandal's 
son, then made himself king. In 645, " Locheni, the king of the Cruithni, 
son of Fingin, died" ; in 646, "Scandal, son of Bee, son of Fiachra, king 
of the Cruithni" was wounded; in 666, "Maelcaich, Scandal's son, king of 
the Cruithni," and " Eochaid larlaithi, king of the Cruithni," died (A.U.). 
Scottish Dalriata does not appear to have avenged the defeat of Fid-eoin. 



BATTLE OF FID-EOIN. KING CONNAD 153 

son ; and Osric, ^Ifric's son/ the crown-prince of England, 
with very great slaughter of his men.^ 

ca, 630 

Tigemach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 181, s.a. [628]^ 

The death of Conaing Cerr, as others say, in the first year 
of his reign ; he who was conquered in the battle of Fid-eoin.* 

^ In Tigernach, mac Albndt ("a scribal error for Albruic = /4Llfric" 
Stokes, Transactions of the Philological Society, 1890, p. 426); in 
C.S., mac Albirit. 

Osric, ^Ifric's son, the apostate king of Deira, reigned 633-1634, 
according to Bede, H.E., III, i. (A.S.C. E says that he became king of 
Deira in 634.) His death is wrongly placed here in the Irish annals, 
before the death of his predecessor Edwin. See year 633. 

^ cum strage maxima suorum, perhaps " of their men." 

Similarly in C.S., 80-82, s.a. [627] (Hennessy's year 629). 

A.U., i, 98, s.a. 628 = 629 (with f.n. and e. of 629) : "The battle of 
Fid-eoin, in which Maelcaich, Scandal's son, king of the [Irish] Picts, 
was the conqueror. [The men of] Dalriata fell. Connad Cerr, king of 
Dalriata, fell. . . . 

" Otherwise, the battle of Fid-eoin, in which fell Rigullon and Failbe, 
the grandsons of Aidan." The latter account they derive from Cuanu's 
Book. Other battles are entered in the same annal. 

Tigernach, placing Connad's death in the following year, from another 
source, suggests that Connad survived the battle. But the variation seems 
to be one of date only : an alternative source would place the battle in 631, 
instead of 630. 

The Annals of Clonmacnoise, loi, s.a. 627: "The battle of Fid-eoin 
{ffeawynel, wherein Maelcaich, Scandal's son \_Moylekeigh mcSeannoile], 
king of the Picts, was killed ; many of [the men of] Dalriata were killed, 
as Connad Cerr their prince ; the nephews of Aidan were killed, Rigailan 
Conaing's son and Eailbe Eochaid's son ; and Osric, ^Ifric's son \offrich 
mcAlfrithe\ prince of the Saxons, with many of his nobles, were likewise 
killed. 

" Eochaid Buide, son of king Aidan of Scotland, in the 20th year of his 
reign died (in the year of his reign 15 or i6, of Christ 621)." The last 
words {an7to regni 15 vel 16, xti 621) are evidently a gloss. 

^ F.n. 6 in O'Conor's edition ; Scriptores, ii, 1, 191. The year meant 
here in T. and in C.S. is probably 631. Under the same year is placed 
"the death of ^lle, king of England"; an event which A.S.C. dates in 
588. This anachronism appears in C.S. also. 

4 C.S., 82, s.a. [628] (f.n. 6; Hennessy's year 630): "The death of 
Connad Cerr, as others say, in the first year of his reign, in the battle 
of Fid-eoin." T. appears to have added to his alternative source the words 
" he who was conquered," suggesting that Connad survived the battle ; 



154 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

633 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 181 ; s.a. [629]' 

The battle of Edwin, file's son, the Saxons' king, who 
ruled all Britain ; and in this battle he was conquered by 
C[atguoll]aun, king of the Britons, and Penda the Saxon.^ 

The death of Kenneth, Luchtren's son, king of the Picts.^ 

633 
Annales Oambriae, Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 157, s.a. [630]* 

Guidgar comes and does not return, on the Kalends of 
January. The battle of Meicen, in which Edwin was killed, 
with his two sons.^ And Catguollaun was the conqueror.*' 

that suggestion does not appear in C.S., and was probably absent from 
T.'s source. 

The Chronicle of Dalriata calls this king " Kenneth the Left-handed, 
Conall's son," and gives him a reign of three months. 

The Duan Albanach, in P. & S., 60 : " Connad Cerr [reigned] for a 
quarter, of noted fame ; and his son Ferchar had [a reign of] sixteen " (quarters 
or years?). "After Ferchar — see the verses — fourteen years of Donald." 

For Ferchar, see below, ?ca. 651. With Feaghaidh rainji, literally 
"look upon the stanza," cf gan roimi ("without a stanza"), above, 
year 574. The gender and spelling are made dependent on the rhyme. 

Fordun transposes the reigns of Eochaid Buide and Connad Cerr ; and 
after Eochaid places a king Ferchar, Eochaid's son, wrongly (III, 31, 34). 

' With f.n. 7. Placed 17 year-sections before 651. 

2 Edwin was killed on 12th October, 633 (Bede). 

^ To the same effect in C.S., 82, s.a. [629] (f n. 7 ; Hennessy's year 631). 

A.U., i, 98, s.a. 630 = 631 (with fn. and e. of 631) : "The battle of yElle's 
son, and the death of Kenneth Lugtren's son." 

A.I., 12, O'Conor's year 625 = 633 (34 years after 599): "The death of 
Kenneth, king of Scotland, and of Edwin, king of England." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, loi, s.a. 630 : "^lle king of the Saxons died. 
. . . The battle of Edwin, son of king ^lle who reigned king over all the 
Saxons, wherein Catguollaun \Acathlon\ king of the Britons was overcome, 
was fought"; and 102, s.a. 632: "Kenneth, Luchtren's son \Cenay 
mcLachtren\ king of the Picts, died." 

The Chronicles of the Picts give Kenneth a reign of 19 (ABC) or 24 
years (DK). T., C.S., and A.U., place his death 10 years after the death 
of Nechtan Cano's son, who may have been Kenneth's predecessor. 

* Placed 6 years after the " i8oth year" after 444. 

^ Cf. Bede's account, below. 

" This is derived from the Historia Brittonum, Genealogies ; M.G.H., 
Auctores, xiii, 204: "... Yffe begot ^lle, [who begot] Edwin, [who 
begot] Osfrith and Eadfrith. Edwin had two sons, and they fell along 



KINGS EDWIN AND KENNETH 155 

with him in the battle of Meicen ; and kingship never recurred in his line, 
because not one of his race escaped from this battle, but all were slain 
along- with him by the army of CatguoUaun, king of the district of 
Guenedota." 

Bede, H.E., II, 20: "And when Edwin had ruled most gloriously for 
seventeen years over the nations both of the Angles and of the Britons — 
and during six of these years, as I have said, he too had been a soldier of 
Christ's kingdom — CatguoUaun, king of the Britons, rebelled against him, 
with aid from Penda, that most vigorous man of the royal race of the 
Mercians ; [Penda] had moreover at that time ruled the kingdom of that 
nation with varying fortune for twenty-two years. And a severe battle was 
fought in the plain which is called Hatfield \HaethfeltJi\, and Edwin was 
killed, on the fourth day before the Ides of October, in the year of the 
Lord's Incarnation 633, when [Edwin] was forty-eight years old. And his 
whole army was either killed or routed. 

" In this battle also one of his sons, Osfrith, a valiant youth, had fallen 
before him ; the other, Eadfrith, compelled by need, made his escape to 
king Penda, and was killed by him afterwards, during Oswald's reign, in 
violation of his oath." 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, MS. E, s.a. 633 : " In this year king Edwin was 
slain by CatguoUaun and Penda on Hethfelda, on the second day before the 
Ides of October" (i.e., October 14th). "And he [had] reigned for seventeen 
years. And also his son Osfrith was slain with him. And thereupon 
CatguoUaun and Penda advanced, and destroyed all the land of the 
Northumbrians." (MSS. ABCF have simply: "In this year king Edwin 
was slain.") Edwin's death is placed in 633 also by the Annals of St 
Neots ; Stevenson's Asser, 122. 

Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica, III, i : (Osric, king of Deira, had been 
baptized by Paulinus ; Eanfrith, king of Bernicia, had been baptized during 
his exile among the "Scots or Picts" ;) "And both these kings, as soon 
as they had obtained the insignia of earthly kingship, abandoned and 
betrayed the heavenly kingdom's sacraments, in which they had been 
initiated, and gave themselves up again to their former filth of idolatry, to 
be polluted and destroyed. 

"Soon CatguoUaun, the king of the Britons, slew them, with impious 
hand but in just retribution ; first Osric, the following summer, while 
[Osric] was besieging him rashly in a municipal town ; [CatguoUaun] sallied 
suddenly forth with all his men, and taking [Osric] unprepared, destroyed 
him and his army. Afterwards, when for a whole year the victor had 
occupied the provinces of the Northumbrians, not as a king ; but as a 
tyrant had oppressed and destroyed them, and ravaged them with tragic 
slaughter, at last he doomed Eanfrith to a similar fate, when [Eanfrith] 
came to him unadvisedly with twelve picked soldiers to sue for peace. 

" That year remains to this day of ill renown, and abhorred by all the 
good, both on account of the apostasy of the kings of the Angles, whereby 
they had stripped themselves of the sacraments of the faith ; and because 
of the savage tyranny of the British king. Hence it has seemed good to 



156 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

634 
Annales Cambriae ; V Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 157, s.a. [631] 

The battle of Catscaul, in which Catguollaun fell.^ 

634 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book I, c. i ^ 

[Columba] often foretold the future rewards of very many 
still living in mortal flesh : of some happy, of others sad. And 
in the dreadful clashings of wars he obtained this of God by 
virtue of prayers that some kings should be conquered, and 
other rulers should be the conquerors. Such a privilege was 
granted to him by God (who honours all saints), as to a 
victorious and very powerful champion, not only while 
[Columba] continued in this life, but also after his passing 
from the flesh. 

We shall give one example of this honour divinely conferred 
by the Almighty upon the honourable man, [an example] which 
was shown to Oswald, ruler of the Saxons, on the day before 
he fought against Catguollaun,* the most powerful king of the 
Britons. For when this king Oswald had encamped upon the 
verge of battle, sleeping in his tent upon a pillow he saw in 

all who reckon the times of kings to put aside the memory of the faithless 
\perfidoriini\ kings, and to assign this year to the reign of the following 
king, that is, of Oswald, a man beloved of God. He, after the death of his 
brother Eanfrith, attacked [Catguollaun] with an army, small but strengthened 
by the faith of Christ ; and the execrable leader of the Britons, with his 
innumerable forces, which he used to boast that nothing could withstand, 
was slain by him in the place that is called Denisesburna in the English 
tongue ; that is, the stream of Denis." See also H.E., II, 2. 

Fordun, III, 34, says that when ^thelfrith's sons heard of the death of 
Edwin, they appealed to king Donald for leave to depart, and for aid to 
recover their inheritance. The king gave them an escort, but refused 
military aid against his ally Catguollaun. 

^ Placed 7 years after the " i8oth year" after 444. 

2 This is derived from the Historia Brittonum, c. 64, M.G.H., Auctores, 
xiii, 207-208 : " [Oswald] slew Catguollaun, king of the district of North 
Wales, in the battle of Catscaul, with great slaughter of his army." 
(Annales Cambriae read Cantscaul). According to Fordun, III, 34 (i, 121) 
the battle of Denisesburna was fought near the Roman wall " which is 
called Thyrlwall." 

2 Reeves's edition, 13-16; Skene's, 112-113. 

* Adamnan uses the Irish form of the name. Cation, 



KINGS CATGUOLLAUN AND OSWALD 157 

a vision St Columba beaming in angelic form, whose great 
height appeared with its head to touch the clouds. And the 
blessed man revealed to the king his name, and standing in 
the middle of the camp protected with his effulgent robe the 
camp, excepting a small outpost ; and he bestowed these 
words in confirmation — the same which the Lord spoke to 
Joshua Ben Nun before the crossing of Jordan, after Moses' 
death, saying : — " Have courage and act manfully ; behold I 
shall be with thee," and the rest.^ And thus, saying these 
things to the king in a vision, the holy Columba added : — 
" Advance to battle from the camp this coming night ; for on 
this occasion the Lord has granted to me that thy enemies 
shall be turned to flight, and thy enemy Catguollaun shall be 
given up into thy hands ; and that after the battle thou shalt 
return as conqueror, and shalt reign happily." After these 
words the king arose, and related this vision to his assembled 
council ; and all were encouraged by it, and the whole people 
promised that after returning from the battle they would believe 
and receive baptism : for up to that time the whole of that 
Saxon land had been overshadowed by the darkness of 
heathendom and ignorance, excepting king Oswald himself, 
with twelve men who had been baptized while with him in 
his exile among the Scots. 

In effect, the same night following (as he had been instructed 
in the vision) king Oswald advanced from camp to battle, 
against numerous thousands, with a considerably smaller army ; 
and as had been promised him, a successful and easy victory 
was granted to him by the Lord ; king Catguollaun was killed, 
and [Oswald] returned with victory after the battle, and was 
afterwards appointed by God emperor of all Britain. 

This narration was indubitably narrated to me, Adamnan, 
by my predecessor, our abbot Failbe,^ who stated that he had 
heard it from the lips of king Oswald himself, when he related 
this vision to abbot Segine.^ 

' See Joshua, I, 1-9 ; noticing the boundaries mentioned in verse 4. 

^ Failbe died about 679 ; see below. 

^ Segine died about 652 ; below. He was abbot of lona from about 
623. 

The episode is briefly narrated in the Life attributed to Cummine, XXV ; 
Pinkerton's Vitae, 44. 



158 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

634 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 182, s.a. [630] ^ 

A battle [was fought] by Catguollaun, and Eanfrith, who 
was beheaded ; and in it Oswald, ^thelfrith's son, was the 
conqueror, and Catguollaun, king of the Britons, fell.^ . . . 

The island of Lindisfarne was founded.^ 

630 X 643 
?ca. 635 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 205 * 
A battle in Calathros,'^ and in it Donald Brecc was 
conquered.^ 

' F.n. 2, placed 16 year-sections before 651. 

2 A.U., i, 100, s.a. 631=632 (with f.n. and e. of 632) : "The battle of 
Catguollaun, king of the Britons, and of Eanfrith." 

A.I., 12, under O'Conor's year 626 = 634 (35 years after 599) : "The 
wounding of Catguollaun." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 132, s.a. 634 : "The battle between Catguollaun 
and Eanfrith was fought, who therein was beheaded ; and Oswald son of 
^thelfrith had the victory." 

See E.G., 13, 18. 

Oswald's victory and succession are recorded, after Bede, by Sigebert 
of Gemblours, M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 323, s.a. 635 

Catguollaun's death ended British s'jpremacy in Northumbria. 
Adamnan's narrative shows that Scottish sympathies were against the 
Britons on this occasion. 

3 Inis Metgoit in T. ; Inis Medgoit in C.S. The monastery of Lindis- 
farne was probably founded in 635. See E.C., 13-18. 

Its foundation appears similarly in C.S., s.a. [630] (for f.n. 5 read 2 ; 
Hennessy's year 632), and in A.I., u.s. F.M., i, 248, s.a. 627, add: "by 
bishop Aidan." See below, year, 65 \. 

Aidan's mission to Lindisfarne is mentioned by Alberic of Trois 
Fontaines, Chronica ; M.G.H., Scriptores, xxiii, 696, s.a. 635 : Aidan's 
death, ibid., 697, s.a. 651. 

■• This is placed after the events quoted from Tigernach below, year 679. 

° CalitroSy in Tigernach ; Calathros, A.U. ; Calairos, Duald. 

Skene understood this district to be the same as that named Calatria in 
Latin ; but the identity of the two places is not established, and in fact this 
passage practically disproves it, because Bede says expressly that no king 
of the Scots had invaded Bernicia after the defeat of Aidan in 603. 

Below (year 736) it seems that Calathros was within Dalriata ; and it 
may perhaps have been the Cladrois placed by the Senchus in Islay 
(above, p. clii). See year 736. 

About this time (635 or 636) Donald's rival of the house of Cowal, 



BATTLE OF CALATHROS. KING GARTNAIT 159 

?636 

Annals of Innisfallen ; Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores, vol. ii, 
p. 12; O'Conor's year 628 = 636 1 

The death of Angus, Nechtan's son.^ 

?637 

The Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 102, s.a. 634 = 635 " 

The death of Gartnait,* Foith's son.^ 

ca. 637 

Tigemach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 183, s.a. [632]^ 

Segine, abbot of lona, founded the church of Rechru.'^ 

Ferchar, son of Connad Cerr, seems to have obtained a share in the 
sovereignty of Dalriata. It seems possible that this division might have 
resulted from a battle in Dalriata in which Donald was defeated. 

Donald fought also with his neighbours. His supporters were defeated 
ca. 640 in Glend-Mairison, which may have been in Pictish territory ; but 
his death ca. 643 was caused by the Britons of Strathclyde. 

'^ Similarly in A.U., i, 130, s.a. 677 = 678; and in D.M.F., II, p. 86, 
under [678]. Cf. below, year 679, note. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 109, s.a. 674 : " The battle of Calathros was 
given, where Donald Brecc was vanquished." 

The only reason for dating this battle in 635 is that it is placed in 
A.U. 8 years before the misplaced entry of Donald Brecc's death. See 
year 643. 

' Placed 37 years after 599. 

^ Perhaps this was a son of the Nechtan whose death is entered above 
in ?62i. 

^ With f.n. and e. of 635. 

* In text Gartnain. 

^ In the same year-section A.U. note (doubtless from another source) : 
"The battle of Segais, in which fell Lochene, son of Nechtan Cendfota ; 
and Cumuscach, son of Angus ; and Gartnaith, son of Oith." This notice 
of the battle of Segais appears similarly in Tigernach, s.a. [632] (as below), 
and in C.S., without mention of Gartnait ; his name ought probably not to 
be connected with it. Segais is stated to have been Curlieu Mountain, in 
county Roscommon (editors of A.U.). 

The Chronicle of the Picts, version A, says that Gartnait reigned for 
4 years ; i.e., probably 633-637. 

" F.n. 4. Placed 14 year-sections before 651. 

' A.U., i, 100, s.a. 634 = 635 (u.s.) : "The church of Rechru was 
founded." 

F.M., i, 250, s.a. 630 : " Segine, abbot of lona of Columcille, founded the 



160 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

A gathering of the Saxons against Oswald.^ 
Eochaid, the abbot of Lismore, reposed."^ 

ca. 639 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book III, c. 5 ^ 

Cummine the Fair, in the book that he wrote about the 
virtues of St Columba, so said that St Columba began to 
prophesy concerning Aidan and his descendants and concerning 
his kingdom, saying, " Believe indubitably, O Aidan, that none 
of thy enemies will be able to oppose thee until first thou work 
deceit upon me and upon my successors. For this cause there- 
fore do thou command thy sons that they also command their 
sons and grandsons and descendants not through evil counsel 
to lose their sceptre of this kingdom from their hands. For at 
whatever time they shall act against me or against my relatives 
who are in Ireland, the whip that I endured for thee from the 

church of Rechrainn." (The name Rechru passes through the form 
Rechrainn to Rathhn.) 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 132, s.a. 634: "Segine, abbot of lona, 
founded the church of Rathlin. The Saxons made great assemblies 
against king Oswald." 

Stokes explains Rechru here as Lambay : but ecclesiastics of Rathlin 
or Lambay are not spoken of by A.U. for a hundred years after this date. 

The island of Rechru mentioned in Adamnan, I, 5, and {Rechrea insula) 
in II, 41, was near Ireland, close to Coire-Brecain, and inhabited. This 
was apparently the original Coire-Brecain from which the modern Scottish 
Corrievreckan, between Jura and Scarba, got its name ; and Adamnan's 
Rechru is Rathlin, formerly counted among the Hebrides. 

Cf the Irish addition to the Historia Brittonum of Nennius, in Skene's 
P. & S., 23 : " Now the Fir-bolg took Man, and they took moreover the 
other islands Ara, and Ila, and Recca" ; i.e., Arran, Islay, and Rathlin. 

' This is in Latin. 

"^ A.U., i, 102, s.a. 634 = 635 : "Eochaid of Lismore died." 

F.M., i, 252, s.a. 634 : " St Eochaid, abbot of Lismore, died on the 17th 
of April." (17th April 634, according to the Martyrology of Donegal, 104.) 
"Eochaid of Lismore" is placed in the Martyrology of Tallaght (Book 
of Leinster, 359 a) under April 17th. 

This was Lismore in Scotland. A.I. record the foundation of the Irish 
Lismore in O'Conor's year 630 = 638, and the death of Mochuta its founder 
in 631=639: A.U. place the death of Mochuta in 636 = 637 (T., R.C. xvii, 
184, under fn. 7 = 634; C.S., 84, Hennessy's year 636). All four annals 
place Mochuta's expulsion from Rahen in the year before his death. A.I.'s 
dates are probably correct. 

^ Reeves's edition, 199-201 ; Skene's, 197-198. 



BATTLE OF MOlRA 161 

angel ^ shall be turned to a great disgrace upon them by the 
hand of God : and men's hearts shall be taken from them, and 
their enemies shall greatly rejoice over them." 

And this prophecy was fulfilled in our days in the battle of 
Roth,2 when Donald Brecc, Aidan's grandson, without cause 
wasted the province of Donald, grandson of Ainmire. And 
from that day to this ' they have been held down by strangers ; 
a thing that fills the heart with grief* 

' See above, year 573. 

^ Apparently the battle of Moira, for which see below. 

^ Adamnan's death is recorded below, year 704. For the date of his 
work cf. years 679, 686-688, notes. 

* This passage appears thus in the Life attributed to Cummine, c. V ; 
Pinkerton's Vitae Antiquae, p. 30 : " Further, among the words of the 
ordination [of Aidan, Columba] prophesied the future concerning [Aidan's] 
sons and grandsons and great-grandsons ; and laying his hand upon his 
head, he ordained and blessed him, and spoke these words : ' Believe 
indubitably, O Aidan, that none of thy enemies will be able to oppose thee, 
until first thou work deceit upon me and upon my successors. Speak to 
thy sons in these same words, lest they lose the kingdom. If they obey 
not, the scourge that for thy sake I have endured from the angel of God 
shall be turned against them.' 

" And so it happened ; for they transgressed the command of the man 
of God, and have lost the kingdom.' 

These last words show that the Life attributed to Cummine was written 
at a time when the descendants of Aidan had lost the kingdom of Dalriata : 
i.e., 643 X 65 1, or after 697. Cummine might have written before 651. The 
phrase quoted by Adamnan, that Aidan's descendants were "held down 
by strangers," suggests rather that they reigned, but were not independent. 
It might have been taken from a later recension of the Life attributed to 
Cummine, made 651x669; or it might have been an adaptation of that 
Life's words, to suit the conditions of Adamnan's time. At the time when 
he wrote (ca. 688 x 693) Aidan's descendants may not have recovered the 
sovereignty of Dalriata. 

More probably the Life attributed to Cummine was not written by 
Cummine, but was derived from Adamnan's Life. See above, p. 55. 

In S.C.S., i, 250, 257, this passage was interpreted to mean that Argyle 
was under the supremacy of Strathclyde after the battle of Strathcarron 
(year 643) ; and of Northumbria, after the battle of the Winwsd (year 655). 
Cf. Bede, II, 5 (E.G., 25, note). But the Scots of Dalriata had recovered 
their independence of Northumbria in 685. Adamnan implies that the 
oppression continued when he wrote, and that it afflicted Aidan's 
descendants rather than the whole of Dalriata. Probably the hegemony 
of the Dalriatan tribes had gone to another house : to the house of Cowal, 
after the battle of Moira ; to Ferchar Fota of Lorn, in Adamnan's time. 
Cf. year ?643, note. 

L 



162 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. 639 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, pp. 183-184, 

s.a. [634] 1 

The battle of Moira [was won] by Donald, Aed's son, and 
by the sons of Aed Slaine (Donald reigned in Tara at that 
time) ; and in it fell Congal Caech, king of Ulster, and Faelchu, 
with many nobles ; and in it fell Suibne, son of Colman Cuar.^ 

^ F.n. 7. Placed 12 years before 651. 

2 To similar effect in C.S., 84, s.a. [634] (Hennessy's year 636) ; but 
Suibne is not mentioned, and Faelchu is called " Airmedach's son, king of 
Meath." A.I., 13, under O'Conor's year 631=639 (40 years after 599): 
" The battle of Roth, in which Congal Caech fell." 

A.U., i, 102, s.a. 636 = 637 (with f.n. and e. of 637) : "The battle of Roth 
and the battle of Sailtire [Kintyre] were fought on the same day." 

The Annals from the Book of Leinster, in Stokes's Tripartite Life, ii, 516 
(without date) : " The battle of Moira and the battle of Sailtire were 
fought in one day. One [was gained] over [the tribe of] Eogan, the other 
over the Ulstermen." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 100, s.a. 627 : "The wasting and destroying 
of Leinster by Donald, Aed's son [628]. Donald, Aed's son, succeeded 
[628] next king of this land, and reigned 30 years ; he got two victories of 
his enemies, by name the battle of Sailtire [Sat/ymt], and the battle of 
Moira [Moyroth]." 

F.M., i, 252-254, s.a. 634: "The battle of Moira [was gained] by 
Donald, Aed's son, and by the sons of Aed Slane, over Congal Cloen, 
Scandlan's son, king of Ulster, and there fell Congal, [and] Ulstermen and 
foreigners along with him." 

From Adamnan's account (above) it would seem that Donald Brecc, 
king of Dalriata, had been invading the lands of Tara with the king of 
Ulster. For Donald's part in these feuds see above, year 622. 

O'Donnell's Life of Columba, in Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga, 416 b: 
" St Adamnan also relates in the acts of St Columba that this prophecy 
had been partly fulfilled. For when Congal Cloen, Scandlan's son, king of 
Ulster, had been exiled from the country because of his unjust undertakings, 
he brought in a great army from foreign nations, and among others the 
sons of Eochaid Buide, the son of Aidan, mentioned above, for the 
destruction of his own land ; and they fought in the battle of Moira against 
Donald, Ainmire's grandson by his son Aed, and king of Ireland, and 
St Columba's relative ; and Congal, and the sons of Eochaid aforesaid, 
were pitiably slaughtered, and perished, with great slaughter of the 
foreigners who took their part." 

The Banquet of Dun na n-Ged, in O'Donovan's Battle of Moira, 34 
(Yellow Book of Lecan, 321 a) : " ' I [Congal Cloen, Scandlan's son, king of 
Ulster] was fostered by thee [Donald, Aed's son, king of Ireland], until 
thou wast expelled by the king of Ireland, Suibne Mend, son of Fiachna, 



DEFEAT OF KING DONALD BRECC 163 

ca. 640 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 184, s.a. [635] ^ 

The battle of Glend-Mairison, in which the people^ of 
Donald Brecc fled ; and the siege of Etain.'* 

son of Feradach, and didst go to the king of Scotland [Eochaid Buide] ; and 
I went with thee in that exile. And thou gottest great love from him, and 
you made a treaty, thou and the king of Scotland, and he promised thee 
that he would not come against thee so long as there was sea round 
Ireland. Then thou didst go to Ireland, and I went with thee, for I was 
in exile along with thee.' " (Congal Cloen or Caech killed Suibne Mend, 
and Donald took the throne.) 

In the late Battle of Moira, 106 (Y.B.L., 300 a) the investiture of 
Donald, Aed's son, as king of Ireland took place in the beginning of the 
third quarter of the day, just after the completion of the twelfth hour, in 
the middle of May, on Sunday, the fifth of the moon ; i.e., after 6 p.m. of 
Saturday, 14th May, 628. For his death, see year 643, note. 

