Skip to main content

Full text of "The art workmanship of the Maori race in New Zealand : a series of illustrations from specially taken photographs, with descriptive notes and essays on the canoes, habitations, weapons, ornaments, and dress of the Maoris, together with lists of words in the Maori language used in relation to the subjects"

See other formats



Cornell University Ubrary 
GN667.N9 H21 

Art" workmanship of <heM?o:i,, ",??,,;; if'** 


3 1924 029 890 153 



. r^MfiMtS^Ha. 




Int e rlibfjry 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

aUwienlanir 3)tatttutE. 











Registrar of the University of Otago, 








I»Ji.IlT I. 








Registrar of the University of Otago. 




IT has long been recognised that Art, as appUed to decoration and elaboration 
of details, reached a very high level among the Maoris ; but the exact 
position of this work has never been seriously considered, nor its relations 
to other schools of decorative design. This, no doubt, has been due to the fact 
that there has never been any collection of reproductions- of specimens of their work 
published, in any accessible form, by which the general character and peculiarities 
of Maori Art might be studied. The only work which systematically undertakes the 
matter is the large and costly folio by G. F. Angas.* The volume of lithographed 
plates to Mr. John White's " History of the Maori," published by the New Zealand 
Government in i8gi, contains reproductions of many of these drawings and others 
from various sources. Some of the plates in Angas' work are most interesting 
sketches, carefully made, of objects which have entirely disappeared at this time ; 
but the re-production by hand of the details of an elaborate carving, or the exact 
shape of a weapon or tool, cannot possibly equal the accuracy of a properly taken 
and well-reproduced photograph. 

It is, therefore, proposed by the Governors of the New Zealand Institute to 
publish in quarto form a series of photographs of the remaining monuments of 
Maori skill and art, with short descriptions of the specimens figured. The desira- 
bility of some record of this kind is now so universally recognised that it will 
probably be quite unnecessary to explain the necessity for such a publication. The 
only remarks that seem called for are those of regret that a definite scheme of 
record of a national character has not been in operation for years. Year after year 
the " devouring tooth of time " has obliterated carvings and works of skill that can 
never be replaced — not only on account of lack of practised skill in the present 
representatives of the race, but on account of difference of environment caused by 
the tide of colonization. 

* G. F. An^as "The New Zealanders," lSi7. 


Maori Art has several characteristics which are clearly brought out after the 
comparison and examination in detail of numerous specimens, the most strongly 
marked of these being the due application of ornament. It will be shown by 
abundant evidence that the ancient Maori had a deep and true sense of the fitness 
of things, and never ornamented his weapons or implements in such a way as to 
interfere with their primary purpose and free use. 

Another point of interest is the conservation of a strictly conventional 
character or type in the ornamentation of each article ; each tribe having its own 
rendering of the type, varied in degree of excellence by the skill of the maker. 
In' some of the more important carvings — such as those in a house — departure 
from the lines laid dowri by their ancestors was considered an aitna or evil omen to 
the carver, which often resulted in death. Even in modern times, deaths of noted 
men have taken place from this cause. 

With us an article or ornament is usually completed before it is brought into 
use ; but the Maori used his weapon or his carved ornament as soon as it was fit to 
serve its purpose, and further elaboration would be spread over years — perhaps 
generations — with the result that in the case of the elaborately carved canoe 
ornaments, very few can be considered to have exhausted the artistic powers of the 
race : the real explanation of this being that the Maori loved his work and took a 
personal and national pride in it. The desired result was not easily arrived at ; 
and, therefore, was highly prized when attained. From a general point of view, 
the whole of the art work of the Maori comes under the head of ornament. There 
are no representations in the solid of plant forms, or of animals (with a few 
exceptions that prove the general rule). No representations of hunting, fishing, 

and fowling ; no sketches, like those of the cave-men, on fragments of bone not 

even a sketch of a moa. Lizards certainly did appear in the carvings of the 
Northern tribes, but probably as an esoteric symbol, and not as representing any 
particular species. 

The Manaia, or lizard, or snake, is a remarkable deviation from the general 
law stated here. There are several varieties : probably the snake form with the 
eagle's head is one of the most interesting, carrying us back to some of the older 
mythologies. Specimens of the figures are rare. It occurs sometimes as an ear 


ornament carved in bone ; and it is also represented on two large carvings in the 
Napier Museum which came from the Poverty Bay district. It is reported that a 
specimen in pounainu exists in the possession of natives near Taupo. 

In the limestone caves and rock-shelters on the Waitaki River, on the 
Tengawai River, and at the Weka Pass, there are numerous rude paintings in red 
and black — of fishes, lizards, and various symbols and figures. But their appear- 
ance is quite different to any of the purely ornamental work of the Maori. 

In the round the best efforts of the carver were devoid of any claim to 
correctness of proportion or grace, and probably were never intended to possess it. 
The most archaic art of the Old World is superior in the perception of the true 
proportion of the human figure. The highest conception of the human form 
crystallized itself and found expression in the best period of Greek Art, and repre- 
sented not only the aftual beauty of the race, but occasionally produced a master- 
piece of an ideal perfection. The Maoris, with equal facilities for observation of 
the human figure, and with a racial type of a high order, never seemed to have 
acquired such a mental ideal, and were content with more or less conventional 
renderings of the human form ; and the decorative patterns, infinite in their varieties, 
seem here, and in Polynesia generally, to be based on anthropomorphic lines. 

Maori traditions ascribe to Rauru, son of Toi, who lived in the Bay of Plenty 
about 26 generations ago, the invention of the present pattern or style of Maori 
carving. No other branch of the Polynesian race uses exactly the same designs, so 
that tradition is supported in claiming an endemic origin for the art of New Zealand. 

One very remarkable conventionality is presented in the Maori representation 
of the female figure ; and the study of this will, no doubt, furnish us with some 
curious information. The Maori seldom omitted to indicate in the most definite 
manner the sex of the person represented ; and it is, therefore, somewhat strange 
that female figures seldom occur in any old Maori carving in which the breasts, 
in any way, exceed in size those of the male. Now Nature has amply provided the 
adult Maori woman in this respect, and this renders the suppression in the carvings 
more remarkable. It will be extremely interesting to see how far this custom 
obtains in other areas. 


Another peculiarity that will open up an interesting field for research is the 
custom of representing some of the human figures with only three fingers or toes 
on each hand or foot. Outside of New Zealand this can be seen in old carvings 
from the neighbourhood of the Fly River in New Guinea, in the Otago Museum, 
presented by the Rev. J. Chalmers; in some of the gold ornaments from 
Antioquia, in the north-western provinces of South America,* in textiles from 
Ancon in Peru, and in a number of other instances which I have collected. 
The only way to arrive at any sound conclusion on these and other equally 
interesting matters is to gather the scraps of the materials still remaining, 
and piece by piece reconstruct the story of the past. A very small and apparently 
trivial detail may be some day found to be the key of some of those appa- 
rently hopeless problems which present themselves at the commencement of the 
mvestigations into the past history of by-gone generations. The material for 
study grows scarcer every year; and even those specimens preserved in the 
public and private collections of the Colony are in constant danger from fire, which 
may at any time sweep away unique and valuable relics. 

Besides the normal decay and neglect, the museums of the civihsed world 
have for nearly loo years, through their agents and friends, carried off the most 
portable and interesting of the carvings, mats, and weapons, leaving but scanty 
remnants for our local museums. 

To publish plates of the specimens of Maori Art workmanship still available 
in the Colony will be a step in the right direction, and will greatly assist in the 
study of the Archaeology ol New Zealand and its relation to the wider subject 
of the Art of the great Polynesian Nation. 

It will be advisable at some future time to endeavour to secure photographs 
ot all the New Zealand specimens in European museums. 

The first section of the proposed publication will comprise photographs of 
some specimens of the elaborately-carved figure-heads and stern-posts of the war 
canoes— objects that were executed with wonderful skill by the carvers of the East 
Coast district in the North Island of New Zealand, together with plans of the 
details of the diff"erent kinds of canoes used by the Maoris. 

* "Descriptions of the Grold Ornaments . . . belonging to Lady Brassey " (Bryce Wright, London, l.sss), 

page 19, iigs. 11-12. 


To the Polynesians, the ocean rovers of the Southern Seas — " The great ocean 
of Kiwa" — the canoe was of necessity their most valued possession, and in 
its highest development was a noble and beautiful object, being admired by 
the early visitors to New Zealand as much for its sea-going qualities as for the 
beauty of its ornamentation. P'or many years it has been impossible to see any 
specimen of the first-class canoe in battle order, and now it is only in the Auckland 
Museum that a specimen can be seen in any wa}' representing the old war canoe or 
Waka-taua of the Maoris. 

The general details of the construction and fittings of a war canoe have 
been given by Mr. Barstow, in his paper on the Maori canoe, in the Transactions 

of the New Zealand Institute for 1878,* but there were some kinds of canoe which 
are not mentioned in that paper which are of interest. f The early works on New 
Zealand also give fragments of information. Earlej states that none but men of 
rank were allowed to work on the making of a war canoe, and that they laboured 
like slaves at the heavy task of shaping from the rough log with fire and stone tools, 
the various parts of the whole. The Tohunga of the tribe always directed the 
work, each stage of progress being accompanied by appropriate Karakias, man}' of 
which have been preserved. In connection with each of the historical canoes there 
are at least seven kinds of Karakias which have been used : — 

1. The Karakia used in felling the tree — tua. 

2. The Karakia used in giving power to the tokis or axes to shape the canoe. 

3. The Karakia used when the canoe was drawn out of the bush, to-to-waka.^ 

4. The Riiriiku used in "binding" or making propitious the heavens before 

starting on a long voyage. 

5. The Awa-moana, to calm the sea. 

6. The Uru-uru-whenua, used on arrival at a strange land. 

7. The Ttiki-waka, used to give time to the paddlers. 

There were also Karakias for the naming of a canoe when the priest 
sprinkled it with water with a branch of Kawa-kawa [Piper cxcelsum) . 
The ceremony was accompanied by the sacrifice of a slave. 

* "Trans. N.Z. Institute," vol. xi., p. 71. 

t See also plans drawn to scale of Maori war canoes from Tolaga and Bream Bays in the " Voyage de I'Astrolabe" 
Atlas, vol. 1, pi. 60, and descriptions in " History of the Voyage," vol. 2, p. 492, &c. A good drawing of a war 
canoe' is triven in " Cook's First Voyage," pi, 15-16 (Hawkesworth), vol. 3 ; also in Parkinson's " Journal of the Voyage," 
pi. 18, (1773) ; and in Stack's "Views of the Province of Auckland, N.Z.," there is a plate of the war canoe race 
at the regatta of 1862. 

+ Earle, "New Zealand, 1827," p. 110. 

§ For Ruawharo's incantation to rouse the ancients and the gods of old to move the canoe Takitumu, see 
A.H.M. iii., 4.5 ; and A.U..M., ii., 1.56, for another to-io-waha. 


On the Canoes of the Maoris. 


Tena toia ! . . 

Tena pehia ! . . 

Tena tukia ! . . 

Tena tiaia ! . . 

Tena kia mau ! 

Tena kia u ! . . 

Hoea, hoea atu ! 

Urunga, urunga atu, . . 

Ki Waipa atu, 

Tena toia ! . . 

E hara te puhi o tana waka 

Te oreore ! . . 

Te oreore ! . . 

Toia ! toia ! . . 

Tiaia ! 

He tuki ! 

He pelii ! 

Werohia kia ngoto, 

He kukume, 

Ae ! Ae ! 

Tena pehia ! . . 

Tena tiaia ! . . 

Aue ! peiiia ! . . 

He koroheke ki te wliana, 

Tiliaua ki te whana, 

Tangohia lie piko, 

Tango mai he rae, 

Waiho atu, 

Toia ! toia ! . . 

A CANOE SONG (of the Waikatos). 

Now pul! away ! 
Now press her ! 
Now give the time ! 
Now dip (the paddles) ! 
Now stick to it ! 
Now be firm ! 
Pull, pull away. 
Steer, steer away. 
Away to Waipa. 

Now pull away ! 

What grand feathers his canoe has got. 

With a shake ! 

With a twist ! 

Pull, pull ! 

Dip in (the paddles) ! 

Give the lune ! 

Press her ! 

Stick them in deep. 

A strong pull. 

That's it ! that's it! 

Now press her ! 

Now dip in ! 

Alas ! press her ! 

It takes an old man to move her. 

Bend to move her. 

Fetch to the bend. 

Reach another point. 

Leave it behind. 

Pull away ! pull away ! 

Two kinds of canoe seem to have entirely disappeared, and are onl)' 
represented in sketches or descriptions. For Polackf says: — "Among the early 
occupants of New Zealand canoes were made entirely of the bulrush (typha). We 
have seen between Kaipara and HokiangaJ one of these vessels of olden time nearly 
sixty feet in length, capable ot holding as many persons, but they are now (1836) 
wholly in disuse. They were remarkably thick, formed entirely of rushes, except 
the thwarts, and resembled the model of a canoe in every particular. They were 
remarkably light, like the coracles of the ancient Britons, though many bundles of 
rushes were consumed in forming them, and were paddled with much velocity, until 
saturated, when they settled down in the water. "§ 

* From Shortland, "Traditions of the New Zealanders," 1st ed., p. 140; 2nd ed., p. 168. 

t Polaok, vol. 2, p. 221. JPolaok, vol. 1, p. 218. 

§ Mr. Colenso, in his " Fifty Years Ago in New Zealand " (Napier, 1888) mentions (p. 45) " small rafts which he 
saw hauled up above high -water mai-k, each being eight or ten feet long and three or four wide, composed of only a few 
small poles, roughly and distantly, but very firmly, lashed together, with open spaces between them. On these East 
Coast Maoris went out to fish in deep water, one on each, and when opportunity offered, to a ship with a pig or two 
fastened to the raft. They said these rafts were quite safe — more so, indeed, than a small or a middle-size canoe, as 
there was no danger of vipsetting." 1 myself saw these in use in the same district last year. 

On the Canoes of the Maoris. ii 

Frequent mention is made by early voyagers of double canoes, Wakauniia 
and Taurita, with a platform, pom, from vessel to vessel, suitable for extended 
voyages; and an old resident in Otago states that since 1835 he has seen double 
canoes fishing off the Otago Heads. + Some of Te Rauparaha's southern raids 
were made in canoes of this kind. Maori tradition says that the Arawa had a 
platform connecting the two hulls, and a house on the top, and that this canoe had 
three masts. 

The large kauris and pines of the North Island enabled canoes of great size 
to be made. It is on record that remains of a single canoe could be seen at 
Hauraki in 1855 which measured no feet in length. 

As an outlet for the decorative genius of the Maori race, the war canoe 
afforded a fine field for native talent. The large ornamented prow and stern piece 
— taiiihu and rapa, both removable pieces — had to be carved from the solid log, the 
tau-ihu, or figurehead, requiring a log about four feet in diameter by about five or six 
feet in length, and the mpa, or stern piece, a log about fifteen inches in diameter 
and from six to ten feet in length, sometimes even fifteen feet. These logs had to 
be gradually worked down to the required shape and then carved with elaborate 
conventional patterns. 

It will be seen from the examples figured that the types are well marked, but 
that the elaboration of detail and the style of execution is very varied, the Maori 
carver possessing the wonderful art common amongst Oriental craftsmen of working 
out a design to suit any accidents of material or space. The fixed nature of the 
type may be accounted for by the reverence of the Maori for tradition and the 
dread of the vengeance of the gods for the least infringement of the principles of the 
art. Add to this the localisation of the art of war canoe building, almost entirely to 
the East Coast district, and we can well understand the stereotyped agreement of 
the component part of the carvings for the bow and stern of the war canoe. 

Prominent in the design of a first-class canoe is the elaborate coil work 
called pitaii, representing — so I was informed by an old Maori — the young circinate 
frond of the tree fern Mamaku.-\ The small studs between the coils represents the 
pinnae. From it the first-class war canoe was sometimes called generically a 
Waka-pitmi-X All large canoes had special names, as the " Arawa," the " Tainui," 
or the " Aotea." 

* See " Polynesian Mythology," pages 138-212 ; also Haberfield, Otago Daily Times, February 15th, 1892. Cook 
saw the first double canoe at Hicks' Bay. In April, 1773, he saw five dovible canoes in Queen Charlotte's Sound. He 
also saw a small double canoe in Dusky Sound (p. 85, Hawkesworth) . The Natives seen by him in some of the other 
Sounds had no canoes, bvit only two or three logs tied together. 

t From Pitau, the young fronds of the fern tree (Cyaihea.) 

X Mr. Tregear says "that the spirals are the emblem of ^Yinmnn\, the god of the cobweb." Mr. Colenso says 
"that for tiie carved figure-heads of their canoes the pukatea {Athe rospermum, N.Z.) was generally used ; while the 
ornamental carved work of the sterns was made of matai or iotara."— Trans. N.Z. Institute, vol. i., p. 263. 

On the Canoes of the Maoris. 

The prow usually contains representations of four human figures, all of 
whom, no doubt, have a significance, but I have only been able to obtain a 
trustworthy description of some of the parts. Those old men who were well versed 
in mythological lore and who did know are all dead, and their knowledge has died 
with them. The same beautiful spiral work ( pit an) is seen to advantage in the 
stern post. The little figure perched aloft near the top is sometimes called Paikea* 
but here again the full explanation is wanting. 

The small figure at the end of the figure-head looking into the canoe is 
called Huaki, and the thin board-like central piece with a human figure between 
two pitait spirals is called Manaia by the Arawas, or Tauroa by the Ngati-porou.§ 

On the stern-ornament or Rapa, the figure looking into the canoe, or that 
part of the carving, is caUed Puhi-kai-ariki,-\ Xhe lower portion of the base where it 
rests on the Rauawa or in some cases on the Haiiiui, is called Puhi-tainga-wai. The 
upper portion near the figure, which I have called Paikea, is Puhi-taiapa.X 

There is another beautiful type of taii-ihu which is very scarce, and which 
appears to have been almost confined to the Northern Districts, especiall)' Auckland 
and the Waikato. It consists of four parts, instead of being hewn out of the solid 
block. The central board (or Manaia of the usual type) is largely occupied by pitau 
spirals irregularly divided by broad bands, the main one passing diagonally from 
the upper corner in front to the lower corner behind. In the three or four examples 
I have seen, the general pattern is the same. This main portion fits into a groove 
in the middle of the diamond-shaped base, and appears to have been secured by 
dowel pegs. The transverse portion carrying the Huaki figure is supported on each 
side by human figures, and is elaborately carved. This also fits into a groove cut 
transversely across the base, and has a groove to receive the end of the Manaia. 
The fourth portion is the front part of the base, and represents a realistic human 
head well tattooed, without the usual protruding tongue. This is sometimes made 

Connecting the tau-ihu and rapa, and firmly lashed to the nn or hull of the 
canoe, are the topsides, rauainia, hewn out of a log, and sometimes carved from end 

* This is also a name of the Storm God. 
t Judu'u Gudgeon, per S, Percy Smith. . "■ 

X A good woodcut of a stern-post appears in the IlliidrateiJ Lundvii News, of October 4, 1851. 
§ Mr Tregear says that the figure which lies looking upward with the thin vertical board with the pitau 
spirals dividing him longitudinally, is called Maui. .- 

On the Canoes of the Maoris. 13 

to end. B}^ means of small holes in the hull and topside these were firmly lashed 
together with braided undressed flax lashings, and the down of the Raitpo (Typha) 
was used for caulking the seams and holes. Outside over the joint is secured a 
long thin batten painted black (taka). This was firmly bound with flax lashings, 
and small tufts of gannets' feathers were inserted to cover the lashings, the white 
feathers forming a striking contrast to the black taka or batten and the red sides of 
the canoe. The part of the hull of the canoe underneath the tau-ihu was painted 
with a beautiful pattern in red, black, and white (puhoro). The pattern seems to 
have its motive in the rippling of the waves. f 

The whole of the specimens to be figured in the work will be shown just as 
they now appear in collections, but it must be recollected that when in use and in 
gala dress the figure-head had an elaborate wig of feathers, and bunches of feathers 
extended along the top of the thin central board. From the top of the stern-post 
hung long ornamental streamers reaching to the water (piihi-rcre), made of bunches 
of the feathers from the tail of pigeon or kaka (Nestor). 

The prow (tau-ihu) was sometimes decorated with two long curving wands 
(piihi) resembling the antennae of a butterfly, elaborately ornamented with albatross' 
feathers tied in small bunches at intervals of about a foot. 

In Forster's "Voyage Round the World"* he mentions under the date 
November, 1773, seeing in Queen Charlotte's Sound, "the war canoe in which a 
war expedition had been made ; it had a carved head ornamented with bunches of 
brown feathers, and a double pronged fork projected from it, on which the heart of 
their slain enemy was transfixed." 

Along the coast of the Central and Southern part of the North Island, I 
have always found the tau-ihu and rapa painted the same colour as the canoe — a 
fine red colour made from kokowai, a red ochre or oxide of iron, mixed with shark 
oil ; but in the Northern part of the Island they were generally painted black. 

The inside of the canoe was fitted with a flooring or grating of small rods or 
battens (kaiivac), and the thwarts (taumanu) for the paddlers were lashed to the top 
sides and acted as braces : these were frequently carved at the ends and in the 

* Vol. 1, p. 521. t The bottom of the canoe was pierced with a hole to let out the bilge water when the 

canoe was beached. The karemu or plug for this hole plays an important part in the legend of Ruatapu. 

, , On the Canoes of the Maoris. 


For special expeditions the canoe was fitted up with various conveniences, 
the fore-part being partly covered m. Paddles {hoe) in plenty were provided, and 
a large and often highly ornamented steering paddle (urunga). The beautifully 
carved canoe paddles which are seen m collections, m which the blade as well as 
the handle is ornamented, were mostly weapons of ceremony, and used by chiefs m 
the war dance. A beautiful specimen with a unique handle has been recently 
acquired by the Dresden Museum.* 

An important article was the lata or baler, also called tihcru m the North, 
admirably designed for its purpose, with the handle turned inwards, thus applying 
the requisite power with the least exertion. In a few instances the handle is made 
stronger by not being separated at either end from the scoop. There are also some 
balers with the handle projecting like a sugar scoop. 

The sails (ra, or nuimani) of the canoe were used in favourable weather, and 
consisted of a triangular mat, made in a peculiar manner from the leaves of the 
raupo, with the mast and boom forming two of its sides, the point was at the 
bottom, the upper end was ornamented with tufts of feathers and streamers, the 
whole being supported by stays and sheets of plaited flax. A large stone at either 
end, secured by a strongly plaited flax rope, served as an anchor (punga). Grooves 
were chipped round or holes bored in the stone to enable the rope to be firmly 
attached, and sometimes the stones were slightly ornamented. The anchor stones 
of the Arawa canoe were named Toka-parorc and Tu-tc-rangi-harurit. Occasionall 
a flax basket or ketc is filled with stones and let down as an anchor. 

Although the canoes rolled a good deal in a heavy sea, they were capable of 
travelling at a considerable rate when urged by the rythmical strokes of the paddles 
of the crew. Then the men sang boat songs led by special leaders (Kai-hautu) who 
animated them to special exertions, and displayed great skill and address in running 
up and down the canoe, stepping from seat to seat. The steersman sometimes led 
the chant. The men knelt on the framework (kaiicac) made of manuka sticks to 
paddle, but when going along leisurely they sometimes sat on the taumanu or 
stretcher which connected the topsides. Mr. Shortland mentions a temporary deck 
of raupo or flax by which the fore-parts of the canoes were covered in for a few feet 
when making coastal voyages of any length, as a protection against the sea. 

* \ large plate with figures of both sides of this remarkable specimen, has been issued by the Dresden Museum. 
Nr. 8569 (1896). See also a sketch in the lithographed sheet of the parts of a canoe in this work. 


On the Canoes of the" Maoris. 15 

When the triangular raupo sails were set the canoes sailed well in a good 
breeze, sailing very close to the wind, but not having any hold on the water they 
made great leeway. If there was any sea on, they could not run before the wind in 
consequence of their great length. When well managed, however, they were kept 
in the trough of the sea, and thus weathered the numerous squalls so frequent on 
the New Zealand coasts. In the early years of the present century they frequenth- 
left the Bay of Islands fifty or more together, on long coastal voyages as far as 
Raukawa (Cook's Straits) generally for war, sometimes to trade mats and weapons 
for pounamii. Some expeditions from the Bay of Islands ventured down the coasts 
of the South Island. The crossing of the Straits was always dreaded, and 
numerous spells (Awa-moana) are preserved which had power to still the waves and 
winds of Raukawa. 

When the large canoes were not in use special shelter sheds (wharaii) were 
built for their protection from the weather. 

The second class of canoes f Waka tctc) consisted of those used for fishino- 
parties and river work, or for short journeys. + The figure-head was of a simple 
type, and consisted of a human head with the tongue conspicuously extended. 
The portion connecting the head with the canoe was quite plain, but often 
beautifully shaped, with an elegant curve. The rapa, or stern post, was smaller 
and plain, sometimes having a human figure at the base looking into the boat, as in 
the more elaborate ones. These were not usually adorned with feathers, but 
painted red. Canoes of this class are still in use on the East Coast of the North 
Island for fishing purposes. 

The third class consists of the simple dug-out, without topsides or carved 
ornaments, used for crossing small rivers or for fishing in calm weather. They are 
called Waka-tvK'ai, kopapa, or tararo. These canoes were often painted in some of 
the usual Maori scroll patterns — in red or black and white. 

Many very beautiful model canoes are made by the Maoris, but not to any 
scale. Angas, in his book,t mentions finding a small model canoe placed in a 
Wahi-tapu (cemetery) at Te Pahi, containing some of the propert}- of a deceased 
chief, and they are not uncommon in collections. 

* A plate of Maoris dragging a caiioe of this kind down Hawkestone Sti-eet, Wellington, is given as a frontispiece 
to the Guide to a Panorama of New Zealand subjects, exhibited in London in 1SJ9. 

t ■■ Savage Life and Scenes in New Zealand," Vol. ii., p. 71. 


On the Canoes of the Maoris. 

Sometimes the hull of a canoe was erected to mark the grave of its owner, 
and either painted with patterns and adorned with feathers as the one at 
Ngauranga for Te Wharepouri,+ or carved all over as the one formerly in the 
cemetery at Whanganui. 

Occasionally receptacles were made from a part of the hull of a canoe 
planted in the ground to contain the bones of a chief after the ceremony of 
scraping and cleaning the bones. The burial chest and the bones Avere painted red 
with kokowai — a red oxide of iron mixed with oil or fat. 

As in Ptolemy we find among the Southern constellations the ship Argo 
placed for ever in the stars in memory of the voyage for the Golden Fleece, so, 
according to Taylor, f the Maoris recognised the canoe of Tamarereti as appearing 
in the neighbourhood of Orion, the three bright stars of the belt forming the stern, 
and the Pleiades the bow ornaments. 

Carved Head from the base of a canoe prow. 

I Original in the Museum of tile University of Otago. ) 

EN*fs=!?'''Tn*i*'^LT'''T'? Jf f^"'""^- ™ ^ '"■'*'' °*' ohromo-lithographs from New Zealand Sket,-hes. l.y R A. Oliver 
K.N.. LSoA in a plate called A Tangi at Motueka." Also in Angas' ■' The New Zealanders," plate 50, figs. 2 and 3. 

'• Pnl^'^T^i " J" ^^^1 ^I'i'"'" ^'"^ ''^■' P- ^^^- ^Iso, '■ Maori Mementoes," C. O. Davis, 173 ; and Sir (ieo,.,,. ,-;,,.,.•, 
roems. Trad, ic, of the Maori," p. (io. „ m.i.s 

Figure-head of a Small Canoe (pakuruTcuru) . Taranaki. 


Ama. — The outrigger of a canoe. The stage between the canoes of a double canoe. 

2. The thwart of a canoe. 
Amatiatia. — A canoe with an outrigger. 

Aukaha. — To lash the rauawa or buhvark of a canoe to the body of the canoe. 
2. The lashings themselves. (From kaha, a rope.) 

Anrukowhao. — The leakage into a canoe through the holes made for the purpose of 
fastening on the rauau.<a. [Koiclmo, a hole ; urn, to enter.) 

Awa-moana. — An incantation to calm the sea. 

EhiL. — To bale water out of a canoe. 

Hakiitiiri. — The wood elves who made the tree felled by Rata stand up again, and 

finally made his canoe. 
Hauini. — A piece of wood by which the body of a canoe is lengthened. The hollowed 

bulky piece of thick wood which is joined on to the ends of a large canoe 

in order to lengthen and to raise it, stem and stern. 

Hauta. — To beat time for the paddlers in a canoe. 

Henga. — The edge of the hull of a canoe to which the raiiawa is fastened. 2. A 

long slip or lath of wood on the outside of a canoe, covering the joints 

(= tokai) 
Hihi.— The ornamented projecting rods of the bow of a war canoe (= piihi.) 
Hikahika. Act of pulling a rope ; hence taura-Jnkuhika, an old name for sailors 

Hma. — An old name for a paddle. 
Hoe.— A paddle (= hiraii, paddle.) 
Hokai. — Stay or brace of a canoe. 
Horete. — The old Maori drill for making holes. 

Canoe Words. 

Huaki. — The figure on the prow of a war canoe, looking inwards. 

Huhunu. — A double canoe. Temporary washboards at the bow of a canoe [pain). 

Huti-nti. — A rope (=; taura, wliakalickc, kaha, rahiri.) 

I ho. — The tohungn or principal person in the bow of a canoe. 

Ihu. — The bow of a canoe. 

Iri-iri. — To put a strip on the gunwale of a canoe to make both sides equal. 

Kaha. — A rope, lashings. 

Kaha. — A piece of seaweed stem dried in a native oven and deposited (by Wairarapa 
natives) as a proteftmg charm or talisman in the bows of a canoe on every 
voyage. When not in use it was deposited on the tuahit, or sacred altar. 

Kahn-papn-waka. — A fleet of canoes, j Also kaii-papa-waha. 

Kaipuke. — A ship. 

Kai-tuki and Kai-hautu. — He who gives time to the paddlers. 

Kaiiiac. — The floor or deck of a canoe. 

Kanohi. — Strand of a rope. 

Kaokao. — Side of, a canoe. 

Kapa. — The row of paddlers on each side. 

Knpehu. — The directing god on the bow of a canoe whose duty it was not only to 

diredt the canoe, but to guard it against all evil. 
Karoho. — The floor of a canoe. 
Kariri. — To sail together in a fleet. 
Kareinu. — The plug in the bottom of a canoe. 

Knnhiinhiia. — A string-board or horizontal support for the floor of a canoe {Whakn- 


Kaunaroa. — The body of a canoe without the haumi, &c. 

A'"'.— The stern of a canoe (= ta, noko, parcmata.) 2. The mizzen or after-sail 
of a canoe. 

Kcrctii. — The thwart of a canoe. 

Kiato.—The thwart of a canoe. Formerly the horizontal bar connecting the ama 
with the canoe. 

Kiko {whaka-kiko) . — Patch on a canoe let in like a plug. 
Koki. — A small canoe. 

A'o/zf/Y.— Figure-head car\ed on the body of a canoe (= toicrc.) 
Konia. — A small canoe. 

Kopapa.—K small canoe {=korca, konia, koki, imkn {ge\-\er?i\),pinakujncai, taurua, tctc.) 
Koporo [K'aka kopovo). — A squaro-stcrncd canoe. 

Canoe Wo'-ds. jo 

Korea. — A small canoe. 

Korepi-nui, Koirpi-roa.~\ncient names for steering paddle. 

Kordc. — A small canoe. 

Kororirovi. —To scull a boat (modern). 

Kotokoto.~The sheet of a sail. 2. Sprit to extend the sail. 

Koue. — Steer with a paddle or oar. 

Kowhao matapupum.—Violes for the lashm- which fastens the hauim to the bod)- of 
the canoe. 

X«;7/.— Tongue on the end of the boch- of a canoe, which is embraced b^■ the 
paihaii or sides of the haiimi. 

Maaivc.—T\y& same as kaha—2. talisman or protefting charm for a canoe. 

Manaia or Tauron.—Voxixon of -the figure-head of a war canoe. 

Mainaru. — A sail. 

Mata-kauwaka. — A fleet of canoes (emblematical). 

Minnra.— To fasten the haumi to the body of the canoe. 

Mimiro.— To draw together the sides of the canoe. 

MoWii or Moki.—A raft of bundles of raupo or wood. 

Mono. — To plug or caulk a canoe. 

Ncke. — The skids of a canoe. 

Ngariiigan. — A song to make people pull together. 

Ngaro. — A roller used in dragging a canoe. 

Ngeri. — A chant used in launching a canoe. 

Ngongo. — Sail close to the wind. 

Ngongohau . — Jib. 

Niao. — The gunwale of a canoe (= pakura.) 

Oiva. — Thwart of a canoe. 

Pae. — Transverse supports of the karaho or floor ol a canoe. 
Pairi. — Washboards at the bow of a canoe. 

Pacccai. — A batten between the raiiaica of a canoe and the hull, on the inside. 
Paharahara. — Plaited flax rope. 

Pnhi. — A ship — the old name for a sea-going canoe. The large lattice work canoes 
of the Chatham Islands are called iv<aka-piiin. _Vlso used for a large sea- 
going canoe. 
Paihau. — Projecting sides of the hamni of a canoe. 
Pakokori. — A small house or cabin on a double canoe. 
Pakaiahi. — Fireplace on a canoe. 2. The bulwark <>f a canoe. 

20 Caxoe Words. 

Pakiira. — Gunwale of a canoe. 

Pakurukuru. — The figure-head of a canoe carved into the resemblance of a hurq^n 
head and bod\-, but without arms. 

Panckenckc. — A flat-bottomed boat. 

Panoho. — A pole used for propelling a canoe or raft. 

Papakaira. — The outer surface of the side of a canoe. 

Paparewa. — The deck of a vessel. 

Papaicai. — The outer surface of the bottom of a canoe. 

I'apawaka. — The sides of a canoe above the surface of the water. 

Varata. — A sea monster ; a whirlpool. 2. The projecting part of the bow of a canoe 

under the figure-head. The seat of heroes and chiefs. 
Paremata. — The stern of a vessel (= hci, ta, noko.) 
I'arengaru. — The washboards of a canoe. 
Pawai. — The bilge of a canoe. 
Pehi. — Ballast. 

Pitaii. — A war canoe. 2. The figure-head being carved so as to represent the 

human body with arms. 3. Also any figure-head except a pakurukuru. 
Pinaku. — A war canoe. 

Pora. — A ship. Canoes with platform. (Platform between two canoes — hence 

name for such a double canoe.) 
Pou-pou. — The shrouds of a canoe mast. 

Puhi-rerc. — The streamers of feathers falling from the top of the tau-rapa. 
Puhi or Hihi. — Projeding rods from bow of canoe, ornamented with feathers. 
Punakc. — Fore-end of the body of a canoe to which the tau-ihii is spliced. 
Punga. — An anchor. 

Purcngi. — Stay of a mast {= puivhcnua.) 

Piirere. — Holes drilled in the pieces of a canoe for the lashings. 

Pnrn-puru. — The caulking material for a canoe, made oihunc, the flower of the ra«/)o. 
Pnru. — The plug on the bilge of a canoe. 
Viiwhenna. — The stay of a mast. 

R^- — A sail (== komaru, mamarti, ivliaka-K'hiti, ivliara.) 
Raliiri. — Rope. 
Rakau. — A spar ; a mast. 
Rangirua. — To sail and paddle at same time. 

Rango. — ihe skid or roller over which canoes are dragged {=ngaro =neke). 
Rapa. — The stern ornament of a canoe (= taurapa). 






HENGA ''""""'> 








Canoe Words. 21 

Raiiaii'a. — The movable top-sides of a canoe. 

Raidtara. — An ancient sail for a canoe (named probab]\- from the Pandanus leaf-sail 
(= 7vhara, fnra, hara, am, in Polynesia.) 

Rei, ichakarci. — i. The carved work at the bow or stern of a canoe — (original meaning, 
to carve, to ornament). 2. A canoe with elaborately carved ornaments. 
3. The high priest's seat, carved and ornamented with feathers, at the 
stern of an ancient outrigger canoe. 

Rcrc. — To sail. 

Rcii'a. — The mast of a vessel. 

Rin. — The bilge of a canoe ; the hold of a \essel. 

Riinikii. — The Karakia to " bind " the winds to procure a successful voyage. 

Ta. — To bale a canoe (pass., tan<yia). 

Tatai. — Act of adorning the canoe with shells, feathers, &c. 

Tata. — To bale water out of a canoe. 2. A vessel used to bale with {= tihcru). 
3. Stern of a canoe. 

Tahatit. — The upper edge of a canoe sail, often vandvked or ornamented. 

Taitai (pass., taia). — To bale a canoe. 2. Also to remove the tapu from a newh- 
built canoe, a ceremony accompanied by the sacrifice of a slave. 

Taingaicai. — Part of the canoe where the water is baled out. 

Taka. — The batten which covers the outside of the joint of the rauawa of a canoe 
with the hull. 

Takataka. — The lower point of a canoe sail. 

Takcrc. — The keel of a canoe. (Also tangcrc). 

Takcrc-Jiaia. — Dangerous leak in the bottom of a canoe. 

Takotokoto. — Sprit on the lower edge of a sail. 

Tanckaha. — A double-handled lever used in tightening the aukaha. Ya The line is 
fastened at a, and leverage obtained against the side of the canoe. When 
tight, a plug is put into the koichao or hole, and removed when next hole is 

Tau. — To be at anchor — (modern application). 

TauniaiiH. — Thwart of a canoe. 

Taiira. — Rope ; cord — (general name). 

Tanra u'hakaara. — Fore-stay of a canoe sail. 

Tararo. — A canoe without top-sides or carved figure-head. 

Taruru. — A lieet of canoes. 

Tauparnpara. — An invocation used when dragging a canoe. 

Canoe Words. 

Tau-icaka. — A canoe son^. 

Taurapa. — The stern ornament of canoe. 

Taunri. — A thwart. 

Tawharau. — A canoe shed ; to he in a shed. 

Tcrdcrc. — A fleet of canoes. 

Tnurua. — A canoe m which nets are carried. 2. A double canoe. 

Tauwhare. — The thwart of a canoe. 2. The space between two thwarts. 3. The 
space between the riutainga-wai and the bow or stern of the canoe. 

Tawai, or tiwai. — A canoe without attached sides. 

Tawake. — To repair a hole in a canoe. 

Tawc. — Weight on a cable to prevent the anchor from dragging. 

Tetc. — The figure-head of a canoe, without arms and legs. A canoe with a plain 

Teke. — To drift with the anchor down, but not touching the bottom. 

Tiheru. — A baler. 

Tirara. — The edge of a canoe sail. 

Tira. — The mast of a canoe. 

Tiratu. — The mast of a canoe. 

Tirod. — Modern word for a whale boat. 

Tirou. — To move a canoe sideways by plunging the paddle into the water and 
drawing it towards one. 

Tititi. — A canoe song. 

TitoKo. — The sprit of a sail. 

Tiwni. — A canoe without attached sail. 

Toaiiga-w.ika. — Place where canoes are dragged over ; a portage. 

Toicrc. — Figure-head carved on the body of a canoe, with a projecting piece above it. 

Tok,n. — Battens or slips of wood covering the joints of a canoe. 2. Perpendicular 
pieces of wood fastened above to the thwart, and supporting the k^ntliiia- 
hua, on which the raho or floor is laid. 

Torotoro. — A hawser, to fasten to the shore. 

Toicrc iwaka-toicrc). — Large canoe of superior workmanship, with top sides, and 
much ornamented. 

Tokau. — A canoe having side boards, but no figure-head or stern post. 

Tetc. — The figure-head of a canoe, without arms or legs. 2. A canoe with a plain 

To. — To drag a canoe. 

Canoe Words. 23 

Tokihi.—A style of paddling used in Waikato. 2. The song or cry with which this 
paddling is accompanied. 

Tolo. — To propel with a pole ; act of poling a canoe ; the pole so used ; a sprit — 
(modern application). 

Tuamahn. — Stout square-shaped flax ropes. 

Tiiangi. — Projecting edge of the rauaiva of a canoe. 

Tuhi. — A canoe song. 

Tuh.-'kai. — Singer, or leader in a canoe song. 

Tuhiroa. — The back-stay of a canoe mast. 

Turn 11. — To run before the wind. 

Tungauru. — The ssat of honour for chiefs near the stern. 

Tiipd. — Pads of raupo on the joints of the head-piece of a canoe. 

Tupan. — A short, quick stroke in paddling (Waikato), alternating with the strong 
plunge of the paddle that gives the speed. 

Tnte (^p. tutea). — To shove a canoe with a pole in the water. 

U. — To arrive at a place by water. (Ka n hi uta). 

Ue. — To move a canoe with a paddle worked against the side. 

Umcrc. — Song chanted in dragging a canoe ; to sing. 

Unua. — To fasten two canoes together, side by side. 2. Double canoe. 

Unuku. — A double canoe. 

Unuhowhao. — Leakage through the holes made for the lashing of the raiinica. 

Urungn, — A steering paddle. (Urungi, to steer ; icruugi-hai, a steerer.j 

Uta. — To put on board a canoe. 

Umu-o-tc-tiihi. — A sacred oven in which the chips of a new canoe arc burnt with 

many ceremonies. 
Waewac. — The shrouds of a canoe mast (pou-pou.) 
Wahn. — The sheet of a sail. 

Wahinc, whaha-wahinc. — A strip of wood or batten supporting the floor fkaraho) of 
a canoe. 

Wiiihoe. — Rate of speed in paddles. 

W(ika.—K canoe (general name). 


Canoe Words. 

Wnl-annua. — Double canoes. 

Whalairi-matamntn . — To sail to windward ; to beat.; 

Whnl-ahehe. — A rope. 

Wakapahi. — A'Moriori word for the large raft canoes of the Chatham Islands. 

Whara. — The sail of a war canoe. 

Whal-arci. — Fully carved head and stern of a canoe. 

Whalawhiti. — Sail for a canoe or boat. 

Wnitapc. — Back ship ; go about. 

\ / 1^:\j ^'/i * * lit ^*' 

Transverse Board of Figure-head of War Canoe. Auckland. 

Figure=head (tau-ihu) of War Canoe. Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, N.Z. 



Has it not been heard by all 

That Tainui, Te Arawa, Mata-atua, 

Kura-haup.o, and Tokomaru, 

Were the great canoes of thy ancestors, 

That paddled hitherward over the ocean 

That lies before us ? 

(From the " Lament for Te Tahuri," by Peou, p. 231, Nga Motcatea.) — Sir George Grey. 

IN the very full and precise details preserved religiously in the genealogical 
traditions of the Maoris of New Zealand, we find, in nearly ever}' case, that the 
voyagers in the great hckc (comprising, m addition to those mentioned in the 
verses above, Takitumu, Aotea, and Mamari) found, on their arrival from Hawaiki, 
about the year 1350, wherever they went along the coast of the North Island of 
New Zealand, a race already possessed of the soil. 

Tradition seems to indicate that these first inhabitants were still earlier 
visitors of the same Polynesian race, voyagers of the very ancient days, and in 
several traditions they are mentioned as descendants- of Toi or Toi-kai-rakau, 
whose ancestors came in the Ara-tau-whaiti canoe. Judge Gudgeon has dealt 
with the subject of these tribes of the North Island in several \'aluable papers in 
the "Journal of the Polynesian Society,"* and of the Maori migrations to New 
Zealand in general. He points out that instead of the voyagers in each canoe, or 
each group of canoes, being current-carried or wind-driven to our shores, that most 
of the expeditions were undertaken with a set purpose, or for general discovery and 
adventure in a particular direction. 

* Vol. iii., p. 2U.S. 


The Historical Canoes of the Migrations. 

It is also clear from his facts that many canoes came to New Zealand, and 
after staying a short time returned with the whole or a majority of their crew, 
showing that at a period from 500 to 750 years ago, voyages backwards and 
forwards between New Zealand and the islands of the Pacific were by no means 
uncommon. Of the difficulties and dangers the hardy Polynesians made light, and 
with faith in the power of their spells sailed out fearlessly on a voyage which must 
have averaged at least a month, and which was probably protracted much longer 
under unfavourable circumstances. Tradition, however, states that the wind of 
Pungawere took the canoes of Ngatoro-i-rangi to New Zealand in seven days and 


As in other countries, tradition has peopled the earliest ages with mythical 
races, commencing in New Zealand with the race of Kui, who were left in charge of 
the newly dragged up land by the hero-god Maui. Then from across the sea came 
invaders who took forcible possession, and gradually absorbed and supplanted the 
race of Kui — Kui the Blind going underground to live. These invaders, the 
Tutu-mai-ao,t were in their turn supplanted by an invasion of the Turehu from 
across the sea, who remained masters of the soil until the arrival of other 
descendants of Maui, the original Maoris who claim to have dwelt on the land of 
their great ancestor Maui down to the present day. 

The warriors who arrived in the great migration of about 1350, peaceably 
amalgamated with the iaiigata-whenua, or people of the land, as a rule, until they 
found themselves strong enough to take the upper hand, and then they easily 
subjugated the original inhabitants and planted themselves so firmly on the soil 
that excepting in the South Island and in the Urewera country, the earlier people 
have been, comparatively speaking, lost sight ot and their peculiar characteristics 
either lost or effaced in those of the present Maori race. 

It is, as said in the lines at the head of this article, the Tainui, the Arawa, 
and the other canoes of the Hawaikian hckc of 1350, that are the ancestral canoes 
in the eyes of the Maoris of to-day. Those who formed this heke were men of 
somewhat superior force of character, and altogether of a more warlike and 
adventurous nature, who since the departure from the Central Pacific of the earliest 
migrants to New Zealand had progressed in development through contact with 
other branches of the race, during the course of the many voyages which led these 
adventurous spirits to all parts of the Pacific inhabited by the Polynesians. 

* p. M., 102, 106. t A. H. M., iii., I.SH, 191. 

The Historical Canoes of the Migrations. 27 

It was about the close of the period which the traditions of other islands 
show to have been the " golden age " of their powers of navigation, that the great 
hcke to New Zealand took place, and with one recorded exception no canoes have 
since returned from New Zealand to the islands. Prior to the luke, about the year 
1350 (which is deduced from a very large number of genealogical tables by allowing 
25 years to a generation), there are several instances of canoes having returned to 
Hawaiki, the starting places of which are known, and in some cases the names of 
the chiefs who sailed them. From the chiefs who commanded these canoes, 
especially those of the great heke, have sprung many powerful tribes, and even 
those tribes or families who can trace their descent for generations previous to 
the, Hawaikian migration, prefer to derive their social standing from "the 
conqueror." The Ureweras express this idea by the saying, " No Toi raua ko Potiki 
te Whenua ; no Tnhoe te mana inc tc rangatiratanga." "Our right to the land is 
derived from Toi and Potiki, our prestige and rank from Tuhoe." The Arawas 
have preserved their genealogies so correctly and carefully that the names of nearly 
all who came in their ancestral canoe are known, and their descendants can be 
traced to their living representatives. It is probable that in the case of the South 
Island, the Rapuicai, the Waita/ia, and the Ngati-inamoe were part of the earlier 
people descendants of Toi, and that their extension over the South was long 
previous to the great migration. 

The details of how the courses of the canoes were kept across the " broad 
sea of Kiwa," are not certainly known, to some extent the stars and the position of 
the sun might be utilised, but many other points must have been considered. It 
is said that the sailing-directions given to the crew of Te Arawa were: — " A'm 
ivhahainau koiitou ki a Atutahi-ina-Rchua ; ko Atutahi i ivhakataha nei ki tc Mangoroa." 
" Direct your course to Atiitaln-ma-Rehna ; Atutahi that is at the side oi Mangoroa.'' 
Atutahi is the star Canopus; Mangoroa the Milky Way. 

A most interesting specimen of a Polynesian chart + has recently been 
fio-ured in the Journal of the Polynesian Society, but whether anything of this 
kind was in use three or four hundred years ago, who can say. 

The question of the food available during the passage has been discussed 
by a learned native, Hoani Nahe, in the " Polynesian Journal. "f It probably con- 

* J Pol Soo Vol. iv., p. 236. Two sailing charts of similar constrviotion from the Marshall group are given in 
the Cat Mvis Godeffroy 1881. Taf. xxxii. Of the ceremonies gone through when a canoe with a colonising party 
arrives at the land where it is decided they shall remain, there is an interesting account given by Hare Hongi 
in the 3rd vol. Journ. fol. Soc, p. 40. t J- f'ol- Soc, Vol. iii., p. 23 •.. 


The Historical Canoes of the Migrations. 

sisted of Kao, dried kumara ; dried fish ; Mahi, preserved bread fruit ; . cocoanuts 
(both food and drink), and water was probably carried in calabashes or wooden' 

In such voyages as those of the great heke, no doubt, in some cases fireplaces 
were constructed in the canoe ; in modern times it is not uncommon to see them in 
fishing canoes. The legend of Houmea refers to the heated stones of the cooking- 
place on the canoe. '*^ No cooked food, however, could be allowed on a war canoe, 
as they were sacred, and cooked food — even a small fragment — would have made 
them noa or common, and might cause disaster. f It is said that in the Takitumu 
canoe they lived partly on fish caught whilst on the voyage, j This can, however, 
have only been exceptional. 

My " Catalogue of the Ships " will perhaps scarcely rival that in the second 
book of the Iliad, but as far as possible 

" Their names, their numbers, and their chiefs, I sing." 

IjiS^'Sfe^f'^^^'^ff^^'^?^^*^" '"" 

Fishing Canoe. Poverty Bay. 

t As m the case of the Horouta.— A.H.M., iii 9" " 

t A.H.M., iii., p. 63. 




Landed at 

Akiki-a te-tau 
Aniu-waru . . . 

' A.H.M., iii. 31 

J. A. W* 


(one of the canoes of 
the sn^'iit Heke) 

Aotea, W. coast 
of North Island 

Chiefs on 




A.H.M., ii. 6 
Col. Trail S.N.Z.I., 
xii. 141 












Rongorongo (fj 

Hine-wai-tai (f) 

Tane-roroa (f) 


Tanene-roro (f) 
J. Pol. Soo., iii. 151 


(in part) 


(in part) 


Tradition says Tamatea Kaiariki 
was chief f Gr. 

A name of Eata's canoe ; also 

Aniwa-niwa, A.H.M., i. 91. 

Niwa-reka (Ngaitahu), A.H.M., i. 71 

Niwa-ru, A.H.M., i. 74. 

Niwharu, Wohlers. Trans., N.Z. Inst., 
vii. 47. 

Punui (Ngai-auru), A.H.M., i. 76 

The canoe made by the wood-elves 
for Eata had three names, niarking 
three stages in its construction — 
1, Biwharu ; 2, Tuirangi ; 3, Paka- 
wai, P.M., 67§ . 

A double canoe. New top-sides were 
added at Kangitahua (P.M., 133). 
or Kotiwhatiwha (J. Pol. Soc, ii, 
121), or Motiwhatiwha. The 
names of two of its balers (taia) 
were Tipuahoronuku and Eangi- 
ka-wheriko (P.M., 131). In this 
canoe were brought Kalcau (a kind 
of sweet potato), Karaka seeds, 
Para-tawhiti fern, Perei (an edible 
orchid), edible rats, Pukeko, and 


* J A W - J A Wilson SMrhc^ of Ancient Maori Life § P.M.— Polynesian Mythology (Sir George Grey). 

' ■ and History. 1894. ' j; Fol.Soo.-Journal of PolyT^dan Society. 

+ G - ludo-e Gudieon Col.— Eev. W. Colenso, F.E.S. 

I a:H.M -lnc!S"fm-.,, of the Maori, by John White. T.G.H.-Eev. T. G. Hammond. 


List of Historical and Mythological Canoes. 


Arai-te-uru ... 

Landed at 


Ara-tawhao ... 


Chiefs on 




A.TI.M., ii. 178 



rangi (priest) 


(one of the canoes of 
the great Heke) 

Whangaparaoa , 
Bay of Plenty 



Te Whanau-a- 
J. Pol. Soc, iii. p. 69 




Hineraho (fj 
A.H.M., ii. 179 


Kearoa (f) 


Tama-te- Kapua 



Ngati- Kearoa, of 

toa, of Putauaki 

Tapuika tribe of 
Maketu, and 
Ngati - ha, of 
West Taupo 

Waitaha, of Te 

Ngati- Rangitiki 





and Poutawa 
and Ngati- 


Tataitu, said to have been chief (G. 
J. Pol. Soc, i. 217.) R.emained at 
Murihiku, at Matakaea. 

The canoe Manuka was made from 
the other half of the same tree. 
Stack. Trans. N".Z. Inst., vol. xii. 

Capsized off Moeraki and her cargo 
strewed along the beach, now 
represented by rocks and stones. 
Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. x., p. 61. 

One of the ancestors of Toi-kairakau, 
Maku, came in this. Probably 
the earliest of all the canoes. 

Said to have been built at Whaka- 
tane, and to have gone to Ha- 
waiki to fetch Kumaras and Taro 
(J.A.W.* This is one of the best 
authenticated of return voyages 
to Hawaiki, and its arrival there 
was followed shortly after by the 
departure of the great Heke to 
f^ew Zealand.* 

In this canoe was brought a green- 
stone god. 

A double canoe in which a green- 
stone god is said to have been 
brovight. Built at Earotonga, 
" on the other side of Hawaiki." 
Was burnt by Raumati, of the 
Nga-Marama (one of the ancient 
tribes) at Maketu. Judge Gudgeon 
says : " The position held by the 
crew of the Arawa is unique, for 
we find that out of 16 men of 
rank who came in this canoe, 
there are but four whose des- 
cendants I cannot trace, though 
it is quite possible the Arawa 
people themselves may be able to 
do so. Twelve of these chiefs 
have known descendants at the 
present day, not to mention Hatu- 
patu, from whom the late chief 
Poihipi Tukirangi was known to 
be descended." G., J. Pol. Soc, 
i. 222. 

* See Judge Gudgeon, Maori Traditions as to the Kumara, J. Pol. Soc, ii., 101. t See " The Coming of Te Arawa and 

Tainui," by Takaanui Tarakawa, J. Pol. Soc, ii. 220 and iii, 199. J See Judge Gudgeon's Sketch of the History of 

Ngati-Tama, J. Pol. Soc, iii. 157. 

List of Historical and Mythological C 




Arawa (cuntiiiucd) — 

Landed at 


Auraro-tuia ... 


Haere ■ . . 




Kapua-rangi . . . 

Kauae-taka ... 

Taranaki coast 



Ahuahu, Bay ol 

Chiefs on 

Oro ... 


Pouheni and 






Taikehu Hatu- 
patu (?) 


Ngati-Apa, of 
Bay of Plenty 

Ngati-Tahu, of 

toa, of Taupo 

Descendants in 
Taupo and 







Ngati - Haua, 
Upper Whan- 
ganui and East 
Cape tribes ... 


One of the curly canoes, whose des- 
cendants were found by Turi at 
Waitara. A.H.M., ii. 177. 

The mythical canoe of Maui 

A.HM., ii 91; also 
Haurarotuia, A.H.M., ii. 116. 
Nuku-tai-mimiha, A H.M., ii. 70. 
Rui-o-Mahui, Taylor, Ikaf p. 127 
Te Pirita-o-te-Rangi, A.H.M ii 113 

and 117. 

The canoe of Whakatau, A.H.M ii 
p 151. 

Left at the same time as the Mavga 
rara, A.H.M., ii. 191. 

Brought young plants of Kowhai- 
(Sophora), A.H.M., iii. 67. 

Horouta grounded on the reef Tuki- 
rae-kirikiri, 140 men on board. 

Whiro's canoe, A.H.M., ii. 14. 
>fo particulars known. 

No particulars known. 

Canoe made by Ngako, in contest 
with Kvipe at Eangi-whaka-oma 
A.H.M., ii. 93. 

Taylor, Leaves from Nat. Hist N Z 
p. 49. 

A mythological canoe on the other 
side of the heavens, belonging to 
the reptile god Mongoroiata or 
Mangoroa (the Milky Way). 
There is a man on board called 

* See Judge G-udgeon for full list of crew, J. Pol. Soc, i. 77 and 231. For chiefs in Horovita according to J. White 
see A.H.M., iii. p. 93. f Taylor, Te Ika a Maui, 2nd edition, whenever quoted. " 

List of Historical and Mythological Canoes. 



Kotahi-nui (? Tainui) 


(one of the canoes of 
the great Heke) 

Landed at 

East Cape 

Kura-tawa . . . 





Whangaroa . . . 

North Cape .. 

Manga-rara .. 



Chiefs on 



Rongoueroa . . 

Te Moungaroa 






Mawete ... 




(J. A. W.) 
Te Rarawa, 

Ngati-Apa and 
Rangitane of 

kokiri (now ex- 

kuia, of Pelorus 



Gudgeon, J. Pol. Soc., i. 218. 

The first three canoes were the 
Arawa, Tainui (which went round 
the North Cape to Kawhia), 
and Mataatua. Dieff. N.Z., i. 85. 

Or Kurawhaupo. This canoe was 
wrecked at Whenuakura, Hawaiki, 
but was repaired and re-named 
Te Bangimatoru, Te Eangihokaia 
being chief . (See under Mataatua, 
and J. Pol. Soc, iii. 106 ) 

Aupouri, Rarawa 

Ngapuhi and 
Te Rarawa. 

Te Pou 


(.1. A. \V.) 

W'heke-toro .. 

Te W'ai-o-po- 



Taylor, Leaves, p. 49. 

A sacred canoe which came from 
Hawaiki, manned by priests only. 
A.H.M., iv. 2i. 

The celebrated war canoe of Moki 
made from an enormous Totara 
tree, which grew in the Wairarapa 
Valley. It was buried in a land- 
slip at Omihi. A.H.M., iii. 207 
and 211. 

Believed to have come some gener- 
ations before the great Heke. 
She finally stayed at Taporapora, 
Kaipara Heads. Shortland, Tra- 
ditions of the N.Z., p. 25. 

Finally settled down at Hokianga 
Heads. Met Kupe on the way 
near North Cape, learnt from him 
of Tuputupu-whenua, the chief of 
the aiitochthones then living at 
Hokianga. Canoe finally wrecked 
at Omamari,,a few miles south of 
Maunganui Bluff. The relies (of 
stone; are to be seen near Hoki- 
anga. At Onoke is a stone called 
the <loo- of Nukutawhiti. A rock 
in the narrows of the Hokianga 
river is the buoy of the canoe 

Left Hawaiki with the Hirauta. 
Brought many animals. Five 
kinds of lizards, including the 
tuafai-a. several insects, tlie birds 
tnrea and whini. A.H. Nl., ii. 189 

Saile.l from N. Z. to Hnwaiki, for 
Kiimnra. A.H.M., iii. 112. Stack. 
N.Z luflt. xii., p. 161. 

I P« ■ fts Ptt'??'^ Canoe,' by Te Kahui Kararehe, J. Pol. Soc, vol. ii., p. 180. and by Tabianui Tai-akawa 

J.r.o., Ill b&. t Until lately the name Ngati-Porou did not properly apply to the tribes living north of the East 

Cape, They were known as the Whanau-a-Tu-whakairi-ora. 

List of Historical and Mythological Canoes. 




(one of the canoes of 
the great Heke) 

Landed at 




North Cape, 
came as far as 
Tara, Port 

Cape Rodney. 

Chiefs on 

Toroa (captain) 



Te Mohiro 



Wairakewa (/) 


Muriwai (/) 

Wairaka (/) 
J. Pol. See, i. 22; 












Te Moungaroa 

J. Pol. Soc, iii. 65 




Many Ngati- 
Awa tribes ofi 
east coast ... 
(J. A. W.)| 





Made from the other half of the tree 
out of which the A otea was made. 
The toco was broucrht by Enaauru 
in this canoe A.H.M., ii. 181. 

" Mataatna is the canoe, Toroa is the 
man," is a well-known saying on 
the east coast. According to 
Hammond (J. Pol. Soc, iii. 106), 
the crew of the wrecked Kura- 
haupo came on in the Mata-atua, 
but still regarded themselves as 

Mataatua is said in an oU N gati-awa 
Karatia to have been known in 
Tahiti as Tuamatua. 

Mua-upoko, of 
and Mahure 
hure hapu, of 

(in part) 


Waitaha, of 
South Island 



Or Nga-mata-whao-rua, a sister ship 
to the Aotea. Said to have come 
to N.Z. just before the great Heke. 
Kupe returne.l to Hawaiki, and 
by his experiences Turi laid his 
course for N.Z. ifupe is said to 
have taken this canoe from Reti, 
who was a great explorer. P M ' 
129, A.H.M., ii. 177. Hokianoa- 
o-Kupe, now known as Hokianga, 
was his point of departure from 
N. Z. " E hoki Kupe." 

No particulars known. 

This is identical with the Waka-tu- 
whenua. Nearly all who came in 
her died of leprosy, introlueed 
in her. A few of the Kawerau 
people of North Auckland claim 
descent from her crew. 

See " The Coming of Mataatua, Kuruhaupo, and other Canoes," by Tabaanui Tarakawa, .1. Pol. S>i 
t See "The Coming of Kvipe to New Zealand," by Te Whetu, J. Pol. Soc, ii. 151. 


List of Historical and Mythological Canoes. 



Te Muaki-A... 



Landed at 

Chiefs on 



Marahea, east 

Otu-rere-roa . . . 
Pahi-tonoa . . 

Pakihi-kura ... 
Panga-toru . . . 

Pau-iraira . . . 


Pungapunga . . . 


W h i r o n u i 
Araiara (/) 
A.H.M., iii. 4.1 


A.H.M., iii. 41 

1 Taikehu 

Ngarauru and 



(J. A. W.) 

and Urewera 


A.H.M., ii. 182. Taylor, Ilea, p. 290. 

Or Te ru-ngakia., probably should be 
Te-runga-ki-A. The pa/ii or canoe 
of Kuakutea, the wife of Tama. 
A.H.M., ii, 37. 

Nothing knoKTi beyond the name. 

Arrived at N. Z. eight months before 
the Flood, Te Tai a Euatapu 
(see Colenso Trans. N.Z. Inst., 
xiv. p. 26. A.H.M. , iii.f^p. 9 and 







Punga-rangi . . . 


Rurima and 

(J. A. W.) 


(J. A.W .j 

It is said that Turongo was chief of 
Ohiwa when this canoe came. 

A canoe that left Hawaiki for Te 
Wairua-ngangana to get Taro 
plants, but was wrecked. T. G. 
Hammond, J. Pol. Soc, iii. 105. 

A.H.M., ii. 202. .I.A.W., No. 7. 

Or Papakatoro. It is said that the 
men of this canoe were repulsed 
by the people of the land, and so 
returned without settling in N.Z. 
A.H.M., ii. 181. 

This canoe is said to have returned 
to Hawaiki, and that from the 
crew Kupe got his knowledge of 
N. Z. A.H.M., ii. 188. 

.T.A.W.,No. 10. 

Ruaeo's expedition, with 140 of his 
followers, to recover his wife. 
P.M., 91. 

This was probably the name of the 
canoe of Taukata and Hoake, who 
brought the news of the Kuniara 
to Tama-ki-hikura:igi, and was 
the cause of the building of the 
Ara-tawhiio and her voyagfi to 
Hawaiki.* Jt is also sail that the 
traditional block of pumice on 
which Tiira escaped from the 
Viattle of Maikukutea, was one of 
the canoes of the fleet of Tini-o- 
Manahua, called Te Funga-punga 

Nelson Natives 

* An interesting version of this story (aa told by the Mataatua tribes) in the Ure-wera country is given by Elsdon 
Best " In Ancient Maoriland." Rotorua, 1«96, p. 10 and p. 1.5. 

List of Historical and Mythological Ca> 




Rangi whakaoma 
Rere anini 
Rewarewa . . . 

Ririno . . . 


Landed at 

Te Rangaranga 

(J. A. W.) 

Te Ru... 


Tahuri te-arorangi . 


(one of the c.-niurw of 
the great Hel;e) 


Chii;fs on 





Gisborne) .. 

\\'hite Island 
and Wakari .. 




Kuiwai (/) 

Haungaroa (/) 
J. Pol. Soe.i. 213 




Taranaki- Atiawa 

Ngati-rangi .. 
(J. A. W. 

N gariki 

and Ngati-awa, 
west coast 

Rongo -whaka- 
ata tribe 

Matata ... 



Te Uriparaoa.. 
Te Papawai 

(Ariki and priest) 


Hoturoa (cap- 


Te Rarawa 


No particulars known. 

The protecting deity of this canoe 
was Tu-kai-te-nru. J. Pol. 8oc., 
V. 2. The crew lived peaceably 
with the aboriginal Whakatohea, 
and ultimately became incorpor- 
ated with them. J.A.W., p. 39. 

The canoe of Tawhaki. 

Also Bangi-mutu and Rangi-ua-niate 
and Tairea. On landing the crew 
saw Moa bones and the ovens of 
the Autochthones. A.H.M., ii. 183. 

Canoe made by Kupe in his contest 
with Ngako. A.H.M , iii. 93. (See 

Or Hum ~ hum - inanu, or Uiit-pawa. 
The canoe of the wives of Manaia, 
the sisters of Ngatoro-i-rangi, 
when they fled to N.Z,, carrying 
with them the gods Maru, Iho-o- 
te-Eangi, Rongomai, Itupawa, and 
Hangaroa. J. White Lect. (Gr.), 
p. 123. 

Taylor, Ika, p. 29 ; Leaves, p. 49. 

Lost with all on board on the reef of 
Taputapuatea (P. M., 134) on 
account of Potoru eating part of 
the dog offered to Maru by the 
chiefs of the Aotea, at the island 
of Kotiwhatiwha. J. Pol. Soc, 
ii. 121. 

The descendants of this canoe are 
mostly exterminated, but some 
are amongst the Te Karawa tribe. 

A stone at Mangonui marks J;he spot 
where the canoe finished her 

A.H.M., ii. 178 ; Taylor, Ika, 291. 

A cauoe made by Tama-tuna, under 
water. Taylor, Ika, 285. 

Left at Kawhia. Judge Gudgeon 
gives the names of twenty-four of 
tli'e crew (J. foL Soc, i. 224). 
The chiefs given are the only 
ones whose descendants are living 
at the present day. The cauoe is 
represented by rocks at a place 
called Pariugatai, near Kawhia. 
P.M., 90; A.H.M., ii. 177.* 

Taylor, Ika, 291; A.HJL, ii. 17s. 

* The promontory of Phalacrium was considered to be the ship of Ulysses metamorphosed. Solinus 11, § 2. Ed. 
Mommsen, p. 6U. 


List of Historical and Mythological Canoes. 



(one of the canoes of 
the f^reat Helcs) 

Landed at 

East coast 

Chiefs on 





Tere anini 





(one of the canoes of 
the £;i'eat Heke) 

(Ariki and priest) 




Te Iri-angi 

Te Whaka- 



Te Aonoanoa 

Paikea (captain 
(J. A. W.I 

A. H. M., ii. 193 




Called Horouta on her second voyage. 
A.H.M., iii. 74. Supposed to be 
represented by the Takitimu 
Mts. in Southland. On its first 
voyage it was so sacred that food 
could not be carried therein, 
therefore only gods and chiefs 
were placed on board. The god 
Ka,hukura, made of totara and 
represented without feet, was 
brocicrht by Kuawharo Judge 
Gudgeon thinks that the claim of 
Ngati-kahungunu to this canoe 
cannot be supported. The fastest 
sailer of the fleet. A.H.M., ii. 
p. 193, and iii. p. 46, 63, 72. 



Motatau ... 


Tokomaru . . 

(.;. A w,; 

Rakeiora (priest) 
Manaia (captain) 
Tu Urenui 
Te Rangitata 

Atiawa ... 

Ngati-Maru, of 
west coast-.. 



Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. i., 446. 

J. Pol. Soc, iv. 1S2. 

Taylor, Leaves, p. 49. 
One of the early canoes. 

The same as Tu-te-pewa rangi or 
Bangi-pato-roa, the canoe of Eua- 
tapu. A.H.M., iii. 54. 

Taylor, Leaves, p. 49. 

The canoe described by Barstow. 
Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xi. (This 
is the canoe of the Auckland 

Or Tonga-mar^i,. 

Manaia is said to have killed ab- 
originals at Waitara, perhaps 
descendants of the crew of the 
Aril;i-matai. P.M., 233. A.H.M., 
p. 177 and 181. 

A priest named Rakeiora was brought 
in this canoe, and w,i,s left at 
Tongaporutu, Taranaki, and sub- 
sequently deified. A rock at 
Mokau is called Te Punga-o- 
Matori, supposed to be an anchor 
of this canoe. P.M., p. 232. 

A.H.M., ii. 179. 

This canoe made from a buried tree 
to replace the burnt Arawa. The 
canoe went with a war party (ope) 
to Hawaiki with Ngatoro-i-rangi, 
to avenge the insults of Manaia, 
and then returned to Maketu. 
P.M., 17(1. 

Gvidgeon, " Maori Migrations," J. Pol. Soc, i. 213. 

List of Historical and Mythological Canoes. 



Landed at 

Tu te paerangi 

Tu te-pewa 

Tu-te-puehu ... 
Ua-piko • ■ 


Waipapa . - 


Waka ringaringa 




Moehau .. 

Chiefs on 



and Rarawa. 

Taipa, near 



(J. A. W.) 

korero, West 
of Matata 

(J. A.W.) 

near Waimate 


J. i'ol. Soc , iii. 14 






(.1. A. W, 

Near Wairara- 
pa Lake 






The same as Hurepureiata, the canoe 
bonoweil from Heroa >iy Eua- 
imku (XJenuku). A.H.M , iii- p. U 
and -Z-d. 

A.H.M., iii. p. 54 

Nothing known beyond the name. 

The canoe that shot tlie Huka falls 
on the Waikato, with Tamatae 
and his thirty companions. Riri- 
wai jumped ashore at the entraaco 
of the race, all the rest were 
drowned. A.H.M. iii., p. 70. 

Claims to he the first to colonise the 
Islands. Came from Tapatapa- 
hanga-a-Taiehu. J. Po . Soc, iii. 
p. 9 and 14. 

J.A.W., Anc. Maori Life and Hist, 
p. 7, 

A.H.M., ii. p 182. 

A canoe which left Hawaiki but 
never arrived in N Z. 

The canoe of Tama, A.H.M., ii. p. -to. 

.r. Pol. Soc, iv, p. 178. 'Pho consort of 
the Arawa, which carried those 
who could not come in the Amwa. 

One of the fleet in which Whaka-tau 
sailed to burn the temple known 
as Te Uru-o-Manono, thu vharc- 
Icim of Hawailii (P.M., 02). The 
other canoes were : — 


Halnrere. J. Pol. Soc, iii p. 10.5. 




Part of a Canoe, carved and erected as a Memorial 
to a deceased Chief. 

Formerly in a Native Burial Qround at Wanganui. 





During the stay in New Zealand waters of the French Scientific Exploring 
Expedition, under Dumont D'Urville, a number of valuable ethnological 
observations were made, and these are now all the more interesting, inasmuch as 
they are faithful records of man}' things which were then in existence, but are now 
quite lost. The three canoes given in the plate are from the Atlas of Plates to the 
account of the Voyage, and are carefully drawn to scale from measurements made on 
the a6tual canoes seen along the coast of the North Island. They show the varieties 
of the methods of constructing the grating or flooring of the canoe, and the general 
arrangement of the fittings. In the second icaha-pitnu there is an additional 
gunwale or bulwark at the bows as a protection against the waves. In the top 
corner of the plate is a little sketch of a war canoe under sail on the Taranaki coast, 
after a. drawing by Angas. It shows a local variation in the shape of the raupo sail- 
mat. In the lower part is half of the diagram of a Maori canoe (not drawn to scale) 
with the names of the various parts marked. Full explanation of the terms used 
will be found in the glossary of words. 


In addition to the diagrams given in tliis lithograph of the usual sails and 
paddles of a canoe, are five forms of paddles of greater rarity. 

Fio-s. I and i.v are two views of a splendid example of a chief's ceremonial 
paddle with an unusual form of handle, involving great difficulty in the construction, 


Lithographic Plates of the Parts of a Maori Canoe. 

The specimen has recently been purchased for the Dresden Museum from an 
Enghsh dealer. The Museum authorities have issued a very fine collotype repro- 
duction of it. It was originally obtained in the Bay of Islands by Captain 
Chegwyn* in 1836, from a chief named Titouri (Titore). 

Fig. 2 is a very long narrow paddle, the blade of which is slightly hollowed, and 
a mid-rib passes for some distance up the centre, quite unlike any northern form of 
Hoe. The ornamental portion at the end of the handle is unique in form in New 
Zealand. It was found on the banks of Waipori Lake in Otago, at a depth of three 
feet from the surface. 

The length is unusual, being about 8ft. 6in., of which the blade is 4ft. The 
width of the paddle at its widest part is only 3f in. 

Otago University Museum. 

Fig. 3 is a strong and heavy paddle, somewhat roughly made of manuka 
(Leptospenniun), with a raised ornament on the commencement of the blade, probably 
as a mark of private ownership. This was also found on the banks ot a lake at 
Waihola, in Otago, about two feet below the surface. 

The extreme length is 5ft. gin. ; length of blade, 2ft. 3in. ; width, 5Jin. 

Otago University Museum. 

Fig. 4 is a paddle found at Bendigo, near Cromwell, Otago. The pattern of the 
raised fork projecting on to the flat of the blade seems to indicate a recollection of 
paddles in which the blade was a separate piece of wood. A specimen of the same 
form was found in Monck's Cave, near Sumner, and is figured in Trans. New Zealand 
,;#;■ Inst., vol. XXII., pi. ii., fig. 3. The workmanship is poor, but the handle shows 
signs of much use. 

The length is 5ft. loin. ; length of the blade, 2ft. gin. ; width, sJin. 

Otago University Museum. 

Fig. 5 is perhaps of the greatest interest. It is of unusual length and weight, 
and of peculiar form, as may be seen from the sections. It was found some years 
ago in a cave at Strath Taieri, Otago. No other example is known, but a similar 
paddle is drawn in " Cook's Voyages " (Hawkesworth.f pi. liii.), in the plate repre- 
senting a Maori family seen in Dusky Sound— another instance of the fidelity of the 

i.-^^^'^J^ ^ ^?!f""-S" T}^^ ^ somewhat similar open handle in the Belfast Free Library and Museum ("Ethno- 
graphical Album of the Paoifac Islands." Edcr,..Partington and Heape. Plate 229, fig. 3), and I have seen one handle 
ot the same pattern on a fine old paddle from the Bay of Islands, the blade of which was painted with scroll patterns 
but not carved ; and I have a photograph of a good one which is, I believe, in the Auckland Museum. 

t Keprodxxced in " The New Zealanders," Plate 20. 

Lithographic Plates of the Parts of a Maori Canoe. 


draughtsman of that remarkable work. The shape and strength, as well as the 
weight of this paddle, would make it a formidable weapon, in the hands of a 
powerful man, and the general form recalls some of the fighting clubs from the 
Pacific Islands. It possesses great interest, as being at present a unique example 
of a paddle of the old original tribes of the south-west of New Zealand. The holes 
at the angles of the centre portion are so small that the_y can only have been used 
for the purpose of affixing a small ornamental bunch of feathers or dog hair. It 
closely resembles some paddle-shaped clubs from the South-East Pacific, figured 
in the " Edge-Partington Album," pi. 43. The specimen figured is now m the 
collection of Dr. T. M. Hocken, of Dunedin. 

The length is 7ft. Width, jiiin. 

Frasment of a Canoe Prow found on the Beach at Lyttelton by one of the Early Settlers. 

There is a Tradition that it belonged to one of the Canoes of Te Rauparahas Expedition. 
Now in Canterbury Museum. 

Huaki=figure on the f(ni-lhn of a War Canoe. 

Colonial Museum, Wellington. 



M I I I 1 .1 

■ T V T V T T V •: 



' i i ' 1 i i i ' ! ' ' i ! : 1 ' ' 1 ' i 1 . ' ' ' ' ' . 

I , Maori Art. 

N^o. 1. 

Figure=head (tau-ihit) of a War Canoe. 

A very typical example of the tau-ihii, er carved figure-head of a New Zealand 
war canoe. Between the two double spiral coils (pitati) on the central board, or 
manaia, is seen a human figure, and below it another conventional face. The 
execution of the work on this specimen is of the highest degree of excellence. 
It is now in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

The extreme length is about 5ft., and the height aft. 6in. 

The locality from which it came is probably a little to the north of the East Cape. 


N^o. 28. 

Figure- head fian-ihuj of a War Canoe. 

A fine and well-preserved tau-ilut in the collection of the Colonial Museum, 
Wellington. This specimen, having a good example of the Huaki, or figure looking 
into the canoe, is perhaps the fullest type of this class of figure-head. In both of 
these carvings it will be noticed that the figures are represented with three fingers 
only to each hand — a conventionalism common to nearly all old Maori work. The 
specimen still retains its original colouring of red ochre mixed with oil. The upper 
part of the forehead of the tongue-protruding figure is painted of a yellow colour. 

Length, 4ft. bin. Height, 2ft. 
Locality : East Coast of North Island. 


'^'i^ *^ ''^■' 




Maori Art. 

N^o. 3. 

Figure = head ftau-ihii) of a War Canoe. 

An interesting specimen of less elaborate workmanship. The same parts are 
present as in No. 2, but show much degeneration. The Huali figure and the figure 
between the spirals are represented as looking forward. Both are so altered that 
they would probably escape recognition, if not compared with other examples. 
The face at the bottom of the spirals is shown more plainly ; it is also in a side-view 
position. The leg of the foremost figure is lost. This specimen is in my own 
collection, at present in the Museum of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 
Napier. It belonged to a large canoe at Te Mahia, at the northern end of Hawke's 

The length is 5ft. 2in., and height 2ft. 

Figure=head (taii-ilm) of a War Canoe. 

A well-carved tau-ihu or figure-head of a war canoe, which has at some time in 
its history lost an arm. Here the figure on the thin central board, and the face 
beneath, closely resemble those in No. i. The face, however, has diminished to the 
symmetrical curves indicating the mouth and tongue. This specimen was obtained 
at Waikanae, on the west coast of Wellington, but it probably was carved by east 
coast Natives. Canoes, being of great value, were often con\'eyed to long distances 
from their place of manufadlure, either as spoils of war, or as presents, or, in later 
times, in course of trade. 

Length, 4ft. yin. Height, 2ft. 3in. 
Colonial Museum, Wellington. 


48 Maori Art. 

:no. 5. 

Figure=head (tmt-ihu) of a War Canoe. 

This is an interesting specimen, in which, either as the result of accident or 
design, the flat portion with the prostrate human figure beneath the pitau spirals is 
absent, being replaced by two bold open spiral forms - not new to the design, but 
much accentuated. The open spaces will be found in nearly all the figure-heads, 
but not to this extent. I have seen but few of this remarkable form. In this, as in 
No. 6, four fingers are represented. The locality from which the specimen was 
procured is not known, but I am inclined to think that it is from the west coast of 
the North Island. 

Length, 4ft. Height, 2ft. 4in. 

It is in the Colonial Museum, Wellington. 

N^o. 6. 

Figure=head (tau-ihn) of a War Canoe. 

A small but typical specimen of perhaps rather more modern work. The 
grotesques or mythical monsters on the under part of the prow are treated on a 
different style to the preceding examples, and it has the usual figure on the flat 
surface, each side of the base of the central board. 

This tau-ihu is now in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 
Length, 4ft. gin. Height, 2ft. lin. 



Maori Art. 

Figure=head Itau-ihui of a War Canoe. 

In most of the museums of the Colony there are model canoes made by the 
Maoris, but none of them are proportioned to scale. The Colonial Museum at 
Wellington has several good specimens of these models, and has also the carved 
bow and stern pieces for a model canoe, shown in the figure. Setting aside the 
question of scale, it will be seen that these examples are carved with great skill, and 
combine all the details of the real ornaments in a most masterly manner. 

Length of prow (tau-ihu), igin.; height, iiin. Width o{ ?,tern-'po?,t (tau-rapa), 
Sin. ; height, i6in. 

Colonial Museum, Wellington. 

M^o. 8. 

Figure=head itan-ihu) of a War Canoe. 

