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. [Explanation. — ^In making out the annexed Index, we have placed everything relating to 
Cattle, under that head — so with HorseSi Sheep, Swine, Poultbt, Domestio Eoonomt, 
Books, Pbriodioals, Manures, &o. Every artiole referring in any way to these subjects, will be 
found arranged under these separate heads.] 

Acknowledgments, 58, 90, 190, IS^ 104. &£S, j 

S68, 201 1 
Acree, yards in English and Sooteb. .... 90 

— of improved and nnimproved land 

lnNew-York| 307 

Action aivi Reaction ui Farmuig, S19 

Addison Co. (Vt. ) Ag. Society, 119 

Address of the Hon. H. Seymour, 889 

Adiroudac Mouutaius, visit to^ . . . . « 902 

Agricultural Borean atV^^ashmgton, 40, 130. 

— Conrenuon at Washington,. . 190, 9S6 

— Economy, remarks on, 51, 101 

— Education, 91,87,09 

— — Prof Norton on. 107 

— — plan for Farm School, 117 

— — what can be d<me for, 287 

— Fairs for 1859, 954,200,391 

— — remarks on, 309 

— Implements, trial of, at Genera, 990 

291, 313 

— Pursnits, Inflaence of, on Health, 335 

— Papers, value of, 4, 15, 23, 78, 111, 

117, 138, 949, 307 

— — notices of. 187, 990, 960 

— Resources of the Great West, 345, 304 

— School of Grignon, 904 

— Statisdcs of New. York, 387 

— Societies, Transactions <^, 158 

~ Survey of Essex Co., 995 

— Surveys, importance of, 337 

Agriculture a Science, 34 

— of Sullivan County 396 

— of Canada West, '. 300 

— of Jeflerson County, 38t 

— How science affects it, 113 

— Scientific and Unscientific 365 

— the Mother of all Professions, .... 118 

— the Science of, 137 

Albany County, Things in, 890 

— and Reus. Hort. Society,. . . . 129, 355 

— University of, . . . ^ , . . 35, 00, 159, 368 

Almanac, Pictorial Cultivator, 1 

American lusiitute, omcerB of, 927 

— Figi, 381 

— V8. British Horticulture, 952 

— Pom. Society^ Fruit Catalogue of, 401 
Analysis and Pulverization of Soils, .... 345 

— ofBran, 109,945 

~ of the Strawberry, 183, 996 

— of the Cucumber, 307 

— ofOil-cake, 945 

— of the Sweet Potato, 139 

Animals, Education of, 304 

Auts, to remove. 990 

Apiary, Gilmore's, 37, 110 

Apples, Baldw'm, 221,375 

— color of, 379 

— Dwarf, 951 

— effects of bruising, 980 

— for fattening swine, 14 

— Market for, 921 

— Northern Spjr in Ohio, 310 

— Bot derived from Ej^lisli crab,... 375 

ilpp2<>-Hiotices of new, 43 

— Primate, 47 

•— Shipped from Momx>e County, .... 68 

— Sweet Bough. 379 

— Select Lists of, 87 

— Tested at Boston, 43 

— The best- ..,..:.. 100 

— Wesifield Seeknofurther, 373 

— Western, 77 

Apple Trees, bark louse on, 133 

— — Borers in 133, 403 

— — culture of in Massachusetts,.. 49 

— — disease on, ....310 

— — from cuttings, , 77 

— — good culture of, 77 

— — hardiness of graAed, 72 

— — Iiv<ectson, 79 

— — killed by potash,' 375 

— — Rapid growth of, 970 

— — Retopping, 9S0 

Army, an invading, 21 

ArrangemiAita for 1853, 396,383 

AshesTor manure, 190 

— onWhcAt, 254 

— unleached, use of, 888 

Axioms, Rural, 131 

Barley, Winter, 286 

Barns, tight vs. open, 100 

~ PInnsof, 948,344 

— Washfor, 970 

Bees, Gilmore's plan of keepuig, '. 37 

— Habiisof,.... 938 

— Maiwgement of, 47,145 

— To prevent robbing each other,. . . 900 

Beets, water in, 177 

Beet, sugar, 380 

Bennington Co. (Vt.) Ag. Society 119 

Blackberries, cnlture ot^ 188 

— cultivated high bush, 349 

— time to' transplant, 132 

Blight on Pear trees, 36 

Bones, as a manure, 929 

— dissolved with sulphuric acid, 121, 179 

— how arolied, 55 

— value or, for manure, 176 

BOOKS— American Muck Book, 76 

~ Rose culturistj 193 

Amcultnral Dynamics, 131 

A Farmer at H(mie, 196 

A School for Fathers, 353 

Anna Hammer, 363 

Atlantic and Transatlantic Sketches, 3S8 

Bleak House. 980 

Butler's Analogy, 353 

Cyclopedia o^ Modem Agriculture,. 956 

Child at Home, 319 

Cicero's Tusculan Disputations, .... 853 
Dairyman's Manual,.. 76, 150, 911, 917 
Downiug's Country Houses, . . . 191, 148 
Domestic and Ornamental Poultry, . 103 
Dombey and Son, , 320 

Bodbs— Dr. Chalmer's Works 353 

Fardorougha, the Miser, 353 

Grecian Antiqnilies, 85:« 

Horsemanship 118 

History of the U. States. Murray's,. 193 

Horses, their varieties, ^c, 103 

Harrison's 1 Alin Grammar, 958 

History of the Reformation, 280 

— of the United States, Hlidreth's, 319 

Home and Social Philosophy, 3S3 

Institutes of Algebra, 353 

Lossiug's Pictorial Revolulion, 118, 103, 

London Labor and London Poor ... 989 

Ixitns Eating, 319 

Latin and Ei^lish Dictionary 319 

Marco Paulo's Voyages, Ac, 299 

Mother at Home, 319 

North American Sylva, 132 

Note Book of a Naturalist, 994 

New System of French Grammar,. 9:^ 
Parisian Siehti and French Pruiciples 387 
Practical Treatise on Mairares, .... 103 

