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Full text of "Rand-McNally guide to the great northwest : containing information regarding the states of Montana, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Minnesota, North Dakota, Alaska, also western Canada and British Columbia, with a description of the route along the great northern railway ; gives the early history, topography climate, resources, and valuable statistics on the states comprising the great Northwest"

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SJ^BP^p^ •-■.-•■^.••r.TjijagS 

a L. A. WALKER. Manager. 





Great Northwest 











With Maps and Illustrations 

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For Terms address MRS. S. LANGILLE, Hood River, Ore. 



Leading Hotel of the Northwest. 


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E. W. SCHUBERT, Manager 

Copyright, 1903, by Rand, McNally & Co., Chicago. 


It is the purpose of this Guide to make that extensive terri- 
tory, termed " The Great Northwest," familiar to tliose who 
as yet have but a vague idea of its vastness, its attractions, 
and it resources, and to give the homcseeker and the investor 
rehable information, obtained after a thorough investigation 
of every part of this great country. 

President Jefferson builded better than he knew when, in 
1803, he inaugurated the Lewis and Clark Expedition — an 
enterprise that has resulted in immense benefits to the nation, 
commercially and socially, creating new spheres for the in- 
vestor and congenial surroundings for the homeseeker. The 
only wonder is that greater numbers of those who are to-day 
eking out a bare existence in cities, where the human con- 
gestion is a menace to health and a bar to wealth, do not 
realize the existing conditions — that in the Great W^est life 
may be made worth the living, a competency may be earned in 
a few years, and, independent, breathing the pure air of 
heaven, surrounded by Nature's marvels, happiness and com- 
fort may be enjoyed to the fullest extent. 

It is only within a very few years that people of the eastern 
states have realized what a wealth of scenery, or great nat- 
ural resources, of hidden treasures, is contained in that sec- 
tion of the country, and what rich returns for industry, energy 
and brains are revealed in the magnificent progress of the 
states of Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington. 

The great iron highways spanning the continent have made 
possible, as nothing else could, a close connection between the 
Atlantic and the Pacific coasts, and what has hitherto been 
regarded as a far away and unknown land is now within 
easy reach. When one has journeyed across the Rocky Moun- 


tains, with their awe-inspiring gorges, their marvelous rock 
formations, and their rich colorings ; when he has seen the 
mighty Columbia River with its long stretches of i^iacid wa- 
ters suddenly leaping into foaming cascades and swift tor- 
rents, its fleets of fishing boats and its great salmon canneries ; 
when the blue depths of Puget Sound, that immense sea 1,200 
miles long, with its countless harbors and bays, dawns upon 
the vision; and when the splendid cities of Portland, Tacoma, 
Seattle and Spokane meet his astonished gaze, the traveler 
realizes for 'the first time that the younger states of the Union 
are rapidly gaining for themselves a position in the commer- 
cial world which those of older growth have hitherto held 

A great factor in the development of these Western states 
is the industry and progressiveness with which the people are 
imbued, and the fact that they have appreciated the wonderful 
opportunities presented for financial gain as well as the great 
advantages of climate and, consequently, physical benefits. 
There is no premium ofifered for indolence, but steady appli- 
cation and perseverence will bring the reward sought for, and 
success will crown the efforts of all who determine to secure it. 

The Publisher.s. 




Minnesota, . . . . . ii 


Minnesota, . 15 

North Dakota, . 19 

Montana, 25 

Yellowstone National Park, 32 

Idaho, . 54 

Washington, 55 

Oregon, . 79 


Introduction, . . i 

Early History, 2 

Lewis and Clark Expedition, 6 

ToroGRAPHY and Climate, 20 

Timber, . 34 

Agricultural Products, 36 

Mines, 36 

Fisheries, 38 

Lands, 38 

Emigration, 39 

Commerce, 42 

Minnesota, 46 

North Dakota, 50 

Montana, 56 

Idaho, . 128 

Washington, i6o 

Oregon, . 247 

En Route to the Pacific Nortliwest 



White Bear. — A typical Minnesota lake, St. Paul's sum- 
mer resort, situated about twelve miles from that city. 
White Bear is reached by frequent trains from St. Paul. 

Stillwater. — Population, 12,500. About the year 1843, 
while JMinnesota was still a portion of the territory of Wis- 
consin, Stillwater became a thriving villlage. It was incor- 
porated in 1854, and has steadily progressed in commercial 
importance until it now ranks as the fifth city of the state. 
The lumbering interests predominate, but other industries 
have also assumed large proportions and have become im- 
portant factors in the commercial life of the city. There 
are large lumber and flour mills, feed mills, an agricultural 
implement factory, large grain elevators, carriage and 
wagon factories, foundries and machine shops, two boat 
builders, and many other industries. 

Wyoming. — Twenty-nine miles from St. Paul. From 
here a branch line diverges. Midway between W^yoming 
and Taylors Falls lie the gems of lakes in this immediate 
region. There are five of them, known collectively as the 
Chisago lakes, individually as Green, Big, Lindstrom, Chisago, 
and Sunrise. 

Taylors Falls. — Population, 500. The Interstate Park 
and the Dalles of the ,St. Croix, reached only by the North- 
ern Pacific Railway (Duluth Short Line), are situated at 
Taylors Falls. The St. Croix Falls, Wis., are on the oppo- 
site side of the St. Croix River. The states of Minnesota 
and Wisconsin have set aside the land on both sides of the 
St. Croix River — the boundary between the states — as an 
interstate park. Within this area of about 400 acres are the 
Dalles of the St. Croix, and the richly carved and eroded 



bluffs bordering them. The Devil's Chair is one of the most 
imposing columns of rock to be found, and near it is Pulpit 
Rock, serving somewhat to mitigate the evil atmosphere of 
the Devil's presence. The Old Man of the Dalles is a 
remarkable profile, strongly resembling the profile of Wash- 
ington. Two trains leave St. Paul and Minneapolis every 
clay for Taylors Falls during the season. 

Rush City. — Population, i,ooo. Has a brick factory, sash 
and door factory, wagon factory, 200-barrel roller flour mill, 
and warehouses. 

Pine City. — Population, 1,000. Is the county seat of Pine 
County. Has bottling works, brewery, and creamery. A 
fine farming country is tributary and it is a first-class potato, 
corn and stock market. 

Throughout this region, between Forest Lake and Pine 
City, and even beyond, those whose lungs need the tonic 
properties found among pine forests, and those suffering 
from hay fever, may come, certain that nature will afford 
relief and build them up. 

Hinckley. — Situated on Grindstone River, and has a popu- 
lation of 400. The state has erected a fine monument to the 
memory of those who lost their lives in the great fire of 

Cloquet. — Population, 4,000. Has planing mills, paper 
mill, pulp mill, and a national bank. Ships lumber and 


Duluth. — Population, 70,000. Named for Du Luth, an" 
early explorer. Is situated at the head of Lake Superior, 
and is the county seat of St. Louis County. Eight railroad 
lines run into Duluth, making it an important railroad cen- 
ter. It has a government land office, a board of trade, 
chamber of commerce and produce exchange, banks (with 
a combined capital of over $3,000,000), grain elevators, a 
blast furnace, car works, iron and steel plant, large foun- 
dries and machine shops, flouring mills, saw mills, blast 
furnaces, a complete system of water and gas mains, and 
electric street railways. Every branch of commercial indus- 
try is represented here. The docks of the Northern Pacific 
Railway, as well as those built by other companies and indi- 
viduals, afford ample facilities for the unloading and ware- 






housing of the cargoes from the largest lake vessels. Re- 
ceipts and shipments of grain, coal, oil, lumber, salt, ores 
and fish are the leading items, but nearly every marketable 
commodity is received and handled at this point in great 
quantities. There is an inexhaustible supply of iron ore 
near the city. Large shipyards are located here, and several 
steel vessels have already been built. 

Carlton. — Population, 700. ' The county seat of Carlton 
County, situated at the head of the Dalles, on the St. Louis 
River. Has valuable water power, and a slate brick manu- 
factory. The shipments consist of lumber, in the rough and 


manufactured. This is the junction point with the Eastern 
Minnesota Railroad. 

Aitkin. — Population, 2,000. This is the county seat of 
Aitkin County, situated on the Mississippi River. Supports 
saw mills, stave, heading and hoop factories, and wagon and 
sleigh factories. The county is fast becoming settled for 
agricultural purposes. 

A few miles north of Aitkin the Mississippi River has its 
source in Itaska Lake, in the vicinity of which an immense 
lumber trade is carried on. Pine trees are cut into logs and 
floated down the Mississippi to the Minneapolis mills, the 
yearly cut being nearly 200,000,000 feet. In the vicinity of 
Aitkin an unlimited supply of hardwood offers great induce- 
ments to the manufacturer. Two steamers run between 
Aitkin and Grand Rapids, sixty-five miles north. 





Anoka. — Population, 5,000. The county seat of Anoka 
County, situated on both banks of the Rum River, extending 
south to the northern bank of the Mississippi River. It has 
saw mills, sash and door factory, planing mill, broom fac- 
tory, barrel factory, flour mills, feed mills, starch factories, 
creamery, and a boot and shoe factory. Potatoes, wheat, 
corn and oats are the principal products. The shipments 
are potatoes, grain, flour and lumber. 

Elk River. — Population, 1,500. Is the county seat of Sher- 
burne County, located on the Mississippi and Elk rivers. 


with good water power. It has a saw mill, flour mill, starch 
factory, and creamery. This is a good farming country. 

St. Cloud. — Population, 10,000. The county seat of 
Stearns County, and is situated on both sides of the Mis- 
sissippi River. It has saw mills, flouring mills, foundries, 
machine shops, wook-working shops, elevators, a United 
States land office, state reformatory, wholesale grocery 
house, and harrow factory. Near by are extensive granite 
quarries. A dam and canal control the water power of the 
Mississippi River at this point. This is the center of a fine 
agricultural district, and is one of the most progressive of 
Minnesota's cities. 

Sauk Rapids. — Population, 2,000. The county seat of 
Benton County, situated on the east bank of the Mississippi 
River. Has co-operative creamery, saw mill, flour mill and 
some fine quarries of red granite. An excellent water 


power, only partially utilized, renders this a good point for 

Royalton. — Population, 900. Is on the Platte River, and 
has flour, feed, saw and planing mills, and grain elevators. 
Water power privileges suitable for all kinds of manufac- 
turing can be had at this point. 

Little Falls. — Population, 7,000. Is the county seat of 
Morrison County, located on the Mississippi River. Plas 
water power, flour, pulp and paper mills, sash and door fac- 
tories, iron works, wagon ai»d agricultural implement fac- 
tories, water works, electric light and gas plants, steam 
laundry, brewer}^, pop factory, grain elevators, steam dry 
kiln, saw mills, etc. Little Falls is the junction of the 
branch line running to Morris, and for the "cut-off" to Sta- 
ples. The line to Staples passes through a finely timbered 
and agricultural country, which is being rapidly developed. 
A very superior quality of white, hard brick is also manu- 
factured here. 

Brainerd. — Population, 10,000. The county seat of Crow 
Wing County, beautifully located on the east bank of the 
Mississippi River at the junction of the line from Duluth. 
Crow Wing County has saw mills and numerous mercantile 
houses. A dam has been erected across the Mississippi 
River, developing power equaling 18,000 horse power, and 
providing enormous storage capacity for logs above, also 
furnishing power for an electric light plant. 

The Leech Lake Country. — Northward from Brainerd the 
Minnesota & International Railway extends through a won- 
derful lake and pine region, well up toward the Canadian 
boundary. Here the Ojibway Indian lives, as he has for 
some centuries, more or less, primitively, picturesquely. 

Among the points where good accommodations are to be 
had are Pine River, Walker, Bemidji and Black Duck. 
From Pine River Woman Lake and a large collection of 
neighboring lakes are reached. On A¥oman Lake Kabe- 
kona Camp is located. At Walker Leech Lake itself is 
reached. Walker is a good sized town and the central point 
of the Leech Lake country. 

Bemidji is in the very heart of the lake country. Hun- 
dreds of lakes lie scattered on all sides. At Black Duck one 
is in a region just opening to civilization. Among the 
important bodies of water in this region north of Leech 
Lake are Cass and Winnibigoshish lakes, both very large. 



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Staples.— Population, i,6oo. Brick is manufactured ex- 
tensively. The surrounding country consists of good farm- 
ing and timbered lands. 

Verndale.— Population, 800. Near Wing River, which 
furnishes good water power. Has elevators, flour mill, and 
planing mill. 

Wadena.— Population, 2,000. The county seat of Wadena 
County. Has a brewery, flour mill, wood manufacturing 
plant, and machine shop. This is the junction point of the 
main line with the Fergus Falls branch running to Milnor. 

Perham. — Population, 1,500. Named after the first presi- 


dent of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Is situated near Pine 
Lake. Has steam brewery, wagon factory, planing and 
flour mills, and a grain elevator. 

Frazee. — Population, 1,000. Has saw, planing and flour 
mills, heading factory, and elevator. Large shipments of 
wood and lumber are made from here. 

Detroit. — Population, 1,800. The county seat of Becker 
County, located on Detroit Lake and the western edge of 
the "Lake Park Region." Mineral springs, containing 
health-restoring properties, are an attraction. Has eleva- 
tors and flour mills. Detroit Lake, surrounded by rugged 
hills or low, wooded shores, is but one of a chain of lakes 


tlvat stretches southward. Here are Muskrat, Melissa, Sal- 
lie, Buck, Little Pelican, Pelican, Fish, Lizzie, Crystal and 
Lida lakes. The Pelican River is a bond of union down to 
and including Lake Lizzie. 

Winnipeg Junction. — Is situated on the Bulifalo River, 
near Silver Lake, and is the junction point of the main line 
and the Red River Branch, which runs to Crookston, Red Lake 
Falls, Grand Forks, and Winnipeg through a rich farming 

Glyndon. — Population, 450. The town is located ten 
miles east of Fargo and is the junction point with the Great 
Xorthern Railway. It is an important grain shipping place, 


being situated in the Red River Valley, the great grain pro- 
ducing region. 

Moorhead. — Population, 5,000. This city is pleasantly sit- 
uated on the Red River of the North, which separates Min- 
nesota from North Dakota, and is the county seat of Clay 
County. It has flouring mills, ele^'ators, brick yards and 
stock yards. Moorhead is well supplied with small manu- 
facturing establishments and is an important shipping point 
for farm products. 


Fargo. — Population, 12,000. Is the county seat of Cass 
County, and affords a United States land office, elevators, 
flour mills, wholesale grocery and fruit houses, one of the 
largest linseed oil mills in the United States, saddlery job- 
bing houses, stores and manufactories, and all the various 



branches of trade which go to make a thrifty and prosperous 
city. Fargo is the third largest farm machinery distributing 
point in the United States. Brick is manufactured exten- 
sively. Since the great fire of June 7, 1893, the entire city 
has been rebuilt and is now the finest appearing city in the 
state. A large flax fiber mill takes care of all the straw 
grown by the farmers in the vicinity. The product is 
pressed into bales and shipped east. Fargo is favorably 
situated on the Red River, in the center of the rich agricul- 
tural belt of the renowned Red River Valley. Fargo is the 
junction of the Dakota and Minnesota divisions, and of the 
Fargo & Southwestern branch. 

Casselton. — Population, 1,200. Wheat, barlc)-, flax and 


pork are the principal products. This is the junction of the 
main line and the Casselton branch. 

The Red Ri\er \',\llev. — West of Fargo, passing through 
Mapleton, Dalrymple, Casselton, Wheatland, Buffalo. Tower 
City, etc., the traveler is traversing the famous Red River 
Valley, the most noted hard wheat region of the world. 
It is level as a floor, the soil is as black as coal, and 
it produces wheat and flax, especially, of an unequalled 
quality and in enormous quantities. Corn is also being 
raised to a considerable extent. As there are almost no 
fences to be seen, the whole valley appears as one vast 
wheat field as far as the eye can range. The valley is about 
half and half in Minnesota and North Dakota, the Red River 
being the dividing line between the states. There are here 



raised, on an average, from 40,000,000 to 60,000,000 bushels 
of wheat yearly. 

Valley City. — Population, 2,500. This is the county seat 
of Barnes County and is located on the Cheyenne River. It 
supports a steam flouring mill, elevators, electric light, 
water works and telephone systems, and the State Normal 
School. It is a fine grazing and grain growing section, and 
wheat, flour and small grains are the principal shipments. 

Jamestown. — Population, 2,297. This is the county seat 
of Stutsman County and is situated in the beautiful valley of 


the James River, which furnishes good water power. The 
city has elevators, the North Dakota Presbyterian College, 
a flouring mill, a creamery, brick and stone kilns, etc. The 
Devil's Lake branch of the Northern Pacific Railway, run- 
ning to Leeds, and the James River branch, running to 
Oakes, at which point connection is made with the Chicago 
& North-Western Railway, start from here. Connection is 
made at Edgeley with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railwav. The products here are wheat, oats, flax, barley 
and ^•egetables. Grain is the principal shipment, and stock- 
raising is receiving much attention. 

Bismarck. — Population, 2,200. Bismarck is the capital of 



North Dakota, and the county seat of Burleigh County. It 
has a fine capitol building, St. Clary's Catholic Seminary, 
and a United States land office. All' branches of trade are 
well represented. The products are wheat, oats and pota- 
toes, and a good farming country is also tributary, the lands 
to the north, in the Painted Woods district, and around 
Washburn, being especially fine. This section has been 
rapidly settled within the last two years by a fine class of 
farmers. Immense deposits of lignite coal underlie the prai- 
rie country and provide a low-priced and inexhaustible 
supply of fuel. There are extensive mines at Wilton and 


Washburn, on the B. W. & G. F. Railway. Fort Lincoln, a 
new military post, is in process of construction just south of 
Bismarck. Steamers receiving and discharging general 
merchandise and supplies run occasionally to and from 
upper Missouri River forts, posts and landings. Williams- 
port, Winchester, Fort Yates, and Standing Rock Indian 
Agency, to the south, are reached by stages daily, except 
Sunday. Fort Stevenson, Fort Berthold Indian Agency, 
and Villard, in the Alouse River country, to the north, are 
reached by stage daily, except Sunday, from Washburn. 
The Bismarck, \\'ashburn & Great Falls Railway extends 
from Bismarck to W'ashburn. 

Mandan. — Population, i,8oo. This city is the county seat 
of Morton County and is situated on the west bank of the 


Missouri River. Mandan has large railway machine shops, a 
roller flouring mill, an elevator, a court-house and jail, a school 
building, electric light and water-works systems, etc. Busi- 
ness blocks of a superior red brick — home manufacture — 
have been completed. An excellent Cjuality of lignite coal 
is being mined for commercial and railroad purposes a few 
miles west of the city. Two iron wagon bridges over the 
Heart River give easy communication with the rich farming 
valleys of "Custer" and "Little Heart," five and twelve 
miles southwest, respectively. -Five miles south from Man- 
dan is what is left, of old Fort -Abraham Lincoln, General 
Custer's old post, and from which he started on his last and 
disastrous campaign against the Sioux Indians in 1876. The 


change from Central to Mountain new standard time is 
made here. 

New Salem. — Population, 400. The town has lumber 
yards, flour mill, grain warehouse, creamery, elevators, and 
a tannery. Lignite coal is found in abundance ; also excel- 
lent clay for brick and tile-making. 

Glenullen. — Population, 450. Has lumber j^ards and a 
flour mill. There is an abundance of good coal here, and 
clay for brick-making is also found in this locality. 

Hebron. — Population, 500. This is the headquarters for 
stock, cattle and sheep, between Dickinson and Mandan. It 
has roller mills, creameries, grain elevators, lumber yards, 
implement warehouses, stock yards,, etc. 

Dickinson. — Population, 2,200. This city is the county 
seat of Stark County, and is located on the Heart River. 
The products are wheat, oats, corn, barley, and potatoes. 



This is one of the largest cattle-shipping points on the 
Northern Pacific line. Sheep-raising has grown (luring the 
past few years to be one of the principal industries. Exten- 
sive beds of lignite coal are located east of Dickinson, and 
large quantities are being mined for shipment east and west. 
Medora and Little Missouri (Medora P. O.).— Population, 
200. This is the central point for Pyramid Park, being but 
four miles distant from Cedar Canyon, and six miles from 
the burning coal mines. Both places abound in weird and 
magnificent scenery, full of interest to scientists and wonder 
to pleasure seekers. An army of spires, bluffs, hills, buttes, 
and castled cliffs rise from the plain, garbed in strong and 


Striking colors that glow here and there like fiery beacons. 
These hills, washed by the eternal rains, have been eroded 
into most perfect cones, pyramids, and squares, which are 
circumvallated by ragged, twisting ravines gouged out by 
the torrential and ephemeral floods, which use up their spas- 
modic energy in forming the gulches. The coal beds have 
burned out — and in places are still burning — and the parti- 
colored hills are the residuum — here virtual ash, there a 
slag. These buttes and draws are covered with a most suc- 
culent grass that furnishes feed for thousands of cattle, and 
the gulches provide them shelter. 

West of Medora a few miles the train passes through an 
interesting prairie-dog town. 




Wibaux. — Population, 300. Situated on Beaver Creek, 
Wibaux is in the midst of a fine grazing country, and large 
horse, cattle, and sheep ranges are in the vicinity. Lignite 
coal is found in abundance. 

Glendive. — Population, 1,500. The county seat of Daw- 
son County, located on the Yellowstone River. It is the 
junction of the Missouri and Yellowstone divisions of the 


Northern Pacific. It is the distributing point for a large 
area of fine country, and produces wheat, barley, corn, rye, 
oats, and vegetables, and shipments are made of cattle, 
horses, sheep and wool. Stages are run tri-weekly between 
here and Fort Buford, a distance of eighty miles. 

Miles City. — Population, 1,938. This city is the county 
seat of Custer County, situated on the Yellowstone River, 
at the mouth of the Tongue River. It has a United States 
land office, water works, brick yard, hospital. State Reform 
School, convent, wool house, telephone line, and stores. It 



is the wool center for eastern Montana, and also produces 
oats, wheat, corn, barley, and potatoes, while its shipments 
are stock, wool, beef, hi'des, etc. Miles City is the banking 
and general business point for the large area of cattle coun- 
try both north and south of the Yellowstone River. 

Fort Keogh. — Population, 500. A military post of nine 
companies occupies the fort. It is located two miles west of 
Tongue River, and half a mile south of the Yellowstone 

The Custer Fight and Battlefield. — The impression ex- 


.->. CAVALRY. 

ists, particularly among eastern people, that the spot where 
Custer and so many of his men laicl down their lives is far 
remote from transportation lines, and difficult of access. 
That was certainly true on that fated 25th of June, 1876, 
when disaster overtook the Seventh United States Cavalry. 
But now the Custer battlefield is only about the same dis- 
tance — forty miles — from Custer station, on the Northern 
Pacific Railway, that Washington is from Baltimore. 

Custer Station is near the mouth of the Big Horn River, 
and the ride, by private conveyance, up the valleys of the 



Big Horn and Little Big Horn rivers to the battlefield, is 
one of exceeding interest, and, at places, of beauty. 

From Billings it is but a seventy-five miles' stretch via 
the Burlington Route, which there connects with the North- 
ern Pacific, to the same spot, if one chooses to go entirely by 

In May, 1876, a triangular campaign was inaugurated 
against the Sioux and allied 

tribes. From Fort Fetterman, . -"""^^ ~"^-^. 

Wyo., General Crook, the < \ 

greatest Indian fighter of his 
day, marched north with 1,000 
men ; from Fort Abraham 
Lincoln, Dak. (now Xorth 
Dakota), went General Terry 
westward with another thou- 
sand ; from Fort Ellis, near 
Bozeman, Mont., General Gib- 
bon marched eastward with 
about 450 men. 

On June 21, Terry's and 
Gibbon's commands formed 
junction near the mouth of the 
Rosebud River. Terry in su- 
preme command. 

At this point a plan of campaign was adopted, and in pur- 
suance thereof Custer and the Seventh Cavalry started, at 
noon on June 22, up the Rosebud River, to strike a broad 
Indian trail that Reno had found during a previous scout. 

Custer was in comand of his regiment on this march, and 
there were twelve troops or companies, and the munber of 
men aggregated about 550 or 600. 

It must be borne in mind that the phrase "Custer Battle- 
field" includes three distinct fields of battle: Reno's point 
of attack in the valley proper, the bluffs across the river to 
which he retreated and where the Indians attacked him, and 
Custer's own battlefield some miles down the river from the 
scene of Reno's engagements. 

Reno's attack upon the Indians was at a bend of the river 
on the west bank, about two miles from where he forded the 
stream. Custer's field of carnage was more than four miles 
down the stream from Reno's BlufTs, on the high ground 



which was a continuation of the line of hills where the In- 
dians penned in Reno. 

The number of Indians at that time camped in the valley 
has been a fruitful theme for disputation. There were cer- 
tainly 1,500 warriors, and there may have been twice that 
number, or even more. They were well armed with the 
most improved American rifles, bows and arrows, and their 
usual stone implements of war. 

These Indians were mostly of the Uncpapa, Brule, Oga- 
lalla, Minneconjou, and Sans Arcs bands of Sioux, assisted 
by the Cheyennes and a few from one or two other tribes. 


Reno attacked the Indians at the south end of their village 
and was quickly routed and driven to the blufTs across the 
river in a panic rout, losing many men killed and wounded, 
the latter being of course despatched by the Indians as soon 
as captured. 

Before Custer could get anywhere near that part of the 
village which he expected to attack, Reno was defeated and 
driven off. 

After Custer left the remainder of the command he sent 
back two couriers, but this was before he sighted or came in 
contact with the Indians. 

The Indians attacked, not from the river, but on the 
flanks and rear. The horses were, most of them probably. 



first stampeded, which insured disaster, for they carried the 
reserve ammunition. But few dead horses were found, the 
Indians capturing the most of them alive. 

Custer's fight lasted from thirty to forty-five minutes, the 
Indians say, and he was simply overwhelmed and cut to 

The detachments or troops were stationed, apparently, 
at different points, somewhat remote from each other, where 
they fell fighting, generally well grouped together. At a 



few places one or two bodies were found, as if the victims 
had made efforts to escape, but not one succeeded. 

The total casualties were 265 killed and fifty-two 
wounded, for both Custer and Reno. The Indians' loss has 
never been satisfactorily known to the whites. 

Where each trooper fell a marble stone marks the spot, 
and where it was an officer the stone bears his name and 

Most of the officers' bodies were afterward removed, and 
Custer's body now rests at West Point. Lieutenant Crit- 
tenden's body lies in an enclosure over at the end of the 


ridge where he fell, and it is stated that Lieutenant IMcIn- 
tosh's body remains where it was found, and is buried down 
in the valley proper. The spot where he fell is marked by 
the con^'entional headstone. 

Since the Custer battle, the Custer field itself, enclosed by 
a wire fence, has been made a national or soldiers' cemetery. 
From the old forts and battlefields scattered throughout the 
Northwest, bodies have been removed to this spot, and now 
occupy a considerable area of it. 

Billings. — Population, 3,221. Billings is the county seat of 
Yellowstone County, and is the commercial, financial, rail- 
road, and distributing center for the country for a radius of 
150 miles. It is situated at the first crossing of the beautiful 
Yellowstone Ri^-er, and is the largest wool-shipping point 
in the state. The city is situated at the mouth of the famous 
Yellowstone Valley irrigating ditch, thirty-nine miles in 
length, and the Canyon Creek and other smaller ditches. 
This valley produces the choicest wheat, oats, barley, vege- 
tables and small fruits of all kinds, besides apples, corn, and 
alfalfa and other tame grasses. Located in a valley which 
produces the needs of a city with 25,000 people, with ever- 
lasting stone quarries, cheap coal, an abundance of water, 
and with its stock range to the north and south for a dis- 
tance of two hundred miles, Billings offers to the investor 
or the home-seeker great inducements. Two million acres of 
the once noted Crow Indian Reservation have been thrown 
open to settlement, furnishing homes and stock ranges for 
all that come, and within a few hours' drive of Billings. The 
B. & AI. R. Railway connects with the Northern Pacific at this 

At Pompey's Pillar Station, west of Forsythe and about 
thirty miles east of Billings, Pompey's Pillar, made historic 
by Capt. William Clark, of the noted explorers of 1804-6, 
is seen to the north about a mile distant. 

Laurel. — Population, 100. This is the junction of the 
main line of the Northern Pacific and the Rocky Fork and 
Clark Fork branches, which run to Red Lodge and Bridger. 

Bigtimber. — Population, 1,200. The county seat of Sweet 
Grass County, situated on the Yellowstone and Boulder 
rivers. It is the outlet for an almost exclusivelv stock- 
raising, wool-growing and mining section. 

Springdale, located near the Yellowstone River, is the 
station for the celebrated Hunter's Hot Springs, which are 



only two and a half miles distant and are reached by hacks, 
which meet all passenger trains. The Springs hotels are 
open the 3'ear 'round. The water ranges in temperature 
from 148° to 168° Fahr., and is in three groups, having an 
aggregate flow of 2,500 gallons per minute. 

Livingston. — Population, 4,500. Livingston is the county 
seat of Park County, situated on the Yellowstone River, 
three miles below the famous first canyon of the Yellow- 
stone, otherwise known as the Gate of the Mountains. It 
has the best system of water works in the state, two systems 


of electric light, a system of telephones, a flouring mill and 
lumber yards. It is the junction of the Yellowstone Park 
branch with the main line of the Northern Pacific Railway, 
and all tourists reaching the park by rail pass through Liv- 
ingston. The city is in the midst of one of the finest stock- 
growing and farming countries in the world. Tributary to 
Livingston, in a commercial way, are the thriving mining 
camps of Ckico, Chimney Rock, Horr, Aldrich, Bear Gulch, 
Crevice, and Cook City. Horr has the largest coking plant 
in the entire state. The garrison at Fort Yellowstone, and 
'-.he various transportation lines in the park, all pay tribute 
to Livingston and to Park County. 




As is now generally known, Yellowstone Park is prin- 
cipally located in northwestern Wyoming. There is a nar- 
row strip in Montana, on the north, and one in Idaho, on 
the west. 

As established by law, its area is 3,312 square miles. On 
the northwest, north, east, and south it is hemmed in by 
high mountain ranges, whose highest peaks attain an alti- 


tude of from 10,000 to 12,000 or 13,000 feet above sea level. 
Between these ranges the Park plateau is an undulating one, 
from 7,200 to 8,300 feet elevation above the sea. It is a 
region of much rain and snowfall, and the forest develop- 
ment is great and the park flora unusual and varied. The 
great Continental Divide extends from the southeastern 
corner northwesterly across the Park, and the tourist 
crosses it on the way from Upper Geyser Basin to Yellow- 



stone Lake, amidst a region of wild grandeur and primeval 

Road System. — Congress has decreed that travel through 
the park must be in the good, old-fashioned way — over dirt 
roads; that steam or electric railways, automobiles, etc., are 
out of place there. 

The more striking phenomena in Yellowstone Park follow 
a well-defined zone some miles wide and with 
an axial trend north and south from Mammoth - --, 

Hot Springs. The road system, as planned, 
follows down one side — the western — of this i 

zone to Upper Geyser Basin, crosses the Con- 
tinental Divide to Yellowstone Lake, and then • 
runs north along the eastern side to the Grand ; . i 
Canyon, over the Movmt Washburn-Dunraven 
Divide to Tower Fall, and thence to Mammoth 
Hot Springs^ The only uncompleted link in 
this chain is from the Grand Canvon to Tower 

Transport.\tion and Hotels. — The trans- 
portation equipment in the Park 
consists of stage coaches made 
especially to fit the necessities of 
Yellowstone Park travel and are 
drawn by four horses each. 
They are open at the sides so that 
the passengers can easily see the 
country while riding along, and 
are supplied with curtains to be 
drawn in case of 
rain or wind. The 
coaches are of dif- 
ferent sizes and will 
hold three, five, 
seven or more pas- 
sengers each. Stop- 
overs will be given 
at or south of Mammoth Hot Springs without extra charge. 
Parties desiring to stop en route and retain exclusive 
use of the coach in which they commenced their journey 
can do so on payment of half rates for the additional 
time, as follows : a surrey accommodating three people, $7.50 
per day ; coaches accommodating from five to ten persons, 




$12.50 to $15 a day. Children under ten years of age, accom- 
panied by parents or other persons in charge, will be granted 

half rates locally in the Park for 
hotels and transportation. 

The Park hotels are first-class 
in every respect, and have been 
recently improved and modern- 
ized. They are electric lighted, 
steam heated, and advantageous- 
ly located. The uniform hotel 
rate for a stay not exceeding 
seven days is $4 per day. After 
seven days the rate is $3 per day. 
Telegraphic messages can be sent 
from the association hotels to 
any part of the world. Bicyclists 
are heartily welcome at the ho- 
tels, and a bicycle trip is a thor- 
oughly enjoyable one. 

The Tour of the Park, — In 
going to Yellowstone Park, the 
main line of the Northern Pacific 
Railway is diverged from at Liv- 
ingston, Mont. From Livingston 
to Gardiner, the gateway to the 
Park, and fifty-four miles dis- 
tant, a branch line leads up Para- 
dise Valley and alongside the 
Yellowstone River, affording a 
most delightful ride, and one 
that forms a fitting prelude to 
what follows. 

This line, which stops at the 
northern boundary, is the only 
one that touches the Park at any 
point. On each of the transcon- 
tinental trains that carry the bulk 
of the travel to and from the 
Park, both east and westbound, 
a Pullman first-class sleeping car 
is attached that runs between St. 
Paul and Gardiner, and another 
that runs between Gardiner and Seattle. Passengers in these 





cars bound for the Park remain in them until Gardiner is 
reached and take the cars at Gardiner when leaving the Park. 

Between Gardiner and Mammoth Hot ^piinj^s large, si\ 
horse stage coaches are run, the tourist readiing 
the Springs in time for luncheon, and lea\nii. 
there after dinner, when leaving the Park 
The four-mile ride between these points is 
full of interest. Electric Peak and Sepulchi c 
Mountain being in full view, and a ride 
along the dashing Gardiner River, 
through the Gardiner Canyon being at- 
tractive features. 

The scenery along the Gardiner is 
beautiful. The most striking and 
noted of the conspicuous objects is 
Eagle Nest Crag, a solitary round- 
ed column upon the inaccessible 
apex of which is perched an / 
eagle's nest. 

M A M M o T n H o T 
Springs. — This place 
is, as it were, the capital 
of Yellowstone Park. 

Here are Fort Yel- 
lowstone and the mili- ; 
tary commandant, the 
latter also the acting 
superintendent of the 
Park ; the headquarters 
of the United States 
Engineer who has 


charge of all engineering operations, road and bridge construc- 
tion, etc., in the Park ; the offices of the hotel and transporta- 
tion companies, and from this point the actual tour of the Park 
is begun. 


At this point the principal hot springs with their accom- 
panying terraces are found. 

These singular springs cover a wide area on the side of 
Terrace Mountain. One tier succeeds another, and the 
trail winds from one to the other by easy gradients. At the 
base stand Giant's Thumb and Liberty Cap, extinct geysers 
or spring cones of peculiar appearance. Above, lie Cleo- 
patra, Minerva, Pulpit, Mound, and Jupiter Terraces. Still 
higher are the Devil's Kitchen, Cupid's Cave, Narrow 
Gauge Terrace, the White Elephant, Angel Terrace, etc. 
At another point are Bath Lake and Orange Geyser. 

After breakfast the following day tourists making the 
regular tour take the coaches, being grouped as far as pos- 
sible in congenial parties. Straight toward Bunsen Peak, 
by way of Silver Gate and Hoodoo Rocks, they go, and then 
the road turns to the right and Golden Gate opens before 
them. On one side Bunsen Peak climbs skyward, on the 
other the vertical yellowish wall of rock rises 200 to 300 feet 
above. Soon the end of it is reached and the road leads out 
and down a large and beautiful valley. Swan Valley is its 
name. Following in succession come Willow Park, Obsid- 
ian Cliff, a huge, black rampart of nature's glass of more 
than 200 feet altitude, Beaver Lake, Roaring Mountain, 
The Devil's Frying Pan, and Twin Lakes. Then Norris 
Geyser Basin, with its noises and clouds, comes into view. 

There are many springs, pools, and geysers at Norris. 
The two finest geysers are the New Crater and the Mon- 
arch. Congress Spring and the beautiful marble terraces 
across the road from it command our admiration at once. 
The Black Growler is the only steam geyser in the Park, 
and it is always roaring. Constant Geyser is due to dance 
and play every fifty seconds, and it is always on time. The 
Devil's Ink Pot and the Hurricane Geyser are two more of 
the family to be seen at Norris. 

Along Gibbon River. — One of the most enjoyable drives 
in the Park is that from Norris to Lower Geyser Basin. 
By the roadside is Gibbon River. As the canyon grows 
wilder, the river races along more madly. Rocks and boul- 
ders strew its bed, and islands rise in mid-stream. Over 
and around these it tears, scattering its spray over bush and 
tree, until it reaches Gibbon Fall, where it tumbles down in 
a wide, silvery sheet over eighty feet into still gloomier 




Leaving this canyon the road winds across a piney pla- 
teau to the Firehole River. The cascades of the Firehole 
are very interesting and the river itself is one of peculiar 

The Geysers and Hot Springs. — There are three im- 
portant geyser basins in the Park — after leaving Norris 
Basin — and they are near together. These are the Lower, 
Midway, and Upper geyser basins. At the Lower Basin 
are the Fountain and Clepysdra geysers, and the wonderful 


Paint Pots. The Paint Pots are curious things. The finest 
of clay is superheated and continually boils in a sluggish 
sort of way. The clay is of the most delicate hues of pink, 
pearl, white, etc. 

A mile and a half farther on, and easily reached by bi- 
cycle, tourist wagon, or by walking, lies a hidden basin full 
of nature's caprices. At the entrance stands the White 
Dome Geyser. Beyond is a collection of exquisite springs 
and pools, and the splendid Great Fountain Geyser, the 
latter being one of the geyser captains of the Park, and a 



regular leviathan. At the Midway Basin, four miles distant 
from the Lower Basin, are Excelsior, the greatest geyser in 
the world when in operation, Turquoise Spring, and Pris- 
matic Lake. 

The Upper Geyser Basin is the goal of the tourist, so far 
as the geysers are con- 
cerned. There are here 
about a dozen geysers that 
expel the contents of their 
reservoirs to heights rang- 
ing from one hundred to 
two hundred and fifty feet. 
There are as many more 
that play to elevations less 
than one hundred feet. 

The Castle has a very 
large castellated, siliceous 
cone ; the Grand has none 
whatever. The Oblong 
and the Giantess each ex- 
pel their contents from 
deep, pit-like reservoirs, 
but there the resemblance 
between them ends. The 
Bee Hive and Old Faithful 
each have cones, as entirely 
unlike as are their splendid 
columns of water and va- 

Old Faithful is the trav- 
eler's delight. It can al- 
ways be counted on ; its dis- 
play is always a fine one, 
and it is maintained year 
in and year out with, per- 
haps, more regularity, not 
only as to time but also as 
to character, than any 
geyser in the Park. 

The Black Sand Spring is a beautiful turquoise-blue pool 
having an outlet like unto a variegated ribbon. Emerald 
Pool is another and larger, of a perfect emerald-green. Sun- 
set Lake, the largest of them all, is the most superb and 




beautiful example of brilliant and varied coloring that was 
probably ever seen, not in the Park only, but anywhere else. 
Across the Contine-ntal Divide. — Between the Upper 
Geyser Basin and Yellowstone Lake, where the road winds 
across the Continental Divide, the ride through the Park 
is especially wild and inspiring. Soon after leaving the 
Upper Basin, Keppler Cascade is passed. It is in a canyon 


at the side of the road, and the coaches stop there that tour- 
ists may alight and view it. 

In the midst of the mountains Shoshone Point is reached. 
From the Point, Shoshone Lake lies shimmering far below 
in the very embrace of the mountains. 

At Shoshone Lake there is an interesting family of gey- 
sers that some day will attract many visitors. 

Yellowstone Lake. — The position of Yellowstone Lake 
in'the Park tour is a most happ}' one. Hemmed in by moun- 
tains, its shore line a most irregular and indented one, it 


is not only a beautiful sheet of water, but it adds a needed 
and most acceptable variety to the marvelous scenery of the 
park. Its elevation, 7,721 feet, and its being navigated by 
a steel steamer built in the Mississippi Valley and trans- 


ported across prairies and mountains to its mountain-girt 
sea, gives still an additional interest and attraction to it. 

To AND About the Grand Canyon. — The road be- 
tween the lake and the Grand Canyon follows the Yellow- 
stone River, crossing Hayden Valley. Two prominent ob- 



jects are passed — Mud Volcano and Crater Hills. The for- 
mer is a conical vent in the side of a hill, where there is a 
continual belching of mud. 

Crater Hills are also known as Sulphur Mountain. They 


consist of two low hills, between which the road runs, and 
of which sulphur is one of the component parts. At the 
base of one of them is a boiling sulphur spring, some ten to 
fifteen feet in diameter. 



While it is true that the geysers are the most unusual 
of all that is seen in the Park, it is equally true that the 
Grand Canyon impresses people the most profoundly. 

At its head is a cataract nearly twice the height of Ni- 
agara. Not quite a mile back of that is another fall more 
than 100 feet high. Over the precipices found at these 
points the great river flowing from the big lake and the 
mountains beyond, plunges in two entirely dissimilar and 
majestic waterfalls. Either one of them if situated nearer 


to the centers of population would make the reputation of 
its locality. 

The canyon itself, disassociated, if it were possible, from 
the falls, is a supremely perfect piece of creation. 

The walls of this wonderful canyon drop, vertical and 
jagged, deep into the abyss, succeeded by long slopes 
smoothed and almost polished by the action of the elements. 
Far down at the bottom rushes the mighty river, its deep, 
beautiful emerald modulated by the foam, as it sweeps 
around the bases of gigantic buttresses and tumbles over 
small precipices, or rushes down bowlder-strewn declivities. 
As for color — but hold ! If you remember how, in a kaleido- 


scope, the colors apparently rush together indiscriminately 
and without order, and yet arrange themselves in beautiful 
harmony and combination, you may know something of 
how these reds and grays, and whites and browns, and 
yellows and lavenders, and blacks and greens, run together 
in glorious and harmonic confusion. 

As it concerns the tourist, there are about four miles of 
this color symphony, although the canyon is twenty miles 
in length. Its greatest depth is 1,200 feet, not more. There 
is a fine road winding along the left brink from the head 
above the Lower Fall, past Point Lookout and Grand View 
to Castle Ruins and Inspiration Point. The places that 
project out into the canyon have good trails leading to them 
and they are railed about so that there is absolute safety. 
There are innumerable views of the canyon to be had and 
no two alike. 

Wild Animals in the Park. — It is undeniable that, 
to many tourists, the wild animals in the Park are a source 
of as much interest as are the geysers. This fact justifies 
the efforts made by the Government for the protection and 
natural propagation of the game animals indigenous to the 
region. While the present Park affords an unsurpassed 
summer range and breeding ground for antelope, elk. deer, 
bear, moose, mountain sheep, etc., it is not so well fitted for 
a winter range. 

Moose, deer, and antelope are found in moderate numbers. 
The antelope range is such that coyotes kill many of them, 
and hvmters have heretofore shot many when the animals 
were compelled, in severe winters, to cross the line of the 

There are several bands of mountain sheep in the Park, 
but they are rarely seen except in winter. 

The bears are very much in evidence. The black, brown, 
and grizzly, all are to be found. They are inoffensive and 
one of the sights of the Park. 

There are thousands of elks and they frequent many local- 
ities. In an enclosure at Mammoth Hot Springs there are 
usually a number of young elks and deer, and a study of 
them is most interesting. 

The buffaloes, or bisons, that once were so numerous in 
the Park, have sadly decreased in numbers. How many 
there may be is not really known, but there are probably not 
to exceed fifty. 



BozEMAN Tunnel. — Altitude, 5,550 feet ; length, 6,652 feet. 

Chestnut. — Population, 500. This is a coal-mining town, 
the output of five mines being shipped from here. It is the 
junction for the Yellowstone Railroad, which penetrates the 
rich coal fields at Hoffman, Kountz, and Cook. A recent 
strike at the Chestnut mine opened up a vein of eighteen 
feet of coal. 

Bozeman. — Population, 3,419. Bozeman is the county 
seat of Gallatin County, situated on the East Gallatin River. 
It has the State Agricultural College and the State Ex- 
periment Station, United 
States Fish Hatchery, a 
flouring mill, grain eleva- 
tors, planing mill, brewery, 
United States land office, 
a Carnegie library and an 
iron foundry. There are 
extensive coal fields within 
eight miles, and some val- 
uable deposits of corim- 
dum within fourteen miles. 
Gold, silver and copper de- 
posits are nearby. The sur- 

W -%..»ff..- .twrty//iW«« . 


rounding country is famous for its fine farms, which have never 
experienced a crop failure, and the land is well timbered on the 
streams and mountains. Heavy crops of wheat, barley, 
oats, rye and hay are raised by irrigation, there being four 
immense canals and numberless smaller ones intersecting 
the valley. 

Manhattan. — Population, loo. Is situated in the center of 
the beautiful Gallatin Valley, on the west banks of the West 
Gallatin River, which furnishes water power and abundant 
supply for irrigation. This point is the center of a fertile 
farming country. Here is located one of the largest grain 



elevators west of St. Paul, also a large malt house. The 
town has a lumber yard. One of the largest irrigation 
canals in Montana is easily accessible from Manhattan. The 
lands along this canal are considered among the finest in 
the West for agricultural purposes. 

Logan. — Population, 150. This is a junction point where 
the line via Helena, and the "Butte Line" to Butte, diverge, 
and is situated on the Gallatin River. 


The Gallatin Valley. — The Gallatin Valley, which ex- 
tends from Bozeman to Logan, is hemmed in on the north- 
east by the Bridger Mountains and on the east by the Gal- 
latin Range. The general elevation of the valley ranges 
from 4,000 to 4,500 feet, and it is one of the most fertile 
as well as most beautiful valleys in the Northwest. Clover, 
alfalfa, wheat, and particularly barley, thrive wonderfully. 
Irrigation is necessary on the bottom lands, but not on the 
bench lands, and there is an almost unlimited water supply 



coming from the various streams that form the Gallatin 

Lombard. — This is the junction point with the Montana 
Railroad, this line passing through the picturesque Sixteen- 
Mile Canyon, the line being completed through to Lewistovvn 
during the summer of 1903. At Dorsey stage connections are 
made with White Sulphur Springs, distant seventeen miles, 
the county seat of Meagher County, and noted for its hot 
sulphur springs, with their 
great medicmal properties ; at 
Freeman's, stage connections 
are made with the mining 
camp of Castle, distant five 
miles ; at Martinsdale, connec- 
tion is made h\ stage with the 
flourishing Copperopolis min- 
ing district. At Twodot, a 
trading point situated m one 
of the most fertile sections 


of the Musselshell Valley, and at Harlowton (formerly Me- 
rino), and Lewistown, connections are made with Ubet, Gar- 
neill and all important points in this section of Montana, in- 
cluding the Judith basin and Utica and the flourishing mining 
camps of New Year, Gilt Edge, Maiden and Maginnis. 

Townsend. — Population, 446. Townsend is the county 
seat of Broadwater County and is situated on the Missouri 
River. A number of silver and gold mines in the immediate 



vicinity are being worked on the old plan, without ma- 
chinery. The principal products of the surrounding valley 
are wheat and oats. A coach runs daily to Hassell (Old St. 
Louis) gold mining district, ten miles distant. This district 
is being extensively worked, the ore being free milling and 
of a high grade. 

Prickley Pear Junction, or East Helena. — Population, 
1,200. This is the junction point of the main line with the 
Wickes, Boulder and Elkhorn branches. Large smelting 
works are located here, and have a capacity of 250 tons per 
day. The town is connected with Helena by an electric car 

Helena. — Population, 15,000. Helena is the capital of the 


state, and the county seat of Lewis and Clarke County. It is 
the commercial, financial, railroad, and distributing center 
of the state. It has a building and loan association. United 
States Circuit and District courts. United States land office. 
United States assay office, offices of the United States Mar- 
shal, Collector of Internal Revenue, Quartermaster of the 
United States Army, State Armory building, an orphans' 
home, and the Montana University (Methodist). There are 
eighteen miles of electric car lines, one electric light and gas 
company, and a power plant on the Missouri River, capable 
of transmitting 10,000 horse power to the city for manufac- 
turing purposes. It has a foundry, planing mills, breweries, 



flouring mill, cracker factory, soap and candy factories, be- 
sides other manufacturing establishments. Its jobbing and 
retail trade is large. Helena is situated in the center of a 
mineral region, unsurpassed in Montana or elsewhere for 
the number and richness of its gold and silver-bearing lodes, 
there being within a radius of twenty-five miles over 3,000 
quartz lodes, which have been claimed and recorded, and 
several hundred patented. Besides the gold and silver 
lodes, veins of galena, copper, and iron are found, and mil- 
lions of dollars will be invested in the construction of mills 
and smelters, thus giving employment to thousands of men. 
The branch railroad to Wickes. Boulder, Basin and Elkhorn, 


running fifty-five miles south, opens up celebrated mining 
districts, and furnishes transportation to mines heretofore 
almost inaccessible. That to Marysville, twenty-two miles 
west, opens up one of the richest gold fields in the state. 
The Prickley Pear Valley, covering an area fifteen by twen- 
ty-five miles, lies north, east, and west of Helena, and is 
famous for its fine crops. The mountains are covered with 
bunch grass and fine timber, and are excellent stock ranges. 
The exports consist of large quantities of bullion and ore, 
cattle, sheep, and hides. 

MuLLAN Tunnel. — Altitude, 5,548: length, 3,875 feet. 

Garrison. — Population, 105. Is located on Hell Gate 
River, near the mouth of the Little Blackfoot. Being the 
junction where the Helena and Butte lines diverge, west of the 



mountains, and the diverging point for Deer Lodge, Anaconda, 
Butte, etc., makes it an important railroad point. 

Gold Creek. — Population, loo. The first discovery of 
gold in Montana was made near this place in 1852. The 
town is eight miles west of Garrison, and has saw mills, a 
store, and a harness shop. Valuable mines of silver and 
lead are being operated in the Dunkleberg mining district, 
twelve miles distant. Placer mines are at Pioneer, seven 
miles distant. 

Drummond. — Population, 150. This town is located in 
the Granite Mountain mining region, and in the fertile Flint 
Valley. Sheep, cattle and hay raising are the chief pursuits 
of the people. The Phillipsburg branch of the Northern 


Pacific connects with the main line here, running thirty-two 
miles south, where the Granite Mountain, Bi-Metallic, Com- 
bination, Sunrise, and numerous other mines are located. 
One mine has in constant operation a loo-stamp mill, while 
another has had ten stamps running for twenty-five years, 
and has during that time paid regular dividends. 

Missoula. — Population, 7,000. Many rich mining proper- 
ties are being opened up all around Missoula, which is the 
county seat of Missoula County, and is located on the Mis- 
soula River. It has good water power and is the distrib- 
uting point for a large country around. The city has a flour 
mill and elevator, large mercantile houses, a brewery, bot- 
tling works. United States land office, a Catholic hospital 
and convent, free public library, the University of Montana, 
the division headquarters of the Rocky Mountain division 



of the Northern Pacific Railway, and the roundhouses and 
shops and Western Divisions hospital of that road. There 
are two large and fertile valleys lying to the south and west 
of Missoula, the foremost (the Bitter Root Valley) being 
traversed by a branch of the Northern Pacific Railway from 
Missoula to Grantsdale. Grain and vegetables of all kinds 
are raised in these valleys, and fine berries and fruits are 
grown there and in Missoula. Four miles to the south lies 
Fort Missoula, a United States military post. 

The Bitter Root Valley. — The Bitter Root River takes 
its rise in the Bitter Root Range of the Rocky Mountains 
about 100 miles south of Missoula. At Missoula it forms a 
junction with the Hellgate River, from which point the 
name Missoula is given to the stream. 


The Bitter Root Valley is of the same approximate length 
as the river. It varies in width from a few miles at some 
places to ten or twelve miles at other points. The valley 
is bordered on the west by the high and majestic range of 
the Bitter Root, which not only protects the valley from the 
cold, western winds, but supplies it with innumerable 
streams of the purest crystal water. The range is a very 
lofty one and the snow lies among its higher recesses the 
year round. In an agricultural way this valley is a marvel. 
Its general elevation is between 3,000 and 4,000 feet, which 
allows the range of products to be a wide one. Hay farm- 
ing has been carried on for many years, the proximity of 
important mining camps giving an impetus to it. Timothy 
and clover grow luxuriantly, and yield from two to four 



tons per acre, being worth from $7.50 to $10 per ton, baled 
and on the cars. 

Dairying and poultry raising are very profitable, the 
mining camps affording a stable market for all sorts of 
farm and dairy produce. The valley seems to be specially 
favorable for apple raising. In the opinion of competent 
judges, it is not improbable that it will soon produce the 


best apples in the United States. The area planted to apple 
orchards is very large and is steadily increasing. Pknns 
and grapes are perfectly at home ; cherries grow fast and so 
easily, and prunes grow so thickly that it is hard to believe 
one is not gazing upon a new variety where they grow like 
grapes, in clusters. Flavor and color are unusually fine in 
the Bitter Root Valley fruits. 

Irrigation is necessary in Bitter Root Valley farming, but 
it is unusually inexpensive and easy. Fewer large canals 


are necessary as there are so many small lateral streams 
from the mountains. These can be easily diverted by small 
companies, or even by individuals, and, owing to the angle 
and uniformity of slope, are carried here and there with little 
expense or physical difficulty. The larger canals are gen- 
erally owned b}' those having large tracts of land, and, in 
most cases, are taken out from the Bitter Root River. The 
valley is well timbered and the mountains are heavily 
clothed with forests. 

De Smet. — The junction point for the branch line to the 
Coetfr d'Alene mines. 

Arlee. — Population 25. The town is located on the Flat- 
head Indian Reservation, and all supplies for the Flathead 
Indian Agency, four and one-half miles northeast, are re- 
ceived at this point. 


Selish is located on the Flathead Indian Reservation, and 
is a growing town in the Flathead country. This is the 
shipping point for St. Ignatius Mission, five miles north, 
and the Flathead Lake country, seventy miles north. The 
shipments from here are live stock, furs, and hides. From 
Alay I to November i the stage leaves here three times per 
week, for the foot of the lake, connecting with boat for 
Kalispell, Demersville, Egan, Columbia Falls, and other 
towns in the Flathead Valley country. 

The Fl.vthead Indi.^ns. — At Evaro, the station at the 
summit of the Mission Range, beyond Missoula, the rail- 
way enters the Flathead Indian Reservation. The Indians 
themselves, and their' cabins and tepees, can be seen here 
and there as the train passes through the reservation. 

The St. Ignatius Mission of the Catholics, reached from 
Selish, is most interesting. It is an Indian school, ensconced 



in one of the most beautiful situations in the world. The 
glorious Mission Range lies directly back of it. A white, 
narrow, never-ceasing cascade, 2,000 feet high, drops from 
the upper altitudes to the glowing recesses below. The 
Fathers are glad to have visitors, and those who visit the 
spot will have something to remember for a lifetime. 

The view of the Mission Range, from the divide between 
Selish and the Mission, is one of those sights most often 
seen in dreams and in imagination. The Mission, which 
was establshed here more than a half century ago, is only 
five miles, by a good road, from Selish. ' 


Hope. — Population 300. Hope is located on the north 
shore of Lake Pend d'Oreille, and is principally noted as a 


resort for summer tourists. Steamers make daily trips to all 
points on the lake. Silver and lead mines have been discov- 
ered at Lakeview, Blacktail, and Granite Creek. 

Hauser Junction. — This is the junction point with the 
Fort Sherman branch, running to Coeur d'Alene City, where 
connection is made with the Coeur d'Alene l)ranch of the 
Northern Pacific Railway for all the principal points in 
the mines of the Coeur d'Alene district. Large shipments 
are made here of wool and hay. 




Spokane. — Population 37,000. This is the junction of the 
Rocky Mountain and Idaho divisions of the Northern Pacific 
Railway, and the location of the roundhouse and large shops 
of the road. Time changes here from Mountain to Pacific 
time. Spokane is the county seat of Spokane County, 
and the commercial metropolis of eastern Washington and 
northern Idaho. It is beautifully situated on both sides 
of the Spokane River, on the Idaho division of the 
Northern Pacific Railway. The following branches of 
this road radiate from Spokane : The Palouse & Lewis- 


ton branch, which traverses the rich farming and fruit 
country of the Palouse, Potlatch, and Clearwater valleys, 
and is now being extended into the vast and rich agricul- 
tural and mining regions of central Idaho and the BufTalo 
Hump ; the Coeur d'Alene branch, which, with its connec- 
tions, penetrates to the great Coeur d'Alene mining country ; 
and the Central Washington branch, running west to Coulee 
City through the heart of the rich Big Bend agricultural 
section and connecting with the mines of Republic and 
Okanogan. In addition the city has four other important 
railroads. Spokane is rapidly becoming one of the great 
mining centers of the west. The gold, silver, copper, and 



lead mines in tlie vicinit}- give' an annual output of $20,000,- 
000, and are making Spokane a city of great wealth. The 
city is surrounded by vast areas of rich agricultural lands, 
producing annually 30,000,000 bushels of grain and great 
quantities of all temperate zone fruits, the latter finding 
valuable markets in the mining camps and in eastern cities. 
Forty bushels of wheat to the acre are common, and other 
grains and agricultural products are raised in like abun- 
dance. Almost all building material, such as the finest 
lumber, brick, granite, limestone, onyx, and marble, are 
found or are produced in the vicinity. Besides being a 


mining, jobbing, lumbering, agricultural, railway, and 
commercial center, the city is an important manufacturing 
point, being provided by the falls of the Spokane River 
with 32,000 horse power. 

Many manufacturing concerns have already been estab- 
lished and others are coming, lining the river banks with 
mills and factories. The falls furnish power for a splendid 
system of street railways and electric light. 

Marshall Junction. — Population 100. This is the junc- 
tion point with the Palouse branch, running south to 
Moscow, Lewiston and Genesee, Idaho. 

Cheney. — Population 1,200. This town is situated in a 
good farming country, with abundant timber, and is on the 



great plateau of the Columbia, 2,300 feet above the sea 
level. There are several lakes in the neighborhood, three 
possessing medicinal properties. It has a roller flour mill, 
creameries, water works, electric light plant, State Normal 
School and churches. The Central Washington branch 
leaves the main line at this point, and runs north and west 
to Medical Lake, Davenport, Almira, and Coulee City. 

Sprague. — Population 1,000. Has flouring mill, water 
works, and lumber yard. The products are wheat, oats, 
and barley. Cattle and sheep raising is a feature of farm- 


ing industry, while the shipments Consist of live stock, 
wheat, wool, and flour. 

Ritzville. — Population 2,000. The county seat of Adams 
County. The place supports an electric light plant, lum- 
ber yards, implement and agricultural stores, flouring mill, 
and grain house. It is situated in the center of a fine farm- 
ing and grazing country, and is the largest local wheat ship- 
ping point in the world. 

Pasco. — Population 400. Is the county seat of Franklin 
County, is situated about two miles from the confluence 
of the Snake and Columbia rivers, and is a junction point of 
the main line with a line via Wallula Junction and the Col- 


umbia River. The heavy bunch grass found in this section 
makes stock raising an exceedingly profitable business, as 
the winters are mild and good grazing can be had during 
the entire year. 

Hunt's Junction. — This is the junction point of the 
Northern Pacific and Washington & Columbia River Rail- 
road, running to Walla Walla, Pendleton, Athena, Waits- 
burg, and Dayton. 

Wallula Junction. — Population 250. This is on the line 
of the O. R. & N. Co. east from Portland, at its junction 
with the Northern Pacific Railway, and is located on the 
Walla Walla River, about one mile from the Columbia. 

Kennewick. — Population 150. Kennewick has a mild 
and delightful climate which is specially adapted to the 
raising of fruits, vegetables, grain, hops, etc. The town 
is the distributing point for the country twenty miles north, 
south and west. Large shipments of wheat, horses, cattle, 
sheep, and wool are made from here. 

Kiona. — Population 50. Situated on the Yakima River, 
this town is in a fine valley well adapted to fruit raising. 
The Horse Heaven wheat belt is five miles south, where a 
fine grade of wheat is raised without irrigation. 

Prosser. — Population 600. In the valley surrounding 
Prosser are thousands of acres of rich land, principally 
adapted to grasses and fruits, which are irrigated by ditches 
from the river. The town is located at the falls of the Yak- 
ima River, and is the station from which to depart for the 
Horse Heaven country. It has flour mill, wool and grain 
warehouses, and stores. There is water power in abun- 
dance. Large shipments are made from this point of horses, 
cattle, sheep, wool, and flour. 

Mabton. — The stage leaves here daily for the Sunnyside 
district, distance seven miles. Fare 50 cents 

Toppenish is located on the east side of the Yakima 
River. A stage runs to Zillah, at the upper end of the 
famous Sunnyside irrigation region. 

The YAKni.\ Valley. — In eastern Washington there 
is to be found, probably, the most conspicuous example in 
the entire northwest of what irrigation can accomplisl 

The Yakima River rises in the eastern slopes of the Cas- 
cade Range and flows southeastwardly into the Columbia 
River, watering, in its course, one of the best valleys in 
the west. There is a wide range of elevation and climate 





in the valley, and necessarily, therefore, of products. At 
Kennewick, near the foot of the valley, the elevation is less 
than 350 feet, at North Yakima it is about 1,000 feet, and 
at Ellensburg, in what is locally known as the Kittitas Val- 
ley, it is 1,500 feet. The lands found here are of the usual 
sagebrush variety, remarkably productive when watered, 
and irrigation has made giant strides within recent years. 
The valley affords good pasturage to cattle, sheep and 

Almost every imaginable variety of product, both vege- 
table and horticultural, is or may be raised here, the ques- 
tion as to choice depending upon the profit per acre deriv- 


able. Grains, except corn, are easily raised, but are com- 
paratively profitless, the land being so valuable, and they 
are little in evidence. Corn is not considered a sure crop, 
but crops of it are raised yearly that would do credit to 
Iowa or the Tennessee Valley. 

Apples, cherries, peaches, apricots, plums, prunes, mel- 
ons, and berries of all sorts grow to perfection. Alfalfa 
is the greatest product of the valley. It is easily grown, is 
cut from two to four times per season, and produces from 
five to eight tons or more per acre. It is fed to thousands 
of head of stock in the valley, and large amounts are baled 
and exported. Land in the lower valley near Prosser, 
Kiona, and Kennewick is equally as good as that in the 
upper valley, and unimproved land, with water rights, 


can be purchased for $75 per acre and even less. The large 
areas of unimproved land are found in the Sunnyside coun- 
try and in the regions about Prosser, Kiona, and Kenne- 
wick. Around Ellensburg large quantities of timothy hay 
are raised, and dairying is advancing rapidly. 

What is known as the Sunnyside country lies north, and 
back from, the railway. At the western end the valley is 
narrow, gradually increasing in width until it is many 
miles wide down around the town of Sunnyside, some miles 
north from Mabton, the railway station, in the lower valley. 
Since the large sixty-mile-long irrigation canal, with its 


tremendous system of laterals, has been built, the country 
is fast becoming transformed into a garden. Thousands of 
people now li\'e there, and Yakima Valley products have 
acquired an enviable reputation in the east, and heavy 
eastern shipments are now made of fruits, potatoes, hops, 
etc. The land found here is of great depth, very rich and 
productive, and so easily worked that it is child's play to 
cultivate it. 

North Yakima. — Population 5,000. This is the county 
seat of Yakima County, situated at the confluence of the 
Yakima and Xatches rivers. The chief products of the 
surrounding territory are hay, hops, fruits, vegetables, 
grain, and cattle and sheep, for all of which a ready market 


is found. The town enjoys a very large trade; annually 
in the fall of the year 5,000 persons are engaged in picking 
hops in the surrounding county; the state fair is held here 
each year; the town has a flour mill, saw mill, machine 
shop, evaporators, and creamery. Water power is abun- 
dant and easily developed. 

Mount Adams. — The traveler on the Northern Pacific 
can see, while traversing the Yakima Valley, a vast moun- 
tain to the west. This is Moimt Adams, 12,250 feet high, 
named, presumably, after President Adams. Mount Adams 
is peculiarljr a symbol of strength and majesty, even more 
so than Mount Rainier, or Mount Hood. The Indians call 
it " Pah-to," a high, sloping mountain. Next to Mount 
Rainier — Rayneer — it is the highest mountain of the Cas- 

As with nearly all the high Cascades, there is one central, 
predominant dome peak of unsullied whiteness. The 
northern and eastern sides of the mountain are precipitous, 
but the peak is easily climbed on the southern side. This 
mountain stands out in great prominence from the vicinity 
of North Yakima and Ellensburg and is often mistaken for 
Mount Rainier. The top only of the latter mountain is 
visible from Ellensburg. 

Ellensburg. — Population 3,000. It is thirty-seven miles 
north of North Yakima and one mile from the Yakima 
River. It is the count)^ seat of Kittitas County and the 
railroad headquarters for the Cascade division of the North- 
ern Pacific. The town has good water power, flouring 
mills, saw mill, planing mill, also the Washington State 
Normal School. Good bituminous coal, in five to eight foot 
veins, has been found. Rich veins of copper ore have also 
been discovered. Ellensburg is situated in the Kittitas 
Valley, five to twenty miles long, and is surrounded on 
the south and east by bunch grass hills and table lands, 
and on the north and west by the semi timber lands of the 
Cascade Mountains. The products are grain, hay, stock, 
and the shipments are live stock of all kinds, wool, and 

Roslyn. — Population 4,500. This town is on the branch 
line running from Clealum Junction, distant four miles. 
It is the center of the great Roslyn coal fields, which supply 
nearly all the towns in eastern Washington with fuel ; and 
the iron ore fields north of Rosyln, known as the Upper Cle- 




alum or Fish Lake, is one of the richest in the state. The 
city supports saw mill, planing mill, brewery, cigar factory, 
and a fine school house. 

Stampede Tunnel. — Altitude 2,840 feet. The tunnel 
under Stampede Pass is nearly two miles long and is the 
second tunnel in length in the United States, being ex- 
ceeded only by the Hoosac Tunnel in Massachusetts. 

Hot Springs. — Beautifully situated in the picturesque 
valley of the Green River, on the western slope of the 
Cascade Mountains 1,531 feet above the level of the sea, 
on the main line of the Northern Pacific Railway, in King 
County, sixty miles from the cities of Seattle and Tacoma. 
Here are located the celebrated hot springs. Trails lead up 
the hot springs mountain, so that the source of the springs 
can be visited if desired. 

The following towns — Buckley to Auburn — are on the old 
line. The through trains now run via the " Palmer cut-off " 
from Palmer Junction to Auburn : 

Buckley. — Population 1,500. The Natches Pass Rail- 
road, a logging road, runs east eight miles into the moun- 
tains from here : also another logging road, four miles 
long, called the Buckley Lumber Co. Railroad. The town 
has lumber, planing and shingle mills. Hops and lumber 
are the principal shipments. 

Wilkeson. — Population 700. The place has large coke 
ovens, coal mines, and saw mills. Coal mining is the prin- 
cipal industry. 

Carbonado. — Population 2,500. Is on the Carbon River. 
The principal business interest is coal mining, from a mine 
yielding 1,200 tons daily. The product and shipment is coal; 
copper, silver, and coal mines are at Fairfax. 

Crocker. — This is the junction point for the branch line 
running to Douty, five miles distant, at which point are lo- 
cated the Carbon Hill Coal Mines. 

Orting. — Population 1,000. The Orting branch runs 
from this point to the lumbering regions of the Muck and 
Sucotash valleys. The city has saw and shingle mills, a 
creamery, and the Washington Soldiers' Home, one and a 
quarter miles south. 

Meeker. — This is the junction point of the line to Seattle. 

Auburn. — Population 600. Situated midway between 
Tacoma and Seattle, in the midst of a fine agricultural and 





lumber district. Auburn offers exceptional advantages to 
either the merchant or farmer. 

Kent. — Population 1,300. A rich agricultural country 
surrounds this town, which is supplied with saw, shingle, 
and planing mill, harness shop, feed mill, condensed milk 
factory, creamery, cheese factory, evaporating factories, 
laundry, furnace factory, canning factory, and is in the 
center of a fine hop growing country. 

Seattle. — Population 80,671. Seattle, named after an In- 
dian, is situated on the east side of Puget Sound, in the 
geographical center of the " Sound Country," as it is called. 


It has a magnificent harbor, perfectly protected from 
storms, and accessible to the largest vessels at all times and 
at all stages of tide. 

Seattle is lighted principally by electricity. The power 
for this, and the operation of the street railways, comes 
from Snoqualmie Falls, twenty-five miles distant. This is 
a water fall 268 feet high, capable of generating 100,000 
horse power. The .public schools of Seattle rank among 
the very best in the country. The enrollment of pupils 
exceeds 12,500, there are 254 teachers employed, and the 
expenditure exceeds $250,000 per annum. 

The Puget Sound Navy Yard is just across the Sound 
from Seattle, and its supplies are purchased here. The city 



has the only dry clock on the Pacific Coast large enough to 
dock a battleship, and here steady employment is given to 
about 600 mechanics. 

Seattle is the center of the coal mining district of Wash- 
ington. Some of the mines are within a few miles of the 


city, and all of them are within 100 miles. Seattle is the 
headquarters and base of supplies of the Puget Sound, 
Alaska, and Fraser River salmon fisheries. The foreign 
and coastwise trade of Seattle is constantly growing and 
extending, and is a great factor in her commercial pros- 


perity. Fishing is extensively carried on — both sahiion for 
canning and fresh fish, the latter consisting of halibut, cod, 
and salmon, for shipment east by rail as far as the Atlantic 
seaboard cities. The local products shipped by vessel and 
car are coal, lumber, wheat, ffour, beer, lime, spars, 
shingles, hops, hay, oats, barley, hides, vegetables, fruits, 
butter, cheese, wool, furs, skins, clams and oysters, fresh 
and dried fish, cigars, boots and shoes, iron castings, ma- 
chinery, crackers, candles, clothing, and many other articles 
of manufacture. 

Seattle is the county seat of King County, which is rich 
in natural resources, embracing 60,000 acres of coal fields 
within a radius of thirty-six miles; iron in abundant quan- 
tities, and fertile and extensive valleys of wonderfully pro- 
ductive soil, well adapted for raising hops, hay, potatoes, 


all vegetables, fruits and berries, and especially adapted for 
dairying, as the climatic conditions permit of stock running 
out all the year round and grasses to grow at all seasons. 
The surface of the country is covered with fine forests 
of fir, cedar, spruce, and hardwood timber, and logging and 
lumbering are among the staple industries of western 
Washington, and are extensively carried on in the vicinity 
of Seattle. It is the center of the great lumber trade of the 
state, which includes the cut annually of 1,500,000,000 feet 
of lumber, and 5,000,000,000 shingles. The King County 
cut includes one-seventh of that of the state. Exports from 
Seattle include cargoes for many vessels to foreign coun- 
tries and thousands of carloads to markets in the eastern 

Seattle has a mild and equable climate. The records of 
the United States Weather Bureau show that the highest 



temperature ever recorded was 94 degrees for one day only, 
in 1892. The temperature seldom exceeds 85 degrees, and 
has only gone as low as 12 degrees above zero three times 
in ten years. The temperature always drops as low as 
62 degrees during the night, even in the warmest weather. 
The average rainfall for ten years has been 36.46 inches per 
year. There is very little snowfall. The average velocity 
of the wind is five and a half miles an hour, and the highest 
velocity ever observed was forty-two miles. 
. The following towns — Snohomish to Puyallup — are on 
branch lines north of Seattle : 


Snohomish. — Population 3,000. There is a large agricul- 
tural district tributary to this point, which, in addition to 
the timber traffic, makes Snohomish quite an important 
place. The city is located thirty-eight miles north of Se- 
attle, at the head of navigation on the Snohomish River. 
The industries consist of six shingle mills and one logging 

Everett. — Population 12,000. Everett is a rapidly grow- 
ing city, located on Port Gardner, an inlet of Puget Sound. 
The Snohomish River empties into the Sound on the north 
through a three fork delta, all of which are navigable, 



particularly for vessels of light draught. This affords ex- 
ceptional fresh and salt water harbor facilities, the fresh 
water harbor now being extended by government dredge 
work. The city maintains street railway, electric light, and 
water systems, and has a large number of mercantile es- 
tablishments of all kinds. The paper mill and smelter lo- 
cated here are the largest of their kind on the coast. Quite 
a number of other manufacturing industries have under 
consideration the matter of locating here. 

Arlington. — Population 1,500. A large district of choice, 
agricultural lands is tributary to this city, which is situ- 

. jji, • 












■ '^-iisi^MHB 




















ated on the Stillaguamish River, sixty miles north of Se- 
attle. Its industries consist of four shingle mills. 

Woolley. — Population 1,300. Located eighty-six miles 
north of Seattle on the Skagit River. The town's industries 
consist of shingle and saw mills, a fruit cannery and a 
b'"ick yard. 

Issaquah. — Population 1,500. Situated forty-two miles 
east of Seattle. The industries comprise coal mines. 

Snoqualmie. — Population 300. Here is where the electri- 
city is generated that supplies a good portion of the de- 
mands of Seattle, Tacoma, and Everett. The place has a 
shingle mill, saw mill, and a log camp. 


Puyallup. — Population 2,500. For the past ten years 
more hops have been raised and marketed here than in any 
other locahty in the world. In the fall of the year this 
product is shipped to New York and European markets in 
train-load lots. The city is located on the Puyallup River, 
in the heart of the famous Puyallup Valley. It has a fine 
water system, box factories, hop and hay press, and a hop 
spray factory. Fruit and vegetables are the principal farm 
products, 20,000 cases of berries being raised and marketed 
here yearly. The soil is a rich, sandy, loam, especially 
adapted to the raising of vegetables, etc. 

Tacoma. — Population 55,000. The name of this city 
comes from the Indian word, " Ta-ho-ma," of which there 


seems to be a variety of meanings, among them being 
" nourishing breast," and " great spirit who dwells on the 

Tacoma is the county seat of Pierce County, and has de- 
veloped from a village of 720 in 1880 to its present size. 
It is situated at the head of Commencement Bay, at the 
extreme southeast end of Puget Sound, is built on a bluff 
180 feet above tide water, and commands a view of the vast 
Olympic and Cascade ranges of mountains, and Mount 

Along the water front are splendid wharves and wheat ware- 
houses with a capacity of 7,000,000 bushels. Tacoma 
equals any city on the Pacific Coast in the number and ex- 



tent of its manufacturing enterprises. Besides its great 
saw mills, flour mills, and wood-working factories, which 
send their products to Europe, South and Central America, 
India, Australia, China and Japan, there are shingle mills 
which send their product to Eastern markets ; the most 
complete and best equipped packing house on the Pacific 
Coast ; sash and door factories, foundries and machine 
shops, planing mills, furniture, lounge, and mattress facto- 
ries, match factory, casket factory, woolen mill, soap works. 


boiler works, box factory, broom factory, tile and terra cotta 
works, brick yards, breweries, ice factories, cracker, candy 
and starch factories, shipyards, garment and overall fac- 
tory, preserve factory, and a large smelter with a capacity 
of reducing 650 tons of ore per day, are among the indus- 
tries represented in Tacoma and which are in constant 
operation. \Vater, gas, and electric light works are also 
in operation. 

The famous Puyallup and WHiite River valleys lie tribu- 
tary to Tacoma. These valleys produce the finest hops 





in the world and yield from i,8oo to 3,000 pounds per acre. 
The country around Tacoma is adapted to the raising of 
fruits, hay, hops and vegetables. 

The harbor at Tacoma is one of the best in the world. 
Ample accommodations for deep sea vessels are provided, 
and new buoys have been anchored convenient to the 

The waters of Puget Sound teem with ninety-five vari- 
eties of food fish, the capture of which gives employment 
to 7,000 men, who market most of their catch here to be 
shipped in refrigerator cars to eastern markets. There is 


a capital of $5,000,000 invested. Sport with rod and line in 
Commencement Bay during the great silver salmon run in 
October and November has a charm and excitement en- 
tirely its own. The fish are gamey and afford the excite- 
ment an angler loves so well. The climate is unsurpassed. 
Tacoma, owing to its geographical position and commer- 
cial enterprise, has established itself as one of the principal 
gateways to the northern territory of Alaska which is 
attracting so much attention on acount of the rich gold 
fields of the Yukon, as well as those of the Copper River 
and Cook's Inlet districts. The Tacoma Eastern Railway 
is steadily building up toward Mount Rainier through a 
fine timber and farming country. 



Mount Rainier. — This mountain was discovered by 
Capt. George Vancouver, of the British navy, in 1792, and 
was named by him for his friend. Rear Admiral Rainier. 
The Indian name for this peak is Ta-ho-ma. As between 
the names Rainier and Tahoma, or Tacoma, the United States 
Board on Geographic Names, a board appointed to de- 
cide all such questions for the government, gave preference 
to Rainier as the name to be used on the official maps. 

Rainier is the highest of the Cascade peaks, being, ac- 
cording to the latest determination — that of the United 
States Geological Survey — 14,526 feet above sea level. 


It is not unlike Mount Adams in general contour, but is 
much nearer a conical shape. It is completely enameled with 
snow and is the center of a profound system of glaciers, 
some of them four or five miles in length. The northern 
side is very precipitous and has never been scaled. The 
eastern, western, and southern sides have been climbed 
many times. The ascent is long but not specially danger- 
ous. There are two large craters at the highest peak, 
nearly filled with ice and snow. The loftiest point is a 
beautiful snow and ice dome between the craters. Steam 
constantly issues from the latter, and a system of cave-like 
openings extend downward from the summit. Many tour- 
ists and Pacific Coast people climb the mountain each 


year. Longmire's Springs, at the base of the peak on tlie 
south side, is easily reached from Tacoma and Seattle. 
From there a good trail ascends the Nisqually and Paradise 
rivers to Paradise Park, on the southern slopes of the 
mountain, where a tent hotel is usually maintained. 

If one does not care to climb Rainier, no grander outing 
can be conceived than a few days spent in Paradise Park 
among the glaciers, ice clifTs, flowers, the park spots, and 
the glorious mountains. Arrangements for the trip can be 
made at either Seattle or Tacoma. Agents of the Northern 
Pacific Railway will aid tourists in every way possible in 
planning for this excursion. 