A most venerable relic worthy of every care, if only for the ver_y archaic character 
of the carving. Long exposure to the weather is probably responsible for the 
advanced state of decay, but the style of work points to a very early date, and to 
very inadequate tools. This is one of the few specimens to which a tradition has 
become attached, for it is said that it formerly belonged to a war canoe owned by 
the great Rangihaeata, the comrade of Te Rauparaha. 

Length, 4ft. bin. ; height, 2ft. 

It is now in the Coloni;il Museum at \\'ellin"-ton. 


Maori Art, 

1*0. 9. 

Part of the Figure=head of a War Canoe. Auckland. 

The central board of the Northern type of tan-ihu, or canoe prow. In this 
beautiful piece of work the artist has introduced a flowing spiral superior to the 
designs ordinarily met with. I regret that I cannot state where this specimen is 
to be found. The figure given is taken from a photograph kindly sent to me by 
Mr. S. Percy Smith, who procured it in Auckland with some others in an album, 
concerning which no particulars could be obtained. 

l»fo. 10. 

Part of the Figure- head of a War Canoe. Auckland. 

Is a similar portion of a canoe prow, reproduced through the kindness of Burton 
Brothers, of Dunedin. In the original photograph it appears to be about five 
feet in height, judging b\' the figure beside it. The three examples of this type 
figured in this work show the same general leading lines — a \va^•ing or undulating 
main stem or band passing diagonall)' from the lower corner to the upper, and 
from that issue two secondar}' bands or stems, passing more or less \'ertically 
to the upper margin. This carving is also reproduced in tlie A'olume of Illustra- 
tions prepared for White's " Ancient Histor}' of the Maori." 1891. 

PLA'i'E V. 


Maori Art, 

N^o. IX. 

Figure-head of a Canoe. 

To the present day canoes with figure-heads of the type here given are to be 
met with on the east and west coasts of the Northern Island of New Zealand. 
Comparatively simple as they appear after the wonderful carvings on the great war 
canoes, yet an infinit}- of patient labour was required to shape the required figure 
from the solid piece of timber. The width of this specimen is 32 inches, and conse- 
quently the original log must have been at least of that diameter. To cut through 
at both ends a piece of timber of this size with stone tools would be great labour, 
even if aided by fire. This specimen is in my own collection, and is at present in 
the Museum of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute at Napier. Its length is 
5ft. It still preserves traces of the red war paint. It came from A\'airoa, Hawke's 
Bay, and was probably made in that neighbourhood. 

Hio. 13. 

Figure-head of a Canoe. 

A line specimen now in the possession of the Rev. Flerlx-rt Williams at 
(iisLorne, Puvert\' Bay. Though in good preservation, it has e^•identl^• not been m 
use for many a year, being partly co\-ered with a gre\- encrustiuir lichen. 

Length, 4ft. gin. Width, 2ft. yin. 





Maori Art. 

IMo. 3.3. 

Stern Ornament {tau-rapa) of a War Canoe. 

This tau-rapa was bought by Mr. James Mackay (then Assistant Native 
Secretary) in 1861 from the Ngati-toa tribe, who possessed the country on the coast 
of the Wellington province opposite to the Island of Kapiti. It is stated to have 
been part of the canoe Kahutia-tc-Rangi, one of the fleet in which Tc Rauparaha and 
his people waged war against the Natives of the South Island of New Zealand in 
1831-32. Native tradition then stated that the carving was from 130 to 150 years 
old, and consequentl}' executed with stone implements. 

I do not know where this carving is at the present time. The figure is repro- 
duced from a negative taken in Auckland some time ago. 

N'o. 14. 

Stern Ornament (tan-rapa) of a War Canoe. 

Canoe sterns, or rapa, are, apart from their size, objedls worthy of close studv, 
especially when, as in the case of the two examples here figured, the highest powers 
of the carver's art have been used to embellish and adorn them. Though so 
different in many respects from the last in the treatment of the minor ornamentation, 
the same kinds of design again occur. In this case I feel certain that the rapa 
bslonged to the same canoe as did the ihu figured on PI. i, Fig. 2. By comparing 
the two an idea will be gained of how the same method of treatment was carried 
out in two carvings so unlike one another in general form. Unfortunately at the 
present time this identification of the corresponding parts can only be carried out in 
a few cases. 

Height, 6ft. 

Colonial Museum, Wellington. 

ri,A'i'i-: \ii 

f £,« 






7w V^^!^ 





58 Maori Art. 

N^o. 15. 

Stern Ornament {tau-rapa) of a War Canoe. 

Carved stern-post of war canoe. It is hard to say which of the two is the more 
beautiful — the carving at the prow or the stern of a canoe. Whilst there is a 
practical uniformity in the pattern, or the essentials of the pattern, there is an 
endless amount of variation and elaboration in the details. Here we have a very 
typical example, not fully elaborated, but presenting the essentials of the design. 
The figure seated at the base, looking into the canoe, is occasionally reduced to a 
head only, as in fig. 17. 

The examination of the three figures in this plate will show that, apart from the 
two ascending bars, the motive is the same as on the tau-ihu — a figure or face 
between two double spirals, repeated as often as may be necessary to fill the space. 

Height, 5ft. 2in. 

It is in the colleftion of Dr. T. M. Hocken, of Dunedin. 

) • •♦ < 

N^o. 16. 

Stern Ornament {tau-rapa) of a War Canoe. 

"" A very highly-finished specimen in the Museum of the University of Otago, 

Dunedin. This specimen, together with the tau-ihit at end of list of Illustrations, 

belonged to one individual canoe. 

Height, 4ft. 3in. 

— >»♦» < — 

N^o. 17. 

Stern Ornament (tau-rapa) of a War Canoe. 

This beautiful, but unfinished, piece of carving is in the possession of a 
gentleman in Poverty Bay, in the North Island of New Zealand. It is a more 
modern piece of work than the last, but in pattern and style preserves the old 
traditions. It is not unusual to find, even in some of the oldest carvings, portions 
left unfinished. I have a canoe prow in which the whole of one side is finished, and 
the other side hardly started. 

Height, 6ft. 6in. 

There is a remarkable likeness between these tall canoe stern carvings and 
those on the Tahitian canoes of Cook's time, as may be seen by Webber's drawings 
to " Cook's Voyages." 

I'L A'i'i; \'iir. 

V -* ■ 

Ho Maori Art, 

N^o. 18. 

Baler (tata) of a War Canoe. 

(a) A baler from Akuaku, Poverty Bay. A typical example of this form of 
canoe baler. The specimen is of considerable antiquity, and is one of a pair. They 
were of some repute, and were named. This one was called Pororangi, after the 
chieftainess of that name. 

This is in my own collection at Dunedin. 

ffo. 19. 

Baler (tata) of a War Canoe. 

(b) A unique specimen of curious appearance and great antiquity, having been 
found in what is known as Monck's Cave, at Sumner, near Christchurch, a prehistoric 
ca\e-dwelling of the Maoris. 

It is \tr\ unusual to find the handle continued on into the bowl, or left in the 
solid ; but I have seen some instances. It adds greatly to the strength of the 

Length, isin. Breadth, 8in. 

Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

I«o. 20. 

Baler {tata) of a War Canoe. 

(c) A very graceful specimen showing much refinement in the contours and 
execution. It is in the Colonial Museum, Wellington. 

Length, i8in. Width, i2in. 

There are several other forms of balers found in collections, but I am not able 
to figure them for want of space. 

PLATE rx. 


!j.:^_ . f) 

62 Maori Art. 

N^o. 21. 

Figurc'head (taii-iliii) of a War Canoe. 

Represents the northern form of tnii-ihii, with all the parts put toofether. It is 
not so highly finished as those pieces figured on PI. V., but it evidently carries out 
the same idea in another way. The transverse portion is given as a tail-piece on 
page 24. The head is also given as a tail-piece on page 16. The base seen from 
above is shown at Fig. 23. 

14^0. 22. 

Figure-head of a War Canoe (seen from above). 

A view of the tau-i/ni is figured on page 68, looking from above. 

I4'o. 23. 

Part of Figure-head of a War Canoe (seen from above). Auckland. 

Is, as already mentioned, the base of the large northern figure-head (Fi^x. ai), as 
seen from above. In the groove in the centre, and also in the transverse groove; 
are seen the holes for the pegs connecting the various parts. 

N^o. 24. 

Figure-head of War Canoe (seen from above). 

The view from above of a very large canoe-head or tan-ihn. This fine specnnen 
is figured on page 25, and is a beautiful piece of work. 
The total length is 6ft. 3in. 
It is now in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

I'LA'l'E X. 

^^^ V;^' 
":'?^ MS^ 








Double-page lithograph of diagrams of the parts of a Maori canoe and 
its fittings. 


Carved head from the base of a canoe pruvv. 

Original in the Museum of the University of Otago, Dunedin .... Page i6. 

Figure-head {pakurukurii) of a small canoe. Taranaki. 

In Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand .... Page 17. 

Transverse board of figure-head of a war canoe. Auckland .... Pao-e 24. 

(See also Plates V. and X.) 

Figure-head {tau-ihu) of war canoe. Length, 5ft. 3in. 

Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand .... .... Page 25. 

B^ishing canoe of the present day. 

Poverty Bay .... .... .... .... .... Page 28. 

Part of a canoe carved and erected as a memorial to a deceased chief. 

Formerly in a Native burial ground at Wanganui .... .... Page 38. 

Fragment of a canoe-prow found on the beach at Lyttelton by one of 
the early settlers. 
Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand .... Page 41. 

Hiiaki figure on the tau-ihu of a war canoe. 

Colonial Museum, Wellington .... .... .... Page 42. 

Figure-head {tau-ihu) of a war canoe. 

Otago University Museum, Dunedin .... .... .... Page 68. 

(See Plate VIII., Fig. 16, for tau-rapa belonging to this prow). 



Plate I., Fin-, i. — Figure-head (tau-ilin) of war canoe. 

Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand. 
Fi!^^ 2. — Figure-head (tail i/iii) of war canoe. 
Colonial Museum. 
Plate II., Fig. 3. — Plgure-head (iaii-ihii ) of war canoe. 

Museum of Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute. 
Fig. 4. — Figure-head (taii-iliii) of war canoe. 

Colonial Museum, Wellington. 

Plate III., Fig. 5. — Figure-head (tau-ihu) of war canoe. 

Colonial Museum, Wellington. 

Fig. 5. — Figure-head (tau-ihu). 

Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Plate IV., Fig. 7. — Tau-iliu and tau-rapa for a model war canoe. 

Colonial Museum, Wellington. 

Fig. 8. — Figure-head (tau-iliii) of war canoe. 

Colonial Museum, Wellington. 

Plate v.. Fig. g. — Part of thi iigure-head of a war canoe. 


Fig. 10. — Part of the figure-head of a war canoe. 

Plate VI., Fig. 11. — Figure-head of a canoe. 

Museum of Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute. 

Fig. 12. — Figure-head of a canoe. 

Gisborne, Poverty Bay. 

Plate VII., Fig. 13. — Stern ornament (tau-rapa) of war canoe. 

Fig. 14. — Stern ornament (tau-rapa) of war canoe. 
Colonial Museum, Wellington. 


Specimens Figured in the Plates. 

Plate VIII., Fig. 15. — Stern ornament (taii-rapa) of war canoe. 

In collection of Dr. T. M. Hocken, Dunedin. 
Fio-. 16.— Stern ornament (tan-rapa) of war canoe. 

Otago University Museum, Dunedin. 
Fig. 17. — Stern ornament ( tmi-rapa ). 
Poverty Bay. 
Plate IX., Fig. 18. — Baler {tata) of war canoe. 

From Poverty Bay. 
Fig. ig. — Baler (tata) of war canoe. 

Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 
Fig. 20. — Baler {tata) of war canoe. 

Colonial Museum, Wellington. 
Plate X., Fig. 21. — Figure-head [tau-ihu) of war canoe. 

Fig. 22. — Figure-head of war canoe, seen from above. 
Otago University Museum, Dunedin. 
Fig. 23. — Base of figure-head of war canoe, seen from above. 

Fig. 24. — Figure-head of war canoe, seen from above. 
Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Figure = head {iau-ihu) of a War Canoe. 

otago University Museum Dunedin. 


New Zealand Institute, 

Wellington, 23rd September, 1897. 

IN issuing Part II. of Maori Art, Mr. Hamilton desires me to acknowledge 
the assistance he has received from numerous correspondents since the 
publication of Part I., and to return his thanks for the numerous photo- 
graphs forwarded to him, more particularly for those sent by Mr. Josiah Martin, 
of Auckland, who has taken several photographs specially for this Part ; Mr. 

A. Martin, of Wanganui ; Mr. Morris arid Messrs. Burton Brothers, of Dunedin, 
who have kindly rendered great assistance from their large store of Maori 
photographs ; and many others who have rendered cordial assistance. Promises 
of co-operation have been received from the chief Museums in England and 
the Continent, and it is therefore anticipated that the best results will follow 
from such generous help. 


Colonial Museum, 


Specimens Figured in the Plates. 


I»J5.ItT II. 









Registrar of the University of Otago. 


18 9 7. 

Konipe, or Lintel of a Doorway. 




THE perishable nature of the building materials used by the Maoris, and 
the operation of the social customs relating to the property of deceased 
chiefs, have rendered it a difficult matter, at the present time, to obtain from 
personal observation a faithful record of the various buildings, which, in times now 
past, went to make up the village cluster or kainga — unfortified — or the fortified pa, 
or stronghold. Before endeavouring to present, in a collefted form, the evidence 
still available of the different kinds of houses and buildings, I should at once make 
it clear that, whilst there was a general similarity, many forms were undoubtedly 
local, some the result of individual caprice, or adapted to some special circum- 
stance. It is also very unlikely that a.ny pa ever contained at any one time all the 
recorded varieties of buildings. 

The earliest account that we have of the appearance of a Maori village in 
its normal condition is, fortunately, to bs found in "Cook's Voyages."* He says, 
speaking of their villages in general :—" Their houses are the most inartificially 
made of anything among them, being scarcely equal, exceptmg in size, to an 
English dog-kennel. They are seldom more than 1 8 to 20 feet long, 8 to 10 feet 
broad, and 5 to 6 feet high from the ground to the pole which runs from one end 

*Cook (Hawkesworth), Vol. iii., p. 457, 1st ed., 1773. 

^2 The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

to the other, and forms the ridge. The framing is of wood, generally slender 
sticks, and both walls and roof consist of dried grass and hay, which, it must 
be confessed, is very tightly put together ; and some are also lined with the 
bark of trees, so that in cold weather they must afford a comfortable retreat. 
The roof is sloping, like those of our barns, and the door is at one end, just 
high enough to admit a man creeping on his hands and knees ; near the door 
is a square hole, which serves the double office of window* and chimney — for the 
fireplace is at that end, nearly in the middle below the two sides ; in some 
conspicuous part, and generally near the door, a plank is fixed, covered with 
carving after their manner — this they value as we do a pifture, and in their 
estimation it is not an inferior ornament ; the sidewalls and roof projeft about 
two feet beyond the walls at each end, so as to form a porch, in which there are 
benches for the accommodation of the family. That part of the floor which is 
allotted for the fireplace is enclosed in a hollow square by partitions, either of wood 
or stone, and in the middle a fire is kindled. The floor along the inside of the walls 
is thickly covered with straw, and on this the family sleep. f Some of the better sort, 
whose families are large, have three or four houses, enclosed with a courtyard, the 
walls of which are construfted of poles and hay, and are about 12 or 13 feet high. 
We saw at Tolaga the frame of a house much superior to these ; it was 30 feet in 
length, 15 feet in breadth, 12 feet in height, and adorned with carved planks." 

The material used to cover the framework varied very much with the 
locality, and a large number of sedges, grasses, reeds, and leaves were used. 
Sheets of bark from the Totara pine (Podocarpus Totara), and the leaves of the 
Nikau palm (Arcca sapidaj, made excellent coverings for temporary shelters, and 
were also used in more permanent work. 

The remarkably small doorway of the ordinary house is noted by all the 
early authorities, and they also agree on the height in the inside of the house, from 
floor to ridge pole, being only five or six feet. The ma/iati, or deep porch at the 
end of the house, usually faced the sun, as it was an ill omen to face the south 
(such a house being called wharc-kotore) ; it served for many purposes, especially for 
feeding in, as no cooked food could be taken into a dwelling house or eaten there. 

* Crozet mentions " the small window, about 2 feet square, furnished with a rush trellis." — " Nouveau Voyage a 
la Mer Sud " (H. Ling Eoth) In several Maori legends instances occur of a kind of skylight or window (pihanga: 
in the roof, as in the story of Monoa entering the Wharekura. Taylor says tlie opening fpihangaj had a small roof 
over it to keep out the rain (Taylor, Te Ika, 2nd ed., p. 179). 

t (-'rozet says — "They had a square of boards well joined together, about 6 feet long by 2 feet broad; on these 
planks are laid 7 or 8 inches of grass or fern, well dried, and upon which they sleep." 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 73 

Crozet, in 1772, and Earle,* in 1827, found the ordinary houses exactly 
corresponding to Cook's description. The sketches, made by Angas and others, 
show that the ordinary whares were mostly small, about seven feet long by five or 
six broad ; and Mr. Colenso says, their common houses, though plain, were often 
very strongly made ; sometimes, however, their walls were not more than two feet 
high, with a prodigious roof. In some distrifts a custom obtained of sinking the 
floorf a foot or so below the level of the ground, and heaping the earth up against 
the sides of the house, thus avoiding to a great extent the variations of external 
heat and cold. When a house of this kind was destroyed by fire or perished from 
decay, the pit remained, and in all parts of the North Island these hollows attest the 
presence at some past time of native dwellings, or store pits. In the southern part 
of the South Island the praftice of excavating the house area was not followed, 
although the climatic conditions would appear to demand such proteftion more 
than in the north. Possibly, however, the praftice may have been introduced into 
the North Island at a late date, or originated there since the Maori occupation of 
the North, as house and store pits are also found in the north of the South Island. 

Taking the small simple dwelling house or hut as the unit or starting point 
of a village, we find that each family group surrounded its house or houses with a 
screen or fence of posts inserted into the ground close to each other, and made into 
a secure barrier by cross rails firmly lashed with ake or other bush creepers (kareao, 
&c.) Several of these groups related by family ties or a common interest combmmg 
together, would ereft a stouter and stronger fence round the whole, leaving 
sufficient space somewhere in the enclosure, generally in front of the large assembly 
houses, as the marae or courtyard, where dances or meetings could be held, or 
speeches made. In large pas the great fence (pekerangt) was composed of large 
posts, sometimes entire trees ; at short intervals in the fence a larger post than 
usual (tukumaru) was placed, and the top carved into the representation of a 
defiant warrior (kahia), armed with some native weapon.j Most of the smaller 
posts were finished off at the top by a deep notch all round a foot or so from the 
end, giving a resemblance to a head stuck on a post. At the building of an 
important pa it was usual to bury a slave under each of t he main posts of the fence . 

Colenso, "Transactions Now Zealand Institute," Vol. i , ed., p. 349. 
** Earle, Nari-ative. &c., p. 50. „ ir i ■■ n^ •\R9 

of theV is given in the "Transactions New Zealand Institute, Vol. xxvuu, p. 41. 

7^ The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

Close to Opotiki eleven skeletons were recently found, each buried under the 
decayed post of a />a. Space would be required for store houses for food and for 
weapons, paddles, &c., for cook houses (kauta), and sheds for various purposes, 
and covered pits (rua) for storing root crops. A striking pi6fure of a Maori pa of 
the olden times in the Whanganui distrift, North Island, during peace, was 
published as a lithograph from a painting by Gilfillan, and in most of the details 
is excellent. Unfortunately the wave of European influence is just reaching the 
village, and sailors' caps and blankets are to be seen, together with potatoes and 
that useful animal-often called, with much reason, one of the great civilizers of 
the Pacific— the pig. The situation of the pa, or village, would naturally be 
determined by the charafter of the neighbourhood as a food-providing area. By 
the mouth of streams or rivers, by the swamps teeming with eels and birds, or on 
headlands or points running out into the sea, the settlements grew up of a more or 
less permanent nature. Next to these praaical considerations came the esthetic. 
" They generally sought a clear open site for their villages, so as to command a 
good view ; a fine open prospeft from a villiage being loudly praised by strangers, 
while a cramped or bad one was denounced. They did all they could to keep their 
villages both clean and tidy. Each village had its common privy, generally in 
some secluded spot. Their houses were often neatly kept, all their little articles 
hung up or stowed away in baskets in their proper places. Their fishing residences, 
or huts near their cultivations, and forest huts where they sometimes dwelt (for a 
chief had generally five or six residences), were usually beautifully placed and 
snugly ensconced under shady trees, and by the side of a murmuring brook ; they 
rarely ever wantonly cut down evergreen shrubs or old shady trees growing near 
them for the sake of their wood for timber or firing, choosing rather to fetch the 
same from a long distance." * 

The houses of the common people were frequently scattered about in the 
neighbourhood of their cultivations, within easy reach of the great tribal pa, and 
these, if destroyed by a marauding enemy, were easily replaced. The great 
meeting houses and the residences of chiefs, with the series of houses for various 
purposes, were usually within the great fences. 

It is worthy of notice that in regard to sanitary regulations. Cook found that 
most Maori pas were better regulated than many of the large cities of Europe at 

* Colenso, "Transactions New Zealand Institute," Vol. i., p. 375. 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 75 

that date— every little cluster of houses being furnished with a privy [paepae), 
the offal of their food was piled up in regular dunghills. 

There were no regular streets, but there were irregular passages of 
communication between the various clusters of houses, each enclosure having 
small apertures for ingress and egress, and usually, in modern times, a stile of one 
or two steps either of wood or stone, so as to exclude pigs. Sometimes these 
stiles, even those connefting the plantations of kumara and potatoes (ot taro) were 
carved with grotesque figures.* The main entrance (waha-roa) to the pa through 
the great fence was often elaborately carved, f Mr. Colenso thus describes the 
gateway of a pa at Onepoto, a village close to Lake Waikare-moana— " The 
gateway was embellished with a pair of huge and highly-carved human figures, 
besmeared with shining red pigment, armed with spears, and grinning defiance to 
all-comers. These were not only seen to advantage through being elevated above 
the horizon, but their eyes (or rather sockets), instead of being set with glittering 
haliotis shell, according to the usual native custom, were left open, so that the light 
of the sky streamed through them ; and this was yet more particularly manifested 
owing to the proper inclination given to the figures, looking down, as it were, on all 
looking up at the narrow, steep ascent into the well-fenced village. "J 

Many of the great Maori pas must have contained one or two thousand 
people. The natives are unanimous in affirming that they were much more numerous 
in former times than they were at the time of the arrival of the colonists. The old 
hill forts are many of them so large that an amount of labour must have been 
expended in trenching, terracing, and fencing them — the want of iron tools 
increasing the difficulty a hundredfold — that must have required a vastly greater 
population to accomplish. These forts were of such an extent that ten times the 
number of men living in the distrift in modern times must have been required to 
defend them, even under the old conditions of warfare. And yet, says Manning, 
"when we remember that in those days of constant war — being the two centuries 
preceding the arrival of the Europeans — the natives always, as a rule, slept in their 
hill forts with closed gates, bridges over trenches removed, and ladders of terraces 
drawn up, we must come to the conclusion that the inhabitants of the fort, though 
so numerous, were merely the population of the country in the close vicinity."|| 

* Angas, "Savage Life and Scenes," Vol. ii., p. 129. 

t See a sketch of a gateway to a jra in Major-Gen. Robli^y's " Moko," p. 89, fig. 99. 

X Colenso, "Transactions New Zealand Institute," 1S94, Vol. xxvii., p. 360. 

II Judge Manning, " Old New Zealand," p. 105. 

76 The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

The warlike nati?re of the Maori, however, looked upon the piping times of 
peace only as a convenient time to prepare for war, and the great war pa or citadel 
of a tribe was the most important feature in their daily life, and had to be kept in 
order and readiness for instant use. This feeling was a universal one, and we find 
that Angas says, " near the path leading from Pukepoto I observed a minature 
pa constructed by the boys, who amuse themselves by building tiny fortifications, 
and emulate the courage and skill of their sires in the sport of besieging and 
defending them. The mounds were made of heaps of earth, and the fencework 
constructed of upright sticks, displaying the characteristic ingenuity of the Maori 
children. Their elders also, when fighting their battles over again to an 
appreciative audience, would frequently construct a rough model on the ground 
with pieces of fern stalk stuck in to illustrate their story, and show " how fields 
were won."* 

Every advantage was taken of the natural features of the country, and 
every isolated hill or promontory in the North Island, or any easily fortified 
situation, has at one time or another been the site of a war pa or citadel. These 
sites have as many historical associations as any castled height in Europe, and it 
is much to be regretted that all the palisades and carved posts, with their defiant 
figures, have decayed, leaving only the scarped sides and ditches and banks as 
reminders to the present age of the glories of the past. As the British and Roman 
camps on the hills of Britain call up the visions of a long passed stormy period of 
war and strife, so in future years will the ditches and banks of the Maori forts 
testify to the energy and military genius of the great Maori race. From the 
sketches and plans given it will be seen that the system of defences offered an 
effectual resistance to the assault of an enemy unprovided with steel weapons or 

The introduftion of firearms struck a fatal blow at the whole system of 
Maori tadics. With great skill, however, the leading chiefs of the day modified 
their defences, and many new pas were built that commanded the respea and 
admiration of European officers, and trained forces of the British army found it no 
easy matter to dislodge a brave and war-loving foe from his rifle-pits and entrench- 
ments. The defensive works at Te Arie pa at the VVaitara were found to be very 

* Angas. See " Life and Scenes," Vol ii., p. 9G. 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. "]^ 

formidable, ditches 15 feet deep, and this novelty in Maori fortification — there was 
a strong parapet built of earth mixed with fern about 16 feet thick, covered by a 
line of rifle pits or a covered way, about 40 yards in front of the line of stockade ; 
so that had the guns been used, the Maori defenders, being in front instead of the 
rear of their stockade, would have been entirely under cover ; the shot and shell 
which would have been naturally thrown into the stockade, would have been quite 
ineffectual, and the garrison would have been able to have received any attacking 
column after the palisades had been apparently breached.* The earthworks at 
Rangiriri were also very effeflive, the ditch being 12 feet wide, and the parapet 
18 feet high. It is said that in purely native warfare it was not unusual for an 
an enemy to approach the walls by a sap or underground approach.! Colonel 
Wynyard made a model of one of these pas adapted to the new conditions — the 
celebrated pa at Ruapekapeka, construfted by Kawiti in 1845. A similar model 
was constru6ted by Capt. Balneavis of the 58th Regiment, and sent over to the 
Great Exhibition of 185 1. In some cases, as in two old pas near New Plymouth, 
one at Te Koru and another at Stony River, the banks or walls of the pa under 
the palisading were compaftly built of stone, mostly large boulders from the river 
beds. The Waiohua or Ngaiwi, near Auckland, are also said to have had stone 
walled pas. 

Many ingenious devices were used in war time. Shortland mentions an 
instance of the besiegers eredling a stout fence {karapoti] as a blockade entirely 
round the besieged pa, effe6lually preventing the escape of the victims. Another 
party construdied a huge wickerwork shield (kahupapa) large enough to proted 
twenty men, who, thus covered, pushed it up to the fence of the pa, after the 
manner of the ancients. Another ingenious device was spreading sea shells over 
the paths leading to the pa, so that the sound of the shells breaking under the feet 
of the enemy might alarm the inmates in the case of a night attack. In the 
instance quoted, however,^ the enemy outwitted the defenders by spreading their 
dogskin mats over the shells, and took the pa by surprise. During the defence of 
Te Namo pa by the Taranaki and Wi Kingi, the Waikatos, during the night, 
constructed three taumaiJns (towers of earth or wood) to enable them to fire into the 

* Major-aen. Sir J. Alexander, " Bush Fighting," &c., 1873, p. 237. 

LI\7rct™t''o7a'S:t^^^^ Kaiapohia in Shortland's " Traditions of the New ZeaUnders." 

p. 256 ; and Kev. J. W. Stack in " Kaiapohia : The Story of a Siege 1893^ 

: Judge Penton, "Important Judgments Native Lands Court, lSbb-/9, p. o3. 

g The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

pa, and parties were told off to steal up under cover oi the darkness and undermine 
the parapet. This was also done at the siege of Moturoa.* 

A hthoc^raph of the pas of two parties of Maoris at Waitangi in the Chatham 
Island, formmg part of a series drawn by Major Heaphy in 1839, was published by 
the New Zealand Government, showing fighting towers (taumatlu) built of wood to 
a great height. 

Cook remarks that " south of Poverty Bay he saw no Uppahs, but upon the 
hillsides were stages of great height, furnished with stones and darts."t The 
whole of the country from Poverty Bay to Cape Kidnappers is covered with the 
remams of fortified pas, many of which appear of great antiquity, so that Cooks 
statement probably applies to some portion of the distridf then recently devas- 
tated or temporarily uninhabited. 

Deserted villages seem to have been frequently seen by Cook, especially in 
Queen Charlotte Sound. After a defeat the viUages forsaken by the conquered 
were rarely occupied by the viftors. 

Cook visited a great war jS^a at Mercury Bay, and he thus describes it — " The 
pa was enclosed with a fence about 10 feet high, consisting of strong poles bound 
too-ether with withes ; the weak side next to the land is also defended by a double 
ditch, the innermost of which has a bank and additional palisade ; the inner 
palisades are upon the bank next the town, but at such a distance from the top of 
the bank as to leave room for the men to walk and use theii arms, between them 
and the inner ditch ; the outermost palisades are between the two ditches, and 
driven obliquely into the ground, so that their upper ends incline over the inner 
ditch ; the depth of the ditch from the bottom to the crown of the bank is 24 feet. 

''■ Close within the innermost palisades is a stage 20 feet high, 40 feet long, 
and 6 feet broad ; it is supported by strong posts, and is intended for a station for 
the defenders, from which they may annoy the assailants by darts and stones, heaps 
of which lay ready for \x^e.\ Another stage of the same kind commands the steep 
avenue from the track, and stands also within the palisading. On the side of the 
hill there are some little outworks and huts, not intended as advanced posts, but as 

* .Judge Gudgeon, " History and Traditions of the Maoris," p. GS. 
f "Cook's Voyages" (Hawkeswoith), Vol. iii., p. 4U9. 
I See also " Crozet's Voyagi>" (H. Ling Both), p 32. 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 79 

the habitations of people, who, for want of room, could not be accommodated 
within the works, but who were, notwithstanding, desirous of placing themselves 
under their protection. The palisades, as had been observed already, run round 
the whole brow of the hill, as well towards the sea as towards the land, but the 
ground within having originally been a mount, they have reduced it, not to one 
level, but to several, rising in stages one above the other like an amphitheatre, each 
of which is enclosed in a separate palisade ; they communicate with each other 
by narrow lanes which might easily be stopped up, so that, if an enemy should 
force the outward palisades, he would have others to carry before the place could 
be wholly reduced. 

" The only entrance is by a narrow passage about 12 feet long, communi- 
cating with the steep ascent from the beach ; it passes under one of the fighting 
stages [Cook in another place calls this stage porava =poraiva] , and though we saw 
nothing like a door or gateway, it may be easily barricaded. The openings in the 
fences were not opposite each other, but some distance to the right or left. There 
were quantities of fern root and dried fish in the store house, and water was 
stored in calabashes or bowls, to say nothing of the kumaras, taros, &c."* 

In every group of houses of any importance there was one, a ichare-ichakairo 
or carved house, which served in the first place as a council chamber and as a 
guest house, and was also often regarded as a memorial of some great event in the 
history of the tribe, such as the birth of an heir to the principal chief, or of a special 
assembly of the tribes to discuss questions of war or peace. On the arrival of 
each of the famous canoes of the migration from Hawaiki, a lohare maire or n'liarc 
kum was built, in Nvhich was taught the religion, history, poetry, and genealogies of 
the tribe, by the priest whose special funftion it was to preserve this lore. The 
names of nearly all, and the positions of many of these celebrated houses are 
known. t It was on these ceremonial houses, and on the chief's store houses, that 
most of the best art workmanship was bestowed, and it is therefore necessary to 
^ive some detailed description of the mode of construaion.J This has been 
rendered a comparatively easy matter by the publication of an article by the Rev. 
Herbert Williams, of Poverty Bay, on a Maori house§ as construfted by the Ngati 

*" Cook's Voyage " (Hawkesworth), Vol. ii., p. 34-3. 

i SeTa":\ntte'un Jdes^-^i^tion of a house built by the Maoris for Mr. Colenso iu 1S« at Waitangi, Hawkes 
Bay. " Trans. N.Z. Institute," Vol. xiv., p. 50. 
5 Journal Pol. Soc, Vol. v., p. 145, No. 19. 

8o The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

Porou tribe, who still occupy the East Cape distrift, and who have at all times 
been noted for their skill in building and carving. 


A whare consisted of a framework of timber, carefully notched, and lashed 
together with flax, the wall spaces being filled in with screens made chiefly of 
kakaho, the reeds of the toetoe plsint (A rundo conspicuaj, the whole being covered 
with bundles of raupo (Typha angustifolia) , bound on with strips of flax (Phormmm 
tcnax). For months, and perhaps years, the materials would be sought for, 
coUefted, and prepared. Suitable timbers would be slowly and laboriously dressed 
down to the required size by the application of fire and stone tools. The timber 
most desired for building purposes was that which had been brought down by floods 
and then buried for years in the bed of the river, and in course of time had lost its 
sap wood and become well seasoned. To drag these logs from their watery bed, 
and to get together the numerous large timbers required, was a great undertaking. 
Numbers and determination overcame all difficulties, as was exemplified in the case 
of the building of the Mission Church at Otaki, where the enormous ridge pole — a 
solid piece of totara 86 feet long, was dragged 12 miles, and finally elevated on 
three pillars, 40 feet high, by the manual labour of the natives. 

The kakaho, or reeds, the flower stalks of the Arundo (toetoe), had to be cut 
at the proper season, if possible from a forest locality, and carefully dried. Huge 
stores of the leaves of the Typha or bulrush {Ratipo) would be required for the sides 
and the roof of the house, together with quantities of the invaluable Phormium or 
Muka, the so-called New Zealand flax. In the northern districts, the wiry creeping 
fern {Lygodinin scandcns) Mange-mange was utilized to fasten down the outside 
layers "of thatch on the roof; in other districts, plaited ropes of flax, or a light 
lattice of thin manuka rods. If suitable timber could not otherwise be obtained, 
it was necessary to fell some huge Totara or other pine, and to do this, fire and 
the stone axes {toki) had to be used. The branches were removed, and the trunk 
then split with wedges made of hard wood. 

The materials having^been procured, and the position of the house decided 
on, the appropriate ceremonies were performed by the priest, and the proper karaktas 
recited. Any levelling that was required was then done, so as to have a hard level 
earthen floor. The shape of all houses was practically a parallelogram of varying 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 8i 

proportions ; in some of the larger houses the length was as much as 60 feet or 
10 jiiaro (fathom). Anything over 25 feet would, however, be considered a large 
IV hare. The proportion of the width to the length varied according to the taste of 
the tohunga who superintended the building. 

On the East Coast, measurement was by the maro., or fathom of 6 feet, 
measured by the extended arms ; on the West Coast, by takoto, that is, the length 
from the foot to the hand extended beyond the head as the measurer lay at full 
length on the ground. 

The Rev. Herbert Williams gives the following account of the details of the 
construftion of a Maori house, which I am permitted to reproduce from the "Journal 
of the Polynesian Society": — 

" The lines for the two ends, known as roro, the front, and tiiarongo, the 
back, were first laid down, and the building squared by measuring the diagonals, 
hauroki. Finally, for some occult reason, the corner on the right-hand side of the 
roro, looking into the house, was displaced a very slight distance towards the 
tuarongo, or back. The sides of the open porch, or ichakaiiiahaii, were not a 
continuation of the sides of the house, but were on parallel lines a few inches 
within the others. 

" The next business was the ereftion of the main posts, or potc-tahn, for the 
support of the ridge-pole, tahu or taliithu. These were trunks of trees, either whole 
or split in half, with the inner convex faces carved or more -often painted, and stood 
in the middle of the ro7'o and tuarongo respeftively ; that at the roro being perceptibly 
higher than the other to allow the smoke to escape at the front of the house. Some- 
ingenuity was displayed in eredting these posts. The hole was dug, and the post 
brought up to it and laid face downwards inside the -wliarc ; a heavy slab of wood, 
the tiiaiiait, was placed in the hole against the foot of the post ; the head of the 
post was first raised by lifting, and then by hauling on two heavy ropes, the 
advantage made in hauling being secured by a pair of shears, tokorangi, placed 
under the post, and worked gradually forward towards the hole ; a third rope 
fastened to the head of the post served to guide it as it rose ; when the post was 
perpendicular the tuanaii was removed, the hole filled in, and the earth rammed 
down. In some houses the parts of the main posts within the ground were 

82 The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

surrounded with slabs cut from the fibrous trunk of the large tree-ferns (ponga), 
which, being almost imperishable, preserved the posts ; such slabs were called 


" The tahii, or ridge-pole, was in one piece, and about lo feet longer than 
the wharc proper. Its section was an obtuse isosceles triangle, the apex uppermost. 
In a large house it might be two feet or more in width, and must have been of 
considerable weight. The difficulty of raising it to its position on the pou-ahii was 
overcome b}' the use of tokorangi at each end, a scaffolding {rangitapu) being erefted 
to support it in different positions, until it finally rested on the flat tops of the 
pou-tdiu, the rear end resting on its post, while the excess mentioned above 
projefted in front of the -wharc. This extra lo feet of the tahii was carved to 
represent a conventional human figure (pane), while the part between the posts was 
painted with a scroll pattern [kowhai). The tahu was retained in its position by 
stout pins driven through either side into the posts, also by lashing to sunk eyes. 

" During the work of building, the tahu was supported between the posts by 
one or two temporary supports (tokotoko) ; these, when the building was completed, 
were replaced by the pou-tokonianaica, a post much lighter than the pou-tahu, 
generally squared through the greater part of the length, with the lower part carved 
to represent a human figure, the result in many cases being very realistic. In some 
iz'hares there may now be seen a light pole supporting the projefting end of the 
tahu, but this formed no part of a regulation Maori wharc. 

" The framework of the sides, pakitara, consisted of upright slabs of wood set 
in the ground. These slabs, poupou, were from one to three feet wide, from three 
to nine inches thick, and of such a height as to make the pitch of the roof about 
30 degrees. ' Of course, as the pou-tahu were not of the same height the poupou had 
to be graduated accordingly. In ordinary houses the height of the poupou above 
ground was somewhat under six feet, but in special cases has been made as much 
as 13 feet. The poupou were flat or slightly convex on the inner face, which was 
sometimes elaborately carved with conventionalized figures of ancestors, sometimes 
painted, and sometimes slightly relieved by notches along the edges. The edges of 
each poupou were rebated from behind ; and at the top there was a semicircular 
depression, the rua-whctu, to receive the end of the rafter ; in small houses this 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 83 

depression was about half the width of the poiipou. When in position the poiipoii 
leaned slightly inwards, and were each buttressed behind with a hirinaki, a rough 
piece of split timber set in the ground, and lashed to eyes near the upper end of 
the poupou. The poupou were, of course, set opposite one another at even distances, 
starting from the corners by the tuarongo. The four poupou at the corners of the 
house were tapu. The intervals were, as a rule, a little wider than the poupou, and 
were invariably of an odd number inside the ic/iarc, and an odd number also — 
generally three — in the whakainahmi . Not infrequently the poupou nearest the front 
wall was split down the middle with its corresponding rafter, half being inside the 
house and half in the porch, thus making in all an odd number of poupou on each 
side of the house. The upper ends of the poupou were secured to a batten, kaho- 
paetara, placed behind the poupou and lashed to notches or holes in the corners of 
each. The kaho-patu were respeftively contiguous to the tahu and kaho-paetara. 

" The framework of the tuarongo consisted of uprights, epa, set in the ground 
similarly to the poupou, except that they were set vertically. There were, of course, 
the same number on either side of the pou-tahu, generally three; in the case of a 
large whare as many as five. The height was fixed by the heke-tipi, a board placed 
on its edge, and extending from the top of the pou-tahu to the top of the poupou ; 
each epa was lashed to the lower edge of this board. 

" The row was similar to the tuarongo, but with a frame for the door, tatau, 
on the right of the pou-tahu, looking outwards, and one for the window, niatapihi or 
pihanga, on the left ; the epa being cut away to leave room for these frames. 

"A skirting-board, papaka, was formed by slabs placed between the poupou. 
These slabs were rebated from the front at the ends to come flush with the faces of 
the poupou, and from the back along the upper edge to correspond with the rebate 
on the sides of the poupou. Similar boards were placed between the epa of the two 
ends of the whare. 

" The door, tatau, was rarely more than two feet wide and four feet high, and 
consisted of a slab of wood about two inches thick. It was opened by sliding the 
slab from the pou-tahu into a recess built m the wall. When the whare was closed 

84 The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

from without, the cord holding tlie door was fastened in a knot, nirti aho tuwhere. 
Many owners had their special knots, which were highly complicated, to serve as 
burglar deteftors. When closed from the inside the door was secured by a peg, 
and rattling was prevented by a wedge. 

" The door-frame consisted of the paepae, or threshold — a piece of timber in 
length rather more than twice the width of the door, and squared, about 12 inches 
by 12 inches, having a groove, toanga, on its upper face to carry the door. Upon 
this stood the jambs, whakawai (roughly morticed to the sill and taupoki), which 
projefted front and back to form a moulding; the two whakawai were flanged, the 
front edge being generally ornamented with carving. The left-hand jamb (looking 
outwards) stood close against the pou-tahu, the right-hand one was in two pieces, 
which stood on either side of the groove in the paepae. Over the whakawai lay a 
horizontal slab, the fuapoki, while the front of the doorway was finished off by a 
carved slab, the korupe, or kororupe, which rested on the carved edges of the 
whakawai. The koriipc was not put in its place until the spaces in the walls had 
been filled in with raupo. The recess into which the door slid was lined with light 
horizontal battens, to prevent the door injuring the packing of the walls. The 
arrangements for the window, which was about two feet by two feet, were in all 
respefts similar to those for the door ; except that of course the window slid to the 
left. The sill was flanged on the outside similarly to the jambs. The usual height 
from the ground was such that a man sitting could barely see out. 

" After the poupou had been allowed to stand in the ground some time so as to 
get well set, the rafters, heke, were put into position. These were flat on the upper,, 
and rounded on the under face. They were not, as a rule, straight, but curved 
slightly upwards throughout their whole length, or curved at either or both ends, 
and straight through the remainder of the length. The under side was frequently 
ornamented with a painted scroll pattern. The lower end of the rafter was cut into 
a tongue, teremu, to fit the depression, ruawhetu, in the poupou. The heke against the 
row was like its corresponding poupou, sometimes split and placed half inside and 
half outside the whare. The rafters were kept m place by lashing the lower ends to 
the poupou and the upper ends to one another over the tahu, and in some cases 
to a lighter beam, the tahu-iti, which lay along the tahn. 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 85 

" The front edge of the walls was prote6fed by slabs, aino, as a rule carved to 
conventional form. The aino supported the lower ends of the barge-boards, inaihi. 
The maihi had near the lower edge of the back a projefting rib, papaivai, which 
rested against the foremost rafter, or in some cases replaced a rafter. The mailii 
were carried beyond the amo ; the projefting part, known as the raparapa, being 
carved with a pierced pattern, which formed over the amo a shallow mouth fitting 
over the head of the figure in the amo. The upper part of the barge-boards was 
finished plain, and ornamented with painting. The junction of the barge-boards 
was covered by a carved flat face, the koriini, which was adorned with feathers, and 
sometimes surmounted by a full-length figure, the tekoteko. The korurii was kept in 
place by a boss at the back, which was pierced horizontally. 

" The wood-work of the roof was completed by laying on the rafters horizontal 
battens, kaho. Of these there were an even number on each side, the upper and 
lower one on each side being called kaho patu. The kaho were first kept temporarily 
in position by cords between the rafters passing over the ridge-pole. These cords, 
which were known as kaumahaki were replaced by the permanent supports, tataki, 
ropes passing over the tahu and down the back of each heke, being knotted to each 
kaho, and the ends made fast to the backs of the poupou. 

"The covering of the framework involved several processes. For the roof, 
hianui, the kakaho (reeds of toetoe) were lashed evenly to laths, called karapi, which 
were placed at distances corresponding with those of the kaho. The screens thus 
formed were laid, with the laths uppermost, upon the kaho, to which they were 
carefully bound by strips of flax. The flax was passed from above, carried diago- 
nally across the kaho, up through the kakaho, and over the karapi ; a second, and 
sometimes a third, stitch was taken at a distance of about two inches, and the same 
repeated at short intervals. When the whole roof was covered in this way it was 
strewn with raupo, in layers known as timhuri ; these layers were kept in place by 
strips of flax tied to the karapi. Over the tuahuri were laid bundles of raupo, aranati, 
the process of laying which was known as nati, and over these were layers of toetoe, 
aratuparu, then aranati again, and so on alternately, until it was judged that the 
roof was of sufficient thickness. Over all was placed a thatching, araichimchiu, of 
toetoe, the laying of which was called tapatn. It was found that toetoe-rakau, a 

86 The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

variety found m the bush, was more durable than toetoe-kakaho, or upoko-tangata. 
In the best class of house the ridging was further protected by a turihunga of ponga, 
fronds of tree-fern. The thatching was protefted from damage by the wind by aka 
vines, placed latticewise across the roof; this open lattice-work was called tatami. 
In smaller houses light rods of manuka took the place of the aka. In the north 
this end was secured by the use of thick ropes of mangemaiige (a species of climbing 
fern — Lygodium articiilatum), which are there called taotao. The pent, or eaves, 
were made sufficiently prominent to throw the water off the walls. 

"The spaces of the walls between the poupovi were filled in by mats woven 
from strips of flax leaf, or kiekie, or with lattice-work panels, known as tukutuku. 
The tukutuku consisted of light horizontal laths, kalio-tarai, half inch to one inch 
wide, which were closely laced to vertical reeds, kakaho, with narrow strips of 
kiekie (Freycinctia Banksii J, white, or dyed black, and occasionally with pingao 
(Desmoschenus littoralis), a rich orange-coloured grass ; but where these were not 
procurable, flax was used. The laths of the tukutuku were sometimes painted red 
and black, four, or some even number of one colour together, and an equal number 
of the other colour following. In making the tvihi-tuku each lath was lashed to each 
reed, a variety of stitches being used. If the strips of Jiickie formed a cross on the 
lath in front of each reed, the stitch was called pukonohi-aua. Single stitches were 
known as luliakarua kopito, or tapuae-kautuku, according as they formed diamonds or 
zig-zag lines, either vertical or horizontal ; the pattern formed by the latter stitch 
was also sometimes called waewae-pakura. In well-made tukutuku, a rounded rod, 
tuuiatakahiiki, ran up the middle of the face of each panel. It was lashed to the 
laths by close stitches, crossing in front, each stitch passing over two or three laths ■ 
this lashing was known as piliapilia mango. Further ornamental effeds were 
produced by alternate use of black and white kiekie. The two patterns most 
commonly used were a succession of chevrons, kaokao, and a step pattern, poutama. 
Other more elaborate patterns were designated kurawa icaicawawai, tahirararautau, 
&c. The tukutuku, when completed, was framed in the rebate of the poupou and 
papaka; horizontal battens, four, five, or more m number, being lashed to the backs 
of the poupou to keep the panels in position. Warmth was obtained by means of 
vertical bundles of raupo, called tupem, which were lashed to the battens just 
referred to. The front wall was finished off with kakaho reeds, neatly held in 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. ^y 

place with cords of whitaii, or prepared flax. For the sake of effeft, ornamented 
reeds were placed at even distances, the ornamentation being produced by winding 
strips of green flax spirally around the reed, and then smoking it, and removing the 

" Finally, across the entrance to the porch was placed a stout piece of 
timber, the paepae kainga-aivha, or pacpac-kai-a-wlia, or paepac-roa, about eighteen 
inches by four inches, lying on its edge. 

"An explanation has been suggested for the position of the door and 
window — that it afforded those in the whare the advantage in the case of an attack. 
In some whares a small aperture was made in the roro, under the eaves on the side 
door, and through this aperture the ends of the long flghting-spears projeded into 
the lohakainahau, so that in case of a surprise, the warrior could snatch up his spear 
without delay in his right hand as he rushed out of the wharf. 

" In the wharc the place of honour is immediately under the window ; this is 
reserved for the important guests, the chief men of the place taking up their 
position on the opposite side. This inferior side is called pakitara i a Tnwheo, 
in allusion to a great chief who invariably sat on the lesser side, saying that the 
other side was well enough for the common run of chiefs. In other tribes this 
side is called te kopaiti, and was allotted to the slaves of the family. 

" The floor was strewn with rushes and fern, with the exception of a bare 
space inside the door, the rushes being kept back by pieces of wood, p<u- or 
paurukangu, which were pegged to the floor. Over these rushes, on state occasions, 
were laid the whanki, mats of flax or kiekte, which were known by various names, 
koaka, waikawa, takapau, &c. ; the flax or Aiehe being split into strips of equal 
width, with the thumb nail. 

" The hearth, takuahi, was a space about a foot square, generally defined by 
four stones, and was placed half-way between the pou tokomanawa and the front 
pou-tahu, the side of the hearth being placed on the line drawn to the pon 
tokomanawa from the edge of the pou-tahu next the door. The smoke from the 
fire soon obliterated all the painted work on the ^rea^mto inside the wharc.^ 

; ] Z^i. 1,1 ^v a,nrl verl imn oanoo and ■wA.ero) —were mixed with oil or fat, and 

applied* w^^^ a^S of tx! "^^^^^^^i^^t^^^^^^^^-^^^ we Jnnme.ons, and were all na.ned. 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

This faa, coupled with the destruaible nature of the materials used in buildings, 
makes it impossible to obtain specimens of painted scroll patterns any great age ; 
and the best Maori artists of to-day cannot free themselves from Pakcha forms of 
ornamentation, which they have, unconsciously perhaps, assimilated. 

" Of course every step in the construflion was taken with the greatest ritual, 
and appropriate karakias were recited. No woman or cooked food was allowed 
within the precinfts of the whare until it had been formally opened by the 
ceremony of the Kawa. The baptism, or the naming of the house, includes the 
taking off of the spell under which the building had been laid during its erection." 

To this detailed account the Editors of the " Polynesian Journal " add the 
following: — " In the building of all large houses intended for meeting-places of the 
tribe, or for the entertainment of visitors, on the eredtion of the main pillar or 
poti-to komanawa, a slave, or in some instances a member of the tribe, was sacrificed, 
and after the abstra61:ion of the heart, the body buried at the foot of the pou- 
tokomanawa. The heart of the victim {whatu) was cooked and eaten, after many 
karakias, by the priest, or tohunga, presiding over the work. This was the practice 
in some distrifts, as for instance among the Arawa tribe ; but on the East Coast the 
victim, whatu, was buried at the left-hand back corner of the house, at the base of 
the poupou in that corner. Amongst the Urewera tribes, the whatu was called ika- 
purapura, and it was buried at foot of pou-toko-manawa. After some time the bones 
may be exhumed and taken to the tuahu (altar), and there used as a manea, or 
means of beneficial influence for the owner of the house. Manea means the hau, 
or spirit, the essence of man, and also of the earth. The following lines from an old 
song allude to this custom ; it is part of an oriori, composed by some member of 
the Ngati-Kahungunu tribe of the East Coast : — 

' Ka whaihanga Taraia i tona whare, 
Ka makaia taua potiki 
Hei whatu mo te pou-tua-rongo, 
O tona whare, o Te Raro-akiaki. 

' Then Taraia built his house, 
Placing his youngest child 
As a whatu for rearmost pillar 
Of his house, of Te Raro-akiaki. 

Taraia was a very noted ancestor of the Ngati-Kahungunu tribe, and the house 
whose name is given above was erefted at Herepu, near Karamu, Hawke's Bay. 
The ritual connefted with the taking off of the tapu from a new house differed in 

The Habitations of the New Zealander 


each tribe. Mr. Elsdon Best gives the following account of the ceremonies used 
by the Urcwcra tribe :— "When the building is finished, and the people assembled 
to the Kawanga (opening ceremony), the priest affixes to the pou-tuarongo, a piece 
of the petako (= Lomaria Patersom), or some other sacred plant, which is called 
a maro. The objed is to draw warmth to the house, and to 'bind' it there. 
The pillar is then named Rna. On completion the priest issues forth from the 
house, and taking a wand of Karnum wood in his hand, strikes the side of the 
house, and then commences to recite a Kama. After this he strikes the riko (corner 
posts of house) with his wand, then the mahilu, the tau-tiaki, and the paepae-awha, 
reciting at the same time the Kama. The priest then ascends to the roof of the 
house, and recites a karnkia-whakanoa, or invocation to make common — i.e., free 
from tapu. That of the Urcwera tribe is as follows : — 

" Manamana hau, manamana hau, 
Pera hoki ra te korepe nui te korepe roa, 
Te wahi awa te totoe awa, 
Whakamoea, whakamoea taina, 
Kauka tama e uhia, 
Kauka tama e rawea 
Ki te ata tauira mai-ea 
Mai-ea te niho o te tupua 
Te niho o te tawhito 

Te whakahotu-nuku, te whakahotu-rangi, 
Tururu o hiti, whakamau kia tina. 

Chorus of people : Ti-i-na 

I aua kia eke, 
Eke Tangara, 
Eke panuku, 
Hui-e ! 
Taiki-e ! 

Cliorus : Ka noa te whare. 

All join in the response, which is heard far away. After this the house is free 
from tnpu, and people may sleep in it."* 

In addition to the tuku-tuku work with flat laths laced with strips of flax, 
Mr. Colenso mentions- that "sometimes the Natives lined their houses with the 
small light-brown, narrow stalks of the common fern (Ptcris escuknta) all cut to one 

* "Journ. Pol. Soc," Vol. v., p. 1.54. 

The particulars of ceremonies performed during process of removing the tapu from a new house maybe found 
in J. 'White, "Maori Customs and Superstitious," p. 107; in "The Appendix to Journals, House of Representatives," 
G. 8, 1880; and in "The Life of Patuone," by C. 0. Davis," p. 136. 

go The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

length, and placed horizontally and closely, and bmlt up or interlaced together with 
a very great deal of care and trouble, between the pou-pous of the building."* 

They also lined the roofs of their dwelling houses and Ktunara stores (the 
first layer of thatch placed upon the white rafters) with the large green leaves of 
the Nikau palm (Areca saptda), which were regularly placed on while fresh, and their 
long, narrow pinnate leaflets neatly interlaced ; those which were green at first soon 
became of a uniform dark-brown colour on drying, serving remarkably well to set 
off to advantage the light-coloured rafters of Kaun or Tawa wood. This mods of 
roofing chiefly obtained at the North among the Ngapuhi tribe, where Mara timber 
was not so common as in the South. t 

The only other building in a pa that in anyway compared with the large 
whare maire was the great storehouse, or patnka, in which were kept the personal 
possessions or provisions of the chief. In all the old pidures of Maori villages, 
various kinds of small storehouses for provisions, &c., are conspicuous objeds, 
elevated often to a great height from the ground on a post, or even affixed to the 
trunk of some convenient tree, and reached by a notched pole as a ladder. Usually 
these boxes or small houses are painted red, and sometimes they are carved. 
A pataka was often, however, of considerable size, and placed on strong piles a few 
feet from the ground. The sides, in some cases, were lined with slabs cut from the 
thick trunks of the tree-ferns ; and Mr. Colenso saw at Ruatahuna the trunk of a 
Dicksonia squnrrosa grotesquely hewn by the Natives into all manner of shapes in 
cutting out these slabs (turihunga), which are not only easily cut for building 
purposes, but are praftically rat-proof. I noticed slabs of this kind built into store- 
houses at Poverty Bay a few years ago. 

The East Coast of the North Island, between Poverty Bay and Tauranga, 
seems to have been the chief centre of the art of wood carving, and a distridl: pre- 
eminently noted for carved storehouses. Two noble examples from this distrift 
are in the Auckland Museum, J and will well repay careful examination. Of other 
specimens we have only fragments ; but enough remains to show that if the whare 
whakairo was the palace of the Maori civilization, the putaka was the treasury, 

* Colenso, " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xiv., p. 63 ; see also Vol. xiv., p. 50 (note.) 

t Colenso, "Trans. N Z. Inst.," Vol. xiv., p. 63. 

X See "Trans. N Z. Institute," Vol. xviii., p. 421; and p. xxvii., p. 674. 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

and its adornments were not only elaborate and beautiful, but had special 
significance. Their beauties also were more easily seen by the people and by 
travellers, as the carving was on the outside and plainly visible ; whereas a large part 
of the carvings of a Maori house, being mainly on the inside, could seldom be seen 
after their eredtion, especially the large slabs at the ends {poutahu). 

Under special circumstances food stores were erefted in lakes,* as at Horo- 
whenua ; and in describing them Taylor mentions a Ngatiranui tradition that "there 
were formerly tree-houses inhabited by Maoris on the slopes of Mount Egmont."t 

Storehouses supported' on piles were used for containing the spears and 
weapons of the fighting men.;}; 

Crozet describes the open space in th^ pa he visited as containing three 
public buildings, the first of which, and the nearest to the village gate, was the general 
maeazine of arms ; a little distance off was the food storehouse, and still further 
the storehouses for nets, all the implements used in fishing, as well as all the 
material for making the nets, &c.§ " These public storehouses," he says, "are made 
of timber well squared and fastened by mortice and tenon, and pinned together. 
They are generally oblong in form. Instead of planks for the walls of their houses, 
they make use of well-made straw matting, which they ply doubled or trebled one 
on top of the other, and which shelter them from wind and rain." 

For storing Kiimaras, several plans were adopted. One was a small house 
put together with much care and neatness, with a raised floor, and with the lower 
part boarded at the sides to keep out rats. A verandah was generally carried from 
the roof right round the building, supported by carved pillars. The door is made 
very small, and contraded at the top. These stores were always rigidly tapu, and 
could only be entered by certain persons at certain times. 

* Taylor, " Te Ika,," 2nd ed. (see plate) ; and "Trans. N.Z. Inst,," Vol. v., pp. 101-102. 

. ,, ^, , ^ , 1 -u ■ 4-i,„ ■■ T^,iv„ PaI Snf " Vol ii n 86. " a tree fort used by some of the Muaupoko 

t Mr. Elsdon Best describes m the /o^i";^°l^ It was constnicted more than 50 feet from the ground on the 
at Whakahoro, near the present township of Manukau. ^^? ^^^^ constructea more u R».UT,H,raha when the 

branches of three large trees (KaUMtea) , and was kept m order as a refuge till the time ot KaupH,iaha, when the 
introduction of firearms rendered it untenable." 

t Polack, " Manners and Customs of the New Zealanders," Vol. i., 212. 

§ " Crozet's Voyage " (H. Ling Roth), p. 24. 

Pood storehouses are built north and south, lest ^P-it^/°-|, *°J^? ^rf uT ^"' -- t^^^^' ^^^-l^ 
would cause the food to decay .-Gudgeon, " History and Doings of the Maoris (1885), p. 118. 


The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

At the present day Ktimaras and potatoes are stored in small huts {Rua) 
made underground, with the eaves of the roof resting on the ground. These may 
still be seen in villages on the East Coast — often a little group of them is fenced in, 
to keep away pigs and horses. The lintel of the doorway is generally roughly 

In addition to their houses in the village, the Maoris eredl sheds for resting 
and cooking on their plantations, where they also have storehouses for depositing 
the seed during winter. 

The ceremonial regulations, or tapu, in connexion with food, were very stridl 
and rigidly observed, consequently every family and every chief had their own 
cooking shed, often a mere screen or shelter from the wind. 

Ano'as* records an interesting form (now passed away) which he saw at the 
old Waitahanui pa at Taupo. He says : — " The cook houses where the father of 
Te Heuheu had his original establishment remained in a perfect state ; the only 
entrances to these buildings were a series of circular apertures, in and out of which 
the slaves engaged in preparing food were obliged to crawl. Cook houses were 
frequently built with the tree-fern trunks as being less inflammable than the ordinary 
bundles of reed and posts. Near the cooking houses would be one or more whatas, 
or stores for firewood, raised on posts about six feet from the ground." 

Dr. Marshall, describing a cooking-shed on the Taranaki coast, says : — 
" The walls consisted of little more than wattled flax, and the roofs for the most 
part being merely dry-thatched with grass, the thatch projefting on both sides over 
the walls ; and the roof at both ends being prolonged to form a rustic porch. The 
doorways, also, were much larger to admit of easier ingress and egress ; while there 
were no doors to them ; — but the size of the stone ovens within, if everything else had 
been wanting, would have at once denoted the office to which this variety of building 
was appropriated. Occasionally, one roof was found to cover in two, three, or four 
such kitchens, but each otherwise unconnected with its neighbour, and all having 
separate entrances. The separation of these many kitchens under one roof being 
rendered more distindl by stores of wood, all the pieces cut in equal lengths, being 
piled up with the utmost regularity and compaftness against the several partition 

* Angas, " Savage Life and Scenes," Vol. ii., p. 125. 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 


walls. In the number of these stores, and the abundance of wood contained in 
them, no little foresight was exhibited; the wood being cut at stated seasons m a 
sufficient quantity to last for several months."* 

The advantages and disadvantages of the position of persons of high family 
are well shown in the story of Pare, a Ngai-Tahu chieftainess, a sacred woman of 
the highest rank who was kept unbetrothed till a chief of the same rank sought her 
hand. She lived with her female attendants in a carved house, which was set 
apart for her sole use, and was most beautiful, and surrounded by three sets of 
palisades. When food was prepared for her, it was given by those who cooked it 
to an attendant who gave it to a second attendant who gave it to a third. By this 
one it was taken and placed before Pare. The house was adorned with beautiful 
mats, and perfumed with all the perfumes known to the Maori people, such as 
sweet-smelling gum, grasses, mosses, and shrubs. 

In connexion with the ceremonies attending the initiation of a chief's son 
into the mysteries of the priestcraft, a special shed was required, construded of the 
leaves of the Nihau palm, an equal number of leaves or sticks being required on 
each side and at each end ; and, further, the makers of the shed must all be chiefs. 
In this shed the candidate had to pass a certain time.f 

As previously mentioned, canoe houses, or sheds (wharaii) were built t6~ 
protedl the great war canoes from the sun and weather when drawn up on the beach. 
Polack says that " the sheds had open sides, and that sometimes families dwelt in 
the roof portion, ascending by means of a notched pole. "J 

The houses of the natives of the Taranaki coast on the west side of the 
Island seem occasionally to have differed from those in the other parts of the 
Island, in having the entrances at the side instead of the end, and a projecting 
verandah with several carved posts. I have seen houses of this kind at Mohaka, 
on the East Coast ; but suspeft modern influences in this case. Sometimes these 
West Coast houses were of great size, even 120 feet long by 30 feet in width. One 
is remembered as being 140 feet long and 18 feet wide, having seven doors or 
opanings, and a rude verandah m front about 3 feet wide.§ 

* Dr. W. B. Marshall, "Two Visits to New Zealand in H.M.S. ' Alligator,' " 1834, p. 213. ■ 
t E. Tregear, " Journal Anthropological Institute," Vol. xix, p.. 99. 
J Polack, "Manners and Customs of the New Zealanders," Vol. i., p. 112. 

§ Wells, " History of Taranaki," p. 5i. The house called Te Urii-o-Manono or Te-tihi-o-Manono (in Hauaiki rj 
was so large as to have 10 fires in it ; and there were 8 doors to it (P.M., 121.) It was probably of this West Coast type. 


The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

Taylor mentions that " the great Taupo chief, Te Heu Heu, had a long 
building about 40 feet in length at Te Rapa, resembling an eight-stalled stable, 
each compartment being occupied by one of his wives " — but this was in the good 
old days. 

Dr. Marshall describes a whare-mahana at Waimate, on the West Coast, 
which is also somewhat different to houses on the east side of the North Island. 
Hs says* : — " The whare-mahana consisted of a single apartment, and appears to 
have been used almost entirely as dormitories. They displayed a greater degree 
of care, as well as skill, in the construftion than any of the other varieties. Yet, 
I heir external appearance was rude, the walls and roof being made of mud and 
clay, and the former staked in on all sides ; the stakes at the side being pointed at 
ihe top, so as to correspond in height and appearance ; while those in front and 
behmd were cut to correspond with the gable-end of the roof, over which the turnip 
and kuinara spread out their thick foliage, forming a sort of leafy canopy over all, 
very refreshing to the eye, which might otherwise have tired at gazing upon the 
monotonous dullness of the town generally. 

" The interior of these houses was,* on the other hand, beautifully and even 
elegantly fitted ; the walls, as it were, wainscoted, with a row of cane running round 
the whole room, and divided horizontally into square compartments by ligatures of 
carefully twisted and plaited grass, crossing at regular distances four smooth and 
polished stanchions, these again supporting a framework, from which four arches 
sprang to support the ridge-pole at the top, it being upheld only by three pillars, 
in the shape of which the first dawn of architeaural embellishment is seen, they 
being handsomely formed and decorated with comparatively chaste carving . . . 
a bed of dry fern was spread over every floor . . . The occupants repose their 
heads round the base of the pillars in the centre of the room, and stretch themselves 
out like the radii of a circle." 

It should probably have been mentioned before that (as is universally the 
custom in all parts of the world) caves were frequently inhabited by the Maoris. 
Unfortunately, but little attention has been paid to the proper exploration of the 
caves found in New. Zealand; but in a few instances, such as the caves near 

* " Narration of Tnro Visits to New Zealaad in H.M.S. ' Alligator ' in 1834," p. 211. 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 95 

Christchurch (known as the Sumner and Monck's Caves) * most interesting evidences 
have been recovered of facts concerning the habits and modes of life of the people 
who used the caves either as temporary or permanent dwellings, f 

Scattered throughout the various stories and poems of the Maoris are refer- 
ences to domestic arrangements that have probably either long passed out of use or 
were exceptional. In the case of the legend of the entrapping of Kae, the magician, 
one of the points of the story is the difference between the round-house of the one 
chief, as contrasted with the more ordinary form of the house of the other. [This 
is, originally, a Samoan story. Kae came from Tonga, hence the difference in the 
style of building, &c.] Again, in a story of the perhaps-mythical hero, Tini-rau, 
it mentions the four pools where he bathed, and where he went to see his own 
refleftion — his natural looking glasses. These were carefully enclosed, and Hine- 
te-iwa-iwa is represented as breaking down the doors and fences of three ot these 
enclosed pools. :[: Enclosures somewhat similar to these were sometimes made in 
the rivers for the purpose of securing the ketes of karaka berries, maize, or potatoes 
(= kotero) which were soaked until putrid, and then eaten with apparent relish. 
Angas saw one of these in the Waikato about 20 feet square, carefully made.§ 
Polack mentions a building (probably the result of the trade in the Phorminm fibre). 

He says : " The largest public works undertaken are those of flax houses, some of 

which are above 100 feet long, 30 feet in width, and 40 feet high. Among the 
natives, the sides of a flax house are generally open, with poles only placed across 
it ; the flax being tapu, it is safe from depredation." 

According to one of the versions of "The Legend of Whakatau,"|i there 
was a window in the roof of the Tihi-o-nmnono. Sir George Grey figures in his 
" Polynesian Mythology "1[ a house with a square opening in the roof. 

The Colonial Museum in Wellington possesses a finely-carved house, in 
which the carvings are exceptionally bold and massive. Tareha, a noted chief of 
Hawke's Bay, describing this house at a meeting of the Wellington Philosophical 

Tg^ " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. vii., pp. 54,-85, and 98-105 ; and Vol. xxii., pp. 64-70. 

t When Heein. fron. a P-uin, en ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ to - ^^Z^i^'^^^^'^i^^^^ 

Liee:e;Ks\S- -^sr =r;t^^^^ the n.ore%ecent drawings seen ove.yin, the older 

ones were made by them at that time.-A.H.M., Vol. in., p. 251. „ ^r , ■■ .,u 

X A.H.M., Vol. ii., p. 131.. § Angas, "Savage Life and Scenes, Vol. n.. p. -8. 

II A.H.M., ii, 152 and 153. t ^-M-. P- 174. 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

Society, mentioned that the lower and larger figures of the pou-pou represented the 
fathers and the uppermost ones the sons— illustrating in this way the ancestry of the 
builder ot the house and of the tribe. 

The Christchurch Museum has a house which was built by Honu-tu-ahu, 
called Haii-tc-ana-nui-a-Tangaroa* 

The Wharc matoro was a house in which games were played or dances 
prafticed, such as the Kani-Kani. 

Passing from buildings, there are a few other items belonging to a Maori pa 
that should be noticed, and especially the stridlly-tapued area, known as the Wahi 
tapii, or sacred groves. 

The Wahi tapu seems to have been sometimes a small clump of bushes or 
some retired spot in, or just outside, the pa, sometimes fenced off. In its general 
sense, it was the place where the bodies of deceased chiefs were placed, either above 
or below ground, until the final ceremonies (hahunga) took place, and the bones 
were stored in the family burial cave (tor ere). Practically, any place might be 
made a Wahi tapu for a certain purpose ; thus Angas mentions that he saw " within 
a small railing in one corner of the verandah of the largest house at Pari-pari a 
Wahi tapu, where the head of Te Kauwau, with his feathers, hani, and mat were 
deposited. "t Even in recent years there is usually in the neighbourhood of a />« a 
place where the household utensils and personal belongings of a deceased person 
are thrown. The spade with which a grave is dug is always thrown away after- 
wards, and not used again. 

A curious form of Wahi tapu is recorded by Bidwill.t He says : — " On the 
brow of a steep hill overlooking the pa stood a singular ereftion of sticks almost 
resembling basket work, elevated on four upright posts, and having a semi- 
circular top. Within this cage-like building was placed a variety of different 
articles, household utensils, skins, calabashes, and dried fish ; and several garments 
and baskets were suspended from the sticks underneath :" and I have already 
mentioned that Angas noticed a little model canoe placed with other property of a 
deceased chief in a Wahi tapu. 

* A.H.M., ii., 163, and "Trans. N.Z, Tnat," Vol. i. (n. ed.), pp. 445-146; and Vol. viii., pp. 172-176. 

t Angas, "The New Zealanders," Vol. ii., p. 88. 

X Bidwill's " Rambles in New Zealand," 1841, jjp. 2&1 and 297. 

The Habitations of the New Zealandhrs. gv 

For religious purposes, the priest of each pa would have his tu,lhu or altar, 
a sacred place for divination. Taylor* says :— " A tuahii was a short stone pillar 
stuck into the ground in a slanting position ; it was really any place made sacred, 
where incantations are recited, and usually consisted of merely a few sticks stuck 
into the ground with their tops tied together with flax." 

Near Ohinemutu there were no fewer than three of these cairns of stones and 
stakes and soil : one at Motutara, one at Te Arikiroa, and one at Utuhina. At 
each of these places, ntuas were consulted on subjects of consequence to the tribe. 

The tiidhus mentioned in the legends seem to have been platforms or raised 
places built of stones ; but some of the traditions represent the chiefs of the great 
heke as setting up a wooden post for their tiidhu, as when Hoturoa and Hapi disputed 
over the position of their respeftive altars. t Takaanui Tarakawa says :J — " There 
are many kinds of tiiahus : the Tapatai is one, Ahupuke another, the Torino another, 
the Ahurewa another — this kind is movable : it is a good one like the Ahurangi, and 
brings salvation to man. The latter kind of hidhu is made on the ground, and can 
be removed, but the prayers must be offered at a distance, and then the earth must 
be removed to another place and left." An instance is given in the same volume of 
the Journal, of a powerful sorcerer, Kaihamu, who, with a number of his friends, 
was entrapped by his enemies in a large house. He sought for the means of 
preparing an altar, or tudhu, for his incantation. Not finding the means in the 
house, he used his hollowed hand for the purpose. This sort of tudhu was also called 
Ahurangi. The incantation was then thrust out through the window. Such was 
his power, that his enemies were blasted, and Kaihamu and his people escaped. 
It was at the tudhu that the ceremony of offering the hair, or lock of hair, from a 
slain foe, or the body of a prisoner of war, took place (whangai-hau) with appropriate 
invocations to the war-god. When the hair of a chief is cut, the hair cut off is 
always carefully dealt with, and never thrown away carelessly or allowed to be lost. 
In the neighbourhood of the Maori settlement at Kaikai Bay, near Dunedin, the 
clifts are full of crevices, and many of these have been used to deposit clippings of 
hair, the crevice being then carefully plastered over with mud or clay. 

* " Te Ika," 2nd ed., p 183. 

t " A. H. M.," iv., 28. 

J " Journ. Pol. Soc," Vol. iii., pp. 202 and 152. See also p. 173. 

q8 The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

A sight that always impressed the early settlers was the food scaffold, or 
staf^e, for displaying the food coUefted for one of the great feasts {hakari) . Sometimes 
a number of poles were planted in the ground, 50 or 60 feet high, which were made 
to support 8 or 10 stories, or stages, heaped up with baskets of food to the very top. 
Mr. Colenso mentions that "to enable great weights to be raised to their high stages 
for great feasts, they used rollers smoothed and wetted or covered with wet seaweed 
—making the body to be moved glide the better. At other times, long rows of 
baskets of Kitmaras were erefted ; these were made with the greatest care ; they 
were generally about four feet high, as many broad, and were, in modern times, 
covered with pigs, roasted whole ; several hundred were often thus killed for a 
single feast, or else their place was supplied by dried fish, and with what is still 
considered a great delicacy — birds or pork cut up small and cooked in their own 
fat fhuahiaj." Views have been published of some of these great feasts held near 
Auckland, in which long rows of bags of flour and of sugar, with potatoes and 
maize, partly replace the food of former days.* 

Somewhat similar frameworks are ere6led to dry the flesh of the sharks and 
eels that are so prized by the natives, and also to ripen the cut cobs of the maize. 

In a suitable place in the wa.r pa stood the paku, or war gong, consisting of a 
large piece of dry, light wood (generally Matai), suspended from a framework either 
by one or both ends. This piece of wood had a portion cut out of the centre, and 
when struck vigorously with large wooden mauls, or hammers, gave out a noise that 
could be heard at a great distance. In two instances I have seen a huge hollow tree- 
trunk, in which a portion of the side had been detached, so as to represent a long 
pendant tongue (tohetohc), the part above being carved to represent a gigantic face. 
The tongue being struck with a heavy club of wood or a stone, produced a loud sound. 
In the second example, a portion of a decayed tree-trunk, resembling a long pendant 
tongue, was used ; the whole had been painted red, but was not carved. War 
gongs of this kind are used by the Malays, and by the Indians of the Cordilleras of 
Mexico.f Mr. Potts saw the Hau-haus at the Hikurangi meeting called to their 

* Figures of these food stages are given in Polaek, " New Zealanders," Vol. ii, p. 23 ; and a description by Mr. 
Colensois to be tound m "Trans. N.Z. Institute," Vol. xiii., p. 13. e j 

t The Malay name for the gong is Kayu-Kutoh, or wooden gong, on which the watchman, or Mata-mata (man- 
with-eyesj, beats the hour. In the " Story of N.Z.," by Dr. Thompson, Vol. i., the frontispiece shows a pahu with the 
striker on an elevated stage. So also in " Savage Life and Scenes," Angas, Vol. ii., frontispiece and p. 150. 

The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 


place of worship by the beating of the pahu. It was made of porokaiK'hiria wood 
(Hcdycarya dentata). It was hung from a cross pole supported at either end h\ a 
forked stick. The sound was produced by this rough wooden drum being beaten 
on its edges by several persons furnished with short batons. Angas describes the 
one he saw at Otawhao as an oblong piece of wood, about six feet long, with a 
groove in the centre, slung with ropes of flax. It was kept sounding during the 
night to inform the enemy that the inmates of the pa were on the alert, and to 
assure the people of the pa that the watchman was on the look-out. 

Kiwi, a chief at One-Tree Hill (Mangakeikei), near Auckland, had a large 
slab of greenstone called W liakarcivhatahma. The slab was suspended and used as 
a war gong, and was supposed to carry the inana of the Tamaki district ; and 
possession of it was evidence of the ownership of the land. 

Rua, or Underground Storehouse for Root Crops, at Wai-o=matatini. 


The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 


The ceremonials attending the funeral rites of a Maori chief were numerous 
and elaborate, but all that can be treated of here are the memorials erefted to his 
memory after his death. The modes of disposing of the bodies of those other 
than chiefs seem to have been : — 

By throwing into the sea. 

By burial in the sand or earth, in either horizontal or sitting position. 

By cremation — praftised extensively in the South Island. 

By burial in wooden coffins hewn out of a log, with lids, and placed 
either in caves or underground chambers. 

By wrapping the body in mats and placing in dry caves. 

By throwing the body into a hollow tree* or chasm in the rocks. 

By burial in a rough chamber made of stone slabs (on Mokoia). 

The bodies of chiefs and persons or children of special note were treated m a 
variety of ways, the first process being generally the exposure of the body on an 
elevated stage or platform, or a preliminary burial until decomposition had removed 
the soft parts ; the bones were then carefully extradted and cleaned, and at a 
*convenient season a great feast was held, and the final ceremonies performed, 
before the cleaned bones, neatly tied up, and often painted or ornamented with red 
paint, were placed in the tribal burial cave or torere. A carved box or casket was 
frecpently used as a shrine for a portion of the bones, ranging in size from small 
ones, which would contain only a few bones, to those large enough to contain a 
complete skeleton. These boxes would be kept in the cave or elevated on a high 
post and surrounded by a fence. 

The memorials were often very elaborate, and presented a beautiful appear- 
ance when recently executed.! Figures are given of some of these, and in the first 

* See Mair, "Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xxviii., p. 38. " The Panenehu lised to deposit their dead in a very large 
pukatea tree, called Te Ahoroa, which stood on the left bank of the Otara river. There was a hole at the top, 50 or 60 
feet from the ground, and the dead were hoisted up and thrown in." Also note, Jan. 18S1. Some settlers up the 
Opotiki Valley reported having discovered a great quantity of human bones. I immediately visited the spot, and 
found it was the place described by Maiki-Whenua as Te Ahoroa (the long line). An enormous pul-atea tree, some 
2<J feet in girth, had fallen against the hillside, and, splitting open, disclosed cartloads of skeletons. I counted 3'..I7 
perfect skulls, but an equal number probably had crumbled away, or been broken up by the trampling of cattle. 

t See Taylor, " Te Ika a Mavii," 2nd ed., pp. 12, KiL', 17 l, 229 j also, in the Illustrations prepared for White's 
" Anc. Hist. Mnori," 1891 ; and Angas, G. F., " Savage Life and Scenes," Vol. i'., pp. 27o, 270, 27'.1. 

The Habitations of the Niiw Zealanders. ioi 

part mention has been made of the canoe memorials, consisting of the whole or 
part of the chief's canoe planted in the ground, and either carved or painted and 
adorned with feathers. 

Another kind consisted of three or more carved slabs decorated with feathers. 

The painting of the bones with red ochre or paint is an interesting custom of 
great antiquity, and apparently world-wide in its occurrence. The Indians of 
British Guiana have the same custom,* and red paint in the form of haematite is 
found extensively in North American burial mounds. f A writer in the " Athenaeum"! 
describes some remarkable "Well tombs" of the Sicani, near Palermo, as having 
small chambers in which were found the bones of men stripped of flesh, and still 
covered with red paint. He says : — " I should have stated that the praftice of 
stripping the flesh from the bones has been explained as an effort to avoid detedtion 
of the remains by wild beasts. For my own part I should be more inchned to look 
for its origin in cannibalism. The painting might destroy the smell, and so wild 
beasts would be less attradled to the tombs, or it might be in honour of the dead." 
I believe the real explanation of it in New Zealand, where red is always a sacred 
colour, is in the last few words. 

Stone pillars or posts were sometimes erefted as memorials, as between Ke^i 
Keri and Kaitaia there are some perpendicular stones set up, called Te Hakari. 
They are also called Whakarara. These stones are sacred to ancestors ; and 
natives, after passing them, chant the charm called Whakau.i^ Again, we are told 
that when Tara's war party went to Kati-Kati and killed Miti-nui and Tu-te-rurunga, 
they put up a stone for each chief at the spot where he was killed. The attacking 
enemy put the stones up. t| 

Stone boundary posts, or marks, are found m the Taranaki distrid, and are 
generally from two to three feet in height, cut from the local trachytic rock, pointed 
at the base, and having a human head carved at the top.f 

* " Anthropological Review," Vol. iv., p. cxevi. 

t " American Naturalist," August 1893, p. 716. 