Plantation and Farm Record 103 

Pierre, or the Ambiguities, 320 

Personal Adventures in Italy, 353 

Report of Com. of PatenU^. 57 

Rural Architecture, by L. F. Allen, 103 

Report on the World's Fair, 353 

Skillful Housewife's Book, 76 

Transactions N. Y. S. Aff. Society,. 131 
>- of the Hawaiian Ag. Society, 958 

— Massachusetts Ag. Society, . . 3S4 

— Wisconsin Ag. Society, 387 

The Hive and Honey Bee, 193 

The Hog, its origin, varieties, Ac.,. 103 

The Howa4)i in Syria, 994 

The Pests of the Farm, 959 

The Clifford Family, 353 

Walks and Talks of an American 

Farmer in England, 118 

Works of Dr. OUn, 889 

— of Robert Bums, 353 

Borer in Apple Trees, 133, 403 

Borrowing tools, evils of, 317 

Boys, valuable Hint to, 177 

Bran, analysis 0^ 199,945 

Breeding stock, mduences affecting, 179, 990, 

Brick work, wash for, 101 

Bugs, Striped, to destroy, 381, 403 

Buckthorn seed, how to sow, 191 

Buffalo nursery, 399 

BUILDINGS— Bam, Plan of, 948 

Chester County bam, 344 

CoUlVincries, 18 

Country Houses, 16, 98 

— School House, 75 

Design for a House,. 98<X 

House for Drying Frait, 959 

Plan of a Farm House, 118 

Poultry House,. 307 

Remarks on, 887 

Burnt Clay, Operation o(; 101 

Butter, to prevent tumop taste in, 385 

— product of; .310 



Cabbage Plants, Wintering, 402 

Calamus or Sweet Flag, to destroy, .... 83 

California, Com in, 376 

CatcM>laria, Cnltnre of, 230 

Canada Provincial Fair, 381 

— Agricultaral Resoarees of, 399 

Canker worm, description of, *, WL 

Can Money be Made by Farming, 3G3 

Carrots, Belgian, culture of, 218 

— and Oats, oomporative ralne of,. . 370 

— for Horses, 138 

— Value of, for Stock, 286 

Carbon Engine, 380 

Catalogueof the American Pom. Society, 401 

Catterpillars, destmctiTC, 270 


Ayrshire, properties of, 116 

— sales of, .' 69 

— bull"Dandy," 240 

Breeding, 170, 290, 316 

Bulls, capacity of, 192, 934, 405 

Cows, importance (^good, 31 

— chapped teats in, 376 

— great milkers, 45, 370 

— Goenon*s mode of examining, 398 

— for the dajrv, 41 

— products of, 81, 143, 149 

— escutcheons on, 204 

— wonderful, 290 

— garget in, 266, 287, 323 

Calf, remarkable, 290 

Calves, disease in, 57 

— management of, 102 

— how to skin, 136 

Choked, to relieve, 11, 151 

Devons, sales of, 121, 378 

— Bull, Mr. Wainright's, 144 

— — Mr.Colby's, 349,406 

Early use of Males, 192, 234, 405 

Feeding for market, 104 

Oruband Garget in, 256 

Hereford, importation of, 68 

Horns of, to raise^ 319 

Hazard of importing, 235 

Heavy, 259 

Hungarian, 55 

Imported by Ohio Company, 226 

In Texas, 79 

Nagore Bull, 217 

Number and value of in New- York, 367 

Pennsylvania, 50 

Premium at Smithfield, 154 

Quantity of food necessary for, 385 

Rearing on the Prairies, 364 

Running at large, evils oC, 07 

Salesof; 225 

— Mr.Morris', 194,256,258 

— Mr. Voil's, 396 

— Mr. Alien*?, 194,321 

— of Ohio company, 385 

Short-horns, Mr. Vail's, » . . 89 

— Mr. Chapman's Bull, " Hallon," 216 

— Prize Heifers, 405 

— CowAzalia 377 

— Bull, "Splendor." 247 

— — »' Lord Eryholme," , . 376 

— History of,. . 150, 211, 217, 253, 273 

Shropshire, 104 

Singular disease in, 51 

Stall Feeding, 56 

Steers, large, 138 

— Thuning, 394 

Unmly, 252 

Vcrmmon, 134 

Wens on 270,323,348 

Cauliflower, best, 403 

Cavuga Co. Ag. Society, Fair of, 980 

Cellars, dry aiki rat proof, 234 

Cedar, red, to grow from seeds, 155 

Chickens vs. Insects, 47 

Chimneys, high, C8 

Cheese, amount per cow, 81,143 

— cream, how mads, 30 

— factory, larffe in Ohio, 225 

^ pine apple, how made, 29 

— press. Pick's, 349 

Chains for drawing timber, 211 

Chenango Co Ag. Society, Fair of, ... . 379 
Cherry trees at midsummer, 259 

— — iiiieciaou, 147 

— — peel uig bark from, 256 

— — spllltingof, 153 

— — - slag oil, 13 

Chess coniroversy, 87 

Chestnuts, how to raise, 153 

Chicken Hatcher, 405 

Churn, The Excelsior, 243 

Clinton Co. Ag. Socieiy, 80 

CSimbuig plouis, impporu fur 20 

Clover, prolific white, 371 

— sowing with com, 387 

Connecticut Ag. Society, 286 

Color of apples, * 372 

Cobs, value of as food, 190 

Corn Sheller, Smith's, 6 

Com Sulk Cutter, Wheeler's, 8 

Cortland Co. A^. Society 41, 119 

Cotton Mattrasses, bow made, 256 

County Fairs, 370 

Crab Grass, valuable, 329 

Crab. English, and the Apple, 375 

Cranberries, culture of. 352, 385 

— grown on upland, 35, HO 

Cross cultivation, 309 

Cucumber, rapia growth of, 385 

— analysis of, 397 

Cultivation, general theory of, 807 

— successful, 181 

CuLTiVATOK, The— For 1853, 388 

Postage on, Il9 

Premmms to agents of, iio 

— Award of, ]94 

ToReadersof, 68 

^alue of; 4, 15, 78, ill, 117, 138, 249, 307 

Cultivators, importance of, 31 

Curculio catcher, plan for, 146 

— description of, 223 

— destroyed by swine, 221 

— in Michigan, 210 

— oil troughs for. 182 

— protection asanist, 28, 310, 381 

— whitewash for. 105 

Currant Wine, excellent, 354 

— Bushes, how to train, 20 

— — insects on, 257 

Cuttings, Fruit Trees from, 77, 79 

Cypress Vine, to vegetate seeds of, 311 

Dairy Products of New- York, 81 

— business on the Prairies, 65, 306 

DairieSj construction of, 378 

Dandelions, culture of, 279 

DeathofS. W. Cole, 59 

— A. J. Downing, 297 

— Prof. Norton, 329 

Diseases of Plants, 386 

Distance for Standard Pear Trees, 110 

Dogs, Expense of, 252 

— Shepherds, 50 


Cheese, Cream, how made,. 90 

— Pineapple, to make, 28 

Cotton Mattrasses, how made, 256 

Grapes, to keep fresh, 152, 301 

Fruit, preserving ui a fresh state,. . . 374 

Hams, tocure, 30,352 

House- work, weekly routine of, ... . 8 

Hints, Domestic and Rural 6 

Husk Beds, how made, 256 

Maple Molasses, how made, 203 

Plums, to pickle, 301 

Potatoes, how to fry, 8 

Pork, sailing for summer use, 56 

*Peach Leatiier' and 'Pumpkin Pap,' 66 

Soap, Crane's Patent, 74 

Smoking Meat 103 

Starch, now to make com 289 

Tomatoes, how to dry, S59, 348 

-■to pickle, 320 

Whitewash, how to make, 3 

Washing fluid, how made and used, 28 

— drying and ironing clothes, 73 

Don't Fret, 31 

Door-yards, village, on planting, {5 

Draining, advantages of, 24, 153, 224 

~ cheap, 131 

— eflTects of, ,.,.,. 355 

— in Indiana, igg 

— on heavy and light soils, 36S 

— tilefor,. no 

— Plow. Fowler's, 382 

— ten reasons for, 283 

Drills, Rickford and Huff'mau's, 10 

— . Emery's 57 

— Nolicesofj 31 

— trial of, at Geneva, 353 

Drouth iu Vermont, 291 

Ducks, profits of raisingi lis 

Eclipses in 1858j «.... 2 

Education, Agricultural,... 34, 92, 117, 267 

— Female,. ..,.•••• 397 

— of Animals, 394 

— in Agricultural science, 107 

Education necessary to the Fanner, ... 8f 

Egg Physiology, 38f 

Electricity, laws of. 81 

Embellishments of nome,. 406 

Kuglish crab and the apjue, 375 

Errors in Practice, 216 

Engine, Carbon, 380 

Evergreens, Economy of, 130 

— rare, severe winter for,. 255 

— transplanting, 256 

— trees and shrulM, 105 

Excellent advice, 130 


Fair Dealing, 23 

Fairs, Agricultural, remarks on, 362 

Farm, a fine one, - 209 

— A little one well tilled, 186 

— Mr. Ayrault's, 82 

-^ of Mr. tStickney, 375 

— Products of an English, 7 

— Power, economy <H, 171 

— Snbdivison of, 65, 153 

— Tools, value of in New- York, 367 

Farms, val ue of in New-York, 367 

— GoodandBad, 3O6 

Farmer, the good. 3S2 

— Daniel Weuster a, 4(|0 

Farmers, Education necessary for,^. .... 87 

— Families, contrast between, 83 

— Healthof, 235 

— Present Position of, 205 

— Talk, 271 

— Wives, 206 

— What every one may have, 300 

Farming, inacuracy in, 128 

— can monev be made by it,. 963 

— in Pennsylvania, 43 

— importanceof doing it well....... Ill 

— in the Housatonic Valley, 135 

— Mechi's, aoi 

— on the IVairies, • , 67 

— profitsof, 290 

— remarks on, 265 

— superficial, 68 

— theory and practice of, 305 

Female Education and Influence, 3D7 

Fences, Coon's Patent, 322 

— in Pennsylvania, 50 

— law decision about^ ." 99 

— new mode of building, 140 

— wire, how made, 213 

Fertility of Oliio Bottoms, 406 

Figs, American,... 381 

Flax, culture of, 178 

— cotton, 152 

Fleeces, heavy 120, 363 

Flies, Iiow to calch, 234 

Flower Seeds from Oregon, 354 

Flowers, beautiful, 133 

— cultivation of, 22 

— succession of, 403 

Forces of the Farm, - iflO 

Forei^ers, what they thiak of us,. . . . 44, 70 

Formidable Losses, 233 

France, notes of a tour in,. . .. 139, 204, 275 

Franklin Co. (Vt.J Ag. Society, 119 

FRUIT— Blighted by wet weather 4i3 

— Catalogue Am. Pom. Society,. ... 401 

— at Stale Fairs, 402 

— Crop, value of, 77 

— Culture at Washington, 811 

— Dried, for foreign markets, 212 

— Keeping fresh, 222 

— House for drying, 259 

— Market not overstocked, 133 

— New and old in Western New- 

York 309 

— New, tested at Boston, 342 

— Packed in ice, 77 

— Profitsof, 143 

— Preserving in a fresh slate, 374 

— Stealing, 133,221, 240 

— Trannatlaniic exchanges of. 210 

— White, not attacked by birds, .... 133 
Fruit Trees, cultivation about, , , , . 23| 

— — from cuttings, .' 77,70 

— — liquid manure for, 221 

— — manuring, 403 

— — moeson 77 

— — oversttick of, 77 

— — pruning ; 402 

— — surfeit of, 177 

— — summer pnming, 240 

— — to prevent ii\jiiry from mice 

and rabbits 403 

— — tobacco for, 10© 

— — traiwplBiiUnr, 311, 402 

Fumigator for destroying insects, 278 

Furrowcr, a double, 116 



Galen Ag. Society, 119 

Garden of Plants at Paris, S9, 277 

Gardening about Loudon, 50 

Gardens, Farmer^s, 103 

— I^ayin^ out kitchen, 11 

— toa nij 14 

Gerauiunu, skillful growing, 24 

Goose. Cauadiftu or wild, 86 

Gooseberries, how to train, 2o 

— ilie beat, HO 

Gophers, 155 

Grafting and Pruning shears, 172 

— Grape vines,. •• 11 

— timefor, ••• 132 

— tool for orchards, U 

GraAs from old trees, . • . . • 183 

Grain separator, Boothia, 315 

Granary, rat proof, 110 

Grapes, seedling, 47 

— best for Iiouae culture, 403 

— tokeepfresh, 152,301 

— fine samples of. 354 

Grape vines, houses lor,.. 18 

— — tograA, 11,133 

Grass, Crab, valuable, 339 

— best for meadows, 405 

— Orchard, remnrks on, 287 

— Quack, to destroy, 100 

— Seed, not enough sown, 93 

— — tor lawns, 143 

— — time to sow, 192 

Great West, Agricultural resources of,. . 364 

Green crops foir manure, SSfl 

Greenhouses, to destroy insects in, 133 

— value of to invalids, 903 

Gnano and Lime, efEecu o(, 172 

— and Lobos Islands, 377 

— best mode of applying, 221 

— cost of in Great Briiam, 133 

— Fraudin, 170 

— howtoapply, 191,294 

— on wheat, 2fl5 

— Premium for substitute for, 355 

— value of, 91 

Gypsum for painting, 320 


Hampden, Franklin and Hampshire Fair, 379 

Hanw, prize, how cured, 30 

Hasty conclusions, 121 

Hawks, how to catch, 122 

Hay and Fodder, cutting and curing,. ... 170 

— on western pniines, 304 

— Presses, description of, 180 

— Salt, value of, 91 

— unloading by horse power, S25 

Heating apparatus for houses, 5 

Hedges, Osage Orange,. . 154, 195, 272, 315 

— Thoni, 335 

Hickory trees, to miae from seed, 402 

Highland and Ag. Soeieiv of Scotland,. . 354 
Huns, domestic and rural, 6 

— horticultural, 279 

Hoe handles, long, 303 

Hog, pointsof a good, 383 

HoUyhocks, fancy varieties of, 246 

Home embellishmeuts, 406 

Homer, village of, 152 

Horse Rakes, importance of, 31 

— Racket, 288 

HORSES— Carrots for, J.36 

Clydesdale draught, 49 

Crushing grain for, 56 

ColtSj lice on, 256 

English draught 20, 105 

Floors (f.t foundered, 245 

How to treat bnulky, 291 

Mr. Burnen's " Consternation,". . 48 

Morgan, notices of, 56 

Norman, notices of, 50. 199. 205, 282 
Number and value ofin New York, 367 

On raisuig, 105, 173, 239 

Pennsylvania, 50 

Shoulder slip in, 3B1 

Vermont, why good, 236, 333 

HoQsatoiiic Valley, farming in, l.'K 

HoiMC work, weekly routine of, 8 

— Plants in winter, 372 

Husk beds, how made, !^ 

Hydraulic Ram, 9 


Ice Trade, history of 141 

— Houses, cheap, 351 

— — construction of, 380 

Illinois State University, .-. .. 153 

Implements, trial of, at <3eneva, 220, 201, 312 

Indefinite Statements, 286 


Crop, value of,. . . 1 189 

CoMi of growing 91, 134, 206, 407 

Culture of, 252 

— on the Prairies, Ml 

Curing'^lalks of, 268 

Early Mandan, .TSO 

Experiments in harvesting, 52, 332 

— in growing. 174 

— in manuring, 205 

— needed wi>h, 247 

Grown with Potatoes, 181 

Growing for Fodder, 3^ 

Hi California, 376 

On Toppinr, 69 

Premium Crops of, 88, 99 

Saltpetre for seed, 371 

To improve, 69 

Ink for marking labels, 81 

Insects, attacks of on vegetation, 14 


Jefferson Co. Ag Society, .' 119, 3S2 

— — Agriculture of, 334 

Joint Worm, description ofy 384 

Kind Words, reasons for using, 31 

Knife Sharpener, 99 

Knowledge, how to acquire, 250 

Kossutli's Vinil, 260 


Labor, dignity and disgnce of, 91 

— saving machines, 31 

I«ard oil for lamps, 01 

Lamp, a new one, 380 

Lawns grasses for, 143 

Indies' Riding Match, 388 

Letters from Sandwich Islands, 206, 241 

Lightning rod«, 84 

Lima Beans, to raise early, 3 

Liipe Gas, 222 

— Bumhig, kilns for, 351 

— stone, weight of, 227 

— Sunerphospliate of, • • 385,406 

— ana Guano, effects of^ ]72 

Live Stock, value of in New- York, .... .367 
Locust, seventeen year, 121 

— Red Legged, ravages of, 367 

Ijong Island lands, value of. 54 

LolxM Islands and Gnano, 377 

liong pasture, 97 

liooking glasses to frighten birds, 311 

Machines, Labor-saving, 31 

Magnolia, hardineas of^ 143 

Maine, season in, 311 

Mangle, description of, Ill 

MANURES— Bone--s«« Sonet. 
Guano— Me Guano. 

How to manufacture, 47, 308, 369 

How to apply, 154 

How to make cheaply, 183 

How to preserve, 257 

Inquiries about, 276 

Keeping and ap^l ication of, 48 

Liberal application of, 91 

Liquid and solid, 91 

Liquid, 221,220,255 

Mineral, theory of, , 90 

Management of, 195, 304 

PoiDsh, 55 

Retained by the soil, 282 

Special and general, OS, 2't3 

The best, 17 

Marls of No w- Jerncy, 269 

Maryland Ag. Socictv, 171 

Massachusetts Hort. Society, 143 

— tioard of agriculture, 120, ,122 

Meat, smoking, 103 

Meadow, improved, 154 

— biat ffrnsses for, 405 

Mechi-s high farming, 201 

Melons, succes«fVil culture of, 68 

— to raise early, 3 

— the Christiana, 43 

Michigan, wool growing in, 270 

— State Pair, .381 

Mildew on plants, 221 

Milk, per cow, 226 

Milk, difference in richness of, 203 

Milking, instrument for, 287 

Mill for grinding feed, 03 

Moisture of untilled grounds, 323 

Molasses, maple, how made, 203 

MoMrern. Keichum's, lOJ, 130, 312 

— Manny's, 312 

— notices of, 31 

— Rugg's, 313 

Mules, advantages of over horses, 144 

— number of In New- York, 367 

— on raising for market, 370 

Muskhighom (0.) Ag. Society, 57 


New Brunswick Ag. Society, 354 

— Letter from, 300 

New Hampshire State Fair, 391 

New Jersey, agriculture, and marl«, . . 200 
Niw-York StaU Ag. Society: 

Aiuiual meeting, i 89 

Fair of, 331, 354 

Notices of, 57 

Officers of, 88 

Premiums awarded at Utica, 330 

Proceedings of Kx. Committee, .... 254 

Suggestions to, 187 

Winter Premiums, 88 

Niagara Co. Ag. Society, 57 

Notes of a Tour in France, . . . 139, 904, 275 
Northampton Cattle Show, 378 


Oats, Black Tartarian, IS* 

— and Carrots, comparative value of, 37C 

— culture of, 25i 

— premium crops, 86, 9i 

Ohio State Fair, 331 

— Bottoms, fertility of, 406 

Oil Cake, analysis of, 24i 

— for fattening animals, 104 

Onion Fly, ravages of, 334 

Onions, culture <k, 82, 108, 334 

Orchard Ornss, remarks on, 288 

Orchards, cultivating, fffl 

— caterpillar destructive in 199 

— their management, 1» 

Osage Orange, hardiness of, 405 

Ot-»ego Co, Ag. Society, J19 

Oxen, breaking, 139 

Ox Yoke, Chase's Potent, 354 


Patent OfRce, report from, 57 

Peaches destroyed by Frost, IsL 

Peach Trees, curl on, 309 

— — to destroy worm in,. 13?* 

Pears and Pear Trees, notes on,.' 36 

— best for marketl 371 

— Dwarf, for marketuig, 341 

— high price for Whiter, 330 

— large, 79 

— notices of new, 36, 43, 77 

— Rosliezer, 374 

— Seedlings, blight in, 188 

-— tested at Boston, A3 

Pear Trees, blight in, 255 

— — best for quince stocks, 374 

— — double working, 110 

— — forms of, 41 

— — notes on, 36 

— — on Quince stocks, 109 

— — productive, 133 

— — profitable. 373 

— — pyramidal, how I rained, 10 

— — results of manure on, 341 

— — transplanting in summer, .... 77 
Peas, to raise early, 91 

— and beans, fHttening qualities of,. . 105 

Pennsylvania, farming in, 48 

Penobsicol Hort. Society, 59 


American Veterinary Journal,.. 57, 224 

Boston Cultivator, 122 

Country Gentleman,. 388, 392, 393 

Farmers' Monthly Visitor, 1S7 

— Jouninl, 226 

Farmer and Artisan, 226 

Graham's Mngazine, 76, 193, 258, 320, 387 

Green Mountain Farmer, 187 

Harper's Magazine, 57, 76, 118, 132, 193 

289, 320, 387 
International Magazine, 57, 76, 118, 132 

Jefferson Farmer, 226 

Journal of U S. Ag. Society, ...... 328 

Kentucky Cultivator, 290 


itmtx to YOLtntx tx. 