The Banquet of Dun na n-Ged, in O'Donovan's Battle of Moira, 44 
(Y.B.L., 321b): "The old man [Cellach, son of Fiachna, Scandlan's 
brother] said to [Congal Caech, son of Scandlan,] ' Go to Scotland, to thy 
grandfather, Eochaid Buide, son of Aidan, son of Gabran ; he is king over 
Scotland. For thy mother is his daughter, and thy grandmother, thy 
mother's mother, is the daughter of the king of the Britons, Eochaid 
Aingces, and the wife of the king of Scotland. Bring with thee to Ireland 
the men of Scotland and of the Britons, because of this kinship, to give 
battle to the king " [Donald, Aed's son]. Congal went to king Eochaid at 
Dun-Monaid [? Dunadd]. Eochaid could not help him in person, because 
of his treaty with Donald, but promised him the aid of his sons : Donald 
Brecc, Suibne, Congal Mend, Aed Green-robed (in order of age). Donald 
Brecc is spoken of as king : ibid., 56. Eochaid then sent Congal to 
" Eochaid Aingcess, king of the Britons," who also gave him aid. The 
battle of Moira was fought (ibid., 114) between Congal Caech and his sup- 
porters, and Donald, Aed's son, king of Ireland : Congal Caech was 
defeated and killed ; three of Eochaid Buide's sons were killed, and 
Donald Brecc was taken captive (ibid., 246). 

An earlier Battle of Moira, in the Yellow Book of Lecan, 209 b, says 
more correctly : " Then Congal went straightway to the territory of 
Scotland, namely to Donald, Eochaid Buide's son. . . ." 

The late Battle of Moira, 1 14, dates the battle on Tuesday, the 24th of 
June, the twenty-fifth day of the moon : i.e. Tuesday, 24th June, 637. 

' With fn. I ; but placed 11 years before 651. 

2 muindter. In C.S. familia. 

^ Cath Glinne Mairison . . . et obsessio Etain. (So also C.S., but with 
bellum for cath.) 

C.S., 84, s.a. [635] (f n. I ; Hennessy's year 637) : " The battle of Glend- 
Mairison, in which the family of Donald Brecc were put to flight ; and the 
siege of Etain." 



164 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

A.U., i, 102, s.a. 637 = 638 (with f.n. and e. of 638): "The battle of 
Glend-Mureson, and the siege of Etin " ifiellum glinne Mureson et obsesio 
Etiti). 

L. C. Stern's assumption (Revue Celtique, xvi, 23) that Beatm Eadain 
in Scottish =Beann Eadair (the Hill of Howth) in Irish Gaelic appears 
not to be correct. 

Reeves (Adamnan, 202, note) would identify Etain with Carriden, an 
older town than Edinburgh. Skene held this view (F.A.B.W., i, 178 ; 1868), 
but abandoned it (S.C.S., i, 249; 1886: "That Etin here is Edinburgh 
need not be doubted.") Joseph Anderson wished to identify the place with 
" Edin's Hall or Etin's Hold, on Cockburn Law, near Dunse, in Berwick- 
shire" (Tr. S.A.S., (1871) V, 164); for which see also J. Stuart, P.S.A.S., 
viii (1868-9), 41-46 ; D. Milne Home and G. Turnbull, in Tr. Berwickshire 
Naturalists' Club, (1856-62) 246-248, (1850-6) 9-20. 

There is some doubt about the identification of Etain or Etin. Dun- 
etain might possibly have been an Irish translation oi Eadwinesburh, which 
would have been a name of very recent origin in 640. The modern Gaelic 
name of Edinburgh {Duneideann, with palatal d, non-palatal n) is not 
derived from Dun-eiain ; but it might have come from Dun-etin (cf the 
spelling in A.U.). The Welsh Eiddyn is not the equivalent either oi Etain 
or of the modern Dimeideann (cf. the Aneurin, Gododin, e.g. Skene's 
F.A.B.W., i, 413, 414), but rather of Cair-Eden, or Carriden (see below, 
year 962, note). Eden (with aspirated d) was not the equivalent o{ Etain. 

Glenn-Mairiso7t or Glenn-Mureson has been rashly identified with the 
valley of Murieston Water, which joins the Linhouse Water and with it 
the Almond at Mid-Calder (12 miles from Edinburgh). But Murieston 
Water is spelt Muirhouseton Water in old maps, and appears to take its 
name from Muirhouse on the border of Mid and West Calder parishes ; 
just as its sister-stream took its name from a place called Linhouse. (Black's 
County Atlas of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1848.) The name Muirhouseton is 
English and modern, and even if it had existed in the 7th century {Mor- 
hus-tun) it would hardly have become Mureson in Irish. Mureson or 
Mairison, and Murieston, might have been derived from Morestun; if that 
were the original name, Muirhouseton would have been a form resulting 
from folk-etymology. 

The English chroniclers give no indication of a Dalriatan invasion of 
Northumbria at this time. St Aidan was labouring to Christianize 
Northumbria ; Oswald, a friend of the Scots, was king there. Donald had 
had difficulties at home ; there is no reason to suppose that he would have 
ventured so far from his own land to invade the most powerful kingdom in 
Britain, with which his nation had peaceful intercourse. He would have 
had to pass through a country that four years later was hostile to him. 

Glend also is part of the place-name, since it is Irish in a Latin sentence. 
There is a Glen Moriston or Morrison west of Loch Ness, about 30 miles 
within Pictish territory from the shore of Loch Eil. This may have been 
the place, if it is not, as it appears, of Teutonic origin. 

Etain may have been within the same locality, or on the line of retreat 



ETAIN AND RITHA. KING OSWALD 165 

ca. 642 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 104, s.a. 640 = 641 ^ 

The wreck of a boat of the community of lona. 
The siege of Ritha.^ 

642 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 185, s.a. [636]^ 

Oswald's battle against Penda ; and in it Oswald fell.* 

of the Scots. But the identification with Edinburgh is probably to be 
preferred, since the castle at Edinburgh was a place worthy of siege, and 
hardly to be taken by assault. 

^ With f.n. and e. for 641. 

^ Obsesio Rithae. This place is unidentified ; its siege may have been 
a continuation of the warfare in which Etain was besieged ; and since both 
sieges are mentioned after Scottish affairs, they seem to have occurred in 
Scotland. Cf. ca. 704. 

^ F.n. 2. Placed 10 year-sections before 651. In the margin is the 
date 4617 ; the year-section begins with the note : " Heracleonas, with his 
mother Martina, reigned two years." (This ends the year-section in A.U.) 
This is taken from Bede's Chronicle; M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 312, s.a. 
4593. His reign lasted some seven months in 641 (Gibbon). Near the 
end of the same year-section is the note: "At this time pope Theodore 
flourished" (so also in C.S., 86, s.a. [636], Hennessy's year 638). This is 
taken from Bede, u.s. ("in these times, that is under pope Theodore"). 
Theodore I was pope from 642 to 649. 

* This battle is noticed by A.U., i, 104, s.a. 638 = 639 (with f.n and e. of 
639). It is called the battle of Cocboy by the Historia Brittonum, below. 
A.I., 13, O'Conor's year 636 = 644 (45 years after 599): "The death of 
Oswald, king of the English," with the gloss Saxajt ("of the Saxons") 
above, and the note : " English is interpreted Saxon." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 103, s.a. 638 : "The battle of king Oswald 
against king Penda, wherein Oswald was slain." 

For the battle of Maserfelth (August 5th), see Bede's H.E., III. 9 , 
A.S.C., s.a. 641 (BCEF ; 642, A). Oswald had reigned 9 years, including 
the year (633-634) of Osric and Eanfrith. 

Cf. Fordun, III, 36 (i, 122). 

The Martyrology of Oengus places his death on August 5th : "... holy 
Oswald, to whom we pray, the noble sovereign of the Saxons." 

Alberic of Trois Fontaines, Chronica ; M.G.H., Scriptores, xxiii, 697, 
s.a. 642 : "The passion of St Oswald, king of the Northumbrians." 



166 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

642 

Historia Brittonum, c. 65 ; Monumenta Germaniae Historica, 
Auctores, vol. xiii, p. 208 

Penda, son of Pybba, reigned for ten years.^ He first 
separated the kingdom of the Mercians from the kingdom of 
the Northumbrians, And he slew Anna, the king of the 
East-Angles,2 and Oswald, the king of the Northumbrians,^ 
by treachery. [Penda] fought the battle of Cocboy,* in which 
fell Eova, Pybba's son, [Penda's] brother, king of the Mercians; 
and Oswald, king of the Northumbrians. And he was the 
conqueror by diabolical arts. He had not been baptized, and 
he never believed in God. 

?642 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 185, s.a. [637]^ 

The death of Brude, son of [Foith].^ 

?643 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 186, s.a. [638]'' 

Afterwards^ Donald Brecc was slain in the battle of 

' For his death, see year 655, below. 

2 Anna, king of the East Angles, was killed in 654 (A.S.C., ABCE). 

■'' See above, p. 15. 

* I.e. the battle of Maserfelth (perhaps Oswestry), 5th August, 642 ; 
Bade, H.E., III, 9. 

The Annales Cambriae, in Y Cymmrodor, ix, 158, s.a. [644] (the "200th 
year" after 444) : "The battle of Cocboy, in which fell Oswald, king of the 
Northumbrians, and Eoba, king of the Mercians." 

° F.n. 6 ; read 3, with O'Conor. Placed 9 year-sections before 651. 

" Similarly in C.S., 86, s.a. [637] (f.n. 3 ; Hennessy's year 639), and in 
A.U., i, 104, s.a. 640 = 641 (as above) : "The death of Brude, son of Foith." 
A.U. place this six years after the death of Gartnait. 

The Chronicle of the Picts gives Brude a reign of 5 years ; perhaps from 
637 to 642. 

^ F.n. 5 ; placed 8 year-sections before 651. The year-section begins 
thus : " Constantinus, the son of Heraclius, [reigned] for six months." 
(For rex, reading sex : A.U. also give this note, and more correctly. This 
is taken from Bede's Chronicle ; M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 312, 's.a. 4594.) 
" The death of Donald, son of Aed, son of Ainmire, king of Ireland, in the end 
of January, in the fourteenth year of his reign, in Ard-Fothaid." In the 
margin is given the date 4620, which belongs to Constantine's death. C.S. 
records Donald's death similarly, but reads "in his thirteenth year." A.U. say 



KINGS BRUDE AND DONALD BRECC 167 

Strathcarron.i in the end of the year, in December, in the 
fifteenth year of his reign, by Owen, king of the Britons.^ 

simply, s.a. 641=642 : "The death of Donald, Aed's son, king of Ireland, 
in the end of January." They place Donald's succession in 627 or 628 =628 
(with f.n. and e. of 628) ; Tigernach (for f.n. 7 read 4) and C.S. place it in 
[626] (Hennessy's year 628). See above, year 639, note. 

In one MS. of Paulus Diaconus, M.G.H., Scriptores Rerum Langobardi- 
carum, 13, note: "Six hundred and eighteen years from the Lord's 
baptism to the death of Donald, king of the [Irish] Scots." 

Constantinus III was emperor for 103 days in 641 (Gibbon). 

The same year-section, in T. and A.U., records a battle between Oswiu 
and the Britons. This was probably the battle of the Winwaed ; see below, 
year 655. 

^ After the death of Donald, king of Ireland. 

^ Sratha Caiiin, in T. ; Sratha Carum, C.S. ; sraith Cairtiin, A.U. 

2 Similarly in C.S., 86, s.a. [638], Hennessy's year 640 (between ferial 
numbers 3 and 6). A.U. give a similar account, but say : "he reigned for 
fifteen years" (i, 104, s.a. 641=642, with fn. and e. of 642). These all repeat 
this event at a later date ; Tigernach, u.s., 209, under the year of the battle 
of Dunnichen (see year 685) : " Donald Brecc, son of Eochaid Buide, fell 
[slain] by Owen, king of the Britons, in the battle of Strathcarron." To 
the same effect also in C.S., 108, Hennessy's year 682. A.U., i, 136, s.a. 
685 = 686 : ". . . Donald Brecc, son of Eochaid, died." D.M.F., II, 88, in 
the corresponding year-section r " Donald Brecc, Eochaid Buide's son, 
died." 

A.I., 13, O'Conor's year 635 = 643 (44 years after 599): "The death of 
Donald, Aed's son, and of Donald Brecc." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. no, s.a. 681: "Donald Brecc, son of 
Eochaid Buide, was slain by Henry [Henery], king of the Britons, in the 
battle of Strath-carron " {Srait Cormhaich). 

The earlier date of Donald's death is given with variations by all four 
Irish annals, and is more or less supported by Fland ; it must therefore be 
accepted provisionally. But we cannot reject the authority of Fland, who 
says that Ferchar reigned before [643], or wholly the authority of the Duan 
and all the lists of kings, which say that Ferchar reigned before Donald 
Brecc ; we are therefore compelled to assume that Ferchar and Donald 
Brecc reigned for a time contemporaneously. 

There is considerable divergence among the authorities in this period 
of the history of Argyle. Chronicles of Dalriata EFK, and the Duan, say 
that Donald reigned for 14 years [? 630- ? 643]; the Irish annals say for 15 or 
over 14 years, although that does not agree with their implied dates of his 
reign (in Tigernach and C.S., 627-638 ; A.U., 629-642, or 673-686 ; A.I., 
631-643). Fland, the Duan, and Chronicles of Dalriata EFIKN, place 
Ferchar's reign before Donald's ; A.U. record Donald's death at 642 and 
686, and Ferchar's at 694. Donald is there spoken of as being alive 
possibly in 673, certainly in 678. 



168 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. 644 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 187, s.a. [639] ^ 

The burning of larnbodb, Gartnait's son. 

Donald was killed by a king whose brother (probably) died in 694, and 
whose son died in 695. 

Ferchar's grandfather died ca. 575, Donald's ca. 607. It is possible 
that Donald should have lived till 686, but scarcely possible that Ferchar 
should have lived till 694. The Scottish events recorded in A.U. at 678, 
686, 694, are almost certainly misplaced. 

The misplaced entries in A.U. may give Donald a reign of 14 years 
(673-686) ; and between 678 and 694 they would allow Ferchar the 16 years' 
reign that he receives in the Chronicles of Dalriata and the Duan. 
Perhaps A.U.'s intervals (673-678-686-694) are correct, although the dates 
are not. Possibly a compiler wrongly imagined that Donald was spoken 
of as king in 673, and counted the years from that date as if it had been 
the first year of Donald's reign. In that case the true dates would be 
approximately 630, 635, 643, 651, 673. 

See years ?635, ?65i, notes. 

Fordun, Chronica, III, 34 (i, 120): "When Ferchar" (the son of 
Eochaid Buide ; a fictitious king, for whom see years 630, 693) "had been 
buried in the island of Columba, his brother Donald Brecc received the 
kingdom in the year of the Lord 632, and the twentieth year of the same 
Heraclius (i.e. in 629-630) ; "and he reigned for fourteen years." Here 
Fordun quotes from Adamnan, I, 10 (Reeves, 36-37 ; Skene, 121-122) a 
blessing and prophecy spoken by Columba with regard to Donald, son 
of Aed, son of Ainmire ; "he shall survive after all his brothers, and shall 
be a very famous king ; he shall never be betrayed into the hands of his 
enemies, but shall die upon his bed a placid death, in old age, and within 
his own house, in the presence of a crowd of intimate friends. And all 
these things were completely fulfilled with regard to him, according to the 
blessed man's prophecy." But Fordun alters the passage to make it apply 
to Donald Brecc, and continues as above, year 633, note. 

Fordun, Chronica, III, 37 (i, 123): "Donald died after completing 
fourteen years in the kingdom ; and his nephew Ferchar Fota, the son of 
Ferchar" (who was, according to Fordun, the son of Eochaid Buide ; III, 
34 ; but these relationships are fictitious) " was advanced to the rule of the 
kingdom and crowned. He began to reign in the year of the Lord 646, 
the third year of . . . Constans, who was also called Constantinus" (641- 
668.) " And he held the kingdom for eighteen years, and reigned the whole 
time in peace." 

Donald Brecc did die in the third year of Constans II ; but his 
successor appears to have been Conall Crandomna. Fordun's account is 
altogether confused. He makes Maelduin (t 688) the successor of Ferchar 
Fota (+ 696). 

' F.n. 3 ; read 6, with O'Conor and the corresponding year-section of 
C,S. Placed 7 year-sections before 651. 



ACCIDAN'S GRANDSONS 169 

ca. 649 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 108, s.a. 648 = 649^ 

War [took place] between the descendants of Aidan and 
[the descendants] of Gartnait, son of Accidan.^ 

ca. 650 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 191, s.a. [646]^ 

The death of Cathasach, son of Donald Brecc* 

651, August 31 

Tigernach,' Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 191 ^ 

The repose of Aidan, bishop of the Saxons.*^ 

Tigernach begins the year thus : " Constantinus, son of Constantinus, 
reigned for twenty-eight years." This appears also in A.U. It is derived 
from Bede's Chronicle ; M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 313, s.a. 4622. Constans 
II, son of Constantinus III, was emperor from 641 to 668. In Tigernach's 
margin is the date 4638, 18 years later than the date of the previous 
year-section (4620, Bede's 4594). These dates are derived from Bade, 
erroneously. 

' With f.n. and e. of 649. 

^ For the sons of Gartnait see below, years 668 and 670. larnbodb 
(t ca. 644) may have been a son of Gartnait, Accidan's son. 

^ F.n. I ; placed one year-section before 651. The year-section begins, 
in Tigernach, C.S., and A.U., with a notice of the battle of the Winwasd, 
fought in 655 ; see below. In the next year-section is placed the death of 
bishop Aidan, who died in 651. S.a. [644] (fn. 5) in Tigernach, and in 
C.S. (Hennessy's year 644), is the note: "At this time pope Martin 
flourished." This is taken from Bede's mention of "pope Martin" in his 
Chronicle ; M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 313. Martin I was pope from 649 
to 655. 

* Similarly in C.S., 90, Hennessy's year 647 ; and in A.U., i, loS, 
s.a. 649 = 650 (with f.n. and e. of 650). 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 104, s.a. 647 : "Cellach," (read "Cathasach") 
"son of Donald Brecc, died. Cronan of Moville died" (t65o, August 7th). 

Cathasach's death is placed after the battle of Dun-cremthainn, in T., 
C.S., and A.U. F.M., i, 262, s.a. 646, say that he was killed in that battle. 
For the death of Donald Brecc's grandson Cathasach, see year 688. 

^ With f.n. 6, perhaps for 650. Under the same year is entered " the 
slaying of Oswine, Osric's son " ; i.e., the king of Deira, who was killed in 
651. (E.C., 19, note.) 

The date is fixed by Bede's authority. 

" Similarly in C.S., 90, Hennessy's year 648; and in A.U., i, 108, 
s.a. 650 = 651 (with f.n. and e. of 651). 



170 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

? ca. 65 1 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i,.p. 142, s.a. 693=694 

The death of Ferchar, son of Connad Cerr.^ 

Bede (III, 17) is followed by Fordun (III, 37). 

The Martyrology of Oeng-us places Aidan's death on the 31st of 
August :—"Aidan, the bright sun of Inis-Medcoit" (Lindisfarne). There 
is this note in Lebar Brecc (1880 Oengus, cxxxv) : "That is, of Inis-Cathaig ; 
or Inis-Medcoit in the north-west of the [land of the] Little-Saxons, and 
Aidan [lies] there : Aidan, son of Lugar, son of Ernin, son of Gael, son of 
Aed, son of Artchorp, son of Niacorp." (Cf the Martyrology of Donegal, 
230.) Oengus indicates the death of Aidan's uncle " Enan of Druimm 
Rdthe" under August 19th (similarly in Martyrologies of Tallaght and 
Donegal: "Son of Ernin" etc. in MS. Laud 610; 1905 Oengus 188), and 
Enan's birth under September i8th. Tigernach, R.C., xvii, 182, s.a. [631] 
(fn. 3, but 15 year-sections before 651): "Enan of Druimm-Raithe 
reposed." So also in C.S., 82, s.a. [631] (fn. 3 ; Hennessy's year 633). 
This note should refer to the year 636. According to L.B., Enan rests "in 
the west of Meath" (1880 Oengus, cxlvi). 

The death of the "blessed Aidan Scottigena" is recorded in 651, 
August 31st, by Herimannus Augiensis, Chronicon ; M.G.H., Scriptores, 
V, 94. Annales Breves Fuldenses, M.G.H., Scriptores, ii, 237, s.a. 651 : — 
" Bishop Aidan died." 

' Mors Fercair mic Conaeth cirr. 

This is placed (after a siege of Dunnottar) 8 years after the death of 
Donald Brecc (t ca. 643) recorded in 686 ; it appears to be one of a series 
of Scottish events that are misplaced (at 678, 686, and 694) in A.U. See 
year 643, note. 

Chronicles of Dalriata DPTK (above, p. cxxx) call Ferchar "Eogan's 
son," which is probably due to a false reading. Fland calls him " Conaing's 
son," which might also mean son of Conaing, Aidan's son ; but the Duan 
and Chronicle of Dalriata E support the reading of A.U. The Chronicles 
of Dalriata and the Duan give Ferchar a reign of 16 years after Connad, 
thus suggesting that Ferchar died 645 x 647. 

Connad Cerr died ca. 630 ; his father Conall died in ?574 ; his grand- 
father Comgall, in ?537. Connad's son Ferchar must have been a very 
old man if he lived until 694. The period of 120 years is a most unlikely 
one to have elapsed between the deaths of grandfather and grandson. 
It is fairly safe to assume that this entry is misplaced. If Ferchar died ca. 
651, he should have become king ca. 635 (q.v.), about the time of the battle 
of Calathros. 

A.U., i, 144, s.a. 694 = 695 (with fn. and e. of 695) record : "Tomnat, 
Ferchar's wife, died." Perhaps this was the wife of Ferchar, Connad's son. 
In that case, allowing for a 43-years' displacement, her death would have 
occurred ?ca. 652. 



KINGS FERCHAR AND TALORC 171 

652 

Tigernaoli, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 192 ^ 
The death of Segine, abbot of lona, the son of Fiachna.^ 

653 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 192 ^ 

The death of Fereth, son of Tothalan.* 

The death of Talorc,*^ Foith's son, king of the Picts.^ 

' This event begins the year-section next after that containing Aidan's 
death. Under the same year is the note : " Pope Vitalianus flourished 
at this time." Vitalianus was pope from 657 to 672. The source drawn 
from is probably Bede's Chronicle, M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 313, under the 
reign of Constantinus [IV] [668-685] : Bede draws from Liber Pontificalis, 
c. 78. 

2 Similarly in A.U., i, no, s.a. 651=652 (with f.n. and e. of652, and the 
marginal note "bissextile"). C.S., 92, Hennessy's year 649 : "The death 
of Segine, abbot of lona." A.I., 14, O'Conor's year 642 = 650x653: 
"The repose . . . of Segine, abbot of lona." 

Martyrology of Oengus, August 12th: "The festival of renowned 
Segine," with this note in L.B. :— "abbot of lona of Columcille" (1880 
Oengus, cxxx ; cf 1905 ed., 184). 

Under August 12th, the Martyrology of Gorman, p. 154: "Segine, 
prince of the good stars" {flait\K\ na forend), "the good, great fair abbot 
of lona" ; and the note : " Fachtna's son, abbot of lona of Columcille." 

"Segine, abbot of lona" Brussels Martyrology of Tallaght, Kelly, 
p. xxxii, August i2th : and Book of Leinster, 361 d. His death is placed 
on i2th August, 651, in the Martyrology of Donegal, p. 216. 

The abbot Segine, successor of Columba and of the other saints ; and 
Cummine's brother, Beccan, a solitary, with his followers {sapientes), 
received a letter De Controversia Paschali from Cummine Fota {Cum- 
mianiis, siipplex peccator, magnis minimus); P.L. 87, 969-978. 

^ Placed 2 years after 651. 

* Ferich maic Toialain in Tigernach; Ferith in A.U. "Tothalan" is 
the same name as "Tuathalan" below, years ca. 659, 663, 688. It appears 
to be associated with Scottish events. 

^ Tolairg, Tigernach and A.U. 

" A.U., i, no, s.a. 652 or 653 = 653 (with fn. and e. of 653): "The 
death of Fereth, Tothalan's son, and of Talorc, Foith's son, king of the 
Picts." This is placed twelve years after the death of Brude. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 104, s.a. 649 : " Segine, abbot of lona, 
died [652]. . . . 

" Fereth, Totholan's son {JTerith mcFoholai{\, and Talorc Foith's son 
\Octlarge mcFogitK], king of the Picts, died." 

The Chronicle of the Picts says that king Talorc reigned for 12 years 
(perhaps from 642 to 653). 



172 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

6S4 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 193 ^ 

The battle of Srath-Ethairt [was gained] by Talorcan,- 
Eanfrith's son, king of the Picts ; and there fell Duncan, son 
of Conaing, and Congal, son of Ronan.^ 

^ Placed 3 years after 651. 

^ In text, Tolartach mac Anfrait. In C.S., Tolarcan mac Ai?tfith. See 
below, year 657. 

^ Similarly in C.S., 94, Hennessy's year 651. 

A.U., i, 112, s.a. 653 = 654 (with f.n. and €. of 654): "The battle of 
Srath-Ethairt, where Duncan, Conaing's son, fell." 

Duncan's father may have been Conaing', Aidan's son, who died in early 
manhood in 622, but left children (see genealogy II after the Senchus ; 
above, p. cliv) ; or possibly Connad Cerr, who died in ?630, and whose 
son Ferchar's death is entered above, ?ca. 651. (The names Conaing and 
Connad are frequently interchanged.) 



PART VI 

Zenith and Decline of Northumbria 

655, November 15th 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 194 ^ 

The battle of Penda, king of the Saxons ; and he fell in it, 
with thirty kings. Oswiu was the conqueror.^ 

1 This is placed under f.n. i, four years after 651. Tigernach ceases 
here to give ferial numbers. 

^ This was the battle of the Winwsed, fought on the 15th November, 
655 (E.C., 24, note). 

Tigernach has perhaps already noticed this battle, at the end of the 
year-section for [638] (fn. S; R.C., xvii, 186): " Osvviu's battle, [fought] 
between him and the Britons." (Stokes's conjecture : the text is corrupt.) 
And again under [646] (fn. i; R.C., xvii, 190): "The battle of Oswiu 
against Penda ; and in it Penda fell, with thirty kings." The last notice 
appears similarly in C.S., 90, Hennessy's year 647. It is derived from A.S.C. 

A.U. record the battle, i, 106, s.a. 641=642: "The battle of Oswiu 
against the Britons" ; i, 108, s.a. 649 = 650 : "The battle of Oswiu against 
Penda" ; i, H2, s.a. 655 = 656 : "The battle of Penda, king of the Saxons. 
Oswiu was the conqueror." In the last place it is followed by "the battle 
of Anna" : Anna, king of the East Angles, was killed by Penda, king of 
the Mercians, in 654. Also i, 142, s.a. 692 = 693: "A battle against 
Penda"; but in the corresponding place C.S., no, Hennessy's year 689, 
reads : "A battle against Penda's son." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 104, s.a. 642: "The battle of Oswiu against 
Penda, in which Penda with 20 kings were slain (in the year 625)." The 
last words {anno 625) are evidently a gloss. Ibid., 105, s.a. 652: "The 
battle of Penda, king of the Saxons, was fought against Oswiu, where 
Penda himself, together with 30 kings, were slain, and Oswiu was victor." 
These Annals seem to show that the first entry in T. and A.U. also refers to 
the battle of the Winwaed, and that probably all the entries of Penda's 
battle are of the same event. 