J ■' Athenaeum," No. 883, April, 6, 1889, p. 244. 

§ J. White, "Maori Superstitions," p. 108. 

II A.H.M., Vol. v., p. 35. Holes were sometimes dug to mark such spots, and called whalaumu. 

IT On the' importance of the Landmarks see J. White, "Maori Customs and Superstitions," p. 184 


The Habitations of the New Zealanders. 

Closely conne6ted with these are Rahitis, which were usually posts more or 
less carved, set up either as tribal landmarks or as warning posts against trespassing 
on portions of ground under tapu* Memorial figures were sometimes set up at spots 
where the body of a chief had rested on the way to the final burial place. f 

The carved temporary resting place of the great Arawa Chief, Waata Taranui. 

* Polack, "New Zealanders," p. 2G5. For other information about Rahai, see J. White, "Maori Customs and 
buperstitions, p. 190; and " Journ. Pol. Soc," Vol. i., p. 275. 

t Taylor, " Te Ika," 2nd ed., pp. 106 and 133. 

Pave, or Konipe, the Carved Ornament over the door of a house. Taranaki. 




> «■♦*< 

Aka. — Vines placed lattice-fashion across the ratipo roof. The lattice-work is called 

tatami in the North. Maiif^c Mange (Lygodiiun ) is used for the purpose. 

The lattice is then called tao-tao. 
Anio. — The two slabs, generally carved, in the front of a house, supporting the lower 

ends of the maihi or barge boards. 
Amohanga. — Elevated platform for food. 2. The posts of a whata. 
Anga. — Aspect of a house or garden. 
Ai^ahanga. — Bridge or ladder. 
Arm. — Shade. A screen. 
Aranati. — Bundles of raupo for the roof. 
Arataparu. — Layers of toe toe on the roof of a house. 
Arawhata.—K bridge. A ladder (= ^7'o/m/a). 
Arawhiuwhiu.—The outside layer of raupo on a roof. 
Atamira.—K platform for a corpse {ox pouraka.) 
A to. — To thatch. 

^;(.__Smoke. {An, current of a river ; aice, soot.) 
Awamate.—A moat ; a ditch outside the palisadmg of a. pa. 
Awarua.—A ditch. {Whakaaicarua, ditch inside the palisading of a. pa.) 
Epa.—Fosta at the end of a native house, between the ponpou and pou-tahuhu. 

Not mclined inward as the poupoti. The framework of the tua-rongo. 

I04 Words connected with the Houses and Buildings of the Maoris. 

Haijwko.— Opening between the small bundles of ranpo which form the sides of a 

Hangi. — An oven (= Hapi.) 

Hapoki.—Fotato house. (Pit, &c.) Also Hapoko. 
Haiirangi. — "\"erandah. 

Hauroki. — The diagonal lines from corner to corner in setting out the plan of a house. 
Hekc. — Rafter. 
Hekc-tipi. — The carved board placed on edge from the top of the poupou to the top 

of the poll -tahii, and connefting the top ends of the epa. 

Hercuinii. — Cooking shed. 

Hirinaki. — A rough piece of timber used as a support for the poupoiis, to resist the 
thrust of the rafters. 

Hoka. — Screen made of bushes (^ oka, the rafters of a Kmnara pit). 

Hopekiwi. — Potato house under ground. Kopiha (Ngati-porou, and Ngnrauni.) 

Hopi. — Native oven. 

Hua. — Screen from the wind. 

Hualuia. — Rails of a fence, or roaii. 

Ihi. — Front gable of a house. 

Ikuiku. — Eaves of a house. 

Kacaea. — Verandah. The image over the centre of the verandah. 

Kakaho. — The reeds of the toe-toe (Anindo conspicua ), used in lining and orna- 
menting the inside walls and roof of a house, often burnt or smoked with 

Kahia. — The image of a human figure carved out of a pa fence. 

Kaho. — Battens on the roof. 

Kaho-paetara. — A batten connefting the upper ends of the carved panels, lashing 
them into position. 

Kaho-patit. — Battens on the rafters : those next the tahn and the Kaho-paetara. 

Kaho-tarai. — Thin laths in tuku-tiilai work. 

Kahotea. — Having battens only on the roof. 

Kainga. — Place of abode. An unfortified village. 

Kauwhata. — A pole placed across two sticks to suspend food from. 

Kakaka. — Fern stalks used in building. 

Kainiiri. — Cooking house or shed. 

Kangatungatu. — A^erandah. 

Words connected with the Hous'?s and Buildings of the Maoris. 105 

Kaoka. — Name of a ivhariki or floor-mat made of kic-kic or of flax. Also icaikan'a, 

takapati, &c. 
Karahu. — Oven. Also umu^ topipi, tapi, karahii, kovno, kori, kohita, kopa, okcokc, 

tarahii, marac, ouinii. 
Karapi. — ^Sticks put in cross-ways in building a house, to keep the reeds or rushes 

in their place. 
Karawa. — A bed in a garden. 

Karupe. — Lintel of a door. fKorupe, or Korontpe.) 
Katua. — Main fence of a pa. 
Kauae. — Beam of a building. 

Kan-mahaki. — Temporary cords to regulate the distance of the roof battens. 
Kaungaroa. — Side fence of a pa. 
Kaiipae. — Steps of a ladder. 

Kaupapa.—k level surface ; a foundation ; a floor. 2. A raised platform for storing 
food. 3. A raft. {Ka inahia te kaupapa raupo.- A.H.M., 5-68.) 

Kaupaparu. — Flat-roofed. 

XaM/fl.— Cooking house or shed. (Ngapuhi), or hereumu, or whareumu. 

Kauwhata.— An elevated stage for storing food. ( Whata.) 

A'flzc'az£;a.— Palings of a fence. Waiva and wita of ^pa. Wana of food enclosure. 

Kawa.—Ta-i-te-Kawa. Remove the tapu from a new building. 

Kawa-whare .—The general name of incantations to remove the tapu from a house. 

Kereteki.— Outer ience of a fortified village. 

Kintal. — Space immediately outside the fence oi 3. pa. 

Koaka.—¥\oor mat. A coarse mat made of flax-leaves. {Koka, a coarse mat.) 

Koihi. — Verandah . 

Kokonga. — Corner. 

Komanga.—StSige upon which food is kept in store. 

Konakitanga. — Corner. 

Kopa.— Angle, kopanga. Corner ; native oven. 

Kopa-iti.—The corner of house on left-hand side of door, where the slaves sat. 

Ko/>ae. — House ornamented with carved work. 

Kopafii.— Boor closing the. entrance to a kumara pit (= a cover). 

Kopiha.—Vit for storing potatoes or taros. 

Kopuha. — Small house. 

[o5 Words connected with the Houses and Buildings of the Maoris. 

Korcrc. — Funnel, or spout, or pipe. 

Kori. — Native oven. Umti, hangi, topipi, ngepaki (Ngatiporou). 

Koronac. — Stile. 

Koropu. — House ; under-ground house ; a low house ; built with wrought timber. 

Korotangi. — Pit for storing potatoes. 

Kontru. — A figure placed on the gable of a house. 2. A toy with two strings, which 
when played with makes a whizzing or roaring noise. 

Korupe, or Kurorupe. — The carved slab over the doorway resting on the whaka-wae. 

Kotaretare. — Stage projecting from the fence of a pa, and slanting upwards 
(= Kahekoheko). A look-out place in a pa. 

Koteo. — A post ; a peg. {Me te Koteo tnaii Kupenga. — Prov.) 

Kotopihi. — Window. 

Kone. — Posts supporting the paepae of a privy. 

Koukouaro. — The carved figure oh the front gable of a house (^ teko-teko). {Ka rerc 
akiore taki te koukouaro ka ngaru atu. — A.H.M., 11-28). 

Kowhaiwhai. — A pattern of scroll ornament. Also Kowhai. 

Kithu. — Cooking house. 

Kuhiiiiga. — Hiding place. 

Kukawhare. — Soot. 

Kurapapa. — Flat roofed. 

Kurupae. — Joist or sleeper of a house ; beam. 

Kuwaha.—Door of a house. Gate of 2. pa. The gate of the fortification. 

Mahau. — Verandah. ( Whakamahau.) 

Maehi. — Verandah fence. 

Mahihi. — F"acing boards on the gable of a house. 

Maioro. — Embankment or wall for defence. 

Mamaku.^To prepare timber in a peculiar way with the adze. 

Marae.— An enclosure in a pa belonging generally to the individual or family ; 
properly the space before the tohunga's house ; courtyard ; where the dis- 
cussions are held and speeches of welcome made. 

Mataaho. — Window. 

Matangaro.~Te Kaho matangaro. The batten next the ridge pole. 

Marokc. — Whaka marokc. Eaves of a buildino-. 

Matapihi. — Window. 

Words connected with the Houses and Buildings of the Maoris. 107 

Matntara. — Dam for water. Papuni [N^atiporou.) The guiding part of a weir 
forming the entrance where the hinaki is placed for catching piharnit 
(lampreys) . 

Moa. — Bed in a garden. 
Moana. — Roof of a kuinara rua. 

Nati. — To tie up raiipo m building the walls of a house. (Nnnntt.) 
Nclic. — Rafters of a house. 

Ngnotu. — A method of working timber with the adze. (He ngaotu tend tnrai). 
Ngawaewc. — Door posts. 

Ngerengerc. — Part of the fortification of a. pa. 
Ngutukaka. — A pattern of ornamental painting. 
Ngutukurn. — A pattern of ornamental painting. 
Nohoanga. — Seat. 
Okeoke. — Oven. 

Oumu. — Oven. A weir for catching fish. Barricade. 

Pa. — Fortified place. A name taken from the fence which surrounds the village. 
Pae. — Step on a ladder. 

Paenga. — A site to build upon ; a boundary ; place where pits are made for keeping 
kumara ; boundary of a cultivation. 

Paepae. — Threshold ; door sill. 

Paepae-poto. — Threshold of door. 

Paepae-kai-awha. — Board across front of verandah to keep out pigs, dogs, &c. 

Paetara. — Kahopaetara. Batten fastened to the uprights of a house to keep them 

in place. 
Paewae. — Threshold. 
Pahoka. — Screen from the wind. 
Pahuki. — Shade or screen. 
Paikea. A lon^^ house having the doorway at one end, but no verandah. [Ko to 

Tinirau he whare paikea.— P.M., 2nd ed. Maori part, p. 40.) 
Pakahokaho.— Skirting boards of a verandah. 
Pakato. — A pattern of carving. 
Pfl/i/'/ara.— Walls of a house. Side walls. 
Pakokon.—A small house or cabin on an ancient canoe. {'' Koia kahore he tangata 

kia-tae ki taku pakokon."—A.ll.M., 11-29.) ... 

Pakorokoro. —Stile fence. Store house. 

'Kahore Icoia he tangata Ida tae Id taku pal:o!;ori. 

io8 Words connected with the Houses and Buildings of the Maoris. 

Paknra. — Tapuwae pakura. Footsteps of paknra or pukeko. A kind of ornamental 
flax-work in a Maori house. 

Pane. — That part of the tahii, carved like a human figure, over the porch or ivhaka- 

Papa. — The broad board closing the doorway or window aperture of a native house. 

Papaku. — Skirting-board, or papaka. The small square slabs between the poupou 
at the floor level. 

Paparahi. — Stage upon which kuuiaras are dried. (Also the floor of the house.) 

Paparahua. — A kind of table from which food is eaten. 

Paparu. — Flat roofed. 

Parepare. — Breastwork in a fortification. 

Pare. — Carving above the door. 

Pani. — Coat of raupo on the walls of a house and roof, not tied on. 

Papain. — Screen for defensive purposes. 

Parakiri. — Innermost fence oi 2. pa ; inside the katua or main fence. 

Pataka. — Store house raised upon posts. A stage upon which food is laid up in 
store. {Kei te pataka e tii niai ra. — P.M., 83.) 

Patakitaki. — 'DW\d^\ng board inside fence. Divisions in store house. The principal 

residence. {Tarahaii, lining boards; tarawhare, outside boards. 
Patengitengi. — House wherein knmaras are kept. 

Patu. — Wall of a house ; screen. {Kahopatu, uppermost or lowest batten on the 
roof of a house. 

Patiitii. — A screen. 

Pauruhunga, or pae. — Pieces of wood pegged to the floor, keeping back from the 

centre of the floor the rushes strewn on either side. 
Peru. — Eaves. 
Pikitara. — Verandah. 

Pekefangi.— Outer or fourth fence of a pa {= wiia, katua, parakiri.) 
Pihanga . — Window . 

Pora matanui. — Having a roof of moderate pitch. 
Poti. — Corner, as of a room. 

Pou or poupou. —Fost for a house or fence ; the upright broad slabs, usually carved 

to represent ancestors. They were set so as to incline slightly inwards. 
Pouraka. — Platform ereded on one post. [Or poutaka.) 
Powreiwa.— Elevated platform attached to the stockade of a pa. 

Words connfxted with the Houses and Buildings of the Maoris. 109 

Poutahuhii. — Middle post inside, each end of house. 
Poutanm. — A pattern of titkiituku work on the walls of a native house. 
PoutokoinanaK'o. — Central post of the house, in the centre of house. 
Pou-tiiarongo. — The large post at the back of the house. 

Puhara. — Elevated platform in a pa, on a level with the top of the tu wata ivata or 
katiia (main fence). Also a platform for fishing from (= pnwhara.) 

Pukonohiaiia. — A pattern of tukiituku work on the walls of a native house. 

Puni. — Shed for a taita or travelling party ; a camp. 

Pure. — A ceremony for removing the tapu from houses or persons. 

Purcku. — Cooking shed. 

Raihc. — Small enclosure ; a pig stye. 

Rangitapu. — Temporary scaffolding used in the erection of a large house. 

Raparapa. — The lower ends of the maihi beyond the amo, generally carved with 
open-work patterns. 

Ram. — Stage, or a grid for drying things at the fire. 

Raiipo. — The leaves of the raupo plant (Typha augtistifolia) ; bundles of these leaves 
used in building, tied together with strips of flax leaves (Phormium.) 

Rauponga. — A pattern of carving. 

Rauwiri. — Fence interlaced with twigs. 

Rianga. — Screen. 

Roan. — Rail. 

Rona. — To tie with rope of mange mange ; the rushes or raupo on the roof of a 

house ; to tie. Also the ropes of mange mange, or aka, outside roof to 

prevent wind disturbing it. 
Rongoniaioro. — Steep roof of a native house. 
Roro. — The front of a house. 
fina. Store house ; a pit. {Whaka-rua kopito, a kind of ornamental work in the 

interior of a native building.) 
Ruakoauau. — Kumara store. 
Ruakopia. — Excavated store house. 
Ruatahuhu. — Potato store. 

Ruatirawa. — Store, the floor of which is excavated. 
Ruapare. — Store built on the ground. 
Rua-K'hetu.—A notch or depression on the top of the carved slabs or poupou to 

receive the end of the rafter. 

no Words connected with the Houses and Buildings of the Maoris. 

Rnpc. — Verandah. 

Tahnhn.—'R\dgQ pole of a house. 

Taiepa. — A fence. 

Taka.^A batten. 

Takapau. — Floor mat. 

Takarararautau.—K pattern of tukiituku ornament on the walls of a native house. 

Take. — Posts for the palisading of a pa. 

Takitaki. — Fence for shelter. 

Takuahi. — A stone fender or box for the fire let into the floor of a hut. The side 

of the fire. The stones called " /ja/'wa " ov '' iautau hauhimga." 
Tangotango. — Rail of a fence. 

Tapatit. — To roof a house ; thatch. 

Tapau. — A mat to lie upon (= takapau.) 

Tapere. — He wharc tapere. A house used for meetings of the " hapu." 

Tara. — Walls, or pakitara. 

Taramatanid. — A low-pitched roof of a native house. 

Tarawharc. — Storehouse for kumara. 

Tata-Tatara. — Fence. Pointed pegs placed horizontally in the eaves of a rua- 

Tataki. — To attach the battens of the roof of a house to a cord to keep them in 
place. Cord to which battens are fastened, reaching from poupou to poupou, 
being knotted to each kaho, passing up along the back of a hcke, and then 
over the tahii and down the opposite lickc. 

Tatau. — Door. A sliding slab of wood usually on the right of the poii-tahii if seen 
from the inside, and a little to the left of the centre as seen from outside. 

Tatau haulmnga. — Window. 

Ta tc kawa. — The act of performing the ceremony of the dedication of a building. — 
A.H.M., i-g. (= taki te kawa.) 

Tauarai. — Screen. 

Taumaihi. — Small tower of a fortified village ; facing boards of the roof. 

Taupoki. — A horizontal slab over a doorway. 

Taura. — Little piece of wood which fastens the window. 

Tautari. — To tie up reeds to the side of a house. Upright stick in the wall of a 

native house supporting the small cross batten to which the reeds are 


Words connected with the Houses and Buildings of the ?sIaoris. hi 

Teki. — The outer fence of a pa (= taki.) 

Teko-teko. — Figure placed at the top of the gable end of a native house. 
Tcrcniu. — A projection on the end of a rafter to fit into the rua-whctii or notch on 
the poupou. 

Tia. — A peg. 

Tienga. — Floor mat, or tianga. Mat to lie on. 

Tihokahoka. — Shed (= ivliaraii.) 

Tiki. — A figure on the house gable. 

Tikikiu'i. — A method of finishing off the thatch of a house. 

Timangu. — Stage upon which food is placed. Also patake. 

Tinohi. — To put heated stones upon food laid to cook in a hangi. 

Tipi. — Heketipi. Board placed on end under each of the end rafters of a Maori 

Tire pa. — To line with reeds the roof of a Maori house. 
Tiwata. — A fence. 
Tiwataivata. — Fence of Sl pa. 
Toanga.—Thft groove in the paepae to carry the sliding door. 

Tokorangi.- -Strong poles used as shears in the ereflion of the large posts and ridge 
pole of a house. 

Torere. — A sacred place ; depository of bones. 

Tiiahuri. To cover the roof of a house with a coating of raupo before thatching it 

with toe-toe. 

Tnanni. — Roof of a house. 

Tiiaroa. — Tuarongo. Back part of a house. 

Tuanan.—K heavy slab of wood used m getting the ridge pole of a house into 

r»/;;.— Stitching of the reeds. Adorn with painting. 

Tukahotea. — Having no covering on the roof. 

r«rtH///aM.— Ornamented work m the interior of a house. 

Tuawwaru.--M2i\n posts in the palisading of 2. pa (= tuauant.) 

Tumatakihau. SmuWer side posts between the larger ones (= tumatakahuki.) 

Tnmatakalmh. ^\]^nght sticks to support the laths to which the reeds are fastened 
in tiiku-tuku work, between the slabs of a native house. 

Twnatapu. — Small binding batten. 

Tinnu.—TiiiiiU'tiimii. Posts; stumps. 

112 Words connected with the Houses and Buildings of the Maoris. 

Tungitun^i. — Sacred oven near a cultivation. 
Titkaruparu. — To build with raupo. 

Tupiini. — To build up the sides of a house with raupo, &c. The bundles of raupo. 
Tiirihunga. — Dressed slabs cut from the trunk of the tree-fern placed round the 
principal posts of a house underground as a preservative. 

Tutaka. — Carved ridge pole of the verandah. 

Tiituni. — Doorpost. Any post of a door, or in a building. 

Tmcatcucata. — Fence. Palisade of a. pa. 

Uhi. — To thatch ; to cover generally. 

Uniii. — Native oven. 

Uriipa. — Grave. Also the ground inside the fence. 

Wawa. — Fence. 

Wita. — One of the fences forming the fortification of a pa outside the " hahia " or 
main fence. 

Whaitoka. — Doorway (= ivhatitoka.) 

Whakairo. — Carving. 

Whakapakoko. — An image. A carved figure of wood or stone. 

Wliakaporo. — Tops of posts cut to represent the heads of their enemies. A finished 
or wrought end of a post (= whakangarengare, Ngatiporou.) 

Whakamahau. — Verandah. The open front of a whare. 

Whakainanimarii. — Screen from the wind, sun, or rain. Signifies shade and pro- 
tedtion from sun. 

Whaknra'iva. — Fastener for a door (= uihakarawc.) (Ngatiporou ; also Ngaraurn of 

Whakaruru. — Screen; shelter from wind; lit., to make calm. 

Whakawai. — Jamb of doorway, or window opening. 

W liana. — Upright sticks of a fence ; battens. 

Whao. — Nails ; also titi, a peg. Whao, originally a small stone chisel ; the transition 
to a large iron nail easy. 

Whara. — Mat used as a carpet. 

Wharariki. — Mat used as a carpet. Or wharaki. 

Wharau. — Temporary sleeping shed ; a canoe shed. 

Wharc. — A house. 

Wharc-uialoro. — A large meeting house. 

Wkarepotae. — A house in which to mourn ; a round-topped house. 

Words connected with the Houses and Buildings of the INIaoris. 113 

Whare-apiti. — Steep-roofed house. 

Wharc-kohanga. — A temporary shed in which women gave birth. 

Whare-kohuku. — A kind of wharaii. 

Wharc-kura, or red house; or Wharc-pu-rahau. — Where the classes were held for 
instrudtion three months of the year, from sunset to midnight ; a house 
for reciting ancient legends ; a house with painted timbers. 

Whare-maire. — A large ornamented, sacred house, in which was taught the history 

and learning of the tribe. Each canoe built one soon after arrival. The 

names and positions of many are known (= ivhare-kura.) 
Whare-mato. — A house built for purposes of amusement (= izihare-ato, whare-maloro. 

— A.H.M., 1-6.) 
Whare-ngakau. — A house built in order to get up an expedition to avenge the death 

of someone ; a condition of mind while planning revenge. 
Wharc-pnni. — A closely-covered house for sleeping in. 
Whare-rangi. — Store house built upon posts. 
Wharc-tatai. — Astronomical school. 
Whare-tntnrn. — House with a hipped roof; proper house, permanent home, as 

applied in opposition to a temporary house ; a well-built house of any 

Whare-iimu.—Coo\s:\ng house. Always kaiita in Hokianga ; wharc-iimu in Patea 

Whare--wharau. — Shed, or booth of branches of trees. on which food is kept ; a store house for food buih on piles. 
Whatnrangi. — Stage or platform on two or more posts. 
Whatitoka. — Doorway. 
Whatu.—The viftim slam and buried at the foot of the pou-tua-rongo of a new house, 

or at foot of main posts in new pa. 
H//«« ?£'/»•«. —Layers of toetoe overlapping each other on the ridge of a house. 


Maori Art. 

Kiirm-u, or Carved Ornament from the Qable of a House. 

AIaori Art. 


Meeting House at Ohinemutu, Lake Rotorua. 

This carved house was erefted in 1878 as a token of the ratification of peace 
between the Arawa and the Waikato tribes, and to induce Tawhiao (the so-called 
Maori King) to pay the Arawa people a friendly visit. Patera te Pukuatua, and 
other Arawa chiefs, had already presented themselves to, and been welcomed by, 
Tawhiao at Te Kuiti. None of the carving is very old. 

It is named after Tama-te-Kapua, the great ancestor of the Arawas. 

The house measures 52ft. by 30ft. inside. The porch is 12ft. 


^Iaori Art. 

Carved Ornament for Qable of House (Koi-uru or Parata.) 




c JL X X Ju 1 

',y Vir/ Sii/ Si 












Korupe, Or Carved Board over the Doorway of a House. 




THE elaborate patterns decorating the rafters ( /u-ArJ of a large Maori house have 
never been recorded or described, and I am, therefore, pleased to be able to 
figure the coUeftion of patterns nov^^ given m chromo-lithography, most of 
which are from the east and north of the North Island. They have been collefted 
by the Rev. Herbert Williams, and I am indebted to him for the following descrip- 
tions. He says : — 

"Any scientific discussion of that branch of Maori Art which comprised the 
decoration of the whare by painting is rendered extremely difficult, if not impossible, 
by the fad that none of the old school of painters are now living and little, if any, 
of their work has survived them. 

" The Maori decorator does not copy— that is to say, he does not draw from a 
pattern, but carries the design as far as may be, in his head. To transfer the design 
to the material before him, he apparently forms a mental projedlion of it upon his 
board, and traces the outline, workmg in the colour afterwards. It may be 
dangerous to argue from the habits to be observed now, back to the custom of the 
ancient tohimga ; but certainly this method of producing a pattern does not at all 
accord with European notions. Instead of laying down the main elements of the 

ii8 Description of Maori Rafter Patterns. 

pattern and working in the details later, some, at any rate, of the modern painters 
work as stated above ; and the method produces certain results, of which traces 
appear in drawings made some years ago. For instance, in an outline sketch 
of a pattern made by a Maori for the writer, the bulk of the drawing was 
correftly done, as represented in No. 15 ; but in one place two elements of the 
proje6lion had evidently undergone mental displacement, and there was nothing 
for it but to draw them where they could be got in. If colour had been filled 
in a new pattern would have been produced. Analagous to this is the defeft which 
may be seen in almost any Maori whare — of^atterns drawn too large for the slab. 
Instead of cramping the pattern to suit thg4naterial, the artist draws what he can, 
and omits the rest.* This is well illustrated in No. i, and it seems more than 
probable that a gradual development in this way has evolved pattern No. 4 from 
No. 2. This supposition is further strengthened by two fa6ls : First — No. 2 is 
drawn from a pattern in a whare at Kaiti, Gisborne, painted by Natanahira Te 
Keteiwi in the year 1850 ; it also appeared shorn of much of its boldness in the 
original Maori church at Manutukea, Te Aral, Poverty Bay, but is not now seen at 
all ; whereas No. 4 is comparatively common throughout the Poverty Bay district. 
Secondly- — No. 4 is sometimes drawn with the tops of the patterns close to, or even 
touching, the opposite edge. A somewhat similar evolution may be followed — of 
No. 5 from No. 18, through No. 26. The simple form in No. 18 is a natural one ; 
this having been drawn too lean on some occasion was supplemented by the extra 
curves appearing in No. 26. The pattern taken was copied, and eventually modified 
further by the break in the sweep of the outer curve, as shown in No. 5. 

" The motif of the pattern must in general have been some natural objeft. The 
circinate fern fronds or pitau are acknowledged in the beautiful carved scrolls on the 
rapa of the war canoe, and pattern No. i is said to be called Pitau a Manaia. The 
flower of the Kowhai iigiitiika/ca (Cliantluis ptinicciis j is obvious in Nos. 7, 8, 9, which, 
by the way, come from the Wairoa distridf and Ohinemutu, the charadleristic 
reversed curve — as also that in No. 26 — being foreign to Ngatiporou ideas. No. 10 
is said to be a conventionalized patiki, or flatfish ; while No. 3 represents the 
mangopare, or hammer-headed shark. The commonest pattern with Ngatiporou is 
No. 15, which is known as Ranta-wa {tawa leaf). 

* It is perhaps in this wa,y that we may accovint for the careless way in which the Maori workman will 
terminate a handsomely carved slab. 

Description of Maori Rafter Patterns. iig 

"The ancient tohiinga, without doubt, abhorred the straight hne when considering 

ornament. With the exception of No. 24, all the patterns figured here originally 

consisted solely of curves. The introduction of straight cross-lines and mid-ribs is 

a modern invention. For instance, the inaiigoparc No. 3 was originally so drawn, 

but is now almost invariably represented as in No. 29. The variant form mangotipi 

No. 6 was probably similar originall}^, but the writer has not been successful in 

finding a genuine old specimen. No. 28, which it is supposed represents the waves 

of the sea, most probably occupied the whole board with one curve, and had no 

dividing mid-rib, but the form figured was copied from a whare painted by an artist 

who had a distinct leaning to the habit of reciprocating his patterns across a 

dividing centre line. The one exception — No. 23 — is an Arawa pattern, and 

appears in the large house at Ohinemutu. It forms an exception also to the rule 

that the pattern takes no account of the limits of its ground. In no other case 

which has come under the writer's notice has a pattern any definite beginning or 


"The pigments used in these decorations were mainly soot and red ochre 
{kokowai), the white being the self-coloured timber; but it is said that the Ngati- 
porou in the Waiapu distri6l sometimes added a blue-grey, produced by a slimy 
clay known as tutaewhetu. The colours were arranged to the taste of the artist ; as 
a rule, rather avoiding a set formation. The regularity of modern whares {e.g. — the 
magnificent Porourangi of the the late Major Ropata) is not at all in keeping with 
the ancient traditions of the art. In the better paintings, the colour was not laid on 
flat, but in finely embattled lines as on the rafters seen in Fig. i, PI. XIII., which 
followed the main curves of the pattern. But this was not considered appropriate 
to No. 23 and its companion, No. 24, which were, according to strift rules, repre- 
sented in plain black and white. 

" It is not, in every case, quite easy to decide whether the white or the colour 
represents the pattern. Without doubt the former is the case m Nos. 3. 5> 6 ; and 
as undoubtedly the latter in Nos. 11— 14- But in Nos. i, 2, 4, we have a more 
complicated struaure m which the effeft is produced by the happy arrangement 
and contrast ; in one part the colour, in another the white, seeming to represent the 
theme of the design. 

"The names of some of the patterns have already been mentioned, and subjoined 


Description of Maori Rafter Patterns. 

are those of others which are known. But in many cases these must be accepted 
provisionally, as the innate desire of the Maori to please will often produce a name 
which has no sanation in antiquity. 

" In conclusion, the great difficult}^ in obtaining any accurate information, or 
indeed genuine patterns, lies in the fact that the modern designer, as a rule, thinks 
himself as good as, or better than, his predecessor. There has, of late years, been 
a revival among the Ngatiporou, and the blues and greens, which had been coming 
into fashion, have given way, in the finer houses, to the old-established red and 
black. But the artist, having no copy, can only reproduce what he remembers of 
the old patterns, or put in something of his own. The difficulty of carrying a 
complicated design, such as No. i, in the mind, has led to the gradual disappear- 
ance of all the finer patterns ; while those that remain are too often adulterated 
with diamonds, clubs, and other glaring signs of contact with the pakelm. As a 
rule, too, the Maori artist is singularly ignorant of his subjeft, and has positively 
no idea of producing a new pattern which will be in keeping with his ancient 

" No. 2 is said to be piihoro, a name also applied to Nos. 23 and 24. 

" A variant name for No. 3, or rather for its modern form. No. 29, is Ngoru. 

" No. 4. — Kowhaiwhai kape run.* 

" No. 5. — Ngutukiira. 

" No. 15. — Rauru. 

"No. 16.— Koiri. 

"Nos. 13 and 14. — Ngutukakay 

* In reply to the question, " Was there a Kowhaiwhai kape tahi ? " the Maori artist will say he supposes so, 
but has no idea what it was like. 













•I fiiii I II ' 


i», -t 






1^ 7 


'''/ir^,-///'^W^^iUU ^ U//W//M/y///////////////^////// "^ '////y,y/,/, ^,^,, , y,,,,,,,yy/y,/,yy^^y^/yy^_. 5 

PLAN OF I ■ J" )! i: *^ 

^MW^B©S11!I 3f A f^v//////////////////////////y////////y///////////////^^ 

Situated in the Town of Waitara, 


--•«"^— ''^ 
Surveyed by F. A. Carrington, 1842. 

- ^R'v^aX Hugh /to 

Dra.MTi^ t'V H'Oofc/.on <^:.^R Jieiv 

Sccti/yrt oftJieUrie A B 

^■'zZz.V^.^_Z////////// ////////// ///^/// //////// //////////// /////// ////////// / /////////////////////A^/^^^ 


Waikaramarama Stream. 

Strcfun on. beacA 


A Korupe, or Carved Ornament, from a Doorway. Taranaki, West Coast of North Island. 

Canterbury Museum. 




Diagrams of the Construction of a Maori House. 

Reference to the description given on page 8i will, probably, render any further 
explanation of the plate unnecessary. None of the details are to an adual scale. 
It will probably be found that the various parts are known by other names in other 
parts of New Zealand ; the names on the diagrams applying more particularly 
to the distria between the East Cape and the northern end of Hawke's Bay. 
Further information on this subjed is given in a paper in a recent number of the 
"Polynesian Journal," by A. T. Ngata.* Scattered through the literature of 
the subjedl there are notices of buildings of an exceptional charafter. Savage, 
who was one of the early visitors to New Zealand, saw at the Bay of Islands, 
near the residence of a chief, an edifice every way similar to a dove-cote, 
standing upon a single post, and not larger than dove-cotes usually are. In this, 
Tippeehee (Te Pehi), confined one of his daughters for several years ; " we under- 
stood," he says, "that she had fallen in love with a person of inferior condition, and 
that these means were adopted to prevent her bringing disgrace upon her family. 
The space allotted to her would neither allow of her standing up nor stretching at 
her length.t I could not find that she was allowed any other accommodation."^ 

* A. T. N,ata, " Notes on the E«v. H. W. Williams' Paper on • The Whare Maori,' " Journ. Pol. Soc, Vol vi., p. S5. 
t Savage, " Account of New Zealand, 1807," p. 14. 

3-26 Description of the Lithographic Plates. 

Nicholas, who was at the Thames a few years later, saw a curious circular hut 

elevated on posts, and guarded by a neat fence, in a fine plantation of potatoes, 

probably intended for a storehouse. The roof projeaed about 3ft. from the sides. 

He also notices a huge shed, nearly looft. long, with a partition running through 

the middle of it. It appeared to be only used at that time as a shelter for the pigs 

owned by the natives of the village.* 

■»■ — ■*» 

Plans and Sections of Fortified Pas. 

Pig. i._Seaion of a large /ifl at Taradale, Hawke's Bay. The sketch sedion 
of the ditches and banks {maioro) show the strength of the defensive works ; such 
was the extent of the pa that a very large number of men must have been required 
to repel a large attacking force. This pa is only one of many visible from this 
place. It is situated on a high spur above the river, and covers several acres. 
I have a sketch made by the Rev. W. Colenso in 1838 of a. pa in the Waiapu Valley, 
called Whakawiti-ra, near Roto-Kautuku, with its palisade of huge tree trunks, 
with carved figures on the top rising from the river bank. He tells me that he 
paced a whole mile along the outside river fence of this pa. The Ngati-Porou, in 
their tales, say that "this pa was so large that a child might be born at one end and 
grow up to manhood, and yet be quite unknown to the people living at the other 
end." Mr. Elsdon Best mentionst a similar case near Rua-toki, VVhakatane (Moho- 
aonui, a pa of Maruiwi). " Such were the works of old !" I have seen the remains 
of an old pa at Waikanae, called Te Uruhi, the fence of which has been a mile 
in circumference. J Several interesting papers have been written describing ancient 
earthworks in the northern part of the South Island of New Zealand, and a large 
number of pits, terraces, and traces of ancient cultivations covering large areas 
have been discovered. § These earthworks do not, however, seem to have been for 
defensive purposes like those forming the citadels of the Northern tribes. Wakefield 
mentions seeing the remains of a large pa covering 10 or 15 acres near where the 
"Pelorus" anchored, in a bay on the east side of the Sound, now known as 
Pelorus Sound. 1 1 

* Nicholas, " Narrative of a Voyage to N.Z., 1817," Vol. i., pp. 4UI and 405. 
t Elsdon Best, " In Ancient Maoriland," 1896, p. 38. 
t Wakefield, " Adventures in N.Z.," p. 123. 

§ J. Rutland, " Traces of Ancient Human Occupation in the Pelorus District," Journ. Pol. Soc, Vol. iii., p. 220 ; 
and also " On the Ancient Pit Dwellinus of the Pelorus District," Journ. Pol. Soc, Vol. vi., p. 77. 
|] Wakefield, "Adventures in N.Z., 1845," p. 56 

Description of the Lithographic Plates. 127 

Fig. 2. — Sections of a strong ^a near Petane, in Hawke's Bay. 

Diagram of the earthworks of a hill fort, or pa, at Kaiinata, near Napier. It 
is situated on the end of a spur, with a precipitous descent to the river bed, 
and must have been almost impregnable. It is in the immediate vicinity of good 
eel swamps, and sea and river fishing. The distridls in which the greatest number 
of old pas are to be found are — Taranaki, the Auckland Isthmus, Whakatane, and 
Opotiki, all places celebrated for the excellence of their soil, and where, consequently, 
the food plants cultivated by the Maoris could be easily and advantageously grown. 
Eel swamps and good fishing grounds also influenced the position of settlements. 

Fig. 3. — Plan of a pa, Massacre Bay, 1839. The stockade of this pa was 
double, an inner line of palisades standing a foot or fifteen inches from the outer 
wall, which was formed by large posts being planted deep in the ground every eight 
feet. Horizontal pieces were lashed to these, the first about three feet from the 
ground, the second at, say, seven feet, and the third at ten feet. Stakes of split 
wood were fastened to these perpendicularly, the lower ends remaining a foot above 
the ground, to enable the defenders to fire under. These upright pieces were lashed 
with tough vines to the horizontal pieces. Inside of this was a second wall of 
palisades, made in the same manner, and near doors, or weak places, a third line of 
wall. A shell or cannon ball striking the fence made a hole only its own size, and 
which could quickly be repaired. The walls were flanked at the angles. Doorways 
were blinded outside, and flanked, and the passage from them into the pa com- 
manded by traverses of palisades and rifle pits. 

Fio-. 4. Seftion of part of the fence, showing the modification made by the 

natives to adapt the old style of palisade, in which all the posts were planted in the 
ground, to the requirements of the new weapon. When erefting a new pa in war 
time, some of the larger posts of the stockade were named after the chiefs of the 
hostile tribe. The party then building the pa fired volleys of shots at these posts 
by way of expressing the deadly nature of their hatred. This form of insult 
was called a tapa-papa or tukiituku* 

Fig. 5.— Sketch of Waimate Pa, 1839. One of the sketches, published by 
Major Heaphy, of a fortified pa perched on a commanding rock, to ascend which it 
is necessary to use notched poles, which, of course, could be withdrawn in case 
of an attack. ^ 

* Shortland, " Southern District of N.Z.," p. 26. 

128 Description of the Lithographic Plates. 

Fig- 6. — Fightins,' stages at the Chatham Islands, 1839. This sketch, repro- 
duced from a hthographed sketch by Major Heaphy, is the only one that I can 
find of fighting stages, tainnaihi, or towers, although, in the olden times, the Maoris 
used frequently to have stages, poraiva, somewhat like balconies, overhanging the 
main fence of the pa, from which they could hurl stones or throw spears at their 
assailants ; and in the pas built during the three Maori wars with the Europeans, 
elevated stages were used by sharpshooters either on the fence or in trees in or near 
the pa. The stages shown in the sketch were built at Waitangi, Chatham Islands, 
by Maoris who had migrated thither and then quarrelled amongst themselves, after 
nearly exterminating the Morioris, or original inhabitants of the Islands. The pa 
with the higher tower was built in order to besiege the people in the middle 
pa. Each story or stage of the tower was from ten to twelve feet in height, 
and from the summit, the assailants fired down into the besieged place. The 
besieged built a tower also, but from lack of material, its dimensions were inferior 
to the other. There were no earthworks to speak of, probably on account of the 
nature of the hill, which was chiefly of sand. Covered ways led down from the pa 
to the water's edge. At night the besieged could obtain fresh water by means 
of the covered way. The little storehouses, seen in this and all old sketches 
elevated on high poles inside the pa, were for storing roots reserved for seed, or for 
the safe custod)' of any valuable property. 


3piL.Ji.TE 3. 

Manukorihi Pa (" The Singing Bird.") 

(From a Survey made in 1842 by F. A. CARRINQTON, Esq.) 

Manukorihi pa is situated on the north bank of the Waitara River, adjoining 
the town of Waitara, Taranaki. T\\\s pa was the principal stronghold of the Manu- 
korihi hapu of the Ati-Awa tribe. The first expedition of the Nga Puhi and Ngati- 
Whatua into Taranaki, led by Murupaenga and Tuwhari, were received and 
welcomed into the pa; and the people of this and adjoining pas joined these tanas 
in their invasions of Taranaki proper. This pa was the home of the ancestors of 
Wi Kingi, the leader of the first Taranaki War (1860-61) against the Europeans. 
The pa was deserted about 1826, when its people migrated south to Kapiti to escape 
the inroads of the Waikatos from the north. 

Description of the Lithographic Plates. 


Pukearuhe Pa. 

(From a Survey by W. H. SKINNER, Esq.) 

This pa is situated on the West Coast of the North Island, 35 miles north of New 
Plymouth, and is built on sea-cliffs 150ft. high. The Kawau Pa on the north and 
Pukearuhe on the south were the keys of the Ngati-tama country. The Ngati-tama, 
although a distinct tribe, were so intermarried with the different hapus of Ati-Awa to 
the south that they were pra6f ically for all purposes of offence and defence members 
of the great Ati-Awa tribe ; so that, unlike the Kawau to the north, this pa was not 
subjefted to the constant attacks of their great enemy, Ngati-maniapoto, who joined 
them on their northern boundary. Pukearuhe commands still (as it has done for 
generations) the only path or road leading from the north into the fertile distrifls of 
the north and middle Taranaki ; and it was through this pa that the first Nga-Puhi 
expeditions into Taranaki proper came. Owing to distant relationship these people 
were allowed to pass through unmolested. On the death of Tupoki and Raparapa, 
the great fighting chiefs of the Ngati-tama, whose home was the Kawau, twelve miles 
to the north, Ngati-tama became disorganised, and, throwing in its lot with Raupa- 
raha and his people, abandoned their ancestral homes, and migrated to what is now 
Wellington and Nelson distrifts. In later times (1865) Pukearuhe was occupied as 
the outpost of the military in our war with the Maoris. It was a position of great 
danger, and, during the early occupation, the garrison were subjefted to constant 
alarms from the enemy to the north. In February, i86g, the Rev. John Whitely, 
Capt. Gascoigne, his wife and family, and two other Europeans were cruelly mur- 
dered here by a tana from the Waikato. These plans have been kindly furnished, 
specially for this work, by the Survey Department. 

Paepae from the front of a Whata near Otaki. Wanganui Museum. 


Maori Art. 

1 > v^'^^-^H f 


n ' 

1^^ ^im Mini #mM>»^ia^»M»'4 

F t:«. ^Bmm .^ -^ *;* 

A Pa^alia, or Skirting Board. 

A small carved slab between the large panels which form the side of a house. 
A bold piece of work, agreeing well with the charafter of the massive carvings of 
the Maori house in the Colonial Museum at Wellington. This is one of the series 
forming the skirting board of the wall, all of which are entirely different in pattern. 

Size : lo inches by 8 inches. 

Colonial Museum, Wellington. 

Carved Ornaments for Doorways (Pare or Korupe.) 


]M,vuRi Akt. 

Carved Ornament for (jable of House [Kunn-u or rurola.) 








■ T V T VV T T T T T " 


i I . I ! I I I I I I I I I I I 1 
: X-X X xxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

1:^4 Maori Art. 

Fig. X. 

An ordinary Maori House, or Whare. 

A whare, or house for ordinary occasions, showing the very low doorway, and 
the extremely small aperture for the window. It is entirely without ornament, and 
constructed of small poles and slender sticks lashed together with flax. Such a 
shelter was easily and quickly built, generally, as in this case, in some sheltered 
situation. At page 72, a quotation is given from Cook's description of some native 
houses, in which he says : " The walls and roof consisted of hay." This', of course, 
should be of the wiwi rush, which is extensively used for the poorer class of house. 

r'ig. 2. 

A Rua, or Storehouse for Provisions. 

An underground storehouse for root-crops, called a rua. The door panel has 
slipped to the bottom of the store, showmg the depth to which it has been 
excavated from the side of the hill. Over the door is a small piece of carved wood. 
They vary in size, but are never very large. The one figured is at Te Horo, near 
the East Cape. 


trig. X. 

Fig. 2. 


Maori Art. 

^'iigf. 1. 

Large Maori House at Poverty Bay. 

A large Maori house of modern date, differing from the older forms in the 
greater height of the carved doorway, and the much greater aperture of the 
window. It is said that formerly there was no supporting post at the front apex of 
the gable, but it is present in most of the existing specimens. It is shown m a plan 
published in the "Atlas to the Voyage de la ' Coquille ' in 1826,"* as well as in 
many of the early sketches, so that, possibly, the want of it was a local peculiarity. 
The general appearance of the house is somewhat spoiled by the modern costume 
of some of the natives, but it is difficult to get photographs satisfadory from 
all points of view. 

« ^ » ♦ 

Carved House at the Thames, Auckland. 

This beautiful specimen of a ivharc-K'hakairo, or carved house, is called Hotiinui, 
after a great ancestor who lived about 10 generations ago. It was erefted in 1878, 
after a large number of men of four divisions of the Ngati-awa had been employed 
upon the preparation of the carvings for three years. The paepnc-ivalio, or threshold, 
of the porch, is called ruamano. When the builders were returning to their own 
settlement they would not accept payment, beyond the food and presents they had 
received from time to time during the building. Taipari felt ill at ease about this, 
saying that " the Ngati-Maru had not sustained their ancient name for generosity," 
so he sent his daughter-in-law quickly by land to Tauranga to meet the builders on 
their return home by sea. She met them on their arrival, and said, " ' Behold, I have 
brought you a koha (gift) from your grandparent, Hotereni Taipari.' One thousand 
pounds in single bank notes did I give them, and the Ngati-awa went on their way 

[Full particulars of the building of this house, and of the details of the carving, 
will be published in the Volume of the " Transa6lions N.Z. Institute" for 1897, 
Captain Mair having obtained the information from the widow of the late chief, 
W. Hotereni Taipari.] 

The length of the house is 80ft, the width 33ft, height 24ft., length of porch 

" Voyage de la ' Coquille ' Atlas," pi. 41. 


Fig. 1- 

Fig. 2. 

i:;S Maori Art. 

Fig. X. 

Part of the Verandah, or Porch, of the large House of the Ngati = Porou, 

at Wai=o-Matatini, East Cape. 

The wall and part of the roof of the large house at Wai-o-Matatini. The side 
walls of the verandah, or whakainahau, are lined between the carved poupoiis with 
lath work, tukutiiku, of a step pattern, called poutama. Between the poupoiis at the 
bottom of the tukutuka work are the papahas, or skirting boards. The hekes, or 
large rafters, are painted with different patterns in white, red, and black. The 
cross rafters, kaho, have three ornamental stripes of white paint, representing, 
decoratively, the lashings of flax formerly used. Behind these are the reeds of 
the toetoe grass. The front wall of the house is faced with toetoe reeds placed 
vertically, and at intervals the reeds are smoked with a dark pattern ; transverse 
lashings of flax, at alternate intervals, add to the decorative efifeft. 

Fig. 2. 

Interior of House at Wai-o-Matatini. 

Three of the tukiituku panels in the interior of the same house. Here the 
simplicity of the patterns of the olden time has been departed from, and modern 
ideas have crept in, especially in the introdudfion of the name of one of the 
ancestors represented in the central lath panel. The finish and execution of 
the work, however, are good. Each panel is finished on the top with a batten 
wrapped with variously coloured strips of flax leaf. The name of the house is 


IFig. 1. 

F-ig. 2. 

j_ iQ Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Large Carved Storehouse in the Auckland Museum. 

This beautiful specimen of a carved storehouse is now in the Auckland 
Museum. It was the property of Te Pokiha Taranui, the leading chief of the Ngati 
Pikiao Tribe, a sedion of the Arawa. Te Pokiha is better known by his European 
title of Major Fox, he having commanded a portion of the Arawa contingent during 
the chase after Te Kooti. The house stood at Maketu, about eighteen miles south 
of Tauranga, and was built about 1868. It belongs to the class of carved houses 
known as pataka, or storehouses. These are raised on legs, and have the whole of 
their carvings and other ornamentation on the outside, thus differing from the 
nniaiii^-a, or meeting-houses, in which it is the interior which is carved and decorated. 
The house is, without doubt, the finest and most complete of its class in existence. 
The house is about 35ft. long by about 20ft. broad, and has a height of 15ft. to the 
crown of the roof. The sides and both ends are formed of upright totara slabs, 
boldly and elaborately carved, the carvings being mainly grotesque representations 
of the human figure. The ridge-boards are carved to represent a number of ngarara, 
or lizards, running along the roof, and the iiiaihi, or gable-boards, have carvings of 
the mythological animal known as manaia — probably a kind of tamwha. In front of 
the house is a carved verandah, some 5ft. or 6ft. deep, and it is on the walls of this 
that the most elaborate carvings in the house are placed, many of the slabs 
representing well-known ancestors of the Ngati Pikiao Tribe. The large carved 
figure over the doorway stands for Tama te Kapua, the captain of the " Arawa " 
canoe, which was finally beached at Maketu after its adventurous voyage from 
Hawaiki to New Zealand The tekoteko on the roof above is Takenga, one of the 
descendants of Tama te Kapua, and a remote ancestor of Pokiha ; another tekoteko 
is Awanui, a son of Takenga ; and so on. The chiet figures on the house are 
intended to illustrate Pokiha's genealogy. The house itself bears two names — one 
being Tiihiia Katoore, the signification of which is " the pit of the taniwha " ; the 
other Piiawai tc Araica, or " The flower of the Arawa." As already mentioned, 
Maketu was the landing-place of the famed Arawa canoe; and a clump of mingi- 
mingi trees, old and hoary, and evidently of great anticjuit)-, is still pointed out as 
having sprung from the skids which were used in hauling up the canoe on the beach. 

Fig. 2. 

The Horizontal Board in the Front of a Carved Storehouse. 

A fine piece of old workmanship which formed part of a carved storehouse, or 
pataka. It represents the usual conventional figures of human beings, alternated 
with the bird-headed manaias. As is not unusual, the artist has been unable to 
find room for the full development of the heads of the figures. This carving has 
been recently acquired for the Auckland Museum, and came from the neighbour- 
hood of the East Cape. 


w±g. 1. 

F'ig. 2. 

1,2 Maori Art. 

Storehouse on the Island of Papaitonga. 

This celebrated specimen of a Maori pataka, or foodhouse, called " Te Takinga," 
was built out of a large war canoe, which was drawn overland from Maketu, on the 
coast to Rotorua Lake — a distance of 30 miles — by Hongi Hika, the great Nga-puhi 
warrior, when he attacked Mokoia Island in Rotorua Lake, in the year 1822. The 
main figure on the doorway slab represents Pikiao, the ancestor of the Ngati Pikiao 
tribe ; the tckoteko, or small figure surmounting the top, is called " Te Takinga," 
the son of Pikiao. The legs or supports were carved by Morehu, of the Ngati- 
huia Tribe. 

It is the property of Sir Walter Buller, K.C.M.G., and is now erefted on the 
shore of the beautiful Papaitonga Lake. 

The measurements are : Width of /)fl^a/ea, 12ft. 6in. ; length, 21ft. 3in. From 
end to end of carved pae-pae, 15ft. Height of carved supports, 4ft. ^ 

Figured in the " Illustrated Loudon News," October 2, 18,SG. 



Maori Art. 

Fig. X. 

Doorway of a large Maori House. 

A fine specimen of the decorated framework adorning the entrance to a large 
house. It consists of three parts, the korupe, or Hntel, bearing three human figures, 
with the intervals filled up with pitmi spirals. The other parts are the two door 
posts, with superposed figures flanked on the outer side by pitau spirals, alternated 
with 'a conventional human face in profile. The whole is surrounded with an 
ornamental decoration of feathers, probably from the New Zealand pigeon. The 
feathers are carefully prepared and fastened together in small bunches, and these 
smaller bunches arranged so as to form an even rope of feathers. Sometimes the 
shafts of the feathers are split to cause the web of the feather to curl. The door, 
which slides in a groove, is, in the present instance, of sawn timber, but was 
formerly a single hewn slab. This doorway belongs to Taipari's house at the 
Thames, represented at Fig. 2, Plate XII. 

Fig. 2. 

Small Carved Doorway. Auckland Museum. 

The doorway of a small house or storehouse from the neighbourhood of Lake 
Rotorua. An excellent specimen of carving, especially the korupe or transverse piece 
on the top, bearing the three figures. These figures call to mind the deities assigned 
by the Greeks and Romans to the parts of a door and entrance, more particularly 
the Greek antelii (or demons), who were assigned to the door on the east or sunny 
side of the house.* The carved doorposts of superposed figures occur in a modified 
form in New Caledonia. f The ancient Tuhoe people, who live near Waikaremoana, 
have a peculiar phrase which is used to denote a formal and enduring peace : " The 
tatau pounamu, or jade door, is raised on the closing of strife." The idea recalls the 
closing of the gates of the Temple of Janus. 

♦ ■»^ » 

Fig. 3. 

Doorway of a Mouse in the East Cape District. 

A somewhat similar doorway, but without the feather decoration. I have 
been unable to obtain the names of the figures over the doorway, but in some cases 
they are said to represent the goddesses of music and dancing, for which purpose 
the house was probably originally built. The names of these goddesses were 
Rau-kata-uri and Rau-kata-mea. 

Fig. 4. 

Doorway of a House at Te Arai. 

A different style of work employing a distind pattern of carving. From their 
position at the back of a deep verandah, it is not always possible to get a 
photograph to give a satisfactory representation of the upper part of the carved 
doorways of the best native houses. The door represented is that belonging to 
a house at Te Arai, near Turanga (Gisborne). 

* Tertullian, " On Idolatry," c. 25. 

nsnn^V''V*l°°ri^' " Second Voyage," Vol, ii., p. 122 (1777); and Labillardiere, "Voyage in Search of La P^ronse 
(1800), English Translation, Vol. n., p. 197 ; " Atlas," French edition (1798) pi 37 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

J ,5 r^lAORi Art. 

Fig. X. 

A Tckotcko, or Qable Ornament from the Roof of a House. 

The unusual size of the mouth, and fierceness of expression, together with the 
narrow perforated board at the feet terminating in a face, renders this a good 
specimen of one type of gable ornament. 

It is the property of Captain Mair, and is in the Museum of the Hawke's Bay 
Philosophical Institute at Napier. _ 

Fig. 2. 

A small Tekoteko, or grotesque Human Figure 

With an elaborate tattoo, represented as standing upon half a human face or mask. 
One hand originally grasped a weapon, and the projection on the head probably 
represents a head comb ; it is pierced with a hole for the attachment of an 
ornamental bunch of feathers. 

This came from Moawhango, Inland Patea, and is now in the Museum of the 
Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, Napier. 

Fig. 3. 

Tekoteko, or Qable Ornament. 

A tekoteko of the same type as the last, but of better execution. In this the 
ornamental head comb is defined, and the tattoo of the face and lips is more 
correct. This is from the Auckland district. 


Fig. 4. 

A Pon-tokoinaiuvKia, or Central Post supporting the Ridge Pole of a House 

at Turanga (Qisborne), 

Being probably the representation of a celebrated ancestor. The nose has been 
barbarously mutilated. It is peculiar in having the arms tattooed with flowing floral 
figures. The thigh and breech tattooing are well represented, the pattern being 
different to the usual piihoro pattern of the thigh. 

Fig. 5. 

Ornamental End of a Ridge Pole (Tahnhii or tahti). 

That part of a ridge pole, tahu, which projefts from the front wall of a house 
and forms the verandah, or whakamahau. The plain portion at the bottom is the 
part resting on the pou-tahii, or central post of the front wall. This carving is from 
the East Coast distria, and is in the colleftion of Sir Walter Buller. 

Fig. 6. 
The Base of a Pou-tokomanania. 

Above these two figures was a small female figure affixed to the post. It was 
Fu^""^ oi a house near Lake Taupo, in the centre of the North Island, and is now in 
the colleaion of Dr. T. M. Hocken, of Dunedin. 

Height of figures : 4ft. 3in. 


Fig. X. 

r-±g. 2. 

E"ig. 3. 

Firf. 4. 

Fig. 5. 

ff"ig. 6. 

i^^8 Maori Art, 

Korupe, or Pare — Carved Doorway Ornamented. 

An excellent specimen of carving, in which the usual arrangement of three 
similar figures is departed from ; the central figure being a chief with well-designed 
face tattoo, attended on either side by two atuas, or demons. The treatment of the 
hands of the demons is noticeable, as they are suggestive of the bird or serpent- 
headed mana'ia. The background is filled up with the same figures ; and when all 
the eyes were filled with the brilliant shell of the paua, must have had a striking 

Fig. 2. 

A Poupou, or Carved Slab forming- part of the Wall of a large Maori House. 

This and No. 4 are from the same building, and show the variation upon the 
same design. The circular devices covering the shoulders and thighs are well 
worked-out examples of a pitau pattern. The notch at the top of the poup 
is called ruawhetu, and receives the end of the great rafters, heke. 


Fig. 3. 

A FoupoM, or Carved Slab from the Maori House in the Colonial Museum at Wellington. 

Tareha, a noted chief of Hawke's Bay, gave an account of the buildina of 
this house, and a description of the carvings, at a meeting of the Wellington 
Philosophical Society held in the house itself in August, 1868.* He stated that 
the house was built originally at Turanga-nui-a-Rua (or Gisborne), by a local chief, 
in 1845. The carved slabs, or posts, represent ancestors of the tribe : the large one, 
the fathers ; and those on the hekes, which in this house are very broad and flat, 
represent their sons. 

It was stated that it took five years to prepare all the carvings. The whole of 
the carvings are of extreme boldness and beauty, but the details cannot be 
satisfaftorily photographed in consequence of the light being insufficient. The 
name of the house was Te Hau-ki-Turanga. 

* Proc. Wellington Phil. Soc. "Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. i. (new ed.), p. 445. 

PLATE xvrrr. 

Fig. 1. 

Fi^. 2. 

F±^. 3. 


j^Q Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

The two broad Boards forming the two Sides of an elevated Food Storehouse, or Pataka. 

On the slabs are carved representations of human figures attended by the 
monstrous bird or snake-headed figures, so frequent in all carvings from the 
Northern portion of New Zealand. At present no explanation is forthcoming of 
the esoteric meaning of these mystic figures. To advance a theory on the subjed 
without ascertained fafts from the tohungas of old, would only add to the difficulties 
of the interpretation. The slabs are from the neighbourhood of Rotorua. The 
more modern pieces at the sides have nothing to do with the two slabs, or pakitam. 

Earle says : " One of their favourite subjefts (carving) is a lizard taking hold 
of a man's head ; their tradition being that this was the origin of man." Possibly 
these manaias may have been considered as representations of lizards.* 

Length, lift. 6in. Width, 2ft. 2in. 

Figs. 2 £LxicL 3. 

Broad Carved Slabs from front of a Palaka. 

These slabs — Figs. 2 and 3 — are at present part of a pataka in the possession 
of Mr. E. Craig, of Auckland. The side boards, or pakitara, are shown at Fig. i. 
These two pieces (now placed on each side of a central slab) have originally been 
part of a very beautiful inai/n, or gable board of an older house. By placing the 
slabs so that the squared ends come together, and the longest side in each is at the 
top, and then comparing them with other examples, it will be seen that tlie typical 
design of the maihi of a pataka is recovered, all but a portion of the extreme end, 
which has been removed from Fig. 3 to fit in with the new position. In its present 
state it belonged to a celebrated storehouse called Mam, and was eredled at 
different times at various places in the Lake District of the North Island b}' the 
owners — the Ngati-whakaue. 

Height, about 5ft. 

* Earle's "Narrative of a Eesidence in N.Z., 1827," p. 142. In Samoa, manaia is the name of a lizard. 


^ f^ yM' m k'^ )^^^ 

'T#.- '^*^- 


Fig. 2. 


j^^ Maori Art. 

A huge Carved Post, or Tiki, from Te Ngae. 

A carving of great size cut from tlie solid trunk of a tree, representing a human 
figure, or tiki. Tliis originally stood at Te Ngae, a place on the shore of Lake 
Rotorua, not far from Tikitere. The tiki originally represented a chief of the 
No-atiwhakaue called Pukaki, and his wife with two children ; but the lower part 
has been broken off, and has perished. The tiki was widely known among the 
Arawas by the name of Pukaki, and the hapii which owned it was called Ngati 

Height, 6ft. Sin. Width, 4ft. Sin. 

) » » « c 

The following story concerning a famous carver has its parallel in many lands : — 

Rua is considered by the aboriginal Nga-Potiki of Maunga-pohatu as the inventor of carving. 
He lived in the distant past, in times remote beyond expression. One day the thought came to him 
to visit the great sea-god Tangaroa — the Polynesian Neptune — Tangaroa-o-whatu. So Rua went to 
the house of Tangaroa, and found him highly pleased with .the appearance of his house, which, he 
asserted had been adorned with carved figures by Hura-Waikato. And so Tangaroa said to Rua, 
" Do you come with me and behold my fine house ; for doubtless you came to admire the grand work 
of Hura-Waikato?" Now, when Rua saw the house of Tangaroa he was much astonished to find 
that the wondrous carving of Hura was no carving at all, but simply painted figures, such as are seen 
on the rafters of houses. Then Rua asked, " Is this your famous carving ?" Tangaroa replied, 
" Yes, this is the carving." Rua said, " Do you come to my place, and see what real carving is ?" 
for Rua was the father of the art of carving, and' hence comes the expression, "Nga mahi whakairo, 
nga main a Rua" (" The Art of carving, the Art of Rua.") And the house of Rua was a truly brave 
sight, so adorned was it with carvings, and so fine were the figures. On a certain day Tangaroa set 
forth to visit the dwelhng of Rua. As he approached the house, and while some distance off, he 
observed the carved human figure (tekoteko) which adorned the front of the house. So he greeted the 
figure with the words, "Tena ra l<oe I" ("Salutations to youj") and then, walking up to the figure, 
he proceeded to embrace it, or hongi (rub noses), according to custom, not thinking but what this 
beautiful figure was a living man, so fine was the carving of Rua. As Tangaroa entered the house 
Rua laughed at him, saying, " This is indeed carving; you see how you have been deceived by it." 
Then was Tangaroa overcome with shame. •'• 

* Elsdou Best, " Waikaremoana," 1897, p, 34. 


154 Maori Art. 

X^ig. 1. 

Gateway of a Pa. 

This was the carved gate, or waharoa, of the famous Pukeroa pa, which stood 
on the hill overlooking Rotorua. It is carved on the same lines as the central slab 
of a large pataka ; and it appears as if the aperture had been enlarged after the 
completion of the carving. 

Height, 12ft. 6in. Width (greatest), 4ft. 

Auckland Museum. 

Fig. 2. 

Carved Slab from an old Pa at Maketu. 

These large slabs were hewn from carefully-selected logs of totara (Podocarpus), 
and were found to resist the action of the sun and rain for many years. 

Height, about 8ft. Width, 2ft. 3in. 

Fig. 3. 

Carved Slab from the front of a House {Amo.) 

A fine specimen of the large carved slabs that form, with the gable boards, the 
front of a house. 

ri.A'i'i: xxi. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 1. 

J. 5 Maori Art. 

Fig. X. 

Portion of the Carving in front of a Paiaka. 

This represents the details of the -ntral group or. the long carved {^^^^^^^^^ 
across the front of the paiaka^ a corner of which ^J/hown in Fig. 2- ^^ejajg^ 
scale shows the charader of the carving and the patterns employed, i he notched 
ornamentation is called taratara o km. 

Auckland Museum. 

« ^ ^ » ■ 

Fig. 2. 

Corner of a Carved Pataka in the Aucltland Museum. 

This storehouse was built by Haere Huka, a chief of the Ngatiwhakaue seaion 
of the Arawas, about the year 1820. It stood at a place called Mourea, about ha f- 
way between Lake Rotorua and Lake Rotoiti. Haere Huka made himself notorious 
in Maori history by his treacherous murder of Hunga at Parihaka, Rotorua, on 
December, 1835— an incident which brought about a four years war between 
Waharoa, who led the Ngatihaua and Waikato, and the Arawas.* 

♦ ■*» » 

Fig. 3. 

Poupou, or Carved Slab, from the inside of the Wall of a House. 

This slab represents a sea-demon, or taniwha. It has a long tubular tongue 
(iiono or ngongo), with a cup-shaped head. These monsters are always represented 
as drawing a fish into this funnel or cup-shaped opening. They are called mara- 
kihau, and are fabled to draw down canoes in the same way as they are represented 
drawing in fish. There are some of these figures in the great house at Ruatahuna, 
and also at Te Kuiti. 

Fig. 4. 

The Central Board of the Front of a Pataka, or Storehouse. 

It is elaborately carved with male and female figures covered with the notched 
form of decoration. The face of the principal female figure is fully tattooed, having 
marks on the forehead, on the lips, and on the chin. In this instance, the small 
doorway has the usual pare or korupe over it with a single figure in the centre, and 
the bird-headed monsters at the ends. Although somewhat damaged, this is a fine 
specimen of Northern work of considerable age. The notch seen at the top of most 
of these central slabs is to receive the ridge pole. 

Height, 5ft. Width, 3ft. 

In the collection of Dr. T. M. Hocken, Dunedin. 

* See J. A. Wilson, "The Story of Te Waharoa," p. 46, et seq. (18G6). 


Fig. 1. 

t'ig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 


Maori Art. 

Two Carved Maihis. Auckland Museum. 

The upper one is from Rotorua, and is said to have been carved about 1822-24. 

The lower one came from a Maori house which formerly stood near Puriri, at 
the Thames. 

In the large spirals or manaias on the lower part of the niaihis a distinct 
serpent's head is shown on the end of the principal line. This is not always found, 
although the spiral serpent form is an integral part of the design or pattern on all 
the mailiis for storehouses in the northern parts of New Zealand. An interesting 
but difficult chapter of the history of Maori Art requires working out on the point. 

Fig. 2. 

A Memorial to a Deceased Chief. 

Previous to the bone-scraping ceremony, and the final deposition of the bones 
in a secret cave or hiding place, the resting place of the body of a person of 
distinftion was marked by a carved post, or by the ereftion of carved slabs, called, 
in some cases, an atamira. In the instance figured, four slabs covered with figures 
have been used. 

> ♦ • ♦ < 

Fig. 3. 

Two Views of a Carved Wooden Burial Chest— Atamira or Tupapakau. 

A very old specimen of a hollow wooden box in the shape of a human body. 
The back is closed by a door made of two pieces of wood, tied together, and hung 
with hinges made of a tough creeping plant. The body part is carefully hollowed 
out, and contained the bones of a chief. The chest is made of totara, and has 
been carved all over ; but owing to the great age, and the decay of the surface, the 
pattern is nearly all gone. It was found in a cave near Auckland, together with 
another specimen in better preservation, now in Melbourne. 

The height is about 4ft. 

It is now in my collection at Napier. 


Fig. 2. 

IFijj. 3. 

i6o Maori Art. 

Fig. X. 

The Central Board or Carving from the Front of a Pataka, or Storehouse. 

Upon the decoration of these storehouses, the carver lavished his greatest skill, 
decorating the whole of the available space with patterns. The front usually 
consisted of five or seven planks fitted closely to each other by an overlapping 
edge, or rebate, and tied at intervals with lashings passed through holes. Over 
the joints battens were fastened, painted black, and adorned at equal distances 
with tufts of white feathers, usually either of albatross or gannet. 

The smallness of the doorway is always a remarkable point. In this instance, 
the original carved door is in its place ; it was usually slipped into position, and not 
made to slide in a groove as in the houses. The ornamentation shows many 
unusual forms. 

Fig. 2. 

Ornamental Carving from a Doorway. 

A small carved figure from a kainga in the Whetu Gorge belonging to Kereopa, 
a noted chief. 

The figure is lain, high, and is in the possession of F. R. Chapman, Esq. 


Fig. 3. 

Central Board of the Front of a Pataka. 

Another specimen of the doorway slab of the front of a storehouse, showing a 
chief with a fine face-tattoo. 


Fig. 4. 

A Maori House at Whakaki, near Nuhaka. 

This photograph represents a small Maori house on the East Coast, and the 
remams of the fence surrounding it. Many of the posts are probably from the 
fence of an old war pa, and are cut m a conventional manner to represent the 
heads of enemies stuck upon posts (whakaporo). 

PT.A'ri-; xxv. 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

J 52 Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Korupe, or Lintel of a Doorway. 

In this instance, the spaces bet^veen the three main figures are filled with a 
number of small, but complete, figures, and the whole is in high relief. The 
general style is like that on page 71. This interesting specimen has recently been 
acquired by the Auckland Museum from the neighbourhood of the East Cape. 

Fig. 2. 

A Carved Potcpou, or 5lab, from the Carved House at Ohinemutu. 

A broad slab, elaborately carved, forming part of the large meeting-house 
at Ohinemutu — named after the celebrated ancestor of the Arawas,Tama-te-Kapua. 

In this slab, Tama-te-Kapua himself is represented with his stilts.* 


Fig. 3. 

Carved Slab. Auckland. 

An example of car\ing in high relief, with the groundwork perforated. 
Auckland district. 

Fig. 4. 

Two Specimens of Carved Slabs. Auckland. 

These two carved slabs present several handsome patterns, and are very well 
executed. The one with the two figures is a slab from the front of a pataka ; the 
upper figure is represented as about to play on the wooden flageolet, or putorino. 

* P.M., p. 125. 


Fifi. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

■ ?*"*■ 

Fig. «. 

Fig. 3. 

Korupe, or Carved Ornament from the Doorway of a House. 


Korupe, or Carved Ornament for a L^oorway. 

In this carving we have a single figure in tlie centre, attended 
on each side by a figure in profile. The two portions of the design 
left uncarved represent the manaia or bird-headed figure charafter- 
istic of the East Coast carvings. 

The specimen is now in the colleftion of Dr. T. M. Hocken, of 


It is 2ft. 7in. wide and ift. 4in. high .... .... .... Page 71. 

Rtia, or Underground Storehouse for Root Crops at Wai-o-matatini .... Page gg. 

Maori Tomb. 

This fine specimen of a memorial to a deceased chief was 
exhibited at the Indian and Colonial Exhibition in London, and 
afterwards presented by Sir Walter Duller to the Ethnographic 
Museum of the Trocadero. A figure is given of it in La Nature, 
April gth, 1887, No. 725, p. 297, together with an interesting account 
of the chief for whose obsequies it was construfted. Under the 
proteaion of this beautiful carving, the bones of Waata Taranui 
remained for seven years. They were then, with great ceremony, 
removed to, the burial cave of his tribe, which was situated in one 
of the chasms on the old volcano of Tarawera.* The eruption which 
took place a few years ago completely destroyed, not only the old 
chasms and caves, but altered the features of the surrounding country. 

The several slabs form a screen about gft. loin. (3 metres) long, 
6ft. 6in. (2 metres) high, and 3ft. sin. (i metre) deep. The joints 
are covered with black battens, and the lashings are ornamented 
with tufts of white albatross' feathers, contrasting well with the rich 
red colour of the carvings. The tekoteko, or figure on the top, is 
decorated with a large bunch of feathers .... .... •••■ Page 102. 

* The remains of the great Taupo chief, Te Heuheu, who was killed by a landslip, were, m 1850, after the 
ceremony of preparing the bones, privately conveyed to Tongariro with the intention of depositing them m or near 
one of, the craters of the volcano. See Taylor, " Te Ika a Maui," 2nd ed., p. 525. 

The temporary resting place, or tomb, of this chief is also figured at pp. 12, 174, and 520 of the same work. 

1 66 

List of Illustrations in the Text. 

Konipe, or Carved Board from the Doorway of a House. 

This specimen of the art of the Taranaki natives is fortunately 
in excellent preservation, and represents, in a more perfed manner, 
the style figured at page 125. The carving is better finished and in 
higher relief than in the other example. 

I am indebted to Mr. G. L. Sheppee, of New Plymouth, for 
permission to photograph this example .... .... •■•■ Page 103. 

Korurii, or Carved Ornament from the Gable of a House .... Page 114. 

Meeting House at Ohinemutu, Lake Rotorua .... .... Page 115. 

Korunt, or Carved Ornament from the Gable of a House. 

This specimen, and that on page 114, are from the East Cape 
district .... .... .... .... ■•.. .... Page 116. 

Korupe, or Carved Board over the Doorway of a House. 

This korupe is of a different charadler to the other specimens 
figured, and has been slightly damaged at the bottom. The main 
figures are flanked by a pair of grotesque monsters in profile, both 
turned to the left instead of both facing outwards. The specimen 
came from an old house in Hawke's Bay, burnt down many years 
ago. It is now part of my colleftion in the museum of the Hawke's 
Bay Philosophical Institute, Napier. 

Length, 3ft. loin. .... .... .... .... Page 117. 

Korupe, or Carved Board from the Doorway of a House. 

A bold specimen of West Coast work, with interlacing net-work 
in high relief, but not having the interspaces perforated. The shape 
of the heads of the three female figures represented is curious, and 
carried out in other examples. 

Both ends of this korupe have been destroyed. 
It is now in the Canterbury Museum, having originally come 
from near New Plymouth, Taranaki distria .... .... Page 125. 

Paepae from the front of a Whata, near Otaki. 

Wanganui Museum .... .... Pa^e i-^q 

A Papaka, or Skirting Board. 

Colonial Museum, Wellington .... .... .... Page 130. 

List of Illustrations in the Text. 


Carved Ornaments for Doorways— Pare or Korupe. 

The three upper ones are in the Auckland Museum, 
and belong to Capt. Mair. The lower one is in my 
colleftion in Napier 

Carved Ornament for Gable of a Uou&e—Koruru or Parnta. 
East Cape district 

Korupe, or Carved Ornament from the Doorway of a House. 

Although a considerable portion of this carving has perished 
from contaft with the damp earth, it is of interest as an illustra- 
tion of the method of treatment adopted in the Taranaki distrift. 
We have so few carvings of any importance from the West Coast 
that examples are welcome. The saine three figures enter into the 
design, but the non-perforation of the back, and the beaded pattern 
employed in the details, are local characteristics. 

The carving was found some few years ago on the site of the 
old stone-walled pa at Te Koru, about nine miles south of New 
Plymouth, and is now in the possession of Mr. W. H. Skinner, of 
New Plymouth 

Koniru, or Gable Ornament. Hawke's Bay .... 

Korupe, or Carved Ornament for a Doorway. 

Very different in style and execution from any others figured. 
Of the three figures forming the chief points of the design, the one 
in the centre has a partial face tattoo. The other two have the 
mouth and nose treated in a manner quite unique. It also appears 
as if their eyes were closed. The chief interest, however, is centred 
in the double-headed bird-like figures filling the interspaces. They 
resemble the figure on a very rare kind of bone or stone ear-pendant, 
sometimes found in the northern parts of New Zealand. 

It is not a very old carving, but probably embodies a pattern of 
the olden time. It was procured by Dr. Hocken at Tauranga. 
Width, 48in. Height, 22in. 
Korupe, or Carved Ornament for a Doorway. Auckland Museum .... 

Part of a Fence with a large Carved Figure. 

This represents one of the large carved figures which orna- 
mented the fence surrounding the large native settlement at Wairoa 
(Clyde), Hawke's Bay. A rope has been attached to the figure, 
probably on account of the rotting of the post 

Page 131. 
Page 132. 

Page 165. 
Page 168. 

Page 169. 
Page 170. 

Page 171. 

1 68 

Maori Art. 

Kiinini, or Qable Ornament. Hawke's Bay. 

Korupe, or Carved Ornament for a Doorway. Taurang:a. 


Plate XL, Fig. i.- 
Fig. 2.- 

Plate XII., Fig. i.- 
Fig. 2.- 

Plate XIII., Fig. I.- 

Fig. 2.- 

Plate XIV., Fig. i.- 
Fig. 2.- 

PlateXV., Fig. i.- 

PlateXVI., Fig. i.- 
Fig. 2.- 

Fig. 3-- 
Fig. 4.- 

Plate XVII., Fig. i.- 
Fig. 2.- 

Fig. 3-- 
Fig. 4.- 

Fig. 5-- 
Fig. 6. 

Plate XV 1 1 1, Fig. i.- 
Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3- 

-An ordinary Maori House, or Wharc. 
-A Riia, or Storehouse for root crops. 

-Large Maori House at Paikerekere, Poverty Bay. 
-Carved House at the Thames, Auckland. 

-Part of the Verandah, or Porch, of the Large House of the 

Ngati-Porou at Wai-o-Matatini. 
-Interior of Llouse at Wai-o-Matatini. 

-Large Carved Storehouse in the Auckland Museum. 

-The Horizontal Board in the front of a Carved Storehouse. 

-Storehouse at the Papaitonga Lake. 

-Doorway of a large Maori House. Auckland. 
-Small carved Doorway. Auckland Museum. 
-Doorway of a House in the East Cape district. 
-Doorway of a House at Te Aral, Poverty Bay. 

-A Teko-teko, or Gable Ornament, from the roof of a house. 

-A small Teko^e/w, or grotesque Human Figure. 

-Teko-teko, or Gable Ornament. 

-A Pou-tokomanawa, or Central Post of a house. 

-Ornamental End of a Ridge Pole. 

-The base of a Poii-tokomauaiva. 

-Korupe, or Parf— Carved Doorway Ornament. 

-A Poupou, or Carved Slab. 

-A Poupou from the Maori House in the Colonial Museum. 



List of Specimens Figured in the Plates. 

Plate XIX., Fig. i.- 
Figs. 2 

Plate XX., Fig. i 

Plate XXL, Fig. i. 
Fig. 2 

Fig. 3- 

Plate XXIIL, Fig. i. 

Fig. 2. 
Fig- 3 

Fig. 4. 

Plate XXIV., Fig. i. 
Fig. 2. 
Fig. 3- 

Plate XXV., Fig. i 
Fig. 2 
Fig. 3 
Fig. 4. 

Plate XXVI. , Fig. i. 
Fig. 2. 
Fig. 3 
Fig. 4 

-The two Broad Boards forming the sides of a Pataka. 
and 3. Broad Slabs from the front of a Pataka. 

—A huge Carved Post, or Tiki, from Te Ngae. 

— Gateway of a Pa. 

Carved Slab' from an old Pa at Maketu. ^ 
Carved Slab from the front of a House {amo). 

Portion of the Carving in front of a Pataka,. 

Corner of a Carved Pataka, in the Auckland Museum. 

. — Poupou, or Carved Slab, from the inside of the wall of a 
Central Board of the front of a Pataka, or Storehouse. 

■Two Carved Maihis. Auckland Museum. 

-A Memorial to a deceased Chief. _„ 

-Two views of a Carved Wooden Burial Chest {atamira). 

— The Central Board from the front of a Pataka. 
. — Ornamental Carving from a Doorway. 
, — Central Board of the fcont of a Pataka. 
A Maori House at Whakaki, near Nuhaka. 

— Korupe, or Lintel of a Doorway. 

— A Carved Poupou, or Slab, from Ohinemutu. 

— Carved Slab. Auckland. 

— Two specimens of Carved Slabs. Auckland. 

Pure or Knrape, or Carved Ornament for a Doorway. Auckland Museum. 

Mack I Airr 

I 71 

Part of a Fence with a Large Carved Figure. 









Registrar of the University of Otago. 


18 9 8. 





" Armri virumcjiie c(ino. 

CJ EVERAL writers have given translations of the dragon-slaying legends known 
WJ to the Maori ; and all the man-devouring monsters seem to have had in 
their insides regular armouries, with an assortment of the principal weapons 
known to have been used in Old New Zealand. Thus, in the slaying of Hotu- 
puku, a fearful dragon, whose lair was at Kapenga, on the Kaingaroa Plains, when 
" the moving hill of earth " had been entangled in the snares, and slain, and when 
it was cut open "there lay the bodies of the vidims— their greenstone clubs (mere 
pounamu), their short-knobbed clubs of hard wood (kottate), their weapons of whales' 
ribs (both long and short) (hoeroa), their travelling staves of rank [taiahas], their 
halbert-shaped weapons (tewhatewha), their staffs (toko), and spears f/ao;— there 
these were all, within the bowels of the monster, as if the place was a regular-stored 
armoury of war."* 

Again, in the killing of Pekehaua, the water monster of the Black Chasm, 
when the brave Pitaka and his companions had by their spells and valiant conduft 
drawn the ika to the dry land, and cut him open, there they found the remams of 
his victmis."t There were also arms and miplements of all kinds-clubs {rakm), 
spears (too), staves {tokotolco), their hardwood chopping knives, white whalebone 
clubs, carved staffs of X2.nk {taiahas), and many others, including evenjiart^ 

* Colenso, " Transactions New Zealand Institute," Vol, xi., p. 91. 

nga mcUpi. nga pou,whenua, nga taiaka. nga mahi a te amonga a te Jcai nei. a te kamwha, a ^eu. 
a Maui, e lea pulcei. 