Ptriodieatt : — 

Little's LiTiur age, 118, 133,824, 880, 397 

New.Eugland Cnltirator, 187 

New York Farmer, 187 

Northeru Farmer, 187 

Ohio Farmer, 187 

The Horiicolturist. 855, 311 

TlieNewEra, 800 

The New EnglaDder, 330 

The Plow. 187 

The Wool Grower, , 800 

Philosopher's Stone, 16 

Phosphate of Lime, 57 

Planets, rising and setting of. 3 

— phenomena of for 1853, 8 

Planting, sacceasfnl ptogrem in, . . . .^ . . . 375 
Plants, eaten by different animals, 38 

— diseases of, 386 

— house, oare of in winter, 373 

— injured by winter, 846 

— supports lor climbuig, 36 

Plaster on wheat 380 

Platinus reviewed, 211, 317 

Plowing, deep, 850, 380 

— headlands, 183 

— • importance of frequent, 155 

— necessity for deep, OS, 101 

— subsoil, 50 

— straight, 81 

Plow for draining, 355 

Plows, Gang, 315 

— Fowler's Draining, 382 

— Michigan sod and subsoil, 

— Old Olid new, 17 

— should pulverize the soil, 83 

Plums, Lombard. 31 1 

— attheSouth, 373 

— remarks on different varieties,. . . . 106 
Plum trees, black rust cm, 180, 379 

— — best for light soils, 387 

— — insects on, 121^ 858 

— — knots on, remedy for, 18, 386 

POETRY— A Domestic Picture 50 

Forest Musings, 320 

The Home of Taste, 403 

The Old Mill, 823 

The Plow 339 

Pomological Congress at Philadelphia,. . 342 

— convention in Illinois, 134 

— meetings in Utica, 340 

Pork, sniting for summer use so 

Potnsh for manure, 55 

POTATOES— culture of, 115, 175 

Blight in, 379 

Disease in, investigations relating to, 350 


From seed, 57 

Grown with com, i^i 

Mulching 140 

Prospects of crop, SOS 

Rot in 153, 175, 350, 355 

Stone Hill, 58 

Sweet, flnnly«i» of, 132 

Grown in Illinois 133 

Varieties snlnect to rot, 104 


Care of in winter, 18 

Confined to fatten, 133 

Cross between common and Musk 

Ducks, 381 

Dorkingi, 387 

Ducln. nrofits of raising, lig 

F<8lahlishmenl, large, 3B5 

Fancy and common, 24o 

House, 807 

Inquiries about, 886 

Management or, : 193 

Manner of feeding 323 

Oniamenlal, Mr. Gilet*, 53 

Profitable, 154 

Sales of in Boston, 370 

Show at Boston, 64 

— at Cincinnati, •• 128 

Shonld not roo«t in horse stables,. . . 313 

Turkeys, expense of raising, 807 

To keep lice from, 220 

VariRtiex and management of, 305 

Poverty and Procrastination,. 300 

Prairie Farming ! 67 

— dairy bu«>inem on, 85 

Pruning Frnit Trees, 403 

— and Grafting Shears, 172 

— Autumn, 851 

— Summer, a<l6 

Punctuality, importance of, 155 

Puuiam County, cropt in, 09 

Quack Grass, to destroy, 100 

Quinces sahfor, 856 


Rabbits, Fancy Lop-eared, 84, 354 

— gnawing of,. . . .' 344, 408 

Ram, Hydraiuic, 

— — improved, 87 

Raspberry culture, profit of, 306 

Reapers, Atkin's, 314 

— Burrall's, 313 

— Danford's, 314 

— Densmore't, 314 

— Denton's, 383 

— Hussey's, 46,854,313 

— McConmck's, 85, 46, 850, XS, 407, 418 

— Manny's, , 314 

— > notices of, 31, 314 

— trial of in England, 46 

— — at Geneva, 313 

— Seymour & Morgan's, 314 

— sales of in Engluid. 331 

Reaping machines, remarks on, 380 

— in England, 369 

Rhubarb, leaves of poisonous, 310 

Riding match, 388 

Roads, importance of dry, *. 136 

Roofs, paint for,* 6 

Roots, length of^ 138, 31 1 

Rose bug, description o^ 100 

— Insects, 300 

Roses, best sorts, 143 

— Hybrid perpetual 188, 403 

— Lists of, 77 

— Moss, 403 

— select list of,. 877 

— wintering lender, 846 

Rural Axioms, 131 

Ruta Baga, culture of,« 818 

— — heavy crop of, 885 

By®} premium crops, 88, 00 


Salt, as food for plautt, 15 

— as a manure, 180 

Sandwhicit Islands, agriculture of^. 808, 341 
Saw, cross-cut, worked by horse power, 81 

Saw Mill, Page's portable, 73 

St. Lawrence Ag. Society, I19 

School House, ilcsign for, 75 

Science, iu effects on agriculture, 113 

— of Agriculture, 137 

Scientific Agriculture, 365 

Seed, advantages of change of, 330 

Seeds, Frozen, ; 133 

— number of m a given weight, 18 

— to preserve pure, 122 

Shade trees, remarks on, 373 

Serpents, nature of, • 50 

Sewing Machines, 303 

SHEEP— Average product of wool, 283 

Black-faced Scotch. 17 

French Merinos. Mr. Botch's 90 

— — foundation of, 840 

— — Mr. Jewett's,. . . 184,104,316 
_ — Mr. Campbell's, . .. 251, 283 

— — Rambouillet, S75 

— — notice of, 889 

Foot Rot in 15i 

Heavy and Light wooled, PQ 

Husbandry 377 

— in Michigan 270 

— on the Prairies, 314 

In Pennsylvania, 50 

ImpTovcraent of our common, 367 

Jackets for, ; 186 

Large fleeces of, 363 

Ijcicester, 145 

Mr. Avery's 185, 226 

Number in United States, 283 

— in New- York, 367 

Pbisoned by peach leaves, 12 

Remarks on, 185 

South Down, 80 

Silesian Merino, 281 

Shearing, Mr. Bingham's, 274 

Smearing, 376 

Shepherd's dog, 50 

Silk, domestic, 389 

Slugs, Cherry, 13 

Soap, Crane's patent, 74 

Soils, Anal)*fli8 of, 345 

— pulverization of, 13, 345 

Solar System, table of, 3 

Starch, to make Com, • • 2^9 

Siaie and County Fairs, 379 

Steam, cultivation by •• . 83 

— Enghie for farm work, 800 

Stock, food for sick, 151 

— hard mouth for, • • . 72 

— regular feeding, ••.... 80 

— ahclter for fattening, 50 

Stock, stall feeding, 68 

Stone, machine for picking, 318 

Stoves, Franklin Cool, 5 

Sriaining after large statements, 188 

Strawberries at Rochester, 277 

— analysis of, : 183 

— — correction of, 838 

— culture of, 806 

— English 341 

— five ben sorts, 143 

— notes on, 308 

•— raising seedliiigs, 375 

— profits of, 345 

— productiveness of, 846, 401 

— RivalHudson, 311 

— transjrianting, 77 

— treatment cfm blossom, 174 

— wintering, 375 

Stump Puller, Stewart's Patent, 87 

Striped Bugs, to destroy, 381 

Style, new, when adopted, 3 

Superphosphate of Lime. 385 

Sugar, Beet, in Frmice, ', 174 

— boiling, 110 

— Maple, how to make, 803 

Sullivan County, Agriculture of, 308 

Swamps, reclaiming, 195 

SM'eet Flag, to destroy, 175 

Sweet Potatoes, analysis of, • • 138 

— — grown in Illinois, 133 


Apples for fattening, 14 

Best food for 104 

Chinese, 81 

Good, 154 

Heavy litter of pigs, 90 

In Pennsylvania, 50 

Live and dead weights, .* 104 

Number of, in New- York, 367 

Styes for, 188 

Points of a good, 383 

The Babimssa, 20 


Texas, Live Stock in, 70 

Theory and Practice, 183 

— — — of farming, 305 

Thermometers, Cream, 287, 351 

Things I have seen, 271, 340 

Thoughts and Experience, 848 

Threshing Machine and Winnower, 

Wheeler's, 30 

— Machines, Trial of, at Geneva,. . . 314 

Tide Table for 1852 3 

Timl>er, sfdittuig frozen, 810 

Time, Equation of, ' 3 

Tin RooA, painting, 888 

Toads in Gardens, 14 

Tobacco for Trees and Plants, 100 

— grown in the United States,. ..... 380 

Tomatoes, culture of, 206, 856 

— howtodry 358,948 

— longuseof, 381 

Transmutation, 87 

Transplanting, remarks on, 311 , 408 

Trees, for fencing, 176 

— for protection from wini^s, 7 

— never too late to ^ant, 154 

Trial of Implements at Geneva,. . . . 220, 271 

— — report of, ,, 318 

Tiu-keys. ex|)ense of raising, 207 

Tuniep Fly, guano for 108 

— — ra^niges prevented by fish oil, 286 

— — to destroy, , ,,,, 118 

Tumepa on heavy soil, 859 


United Slates Ag. Societv, constitution 

and oflScers of, 884 

— — Journal of, 388 

— — growth of, 70 

University of Albany, 35, 90, 158 

Ubscienlific and scientific agriculture, . . 365 


Variejies from a single species, 279 

— limited duration of,. 837 

Vermont State Ag. Society, organization 

of, 39 

— — Fairof, 333 

— — notices of, 181,885 

Ventilation, necessity for, 818 

Victoria Regia Lilly, 83 

Village door yards, on idanting, 85 

Vineries, I9 

Vines for decorathig houses, 1^ 


YiDM, forTerandakk 958 

— to ke«p bugs from, 290 

Yirgmia, crops in, 3S3 

~- prices of land in, 189 

— State Aff. Society, IM 


Walks, to destroy weeds in, 231, 227 

Wash for barns, 279 

Washing Fluid, how made and nsed, ... 28 

— drsring and ironing cloihes, 73 

— clothes by wholesale, 9d9 

Water, importance <^ on a farm, 2"^ 

Webster. Daniel, as a farmer, 400 

Weeds, m gravel waks, to destroy, 227 

— losses occasional by, 233 

Weeds, the way they increase, 79 

Wells, ice water in, 304 

Western world institme, 00 

What every farmer may have, 300 

Whatever yon do, do well, 219 

WHEAT— covering with straw, 388 

Drill colture of, 38, 365 

Does not tarn to chess, 87 

Great crop or 224 

Growing on the prairies, 345 

Harrowing iu spring, 300 

Leached affhes for, 254 

Manures for, , 205 

On clover sod, 226 

Plaster for, 22G, 3&9 

Rsvages of joint worm in, 3B4 

Sowing- thick, 24 

Spring, wishmg, ,. 91 

IFfcaat— Premium crons, 88 

To increase new icinds of, 251 

Winter, Premium crops, 88 

White wash^ to make, 3 

— for brick work, 191 

Wife, seleetirg a, 

Willows, amount imported,. SI91 

Wmds, protection from whiter, . . . 4. . . , 7 

Winter, the time to think, 115 

Wintenng cabbage plants, 402 

Wire fences, how to make, 213, 327 

Wire worms, salt for, 50, 01 

— — to destrov, 253,319 

Wool, average product of, 283 

— large fleece of, 120,363 

World's Fair at New- York,; 388 

Writer, A Practical, 251 



Bam, plan of, 248 

Chester comity bam, 344 

Comitry house, 28 

Farmhouse, 112,113 

Hoa^ plan of, 280 

— for a clei^man, 16 

Poultry house, 207 

School lioase, 75 

Vineries, 18 


Ayrsfave Bull "Dandy," 240 

Devon Boll, Mr. Wamwrigtai»s, 144 

_ ^ "Champion," 348,400 

Hungarian. 55 

NagoreBull, 217 

Short Horn Bull "Halton," 216 

— — — *'Lord Eryhome," ,'176 

Heifer ."YarmLass," 80 

Cow, **A2alia,» 377 

— —Ball, "Splendor^'' 247 

-. — Mr. Chapman's Prise HeifeiB, 401 

Shropshire Ox, 104 


Clydesdale, 49 

*K5onstematioiV 48 

English Draoght, 20 


Chinese, 81 

TheBabimsta, 20 


Black fiiced Scotch, 17 

French Merino, Mr. Jewett's. 184, 316 

— — Mr. Campbell's, 263 

Leicester, 145 

Silesian Merino, 281 

South Dowm, 80 

Fancy Lop Eared, 24 


Group of, 03 

Wild Goose, 86 

Blackberry, , .,, 188 


Grouping trees, 7 

Geranium, 24 

IVramida] pear trees, 19 

Victoria Regla Lily, 23 


Atkin's Reaper, 314 

Burrall's Reaper, 313 

Bickford & Huflman's Drill, 10 

Cross-cut saw, Emery's, 91 

Double Ftirrower, no 

Emery's Threshing machine 32 

Fowler's Draining Plow, 382 

Ketchum's Mower, 130, 312 

Manny's Mower, 312 

Michigan sod ana sub-soil plow, 9 

McCormick's Reaper, 25 

Old and new plowA, 17 

Run's Mower, 313 

Smiin's com-sheller, 6 

Stuart's Stump Puller, ;... 27 

Stone picking machine, 318 

Wheeler's com stalk cutler,. 8 

— Thresher and Winnower, 30 



Box for Growing Early Peas, 21 

Bmlding Wire Fences, 218 

Brown's Fumigator, 278 

Cttttiiws, how to (riant, 79 

Curculio Catcher, 146 

Cheese Press, Dick's, 348 

Chum, Excekoir, 243 

Diagrams of Farms, 65, 60 

Franklin Coal Burner,. . . : 5 

Frame for Keeping Grspes, 301 

Grafling Tool for Orchards, 23 

Garden of Plants, Paris, 29 

Hydraulic Water Ram, 27 

Laying out door yanls, 25 

Plan for Kitchen Garden « 11 

Pruning and Grafling- Sh^rs, 172 

Sausage Cutter, 30O 

Supporu for Climbing Plants, 26 

The Mangle 7; Ill 

The Curculio, 223 

Trial of Implements 112 

Vase of Flowers, 22 

Worm taken from windpipe of a calf, . . 61 
Washing Machine, 74 


nrsxx TO Yowna iz. 



r K. W, 180 

h-*!©*, W. L., 250 

FkAiich^ flenry F., 117 

Gra r itu State, 134 

Hol'.J. P., 256 

P. F.E., 353 


ASubKriUf, 199,286,310 

Bern, CD.,. 190 

Bancroft, C. p., 133 

Campbell, Geo., 331, 281 

Cleavelaiul, C. H.,. . . . 170, 906, 935, 316, 351 

Colbuni, J. W., 252,319 

Cook, Salmon, 192 

E.B., 203 

Hall, Lyman, 110 

Haj-ward, A. H.,. 109 

Holbrook, F., 39,141, 285 

J., 236 

Jewell, S.W., 376 

Pettiboiie, John S., 138, 224 

Rm)dall,N., « 323 

Viator, 274 


A Subscriber 215 

Bacon, W., 175 

BaylM. Alfred, 175 

Ela,W. A., 153 

Howard, Sauford, 217,273 

Harris, Dr. W. H., 384 

Jaques, George, »... 41 

Mansfield, George, 183 

M.F. M., 283 

Powers, ijarouel 366 

Rice, David, 09 

Tan, LewisS. 848 

Bowen,S.D., 191 


Andrew, John T., 240.305 

Andrews, B. H., ISO 

C. E. H., , 67 

Charlton, Jesse, 189 

Cowles, Egbert, 140 

Cowics, W. L., 378 

Dnraiul, Levi, 271, 299, JB8, 373, 386 

Faller,uC. 319 

H., 182 

M. L., 67 

Norton, Prof. 44, U 107, 135 

Phelps, J. O., 304 

Prait, P., 65, 2» 