No doubt the Britons were still with Penda ; otherwise he could hardly 
have had on his side a large number of chiefs or kings. Even the expression 
"legions trained in war," applied by Bede to Penda's forces, suggests the 
idea of forces trained in the Roman tradition. But British aid was no 
longer so effective as it had been under Catguollaun (see year 633). 

It is improbable that Argyle should have supported a pagan king 
17a 



174: EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

against the Christian Oswiu, even to throw off his overlordship. Oswiu's 
kingdom had received Christianity from Argyle only 20 years before, and 
the success of the mission should have created good feehng between the 
two countries. The suzerainty over the Scots between 655 and 685 was 
probably peaceful, and was the natural result of Northumbria's overlordship 
over the Picts and over Strathclyde. 

A.S.C. ABC, s.a. 655: "In this year Penda perished." A.S.C. E, 
s.a. 654 (the first sentence also inF): "In this year, king Oswiu slew 
king Penda on Winwidfelda, and with him 30 men of royal family \xxx 
cynebearnd\. And some of them were kings. One of them was ^thelhere, 
brother of Anna, the king of the East Angles." This is derived from Bede. 

Bede's account is as follows (H.E., III, 24): "In these times king 
Oswiu, after suffering cruel and unendurable invasions of the Mercians' 
often-mentioned king, who had killed [Oswiu's] brother [Oswald], at last 
driven by necessity promised that he would give him innumerable royal 
ornaments or gifts, and greater than can be believed, as the price of peace ; 
provided that he would return home, and desist from wasting to extermina- 
tion the provinces of [Oswiu's] kingdom. And when the faithless king 
\rex perfidus\ altogether refused assent to [Oswiu's] prayers, having 
determined to destroy and to depopulate his whole nation, both small and 
great ; [Oswiu] turned to the aid of divine pity, that he might thereby 
be rescued from barbarian cruelty. And he bound himself by a vow, saying, 
' If a pagan cannot accept our gifts, let us offer them to the Lord our God, 
who can.' So he vowed that if he were 'the victor he would offer his 
daughter [St ^Ifflsed] in dedication to the Lord in sacred virginity, and 
would also give twelve holdings of lands for the construction of monasteries. 
And so he entered the contest with a very small army. Indeed it is said 
that the pagans had an army thirty times greater ; because they had 
thirty legions, trained in warfare, with very noble leaders, while king Oswiu 
and his son Ealhfrith went to meet them with only a very small army, as 
I have said, but with trust in Christ as their leader. 

" For [Oswiu's] other son, Ecgfrith, was held as a hostage at that time 
in the province of the Mercians, by queen Cynewise \Cynuise\. And king 
Oswald's son, ^thelweald, who ought to have been assisting them, had 
been upon the side of their opponents, as their guide when they set out to 
fight against his native land and against his uncle ; although at the 
moment of fighting he had withdrawn himself from the battle, and awaited 
the result of the hazard in a safe place. 

" So the contest began, and the pagans were routed and slain ; and 
thirty royal leaders who had come to their aid were almost all of them 
killed. Among these ^thelhere, the brother of king Anna of the East 
Angles (and after [Anna] their king), himself the instigator of the war, 
was killed, after losing his soldiers and auxiliaries. And because the battle 
was fought near the river Winwssd, and the river had at that time widely 
overflowed its bed, indeed all its banks, through the inundation of rains, it 
happened that the water destroyed many more in their flight than the 
sword had destroyed in the battle. . . ." (Oswiu fulfilled his vow.) " And 



DOMINION OF KING OSWIU 175 

655-658 

Chronicle of Holyrood, p. 1 1 

The seventh [Bretwalda] was Oswiu, [Oswald's] brother, 
who controlled the kingdom for some time within almost the 
same boundaries ; and for the most part subdued the nations 
also of the Picts and Scots, which hold the northern territories 
of Britain, and made them tributary.^ 

king Oswiu fought this battle in the district of Loidis, to the great benefit 
of both peoples. . . ." For the continuation, see above, p. 16, note. 

F.W., i, 22-23, follows Bede and A.S.C. ; but says that "the faithless 
king of the Mercians, Penda, slayer of the kings of the East Angles, 
Sigebeorht, Ecgric, Anna, moreover also of Edwin and Oswald, kings of 
the Northumbrians, . . . rose into Bernicia, to conquer in battle their 
king Oswiu. . . ." 

Annales Cambriae, Y Cymmrodor, ix, 158, s.a. [656] (2 years after the 
2ioth year from 444): "The slaughter of Gai plain"; and immediately 
afterwards, s.a. [657], " The slaying of Penda" {Pantha occisid). Immediately 
after this, s.a. [658], "Oswiu came and took plunder." Thus it is implied 
that Penda survived the battle of Gai plain, and was killed in the following 
year ; but this account is probably derived from the confused narrative in 
the genealogies appended to the Historia Brittonum, and is not to be relied 
upon. See above, pp. 15-16. 

Penda was king of Mercia from 626 to 655 (A.S.C. ABC ; to 654, EF). 
But the genealogical additions to Historia Brittonum, followed by A.C., 
would imply that he succeeded his brother, Eova, as king of Mercia in 642. 

Penda's pedigree (eleven generations from Woden) is given in A.S.C. 
BC, s.a. 626. 

Penda's genealogy (nine generations from Woden) is given also in the 
genealogies after the Historia Brittonum, M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 203-204. 
Thence : ". . . Earner begot Pubba ; this Pubba had twelve sons, of whom 
two are better known to me than the others, i.e. Penda and Eva. 

" Eadlit son of Pantha, Penda son of Pubba. 

" Eadlbald son of Eva, son of Penda, son of Pubba. 

" Egfrid, son of Ofifa, son of Duminfert, son of Eandulf, son of Ossulf, son 
of Eva, son of Pubba." 

In the additions to the Historia Brittonum (above, p. 16) the passages 
in which he is called Penda are placed, in wrong order, after the death of 
" Pantha." Perhaps they were taken in part from an English source. 

The Irish Annals' form of the name is Pante or Pantaj the form in A.C., 
Pantha {Pantha occisid). Penda is the form in A.S.C. 

1 From Bede, H.E., II, 5. C.H. reads "Oswin" for "Oswiu." Oswiu 
is called "king of the Scots and Picts," in B.S. in R.B.H., 385. 

Sigebert of Gemblours, M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 325, s.a. 656 : "And 
[Oswiu] reduced the Picts also to the kingdom of the Angles." This is 
taken from Bede, but with characteristic slovenliness of rendering. 



176 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Tigernacli, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, pp. 194, 195 ^ 
The repose of Suibne, Cuirthre's son, the abbot of 
lona.^ . . . 

The death of Talorcan, Eanfrith's son, the king of the Picts.^ 

658 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 114, s.a. 657 = 658* 

The death of Guret, king of Dumbarton. 

ca. 659 

Tigernacli, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 195 ^ 

The death of Finan, Rimid's son, bishop [of Lindisfarne]. 
. . . And Daniel, bishop of Kingarth, [reposed]. ** 
Conall Crandomna died.'^ 
Eoganan, son of Tuathalan, died.^ 

' This is placed 5 years after 651. 

"- Similarly in C.S., 94, Hennessy's year 653 ; in A.U., i, 114, s.a. 
656 = 657 (with f.n. and e. of 657) ; and in F.M., i, 266, s.a. 654; and 
the Annals of Clonmacnoise, 105, s.a. 653. 

The Martyrology of Gorman (14) commemorates Suibne under January 
nth, with the note, "abbot of lona of Columcille, Suibne, Cuirtri's son." 
The Martyrology of Donegal (12) places his death on nth January, 656. 

^ Similarly in C.S. and A.U., u.s. The Annals of Clonmacnoise, u.s. : 
"Talorcan, Eanfrith's son \Tolorchati mcAnfritli\, king of the Picts, died." 

The Chronicles of the Picts give Talorcan a reign of 4 years ; probably 
653 to 657. 

■> With f.n. and e. of 658. 

* This is placed 8 years after 651. 

^ Similarly in C.S., 94, Hennessy's year 656, and in A.U., i, 116, 
s.a. 659 = 660 (with ferial and lunar numbers for 660, and the marginal note 
"bissextile"). In F.M., i, 268-270, s.a. 659 (and "the 3rd year of Diarmait 
and Blathmac," sovereigns of Ireland) : " Daniel, bishop of Kingarth, died 
on the 1 8th of February. Bishop Finan, Rimid's son, died." The Martyr- 
ology of Gorman (38) places " Daniel Dond-gel" (" the princely-fair" Stokes) 
under February i8th, with the note : "bishop of Kingarth." 

Cf the Martyrology of Donegal, 52, February i8th. 

Finan's death is noted (from Bede) by the Annales Breves Fuldenses ; 
M.G.H., Scriptores, ii, 237, s.a. 658. But Bede's reckoning (III, 26 ; E.C., 
32) makes Finan's bishopric last from 651 to 661. 

One of the earliest bishops of Kingarth was Blaan, or Blane. An 
ancient chapel "dedicated to St Blane at Kingarth in Bute" is described 
by W. Galloway, in Tr. S.A.S., v, 317-333. 

Martyrology of Oengus, August loth : " With a host, sound, of noble 



KINGS TALORCAN, GURET, CONALL, AND DUNCAN 177 

birth, well-coloured, [died] fair BWan of Kingarth." In the Franciscan 
MS. is this note (1905 Oengus, 184) : "i.e., a bishop of Kingarth, and his 
principal seat was Dunblane {Dtil Blaa}t\ ; and he was from Kingarth, i.e., 
in Galloway." Similarly in L.B. (1880 Oengus, cxxx). In Rawlinson B 
505 (1905 Oengus, 184): "Blaan, a bishop of Kingarth in Galloway" {hi 
n-GallgaidelaiU). 

Martyrology of Tallaght, August loth, Book of Leinster, 361 c : 
"[Festival of] Blaan, bishop of Kingarth in Galloway" {i n-gall-gaedelaib ; 
in Kelly's text, p. xxxi, in Gallghaedelaibh Udiwchtan). 

Cf. the Breviary of Aberdeen, ii, S, 77, August loth : " Blaanus, having 
his origin from the island of Bute, through his mother, Ertha, sister of the 
blessed bishop ^praesul\ Cathanus" of noble Irish descent. This Breviary 
says that Blaan was taught in Ireland by bishops Congall and Kenneth 
for seven years before he returned to Bute. (Cf also ibid., 173-174). 

Another early bishop of Kingarth was Colum. 

Martyrology of Gorman, 46, March ist: "Colum the gently-modest" 
{caemfial) ; with the note " of Kingarth." So in the Brussels Martyrology 
of Tallaght, Kelly, p. xvii, March ist : " [Festival] of Columba of Kingarth." 
" Colum of Kingarth " in Martyrology of Donegal, 60, March ist. 

For bishop lolan see year 688. Abbots of Kingarth died in 737, 776, 
790 (below) ; priest Temnen in 732. 

' Similarly in C.S., 96, u.s. ; A.U., U.S. ; F.M., i, 268, s.a. 658. 

The Duan Albanach, in Skene's P. & S., 60: "After Donald Brecc of 
the towns \T!a m-bld\, Conall [and] Dungal [reigned] for ten years." Cf year 
696, note. Dungal is doubtless the same man as Fland's Duncan, Duban's 
son (see p. 190). 

Conall Crandomna, son of Eochaid Buide (cf. Senchus, II ; above, p. 
civ), was king of Dalriata ; he was of the Cenel-Gabrain, of Knapdale. 
The Duan implies that during his whole reign he shared the kingdom with 
Duncan ; but its evidence is not decisive. Probably Conall's hegemony 
over Argyle was disputed. (Cf year 639, note.) About 655, part at least 
of Argyle became subject to Northumbria. Possibly some other part 
refused to submit to Northumbria, or to|the king recognized by Northumbria ; 
this might account for some of the claimants to the kingship at this time. 

Duban is unknown. He may have been Duncan's foster-father. A 
Duncan, son of Conaing, and perhaps first-cousin of Conall, died in 654 : 
he might have shared the kingdom with Conall (ca. 651-654). Duncan, son 
of the Eoganan who died in the same year as Conall, hved until 680, and 
appears to have been the ancestor of claimants, from Antrim, to the throne 
of Argyle : he might have reigned for a few years after Conall (possibly ca. 
659-663) ; but in that case the lo-years' reign of Conall and Duncan would 
have begun a few years after 65 1 (possibly in 654), if we trust the number 
given by the Duan. No decision is justified by the evidence. 

Conall Crandomna's sons fell in 688 and 696. Duncan's grandson fell 
in 700. 

* Similarly in C.S., 96, u.s. ; A.U., u.s. F.M., u.s., s.a. 658 : " Eogan, 
Tuathalan's son, died." 

M 



178 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

66i 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 196 ^ 

Abbot Cummine came to Ireland.^ 

661 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 198 ^ 

The death of Gartnait, Donald's son, king of the Picts ; and 
of Donald, son of Tuathal[an],* and of Tuathal, son of Morcant.^ 

1 Placed nine years after 65 r, but in a year-section corresponding to 
A.U.'s 660 = 661. Tigernach records in the next year-section the sixth 
universal council of the church at Constantinople ; i.e., the council of 
680 to 681. 

2 Similarly in C.S., 96, Hennessy's year 657. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 105, s.a. 657 : " Cummine [Co)?tyn'\ came to 
Ireland this year." 

This was Cummine the White, abbot of lona, who died in 669. 

^Placed II years after 651. In the next year-section Tigernach, C.S., 
and A.U., record: "Darkness on the Kalends of May, in the ninth hour" 
(2-3 p.m.). This was the eclipse of 664, May 1st, 3J p.m., Paris time 
(L'Art) ; 36 minutes earlier at Armagh. 

* In text, "of Tuathal." 

This passage appears similarly in C.S., 96, Hennessy's year 659, but 
with the reading "Donald, son of Tuathalan"; and in A.U., i, 118, 
s.a. 662 = 663 (with f.n. and e. of 663), with the reading "Donald, son of 
Totholan." 

The Chronicle of the Picts (ABC) says that Gartnait reigned six and a 
half years ; perhaps from 657 to 663. See year 672. He may possibly 
have been a son of Donald Brecc (year 643), but hardly the father of Cano 
(years 668, 687). 

'' Similarly in A.U., u.s. ( " the death of Tuathal, son of Morgand"). 

In the parallel year-section [663] of D.M.F., II, 64, "Tuathal, son of 
Morgann, died." 

Cf. Annales Cambriae, Y Cymmrodor, ■ ix, 158-159, s.a. [665] (i year 
after the "220th year" after 444) : "The first [true] Easter was celebrated 
among the Saxons. A battle of Badon, a second time. Morcant died." 
(Phillimore understands the battle to have been that of B{t)edan-heafod oi 
the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 675.) In 665 the Roman and Celtic 
Easters coincided (MacCarthy's tables) ; therefore this part of the annal 
probably belongs to 664. 

Misplacing Maelduin's reign, Fordun, Chronica, III, 40 (i, 125) says : 
"In this year [664] St Colman returned to Scotland, and Tuda succeeded 
him" (Bede III, 26). "And during the whole time of the preaching of the 
Scots in Anglia steadfast peace and communion was preserved, without 
discord of strife ; but when at last, multiplied principally through the 
teaching of the Scots, the clergy of native Anglian race had increased, it 



KING GARTNAIT. ACCIDAN'S GRANDSONS 179 

664 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 11 8, s.a. 663 = 664 ^ 

The battle of Lutho-feirnn, in Fortriu.^ 

668 

Tigemach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 200 ^ 

The voyage of bishop Colman, with relics of saints, to the 
island of the white heifer [Inishboffin], in which he founded a 
church.* 

And the voyage of the sons of Gartnait to Ireland, with 
the populace of Skye.^ 

began ungratefully to despise altogether its holy teachers, and to seek 
many and various excuses whereby to compel them to return to Scotland, 
or else to endure an intolerable burden placed upon them. And so 
thenceforward, during the twenty years in which Maelduin reigned, there 
was never or seldom peace between the kingdoms, but almost continually 
raid succeeded raid, devastating first one side, then the other ; yet no battle 
fought in these times great enough to be recorded is found in the chronicles 
of either people. 

" But in [Maelduin's] fifth year '' (668-669, in Fordun's reckoning) " a 
very severe mortality of men oppressed all Europe with dreadful slaughter." 
Here follows a quotation from Adamnan ; see below, 686, 688. 

For the true period of Maelduin's reign, see year 688. 

The dispute over Easter is mentioned (after Bede) by Sigebert of 
Gemblours, M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 325, s.a. 664. 

The Annales Breves Fuldenses (M.G.H., ii, 237, s.a. 664) erroneously 
place Colman's death in 664. 

1 With f.n. and e. for 664, and the note " bissextile." In the same year- 
section is recorded the eclipse of 664. 

^ Bellum Lutho feirnn i. i Fortrinn. Lutho looks like a genitive 
formation. This place has not been identified. 

^ Placed 4 years after 664. 

■* Cf. D.M.F., II, 66, 70. Duald reads: "With relics of many 
saints." Colman's voyage is noted by F.M., i, 278, s.a. 667. Colman's 
foundation of Mayo is noted (from Bede) by Alberic of Trois Fontaines, 
M.G.H., Scriptores, xxiii, 698, s.a. 664. See E.C., 35. 

'" cum plebe Scith. Cf Adamnan's Scia i7tsula. The genitive is Scetk, 
Sciadj dative, Scii, ? Set, in A.U. 

This whole passage appears similarly in C.S., 100, Hennessy's year 664 
(with two false readings : cum religui\i^s Scotorum for sanctorum, and 
cumplebe Seth for Sceth) ; and in A.U., i, 120, s.a. 667 = 668 (with marginal 
note "bissextile"). 

For the sons of Gartnait, Accidan's son, see ca. 649. One of his sons 
seems to have been Cano (t 687) ; see years 673, 705. This Cano's flight 



180 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

669 

Tigemach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 201 ^ 

The death of Cummine the White, abbot of lona.^ . . . 
Itharnan and Corindu died among the Picts.^ 



670 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 201 * 

The people 5 of Gartnait came from Ireland.'' 

seems to have been placed in legend in the reign of Aidan : see year ?6oi, 
note. Even if the voyage from Skye were one of the events that the annals 
have entered about 43 years too late (see year 643, note), it would still not 
have occurred within the reign of Aidan. But the date is probably 
approximately correct. 

^ Placed 5 years after 664. 

2 Similarly in C.S., loc, Hennessy's year 665 ; and in A.U., i, 122, 
s.a. 668 = 669. 

D.M.F., II, 66 (Skene's P. & S., 402) : "Cummine the White, abbot of 
lona, reposed." This is placed before Colman's foundation of Inishboffiii. 

F.M., i, 278-280, s.a. 668 (and "the 4th year of Sechnasach," sovereign of 
Ireland) : " St Cummine the White, abbot of lona of Columcille, died on the 
24th of February." 

The Martyrology of Oengus commemorates him under February 24th : 
"An abbot of lona of splendid intellect, Cummine the White, the excellent" 
{find, febdaj perhaps "aged"); with this note in Lebar Brecc (i88o 
Oengus, liv) : " Cummine, the son of Dinertach : he it was that took with 
him the relics of Paul and Peter, to Disert-Cummine in the precincts 
[ termand] of Roscrea ; and they escaped from him to Roscrea." Similarly 
in Rawlinson B 512 (1905 Oengus, 78). 

Martyrology of Gorman (p. 42) commemorates Cummine under 
February 24th, with the note, "abbot of lona" ; the Brussels Martyrology 
of Tallaght, ed. Kelly, p. xvi, under February 24th, notes " Cummine the 
White, son of Fiachna, son of Feradach ; abbot of lona." The Martyrology 
of Donegal says that he died on 24th February, 668. 

^ Apiid Pictores ; so also in A.U. (C.S. reads Picto7ies.) In the Irish 
annals Picii and Pictores (most commonly in the genitive case, Pictoruni) 
are the usual names for the Scottish Picts, Cruith7ti standing for the Irish 
Picts. (E.g. in A.U. Pictos occurs at 697 = 698 and 788 = 789; Pictores 
reappears at 727 = 728; Pictones, probably from a textual error, stands at 

749 = 750-) 

This sentence appears similarly in C.S., u.s. (with the spelling Ituntan 
and Corinda or Cormdd) ; and in A.U., u.s. (with the spelling Itarnan). 

This was probably not S. Ternan ; for whom see above, p. 42. 

■* Placed 6 years after 664. 

° Gens, Tigernach; genus, C.S. and A.U. (i.e. "descendants of 



OSWIU AND DRUST, DONALD'S SON 181 

670, 671 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, pp. 201, 202^ 

The death of Oswiu, ^Ethelfrith's son, king of the 
Saxons.^ . . . 

Maelrubai sailed to Britain.^ 

672 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 202 * 

The expulsion of Drust from his kingdom.^ 

Gartnait"). Gartnait's sons and the plebs referred to above (year 668) 
appear to be meant. 

° Similarly in C.S., 102, Hennessy's year 666; and A.U., i, 124, s.a. 
669 = 670. 

The words "came from" or "conies from Ireland" {venif . . . de 
Hibernid) suggest that tliis event was taken from a Scottish chronicle, 
written probably at lona. 

The Annals of Clonmacnoise, 108, s.a. 666, read erroneously: "The 
race of Gartnait of Pictland returned to Ireland." 

' Placed 7 years after 664. 

2 Oswiu's death is dated by Bede on 15th February, 670 (cf. above, 
p. 15; and E.G., 37, note). A.I., 15, place it under O'Conor's year 659 
( = 667x670; misreading "Oswald" for "Oswiu"); A.C. places it s.a. 
[669] (but 6 years before 674). The Annals of Clonmacnoise, 108, place ic 
in 667 ( = 671). See above, p. 15. 

' Both sentences appear similarly in C.S., 102, Hennessy's year 667 ; 
and in A.U., i, 124, s.a. 670 = 671. 

* Placed 8 years after 664. 

5 Similarly in A.U., i, 126, s.a. 671=672 (with f.n. and e. of 672, and 
the marginal note "bissextile"). 

The Chronicle of the Picts (ABC) makes Drust the successor of 
Gartnait for 7 years ; perhaps from 663 to 670, when exiles returned from 
Ireland. The years 670-672 may have been deducted by the chronicle from 
Drust's reign ; or he may not immediately have succeeded to Gartnait. 

The dates 657-664, for Gartnait ; 664-671, for Drust ; 671-692, for Brude, 
would fit the reign-lengths given by the Chronicle of the Picts ; but that 
chronicle cannot stand against the authority of the Irish annals at 
this time. 

The expulsion of Drust in 672 very likely preceded the defeat inflicted 
by the Angles on the Picts, described by Eddius. After Oswiu's death, 
Brude seems to have expelled Drust, the Northumbrian vassal ; and to 
have invaded Bemicia. See E.G., 36-37 ; and below, year 676. 



182 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. 673 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 126, s.a. 672 = 673 ^ 

The burning of Mag-Luinge.^ 

The killing of Domangart, son of Donald Brecc, the king of 
Dalriata.^ 

The capture of (?)Alpin, Corp's son, and of Conamail, Cano's 
son ; and Cormac, son of Maelfothartaig, died.* 

' The year-section concludes thus : " Constantinus, son of the previous 
Constantinus, reigned for 17 years." Constantinus IV, the son of Constans 
II, was emperor from 668 to 685 (Gibbon). 

Tigernach begins the year thus : " Justinianus the younger, the son of 
Constantinus, reigned 10 years " ; and gives the date 4658 in the margin. 
This is derived from Bede's Chronicle ; M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 315, s.a. 
4649. Justinian II was emperor 685-695 (4639-4649, according to Bede). 

The next year-section in T., C.S., and A.U., records in Latin these 
phenomena : " A thin and quivering cloud, like a rainbow, appeared over 
a clear sky from east to west, in the fourth watch of the night, on the fifth 
day of the week before Easter." [" Sixth day" A.U. Irish Easter was 26th 
March in 674 (MacCarthy).] ''The moon turned to [the colour of] blood." 
If the latter phenomenon is to be taken with the former, it may not have 
been an eclipse ; but if an eclipse is meant, it would seem to belong to the 
year 673 or 676 (L'Art). 

2 This was the name of a monastery in Tiree ; see above, p. 66. 

This note appears similarly in T., R.C., xvii, 202 (placed 9 years after 
664), and in F.M., i, 282, s.a. 671 (and "the second year of Cendfaelad" 
as sovereign of Ireland). 

^ iiigulatio Doinangairt mic Domnaill Bricc regis Dal Riatai. This is 
ambiguous, but probably means that Domangart was king of Dalriata. 

To the same effect in T., u.s. ; and in C.S., 102, Hennessy's year 66g. 

The Chronicle of Dalriata omits both Conall Crandomna and his 
successor ; but the Irish annals seem to imply that Domangart was king. 
His reign might have been from ca. 659 to 673. 

This Domangart was the father of king Eochaid "the Crooked-nosed," 
according to the Chronicle of Dalriata. 

The ambiguity in the text of A.U. seems to be responsible for a 
compiler's error in misplacing events, perhaps at correct intervals from 
Donald Brecc's accession, at 678, 686, and 694. See year 643, note (and 
years ?635 and ?65i). 

The affairs of Dalriata were very confused at this time. The rulers of 
different parts claimed the kingship, and the country had accepted the 
overlordship of Northumbria (655-685). 

* For Conamail's death, see below, year 705 ; he may have been a minor 
in 673. His father was probably the Cano who died in 687. 

Alpin {Eliuin mic Cuirp) was probably not the king who reigned 
726-728. If he were, he would have been a child in 673. There is, how- 
ever, a suspicious resemblance between this note and that placed below 



KING DOMANGART. DEFEAT OF PICTS 183 

The voyage of Failbe, abbot of lona, to Ireland.^ 
Maelrubai founded the church of Applecross,^ 

Tigernaoli, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 203 ^ 

The death of Noah, Daniel's son.* 
The death of Penda's son.^ 

676 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 128, s.a. 675=676" 

The slaying of Maelduin, Rigullan's son/ and of Bodb, son 
of Ronan, grandson of Congal. 

Many Picts were drowned in Land-Abae. . . .^ 
Failbe returned from Ireland.^ 

under year 742. Possibly one or the other has been misplaced in A.U. 
Stokes and O-Meiille interpret this: "Capture of Corp's son's island" or 
crannog. But the context implies that Eiliidn was a man. See below, 
P- 237. 

' Similarly in T. and C.S., u.s. To the same effect in F. M., u.s. 

The whole passage, down to this, stands thus in the Annals of 
Clonmacnoise, p. 108, s.a. 669 : " Justinus the Younger reigned ten years. 

" Domangart, son of Donald Brecc, king of Dalriata, was killed. 

" The sailing of Failbe, abbot of lona, into Ireland. 

" Mag-luinge \Moylelonge\ was burnt. 

"Congal Cend-fota, king of Ulster, was killed by one Bee Boirche 
IBeagbrwich^" 

2 Similarly in T. and C.S. 

F.M., U.S.: "Maelrubai, abbot of Bangor, went to Scotland, and 
founded the church of Applecross." 

Cf. years 671 and 722. 

5 Placed 1 1 years after 664. 

* Similarly in A.U., i, 126, s.a. 674 = 675. F.M., i, 282, s.a. 673 : " Noah, 
Daniel's son, died." 

The Daniel previously mentioned is the bishop of Kingarth, who died 
in 660. 

■^ Similarly in A.U., u.s. ; cf. the Annals of Clonmacnoise, 108, s.a. 671. 
Penda's son Wulfhere, king of Mercia, died in 675 (A.S.C.). 
" With f n. and e. of 676, and the marginal note " bissextile." 
' For RiguUan see year 630. 