The Weapons of the Maoris. 

barbed spears {kaniwha), which the monster had carried off with its food.* The 
same dragon-slayers also slew Kataore ; but this does not seem to have been exadly 
an heroic deed, as the poor dragon was the pet of a chief who was at the time 
away from home. Moreover, the dragon was discriminating, and. only destroyed 
strangers. The usual store of weapons was, however, found, on dissection, 
according to the legend. A great dragon of the South Island — Te Kaiwhakaruaki — 
which lived in the Parapara Stream at Collingwood was slain by Poturu and his 
men, with the 340 spears, all made out of one pohutukawa tree (Metrosidcros), and 
it also was found to contain weapons and mats of all kinds, f 

Being entirely ignorant of all metals, the Maoris were limited to the few 
materials afforded by Nature which were available for weapons of offence and 
defence. These were, first, various hard and tough woods, such as ake-ake 
[Dodona), manuka (Leptospermiuji), &c. ; second, the bones of the larger cetaceans, 
frequently found on the sea beaches in the old days ; and, thirdly, the various hard 
and closely-grained stones found in different parts of the country, • including the 
famous and much-prized pounamu, or greenstone. J 

Ko ta namata riri, 

He kahikatoa, he paraoa, 

He ake-rautangi. 

The fighting weapons of the days of old 
were made of the Kahikatoa (wood), and sperm 
whale bone, and Ake-rautangi (the rustling-leaved 

The taiaha is perhaps the most characteristic weapon of Old New Zealand, 
as it was almost constantly in the hands of persons of distinftion. Not only was it a 
weapon capable of scientific use, possessing a traditionary usage of its own, somewhat 
like that of the English quarter-staff, but it was indispensable to the orator as he 
trod the marae and delivered the flowing periods of his speech. The management of 
the taiaha as a fighting weapon was studied with as much care and attention by a 
Maori warrior as ever a swordsman gave to the mastery of his glittering blade ; and 
the etiquette of the taiaha, as adding force to an argument, or accentuating an 
oratorical flourish, was well understood by the leaders of the people. § 

* Colenso, "Transactions New Zealand Institvito," Vol. xi., p. 9i. 

,..t Te Whetu, " The Slaying of Te Kaiwhakaiaiaki " (translated by Elsdon Best).— "Journal Polynesian Society " 
vol. 111., p. 1.5. 


I Pounamu, or greenstone.— In all parts of the world green jado, or Nephrite, has been valued for tools or 
— Jients. 1 here IS a very extensive literature on the sub.iect, which will be referred to in another part of this work 
A summary of that relating to N.Z. will be found in the " Trans. N.Z, Inst.," Vol. xxiv., pp. 479-539.— F. R. Chapman, 
for J WhiteV^A H^*"'"^""''^ positions in a combat or exercise with taiahas are given in the illustrations prepared 

The Weapons of the Maoris. 177 

The various points and guards of the taiaha were as follows :— 

-Popotaht (guard) .-r«m/.« held vertically before the centre of the body with the 
carved tongue (arero) downwards. 

Whakarehu (point from /.o/)o/a/«-). -The lower end of the taiaha raised and thrust at 
the adversary. 

Whitiapu.~The blow from the same ^n^rd (popotahi), with the blade brought down 
as a club. 

Huamii (a g\x^vd).— Taiaha held horizontally across the body, tongue to the left- 
The point and h\o^^~whakarehu and whitiapu~are also given from this 

The shape and proportion of the weapon are always the same, the length 
varying with the fancy of the owner. It was usually five or six feet in length, the 
lower end being thin and flattened, with sharp edges. The upper end invariably 
terminated in a carved head, in which a protruding tongue forms, the chief part, 
and which is shaped so as to resemble a long spear-head. The face and tongue 
appear on both sides of the weapon. The tongue, or point {arero), is usually carved 
with a beautiful scroll pattern which seldom varies, except in the distribution of the 
scrolls. Radical departures, such as a pattern formed of straight lines, are seldom 
seen. The eyes of the carved head are filled in with delicately cut circlets of the 
paua {Haliotis) shell, carefully selefted so as to be of an approved colour. In an old 
specimen, the surface of the weapon, especially where grasped by the hand, is 
highly-polished, and has a peculiar ripple-like feel, caused by the scraping or 
smoothing of the surface with the edge of a shell or some similar cutting edge. 
About four inches of the shaft, close up to the carved part, is covered by a little 
tightly-fitting mat {tauri), made of flax into which are worked the bright scarlet 
feathers from under the wing of the large New Zealand parrot (Nestor), and at the 
lower edge^ of this are fastened a number of little quillets, or tassels (aice), of dog- 
hair, each quillet being elaborately bound up at the base with a kind of sword- 
stitch, with a fine cord made of the best picked flax fibre. These tassels of hair 
form a handsome fringe about five or six inches long, and, being generally white in 
colour, contrast well with the brilliant red of the feathers, and the rich brown 
polish of the taiaha.* 

* Mr. Colenso mentions a strange method of obtaining these narrow strips of skin, covered with the long white 
hair, from the tails of living dogs. — " Trans. N.Z.," Vol. xxiv., p. 452. 

178 The Weapons of the Maoris. 

It is, perhaps, one of the most common of the New Zealand weapons in 
collections. In shape it closely resembles a light form of club-weapon from Samoa, 
but much more so those from Easter Island, in which the head and tongue portion 
is still more emphasised.* In Maori myth and story it plays a conspicuous part. 
The duel between Ruaeo and Tama-te-Kapua was fought with the taiaha. There 
are many historical specimens at present in existence, and others are known which 
have been handed down as ancestral relics, or as oracles for divination. A noted 
weapon of the latter class was the taiaha Matuakore ; it was also very sacred, because 
it gave true indications of coming events — of evil or good — or death or life — that 
was to come on man. Its signs were held as indisputable. 

It belonged to the chiefs of the Ngati-Maniapoto, and it was by virtue of this 
weapon that the Ngati-Awa were conquered in three great battles. 

The signs given by Matuakore, by which future events could be read, were 
given by the taiiri of the weapon. If, when the covering mats in which it was 
wrapped were taken off, the tauri shone with a flash, it was a sign of life, propitious 
in every way, for the tribe in whose possession Matuakore then was. But if the red 
feathers of the tauri were a pale red it was an evil sign of death ; and if the red 
were a dull red, it was a sign of evil, but not of great evil. 

The taiaha of the great toa or fighting chief, Hinatoka, who lived several 
generations ago, is still preserved by the tribe, the Ngati-Porou. This weapon, in 
the hands of Hinatoka, destroyed the ancient tribe of Te Wahine Iti, and secured 
to Ngati-Porou all the lands lying between Waiapu and Tuparoa. 

It is believed to possess great powers in the way of prophetic augury. In 
the hands of those capable of performing the proper incantations, the result of a 
battle could be easily ascertained before hand. The usual method adopted was to 
lay the tamha upon the ground before the war party while the chief tohunga per- 
formed the usual karakias ; then if the gods were propitious, the taiaha would turn 
itself slowly over before the eyes of the assembled tribe, to the utter confusion of 
the enemy. f 

t Judge Gudgeon^ "History of the Maoris," 18,So. 

The Weapons of the Maoris. 


In many instances it has been used as a token or symbol of authority, as in 
the case when Rewi dehvered to Ngata the taiaha now in the Otago University 
Museum, known as Mahnta, as his warrant or authority to prevent, or, if necessary, 
kill, any European crossing the aukati or boundary line surrounding the so-called 
" King Country." The weapon was given by Wahanui to the Native Minister, 
Mr. John Ballance, in 1883, at Kihikihi, when, under the Amnesty Act of 1882, 
a pardon was granted to the murderer of Moffat, who was killed for crossing the 
forbidden line in 1880. 

Of spears {tao), there were several kinds, but specimens are rarely seen in 
colleftions. The common spear (teo)+ was perfedly plain, about six or seven feet 
long, about one inch in diameter at the thickest part, and tapered to a sharp point 
at each end. The older and more valued the specimen, the higher the de,o-ree of 
polish and finish it possessed. In the storming of fortified places, and at the 
commencement of engagements, this short spear was much used. Mr. T. H. Smith 
saysf in his paper on Maori weapons :— " The tao was most frequently used in the 
duels, which were often the outcome of a private quarrel, and the tana, or small 
armed parties which would visit an individual or settlement to demand and obtain 
satisfaftion for some affront or injury, as, for example, the abduftion of a woman, 
a kaanga, or curse, &c. Fierce encounters sometimes took place on such occasions, 
but were seldom attended with fatalities. Generally both parties used tao, spears. 
Only flesh-wounds were infli6led, and, as Judge Maning says, ' No more blood was 
drawn than could well be spared.' In the case of a quarrel between two individuals, 
a challenge would often be given and accepted in the same terms — ' To tatia ata ' 
(we meet in the morning), was replied to in the same term, ' to tana ata: In the 
early morning accordingly, the principals, in appropriate costume, with spears in 
their hands, would meet and try conclusions with one another, in the presence of 
their relatives and friends, who would attend to see fair play, but it was generally 
understood that a mortal thrust was not to be given, and a flesh wound received by 
either combatant would terminate the affair." 

The short hand-spear was to the Maori what the small-sword was some years 
ago to the English gentleman. 

* Mr. Elsdoii Best informs me that tao is the name of the bird spear at Euatahuna (called elsewhere a here) 
amongst the TJreweras, and was never applied to any tia;hting weapon. 

t " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xxvi., p. 437. 

j8o The Weapons of the Maoris. 

This was also the short lance-like spear which was thrown as a gauntlet, or 
challenge, to the enemy. Mr. Colenso points out that " whenever a canoe, or body 
of men, came upon Captain Cook, whether at sea or on land, and were for fighting, 
a single spear was invariably thrown (then called mutu). This, however, was by 
way of challenge (taki), and was in accordance with their national custom, just 
equal to the old European one of throwing down the gage." 

When a party of natives visited another in time of war, a certain number of 
young men rushed forward to meet those advancing in the same way from the 
welcoming party, and having given their challenge cry (takina), they threw reed 
spears as a taki, or challenge ceremony, and then fled back to their own ranks. 

Constant use and practice gave them great skill in the use of the spear, and 
in parrying it (karo), when used as a thrusting weapon, or as a dart. There is an 
often-quoted and interesting proverb — 

"He tao rakaii ka taea ie pare; he tao kii ekore e taea." 
[A wooden spear can be parried ; a slanderous word (a " spoken spear ") cannot be parried.] 

Or, "He tao rakau, karohia atu ka hemo ; te tao hi, werohia mai, tii tono." 

[A wooden spear, if warded off, passes away; the "spoken spear," when spoken, 

wounds deeply.] 

Or, "He tao kii ekore e taea te karo ; he tao rakau ka taea ano te kayo." 
[A "spoken spear" cannot be warded off; a wooden spear can easily be warded.] 

Before going into battle an invocation (ki-tao) would be spoken over the spear. 
As a defence against spear thrusts, it was usual to roll thick mats (ptckupukii or 
puoru) round the left fore-arm. Sometimes the mat would be dropped into water 
to make it more impenetrable, by tightening up the meshes of stitches of the mat. 

Dr. Thomson states that "spears were from 4 to 14 feet long, hardened at 
the ends by fire, and, although brandished over the head to excite terror, were 
thrown from a level with the hip."* 

Besides the short spear, or dart, a larger and heavier weapon was used in 
battle, or in the defence or assault of a pa. It was from 11 to 14 feet long, made 

* Thomson's "Story of N.Z.," Vol. 1, p. 140. Savage states that "they were nearly 30 feet long," p. 66 

(these were the huata used in sieges to thrust between the palisades.) 

The Weapons of the Maoris. 


of hard wood. It appears to have been occasionally carved about two or three feet 
from the point with a charafteristic pattern, and, in some mstances, the point of 
the spear from the carved part was quadrangular, and the angles were cut mto 
short barbs. It was made long and strong, so that it could be thrust through the 
defences of a pa. 

Another large spear of this kind had, lashed to the head, a number of the 
barbed spines from the sting ray {Trygon). I have not seen a perfeft specimen, but 
I once found at an old pa at Paremata, near Wellington, 46 of these spines carefully 
assorted, lying in position in the sand, but the wooden portion of the spear had 
perished as well as the lashings. The base of the barbs, however, showed the 
artificial lines and notches made to enable the lashings to get a grip of the barbs. 
In several of the barbs, the serrations had been ground off one side of the spear for 
some reason or other. The battle of Te Whai, fought between the Ngai-Tahu and 
the Ngati-Mamoe in the Middle Island, was thus named because the Ngati-Mamoe 
used spears barbed in this way. 

There is in the possession of Mr. C. E. Nelson, at Rotorua, a short spear, 
in which about 2ft. 6in. of the head is flattened and expanded to a width of about 
3in. at about a foot from the point. It is said to have come from the Urewera 
districSf, and to be called tiiruhi. 

From near Parihaka, in the Taranaki distrift, I have seen a spear {tete paraoa) 
with a bone point, jagged with the barbs turned towards the wooden handle. It 
had a large tuft of dog-hair fastened round the junftion of the bone point and the 
wooden shaft. With such a weapon Nga-loko-waru, of Waikato, killed Te Putu 
seven generations ago. He broke off the bone part, and used it as a dagger. 

There is a story of an old warrior named Patiti, who died and went to 
Reinga ; he left a son, and this son turned out to be a very brave man ; and a 
report of his bravery having been carried to the world of spirits by some of the 
departed, it roused the martial ardour of the father, who in his time was considered 
to be unrivalled in the use of the spear, and he therefore visited the earth with the 
determination of testing the prowess of his son by a contest with him. During the 
engagement the son was unable to ward off his father's thrusts, who, being satisfied 

i82 The Weapons of the Maoris. 

in havino- thus overcome his son, returned to the other world. The Natives believe 
that, had the son proved the better spearman, the father would have continued to 
live on the earth, and that man would not have been subject to' death.* Judge 
Wilsonf gives an interesting account of a duel, or affair of honour. Uta had run 
away with the wife of Tua. Uta subsequently thought fit to return, and take the 
consequences. A meeting was arranged. Uta went to the place appointed with 
his friend Rua ; and Tua, with four other principals — near relatives of his who 
wished "satisfaction" from Uta to avenge the family honour. Uta sat on the 
sands, unarmed, provided only with a short stick, called a karo, with which to ward 
off any spears thrown at him, or blows from other weapons that might be used. 
Had he been a slave he would not have been allowed to have even a karo, but must 
have defended himself with his hands and arms. Uta's karo had been well karakia-ed 
by the priest. He managed to ward off the four darts of his assailants without 
being injured. The rights of the four were now exhausted, the atua havino- 
caused their attacks to fail, they could not be repeated without danger to them- 
selves. Even against a slave the attack could not be renewed. They had chosen 
their weapon, the weight and size of it, and their distance ; but the gods were against 
them. The duel ended by Tua killing the unsuspefting Ana, who, praftically, was 
not interested in the matter at all. 

The tewhatewha, a very favourite weapon, was m the form of a battle-axe, 
made from a carefully-seleded piece of hardwood or bone.J The handle is oval in 
seftion, and terminates in a sharp point like a spear ; about the third of the way 
up the handle is a small piece of carving— generally a human head repeated on two 
sides. The expanded portion representing the blade is thin and sharp at the edges 
and the back, but generally flat at the top. Near the lower part of the semi-circukr 
curved edge is a hole through which is passed a short piece of a specially-prepared 
cord, having at each end small bunches of large feathers (puhtpuhi) from the tail of 
a hawk or a pigeon. These feathers are prepared by splitting the web from the 
shaft of the feather-each web being still attached to a thm strip from the shaft 
They^then soft, and have a tendency to a spiral form, which improves the 

* White's " Maori Superstitions," p. 105. 

t J. A. Wilson, "Sketches of Ancient Maori Life and Hi.story " p 99 

The Weapons of thi-; Maoris. 183 

appearance of the bunch. This weapon is essentially the weapon of a leader ; and 
with it he signals to his men, or waves it to give the time for a war dance or a war 
canoe song. If used in close combat, the sharpened end was formidable as a 
stabbing or a spearing weapon ; and in combat with one armed with either a taiaha 
or a spear, the bunch of feathers whirled in the strokes served to confuse the 
adversary. It is said that the actual blows were struck with the sharp back-edge 
of the expanded head, which naturally would be the strongest and most effeftive part. 
In old sketches, and especially in the Plates to "Cook's Voyages," the axe-like 
head is smaller and of a somewhat different shape from that now seen in museums. 
There is, however, a very fine old specimen in the Wanganui Museum which 
corresponds exactly to the older forms given in the "Voyages," and I have seen 
sketches of one or two specimens in private colleftions in England. 

The finest tewhatewhas are usually highly-polished with constant handling and 
careful attention ; but they are perfeftly plain, except for the small ring of carving 
on the handle. Modern examples, however, are frequently elaborately carved, not 
only on the handle, but on the blade. This weapon, however, according to Mr. 
Smith, was less used for offence and defence than as an instrument by which the 
chief or leader dire6led the movements of his followers, the blade and feathers 
causing it to be easily seen. He then quotes Major Mair as saying that "on the 
occasion of the last day of the fight at Orakau, owing to a temporary panic among 
the besieged, there arose the ominous cry of ' Kua horo te pa r (the fort is taken.) 
The Waikato, at the south end, rushed out, and to the number of 80 or 100 
appeared as if by magic in the open space. The bugles sounded the alarm, and, 
just as suddenl}^ the soldiers sprang to their feet and opened a half-circle of fire 
on the Maoris. Then a tall chief stood up, waved his plumed tewhatewha three 
times — and lo ! the Maoris had vanished." This use of the weapon caused it to be 
known as the ^' rakati rangatira" or chief's weapon, it being so often seen in the 
hand of a chief, not only in war, but on other occasions. The tcivhaicwha was also 
the weapon usually carried by the Kai-tuki, or man who gives the time for the 
paddles in a canoe. 

Pouwheniia. — This weapon does not seem to have been so much in use as 
the taiaha or teivhatcicha. It corresponds almost exaftly to a taiaha, with the 
exception of the carved tongue ; in fact, when the sacred taiaha Matuakorc was at 

jg. The Weapons of the Maoris. 

last captured by the Ngati-Raukawas at the battle of Hunawi, they were so afraid 
lest It should be seen in their possession that they chipped the carved tongue off, 
and made it into a pou-whenua. Like the tewhatewha, it has a small piece of carving 
about one-third the distance from the point to the flat blade. Occasionally a 
specimen is carved all over. Nearly all the wooden weapons, when used as cere- 
monial weapons or emblems of rank, were carved all over. 

A lono--handled weapon, with a small iron axe-head called a kakauroa, was 
much in favour in the earlier wars with the European settlers. A light, carved 
handle about five feet long made the light axe-head a formidable weapon when 
wielded by an adive and powerful savage. The same kind of axe was affixed to a 
short handle, either of bone or wood, generally carved and ornamented with paua 
shell (Haliotis). This patiti then formed a handy weapon or tool which could be 
carried in the belt, and was invaluable to the Maoris in fighting at close quarters 
with the colonists. 

We now come to weapons — patu, that can be carried in the belt, and that are 
fastened by a short cord (tau) or loop round the thumb. Chief among these is the 
nicre-pounamu, or short fighting club, made of the much-valued greenstone. The 
figures given in the Plates will show the various forms assumed by this far-famed 
weapon. The material required for its manufadfure was only obtained with great 
difficulty, and pieces suitable for a chief's mere were of a value which can hardly be 
realized by Europeans at the. present time. Much of the Maori history centres 
round a few historic and famous vieres which have earned their celebrity on fields of 
slaughter, and have passed down from generation to generation, till their renown 
has become equal to the renown of the swords and axes of the heroes and knights 
of old in European romances. Although the stone is one of the hardest that 
lapidaries have to deal with, the preliminary shaping of the mere probably did not 
take very long when prepared by a skilful craftsman ; but the finishing touches to 
the shape, the polish, and the drilling of the hole for the cord took a very great 
deal of patient labour. The end, or butt, of the greenstone mere appears never to 
have been finished off with the care and labour expended on the onewas, or meres, 
in black basaltic stone, but it was frequently left somewhat pointed, and the 
ornamental grooves encircling the butt, or reke, more or less indicated. 

The Weapons of the Maoris. 185 

Strange stories are told of the magic powers of many of the best-known 
examples. The beautiful mere — Palnkaurc—htlongmg to Te Heuheu was said to 
be invisible to his enemies, and to hide itself and reappear at his call.* 

The greenstone mere was seldom used to deliver a striking blow; but at 
close quarters an upward thrust was given, as with the short Roman sword, if 
possible under the ribs or under the jaw, whilst wrestling with an antagonist. The 
favourite place of all was the temple, the sharp end of the mere being driven 
through it. 

The mere was also much used by chiefs to kill prisoners of war, and was 
held firmly in hand with the flat side uppermost, and driven into the skull at the 
temple ; then, with a rapid turn, the top of the skull was jerked off so as to ensure 
death. Te Wherowhero in this way killed 150 of his prisoners after the fall of 
Pukerangiora. The use ascribed to the mere by the Rev. Richard Taylor is certainly 
a misconception. t In the " Story of Puhihuia," Te Ponga and his host exchange 
their greenstone meres at a formal ceremony, with speechmaking, to establish and 
make sure the peace which they had concluded. ;[ 

From a close-grained basaltic stone is made a very shapely war club, 
generally called an onewa. The material admits of a high degree of finish, and 
every care is taken in working to ensure perfect symmetry and smoothness. Though 
not possessing the attraftive colour or markings of the pounamit, a perfeft, well- 
finished onewa is a wonderful specimen of barbaric art. On the West Coast this 
form seems to have been called hirutai.^: Besides this basaltic stone and the pounamu, 
patus, or clubs, of the same class and pattern were made from suitable portions of 
the whales found on the beaches. By careful seleftion, a very serviceable weapon 
was cut from the hardest portion of the jaw of the sperm whale. Being hard and 
dense, the bone took a good polish, and a mere, or pahi-paraoa, was a highly-esteemed 

* Several other celebrated meres are mentioned by Mr. Smith in his paper, " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xxvi., 
p, 44-8 ; and also by Mr. F, E. Chapman in his paper on " The Working of Greenstone," " Trans N.Z. Inst.," 
Vol. xxiv, p. 533. The general shape is tlio same as the instrujnent of paim-wood used in Tahiti as a bread-fruit 
splitter (see " Journ, Anthrop. Inst.," Vol. xxi., PI. x., b'ig. 5.) 

t Taylor, " Te Ika a Maui," p. 4G5. Col. Lane-Fox thinks the mere derived its origin from the stone axe^used 
as a hand weapon without a handle, and gives iigures illustrating his opinion. — " Journal Ethnological Society," n.s.. 
Vol. ii., p. 106. 

J Grey, " Polynesian Mythology," p. 309 (1855 edition). 

§ This Kurutai, or Koiaha kurutai, is described as a sharp dagger-like stone thrown (with a string attached 
to it, the other end of which was tied to the war belt) against a flying enemy ; the string enabling its recovery if the 
mark was missed. — A.H.M., Vol. iv., p. 97. 

^g^ The Weapons of the Maoris. 

At the Philadelphia Exhibition there was an interesting specimen of a 
steatite patu^ or mere, found m Michigan, corresponding almost exaftly with a New 
Zealand mere ; it was, however, not drilled for a wrist cord. It measured i6i inches 
m length, 2| inches wide for ii inches, where it tapered to H inches, but agam 
widened to 2 inches at the end.* There is also a similar weapon recorded as havmg 
been found m Peru, made of brown jasperf, which by the figure given agrees 
cxaftly with our onewas, and also one of a greenish amphibolic stone from Cuzco. 
In all these cases, however, the form was probably an independent invention. 

Another form oi patu, or striking club, almost peculiar to New Zealand is 
the fiddle-shaped weapon called a kotiate. This is much broader in the blade or 
flat part than the mere pounamu, or onewa, and the handle is straight and distind 
from the flattened portion, nearly circular in sedion and long enough to permit of a 
firm grasp, the end terminating m a conventional head, or other ornament. 
Near this head is a hole for the cord or wrist-strap. In the centre of each side of 
the sharp edge of the blade is a deep notch, which makes the blade resemble the 
figure 8. Many theories have been propounded to account for the use or objeft of 
the notch, which is also found in another form of patu ; but I do not know of any 
satisfadory explanation. The kotiate, or "liver cutter," is found in wood and bone, 
but never in stone. The patus, in the shape of the mere-pounamii, or onewa, are 
never found in wood. A form of patu, curved at the top like an English bill-hook, 
or like the top of the herpe of Saturn, is common both in wood and in bone. It 
has usually a small human figure carved on the edge of the blade, just above the 
handle on the hollow or straight side of the weapon. On the other side they are 
sometimes notched like the kotiate, and are then called waha-ika. This form is 
much used in dances as a weapon to brandish, and is often elaborately carved. 
In the patus of wood or bone, the hole for the cord is seldom bored, but usually 
cut out, either rectangular or else shaped like the capital D. 

A wooden or bone truncheon, or club, quadrangular in section, is sometimes 
seen ; it is about three or four inches in diameter one way, and two or three inches 

* " American Naturalist," September 1876, p. 558. 

t Klemn, " Werkzeuge und Waffen" (1854), JFig. 46, p. 26 Sir G. D. Gribb exhibited at one of the meetings of 
the Anthropological Society a patu found by Captain Lowe in the iSociety Islands. There was little doubt, however, 
that the weapon had been formerly taken to that island from New Zealand. — " Journ. Anthrop. Inst.," Vol. iii., p. 266. 
I have also seen a New Zealand bone mere, which I was credibly informed was dug up in Ireland. A much-damaged 
bone mere, 18,: inehes long, is in the Guildhall Museum, London, having been dredged up on the Thames. 

The Weapons of the Maoris. 187 

in the other diameter, the part grasped by the hand being nearly circular in sedion, 
terminating with the usual conventional head or a design in straight lines This 
weapon is called a potuki.* In the Murihiku Distria of the South Island a distinft 
type of stone club has been found, and it resembles a potuki more than any other, 
being longer in proportion than a mere, and either diamond-shaped or elliptical in 
seaion. There is also a peculiarity about the handle, which is not finished off 
with ornamental grooves. The specimens found all appear as if they had been 
twice bored at the end of the handle, or as if an attempt had been made to give 
a forked end to the butt.t 

Mention is made in Maori story of a weapon called a kotaha-kumtai, which 
was affixed to a long cord and fastened to the waist or war-belt. It could then be 
thrown at a flying enemy, and recovered. It is not very clear what the aaual 
shape of the weapon was. Mr. WhiteJ figures two angled javelins, apparently of 
wood, in his book as kotaha-kiirntais ; but no specimens having been seen to support 
this conjeaural (?) drawing, it can hardly be relied upon. As the West Coast term 
for an ordinary stone mere is kiirutai, it was possibly an ordinary mere used in the 
way described, upon exceptional occasions, as a projeaile, or it may have been of 
the nature of these southern forms on the pattern of the patuki. 

The idea of a projeaile weapon, which could be recovered by means of a 
cord, was also carried out in the case of a unique form called a hoeroa, or tata paraoa. 
This was always made of bone from a whale. It is generally said to be made from 
a whale's rib ; but all that I have seen have been made from the thin portion, or 
ramus, of the jaw of the sperm whale. The weapon is very rare, and well worthy 
of special notice. The general width is about 2\ inches, the thickness \ inch, and 
the length about 4 feet 6 inches. The head is carved on both sides with a fine 
conventional pattern, having two holes in it for the attachment of the cord (taiira), 
or for the ornamented quillets of dog-hair with which it was sometimes adorned. 
The blade is perfeaiy plain, and well-polished. About half-way down on the two 
edges, just where the balance comes, there is a slight carved ridge or ornament. 

* The club-shaped pounder, or beater, used for pouuding the edible fern-root, is also called patuki, although it is 
not always quadrangular in section. 

t A description, with figures of some of these weapons, is given by me in " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xxix., p. 169, 
PI. viii. 

X A.H.M., Vol. iii., p. 60 (.Maori part). In A.H.M., Vol. iv , p. 97, Tauira-iti succeeds in killing two of Pahau's 
party with his one hand with a hotaha-kuru-tai. a sharp, dagger-like stone, thrown with a string, which was not unlike 
a mere, but made of black stoiie. This was thrown at the enemy with a cord, by which it was again drawn back to the 
one who threw the weapon. 

The Weapons of the Maoris. 

It is said that, besides the utihty of this weapon as a double-handed sword, it was 
projeaed at an enemy with an underhand jerking motion, and that in consequence 
of the various curves its flight was irregular and difficult to avoid. It could be 
recovered by means of the long cord, fastening it to the waist of the owner. This 
is one of the rarest weapons in museums, although common 40 years ago. This 
weapon had this peculiarity : that it was generally used m killing women. They 
were impaled by it, in the vagina. 

Of true projeftile weapons, beyond the light hand-spears and stones, the 
Maori had but few ; for, apparently, the sling for stones and the bow and arrow 
were not used by him. Much has been written by the Rev. W. Colenso, Mr. 
Coleman Phillips, and Mr. Tregear on the question of the bow and arrow being 
known to the Maoris.* 

It seems, however, certain that in aftual warfare the natives used a throwing 
stick (kotaha) with a lash, for the purpose of throwing darts (kopere) or spears into 
a besieged /)a. It has been stated that the practice is of modern introduftion ; but, 
on the other hand, Otene, a learned man of the Ngati-whatua, says that the 
Otakanini Pa was taken by the aid of this weapon about the year iGgo-t In the 
case of the burning of the Arawa canoe-house and canoe by Raumati, although it 
is not stated how the dart, with combustible material tied round it, was thrown — 
as it was thrown from the other side of the river — it was probably projefted by the 
aid of a whip lash.;]; The kotaha is also mentioned in " Crozet's Voyage." He 
says: "They have sticks, furnished at one extremity with a knotted cord, for 
throwing darts, in the same was as we throw stones with slings. "§ At the present 
time, Maori boys at play may be seen throwing light sticks an incredible distance 
with a stick and a lash which is fastened with a special hitch round the spear. 
Mr. John White thus describes the kotaha\\ : "The arrow-spear is made of the 

* Colenso, "Trans. N.Z. Inst," Vol. xi., p. 100. Coleman Phillips, "Trans. N.Z. Institute," Vol. x., p. 97; 
and Vol. xii., p. 60. Tregear, "The Polynesian Bow. Joiirn., Pol. Soc," April, 1892, Vol. i., p. 56; also, 
"Smithsonian Report," 1892, p. 199. C. Staniland Wake, "Notes on the Polynesian Kace," "Journ. Anthrop. 
Institute," Vol. x., 1880, p. il(i. A specimen of what appears to be a bow of the Melanesian type was dui; up in a 
swamp, and is now in the Colonial Museum, Wellington. 

t See the account of the Capture of the Otakanini Pa, Taranaki, " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xxviii., p. 42; and 
more fully in "Journ. Pol. Society," Vol. vi. ; Supplement, p. la. 

X P.M., ed. 1855, p. 157. In this story the dart with combustibles is alutea — perhaps a firebrand. — P.M., orig. 
ed., p. 98. 

§ " Crozet's Voyage," Ling Roth, trans., p. 33. 

II This description appears in "Te Eou," p. 116— a work professedly of fiction ; but I do not think there is any 
reason to dovibt that many of the particulars concerning the manners and customs of the Maoris in the book are, and 
this instance in question, faithfully recorded. Mr. White, of course, did make mistakes like every one else ; but his 
details here have been corroborated by other native testimony. 

The Weapons of the M 


manuka wood, which is spht into pieces the size of the thumb ; one end is allowed 
to remain of this thickness for half the width of the hand, the remainder, which is 
about twice the length of the arm, is scraped with a shell or sharp stone until it 
is about a fifth the size of the head ; where the head begins to taper the wood is 
deeply notched, and to the head is 'tied a piece of the woody part of the ponga, or 
tree-fern. This is the arrow." The Hawaiians also used the kotaha, though they 
did not use that name : they call it kao (fao), but it was only as a game of skill. 

Rett. — This is a throwing weapon used by the Urewera people. It is a 
light staff about 3 feet 6 inches long, quadrangular in se6lion in the middle, and 
ornamented at the angles by groups of notches ; the head or point is divided for 
about 4 inches, and each portion' pointed. The butt-end has a knob above which 
is fastened the cord {taitra) with which the weapon is recovered after it has been 
hurled at the enemy. The weapon is thrown with the right hand, and the end of 
the cord held in the left hand. 

A modern weapon called a koikoi is simply a shaft of manuka wood about 
12 feet long (two maro), to which is lashed a piece of round iron, sharpened to a 
point. Sometimes a bayonet was lashed on to a shaft in the same way. 

Toki. — Occasionally a chief had a short-handled adze-like weapon — not a 
true axe, but a greenstone-headed battle adze, with a carved handle under two feet 
in length. The greenstone adze blade was firmly lashed to the handle by lashings 
of flax cord. These lashings were, in some instances, covered with ornamental 
bundles of feathers or dog hair. A short looped cord was attached to the end of 
the handle, and twisted round the wrist. It was always an uncommon weapon, 
and, in 1835, Polack found a difficulty in getting from an old tohunga a specimen 
that had been buried in a wahi tapu. It was not a greenstone one, but had the 
blade of a grey-coloured stone ; the weapon, in that case, is called a toki-kohatu. 

A curious wooden weapon is spoken of in Maori tales, called a mata-kaiUetc, 
which apparently closely resembled a Mexican weapon. It was a wooden sword- 
shaped weapon, with a deep groove on either side, and into this groove were 
fastened chips or flakes of obsidian (tuhiia) — a volcanic glass, plentiful in the 

igo The Weapons of the Maoris. 

northern volcanic distrifts. It is not stated how the chips were fastened in ; 
whether with a gum-resin or with lashings of flax — probably the latter, as there 
is a somewhat similar weapon or implement called a inira tuatini,* in which 
sharks' teeth (of various species)! were inserted to form a saw-like cutting edge 
of extreme sharpness. These teeth were kept in their place by lashings of fine 
cord made of flax. Sir Walter Buller has figured a beautiful specimen in the 
" Transaftions of the New Zealand Institute, "J which is now in the Hunterian 
Museum in Glasgow. As Sir Walter Buller points out, besides being useful as 
a weapon at close quarters, the mira-tuatini was probably used to produce the 
gashes usually inflifted by mourners on their bodies at tangis or ceremonial 
mournings. It is usually stated that the use of such an implement was to cut up 
human flesh. § 

The shark-toothed knives, figured at page 189 in "The New Zealanders," 
are Micronesian, and not New Zealand. In these the teeth are usually fastened in 
with a fine cord of plaited hair. A good mira-tuatini is, however, figured in the 
same work at page 127. In the account of the fishing of Maui given by Taylor|| 
(when the big "ika" of the Islands of New Zealand was drawn to the surface), it 
is said to have been crimped or scored by Maui with a shark-toothed knife — hence 
the valleys and mountains. 

No specimen of a dagger exists in any collection known to- me ; but Angas 
says^[: "A small wooden dagger is occasionally to be met with; it is carried for 
purposes of self-defence by natives travelling who go alone through the woods." 

A sword-like weapon called a ripi, or patu-tuna, was used for killing eels in 
the swamps. It much resembled the blade of a sword, being thicker on the back 
than at the lower edge. They are hardly known to the present Maoris. A fine 
specimen, black with age and well carved, is figured in this work, which was 
recently found in an old colleftion of weapons in England ; and there is one, 

* P.M., ed. 1855., p. ]50. " 

IT Angas, " Savage Life and Scenes," Vol. ii., p. 335, 

The Weapons of the Maoris. igi 

not carved, in the Auckland Museum. The specimen figured is one of the two 

weapons (?) mentioned by Judge Wilson as having been dug up in the Waikato.* 

He says : " In draining a swamp some time ago at Knighton, the estate of S. Seddon, 

Esq., near Hamilton, Waikato, two wooden swords, believed to be of inairc, were 

dug up in a good state of preservation, one two feet, the other five feet below the 

surface. It would be interesting if we could be sure that these are ancient Maui 

Maori weapons, although I suppose there can be little doubt about it, for they 

differ entirely from any weapon used by the New Zealanders when Europeans first 

came amongst them. A man armed with a taiahn or tewhatewha would have but 

little difficulty in coping with the bearer of one of these swords — notwithstanding 

they are good weapons of their kind. One is a heavy cutting sword, the pitch of 

the handle bespeaks a circular movement. It has no guard, the length of the 

handle and size of grasp is the same as an English infantry officer's sword is, or 

used to be ; the length of the blade is ten inches shorter. This shows that the 

hand it was made for was as large as the hand of a man of the present time. The 

other sword, also without a guard, is two-edged, and is apparently a thrust-sword." 

Through the kindness of Mrs. Ireland, who is the present holder of these 
specimens, I am able to figure them. 

The second implement (mentioned above) is a stick even more rare than the 
npi. It was used for obtaining fern-root from the soil after the surface had been 
broken up. It was called a toki-toki. 

J. A. Wilson, " Sketches of Ancient Maori Life and History," Auckland, 1891, p. 2 (note). 

Shell Trumpet, with Covered Wooden Mouthpiece. 

Ornamental Tuft of Feathers from the Kakapo (.Striiigops.) 

Baskets and Implements for Cultivating the Qround. 




AN easy transition from weapons of war to implements is found eitlier in the ko, 
or dif^ging implement, or in the large stone adzes used for wood-working 
or breaking up the ground. For the purpose of preparing a imerenga, or 
clearing, for planting their root crops, it was necessary to have a powerful implement 
that would tear up the roots of the vegetation which had previously grown upon the 
spot seleaed, and in some cases to remove the stumps and roots of small trees. 
To do this, the Maoris used a long and strong-pointed implement from six to ten 
feet long, having a width of about three inches in the widest part and perhaps two 
inches thick. The end thrust into the ground was pointed, and the upper end 
peculiarly shaped and sometimes well carved. To force the ko mto the ground, a 
rest or step for the foot was tied on about 12 or 18 inches from the point, accordmg 
to the charaaer of the digging to be done. It was tied with strong flax lashings, 
and sometimes the edge of the ko was notched at various distances to prevent 
the lashings from slipping. 


The Implements of Agriculture and Mandtcraft. 

The step, or foot-rest (hamaruru) , was carved from wood and generally highl}^ 

ornamented. It was also called tcka or fnkahi. Recently a beautiful and unique 

specimen, worked in a hard volcanic stone, has been dug up near Kawhia.* As 

the step was easily and quickly detached, the long club-like portion was quickly 

available as a useful weapon of offence or defence in time of need. The digging 

of a cultivation ground was generally the work of the whole village — men and 

women, boys and girls, would form in a line and plunge their ko into the ground 

with both hands, and drive it down by pressure of the left foot on the step as far as 

necessary, then turning up the sod by leverage. They worked to the sound of a 

song invoking a blessing on the fruit of their labours, keeping strict time to the 

words, and thereby lightening the heavy labour of preparing the large areas required 

for their cultivations.! A huge form of this implement was used as a lever worked 

by many msn to remove the larger stumps. The great stores of fern-root {ariihc) 

required for their winter food were mainly procured with the ko. With it they dug 

up the earth into clods, the loose earth was then removed with wooden spades {rapa), 

somewhat like those now in use, the earth below was then carefully searched for the 

brittle thick rhizome of the fern [Pteris esculenta) with a short thin implement about 

two feet long, one-and-a-half inch wide and half an inch thick, called a toki-toki.'l 

A similar implement to the ko is in use in the present day in some of the northern 

Scottish Islands, and it is well known in Peru and in many other parts of the world. 

Other forms of spades, more resembling the European form, are sometimes made 

in hardwood, and are carved on the handle. They are called karehii or kahern^ 

■ tihon, puka, and h)to. For weeding the cultivation [ngaki) or digging kumaras 

(hauhake), a short paddle-shaped wooden implement was used in the northern 

districts, and also a bone implement about two feet long, with a blade about two 

inches wide and nearly one mch thick, the part held in the hand being rounded. 

There is also a wooden form of this weeding-stick called koko. Both this and the 

tuna, or small hoe, are used by women who squat on the ground at their work. 

The tima is made of hard wood, and is generally a natural bend or knee-shaped 

piece of wood, shaped like a V, one end of which is pointed. It was used like 

a small pick to loosen the soil, so as to remove the weeds. 

* Now in the private collection of Mr. Eric Craig, of Auckland. 

..-T. ^ l^t *", ^■i^^f We paper on the "Vegetable Pood of the Ancient New Zealauder" by the Rev. W. Colenso.- 
" Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol., xiii., p. 1. •' 

: The only specimen of this implement that 1 have seen was found in a swamp in the Waikato. 

The hTPLr,:\iHNTS of AoRiruLTURE and Hand 

TCRAFT. 195 

A lars^e wooden club, or maul [ta], was used for driving in stakes, or breaking 
up large clods of earth. 

For splitting timber, wedges {matakaln) of hard wood of different sizes were 
used, called ora pipi, ora whakafniiiritangi, and ora wain. They were bound round 
with flax at the thick end to prevent their splitting under the blows of the maul. 

Tools for .handicraft of various kinds, such as wood carving, canoe makin^^ 
house building, and the ordinary needs of every-day life, were not of many kinds. 
The most important was the kapu, toki, or stone adze, which was the tool relied 
upon to provide their houses, their canoes, and all their wooden possessions.* The 
numerous purposes for which it was used required a corresponding variety in the 
shape and character of the implement, and this again was conditioned by the 
material available for its construction. In large coUecftions of stone implements, 
almost every variety of stone sufficiently hard to take a cutting edge can be found, 
and series of the various leading forms could be arranged, varying in size and 
weight from a small one an inch or so long, to a monster 12 or i4lbs. in weight. 
The degree of finish which they possess also varies greatly, and even the mode 
of manufafture, some being ground, some being " picked," and some flaked. f They 
were all used as adzes and not as axes, and mounted on wooden handles at a sharp 
angle with the handle, and securely lashed with twisted flax lashings. No doubt 
occasionally they were used as hand tools without the wooden handle. The poki, 
or toki — a heavy stone tool used in tree-felling — was, however, fastened to a straight 
handle three or four feet long (in the manner of a chisel), and held horizontally. 
A notch was cut round the tree, then another below ; the intermediate portion 
being then cut out by horizontal blows. 

For certain work a narrower form was required, and a wliao or chisel was 
used ; this was mounted in a handle of wood to which it was firmly bound, and 

* " Cook conld not get the Maoris to sell him any of their stone adzes, so highly did they value them."—" Cook's 
First Voyage," Vol. iii., p. 464. 'J'heir industry with these stone tools is expressed in the proverb, " He panehe toki In 
tu te tangitangi Teat" (a little axe, well used, brings heaps of food)— a great object in the eyes of a New Zealand chief. 
Some of their stone adzes attained a great reputation, and were regarded as sacred relics, to which were attributed 
deeds of the mystic past. One of these celebrated stone adzes (called " AwUorangi") was lost for many years, 
but recovered with many miraculous circumstances in 1888. This axe is reputed to have been brought to New Zealand 
by the great explorer, Turi, and to have descended to him from the great God, Tane. This axe was also said to have 
been used to cut the props which keep up the sky. See A.H.M., i , 161. 

t The remarks on stone implements made here will be of a general character, as I hope later on (in a sup- 
plementary volume) to treat of the " Stone Implements of New Zealand," together with such other matter as does 
not fall within the scope of the present volume. 

ig6 The Implements of Agriculture and Handicraft. 

struck with a piece of wood or small maul of wood or bone. Both adzes and 
chisels are sometimes made of the pounamu, or greenstone, and small hollow gouges 
are found which would be fitted with a wooden handle like a- chisel. I have seen a 
few specimens with the two ends made into gouges of slightly different widths, so 
that either could be used as required. For making a clean sharp cut, a flake 
of obsidian (tuhua) was available, or the sharp edge of a mussel or other shell-fish. 
The obsidian occurs plentifully in the North Island, and was a great subject of 
barter; blocks finding their way all over the islands, even to Stewart Island. 
The varieties of obsidian had distinctive names, and, it is said, were allotted to 
specific purposes. 

Mr. Colenso, in a privately-printed paper, has the following interesting 
remarks on the common working tools, which, as Cook and others truly said, the 
Maoris prized beyond everything: — " Most of the common ones, such as the axe, 
hammer, chisel, auger, gimlet, awl, knife, large spike nail, small nails, &c., took the 
names of their own similar stone and bone implements ; a few others, however, 
obtained some curious and striking names, as : an iron adze, = kaptt — lit., palm of 
the hand, sole of the foot, &c., so named from its curvature. A small axe, hatchet, 
and tomahawk, = panekeneke — lit., strike-and-keep-moving-by-small-degrees ! a good 
expressive name, indicative of their manner of using it in the woods, scrub, &c., 
clearing before them ; formerly no Maori of any rank travelled or moved about 
without one strung to his wrist ; of this useful little instrument they were very fond. 
A saw and also a file, = kam—\i1., to cut stone by fri6tion, rubbing to and fro, as 
they cut their greenstone, &c. A plane, = zcrtn/— lit., to scrape, cut, &c., give a 

smooth surface to, as with obsidian, sharp shell, &c. A pincers, = kuku lit., the 

big mussel shell fish. A grindstone, hone, &c., = hoanga — the common name 
of their own sharpening stones, of which they had several kinds ; the common 
grindstone very often took the additional term of Iiiiri (= to revolve). A pick, 
pickaxe, = ken-wheniia~\it., earth digger. A hoe = kam-one—lit., to tear, roughen, 
pare the ground. A spade, = pttka, kalicru, karchii, hapara, &c. ; this useful 
instrument bore several names, according to the distrift and sub-dialed, but its 
general name in the North was puka. At first, and for a few years, this name to 
me was a puzzler, for I could not find out why the spade had obtained this peculiar 
name (which was also the name given by the Maoris to the cultivated cabbage). 

The Implements of AGRirnLTURE and Handicraft. 197 

I knew of nothing Maori that also bore it. At last I heard from an old intelligent 
priest that there was a tree bearing a large leaf named puka, and thence their name 
for the spade (and cabbage) ! For a long time I diligently sought this plant 
(Merytn Sindairii), offering rewards for it ; no one, however, had seen it At length 
I found one (in 1836) in a corner of Whangaruru Bay (S.) ; its leaves were large, 
12 — 20 inches long and 8 — 9 inches broad, oblong, plain, entire, with a long thick 
stem. I suspeft hapara to be the Maori attempt at pronouncing the word shovel."* 

The tools of stone and bone used by the Maoris in handicraft, and for 
o-eneral purposes, may be roughly classified somewhat as follows : — 


(fl). Those aftmg mainly by dired pressure. Such as the sharp-edged flakes 
of obsidiant of various colours and qualities produced by a blow on a 
core or block of obsidian ; turtle-backed flaked quartzite knives of several 
types ; and flakes (called by Dr. Von Haast teshoas) struck off from rounded 
beach pebbles of diorite or any suitable material. The sharp cutting 
edge of the larger sea shells was mvaluable as a cutting tool. When used 
by a professional, or bond fide mourner at a tangi, to make the orthodox- 
cuts and lacerations, the bereaved one would call for the hilu-moc-Ma 
(the rock-sleeping mussel), with which to show the visible tokens of her 
grief. J The flattened, almost circular, sharp-edged knives, three or four 
inches in diameter, made of slate, diorite, and sometimes greenstone, 
would also come in here. They are usually called fish-knives ; but there 
is no reason that I know of for so doing. Cooked fish does not usually 
demand a knife of any sort among the less civilized people. 

(b). Those afting by a blow. 

X direa, such as the stone adze (kapu, &c.), in its numerous forms ; 
X X or indirea, as the chisel or gouge (whao, &c.), and the bone 
tattooing chisel (iihi). 

^:^^^^Z^J'^^^S^^ b^ ren= ^^^^^J' t ^U tTr b " .a,.™ "ito e„t-lt .a. .e .elated to 

''" Tir. .oKn White .a.. : ' The.ea.e fo.r sorts of o^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 
its appropriate use, as for cutting the skin at tangvhanga, f "^ cutt"ig ^^e hau and to 

X 'i'- H. Smith on "Maori Implements."-" Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. xxvi., p. 433. 


The Implements of Agriculture and Handicraft. 

These may be differently classed when applied in different ways. The 
stone-adzes were, no doubt, frequently used without handles; and it 
would be very difficult to draw the line between a chisel and a small adze. 

(c). Those aaing by friaion— after the manner of a saw. The shark teeth set 
in a wooden handle forming the knife known as a manpi, or a imra tuatini 
(used only for cutting up human flesh), would probably be placed here, 
together with rare specimens of the quartzite flakes occasionally found, 
which show traces of an intentional notching at the edges— possibly for 
the purpose of cutting bones into fish-hooks or ornaments, The notches 
would not be any additional advantage in cutting ordinary flesh. 


^^j._Those a6ling by pressure and fridlion. Under this head can be placed 
the hard and soft stones {mania) * with worn edges, used in sawing blocks 
of greenstone or diorite, and sometimes bone. 

Those fragments of sandstones found in the remains of every old 
settlement which give evidence of their having been used as rasps or files, 
whetstones {hoanga)-\, the polishers, burnishers, and smoothing tools of 
hard stone, and the sharp flakes of stone or sea-shells for scraping 
down woodwork. 


(a). Those afting by a blow, such as hammer stones of convenient size used for 
reducing the rough block of stone to the general form required for an 
implement. Short whalebone clubs, used for striking the carving chisel. 
The small stick used with the tattooing chisel, and the great wooden 
maul (ta), used to drive in stakes for a fence or a net. 

(b). Those acting by pressure and by friction, and having a more crushing 
effedf than the blow of an ordinary hammer, such as the flax-beater used 
in dressing the flax, or the pounder {paoi) used in preparing the fern-root 
{roi or aruhe) by beating it on a flat stone. 

* Dr. Shortland says that " in the South the Natives fixed these cutters in wooden handles or frames like a 
stone cutter's saw." 

t For description, see " Trans. N.Z. lust.," Vol. xviii., p. 25. 

JVa, ha lei te waka o te hoanga, kia koi, kia koi.^Wohl. — "Trans. N.Z, Inst.," Vol. vii., p. 46. 

The Implements of Agriculture and Handicraft. 


Here would also come the stones (howhatii) used for the crushing or 
grinding the seeds and berries prepared" for food, and the stones and 
slabs used for grinding the red-ochre, or kokowai, before it is mixed with 
oil or fat for paint. 


(a). Those afling by a blow, such as the small chisels used in the preparation 
of the carved stern-posts, or in morticing a small hole, may be placed 
here as indicating this special use. 

{b). Those afting by friftion and pressure will include the large variety of 
needles, bodkins, awls, piercers, and the bone and stone points used with 
the drills and boring devices. 

The drill [iincnri or pirori) was used for drilling the hole for the wrist cord in the 
stone weapons and through some of the axes, and also in the manufadture of several 
of the principal greenstone ornaments. The following account of the drill used by 
the Ureweras has been communicated to me by Mr. Elsdon Best : — "The tuwiri or 
drill consists of five parts — the pou or spindle, the kurupae or crossbar, the porotiti or 
whirl, the umta or stone point, and the aho or cords. The pou is about two feet long 
and three-quarters of an inch thick, the inata of kiripaka being fastened to lower end 
by lashings of whitaii. The kurupae is about twenty inches long, about two inches 
wide in the centre where the pou passes through it, and then tapering roundly off 
towards both ends. The pou passes through the hole in the centre of the kurupae 
loosely, i.e., so as to leave play for working. The aho, of twisted ivhitau, is fastened 
by the middle to the top of the pou, and the ends made fast to either end of the 
kurupae. The porotiti is a flat thick heavy disc of wood fastened firmly to the pou 
just below the kurupae. The hole in the disc is square, and the pou at that part 
is square, so that the porotiti may be made fast by wedges. To work the tuiciri the 
kurupae is twirled round so as to twine the aho or cord round the pou. The mata is 
set on the material to be bored. The twining of the aho round the pou of course 
raises the kurupae up the pou, up which it slides easily. A downward pressure 
of the hand on the kurupae now causes it to slide back down the pou and 
unwinds the cord ; the momentum increased by the heavy disc causes the cord to 
wind round the pou in an opposite direction, again raising the kurupae, and so on 


The Implements of Agriculture and Handicraft. 

The hand of the operator is kept on the ktirupae, but the downward pressure only 
is needed, the momentum lifts the kurupae as the cord re-winds on the pou. In 
such work as grooving a greenstone ttJd only one hand is used on the kttrtipae, but 
in boring patu, both hands are used to press the kurupae down — one on each side 
of the poll. Sand and water were used with the tuwiri to cause the mata or drill 
point to bite."* 

step of a Ko, or Digging implement. Carved in Stone. 

* Mr. Chapman has figured in the "Tranq IV 7 Tnof " -sr„i ■ .„„ , 

Dr. Shortland in his " Southefn Districts of New Zealand " n, Lil^ ■ ^^^^-.P' f 6, pi. 38, the pirori, or drill, given bv 
or weighted, by two stones instead of the% rS andLlr?ed wftl a cTd oA'd^^'*'' J'"'"?'^"^. ^^'V '' '' ^^^''''^'''■ 
mentions, however, the fly-wheel of the drill used in the ext.-pT, p 'fn.^H % different principle. Rev. Mr. Wohlers 
pp. 70-71., and Vol. xii., p 93.) extieme South. (See also " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xiii.. 

Ornamental Carving. Berlin Museum. 




RUNTING in New Zealand was not of an exciting nature. It was purely a 
search for such of the native birds as were available and in good condition, 
and for the small rat which uihabited the dense forests of New Zealand. 
To be an expert at the various methods of procuring rats and birds was always the 
desire of the young New Zealander, so that he might be admired by the women, 
not only as a gallant warrior, but as one who could contribute largely to the food 
supply of the pa. Much patient ingenuity was shown in the methods of catching 
birds, and but little has been recorded of the details of the art, which, like the arts 
of war, received a great blow on the introduftion of fire-arms. The rapid alteration 
in the' mode of life, consequent on the arrival of the pakcha with his ships and 
strange foods, caused the old hunting grounds to be negleded, and a new generation 
arose that knew little of the habits of the birds m the dark recesses of their forest 
home. In some far remote distnfts a few isolated communities still set their 
snares and traps, as did their ancestors for hundreds of years before ; and it is from 
some of these learned men that the following particulars have been gained:- 

202 The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 

Rats (Kiorc). — A good rat-preserve was frequently a subjeft of contention 
as a much-prized source of food ; and at the proper time of year parties went to 
the best places for setting the springs or traps used for the capture of the rat. 

To catch the native bush rat, traps (tahiti kiore) of an elaborate nature were 
built in suitable parts of the forest — usually on a well-known rat track {ara kiore) 
on the top of a dry ridge or spur of the mountain. If it was built in the line of a 
regular rat run, no pea or bait was necessary ; but if no regular track was available 
the poa (the fruit of the patete) is placed on the ground so that the rat cannot get at 
it without passing through the loop of the snare. 

In making the snare two long thin branches or twigs are twisted together, 
and the ends stuck into the ground, forming a small arch. These are the rupe, 
and are fixed. In twining the one with the other, care is taken to leave an open 
space at the top of the arch, against which the rat is forced when the trap is sprung. 

2 I I I 2 

Diagrams of Traps for Bush Rats used by Maoris near Lalce Wailcare=moana. 

1. Tiiruturu. 2. Rupe. 3. Taratara. 4. Kurupae. 5. Whana. 6. Aho. 7. Tohe. 8. Katara. 

9. Whiti. 

To set the trap the ivhana is bent down, and the taratara — a small stick 
attached by a string to the whana—i^ iixed by the end of the taratara being slipped 
on the opposite side of the rupe to the string, the rupe being in the fork of stick and 
string. The taratara is kept in place b)- the kitriipae, which is not fastened, but kept 
in place by the pressure of the taratara, which has the strain of the whana upon it. 
The ktore, m trying to force its wa)- through, pushes the kurupae down, thus releasing 
the taratara, and hence also the ichana ; the whana flies up, drawing the tohe, or 
loop, between the two rupe, and jamming the kiore against the rupe. 

The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 203' 

The two centre turutiirn, against which the kuriipae rests, are stuck- between 
the nipe ; the outer ones are outside the nipc in most cases. 

The whana is a pirita (supplejack) {Rhipogonum parviflorum), or long springy 
stick, stuck in the ground, and bent down to set the trap. 

Sometimes the tahiti has two snares ; then it is termed a wahania. 

When the rats are found to be very cunning, a modification is made in the 
way of setting the snare, by having a little house, or nia, for the bait (poa), about 
eight inches long, into which the rat must enter. This form of snare is called 
pokipoki. In it the tohe is knotted at b to take the strain of the kurupae, which 
passes under the string called whiti, and the other end rests on the katara. The 
katara passes through the mound, or house, and the poa is fixed on to the end of it 
inside the rua. When the kiore enters and pulls, or disturbs the poa, the katara 
slips aside and releases the kurupae ; the whana then flies back and tightens the 
noose, as shown before. The turutuni are stuck between the rupe, and bent back 
over one rupe until the ends rest on the ground to form the nia. The sloping parts 
are covered with wharangi leaves ; the whole is then covered with earth. 

I am indebted to Mr. Elsdon Best for the details of the method of snaring 
rats in the forests of Tuhoeland around Waikare-moana ; and from an excellent 
article written by him, and published in a newspaper,* I take the following account 
of the ceremonies connefted with the preservation of birds for food. He says : 

" The principal birds used as food were the kaka, kereru (pigeon), koko (tui), 
kiwi, kakapo, tihe, rcarca, tieke, poretc (paroquet), together with the piherc and other 
small birds. In former times birds were very numerous in the great forests, and it 
IS said that when these great numbers all sang together at daybreak, and as darkness 
fell, the voice of man could not be heard m the land. There is a special word (ko) 
to express the singing of birds at these morning and evening concerts, which were 
known as the Mara Tanc. A term used to denote the time when birds were so 
numerous is rarangi tahi^it means ' the last great rallying of kaka and other birds 
on the hill-growmg rata, at the time when the valley rata is out of bloom.' The 

* EUdon Best, Canterlury Time,, April 13. 1898. Forest Lore, No. II.-" Sketches from Tuhoeland." 

204 The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 

different kinds of birds are seen all together on these trees, and being very fat 
are easily speared without the trouble of snaring them. Trees whereon birds were 
speared by a person concealed among the branches were known as kaihiia, and such 
trees were famous for all time, each having its name, such as Hinamoki — a matai 
tree, near Okarea, and Heipipi — a kahika, near Te Weraiti. Also, they were often 
used as landmarks and boundary posts, as in the case of Hinamoki. Two reasons 
are given by the natives for the wholesale disappearance of birds from the forests, 
lakes, and streams. The one is that the hollow trees formerly used as breeding 
places have been occupied by bees, and thus the birds have nowhere to go tor that 
purpose. The other reason given is that the inauri of the forests has been tamaoatia, 
or desecrated by the introduction ol pakeha customs. In former times, when going 
bird-hunting, no cooked food was allowed to be carried by the fowlers, inasmuch as 
it would desecrate the forest and destroy the virtue of the maiiri or talisman thereof. 
To carry cooked food through the forest during the bird-taking season would be the 
means of driving all the birds away to other lands — ka tamaoatia te niauri. Fernroot 
in an uncooked state might be carried, and a portion cooked for each meal ; but the 
hunters must not carry away any surplus of the cooked food — it must be left where 
cooked. As a kinaki, or relish for the fernroot, a few birds would be taken by 
means of the pepe or 'call leaf.' During the first part of the season — that is, until 
all the birds to be kept for after use were rendered down before a clear fire, boned, 
and placed in calabashes — no birds may be cooked in the daytime, but only in 
the evening ; otherwise the birds would surely desert the forest, and be heard flying 
away in myriads at night. Another aftion that had the same effeft was known as 
the tawhauarua, which means to cook birds a second time. If, when a hapi mann 
(oven of birds) is opened they are found to be underdone, on no account must they 
be cooked a second time, but must be eaten in the state they are. Also, the cooking 
of birds in the kohua (pots) of the white man was most disastrous, as the birds were 
tamaoatia by it, in the same way that men were destroyed by washing their heads 
with water heated in a cooking vessel— at the instigation of the missionaries. The 
manri or kawaora of man was made common ; he was rendered tapH-\&&?, by that rash 
aft. The maun of man is the sacred life principle, and that maun having been 
idiakanoatia~or made common by command of the missionar)-— the result is that 
the Maori is fast disappearing from the face of the earth ; such is the belief of the 
Maori, and nothing will turn liim from that belief. Tikitu, of Ngati-awa, said, 

The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 205 

' Birds were numerous so lonp; as we cooked them in the ancient manner—that is, 
in the hapi (steam earth oven), but when we commenced to cook them in the iron 
pots of the pakeha (Europeans), then it was that the evils of the taivhanama came 
upon us.' 

" Now, the reason why it is dangerous to interfere with the taUsman of a 
forest, and why birds have to be treated so carefully, is this •.—Tanc-mahnta is the 
god of forests and of birds, and the trees and birds represent that attia, trees being 
spoken of as the children of Tanc, and the forest as the great sacred forest of Tanc. 
Hence, both trees and birds must be treated with due respedf, and the customar}' 
rites duly performed when dealing with them. The forest mmiri is a kind oi 
talisman, rendered sacred and endowed with strange powers by the karakia 
(invocations, spells, incantations) of the priests. Its purpose is to protedf the 
forest, to attradl birds from other lands, and to prevent the birds of the tribal 
forests from forsaking them or being charmed away by enemies. It is the protefting 
power or guardian spirit of the forest, and is carefully concealed and guarded lest it 
be discovered by an enemy. The mmiri may be represented by a variety of things. 
It is sometimes a stone — as in the case at Rangitaiki, where the mauri of that river 
is a stone near which the first fish of the season are taken. The stone which 
represents a forest mmiri is usually concealed at the base of a tree, and the emblem 
is generally protefted by a lizard, known as a moko-tapiri, which is placed to guard 
the sacred talisman. The mauri of a forest protects also the fish of the streams and 
lakes of that forest. In some cases the mauri is represented by the kira, or long 
wing feathers of the kaka, those of the right wing alone being used — the left wing 
has no maita (prestige) — the kaka being looked upon as the chief of birds, and far 
more highl}- prized than the pigeon. It was the kaka that brought the maiia of 
Hawaiki to this country. The kira are duly endowed with the necessary powers 
and sanftity by the karakia of the priests (tohuuga), and will then be carefully hidden 
as shown, and only a few of the principal people, priests, or chiefs, are allowed to 
know the place of concealment. All forest foods will be proteded by this maun, 
and flourish exceedingly well ; it also protefts the tribal lands from spoliation by an 
enemy. Should enemies attempt to interfere with such lands, forest or birds, they 
can do no harm unless they discover the concealed matiri, in which case they would 
acquire the hau of the land, and thus be able to work incalculable damage. Hau is 

2o5 The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 

a term difficult to translate or express ; as in the case of the mmtri there is no 
English equivalent. The maun ot man is the breath or spark of life ; the hau of 
man is the essence of his being, a kind of ethereal essence or ichor, non-visible and 
intangible as matter, although it can be conveyed by the hand. If a man's hau be 
taken by witchcraft, he dies at once — his mauri cannot save him, cannot hold life 
in his body. In like manner, the hau of land is the very essence of such land, and 
if taken by an enemy the land dies — that is, so far as its original owners are 
concerned. Thus the utmost care is taken to conceal the mauri, or representation 
of the Jiau. Only a tohunga, or priest, can discover the mauri when thus concealed. 
To discover the mauri the priest will proceed to the forest, and, taking a stand at 
some part thereof, he recites the first part of the karakia known as Kahau : — ' Ka 
hau ki uta, ka hau ki wako.' Hearing no sign he faces to another point and again 
repeats the above words, and so on until he happens to face in the right direftion — 
that is,. in the direction of the mauri. When he launches (ivero) the invocation in 
that direftion the moko-tapiri, guardian of the mauri, will comrnence to chatter after 
the manner of its kind, and thus the mauri is found — that is, if the priest be near 
enough to hear it. 

" Should, however, the gods favour the tohunga, and he hears the chirping of 
the inoko, he then repeats the rest of the karakia : — 

" ' Tohi maun, tohi tiaki 

Wetekia te haii e here nei i te mauri 
Homai ki an hia whangaia ki te toa, 
Ki te niwahine.' 

" The ?«a;;n-seeker is now jubilant, for he knows full well that he holds his 
enemy in the hollow of his hand. 

"The following is a karakia which appeals to Rangi and Papa, or Heaven 
and Earth— the world-old progenitors of the human race— to uphold and protedl 
the Mauri of Tane— that is, the forest Mauri~a.nd to cause birds to be plentiful :— 

"'£ Papa e takoko nei, E Rangi e tu nei 

Homai te toto Icai tangata kia ritrukutia, Ida herea 

Kia mau te maim. Te mauri o wai ? Te mauri o Tarn' 

Tane-tuturi, Tane-pepeke. Whakamutua kia Tu-mata-tienga 

Whakamutua kia Paia, nana i toko te rangi 

Na Tti-mata-uenga i here te kai.' 

The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 207 

" These ceremonies being duly performed, the men are free to go bird snaring 
and fishing-the season is open-but still the various restridions m regard to food, 
evil omens and other matters were far more stria and effeftive than the by-laws or 
rules of any acclimatisation society. 

" The sacred fire— known as the A In Taitai—is a most important element in 
the wellbeing of the tribe and tribal lands. At this holy flame are performed all 
sacred rites pertaining to the tribal lands and home, the establishment of forest 
maun, first fruits offerings, with many others. It is not used for purposes of 
witchcraft, the aln whakaenc being devoted to that dread art, while the horokaka is 
the fire utilised in conneftion with ceremonies performed over war parties. The 
ahi taitai is the hau or maitri of the village or settlement, and it is the protefting 
power thereof, as the forest maun is of the forest and its occupants. It is kindled 
by the head priest, who procures a rearea bird (korimako) and roasts it at the fire. 
A portion of this bird is suspended near or over the fire while ceremonies are being 
performed, after which it is taken down and buried as an ika piirapura (or manea 
or taitai) which is the emblem of the hau of the people and their home. By 
thus concealing the hau of people and homesteads, both are preserved from the 
machinations of sorcery, and a man can then go with a light heart, for he knows 
that his hau is safe ; that is, the ahua of his hau, the real hau or intelleftual essence 
of his being cannot leave his body, or the body would die ; it is the ahtia, or 
semblance (an immaterial symbol of the very essence of life — the essence of an 
essence) that is conveyed to the ika purapura, as it is the ahua of a man's hau that is 
taken by sorcery, in order that he may be bewitched. The symbol or material token 
of a man's hau is a piece of his hair or shred of his clothing, and this is taken to be 
subjeded to certain karakia in order to destroy him. This symbol is then known as 
a hohona (? hohonga). The human sacrifice made at the dedication ol a new house 
and buried at the base of the centre post thereof is also used as an ika purapura, the 
bones being disinterred and taken to the tuahu or sacred place of the settlement. 
The incantation used at the ahi taitai, when the ika purapura is being imbued with 
the sacred hau of men and land, is termed the Here of Maui. 

" The remainder of the bird cooked at the Ahi taitai is eaten by the priest, if 
he is of sufficiently high standing in his profession ; if not, it is impaled upon a tree 

2o8 The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 

that Tanc may consume it— that is, it is offered to the god of forests. It will thus 
be seen that the ika purapura, or taitai, is the mauri of the tribe and tribal home, 
as the kira, &c., are the mauri of the forest. Another receptacle for the hau of a 
tribe is the ahiirewa. This is a form of tuahu ; it is a long stick or pole, which is 
placed in the ground at the sacred place of the settlement. This stick is the 
emblem of the ahurcwa. To save oneself from being brought under the influence of 
witchcraft — that is, to save one's hau — all that is necessary is to take a piece of one's 
hair as a symbol of the personal hau, and bury it at the base of the sacred post with 
appropriate karakia. It is not necessary to use a material symbol, as one may take 
the ahua of one's hau and bury it at the ahiirewa with equally good results if the 
ceremony be properly condufted. In like manner the maiica, or hau of the human 
footstep, can be taken, and the careless traveller slain thereby ; thus it is well in 
travelling through an enemy's country to walk as much as possible in the water, and 
thus outwit the wily AaM-hunters. 

" The whata-puaroa is another institution in connexion with the ahi taitai. 
There are two whata-puaroa, each being represented by a post set up at the tuahu, or 
sacred place, of the village. Each has a special duty to perform, one being to 
preserve life and the other to destroy it. It is on the whata-puaroa that represents 
life that the bird offering of the ahi taitai is often placed, the said bird representing 
Tane, and which is subsequently buried as an ika-purapnra. At this whata also the 
ahua of the people is placed as a mauri, it being also buried, or, as a Maori would 
say, ' planted,' like the material bird. With the ahua of the people is also placed 
the ahua of the land, usually represented by a stone or branchlet, and thus the maun 
of land and people is as one. The -whata puaroa, which represents death, is where 
ceremonies are performed in order to destroy man b}- witchcraft, and is said to be 
as efficacious as the ahi lohakacnc, or the deadly rua-iti. It is to this whata that the 
inanca or hau of the human footstep is taken and left there until the mara-tautanc is 
planted, when it is taken to that most sacred spot, and, together with a ^eedkumara, 
is buried underground with appropriate karakia of dread import, that slay man as 
surely as do spear and battle-axe. 

"The first-truit ceremonies are also performed at the Ahi taitai, or the Aht 
rau hiika. The first birds taken are offered to the gods. The birds caught in the 

The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 209 

first rau-hiika, or snares, set, were cooked at the ahi taitai in an oven called hapi-rau- 
huka, and eaten by the tohunga — thus havin.c; the effeft of taking the tapti off the 
birds. Some of the first made rau-hitka, or snares, are cast into the sacred fire, 
presumably as an offering. These first rau-huka are prepared by the priest, and in 
some cases are used as a hau or maun of the tribal lands in the same way that the 
kira is, being carefully concealed. Great care is taken in preparing the rau-huka. 
The leaves seledled, after being split into strips, are dried, and then soaked in swamp 
water where there is dark-coloured mud. This is to give them an old appearance, for 
the birds would not approach them if they were left in their natural colour. The 
same effeft is sometimes produced by hanging the rau-liuka in the smoke from 
burning mapara, the resinous wood of the kahikatea. Each strip is then formed into 
a loop-snare, and numbers of these are suspended from a cord (kalia). The burning 
of the rau-huka in the ahi-ta:lai is supposed to bring good luck to the fowlers. The 
rau-huka are prepared in a house styled the whare mala, which is highly tapic for the 
time, and neither food nor women may be allowed within it. This house is used 
for the purpose of preparing all snares, nets, &c., for taking birds and fish. While 
the rau-huka are being fixed and the various rites performed, the participants therein 
may not go to their homes nor live with their famihes. The rau-huka, or snares, 
when prepared, are subjefted to a karakia bearing the same name. The eating 
of the first-taken birds (cooked in an oven called hapi-rau-huka) by the tohunga, or 
officiating priest, lifts the tapu from the whare-mata and its occupants, who may 
•now return to their families. 

" The Taumaha, or thanksgiving karakia, is then repeated, the fattest of the 
birds are then cooked for the women, and after that others are cooked for the men. 
At this time also are repeated the karakia to attraft many birds and fish to the 
tribal lands : — 

" ' r« inanu mm mai, rum mai, neneke mai 

Ki te pae mnga, ki te pae mro 

Te maun ie mm pae, te iwho pae 

Te maim km te whio, kai te kati, kai te koiri 

Kai te ioro nut no nga.' 
" ' Te maim kai toroti, kai torota 

Kai toro atu raina ha Tane 

Te maim ie mm pae, te noho pae, c~f., c~c.' 

2IO The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 

" These charms are repeated before the first-fruits are cooked, and the 
manner in which the priest eats the first bird is somewhat peculiar, inasmuch as he 
may not touch it with his hands, but must pull it off the spit with his teeth, and 
gnaw it as it lies on the ground." 

"The matter of the tuapa is another trouble to encounter when the bird- 
taking season opens. The tuapu may be termed a ' luck-post ' — he men arai puhore — 
a thing to ward off ill-luck.* It is a slab of timber adzed down, and set up or 
erefted near the kainga, about four or five feet appearing above the ground. It is 
not concealed like the iiiauri, and it matters not should it be destroyed by an enemy, 
another one would be set up. Thus it will be seen that it has not much tapu 
attached to it, its only innate power being to give inana to the simple ceremony 
performed at it — kia mana tonn nga mahi. This post is not carved, but is painted 
with kokowai (red ochre). The tuapa is quite distinft from both the inauri and 
uruuru-whcmia . The people of the land meet together, the directing priest says : 
' Let us ereft a tuapa, that the tiimanako (desires) and tithira of man may have no 
effeft and fail to bring ill-luck to the hunters and fishers, who go forth to procure 
food.' The tribe consents, and the tuapa is erefted, and is used by succeeding 
generations. When the people go forth to hunt or fish they visit the tuapa. Even 
the women are allowed to perform this ceremony, although they are not allowed to 
visit the maun. Each person has in his or her hand a branchlet or a splinter from 
the rama (torch used in taking kokopu at night). The first is the bird-hunter's 
offering to the tuapa, while the fishers give the fragment from the torch. The bird- 
hunter touches his spear (tao) or kete rau-huka,-\ with the branchlet, and throws the 
latter at the base of the tuapa ; the fisher touches his net or puwai (fish basket) with 
the pine sliver from his torch, and casts the splmter after the branchlet at the tuapa, 
where they are left lymg. As each throws his off^ering at the base of the tuapa, 
he repeats this charm : — 

"' Nga puhore nei, nga tmnanako nci, nga tuhtra nei 
Ki konei Iwittou putu ai 
Arai puhofc 
Whakawhiwhi ki te tama-a-roa.' 

* There are also the tuapa tamariki and tuapa tupapaku, connected with birth and death ceremonies, 
t Keie rqu-huha : the basket in which bird-snarers carry the snares. 

The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 211 

" We will now look at the purpose of this sino;ular ceremony and charm, and 
learn what benefits are to be derived from tlie hiapu. There is a large class of 
grievous evil omens (of non-success) always hanging over the heads of hunters, 
fowlers, and fishers, which omens are known by the generic term of pjtJwrc, though 
divided into many subdivisions. One of these is known as toitoi-okewa, and which 
may be explained in this manner :— A number of men express their intention of 
going pig-hunting ; presently someone says : ' If we secure some good tusks I will 
make aura (cloak-pins) of them.' Now, that is a toitoi-okewa. The man is adually 
foolish enough to speak of the pigs as already captured and killed, at a time when 
they are yet afar off and possessing life and strength to run away ; in faft, ' he counts 
his chickens before they are hatched,' which is a pakeha pnhorc. Tumanako means to 
earnestly desire some absent object, while tiihira is a singular expression applied 
to a man who is indolent and fond of good living, but prefers to let someone else 
procure the food he desires. Should you ask a Native the meaning of the word 
tuhira, he will reply at once, 'He mangere' (laziness), but it means more than that: 
it is applied to a person who does not exert himself to hunt or fish, but who much 
appreciates the fruits of the toil of others ; he is always partaking in anticipation of 
such fruits, while they are still at large and can escape. The term does not apply 
to a person who is lazy at procuring firewood, &c., for the firewood has no power of 
locomotion, and therefore cannot escape ; the word maugcrc would here be used. 
Even if a man talks about the firewood he is going to procure, that is not 'a. toitoi- 
okewa, for the same reason. ' Ou malii a tc maugcrc he tuhira' is an expression used 
to denote the indolent but dangerous individuals who stay at home and indulge in 
toitoi-okewa. The purpose of the tuapa is to ward off the puhore or omens of bad 
luck, and to annul the effefts of the desire spoken and unspoken of the people who 
indulge in tumanako and toitoi-okeica. Still another in connexion with bird-snaring. 
In telling you to go and examine your snares I would not use the ordinary word 
titiro, for that would be a puhore. I should be speaking of birds which are not yet 
killed. The word matai must be used at such a time. Also, in telling you to go 
and take the birds from the snares, I could not use the common term wetewete, 
for that also would be a puhore; the word whcraivhera must be used here." 

The largest flying bird of the New Zealand bush that was taken for food by 
the Maori was the beautiful pigeon kereru or kukupa [Carpophaga Mover Zealandice.) 

212 The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 

It afforded them a substantial addition to their vegetable food, and could be found 
wherever the forest trees bore their ripe fruit or berries. It is also very tame, 
remaining a long time in one place, sunning itself on the branch of a high tree. 
Tamati Ranapiri has given an excellent account of the methods used by the Maori 
in obtaining the pigeon and other birds ;* and from the translation of his paper by 
Mr. S. Percy Smith most of the particulars of the following descriptions are taken. 
He says : " There are three methods used for catching the pigeon— the first is the 
tutu, the second the ahere, the third the tahere. The name tutu is applied to an 
ereft-f^rowing tree, in the branches of which a stage is formed, on which sits the 
person who uses the apparatus for catching the kereru. At the time of the year when 
the fruits of the forest are ripe — such as the whanake, or ti (Cordylinc Australis), — 
large numbers of kercni may be seen flying about, and eating fruit. When they 
take flight they are like a swarm of bees, flying round and round above the trees, 
occasionally alighting. This is their constant habit, so long as that fruit lasts. So 
soon as the kereru commences to fly about in this manner, all the men of each hapu 
(sub-tribe) possessed of pluck, strength, and knowledge who live in the neighbourhood 
— that is to say, the native people of the place — decide to make tutus to catch the 
kereru. They search out a tree that has a suitable top or crown (tihi) with inwardly- 
inclined branches, and where the surrounding trees have proje6ling branches. 
When one is found it is prepared for a ttitu. In case there is no vine or creeper 
adhering to the tree, by which to ascend, maybe another suitable one close at hand 
will be found to serve the same purpose, from which a stage (or ladder) can be 
made to connedl it with the tree used as a tutti. Should no such tree be available, 
the tutu tree itself has a ladder lashed to it, reaching right up to the branches. 
As soon as the tree can be ascended, poles are cut below and hoisted up the tutu 
tree to form a stage on which one or two persons can arrange the pouakas. The 
pouaka is a wooden rod, carefully made, about 5 feet long, 2 J inches wide by i inch 
thick. Three or four of these are used. They are tied to different branches, 
direfted upwards in an upright position, so that the upper end of the pouakas projeft 
above the topmost branches, where they are used to attach the tumns, or parts on 
which the kereru is caught. The tumu is very carefully adzed into shape, and to 
it is attached the aho (cord) made of muka (scraped flax), by which the feet of the 
kereru are snared. The cord forms a noose, spread on the tumu ; the long end of 

I'r/ ^w^*' Eanapiri "Ancient Method of Bird-snaring Amongst the Maoris."— " Jouru. Pol. Soo. " Vol iv. 
p. 14.3, with four illustrations. i^x. ±,., 

The Snares and Imi'lements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 


the cord passes through a hole in the tumu, thence down the side of the pouaka to 
the hand of the snarer, who, as soon as the pigeon alights, by a quick pull, tightens 
the noose and catches the bird. If the birds are plentiful as many as 200 may be 
caught in this way in one day." 

The Maoris have a way of splitting the birds that are thus obtained, and 
taking out all the bones (niakin), and then preserving them in their own fat {hi nit) in 
calabashes for at least a year. A mouthpiece, well carved, is fitted to the calabash ; 
a Me, or basket of split flax, is placed round the calabash, to preserve it from injury, 
and it is either hung up by the numerous loops and handles of the kete, or has a 
frame made for it with three or four legs in which it stands. Some of these store 
calabashes {taha) for potted birds are of great age and highly valued. 

" Another method of snaring the kereru is by the aJierc or inahan<ra, or snares. 
When the miro tree [Podocarpus ferruginca) is in full fruit, large numbers of kereru 
assemble to partake of it. The iinro fruit very quickly fattens the birds, and at the 
same time it induces great thirst. A short time before the ripening of the fruit the 
people proceed to the forest to ascertain what trees will be well fruited. When 
they discover one they commence to make the wakas, or kumetes (troughs to hold 
water), or to seek for appropriate wood to hollow out for that purpose. Before the 
kereru begin to visit the iniro trees the wakas filled with water; some are 
suspended in the branches of the tree, firmly fixed to prevent their falling. When 
all this has been done, and the wakas filled, they are left so that the kcreni may see 
and drink from them, and become accustomed to them. So soon as this is 
accomplished the snares are prepared, and placed along the margins of the wakas, 
as well as on such branches of the trees as are suitable for the same purpose.* 
The snares are running nooses, side by side, placed all round the trough, so that 
the pigeons cannot get at the water without putting their heads through the nooses, 
and, in withdrawing, they are caught by their feathers, and thus the birds are 
strangled. In travelling through the forest, and on finding a pool of water, a 
knowing man at once examines the adjacent trees, and if he finds the scratchings 
made by the feet of the kereru thereon, he knows that the pool is used by them to 
drink from, and at once proceeds to place his snares around the water. One single 
person often has six or seven wakas, or troughs, or even more, and three or four 
trees are prepared by him. 