TiUotsou, S., ^ 3H0, 405 

Waters, John, 72, 106 

Whiiing, L. & A., .... 196 

W., 210 


A Sabscriber, ^08, 176 

A Farmer, .^ 380 

A Plowman,. ..« .* 177 

Avery, A. H. 185 

Arden, Thomas B., 334, 307 

A.D.C., 980 

Augustas, 370 

Bafltley, H. W., 47, 145 

Backley. 8. B., 87, 176 

B, 105, 173, 230 

Butler, Morgan, 100 

Baley.A., 140 

Bedell, William P., 100 

Brewer, W.H., 245 

B. H. M., 333 

Coffin, O. W., 52, 174 

^« £«• V«| •••••!••• ■•••«••••• • X40j ^mfC^ JiffiC 

Curtis, Duiiel S., 185 

Cultor, 366 

Clute, J. W., 205 

Chupmui S. P., 216 

Clark, G.B., 243 

C.W.L, 268 

Cargill, George, 271 

Dill, J. R 380 

ExceUoir, 187 

Enquirer, 385 

Evans, Gurdou, 211, 269 

Eights, J., 303,334,367 

F.M.R., 139, 304, 275 

Fountain, James, 177 

F.B, 181 

Field, Thomas W., 205 

Gibbert, S. G., 2S7 

H.C. W., 99, 265 

Hart, N., 110 

Harrjs, H.H., 192 

Hitchcock, Heur>-, 733 

H. W. 247 

n. M., OHO 

H. W. S., 2S8 

Inquirer, 320 

J.M.,. 87 

Johnston, John, 104 

J., 119 

James, A. T., , 116 

Johnson, S. \v., 967 

J.F. C. / 349 

Lloyd, John, 121 

L.V.W 278 

Longett & Griffin^, 405 

Morton, Charles F., 51 

Mcrcutio, 363 

Marslinll,0. F., 66 

More,D.D.T., 144 

Mnnly. Wm. R., 147 

N. N. D 378 

Norris, K., 402 

Noyes,N. H., 102 

Platunns, 150 

Pi 176,207 

Pope, J. S., 212 

Pnjfc, John R, 943, 947 

Phillips, I. P., 352 

Powell, C.H., 287 

R 8.,. 57 

Ra.RbShagy, 100 

Rolfe, C. l-f., 307 

R. G.P, 310 

Salisbury, J. H 397 

Solharo.W.H, 82 

Smith, Loian, 308 

Smith, Seymour, 311 

S. F., 143 

Strickland, John, 953 

Stevens, Ambrose, 953 

Sanford, Robert, 287 

Sheill, Robert 335 

Todd. S. Edwards, 78, 945, 270 

Tomilson, David, 189 

Thomas, David, 304,350 

Thick Boots, 900 

Vail, George, 80 

V. V-i. 116 

Vail. E., 136, 176 

W.McC... 72, 80 

Weedeo,J.C 980 

Warna 307 


A. B., S7 

Chester County, 344 

Harlan, J. M., 40S 

Foley, P. B., 199 

Wilkmson, John, 81, 63 

Wright, R.R., 317 

Youugmau, G. W., 115 

C. M., 837 


Harris, Edward 988 

H.R.L., .: 114 

H., 379 


AnObserver, 51 

Hoffman, W. C, 13S, 351 

Smith, 6. B., 43, 73, 84, 191, 137, 171 

S., 37, 60, 96, 103, US 

Verb. Sap., 101 

ToddjWiUiam, »19 


A Subscriber, 101 

Burroughs, Edgar, 10*2 

Clark, S. Jr.,... 189 

Da^ns, M., Jr., 323 


Woodford, 200 

Yomig,R., 153 


Farmer's Boy, 191 

Lackland, Dennis, 998 


Beardsley, D. J., 56, 100 

Buckeye, 117 

Clark, J., 158 

Oiamberlain, H. B., 986 

Diehl, John, 62, 954 

Diehl. Elizabeth,' 56, 390 

Donaldson, J. A., 110, 373 

Hammond, H. B., 101 

Richmond, D. C, , 153 

Smith, C.R., 219 

Hoosier, 73 

McCormick,Wm H., 407, 411 

B. J. H. 



Watkin8,R., 270 

C.F.I*F., 983,390, 339 


Claypde, J. H., 305 

Edmmxiaon, W. G., 38, 67, 85, 178, 914, 918 
937, 979, 304, 316, 345, 364, 370 


Fairweather, J. E., N. B, 300 

Gilbert^ Victor, France, 940 

Le Monie, J. W., Canada, 957 

Snyder, George E., N. B., 90 

W . C, Sandwich Islands, 906, 941 

McKay, Francis, Nova Scotia 317 


Vol. IX— No. 1. 

It hu been Boid tliat " w« to*; Judge of tbesMllora 
fkrmer by tlie number of iOTCTcifiii he pockcU by Ihe 
end of the year ;" and u Uw nbole object of Lha buii- 
ana is to reap iti reward, the inquiry Tcry naturally 
Uices, "What [9 the secret why goiuo rurmert with the 
■tme amoniit of capiUlaod labor, gain more tbaDotben, 
and why Bome work bard all their Uvea without iMiiiiiig 
to tarn up with their ilwreB but lUtU that it valnabtel" 
The answer ti obriona — M do not know where the 
concealed treasnree lie, which the more fortunate have 
diaoovered, — andkaviDE diacoTered, immediately 
nence throwing out freely from the boftom of (heir 
rich furrows. It la surpiidng wliat miuea of wealth lie 
within reach of aome wbo are tolling laborluualy for 
what theae mines would at once afford them. We have 
known a very indualriouj mao draw stable manure from 
a distance of aereral niiles, to H>ply to the turface of 
land, that contained just twelrc incbei below, powerful 
means of fertility. The nanuriog was iodecd highlv 
profltable, bat a great mistalie waa committed by neg. 
lecling the other means. Aoolher former in one of the 
best counties of Western New- York, told us years 1 
that (O valuable wm the subauU of his land, that he would 
Iw glad to hare half a fbot of the top aoil of hla whole 
tve bandred acres at once nmored and tahcn away. 
Bat his knowledge baa slumbered ; for to this day, iicl. 
ther suheoil nor trench plow ha9eat«rgd beyond the usual 

Accidental occurrences often teach valuable facts, of 
which the KKoestful ftnner at once avails himself. 
During one of those years whan the wheat-crop was 
nearly destroyed by adverse cansaa, a strip of land was 
observed tbrough a neigbbor'a field, bearing s finedenae 
crop of grain, while the real did not avqrage live bushels 
per acre. On Inquiry, it waa found that tbc anbaoil. In 
cutting a ditch, liadbeen ^read, merely for coDvenieace 
over ttie ground on either aide, and tbue imparted to It 
tbia extraordinary fertility. In another caae, by niliJag 
op by means of deep furrows, the marly subsoil with the 
light and spongy top soil of a piece of low land, an ac- 
quaintance aucGsedcd in expelling at once the worthless 
Toah and sedge grasses, and restoring a fine growth of 
Glover, A casual observation in cutthig a trench had 
pointed out this great improvement. 

We do not mean to assert that tlie anbsoil always con- 
Ulns, to BO great an extent, tha elemenU of IfertlUty. 
When It approacbo barrenness, caatioa Is of coarse 

needed In gradually deeping the soil, accompanied with 
manuring. But this condition is more frequently the 
exception tlian the rule. Fifty years of tillage, asfarm- 
Ing is too oHen coudncted, rather impoveriahes, than adds 
to mineral manures. The soil was not ori^oatlr de- 
posited so as to accommodate the surface- it ratnm of 
fi^rtilEty, to (lie exact depth penetrated by the modem 
cast-iron plow. The same ingredients essentially, often 
extend to many feet in depth ; and after cultivation liaa 
lessened or removed them, It in usually much eo^r to 
bring np from below a new supply ot the carbonate, anl- 
pbate, and phosphate of lime, tlun to apply them arti- 
ficially in suOicleDt abundance, although both may be 
adrantageouily resorted to. A veryslmple experiment 
will show, throughout a large portion of the country, a 
dlflbreni^e betweeu the top and under soil. Let a por- 
tion of any long-worn soli be dropped into diluted mu- 
riatic acid, and no action wilt be viable; a portion taken ' 
a few Inches lower, by Its effi;rvescence, will usually In- 
dicate carbonate of iiaic fn considenble quantity. So 
mnch Ifar a single ingredient oat of several. 

We bave Just witnessed a moat interesting example^ 
the results of deep [Jowinf. A fleVl of land, tepnted 
almoet to a prDvarb for ttie hard crisping to which ft 
had been sabjseted for nearly half a century, recently 
changed bands, and skim-culture immediately gave way 
to a different mode of treatment. By means of three 
comhined yoke of oxen, attached to that magnlflaeut 
implement, the Hicbigan sabsoll plow of largest dae, 
Ihe earth was turned up In the most beaulinil manner, 
taan average depth of one li>ot, aotaal measorement, 
and the light of the sun waa let in where 11 never sbono 
before, ft was InteregtiDg to observe the anrftce of 
fresh earth which aflerwardi covered the field. Miied 
with the marly anbeoll, were large portions of deoayod 
leaves, black monid, and crumbled loola, which bari 
slumbered there in security for half an age, while Ibe 
scratching system bad been so loi% in exiatenee bnt a 
few Inches above; and the whole presented very much 
the appearance of the fresh or virgin soil ot newly cleared 

It is not however, deep plowing alone that brings hid- 
den treasure hito use. There are many, many instancea 
where the sbarp-slgbted and active farmer will avail 
himself of much tbat is highly valuable, but usuallyun- 
observed. An interesting example of this Is fbroished 
by the practice of a distinguished scientific and sue. 
cessful farmer of wettemNew-Torb. Afewyearsdnce, 
when be first took possession of his Isnn, be found almost 




eTery where, stores of neglected wealth. The batcher 
had thrown oat on his back lot, vast quantities of bones. 
These he was glad to give away in order to get rid of 
them. The neighboring plaster mill soon reduced tbcm 
io a highly fertiliaing powder. Now, in the same neigh- 
borhood, waste bones are eagerly sought by all . Again, 
it was customary to draw out and pile up in huge use- 
letB heaps, the refuse ashes of the soap-boilers and 
potash factories. This same observhtg farmer obtained 
permission to remove these heaps to his fields. His 
neighbors witnessed his success, and as a consequence, 
he cannot now get leached ashes without paying a good 
price for them. 

Again,— he discovered that much of the fertility of 
his farm i^as lost by the presence of a superabundance 
of water in the soil. He adopted a thorough system of 
tile-draining, laying his drains scientifically with an 
engineer's levelling instrument. He can now plow his 
ground sooner in spring, and secure earlier sowing ; the 
plow runs more easily through the fine crumbling earth 
than in the wet adhesive mass as formerly ; the roots 
penetrate deeper, drouth does not affect the porous 
bed of earth; the cold water of the subsoil does not 
chill the early plant ; in short growth commences sooner, 
and advances without interruption until it reaches full 
and perfect maturity. The result of this successful 
practice is, that an imported tile-machine of the best 
construction, has been scarcely able to supply the general 
demand. Who can estimate the benefit thus resulting 

from the enlightened example of a single individual. 


Agxicalture— A Bcimce. 

Progress is the almost universal law of the present 
age. We hear about a higher law than the commonly 
received one in government,— of a more perf^t organi- 
sation of society,— of a more refined literature— of im- 
proved facilities for commerce, travel, and the intercliange 
of thought,— of startling discoveries in science and the 
' mechanic arts— of surprising inventions of machinery, 
and so on to an unlimited extent. Yet whenever a new 
principle has been broached, the timid have refused to 
recognise it because it was netoy and empirics have seized 
eagerly upon it, and by false induction, drawn absurd 
conclusions; while those who would promote sound 
knowledge, have been obliged to contend wHh both these 
classes, as well as to enforce and illustrate the nature 
and bearing of the idea they aim to bring into notice and 
to make useful. 

So is it now, when the Importance of elevating Agri- 
culture to the rank of a science, and making its practice 
a rational employment and a means of culture, is openly 
advocated. All seem well content that there should be 
improvement in other pursuits j but when the hand of the 
reformer is laid on the farms which private industry has 
tilled, some rise up in defence of the old paths, as if their 
household gods had been insulted and dishonored. With- 
out spending a thought on a class of persons who ridicule 
the very idea of improvement in Agriculture, we propose 
to answer an honest objection, and to endeavor to remove 
a prejudice against the introduction of scientific principles 
Into practical Agriculture. 

" The art of makiog science inaccessible," which has 

so long been taught in the schools, must, in this progres* 
sive and thinking age, give way to a system of a more 
popular and practical nature, retaining all that is truly 
valuable in the old, so modified and brought down to 
common apprehension, as to be serviceable to those who 
most need its benefit. 

All knowledge is derived from first princlides, and 
tbese, in natural science, become evident only after a 
series of careful experiments, and long continued ob- 
servation. It is the ultimate object of physical science 
to discover these laws, and by inductive reasoning to 
generalise them and draw fVom them logical conclusions. 
All that exceeds this, ^oes beyond the proper province 
of physical science, and belongs to the sphere of specu- 
lation. No mind is saffidently eomprehennve and powerful 
to grasp this universe as a whole, and by an analysis of all 
its parts, to exhibit its perfect harmony, the mutual re- 
lation of each integral part, and all the laws of nature. 
The phenomena of nature, are alone g^ven to us, and it 
is by observing the oopnection between these and certain 
resnlta, that first principles are established, and advance 
nmde. In works on the various branches of science, we 
find only the record of the observations of others and the 
conclusions they have drawn fhmi them, upon the truth 
or falsity of which tatare observation must again decide. 
It would be erroneous, however, to infer that there can be 
nothing fixed and determinate in physical science ; for there 
is a wottderfVil simplicity and completeness in the laws of 
nature* apparent to every mind. Phenomena, resulting 
f^om the law of gravitation, and those of astronomy, 
were once the objects of mystic speculation, and gave 
rise to a thousand dogmas which we have received as 
the melancholy inheritance of the past. Mind has ever 
been obliged to wade through error in its search for truth ; 
but once discovered, like the diamond in the mine, it 
shines by its own native light, bringing irresistible con- 
viction of its worth. 

Natural science is, then, cmpliatically a progressive 
one, always giving scope to the perceptive and logical pow- 
ers, — always exciting curiosity , and repaying investigation 
with the most certain and satisfying knowledge. The in- 
fallibility which attaches to every truth brought to light 
by actual and rei)eated experiment, makes definite and 
undeniable every step of progress, and furnishes unmis- 
takable data for farther research. This brings within the 
grasp of every inquiring mind, all the means necessary 
to the perfect comprehension and successful application 
of the results of investigation. Every person who has an 
eye to observe, a hand to work, and ahead to think, may, 
if he choose, be a student of nature, — an experimenter in 
the great laboratoryof the world, and a demonstrator of 
practical science. Nature is a text-book, alike open to 
all, and he whose area of observation is confined to the 
limits of bis own garden, may discover facts as important 
as one who traverses the earth in search of the strange and 
inexplicable. Tliere cannot be a stronger incentive to 
action, than the fact that so much which is beautifVil and 
instructive lies half concealed and half revealed in the 
bosom of the earth — that the means of filling both the 
purse and the brain are within the reach of all. 