* According to Skene, " Lundaff, now Kinloch, in Perthshire" (P. & S,, 
471). This seems uncertain. Cf. the defeat by Beornhseth (E.C., 37). 

" Similarly in T., R.C., xvii, 203, 12 years after 664. F.M., i, 284, s.a. 
674 (and "the first year of Findachta Fledach," sovereign of Ireland): 
" Failbe, abbot of lona, turned back again from Ireland." 



184 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. Qj"] 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 204 ^ 

Beccan of Rum ^ reposed in the island of Britain.^ 

ca. Q'JJ 

Annals of XJlster, vol. i, p. 128, s.a. 676 — 6^7 

The slaughter of Cuanda, son of Eoganan.* 

678 
Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, pp. 204-205 ^ 

A slaughter of the tribe of Loarn in Tirinn, [in a battle] 
between Ferchar Fota and the Britons, who were the con- 
querors. '' . . ^ 

The death of Drust, son of Donald.^ 

' Placed 13 years after 664. In all the annals this event closes the 
year-section, which begins thus: "A brilliant comet star was seen in the 
months of September and October." 

This comet is recorded by Bede in 678, the 8th year of Ecgfrith's reign, 
August to October (H.E., IV 12, V 24). But Bede says (IV 5) that 
Ecgfrith succeeded on 15th February, 670; and (IV 5, V 24) that 24th 
September, 673, was in Ecgfrith's 3rd year ; therefore Ecgfrith's 8th 
autumn was 677, and we must correct 678 here to 677. A.S.C. places the 
comet in 678 (ABCE ; 677 F). A.C. places it in [676], M'hich is the correct 
year ; see Pingr^, Cometographie, i, 331-333. 

^ In Tigernach, Ruimea7t; C.S., Riimindj A.U., Ruimm; F.M., 
Rtdmind. 

2 Similarly in C.S., 104, Hennessy's year 673. 

A.U., i, 130, s.a. 676 = 677 (with fn. and e. of 677) : "Beccan of Rum 
reposed." 

F.M., i, 284, s.a. 675 (and " the second year of Findachta" as sovereign 
of Ireland) : "Beccan of Rum died in Britain on the 17th of March." Cf. 
the Martyrology of Donegal, March 17th, p. 80. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 109, s.a. 673 : "There was a comet and a 
star of great brightness, seen in the months of September and October. . . . 

" Beccan of Rum [Beagan Reymynii\ died in the island of Wales." 

Beccan was specially named among those to whom Cummine Fota 
(t669) directed his letter on the Easter question. See above, p. 171 ; 
James Ussher's Works, iv, 432. 

* Cf. years 701, ca. 659. 

^ Placed 14 years after 664. Under the same year in T. and A.U. is 
placed the defeat of Donald Brecc at Calathros ; see year ?635. 

" A.U., i, 130, s.a. 677 or 678 = 678 (with f.n. and e. of 678) : "Slaughter 
of the tribe of Loarn in Tirinn." 

' The sentence omitted is: " Tuaim-snama, king of Ossory, died, 



DEFEAT OF LORN 185 

679 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 205 ^ 

The repose of Failbe, abbot of lona.- . . . 
The slumber of Nechtan.^ 

[killed] by Faelan Senchostal." A.U. (u.s.) read : " Toimsnamo, king of 
Ossory, [died]. 

"The battle of Dun-locho, and the battle of Lia-Moe!ain, and the 
subjugation of Elend" {doirad Eilind). 

Skene seems to have regarded these as Scottish battles, fought by the 
men of Dalriata in the attempt to throw off the yoke of Strathclyde 
(S.C.S., i, 264). This is mere conjecture. 

^ Similarly in C.S., 104, Hennessy's year 674 ; in A.U., u.s. ; and in 
the Annals of Clonmacnoise, 109, s.a. 674. 

See year 672. Drust may have been a factor in the Pictish defeat of 676. 

' Placed 15 years after 664. 

^ Similarly in C.S., 104, Hennessy's year 675 ; and in A.U., i, 130, 
s.a. 678 = 679 (with fn. and e. of 679). 

Failbe's "death" {mors) is recorded in A.I., 16, O'Conor's year 667=678 
(8 years after 670). 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 109, s.a. 674 : " Failbe abbot of lona died." 

Duald's Fragment II (86) places Failbe's death after, and in the same 
year-section as, the battle of Calathros ; it appears therefore that the year 
678 is meant. 

F.M., i, 284, s.a. 677 (and "the 4th year of Findachta," sovereign of 
Ireland) : " St Failbe, abbot of lona of Columcille, died on the 22nd of 
March." 

Failbe's successor was Adamnan (t 704). 

The Martyrology of Oengus commemorates Failbe under March 22nd : 
"A strong light over the rampart of the sea, Failbe, the warrior of lona" ; 
with the note in Lebar Brecc (1880 Oengus, Ixiv) : "an abbot of lona of 
Columba." 

"Failbe . . . holy successor of Columba" is placed in the Martyrology 
of Gorman under March 22nd (60). 

The Brussels Martyrology of Tallaght (Kelly, xix) under March 22nd 
notes, " Failbe of lona." 

The Martyrology of Donegal, 84, March 22nd : " Failbe, Pipan's son, 
abbot of lona, successor of Columcille, [died] A.D. 677. He was of the 
kindred of Conall Guiban, Niall's son." 

^ Similarly C.S., u.s. 

A.U., U.S.: "The slumber of Nechtan of Ner." F.M., u.s., 284-286: 
" Nechtan of Ner died." 

The Martyrology of Oengus places Nechtan's death on the 8th of 
January : " Nechtan of Ner, from Scotland." Stokes would read mir, 
"noble Nechtan"; see 1905 Oengus, xxviii, 34. But perhaps Ner was 
the place of a monastery in Ireland. Cf A.U., i, 92-94, s.a. 622 = 623: 



186 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

679 

Duald Mac-Firbis, Fragment II, p. 88 ^ 

Adamnan received the abbacy of lona. 

Before 679 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book II, c. 44 ^ 

Of rain poured upon thirsty land, the Lord graitting it, after 
some months of drought, in honour of the blessed man \^Columba\ 

About fourteen years ago^ in spring-time in tliese arid 
lands a very great drought occurred, prolonged and hard. . . . 
We therefore . . . took counsel to adopt this plan, and cause 
some of our elders to go round the recently ploughed and sown 
field with St Columba's white tunic, and books written by his 
pen ; to raise aloft, and shake three times the same tunic, which 
he had worn in the very hour of his departure from the flesh ; 
and to open his books and read them on the Angels' Knoll, 
where sometimes the citizens of the heavenly land were seen to 
descend to confer with the blessed man. 

And when all this had been carried out according to our 
design, marvellous to relate the same day the sky (which had 
been bare of clouds during the previous months of March and 
April) was straightway with marvellous rapidity covered with 
[clouds] rising from the sea, and there was great rain, falling 
by day and by night ; and the land, thirsting formerly, now 
satisfied, produced its shoots in season, and very joyous crops 
in the same year. The commemoration therefore of the 

"The repose ... of Fine \_Uinei'], abbot of Ner." Cf. the Martyrology of 
Donegal, 10. 

After Nechtan's death, in the same year, Tigernach enters a note of 
the battle of Calathros ; A.U. enter it a year earlier. See above, ?ca. 635. 

^ In the year-section parallel to A.U.'s 682 = 683. 

^ Reeves's edition, 174-176; Skene's, 188-189. 

2 Cf. the statement (below, year ca. 691) that Adamnan went to Ireland 
" in the fourteenth year after the death of Failbe." He would naturally 
have taken the Life with him, and have read it there ; if he did so, the 
annalist may have taken the word " fourteenth " from this passage. Adamnan 
seems to have gone to Ireland in reality in the twelfth year (the thirteenth 
summer) of his abbacy. 

He may have written the book partly on purpose to strengthen his 
authority in Ireland, as Columba's successor. 



ABBACY OF ADAMNAN 187 

blessed name of one man/ a commemoration conducted with 
his tunic and his books, assisted many districts and peoples at 
the same time, with salutary opportuneness.^ 

After 679 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book II, c. 45 ^ 

Of contrary winds changed, by virtue of the prayers of the 
venerable man, to favourable winds. 

Our faith in such miracles in the past, which we did not see, 
is indubitably confirmed by present-day miracles which we 
have seen ourselves. For we ourselves have thrice seen 
contrary winds turned to favourable ones. 

The first time, when long hewn-out ships of pine and oak 
were being drawn over-land, and timbers for the great 
monastery* (and for ships likewise) were being conveyed, we 
took counsel, and placed the holy man's vestments and books 
upon the altar, with psalms and fasting, and with invocation of 

^ Uniiis Hague beati commemoratio notninis viri. 

^ At the end of Cummine's Life stands a brief account of this affair 
(c. 26 ; Pinkerton, Vitae, 44-45). It is dated simply "after the death of the 
man of God," and lacks the details 'which make Adamnan's account read 
like the narrative of an eye-witness. 

Below, year 686, it will be seen that Adamnan wrote after 688 ; 
therefore the present episode occurred after 674, i.e. after Cummine's death. 
If Cummine wrote the Life attributed to him, chapters 25-27 must have 
been later additions to it, derived from Adamnan. 

Reeves thought it likely that Adamnan wrote the Life between 692 and 
697 (p. xlix). If this episode had occurred within the period of Adamnan's 
abbacy, the time of writing must have been in or after 693. But in the 
opening words of the next chapter Adamnan seems to deny having been 
present on this occasion : therefore the word " we " used here must not be 
taken to mean Adamnan himself, and the date of writing must have been in 
or before 693. 

We may therefore conclude (comparing the previous note) that the work 
(written 688x693) was very probably finished in 691. This episode would 
in that case fall under 677. 

^ Reeves's edition, 176-182 ; Skene's, 189-190. 

The date of these episodes has been taken to be the period of 
Adamnan's subordinacy, while he was employed in monastic labour ; but 
the narrative implies that he was abbot, and was on the first occasion in 
lona, not with the ships. 

* et \ciini\ inagnae navium pariter materiae eveherenttir domus. (Cf. 
the order of construction of 2WzW . . . w/rz' above.) 



188 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

his name, that he should obtain for us from the Lord favourable 
prosperity of winds. And, God so granting it to that holy man, 
it happened thus; for on the day upon which our sailors had 
prepared everything, and intended to tow the logs of the 
above-mentioned timber over the sea with skiffs and curachs, 
the winds, on the previous days contrary, became suddenly 
favourable. Thereupon the whole day, God being propitious, 
prosperous breezes served them through long and devious 
ways ; and with full sails, without any delay, the whole 
expedition of ships reached the island of lona successfully. 

The second time, when after the interval of several years 
other oak timbers were being towed by us ^ from the mouth of 
the river ShieP for restoration of our monastery, twelve curachs 
being collected [for the purpose], on another quiet day when 
the sailors were sweeping the sea with their paddles, suddenly 
a wind adverse to us arose, Favonius, called also the wind 
Zephyrus ^ ; and we then turned aside to the nearest island, 
which is called in Scottish Airthrago, seeking in it a harbour in 
which to wait. But meanwhile we grumbled at the inopportune 
adversity of the wind, and began in some fashion as if to 
accuse our Columba, saying, " Does it please thee, holy one, 
that we are thus inconveniently delayed ? We have hitherto 
hoped, by God's favour, for some consolatory assistance in our 
labours from thee, esteeming that thou wert in somewhat high 
honour with God." 

A short space, as of a moment, after this was said, strange 
to tell, behold the adverse wind Favonius ceased, and in less 
time than it takes to say it, Vulturnus * blew favourably. Then 
the sailors were ordered to put up yards in form of a cross, and 
they raised sails to their extended oars ; and with prosperous 
and gentle breezes we reached our island the same day and 
landed without any exertion, with all the helpers who were 
in our ships, rejoicing in the conveyance of the logs. That 
grumbling accusation, mild as it was, of the holy man, helped 
us in no small degree. It is clear of what and how great merit 

' nobiscum. Cf. year 734, note. 

2 fluminis Sale. "The river Shiel, rich in fish" ; Adamnan, II, 18 ; ed. 
Skene, 164. 

^ I.e. the west wind. 
* The south-east wind. 



FESTIVAL OF COLUMBA 189 

the saint is esteemed by the Lord, since he heard him in so 
swiftly turning the winds. 

The third time, when in the summer season, after attending 
a synod in Ireland, we were detained for some days through 
contrariety of wind among the people of the tribe of Loarn, we 
came to the island of Shuna ^ ; and there awaiting, the festive 
night 2 and solemn day of St Columba found us much dejected, 
because we wished to keep the same day joyfully in the island 
of Zona. And hence as before we grumbled a second time, 
saying, " Does it please thee, holy one, to pass the morrow of 
thy festival^ among laymen, and not in thy church ? In the 
beginning of such a day it is easy for thee to obtain from the 
Lord that contrary be changed to favourable winds, and that 
we celebrate the ceremony of the mass of thy nativity * in thy 
church." 

After that night was past we rose in the early dawn ; and 
seeing that the contrary breezes had ceased, we entered our 
ships and put out to sea, without a breath of wind. And 
behold, immediately the due south wind, which is also called 
Notus, blew behind us. Then the sailors rejoicing hoisted 
their sails ; and thus our voyage on that day was so facile and 
so quick, and so prosperous, God granting it to the blessed man, 
that after the third hour of the day we reached the harbour of 
Zona, as we had previously desired ; and afterwards, when we 
had finished washing hands and feet, we entered the church 
with the brethren in the sixth hour, and celebrated together 
the holy ceremony of mass on the festival to which belongs 
the nativity of saints Columba and Baithine ; in the dawn of 
which, as has been said above, we had set out from the island 
of Shuna, a great distance away. 

Of the above narrative witnesses still live, not two or three, 
according to the law, but a hundred and more. 

' Ad Saineam insulam. 

^ The "festive night" was the night preceding Columba's festival, that 
is to say from 6 p.m. of 8th June to 6 a.m. of 9th June. The " solemn day " 
began at 6 p.m. of the evening before. 

5 Crastinavt tuce festivitatis ; from the context this must mean the day 
after Columba's night, i.e. 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. of 9th June. 

* Similarly Columba calls the day of Brendan of Birr's death his '■ natal 
day" ; Adamnan, III, 11 (Cummine, VII ; Pinkerton's Vitae, 31). 



190 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

680 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 132, s.a. 679 = 6801 

The battle of the Saxons, in which ^Ifwine, Oswiu's son, 
fell.2 

The siege of Dun-baitte.^ 

Duncan, son of Eoganan, was slaughtered.* 

681 

Tigernacli, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 206^ 

The death of Conall Gael, son of Duncan, in Kintyre." 

681 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 132, s.a. 680 = 681 

The siege of Dunnottar. ^ 

^ With marginal note " bissextile." 

^Similarly in T., R.C., xvii, 205 (16 years after 664); C.S., 104, 
Hennessy's year 676 ; and the Annals of Clonmacnoise, 109, s.a. 675. 

A.S.C. ABCE place yElfwine's death in 679. 

^ According to Skene, this was a battle fought by Brude at Dunbeath in 
Caithness. This is mere conjecture ; neither the place nor the besieger is 
known. Cf. the Dun-mBaithe or Dunbuithe in the Tale of Cano (Anecdota 
from Irish MSS., i, 13, 12) ; and Dalbeattie in Kirkcudbrightshire. 

■• This may possibly have been the Duncan whom Fland calls " Duban's 
son," and places after Conall Crandomna (t 659). Duncan's family appears 



to have been as in the table below. 

Tuathalan 
1 






1 1 
Fereth t653 Eoganan tea. 


659 


1 
Donald t663 


1 1 
Guanda 1 677 Duncan t 680 

1 




Congnl t 701 


Conall Gael t68i Ossene 




Conaing f 701 



I I 

? Bee t 707 Fiannamail fl. 699 f 700 

'' Placed 17 years after 664. 

^ Probably the son of Duncan, Eoganan's son, who was killed in 680. 

The event appears similarly in C.S., 106, Hennessy's year 677, and in 
A.U., i, 132, s.a. 680 = 681, in both with the reading "slaying" instead of 
" death." 

F.M., i, 286, s.a. 679 (and. "the 6th year of Findachta," sovereign of 
Ireland) : " Conall, Duncan's son, was killed in Kintyre." So also in the 
Annals of Clonmacnoise, 109, s.a. 675. 

' Obsessio duin Foither. 

According to Skene, Brude was the besieger. 

Cf. year 694. 



FOUR SIEGES. ORKNEY REDUCED BY BRUDE 191 

682 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, pp. 206-207 ^ 
The Orkneys were destroyed by Brude." 

683 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 134, s.a. 682 = 683 

The siege of Dunadd, and the siege of Dundurn.^ 

684 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 208 * 

The Saxons wasted Mag-[Breg] and very many churches 
in the month of June.^ 

^ Placed 18 years after 664. Immediately afterwards, at the end of the 
year-section, Tigernach notes the deposition of Justinian II, an event of 
695. The next year begins thus: "Pope Leo reigned three years," with 
the marginal date 4661. Leo II was pope from 682 to 683 ; there was no 
pope from 683 to 684. This is followed by pope Sergius's discovery of a 
piece of the cross ; Sergius I was pope from 687 to 701. Both these events 
were taken from Bede (M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 316) ; Bede took them from 
the Liber Pontificalis (M.G.H., Gesta Pontificum, i, 86). 

2 Similarly in A.U., i, 132, s.a, 681=682. 

For Brude see years 685 and 692. 

5 Duin Aitt . . . duin Duirn. Probably the places now so named are 
meant. Dunadd is to the north of the Crinan canal, near Kilmichael- 
Glassary ; Dundurn is a hill at the east end of Loch Earn. 

* Placed 21 years after 664. In the same year-section is noted the 
reign of Tiberius, who was emperor from 698 to 705. With this is 
connected the marginal date 4668 (4659 in Bede). Here also are noted 
affairs of Lombardy from 701. These foreign events are derived from 
Bede's Chronicle, M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 317. 

^ To this effect in C.S., 106, Hennessy's year 681 ; and in A.U., i, 134 
s.a. 684 = 685. 

D.M.F., II, p. 88: "The Saxons devastated the plain of Brega, and very 
many churches." This is placed under [685] the year after the children's 
mortality of 683-684 (A.U.). 

P.M., i, 288, s.a. 683 (and "the loth year of Findachta," sovereign of 
Ireland) : " The wasting of Mag-Breg, both church and people, by the 
Saxons, in the month of June ; and they took with them many hostages 
from every place which they left, throughout Mag-Breg, along with many 
other spoils ; and thereafter they went to their ships." 



192 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

685 
Simeon of Durham, Historia Dunelmensis Ecclesiae : Rolls 
Series, no. 75, vol. i, pp. 31-32 

And the aforesaid king [Ecgfrith] and Theodore gave to 
[Cuthbert] the whole land in the city of York, from the wall of 
the church of St Peter to the great gate on the west ; and from 
the wall of that church to the wall of the city on the south. 
They gave him also the village of Craike, and three miles in 
circumference round about that village, that he might have 
upon his way [from Lindisfarne] to York, or returning from 
[York], a dwelling where he might rest. And there he 
established a habitation of monks. And because that land 
seemed insufficient, he received in addition Carlisle,^ which 
is called Luel, and has fifteen miles in circumference. And 
there also he established a congregation of nuns, and conse- 
crated the queen, giving to her the garb of religion; and 
appointed schools, for the advancement of the service of God. 
Also other possessions of lands were granted to him. . . ? 

68s 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 209^ 

The battle of Dunnichen took place on the twentieth day of 
the month of May, on Saturday*; and there Ecgfrith, Oswiu's 

' Liigubaliam. 

^ To the same effect (witli no mention of queen ^tlielthrytfi, wfio 
was in reality consecrated at Ely) in the Historia de Sancto Cuthberto ; 
R.S. 75, i, 199. 

Skene (S.C.S., i, 271) understood this grant of Carlisle to have included 
ecclesiastic rule in Galloway (through Whithorn). Robertson held that 
this extension of the Northumbrian dominion occurred in the reign of 
Ecgfrith's successor, Ealdfrith ; but that in Ecgfrith's reign a considerable 
tract of Northumbrian territory separated Cumbria and Strathclyde from 
North Wales (E.K., i, 17-18). 

That Carhsle pertained to Lindisfarne in 854 is stated by S.D. ; 
R.S. 75, i, 53 ; ii, loi (cf 114, in 883). Carlisle lay waste from ca. 892 to 
1092, when it was restored by king William II (F.W., ii, 30 ; S.D., ii, 220. 
E.C., 108-109). 

^ Placed 21 years after 664. 

* May 20th was a Saturday in 685, which is the year given by Bede 
(E.C., 42). Ecgfrith is commemorated under May 27th in the Franciscan 
MS. of Oengus (1905 ed., 136). 



BATTLE OP DUNNICHEN 193 

son, king of the Saxons, was killed (after completing the 
fifteenth year of his reign^), with a great company of his 
soldiers, by Brude, son of Bile, the king of Fortriu.i 

^ This passage appears similarly in A.U., i, 134-136, s.a. 685 = 686; 
but instead of " by Brude . . . Fortriu " they read : " And he burned 
Tula-Aman of Dunolly" {combusit tula aman duin Ollaigh). The meaning 
is obscure. Hennessy translates it: "Tula-aman burned Dunollaigh." 
Skene says that Brude "burnt the place called Tula Aman at the mouth 
of the river Almond where it falls into the Tay " (S.C.S., i, 266) : but that 
is not what the Ulster Annals say, and must be rejected. 

A.I., Scriptores, ii, 2, i6, O'Conor's year 674 = 685 (15 years after 670) : 
" A great battle between the Picts " [and the Angles ?]. 

D.M.F. II, p. 88 (in the year-section parallel to the Ulster Annals' 
686 = 687 ; but Duald's next year-section is numbered A.D. 686) : " In this 
year Adamnan freed the captives whom the Saxons had taken from 
Ireland. 

"The battle of Dunnichen, between Oswiu's son and Brude, Bile's 
son, [who] was the victor." 

The battle of 685 broke the English power in Scotland to the north of 
the Forth, and allowed also part at least of Strathclyde to recover 
independence. Bede says that the Scots of Dalriata renounced allegiance 
to Northumbria (E.C., 43-44). Linlithgow and the Picts of Galloway seem 
to have remained still subject to the Angles (S.C.S., i, 268, 271). 

Brude is called the "son of the king of Dumbarton" in the Life of 
Adamnan. Cf below, year ca. 692. His father "Bile, king of Fortriu" 
was probably the " Beli, Neithon's son" of the pedigree of the kings of 
Strathclyde (above, p. clviii), and the great-grandfather of the " Beli, Elfin's 
son" who died in 722. Brude died in 693, only 30 years before his 
grand-nephew, and 40 years before the last of his grandsons. Brude's 
brother Owen was in his prime in 643 ; Owen's son died in 694. Brude 
must have been old when he died. 

Tigernach gives Brude the title of "king of Fortriu" (see year 693). 
Brude seems therefore to have inherited Pictland south of the Tay from his 
father, Pictland north of the Tay through his mother. 

If the genealogies after the Historia Brittonum are right in calling 
Brude Ecgfrith's fratruelis, Brude's mother's father must have been one 
of the sons of jEthelfrith. But since we may assume that Brude claimed 
part of the kingdom through his mother, her father must have been 
a descendant of Eanfrith, who married a Pictish princess (617x633), and 
whose son Talorcan held the Pictish throne from 653 to 657. The dates 
seem to decide that Brude must have been Eanfrith's grandson, not 
Talorcan's. Talorcan was probably not born before 617, and Brude had 
a grandson who was old enough for warfare in 685. 

From the verses of Riaguil (below) Skene deduced that Brude's mother 
was the daughter of Talorcan, Eanfrith's son (S.C.S., i, 263). This 
deduction is incorrect. What Riaguil says is that Brude was the 
grandfather of Brude, Derile's son (t 706). See below. 

N 



194 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Talorc, [son of] Aithican, died.i _ 

The slaying of Rothechtach, and of Dargairt, son of 
Finguine.^ 

685 

Duald Mac-Firbis, Three Fragments of Irish Annals, II, p. no 

Death of Fland Fina, Oswiu's son, king of the Saxons, the 
renowned scholar,^ Adamnan's pupil; of whom Riaguil of 
Bangor sang : 

"To-day Brude* fights a battle for the heritage of his 
grandfather*; unless it please God's son, they have perished 
in it; where Oswiu's son has been killed, in battle against 
green swords. Although [Ecgfrith] does penance, it is in 
lona . . ." 

1 This is followed in T. by a notice of Donald Brecc's death. See 
above, year 643. 

A.U., U.S., 136, say: "Talorc, son of Acithaen, and Donald Brecc, 
Eochaid's son, died." Cf. the Gartnait, Accidan's son, mentioned above, 
year 649. (Perhaps Talorc's death also should be placed in 643.) 

2 Similarly in C.S., 108, Hennessy's year 682 ; and in A.U., u.s. 

A.U., i, 172, s.a. 720 = 721, note: "The slaughter of Cu-dinaisc, 
Rothechtach's son " ; this may have been the Rothechtach vifhose death 
is entered here. 

Dargairt's death appears to be repeated in A.U., i, 142, s.a. 692 = 693 
(but here more probably 692 is right) : " The death of Dargairt, son of 
Finguine." Cf. below, year 710. 

Finguine may have been the great - great - grandson of Conall, 
Comgall's son. 

^ in t-egnaidh amhra. This was Ealdfrith, Oswiu's son, Ecgfrith's 
successor ; under whose death in 704 this passage stands. But the poem 
speaks of Ecgfrith, not of Ealdfrith. 

■• In the margin : " Derile's son." He became king of the Picts eleven 
years afterwards. (Marginal notes like this have equal value with the 
text.) 

^ ivi forba a senathar. "His grandfather's heritage" was therefore the 
land of the Picts, at this time ruled by Brude, Bile's son. It follows from 
this that Brude, Bile's son, was the grandfather of Brude, Derile's son. It 
is implied by the plural verb ("they have perished") that both Brudes 
were present in the battle. 

" cia do radix aitrige \ is hi ind Hi iar nassa, rhyming with glasaj there- 
fore iarnassa should be one word (" of iron shoes " ?). 

There seems to be a pun here upon aithrige " repentance " (feminine) 
and ath-rige "dethronement" (neuter). 



NORTHUMBRIAN DOMINION CURTAILED 195 

" To-day Oswiu's son has been killed, who had black 
draughts.! Christ has heard our prayers, that they should 
save Brude . . .".^ 

68s 

Chroaicle of Holyrood, p. 19 

In the year 685 king Ecgfrith rashly led an army to waste 
the province of the Picts, although many of his friends opposed 
it, and especially Cuthbert of blessed memory, who had recently 
been ordained a bishop; and through the enemy's feigning 
flight he was led on into the defiles of inaccessible mountains, 
and annihilated, with great part of the forces he had brought 
with him, in the fortieth year of his age, the fifteenth of his 
kingdom, on the thirteenth day^ before the Kalends of June. 

And Ecgfrith was succeeded on the throne by Ealdfrith, a 
man very learned in scriptures, who was said to be [Ecgfrith's] 
brother and Oswiu's * son. And he nobly restored the ruined 
state of the kingdom, although within narrower bounds.^ 

685 

Annals of the Pour Masters, vol. i, p. 290, s.a. 684'' 

Slaughter [fell] upon all animals in common, throughout 
the world, to the end of three years, so that scarce one survived 
in the thousand of every kind of beasts. 

' I.e., " died of wounds " ? 