South Tacoma. — Population 1,500. The new car shops 
of the Northern Pacific Railwa}- are located here. 

Lakeview. — Population 200. A junction point for the 
line to Olympia and Grays Harbor country. The town has 
rolling, planing, and feed mills. 

Tenino. — Population 400. This is the junction , with the 
Port Townsend Southern Railroad, and has saw mills 
and large stone quarries. The surrounding country is hilly, 
with dense forests. 

Olympia. — Population 4,300. Olympia is the capital of 
Washington and the county seat of Thurston County, and 
is located at the head of Puget Sound. The city has water 
works, electric and street railway plants, local and long 
distance telephone system, United States land and sur- 
veyor-general s offices, hotels, a national bank, daily and 
weekly newspapers, state capitol building, opera house, 
churches, a school and colleges, a hospital, saw mills, sash 
and door factory, wood water pipe factor}^ and stores. The 
products are fruit, vegetables, hay, etc., and the shipments 
are lumber, shingles, ice, beer, wood water pipe, clams, 
oysters, and fish. Shipments of the native oysters and 
clams exceed any other point on the Pacific Coast. 

Centralia. — Population 3,500. The branch line of the 
Northern Pacific to Montesano on Grays Harbor connects 
with the main line at this point, by which passengers from 
the east go to Grays Harbor. The citj^ is one mile from 
the Chehalis River, and has saw and shingle mills. Lum- 
bering and farming are the principal industries, while fruit 
and berry growing is extensvely carried on. A mountain- 
ous, timlDered country surrounds the city. 

Mount St. Helens. — Not long after Mount Rainier is 






lost sight of another mighty mass of snow, terminating 
in a sharp point, appears. This is Mount St. Helens, 9,750 
feet high and called by the aborigines " Lah-me-lat-cla " — 
fire mountain. Another Indian name is " Seuq." It is also 
an extinct volcano and was named by Vancouver in 1792. 
St. Helens has been an active volcano more recently, 
perhaps, than any of the other northwestern mountains, 
unless possibly Mount Baker. It seems to have been in 
eruption many times between 1831-1850. Like all these 


peaks, it is not difficult of ascent on the south side, and it 
is an intensely interesting peak to explore. Volcanic 
bombs and large quantities of ashes and cinders are found. 
In the first half of last century St. Helens seems to have 
been the most frequently mentioned mountain of the Cas- 

Chehalis. — Population 3,500. This is the junction for 
South Bend, on Willapa Harbor. The city is located on 
the Chehalis River, near the mouth of Newaukum River, 
and is the county seat of Lewis County. It aft'ords a flour- 
ing mill, shingle mills, saw mills, furniture factory, and 


electric lights and water works. The shipments are hops, 
flour, stock, lumber, shingles, and fish. 

Winlock. — Population 1,500. This is a diverging point 
for the Toutle River and St. Helens gold mines, distant 
thirty miles. The town is located on Olequa Creek, and 
has saw mills, sash and door factory, creameries, and pot- 
tery works. Cowlitz Prairie, containing some of the finest 
farming land in Washington, is only five miles distant. The 
shipments from here are lumber, hay, butter, potatoes 
and grain. 

Castle !Kock. — Population 1,800. Another diverging point 
for the St. Helens mining district. The city has shingle 
mills, and saw mills. Logging, farming and the raising of 
fruits and hops are the leading industries. Coal mining is 
also carried on near this place. 

Kelso. — Population 1,000. Situated at the confluence of 
the Cowman and Cowlitz rivers, both logging streams, 
this is fast coming into notice as an enterprising town. 

Kalama. — Population 1,250. This is the county seat of 
Cowlitz County, and is situated on the Columbia River, 
northwest of Portland. The town is supplied with saw 
and shingle mills. Fishing is the principal industry, sal- 
mon and sturgeon being caught in great quantities. This 
place has the largest sturgeon packing concern on the 
Pacific Coast. It has water power and electric lights, and 
a good harbor. 


Goble. — Population 200. Coble is the junction point 
with the Astoria & Columbia River Railroad from Portland 
to Astoria. 

From Northern Pacific trains, near the junction of the 
Columbia and Willamette rivers, on a clear day one will 
see movmts Rainier, St. Helens, Adams, Hood, and Jef- 
ferson, probably the finest sight of the sort in America. 
Hood is really the most beautiful of these, and from the 
town of Hood River, on the Columbia River, one may 
easily visit the mountain. Mount Hood is 11,225 ^^^t high. 

Portland. — Population 125,000. Most picturesquely situ- 
ated on the banks of the Willamette River, Portland is a 
beautiful and compact city. Portland homes and their sur- 



rounding grounds are comfortable and tasteful, and many 
of them have cost upwards of $50,000. 

The city slopes west from the river to a range of hills 
from whose sides and summits may be had a magnificent 
view of city, valley, river, and mountain range, with five 
eternal snow-peaks standing out in bold relief and varying 


in height from 9,000 to 15,000 feet above the level of the 

Portland has many miles of shade trees along the streets, 
and most of its residents take pride in keeping up beautiful 
grounds and gardens. The city's street car system extends 
to Oregon City, twelve miles up the river; to St. Johns, 
seven miles down the river, and to Vancouver, eight miles 
away, and across the Columbia River. The total street car 
system, both electric and steam, aggregate 112^/4 miles. 




Portland is blessed with excellent transportation facilities, 
being connected with the north, south, and east by daily 
trains over four great railway systems, and having many 
local trains running into the surrounding tributary regions. 
There are daily trains to Astoria, also steamboats, many of 
the latter plying on the river, bringing trade of all kinds to 
the city, and covering 1,500 miles of inland transportation. 

A line of ocean steamers connect Portland with San 
Francisco, and regular steamers ply between Portland and 
Japan, China, and Hawaii. Wheat ships load at Portland 
wharves and carry the grain- of the Pacific Northwest to 
the markets of the world. Portland is not only the princi- 
pal wheat-shipping port of the Pacific Northwest, but one 
of the great shipping ports of the United States. The pros- 
pect of a large trade with the Pacific Islands and Asia 
brightens Portland's outlook. The city will have its share 
of that trade and it will be carried by lines of steamers 
plying direct. A few things remain to be done to bring 
Portland into touch with its field and accommodate its 
growing commerce. One of these is a forty-foot channel 
at the mouth of the Columbia River, and a twenty-foot 
channel between Portland and the sea. The Columbia 
channel has been approved by the chief of engineers, is 
well understood by Congress, and it is a matter of a short 
time when contracts will be awarded and the work begun. 

The lumbering interests of Portland are very important. 
The largest cargo of lumber ever loaded in the world was 
carried from Portland on the steamer Glenlochy, and meas- 
ured 3,077,085 feet. It went to Vladivostock, Siberia. 
There are large areas of mining, lumbering, agricultural, 
wool-producing and stock-raising country tributary to 
Portland, and their trade is steadily increasing. 

The distance from Portland to the sea is no miles. The 
Willamette River flows into the Columbia twelve miles 
below Portland, and the largest ships come to the city's 
wharves. The falls of the Willamette River, at Oregon 
City, twelve miles south of Portland, have an energy of 
145,000 horse power and transmit by wire to Portland elec- 
trical power to run the street cars, light the city, and fur- 
nish force for manufacturing purposes. 

The Great Northwest. 



The Pacific Northwest, or the Northwest of to-day, em- 
braces that portion of the United States, British Columbia 
and Alaska lying west of the barrier of the Rocky Mountains 
and bordering- on the Pacific Ocean north of the 42d parallel 
of latitude, or the dividing line between California and 
Oregon, Nevada and Idaho. It therefore includes the west- 
ern portion of Montana, the states of Idaho, Washington and 
Oregon, the western part of British Columbia, and, we may 
say, commercial Alaska. 

It will be, however, the purpose of this book to treat the 
entire state of IMontana as an integral part, with short mat- 
ter on those states which were once a part of the Northwest 
when emigrants from Ohio and Indiana to Illinois looked 
upon Wisconsin and Minnesota, to say nothing of the Dako- 
tas, as a part of the inaccessible and great unknown. 

There is little use in giving figures to show the extent of 
this vast territory, when the Okanogan plains and upper 
Columbia River and Snake River basins alone, or, more 
properly speaking, that portion of the Northwest Iving in 
the United States between the Cascade and Rocky Mountain 
ranges, equals the area of all the New England States, with 
New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland added. 
The term "Inland Empire," as applied to this region, is not 
a misnomer. 

It is said the Great Northwest, of all the inhabitable re- 
gions of the globe, is the most productive and the least set- 
tled. It is not fitting here to enumerate what, as a whole, 
it possesses, but leave that to be treated with the different 
sections, for it would perhaps be more appropriate to in- 
quire what it does not possess in abundance necessary to the 
founding of a nation of the first class, commercially and 



The country between the Mississippi River and the 
Rocky Mountains, and the country known as the 
Oregon Territory, lying between the Rocky Mountains 
and the sea, designated as a "wikl and magnificent region, 
unvisited before by white men, with its barbarous tribes, 
their character and habits, and abounding in herds 
of buffalo, deer and antelope, outnumbering the human 
tenants of the land," has an interesting marine as well 
as land histor}'. The western shores of North America 
were visited at an early day by Spanish navigators soon 
after the discovery of the new continent had become an estab- 
lished fact. Magellan passed through the straits which bear 
his name; Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Darien in 1513; 
Pizarro concjuered Peru and other parts of South American 
territory, while Cortez took possession of Mexico. From 
the latter country many expeditions, with varying success, 
were fitted out and sent to north Pacific waters for the com- 
bined purpose of tracing the coast line, finding a way to 
India, discovering a navigable passage between the Atlantic 
and Pacific oceans, and last, but not least, of repeating the 
rapacious plunderings of Pizarro and Cortez. 

Ulloa, in 1539, followed the coast of Lower California to 
the 30° of latitude; in 1542 Cabrillo and Ferelo, after dis- 
covering San Diego Bay, advanced as far north as the 44° 
on the Oregon coast. In 1579 Sir Francis Drake 
landed on the shores of California at what is now supposed 
to be San Francisco Bay, but it is still a disputed question 
whether he ever went farther north. In 1592 Juan de Fuca, 
while in the employ of the Spanish Viceroy of Mexico, en- 
tered the strait noAV bearing his name, which leads to the 
Gulf of Georgia and Puget Sound. In 1602 Sebastien Vis- 
caino, after attempting to establish colonies in California, 
sailed as far north as Cape Blanco. In 1616 two Dutch naviga- 
tors sailed around Cape Horn, and early in the following cen- 
tury the Spanish Jesuits located missions in California. Not 
until 1774 was any exploration of the coast of the Northwest 



made, when another Mexican expedition, u^.der Juan Perez, 
sailed north as far as the 54°, near the mouth of the 
Skeena River, and not far below the present boundary of 
Alaska. Again, in 1775, a Mexican expedition under Heceta 
and Quadra proceeded as far north as the Strait of Juan de 
Fuca, named Cape San Roque and charted an opening, 
which afterward proved to be the mouth of the Columbia 
River. Again sailing north a part of the expedition reached 
the 58°, a point north of the present site of Sitka. 

It is supposed that the Chinese and the Japanese, in their 
junks, had discovered the north Pacific coast of America 
long before white men saw it, and there is little doubt that 
the Indians who. inhabit this coast are Mongoloids, having 
emigrated across Bering Strait from Asia. There is much 
evidence in the way of old junk, old coins, racial likeness, 
etc., to warrant the belief that communication had been es- 

In 1778 Capt. James Cook, an English navigator, made 
various landings from the Oregon coast northward, finally 
passing through Bering Strait, where he traced the Arctic 
coast both east and west along the American and Asiatic 
shores. He named Cape Foulweather, also Cape Flattery, at 
the southern point of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. He discov- 
ered and named Prince William Sound and Cook's Inlet and 
visited Unalaska, along the Alaskan coast. His vessels spent 
two years in north Pacific waters, prosecuting the fur trade, 
finally disposing of their cargoes at Canton. The publishing 
of the journals of this expedition in England was the first 
spur to international trading in furs. In consequence many 
companies were formed, eventually causing great rivalry. 

James Hanna came to Nootka, on Vancouver Island, 
from England in 1785, and again in 1786, and established 
trade with the natives. Then came Portlock and Dixon and 
traders from Bombav, Calcutta, and other foreign ports, 
when a general knowledge of the country was obtained. 

The French, in 1790, sent out the Peyronne, which touched 
the coast at manv places between Monterey, Cal., and the 
Alaska coast ofif Mount St. Elias. The Spanish government 
was again stimulated to action, and thus the one great in- 
centive, the barter of junk, knives and gewgaws for furs, 
was fairly launched. 

The first voyages from the United States were those of the 
ship Columbia and sloop Washington, Robert Gray and John 


Kendrick, commanders. They reached Nootka Soimd, on 
Vancouver Island, via Cape Horn, in 1788, and returned via 
Cape Good Hope in 1790. The attempts of Capt. John 
Meares, a Portuguese, to discover the opening of the Co- 
hmibia, as laid down by the Mexican, Heceta, resulted in 
failure on account of stormy weather, and he then renamed 
Cape San Roque Cape Disappointment, and the mouth of 
the now famous river Deception Bay, so it was left finally 
to Captain Gray, of Boston, in the Columbia, the flagship 
of a squadron of seven vessels, to complete the discovery in 
1 79 1 and give the river its name. During the same year 


Capt. Vancouver, an Englishman, took over Nootka Sound, 
on the island bearing his name, to the British government, 
and made important explorations in the Strait of Juan de 
Fuca and the Puget Sound region. He named the large 
island on which Victoria is situated for himself, Mount 
Baker and Puget Sound for his lieutenants, and Mount 
Rainier for his friend, a British admiral ; he also named 
many ports and islands, and, not to forget his sovereign, 
the body of water which receives the Fraser River — the Gulf 
of Georgia. 

The Russians, through '^^itus Bering, a Dane, in 1778 dis- 
covered the strait of that name and touched the shores of 
America, having built a vessel at the mouth of the Kam- 


chatka River, the rigging, cables, etc., having been dragged 
2,000 miles on sleds overland. Later they extended their 
trade to the Aleutian Islands, and in 1803 established a de- 
pot and seat of government at Sitka. Although the Russians 
made one or two voyages further south, their share in the 
work of discovery was confined almost wholly to Alaska. 

In 1766 the adventurous spirit of John Carver, of Con- 
necticut, incited him to visit the Northwest, which he did, 
going by way of Albany, N. Y., and the lakes, and then 
overland gs far west as the Mississippi River. He first 
learned from the Indian tribes that the four great rivers of 
the continent were "the St. Lawrence, the Mississippi, the 
River Bourbon (Red River of the North), and the Oregon, 
or the River of the West (the Columbia)." His plan was 
to follow the same route afterwards traveled by Lewis and 
Clark, namely, the Missouri River to the Rocky Mountains, 
thence crossing over to the Columbia waters and passing 
down to the Pacific Ocean. 

The trade in furs caused the organization of several fur 
companies in Great Britain and America from time to time, 
among them being the Hudson's Bay Company, of which Sir 
Alexander McKenzie was a member. In 1789 McKenzie 
made his way by Slave Lake and the McKenzie River to the 
Arctic Ocean, and in 1792 he ascended the rapid Peace River 
to the Rocky Mountains, crossed over to the Fraser River, 
and could easily have reached the Pacific Ocean, but was dis- 
suaded from doing so by the Indians, who told him that this 
river held its course a long way to the south. This caused 
him to believe that it was the Oregon (Columbia). He then 
ascended the Fraser River, turned west to the Salmon River, 
and reached the Pacific Ocean in British Columbia, near the 
52° of latitude. McKenzie advised his government of his 
belief in this matter, and as this was the first trip overland 
to the Pacific, it became the initial factor in the long and bit- 
ter territorial dispute, resulting in the treaty of 1845, finally 
making the 49th parallel the boundary line, as it, as near as 
possible, splits the waters of these two great rivers. 

Lewis and Clark Expedition. — In 1803 President Jef- 
ferson sent a confidential message to Congress, proposing 
that a partv be despatched to the Northwest to trace the 
Missouri River to its source, cross the Rocky Mountains, 
and proceed to the Pacific Ocean. This was approved and 
$2,500 was appropriated. Capt. Merriweather Lewis was. 


upon his own application, made leader of the expedition, and 
Capt. James Clark was afterwards associated with him. 
During this 3'ear was completed the Louisiana purchase, 
which gave to the United States all the territory in the 
Northwest east of the main divide of the Rocky Mountains. 

This now famous expedition 
left St. Louis in May, 1804, 
and proceeded up the Rlissouri 
River by boats, making easy 
stages, stopping to confer with 
the Indians and make notes of 
the adjacent country. Xovem- 
ber found the party 1,600 miles 
up the river and by the 20th 
of that month they had built 
huts in the timber on the river 
bank, which they called Fort 
Mandan. Their location was 
not far from the present site 
of Mandan, N. D. The winter 
was spent in receiving the 
heads of the different tribes, jefferson, 

entertaining them, holding councils, giving and receiving 
presents, always advising peace between the tribes, which 
was very difficult to maintain. Game being plentiful, some 
hunting was done to maintain the food supply, which, with 
the corn received from the Indians, sufficed to carry them 
through the winter. 

The barge which had previously carried the stores was 
sent down the river, accompanied by several Indians, while 
the party, which now consisted of thirty-two persons, on 
April 7, 1805, forged ahead on the long and unknown journey. 
Chaboneau, one of the interpreters, was accompanied by his 
wife, Sac-a-ja-we-a, with her babe. She was a member of 
the Shoshone band of Snake Indians whose country the ex- 
pedition expected to pass through, and it was thought she 
might be of considerable assistance, as she was eventually. 
She was the only woman of the party and made the entire trip 
to the Pacific Ocean and return, serving alternately as inter- 
preter and helper. On April 26 camp was made at the junction 
of the Yellowstone and Missouri rivers, which is now very 
nearlv on the boundary line between the states of North 
Dakota and Montana. The journal says, according to Indian 


information, the \ellowstone " runs first through a moun- 
tainous country, but which in many parts is fertile and well 
timbered; it then waters a rich and delig;htful land, broken 
into valleys and meadows, and well supplied with wood and 
water, till it reaches near the Missouri." Such is the early 

description of the valley of 
that clear running stream, 
heading in the National 
Park of the same name, 
born of never-f ailing 
snows, tumbling from dizzy 
heights to the wonderful 
canyon below, at last 
emerging from its moun- 
tain barriers and affording 
a transcontinental railroad 
pathway with si'-es for nu- 
merous prosperous cities. 

Speaking of die country 
along the Missouri ni^/er, 
the journal says, "then a 
beautiful low plain com- 
mences and, widening as 
NAPOLEON. the rivers recede extends 

along west between them." 
Other plains are spoken of, with high ground and timber, 
also the advantages of a trading post, which no doubt brought 
about the establishment of Fort Buford, now a thriving city 
on the Great Northern. At this point in the journal it is men- 
tioned that "the game was in such plenty that we killed only 
what was necessary for our subsistence. . . We are sur- 

rounded with deer, elk, buffalo, antelope and their companions, 
the wolves. . . Two savage white bears, the terror of 

the Indians, were killed." Porcupine River, near the present 
station of Kintyre, was named. The game was so plentiful 
and extremely gentle that "the male buffalo will scarcely give 
way to us, and as wc approach will merely look at us for a 
moment as something new and then quietly resume their feed- 
ing." And to think that less than a century leaves but a few 
of these noble animals, in pens and exhibition places, to be 
looked upon as a relic of the past — a shameless destruction of 
one of the wisest provisions of nature ! 


On May 5 the expedition reached the mouth of Milk River 
(now a railway station of the same name) along the valley 
of which the railroad continues its way towards the west. The 
journal gives a good idea of the river, which rises in the Rocky 
Mountains in Northwestern Mon- 
tana, runs into the Northwest Ter- 
ritories, later returns to the land of 
its birth and for 200 miles creates 
the great stock regions along the 
international line. Still following 
the Missouri, which now comes 
from the southwest, the 
journal says "the country 
like that of yesterday is 
beautiful in the extreme." 
Again, "the country con- 
tinues level, rich and beau- 
tiful," again the elk and 
deer become "so gentle that 
the men are obliged to drive 
them out of the way with 
sticks and stones." 

On May 20 they reached 
the mouth of the Musselshell River. In speaking of the 
country again the journal says, "a waving valley, extending 
for a great distance to the northward with a fertile soil which, 
though without wood, produces a fine turf of low grass." 
Here the Missouri conies from the west, which course the 
party mainly took for the next 200 miles, skirting the north 
side of Fergus County, Mont. 

On May 26 Captain Lewis ascended some hills and for the 
first time obtained a view of the Rocky Mountains, "The ob- 
ject of all our hopes and reward of all our ambition." He 
probably saw what are now known as the Big Snowy Range 
and the Belt Mountains, south and east of Lewiston. At 
the mouth of the Marias, near Fort Benton, so long the 
head of navigation of the Missouri in early days, some time 
was consumed in determining the true Missouri. With much 
doubt, after cacheing a boat and a part of the stores, they 
proceeded. In referring to the Falls of the Missouri', now 
the site of a city, with a great smelter and other manu- 
factories, known as Great Falls, Captain Lewis says that on 





the 13th they came to a beautiful plain where the buffalo 
were in greater numbers than they had ever seen before, 
and finding that the river bore considerably to the south and 
fearful of passing the falls, being on foot, he changed his 

course to the south. Spray in the 
air, and the increasing noise di- 
rected him, and after traveling 
seven miles the scene burst upon 
his vision. Down the hills he hur- 
ried with impatience and seating 
himself on some rocks under the 
center of the falls, enjoyed the 
spectacle "which since the Creation 
had been lavishing its 

magnificence upon the 
desert unknown to civili- 
zation." Until July 15, 
a period of thirty-two 
days, they occupied them- 
selves in exploring, cache- 
ing stores for future 
needs, portaging the falls, 
and building newer and 
cAi'T, JAMES CLARK. llghtcr boats for more 

rapid travel. 
From here on the river was tortuous, the canyon walls so 
abrupt at times as to afford no trail on the banks. At the 
three forks of the river, in what is now Gallatin County, it 
was decided to take the southeasterly fork, which thev named 
Jeft'erson River, after President Jefferson, the projector of 
the enterprise. On this river the Indian woman, Sac-a-ja- 
we-a, said she had been captured from her people, the Snake 
Indians, when a child. After much exploring, several acci- 
dents and considerable fatigue, the party reached the source 
of this river, the journal referring to it as "the remotest wa- 
ter of the Missouri," "which had never before been seen by 
civilized man . and as we sat clown by the brink of 

that little rivulet which yielded its distant and modest tribute 
to the parent ocean, we felt ourselves rewarded for all our 
labors and all our difficulties." 

They stood at the top of the great divide of the Rocky 
Mountains, now in Beaver Head County, Mont., knowing 
nothing of the great geyser basin of the Yellowstone Park, in 





She saw Lewis and Clark in 1805. Died in 1902, aged 112 years. 
Lee Moorhouse, Am. Photo. Pendleton, Ore. 



Wyoming', which was feeding the middle fork, named by 
them Madison River. They "followed a descent much steeper 
than that on the eastern side, and at the distance of three 
quarters of a mile reached a handsoine, bold creek of cold, 
clear water, running to the westward, and stopped to taste, 
for the first time, tlie waters of the Columbia." They were 
in what is now Lemhi County, Idaho, and were descending 
to the Lemhi River, a branch of the Salmon, which is a branch 
of the Snake, that river being a direct and important member 
of the Columbia. At a camp of the Shoshone Indians Cap- 
tain Lewis, who had preceded the main party, was given a 
piece of roasted salmon, which satisfied him that he was then 
on Pacific waters. He returned with the Indians and horses 
to assist in taking the luggage across the divide. ' Sac-a-je- 
we-a at once recognized the chief as her brother, and "met 
him with demonstrations of great joy." 

Finding it impracticable 
to descend the Salmon 
River by boats, and 
impossible to cross 
the country by land 
owing to deep riv- 
ers canyons and 
Uiciuntauis, t h e 
part\ rccrossed 

the R o c k }• 
Mountai n s to 
the coast and 
northeast into the 
southern end of 
the Bitter Root 
Valley, passed 





down the valley to "Travelers' Rest" at the mouth of Lolo 
Creek, then up that creek to the summit and over the Bitter 
Root Mountains again to the head of the Koos-koos-kee, or 
Clearwater River in Idaho, and thence down to the Snake 
River, where the Nez Perces Indians gave them the first 
description of the Falls of the Columbia. The journal reads, 
September 22 : "As we approached the village most of the 
women fled with their children to the neighboring woods. 
. . The plains were now covered with Indians, who had 


From an old print. 

come to see the whites and the strange things they had 
brought with them. Chief Twisted Hair drew a chart 

of the river on a white elk skin, according to which the Koos- 
koos-kee (Clearwater) forks was a few miles from this place; 
two days' journey to the south was another and larger fork. 
. . Five days' journey lower down was a large river from 
the northwest, and from the mouth of this river (the con- 
fluence of the Snake and the Columbia), to the falls was a 
five days' journey." At last the problem, after many diffi- 
culties and privations, had been solved by the friendly Nez 
Perces, or "pierced nose" tribe, in the valley of the Clear- 
water River. This tribe in later years made a gallant fight 
against the advancement of the white people whom Lewis 


and Clark represented, under the greatest of all Indian gen- 
erals, Chief Joseph. 

The horses procured of the Shoshones were left for use 
on the return tri]), canoes were made from the pine timber 
in the valley, and on October 7 the journey was resumed 
b}' water, passing the present sites of the prosperous towns 
of Lewiston, in Idaho, and Clarkston, in Washington, where 
the Clearwater and the Snake rivers join, the latter now 
being spanned by a modern steel bridge. The trip to tide- 
water was made, accompanied by hordes of Indians, all curi- 
ous to see the white men. Fort Clatsop, near the present 
site of Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia River, was 
built, and the winter spent by the party on rather short ra- 

Certificates of kindness, etc. were distributed to the Indian 
chiefs, and the following notice was .posted in the fort and 
given to the natives : 

"The object of this is, that through the medium of some civilized 
person who may see the same, it may be made known to the world 
that the party, consisting of the persons whose names are hereunto 
annexed, and who were sent out by the government of the United 
States to explore the interior of the continent of North America, 
did cross the same by way of the Missouri and Columbia rivers, to 
the discharge of the latter into the Pacific Ocean, where they arrived 
on the 14th day of No\ember, 1805, and departed the 23rd day of 
March, 1S06, on their return to the United States by the same route 
by which they came out." 

This was a strong factor in our claim made at the set- 
tlement of the boundary dispute between England and the 
United States, later inaking it possible for this vast north- 
west country which we are now treating, to be exploited and 
settled b}' the American people. 

Working their way gradually up the Columbia, giving med- 
ical aid and council to the Walla Walla Indians and neigh- 
boring tribes, they again procured horses and, passing up 
the Clearwater, reached the western base of the Bitter Root 
Mountains. Here the party divided. The journal says: "We 
now formed the following plan of operations : Captain 
Lewis, with nine men, was to pursue the most direct route to 
the Falls of the Missouri, where three of his party were to 
be left, to prepare carriage for transporting the baggage 
and canoes across the portage. With the retnaining six he 
was to ascend Maria's (now IMarias) River, explore the coun- 
trv and ascertain whether any branch of this river reached 




as far north as latitude 50", after which he would descend 
that river to its mouth. The rest of the party were to ac- 
company Captain Clark to the head of the Jefferson River, 
which Sergeant Ordway and nine men would descend with 
canoes and other articles deposited there. Captain Clark's 
party, which would then be reduced to ten, would proceed to 
the Yellowstone at its nearest approach to the Three Forks 
oi the Missouri, where Clark would build canoes, descend 
that river with seven of his party and wait at its mouth till 
the rest should join him. Sergeant Pryor, with the two oth- 
ers, would take the horses by land and go to the British posts 
on the Assinniboine with a letter to Mr. Henry to induce him 
to endeavor to prevail on some of the Sioux chiefs to accom- 
pany him to Washington." 

Being now near the junction of the upper forks of the 
middle forks of the Clearwater, in Idaho, the party separated, 
and Captain Clark and party passed, as tlie Indians termed 
it "up the river of the road to the buffaloes." It was a well- 
beaten trail and used by the western Indians as a thorough- 
fare between the Columbia plains, where salmon was the 
main diet, and the Missouri plains, where the buffaloes were 
innumerable and formed the chief sustenance. Pilgrimages 
were made to the east by the Indians, but it seems few were 
made to the west. 

The plans were carried out, the Lewis party explored the 
Blackfeet country, participating in a skirmish with that tribe, 
one Indian being killed, joined the canoes at the mouth of 
the Marias River, and passed down the Missouri. Captain 
Clark proceeded to the Three Forks of the Missouri, thence 
up the Gallatin and over to the Yellowstone, the route now 
traversed by the Northern Pacific Railroad, probably reach- 
ing that river at Livingston, Park Count_y. 

Here boats were built and "through a beautiful landscape, 
where buffaloes kept up a continued bellowing. . where 

large herds of elk were lying on every point so gentle that they 
might be approached within twenty paces," they floated down 
this charming river to its mouth, the only alarm being lest 
the buffalo "hovering about at night should tread on the 
boats and split them to pieces." This was in the month of 
July. What a scene to contemplate ! Is it any wonder that 
Cooper and his contemporaries wrote such fascinating tales 
of the prairie? Is it any wonder that the youth of the land 
was fired with a desire for adventure? To-dav, instead of 



buffalo, elk and big horn sheep, Montana's plains are covered 
with myriads of domestic cattle and sheep, and the city of 
Billings, situated on the banks of the Yellowstone, in 1902 
became the largest wool market in the United States, while 
Great Falls and Fort Benton were a close second. The great 
cattle companies "roundup" and ship to market thousands of 
head of cattle, fed on the self-same "buffalo grass" that nour- 
ished the original occupants. 

In boats, made of buffalo hides, the men who had been with 
the horses floated down the river, and all sections joined at 
the Missouri. At the Mandan settlement Chaboneau, the 


French Canadian, and his wife Sac-a-ja-we-a and child, left 
the party, though offered the opportunity of going to the 
States. The journal says : "The man had been very ser- 
viceable to us, and his wife was particularly useful among 
the Shoshones ; indeed she had borne with a patience truly 
admirable the fatigue of so long a route, encumbered with 
the charge of an infant." The question of erecting a mon- 
ument to her memory at the Three Forks of the Missouri, in 
Montana, has been seriously agitated. Taking a Ricara chief 
and his family with them, they descended the river as rap- 
idly as the conditions would permit, reaching the Mississippi 
and St. Louis on September 23, 1806, after two and a half 

* From " Travels to the Interior of Xortli America in 1832-3-4." By Max Wied, 


years' absence, in good health, with the loss of but one man, 
and a single skirmish with the Blackfeet Indians. The length 
of the route, gomg out by way of the Missouri to its head- 
waters, was 3,096 miles, and from the divide to the Colum- 
bia and down to the Pacific Ocean, 1,038 miles; on the return 
3,545 miles were traveled, via Lolo Pass, making a total trip 
of 7,679 miles, through an unexplored country. Thus in 1806 
President Jefferson's far-seeing eve had accomplished more 
than an invading army could have done, in practical results, 
in the great struggle for the fur trade and territory in the 
Great Northwest, and it is a source of pride that the empire 
which has developed is, in the spirit of his declaration of pur- 
pose, "a commercial empire beyond the Rocky Mountains, 
peopled by free and independent Americans, linked with us 
hy ties of blood and interest, and enjoying, like us, the rights 
of self government." 

To show the English point of view, a quotation is made 
from the British Columbia Year Book : 

"President Jefferson, with a prescience beyond the public men of 
his day, saw in the great country west of the Mississippi, the des- 
tiny of which was inore or less associated with the indefinite Hmits 
of the Louisiana Territory, great possibilities, and he took a step 
which he hoped would further the chances of the Republic. Jeffer- 
son took a step which, though creditable to his enterprise, could not 
be said to reflect credit on his methods." 

The last sentence refers to giving out the object of the 
expedition as one in the interest of science and obtaining pass- 
ports from the English government. 

An ample field was now open for new enterprises, and 
various fur trading coinpanies were formed. Mr. John Jacob 
Astor, of New York, had become wealthy in the eastern fur 
trade, and in 1809 organized the American Eur Company, 
the Northwestern Company, and the Southwestern Company. 
The Missouri Eur Company was founded at St. Louis, and 
established posts on the upper Missouri and west of the Rocky 
Mountains on the Lewis River. The Indians at the mouth 
of the Coluinbia River, Lewis and Clark found, knew only a 
Mr. Haley as a trader, and the bay at Astoria was called 
Haley's Bay. 

In 1810 Mr. Astor organized the Pacific Eur Company, to 
deal in furs and to establish posts on the Columbia River 
and its branches, the head waters of the Missouri, and a 
strong supply depot and fort was erected at the mouth of the 



Columbia. The first ship, the Tonquin, landed the partners 
(mostly Canadians) and men, April 12, 1811, at the mouth 
of the Columbia, and they founded Astoria. This ship, while 
on a trading expedition at Vancouver's Island, was later 
blown up. The Northwest Fur Company, from Montreal, 
then attempted to take possession of the country, but found 
they were too late. The war of 1812 demoralized every- 
thing, and the Astor forces gave up the posts on the Okan- 
ogan and Spokane and repaired to Astoria, The Astor goods 
were sold out to the Northwest Company at a sacrifice, a 
British sloop of war came to anchor in the harbor and took 


possession of the Astor fort and the country, hoisted the Brit- 
ish colors and changed the name to Fort George. Peace was 
declared in 181 5, but Astoria was not restored to the United 
States rmtil 1818. The government failing to sanction Mr. 
Astor's project, trade declined until after the settlement of 
the boundary question in 1846; then there was neither post 
nor trading post under the control of the United States 
throughout the Columbia region. The Fludson's Bay 
Company reigned supreme from the ocean to the Rocky 
Mountains. Nathaniel Wyeth headed two expeditions to the 
Pacific Coast and established posts in the Oregon territory, 
but failed to hold the positions against this powerful com- 


pany. Astoria stands to-day, however, the oldest American 
city on the Pacific Coast. 

In 1818, to settle the boundary line, it was proposed at the 
treaty of Ghent, that a line be drawn from the Lake of the 
Woods to the 49th parallel of latitude, and from the inter- 
section westward to the Pacific. It was, however, agreed 
upon in this treaty only to the Rocky Mountains. The ne- 
gotiations were resumed in 1824, the 49th parallel being 
again proposed by the United States, but the English wanted 
the line to run down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean, 
which was not accepted. In 1826 it again became a subject 
of discussion, also again in 1827, when it was agreed that 
the territory should be jointly occupied. The old slogan of 
"54° 40' or fight" kept the fires alive until the matter was 
settled permanently in 1846. To-day iron posts and a felled 
strip of timber mark the international boundary from Blaine 
eastward. The Astor post, the discovery of the Columbia by 
Captain Gray, the Lewis and Clark expedition, aided by the 
missionary Whitman at Walla Walla, made the basis of our 
claim, but the Lewis and Clark expedition was the ruling evi- 

The earliest emigration from the United States for the 
purpose of settlement in what was known as the Oregon Ter- 
ritory, that which was drained by the Oregon or Columbia 
River, was made in 1832 in western Oregon. 

The history of the Hudson's Bay Company is a very import- 
ant chapter in the history of the entire Northwest. The dip- 
lomatic history between Russia and England, while settling 
the Alaskan boundary, at that time between England and 
the United States with reference to the boundarv between 
Canada and the United States, and the founding of the Louis- 
iana territory and its sale to the L^nited States are interest- 
ing and important. 

There were three factors in the Northwest coast history. 
First, the Spanish desire for conquest and plunder, which 
later events showed availed but little : second, the search 
for the Northwest Passage, or the fabled straits of Anian ; 
third, the fur trading period, inaugurated by the Russians, 
bv sea, and in the interior by the French trappers as early as 
1842, all culminating in the settlement of this vast territory 
and the building of trans-continental railways. 

Topography and Climate. — The prominent physical fea- 
ture of the central part of the United States is the great 



^..u^n. iM..!,!-., i,wi->-'i^iBrA RIVER. 

Cup\-nght, by Benj. A. Gifford, 'ihe Dalles, Ore. 


basin between the Appalachian Alountains of the Atlantic sec- 
tion and the Rocky Mountains of the Pacific section, of which 
the Mississippi \'alley is the extreme depression, or trough. 
The region between the Mississippi River and the Rocky 
Mountains is known to geographers as the Great Plains, being 
almost an entire prairie country and comparatively level. The 
rise is very gradual over a direct line of more than a thou- 
sand miles to the westward, and there are many places in 
Minnesota and North and South Dakota where a furrow may 
be turned for distances of from ten to twenty miles without 
a break. 

A broad upland in North Dakota, which extends into Can- 
ada, is known as the Coteau of the Missouri. From this 
point westward, through Montana to the Rocky IMountains, 
the plains are comparatively level, interrupted only by oc- 
casional non-continuous ranges of mountains, such as the 
Little Rocky and the Bear's Paw mountains, in the northern 
part of that state ; and the Highwood Belt, Snowy and Crazy 
moimtains, in the central part, lying between the Missouri 
and Yellowstone rivers. These mountains are covered with 
timber in contrast to the surrounding prairie countr\-. 

The country between Chicago, 111., and Helena, Mont., 
should be divided agriculturally into three sections : first, the 
land of extensive cornfields, this being the country adjacent to 
the Mississippi River, with a very slight altitude above the level 
of the sea; next the wheat fields of Minnesota and the Da- 
kotas, at an average elevation of from 1,000 to 1,500 feet, 
with shorter summer seasons and bracing winters, and lastlv, 
the extensive stock ranges of Montana, with a winter cli- 
mate, including a colder and drjer atmosphere. These plains 
are abruptly terminated on the west by the eastern, or Main 
Divide of the Rocky Mountains, which rises from a base of 
4,000 feet elevation to peaks of 10,00 to 14,000 feet in dif- 
ferent parts of the range. Other ranges follow farther west, 
each having a local name, such as the Bitter Root and Coeur 
d'AIene mountains, which forni a very pronounced boundary 
between the states of Idaho and Montana. Between these 
ranges and the Main Divide lies a long, fertile, temperate 
and romantic valley, and many smaller valleys lie between the 
various spurs of the ranges, afifording homes to many people. 

The Rocky Mountains are the great western barriers to 
the central North American weather currents, therefore the 
climatic eft'ects east of these mountains are based upon en- 




tirely different causes from those on the western side. All 
eastern Montana lies upon the Missouri Plateau, which is a 
part of the same plains that are drained by the Saskatchewan 
River of Canada, so that the currents of air coming down 
from the north are carried over it and all the region between 
it and the great lakes, where they are tempered by southern 
influences. Medicine Hat, in Canada, usually records and no- 
tifies us first of the coming cold wave. Then follows Fort 
Assinniboine, at the foot of Bear's Paw Mountain, which 
bears the name of being the coldest place in the United States. 
Extremely cold weather is of short duration, but the general 
temperature in winter is very much lower than that of the 
territory lying west of the Rocky Mountains, or even of the 
valleys between the Bitter Root Mountains and the Main 
Divide. At times the mercury chills in the thermometer on 
the high plains, and frequently drops to 20° below zero, but 
the redeeming feature is that the air is so dry that zero 
weather in Montana seems like thirty-two degrees above to 
one accustomed to a humid atmosphere. 

The great range of mountains, which, under a multiplicity 
of names, stretches from Patagonia to Alaska and is really 
the backbone of the continent, is full of interest in all its 
ramifications. In Colorado the ranges cover the larger por- 
tion of the state ; in northwestern Wyoming they spread out 
again, forming a high basin known as the Yellowstone Park, 
and there change their trend from nearly north and south 
to a northwesterly direction. The Park is about sixty miles 
square — a great basin having an elevation of from 6,000 to 
12,000 feet, and is surrounded by lofty, snow-clad peaks. It 
is a vast volcanic region, replete with natural wonders in 
the way of numerous geysers, boiling springs, lakes and can- 
yons, which are the very sources of the great water arteries 
of the country ; the Colorado River flows south through its 
gorge of wondrous depth and color, to the Gulf of Califor- 
nia ; tlie Snake River wends its tortuous way to the Colum- 
bia between basaltic clififs, and then in scenic splendor pushes 
on to the sea ; and last, but not least, the Missouri, the long- 
est river of the world, the pathway of Lewis and Clark, with 
the Father of Waters, flowing amid corn and cotton and pop- 
ulous cities, marks the Louisiana Purchase territorv to the 
Gulf of Mexico. The National Park treats the sight-seer to 
the mighty falls and canyon of the Yellowstone ; the Mis- 
souri at Great Falls — a great volume of water harnessed to 



industry ; and the Snake River, in southern Idaho, a tor- 
rent of water fahing from a greater height and more ro- 
mantic than Niagara. Principally at Butte and at Helena, 
Mont., and along the Coeur d'Alenes, the mountains are giv- 
ing forth untold mineral wealth. Nestled between their 
mighty crests are peaceful and fertile valleys, the idyllic spots 
of earth ; the scenic beauty of the Kootenai and Pend 
d'Oreille, the upper sources of the Columbia; the wild 


grandeur of Avalanche Basin and the Lake McDonald coun- 
try, and the glaciers of the mountains north of the interna- 
tional line, bring within reach of the American traveler the 
marvelous scenery of earth. 

As the Main Divide of the Rocky Mountains is the western 
barrier of the climatic conditions to the east, so the Bitter 
Root and Coeur d'Alene mountains — the western range of 
the Rockies — are the eastern barrier of the Columbia Plateau 
and the entire Northwest coast region. 


The Columbia Plateau may be described as the territory 
lying between the Rockv and Cascade mountains, bounded 
on the north by the international boundar}- and on the south 
by the California and ^\e^■ada state lines. This covers the en- 
tire state of Idaho and the eastern parts of Washington and 
Oregon, an area of more than 175,000 square miles, and is 
drained b}- the Columbia and Snake rivers, with their tribu- 
taries. Although this is the basin of these two great rivers 
of importance, their immediate valleys are in deep canyons, 
the plains lying at quite an elevation above. The entire re- 
gion is volcanic, having at various periods been built up by 
lava flows, now existing in the form of basalt, the depth be- 
ing from 3,000 to 4,000 feet. The cliffs of this formation 
along the rivers are very noticeable and picturesque. The sur- 
face of the main plains is devoted to wheat raising, and the 
immediate river valle3-s to horticulture, one being entirely dis- 
tinct from the other. 

These elevated plains are much higher than the valley west 
of the Cascades, but much lower than the Rockies or the Cas- 
cades, so that the general country, exclusive of the interior 
mountains, appears as one great basin. The basin, or plateau, 
has, however, distinctive features. The Okanogan hills, or 
mountains of the Colville reservation, culminate in Mount 
Bonaparte, a snow-capped peak of 6,000 feet elevation, a sen- 
tinel for all that region. These mountains are a part of the 
divide between the Fraser River waters and British Columbia, 
and the Columbia waters in the United States. To the south 
m central Oregon are the Blue Mountains, running in a 
northeasterly and soutliwesterly direction, extending into 
southeastern Washington. A spur of the same mountains 
branches off at about the center of the range and runs in a 
general southerly direction as far as Harney and Malheur 
counties in southern Oregon. These mountains are very high, 
some peaks reaching from 7,000 to 10,000 feet, but, being in 
the dry region, are snow-capped but a very 'small fraction of 
the year. They have aided materially in shaping the courses 
of the rivers, having turned the Columbia to the westward, 
sent the Snake and its branch, the Owyhee, in Idaho, on a 
more northerly and roundabout direction, forced the John 
Day to round their southern and eastern borders, and parallel 
the Des Chutes to obtain an outlet. These are the second 
sentinels of the basin country. The third are the mountains 
of central Idaho, which include the Saw Tooth, Wood River, 





Salmon River and Smoky mountains ; lastly Thunder Moun- 
tain, situated in the very central part of the state of Idaho, 
the most inaccessible and at the same time the most celebrated, 
it being the center of a great mining excitement. 

The Columbian Basin is known generally as an arid re- 
gion, for the reason that the clouds, laden with moisture from 
the Pacific, are held by the Cascade Mountains and forced to 
give down their moisture on tlie western side, only a part 
rising high enough to escape the peaks in their eastward prog- 
ress. Therefore elevation throughout this region largely 
gauges the rainfall ; the exception to the rule is that moist 
winds and clouds sweep through the passes of the Cascades, 
such as the gorge of the Columljia, and cause a greater yearly 
precipitation than at other points. The Hood River country 
in Oregon and the Ivlickitat country in Washington, along 
the Columbia, are fortunately situated in this respect. In the 
Okanogan Mountains and on all the uplands near these and 
other mountains the rainfall is greater than in the depressions 
of the plateau. The arid regions pertain to the lower part of 
the basin, as an elevation of 3,000 feet arrests a large por- 
tion of the passing clouds which, with the snowfall, affords 
ample moisture for the growth of wheat. The soil is a vol- 
canic ash, in some places being of great depth. It is capable 
of absorbing and holding moisture to a high degree, so much 
so that crops are raised often without a drop of rain from 
seed time to harvest, the snow fall of the previous winter 
being sufficient. This soil, when unmixed with sand, does 
not irrigate successfully. On the contrary, the river val- 
levs, which are arid and have a soil composed of sand and 
volcanic ash, are susceptible to irrigation and highly adapted 
to horticulture. In consequence, canals are built, taking the 
water from the streams, and cheap lands are transformed 
into wonderful fruit lands at materially higher prices. Na- 
ture seems to have been very wise in her provisions. In the 
Palouse country the richest wheat lands are so steep that they 
are cultivated with difficulty, and the best results are said to 
be had at the very top of the eminences. The volcanic soils 
are very deep, improve with use, and seem to be almost in- 
exhaustible. The Snake River plain is so very extensive 
that it gets no summer rain, but receives quite a winter snow 
fall when the neighboring mountains are being covered many 
feet in depth. 

These great plains are celebrated for their wheat crops, 





and from the three ports of Portland, Tacoma and Seattle 
there is being exported ever}' year from one-tenth to one- 
eighth of the gross exportations of wheat from the United 
States. The valleys are becoming celebrated the world over 
for fruit ; Hood River, Oregon, for its strawberries and ap- 
ples ; the Snake River \'alley for apples and prunes ; the 
Yakima River Valley for apples ; and Wenatchee for apples 
and garden stuff. Ail these localities raise peaches as well as 
apples. The preparations for irrigation along the Des Chutes 
River, in eastern Oregon, and in southern Idaho along the 
Snake River \'alley are wonderful to contemplate. 

The extent of really arid land east of the Cascades is now 
so much a matter of uncertainty as to lead to many contro- 
versies between those who would furnish irrigation systems 
for profit, and the people who are ready to take the lands for 
cultivation without canals, for vast regions have been re- 
claimed, as the Creat Bend of the Columbia region in east- 
ern Washington was, without water. People are remember- 
ing how settlement and cultivation in Kansas and Nebraslva 
conquered the "Great American Desert." Time is doing 
the same work in tlie supposed arid region east of the Cas- 
cades, pulverizing the volcanic matter, loosening it, and aiding 
it to absorb moisture. Throughout the actual irrigation re- 
gions steps are in progress for extensive work, both under 
government control and private management. These are bv 
natural reservoirs, by artificial reservoirs, and bv ditches to 
direct water from the streams. These canals, or ditches, are 
often man}- miles in length, with tunnels and flumes, costing 
large sums of money. The plan of private operation is either 
to mortgage the lands to pay for the improvement, or to. 
give a part of the land — one-half of raw land, one-third of 
improved land — and a rental of $1.25 per acre annually as 
the water is delivered. Original cost, maintenance of co-op- 
erative ditches, and those under the Care}- act, will be given 
with their localities. 

The climate of the Columbia Basin is materially milder 
than the Montana plains east of the Rockv Mountains, and 
considerably colder than the country west of the Cascade 
^Mountains, bordering on the ocean. The temperature varies 
considerably with the altitude, but there are no extremes of 
heat or cold. There is little cold weather during the winter, 
which is very short, and though snow falls over the whole 
territory it is melted by the prevailing southwest winds, which 



moderate the climate fully 25". These winds come from the 
warm current off the coast and are commonly known as the 
"Chinook winds." 


We now come to the Cascade Rang-e of mountains, a 
continuation of the Sierra Nevadas of California, which have 
the most marked eiTect upon the climatic conditions of the 
Pacific Coast and especially the Pacific Northwest of any of 
the mountain ranges. It is a compact range, varying in the 


average height of from 4,000 to 8,000 feet, running parallel 
to the coast line about 100 miles, and dividing two very dis- 
similar regions. Many of its inland peaks rise above the 
snow line and in their robes of white are of great interest 
to the traveling public. Beginning on the north, near the 
boundary line, the first peak of note is Mount Baker, 11,100 
feet in height ; south and east of Puget Sound, standing out 
from the main range almost solitary, probably the most sym- 
metrical mountain on the Pacific Coast, is Mount Rainier, 
or Tacoma, height 14,526 feet ; two volcanic peaks come next 
— Mount Adams, 12,225, ^nd St. Helens, 10,000 feet; south 
of the Columbia stands Mount Hood in all its grandeur, an- 
other volcanic cone, 11,225 ^eet in height; still farther south 
are Mount Jefferson, height 10,200 feet, and many peaks 
ranging from 6,000 to 9,000 feet. This range is the western 
barrier of the Columbia Basin and the eastern boundary of the 
Pacific Coast region proper. West of the Cascade Moun- 
tains, and like them, running directly parallel to the sea shore, 
is the Coast Range, a broken and disconnected range of 
mountains, at an average height of perhaps 3.500 feet, ris- 
ing in its highest peak, Mount Olympus, to 8,000 feet. In 
the Olympic Mountains they stand out in high and majestic 
beauty, while farther south they are broken but rise again in 
southern Oregon to meet the Siskiyous. 

There is but little level country between this range and 
the sea, but the country between the two ranges is mostly 
a valley, extending from and including that multiplication 
of inland bays and harbors known as Puget Sound southward 
through Washington to the Columbia and through the entire 
length of the Willamette River to the Calapooia Mountains. 
This range is a spur of the Cascades, which runs east and 
west and divides the Willamette Valley from the Umpqua 
Valley, and again farther south, another east and west range 
divides the Umpqua Valley from the Rogue River Valley. 
In the great process of erosion the Columbia and Fraser riv- 
ers broke through the Cascade Range on their way to the 
sea. These gorges contain considerable wild and grand scen- 
ery, a never ending delight to the passengers by the rail- 
roads using these passes as highways. The Columbia River 
is nine miles wide twelve miles above its mouth, and seven- 
teen miles wide some distance farther up. During its whole 
course it is a deep flowing lake or swift flowing river. It 
drains 500,000 square miles of territory, while the entire por- 



tion of the United States, east of the Mississippi, is but 875,- 
000 square miles. 

The entire territory west of the Cascades is of very mod- 
erate temperature with a humid atmosphere, the rainfall 
reaching over 100 inches near the coast in Oregon and Wash- 
ington annually. The mildness of the climate is supposed 
to be due to the Japan ocean current, which is very warm 
and flows in close proximity to the coast. In low altitudes 
snow is extremely rare and there are no extremes of heat and 
cold. The mercury seldom reaches 90° in summer, and the 


isothermal of 45° — 55° annual temperature — runs in serpen- 
tine lines over the entire region. Farmers plow during all 
months of the year. The cause of the. great precipitation is 
attributed to the moisture-laden clouds rising from the warm 
ocean current and being driven by the winds against the 
mountains, and there squeezed out "like sponges. The rain 
is not continuous throughout the year, for there is what is 
known as a wet season and a dry season, which correspond 
to the winter and summer season, the former beginning about 
November 15 and ending about March 15. During the 
wet season the rain falls about three fourths of the time. There 


is a complete absence of violent electrical storms on the entire 
Pacific Coast, thunder and lightning being exceedingly rare, 
and there is also a remarkable freedom from flies. Though 
warm weather is had during the day in any time of the year, it 
does not signify that the evenings will be warm, for there 
is no time when blankets are not needed at night. 

TiiiEER. — The extreme humidity of the territory west of 
the Cascade Mountains necessarily produces the most favor- 
able conditions for a rank growth of vegetation. The whole 
vi'estern slopes and valleys are or have been covered with a 
dense growth of evergreen timber, the most wonderful body 
in the world with the exception of the redwoods of Cah- 
fornia. Near the higher elevations of the Cascades, where 
the rainfall is the greatest, the timber grows to extreme 
heights without a limb. Forests are scattered in tracts along 
the higher land, east of the Cascades from California north- 
ward. Eastern Oregon affords several especially fine bodies 
near the head waters of the Des Chutes, and Washington, 
near the Columbia, and in the Okanogan Mountains ; in 
Idaho are scattered tracts throughout its mountain region, 
with a very large body in the Panhandle and the Kootenai, ex- 
tending into Montana. The heaviest timber is to be found 
near the coast. The area in timber is estimated at over one 
billion acres, and the merchantable lumber standing on it is 
believed to approximate four hundred billion feet. The tim- 
ber is mostly of the deciduous varieties and includes the Doug- 
las, or Oregon fir, red and white cedar, and several species 
of pine, hemlock, and other woods. There are some hard 
woods, but they are of small growth. They are found mostly 
in the southern part. Considering the length of time the for- 
ests should last in commerce and manufacture, it may be stated 
that the largest amount of lumber cut to this time has been 
two billion feet, the combined product of Washington, Ore- 
gon and British mills for the year 1902. It would therefore 
appear that at this enormous rate there is enough to last 
for 200 years. Great loss has occurred from forest fires, but 
the government has lately inaugurated large forest reserves 
and it is expected this loss will be prevented in a large de- 
gree by the patrol system thus established. Of any timber 
manufactured into lumber, probably the spruce and fir of this 
region are the largest in the world, excepting only the Cali- 
fornia redwoods. The dimensions of this timber quite sur- 
pass belief, there being fir logs fourteen feet, and spruce logs 





sixteen to twenty-five feet in diameter, witli trees standing from 
150 to 200 feet high, witli a record of 351 feet. In the order 
of tlie value of production, lumber is the largest industry, 
wheat a close second, the mines continguous to the agricultural 
country third, and fisheries fourth. 

Agricultural Products. — In 1900 the export of wheat 
from the Pacific Northwest was 36,000,000 bushels ; in 1901 
one county in Washington (Whitman) with a population of 
30,000, raised 6,000,000 bushels of wheat, and one county in 
Oregon (Umatilla) with a population of 18,000, raised 4,- 
500,000 bushels ; this, with the live stock, wool, etc. sold, 
brought a total of $195 for every man, woman and child 
in the county. The same year, exclusive of British Columbia, 
the Pacific Northwest raised 7,000,000 bushels of potatoes, or 
one-twentieth of the average crop of the United States. The 
stock, dairy and wool interests, with cereal and other crops 
raised are treated in connection with the different localities. 
The wheat empire, generally speaking, is co-extensive with 
the basaltic soils, and contrasts with the Crimean plains of 
Russia. With millions to be fed in China and other lands 
near to this 'Tnland Empire,"' and with cheap transporta- 
tion, it is easy to see why the wheat raiser as well as the 
stock-grower is getting rich. In the days of the small farmer 
in the east the cost of raising wheat was fifty cents per bushel, 
not far from the price it lorought on the market. To-day, 
in Washington, with the extensive system of farming, with 
broad fields and combined harvesters and threshers — thus 
saving the stacking and sweating process — sacking in the 
fields and hauling on the good, dry roads, the cost is reduced 
to from twenty-five to twenty-eight cents, while the price ob- 
tained for the crops stands about fifty cents per bushel, which 
gives a profit of about 100 per cent. 

Mines. — The mines of the Pacific Northwest are producing 
millions annually. It should not be forgotten that the North- 
west has produced the greater part of the gold in the United 
States treasury, which at the beginning of 1903 amounted 
to nearly $600,000,000. The placers of Alaska, furnished 
$25,000,000 in gold during 1902. Included in this is the prod- 
uct of the Klondike, the greater part of which came to the 
United States. The production of gold and silver in the dif- 
ferent states for 1902, as estimated by director of the mint 
at Washington, is as follows : 



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Source Gold, commer- 

of produce. value. cial value. 

Alaska $7,823,793 $ 30,061 

Arizona 4,155,099 1,680,100 

California 17,124,941 480,793 

Colorado 27,502,429 9,085,714 

Idaho 2,067,183 3,180,000 

Montana 4.134,365 6,890,000 

Nevada 3,514,212 2,120,000 

Oregon 1,860,465 63,600 

South Dakola 7,398,057 182,373 

Utah 3,720,930 6,360,000 

Klondike 14,562,191 91,768 

This places the total amount of gold at $80,853,070, and 
of silver at $31,040,025. 

The production of copper in Silver Bow County, Mont., 
alone, is about $60,000,000, or about one-fourth of the entire 
production of the world. 

Coal is well distributed and plays a very prominent part 
in the mining economy of the entire Northwest. 

Fisheries. — The salmon industry has grown to a wonder- 
ful point and has been perfected within the past ten years. 
The question is only whether the salmon are being depleted. 
The coast states are endeavoring to maintain the supply by 
propagation, the salmon waters being restocked at the rate of 
50,000,000 a year, one-half furnished by the United States 
hatcheries, the other half being divided between Washington 
and Oregon. 

Lands. — To encourage emigration the railroads have each 
year offered and maintained a homeseekers' rate, about half 
the regular price charged, and the surprise is that while lands 
in the east are selling for from $50 an acre up, that the free 
lands of the west, the richest in the world, have not been taken 
faster when they offer so many inducements. Emigration h 
rapidly reducing the quantity, but millions of people may 
yet find government lands for homes. Enormous areas in 
JBritish Columbia are offered under English laws. Alaska 
is as yet untouched, and there is much excellent land in what 
seems to be a far oft country. In Washington, Oregon and 
Idaho, on January i, 1900, there was opened for settlement 
approximately 90,000,000 acres of land, or an area equal to 
one-twentieth of the total area of the United States. These 
have been going to homesteaders and purchasers by script and 
otherwise at the rate of 5,000,000 acres per year. These lands 



are free, except for the small government charge of $i6 at 
the land office. Where reservation lands have been opened 
$1.25 per acre additional must be paid to the government. 

Emigration. — The old bufifalo trails may yet be seen in 
northern Montana in places where the ranging cattle have 
not obliterated them, but no buffalo are left, save those in 
corrals and parks. The Indian tepee is seen at infrequent 
intervals throughout the west. The only tangible remnant 
of the North American Indian are the 15,000 full bloods and 
their half white brothers in the prospective state of Oklahoma, 
and the few northern Indians practically corralled upon the 

L tj^j. ii_. M iMK^K^^^^M 



reservations. The legendary days of the buffalo and the 
Indian are all that is left. The loves of Hiawatha and Min- 
nehaha will be sung in future years, and history will recount 
the fierce combats with Sitting Bull and Geronimo, but the 
majesty of the Indian, his independence and his individnality, 
have gone with the buffalo, never to return, and all within 
a few short years. The Indian gave place to the pioneer, 
the stockman and the railroad. The stockman is now giving 
place to the diversified farmer. Few people outside of the 
ever-changing west realize the effects of the waves of emi- 
gration that have swept over that country. 

The tides of emigration to the Northwest of to-day began 
in 1879. Another wave succeeded it in 1883, and again in 


1887, decreasino-, however, during the next two or three years. 
The present wave of emigration is greater than those which 
preceded it, and differs materially trom any of the others. 
The first settlement of the Minnesota Northwest was made 
by Americans in wagons, with but few dollars and their out- 
fit, and by foreigners direct from Castle Garden, who settled 
upon the land under the Homestead Act. The present emi- 
gration chronicles the sale of these lands originally taken 
throughout the Mississippi Valley at a price approximately 
of $50 per acre to the farmer of the extreme eastern and mid- 
dle states. With this money in hand the new capitalists, by 
rail instead of by wagon, proceed to the Pacific Northwest 
to seek new lands at undeveloped prices. It is estimated that 
during the spring of 1902, 162,000 homeseekers passed over 
the northern railway lines, 67,000 of whom settled in Mon- 
tana or farther west, 10,000 going to Oregon, 50,000 to 
Washington, and 7,000 to Montana. A portion went to Idaho, 
which fact is probably taken into account in the Washington 
figures. Fifty thousand settled in South Dakota, 12,000 in 
Rlinnesota, and 8,000 in North Dakota, while 25,000 went to 
Manitoba. These figures do not take into account those com- 
ing over the Union Pacific Railway, this number being esti- 
mated at 36,000. 

The intense desire to obtain cheap lands has caused an 
overflow of the American settler into Canada far beyond any 
belief. A Manitoba paper puts the estimate at double the fig- 
ures herein given. This is caused by the fact that the Ameri- 
can citizen is not forced to take an oath of allegiance in order 
to obtain the land, which may be purchased outright. The 
majority of these settlers went to western Manitoba and 

A large amount of land has been taken under the timber 
act for the value of the timber upon the land, and the choicest 
homesteads have also been settled upon, but there are large 
amounts of lands as rich as any of those already taken, lack- 
ing only the water to make them fertile and only partially 
so at that. To open up these areas the governmai't is inaug- 
urating systems of irrigating reservoirs. There is no doubt 
of the irrigation age being at hand instead of hx the future. 
Those who have been slothful in the past years of low prices 
of commodities are now waking up and will settle the entire 
domain as fast as Uncle Sam will reclaim it. As it is accom- 
plished, another wave of emigration will roll over the west, 




and the settler can begin at the Dakota hne and come west- 
ward with the tide as those before him did, for the great Milk 
River district, in northern Montana, will open fully a million 
acres to settlement, as will numberless other valleys. 

The Pacific Northwest is young and mighty. The re- 
sources have been developed to some extent, but the possi- 
bilities are beyond the majority of the other states which 
form the American Union. 

Commerce. — The line of the world's commerce beyond the 
coast lies north of California. The Northwest has to-day 
a commerce the marvel of the world in volume, scope and 
energy. Transcontinental lines connect with the -east and 
south, and ships, the mightiest on earth, are now being built 
for the Oriental trade, which has developed into enormous 
volume within a short period of time. The cities of Port- 
land, Tacoma, Victoria and \^ancouver are not only con- 
nected with each other by a net-work of lines, but they reach 
out to Alaska and the south and to the Orient. 

In a recent address, James J- Hill, President of the Great 
Northern Railway, made the declaration that the trade with 
the Orient is the oldest commercial trade in the world, that 
the commercial nations from the earliest dawn of history have 
sought it, and that it has built up more cities in the world 
than any other trade. 

But the trade of the Orient is comparatively new to the 
United States, the line of transportation having heretofore 
been to the eastward rather than to the westward. The peo- 
ple of the Orient with whom we are enabled to trade con- 
stitute fully one-half of the population of the earth. Ten 
years ago we sold Japan annually $5,000,000 in gOods, and 
purchased $30,000,000. To-day we sell this nation $30,000,- 
000 and purchase $9,000,000 annually, which shows the 
development of the trade along these new lines. The nation 
that is now about to be opened to commerce is China. The 
Chinese empire is more populous than Japan, and the better 
classes are more able. To-day China purchases annually from 
the United States over three hundred millions and should pur- 
chase one billion dollars. The traffic to the Orient is largely a 
matter of food products. Though the shipments of flour from 
Puget Sound ports and from Portland have reached magnifi- 
cent proportions, the traffic is susceptible of enormous develop- 
ment. During 1901 the flour used in China would equal, in the 
wheat form, about 18,000,000 bushels ; for the year ending June 




30, 1902, the exports of flour from Puget Sound to the Orient 
and South Africa amounted to one and a quarter million bar- 
rels. Steel rails have been shipped to Japan, and cotton, the 
value of which reached several million dollars, has been shipped 
to various ports of the Orient. A single Puget Sound line to 
the Orient was compelled to refuse in a single month 30,000 
bales of cotton from the southern states, from the lack of 
ships to carry them. 

The movement of lumber from the forests of Puget Sound 
to the east, at a fair rate, necessitates the cars being loaded 
on their return. The lumber and shingle shipment for this 
long distance enables the railroads to make a short rate on . 
cotton and products bound for the Orient, and thus a basis 
for this trade has been established. The wheat that is raised 
on the basaltic plains of the Columbia Basin has a near and 
ready market toward the setting sun in exchange for tea, 
sugar, silks, etc. The trade, now in its infancy, is lacking in 
ocean transportation, and larger ships with greater carrying 
capacity are being built than ever before. 

The distance from the ports of the American Pacific coast 
are much nearer the Oriental seaboards than New York or 
the European cities. A few figures will readily show the ad- 
vantage. The distance from Liverpool to Canton is 10,900 
miles : San Francisco to Canton, 6,800 miles. From San 
Francisco to the Amur River, 3,900 miles ; to Vladivostock, 
5,750 miles; from Liverpool, 13,550 and 1^,750 miles respect- 
ively. The difference in favor of San Francisco amounts to 
several thousand miles, and the ports of Puget Sound are sev-* 
eral hundred miles nearer Asia than San Frailcisco, for tlis 
degrees of longitude are less in miles in proportion to their 
distance from the equator. 

The Pacific Ocean has become the center of a commercial 
battle now raging, and the inhabitants of the north Pacific 
Coast are the ones who will determine the results and reap 
the rewards. They are the nearest neighbors of the people to 
the west (not to the east) and are enabled to visit them weekly 
with their ships and goods for barter. A step to Hawaii, a 
second to the Philippines, and lo ! a magical change took place 
and a continual stream of goods poured into these countries, 
whose internal workings ten years ago were a sealed book. 

With lines of American steamships, built in American ship- 
yards, owned by American capital, officered by American sea- 
men, and plying between the North .\merican seaboards and 




Oriental ports, the predominance on the Pacific Ocean is as- 
sured to the United States. 


Minnesota, the land of a myriad of beautiful lakes and 
highly cultivated farms, is the first state traversed on a trip 
from the twin cities — St. Paul and Minneapolis — to the Pa- 
cific Coast over either of the northern routes. This state 
adjoins the Dominion of Canada, and has an area of 83,365 
square miles, of which 4,160 square miles are water. Its 
population to-day is more than 2,000,000 people. In 1900 
the unappropriated lands in this state comprised more than 
4,000,000 acres, of which over 2,000,000 were unsurveyed. 
These lands lie mostly in the extreme northern part of the 
state, which is generally a timbered country and is at pres- 
ent distant from railway transportation. Two-thirds of the 
state is a fertile prairie country, the larger part of which has 
been settled up during the past thirty years and is now devoted 
to diversified farming ; in the southern part the improved 
land has a value of about $50 per acre. 

The early history of the state is like that of many others, 
a fierce struggle with the Indians for mastery, in which sev- 
eral atrocious massacres took place. Wheat was the great 
staple in the early days, but this cereal in the southern part 
of the state has given place to corn, cattle, and dairying, and 
in consequence of its exceedingly succulent grasses the fame 
of that locality is becoming as wide as that of Wisconsin, 
which produces more butter and cheese than any of the 
other states of the Union. The state is separated from 
North Dakota on the west by the Red River of the 
North, in the valley of which the wheat fields are 
very extensive, reaching the size of small European prin- 
cipalities. These farms are operated on a systematic 
and well regulated plan. The soil of the valley is very deep 
and fertile and shows no sign of deterioration after 
being sown to one crop for twenty-five years. The Red 
River A^alley will be spoken of again with North Dakota. 
The northern part of the state is mostly covered with pine 
timber, which has been manufactured by mills along the 
Mississippi River for the past half century, adding much to 
the wealth of the state. In the extreme northeastern part 



are extensive hematite iron mines, perhaps the largest on the 
continent. From these mines the blast furnaces of Ohio and 
Pennsylvania are furnished with the raw material from which 
the major portion of the iron and steel rails used in the 
United States is made. 

The city of St. Paul, the capital of the state, situated at 
the head of navigation of the Mississippi River, and Minne- 
apolis, situated nine miles distant at the Falls of St. Anthony, 
the two having a combmed population of fully 400,000 peo- 
ple, are termed the "Twin Cities." They are very strong 


commercially and are surrounded by an empire rich in re- 
sources ; to the south are corn, cattle and dairying inter- 
ests ; to the east, north and noriheast, forests of pine timber 
and extensive iron mines ; to the northwest extensive wheat 
fields and stock ranges. In addition these cities are one of 
the great railway centers, as ten railroads radiate from them 
in all directions, while two trans-continental lines have their 
terminals and headquarters in St. Paul. The remarkable 
feature of Minneapolis is its water power and the manu- 
factures connected therewith. In 1900 it manufactured the 
enormous amount of 594,370,000 feet of lumber. More than 
ten years ago Minneapolis became the first lumber producing 


city in the world, which supremacy will probably be main- 
tained until the northern lands are denuded of their forests. 
In 1900 the city received 83,312,320 bushels of wheat, which 
makes it the largest wheat market of the world. During this 
year 15,082,725 barrels of flour were produced from this 
wheat, showing that a large percentage of it was ground 
in the city before leaving for the east. This is more flour 
than is produced by any other 'city in the world. Its mills 
have the largest capacity, which is over 27,000,000 barrels 
per year, and the largest mill. Not only has Minneapolis the 
largest mill, but it has the largest elevator, with a capacity 
of 30,000,000 bushels, or enough to store at one time one- 
third of the annual receipts of the entire city. 

St. Paul is known as the main jobbing center of the state, 
the city has various manufactories of boots and shoes and all 
the intermediate articles, with a banking capital equal to any 
emergency. The cities are romantically located, have exten- 
sive park systems, especially Minneapolis, and fine streets and 
residences. Between the cities are located Fort Snelling, at 
one time the Indian military outpost of the country, and the 
Falls of Minnehaha, made famous by Longfellow's poem. The 
lakes of the state are not marshes, but pure, clear, sky-tinted 
waters, pleasant to look upon. They are filled with fish and 
in season with ducks and geese in profusion. 

Duluth, "the Zenith City of the Unsalted Seas," is located 
on Lake Superior and the St. Louis River, the extreme west- 
ern shore of the great lakes, and if a deep waterway to the 
Atlantic is ever effected this city will become an Atlantic sea- 
port. To-day it is a water terminal of the Great Northern 
and Northern Pacific railways, has large elevator capacity, 
and handles nearly as much wheat as Minneapolis. Its flour 
mills are also becoming celebrated. A fleet of several hun- 
dred vessels takes the different tonnage from this port, 
through the Sault Ste. Marie Canal to eastern ports. The 
city is built upon a hillside, overlooking Lake Superior, and 
has a population of about 75,000. 

Taking the state of Minnesota as a whole, it is ramified by 
many railroads, the Great Northern, the Northern Pacific, and 
the "Soo Line" covering the northwestern part of the state. 



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North Dakota is an immense stretch of level and rolling 
pairie land and river valleys, with numerous small lakes. 
Its area is 70,795 square miles and its population 319,146. 
The Red River of the North, which is the eastern boundary 
of the state, forms a valley including that part located in the 
state of Minnesota, comprising a tract of land 250 miles long, 
with a width of from fifty to 100 miles. This valley is almost 
a level plain, with a descent of from one to two feet to the 
mile, sloping to the north, in which direction the river runs. 


It is so nearly level that the currents of the streams are quite 
sluggish. The altitude above sea level at Fargo on this 
river is 902 feet, and at Pembina, on the boundary line, 789 
feet. This entire valley is very fertile, the soil being a black 
loam, with a subsoil of alluvial clays, mixed with drift, sand, 
and gravel. The valley has an area of about one-thirteenth 
of Minnesota and North Dakota together, and produced in 
1902 fully 40,000,000 bushels of wheat, or more than twen- 
ty-five per cent of the crop of the two states combined. The 
products of this remarkable valley have made the state cel- 
ebrated in all countries. For twenty-five years it has been 
raising No. i hard wheat in such quantities that led to its be- 
ing called the "bread basket of the world." Perhaps no 



country of like area has been so productive of the cereals. 
The land is under a high state of cultivation and the country 
is dotted with beautiful homes. The farms have been hereto- 
fore what is known as "Bonanza" farms from their extent, 
some comprising from 30,000 to 40,000 acres. These farms 
are now being subdivided, and there are other lands to be ob- 


tained which have been partially cultivated, or even raw lands, 
which will produce in the same proportion as those previously 

The Red River \'alley proper includes the counties of Pem- 
bina, Walsh, Grand Forks, Traill, Cass, and Richland, in 
North Dakota, and Kittson, Marshall, Polk, Norman, Clay, 
Red Lake, and \^'ilkin, in Minnesota, the heavy black top soil 


of the valley readily marking its boundary. The valley is not 
thickly settled, and the price of land is low compared with 
its value, though it has advanced nearly loo per cent since 
1900. Throughout this state land can be had from $5 to $30 
per acre. There are no good homesteads outside of the arid 
belt left in this state. The soil of central Dakota is a black 
loam, varying from two to three feet in thickness ; it has a 
clay subsoil, which retains the moisture of the winter and 
early spring in reserve for summer use, and its fertility is 
remarkable. The Red River Valley has ample rainfall, which 
gradually decreases toward the west until the Missouri Coteau 
is reached, beyond which irrigation is required. From the 
Turtle and Pembina mountains, along the boundary line to 
the south, the descent is gradual to Devil's Lake, which 
has no visible outlet and whose waters are salty, or alkaline. 

Between the Turtle Mountains and the ^lissouri River lies 
the Missouri Coteau, a grass}- upland country extending 
across the state from northwest to southeast and forming the 
eastern watershed of the Missouri. The plateau affords evi- 
dences of the great glacial lake, which in prehistoric times 
extended from Lake Winnipeff to Oklahoma. Of this vast 
lake the Red River and Lake AVinnipeg country was the very 
bottom or basin, and the smaller lake formed there afterward 
is known to geologists as Lake Agassiz. The Missouri Coteau 
formed a section of the western shore line at one stage. The 
countrv east of the Coteau is a rolling prairie sloping to the 
southeast, drained by the Cheyenne and James rivers. The 
Mouse River enters the United States near the Coteau, and 
after a wide circle returns to Canada west Of the Turtle 
Mountains. This is a good wheat valley. The Little Mis- 
souri, the Heart and the Cannon Ball rivers water the west- 
ern part of the state and discharge into the Missouri River 
on the west. The whole southern and central part of the 
state is good wheat land, save the so-called "Bad Lands" in 
the extreme southwestern part, wliich comprise a belt twenty- 
five miles wide and one hundred miles long, and follow the 
Little Missouri River. This land, once a level plain, has been 
cut by the branches of the Little Missouri and the action of 
fire from burning lignite coal seams, so as to form a labyrinth 
of gullies, buttes and figures of all sorts, in which the novice 
would become irretrievably lost. East of Medora, where the 
Northern Pacific crosses the ]\Iissouri River, the buttes are 
of a blood-red color ; in places petrified stumps and trunks 




of trees are brought to the surface, and at a number of places 
coal veins are still burning beneath the surface of the ground, 
sending forth sulphurous fumes through fissures in the earth. 
This whole country, however, is covered with grass, and is one 
of the finest cattle districts in the west. A special merit of 
the bad lands is that stock is sheltered in the ravines during 
the winter. 

The winters of North Dakota are sometimes very cold, but 
the air is dry and the cold is not severely felt. The extreme 
range of temperature is 105° to — 44°, and the annual rainfall 
for the major part of the state is eighteen inches. Large areas 
in the western part of the state, especially west of the Mis- 
souri River, are underlaid with lignite coal of good quality. 
In the Turtle Mountains, at Burlington, at Kenmare, at Har- 
vey, in Wells County, and at Washburn, in McLean County, 
coal is being mined and sold at a profit, nearly fifty coal 
mines being operated in the state to some extent. In the 
"Bad Lands" coal seems to exist in some places six to eight 
feet in thickness, and it is not uncommon for farmers to have 
coal mines on their farms. 

The Northern Pacific Railway traverses the middle south- 
ern portion of the state, having been built as far as Bismarck 
in 1873. The Great Northern crosses the middle northern 
portion of the state from east to west, and the "Soo Line" 
crosses the state in a northeasterly and southeasterly direc- 
tion, entering Canada by the Mouse River Valley. The 
Great Northern and Northern Pacific reach Winnipeg in 
Manitoba Province through the Red River Valley. 

Bismarck, the capital of the state, has a population of 
3,319, is situated on the Missouri River at the crossing of the 
Northern Pacific. Jamestown, with a population of 2,853, ^^ 
a prosperous town ninety-eight miles east of Bismarck. 

Fargo is situated on the Red River and the Northern Pa- 
cific and Great Northern railwavs, and is the commercial cen- 
ter of the state. It has a population of 9.589. 

Grand Forks is the commercial center of the northeastern 
part of the state, lies in the heart of the Red River, wheat 
Ijelt, and has a population of 7,652. 

There has been quite a boom in North Dakota lands during 
the past two or three years, since it has been learned that 
nearlv the entire state produces most all kinds of crops. In 
1901 the crop of wheat produced was $45,741,618 bushels; 
flax, 12,868,088 bushels: oats, 20,7^10,314 bushels; barley. 





0,140,437 bushels; corn, 1,282,082 bushels; potatoes, 2,031,- 
608 bushels, and there was live stock sold to the value of 


The Commissioner of Agriculture and Labor reports for 
the year 1901 38,801 cultivated farms and over 20,000 com- 
bmed ranches and farms, forty-three lignite coal mines in 
operation, eight cheese factories and thirty-eight creameries. 


The name Montana is from the Spanish language, mean- 
ing mouHtainous, and the state is known as the "Bonanza" or 
"Treasure" state, from its mountains containing such vast 
mineral deposits. It is bounded by the Canadian provinces of 
Alberta and Assiniboia on the north, the Dakotas on the east, 
Wyoming and Idaho on the south, and the latter state on the 
west. The average length of the state from east to west is 
535 miles, and the breadth from north to south 275 miles, 
comprising the great area of 146,080 square miles, or, ap- 
proximately, 94,000,000 acres. It is the third largest state in 
the Union, and by the 1900 census had a population of 243,- 


E.\RLY History. — As early as 1742 the French voyageur, 
Verendrye, and his sons traversed this state in quest of furs 
and camped at the base of the Rocky Mountains. In 1805 
the now famous Lewis and Clark expedition ascended the 
main rivers of the state, marvelled at the falls of the Mis- 
souri, named the head waters of that great river, climbed the 
Rocky Mountains, and passed on to the Pacific. Retracing 



their steps by a shorter route, they explored the Marias and 
Yellowstone rivers and returned to the then settled part of 
the United States. Their names are now indelibly inscribed 
on the geography of the country. 