It is, in this country, comparatively a short time since 
Agriculture has been ranked among the branches of na- 
tural science, and it has not the completeness which be- 




loi^ to those of longer etendiog, and upon which more 
elaborate attention haa been bestowed. Nor oan a per- 
fect system of Agriculture be expected. There is snch 
a Tariety in soils, so much that is variabke and condition- 
al in climate and seasons, that it is difficnlt to determine 
whether apparent results are referable to peculiar oir- 
cunstances or invariable laws. So long as the earth 
continues her revolntions, will there be changes in the 
practice of cultivation, and the capacity of the soil will 
sever be so fully known that no undeveloped power will 
be latent in it; yet, that there are certain rixxn pbihci- 
pLss in Agriculture, alike operative under all circum- 
stances, and in all climates, no well#infonned mind can 
doubt. Now so far as accurate observation has estab- 
lished these principles, so far is Agricultures Scissox— 
i.e., so much is known, on which all may safely rely, a 
fket to which they may refer for authority ; and so fast 
as farther experiment reveals other determinate laws, 
just so fast will the science progress. 

The community has long felt the need of some means 
of ascertaining definitely what is prineipU, and what 
mere conjecture and hypothesis, in all that is written on 
improved systems of Agriculture. If profound and 
practical knowledge is ever to take the place of empbi- 
dsm, it must be by fundamental instruction in the first 
rudiments of science, — as we have defined the term, — 
and who can impart this instruction, if not those who 
rank among our scientific men, and add to minute and 
long observation, high talent and ripe culture? It is to 
Buch men, we must look for authority, and by them be 
guided in investigation; and it will be no little advance 
in agriculture, to be well assured that the true founda- 
tion is laid, on which every intelligent farmer must build 
for hnnself. 

It is with a view to teach the application of sdence to 
practical agriculture, to form a nucleus for inquiring 
farmers, that the Trustees of the University of Albany 
have organized a department exclusively for tliis purpose. 

Prof. Jo0x P. NoKTOV will deliver a course of lectures, 
commencing the second Tuesday of January, comprising 
''a complete outline of the best system of modem Agri- 
culture,'' embracing the general structure and growth 
of plants, — ^the composition of soils, and how affected by 
different manures, — ^the elements of barn-yard, mineral 
and artificial manures, — an analyas of the products of the 
soil, showing their properties and value,-— the composi- 
tion of milk, butter, and cheese, and the best method of 
feeding and fattening animals. That these lectures will 
be eminently practical, reliable and instmctive, the well- 
earned reputation of Prof. Noktox, is a sufficient guar- 

Prof. Jakes Hall, of the K. T. Geological Survey, 
will deliver a course of lectures, on the bearing of Geolo- 
gy on Agriculture, conveying a fund of information that 
no one should be without. 

Dr. Hexxt GrOADBT announces a partial course on En- 
tomology, taking up the importance of a knowledge of 
insects to the agriculturist, the injuries caused by them 
to crops and ftuits, &c. Prof. Goadby has recently 
dosed a course of lectures in this city, and no one who 
listened to them^ can doubt the accuracy of his know- 
ledge, or (kil to be pleased with his elegant style. 

These lectures are not designed for the advanced scholar 
or the young student merely, but for the working farmer, 
and all who wish to inform themselves on these subjects. 
They are eapedaUy adapted to yomig men, who are en- 
gaged in active agricultural pursuits. The dergyman. 
teacher, lawyer and physician are required to pursue a 
course of study to fit thenoielTes for the practice of thefar 
profession, and why should the profesrion of Agriculture 
be entered upon, with no preparation, and with no higher 
purpose than '< to get a livii^?" A marked disdnction 
is every where made, between a thorouj^ly read prac> 
tioner and a quack, and this distinction ia now very pro* 
perly carried into farming. When three months atten- 
dance on instruction will give one an insight into the 
prindples of Scientific Agriculture, and fiimish data for 
life-long research, we cannot believe that an ambitious, 
right-minded young man, will " settle down" to plod in 
the old beaten track. The narrowest policy would dic- 
tate a course the most profitable, in which the greatest 
income might be secured with the least outlay, and 
when, to a system of profit and loss are added the laud- 
able ambition oi promoting sound, practical knowledge 
and self-culture, it becomes a privilege and a duty to use 
all possible means for improvement^to lead a rational 
and not mechanical life. 

We trust that a scheme so admirably adapted to the 
wants of the public, will not fail for lack of ready sup- 
port, and that the time is not far distant when our farm- 
ers wHI be as desirous to send their most promising sons 
to an agricultural school, as they now are to our law and 

medical schools. [See advertisement.] 

»»< ■ 

Oranberziea on Upland. 

The question whether cranberries can be grown advan- 
tageously on upland, is not, probably, fully settled. A 
correspondent of the Keto-Engtand Farmer, referring to 
several articles, says — ^^ihe feasibility of growing this 
fruit on upland, is beyond a doubt ; but of the expedien- 
cy of it, as a matter of profitable culture, I am not fully 
adrised.'^ The Pratrt« Farmer states that it has been 
tried in that vicinity, and says— -'^ we tried the vines very 
faithfiilly, as did others in this region, all with the same, 
or similar success. Our vines did grow for a while, but 
gradually got tired of it, and gave out by degreea; tiiey 
never gave us any fruit. They were plainly not at home." 

The most encouraging information we have seen in re- 
gard to success of cranberries on upland, is in a com- 
munication of Paul Hathaway, North-Mlddleborougb, 
Mass., in the Ploughman of Dec. 6th, last. He states 
that he has an acre of cranberry vines on upland, set 
out in 1846 and 1846— that they have borne fruit every 
since they were set out. But he gives no definite state- 
ment in regard to quantity of ftvAt produced. He says 
he has had a " good supply'' for himself and others, and 
this year '^ sold a few at two dollars a bushel." He left 
the vines, after they were set out, to " take their own 
way," and they have obtained full possession of the 
ground — some dT them having run seven feet. We have 
no particular description of the soil, and know not 
whether it is moist or dry . Some writers say they should 
be manured with bog muck, or peat, every year or two. 
Let us have more results. 




Random NotM on Pwort.* 

A few obsenratioos made daring a short visit to some 
of the eastern gardens, may prove interesting to the 
firoit-growing readers of this journal. 

Blight. — A remarkable fact, and throwing some light 
(negatively,) on the pear blight, is the entire absence 
from this disease among the trees in the neighborhood 
of Boston. It seemed indeed strange to hear snch men 
as the preddent and ez-president of the world-rcDOwned 
Horticaltnral Society there, inqniring for the appearance 
and symptoms of the blight as of a disaster personally 
unknown to them, but so universally known and dread- 
ed in Western New- York and in Ohio. Boston and 
Rochester are not dissimilar in temperature of climate, 
hence we cannot trace it satisfactorily or wholly to the 
weather. Nor is rapid growth a necessary cause, for 
more freely growing trees than the thousands on the 
grounds of M. P. Wiu>Ea, S. Walksr, or C. M. Hovbt, 
are nowhere to be found. A part of Col. Wilder's 
grounds consist of reclaimed bog, with an ample addi- 
tion of improving and fertilizing materials; and the 
finest pear grounds belonging to President Walkeb he 
stated had been very heavily dressed with yard manure, 
with additions of ashes and guano,and the whole repeated- 
ly plowed, and repeatedly subsoiled, till mellow and rich 
in a high d^sree to a depth of about two feet. The 
growth of the trees fully corroborated his account. 
Limited observations at Philadelphia indicated a some- 
what similar condition of the trees at that place. 

Pyeaxidal PiABs.-*The finest collection, perhaps, 
in this country, are the 1500 pyramids of Hoyet k Co., 
at Cambridge, some of them 10 feet high. The pear 
crop proving this year mostly a failure, but few of them 
were loaded with fruit ; but the beauty of their training, 
as presented in the long avenues of these trees, could 
scarcely be surpassed by Cappe's celebrated trees of 
Paris. These were mostly, like Cappe's, on pear roots. 
Equally handsome specimens were observed on some 
parts of Col. Wildek's grounds. 

New PEAn8.*--Of the newer varieties which have been 
considerably proved, none appear to be more generally 
admired than the Doyenne Boueeockj for size, growth, 
productiveness, and quality. We have never heard a 
word against its high character. The Beurre Langelier 
is regarded by Hovet as the best early winter pear, and 
is highly esteemed by Mahviho, Walker, and others; 
while on the other hand, Mahnikg thinks the Lawrence 
is decidedly the best, so fkr as a partial trial will indi- 
cate. Col. WiLnsR finds the Doyenne grU d*Hiver 
Nouveau of good quality, and ripening later than Easter 
Beurre; the ifoioei/ large and fine; the Triomphe de 
Jodigne, ** good ;'' Nouveau Poiteau, handsome and fine; 
and SoldtU Laboreur a beautiful grower, and a fine pear. 
Van Mon^ Leon U Clere, as elsewhere, cracks badly 
with hiifl, and the Dix very badly. Some of the worst 
looking specimens of cracked pears observed anywhere, 
were on a tree of the Dix. Has this new and hardy 
American tree, already reached old age? Or will it die 
of old age at Dorchester, at the same time it is fiourish- 

• This article wm written for the Nov. No. of the Cultivator, but 
bat been aecidentaUy deferred to the present. 

log in youth and vigor near Rochester? A puasling fact 
in relation to cracking, occurred on the grounds of tho 
writer, — a young Doyenne pear on new ground, while 
bearing its first crop, became dotted with black specks 
precisely like those of leaf blight, on both leaves and 
fruit at the same time, and the fruit cracked and was 
worthless. This was some years ago, and has not been 
repeated. Not far distant, on very shnilar soil, stood 
another old Doyenne tree, bearing yearly six to twelve 
bushels of uniformly fair fruit, This fiict is very adverse 
to the theory of exhauetion qf soil by trees of long 

Robert Maenieq ^as found only two of Knight's 
pears of much value, the Slyewood and Moccae, The 
Monarch f after a vast amount of pains to get it correct, 
proves after all, of no great value. Manning't Eliza- 
beth, he regards as one of the finest early pears. The 
Duchesee d^ Orleans promises to become very valuable. 
Of Grov. Edwards' new sorts, the Calhoun proves the 
best, and the Dallas a good fruit; the others not so 
worthy of notice. 

Standards ok Quiece.— Those sorts which grow 
freely and endure well on the Quince, as Louise Bonne 
of Jersey, Angouleme, Glout Moroeau, fcc, may be set 
out in orchards and trained standard height. Specimens 
thus treated, more than twenty years old, bearing usual, 
ly several bushels a year, were observed in a fine condi- 
tion in the gardens of S. Walker and K. P. Wilder. 
The Langelier and Boussock promise to be good for tiiis 

Double. Worked Trees .—S. Walker strongly doubts 
the propriety of double- working many of the refractory 
sorts. He has trees of the Aremberg, Yan Mens' Leon 
le Clerc, and Dix, all double worked, but they succeed 
but poorly. Their growth is usually slow, and it is 
some years before they bear much ; and the first good 
crop exhausts nature and the tree commonly perishes 
after a full efibrt at bearing. Dearborn's Seedling, when 
double worked, does well, and it is nearly the only sort 
that does so. Results may sometimes prove more favor- 
able on other soils and in other places; but these show 
the necessity of caution in the promiscuous planting of 
such trees. 

Imfluemce or Locality. — ^The difference thus created 
is often remarkable. Dr. Brihokle of Philadelphia 
showed specimens of the Scckel pear, which would be 
looked upon by cultivators farther north, as of great 
size ; one specimen, which he assured us was by no 
means the largest he had seen, measured only two lines 
less than three inches long; and a fine crop of Doyennes 
in Baxter's garden, furnished plenty of specimens three 
inches in breadth and in height. The Pennsylvania and 
Chapman pears are greatly superior to the same sorts 
grown further north; and the Lodge, so poor with us, 
becomes really a fine pear at Philadelphia. 

A Productive Tree.— A tree of the IVinkfield pear, 
not of very large size, at S. Walker's, bore one year 
15 bnshels of fruit. The second rate ones (that is, after 
all the best had been selected,) sold for $6.00 per barrel. 
What would an acre of such trees yield per annum, 
admitting the value of the crop at half the preceding 
price, or $8 per barrel? 




Honay B a» c T he Apiary. 

The old system of keeping honey bees has always ap- 
peared to me to be very defective. It is but one small 
remove from the state of nature— just so much of an im- 
provement as to induce the bees to accept of it and serve 
in it in preference to their old hollow trees, and no more. 
Numerous experiments have proved that bees can be 
managed upon systematic and economical principles^ just 
as well as cows, and other domestic aninials can, and 
that the per centage of profit on the outlay and labor is 
far greater. An examination of the plan of an apiary, 
hivented by Mr. Gilmork, of the state of Maine, has 
afforded me much pleasure, and led to a desire to call- 
public attention to the improvement of this valuable de- 
partment of rural ecwiomy. Before proceeding, howev- 
er, to speak of the apiary, I will say a few words as to 
the habits of the honey bee. Many, nearly everybody, 
supposes that the bee collects honey from the nectar of 
the flowers, and simply carries it to its cell in the hive. 
This is not correct. The nectar he collects from the flow- 
er, is a portion of its food or drink j the honey it deposits 
in its ceil is a secretion from its meliiflc, or honey secret- 
ing glands, (analogous to the milk secreting glands of 
the cow and other animals.) If they were ibe mere col- 
lectors and transporters of honey from the flowers to the 
honey-comb, then we should have the comb frequently 
filled with molasses, and whenever the bees have fed at a 
molasses hogshead! The honey-bag in the bee performs 
the same functions as the cow's bag or udder, merely re- 
ceives the honey from the secreting glands, and retains it 
till a proper opportunity presents for its being deposited 
in its appropriate store-house, the honey-comb. Anoth- 
er error is, that the bee collects pollen ft-om the flowers 
accidentally, while it is in search of honey. Quite the 
contrary is the fact. The bee, when in search of nectar, 
or honey, as it is improperly called, does not collect pol- 
len. It goes in search of pollen specially, and also spe- 
dally for nectar. When the pollen of the flower is ripe, 
and fit for the uses of the bee, there is no nectar; when 
there is nectar, there is no pollen fit for use in the flower. 
It is generally supposed, also, that the bee collects the 
wax from which it constructs its comb, from some vege- 
table substance. This is also an errot. The wax is a 
secretion from its body, as the honey is ; and it makes its 
appearance in small scales or flakes, under the rings of 
the belly, and is taken thence by other bees, rendered 
pla.<ic by mixture with the saliva of the bees' mouth, and 
laid on the walls of the cell with the tongue, very much 
in the way a plasterer uses his trowel. 