2 roisaorbut Bruide bregha, rhyming with deocha. " Brude the brave " 
O'Donovan. Possibly: "that [the saints of] Brega should save Brude".'' 

O'Donovan's translation of this poem (ibid., iii) is the basis of Skene's 
(S.C.S., i, 266-267). The text also is given by Skene in P. & S., 402. 

^ I.e., May 20th. 

* In text " Oswin's." 

° This passage is derived from Bede's H.E., IV, 26 (E.G., 42-44). 

Sigebert of Gemblours, M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 327, s.a. 6S5, renders 
Bede's account thus : " Ecgfrith, king of the Northumbrians, was slain 
by the Picts. The Picts, Scots, and Britons, pressed the English 
exceedingly ; and, recovering the liberty which they had formerly lost 
through the English, they invaded great part of England. . . . Ecgfrith 
was succeeded by his brother Ealdfrith, who reigned for 20 years." 

Sigebert is followed by Alberic of Trois Fontaines, M.G.H., Scriptores, 
xxiii, 700, s.a. 685. 

^ Also "the iTth year of Findachta," sovereign of Ireland. Under this 
year is noted a hard frost, for which see year 700. 



PART VII 

Domination of the Picts over Dalriata 

686 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 210^ 

Adamnan led back sixty captives to Ireland.^ 

686 

Annals of the Pour Masters, vol. i, pp. 290-292, s.a. 684 

Adamnan went to England, to beg for the captives that the 
North Saxons had taken with them from Mag-Breg, in the 
previous year. He got their restitution from them after doing 
miracles and wonders before the hosts ; and afterwards they 
gave him great honour and reverence, with complete restora- 
tion of everything he asked of them.^ 

' Placed 22 years after 664. 

^ Similarly in A.U., i, 136, s.a. 686 = 687 : and (with omission of "sixty") 
in C.S., 108, Hennessy's year 683. Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 1 10, s.a. 
682 : "Adamnan brought 60 captives to Ireland." 

•^ D.M.F. says that the concession of the captives was one of the 
honom-s done to Adamnan, when he accepted Roman tonsure. Fragment 
II, 112 (also in Skene's P. & S., 402): "Great booty was taken by the 
Saxons from Ireland. Adamnan went to ask for [the return of] the booty." 
Ibid., 114, after an incorrect account of the Easter controversy: "So 
Adamnan was crown-tonsured there ; and never was greater honour shown 
to man than was shown then to Adamnan. And that great booty was 
given to him, and he proceeded to his own monastery at lona. 

" There was great astonishment in his congregation when they saw 
him with this crown-tonsure. He urged the congregation to receive the 
crown-tonsure ; and he could not prevail upon them : but God permitted 
the convent to sin, and to expel Adamnan. And [Adamnan] took pity 
upon Ireland. Thus Bede has said. For Bede was with Adamnan as long 
as [Adamnan] was in England." 

If Bede is the only authority for this account, the account is worthless. 
See E.C., 45-46. 

Duald continues thus : " Thereupon Adamnan came to Ireland, and he 

190 



ADAMNAN'S JOURNEYS 197 

686, 688 

Adamnan, Life of Columba, book II, c. 46 ^ 

Of the plague. 

And this also, as I think, seems not to be reckoned among 
smaller miracles of virtue, with regard to the plague which 
twice in our time had ravaged the greater part of the world. 
For not to speak of the other wider districts of Europe (that is 
of Italy and the city of Rome itself, and the cisalpine provinces 
of Gaul, and also Spain, though separated by the interposition 
of the Pyrenaean mountain), the islands of the ocean, that is to 
say Ireland ^ and Britain, were twice entirely ravaged by dreadful 
pestilence, with the exception of two peoples : the people of 
the Picts and that of the Scots of Britain, between whom is the 
boundary of the mountains of the Ridge of Britain.^ And 
although both peoples are not without great sins, by which the 
eternal judge is frequently provoked to anger ; yet he has 
spared them both hitherto, bearing with them patiently. To 
whom else then can this favour conferred by God be ascribed, 
than to St Columba, whose monasteries, founded within the 
borders of both peoples, are greatly honoured by both to the 
present time ? 

But this that we shall now say is not to be heard, as we 
think, without lamentation : that there are many very stupid 
men in both peoples who, not knowing that they have been 
protected from diseases by the prayers of the saints, with 
ingratitude basely abuse God's patience. 

But we render to God frequent thanks that he has protected 
us, at the prayers of our venerable patron on our behalf, from 
the invasion of plagues, both in these our islands and in 
England,* when we visited our friend king Ealdfrith; although 
the pestilence had not yet ceased, but was ravaging many 

flourished in Ireland" {ro iordliarcaigh sain for Eirinn; "excelled all 
Erin," O'Donovan) ; "but that single control of Easter and the tonsure 
were not accepted from him until this year" [704]. "And Adamnan died 
in this year, in the eighty-third year of his age." Here this Fragment 
ends. See year 704. 

' Reeves's edition, 183-187 ; Skene's, 191. 

'•^ Scotia. 

3 Dorsi monies Briiannici (i.e. Druimm-nAlban). 

^ Saxonia. 



198 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

villages from place to place ; yet both in our first visit, after 
Ecgfrith's battle, and in the second, after an interval of two 
years,! while we walked in the midst of such danger of plague, 
the Lord so delivered us that not even one of our companions 
died, nor was any of them troubled with any disease. 

687 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 210° 

The killing of Cano, Gartnait's ^ son. * 

688 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 138, s.a. 688 = 689 

lolan, bishop of Kingarth, died.® 

The death of Cathasach, grandson of Donald Brecc. . . . The 
death of Feradach, son of Tuathalan. The death of Maelduin, 
son of Conall Crandomna.^ 

' I.e., in 686 and in 688. Adamnan therefore wrote after 688. See 
also year 679. 

2 Placed 23 years after 664. 

^ In Tigernach, Gartnain (similarly in Duald, and the Tale of Cano) ; 
C.S., Car7taitj A.U., Gartnaidh. 

* This sentence appears similarly in C.S., 108, Hennessy's year 684 ; 
and A.U., i, 136, s.a. 687 = 688. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. no, s.a. 683: "Canon son of Gartnait 
entered into religion." 

D.M.F., II., 90, s.a. 686 : "Bishop Cuthbert reposed [687]. 

" Cano Gartnait's son died. 

"The emperor Constantine [IV] died" [685]. 

This Cano became a figure in Irish romance, and was imagined to 
have been a contemporary of king Aidan. See years ? 574, ?6oi, notes ; 
and year 668. 

Two years after Cano's death Tigernach, u.s., 211, C.S., no, and A.U., 
i, 140, record that " Coblaith, Cano's daughter, died." Cf. also years 673 
and 705. In the same year-section are noted the writing of works by 
Bede, and the reign of Justinian II [685-695] ; the reign is taken from 
Bede's Chronicle (M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 315). 

'' Similarly in C.S., 108, Hennessy's year 685 (with the reading Garad 
for Kingarth), and in F.M., i, 294, s.a. 688. 

Tigernach, R.C., xvii, 210 (24 years after 664), reads "John" for 
" lolan," and mis-spells Kingarth {lohannes espoc Cind GalardtK). 

" This paragraph appears similarly in C.S., u.s. ; but Tigernach, U.S., 
211, reads falsely: "The death of Cathasach, grandson of Donald 



KING MAELDUIN. ARGYLE AND IRELAND 199 

688 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 211 ^ 

Adamnan led back captives to Ireland.^ 

691 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 140, s.a. 690 = 691 ^ 

The [men of] Dalriata ravaged the [Irish] Plots and 
the Ulaid.* . . . 

A great gale drowned certain six men of the community 
of lona on the sixteenth day ^ before the Kalends of October. 

Brecc, son of Feradach, son of Tuathal, son of Maelduin, son of Conall 
Crandomna." 

The next sentence in T., C.S., and A.U., is: "Part of the sun was 
obscured." There was an annular eclipse in 688 on July 3rd at loj a.m. 
(Paris time) ; this is the only eclipse that can be intended, between 680 
and 692 (L'Art). 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. no, s.a. 684 : " Cathasach, Donald Brecc's 
son, died. Feradach, Tuathalan's son, died." 

According to the Chronicle of Dalriata, Maelduin was king of Argyle 
for 16 years. 

The Duan Albanach, in P. & S., 61 : "Maelduin, son of Conall of 
[many] plunderings, had seventeen [years] by right" on the throne of 
Dalriata. Maelduin is placed after Donald Dond (t ca. 695), and before 
Ferchar Fota (t ca. 696). See above, p. cxxxi. 

Fordun places the reign of Maelduin (" Maldewinus, king Donald's 
son ") after that which he gives to Ferchar Fota (see above, year 643, note ; 
and see 664, note). According to Fordun, Maelduin reigned from 664 to 
684 (III, 40, i, 125 ; whereby is to be corrected 111, 43, i, 128). Fordun's 
dates of the empire are inaccurate here. 

1 Placed immediately after the eclipse of 688. 

^ This may be a repetition of the statement made under year 686 ; but 
see Adamnan's own account, above. 

^ Under the same year is entered: "Theodore, bishop of Britain, 
reposed." Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, died in 690, according to 
Bede's History, V, 8, and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (ABCEF). 

"• In the previous year the king of the Irish Picts had fallen ; A.U., i, 
140, s.a. 689 = 690 : ". . . Ailill, son of Dungal of Eilne, son of Scandal" 
was slain. (The Annals of Clonmacnoise erroneously make Eilne the 
name of a man; p. no, s.a. 685.) Eilne is in the north-west of Antrim 
county (O'Donovan, F.M., i, 199). C.S., 108, Hennessy's year 686 = 690: 
"... Ailill, Dungal's son, king of the [Irish] Picts," was slaughtered. 
Ailill stands in the list of kings of Dalaraide, in the Book of Leinster, 
p. 41 e. 

'' i6th September. 



200 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

691 or 692 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 212 ^ 

In the fourteenth year after the death of Failbe of lona, 
Adamnan went to Ireland." 

ca. 692 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 140, s.a. 691 =692 

The siege of Dun-deauae-dibsi.^ 

693 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 212* 

Brude, Bile's son, king of Fortriu, died ; also Alpin, 
Nechtan's son.^ 

' Placed 3 years after 688, but 37 years before 729. Under the same 
year appears the following, in Tigernach, C.S., and A.U. : "The moon 
turned to the colour of blood on the natal day of St. Martin." L'Art de 
Verifier les Dates calculates that there was a partial limar eclipse in 691 
on November nth at 6 p.m. (Paris time) ; i.e., 32 to 50 minutes earlier in 
Ireland, and therefore on November nth according to the Irish reckoning. 

The 14th summer after Failbe's death would have been that of 692. 

The Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. no, s.a. 687 = 691, record nothing else 
within the year : " The moon was of sanguine colour, the eve of the 
nativity of St Martin." 

- Similarly in C.S., no, Hennessy's year 688 ; and in A.U., i, 140, s.a. 
691=692 (with fn. and e. of 692). 

D.M.F., II, 92: "Adamnan came to Ireland in the fourteenth year 
after the death of Failbe, abbot of lona" ("thirteenth" in O'Donovan's 
translation). 

The Annals of Boyle, 7, O'Conor's year 657, read : "Adamnan came to 
Ireland, and brought the evangel with him." 

It seems probable that Adamnan took with him, if he did not actually 
go on purpose to take, his Life of Columba. See before 679, notes. 

2 Reeves (Adamnan, 378) thought that Dundafif south of Stirling may 
have been meant. 

* Placed 4 years after 688, but 36 before 729. Under the same year has 
been entered the restoration of Justinian II [in 705] : an event which, with 
the passage following it, is taken from Bede's Chronicle (M.G.H., Auctores, 
xiii, 317-318). 

■'' This passage appears similarly in A.U., i, 140, s.a. 692 = 693. 

The Chronicles of the Picts (ABFI) give Brude Bile's son a reign of 
21 years. He seems to have reigned from 682 to 693, and may have 
succeeded in 672. 

D.M.F., II, p. 93; "Brude, Bile's son, king of Fortriu, died" {ri 



BRUDE, BILE'S SON 201 

693 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 142, s.a. 692 = 693 

The slaying of Ainftech,i and of the nephews of Niall,^ and 
of the sons of Boanta.^ 

?694 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 142, s.a. 693=694 

A siege of Dunnottar.* 

Foirtrean). This is placed in the year after Adamnan's voyage to 
Ireland. 

Chronicles of the Picts DF, in Skene's P. & S., 150, 173 : " In his time 
flourished St Adamnan." Similarly in K, ibid., 201. 

Extract from an Irish Life of Adamnan, Reeves's transcript, from 
Brussels MS. 5101-4, in Skene's P. & S., 408-409 : — "Once the body of 
Brude, Bile's son, king of the Picts, was brought to lona ; and his death 
caused Adamnan grief and sorrow, and he said that Brude's body should 
be taken to him into the house that night. Adamnan watched by the 
body in that house till morning. In the morning of the day after, when 
the body had taken to moving and opening its eyes, a certain religious 
man came then to the door of the house and said : ' If Adamnan would 
like to raise the dead, I say that he should not do it. It will be a disgrace 
to every priest who shall come in his place, unless he [too] raise the 
dead.' 'There is some justice in that' said Adamnan. 'If, then, it is 
juster, let us bless this body, and the soul of Brude.' Brude sent his 
spirit again to heaven, with the blessing of Adamnan and of the com- 
munity of lona. 

" Then Adamnan said : ' Many wonders performs the king who was 
born of Mary ; . . . \betha scuab an nim muili^ [giving] death to Brude, 
Bile's son. It is strange that, after he has been king of the north, a 
hollow stump of withered oak [should be] about the son of the king of 
Dumbarton'" \im mac rig Ala Cluaithi\ 

For Brude's father. Bile or Beli, see year 685, note ; for Beli's son, 
Owen, see year 643. Alpin or Elfin was perhaps Neithon's son, and Beli's 
brother. 

' Ainftech was perhaps the father of Tarain, Brude's successor. Cf. 
the Chronicle of the Picts, above, p. cxxv ; and years 697, 699. 

2 Nieth-Neill. 

^ Jiliorum Boendo. 

* Obsesio diiin father. This may possibly be a repetition of the Obsessio 
duin Foither already entered by these annals under 680 = 681. 

Immediately after this is placed " the death of Ferchar, son of Connad 
Cerr" ; see above, year ?65i. 



202 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

694 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique. vol. xvii, p. 213 ^ 

Donald, Owen's son, king of Dumbarton,^ died.^ 

696 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 144, s.a. 695 = 696* 

The slaying of Donald, son of Conall Crandomna.^' 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 215" 
Tarachin was expelled from his princedom.^ 
Ferchar Fota died.^ 
Adamnan brought in a law^ in Ireland this year. 

1 Placed 5 years after 688, 35 before 729. 

^ Rex Alo Chluaithe; i.e., king of Strathclyde. 

^ Similarly in A.U., i, 142, s.a. 693 = 694. 

For Owen, see year 643. Donald appears to have been succeeded by 
his nephew Bile or Bali, who died in 722. 

* With the marginal note " bissextile." 

^ Similarly in C.S., 112, Hennessy's year 692. Tigernach, R.C., xvii, 
214, (7 years after 688, 33 before 729) omits "Donald, son of." 

The Duan Albanach, in P. & S., 60: — "Thirteen years of Donald 
Dond, after Dungal" (Fland's Duncan) "and Conall" (Conall Crandomna, 
who died ca. 659. See year 660, note). 

Donald Dond's reign over Argyle seems to have been from 693 to 696. 

'' Placed 8 years after 688, but 32 before 729. 

' Similarly in A.U., 144, s.a. 696 = 697; but they read "from his 
kingdom" ; i.e., the kingdom of the Scottish Picts. This king's name is 
spelt Tarain, below, year 699 ; and Taran in the Pictish Chronicle. See 
also year 692. Cf Adamnan's "Tarain." 

Tarain is allowed four years' reign in the Chronicle of the Picts ; 
perhaps 692 to 696. His successor was Brude, Derile's son ; see below, 
and year 706. 

' Similarly in A.U., u.s. 

The Duan Albanach, in Skene's P. & S., 61 : — "Ferchar Fota (consider 
it) passed twenty-one years [in the kingdom]." Ferchar is there placed 
after Maelduin (t 688) and before Eochaid (t 697). 

Ferchar Fota appears to have been king of Argyle from 696 to 697. 
The Chronicles of Dalriata also allow him a reign of 2 r years, which must 
include his previous reign in Lorn. His pedigree is given in genealogy V 
after the Senchus ; above, p. clvi. 

The claims of the last kings of Dalriata will be shown in the table 
on the opposite page. 

^ Recht lecsa. Stokes regards recht as a gloss upon hcsa = /era, from 
Latin lex. 

A.U., U.S. : "Adamnan went to Ireland and gave the Law of the 



KINGS OF ARGYLE 



203 






pq o 



-fl"^ 




rt CO 

JD N — 





0)1 — I M c^ 



S 






rt 



oj 



rt — : 



O S-^ T3-1-°Q O- 



O. 



o 






T) 






o 1^ o A 






O &M 



204 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Innocents to the peoples." Similarly in C.S., 112, Hennessy's year 693. 
A.I., 17, O'Conor's year 685 = 696 (26 years after 670) : "Adamnan set a 
law over Ireland." 

D.M.F., II, 96 (and Skene's P. & S., 402): "Adamnan came to Ireland 
and indicted the Law of the Innocents to the peoples of Ireland : that boys 
and women were not to be killed." 

The Law was the subject of an early Middle-Irish tract, Cdin 
Adamndin ; it is edited by K. Meyer in the Anecdota Oxoniensia, Medieval 
and Modern Series, part 12 (Oxford, 1905). 

In the list of those that were present at the council are the names : — 
" Eochaid, Donald's grandson, king of . . . ," and " Brude, Derile's son, 
king of Pictland" {Cruithintuathi) \ Cdin Adamnain, 20. Brude's 
predecessor Tarain was deposed in 697 (above) ; and Eochaid, king of 
Dalriata, died in the same year (below). 

Sigebert of Gemblours, M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 328, s.a 694 : "Abbot 
Adamnan . . . was famed in England." 

The Martyrology of Oengus, under September 23rd (Stokes's 
translation): "To Adamnan of lona, whose troop is radiant, noble Jesus 
has granted the lasting liberation of the women of the Gael " ; with 
Lebar Brecc's notes (1880 Oengus, cxlvi-cxlvii) : "abbot of lona of 
Columcille" ; and in the lower margin (of p. 96) : "Of Adamnan of lona, 
etc. On a certain day Adamnan chanced to be passing through Mag 
Breg, with his mother on his back ; and they saw two battalions attacking 
each other. Now Ronait, Adamnan's mother, happened to see a woman 
with an iron hook in her hand dragging another woman from the opposite 
side, with the hook fastened in her breast. For men and women used to 
fight in battle alike at that time. Thereupon Ronait sat down, and said : 
'Thou shalt not take me from this place until women are freed forever from 
this condition, and from battles and campaigns.' So Adamnan promised 
this thing. 

"Then there happened to be a great council in Ireland, and Adamnan 
went to that council with men chosen from the priests of Ireland, and he 
freed women there. 

" These are four laws of Ireland : Patrick's law, not to kill priests ; the 
law of Dan' the nun, not to kill cattle [not to steal oxen, ibid. Ixiv] ; 
Adamnan's law, not to kill women ; the law of Sunday, not to transgress 
upon it." Similarly also in MS. Laud 610 (1905 Oengus, 210). The last 
paragraph appears with little difference under March 17th in Lebar Brecc 
(84 ; 1880 Oengus, Ixiv ; R.S. 89, ii, 504). 

An addition to Colman's Hymn (by Mugroin, abbot of lona [964-980], 
according to the Franciscan MS.), in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, ii, 306 : 
"A blessing upon Columcille, with the saints of Scotland on the other 
side" {Alban allaj glossed in the Dublin version /rz" inuir anair "to the 
east of the sea ") ; " upon the soul of the glorious Adamnan " {Adamnan 
din, the attribute being chosen for alliteration), "who laid a law upon the 
tribes" [forsna danna; i.e. the tribes of the Gaels). 

Note on Fiacc's Hymn, in Franciscan Liber Hymnorum, ii, 306: "The 



ADAMNAN'S LAW. KING EOCHAID 205 

697 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 146, s.a. 696 = 697 ^ 
Eochaid, Donald's grandson, was killed.^ 

698 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 146, s.a. 697 = 698'' 
The burning of Dunolly. 

four chief laws of Ireland : the laws of Patrick, of Dare, of Adamnan, of 
Sunday. Patrick's law [was] not to kill priests ; Dare's law [was] not to 
steal cows ; Adamnan's [was] not to kill [women] ; [the law] of Sunday, not 
to transgress it " (cen \a tK\ar-imthechf). 

For the " Law of Sunday," cf. the Yellow Book of Lecan, facs., 215; 
J. G. O'KeefFe, Anecdota from Irish MSS., iii, 21 ff. ; Eriu, i, 189-214. 

The English bishop Ecgbeorht, who was at this time endeavouring to 
reform the Columbite monasteries (see E.G., 50-51), was present at the 
council of 697 (Gain, 16). 

Another person present was bishop Cuiritan or Guretan (Gain, 12, 16). 
This may have been the Curitanus who is commemorated under March i6th 
(the day of Boniface of Rosemarkie), in Gorman, 56, with the note : 
"bishop, and abbot of Ross-meinn " ; and in Tallaght, ed. Kelly, p. xviii.: — 
"Guritanus, bishop, and abbot of Ros-mic-Bairend" (identified with Rose- 
markie, by Reeves and Hogan ; but this seems doubtful). See Reeves, 
Guldees, 44-46. Late writers identify Guritanus with Boniface, Gf. below, 
year 706. 

' This notice is placed immediately after the promulgation of Adamnan's 
law. 

^ Echu, nepos Domnaill. This seems to have been the same person as 
the " Eochaid Grookednosed, son of Domangart, son of Donald Brecc," 
to whom three years' reign is given by the Ghronicle of Dalriata (above, 
p. cxxxii). 

For his successor see year 69S. His son (probably) reigned 726-733. 

The Duan Albanach, in Skene's P. & S., 61 (after Ferchar Fota, and 
before Ainfcellach) : '■ Two years of Eochaid of the horses ; the king of 
palaces was brave." See above, p. cxxxi. Eochaid seems to have been king 
of Knapdale. 

Fordun (III, 43) inserts, after the reign of " Eugenius," Donald's grand- 
son, the reign of another Eugenius, who is probably fictitious. This seems 
to be a duplication of the Ewen, variously called by the Ghronicles of 
Dalriata Ferchar Fota's son (E) and Findan's son (DFIK). These two 
seem to have been the same man, about whose parentage the chroniclers 
are in conflict ; but Fordun makes Ferchar Fota's son reign before, and 
Findan's son reign after, Ainfcellach. See year 736. 

^ These events are entered after the battle of 698. 



206 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

The expulsion of Ainfcellach, Ferchar's son, from the 
kingship ; and he was taken, bound, to Ireland.^ 

698 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 216^ 

A battle [was fought] between the Saxons and the Picts ; 
and there fell Beornhseth's son, who was called Beorhtred.^ 

ca. 699 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 146, s.a. 698 = 699 

The battle of Fiannamail, Ossene's son.* 
Tarain went to Ireland.^ 

' Ainfcellach, son of Ferchar Fota, has one year's reign allowed him by 
the Chronicle of Dalriata, apparently 697-698. See also year 719. 

The Duan Albanach, in Skene's P. & S., 61 (after Eochaid's reign) : 
" After that the good Ainfcellach, Ferchar's son, was king for one year." 
The next king named there is Dungal (below, p. 235). 

The words of A.U. imply that Ainfcellach's conqueror was Irish. The 
deposition of Ainfcellach is synchronous with the appearance of Fiannamail 
as king of Dalriata (see year 700). 

Fordun (Chronica, III, 44, i, 129) records Ainfcellach's reign thus: 
" Eugenius, yielding up the kingdom," (see year 696, note) " left it to his 
successor Ainfcellach" {Amrikelleth, etc.), "son of Findan, son of Eugenius 
IV, after having established peace with the Picts and the Angles. When 
he had been crowned, in the same year of the Lord 697, he inadvisedly 
prepared war against the Picts, breaking off the state of peace. And the 
same year was not yet quite complete when upon his first expedition, made 
secretly by traversing dense woods, in the land of [the Picts], many of his 
followers were shot with arrows ; and the king himself was wounded by 
being hit with an arrow, and suddenly turned back. And on the tenth day 
after receiving this wound he died, and left the throne of the kingdom to 
his brother Eugenius [VI]." 

^ Placed 9 years after 688, but 31 years before 729. In the next year- 
section has been entered the reign of Philippicus [emperor from 711 to 713]. 
(So in C.S., 112, Hennessy's year 695.) This is derived from Bede's 
Chronicle (M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 318). 

The year of the battle is given as 698 by Bede (E.C., 47). 

^ films Bernith, qui dicebaticr Brechtraigh. {Brectrid in A.U. ; Berctred 
in Bede.) 

A.U., i, 146, s.a. 697 = 698, read : "A battle between the Saxons and the 
Picts ; and there fell [the son of] Beornhasth, who was called Beorhtred." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. in, s.a. 693 = 698: "The battle between 
the Saxons and Picts, where the son of Beornhaeth, who was called Beorhtred 
\Bregghtra\ was slain." 

•• Similarly in D.M.F., II, 98. See year 700. 

'" See year 697. 



KINGS AINFCELLACH AND FIANNAMAIL 207 

700 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 148, s.a. 699 = 700^ 

Fiannamail, Duncan's grandson, king of Dalriata, . . . was 
slaughtered/^ 

ca. 700 

Chronicon Scotorum, p. 112, Hennessy's year 696 

[There was] great frost in this year, so that the lakes and 
rivers of Ireland froze; and the sea froze between Ireland and 
Scotland, so that there was communication between them on 
sheet ice.* 

701 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, pp, 148-150, s.a. 700 = 701 

. . . Congal, Eoganan's son, died. 

A conflict [occurred] in Skye, and there fell Conaing, 
Duncan's son, and the son of Cuanda.* 
The destruction of Dunolly by Selbach.® 
Slaughter of the tribe of Cathba.'^ 

' With the marginal note " bissextile." 

- Cf. Tigernach, R.C., xvii, 216 (29 years before 729): " Fian[n]amail, 
Duncan's great-grandson, king of Dalaraide, . . . was slain." (The foreign 
events in this year-section of Tigernach are derived from Bede's Chronicle ; 
JM.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 318-319.) 

F.M., i, 300, s.a. 698 : " Fian[n]amail, Duncan's grandson, lord yoisec/i] 
of Dalriata, . . . was killed." 

D.M.F., II, 100 (in the first part of the year-section corresponding with 
the Ulster Annals' 699 = 700 and 700 = 701) "Fiannamail, Duncan's grand- 
son, king of Dalriata, died." 

For Duncan see above, year 680. Cf. years 701, 707. 

Hennessy understood that Fiannamail was king of Irish, not Scottish, 
Dalriata ; if so, he is the first king of Irish Dalriata named in the annals. 
After 639, the kings of Argyle had perhaps lost Irish Dalriata. It lay within 
the kingdom of Ulster {Ulaid) ; for whose kings v. L.L., 41 ; B.B., 51-52, 
276 ; A.U., iv, 427. Fiannamail is not named in the Book of Leinster's 
list of kings of Dalaraide. Whether he belonged to Irish or Scottish 
Dalriata, he probably claimed the title to both. See year 741. 

' This is a late entry in the year-section corresponding to the Ulster 
Annals' 699 = 700. It is placed by F.IVI. (i, 290) under year 684 (for 685). 

* See above, year 677. For Duncan, see year 680. 