* Plate No 2 in the "Journal" shows the way they are arranged so that a bird must put his head through 
a noose to get at the water. This wai-tuhi method is the favourite way of taking pigeons in the Tuhoe Country. 

214 The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 

" On the first day of setting the snares, from morn to night, none of the birds 
caught that day are taken from the snares ; but they are taken out on the following 
day.* This- is the custom of the ancestors of the Maoris from time immemorial. No 
one is allowed to make any disturbance in the vicinity of these operations— to split 
firewood, &c., or other similar noise— during the day, lest the kereru should take 
flight to some other spot ; but in the evening one may split firewood, or do other 
work. Whilst engaged in this work the people sleep in the forest near the snares ; 
some are there to carry the birds to their home. This system of killing pigeons 
secures larger numbers than any other : one man will obtain two, or even three, 
hundred in a day, according as the birds are plentiful or not that year. So soon 
as the miro fruit has fallen the work is at an end, for the birds cease to frequent the 

" The third method of taking the kereru is by the tahere, or here (by spearing). 
The here-\, or spear, is a long piece of wood carefully prepared ; it is usually made 
of tawa wood {Nesodaphne tawa) from a carefully-seleded, straight-grained long 
■ piece easily split ; it is as much as 30 to 35 feet in length. A young and soft tawa 
tree is seleded, cut down, and cut to the proper length, and split into long lengths, 
so that two or three spears can be obtained from the same tree.| It is then 
carefully adzed down to the thickness of i\ inches in the middle, tapering off to 
|-inch near the end, then scraped nicely to be quite smooth and straight, and then 
fitted with a tara-kaniwha, or barb. 

" The barb is made of bone, one end of which is sharpened by scraping, and 
one side is serrated (kaniwha) in order to hold the bird when struck. After the barb 
is finished it is bound on to one end of the spear, and is then ready for spearing 
birds in the forest. The kereru is speared in the season when the whanake and miro 
are in fruit ; a spear and snare are used at the same period. It is also speared 

* This practice is not known in the TJrewera Country. There the first two or three birds caught are cooked on 
!i spit thuki) at the ahi taitai, for the priest or tohunga to eat ; the birds are then wliakanoa, or made free from tapu. 
The ahi-taitai is the sacred fire of the kainga, or settlement. Portions of the birds cooked for the priest are buried in 
the ground as an ika-purapura, or " seed-fish," or ofi:ering to the local divinities. In some cases the offering is placed 
in a hollow tree, or on a branch. When eating the biid the priest must not tovich it with his hands. After this has 
been done a taumdha, or thanksgiving, is repeated, and karakia to collect the birds and ensure a plentiful season. 

t Here is not used for a bird spear by the Tuhoe people — only Tao. The barb at the point is called makol. 
X 'I he amoLint of work entailed in the manufacture of a bii-d spear is expressed in a proverb, which says — 
" Kahore he tarainga tahere i te ara !" (You cannot hew a bird spear by the way). 
Mr. Colenso gives a description of the method adopted in the olden time in making one of these long bird 
spears ; and slates that it was occasionally worked through guide rings fastened in suitable places, so that the point 
of the speai- comm.anded the usual perching place of the birds. — " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xxiv., p. 451, The guide 
rings are not now known in the Urewera Country. 

The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 215 

when the koroi or kahikatea {Podocarpm daicydioides) and other trees are in bearing. 
The proficient in the art of spearing does not seek to secure the kereru with the 
barb of the spear ; but after spearing the bird lie withdraws the point of the spear, 
and allows the bird to fall to the ground. He well knows the vital parts, which, 
once touched, the bird dies. When the time comes that the fruits mentioned are 
ripe, the knowing man climbs up such a tree, and there remains. When the kereru 
comes to feed it is speared, and falls to the ground. This method of obtaining 
birds does not secure so many as that by means of the tutu or of the tahere ; it is 
only in plentiful 3'ears that slightly more are obtained ; few birds, result in few being 
killed by the spearman. The spearing is not confined to the kereru, but is used for 
all birds that feed on tree-fruits — for the kereru, the kaka, the tin, the kokomako, 
the kokako, and others. 

" The large native parrot, or kaka {Nestor meridmialis), is taken in two ways. 
The first is by the tutu, the second by the taki. The method of tutu is exactly the 
same as that used for the pigeon ; but the season is different. That for the kaka is 
when the flowers of the rata bloom, and the kaka are sucking the ne6far (wai) from 
them. The ttitus are the same for the kaka, but they are used with a decoy (tiniori), 
with a tame kaka, which is used to call the others to the tree. The snarer places 
himself on the tutu with his pet bird, which remains on his turutiiru or perch, with 
his basket {kori) of food hanging on the perch. The turuturu is a piece of wood 
just like a spear as to thicknesss and length — i.e., a spear used to spear man with; 
not a walking stick. It is hewed out of mairc, manuka, or some other hard wood, 
in order that it may be sufficiently hard when bitten by the decoy kaka to prevent 
its chipping. The kori, or basket, is woven in the same manner as a fishing net. 
Now, when the man ascends to the tutu with his decoy kaka, he causes the bird to 
cry out, to entice the others to the place. They alight on the tiunu of the tutu, and 
and are then caught by drawing the cord tight. The season when the rewarewa 
[Kmghtia cxcelsa) flowers, that is another time for taking the kaka. 

" The second method of ^fl^a-taking is by the taki. The taki is a long pole as 
much as 25 feet long (more or less), with a thickness of two inches. This pole is 
stuck in the ground in a slanting diredion ; whilst at its foot is built a hut of tree- 
fern fronds. The pole is slanted m order to facilitate the descent of the kaka along 
it when the fowler or the decoy-bird calls them. In the event of a decoy-bird 

2i6 The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 

not havino- been secured, a man understanding how to call the birds will remain in 
the hut built at the foot of the taki, and thence calls the kaka by his voice (imitates 
their cry). When the birds hear the call they approach and alight on the taki, 
whilst the man continues his call in order to induce the kaka to descend along it 
until they arrive in front of him. The habit of the bird in descending along the 
taki is to turn from side to side, first on one side of the taki and then on the other, 
until it arrives in front of the man within his hut. Immediately the bird turns' 
away his head to the far side of the taki, it is caught by the man placing one hand 
over one wing, another over the other, and he then carries it into his hut. So soon 
as one is caught it is used as a decoy, and by its cry calls others. It is only very 
skilful persons who can succeed in catching kaka by this method, because the kaka 
is a bird of great sense and very shy. 

" The fowler goes forth to the forest with his tame kaka to catch birds with the 
taki, the setting up of which is finished as well as his fern-tree frond hut, and the 
decoy-bird deposited at the foot of the taki close to the hut, one end of the pole 
being within the hut in order that it may be close to him to incite the tame bird to 
cry out, and to bite that which is given him to bite. When the kaka near hear the 
crackling of the thing bitten, they are deluded into thinking it is, some seed in the 
ground that the decoy is biting, when they look down and see the decoy digging 
(with his claws) in the earth, they think there are a great many seeds, and direftly 
begin to descend the taki. The bird descends, and when his head is turned away 
the man catches him, and treads on his head in the hut. In the event of the kaka 
not listening to the decoy-bird, the fowler proceeds to another place, and there 
erefts his taki.'' 

A hole is bored through the perch to fasten a flax line called a maikaika ; 
the other end of the line is fastened to a poria, or ring, which encircles the leg of 
the bird. The snaring is principally done at early morning and in the evening. 

Red varieties of the kaka, and albino varieties of the pigeon, are sometimes 
seen, and are termed ariki* 

In ancient times the principal way of capturing kakas was by decoys. The 
kakas used by the Natives to decoy the wild bird are removed from the nest when 

bPauHtl/r.?p™^nBTl'f^'''' '^"'"'''.^ Tariety here noticed is called kakalcura, even if it is white in colour. There is a 
beautitul reference to these exceptional birds in the " Story of PnUhuia " in White's A.H.M., vol. iv„ p. 136. 

The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 


fledged, and trained with great care, so that they may satisfa6lonly perform the 
work allotted to them by their masters. Some of the inokai (pets) are taught a 
few words in Maori, as '^ Kowai ma koutou ?'' (who are ye?) Tui and kaka were 
kept as pets long before the arrival of Europeans. 

A Maori proverb [pepeha) relating to the kaka is " He kakaki te haere he kuku 
htekainga!" (noisy as a parrot when travelling, and mute as a pigeon when at 
home.) Another pepeha is " i7e kaka wahanm " (loud-speaking kaka.) This adage 
is used to denote approval when a public speaker's utterances are distind, and 
sufficiently loud to reach the audience he is addressing. 

"There are three methods adopted by the Urewera Natives for capturing 
the kaka, namely- - 

" I. He pou-rakau (a tree fixture.) 
" 2. He pou-onc-onc (a land fixture.) 
" 3. He tutu (a stand.) 

For the pou-rakau method crooked branches of a rata, pukatea or mangeao are selected. 
Those on which plenty of kowharawhara [Astelia banksii) grow are preferred. The 
large cages, or. sheds, built thereon are carefully concealed with ferns and leaves. 
Two branches protrude on each side of the entrance to the cage, and into these are 
cleverly inserted twigs laden with the red berries of the karamurama {Coprosma), 
and the decoy kaka placed in proximity on its hoka (perch), the end of which is in 
the hand of his master, who sits behind a screen made of the fronds of kaponga 
{Cyathea dealbata) , , but sufficiently near to reach with his hands the wild birds 
when in the aft of stooping to feast on the tempting berries. The capture is 
so dexterously performed that the birds in the vicinity crowding round are not 
disturbed, and, one by one, therefore, they disappear, and are lodged under the 
feet of the fowler. The pou-onc-one (land fixture) was built on elevated ground 
near the margin of the woods, the plan of the cage and the mode of capture being 
similar to those described above." 

In the Waikare-moana Country the perch-snares ior kaka [mutn-kaka) were of 
four kinds— ^zm, hiiania, porac, and kapu. The difference consisting of the perch 
on which the snare is set or hung being at a different angle to suit the different 

2i8 The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 

angles of the branches of the trees to which they were fastened: the branch was 
called the hiwi, the carved knob at the end of the mutu-kaka^ toretore, the little 
pieces of creeping vine or feather quill which kept the snares {tohe) from slipping 
until it was pulled, was ninita, or ngingita. The cord itself was called kaha; the 
noose at the end over the perch, tohe. The kakas are decoyed to these perches by 
the trained decoy-bird (perua), and then the cord is pulled by a native concealed in 
the tree — as in the method of pigeon-taking by pouakas and tiimus. 

The hiwi, or poles, to which the miitu kakas were iashed were of three kinds 

hiwi ariki, pon-tam'u, and kira. 

The scarlet feathers of the kaka were held in high estimation by the Maoris : 
they were worn in the olden time as brow ornaments {pare), and used for decoratino- 
taiahas, and m making feather mats. 

To prevent the tame birds destroying their perches (hoka, or turutum), their 
bills were blunted by being burnt. Carved perches (paekoko), with receptacles at 
each end for food, were sometimes elaborately decorated. 

" There are seven methods of taking the tut or koko (Prosthemadera Novcb 
Zealandice.) The first is by the tutu, the second by snares, the third by spearing, 
the fourth by striking, the fifth by thepewa, the sixth by the tumu, and the seventh 
by catching them in winter. The tm is a knowing and a shy bird. The only 
season when it is at all tame is when it is thin ; in the season when it is fat it is 
exceedingly wild. The first three systems of catching it-the tutti, ahere, and wero- 
are similar to those used in taking the kaka and kereru, but the seasons are different 
for each kind, the tm being snared {ahcre) when the kowhai {Sophora) is in fiower.* 

" In the method by striking, a pae or perch is made. It is a pole about 7 feet 
long and i inch thick, one end of which is suspended on a tree, and the other on 
another tree, so that one end is much higher than the other. The fern-tree leaf 
hut in which the fowler sits is beneath the lower end of the perch. So soon as the 
hut and perch are completed, the man occupies the former, and commences to call 
the^ird^^t^ma3M]3^n the perch, which is done by the aid oi 2. patete 

incantatiIn^'f™L\'s*Mnas of folf' JudI Tiln^'^'f/" ^^tter words to bewitch people, and to Icarakiu (repeat 
J. A. Wilson, " Ancient Maori Life and History/' p. ^9! ^" "''*''"°^ °^ ^ ^"""^ ^^^ ^^'^^S over this matter.- 

The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 2ig 

{Schcjflera digitata) leaf inserted between his lips; with this he makes his call 
(imitates the note of the tui). When the birds alight on the pae they are knocked 
over with a long flexible stick. The season when the kahikatca fruit is ripe is an 
excellent time for capturing Uiis, and also for using the system called pewa. The 
pewa has other names, such as whcke and tiimu. The nd.m& pew n includes all the 
apparatus, such as the ivhckc, the pcuraro, the alio, the tata, the kohukohu, the 
tawhiwhi, and the hike or korcra. The chief point in a pewa or tumu is the whckc, 
or perch, upon which the bird alights and is caught. Only an expert can find a 
good wheke ; and his knowledge will be shown by the fearlessness with which the tin 
will alight upon it. The tin will not alight at once — even on a good wheke, — but 
will first warble [kauhau) from some place close to, and then get on to the whckc. 
If the hd first sings near the ivhcke, then it is a first-class wheke, and will be highly- 
valued by its owner, and will be used for years. 

" Another method is by the tumu, used in the season when the bird becomes 
very fat by feeding on the berries of the poporo or kaoho (Solarium avicularc). The 
tui will not listen to the call then, so the tumu and spearing are used. The tumu 
used is like the tumu of the tutu and the pewa, but the branches of the poporo itself 
are used — two or three of the living branches. A small branch of the limb is bent 
on a tuke (hook) for the tumu and on Sl petiraro (spring) ; the ripe fruit of the poporo 
(houto) being fastened at one end. The houto is the poporo fruit carefully selected, 
quite ripe and of a perfect shape ; several are gathered together to attract the tui. 
The only way the tui can secure the fruit is by passing along the tumu ; and so soon 
as it has alighted, the fowler jerks the string, and the bird is caught. When the 
tuis are fat, and feeding on low trees or shrubs, they are speared ; but only on rainy 
or windy days. Kokomako or korimako (Anthornis mclanocephala) are taken in the 
same way as the tui. 

" In frosty weather tuis will sometimes be found ten or twelve together roosting 
on a perch. These perching places are sought for, and then at night two men go 
out with a torch. The claws of the birds are so benumbed (uhu) with the cold 
that they are then easily taken. This cannot be done in daylight, or in warm 

"■ Kakariki, or green paroquets, are taken with a perch like the tui; but the 
kakariki perch is set outside the forest, and a decoy-bird is used. The tari or 

220 The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 

inakanga, or snare, is fastened to the end of a stick about 6 feet long, with which he 
snares the head of a kakfnki. The decoy (hniori) is taken young from the nest, 
and trained like the kaka. 

"Wild ducks are taken by the snare, and by hunting with dogs. In moderate- 
sized streams frequented by wild ducks fparera-maorij, snares are made to reach 
from side to side. When the ducks are moulting (tim-iki mavinif), they are hunted 
with dogs. Pools frequented by ducks for moulting purposes are always striftly 
preserved. All these birds when procured are cooked as huahua — preserved in their 
own fat in large calabashes, — and they will keep good in these calabashes for a 
whole year; if particularly well done they will keep for two years." 

In some parts the kiwi is hunted with dogs at night time. Torches are 
carried by the hunters to dazzle the birds, and to give light for the chase. The 
dogs used are provided with a number of little pieces of wood carefully made, 
fastened on to cords, and then hung round the dogs' necks, so that they may rattle 
ipatete.) When the kiwi hears the noise made by these pieces of wood rattling 
together, he fancies it is the noise made by the worms in the ground. He stops to 
listen, and the dogs are then able to approach. The feathers of the kiwi--a.nd of 
all the other birds — are used by the Maori in ornamenting his mats and weapons. 

On the plains and open country the Maori snared numbers of native quail 
(koitareke) (Coturnix) and wekas {Ocydromus), and in the south-western portion of 
the South Island the taknhe {Notornis). This bird, or an allied species, was at 
one time an article of food in the North Island, its bones having been found in the 

On the cliffs the fat young shags (kawau) were taken from their nests, and 
the titt or mutton-bird [Procellana) was captured either by digging out their burrows 
or by nets and fires at night. The diggmg-out process is the one followed to the 
present day by the Maoris in the south of the South Island, especially on the small 
islands off the coast of Stewart Island. The birds when taken are very fat; they 
are split open, the bones removed, and the flesh smoked. They are then packed in 
large conical packages, formed by putting long pieces of Mara bark into a flax kete, 
filling up the interior with birds, and therj lacing the whole tightly together, 

The Snares and Implements used in Huntinc; Birijs and Jva'is. 221 

terminating at the top in a point. .Hundreds of these packages (poha liti) arc 
made up every season and sent as presents to various parts. Sometimes they 
are decorated with bunches of feathers. Sometimes the birds are cool^ed and 
preserved in their own fat in vessels (poha) made of the kelp, or seaweed, and then 
placed in a kctc, with totara bark tied round to strengthen them. The South Island 
Natives had a method of using from three to five upright straight stakes [wacivacpoha), 
6 or 7 feet long, which were fastened into position at about 15 inches from the 
o-round by cross-pieces, forming a triangular frame on which the poha rested. The 
rods were bound together at the top, and ornamented with bunches of split feathers. 
The pohatiti were usually prepared in this way, when intended to be transported to 
a distance. They were carried on the back by means of kawc, or burden straps. 
The legs could be placed in the ground whilst the bearer rested on the cross-bars 
of the frame. 

The method of procuring titi by nets is used on certain high cliffs or moun- 
tains in the interior of the North Island. A net was set up on the edge of the cliff 
__two poles being set up at each end, crossing each other just at the top, where 
they were strongly lashed. The upper rope of the net was termed tama-tanc (the 
son), and the lower one tama-icahinc (the daughter) ; the crossing of the poles, when 
they were lashed together above, was called the mata-tamra. A fire was kindled on 
the extreme edge of the cliff in front of the net ; behind the fire, and immediately 
in front of the net, the titi-hxxnlers concealed themselves, each with a short stick in 
his hand for killing the birds that struck the net. Two men remained standing to 
kill such birds as flew against the mata-tamra. Attradled by the fire, the titi flew 
against the net, when they were quickly killed by the sticks of the watchers. 
Should the first bird taken chance to fly against the tama-tanc or the mata-tamra, 
it was deemed an omen of lU-luck-the hunters would be unsuccessful [puhorc). 
Should, however, the first bird strike the net at or near the tama-wahine-ne^r the 
ground-then they might look for a good bag. A foggy night was selefted, and 
great numbers of birds were formerly taken in this way.^ 

The preserved birds potted in their own fat were highly valued by the inland 
tribes ; and the Ngatiawa have a saying (showing^he^ periority of their food to 

* Blsdon Best, " Waikare-moana," p. 15. 


The Snares and Implements used in Hunting Birds and Rats. 

the food of the coastal natives)—" What good is your fish? one is always spitting 
forth bones when eating it ; but our birds— ah !— we eat straight ahead." 

The way they prepared the birds was as follows :— Two or three stout sticks 
were stuck upright firmly in the ground. On one side of each stick {pou) is cut 
three or four notches, deep enough to carry transverse rods [huki.) The birds are 
spitted closely on these rods* until the rods are full ; the ends of the rods are then 
placed on the notches {kaniwha) one above the other, so that the birds may overlap 
or are in layers. A wooden trough or waka is placed on the ground below the 
birds. At one end this waka is grooved {koaka). A bright, strong, clear fire is now 
made in front of the hukis, and as the fat from the birds melts it runs into the 
waka, and from it by the groove {koaka) into a kumete, or round wooden bowl buried 
in the ground. Then stones are made red hot, and thrown into the kiimde until 
the fat boils. The fat is then ready to be poured into the large calabash {taha)-\ to 
cover the birds which have been packed in it. The taha was covered with a flax 
ketc, round which were six or eight kawai or hoop handles (always an even number.) 
When filled the carved mouthpiece (tuki) was placed on the top, and rangiora 
[Br achy glottis) leaves placed on the top of the tuki. The loops were then drawn 
up round the mouthpiece, and laced over it with a cord (it was called a runt, 
lie rurii taha.) 

* The chief bones are first taken out — an operation called mukiiv or kohure. 

+ Tahas of preserved birds were frequently sent as gifts. In IHTl. Paerau and Kereru Te Pukenui — two leading 
men of the Urewera — presented to Mr. Brabant and Wirenm Kingi, as representing the Grovernment, 10 large tahas — 
some of them curved and ornamented — said to contain about 1,800 preserved birds. Kereru made a speech, in which 
he said that he had been blamed by his tribe for taking money from the Government, and that the tahas were for his 
fault — that is, to repay the obligation he was nnder the government. — Pari. Papers, G. I. a., p. 2, 1874. 

Group of Maori Weapons, with Calabashes for containing Preserved Pigeons. 

A Whistle used by a Leader for making Signals at War=time. British Museum. 

Length, 6i inches. 


Aha, ahaha. — Sharp cutting instrument {— mira tuatini) ; shark-toothed knife. 

Aitua. — An ill omen ; a portent ; always an evil one. 

Ake. — A small tree (Dodoncsa), from the wood of which the Maoris formerly made 

their carved staffs and defensive weapons. Mr. Colenso notes that this 

tree, which is dioecious, was known as such to the old Maoris. The male 

one is properly the ake, and from this only their war implements were 

' made. The female was called akeake. 

Ah. — To strike suddenly and violently; to hit with a club. 

Amo. — The priest-leader of a war party. 

Amokapua. — A priest (who recites before fighting?) 

Arero. — Upper point of a taiaha carved in imitation of a human tongue. 

Atangarahu. — Wily ; cunning ; a word much used in the olden times of a man skilful 
in devices and stratagems of all kinds, whether for peace or war, for 
snaring rats or birds, or catching fish, or outwitting the enemy. Such a 
person was in great repute. — Colenso. 

Aukati. — Stop one's way ; a line which ma}^ not be passed. 

Auta. — To attack. 

Alitalia. — A messenger who brings tidings of an enemv's war party approaching. 

Haeroa (Riia-haeroa). — A hole dug in the ground in conne6fion with incantations 
against one's enemies ; also Riia-tupo. 

Haka. — Dance ; song accompanied by dance. 

226 List of Words relating to Weapons of War. 

Hana. — Whakahana, to hold up weapons m defiance. 

Hani. — A wooden weapon (^ maipi, = taialia). 

Hao. — To enclose ; besiege a fortress. 

Hapopo. — The dead bod}^ ; the trunk. (This is a tapvi word only used in time of war.) 

Hihinga. — Fall in numbers. 

Hikutoto. — Revenge. Ko tauatia ki tc tana hikutoto. 

Hiku. — The tail or the rear of an arm}' on the march. 

Hingahinga. — Slaughter of numbers. 

Hoa-riri. — Eneixiy. 

Hocroa. — A weapon made from the jaw of the sperm whale. 

Hokio.—K night bird, whose cry, " Kakao, kakaol" is an omen oi war. This hoarse 
cry is caused by the choking in its throat caused by the hair of the warriors 
who will fall in the coming battle. — J-W., M.S., i56. Also, hokioi. 

Horo. — Fall, or be taken, as a fortress. « 

Hiiaki. — Assault ; charge. 

Hitata. — Spear with a knob (reke) at the butt. 

Humanu. — A cartridge belt. 

Ika. — Body of men ; troop. 

A fighting man ; a warrior. 
Ika li'liiro. — Old warrior. 

Ika-i-te-ati. — First person killed or captured in a fight. Also called mata-ika, 

inatangolii, mataati, tc ika a Tiki. 
Ika-o-Tu, emb. for one killed in fight. 
Ika-tapii. — Bodies of enemies slain in war. 

In. — Whaka-in. The head of a slain enemy when dried and hung up or placed on 

a pole as a mark of derision. 
Kai-a-kiko. — Wounded man. 

K aikaiic a I u.— One who goes secretly to give mformation of the approach of an 

Kairawaru. — Spear in an unfinished state. 

Kakari. — To fight. 

Kanawa. — A precious war weapon which is handed down as an heirloom, and used 
by the senior warrior. 

Kaniivlia. — Barbed spear. 

Barbed on one side (?) 

List of Words relating to Weapons of War. 227 

Karo, or Kakaro. — To parry ; avoid a blow ; also, a short stick used to parry a spear 

Karokaro. — A marauding party. 

Katete. — Piece joined on to a spear to lengthen it. 

Kaiihoa. — A litter on which a person is carried. 

Kaukau. — A spear. 

Kautete. — Mata kautete. A weapon consisting of sharp teeth of flint lashed firmly to 
a piece ol wood. 

Kawau-maro. — Hand-to-hand fighting. 

Kekeri. — To fight. 

Koki. — Flanking angles of a pa. 

Ki-tao. — An invocation spoken over a spear before a batth. 

Koanga-umii . — Charm for depriving one's enemies of strength. 

There were numerous varieties of charms and spells for almost every 

critical occasion in war-time. 
Koikoi. — Spear. 

Kokiri. — Spear. Body of inen rushing forward. 

Koko. — Chant for the purpose of keeping the guard awake in time of war. 

Kopere. — (v). Sling. 

2. Throw violently. 

3. A sling consisting of a string attached to a stick. 

4. The spear thrown by the kotaha. 

Kopere-Tane ! — An exclamatory phrase uttered by the leader of a war party as the 
signal for immediate adtion. 

Kotaha. — Part of a chiefs head-dress. 
2. The throw-stick for a spear. 

(An illustration of the mode of use will be found in the Plates of this Part). 

Kotaha kiiriitai. — A weapon consisting of a sharp stone shaped something like a incrc, 
but thrown attached to a string, and recovered by the string if it missed 
its mark. 

Kotiatc. — A lobed weapon of hard wood. 

Kotaratara. — A dance of triumph. 

Kuril. — Struck with the fist {= nickc.) 

Kuwha. — The name of the mythical spear of Ngatoro-i-rangi, thrown by him from 
the top of Tauhara Mountain into Taupo Lake. 

228 List of Words relating to Weapons of War. 

Mnhnnu. — Burnt. 

" Whatu-mahuiui ; Whatu-marara'' was part of a karakia performed over some 
pieces of kinmra, which were buried in the path of an approaching 
enemy that, when they should tread on the spot, their legs might be burnt, 
and they be put to flight. 

Main. — Brave ; bold. 

Maioro. — The banks or walls of a terraced pa. 

Maipi. — A wooden weapon (= ham, = taiaha). 

Makamaka-whana. — Dance the war dance. 

Taii'hiti makamaka. — A kind of trap for rats. 

Marereko. — A war plume made of twelve feathers of hiiia or other prized bird's 

Maroro. — A fl5dng fish. He maroro kokoti ihn waka. A proverbial saying tor one 
who falls into the hands of a hostile war party. 

Matakaiitete. — A weapon made like a saw by inserting sharp flakes of obsidian in 
a wooden frame. 

Matarau. — Forked spear for catching eels ; used on occasions as a weapon. 

Matataki. — Challenge. 

Mafia. — Spear. 

Matua. — The main body of an army. 

Maawe:- — A lock of hair or a piece of clothing taken from the first man killed in 
battle, and over which the priest performed a ceremony to weaken the 
enemy and make his own party strong and vidlorious. 

Mere. — A stone weapon for hand-to-hand fighting. 

Mira. — Mira tiiatini. A saw-like weapon made of sharks' teeth fastened to a piece 
of wood. 

Ncti. — A small dart used in play. 

Ni^arahii.— War dance ; ngarahu-taua war dance. 

Ngciikii. — A god to whom invocations are addressed to secure vi6lor}' for a war 

Ngohi. — Troop or company of fighting men. 

Nilio. — Whakanihoniho. To quarrel. 

Oka. — Knife ; dagger. 

Okewa.—S\.one weapons shaped like mere, but made of melaphyre, aphanite, and 
other fine-grained rock. 

OiicK'a. — A kind of dark-grey stone. 

2. Any implement made of the same. 

List of Words relating to Weapons of War. 229 

Ope. — A troop or war party. 
Pa. — Stockade ; fortified place. 
2. Weir for catching fish. 

Pfl/zM.— Alarum, or gong, made of wood or stone ; formerly used in time of war. 
Paiaka. — A weapon made from a root. 
Pakanga. — Quarrel ; hostilities ; war. 
Pakanga.—A fight ; a war. 
Pakau. — Wing of an army. 

Pake.— A small triangular weapon about eighteen inches long ; also, pahiki or potuki ; 
used also for preparing fern-root for eating. 

Pakeaka. — Traverses crossing the head of a war pa at intervals for proteftion from 
flanking fire. 

Panekeneke. — A small edge tool ; hatchet. Also, panehenehe. 
Paraoa. — Weapon made from the bone of a sperm whale. 
Paraoa-roa. — Weapon made of a whale's rib. 

Parepare. — Defensive karakias, or charms. 

2. The bank inside palisades of ^pa. 

Parekura. — Battle ; battle field. 

Pare-whero. — Slaughter in battle (= parekura, a battlefield). 

Patiti. — H atchet . 

Patu. — A weapon ; a general name for all weapons used for striking. 

Pehi. — The second person killed or taken in battle. 
/ a Tupe te mataika, i a au te pehi. 

Peketua. — A weapon carried in the belt. 

Pepeha. — The name of any celebrated pa or fortress ; used as a war-cry or war-boast. 

Pere. — Arrow or dart, thrown by means of a thong attached to a stick. 

Pihe. — Song sung over the bodies of the slain. Ka ora koe, ka pihea. 

Pike hikutoto. — Ceremony performed on the return of an unsuccessful war-party. 

Pioi. — Song sung while brandishing heads taken in battle. 

Poti-tangata. — He toki pou-tangata, a greenstone adze used as a weapon of war. 

Pou-whenua. — A weapon like a fniaha, but with a sharp spear-point instead of a 
carved tongue. 

Puapua. — A garment, wrapped round the arm as a proteftion from a blow. 

230 List of Words relating to Weapons of War. 

Pviarerc. — Decoy-bird ; of small birds only. 

Puhaureroa. — Conch or horn blown to give signals. 

Puhtpuhi. — Bunches of feathers for the adornment of a weapon-. 

Pukaea. — A wind instrument made of Mara, and used to give an alarm in time of 

Pukupuku. — Closely-woven mat, which, being wetted, is impervious to a spear. 
Puni. — Place of encampment. 

Puru. — Whakapurutao, pad worn on the arm as a protection against a spear-thrust. 
Puta. — A battlefield on which people have fallen. 
Ptitara. — A shell used like a horn for signals. 
Rangi. — A tower built in several stories used in attacking a. pa ; also, tauinaihi. 

Rarahu. — Herbage gathered on a field of battle, and sent to the priest of a victorious 
party, wherewith to perform certain incantations. 

Rere. — Whakarere. Use a weapon in striking a blow. 

Reti. — A spear or throwing weapon, attached to a large cord. 

Ripi. — A wooden implement like a sword-blade for killing eels ; also used as a weapon. 

Riri. — Anger. Riri taua md. — War between two tribes. 

Rongo. — Peace after war. 

Rongo-a-whare. — Peace brought about by the mediation of a woman. 

Rongo-a-marac. — Peace brought about by the mediation of a man. 

Rongo -taketake. — Peace, &c., between the gods of two tribes. 

Houhanga-rongo. — A peace-making. 

Rorehape. — A kind of wooden weapon, similar to wahaika. 

Ruatapukc. — A method of fighting in loose order. 

Ta. — Stroke of a taiaha. 

Taialia. — A flat weapon of hard wood, about 5 feet long, having one end carved in 
the shape of a tongue. 

Taiapu. — To assault ; to try to take by storm. 

Used also of a star when in close conjundlion with the moon. 

Kei te taiapu te whetii i tc maraina. 

This is considered a sign of war, and indication of the success of one side 
or the other according to the position of the star. 
Taipara. — To fire a volley at. 
Tao. — A spear. 

List of Words relating to Weapons of War. 231 

Tara. — Spear point ; barb. 

Tarerarera.—A short spear of manuka; dart, barbed and notched or thinned so that 
it breaks off in the body (= pcrc). 

Tarukinga. — Slaughter. 

Tatara. — Shell used as a wind instrument (= pu-tatara). 

Tatan-ponnamu. — An enduring peace. 

Tail. — Loop or thong on the handle of a mere. 

Taua.— Army. An avenging expedition summoned immediately after the occurrence 
of the disaster to be avenged was called taua-toto ; or taua whakaiohati rau 
rakau . 

Taua ngaki mate was a more deliberate matter. 
Taumatakitahi. — To sele6l a champion for each side (in fighting). 

Riri taiitapatapa. — Single combat according to previous challenge. 
Taiiri. — Small mat covered with red feathers ; ornamenting a taialia. 
Teka. — Small dart thrown for amusement. 
Tete. — Head of a spear. 
Tetere. — Trumpet. 

Tewha-tewha. — A weapon made of wood, broad and flat at one end ; something 
like the head of an axe, with bunch of feathers attached. 

Tiepa. — A framework of sticks on which was placed the offerings dedicated to a god. 
Amongst these was the heart of the first man slain in battle (mataika.) 

Timata. — Dart like a hiiata. 

Tiora. — A marauding party, separate from the main army. 

To. — To carry a taiaha at the trail. 

Toa. — Brave man ; warrior. 

Toetoe-whatumanu . — A stalk of grass (Arimdo conspicua) chewed by the priest before 
cutting the hair of a war-party. Toetoe stalks were much used in ancient 
religious ceremonies. It was believed that if the young men chewed these 
stalks while incantations were being learnt, the effeft produced would be a 
great retentiveness of memory, and prevent them divulging secrets. 

Tohi-taua. — To conduil; certain ceremonies relating to a war-party before a battle. 
It was a very -sacred ceremony, and no woman or bo}' was allowed to be 

902 List of Words relating to Weapons of War. 

Tohu. — A company or division of an arm)'. 
Tnrangi tohu. — A war-dance. 
Toki-hangai. — Adze. 

Toki-hohupu. — Greenstone adze with carved handle. 
Toki-whakapac, or ' 

Toki-titaha. — Common felling-axe. ^ 

Torowai. — Weapon made of a whale-rib. • ' 

2. Wooden weapon. 

Tu. — Fight with ; engage. The great war-god of New Zealand. 

Tua-wmi. — Part of the niu ceremony, when performed for a war-party. 

Tiingarahn. — A muster or review to ascertain the exaft number and condition of a 

Tiiruhi. — A spear-like weapon, like a pouwhenua. 

Uto. — Vengeance ; a deadly enemy. 

Wacwac. — Whakakite wac-wac, or tutu-waeivac. Dance the war dance, from the 
performance of which it was usual to augur well or ill of the expedition. 

Wahaika. — A wooden weapon of war (= wahangohi or rorehape.) 

Waitohi. — A charm repeated before going into battle. 

Wero. — Pierce ; spear ; throw a spear ; dart. Wewero, strike with a spear. 

Whawhai. — To fight . 

Whaitaua. — A party which comes to the assistance of another in time of war. 

Whangaihait. — Song over the dead. 

2. A ceremony performed over those who slay an enemy in battle. 

3. A species of divination to decide a dispute as to the honour of 

having slain a certain warrior of the enemy. 
Whakariki. — A war-cry. 
Whakaariki. — A war-party. 
Whakaara. — Hostile party ; marauding band. 

Whakaaraara.—Chani to keep the watch awake in time of war (= koko). 
Whakatahurihuri.—K ceremony performed on the return of a victorious war-party. 
Wlicinga. — y\ quarrel. 
WhcK'hcia. — An enemy. 


A here. — Snare for birds ; for pipjeons {= mahanga). 

Aherekuri. — A snare for taking the ancient Maori dog. 

Airo. — Name of the parrot's cry or song, "Kia /ro," meaning "remember" (tauntingly). 
— See " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," vol. xi., p. 102, for the fable of the great battle 
between the land and sea birds. 

Here. — A spear for killing birds {= inhere). 

Hiiiit. — Game, such as pigeons ; rats, &c., preserved in their own fat. 

Hiivi.- — -The pole to which a miitii-kaka is lashed. 

Kaha. — Main cord of a parrot-snare. 

Kakc. — Part of s. pcwa-'& supporting the peiva. 

Kohiire. — To take out the bones of birds. 

Karaii. — A trap made of loops of karakeke to catch birds that burrow in the ground. 

Mahnnga. — The top of the tihacre of a bird-snare. 

Makin. — To take the bones out of pigeons before they were preserved. 

Matiti. A dry branch of a tree frequented by birds, and resorted to for the purpose 

of catching them. 
Monti. — Decoy-kaka parrot. 
Mutii. —Verch, being part of an apparatus for snaring birds. 

2. Spear thrown towards a war party by way of a challenge, or as an omen. 
Ninita (=ngingita).—V\ece of wood or quill under which the tohe of a parrot-snare 

is slipped. 
Paerangi. — A kind of bird-snare. 
Pa-wa. — Entrance to a trap. 
Pakipaki. — Decoy-parrot. 
Peiva. — A bird-snare for tihe. 
Peivn. — Entrance to a trap for birds. 
Pea.— The bait used in rat or bird-snares. 
Poria.— Ring on the leg of a captive bird. 
Powfl/^a.— Part of a pigeon-snare. 
Pua-manu.—K bird-trap; a snare. 

o,| List of ^^'oRDS rel-vting to Hunting. 

Rongo-hua — A perch for birds. 

Rore. — Snare ; trap. 

Tarahanga. — Trap for hawks. 

Tan. — A noose for catching birds. 

Tataki. — Arrange snares on a string for catching birds. 

Tihaerc. — A pole with a snare arranged on it, baited with flowers for catching birds. 

Tiinon. — A decoy-bird. 

Tohe. — Cord or slip-noose of bird-snare. 

Toretore. — Carved knob at the end of the perch of a M/^a-snare. 

Tumii. — A snare-perch for pigeons. 

Tun. — Part of a bird-snare. 

Tutu. — Tntti'inanu. Perch for birds ; or a tree prepared for pigeon-snares. 

WaJiarua. — A tahiti kiore, or rat-trap with two snares. 




> ♦ ♦ ♦ < 

Aim. — To cultivate ; to hoe. 

Ahiiahutanga. — Small hillocks in cultivation for tohungas (= priests) set apart for seed. 

Akuaku. — To scrape out, as from a Maori earth-oven. 

To take out the stones used in baking out of an earth-oven. 

To pick or gather up fern-root when it is being dried. 

Amai. — The back part of a Maori axe-helve, where bound round. 

Angatupa. — Shell of the large scallop (Vola laticostala), the ilat valve of which was 
formerly used for chopping the matted runners of the convolvulus ])lant 
growing on the gravelly beaches, preparatory to digging up their roots for 

Hainariirn. — The crutch of a ko or digging implement. 

Hangohango.— An implement for digging and for setting potatoes. 

Hapara. — A spade ; also piika, koto, karchu, kahcru, ko, tihou. 

List of Words relating to Tools for Agriculture. 


Hapoko. — A pit used for storing potatoes (= hapoki). 

Hoto. — A wooden spade. 

Kahcni. — Spade or other implement for working the soil. 

Kapii. — A steel adze, so called from its shape. 

Ko. — A wooden implement for digging or planting, sometimes used as a weapon of 

Mara. — A plot of ground under cultivation ; a garden. 

Matakari. — A wedge. 

Ora. — A wedge. 

Paoi. — Wooden beater for pounding fern-root. 

Pirori. — Drill [= tuiri). 

Poke. — Short axe. 

Raku-rahi. — Implement to scratch with ; rake ; harrow. 

Tiliou. — An implement used as a spade. 

Titna. — A bent stick used as a hoe. 

Tokitoki. — A digging stick used in extra($l:ing fern-root after the suriace soil has 
been removed. 

Toki. — Axe ; adze ; or any similar tool. 

Urc. — A stone adze. It was sometimes used as a chisel, especially for making holes. 

Small Carving Chisel (whao), in the original handle. British Museum. 

Taha, or Calabash for Preserved Birds. 

Digging Implements. Auckland Museum. 





Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Collection of Taiahn. 

In this colleftion will be found a typical seledtion of the taiaha, or hani. The 
specimen with the white dog-hair ornament being the one called Mahuta, mentioned 
on page 179. The method of using this weapon is also described at page 177. 

Fig. 2. 

Heads of Taiaha. 

Some of the heads of the taiaha in the above figure are here given to show 
the chief variations in the decoration of the greatly enlarged tongue forming the 
spearlike termination of the weapon. No two are absolutely alike^ and yet in only 
one is there any radical departure frorri the characteristic pattern. 


Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 



Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Portions of Carved Spears. 

The ordinary fighting spear of the Maori was quite plain and business-like, but 
occasionally there are found instances in which a skilful carver has introduced 
elaborate and beautiful carving on the spear-shaft and has carved barbs at the point. 
The spear represented in the three upper figures is made of hard, dark wood, of the 
finest workmanship, and delicate carving. The butt is broken, and shows portion 
of an ornament. The total length is 8ft. bin., with a diameter of half-an-inch ; 
the carving in the second line, resembling a lizard, being 2ft. 3in. from the 
commencement of the ornament at the butt. The other specimen shows a number 
of blunt barbs at the point which has a cjuadrangular sedtion. It is 6ft. loin. long, 
with a diameter of 1-J-in. to IJin. at the thickest part. Both of these specimens are 
in the collection of Major General Robley, in London. 

Fig. 2. 

Group of Teivhaiewha. 

These weapons were all obtained on the East Coast of the North Island ; 
they have attached to them the bunches of split feathers neatly made up in little 
quillets. Feathers from the tail of the hawk or the pigeon were used for this 
purpose. The hawks were obtained by means of an ingenious trap set with a noose 
and a long springy rod, somewhat after the fashion of a native rat trap. Three 
war belts are included in the figure. These were girded on with numerous 
ceremonies on going into adlion. Two curious forms of tcwhatcwha are given in 
Figs. I and 3, "Album of the Pacific," Plate 372, by Edge Partington. 

Fig. 3. 

The Heads of Two Tewhatewha. 

These show the manner in which these weapons were sometimes ornamented. 
They were colledled by Mr. H. Hill from the East Cape Distri6l. 


F±g. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

2 12 Maori Art, 

Fig. X. 

Three Spears in the British Museum Collection. 

The one with many barbs is 74in. in length, and is unusually elaborate. 
The one in the centre is not barbed, but has a band of carving of greater diameter 
than the rest of the spear, near the point ; it is 76in. long. 

The remaining specimen is probably unique, and has a double point, each 
roughly barbed, about 26in. long. The whole length of the spear is I03in. 

Fig. 2S. 

Pouwhenua and Kakaroa. 

The two weapons to the left represent the usual form of pouwhenua, or turipou, 
which is very much like a taiaha with the tongue produced to a spear point. 
I have received photographs of a weapon akin to this called a tunthi, from 
Mr. Nelson, of Whakarewarewa — unfortunately, too late to figure it ; in it the 
carved ornament is more central, and the broad flat end is brought to a point. 
The kakaroa are, of course, made from the small iron trade-axes obtained from 
the early traders, fitted to a long handle, and proved very formidable weapons in 

Fig. 3. 

Three Tomahawks with Bone Handles (Palili.) 

The three weapons here figured are in Captain Mair's coUedion in the Auckland 
Museum, and show the manner in which decoration was applied to the handles 
of these favourite fightmg weapons. These weapons have each a history of their 
own — of wars and bloodshed early in the present century. 




Fig. 1. 

F±^. 2. 

:Fig. 3. 


244 Maori Art. 

]Pig. 1. 

War Trumpet and Weapons in the Colonial Museum, Wellington. 

The long wooden trumpet is formed by shaping a suitable piece of wood into 
the outside form of the trumpet. The piece of wood is then carefully split as 
nearly as possible into two halves. Each half is then scooped out, and the two 
portions carefully bound together with either a creeper or flax cord. About a foot 
from the mouth a piece is inserted, which probably has some efifedl on the note 
produced. Below this trumpet are two examples of the tewhatewha, and a 
beautifully made taiaha, made of bone from a whale's jaw. 

The other specimen is a finely carved wooden hand club. 

> » » — < 

Native using the Dart and Throwing -stick (Kotaha and Kopere.) 

I am indebted to Mr. C. E. Nelson, of Whakarewarewa, Rotorua, for the 
excellent photograph illustrating the method of propelling a dart by the whip-lash. 
The kotaha, or sling-stick, was usually made of ake, with a hole at one end, through 
which was passed a dogskin thong, knotted at both ends. The mode of attachment 
of the arrow or dart to the sling-stick was necessarily such as to give a -strong 
strain, or pull, during the throw, whilst admitting of instant release when the arrow 
was ready to commence its free flight. This end was attained by the adjustment 
of the terminal knot on the thong attached to the kotaha. As will be seen by the 
diagram, a tension in the direftion of the point of the arrow on the thong (c) 
wrapped round the ,^^ arrow (a), and lying 

closely against the ^^^^,„^,^ u knot (k), would give 

all the pull necessary ^'^^^^^^fes ^°^ ^^^ propulsion of 

the arrow, and the C ^====''''''''''''''''''^^^^^^ c'^&ck given to the 

thong when the sling- ^^^^^>- ^"^^^^ ^^^ ^^^" ^^""^ 

to its utmost limit, ^*«*^A would only have the 

eff"ea of releasmg the hold the thong had of the arrow. The arrow, or dart (pere), 
was simply a rough mamika stick, fairly straight, from 4 to 5 feet long, with one end 
sharply pointed, and the point charred, in order to harden it ; it was, moreover, cut 
nearly through about two inches from the point, so that it might easily break, and 
leave the piece in the body of the wounded enemy. Expert slingers, hidden and 
sheltered by bushes, would send their arrows some 70 or 80 yards over the 
intervening bushes with marvellous celerity and precision. The darts were stuck 
loosely in the ground m the manner shown in the photograph, at a proper 
inclination, before the thong was attached. 


kiJt'i::%\ \ 

^i^g.- 1. 

H'ig. 2. 


Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Two Ornamented Stone Axes with Carved Handles, and Stone and Greenstone Afere. 

No. 4 is a toki of greenstone in a carved liandle, adorned with the white hair 
from, the dog. No. 10 is a less elaborate specimen, with an adze of ordinary stone. 
Nos. 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, and 12 are onewas of the close-grained black stone which took such 
a good finish and polish in skilful hands. 

The other numbers indicate weapons oi pounamu, or greenstone. No. 7 is,, 
I think, known as Tc Kaoreore, and No. 8 as Raukaraka. Most of these weapons 
belong to Captain Mair, and are deposited in the Auckland Museum. 

Fig. 2. 

Greenstone Mere {Mere Pounamu). 

A well-finished greenstone mere, measuring 13 inches in length, was found buried 
near Warrington, Otago. It is of a clear and almost translucent stone, flecked 
with darker clouds of green- -a kind much valued by the Maoris. 

) • • « ( 

Fig. 3. 

Three Stone Mere from North Otago. 

A totally different form of stone club is found over the southern distri6ts of 
the South Island of New Zealand. The central weapon is a natural slab of dark 
coloured stone, about one inch in thickness, roughly ground into shape and 
polished, but still having the part clasped by the hand rather too broad. The 
others are much more highly finished, and present quite new types. They have 
also a peculiarity in the double hole for the wrist-cord. In one is plainly seen the 
commencement of a hole made by pecking away the stone instead of boring. The 
well-finished specimen on the right is in the coUedlion of Dr. T. M. Hocken, of 
Dunedin, and was found carefully concealed in a little cairn of stones near the 
Barewood Station, in Central Otago, in 1892. Its length is 20 inches. The others 
were found a little more to the north, and are now in a private colleftion in 

Fig. 4. 

Greenstone Mere {Mere Pounamu). 

This is a good specimen of an old fighting weapon, on which a covering of flax 
has been made for the butt, to which is attached the tan, or loop, for passing 
round the thumb — possibly on account of some accident when boring the hole, 
or to obviate the necessity for doing so. 

This specimen is in the British Museum, and I am indebted to the authorities 
of that institution for the photograph of this and other specimens and permission 
to figure them. 


E'lg. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Fid. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

248 Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 


Two specimens of a rare form of weapons, cut from the lower jaw of the 
sperm whale. The carving at the head and a slight ornamentation in the middle 
are well executed, considering the hardness of the material. The bones of whales 
cast up on the beaches were always examined, so as to seledl the portions- — chiefly 
from the jaw, which were used for weapons and ornaments. 

These two specimens are in the colledlion of Dr. T. M. Hocken, Dunedin. 
Length, 4ft. 5in. 

r-ig. 2. 

Collection of Bone Mere of various forms. 

The two mere in the centre of the outside of the figure, and the long one in 
the centre in the lower part, are forms peculiar to the southern part of the South 
Island. The others present a typical seledion of forms prevalent in the North 
Island. The Kotiate usually has the rekc, or butt, finished with a head or a fio-ure. 
The other forms have carefully worked ridges and grooves, meeting- in a central 


piATE xxxrr. 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

250 I\Iaori Art. 

Fig. X- 

Collection of Wooden Hand Clubs. 

In this figure a number of the specimens shown at the New Zealand and South 
Seas Exhibition in 1889 are given, and amongst them are some excellent examples 
of the various types found in wood. 

At the lower part of the group is a quadrangular club called a patuki, or potuki. 
Many of the specimens are in the coUeftion of Captain Mair, now deposited in the 
Museum of the Auckland Institute. 

) »•« < - 

Fig. 2. 

Carved Wooden Hand Club. 

A very old specimen, ornamented with the usual grotesque figure, and having 
the blade covered with a pattern of carving called rauponga. 

> * • 

I^ig. 3. 

A Wooden Club. 

A specimen of rather unusual shape, without any ornamental carving. In the 
collection in the upper part of the plate are several others which are plain, but in 
this case the usual small figure is not present. 

British Museum. 

■ ) • • > c 

JF"ig. 4. 

Carved Wooden Club. 

This weapon was obtained from the neighbourhood of Lake Waikare-moana, 
and is now in the possession of A. H. McLean, Esq., Dunedin. 


Fig. X. 

Fig. 2. 

JFig". 3. 

IPig. 4. 

2:2 Macjri Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Shark-toothed Knives. 

These four specimens are in the collection at the British Museum. 

Three are highly-finished specimens ; but in the fourth the main features of the 
design arc shown, but the carving has not been finished. In the specimen which is 
the best carved, and probably the oldest, the teeth appear to be fastened in with 
some natural gum or cement. The name usually given to these is mira tuatini ; but 
in the recently-issued specimen of the Rev. W. Colenso's Maori Di6tionary I find 
the word aha or ahaha given as meaning — " a sharp cutting instrument or saw made 
of sharks' teeth [latere) firmly fixed laterally into a prepared piece of wood, formerly 
used by the Maoris in cutting off a large shark's head (mako) when hooked at sea 
and brought alongside their canoe ; also, in cutting up whales, human flesh, &c., 
and taken by them to battle."* 

Length, from g^- to ii inches. 

> » o — *-< 

Fig. 2. 

Shark=toothed Knife. 

A simple kind of cutting tool, made by fixing shark-teeth into a groove in a 
plain handle by lashings of flax. 

New Plymouth. 


Fig. 3. 

Carved Handle of a Shark=toothed Knife. 

Carved from a thin piece of very hard wood in a pattern resembling one of the 

upper figures. The specimen is very delicately worked, but has lost the sharks' teeth. 

Auckland Museum. 

;, » e » <■ 

Fig. 4. 

Wooden Truncheon. 

A quadrangular wooden club — probably a patuki. This specimen is in the 
colleftion of Dr. T. M. Hocken, and is said to have belonged to the great Maori 
warrior, Piori, leader of the Waikato Natives at the battle of Rangiriri in 
November, 1863. 

* See also A.H.M., Part I., p. 119, and Part II., p. 42, for instances of the use of this kind of cutting implement. 



Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

254 Maori Art 

Fig. 1. 

Carved Handle for a Stone Adze. 

Tradition relates that it was Rupe who taught man the art of fashioning the 
stone axes, and also how to make the handles for them. He said, " Make the 
handle in the shape of a man's left foot, so that the part which resembles the leg 
may be held in the hand, and to that part which resembles the sole of the foot, the 
axe may be fastened." He also showed the various purposes to which the axe 
could be applied (A.H.M., I., 86). 

This specimen is in the colledtion of Mr. Denton, of Wellington. 

Fig. 2. 

Carved Adze Handle, and two other Carvings. 

On this Plate are given three specimens in the collection at the British Museum, 
the first being a well-finished adze-handle ; the second is certainly Maori work, but 
I am quite unable to assign any use to it. The upper part of the head of the 
larger figure is hollowed out like a pipe-bowl. It is 17 inches high. 

The remaining objeft is a kind of carved adze-handle, 12 inches in length. 

Fig. 3. 

Handle of a Stone Adze or Weapon. 

This, like Fig. i, is of great age and repute. It belongs to a leading Native 
family at Turanga, and is reputed to have belonged, m ancient times, to Hine 

Fig. 4. 
Stone Adze in Carved Handle. 

For this fine example of a stone tool, or weapon, with its boldly carved handle, 
I am indebted to Major General Robley (author of a work on Moko, or the tattoomg 
of the Maori), whose mterest in Maori matters has been of great assistance to me 
in procuring photographs of specimens m bLnglish colleaions, and in permitting the 
numerous treasures of his own private colleaion to be photographed for this work. 


F'i^. 1. 

IPig. 2. 


Fi^. 3. 

256 Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Two Eel = killers and a Fern = root Qrubber. 

The upper and elaborately-carved specimen was found by Major-General 
Robley in an old colle61ion of New Zealand weapons, and is evidently an old and 
valued specimen of an eel-killer for striking eels in swamps or in shallow water. 
The second specimen is described at page igo. The third is an implement used 
for extratting the fern-root from the soil after the ground has been broken up by the 
ko, or digging-stick. 

The carved specimen is 2 feet 4 inches long. 

Fig. 2. 

A Pohatiti, or Package of Preserved Mutton Birds. 

This poha shows the method in which the Maoris of the south pack up the 
partly cooked birds which are to be transported to remote settlements, or to be 
stored for future use. The outer covering is made of the bark of the totara 
(Podocarpus totara). The poha vary in size, some being as much as a man can 
carry. When sent as presents, they were frequently decorated with bunches of 
ornamental feathers. The l.-ete or basket is made of thin strips of the leaf of 
the phormhmi, or New Zealand flax. 

Fig. 3. 

Cultivating Implement (Tima). 

A wooden hoe or cultivator made of hard wood. It is well adapted for the 
loosening of the ground in the plantations for the removal of weeds. It was 
necessarily used when in a squatting position. The specimen is from a settlement 
near Wairoa, in Hawke's Bay. The native name is tuna. 

Fig. 4. 

Four Larg'e Digging Implements (Ko). 

These are ordinary specimens of the ko, the chief agricultural implement used 
by the Natives. The specimen shown sideways has a step or hamarurii very well 
designed to assist in the forcing of the staff into the ground. In the specimen 
figured from the British Museum colleftion, and in many other instances, the strain 
of the leverage is very great on the lashings. 

The specimens are from my own and Dr. Hocken's coUeftion, and came from 
the north-eastern part of the North Island. 

The length of the longest is 8 feet 6 inches. 


I"i^. 2. 

E*!}*. 4. 

258 Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Bird-snares (Mutu-kaka) from Waikare=moana. 

The three snares here shown are arranged on the perches, so that when the 
bird aUghts the long cord is smartly pulled, and the noose (tohe), which now hangs 
loosely on each side of the perch, is drawn tightly against the projection, and 
entraps the legs of the bird. A description, with the names of the various parts, 
is given at page 218. 

The specimens are in my own colle6tion. 

Eel-killer and Agricultural Tools. 

This eel-killer was dug up in a peat swamp at Te Rapa, Waikato. The 
implement with it is a koko, or small wooden spade, used in cultivating the taro 
plant (Colocasia). This was found in a peat swamp near Hamilton. The broad 
spade-like implement, together with the one at the side, was also found in a swamp 
in the Lower Waikato Distrift. They were probably used in cultivating the 
kumara or taro. 

Auckland Museum. 

) « • > ( 

Fig. 3. 

Two Tinmi, or Snare = perches for Pigeons. 

The method of catching pigeons (Carpophaga) by means of these perches and 
snares is given at page 212. 

The specimens figured are from W'aikare-moana. 


Fig. 1. 

I^ig. 3. 

Carved Pare, or Door Ornament. Berlin Museum. 


Two Taiaha and a Korupe, or Gable Ornament. 

The taiaha have the feather decorations and the tufts of dog hair Page 175. 

Shell Trumpet with Carved Wooden Mouthpiece. 

The cord by which it is carried is ornamented with the feathers 
of the kakapo (Stringops) — a ground parrot. This specimen is in 
the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, and was obtained from the 
Hawke's Bay Distridl .... .... .... .... Page 192. 

Baskets (Kete) and Implements for Cultivating the Ground .... Page 193. 

The Step (Hamaruru) of a Ko, or Digging Implement. 

This example is made of stone, and is beautifully finished. It 
was dug up near Kawhia, on the west coast of the North Island of 
New Zealand. It is now m the jpolleftion of Mr. E. Craig, of 
Auckland .... ■••• •••• ■■■• •••■ Page 200. 

Ornamental Carving, from a Specimen in the Berlin Museum .... Page 201. 

Diagrams of Traps for Bush Rats used in the Urewera Country, in the 

North Island of New Zealand .... .... .... •■■• Page 202. 

26.2 List of Illustrations in the Text. 

Group of Maori Weapons, with Calabaslies (TahaJ, for containing 
Preserved Pigeons, or other Birds. 

In the centre of the group may be seen a beautiful specimen of 
a bone tewhatewha with the attached bunch of feathers. This 
weapon was dug up at the Gate Pa, having been buried with one of 
the chiefs slain there .... .... .... .... Page 223. 

A Whistle used by a Leader for making Signals to his Followers in Battle. 
From a specimen in the British Museum. 
Length, 6^ inches. .... .... .... .... Page 225. 

A small Carving Chisel (probably of greenstone) mounted in the original 

From a specimen in the British Museum. 

Length, 8 inches .... .... .... .... Page 235. 

A Taha, or Calabash, for Birds Preserved in Fat (see p. 213). .... Page 236. 

This specimen is of great age, and is covered with two or three 
flax kete, or bags, to prote6l the brittle calabash. On the top is 
fastened a carved mouthpiece cut from a piece of wood (matai). 
This prevents the mouth of the calabash being injured when the 
hand is put in to extraft the birds. A wooden frame with four legs 
is attached to make a stand for it. Numerous cords are attached 
to the upper rim of this in the form of loops, so that the whole may 
be carried from place to place. 

Digging Implement (Ko). Auckland Museum. 

One of these is placed sideways, so as to show the carved foot- 
rest .... .... .... .... .... Page 237. 

Carved Pare, or Door Ornament. Berlin Museum .... .... Page 261. 

Fighting Weapons of Black Stone (Onewa.) Canterbury Museum .... Page 263. 

Carved Tewhatewha in the Collection of Mr. A. Thomson, Dunedin.... Page 265. 

Carved Step of Ko, or Digging Implement. British Museum .... Page 266. 

Drill for Boring Holes (Tuiri, Tuwhiri, or Pirori). (For a description 

of this Drill, see page igg) .... .... ,.., .... Page 267. 

^I\i)l<l \kt 


Fighting Weapons of Blacli Stone (Onewa). Canterbury Museum, 

Carved Ti'ivhalcwiia. 


Plate XXVI I.- 




2 . 

Plate XXVIII. 







Plate XXIX. 







Plate XXX. 



Plate XXXI.- 









Plate XXXII. 





Plate XXXIII. 









-Colleftion of Taiaha. 
-Heads of Taiaha. 

-Portions of Carved Spears. 

-Group of TeivJiatcwha. 

-The Heads of two Tcivhatcu'lm. 

-Three Spears in the British Museum Collection. 

-Two Pouwhenua and two Kakaroa. 

-Three Tomahawks with Bone Handles (patiti). 

-War Trumpet and Weapons in the Colonial Museum, 
Fig. 2. — Native using the Kotaha and Kopere. 

-Two Ornamented Stone Adzes with Carved Handles, 

and Stone and Greenstone Mere. 
-Greenstone M,erc found in Otago. 

-Three Stone Merc of unusual shape from North Otago. 
-Greenstone Mere. British Museum. 

-Two Hoeroa. 

-Colledion of Bone Merc of various forms. 

-Colleftion of Wooden Hand Clubs. 
-Carved Wooden Hand Club. 
-A Wooden Club. British Museum. 
-A Carved Wooden Club. 


List or Specimens Figured in the Plates. 

Plate XXXIV.— Fig. i 

Fig. 2 

Fig- 3 

Fig. 4 

Plate XXXV.— Fig. i 

Fig. 2 

Fig. 3 
Fig. 4 
Plate XXXVI.— Fig. i 
Fig. 2 
Fig. 3 
Fig. 4 

Plate XXXVII. 

-Fig. I 
Fig. 2 
Fig. 3 

—Shark-toothed Knives. British Museum. 
— Shark-toothed Knife. New Plymouth. 
— Carved Handle of a Maripi. Auckland Museum. 
—Wooden Truncheon, from the VVaikato District. 
— Carved Handle for a Stone Adze. 

— Carved Handle for an Adze, and two other Specimens 
from the British Museum Colleftion. 

— Handle of a Stone Adze. 
-Stone Adze in Carved Handle. 
-Two Eel-killers and a Fern-root Grubber. 
-A Pohatiti, or Package of Preserved Mutton Birds. 
-Cultivating Implement (Tima). 
-Four large Digging Implements (Ko). 

-Bird Snares. Waikare-moana. 
-Eel-killers and Agricultural Tools. 
-Snare Perches for Pigeons. 

Carved Step of Ko, or Digging Implement. British Museum. 

iMaimu Ak'I' 


Drill for Boring Holes. Urewera Country. 

(Sec i>a.'^\- I'.l'.)). 







Registrar of the University of Otago. 


189 9. 




Making a Flax Mat (Ruataluina). 




IN the beautiful land of the Aotea-roa, the Maori found provided a plant which 
served him almost as well as the ante and palms of his fatherland. In his 
ingenious and industrious hands it clothed him with mats and garments of 
bewildering variety, and so entered into his daily life that one of the early Maori 
visitors to England, when he found that the New Zealand flax did not grow there, 
wondered how it was possible to live in a land so unfortunate. From the records 
of voyagers and from native traditions, we know that, even in the long ago, the 
fibre of the Phorininiii (harakekc) was skilfully prepared and manufactured into 
all sorts of articles. ' For the mats of people of rank specially-sele61:ed varieties 
were cultivated and prepared with infinite labour until the resulting fibre was as 
soft and lustrous as silk. Naturally, a fibre so abundant and so useful speedily 
attraaed the attention of civilised visitors, and a trade rapidly sprang up all along 
the eastern and southern coasts of the North Island. Vessels came to trade 
weapons and trinkets for cargoes of the new fibre. Seeing the desire of the foreigner 
for this natural produd of their land, the chiefs kept their people busy from dawn 
to dark prepanng the bales of flax that were to procure for them arms and powder 

272 The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 

for offensive and defensive warfare. Colonisation followed in the wake of the trade 
thus gradually established ; but, although the fibre is admittedl}' a valuable one, 
a suitable method of preparing it for general purposes is still sought for, and the 
industry has languished.* 

It is, however, not necessary to go into the reasons for this, but only to note 
the manner in which the primitive New Zealander dealt with the material. To 
prepare the fibre, the entire and perfeft leaves were cut from the plant with a 'sharp- 
edged shell, generally in the winter season. The outer decayed, or withered, leaves 
were cdM&d pakawha;\ the next leaves, imika ; and the heart leaves of the fan-like 
growth, rito. The flower stalk was called korari, and when old and dry made an 
excellent float, when bound together in bundles ; so that, with a bundle of these 
under each arm, a person would find no difficulty in supporting himself in the water. 
A quantity of the muka being cut, it is bound up in a bundle and taken home. 
The leaves are then scraped with the sharp edge of a shell— generally a mussel 
shell (Mytilus). It is not every shell that will do ; those with a straight edge being 
preferred. A shell will not last more than two or three days ; it then gets too smooth 
to strip off the outside, and is used only for scraping off the fragments left when 
stripping. The dressed flax used for the finer mats is carefully prepared, and kept 
for years to improve its colour and texture. The fibre is soaked in running water 
for about four days, and then it is beaten ; and this process is repeated until the 
required softness is attained. 

In preparing flax for the finer purposes, the Natives seleft clean unspotted 
leaves of a year or eighteen months' growth, and use the upper portion only, 
cutting ofi" the leaf about six inches below the point where the two blades adhere 
together, rejeaing the coloured edges and also the keel. They strip the fibre 
(hangu, or haro) from the upper surface only, cutting the underside across, and then, 
with the round edge of a mussel shell, tear up the whole row of upper fibres, 
bringing away the cuticle also, which has to be removed afterwards. After 
stripping the upper (or right) side it was well scraped with the edge of the shell to 

Npw zliiS^^'J^^^'^'r+l*'"" !^ *? ^}^ '^''""'^^ °^ *'"^ various varieties recos?nised by the Natives in different parts of 
to LrlfamiV fr, ?s7i '^f^''\°^ preparing the fibre, is given in the " Report of the Fl»x Commission," presented 

never IppUef to'^xJressedXx^''^ Superstitions of the New Zealanders," p. 206, 185G. On the East Coast, muka is 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 273 

remove as much of the cuticle as possible ; and when a small hank of twenty or a 
dozen leaves had been finished, it was thrown into a tub of water to be kept moist 
until a sufficient quantity was ready to be taken down to a running stream, where 
it was washed and scraped with the shell over and over again, till all the cuticle, 
gum, &c., had been removed, when it was hung up to dry and bleach, and after- 
wards worked and twisted with the hand.* It is then known as ivhitaii,^ hitau, or 

■ The observant and discriminating powers of the old Maori are well shown 
when one examines the long list of some 50 or 5o kinds of flax known to them, and 
notices that the various qualities and strengths were all recognised and allotted to 
suitable and specific purposes. 

Although the harakeke, or Phormhim, was the most abundant fibre plant, the 
leaves of the Freycinctia, or kiekie, were extremely useful, not only for coarse garments 
but for floor mats or sleeping mats. The leaves of the Cordyline— the so-called 
" cabbage tree " of New Zealand — were likewise employed for many purposes ; one 
species, Cordyline indivisa, or toi, being especially valued in the mountainous portion 
of the Tuhoe country at the back of Lake Waikaremoana, as only a very little 
Phormhim is found in that area, and that of an inferior quality. Besides these 
fibres, it is certain that up to recent times the ante (Broussonnetia) was cultivated in 
many of the settlements, and the papery bark used for ornament, in the same 
way as the thin streamers prepared from the inner bark of the Pimelea arenaria 
(autetaranga) ; this was also in olden times woven in the belts of chiefs. Another 
inner bark used in the present day for plaiting into ropes and cords is that of the 
Plagianthtis, or ribbon wood (whawwhi). This lacebark (hoihere) is used in thin 
bands as a head-dress ; and the Rev. T. G. Hammond informs me that he has 
seen at Hokianga a carved bone pahi. used to give a fancy pattern to these bands. 

From the records of Cook and others we can gather that in his time the 
principal varieties of garments now available for study were in use in his time ; but 
there is one garment which he mentions in one or two places that I have been 
unable to trace, although I have a note of its existence as late as 1870. When in 

* Col. Haultain to Flax . Commissioners, "Flax Com. Eeport, 1S71," p. 2.5, G. No. 4. See also Wakefield 
"Adventures in N.Z., 1845," p. 61. 

t Whiiau is generally applied to fibre prepared from the varieties called tihore and ial-irHau. 

274 The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 

Hicks Bay in November, 1769, a Maori offered one of Cook's officers a haahow* for 
barter, but did not deliver it when the equivalent was given to him. For this 
he was shot.f Cook mentions this garment again, and calls it a mat or coat with 
sleeves. Again, in Dusky BayJ he met a man who took off his Jiahoii, or coat. I 
find another reference to it in a parliamentary paper. § " Whitiora or Wiremu te 
Kumete . . . was dressed in a Native mat made with sleeves like a coat, and 
called a kouru. . . . He was commander at Rangiriri." 

The great number of names recorded of the kinds of cloaks and mats, and the 
differences due to various localities, make it impossible to describe even a small 
proportion of them, more especially as no two would prove exaftly alike if carefully 
examined. The only way to give some idea of their character being to describe 
some of the more marked varieties. 

The process of manufafturing the mats and garments {whatu puweru), in which 
the Maori excelled all the other Polynesians, is more hand-plaiting than weaving 
(the loom, distaff, or spinnmg-wheel being quite unknown). It has been described 
more or less briefly by several writers || who have seen the Natives at work; but 
in recent times very few mats have been made, and the old knowledge has 
pra6lically died out. It is, therefore, with great satisfaction that I avail myself 
of permission to extraft from a most valuable and interesting paper by Mr. Elsdon 
Best, the particulars he has gathered of the secrets of the art of weaving from its 
last home in the mountain fastnesses of the Urewera country — the home of Tuhoe, 
where some of the elder people still retain much of the old wisdom and knowledge 
handed down by their ancestors.^} 

The flax fibre having been prepared in the usual way, and having acquired 
the necessary softness (ngahmgaku) is ready for use, but if a handsome garment is 
required, some of the flax will require dyeing to give a variety of colour. The flax 

* Kakahu (?). 

t Cook (Hawkswovth), Vol. iii., 1774, pp. 116, 272, 273. 

X "Cook's Voyages," Vol. i., p. 84. 

SoutJn^Ss^^TlXm- ^"'^'^ ''''' '° '"^ '^^*^*°' ''''■ ^- ''' P- '■■ J-- H. of Rep. Extract fron. DaUy 

inH.lJ!^?!^m^at^:?'^^?p.^'^«i:^:^;:;I-:^^ ^3.54. I> two visits to N.Z. 

of PreUnL' DveiA^'^^^rTH^wI* -^^ "'''•'*" ^ZV ^''^"^ °° ^^'^ Clothing of the Ancient Maori. Their Knowledge 
AnfieXcerfmS!;d sLy.!w-"^ ^fT\I^^'^^- *°^^*^'*'" ^'^^ ^«™« '^<=°°™* °f ^ress and Ornaments, and the 
Ancient Ceremonies and Superstitions of the Whare pora." by Elsdon Best, will appear in Vol. xxxii. of - The Trans, of 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 275 

fibre takes the dye very well, and the Maori has two very good and fast dyes that 
have been used from time immemorial, and which give a good black and a red- 
brown. The black dye is still commonly used for both dressed and undressed flax. 
The red dye, however, is less common, for two reasons: because European dyes are 
easily obtained and give a more brilliant colour, and because the making of the 
taniko, or ornamental border work in which it is principally used, is now little 
pra6lised. There are two processes through which the fibre has to pass in dyeing 
black. It is first soaked in water in which the bark of hinatt (Eleocarpus dentatus), 
or towai (Weinmannia raccmosa), has been placed. The bark is colledled from 
these trees and broken up on a suitable stone with a wooden mallet made of 
maire wood, till it is all bruised and powdered. The stone pounders frequently 
seen in colleftions are pahis {tiiki nmka), made for beating the fibres of flax on a 
flat oval stone, and are made of a black volcanic stone (kara and uri) which has 
a rough open grain. In some localities these pahis are of a very fine-grained dark- 
coloured stone, highly finished. (The fibres for the warp threads (io) of a mat are 
treated in this way). When thoroughly crushed the bark is put into a wooden 
trough or bowl ; on this is placed a layer of fibre, then another layer of bark and 
a layer of fibre till the trough is full. It is then filled with water, and the fibre 
left to steep in the dye thus formed for twelve or sixteen hours. When taken out 
the fibre feels sticky, and is of a dirty brown colour. The fibre is then steeped 
for twenty-four hours in a peculiar black mud, such as is found in a white pine 
swamp, and in which a reddish scum is seen on the top of the mud. Such swamps 
are famous places, and have been used for this purpose for centuries. When 
removed from the mud and washed, the fibre is found to be a beautiful black colour. 
The colour is a very permanent one, but it seems to destroy the flax ; as in very 
old mats the black portions fall into dust, the black being much more brittle than 
the rest of the mat. 

To dye flax the red-brown colour is an operation demanding more skill and 
knowledge. The dye was obtained from the bark of the toatoa ( Phyllocladus ) or 
tanekaha. The bark is broken up and prepared in the usual manner. A separate 
fire is then kindled away from the settlement, and care must be taken that this 
special fire is not kindled from one at which food has been cooked. The bark is 
placed in a wooden trough or bowl (oko), and water being poured in, it is boiled by 

276 The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 

dropping in red-hot stones. After boiling for some time the fibre is put in and 
boiled. Meanwhile a bed of clean hot wood-ashes is prepared. The fibre is taken 
out of the oko and spread on the ashes, care being taken to keep the fibre moving 
about in the hot ashes, to avoid scorching, by means of a stick. This process {hai 
pupuri t te whero koi mawhe) is to set the dye and to prevent it fading. The fibre 
is then boiled again in the dye for about ten minutes, after which it is hung up to 
dry, and is then ready for use. Mr. Best notes that the trees from which the bark 
is obtained are not plentiful in Tuhoeland, and mentions two trees that have been 
noted for ages— one, Te Rangt-tu-ke, a toatoa tree on the Tahuroa Range, and Te 
kiri koro-kai-whenua at Te Weraiti ; from these trees only the descendants of those 
ancestors after whom the trees are named may gather bark. A curious old-gold 
colour is made from the bark of the karamii (Coprosvia), and a brighter yellow from 
raurekau, another species of Coprosma. 

With these colours the weaver produces some very artistic work, marked by 
very definite conventions and a just sense of contrast and proportion. The term 
used by them, hae or wana, seems to bear this meaning. Mr. Best says, " When 
speaking of making a tu muka, Te Whatu said, ' Let us have three colours; two are 
not enough.' Kaore e hae, they will not hae." Mr. Colenso has written at length on 
the national taste concerning colour,* and of the justness of their taste in contrasts. f 

The instruction in the art of weaving and making kakahu and weaving generally 
was always an important duty of the tohunga, and a house called the whare pora was 
set aside in each settlement for the teaching and conserving the art of weaving. 
Mr. Best has obtained the following particulars of the process of initiating a tauira, 
or novice, who is desirous of entering the whare pora to be taught the various arts 
pertaining to the manufacture of clothing. The services of a tohunga must first be 
obtained who is acquainted with the necessary karakia (invocation, incantation, 
or ritual). It is not necessary that he should be a tohunga of high rank. The 
novice will then say to the mohio (person of knowledge), "■ Puhatia ake ahau ki to 
maramara he hiahia nokii " — a strange expression which applies to a peculiar custom. 

* Colenso, " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xiv., p. 50, who also mentions the method of preparing the red dye. Both 
methods are also described by G. Bennett in his " Observations on the Coniferous Trees of N.Z." in the " N.Z. Journal," 
1841, p. 81 (London, 1832). 

t They also used the bark of the tutu (Coriaria ruscifolia) to obtain a blue-blaok, which was sometimes used for 
fancy and ornamental work, and in weaving graceful little baskets for a first-born or beloved child ; it had a very 
peculiar tint. — Colenso, " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xiv., p. 61. 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 277 

The tohunga and the tauira (pupil) are alone in the whare pora ; no others are 
admitted. The pupil seats herself before the turuttiru. These are two sticks about 
an inch in diameter and four feet in length. They are stuck in the ground some 
distance apart, according to the size of the garment to be woven. The upper ends 
of the sticks often rest against the roof of the house, near the wall. Sometimes, 
when weaving particular kinds of mats, four short turuturu are used. This is all the 
frame used by the Maori weaver. To these two sticks is attached the tawhiu, which 
is the first aho or weft thread ; this thread is then made tight, and the sticks firmly 
fixed. On this first transverse cord are placed the zo, or vertical strands,* which are 
suspended from the taivhm and nho, and hang down to the floor ; in the larger and 
coarser mats a portion also extends above the tawhiu, which is afterwards plaited in 
various patterns to form the upper edge or collar of the mat. Thus the work is 
held by the tawhiu and braced by the turuturu. The cross threads, aho (weft) are 
woven from left to right across the frame. f Each aho is composed of four twisted 
threads (miro). Two of these are passed on each side of the io, being woven in 
and out, over and under, in a very dexterous manner, and forming, if the aho are 
not too far apart, a very close, neat, and strong garment. The io are not twisted. 

The first aho to be woven next the tawhiu is the aho tapu, or sacred weft thread. 
It is imbued with the sacredness of the house, the weaver, and the various 
ceremonies. The tauira being seated before the turuturu, the stick on the right 
hand is the sacred turuturu, the turuturu on the left hand is noa (common, devoid of 
tapti), and is known as Rua.\ Before the pupil are spread out or suspended various 
garments of fine design, woven by a master hand in fine patterns of dyed fibre. It 
is desired that the pupil may be taught to do such fine work as that before her, that 
the knowledge, taste, dexterity, and power be forced into her during one lesson, as 
it were, and not drawn out through a long series of lessons extending over a 
considerable period of time. They fully believed that the potent karakia of the 
priest could compass this. In order to do this, when the pupil has taken in her hand 
some prepared fibre, the tohunga recites the karakia known as '^ Moremore puwha." 

* Also called whenu.—(See T. H. Smith, "Trans. N.Z. Institute," Vol. xxvi., p. 431.) 

t Dr. Marshall saw in Taranaki two ^irls working at a mat, upon the same frame, one standing at one end, the 
other at the other, one working left-handed and one working right-handed. — " Two Visits to N.Z in H.M.S. 'Alligator,' 
1834," p. 39. The rest of the description agrees with that of Mr. Best. 

J The name of Rua is also sometimes applied to the aho tapu. Bua is the patroness of the whare jiora. 


The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 


(H poua ana tena i te tangata.) 
Poua mai te pou, ko te pou-e 
Ko whaka hihiri, ko whakahohoro 
Tu-mata-ihi, Ttt-mata-whare 
Tuhia mai te aho kia kawhitiwhiti. 
Kia taia hohoro mo te oti wawe 
Wawe In nmga, wawe hi raro. 
Wawe Id te oti, te kikuhilcu. 
Oti tatahi, oti hi te wkare. 
Rum te puke 
Puke-i-ahua, Puke-i-apoa, 
Apoa hi te mngi 
Whanui ki te whenua. 
E oti, E oti-e ! 

As the priest finishes the karakia the pupil stoops forward and bites the upper part 
of the sacred turutum. She then takes the prepared flax she has been holding, and 
weaves the aho tapu across the frame. She has now woven the sacred weft, and 
come under the influence of the priestly invocation. She is a daughter of Rua 
and Hine-nga-roa. She then goes on with the making of the mat until a few inches 
have been made, copying one of the patterns before her. The piece is, however, 
never finished. It is her pattern piece. The next ceremony to be performed is 
whakanoa — to take the tapu off the pupil, her work, and its surroundings. This 
is known as hurihanga takapau (the turning of the takapati, or floor mat) ; but this is 
a figurative expression, the tapu itself being the takapau. This important invocation 
having been repeated by the priest, the pupil takes up some puwha* and eats or 
bites it and hands it to the priest to eat. Some authorities say that the puwha is 
placed upon the garment, which serves as the pattern, so that when she takes it and 
bites it, the desired pattern may be clear to her and thoroughly understood. 
Another karakia used in the above ceremony was known as a pou. It was used 
to force home the newly-acquired knowledge, and render it firm and lasting. In all 
such initiations, whether of the ivhare pora, the wharc mairc, or whare mata, the first 
task of the priest was to recite an invocation to render the pupil clear headed 
and quick to grasp the new knowledge — to endow him with a receptive mind and a 
retentive memory. 

* Puwha. — Some say that this is the common edible puwha that is used; others that the term is applied to the 
kohuTcohu and other small plants. Others, again, say that it is a gcucric term for whatever is used as the sacred food 
in the ceremony, and that its use is to cause the pupil to retain the knowledye imparted to him or her, and to assist 
the Pou invocation in driving home the lesson. 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 279 

Mr. Best has also an interesting discussion on the tutelary deity of the 
whare pora. Rua also seems to have been the patron of wood carvers, having 
been taught by the Tini-o-te Hakuturi— the wood elves of far Hawaiki— who took 
their patterns from the spiders' webs. 