Now, by a proper understanding of these facts, the 
reader will be able to judge of the propriety of the im- 
provements in the apiary. They must understand that 
the bee will make honey, no matter what food it may 
feed upon, if the food be such as is appropriate for the 
bee, and it will not eat it if otherwise. The flavor of the 
honey is derived from the aroma of the flowers or other 
food, but the article will be honey, and not molasses or 
sugar, whether the bees feed on flowers, or molasses, or 

The apiary, therefore, should be constructed in such a 
way, and should be managed on siicfa principles 93 to af- 

ford the bees the best accommodation, and fullest supply 
of food, at the least expense of tiine and labor to the 
bees, and the least cost to the proprietor. Gilmore's 
plan seems to the writer to afford all these advantages to 
a greater extent than any other. He constructs a bee- 
house of the siae that will accomjnodate as maay hives 
as he httends to keep. The house is made tight, with a 
window to afford light to the attendant. Inside frames 
are arranged to receive the hives. The hives are made 
in three divisions, one above onother, so that when the 
upper division is full of honey, it can be removed, and 
another put under the lower one. The tops of the seve- 
ral divisions are so arranged that the bees can pass 
through them to the division above. When the bees 
have multiplied sufficiently to require more room, a fresh 
hive is set by the sides of the old one, and the bees that 
on the old plan would have '' swarmed," and probacy 
have been lost, go to work in the new apartment, with a 
queen at their head. 

This secures all the advantages of the old single hire 
system, with a queen to each family, and the communi- 
ty system, which prevents swarming, and the loss of bees. 
It is a curious fact, that although the bees of all the 
hive live and work In one common large community, yet 
the queens all remain in their several separate apart- 
ments, never leaving them like troublesome neighbors. 
The whole community form a large republic composed 
of numerous separate states, in a perfect confederacy. 

But the greatest improvement of Gilmoes is his plan 
of feeding the bees. He has prepared a kind of liquid 
food, which is placed in a feeding trough, under or near 
the hives, in the house, at which the bees feed, instead 
of going out in search of flowers; so that they only have 
to go out when they require '* bread," in search of pol- 
len. This saves much time, and enal^es the bees to pro- 
duce much more honey than they do on the old plan. 
The going out after pollen, is just enough to afford them 
necessary exercise and fresh air, and in wet weather they 
have their regular supply of food, and are not obliged to 
fall back upon their stored honey. Though Gilmore has 
made no claim to the discovery, it is certain that the ar- 
tificial food may be flavored vnth vanilla or lemon, or 
any other aromatic, so that the honey will partake of it, 
and honey of any flavor may be produced. The injur!* 
ous qualities of wild and West India honey — ^that pre- 
vent so many people from eating it — may also, by this 
artiflcial feeding, be mainly, if not entirely avoided, as it 
is pretty well known that these qualities are derived from 
the wild plants which the bees feed upon, just as the flesh 
of pheasants and wild animals, are often rendered pbison- 
ous by the wild berries and foliage they feed upon ; and 
as cow's milk is rendered garlicky and bitter, by what 
she feeds upon. The advantages of Gilmore's plan, 
therefore, are very great, and it is believed that there is 
no appendage to the farm that would pay so well, for so 
small a capital, as a snug apiary, constructed on those 

The annoyance of the bee moth, for a remedy for which 
so much trouble has been taken, and so many inventions 
made, it is believed is more effbctually provided against 
by this plan, than by any other. In the first place, the 
external house acts to a great extent, as a shield, the 




faires beiDg all inside, and some distance from the walli; 
in the second place, all the bees of all the hives are in 
immense nnmbers inside the houses, in yigorous and ro- 
bust health, ready to attack and destroy any moth that 
may venture to approach their domicil. For, although 
there may be in the house fifty different hives, each with 
its queen, the bees of the whole mingle socially togeth- 
er, and are ready at all times to make war upon the en- 

This plan also enables the proprietor to have his honey 
" put up and packed ready for market,-' in large or small 
packages or boxes, by the bees themselves. This is a 
most beautiful feature of the plan. The purchaser can 
get a box containing two pounds or twenty pounds, of 
virgin honey, that human hands have never touched, pure 
as '' twilight dews.'' 

But I have said enough, probably you will think too 

much, uiK>n so small a subject. But when we consider 

that the production of honey may be made as important 

a snbject of rural industry, as the dairy itsdf, I think 

you wiH agree With me, that much more might be said in 

reference to it. * 


The Dtill Onltnra of Wheat, Ac 

Ens. CuLTiTATOE — Vo branch of improved husbandry 
has attracted greater attention among the wheat grow- 
ing farmers, during the past six years, than the drilllDg 
of wheat and other small grains, by the use of appro- 
priate machinery for the purpose. The drilling machines 
in use in this country, like the plows, have peculiar dis- 
tinctive features, differing in many important particulars 
from those of Great Britain, or any other portion of the 
globe . There are already ten or twelve different patents, 
embracing each some particular quality of merit which 
entitle it to favor among their respective friends and ad- 
vocates ; but upon a practical examination of their work- 
ing powers, a few will be found to possess such extraor- 
dinary advantages over the others in use, that even a 
person unacquainted with them would find no difficulty 
in determining which would, under all circumstances, be 
the most efficient and profitable. It is not our purpose 
at this time to decide in favor of this or that drill, but 
shall rather show a few reasons why the system of drill 
culture can in many cases be profitably adopted, and 
also, the effects it would produce upen growing crops of 
grain, when performed by an experienced and skillful 

We have been much amused in reading the flaming ac- 
counts widely circulated by interested parties in the sales 
of thoso drills, in favor of drill ]ius!)andry, and in many 
cases the most extravagant calculations have been made, 
ha\nng a tendency to deceive those who may blindly 
purdiase the machines. It certainly cannot bo ques- 
tioned at this day, but that drilling in wheat (Mis-^CBses 
many valuable claims over the broadcast system of sow- 
ing grains; and what those claims are, and the circum- 
stances under which the system could be ad\'antagcously 
practiced, will be presently satisfactorily explained. 

A small saving of seed : regularity and precision in 
covering the seed to a goon and suitable de]>th ; an in- 
crease of product ; a superiority in tlie quality of grain ; 
less liability to the crop in lodging, and a protection to 
the crop against winter-killing and rust, are among the 
many reasons that may be adduced in favor of drill cul- 
ture. The saving of seed is not much of an item, al- 
though many of the venders of machines set forth ihat 

a saving of fVom two to three pecks per acre is effected 
over broadcast sowing. In most cases too little seed is 
sown in this country, and even when seeded with a drill 
not less than six pecks of wheat should be sown per 

This practice Is opposed to the theory set forth by many 
of the most enlightened farmers in England who have re- 
duced their average seeding from three bushels per acre 
down to three pecks! and that too with an increased pro- 
duction, ranging from five to ten bushels per acre. In 
England, those who employ the drill for the sowing of 
wheat and barley, either horse or hand hoe, their crops 
in the early spring months, which practice has in no in- 
instance been carried out on a large scale on tliis con- 
tinent. The stirring of the soil between the rows of 
growing crops of grain, produces stimulating effects on 
the plants e^iual to what are obtained on com, potatoes, 
tumeps, and on other crops, that are ordinarily hand or 
horse hoed ; and therefore their sowing cannot be profi- 
tably practiced, unless the hoeing system be adopted, 
which cannot be done on a large scale, in a country like 
this where agricultural labor is enormously high, when 
compared with the low price of produce. A less quan- 
tity than six pecks of seed per acre, will lessen the ave- 
rage 3rield of wheat rather than increase it, although the 
drilling machine may be employed in seeding the groimd. 
This is obviously the case in all locations where the wm- 
ters are severe, and the plants are apt to be destroyed 
by frost, or seriously retarded in their growth by the 
freezings and thawings that occur during winter and early 
spring months. The ordinary distance that drilling ma- 
chines deposit the seed in parallel rows, ranges from eight 
to ten inches asunder, and on most soils ten inches is pre- 
ferable to eight , from the fact that the greater the dis- 
tance between the rows, the better opportunity will the 
niys of I he sun Ija veto directly strike on the growing 
plants, thus maturing and hardening the outer surface 
of the straw, which in connection with wind and other 
atmospheric infiuences, will in a great measure prevent 
rust, mildew, blight and other diseases indicated by pre- 
mature growth and maturity. If the seed be liberally 
and uniformily distributed to the depth of from three to 
four inches, in rows of not less than seven nor more than 
twelve inches asunder, it must be obvious that the plants 
will form a mutual protection to each other througlumt 
the whole line of roi^^s, and the roots will become soccm- 
pletely interwoven in each other that the one cannot be- 
come dislodged by frost, without removing with it a solid 
phalanx of neighboring plants. This by good manage-, 
ment on the part of the farmer need not hapj)en, frcm 
the fact that if the surface of the ground be kept free 
from a superabundance of water, the frost under such 
infiuences will rarely have a prejudicial effect upon the 
crop. In ordinary cases the sowing of wheat conimences 
about the first of September and closes with that month. 
By early sowing and lilieral seeding the plants obtain a 
rank growth before the setting in of winter, and the tops 
of those plants form a sort of umbrella covering to the 
roots, which to some extent protect them from the se- 
verity of late autumn and early spring chilling winds, 
which advantage cannot be reaped when the broadcast 
system is adopted. From this influence alone under fa- 
vorable circumstances, the crop will attain a much ear- 
lier and more perfect development, and a perceptible 
difference in favor of drilling may be seen in the crcfis 
during the whole of the season, so much so that the m<.'st 
skeptical would readily accord to the system a decided 
preference over the broadcast sowing. 

If the machine employed be efficient, and the ground 
be brought to a proper state of cultivation, the seed may 
be distributed with the greatest degree of precision, and 
the field throughout will present a perfect uniformity 
exacting from all portions of it a relative product in pro- 
portion to its powers of production, which could not be 
so perfectly done, if even the most experienced seeds- 
man be employed, by the common process. 

By using the drill, the seed may not only be sown 
much more evenly, and buried under the surface at a 
given uniform distance, but unlike the common plan, the 
work may go on successfully somewhat regardless of the 




peculiar state of the atmosphere, and high winds espe- 
cially prove no barrier to the progress of the work. As 
the best season for sowing wheat is confined to the single 
month of September, throughout the entire wheat belt 
of the union, any process, that would at all times secure 
the early and perfect Completion of the w^ork, is deserr- 
li^ of consideration and &vor. This in the hands of a 
good managing farmer may be greatly facilitated by the 
use of an dnctent drilling machine, and any person who 
becomes once acquainted with their properties and use, 
would not return to the old and somewhat slovenly me- 
thod, although they obtained no additional yield from 
the use of the implement. 

An increased product may in a majority of cases be 
realised, but the greatest disappointments will occasional* 
ly occur, which to the uninitiated might create prejudices 
against the improvement, from the fact that the cause of 
the failure could not be practioally comprehended. It 
will frequently happen that an increased production of 
from eight to ten bushels of wheat may be realised per 
acre from the employment of the drill, but in other cases 
decided damage rather than a benefit will accrue from the 
practice. It is of the greatest importance to the farmer 
that he should know all about the influence that this, or 
that, practice has upon his growing crops; and it ought to 
be the business of the a^icnlturai philosophers of the 
day, to point out the shoals and quicksands upon which 
so many flounder, in their vain attempts to carry out 
systems of farm practice and management, of which they 
are practically totally unacquainted. No one should at- 
tempt to use the drill unless the ground be previously 
brought into a fine state of tilth and cultivation. The 
work cannot be creditably or perfectly done when the 
ground is rough, or the surface is uneven, and when an 
attempt is made to plow the land in ridges, either nar- 
row or wide, regard should be had to regnlating the width 
of those ridges, so as to work the drill lengthwise of 
them, securing, if possible, straightness and uniformity, 
so that the furrows made by the drill shall correspond 
exactly with the open fnrrows of the ridges. On a fine 
porous wheat soil, such as is underlaid either by a strata of 
gravel or drift sand and shales, some five feet from the sur- 
fkoe, there will be found no advantage whatever from 
forming the land in narrow or even wide ridges, as no 
surface water can long remain with the roots 
of the wheat plants. In the management of all soils of 
this kind, the indented appearance given the surface by 
the coulters of the drill, is a decided advantage, as the 
rows of plants are considerably below the common sur- 
face of the ground, and they are thus sheltered from the 
raking wln£ of winter, and in process of time the soil 
crumbles down around the roots, thus imparting strength 
and vigor to the plants at a period when their gro>\'th is 
passing through its most delicate stage. Whilst this is 
true on all soils on which the surface water passes ofi" 
freely, the reverse is the case, on heavy clays, or on soils 
which are underlaid near the surface with a close reten- 
tive sub-stratum calculated to hold water like a basin. 
The furrows or indented lines formed by the drill, act as 
BO many reservoirs to retain the falling rains, and when 
the ground freezes up in winter, by a minute examina- 
tion, it will be found that immediately around the roots 
of the plants it is completely saturated with water, and 
in many cases pools of ice are formed by this influence 
in places where the water would have passed from the 
surface had the common practice of sowing been adopted. 
JThe lof»es obtained from this cause have in many cases 
staggered the faith of many of the strongest advocates 
of the system, and not a few can be found who are dis- 
posed to condemn rather than favor drill husbandry, 
simply because they did not understand the influence 
that an imperfect application of the practice would have 
upon the growing crops. In all cases where the drill is 
used upon a stiff clay soil, or where the water would be 
likely to remain on or near the surface, a light pair of 
seed harrows should be passed singly lengthwise of the 
drills, which will smother the surface witliout displacing 
the seed from the bottom of the drills, and thoroughly 
remove the cause producing the prejudicial efiocts pointed 

When the drill is used by a farmer, who, understands 
its practical working powers, and who takes proper pains 
in preparing his ground for its use, he may not only rea- 
sonably hope for a greatly increased product, but he may 
safely expect that the sample of the grain will be superior 
to his neighbor's. The straw is invariably much harder 
than when the seed is sown broadcast, and consequently 
the rust is not so liable to attack it; and besides the crop 
is not so likely to lodge^ as would be the case were the 
common system of sowing practiced. The advantages 
resulting ffom the adoption of the drill system of hus- 
bandry, might be greatly extended, but sufficient has 
been adduced to convince those whose attention may be 
turned to the sulject) that in careful hands at least, no 
modern improvement will pay a better interest upon the 
investment, than drill culture. 