Montana's rich storehouse of nature had been, since the 
earliest discoveries, either in the possession of France or 


Spain, but in 1803 Napoleon, being short of money, bar- 
gained it to the United States with the other territory con- 
stituting what is known as the Louisiana Purchase. 

Following the superficial knowledge thus learned, Emanuel 
Liza, of St. Louis, in 1809 established a trading post on the 
Yellowstone, and in 1827 Fort L'nion was built at the mouth 
of the Milk River by the American Fur Companv. The first 
step toward navigation of the Missouri River was in 1832, 


when the steamboat Yellowstone arrived at Fort Union ; in 
1835 the steamer Assinniboine came up as far as Fort Buford 
and ascended the Yellowstone River for about sixty-five 
miles ; and in 1846 Alexander Culbertson built Fort Benton, 
and the steamboat Chippewa, in i860, reached that point and 
established it as the head of navigation, and it so remained, 
going into the annals of history as the extreme outpost of 
steam communication until the transcontinental railroads were 
built. It enjoyed a great trade in furs, buffalo hides, etc., in 
exchange for goods, and it took an entire season for a boat 
to make the round trip from St. Louis, running many risks 
trom the quicksands and changing sand bars of that capricious 
stream, and the many dangers from attacks by Indians, who 
became gradually more belligerent toward the white man 
until they were subjugated. The Catholic missionaries fol- 
lowed the fur traders and the trappers, Father De Smet 
founding St. Mary's Mission in Ravalli County in 1862. He 
is given the credit of having sown the first wheat field at 
Stevensville and of building, in 1845, St. Ignatius' Mission, 
with a school for boys and girls. The latter is the mission 
on the present Flathead Indian Reservation, in Missoula 
County. Thus religion, education, agriculture, and commerce 
were all given an impetus within a very few years. After 
this spurt slow progress was made toward civilization and 
settlement, though the territory of Montana was organized in 
1864 and a capital established at Virginia City. The Indian 
and buffalo roamed the plains, and only the hardy trapper, 
hunter, or prospector was willing to take the chance of ex- 
ploration or settlement thereon. 

Attention to the mineral resources of Montana was fir.^t 
called by a Red River half-breed named Finlay in 1852, who 
discovered placer gold on what is now Gold Creek, in Powell 
County. In 1858 the Granville Stewart party worked placer 
claims successfully near the present town of Pioneer. Fol- 
lowing this came the discovery of rich ground at Bannack, 
Alder, and Ophir, and in August, 1864, of Last Chance 
Gulch, now the location of the city of Helena, which in 1875 
became the capital of the state, and of several hundred other 
placers, which produced so well that many millions were 
added to the gold of the world, and the search for the yellow 
metal took the place of trapping and fur trading. 

The first quartz mill, a rough affair, made from wagon 
irons, was set up at Bannack in 1862, and the first smelter 







was erected at Ar,2;cnta in 1867. The act admitting Montana 
as a state passed Congress February 22, 1889, and the admis- 
sion took place November 8 of the same year. The first rail- 
road was built into Montana from Ogden, Utah, as a connec- 
tion of the Union Pacific, in 1881. The Northern Pacific 
arrived at Helena in 1883; the Great Northern at Kalispell 
in 1 89 1. The completion of the roads solved the transporta- 
tion problem and the steamboat traffic became a thing of the 
past. The completion of the Northern Pacific, the first trans- 
continental line through Montana, was accomplished amid 
great rejoicing and all day celebrations at St. Paul and Minne- 
apolis. The Custer battle was fought on the Little Big Horn 
in 1876, the Indians were finally placed upon agencies, under 
government surveillance, and a new era set in. 



Topography. — Although the name of this state conveys to 
the mind of the reader that it is mountainous, yet less than 
one-third is strictly so. The state is divided into two sec- 
tions, with distinctly difl^erent characteristics, the region of 
the plains comprising the eastern two-thirds, and the moun- 
tainous the remaining one-third. The former section is a 
rolling expanse of prairie, gradually rising from the east to 
the Rocky Mountains, broken only by the valleys of the rivers 
and a few isolated groups of mountains. The plains rise from 
about 2,000 feet elevation at the eastern boundary of the 
state to about 4,000 feet at the base of the Rocky Mountains. 
Hayden's survey gives the average altitude of the state as 
3,900 feet. The United States Bulletin says it has been ascer- 
tained that forty per cent of the state is under 5,000 feet eleva- 
tion, twenty-one pel cent from 5,000 to 6,000 feet, fourteen per 



cent from 6,000 to 7,000 feet, nine per cent from 7,000 to 
8,000 feet and seven per cent over 8,000 feet. This leaves 
thirty per cent at the low altitude of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet. 
The prairie portion is embraced in Valley, Dawson, Custer, 
Rosebud, Yellowstone, Carbon, Sweet Grass, Fergus, and Cho- 
teau and the larger part of Teton and Cascade counties. The 
other counties of the state are mountainous, though there are 
broad valleys and basins between the mountains, aggregating 


thousands of square miles of good agricultural land, such as 
the INlissoula, Flathead, and other valleys lymg between the 
Main Divide and the Bitter Root and Kootenai ranges of 
mountains. The extreme southeastern part of Montana has the 
same characteristics as the bad lands of the Dakotas, being an 
abrupt, broken, and waterless country. 

The main range of the Rockv ^fountains extends north- 
west and southeast throughout the state, and from the snow 
capped peaks flow the great network of rivers which water 
the entire state. The general elevation of the range at the 


crest is given as 6,500 feet, but there are twenty-two moun- 
tain peaks with elevations exceeding 10,000 feet, and six of 
these have altitudes greater than 11,000 feet, the highest being 
Mount Douglas, 11,300 feet. Some of these are covered with 
snow throughout the year. Besides the main range there are 
the Belts, the Highwood, Bear Paw, Crazy, Little Rocky, and 
Big Snowy mountains to the east, and the Bitter Root, Coeur 
d'Alene, Kootenai, and Cabinet mountains to the west. 

The two largest and most prominent rivers of the state are 
the Missouri and the Yellowstone, the former being the union 
of the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin rivers at Three Forks, 
in Gallatin County, one of the most southerly counties of the 
state. After an erratic course this river reaches Choteau, one 
of the most northerly counties, and then zigzags its way to the 
eastern boundary of the state, joining with the Milk River in 
Valley County and the Yellowstone at the boundary, and then 
proceeds on its way to the Mississippi. The Clark's Fork of 
the Columbia, or Missoula River, rises on the west side of the 
Main Divide, runs mainly through Missoula County on its 
northwest course to Lake Pend d'Oreille and the Pacific 
waters. In Flathead County, in the extreme northwest part 
of the state, simply an elbow or bend of the scenic Kootenai 
is made in this state, as it comes in from the north and passes 
into Idaho on the west on the same errand as the Missoula. 
These rivers are all swift running, have steep bluffs, or flow 
between canyon walls, and create many falls and cascades. 
The Great Falls of the Missouri, the highest being approxi- 
mately 100 feet, in Cascade County, and those of the Clark's 
Fork, are the most notable. 

A narrow strip of the Yellowstone National Park, elsewhere 
described, extends across the boundary line into Park and 
Gallatin counties, Montana. 

The Milk River, a very prominent river of the northern 
part of the state, rises in Teton County, flows northeastward 
into Canada, and returns to Montana again in Choteau 
County, where it enters the Missouri. Between the Rocky 
Mountains on the east and the Bitter Root and other moun- 
tains on the west lies a great basin, 250 miles long, and 
averaging about seventy-five miles in width, which has a 
marked physical difference from the eastern or larger portion 
of the state. In climatic and agricultural possibilities it is the 
most favored region of the state. Timber and water are in 
abundance, the rainfall in most oarts is sufficient, and the cli- 




mate is very moderate. This western region of tlie state is 
subdivided into smaller valleys ; in the extreme northwest is 
a basin drained by the Kootenai River ; south of this lies a 
region tributary to the Missoula River ; then that of the 
Bitter Root, or St. Mary's River. Though Montana is not a 
state of lakes, it has many, of which Flathead is the most 
prominent. It is twenty-seven miles long, has a width of 
twelve miles, and lies in the famous Flathead country, sur- 
rounded by rich agricultural lands. The lake and river of the 
same name are navigable. 

Climate. — Montana is a region having a very dry and 
bracing atmosphere. The winters are long, and though not 
continually cold, the thermometer, when in^ sympathy with 
the Canadian cold waves, indicates a very low temperature. 
These cold wave periods are infrequent and of short dura- 
tion. The prevailing wind is from the southwest, is known as 
the Chinook wind, from the Paciiic, and this moderates the 
weather and melts the snow, which is usually light outside of 
the mountainous regions. Cattle and sheep are thus allowed 
to graze upon the ranges usually throughout the winter with- 
out extra feed. There are, however, severe winters at times, 
for which preparation must be made. Such a winter came in 
1886-7, when more than one-half of the stock died from lack 
of feed and exposure, and the winter of 1902-3 was unusually 
severe. Loss of stock is easily prevented, and no stockman 
now is without at least six weeks' feed. The cold weather is 
not severely felt in Montana, however, owing to the small 
percentage of humidity during these months. The blizzard 
in its good old-day form is not known except in the extreme 
eastern part of the state. Vast herds of cattle and flocks of 
sheep are continuously feeding throughout the winter on the 
buffalo grass, a native grass which cures itself upon the 
ground, retaining its nutritious qualities, though sere and 
yellow. This grass is cured by the sun and the wind before 
the frost comes in the fall, thus retaining its juices. This 
wonderful grass, the dry air, the light snowfall, which is soon 
dissipated by the Chinook winds, and the short duration of 
the excessive cold weather is the secret of the Montana stock- 
man's success, and is not generally understood by those who 
live in a more humid atmosphere, where the same conditions 
do not obtain. 

• The summer is comparatively short and warm, crops grow- 
ing quickly. The heated air is, however, cooled by the moun- 




tain breezes at night, so that the cHmate is very pleasant. 
The mean annual temperature, at the eastern base of the 
Rocky Mountains, is from 40° to 50° ; the rainfall is from 
ten inches in the extreme eastern section to twenty-five inches 
in the mountain valle3rs. 

Irrigation. — Although there are large areas in those coun- 
ties designated as prairie counties that may be rated as semi- 
arid, there are thousands of square miles which receive abun- 
dant precipitation, particularly in Cascade, Gallatin, Teton, 
Fergus, and Sweet Grass counties. Most of these lands 
border on the foothills of the mountain ranges. The other 
agricultural lands, with the exception of those in the river 
bottoms, reciuire irrigation, but when placed under water yield 
in abundance. Approximately forty per cent of the tilled 
lands of the state are now producing without the aid of arti- 
ficial watering. Much of Missoula, Ravalli, Beaver Head, 
Madison, Deer Lodge, Meagher, Cascade, Fergus, Gallatin, 
and Sweet Grass counties afford opportunities to locate on 
agricultural lands that can be profitably tilled without the aid 
of irrigation. There are millions of acres that must be wa- 
tered, and the drawback in this direction has been the lack of 
facilities to bring the water in sufficient quantity. Canals on 
a large scale have been very expensive ; in consequence, as an 
inducement to the reclamation and settlement of the arid 
lands. Congress passed the Carey desert land act, giving the 
different states titles to lands when the state shall have re- 
claimed them. Montana took advantage of this act, created 
an irrigation commission and authorized it to issue bonds for 
the accomplishing of the work, and in this way considerable 
progress was made. 

Since the enactment of the Carey law much interest has 
been aroused in the question of irrigation throughout the 
entire west, and a movement was subsequently started to 
induce the United States government to build reservoirs and 
to construct public canals. The government then set aside 
large forest reserves along the mountain ranges of the arid 
states, for the double purpose of preventing their early de- 
nudation and retaining the timber as a source of moisture, 
especially in liolding the snows. A bill was passed and signed 
by the President, during the month of June, 1902, which 
created a reclamation fund from the sale of public lands in 
Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Ne- 
braska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, 



Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. 
This reclamation fund, with some reductions, is to be used 
for the construction and maintenance of irrigation work in 
the states and territories enumerated. This will no doubt 
solve the question satisfactorily, so that lands which are not 
under private canals, or the co-operative sytem of the Carey 
act, will be irrigated by the national government. (For the 
Carey act in full, see addenda. ) 

A number of canals have been built in this state and are 
now distributing water with success. Among the more promi- 
nent are the Crowe Butte, or Sun River Canal, which is more 


than TOO miles in length ; the Minnesota & Montana Land 
Improvement Canal, at Billings, thirty miles in length ; the 
Dearborn, a co-operative canal under the Carey act, in Lewis 
and Clark county ; the Belknap Canal, in the Milk River Val- 
lev, Choteau County ; the Hinsdale Co-operative Canal, in 
Valley County ; several canals in Cascade County ; the Miles 
City, or Tongue River Canal, in Custer County, twenty-nine 
miles long: the Manhattan Canal and the West Gallatin 
Canal, in Gallatin County ; the canals in Bitter Root Valley 
and Ravalli County ; and the Conrad Investment Company 
Canal, in Teton County. Particular attention has been drawn 
to the northwest part of Montana by the Secretary of State 



in his annual report, which approved of what is known as 
the St. Mary's Lake Diversion Canal, which will turn the 
waters of St. Mary's River into the Milk River, thereby fur- 
nishing a greater supply of water with which to irrigate the 
remaining unirrigated land in that great valle}-. It is be- 

' "■''^^v 


lieved that the very first work undertaken by the government 
will be a low line canal along the Milk River \'alley, as forty- 
one townships have been withdrawn from settlement in the 
neighborhood of Havre. According to the provisions of the 
new irrigation bill, the reclaimed land can only be secured 
under the homestead act, and will be subject to the actual cost 
of irrigation after construction. When the cost has been de- 



temiined, a charge will be made against the land, which will 
be payable in ten annual payments, without interest. Assum- 
ing that the cost of reclaiming the land under this low line 
will be from $io to $15 an acre, the cost per year to the 
homesteader will be $1 or $1.50 an acre per year for the ten 
years. This can all be paid in one payment if so desired. 
Only 160 acres of land can be entered, and those already 
owning land can purchase water for 160 acres and will be 
charged the same price as if they located the land. Home- 
steads mav be taken in lands withdrawn from market before 


the ditches are built, the idea being to encourage those who 
will go upon and improve the land. 

The cost, in co-operative ditches, per acre, is of course 
gauged by the expense, and many small diverting ditches are 
made by individuals, where their lands lie along streams of 
considerable fall, with practically no expense at all. Lands 
under private ditches cover a wide range of price. 'Those 
devoted exclusively to horticulture, for instance, in the neigh- 
borhood of jMissoula, are held at from $150 to $200 per acre, 
while lands in the eastern part of the state susceptible of 
producing the cereals, hay, alfalfa, etc., range from $15 up. 

The following table of average values of irrigated and un- 
irrigated lands in the various counties of the state and the 



cost of the water rights and maintenance of canals is from 
the Twelfth United States Census Report : 



COUNTIES ^^.^^. j^^. ,^_.;_ ^„„^^, 

p„7' Rated gated gated ^?\^[ Mamte- 

I-arms i,-j,rms Farms Laud '^'S'" nance 

The State (a) $s.4S $37i $6-i9 $i9-66 $3.12 $0.28 

Beaver Head 7.48 3.3S 7.69 13-24 2.01 0.20 

Broadwater 8.94 5.43 9.27 16.74 449 0-i6 

Carbon 10.06 3.20 11.38 19.69 3.61 0.26 

Cascade 4.83 4.09 5.87 15.04 1.41 0.31 

Choteau 4.30 2.25 5.47 13.S8 1.87 0.27 

Custer 2.98 2.32 4,3s 29.47 9-13 0-79 

Dawson 2.20 2.04 306 12.19 7.19 0.39 

Deer Lodge 7.04 4.79 7.19 20.48 3.85 0.23 

Fergus 4.58 2.16 4.91 12.70 1.60 0.21 

Flathead 11.02 11.58 8.20 32.46 7.70 0.52 

Gallatin 12.50 10.74 -04 31-22 5.88 0.13 

Granite 9.40 5.20 9.75 14-99 S-84 0.27 

Jefferson 9.74 2.59 10.16 22.31 3.91 0.14 

Lewis and Clarke 5.43 5.26 5.48 14.00 1.30 0.20 

Madison 7.95 6.18 8.09 17.70 4.48 0.23 

Meagher 2.78 1.25 2.82 12.49 2.61 0.14 

Missoula 11.26 8.46 12.73 55-91 7.80 0.33 

Park 5.45 4.73 5-54 15-73 3-57 0.33 

Ravalli 16.26 6.44 17.17 37.46 5.92 0.12 

Silver Bow 9.09 5.54 9.58 23.77 4-32 0.17 

Sweet Grass 3.68 2.32 3.84 21.31 3.32 0.68 

Teton 4-8S 422 5.33 14.82 1.03 0.32 

Valley 3.68 3.52 3.91 18.47 2.80 0.15 

Yellowstone 1.91 1.37 2.34 32.15 5.52 0.49 

(a) Exclusive of Indian resei vations. 

It is probably a fair, conservative estimate to place one- 
fourth of the lands of the entire state as being susceptible of 
irrigation, and that the average value of all the arable lands 
in Montana is $2.50 per acre, and it is considered conservative 
to place the value of the same land after water has been put 
upon it at from $50 to $70 per acre. This is based upon ex- 
periences in irrigation in California, Colorado, and other arid 






Resources. — Mining at present is pre-eminently Montana's 
foremost industry and most valuable source of wealth. In the 
early stages, when the placers in the gulches were worked by 
the adventurous seekers after the yellow metal, gold was 
enthroned as king. At a later date, when almost pure silver 
was found and the metal given a coin value, silver succeeded 
gold upon the throne. But to-day, beyond any doubt, copper 
has cast these metals both aside and donned the crown, for 
Montana to-day produces as much copper as all the other 
states in the Union combined, and one-fourth of the product 
of the entire world. 

Copper was first discovered near Butte in 1864. The growth 
of the mining of that metal was slow, owing to the difficulty 
in smelting it, but the output of mines in the state to-day 
aggregates a yearly value of $37,000,000 ; the value of silver 
throughout the state is $20,000,000; gold, $5,000,000; coal, 
$1,500,000; and lead, $1,000,000. From 1865 to 1898 the 
value of Montana's mineral output was $217,000,000 in gold; 
$273,000,000 in silver; and $217,000,000 in copper; and it is 
stated on good authority that not one-half of one per cent of 
the mineral acreage containing valuable deposits is at present 
being worked. Certainly mineral development is yet in its 
infancy. In addition to the mineral deposits, quite extensive 
ruby and sapphire beds have been discovered in the western 
part of Fergus County, and there have lately been reports 
of the discovery of diamond fields. As it is, the mines have 
fairly given Montana the title she now claims of the Bonanza 
State, for there are more bonanza kings in Montana probably 
than in any country on earth. The Dalys and Clarks of 
Butte, though having taken out a half billion dollars from ■ 
the mines of that city, are not the only men in Montana who 
affix seven and eight figures to the estimate of their wealth. 

The production of gold, silver, copper, and lead for the 
year 1901 is given officially as $60,387,619.01, to say nothing 
about coal, which plays a very prominent part. These metals 
are comparatively well distributed throughout the dififerent 
counties, every one in the state, with but few exceptions, 
contributing to the wealth. 

Stock. — In consequence of the semi-arid condition of the 
land and sparseness of settlement, stockraising has been the 
" principal pursuit after mining. Very little land has been un- 
der fence, and the foothills and high ranges will probably 
never be anything but free range or pasture for stock. The 



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far-famed buffalo grass covers these plains, and all hay 
grasses grow luxuriantly. Stock has been allowed to almost 
take care of itself, so the business has become very extended. 
Cattle and sheep have lately brought very good prices, and 
in consequence the business is prosperous. It is estimated 
that there are now grazing in the state 200,000 head of horses, 
800,000 cattle, and 3,000,000 sheep; that the total value of 
live stock on farms and ranges, June i, 1900, was $52,161,833, 
of which forty-five per cent represented the value of the meat 
cattle, exclusive of dairy cows, 34.8 per cent sheep, 14.9 per cent 
horses, and 3.6 per cent dairy cows. Calves are valued at 
$11.89; steers, one and under two years old, $21.17; two and 
under three years old, $29.81 ; three and over, $39.99 ; horses, 
$26.84; lambs, $1.95; sheep (ewes), $3.37; and sheep 
(rams and wethers), $3.49. The average value of horses is 
low because the Indian ponies of the Indian reservation are 
included. These ponies number thousands, and are valued 
at only from $3 to $10 per head. 

The largest cattle herds are in the northern part of the state, 
but the greater flocks of sheep are tributary to Billings, Great 
Falls, and Fort Benton, the three great wool markets of the 
state and of the United States. The shipments of cattle from 
Montana to Chicago reached the enormous number of 430,500 
head in 1895. The prices of range cattle in the Chicago mar- 
ket have varied from $4.50 per hundredweight to $6 per hun- 
dredweiglit on the hoof, and in 1902, at the height of the 
market, a few lots brought above seven cents a pound. Lambs 
of good cross, fed on alfalfa, have brought as high as $6 per 
hundredweight. The feeding of sheep is becoming quite gen- 
eral in the valleys, where irrigation admits of the raising of 
alfalfa. The Yellowstone Valley has become fampus for 
alfalfa, the Gallatin for alsike clover, the Bitter Root and Flat- 
head valleys for red clover, and the Milk River and other 
nothern valleys for alfalfa. In these irrigated districts sheep 
breeding and feeding will become a very important industry. 
Lately there has been quite a movement of southern cattle to 
Montana for ranging. In 1901 the cattle came largely from 
Kansas City and Omaha to the northwest, while in 1902 they 
came mainly from Texas and Arizona, Texas alone shipping 

Within the past few years considerable attention has been 
given to the raising of Angora goats, and the business has 
been a success. The Angora goat has been kept principally 



for its long, valuable mohair, but its skin is also valuable, as 
well as its flesh and tallow. And further, the goat is a great 
dairy animal, in Switzerland the finest cheese being made 

from its milk. The Montana climate seems to be particularly 
adapted to the goat's liking, and the foothills and benches 
furnish him a natural home. The profits made from some of 
the herds and the estimate of profits on a nine-year basis are 
very attractive. 


Game. — There is a great variety of wild animals in this 
state. The moose and Rocky Mountain goat are the most 
rare. Several species of deer, antelope, elk, and mountain 
sheep are met with in considerable numbers. Bear, lynx, the 
mountain lion or panther, wildcat, and wolf abound. Some 
caribou are found in season, and ducks are plentiful. 

Timber. — There are over 12,000,000 acres of timber lands 
in the state, not counting the smaller bodies that fringe the 
streams. The estimate of this standing timber is 550,000,000 
feet. The timber of merchantable value is largely in the 
mountainous districts. It would appear that nature appre- 
ciated the necessity of having an abundance of timber for 
mining operations, and placed it near the points of consump- 
tion. Aside from the valleys, all the counties lying along the 
Rocky Mountains and west of the ranges are heavily tim- 
bered. A large share of this land near the crest of the ranges 
has been set aside by the government in the forest reserve. 
There is a large body of timber along the Kootenai, in Flat- 
head County, in Missoula County and Ravalli County, at 
many of which places the manufacturing of lumber is carried 
on very extensively. The largest of these lumber mills is on 
Flathead Lake, in Flathead County. 

Railroads. — Two railroads traverse the state from east to 
west — the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific. The 
Chicago, Burlington & Ouincy connects with the Northern 
Pacific at Billings. The Oregon Short Line, a branch of the 
Union Pacific, reaches Butte. The Montana Central leaves 
the Great Northern at Havre and traverses the state along 
the Missouri Valley to Helena and from thence over the 
mountains to Butte. The Great Falls & Canada leaves the 
Montana Central at Great Falls and runs northward into 
Canada. The two lines of the Northern Pacific separate at 
Logan and join again at Garrison, thus giving Helena, Butte, 
and Anaconda a through line. All these roads, with various 
branch lines, give good outlets to all points of the compass. 
The Montana Railroad connects with the Northern Pacific 
at Painted Rock. 


Valley County. — This is the most northeasterly county of 
the state. Its area is 13,486 square miles, and its population 
by the 1900 census is 4,355. Although some farming is done 



in this county, the principal industry has been stockraising, 
which will undoubtedly continue in the extreme northeastern 
and northern parts of the county, on account of its semi-arid 
condition. The Milk River flows eastward through the cen- 
tral westward part of the county, joining the Missouri not far 
east of Glasgow. Its valley is capable of sustaining a large 
population, as it is estimated that 300 square miles of land 
can be successfully irrigated. The rolling plains make good 
grazing, so that combined farming, with stockraising and 


feeding, can he carried on with great profit. The climate is 
somewhat rigorous but healthy. The soil of the valleys, as 
throughout most of Montana, is a loam which will produce 
abundantly. There is still some vacant land left, which can 
be taken under the different acts. 

The Great Northern Railway traverses the county from 
east to west. Glasgow, the county seat, is the largest town 
in the county and the end of the freight division on this rail- 
road. It is located on the Milk River, has hotels, railway 
shops, churches and generally good buildings. The surround- 
ing country is fast settling up. 


Hinsdale, a station farther west on the Great Northern, is 
also on the Milk River, at the mouth of Rock Creek, one of 
the best streams of the county. At this point an irrigating 
ditch has been completed, and a good many substantial farm- 
ers and stockmen have settled there. 

Malta, on the Great Northern Railway and the Milk River, 
near the western line of the county, is the second largest busi- 
ness town in the county. This town ships to Chicago on an 
average per year 20,000 range beef cattle ; the same of mut- 
ton and sheep, and approximately 1,000,000 pounds of wool. 
To show the extent of some sheep interests it may be stated 
that 175,000 sheep were shorn at two plants near this place 
in 1900. There are other stock shipping and supply places 
in the county of less size. 

Choteau County is one of the largest in the state, having 
an area of 14,835 square miles and a population of 10,966. 
Topographically the county is composed of rolling prairies 
and valleys, with the Bear Paw Mountains rising near the 
center, and the Sweet Grass hills in the northwest, the Little 
Rocky in the southeast, and the Highwood Mountains in the 
extreme south. This county is well watered by the numerous 
streams which flow through it. The principal river is the 
Missouri, the others the Marias, Milk, and Teton. There are 
wide and fertile valleys along the streams, suitable for irriga- 
tion. The soil varies, being a sandy loam in the uplands and 
a clay soil in the bottoms. Irrigation is necessary to the cul- 
tivation of the land, which produces abundantly ; so far little 
water has been diverted from the river, but the opportunity 
presented to the settler is great, for there is almost a surety 
of the government directing the waters of the St. Mary's 
River into the Milk River, and building a- ditch which will 
irrigate the lands now withdrawn from market. The Milk 
River rises in the Rocky Mountains, runs into Canada, re- 
turns again to Montana and this county, and then runs west- 
ward into Valley County before joining the Misouri. This 
valley comprises a strip 100 miles wide in the United States 
and 300 miles long. In this vast territory but a small area 
has been irrigated. The settlers on the irrigated portions are 
very prosperous. Their canals have been built by co-operative 
efforts and have proven economical and satisfactory. The re- 
mainder of the valley is unoccupied. On the co-operative plan 
it costs about $3 per acre to put the water on the land, which 
can be paid for from the crop the first year. In co-operative 




canals $2 per acre of this can be worked out at the rate of $4 
per day for man and team, so it can be seen that in this locaHty 
it is not as expensive as where water is brought eighty to one 
hundred miles through rock tunnels and flumes. The valley is 
comparatively low in altitude, so that vegetables thrive as well 
as the grains and grasses. Alfalfa, or lucern, the most valu- 
able of all forage plants, grows well. This plant yields large 
crops when it does well, and in some parts of the Northwest 
several crops are cut in one season. It has a particular value 
in fattening cattle, sheep, and hogs, producing flesh equal to 
grain at much less cost. Much gold and silver is found in 
the mountains. Thousands of horses, cattle, and sheep are 
feeding on the ranges along the highlands of this river. The 
colts have no care, and are allowed to run until four years 
old, when they are broken. If wanted, they may be found 
200 miles from the point where they were branded. 

Fort Benton is the county seat, located on the Montana 
Central Railway. This was at one time the head of naviga- 
tion of the Missouri, and the great distributing point of Mon- 
tana. To-day it is a great wool market. It has schools, 
churches, and municipal water-works. 

Havre is the junction of the Great Northern main line and 
the Montana Central, has railway shops, hotels, stores, and 
is a live and growing town. 

Chinook is the center of the great sheep country, has an 
irrigation canal, and does considerable business. 

Fort Assinniboine, the largest military post in the west, 
located at the foot of Bear Paw Mountain, is garrisoned by 
colored troops. This point is usually rated as the coldest 
place in the United States. 

Teton County lies west of Choteau and has an area of 
7,900 square miles. Except in the western portion, which 
occupies the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, it is 
prairie range and agricultural lands. The Blackfeet Indian 
Reservation covers about one-fourth of the county. Copper 
has been found in paying quantities in the mountains, and 
the locality bids fair to become a great camp. 

The county is estimated to contain 150 square miles of till- 
able land, which has not yet been irrigated, the balance being 
mountainous and grazing lands. This county is the seat of 
the Conrad Investment Company Canal, which takes water 
from the Dupuyer River, or upper branch of the Marias, and 
reclaims 40,000 acres of land. A large part of this has been 


sold to settlers, but there is still some left unsold. Other 
ditches are being built and a new co-operative company is 
being organized on the Sun River, so that the opening for 
settlers in this county is very good. The price of lands, with 
water, is $15 per acre up. Hay, oats, and barley are con- 
sidered the best paying crops, for which there is an ample 
market at Great Falls. The Great Northern Railway crosses 
the nothern part of the county from east to west, and a 
branch of the Great Northern, the Great Falls & Canada 
Railway, passes through the eastern part of the county from 
north to south, and crosses the main line at Shelby Junction. 
The elevation of Summit, the crossing over the Main Divide 
of the Rocky Mountains, is 5,202 feet. 

Choteau, the county seat, is a thriving inland town, on a 
branch of the Teton River. The Blackfeet Indian Reserva- 
tion extends from the Canadian line sixty miles to the south 
and forty miles east and west. There are about 2,000 Indians 
on the reservation, living on ranches along the streams. They 
raise many cattle for the Chicago market. 

Chief Mountain, 10,800 feet in height, is the sentinel of 
the Main Divide at this point, and not far distant to the east 
are St. Marys lakes, which the government is considering 
turning into the Milk River. From their scenery these lakes 
are called the Geneva of America. They are respectively seven 
and eleven miles in length ; the sides are very abrupt, rising 
to a considerable height, and are covered with glaciers, from 
which the water supply is maintained. The hunter will find 
elk and Rocky Mountain sheep, and trout fishing in this par- 
ticular locality is good. 

Flathead County lies in the extreme northwesterly part 
of the state and west of the Rocky Mountains, having an 
area of 8,700 square miles and a population of 9.375. About 
one-seventh of the county has been surveyed and appropriated, 
and there are about 4,000,000 acres left unsurveyed. A large 
portion of the county is of a hilly and mountainous nature, 
besides being covered with dense forests of pine, fir, and 
tamarac principally, and the hidden depths teem with the 
precious metals. The county contains several fertile vallevs, 
the agricultural possibilities of which are marvelous. 

The Flathead Valley proper is thirty-five miles in length, 

with an average width of eighteen miles, and its altitude is 

about 3,000 feet. The Chinook winds from the Pacific reach 

this valley with their soothing influences, while the Canadian 



winds are warded off by the Main Divide of the Rocky 
Mountains. This makes a very moderate cHmate and precipi- 
tates an abundance of moisture. With an extremely rich soil, 
created by the wash of tlie mountains for ages, all classes of 
crops can be raised. This basin, lying, as it does, between 
the Cabinet Mountains on the west, the Purcell Range on 
the northwest, and the Main Divide on the east, is climatically 
a part of the Pacific Northwest, and is of the same character 
as the more southerly end of the great basin known as the 
Bitter Root and Missoula valleys. 

There are three classes of agricultural land in this valley — 
the bench lands, which are sandy, with gravel and clay sub- 
soil ; the lower bench lands, having a sandy loam, with clay 
sub-soil ; and the bottom lands, having a black loam of mold, 
with a clay sub-soil. The very best of hard wheat, equal to 
that raised in the Red River Valley, and all the other grains, 
timothy, clover, root crops, and large and small fruits, are 
raised. The average yield of wheat is claimed to be thirty- 
one bushels per acre ; oats, sixty-four bushels ; rye, thirty 
bushels ; potatoes, 257 bushels ; and timothy, two and one- 
half tons per acre. Root crops grow large and abundantly. 
The government weather bureau at Kalispell gives the aver- 
age rainfall at 16.62 inches. Fuel, fencing and lumber, 
which are great items of expense in prairie countries, are here 
obtained for the cutting and hauling. Dairy herds, hogs and 
poultry are a source of profit, as the mining camps offer a 
steady market. 

In the Tobacco Plains country, along the Tobacco River, 
about ninety miles northwest of Kalispell, there are several 
townships of rolling, grazing, open timbered lands. The val- 
leys of the Kootenai, Fisher, Libby, and Yakt rivers afford 
fine meadows, open timbered grazing lands, and some farm 
lands. This county has a great deal of timber, and twenty 
sawmills are now located here, turning trees into lumber. The 
output is estimated at 50,000,000 feet per annum ; this is in- 
creasing every year. The Great Northern Railway has built 
a line to the head of Flathead Lake, where is situated the 
largest sawmill in Montana. Here the three-faced railroad 
ties are manufactured, which, after being dried, are im- 
mersed in a solution at what is commonly called "the tie- 
pickling plant." These ties are now being placed in the road- 
i)ed of the Great Northern Railway, and the claim is made 
that in this cured condition they will last thirty years in all 




weathers, as against ten years in the natural state. Lately a 
large lumber plant has been installed on Flathead Lake, with 
a capacity of 24,000 feet per day. 

The various branches of the Flathead River run into the 
lake from different directions. The Kootenai River crosses 
the boundary line, flows fifty miles south, then turns, making 
an elbow, and flows forty miles westward, where it enters 
Idaho. It has many tributary streams, along which consider- 
able mining is done. The scenery is remarkably beautiful. 
Great measures of lignite coal lie in the northern part of the 
county, and adjoining these are the oil fields. In the valley 
proper the government land has all been taken up, but in the 
outlying districts there is room for many more settlers. There 
is a wide territory here, as large as two or three of the east- 
ern states, so there is room for those who are willing to go 
to the outskirts. 

In the winter the thermometer ranges from 10° to 40°, 
seldom reaching zero, and in summer from 60° to 85°, seldom 
going to 90° The scenery is inexpressibly grand, affording 
the lover of nature the opportunity to revel in its glories. 
Lake McDonald and Avalanche Basin are easy of access from 
Belton station. This lake is a jewel and its glacial attrac- 
tions are not only fine but big game in the vicinity is fairly 
plentiful. This gorge has been termed by some the "North- 
ern Yosemite," and the term is well merited. 

Kalispell, the county seat, is a thriving city of 2,520 in- 
habitants, situated on Flathead River, five miles north of 
Flathead Lake. It is the end of a division of the Great 
Northern Railway, and is well built and organized in every 
way. It has good hotels, eight churches, graded schools, elec- 
tric lights, and is quite metropolitan. Other towns in the 
county are Columbia Falls, the seat of the State Soldiers' 
Home ; Libby, Troy, Sylvanite, Dayton, Holt, and Tobacco. 

Dawson County is a large prairie county, lying south of 
Valley County, in the eastern part of the state, and has an 
area of 13,194 square miles, with a population of 2,447. The 
entire country is adapted to and utilized for stockraising. The 
valleys lie lower than the rest of Montana to the west, and 
consequently have a higher temperature ; they are well wa- 
tered, and. with irrigation, will produce well. Here combined 
stockraising and farming is destined to become general in the 
future. The Great Northern skirts the northern part of the 
county, and the Northern Pacific comes in from the east. 



reaches the Yellowstone River at Glendive, and follows that 
stream to the southern border. 

Glendive, the county seat, a city of 1,200, is very pictur- 
esquely situated, and has the Northern Pacific division head- 
quarters, roundhouse, etc. It is a city of pastoral pursuits, 
but of considerable refinement. 

Fergus County. — This county lies directly to the west of 
Dawson County, is very nearly in the center of the state, has 
an area of 6,762 square miles, and a population, in 1900, of 
6,937. It lies largely between the Musselshell and the Mis- 


souri rivers; its length north and south is no miles, east and 
west 125 miles. The county has varied resources, with moun- 
tains, bench and valley lands, and all the dilTerent classes of 
soils. An eminence rises in the Big Snowy Mountains, from 
which many clear and swift running streams radiate in all 
directions. The mountains are producing ores of wonder- 
ful richness, and there are many mining properties that will 
become producers as soon as railway facilities are afforded. 
An excellent quality of coal is found at various places. 

To-day the traveler who visits Lewiston, in the Judith 
Basin, must travel by stage from Great Falls, 120 miles, or 


sixty miles from Harlowton, the end of the Montana Rail- 
way. It is believed that this road will be extended at once 
to Lewiston. On the extreme western border of the county 
are sapphire mines, the stones of which are said to rival those 
from the Orient. The sapphires are mined much as is placer 
gold. Tiffany & Co., of New York, have so far taken the 
entire product. It is known that the sapphire product of the 
United States is approximately valued at $400,000, and that 
the larger portion of this comes from Fergus County. 

The first industry in the county was cattle raising, which, 
hdwever, now is secondary to sheep and wool growings in 
which it is claimed this county ranks first in the United 
States, and that none other closely approaches it in the num- 
ber of sheep ranged, the number of sheep and pounds of wool 
sold, and the value of the product. In the spring of 1902 
there were 685,408 sheep in this county, and it is said that 
the increase for that year averaged eighty-five per cent, bring- 
ing the total in the fall to upwards of a million. The valuation 
placed on those assessed in that spring was $1,560,488. The 
number engaged in this industry is probably 300 ; one firm owns 
38,000 head ; another, 29,000 ; another, 30,000 ; another, 25,- 
000. One stock grower has 9,000 head of cattle, and the ma- 
jority of cattle owners have from 4,000 to 8,000 head. 

In 1902 there were shorn and shipped to the Great Falls 
and Billings wool markets 5,000,000 pounds of wool, which 
sold at an average of about fifteen cents per pound, and brought 
about $750,000. During the fall months of the same year 
large sheep sales were of weekly occurrence, and well in- 
formed bankers estimate the amount received from such sales 
to have been $600,000 within four months. These two items 
bring the revenue from the sheep industry within that year 
to $1,350,000, nearly every dollar of which, it is claimed, has 
been reinvested within the county. With the extension of 
the Montana Railroad to Lewiston there is little doubt of that 
city being made a wool market, as the wool is of fine qualitv, 
and there are large amounts shorn at other points near by. 
A woolen mill is very much desired at this place, and it cer- 
tainly should be successful, considering the ample water power 
obtainable and the amount of raw product to be purchased. 
The cattle raisers have had their measure of prosperity. The 
last assessment in the county gave the number of cattle at 
48,647 head, valued at $1,120,043. ^^o cattle man knows 
within hundreds how many cattle he possesses, however, for 



the only means is the record of calves branded and beef sold. 
An estimate of the number of cattle shipped in 1902 is 6,000 
head, and at an average price of $50 per head the sales 
amounted to $300,000. In addition to the shipments, the home 
market consumes the value of $30,000. 

This county has considerable rainfall, so that general crops 
do well. The oat crop averaged in 1902 sixty-five bushels per 
acre, and many wheat fields yielded fifty bushels per acre. 


There is considerable land left in this county ; the .total acre- 
age of the Judith district in December, 1902, is given as over 
8,000,000 acres, of which over 3,000,000 are surveyed and 
unappropriated, and 3,000,000 unsurveyed and unappropri- 

Lewiston, the county seat, is the largest town in the state, 
not on a railroad. Its population is 1,200, it has several 
churches, good hotels, two newspapers, two banks, a free 
library, high school, water-works, electric light plant, and 


flour mills. The combined deposits in the two banks exceed 
$1,000,000, and there was hauled to the stores by teams 13,- 
000,000 pounds of freight. There are other towns along the 
stage route, but of smaller size. 

This county, lying between the two great railroads, has not 
received its full quota of emigration, and therefore affords 
the homeseeker a much better opportunity to accjuire public 
lands than some of the covmties bordering the railroads. 

Cascade County lies west of Fergus County, has an area 
of 3,400 square miles, is largely a mineral county, and boasts 
of a population of 25,777, being the second county in the state. 
Its surface is made up of mountains, bench lands, and valleys, 
with soil about the same as in the other prairie counties pre- 
viously mentioned. The Montana Central Railway runs diag- 
onally northeast and southwest, following the Missouri River 
through the county. Other principal streams are the Sun, 
Smith, Belt, and Highwood, all of which reach the Missouri 
near Great Falls. The altitude of the Missouri River below 
the lowest falls is 2,800 feet, while the altitude of its highest 
town is 5,600 feet. From any high point five ranges of moun- 
tains can be seen, all more or less heavily timbered with ever- 
greens. These mountains afford clear, short rivers, a cool 
summer climate, and an ample rainfall on most of the bench 
lands. The annual rainfall on the table lands between the 
Missouri River and the base of the Belt Mountains is from 
eighteen to twenty inches. The United States Weather Bureau 
gives the rainfall at Great Falls, from April to August, inclus- 
ive, for the past five years, at from 6.75 inches to 11. 19 inches. 
The table lands are being farmed very successfully, the aver- 
age of the wheat crop being estimated at twenty bushels per 
acre, and it is claimed that when the land is summer fallowed 
and plowed deep, that the yield is thirty-five bushels and 
the grade No. i hard. A single crop of alfalfa is grown here 
without irrigation. Horticulture is in an experimental stage. 
There are good openings in this county for dairying, and a 
good market for all the products. 

The resources of the county consist of the great water 
power afforded by the Falls of the Missouri, which is of great 
importance, and coal, iron, and the precious metals, in addi- 
tion to the agricultural products. The Falls include a series of 
vertical descents and cascades, aggregating in height 520 
feet, which, it is conservatively estimated, will yield 340,000 
horse-power at an average low stage of the river. St. An- 




thony Falls, at Minneapolis, furnish 35,000 horse-power; 
Lowell, Mass., ii,ooo, and Paterson, N. J., only 2,150. These 
falls are distributed over a distance of ten miles, and are 
known individualy as the Rainbow, Black Eagle, Crooked, 
and Colters Falls, together with intervening rapids. En- 
gineers have harnessed Black Eagle Falls without destroying 
its picturesqueness. Above it on the hillside rises, tier upon 
tier, the smelter of the Boston & Montana Copper Company ; 
a little farther down are the Rainbow Falls, the most beauti- 
ful of all the cataracts. The main falls have a descent of 
ninety-two feet. One of the most curious sights in this re- 
gion is the Giant Spring. This is really a river, 200 feet wide 
and five feet deep, bursting out of the earth, spreading out 
into a fan-shaped stream and foaming over the rocks. This 
volume neither increases nor diminishes winter or summer. 
The power utilized from Black Eagle Falls is used in the 
treatment of minerals, the making of paper pulp, manufacture 
of paper, aluminum, plate glass, flour, etc. 

Great Falls is now and always has been a city since the 
railroad was built to its site. It is regularly laid out on the 
east bank of the river. It has an excellent school system, an 
advanced park system, a public library, four banks, two ex- 
cellent newspapers — a morning and evening daily — and sev- 
eral churches. The development of the Falls began about 
twelve years ago, and there are now employed fully 6,000 
men in the various industries. The country from every side 
is tributary to Great Falls, and the resources are so vast that 
a great city is assured. It grew from nothing in 1885 to 14,- 
758 in 1900, and to-day probably has a population of 17,000. 

Iron ores are closely associated with the coal measures of 
this county, and it is said that much interest has been elicited 
lately in these deposits, and there is good reason to believe 
that Great Falls before long will have an iron and steel plant 
added to her industries. 

Niehart, in the Belt Mountains, is the most prominent sil- 
ver camp in Montana. Belt, Stockett and Sand Coulee are 
bituminous coal mining towns, the former being controlled by 
the Amalgamated Copper Company, where they have a large 
mining and coking plant, from which they ship coal and coke 
for use at Anaconda. The output daily is from 100 to 150 
tons of coke, and from 1,500 to 2,500 tons of coal. 

Lewis and Clark County is a long and comparatively 
narrow county bordering the east side of the Main Divide of 





the Rocky Mountains. Covering, as it does, the peaks of the 
range, it is principally mountainous, and in consequence is the 
most prolific producer of the precious metals in the state. Its 
production of gold, silver, and lead in 1900 was $1,679,796.89. 
The gold-bearing belt, according to the 1900 report of the 
State Bureau of Agriculture, Labor, and Industry, extends 
"from its southeastern corner to the south of the city of Hel- 
ena, and thence in a wide semi-circle through Marysville and 
Broadwater to the northwest corner of the county. The belt, 
or 'mother lode,' as it might be called, is several miles in 
width, and everywhere that systematic development has been 
undertaken mines of value have resulted." Good paying 
mines are on every hand, and in the beds and benches of all 


the creeks that flow through the county placer gold has been 
found in quantity, the annual product of these aggregating a 
large sum. Several properties are equipped witli modem 
mills and cyanide plants, and the owners are getting rich re- 
turns for the capital invested. There is no section of the 
state which affords the mining investor or the prospector such 
excellent opportunities, for this county is but little beyond the 
prospecting stage. 

The county is well watered by the Missouri River and other 
streams running into it from the mountains on the east and 
west sides. These streams furnish water for irrigating canals 
and water power for electrical purposes. 

The county has a large area of farmine land, which is al- 
ready occupied by a thrifty class of farmers. The northern 
part of the county is mainly taken up by cattle and sheep 



ranches. The agricultural lands can be purchased at a very 
reasonable figure from those who have large holdings, and 
good profits may be made from smaller and more intensively 
cultivated fields. 

The Dearborn Canal, the first co-operative irrigating canal 
built under the Carey act and the State Arid Land Commis- 
sion, is located in this county, about fifty miles north of Hel- 
ena. The Dearborn Valley comprises an area of 782 square 
miles, 75,000 acres of which are irrigable. The canal system 
comprises 100 miles of main waterway, with several hundred 


miles of laterals, and the reservoir system covers about 3,000 
acres, at an average depth of twenty feet. The main canal 
is thirty-eight feet wide and five feet deep, with an average 
grade of 3.1 feet to the mile. The side canals are from seven 
to sixteen feet in width. The land along this grand artery 
is now being sold to actual settlers, not to exceed 160 acres to 
one person. The state requires that the land be sold for the 
cost of irrigating it, which cost is limited by law to $12.50 per 
acre, with twenty per cent additional, which makes the total cost 
$15 per acre. It is sold for one-tenth cash down and the bal- 
ance in nine equal annual payments, with interest at six per 


cent. The valley soil is a rich, sandy loam, in which the 
growth of vegetation is luxuriant. Those having limited 
means and desiring homes can accjuire them here, with the 
assurance of making farming a success from the start. The 
nearest station to the center of operation is Craig, on the 
Great Northern Railway. (For United States land laws, Mon- 
tana state co-operative laws, and the location of land offices 
throughout the Northwest, see addenda of this book.) 

The course of the streams and the trend of the mountains 
make this county naturally a grand highway from east to 
west, which route is traversed by the Northern Pacific Rail- 
way, the route of the Great Northern Railway being from 
north to south. 

Helena, the county seat and capital of the imperial state 
of Montana, is located at the junction of the Northern Pacific 
and the Great Northern railways. Its population was given in 
1900 as 10,772, but is in all probability to-day more than 

A glamor of romance surrounds this golden city, the center 
of one of the richest mineralized quartz mining sections in the 
world. Its main street marks the identical spot made famous 
by the extraction of millions of dollars in placer gold from 
the gravel of what was known as Last Chance Gulch. A 
handful of prospectors had wandered from gulch to gulch 
during the summer of 1864, panning without success, until 
they finally staked their last chance in this gulch before re- 
turning to the south. And lo ! the first pan of gravel washed 
out twenty dollars ! Claims were immediately staked, the 
news rapidly spread, and Helena became a reality. From 200 
square feet, on the ground now occupied by the Great North- 
ern depot, the owners took out $330,000, and it is said they 
did not go down to bedrock. The output of this gulch and 
those contiguous was $80,000,000. The mines about Helena 
are richly paying their owners, and a multitude of legitimate 
opportunities are still awaiting capital and enterprise. 

As a place for business Helena offers unusual advantages. 
Notwithstanding the fact that the city vi^as twice wiped out 
of existence by fire, in 1869 and again in 1872, and suffered 
a third time from a disastrous conflagration in 1874, its cit- 
izens survived these ordeals, the town was rebuilt on a greatly 
improved plan, and Main street, formerly the celebrated gulch 
itself, has become a busv thoroughfare. 

Powerful dams have been constructed on the nearby Mis- 


souri River, which furnish electric power for manufacturing 
and mining operations in Helena and vicinity. Although 
straight manufacturing is in its infancy (there being perhaps 
500 men employed in this line), a good many wares are made 
and sold to different parts of the state. A million dollar cus- 
tom smelter, which runs to its full capacity on ore from dif- 
ferent localities, is located in the center of a prolific dry ore 
district^ and draws its wet ores from the Coeur d'Alene mines. 
With cheap fuel from the north and east it has every prospect 
for success. In early times Helena was a distributing center 


for goods to miners, and to-day it is a railroad and distribut- 
ing center on much broader lines. 

The Broadwater Natatorium, at the Hot Springs, is mag- 
nificently appointed, and the surrounding grounds are art 
landscapes. The bathing pool is 350 feet in length by 150 
feet in width, and is supplied with natural hot water at a 
temperature of 170°, with the cold water necessarv to temper 
it. Fort Harrison, one of the newest and best equipped 
United States army posts, and the Montana University are 
located here. 

The altitude of Helena is 4,256 feet, and the air is very dry 
and invigorating. The water supply is the best and the cli- 



mate indisputabl)' healthy. The city has many handsome 
business buildings, attractive residences, the best of hotel ac- 
commodations, public institutions, an adequate school system, 
three metropolitan daily newspapers, electric lights and other 
municipal improvements, and all the advantages that go to 
make a modern, up-to-date city. 

The state capitol is located in the eastern part of the citv 
on a plat of ground donated to the state. The grounds cover 
ten acres between Sixth, Lockey, Robert and Montana ave- 
nues. The building is in the Grecian Ionic style of architec- 
ture, Columbus sandstone being used in its construction. It 
is 250 feet in length by 130 feet in depth. From the center 
of the building and crowning the whole rises the dome, which 


is covered with copper and crowned by a statue of Liberty. 
The cost of the capitol and grounds was approximately 

Powell County lies west of Lewis and Clark County and 
the Main Divide. This county is also a long, narrow tract, 
bordering on the mountains, of irregular shape, running in a 
northerly and southerly direction. In the early days this 
county was a part of Deer Lodge County, and was noted for 
its gold placers, which were very numerous and rich. Gold 
Creek being the first place where gold was discovered. Its 
area, estimated, is approximately 3,200 square miles. Quite 



large tracts of arable lands lie in the big Blackfoot and other 
valleys. Its elevation being about 4,500 feet, only the hardier 
crops are raised, but these have a ready sale at the cities of 
Butte and Anaconda, which are good markets for agricultural 
products. Therefore these valleys are well settled. There is 
abundance of water for irrigation purposes. Deer Lodge is 
the county seat, has a population of 1,324, and is the site of 
the state penitentiary. 

One line of the Northern Pacific Railway crosses the county 
from east to west, and another line comes up from the south, 
meeting the main line at Garrison and the Little Blackfoot 
Valley. These give ample railway transportation in the south- 


ern part of the county. The former passes through the tunnel 
to the west of Helena after ascending the mountains in a 
series of long whiplash curves. 

Granite County lies west of Powell and Deer Lodge 
counties. It is a very broken country, with quite large min- 
ing interests, to which the people devote themselves in place 
of farming. Phillipsburg is the county seat, and has a popu- 
lation of 2,000. A branch of the Northern Pacific Railway 
reaches Phillipsburg from Drummond, which gives railway 
communication. The pay-roll of the various mining compa- 
nies in this county is very large. 

MissouL.v County lies south of Flathead County, on the 
extreme western border of the state, extending to the top of 
the Bitter Root and Coeur d'Alene mountains. It has an 


area of 7,150 square miles and a population of 13,964. The 
Rattlesnake, Blackfoot. Bitter Root and several minor streams 
go to make up the Missoula River, or Clark's Fork of the 
Columbia, which traverses the county its entire length in a 
northwesterly direction, affording a wide expanse of agri- 
cultural lands and a pathway for the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road, as well as a branch line running to Wallace, Idaho. Tlie 
mountains stand out in bold relief, and the valleys and rivers 
are picturesque, which make the scenery very romantic. The 
Flathead Reservation occupies a large and well watered tract 
of land, partially in this county. Here the first school was 


established by the Catholic Missionary De Smet. This is now 
the Catholic Mission of St. Ignatius. 

While grain, hay, and stockraising are carried on to a con- 
siderable extent in these valleys, fruit raising, owing to the 
moderately tempered climate, is more widely entered into. 
Peaches, apples, pears, grapes, and prunes are grown suc- 
cessfully. Orcharding in all western Montana has proved a 
profitable industry, the fruit being large, sound, and finely 
flavored. In consequence lands have advanced very rapidly 
in price, and irrigation being required, the private holdings 
have sold, on irrigation ditches, from $150 to $200 per acre, 
and set out to trees and cared for for a term of years, $300 per 
acre. These prices may seem extravagant, but it is claimed 


the orchards will often make lOO per cent for the owner in a 
year after they come into bearing. 

There is some very fine stock in this county, notably the 
Jersey herd of Dr. Mills at Lola, twelve miles south of Mis- 
soula. They are registered full bloods of very high grade. 

At Bonner is a large sawmill, the lumber business being 
quite extensive, and there are several other sawmills in the 

Missoula, the county seat, is located at the mouth of Hell 
Gate and Rattlesnake rivers. It has a population of 4,329. 
Surrounding this city are manv beautiful views of mountains 
and valleys, the very beauty spots of earth. The city has ele- 
gant brick blocks, with all modern improvements, good hotels, 


churches, the state university, and an attractiveness found in 
but few places in the west. 

Ravalli County is another of those favored localities oc- 
cupying a position between the Main Divide and the Bitter 
Root mountains. It encompasses the Bitter Root Valley, 
which is considered the very paradise of the state. This val- 
ley runs in a northerly and southerly direction a distance of 
seventy-five miles, and has an average width of about twelve 
miles. Mountains of great height, with their forests and 
snows, girdle the green fields and orchards of the valley in 
such near proximity that the whole seems as one great park. 
Along the line of the valley hot springs are found in abun- 
dance, mingled with a myriad of lakes, cold as ice and clear 
as crystal, and abounding in trout. In this valley at Hamilton 


the late Marcus Daly located his great stock farm, where were 
bred and reared the best blooded and fastest horses of the 
United States. Since Mr. Daly's death these thoroughbreds 
have been sold and the farm is being transformed into one 
great orchard, which now has 70,000 fruit bearing trees. The 
magnitude of this farm may be better understood when it is 
known that its length is sixteen miles, that there are hun- 
dreds of miles of drives traversing it, that of this magnifi- 
cent domain 50,000 acres are under fence, and 22,000 acres 
under cultivation, making it perhaps the largest actually cul- 
tivated farm in the world. Everything is well kept and auto- 
matic gates open at every turn. The Dal)' summer residence, 
the most beautiful country place in the west to-day, is located 

Although lumbering is carried on to a large extent and the 
mineral resources of the mountains are considerable, the repu- 
tation of the valley is based upon its scenery and its fruit. 
The climate is temperate, since the valley is well sheltered, 
and frequent showers fall during the months of May and 
June. Where a gravel sub-soil exists only is irrigation re- 
quired, but the conditions are such that each farmer constructs 
his own ditch from one of the numerous streams. The reser- 
voir of snow in the near mountains furnishes ample water for 
all needs. Dairying is very profitable and there is room for 
many dairies on an extended scale, with the very best of at- 
tendant conditions. 

It is estimated that there are 13,500 acres of land in Mon- 
tana now devoted to fruit raising, and of this 6,000 acres, or 
nearly one-half, are in the Bitter Root Valley. 

Large tracts of timber cover the mountain sides, and the 
lumber business affords employment to more than 500 men. 
At Hamilton the Anaconda Copper Company has a very large 
lumber manufacturing and mercantile business. The city has 
a population of 2,000, and is quite a summer resort, with an 
excellent hotel. Stevensville is the oldest town in western 
Montana, and is known as the site of the first wheat field. St. 
Mary's Mission, the burial place of Father Ravalli, is in a 
good state of preservation. 

The Bitter Root branch of the Northern Pacific extends 
from Missoula as far up the valley as Grantsdale, and from 
there on good mountain roads have been constructed at con- 
siderable expense, which gives the entire county good trans- 


Meagher County lies south of Cascade and Fergus coun- 
ties, has an area of 2,500 square miles and a population of 
2,526. This is another one of the great stock producing coun- 
ties, having a remarkably diversified area, covering the upper 
valleys of the Smith and IMusselshell rivers, between the Big 
and Little Belt mountains. There is no finer or more pro- 
ductive region in all the state than these valleys, which are 
well settled, but, like all the west, have room for more. 

The mountains carry much mineral and it is confidently 
expected that this county will not only rival other great min- 
ing centers, but produce all the iron needed for use by any 
extensive steel plant. The Montana Railroad is built to Har- 
lowton, but White Sulphur Springs, the county seat and dis- 


':^'i'^'{ . 

- ,--."■' 




tributing point for the county, is an inland town, being dis- 
tant twenty miles by stage from Dorsey. 

Broadwater County lies immediately west of Meagher 
County, has a population of 2,641, and an area of 975 scjuare 
miles. It covers the valley of the Missouri River from the 
vicinity of the confluence of its three forks northward to with- 
in a few miles of Helena, which is the route traversed by the 
Northern Pacific Railway. There are several private water 
ditches in this county, affording ample water for farming pur- 
poses, and the lands under these ditches are being sold for 
from $25 up. There is, however, ample opportunity for more 
extended irrigation, which can be accomplished under the 
various modes heretofore explained. The crops of this county 
are very bountiful and the climate is fairlv mild. 

Townsend, the county seat, located on the Northern Pa- 
cific Railway, has a population of 900. From the town of 


Lombard the Montana Central Railway is built up Canyon 
Creek to Harlowton, as before mentioned. 

Jefferson County lies west of Broadwater, has an area 
of i,6oo square miles and a population of 5,330. The county 
is very mountainous and the valleys of the Jefferson, Prickly 
Pear and Boulder are very narrow. Hay, grain and vege- 
tables are raised, and sold in the local market. It is a first 
class mineral county, and Prickly Pear Gulch was one of the 
scenes of the early placer diggings. Much of the ores carry 
zinc and it is expected a smelter will be built to reduce this 
class of ores, which will add very largely to the production. 
The prospector or the small farmer will find the conditions 
of this county offering him excellent openings. Boulder, the 
county seat, has a population of 2,200, and is located on the 
Great Northern, which traverses the county between Butte 
and Helena, and a branch line of the Northern Pacific ex- 
tends to Elkhorn. 

Silver Bow County and Butte. — This county lies just 
west of the Main Divide of the Rocky Mountains, is the 
source of the headwaters of Clark's Fork of the Columbia, 
and is therefore a part of the Oregon country rather than 
of the Missouri or Mississippi country. Considerable farm- 
ing is done, but the mining industry is so tremendous as to 
entirely overshadow every other interest. The extensive cop- 
per mines of Butte are the wonder of the age, the mines pro- 
ducing annually in copper, gold and silver upwards of $50,- 
000,000, and in copper alone one-fourth of the output of 
the world. Farming, railway operations, commercial inter- 
ests, are all in some way connected with these mines. The 
Great Northern Railway transports the crude ore from one 
group of mines at Butte to the smelter at Great Falls and 
brings in return coal and coke from the Anaconda Company's 
plant in Cascade County. The Butte, Anaconda & Pacific 
Railroad transports the crude ore from another group of 
mines in Butte to the great Washoe smelter and refinery at 
Anaconda. The Northern Pacific Railroad contributes in 
various ways to the prosecution of mining and smelting, and 
now runs its Pacific Coast Limited and St. Louis Burlington 
Express via Butte, thus dividing with Helena the honors of 
having a main line. The Union Pacific, over the Oregon 
Short Line, at one time the only railway outlet, contributes 
its full share of transportation.. The stores, the smaller man- 
ufactories, and all the arteries of trade are either adjuncts to, 


or in some way connected with, the business of mining, so 
that nothing can be said about the county which does not in- 
clude Butte and a history of its mines, for every enterprise 
centers in that famous hill comprising the towns of Walker- 
ville, Centerville, Meaderville, and Butte, all known to be 
world as the city of Butte, "The Greatest Copper Camp on 

The United States Census of 1900 gives the population of 
the county as 47,635, and the population of Butte as 30,470, 
and since that time the city especially has maintained a rapid 

Butte is very cosmopolitan, for it is a great working bee- 
hive of people of varied interests and nationalities. It is sub- 
stantially built, largely upon a hillside, and is very striking 
in some parts, for business blocks and tailing dumps from 
the mines are in close proximity. The cultured man here 
touches shoulders with the miner, and the silk tile and the 
sombrero walk the streets together, one signalizing the story 
of financial success, the other the free life of the mountains. 
The arts of Europe are cultivated in palatial homes, while 
western manners are assumed upon the street. Money has 
been made by millions, as it only could have been made in the 
early days, and it is now being diverted into other and more 
modernized channels. 

The real history of Butte begins with the gold placer dig- 
gings of the '50's, when many millions were taken out at 
Silver Bow, Rocker, and Butte camps ; when the toilers of 
those days lived in tents and brush shanties adjoining their 
labors. This may be term^ed the first epoch in its history. 

A decline in mining activity began in 1870 and lasted until 
1874, when the ores at Butte were found to have a value in 
silver^ and a mode of treatment was discovered. From this 
time until 1882 gold and silver were the only ores looked for. 
In 1880 the camp had reached a population of 3,000. During 
this year the Utah & Northern, a narrow gauge railroad, now 
the Oregon Short Line, a broad gauge railroad, reached Butte 
and aided very materially the progress of the city. This 
may be termed the second epoch. 

The third and greatest epoch came in 1882. This year 
recorded the discovery of the great body of copper ore in the 
Anaconda mine. Its effect was revolutionary and it was this 
event which finally established the camp on an enduring basis. 
Development proceeded on every hand, and each succeeding 



strike added fuel to the fire until the fact had developed that 
the hill was a veritable mountain of copper. The camp was 
still a great gold and silver producer, but the production of 
copper increased two hundred and fifty fold in 1883, and 

since that year the march of that metal has been in giant 
strides to its present greatness and enthronement as king. 

The estimate of the production of all the mines to the pres- 
ent is $600,000,000 in value, which places this camp second 
only to that of Johannesburg, in Africa, which has an an- 
nual production in gold of $100,000,000. 



The assessed valuation of the taxable property m Butte 
to-da_v is very close to $70,000,000, so that, taking the 1900 
census as a basis, there would be nearly $2,500 to every man, 
woman and child in the city. Handsome residences have been 

built during the past few years, an excellent street car sys- 
tem has been established, as well as a perfect sewerage sys- 
tem ; and water has also been brought over the mountains 
at great expense, thus creating sanitary features which are 
unequalled by any other city in the west. Excellent hotels 
have taken the place of earlier structures and the best of ac- 


commodation is assured to the traveler, while the citizens 
of Butte will be found to be progressive and hospitable. The 
Columbia Gardens lie just outside the city and are a very 
attractive pleasure resort, especially during the summer 
months. The city boasts of seven public libraries, thirteen 
newspapers — three of which are dailies and as enterprising 
as any in the United States — twenty-seven churches, twenty- 
one public and eight private schools, a State School of Mines, 
three opera houses, and more than one hundred mines and 
four smelters in active operation, which annually are pro- 
ducing nearly $60,000,000 and distributing to the laboring 
population nearly $20,000,000. 

"Within an area of 1,000 acres," says Ex-Governor Rick- 
ards, "there are being produced, in round numbers, 10,000 
tons of ore daily, which, if hauled in one train, would be two 
and one-half miles in length, and the annual output would 
load a train 800 miles in length, or one reaching from Chi- 
cago to Philadelphia. There are consumed in the smelters of 
Butte and Anaconda annually 2,000,000 tons of coal ; there 
are used annually in the mines 100,000,000 feet of sawed tim- 
ber, and 1,500,000,000 feet of sawed lumber, this not taking 
into account the round timber used for lagging. It has been 
computed that the sawed lumber would build 75,000 seven- 
room houses, which would require 540 acres for their sites." 

Butte is essentially a dual city — a city above ground, with 
business streets and a busy population, and a city below 
ground, from where the blasts are heard, tearing apart its 
internal structure. Mule cars are wending their way through 
the tunnels of the lower city ; at the same time the electric 
cars are encircling the city above. The mines have been 
worked to a depth of 1,800 to 2,200 feet, and the estimate of 
prominent geologists is made that they will hold out for more 
than a hundred years. 

A singular scene meets the eye of every visitor to the city, 
for verdure, either on lawn or tree, is entirely extinct for a 
considerable radius, owing entirely to the influence of the 
sulphurous fumes from the smelters. The elevation of the 
city, at its most prominent business center, is 5,785 feet, but 
rises several hundred feet higher to a point at the apex 
of the hill. This affords a fresh mountain air, which, usually 
in motion, clears away the smoke, so that the health of the 
city is remarkably good. 

About nine-tenths of the copper producing area in Butte 




is covered by the Anaconda Copper Mining Co., the Boston 
& Montana Co., and the Butte & Boston Co.^ In each of 
these the Amalgamated Copper Co. owns the controlling in- 
terest. Of the companies just named, the Anaconda is by 
far the largest. The individual producing mines of the 
Anaconda group are the Anaconda, Neversweat, St. 
Lawrence, Bell, Diamond, High Ore, and Mountain Con- 
solidated. The entire production of these mines is trans- 
ported over the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railway to the 
great Washoe smelter and the refinery at Anaconda, and 
are there treated. This smelter will be described separately 
under the head of Deer Lodge County and Anaconda. The 
Butte & Boston Company has four mines in its group and has 
its own smelter near the mines. The Boston & Montana 
group consists of four mines and. ships its ore to the smelter 
at Great Falls for treatment. The Butte Reduction Co., 
known as Senator Clark's Company, owns and works three 
mines and operates its own smelter. The Colorado Smelting 
and Mining Company operates several mines and smelts the 
ore at the mines. The Montana Ore Purchasing Co., con- 
trolled by Fritz August Heinze, ranks third in prominence. 
The ores are smeltered in Butte and the individual mines are 
known as the Rarus, Nipper, Cora, and there is one mine 
the title of which is in dispute. There are several independ- 
,ent properties, and development work is still going on in 
the outskirts of this rich belt. 

Butte is the commercial, industrial and financial center of 
a great state with rich and manifold resources. Some of 
the largest mercantile establishments west of Chicago are 
to be found here, and all commodities are sold at moderate 
prices. The Hennessy Block, a combined department store 
and office building, is the most prominent structure in the 
city. The banking capital of the city runs into the millions, 
and the Business Mens' Association, which represents all 
the leading commercial interests of the city, is wide awake 
and progressive. The mining industry is seen here in its ad- 
vanced stages, as the most scientific methods are utilized. 
Electricity and compressed air are employed, the former be- 
ing brought seventy miles. Modern mining machinery has 
been installed, and the leading mines are equipped with steel 
gallows frames of modern type, displacing the obsolete, 
wooden shaft houses. The mines are well regulated and 
safelv managed, so that accidents are reduced to the minimum. 




The eight hour system is in vogue, and the average wages are 
$3.50 per day. The men belong to unions and are thrifty and 

Butte is a great, growing, busy city, unique in many re- 
spects, a young and lusty giant of the Rockies, well capable 
of doing battle with any industrial interest throughout the 

The Amalgamated Copper Company, which owns stock in 
the principal mines of Butte, now controls approximately 
two-thirds of the copper mining business of the state. It 
also controls companies which own great bodies of standing 
timber, used largely for mining purposes as well as for man- 
ufacturing into lumber. It owns foundries, machine shops, 
brick yards and coal mines in Montana and Wyoming, and 
the immense new smelting plant at Anaconda, the largest of 
its kind in existence, besides the smelters at Great Falls and 
Butte. With but few less than 15,000 employes and a yearly 
pay roll amounting to nearly $15,000,000, the various com- 
panies in which the Amalgamated is interested bear a large 
part in the business of the state. They produce nearly fifty 
per cent of the copper output of the United States, and ap- 
proximately twenty-five per cent of the world's copper, and 
stand among the principal producers of silver. The Amal- 
gamated interests have been built up with the aid of eastern 
capital out of the copper business as it previously existed 
in this state, and every effort is being made to continue the 
development of these immense resources along the lines in- 
stituted by Marcus Daly and other pioneers of the business. 
There has already resulted therefrom an era of expansion 
and progress in every direction : the mines are being worked 
on an enlarged scale : the ore bodies are practically inex- 
haustible, and the great smelter at Anaconda, which cost 
more than $6,000,000, is in successful operation, and is un- 

There is everywhere confidence in the Butte mines, the 
highest wages are paid to the workers, and good feeling and 
co-operation between labor and capital is perhaps as well 
exhibited there as anywhere in the country on a scale of 
this magnitude. The farmers, the stock raisers, the business 
men, in fact, the whole state, derive benefit from the opera- 
tions of this great company, which operations are being rap- 
idly supplemented by other undertakings. Eastern capital, 
in conjunction with western enterprise and courage, is com- 




billing not only to open mines, but to build woolen factories, 
water plants, electric power installations and other institu- 
tions for the benefit of advancing civilization. The wonder- 
ful development taking place in the state of Montana is an 
iastance of the east and the west working together in har- 
mony, combining intellect and money, not only for profit, 
but for the benefit of the workmen, who in all the different 
lines of employment are happily situated. Progress leads 
liberality by the hand and has not time nor inclination to 
stop to grind the souls of the poor. To be among the fore- 
most in the advancing army of commerce and industry seems 
to be the laudable ambition of the Amalgamated Company. 

Deer Lodge County and Anaconda. — Deer Lodge County 
lies west of Silver Bow County, has an estimated population 
of 13,000, most of which is contained in the city of Ana- 
conda. Farming and stock raising is practiced in the county 
to a considerable extent, but as in Silver Bow County, these 
interests are entirely subsidiary to the mining interests, and 
the county is closely identified with the mines at Butte. 

Near the citv of Anaconda are located the great Washoe 
smelter and Anaconda refinery. The accompanying views will 
give a fair idea of this immense plant, which cost upwards of 
$6,000,000 and was nearly two years in building. It con- 
sists virtually of five separate departments, each occupying 
its own building. Not only is it the greatest- enterprise of 
its kind in Montana, but it certainly is of all the West, and 
perhaps of all the world. When the fact is known that 10,- 
000 car loads of material were used in its construction, some 
idea of its magnitude can be gained. Twenty million feet 
of lumber were used in the buildings, and 5,000,000 more in 
the seven miles of flume, constructed from the three lakes 
at the head of Warm Springs Creek, high up in the moun- 
tains, to give the plant a water supply. This flume delivers 
50,000 gallons of water a minute, supplying the city of An- 
aconda as well as the smelter. The site of the smelter covers 
300 acres of ground, of which seven acres are covered by 
the concentrator alone. The works have a capacity for treat- 
ing 6,000 tons of ore per day, and give employment reg- 
ularlv to 1,500 men. Two immense power houses furnish 
steam, compressed air and electricity to aid the mechanical 

Smelting and Refining Process. — The ore is first sam- 
pled in the sampling mill at the concentrator, and is then as- 




sayed to ascertain the exact value of each lot in copper, silver 
and gold contents. The smelting ore goes direct to the blast 
furnaces, while the concentrating ore is given to the great 
concentrator plant, 600 feet long and 400 feet wide, with 
about 600 jigs, or concentrating machines, the degree of con- 
centration being from forty to fifty per cent. The coarser 
concentrates go to the blast furnaces, and the finer to the 
calcining furnaces or roasters. The roasting plant consists 
of fifty-six great furnaces, which do their work automati- 
cally, burning off much of the sulphurous element in the 
concentrates, to prepare them for the reverberatory furnaces. 
The concentrating plant is well up on the hill, the roasters 
are below it and the reverberatories and blast furnaces still 
farther down, with the converters lowest of all. All the 
plants are connected by a complete system of tramways, with 
motors operated by compressed air, and the waste of each 
plant, the tailings, slag and ashes, is carried down the hill 
by gravity in launders or flumes, supplied with water from 
the main flume, brought seven miles to reach a point on the 
hill above any of the works. Such of the waters passed 
through the concentrator as may still contain metaliferous 
values held in suspension, are directed by launders into three 
large settling ponds, where the suspended matter is grad- 
ually precipitated, and after a time the water is drawn off 
and the mud or slum, as it is technically called, gathered up 
and made into briquettes, to be treated at the blast furnaces. 
When the coarse smelting ore and the coarse concentrates 
reach the blast furnaces, and the finely concentrated and cal- 
cined ore reaches the reverberatories, the smelting process 
proper may be said to begin. There are fourten reverbera- 
tories, each with a daily capacity of producing 175 tons of 
copper matte, and seven blast furnaces which handle the re- 
mainder of the ore treated. In these furnace plants, and in 
the converting plant, which has nine Bessemer converters, may 
be witnessed the daily conflict of fire and steam, compressed 
air and electricity, aided by the genius, experience and labor 
of man, to reduce the refractory products of nature to his 
daily needs. The furnaces are charged directly from the 
tram cars with ore, fluxes and fuel, and every appliance is 
provided to aid the toilers in their hot work. Still, great 
care and skill are required in handling hot copper. When a 
furnace is tapped, the work is strenuous and exciting, arid 
knowledge and courage are both essential. At last the hot 




metal springs from its confinement and falls into the ladle 
cars waiting to carry it to the converters. Here, still hot, it 
is blown, or aerated and refined, to remove the last vestige of 
sulphur, and then it is poured into great ladles which are 
caught up by sixty-ton traveling cranes, and emptied into 
the casting furnaces. These furnaces cast the copper into 
anode cakes for the electrolytic refinery. 

Up to this point the silver and gold of the ores have 
followed along with the copper. As their value amounts to 
several millions a year, they must be saved. So the anode 
cakes are carried by railroad to the refinery, across the Warm 
Springs Valley, and hung into electrolytic baths in lead-lined 
tanks having a capacity of 10,000,000 pounds or more of 
product monthly. This process makes pure cathode copper, 
arid deposits the silver and gold contents of the anode cakes in 
the form of mud at the bottom of the tank. A simple pro- 
cess of furnace refining makes this mud into bullion bars of 
standard fineness. 

Thus are the commercial products of copper, silver and 
gold wrested from the refractory sulphide ores of Butte hill 
in these wonderful works instituted by the courage of modern 
enterprise. Such works mark the epoch in which we live, 
and show the progress made in the application of human 
knowledge — the adjustment of inanimate things — to the needs 
of humanity. 

The lime rock for fluxing is obtained in the hills near the 
smelter, and fire-brick and silica-brick, which have no equal, 
are made near the plant. The coal, coke and ore are brought 
from Butte by giant locomotives in heavy train loads of 
sixtv or sevent)' cars, each car having fifty tons capacity, 
and thus the cost of transportation is reduced to a mere 
switching charge. In addition to the smelting plant, a very 
complete plant in all its details exists for the manufacture 
of mining and smelting machinery. Besides its own con- 
struction work, considerable work is done for mines and 
smelters throughout the Northwest, British Columbia and 

The city of Anaconda is adjacent to the great smelter and 
is connected with it by rail and electric lines. In conse- 
quence of its proxmity, it may look forward to many years 
of prosperity. It is situated in the Warm Springs Valley 
and enjoys a very pleasant location, girdled by hills, in the 
Main Divide of the Rocky Mountains. It boasts of a free 




library, the leading daily newspaper, and the best appointed 
hotel in the state, and it enjoys all the conveniences of a well 
governed city. The hotel is newly remodeled and up to 
date in all respects, the appointments, fare, and service being 
exceptionally and surprisingly good for one found in the 
very heart of the Rocky Mountains. 

The city is in direct and almost hourly touch with Butte, 
which is only twenty-eight miles distant. The Northern Pa- 
cific line passes through the county from north to south, which, 
with the terminus of the Oregon Short Line at Silver Bow, 
and the Great Northern terminus at Butte, all connected with 
Anaconda by the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railway, afford 
an outlet in every direction. 

Custer County lies in the extreme southeasterly part of 
the state. It was named for General Custer, who was mas- 
sacred with his command on the Little Big Horn, now in 
Rosebud County, but formerly a part of Custer County. It 
has an immense area, reaching approximately 14,000 square 
miles, being larger than several of the eastern states. It is 
a prairie county in its entiretv, the climate and natural con- 
ditions making it a stock and wool growing section. The 
bad lands occupy the extreme southeastern part, but there 
are many good farms in the river valley. It is classed among 
the semi-arid counties and requires irrigation, which has been 
attempted so far in a moderate way with the Tongue River 
ditch. Lands outside the ditch can be bought to-day for 
$2.50 per acre, and those within the ditch section at $25 
per acre, with water. The crops mainly raised are wheat 
and alfalfa. The prices charged for water are $2 per acre for 
cultivated land, $1.50 for hay land, $1 per acre for new land. 
This, of course, annually. 

Miles City, the county seat, is a growing town of 2,000 pop- 
ulation, situated on the bank of the Yellowstone River at 
the mouth of the Tongue River, and on the Northern Pacific 
Railway. It has good, paved streets, an electric light plant, 
and other modern improvements. The State Reform School 
is located here. Immense beds of lignite coal, which the set- 
tlers use to good advantage, underlie the entire county. The 
Northern Pacific Railway follows the valley of the Yellow- 
stone River through the northwest part of the county. 

Rosebud County was carved out of Custer County and has 
an area of about 12,000 square miles. It has the general 
features of Custer County, except that it is more moun- 




tainous and a large portion of the southern part of the 
county is covered by the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reser- 

Forsythe is the county seat, is located on the Yellowstone 
River and on the Northern Pacific Railway, which follows 
the valley of the Yellowstone from east to west. It is the 
center of a generally better country than that to the east. 
The county is well watered but semi-arid. 