■' Dunolly was the principal stronghold of the tribe of Loarn. It 
seems to have been occupied in 698 by the supporters of an Irish chieftain, 



208 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

ca. 704 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 152, s.a. 702 = 703 ^ 

Ailen-Daingen was built.^ . . . 
Fergussan, Maelcon's son, died. 
The siege of Ritha.^ 

ca. 704 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 219'' 

A slaughter of the [men of] Dalriata, in the valley of the 
Leven.^ 

Adamnan, abbot of lona, reposed, in the seventy-seventh 
year of his age, on the ninth day before the Kalends of October.'' 

perhaps the Fiannamail who died in 700 ; and by taking it (cf. year 714) 
Selbach probably made good his claim not only to the chieftainship of the 
tribe of Loarn (cf. year 719) but also to the kingship of Argyle (cf. year 723). 
Selbach's son Dungal seems to have had his seat at Dunadd (year 736). 

'' generis CaihbotJi. CathbaAvas grandson of Loarn Mor, the son of Ere and 
brother of Fergus (see year ca. 501). The tribe of Cathba was, according 
to Skene, "a rival branch of the tribe of Loarn" (S.C.S., i, 272). See the 
Senchus, above, pp. clii-cliii. 

1 Previously in the same year-section, and in the parallel section of 
Tigernach and of the Annals of Clonmacnoise (699 = 704), it is stated that 
the battle of Corann was fought on 12th July, a Saturday : 12th July was 
Saturday in 704. (C.S. reads the 15th July, incorrectly.) 

^ Le., "strong island"; presumably an island fortress, or a crannog. 
See year 714, and cf year 725. 

2 Obsessio Riihe. The editors of A.U. conjecture that Rithe was a 
place in Scotland. Cf ca. 642. 

^ Placed 25 years before 729. The year-section begins with the note : 
"Theodosius reigned one year" [716-717], with the marginal date 4600. 
Next year-section begins "Leo reigned nine years" [717-741], with the 
marginal date 4688. These and the other foreign events on pp. 218, 219, 
are derived from Bede's Chronicle (M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 319-321), which 
concludes in Leo's 9th year (A.D. 725-726). Tigernach's notice s.a. [712]: 
" In this year Bede made a great book, i.e. Berba Beid," [? = verba Bedae'] 
must therefore refer to Bede's Chronica Majora, finished in 725 or 726. 

5 Similarly in A.U., i, 152, s.a. 703 = 704. But C.S., 114, Hennessy's year 
700 = 704, reads: "Slaughter of the [men of| Dalriata at Loch Lomond" 
(or Leven, ic li?in linnnae). If this is not a corrupt reading, it would show 
that the valley of the Dumbartonshire Leven is meant in the other 
Irish Annals. 

" I.e., on the 23rd September. 

Similarly in C.S., u.s., but with the reading: "in the seventy-eio^hth 
year of his age." 



DEATH OF ADAMiSTAN 209 

A.U., U.S. : "Adamnan, abbot of lona, rested in the seventy-seventh 
year of his age." 

A. I., 17, O'Conor's year 693 = 704 (34 years after 670): "Adamnan, 
abbot of lona and wise man, reposed in Christ." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 111-112, s.a. 700 = 705: "Adamnan, abbot of 
lona, in the 78th year of his age died ; of whom Syonan in Kinelea 
[^Kinleagh'] is named (in Irish Sidhi Adamhndn^ which is as much in 
Enghsh as the seat of Adamnan, but no church land as I take it). Ealdfrith, 
son of Oswiu, the prudent king of the Saxons, died." The part in brackets 
is a gloss by the translator. Murphy says of the place mentioned that it is 
" a townland in the barony of Moycashel, co. West Meath." 

Annales Cambriae, Y Cymmrodor, ix, 160, s.a. [704] (the "260th year" 
after 444) : " Ealdfrith \Alch-frit\ king of the Saxons, died. The slumber 
of Adamnan." 

C.S., 78, places "the birth of Adamnan, abbot of lona," in [622] 
(Hennessy's year 624). Tigernach erroneously reads: "The death of 
Adamnan, abbot of lona" ; R.C., xvii, 177, s.a. [622], f.n. 6. 628 is the next 
year after 622 whose f.n. is 6 ; and 628 is probably the year intended, 
because Adamnan's 77th year would then be 704 to 705. 

A.I., 10, under O'Conors year 617 = 625 (26 years after 599), also note : 
"The birth of Adamnan." So also A.U., i, 94, s.a. 623 = 624 (with f.n. and e. 
of 624). 

Martyrology of Gorman (182, September 23rd) : "Adamnan, high abbot 
of Zona, what form of religion did he not cherish, in Scotland, in Ireland?" 

Adamnan is commemorated at 23rd September in the calendars : e.g. 
"Adamnan, abbot of lona" in the Martyrology of Tallaght, in Book of 
Leinster, 363, and in the Brussels version, ed. Kelly, p. xxxiv ; " Adamnan 
the wise" (in the second hand) in the Karlsruhe Bede ; Thesaurus 
Palaeohibernicus, ii, 283. Cf the Martyrologies of Oengus, above, year 697, 
note ; and of Tallaght, ed. Kelly, xli-xlii (Todd's Hymns, i, 69-70), where, 
in a list of Irish saints paralleled (as unius maris et vitae) with saints of the 
Roman church, Patrick is ranked with Peter, Bridget with Mary, Columba 
with the apostle Andrew, and Adamnan with pope Silvester. See the 
Martyrology of Donegal, 254-256. Cf. also the Breviary of Aberdeen, ii, 
3, cxiv-cxv. 

P.M., i, 304-306, s.a. 703, and "The 2nd year of Congal" of Kinnaweer, 
sovereign of Ireland: "Adamnan, Ronan's son, the abbot of lona of 
Columcille, died on the 23rd of September, after being twenty-six years 
in the abbacy, and after seventy-seven years of life. Adamnan was a good 
holy man, according to the testimony of the holy Bede, for he was tearful, 
repentant, prayerful, devoted, fasting, temperate ; inasmuch as he never 
ate but on Sundays and Thursdays only. He made himself a slave to these 
virtues. And moreover he was wise and learned in the exposition of the 
divine holy scriptures." 

A note in Lebar Brecc (1880 Oengus, cxiii) says that Adamnan 
appointed the 15 th July as festival of the twelve apostles, among the 
[Irish] Scots. 

O 



210 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Ealdfrith, Oswiu's son, [called] Fland Fina by the Gaels, 
a wise man, king of the Saxons, died.^ 

There is a metrical pedigree of Adamnan in the top margin of p. 369 of 
the Book of Leinster : "Adamnan was nourished in lona ; the son of clear 
Ronan, the son of Tinne, the son of Aed, the son of Lugaid, the son of 
Setna, the son of Fergus (i.e., of the kindred of Lugaid). 

" His mother (if it be a fault in the body) [was] Ronnat, daughter of 
Segine. Segine, of briUiant rank, [was] the good son of Duach, the son of 
Barr-finnan (i.e., of the kindred of Enda)." 

Note on Fiacc's Hymn in Franciscan Liber Hymnorum, L.H., ii, 306: 
"Adamnan, son of Ronan, son of [T]inne. His mother's name was Ronat." 

See years 692, 696, above. According to Reeves (Adamnan, 378-379), 
Adamnan was succeeded by Conamail, who died in 710. 

Book of Leinster, facsimile, 370 e : "Adamnan was an admirable man ; 
gi'eat was his love for his God and for his neighbour. By him the great 
relics of saints were collected into one shrine ; and this is the shrine that 
Cilline Droich[tech], son of Dichloch, gave to Ireland in order to m.ake 
peace ; and it belongs to the tribe of Conall and the tribe of Eogan. Here 
follows the enumeration of the relics (i.e. in the shrine), as Adamnan sang : 
"A maccucain isruith 
In tiag nodgaibi fortmuin . . ." etc. 
Cf year 726, note. There is an Irish Life of Adamnan (see above, p. Ixxiii). 
An anecdote of him is told in the Tallaght Discourse, 162. 

' Fuit, with the gloss do M (" was "). 

Ealdfrith died in 705 ; Bede, V, 18. A. I., 17, O'Conor's year 694 = 705 
(35 years after 670) : " Fland Fina, Oswiu's son, king of the Saxons, 
reposed." A.U., i, 152, s.a. 703 = 704 (with marginal note, "bissextile"): 
" Ealdfrith, Oswiu's son, a wise man, the king of the Saxons, died." 

Ealdfrith has been confused with Ecgfrith by D.M.F. ; see above, year 
685. The name Fland Fina is a descriptive one, meaning "wine-red." In 
the notes upon the Martyrology of Oengus at Oswald's death on August 5th, 
the Franciscan MS. and the Lebar Brecc confuse Oswald with Ealdfrith 
(1905 Oengus, 182 ; 1880 ed., cxxix): "that is, Fland Fina, Oswiu's son." 

D.M.F., II, no (and P. & S., 402) : — " The death of Fland Fina, 
Oswiu's son, king of the Saxons, the renowned scholar [egnatd/i] and pupil 
of Adamnan." Here follow the verses quoted at year 685. 

Verses written in Irish have been attributed to Ealdfrith. Cf the text 
edited by K. Meyer ; Anecdota from Irish MSS., iii, 10 ff 

D.M.F., II, 1 10 : " In this year [704] the men of Ireland consented to 
receive single authority and a single rule from Adamnan, regarding the 
celebration of Easter. . . ." There follows an erroneous account of the 
Easter and tonsure controversy (iio-i 14). For its conclusion, see year 
586, note. 

The Metrical Dindsenchas (from the Book of Leinster), Gwynn, Todd 
Lecture Series, viii, 20: "Afterwards the synod of Adamnan [was 
assembled] to excommunicate Irgalach," in Raith-Senaid, north of Tara. 



EALDFRITH. BRUDE DERILE'S SON 211 

ca. 705 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 154, s.a. 704 = 705 

The slaying of Conamail, Cano's son.^ 

ca. 706 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 220 " 
Brude, [son of] Derile, died.-* 

ca. 707 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 220 '' 

Duncan held the principate of lona.^ 

707 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 154, s.a. 706 = 707 

Bee, Duncan's grandson, was slaughtered.** 

^ See above, year 673. 

" Placed 23 years before 729. 

3 A.U., i, 154, s.a. 705 (glossed "or 7o6") = 7o6: "Brude, Derile's son, 
died." 

The Chronicle of the Picts (ABC) gives Brude 11 years' reign; he 
appears from the annals to have reigned from 697 to 706. He was 
succeeded by his brother Nechtan. 

According to A.S., March, ii, 444-445, the Life of Kiritinus in the 
Codex Ultrajectinus says that "Nectavius, the king of the Picts, . . was 
baptized [.'. 706x710?]; and gave the place of his baptism, with its whole 
parish, to St Kiritinus, for the service of Christ's pilgrim servants, without 
any subjection, in eternity. . . . And St Kiritinus took with him many 
relics of saints, and founded a church at the mouth of the river Gobriat in 
Pictland, and consecrated it. He preached the gospel to Picts and Scots 
for 60 years, and built a notable temple at Rosemarkie. . . . Kiritinus 
performed apostolic miracles. . . . He built 150 temples; he converted 
36,000 persons to the faith of Christ. At last, after completing 80 years 
of his age, 3 months, and 17 days," he died on i6th March ; "and was 
buried in the same city, in the church of St Peter, before the altar. . . ." 
Cf. Breviary of Aberdeen, i, 3, 69-70. See year 697, note. 

* Placed 22 years before 729. 

^ Similarly in A.U., i, 156, s.a. 706 = 707. 

Duncan's appointment seems to have preceded the death of abbot 
Conamail ; Reeves reckoned Conamail's abbacy from 704 to 710. See year 
710. Duncan seems to have been appointed in connection with the Easter 
dispute ; see years 716, note ; 717. 

" According to S.C.S., i, 273, " he was the head of a branch of the Cinel 
Gabhran, who possessed the south half of Kintyre, and were descended 



212 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

709 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 156, s.a. 708 = 709 

A battle [was fought] in the Orkneys, and in it fell the son 
of Artablair. 



710 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 221 ^ 

Conamail,^ Failbe's son, abbot of lona, rested.^ 

710 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 158, s.a. 709 = 710 

A conflict [was fought] by the tribe of Comgall * ; and there 
two sons of Nechtan Dargairt's ^ son were slaughtered. 
Angus, Maelanfaid's son, was slaughtered in Skye.^ 

from Conaing-, one of the sons of Aidan, to whom it was given as his 
patrimony." Skene (S.C.S., i, 285) understood Bee to have been the son of 
Conall Gael (see year 681), the son of Duncan, son of Conaing (see 
year 622). 

For Duncan see years 680, 681, 700. He was perhaps a son of 
Eoganan. 

' Placed 19 years before 729. Under the same year-section Tigernach 
enters a second notice of the restoration of Justinian II ; this is derived 
from Bede's Chronicle (M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 317). Cf year 693. 

' Conmaelvci Tigernach, Conmaolvn. C.S. 

^ The text is corrected by that of C.S., 116, Hennessy's year 706 = 710. 

A.U., i, 158, s.a. 709 = 710: "Conamail, Failbe's son, abbot of lona, 
rested." Similarly in F.M., i, 308, s.a. 708. 

Conamail's death is placed in the Martyrology of Gorman, p. 174, under 
September nth. So also in Martyrology of Donegal, p. 244: "Conamail, 
Failbe's son. He was of the race of CoUa Uais, sovereign of Ireland." 

About this time Ceolfrith's letter was written (Bede, V, 21 ; E.C., 47-49). 

Fordun inserts in his version of the Chronicle of the Picts, after the 
reign of Nechtan, Derile's son (Chronica, IV, 12; i, 154): "[Nechtan], 
according to Bede, received letters from England concerning the observance 
of the Paschal cycle." 

* linnibairecc apud genus Coinghaill {apud in sense of Irish la). 

'•> Doirgarto. Cf A.U.'s genitive Dargarto above, year 685 {Dargarto in 
Tigernach) ; in probabihty the same man is referred to there as here. 
Cf year 712. 

" inscijugulatus est. Cf the Maelanfaid at year 725. 



WARS IN ORKNEY, ARGYLE, AND PICTLAND 213 

710x711 

Chronicle of Holyrood, p. 23. 

In the year 711, the prefect Beorhtfrith fought with the 
Picts.i 

7" 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 222 ^ 

A slaughter of the Picts in the plain of Mano [was made] 
by the Saxons ^ ; and there Finguine, son of Deleroith,* fell by 
premature death. . . . 

A conflict of the Britons with the [men of] Dalriata occurred 
on Lorg-eclet, and there the Britons were conquered.^ 

712 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 222 •* 

Coeti, bishop of lona, rested.'' 



712 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 160, s.a. 711 =712 

The burning of Tairpert-boitter.^ 
Congal, Dargairt's*' son, died. 
The siege of Aberte ^^ by Selbach. 

' This is derived from Bede's Recapitulatio (E.C., 49. Bede reads 
Berctfrid ; Bercired (see above, year 698) is probably a different name). 

2 Placed 18 years before 729. 

2 In text ab Saxones, for which Stokes would read, with A.U., apud 
Saxones (cf year 710). Mano was probably the district called by Welsh 
writers Manau; i.e., Clackmannanshire, with an extension to the south 
of the Forth, as far as Slamannan. 

■• Cf. year 716. 

= Both these passages appear similarly in A.U., i, 158, 160, s.a. 710 = 711. 

" Placed 17 years before 729. 

" Similarly in A.U., i, i6q, s.a. 711 = 712 (with marginal note 
"bissextile"); cf. F M., i, 310, s.a. 710. The bishop's name is spelt 
Ceode by Tigernach ; Coeddi in A.U. and F.M. 

See the Martyrology of Donegal, October 24th. 

8 Combustio Tairpirt Boitter. Reeves would identify this with the 
Tarbert north of Kintyre : Adamnan, 380. 

^ Doirgarto, as at year 710, above. 

'" Reeves (Adamnan, 380) would identify this with Dunaverty, in S.E. 



214 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

713 

Tigernacli, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 223 ^ 

Kenneth, son of Derile, and the son of Mathgernan, were 
slaughtered. 

Dorbene obtained the chair of lona ; and after five months 
in the primacy he died, on Saturday, the fifth day before the 
Kalends of November.^ . . . 

Talorc, Drostan's son, was bound by his brother, king 
Nechtan.-'' 

Kintyre. This identification is uncertain, but probably right. Skene 
adopted it : " Dunaverty, the main stronghold of the south half of Kintyre, 
the patrimony of the branch of the Cinel Gabhran of which the descendants 
of Conaing, son of Aidan, were the head" (S.C.S., i, 273). See Berchan, 
below, year 997. 

^ Placed 16 years before 729. 

2 I.e. on the 28th October, a Saturday in 713. So also in A.U. But 
Tigernacli repeats Dorbene's death under [715] (R.C., xvii, 225 : 14 years 
before 729) : " Dorbene, abbot of lona, [died]." Probably this Dorbene 
was the copyist of the earliest existing manuscript of Adamnan's Life of 
Columba ; see above, p. 117. 

F.M., i, 312, s.a. 713: "St Dorbene Fota, the abbot of lona, died on 
the 28th of October." 

Martyrology of Gorman, p. 204, places "slender Dorbene" {Dorbene 
seng) under October 28th; with the note: "abbot of lona of Columcille ; 
he was of the kindred of Conall Gulban." To this the Martyrology of 
Donegal (286) adds that Dorbene was " Altaine's son." 

"Dorbene, abbot of lona" is named under October 27th in the 
Martyrology of Tallaght, Book of Leinster, 364 ; but October 28th in the 
Brussels version, ed. Kelly, xxxviii. 

^ ligatur apud fratrem suum, Nechtan regem {apud in sense of Irish la). 

This whole passage is in A.U., i, 162, s.a. 712 = 713. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 112, s.a. 710: "Talorc [_Folorg\ the son of 
Drost, was fast bound by his own brother king Nechtan." 

Nechtan, the king of the Picts at this time, was Derile's son, and 
brother of the Kenneth previously mentioned. Skene would read 
" Kenneth's brother " here ; but possibly " brother " may mean " cousin " 
(as Irish brathir sometimes means), or else "brother-in-law" or "foster 
brother" may be meant. The kings of Pictland seem to have preferred to 
give Athole (the doorway of Moray) to a near relative. 

Angus put Talorcan, Drostan's son, king of Athole, to death in 739, and 
inay have made his own brother Talorcan the king of Athole (see year 750). 



EASTER REFORM IN lONA 215 

714 

Tigernacli, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 224^ 

Dunolly was built by Selbach.^ 
Ailen Daingen was destroyed.^ 

716 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 166, s.a. 715 = 716 

Gartnait, son of Deleroith, died. 

716 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 217 

Ecgbeorht, a holy man of the nation of the Angles, and one 
that for the sake of the heavenly fatherland adorned the 
priesthood with monastic life, by pious preaching brought 
over many provinces of the [Irish] Scottish nation to the 
canonical observance of the time of Easter, from which 
observance they had too long strayed, in the year from the 
Lord's Incarnation 715.* 

' Placed 15 years before 729. In the same year-section in Tigernach 
and A.U. is the note : " Fogartach, Cernach's grandson, was driven from 
his kingdom [of Ireland], and came to Britain." 

See year 716, note. 

- Cf. year 701. 

3 Cf. year 704. 

Both events stand similarly in A.U., i, 162-164, s.a. 713 = 714. 

* This passage is wrongly placed by Tigernach under [701] (28 years 
before 729). It is derived from Bede's Chronicle (M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 
319; E.C., 50, note), where the date given is 716, though some MSS. 
read 715 and 717. The other foreign events in the same section are 
also derived from Bede (u.s., 318-319). Tigernach's year-section begins 
with the note: "Anastasius reigned three years," with the marginal date 
4676 ; but Bede gives the date 4670. Anastasius was emperor 713-716. 

According to MacCarthy's tables (N and O in A.U., iv) Celtic Easter 
was April 21st in 715, 3 weeks after Roman Easter; in 716 (the last year 
of the cycle of 84 years, according to MacCarthy) it would have been April 
i2th, one week before Roman Easter: because the thirteenth day after 
the Paschal new moon was a Sunday— an occurrence that did not happen 
again until 729, the year of Ecgbeorht's death. (See year 729, and E.C., 
51-52.) 

Rival abbots seem to have been set up by the different factions before 
the innovation was accepted. The change is said to have been made by 
Duncan (see year 707, and note) ; but abbot Conamail (t7io) lived for 3 
years after Duncan's appointment, and abbot Dorbene ruled for a short 



216 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

716 

Chronicle of Holyrood, p. 23 

In the year 716 ... the man of the Lord, Ecgbeorht, con- 
verted the monks of lona to the catholic [time] of Easter, and 
to the ecclesiastical tonsure.^ 

716 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 225 ^ 

Easter was changed in the community ^ of lona. 

Faelchu, Dorbene's son, received the chair of Columba in 
the eighty-seventh * year of his age, on the fourth before the 
Kalends of September, a Saturday.^ 

time (t7i3 or 715) ; and Dorbene's successor Faelchu was enthroned one 
year before Duncan's death (t7i7). 

Irish customs and tonsure survived in the church of Brittany, and were 
abolished by Louis in 818. See B.R., vi, 513-514- Some Irish customs 
survived in Scotland till the time of queen Margaret. 

^ This is derived from Bede, H.E., Recapitulatio. 

Herimannus Augiensis notes Ecgbeorht's reform from Bede's Chronicle; 
M.G.H., Scriptores, v, 97, s.a. 716 (also the year of Theodosius' empire). 
Cf. Bernoldus, Chronicon, ibid., v, 417. So also in Ekkehard, s.a. 716, or 3 
Anastasius II ; ibid., vi, 26, 157 ; and in Marianus Scottus, ibid., v, 546, 
s.a. 737 = 715 (also the 2nd of Anastasius), and A.D. 716. Incorrectly in 
Sigebert of Gemblours, M.G.H., Scriptores, vi, 329, s.a. 708: "The Picts 
and Scots received the catholic rite of the observance of Easter." Ibid., 
s.a. 716: "Ecgbeorht, coming from Ireland, was renowned for sanctity 
and doctrine in England." Ibid., 330, s.a. 730 : " St Ecgbeorht, the priest 
of the English, died." 

Ecgbeorht's reform of the Scottish Easter is noted (from Bede) by the 
Chronicon Universale, ibid., xiii, 18 ; and (from Sigebert) by Alberic of 
Trois Fontaines, ibid., xxiii, 703, s.a. 716. Hugo's Chronicon (ibid., viii, 
325) abstracts from Bede's Chronicle, but gives the date 717. 

^ Placed 13 years before 729. In the same year-section in T., A.U., 
and the Annals of Clonmacnoise, is noted the death of Osred, king of 
Northumbria ; and the restoration of Fogartach, Cernach's grandson, to 
the kingdom of Ireland. (Fogartach was killed in the battle of Cend- 
delgthen in 724 ; A.U., i, 174.) Osred's death is placed in 716 by Bede 
and A.S.C. ; in [717] by A.C. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 112, s.a. 713: "Faelchu [Foylww] sate in 
the seat of Columcille, in the 74th year of his age." 

^ civitate, i.e. the monastery. Under years 717 and 718 the word used 
xi, fainilia. 

* " Seventy-fourth," in A U. and Annals of Clonmacnoise. Read 74th 
in T. (Ixxiiii for Ixxxuii). 

^ August 29th. This was a Saturday in 716. 



COLUMBITES RESIST THE REFORM 217 

717 

Tigemach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, pp. 225, 226 ^ 

Duncan, Cendfaelad's son, abbot of lona, died.- . . . 
Expulsion of the community of lona across the ridge of 
Britain by king Nechtan.^ 

The whole passage is also in A.U., i, 164-166, s.a. 715 = 716 (with the 
marginal note "bissextile"). 

F.M., i, 312, s.a. 714 and "the sixth year of Fergal" as sovereign of 
Ireland : " Faelchu, son of Dorbene, was ordained in the abbacy of Zona 
on the fourth before the Kalends of September, a Saturday, in the seventy- 
fourth year of his hfe." 

His predecessor's death is recorded in the year 717. 

' Placed 12 years before 729. 

2 Similarly in C.S., 118, Hennessy's year 713 = 777 ; and in A.U., i, 166, 
s.a. 716 = 717. 

The Martyrology of Oengus, May 25th : " Duncan of chill lona." 

Notes on the Martyrology of Oengus (1905 Oengus, p. 136), in Rawlinson 
B 505: "Duncan, i.e. abbot of lona of Columcille.— I.e. abbot of lona. 
Under him the community of lona accepted the lawful Easter." In Laud 
610 (ibid.; and Lebar Brecc, u.i.) : "Duncan, son of Cendfaelad, son of 
Maelcoba, son of Aed, son of Ainmire" ; Lebar Brecc completes the pedigree 
(1880 Oengus, xc): "son of Setna, son of Fergus Cend-fota, son of Conall 
Gulban, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages." 

Martyrology of Gorman, p. 104, May 25th: "Noble Duncan of lona 
here" {Duncad lae soer sunna), with the note "abbot of lona of Columcille, 
of Cenel-Conaill." Martyrology of Oengus, p. 126, May 25th : "Duncan of 
cold lona." Brussels Martyrology of Tallaght, Kelly, p. xxv. May 25th : 
" Duncan, abbot of lona ; the son of Cendfaelad." Cf. the Martyrology 
of Donegal, p. 138, May 25th. 

See above, years 707, 716 note. 

Reeves in his edition of Adamnan says (p. 379) : " He was of the most 
noble branch of the house of Conall Gulban, for his grandfather Maelcobha, 
who died in 615, was the third of the family who were successively monarchs 
of Ireland, and his grand-uncle Domhnall, who won the battle of Magh 
Rath ... in 637 succeeded Maelcobha on the throne. During his 
presidency there seems to have been a schism in the community, for in 
713 and 716 two other members of the order were elected to the cathedra 
lae or Columbae : or it may be that a different office, such as prior, or even 
bishop, is denoted by the expression. ..." A rival abbot appointed to rule 
during the life-time of his predecessor would have had a doubtful position, 
which might have been described by saying that he had been appointed 
to sit in the abbot's chair. 

^ Similarly in C.S. and A.U., u.s. 

This expulsion must have been the result of the Columbites' refusal 
to accept some of Nechtan's reforms. See year 710, and Bede (H.E., V, 



218 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

A conflict between [the people] of Dalriata and the Britons 
at the stone that is called Minuirc ; and the Britons were 
defeated.^ 



718 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 226 ^ 

The tonsure-crown^ was put upon the community of lona.* 

719 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 227 ^ 

The battle of Findglend [took place] between two sons of 
Ferchar Fota ; and there Ainfcellach was slaughtered on the 
fifth day of the week, the Ides of September.'^ 

21 ; in E.C., 47-49). With the king's authority over the Scottish church 
at this time compare the "servitude" from which the church was freed, 
878 X 889 ; year 889, note. 

' Similarly in A.U., U.S. C.S. omits "and the Britons . . . Minuirc." 

Skene (S.C.S., i, 273) suggested that Minuirc was Clach na Breatan in 
Glenfalloch, on the boundary between the counties of Dumbarton and 
Perth. But no doubt there were many boundary marks. This should have 
been on the border of Argyle. 

^ Placed II years before 729. In the same year is noted the death of a 
king of Northumbria, i.e., Coenred, who died in 718 (Bede, V, 22, 23 ; A.S.C., 
s.a. 716). 

^ Tonsura corona. In C.S., Tonsurae corona. 

* Similarly in C.S., 118, Hennessy's year 714 = 718. 