This, however, like most other branches of improve, 
ment, requires great care in its management. It ought 
not to be att-empted by a slovenly farmer — and unless the 
ground be previously fitted for the process, it would be 
unwise to attempt usipg the Doachlne, although it might 
be in the hands of the farmer, and be paid for at an ex- 
travagant rate. Only now and then a field is sufficiently 
cultivated to warrant the employment of a drilling ma- 
chine ; and this fact is pressed upon the attention of the 
readers of the Cultivator at this time, to- prevent them 
from taking steps which for want of better experience, 
they might have reason to regret. The use of the drill 
is strongly to be commended, but no slovenly farmer need 
expect to derive any advantage from it. W. G. Ed- 
MUKDSOH. Keokvk, lotea, 1851. 


State Agiiooltosml SocUtisf. 

EnrroRS of the Goltivator — The enterprising fiir- 
mers in Vermont are friendly to a Stat© Society for the 
advancement of Agriculture j many of them read The 
Cultivator, and they would, doubtless, like to know the 
doings and present position of their State Association. 
It may also, perhaps, be agreeable to individuals in other 
communities, about engaging in a similar enterprise, to 
have our state organization in a convenient form for re- 
ference. With your permission, then, I will give a brief 
history of the Vermont State Agricultural Society. 

Several months ago. The Cultivator and other papers, 
announced that a respectable number of the fanners of 
Vermont, met at Middlebury, and resolved to try the 
experiment of a State Fair, fixing upon the 10th and 11th 
days of September, at Middlebury, as the time and place 
for holding the same. At the time and place designat- 
ed, an Exposition was accordingly made j the people of 
the state were there in great numbers, and this first ef- 
fort of the kind ever made in Vermont, proved quite 
successfbl, exceeding, in results, the expectations of its 
most sanguine friends. On the second day of the Fair, a 
State Society was organised, by the adoption of a Con- 
stitution, and by a choice of the necessary officers, a list 
of whom may be found in The Cultivator for November, 

The Constitution ts a pretty close copy of that of the 
New-York State Society, but for immediate and conve- 
nient reference, I here give it. 

Constitution of the Vermont State jSgricvltural Society. 

Sbc. 1. Tliis society shall be called the Vermont Slate Agricnliiiral 
Society, aiid its object is improvement iu Agriculture, Horticoliure, 
aikl the Arts. 

Src. 2. The Society shall comistofmch citizens of the State as shall 
signify, in writing, their wish to become members, and shall pay, on 
subseribin$r, uoUcss than one dollar; and also of nrnarary and cor- 
responding members. 

The Presidents of Connty Apxirnltural Societies, or a delegate 
from each, shall er-offino he members of this Society. 

The pay ment of twenty* five d(4iars or more, shall consiitute a mem- 
ber for life, and shall exempt the dmior from ational cooiribatioa. 




Sec. 3. Tlie officer! of this Society shall consist of a President, four 
Vice-Presidents, one to be located in each judicial circuiif a Record- 
ing Secretary', a Correi>ponding Secretary, a Treasurer, aiid Direc- 
tors, to conj»if>t of the officers above named, and five additional mem- 
bers, ajid five of the ez-Presidents whose term of office has last ex- 
pired, shall 1)e eX'Ojffieio Directors; and also a General (Committee, — 
members of which shall be located in the several counties, and be 
equal to the representations in the State Senate. 

Sec. 4. The Recording and Corresponding Secretaries shall per- 
form the duties usual to aucb officers. 

The Treasurer shall keep the fuiuls, and shall disburse them on or- 
der o( the President, or a Vice-President, countersigned by the Re- 
cording Secretary, and shall make a report of the receipts and expen- 
ditures at every annual meeting. 

The Directors shall take charge of and distribute or preserve all 
seeds, idauis, books, models, Ac, which may be transmitted to the 
Society; shsJl have charge of all publications; shall appoint the Ge- 
neral Committee ; shall have power to fill any vacancies which may 
occur in the officers during the year, and shall have the general con- 
trol of all matters pertaining to the interest of the Society, not special- 
ly acted upon by tue Society at large. 

The General Committee are charged with the interests of the Soci- 
ety In the counties in which they shall respectively reside, and will 
constitute a medium of conununication between the Directors and the 
other members of the Society. 

Ssc. 5. There shall be an annual meeting of the Society at such 
time and place as the Directors shall designate, at which ail the offi- 
cers — save the General Committee— shall be elected by a plaraliiy of 
TOtes, and by ballot. Extra meetings may he convened by the Direc- 
tors, and at such meetings tweuty-nve members shall be a quorum. 

Sec. 6. The Society shall hold an Aiuiual Cattle Show and Fair, 
at such time and place as shall be designated by the Directors. 

Sxc. 7 This Constitution may be amended by a vote of two-thirds 
of the members attending any Annual Mcf^liuf . 

A meeting of the Directors was held at Burlington, on 
the 26th day of September last, when the General Com- 
mittee were chosen, and also a committee to draft a Bill 
for the consideration of the I.«gislatare, granting the So- 
ciety an incori)oration and an annual appropriation of 
money from the State Treasury. In October the follow, 
ing Bill was introduced to the House of Representatives, 

referred to the Committee on Agrknilttire, and by them 
returned to the House, with a report in favor of its pas- 

jSn Act cheating a State Society for the Promotion of 
jSgriculture, HorticuJturef and the Arts. 

Whereas, certain citizens met nt Middlebury, in this State, on the 
lOlh and lllh days of September, A. D. 1851, formed an Association, 
chose a President, four Vice-Presidents, a Rec. Secretory, a Cor. Sec- 
retary, Treasurer, and a Board of Directors, named tlieir Association 
" The Vermont Stale Agricultural Society," and announced iis object 
to be "improvement in Agriculture, Horticnllurc, and the Arts :" — 

Now, therefore, li i> hereby enacted by the General Assembly of 
the State of Vermont : — 

Sec. 1 . Said citizens so associated together, with such citizens of this 
Stale as shall hercaAer signify, in writing, their wish to become mem- 
bers of said Society, and pay, on subscribing, such sum of money as 
the Constitution or Rules ami Regulations thereof, may prescribe, are 
hereby constituted a body politic and corporate, to be Known and dis- 
tiuguished by the name of The Vermont State Agricultural Society. 
whi>sc ohject »hnll be improvement in Agriculture, Ilorticullare, and 
the Arts. Said Society may; make and establish such By-laMrs, Rules 
and Regulations, not inconsistent with the Constitution or laws of this 
State, or of the United States, as shall from time to time appear need- 
Ail for its proper goveinment,->and the By-laws or Rules and Regu- 
lations adopted by said citizeius, al their meeting in Middlebury, afore- 
said, shall be the By-la\«n«, Ru'es ond Regulations of said Society, 
witil others are adopted by the merobera thereof; may have a com- 
mon seal, ond the same alter at pleasure; may sue and be sued, plead 
and be impleaded, contract and be contraeted with, and |iro!*ecute 
and defend to final judgment aiul execution, in any court of law or 
equity; may hold by gift, purchase, or otherwise, real ojid personal 
estate to an amount not exceeding ten thousand dollars, for the pro- 
motion of the object of said Society, which estate shall be exclusive- 
ly devoted to such ol^ect. 

Skc. 2. The oflicers of tVe Association mentioned in the Preamble 
to this Act, shall he the oflicers of ihe Vermont State Agricultural 
Society, and shall hold their places for one year, or until others shall 
be chosen at a regular annual meeting of the Society called for that 
purpose, agreeehle to the Rules and Regn'aiions thereof. ThercafVer, 
the officers of said Society shall consi-si of a President, four Vice-Prc- 
•idents, a Recording Secretary, a Corresponding Secretary, a Trea- 
surer, and such numlwr of Directors as may be determined by a vote 
of the Society. Said officers shall be chosen annually, at such time 
and place, and in such mamier. as the Society by ii.« l^y-laws or Re- 
gulations shall de«igunte; sliall h(4d their places until their successors 
are elected, and have power- to fill all vacancies that may occur 
among them during the year. 

Skc. 3. It shall be the duty of the Recording Secretary of said So- 
ciety, to keep full and fair records of all proceedings of 'the same in 
a book provided for that purpose, and such book may bo used as evi- 
dence in any Court in this State. 

Sec. 4. 'Whenever the Vermont State Agricultural Society shall 
raise any sum of money not less than $1000, and place the saine in 
tftio haiios of ilt Treasurer, to be awarded and poia out in premiums 

as hereiuaAer mentioned, the said Treasurer sliall make an affidavit 
of the same, speciiying the amount of money so raised and deposited 
with liim, which amdavit shall be filed with the Treasurer of this 
State, who is thereupon directed to pay to the Treasurer of said So- 
ciety , out of the Treasury of the State, the sum of $1000, to be 
awarded and expended in premiums as hereinafter mentioned | and 
annually thereafter^ a like sum of money, for alike purpose, is direct- 
ed to be paid out oj the Treasury of the State, to the Tre sparer of 
said Society: Provided, however, that in each year, before suidsum 
of #1000 shoil be paid out o( the State Treasury, it shall appear, by 
the affidavit o( the Treasurer of aaid Society, that a sum of money 
not less than 41000 has been raised by said Society, and is in his hands 
for the purpose aforesaid. 

Skc 5. At least 6*3,000 shall be annually awarded and paid ottt ia 
Premiums by the Vermont State Agricultural Society, in such sums 
as said Society, bt its Rules and Refrulaiious. may, from time to lime, 
direct ; and it snail be the spirit and intent of such Rales and Regu- 
lations to encoDrage the people of this State in the breeding and rear- 
ing of the best and roost profitable agricultaral aaimals,— in the prac- 
tice of the most correct methods of Agriculture and Horticulture; to 
stimolate them lu enterprise, experiment, discovery and improvement 
in these primitive and important pursuits ^ so far as moy be, to diffuse 
light and knowledge upmi these sobjecte; and to nromote the saccess 
of those arts worthily engaging the application or the people of Ver- 

Sec. 6. The Treasurer of said State Society shall withhold all pre- 
miutifs awarded on field crops, fat animals, orchard or general tarm 
majtagement, Maple sugar, the products of the dairy, and, generally, 
upon all the methods of Agriculture and Horticulture in regard to 
which it is desirable to diffuse speci^c information, antil the person 
or persons to whom the some shall have been awarded shall oelivcr 
to said Treasurer, in writing, an accurate description of the process 
of preoering the soil, bicluding the nature and quantity of the manure 
applied, and a full detailed statement of the manner of cultivating the 
land and raising the crop, feeding the animal, or manufacturing tlie 
article,— as the cnse may be, — also, of the expense, increose, and 
profits of the same: with the view to supply the exact and necessary 
data from which said Society may collect and diasemniale useful in- 
formation upon these subjects. 

Sec 7. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer of said Society to de- 
duct from the premiums awarded to any person the sum required to 
be subscribed annually for membership therein ; and said sum, so re- 
served, shall constitute «uch person a member <^ the Society for the 
year then next following. 

Sec 8. The Treasurer of wid Society shall, in the month of Octo- 
ber annually, furnish six copies of the Annual Reports of the Society 
to the Secretary of State, to be by him placed in the Library of this 

Sec. 0. This Act is subject to alteration, aroeudment, or repeal, by 
any future Legislature. 

Sec. 10. This Act shall take eflect from its passage. 

I am sorry to be obliged to say that the foregoing bill 
received little consideration from the Legislature, and 
was dismissed with the greatest despatch—not being 
deemed worthy of even a fair argument. It is really 
humiliating to humanity that almost always when legis- 
lative bodies are invited to do something to advance agri- 
culture, they not only refuse, but often treat such ap- 
plication with contempt. There seims to be an inability 
to understand that whatever improves the agriculture of 
a State, directly or indirectly favors all other interests. 
An advancing flourishing agriculture is sure to invite in 
other trades and callings; and thus the school house, the 
church, good roads, in short, all the institutions and pri- 
vileges of good society are readily provided, the neces- 
sary burdens of government are easily borne, and the 
flower of the population, insti^ad of emigrating to other 
districts, causing the gradual depopulation and decay of 
towns, is tempted and induced to stay at home. Not- 
withstanding that an improving cultivation secures these 
other results, it is difficult to convince legislatures of the 
propriety of appropriating money for the promotion of 
good farming, though they will vote it to almost all other 
objects. Practically, so far as agriculture is concerned, 
the sentiment seems to be that the world must be rolled 
backwards; that nothing new, no discoveries or improve- 
ments are needed ; that we must look to past ages for 
our rules of cultivation; that all of valne, all the farmer 
can possibly need to know, all that is safe for him to 
practice, was found out ages ago. What a compliment 
the holders of such sentiments pay themselves, and their 
age generally! A sufficient rebuke to such ideas maybe 
found in the memorable words of Lord Bacon, who, more 
than two hundred years ago said: ^* The opinion which 
men entertain of antiquity, is a very idle thing, and al- 
most incongruous to the word ; for the old age and length 
of days of the world, should in reality be accounted an- 
tiquity, and ought to be attributed to our own times, not 
to the youth of the world, which it enjoyed among the 
ancients: for that age, though with respect to us it be 




Ancient and greater, yet, with regard to the world, it was 
new and le88. And as we justly expect a greater know- 
ledge of thingSj and a riper judgment, from a man of 
years than from a youth, on account of the greater ex- 
perience, and the greater Tariety and number of things 
leen, heard, and thought of, by the person in years ; so 
might much greater matters be justly expected from the 
present age, than from former times; as this is the more 
advanced age of the world, and now enriched and furn* 
ished with infinite experiments and observations.'' 

The late Judge Buel, and his associates and colaborers 
in New- York, early and clearly saw the advantages that 
would flow to agriculture from associated eflbrt, backed 
by appropriations of money by government. They were 
a company of as able, enterprising and useful men as 
ever graced and honored any State. They were far in 
advance of public opinion around them, and were at 
times thought to be quite wild and enthusiastic. After 
years of earnest solicitations for legislative aid to agri- 
culture, and after exhausting every argument in its favor 
which their capacious min^ could f^-ame, they in |jart 
obtained the objects desired. Some of the measures they 
advocated, are now in full operation ; the benefits realised 
therefrom in their own State can hardly be estimated 
high enough; the Transactions of the State Society they 
labored so earnestly to establish, are among the very 
riehest contributions to the agricultural literature of the 
age, and form a light to enlighten the most distant i)art8 
01 our country: and society already acknowledges its in- 
debtedness to tnese men for their far reaching and com- 
prehensive views, and early, earnest, persevering efforts 
to carry the same. I had lively hopes that Yermonters, 
seeing the rich results of concerted action and legislative 
aid to promote agriculture, would at once and quite 
generally favor measures calculated to produce like re- 
suits in their own State ; but judging from the present 
aspect, a majority choose rather to consider such mea- 
sures in the light of an unsolved and uncertain experi- 
ment. Although disappointed in this part of our present 
efibrt at advancement, I cannot but hope that the spirit 
of the nineteenth century will get a fast hold upon our 
algriculture, that the dry bones hanging to it will be 
shaken, and awakened to life and activity, that the in- 
telligent and active men of the State will be awake and 
in action, and that we shall somehow contrive to keep 
along with other communities in the forward movements 
of the times. 