Of the origin of weaving, Pio, of Ngati-Awa, says : " The first of our ancestors 
to undertake the art of weaving clothing was Hine-rauamoa, who was the wife of 
Tane-nui-a-rangi. She wore the garments known as kuaira,* tawhira, maro-waiapu, 
huna, and tawhara-nui. That was the commencement of weaving among men. 
Amongst those ancient garments, Pio mentions " Te Kiri Tane," or tree bark. 
This may possibly be a reference to the ante of Polynesia. 

Those who have passed through the whare pora will, if shown a new pattern of 
weaving, faithfully reproduce that pattern on the first trial. Should the weaver but 
obey the rules of the whare pora, she can make no error. The gods are behind her. 

Amongst the rules to be striftly followed were these : — In making the finer 
kinds of garments (kakahu) and the ornamented taniko borders that adorned them, 
the work could only be carried on in daylight and under a roof. So soon as the 
sun set the weaver would release the right hand (, and roll or cover up 
the work until next day. Common garments (puwerti) might be woven at night ; 
and the io, aho, or hukahuka, might be prepared, if necessary, in the evening, 
Should this rule be broken, the weaver would lose all knowledge of the art : any 
garment that might be made would be an evil omen (tatai mate) and a tupo. 

When engaged in weaving, should a stranger approach the weaving house, the 
weaver will bid him welcome, but, at the same time, grasps in her right hand the 
sacred turuturu, and lays it down or leaves it at an angle across the work. If the 
guest is from afar, the garment is taken off the turuturu and put aside. If it is a 
large party that arrives, and they enter the house, the weaving is rolled up and put 
away. If a chief from a neighbouring village arrives, and should the weaver lean 
the turuturu over without detaching the work thereupon, that is a hukiora : she has 
saved herself from the aroakapa, or evil omen. As the chief seats himself, he will 
say, " Erea your turuturu :' Should a close acquaintance chance upon a woman 

* Of the Tcuaira, Pio says.: " The Tiixaira was made of hum, hum (hair, fur, or feathers of a very auoient tribe of 
remote times, of the realm of Mataora). It may have been feathers of birds. It was used for clothing. 

28o The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 

weaving, such is not an evil omen for her; however, the intruder will not remain. 
It is an evil omen for the weaver to leave an aho incomplete at sundown, when she 
leaves off work. This is termed a tahakura (kua tahakura to whatu). That garment 
will never be finished by the weaver, for each succeeding aho will prove to be short, , 
and will not run out to the margin. Some say that if an aho turn out too short, 
that the result is a pou aru — that is, either the woman or her husband will shortly 
die. Should a person go behind a garment that is being woven — that is, on the 
opposite side to the weaver — and look at the garment, that is also an aroakapa. In 
preparing miro threads for the aho of fine garments, it is an aitiia (evil omen) to 
throw away the hungahunga or tow into the fire- — all the knowledge of the weaver 
would perish. Weaving of fine garments must invariably be carried on under 
cover, although it is quite sufficient to have only a rough shelter of branches over 
the work. Should the aho become entangled and knotted, it is a sign that visitors 
are coming — they will arrive to-morrow. Should a turuturu fall without being 
touched (na te rae tangata i turaki), the brow of approaching man has overthrown 
it — visitors are coming. 

Men sometimes entered the whare para as students, and passed through the 
same ceremonies as the women. They generally turned their attention to the 
whakairo~thz.t is, the weaving of the ornamental borders for mats, in various 
patterns and colours. 

Two kinds of threads are used in weaving — the miro and karitre. The miro is 
simply a piece of the fibre twisted by being rolled under the hand. The fibre is 
placed across the leg just above the knee, and held by the left hand. The right 
hand is placed upon it, and thrust outwards, thus rolling and twisting, the fibre 
beneath it. The outward movement is called a main. The same movement is then 
repeated, but backwards— i.e., towards the body. This is called a katau. The two 
rollings complete the process, and the miro is complete. The word miro is used 
both as a verb and a noun, as also is the term kariire. The karure is formed by 
twisting two miro together, the result being a very strong thread. The thrums 
for a korowai mat are usually karure. 

Fine cloaks of dressed fibre, such as aromd, paepaeroa, hihi-ma, korowai, and the 
finer maro, are termed kakahu ; but the rough cloaks, formed of inferior material. 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 281 

and often covered with short pieces (hukahuka) of unscraped Hax (harakekej, never 
received that name. Cloaks of this description are known by the generic name of 
Mai, though they include different kinds, such as the tiiiiu or whakatipu, the por a, the 
mangaeka, the tatara, &c. 

The rough serviceable cloak formed from the leaves of the kiekie, or flax, are 

known 3.5 pake;* while those made of the fibre of the toi, or broad-leaved cabbage 

tree, are styled toi. The fibre of this plant is m'uch coarser than that of flax, and 

much resembles, in colour and appearance, the cocoanut fibre seen in floor mats. 

In making capes from the leaf, only enough leaves are cut for one day's weaving ; for 

if left longer they cannot be prepared, as they dry rapidly, and the vegetable matter 

cannot be disengaged from the fibre (ko te para kaorc c pahuhu). Toi capes are dyed 

black when finished, and will remain waterproof for many years. The mid-rib 

(tuaka) is taken out of the toi leaves, as it is too hard to work, after which the 

leaves are beaten to soften them, and to disengage the para or vegetable matter. 

These fine leaves are often seen eight inches wide. The hukahuka of this cape are 

strips of the toi leaf, not bruised or beaten, or they would not lie close and flat, but 

curl up. 

In Central Otago shoulder capes were sometimes made by fastening on tussock 
grass in small tufts, as pulled up (the roots being cut off), to a flax foundation, 
the root end of the grass being uppermost. There is a specimen of this kind in the 
Otago Museum. A curious shoulder cape of the ordinary flax ground-work, but 
covered neatly with carefully-sekaed fragments about four inches long of Lycopodium 
denstim, dyed two shades of red-brown in a plain pattern, is in the Colonial Museum. 
It is probably from the Taupo distria. Dr. Hocken has in his colleaion a fragment 
of a very curious mat found in a cave in Central Otago, on the property of Mr. William 
Bennett. It is but a small fragment of a coarse woven mat of partly dressed flax, 
resembling very coarse cocoanut matting. The dressing of the flax being very 
incomplete, the golden hue of the surface of the dried flax-leaf still appears in some 
of the thicker shreds. The warp is very thick (9™™), and roughly plaited or inter- 
twined with stiff, white albatross' feathers. Just enough of the shaft of the feather 

^Ir Colen^o says of this cloak-" Their more common and daily rough shaggy dress mats, though anythiri^ 
but ornamental we'o ;x^:edingly useful, and excellently adapted for P>^eservinghe,r healthy B-nf --terp-of^ 
mat kept them dry and warm in the severest weather; being loosely worn, it al owed of free ventilation , and being 
rough, it kept up that slight irritation of the skin which to them was indispensable. 

282 The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 

is twisted in to hold it firmly ; the rest of the feather sticks out at different angles. 
In some of the strands, feathers of a brown weka (Ocydronms) are included. The aho, 
or weft, which binds the coarse warp together is 2^"'"- in diameter, and the knot 
used is very curious.* Time and insefts have destroyed many of the feathers, leaving 
only, in some parts, a fine down of a grey colour. Together with this venerable 
fabric was an inner wrapper made of the skins of Ocydromus sewn together. The 
skins were well prepared and dressed, being probably rubbed with wood ashes, and 
are still covered in part with feathers of a dark variety of the weka (Ocydromus). 
In the bare part the pterylosis showed plainly, and, with the small apertures through 
which the tiny wings had been removed, completed the identification. The edges 
of these skins — five in number — were folded down about an eighth-of-an-inch, and 
oversewn from the back with thin twisted flax twine. Over one of these seams 
on the front I found a narrow strip of skin, placed apparently to cover the join, very 
much decayed, three inches long by a quarter-of-an-inch wide but still carrying a 
dark-grey down, and five or six double-shafted feathers of the moa. They were 
much moth-eaten, and became detached from the skin during examination. The 
fragment is certainly somewhat microscopical, yet it has a great interest in being, so 
far as I am aware, the only piece of 7«ort-skin yet recognised as occurring on a 
mat or covering. 

Another flax mat from the same distridt has been for some years in the Otago 
Museum. The general appearance is not very different from that of a good kaitaka 
flax mat from the North Island, the warp-strands being close together — about seven 
to the inch — and the woof-cables at about the usual distance. Now, the most 
valued robes of the Maori in olden time were those adorned with narrow strips of the 
skin of the dog with the hair attached. The strips on the borders of the mat were 
fastened at one end or at the middle, and hung loosely, forming a handsome fringe ; 
those on the body of the mat were placed along a warp-strand, and were fastened 
down by the weft-cables, and kept in position. 

In the mat under notice the upper and lower edges had had a fringe of strips 
of dogskin, with black, reddish-brown, and white hairs twisted in ; but the body 
of the mat was covered with thin carefully-cut strips, four inches, five inches, or 
six mches long, of birdskins. Little indication was left of the plumage on these 

* See pi. 52, fig. 8, "Trans. N.Z. Inst,," Vol. xxv. 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 283 

dried and perished strips ; but Dr. Parker, the late Curator of the Otago Museum, 
after a careful microscopical examination, pronounced the strips that he examined 
to have been cut from the skin oi the green parroquet (Plalycercus). 

To give an idea of the amount of work requisite to complete this cloak (the 
fragment which remains measures four feet by five feet), I counted the number 
of strips of skin in a part where they are still pretty perfect, and I find that in 
two and a-half inches (65™"-) there are nine parallel strips of birdskin, with eight 
warp-threads showing between the strips, and so well put in that they appear to run 
continuously from the top to the bottom of the mat. There are no " bias " seams 
visible : these are invariably found in more modern mats, and are intended to shape 
It to fit the shoulders more comfortably. 

The other details of structure are less important, and are probably individual 
peculiarities. Sewn on to the upper portion of this mat, at a place where it was 
much worn, was a very thick and warm flax mat, quite plain, evidently for 
additional warmth to the shoulders. 

If the whole of this mat was covered with the green feathers of the parroquet 
it must have been a very beautiful objedl, rivalling the feather mantles of the 
Hawaiians and Peruvians. I think it probable, however, that other birds may have 
been used, as the thickness of the strips of skin seems to vary. Cook mentions a 
cloak entirely covered with red parrot feathers. 

Both large and small mats, worn over the shoulders, were fastened on the right 
shoulder by mat pins {au or aurci), a bundle of which, made from whales' teeth {mho 
pakake or from boars' tusks), were fastened together by a cord. Some were made 
of wood [manuka or maire), or of the outer rim of the Haliotis. 

The following is a brief description of some of the numerous kinds of mats :— 

Fine Dress Mats (Kakahu). 

Hiiaki.—A mat of the finest flax, with two, or more rarely three, tamko borders at 
the sides and bottom. The most highly valued of the fine flax garments. 

Pakipaki.— Same material. It is like an arontii with tainko on all sides. It has an 
extra whakairo piece woven or fjistened on to the taniko, which piece is 
pakipaki, hence the name of the cloak. 


The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 

^,,o;n«'.— This fine mat was made from carefully-prepared fibre of the best varieties 
of flax. The body of the garment was left the white colour of the bleached 
fibre, and was without thrums {hukahnka). Great care was taken to match 
the exaft colour of the flax, so that the whole of the surface of the cloak 
might be uniform. Mr. Colenso especially notes the keen eye the old 
Maori had for this matter. They were worn by leading chiefs alone. 
They had a wide tamko, or border, woven in tasteful patterns of black, 
white, and red-brown fibres at the bottom, and a similar border, but much 
narrower at the two sides. This appears to be the same as a kaitaka, and, 
if dyed black, was called a waihmau. 

Paepaeroa. The same as the aroniii, being without thrums, but having a wide taniko 

at the two ends as well as at the bottom. In weaving the paepaeroa, the 
taniko was .the first part woven ; but in the aronui it was the last. Such 
garments were called aparua. 

Korohunga. — A fine silky mat with three taniko borders of the same width. 

Parawai. — A large cloak of the same material as the preceding. This word is 
used as including the hiiaki, korohunga, and paepaeroa. The flax {ate wheke) 
used for this class of mat was not beaten with a stone patu {tuki muka). 
Angas* gives this as the name of a mat from the South Island covered 
with strips of dog-skin, but this is an error. 

Parakiri. — The same material. The taniko on the two sides only ; no thrums, no 
taniko on the lower edge (renni). 

The taniko, or ornamented coloured borders, are as a rule woven on after 
the body of the garment is finished. About ten threads are woven at once, 
all of which are mtro except two, which are kariirc '(double threads). These 
karu7'e termed the ngakau, and are used to prevent the piece being woven 
from puckering or becoming irregular (hinarunani).-\ 

TT 1 .. -^"^^s. "Savage Life and Scenes," Vol. i., p. 323. Paratene is also figured in Angas' " Savaee Scenes' 
Vol. u., p. 59, in a cloak of this liind. 

t The Ngati-Kahvmgunu name for this fniii7,-o work is korohunc/au. 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 285 

The following mats are all made with flax beaten out with a patu until it is 
more soft than silky : — 

Korowai.— Fine quality flax, only beaten out with a stone patu to thicken the 
fibre. A fine large cloak generally worn by females. There is no taniko, 
but the white ground is covered more or less thickly with thrums of 
twisted fibre dyed black, held in position by the weft threads. This 
garment is still made. If there are no thrums it is called tahuka. 

Kuiri. — A rare kind of mat with the thrums in squares, arranged in lines or 
diagonally. Only made by Maungapohatu Natives. 

Whakahekeheke. — A similar mat made in bands of black and white, each about three 
inches wide, and the whole uniformly covered with black thrums. 

Hihima. — Same material, but it is entirely white. It has no ianiko or whaLairo, and 
all the thrums are white. If it is all black it is called a ivaihinau. If 
quite plain and unadorned, it was kahn ariarl. 

Korirangi, or Kini kini. — A large mat of finely-dressed flax, thickly adorned with 
chequered black and yellow strings, which being also hard in joints 
(through the leaving on of the skin of the flax) rattled pleasingly with 
every movement of the wearer. 

Pekerangi. — A large shoulder mat, adorned here and there with small tufts of red 
feathers, hair, or wool. 

Feather Cloaks (Kahu). 

The ground-work of a feather cloak is the same as that for a korowai mat ; the 
feathers being secured in their proper places by the aho as the work 
proceeds. In well-made examples the feathers are as regular in position 
as on the bird, and beautiful patterns are produced by a tasteful disposition 
of the feathers available. The most admired are those made from the 
red feathers of the kaka parrot, sometimes arranged in patterns of squares 
or triangles with the white feathers from the pigeon. A magnificent cloak 
is occasionally seen adorned with the feathers from the neck of the pigeon. 
This, when edged with a narrow border alternately of scarlet and white 
feathers, has a very fine appearance, and compares well with the feather- 
covered garments of Hawaii and Peru. The feathers of the kiici are used 

286 The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 

for cloaks, {arikiim) which are highly esteemed. In these the feathers are 
inserted two or three together, and so arranged that when the cloak is 
worn the points of the feathers are upwards, which causes them to fall 
outwards, and gives a thick fur-like appearance to the garment. In the 
other feather cloaks the feathers are inserted in their usual position, and 
lie closely to the kaupapa. In a large kiwi cloak recently made there are 
four stripes about four inches wide from the top to the bottom of the 
feathers of the pure white kiwi. The kiwi feather mats frequently have 
narrow borders of taniko, and a narrow band at the bottom of the red, 
black, and white feathers of the kaka, hii, and pigeon. Cloaks were also 
made covered with the feathers of the albatross {kahtttoroa) . 

Dogskin Cloaks (Kahu Ktiri).* 

These were probably the most highly prized of all the ancient cloaks. Pio of 
Ngati-awa states that the dog possessed by the ancient tribes of New 
Zealand was known as kuri ruarangi. From its skin were made various 
ornamental mats. 

Kahu-waero. — This was the most highly valued ; the cloak was woven of dressed 
fibre, and so thickly covered with white dogstail that the papa of the cloak 
was quite concealed. The hair of these tails was long, and the tails thick 
and bushy. 

Mahiti. — This was of the same material as the kahu-waero ; but the tails were not so 
numerous, being attached at wide intervals. f 

Puahi. — This was made of the skins of white-haired dogs, the skins being cut into 
strips and sewn on to the body of the cloak. 

Topuni.- — This was a war-mat made in the same manner as the puahi, hut of black 
skin. It was the least prized of these cloaks, still all were worn by chiefs 
only. It had a thick shaggy collar of a great number of the thin strips 
of dogskin. The Ihupuktipuku was even more closely woven. 

* Mr. Oolenso has some interesting notes on the hair of the ilaori dog, " Trans. N.Z. Inst ," Vol. xxiv., p. 452. 

The immediate cause of a great war (the Kaihuanga feud), which nearly oxterminated the population of the 
central part of the South Island, arose in consequence of a woman putting on a dogskin mat belonging to the great 
Chief Tamaiharanui, which he had left in charge of a person at WaiUakahi, as anything belonging to so great a chief 
was exceedingly sacred. — A.H.M., Vol. iii., p. 267. 

t A.U.M., Vol. iii, p. 95. 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 287 

Ihupuni. — Was also made of black skins cut in strips and fastened on. 

Tapahu. — A war cloak of dogskin. Used as a protedlion against spear thrusts. 
'^He tapaliu Iraivaru'' is an ancient saying, Irawaru being the tutelary 
deity of dogs. This cloak was formed by sewing together the skin of dogs, 
no flax being used in its construdlion. On the West Coast this kind 
of mat was known by another name — tahi uru* Hunt-hum is the name 
given by Angas.f 

Kahu kekeno, or cloaks made from seal skins, are mentioned in Maori history. 
Rough Cloaks of Inferior Quality (Mai, or Pokeke). 

Pake, Tara, Tatara, Taratara. — A thick, warm cloak, covered with short pieces of 
undressed flax like a timu, sometimes dyed black. These are sometimes 
made very large, and are used for sleeping in. 

Timu or Whakatipu. — This is a rough and serviceable cloak worn over the shoulders 
(as indeed are all mai and pake). They are not long trailing cloaks like 
the kakahu already described, which are often as large as a single blanket. 
They are fastened across the shoulders by a cord which is part of the 
collar of the cape, and are so construfted as to turn rain well. 

The timu is woven of the coarser varieties of flax, and is covered with 
short pieces of undressed flax about three-quarters of an inch wide, which 
. lap- over each other and turn rain as a shingled roof does. The strips 
of undressed flax (harakeke) are about six inches long, and are scraped for 
about one inch in the centre to allow them to be easily bent, and to lie flat 
on the body of the cape. They are inserted under the alio (cross threads) 
as the garment is being made, being held by the aho in the centre, the two 
ends hanging down over the kaupapa. On the top of the cape is a thick 
twist of undyed ivhitau, being the upper ends of the io, from which is 
plaited the whiri (collar). Interwoven with the whin is a cord of fibre 
dyed black, the ends of which hang down at either end and are used to tie 
the cape. The usual size is about four feet by three feet. 

* Diefeenbaoh, "Travels in N.Z.," Vol. ii., pp. 53, 54, 

t Mr. Skinner, of New Plymouth, possesses a very good specimen of this kind of mat, which is .known m that 
part of the country as hurukuri, and he gives the whole history of it in a letter which appears in the " Transactions of 
the N.Z. Institute," Vol. xxiv., p. 544. See also Vol. xxv., p. 500. 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 

A rare kind of cloak is made of the split leaves of a species of mountain 
celmisia, which are called Tikume, or tikumu. It appears to have been made 
in both islands, but few specimens exist.* 

Manaeka (= mangaeka) .^This is a species of timu, but is somewhat more showy, as 
the strips of harakeke {hukahuka) covering it are dyed in various colours— 
usually black and yellow. The name is taken from the yellow hukahuka, 
or strips, which are called mangaeka. The strips are coloured by being 
scraped (ha7mnu) by means of a shell (kuku), and slightly scorched before 
a mass of glowing embers. 

Tihetihe. — Like a timu. 

Kiekie Capes.— Rough but serviceable capes, or shoulder mats, were woven from 
the fibre of the kiekie {Freyanetia) ; but instead of being scraped like the 
flax (Phormium tenax), the leaves of the kiekie had to be put through a 
retting process. They were steeped in water until only the fibre remained. 
The fibre was then worked up. 

Pora, or Tuapora. — A rough cape of harakeke. Rough shoulder cloaks were also 
made of the fibre of the leaves ol the ti, or cabbage tree, the dead leaves 
(kuka) of which were used as aAo and hukahuka. 

Tatara. — A cape of whitau ground-work, covered outside with short hukahuka of 
dried and curled harakeke (undressed flax), which rattles as the wearer 

Pukaha, or Pureke. — This is a very rough cape of inferior whitau. 

Paukii or Pukupuku. — A thick, mat-like cloak, very closely woven, and worn in battle 
as a defence against spear thrusts. Before entering into a fight these 
pauku were soaked in water, which caused the fibre to swell, thus rendering 
it a very fair shield. A warrior would wear two of these mats, thus 
protecting his body against spears or darts [tarcrarcra] thrown by a whip. 

* At one particular place (near Mount Egmont) we met with a substance that appeared like a kidskin, but it 
had so weak a texture that we concluded it was not leather, and were afterwards informed by the Natives that it was 
gathered from some plant called Teegoomme ; one of them had a garment made of it, which looked like their rug 
cloaks. — Parkinson, " Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas," p. 115 ; and see also a note of mine on some prepared 
material found in a cave in Otago, " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xxix., p. 174. 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 289 

Pekerere. — A shoulder cape. Some resemble a pora ; others are closely set outside 
with thick thrums of coarse, roughly-dressed flax like a inai. 

Aprons (Maro). 
Shoulder cloaks, large and small, were the principal clothing of the Maori. Gar- 
ments wherewith to cover the lower limbs were a secondary consideration. 
The rapaki, or kilt, was usually a small mai or piupm. Besides that, 
however, there were different kinds of maro used by males and by females 
The maro may be described as an apron, being much smaller than a rapaki, 
or kilt. Neither did the maro extend round the body, but was either 
drawn between the legs {ka hiiine te maro) and fastened behind to the belt, 
or else two maro were worn, one in front and one behind {tau mua and 
tan muri) ; and the maro-nm, worn by married women, was larger than 
that worn by girls. 

Maro-kopua. — This was a triangular apron or girdle worn by girls of good family. 
It was woven of fine dressed flax fibre, and was adorned with taniko and 
hukahiika (thrums). The desired shape in this maro was attained by 
means of the tihoi or " bias " seams. 

Maro-waiapii. — This was also a woven maro, ornamented with closely-set black 
thrums, and manaeka tufts interspersed. The thrums and the ground-work 
of the maro were of flax, dyed black ; the aha and cords at the two upper 
corners being white. 

Maro-waero.—Th.!?. was a prized maro worn by chiefs only, and was made as a 
kahu-waero, being adorned with dogs' tails. However, Maui is represented 
in story as having stolen his "mother's" maro, or apron, of burnished hair 
from the tail of a dog.* 

Maro-kuta.— This was a small single maro worn by girls, the tau or cord being 
fastened to the belt behind. The maro-kuta was made of a species of 
sedge or coarse swamp grass known as kutakuta or paopao. {He men takiri, 
ka paieretia, ka mahia kai maro mo nga wahine). Two alio, or cross threads, 
were woven across the fibrous paopao to bind it together, the ends hanging 
down loosely as in a /'??//';«. 

* Gi-py, "Pol. INIyth.," 1S85. p 27. 


The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 

Maro-huka. — This is said to have been a 7«aro made of flax fibre. It appears to 
have been worn only by priests, or during certain rites or ceremonies, 
as was the case with the tii-hou. It was worn during the war dance. 

Maro-iuhoti. — This appears to have been a rude maro of leaves of the karamuramu, 
or other shrubs. It was worn by priests during ceremonies of various 
kinds. It was also known as a maro-taua. 

Tau-maro. — This was not a woven maro, but merely a bunch of flax tow or refuse 
[himga hunga) worn by young girls. 

Kilts, or Waist Mats. 

Kini-kini. — This is a kilt made of long strips of green flax, which are scraped about 
every alternate inch and also on one side, so that, when dry, they curl into 
a round form {topiiku, cylindrical); they are then dyed, the scraped portions 
becoming black, but the unscraped portion remaining the same colour as 
dried flax leaves. The ends of the strips are scraped and woven into a 
band four to six inches wide, which passes round the waist, and is tied by 
cords at either end. Thus the kilt is really composed of long, loose, 
detached strips which hang- to the knee, but do not interfere with walking 
although they conceal the limbs. It is, in fad, a rational dress and a 
picturesque one. 

Pttipm. —Similar to the kini-kini, but being of dressed flax dyed black, or red, or 
yellow, does not rattle as the wearer moves. They are made in many 
varieties, especially in Taranaki, and are sometimes made there with a 
taniko border or belt. One kind is made of a grass found on Mt. Egmont. 

Rapaki, or papaki .—Kilts made like a mai, but smaller, these would turn rain. Also 
kopeke and ahumchunic, worn by females. 

Pihipiht.~k flax mat covered with short lengths of flax leaves rolled up and dyed 
in bands, usually worn by women. 

Maukn.—ln ancient times in Tuhoeland the fronds of the mauku {Aspleninm 
bulbiferum) were woven into a sort of rude mat, and a very poor and 
perishable one it must have been. These mauku mats were worn at nieht 


only, being warmed at a fire and used as a covering. They were too 
perishable to be worn outside. 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 201 

Shoulder Straps (Kaicc) 

Kawe, or Kahaki are bands of plaited undressed flax, about an inch and a-half wide 
in the middle, and tapering to a point at each end. They are seven or 
eight feet long, and are connefted in the middle by a plaited band about 
two inches wide and six inches long. Loads to be carried on the back are 
tied up with these bands. The ends of the straps for about two feet are 
dressed or scraped and plaited so as to tie easily. Pads (paretua) were 
sometimes used to keep a load from chafing the back. 

Belts and Girdles (Tatua and Tu, or Whitiki). 

The generic term for belts is tatua, but they are of different kinds. Those made of 
undressed flax are tattia whara. Belts formed of one woven band, whether 
of dressed or undressed material, are invariably termed tatua. Those 
formed of many-plaited strands are known as tu. These tu, as known by 
the present day Maori, are belts when worn by women, whereas men wore 
the tatiia pupara, which comes under the head of tatua whara. In former 
times, however, the name tu was applied to a belt, girdle, or maro, worn 
by warriors in battle, and also by priests. It is not clear whether this tu 
was simply a waist-belt or an apron such as the maro. 

Tti karetu. — This is a woman's belt or waist-girdle. It is formed of ten or twelve 
plaited strands {kawai or kawekawe) of the karetu [Hierochloe redolens), a 
very sweet-scented grass. The mid-rib [tuaka) is taken out from each leaf, 
or the leaves would be too brittle and break when dry. The plait is 
usually of the rauru pattern. These plaited strands are only connected at 
the ends, where they are fastened together by the tail, or cord, used for 
tying the tu round the waist. The cord is of plaited dressed flax fibre, 
usually dyed black and red.* 

Tu muka. — This tu is made of dressed flax fibre. It is composed of twelve strands, 
four being white, four black, and four red, the whole forming quite a showy 
girdle. The ends are plaited together to form the tau, or tying cords. 
Each strand is composed of two twisted threads iiuiro) which are twisted 

* Cook notes that girls had a scented grass girdle, with a bundle of leaves in front under the petticoat. Cook, 
Hawlisworth, Vol. ii., p. 314. 

2g2 The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 

tQo-ether by the ordinary rolling process of the hand on the thigh, thus 
forming a kantre. The operator then holds tightly the end of one of these 
threads, and pushes the other hack {he me a koneke) until, instead of 
enveloping the held strand in a long spiral, it appears to be "seized" round 
it at right angles. Ko te kawai, he mea parahuhu ka miro, a ka parahuhu. 

Tu maurea. — This tu is made from the bright reddish yellow leaves of the manrea, 
but had a proportion of flax fibre mixed with the maurea in order to 
strengthen it. This and the sweet-scented karetu were the favourite 
materials for belts with the women. 

Tu wharariki. — This belt was made more pleasant by having some of the sweet 
scented kopuru moss inserted in it. Tit were also made of the culms of the 
hangaroa. In ancient days a woman often had a tu tattooed round her 

Tatua pupara. — ^This is a man's belt. It is woven about five or six inches wide of 
strips of flax about one-eighth of an inch in width, some of which are dyed 
black. The belt is woven in patterns, usually of a vandyke form. When 
woven, the band is folded or doubled, thus forming a belt two and a-half 
or three inches in width, the edges being turned in, and stitched together 
with a cord of dressed flax. The tan or tying strings are then fastened at 
each end. This belt was sometimes used to carry small articles in, as 
Taukata of old carried the famous kao kuviara. On the coast, this belt is 
frequently made of the bright yellow leaves of piiigao (Desmoschcnus). 
Women's belts of undressed flax were woven about four inches wide of 
black and white strips of flax in various patterns, the zig-zag pattern 
known as wliakakohikohi being a favourite one. Two plaited cords {kaha) 
of dressed flax fibre, dyed black, are fastened along the inside of the belt, 
and at each end thereof are plaited to form the tying cords in the poutama 
pattern. Such a belt is termed a poutama from this pattern. 

The belts of dressed flax fibre — generally black — often worn by women now, 
are said to be a modern style. 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 293 

The following are names of patterns used in the making of belts, baskets, and 
sleeping mats : — 

Poutama . Whakarau -mkau . 

Whnkapatiki. Whakatiitu. 

Tokarakara. Tapuwae-kotuku. 

Whakakaokao. Papahi-ngaro. 

Pauatahi. Torua. 

Ante (Broussonnetia). —The beating of cmte for clothing is mentioned in old sono-s 
but no Maori garments made of this substance are now in existence. In 
the Otago Museum is a length of thin bark cloth about nine feet in leno-th 
found in a cave in Central Otago, but it is probably of Island origin. ^* 

Sandals, Leggings, &c. 

Parengarenga. — Leggings of flax woven into a broad piece and then laced on the 
leg, extending from the ankle to just below the knee. 

Tumatakuru. — A kind of sandal and legging combined. They were made by a 
netting process from an alpine spear grass. They were folded over the 
foot and laced over the ankle and leg. They were also stuffed with 
rimunmu, moss, or lichen. 

Rohe. — ^^A sandal and legging combined. 

Papari. — A combined sandal and legging made of green flax and stuffed or lined 
with moss. 

Panaena. — This was a sort of sandal with a toe-cap, netted of miika {wliitau) or 
dressed flax fibre ; they were fastened by cords at the heel passed round 
the ankle. 

* Cook frequently exchanged tapa for New Zealand flax garments with the Natives (see Cook, Hawksworth, 
Vol, ii., p. 316.) Mr. Colenso saw aute plants growing in Native cultivation at Mangamuka and at Wangaroa in 1839, 
and the older Taranaki people speak of it having been grown there in their fathers' time. (On re-examining this 
piece, I think it is of Maori manufacture and made from the hoJiere.) 


The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 

In the South Island, the sandals for travelling over rough river beds or alpine 

country were made of the plaited leaves of the ti (Cordyline) or of flax. There 

were three kinds : — 

Paraerae hou, or kuara, or parekereke — a sandal formed of a single layer 
of the plaited flax leaves. 

Takitaki is the same thing made from the Cordyline leaves. 

Torua is a ti leaf sandal with the sole plaited in a double layer so as 
to be very durable.* 

Leggings. — In the Colonial Museum there are short leggings said to be made of 
the bark of the nikau palm, and to be used in the Taupo country. They 
are probably made from the spathe of the flower cluster. There are 
some gaiters of dressed flax in the Canterbury Museum 13 inches wide 
by 25 inches long. 

Potae-taua. — These were mourning caps worn by widows in former times. The}^ 
were made from a kind of rush growing on the margin of lakes, and known 
as kutakuta, or paopao, or kuwawa. The stalks were peeled of the outer 
covering, leaving the white inner part, which was then formed into a fillet 
for the head. In some cases, the material was dyed black. Some of 
these caps did not cover the head, but were fillets with thrums hanging 
down and covering the eyes of the wearer ; others were to cover the 
whole head, and tied under the chin. In some cases the material for 
the covering was zostera from the tidal flats. Other such mourning caps 
were made of birds' tails {kotore or humaeko) fastened entire to the fillet, 
and which waved to and fro as the wearer walked. Sometimes the heads 
and bills of the rarer birds, such as the Iiiiia, were attached. 

Chaplets, pare and rakm.—TheAe were made from the sweet-scented leaves of 
various shrubs and plants, such as the fans^iiru-rakc, koarcare, kotara, and 
pera-kaito, and were worn by women. 

As a sign of mourning women adorned their heads with wreaths of green 
leaves, or Lycopodiiim {waewackoukou), or kawakawa. 

of bla,ck ZthVXT.fn.'l'fr''/^ the men wore an article of dress which we had not seen beforo-a round bunch 
real ; were "-"B^nt'^^^^^^^^ which it entirely covered, making them look twice as large as thej 

ornament of feattrs\L'?rfo;elfeal'tned\SraXarI ' '^""" '^'^'^'"'''^ '°""'- """"^'^^ *'^^ ^^ *^^ '^'"^ ^^ ^" 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 29^ 

Needles.-In former times, feather quills {tuaka) were used as needles, the base of 
the quill being used as the point, and the thread of flax fibre fastened to 
the end of the feather. The name of this quill needle was toromoka, 
which also means to sew with the same ^^Toromokatm toko na^ Neatly 
made needles of bone are frequently found in the old settlements, together 
with some made in greenstone {pounamu), which may have been mat-pins. 

Plaiting.— Many different plaits are known to the Maori, each of which has its 
special use. Amongst others are the following :— 

Topiki — 

Whiri-rino — A plait of two strands. 

Whiri-papa — A flat plait of three strands. 

Whiri-kawe~K flat plait of three strands {kawai and whiri-paraharaha) . 

Whiri-tuapuku—K round {topiiku) plait of four strands. 

Rauru — A flat plait of five or six strands. 

Iwi-tnna — A round plait of four strands. 

Whiri-tarikarika — A plait of eight strands for whiri-tuawaka). 

Whiri-pekapeka — A flat plait of nine strands. 

Whiri-taurakeke — ^^A square plait of ten strands. 

Whiri-pit-ku — A plait of four strands. 

Tu — A cord made as described under tuimika, but very fine, not larger 
than a violin string. 

Baskets {kete). — Baskets were made of many different shapes and used for many 
different purposes. Besides the strips of flax or kiekie dyed black, white, 
red, or brown, fine bright red strips for plaiting into baskets are obtained 
from the mid-rib of the leaf of the toi {Cordyline indivisa). Baskets were 
made from dressed and undressed flax, also ffom undressed strips of the 
leaves of the ti, or " cabbage tree," and from the leaf of the nikau 

Kete kai, or food baskets. — These were roughly woven of broad strips of green flax, 
and were for temporary use only. They served as plates and dishes, and 
were only used once. They were known by many names — such as paro, 
konae, taparua, &c., &c. 

296 The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 

Putea.- — This was a generic term for a finer class of baskets, used for holding small 
articles. There are many different kinds of putea. Some have a flap to 
them which covers the mouth of the basket and is secured with a string. 
These are termed kopa, and generally have a cord attached to them for 
the purpose of carrying them slung over the shoulder. They are made 
of narrow strips of flax, undressed but dried, some of which are dyed 
black if a pattern is desired. 

Small putea, made of dressed flax and ornamented with taniko, were filled with 
fragrant moss or gum, and kept hung round the neck. 

The pu-kirikiri was a basket used for holding seed kiimara when that valuable tuber 
was being planted. 

The pu-tutu was used for straining the fruit of the tvttu, the basket being lined with 
the feathery heads of the toetoe grass {Arundo), which retained the huirua, 
or poisonous property of the fruit. 

The ngehingehi was a long kete used for squeezing the crushed berries of the titoki 
for the purpose of expressing the oil. 

The toiki or tukohti was a long kete of a round shape used to contain food when 
steeped in water. 

In former times large toiki were made of pirita or supplejack to store seed 
kumara in when placed in the whata or storehouse. 

A very useful kind of basket (patua or papahualma) is made from a sheet of bark 
stripped from the totam pine (Podocarpus). It is folded into a convenient 
shape, and carried by means of a stick placed across the centre. A basket 
exaaiy similar'Vppears to be in use in Timor.* 

Floor Mats and Sleeping Mats (Whanki and Takapau). . 

Whariki is a generic term for mats or covering for the. floor, whether woven mats, 
coarse or fine, or merely leaves or Lycopodium, as is sometimes used. 

„„ rp '^'^^^e, IS a plate of " Canda, a young JJalay girl in Timor," carrying a basket of this kind in Peron.— " Voyao-e 
aux ierres Australes" Atlas, plate 26, Vol. i. 

The Dress or Clothing of the Maori. 


Takapaii is applied to the finer class of slcepinio; mats. Coarse mats, such as that 
termed tiiwhara, are placed on the ground, and the fine woven takapau, or 
aokatua of fiax or kiekic over that. 

The leaves of the kiekie are split into narrow strips, which are bleached until 
quite white. When split, these strips are hung in the sun until half dry, when 
they are taken down and beaten on the ground, the operator taking a handful 
{lata) and threshing them on the ground ; they are then hung up for a while. 
Coarse floor mats were also made of the kiitakiita. 

Mats of these kinds are made in several widths or pieces, the leaves of the 
kiekie not being large enough to run right through. When a mid-rib {tuaka) is 
thus formed in weaving mats it is called a hiki, which is the joining of two papa 
or widths. The turning of the ends of the strips at the ends of a mat is 
termed tapiki. 

In cooking in an oven paved with stones, a coarse mat (called tapaki) of 
strips of flax is spread over the stones on which the food is placed, and 
another over the food before it is covert d with earth. 

Cap of Worked Flax, ornamented with Feathers and Beaks of the Hum (Neomoi'pha). 

In the collection of Major-Qeneral Robley. 

Ornamental Borders of Fine Mats (Tanihv Workj. 

Natives with Fiax Mats, ;//««« Feathers, and Greenstone Ornaments. 


> » • ♦ < 

A GREAT deal of labour and artistic work was bestowed on objefts intended 
for personal decoration. Nearly all races delight to deck themselves with 
necklets and natural objefts which strike their fancy, and to paint them- 
selves with natural pigments, even if their dress be of the scantiest nature. One 
almost universal habit of this nature was highly developed amongst the Maoris— 
and that was the use of ochre or red earth (kokowai), mixed with fat or oil to 
cover or adorn their person. A chief would, indeed, be poor who had not a 
plentiful supply of a fine red earth, found in various places in the volcanic distrifts, 
to paint his sacred person or the carvings on his house or canoe. In some instances 
the material could be obtained by picking it out in lumps from the seams or bands 
exposed in cliffs ; but Mr. Colenso describes an interestmg process of obtaining it 
by placing bundles of fern (Pteris) in certain creeks. Upon this fern the water 
deposits a thin crust of iron in course of time. The fern is then taken out, 
dried, the deposit shaken off into a kete or basket, and when sufficient has been 
o-athered it is made into small balls and baked in the embers of a fire ; the 
resulting pigment being kokowai or horn of the best quality. This was applied 
plentifully to the body, to the hair, and to the clothing, mixed with shark oil, 
or with the oil expressed from the seeds of the titoki (Alcdryoii), or from the 


seed capsules of the kohia (Passiflora), thus jnaking it a paint. Oil was also 
obtained in small quantities from the miro (Podocarpiis fcrrugincn) and the iangco 
(Tetranthera calycaris). Mr. Best gives the name of a famous spring which 
deposited this red pigment near Ohaua. It was known as Nga Toto-o-Tawera-. 
The variety procured from streams was called horu ; that procured from deposits 
of iron earth by ro.asting or burnmg being takou.* 

A convenient vessel for mixing the pamt in was found in the large haliotis 
shell or paua ; the small holes in this were filled with a flax cord inserted in them, 
and joined so as to make a handle ; the paint and oil were then mixed together 
with some hiingahnnga — a bunch of the refuse tow from the scraping of flax 
leaves. Large flat stones are frequently found in old settlements on which the 
blocks of takou were ground down with a round smooth boulder (autorii), so as to 
form a powder easily mixed with the oil. In Hawke's Bay four varieties of the red 
paint are recognised : kokowai, taupo, tareha, and taraiiiea — the commonest kind. 
Polack mentions that a bright yellow colour for painting the face was obtained from 
decaying wood,t and also charcoal for black marks. 

Bidwell says : " The Natives are fond of daubing their heads with red paint. 
I saw a large manufadlory of it on the VVaikato : a double circle of matwork was 
formed round a large spring of rusty water, and the curdy carbonate of iron was 
by this method strained off. After this preparation it is burnt and mixed with oil 
and plastered on their heads and bodies till they look as if they had fallen into a 
paint pot. I understand it is going out of fashion, but it is still so common that it 
is impossible to be carried by a Native without getting your clothes daubed all over 
with the red dirt which has saturated their mats.";]; 

Polack, in describing a great feast at the ceremony of the scraping of the 
bones (Imhunga) of Tikoki at Kawakawa, says: "Red paint was much in requisition. 
A quantity of the mixture was arranged in a broken calabash, into which some 
of these antipodal exquisites absolutely dipped the entire head and face. . . One 
of them had painted one-half of his face longitudinally with this mixture, from 

* A.H.M., Vol. iv., p. 103. 

t Polauk's "New Zealanders " (new ed.), V..1. i., p. 396— " Nose and chin a bright yellow; the rest of his face 
and person a glaring fieiy red." 

t Bidwell's "Eambles in N.Z.," 1841, p. 35. See also as to general use of red paint Grosse, " Die Anfanae der 
Knnst, pp. 59-60. ° 

Ornaments and Personal Decoratign. 301 

the back of the head, forehead, downward to his throat ; the opposite half being 
rubricated with charcoal dust, and the whole washed over with rancid shark oil. 
The efifea of the red and black jo ning in the centre was ludicrous in the extreme. 
. . . Many had also enriched the crimson stains with broad bands of blue earth 
(parakawahia) that encircled the eyes like speftacles ; a band across the nose served 
to unite the colouring pigment." * 

Bands or stripes of the red paint were painted on the face, crossing it diago- 
nally from the corner of the forehead down over the eye to the cheek : these lines 
were termed hthi-kohum. Horizontal marks on forehead were called tuhi-korae, or 
tuhi-mamekura.\ Girls frequently cover their lips with the brilliant blue pollen 
of the flower of the native fuchsia tree, and make little spots of red on their cheeks 
with the colouring matter of another flower. 

Shortland remarks that " a reason for some persons painting their body and 
clothes was that they might leave a mark behind them, that people may know 
where their sacred bodies had rested. "J 

In some parts of New Zealand a bright blue earth (vivianite), iron phosphate, § 
is found which was used for decorating the person : it was called pukepoto, and 
is derived from the decomposition of inoa bones. 

Dressing the Hair. 
In dressing the long hair worn in times of peace by chiefs, fashion at various 
times and at different places demanded several styles. In the method known as 
putiki, the hair was gathered together and tied with flax in a knob at the back of the 
head {ngoungou). Sometimes it was gathered into as many as eight piitiki, or knobs, 
round the head. Rahin was a style in which the hair was gathered up and bound 
like a sheaf on the crown of the head. For the tikitiki style, a small ring or hoop 
of akatea (porowhita), about two inches in diameter, was made, the hair was gathered 
together on the top of the head, the ring slipped over it and pushed down, the hair 
was then drawn outwards from the ring on all sides evenly, and then tied underneath 
the ring. II As a mark of mourning for a deceased relative, the hair was cut as a 

* Polack, "Manners and Customs of the N.Z.," Vol. i., pp. 81 and 85. 

t Thompson, in Ms " Story of Waharoa," speaks of a Native " with his hair cropped short and features 
blackened," p. 219. Children were sometimes covered with this kokowai and grease to defend them from the sandflies 
(namu). See also a description of a locality for kokowai, and of the method of using it, in "The History of Taranaki," 
B. Wells, 1878, p. 36. A red dye freperepe), obtained from sea-shells, is mentioned in A.H.M.. Vol. i., p. 171. 

X Shortland, " Traditions of the New Zealanders," p. 112. 

§ The pukepoto is found on the shore near the tJrenui River in balls ; also ia the Whakatane River, and other 
places. It seems to have been called parakawahia in the North. 

II See also the account given by Savage, "Account of N.Z ," p. 49, and Shortland, " South Dist. of N.Z.," ISol, p. G>s. 
Mr. Colenso says in his Dictionary under the word Arakiore — "the hair of the head was cut curiously, being 
thinned out very much in a line running from the base of the skull to the forehead." 

002 Ornaments and Personal Decoration. 

rciircn, or tiotio—\h3X is, cut close all over the head except one long lock, which 
was either plaited or left hanging down loosely. 

The hair, when allowed to grow long, was sometimes plaited into eight 
strands, and wound round the head on a framework of pirita, or supplejack, the 
ends being turned up on the top of the head, where they formed the koukou, or 
top knot.* 

In the old prints, the hair is generally gathered up in the putiki style, and 
ornamented with a large comb of peculiar shape, made from the thin portion of the 
jaw of the sperm whale. Combs llieru or aiiiiki) were also made from prepared 
pieces of very hard wood, bound together at the top with a fine flax lashing, in a 
pattern known as tapincac kotiikii. The wood preferred is the hard, resinous 
heart (inapara) of the kahikatea pine. It is stated that in some places combs were 
made from the hard smooth stipes of the hcnihcru fern [Leptopteris intermedia). Thin 
fillets of the lace-like inner bark of the pimelia [ante taranga) were sometimes tied 
to the top knots as ornamental ribbons. Women adorned their heads with the 
snowy down-like epidermis from the leaf of the Astelia or Celmisia,t or K'harawhara. 

Heads were also adorned on special occasions with feathers from various 
birds, amongst those most prized being the dorsal plumes of the white heron 
{kotukii) [Ardca),X the tail feathers of the hum {Neoinorpha), the red tail feathers 
of the amokura {Phaihoii), and the barred tail feathers of the long-tailed migratory 
cuckoo (Endynainis).^ In the olden days, there was a war plume formed from the 
tail of a hnia, or other prized bird, and it had to consist of twelve feathers. It was 
called marcrc^v.W 

* S. Percy Smith, " J Pol. Soc," Vol. vi., p. 44. When the hair curled naturally in small curls, it was pomUilci. 

„ i. '''j ^^,°^fi, ™f ^tioi^s that in one locality the married women were distinguished from the unmarried by a sort of 
strand plait, which confined their hair on the top of their head.—" Crozet Voyages," Ling Eoth. ed., p. 27. 

t i \ -'^5® feathers of the koiulu from various parts of the body were valued. Those from within its wino-s were 
of two kinds, the larger being called meremere, the smaller awe. These last were stripped off with the skin attached, 
so as to form a ball-like bunch for the ears. The larger feathers on the outside (secondaries, wing-coverts, and 
scapulary) were termed whaitiripapa, while the extreme feathers of the wings (primaries) were called Ukurangi If a 
man wearing the plumes of a Icotuku is present no woman can join in a meal', or else their hair would fall out • if he 
removes the plumes they may eat. 

§ Marutuahu tied up his hair in a knob, stuck in fifty red kaka feathers, and amongst them the plume of a 
white heron and the tail of a huia —" Pol. Mythology." p. 25 1 ; and at p, 195. Hatupatu's hair is described as beino- 
done up m tour knobs. In another version of the story. Maru-tuahu. having washed his head in a stream, using the 
u/cw, or clay tor soap, as the ancients did, combed his hair, tied the Iwtaha (band with feathers) on his head, and stuck 
kotuku and lima feathers in it.— A.H.M., Vol iv,, p. 206. 

li Sue also raukuw—a. head-dress of red feathers. -A.II.M,. Vol. iii., p. 43 (English). 

Ornaments and Personal Decoration. 003 

In ancient days, feathers seem to have been worn m a pan or fillet on the 
head, but I know of no example of a woven pare now existin.i,^ The pare seems 
to be represented by the handkerchief which is often tied round the head of old 
women. The white downy feathers of the albatross and gannet were worn by chiefs 
on their head and at their ears.* Gannet feathers, neatly dressed, each of them 
with a small piece of wood tied round the quill end so as to stick to the hair easily, 
were prepared and were kept, when not in use, m boxes prepared for the purpose. f 
.Mr. Colenso mentions in one of his papers on the moa, that the Natives have a 
tradition that a large feather of the moa was once found near the Whakapunake 
Mountain, and that this feather was used to ornament the head of a dead chief 
when he was laid on the ornamental stage, or bier, in the marae, and friends and 
visitors, on seeing it, would exclaim: "Thou art good (or beautiful), O plume 

of Piopio ! " + 

Ear Ornaments. 

The variety of ornaments worn in the ear is very great, and in former times 
the lobe of the ear was frequently greatly distended by the heavy weights suspended 
from it. In "Bank's Journal " it says: "They hang from their ears, by strings, 
many very different things— often a chisel and bodkin made of a kind of green talc, 
which they value very highly ; the nails and teeth also of their deceased relations ; 
dogs' teeth ; and, in short, anything that is valuable and ornamental. Besides these, 
the women sometimes wear bracelets and anklets made of the bones of birds, shells, 
&c., and the men often carry the distorted figure of a man made of the before- 
mentioned green talc, or the tooth of a whale cut slantwise so as to resemble 
somewhat a tongue, and furnished with two eyes. These the}' wear about their 
necks, and seem to value them almost above everything else.§ Many of the chief 
ornaments for the ear were made of greenstone, and were called kai, kuru, motoi, 
tara, tongarewa. Balls of the down}^ feathers of gannet or albatross, called kopu or 
pohoi, were made and suspended to the ear. Whole skins of birds were sometimes 
made into pohoi ; a cylindrical piece of wood being placed inside the skin (Jiai 
whakatopuku) when fresh, so that it might dry in a long cylindrical form. 

* In the story of Hinepopo, the girls danced wearing balls of red feathers as ornaments in their ears. — "Jour. 
Pol. See," Vol. iii , p. 103. 

t Nicholas, "Narr. of a Voyage to N.Z.," 1817, Vol. i., p. 399. 

X "Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xii., p. 83. Piopio now means the thrush (Tnrnagra HectoriJ. 

§ " Banks' Jou.rnal," p. 235. The tongue-like pendants of whale ivory are figured in many of the older books, 
amongst others in " The New Zealanders," 1830, pp. 262 and 211. 

304 Ornaments and Personal Decoration. 

The greater part of the skin of the pukeko (Porphyrio) was prepared as a 
pohoi, and scented with either the kopuru plant or with tarata gum. This was worn 
either in the ear or round the neck. An ornament [hei ratikawa) made of strips of 
albatross skin with the feathers attached, about two inches wide, and scented with a 
fragrant gum, was worn round the neck. Cook mentions seeing dried specimens of 
the fish known as the "seahorse" {Hippocampus), or the kiore moana of the Maori 
hanging at the ear. A carving, probably representing this fish, is sometimes seen in 
bone and in greenstone, and is called a manaia. Other ear pendants are the pekapeka 
and pcau, both of which are found in bone or greenstone; they consist of two figures 
back to back, and resemble in shape the letter W. The ear was often used to carry 
small valuables in, such as a valued poria or ring for a decoy parrot, to say nothing 
of the highly-prized shark tooth {mako) that, in modern times, was ornamented 
with red sealing wax at the base. In some instances the base of the tooth has 
been partly ground away, either to facilitate the boring of the hole or to lessen the 
weight. Specimens have been found of imitation teeth carefully cut from steatite 
or a similar stone.* In a story told by Mr. Percy Smith, Kahu-unuunu gets the 
priest to comb his hair and bind it in a seven-strand rope, and twist it round his 
head as a top knot [koukou). He then took two mako, or shark's teeth, out of his 
bag, and put it in his right ear, and a htruhim (ear-drop) in his left ear, and 
suspended them with a turuki, or kope (string), of aute bark, and left the seven 
strands of hair on his head with the ends flying on each side. The neck {kaki) 
of the twists was tied with aute bark. His head, it is said, was so big that a single 
length of ante bark would not go round it. The tautau is a greenstone ear pendant 
with the lower end suddenly curved. This form appears in many parts of the world, 
and its significance is not definitely known. f It was also called kapehu or tara. 

Nose ornaments, except in the form of feathers, are not known among the 
Maori, although PolackJ says " Some few of the men (but very rarely) bore the 
septum of the nose," which would imply that something was put through the hole. 
Major Robley has in his colleftion a dried head with a metal ring passed through 
the septum, but this may have been done post mortem. The tail feathers of the 

p.395*andMr Cokn^oL",'"*''''*'"'.™^'!- '''■*^'' '°"**' *'™™ sheils.-Polack, "New Zealanders." new ed., Vol. i., 
p. and Mr. Colenso has .some interesting information on these teeth in the " Tran.s. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xxiv', p. 416! 

being thtr^Ao^J^^Z ''f'''"Plf" ^\ "^y. ^e found in Central American sculptures, the oars of the god Quetzacoatl 
Demg thus adorned, and also a Zapotec chief. See Nadaillac, " Prehistoric America," pp. 275 and 369. 
X Polack, "New Zealanders," Vol. i., p. 396 (new edition.) 

Ornaments and Personal Decoration. 305 

pigeon or kaka were sometimes stuck horizontally through the septum of the nose; 
generally there were two feathers, in which case they are called a pomania, and 
are composed of a hiua feather on one side, and a kotuku feather on the other. 
Mr. Percy Smith has seen this mode of decoration in use m the Urewera Country 
this year. 

Neck Ornaments and Pendants. 

A generic term for any ornament worn suspended from the neck was hei, and 
perhaps the most widely known and charaaeristic personal ornament of the Maori 
is the heitiki. It has been noticed and described by all the early visitors to New 
Zealand, and all have noticed the affeaion with which tikis are regarded by their 
owners. It is undoubtedly one of their most prized possessions, nearly all havmg 
become conneded with the past history of their ancestors, and become family 
heirlooms. The skill displayed in cutting and grinding the hard greenstone into the 
required figure is only equalled by the patience and industry which must have been 
required before the work was finished. Yate says of this ornament : " They are by 
no means connefted with any of their superstitions, nor are they, as it had been 
imagined, representations of gods whom they might be supposed to worship. The 
latter idea was conceived from the heitiki being taken off the neck, laid down in the 
presence of a few friends meeting together, and then wept or sung over. But this 
is only done to bring more vividly to the recolleftion of those present the person 
now dead to whom the heitiki belonged. It is kept and worn about the neck as a 
remembrance of departed friends, not only of him who last departed, but m 
remembrance of others also by whom it has been worn."* 

The image is suspended by means of a plaited cord, one end of which has a 
loop, and the other end has a piece of bird-bone about three inches long, generally 
albatross, fixed to it by the cord passing through a hole in the middle of the piece 
of bone, when it is secured by a knot. This bone is then passed through the loop, 
and forms a very praftical fastening. The eyes of the tiki were filled with rings cut 
from pMia shell (HaliotisJ, but recently this has been quite superceded by the 
charms of red sealing wax. 

Although the majority of heitikis are made from greenstone, there are some 
made of the more easily worked bone from a whale, and, in rare instances, from the 

* Yate's " Nuw Zealand," 1835, p. 151. Savage fi^^ures a heitiki at p. 21 of his work. 

g Ornaments and . Personal Decoration. 

human skull. Professor Giglioli,* of Florence, has written an interesting paper on 
the forms of the hcitiki, and of the tikipopohe—YittXe anthropomorphic fragments 
which come- a long way short of the perfeftion of the hntiki. The ttki, or man, 
represented was evidently regarded as including the female, as many represent 
females. It has been stated that certain forms of tiki are charaderistic of a tribe 
or district, but this cannot be maintained. It will be found, on examining a large 
series of specimens, that the lower edge of a tiM is frequently bevelled off like 
the cutting portion of an axe or adze ; the position of the hands, and the charader 
of the tongue, are also interesting points which will probably repay careful study. 

Some controversy has occurred as to the signification of the word heitiki, but 
there is little doubt as to the true meaning. Hei is a neck ornament of any kind ; 
tiki, in the form ot a man. 

An interesting specimen figured in the plates serves as a transitional form 
between the hciUki and a large hook-shaped pendant called a matau. The specimen 
is in the colleaion at the British Museum, and, although it has the general form of 
the hook-like ornaments, yet each extremity is carved into the form of a human 
figure. The viataii pendant is found in a variety of forms, and possibly is intended 
for a representation ot the famous hook with which Maui fished up the great ika 
of New Zealand. Some examples figure in museums as " hair-cutters," but I 
cannot agree that this is their primary use. They may possibly have been used 
occasionally like any other hard, smooth flat stone, together with a sharp piece of 
obsidian, to sever the hair on, but they certainly were never made for that purpose. 
When the outer edge bears a number of small notches, is is probable that the 
ornament served as a whakapapa, or genealogical record and remembrancer. f 

Curious carved ornaments of steatite, resembling conventional hooks, have 
been found in Southern Otago, in workmanship and design quite different to any 
others found in the North. In the coUedtions made near Dunedin, there are always 
a number of oddly shaped pieces of greenstone, bored for suspension, which 
probably were worn by children, or were manatunga — remembrances from relations ; 
anyhow, they seem to have been, prized and treasured b}^ someone. 

* Giglioli, " Gli Heitiki dei MaoH della Nuova Zelanda," Arch, per I'Antrop. o I'Etnolog., Vol. xxii., 1892, p. 191, 
Tav. vi, ; and see "Due Nuovi Heitiki litici della N.Z.," Ibid. Vol. xxiii.. Pas. 1, 1893, Firenze ; and " Di un Singolare 
Tiki Maori fatlo con un frammento di Cranio umano," Archiv. per I'Antrop. e la Etnol., Vol. xxi., p. 418, Firenze, 1891. 
See also figures of those in the Dresden Mviseum in A. B. Meyer, " Jadeit and Nephrit Objecte, Asien, Oceo,nien u-Afrika," 
Taf. vi., f. 4, P, 6, Leipsig, 1885. See also F. R. Chapman in an exhaustive paper on " The Working of Greenstone," 
"Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xxiv,, p. 479. 

t Mr. Percy Smith thinks that the origin of these hook-shapad ornaments is to be found in iho boars' tusks 
which the Maoris were acquainted with in Central Polynesia, and prized highly as ornaments. 

Ornaments and Personal Decoration. 


It would be impossible to describe here all the varieties of pendants of bone 
and stone that are to be found in colleaions, as their number is very great. Teeth 
have always been used as ornaments, and we find that human teeth were neatly 
bored through the fang, and worn either in the ear or round the neck. Necklaces 
of sharks' teeth {Carcharias) were not uncommon, as the teeth, bored with two holes 
at the base, are frequently found. Teeth of dogs and seals were also worn. 
"Whales' teeth (sperm ^N\^^\e—Physeter) were made into tongue-shaped pendants, 
which were highly valued in Cook's time, and they appear on the necks of many 
of the chiefs figured in his voyage. These pendants have now, however, become 
very rare. 

Besides wearing as remembrances the nails and teeth of their deceased 
relatives, women wore bracelets and anklets made of short lengths of the bones of 
birds, shells, &c. These bracelets were probably tauri-komore. Mr. Best says : " It 
is difficult to procure precise information as to this article. The name tanri or 
tauri-komore is applied to an anklet or bracelet. Some are narrow bands woven of 
dressed flax fibre, and ornamented with taniko ; such anklets were worn by women 
of rank. Others were made of the hollow tube-like shells of a species of dentalium 
called hangaroa, through which threads of flax fibre were passed, a band being 
formed of these." They were also strung on a string as a belt, called tu-hangaroa. 
Te Kowhai of Ngati-Ruapani states: "The /aMn'-z^owore' was an anklet. It was a 
tohu rangatira — a sign of good birth. They were made by stringing the komore (?) 
upon cords of plaited flax fibre. The komore were hollow, white objedfs, brought 
from afar — I think from the ocean." Many such cords were thus made and worn 
on the leg as an ornament. . H. T. Pio says : "■ Te tauri-komore kei raro tena i 
nga waewae nga rangatira e here ana.'' The name was also applied to bands 
tattooed on the w^rists or ankles. These komore must have closely resembled the 
strings of dentalium shells which were strung together by the Natives on the west 
side of the Auckland peninsula, which were bartered with the inland tribes and 
worn as necklaces or bracelets. These pure white shells were called pipi-tai-ari, 
and if you wished to compliment a Maori woman on her white teeth you might 
say: "Your teeth are like the pipi-tai-ari." Poro-toroa, or puaii, were short pieces 
of the bones of the albatross (toroa) cut into lengths of about two inches. They 
had a cord passed through them, and were suspended from the neck. Necklaces 
were also made in tiie south of imitation teeth like a human incisor, cut from 

2o8 Ornaments and Personal Decoration. 

the columella of a sea shell ; these were called mho kakerc. In the colleftion 
of Major Roble_y there is a human jawbone elaborately carved and covered with 
red paint. It is probable that this has been worn as an ornament. 

Tattooing (Moko). 

The custom of marking permanent patterns on the skin by means of small 
punctures, or cuts, filled in with a suitable pigment, is widely spread, and was 
carried to a very high pitch of perfeftion amongst the Maori. Patterns were drawn 
with great accuracy and symmetry over the whole face, and on many other parts 
of the body. The publication of a special work on moko, beautifully illustrated, by 
Major-General Robley, precludes the necessity for a minute description on my part 
of the manner in which the work was done, or of the patterns used. Cook noticed 
that at the Thames and in Mercury Bay the Natives were much more tattooed, and 
had different patterns from those lower down the coast, and no doubt at that time 
each district had its favourite fashion and mode. Although the lines cut by the ilJu 
are considered as the uwko, and therefore the pattern intended, I believe that the 
process was originally simply a method of perpetuating patterns which were 
painted on the skin. I think that the lines originally traced the outlines of these 
patterns, which were similar to those known as kowhai, and mangopare, and maive, 
and that the real patterns on the face are the spaces, not the lines. In some old 
carvings this is seen much more clearly than on the human face, or on modern 
carvings.* The tattooing on the thighs generally consists of a pattern known as 
puhoro, with the interspaces filled with lines or dots ; and to make from this part 
of the skin of an enemy a covering for a cartridge box was very satisfying to the 
conqueror. In olden times, a piece of well-tattooed skin from a slain enemy would 
hi stretched on a hoop of supplejack or pirita, and, on suitable occasions, trundled 
up and down the marac sometimes over little barriers or hurdles, or was stretched 
over the outside of a calabash used for pouring water into the hand of a chief, 
so that he might drink from the palm of his hand.f The tattooing extended down 
nearly to the knees, and, a few generations ago, was quite common. At the present 
time a similar practice obtains in Samoa. ;[: 

* The represeatation, said to have been drawn by Te Pehi himself, when iu England, of his own face tattoo 
certainly supports this view of the subject. See "The New Zealaiiders," p. 332. 

t Also used in certain preliminary ceremonies in war time. J. White, M. Inst, and Sup., 174. 

: A n admirable plate of this is given iu " licit, zur Kenn. der 'J'attowirung in Samoa," von P. von Luschan 1897 
and also the names of the components of the patterns. Good figures of the breech and thigh tattooing are <.iy^nhx 
vL.^^-^'^^^.m).- ^^'t^^'^-H-M, Vol. vii., and inflate 57 of the Atlas of Plates to the " Voyage de 

Ornaments and Personal Decoration. 309 

The objea of carefully preserving tattooed heads was, in some cases, as 
a family relic — to be cared for and brought out to be wept over on great occasions ; 
and, secondly, if from a slain enemy— to be taunted and exposed to all sorts of 
indignities— to be even so degraded as to be put on a peg beside the cooking 
fires when the women prepared the food. What could be more galling to a 
hostile tribe than to know that cooked food was over or near the sacred head 
of one of their warriors ? Then, again, heads were preserved so that the young men 
might, before them, make their first attempts at eloquence in recounting the cause 
and manner of the chief's death, and by whom he fell ; or, worse still, an old 
woman would set the dried head of a tribal foe on her turutuni or corner stick of her 
mat frame, and taunt and revile it while at her work. 

It is interesting to note that an early writer on this subjedf — the Rev. John 
Yate — states that " the custom of preserving the heads of their enemies was not an 
ancient praftice." In the olden time, they preserved in this way the heads of their 
friends, and kept them with religious striftness, and it was not till Europeans 
proposed to buy them that the idea occurred to them of preparing the heads 
of their enemies — first as an article of barter, and more recently as a trophy ot 
victory. . . They have now (1830) ceased altogether to preserve the heads 
of their friends, lest by any means they should fall into the hands of others and 
be sold.* Other authorities contend, from the evidence of allusions to the custom 
in songs known to be of great antiquity, that it is an old praftice. It is common in 
Samoa to this day, and was probably common to both branches of the Maori 
race when they lived together. 

In an early notice of the praftice of tattooing, it is stated that the Natives 
have a tradition that at the time of the great hekes, or migrations, " only their legs 
were tattooed, "f Whatever truth there may be in this, the earliest face patterns 
given by Cook and others are very similar to the pattern usually imprinted on the 
thigh, and known as puhoro. 

The desire of the first European visitors to procure specimens of this curious 
method of curing the adorned human heads, soon absorbed the best specimens, 

* Yate's -New Zealand," 1835, p. 130. Canon Stack, in " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. x., p. 78, says : " He found 
Tiikianau at Tutaeputapnta, where he was preserving his father's head, which he intended to keep, according to 
custom, at one end of the house, when, surrounded by mats, he and his children could look upon it, and think that 
the old man was still amongst them." 

t In a lecture by Eev. Thomas Buddie, reported in "The New Zealanders," April 5, p. 51, et seq. 

ojQ Ornaments and Personal Decoration. 

and an inferior article was soon thrown on the market in the roughly tattooed heads 
of slaves and persons of inferior rank, and an extraft from an old publication 
states that " one head was brought on board our ship for sale, which was ultimately 
bought by the doftor for a blanket (a very small one) and an old shirt. The chief 
offered to tattoo a slave and have the head ready in three days, the price being 
a cask of powder. It was then stated that most of the heads were those of slaves 
prepared for sale."* 

It is probably these later specimens that exhibit so much post mortem tattoo. 
It was this illegitimate extension of the pradtice of dried-head making that called 
forth the Governor Darling Proclamation in April, 1831, and shortly afterwards the 
Aft by which a ^40 fine was imposed on those importing " baked heads "• to 
New South Wales. 

The manufafture of the black soot for the tattooing process differed slightly 
in various localities. In the Urewera Country it was procured, if possible, from 
the mapara, or heart wood of kaihika. If possible, the mapara was procured from a 
famous or well-known tree — kaihua. When such a tree fell, it was carefully watched 
as it decayed, and the mapara colledted and distributed to friends in need of a 
supply. The awe or soot made from such a tree, and also the ahi ta moko at which 
it was made, bore the name of the tree. The awe made from burnt awheto, or 
vegetable caterpillars, was used for moko marks on limbs or body ; it was not black 
enough for any face tattooing. 

The ancient Maoris had more ways than one of obtaining the black 
substance used in tattooing, which colouring-matter also varied in quality, partly 
owing to what it was made from ; that for the countenance being superior to that 
used for the lower parts of the body. One way of obtaining the best kind was 
as follows :— First, two proper careful men were selefted for the work. This, too, 
was done with ceremony, they being (for the time) tapu {i.e., under the laws of taboo) 
— rigidly set apart. A small kiln-like furnace (ruangarehu) was excavated in the 
side of a hill suitably situated. The substances to be used in burning for their 
soot— ,^flM7''i-resin {kapia) and the resinous veins of white-pine wood (kapara) — were 
got ready ; a net made from the wharanui flax leaves finely split, composed of very 

T J * ^o!?A ^"'^ '^' '^^*'^' " -^^^^ Truths told by a Traveller regarding our various Settlements in Aust and N Z " 
Jjondon, 1«40 pp. 62 and 63. For an account of the acquisition of two dried heads now in the Army Medical Museum 
Washington, U.S.A., see " U.S. Expl. Exped.," Vol. ii., p. 399, 1845 • 

Ornaments and Personal Decoration. 311 

small and close meshes, and beaten well, so as to be rough and scabrous from long 
broken fibres, in order the better to catch and retain the soot {awe), which was 
intended to adhere only to the network : this net was fixed properly and securely 
over the top opening or chimney of the kiln, and above it were placed thick mats 
and suchlike, to prevent the escape of the burning soot and smoke. All being 
ready, a very calm fine night was chosen for the firing of the kiln — a night in which 
there should not be the least breath of moving air ; and, the kiln being fired, those 
two men remained all night at their post, attending to their work, carefully feeding 
the fire. When all the resinous substances were burnt up, and the kiln cold — the 
calm weather still continuing — the soot was carefully coUedled and mixed up with 
the fat of birds, and then given to a Maori dog to eat, which dog had also been 
early set apart for this work — tied up, made to fast, and kept hungry, that it might 
perform its part and eat the prepared morsels with avidity. After devouring the 
mixed food the dog was still kept tied up, and not allowed to eat any other aliment 
until it had voided the former. When the faeces were evacuated they were carefully 
gathered, and mixed up and kneaded with birds' oil and a little water, and, when 
this mixture became dry and hard, it was put up securely into a large shell, or into 
a hollowed pumice or soft stone, and laid by carefully, buried in the earth, for 
future use. It is said to have possessed no disagreeable odour when dry (though 
it had while fresh), and, though long kept, it did not become bad nor spoil through 
keeping, which, on the contrary, was said to improve it, and it was very much 

It was this pigment, so put up and kept, that was the origin of one of their 
proverbs, " Puritia to ngarahn kauri" = Keep to thyself thy kauri-resin-soot 
pigment. This saying was used when a person was unwilling to give what was 
asked, the same being some common thing, and not at all needed by the avaricious 
owner. But there is a double meaning here, in this simple sentence (proverb)— 
namely, " You may never require it, or live to use it." (See " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," 
Vol. xii., p. 145-)* 

In the following table is a comparison of the terms used for diff'erent parts 
of the personal tattooing of the Maori, drawn from various sources. 

* Colenso, "Keminiscenoes, Trans. N.Z. Inst.," Vol. xxiv., p. 449. 



e Forehead 


e Nose 

e Upper Lip 

e Chin 


e Cheel<s 

TAYLOR (a). 
-Lines on the centre of the forehead 
Four lines on the middle of the forehead* 
Tiwana. — Four lines on the forehead 

Over the brow and temple* f 
Rewha. — Three lines below the eyebrows 
Upper eyelids* 

Tarewa. — Lines on the bridge of the nose 

Rerepi.^Lines on the bridge of the nose 

Tattooing on the cheek* 
Hupe. — At the point of the nose, in the rima nasi 
Ngu. — At the summit of the nose* 
Pongiangia. — Lines on each side of the lower part 

of the face. — At the wings of the nose* 
Rerehupe. — Six lines below the nostril 
Repi. — Lines from the nose to the chin* 
Kawe. — Four lines on each side of the chin 
Pukawae. — Six lines on the chin 
Kokiri. — A curved line on the cheek bone 
Kokoti. — On the cheeks* 

Koroaha. — Lines between cheek bone and ear 

Putaringa. — On the ears* 

Wakarakau. — Lines below cheek bone and ear 

Paetarewa. — Lines on the cheek bone 

Titi (14) 

Tiwhana (i) 

Repha (2) 

Kumikumi (6) 

Whakatara (5) 

Ngu (3) 
Pongiangia (4) 

Rerepehi (7) 

Kauwae (13) 

Wero (8) 
Koroaha (10) 

Putaringa (12) 

Paepae (n) 


Titi. — Uppermost lines of tattooing on fore! 

or Ti. 
Tiwhana. — Lines of tattooing on the eyebn 

Kape. — Tattooing under the eyebrows 

Ngu. — Marks on the upper part of the nose 
Pongiangia and Pongiengie. — Tattoo mark 
the nostrils 

Kawe. — Curls of tattooing on the cheek 

Koroaha. — Large curl of moko on cheek 
Pupuwai. — Marks under the ear 
Putaringa. — Marks under the ear 

Paepae. — Upper curl of moko on the cheek 

50 DY. 

3 and Upper f Kurawaka (= Putatara).— A tattoo mark on the hand (J. White, A.H.M.) 
rm L Puhoro. — Pattern as on thighs, sometimes used on upper arm (Urewera). 


ne Breech 
nd Legs 

Ritu. — ^Outer lines of the tattooing on posteriors'^ 
Pakipaki. — Tattooing on the seat 
Rape.— On the higher part of the thigh 
Pakituri — On the lower thigh 

Porori. — Tattoo marks on breech 
Rape. — On the breech 
Paeturi. — Lines on the thigh 
Puhoro. — Tattooing on the thigh 


le Forehea d 
ie Chin 



Wakatehe. — Lines on the chin 
Takitaki. — Lines from the breast 
Hu-pehupe. — Lines on the thighs 

Haehae. — Short straight lines on legs or body 

Hotiki. — Tattooing on forehead 

* Sr' ?! fll,' "? "'^^.^^^"i" l^t «d,. 1850, p. 153; and 2nd ed., 1870, p. 323. 
n ) ™ m? ^- ^' w*^' ^^- ^J^^ *'^°" ^^^ ^^^^^^' History of N.Z ," 1848, p. 57. 
(b VMlliams Bishop W" Dictionary of the N.Z. Language," 4th ed!, 1S92. 
icj .noruana, Ur., hd. " Southern Districts of N.Z.," 1851, p. 17. (The numerals refer to Shortland's Diagram, and to the Figures on this page.) 


TREGEAR (d>. \ 

• jjti, — The central brow ornament of the face tattoo [ 

' Tiwhana. — Lines on the forehead over the eyebrow 

Rewha. — Tattooing on the eyelids 

Kumikumi. — Certain lines on the face 
Pukaru. — Lines on forehead 

Kape. — Tattooing under the eyebrows 

Tara whakatara. — Spirals on upper part of nose 
Hupe. — Pattern just under the nose 
■ Ngu. — On the upper part of nose 
^ Pongiangia. — Lines near the nostrils 

Rerepehi. — Lines encircling mouth 
Pihere. — On the sides of the lips 

Kauwae. — The tattooing on the chin 

n Koti, kokoti. — Tattooing on a portion of the face 
'. Tapawaha. — Tattooing on the cheeks 

Pawaha. — Lines from nose round mouth to chin 

Tuhi. — Part of the tattoo on the face 

Wero. — Certain tattoo lines on the face 
i\ Koroaha, korowaha. — Lines on the face 

Putaka. — Patterns near the ear 

Putaringa. — Marks near the ears 

da Paepae. — I'he large spirals on the cheek 
Riparipa. — Tattooing on the cheeks 

n_J~lJ~l_J~LJ~ Probably a wrist mark of this 

pattern (Urewera). 

Porori.— Marks on breech 
Rape.— On the breech 
Paeturi.— Tattooing on the thigh 
Puhoro.— Tattooing on the thigh 

BEST (e) MARSH r/y 
Titi (m) 

Tiwhana (m) 

Rewa (m) 

Pukaru (b) 

Ngu (m). — At top of 
nose ; He lm:i o te 
ngu, lower down 

Poinoino (m) 

Titi (m). — Long line 
from nose past the 

Ngutu(B). — Lines on 

the lips 

Kohiti, or Hua (m). — 
Pattern just under 
the lips 

Pakiwaha (b) 

Wero (b). — A curl 

under the eye 
Koroaha (m) 
Putaringa (b) 

Kokoti (M).--Near the 


Paepae (m) 

Rauru (b). — Spiral on 

each shoulder 
on the back of a man 


Hotiki. — Tattooing on forehead 

Whakatehe.— Lines on the chin 

Takitaki. — Lines between the breast and navel 

Hopehope.— Lines on the thighs 

Tu-tatua. — Line round waist, 2 inches or 
2-| inches wide 


(dj Tregear Ed. " Maori- Polynesian Comparative Dictionary," IWH, 

Ce) Best, Elsdon, MSS. Notes Urewera District. . 

}f) Marsh, W. (Te Eangi), MS. in Grey Collection, Auckland Library. 


Chief of the Nga=puketurua, the oldest branch of the Puketapu hapu of Ngati-Awa Tribe, 
wearing a Imri-kiiri or mat made entirely of whole dogs' skins. 

This mat Is (according to Native tradition) about 90 years old. The sidns were prepared at Te Namu, Opunake. 
It now belongs to W. H. Skinner, Esq , of New Plymouth. 

mo 16 . HS.AJ3 - 

^ u,o.^<K. '^ ^^/ ,r^ JV-f^ O^^^nJU c^clJ.^ ' 


CcviJAZ ccok, ^^'1 l)fY' ''^'^'^ ^ <^oi*o -no.e/vi. u-iZt ^J^^fu^^t^ ^ '>v<r'-G^ ^•'^^'^ ^ 

V. ,**'' 


Drawn by Majo.-Gen. Robley, from Specimens in his Collection, in further illustration of the Table of Tattooing Terms, p.p. 312-313. 




Aho. — String; woof; the cross threads of a mat. Each aho is composed of four 
threads {iniro). 

Ahumehinne. — A garment for women. It reached from the waist to the knees. 
Akito. — Trail ; as a garment. 

Amokiira. — A bird (Phathon) ; feathers used for ornaments. 
Aohans^a. — A striped variet}' of New Zealand flax (Phonniuin). 
Aorere. — A kind of garment. 

Apa. — The fold of a garment. Apariia. — Two-pl}-. 
Apatahi. — A single covering or garment. 

Ariki-kiwi, or arikiwi. — A garment covered with the feathers of the kvici. 
Aronui. — A finely- woven mat with a deep, ornamental border at bottom and sides. 
Aiirci. — An ivory or bone ornament attached to the front of a mat ; a pin for 
fastening a mat. 

Aute. — A band for the hair ; the paper-mulberry (Bronssonetin) ; a girdle made 

of aute bark. 
Ante taraiiga (Pimelea).- — A small plant from the inner bark of which fillets were 

made for the hair. 


Aiitiii. — Cloak pins made of whalebone or boars' tusks. 

Em'a. — Whakaewa. — Strings of a mat. W hakaewa-rangi. — A highly-ornamented mat. 
Hanahana. — Garment smeared with red ochre. 
Hangii, or haro. — The stripping or scraping of flax. 
Hamkekc, or hararckc. — Phorimum tenax. 
Haronga. — Mat made of the scrapings of flax. 

Hinc-ngaroa. — Taught the art of weaving baskets and sleeping mats in patterns. 
'Hinc-rau-a-inoa. — The first person to understand the art of weaving (N^ati-awa). 
Hingarungaru ; also talicha and takcha. — Coarse, uneven weaving. 
i7d7.— Ornament for the neck; to wear or suspend from the neck. 
Hci-'.iki. — A greenstone ornament worn round the neck. 
Hent. — A comb for the hair. 
Hihima. — A white flax mat. 
Hitaii. — A small mat for the waist. 
Htn. — Lobe of the ear; gusset of a garment. 
Horihori. — A flax cloak with taniko on sides only. 

//o;/.— Feather ; a feather stuck in the hair. Huki.— To stick feathers in the' hair. 
Hnkahuka. —Thxnm^ or shreds on a mat. Hitiigahuiiga.—Tow ; refuse of flax leaf. 
//«/'«.— Feathers. Hunihii; it. ^^sime of a mat. Huritlniru-hika.—One species of flax. 
Huruluka. — Flax of a superior qualit)-. 
Hunhanga takapau. —The ceremon)- of lifting the tapu from one who has been 

m a state of tapu from any circumstances, or initiated into the mysteries 

of the Wiiarepora. 

//;«/)«/»■.— Dogskin mat made of strips of black-haired dogskin like a topuni. 

lo ; also ichengu.— The warp or \-ertical threads of a mat. 

Itau. — Girdle for the waist. 

Kahakaha (Astelia solandri ).-~X plant used for making snow sandals, the white 

portion (tomentum) of the leaves used to ornament the hair, like ribbon ; 

a kind of garment. 
A'rt//rt/«'.— Strap to fasten a load on the back. 
Kahihi. — To patch a garment. 

^''''"- -'''^^f^'- Kahu-mamac.-G.uneni sent to distant relatives of one who 
has hern killed, to keep resentment alive. 