"Placed 10 years before 729. In the next year is noted : "Theodosius 
reigned one year" (he was emperor 716-717). So also in A. U., s.a. 719 = 720. 
This is derived from Bede's Chronicle (M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 319), and has 
already been entered by Tigernach under [704] (see that year, note). 

" I.e., on Thursday, the 13th September ; but this was a Wednesday in 
719. It was Thursday in 714 and 725. The battle is similarly entered and 
dated in A.U., i, 170, s.a. 718 = 719 ; but in MS. A the date has been altered 
by another hand to "the si.xth before the Ides," September 8th, which was 
Thursday in 718. Perhaps the true correction would have been from 
"fifth" to "fourth day of the week," i.e. Wednesday, September 13th, 719. 

This is the Ainfcellach who was deposed in 697 or 698. His adversary 
must have been Selbach, who reigned till 723. Another brother may have 
been Ewen, for whom see year 736. 

"Findglend" was understood by Skene to have been " Finglen on the 
Braes of Loarn, near Lochavich" (S.C.S., i, 284). This is likely, and is 
supported by tradition. 



DEFEATS OF STRATHCLYDE AND LORN 219 

The battle of Ardde-anesbi/ on the sea, [took place] between 
Duncan Bee, with the tribe of Gabran, and Selbach with the 
tribe of Loarn ; and Selbach was defeated, on the second before 
the Nones of October, the seventh day of the week.'^ And 
certain earls ^ fell in it. 

721 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 227* 

Duncan Bee, king of Kintyre, died.^ 

722 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 228'' 

Maelrubai rested in Applecross, after completing the 
eightieth year of his life, three months, and nineteen days ; on 
the eleventh day before the Kalends of May, the third day of 
the week.^ . . . 

' In A.U., Ardae nesbi. 

^ I.e., on Saturday, the 6th October: but this was Friday in 719. It 
was Saturday in 714 and 725. 

A.U. (u.s.) note the battle similarly, but read : "on the day before the 
Nones of September (or October), on the sixth day of the week" : i.e., 
Friday, September 4th or October 6th. (September 4th was Monday in 719, 
Friday in 716 and 722.) 

The true date seems therefore to have been Friday, 6th October, 719. 

^ comites. Possibly = "mormaers"? Cf. the nobiles who fell in 736. 

* Placed 8 years before 729. 

^ So also in A.U., i, 170, s.a. 720 = 721. 

" Placed 7 years before 729. 

' April 2ist, a Tuesday in 722. Lower in the same year-section the i ith 
of December is stated to be Friday ; this also was true of 722. 

A.U., i, 172, s.a. 721=722: "Maelrubai [died] in Applecross, in the 
eightieth year of his age." 

F.M., i, 320, s.a. 721 (and "the 2nd year of Kenneth," Irgalach's son, as 
sovereign of Ireland) ; " St Maelrubai, abbot of Bangor, died, after going to 
Scotland, in his own church at Applecross, on the 21st of April. 80 years, 
3 months, and 9 days, was the length of his life." 

The Martyrology of Oengus, April 21st: "In Scotland in purity, after 
forsaking every pleasure, our brother Maelrubai went from us, with his 
mother." Notes in Lebar Brecc (1880 Oengus, Ixxv ; 1905 ed., 118): 
" The festival of the death of Maelrubai. And he was of the Cenel-Eogain 
[Tyrone], but his church is in Scotland, and this is the festival of his death. 
His mother was Subthan, daughter of Comgall, or daughter of Setna ; and 
his church is in Applecross" ii n-Apiir-crosen a chell). 

A note upon "holy Maelrubai" in the Martyrology of Gorman, p. 80, 



220 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Beli, Elfin's son, king of Dumbarton, died.^ . . . 
Fedlimid held the principate of lona." 



723 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 231 ^ 

The entrance into monastic life * of Selbach, king of Dalriata/' 

April 2 1 St, calls him "abbot of Bangor ; he was of the Cenel-Eogain, and 
he blessed [a church] in Applecross [Apur Crossan] in Scotland.'' 

He is called " Maelrubai, abbot of Bangor" in the Calendar of Tallaght, 
April 2ist ; Book of Leinster, p. 359, b. 

Of. Martyrology of Donegal, p. 106. 

According to the Breviary of Aberdeen, ii, 3, Ixxxix-xc, August 27th, 
Maelrubai was killed in Urquhart in Ross by Norwegian invaders, and 
buried in Applecross. 

.Genealogies of Saints, in the Book of Leinster, facsimile, 347, c : 
" Maelrubae, son of Elgonach, son of Garb, son of Ferballach, son of 
Cu-bairend, son of Cremthand, son of Binnech, son of Eogan, son of Niall 
Nine-hostager." Similarly in L.B., 13, e-f; " Moelrubai, son of Elgonach, 
son of Garb, son of Ferballach, son of Cu-boirend, son of Crimthan, son of 
Eochaid Bindech, son of Eogan, son of Niall Nine-hostager." 

' Bi7z mac Elphine, rex Alo Cluaithe. 

This event stands also in A.U., u.s. ; and in A.C., Y Cymmrodor, ix, 160, 
s.a. [722] (8 years after the "270th year" after 444: Beli filius Elfin 
moritur). Cf. B.T. in M.A., 686, s.a. 720 ; B.S. in M.A., 653, s.a. 721. His 
death is placed by D.M.F., I, 40, in this year [722], on December nth 
or 1 2th : — " . . . The battle [of Almain] was won by Murchaid, Bran's 
son [king of Leinster], and by Aed, king of South Leinster, the son of 
Duncan, son of Colgu. Fergal [king of Ireland] was killed there ; Aed 
Mend and Duncan, Murchaid's son, slew Fergal himself, and Bile, Buan's 
son, king of Scotland; from him is named Corrbile ['Bile's nook'] in 
Almain. . . ." This account of the battle is full of miraculous and 
legendary stories, and is not to be relied upon for any detail. 

2 Reeves, Adamnan, 382 : " Fedhlimid, who was coadjutor abbot in 722, 
did not succeed to the abbacy on the death of Faelcu, in 724." 

2 Placed 6 years before 729. 

* Cleiricatus. {Clericaiiis, A.U. ; i cclercecht, F.M.) 

'^ A.U., i, 174, s.a. 722 = 723: "Selbach's entrance into monastic life." 
In F.M., i, 318, s.a. 719 : " Selbach, lord of Dalriata, entered monastic life." 

Selbach appears to have relinquished the kingdom to his son Dungal. 
See year 726. 

See year 730 for Selbach's death. The Chronicle of Dalriata allows 
him 24 years' reign ; perhaps 700-723. 



KINGS BELT, SELBACH, AND NECHTAN 221 

724 

Tigernacli, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 231 ^ 

Faelchu, Dorbene's son, abbot of lona, slept. Cilline Fota 
succeeded him in the principate of lona.^ 

The entrance into monastic life^ of Nechtan, king of the 
Picts. Drust reigned afterwards.* 

72s 

Tigernach, Annals : Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 232 ^ 

Ailen of Macc-Craich was built." 
Simal, son of Drust, was bound.'' 

ca. 725 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 176, s.a. 724 = 725^ 

Congal, son of Maelanfaith"; Brecc of Fortriu ; Eogan,^" 
abbot of Eigg, died. 

1 Placed 5 years before 729. In the same year-section the 7th of October 
is stated to have been a Saturday : this was true of 724. 

^ So also in A.U., i, 174, s.a. 723 = 724 (with marginal note ''bissextile"). 
F.M., i, 3 1 8, s.a. 720 (and "the ist year of Kenneth, son of Irgalach, 
son of Conaing Cuirri, in the sovereignty over Ireland"): "St Faelchu, 
Dorbe[ne]'s son, abbot of lona, . . . died," 

D.M.F., I, 52 (P. & S., 401) : "Faelchu, abbot of lona, died." 

For Cilline see year 726. 

^ Clericatum. 

* Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 113, s.a. 722 = 724 and 725: "Nechtan, 
king of the Picts, entered into religion, and Drust succeeded him in the 
kingdom." 

The annals support Chronicles of the Picts DFIK, which give Nechtan 
iS years' reign (probably 706-724). 

Nechtan may have adopted the religious life from choice ; cf. Bede's 
account of his character (E.C., s.a. .'710), and his zeal in religious matters 
(above, years ?7io, 717). He seems to have endeavoured in 726 to recover 
civil power, but unsuccessfully. He did become king again in 728, but in 
729 Angus was king. Nechtan died in 732. 

^ Placed 4 years before 729. 

'^ Similarly in A.U., i, 176, s.a. 724 = 725. I.e., "isle of the Rough's son"? 

For a similar use of the word Ailen (perhaps meaning " island fortress " 
or " crannog") cf. Ailen-daingen, under years 704, 714. 

' A.U., U.S., read Simul for Simal, possibly intending: "At the same 
time, the son of Drust was bound." 

8 The sentence preceding the passage quoted is : " The moon [appeared] 
dark and sanguine on the eighteenth day before the Kalends of January," 



222 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

726 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 232 ^ 

Nechtan, Derile's son, was bound by ^ king Drust.^ 

Cilline, abbot of lona, rested.* 

Dungal was cast from his kingdom ; and Drust was cast 
from the kingdom of the Picts, and Alpin^ reigned in his 
stead. . . . 

Eochaid, Eochaid's son, began to reign.® 

726 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 176, s.a. 725 = 726 

Talorcan Map-han died.'' 

727 

Duald Mac-Pirbis, Fragment I, p. 54^ 

In this year Angus, king of Fortriu, gained three battles 
against Drust, king of Scotland. 

i.e. the 15th December. According to L'Art de Verifier les Dates there 
was a total lunar eclipse on 13th December, 726. Perhaps these events are 
to be assigned to the year 726. 

" With this Maelanfaith cf. Maelanfaid of year 7 10. 

'" Oan prmceps Ego. 

' Placed 3 years before 729. 

- abp; in A.U., apud. 

^ This sentence appears similarly in A.U., i, 176, s.a. 725 = 726. 

^ D.M.F., I, 52 (P. & S., 401) (under the year after the battle of 
Cend-delgthen, fought in 724) : "Cilline Fota, abbot of lona, [died]." 

F.M., i, 322, s.a. 725=731 (and "the 3rd year of Flaithbertach," son of 
Loingsech, as sovereign of Ireland) : " St Cilline Fota, abbot of lona, died." 

A Cillen is placed under April 19th in the Martyrology of Gorman, p. 80. 
Similarly in the Martyrology of Donegal, p. 1 06. 

^ Elphin, i.e. .^Ifwine. See year 728. According to S.C.S., i, 286, 
Alpin was the brother of the Eochaid, Eochaid's son, who acquired 
Dalriata, also in 726. The only evidence of this relationship is the fact 
that Fland names "Alpin, Eochaid's son," as the king who reigned after 
Dungal and before Muiredach ; but perhaps Fland's evidence is sufficient. 
See above, p. cxlvii. 

" See year 733. 

Eochaid's predecessor was Dungal, Selbach's son, who had ruled in 
Argyle apparently from 723 to 726 ; he endeavoured to recover the kingdom 
afterwards (cf. years 727, 731, 733, 734, 736). 

'' Perhaps for map-hoen " Owen's son." 

** Also in Skene's P. & S., 401. 

The previous year-section ends thus: "The beginning of the reign of 



KINGS DRUST, DUNGAL, EOCHAID, AND ANGUS 223 

727 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 178, s.a. 726 = 727 

A battle [took place] in Rosfoichne,^ and there some men 
of the two Airgialla^ fell; [it was fought] between Selbach 
and the family of Eochaid, Donald's grandson.^ 

727 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 233* 

Adamnan's relics were carried over to Ireland; and [his] 
law was renewed.^ 

728 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 234^ 

The battle of Moin-craibe '' among the Picts themselves ; 
Angus and Alpin were they that fought the battle. And the 

Flaithbertach " [728]. The present year-section begins as above, and 
continues : "The death of Murchaid, Bran's son, king of Leinster" [727]. 

Duald's Fragment is not very good evidence for the occurrence of these 
battles, or for their date. Cf year 729. 

^ Congressio Irrois Foichnae, "the encounter of Irros-Foichne" 
Hennessy. Of the tvi'o editors, Hennessy inclined to think that the battle 
took place in Ireland ; MacCarthy, in Scotland. 

^ dendibh Airgiallaib. The Airgialla of Ireland appear to be meant 
(i.e. Oriel). See above, p. clii. 

^ " Eochaid, Donald's grandson," was the king vi'hose death is noticed 
above under 697. The king who reigned at this time in Dalriata was 
Eochaid, Eochaid's son ; and probably therefore Donald Brecc's great- 
grandson. 

This battle would seem to have taken place between supporters of 
Eochaid, Eochaid's son, and Selbach, whose son — Dungal — Eochaid had 
deposed (year 726). 

* Placed 2 years before 729. 

5 Similarly in A.U., i, 178, s.a. 726 = 727 (after, but in the same year 
with, the battle of Rosfoichne) ; and in D.M.F., u.s., immediately after the 
passage quoted above. 

Among the provisions of the law was one of the payment of tax to lona 
by the Irish Columbite houses : see above, year 696. 

•J Placed I year before 729. 

'■ M onaigh-craebi. Reeves would identify this place with Moncrieff Hill, 
some 3 miles S.E. of Perth, in the barony of Dunbarney (Adamnan 383). 



224 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

rout was before Angus, and the son of Alpin was slain there ; 
and Angus took authority. 

A pitiful battle between Picts at Caislen-Credi ^ ; and the 
rout was upon the same Alpin, and his territories and his men 
were all taken from him. And Nechtan, Derile's son, took the 
kingship of the Ficts.^ 

' I.e., "fortress of Crede"? According to Reeves, u.s., this was 
Moothill, now Boothill, near Scone ; and the same place as the Hill of 
Credulity, in the Chronicle of the Picts (below, p. 445). Cf. S.C.S., i, 280. 
This identification would involve the assumptions that credi is a genitive of 
end " the credo " (or else, as Stokes suggested, that it is a by-form from the 
root cred of eretid " believes "), and that eredulitas in the Chronicle of the 
Picts means "faith." These assumptions are somewhat strained, and 
I doubt whether the verbal resemblance justifies them. It seems more 
probable that Crede was a man's name, or even a woman's name {CrSd, 
gen. Crede. Cf. Cred, Guaire's daughter, in the Tale of Cano ; Anecdota 
from Irish MSS., i, 6, ff. Cf D'Arbois de Jubainville, Litterature Epique 
de I'Irlande, 206). 

Skene deduced from the word "pitiful" that the Irish annalist's 
sympathy was on Alpin's side, Alpin being of Dalriatan origin. The name 
Alpin is not originally Gaelic ; it appears to be derived from Anglo-Saxon 
^Ifwine, and suggests descent from Neithon and Oswiu. 

^ These events stand thus in A.U., i, 180, s.a. 727 = 728 (with the 
marginal note "bissextile"): "The battle of Moin-croib [A-fonid ckroibh'\ 
between the Picts themselves ; and there Angus was the conqueror, and 
many were slain on the side of king Alpin. 

"A lamentable battle was fought among the same, near the castle of 
Crede \_juxta castellum Credi\ ; and there Alpin fled away." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 114, s.a. 725 = 728: "The battle of 
Moin-craibe \_Moymd Krewe~\ was fought between the Picts themselves, 
where Angus \_Enos\ was victor and many of Alpin's \Eljihines\ side slain. 

" There was another battle between them near the castle of Crede 
\Credy\, where it was a pitiful spectacle to behold king Alpin take his 
flight, and the most part of his army yield themselves to the mercy of their 
enemies : Eolbeck the son of Moydan and the rest of the nobles and people 
of the Picts turned their backs to Alpin, and did receive Nechtan the son . 
of Derile \_DeriUs\ as king into the kingdom again." 

Angus held part of the country, and in the next year made himself king. 
In "Jix he repelled Talorc's attempt to take the kingdom from him, and 
three years later began to annex Argyle. He was in conflict with 
Northumbria in 740 ; completed the annexation of Argyle in 741 ; and 
fought against Strathclyde in 744. 

The Chronicle of the Picts (ABC) says that Drust and Alpin reigned 
together for 5 years. According to the Irish annals, Drust reigned 
724-726 ; Alpin, 726-728. One or the other may have entered his third 
year upon the throne. 



KINGS ALPIN AND NECHTAN. ECGBEORHT 225 

729 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 234 
Christ's knight died on the day of Easter.^ 

729 

Chronicle of Holyrood, p. 24 

And in this year [729] the man of the Lord, Slcgbeorht, 
departed to the Lord on the very day of Easter, the eighth ^ 
before the Kalends of May.^ 

729 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, pp. 180-182, s.a. 728 = 729 

The battle of Monith-Carno, near lake Loogdae, [took place] 
between the army* of Nechtan and the army of Angus ; and 
Nechtan's tax-gatherers^ fell, namely Biceot, son of Moneit, 
and his son ; Finguine, son of Drostan ; Feroth, son of 

' 24th April, 729. 

A.U., i, 180, s.a. 728 = 729: "Ecgbeorht, Christ's soldier, rested on 
Easter day." 

D.M.F., I, p. 56 : " Saint Ecgbeorht, Christ's soldier, rested in lona 
of Columcille." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 114, s.a. 726 = 729: "Ecgbeorht \Egbricht\ 
the champion of Christ died on the feast day of Easter." 

"' April 24th. This was Easter in 729. Celtic Easter was April 17th, 
according to MacCarthy's tables (N and O, A.U., iv). See above, year 
716, note. 

^ This passage is derived from Bede's H.E., V, 22 (E.C., 51). 

Ecgbeorht's death, and the appearance of a comet, are placed under 
729 in A.S.C., ABCDEF ; and in the Annals of St Neots (Stevenson's 
Asser, 126). 

His death is noticed also by Bernoldus, Chronicon, M.G.H., Scriptores, 
V, 417 (in his 90th year, 729, April 24th) ; and s.a. 727, by the Annales 
Quedlinburgenses,Weissemburgenses, Lamberti, and Hersfeldenses (M.G.H., 
Scriptores, iii, 34, and v, i) ; s.a. 730, by Sigebert (ibid., vi, 330), confusedly. 
See above, year 716. 

Historia Brittonum, Genealogies; M.G.H., Auctores, xiii, 205: "Ida 
begot Eadric, who begot Ecgulf, who begot Liodguald, who begot Aetan ; 
he is Eata Glinmaur ; he begot Eadbyrth, who begot Ecgbirth the bishop, 
the first [bishop] of their race." 

* hostem. 

'" exactatores {exactores in IMS. B). 

P 



226 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Finguine, and many others: and the family of Angus 
triumphed.^ 

729 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 235 

A hundred and fifty Pictish ships were wrecked upon Ros- 
Cuissine in the same year." . . . 

The battle of Druimm-Derg-BIathuug=* [took place] between 
Picts, namely Drust and Angus, the king of the Picts ; and 
Drust was killed there, on the twelfth day of the month of 
August.* 

1 Annales Cambriae, ed. Ab Ithel, 9, s.a. [728] (4 years after the "280th 
year" after 444): "The battle of mount Carno" (MS. A reads mortis 
instead o^ motitis. Cf. Mons Carno, A.C., 18 ; Mons Carn, A.C., 27). 

B.T. in M.A., 686, s.a. 728 : " There was the battle of Mynydd Carno, 
in Gwent " ; confusing this place with the scene of later battles. This 
battle is also entered in B.S. in M.A., 653, s.a. 728. B.T. in R.B.H., 258, 
places it in 730. 

Monith-carno is probably a genitive case of moin-Carno ; but vionith 
or monid may have been a Pictish nominative. Carno is not the genitive 
of cai-ji, as Reeves (Adamnan, 3S3) would imply. Skene at one time 
suggested that the place might have been Cairn O' Mount, beside a pass 
between the Howe of Mearns and Strathdee ; but there is no lake there, 
unless the Bog of Luchray may be meant. Reeves (Adamnan, 64) would 
have identified A.U.'s stagmcm loogdae with Adamnan's Loch Diae, in the 
"ridge of Britain" ; above, p. 59 ; that is probably Loch Lochy. But the 
identity of the two names is dovibtful. Other conjectures are in Skene's 
Adamnan, 328; and S.C.S., i, 288. Phillimore says that the lake "is 
apparently Loch Tay" (Y Cymmrodor, i.x, 160): this is possible, but 
uncertain. The spelling is probably corrupt, and the place is unidentifiable. 
No doubt the succeeding battle was fought near the same district. 

The battle of Moin-Carno ended the second reign of Nechtan, Derile's 
son. This reign lasted for 9 months, according to the Chronicles of the 
Picts (FIK and Fordun). 

- The year of Ecgbeorht's death, 729. Possibly the place is Troup Head. 

^ Cath Droma Deirg Blathuug, Tigernach ; in A.U., Bellum Dromo 
Dergg Blathuug. 

* A.U., i, 182, s.a. 728 = 729: "The battle of Druimm-Derg-Blathuug 
[was fought] in the districts of the Picts, between Angus and Drust, king 
of the Picts ; and Drust fell." 

Annals of Clonmacnolse, p. 114, s.a. 726 = 729 : "The battle of Druimm- 
derg was fought in the kingdom of the Picts between Drust and Angus, 
king of the Picts ; where Drust was slain, the 12th of the Kalends of 
August. 

'■^ Here end the Chronicles of Bede." (Le., Bede's H.E.) 



731 



CONFLICTS IN PICTLAND AND ARGYLE 227 

730 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 235 1 

Return of Adamnan's relics from Ireland in the month of 
October.^ 

730 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 182, s.a. 729 = 730 

. . . Selbach, Ferchar's son, died.^ 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 184, s.a. 730 = 731 
The burning of Tairpert-boittir by Dungal.'' 

731 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 235 ^ 

A battle [took place] between the Picts*" and Dalriata in 
Muirbolg, and there the Picts were conquered. This was a 

For the stone cross inscribed to Drust "son of Voret," at St Vigeans, 
see Allen, Early Christian iVIonuments of Scotland (1903), iii, 235-239. Cf. 
H. & S., ii, 126; Stuart, Sculptured Stones, i (1856), plate 69. This stone 
may perhaps be responsible for the tradition that Drust "son of Wrad " was 
killed by Kenneth Alpin's son. See above, p. cxxviii. 

1 Placed I year after 729, 

2 Similarly A. U., i, 182, s.a. 729 = 730; it is there stated that February 
8th of this year was Wednesday, which was true of 730. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise (erroneously), p. 114, s.a. 727 = 730; "The 
return of the relics of Adamnan to Ireland in the month of October." 

^ See year 723. 

* Combustio Tairpirt boittir apud Dimghal. 

This would seem to have been an act of aggression by the deposed 
Dungal, Selbach's son, at Tarbert on Loch Fyne, against the king then 
reigning in Kintyre. The king at this time was Eochaid, Eochaid's son. 

^ Placed 2 years after 729. 

Under the same year Tigernach notes : " The entrance into monastic 
life \clericatus\ of Eachada, Cuthwine's son. The king of the Saxons was 
bound." These events are connected, probably wrongly, in A.U., i, 184, 
s.a. 730 = 731 : "The entrance into monastic life [u.s.] of Eochaid, Cuthwine's 
son, the king of the Saxons ; and he was bound." 

Stokes conjectured male Chuta for Tigernach's Eachada, because 
Ceolwulf, Cutha's son, king of Northumbria, became a monk in 737. This 
conjecture is perhaps not necessary. 

*• Cruithniu ; below (in the nominative) Cruithne. 



228 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

battle between the son of Angus and the son of Congus. 
Brude conquered Talorc, who fled.^ 



ca. 732 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 236- 

Temnen of [Kingarth^], a religious priest, rested.* 
Nechtan, Derile's son, died.^ 

' In A.U., U.S. : "A battle [took place] between the son of Angus and 
the son of Congus, but Brude conquered Talorc, who fled." In F.M., i, 
322, s.a. 725 : "A battle [took place] between the Picts \Cruithniii\ and 
Dalriata, in Muirbolg ; and there a great number of the Picts were killed." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 114, s.a. 728 = 731 : "The battle between 
the Picts and Dalriata, where the Picts were overcome, was fought. 

" There was a battle between the son of Angus and the son of Congus, 
where Brude vanquished Talorc flying." 

Hennessy thought that the Irish Picts are meant, and Irish Dalriata, 
and the Irish Muirbolg. The context appears to contradict this view, 
although the word used {Cruithm) usually in the Irish annals means 
" Irish Picts." Perhaps there were two battles, and Tigernach by con- 
flation combines them. 

Talorc or Talorcan was the "son of Congus" (see below, year 734) ; 
Brude, the "son of Angus" (year 736). One year later, Dungal, ruling 
part of Dalriata, captured (probably) this Brude from sanctuary. Angus, 
a strong ruler, retaliated vigorously, taking advantage of the disunion 
of Dalriata. 

Talorc's father Congus is probably he whose descent is recorded in 
Genealogy IV after the Senchus (above, p. clvi). 

^ Placed 3 years after 729. 

^ Cille Garadh. So also in A.U. and F.M. The priest's name is spelt 
Teimnen, in A.U. ; Tinmen, in F.M. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 114, s.a. 729 = 732: " Tymnen of Kilgarad, 
a religious and virtuous man, died." 

* Similarly in A.U., i, 186, s.a. 731 =732. In F.M., i, 322, s.a. 726 (and 
"the 4th year of Flaithbertach" as sovereign of Ireland): "Temnen of 
Kingarth [died]." 

5 Similarly in F.M., i, 324, s.a. 726, Annals of Clonmacnoise, U.S., 
114-115. 

Nechtan's reign-length is given variously as 15, 10, or 18 years, by the 
Chronicles of the Picts (see p. cxxv). His reign was interrupted by the 
reigns of Drust and Alpin, 724 to 728 (" 5 years," according to Chronicles 
ABC). He had ceased to reign in 729. 



ARGYLE IN CONFLICT WITH KING ANGUS 229 

733 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. i86, s.a. 732 = 733 

Dungal, Selbach's son, profaned [the sanctuary of] Tory- 
Island, when he dragged Brude out of it. And on the same 
occasion he invaded the island of Cuiren-rigi.^ 

Muiredach, Ainfcellach's son, assumed the kingship of the 
tribe of Loarn.^ 

733 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 237, s.a. [733] 

Flaithbertach led the fleet of Dalriata to Ireland, and great 
slaughter was made of them in the island of Oine.^ And these 
men were slain there : Conchobar, son of Lochene, and Branchu, 
son of Bran ; and many were drowned in the river that is 
called the Bann.* 

1 The island's name has been altered in MS. A by another hand to 
Culren-rigi, and so appears in MS. B ; and it is spelt Culen-rigi in the 
same annals, i, 286, s.a. 802 = 803. Reeves accepted the identification with 
Inch, off Inishowen, in Donegal (Adamnan, 384). 

This passage appears thus in Tigernach (R.C., xvii, 236 ; 4 years after 
729) : 

"Dungal, Selbach's son, made a raid into Tory Island, and another 
raid into Inis Cuirenn-rige, and destroyed [it?]-" 

This Brude was probably Brude (t 736), the son of Angus Fergus' son 
king of the Picts : Angus retaliated upon Dungal next year (734), and 
Dungal fled to Ireland ; two years later (736) Angus attacked him in 
Dalriata again, and imprisoned Dungal and his brother. Brude had doubt- 
less been rescued in 734 ; he died soon after the imprisonment of Dungal. 

2 This sentence appears similarly in Tigernach, u.s., 237. 

^ O'Donovan follows the Annals of Clonmacnoise in thinking this 
"island of Oine" to be Inishowen. Reeves suggested Island Heaghey, 
Coleraine. There seems to be little ground for either conjecture. 