Yellowstone County lies immediately west of Rosebud 
County, covers the valley of the Yellowstone River for a 
hundred miles, and extends from the Big Horn River on 
the southeast to the Musselshell River and Fergus Coiinty 
on the north. It is a fine agricultural county and is semi- 
arid, but the waters of the Yellowstone have been utilized 
in irrigating with great success. It has immense stock inter- 
ests, which make it a very wealthy county. In 1902 Billings, 
the county seat, claims to have purchased more wool than any 
other place in the United States. The climate is fairly mod- 
erate in winter and quite warm in summer as compared with 
the western part of the state, owing to the low altitude, which 
is about 3,000 feet. 

Billings is situated on the Yellowstone River and the North- 
ern Pacific Railway, which still follows the Yellowstone Val- 
ley in its course to the west. The city is strong commer- 
cially and has grown steadily since its birth. It has a pop- 
ulation of about 8,000, and all the improvements which would 
ordinarily go with a city of 25,000 inhabitants, including 
electric lights, sewer system, etc. A number of fine residences 
are being built, one in particular, which, in its appointments 
and decorations, classes with anything in the state. The op- 
portunities for settlement here are good, but the public lands 
are all taken up, except in the upper ranges, which cannot 
be irrigated. Lands along the ditches can be purchased at 
a reasonable price. 

Carbon County lies south of Yellowstone and between 
the Yellowstone River and Wyoming. It has an area of 
3,000 square miles, and a population of 7.533, of which a 
very large portion are miners. The combined resources are 
mining, stock raising and farming, and although this is a 
small count^•, for the man of small means it is one of the 
very best in the state. The streams are quite rapid, so that 
numerous small ditches have been made to water the bench 




Nearly the entire county is underlaid with bituminous 
coal, which is shipped for smelter and domestic purposes to 
a considerable distance. Many men are employed in the mines 
at Red Lodge, at Carbonado, at Bridger, and at Gebo, so that 
there is a large demand for agricultural products. At Car- 
bonado the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. is erecting a large 
coal mining plant. Several small companies are operating col- 
lieries, and it is predicted that soon fully 10,000 men will be 
working in these mines. Silver and gold are found in the Wood 
River district, as well as several of the other districts. The 
county seat is Red Lodge, but there are other good places, like 
Gebo, which are destined to become business cities. The North- 
ern Pacific operates a branch line to Red Lodge and to Bridger. 

Sweet Grass County lies west of Yellowstone and Carbon 
counties, has an area of about 3,000 scjuare miles, and a pop- 
ulation of 3,086. This is a rich county, is well settled, and 
well irrigated, especially along the Yellowstone River and 
the valley of the Sweet Grass River, which runs into the 
Yellowstone from the north. Two canals are now being built, 
under the arid land law. A part of the county was settled 
by Hollanders, who have good farms and a cheese factory, 
and are very prosperous. This is one of the best parts of 

Big Timber, the county seat, is located on the Yellow- 
stone River and the Northern Pacific Railway, which trav- 
erses the county east and west, following the valley of the 
Yellowstone. It is a substantially built town, with a large 
volume of business, and has much pretensions to becoming 
a great wool market, having shipped 3,000,000 pounds of wool 
in 1900. A woolen mill is now being built to utilize this 
product. A flouring mill and a creamery are a part of the 
industries. Good mines are located in the Crazy Mountains, 
which, with other industries, will no doubt give Big Timber 
a brilliant future. 

Park County lies west of Sweet Grass and borders the 
state of Wyoming on the south. It has a population of 7,341, 
and is named Park County since a small strip of the Yellow- 
stone National Park covers the southern part of the county. 
Like most Montana counties, the resources consist of stock 
raising, farming and mining. The waters of the Yellowstone 
Valley traverse the countv from the Park regions to the Sweet 
Grass country, giving the clearest and purest water that can 
be desired. The mountains are comparatively wild and the 





vallej's narrow. Mining is assuming considerable propor- 
tions, especially in the southeastern part, some good strikes 
being reported, while coal mining and the manufacture of coke 
is also increasing. The Northern Pacific crosses the county 
from east to west and the road to the Yellowstone Park from 
Livingston runs as far as Gardiner. 

Livingston, the county seat, is located on the Yellowstone 
River and the Northern Pacific Railway, whose shops here have 
lately been doubled in size. This is a growing and substantial 
town. Population in 1900, 2,778. 

Gallatin County lies west of Park County and the Yel- 
lowstone Park. The Gallatin River traverses the county from 
north to south and yields water for irrigation purposes, as do 
manv others of the smaller streams. The greatest success is 
attained in the growth of all kinds of crops, especially alfalfa, 
and fruits. There are several flourishing villages in the 
county. Bozeman, the county seat, has a population of 
5,000, two banks, two flour mills, churches, clubs, the State 
Agricultural College and station. The Northern Pacific en- 
ters the count)' from the east and follows the Gallatin and 
Missouri River valleys through Broadwater County. 

Mauison County borders on the state of Idaho, lies imme- 
diately west of Gallatin, has an area of 4,250 square miles, 
and a population of 7.695. It is the most southerly county 
of the state, covering the valleys of the Ruby, Madison, Wil- 
low and Jefferson rivers. Its resources are the same as most 
Montana counties. There is considerable rainfall in this 
county, so that little irrigation is required. Irrigated farm 
lands can be procured for from $8 to $35 per acre. This is 
cheaper than the same quality of lands can be had for in 
other parts of the state. 

Virginia City, the county seat, was the capital of Mon- 
tana territory, and the scene of early placer diggings, as was 
also Alder Gulch. Population in 1900, 578. Virginia City was 
the scene of great excitement and high prices. One doUar 
was paid for letters being carried to or from Salt Lake City ; 
lumber brought $250 per thousand feet ; potatoes sold for $6 
per bushel, and wheat for $4 per bushel ; flour averaged $30 
per hundred pounds and in the camps reached $110 in gold 
in May, 1865, when paper money was worth but forty cents 
on the dollar. 

With its large area of agricultural land and vast mineral 






resources Madison is one of the most promising counties in 
tlie state. 

Beaver Head County lies west of Madison County and 
adjoins the Idaho line. Farming and stock raising are very 
profitable in these valleys, the soil being good, and not being 
far distant from Butte an excellent market is afiforded. The 
Union Pacific traverses the county north and south, and 
Dillon, a lively town on this road and the Beaver Head River, 
is the county seat. Population in 1900, 1,530. 

The Yellowstone National Park is almost entirely located 
in northwestern Wyoming, but the major part of the tourists 


who visit it do so by way of Livingston. The area of this 
Park is 3,412 square miles. It consists of an elevated volcanic 
plateau, hemmed in by mountains whose peaks rise to a height 
of from 10,000 to 13,000 feet, the general level of the plateau 
being from 7,000 to 8,000 feet. The Main Divide of the Rocky 
Mountains crosses the Park in a circuitous line, its peaks be- 
ing mostlv extinct volcanoes. Electric Peak, the highest of 
the volcanoes, has an elevation of 11,155 feet. 

The Park is filled with natural wonders, such as hot and 
cold springs, both mammoth and small, of all apparent colors 
and qualities, cliffs of natural glass, flowing and spouting 
geysers, beautiful lakes, deep canyons and great falls. Per- 



haps of all these wonders, the beauties of Yellowstone Lake, 
"Old Faithful" geyser. Beryl Springs, the Paint Pots, and the 
Terrace may be enumerated as the most interesting, all of 
which are eclipsed in grandeur by the Grand Canyon and 
falls of the Yellowstone. The best of writers have admitted 
that their descriptive faculties were rendered powerless bv 
the awe inspired by this vast but resplendent chasm. 


The tourist season begins June i and ends September i ot 
each year. The Park is sixty-two miles long and fifty-four 
miles wide, and the trip from Livingston to encompass it is 
made in five and a half days. The first day takes the traveler 
from Livingston to Gardiner, fifty-one miles by rail, and then 
seven miles by stage to the mammoth hot springs ; the sec- 
ond day from Mammoth Hot Springs to Lower Geyser Basin, 


by stage fort)' miles ; the third day from Lower Geyser Basin 
to Upper Geyser Basin and return, by stage eighteen miles; 
the fourth day from Lower Geyser Basin to Yellowstone Lake 
hotel, by stage forty-seven miles ; the fifth day from Yellow- 
stone Lake hotel to Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, by 
stage seventeen miles ; the sixth day, Grand Canyon to 
Cinnabar, thirty-nine miles by stage, and to Livingston, fifty- 
one miles by rail, making a total of 270 miles, of which 168 
are made by stage coach. The stage coaches are easy riding 
and seat from six to ten passengers each, and the hotels in 
the Park are comfortable, steam heated and electric lighted, 
each accommodating from 150 to 250 guests. 


The name Idaho is an Indian name and signifies "Gem of the 
Mountains." The state lies west of the Rocky Mountains, be- 
ing a part of the Pacific North- 
west. Its eastern boundary is 
formed by* the Coeur d'Alene 
and Bitter Root mountains and 
the State of Wyoming. Ne- 
vada and Utah bound it on the 
south, from which point the 
state extends 485 miles to the 
..^^^^ ,_ Canadian line. Oregon and 

j jjg 'M^^Hb^-^^a Washington lie to the west, the 

canyon of the Snake River 
marking the boundary line for 
more than a third of the dis- 
tance. The area of the state 
is 84,800 square miles, of which 
510 square miles are water. 

Early History. — The terri- 
tory now comprised in the state 
of Idaho originally formed a part of the Oregon territory. The 
Lewis and Clark expedition across the state, following largely 
the Clearwater River, is referred to in the general historical 
matter. The Coeur d'Alene country was settled about 1842 
by the Jesuit father, De Smet, who founded a line of missions 
throughout the Rocky Mountain country, the most prosperous of 
which was probabl}- the one near Coeur d'Alene Lake. During 





Lee Moorliouse, Am. Photo. Pendleton, Ore. 


the gold excitement of 1852 various prospectors came into the 
state, and in 1854 Fort Lemhi was erected on the Salmon River, 
among the Nez Perces, by a colony of Mormons, who were 
finally driven back to Salt Lake ; a French Canadian settle- 
ment was also established on the St. Mary's River. 

Owing to the Civil war and the fame of the Salmon River 
mines, a tide of emigration swept westward in 1862-3. In 
1863 Congress constituted the territory of Idaho, which had 
been successively a part of Oregon, Utah and Washington ; 
in 1864 a part of it was set aside as Montana, and in 1868 an- 
other part as Wyoming. In 1890, in its present size and form, 
it was admitted as the forty-third state of the Union, or thir- 
tieth in the order of admission. In 1863, as a territory, it had 
four organized counties and ten mining towns. From 1865-8 
and from 1874-8 the country was much disturbed by Indian 
wars. After this the development of the natural resources of 
the state went steadily forward, mining and agriculture making 
rapid advances. The Oregon Short Line built its road north- 
ward, which afiforded better mtans of transportation, and irri- 
gation was practiced with success. Boise was made the capi- 
tal of the territory and of the state, and will remain so by spe- 
cial act until 1910, when the cjuestion of a transfer to another 
city will be submitted to the people. In this state the practice of 
polygamy is made a bar to citizenship. 

Topography. — The surface of Idaho is exceedingly diversi- 
fied. The state is a wedge-shaped plateau, the chief features 
of which are the drainage systems of the Snake and Columbia 
rivers, with an extensive arid plain along the banks of the 
former river in the southern part of the state. The country 
north of this plain is exceedingly mountainous. The Rocky, 
Bitter Root, Coeur d'Alene and Cabinet mountains extend 
along the northeastern border of the state, and in Ihe center 
are the Clearwater, Salmon River and Saw Tooth ranges. In 
the extreme southeast are the Snake River, Goose Creek and 
Bear River ranges, and in the southwest the Owyhee. The 
Salmon River Mountains extend along the river of the same 
name and reach a height of 12,000 feet, their summits being 
rugged and mostly covered with snow. The surface of Idaho 
has an average elevation of 4,700 feet, rising from an altitude 
of 647 feet at Lewiston to 12,078 feet in Hyndman Peak in 
Blaine County. 

Between the mountain ranges are many valleys watered by 
numerous streams, some being of considerable size. The larg- 




est river in the state is the Snake River, which has its source in 
Yellowstone Park. It flows across the entire state in a broad 
curve, and, with the exception of a small corner in the south- 
eastern part of the state, and in the Panhandle country, drains 
the whole state. This river has a number of falls and rapids, 
the more notable of which are the American, Twin, Salmon 
and Shoshone Falls, the latter having a descent of 210 feet. 
The basaltic clifl^s, which flank the river, and the descending 
large volume of water make a sublime spectacle. On the west 
side of the state the river flows through a deep canyon, one of 
the most remarkable in the United States, in some places ex- 
ceeding the Grand Canyon of Colorado in depth. The main 
tributaries on the east are the Salmon, which receives the 
larger part of the drainage in the central part of the state ; 
the Wood, Boise, Payette, and Weiser, and in the southwest 
the Bruneau and Owyhee rivers. The Clearwater and Palouse 
rivers come into the Snake from the east and the northern 
part of the state, and the waters of the Panhandle drain to the 
Columbia through the Spokane River, which rises in the Bitter 
Root range, Clark's Fork and the Kootenai. Among the lakes 
of the state three are worthy of especial notice : The Pend 
d'Oreille, an expansion of Clark's Fork, thirty-five miles long 
and eight miles wide ; the Coeur d'Alene, twenty miles long, 
and the Lower Priest, eighteen miles long and five miles in 
width, all of which are in the Panhandle country. 

Geologically considered, the southern part of Idaho is a 
great lava plain, similar to the main Columbia Plateau of east- 
ern Washington and Oregon, The soil throughout this region, 
whenever subjected to water, produces bountifully. The moun- 
tain ranges of this portion of the state are mainly of silurian 
and carboniferous ages. Numerous fossils have been found, 
including the remains of mastodons, elephants, and alligators 
and other saurians. In northern Idaho the mountains are 
chiefly eozoic. In this part of the state the elevated table 
lands produce without irrigation. 

The mountains of the northern part of the state, including 
the upper portion of the Boise, Payette and Weiser valleys, 
are heavily covered with forests of white and yellow pine, 
larch and fir. The valleys and sheltered basins are covered 
with grasses, which afford excellent pasturage. The southern 
counties, or those of the Snake River plains, have a growth of 
sage-brush, and the country south and east of that river is 
covered with grass and sage-brush and a scattering growth of 





evergreens on the mountains. The timber resources of Idaho 
are almost unhmited. No state in the Union contains more 
extensive timber behs, though the timber m size and height is 
not so large as the forests west of the Cascade Mountains. 
These timber belts lie in the mountain districts in the more 
northerly part of the state, and are estimated to comprise 
35,000 square miles, or forty-two per cent of the total area of 
the state. Lumbering has become an industry of importance, 
and with the extension of railway facilities into the mountains 
will attain large proportions. Four-fifths of the Bitter Root 
forest reserve and nearly all of the Priest River reserve lie in 
Idaho. The estimated stand is 450,000,000 feet, the greater 
part being yellow pine, with a quantity of red fir, and in the 
marshy districts dense masses of cedar. 

Climate. — The climate of Idaho varies with the altitude, ths 
same as in eastern Washington and Oregon, the air being dry 
and highly rarefied. In the mountainous districts the winters 
are extremely cold and there are heavy snowfalls, but on the 
plains the winters are quite moderate, while in the valleys the 
temperature is mild and the snowfalls light. The greatest 
rainfall occurs in the mountain regions of the north, the pre- 
cipitation in the lower valleys and on the plains being in gen- 
eral so light as to make irrigation necessary to the growing of 
crops. The average annual precipitation for a term of years 
for the entire state has been 17.52 inches, but the range between 
the extremes in the various portions of the state is very great. 
Oakley, in Cassia County, one of the southern tiers of coun- 
ties, has a precipitation of 8.03 inches, while the rainfall at 
Murray, in the extreme northern part of the state, is 46.88 
inches. The annual precipitation of rain and snow at Lewis- 
ton is about twenty-four inches and the mean annual rainfall 
at Boise is 30.1 inches. The mean annual temperature at 
Boise is 50.9°, the range being from — 28° to 107°. The cli- 
mate is very healtliy, perhaps no state in the Union shovv^ing 
so low a death rate. 

Resources. — The leading industries of the state are min- 
ing, lumbering, and agriculture. The mineral products con- 
stitute the chief source of wealth. Mining is, however, in its 
infancy, owing to the lack of transportation in the mountains, 
which is needed very badly to bring coal to the camps and 
transport the ore to the smelters. This will no doubt be reme- 
died in time, when electricity will be transmitted from Twin, 
Shoshone ot other falls. Gold was first discovered on the 




Clearwater River at Orofino Creek in i860. In 1862, in the 
Idaho Basin, placers were discovered which yielded in 150 
square miles more than $50,000,000. In 1900 Idaho ranked 
fourth in the order of silver producing states, the output for 
the year being $8,312,372, coinage value, and $1,724,700 in 
gold. The Coeur d'Alene district of this state vields one-fourth 
of the lead produced in the entire United States and it is the 
chief source of supply for the smelters of Colorado, Montana 
and Washington. There are valuable copper deposits in the 
Seven Devils district, in Washington and Idaho counties. 
Cinnabar has been discovered, carrying a high per cent in 
quicksilver. Throughout the mineral regions there yet re- 
main vast stretches of country practically unexplored, and new 
and important discoveries are expected each year. The latest 
finds are at Buffalo Hump, Rocky Bar, Atlanta and Skelteh 
Creek, but the sensational discovery was at Thunder Mountain 
in 1901. This mountain stands near the corner of Idaho, 
Lemhi and Custer Counties, is nearly encircled by the Salmon 
River, and is expected to become a great camp. There are six 
routes now laid out, the principal of which are from Red Rock, 
Mont., Black Foot, Shoshone, Lewiston, Boise and Stites. 

The agricultural resources are great in almost all parts of 
the state. It is estimated that there are 16,000,000 acres of 
agricultural lands, large areas of which require irrigation. The 
state, as well as private enterprise, has given unusual attention 
to the irrigation problem, and great advancement has been 
made. The upper valley of the Snake River, from Maryville 
Falls has many canals, the upper Snake River plains being well 
adapted to irrigation. Other ditches are vmder advisement on 
a large scale, while still others have been constructed at Moun- 
tain Home, Glens Ferry, and in the Boise, Payette, and Weiser 
valleys. In the short period of ten years irrigation has added 
to the improved area thirty-eight per cent, and a farm wealth 
of $12,000,000. 

North of the Clearwater River the country does not need 
irrigation, Latah County producing wheat equal to any section 
in Washington. The important fruit belts are along the im- 
mediate Snake, Boise and other valleys, and at Lewiston, 
farther north. The southeastern part of the state is better 
adapted to diversified farming — grains, grasses, vegetables and 
alfalfa yielding enormously. 

The inaccessibility of Idaho has tended to retard its devel- 
opment. There being no navigable rivers in the state, it is 







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evident that the transportation problem must be solved by the 
building of railroads. The construction of the Oregon Short 
Line northerly through the eastern portion of the state and 
west through the southern part encouraged very generally 
the existing industries. The Northern Pacific and the Great 
Northern cross the Panhandle in the extreme north, the former 
reaching Lewiston and Idaho County. The Oregon Railroad 
& Navigation Co. also crosses the Panhandle, reaching the 
Coeur d'Alene mines and the Palouse country, and is now build- 
ing up the Snake River to Lewiston. J\Iuch has been said about 
a connection with the Northern Pacific via Lolo Pass and the 
Clearwater to Lewiston. The conditions seem to be more fav- 
orable to new developments in the immediate future. 

There are many prosperous towns in the interior of the 
state, far from railway communication, which are the centers 
of the cowboy, ranchman and miner, and are often the seat of 
vast fortunes acquired from the ranging of sheep and cattle. 
The stage coach is in evidence in all parts of the state. 


Lemhi and Custer Counties. — It may be said that all 
that part of the state lying south of the Salmon River in its 
course to the west is arid, and requires irrigation. This 
would include with these counties the southern part of Idaho 
County. The south, or main fork, of the Salmon River heads 
in the heart of the Saw Tooth Mountains, and runs northerly 
for a distance of 200 miles to Shoup, via Salmon City. The 
east fork and the Pahsimero head in the Lost River Mountains 
and empt}' into the main Salmon above Salmon Cit}'. The 
Lemhi heads in the Rocky Mountains and enters at Salmon 
City. This drainage area is an empire in extent and is won- 
derfully rich in agriculture, stockraising, timber and mineral 
resources. The principal industry is mining, but these coun- 
ties are fast taking a prominent place in the state in agriculture 
and stockraising. The water supply is ample. Most of the 
irrigated lands are in Custer and Lemhi Counties, which lie at 
an elevation of from 4,000 to 6,000 feet. The principal devel- 
opment is in Custer County, in the vicinity of Challis. Here 
several ditches have been taken out, owned mostly by indi- 
viduals. The developments on the Pahsimero River are chiefly 
in the vicinity of Morse and Goldberg. There is a large amount 
of good land in this valley that can be developed. Some of the 




irrigated lands at the head of Lost River are in Custer County. 
As the Lemhi ilows deep below the main body of agricultural 
land the latter is watered by creeks coming in from either side. 
There are many opportunities here for those with small means 
to become prosperous. The Oregon Short Line branch road, 
now in operation from Blackfoot to Mackey, in Custer County, 
with the proposed extension to Salmon City, will afford ade- 
quate transportation for this rich region. 

Challis is the county seat of Custer County, and Salmon 
City of Lemhi County, both being thriving towns with fine bus- 
iness blocks, water systems and lighting plants. 

The Snake River \'alley. — With the exception of an area 
of 4,000 square miles, in the southeast part of the state, which 
is drained irfto the Salt Lake Basin, all the arid land of Idaho 
lies within the drainage of the Snake River, and this river and 
its tributaries must furnish water for all this region, two-thirds 
of which will be supplied direct from the Snake River itself. 

A great sheet of lava extends from one side of the valley to 
the other and throughout its entire length. In some places its 
thickness is ten feet, while near the central portion 800 feet is 
exposed. In most places its surface has been covered to a great 
depth by an alluvial deposit of silt and gravel brought down 
from the neighboring mountains. This in turn is covered by 
soil of volcanic origin, which, when properly irrigated, pos- 
sesses wonderful fertility. In the great central portion ridges 
and great beds of lava are exposed on the surface, but for the 
most part a covering of soil exists which sustains a heavy 
growth of sage-brush and the entire region is used as a winter 
range for sheep and cattle. The upper end of this valley lies 
at an elevation of 5,500 feet, while the lower and western end 
(Washington County) has an elevation of about 2,200 feet. It 
is from seventy-five to 100 miles in width between the foot- 
hills of the opposite mountain ranges. The surface of the val- 
ley varies from flat bottom land, sloping with the river, to high 
plateaus, falling back, terrace above terrace, to the foothills 
on either side. Henry's Fork, in the eastern part of Fremont 
County, flows on the top of a lava sheet to a point several 
miles southwest of St. Anthony to a point on the mam river at 
Idaho Falls. The flow is on top of an alluvial deposit which 
rests on the lava. From Idaho Falls to a point ten miles be- 
low, the river flows on top of the lava, but from this point to 
American Falls the lava is covered by an alluvial deposit con- 
sisting: chieflv of gravel. At American Falls the river descends 





about fifty feet, the Oregon Short Line crossing at this point, 
the bridge being right over the faUs. The river now flows be- 
tween high benches for a distance of fort)' miles ; westward to 
the Cedars it flows between high lava ridges that rise rapidly 
a short distance back from the stream. Below the Cedars these 
ridges are covered to a great depth with a fine volcanic soil. 
From the Cedars to the mouth of Clover Creek, a distance 
of eighty miles, the river is in most places a raging torrent, 
having an average fall of about twenty feet to the mile and 
cutting its channel deep in the lava sheet many hundred feet 
below the level of the valley. In this stretch of the river 
several magnificent falls occur, the most noted being the great 
Shoshone Falls (210 feet) and Twin Falls (180 feet), while 
at intervals other vertical leaps are made, in many cases from 
twenty to fifty feet, all suggesting, in addition to the natural 
grandeur of their surroundings, the wonderful electrical possi- 
bilities which can be utilized in the industrial development of 
the state. 

From the mouth of Clover Creek to the state line, a distance 
of about 140 miles, the river flows on top of an alluvial de- 
posit, which forms little valleys in the canyon from 400 to 1,000 
feet below the level of the great plains on either side. Through- 
out this section it flows on top of a deep alluvial deposit brought 
down from the mountains by the streams in the southeast, and 
the high plateaus which border it on either side for the last 
300 miles of its course give way to broad and gently sloping 
valleys of the different tributaries. 

From the southwest corner of Washington County to the 
mouth of the Salmon River, the Snake River flows at the bot- 
tom of a canyon at the foot of the steep slopes of high moun- 
tains on either side. A few miles below the Salmon the moun- 
tains fall back, leaving broad bench lands bordering on the 
river from 500 to 3,000 feet in elevation. Near Lewiston a 
few low benches occur, lying from twenty to 150 feet above 
the river, and at an elevation of about 750 feet above the level 
of the sea. These lower benches are irrigated, but the high 
plateaus of Nez Perces County are cultivated without irri- 

No branch streams join the river from the north between 
Henry's Fork, in the extreme northeast corner of the state, 
and the Big Wood River in Lincoln County, a distance of 
nearly 300 miles, the courses of the streams which rise in the 
mountains on that side being obstructed by this great lava de- 




posit. The description of the Lost River country is given later 
with Blaine Count)'. While a great central plain containing 
more than 5,000,000 acres, is not crossed by a single stream, it 
is by no means worthless, for it is one of the best winter ranges 
in the west, and large sections of it can be reclaimed by irri- 

Fremont, Bingham and Bannock Counties constitute 
the upper Snake River Valley. Here is the beginning of the 
greatest irrigation district in the United States. Canals have 
been constructed and others are being pushed to completion 
for the irrigation of all that vast and fertile region lyi-ng be- 
tween the eastern boundaries of Fremont County and Amer- 
ican Falls in Oneida County, comprising about 700,000 acres 
of land. The total length of these canals, when completed, will 
be not less than 650 miles, and land throughout this region can 
be purchased at extremely moderate prices. The source of 
the water supply is from the high plateau and never failing 
snows, and lakes of Yellowstone Park. The flow of the river 
is quite regular, and the flood-flow occurs late in the season. 
From St. Anthony to Blackfoot the river banks are low and 
the river has a fall of but five feet to the mile, so there is no 
difficulty of diverting the water from it into ditches. The large 
canals have for the most part been constructed by the settlers 
themselves and were not expensive, some costing not more 
than from $1.00 to $4.00 per acre for the land irrigated, while 
the annual maintenance, including wages of overseer, or water 
master, does not amount to over twenty cents per acre, and 
on some canals as low as five cents per acre. At American 
Falls a high ridge of lava crosses the river and ends the upper 
irrigation district. This strip of country is about 135 miles 
in length and from five to twenty miles in width, contains 
nearly 1,100 square miles, and of this vast area about one-third 
is now being tilled. 

This section of Idaho is especially adapted to the raising of 
vegetables, the hardier fruits, hay, wheat, oats, barley, and es- 
pecially alfalfa. The conditions and cost of two or three of 
the many canals are here cited for the sake of reference. 

The Marysville Canal & Improvement Co. main canal, with 
laterals, has a length of about thirty miles and intends to 
irrigate 25,000 acres. Estimated cost, $20,000. The water 
is sold at $6 per inch and annual cost of maintenance. Idaho 
Canal Co. cost $50,000, belongs to the resident land owners, 
and a share of stock costs $15, which entitles the owner to ten 





miner's inches of water. The annual maintenance is about 
$i.oo per share. The Reservation Canal, about thirty miles in 
length, is designed to water the Fort Hall Indian Reservation, 
where there are 125,000 acres of land below irrigation level, 14,- 
000 acres of which has lately been thrown open to settlement 
around Pocatello. The American Falls Canal & Power Co.'s 
canal heads ten miles above Blackfoot and is 200 miles in 
length, including the laterals. It cost $325,000 and is under 
the Carey act. 

The counties of Fremont, Bingham and the upper part 
of Bannock constitute the upper Snake River Valley and 
are as rich as any counties in the state. They will develop 
large diversified farming communities, and inexhaustible ranges 
for cattle and sheep. In the vicinity of Idaho Falls, in 1902, 
there were fattened on alfalfa and wheat and shipped 20,000 
head of hogs, vidiich gives a fair idea of the fattening quali- 
ties of this wonderful plant, which is raised under irrigation 
in such prodigious crops. Thousands of acres here are un- 
settled and open to filing under the desert and homestead acts. 

Idaho Falls, on the Oregon Short Line, with a population of 
1,700, has water works, electric lighting plant, telephone sys- 
tem, seven churches, a creamery, flour and planing mills, and 
the State Experimental Station. The price of land under ditch 
in this vicinity ranges from $10 to $20 per acre; unimproved, 
$5 to $10 per acre. 

St. xA-nthony, on the Oregon Short Line, has a population 
of 1,200, good schools, churches, and several industries. Black- 
foot, on the same line and the junction of the Salmon River 
branch line, has a population of 1,500, is the seat of the state in- 
sane asylum, the United States Land Office, the largest district 
in the state, and is quite a shipping point. 

Bannock, though one of the southeast counties, is a part of 
the upper irrigation district. It has a large section of agri- 
cultural lands on which large flocks of sheep and herds of cat- 
tle are ranged. 

Pocatello is the county seat, has a population of about 
5,000, and is a great railroad center, being a terminal point 
for the Oregon Short Line from the east, via Granger on the 
Union Pacific, also via Salt Lake and Ogden from the Southern 
Pacific Railway, Portland, via the Oregon Railway & Naviga- 
tion Co., and Butte, Mont., from the Northern Pacific and ttie 
Great Northern, thus having communication from all points 
of the compass. Large railroad shops are located here, em- 



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pIo\'ing upwards of 500 men, and the city is in a thrifty con- 
dition. Mines are being opened in the near vicinity and ev- 
erything points to this soon becoming a mining center. 

Bear Lake County is the extreme southeasterly county of 
the state. This is a county of high altitude, lying in the Rocky 
Mountains, and is devoted largely to cattle and sheep raising. 
The mining interests are becoming prominent. Bear Lake, a 
body of water covering eighty square miles, the greater part 
of which is located in this county, is one of the most beau- 
tiful lakes of the mountains, and abounds in trout, white fish, 
bass and other varieties of the finny tribe. 

Montpelier is situated on the Oregon Short Line and has 
a population of 2,000. It is growing very fast at present, good 
business blocks and other buildings being erected. Paris is the 
county seat, located on the Oregon Short Line, and is an- 
other good town. This county is having a genuine mining 
boom in a conservative way. 

Oneida, Cassia and C)\\viiee Counties are bounded on 
the north by the Snake River, and on the south by the boundary 
line of the state. They have a mild climate and are therefore 
capable of producing all the agricultural crops and fruits, and 
are comparatively well watered. The largest body of level 
land is perhaps found in the Cache Valley, in the eastern 
part of Cassia County, but which lies too high for irriga- 
tion. Farther to the east considerable land is irrigated along 
several creeks. On Deep Creek and the Malade X'alley, in 
the western part of Oneida County, are the best opportunities 
for water storage sites. 

In Cassia County is the site and district covered by the 
Twin Falls Land & Water Co., which is an enterprise in- 
volving the reclamation of 271,000 acres of land, to cost 
approximately $1,500,000, and is perhaps the largest indi- 
vidual irrigating undertaking in the United States. Two hun- 
dred and thirty thousand acres of land are located in this county 
and 41,000 on the north side of the Snake River, in Lincoln 
County. The average altitude of these counties is 4,000 feet, 
and the climate is very mild. In Cassia Countv are some of 
the richest fruit lands in the state, the sun during the summer 
months striking the lower valle3's with almost a tropical heat. 
Three dams will be constructed at Twin Falls on the Snake 
River, to a height of fifty-four feet. The river at this point 
is 1,600 feet in width and will be raised to a height of thirty- 
four feet. This land is subject to the Carey act, therefore only 




i6o acres will be sold to an individual. There will be a town 
at the dam and a water-power site named Milner, and another 
named Twin Falls, to which a railroad connected with the Ore- 
gon Short Line is projected. The majestic Shoshone Falls is 
in this district. 

With the exception of a few scattered ranches along the 
narrow bottom of the rivers, irrigated by short ditches, or water 
taken out by current wheels which lift the water direct from 
the river, the Snake River itself is not used for irrigation pur- 
poses from American Falls to Lewiston, owing to the depth 
of the valley proper. 

The northern part of these counties, west of Pocatello, 
consists of high plateaus, a part of the Snake River plains. 
They lie at an elevation of about 3,000 feet and extend back 
from twenty to sixty miles. Back of these plains is a range 
of mountains, the summits of which, in places, are in Nevada, 
but the northern slopes parallel the Snake River. The Salmon 
and Bruneau rivers drain the central district, and both flow in 
deep canyons. On Cedar Creek the farmers have constructed 
a canal, and there are several ditches along the Bruneau River. 
Beyond the ranches are scattered here and there in Owyhee 
County, which is largely a stock cotmtry, but a veritable store-, 
house of mineral wealth. The De Lamar and Trade Dollar 
mines, famous the world over, are here situated. All the ag- 
ricultural products in this vicinity have ready sale at good 
prices in these camps. Silver City is the center of the mining 
districts of Owyhee County, and is reached by a branch of the 
Oregon Short Line. 

Blaine County and the Lost River Country. — It was 
stated before that no running streams enter the Snake River 
on the north from near its headwaters to the Wood River, in 
Blaine and Lincoln counties, or a distance of about 300 miles. 
An area of about 4,000 miles is drained by several creeks, some 
of considerable size, which at one time evidently formed an 
important tributary to the Snake River. Its course is hard 
to guess, for the great lava sheet has not only filled it, but 
obliterated all traces of its existence. The principal streams 
forming this disconnected drainage system are the Big and 
Little Lost rivers, Birch, Blue, Medicine Lodge, Beaver and 
Camas creeks. The mountains drained by these streams rise 
to an elevation of from 8,000 to 12,000 feet, and are known 
as the Lost River Mountains, the main range crossing the 
state from east to west. Not far from the base of these moun- 



tains the waters of the streams sink from sight. Before these 
creeks were used for irrigation their waters were discharged 
into shallow lakes on the lower portions of alluvial plains, the 
lakes being evaporated during the course of the summer from 
the intense rays of the sun. Nearly the entire flow of these 
streams is now utilized. Good land is very plentiful, conse- 
quently the streams are overtaxed and a shortage of water is 
the rule. There are from seventy-five to eighty ditches taking 
water from the Big Lost River, the valley being under cultiva- 
tion for about sixty miles. It is said that it is practicable to 
divert the water from a fork of the Salmon River into one of 


the upper branches of that stream. If the scheme is feasible a 
large territory of very desirable land can be reclaimed. It is es- 
tUTiated that 5,000 acres of land are now irrigated in this valley. 
It is advocated by those well acquamted with the country that 
it is feasible to divert the water of Henry's Fork in the north- 
east part of Fremont County from a point high enough to cross 
the divide between Shotgun and Camas creeks. In this terri- 
tory many thousands of acres of magnificent land could be re- 
claimed. The great Central Plain, along the north bank of 
the Snake River, will perhaps always remain in a desert con- 
dition, bemg used at present as a winter range for cattle and 
sheep, although the underground flow from the Lost River 
Mountain streams may be discovered and brought to the sur- 


From Blue Lakes to the Oregon state line Snake River is 
fringed at intervals with small bottom lands, most of them 
sheltered by the high canyon walls, or bluffs of the upper 
plateau. Between Blue Lakes and the mouth of Malade River 
the water supply for these little valleys is obtained from the 
huge springs which gush out of the north wall of the Snake 
River Canyon which are thought to be from the Lost and 
Wood rivers drainage. The flow of these springs is constant, 
both winter and summer. At Thousand Springs, at the head 
of the Hagerman Valley, they burst out through a porous 
stratum covering a distance of one-half mile and fall i8o feet, 
with the roar of a great cataract, into the valley below. For 
a distance of nearly ten miles below this point springs of great 
volume break out, some forming falls of from twenty to eighty 
feet. Thus what is known as the Snake River Desert, which 
constitutes a part of Freeman, Bingham, Lincoln and Blaine 
counties, is explained. The Wood River district in Blaine 
County, which adjoins the desert, is a very rich district. Though 
of high altitude, most crops are grown, and stockraising is fol- 
lowed extensively. The great mining camps at Hailey and 
Ketchum, the latter being the terminus of the Wood River 
branch of the Oregon Short Line, are thriving centers of trade. 

Lincoln County. — This county, lying at about the center 
of the great arid desert, is covered with a heavy sage-brush 
growth and is not inviting to the eye of the tenderfoot, yet it 
affords the best of winter range for stock, and is perhaps the 
very center of the stock interests. The soil is deep and rich, 
but there is no opportunity for irrigation except immediately 
adjoining the Snake River, where quite a percentage of the 
large irrigation district of the Twin Falls Company is lo- 
cated. It has been advocated strongly that Shoshone Falls 
should produce the electricity as a power for a vast pumping 
plant to raise the waters of the Snake River to the height of 
the plateaus, thus affording relief to a large immediate region. 

A few miles below Shoshone Falls, in the lower or imme- 
diate valley of the Snake River, there are about i,ooo acres 
of land which has been reclaimed by water from Blue Lakes, 
and a considerable portion planted to orchards. This is known 
as the Blue Lakes or Perrine farm, and has been a medal win- 
ner at all the great expositions for the excellence of its fruit 
for several years. There are many other opportunities to win 
medals if the water can be obtained. There graze every winter 




in this county not less than 1,500,000 sheep. Five hundred 
thousand were shipped in 1902. The majority of the wealth 
of the county, up to the present time, has been made from 
the sheep industry. 

Shoshone, a lively little town of 400 inhabitants on the Ore- 
gon Short Line, has representative stores and banks with a 
capital in business befitting a much larger place. This is the 
headquarters of the sheep interests. 

Elmore and Boise Counties. — These two counties are 
noted for their mineral productions. At Mountain Home and 
Glenns Ferry, on the Oregon Short Line, in Elmore County, 
the creeks afiford fine plateaus for irrigating. A new system 
is being projected at Glenns Ferry by building a canal from 
Mammoth Springs, referred to before, the water being brought 
in a six foot wooden pipe and held up by a wire cable sus- 
pension bridge which carries it across the Snake River. It 
is expected that this will irrigate 25,000 acres of land. The 
lands irrigated at Mountain Home are under what is called 
the Long Tom Reservoir system. 

Boise County has a wonderfully rich valley in every way 
and is but moderately irrigated. There are very good oppor- 
tunities here to divert water in a small way. 

Ada and Canyon Counties cover the valleys of the Boise 
and Payette rivers, which are identical in many ways, the 
former being the largest body of irrigable land in the south- 
western part of the state. Here is a great widening of the 
Snake River plains, there being 634 square miles under ditches 
completed and projected, a large portion of which is now 
successfully growing all kinds of crops, especially fruit. The 
Payette Valley in Canyon County has an altitude of from 2,100 
to 2,800 feet, the irrigable portion being about twenty miles 
in length to sixty miles of the Boise Valley. It contains an 
area of 85,000 acres. The soil is a volcanic sandy loam and 
very fertile. The interests of Canyon County are quite di- 
versified, some very large flocks of sheep being found here. 
The land in these two valleys is perhaps the most valuable 
in any part of the state, it being no uncommon thing to gather 
from six year old trees 250 pounds of apples, and from ten 
year old trees 1,000 to 1,200 pounds. 

Nampa, Caldwell, Palmer and Payette are all on the Oregon 
Short Line and are thriving places. The State Agricultural 
Experiment Station is located at Nampa. 

Boise, in Ada County, is the county seat and capital of the 




state. It has a population of 8,068. This city is the business 
center of the southern part of the state ; the citizens are wide 
awake business men, and there is no more beautiful and home- 
like city in all the west. It has all the improvements required 
by a city of its size — street car service, a really first class 
hotel, many substantial public buildings and a natatorium, per- 
haps the finest bathing place west of the Rocky Mountains. 

The state capitol presents the trade mark of the state to the 
visiting public by displaying along the walks leading to it large 
specimens of gold, silver, galena, and copper ores taken from 
its mines. There is no better way of advertising its mineral re- 
sources than this. The government maintains a garrison east 
of the city, and penitentiary and soldiers' home are located 
here. The winter climate being mild, many mining and cattle 
men and transients from other states make this their winter 

Washington County lies in the extreme western part of 
the state, adjoining Oregon. It contains many fertile valleys, 
the largest of which is the AA^eiser, all of them being well wa- 
tered and abounding in timber. The Seven Devils mining dis- 
trict, situated in the northern part of this and in Idaho counties, 
is proving very rich in copper and gold. A number of large 
irrigation systems are now in operation and others are pro- 
jected. The Weiser \'alley, which is irrigated, is the section 
of country near the town of Weiser on the Oregon .Short 
Line and the Snake River. This valley has a wide range of 
products, a mild climate, and is but a continuation of the 
Payette Valley. 

Weiser has a population of 2,000, two banks, wholesale and 
retail stores, its buildings being built largely of brick, a col- 
lege, the largest fruit evaporator in the state, and a large 
flouring mill. At this point the Oregon Short Line turns to 
the west and crosses the Snake River into Oregon. 

Idaho County is the largest county in the state, is very cen- 
trallv located, and extends from the Panhandle on the north 
well into the southern body of the state. The county covers 
the westward valley of the Salmon River, the middle and 
south forks of the Clearwater River, and extends from Montana 
on the east to Oregon on the west. This county has immense 
timber areas and a large portion on the eastern side has been 
set off as a timber reserve. Its mining interests are also large, 
and there is sufficient rain throughout the northern part to in- 
sure the maturing of crops. If needed there is ample water for 





irrigation. This is a part of the famous Clearwater country, 
consisting of fertile valleys and high prairie plains, and has con- 
siderable mining activity. There is a quantity of government 
land to be had and there are perhaps better openings here for 
those of moderate means than in most parts of the state. There 
are several thriving towns in the northwestern part, Stites be- 
ing the terminal of a branch of the Northern Pacific Railway 
from Lewiston and Spokane. 

Nez Perces and Latah Counties. — These two counties 
border on southeastern Washington. They cover the upper 
Palouse Valley, the Potlatch and the lower valley of the Clear- 
water rivers, and are really a combination of these countries, 
being a little higher than the main Palouse, and therefore have 
more rainfall, but irrigation is necessary for raising fruit in 
the valleys. The wealth of this country is immense in timber, 
mineral and agricultural products. 

The Lewiston country, at the confluence of the Snake and 
Clearwater rivers, is the entrance to the central portion of the 
state. This was the route taken by Lewis and Clark in the 
early part of the previous century and here to-day stand living 
monuments to these men in Lewiston, on the Idaho side of 
the Snake River, and Clarkston, on the Washington side — two 
thriving towns connected by a magnificent steel wagon bridge 
over one-third of a mile in length. These towns are located 
at the only widening of the Snake River Valley for several 
hundred miles of its tortuous canyoned course, and are the 
topographical center of a great region and should always enjoy 
great prosperit}^. Their claim for 1903 is a population of 
7,500 conjointly, and that the tributary population equals 50,- 
000. The valley is open prairie and the lands, which are ir- 
rigated, produce enormously in fruits and other crops. Lewis- 
ton has the Nez Perces and other orchards and the boats along 
the rivers transport the wheat which is grown in vast fields on 
the uplands. The Northern Pacific Railway has entered the 
city of Lewiston from Spokane and extended a line to Stites in 
Idaho county ; the Oregon Railway & Navigation Co. is build- 
ing a line up the Snake River, and a movement is on foot 
to build a new rail route with a Montana connection via the 
Clearwater Valley. Further, the government has been urged, 
in the interest of the whole Inland Empire, to improve the 
Celilo Falls of the Columbia, with a fair prospect of success. 
This, with some improvement of the Riparia rapids, would give 
these cities a water communication with the sea. 



Lewiston and Clarkston have many stores, three banks, two 
newspapers, a United States Land Office, state Supreme Court, 
and state normal school. They enjoy the advantage of cheap 
water power from the Grande Ronde Valley in Washington, 
electrically transmitted, and invite new manufacturing enter- 
prises in the use of the raw materials of wheat, wool and tim- 
ber. The town of Clarkston lies in Asotin County, Wash., 
and the business interests of these two cities, and in fact this 
whole region, are identified in every way, except politically, with 
the country to the west. 

Moscow, the county seat of Latah County, is on the North- 
ern Pacific and the Oregon Railway & Navigation Co. railways, 
and has a population of 5,200. It has paved streets, a state 
university, flouring 
mills, and good busi- 
ness blocks. Other 
cities are Genesee, 
Julietta and Kend- 

The prices of land 
in the Clearwater 
Basin are about $125 
per acre for irrigated 
fruit land, the cost of 
planting and taking 
care of it being addi- 
tional. The uplands, that is the plateau lands, which are 
adapted to grain raising, bringing from $5 to $15 per acre. 

Shoshone and Kootenai Counties. — These two counties 
are in the extreme northern part of the state and are known 
as the Panhandle. They are noted for their mineral wealth, 
taken mainly from the Coeur d'Alene mines, in the northern 
part of Shoshone County, and for the manufacture of lumber 
throughout this entire upper section. Shoshone is the most 
populous and the wealthiest county in the state. Idaho, in 
1901, produced as a whole from its mines, a value of $18,000,- 
000; of this the Coeur d'Alene mines produced $9,500,000. The 
products of these mines, although silver bearing, carry so much 
lead that they are in demand at the different smelters through- 
out the northwest. To-day the names of Wallace, Wardner, 
Murray and others are prominently known throughout the min- 
ing world. Fifty per cent of the lead mined in the United 




States comes from the Coeur d'Alene Mountains, within a 
radius of twenty miles of Wallace. These towns are reached 
by the Oregon Railway & Navigation Co. from the west, and 
the Northern Pacific branch from Missoula. 

The St. Joe River district in Kootenai County is the largest 
lumber district, Harrison, located on that river, having ten saw 
mills. St. Mary's and Coeur d'Alene river valleys contain large 
timber tracts. There is a timber area of 2,600 square miles 
along the Canadian boundary line, which is one of Idaho's 
greatest forests. The yellow pine, fir, and tamarac along the 
table lands of the Kootenai and Fend d'Oreille rivers, in the 


vicinity of Bonners Ferry, constitute the major portion of the 
available timber of the Fanhandle. 


This state is known as the "Evergreen" state, owing to its 
dense evergreen forests; also as the "Chinook" state, prob- 
ably from the use here of what is known as the Chinook lan- 
guage, a jargon which enabled the Hudson's Bay Co. people 
and the whites in general . to communicate with the different 
tribes of Indians. The prevailing moist, westerly wind, known 
as the Chinook wind, may also have had some influence in nam- 
ing the state. Washington lies in the extreme northwesterly 
part of the United States, iDordering the Facific Ocean on the 
west, Canada on the north, Idaho on the east, and Oregon on 



the south. The length of the state from east to west is 360 
miles, and from north to south 240 miles, comprising an area 
of 69,180 square miles, of which 2,300 square miles is com- 
prised of water. The census of 1900 gives the population as 
518,103, which in all probability at the present time is at least 

Early History. — The earlier discoveries on the coast are 
previously given in the general history of the I'acific North- 
west. The present state formed the central part of the Oregon 
Territorv, and was claimed by both Great Britain and the 


United States. It was discovered and the straits named by 
Juan de Fuca in 1592 ; was visited by- the Spanish in 1775 ; by 
Captain Cook in 1778; the Columbia River was ascended by 
Captain Robert Gray in 1792, and the same river traversed 
by Lewis and Clark in 1805-6. Fur traders established depots 
at the mouth of the Columbia in 181 1, and later some settle- 
ment was made in southern Oregon, but the first white people 
who were not trappers, fur traders, or explorers to come to 
Washington were the missionaries. Dr. Marcus Whitman and 
party in 1836-7, who established themselves near the present 
site of the city of Walla Walla, and the Rev. H. H. Spalding, 


who opened a mission at Lapwai. Others came later. The 
story of Dr. Whitman's famous wagon, on the sides of which 
was painted "Oregon or the Grave," his labors in educating 
the Indians, his celebrated ride to the capitol at Washington 
in midwinter, when he notified the government of the influx 
of British settlers, his return with many more wagons, and 
his martyr-like death in 1847, are a part of the history of the 
great struggle. In 1840 Joel P. Walker arrived with his wife 
and five children and are entitled to the honor of being the 
first settlers, for they were actually seeking homes. Dvu"ing 
the same year some Rocky Mountain men arrived ; in 1841 
twenty-three families, aggregating sixty-three persons, came 
from the Red River under the auspices of the Hudson's Bay 
Co. This caused Whitman to make his long ride across the 
continent from pure loyalty to his country. A party of 112, 
under Colonel Lovejoy, came in 1842. From this time on set- 
tlers arrived yearly with slight interruptions. 

Permanent settlements had now been made, the boundary 
question had been forced to an issue and decided in 1846, and 
the territory of Washington was organized in 1853. Tum- 
water, at the head of Puget Sound, was settled in 1845 I Fort 
Steilacoom and Port Townsend in 1851 ; Seattle in 1853; and 
many other pioneer settlements were formed through the suc- 
ceeding years until the territory was admitted as the forty- 
second state of the Union on November 11, 1889. 

Topograph V. — The most prominent physical feature of the 
state is the Cascade Range of mountains, which divides the 
state into two* unequal sections, differing widely in character- 
istics, resources and industries. These mountains have an ele- 
vation of about 8,000 feet, the highest peak being Mount 
Rainier, or Tacoma, with an altitude of 14,526 feet. It is 
covered with snow throughout the entire year, and bears sev- 
eral large glaciers. To the south are Mount St. Helens, 10,- 
000 feet, and Alount Adams, 12,470 feet, and northward, near 
the Canadian border. Mount Baker, 11,100 feet. All these 
mountains carry snow fields both winter and summer. 

The topographical feature of western Washington is that 
myriad of bays and harbors, a body of land-locked salt water 
of fully 2,000 square miles in area, with a remarkable length 
of shore line, known as Puget Sound. This is an enchanting 
sheet of water, hemmed in on the east by the rugged Cascades 
and on the west by the serrated Olympics. The scenery is very 
picturesque, and the changing shades of light and color at 




sunset are wonderful. Taking into account the length of the 
Strait of Juan de Fuca, Olympia, the capital city of the state, 
situated on the Sound near its head, would be more than 
200 miles from the Pacific Ocean. The depth of this body of 
water is such that the largest ocean craft may without trouble 
reach almost any part. 

Beginning near the northern boundary of the state, the 
following principal streams flow westward from the Cascade 
Mountains into Puget Sound : The Nooksachk, Skagit, Snoho- 
mish, Duwamish, Puyallup, Nisqually, and the Skokomish, 
from the Olympics in the west. Of these streams the Skagit 
is the only one which may be truly called a navigable stream. 
The Chehalis River discharges into Gray's Harbor on the coast 
and is navigable as far as Montesano. 

In the extreme northwest, surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, 
the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Sound Basin, are situated 
the Olympic Mountains. These mountains afford a majestic 
scene from the water and from any high point along the Sound. 
They have not been fully explored, owing to their broken char- 
acter. The sides are often abrupt and the canyons deep, so 
that of their very interior little is known. Mount OI>'mpus, the 
highest peak, has an elevation of 8,150 feet. 

The great natural feature draining the entire eastern por- 
tion of the state and forming a boundary between Washington 
and Oregon on the south, is the Columbia River. It rises in 
Canada in two sources, one entering the United States in Mon- 
tana, the other in eastern Washington, follows a southerly and 
westerly course to the 46° of latitude, where it turns abruptly 
to the west and flows to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia 
Basin and tributaries include a part of Montana, the entire 
state of Idaho, all of eastern Washington, and practically all 
of Oregon. So far as Washington is concerned, its principal 
tributaries are the Okanogan River, which rises in British Col- 
umbia and flows southward through Okanogan County ; the 
Spokane River, which rises in Idaho, flows northwesterly, and 
joins the Columbia at the eastern elbow of the Great Bend at 
the junction of Stevens, Ferry and Lincoln counties. This river 
is noted for its falls at the city of Spokane. The Yakima River 
rises in the Cascades, flows in a southeasterly course through 
Kittitas and Yakima counties, its valley being the highway of 
the Northern Pacific Railway, and reaches the Columbia a few 
miles above the mouth of the Snake River. Last and the most 
prominent of all the tributaries, is the Snake River, which rises 




in Yellowstone Park in Wyoming, flows through southern 
Idaho, then turns northward and in a deep canyon forms the 
boundary between Idaho and Washington, then turns west- 
ward, reaching the Columbia a few miles below the mouth of 
the Yakima. Many smaller tributaries to the Colum- 
bia — the Methow, Chelan, Entiat, Wenatchee, the valley of 
the latter being the highway of the Great Northern Railway, 
and the Klickitat, whose source is the snow of Mount Adams, 
come in from the western slopes of the Cascades. The Sans 
Poll and Kettle rivers, rising in British Columbia, flow south 
through Ferry County. The Columbia has two important trib- 
utaries coming in west of the Cascades, one the Lewis River, 
which heads high up on Mount St. Helens, and the Cowlitz, 
which rises in the glaciers of Mount Rainier. The Northern 
Pacific uses Cowlitz Valley as a means of reaching the Colum- 
bia Valley on its line between Tacoma and Portland. 

The Columbia River is the largest in this state and is nav- 
igable from its mouth to The Dalles, and from Wenatchee to 
the mouth of the Okanogan. Throughout the remainder of its 
length the numerous rapids left in the channel cut through the 
lava bed, making navigation impossible. The falls above The 
Dalles, known as Celilo, it is believed, can be overcome, and if 
so, with a moderate expenditure at the Riparia Rapids on the 
Snake River between Columbia and Whitman counties, nav- 
igation may be had at perhaps all seasons of the year from the 
vicinity of Lewiston, Idaho, to the sea. 

Throughout the Cascade and Olympic mountains are many 
lakes which have been formed by glacial action, and some 
of them are quite large. The largest is Lake Chelan, in Chelan 
County. It is a long, narrow and beautiful body of water, ly- 
ing between high mountains, and has a dep*:h of 1,500 feet. In 
the mountain regions several lakes occupy old volcanic craters. 
Two exquisite lakes. Crescent and Sutherland, in the Olympics, 
are situated about sixteen miles from Port Townsend. They 
are great sporting resorts for the angler, as indeed are all the 
mountain lakes. 

East of the Cascade Mountains, in the Columbia Basin, 
that portion of the state lying along the Canadian boundary 
and north of the Columbia and Spokane rivers, covering mainly 
the counties of Okanogan, Ferry, Stevens and Spokane, is 
known as the Okanogan Highlands. It is generally rolling in 
character, with long slopes leading down to the river valleys. 



Its height above sea level ranges generally from 6,000 and 
7,000 feet to less than 1,000 feet along the principal streams. 

The region south of the Columbia and Spokane rivers and 
east of the Cascades is known as the Great Columbia Plateau, 
a vast extent of country, built up by many successive flows of 
lava from a depth of from 2,000 to 4,000 feet. The general 
surface above the river 
channels is cjuite level, but 
occasionally rises into hills, 
as in the Palouse country, 
which were probably formed 
by drifting sand and soil ; 
the southwesterly portion of 
these hills being gradual 
slopes, and the northeasterly 
portion more abrupt, indi- 
cating a southwesterly wind 
as the cause. The rivers in 
all instances flow in deep 
canyons made by the erosion 
of the basalt, which stands 
out in imposing clifl^s at ev- 
ery turn. 

The Blue Mountain s, 
which are a division of them- 
selves, enter Washington 
from the south and extend 
to the Idaho line, occup^dng 
a very small area in the ex- 
treme southeastern part of 
the state. They have been 
very prominent in shaping 
the course of the rivers, but 
are only uplifted portions of 
the lava beds of the main plateau. The average height is 
about 6,000 feet, the highest peak being 8,000 feet. 

Climate. — The Cascade Range is high and continues from 
north to south throughout the state. The prevailing winds are 
from the Pacific Ocean on the west and carry much moisture at 
certain seasons of the 3'ear. Owing to the fact that the Cas- 
cades form a barrier to the passage of the moist clouds east- 
ward, a wide diversity of climate condition is created between 
eastern Washington, or the Columbia Basin, and western Wash- 



ington, or the Puget Sound Basin. The waters of Paget Sound, 
the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Gulf of Georgia, and the Pacific 
Ocean together have a wonderful equalizing influence upon the 
temperature, producing a milder and far more equable cli- 
mate than is usual in other regions in the same latitude. In 
western Washington the range of the mean temperature for 
the year is 35° in winter and 65° in summer, or an annual 
mean of from 50° to 52°, while in eastern Washington it is 
from 25° in winter to 70° in summer. 

In the Walla Walla country there are hot summers and 
mild winters, with little snowfall, and short periods of mod- 
erately cold weather. In the Palouse country and Yakima and 
Klickitat counties the summer weather is hot and the winters 
are colder, but with more snow. In Spokane County, the 
Big Bend country, and Okanogan County, still farther north, 
all on the east side of the Cascades, the summers are short and 
hot, and the winters have some cold weather. Spokane has a 
record of 20°. In the hot spells of summer temperatures of 
90° and 100° are sometimes reached. Walla Walla has a 
record of 112°. The locality about Lake Chelan and the 
valley of the Okanogan has a phenomenally mild winter cli- 
mate. Lake Chelan never freezes. The mean temperature of 
Walla Walla and the lower Yakima Valley is from 53° to 54°, 
ranging from 31° in January to 76° in July; Spokane from 
46° to 48°, or from 24° in January to 68° in July; Colville, in 
Stevens County, has a mean temperature of 45° ; Klickitat 
Count}', next to the Oregon line but east of the Cascades, from 
50° to 52° ; Kittitas, the upper or westerly part of the Yakima 
Valley, from 44° to 46° West of the Cascades the temper- 
ature of the hottest days rarely exceeds 90°, and on the coldest 
days of winter seldom reaches zero, and then only at the coldest 
stations. The warmest counties are Pacific, Lewis, Clark and 
Cowlitz, and the whole of the upper Sound region. The lower 
Sound region and the straits are cooler, the mean temperature 
being from 46° to 48° Cool summers and mild winters in 
western Washington are very apparent. The highest tempera- 
ture at Seattle is 93° and the lowest 3° At Tacoma there is 
an annual mean of 50°, ranging from 38° in January to 64° 
in July. Western Washington as a whole has about the winter 
climate of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, 
while the summer climate is that of Maine, \^ermont. Northern 
Michigan and Canada. 

The winters in eastern Washington are neither rigorous nor 




long, and there is no cold weather except when the winds 
come from the north or northeast, the air being dry ; the few 
hot days of summer are not uncomfortable. Eastern Washing- 
ton as a wliole has a similar winter climate to New York, Mich- 
igan, Illinois and southern Iowa, and a summer climate simi- 
lar to that of New York, Michigan and Minnesota, though con- 
siderably dryer. 

The southerly and westerly winds are prevalent in winter and 
very mild. The name "Chinook" has been given to this warm, 
balmy wind, which, rising after every cold spell, dissipates the 
snow fields as if by magic in the eastern part of the state, leav- 
ing but little water upon the ground. This phenomenon is ex- 
plained by the fact that the wind, having lost its moisture on 
the west side of the Cascades, comes to the eastern territory 
over a high elevation and descends into the valley as a dry 
wind. The north and easterly winds in winter are cold and 
cause much of the snowfall. The opposite of this is true in 
summer. The southwesterly and northwesterly winds are the 
prevailing winds of summer and are cool, while the northerly 
and northeasterly winds are hot in the daytime but cool at 
night. When the great plains east of the Rocky Mountains 
are hot during the summer, a wind from the northeast is hot ; 
when the\' are cold in the winter a wind from that direction is 
cold. It is only when the Rocky Mountains fail to act as a 
barrier to the cold winds from the Canadian provinces that 
cold weather ensues. 

The mountains produce the difference in precipitation in 
moisture. This precipitation is heaviest near the coast, ranging 
from sixty to too inches annually. This is called the wet 
district. Throughout the Sound region it is much less, but 
gradually increases as the country rises again to the higher 
summit of the Cascade Mountains. The precipitation here is 
from twenty-five to sixty inches and is called the moist dis- 
trict. The drv district is the northern and eastern portion of 
the state, in which the rainfall is from twelve to twenty-five 
inches, and the semi-arid region is the main Columbia Plateau, 
in which the rainfall averages about ten inches. The rains fall 
usually from November to April, not continuously, however, 
and a strav shower may fall at any time during the summer, 
even east of the Cascade Mountains. From the summit of the 
Cascades over the plateau region the rainfall is largely depend- 
ent upon the altitude, there being a regular decrease going east- 
ward, until, on the low plain along the Columbia River, the 



average precipitation for the year is but ten inches. Continuing 
eastward, as the country rises, in the most eastern part, the 
Okanogan Hills, the Palouse country and at the Idaho line, it 
is from twenty to twenty-five inches annuallx'. It may be said 
here that a country having a rainfall of ten inches or less is 
considered arid, or semi-arid ; an average of twenty inches 
is a good rain belt. 

In the wet district are included the counties of \\'ahkiakum, 
Pacific, Chehalis, Mason, and the western halves of Jefferson 


and Clallam. In the moist district are included the counties of 
Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, San Juan Island, King, Kitsap, 
Pierce, Thurston, Lewis, Cowlitz, Skamania, and the eastern 
halves of Jefferson and Clallam. In the dry district are in- 
cluded the counties of Walla W^alla, Columbia, Garfield, Asotin, 
Whitman, Spokane, Stevens. Ferry, Chelan, the greater part of 
Lincoln, the eastern half of Adams, the western half of Klicki- 
tat, the western third of Yakima, the western half of Kittitas, 
the northwest half of Okanogan, and a strip in the extreme 
western part of Douglas. In the very dry or semi-arid region, 
where crops cannot be successfully grown without irrigation. 


are included Franklin county, the eastern two-thirds of Yakima, 
the eastern halves of Kittitas and Klickitat, the western half 
of Adams, the southwest part of Lincoln, the southeast half 
of Okanogan, and nearly the whole of Douglas county. 

The number of clear days annually in western Washington 
averages 102 for a period of years, and in eastern Washington 


Resources. — The agricultural resources are varied and ex- 
tensive, owing to the peculiarly favorable climate and gen- 
eral richness of the soil. Aside from the mountain re- 
gions, nearly all of the state is adapted to agriculture, but as 
yet only a small portion of the tillable land has been brought 
under cultivation. The soil of the Columbia Basin east of the 
Cascades is volcanic in character and very rich. It has been 
produced by the disintegration of the lava formations, pulver- 
ized to soil by action of the elements or the ice in former ages, 
and is of a dark color, often shading to a reddish brown where 
it has lain the longest undisturbed. In some places it is of 
great depth, even fifty or sixty feet. The soil of the valleys is 
composed of an alluvial deposit with the volcanic ash, and has 
an underlying bed of clay. On the high land the soil is more 
shallow, the texture is slightly coarser grained, is not quite so 
fertile, tills easily, works up mellow, and is particularly tena- 
cious of moisture, holding enough in the dry region, gathered 
from the winter and spring snow and rainfall, to mature grain 
without further aid in summer. These lands comprise the im- 
mense wheat areas, and have long been cropped, producing 
abundantly. It would appear that this volcanic soil has all of 
the necessary mineral salts to produce a wide range of crops 
and that it apparently is inexhaustible. The arid valleys of the 
eastern slope of the Cascades are particularly adapted to hor- 
ticultural products, and the arid plains are producing the 
cereals without irrigation, notably in Whitman and Lincoln 
counties, the latter being the banner wheat county of the 
United States. The total product of wheat in the state of 
Washington was 23,672,187 bushels in 1902. The average 
yield of wheat throughout the general wheat raising country 
has been twenty-three bushels per acre, which has 3'ielded a 
good profit to the farmer, as there is a very large area which 
can yet be cultivated without the aid of irrigation, and by the 
adaptiveness of the soil to this cereal it would seem that the 
production would increase and continue for a long time to 
come. There are now about 2,000,000 acres planted to wheat 





on irrigated land. The system of cropping is different in many 
instances from that of the east : the most successful seems to 
be the system of summer fallowing, one-half of the farm being 
cropped every other year, the other half being plowed in the 
summer and allowed to clean itself. In this way the yield is 
nearly doubled, with the expense of only one harvest. Oats, 
barle^', rye and flax all do well. A large portion of the wheat 
is exported to England and grades well with wheat from other 
parts of the world. 

patkon'izi:;g a wesiek.n caterer. 

On the western slopes the types of soil are entirely different, 
the most valuable, perhaps, laeing those found on the alder 
bottoms. This soil is a loose loam, very rich in organic matter, 
and when properly handled produces immense crops of almost 
anything the farmer may desire to grow. This land, however, 
is quite- limited in area. Another class of land may be called 
semi-peat land, and there are extensive deposits of sand land. 
The sand is usually mixed with clay and grows all kinds of 
crops. The river valleys are well cultivated, being very rich. 
The rainfall makes hay a good paying crop and dairy conditions 



Hops are raised with great success in the Puyalhip, White, 
Snoqualmie, Nooksachk and other river valleys, and also in 
the Yakima Valley in eastern Washing-ton. Enormous quan- 
tities of hops are produced and buyers come to purchase from 
foreign countries. 







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The soil and climate of eastern Washington are especially 
favorable to sugar beet culture. A factory has been estab- 
lished at Waverley, Spokane County, and it is predicted the 
production will reach 10,000.000 pounds annually. This in- 
dustry just at present is attracting considerable attention. 

Dairy farming is well established and has reached a stage 
of great commercial importance, the value of the various prod- 


ucts for i9po being considerably over $1,000,000. The busi- 
ness is well organized, is under the auspices of the State 
College of Agriculture, and is regulated by law. So 
much of the state being adapted to alfalfa, clover, which 
springs up in every clearing, and the different grasses, 
with plenty of clear water from the mountains, there 
is no reason why the dairy interests should not in- 
crease rapidly. The prices for all dairy products in Washing- 
ton are good, as the demand is greater than the supply, a 
large amount every year being shipped in from the East. Root 
crops are not only profitable to the small gardener in every way, 
but are a great aid to the dairyman. The majority of the 
creameries of the state are located west of the Cascade Range, 
but there are dairy sections in the eastern part of the state, 
the Okanogan Highlands and the irrigated regions of Ya- 
kima and Walla Walla counties and the lower Paiouse. 

Stock. — Stock-raising in the eastern part of the state has be- 
come extensive and profitable. Two-thirds of eastern and a 
large part of western Washington is adapted to grazing ; cattle, 
horses and sheep are raised in large numbers, and Angora 
goats have been given a good start, with a promise of becoming 
very profitable. There is a fine herd of full-blood Herefords 
in Yakima County. The State Agricultural College also has 
the nucleus of a herd, and there are several small herds of 
Polled Angus in the state, and several large show herds of 
shorthorns, which strain is the largest represented. The fa- 
mous bunch grass flourishes in the Okanogan Highlands to a 
marked degree, and further south on some of the other high- 
lands east of the Cascades, but on the main plateau the wild, 
or natural growth, of vegetation is sage brush. The 
bunch grass has contributed much wealth to the busi- 
ness of stockraising. Large fortunes have been made 
in grazing sheep on the public land solely for the 
wool clipped, the same as has been done in many of 
the other states. \\'ashington is adapted to sheep raising, 
but the settlement of the state is cutting up the ranges, as it 
is doing for the cattle man, so that the flocks are becoming 
curtailed ; but of late years the sheep have been sold to good 
advantage for mutton, and the disposition is now to own smaller 
flocks of better bloods and give them better care. Washington 
has done quite a business in fattening hogs on wheat, alfalfa, 
and orchard windfalls. It is a common custom to turn hogs 
on the stubble after the grain is cut, and they often have no 





other food than this and come out in good condition for market. 

Horticulture. — Throughout the greater portion of the 
state both climate and soil are highly favorable to horticulture, 
but the localities most widely known for excellence are along the 
Snake, Yakima, Wenatchee and lower Columbia rivers and Pu- 
get Sound. In every section the apple is the leading fruit. All 
the fruits common to the temperate zone are raised in western 
Washington, especially the prune, of which there are extensive 
orchards, and an abundance of high grade cherries. In eastern 
Washington peaches, apricots and grapes do well, as do prunes 
and other fruits. The climatic conditions are such, the temper- 
ature being free from the extremes of heat and cold, yet being 
sufficiently variable to afford nature the requirements to pro- 
duce fruits of good size and flavor, as to make fruit culture a 
very profitable industry. In consequence the fruits of the state 
constitute a most important source of wealth. 

The shot clay soils, where there is sufficient depth before 
reaching hard pan, sandy soils, with a proper mixture of clay, 
and the volcanic ash soils, with an admixture of sand in a 
moderate degree with sufficient water, are the leading soils for 
fruit culture. The soils of western Washington are usually 
high in phosphoric acid and nitrogen, but have a lower average 
of potash and lime than the soils of eastern Washington. On 
the other hand, the soils of eastern Washington stand high 
in potash and lime, but are much lower in phosphoric and nitro- 
gen. Potash is generally the most important element to be ap- 
plied directly to orchards, particularly after trees have reached 
bearing age. Available potash in the soil is much increased by 

Timber. — The forests of the state constitute a most import- 
ant source of wealth. They comprise nearly 50,000 square 
miles, or about seventy-one per cent of the entire land area, 
and extend from the Pacific Ocean to the Cascade Range, in- 
cluding the eastern slope and a portion of the state east and 
north, or the northern slopes of the Okanogan Hills. Near 
the summit of the Cascades, on the western slope, where the 
rainfall is greatest, the trees stand very close together on the 
ground, as straight as arrows, and run more than 100 feet to 
the first limb. It is estimated there is more timber in this state 
than in the combined states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minne- 
sota, and more than in all of the yellow pine states of the south. 
Professor Henry Gannett, Chief of the Division of Forestry, 
U. S., says that with the exception of the redwood forests of 




California, the forests of western Washington are among the 
densest, heaviest and most continuous in the United States. 
The trees are large, reaching from twelve to fifteen feet in 
diameter and to 250 feet in height. The timber is mainly red 
or yellow fir (Douglas), mingled with spruce, hemlock, and 
cedar. The total amount of timber in the state is estimated 
at 114,778,000,000 feet. Of this more than nine-tenths is 
west of the Cascade Range, the remainder being upon its east- 
ern slope and in the northern and eastern part of the state. 
East of the Cascade Range the forests consist mainly of pine, 
and west of the Cascade Range the Douglas fir forms nearly 
two-thirds of the entire forest. The stand is heaviest in Skagit 
County ; the next heaviest is in Wahkiakum County. In west- 
ern Washington the average stand is 18,000 feet per acre; in 
eastern Washington it is but 1,200 feet. The entire area of 
the nineteen counties of western Washington is 24,900 square 
miles. Of this area, but little more than one-third is regarded 
as containing merchantable timber, twenty per cent has been 
cut, 22.5 per cent has been destroyed by fire, and the remainder, 
57.5 per cent is still covered with standing timber. It appears 
that since lumbering began in this region there have been cut 
from it 36,000,000,000 feet, that destroyed by fire amounting 
to 40,000,000,000 feet, with about the same proportion in east- 
ern Washington. Upon the west shores of Puget Sound, and 
as far southward as the Columbia River, as well as throughout 
the eastern slope of the Cascade Range, the forests are prac- 
tically of Douglas fir. Spruce is most abundant immediately 
upon the coast ; cedar increases westward, toward the coast, 
and reaches a maximum immediately on the coast, where it 
ranges from one-half to one-fourth of the forest. Hemlock 
forms quite a noticeable proportion of the forests in the coast 
ranges and in the northwestern part of the Olympic Peninsula. 
Professor Gannett's estimate of the standing timber of the state 
is as follows: Fir, 68,362,971,000; cedar, 16,309,453,000; 
hemlock, 14,848,259,000; pine, 6,586,520,000; spruce, 6,419,- 
215,000; larch, 2,780,601,000; Oak, 3,700,000. 

The fir timber is manufactured into lumber and shipped to 
California, Alaska, and many parts of the world by water. 
This timber has nearly as great a tenacity as oak ; the cedar is 
manufactured into shingles and shipped to all parts of the 
United States, having gained a great reputation for durability. 
The other timber is used in various ways, and the hemlock is 
about to be used for tanning. The largest number of mills in the 



state are located in Snohomish County. The total number of 
mills in the state at the last estima*^'" was 444, with a daily 
capacity of 9,380,000 feet of lumber and 28,700,000 shingles. 
In the entire industries there were employed in mills, logging 
camps and allied industries, 24,000 men, receiving $14,260,000 
in annual wages. The 1900 census gives the lumber traffic as 
follows : Domestic, water, and rail shipments, over 380,000,000 
feet; foreign, over 155,000,000 feet; 270 shingle mills are 
making cedar shingles, with a daily capacity of 29,000,000. 
Shingle shipment for the year 1900 was 3,560,100,000. Exten- 

--'■' -^"■*>5i,^ 

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sive forest reserves have been made by the United States gov- 
ernment, and the patrol of these will no doubt add to the safety 
of the present standing merchantable timber. 

Mining. — Valuable deposits of the different metals exist in 
both eastern and western Washington, but so far the develop- 
ment has been slow as compared with other mining states. 
There are known mineral belts extending from the Blue Moun- 
tains to the northern counties and from Stevens County across 
to Whatcom and Bellingham Bay and all along the Cascades. 
In Stevens and Ferry counties, where the Republic Mines are 
located, in Okanogan, where active work is progressing, in 


Chelan and in Kittitas, mines have been producing since 1872. 
Ledges have been found in Pierce, Lewis and CowHtz counties. 
The Mount Baker and Slate Creek districts are very active, 
producing free gold with some tellurium. Skagit County has 
some promising silver and lead mines. Snohomish County has 
the copper belt, which is supposed to cross the state north and 
south, and new and large districts have been found at Mount 
St. Helens. At Monte Cristo a concentrator, capable of han- 
dling 250 tons per day, is now in operation. There are a large 
number of mines in this district. The Great Republic and 
other mines are located in the Miller district in King County. 
The great trouble in most of these counties has been the lack 
of transportation. When roads are built the mining industry 
will take on a new impetus. The iron in Skagit and Snohomish 
counties is very extensive. Excellent building sandstone is 
found in inexhaustible quantities north of Spokane and near 
the sound, notably at Tenino. 

The state is rich in bituminous coal, and in 1902 there were 
mined 2,418,034 tons. It is of high grade and is shipped by 
water, largely to the south, supplying California and some 
foreign markets. At Roslyn, Kittitas County, there were em- 
ployed 1,090 men in 1900, and the mines produced 867,204 
tons. King County, with fourteen mines, produced 853,- 
295 tons. Pierce County has six mines, which produced 
595,605 tons. Skagit and Whatcom counties produced 56,830 

Fisheries. — The fishing industry is one of the principal re- 
sources of the state of Washington, having in 1900 an in- 
vested capital of $4,362,470, employing nearly 8,000 persons, 
who earned $2,121,485. The value of the output was $4,357,- 
753. The output has exceeded $6,000,000 in a single year. 
This, of course, refers to the salmon fisheries and canneries. 
The cannery at Fairhaven is claimed to be the largest in the 
world. The salmon migration to the spawning grounds, at the 
sources of the rivers, occurs during the spring, summer and 
fall months, a different variety running each season. Enor- 
mous schools of salmon then enter the Sound and rush up the 
river. The salmon are caught for the canneries chiefly in 
traps and with gill nets. The trap is a bewildering arrange- 
ment of piling, wire webbing, nets and ropes, to form the 
"lead," the "pot, ' the "tunnel," the "harts" and the "spiller," 
and must be seen to be understood. After they are in the trap, 
the salmon are "brailed" by steam into scows by hundreds, 



which are towed to the canneries. They are put up in cans 
after being cooked, largely by Chinese help, and shipped to all 
parts of the world, London taking perhaps the largest share. 
The salmon is really the king fish of the Pacific Coast, but 
there are many other fish which are caught and shipped to San 
Francisco and other markets in the east. Halibut fishing off 
Cape Flattery is carried on very extensively. Shell-fish abound 
in the waters, and the oyster industry and the canning of clams 
is considerable. The native oyster beds are located at Olympia ; 
the oyster is very small, very sweet and palatable, and is in 


great demand. At Willapa Harbor and on the Sound eastern 
oysters have been planted and grown with success. 

The State Fish Commissioner reports twenty-one canneries 
operating in Puget Sound in 1902, five on the Columbia River, 
Washington side ; three on Willapa Harbor, and one on Grays 
Harbor. There were 7,615 whites and 2,055 Chinese and Jap- 
anese employed in the fish industry— which includes fresh, 
smoked and shelled fish — whose earnings amounted to $2,500.- 
000. The total output was 777,484 cases, and the value $4^034!- 
685. To avoid the depletion of the salmon, hatcheries have 
been established in the Puget Sound district on the Nook- 
sachk, Skokomish, Samish, Snohomish, White, Nisqually, Stil- 
laguamish and Dungeness rivers and the Columbia River dis- 


trict at Kalama, Kalama eyeing station, Chinook, Wenatchee, 
Wind, Methow, Colville, Little Spokane, Klickitat, and on the 
coast, at Willapa and Chehalis. The number of young fry 
hatched and turned out in 1902 was 84,518,405. 


Stevens County. — This county is the most northeasterly 
county of the state, and has an area of 3,800 square miles and 
a population of 10,543. It embraces a part of the Selkirk range 
of mountains of British Columbia, and its topography is broken 
by wooded hills and ranges. The county is divided into three 
districts. The Columbia River forms a greater part of the 
western boundary, its valley varying from three to fifteen miles 
in width. Here horticulture is practiced very successfully. 
The Colville and branch valleys extend through the center of 
the county, from three to five miles in width, and are noted for 
stockraising. Grain and fruit do well. In the eastern part 
of the county is the Pend d'Oreille Valley, which is noted for 
its natural meadows, and is very attractive to those desiring 
to enter the dairying industry. The scenic beauty of the Box 
Canyon of this river is unrivaled. Good government land on 
the benches and smaller valleys may yet be obtained. Timber 
is abundant, and sawmills are in operation. There are several 
water powers which can be developed. Kettle Falls, of the Co- 
lumbia, which has a descent of thirty-five feet, with its immense 
volume of water, makes one of the largest water powers in 
the west. The Falls of the Pend d'Oreille have been utilized. 
Myers Falls, on the Colville, inside of one-eighth of a mile, de- 
scends 185 feet, and the main falls eighty feet. There is a 
sawmill and flouring mill at the latter falls, but otherwise they 
are undeveloped. 