Words connected with Maori Clothing and Ornaments. 317 

Kahii-kekcno. — Mat of sealskin. 

Kahii-khvi. — Mat covered with kiwi feathers. 

Kahii-kuri. —Dog?k\n cloak. Kahu-ii' aero. ~C\o^k of dressed flax covered with 
white dogs' tails. 

Kahutoroa. — Mat covered with albatross feathers. 

Kahii ivaero. — A mat covered with the skins of dogs' tails. 

Kaikaha. — Edges of the leaves of flax, which are split off" and thrown awa}-. 

Kaitaka. — Mat made of the finest flax, with ornamental border. 

Kakahu. — Mat made of fine flax; not properly applied to the coarser fabrics. 

Kapehii. — Ear pendant of greenstone with curved end. 

Karukaru. — Old garment. 

Karurc. — Twist ; spin. The thrums on a kaitaka mat are usually kantre — that is, 

two imro twisted together.' 
Katekatc. — A small mat to cover the shoulders with. 
Kaiihangaroa. — Lax leaved variet}' of tihore (Phonniinn). 
Kaupapa. — The groundwork of a feather mat. 
Kawe. — Straps by which a bundle is carried on the back. 
Kawiliwiti. — Denotes that the io threads of a mat have been spaced too wide. 
Kete. — Basket made of flax. 

Kinikini. — A kilt or waist mat reaching to the knees, made of flax leaves which are 

rolled into cylinders, and rattle as the wearer moves. 
Kiri-kiore. — An expression applied to mat -weaving where the io are close together. 
Kohihi. — A kind of mat. 
Koka. — A coarse mat. 
Komove. — An ornament for the ankle. 

Konekencke. — Mat with thrums made of strips of flax-leaf scraped only at intervals. 
Kopu. — A kind of mat used as an inner garment ; a ball of white feathers (down) 

from the breast of a bird, hung in the ear as an ornament. 

Knpiiku. — A closely-woven mat. 

Koran. — Flower stems of Phormunn tcnax. 

Korirangi. — A mat ornamented with white thrums of unscraped flax ; untwisted 

thrums of a mat. 
Korohunga. — General name for the faniko, or ornamental border of fine mats. 
Korowai. — Mat ornamented with black twisted thrums. 


Koukoii. — A mode of dressing the hair in a top-knot. 

Kuaira. — An ancient garment, probably covered -with feathers. 

Kuril. — An ornament of greenstone for the ear. 

Mahiti. — White mat covered with the long hair from dogs' tails (= mawhiti). 

Mai. — All rough, coarse cloaks. 

Manaeka, or mangaeka. — A kind of timu, or coarse mat of undressed strips of flax, 

the strips bsing coloured red, black, or brown,, and arranged in patterns. 
Manaia. — A carved ivory circular ear pendant. The eagle-headed serpent (very rare). 
Mangnngit. — Closel)^ woven. 
Maro. — Girdle used by either sex ; also apron worn by females. 

Maro-huka. — A sacred girdle worn by priests in certain ceremonies. A maro-tuhou 
was also a priestly maro : it consisted of leaves only. 

Maro-kopua. — Girdle or triangular apron worn b}' women, adorned with taniko and 

Maro-kuta. — A small single maro with a tau, or cord, to fasten it to the girdle 
behind : made of a coarse sedge called kutaknta (Scirpus lacustris), which 
hung down like a kilt. 

Maro-waero. — An apron made from the hair of dogs' tails : for chiefs only. 

Maro-waiapu.— An apron; 

Maui and katau. — The backward (maiii) and forward (katau) movement made by 

the hand when twisting cords or string on the thigh. 
Miri. — A kind of mat resembling a coarse korowai. 
Miro. — Thread. The aho is composed of four mirn. 
Moanarua. — To repair a mat by weaving in a fresh piece. 

Moreinorc-puwha. — The name of a karakia recited when a person is instrufted in the 

art of weaving in the wharepora. 
Motoi. — Ear ornament made of greenstone. 
Miika.—Yihre of flax prepared by scraping. 
Nape. — Weave. 
Neko. — A mat. 
Ngakn. — A basket made of strips of flax. 

Ngchmgehi.—K small bag in which titoki seeds are squeezed for the purpose 
of extracting the oil. 

Ngeri. — A rough kind of mat, or cloak. 

Ngetangeta. — A worn-out mat. 

Words connected with Maori Clothing and Ornaments. 319 

Ngore. — A kind of mat. 

Ngoiingou. — A fashion of wearing the hair. 

Niho-kakere. — Imitation human teeth, made from the columella of a shell. 

Niho-niango. — Shark's tooth for car ornament. 

PaevMcna. — A sort of toe-cap netted of muka, or dressed flax fibre, fastened with 
a cord round the ankle. 

Paepaeroa. — Mat with a broad ornamental border at sides and end. 

Pahanahana. — Anoint with red ochre and oil. 

Pake. — A rough mat made of the leaves of the kiekie, or flax. 

Paki. — Apron ; petticoat. 

Pakipaki. — Kete, or wallet with a flap to cover the opening. Also a fine mat with 
taniko on all sides, and an added piece of ornamented work. 

Pakikau. — Garment. 

Papari. — A combined sandal and legging made of green flax, and stuffed or lined 
with moss. 

Parahuhu. — To draw fibre across the thumb nail in order to scutch it. 

Parakawahia. — Blue earth ^ piikepoto and tutaewhetu (Ngati-Porou). 

Parakiri. — A large flax mat or cloak with taniko at sides, none on the lower 
end {remu). 

Parakoka. — Refuse of flax leaf. 
Pararae. — Sandals for foot covering. 
Paratoi. — A kind of mat. 

Pare. — Band for the hair ; ornament for the forehead ; wreath. 
Parekereke. — Sandal for the foot. 
Paretua. — Pad under a load to protedl the back. 
Paritaniwha. — A sub-variety of tihore (Phoriniuin). 
Paro. — A small basket for cooked food. Also konae, tapania, &c. 
Pata.^A kind of mat. 
Patu-hitaii.- — A stone club for beating flax. 

Pauku. — A garment ; a mat finely woven, with a broad border ; also a thick mat 
which was soaked in water, used then as a defence against spear thrusts. 

Pekapeka. — A greenstone ornament for the ear. 

Pekerere. — Small garment for the shoulder. 

Pohoi. — Bunch of feathers worn in the ear for ornament. 

320 Words conxi.cted with Maori Clothing and Ornaments. 

Pm^rt;/.— The strings of a mat. ^' 

Pihepi he. ^Girdle for the waist. 

Pothcica. ^SmaW basket for cooked food. 

Pokai.—Ball of string. 

Pokeka.—A kind of mat made of Wharariki, or Phormimn Colensoi. 

Poua. — To tie in a knot. 

Pongi. — Girdle. 

Pomfl/;/a.— Feathers worn through the septum of the nose. 

Poro-toroa.— Ornaments made of albatross bone. 

Po/!OZfl.— Handle of a basket, different from kawai. 

Pora, or tua-pora. — A rough cape of harakeke. 

Poria.— Ring on the leg of a captive parrot, sometimes used as an ornament for 

the ear. 
Potae-tnua. — Mourning cap, or fillet. 
Potango. — A variety of Pkormiinn. 
Poti. — A basket for cooked food. 
Pou. — A karakia recited to force home any newly acquired knowledge, and render 

it firm and lasting. 

Piia. — Roll or wrap-up clothes. Piiapua.- -A garment wrapped round the arm as 
a protedlion from a blow. Puapua-taua. — A mourning wreath. 

Ptiahi. — White dogskin mat, the skin cut into thin strips. 

Ptiau. — Pieces of hollow bone (albatross) used as a necklace. 

Piihi. — Knot or bunch of hair ; a mode of wearing the hair done up like a sheaf. 

Puihiihi. — Strings of a mat. 

Pukepoto. — Blue earth used for personal decoration. 

Pukaha. — Refuse portion of flax leaf; a rough kind of cloak made of whitaii. 

Pukirikiri. — Baskets for holding seed kumara. 

Pukoro. — A mat made of closely-woven flax, with a narrow ornamental border. 

Pureke. — Garment made from the fleshy side (?) of the flax leaf. 

Ptite or putea. — Bag or basket for clothes ; any small basket ; small sachet round 

Putiki. — Knob ; method of dressing the hair. 

Pu-tiitit. — Basket for straining the tutu berries : it was lined with toe grass flowers. 

Words connectf.h with AIaoiu Clothing and Ornamf.nts. 321 

T'uiccni. — Shafr.uT mat made of partially dressed flax ; also general name for clothino;. 

Rahiri. — To make the hair up on the crown of the head like a sheaf. 

Rahit. — Basket made of flax leaves. 

Rapaki or papnki. — Kilts like a mat, or mai. 

Rankaivn — An odoriferous shrub, the gum used as a scent (Panax Edgerleyi). 

Rci. — Anything made of ivory ; anything of a real value. 

Rekc. — Method of dressing the hair in a knob. 

Rcko. — A white dogskin mat. 

Renin. — The lower hem of a garment. 

Rerchape. — A sub-variety of Phormium. 

Rohe. — A kind of sandal and legging combined. 

Rouroti. — Small basket for cooked food. Kctc. — Made with loops at the ends. 

Run and Raiiru. — The ancestors who are accredited with inventing the art of 
carving and ornament. 

Ruarangi : He pake niarangi. — A rough mat made of the leaves of the kiekic, which 
had been previously macerated in water. 

Ruhirv.ku. — To gather up into small compass. " Rnkni-ukii Htuiaa ; Iiorahnra, 
Papakamiiy — A proverb expressing the superiority of plain serviceable 
garments to those which are merely ornamental. Hiiuaa being the name 
of a place where fine flax was grown, and Papakaniii that of a kiekie thicket. 

Rukutia. — A variety of tihore. 

Tae. — Juice of bruised plants ; dye ; refuse of flax. 

Taheha. — A small mat. 

Tahuka. — A mat like a koroivai, but without thrums. 

Tcikapapa. — Mat on which to spread cooked food. 

Tnkapau. — Mat to sleep on ; the finer kind of mats used in a house. 

Takirikan. — A variety of flax, the fibre of which is disengaged without the use 

of a shell. 
Taniko. — Ornamental border of a mat. 

Tapahii. — A war cloak of dogskin, made by sewing together entire skins of dogs. 
Tapoto. — A variety of Phormium ; called also tihore and takiri kau. 
Tarahau. — A rough mat. 

Tatara. — Rough mat made from the leaves of the kiekie. 
Tatua. — A girdle. 

3-2 2 

Words connected with Maori Clothing and Ornaments. 

Tatua-pupara.—k kind of girdle. Tatua-whara.^A girdle worn by women. 

Tau. — String of a garment. 

Tana. An ancient word, only applied to the commencement of the weaving 

of a garment. 

Taurekereke.—k term applied to the margins or edge {tapa) of a garment. 

Tauri. — A ring round the ankle of plaited undressed fiax (= Tauri-Komore). 

Taiitaii. — A greenstone ornament hooked at the end. Same as kapehu. 

Tawhiu. — The first aho, or woof thread of a mat. 

Tiare. — Scent ; or tiere (interesting as retaining the Polynesian name for the sweet- 
scented Gardenia.) 

Tieke. — A black mat. 

Tienga. — A mat to lie on. 

Tihetihe. — A cloak like a tinm. 

Tihoi.—RyiY)2jn.d the middle of a mat in the weaving by inserting threads in the 
woof which do not run through to the edge ; the short aho, or thread. 

Tihore. — The best variety of Phormium ; prepared without the use of a shell. 

Tika. — Ordinary swamp flax. 

Tikitiki. — Girdle ; a greenstone ornament for the neck. 

Timu. — A cape, about four feet by three, covered thickly with short pieces of 
undressed flax. 

Tul. — A rough cloak made of the leaves of Toi iCordvline indivisa). 

Toiki, or tukohu. — A round basket in which certain food is steeped in water. 

Tongarerewa. — An ornament for the ear. 

Tope. — An ornament of feathers, worn on the forehead. 

Tope-kura. — Front lock left long, when the rest of the hair is cut off, in imitation 
• of a tope-kura. 

Topiini. — A black dogskin mat. 

Tii. — Girdle to which the maro was attached. 

Tualiaii. — A rough kind of mat made from the leaves of the kickic. 

Tuaka. — Feather quills used in olden times for needles : they were then called 

Tii-karetu. — A woman's waist girdle, made of the karetii grass (Hierochloe). 

Tu-muka.—¥\Rx girdle of twelve strands, four being white, four black, and four red. 

Tu-inaurca.~A belt made from the bright reddish-yellow leaves of the maurea. 

Words connhcte]) with Maori Clothing and Ornaments. 323 

Tuputupu. — A kind of mat. 

TunUiini. — The sticks used in mat-making to carry the tawhiu. Either two or four 

are used. The left hand turiituru is called rua. 
Tu-icharariki. — A flax belt filled with kopiirn moss. 

Tii-ic'hara. — Coarse mat placed on the floor under the finer takapau, or kiekie mat. 
Ua. — Thick twisted or plaited hair on the collar of a mat. 
Uru. — To repair a mat by weaving in a new piece. 
Waihinau. — A flax mat dyed black. 

Weru, iceweni, or n'cruiveru. — The latter word is often used, especially of finely 
woven flax mats with broad ornamental borders. 

Whakairo. — Not only carving, but ornamental patterns in mats or baskets. 

Wliakakai. — Ornament for the ear. 

Wliakangiingn-rakau. — A closely-woven mat worn to defend the person from missiles. 

Whakapuni.—Va.d to prevent chafing. Whakapiiru-tao. — Pad - worn on the arm 
as a defence against a spear thrust. 

Whara. — A mat used as a carpet. 

Wharanui. — A variety of Phorniiiiiii, usually scraped with a shell {= taroa). 

WJiarariki (Phormiiiin Colensoi). — An inferior kind of flax. 

Whare-pora. — A house specially set aside for teaching and conserving the art of 
weaving in its various branches, in which were performed the ceremonies 
connedfed with the teaching of the student. 

Whariki. — Floor mats. 

Whatii. — To weave. 

Whckaivhcka. — Garment. 

Wlicngu (=ioJ. — The vertical threads of a mat. 

Whitaii. — Prepared fibre of Phormiiiin, especiall}' that from the variety called 

takirikaii or tiJwre. 
Whitiki. — Belt ; girdle. 

Group of Carvings and Weapons. 

The light-coloured viem is a beautiful specimen, called " 'Viil,it;-\r)iriiiui,' 
belonging to Airene (Mrs. Donnelly), ot Heretaunga, Hawke's Bay. 

* PLATES. * 


INIaoki Art. 

Figs. X Eincl 3. 

Flax Mats. 

The mats represented in figures 1 and 3 are called Parawai, and this includes 
three varieties — huaki, korohunga, and paepaeroa. These were all highly prized, and 
made of carefully-selefted scraped flax. The patterned borders were sometimes 
woven by men. The greatest artist in this line in the Bay of Plenty was a chief 
called Tiopera Hukiki, of Rangitaiki. He would often receive the equivalent of 
^7, for the border to a single korohunga mat. 

) » »• ( 

Fig. 2. 

Mat with Taniko Borders. 

Huaki — a mat with two, and rarely three, taniko borders or flounces, — the most 
highly pHzed of all Maori garments. No plebeian would be allowed to wear one. 
This one was the property of a man called Te Araki te Pohue ; but as there was a 
stain on his escutcheon he was ashamed to wear it, and Captain Mair obtained it 
from hinl at Kaiteriria in 1866. 

Depth, 4ft. bin. \Vidth, 6ft. 

> • • • c 

Fig. 4. 

Flax Mat. 

A plain koroicai mat. These are made in some parts of New Zealand at the 
present time, and were much worn — especially by women. 
Depth, 4ft. 6in. Width, 6ft. 6in, 

= — -, >-•-•-»■( 

Fig. 5. 

Flax Mat. 

A kind of konrwai mat with the strings arranged in bands, and with the body 
f the mat in stripes of black and white. This is a rare kind. It has been photo- 
graphed upside down ; the thick fringe at the bottom should be at the top. Smiilar 
in size to the last. 

— > g ♦ «» < — 


Fig. 6. 

Flax Mat. 

A korowai mat with few strings and tufts of red feathers or wool like those on 
a pekerangi mat. There is also a small narrow border at the bottom. 

In weavmg koroi^ai mats, the work is commenced at renin, the lower end of the 
garment, and finished at whin, the collar. The ends of the io projedt above the 
first aho, and are cut off straight— perhaps an inch from the aho. The ends are not 
turned m. ' 

In /;«o kakahn the upper ends of the 10 are turned down over the first aho, and 
woven m as lo^hc nica iuhonohono hacrc. This process of turning down the zo ends, 
maromu paepaeroa, cKrc, is known as iapiki, as in konncai the renin is first woven, 
i he finishmg uff of the tapa of taniko work is also he niea tapiki. 


B'ig. 1. 

E'ig. 2. 

Wig. 3. 

JPi^- 4. 

firi. S. 

^ Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Flax Mat. 

'. This is a rare kind of mat called a kuirl, having the strings arranged close 
together in squares, in lines, or diagonals. 
Depth, 4ft. 6in. Width, 6ft. 6in. 

Fig. 3. 

Flax Mat. 

Another specimen of the ivhakahckchcke with the white stripes left without strings. 

Depth, 4ft. 6in. Width, 5ft. 6m. 

The fringe of short black thrums (hukahtika) often seen on the two ends of 
koroivai, or in the remu only, is called knrupatu. The hukahiika of this fringe are 
fastened to the second aho. 

Fir*. 3. 

Flax Mat. 

Another kniri with a different arrangement of the cluster of strings. 

Fig. 4. 

Flax Mat. 

Mat covered with horizontal rows, closely set, of short hukahiika, and with 
ornamental border at the bottom and sides. 

Fig. 5, 

Chiefs Mat of Flax, covered with strips of Dogskin. 

A dogskin cloak made with strips of dark rich brown hair, with two stripes of 
white hair on each side. 

Depth, 3ft. gin. Width, 4ft. 6in. 

Fig. 6. 

Chief's Mat of Flax, covered with strips of Dogskin. 

Mahiti or Ihuptmi. — These were usually fighting mats, and were almost 
impervious to spear-thrusts. The flax foundation work of these dogskin cloaks is 
called paukii, the aho or cross threads in it are touching each other so closely as to 
resemble woven coarse canvas. It also resembles the taniko, or ornamental work 
attached to garments of fine scraped flax. This particular mat was woven about 
the year 1800 as a kahu mainac (garment of pain) on account of the slaughter of a 
large number of Tuhourangi chiefs at Pukekahu, on Lake Rerewhakaitu. One of 
the widows — a woman of high rank called Pareraulutu — carried it to the great 
Ngati-Maniapoto chief Tukorehu and sat covered up m it for several days fasting 
in his marac till his sympathies were so aroused that he consented to avenge the 
wrongs of her tribe. The mat subsequently descended to Tukorehu's grandson, the 
late Rewi Maniapoto, who sent it to Ihakara Tukumaru, of Foxton, on the birth of 
his daughter. In 1866 Ihakara gave it to Poihipi Tukairangi, the principal chief of 
Taupo, who presented it to Captain Mair. The cap above it is a potac mamae, or 
potac f ana, worn by widows when mourning. 


Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. •*. 

E'ig. 5. 

l^ig. S. 

,,o Maori Art. 

Feather Shoulder Mat. 

Kahu kiwi, or shoulder cloak, of flax covered with kiwi feathers. This mat was 
made about 1820 at the south end of LakeTaupo, and though smaller than many, 
is a good specimen, the feathers being well fastened and arranged. At the lower 
border is an edging of red, white, and black feathers, from the feathers of the kaka 
parrot, pigeon, and tui. 

Feather Shoulder Mat. 

A shoulder cloak of feathers (kahu kura). This is a very showy and beautiful 
specimen. The darkest squares are the blue-black feathers of the tut (Prosthemadera), 
the lighter squares are the crimson feathers from under the wing of the kaka parrot 
(Nestor), and the white squares are composed of feathers from the breast of the 
native pigeon (Carpophaga) ; on these white squares have been placed some feathers 
from the introduced pheasant. . 

Depth, 3ft. Width, 3ft. 6in. 

Fig. 3. 

Feather Shoulder Mat. 

This is a cloak made entirely of the feathers of the pigeon, the groundwork being 
wtiite feathers, and the vertical stripes, of the peacock-green feathers from the neck. 
Depth, 3ft. Width, 3ft. 6in. 
. There are several kahus, or feather cloaks, mentioned in Maori legends, such as 
the Kura Tainihinihi. Another noticeable one was called Te Aim Kuranui, 
which belonged to Taiwhakaaea — a chief who was famous for his benevolence. His 
place of residence (about fifteen generations ago) was the top of Maunganui, the 
south head of Tauranga harbour. Whrnever he required food for a feast, he would 
spread out his prized mat — Te Aha Kuranui — on the slope of the mountain, and 
his vassals living twenty miles away at Maketu would immediately send large 
quantities of supplies. Red being the sacred colour, it became the habit to speak 
of a great chief as a kura, or nianu kura, hence the old Maori proverb " / te wa e ora 
ana te tama a Kiripuai, he kura te tangata : I te mea kiia mate, he inoino te tangata." 
(" In the days when the son of Kiripuai lived, human beings were as red feathers — 
pearls of great price, but now that he is dead, human beings are merely a breed.") 

}F'ig. 4. 

RouRh Cloak or Mat. 

A pake, tara, tatara, or taratara, or shelter cloak, made of shreds of flax leaves 
dyed black. Very serviceable for sleeping in : for this purpose they were made 
much larger. Some were not dyed, and had the shreds much longer. 

Fig. 5. 

Feather Cloak. 

Large feather cloak, of black and white feathers arranged in squares. 
Auckland Museum. 

Fig. 6. 

Flax Mat. 

A shoulder cloak. A rare kind (kinikini), covered with rattling thrums of flax. 
When Te Kooti, after he had received his pardon as a rebel chief, met Captain 
Mair, he threw this -mat over his shoulders and said: "Even though this mat be 
too small to cover you, my love encircles your body from head to foot." The mat 
has a border oi kiwi feathers, and a plaited"' border at the bottom. It weighs gibs. 

Depth, 4ft. Width, 5ft. gin. 

I'l.vTE ?:i. 

Wi^. 2. 

Fi^. 4. 

fig. S. 

Fif^. S. 

Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Maro or Aprons.. 

Maro waiapu, maro mil, &c. These maro were worn as waist mats by women, 
the married ones, wearing larger mats than the unmarried. " 


Fig. 2. 

Belts, Girdles, &c. 

Colleaion of belts (tn, tatiiaj and carrying straps for bundles (kawe). The one 
the left IS of the kardu grass, which has the strong pleasant scent of sweet 

woodruff. (/^.s/'«';'/«y'- 

Fig. 3. 

Carrying Straps and Belts. 

■Kaivc, or-bundle straps and belts, showing the details of the work. 

Fig, 4. 

Waist Mats or Kilts. 

A waist mat of long twisted cords of flax attached to a narrow band of woven 
flax. The variety of patterns in this class of kilt is very great. 

Below the kilt is a double maro of woven flax with a fringe. It is ornamented 
with a cross on the back and front portions in red wool. This was worn by 
Hauhaus ui their religious dances. 

In the collection of Dr. Hocken, Dunedin. 

Fig. 5. 

Flax Mat. 

Cloak made of dressed flax, dyed black. If plain, this was called a ivaihinau ; 
if adorned with round spots of feathers or wool, it was called a pckerangi. 

Fig, 6. 

Shoulder Mats. 

Two shoulder cloaks, of flax, and a kilt of rattling c^'linders of flax leaf, 
attached to a narrow plaited band dyed black. 

PL \'i'F, xrj 

'i/-r it^:nt^-*ti^£issajjjl^ifssx;sid.t j vyraggj 

Clg. 1. 

Fig. a. 

Fig. 3. 







.■■■■■ ■■ :■. 










Jh ^'^ 



m ' 




■ J 

hC 7 



■'■.- -■■'■•'^Sf 

^Ki iJI 


' " 



^" H 











>3f - 

' 'W '■ 


_.f. 'a 

.., •%. ■ 




- ; \\\ 

•,\ ■- • ^ _ 




^- ^i 

• -■'•■.''' 

< i ■ 'i '. 

' • i 



' '' I'i 


Fig. 4. 

:Fig. 5. 

Fig. e. 

.-. . Maori Art. 


Fig. 1. 

Dogskin Mats. 

Two very fine specimens of thcsL' mats covered with strips of dogskin. 
Auckland ?^Iuseum. 

Fig. 3. 

Flax Mat. 

A fine specimen of a thick shoulder mat, made with a pattern of small squares 
of black, brown, red, and white. Beside it are two fine dress inats,_ one with a 
double taniko border; and beneath, is a kilt of long cords of dressed flax, dyed 
black. ^ 

These are in the cohesion of H. Hill, Esq., Napier. 

Fig. 3. 

Collection of Textiles and Kete full of Tihtmii Leaves ( Celimsia'j. 

These sandals, bags, and hanks of flax, were found inside the large kete in a 
cave in Central Otago. They are fully described in Trans. N.Z. Institute, 
Vol. XXIX., p. 174, pi. IX. The sandals are used when travelling over mountain 
ranges or strong places. ■ 


r'lg. X. 

d^. 2. 

Fig. 3. 


Maori Art. 

Figs. 1 Sc- Z. 

Patterns of Taniho work, on Dress Mats of Fine Flax. 

I am pleased to be able to include in this part two photographs of the borders 
of the New Zealand mats in the British Museum colleftion. Most of these 
examples are of early date, and are very typical patterns. The lower pattern in 
fig. I is very elaborate, and represents great labour. 

The body of the lower mat in fig. 2 appears to be made in paiilui work, or 
plait, and is the only specimen I have seen of the kind. All other mats made 
after this fashion have been covered with the dogskin strips, as in Plate XXXIX., 
figs. 5 and 6, and Plate XLII., fig. i. 


Fig. X. 

Fig. a. 

-338 Maori Art. 

Fig. X. 

Kete, in the Colonial Museum. 

The two upper kete are made for carrying quantities of potatoes or other food 
roots, or for holding garments. They are kept closed by lacing a cord through the 
loops along the edges. 

The two lower ones are of smaller size. One is very ingeniousl}' made frorn 
the leaves of the Nikau palm (Rhopalostylis). The mid rib being split, forms the 
upper edge of the basket. The other is an elaborately made bag of dressed flax, 
dyed in black and red-brown, worked in taniko style, as in the borders of dress mats. 
The border of an old mat in this style is shown in the same figure. 

) •••■ - 

Fig. 2. 

Kete, from the Collection of Rev. T. Hammond, Patea. 

A seleftion of kete from Rev. T. Hammond's collec^tion, including a number of 
good patterns executed in flax, ti, or kickic leaves. The people of the West Coast 
of the North Island are very skiJful at this work. 

Fig. 3. 

• Kete, or Baskets. 

The spacimens in this photograph were made in the East Cape distrift, and 
show some bold and beautiful patterns. 

The few natives remaining in the South Island still make a variet}- of kete 
with the old patterns, some of which, however, have assumed European names, 
such as '* barbed-wire " pattern. 



Rr^'/ k< >'* "^^^ 

«;-:: 'W ^.Lat.: Sa 


^-aIj^3j^^BfcBMt^^BH^^^^^^B|^^ > ^^Btf^l^^^l^^^M 



^^^^^^BmB^^sBmSMiSB^SS^^^^'—*"" '• ^-fi.ji^Bffl 


k>fc- ^»*«»l 

I^irf. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

, lO ^Iaoki Art. 

Hei Tiki. 

Photograph of a coUeftion oi hei tiki, taken at the time of the New Zealand 
and South Seas Exhibition, at Dunedin, by Mr. Morris. The specimens represent 
most of the cliief varieties. 


^_l^2 Maori Art. 

:Fig. X. 

Hei Tiki. 

Five specimens of the hei tiki. The largest one was. dug up near the East 
Cape, and is of very fine workmanship. The broken specimen by its side is a very 
unusual form. 

Suspended by a ribbon are some specimens of the mako, or shark's tooth, so 
highly prized as an ear ornament. They were worn suspended some little distance 
from the ear, with the point directed forward. 

Fig. 2. 

Hei Tiki, or Neck Ornament. 

A unique type of hei, from the British Museum colleftion. It seems to be 
intermediate in general form between the large pendants in the form of a hook 
(iiiatau), and the hei tiki. The barb end of the hook forms a curious shaped head 
piece, recalling the feather helmets of Hawaii. In this, as in many other examples, 
there seems to have been a hole broken out at the top. Was this an accident, 
which necessitated the second hole, or was it made thus originally? If so, it may 
represent the slit which leads to the hole in the turtle shell ornaments, such as those 
in the Edge-Partington Album, Sup. pi. i8o, fig. ii, &c., from New Guinea. See 
also a turtle shell ornament, like a uiatau, pi. 21 of the same work. . 

Fig. 3. 

Collection of Greenstone Ornaments. 

The two central objefts, and two others, are anthropomorphic pendants, which 
would probably come under the title of tiki popohc. 

The knife-shaped specimen at the bottom has a sharp edge. 
The remaining objefts are greenstone mat pins. 

Fig. 4. 

A Collection of the Curious Curved Greenstone Pendants, called Tautmi. 

The difficulty of cutting these out of the stone is much increased by the 
peculiar shape. In conneaion with this form, no explanation has been given of the 

I'L\I'K \l.Vl 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Firf. 3. 

E-ig. 4. 

, , I Maori Ak'i'. 

Fig. 1. 

Pendants in Bone. 

The first specimen on the left hand is a carved pendant cut from hard, dense 
whale's bone. It was found at the old moa hunters' camp at the mouth of the 
Shag River. 

The next specimen is a very rare form of tongue-shaped pendant, seen in most 
of the drawings illustrating Cook's Voyages. It is exceedmgly rare in colleaions, 
although apparently common at that time. This one was found at Lake EUesmere, 
Canterbury, and is in the colleftion of Alex. Thomson, Esq., Dunedin, as is also 
the lici tiki next to it, which is cut out of a solid piece of whale's bone. 

The remainmg objects are tattooing chisels, which were fixed, adze like, to 
wooden handles. The large one is unusual, as it seems to have been double-ended. 
These were found on the old middens, on the coast of Otago. 

Fig. 2. 

Bone Pendants. 

Two bone pendants — one from a camp at the mouth of the Shag River, and 
another, without the median ridge, but otherwise of the same type — from Cape 
Campbell. These are fully described in the Trans. N.Z. Institute, \o\. XXIX. 
.(1896),. page 174, pi. IX. 

Fig. 3. 

Greenstone Pendants. 

These curious and unique pendants were found in a rock shelter in the 
Hakateramea Gorge some years ago, together with the skeleton of a female. 
The longer one is of a translucent greenstone, called tangiicai ; the other, which 
is not perforated, is a kind of green mica. 

Length, 6f inches. 

> • • « < 

Fig. 4. 

Wooden Carving. 

This curious carved piece of wood is in the colleftion of Major-Gen. Robley. 
It is elaborately carved all over, and inlaid with paua shell. By the hole in it, it 
appears as if intended for suspension, and it was probably worn as an ornament. 


Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 


Maori Art. 

Bunch of Mat Pins — Aiirei, Antui. 

A colledlion of the pins used to fasten the mats or cloaks worn over the 
shoulder. A man of importance would have several bunches of these, of various 
forms, at the fastenings of his mat. Some were ground out of the tooth of the 
sperm whale ; others, in later times, from the curved tusks of the wild boars that 
were plentiful in the bush country. The specimens figured belong to Capt. Mair. 

Fig. 2. 

A very unusual type of greenstone mere, recently found in a burial cave north 
of Auckland, and now in the Auckland Museum. The shape is quite unique in 
greenstone. The greenstone ornament, or hei, is a matau, or hook. 

Fig. 3. 

Three=Armed Stone Implement. 

This remarkable obje6t was found on the sandhills near Okehu, Taranaki, by 
Mr. Handley. It is made of a dense hard flint-like stone. It is impossible to say 
what it really was used for. It would be possible to use it as an auger. It has 
been suggested that it was used for divination. A similar tribrach celt of flint was 
found in the Isle of Wight.* 

The other objeft is a small pendant of a curious shape, slightly notched at the 
side, apparently in the same way as edge of fig. 4. It may have been a Kaiwhatu, 
or charm stone, by which witchcraft was averted. Each person could have an 
amulet, or charm stone, of his own. 

Fig. 4. 

Greenstone Pendant. 

Pendant of clear translucent greenstone, from the Island of Ruapuke, in 
Foveaux Straits. It is notched at the edge. 

In the coUedlion of Dr. T. M. Hocken, Dunedin. 

Fig. 5. 

Sandstone Pendant. 

This was found at Centre Island, in Foveaux Straits. The face carved on 
each side of the hole for suspension is quite unlike Maori work. I am unable to 
suggest any use for it. It is now in Mr. F. R. Chapman's colle6\ion, Dunedin. 

* See Proc. Soc Antiq., 2nd Series, Vol. V., p. 113; Arch. Journal, Vol. XXX., pp. 28, 85, aud y-i. lii iuriii it is 
much of the same character as some of the Implements from Yucatan (Zeit. Schr. fur Ethn., Vol. XII., p. 237), and 
from Vladimir, Kussia (Cong. Prehist. Moscow, 1893, p. 249). 


Fig. 1. 

Firi. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fifi. 5. 


Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Hei Tiki, &c. 
Three interesting specimens from the colkaion of Major-Gen. Robley, London. 
' The first, being a tiki carved in bone, and elaborately ornamented. 
- The second, a fine specimen of the shark's tooth (mako), with its graceful 
curves, so much prized by the natives generally as an ornament for the ear. It 
should always be hung with the point pointing forwards. 

The third specimen is very rare, being a human jaw, deeply carved, and 
coloured with the sacred red ochre, or paint. 

Fig. 2. 

Strip of Patterns used in making Kete, &c. 

This pattern strip was made for me at Rotorua by a Maori expert, Te Ikapuhi, 
of the Ngatipikiao tribe, through the kind offices of Mr. C. E. Nelson, of 

(i) Purapurawhetit 

(2) Poutama 

(3) Torakaraka 

Names of Patterns : 

(•4) Whakakanac 

(5) Whakatutu 

(6) Whakaiiihoniho 

(7) Nihotaniwha 

(8) Takitahiwhakakoki 
(g) Raukiunara 
( I o) Kowh diii'hakakoki 

Fig. 3, 

Collection of Greenstone Ornaments. 

A number of greenstone ear" pendants and hci tiki of various forms and sizes. 
The string of greenstone beads at the top was said to have been dug up at Rotorua ; 
but, I think it is probable that the beads are, at any rate, of New Caledonian 
manufafture, even if they were dug up in New Zealand. The small ornaments at 
the top are pekapeka, and a small shark tooth, cut out of steatite. It is interesting 
to notice amongst the tiki an axe, or adze, on which is the beginning of the grooves 
by which the figure is cut out. 

All these specimens are in the Auckland Museum. 

IM.A'I'E \I,IX. 

F-i^. 1. 


















^^B ^^P .^LJ 


^^^^^^^H I A^^^^^^^^^H 





■" '"^^^H 

I^Hl^ '9^^^^ 


^^^^M^^^E'^ #^^| 



k't ^ 







ITig. 3. 

Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Dried Tattooed Head. Auckland Museum. 

Remarkable parallels may be found to the patterns on these Maori heads in 
the tattooing on some Central Africans, sketches of which are given in the 
" Verhandl. der Berliner Gesellschaft fur Anthrop.," &c., Dec. 20th, 1884, p. 608. 
It would be ver}' interesting to have more material for comparison. 

The pradfice of drying heads- is a very old custom among the Urewera or 
Tuhoe people. They stripped the skin of the neck as low down as thn shoulders to 
allow for the contraction in drying. An oven, or iiimi, was made with a single 
opening at the top, over which the head was placed, and slowly cured b\' the 
application of heat and smoke. 

Fig. 2. 

Carved Head. 

A well tattooed head, from a house gable, or a war canoe, showing a very 
typical and charadferistic pattern. A careful examination of this pattern will, I 
think, support the views expressed on page 308. 

From the colleftion of Mr. E. Craisc, Auckland. 

Fig. 3. 

Collection of Necklaces. 

The whole of these objefts, with the exception of the dentalium shells, have 
been found on the site of the old Maori Settlements in Otago, and form part of 
Mr. F. R. Chapman's colledfion. In the centre are three short pieces of bone, used 
as toggles, to pass through a loop at the end of the flax cord by which a hci tiki was 
suspended. Below these are imitation teeth, cut from the central portion of a sea 
shell, and are called niho kakcrc. The other two large necklaces are of sharks' 
teeth. The outer row are jet black, and ha\'c been burnt, cither accidentalh' or 
intentionally — the basal angles liavo also been ground off. It is just possible that 
these teeth may have been fastened on to a wooden base, and formed a formidable 
cutting weapon. They were all found together. 

The long greenstone pendant was found with tlie other row of sharks' teeth. 
The necklace of dentalia is referred to on page 307. 

I-'I,A'I'K L, 

< jK.\^ 

t-i^. 1. 

wi^. 3. 

Fig. 3. 

0^2 Ma(jki Art 

Fig. 1. 

Qreenstone Pendants. 

A seledion of very typical forms of .Ljreenstone pendants, mainl)' from the 
North Island of New Zealand. The)- are in Dr. T. M. Hocken's coUeftion, 


»> • • < 

Fig. 2. 

Carved Funnels, for Feeding Chiefs. 

These beautifully carved specimens are wooden funnels, used to convey more 
or less liquid food to a person who was beinji; tattooed. The upper one is in 
Major-General Robley's collection, in London ; the middle one is in the British 
Museum ; and the lower one gives the details of the pattern usual h' applied to 
these articles. 

Fig. 3. 

Details of tlie Method of Making Flax Mats. 

Mr. Elsdon Best has kindly sent me these specimens, from Ruatahuna, 
Uriwera County, showing the method of making the stiff groundwork of the 
spear-proof mats, usually covered with strips of dogskin. This style of work is 
called paukii — in it the aho are quite close together. The lower portion shows the 
method of starting an ordinary flax kaitaka mat. Different varieties of flax were 
used for different parts of a garment. Thus, in the maro, or apron, in Plate XLL, 
fig. I, the groundwork is of a kind of flax called paritaniicha, and the Imkahuka, or 
thrums, of another kind called one. 

Attached to one of the strands of this specimen is a plaster cast of a very 
curious hei tiki, representing a monster, or ahia, sideways. It somewhat resembles 
the tnaiiaia, or bird-headed snake form seen is northern New Zealand carvings. 
Not being able to obtain a photograph of the original from Major Roblcy, its 
owner, in time for this plate, I am obliged to figure a rather poor cast. 

PT,ATE 1,1. 

Fig. 1. 

354 Maori Art. 

Figs. 1 & 3. 

Wooden Combs (Heru). 

The separate pieces of wood which form the teeth of these wooden combs 
are cleverly bound together with fine flax string in various patterns. 

Fig. 2. 

Slab Carved with Heads, showing the Patterns of Moho, or Face Tattoo 

lor Male and Female. 

This line slab was specially carved, for the purpose of illustrating this work, 
by Tene Waitere, of Kuato, Kotoiti, a carver of repute ; with the object of showing 
more minutely the details of two of the leading designs made use of in adorning 
the face of a chief; and also the full face tattoo of a female of high rank. 

Fig. 4. 

Combs, «&c. In the Auckland Museum. 

In this figure are shown further s]iecimens of combs of bone and of wood. In 
the upper left hand corner are some greenstone rings (poria) for the legs of 
decoy parrots. On the other side are some sharks' teeth, used as ear ornaments. 
The remaining articles are niostl\' mat pins, or fasteners, made from bone and from 

whales' teeth. 


I'l.A'I'K 1, 11. 


Fig. X. 

F-il^. 3. 

Fig. 3. 

" 1 1 

i 1 


6 d 9 

J ^ 

. it 


B B 1 iii ., 

' ^> (((|. 1 


m ■ \vv\ V 

Fig. 4. 

Portraits of Five Chiefs of High Rank, Aucliland. 


Making a Flax Mat at Ruatahuna 

.... Page 271. 

Cap of Worked Flax, ornamented with the Feathers and Beaks of the 

Htna (Neomorpha). In the colleftion of Major-Gen. Robley Page 297. 

The 21 feathers are not fastened in: at present they are on 
one side only. I have an old photograph of a man carrying such 
a cap, which apparently has feathers all over it. On this specimen 
there are the heads of live liitias. The groundwork of this cap is 
tiax, d}-ed yellow. Some parts are black. 

Ornamental Borders of Fine Mats (taniko work). 

The long scarf of scraped flax on the table beneath these 
borders is an interesting specimen of the work of the Chatham 
Island Maoris. It is six inches wide, and about sixteen feet long. 
It is called a Maroichara, and was worn by people of rank* .... Page 298. 

Natives with Flax i\Iats, Hiiia I'^athers, and Greenstone Ornaments .... Page 299. 

* See Journal Pol. Soc , III., pago US. 

]^H List of Illustrations in the Text. 

Dia,2;ram of the Parts of the Tattoo on the face of a chief. After a 

sketch by Major-Gen. Robley .... .... .... .... Page 313. 

Drawings showing breecli and thigh tattooing, from original 
sketches by the author. The small pattern (hotiki) at the top is 
that sometimes found on the forehead of a lady of rank. The 
pattern below it gives the detail of the design on the thigh. The 
three lower patterns are varieties of the mouth and chin patterns of 
the tattoo for women. 

Ramcka ic Amai. A Taranaki Chief, wearing a Mat made of prepared 

dogskins, sewn together .... .... .... .... Page 314. 

Strips of dogskin are affixed in some ]-)laces as ornaments. 
See page 87. 

Four Old Chiefs, well tattooed .... .... .... .... Page 315. 

Colledfion of Paddles, Feather Boxes, Weapons, <X:c. ... .... Page 324. 

Two rare specimens 'are the two decorated .gourds, used as 
bowls or dishes on important occasions. The gourds are incised 
with the pattern, the lines are then filled in with colour. As the 
gourds dry, they take a high polish, and are preserved with great 
care. These belong to Capt. Mair, and are of considerable age. 
The paddles belong to Mr. Bold, of Auckland. 

Portraits of Five Chiefs of High Rank. -Auckland .... .... Page 357. 

Carved \\'ooden Club .... .... p^^^^ g 

Sheet showing Four Tattooed Heads, from originals in the colledtion 
of Major-General I^obley. In further illustration of the table of 
tattooing terms. 

io tollow Table and Diagrams on Page 313. 


Plate XXXVin. 

Fiij,'. I . 

Fio-. 2. 

Fi^- 3- 

Fig- 4- 

Fig. 5- 

Fior. 6. 



I'ig- I- 

Fi^-. 2. 

Fig. 3- 

Fig. 4- 

Fig. 5- 

Fig. 6. 


XL. : 

Fig. I. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig- 4- 

Fig- 5- 

Fig. 6. 


XLL : 

Fig. I. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3- 

Fig- 4- 

Fig- 5- 

Fig. 6. 

-Flax Mat. Capt. Mair's Colleaion. 

-Flax Mat, with Double Border. Capt. Mair's Colleaion. 

-Flax Mat. Capt. Mair's Colleaion. 

-Flax Mat. 

-Flax Mat. 

-Flax Mat. A. Hamilton's 

-Flax Mat. Capt. Mair's CoJlcction. 

-Flax Mat. ,, ,, ,, 

-Flax Mat. 

-Flax Mat. A. Hamilton's Colleaion, Dunedin. 

-Brown Dogskin Mat. Dr. T. M. Hocken's Colledl:ion, Dunedin. 

-White Dogskin Mat. Capt. Mair's Colleaion. 

-Kiwi Feather Mat. A. Hamilton's Colleaion, Dunedin. 

-Feather Shoulder Mat. Capt. Mair's Colleaion. 

-Feather Mat. ,, ,, ,, 

-Rough Shoulder Cloak. ,, ,, ,, 

-Large F'eather Cloak. Auckland Museum. 

-Cloak Covered wi-th Rattling Thrums. Capt. Mair's Colleaion. 

-Three Maro, or Aprons. A. Hamilton's Collection, Dunedin. 
-Belts, (iirdles. ,, ,, ,, 

-Carrying Cords and Bl'IIs. ,, ,, ,, 

-Waistbands. Dr. T. \l. Hocken's Colleaion, Dunedin. 
-Black I'dax Alat. ,, ,, 1, 

-Shoulder Cloaks and Kilts. Capt. :\Iair's and A, Hamilton's Col. 


List of Speci!\iens Figukkd in ti-ii'. Plates. 

Plate XLII. : 

Fie. I. — Doeskin Cloaks. Auckland Museum. 
Fia. 2.— Flax Mat. H. Hill's Colleftion, Napier. 
ki,e- 3- — Colle61:ion of Textiles. 

Plate XLII I. : 

Figs. 1 and 

-Ornamental Borders of Flax Mats. British Museum. 

Plate XLIV. : 

Fig. I. — Satchels, or Kete. 

Fig. 2. — Satchels, or Ketc. 

Fig. 3. — Satchels, or Kctc. 

Colonial Museum. 

Rev. T. Hammond's Colle6fion, Patea. 

A. Hamilton's Colle6tion, Uunedin. 

Plate XLV. : 

Fig. I. — Hci Tiki. These are in various private colledlions. Some are 
now in England. 

Plate XLVI. : 

Fig. I. — Hci Tiki. H. Hill's Collection, Napier. 

Fig. 2. — Hci Tiki. British Museum. 

Fig. 3. — Greenstone Ornaments. \'arious private colledfions. 

r'ig. 4. — Greenstone Ornaments. H. Hill's Colledlion, Napier. 

Plate XLVII. : 

Fig. I. — Pendants, &c. Alex. Thomson's Colledlion, Dunedin. 

Fig. 2 
Fig. 3 
I^^ig- 4 

Plate XLVIII. 











— Pendants. A. Hamilton's Colletlion and Colonial INIuseum. 

— Greenstone Pendants. A. Hamilton's Colkdfion. 

— Wooden Ornaments. Major-Gen. Robley's Colleftion, London. 

— Mat Pins — {Aiirci, Aiitui). Capt. Mair's Colledtion. 

— Greenstone Merc and Hci. Auckland Museum. 

— Three-armed Stone Implement and a Small Pendant. 

— Greenstone Pendant. Dr. T. M. Hocken's Colledion, Dunedin. 

— Sandstone Pendant. F. R. Chapman's Collection, Dunedin. 

List of Spi'cimi'Ns Figuriu) in the Plates. ](n 

Plate XLIX. : 

F\^. I. — Hcl Tiki, Tooth, and C'an-ed Human Jaw. Major-Cjen. RoblcA-'s 

Collection, London. 
Fig. 2. — Strip of Patterns used in making A'r/r. A. Hamilton's Collection. 
Vi^^. 3. — Greenstone Ornaments. Auckland Museum. 

Plate L. : 

Fig. I. — Dried Tattooed Head. Auckland Museum. 
Fig. 2. — Carved Head. E. Craig's Collection, Auckland. 
Fig. 3. — Colle6lion of Necklaces. F. R. Chapman's and A. Hamilton's 

Plate LI. : 

Fig. I. — Greenstone Pendants. Dr. T. M. Hockcn's CoUetfion, Dunedin. 
Fig. 2. — Carved Funnels. Major-Gen. Robley's Colleftion and British 

Fig. 3. — Details of the Method of Making Flax Mats. 

Plate LH. : 

Fig. I. — Wooden Comb (Hcrii). 

Fig. 2. — Carved Pattern Slab of Mnko, or Face Tattoo for Male and 

Fig. 3. — Wooden Comb (Hcrii). 
Fig. 4. — Combs, &c. Auckland Museum. 

' f V 

Maori Art. 


Carved Wooden Club. 

Photograph of a very old wooden mere in the possession of R. I. Kingsley, 
of Nelson. It formerh' belonged to Hemi Whero, who died in August, i8go. 
Hemi Whero was one of the last of the descendents of the Ngalitumakokiri tribe, 
who, according to Maori tradition, massacred the crew of one of Tasman's boats 
in 1642 (see "Native Affairs in the South Island," page 39, by Alex. Mackay, 
1873). The pedigree of Hemi was well authenticated, and he testified to the 
great age of the mere. 


A NgatURaukawa Chief. 



'^nti -.;-::■ 

.^ * % 



I»Ji.RT ^V. 










Registrar of the University of Otago. 


19 00. 





Group of Natives, including Honi Heke. Hariata, and Kawiti. 

In the Collection of Dr. T, M. Hocken. 

From a WatercoloLir Sketch by J Merrett. 

Circa. 1646 


THE records of the early voyagers concerning the everyday life of the 
inhabitants of the shores of New Zealand are necessarily meagre; and 
those individuals who in later tinaes lived amongst the natives, as captives or 
proteges, have recorded very few of what are now considered by ethnologists 
the important points in the home-life of the kaitiga ; the domestic employments 
and recreations of the members of the family group. The missionaries recorded 
more of the customs and praftices of the tribes with whom they dwelt, having 
the pen and the press to aid them ; but they viewed natives and native customs 
from the point of view of their own religious tenets, and saw in many curious 
and harmless pradices— the outgrowth of centuries of pradical experience in local 
government— only heathenism and superstitions which were to be stamped out, 
and replaced by pradices developed in another sphere of civilization, and by 
modes of thought, the growth of other times and other manners, flow much 
interesting information has been lost can be estimated by the fragments which 
have been gathered. The system of laws for the government of the body politic 
known as tapu, was the outcome of centuries of experience of pradical socialism. 
This, to us, mysterious and intricate institution, with all its many forms, rites, 
observances, and customs, was, on the whole, beneficial to the New Zealanders. 
Howe^•er irregular, capricious, and burdensome it may now appear to have 
been, it was certainly the source of order to them, and was of great use to 


Social Life of the Maoris. 

conservei them as a race, and to sharpen their intellectual and moral faculties, 
besides retainin.c; the canon of art in its "native purity. With the New Zealander, 
tapu and its observances, in a sense, took the place of religion. As Mr. Colenso 
points out, when all this was swept away, together with polygamy and slavery, 
without anything to replace them, the nation, as a people, was broken up. 
"However distasteful," he says, "these three things might be to an European 
and Christian, they were the life of the New Zealander. They were, perhaps, 
the three rotten hoops round the old cask, but they kept the cask together." 

With the help of the records of the voyagers, missionaries, and other 
observers during the century, let us shortly notice some of the chief points in 
the everyday social life of the Maori. It will be necessary to omit many 
interesting observations and customs as being beyond the scope of this work, 
only treating of those points which are connefted more or less closely with the 
articles which are by common consent of domestic interest, and which are 
figured in this part. 

A Friendly Greeting. 

Kite (Pakaukau). Auckland Museum. 


(The Arts of Pleasure). 

OF late years much interest has been taken in follv lore, and especially in the 
amusements and occupations of childhood, and in the recording of the trivial 
games and songs, the elementary sayings and doings, which are the universal 
expression of the thoughts and deeds of child life. Whatever their estimate of the 
charafler of the adult Maori, all authors agree as to the indulgence with which 
children were treated in the community, and life was happy and free from care 
until they were of age to bear their part in the struggle for existence. 

Naturally the boys took to mimic warfare, and built miniature war pa and 
defences, pradised the throwing of spears by hand and with the aid of a whip-lash, 
and pradised all the games from morning till evening. When the night fell, and 
spirits were abroad, old and young gathered in a large house set aside in each 
village for a place of amusement. There old and young of both sexes amused 
themselves with a great variety of games, songs, and dances, and whiled away 
the long winter nights. This house was called, in the Urewera country, the 

,^2 The Arts of Pleasure. 

wiune-tapere ; in other parts, wharc-mato, or whnre-matoro. Mr. Best says, "All 
games and amusements are ascribed by the tribes of Tuhoedand to Takataka- 
putea and Marere-o-tonga. These two beings, mythical or otherwise, were the 
originators or inventors of such games, dancing, or flute playing. They were the 
patrons of Nga mahia a tc ;r///rt— the arts of pleasure. In other Maori tribes, 
the places of these two are taken by the sisters, Raukata-uri and Raukata-mca, 
who taught flute playing, dancing, and games to the sons of men." 

Raukata-uri, Raukata-mea, and three other great ladies figure in the story 
of the destrudion of the pet whale of Tinirau. "Then Raukata-uri and her 
party showed their skill in amusements ; they sang their songs with appropriate 
aftion, made music on their different kinds of flutes and fifes, they performed 
many feats of dexterity with their hands and fingers, and rods, after the popular 
Maori customs," their objed being to get Kae, the magician, to laugh, and thus 
identify him, by his broken teeth, amongst the other chiefs in the big house, it 
being contrary to all Maori etiquette for visitors to ask the names of persons 
of distinftion. 


One of the favourite games of the Maori in both ancient and modern times is 
the o-ame of pni.'l It might almost be classed as a dance and adlion song, and just 
at the present time is excessively popular at Parihaka, Rotorua, and other places. 
It is played with a small ball or bunch, about three inches long, usually made of 
the leaves of the raiipo (TvphaJ enclosing some of the /tunc, or down, from the 
flowerin'T' stalk of the plant, and is swung by a short cord. More elaborate ones 
are sometimes made of the same light material, but covered with an ornamented 
net-work in various colours and patterns, made from a fine cord of native llax 
(phormium). "The players form in rank as for a haka,'* or posture dance, and 
tuirl these poi in every conceivable dire6fion and manner, timing each movement 
to the rangi poi or song. One of these time songs commences : — 

Kia rite ! Kia rite ! Kia rite ! 
Kokiri kai waho, &c. 

+ Fiir. 2, pi. Ivi. 

* Elsdou Best, in Cunte.-hui-tj Times. 

The Arts of Pleasure. 373 

Here the words km ntc mean 'keep time,' and the players take their time 
from these words, the movement of the pot changing at the second line." In 
former times poi balls were ornamented with white dof^'s hair. 

The poi dance is exceedingly popular at the present time wherever a number 
of Maoris are assembled together. The movements of the arms and bodies of 
the girls (who are usually the performers) is very graceful and pleasing. Some of 
the songs are very long, and very old. 


A small elaborately carved figure is sometimes made, called a karetao. This 
was a wooden figure, carved in human form, and often tattooed as to its face. 
The part below the legs of the figure was sometimes sharpened so a-s to enable it 
to be stuck in the ground. In some instances the elbow joint moved on a peg to 
increase the movements. f It was about one-and-a-half feet in height, and the 
arms were not attached to the body, except by strings which passed through holes 
bored in the shoulders of the figure. The performer held the figure in his right 
hand, grasping the lower part or hand-hold below the feet of the figure. In his 
left hand he held the cords attached to the loose arms. By pulling these he 
caused the arms to assume different positions, sometimes both in front, again one 
would be in front and one behind the body. At the same time the figure was 
caused to quiver by being shaken by the right hand, the objeft being to make the 
hands of the figure move up and down in various positions. The karetao may be 
termed a jumping Jack. It was known among the Nga-puhi tribe as toko-raurape. 
Special songs were sung during this performance. 


Another childs' toy is the kororohu.^ This is a small "bull roarer." It is a 
thin, flat piece of hard wood, usually mapara, about four inches long and one inch 
wide in the centre, running to a point at both ends. Through the middle are bored 
two small holes, about a quarter of an inch apart, the line of the holes being across 
the instrument, i.e., at right angles with its length. Through these holes a small 

t rig, 5, Plate iviii. 
§ Fig. 2, Plate ivi. 

,„, The Arts of Pleasure. 


_.rd or string of twisted flax fibre is passed, and the ends of the string' tied 
together. The loops of the string are placed over the thumbs of the operator, 
who, by first twirling the kororohu round so as to twist the string, will soon have 
it m full swing by pulling on the cord, the wood turning m different direftions 
as the cord twists and unwinds. The speed at which the piece of thin wood 
revolves causes it to make a whizzing noise. 


There is quite a literature on the subject of the pnrerehiia* this being the 
true "bull roarer." It is a thin, flat piece of matai wood, about eighteen inches 
or more in length, with serations on the edges, and of similar shape to the kororohu. 
It has a cord some four feet in length fastened to one end, the other end of the 
cord being fastened to a stick about three feet long. This stick is held by the 
operator, who, by whirling the purerchua round rapidly, causes it to make a loud 
booming noise. 

It was formerly believed by the Maori that the noise which accompanied the 
whirlino- of. the purerehua was caused by the wairua or spirit of the operator. 
Amoncr several Australian tribes similar instruments are deemed the most sacred 
of possessions, and are used at initiation ceremonies, and as love charms. 

On the Taranaki coast these purerehua are called mainae, and are used at the 
time of the lying in state of a chief, and by their whirling roaring noise are 
supposed to disperse evil spirits. There are two good examples in the British 
Museum, but the smaller form was always used with the cord alone, not with 
the addition of a stick. 


A very favourite Maori game (also called hulii and mam), is known to 
Europeans as "cat's cradle. "t Generally, I believe, a person torms one of the 
stages or figures on the fingers of the two hands, and then a second person takes 
the string on to their fingers, and in so doing change the stage or figure. As I have 

* Fig. 'i, plate Ivi. In "Custom and Myth," 1885, p. 29, Mr. Andrew Lanji; has an interesting chapter on this 
mystical toy. A great deal has also been written about the same thing in recent works on Australian native customs. 
See also P.M., pp. 91 and 203 (1855). 

t See also A.H.M., Vol, I., p. 126. Mr. White has a Ngati-Hau statement that the game exhibits the various 
steps of the creation in accordance with the Maori mythology. Every change in the cradle shows some act in the 
creation, and also illustrates the story of Maui and the great lady, Hine-nui-te-po. 

The Arts of Pleasure. 375 

seen' whai played m Maoriland, one person does it all. The ladv who showed me 
the mysteries of the game, took up some prepared flax, and quickly spun a suitable 
cord on her thigh with the two motions, backward and forward (page 280). She 
then formed a figure very similar to the one most common in Europe. After 
telling me the name of this, she rested the middle of the threads on her knee, and 
twisting and shifting the loops from one finger to another with the thumb and hrst 
finger, a different figure was presented. In some cases it was necessary to assist 
the transfer with lips and teeth, but still a great number of changes were made 
without removing the string from the hands. 

The first stage or figure was called Te whare Takoreke ; other stages were — 
Te wharc toto kau (a less ornamental house), &c., &c. Modern names have been 
given to some stages, such as shovel, hoop, &c. 

It is said that the knowledge of the game of ni'/mi and its figures came from 
the realms of Miru, the goddess who held the Tatau-o-te-po — the gates of death in 
the underworld. 


The Maoris still remaining in a few isolated distrifts in the South Island have 
a game similar to "knuckle-bones," and Mr. F. R. Chapmanf says that he believes 
It to be a genume Maori game. It is played with five round pebbles. It has eight 
items — Paka, takdoru, tuaivha (or taktwha), konwha, raraki-te-ivhawha, piu, hitri, and 


The word haka covers both songs sung to accompany or give time to dances, 
and the dances themselves. In Maori life posture dances were extremely popular, 
and formed an important element in public affairs. With their usual lively 
imagination they give as the origin of haka the quivering of the heated air often 
seen in dry places in the summer months. This is known as Tc Haka a RaumaU, 
the Dancing of Summer, or Tc Kaka a Tanerorc, the latter being a son of Raumati 
(summer)— for the seasons, winds, heavenly bodies, and many other things, all have 
their personified forms in Maori mythology. The sun (Ra) married the two female 
seasons (personified forms thereof) Raumati and Takurua (summer and winter), 

t F. R. Chapman, Jour. Pol. Soc, VII., ■114. 


The Arts of Pleasure. 

and spends a portion of the year with each wife. In winter the sun goes to sea 
and Uves with Hine-Takurua ; there they produce fish. In summer he returns to 
land, and dwells with Hine-Raumati; they then produce the land foods of all kinds. 
The great amount of practice which they had in these dances gave a rhythm 
to the movements which was truly remarkable, and of which those who have only 
seen modern haka can have no idea.* " They excelled in order and regularity, 
which they carried into almost everything that they did, as shown in the symmetry 
of their carving designs of almost mathematically true scrolls and patterns ; in the 
planting of their crops; in their measured paddling to "time and stroke"; and, 
above all, in their war dance. Hence, their praftised eye always detected want of 
recrularity in the stroke of the best-manned man-o'-war's boat, as well as in the 
most precise military drill. "J Some forms of haka are quite unknown to the 
present generation except by name, and many show signs of the influence of the 
pakeka and European ideas. New forms are often composed, even in these 
degenerate times, but the movements of the limbs and body are taken from those 
of old haka, as a rule. Haka are still composed in honour of a distinguished guest, 
or to disparage and ridicule an enemy. 

Tutu-Ngarahu (War-Dance). 

In the description of the peace-making between the Uri-taniwha, under 
Wi Katene, and the Ngare-hauata, under Piripi Korongohi, some dances are 
well described as follows: "A singular contrast was now seen: the whole party 
of the Hokianga and Haratua natives springing to their feet and dancing the 
tutu-ngamhu — the war dance, which was responded to by the other party. The 
Uri-taniwha then gave that beautiful hari\\ which is always customary when a peace 
is accepted. The natives in this dance are easy and graceful ; as they move off the 
ground their voices die away in a soft cadence, quite a contrast to the fearful yells 
which accompany the war dance. § It must not be forgotten that in addition to the 

* On subsequent pages are given photographs of a modern haka danced at Parihaka. For the use of these 
photographs I am indebted to Mr. Collie, of New Plymouth. 

X Colenso. 

II A song; usually an accompaniment to gifts of cooked food. 

§ The paragraph concludes with the following interesting observations on customs; — "Speeches were then 
made, Wi Katene, the principal chief of the Uri-taniwha, stepped forward, and after a few words of welcome, came 
up to Faratua, rubbed noses, diop(.ing his mat — a custom they have when any have been slain. He was followed by 
Taue, of the opposite party, saluting; the Uri-taniwha, and dropping also his garment. Speeches were made until the 
women ma,de their appearance bringing the kai. The first basket was given to the Europeans, and some of the chiefs 
partook with them. A loud tangi was then made for the dead, and thus ended the peacemaking."— Lite of Henry 
Williams, vol. ii., p. 107. 

The Arts of Pleasurf, 377 

'fearful yells,' their countenances were distorted into every possible shape, in each 
of which they followed their leader with wonderful accuracy. Not only the face, 
but the fingers, toes, eyes, and tongue are aftively employed. In a war-dance 
the performers held weapons in their hands.J In a haka danced at Pakau-rangi 
Pa, each one had a piece of a sapling, tawa tree (Nesodaphnc tawa), in his or her 
hand, the bark of which had been picked off it here and there, giving it a speckled 
appearance, and showing certain devices. It was adorned also with the feathers of 
birds. The name of these sticks was ^oz."t 

While singing the chorus or refrain of a haka or ngarahu, an accompaniment 
is made by each one slapping one hand on the breast, while the other is raised aloft 
and made to vibrate, so as to produce to the eye an effeft analogous to that of the 
shake in music. This vibrating of the hand is called kakapa. Waiata correspond 
more to what we call songs, being intended to be sung by one or several voices in 
harmony, but without the aid of any aftions. 


A favourite outdoor game was kite-flying, with an elaborately made manu or 
kite, called also pakau and pakaukau, made in olden times of aute, but in more 
modern times of the leaves of a sedge (upoko tangata), with the head only of aute. 
Sometimes the head was hollow, and contained some shells, or kakahi, so that 
when the kite was flying, -a sharp jerk on the cord made the shells rattle — 
he mea tatangi* Leaves were also pierced and sent up the cord as "messengers." 

A kite was used as a medium for capturing a pa by sorcery. If the war party 
got within a reasonable distance of the besieged pa without being molested, the 
priest would construdt a kite made of ioetoe whatu inanu, and fly it in the air; if the 
kite should fly lop-sided, it is an evil omen — but if it flies well, the priest will hold 
the line in his right hand (to hold it with the left hand would be an ailiia), ■a.nd 
letting it out he repeats his incantation. Still holding the kite, he sends a 
messenger up on the string; when it is half-way up he lets go the line, taking 

J See also a splendid description of a war dance in "Old New Zealand," by a Pakeha Maori, p. 45, et seq. 
t A.H.M., III., 146. - -. . 

* A description of Te Manu Aute is giveii in detail in a MS. by Te Eangi (Wm. Marsh), in the Grey Collection 
in the Public Library at Augkland, p. 202. 


The Arts of Pleasure. 

care to have the wind so that the kite will fly across the pa. If the kite catch 
on the palisade, it is thought that the incantation of the priest made during the 
performance will produce such an overwhelming dread or panic in the inhabitants 
that they will be easily conquered. As a rule, however, to see kites flying over 
a pa was an evidence of peaceful times. 

Wrestling (Nonoke, or Ttipeketa, or Whatoto). 

Wrestling was not uncommon, and the names of the recognised grips were:— 
Awhiwhi, urutomo, tahd, whirl and whiu, and the rore.-\ 

There was a form of wrestling called Para-whakawai, in which two females 
would wrestle with a male. Mr. Best says this term was also used amongst some 
tribes for the trial of skill between men armed with old-time weapons. 

Skipping (Piu). 
Skipping with a long rope (taura) was a favourite pastime, and those holding 
the rope at the commencement would sing : 

" E piu e, ka taha te ra ki te rua." 


An ancient amusement was a form of swinging on a rope or vine from a pole 
fixed so as to overhang a bank or cliff, so that by running with the rope or vine 
securely clasped, the body would be swung out as in the well-known giant strides 
often seen at schools. A representation of this moari is given in Sir George Grey's 
Polynesian Mythology, page 72. Angas saw it at Taupo, and notes that it was then 
obsolete on the coast. He says — "A pole, generally the trunk of a kahikatea pine, 
is eredled in the centre of an open space adjoining the village; flax ropes are 
suspended from the top, and holding on to these, the natives swing themselves 
round and round, in a similar manner to that which is practised in gymnasiums and 
at country fairs in Europe." Vines hanging from high trees in the forest were 
utilised as swings (tarere). Moari were usually placed on low cliff's overhanging 
deep water. After swinging round and as far out as possible, the young people 
dropped off, feet foremost, into the water. 

t A never-to-be-surpassed account of a wrestle with a Maori is fjiven in the opening chapters of " Old New 
Zealand," by a Pakeha Maori, p. 31. 

The Arts of Pleasure. ^jg 

The amusement known as pioi was simply bestriding a projeaing branch of a 
fallen tree, and causmg it to swmg up and down. Some few generations ago the 
Ngati-Mahanga tribe of Te Whaiti called upon Tuhoe for assistance, to enable 
them to avenge an attack from the children of Hotu, from the sea of Taupo. 
Tuhoe sent a contingent of warriors to the Wairoa pa at Te Whaiti, but Mahanga 
negleaed to provide any food for their allies, which mightily offended Tuhoe, who 
are a most touchy people, and passmg rich in puhaehae (jealous feelings). So some 
of the party, to relieve their injured feelings, proceeded to compose a virulent ngen 
as a scathing rebuke to their churlish hosts. Near the fort of Te Wairoa was a 
famous pioi, or swinging branch, of great length and elasticity, and on this branch 
the aggrieved Tuhoe ranged themselves, and, swinging high to the spring of the 
weighted branch, roared forth their incisive ngeri, or song of derision. After which, 
they fell upon the inhospitable Ngati-Mahanga, and slew a large number of them 
as a revenge for the lack of hospitality and non-observance of ancient custom.* 

The papa reti was a form of toboggan, or sliding board, being a piece of wood 
about four inches wide as far as the middle, thence narrowing and curving slightly 
upwards to the other end, three feet long, and about an inch in thickness. The 
slide (retireti) was made on the slope of a hill, and kept wetted with water. The 
children squatted on the boards, one foot behind the other, two ridges on the 
papa reti preventing the feet from slipping. Some are very expert, and will remam 
in a standing position on the board whilst descending. 


Stilts were used with great delight by children. In one of the Maori legends 
Whiro and Tama-te-Kapua are made the gods or patrons of thieving, though both 
of them are well-known ancestors, who flourished, the first three generations before, 
and the second at the time of the migration to New Zealand, about 1350. They 
went on stilts (pou-toko) when going to steal, so that their footsteps should not be 
traced, and to enable them to reach the high stages (whata) on which food was kept.§ 

* Elsdon Best, in Canterbury Times. 

§ The figure of Tama-te-Kapua given in Plate xxvi., fig. 2, shows what are meant to be his stilts. 

o8o The Arts of Pleasure. 

TuRiKAKOA (Nimble Knees). 

The Maoris, in order to relieve the monotony of a journey over sandy flats on 

the seashore, at low water, with the wind behind them, would gather a few heads 

of the female flower of the Spinifex Mrsutus, a seaside grass, and set them going 

before them, following them at a run. They call these rolling heads tunkakoa— 

joyous or nimble knees. || 


Tupekete was a game of leaping ; long jumping was called kai-rererere. 

Mu (Draughts, or Checkers). 
This is the name of the game of draughts, much in favour with the Maoris. 
It has been suggested that the game has been adopted from the Europeans, and is 
simply " move." The Samoans, however, have a game somewhat resembUng this 
called moo* The Hawaiians have much the same game, which they call mu. 
The probability therefore is, that this is an ancient Polynesian game. 

NiTi, or Teka. 

Niti, or teka, is a game for boys and young men, who throw mimic spears made 
of the long stalks of the common bracken fern (Pteris), bound round at the end 
with flax made into a ball shape. The binding was only intended to prevent the 
stalk splitting; often a wooden point was lashed on. Sometimes a small bank of 
earth was made across the open space where these darts were thrown or jerked 
with a underhand motion, and the darts striking the bank in their course rose in 
the air. In one of the Maori myth-stories, t in the account of the game of niti 
played by Maui and his brothers, it says that Maui-potiki used his brothers' backs 
for this purpose — thereby causing the hollow along the back-bone of man. 

The boys also amuse themselves with throwing short spears (niti) made of 
the stems of ferns (Pteris) bound round at the extremity. These they throw with 
admirable precision at any given objeft, emulating each other in the nicety of their 
aim. J They also threw manuka sticks as darts, with the aid of a whip lash as 
described in Part III., p. i88. 

II Colenso, "Trans. N.Z. Inst.", xxvi., p. 345. 

* Culin-Stewart, "Chess and Playing Cards," Eep. Nat. Mus., U.S., 1896, p. 876. 

t A.H.M., 11, 66. See also a picture of this game, showing the bank, in the illustrations to A.H.M., 1891. 

X Angas' "Savage Life and Scenes in N.Z.", vol. ii., p. 119, 

The Arts of Pleasure. 


Tu-matia was the game of attack and defence with spears, and perhaps is 
more striftly a warlike exercise. 

Other games which were played ■wexe—taupunipum, Hke "hide and seek"; 
paratoitoi, a game with reed darts; pekapeka, a windmill toy; punipum and upoko 
fill, farakoekoea, hapitawa, were games with the fingers and hands; kurawinmmi 
and patokotoko were string games. 


These were small hoops made from pieces of supplejack (Rhipogonum), or 
from a creeper called akatea. The hoops were sometimes raced by their owners 
over small hurdles. As a great insult, the body of an enemy was flayed, and 
the tattooed skin from the thighs stretched over one of these hoops, which was 
then trundled round the marae.\ 


Tops were made of wood, and in rare cases of stone. They were cone-shaped, 
and had a small circular disc of pawa shell inlaid at the top. Mention is made of 
a top shaped like two cones placed base to base (potaka whero-7na).\\ The whip-top 
was called the potaka ta; the other was potaka takiri, and was spun with a cord 
wound round a spike which projefted from the top. A flat piece of wood, about 
half-an-inch wide and a few inches long — papa takiri — was held against the peg 
when the string was wound, and assisted in getting a good pull on the string. 
Small hollow gourds were sometimes used as tops, a peg being stuck through them. 
Mr. Elsdon Best has found an interesting use of tops as an essential part of a war 
ceremony in Tuhoe-land.§ "After a defeat, top songs — oriori potaka — were 
composed as a iaiigi, or lament, and many persons assembled, each with a potaka, 
and the tops were spun in the marae or open place in front of the large meeting 
house. The following song was sung, and at the conclusion of each verse of the 
song all the tops were spun, after the defeats of Pukemaire and Maketu, in which 
Ngati Porou and Te Whakatohea were defeated. The loud humming noise made 
by the top is in itself a dirge. 

X A.H.M., v., p. 58. 
II Fig. G, I'lale .\ii. 
§ Elsdon Best, in Canterbury Times. 

382 The Arts of Pleasure. 

I. Kumea, toia te roroa o te tangata — e 

Ina noa te pote ki te oma i Hunuhunu e, 
Hai ! Tukua ! 

• At the word Tukua! all spun their tops. When the tops fell, another whiti or 
verse was commenced, and all prepared their tops again. 

2. Nga morehu ma te kai e patu, e; 

Ko te paku kai re mau, E Te Arawa, E ! 
Hai ! Tukua ! 

3. E ki atu ana Karanama e noho ki te tamaiti nei — e, 
Takiri ana mai te upoko o te toa, e. 

Hai ! Tukua ! " 

Mr. Best has described a very curious game with carved sticks, specimens 
of which are figured in the plates, known in Tuhoe-land as titi-touretua. 


This was another game of the Whare-Tapere of yore. It was played with 
four sticks, two feet in length, and sometime ornamented with carving. Generally 
speaking, six persons played this game, but sometimes more. Every movement 
was performed in proper time, which was given by the song (ngari) sung by the 
players. Four of the players would have each a stick m the right hand and held 
in a vertical position. These sticks they would swing up and down in time to 
the song, and at a certain word the sticks would be thrown from one player to 
another, and dexterously caught ; but the sticks must not strike each other when so 
thrown. One movement was to throw them round a circle of players, who are 
seated a little distance apart from each other. At other times they would be 
thrown across the circle to an opposite player, but always they must be caught by 
the proper person. At other times, instead of swinging or throwing the sticks, 
they must be lowered until the lower end rests on the ground, the song giving the 
time for all these different movements. It is quite interesting to witness this game. 

Mr. Colenso seems to have regarded the sticks used in this or a similar game 
as musical instruments, when he says:— "Another manner of musical performance 
was by two persons standing about four feet apart, each holding a prepared rod 
of kaiwhina wood of the length and size of a walking stick. These sticks were 
thrown to and fro alternately, and gently and dexterously caught, but so that they 
should, while passing in the air, touch each other, and give out the exaft note 
required, the two performers at the same time chanting their song." 

The Earthworks of Heipipi Pa, Petane, Hawkes Bay. 


) «•» ( - 


GVERY event in the daily life of a Maori has connefted with it a charafteristic 
chant, with a chorus which would be given by those present, few or many, 
with strift attention to tune and time. The chants are simple, and scarcely 
rise above what we may call natural music — that cry of war, that shout of 
victory, or lament for the vanquished, the wailing over a deceased friend, grief 
at the departure of a lover, which has each, in its turn, prompted or suggested 
some modification of sound beyond the ordinary range of mere tame every-day 
discourse. In a long and learned Appendix to Sir George Grey's Polynesian 
Mythology,* on the native songs of New Zealand, there is a great deal on savage 
music in general, but a very small portion on Maori songs — four very short songs 
being given, with musical notation. 

Dr. Forster, who accompanied Captain Cook on his second voyage, says — 
"The music of the New Zealanders is far superior in variety to that of the Society 

and Friendly Islands The same intelligent friend who favoured me 

with a specimen of the songs at Tongatapu, has likewise given me another of the 
New Zealand music ; and has also assured me that there appeared to be some 
display of genius in the New Zealand tunes, which soars very far above the 

* ■• Poly. Myth.", 1855, Appendix by Jas. A. Davies. There is also a good desciiptiou of Maori Popular Poetry 
by Wm. Bailey Baker in "Trans. Ethn Soo.", vol. 1, n.s , 1861, p. 11. 

384 Songs and Instrumental Music. 

wretched humming of the Tahitian, or even the four notes of the people at the 

Friendly Islands They descend at the close frorn C to the oftave 

below in a fall, resembling the sliding of a finger along the finger board of a violin. 
I shall now dismiss this subject with the following observation — That the taste for 
music of the New Zealanders, and their superiority in this respedt to other nations 
in the South Seas, are to me stronger proofs in favour of their heart than all the 
idle eloquence of philosophers in their cabinets can invalidate. "f 

A curious and now rare book was published at the St. John's College Press, 
Auckland, called, "A Book of Tunes for Hymns for use of the Singing Classes 
at St. John's College." It was to serve as an introduction to the ordinary notation. 
The scale of C was taken as a standard, and notes were given for four part singing 
by means of numbers. The eight notes were thus designated : 



















In considering the types of musical instruments, they may be pradlically 
divided into three types— drum, pipe, and lyre. Of the first type the Maori only 
had what is really a wooden gong (pahu).* It was sometimes of enormous size 
one that I know of being a slab nearly thirty feet long, and four feet wide, 
suspended between two tall trees. 

Another form of pahu was canoe-shaped, and suspended from a framework 
by the iwo ends. It was generally elevated to a considerable height, if in a pa, 
and a stage for the striker was placed conveniently below it. J 

t Forster's Voyage, vol. ii., pp. 476—478. 

t See the " Story of New Zealand," by Arthur Thompson. The frontispiece to vol. i, shows this kind of mini 
Also "Savage Life and Scenes," by O. P. Ang-as, frontispiece, and d-->scriptions at p. 150, vol. ii. 
* See p. 98. 

Songs and Instrumental Music. 385 

If the pakuni can be considered musical, it should be classed here. It 
consists of two sticks — often carved — one of which is held with one hand 
against the teeth, and is struck with the other stick. 

The pakuru consists of two short sticks, one of which is held between the 
teeth, and is struck with the other. The principal stick is a piece of iiiatai, 
mapara, or kaiwhiria, about fifteen inches long, and nearly an inch in diameter, 
flat on one side and convex on the other. Sometimes it is carved, or agam 
merely has notches [whakakaka pattern) cut along the edges. The stick is held 
in the left hand, and one end placed between the teeth, flat side down. It is 
struck with a small piece of the same wood, held in the right hand. This 
tapping is done in time to the song, and the closing or separating of the lips 
causes different sounds or notes to be emitted by the stick held in the teeth. 
Many persons would take part in this amusement.* 

Major Robley has a beautifully carved example about fourteen inches long. 

The end held in the hand is carved with a head ; the other end, which is held 

between the teeth, is flattened. Through the carved head is a double cord of 

flax, on which is threaded short pieces of the shells of a dentalium. The striking 

stick is attached by this cord. The striking stick in this instance is about six 

inches long, and slightly cone-shaped, the base being inlaid with a neatly cut ring 

of haliotis shell. The principal stick is carved on the rounded face, and a spiral 

pattern slightly burnt on the flattened surface. The carved surface shows traces 

of red paint. t 

He Rangi Pakuru. :|: 

Whakarongo mai Taku Hine, 

Ki te tangi . pai o taku pakuru 

Taoro haere ana ki Pari-karangaranga, 

Hei kawe atu i te aroha, 

Rere tomairangi i runga o te rau, 

Tiorooro ana ki runga puke, 

Hei whakaoho i to moe, 

E te hoa whakaipo e — i. 

Listen now my lady love 

To my sweet sounding pakuru, 

Sending forth its melody, 

Resounding far 'tween echoing cliffs, 

Breathing forth my love to you, 

As soft as dew on leaves, 

Sounding from hill and dale, 

Arousing from sweet sleep 

She who hlls my nightly dreams. 

* Another aocouijt of the pakuru is given in A.H il., I, p. 130. 

t Fig. 1, plate Ixvi. 

I I am indebted to Captain Mair for this very pretty- pakuru song. 

385 Songs and Instrumental Music. 

There is another form of pakuru, in the form of a straight rectangular bar, 
fifteen to eighteen inches long, elaborately carved. It is held lightly between the 
iino-ers of one hand, and is struck with a small carved mallet while words are 
breathed upon it. When a number of persons are performing, and the young 
women are joining in the chorus, the efifeft is very pretty. There is a good 
specimen in Captain Mair's Colleftion in the Auckland Museum. 


Of the pipe type are such wind instruments as they possess. The simplest is 
a fife, made from the wing bone of an albatross (Diomedea). It is neatly bored 
with a small hole for a cord to suspend it by, and with three or four holes at 
the side. The exterior is frequently engraved with simple lineal ornamentation. 
It is about seven mches long. The music produced is not entrancing. 