* F.M., i, 326, s.a. 728 (and "the 6th year of Flaithbertach " as sovereign 
of Ireland): "Flaithbertach brought a fleet from Dalriata to Ireland; 
and on their arrival they delayed not in reaching the island of Oine. And 
battle was engaged in between Flaithbertach with his mercenaries 
\ainhsaibK\ and the Ciannachta, with others of the Qlstermen and of the 
tribe of Eogan ; and a countless host of the Ulstermeii and of the tribe of 
Eogan and of the Ciannachta were destroyed there, including Conchobar, 
son of Lochene, and Branchu, son of Bran ; and a countless number of 
them were drowned in the Bann, after their defeat." 

Flaithbertach entered a monastery, and died in 734 : F.M,, i, 326, 
s.a. 729. 



230 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Eochaid, Eochaid's son, king of Dalriata, and Conall, son 
of Conchobar, died.^ 

734 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. i88, s.a. 733 = 734^ 

Caintigern, the daughter of Cellach Cualann, died.^ 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, incorrectly, p. 115, s.a. 730 = 733: "Fergus 
[read Flaithbertach] brought an army out of Dalriata into Inis Owen in 
Ulster, upon whom there was great slaughter made, amongst whom Connor, 
son of Lochene, and Branchu, son of Bran, were slain, and many others 
drowned in the river of Bann." 

D.M.F., I, 56 (Skene's P. & S., 401): "A battle was won by Aed 
Alddain, Fergal's son, over Flaithbertach, Loingsech's son, king of Ireland; 
and Flaithbertach took to himself a fleet from the Fortrenna" (i.e., the 
people of Fortrlu) " against the tribe of Eogan ; but the greater part of 
that fleet was drowned. The death of Flaithbertach himself in that 
year. . . ." 

This affair shows the intimate connection at this time between the 
affairs of Ireland and Dalriata. 

' Similarly in F.M., i, 324, s a. 727 (and "the 5th year of Flaithbertach"), 
but with the reading " toisech of Dalriata." 

For Eochaid's accession see year 726. 

"Eochaid, Eochaid's son" stands in the list of kings of Dalaraide : 
Book of Leinster, facsimile, 41, e ; he is succeeded there by Indrechtach, 
for whom see year 741. 

Eochaid seems to have held together the three districts of Argyle (the 
districts containing respectively Dunnolly, Dunadd, and Dunaverty), and 
also the district of Dalaraide in the north-east of Ireland. Upon his death 
the territory was divided. The Chronicle of Dalriata and the Prose 
Chronicle in the Chronicle of Melrose say that the king of Dalriata was 
Ewen, Ferchar Fota's son (to 741 ; see below, pp. 235-236). But this 
Ewen's nephew, Dungal, Selbach's son, is named as king by Fland and 
the Duan. (Dungal appears to have reigned in Dunadd ; see year 736.) 
Dungal was driven out by Angus in 734, and captured in 736. At the 
same time Dungal's cousin, Muiredach, Ainfcellach's son, reigned in 
Lorn (year 733) ; he also was driven out, by Angus's brother, in 736. 

Indrechtach became king of Dalaraide ; and he too was conquered by 
Angus (see year 741). 

Fland and the Duan make Dungal Eochaid's successor ; this he can 
only have been till 736 : and they name D^ungal's successor Alpin. Fland 
calls Alpin "Eochaid's son" : and in the Duan, Alpin is given a reign of 
4 years [? 737-741]. See below, years 741, 742. 

^ The preceding sentence, in the same year-section, is : " An eclipse of 
the moon occurred on the eleventh before the Kalends of February " 
(i.e. 22nd January). So also in the same year of Tigernach, R.C. 
xvii, 237. According to L'Art de Verifier les Dates, there was a lunar 



KING EOCHAID. KENTIGERNA 231 

eclipse in 734 on January 24th at 3 a.m. This is the eclipse connected 
by the A.S.C. (ABCDEF, s.a. 734) with the deaths of Tatwine and Bede. 

^ Cf. A.U., i, 164, s.a. 714 = 715 : "Cellach Cualann, king of Leinster, 
. . . died." 

Caintigern's name becomes Kentigerna in Latin. She had come to 
Scotland with her brother, Congan, and her son, Faelan. 

According to J. Stuart in his edition of the Book of Deer, p. cxxxv, 
Kentigerna's relatives were these : 

provincial chief of Leinster 

I 

I I 

Congan . Kentigerna 

\ 



I I I 

Faelan Fursae Ultan 



These five saints with seven other priests, according to tradition, settled 
at Lochalsh ; and Faelan built a church in honour of Congan. 

Cf. the Breviary of Aberdeen, i, 3, xxiv, January 7th : " St Kentigerna, 
the mother of abbot Faelan." Her father was Tyrennus, king of Leinster ; 
her husband Feriacus, kinglet of Monchestree ; her brother, St Congan 
(ibid., xxv) : "... Forsaking her country, friends, and nation, she fled 
from the society of worldly men, with her son Faelan and her brother 
Congan ; . . . and she came to a desert place at Strathfillan, and lived with 
them there for some time in deep contemplation. 

"At last, deprived of the intercourse and presence of her dearest son 
and brother, Congan, she betook herself for contemplation to the island of 
Inchcailloch in Loch Lomond, in Lennox, and adopted the solitary life of 
an anchorite, satisfying herself with herbs and water only, in all patience 
and sanctity and integrity of life. . . ." 

Breviary of Aberdeen, ii, 3, cxxvi, October r3th : "The abbot 
St Congan, who is revered at Turriff of the diocese of Aberdeen." 
" According to tradition [feruni], Congan was the brother of the matron 
Kentigerna, and the dearest uncle of the blessed abbot Faelan." 

The Breviary of Aberdeen (i, 3, xxvi, January 9th) says that Faelan was 
the son of Feriach and Kentigerna. Ibid., xxvii : " But by angelic 
exhortation he left his holy mother, Kentigerna, and the most holy man, his 
uncle Congan, and came to the place that is called Siracht, in the upper 
parts of Glenduckie" {Gleitdeochquhy), and built a church there. 

Martyrology of Oengus, June 20th : "Faelan with that victory, that 
splendid mute" (Stokes), with the note in Lebar Brecc (1905 Oengus, 
p. 156): "From Raith-hErenn ; he is in Scotland, near Glenn-Drochta in 
the west " ; and in Rawlinson B 505, ibid. : " Faelan the dumb, from 
Srath-hErenn in Scotland." 

Martyrology of Gorman, p. 120, June 20th : " Faelan, the high (?) 
flame" (Stokes) {in breo balla), with the note : "[the] dumb, in Raith-Erenn 
in Scotland." Brussels Martyrology of Tallaght, Kelly, p. xxvii, June 20th : 
"[Festival] of Faelan, the dumb, in Srath-Eret in Scotland." 



232 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

734 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 237 ^ 

Talorc, son of Congus, took his own brother and gave him 
into the hands of the Picts ; and he was drowned by them.^ 

734 

Annals of Ulster, u.s. 

Talorcan, Drostan's son, was taken and bound near 
Dunolly.^ 

Dun-leithfind was destroyed, after the wounding of Dungal ; 
and [Dungal] fled into Ireland, to be out of the power of Angus. 

735 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 239* 

Bede, the wise man of the Saxons, reposed.^ 

735 

Annales Oambriae ; Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, s.a. [735] ^ 

Bede the priest died. 

736 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 239^ 

Angus, Fergus' son, king of the Picts, wasted the districts 

1 Placed 5 years after 729. 

2 Similarly in A.U., u.s. ; but they translate into Latin {cum illis) the 
Irish of their original (in Tigernach, leo-siden, "by them"). 

The death of one brother (apparently) of Talorc is recorded at year 740. 

Annals of Clonmacnoise (incorrectly), 115, s.a. 731=734: "Talorc, 
Congus' son [Talorg mcCougusd\, was bound by his own brother and 
presented and sent to the Picts, who cast him into the water and 
drowned him." 

^ See year 739. 

* Placed 6 years after 729. 

° Similarly in a'V.U., i, igo, s.a. 734 = 735. In both, the previous record 
is : "An immense dragon was seen in the end of autumn, with great 
thunder after it." This may have been understood as a portent preceding 
Bede's death. A. I., 20, ©'Conor's year 723: "Bede, the Wise, rested 
in Christ." 

" The year after the "290th year" after 444. The Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle (ABCDEF) places Bede's death under 734, kfter a lunar eclipse 
which occurred on January 24th at 3 a.m. (L'Art). Bede's death may have 
been retracted to the year of the eclipse. 735 is probably the true year. 

"■ Placed 7 years after 729. 



ANGUS SUBDUES ARGYLE 233 

of Dalriata, and gained Dunadd, and burned Creic^; and he 
bound with chains two sons of Selbach^ namely Dungal^ and 
Feradach. 

And a little later Brude, son of Angus Fergus' son, died.^ 

736 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 192, s.a. 735 = 736 

The battle of Cnocc-Coirpri in Calathros, at Etarlindu, 
between Dalriata and Fortriu * ; and Talorcan, Fergus' son, 

' Skene would first have identified this with Creich, Mull (P. & S., cxxxi) ; 
later, with "a fort, the remains of which are still to be seen on the 
promontory of Craignish " (S.C.S., i, 290). ?Cf Ailen of Macc-Craich, 
under year 725. 

^ Here spelt Dondgal j A.U., Donngal. 

^ The whole passage is similarly in A.U., i, 190, s.a. 735=736 (with 
marginal note "bissextile"). 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, p. 116, s.a. 733 = 736: "Angus, Fergus' son, 
king of the Picts, wasted the region of Dalriata or Redshanks, took Dunadd 
and burned Cregg, and bound the two sons of Selbach with cords, 
Dungal and Feradach. 

" A little while after, Brude the son of Angus who was son of Fergus 
died." (The text is dislocated, but undoubtedly to be read thus.) 

* Bellum Cnuicc Coirpri i Calathros uc Etarlinddii itir Dalriatai 7 
Foirtrind. This may either mean that Calathros was between Argyleshire 
and Perthshire, or it may mean that the battle was fought between men of 
Argyle and men of Fortriu. 

Cnocc-Coirpri means " Coirprfe's Knoll." Possibly this was the Coirpre 
of the Senchus ; above, p. cliii. Etar-lindu means "between pools." 

This battle may reasonably be understood to have been fought in an 
extension of the campaign in which the battles had occurred at Creich and 
Dunadd, and therefore Calathros would seem to have been within Dalriata. 

The campaign against Dunadd resulted in the capture of Selbach's 
sons ; it would seem therefore that Dunadd had been within Dungal's 
territory. Ainfcellach was king of Lorn ; he was deposed by the battle of 
Etarlindu, \yhich was probably therefore within his dominions. 

We should look for Calathros within Argyle, in some part of it where 
a rally could have been made after Knapdale had fallen. Not one of 
the three names has been identified. The name Etarlindu suggests 
Benderloch ; but Calathros suggests the Cladrois in Islay of the Senchus 
(above, p. clii). Skene, following up the identifications (almost certainly 
erroneous) noted above under year 635, would identify Cnocc-Coirpri 
with "Carriber, where the Avon separates Lothian from Calatria" (i.e., 
Carribber, Linlithgow parish) ; apparently conjecturing that the chiefs of 
Dalriata had been able to take refuge in Lothian. But we find their enemy 



234 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

Angus next embroiled not with Lothian or Strathclyde, but with Dalaraide 
(in 741). 

The Britons certainly were hostile to Angus soon afterwards. Angus 
evidently wished to extend his rule over the other kingdoms of Scotland ; 
after subjugating Argyle, he would naturally have proceeded to master 
Strathclyde. A battle was fought between Picts and Britons in 744. 
It appears to have been indecisive ; and in 750 the Britons under Teudubr 
inflicted so severe a defeat upon Angus that he was temporarily driven 
from his throne. After Teudubr's death, however, Angus recovered the 
throne, and the English annexed some land on the western borders of 
Strathclyde. In 756, Angus and Eadbert (who had been enemies in 740) 
united forces against the Britons. The Britons were forced to submit, 
but they inflicted another severe defeat upon Angus as he was returning 
home. (E.G., 57.) 

Skene's identification of the 12th-century Calatria (or Calateria ; Lawrie, 
Charters, 86) with Callendar near Falkirk (Callendar House, Callendar 
Wood, Callendar Riggs) has been generally accepted, but it is based upon 
insufficient evidence. The old name of Callendar was Kalentyr (Kalentar 
in 1362 ; Great Seal, no. 108), which might possibly have been a form taken 
from Welsh speech, while Kalediire (the 12th century form of Galder ; 
L.C., 184) might conceivably have been a form of the same name, taken 
from Gaelic speech (cf Kaledor, the 13th century form of Cawdor ; later 
Caldor). They could not however have been the same, if (as seems 
probable) the Kaled of Kaledure were the Welsh caled, Irish crt/arf"hard," 
the calath of Calathros. Galder seems elsewhere to have been originally 
a river name ; but the spellings Kaledure, Kaledor, suggest that the second 
part of the name was not the Welsh dwfyr, Irish dobur "water," the dour 
of Aberdour. 

The native form of the name Calateria would presumably have become 
Gaiter or Clater, according as the accent was upon the first or the second 
syllable. It would not have become Callendar. Calateria could not have 
been an artificial Latin form of Kalentyr. It might less inconceivably have 
been an artificial Latin form of Kaledure ; but more evidence is needed 
to decide the question. 

Aih-ed of Rievaulx implies that Calatria v/as between Laodonia and 
Scotia, that is to say between Lothian and Fife (E.G., 197). The district of 
Galder (East Galder, Mid Galder, West Calder) is geographically the 
valley of the Almond ; it is in the extreme west of Midlothian. To the 
west of it lies the Garse of Falkirk, in the middle of which are Callendar 
and Camelon. The Garse of Falkirk was the southern part of the ancient 
Manau. A traveller from the south, intending to enter Fife by the ferry, 
would have had to cross the Almond, but Callendar would have been 
off his road. 

Mid Galder belonged in the 12th century to the earl of Fife. 

In Galder and the Garse of Falkirk there is now no place that could 
be named "between pools," and there seems to be no reason to look for 
Calathros in Calatria. For Calathros cf. year 640. 



KINGS OF LORN 235 

pursued Ainfcellach's son [Muiredach], who fled with his army. 
And in this encounter many nobles perished.^ 

736 
Annales Cambriae ; Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 161, s.a. [736] ^ 
Owen, king of the Picts, died.^ 

' This seems to have been the end of Muiredach's reign in Dalriata. 
The Duan Albanach, in Skene's P. & S., 61, gives Muiredach a reign of 
three years ; above, p. cxxxiii, note. For the beginning of his reign in Lorn 
see year 733. 

For Talorcan, son of Fergus and brother of Angus, see year 750. 

The Duan Albanach, U.S.: "Seven years of Dungal Dian" (i.e. "the 
impetuous"), "and Alpin \^Ailpen\ had four." These are placed between 
Ainfcellach (ca. 697-698) and Muiredach (ca. 733-736). 

Fordun's account (III, 45) of Muiredach's reign is apocryphal: "To 
[Eugenius Findan's son] succeeded Muiredach \^Murdacus\, his nephew by 
his brother Ainfcellach ; and he ruled the kingdom in the same peace as 
did his uncle and predecessor," (see year 741) "but by no means with the 
same or so great favour from his neighbours. . . ." Fordun says that 
Muiredach reigned 715-730, and was king when Bede wrote the conclusion 
of his History (in 731 ; Bede, V, 23 ; E.G., 52-54). 

^ 2 years after the " 290th year" after 444. 

^ Similarly in B.S. in M.A., 653, s.a. 736. Cf. B.T. in R.B.H., 258 
(the only entry between 740 and 750) : "And then died Owen, king of the 
Picts." (Under 740 this Brut places Eede's death, which is shown by 
Bede's continuator, by T., and by A.U., to have occurred in 735.) " Owen " 
is the Welsh equivalent of Irish Eogan (or " Ewen "). 

This Owen is perhaps the Ewen who heads the spurious series of kings 
(from 741 onwards) in the Chronicles of Dalriata, and in the Prose 
Chronicle inserted in CM. 

The Prose Chronicle in CM. (4, 223 ; P. & S., 177) ; s.a. 741 : — "Ewen, 
the king of the Scots, died ; and his son Muiredach \_Miirezaui\ succeeded 
him." S.a. 744: — "Muiredach, the king of the Scots, died; and his son 
Ewen succeeded him." S.a. 747 : — " Ewen, the king of the Scots, died ; and 
his son Aed Find succeeded him" \Hedabbicsj read Hedalbus, with Edalhus 
of Chronicle of Dalriata, E]. 

See below, year 781, note. 

If there was a king Ewen in Dalriata at this time, he could only have 
reigned under protection of the Picts. They might have regarded him as 
the true heir, because he was the brother of the former kings Ainfcellach 
and Selbach (sons of Ferchar Fota). The Chronicles of Dalriata give 
Ewen I a reign of 16 years (DFIK ; 13, E) ; they place his reign after that 
of Ainfcellach (-698, t7i9). (But Ewen could not have reigned before 
733, and only nominally before 736.) Fland names two "Eoganans," the 
second unidentified, in his list (above, p. cxivii). (Chronicles DFIK and 



236 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

737 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 240^ 

The death of Ronan, abbot of Kingarth.^ 

Failbe, Guaire's son, the successor of Maelrubai of Apple- 
cross, was drowned in the deep sea with his sailors, twenty-two 
in number.^ 

739 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 243 * 

Talorcan, Drostan's son, king of Athole, was drowned by- 
Angus.^ 

740 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 198, s.a. 739 = 740" 

An earthquake [occurred] in Islay on the second day'' 
before the Ides of April. 

Cubretan, son of Congus, died.^ 

Fordun make Evven and Ainfcellach sons of Findan.) According to Fordun, 
this Ewen was the father of Aed Find ; but see below, year 778, note. 

Muiredach's father was probably not Ewen, but Ainfcellach (see year 

733)- 

Ewen II is given a reign of 3 years in Chronicle of Dalriata E. 

Aed Find's father was probably not Ewen, but Eochaid, Eochaid's son. 
See year 778. 

1 Placed 8 years after 729. 

^ Similarly in A.U., i, 192, s.a. 736 = 737. F.M., i, 328, place Ronan's 
death in 732 (and "the 3rd year of Aed Alddain " as sovereign of Ireland). 

^ This passage is corrupt in the text of Tigernach ; it appears, also some- 
what corruptly, in A.U., u.s. 

F.M., U.S. : " Failbe, Guaire's son, successor of Maelrubai, was drowned, 
and with him the crew of his ship. Their number was twenty-two." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, erroneously, p. 116, s.a. 734 = 737: "The 
work done in Applecross \_Upercroossann'\ was sunk in the depth of the sea, 
and certain sea-faring men to the number of 22." 

■* Placed 10 years after 729. 

^ Similarly in A.U., i, 198, s.a. 738-739. 

Cf year 713. Talorcan's successor in Athole may possibly have been 
Talorcan, Fergus' son (year 750). 

" With marginal note "bissextile." 

" April 1 2th. 

* Probably this is the Congus of years 73 [ and 734. 

In this year the indomitable Angus seems to have invaded Northumbrian 
territory (Bede's continuator ; E.C., 55). 



KINGS OF ATHOLE AND DOWN 237 

741 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 200, s.a. 740 = 741 

The battle of Druimm-cathmail,i between the Picts^ and 
Dalriata, [was fought] against Indrechtach.^ The overthrow * 
of Dalriata by Angus, Fergus'^ son. 

741 

Annals of Ulsiter, vol. i, p. 198, s.a. 740=741 

The battle of Forboros," in which fell two sons of Fianna- 
mail, namely Indrechtach^ and Conall, and others. 

742 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 202, s.a. 741 =742 

Alpin (.''), Crop's son, was besieged.* 

' This place has not been identified. Skene placed the battle at 
Dungyle, Kelton parish, Kirkcudbrightshire ; but confused it with a battle 
that probably occurred a hundred years later (S.C.S., i, 292). See year 
841, note. Dungavel and Dungivel in Lanarkshire have a superficial 
resemblance to the name. The ejected chiefs of Dalriata may have 
persuaded Indrechtach, who was king of the Irish Picts of Dalaraide, to 
invade Pictish territory. It is equally possible that the battle occurred in 
Ireland. 

Skene is probably wrong in arguing that Alpin, king of the Picts (726- 
728), died in this campaign. See year 742. 

^ Cruithniu. Hennessy thought that the Irish Picts, and Irish Dalriata, 
are meant. 

^ Indrechtach's death has already been noticed in the Ulster Annals ; 
see the next passage. 

■* Percuiio Dalriatai. By conquering Indrechtach, Angus had over- 
thrown all the chieftains among whom Eochaid's kingdom had been 
divided (see year 733, note). 

^ Forgusso. This Angus was the king of the Scottish Picts. 

" "This place has not been identified" Hennessy, ibid., 199; "in 
Scotland" MacCarthy, in index, A.U., iv. 

' Indrechtach's name stands in the list of kings of Dalaraide, in the 
Book of Leinster, facsimile, 41 e. 

* Obsesio Auilmin, filii Criiip. This event is not entered in the other 
Irish annals ; it probably therefore did not occur in Ireland. If it refers 
to the Alpin (^Ifwine) who was king of the Picts from 726 to 728, and 
perhaps, from the Duan's account, also from 737 to 741, A.U. differ from 
Fland in the name of Alpin's father : Fland calls Alpin " Eochaid's son." 
Stokes and 6-Maille render Auiliuin " Len's grandson" ; but it seems to be 
the same name as Eiliuin above, pp. 182-183. Two years later, A.U. have 



238 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

744 

Chronicle of Melrose, p, 4 

In the year 744, a battle was fought between the Picts and 
the Britons.^ 

747 

Tigernach, Annals ; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 249 - 

The death of Tuathalan, abbot of Cendrigmonaid.^ 

749 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 251 ^ 

Drowning of the [monastic] household of lona.^ 

Ailhdn as genitive of ailen " crannog " ; perhaps by attraction to Auiliuin. 
With the name Crop, ?cf. the "ridge of Crup" in Chronicle of the Kings, 
version A ; below, p. 473. 

This siege may have been a continuation of, or sequel to, the warfare of 
741. But the notice of it is too brief to permit any certain conclusion to be 
drawn. Cf. above, ca. 673. 

1 This is taken from S.D. See E.G., 56. 
^ Placed 18 years after 729. 

^ Ab Ci?id-righ-monaigh (read monaidh, with F.M. ; i.e. Kilrimuned and 
Kilrimund of the charters) ; Cinrighmonai in A.U. This place was near 
St Andrews. It contained the parish church of Holy Trinity. 

This passage appears similarly in A.U., i, 208, s.a. 746 = 747. F.M., 
i, 344, s.a. 742 (and "the 4th year of Donald," son of Murchaid, son of 
Diarmait, as sovereign of Ireland): "Tuathalan, abbot of Cendrigmonaid, 
died." 

The name Totholan appears under June 17th in the Martyrologies of 
Gorman, Tallaght (Brussels version), and Donegal. There is no reason, 
however, to identify this Totholan with Tuathalan, although these are two 
forms of the same name. 

See below, year 834, note, for the foundation of the monastery of St 
Andrews. 

* Placed 20 years after 729. 

^ Demersi\o\famili\ae\ iae. 

Similarly in A.U., i, 212, s.a. 748 = 749, with correct spelling. 

F.M., i, 346, s.a. 744 (and "the 6th year of Donald"): "A great storm 
came in this year, and a great number of the community of lona of 
Columcille were drowned." 



ANGUS DEFEATED BY STRATHCLYDE 239 

750 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 251 ^ 

A battle [occurred] between Picts and Britons, and in it 
perished Talorcan, Fergus' son, and his brother ; and there 
slaughter was [made] of the Picts along with him.- 

750 
Annales Cambriae, Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 161, s.a. [750]^ 

A battle [was fought] between the Picts and the Britons, 
that is, the battle of Moce-tauc ; and their king Talorcan was 
slain by the Britons.* 

' Placed 21 years after 729, 3 years before 753, which is indicated by 
a " dark sun." 

^ In A.U., i, 212, s.a. 749 = 750 : "The battle of Catoic \beUum Catohic] 
between Picts and Britons ; and in it fell Talorcan, Fergus' son, the 
brother of Angus." 

Annals of Clonmacnoise, 119, s.a. 746 = 750: "The battle of Ocha 
between the Picts and Britons was fought ; where Talorcan, Fergus' son, 
brother of king Angus, was slain." 

3 Placed 5 years after the " 300th year " after 444. 

■* The name of the battle is not in MS. B ; MS. C merely notes Talorcan's 
death, without mentioning the battle. Ab Ithel's ed., 9. Cf. B.T. in M.A., 
686, s.a. 750 (after the death of Teudubr, Beli's son) : " In the same year 
was the battle of Mygedawc, where the Britons were victorious over the 
Pictish Gaels \Gwyddyl Ffichti'\ after a bloody battle." B.T. in Red Book 
of Hergest, 258 : "750 years was the age of Christ when there was a battle 
between the Britons and the Picts, in the fight of Maes-ydawc. And the 
Britons slew Talorcan, the king of the Picts. . . . And Rotri, the king of 
the Britons, died" ("four years after that" adds the i6th century MS. C ; 
i.e., in 754. Ab Ithel's ed., 7). Cf. A.C., s.a. [754] (the "310th year" after 
444) : "Rotri, king of the Britons, died." 

B.S. in M.A., 653 : "In the year of the Lord 750, Cynewulf was made 
king of the Sa.xons [755-t784, a reign over West-Saxons of 31 winters; 
read Sigebriht, 754-755 ? A.S.C.], and through treachery he died. In that 
year there occurred between the Britons and the Picts a battle, which is 
called the battle of Metgadawc. And there was killed Talorcan, king of 
the Picts. And in this year died Teudubr, BeU's son" (see year 752). 

Skene wished to identify Mocelauc with " Mugdoch, in Dumbartonshire " 
(S.C.S., i, 295), and thought that Talorcan had lordship over the Picts of 
Linlithgow. The latter assumption is based upon others, which are 
probably false (see year 736). It is possible that Talorcan's kingdom was 
Athole ; cf years 713, note, and 739. He seems to have been commander 
of Angus's army, and an able general (year 736). 

That the Britons of Strathclyde should have been strong enough at this 
time to crush so vigorous a king as Angus is a very significant fact. 



240 EARLY SOURCES OF SCOTTISH HISTORY 

750 

Annals of Ulster, vol. i, p. 212, s.a. 749 = 75° 

Ebbing of the sovereignty of Angus.^ 

ca. 752 
Annales Oambriae, Y Cymmrodor, vol. ix, p. 161, s.a. [750]- 

Teudubr, son of Beli, died.^ 

752 

Tigernach, Annals; Revue Celtique, vol. xvii, p. 253 ^ 

The death of Cilline Droichtech, anchorite of lona.^ 

1 Aithbe flatho Oengtissa. 

This stands later in the year-section than the battle of Catoic. 

After his defeat by the Britons, and the loss of his two brothers, Angus 
seems to have been driven temporarily from the throne ; but he recovered 
his power after the death of the king of Strathclyde in 752, and the defeat 
and death (as it would seem) of the claimant in the same year. 

For Angus's death see year 761. 

2 6 years after the " 300th year " after 444. 

^ Teudubr was king of Strathclyde. His death is placed in 750 also by 
Bede's continuator (E.C., 56) ; by B.T. in M.A., B.T. in R.B.H., and B.S. 
in M.A., which has later events in the same annal ; see above, year 750, 
note. 

* Placed 23 years after 729, i year before 753. 

^ lae. This event, here recorded in Latin, is repeated by T. in Irish, 
in the same year-section, probably from another source : — " The death of 
Cilline, son of Congal, in lona" (z n- Hi). Both versions appear