The Great Northern Railway extends the entire length of 
the Colville Valley, and continues north along the Columbia 
River to Nelson, B. C. It also crosses the Columbia River at 
the mouth of the Kettle River, and follows the latter to the 
boundary line and countrv on the new route to A^ancouver, 
B. C. 

The Metaline mining district, in the northeastern part, is the 
largest, though there is considerable mineral development in 
dift'erent parts. There is a smelter at Northport. The mineral 
region seems to be part of the rich Columbia district to the 
north. Marble and onyx have been discovered in paying quan- 



titles near Valley and other localities. Perhaps no place in the 
Northwest afifords the sportsman a better opportunity for 
hunting the mountain lion, cougar, elk, bear and deer, several 
varieties of each being represented ; caribou are also found, 
and trout are plentiful. Colville, the county seat, is an impor- 
tant mining center, and has churches, a bank, a newspaper and 
several sawmills. Population, 1, 060. Clayton is the seat of a 
large pottery establishment, Northport of a smelting plant, 
while Kalispell and Colville have creameries. 

Ferry County lies along the boundary line west of Stevens 


County, and has a population of 4,552. The county is moun- 
tainous ; the chief industry has been mining, and the section 
is very rich in minerals, the Republic district being especially 
celebrated. The Great Northern has been built to Republic 
from Grand Forks, and mining has received a great impetus. 
The southern part of the county is still in the Colville Indian 
Reservation. The Sans Foil River runs south to the Columbia 
through a considerable part of the county, many small streams 
run eastward to the Columbia, and the Kettle River, coming in 
from British Columbia, drains the northern part of the county, 
makes a big bend, passing out again and then returning, thus 
forming the eastern boundary to the Columbia River. The 


Boundary Country, north and south of the boundary Hne, is 
rich in minerals and has some good agricultural valleys, espe- 
cially along the Kettle River. All cereals are grown, and 
bunch grass affords good pasturage. Grand Forks, on the 
Great Northern, the junction of the branches of the Kettle 
River, is the most promising town, while Republic, the county 
seat of Ferry County, is the liveliest place in all the upper 
territory and has a population of 3,318. 

Okanogan County. — This county lies along the boundary 
line between Ferry County and the summit of the Cascades 
on the west. It has an area of 4,300 square miles and a popu- 
lation of 4,689. The southern half of the county is still included 
in the Colville Indian Reservation, but is open to mining. The 
two main rivers of the county are the Okanogan, which is quite 
a large river, rising in British Columbia and receiving the Samil- 
kameen soon after they each enter the United States, and run- 
ning nearly in a southerly direction to the Columbia ; and the 
Methow River, which rises in the Cascades, near the boundary, 
and runs in a generally southerly course, entering the Columbia 
below the mouth of Okanogan on the west. The county for the 
most part is mountainous, and its wealth consists chiefly in 
its mineral deposits, its timber lands and its stock ranges. It 
has considerable timber, consisting of pine, fir, cedar, larch 
and tamarack ; the foothills of the Cascades are heavily tim- 
bered. The valley of the Okanogan River embraces about 
one-third of the county. The tillable lands consist of the river 
bottoms proper and the benches, which are very fertile ; irri- 
gation is required in the valley, but the high lands in the eastern 
part of the county have sufficient rain. Several mines are being 
operated in the county, and many others will be developed as 
soon as the proposed extension of the Great Northern Railway 
is made up the valley of the Columbia River. On the Twitsp 
River, a branch of the Methow, good coal is found. 

Conconully, the county seat, is now reached by Columbia 
River boats from Wenatchee and connecting stage lines. In 
addition to the proposed Great Northern line referred to, an- 
other line contemplated is through the northern part of the 
county, crossing the Okanogan River at Oroville and con- 
tinuing up the valley of the Samilkameen. This would traverse 
the line of Bonaparte Creek. 

As only the north half of the Colville Reservation, occupy- 
ing the north half of Ferry and Okanogan counties, is open 
to settlement, it will be treated with the county. This territory 




is about seventy miles in length, east and west, and about thirty- 
five miles north and south ; the eastern half is mountainous and 
the agricultural valleys small ; the western half is a combination 
of mountain, hill, tableland and valley. Mount Bonaparte being 
the center. The Okanogan Valley is 800 feet above sea level ; 
the table lands have about 3,500 feet elevation. The soil is 
varied ; in the valley it is generally sandy, being in some places 
a volcanic ash and in others a wash. Along the larger creek 
valleys it is a wash, often with gravel sub-soil ; on the table- 
lands it is a deep, black loam, where bunch grass grows abun- 
dantly. The climate of the Okanogan Valley is mild in winter, 
but to the eastward it is higher, more moist and colder. 

Spokane County. — This is the most easterly of the second 
tier of counties lying east of the Cascade Mountains. It has 
an area of 1,680 square miles, and a population of 57,542. Its 
topography is hilly in the southern and broken and mountainous 
in the northern part, with numerous streams flowing through 
deep ravines. Its principal stream is the Spokane River, which 
rises in Idaho, runs in a generally northwest course to the Co- 
lumbia, and at Spokane descends in a series of falls, afford- 
ing a magnificent water power. The southern portion of the 
county is well adapted to agriculture and a large acreage is 
devoted to wheat raising. Horticulture is an important indus- 
try, several thousand acres being set out to orchards, which 
produce a fine quality of fruit. There are about 75,000 acres 
of irrigated land in the county, mostly near the city of Spokane. 
Horse and cattle raising and dairying are important indus- 
tries. Two creameries in the county manufactured in 1900 
nearly 300,000 pounds of butter and 138,000 pounds of cheese. 

A remarkable feature of this county is Medical Lake, which 
is situated at an altitude of 2,800 feet, and is a very popular 
resort, owing to the medicinal qualities of its waters. The East- 
ern Washington Hospital for the Insane is located here. This 
lake is reached by the Northern Pacific. 

The Great Northern Railway and the Northern Pacific tra- 
verse this county from east to west, and a branch of the Great 
Northern runs to Nelson, in British Columbia, and to the Boun- 
dary Country. The Oregon Railway & Navigation Company 
connects Spokane with the Oregon Short Line at Huntington 
and the Southern Pacific line at Portland, Ore. 

At Cheney is located the State Normal School, and at Wa- 
verley is the only beet sugar factory in the State of Washing- 




Spokane is the county seat of Spokane County, and has a 
population of 36,848 (1900), being the third largest city of 
the state, and the distributing point for all the country be- 
tween the Rocky and Cascade Mountains, thereby earning its 
title of the "Metropolis of the Inland Empire." In 1872 it was 
nameless, with a population of three squatters and a few men 
who worked in a primitive sawmill. Today it has a population 
of 50,000 people, is handsomely built, well lighted and possesses 
prominent modern business blocks, fine hotels, manufacturing 
establishments, ninety miles of graded streets, the main thor- 
oughfare being paved with asphalt; forty miles of street rail- 
way, twenty-three bridges spanning the river, nineteen school 
buildings, high grade schools, private colleges, two daily news- 
papers — morning and evening — which have a wide circulation ; 
nine weeklies and six monthlies. All the religious denom- 
inations are represented. Its magnificent water power 
has been developed and is capable of operating many large 
factories. Electric power is furnished large flour and saw- 
mills, iron works, foimdries and factories, and is also trans- 
ferred to the Coeur d'Alene mines and other places a hundred 
miles distant. 

The city is situated in a beautiful valley 1,900 feet above sea 
level, and is as much a residence as it is a manufacturing and 
jobbing city. The climate is very healthful, the highest temper- 
ature being 104°, in i8g8, and the lowest of later years 13°, in 
1896, or a mean of 48° The annual average precipitation was 
18.17 inches. The city has been prosperous agriculturally, 
commercially and in the mines, the Inland Empire producing 
annually $25,000,000 from its mines and nearly $20,000,000 
from its wheat. The Interstate Fair, which is held annually 
at Spokane, bears evidence of the high-grade products of the 

It is estimated that during the month of March, 1902, 10,000 
people came to the Inland Empire to look for homes, and that 
during the month of April of the same year 6,830 stopped at 
Spokane. Much land has been taken up, but it is estimated 
that there is a large amount yet lying in Douglas and Okanogan 
counties which is available. 

The magnificent water power in the heart of the city, with 
the mines to east and the north and the Palouse and the Big 
Bend countries to the south and west, certainly promise Spo- 
kane a bright future. It must be the railroad center, the bank- 
ing center and the commercial center of this region. 




Lincoln County. — This county lies west of Spokane, has an 
area of 2,300 square miles and a population of 11,969. The 
county is traversed by the Great Northern and Northern Pa- 
cific railroads. The southwestern part of the county is com- 
paratively level, but near the Spokane and Columbia rivers 
there appear many ridges that are covered with timber. The 
soil is good in all parts of the county, and splendid crops of 
wheat, oats, barley, rye and the other cereals and the hardier 
fruits are grown. This county divides with Whitman County 
the title of being the banner wheat county of the United States, 
each having alternately produced the largest crop, the crop for 
1902 being estimated at 7,500,000, or about 900 bushels for 
every man, woman and child in the county ; this would be 
about $450 per capita. 

Davenport, the county seat, is situated on the Northern Pa- 
cific Railway, and has a population of 2,000. Other towns are 
Wilbur, Odessa, Harrington and a number of smaller ones. 

Douglas County. — This county is situated west of Lincoln 
County, has an area of 4,500 square miles, and a population of 
4,926. It is a prairie county, the eastern part being a high, 
level plateau of about 2,500 feet elevation, with a mild cli- 
mate and a sufficient moisture to raise crops without irrigation. 
In some parts of the county water cannot be obtained except at 
a considerable depth, and not long ago large areas could have 
been bought for a song which today are bringing $10 per acre, 
and are raising bountiful crops. 

The two coulees traversing this county from northeast to 
southwest, the larger one being known as Grand Coulee, and 
extending for a distance of sixty miles, with walls from 200 
to 1,000 feet in height and from three to five miles in width, are 
topographical features which attract widespread attention. It 
is the geological theory that these coulees are the prehistoric 
beds of the Columbia River. There are many interesting things 
to be seen in Grand Coulee ; among them is the Steamboat 
Rock, which resembles a steamboat, and rises 1,000 feet in the 
air, being three miles in length and a half a mile in width. Near 
the head of the coulee is Soap Lake, about a quarter of a mile 
in width, with water most beautiful to the sight, but very 
repulsive to the taste. It will cleanse soiled clothes without 
soap, and seems to have some remarkable medicinal qualities. 

This county is the very heart of the basaltic region, and in 
many places where its cliffs are picturesque it looks uninviting 
from an agricultural standpoint. The soil is disintegrated lava, 





and has the characteiistic of producing a crop of from twenty- 
five to fift}' bushels per acre without rain from seed time to 
harvest. The soil in many instances here is sixty feet in depth. 
In the southern part of the county on the lowlands large herds 
of cattle and horses graze. This should make a good section 
for irrigating. All the valleys bear fruit, and there are many 
fine orchards. There is an opportunity to obtain some govern- 
ment land in this county or to buy cheap lands at second hand 
in the western part. The Great Northern Railway crosses 
the whole county from east to west, and the Northern Pacific 
branch is extended westward from Spokane to Pilot Rock, near 
the center. This county and Lincoln County, with Franklin 
and Adams to the south, are known as the Big Bend Country. 
Waterville, the county seat, is situated in the western part 
of the county, six miles from the Columbia River, and is reached 
by stage line from Wenatchee. It has a sawmill, bank, graded 
school, three weekly papers and a population of 875. 

Chelan County. — This county lies mainly west of Douglas 
County, has an area of 2,000 square miles, and a population of 
3,931. It lies on the eastern slope of the Cascade Mountains, 
extending down to the Columbia River, covering Lake Chelan 
and the Entiat and Wenatchee valleys. The latter valley is 
used by the Great Northern Railway in making the rise from 
the Columbia River to the summit of the Cascade on its way 
to Puget Sound. 

The Wenatchee Valley is famous for its fruits and vege- 
tables. The orchards produce very large and perfect fruit, 
including apples, apricots, peaches, grapes, pears and plums. 
These are shipped to Sound points, and as far east as St. Paul 
and Chicago. There is quite a snowfall in the foothills, but 
irrigation is required in the valley, where the soil is very rich, 
and the valley is well protected. There is ample water, and 
several ditches are diverted with other large ones. The high 
line ditch of the Wenatchee Canal Company takes water twenty 
miles above the mouth of the river, and is able to supply water 
for the entire valley lands. This ditch cost $175,000, has one 
tunnel 800 feet long and several long distances of flume. The 
valley contains about 50,000 acres of irrigable land, of which 
about 5,000 or less are as yet under cultivation. This valley 
has no frost, and raises peaches, melons, tomatoes and straw- 
berries, and the earliness of the crops makes good prices. The 
lands under the ditch are being offered at from $150 to $200 per 






acre ; bee culture is coming into the valley, and tobacco prom- 
ises to be a successful product. 

The town of Wenatchee, situated at the junction of the 
Wenatchee and Columbia rivers, is the county seat, and is said 
to be within a mile of the exact center of the state. To-day it 
has a population of about 1,500. In 1902 it shipped 1,000,000 
bushels of wheat, brought down the Columbia River by steam- 
boat. To receive this and other freight there are large ware- 
houses at this point, as the steamboating of the upper Columbia 
begins here. The city has a fine brick school building and 
courthouse, a 250-barrel flour mill, and some good residences. 
This being the shipping point on the Great Northern for a 
vast country to the north, as many as 1,000 boxes of fruit have 
been waiting at the depot for a shipment by express in one day. 

Mission, a very romantically situated town on the Great 
Northern, sixteen miles above Wenatchee, is a great fruit cen- 
ter. This town has had a wonderful growth, and now supports 
several stores, a sawmill, a bank, etc. Leavenworth, farther 
up the valley, is the end of the Mountain Division of the Great 
Northern Railway. 

The length of the Entiat Valley is about seventy-five miles, 
and one-half of its length is available for homes. The most of 
the land has been taken, but it can be bought for reasonable 

Lake Chelan lies in the foothills of the Cascade Mountains, 
is 1,075 f^6t above sea level, sixty-five miles long, with a width 
of from one to four miles and a depth of 1,500 feet, and its 
waters are as clear as crystal. This lake is becoming quite a 
noted summer resort, the grand scenery, high mountains, snow- 
capped peaks reflected in the water, and the ever-changing 
scene making a trip very enchanting. The lake is open to nav- 
igation at all seasons of the year, for it never freezes. There 
is a hotel at the head of the lake to accommodate the public, 
and there are also good camping grounds at various points and 
at the head of the lake within sight of the glaciers. The only 
level lands are near the lower end of the lake. The soil is very 
productive in everything, especially fruit, as the climate and its 
general sheltered condition make everything favorable to hor- 

There is a wide mineral belt in this county, which bids fair 
to have great value in gold and copper. The lake empties into 
the Columbia through the Chelan River, which has a fall of 
400 feet, with a tremendous volume of water, making one of 




the finest water powers in the country, and which is now being 
developed. Chelan Falls, at the mouth of the Chelan River, 
is a shipping point for Big Bend wheat. Lakeside is the 
foot of navigation on the lake. Chelan is on the river by the 
same name, and is an incorporated town. Stehekin is situated 
at the head of the lake. 

Whitman County and the Palouse Country. — Whitman 
is the most easterly of the third tier of counties, is bounded on 
the north by Spokane and the south by the Snake River, and, 
with Latah County, Idaho, covers the valley of the Palouse 
River, and forms what is known as the Palouse Country. The 
county was named for Dr. Marcus Whitman, the missionary, 
and has an area of 2,262 square miles. In 1900 it had a popu- 
lation of 25,360, but many settlers having since then come in, 
the population is now more than 30,000. Practically all the 
land is tillable, and more than one-half is under cultivation. 
The elevation in the western part is about 1,100 feet, gradually 
rising in the eastern part to 2,600 feet, which gives a rainfall 
ranging from twelve to thirty inches. The surface consists of 
an upland plateau, of rolling prairie or hills and valleys, which 
is far-famed for its wheat production, this county for a long 
time being known as the banner wheat county, which title it 
now divides with Lincoln County, in the Big Bend Country. 
Oats, barley, cattle, horses, hogs and fruit all do well, as do 
apples, prunes, plums, pears and hardy peaches. There are 
many thrifty orchards in this county. 

Professor Dumas, of the Agricultural College at Pullman, 
gives the following as the cost of a four-year-old orchard, with 
land at $25 per acre, the trees commencing to bear at four 
years : 

Land $25 00 

Compound interest four years at 8 per cent 9 00 

$34 00 


Plowing and siibsoiling $ 2 50 

1 10 trees 9 00 

Staking and setting trees 3 50 

Cultivating 75 

Pruning ' 25 

Compound interest four years at 8 per cent S 76 

$21 76 






10 trees $ 80 

Setting trees 35 

Cultivating i 00 

Pruning i 00 

Compound interest three years at 8 per cent 82 

$ 3 97 


S trees $ 50 

Setting trees 25 

Cultivating i 00 

Pruning I 00 

Budding 55 trees i 00 

Compound interest two years 60 

$ 4 35 


Pruning $ i 50 

Budding i 00 

Cultivating i 00 

5 trees and setting 75 

Interest one year 34 

$4 59 
Total cost per acre, $68.67. 

This being the very center of the great grain fields, it may be 
well to state that everything here is done on a grand scale in 
plowing, sowing, harvesting and threshing, with a climate that 
admits of the harvest being continued and the sacks being left 
in the fields until the harvesting and threshing are completed. 
With these methods, the cost of raising wheat is much less than 
in the east, where it is stacked immediately in fear of rain. 
The Spokesman-Review gives the cost of raising wheat'on the 
Columbia Plateau as seventeen cents per bushel and mar- 
keting five cents per bushel, or a total of twenty-two cents. 
But the average cost is generally figured at from twenty-four 
to twenty-eight cents. Wheat has stood in price in Eastern 
Washington at from forty-eight to fifty-six cents, so that the 
profit of the farmer has been about 100 per cent. The average 
yield per acre is given throughout the whole region, both good 
and bad, as 23.5 bushels per acre. Here it varies, spring wheat 
ranging generally from twenty to thirty bushels, in solitary in- 
stances much more. Winter wheat yields ordinarily much more 
than spring wheat, but sometimes the yield is reversed. The 
range is wide, twenty bushels being considered low, thirty 
good and forty very good, while both spring and winter wheat 




sometimes yield fifty and sixty bushels to the acre. Summer 
fallowed land produces nearly as much in one season as con- 
tinuously cultivated land does in two. There is no cjuestion but 
that these favored regions of the Inland Empire surpass any 
other in the United States for the economical production of 

W. J. Spillman, professor of agriculture at Pullman, says 
that the soil has been formed by the disintegration of lava or 
basalt, with which it is everywhere underlaid, and is wholly 
unlike anything in the east. In laboratory experiments he 
found that to saturate it with water it would absorb from forty- 
five to fifty per cent. This great capacity for water, which he 
says does not exist at depth, explains the apparent phenomenon 
of growing crops without additional rain from springtime to 
harvest. Professor M. W. Harrington, of the United States 
Weather Bureau, states that the soil is perpetually fertile, and 
that in the whole world he knows of but one locality which has 
a similar soil, and that is in the northern part of Cliina, in the 
two provinces of Shansi and Shensi, west of Pekin. There it 
has been cultivated and has remained unchanged for 4,000 
years. The United States Agricultural Department gives the 
wheat crop for 1902 of the three states as follows: Washing- 
ton, 23,672,187 bushels; Idaho (estimated), 4,000,000, and 
Oregon, 15,512,460 bushels, or a total of 43,184,647 bushels. 
As the Agricultural Department has shown the wheat crop of 
the United States to be a little over 500,000,000, it will be 
s£en that the crop of the Inland Empire, which produces most 
all of the wheat of the three states, is nearly one-tenth of that 
amount. Whitman and Lincoln counties are the largest, and 
produce nearly an equal amount. Walla Walla is third, Adams 
fourth, Douglas fifth and Spokane, which is the last of the 
million-bushel counties, sixth. The wheat is marketed in jute 
sacks, made mostly in Calcutta, but some being made at the 
penitentiary at Walla Walla, each holding, approximately, 140 
pounds. The grain never leaves the sack from the time it is 
put into it on the field until it is delivered at its destination in 
the different foreign countries, most of it going to Liverpool. 

The Oregon Railway & Navigation Company crosses this 
county from north to south, and is now building a line up the 
Snake River Valley. The Northern Pacific crosses the county 
from east to west. Colfax, the county seat, is situated on the 
Palouse River and the Oregon Railway & Navigation Com- 
pany, and has a population at present of 3,500. It is a wealthy 




city, has good hotels, churches, a $60,000 waterworks plant, a 
Baptist college, fine courthouse and St. Ignatius' Hospital. At 
Pullman is located the State Agricultural College, and there 
are numerous artesian wells in this locality. Palouse and Farm- 
ington, in the extreme eastern part of the county, are rising 

Adams County. — This county is located directly west of 
Whitman County, south of Lincoln and Douglas counties, and 
partakes of the same characteristics, but it lies at a lower ele- 
vation, and consequently has less rainfall, ten inches being 
about the average. It nevertheless is fourth in the wheat pro- 
ducing counties of the state, and in 1902 produced nearly 3,- 
000,000 bushels. Its soil is a volcanic ash, from one foot to 200 
feet in depth. Colville Lake, in the northeastern part of the 
county, is a large reservoir, and can be used for irrigation pur- 
poses. The area of this countv is 2,400 square miles, and it has 
a population of 4,840. Richville, the county seat, on the North- 
ern Pacific, is a growing town, its population in 1900 being 761. 

Franklin County. — This county lies south of Adams 
County, is of the same character, but still lower in elevation, 
the Columbia and Snake river valleys bounding it on the south 
and west, so it may be said that it is the very bottom of the 
Columbia Basin. It is a semi-arid county, but is seventh in 
production of wheat, coming next to Spokane. Its volcanic soil 
shows its moisture-holding qualities, when its wheat crop 
reaches three-quarters of a million bushels, with less than ten 
inches of rainfall annually. Along the river valleys are splen- 
did alfalfa fields and fine orchards, where irrigation is in prog- 
ress. A branch of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Com- 
pany connects with the Northern Pacific Railway at Connell. 
The Northern Pacific Railway runs north and south through 
the county, crossing the Columbia River at Pasco, the county 
seat, which is the only town of any size in the county. 

YakiiM.v axd Kittitas Counties. — These counties lie be- 
tween the Columbia River on the east and the summit of the 
Cascade Mountains on the west. Kittitas County is bounded 
by Chelan County on the north. The counties cover the entire 
valley of the Yakima River and its tributaries, and topograph- 
ically they consist of valley table lands and rolling hills, sloping 
from the hills to the mountain summit. Spurs of the Cascades 
divide the main valleys into smaller valleys, each being supplied 
with a mountain stream. The mountains are covered with 
timber, and the valleys with bunch grass and sage brush. Ya- 



kima County has an area of 5,500 square miles and a population 
of 13,462 ; Kittitas, 2,000 square miles and a population of 
9,704. The Northern Pacific Railway traverses these counties 
with its main line along the Yakima Valley in a northeasterly 
direction, making the ascent to the summit of the Cascades and 
Stampede Tunnel, elevation 3,698 feet. The soil is a volcanic 
ash, with some wash soil mixed. 

In these counties irrigation has been practiced for some time. 
Originally the valley was a great cattle range, but irrigation 
today has changed it 
to numerous farms, 
with diversified crops 
of alfalfa, hops, fruits, 
wheat, tobacco, sor- 
ghum and vegetables 
Though Whitman 
County takes the lead 
in horses and cattle, 
Yakima County takes 
the lead in sheep, in 
1900 138,222 sheep 
being grazed on its 
ranges. Between the 
Yakima River and 
Klickitat County, 
near Prosser, is a 
high table land, cov- 
ered with bunch 
grass, which is called 
Horse Heaven. Wa- 
ter cannot be obtained 
under 400 feet, so it 
is still used as a great 
range. The irrigation ditches already perfected, of which the 
Sunnyside is the largest in Yakima County, and the large one 
in Kittitas, projected at a cost of nearly $500,000, will enable 
the people to live from small farms, thus giving better care to 
the land and receiving better results. Fruit growing here has 
already reached wonderful perfection. The fruit is very large 
and sound and brings good prices. Every variety is success- 
fully grown, and the orchardists are becoming ric^ from this 
product. The Yakima Indian Reservation occupies a large 
share of the southwestern part of the county. The Yakimas 



are a very unthrifty race, but have lately leased water rights 
and are beginning to accomplish something. 

There are ten creameries in the two counties, which in 1900 
manufactured three-fourths of a million pounds of butter. 
There are a number of promising mining districts located along 
the Cascades, especially in Kittitas County. The famous Cle- 
Elum coal district and Rosslyn mines have been spoken of in 
the general matter, also the iron mines. 

Ellensburg is the county seat of Kittitas County, on the 
Yakima River and the Northern Pacific Railway. It has an 
electric light plant, street railway system, rolling mills, sash and 
door factories, sawmills, etc. North Yakima, the county seat 
of Yakima County, is located on the Northern Pacific Railway 
near the river. It is the center of much business enterprise and 
diversified farming. It is growing and prosperous, and has a 
very metropolitan air. Seventy-five good buildings, many of 
them brick, were erected in 1902. The state fair is held there 
annually, the grounds being excellerit, and it is said to have 
the best race track in the state. 

Lands along the valley ditches devoted to fruit are worth 
from $100 to $300 per acre. There are quite a number of other 
towns in these counties of moderate size. 

Asotin, Garfield and Columbia Counties. — These coun- 
ties lie in the southeastern part of the state, Asotin bordering 
on Idaho and all three bordering on Oregon. Asotin has an 
area of only 640 square miles, and a population of 3,366; Gar- 
field, 672 square miles and a population of 3,918; Columbia, 
830 squares miles and a population of 7,128. These counties 
lie partially in the Blue Mountains, which are heavily cov- 
ered with timber. The northern portions are prairie land, have 
a volcanic sell and raise large quantities of wheat. 

In Asotin County water is taken from the Snake River and 
Asotin Creek for irrigation purposes. The large canal diverting 
the water from the latter creek irrigates a considerable portion 
of the valley which is known as Vineland, with headquarters 
at Clarkston. It is a land of homes, in the midst of profitable 
orchards and small garden farms. It is a very successful and 
rapidly growing community. The city of Clarkston, opposite 
Lewiston, Idaho, with which it is connected by a $110,000 steel 
wagon bridge across the Snake River, just above its junction 
with the Clearwater, is a prosperous town in this district. It 
supports afiewspaper, a bank, a sanitarium, two general stores, 
besides other stores representing the different lines, five 




churches, some handsome residences and a park system. This 
city is being built under certain regulations, one of which re- 
quires all residences to be set twenty-five feet from the street 
line, and another that no stores or shops of any kind are al- 
lowed on the residence streets. In addition to the open canal 
system, a pipe line waterworks system has been completed. In 
time, with its beautiful location opposite the Nez Perces hills, 
in the only wide part of the Snake River Valley, Clarkston will 
be one of the most attractive towns of the Inland Empire. 

The first orchard in this locality was planted in Asotin County 
by Chief Red Wolf, of the Nez Perces tribe, from tree sprouts 
given him by one of the missionaries. The Oregon Railway & 
Navigation Company is building a line up the Snake River 
Valley to this point. The river is navigated by boats through- 
out most of the year. Asotin is the county seat of Asotin 
County, situated on the Snake River at the mouth of Asotin 
Creek. It has a population of 774. The county seat of Gar- 
field County is Pomeroy, which has a population of 953, and is 
reached by the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company. Day- 
ton is the county seat of Columbia County, with a population of 
2,216, and is also reached b}- the Oregon Railway & Navigation 
Company. AH these counties have considerable stock, and 
Garfield especially has immense grain yields. 

Walla Walla County is another of the southern tier of 
counties lying west of Columbia and bounded on the north and 
west by the Snake and Columbia rivers. It has an area of 
2,000 square miles; its population in 1900 was 18,680. It is 
not only one of the oldest counties of the state, but one of the 
most prosperous. It was settled by the Whitman missionary 
party at Waiilatpu, seven miles from the present seat of Walla 
Walla, in 1836, and the site of the mission and scene of the 
massacre is now marked by a granite monument. The name 
Walla Walla is from the Indian, meaning "many waters," or 
"where waters meet." The Touchet River flows westward 
from Columbia County and the Walla Walla and tributaries 
from the south in the Blue Mountains in Oregon, all meeting 
in this county and flowing into the Columbia at Wallula. The 
country is gently rolling, sloping upward toward the Blue 
Mountains ; the soil is volcanic, there is ample rainfall to in- 
sure crops, and the climate is mild in winter. It has been occu- 
pied and cultivated for a longer period than any other portion 
of Washington, and has really been the pioneer of the grain and 
fruit interests of the state. In early times it was entirely a 




stock-growing country, but wheat farming followed, from 3,- 
000,000 to 5,000,000 bushels Ijeing harvested annually; today, 
however, 3,000 acres are devoted to fruit raising, with splen- 
did results. One orchard alone consists of 1,000 acres. 

In this county some records of "volunteer" crops of wheat 
are almost beyond belief. In one instance four crops were 
harvested, comprising respectively thirty-seven bushels, thirty 
bushels, twenty bushels and twelve bushels per acre, or four 
harvests amounting to ninety-nine bushels per acre in four con- 
secutive years without seeding. Harvesting in Washington 
and Oregon is a wonder to the eastern man. An immense ma- 
chine, driven by steam or drawn by thirty-six horses, heads, 
threshes, cleans and sacks at one operation forty acres of wheat 
per day. 

The Blue Mountains occupy ,the eastern and southern part 
of the county. Walla Walla, the county seat, is located on the 
Oregon Railway & Navigation Company and the Washington 
& Columbia railroads, and in 1900 had a population of 10,047. 
It is a city in every sense, has fine houses, several educational 
institutions, good newspapers, a United States garrison, at 
Fort Walla Walla, and the state penitentiary. Witsburg has 
a population of 1,011 and an academic institution. There are 
about 250 miles of railroad in the county, consisting largely of 
the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company, the balance being 
the Washington & Columbia Railway, a branch of the Northern 
Pacific Railway. 

Klickit.\t County. — This county lies west of Walla Walla, 
south of Yakima County, and has a shore line on the Columbia 
River for 120 miles. Its western boundary is practically the 
summit of the Cascade range. Many small streams flow 
through the county into the Columbia River on the south. The 
principal river is the Klickitat, which rises between Mount 
Adams and St. Helens. This river and its tributaries afford 
many advantageous water powers, and its gorge makes a path- 
way for the Columbia River & Northern Railway in its route 
from Lyle to Goldendale. The county has an area of 3,000 
square miles and a population of 6,407 by the 1900 census. The 
Simcoe range of mountains separates the Klickitat Valley from 
the Yakima Valley, from which the country gentlv slopes each 
way. Although the northwest part of the county is mountain- 
ous, about one-half of the county is susceptible of cultivation 
and the balance is good grazing land. The part nearest the 
Cascades gets ample rainfall, while its eastern half is semi- 




arid. Klickitat is one of the largest wool-producing counties 
in the state. Its principal crops are wheat and other cereals, 
and timothy, with fruits, in the Columbia \'allev. X(j irriga- 
tion is rec|uired, the soil is basaltic, but near the Cascades it 
has quite an admixture with loam. 

The Camas Prairie and Trout Lake communities are noted 
for their cattle interests and their dairies, one of the latter mak- 
ing over 5,000 pounds of butter during the past vear. This is 
the former home of the Klickitat Indians, celebrated for their 
romantic history and their baskets. 

Goldendale, the county seat, is situated on the Little Klicki- 
tat River and on the Columbia & Northern Railwa\'. In 1900 it 
had a population of 738, and now probably has double that 


number. It is a very enterprising town, with banks, churches, 
good schools, an academy and two weekly papers. The river 
affords power for several saw and flour mills, and an electric 
light plant and waterworks are being established. There is 
considerable timber in the higher parts of the county. In 
going to Goldendale by all means get off at L}le and go by 
rail. Do not, under any circumstances, attempt the stage line 
and sand from Biggs. There are a number of other towns in 
the county. Lyle, on the Columbia, is now the terminal of 
the Columbia & Northern Railway ; connection is made here 
with the Regulator line of steamers. It is a good point. Prices 
of land in this county are very reasonable, and the Northern Pa- 
cific has some patented lands unsold. 

Whatcom County. — Beginning at the British Columbia 
line on the western side of the Cascades the first county is 



Whatcom. This county extends from the Gulf of Georgia and 
Puget Sound on the west to the summit of tlie Cascades on 
the east. It has an area of 2,000 square miles, and a popula- 
tion of 24,116. The larger part of the county is mountainous. 
The Skagit River, which rises in British Columbia, flows south 
through the eastern part of the county, but the main river is 
the Nooksachk, which flows westward through the main part 
of the countv into Bellingham Bay. The bottom land along 
this river is very rich and produces immense crops of hay, 
vegetables, hops and fruit. The second bottom lands make 
good fruit lands. The Sumas Valley is very level and fertile. 
The great resource of this county has been timber, which has 


been cut into lumber and shingles at Sumas and other places, 
but largely at Bellingham Bay. Mount Baker, always snow- 
clad, rears its head 11,100 feet above the sea, and is the great 
landmark of this county from all directions. In the Mount 
Baker district valuable minerals have been discovered, and 
mines and mills are in operation. The coal mines at Blue Can- 
yon are well developed. There are sixty-three saw and shingle 
mills in the county, some of which have a large foreign trade. 
The fishing industry has developed to a remarkable degree, and 
is now one of the chief sources of revenue. The Pacific Navi- 
gation & Packing Company operates three canneries, with a 
capacity of 360,000 cases of salmon annually. These are con- 



sidered the largest in the world. • The county has fifteen can- 
neries all told. 

The Great Xorthern Railway, or Shore Line, runs north- 
ward through the county to Blaine, and continues on to Van- 
couver, which is the terminus. The Northern Pacific runs 
north and south through the county, connecting at Sumas with 
the Canadian Pacific. The Bellingham Bay & British Columbia 
runs east and west through the county, as a great logging and 
commercial road, and is now building up the north fork of the 
Nooksachk River. Steamers connect with the principal cities 
by water. 

Whatcom and Fairhaven, with Seahome lying between, have 
a combined population of 14,000, and cover the entire shore 

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fine of Bellingham Bay. Street cars connect the two cities, 
running every few minutes ; they have electric lights and other 
improvements, while harmony exists between them in working 
toward a common end. The value of the lumber exports of 
this bay annually is over two and a half million dollars, and the 
salmon industry over one and a half million dollars, to say noth- 
ing of logs, coal and other products. The oyster business has 
been established, and shipbuilding has reached quite a stage, 
two vards being at present in operation. Besides a large tin 
can manufactory, there are brickyards, creameries, fertilizer 
works and other manufacturing interests operated on this bay, 
in all eniploving 4,297 men. Bellingham Bay has a fine harbor 
and enjoys a large commerce. Whatcom is the county seat. 



Blaine is the most nortliwesterl}- city of the United States, 
and is situated on the Great Northern Railway and Semiahmoo 
Ba}' on the Gulf of Georgia. It has lumber mills, shingle mills, 
a crab cannery and five salmon canneries. This is one of the 
greatest of the salmon fishing districts, and many canneries are 
farther up on the Frazer River, there being forty-two within 
twenty miles of its mouth. 

Near the beach on the north side of Blaine is an iron monu- 
ment, four feet high and six inches square at the base, tapering 
to three inches at the top. On the north side of it are the words 
"Treaty of Washington." On the south side, "June 15, 1846." 
This marks the 49° of latitude and the final settlement of the 
boundary dispute. The boundary extends out to the main chan- 


nel in the gulf, thence down through Harro Straits to the Strait 
of Juan de Fuca, and from there to the sea. Other towns in the 
county are Nooksachk, Sumas, Enterprise and Wickersham. 

Skagit County lies south of Whatcom County, and extends 
from the Sound to the summit of the Cascades on the east. It 
has an area of 1,800 square miles and a population of 14,272. 
The county is drained its whole length east and west by the 
Skagit River and its tributary, the Sauk. The valleys and the 
tide marsh lands at the mouth, known as the Swinomish flats, 
a large part of which have been diked, are the most productive 
lands in the county. On these flats are some splendid farms. 
In 1900 the county produced over one and a half million bush- 
els of oats. Hops, hay, vegetables and fruits all flourish. This 


is one of the richest agricultural counties in western Washing- 
ton, and has the largest amount of standing timber. 

The Skagit River is navigable for a considerable distance 
from its mouth, and the Northern Pacific Railway extends from 
Anacortes, on Fidalgo Island, to Hamilton, and also runs north 
and south through the county. The Great Northern runs north 
and south near the shore line. There are coal mines at Hamil- 
ton, also iron deposits of some value, and there is a good min- 
eral zone in the southeastern part of the county. Sawmilling is 
the chief industry, but fishing has become an important factor. 
Several canneries are located at Anacortes, and there are nine 
creameries in the county. 

Mount Vernon is the county seat, located on the.Skagit River 
and the Great Northern Railway, and has a population of 1,020. 
La Connor is the oldest town in the county, with a population 
of 1,082. Anacortes has a population of 1,083. Sedro-Woolley 
is a railroad junction and mill town. Hamilton is a coal and 
river town. 

San Juan County is composed entirely of islands lying in 
the Sound between' Vancouver Island and Whatcom and Skagit 
counties. The area is 500 square miles and population 2,928. 
The principal islands are San Juan, Orcas, Lopez, Stewart, 
John's and Decatur. They are adapted to grazing, and have 
considerable agricultural land, marshes, etc. Dairying is very 
profitable, and fruits are raised in profusion. There is less rain 
here than in other parts of western Washington. The county 
seat is Friday Harbor, on San Juan Island. It has schools, 
churches and sawmills, and is the center of the lumbering and 
farming interests. Population, 400. There are twenty-six 
public schools in the county. 

A controversy with Great Britain took place over these is- 
lands, and at one time open hostilities were begun. The forces 
on San Juan Island faced each other until the German Emperor 
arbitrated the matter, deciding that the channel ran west of 
this archipelago, and the English then evacuated Roche Harbor. 
Thus the Lhiited States secured a part of the beautiful Ionian 

Island County is composed of the islands of Whidbey and 
Camano, located about the center of Puget Sound, across the 
head of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. They have an area of 145,- 
000 acres and a population of 1,870. Both these islands are 
heavily timbered, but they afford a few thousand acres of agri- 
cultural land. This is a fruit paradise, some of the oldest or- 



chards in the state being located on these islands. There are 
fourteen public schools in the county. Coupeville is the county 
seat, is located on the east side of Whidbey Island, and has a 
population of 495. Steamers call daily. 

Snohomish County lies between Skagit on the north and 
King on the south, and extends from Puget Sound on the west 
to the summit of the Cascades on the east. It has an area of 
2,500 square miles and a population of 23,950. It covers most 
of the valleys of the Snohomish River and its tributary, the 
Skykomish, and also the Stillaguamish rivers. The Great 


Northern Railway main line descends to the sea level at Everett 
from the summit of the Cascades by the Skykomish \'alley. 
The chief industry has been lumbering, with some agriculture, 
but the growth of the cities has built up manufacturing, and 
the mines having been opened up, a different impetus has been 
given to the county. The Great Xorthern Railway not only 
extends east and west through the county, but follows the shore 
line from north to south. The Northern Pacific extends from 
north to south through the western part of the county, and a 
branch line from Hartford extends up the Stillaguamish Valley 
to the JMonte Cristo mining district. 



The fertile lands of the valley produce hops, hay, oats and 
vegetables ; orchards are also being planted. There are four- 
teen dairies in the county, which manufactured in 1900 214,126 
pounds of butter and 19,300 pounds of cheese. There has been 
greater mining development in this than any other county in 
Washington. It has the only shipping mines, with the excep- 
tion of one in the Mount Baker district. The mining districts 
consist of Monte Cristo, Silverton, Sultan, Wallace and Index. 

Everett, the county seat, is located at the mouth of the Sno- 
homish River, on Port Gardner Bay, and had a population in 
1900 of 7,838, which now probably reaches 15,000, including 

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Lowell and the smelter. The industries of Everett are many, 
and among them are included nine large sawmills, a flouring 
mill, a paper mill, three iron foundries, eleven shingle mills, six 
planing mills, a large smelter, an arsenic plant — the only one 
in the United States — large creosoting works, four shipyards, 
a wagon factory, an emery wheel factory, all running continu- 
ously, and, with the permanent forces of the railroads, giving 
employment to 2,350 men. The railroads have a payroll of 
$2,000,000 annually. Everett ranks third in the customs dis- 
trict of Puget Sound, which is the indicator of its commerce. 
In 1891 the first town lots were sold, and in less than ten years 
there was built up a city of 15,000 inhabitants, with enormous 
commercial interests. 



Snohomish is the next important town, a flourishing city, 
nine miles above Everett, on the Snohomish River and the 
Great Northern Railway. It has a population of 2,001. Sev- 
eral saw and shingle mills are located here. Other towns are 
Stanwood, Monroe, Arlington, Marysville and Edmunds. 

King County lies be- 
tween Snohomish and 
Pierce counties, and ex- 
tends from the Sound to 
the summit of the Cascades 
on the east. This county is 
situated in about the center 
of the Puget Sound region. 
It has an area of 2,000 
square miles and a popu- 
lation of 110,053 (1900). 
It was originally very heav- 
ily timbered, and is so yet 
in the eastern part. There 
is some agricultural land in 
the county adjoining the 
lakes and the Sound, while 
the uplands, when cleared, 
are adapted to fruit raising. 
The rivers are the Duwam- 
ish, White and Snoqualmie, 
the latter being a branch of 
the Snohomish. The prod- 
ucts of the county are tim- 
ber, coal, hay, hops, live 
stock, fruits and fish. The 
industries are lumbering, 
coal mining, hop raising, 
dairying, gardening and 
varied manufacturing. Coal 
mining has been a leading industry in the countv since its in- 
fancy, millions of tons having been taken from its mines for 
domestic use and shipment. The output now is annually about 
900,000 tons. Large deposits of iron ore exist in the moun- 
tains, and the county has within its borders good mineral zones 
now undergoing development. A very profitable industry is 
dairying, there being twelve dairies in the county, which, in 



1900, manufactured 772,068 pounds of butter, besides a large 
amount of cheese. 

The railroad mileage is over 300 miles, consisting of the 
Great Northern and Northern Pacific and local lines. A very 
direct electric line has been established between the cities of 
Seattle and Tacoma, which gives many of the intervening towns 
light freight, as well as passenger service. \'ashon Island, one 
of the large islands lying in the path of the steamers plying 
the upper Sound, is a part of King County. It has a popula- 
tion of several hundred people, engaged mostly in horticultural 
pursuits. Some fine homes are to be found here, and it is the 
seat of Vashon Baptist College. Maury Island, lying near it, 
also belongs to King County. Fishing has been a leading in- 
dustry of the people of this county, and a source of much 

Lake Washington, lying near the Sound, is a beautiful body 
of fresh water, twenty-two miles in length and from two to 
four miles in width. Between this lake and Lake Union and 
Salmon Bay a ship canal eight miles long is being built by the 
United States Government, at a cost of $3,000,000, to afiford 
fresh water anchorage to seagoing vessels, together with addi- 
tional dockage. 

Snoqualmie Falls, twenty-five miles from Seattle, consti- 
tute a perpendicular fall of the river of that name for 268 
feet, and the natural beauty is unexcelled. A power company 
has utilized these falls to operate electric car lines and manu- 
facturing plants at Seattle and other adjacent cities. Its power 
ranges from 10,000 to 100,000 horsepower at different stages 
of water. There are other falls in the county which can be 

On Green River are located the celebrated Hot Springs, 
sixty-three miles from Seattle, on the Northern Pacific Railway. 
These springs have a temperature of 132°, and are used medic- 
inally. A good hotel or sanitarium building has been built, with 
excellent accommodation for guests. 

Seattle is the county seat of King County, and the largest 
city in the state, with a population in 1900 of 80,671, which, 
there is good reason to believe, has been increased to more than 
100,000. The site was located in 1852, and in 1853 a town was 
platted and named Seattle, after a friendly Indian chief. The 
city extends from Elliot Bay to Lake Washington on the east 
and north and south for several miles. Seattle is a city of hills, 
the country rising abruptly from the water front, but the wide 




tide flats to the south of the bay are now being filled in, thus 
affording ample space for manufacturing enterprises. The 
residence section of the city lies on the side hill and upon the 
higher plain along the lakes to the east and north, where there 
are many beautiful parks. 

All parts of the city are reached by street cars, the entire 
system extending more than lOO miles ; steamboats also ply 
Lake Washington, so that transportation is ample. Within the 
limits of the city is situated Lake L'nion, a lake of 905 acres, 
also Green Lake, covering 300 acres. An army post is estab- 
lished at the northeastern extremity of the city, on what is 
known as jMagnolia Bluff, overlooking the Sound. The gov- 
ernment has built quarters here, also a fort, commemorating 
the name of General Lawton, who was killed in the Philippines. 
The United States naval station at Port Orchard, fourteen 
miles west of Seattle, lies in Ivitsap County. A United States 
assay office was established in Seattle in 1898, following the 
needs of the Alaskan shipment of gold. The assay value of 
gold of that year was over five million dollars, in 1899 about 
thirteen million, in 1900 twenty-two million, and in 1901 over 
twenty-five million dollars. 

The State University is located in the suburbs of the city, on 
a 355-acre tract of land, lying between Lakes Union and Wash- 
ington. Several substantial buildings have been erected, and 
the faculty includes thirty professors and teachers and the 
students number upward of 600. Seattle has over 100 churches, 
a large public library, good public buildings, many hotels, and 
two as good newspapers as are printed in the United States. 
I^ike San Francisco, each of the Pacific Coast cities has a Chi- 
nese quarter and a large Japanese population. 

The city draws its water supply from the Cedar River, a 
clear mountain stream, along whose borders it owns several 
thousand acres of land, insuring the best of water. The Olym- 
pic Mountains, west of Seattle, rising from 4,000 to 8,000 feet; 
the Cascades to the east, from 5,000 to 10,000 feet, and Mount 
Rainier to the south, 14,526 feet, with the water colorings, 
make a grand panorama. Seattle has a mild and equable cli- 
mate throughout the year. The harbor is magnificent, being 
accessible to the largest ocean-going vessels, several of which 
are seen there at all times. 

The L^nited States census of 1900 showed Seattle to have 
953 various manufacturing establishments, the value of the 
products of which reached over twenty-six million dollars. 


Since then the number of factories and products has increased 
largel_v, the number of operatives employed being estimated at 

The leading industrial features of the city are the shipyards 
and the sawmills. 

The great shipbuilding plant of Moran Brothers Co., now 
almost rivaling those of the Atlantic Coast, has a business his- 
tory of only twenty-two years. The company built its first steel 
ship in 1886, having previous to that time been engaged in 
wooden shipbuilding and general machine and foundry work. 
Its success in constructing vessels and their machinery has 


been most gratifying, the work along this line including ocean 
vessels, wood and steel ; tugs and tenders for the United States 
Government, river and sound steamers and barges. It has 
also delivered to the United States Navy one first-class torpedo 
boat, the "Rowan," which, considering the usual trouble expe- 
rienced by all torpedo boat builders in this and other countries, 
may be said to have an exceptionally good record, as not only 
were the contract requirements fully complied with, but as to 
speed were exceeded by i /4 knots, a remarkable achievement in 
torpedo boat building. 

There are four steel vessels at present under construction at 
the works of this company, among which is the first-class 


United States battleship "Nebraska," 15,000 tons displacement, 
and costing $3,800,000. A general idea of the magnitude of 
this work may be obtained from the following description : 

The vessel is 441 feet long, sevent)'-six feet two and one- 
fourth inches wide at the water line and a total depth from keel 
to top of the upper deck of forty-nine feet nine inches. The 
main battery will include four twelve-inch breech-loading rifles, 
eight eight-inch breech-loading rifles and twelve six-inch 
breech-loading R. F. rifles. 

Aside from the steel shipbuilding plant and the drydock, the 
company operates a marine railway, on which vessels are hauled 
out for cleaning and repair. 

The general works include the following departments : Ma- 
chine shop, sheet metal shop, joiner shop, pattern shop, iron 
foundry, brass foundry, electrical construction department, 
power plant, and drawing office. There are also large store- 
rooms and warehouses, well stocked with all kinds of marine 
and engineers' supplies and raw materials for ship and general 
constrviction. The shop tools at the works are independently 
driven by either electricity, compressed air or hydraulic power, 
the company's power plant including large generators, air 
compressors and hydraulic pumps and accumulators. 

This company also operates large saw and planing mills, 
where lumber of all kinds is manufactured for its use and for 
local trade and export shipments. These mills are particu- 
larly ecjuipped to turn out long and large timbers, and a spe- 
cialty is made of spars of large dimensions. 

In addition to the above, the plant includes facilities for 
receiving and shipping materials or machinery which are un- 
surpassed, as the trans-continental railroads run by the works 
and have branch tracks extending through the shops to the 
deep water wharves. Weights of sixty tons are handled with 
ease by the electric traveling cranes in the shops, and weights 
of 100 tons can be handled by the stationary and floating cranes 
at the wharves. 

Aside from the operation of its construction or producing 
departments above described, the company is constantly en- 
gaged in repairing vessels which call at the port of Seattle, and 
it is not unusual to see as many as from ten to fifteen vessels of 
all descriptions undergoing repairs at one time. During the 
war with Spain numerous vessels were fitted out very expedi- 
tiously by this company for the United States Government for 
the transportation of men and animals. 




The storage capacity of the wharves, warehouses and eleva- 
tors of Seattle's water front is 712,900 tons, and the berths 
for vessels alongside the wharves are sufficient to accommodate 
a line of vessels for a distance of four miles. Local develop- 
ment on a large scale is being carried on by the combined rail- 
road companies, a new union depot having been located south 
of the business section of the city. A tunnel will be driven in a 
northerly and southerly direction under the city, which will 
give an outlet to the railroads and relieve the water front of 
its present congestion of railway tracks. Seattle's foreign and 
Alaska trade has of late years been very large, especially the 
Oriental trade. The Nippon Yusen Kaisha has nineteen ves- 
sels engaged between Seattle and the Orient ; the China Mu- 
tual Line has thirteen vessels running to Liverpool and the 
Orient ; the Globe Navigation Company has a line to Hon- 
olulu, and there are, besides several other lines, the general 
ocean sailing vessels, the Alaska and coastwise trade, which 
is carried on by a number of strong steamships, and the local 
business is conducted by what is known as the "mosquito 
fleet." Seattle shipments for 1901 are estimated at forty-six 

The wheat and flour exports have been simply enormous, 
and new flouring mills are now being constructed to supply the 
new demand for flour in China and elsewhere. 

The city of Ballard is a flourishing manufacturing city, sit- 
uated on Salmon Bay, adjoining the city limits of Seattle, and 
is connected with the city by the Northern Pacific Railway, the 
Great Northern Railway and by two electric lines. The gov- 
ernment Lake Washington ship canal passes through Salmon 
Bay in front of the city, which has twelve shingle mills and 
four sawmills, with a payroll of $200,000 per month. It is 
noted as the largest shingle producing point in the world, be- 
sides having other manufactories. 

There are many flourishing towns in the county, notably 
Kent, Auburn, Renton, Franklin, Newcastle, Bothel, Black 
Diamond, Enumclaw, Snoqualmie and others. 

Pierce County covers the commercial head of Puget Sound, 
lies south of King County, and extends from the Sound to 
the crest of the Cascades on the east. It has an area of 1,800 
square miles and a population of 55,515 (1900 census). This 
county has been very heavily timbered, but large portions of it 
have been cut and manufactured into lumber. There is still 
considerable timber in the eastern part of the county ; some of 



it, however, being inside the forest reserve and Mount Rainier 
National Park. There are some prairie lands in the western 
part of the county and in the Puyallup Valley, which for years 
has been noted as the hop center of Washington. These lands 
are very rich, and raise all crops in abundance. Apples, plums, 
prunes, vegetables and the cereals do well. Dairying has 
reached an important stage, there being fourteen dairies in the 
county, from which, in 1900, 270,270 pounds of butter were 

The Puyallup River rises in the Cascade Mountains, with its 
various branches, has a generally northwesterly direction, and 
reaches the Sound at Tacoma. The Nisqually River bounds the 
county on the south and west, rising high up in the National 
Park, on the sides of Mount Tacoma. This mountain stands 
out in bold relief in the southwestern part of the county, the 
grandest mountain of all the Cascades. The government has 
thought this mountain, with its forests and its glaciers, a scenic 
feature of the country, and has therefore included it in a na- 
tional park. 

The resources of this county are timber, coal and agricultu- 
ral products, though some mines for the different metals are 
showing up well. Coal mining is perhaps the leading industry, 
with timber second, the output of the former for 1900 being 
600,000 tons. This coal is valuable for coking purposes, and 
the manufactured product is disposed of at the manufacturing 

The county is traversed east and west and north and south 
by the Northern Pacific Railway. Portland, Olympia, Gray's 
Harbor points and Seattle are all connected with Tacoma by 
the Northern Pacific, and an additional direct electric line also 
connects Seattle and Tacoma. The Tacoma & Eastern Rail- 
road, now being built to the foot of Mount Tacoma, is expected 
to be ready to take passengers who desire to ascend the moun- 
tain in the course of a year. This road is being built for the 
purpose of hauling coal and timber, and opens a large and 
very rich area. 

Tacoma is the county seat of Pierce County, and is situated 
at the head of Admiralty Inlet, the main estuary of Puget 
Sound, on Puyallup or Commencement Bay. It is the second 
largest city in the state, having, in 1903, by estimate of the 
names in the directory, more than 55>ooo population. Tacoma 
is the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railway trans- 
continental line, where the general offices of the company have 




been located, with terminals and docks costing $15,000,000. 
This road has also spent a large sum at South Tacoma in car 
building, locomotive repair and construction shops. These are 
the largest shops of the kind on the Pacific Coast, with the ex- 
ception of those at Sacramento, Cal. 

Tacoma is not only a sub-port of entry, but is the second 
largest wheat shipping point on the entire Pacific Coast. Dur- 
ing 1902 the shipment reached more than eleven and a half 
million bushels and 1,400,000 barrels of flour, more than any 
other city on the coast. Tacoma is nearly 150 miles from the 
open sea, and is very advantageously situated. Her harbor 
has ample depth for all classes of shipping and will accommo- 
date any sized fleet, while her wharf and shipping facilities are 
unexcelled. The largest private drydock on the coast is lo- 
cated here. In addition to numerous other warehouses, one 
warehouse alone is 147 feet in width and 2,360 feet in length. 
This is considered the largest of its kind in existence, and from 
four to eight vessels can be loaded from it at one time. Elec- 
tricity is used in loading vessels, and this port has earned the 
reputation of loading quicker than any other port on the Pa- 

Ample coal fields at Tacoma's very door aflford cheap fuel, 
besides, cheap electric power is furnished, which two economic 
features have brought to this city many manufacturing estab- 
lishments, some of the largest on the Pacific Coast. Twenty- 
one of the establishments employ 4,446 men, or an average of 
over 200 men to each ; in all there are 583 establishments, em- 
ploying 7,878 men. C)f these establishments perhaps the most 
important are the lumber mills, of which there are several of 
large capacity, the St. Paul and Tacoma Lumber Company be- 
ing rated the largest lumber mill in the United States, and 
being second in the world only to the great lumber mill in Swe- 
den. These mills manufactured about one-fifth of the lumber 
output of the state, or 304,000,000 feet, and in addition to this 
350,000,000 shingles. During the year 136 vessels, loaded 
either wholly or in part with lumber, sailed for India, Africa, 
Siberia and /\ustralia and for New England with spars. 

A large smelter, the most complete upon the Pacific Coast, 
is in operation, and smelts ores not only from local mines, but 
from Alaska, British Columbia, the western states and South 
America. The most extensive packing and cold storage house 
on the Pacific Coast is located here and does a large slaughter- 
ing and shipping business. Besides these manufactures men- 




tioned, there are shipbuilding, carbuilding, match manufactur- 
ing and woodworking plants, as well as a multitude of smaller 
industries, claiming an invested capital of over ten million 
dollars, with a monthly payroll of $480,000 and a valued pro- 
duct for the year of $24,957,600. 

Attending the meeting of the rails and the sails at this point 
is the immense development of the state, which in many ways 
has aided the growth of the manufacturing interests of the 
city in a very stable manner. Large quantities of the wheat 
raised in the interior have been manufactured into flour and 
shipped to the Orient, and there has been a local production 
of the minerals and by-products from many industries. Not 
onl}' has iron ore been manufactured into steel and shipped, 
but cotton and other products of the farther confines of the 
country have been shipped to the Orient through this port, the 
returning vessels bringing tea, coffee, sugar and silk from other 
parts of the world. 

Many vessels are required to carry these products, and of 
the entire fleet of the Puget Sound foreign trade twenty-one 
make their home at Tacoma, while ten others make Tacoma a 
port of call. These vessels constitute the lines of the Northern 
Pacific Railway, the Boston Steamship Company and two Brit- 
ish lines, in addition to the many sailing vessels. During the 
year 1902 the number of vessels of all descriptions sailing from 
Tacoma for foreign ports averaged more than one for every 
day in the year, this not including what is known as the Puget 
Sound, or "mosquito fleet," nor the Alaska fleet. 

To carry on these extensive enterprises in both manufac- 
turing and shipping large capital is required ; the bank clear- 
ances of the city in 1902 exceeded $75,000,000, which shows the 
magnitude of the transactions. 

Tacoma, as a city, is remarkably well built, and its features 
are the beautiful homes, to be seen on every hand, and the many 
parks and sightly drives. Tacoma has more than 100 miles of 
graded streets, operates its own waterworks, the water supply 
coming from the streams along the sides of Mount Tacoma, 
thus insuring purity ; also its own electric lighting plant ; has 
a good street car service, and is connected with Seattle by a 
new and direct electric line in addition to the regular railway 
service. Several steamers also make the trip between the two 
cities by water daily, so that there is no lack of either boat or 
train accommodation at any hour of the day. 

The city's educational advantages are many, for there are 




located here, in addition to the regular school system, four col- 
leges, one seminary, two art, two industrial schools and other 
educational institutions. 

Of the grand and beautiful sights of the world, that of 
Mount Tacoma, with its snow-clad heights mirrored in the 
deep blue waters of the Sound, and the city in the foreground, 
is one which will never fade from the memory of those who 
have beheld it. 

One of the most interesting sights for the traveler in the 
Northwest is the Ferry Aluseum, of Tacoma. This occupies 
two floors of the county courthouse, and has the largest collec- 
tion of Indian and Alaskan curios and Indian baskets -in the 
world. These Alaskan curios are not only those which are 
gathered along the sea coast, but from many points in the in- 
terior which are seldom visited. The difference between these 
curios and others which the traveler sees will at once suggest 
the difference between the real and tlie imitation. 

T1-IUR.STON County is situated in the extreme upper Sound 
Country, and lies between Chehalis County, on the ocean, and 
Pierce County, on the east. It has an area of 700 square miles, 
and had a population, in 1900, of 9,927. It has many miles of 
shore line bordering on Puget Sound, with numerous bays and 
inlets, and is one of the leading fruit-growing counties of the 
state, the larger part of which is adapted to this product. 
There are many thousands of fruit trees, covering hundreds of 
acres, and bearing apples, prunes, pears, cherries, quinces, etc. 

Lumber has been the great industry, there being now seven- 
teen saw and shingle mills in the county, with a daily output of 
300,000 feet of lumber and 600,000 shingles. It is estimated 
that one-third of all the logs shipped on Puget Sound comes 
from the forests adjacent to Olympia. The fish industry here 
is quite important, as this county is noted for its oysters, the 
Puget Sound bivalve having been given the name Olympia from 
the fact of this county being the center of the industry. The 
oysters are small, but very sweet, and have an especial flavor 
of their own much enjoyed by epicures. The express company 
books show that from Olympia were shipped 1,500,000 pounds 
of oysters, part removed from the shell, during the year, but 
this does not cover the gross amount, as large quantities were 
taken direct from the beds to Tacoma and Seattle. There 'are 
thousands of acres in the Sound's inlets now belonging to the 
state, which can be utilized for oyster beds, and the trade is 
constantlv growing. 





There are fifty-one creameries in the county, with an output 
of about three hundred thousand pounds annually. There are 
sixty-six public schools, six of which are graded. The North- 
ern Pacific Railroad traverses the county with both its main 
lines to Portland and its line to Grays Harbor. 

This county was settled very early. The settlement at Tum- 
water, adjoining Olympia, is the oldest west of the Cascades. 
The surface is rather rough and comprises low mountains, 
with valleys interspersed with broad plains or prairies. The 
best and most prosperous farming districts border the arm of 
the Sound, which penetrates this county in so many difl^erent 


places. The Qiehalis River Valley crosses the cxtremeisouth- 
western part of the county. Coal, not of high grade, is one of 
the products of Tenino and Bucoda. At the former place there 
is a fine ledge of building stone, perhaps the best in the state. 
Other towns are Rainier and Lacy. 

Olympia is the county seat and the capital of the state. It 
is located on Budd's Inlet, the most extreme southerly inlet of 
Puget Sound. Its harbor will not accommodate the ocean-going 
fleet, yet it has sufficient depth for Puget Sound steamboats 
and vessels, which give regular connection with the other cities. 




The Xorthern Pacific Railway, between Tacoma and Grays 
Harbor, passes through Olympia, and the Tenino branch makes 
it a part of the main line to Portland. Through trains pass 
Olympia each way. The industries of the city include saw and 
shingle mills, sash and door factories, a wooden pipe factory, a 
clam cannery, flouring mill, brickyards, stone quarries, fruit 
drying and canning, etc. At the Pan-American Exposition, in 
1901, the Olympia Chamber of Commerce was awarded a gold 
medal for its fruit exhibit, consisting of apples and pears, raised 
near Olympia, and it was admitted that the display of pears 
was the best on exhibition. No other city in western Wash- 
ington received a gold medal. A silver medal was awarded 
Olympia for its superior equality of cranberries. At Tumwater, 
adjoining Olympia, the falls of the Des Chutes River are util- 
ized to supply the power for the electric light and street railway 
system and other industrial purposes. 

Olympia is not only the farthest inland city of the Sound, but 
it has the very best of rail and water facilities. It is the oldest 
city of western Washington, and has been the seat of govern- 
ment from territorial days to the present time. This city, made 
famous by the gods and Dewey's ship, is a thriving modern 
community, with well graded streets, a good sewerage S3'stem, 
ample waterworks, live newspapers, handsome brick and stone 
buildings, hotels and an imposing capitol. The population in 
1900 was 4,002, but the estimate for 1903 is 7,000, the city 
having had a steady and healthy growth. 

Ample harbor privileges are afforded here gratis to manu- 
facturers, and there is an excellent opportunity for those de- 
siring a location for the manufacture of anything in the timber 
or woodworking line, for canneries, clay works, glass works, 

The building of a canal from Puget Sound through to Gray's 
Harbor, which would follow almost entirely a river channel, 
has been strongly advocated. A canal of this character would 
cost a comparatively small sum of money, would give direct 
connection with the ocean, and will probably be completed at 
no distant date, as the obstacles in the wav are so few. 

The estimate of standing timber in this county for 1902 was 
two and a half billion feet. 

Mason County lies upon the west side of Puget Sound, and 
covers the southwestern arms of that body of water. It has 
an area of 900 square miles and a population of 3,800. Three- 
fourths of the count}"s area is rugged and mountainous and is 




covered with a heavy growth of timber. Lumbering and log- 
ging are the chief industries. It furnishes a very large propor- 
tion of the shipments of the Olympia oysters, clams and all 
kinds of fish that are shipped in quantities. 

The river valleys are being rapidly cleared and turned into 
farms and fruit orchards. The entire headwaters of Hood's 
Canal are in this county, this canal affording anothei outlet to 
the straits. 

Shelton, the county seat, lies twenty-two miles northwest of 
Olympia, and has a population of 1,353. ^^ h^s four churches, 
graded public schools, electric light plant and two newspapers. 
Other towns are Clifton, Grove, Hoodsport and Union City. 

Chehalis County is situated west of Thurston and Mason 
counties, and borders on the Pacific Ocean. The great estuary 
of Gray's Harbor covers quite a portion of the county. The 
area of the county is 2,600 square miles, and it has a popula- 
tion of 15,124. The principal river is the Chehalis, which en- 
ters the county from the southwest, runs eastward to Gray's 
Harbor, and is navigable to Montesano. It has a wide and 
rich valley, from which the timber has been cut and the land 
utilized for farming. The county still has vast forests, the 
manufacture of which into lumber is the chief industry at 
Aberdeen, Cosmopolis, Hoquiam and Ocosta. Shipbuilding is 
carried on to some extent at Hoquim, and the fishing industry 
is quite an important factor. The winters are very mild ; there 
is ample rainfall and grass grows luxuriantly, making this 
county a good place for stockraising and dairying when the 
land is cleared. The Northern Pacific reaches the county from 
Tacoma and Portland, and a line is now building north along 
the coast, where there is dense timber and some good sawmill 

Montesano is the county seat, situated on the Chehalis River 
and the Northern Pacific Railway, and has a population of 
1,597. Aberdeen has a population of 3,747, Hoquiam 2,824; 
Cosmopolis is owned entirely by the Grays Harbor Commercial 
Company, which has the largest sawmill plant on Gray's Har- 
bor, with a capacity of 200,000 feet per day ; also three shingle 
mills, a box and trunk factory and a planing and turning mill. 
Population, 1,000. In the northwest part of the county is the 
Ouiniault Reservation. The hunting of elk and deer is espe- 
cially good along the lower foothills in this locality. 

Kits.SlP County belongs to the western tier of counties and 
comprises the peninsular between Hood's Canal and Admiralty 




Inlet, or the main inlet of Puget Sound. It lies directly west 
of Seattle and King County, has an area of' 400 square miles, 
and a population of 6,796. The county is penetrated in all 
directions by dififerent arms of the Sound, creating several land- 
locked harbors. On Port Orchard Bay, at Bremerton, is lo- 
cated the United States Naval Station and drydock, where 
the largest battleships in the navy have been successfully 
docked. Steamboats make connection with Seattle several 
times daily. 

This county has some very large saw mills, situated at Port 
Blakely and Port Gamble, the former until recently having been 
the largest in the United States. This county has one of the 
chief lumbering manufacturing districts of the state. The 
soil here is good for vegetables and fruits, as well as other 
crops, and yields bountiful returns. The oyster business is 
assuming considerable proportions. Sidney, the county seat, 
seven miles west of Seattle, has a population of 794. 

Jefferson County lies west of Puget Sound at the head 
of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and extends west of the Pacific 
Ocean. It has an area of 2,000 square miles and a population 
of 7,512. It is extremely mountainous, covering the larger 
part of the Olympic Mountains, and has immense forests, es- 
pecially on the west side, where the rainfall is the greatest in 
the state and where they are in their virgin state. Lumbering 
is at present the leading industry, but some mining and agri- 
cultural interests are being developed. There are three dairies 
and cheese factories in the county, with an output of 124,840 
pounds of butter and 53,507 pounds of cheese. Port Townsend, 
the county seat, is a government port of entry, and is the site 
of the United States Marine Hospital. Forts Point Wilson, 
Alger, Marrow Stone Point and Casey are equipped with mod- 
ern guns of the retiring pattern. The city has various manu- 
facturing establishments, saw mills, etc. This is the last point 
of call in the United States when leaving Puget Sound points 
for foreign countries. Other important towns are Port Dis- 
covery, Port Ludlow and Pleasant Harbor. The Port Town- 
send Southern Railway extends south to Hood's Canal. 

Clallam County lies south of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, 
and extends from Puget Sound to the ocean. With Jefferson 
County it covers the Olympic Mountains, and has an area of 
2.000 square miles and a population of 5,603. It has extensive 
forests and the soil in the river valleys and along the coast and 
the straits is very rich. Like all other coast counties the prin- 


cipal industry is lumbering, but fishing is extensively carried 
on, as halibut are caught in large quantities off Cape Flattery. 
Good hunting and fishing can be obtained in this county, the 
Olympics having been but slightly explored. There are two 
lakes in the mountains, about sixteen miles from Port Angeles, 
which afford remarkable trouting. In one of them, Lake Cres- 
cent, seven distinct varieties of trout are found. Good coal 
has been discovered in this county as well as several mineral 

Port Angeles is the county seat, and is very romantically 
situated on the Strait of Juan de Fuca, at the base of the moun- 
tains. Population, 2,321. It has a good harbor and daily 
communication with the Sound cities by water, and a railroad 
has been projected from this point across to the ocean and down 
the coast to join with the line being built northward from 
Grays Harbor. Other towns are Dungeness, Port Williams, 
Clallam, Crescent and Quillayute. 

Lewis County extends from the summit of the Cascades 
on the east to Pacific County on the west, and lies 
mainly south of Thurston and Pierce counties, cov- 
ering the southern part of Mount Rainier National 
Park, with an area of over 2,000 square miles. Popula- 
tion, 15,157. This county had a great deal of timber, and 
lumbering is still carried on extensively. The Chehalis and 
Cowlitz rivers drain the county, the former emptying into 
Gray's Harbor, the latter rising on the sides of Mount Rainier 
and emptying into the Columbia River on the south. The val- 
leys of these rivers and their tributaries afford large areas of 
agricultural lands, on which considerable wheat is grown, and 
there are many large orchards. This is perhaps the largest 
agricultural county west of the Cascade Mountains. About 
all of the government land has been taken, but some can still 
be acquired and land can be bought cheaply. There are several 
flour mills and a number of saw mills, which, together with coal 
mining, farming, and dairying, constitute the industries. There 
are thirteen dairy and cheese factories in the county. One 
hundred and eight schools supply adequate educational facili- 
ties. The Northern Pacific Railway main line extends north 
and south, and a branch line runs westward to South Bend, 
on Willapa Harbor. 

Chehalis, the county seat, is situated on the Northern Pacific 
Railway and the Chehalis River, and has a population of 1,775. 
It is about midway between Portland, Ore., and Puget Sound, 




and has churches, one of the finest hotels of the state, large 
saw and shingle mills, a flour mill, and the reform school. It 
is a large shipping point. Centralia, one of the principal towns, 
has a population of i,6oo. 

Pacific County is the extreme southwest county of the 
state, lies west of Lewis County, and is bounded on the west 
by the Pacific Ocean and on the south by the Columbia River. 
It has an area of 900 square miles and a population of 5,983. 
Along the western line running north from the Columbia 
River is a narrow strip of land enclosing Willapa Harbor. On 
this strip a branch of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Com- 
pany has been built and Long Beach and other places have 
become quite prominent resorts for Portland people. Connec- 
tion is made at Ilwaco by Oregon Railway & Navigation Com- 
pany boats. 

Several streams enter Willapa Harbor, along which there are 
dense forests, and the land is the very best for agricultural 
purposes. Hop culture and dairying are the chief industries 
outside of lumbering. Oyster culture gives employment to 
several hundred men. Portland and many southern points are 
served from these beds. 

South Picnd is the county seat, has a population of 711, a 
number of banks, churches, saw mills, sash and door factory, 
and other industries. Other towns are Ilwaco, (Jvsterville, 
Bay Center, Fort Canby, and Willapa. Fort Canby is located 
on Cape Disappointment and is a United States fort protect- 
ing the mouth of the Columbia River. 

Wahki.\kuii CdUN'TY Hcs along the Columbia River in 
the southwestern part of the state between Cowlitz and Pacific 
counties. It has an area of 274 square miles and a population 
of 2,819. Lumbering is important, but the chief source of 
revenue is fishing. There are eight large salmon canneries on 
the river, which emplov a large number of men and fvn'nish 
a means of livelihood for several hundred fishermen. There 
are twenty-two pu])lic schools in the county. Cathlamet, the 
county seat, situated on the Columbia River, has a population 
of 500 people, and has churches, canneries, a newspaper, etc. 

Cowlitz County lies on the Columbia River in the south- 
western part of the state. The county is mountainous but has 
several river valleys, along the Cowlitz, Lewis and Kalama 
rivers. There is splendid bo'ttom land along these rivers, where 
all kinds of crops are raised, and there are many fine orchards 
throughout the county. Coal measures to a considerable ex- 



tent underlie this county. The Northern Pacific Railway runs 
north and south and reaches the valley of the Columbia through 
the Cowlitz Valley. Its cars are conveyed across the Colum- 
bia River by ferry at Kalama, the county seat, which has a 
population of 945, several saw mills, a bank, churches, schools 
and a newspaper. 

Skamania County lies in the Cascade Mountains, but is 
bounded on the south by the Columbia River. It has an area 
of 1,600 square miles and a population of 1,688. The high 
peaks and deep gorges make this county remarkable for scenic 
beauty. The great portion of the agricultural land borders on 
the Columbia River, and this land yields large returns. The 
principal industries are the manufacture of lumber, and fish- 
ing. Stevenson, the county seat, situated on the Columbia 
River, has a population of 338. The Cascades of the Colum- 


bia River gorge are at this point. Other towns are Cape Horn, 
Mount Pleasant, and Nelson. Mount St. Helens, 10,000 feet 
high, is situated in the northwest part of this county. The 
usual route to this mountain is up the Lewis River. A new 
copper district known as the Bohemia district lies north in this 
county and has the prospect of being a great producer. Three 
railroads are now being built to it. 

Clarke County lies west of Skamania County and along the 
Columbia River. It has an area of 600 square miles and a 
population of 13,419. A large part of this county is quite 
level and the land is of good quality. All the different crops 
are successfully raised. Fruit growing is the chief industry, 
the county being noted for the great quantity of prunes pro- 
duced and shipped each year. The dairy interest is considera- 
ble, the amount of butter made being over 100,000 pounds, 
and of cheese over 200,000 pounds annually. 


Vancouver is the county seat, situated on the Columbia,River, 
and has a population of 4,006. The State School for Defective 
Youth is located here, also a United States army post. This is 
the original Hudson's Bay Co. post, and the fort played a very 


important part in early history, General Grant, Sheridan, and 
others who became famous in later years having been stationed 
here. This city is but a few miles from Portland, with which 
it is connected by ferry and an electric railway line, the cars 
running every thirty minutes. 


Oregon, one of the group of Pacific Northwest states, is 
bounded on the north by the state of Washington, on the 
south by California and Nevada, on the west by the Pacific 
Ocean, and on the east by Idaho. Its average length from 
east to west is 360 miles, and its mean width north and south 
260 miles. Its estimated area is 96,030 square miles, equaling 
the states of Ohio and Iowa combined, 1,470 square miles be- 
ing water. Its population in 1900 was 413,536, vv'hich is to- 
day estimated at more than 500,000. 


The first printed mention of the word "Oregon" is in Jona- 
than Caran's book, entitled "Travels Through the Interior 
Parts of Xorth America," printed in London in 1778. These 
travels had been made in 1766 and 1767. Caran applied the 
name to the great river flowing westward from the "Stony" 
or "Shining" Mountains, which he called the "River Oregon." 
In 1812 Bryant immortalized it in his Thanatopsis in the fol- 
lowing lines : 

"Where rolls the Oregon and hears no sound, 
Save his own dashings — yet — the dead are there." 

Early History. — The Oregon country has been a piuch 
governed and much dissected territory. Spain, at one time, 
claimed it, with all the Pacific Coast country from California 
to Alaska ; Russia asserted ownership as far south as Tilla- 
mook ; France set up a claim upon explorations made from 
Canada, and Great Britain asserted its rights to possession on 
the discoveries made by Captains Cook and A'ancouver, and 
still later the occupancy by the Hudson's Bay Co. The claims 
of the United States were based upon the discovery of Captain 
Robert Gra}-, who entered the Columbia River and named it 
after his vessel. Then came the Louisiana purchase in 1803 ; 
Spain's rights were ceded to the United States by treaty in 
i8ig; the claims of France were ignored; Russia ceded -her 
rights to Great Britain and the United States, leaving these 
countries to settle their differences by themselves; in 1804-5 
Lewis and Clark explored the Columbia River, and in 1810 
Nathaniel Winship, representing a Boston company, built the 
first house on the banks of the Columbia at Oak Point. John 
Jacob Astor, of New York, established a fur trading post at 
Astoria in 181 1, which was sold to the Northwestern Fur Co. 
in 1813, and merged into the Hudson's Bay Co., which built a 
fort and part of what is now A^ancouver, W'ash. The Oregon 
Country from this time until the final settlement of authority, 
was an open country. In 1832 Captain Wyeth, of Massa- 
chusetts, erected a fishery at the mouth of the ^^'iIlamette 
River, and in 1834 two Methodist missionaries founded a mis- 
sion at Salem ; then followed the Dr. Marcus Whitman party, 
spoken of before, who settled on the Walla ^^^alla River. Whit- 
man feared that the Oregon Country might be lost to the 
United States, and with a single companion rode on horseback 
to Fort Hall, now Pocatello, Idaho, then to the great Salt Lake, 
now in Utah, thence to Santa Fe, now in New Mexico, then 



to St. Louis, and thence by stage to Washington, tlie trip oc- 
cupying a period of five months. His enthusiasm inaugurated 
a series of movements which finahy settled the Oregon contro- 
versy. In 1841-2 a tide of emigration set in and in 1843 
Whitman piloted fully 1,000 people to the territory from Mis- 
souri, and in that year a provisional government was set up. 
In 1846 the international boundary c|uestion was settled, and 
in 1848 Congress created the whole territory west of the 
Rocky Mountains lying north of the 42° of latitude into the 
territory of Oregon. The governorship was offered to Abra- 


ham Lincoln, but was declined by him and accepted by Gen. 
Joseph Lane, of Kansas. In 1853 Washington Territory 
was carved out of Oregon, and in 1859 Oregon became a state. 

The settlement of Oregon, immediately following the Civil 
War, was so largely from the middle western south that it is 
often said that Price's army never disbanded but simply went 
into camp in Oregon. 