A larger kind of £fe was made from wood, and carved on the outside; and a 
rude instrument was sometimes produced from the hollow stem of the Coriaria 
(tuhi),^ or from the young wood of the po7'okaiwhiria wood. A general term for 
hollow wind instruments is pn-torino- — porutu, which is generally used, is probably a 
Maori rendering of the word "flute." Rehu is a common word tor a fife or flute. 


A more elaborate instrument is made, by preference, from the leg-bone of an 
enemy, t and is often highly elaborated, being carved in relief, and inlaid with 
minute portions of glittering haliotis shell. Provision is made for a'lrble for 
suspension. In some cases these human bone flutes seem to have been played 
as note flutes. 

The nose flute is an interesting ethnological objedl:, which appears to have been 
traced through F'iji, Society Islands, and Borneo, and appears to have an Asiatic 
source. Judging from figures given by writers, and from descriptions, it was fitted 
into the right nostril, while the other nostril was stopped with the thumb.* 

§ A flute of this kind is described by Sir Walter BuUei-, " Trans. N.Z. Inst.," xxvi., 568, as havino- a piece 
inserted to form an artificial constriction about two inches from one end. " 

t The practice of making flutes from the bones of enemies is common among many Indian tribes in America. 

* " Fiji and the Fijians," Williams and Calvert, vol. i, page 163, ed. 1860. " Polynesian Researches " Ellis 
^^\^"J'^P ^^'^\ "TongV Mariner, vol. ii., page 332. "Notes on the Asiatic Relation of Polynesian Culture" 
E. B. Tyler. "Jour. Anthrop. Inst.," xi., page 401. 

Songs and Instrumental Music. 387 

A note in the Transactions of tiie New Zealand Institute^ is of interest as 
giving the history of the celebrated flute connected with the well-known story of 
Tutanekai and Hinemoa. Captain Gilbert Mair says — "In 1864, about eight 
hundred rebel natives from the East Cape, Te Kaha, and Opotiki, came up the 
coast with the objed of forcing their way through the Arawa country, to assist 
the King natives in Waikato. The loyal Arawa defeated them at Lake Rotoiti, 
and drove them back to the Coast. They then attacked Maketu, but were 
again defeated, and driven back towards Opotiki. The Arawa overtook them at 
Te Kaokaoroa, near Matata, and killed between sixty and seventy, pursuing them 
to Te Awa-a-te-Atua, and capturing their canoes. One of their principal chiefs, 
Te Aporotanga, was desperately wounded and taken prisoner. Tohi te Ururangi 
Winiata Pekamu, a man of high rank and a great warrior on the Arawa side, was 
mortally wounded while diredling the attack. Old Tohi te Ururangi carried from 
a string round his neck Tutanekai's bone flute, Te MvLrirans^aranga, which is now in 
the Auckland Museum. A few minutes after his death, Pokai te Waiatua came to 
the body and tried to take away the flute unperceived, but old Mata managed 
to detach it from the string and thrust it into her dead husband's throat for 
concealment, whence it was removed next day on arrival at Maketu and given to 
Ngahuruhuru Pango (Tutanekai's lineal descendant), who gave it to me on the 
occasion of the defeat of Te Kooti at Ohinemutu on the 7th February, 1870. 
Touching this same flute, I may state that it was made from the arm-bone of 
a tohunga named Te Murirangaranga, who lived in the time of Whakaue. 

Shortly after Tutanekai's birth, Whakaue called upon this tohunga to perform 
the baptismal rites over his son — te tohi Tii, or dedication to the war god. 
Having performed this sacred office, the priest became stridly tapu during the 
lunar month, according to Maori custom, during which time he could not touch 
food with his hand or feed him-jelf. However, before his purification (horohoronga) 
had been accomplished, he was seen one day at Paparata, on the edge of the forest 
behind Ohinemutu, gathering and eating poroporo berries. This was equivalent to 
cursing Tutanekai, and a deadly insult to Whakaue, so he had the unfortunate 
tohunga put to death by drowning (it being unlucky to shed the blood of a priest), 
and had the right arm-bone made into a flute for Tutanekai. When Tutanekai 

t "Trans.- N.Z. Inst.," xxviii., p. 39, note. , , , ^ir- -mt 

§ A Maori melody is given, with notes, in "Trans. N.Z. Inst.," xxv., pi. lv„ by Miss Morrison. 

Songs and Instrumental Music. 

.rew up he became famous for his skill in playing this instrument, and his 
descendants, the Ngati-Tutanekai, stUl pride themselves upon their ability to 
emulate their ancestor in this respeft." 

Captain Cruise (84th Regt.), who visited New Zealand in H.M.S. Dromedary 
,n 1820, and who spent nearly a year here, and therefore had opportunities for 
observation, remarks m his Journal, that when he was in the Thames, and not far 
from the site of the present town of Auckland-" Two chiefs came on board; one 
of them, a very tall handsome man, wore a carved flute or pipe round his neck, 
upon which he played the simple but plaintive airs of this part of the island, 

with much correftness." * . , 


On page 225 is figured a beautifully carved flute-like instrument, which is said 
to have been used as a war call or signal, by which a leader could communicate 
with his followers. The noise, however, cannot have been very powerful. The 
name seems to indicate that the note was more of a "grunt" than a musical note. 
In some instances they were made of a very fine-grained stone found near 
Rotorua. It is not unlikely that this was also used as a nose flute. t 

Torino, or Pu-torino. 
Larger than any of these is the torino, or pu-tonno. It is played by blowing 
strongly through the larger end, and the resultant sound is modified by placing the 
fingers over the orifice in the middle or over the very small hole at the other end. 
In the coUeaion at the British Museum there is a double pu-torino.^ The method 
of construction is ingenious. Having no tools by which the inside could be 
hollowed out, they proceed in this way : — The piece of carefully selefted wood is 
worked into the shape required for the outside ; it is then carefully split as nearly 
as possible into two equal portions ; each portion is then excavated, so that when 
the two sides are put, there is a symmetrical cavity within. The split 
surfaces are then bound tightly together with either flax lashings or finely divided 
strong creeping vines. - 

* See also the Plates to the "Voyage de la Coquille," 1826, Plate 40, figs. 10, 11, 12, 13. 

t This war call was what we should call a whistle. It must always be remembered, however, that a Maori 
rarely or never whistled, and generally objected to Europeans whistling when in their company. Maoris of the 
older generation always felt uncomfortnblu iit hoariin; Europeans, boys and men, whistling. Possibly the aversion 
to the sound was connected with the idea thiit a demon or atua maiiifested his presence by a sound somewhat 
resembling a long drawn whistle. 

: Fig. 1, pi. lix. 

Songs and Instrumental Music. 389 


The same process is followed for the large and small trumpets, pu-kaea* 
(Plate XXX., fig. i), from three to six feet long, only, when the hollowing out 
is done, certain projedions (iohc), resembling the human tonsils, are left a short 
distance from the mouth. These trumpets were bound round on the outside 
with either flax lashings or split supplejack, and ornamented with feathers— they 
were used for announcing the approach of a chief when travelling, or for calling 
people together. 

As illustrating the use of these long wooden trumpets in announcmg the 
approach of a chief and his party, we may take the following tale from Taupo. 
When the tribe of Ngati-Tuwharetoa were returning from the slaughter of the 
Marangaranga people, and had reached the shores of Taupo lake, they sounded 
their big trumpet as a sign by which their approach should be known. On 
hearing it, a lady named Hinekahuroa, one of the Ngati-Kurapoto tribe then living 
in Rotongaio, deeming it to be an insult, bawled out a bitter curse upon the party 
(pokokohua ma !), which they hearing, immediately retaliated with another fell 
curse, making their trumpet to say — to row ! to roro ! — thy brains ! thy brains ! 
This so irritated the chieftainess, that she followed it up with another still longer 
and worse, which, of course, was as promptly repaid by them in kind through their 
trumpet; and the end of this was war within a month. Another mstance was that 
of a chief named Ruawehea, a grandson of Tuwharetoa, who had managed to 
induce Maoris of another tribe (Ngati-Tama) to become his dependents, and, 
afterwards, whenever he should visit them in his canoe, he caused his trumpet to 
proclaim his approach, ordering food to be got ready for him, and ending with 
insulting language and curses, all spoken through his trumpet. The people of 
that village stood it for some time, but one day, on his landing at their place 
as usual, he was decoyed into their house of reception, and killed— for the 
insulting words spoken through his trumpet. 

PoTiPOTi, or Pu-moana (Shell Trumpet). 
The use of large sea shells for trumpets is almost universal, and we find the 
Maoris taking the large Triton found in the North, and affixing to the perforated 
apex a wooden mouthpiece— of course the opportunity was taken of car\ing this 

* See paper by Sir Walter BuUer, "Trans. N.Z. Inst.," xxv., 5:^7-528; and also Liu^ Eoth, "Orozet's Voy.," 51. 

2QO Songs and Instrumental Music. 


th their usual skill and fancy. This trumpet was called a pu moana. The late 

Mr. S. Locke had a very old specimen of this instrument, which had a portion 

of the largest whorl either broken or cut out, and replaced by a thin piece of very 

hard dark wood, measuring about five inches by three inches. This was fitted to 

correspond absolutely with the aperture in the shell, the transverse ridges of the 

spiral markings of the shell were cut into the wood, and there was also a carving 

m relief, exadly similar to a hci-tiki in relief, on the outer surface of the wood. 

The cord by which this trumpet was suspended was ornamented with tufts of the 

skin and feathers of the kakapo (Stringops). Mr. Colenso says of this inlaid piece 

of wood*:— "At first I had supposed that the said shell, having been somehow 

broken, had been repaired by having this piece of wood set in it; but on further 

examination, and also comparing it with the figures of a similar New Zealand shell 

trumpet in Cook's voyages (Second Voyage, Vol. I., pi. 19), which has, apparently, 

a precisely similar piece of dark wood let into it, I have concluded, that in both 

instances it was done purposely, to increase or alter the power of the sound of 

their conch shell." 

RoRiA (Jews' Harp or Jaw-harp). 

The Maori roria was made usually of a thin slip of the outer casing of the 
supplejack vine (Rhipogoniiin), about three to four inches long, and a quarter-inch 
wide. This is held by the lips, and moved (sprung) by the finger, the movement 
of the lips in closing or opening causing different notes. 

Mr. Colenso mentions, in connection with this instrument, a few incidents 
which have in past years come under his special notice, as further showing their 
natural ear for music — or melody: — "It is well known that at an early date, say 
sixty years ago, the Maoris showed a great desire to obtain Jews' harpsf — this was 
common. But to see them — one at a time being quite enough ! — critically examine 
and try a whole score, or more, of those little instruments, before one was found 
that was 'soft' enough (or suitably melodious) in its twang to please their ear! I 
have known them to leave the store where Jews' harps were sold without purchasing 
one after trying many, though sadly in want of one at the time, rather than bring 
away a 'hard' or unsuitable one. They also often spent much time in endeavouring 
to alter its tone, by trying all manner of schemes and plans with its tongue. Again, 

* Colraiso, "Trans. N.Z. Inst.," vol. xiii , 70, The trumput belonged to IhaUa Wan^a, an old patriotic chief 
of Table Cape, Hawkes Bay. See page 19:i for a figure of a siujilar trumpet, 
t This refers to the metal or European form of Jews' harp. 

Songs and Instrumental Music. 391 

in later years, I have known them to improve on the sound of the Jews' harp (for 
their ear), by fixing a small lump of sealing-wax, or /e<7«n-resin, on the projedling 
end of the tongue of the instrument, for the purpose of playing the same within 
their mouth and with their tongue, instead of with their finger ! This certainly 
rendered the sounds much softer than when played in the usual way. Young 
men would sometimes be thus occupied for one or two hours, evidently delighting 
themselves with the dulcet sounds. Another little-known item in connexion with 
Jews' harp playing, or its musical sounds, I may also mention, as it is very peculiar, 
namely, I have known the Maoris anxiously to beg for old dessert knives when 
worn out by constant use and scouring, to make with them (the worn thin remnant 
ol a blade) a small instrument resembling a Jews' harp, its sound, they said, being 
so much sweeter." 

Calabash Trumpet. 

A ver}^ curious kind of musical instrument is mentioned b)' some authors, and 
a specimen is in the British Museum. It is, I believe, almost peculiar to the 
Taranaki coast natives. It is made from a small carefully selefted calabash 
(kahaka). in the side of which were pundlured two or three holes. It only gave 
a small variety of notes, and is said to have been used to summon people to 
meetings. t The surface of the calabash was ornamented with incised lines made 
when the outside was soft. The specimen in the British Museum is about three- 
and-a-half inches in diameter, and about seven-and-a-half inches in circumference, j' 

In the same colledtion is a set of pan pipes — seven reeds (?) bound together 
with a lashing of split cane (?), measuring about four-and-a-half by two inches. § 
It does not look from the plate in the Edge-Partington Album, or from a photograph 
which I have of it to be Maori. On the other hand we have the testimony of 
Dr. Marshall, in 1834, that on the Taranaki coast he saw them using "flutes, fifes, 
whistles, pan pipes, and trumpets." I do not believe it to be a Maori instrument. 

Bird Calls 
were made of short pieces of bird bones, and in the South Island, thimble-shaped 
objefts of soapstone (steatite), often carved and ornamented, are considered to 
be bird calls. 

t " Mahoe Leaves," p. 8H. 

J Figured in " EdCTePaitinuton Album," pi. 38G, fig. 7. 

§ Figured in " Edge-Partington Album," pi. :iSU, fig. 4. 








*:!'■ V,„ 

%l^, ^ _ 

•■ .i^M^-jPrn 



'«» ,, 

1 ; % 



'^ ^1 



j||HKf\ \ \ 


IN these photographs we see a portion of the rhythmical motions of a haka^ or posture 
dance. It is very difficult at the present time to get a number of men and 
women to praftise the various motions required, and this want of practice detradts 
from the perfedl: time and swing which was the essence of these displays. The 
photographs are, however, the best of the kind that I have seen, and I am indebted 
to Mr. Collis, of New Plymouth, for permission to reproduce them. 

I am also glad of the opportunity of figuring a fine company of Taranaki natives, 
representing the inhabitants of the West Coast of the North Island. 

Taradale Pa, Hawkes Bay. 




Aihu. — A salutation by rubbing noses at parting. 

Akuaku. — To clear out an oven by removing the stones, before heating. 

Aotaro. — To prepare beds of gravel for taro (Colocasia antiquoritm). 

Apa. A conquered tribe ; the survivors allowed to remain on their land, but 

made to be workmen, or slaves. 

Apu. — A company of workmen. 

Ariki.—A first-born, male or female, in a family of note; hence— chief; priest; 
a leader. A superior title given, according to Colenso, to their ancient 
great ones; powers; natural produftions, as kumara, sulphur, totara, &c. 

Aroha.—To feel affedion or compassion for; to greatly regret. 

Aruhe. The root of the common fern (Pteris aqmlina var. esculenia). 

Ate.— The liver; the seat of the affedions. 

Ati.—A prefix to tribal names as descendants of certam persons. Ngati is the 
■' same word with the plural article added. 

* To give anything like a full list of words relating to the social life of the Maori, would be to reprint a 
dictionary. It is therefore to be understood that the words, cVc, yiven under this heading are simply a selection u 
some few terms which seem to the author to be closely related to the subject ot this part. No two persons would 
agree (in selection) upon a list of this kind. 


List of Words relating to Social Life. 

Atua. — A supernatural being. 

Aiiwahine. — Sister-in-law of a man. 

Haere. — A word used as a verb of motion. Haere mm. — Come hither. This is 

a word used in welcome of a guest. Haere atu. — Go away. 
Hahu. — To exhume the bon^s of dead persons before depositing them in their final 

resting place. To perform certain ceremonies over the bones of the dead. 
Haka. — To" dance. To sing a song accompanying a dance. 
Hakari. — A gift; a present; an entertainment; a feast. The pyramidal strufture 

on which food was in ancient times arranged at a festival : pou -hakari 
Hakihaki. — A skin disease ; the itch. 
Hakiii. — An old woman. 
Hapi-tawa. — A game for children. 

Hapopo. — The dead body; trunk. A tapii word only used in time of war. 
Hapori. — .\ seftion of a tribe ; family. Cf., pori, same meaning. 
Haramai. — An expression of welcome. 

Han. — To dance ; to sing a song to dance to ; to show gladness. 
Hari-tuku-kai. — A dance combined with the advance of the women (and sometimes 

also young men) bringing food to guests. 
Haura. — Sick person. 

Hika, liinga. — To kindle fire by rubbing two pieces of wood together. 
Hika. — A term of address to young persons of both sexes. 
Hikutoto. — Revenge ; a vendetta. 
Hine.—A girl. Generally used only in addressing a girl or young woman. Cf.. 

Kohine, a girl ; wahine, a woman ; tuahine, a man's sister ; tamahine, a 

Hitari. — A sieve, or instrument for sifting. 
Hoa. — A friend. Hoa-nri. — An enemy. 

Hoahoa.—A spouse; used also of two women, wives of the same husband. 
Hongi. — To salute by touching noses. 
Huhi.—The game of cat's cradle; also what and mam. 
Hill. — An assembly. 
Hunarci, Hunarere.—A father-in-law, a mother-in-law. 

Inu.— I o^dnnk. Whaka-niii. —An incantation over a new fishing net the first 
time It IS used. 

List of Words relating to Social Life. 395 

//>«. — A calabash. Ipu-rimu. — A bottle made of inflated kelp. 

Ira. — Marks on the skin ; warts ; moles. 

Iramutu. — A nephew or niece. 

Iriiri. — To perform ceremonies over a new born child. 

Ito. — An objeft of revenge. Same as uto. 

Iwi-ivhenua. — The chief whose power is greatest in the land. 

Kahukahu. — The malignant demon that causes abortion or miscarriage. 

Kaikokure. — A piece of wood rubbed upon another to produce fire. 

Kaipiko.^To eat as persons do when tapu — without touching the food with their 

Kai-pakuha. — A present received by the relations of a bride from the bridegroom. 
Kai-rererere. — Long jumping, as a game or amusement. 
Kaipotaka. — A whipping top. 

Kai-whangai. — Hosts ; entertainers ; foster-parent. 
Kanga. — A curse ; an insult. 
Kara, or tiwha. — Some token sent to a friendly tribe to induce them to join as 

allies against an enemy. 
Karakia.—A invocation ; a prayer ; to repeat a form of words. 
Keretao.^A wooden figure used as a toy, the arms of which were moved by a 

string. Also Toko-raurape. 
Kauahi.—K piece of wood upon which another piece is rubbed to procure fire 

by friftion. 
Kauhou. — A line of ancestry. 
Kaumatua.— An adult; a grown person. 
Kauwhau. ^To recite old genealogies and legends. 

Kawakawa.— (Piper excelsum). A shrub much used in religious ceremonies. 
Kawemotn.—The forcible taking away of a woman in the highway, according to 

ancient Maori custom. 
Keka.^K song sung at funerals, before the nhunga commences. 
/^o._To put out the lips in contempt. 

Koaumt.-K kind of flute, sometimes played with the nose. 
Koha. — A present ; a keepsake. 
Kohaia. — A girl. Kohinc, kotiro. 

3g6 List of Words relating to Social Life. 

Kohii. — (i) To cook in a native oven any article contained in a hollow vessel. 
(2) A dish of wood, or a skull, to contain food ; in the latter case that 
of an enemy is used. 

Kohukohu. — A kind of seaweed, used in sacred rites. 

Kokewau. — A game in which a leaf is thrown off a bank, and floats away in 

the wind. 
Koki. — The stomach of a shark, used as a bottle for oil, &c. 

Kukoino. — A contribution by way of acknowledgment on the part of the people 
to whom a hakari is given. 

Konohi. — Feeling strong affection for an absent relation or friend. 

Koropa. — Food offered to a diety, and eaten by Lhe priest in the pure ceremony. 

Koroua. — An old man. 

Koroni, or kororohu. — The game of " knuckle bones," in the South Island ; a 
toy twirled with a string passing through two holes near the centre. 

Kotaratara. — A dance of triumph. 

Ku. — A game. 

Kid, kuia. — An old woman ; a mode of address. 

Kurawiniwini. — A game played with a cord. 

M ahaiiga . — T wi n s . 

Mahukitmki. — Part of the pure ceremony for removing the tapu from kiimara grounds. 

Mahunga, u.'hakamahunga. — The ceremony of making sacred those who dug up 
or planted the kiimara. After the first fruits had been offered to Tanc, 
the cultivators became noa, or ho longer under restrictions. 

Mainiai. — A dance performed at funerals. 

Matinai-aroha. — A token of affedtion. 

Maimoa. — A pet ; a fondling. 

Maioha. — To greet affectionately. 

Maire. — A song. 

Mana. — Power ; authority ; influence ; prestige. 

Manana. — To give a signal by lifting the eyebrows. 

Manatunga. — A keepsake ; an heirloom. 

Manawa. — The heart. 

Manu.~A kite. 

Maoinaoa. — The first fruits of a kiimara ground. 

Maro.—X fathom (six feet), measured with the arms extended. 

List of Words relating to Social Life. 


Marokau. — Single ; unmarried. 

Maronui. — A woman whose husband is absent. 

Mata. — The medium or communication with a spirit, &c. 

Matakite. — One who foretells the future ; tne preaicfion of a seer. 

Matihe. — To sneeze. Tihe, tihcioa. 

Maitre. — A wand used in the pure ceremony. 

Matua-whangai. — A foster father. 

Mauri. — The heart ; the seat of the emotions ; a sacred offering ; a sacred 

incantation ; poles of mapou wood, used in the pure ceremony. Also 

called tokomaun, an emblem, talisman, placed in the forest, &c., to 

retain the birds used as food. 
Mihi. — To greet. 

Moari. — A swing of ropes from a high pole, like a " giant stride." 
Moemoea. — The kite or word of the atua or oracle pronounced by the seer after 

his sacred sleep ; a dream. 

Mahoao. — A man of the woods ; a barbarian. 

Mokai. — A captive ; a slave ; a bird or animal kept as a pet. 

Momori, whakamomori. — To. commit suicide. 

Mowhiti. — A ring ; a hoop. 

Mm, iniimii. — Draughts.* (Same word used in Hawaii). 

Mua. — A medium; a mediator; an altar as representative of Mun\ an old time 
Polynesian god. 

Muru. — Plunder ; a custom of plundering according to certain rules, and under 
certain conditions. 

Mutit. — X method of counting used by the Ngai-Tahu (South Island). 

Niu. — A means of divination by throwing single sticks ; the sticks so thrown. 

Niti. — A dart ; to throw a dart in a game. 

Nma. — To lay under a spell. 

Noa. — Made common ; not under tapti or other restrictions. 

Nohoanga. — A seat. 

Noti, whakanoti. — To bank a fire up with ashes to prevent its going out. 

Nonoke. — To wrestle. 

Nuinga. — Party ; assembly of people. 

* See Shortland's "Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealandcrs," 1856, page 15.S 


List of Words relating to Social Life. 

JSlgnkau. The heart ; the seat of affedions ; sorrow ; a token sent by an envoy 

or messenger from the ariki of a tribe to other tribes, or sub-tribes, 

implying a request for assistance in war. 
Ngaki. — To cultivate land. 

Ngati.—A prefix to names of tribes, signifying "descendants of" or "from." 
Ngerengere. — Property ; goods ; a disease ; a kind of leprosy. 
Oka. — Generous. 
Ohia. — To long after; desire. 
Ohonga. A medium of communication between a person to be charmed, or 

bewitched, and the user of the incantation : thus, a lock of hair, &c. 
Ohu. — A party of volunteer helpers. 
Oko. — A wooden bowl or other open vessel. 
ope. — A troop ; a company of people travelling together. 
Ora. — Life; also a slave. (BVom the verb whakaora, to save.) 
Orion. — A lullaby ; a song chanted over a child ; a song chanted over some 

precious objedf. 

Packiira. — Lost property. 

Pahaki. — A man of mature age. 

Pahanahana. — To daub with red ochre and oil. 

Pahi. — A company of persons travelling together ; a slave. 

Pahiko.--A space left between the priests (Tauira) and the people in ancient 

Pahu. — A gong or wooden alarm drum; a stage on which a corpse is placed. 

Paipai. — A cutaneous disease ; veneral disease. 

Papaka. — Scurvy. 

Pakau, pakaukau. — A kite. 

Pakoro. — Barren ; childless. 

Pahiha. — Betrothal ; the giving away of a girl in marriage by her relations, with 

set speeches, and in full assembly; the presents given at that time. 
Pakiiru. — A musical instrument, consisting of two sticks, one, held between the 

teeth, being struck with the other; a part of the whakawai (beguiling 

or soothing song) used during the process of tattooing ; a stage or perch 

for birds to light on. 
Pakuwlia. — Relation by marriage. 

List of Words relating to Social Life. 399 

Pani. — An orplian. 

Papakou. — A box in which feathers were kept. 

Papaki. — A love charm. 

Papakikokiko. — To feel a creeping in the flesh of the arms, &c. It was considered 

as an omen of the presence of an Atiia, and of the possession of the 

person by the god. 
Papapa. — A calabash. Papatiia. — A vessel made from totara bark. 
Papa-tiipuna. — A notched board for counting generations in genealogies {Whakapapa 

— to recite genealogies). 
Paramako. — ^A game which consists of parrying spears thrown. 
Papawhakaangi. — A stepfather. 

Parapara. — A sacred place ; first fruits of fishing, cooked before the rest. 
Patokotoko. — A game in which you tr}' to catch your opponent's finger m a 

snare of flax. 
Paratoitoi. — A children's game, with darts. 
Parau. — A slave. 
Pare. — A gift ; a wreath. 
Pareho. — The spirit of a deceased person. 

Pawera. — An ill omen (ailua), generally deduced from the movements of animals. 
Pepeha. — A saying or proverb ; the name of an}' celebrated pa, or fortress, used 

as a war-cry or war-boast. 
Pekapeka. — A wind-mill toy. 
Peruperu. — A kind of war dance. 
Pioi. — The game of see-saw. 
Pike. — A funeral dirge. 

Pirere. — Kernels of karaka berries steeped in water. 
Pirori. — A hoop ; a toy. 

Pirorohu. — A toy making a whizzing or roaring noise. 
Pmpiu. — To skip with a rope. 
Popoa. — Sacred food. 

Poha.~—K kind of basket; a container or vessel made from the large kelp seaweed. 
Poi. — A game played with a ball made of ranpn, to the accompanyment of a song 

and dance. 
Poipoi. — A waive-offering to a deity in baptismal ceremonies. 

_j.oo List of Words relating to Social Life. 

Poiioiiga. — A captive ; a slave. 

Popoa-reiigareii,i>n. — That part of the sacred genealogies which contains the sacred 
names, i.e., of deified forefathers or ancestral spirits. This part is recited 
as an incantation on occasions such as the removal of tapii from persons 
who have visited the sick or touched the dead. The second part of a 
genealogy commences the tua-taiigaia, the line of mere men. 

Popoia. — To yawn ; an unlucky omen in fishing. 

Pom. — A boys' whipping top. 

Poroteketeke. — A game played by boys standing on their heads and hands, and 
beating time with their feet. 

Porotitl. — A disc ; a game in which disc or hoops were trundled, sometimes over 
little barriers or hurdles. 

Porutii. — To splash the water with the hands when bathing. 

Potaka. — A child's top. Also kaihotaka, kaitaka. Potaka-ivhero-rua. — A double- 
pointed top. 

Potiki. — The youngest child of a family. 

Poll. — A word of address to an old person, generally a woman. 
Poiiani. — A widower. 
Poupou. — A father-in-law. 
Poutoti, poutiiru, pouraka. — Stilts. 

Pou-K'hakakiiva. — A post on which things are made sacred. 
Powhiri. — To wave in welcome ; to beckon one to advance. 
P«.— A tribe ; a ruler or highest chief, &c. 
Piilia. — A song; a chant to accompany the war dance. 

Piihi.—A betrothed woman. A woman is pithi in regard to her own father's 
consent, and taiiiiiaro in resped of her future father-in-law's consent. 
Pukaea.—K trumpet made of iotara wood. 

Piikaha.—A marriage ceremony; the giving away of the bride. 
Pinianta. — Having two wives. 
Piikaiia. — To distort the eyes. 
Piuii.—k company of persons ; a place of encampment. 

Pnuipuni.—K game in which the fingers of the hand are struck together ; also 

used as a means of divination. 
Piirakatt. — An old man. 

List of Words relating to Social Life. 401 

Pure. — A ceremony for removing the tapn from houses, canoes, &c. 

PiirercJiiia. — A " bull roarer," about eighteen inches long, fastened by a cord to 

a stick, and whirled round to produce a loud booming noise. 
Piitara, piitatara, pittetcre. — A trumpet or horn formed of a shell [Triton) used 

for signals. 
Putoriuo. — A kind of flute. 
Rain. — A servant ; a dependant ; a remnant of a tribe left (spared) after conflift 

with another tribe. 
Rahiii. — To prote6l by a rahiii — that is, by a mark set up to prohibit persons from 

taking fruit, birds, &c., on certain lands, or to prevent trespassing on lands. 
Rakahiia. — Prayers said to divinities who have power to raise the dead. 
Rako. — An albino. 

Ranga. — A company, of persons. Also Rangapii. 
Rangatira. — A chief, either male or female ; a master or mistress. 
Rangi-poi. — A song sung whilst playing at ball. 
Rehia. — Amusements. 
Rehu. — A flute. 
Rett. A board about' three' feet long, and four inches broad, slightly curved, used 

as a " toboggan," to stand or sit upon and slide down dry grassy slopes. 
Rewhareivha. — An epidemic ; influenza. 

Rlkiriki. Prayers to those divinities who have power to raise the dead. 

Rikoriko. S-pirit^ hauntmg deserted -houses, and the rums of village^i. They 

would creep into the bodies of unwary mortals and devour them. 
Ripi_ — The game of "ducks and drakes." 
Ritenga. — Custom ; habit. 

Rohe.—A boundary; a mark to indicate a sacred place. 
Ropa.—A slave; la^servant; a single man. TT7/a/r-ra/)^7.— Houses inhabited by 

single men. 
Rotu.—A karakia; an incantation for producing sleep or heaviness in others. 
Ritahine, or Rnaicahnie.-An old woman. Also Rnruti.-A part of the ceremony 

used m cleansing a new-born infant from the tapn. It was so called from 

the aged woman, or priestess (the child's eldest relative in the direft 

female line), who cooked the necessary food at a sacred fire. 
Riiiiaiiga. — An assembly ; a council. 

402 List of Words relating to Social Life, 

Taepo (^commonly iaipo).—A goblin; a speare. 

Tahac. — A young person of either sex. 

Tahataha-pakiiha.—A dowry; a marriage portion. 

T(7//r/77/^7.— Persons living in a country when war is going on who are related to 

both sides. 
Taliiuiia ("the sweeping"). — The name of an incantation used in expiating the 

curse called kauiia. 
Taliii. — A husband ; a spouse. 
Tahiifi-iiiai. — A cry of welcome. 

Tni. — An exclamation of address used to a married woman. 
Taiatva. — A foreigner. 

Taiki. — To provoke a demon or spirit by passing food over anyone who is tapii. 
Taitainahiuc. — A young woman. 
Taitainariki. — A young person of either sex. 
Takahorc. — A widow ; a widower. 

Takntapiii. — A close friend ; belonging to the same sex. 
Takmvaeii^a. — A mediator. 
Takiiira. — Sacred food cooked at the ceremonies of the iiJiiiiiga, when the bones 

of a dead person were exhumed. 
Tako. — The common house for the tribe, especially for the young men. 
Tama. — A son ; especially, the eldest son ; the eldest nephew. 
Tainahiue. — A daughter ; eldest niece. 
Taiuaiii (^\. tamariki). — A child. 
Taiuoe. — An incantation, accompanied by ceremonies to remove evil from things 

or persons, to cause them to be harmless. 
Tauc. — A husband ; male. 
Taiij^ala. — A man. Taii^nfa-roa. — A giant. 

Tan^ohanj^a. — Betrothal ; marriage ; the feast given at betrothal or marriage. 
Taoketc. — The brother-in-law of a man ; the sister-in-law of a woman. 
Taotiga. — Treasure ; property. 
Tapaini. — The first born female of a chief family with unbroken lineal descent 

(a female ariki). 
TapakiiK'ha. — A present given by a bridegroom to the bride's relations ; women 

introduced into a family by marriage. 

List of Words relating to Social Life. 403 

Tapepa. — A mistake in reciting a spell ; an evil oinen. 

Tapu. — Under restri6lions ; prohibited. 

Tapni. — An intimate companion. 

Tarakoekoea. — A children's game played with the fingers. 

Taiihoii. — A stranger. 

Taiiim. — A pattern ; a model ; a pupil ; a person being instructed by a priest 

or by the spirit of an ancestor; a priest of the Wliarekiini. 
Taitpiinipimi. — The game of hide and seek. 
Taitrania. — Witchcraft ; magic. 

Tniireka, taiiirirka. — A captive taken in war; a slave. 
Taununanimaki. — To duck one another in the water, as a game, to see who 

can hold out the longest. 
Taiitaiic. — Part of the ceremony performed by the father at the cleansing of a 

new-born infant from tapti. 
Taiife. — To prepare fish for cooking. 
Taiitiiiiai. — An exclamation of welcome. 
Tawhifi. — Hospitable ; generous. 

Teiua, or Taiua.—The younger brother of a male; the younger sister of a female. 
Teka. — A game of dart throwing; the dart so thrown. 
Ti. — The name of games. 

Ti-riii^ariii^a.—A game played with the different fingers held up suddenly. 
Ti-mkau. — A game played with the feet. 
Tiara. — A traveller. 

Tieiiii. — To play at a game called see-saw. 
TiJic. — To sneeze. x\lso tilnnva. 
Tirama. — To light with a torch. 
Tifi-fourefiia. — A game played with four sticks. 
Tifironiata, fohniiMn-fifironiata.—A sooth-sayer; a wizard. 
Toa. — A warrior; a hero. 

Tohiora.-^" The house of life" (a mystical priestly expression). 
Tohiiuga. — A skilled person ; a priest. 

joko.— To separate man and wife by a religious ceremony. 
Tokoioko.—A walking stick. Also fiinipoii, a spear. 
Torino. — A kind of flute. 


List of Words relatixg to Social Life. 

Totokun.— Blood taken from the ear of a dog and boiled. It is supposed to be 

a cure for spear wounds, whether used externally or internally. 
Tzm.— Religious ceremonies taking place at the naming of a child; the (so-called) 

baptismal ceremonies ; to name a child. 
Tuahu.— The sacred place used by the priests for the purposes of divination. 

Also a rubbish heap on which the remains of food, &c., were deposited. 

It was tapu from being the receptacle of fragments partly eaten by chiefs. 
Tuahine. — A man's sister. 

Tuakana.~The elder brother of a male ; the elder sister of a female. 
Tuapana.—A karakia ; an incantation for purifying a woman after child-birth. 
Tuata.—X part of the pure ceremony on lifting the tapu from a new canoe ; 

fish being roasted and eaten by the crew. 
Tuhawaiki. — The native leprosy. A disease in which the extremities perish as 

in frost bite. 
Tupuna, also Tipuna. — An ancester. 
Turakanga. — A priestly ceremony, in which there was thrown down a stick, 

which had been set up to represent the path of death. 
Turuturu. — A title to land' by descent from ancestors whose right is undisputed ; 

a stick to steady oneself by. , ■ 

Turupepeke. — A child's game of turning somersaults. 
Tutukai. — A guessing game for children. A small stone is held in the hand o^ 

a child sitting or standing m a circle, as in hunt-the-slipper. 
Tuwhenua. — A leper. 
Ukaipo. — A mother. 
Uinere. — To sing or chant. 

Umuroa. — A vapour bath for invalids, construdted like a native oven. 
Urukehu. — Light haired. 

Uto. — Vengeance ; an expiatory payment, in opposition to a common pa^'-ment. 
Utu. — An equivalent ; a return ; price paid. 
Wahie. — Firewood. 
Wahine. — A woman ; a wife. 
Waiata. — A song ; to sing. 
Waihakihaki. — Any cutaneous disease. 
Wakamoi. — A genealogical history. 

List of Words relating tcj Social Life. 


Whae. — A term of address used in speakino; to an elderlv woman. Whaca. — A 
mother ; also whaccnc and -wlincrere. 

Whai. — The game of cat's cradle. Also Maui. 

Whaiaipo. — A lover. 

Whakapakoko-wharc. — Small images nursed b)' women to make themselves fruitful. 
The image was sometimes named after the master of the house, was 
adorned with family ornaments, and treated with great reverence, and 
saluted with endearing words. Sometimes it was a mere doll. 

Whanaiiiif;a. — A blood relation. 

Whare-taperc. — A house in each village in which people assembled m the evenings 
for games, dances, songs, and other amusements. 

Whioic'hifl. — To speak in the whistling voice used by a priest when the medium 
of a deitv ; ventriloquial. 

Wi. — The name of a game in which the players stood m a circle. 

Group of Household Utensils. 

Basket fpatu^J made of folded totara bark, a calabash for holding wate., and an !pu, or wooden bowl, with a channelled 
spout for pouring melted fat into a store calabash filled with cooked birds. 

This is a good representative of a number of worked stone relics which 
have been found in various parts of New Zealand. They are usually cut from 
a dense, hard, black stone, and are perforated from end to end. It is not 
definitely known what they were used for, but an old Maori in New Plymouth 
called it a tunapaheke, and said that it was part of a drill. Other Maoris have 
suggested that the notches were used as the pegs on a whakapapa, or genealogical 
staff, for marks or aids in reciting pedigrees. 

Length, 39 mm.; diameter, 45 mm.; diameter of hole at the top, 18 mm.; 
diameter of hole where the perforations from each end meet, 5 mm. 

4o8 Maori Art. 

Group of Maoris, showing the Mode of Wearing Flax Garments. 

In this group a large number of ornamental cloaks or mats are shown, 
including one mgde of kmn feathers, and one made of the feathers of the tui, 
pigeon, and kaka. The mats are figured separately in Plate XXXIX., figures 
I, 2, and 6. 

The people belong to Puketeraki, a small settlement near Dunedtn, Otago. 


ixo Maori Art. 


Fig. 1. 

Women wearing an undergarment of flax (see Plate XXXIX., tigs, i and 3), 
and shoulder mats of feathers. In the one case arranged in squares of black, 
red, and white ; and m the other of white, and lines of the peacock-green feathers 
found on the neck of the native pigeon. 

Fig. 2. 

The old man holds in his hand a wooden flageolet (pntorino), and wears a 
soft silky kaitaka mat, over which is fastened a valuable cloak of flax covered 
with strips of dark brown dogskin (Plate XXXIX., fig. 5). 

Fig. 3. 

Two men, wearing dogskin mats over kaitaka. These mats are flne examples 
of the two kinds^black or reddish brown, and white. The feathers in their hair 
are those of the tropic bird (Phaethon) called by the Maoris amokura. Great 
value was formerly attached to these feathers, which are said to be found at 
certain times of the year on the beach at Spirits Bay in the extreme north of 
New Zealand. 

Fig. 4. 

The same men, but wearing different cloaks. The one is a kiici feather 
mat, and the other a mat of rougher material (Plate XL., fig. 4). 


F-ig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

W±g. 3. 

fig. 4. 

<i2 ATaori Art. 

Firf. 1. 

Fire Making by Friction. Urewera Country. 

This photograph represents Paitini obtaining fire by friftion in the manner 
required for lighting a sacred or ceremonial fire as referred to on page 207. 

Fig. S. 

Group of Nets, &c. Urewera Country. 

In the centre of the group is a snare fastened on the end of a long pole, 
as described at page 215. On each side is a large form of bull roarer 
(pororohu), at one time used in this part of the country. It was swung by 
attaching the short cord to the end of a long pole, which much increases the 
sound produced. At the foot of the group is a net for catching small fish in 
the streams and rivers. The other two articles are bird traps (korapa), consisting 
of a frame of supplejack vine and a square-meshed net made from thin strips 
of green flax, for the purpose of catching pihere, a small bird. A bait of 
grubs or worms is placed under the trap. The string by which the korapa is 
pulled down passed under a small arched twig set in the ground a little distance 
in front, so as to enable the trapper to keep a strain on the korapa when a bird 
is underneath. 

Fig. 3. 

Natives using the Ko, or Wooden Spade. 

Several varieties of ko have been figured on Plate XXXVI., fig. 4. In this 
photograph we have four Maoris working and showing the method of using it. 
The photograph was taken at Ruatahuna, in the Urewera country, the leader 
of the party being Paitini, a very knowing man in all the lore of the Maori, and 
an old warrior who fought against us at Orakau and other places. 



V" . 



MPW:^*^'- '^'^WT^ 

^■^^ ;i?;k-:-.' 


Fig. 2. 

Fig. 1. 

FigS. 3. 

,j. Maori Art. 

Fig. X. 

Greenstone Hei or Neck Ornaments. 

This unique specimen was found in a grave near Kaikoura. It is two-and- 
a-half inches long, of a beautiful semi-translucent greenstone. The workmanship 
is of the highest order, and the face-like carving near the hole for suspension 
of a type similar to the fragment figured in fig. 5. It is further ornamented 
with the fine notching on the thin edge near the point, which is so charaaeristic 
of relics of the olden period in New Zealand (see fig. 4, Plate XL VI 1 1.). 

It belongs to Dr. G. E. Deamer, Christchurch. 

Fig. 2. 

Bone Fork. 

This appears to be a good example of what is generally known as a cannibal 
fork. It is doubtless made from human bone, and the details of the carving 
appear to support its claim to New Zealand origin. I do not, however, know 
of another ancient example, and very little mention is made of such a thing in 
existing records. Length, eight inches. f 

British Museum Colleftion. 

Fig. 5. 

Pendants, or Hci made of Steatite. 

Two conventional hooks made from steatite, about two and three-quarter 
inches in height. They are both curious in form, and the upper one quite unique. 
I have seen two examples in steatite very similar to the lower one. They were 
found by Mr. W. S. Mitchell in the neighbourhood of Lake Te Anau. The 
outside edges of all parts of the hooks are notched. The upper one is of a 
darker colour, and seems older and more highly finished than the lower one. 

They are now in the Colledlion of Alex. H. TurnbuU, Esq., of Wellington. 

Fig. 3. 

Bone Fish Hook. 

A large and elegantly-shaped hook made from a piece of whales-bone. It 
is of unusual size for a fish-hook entirely of bone, and from the high finish, and 
from the faft that a similar one, slightly smaller, was found with it, buried with 
a skeleton at Papanui Inlet, on the Otago Peninsula, it was probably used as 
an ornament or hei. It is six inches long. 

In the CoUeftion of Mr. John White, Andersons Bay, Dunedin. 

Figs. 4 a,ncl 6. 

Stone Pendants. 

The first of these figures gives a view of a very remarkable pendant^ cut with 
great skill from a dense black slate, which takes a very high polish and smooth 
surface. The head, which stands out boldly in full relief, is not of the usual type 
of Maori carving, and for some time I was in doubt as to whether it was really 
a New Zealand ornament. Captain Mair, however, picked up a fragment of what 
was evidently a similar pendant at Matarau, near Cape Kidnappers (shown in 
fig. 4), and I have heard of another example. The lower end of the pendant is 
hollowed out in a curious way for about an inch on the under surface.* The 
notches on the front ridge have suggested to Mr. John White and others that this 
was used as a whakapapa, ov genealogical record. The edges are also irregularly 
notched. I think the notches must be primarily ornamental, and charafteristic 
of the period to which it belongs. It was found in a burial ground at Waitotara in 
the early '70's, and is now in the possession of Miss Morrison, of Auckland. The 
fragment was made of a stone like mottled red and white jasper. Waitotara is 
in the same distrift from which came the curious little triangular pendant, notched 
at the edges, and figured in Plate XLVHL, fig. 3. Length, 3^^ inches. 

* See a figure in A.H.M., III., p. 115. Tlie curved shape reminds us of the ear ornament known as a 
kai>cv, or kapehu, and also of the bone pendants, Plate xlvii., fig. 2. 

t In the " Edge-Partington Album," Plate 37IJ, it is figured as a comb. 

PLATE r,^'r. 

Fig. 3. 

F±g. 4. 

X--ig. 5. 

Fig. B. 

^i6 Maori Art. 

Short Bone Flute^Koniiaii. 

A koauati is made either from the arm or thigh bone of an enemy. The 
natural form of the bone is taken advantage of so as to allow a projeftion at the 
back, through which a hole is bored for a cord by which the flute might be 
suspended from the neck. The celebrated flute of Tutanekai was made from a 
bone of the great tohitnga Murirangaranga, and is now in the Auckland Museum. 

Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Fig. 2. 

Three Wooden Qod-sticks~.-J///(/ WJiaivhai. 

These three wooden pegs show the form of the god-sticks without the sinnet 
wrappings, which appear on the specimens figured in Plate LX. 
British Museum. 

Figs. 3 SLin.€k. 5. 

Two War Trumpets — Pu-kaea or Tatara. 

These vary in length from three to nine feet, swelling out slightly at the mouth 
end, and having the mouth piece carved. This instrument could be heard miles 
away, and could be used with the loud-sounding gong or pahu, to give warning 
of the attack of an enemy ; or, to announce to a village the arrival of a visiting 
chief, so that preparations might be made to receive him in accordance with his 
rank. It is generally made of several pieces of wood fitted together with the 
utmost care, gummed together with the resinous gum of the tarata (pittosporum), 
and then neatly bound from end to end with kiekie roots, split supplejack, karaeo, or 
finely made flax cord. One of the specimens figured is double-mouthed, and as 
will be seen by fig. 5, has probably had ornamented tassels or bunches of feathers 
attached at intervals up the sides. Inside there is a tongue or valve called a. ptdohe 
{tohe = tonsil), which adds greatly to the shrillness and power of the instrument. 

British Museum, and the Free Library and Museum, Liverpool. 

Fig. 4. 

Mead of Genealogical Staff — Whakapapa. 

This is a most elaborately carved specimen, which formerly belonged to 
Te Korokai, of the Ngati-Rangi tribe. The figure shows the detail of the upper 
portion. Length of the entire staff — forty inches. 

British Museum. 

Fig. 6. 

(ienealogical Staves — Whakapapn or Papatiipuna. 

These were used by the tohunga as an aid to memory when reciting the 
genealogy of the people. They were highly valued, and are very rarely seen. 
The length is generally about three feet or three feet six inches. The number 
of pegs or projections on them vary from about twenty-five to forty or more. 

The specimens figured are in my own Collection, 


F-if^. 1. 

ITig. 2. 

Fi^. 3. 


Fig. 4. 

Fig. 6, 

Fig. 5. 

ijg ATaoki Akt. 

Fi . 1. 

Double Flute— P/(-/or/«(). 

From the Colkaion in the British Museum. So far as I know, this is a 
unique specimen. 

ivfose Flute — A\iiiini. 

Made from either wood or stone. It is used by inserting the small end in 
tlie nostril, and, as its name implies, snoring or snortmg through it. It generally 
has three holes, by closing or opening which the sound may be varied. At page 
22 s anotlier exam'ple is figured and described as a war whistle. It has but two 
notc-producmg holes. I believe they were used for signalling purposes as well 
as for a somewhat primitive kind of music. The sp-cimen figured is handsomely 
carved from a fine grained stone. 

In the CoUeaion of Major-General Kobley, London. 

Fig. 3. 


A description of the method of using these sticks in the game of titi-touretua 
is given at page 382. They are made of light wood, and the tongue-like portion 
carved with an incised pattern. These are very seldom seen, and the specimens 
here figured were obtained in the Urewera Country by Mr. Elsdon Best. 

Fig. 4. 

Flute — Torino, or. Pu-lorino. 

A most beautifuU}' carved musical instrument of unusual shape, being less 
expanded in the centre than usual, and having a different appearance when 
viewed sideways. I am indebted to Mr. W. J. Carlyle, of Christchurch, for 
a photograph of this specimen. It formerly belonged to Paora Taki, an old 
chief of Rapuki pa, Lyttelton Harbour, and is said to have previously been in 
the possession of the celebrated chief Te Rauparaha. 

Fig. 5. 

Toy Jumping Jack — Kcniao. 

These toys seem to have been favourites with the Maoris in past years, as 
Captain Mair says he has frequently seen them used, and that it was a most 
amusing sight to see a long row of men and women watching and imitating every 
movement of the wooden marionette. It was either stuck in the ground, and 
made to jerk about its arms, to the accompanyment of a song, or was carried 
aloft by a man who kept pulling the strings. One of the specimens figured 
was procured by Mr. Elsdon Best in the Urewera Country, and the other is in 
the Sir George Grey Colleaion in the Auckland Museum. 

Fig. 6. 

Wooden Flute. 

This kind of fiute is manufaftured from the hollow stem of Coriaria wood, 
and not made in two pieces. 

'LATK Lvrrr. 

F'ig. C. 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 5. 

Fig. 6. 

^2o Maori Art. 

Fig. X. 

Five Musical Instruments — Torino, or Pu-torino. 

Though usually termed flutes, these are more stridtly flageolets, as they are 
sounded by putting the larger end to the mouth, and the sound produced is 
modulated by the fingers being applied to the openings in the centre or at the 
smaller end. They are usually about eighteen inches long, and are ingeniously 
made by first shaping the general outline from a suitable piece of wood, and 
then carefully splitting it into two pieces as nearly equal as possible. The 
halves are then carefully hollowed without touching -the edges. When enough 
has been removed, the edges are again brought together, and carefully tied in 
several places with either a flax cord or finely-split creeper or roots. In the 
figure the second and third specimens have lost part of their lashings. 

Tiki, the friend of Tutanekai, is said to have played on one of these as an 
accompanyment to his friend's performance on the koauau, which so fascinated 
Hinemoa. There is a beautiful double pu-torino in the British Museum,* which 
I have been able to figure on the previous plate. 

Fig. 2. 

Gods — Atna Whawhai, or Tiki. 

Though called "gods," these little images are not worshipped by the Maori 
in the ordinary sense of the word. They are aria, or visible abodes of the spiritual 
gods, who, under proper circumstances of time and place, take up their temporary 
abode within them, and from thence communicate through the priests with the 
people. The Polynesian race are not idolaters. Their gods are spiritual beings 
(u'airua), living in the heavens, who, at the instance of the priests, take up their 
residence in these visible forms for the time being. The form, aria, or incarnation, 
might be almost anything, so long as it possessed mana. 

God-sticks such as these were used by being stuck in the ground at the 
tu-ahu, or altar or sacred place near each village — and then, in order to induce 
the god to take up his abode for the time in these figures, the priest recited 
certain mcantations. During this proceeding the priest became strangely moved 
himself — his eyes rolled, his body was convulsed, and he often spoke in language 
or sounds unknown to the multitude. After a time the god made his presence 
known by various signs, one of which was by whistling. Then the priest preferred 
the request of the people, to which an answer was often given (through the priest) 
in such an oracular form that it was difficult or impossible to understand the 
exa6t meaning. f 

Mr. J. North believes these three figures to represent Maru, a Maori god 
whose cult was prevalent on the West Coast of the North Island ; Tangaroa 
and Kongo, both of whom are the form of great spiritual deities who sprung 
from Rangi and Papa. 

The wrappings are made of well-finished flax cord. Their height is about 
eight inches. They were obtained, near Wanganui, by the Rev. John Aldred. 

* " Edge-Partington Album of the Pacific," pi. 388, fig\ li. 

t S. Percy Smith, "Intern. Archives fur Ethnographie," BJ. xii , 1899, p. 223. See also Sir Geo. Grey's "Pol. 
Myth.," pp. 163 and 164 (188.5 ed.) ; and for a figure in which the god is dri'ssed with red feathers. Rev. A. Taylor 
" Te Ika a Maui," 185,j, pp. G2, 72, and 82. " Edge-Partiugton Album," pi. 389, figs. 9 and 10; and pi. 158. 



Fir', i. 

Fig. 2. 

^2 2 ?\Iaori Art. 


Figs. 1 SLnA 2. 

Two boxes, most elaborately carved in high relief, and about twenty-two 
inches and twenty-five inches in length respectively. They were purchased by 
Major-General Robley from an old coUeftion of New Zealand specimens in 
London, and are now in his collection. The heads of the figures at the ends 
of No. I have a small piece of greenstone placed in the centre of the left 
eye of each figure. Both have spaces left or arranged in the box and in the 
cover for the flax cord which kept the cover from being dropped or lost. In 
figure I the bottom is also covered with figures. The mouth of one of the 
female figures in the middle of the cover of No. 2 is perforated, either for 
the cord which served the purpose of a hinge, or for admitting the air to the 

Boxes of this size would be capable of holding greenstone Jiwres, or other 
valuable property. 

The two end heads of No. i have a piece of greenstone inserted in the 
centre of the left eye of each figure. This seems to be a peculiarity of West 
Coast work. A favourite subject in the Taranaki and VVanganui distrifls was 
the Moehau, a one-eyed sea god or merman. 


Fig. 1. 

F-ig. 2. 

^^24 Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

]]\ika, or Boxes for Trinkets, &c. 

In this beautiful example of design and workmanship we have another 
of the carved boxes used for holding greenstone ornaments or feathers for the 
hair. In this case the lid is secured by a cord. 

Fig, 2. 

Carved Box. 

Another charming variation in the design, which, though arising from a 
common motif called the rmiponga or raurit pattern, is treated with great skill, 
and is thoroughly representative of the decorative art of the Maori. 


Fig. 3. 

Elaborately Carved Feather Box. 

This example is in quite a different st3'le, and the artist has produced a 
characteristic specimen of figure decoration in high relief. 


Fig. 1. 

F'ig. 2. 

F±g. 3. 

^.26 Maori Art. 

Carved Box. 

A simple but beautiful specimen of ornamentation. Long narrow boxes 
of this kind were utilised for the safe keeping of feathers used for decorating 
the hair on great occasions. 

Liverpool Museum. 

Carved Box. 

The curious human figure here' supports a small box, the lid of which 
bears as a handle a grotesque figure in full relief. The small cavity beneath 
the lid was no doubt used for holding small trinkets such as sharks' teeth or 

small greenstone ear ornaments. 

Figs, 3, 4, £tncl S. 

Carved Box. 

This 'is very much of the same charafter as the preceeding, but has no 
figure on the lid. It is five inches high. 

In the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art. 

Mr. Colenso had a fine specimen of the same kind, which, he informed 
me, was used to contain the tinder or punk used for kmdlmg the ahi-taitai, 
or sacred fire ; or for carrymg smouldering tinder to re-light a chief's fire. 
The name of the pattern on the lid is puhoro. 

rr.ATE I.. MI. 

S'ig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

E-i^. 4. 

Fig. 3. 

ir ig. 5. 

^^28 Maori Art. 

Fig. 1. 

Carved Wooden Bowl — KiiuielF. 

This noble specimen is cut from a solid block of wood, and is four feet 
four inches in longest diameter. For many years it was in a Maori village 
near Wairoa, Hawke's Bay, called Waikare, but is now in an English 

Fig. 2. 

Carved Boxes. 

These caryed boxes are part of Captain Mair's Colleftion in the Auckland 

Large carved bowls of this kind, kumetv, would be used for the purpose of 
serving up preserved birds to visitors of rank. 


-ivT^i?.*?*;^; . 

Fig. 1. 

E-ig. 2. 

^30 Maori Art, 

Carved Box. 

The box here shown appears to be unique. It is extremely small, and the 
interior very narrow. The most remarkable point, however, is the indication 
of a long stick or handle at one end. I can only suggest that it was carved 
as the shrine of s6me very sacred bone or relic, and that it was mtended to 
be stuck in the ground at the top of the pole-like handle. 

British Museum Colledion. Length, 20 inches. 

Fig. 2. 

\]'aka Hiiia, or Feather Box. 

This specimen presents an entirely different style of decoration to those 
previously figured. The general charafter of the work is well preserved in all 
the details, but the general outline is not so pleasing as some of the others. 

British Museum CoUeaion. Length, 23 inches. 

Fig. 3. 

Whizzer, Kororohii, Bull Roarer, and Poi Balls. 

The whizzer is a children's toy twirled by alternately slackening and tightening 
the double string or cord which passes through two holes made in the short 
axis of the thin oval-shaped piece of wood. 

Similar to this, but larger, is a New Zealand form of the well-known bull- 
roarer. These are made to produce a loud roaring sound by being vigorously 
swung by the cord fixed to one end. There are two examples in the British , 
Museum.* This form is hardly known except on the west coast of the North 
Island of New Zealand — it is there called mamae, and was used in certain 
funeral ceremonies. I have already figured a still larger form from the Urewera 
Country, about two or three feet long, which is fastened with a short cord to 
a long stick, and then whirled round. In the specimen figured the edges are 
notched in groups of three at short distances apart. 

Poi balls are made, as described at page 372, from the leaves of the raiipo 
(Typha), and are used to mark the time in the poi songs and dances. 

Fig. 4. 

Bag and Paua Shell containing Red Paint. 

These were found in a kete, or basket, containing a number of interesting 
articles, and are described in Vol. XXIX., page 174, of the " Transaftions of the 
New Zealand Institute." The bag is woven in a curious fashion from fine slips 
of flax leaf, and is provided with a long flax cord fastened at one end to the 
top for the purpose of securely closing the bag. It is full of finely powdered 
kokowai, or red iron ochre. In the hollow of the shell is a wisp of flax fibre 
soaked in oil and red paint. 

Fig. 5. 


Specimens of the different kinds of tops used in various parts of New 
Zealand, an account of which is given at page 381. 

See " Edge-Partington Album of the Pacific," pi. 388, fig. i. 


FifS- 1- 


F"ig'. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 5. 

Fig. ■*. 


Maori Akt, 

Fig. 1. 


Major-General Robley has recently acquired from an old coUeftion the 
elaborate specimen figured here, and has kindly sent a sketch of the details. 
The length of the striker is six inches. The diagonal brown marks are 
burnt on. 

Fig. 2. 

Walking Sticks. 

The specimens of carved sticks figured here are typical specimens of the 
walking sticks which have been carved since the introduftion of European ideas. 
The work is generally beautifully done, and the patterns and small figures 
highly elaborated. The usual form of staff or support for aged persons was 
longer, and more like what we understand by a staff than a walking stick of 
the present day. These staves were but slightly ornamented, and had a knob 
or figure at the top. 

From Captain Mair's Collection, Auckland Museum. 

Fig. 3. 

Portions of Human Skulls. 

As a great insult, the upper portion of the skull of an enemy was made 
into a kind of bowl for carrying either food or water. In each of the specimens 
figured are to be seen the holes bored for the cords b}' which they were carried 
or suspended. These specimens have all been found in Otago. 


Fi^. 1. 

r'ifj. 2. 

Waist Mats. 

Types of Maori Women. 


Group of Natives, including Honi Heke, Hariata, and Kawiti. From 
a water-colour sketch by J. Merrett. In the Colleftion of Dr. 
T. M. Hocken ..." .... .... ■■■• ■■•■ Page 367. 

Five Portraits of Natives 

A Friendly Greeting. Group of Natives 
A Kite (Pakaukan). Auckland Museum 

Page J69. 

... Pagt; 370. 

Page 371. 

.r^ • • ■ 7-, T-) 4- •■ Page 383. 

Heipipi Pa, Petane .... ■■■• • ■■■ ■•■ ^, j j 

A celebrated pa of the autochthonous people overlookmg 

the outlet of the Petane Valley, near Napier. 

Two photographs of a haka at Parihaka,. m Taranaki 

Taradale Pa, at Redcliffe, near Napier 

An ancient pa of great size, the earthworks covering many 
acres, and extending over three or four spurs of the hill. 

Page 392. 
Page 393- 


List of Illustrations in the Text. 

Group of Household Utensils. Basket or patua, made of folded 
Mara bark; a calabash for holding either potted birds or water; 
and an ipii, or wooden bowl .... ■••• •■ •■ •■•• Page 405. 

Stone Relic 

Waist Mats 

Types of Maori \A'omen 

Greenstone Adze, with Carved Handle 

Evening Scene at a Pa, near East Cape 

Portait of Tawhiao 

Korurn. A sable ornament 

.... Page 406. 

.... Page 434. 

.... Page 435. 

.... Page 436. 

..,. Page 437. 

.... Page 439. 
Page i. of General Index. 

Enlarged Portion of the Groundwork of a Dogskin Mat (see p. 286) 

End of General Index. 

Greenstone Adze, with Carved Handle. 

Sir Qeorge Orey Collection, Auckland. 

Evening Scene. A Kainga, or Small Settlement at Kakariki, East Cape District. 


Plate LIIL: 
Plate LIV. : 

Plate LV. : 
Plate LVL: 

Group of Maoris, showing the mode of wearing Flax Garments. 
Figs. I, 2, 3, and 4. — Natives in Maori Costume. 

I. Fire making by friftion. Urewera Country. 

2. —Group of Nets, Snares, and Toys. Urewera Country. 
3. Natives using the Ko, or Wooden Spade. 

I.— Greenstone Hei, or Neck Ornament. 
— Bone Fork. 
— Bone Fish Hook. 
— Stone Pendant. 

Pendants, or Hei, made of Steatite. 

FifT. 6. — Stone Pendant. 

Plate LVII. : 



I.— Short Bone Flute (Kuaiiau). 
2.- Three Wooden God-sticks (Atua Whawhai). 
3 and 5.-TW0 War Trumpets (Pukaea, or Tatara), with enlarged 

view of the mouthpiece of one of them. 
4.— Head of a Genealogical Staff (Whakapapa). 
6.-Genealogical Staves (Whakapapa, or Papalupuna). 

438 List of Specimens Figured in the Plates. 

Plate LVIII. 














-A -Double Flute (Pu-toriho). 

-A Nose Flute (Ngurii). 

-Tottretua Sticks. 

-Torino, or Pu-torinn. 

-Toy Jumping Jacks (Keretao). 

-Wooden Flute. 

Plate LIX. : 

Fig. I. — Five Musical Instruments (Torino, or Pu-toriiw). 
Fig. 2. — Gods (Atiia Whawhai, or Tiki). 

Plate LX. : Figs, i and 2. — Carved Boxes, or Chests. 

Plate LXI. : 

Fig. I. — Waka, or Box for holding Trinkets, &c. 

Fig. 2. — Carved Box. 

Fig. 3. — Elaborately Carved Feather Box. 

Plate LXII. : 

Fig. I. — Carved Box. 

Fig. 2. — Carved Box, supported by curious Carved Human F'igure. 

Figs. 3, 4, and 5. — Carved Box, held by Carved Wooden Figure. 

Plate LXI 1 1.: 

Fig. I. — Carved Wooden Bowl (Kuinde). 

Fig. 2. — Carved Wooden Boxes and Bowl (Kiiinetc). 
Plate LXIV. : 

Fig. I. — Small Carved Box. 

Fig. 2. — Waka Hum, or Feather Box. 

Fig. 3.— Whizzer, Kororohu, Bull Roarer, and Poi Balls. 

Fig. 4. — Bag and Paua Shell containing Red Paint. 

Fig. 5.— Tops. 

Plate LX\'. : 

Fig. I. — Pakuru. 

Fig. 2. — Walking Sticks. 

Fig. 3.— Portions of Human Skulls made into Bowls. 


Whose ancestors came to New Zealaml m the Tainui canoe, hinchnf; at Ivawhia, was born in 
1^2^ at Rongokoekoea, near Mokau. Hi-, father, tlie celebrated Potatau Te Wherowhero, a chief 

of the Ngati-Mahuta Inipii, of the W'aikato tribe, was elected bv the natix'es in 1S57 as the hrst 
Maori King- during the time (if the wide-spread disaffection between the two races. Upon his 

death in 1.S60, lawhia<j succeetled hini as INjtatau II, (.'mistant eiiia\s were made to bring abmit 

a better feeling, and in July, iti.Si, he was semi-ofliciallv united to Auckland, when he recei\ed 

what might be called a royal reception. 


c » 

A Gable 
for a 


General ^ ® 






■(9 -^^ 

Amusements — 

Cats' Cradle — Uluii. 374. 

Games. 371, 381. 

Hoops — Pirori. 381. 

Jumping Jack — Kcretao. Plate LVIII. ; 

373, 415- 
Kite. 371, 377. 

Kororohu. Plate XLIV.; 373, 430. 

Koioru. 375. 

Mimic Warfare. 76, 371. 

Moari. 378. 

Mil. 380. 

Niti. 380. 

Patron Goddesses of Music and Dancing. 

144, 373- 
Poi. Plate LXIV.; 372. 

Pioi. 379. 

Purerehua. 374. 

Reti, Papareti. 379. 

Skipping. 378. 

Stilts— Poh/o/co. " Plate XXVI.; 162, 379. 

TUi-touretna, a Game with Sticks. Plate 

LVIII.; 382, 418. 
Tops—Potaka. Plate XLIV.; 380. 
Tupekete. 380. 
Turikakoa. 380. 
Wrestling. 378. 

Burial Customs — 

Bones, coloured red. loi. 
Burial Chest. Plate XXIV.; 158. 
Burial, Modes of. 100. 
Dried Heads. Plate L.; 313. 

Tomb, or Memorial. Plate XXI\'. ; 100, 

102, 165. 
Sacred Groves — Waki Tapii. 96. 
Sacred Stones. loi. 

Canoes — 

Baler of Canoe. Plate IX.; 14. 
Canoe Incantations and Songs. 9, 10. 
Canoe Memorial. 16. 38. 
Canoes. 15, 28. 
Canoe Words, List of. 17. 
Double Canoes. 11. 
Early Voyages to and from N.Z. 25. 
Figure-head of War Canoe. Pis. I., II., 
III., IV., v., VI., X.; II, 13, 16, 17, 

^4, ^5, 41, 4^, 68. 
Fishing Canoes. 27. 
Food Carried in Canoes, 27. 
Historical and Mythical Canoes, Table of. 

Historical Canoes of the Migration. 25. 
Model Canoes, Plate IV. ; 15. 

General Index. 

Canoes (continued) — 

Paddles, &c. 40, 324. 

Parts and Construction of a Canoe, Litho- 
graphed diagram and plans of. 9, 12, 
i3> 40. 

Rafts for Fishing Purposes. 10. 

Raiipo Canoe. 10. 

Sail and Fittings of Canoe. 14, 39. 

Sailing Charts. 27. 

Stern-post of War Canoe. Pis. IV., VII., 
VIII.; II cl scq. 

Carving — 

Carving, Bird-headed Figures. Pis. XIX., 
XXIII.; 71, 150, 165, 167, 169. 

Carving, Invention of the Art of. 7. 

, Lizards. 150. 

Female Sea Demon — Marakihan. Plate 
XXIII, ; 156. 

M^erman — Moehau. 422. 

Story of a Famous Carver. 152. 

Ceremonial — 

Ceremonial Houses. 79. 

Dedication of a House. 88, 89. 

First Fruit Ceremonies. 208. 

God Sticks. Plates LVII., LIX. ; 416, 

Incantations. 180. 
Kara kin. 20 ). 

Peace-making, Phrase for. 144. 
Sacred Fire — Ahi taitai. 207. 
Tapii. 369. 

Communal — 

Boundary Stones. loi. 

Council Chamber and Guest House — 

]VIuiiv-'d'luil!(uro. 79. 
Courtyard — Marac. 73. 
Family Group Enclosures. 73. 
Fences, Construction of. Plate XX\\; 73, 

160, 171. 
Kainga, General Description of. 71, 75. 
Rahui Posts, &c. 102. 
Sanitation. 74, 75. 
Site of Villages, &c., Choice of. 74. 

Dancing — 

Dancing. 392. 

375, 392- 


War Dance. 

Fortifications — 

Fighting Stages — Tauuiaihi. 77, 78, 121, 

Pa, Defences of. 73, 77, 78, 127, 171, 
— , Description of. 71, 73, 77, 126, 127, 

128, 129. 
— , Devices Used in Attack on. 77. 
— , Entrances to. 75, 79. 
— , Heipipi, Petane. 127, 383. 
— , Manukorihi, New Plymouth. 128. 
— , Plans of. 121, 123, 124. 
— , Pukearuhe, New Plymouth. 129. 
— , Redcliffe, Napier. 126. 
— , Stone Enbankments to. 77, 165. 

Games (see Amusements). 

Garments — 

Aprons. 289. 

Art of Weaving, Instruction in the. 276. 

Belts or Girdles. Plate XLL; 291. 

Caps. Plate XXXIX.; 294, 297. 

Carrying Straps. Plate XLL; ^-,-2,2. 

Chaplets. 294. 

Chatham Island Mat or Scarf. 298. 

Cloaks. 280. 

Cutting Flax, Season for. 272. 

Dog Skin Cloaks. 286. 

Dyeing, Method of. 274. 

Elsdon Best on Manufacture of Mats. 274. 

Feather Cloaks. 285, 330. 

Fine Dress Mats. 283. 

Floor Mats and Sleeping Mats. 296. 

Girdle Straps. 291. 

Kilts, or Waist Mats. 290, 434. 

Materials Used. 273. 

Mat Pins. 283. 

Mats. Plates XXXVIII., XXXIX, XL., 

XLI., XLII., XLIIL, LI.; 281, 298, 

Mode of Manufacture. 274. 

General Index. 


Garments (coxtixued) — 

Natives Wearing Flax Mats. 299, 370, 

and frontispiece. 
Ornamental Borders made by Men. 280, 


Parts of the Flax Plant, Names for. 272. 

Patterns for Baskets, &c., Names of. 293. 

Plaiting Ropes. 295. 

Rongh Cloaks, 287. 

Sandals. Plate XLII.; 293. 

Taniko Work. Plate XLIII.; 336. 

Thread, Manufactnre of. 272, 273, 280. 

Weavers, Rnles for. 279. 

Weaving, Method of Preparation for. 272. 

, Patroness of. 279. 

Weaving Sticks — Tiinitiiru. 277. 
Wharepora. 276. 

Genealogical — 

Genealogical Records. Pis. LVIL, LIX. ; 
301, 416, 420. 

Household — 

Boxes for Ornaments — Waka. Plates LX., 

LXL, LXII., LXIII., LXIV.; 422. 
Feather Boxes. 324. 
Satchels — AV/('. Plates XLIV., XLIX.; 

193, 295, 338- 348. 
Needles. 295. 

Houses — 

Amo. Plate XXL; 85, 134. 

Armories. 91. 

Canoe Sheds — Wharnii. 93. 

Cave Dwellings. 94. 

Central hoiise-po^t-Poittokoiimniiivii. Pbte 
XVII.; 82, 88, 146. 

Ceremonial Houses — ]Vhnrc iiiaire, Wharc 
pom, &c. 79. 

Cooking Houses. 92. 

Construction of a House. 80. 

Construction of a House, Account of, con- 
tributed by Rev. Herbert Williams. 81. 

Construction of a House, Ceremonies con- 
nected with the. 88. 

Construction of a House, Plans of the. 122. 

Houses (coxtixued) — 

Doorways, Plate XVI.; 72, 83, 87, 144. 

, Decoration of. 144. 

Floor Below Level of Ground. 73. 

Food Scaffolds. 98. 

Food Stores in Lakes. 91. 

Framework. 83. 

Gable Boaixk— M ni In . Pis. XIX., XXI\' • 

Gable Figuve—Tckoteko. Plate XVII. ; i, 

Gable Ornament — Knnirii. 114, 116, 132, 

Hearth. 87. 
House. Plates XL, XIL, XIIL, XVI., 

XXV.; 80, 94, 95, 115, 125 134, 136, 

Internal Arrangements of House. 72, 88. 
Lintel — Konipe or Pare. Plates XML, 

XXVI. ; 71, 103, 117, 125, 131, 165, 

167, 169, 170. 
Marakihau, a Sea Demon. PL XXIII. ; 151. 
Materials Used in House Building. 80. 
Measurements. 81. 
Painting, Colour Used in. 87. 
Poupoii. Pis. XIIL, XVIIL, XXL, XXIIL, 

XXVI. ; 82, 156, 162, 
Rafter Patterns. 117. 

Colours Used. 119. 

Method of Execution. 118. 

. Names of Patterns. 120. 

Ridge Pole— Tahii. Plate XVII. ; 82, 146. 

Roof. 85. 

Run. 92, 99. 

Setting out the Plan of a House, Method 

oL 81. 
Signal Gong — Pahii. 99. 
Skiiting Board — Papaka. 83, 130. 
Storehouse — Palaka. 90, 150, 156. 
Storehouse— IT7;(!/(;. Plates XIV., XV., 

XIX., XXIIL, XXV., XXVI. ; 90, 91. 
Storehouse, Door of. 160. 
Tiki, 01- Wooden Figure. Plate XX. 
Tukittnku Panels. Plate XIIL; 86, 138. 
Tiuihii. 97. 
Wahltapit. 96. 
Windows. 84, 95. 
Words connected with the Houses and 

Buildings of the Maoris. 103— 113. 


Gf.nfral Indfx. 

Hunting and Snaring of Birds and 
Bird SiiEires. Plate XXXVII.; 258. 
Bird Spears. 214. 

Desecration of the Mauri of the Forest. 204. 
Eel Killers. Plates XXXVI., XXXVII. ; 

190, 191, 256. 
Famous Trees. 204. 
First Fruit Ceremonies. 208. 
Hau. 207. 
Hunting. 201. 

Invocation to Rangi and Papa. 206. 
Kaka, Chief of Birds. 205. 
Kiivi Hunting. 220, 

List of Words relating to Hunting. 233. 
Luck-post — Tiiapa. 210. 
Mauri, The, of the Forest. 205. 
Offering made to Tane. 208. 
Omens in Hunting. 210, 212. 
Poliatili. Plate XXXVI.; 221, 256. 
Porta. Plate LI I. 
Preparation of Snares. 209. 
Preserving Birds. 222, 313. 
Restriction as to Snaring and Fishing. 204, 

Snaring Birds. 212, 221. 
Tane-mahuta, the Forest Deity. 205. 
Thanksgiving Karakia. 209. 
Traps. 202. 
WJiala-puaroa. 208. 

Implements — 

Celebrated Adzes. 195. 

Cutting Tools. 197, 

Drill. 199, 267. 

Hoe— Tiuia. Plate XXXVI.; 256. 

Implements for Cultivating the Ground. 

Ko. Plates XXXVI., XXXVII.; 193, 200, 

-37, 256, 261, 266. 
List of Words relating to Agriculture. 234. 
Maul. 195. 
Obsidian. 196. 
Perforating Tools. 199. 
Rasping Tools. 198. 
Spades. 194. 
Stone A.\es and Tools. 195, 196. 


striking and Crushing Tools. 198. 
Tools, Classification of. 197. 
Use of Agricultural Tools. 194. 
Wedges. 195. 

Mats (see Garments). 

Music — 

Bird Calls. 391. 

Calabash Trumpet. 391. 

Flutes. Plate XLI.; 386. 

Koauau. Plates LVIL, LVIIL; 386, 416. 

N^uru. Plate LVIIL; 225, 418. 

Pahu. 99, 384. 

Pakurn. Plate LXV.; 385. 

Potaka. Plate LXIV.; 381, 430. 

Polipoti. 192, 389. 

Putatara, or Pukaea. Plates XXX., LVIL; 

24+, 389, 416. 
Puioriiio. Plates XX'VI., LVIIL; 162, 388, 

418, 420. 
Roil a. 390. 
Shell Trumpet. 192. 
Songs and Music. 383. 
Titi-touretua. 382. 

Personal Adornment — 

Anklets. 307. 

Bracelets. 307. 

Carved Human Jaw. Plate XLIX. 

Chaplets. 294, 303. 

Combs. Plate LIL; 302, 354. 

Dressing the Hair. 301. 

Ear Ornaments. 303. 

Feathers. 302. 

Ha Tiki. Plates XLV., XLVL, XLVIL, 

XLIX., LL, LVIIL; 305, 348. 
Mat Pins. Plate XLVIIL; 346. 
Mourning Wreaths. 294. 
Neck Ornaments. Plate XLVL; 305, 342. 
Necklices. Plate L. ; 307, 350. 
Ivlose Ornaments. 304. 
Paint. 299, 430. 

, Blue. 301. 

, Personal Use of. 301. 

, Preparation of. 300. 

General Index. 

Personal Adornment (continued) — 

Painting the Face. 300. 

Pidea (Small Scent Bags). 296. 

Pendants. 305. 

Sharks' Teeth. Plates XLVI., XLIX. 

Varions Ornaments. Pis. XLVI., XLVII., 

Walking Sticks. Plate LXV.; 132. 

Portraits — 

Portraits. 315, 357, 369, 436. 
Rameka Te Amai. 314. 
Tawhiao. 439. 

Types of Maori Women. 435. 
Wiremu Te Manawa. Frontispiece. 

Social — 

Arts of Pleasure, The. 371. 

, Origin of the. 372. 

Salutation — Hongi. 370. 
Social Life. 369, 370. 

Tattooing — 

Preparation of Pigment for Tattooing. 310. 

Tattooing— Mo^o. PI. L., LII.; 308, 313, 

Terms for Different Parts of Patterns. 312, 


Utensils — 

Decorated Gourds. 324, 358. 
Food Bowls. Plate LXIII.; 428. 
Funnels for Feeding Tapii Chiefs. PL LI.; 

Store Calabash— Trt/ifl. 213, 223, 236, 262. 
Vessels made from Human Skulls. Plate 

LXV.; 432. 

War and Weapons of War — 

Adzes. Plate XXXV. 
Barbed Spears. 181. ■ 
Bone Fighting Weapons. Plate XXXII.; 

Bow, Knowledge of the. 188. 
Challenging a War Party. 180. 
C\uhs—PahL 184. 

War and Weapons of War (continued) — 

Duelling. 179, 182. 

Famous Weapons. 178, 185. 

Firebrands. 188. 

Greenstone, or Nephrite. 176. 

Handles of Adzes. Plate XXXV.; 254. 

Hoeroa. Plate XXXII.; 187, 245, 248. 

Incantations. 180. 

Kakauroa. Plate XXIX.; 184. 

Kotaha a.nd Kopere. Plate XXX.; 188,244 

Koliatc. Plate XXXIII.; 186. 

List of Words relating to Weapons of War. 

Matakautete. 189. 

Mats Wetted and Used as Shields. 180. 
Material of Weapons. 176. 
Mere, and Clubs of Wood. Plates XXXI., 
XXXIL, XXXIII., LVIII.; 184, 241, 
245, 248, 263, 324, 363. 
Mere, Use of the. 185. 
Omens relating to War. 178. 
Onewa (a War Club). 185, 263. 
Potuki (a Club). Plate XXXIX.; 187, 252. 
Pouwhenua. Plate XXIX.; 183, 242. 
Proverbs relating to Weapons and War- 
fare. 180. 
Red (a Projectile Weapon). 189. 
Shark-toothed Knives. PI. XXXIV.; 190, 

Short-handled Adze— Toki. Plates XXXI., 

XXXV.; 189, 254, 436. 
Short Stone Club— Onewa. 185, 263. 
Spears. Plates XXVIII., XXIX.; 179. 

181, 240, 242. 
Taiaha. Plates XXVII., XXX.; 175, 178, 

Taiaha Points and Guards. 177. 
Tewhatcwha. Plates XXVIII., XXX.; 182, 

240, 265. 
Tomahawk — PflW/. Plate XXIX.; 1S4, 

Tiinihi (a kind of Spear). 181, 242, 
War Belts. Plate XXVIII.; 240. 
War-gong— Pfl/"'- 98- 
Weapons in General. 175, 222. 
Wooden Hand Clubs. Plate XXXIII. 


Portion of the Groundwork of a Dogskin Mat. 


) * • > ( 

n^ T the close of this volume I desire to express my sincere thanks to the 
XJL Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute, who have carried out 
the pu-blication of the work at an expense far above that contemplated 
at the inception of the projeft, and particularly to Sir James Heflor, F.R.S., 
the Manager of the Institute, S. Percy Smith, Esq., and E. Tregear, Esq., 
both eminent authorities on Polynesian subjects, who formed the Committee of 
the Board entrusted with the general direftion of the work. The assistance 
and encouragement which 1 have received from them during the last hve 
years merits not only my thanks, but the thanks of all those interested in the 
objedls of the book. To the very numerous friends who have helped me with 
photographs, sketches, and notes, I feel deeply indebted, as their cordial 
co-operation has been the means of my obtaining many new and interesting 
fafts and photographs. To the authorities of Museums all over the world I 
owe my acknowledgements of the kindness and promptitude with which they 
acceeded to my requests for special photographs of articles in their possession. 
Special mention must be made under this heading of the photographs received 
from the British Museum. Last, but not least, my acknowledgement md 
thanks are due to Messrs. Fergusson & Mitchell, the publishers, who have 
spared no pains to make their part of the work a success.