Topography. — Oregon, topographically, is divided into two 
very dissimilar sections, lying respectively east and west of 
the Cascade range of mountains, which run almost due north 
and south, parallel to the coast line, at a distance of about 100 


miles inland. This range traverses the state from Washington 
to- California and has an elevation of from 4,000 to 10,000 feet, 
with higher peaks, viz. : Mount Hood, the farthest north, 
near the Columbia River, 1 1 ,225 feet ; Mount Pitt, to the ex- 
treme south, 9,760 feet ; Mount Thielsen, 9,230 feet ; Mount 
Jefferson, 10,200 feet ; and the Three Sisters, 9,420 feet. All 
these peaks rise to the region of perpetual snow and are ex- 
tinct volcanoes, Mount Hood probably being the last to be- 
come extinct. From the main range cross-ranges project 
westward, such as the Calapooia, the Rogue River and the 
Siskiyou mountains, these ranges being in the southern part 
of the western section of the state. The Siskiyous follow the 
boundary between ^^'ashington and California. The Coast - 
Range of mountains parallels the coast in a zig-zag manner, is 
somewhat disconnected, and has an elevation of about 3,500 
feet. At some points spurs of the Coast Range reach the 
ocean, but in general there is an intervening belt of land from 
twenty-five to fifty miles in width. 

Between the Cascade Mountains and the Coast Range are 
three important river valleys — the Willamette, the Umpqua, 
and the Rogue — so named from the rivers flowing through 
them. The Willamette Valley extends north and south be- 
tween these mountains for a distance of 130 miles, having a 
width of fifty miles and a general area of about 7,800 square 
miles. It contains nearly one-half the population and wealth 
of the state. The valley, as well as its slopes, comprise a se- 
ries of loam lands, and the higher lands are also well soiled. 
The Calapooia Mountains bound this valley on the south, and 
show evidences of having been the southern boundary of a 
valley extending as far north as Puget Sound, in Washington. 
The Willamette River is the chief tributary of the Columbia 
west of the Cascades. It is about 250 miles long, flows north- 
ward, is navigable for large ships to Portland, and during two- 
thirds of the year small steamboats ascend to Eugene, in Lane 
Countv. about 150 miles from the mouth. The falls at Oregon 
Citv, which afford excellent water power, have locks for the 
use of these boats. 

The Umpqua River rises in the Cascade Mountains m two 
branches, and flows westward to the sea, between the Cala- 
pooia Mountains on the north and the Rogue and Umpqua 
mountains on the south. This valley is about 200 miles long, 
is rich in soil, and produces large crops. The Rogue River 
also has its source in the Cascade Mountains, and flows into 




the ocean after a westerl)' course of about 120 miles, mostly 
between the Rogue and the Siskiyou mountains. This valley 
is small but rich agriculturally. 

The Columbia River forms the northern boundary of the 
state of Oregon for a distance of 300 miles, cutting the lofty 
Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon into two parts. 
The great gorge of the Columbia has a world-wide reputation 
for scenic grandeur. At the Cascades, about 150 miles above 
its mouth, the river descends 300 feet in a canyon 4,000 feet 
deep and nearly six miles long. In cutting its pathway to the 
sea the water has formed many curious and shapely rocks, 
which adorn the valley at every turn and interest the sight- 
seer. Multnomah Falls, a beautiful cascade, near Portland, 
descends 850 feet and may be seen from boat or train. The 
river is navigable to Priest Rapids, a point some distance above 
the Snake River, in Washington, with the exception of Celilo 
Falls and the Cascades ; around the latter a canal 3,000 feet 
long, with locks, has been built by the government at an ex- 
pense of $4,000,000, and a survey of The Dalles has been 
made, looking to the improvement of the falls. The Snake 
River is navigable for 165 miles, or to the mouth of the Grande 
Ronde River. 

East of the Cascade Mountains tlie Columbia River receives 
the Des Chutes, which rises in the Cascades and flows north- 
ward along the eaftern slope, receiving the different short 
streams from the mountains, reaching that river a short dis- 
tance above The Dalles. Next in importance, to the east, is 
the John Day River, which has its source in the southern 
slopes of the Blue Mountains, and empties into the Columbia 
after a westerly and northerly course of 250 miles. On the 
west side of the state the Snake River forms a boundary for 
more than half of the whole line betwen Idaho and Oregon. It 
IS joined by the Grande Ronde, Powder, Burnt, Malheur and 
Owyhee rivers. 

Eastern Oregon embraces all that portion ot the state lying 
east of the Cascades, and is generally a high table land. In 
the northeastern part it is traversed by the Blue Mountains, 
trending northeast and southwest, with a spur running to the 
south. These mountains have an altitude of about 7,000 feet, 
and divide the northern half of this eastern section of the state 
into deep valleys. Among the important offshoots of this 
range are the Eagle Creek and Powder River mountains, enclos- 





ing the valle3-s of the Burnt, Powder and Grande Ronde riv- 

In central Oregon, east of the Cascades, between the head- 
waters of the Des Chutes and Crooked rivers, and the head- 
waters of Silver Creek, to the north and east, in Crook, Lake 
and Harney counties, is an extensive and comparatively barren 
plain known as the Sage Plains. This region is very arid, but 
irrigation is now about to be established, the soil in most 
instances being volcanic and fertile. The major part of south- 
eastern Oregon belongs to the Great Basin, which comprises 
part of Utah and Nevada. This basin is estimated to cover 
200,000 square miles, and is for the most part an arid waste. 
The soil is fertile, but the rivers are short, losing themselves 
in sinks. Wide lava beds are interspersed with level tracts 
covered with sage brush, stunted pine and juniper. The 
Steins Mountains rise in the midst of this desert and are a 
very striking feature of the southeastern part of the state. 

There are some lakes (really sinks) in the basin, whose 
waters are strongly alkali in spring, and in summer merely 
mud plains. Oregon has a large number of prominent lakes. 
In Klamath County are located a number of these, the largest 
of which take their name from the county, the upper being 
thirty miles long and eight miles wide ; the lower extends into 
California. These are the headwaters of the Klamath River, 
which, flowing westward to the ocean near the boundary, be- 
tween California and Oregon, divides the Sierra Nevada from 
the Cascade mountains. Crater Lake, in the same county, 
occupies the old crater of Mount Mazuma, is eight miles long 
and six miles wide, and 1,996 feet deep, its vertical walls rising 
from 800 to 2,000 feet. Its surface lies at an elevation of 
6,300 feet, and the waters are clear and cold, and abound in 
trout. This is one of the natural features of the state and is 
reached from the line of the Southern Pacific Railway. Wall- 
owa Lake, in the northeastern part of the state, is large, lies 
at an elevation of 4,000 feet, and abounds in trout. Lake 
County is the center of the lake region, the largest sheet of wa- 
ter being Goose Lake, lying partly in California. This lake 
is fifty miles long, and from eight to fifteen miles wide. Other 
lakes are Christmas, or Warner, Albert, Summer, and Silver, 
all being clear and containing plenty of fish. In Harney 
County are two considerable lakes, Harney and Malheur (prac- 
tically one), over thirty miles long, and from three to fifteen 
miles wide. 




Climate. — The climate is generally very mild, due to the 
same causes which affect the other Pacific states. The winds 
for three-fourths of the year blow from the southwest, or off 
the warm body of the Pacific Ocean, and the Kuroshiwo, or 
Japanese warm current, which strikes the coast and influences 
the temperature, far into the interior. This Asiatic stream of 
tropical water is of considerable magnitude, being 400 miles 
in width, and has a velocity of about four miles per hour. It 
has the same effects as the gulf stream of the Atlantic. The 
north line of Oregon is of the same latitude as central Maine, 
and yet west of the Cascade Mountains flowers bloom out of 
doors all winter. The Cascade Range makes a wide difference 
in the temperature of the east and west sections. The range 
of the thermometer at Portland, near the coast, is from 22° 
to 96°, while at Baker City, in the extreme eastern part of the 
state, the range is from — 14° to 101° ; the mean temperature 
for the state, however, is 50° There are few, if any, sections 
of the state in which cattle or sheep require shelter and extra 
feeding during the winter months. The bunch grass of the 
plains cures itself into hay^ on the groimd. 

The seasons in the west section are divided into the wet and 
the drv, rather than the winter and the summer seasons. The 
wet season extends from November 15 to March 15, during the 
greater part of which time rain falls copiously. On the im- 
mediate coast the precipitation varies from 105 inches, at 
Gold Beach, in the extreme southwestern part of the state, to 
81.96 at Fort Stevens, at the mouth of the Columbia ; from fifty- 
five to sixty-six inches at different points in the Willamette 
Vallev ; in eastern Oregon from 75.73 inches, at the Cascade 
locks, in the gorge of the Columbia, to 9.81 inches at Umatilla ; 
and from fourteen to seventeen inches in the highlands of Lake 
County, adjoining the California line. 

Resources. — In the extent of its agricultural, mineral and 
forest resources, Oregon ranks very high, yet its possibilities 
for development have been only partially realized. The state 
is largely devoted to agriculture, the western part of the state, 
especially the Willamette, Umpqua and Rogue River valleys, 
having the highest cultivated farming lands. On the other 
hand, eastern Oregon, which has a very fertile volcanic soil, 
extensive areas of which, in the northeastern part of the state, 
are devoted to the raising of the cereals, mostly wheat, without 
irrigation, and where the land is too arid for the raising of 
crops without irrigation, is devoted to stock grazing. In 1900, 





10,071,328 acres, or one-sixth of the total area of the state, 
were in farms, and one-third of this amount was improved. 
The principal farm crops were : Wheat, 14,830,000 bushels ; 
hay and forage, 1,117,886 tons; oats, 6,725,828 bushels; and 
potatoes, 3,761,367 bushels; value, $9,000,000; and nearly 
2,000 cars of evaporated and green fruits; value, $1,500,000. 
Wheat brought an average of all grades, about forty-four cents 
per bushel ; hay and forage about $5.50 per ton ; oats about 
thirty-one cents per bushel ; and potatoes about thirty-two cents 
per bushel. Wheat in 1902 brought fifty-two cents per bushel. 
The wheat crop of Oregon for 1902 was 15,512,460 bushels, 
and in 1887 it was 16,100,000 bushels. The total irrigated 
area in the state in 1900 was 388,310 acres, 290,256 acres being 
under crop, and 98,054 under pasture. The wool product 
amounted to over 20,000,000 pounds, with a value of $2,800,- 
000. The value of stock was over $10,000,000; of dairy pro- 
ducts, $1,500,000, and of the hop crop, $3,500,000. 

The mineral resources of the state comprise all the different 
metals, the value of the output for 1900 being, gold, $1,649,700; 
silver (coinage value), $149,204; coal, $220,000; borax, $100,- 
000; and stone, $21,663. The value of gold output was in- 
creased in 1902 to $6,740,000. There are several mining dis- 
tricts in the Cascades, in southern and western Oregon, but 
the richest mineral belts seem to be the three mineral zones 
of eastern Oregon, which are perhaps as large as any on the 
American continent. One of these lies partly within the state 
of Idaho and fringes the eastern boundary of Union, Baker 
and Malheur counties, and is from ten to twenty miles in 
width. Another zone begins at the Eagle Mountains, north- 
east of Baker City, is about fifteen miles in width, and extends 
in a southwesterly direction a distance of about sixty-five 
miles. The third zone has the same general direction, begins 
in the Elkhorn Mountains, is about twenty miles wide, and ex- 
tends a distance of 100 miles. The principal districts in 
eastern Oregon are in these zones, tributary to Baker City and 

The great natural resource of Oregon is its timber, which 
is located largely on the west side of the Cascade Mountains, 
where the rainfall is the greatest and the climate mild. The 
manufacture of this timber into lumber leads all other indus- 
tries in the value of its output, which in 1900 amounted to $10,- 
352,167. Large tracts of timber stand in the Rogue River and 
TJmpqua valleys, and along the Coast Range and the Cascades 





to the Columbia River, as well as a fine body on the east side 
of the Cascades, at the head of the Des Chutes River, and 
several other points on the eastern slope of the Cascades, and 
in the Blue Mountains in the northeastern part. The estimated 
standing timber is 225,000,000,000 feet, of which 150,000,000,- 
000 consists of fir. The damage by fire, the indiscriminate 
waste, and the need of reservoir sites, has induced the govern- 
ment to set aside forest reserves, and 4,500,000 acres along the 
higher Cascades now constitute the reserves for this state. 

The rafting of logs and piling and towing on the ocean to 
San Francisco has been of late years successfully carried on. 
These rafts are constructed into cigar shaped form, the logs 
being firmly chained into a solid mass. The rafts are then 
towed to sea by tugs. The largest of these rafts ever made 
reached San Francisco in September, 1902. Its length was 
one-eighth of a mile, it drew 24 feet of water and contained 
6,000,000 feet of piling, scaling nearly 8,000,000 feet of lum- 
ber, board measure. 

In 1900 the manufacturing establishments of Oregon num- 
bered 3,088, having more than doubled since 1890, due to the 
abundant water powers, the increasing railway systems, and 
the better condition of the roads. These establishments repre- 
sented a capital investment of $33,422,393, and distributed 
during the year the sum of $18,333,433 in wages to 17,236 
employes, of which 1,821 were women. The value of the raw 
material used was over twenty-six million dollars and the fin- 
ished product over forty-six million dollars. Ship and boat 
building has had quite an impetus, seventeen yards now being 
in operation. Flour and grist mill industries rank second in 
the state, the product values amounting to $6,364,023. The 
canning and preserving of fish, chiefly salmon caught in the 
Columbia River, ranks third, with products valued at $1,788,- 
809. This industry dates from 1866, and is chiefly centered at 
Astoria, embracing some of the canneries in Washington. The 
salmon fisheries of the Columbia are the most extensive in the 
world. The danger of exhausting the salmon has been averted 
by establishing hatcheries on the river's tributaries. 

In 1902 the product of the nine leading industries of the 
state equaled $47,000,000, or more than $100 for every man, 
woman and child in the state. 

Transportation. — Oregon has a complete system of rail- 
way communication, extending east and west across the north- 
ern part of the state, in the lines of the Oregon Railway & 






A,; -i^ 


















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Navigation Company, which follows the Columbia River, 
through the Cascade Mountains, and connects at Hrwitington 
with the Oregon Short Line Railway, for all Idaho and eastern 
points, and at Umatilla and Pendleton for Spokane, Washing- 
ton, and the Coeur d'Alene mines in northern Idaho, and 
ramifies the great wheat plains of the Columbia Basin. The 
connection with the Great Northern and Northern Pacific at 
Spokane and at Butte, Montana, gives a northwestern outlet. 
The Columbia River at present is navigable to The Dalles, 
and the Willamette to Eugene, 146 miles. Some of the rivers, 
rising in the coast range and emptying into the sea, are navi- 
gable for a considerable distance. The Southern Pacific line 
not only connects Portland and San Francisco with one main 
line, but traverses the Willamette Valley with three other lines. 
The Corvallis & Eastern Railway extends from Yaquina Bay 
nearly to the summit of the Cascade Mountains, and this road 
is expected to make a short line to the east. The Astoria & 
Columbia River Valley Railway connects Portland with Astoria 
and the ocean. The Columbia Southern Railway leaves the 
Oregon Railway & Navigation Company at Biggs, east of the 
Cascade Mountains, and is extending its road gradually up the 
Des Chutes River, having now reached Shanico. The ocean 
transportation, as far up as Portland, for the largest vessels 
and the smaller coast craft, and the various seaports of the 
state, especially Yaquina Bay and Coos Bay, afford all re- 
quirements. The Willamette River is navigable for 150 miles. 
Lands. — In igoo there were about 35,000,000 acres of public 
lands open to settlement. Of these, 5,000,000 acres were school 
lands, which are offered at from $1.25 per acre upward. 


Baker County adjoins the Idaho line and lies between 
Union County on the north and Malheur County on the south. 
The Powder River bovmds it on the north, and most of the 
valley of this river and of Burnt Creek, both of which empty 
into the Snake River, Eagle and Pine valleys, are embraced 
in this county. Farming is confined to the valleys, and irriga- 
tion in most cases is necessary, but there is ample water for 
all the valley land. The cereals, tame grasses and alfalfa do 
well. The grasses of the upland furnish range for 40,000 head 
of cattle and 15,000 sheep, and there is some dairying. Tim- 
ber covers, in unbroken stretches, hundreds of thousands of 










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acres on the mountains, and many openings are here offered in 
the sawmill line. Mining is the largest and most prominent 
industry. The surrounding mines have given quite an impetus 
to Sumpter, a thriving mining town in the Blue Mountains, 
and the terminus of the Sumpter Valley Railway. A smelter 
is now being constructed and an extension of the railway is 
under way, while an electric line is being built from Sumpter 
into the higher altitudes. The mines here are advancing 
rapidly, new strikes having been made, showing the strength 
and continuity of the veins. Capital from all parts of the 
United States is being invested. The city had a population of 
1,700 in 1900 and to-day probably has 4,000 people. It is build- 
ing rapidly, has 150 business houses, and prices are advanc- 

At Huntington the passengers who have been traveling on 
the Oregon Short Line Railway through Idaho, having 
crossed the Snake River, take the Oregon Railway & Naviga- 
tion Company, which road conveys them either to Portland 
or Spokane, as they may elect. This being the end of a divi- 
sion, it is a railroad town with a population of 821. 

Baker City, on the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company, 
is the county seat and the center for the agricultural and min- 
ing regions. It had, in 1900, a population of 6,663 '^'''d today 
probably has 7,500. It is the largest city east of the Cascade 
Mountains, has several banks, an opera house, the most pre- 
tentious hotel east of Portland, large business houses, a smelter, 
sawmill, etc. A large irrigation canal on the Powder River 
nearby will bring into use from 60,000 to 100,000 acres of land. 
Improved lands in this county range from $20 to $40 per acre. 
They can be had on part cash payment. 

Union County, when being established, was evidently cut 
to fit the configuration of the country, and to cover the entire 
Grande Ronde Valley. It covers an area of about 3,000 square 
miles, three-fourths of which have been surveyed. The un- 
surveyed portions are mostly mountainous, but valuable for 
timber and pasturage. The largest body of agricultural land 
in the county is that of the celebrated Grande Ronde Valley, 
which covers 300,000 acres of rich, level land. This is in the 
heart of the Blue Mountains, which rise to a height of several 
thousand feet. The Grande Ronde River flows through the 
county in a northeasterly direction, and many other streams 
reach it from the hills on its course. Irrigation is not required 
at all for the cereals in this valley and but little for fruit. The 



chief products are fruits, cereals, sugar beets, minerals, stock 
and lumber. There are about 15,000 head of cattle and 30,000 
sheep in the county. Fruit does remarkably well, as high as 
thirty boxes of apples having been picked from a mature tree. 
Prunes are also a good crop. A sugar beet factory has been 
established at La Grande, which is annually using the beet 
crop from 3,500 acres, and can use the product from double 
that acreage. The land is well adapted to the raising of 
wheat, the crop for 1900 being 2,000,000 bushels, and there 
are good opportunities here for those desiring to raise this or 
any other crop. Timber is abundant and there are many saw- 

mill sites available. The climate is vcr}' hcalth\', the winters 
are short and sharp, but the air is dry. Improved valley farms, 
part cash payments, from $30 to $40 per acre. 

Union, the county seat, is located on the Oregon Railway & 
Navigation Company line, and has a population of 937. Near 
this town is Hot Lake, which has acquired an extensive reputa- 
tion. This is a lake of hot, steaming water, about 300 yards 
in diameter. A hotel with bath houses affords good accommo- 
dation for visitors. La Grande, the principal city of the 
count}-, is located on the same railroad and has a population of 
2,191. This is a growing town, the repair shops of the rail- 


way compam' being located here. It is also the end of the 
mountain division. It has sawmills, a sugar beet factory, 
banks, stores, and two newspapers. 

Wallowa County lies in the northeast corner of the state, 
is bounded on the north by Washington, on the east by Idaho, 
and on the south and west by Union County. This county 
partakes of the same nature as the southeastern counties of 
Washington, lying along the Blue Mountains and covering 
the valleys of several streams which flow into the Snake River. 
A portion of its eastern boundary is the Grande Ronde River, 
and the deep canyon of the Snake River borders it on the east. 
It has a population of about 6,000, and produced in 1900 about 
400,000 bushels of wheat, besides other cereals, and 100,000 
pounds of butter and cheese, with considerable fruit. There 
were 95,000 head of sheep and goats, 14,000 head of cattle, 
and 9,000 head of horses in the county in 1900. Beans have 
become quite an extensive crop. No irrigation is required for 
the cereals, but it is necessary for fruit. 

Enterprise, the county seat, is an inland town on the Wallowa 
River, reached from Union, on the Oregon Railway & Naviga- 
tion Company, by stage. Wallowa and Joseph are enterprising 
towns. Improved lands can be bought in the county for $8 
to $10 per acre. 

Umatilla County lies west of Union County, along the 
Washington line, and the Columbia River. Its location is di- 
rectly south of Walla Walla County and is a part of that valley, 
the Walla Walla River rising in this county. The Umatilla 
River rises in the Blue Mountains and flows westward through 
the county to the Columbia River. This county contains about 
2,000,000 acres of agricultural lands, about one-fourth of 
which are under cultivation. It has a population of 18,000 and 
is considered the great wheat county of eastern Oregon, pro- 
ducing annually about 4,000,000 bushels. The other cereals 
are largely grown and their straw is cut for hay, but alfalfa 
is the main dependent and is a very profitable crop. There are 
grazing on the plains of this county about 130,000 sheep, 15,000 
head of cattle, and 13,000 head of horses. Many sheep are 
run upon the grain stubble during the winter, and in the sum- 
mer pastured higher up in the mountains, where the feed stays 
green. The soil of this county is of a volcanic character and 
is exceedingly fertile, though semi-arid. Dairying is carried 
on in the southern part, 300,000 pounds of butter and 100,000 
pounds of cheese having been produced in 1900. The wool 




Lee Moorhouse, Am. Photo, rendleton, Ore. 


clip handled at Pendleton during that year amounted to 6,000,- 
000 pounds. One hundred thousand bushels of apples were 
raised in the county, and 20,000,000 feet of lumber manufac- 

The summer season is very dry, the necessary moisture for 
crop production coming in rain and snow during the wet sea- 
son. Irrigation is required for alfalfa and for fruits. The 
summer weather is hot, and the winters short and moderate. 
A very large part of the wheat crop is ground by the local 
mills, the product being sold throughout the surrounding coun- 
try and shipped abroad. Much of the wool is cleaned and 
manufactured at the mills in Pendleton, into blankets, which 
have a wide reputation, especially those of the attractive Indian 

The soil in the volcanic wheat belt is so very light that 
when the heavy loads of wheat are being hauled to market 
the roads become deeply cut and several inches of dust lie upon 
them. In casting about for a remedy, it was decided to ask 
the general public to assist in hauling and depositing straw upon 
the roads, and some one day be decided upon on which general 
co-operation could be had. This day was inaugurated at 
Walla Walla, and is now quite generally participated in. It is 
known as "straw day," and is usually one of the early days of 
September, the crop having been harvested by that time. In 
1902, on this day, a grand barbecue was held at Walla Walla, 
and 100 wagons, loaded with straw, were headed by the mayor 
of the city and a brass band while the straw was being hauled 
and placed upon the roads. 

A novelty in the extensive wheat regions is the connection 
of the farms by telephone by utilizing the barb wire fencing. 
Some of the telephone companies have many hundreds of miles 
of such line, with poles only where a "lift" is required at road 

Lands in this county range from $10 to $40 per acre. Stock 
range lands from $1 to $5 per acre. The Umatilla Indian 
Reservation occupies several townships of land in the central 
and southern part of the county. These Indians have largely 
intermarried with the whites. 

Pendleton, the county seat, is situated on the Oregon Rail- 
way & Navigation Company main line ; from here a branch 
connection is made with Spokane and all northern points. 
Pendleton is a thriving city of 5,000 inhabitants, has good 
buildings, several banks, manufacturing establishments, and 



carries on a prosperous trade. Umatilla is also a junction of 
another branch of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Com- 
pany, extending up the Columbia River, where connection 
from Portland is made with Spokane. Other towns are 
Athena, Weston and Newton. 

Morrow County lies west of Umatilla County and along 
the Columbia River. This is another of the semi-arid counties 
which raises the cereals without irrigation, about 750,000 
bushels of wheat and 100,000 bushels of barley being produced 
annually. The land is covered with launch grass and is well 
adapted to stockraising, which is an extensive industrv. There 
are some large flocks of sheep owned here, amounting in all to 


130,000 head, and some blooded stock of the best strains. The 
wool clip in this county reaches about2, 500,000 pounds per year. 
The county has an area of 900 square miles and a population of 
4,200. Lands which have been sown to wheat can be obtained 
for from $6 to $15 per acre. The Willow River rises in the 
Blue Mountains and flows northwest through the county. Good 
coal in extensive beds has been found in the Willow Creek 
district. The Oregon Railway & Navigation Company rjjain 
line traverses the northern part of the county, and a branch 
extends to Heppner, the county seat, which has a population 
of 1,400, and is the headquarters for a large wool and stock 
country to the south. This is a very prosperous town. lone 


is a great business town and has a population of 600. There 
is some government land to be obtained under the government 
laws in this county, and some very good openings are available 
for farmers desiring to buy. 

Gilliam County lies west of Morrow and along the Colum- 
bia River, is bounded on the west by the John Day River, and 
is traversed by Thirty Mile and Rock creeks, which flow into 
the John Day. The surface of this county is rolling, but it 
has little timber. It is semi-arid, the soil being fertile but re- 
cjuiring irrigation for all crops except the cereals. Therefore 
the principal business is stockraising, there being about 70,000 
heacl of sheep grazing, though considerable fruit is raised, this 
being a fine agricultural district. This is the sportsman's 
paradise, as there is an abundance of trout in the streams, and 
bear, deer and small game are to be found in the hills. The 
Oregon Railway & Navigation Company traverses the north- 
ern part of the county along the Columbia River, on which 
railway Arlington, the principal town, is located. Condon is 
the county seat, a small inland town in the southern part of 
the county. There is some government land here yet untaken. 
Lands can be had, fairly well improved, for $10 per acre. 

Sherman County lies along the Columbia River and be- 
tween the Des Chutes River on the east and the John Day 
River on the west. It is another of the semi-arid counties, has 
an extensive farming district, and considerable stock interests. 
The Oregon Railway & Navigation Company main line fol- 
lows the Columbia River on the north, and the Columbia South- 
ern Railway has built from Biggs south through the county. 
Moro, on the latter road, is the county seat. This is the out- 
let of the whole Des Chutes country to the south. Its general 
characteristics are about the same as the counties adjoining 
to the east. This is the second largest wheat county in the 
state, the crop for 1900 being 3,000,000 bushels. In 1902 it 
raised one-sixth of the total wheat crop of the state. Land is 
worth $10 per acre. 

Wasco County lies along the Columbia River and extends 
from the summit of the Cascades on the west to the Des Chutes 
on the east in its northern part, a distance of sixty-six miles, 
and to John Day River, on the southern part. The area of 
thi? county is 3,315 square miles, or over 2,000,000 acres, of 
which 81,000 are under cultivation, and over 1,500,000 remain 
untaken. This is a large county and one of varied conditions. 
The Columbia River here flows through the great gorge it has 




Copyriglit, 1901, by Geo. M. W'eister, Portland, Ore, 


worn or forced through the Cascade Mountains. Mount Hood 
stands on the western boundary and from its summit a pan- 
orama of great beauty spreads out before the eye. The Cas- 
cade Mountains are heavily wooded on their eastern slope, and 
from their side streams run through the plateau to the Des 
Chutes River and northward to the Columbia. This county 
would be classed as a semi-arid county, but it is less so than the 
counties to the east. The uplands have a volcanic soil, and 
produce the cereals without irrigation, while the valleys have 
an alluvial soil susceptible of irrigation. About 750,000 
bushels of wheat are raised annually. There are 125,000 
sheep and goats, 5,000 head of cattle, and 5,000 head of horses 
grazing in the county. The fruit and berry industry is very 
important, the Hood River district having produced both 
fruit and berries in prodigious quantities and of excellent 
quality. Those most successfully grown are apples, pears, 
peaches, apricots, prunes, plums, cherries, grapes and straw- 
berries, which are shipped to the east, many reaching New 
York, and some have even crossed the ocean. About 6,000 
acres have been set out to orchards and 300 acres to grapes, 
besides large districts to vines, mostly strawberries. Of the 
1901 crop, 40,000 crates, or four-fifths of the entire straw- 
berry crop of the county, were shipped from Hood River. 
The estimate of the strawberry acreage in the Hood River and 
Salmon River valleys is 350 acres, which realized a net profit 
of $150 an acre to the owners. Hood River strawberries are 
becoming known everywhere. Two hundred car loads were 
shipped in 1902, less than one-tenth of the best lands of the 
valley being under cultivation. The apples here are of a re- 
markable size and flavor. 

The climate is quite equable, the extreme being from — 12° to 
108°, the mean being about 52°, and the rainfall averaging 
about sixteen inches. Lumbering is a prominent business and 
aiTords some good openings. Fruit lands under a high state of 
cultivation are worth from $300 to $500 per acre. There are 
other and much cheaper lands, and there are some good home- 
steads left in more remote localities. A ten acre farm, suitable 
for fruit, but not under cultivation, can be bought for from 
$40 to $50 per acre. Wheat lands and stock lands, $10 per 
acre. The population of this county in 1900 was 13,199. 

The Dalles, the county seat and most prominent citv, is lo- 
cated on the Columbia River and on the Oregon Railway & 
_ Navigation Company. It has a population of 4,000, and is the 





trade center of a large agricultural region. It has good schools, 
an academy, banks, brick and stone buildings, flour mills, two 
large wool scouring establishments, and water works. The 
city is one of the great wool shipping points of the United 
States. A boat trip on the Regulator Line from The Dalles 
to Portland is most delightful. 

Hood River is a place of great prominence as a health and 
pleasure resort, the climate is of special value to invalids, and 
the vicinity possesses many remarkable attractions in the way 
of magnificent scenery, being the nearest point of access to 
Alount Hood and Alount Adams. It is a place much cele- 
brated for its apples and strawberries, both of which are de- 
licious. Here is located the picturesque and famous Cloud 
Cap Inn, a structure built of fir logs, and supplied with every- 
thing that is attractive to the traveler. Four miles from the 
Inn is the summit of Mount Hood. Shanico, on the Columbia 
Southern, is a great wool center and at present the outpost of 
the upper Des Chutes country. The Warm Springs Indian 
Reservation occupies a part of the southern end of the county. 

Grant County lies west of Baker County and on the south 
and west slopes of the Blue Mountains. Railway connection 
has been made with Baker City via the Sulphur Valley Road, 
which is now being extended along the John Day River. This 
county is somewhat mountainous, but covers the fertile valleys 
of the three forks of the John Day River. Stockraising is its 
principal industry, there being 15,000 cattle and 100,000 sheep 
in the county, large shipments being made annually. The 
sawing of lumber is now opening up on account of the in- 
creased transportation facilities. This county, being away 
from the general line of travel, offers a good opportunity to 
the home-seeker. Can)'on city is the county seat, and is now 
reached by rail. 

Wheeler County lies west of Grant County, covering the 
southwestern end of the Blue Mountains and the bend of the 
John Day River. Its characteristics are about the same as 
Grant and Gilliam counties; it is a vast bunch grass region, 
well watered, and now used principally for ranging stock. 
This county also offers good opportunities to the homeseeker. 
Fossil, the county seat, is an inland town, located on Cotton- 
wood Creek, in the northwest part of the county. 

Crook County. — This is quite a large county, being ninety 
miles long from east to west and eighty miles wide from north 
to south, and lying in the very center of the state. Its western 



boundary is the summit of the Cascades and its eastern 
Wheeler, Grant and Harney counties. It covers the eastern 
slope of the Cascade Mountains and practically all the upper 
Des Chutes and Crooked River territory. It is an arid county, 
its hills are covered with grass, and for several decades has 
been used solely for grazing thousands of head of sheep, cattle 
and horses, there being, of the former, 175,000, and of the two 
latter, 30,000 head. This county has made The Dalles a great 
wool market. A large part of the covmty has been filed on 
with a view of diverting water into the arid lands near the 
Des Chutes River, under the Carey act, to be sold to actual 


settlers in 160 acre tracts. The general elevation ranges from 
2,500 feet to 3,500 feet above Benham Falls, or the upper 
basin. It is estimated that if all these ditches are completed 
over 300,000 acres will come under their services. The 
Des Chutes River drains an immense area and the possibilities 
are great. The population of the county in 1900 was 3,964. 
Probably one of the best timber belts east of the Cascades is 
at or near the head of the Des Chutes River. 

Prineville, the county seat, is located on the Crooked River, 
has an electric light plant, a water system, two newspapers, 
and 1,000 inhabitants. It is expected that the Columbia River 


\'alley Railway will reach this place soon and that the Cor- 
vallis & Eastern Railway will cross the county on its way east 
and probably form a junction at this point. 

Malheur County is in the extreme southeastern corner of 
the state. It is another large county, being sixty miles wide 
and 120 miles long, having an area of over 7,000 square miles. 
The principal rivers are the Owyhee and Malheur, both of 
which are large streams. The surface of the county is of a 
high altitude and very dry. The lands along the streams are 
quite fertile and frequently spread into grass valleys of con- 
siderable width. Those along the two large rivers are con- 
sidered the best in the county. The United States government 
has been investigating this section and the report is that' irri- 
gation is feasible over small areas. There is much government 
land available. Considerable placer mining has been carried 
on from time to time from the date of the early settlers cross- 
ing this count}', and there is a prospect of good mines being 
opened. Himtington is the nearest railway point. There are 
^0,000 head of cattle and horses and 300,000 sheep grazing 
in the county. 

A-'ale is the county seat, located on the Malheur River in the 
northern part of the county. There is a paper published at 
this place and another at Ontario. 

Harney County is one of the southern tier of counties lying 
west of Malheur. It has a total area of 9,986 square miles, 
more than the states of Rhode Island and Massachusetts to- 
gether, and has a population of 3,000.. Its surface is made up 
of rolling hills, deep canyons, the lofty Steins Mountains and 
lakes and streams. The scenery here is unsurpassed, the cli- 
mate is arid, and the soil is good along the creek bottoms, pro- 
ducing a variety of grasses. The crops raised are wheat, bar- 
ley and rye. No irrigation has yet taken place. Sixty thou- 
sand head of cattle, as many sheep, and 15,000 head of horses 
are now being grazed. Huntington, on the C)regon Railway & 
Navigation Company, is the nearest railroad point. Burns, 
the county seat, has a population of 600. The western part of 
this county belongs to the desert tract spoken of in the general 

Lake County is another of the southern tier of counties and 
extends from the Nevada line to Crook County on the north, 
and lies west of Harney County. It embraces a territory of 
8,000 square miles and contains some of the best farming and 
grazing lands in the state. The country is arid, but the soil is 











principally a sandy loam, easilv worked, 
and retains sufficient moisture to insure the 
maturing of crops. The cereals, grasses 
and vegetables do well. This county has an 
abundance of timber and there are some 
good openings here. Stock sales in 1900 
amounted to over a million dollars. Recent 
estimates give 30,000 head of cattle and 
300,000 head of sheep as grazing. 

Lake View, the county seat, is located 
five miles north of Goose Lake, and has 
good buildings, good mail facilities, and a 
population of 1,000. Stage communication 
is had with Ashland, on the Southern Pa- 
cific. There are many lakes in this county 
and the elevation is high. The extreme 
% northern part belongs 

to the sage plains, or 
desert territory, where 
the streams sink. If 
the Great Central 
Railway, projected 
from Coos Bay, is ex- 
tended across the Cas- 
cades, it will cross the 
county east and west, 
and it is believed that 
the extension of the 





Columbia Southern Railway will meet it somewhere in the Sil- 
ver Creek Valley. 

Klamath County extends from Lake County on the east 
to the summit of the Cascades on the west, and is the last of 
the counties in eastern Oregon. It lies very high, mostly at 
at elevation of about 4,200 feet ; is well watered and therefore 
can be irrigated, and raises grain in abundance. It has an 
area of about 4,000,000 acres, of which one-third is timber, 
estimated to possess fifteen billion feet of sugar and yellow 
pine. The county is pre-eminently fitted for stockraising and 
is noted for its stock shipments, the cattle far exceeding the 
sheep. It is one of the most attractive counties of Oregon, 
but being without transportation its settlement has scarcely 
begun; it now has a population of about 4,000. In 1900 eight 


thousand acres were under cultivation, more than 100,000 
bushels of grain were raised, over 100,000 tons of hay cut. 
100,000 pounds of butter and cheese made, thirteen thousand 
bushels of fruit was picked, and 1,000,000 feet of lumber was 

This county is attracting considerable attention at present, 
due to the near prospect of transportation, and irrigation works 
under the Carey act. The county is traversed by mountain 
streams abounding in trout, and is dotted with lakes, of which 
Klamath and Crater have been previously mentioned. These 
will certainly in time make this county a great resort. Cres- 
cent Lake, another lake five miles long, lies in the northern 
part ; the whole county is volcanic and abounds in springs, 
lakes and underground rivers. Two ditches from Little Kla- 


math Lake have for several years irrigated 20,000 acres of 
land. Four new ditches that will water 10,000 acres have 
been made from the forks of Sprague River ; two new ditches 
on the Klamath Reservation will cover 50,000 acres ; in addi- 
tion several other projects are on foot. Alfalfa does well here 
and dairying has been very profitable. This county is advanc- 
ing and offers good opportunities. The county seat is Ivlamath 
Falls, the population of which is about 700. Two papers are 
published here and it has a stage line to Ashland, on the 
Southern Pacific, the air line distance being fifty miles. 


The counties of this valley are Multnomah, Clackamas, Mar- 
ion, Linn, Washington, Yamhill, Polk, Benton and Lane, and 
comprise all the territory west of the Cascade Mountains lying 
between these mountains and the Coast Range, and extending 
from the Columbia River to the Calapooia Mountains, the 
dividing ridge between this and the Umpqua Valley on the 
south. This is the principal valley of the state, and constitutes 
the wealthiest portion of Oregon. It is drained by the Willa- 
mette River, which is navigable for 150 miles. The valley has 
an average width of sixty miles and an area of 7,800 square 
miles. From the Coast Range flow the Coast Fork, the 
Tualatin, Chehalem, Yamhill, La Creole, Luckiamute, Marys, 
Long Tom and Calapooia rivers, and many come in also from 
the east, or Cascade side. Some of these rivers are navigable 
and each drains a considerable country. The flanks, or slopes 
of this wonderful valley are covered with forests, valuable for 
lumber. The elevation of the center of the valley ranges from 
seventy feet at the base of the falls at Oregon City, to 400 
feet at the southern part of the valley. The level bottoms of 
the valley are mostly prairie land, but surrounding this is a belt 
of rolling land, verging into the hills and mountains. This is 
a very valuable part of the valley, has a very rich soil, and its 
products are more diversified than those of the lower valley. 
These foot-hill lands lie at an elevation of from 500 to 2,000 
feet, and have been found especially adapted to fruit. The 
low altitude of this valley and its mild and moist climate make 
all kinds of products grow in abundance — the cereals, veg- 
etables, hops, fruits, and everything common to a temperate 
clime. In 1900 it produced 2,700,000 bushels of wheat. 

We will describe the counties along the east bank of the 




Lee Moorhouse, Am. Photo. Pendleton, Ore, 


Willamette first. The land in Multnomah County, lying in 
the Columbia and Willamette valleys, is rolling, but mostly 
valley land, and is devoted to hop raising and gardening, being 
so near the city of Portland. Lumber manufacturing is car- 
ried on extensively both on the Columbia and Willamette at 

Portland is a beautiful city of 125,000 inhabitants, situated 
on the Willamette River, twelve miles from its junction with 
the Columbia, and no miles from the ocean. It is the chief 
city of Oregon, and, lying so near Washington, controls much 
of that trade in addition to the trade of Oregon. The claim is 
made, and it seems to be well established, that Portland is one 
of the wealthiest cities per capita in the United States. Large 
steamers and sailing craft from all parts of the world come 
to the wharves here for wheat, flour and lumber. Lumber is 
manufactured on a vast scale and flour milling is one of the 
largest industries. In addition to the water communication by 
steamers on the Columbia and Willamette rivers, and the ocean 
fleets sailing to domestic and foreign ports, Portland is a great 
railway center. The Southern Pacific lines not only ramify 
the Willamette \'alley, but are a part of a through system to 
the south and to the east. To the north the Northern Pacific 
connects with Puget Sound and British Columbia points, and 
is a part of the vast railway system throughout the north- 
western states to the great lakes. The Oregon Railroad & 
Navigation Company, whose lines pass up the Columbia River, 
joining the L'nion Pacific lines at Huntington, and by the 
north and south route at Pocatello, give a choice of route to 
St. Paul through Montana or eastward direct to Chicago. This 
road reaches the vast wheat fields of the Columbia Basin 
through the great gorge of the Columbia, thus saving the moun- 
tain climb of the other railways, and makes another eastern 
connection at Spokane. There is strong probability of a bridge 
spanning the Cokmibia River at Vancouver, which will allow 
the cut-ofT line of the Northern Pacific to enter the city without 
making the circuitous route by way of Puget Sound. The 
Columbia River & Astoria Railway reaches Astoria and the 
ocean, and thus all points of the compass are covered. 

The shipments of wheat to Europe have been regal ; of flour 
to the Orient vast, and the largest of lumber cargoes that have 
ever been sent from any port in the United States have gone to 
Vladivostock and other Oriental, South American and South 
African ports. The imports have also been large, comprising 



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such articles as tea, coffee, sugar, silks, rice, etc. Fifty-three 
steamships, with an average capacity of 5,000 tons, left the 
Portland docks with export cargoes in 1 90 1. They carried, be- 
sides wheat and lumber, flour, cotton, paper, beer, fish products, 
fruits, stock, wool and miscellaneous merchandise. In 1902 
fifty-five such ships cleared from the Portland docks. Tliir- 
teen ships took 36,000,000 feet of lumber, an average of nearly 
3,000,000 feet to the cargo. Craft carrying grain only from 
this port numbered 130. The fleet in this enormous business 
covers ships, both steam and sail, of all sizes, and under almost 
every flag, the outgoing and returning cargoes making up a 
mighty commerce from this port. Portland claims for Septem- 
ber, 1902, a record breaking month on grain exports, a total of 
the cereals of 1,177,330 bushels having been exported. More 
than one million dollars was spent in 1902 in improving Port- 
land's harbor. 

The only water-level pass through the mountains, from 
Mexico to British Columbia, is occupied by the Oregon Rail- 
road & Navigation Company, and this has had as much influ- 
ence as any in making Portland the financial and commercial 
center it is to-day. New and great ships are being added to the 
present fleet to connect with the Harriman lines, and the city 
itself is reaching out on every hand. 

The latest movement for extension and notice to the world 
is the great Lewis and Clark Centennial and Oriental Fair, 
to be held in Portland in 1905, commemorative of that famous 
expedition which contributed so much to the winning of the 
Oregon Country to the United States. This expedition is 
treated in the early history of the Northwest. The Fair is in 
the hands of a strong executive board. It has the approval and 
support of the people of the Northwest, and its success is as- 

Portland is a city of refinement and fine residences. Its 
hotels surpass any in the Northwest ; its public buildings are 
substantial and ornate. Its educational institutions are many 
and its modern improvements equal to any eastern citv. Port- 
land is an extremely healthy city, the sanitary requirements 
being the best, the water in use being procured from the clear 
running streams on the sides of Mount Hood. The climate is 

The jobbing trade of Portland for 1902 was $150,000,000, 
the value of the manufactures $35,000,000, and about one- 
fourth of the wheat of the entire Pacific Coast has been shipped 




from this port. The city boasts of 1,500 business firms, rated 
at $50,000,000, while its bank clearances for 1902 amounted to 
$151,000,000. It has four national banks and ten private 
banks, the deposits in which aggregate over $25,000,000. The 
city has an able and enterprising press, consisting of news- 
papers, morning and evening dailies and weeklies, and com- 
mercial and financial papers. 

To see Portland rightly one should take the street car to 
the highlands above the city on the west, where, on a clear 
day, can be seen a wide expanse of territory. In the immediate 
foreground the city itself, with the Willamette River and its 
foreign fleets, separating the eastern and western parts ; far 
to the right rises majestic Mount Hood; still farther to the 
south Mount Jefferson ; to the left and north of the Columbia 
River, Mount Adams ; farther to the left, appearing almost 
at your very door, stands Mount St. Helens ; while very far to 
the north the top of grand old Mount Rainier can be seen — five 
in all, a procession of snow-clad peaks unequaled in any coun- 

A move is now on foot to build an electric road from^ Port- 
land to Mount Hood, to be completed in time for the exposi- 
tion. \'ery interesting trips can be made from Portland to 
Willamette Falls, Astoria and the mouth of the Columbia River, 
by steamers and by rail, also to Vancouver, Washington, the 
army post and original Hudson's Bay Company fort by steamer 
or electric car, and last, but not least, the trip to the Cascades 
of the Columbia, which no one should miss. 

There is a mountain climbing club, with headquarters at 
Portland, which calls its members "The Mazamas." It has 
successfully conducted outings to Mount Hood and to Crater 
Lake, Oregon, and Mount Adams, and also to Mount Rainier, 
in \\'ashington, at stated intervals. These excursions are 
open to all lovers of nature. The name "Mazama" is from the 
Spanish, meaning mountain goat. This club has a membership 
throughout many states, which is limited to those who have 
climbed to the summit of a snow clad peak that is acceptable 
to the club. Mountaineering has received cj^uite a stimulus 
from this organization. 

In Clackamas County the soils are either a sandv loam, 
a black loam, or, on the uplands, a red loam, and •■•are 
generally very rich. Oregon City is the county seat and is 
situated twelve miles above Portland, on the Willamette River, 
with which it is connected by the Southern Pacific Railway, an 




electric line, and several steamboat lines. The falls of the 
Willamette River here afford as fine a water power as there 
is in the United States. This makes Oregon City a manufac- 
turing point. The horsepower of the falls is 50,000 as against 
JMinneapolis' 20,000. Woolen, flour, pulp and paper mills, 
a shoe factory, and other industries, are located here, besides 
the plant of the Portland General Electric Co., one of the 
largest of its kind in the west. These plants employ altogether 
more than 1,000 men. The population within a radius of one 
mile is about 6,000. Boat transportation is afforded up and 
down the river, as locks have been constructed, which admit 
steamboats to the upper river. 

The western part of Marion County is very le-^el, is mostly 
good farming land, and aggregates about 450,000 acres. The 
soils are much more diversified, and the lower lands are much 
damper than the hilly lands, which makes two distinct seed 
times and harvests. This is distinctively an agricultural, 
stock and dairy county. Salem is the county seat of Marion 
County and the capital of the state. It has a population of 
about 12,000, is located on the Willamette River and the Soutli- 
ern Pacific Railway. It has, besides the capitol, other public 
buildings — a city hall, federal building, insane asylum, peniten- 
tiary and state blind school. Salem is a handsome city, with 
broad streets, and is a noted social center. All lines of busi- 
ness are represented. In manufacturing there are woolen 
mills, flour mills, woqdcn and metal ware and other mechanical 
plants. A large warehouse for the reception of wheat and 
other produce has been established, and a fruit cannery is also 
located here. The city has boat and rail connections. 

Linn County is a large and good agricultural county, com- 
prising 2,400 square miles. It still has a vast area of timber 
land, to the manufacture of which quite a share of the popula- 
tion of the eastern part of the county are devoting themselves. 
The general character of the soil is a dark loam, and wears 
well. All kinds of grain (except corn), fruit and vegetables, 
are successfully grown, wheat being the staple cereal through- 
out the valley. This being about the heart of the valley it may 
be well to state that the range of the mercury here is from 
30° to 85°, although there are some exceptions. Snow is sel- 
dom seen, and there is ample rainfall. Good stock has been 
bred in most of the counties and especially in this one, and 
dairying is one of its leading assets. Farms on the prairie can 
be bought for $30 per acre, and in the foot hills for from $5 





to $15. These prices are a good average for so old a settled 
country. There are openings in the valley for more saw mills, 
wood factories of different kinds, and canning establishments. 
The Southern Pacific Company's lines traverse the county 
north and south, and the Corvallis & Eastern Railway east and 
west. The western terminus of this road is at Yaquina Bay, 
on the Pacific Ocean, and the eastern terminus is near the sum- 
mit of the Cascade Range. It is expected the road will cross 
the mountains at Minto Pass and form a short line through 
eastern Oregon. Albany, the county seat, with a population 
of 4,200, is situated on the Willamette River and at the junc- 
tion of the two railways. It has graded schools, a Presbyterian 
College, a Catholic Academy, woolen mill, two flouring mills, 
cheese factory, iron works, tile factory, and fruit dryers. A 
high bridge, costing $100,000, crosses the Willamette River. 

Lane County is the most extreme southern county of the 
valley, lying against the Calapooia Mountains, and extending 
from the Cascade Mountains to the ocean, crossing the Coast 
Range. It covers the entire headwaters of the Willamette 
River, with all its branches, and the Siuslaw and Idds rivers, 
which empty into the sea. It covers an area of about 7,000 
square miles, which is exceedingly diversified, a large part be- 
ing susceptible to cultivation. The mountain part is covered 
with dense timber and in consequence lumber manufacturing 
is extensive. The estimated standing timber is about 29,000,- 
000,000 feet — more than any other county in the state. One- 
third of the valley is prairie land and the balance foothills and 
mountains. The foothills afford fine grazing, and are also 
adapted to fruits. Wheat has been the principal product, but 
fruits are now excelling. Hop growing is being practiced 
quite extensively and there are now about 1,000 acres in hops. 
The numerous valleys and hills afford excellent opportunities 
for diversified farming. Eugene, the county seat, is located 
on the Southern Pacific, and is the head of navigation on the 
Willamette River. It has a population of 3,236, good build- 
ings, numerous factories, tvi'O tanneries, and water works. It 
is the seat of the State University of Oregon, but the adjunct 
Schools of Medicine and Law are located at Portland. Siuslaw 
Bay admits vessels of fair size, which trade with San Francisco 
and Portland, the principal commodities being salmon, lumber, 
and agricultural products. On the river of this name are saw 
mills, canneries, the thriving town of Florence, and consider- 
able land adapted to fruit and dairying. 



The counties lying on the west bank of the Willamette River 
will now be taken up. After Lane County comes Benton, a 
small county lying between the river and Lincoln County, which 
lies on the coast, and is traversed by the Southern Pacific 
through its northern part, and the Corvallis & Eastern from 
east to west. The county is more or less mountainous, but 
along the valleys of the Marys and Willamette rivers is well 
settled and improved. This is quite a stock county. Hops, 
fruits and berries are raised in large quantities. Corvallis is 
the county seat, situated on both the roads mentioned and on 
the Willamette River. It has a population of 1,819, is the seat 


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of the State Agricultural College and other educational insti-. 

Polk County has an area of 750 square miles, of which 112,- 
500 acres were in cultivation in 1900, from which was pro- 
duced 1,300,000 bushels of wheat, 1,800,000 pounds of hops, 
1,500,000 pounds of dried prunes, and 11,000,000 feet of lum- 
ber. This tells the story of many of the counties. The soil 
on the hills is a reddish loam, and in the valleys a dark loam, 
all being very fertile. This section was the seat of the first 
white settlement west of the Missouri River. Dallas is the 
county seat, situated on the Southern Pacific, whose two lines 
traverse the eastern part of the county north and south. A 


local railroad has been built from Dallas southwest into the 
mountains, which serves as a commercial and logging road 
combined. Dallas is making great progress. 

Yamhill County, termed the banner county, from its agricul- 
tural display at the state fair, contains an area of 756 square 
miles and has a population of 13,420. It covers the valley of 
the Yamhill River and other smaller valleys. Steamboats, by 
the aid of locks, ascend the Yamhill to JMcMinnville, the county 
seat. This is another of the old settled counties, dating back 
to the '40's. There are under cultivation about 117,000 acres 
of land, which produce bountifully. Most of this county is 
prairie land. In 1902 i,-|00,ooo bushels of wheat was pro- 
duced; 1,200 carloads of hops; 250 carloads of prunes; 200 
of apples ; ninety of pears, and twenty-five of cherries ; besides 
which many carloads of peaches, plums and berries were 
shipped. The hop culture of Oregon is mainly centered in the 
counties of Marion, Yamhill, Clackamas, Polk and Washing- 
ton, and the estimated crops of these counties in 1900 was 
3,000,000 pounds. Oregon had 15,000 acres under cultivation 
out of the 54,000 acres in hops throughout the United States, 
New York leading with 25,000; California, 7,000; Washington, 
6,500. When hops bring ten cents per pound the net profits 
of the farmer is about $40 per acre, and many years the price 
is double and even more. McMinnville, the county seat, is 
located on the Yamhill River, and on the Southern Pacific 
Railway. The population is 1,420. It has two banks, two 
flour mills, water and light plants, good schools, and a Baptist 
College. Two lines of the Southern Pacific Railway traverse 
the county and cross at Whiteson. 

Washington County is the last of the true Willamette coun- 
ties. It extends from the Coast Range to the very suburbs 
of Portland. It is located in a basin, lying between the 
Chehalem Hills, the Coast Range and the Portland Mountains. 
The soil is a loam, imderlaid with a clay subsoil. The county 
covers many valleys, but mainly that of the Tualatin River. 
There are large tracts of timber in the mountainous portions. 
This is a good agricultural county, well adapted to all kinds 
of products and to dairying, especially since the proximity to 
Portland affords the farmer the opportunity of driving to the 
citv, thereby saving transportation charges on his product. 
Hillsboro is the county seat, situated on the Southern Pacific, 
and has a population of 1,200. It owns its water works and 
electric light plant. There are opportunities here for those 




who desire to make a thriving suburban city, for the distance 
of twenty-four miles from Portland will admit of its being 
made a residence town. 

Columbia and Clatsop Counties. — These counties lie 
along the Columbia River, being bounded on three sides by the 
river and the Pacific Ocean. Columbia County contains 723 
square miles, and is mostly covered with a dense growth of 
fir, from which it is not unusual to cut from 80,000 to 100,000 
feet of logs from a single acre, and from 6,000,000 to 12,000,- 
000 feet from a quarter section of land. The soil along the 
Columbia River bottoms is alluvial, and in the interior a clay 
loam. The chief industries are lumbering, stockraising, dairy- 
ing and fishing. The county seat is St. Helens, on the Astoria 
& Columbia River Railroad, and has a population of 1,258. 
There are several canneries and mills located along the Co- 
lumbia River. 

Clatsop County is the extreme northwesterly county of the 
state. Its surface is somewhat mountainous. In the center 
stands a prominent mountain known as Saddle Mountain, 
from which all the rivers radiate to the Pacific Ocean, and the 
Columbia and Nehalem rivers. This county is cut up by navi- 
gable bays and rivers, which afford access to most parts. The 
Lewis and Clark River, which reaches the Columbia west of 
Astoria, is made famous by the party which wintered on its 
west bank, two miles above its mouth, in 1 805-6. This county 
is covered by dense forests of fir, spruce, cedar and hemlock, 
except the tideland and the Clatsop plains, which extend along 
the seashore for twenty miles, with an average width of two 
miles. These plains produce grass, oats, fruits and vegeta- 
bles for stock. This is essentially a grass growing county, 
and in consequence has large dairy interests. There are some 
good cranberry marshes on the peat lands between the plains 
and the uplands. The greater portion of the timber is fir, but 
spruce is found in large quantities ; also considerable curly 
maple, hemlock, cedar and larch. This is one of the most 
heavily timbered counties in the state. Game is very plentiful, 
consisting of bear, deer and elk, and trout abound in all the 

Astoria is the headquarters for the salmon catching and 
canning business, which is the greatest industry along the Co- 
lumbia River. Nineteen canneries are located there, and nine- 
teen other canneries are tributary to the city, representing over 
$2,000,000 capital, giving employment to about 5,000 men and 



yielding an annual product of $3,000,000. The city in addi- 
tion shipped 28,865,000 pounds of salmon in 1901, or 1.443 
carloads of ten tons each, and shipments have run over 2,000 
carloads per year. To the existence of this industry Astoria 
largely owes its being. It is estimated that during the 
past twenty-five years the Columbia River has yielded a value 
of $75,000,000 in fish, nearly all of which has been, in a man- 
ner, put in circulation in this city. There has never been a 
failure of this crop, and it is therefore one of Oregon's great- 
est and surest resources. At present fully one-half of the 


population of Oregon and Washington, living near the mouth 
of the great river, are engaged in this pursuit. The spring 
season, or run, of salmon, lasts for four months, from April 
15 to August 15, meaning $750,000 monthly to those inter- 
ested. The salmon are now not only canned, but pickled, and 
also frozen, for shipment to diiTerent parts of the world. One 
and one-half million pounds of steel-head salmon were frozen 
in 1902. 

Astoria's beginning dates back to 181 1, the landing of the 
Astor party. Owing to traitorous partners, the fur business 



became a failure, and there was not a white family left on the 
bay in 1846, so its business history is after all one of compara- 
tively recent date. The city is located on the south side of the 
great bay or mouth of the Columbia River, which is seven 
miles in width at this point. The city is built partially over the 
tide flats on piling, and partly on the hillside. The residence 
portion lies higher up. It has a population of about 10,000 
people, who represent probably every nationalit;^ on earth. 
It is the second city in size in the state, and certainly with its 
commanding position as a portal to the ocean, must become a 
maritime city of importance. The resources and position of 
this city should support a population of at least 100,000 people. 




Its saw mills must manufacture into lumber its extensive 
forests ; its fisheries must continue. Mr. A. J. Johnson, the 
government forestry expert, says : "The mouth of the Colum- 
bia River has the greatest body of timber tributary and avail- 
able of any point in the world." The estimate of timber stand- 
ing accessibly at this point is 75,000,000,000 feet. The cli- 
mate here is mild, the mean maximum for August being 68° 
and the mean minimum for January 35.7° The precipita- 
tion for the year was 67.69. 

Astoria is connected with Portland and the upper river by 
several lines of steamers, and with Portland by the Astoria & 




Columbia River Railway. It is a lively cosmopolitan city, with 
all needed sanitary improvements. Fort Stevens is located at 
Point Stevens. From this point a jetty is being built by the 
government, projecting four and a half miles into the Pacific 
Ocean, at an expense of $5,000,000, to deepen the water on 
the bar at the mouth of the river. There are many small sta- 
tions on the Astoria & Columbia River Railway along the 
ocean beach, from Seaside to the fort. These offer summer 
outings for the people, while on the Washington side of the 
river north of Ilwaco is perhaps as fine a stretch of beach as 
can be found in the United States. This is reached by the 
Oregon River & Navigation Co. steamers and a short hne of 

Tillamook County lies on the ocean south of Clatsop and 
has sixty miles of sea coast, with six different rivers discharg- 
ing into the ocean. The Wilson River discharges into Tilla- 
mook Bay, which at high tide has an average of sixteen feet 
of water. Each of the six rivers referred to flows through a 
rich timber belt, and each furnishes a large amount of rich 
bottom land suitable for agriculture. This county has become 
a great stockraising and dairy center, for which it is particu- 
larly adapted. There are greater undeveloped resources here 
than in any other part of the state, perhaps, and there are good 
openings for men with small means. The rainfall is about the 
same as Clatsop County, being not far from 100 inches. Tilla- 
mook, the county seat, has a population of 834, is located on 
Hoquarton Slough, at the head of the bay, and is a thriving 

Lincoln County lies on the Pacific Ocean south of Tilla- 
mook County. From the summit near the boundary with Ben- 
ton County rises the Yaquina River, which flows westerly and 
empties into the bay of the same name. The Alsea River flows 
westward through the southern part of the county, and the 
Stiletz through the northern part. Along these streams farms 
are located, producing the cereals, fruits and vegetables. The 
Stiletz Valley is very rich, but most of it belongs to the Stiletz 
Indian Reservation. The Yaquina River is navigable for 
twenty miles, and steamers enter and depart for San Fran- 
cisco and other ports. The principal towns are Newport, Ya- 
quina and Toledo. The Corvallis & Eastern Railway makes 
its terminus here. There are canneries at Newport, Alsea and 
Kernville. There is much business transacted at the mouth 
of the Yaquina and in summer time it is a resort for all the 






upper Willamette Valley. Toledo, the county seat, on Yaquina 
Bay, has a population of 302. The only places in the United 
States where the rock oyster is found are at Newport and south 
along the Coos County coast. These oysters are rare and 
finely flavored. They are found in cells in the sand rock be- 

low high tide. 

Douglas County lies mainly between the Calapooia Moun- 
tains, on the north, and the Rogue River Mountains, on the 
south, and extends from the Cascade Mountains to the ocean, 
covering the valley of the Umpqua River and its tributaries. 


This is the beginning of what is ordinarily termed southern 
Oregon, which is the territory encompassed by the Calapooia 
the Siskiyou mountains and extending from the Cascades to 
the ocean. This coimty has a frontage on the ocean of only 
twenty-five miles, the Coast Range of mountains coming well 
down to the beach, leaving little agricultural country between 
the beach and the mountains. The latter are densely tim- 
bered and lumbering is carried on extensively. The estimated 
standing timber in this county is 24,000,000,000 feet, the sec- 
ond largest stand in the state. The mouth of the Umpqua 





River furnishes an excellent harbor for coasting schooners. 
Salmon canning, lumbering, placer and quartz mining are 
among the principal industries, although agriculture and stock 
raising are prominent. There are 21,150 cattle and 30,000 
sheep grazing in this county. The total output of gold for 
southern Oregon for the year 19O0 was $1,630,000, of which 
Douglas County furnished $280,000. Oil has been found here 
and several wells have been sunk. 

Within the grand valley of the Umpqua, in the middle and 
eastern part of the county, are many valleys, plains, gorges 
and hills. There are two classes of soil — the sandy loam on 
the river and creek bottoms, which is very rich, and an upland 
loam, on the benches, also rich but not so lasting. The foot- 
hills have fine grazing lands and in this county there is game 
in abundance. The cereals, grasses and fruits all do well here, 
and dairying is becoming well established. In 1900 the county 
raised 300,000 bushels of wheat, 205,000 pounds of hops and 
150,000 pounds of butter and cheese were made. There were 
shipped $200,000 in value of prunes, $175,000 in cattle and 
$1,000,000 in value in lumber. The Southern Pacific tra- 
verses the county north and south. 

Roseburg, the county seat, situated on the Southern Pacific 
Railway, and the Umpqua River, is supposed to be the junc- 
tion with the proposed Great Central Railway from Coos Bay. 
It has a population of 3,000, good hotel accommodations, two 
banks, two flour mills, electric light, water and sewerage sys- 
tems. The Soldiers' Home and the United States land office 
are located here. Oakland and Drain are located on the South- 
ern Pacific, the latter place having the State Normal School, 
and there are other good towns in the county. 

Coos CouxTY borders on the Pacific Ocean for about fifty 
miles, lying east and south of Douglas County, but separated 
from it by the Umpqua Mountains, a part of the Coast Range. 
Coos Bay is an important harbor, from which regular lines of 
steamers ply between Alarshfield and San Francisco, taking 
coal from the extensive mines near by, other lines taking lum- 
ber, agricultural and dairy products and fish. The Coos Bay, 
Roseburg & Eastern Railroad, operated as a coal road, ex- 
tends from Marshfield to Myrtle Point, the head of navigation, 
on the Coquille River, which drains all the southern portion of 
the county and reaches the ocean at Bandon. On this river 
are located several mills and canneries, and there is a daily 
Steamer service. Much gold in early times was taken out of 



the black sands on and near the beach, and a portion of the 
population still follow beach mining as a means of livelihood. 
The county has a wealth of timber, being estimated by different 
experts, taking into account perhaps different sizes, all the way 
from twelve to twenty billion feet, consisting of about seventy- 
five per cent fir, the balance white cedar, hemlock, spruce, etc. 
These forests extend north of Coos Bay and along the branches 
of the Coquille River. The white cedar found in Coos, Curry, 
Douglas and a part of Josephine counties, on the west side of 


Copyright, by Benj. .\. Cifford, The Dalles, Ore. 

the Coast Range, possesses the finest qualities of any timber 
known to commerce. The percentage of clear lumber is very 
high, the wood is very sound and has a highly aromatic odor, 
and is greatly prized for its lasting qualities. This timber can- 
not be eqtialled on the continent. The common name for this 



tree is "Port Orford Cedar." A number of oil wells have also 
been sunk in this county. 

Coos Bay is pre-eminently the best harbor in Oregon south 
of the Columbia River, and at this point the projectors of the 
Great Central Railroad, a road intended to connect with eastern 
lines at Salt Lake, have purchased an extensive tract of land, 
covering a large portion of the shore line of the bay, and are 
developing the country at a very fast rate. Surveys have been 
made, other lands and locations obtained at various points, and 
to all appearances Coos Bay is soon to become the terminal of 
a transcontinental system. 

Good agricultural lands are found along the creek and river 
bottoms, and the uplands furnish good grazing lands. There 

are some excellent orchards and many dairies in the county. In 
mining the gold output for this and Curry County was $275,000. 

Empire City is the county seat, situated on Coos Bay, its 
population being 185. Marshfield is the principal town, where 
are located coal bunkers, three saw mills, a tannery, furniture 
factory, etc. The place has a population of 3,500. Other 
places are Myrtle Point, Coquille City, Bandon and Bangor, the 
latter being the new town established by the Great Central in- 

Jackson, Josephine and Curry Counties constitute the 
three southern counties and cover the valley of the Rogue 
River. The first named embraces the upper valley of the Rogue 



River and it tributaries ; the second, the middle valley and 
tributaries, and the third, the lower valley and the ocean beach. 
The arable lands in Jackson County comprise the valley, table 
and rolling lands. AH the cereals do well and fruits have an 
especial record. The climate here is much warmer than in the 
counties to the north, and corn grows fairly well. Most of the 
level land lies at and near the town of ]\Iedford, perhaps the 
largest of any body in southern Oregon, this being at the con- 
fluence of Bear Creek and Rogue River. Medford shipped 
60,000 crates of peaches and 2,600 crates of raspberries in 
1902. Jacksonville, the county seat, has a population of 653 ; 


A'ledford, about 3,000, and x\shland, 2,634. A state normal 
school is located at Ashland. The gold output for 1900 was 
$400,000, mostly by h)'draulic plants. 

In Josephine County the valleys are narrower, but fruits are 
grown as well as in Jackson County, and it may be said that 
both are the home of the peach. Tobacco is quite successfully 
grown. Gold was first found in Oregon at Kirbysville and 
gold mining is carried on extensively, the output for 1900 
being $675,000. The county seat is Grants Pass, situated on 
the Southern Pacific, which road traverses both Jackson and 
Tosephine counties, also on the Rogue River, and has a popula- 


tion of 2,290. This is a stirring place, with good business 
blocks and lumber and mining interests. The Rogue River, 
which narrows to a gorge between this point and Medford, 
widens again to the west, and with some tributary valleys makes 
cjuite an agricultural area, which is devoted largely to horticul- 
ture. The town of Grants Pass gets its name from the fact 
that Grant, with his army, camped here in 1852, on his expedi- 
tion from the Columbia River to San Francisco overland, by 
way of the Willamette and Sacramento valleys. 

Curry is the most southwestern county of the state, and 
claims the distinction of being in Cape Blanco, the most westerly 
point of the United States. The county is very mountainous, 
the Rogue River Valley becoming quite narrow, but the river 
afifords at its mouth a harbor for coasting schooners. Gold 
Beach, the county seat, has a population of eighty-three, and 
Port Orford 227, both being on the ocean. Washing the elusive 
gold sands of the beach, some interior mining, and dairying oc- 
cupy the population principally. A salmon cannery is located 
on the Rogue River. The estimated timber here is eight billion 
feet. The whole country is within the coal belt, and it is 
thought great wealth will be derived from this source. 

The southern part of the Cascades sends up a rugged solitary 
shaft 6,000 feet above sea level, known as Pilot Rock. It stands 
on the line between Oregon and California, and is seen for 150 
miles. This is a very prominent feature of the country. Crater 
Lake, in Klamath County, is reached from Medford. 


British Columbia is the most westerly, the largest, and the 
only Pacific maritime province of the Dominion of Canada. It 
lies immediately north of the states of Washington, Idaho and 
Montana, entirely west of the Rocky Mountains in its southern 
part, and extends from the 49° to the 60° of north latitude. It 
includes \'ancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Islands and many 
smaller islands. It has a length of 100 miles, with an average 
width of 450 miles, constituting an area of 383,300 square 
miles, and it had a population in 1901 of 178,657. 

The early history of the entire British Northwest Territory 
adjoining the United States is interwoven with that of the 
United States Pacific Northwest. That history begins with the 
voyage of Captain Cook in 1778, when Nootka Sound, on Van- 





couver Island, was discovered, which, with the expeditions sent 
out by other nations, lias teen mentioned in the early history of 
the Oregon Country. 

In 179s the territory now included in the province of British 
Columlaia became the acknowledged possession of the British 
Crown. Sir Alexander JNIcKenzie crossed the continent and 
reached the upper valley of the Fraser River and the Pacific 
Ocean by way of the Peace and Salmon rivers in 1792, thirteen 
years before Lewis and Clark arrived at the mouth of the Co- 
lumbia. The Northwestern Fur Co. followed, and after 
many mishaps established themselves and in 1821 formed a 
union with the Hudson's Bay Co., and had much to do with 
the civilization and advancement of the country. A treaty was 
made with Russia in 1825 to determine the boundary between 
the Russian Alaska coast sealing and fur trading, and the fur 
trading of the interior. In 1846 the Ashburton treaty settled 
the boundary between the United States and Canada. In 1871 
British Columbia became a province of the Dominion of Can- 
ada upon the stipulation that railway connection should be es- 
tablished with the east. This was accomplished in May, 1887, 
when the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway was opened 
for traffic. Victoria was made the capital, it having long held 
the commercial supremacy of the country west of the Rocky 

The building of the Canadian Pacific Railway was one of 
the greatest feats of railway construction on record. It was 
built through an entirely uninhabited country, and the difficul- 
ties of railway construction at the pass where the railroad 
crossed the Rocky Mountains seemed almost insurmountable. 
For 500 miles through these moimtains the Selkirks and the 
gorge of the Fraser River through the Cascade Mountains 
afford perhaps as grand and wild scenery as can be found upon 
the American continent. 

A road farther to the north has seemed more feasible and 
will no doubt be built. It will reach the Pacific Ocean at Port 
Simpson, 300 miles north of \'ancouver. The line of this road 
from its eastern terminus, Quebec, passes north of Lake Winni- 
peg through Athabasca and North Alberta, covering 2,380 miles 
in its span of the continent from the Atlantic seaboard to the 
Pacific. This road will no doubt eventually reach the Yukon 
territory, from whidi connection can be made with the Siberian 
railway at Cape Prince of Wales, on liering Strait, by wav of 
Nome, thus bringing into reality the long-heralded route from 


New York and other eastern cities to St. Petersburg and Paris 
by rail. 

The Province of British Columbia is governed by a lieuten- 
ant-governor, appointed by the governor-general of the Do- 
minion, and who is assisted 13_\' an executive council of six 
members. The province has a legislature consisting of a sin- 
gle chamber of thirty-four members, and it is represented in 
the parliament at Ottawa by three senators and six members 
of the house of commons. The schools are free and have no 
church alliances. 

The province is divided into local districts as follows : East 
and West Kootenai, Yale, Lillooet, New Westminster, Cariboo 
and Cassiar on the, mainland, and Comax, which includes the 
northern half of \"ancouver Island and a portion of the main- 
land opposite, Alberni, Nanaimo, Cowichan and Escjuimalt on 
X'ancouver Island. 

The distinctive features of British Columbia are its indented 
sea coasts, its islands and its mountains. Almost one-half of 
the province is cut ofT from access to the sea by a narrow strip 
of United States territory known as the Panhandle of Alaska, 
and which stretches from Mount St. Elias to the southernmost 
point of Prince of Wales Island. Southern British Columbia is 
divided into two great drainage basins, the eastern, or sources 
of the Columbia River, and the western, or valley of the Eraser 
River, which is the main river of the province. The Rocky 
Mountains, which bound southern British Columbia on the 
east, have a width of about sixty miles, and an average height 
of about 8,000 feet, the highest peaks being Mount Brown 
(16,000 feet), Mount Hooker (15,700 feet) and Mount Mur-' 
chison (13,500 feet). To the west are three shorter ranges of 
mountains, the first being the Purcell Range ; the Selkirk 
Mountains constitute the second range, and the Gold Range the 
western, which borders on the interior plateau and extends 
farther north, expanding into the Cariboo Mountains. The 
Selkirks are much the highest of these three mountain ranges. 
Mount Sir Donald having an altitude of 10,645 feet. Mount 
Macdonald 9,440 feet and IMount Tupper 9,030 feet. 

In the numerous valleys enclosed by these mountains is de- 
veloped a river system remarkable alike for its complexitv and 
its grandeur. In the southern part of the valley, at the western 
base of the Rocky Mountains, the Kootenai River flows to the 
south, while the Columbia River flows to the north, a narrow 
range of mountains only lying between them. The Columbia 


River sweeps around the northern end of the Selkirks and, turn- 
ing southward, flows between the Selkirks and the Gold Range, 
receiving the Kootenai, which has visited the United States and 
returned, a short distance from the frontier, then passes into 
the United States on its long journey to the ocean. The Fraser 
River at first flows in a northwesterly course and then turns 
southward, passing through the Cariboo Mountains, the Lillooet 
and Yale districts, when, turning to the west, it reaches the sea 
at the Strait of Georgia, near the United States boundar}' line. 
The northern portion of British Columbia is a country of rough 
plateaus and mountains, watered on the west by the Taku, Sti- 
keen and Skeena Rivers, by the Liard tributaries on the north- 
west and the streams that drain the northern valleys of the 
Cariboo Mountains into the Peace River. The great interior 
basin extends from the Rocky Mountains to the Cascades, 
which run parallel to and contiguous along the coast, having 
turned to the west and become really the Coast Range of 

That region of British Columbia along the mainland of the 
coast enjoys a very mild climate, due to the influences of the 
Japan current. The western slopes of the Cascade Mountains 
receive the first precipitation of moisture from the prevailing 
westerly winds, which give abundant rainfall, and in the more 
northerl}' islands, especially the Queen Charlotte group and 
the coast region, an excess. Between the Coast Range and 
Gold Mountains are arid plains which require irrigation. On 
the interior plateaus the winter temperature frequently falls 
below zero, but the air being very dry makes the cold endurable, 
even in the extreme north. The mean annual temperature at 
\'ictoria is 47°, the range being from 22° to 80°, the annual 
rainfall being forty-one inches. At Barkersville, in the Cari- 
boo district, the mean temperature for January is 12° and for 
July 49°, the rainfall for the summer months being seventeen 
inches and the snowfall in winter 161 inches. The rainfall in 
the interior increases with the distance to the north from the 
boundary line. 

British Columbia is one of the richest and most resourceful 
provinces of the Dominion. It is a highly mineralized, moun- 
tainous country, with intervening valleys of arable and pasture 
lands, and magnificent forests. The mines are comparatively 
undeveloped, yet their product amounts to nearly the production 
of all Canada ; the fisheries about one-third the total yield of 
the waters of the entire Dominion ; and the forests one-twen- 



itieth of the timber cut in all the provinces. For 1900 the value 
of mineral productions was $16,344,751. The largest coal 
workings are confined to X'ancouver Island, but at Crow's Nest 
Pass, in the Rock}' Mountains, there has been prospected with 
drills an area of excellent bituminous coal of 144 square miles, 
the aggregate thickness of the veins being 132 feet. Second 
to the mines are the fisheries, the value of the product for 1900 
being $5,214,000. The canning of salmon and fur sealing being 
the leading indvistries, canneries are located along the coast on 
the Nass, Skeena, Fraser and smaller rivers. The central seat 
of the canning industry is on the Fraser River, where in season 


thousands of boats are employed in taking the fish, there being 
more than fifty canneries located upon the river. The province 
de^'otes adequate attention to the preservation of the fisheries 
by artificial means. 

The forests consist largely of the evergreen, Douglas fir and 
cedar, though hemlock and cypress are found in considerable 
quantity. The trees reach their densest and largest growth on 
the islands and western slopes of the Cascade Mountains, where 
they are said to average 20,000 feet to the acre. The estimate 
of the timber bearing area is 285,000 square miles, and of the 


timber now standing one hundred billion feet. In 1900 the 
lumber cut of the province was 276,236,470 feet, of which 25,- 
000,000 feet went east of the Rocky Mountains by rail and the 
remainder went to all parts of the world by ships. 

British Columbia has a magnificent ocean frontage of fully 
1,000 miles, has many fine harbors, the principal of which is 
Burrard Inlet, the western terminus of the Canadian Pacific 

The Kootenai District extends north and south from the in- 
ternational boundary line to the big bend of the Columbia 
River. It is divided by the Purcell Range of the Selkirks into 
East and West Kootenai. .Almost the entire district is drained 
by the Columbia River. There are great regions of mineral 
wealth here which in the early days yielded millions of dollars 
in placer mining. Besides gold, silver and copper, on the west- 
ern side of Crow's Nest Pass of the Rocky Mountains, there are 
perhaps the largest undeveloped coal fields in North America. 
They are known to cover 144 square miles, and 1,000 coke 
ovens are now in operation. The building of the southern line 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway has opened up this country 
and afforded an outlet long needed. In Eastern Kootenai the 
principal town is Cranbrook, on the line of the Crow's Nest 
Pass Railway. It has a population of 2,000. It is located on 
a prairie in the Kootenai Valley and is the principal lumbering 
point of the district. The city is lighted by electricity, has 
several large stores, banks, hotels, churches and schools. 

In Western Kootenai marvellously rich deposits of ore have 
been discovered. ^lany of the mining properties are fully 
equipped with machinery, in Trail Creek, Nelson, Kaslo-slocan, 
Ainsworth and other districts, smelters having been erected at 
the towns of Nelson and Trail. There are good openings for 
farmers in these valleys, and a wonderful field for the angler 
and hunter. The largest towns of the district are Nelson, sit- 
uated on the western arm of Kootenai Lake, with a population 
of 6,000, and Rossland, eight miles from the boundary line, 
with a population of 7,000. Both are phenomenal mining 
towns. The Canadian Pacific main line crosses these districts 
amid grand scenery in their northern part. 

The Yale District lies to the west of the Kootenais, from 
which it is separated by the Gold Range. It lies entirelv within 
the dry belt, but within its limits are great stretches of mining, 
grazing, agricultural and fruit lands, which afiford good open- 
ings. The development of this country is made possible 


through the construction of railwaj's in the southern and east- 
era part by the Canadian Pacific in its southern hne and the 
Great Northern in its route from Spol<ane,- Washington, to 
Vancouver, along the international boundary line and the Sam- 
ilkameen River. The Boundary district, the Kettle River and 
Boundary Creek valleys, and the Okanogan, Nicola and 
Thompson valleys, are good sections of about the 
same character as the Colville Reservation in the 
state of Washington, heretofore described. The Yale Dis- 
trict belongs to the bunch grass country, where wheat, 
fruit and vegetables are prolific. There are good farming open- 
ings and good mines in the district, and besides there is a 


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large mineral field to the north yet unexplored. In the Nicola 
Valley there are good farms and a large coal area. Thompson 
Valley traverses the northern part of the Yale District, where 
there are extensive grazing and agricultural lands. Some irri- 
gation is being carried on in this locality, and in the Okanogan 
countrv large tracts are being brought under ditches. These 
lands are well adapted to fruit and berry growing. A cigar 
factory in the Okanogan district is claimed to be manufacturing 
native grown tobacco. About 40,000 head of cattle are ranging 
near Kamloops, and a greater number in the Samilkameen 


The Fraser River traverses the western side of the district 
and the Canadian Pacific Railway follows the main water 
course. Kamloops is a division headquarters of the railroad 
and is the largest town in the district, having a population of 
2,000. Ashcroft, on the Canadian Pacific Railway, 204 miles 
east of Vancouver, is the starting point for the west Lillooet 
district and Cariboo points. Grand Forks is the principal town 
in the boundary country, on Kettle River near the boundary 
line, and has a population of 1,500; a large smelter is in 
operation here. There are several good towns in this and 
other valleys. 

The Lillooet District lies immediately west of the northern 
part of the Yale District. The Fraser River crosses it from 
north to south, as does the famous Cariboo road, the trail to 
the mines. This district is as yet sparsely settled, the principal 
settlements being in the vicinity of the Fraser River. There is 
a large area of fine grazing land, which is also suitable for 
farming, but irrigation is required. The valleys have a rich 
soil, where fruit can be grown successfully. The climate is 
fairly mild in the valleys, the cattle maintaining themselves the 
entire winter on the ranges. 

The Cariboo District lies between Cassiar District on the 
west and Athabasca and Alberta on the east. It reaches from 
the 52° to 60° latitude, bordering the Yukon territory. The 
Rocky Mountains traverse it in about a northwesterly course, 
which makes it very mountainous in its west and northern part. 
The famed Cariboo mines, from which millions of gold have 
been taken, are in this district, and extensive hydraulic mining 
is being carried on. This is a great field for the prospector. 
The south and western parts of this district are high, rolling 
plateaus, mostly wooded. The climate is much like that of 
Lillooet. The extreme northern part has the same character as 
the Yukon territory. That part of the Cariboo District that is 
drained by the Peace River is known as the Omineca District, 
where rich gold placers were discovered. 

The Cassiar District comprises the western portion of British 
Columbia west of the Cariboo District, and extends from the 
51° to the 60° north latitude. It adjoins the Alaska Panhan- 
dle, circles Skagway and White Pass and adjoins the Yukon 
territory on the north. As it lies mostly west of the Cascade 
Mountains it is generally heavily timbered and difficult to travel 
through. The Cascade Mountains traverse its entire length. 
Rich mining districts have been discovered at Cassiar and at 

iiKiiibH CUJ-UiVlciA 



Atlin Lake, near the Yukon line. The navigable Skeena River 
rises in the Cassiar Mountains and in a generally southwest 
course reaches the sea, a little below Port Simpson. This is 
the largest river of the district, and affords the best means of 
intercourse with the upper interior. Two placer mining towns 
have lately sprung up in the district — Atlin and Pine City. 
These are reached by steamers to Skagway, the White Pass & 
Yukon Railway, and then steamers on Lake Bennett. 

The New Westminster District lies along the boundary line 
mainly between the Yale District and the Strait of Georgia. The 
Cascade Mountains cross this district from northwest to south- 
east and make it therefore very mountainous, with the excep- 
•tion of the valley of the Fraser River and the deltas at its 
mouth. This valley is quite wide and to the south frequently 
overflows, necessitating diking 'in some parts. The rainfall in 
this district is ample, the soil rich and the climate mild. The 
country is fairly well settled, but farms can be had at reason- 
able prices. The Canadian Pacific Railway follows the Fraser 
River Valley, and the (ireat Northern connects Vancouver and 
New Westminster with Puget Sotmd points. Much attention 
is given to salmon canning and fishing in general. Timber is 
abundant and lumber manufacturing is carried on extensively. 

Vancouver, the largest city of the district and of British 
Columbia and the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
is situated on Burrard Inlet, a very fine tidewater harbor of 
the Strait of Georgia. It is surrounded by a country of rare 
beauty, and the mildness of the climate is all that could be 
asked for. It is named for the explorer of that name, is located 
150 miles from the open ocean, from which it is separated by 
Vancouver Island, but it is nevertheless the home port of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company's line of steamers plying to 
all parts of the Orient, the eastern terminus of the Canadian- 
Australian Steamship line to Australia, and of the Canadian Pa- 
cific Navigation Company's steamers to Alaska. The inner har- 
bor has thirty square miles of ship anchorage and 3,000 feet of 
docks and wharves have been built for steamship accommoda- 
tion. This port is a call station of the Pacific Coast Steamship 
Company's line running to Alaska and San Francisco. The city 
is well built, many streets being paved with asphalt ; it has 
good hotel accommodations and several parks, among which is 
Stanley Park, one of the most beautiful parks on the Pacific 
Coast. It has several important industries, such as iron works, 
sugar refinery, canneries, and large sawmills. Electric cars 





run on all the principal streets and connection is made with 
New Westminster, twelve miles distant. The buildings of this 
city, which has a population of 30,000, would do credit to those 
of one of much larger size. This is the natural headquarters of 
tourists for this region, on account of the beautiful scenery 
and the fishing and hunting attractions. 

New Westminster is the oldest city of the entire province. 
It was founded during the gold excitement of 1858, is situated 
on the Fraser River sixteen miles above its mouth in the center 
of a rich farming country, and is connected with the Canadian 
Pacific by a branch from Westminster Junction, and, as before 
stated, ,an electric line from X'ancouver. The city is built on a 
side hill overlooking the river and is very imposing. Five 
canneries are located within the limits, three large sawmills, an 
oatmeal mill, condensed milk factory, sash and door factory, 
machine shops, etc. The Provincial Penitentiary, Asylum for 
the Insane and other public buildings are located here. The 
Fraser River is navigable up to the Yale District. There are 
several other important towns in this district, and the Harrison 
Hot Springs, near the Canadian Pacific, have become a very 
noted health resort. 

V.vNCOux'ER Island and Comax. — Vancouver Island is sep- 
arated from the mainland by the Strait of Georgia and from 
the Cnited States mainly by the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 
island is 300 miles long, with an average breadth of about fifty 
miles, and covers the local districts of Alberni, Nanaimo, Cowi- 
chan and Esquimalt, the north half of the island being in the 
Comax District, which includes a portion of the mainland op- 
posite. The two ends of Vancouver Island are comparatively 
flat, but the mountains of the interior range from 6,000 to 8,000 
feet in height and are covered with fir and cedar timber. The 
interior of the island is unsettled, the eastern portion only being 
suitable for agriculture. The island, however, is rich in mineral 
wealth — gold, copper and coal ; the coal mines at Nanaimo 
mine annually 1,000,000 tons. 

Esquimalt, a suburb of Victoria, is the principal harbor 
and has long been the rendezvous of the Pacific British 
squadron. It is connected with Victoria bv an electric car 
line. The nucleus of the town is the government buildings, 
dry docks, etc. 

Victoria is the capital of British Columbia and the chief 
city of Vancouver Island, having a population of 20,816. It 
was first settled as a trading post and a fort of the Hudson's 



Bay Co. It is beautifully situated at the extreme southern 
end of Vancouver Island, opposite the Strait of Juan de 
Fuca and the entrance to Puget Sound, and faces the mag- 
nificent Olympic Mountains of Washington. The large parlia- 
ment buildings, which catch the visitor's eye as he enters 
the harbor, are very striking and cost more than one million 
dollars. The city is quite wealthy, substantially built, and is 
very English. The points of interest are the parliament 
buildings, naval station. Beacon Hill Park — a tract of 300 
acres — the Gorge, the golf links on Oak Bay, the Royal Jubi- 
lee Hospital, and Mount Tolmie. This city has large busi- 
ness and shipping interests and is one of the outfitting' points 
for the Yukon territory. Its commercial interests extend all 


over the world, and one of the largest iron works on the 
Pacific Coast is located here. It has many hotels and a large 
floating population, since it is the first and last stopping place 
of all vessels coming in and going to sea. 

Nanaimo is situated on the east coast of the island and has 
a population of 5,000. This is the center of the coal mining 
interests, where a large number of men find employment in 
the mines. It is connected with Mcto-ria by the Esquimalt & 
Nanaimo Railway. 

A great feature touching the relation of commerce to the 
province of British Columbia is that its commercial seats are 
nearest to all the important seaports of the world, east and 
west. The shortest lines around the world are in the latitude 
of southern British Columbia, and the shortest lines from Liv- 


erpool to Hongkong are via Quebec, Winnipeg, Vancouver 
and Yokoliama. The commerce of this province, in conse- 
quence, must be large. Its exports in 1902 reached over two 
million dollars, it having a lumber fleet of eighty vessels, to 
say nothing of the fleets carrying the general tonnage in 

There are large areas of free lands in this province, 
which can be obtained under the homestead laws by making 
allegiance to the British Crown. The settlers upon these lands 
have liberal exemptions from debt executions, and many other 
advantages not offered in the United States. Land, however, 
can be bought and held by an alien without becoming a British 
subject. Remarkable changes are occurring in British Colum- 
bia and western Canada from the constant invasion of Ameri- 
can settlers, which neither political differences nor arbitrary 
tariffs are able to resist. This must have the effect of draw- 
ing these nations, whose interests are largely identical, still 
more closely together. 


By Western Canada is meant the large agricultural country 
lying between the Rocky Mountains and Ontario, and north 
of Minnesota, North Dakota and Montana. It covers a dis- 
tance of about 800 miles along the boundary and extends 
northward in some places almost indefinitely. The political 
divisions of this region are the Province of Manitoba and the 
territorial districts of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta and 

Manitoba has an area of 73,000 square miles. It has ample 
rainfall and about the same characteristics as the Red River 
\'alley in IMinnesota, of which its southern portion is a part. 
This province has in crops this year 2,000,000 acres, and in 
1 90 1 it raised more than 30,000,000 bushels of wheat. The 
yield is generally large and there is good profit, not only in 
this cereal, but also in cattle. Assiniboia has an area of about 
99,000 square miles, about that of the state of Minnesota. 
Saskatchewan, lying to the north of Assiniboia and Manitoba, 
has an area of 106,000 square miles, about that of Michigan 
and Ohio combined. Alberta, which lies between the Rocky 
Mountains and these two last named districts, has an area of 
106,000 square miles. Not including Athabaska, these other 
districts have 308,000 square miles, of which it is estimated 



about seventy to sevent_v-five per cent is usable. This, of 
course, depends upon the character of the country and the 
rainfall. The general character of the land is a general vast 
rolling prairie of a rich, black soil, with a clay subsoil, which 
is particularly adapted to wheat. This subsoil, as in the 
States, retains the winter moisture to aid the growing plant 
to its maturity whether much rain falls or not during the 
ripening process. The climate is cold in winter and hot in 
summer ; the spring is short and the fall delightful. The gen- 
eral average of rainfall is about seventeen inches ; in northern 
.A.lberta, about fourteen inches, and at Regina about eight inches. 


The western part of Assiniboia is perhaps the extreme west- 
ern limit of the wheat raising section, without irrigation, along 
the line of the Canadian Pacific. The arid region is covered 
with bunch grass and makes good stock ranges. The coun- 
try is well watered by streams draining mostly into Hudson 
Bay. Throughovit the general region wheat is the main crop 
and will no doubt long remain so, for the conditions are not 
wholly conducive to diversified farming, besides which the 
yield of wheat has been so large and it requires so little labor 
to handle large tracts, that the farmer is inclined to plant 
largely this one crop. Cattle raising in the more arid districts 





is very extensive. These lands, wliich could have been 
bought in 1900 for $3 per acre, are now bringing from $6 to 
$10 per acre in favored localities and are cheap at these prices. 
Lands still range from $3.50 to $5 per acre in the Calgary and 
North Alberta districts. 

The country is very accessible by way of the Canadian Pa- 
cific and its branches, the Canadian Northern, the "Soo Line" 
and the Great Northern and Northern Pacific, the two latter 
roads giving direct communication between the "Twin Cities" 
and Winnipeg, where the Canadian lines may be taken for 
destinations. The Trans-Canada Railway, now building from 
Quebec, on the St. Lawrence, to Port Simpson, on the Pa- 
cific, will pass through Saskatchewan and Alberta or Atha- 
baska, which will bring within a short haul to its line an im- 
mense area of land on a very direct line to the English market. 

The general government of Canada is federal, and the 
provinces and districts have local legislatures. Regina, pop- 
ulation 2,645, is the chief tov^m of Assiniboia and the capital 
of the Northwest Territories, also the headquarters of the 
mounted police. 


The district of Alaska, the most northerly possession of the 
LTnited States, lies between 51° and 71° north latitude and 
130° and 175° west longitude. The main portion of Alaska, 
however, lies between 60° and 71° 30' north latitude and 141° 
and 168° west longitude. The estimate made by the govern- 
ment officials gives Alaska an area of 590,884 scjuare miles, 
which includes the Aleutian Islands and the narrow strip 
south of Mount St. Elias, known as southeastern Alaska, or 
the Panhandle. It has a remarkably long coast line on the 
Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean, estimated to 
be over 18,000 miles, including the islands. The compact part 
of Alaska is about 800 miles in length, east and west, and 1,100 
miles north and south, while from Point Barrow, the extreme 
northerly point in the Arctic Ocean, to Portland Canal, the 
most southerly point, is 1,500 miles. The Alaska Peninsula 
and the chain of Aleutian Islands extend 1,500 miles into 
the Pacific Ocean. With the accjuisition of the Philippine 
Islands and Alaska, the United States has acquired territory 
not only in the frigid but in the torrid zone, the territory of 



Alaska alone constituting one-fifth of the area of the United 
States proper. 

History. — In 1728 Vitus Bering, a Danish navigator in the 
employ of Russia, discovered the strait now bearing his name, 
and in June, 1741, sighted Mount St. Elias. Later some of 
the Aleutian Islands were visited, where Bering died. A ves- 
sel load of sealskins was taken to Kamschatka on the return 
voyage. This induced other Russians to search for seals, and 
in 1743-49 four voyages were made to the seal islands, and 


ttius the Russian fur trade and interest in Alaska was estab- 
lished. In 1762 a trader by the name of Gottoff wintered on 
Kadiak Island. At this island the first permanent settlement 
was established by Shelikoff and the town named Three Saints. 
From this point various trading ports were established, one 
on Afognak Island and another at Cape St. Elias. 

John Quadra, a Spaniard, visited the vicinitv of Sitka in 
1775, and Captain Cook, an Englishman, in 1778 entered the 


inlet which bears his name. In 1790 Alexander Baranof was 
given charge of the Russian settlements by Shelikoff, and in 
1799 the Russian American Fur Company was chartered and 
given twent}- years' control of the entire country. During 
this year Baranof landed on the island now bearing his name 
and established Sitka, building a fort which he called Arch- 
angel, but in 1802 the natives killed most of the settlers and 
destroyed the place. In 1806 the settlement at Yakutat was 
also exterminated. In 1824 a treaty between the United 
States and Russia fixed the southern boundary at 54° 40', 
and the waters of the North Pacific Ocean were opened to 
American ships. In the following year a treaty was made be- 
tween Great Britain and Russia by which the boundary line 
between the then Russian possessions and British possessions 
was established as it remains to this date. 

In 1867 the United States government, under the auspices 
of William H. Seward, then secretary of state, purchased 
Alaska from the Russian government, paying therefor, with 
all the rights and emoluments thereunto belonging, $7,200,000. 
Since that time the Russian treaty has been of much inter- 
est, and the important part, or description of the boundary 
line, is herewith quoted verbatim : 

"Commencing from the soathernmost point of the island called 
Prince of Wale.s island, which point lies in a parallel of 54 degrees 
40 minutes north latitude, and between the 131st and 133d degrees of 
west longitude (meridian of Greenwich), the said line shall ascend 
to the north along the channel, called Portland channel, as far as the 
point of the continent where it strikes the s5th degree of north latitude ; 
from this last mentioned point the line of demarkation shall follow 
the summit of the mountains parallel to the coast as far as the 
point of intersection of the i4Ht degree of west longitude (of the same 
meridian), and finally, from the said point of intersection, the said 
meridian line of the 141st degree, in its prolongation, as far as the 
frozen ocean. 

"With reference to the line of demarkation, it is understood, first, 
that the Island called Prince of Wales island shall belong wholly to 

"Second, that whenever the summit of the mountains, which extend 
in a direction parallel to the coast from the 56th degree of north 
latitude to the point of intersection to the 141st degree of west longi- 
tude, shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine 
leagues from the ocean, the limit between the British possessions 
and the line of coast which is to belong to Russia, as above men- 
tioned, shall be formed by a line parallel to the winding of the coast, 
and which shall never exceed the distance of ten marine leagues there- 



The mountain ranges near the coast did not prove to be 
such as was expected when the treaty was made, hence by 
common consent the United States and Canadian governments 
adopted the ten-league limit, and until recent years no question 
arose. The discovery of gold in the Klondike region gave 
additional value to the coast strip, and Canada, desiring to 
hold the head of Lynn Canal, the nearest seaport to the gold 
regions, as an open port, insisted on interpreting the treaty 
of 1824 so that the measurement of the thirty-mile strip would 
begin along the outer edge of the fringe of islands. This 
was opposed by the United States, and in 1899 a provisional 
boundary line along the head of Lynn Canal was agreed upon, 
both countries reserving their claims for later settlement. 


As early as 1868 the Yukon River had been traversed by a 
party who had built a raft near its head waters and floated 
from this point to the sea, a distance of more than 2,000 
miles. In later years adventurous prospectors for gold had, in 
pairs or small parties, crossed the Chilkoot Pass by trail and 
reached the Yukon, taking out some placer gold at Forty Mile 
and a few other places, generally being satisfied with their 
expenses and a sufficient grub stake for the coming season. 
Sitka had been retained as a capital city by the United States, 
the appointed governor making it his headquarters, and 
Juneau had sprung up as a supply station, with the success of 



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the now famous Treadwell mine, on Douglas Island. The 
steamboats of the Alaska Commercial Co., the successor of 
the Russian company, were plying the Yukon, suppl}'ing the 
outposts for trading on the upper river with sealers and 
whalers in Bering Sea ; codfishing was carried on along the 
banks, and lastly salmon canneries were being established. 

It was in August, 1896, that George Carmack and his Indian 
partners took from the foot of the now famous Birch Tree, 
on Bonanza Creek, the first pan of gold from the Klondike. 
He staked a claim for himself and for each of his Indian 
friends, and at once hastened to Forty Mile for provisions, 
from whence the news was spread. The display of his 
"poke" of gold dust told the tale, and the Klondike boom was 
on. During this and the following months this creek and 
Eldorado Creek were staked, and in the spring of 1897 the 
richness of the district was known from Circle City to Sixty 
Mile, and every man, woman and child who could make the 
trip was soon journeying on the ice to the new diggings. The 
arrival of the steamer Portland at the Seattle dock in 1897 
with the first treasure seemed to set the world on fire, and 
during that and the succeeding year the mad rush to Dyea 
and Skagway took place. Men toiled over the treacherous 
passes and many lives were sacrificed. An eye-witness says : 
'T saw on that steep precipice which leads to the Chilkoot 
Pass day after day a long line of men, pack laden, slowly 
making their way to the top. So thickly crowded was the 
trail that one near the bottom would stand for several min- 
utes waiting for a place." That rush lasted all through the 
winter of 1897-98. The old route led to Sheep Camp, then 
tO' Lake Linderman, where timber was whipsawed for boats, 
and then, when the ice broke, the boats were launched, dan- 
gerous rapids were braved and after many days those of the 
adventurers who were lucky enough to escape the dangers 
arrived at the mouth of the Klondike, helping to swell the 
city of Dawson, then in its infancy. Dawson, in 1897, had a 
population of fully 5,000, and in 1898, with the surrounding 
country, it had probably 40,000. The overflow spread out in 
all directions, many of the people finally reaching Nome. 

The building of the White Pass & Yukon Railwav from 
Skagway to White Horse, via the White Pass, connecting 
with steamers on the Yukon, now makes the trip very enjoy- 
able, either winter or summer, the time from Seattle to Daw- 



son City being only seven days. Of late Dawson has become 
very quiet, as the days of the placers are fast passing away. 
The amount of gold taken from these remarkable placers to 
June 20, 1903, is in value $80,000,000, but is each year grow- 
ing less. Now the lower river on the American side is being 
opened, discoveries are being made at various points, and a 
good wagon road has been built 150 miles into the interior 
from Valdez which will ultimately reach the Yukon. 

The history of the discovery of gold on Seward Peninsular, 
at Council City, Ophir and Anvil Creek, now known as the 


Nome district, is here given in the words of Captain D. B. 
Libby, of San Francisco, the original discoverer : 

"In 1866 I was in command of a construction party, sta- 
tioned at Port Clarence, Alaska, engaged in building a tele- 
graph line called the Western Union Russian Extension, 
starting from New Westminster, B. C, and intended to reach 
St. Petersburg, Russia, by Bering Strait. My division ex- 
tended from Cape Prince of Wales to Norton Bay. Our sta- 
tion consisted of four well constructed buildings, and the party 


of forty-one men. We landed in September, 1866, and built 
fifteen miles of line to the head of Grantley Harbor that fall 
and eight miles more in the spring of 1867, and put the same 
in operation. We published monthly a paper we called 'The 
Esquimaux' at the settlement we called Libbyville. Myself 
and two men, in the fall of 1866, went with dog teams over 
the proposed route to Norton Bay. When we reached the 
Neukduk River not much snow had fallen and some of the 
bars were bare, and I was convinced it was a gold country. I 
tried some of the dirt a little farther down and got some 
colors. I told the men with me that when we had completed 
our construction the next summer we would ' prospect more 

"We had a hard winter, our provisions gave out, and after 
that we lived on native food until July, when a company ves- 
sel came in and we were informed the whole project had been 
abandoned. The laying of the first Atlantic cable was the 
cause. Returning to California, I thought not of Alaska until 
the Klondike strike was confirmed. In August, 1897, I formed 
a party of four men, outfitted for two years, and destined for 
Golovin Bay, where we landed September 17. After building 
winter quarters, in November we went up the Fish River, 
camped at the mouth of what is now called Ophir Creek and 
found fairly good prospects. One of the party and myself 
went up again with reindeer teams and were gone thirty-seven 
days, during which time we found gold in many places. In 
March, 1898, we all went up and camped in a deserted Esqui- 
maux hut, where Council City stands. We located claims on 
Ophir and Melsing creeks and with some others, brought up 
from the mission, formed Discovery and Eldorado districts 
and named our camp Council City. 

"In July, 1898, I sent Mr. Blake with a missionary up the 
Nome coast to prospect, which he did on what is now known 
as Anvil Creek, finding about forty colors to the pan, so the 
missionary said, but no locations were made. There was a 
misrepresentation of things, and the missionary and others 
returned to Nome and located the whole of Anvil Creek." 

Since then great developments have taken place on these 
creeks, and the amounts taken out through placer mining alone 
and up to 1892 with very ordinary methods have astonished 
the world. 

Along the coast of southeastern Alaska the land rises from 





the water very abruptly to altitudes of thousands of feet. The 
chain of islands is separated from the mainland by channels, 
and deep, narrow fiords extend far into the mainland, where 
they branch out into other and similar bays. From the com- 
mencement of American territory, at Dixon entrance to Gla- 
cier Bay there is presented to the traveler more natural won- 
ders than any region of equal extent in the world. The 
entire coast in its gorges shows unmistakable evidence of 
glacial action ; in some places the ice has only recently re- 
treated, while in other places the glaciers are still at work. 
Lynn Canal, which is ninety miles long, is an excellent illus- 
tration of these glacial fiords, and Glacier Bay, with Muir 
Glacier, an illustration of the ice in action. This latter is one 
of the most massive glaciers on the coast, being one mile in 
width and from 250 to 300 feet in height. As it projects into 
the ocean the warmer water melts the base, and the upper por- 
tions, having lost their supports, fall off in the form of bergs, 
containing thousands of tons of ice. Between Yakutat Bay 
and Prince William Sound are many ice fields, one of the 
largest in this region being the Malaspina Glacier, which occu- 
pies the foot of Mount St. Elias. This glacier extends over 
an area of 1,500 square miles, and is the only glacier of 
N^orth America which comes in direct contact with the open 
sea. Its remarkable feature is a forest, growing out of the 
accumulated dirt and stones which cover the ice field. 

North of Cross Sound and southeast of Mount St. Elias is 
the important inlet of Yakutat Bay, a deep, funnel-shaped 
fiord, that penetrates first far northeastward and then south- 
eastward, being a narrow body of water, bordered by lofty 
mountains. Between the Copper River and Kenai Peninsula 
lies Prince William Sound, the entrance to which is obstructed 
by mountainous islands that attain an elevation of 10.000 feet. 
Extending into the land about forty miles, the sound has nu- 
merous branches, at the heads of which are moving glaciers ; 
the most northerly and easterly arm is known as Port Valdez, 
and at the head of this is located the town of Valdez. This 
place was first settled in 1898, and now has a population of 
about 500. It is the southern terminus of the government mail 
route to Eagle City, on the Yukon. Large deposits of copper 
have been discovered near here, and a railroad to the Tanana 
River is being considered. There is steamer connection with 
Alaskan and Lmited States points. The Copper River is a 



large stream, remarkable for its delta, above which it is navi- 
gable for about thirty miles. 

On Kenai Peninsula coal fields have been discovered, and 
west of this peninsula lies Cook's Inlet, the largest and long- 
est estuary in Alaska. Into this inlet empties the Shushitna 
River, through a large moorland delta, after having passed 
through several gorges, one of which is 4,000 feet deep. The 
scenic grandeur in this region is unsurjjassed in Alaska. 
Lying west of the inlet is Lake Iliamna, eighty miles in length 


and twenty-four in width, which empties its waters into Bris- 
tol Bay. it is joined with Lake Clark, another long and odd 
shaped lake, the two together making a distance of about 200 
miles. Back of these lakes, and to the north, a fine stretch of 
agricultural country exists. Some good copper and gold 
fields have been discovered lately, the copper being near tide- 
water, and the gold at some distance in the interior. A good 
harbor exists at Iliamna, which is free from ice both winter 
and summer. 

Kadiak Island lies at the mouth of this inlet, and the town 


of Kadiak on its eastern side. Here is the largest outfitting 
place in southern Alaska. Ninety miles west, on the same 
island, Karluk is situated, where two-thirds of the salmon 
pack of Alaskan waters are put up. There is much agricul- 
tural land in this vicinity, and cattle graze the year round. The 
thermometer never records zero, and the snow lies upon the 
ground but a very short time. Two trading stores are lo- 
cated here. Unga is located on the island of the same name, 
1,200 miles west of Juneau, and is the seat of several trading 
posts. Farther west the Unimak Pass, between the peninsula 
and Aleutian Islands, affords an entrance to Bering Sea. On 
the island Unalaska are located the ports of Unalaska and 
Dutch Harbor, 272 miles west of Unga. They are coaling 
stations for the steamers en route to St. Michael and Nome, 
and supply stations for whalers and sealers. These places 
are far out in the Aleutian Islands, this island lying farther 
west than Honolulu. The harbor is a magnificent one in 
every way, and the hills about it are rich in gold and silver. 
In the old Russian town is an old church, and the inhabitants, 
apparently an amalgamation of the Japanese, Indians, whites 
and Eskimos, speak the Russian language. On these islands 
the grass grows very luxuriantly. This island was settled in 
1738 and is now the headquarters of the Alaska Commercial 
Co. and the North American Commercial Co., in Bering Sea, 
which companies have posts at all important points in Alaska, 
the latter holding the sealing privilege of the Pribilof Islands. 
At this point the great ice floes from the north begin to be 
seen. Some volcanic disturbances have taken place in Bering 
Sea of late years, one island having sunk from sight and an- 
other having been greatly enlarged. All of these islands are 
almost always enveloped in fog. 

Bering Sea is Cjuite shallow as compared with the Pacific 
Ocean. It is closed to navigation from November to June, 
inclusive. The first bay above the peninsula is Bristol Bay ; 
Nushagok, on this bay, has a cannery and trading post. The 
next to the north is Kuskoquim Bay, which receives the Kus- 
koquim River, the second largest river in Alaska. This river 
rises at the base of Mount McKinley, far in the interior, and 
winds through the rugged Tordrillo Mountains, then passes 
through a wide gravel plain, 100 miles in width, where it be- 
comes very sluggish, then it enters the Kuskoquim Mountains, 
a timbered range, then through a depressed country to its 



mouth. At one point it flows within twenty miles of the 
Yukon River. It is navigable for 600 miles. At an early day 
the Russians established several posts along this river. 

Norton Sound is a large sound and is quite shallow ; into 
its southern part empties the great Yukon River, the largest 
river in Alaska, and, for that matter, one of the largest and 
most important rivers of the Paciiic Coast. It is navigable 
for large steamers for a distance of 2,000 miles from its mouth, 
or to the Lewis and Pelly rivers, which form it, and these 
rivers can be ascended by smaller steamboats for several hun- 
dred miles farther. The deltas of this river are greater than 


those of the Mississippi : it discharges more water and drains 
an area of over one million square miles. 

Near Fort Yukon the river is less than one mile in width, 
but below that point it widens. Near Rampart it is confined 
by the mountains to a narrow and deep channel, through 
Vv'hich it rushes with great force, and below which it expands 
again to a width of many miles. 

Three lines of steamers ply the river from its mouth to 
Dawson City, receiving their freight and passengers at St. 
Michael, which is located 100 miles from the main Yukon and 
120 miles from Nome. The town is located on the island of 
St. Michaels, which is the headquarters of the United States 


army for Alaska, being the center of a large government 
reservation, which includes the mouth of the Yukon. Two 
hundred and ten miles southeast of St. Michael, on the Yukon 
River, is situated Androfski, the winter quarters of one of 
the steamer lines. At Nulato the Koyukuk River empties into 
the Yukon. Here is an ancient Russian port, established in 
1838, which was burned by the Indians, and re-established in 
1842, and is now a prominent trading post. Koyukuk is situ- 
ated at the mouth of the Koyukuk River; Bettles, the largest 
town and trading port in that mining district, is 665 miles up 
the Koyukuk River from the Yukon. This is a very rich camp. 
Situated at the mouth of the Tanana River is the port 


of Weare, or Fort Gibbons. The Tanana is 700 miles 
long and has many tributaries. It drains the country lying 
between the Copper River and the Yukon, and will no doubt 
be the pathway of a good wagon road very soon, and some 
day of a railroad to the southern Alaskan coast. Gold has 
been found in the hills, but much of the country has never 
been seen b}- a white man. Rampart City is 975 miles from 
St. Michael and is the supply station for the Big Minook min- 
ing district, twenty-eight miles away. Fort Yukon is situated 
just within the Arctic circle. The large commercial companies 
have erected buildings, where thev are often forced to land 


freight temporarily on account of low water on the Yukon 
River. Circle City was once the most important town in 
northern Alaska. It came near being depopulated at the time 
of the Klondike rush, but now is rising again, owing to the 
richness of the nearby Birch Creek district. Eagle City is 
located 1,475 miles from St. Michael, contains two churches, 
two sawmills, United States custom house and district court ; 
the Fort Egbert military post is located here and is the ter- 
minus of the government trail from Valdez to the Yukon. It 
has telegraphic communication with Dawson. Forty Mile is 
in Yukon territory, 1,542 miles from St. Michael. This town 
is the headquarters for the Canadian mounted police. Fort 
Cudahy is the headquarters of one of the large trading com- 


panics. This is the town which was supposed to be in United 
States territory until 1896, when the 141st parallel was located. 
It was built by Americans. 

Kotzebue Sound is a very large bay north of Cape Prince of 
Wales and is a part of the Arctic Ocean. At the head of Good 
Hope Bay some very rich mining districts have been opened, 
and tin has been found in paying quantities. 

The country north of the Yukon River is characterized gen- 
erally by bold, rocky hills and broad, marshy plains, a large 
portion lying within the Arctic Circle and bearing near the 
coast a lofty range of mountains, trending east and west. The 
dominant features of the Aleutian division, or that south of 



the Yukon, are precipitous mountains, deep valleys, dense 
forests on the mainland and treeless islands along the coast. 
Excepting the western coast and the valleys of the Yukon and 
tributaries, comparatively little is known of the interior of the 
country north of the Yukon. The mountain elevation does 
not exceed 6,000 feet. 

The Aleutian division is traversed by a broad mountain sys- 
tem, a continuation of the coast range, with spurs extending 
northward and covering large areas lying between the Yukon 
River and the main range to the south. The main range con- 
tinues through the peninsula and Aleutian Islands, which are 
merely the summits of the submerged mountain system. The 
islands contain many volcanoes, some extinct, others dormant 
but smoking. Among the latter are Mounts Iliamna, Re- 
doubt, Augustine and Pavlof. An island recently tormed is 
Bogslof, while Grewingk Island was raised in 1884. The 
highest peaks in Alaska are Mount Tilman, 13,300 feet; San- 
ford, 13,500 feet; Drum, 13,700 feet; Blackburn, 16,140 
feet; Wrangell, 17,500 feet; St. Elias, 18,024 feet; and 
McKinley, 20,464 feet ; the latter being the loftiest peak in 
North America. All of these are in the Aleutian division, 
south of the Yukon, and generally near the coast. 

The climate of Alaska varies greatly in the different por- 
tions of the district. The temperatures along the coast of 
the Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea are nearly ahke, but dififer 
widely in the interior. At Sitka the mean annual tempera- 
ture is 43", which does not dififer greatly from northern Illi- 
nois. The extremes are from — 2° to 90° ; although it does 
not become cool, neither does it become very warm. From 
Portland Canal to the Aleutian Islands, though not cold, it is 
generally damp, foggy and chilly. The amount of rainfall on 
the western coast is about 105 inches, which occurs mostly 
during the autumn and winter months. At Unalaska only 
forty-five da}s of clear and partially clear weather are had in 
a year, 271 being either rainy or snow}-. The Japan current 
makes the climate comparatively mild. 

The Bering Sea coast is entirely different in climate ; the 
mean temperature at St. Michael for January is — 2° and for 
August 54°, the extreme being from — 55° to 75° In the 
interior of Alaska it is relatively warm in the summer and 
cold in the winter. At Eagle, where the boundary line crosses 
the Yukon, the mercury reaches — 60°, and there are from ten 

ALASJS_ft. 339 

to twenty-five inches of rainfall, with more sunshine in a 
month than on the coast in a year. 

As far west as Cook's Inlet the coast is densely timbered 
up to the timber line, about 3,000 feet, mostly with a rather 
poor quality of spruce, but at the higher altitudes the hem- 
lock takes its place. The spruce grows to a very large size 
and extends as far north as the Koyukuk River, and westward 
to the deltas of the Yukon. There are enormous areas of 
pine and fir in the interior of good quality, enough to last the 
United States for a period of fifty years after the Oregon 
and Puget Sound timber belt is exhausted. There is little 
or no timber on the islands. 


The cereals and hardier vegetables have been cultivated 
successfully for years at several missions. Berries grow lux- 
uriantly, and flowering plants are found in the favored parts. 
Alaska cannot be considered strictly an agricultural country, 
as the climatic conditions are not the most favorable, but there 
are large tracts of land around Cook's Inlet and along the 
islands and coast of southeastern Alaska which can be culti- 
vated to advantage. There are vast areas of prairie where 
cattle can graze and where the grass grows as high as a man's 
shoulders. Alaska's resource is essentially mining, and that 


placer mining for gold. The estimated product of that metal 
for 1900 was $8,171,000; silver, $94,772,000 (coinage value) ; 
and for 1902, $10,000,000, all metals. 

The coal formations of Alaska are extensive. Lignite pre- 
dominates, but bituminous and semi-anthracite are found to 
some extent. The Yukon coal is of inferior quality. The 
Cape Lisburne field, 200 miles north of Nome, supplies that 
territory. Coal, as hereinbefore stated, has been found on 
Kenai Peninsula, where considerable expenditure has been 
made in exploration work. Other metals found are silver, 
quicksilver, platinum and copper. The copper deposits on 
Cook's Inlet and at Valdez appear to be extraordinary. Petro- 
leum oil has been found not far from the shores of Cook's 
Inlet near Cape Douglas. 

The fisheries rank second among the industrial enterprises. 
About all the streams southward from Bering Strait to 
Dixon's Entrance and the bay inlets, swarm with food fishes, 
chiefly cod, salmon, herring and halibut. The fishing banks 
cover 50,000 square miles and are much safer than the banks 
of Newfoundland. The estimated capital invested in the pack- 
ing of salmon is $12,000,000. The salmon are virtually 
slaughtered, there being no closed season and no regulations. 
Kadiak Island is the center of the canning industry. The 
seal fisheries were once very profitable for the government 
and those engaged in that industry, but owing to vandalism, 
pelagiac sealing and the killing of females, the herd became 
very nearly extinct. The matter was settled by arbitration 
at Paris, and now both the United States and Great Britain 
have naval patrols, which are only partially effective. The 
seal product for 1902 on the islands was 22,304 fur seals, at 
contract price of $9.62|- per skin. 

Between Kotzebue and Norton Sound lies what is known 
as Seward's Peninsula, a sort of rough, arrowhead point, 
making out to Bering Strait, the extreme point being known 
as Cape Prince of Wales. This point is only forty-two miles 
from Asiatic territory, and lying between is the island of Dio- 
medes. This is the nearest approach of the continents on the 
globe, and it is advocated that at no distant date a continuous 
line of railway will join New York with the main cities of 
Europe by this route. In fact, this matter has been taken up 
seriously. The Siberian government has made three sur- 
veys to points along the strait, which indicates a desire to 


meet a road of this character with its trans-Siberian line. 
Mount Bendeleben, located in the central portion of Seward 
Peninsula, is the loftiest peak in this territor}'. A marked 
line of mountains extend from near the Yukon most of the 
way to Cape Prince of Wales, with interrupting broken plains. 
In the western portion these take the name of Saw Tooth 
Mountains, from their sharply serrated outline. A high range 
of rocky hills ends in a bold promontory at Cape Nome, from 
which the district takes its name. This territory is now pro- 
ducing more gold than any other of like size in the United 
States. Following the discoveries heretofore mentioned, the 
beach diggings were found to be good and extended contin- 
uously for thirty miles. Anvil, Glacier, Dexter, Osbourne and 


Other creeks were located, then Anvil City, and later Nome 
City, were established. This was the scene of a great 
stampede during 1898-99. There being no harbor, "surfing," 
or the unloading of vessels by lighters, was necessary. There 
were no houses or warehouses upon the naked beach, and the 
scene is said to have been bewildering in the mass of goods, 
machinery and every article pertaining to mining dumped in 
piles and unprotected from the sea waves. Many people lost 
their lives, and it was a scene of confusion until the city of 
tents became regulated and a large portion of the too numer- 
ous population sought the interior. It has now become the 
metropolis of the northern coast of Alaska. The fact has 
become established that the gold fields are extensive, fabu- 



lously rich and seemingly inexhaustible. This has built up a 
city of fine buildings, with a good water system, the water 
being brought from mountain streams five miles away. It 
has electric lights and telephone service, and a narrow-gauge 
railway seven miles in length, known as "The Wild Goose," 
connects it with Anvil Creek. It has general stores, hotels, 
restaurants, saloons, three banks, three churches, three news- 
papers and schools. 

The placer fields, at first supposed to be confined to a small 
area about Nome, are now widely spread, gold having been 
found from the Klondike region of the upper Yukon to the 
Arctic Ocean, including the Porcupine River and its tribu- 


taries, and westerly to Seward Peninsula, including the Koy- 
ukuk region. On Kotzebue Sound are the Keewalik and 
Candle Creek regions, and there are other producing creeks 
on that sound. Gold has been found at many places west- 
ward along the peninsula, and on Norton Sound to the Fish 
River. Here the Omylik Galina silver mines have been open 
for a number of years and only require transportation to be- 
come producers. The Council district to the west is a rich 
region, Ophir and other creeks having produced one-third of 
the whole Nome output for 1902. On the Neukluk, which 
joins the Fish River, many placers are found through its en- 



tire length and most of its tributaries. The 
whole region from Council City to Nome is 
more or less developed, the Ruby Creek, 
a tributary of the Casa De Paga, being 
very rich ground. Rich ground has also 
been found near Port Clarence. Millions 
have been taken out of Anvil and associate 
creeks, and large portions of the creek beds 
and the benches have not been worked. 
In fact, the latter seem to afford deep min- 
ing and are often richer than the creek 
beds. An important district is th? Solomon 
River ; its formation indicates that the di- 
vide between the Casa De Pagn and the 
Solomon is the source of the same gold, 
and it is now believed to be a part of the 
same ancient channel as that above Nome. 
The normal annual production of Alaska 
placers has been from $6,000,000 to $7,000,- 
000 since 1897, including the first year's 
large shore production. The output for 
1902 v>'as approximately $9,000,000. All 
the gold until 1892 was taken out without 
hydraulic means. To-day large operations 
are going en at Ophir Creek by the I^ane 
Syndicate, ako on Snake River, these mines 
having produced a very large portion of 
the later gold. Of the Alaska product the Nome and neigh- 
boring districts produced more than one-half, the remainder' 
coming from the Yukon and other regions. The ancient river 
beds, the cave specimens, the imbedded skeletons of mam- 
moths and saurians, all go to show that Alaska was once in a 
tropical climate. 

About thirty miles from Nome is located Port Safety, or 
Solomon. It is on a high sandbar at the mouth of Port Safety 
lagoon, which is about twenty-five miles long. It is shallow, 
but schooners and steamers of light draft often seek shelter 
here. The Solomon River empties into this lagoon. The Sol- 
omon and tributaries have been good gold payers, and lately 
rich quartz leads have been discovered and a mill has been 
erected. Council City is situated on a high bluff overlook- 


ing the Fish River. There are many prosperous mercantile 
estabhshments here and some very good buildings. Light 
draft steamers reach it by the Fish River and a railroad con- 
nects it with Ophir Creek. There is a probability of its soon 
having rail connection with Nome. 

There are few good harbors on Bering Sea, Port Clarence 
affording the best. On this is located Teller City, which 
came into prominence in 1900. The town is about seventy 
miles from Nome, is the principal supply station for the Blue 
Stone country and has a number of general stores, hotels, etc. 
Near here is the reindeer station established by the govern- 
ment in 1898. There are now between 6,000 to 7,000 head 


of these domesticated animals herded about Port Clarence 
Bay. The original stock was imported from Siberia. 

Point Barrow, the extreme northern point of Alaska, is 
merely a United States signal station, to aid the whalers cruis- 
ing in the Arctic Ocean. 

The Sitka division, in the southeast, is the best known sec- 
tion of the Alaska district. On the mainland are rocky moun- 
tains, paralleling the coast, but broken at times. These ex- 
tend as far as Mount St. Elias. The islands which form the 
Alexander Archipelago extend westward for a distance of 
100 miles. These islands afford a very beautiful and sheltered 
route for the steamers plying between Skagway and southern 




ports. Some of the islands are large and have a climate and 
soil which give good agricultural results. Along this route 
is an ever changing but never ending scene of grandeur, com- 
prising green mountains, with snow-capped tops, beautiful 
fiords and romantic Indian villages. 

Wrangel is located on Wrangel Island, 730 miles north 
of Seattle. This is one of the largest fur trading posts in 
southeastern Alaska, handling in one season 400 bearskins, 300 
beaver, 200 land otter, 500 marten and 5,000 mink, besides 
other skins. The chief industry is the canning and salting of 
fish, there being eleven salmon canneries in the district. This 
town is the center for several tribes of Indians, who repre- 
sent their different families by totem poles, or carved ani- 
mals, birds and fishes erected upon poles in the town and at 
their burial places, which are of much interest to the traveling 
public. There is considerable life in this town, which has two 


sawmills in addition to other industries. Wrangel is on the 
line of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company's summer Alaska 

Sitka is situated on Baronof Island, 178 miles southwest of 
Juneau, and is the capital of Alaska. There is an old Greek 
church located here, three other churches, two sawmills, va- 
rious other industries, one newspaper, and it is the seat of 
the governor of the District of Alaska. The population is 
about 1,500, and the town is reached by the different steam- 
ship lines. 

Juneau is situated on Gastineau Channel, opposite Douglas 
Island, 900 miles from Seattle. It is very picturesquely seated 
at the foot of a high and precipitous mountain. It has elec- 
tric lights, water works, two banks and various indus- 
tries. It was formerly the supply station for all the upper 
country. The famous Treadwell mine is located on Douglas 






Island, and is perhaps, with one exception, the greatest gold 
mine in the United States. 

Skagway is located at the head of Lynn Canal, 1,000 miles 
north of Seattle. It is the southern terminus of the White 
Pass & Yukon Railway, which runs daily trains to White 
Horse and intermediate points, connecting with Yukon River 
steamers in the summer and stages in the winter for Dawson 
City. Skagway has good schools, five churches, two banks, 
eight large hotels, wholesale houses, four newspapers, tele- 
phone service, etc. 

Glacier Bay lies between Lynn Canal and the ocean and is 
the site of the great Muir Glacier, the most frequently visited 
of any of the Alaskan glaciers, since the excursion steamers 
make this point a part of their route, proceeding far into the 
bay among the ice floes, which makes the trip very inter- 

Game, along the south shores and far into the interior, such 
as the moose, deer, bear and all the smaller fur-bearing ani- 
mals, abounds, but north of the Yukon River game is very 
scarce. Waterfowl is abundant everywhere during the sum- 
mer or nesting season, and the pheasant and ptarmigan are 
found in the extreme north and west at all times of the year. 



One of nature's most generous gifts to man is that part of 
our country known as the Red River Valley of the North, and 
nowhere in this broad, fertile, agricultural area can any lands 
be found that will grow and mature crops indigenous to this 
latitude equal to the country between the Great Northern 
Railway and the Red River in Pembina County, North Dakota. 
The lands are gently rolling, with a natural drainage to the 
, east, which, with little or no assistance, carries all surface water 
away, leaving a beautiful prairie which, when under cultiva- 
tion, produces the No. i hard wheat known the world over 
for its superior qualities as breadstuff, and will make from 
fifteen to twenty-five more loaves per barrel than bread made 
from other flour, and sells in the markets of the world for 
from 40 to 60 cents per barrel more money than flour made 
from any other grain. The Northern Pacific Railway trav- 
erses these lands in eastern Pembina County, and the towns 
along its lines are without exception thrifty and prosperous. 
The town making greatest improvement and destined to be 
the greatest commercial point in that part of the country is 
the beautifully located little city of Joliette. This town has 
been pushed rapidly to the front by that energetic, reliable 
concern, having large monied and land interests at this 
point, with general office at St. Paul, Minn. We refer to 
Warner & Andrus, whose operations in the Red River Valley 
have brought to the attention of the people of the East and 
South the great opportunity of this section during the past 
five years, and have caused hundreds of good farmers to 
invest, settle upon, and open up this part of our country, 
which, in a very few years, will be worth many times the 
prices of to-day. 



There never was a more advantageous opportunity for 
purchasing farm lands than at the present time, and espe- 
cially is this true of that country lying in the Red River 
Valley of the North and the adjacent counties in North 
Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. 

The Valley is from thirty to seventy miles wide and more 
than 300 miles long. The soil is very fertile, consisting of a 
rich, black loam, from a foot and a half to three feet deep, and 
is free from stones. Water is obtained in abundance at from 
ten to forty feet. The lands in the Valley will grow crops 
equal to those of any other part of the Northwest. A No. i 
hard wheat is produced here, which has a world-wide repu- 
tation as a bread-maker, and has given to this locality the 
significant title of " the bread basket of the world." All the 
towns in these counties are progressive and the surrounding 
farmers prosperous. 

For a number of years wheat has been the principal crop 
of the Valley, but this has lately been supplemented with 
diversified farming, stock-raising and dairying, all of which 
have been successfully practiced, and the cultivation of corn 
is steadily increasing. Potatoes, oats, barley, flax, and onions 
also thrive, and the sheep-raising industry is acquiring a 
strong hold. Farming is easy in the Red River Valley on 
account of the level nature of the ground, and for the small 
farmer this is an ideal region. The climate is very healthy. 

Choice farm lands in the Valley and adjacent counties 
may be obtained at low prices from the well-known firm of 
the Burchard-Hulburt Investment Co., 705 Manhattan Build- 
ing, St. Paul, Minn. They own the lands under their con- 
trol, so that agents' commissions may thus be saved by 
purchasing direct from the owners. The lands for sale by 
this firm are located in Marshall, Kittson, and Aitkin coun- 
ties, Minnesota; Grand Forks, Walsh, La Moure, Logan, and 
Mercer counties. North Dakota; Washburn County, Wiscon- 
sin; in Southern Minnesota; and in Manitoba, near Winnipeg. 
Maps and special information in regard to these lands will 
be cheerfully furnished upon application. 


The National Irrigation Law. 

Appended is the full text of the national irrigation law, approved by 
President Roosevelt, June 17, 1902. We publish the law, owing to 
its great importance and the widespread interest manifested in it. 
An Act Appropriating the receipts from the sale and disposal of pub- 
lic lands in certain States and Territories to the construction of 
irrigation works for the reclamation of arid lands. 


Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled : 

That all moneys received from the sale and disposal of public lands 
in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, 
Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South 
Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming, beginning with the fiscal 
year ending June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and one, including the 
surplus of fees and commissions in excess of allowances to registers 
and receivers, and excepting the five per centum of the proceeds of 
the sales of public lands in the above States set aside by law for educa- 
tional and other purposes, shall be, and the same are hereby, reserved, 
set aside, and appropriated as a special fund in the Treasury to be 
known as the "reclamation fund," ro be used in the examination and 
survey for and the construction and maintenance of irrigation works 
for the storage, diversion, and development of waters for the reclama- 
tion of arid and semi-arid lands in the said States and Territories, and 
for the payment of all other expenditures provided for in this Act : 

Provided. That in case the receipts from the sale and disposal of 
public lands other than those realized from the sale and disposal of 
lands referred to in this section are insufficient to meet the require- 
ments for the support of agricultural colleges in the several States and 
Territories, under the Act of August thirtieth, eighteen hundred and 
ninety, entitled "An Act to apply a portion of the proceeds of the 
public lands to the more complete endowment and support of the 
colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts, established 
under the provisions of an Act of Congress approved July second, 
eighteen hundred and sixty-two,'' the deficiency, if any, in the sum 
necessary for the support of the said colleges shall be provided for 
from any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated. 


Section 2. That the Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized 
and directed to make examinations and surveys for, and to locate and 



construct, as herein provided, irrigation works for the storage, diver- 
sion, and development of waters, including artesian wells, and to report 
to Congress at the beginning of each regular session as to the results 
of such examinations and surveys, giving estimates of cost of all 
contemplated works, the quantity and location of the lands which can 
be irrigated therefrom, and all facts relative to the practicability of 
each irrigation project; also the cost of works in process of construct- 
ion as well as of those which have been completed. 


Section 3. That the Secretary of the Interior shall, before giving 
the public notice provided for in section four of this Act, withdraw 
from public entry the lands required for any irrigation works con- 
templated under the provisions of this Act, and shall restore to public 
entry any of the lands so withdrawn when, in his judgment, such 
lands are not required for the purposes of this Act ; and the Secre- 
tary of the Interior is hereby authorized, at or immediately prior to 
the time of beginning the surveys for any contemplated irrigation 
works, to withdraw from entry, except under the homestead laws, 
any public lands believed to be susceptible of irrigation from said 
works : 

Provided, That all lands entered and entries made under the 
homestead laws within areas so withdrawn during such withdrawal 
shall be subject to all the provisions, limitations, charges, terms, and 
conditions of this Act ; that said surveys shall be prosecuted diligently 
to completion, and upon the completion thereof, and of the necessary 
maps, plans, and estimates of cost, the Secretary of the Interior shall 
determine whether or not said project is practicable and advisable, 
and if determined to be impracticable or unadvisable he shall there- 
upon restore said lands to entry ; that public lands which it is pro- 
posed to irrigate by means of any contemplated works shall be sub- 
ject to entry only under the provisions of the homestead laws in tracts 
of not less than forty nor more than one hundred and sixty acres, 
and shall be subject to the limitations, charges, terms, and conditions 
herein provided : 

Provided, That the commutation provisions of the homestead laws 
shall not apply to entries made under this Act. 


Section 4. That upon the determination by the Secretary of the 
Interior that any irrigation project is practicable, he may cause to be 
let contracts for the construction of the same in such portions or 
sections as it may be practicable to construct and cotnplete as parts 
of the whole project, providing the necessary funds for such portions 
or sections are available in the reclamation fund, and thereupon he 
shall give public notice of the lands irrigable under such project, and 
limit of area per entry, which limit shall represent the acreage which, 
in the opinion of the Secretary, may be reasonably required for the 
support of a family upon the lands in question; also of the charges 
which shall be made per acre upon the said entries, and upon lands 
in private ownership which may be irrigated by the waters of the 
said irrigation project, and the number of annual installments, not 
exceeding ten, in which such charges shall be paid and the time when 


such payments shall commence. The said charges shall be determined 
with a view of returning to the reclamation fund the estimated cost 
of construction of the project, and shall be apportioned equitably: 

Provided, That in all construction work eight hours shall con- 
stitute a day's work, and no Mongolian labor shall be employed 

Section 5. That the entryman upon lands to be irrigated by such 
works shall, in addition to compliance with the homestead laws^ re- 
claim at least one-half of the total irrigable area of his entry for 
agricultural purposes, and before receiving patent for the lands 
covered by his entry shall pay to the Government the charges appor- 
tioned against such tract, as provided in section four. No right to 
the use of water for land in private ownership shall be sold for a 
tract exceeding one hundred and sixty acres to any one landowner, 
and no such sale shall be made to any landowner unless he be an 
actual bona fide resident on such land, or occupant thereof residing 
in the neighborhood of said land, and no such right shall permanently 
attach until all payments therefor are made. The annual installments 
shall be paid to the receiver of the local land office of the district in 
which the land is situated, and a failure to make any two payments 
when due shall render the entry subject to cancellation, with the for- 
feiture of all rights under this Act, as well as of any moneys already 
paid thereon. „ All moneys received from the above sources shall be 
paid into the reclamation fund. Registers and receivers shall be 
allowed the usual commissions on all moneys paid for lands entered 
under this Act. 


Section 6. That the Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized 
and directed to use the reclamation fund for the operation and mam- 
tenance of all reservoirs and irrigation works constructed under the 
provisions of this Act : 

Provided, That when the payments required by this Act are made 
for the major portion of the lands irrigated from the waters of any 
of the works herein provided for, then the management and operation 
of such irrigation works shall pass to the owners of the lands 
irrigated thereby, to be maintained at their expense under such form 
of organization and under such rules and regulations as may be 
acceptable to the Secretary of the Interior : 

Provided, That the title to and the management and operation of 
the reservoirs and the works necessary for their protection and opera- 
tion shall remain in the Government until otherwise provided by 


Section 7- That where in carrying out the provisions of this Act 
it becomes necessary to acquire any rights or property, the Secretary 
of the Interior is hereby authorized to acquire the same for the 
United States by purchase or by condemnation under judicial process, 
and to pay from the reclamation fund the sums which may be needed 
for that purpose, and it shall be the duty of the Attorney-General 
of the United States upon every application of the Secretary of the 
Interior, under this Act, to cause proceedings to be commenced for 



condemnation within thirty days from the receipt of the application 
at the Department of Justice. 


Section 8. That nothing in this Act shall be construed as affecting 
or intending to affect or to in any way interfere with the laws of 
any State or Territory relating to the control, appropriation, use, or 
distribution of water used in irrigation, or any vested right acquired 
thereunder, and the Secretary of the Interior, in carrying out the 
provisions of this Act, shall proceed in conformity with such laws, 
and" nothing herein shall in any way affect any right of any State 
or of the Federal Government or of any landowner, appropriator, 
or user of water in, to, or from any interstate stream or the waters 
thereof : 

Provided, That the right to the use of the water acquired under 
the provisions of this Act shall be appurtenant to the land irrigated, 
and beneficial use shall be the basis, the measure, and the limit of the 


Section g. That it is hereby declared to be the duty of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior in carrying out the provisions of this Act, so far 
as the same may be practicable and subject to the existence of feasi- 
ble irrigation projects to expend the major portion of the funds aris- 
ing from the sale of public lands within each State and Territory 
hereinbefore named for the benefit of arid and semi-ar^d lands within 
the limits of such State or Territory : 

Provided, That the Secretary may temporarily use such portion 
of said funds for the benefit of arid or semi-arid lands in any par- 
ticular State or Territory hereinbefore named as he may deem advis- 
able, but when so used the excess shall be restored to the fund as soon 
as practicable, to the end that ultimately, and in any event, within 
each ten-year period after the passage of this Act, the expenditures 
for the benefit of the said States and Territories shall be equalized 
according to the proportions and subject to the conditions as to prac- 
ticability and feasibility aforesaid. 

How Lands May Be Had in the Great Northwest. 

There are several ways in which the intending settler may obtain 
lands : 

By locating on public lands in the districts mentioned where irri- 
gation is not necessary. 

By locating on public lands that require irrigation, but so located 
that a water appropriation may be made and water diverted without 
incurring too great an investment. 

By locating and acquiring title to lands that will be irrigated under 
the state arid land commission act. 

By leasing or purchasing lands that are embraced in private canal 

By purchasing improved lands carrying water rights. 

A homestead may be secured by any person who is the head of a 
family, or has arrived at the age of twenty-one years, and is a citizen 


of the United States, or has filed his declaration of intention to become 
such, and who is not the proprietor of more than i6o acres of land in 
any state or territory; he is entitled to one-quarter section (i6o acres), 
or less quantity of unappropriated public land, under the homestead 
laws. The applicant must make afirdavit that he is entitled to the 
privileges of the homestead act, and that the entry is made for his 
exclusive use and benefit, and for actual settlement and cultivation, 
and must pay the legal fee and that part of the commission required, 
as follows: Fee for i6o acres, $io; commission, $4 to $12; fee for 
eighty acres, $5 ; commission, $2 to $6. Within six months from 
date of the entry the settler must take up his residence upon the 
land, and reside thereupon and cultivate the same for five years con- 
tinuously. At the expiration of this period, or within two years there- 
after, proof of residence and cultivation must be established by four 
witnesses. The proof of settlement with the certificate of the register 
of the land office is forwarded to the general land office at Wash- 
ington, from which patent is issued. Final proof cannot be made 
until the expiration of live years. The government recognizes no 
sale of a homestead claim. After the expiration of fourteen months 
from the date of entry the law allows the homesteader to secure title 
to the tract, if so desired, by paying for it in cash and making proof 
of settlement, residence and cultivation for that period. The law 
allows only one homestead privilege to any one person, but under 
act of March 2, 1889, section two provides in certain cases, when the 
first home.stead was necessarily abandoned, that a second homestead 
may be made. 

An unmarried woman, of age, can take the benefit of the home- 
stead law. If she marries before she has acquired the title, and con- 
tinues her residence on her claim, she can proceed to prove up at 
the proper time, the same as if she had remained single, but husband 
and wife cannot secure separate tracts by maintaining separate resi- 
dences at the same time. All the sons and daughters of a family, 
who are of age, are entitled to take up land under the United States 

A soldier who has served in the army or navy during the War of 
the Rebellion for over ninety days can obtain 160 acres of any public 
lands by filing (himself or by an attorney) a declaratory statement 
and within six months thereafter filing his affidavit and application, 
commencing settlement and cultivation, and continuing the same for 
five years, less the time he served in the army or navy, but such time 
in no case to exceed four years. His widow can take advantage of 
the above. In case of his death in the army, or discharge therefrom 
on account of wounds or disability incurred in the line of duty, the 
term of his enlistment is deducted. In case of the death of the sol- 
dier, his widow, if unmarried, or in case of her death or marriage, 
then his minor orphan children, by a guardian duly appointed and 
officially credited at the Department of the Interior, shall be entitled 
to all the benefits given to soldiers under the homestead laws. 

Under the desert land act, any citizen of the United States, or per- 
sons who have declared their intention to become such, and who are also 
residents of the state or territory in which the land sought is situated, 
may file a declaration under oath with the register and receiver of 
the land district in which any desert land is situated, that he intends 


to reclaim a tract of desert land, not exceeding 320 acres, by conduct- 
ing water upon the same, within four years. At the time of filing 
this declaration a fee of twenty-five cents for each acre of land pro- 
posed to be so reclaimed must be paid. 

At the time of making the declaration the land taken up under this 
act must be particularly described, if surveyed, or, if unsurveyed, must 
be described as nearly as possible. The party shall also file a map of 
said land, which shall exhibit a plan showing the mode of contem- 
plated irrigation, and which plan shall be sufficient to thoroughly 
irrigate and reclaim said land and prepare it to raise ordinary agri- 
cultural crops, and shall also show the source of the water to be used for 
irrigation and reclamation. At any time within four years, upon mak- 
ing satisfactory proof to the register and receiver of the reclamation 
of said land, and the expenditure thereon for improvements of $1 an 
acre each for three years, and proof of the cultivation of one-eighth 
of the land, and upon the payment of the additional sum of $1 per 
acre, a patent shall be issued. A claimant must also file with the reg- 
ister during each of said three years proof by the affidavits of two or 
more credible witnesses that he has made such expenditure. He may, 
however, prove up earlier whenever he can make the required proof 
of reclamation, cultivation and expenditure to the aggregate of $3 per 
acre. All lands, exclusive of timber and mineral lands, which will 
not, without irrigation, produce some agricultural crop, are deemed 
desert lands. Residence on the land is not required. 

Under the timber and stone act, any citizen of the United States, 
or one who has declared his intention to become such, can acquire 
not to exceed 160 acres ; land must be chiefly valuable for timber or 
stone, containing no valuable deposits of gold, silver, copper, coal or 
cinnabar. Applicant is required to file sworn statement with register 
and receiver that he has made no prior application ; to designate the 
tract required by legal subdivisions, setting forth its character as above, 
and that it is for applicant's own use and benefit. Such application 
will be published sixty (60) days when the applicant files further proof 
of the character of the land, paying $2.50 an acre therefor. Married 
women can purchase in Montana. 

The homestead affidavits can be made before the clerk of the district 
court at any county seat, or before any United States commissioner in 
the state, and the journey to the land office be saved. 

The Carey Act. 

The commission of the state consists of five members, appointed by 
the governor, all residents and citizens of the state. Each member is 
under a bond of $5,000, the secretary being bonded for $20,000. The 
commission has an engineer, who does all work appertaining to his 

In reclaiming arid lands granted by the general government to the 
state the commission is limited to an expenditure of $12.50 per acre. 
The commission is empowered : 

I. To select lands and make surveys of water systems necessary for 
such reclamation. 


2. To make contracts for the construction of water systems and to 
cause the lands to be settled. 

3. To issue thirty-year six per cent bonds to meet the cost of rec- 
lamation and settlement of the lands, these bonds being a lien on the 
land, waler rights, water system and appurtenances of the particular 
district for which they are issued. 

4. To issue thirty-year six per cent bonds to develop water power 
plants and water supply for domestic use, for the redemption of which 
bonds a sinking fund is provided. These bonds are a lien on the water 
system and appurtenances, and all bonds can be foreclosed as in the 
case of mortgages for non-payment of principal and interest on matur- 
ity of the bonds. 

5. To sell such bonds at par for cash and pay cash for construction, 
or to pay bonds in lieu of cash. 


1. Exercises full and immediate control over all construction and re- 
quires suitable indemnity from the contractor in the form of a bond 
from some responsible surety company. 

2. Retains fifteen per cent of the entire cost of construction of water 
systems and settlement of lands until both are fully accomplished. 

3. Operates and maintains perpetually the water system, charging 
the entire cost of such maintenance and operation equally against all 
acreage in the district. 

4. Sells all lands and water rights, collects all moneys, and places 
them in the state treasury. 

In case the interest on the bonds is not paid when due for want of 
funds, interest coupons may be registered in the office of the state 
treasurer, the registered coupons to draw six per cent interest per 

If, after providing for the redemption of coupons next due, there 
is a surplus in the state treasury, the commission may require the state 
treasurer to invest such moneys in state, county or school district 
bonds, or it may cause such moneys to be placed in trust for the benefit 
of the bondholders. 

No land reclaimed under the provisions of this act may be sold to 
any except actual settlers, nor may the commission sell more than 160 
acres to any one settler. 

The maintenance rate for the use of water fixed by the commission 
" shall not exceed the actual cost of maintaining and operating said 
system in an economical manner and the cost of necessary improve- 
ments." Thus the settler gets water at actual cost. There is no di- 
rect profit to the state, which relies for its profit in the increased num- 
ber of citizens and the increased production of wealth. 

Inasmuch as the commission may pay bonds instead of cash for con- 
struction of water systems and canals, a settler may buy land with 

The commission has established certain rules for the sales of lands 
and the use of water. The rules regarding the sale of land are as fol- 
lows : 

I. -Application. Any person desiring to settle upon and purchase 
lands shall file his application for the same on the form established by 
the commission, stating therein the lands desired to be purchased and 


the proposed method and terms of payment (which shall conform to 
the terms hereinafter set forth) and his intention to settle on said 
lands within days from the date of the application. 

2. Settlement and Payments. Applicants shall settle upon the lands 
selected and make the first payment required and deliver the notes for 
deferred payments within days from the date of the applica- 
tion, whereupon they shall be entitled to a certificate of selection. 

3. Deposit. At the time of the application the applicant shall de- 
posit with the commission in cash or district bonds at least five per 
cent of the total purchase price as earnest money, to be applied on the 
first payment when the certificate of selection is issued ; but in case of 
failure to m.^ike the first payment when due, said deposit shall be for- 

4. Payment in Bonds. Bonds of the district at par and accrued in- 
terest shall at all times be receivable in payment for lands, either for 
the whole purchase price or any part thereof or for any deferred pay- 
ment of principal or interest. 

5. Terms of Sale. The terms of sale shall be one-tenth cash on the 
issue of the certificate, with interest at six per cent per annum from 
the date of the application, and the balance in nine equal annual pay- 
ments bearing six per cent interest per annum, payable semi-annually. 

6. Interest Added. To the first cash payment shall be added six per 
cent interest on the total purchase price as assessed by the commission, 
from the date of the first bond issued for the reclamation of the land 
in the district to the date of the application. (First bond issued Jan- 
uary I, 1901, on District No. 4, Dearborn Canal.) 

7. Purchaser's Option of Larger Payments. The purchaser may pay 
the whole, or any part greater than one-tenth, at the time of the issue 
of the certificate of selection, either in district bonds at par and ac- 
crued interest, or in cash, if desired. 

8. Varied Deferred Payments. Deferred payments may be made in 
less than nine equal annual payments, provided, however, such pay- 
ments shall be in equal annual amounts, the first one due one year 
after the date of the application. 

9. Payments Before Maturity. Any deferred payment may be made 
before its maturity on any interest payment day, providing the last 
maturing payment shall be made before a payment maturing earlier 
can be made. 

ID. Coupon Notes. All deferred payments shall be represented by 
coupon notes in the form established by the commission, signed by 
the applicant and bearing the date of the application. Such notes and 
coupons shall bear interest at ten per cent after their maturity. 

II. Varied Payment Days. If desired by the purchaser, the commis- 
sion may arrange the date of the first payment to fall at a more con- 
venient time to the purchaser than one year from the date of applica- 
tion, but in no event at a greater period than one year and three months 
from the date of the application, the balance of the deferred payments 
to be paid annually after the date of the first payment so fixed — inter- 
est payments to be arranged semi-annually to correspond. 

T2. Forfeiture on Default. In case of default in any payment of de- 
ferred principal or interest on any note at the maturity of either, such 
default continuing for six months, the lands and all payments made 
prior t-o such default shall be forfeited to the state, but the commission 


may, notwithstanding such default, upon good cause shown at any time 
before the next recurring annual payment, reinstate the contract and 
extend the time of payment of all arrearages, but in no event beyond 
the next recurring annual payment. 

13. Sale of forfeited Lands. Forfeited lands shall be offered again 
for settlement and sale at such prices and on such terms as may from 
time to time be established by the commission, provided, however, the 
price shall not be less than the balance remaining unpaid on the first 
sale of the lands, with interest and costs added. 

The rules in regard to the use of water are as follows : 

1. Superintendent. The commission shall appoint a district superin- 
tendent for each district, to hold office at the pleasure of the commis- 
sion, and the commission shall fix his compensation and duties. 

2. Duties of Superintendent. The district superintendent, under 
the orders of the commission, shall have entire charge of the canal 
system and the distribution and use of water, subject to such regula- 
tions as may be from time to time established by the commission. 

3. Flow and Waste. The flow of water shall be regulated accord- 
ing to crop requirements, and waste of water will not be permitted in 
any instance. 

4. Settler's Rights. Every settler shall be entitled to a sufficient flow 
of water, in the proper seasons, to irrigate all crops on his lands; such 
flow and use of water to be at all times subject to the rules and regu- 
lations of the commission. 

5. Expenses. All expenses incurred in the administration, main- 
tenance and repair of the canal system shall be charged according to 
law, and the commission shall annually assess the amount against 
the settlers as provided by law. 

6. Laterals and Gates. All laterals and gates must be built ac- 
cording to surveys and plans furnished by engineer of the district. 
Such laterals and gates shall be paid for by the user, and shall be 
the property of and subject to the use of the state. 

7. Trespass. No trespass will be permitted upon any canal, lateral, 
gate or right of way, or any property of the state in the district. 

8. Policy of Home Rule. The Commission shall from time to 
time establish such further rules and regulations as it may deem for 
the best interests of the district, and hereby declares it to be the 
policy of the Commission after the completion and settlement of 
any district, to leave the administration and maintenance thereof in 
the hands of the settlers, as far as may be practicable and permis- 
sible by law. 

It will be seen from the foregoing rules and regulations that one 
wishing to buy a farm can get one from the northwestern states on 
as favorable terms as he can buy anywhere in the country ; and hav- 
ing bought it he is surer of being able to make the annual payments 
than on any unirrigated farm in the world, because on an irrigated 
farm he is sure of his crop, and does not have to figure on losing 
twenty-five to fifty per cent of a crop every three or five years. 



Government Land Offices. 

The operation of the United States land laws is simple, and per- 
sons desiring further information in regard to government lands may 
apply to or address "Register United States Land Office," at the fol- 
lowing places : 


No. Dakota. 




St. Cloud. 


Grand Forks. 
Devil's Lake. 

Miles City. 









Walla Walla. 


North Yakima. 


Oregon City. 
La Grande. 
Lake View. 
The Dalles. 

Lewiston, Idaho. 
Cceur d'Alene, Idaho. 

The Department of United States Geological Survey in 1903 de- 
cided upon and the Secretary of the Interior approved, of five irri- 
gation districts to be developed under the June, 1902, arid reserva- 
tion act. These projects are at Sweetwater Dam, Wyo., Gunnison 
Tunnel, Colo.. Truckee and Carson Rivers, Nev., Milk River and St. 
Mary's Lakes, Mont., and Tonto Creek, Ariz. The estimate of the 
cost of these reservoirs and canals is $7,500,000, or an average of 
$7.50 per acre, but since about sixty per cent of the area covered will 
be worth irrigating the cost per acre of the land actually watered will 
be about $12.50 per acre. This is to be paid in ten equal installments 
the same as the land coming under the Carey Act. 

Much land will be made available to settlement which no doubt 
will be taken up very fast as soon as the plans are fully made known. 

Commercial Organizations. 

For Special Information Regarding Lands and Business Opportunities, Address 
the Following Commercial Organizations: 

Thief River Falls, 

Devil's Lake, 



Grand Forks, 



Valley City, 








Grand Forks. 






Commercial L^nion, 

Commercial Club, 

Commercial Club, 
Devil's Lake Club, 
Library Association and 

Commercial Club. 
Commercial Club. 
Business Men's Club, 
No organization. 
Business Men's Ass'n, 
Board of Trade. 
Business Men's Union, 
Commercial Club, 

Martin O'Brien, Sec. 
Wm. C. Smiley, Sec. 

W. R. Mcintosh, Sec. 
J. F. Henry, Sec. 

Evan S. Tyler, Sec. 
H. L. Haussman, Sec. 
Address G. B. Clifford. 
E. J. Gleason, Sec. 
S. M. Poole, Sec. 
A. P. Peakc. Sec. 
T. J. Haugebery. See: 










Fort Benton, 

Great Falls, 



Miles City, 


White Sul. Spgs, 












Port Angeles, 

Port Townsend, 



South Bend, 




Walla Walla, 




N. Yakima, 


Bonners Ferry, 
Idaho Falls, 




Baker City, 




Grants Pass, 



Hood River, 


La Grande, 


Deer Lodge. 
Sweet Grass. 
Silver Bow, 
Lewis and Clark. 


King. ■ 



















Walla Walla. 








Nez Perces. 



















No organization. 

Business Men's Club, 
Commercial Club, 
The Gallatin Club, 
Business Men's Ass'n, 
Building & Loan Ass'n, 
Board of Trade, 
Board of Trade, 
Business Men's Ass'n, 
Board of Trade, 
Miles City Club, 
Business Men's Ass'n, 
Board of Trade, 


Merchants' Ass'n, 
Board of Trade, 
Citizens' Club, 
Business Men's Ass'n. 
Chamber of Commerce, 
Board of Trade, 
Commercial Club, 
Chamber of Commerce, 
Commercial Club, 
Hoard of Trade, 
Board of Trade, 
Chamber of Commerce, 
Commercial Club, 
Chamber of Commerce, 
No organization. 
Chamber of Commerce, 
Commercial Club, 
Cliamber of Commerce, 
Chamber of Commerce, 
Commercial Club, 
Commercial Club, 
Washington T>and Co., 
No organization. 
Commercial Club, 
Commercial Club, 


Chamber of Commerce, 
Business Men's Ass'n, 
Business Men's ^Vs^'n, 
Commercial Club, 
Commercial Club, 
Chamber of Commerce, 
No organization. 
Commercial Club, 


Alco Club, 
Board of Trade, 
Chamber of Commerce, 
Citizen's League, 
Citizen's League, 
Board of Trade, 
Commercial Club, 
Board of Trade, 
Commercial Club, 
Board of Trade, 
Plassola Com. Club, 
Board of Trade, 
Commercial Club, 
Board of Trade, 

Address W. A. Bower. 
T. E. Sheridan, Sec. 
P. B. Moss. 
L. Vanderhook, Sec. 
J. T. O'Brien, Sec. 
E. F. Mayerhoff, Sec. 
D. G. Browne, Sec. 
A'incent Fortune, Sec. 
C. H. Boynton, Sec. 
Jas. Conlon, Pres. 
M. G. Peek, Sec. 
J. W. Kieth, Pres. 
B. W^ Badger, Sec. 

P. S. Locke, Pres. 
E. B. Cox, Sec. 
W. A. Westover, Sec. 
E. H. Libby, Sec. 
G. H. Lennox, Sec. 
A. W. Turner, Pres. 
P. A. Getz, Sec. 
Walt. Tliornton, Sec. 
R. G. Gamwell, Sec. 
A. J. Ahala, Sec. 
J. P. Atkin, Sec. 
Fred Schomber, Sec. 
Horace White, Sec. 
N. S. Snyder, Sec. 
Address Jul. Liemer, 
J. B. Meikle. Sec. 
M. D. Egbert, Sec. 
L. G. Monroe, Sec. 
T. S. Whitehouse, Sec. 
H. W. Arnold, Sec. 
T. A. Paul, Sec. 
C. T. Hansen. 
Add. Arthur Gunn. 
S. B. Irish, Sec. 
Fred Chandler, Sec. 

W. E. Pierce, Sec. 
C. O'Callaghan, Sec. 
A. G. Changnon, Sec. 
V.W. Hasbrouck, Sec. 
H. \\''ither3poon. Sec. 
Alex. Hyslop, Sec. 
Add. Bert Perrine. 
0. M. Harvey, Sec. 

Fred Dawson, Sec. 
S. M. Calkins, Sec. 
C. R. Higgins, Sec. 
N. C. Haskell, Sec. 

E. E. Wilson, Sec. 
T. C. Ilayter, Sec. 

F. McAlister, Sec. 
Fred Mansch, Sec. 
F. Gilliam, Pres. 
F. M. Heidel, Sec. 
n. McDonald, Sec. 
R. E. Gray, Sec. 

R. L. Lincoln, Sec. 
H. S. Maloncy, Sec. 




Med ford, 

Oregon City, 






The Dalles, 





P.oard of Trade, 
Board of Trade, 
Commercial ;\.ss'n, 
Chamber of Commerce, 
Tioard of Trade, 
G. Salem Com. Club, 
I^.oard of Trade. 
Com. & Athletic Club, 
Commercial Club, 


New \\''estminster. Tourist Association, 

Tourist Association, 

J, W. Lawton, Sec. 
T. \V. Loder, Sec. 
J. F. Robinson, Sec. 
Samuel Council, Sec. 
Ray McClellan, Sec. 
N. H. Judah, Sec. 
P. L. Brown, Sec. 
L. E. Crowe, Sec. 
John Bos well. Sec. 

Fred Buscomb, Pres. 
A. B. Frazer, Treas. 

For assistance in obtaining some of tJie data and photographs for this book 
the author is indebted, among others, to the following: 

Mr. J. A. Ferguson, Commissioner of Agriculture, Labor and Industry, 
Helena, Mont. ; Mr. Henry B. Reed, Secy. Chamber of Commerce, Portland, 
Ore. ; Mr. J. FI. Brady, Pres. American Title and Trust Co., Pocatello, Idaho; 
Mr. J. T. O'Brien, Secy. Business Men's Assn., Butte, Mont.; Mr. P. B. Moss, 
Pres. The Billings Club, Billings, Mont.; Mr. D. L. Killen, Sumpter, Ore.; Mr. 
J. S, \^'Ilitehouse, Secy. Chamber of Commerce, Tacoma, Wash ; Mr. F. E. 
Goodall, Pres. Chamber of Commerce, Spokane, Wash. ; Mr. PL Strain, Pres. 
Chamber of Commerce, Great Falls, Mont.; Mr. W. PI. Dudley, Secy. Anaconda 
Copper Mining Co., Anaconda, Mont. ; Mr. Eugene Carroll, Pres. Butte Busi- 
ness Men's Assn., Butte, Mont. ; Capt. D. E. Libby, San Francisco, Cal. ; Mr. 
E. G. Crawford, I'res. \'ancouver Commercial Club, Vancouver, Wash. ; Mr. 
Arthur Gunn, Wenatchee, Wash. ; Mr. E. A. Macriim, former Secy, of the 
Business Men's Assn., Helena, Mont. ; Mr, Albert Perrine, Shoshone, Idaho; 

Mayor W. B. George, Billings, Mont, 

Chamber of Commerce, Olympia, Wash. 

Boise, Idaho ; Mr, Fred Bascomb, Pres 

N. Whealdon, Pres. Commercial Club, The Dalles, 

The Dalles, Ore. ; Mr. Lee Moorhouse, Pendleton 

Mr. Fred Schomber, Secy. Olympia 

Mr. D. W. Ross, Idaho State Engineer, 

Tourist Assn., Vancouver, B. C. ; Hon. 

Ore.; Mr. Benj. A. GifFord, 

Ore. ; Mr. Geo. M. Weiser, 

Portland, Ore. ; The Portland Oregonian, Portland, Ore. ; Capital News, Boise, 
Idaho; Idaho Falls Chamber of Commerce; the Passenger Departments of the 
Great Xorthcrn Railway, the Korthern Pacific Railway, the Oregon Railroad & 
Navigation Co., and the Oregon Short Line. 



AITKEN, Minn 14 

Anoka, Minn. ._ -- 15 

Arlington, Wash 70 

Arlee, Mont. -- 53 

Auburn, Wash 64 

BEMIDJI, Minn _ 15 

Bigtimber, Mont .30 

Billings, Mont 30 

Bismareli, N. D 21 

Bitter Root Valley, Mont _ - - 51 

Bozeman, Mont - 45 

Bozeman Tunnel, Mont 45 

Brainerd, Minn -.16 

Buckley, Wash 64 


Carlton, Minn 14 

Casselton, N. D - 20 

Castle Rock, Wash 79 

Centralia, Wash. - 76 

Chehalis, Wash. - 78 

Cheney, Wash 56 

Chestnut, Mont --. --- ---45 

Cloquet, Minn. 12 

Crocker, Wash. 64 

Custer Battlefield - 26 

DESMET, Mont 53 

Detroit, Minn 18 

Dickinson, N. D - 3:3 

Di'ummond, Mont 50 

Duluth, Minn 12 


Elk River, Minn - 15 

Ellensburg, Wash -- 62 

Everett, Wash. .- 69 

rARGO,N.D -.19 

Flathead Indians 53 

Fort Keogh, Mont -.26 

Frazee, Minn -.18 

GLENDIVE, Mont.- -25 

Glenullen, N. D --23 

Glyndon, Minn 19 

Gallatin Valley, Mont -- -46 

Garrison, Mont 49 

Goble, Ore - "9 

Gold Creek, Mont 50 


Hebron, N. D 33 

Helena, Mont 48 

Hinckley, Minn 12 

Hope, Idaho.- 54 

Hot Springs, Wash. 64 

Hunt's Junction, Wash 58 

IDAHO --- 64 

Issaquah, Wash - 70 

JAME3T0WN, N. D --- 21 

KALAMA, Wash .-- 79 

Kelso, Wash - - - - 79 

Kennewick. Wash --.fiS 

Kent, Wash - 66 

Kiona, Wash _ 53 

liAKEVIEW, Wash 76 

Laurel, Mont .30 

Leech Lake Country, Minn 16 

Little Falls, Minn 16 

Little Missouri, N. D 24 

Livingston, Mont. - _ 31 

Logan, Mont -- - 46 

Lombard, Mont -- 47 


MABTON, Wash sk 

Mandan, N. D.- - 33 

Manhattan, Mont • 45 

MarshallJunction, Wash. 66 

Medora, N. D 34 

Meeker, Wash. 04 

Miles City, Mont !35 

Minnesota 11-15 

Missoula, Mont -,_ 50 

Moorhead, Minn.. - 19 

Mount Adams, Wash [62 

Montana .-- -,25 

MountRainier "75 

Mount St. Helens, Wash 76 

Mullau Tunnel, Mont 49 


North Dakota 19 

North Yakima, Wash 61 

OLYMPIA.Wash -- 76 

Oregon 79 

Orting, Wash 64 

PASCO, Wash 57 

Perhain, Minn .- 18 

Pine City, Jliiin 13 

Portland, Ore 79 

Prickley Pear Junction, Mont 4S 

Prosser, Wash. 58 

Puyallup, Wash. 71 


Ritzville, Wash 57 

Roslyn, Wash . - - fj2 

Royulton, Minn 16 

Rush City, Minn - 13 

ST. CLOUD, Minn 15 

St. Ignatius Blission . . . . 53 

Sauk Rapids, Minn 15 

Seattle, Wash.- 66 

Selisb, Mont. 53 

Snohomish, Wash 69 

Snoqualmie, V\ ash.-- 70 

Souta Tacoma, Wash 76 

Spokane, Wash .55 

Spiague, Wash 57 

Springdale, Mont .30 

Stampede Tunnel .' 64 

Staples, Minn 18 

Stillwater, Minn. 11 

Sunny side Countiy 61 

TACOMA, Wash. 71 

Taylors Falls, Minn 11 

Tehino, Wash 76 

Toppenish, Wash .-. 58 

Towusend, Mont 47 

Verndale, Minn 

-- --.-21 


TVADENA,Minn. 18 

Walllila Junction, Wash... 58 

Washington ..- - 56 

White Bear, Minn 11 

Wibaux, Mont. 25 

Wilkeson, Wash 64 

Winlock, Wash 79 

Winnipeg Junction, Minn 19 

Woolley, Wash .70 

Wyoming, Minn 11 


Yellowstone National Park 33 





ADA CO., Idaho.- 154 

Adams Co., Wash. ....304 

Addenda 351 

Agricultural Products 36 

Alaska 323 

Albany, Ore. .. 890 

Alberta, N. W. Ter 320 

Amalgamated Copper Co. 110 

Anaconda, Mont. 116 

Astoria, Ore. .294 

Asotin Co. , Wash. 206 

Assiniboia, N. W. Ter 320 

BAKER CITY, Ore 264 

Baker Co., Ore. 262 

Ballard, Wash 226 

Bannock Co., Idaho 144 

Bear Lake Co., Idaho .148 

Beaver Head Co. , Mont 126 

Benton Co., Ore. 291 

Bigtimber, Mont .122 

Billings, Mont. 120 

Bingham Co., Idaho 144 

Bismarck, N. D 54 

Blaine, Wash 215 

Blaine Co. , Idaho 150 

Boise, Idaho . . 154 

Boise Co. , Idaho ... 154 

Bozeman, Mont 124 

British Columbia 306 

Broadwater Co. , Mont 101 

Butte, Mont 103 

CANYON CO. , Idaho 154 

Carbon Co., Mont 120 

.Carey Act 356 

Cariboo District, B.C.. 314 

Ca.ssia Co., Idaho ..148 

Cassiar District, B. C. 314 

Challis, Idaho 140 

Chehalis, Wash. 343 

Chehalis Co., Wash 240 

Chelan Co., Wash 194 

Chinook, Mont 80 

Choteau, Mont 81 

Choteau Co., Mont. 78 

Circle City, Alaska 336 

Clackamas Co., Ore. 283 

Clallam Co., Wash 246 

Clark Co., Wash 246 

Clarkston, Wash 306 

Clatsop Co., Ore 294 


Climate.. .... 20 

Colfax, Wash 202 

Columbia Co., Ore ....394 

Columbia Co., Wash 206 

Columbia Basin 28 

Columbia Plateau 167 

Colville, Wash ...185 

Colville Reservation 186 

Comax, B. C. ...318 

Commerce 43 

Commercial Organizations 360 

Conconnully, Wash. _ .186 

Cook's Inlet, Alaska 333 

Coos Co., Ore. 313 

Corvallis, Ore. 391 

Council City, Alaska 343 

Cowlitz Co., Wash 345 

Crook Co., Ore 874 

Curry Co., Ore _ 804 

Custer Co., Idaho. 138 

Custer Co., Mont. .118 

DALLAS, Ore 391 

Davenport, Wash. ... 193 

Dawson City, Alaska 339 

Dawson Co. , Mont. . 84 

Deer Lodge Co., Mont. 113 

Douglas Co., Ore. .. 300 

Douglas Co. , Wash. . . .192 

Duluth, Minn 48 

EAGLE CITY, Alaska 337 

Early History 3 

EUensburg, Wash. 206 

Elmore Co., Idaho.. 154 

Emigration z 39 

Esquimau, B. C. 318 

Eugene, Ore 390 

Everett, Wash 218 

FAIRHAVEN, Wash 314 

Fargo, JSr. D ... 54 

Fergus Co. , Mont 85 

Ferry Co. , Wash .185 

Fisheries 38 

Flathead Co. , Mont. . _ 81 

Flathead Valley, Mont. 81 

Forsythe, Mont. . . 120 

Fort Assinniboine, Mont 80 

Fort Benton, Mont. ... 80 

Fort Cudahy , Alaska 337 

Forty Mile, Alaska 337 




Franklin Co. , Wash .... 204 

Fremont Co., Idaho . . 140 

GALLATIN CO., Mont .124 

Gai-fleld Co., Wash . 206 

Gilliam Co., Ore 270 

Glacier Bay, Alaska .348 

Glasgow, Mont. 77 

Glendive, Mont 85 

Goldendale, Wash 213 

Government Land Offices 360 

Grand Coulee, Wash. 193 

Grand Forks, N. D 54 

Granite Co., Mont 97 

Grant Co., Ore... ....274 

Grants Pass, Ore 305 

Great Central Railway 378 

Great Falls, Mont 90 

HARNEY CO., Ore 276 

Havre, Mont. 80 

Helena, Mont. 94 

Hillsboro, Ore. 293 

Hinsdale, Mont 78 

Hood River, Ore 274 

Hudson's Bay Co 6 

Huntington, Ore 264 

IDAHO CO., Idaho 156 

Idaho Falls, Idaho 146 

Idaho ..138 

Island Co. , Wash 316 

JACKSON CO., Ore 304 

Jefferson Co. , Mont 103 

Jefferson Co. , Wash. 243 

Josephine Co. , Ore - 304 

Juneau, Alaska 346 

KADIAK ISLAND, Alaska ...333 
EaUspell, Mont 84 

Kenai Peninsula, Alaska 333 

King Co., Wash 319 

Kitsap Co., Wash ... 240 

Kittitas Co. , Wash 304 

Klamath Co., Ore 379 

Klamath Falls, Ore 380 

Klickitat Co., Wash 310 

Klondike, Discovery of 338 

Kootenai Co. , Idaho 159 

Kootenai District, B. C .313 

LAKE CHELAN, Wash ..196 

Lake Co., Ore. ..376 

Lake View, Ore. 278 

Lands 38 

LaneCo., Ore 390 

Latah Co., Idaho 158 

Lemhi Co., Idaho 138 

Lewis and Clark Co., Mont. 90 

Lewis and Clark Expedi tion 6 

Lewis Co., Wash 343 

Lewiston, Idaho 159 

Lewiston, Mont 87 

Lewiston Co., Idaho... ..158 

Lillooet District, B. C 314 

Lincoln Co., Idaho ... 153 

Lincoln Co., Ore 298 

Lincoln Co., Wash 193 

Linn Co., Ore. 388 

Livingston, Mont. 124 

Lost River Co., Idaho 150 

MADISON CO., Mont i34 

Malheur Co., Ore 376 

Malta, Mont 78 

Manitoba, Can 320 

Marion Co., Ore 388 

Mason Co., Wash 338 

"Mazamas" Club 286 

McMinnville, Ore 392 

Meagher Co. , Mont 101 

Medical Lake, Wash. ... 188 

Miles City, Mont ...118 

Mines 36 

Minneapolis, Minn 47 

Minnesota 46 

Mission, Wash 196 

Missoula, Mont ... 99 

Missoula Co. , Mont 97 

Montana . . ... 56 

Montpelier, Idaho 148 

Moran Bros. Co 333 

Morrow Co., Ore .. 369 

Moscow, Idaho 159 

Multnomah Co., Ore. .282 

NANAIMO, B. C 319 

National Irrigation Law. 351 

New Westminster, B.C.. ... 318 
New Westminster District, B. C. 316 

Nez Perces Co. , Idaho 1 58 

Nome City, Alaska 341 

Nome District, Alaska 339 

North Dakota 50 

North Yakima, Wash. 306 


Okanogan Highlands, Wash. ...166 
Okanogan Valley, Wash. . . . 188 



Olympia, Wash 236 

Oneida Co., Idaho -148 

Oregon 247 

Oregon Cit)', Ore. 287 

Owyhee Co., Idaho 148 

PACIFIC CO., Wash 245 

Palouse Country - 198 

Paris, Idaho 14 

Park Co., Mont 132 

Payette Valley, Idaho 154 

Pendleton, Ore 268 

Pierce Co., Wash 226 

Pilot Rocli:... -306 

Pocatello, Idaho 146 

Polk Co., Ore. -- 291 

Port Angeles, Wash,- .243 

Portland, Ore. 282 

Powell Co., Mont. .-- 96 

Prine ville, Ore - - - 275 

RAVALLI CO., Mont. 99 

Red River Valley 51 

Regina, C^anada 323 

Roseburg. Ore. 302 

Rosebud Co., Mont.-- 118 

ST. ANTHONY, Idaho 146 

St. Helens, Ore 294 

St. Paul, Minn 47 

Salem, Ore 288 

San Juan Co., Wash 216 

Saskatchewan, N. W. Ter. 320 

Seattle, Wash. ...- 220 

Sherman Co., Ore 270 

Shoshone, Idaho 154 

Shoshone Co., Idaho 159 

Silver Bow Co., Mont. 102 

Sitka, Alaska - - . . 346 

Skagit Co., Wash 215 

Skagway, Alaska - _ .348 

Skamania Co., Wash 346 

Smelting and Refining Process .112 

Snake River Valley 140 

Snohomish Co., Wash. .- -317 

Spokane, Wash 190 

Spokane Co., Wash. 188 

Stevens Co., Wash 184 

Sumpter, Ore 264 

Sweet Grass Co. , Mont. 123 

TACOMA, Wash 228 

Teton Co., Mont 80 

The Dalles, Ore.- 273 

Thurston Co. , Wash. - - - . 234 

Tillamook, Ore 298 

Tillamook Co. , Ore 398 

Timber - 34 

Toledo, Ore 300 

Topography - . 20 

UMATILLA CO., Ore 266 

Unalaska, Alaska 334 

Union Co. , Ore. - 264 

VALDEZ, Alaska -332 

Vale, Ore... 276 

Valley Co., Mont. -- 76 

Vancouver, B. C 316 

Vancouver, Wash. 247 

Vancouver Island, B. C. .318 

Virginia City, Mont 134 

Victoria, B. C 318 

WAHKIAKUM CO., Wash.... 345 

Walla Walla, Wash 210 

WallaWallaCo., AVash.- 208 

Wallowa Co., Ore --.266 

Wasco Co., Ore 270 

Washington 160 

Washington Co., Idaho 156 

Washington Co., Ore 393 

WatervHIe, Wash 194 

Weiser, Idaho 156 

Wenatchee, Wash.- --.196 

Wenatchee Valley 194 

Western Canada 320 

Whatcom, Wash. 314 

Whatcom Co., Wash 213 

Wheeler Co., Ore. 374 

Whitman Co>, Wash 198 

Willamette Valley 380 

Wrangel, Alaska 346 

YAKIMA CO., Wash -.304 

Yakima Valley - -205 

Yale District, B. C 313 

Yellowstone Co., Mont. 120 

Yellowstone National Park 126 

Yamhill Co., Ore. --, 392 




The Sunset Doorway of Canada, 
Western Terminus of the Great 
Canadian Pacific Railway. The 
Commercial Capital of British 
Columbia. Sixteen years ago a 
forest, to-day a city of over 30,000 

You can reach there by the Great 

Northern, the Northern Pacific and the 
Canadian Pacific railroads. By the 
Empress and Canadian Australian line 
of Royal Mail Steamships. The Pacific 

Coast S. S. Co. from San Francisco, 

and the Canadian Pacific Navigation 

Co.'s steamers. 



the first and last port of call for all 

Alaska ELxcursion Boats 

Also the best starting point for the 

Golden Klondyke 


All railroad companies sell 
round-trip tickets return- 
ing via Vancouver and the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, 
^■^■■^■^l^^^^^^^B at the same rate as by any 
other line. Ask your railroad agent about it. 

For further information write the Secretary of the 



Geographically, no city is better situated to become a commercial 
metropolis; topographically, it is doubtful whether any other city in 
the world has more beautiful surroundings in its immediate neighbor- 

Its harbor is one of the grandest, it and the adjacent waters pre- 
senting the broadest scope for the votaries of the rod and gun, and 
for boating, yachting, and sea-bathing. 

The climate of Vancouver and its neighborhood is milder than 
that of Southern England — there is virtually no winter here. 

Within ten mile's of the business streets of the city the moun- 
taineer can indulge in the exhilarating pastime of mountain-climbing, 
rivaling that of Switzerland. 

The city itself, with its well-paved streets, its splendid schools, 
churches, public and commercial buildings, its palatial homes, nest- 


ling in a riotous profusion of flowers, evergreens, and ivy, offers 
many attractions that are peculiarly its own. 

It rejoices in an ideal summer — malaria, black flies, and mosquitos 
being unknown. The evenings are always cool and the air pure, 
refreshing, and bracing. 

Vancouver is the natural headquarters for tourists in British 
Columbia, and offers the following additional attractions; 

The .salmon-fishing industry of the mighty Fraser, in which an 
average of between six and ten million salmon are canned 
annuall}', is at our very doors — an industry that has not its 
counterpart in either hemisphere. 
Stanley Park (one of the largest and most beautiful natural parks 
in the world), sea-bathing at English Bay, mountain-climbing, 
grand canyons of the Capilano, boating, yachting, shooting, 
fishing, hunting of big game, etc. 




The western gateway of the British Empire. The most 
important seaport in Canada. The commercial capital of 
British Columbia. The most perfectly landlocked harbor 
on the Pacific Coast. The Pacific Coast terminus of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway. The Home port of steamship 
lines to China and Japan ; to Australia, New Zealand, Hono- 
lulu, and Fiji; and to Alaska and the Klondike. The head- 
quarters of the salmon packing- industry. The headquarters 
of the halibut and deep sea fisheries. The headquarters of 
the B. C. coasting trade. The center of the Provincial 
lumber and shingle industries. The banking and financial 
center of British Columbia. The wholesale and distributing 
point for the Province. The chief farm produce market for 
the Lower Fraser Valle)^, which farming district is 


The city which is growing faster than any other in Canada ; it? 
population is now 35,000 — sixteen years old — what will it be in another 
ten? The only city on the Continent showing the same growth of popu- 
lation and commerce where there is no real estate excitement. We now 
have the Canadian Pacific Railway; before the year is out we shall have 
the Great Northern, and this year also the Yukon & Northern and 
Coast-Kootenay railways commence building. This is not one of the 
cities " destined to be," but 


We make a specialty of dealing in large business blocks returning- s^teady 
rentals : in large loans on business property in the center of the city, and in selected 
farms, dairy and fruit lands within fifty miles of Vancouver. Brick and stone busi- 
ness blocks can be bought to return 6 to 7 per cent, and a gilt-edged mortgage to 
return 5 per cent. Both investments are absolutely safe, and the former will show 
steadily increased returns as the city grows. Rents are lower than in any other 
town of equal size on the Pacific Coast; there is lots of room, for them to grow and 
still not be too high. 

The folio-wing publications will be sent free — Latest "Board of 
Trade Report," "Vancouver Tourist Association" pamphlet, "List of brick and 
stone business buildings for sale," giving particulars of rentals, etc. ; "Farm Lands 
in British Columbia," published by the 


for which we are the only accredited agents. 


Our office is in the heart of the city, on the Electric Street Car Line, 
opposite the Arcade Entrance on Cambie Street. You cannot miss it. 



200 Farms, wild and improved, in the Red River 
Valley of Minnesota; one-third Cash, Balance in 
ten years at 4 per cent. These lands are all our 
own lands and can be delivered at once with 
perfect title. We are Land Owners Not Agents. 

John Grove Land & Loan Co. 

183 E. Third St., St. Paul, Minn. 


Morris, Stevens Co. Ada, Norman Co. Crookston, Polk Co. 
Hallock, Kittson Co. Warren, Marshall Co. 

I" r> [■ r Land a /a a /n 

lr\\YY B^il<li^g Material 
I I I L L Homes /^ a a 


Open for entry under the Homestead Laws or purchasable 
outright under the Timber Act at $2.50 per acre. 

For particulars correspond or call on 


Cruisers, Examiners, Estimators, and Locators 
of Government Land Exclusively 


376-382 Robert Street. *^- P^^L, MINN. 

Minneapolis Office, Legal Dept., 

120 Temple Court. Duluth, Minn. 

Half-fare Excursions three times a Week from our Offices. 


We are Owners 
Not Agents 

of the following T AMRO 
in the Northwest, iJnl^J^O 
all carefully selected 


Red River 


It costs nothing to write us 
for maps and information 

30,000 acres in Marshall and Kittson counties, 

30,000 '■ " Grand Forks County, N.D., near 

Larimore. - 
1.5,000 " " Walsh County, N. D. 
30,000 " " Manitoba, near Winnipeg. 

2.5,000 acres in Southern Minn., near Marshall. 
20,000 " " Washburn Co., Wis. (cut over). 
30,000 '■ " Aitkin County, Minn, (timber). 
2.5,000 " " La Moure County, N. D. 
1.5,000 " " Logan County, N. D. 
20,000 " " Mercer County, N. D. 

Burchard-Hulburt Investment Co. 

705-708 Manhattan Building, ST. PAIL, MINN. 


52 E. 6th St., 






Moccasins, Etc. 

Large StocK, Prices Right, 
Genuine Goods 




And Amateur 
Finishing : : : 



Alaskan and Yellowstone 
Park Views 

All the Way Round the World 




The Metropolis of Eastern Montana. 

On the main line of the North- 
ern Pacific, and terminus of 
the Burlington & Missouri 
River Railroad in Montana. 


Sixty miles from the vast Coal 
Fields of Red Lodge, Bear 
Creek, Gebo, and Bridger. 

Finest Climate, Finest Soil, Finest 
Water, and Best Farms in Montana. 


The largest primary wool market in the 
world; shipped 14,000,000 pounds in 1901. 

Ships more mutton than any point on the Northern Pacitic. 

A great cattle and horse market. 

Only one city of a similar size exceeds its postoftice business. 

A wide-awake and orderly citizenship. 

The best lighted city in the Northwest. 

A delightful climate. 

High educational facilities. Churches and societies. 

Free public hbrary. 

Waterworks. Sewerage system. 

Electric light and power. 

City free mail delivery. Rural free mail delivery. 

Fine hotel accommodations. 

Graded and shady streets. Beautiful lawns and gardens. 

Thoroughly equipped fire department. 

Modern opera house. 

Free lands for homeseekers. 

Openings for manufactories. 

Openings for farmers. Openings for investors. 

Openings for all kinds of enterprising men. 




I have for sale in the city and surrounding country 
everything in the line of real estate that is worth 
having, especially lands under irrigation, sheep 
ranches, range lands, and suburban city propert}^ 

References : All banks and leading business houses in 

Billings, of which city I am at present serving as mayor. 

Correspondence solicited. 




* f 

m Is Headquarters for W 

f i 

i Montana \ 

I Ranch Vroperty I 

i i 

flS The Best Locations and Investments W 

^i in all parts of the State a a a a a ^ 

/(S Our References are Well = Pleased <b 

jj Customers in nearly every county. % 


% Pittsburg Block ^ Helena ^ Montana t 

/«> f 




^W|>III|I)W»».II>I H ,<V HM" W'«»«.< H I. H I>#^ 

is the Capital of 
the Treasure State 

Of this magnificent State, HELENA is the capital city 
and occupies an unrivaled situation. It is the natural dis- 
tributing center, having ample banking facilities, railways and 
lines of travel, and located in about the center of population, 
with schools, churches, libraries, and every social advantage 
for a city of homes, which it pre-eminently is. 

The mining of valuable metals done within a radius of 
50 to 75 miles around HELENA exceeds any other district 
in the world. 

For climate, soil, water for irrigation, mining, cattle, sheep, 
and other stock raising and farming, this district offers great 
inducements in the way of markets, all products being in 
demand at good prices. 

For manufactures in the city, and for the large smelting 
interests at East Helena, power is generated from dams in 
the Missouri River near the city; 12,000 horse power is now 
used, and other dams projected which may generate 40,000 
to 50,000 horse power. 

For Information Address 

Sec'y Business Men's Association 

Helena, Montana 




MONTANA offers unparalleled in- 
ducements to capital to engage in 
the development of its wonderful 
industrial resources. 

MONTANA has the richest gold, 
silver, copper, lead, iron, and coal 
deposits and mines of the Rocky 
Mountain Range. 

MONTANA produces the most 
wealth per capita of any State in 
the Union. 

And Butte is 
Her Metropolis 

For Information Address 



% ^ 

% Write us regarding % 

'% Mines, Mineral Lands | 

I Montana and Idaho I 

i Ranch Property I 

I Butte City Real Estate | 

I and prime I 

Real Estate Loans | 

«> Full Information upon request v| 

I REYNOLDS & Mcdowell i 

flS Insurance, Real Estate, Investments, Mines 

I 4tf E. -Broadway. "BUTTE. MONT. 

fk Reference, any Butte Bank 


Henry B. Scudder Marshall S. Scudder 

H. B. Scudder 6 Co. 

24 North Seccuid Street 

North YaRima ^ d Washington 




Investments made and rents collected for non-resident 
owners. Agents for the iSunnpside Lands under 
the Washington Irrigation Company Canal. 

Irrigated stock, fruit, hop, hay, and vegetable farms of all 
sizes with first-class water rights for sale in all parts of the 


^he Upper 
Snake RWer Valley 



§Y FAR the most fertile portion of the great Snake River 
Valley lies in that subdivision of the " Gem of the 
Mountains" known as Bingham County. The fertile 
and well improved lands lie in a wide expanse on either side 
of the Snake River, which, in all its grandeur, flows through 
about the central part of the Valley from end to end. 

The water for irrigation in this section of Idaho is taken 
principally from this great river and is flowed out upon the 
land through great systems of canals, constructed at vast 
expense for the sole purpose of irrigation. A great many 
truthful and meritorious claims have been made for diff'erent 
sections of country in the many States of the Arid West, but 
it has never been disputed that the abundance of natural re- 
sources by way of agricultural, fruit, and grazing lands and 
water for irrigation, power, and other purposes, is equal to 
this locality. 

As a proof of the vast agricultural resources of this section 
of the Valley, the productiveness of the soil, and the unlim- 
ited supply of water, capital has sought the field, and under 
the name of the Idaho Sugar Company, a beet-sugar factory, 
the largest in the United States, is now being constructed at 
Idaho Falls. It will have a capacity for handling 240,000 
tons of beets per season, which are estimated to require 12,000 
acres of land to produce. 


The Upper Snake RiVer Valley in Bingham County, Idaho. 

While this is the only sugar factory at present in the State 
of Idaho, and by far the most important manufacturing insti- 
tution in the Valley, there are mills and factories of less im- 
portance, and a great and profitable field for the investment 
of capital in all legitimate lines of business and manufacture 
is here in its infancy. 





On either side of the Valley are low ranges of mountains, 
extending back for many miles, which afford a vast wealth of 
grazing lands, and which may be occupied at all seasons of the 
year by herds of live stock of all kinds. Flowing down from 
and through these low ranges are many mountain streams 
of clear, cold water, which invariably abound with mountain 
trout, while along the streams and in the hills feathered and 
other game abounds. 

Idaho Falls, located in the heart of this Valley, is the prin- 
cipal city in Southeastern Idaho, and is destined to be the 
largest city in the State in the near future. Among its many 
attractions are a $40,000 school house, nine churches of the 
leading denominations of the State, with commodius, neat, 
and substantial church buildings, many substantial and costly 
business blocks, and elegant residences. 

The city is located on the east bank of the great Snake 
River, on the main line of the Oregon Short Line Railroad, 
and is the junction of the St. Anthony branch of the Oregon 
Short Line, leading to the Yellowstone National Park. 

Beautiful mountain scenery surrounds the city in every 
direction at various distances of view, and the climate is one 
of the most delightful in the West. 

Address A. V. Scott, Secretary, Executive Committee, 
Idaho Falls, Idaho, for further information. 

cQ)m ((km (fkm mhmukm mm mm ukm ukm ukm ff^dife 





^ The Railroad Center of Idaho 

..^ and Gateway to the Northwest g>, 

Altitude. 4,464 ft. Population. 6.200 ©? 

Public Schools State Academp §% 

cS= Pocatello is the most promising young city 

'■C^ in arid America to-day. It is situate in the 

(<^ south pocket of the great Snake River Valley, ^^ 

<^ which furnishes the best example of irrigated 

i^g® lands on the continent. Here is the junction 

f^ point of the main trunks of the Oregon Short 

1^ Line, the one connecting Missouri River points 

<^ with Portland and the Northwest ; the other, 

(^ Denver and Salt Lake with Montana and Brit- 

<^ ish Columbia. The main shop plant, costing 

1^ $1,250,000 and having a capacity of 1,200 men, is 

s^ located here. The surrounding mountains con- 

(^ tain ledges of copper and gold ore, formerly a 

iC§. part of the Fort Hall reservation but opened to 

,^ location and entry in 1902. The agricultural ®^ 

C^ lands opened at the same time are to be irri- 

(<^ gated by canals from the Snake River, the same 

S^ being constructed to within a few miles of 

(<§ Pocatello and to be brought to the town this 

C^ year. The city has two banks, two newspapers, 

(^ three hotels, and churches of all denominations ®^'' 
are established here. =^.. 

For detailed information, address §^ 


.fc= Pocatello, Idaho ®5, 

CF~ — "^^^ 

5^ttt?^riK^ Sj^j^/^-^^jc — ' ''"■-i-^— ^ 

own «incl conlrol 


//7 //fc (JfferSn^kc /fiyer Vs/ley ,3nc/ /ijve /ors^/e aver 

dll of which hjve perpehjf w-sfer rtphfi in fhesc Csruili 

UJahcr I^enla/s 

aver^porz from J5 cenhs ^ J*^ /oer^cre 

Price o^Land 

Trom JO. to 3o . per jicrz ^ccorc/ma ^ /mprovemenh 
ihcludm^ Perpcf-uj/ v^ei^er n'o^h for e^ch /drm so/c/- 

Vs cssh b.3/^nce ^ sut/- purchasers 
/u///nforin,if'on iSru/riiSps nrni's/iec^ofj j^p//cjho/7 ^ 


President / 



*( "if 



Lewiston, Idaho Clarkston, Washington 



I I 

I ^'Brilliant Future: Wht; JWotf | 

^^ CITUATED in a deep, broad valley at the junction | 

jjj '--^ of the Snake and Clearwater rivers, on the only * 

if) water-grade route from the Rocky Mountains to the ^ 

^1 PacificOcean, through the vast, irregular inter-mountain <| 

jtV plateau, at the only broadening of the canons for hun- \(> 

/)\ dreds of miles, Lewiston-Clarkston is the logical " Key ^|^ 

25 to the Pacific Northwest," the gateway to the ocean \j> 

/ft down the Clearwater, Snake, and Columbia rivers from '$ 

'& the mountainous plateaus of the interior. ^j 

* It IS the necessary distributing center for 25,000 \l> 
iflf, square miles of tributary territory — a rich, new wheat ^ 
'^ country that now yields 8,000,000, and will soon yield >j? 
jft 20,000,000 bushels per year; a dozen different gold, cop- flj 
/j\ per, silver, iron, and coal mining camps of great promise; ^ 
f^ a lumbering region as rich as the richest of Michigan's «l> 
/(> best days in that industry; fat stock ranges and fertile ^ 

/»> It shall have an all-the-year open water route to the ^J^ 

/{J ocean, it being the head of navigation, and now having ^ 

* rail and water traffic routes radiating in five directions. * 

/A -I' 

/(\ It shall be the seat of manufacturing on a large y| 

* scale; of wheat flour and other cereal products ; of ^ 
/(> lumber, furniture, house-finish, doors, sash, boxes, etc.; w 

* of agricultural implements and machinery ; of woolen § 
fl^ goods; of paper and paper goods; of meat products; of «> 
/(> boots, shoes, and articles of leather. Why not, with ^ 
|5 water-electric power and cheap coal, ample raw ma- * 
jj terials, cheap and quick transportation, and abundant V 
55 markets ? | 
<l> ^ 

* With a population in 1903 of 10,000, it will have <g 
<f> 25,000 within five years or less ! Why not ? m 



I ^"''Business Opportunities | 

I in the Letaiston Country include : ^ % 

* * 

* (i) Wheat Growing, where yields run from 30 to 60 vjj 
% bushels per acre, with over 2,000,000 acres of finest <» 
% grain land. | 
§ (2) Lwe Stock, where the increase is rarely less than 40 % 

* per cent, and cattle graze all winter. No deep w 
% snows; no severe cold. % 

* (3) i^'/wzz'«^for copper, gold, silver, iron, and coal, where ^ 
® the rich prospects offer ample opportunities to new- ^ 
fly comers. p 
(ft (4) Flour Milling for the export Asiatic, Alaskan, and »> 
f South American trade. Our wheats are acknowl- j| 

* edged the best grown west of the Rocky Mountains. * 

* (5) Sazw il/?7/5 to utilize eight billion feet superior white w 
% pine timber, and much more of yellow pine, fir, % 
® tamarack, and cedar. Lewiston-Clarkston offers ^. 
Si the only sites economically available for this \(/ 
S manufacture. |j 
1^ (6) Woolen Mills to utilize 3,000,000 pounds of wool. |^ 

* Abundant home market with local wholesale <» 
% dealers. Electric power. Pure water. <| 

flS (7) Flax Fiber Mill. In 1902 about 480,000 bushels of % 

f flax grown. Fiber went to waste. * 

% (8) Manufacture of agricultural implements and ma- ^ 

f chinery. i» 

fli Paper Mill to utilize straw and wood refuse. rtj 

fli (9) Manufacture of all lines of flour, bagging, twines, ^ 

1$ woolens, paper, furniture, lumber, machinery, but- ^j^ 

* ter, cheese, brooms, canned fruits, etc. * 

* ' «/ 
§ Simple tiaxa Materials. Cheap Pobler. jin Unequaled W. 

* Distribution Point. \\if 

I ^ — i 

m Address, Secretary Commercial Club, t 

I ■'■ 

* Secretary "Business Men's Association, w 

9? * 


(L, ^,,, ,.^.,.,.,.,.,.^^,.,.,.,.,.,.^.^.^.,. ,. ,.,.,.^,.,.,.J> 

Cii7eol9 ^oupty, Idal70 

1 INCOLN COUNTY, IDAHO, is situated in the southern 
part of the State and its resources are agriculture, fruit, 
and stock-raising. From the Blue Lakes fruit farm, in 
this county, exhibits of apples, pears, peaches, apricots, 
and prunes were made at the World's Fair, the Trans- 
mississippi Congress, and the Paris Exposition, and 
were awarded first prize in each instance. 

SHOSHONE is the county seat of Lincoln County and has a pop- 
ulation of about 1,500. The town boasts of some of the largest mer- 
cantile institutions in the State, and all lines of business are repre- 
sented. A new national bank was opened on January 20, 1903, and 
has been doing a splendid business. Hotels are first class and the 
best of accommodations are offered tourists. Fishing and hunting 
can be had in abundance, and sportsmen come here from all points, 
even from New York City. The town is located on the banks of 
Little Wood River and has ample water supplj'. 

The farmers cut three crops of hay annually, and the climate is 
unexcelled in any State in the Union. 

The great Shoshone Falls are twenty-five miles directly south of 
the village of Shoshone and are connected with the railroad by a stage 
line, while in the village are numerous conveyances to transport 
private parties to this; the rival of Niagara. At Shoshone Falls an 
immense electric power plant is being constructed, from which power 
is to be transmitted to Shoshone, Hailey, Salt Lake City, and Ogden, 
and it will also furnish power for an electric railway from the Falls 
to Shoshone. 

The second largest irrigation proposition in the world is now being 
constructed in this county and in Cassia County adjoining. This 
great irrigating canal is diverted from Snake River, twenty-three 
miles above Shoshone Falls. It is sixty-nine miles long, eighty feet 
wide at the bottom, carries 3,400 cubic feet of water per second, and 
places under irrigation 371,000 acres of the finest land in Idaho. 

In water power this county rivals anyone section in the world, 
its facilities consisting of the great Shoshone Falls, with a Fall of 210 
feet; the Twin Falls, three miles above, with a fall of 184 feet; Auger 
Falls, with a fall of 136 feet; Banker Falls, with a fall of 50 feet; 
Salmon Falls, with a fall of 80 feet, and many lesser falls. This 
power is now being harnessed and the near future will place Lincoln 
County in the ranks of the great manufacturing counties of the West. 

To reach the lands of the Twin Falls Land & Water Co. , leave the 
railroad at Shoshone, where conveyances will be found ready to take 
parties over this land. For particulars write to 


IMain Office, 221 Southwest Temple Street, SALT LAKE, UTAH. 


All Gone 



Are the original inhabitants 
of the famous " Palouse 
Country " of Eastern Wash- 
ington. Most of this coun- 
try is in Whitman County, 
which lias probably exported 
more wheat than any county 
in the United States. (Not 
less than 9,500,000 bushels 
were shipped out, of the igoi 
crop, and the 1902 crop was not much less.) 

Prof. Mark Harrington, when President of the State University of 
Washington, said of the Palouse soil: 

" This fine soil is very fertile. It seems to be of a kind which is 
perpetually fertile. In the whole world I know of only one locality 
which has a similar soil This is the north of China, in the two prov- 
inces of Shansi and Shensi, west of Peking. To me the Palouse soil 
seems to be the same, from which I am led to believe that it is 

" We estimated what population the Palouse Country was able to 
maintain. Our conclusion was that one hundred times as many 
people could be supported by its soil as now live there. 

" Another characteristic of the soil in that country is the small fall 
of water needed to raise the crops. This, of course, is another ad- 
vantage. Then there are no trees or rocks to be removed. Put in 
the plow and then plant the seed." 

While celebrated for wheat, the Palouse Country has been found 
to be well adapted for producing magnificent fruits of all kinds, 
vegetables of large size and fine quality, and many of the tame 

Whitman County has (Nov., 1902) over 280 miles of paying rail- 
roads and 80 miles under construction, 15 banks, over 160 school- 
houses, a dozen towns of from 300 to 3,000 population, several rural 
free delivery mail routes, and hundreds of miles of public and private 
telephone lines. The State Agricultural College is located at Pull- 
man and has nearly 700 students enrolled. 

Colfax is the county seat and chief business point, and is one of 
the best business towns of its size m America. People coming West 
for new location will find here rich lands at moderate prices, and all 
advantages. For further information call on or address, 




Bird's-eye View of l^liddle Falls and Manufacturings District, Spokane. 


the Metropolis of 
the Inland Empire 

The Imperial City — seven times better than 
any other city in the Pacific Northwest, 
the land of sunshine, flowers, fruit, grain, 
gold, silver, lead, copper, marble, timber, 
and all that nature can offer in opportu- 
nities for the acquirement of wealth. : : : 
Where there are no killing frosts to injure 
crops, no cyclones, no floods, no destruction 
from lightning, and where sunstroke is un- 
known except in name. 


* * SPOKANE * * 

1 SPOKANE, the greatest agricultural center in the United 
States — more than 30,000,000 bushels of wheat produced annually 
within a radius of 200 miles of SPOKANE, in the celebrated 
Palouse and Big Bend farming belts. 

2 SPOKANE, the distributing center for all of the Palouse 
country, Big Bend country, and the Colville and Kalispell valleys. 

3 SPOKANE, the geographical and distributing center of the 
famous Coeur d'Alene silver-lead mines of Northern Idaho. The 
gold and copper mines of Rossland and the boundary country, 
and the Slocan in British Columbia, and of Republic, Washington. 
Also of the famous coal fields of the Crow's Nest country, and of 
the Okanogan country with its rich agricultural and mineral 

4 SPOKANE, the distributing center for the great, growing 
lumbering districts of Eastern Washington and Northern Idaho, 
which have the largest white pine forests in the world. The lum- 
ber output for 1902 is estimated at $20,000,000. 

5 SPOKANE, with a water-power surpassed only b}' Niagara, 
will become the greatest manufacturing city of the Pacific North- 
west. The maximum power of the Falls is between 200,000 and 
300,000 horse-power, of which about 15,000 horse-power is utilized. 
SPOKANE offers better returns for the establishment of manufac- 
turing industries than can be found anywhere else in the West, 
because of its growing population and cheap water-power. 

6 SPOKANE, the railroad center of the Pacific Northwest. 
Transcontinental trains arrive and depart at SPOKANE over four 
lines — the Northern Pacific, Great Northern, Burlington, and 
0. R. & N. Co. Branch lines radiate to every part of the INLAND 
EMPIRE of which SPOKANE is the hub. Look at the map. 

7 SPOKANE, last, but not least, for business opportunities 
for business men. To be ready when your opportunity comes is 
the secret of success. Then get ready. SPOKANE offers you 
that opportunity. For detailed information, address the 


I. G. MONROE, Secretary 

F. E. COODALL, President 

Threshing Scene, Washington, 1,960 Sacks at one setting, \H days' work. 


Arthur D. Jones & Co. 



Offices in Empire State Building 

We are agents for the Empire State, the 
Spokane Club, and many other fme blocks, 
also much other business and residence 
property in Spokane. 

We write any kind of insurance ; we loan 
money at from 5 to 8 per cent per annum. 

We sell improved business property that 
will pay 8 to 10 per cent per annum, net. 

We sell grazing and raw farm lands in 
Eastern Washington at $2.00 to fio.oo 
per acre. 

We sell improved farms at $10.00 to 
I60.00 per acre. 

Call at the oldest real estate and land 
office in Spokane for the best bargains. 

As to our reliability we refer you to any 
bank or leading business man in Spokane. 




^he Metropolis of the 
Inland E^mpire ^ ^ ^ 

GpQJ^ jA ^ J^ being the center of a large 
•^^ "^^ country rich in mines and 
farming lands, there are many opportunities for 
the investor and homeseeker, 000^00 
^ Here the investor can secure 7 per cent 
interest on his money with absolutely good 
security, and there are many opportunities for 
the purchase of timber and farming lands. 

Uo the Homeseeiter 

Whatever his interest might have been, whether 
in mines, in the forests, as orchardist, stock= 
man, or farmer, there are opportunities pre= 
sented such as are seldom found. With the trade 
With CHINA and the ORIENT in its infancy and in= 
creasing rapidly, the markets are safe and steady. 
The railroads projected and built afford 
access to market and are constantly opening 
up ne^v country for the settler, a 
Among those w^ho have been connected w^ith 
real estate and investments for a number of 
years is the firni of 


Who w^ill gladly submit for either the investor 
or the homeseeker a statement of the lands or 
investments of any kind or nature. 0000 
Those interested will do well to correspond 
with them. Any bank in Spokane -will tell you 
of their standing. 000 000000 


Real Estate and Investments 
Rookery Building SPOKANE, WASH. 



A Protestant Boarding and Day 


Special Advantages in Music, 
Art, etc. :: Prepares for any 
College. ;: Well Equipped Gym- 
nasium for Physical Culture. 
Healthful location and delight- 
ful surroundings. :: Faculty is 
composed of cultured Eastern 
ladies from the best colleges. 
Write for Illustrated Catalogue. 


JULIA P. BAILE.Y, Principal 
2209 Pacific Ave. SPOKANE., WASH. 


The Home of the "Big Red Jlpple 


»ENATCHEE, the county seat of Chelan 
County, is situated within one mile of the 
exact center of the State of Washington, 
close to the junction of the Wenatchee 
River with the Cohtmbia. It has more than 2,500 
people. Two years ago it had scarcely 500. It has 
doubled m size during the past year. Last fall it 
shipped 1,000,000 bushels of wheat, which was brought 
to this point by the Columbia River steamboats, and 
300,000 packages of fruit, aggregating over 300 car- 
loads, which was raised in the Wenatchee Valley. There 
are now six large river steamboats running up the 
Columbia River from this point, and another one is 

During the year 1902 ten large brick business build- 
ings and over 100 dwellings were erected. Most of the 
latter are residences costing more than $1,500. The 
Wenatchee Milling Compan)^, which has a loo-barrel-a- 
day plant, is building an addition to increase its capacity 
to 250 barrels a day. 

Wenatchee has a $14,000 brick school building, which 
is now crowded to overflowing, and is building another 
of equal size. Chelan County has here a $15,000 brick 
court house. The town has water works, electric 
lights, and a telephone system. Wenatchee is the 
principal shipping point on the Great Northern Rail- 
way between Spokane and Puget Sound. From the 
bank of the river the land rises in a smooth, easy 
slope to the foothills two or three miles back. The site 


The Wonderful Wenatchee Valley 

is sightly, well drained, and attractive. Spokane is 
174 miles east and Seattle 164 miles west. 

Wenatchee's tributary country includes on the north 
the gold and silver mining region of the Okanogan 
Valley, now supporting nearly 5,000 people, and des- 
tined to become one of the finest sections of the United 
States. Then comes the fertile valley of the Okanogan 
River, extending from far up in British Columbia to the 
Columbia River. Below the Okanogan is the Methow 
Valley, fully as fertile, and containing at the present 
time the finest unentered government agricultural lands 
to be obtained. Along the Methow are also fine gold 
and coal mining properties which are being rapidly 
developed. Next in order comes Lake Chelan, well 
ranked among the finest scenic attractions of the West- — 
a silver lake sixty-five miles long, from whose shores 
on either side abrupt mountains rise far above the snow 
line. At the head of this lake lie rich silver mines, 
while at its foot is a fine fruit-growing section, the 
whole making the most delightful summer resort. 
Along the Entiat River just below are numbers of fine 
fruit farms and room for many more. To the east of 
the Okanogan and north of the Columbia River lies 
the great Colville Indian Reservation, the north half of 
which has recently been thrown open to settlement, 
containing thousands of acres of fine farm lands and 
rich mineral deposits. South and east of the Columbia 
River, encircled by its "Big Bend," is the Big Bend 
Plateau, the finest of cereal producing sections and 
stock ranges. 

The townsite and much of the fine fruit land imme- 
diately adjoining is owned by the Wenatchee Develop- 
ment Co., Arthur Gunn, Manager, Wenatchee, to whom 
inquiries for further information may be addressed. 


W enatchee, the Home of the "Big Red jipple 

are in the 




in the exact center of the 


Irrigation is King 

A larger net annual revenue per acre can be taken from irri- 
gated lands, in fruit culture, near Wenatchee, than from any 
other agricultuial or horticultural lands in the United States. 
This is demonstrated positively on dozens of fruit ranches at 
Wenatchee, and an investigation will convince any person of the 
correctness of our statement. 

The High Line Canal, recently constructed by the Wenat= 
chee Canal Company, will irrigate all of the tillable lands in 
the valley, and the Comijany has for sale a limited area of the 
choicest of these lands. 

For full particulars call on or address 

Wenatchee Canal Co. 

Wenatchee^ Washington 


Walter M, OtiVe 


Wagons, Farm Implements 
Ammunition, Guns, Sporting Goods 
Lumber and Building Material of aii kinds 
Tinware, Kitchen Furnishings 
Every kind of Hardware 
Real Estate, Town Lots and Acreage 



Oils, Paints, Varnishes, Glass 
Lime. Plaster, and Cement 
I nsurance 

Vehicles of all kinds 
Electrical Supplies 




T. S. Land, Cattle & Frait Co. 

^HAT FARMING responds, with large and certain profits, 
to careful, systematic, and intelligent management is 
prominently exemplified in the case of an irrigated fruit 
and stock ranch situated in the central part of the State 
of Washington. 

Near the town of Mission, in the Wenatchee Valley, 
is the headquarters of the T. S, Land, Cattle & Fruit Company, or, 
as it is more usually spoken of locally, the Tibbits-Scaman Company 
— M. O. Tibbits, J. A. Seaman, and D. L. Tibbits being the officers 
and largest stockholders. It is a stock company, organized under 
the laws of the State, and is managed and operated on business 
principles, with the same care and attention that characterize a well- 
regulated banking, manufacturing, or mercantile establishment. 
Here it is intense farming — to make every foot of ground produce 
to the utmost with the least outlay — to count the cost, but not to spoil 
the product either in quantity or quality by a foolish system of 

The specialties of the T. S. Company are winter apples and fine 
blooded cattle, both beef and dairy — and in these are the biggest 
profits. Minor details are, however, not neglected. There is a hen- 
nery — complete — in which every hen, by a proper system of feeding 
and handling, is made to pay a profit o£ twice her value each year; a 
dairy — with every modern facility — the cows each paying a net profit 
of from $50 up per year, those that do not being sent to the beef 
herd; a sawmill and box factory for manufacturing lumber for build- 
ings and other purposes, and where the fruit boxes are made; a veg- 
etable garden which supplies the boarding house with the best that 
can be grown and also returns from $100 to $300 per acre yearly from 
melons, cantaloupes, tomatoes, wax beans, sweet corn, etc., sent to 
the markets of Seattle and other Puget Sound cities; a blacksmith 
and carpenter shop for the repairing of all machinery, tools, etc. 

The sheltered location, chemical construction of soil, long period 
of sunshine, with no summer frosts or pests of any kind, together 
with good markets, make a well cared for orchard in the Wenatchee 
Valley a veritable gold mine. There are no failures of crop. From 
$200 to $500 worth of fruit per acre annually is an average yield. 
Figure what this means from the 500 acres of orchard that will soon 
be under cultivation by the Tibbits-Scaman Company! 

The beef cattle pay a net profit of 25 per cent. They are fed on 
the range bordering the eastern foothills of the Cascades from nine 
to ten months of the year, without cost or expense of any kind, 
and are wintered on alfalfa hay grown upon the company's own 
lands at a total cost of $1.10 per ton. An average of eight tons per 
acre is grown during a summer. It is cut three times. 

The land holdings of the company cover 2,000 acres — one-half of 
it under irrigation. This is not large compared with wheat farms or 
stock ranges, but for an irrigated farm where every acre is tilled to 
its utmost and made to produce from |ioo to $500 annually, and 
where bearing orchards pay a high rate of profit on a valuation of 
$1,000 per acre, it means a big business — a large profit. 


President VicB'Tresident Cashier 

G. H. TARBELL, jissistant Cashier 
I. KOHN, Jissistant Cashier 

^he Puget Sound 
National Bank 
of Seattle 




We use 


Capital $300,000 

Undivided Profits if) 1 Uf UUU 


in all principal cities of United 
States, E,urope, China, Japan, 
Hawaiian Islands, AlasKa, Brit= 
ish Columbia, and NortK^vest 
Territory a DRAFTS issued 
direct to Skagway, Atlin, Ben= 
nett, Dawson City, and Nome 


on reasonable terms 



n/IORAN Bros. Company 


Ship and Engine Builders 






Two-Section balanced floating dry-dock, 400 ft. long, 60 ft. between towers : 
patent steel-wedge keel blocks; 12,000 tons displacement 




capacity: timber, 48 INCHES SQUARE, 125 FEET LONG 




We make a specialty of long and large timber and can dress four sides 20x30 inches 







ELECTRIC CRANE capacity to transfer 75 tons fror 
car to vessel 














PAY-ROLL, $150,000 PER A\ONTH. 









c). W. WMITHAM, PRES. E. B. cox. 1st V.-PRES. 


d. P. WALL. Sec'Y. 

t^^Kte^^Jf^LamiJI t f* m>mi^»^>itiitti y »l^*^><tyt<^ <tJtimmm>ml^t^* ^ 'f^ 



Timber Cruiser and Locator. 


Notary Public. 

Tyler e Wright 
Dealers in Timber 

Mines, Mining and Other Stocks, 
Clay "Beds, and Coal Lands 

Those who deal with us make no mistake, as 

we are posted on the properties we handle. 
References furnished when required. 
Inquiries and investigation invited. 


Office. 1305 E,lk Street, 

|(gW*'»Vlr*-* * i^l 


Important to the Buyer 

To know that we are the largest manu- 
facturers and rail shippers of the 
famous White=as=J\Iilk Washington 
Spruce on the Pacific Coast. 

We make a specialty of : 

Spruce Siding, Finishing, Porch 
Decking, Box Shooks, Lath. 

Fir Flooring, Tanks, Columns, Newels. 

Cedar Shingles. 

For shipment in mixed car lots. 


Important to the Working Man 

To know that we constantly employ, both win- 
ter and summer, in and around our saw mills, 
shingle mills, box factory, tank factory, planing 
mills, etc., oVer 500 men and boys, and 

can at all times furnish emplo5^ment to parties 
in search of work. Capable employes promoted 
as opportunity offers. 


C. F. WHITE,, Manager, 



T A C O M A 

Is county seat of Pierce County, largest seaport on 
the Pacific Coast except San Francisco, terminal port 
of more trans-Pacific steamships than any other city on 
the Pacific Coast, nearest port to the best coal and only 
good coke on the Coast, center of more water-power 
than any other city on the Coast. 

Population January 1, 1903, estimated 60,000. 

Public schools, 22; teachers, 21 1 ; children of school age, 11,261. 

Number of wage earners, 7,878. 

Value of output of manufactures, |25,000,000. 

Lumber cut, 1902, 304,000,000 feet. 

Shingle cut, 1902, 347,565,000. 

Lumber shipped by water, 1902, 108,000,000 feet. 

Lumber shipped by rail, 1902, 4,932 cars. 

Shingles shipped by rail, 1902, 1,100 cars. 

Value of smelter output, |4,765,941. 

Capacity of grain warehouses, 5,500,000 bushels. 

Capacity of coal bunkers, 24,000 tons. 

Building permits Issued, 1902, 896. 

Postoface receipts, 1900, $69,826; 1901, |80,305; 1902,194,035. 

Telephones in use January 1, 1900, 1,767; 1901, 2,655; 1902, 
3,527; 1903, 5,136. 

Total foreign exports, 1902, $19,091,491 ; other twelve ports on 
Puget Sound, $15,594,532. 

Total ocean commerce, foreign and domestic, 1902, $40,431,663. 

Tea imported, 1902, 5,466,247 pounds; value, $851,850. 

Matting imported, 1902, 13,234,206 yards; value, $1,080,000. 

Exports to Alaska, $1,100,000 yearly. 

Deep sea vessels cleared, 1902, 890. 

Deep sea vessels entered, 1902, 888. 

There was shipped from the city of Taooma during the year 
1902, 11,829,093 bushels of wheat; 1,351,224 barrels of 
flour, which, reduced to wheat, makes a total of 17,909,601 
bushels of wheat. This was exceeded by only two ports 
in the United States. 

Average annual rainfall, 42 inches. 


The longest wheat warehouse in the world, the largest 
lumber mill in the world, the largest sash and door factory 
in the United States, the largest smelter on the Pacific 
Coast, the largest cold storage plant on the Pacific Coast, 
the most complete and extensive railway terminals in 
the United States, the finest harbor in the world, the 
largest coal bunkers on the Pacific Coast, a larger flour 
trade with the Orient than any other port in the United 


Timberand Farm Lands 


66 Billion feet of Fir, 
16 Billion feet of Cedar, 
14 Billion feet of Hemlock, and 
6 Billion feet of Spruce Timber 



We also have between 300 and 400 low- 
pricedWashington farms to dispose of. 
Send for printed list and onr pocket 
map of Washington. 

The Syndicate Compant;, 


211=212-213 CaUfornia ■Building. 





^Business and Residence ^Properties pay from 6 
to 12 per cent. Mortgages from 5 to 7 per cent. 

We deal extensively in County and City Warrants and Bonds. 

We have a department for Collecting Rents, Paying Taxes, and Taking 
Charge of Properties for Resident and Non-resident Owners. 

Our business was established in 1893 and we can furnish satisfactory 
references East and West. 



211=212=213 California "Building, TACOMA, WASH. 

« » ~^ 



Capital of ^ajeftjington 

i^ a 25fautiful €itp at tl)e ]^eali of l^abigation 

on ^ugct ^^ounJj 

POPULATION :: 7,000 

Bank Deposits Frequently Exceed §3,000,000 


CranjSjJortation lip Jlatl anti 9^ater to all 
part^ of tl)e ^orlti 


For Particulars, address: 


Olympia, Capital of Washington. 


'HEN going West, don't fail to investigate the 
beauties and advantages of Puget Sound and 
of Olympia, the attractive and prosperous city 
at its inland extremity. Fine scenery, healthful 

climate, fruitful soil, mammoth lumbering operations, splendid 

resources, all conspire to attract the homeseeker and investor. 

Olympia was awarded World's Fair gold medals for fruits, and 

prizes for farm products. 


As an article of commerce, they bring in hundreds of thousands 
of .dollars annually. As an article of diet, they make you 
laugh and grow fat. 

iW" IK^ead Olympia's Write-up, page 236, in this publication. 




Investment Brokers 


If you want to buy timber or desire a logging or 
manufacturing business, write us. We know 
the business from successful experience. 


An extensive and very profitable industry in this 
locality. The demand for the native " Olympia" 
oyster will always exceed the supply. It is a 
very small and delicious oyster, highly prized 
by Eastern epicures. Only ordinary intelligence 
required to make a success — no previous experi- 
ence necessary. 

Eastern oysters transplanted and successfully 
grown here. Excellent opportunities for use of 
small or large capital in opening new beds and 
syndicating established plants. 
Write us. We say above from experience. 




State capital and county seat Thurston County. 

Population, 6,000; deep-water commerce; two 

railroads; fine agricultural and horticultural 

lands. Chief industries, lumbering, coal, and 


We can sell you a city home, business property, 

suburban acreage, or a good farm. 


A twenty years' residence, practical business 
experience, and extensive State acquaintance 
permit us to say: Write to any State official, to 
our County officers, to our local banks, or any 
banker in the State, concerning our integrit)' 
or ability to serve you satisfactorily. 


be o 3f^-^- 

o a 

4^ go S o 3 3 











^WAPfiTO) '^ 





■^ H 






ACADEMYpJiJ oucccss and 

High Standing 


of many hundreds of Dr. Hill's graduates and former pupils 
during the last 24 years indicate the merits of his methods. 
Prepares tor college in Classical, Scientific, and English 

courses. Regular course is practical training for business | 

life. Maniial training and mechanical drawing. Special | 

courses in modern languages and music. New buildings, | 

modern equipment, private sleeping rooms, no open dormi- \ 

tory ; recreation rooms, large armory ; Athletics promoted • 

and encouraged; chemical and physical laboratories; ex- \ 

perienced faculty. A Boarding mid day School for Boys of all ages. I 

Yoitnger Boys separate. \ 



GE.O. T. PRATHER, Pres., L. H. PRATHER. Vtce-Tres. 

U. S. Commissioner and C. E. HEMMAN, Sec.-Treas., 

Notary Public. Notart/ Public. 


The Old Reliable Real Estate Agents 

Abstracts, C«i nveyancing, Real £,state. 
Insurance, and Money to Loan 


Special attention giVen to the sale of fruit lands 
in the Hood RiVer Valley 

Telephone No. 51 Hood Rivcr, Oregon 

The Dalles, Wasco County, Oregon. 

THE Lmh If ^wa 

is the first county of Eastern Oregon, and The Dalles is 
its county seat;. is the gateway to the "Great Inland 
Empire " ; is situated at the head of navigation of the 
Middle Columbia River on the line of the O. R. & N., 
eighty-eight miles east of the city of Portland,Oregon's 

It has a population of 4,000. 

It has five public school buildings and nine church 

It has a larger volume of banking business than any 
other city of like population in the United States. 

It has a United States land office. 

It has an open river to tide-water and the lowest 
freight rates of any point on the Columbia River. 

Its merchants suppl}' an extensive trade and do a 
large volume of business. 

It is in the center of the best fruit belt in the North- 

It has large flouring mills driven by electric power 
generated at a 160-foot falls of a mountain stream, 
twenty-seven miles distant. 

It is the county seat of a county seventy miles square, 
whose resources are many, varied, and inexhaustible. 

It grows a million bushels of wheat, has fine salmon 
fisheries, ships 250 tons of canned salmon, a quarter of 
a million dollars of green fruit of excellent fiavor and 


The Dalles, Wasco County, Oregon. 

shipping qualities, any variety of which makes a stan- 
dard brand of canned goods. 

Its winter apples sell higher than Riverside oranges. 

It is the Western home of the Italian prune, and has 
taken the county diploma and eleven out of thirteen 
possible prizes at a Northwest competitive fruit exhibit. 
From the luscious strawberry to the large prize apple 
of the Centennial, it excels. 

It is the greatest original wool shipping point in the 
United States and has shipped eight million poimds in 
one season. 

Its climate is the Italy of Oregon, and it has seventy- 
five more out-door working (Iajs in a 5'ear (Sunday 
excepted) than any Pacific Coast count)'. 

It has a varied altitude of from 100 feet above the 
sea level to the limit of perpetual snow. 

It has the grandest scenery and more of it per capita 
than any place in America. 

It wants the economic home-builder. 

It wants the extensive investor in every department 
of its resources. 

It wants manufacturers and will supply them with 
electricity for motive power and will furnish any 
required amount of undeveloped and untransmitted 
power from its mountain streams and waterfalls, and 
wants a hundred thousand energetic, active, prosperous 
people to help to supply the wants of the world, and 
wants your careful consideration of its wants. 


The Dalles 
Commercial and Athletic Club, 

N. WHEALDON, President, 
MAX A. VOGT, Secretary. 


Real Estate 



Call for ant> requisite of 

Agricultural Lands 

from a small home farm up to 
section tracts of five to tWenty= 
five square miles, or ant/ desired 
amount of fruit lands, from small 
tracts for small fruit to ant; de= 
sired tract for a commercial 
orchard of prunes or Winter 
apples. Slualitif and superior re' 
suits unequaled. 

Or for a small combination 
farm for grain and grazing, or a 
32,000'acre cattle plant With ex- 
tensive adjoining range, stociced 
and equipped, or a Whole grant 
of 450,000 acres. Or 

Timber Land 

t/elloW pine, fir, or mixed Vari' 
eties from a single claim to 
65,000 acres. Or irrigated lands, 
cits property, or business loca= 
tions. Or 

Mining Claims 

or groups of mines. Valuable clay 
deposits, or mineral land. 

Call or write and receive Prospectus and price. Address 




Your attention is called to the lands of the Eastern Oregon Land 
Company, open for purchase and settlement upon easy terms. 

The property of this Company, comprising 450,000 acres, lies in 
the counties of Wasco, Sherman, Gilliam, Wheeler, Grant, Baker, 
and Malheur, in Eastern Oregon, and consists of the alternate odd- 
numbered sections granted by the Government for the construction 
of a wagon road beginning at The Dalles, on the Columbia River, 
and terminating at a point on the Snake River four miles south of 
Nyssa, passing through the towns of Moro, Grass Valley, Shaniko, 
Mitchell, Dayville, Canyon City, Prairie City, and Vale. It is, there- 
fore, diverse in climate and topography, and the lands comprise 
farming, grazing, timber, and mineral sections and a large country 
subject to irrigation. 

The Oregon Railway & Navigation Co., the Oregon Short Line, 
and the Columbia Southern touch the grant at various points, and 
an extension of the Sumpter Valley Railroad is in process of con- 
struction into the John Day Valley. The Columbia River and Snake 
River also present easy and cheap forms of transportation for the 
products of all this country, in addition to which various railroads 
are projected into all parts of Eastern Oregon. 

THE AGRICULTURAL LANDS in Sherman and Wasco 
counties are the perfection of such properties in the State of Oregon, 
producing from twenty to fifty bushels to the acre without fear of 
failure, within easy reach of mills and cheap communication with 
tide-water at Portland. These lands are fully occupied and carefully 

THE GRAZING LANDS, of which the Company possesses in 
the neighborhood of 250,000 acres, are furnished with the famous 
bunch grass and other natural grasses and fodders, numerous springs 
and artificial wells at depths of from 50 to 150 feet. These grazing 
lands lie beyond Shaniko east to the Snake River. The valleys 
traversed in this country produce hay and alfalfa and afford warm 
winter ranges, while the uplands are plentifully supplied with rich, 
nutritious natural grasses. Sheep, hogs, and cattle are raised 
throughout this section. Direct and cheap communication with the 
Eastern and Western markets give all these products ready and 
profitable sale. 


The development in the eastern end of the grant of irrigation 
systems, under the Government's supervision and by private enter- 
prise, is opening up many thousands Of acres of lands to crops 
hitherto impossible of cultivation. These lands, once held at mode- 
rate figures, have now advanced and, with the proof of the value 
of irrigation, are expected to continue their advance in price and 

THE MINERAL INTERESTS are scattered throughout the 
whole of this country in gold, silver, quartz, and placer mines, copper- 
lead, oil, and coal. The mines in the neighborhood of Canyon City 
have been worked profitably for many j-ears, and those mines on the 
Greenhorn and Dixie mountains near Prairie City are paying hand- 
somely, while modern methods of working the ores have opened up 
many old discoveries which had hitherto been regarded as unprofit- 

Oil prospects are being developed and tested in Malheur County 
with flattering prospects of success at the present time. 

country gives the necessary material for domestic fuel, as well as 
cheap material for fencing and farm improvements. 

The timber, which lies principally on the ridges of the Blue 
Mountains, consists of pine, cedar, and tamarack of first-class qual- 
ity, and with the development of the railway systems now con- 
templated will be within easy touch of the markets of the East and 
West. Of this class of land the Company owns in the neighborhood 
of 50,000 acres. 

The attention of prospective settlers in Eastern Oregon is par- 
ticularly called to the Eastern Oregon Land Company's grazing, 
mineral, and timber lands and lands subject to irrigation. These 
lands, as above described, are east of Shaniko in Wasco County, 
and run thence through Antelope, Mitchell, Antone, Dayville, 
Canyon City, Prairie City, Ironside, Dell, and Vale to Nyssa. It is 
the purpose of the Company to dispose of these lands upon easy 
terms — one-fourth of the price down, the balance in three payments, 
bearing interest at 8 per cent. Information and description of par- 
ticular sections will be furnished on application to the 

Eastern Oregon Land Company 

Columbian Building, San Francisco 

or to The Dalles, Oregon 

Grande Ronde Valley 










P^^^.: ' VH 


m^%, ^^^HHN 




For further information address 


There are many fine 
spots in the United 
States but Grande 
Ronde Valley sur- 
passes all. Here a 
failure of crop was 
never known. Fruits 
of all kinds grow in 
abundance without 
irrigation. Cattle 
are raised with great 
success and very 
cheaply. Abundance 
of summer range in 
our mountains. 
Also are offered ex- 
cellent investments 
from a loan stand- 
point — six per cent 
interest guaranteed. 
Some choice mining 
investments are 




Klickitat County lies just east of Cascade 
Range, with a frontage of 150 miles on the 
Columbia River. The western half of the 
county is accessible by river transportation to 
Portland and the sea. 

More than half of the lands in the county 
are susceptible of cultivation. The remainder 
is fine grazing and timber land, a large portion 
of the latter being adapted to fruit-growing as 
veil as to the various grains. The soil of the 
prairie lands is a black, sandy loam, and is very 

The principal crops grown are wheat, oats, 
barley, rye, and timothy on the bottom lands. 
Corn has also proved to be a paying crop. 
Alfalfa, brome-grass, and many other grasses 
are raised very successfully. Small fruits and 
vegetables are grown, equal, if not superior, to 
any other county in the United States. The 
hardy fruits — apples, pears, plums, prunes, 
and cherries — are particularly adapted to the 
soil and climate along the Columbia River, 
while peaches, grapes, and apricots grow to 
great perfection. No irrigation is needed in 
the county, although the yield is increased by 
that means in some sections. 

Camas Prairie and Trout Lake communities 
are noted for their fine cattle and dairies. The 
butter from these sections is acknowledged to 
be the finest sent to Portland and the Sound 
markets. Klickitat County is one of the largest 
wool-producing counties in the State; a great 
many hogs are also marketed every j-ear. 

Cyclones, blizzards, tornadoes, hail, and 
damaging wind-storms are entirely unknown 
in the valley. The winters are short, compared 
with those in the East, and while there is con- 
siderable snow at times and the mercury goes below zero, such extreme 
weather never lasts long. The summer and fall months are delight- 
ful; there are only a few hot days, and the nights are always cool. 

Most all of the religious denominations are represented, there 
being over twenty church edifices in the county. There are sixty -five 
school districts in the county. At Goldendale is located a public 
academy for the advanced training of students from the public schools. 
Goldendale, the county seat, is situated in the famous Klickitat 
Valley, on the Little Klickitat River, and has a population of 1,500. 
There are two flour mills, run by. water, with power suiiicient for 
other mantifactories. There are several sawmills near the city and 
tributary to it, and room for more. Goldendale boasts of the finest 
mountain spring water of any city in the State, and has an abundance 
of it, besides which there are hot water, soda, and sulphur springs. 



Goldendale is the largest town in this part of the State, and is the 
leading point for the entire county. From it may be had a view of 
ML Hood, Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Adams, and some of the less promi- 
nent peaks, all snow-capped throughout the year — monuments of 
majestic beauty. 

Extensive pine forests, coal lands, undeveloped mines of silver, 
gold, copper, etc., are to be had in an unimproved state. The 
county is replete in fine wheat and stock farms, such as the farmer of 
Iowa, Minnesota, Dakota, Missouri, or any other grain or stock- 
raising country would look at with pleasure. Here the grain grows 
with straw sufficiently strong to hold it up, and it never lodges ; with 
fields free from noxious weeds, such as kale and cockle. Unimproved 
land can be had for from $5 per acre up, and improved land from 
$10 to $30 per acre, according to the improvement and location. 

The Columbia River & Northern Railroad, now building through 
the valley, will open and connect it with the nearby railroads and thus 
supply the people with a long felt want, and develop the county to its 
fullest extent. Other railroads projected which will give Klickitat 
County better railroad facilities than any county in the State. 

For health Klickitat County can not be beat. It has a fine climate, 
a bracing atmosphere, and the best water that can be had anywhere. 
For the sportsman the streams are teeming with speckled trout, while 
grouse, pheasant, prairie chicken, sage hen, and china pheasant are 
the feathered game, and bear, mountain lion, and deer are to be found 
in the mountains. For further information regarding this wonderful 
valley, address 








^ This Map 1 Shows m 

Famous Klickitat Valley 








"k Valley of Health and Wealth, of Sunny Days and Restful Nights. ' ' 


J. J. Beid, Manager 



J. C. Maclnnes, Secretary. 



Is one of the most progressive cities of the 
Great Northwest. 

It is a tliriving mining town in the Blue 
Mountains, a growing cit}^ alive and 

It is the terminus of the Sumpter Valley 

Capital from all parts of the world is being 
invested here to advantage. 

Unusual opportunities are being offered to 
investors in mining property. 


Is the center of the Eastern Oregon 



Has a population of 4,000, and is still grow- 

Electric lines are being built from Sumpter 
into the higher altitudes. 

A smelter is being constructed, and other 
plans for taking care of the ores are 
being made. 

An extension of the railroad is under wa}", 
which will add to the transportation 

The mines are being rapidly developed; 
new strikes are being made, showing 
the strength and continuity of the 

The cit}^ has one hundred and fifty business 
houses, and prices are advancing. 

For full information regarding this 
region address 

The Chamber of Commerce, 



Mining, Smelter, Railway 


We are the Original Promoters in the 

We have opened a number of the best properties 
in the district, built a smelter, and sold a large num- 
ber of mines. We are now offering treasury stock ir 

Three Gilt Edge Properties 
to develop and equip them 

We always have a number of good properties listed 
with us for sale. 


is without doubt the best gold camp in the world. If you 
do 'not believe this, write to us and ask for our reasons. 
We will be glad to give you full information on the dis- 
trict and our way of doing business. It will all please 
you. Write us to-day. 

Killen Warner SteWart Co, 


E.astern Offices 

537 New York Life Building Herman Building 

New York Milwaukee 

Boston Philadelphia Baltimore Grand Rapids 

Code — Bedford McNeill 





^ IN - 





Correspondence Solicited 



Indexed Pocket Maps 

of Every State and Territory 

Last Official Census 
Revised and Corrected to Date. 

An indexed booK accompanies each map, showing at a glance 
the location of towns, their population, post office and money- 
order office, express companies, telegraph stations, railroads, 
etc. They also indicate the post office address nearest to any 
point not yet supplied with mail service. 

Price, 25 Cents Each. 

142 Fifth Ave., 1>_-,J Mf Mallv .^ Prt 160=174 AdamsSt., 

NEW YORK. *>-ana, MciNaiiy c» «.^o. Chicago. 

coos BA V, OREGON. 

Great Central Railroad 

coos BAY, ORE.GON 

Among the great enterprises of the, year must be mentioned the Great Central 
Railroad now in course of construction. This is a railroad from Coos Bay, the most 
capacious harbor and the most accessible on the jjorthern Pacific Coast, between 
San Francisco and Puget Sound, up through the undeveloped timber lands, extending 
across Coos and Douglas counties from the ocean to the Cascade Mountain Range, the 
splendidly fertile prairies of Eastern Oregon and thence into the richest section of Utah, 
with a terminal station at Salt Lake City. 

While the fertile irrigable lands and the abundant water courses of the " Inland 
Empire," from the Cascade Range to the Rocky Mountains have been the subject of 
thorough description by reason of Congressional interest and corporate enterprises, 
the magnificent forest primeval, immense coal area, rich mineral deposits, and extraor- 
dinary dairy productiveness of that wonderful zone extending from the Pacific Ocean 
to the Coast Range have remained a "terra incognita" to all the world save those fortu- 
nate men who have fallen upon its wealth. 

The region consists of a number of well-watered, fertile valleys and rolling uplands. 
The meteorological conditions make the climate analogous to that of western Europe; 
for the warm Japanese current, rarifying the atmosphere in winter, draws into the par- 
tial vacuum so formed the \varm winds of equinoxial regions, with the rapid vaporiza- 
tions of the condition. The result is a warm, humid atmosphere, establishing an 
extraordinary wealth of vegetation between the Coast Range and the ocean, like that of 
the " Hot Lands" of Mexico and Central America. Last winter there were but thirty- 
four frost days in Coos County, while snow fell on only two days, and the lowest 
temperature of the season was twenty degrees above zero. 

On entering this forest from the east the stranger is surprised to find oaks draped in 
moss, like the trees of Florida and other States of the Grulf Coast. As he advances, he 
sees the ferns becoming trees like those of Central America. In this forest, too, is a 
great abundance of cabinet woods, curly and bird's-eye and plain maple, white cedar, 
laurel, willow, and several merchantable hard woods. This wealth is both immense 
and unique. Coos and Douglas counties contain the largest belt of white cedar in the 
world, a wood already famous under the' name of " Port Orford Cedar," as being the 
best known wood for the upper works of ship-building. 

The giant firs of the region have a wide reputation ; spruce, hemlock, and myrtle 
abound, the last being valuable for finishing purposes on account of the exquisite polish 
its fine grain admits. Here, also, are ash, alder, and oak. 

There are 13,000,000,000 feet of merchantable timber standing in the forests of Coos 
County and 24,000,000,000 in Douglas, according to the latest official count. 

The coal area of Coos County underlies 300,000 acres of surface covered with the 
timber wealth above described. Gold mining is now enlisting enterprise in both Coos 
and Douglas counties. 

Copper ores of high grade are found in Douglas and also rich cinnabar in paying 
quantities, also extensive beds of marble rival in coloring the famous marbles of 
Vermont and Tennessee. 

Dairymen, since the establishment of extensive creameries, are netting $1,120 to 
$1,800 a year, and their cows live out-of-doors, without housing, all the year round. 

Crossing the Cascade Range the line of the Great Central Railroad enters an open 
prairie region of great fertility under irrigation, the character of which remains the 
same to its terminus at Salt Lake City. 

The investor and homeseeker may obtain further information by addressing 

A. A. WRIGHT, Manager, 

Ainsworth Block, PORTLAND, ORE,. 


W^ m \(k@^ \(km \(km \(km {(km. {(km. \(km<. {(km {(km\ {Qq < 








Your Most Direct Route to 
Oregon, Washington, Idalio 

- The Union Pacific Railroad 

Oregon Short Line Railroad 

<<§ Oregon Railroad & Navigation Co. 



A. L. CRAIG, G. P. A. 








^v^'*«**^ttV'*<*>0lSw»>«w»«> <iw^»^»Vi»M'V^Nv%»i <vir"'*C^ 
















^he Gateway 


Yellowstone Vark, 



Reached Via the Main line of the /NORTHERN PACIFIC to 
Livingston and by a branch line Livingston to Gardiner. 

M M M 


Send Six Cents 

for copy of 
" Wonderland." 


General "Passenger yigent, 





Runs as a Solid Train between St. Paul and Minneapolis 
and Seattle, Tacoma and Portland, via Butte, a distance of 
more than 2,000 miles — a remarkable feat in railroading. 
The Crack Train of the Northwest, having 



Runs between Portland and Tacoma and Seattle, via Olympia. 

Dining and Buffet-Parlor-Observation Car. 

This train is the Pride of the Coast. 

THE "lake superior LIMITED" 

Runs between Minneapolis and St. Paul and the Superiors 
and Duluth. Parlor and Observation-Cafe Cars. 
A Train de Luxe. 

CHAS. S. FEE, General Passenger Agent, 



I The Beverage of 
/ Health 

[ There is no beverage more' healthful than the 
right kind of beer. Barley malt and hops — a food 
and a tonic. Only 3 ^^ per cent of alcohol — just 
enough to aid digestion. 

Rhine wme is 1 2 per cent alcohol; champagne, 
20 per cent; whiskey, 40 per cent. 

There are no germs in pure beer, while the sweet 
drinks which you give children are full of them. 
Pure beer is a tonic which all physicians favor. 
They prescribe it to the weak, the run-down, the 
I convalescent. And they recommend it to well i 
I people who want to keep well. J 

^ But get the right beer, for some beer is not healthful. I 

B Schlitz is the pure beer, the clean beer, the filtered and fl 

■ sterilized beer. No bacilli in it — nothing but health. H 

B And Schlitz is the aged beer that never causes H 

U ^^ biliousness. .^to. 'B 

Y^^^W Call for the brewery bottling ^^^^