In Yermont, there are various circumstances favorable 
to the existence and success of a State Society ; and 
around the State, on all sides, there are circumstances 
which make such a Society quite necessary to its farmers. 
We live compactly, and feel a community of interests. 
Railroads span the State in almost every direction. In 
from three to six hours, they can bring the people togeth- 
er in any one of a dozen of our largest villages ; and they 
will quickly and free of charge. tranqK>rt all kinds of 
stock to a place of exhibition, ^hey open new, distant, 
and desirable markets to our farmers, and invite them to 
engage in new modes of farming, in the production of a 
variety of articles heretofore unprofitable for cultivation 
on a large scale, or of a nature too perishable to reach 
a suitable market by the old modes of conveyance. We 
have fine breeds of horses, cattle, and i^eep, — indeed, in 
this regard, we occupy a high vantage-ground; and we 
must not only preserve their present excellence, but also 
strive to improve them. This is best done by associated 
effort, and by comparing ourselves among ourselves; and 
if we fail of employing these aids, each trusting to him- 
self, in ignorance of what his neighbors arc doing, other 
communities on either side of us, by organised efforts for 
improvements, will be altogetlier likely to get ahead of 

A portion of the fanners of Yermont will certainly en- 
deavor to sustain their State Society by voluntary effort. 
They will probably prove a sufiiciently spirited band of 
men, to carry it forward successfully. The repulse they 
have met with In the outset, will quicken them in efforts 
to do not only their own work in the matter, but also a 
considerable portion of that which should have been done 
by the State through its legislature 

Now let me suggest an idea or two regarding the ad- 
vantages which may result to the country at large A'om 
the operations of State Societies. If generally organis- 
ed in the states, they may exert a double influence ; for 
while singly they have their own legitimate, decided, and 
powerful home influence, collectively, they may furnish 
the means for exerting a very important national influ- 
ence. For instance: the State Societies of Mew- York 
and Georgia gave very general invitations to the friends 
of agriculture in other states, to meet with them at then: 
late Festivals, to observe their improvements, and to con- 
sult with them and with one another, for the general wel- 
fare of agriculture. Now, if these State Associations 
become general, and these courtesies are extended from 
one association to another, the farmers of different and 
even distant sections will be likely to meet together more 
or less, compare views, counsel upon their mutual inte- 
rests, become well acquainted with one another, find they 
do not differ so very much after all, and thus the agri- 
cultural community may move forward unitedly and un- 
derstandingly in efforts to promote their great and com- 
mon cause, and the prosperity of the country. If Con- 
gress should persist in a refusal to establish a Bureau of 
Agriculture at Washington the farmers through their se- 
veral State Societies, may in time form a Central Na- 
tional Organization, to do in part those things contem- 
plated to be done by a National Bureau. In the course 
of a correspondence with Hon. J. Delapiei.d, President 
of the New- York State Society, this subject has been 
briefly discua8<?d. I trust he will pardon the liberty I 
take in now using an extract from one of his letters to 
me, — ^though of the character of familiar private corres- 
pondence. He says: << You allude, among other things, 
to a Central Agricultural Bureau. Upon this point I 
tbink we may move to advantage as State Societies or 
Associations; and with a hope to confer upon this and 
other matters of moment, I invited the Presidents of all 
other State Societies to attend our late Fair, and from 
each I received replies corresponding with the brief views 
then given. • • • It seems to me improbable that 
the Greneral Government will take any decided steps in 
regard to a Bureau. The State Societies may form an 
association, hold its office at Washington, and being a 
representative body from the people, carry at an early day 
a clear conviction to Congress that such a Bureau as has 
been indk»ited, is imperatively needed in our Agricultu- 
ral Republic.'' 

While upon the subject of Agricultural Societies, al- 
low me to throw in a word or two of caution. At all 
great or small festivals of these Societies, allnsions of a 
distinctly political cast should be strictly avoided. Hen 
of all political parties may meet to consider the interests 
of agriculture, and find ground spacious enough to stand 
upon, and weighty matters enough to consult about, all 
in harmony and good fellowship. These Festival occa- 
sions belong to agriculture, not to politics. Political oc- 
casions are numerous enough, in all conscience ; and these 
men may kindle up such enthusiasm as the good of the 
country may seem to demand ; but the quiet and harmo- 
ny of agricultural gatherings should not be disturbed by 
matters so exciting as those of politics. F. Holbrook. 
Brattleboro, Dec. 2, 1861. 


Apples, Ac, in New-Bngland. 

Agreeably to your polite invitation sometime ago ex- 
tended to me, I sit down to write a few lines for the 
pomological department of The Cultivator. 

Not to waste time or space with any unprofitable pre- 
liminary remarks, I will say a few words respecting, 

1. The Forms of Trees. — No writer that I am aware 
of has yet given a good classification of trees in this re- 
spect. Barry, in his " Fruit Garden," recently publish- 
ed, has made the attempt, but not, as I think, with en- 
tire success. For the purpose of bringing this subject 
under discussion I would propose the following terms for 
designating trees: 




1. standards. — ^Thcae are trees grafted ' on stocks of 
their own species, and pruned after the common old 
fiishioned orchard style ; that is, with heads five or six 
feet from the ground, and clean naked trunks. 

2. Pyramid*. — These are trees grafted as standards, 
but branching out at, or very near the surfiu^ of the 
ground, and trained to a conical or pyramidal form — 
hence the name. 

8. Dwarf Standards. — These are the same as stand- 
ards, excepting the size. 

4. Half Standards. — Trees of nze and form between 
standards and dwarf standards. 

6. Dwarf Pyramids. — The same as pyramids except- 
ing the size. 

6. Half Pyramids. — ^Trees of a size and form inter- 
mediate between pyramids and dwarf pyramids. 

7. Espaliers, and if you please, Dwarf Espaliers ; 
no description of which is necessary. These terms are 
conrenient, comprehensive, and easily intelligible. 

And now that I am writing, I have a few remarks to 
make in regard to the cultivation yf 

Ths A^plb. — Our best educated fruit cultivators here 
in New- England, do not bestow such attention upon this 
inestimable fruit as it ought to receive. To the masses 
of our people, it is oertaioly the most important of all 
Pomona's gifts to the regions of the temperate zone. In- 
deed with regard to the section of country lying between 
New. Jersey and the Ultima Tkule of Yankeedom, the 
apple is the first of fruits, ** and there is none second." 
So important is the apple for culinary purposes, that, 
without either fresh or dried apples,a kitchen would cease 
to be a kitchen. Then again what a noble dessert fruit 
it is ! One of the most ancient rites of New-England 
hospitality is to set a dish of ripe apples before a friend. 
How many associations of childhood entwine themselves 
around this noble product of the orchard ! The New- 
England farm-house of the days of our lathers — ^the 
brave roaring fire of blazing logs piled one upon another 
in the glorious old, honest, broad open fire-place; the 
row of roasting apples spluttering upon the capacious 
stone hearth, and the good old grandmother at her little 
spinning-wheel, buzzing away in the corner! 

Again — ^what a healthful and refreshing beverage is, or 
rather might be, made of this fruit ! for it well known 
that with proper care and attention, and from suitable 
Tarieties of grafted apples, a cider may bs made which 
will improve like wine by age, until it almost equals in 
richness the most highly esteemed products of foreign 

But to return to my subject. Wishing some months 
ago to furnish a fViend with a select list for an orchard 
of one hundred market apple trees, I was greatly sur- 

* Our Mieemed oorrespondent will permit us to express our views 
in relation to the general oae of such wines, in the language of a 
distinguished iiidividnal (P. T. Barjium) as published in the Western 
Horticultural Review .'—"Water is the best thing to quench thrisi>-ii 
in the best to aid digestion— it forms a lai^e portion of the human 
body— it is necessary to our life and well-being— and, although I 
trust I am not a bigot, I, as a matter of duty, as well as choice, es- 
chew with all my heart, all substitutes for that glorious element which 
a kind Heavenly Father has provided so bountifully for every living 
thing, and without which the eulire animal and vegetable creation 
must perish.'* Em. 

prised at the narrow limits within which I was compelled 
to confine myself. I was tempted to recommend to set the 
entire orchard with the Baldwin only ; for tlus has proved 
to be by far the most profitable market ax>ple hitherto 
cultivated in the Eastern States. But there are obvious- 
ly some objections — at least so it seemed to my friend— 
to being confined to only one variety ; and so after a great 
deal of deliberation, I recommended that one-half or 
more of the hundred trees should be Baldwins, and that 
the balance should consist of J2. /. Greenings, Hvbbarda- 
ton Nonsuch, Roxbury Russet, and Porter. 

I hesitated to insert the Roxbury Russet, because it is 
not a very good bearer, and the fruit seems to be dege- 
nerating, three apples in four being knerly, wormy, or 
otherwise unmarketable. Still I retain it as being the 
only late keeping apple that I could recommend for ge- 
neral cultivation. 

We have many other fine apples, I am glad to ack- 
nowledge. The Early WUlianu, for instance, is a beau- 
tiful, large, excellent fruit, but it is a mortal slow grow- 
er. The Early Sweet Bough is large, handsonte, pro- 
ductive, and the tree grows well; but, as ibr all other 
sweetings, there is only a limited demand for it, most peo- 
ple considering such apples as valuable merely for culina- 
ry purposes. The Duehesse of Oldenburgh, Gravenstem, 
Leland's Spice, Mother, Northern Spy, and Sutton 
Beauty, all promise well, but none of them have yet 
earned a well established reputation in this section of 
the country. The Esopus Spitzenbergand Peck's Pleas- 
ant, are apples of exquisite fiavor, but are not quite suf- 
ficiently productive. The Ladies' Sweeting is hjmdsom- 
er than Dauvers Winter Sweeting, but its flavor is only 
second rate with me ; and besides, they are both " noth- 
ing but sweetings." 

Had my friend been at all inclined to experimenting, I 
should have recommended to him, as particularly worthy 
of trial, Duehesse of Oldenburgh, Leland's Spice, Gra- 
venstein and Northern Spy, especially the latter; as we 
are actually entirely destitute of any profitable late-keep- 
ing variety of the apple. 

You are well aware tliat a list of apples for market is 
one thing; a list for home consumption is quite another; 
a list for an amateur, still something else. The first class 
must be handsome, productive and popular: the second 
must be various in flavor and in season of npcning ; the 
third class must be — every thing. 

A list of market apples is alr^Miy given above; I would 
recommend for home consumption, (flavor, productive- 
ness, Sec., taken into account,) the annexed list. 


Summer, — Early Williams. Early Sweet Bough. 

{Porter. Pumpkin Sweeti^. 

Hub. Nonesuch. 
Leland'§ Spice. 
C Northern. Danvers Winter Sweeting. 

Winter, I Baldwin. Ladies' Sweeting. 

( R. I. Greening. 
Spring, — Roxbury Russet. 

(perhajis,) N. Spy. 

In the present state of information fn regard to this 
noble but neglected fruit, I should hardly feel inclined to 
extend the list farther, pomological conventions to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

Should the above prove acceptable, I shall at some fu- 
ture time, send you some notices of pears and other 
fruits. Truly yours, Geo. Jaqubs. Worceeter, Mass., 
Nov., 1861. ' 




Fruit blij^htad by Hot Weather. 

The Intenae heat of the weather daring the fore part 
of last September, caased ImiiieQse injnry to all kinds 
of frait. AppleS) peaches, and grapes suffered greatly 
in all the regioB round Baltimore, and, I presume, 
wherever it prevailed. An Isabella vine, that for twelve 
years past has not failed to perfect an abundant i^rop of 
fruit, and last year, up to the first of September, gave 
usurance of a very large yield, fiHed to produce a 
single bunch of perfect fruit. The filling up and ripen- 
ing of the berries was arrested at the commencement of 
that hot weather, the berries began to shrivel, the bunch- 
es seemed to hang Hfeless, and the leaves of the vine to 
dry and fiJl off. About one-third of the berries had 
become dark colored, bat did not fill up. On examin- 
ing other vines about the city I found all In the same 
condition. Konebut the earlier varieties ripened. All 
late peaches became prematurely and imperfectly ripe, 
and made their appearance some two weeks too early in 
our markets, small in size, and of imperfect quality. 
Late apples were also injured, and the &11 apples pre- 
maturely and imperfectly matured. 

How are we to account for this singular effect of heatf 
I believe the explanation to be this:— 

The nutritious Juices are thrown Into a state of fer- 
mentation while exposed to the hot rays of the sun and 
hot air in the leaves, and thus all the sacchariDe and 
other nutritious principles, instead of being sent back 
to the fruit are evaporated ; and thus the f^utt perishes 
for want of nutrition. This theory also explains a simi- 
lar accident that often occurs to all kinds of plants during 
very hot dry weather, and which is often called scalding. 
Corn is often very much stinted in its grain by it. We 
know that the saccharine Juice is converted by the as- 
slmilatiang organs of the plants into starch, &c. Wc 
also know that these saccharine juices possess all the ele- 
ments of fermentation except temperature. Now it seems 
reasonable to suppose that if the necessary degree of tem- 
perature be supplied by the sun, fermentation will be 
immediately commenoed, and the saccharine principle 
will be converted into spirits and evaporated Arom the 
leaves; and of course the firuit or grain that depended 
upon this saccharine principle for food, must perish. It 
la readily admitted that this is all theory ; and that, if 
correct, the evil is without remedy. One, at least, of 
the readers of the Cultivator would be glad to hear 
what others, more experienced and skilful, have to say 
on the subject. 

Another idea suggests itself. If the above theory be 
correct, the Aruit and grain thus effected, (2t«« of starva- 
tUn, Can they then be wholesome food for man or 
beast? Several persons who had partaken of the above 
described imperfect grapes, were more or less effected 
with stomach and bowel diseases. No one ever thinks 
of eating meat from an animal that had diedy and if it 
die of starvation it would appear to be much less fit for 
food. Why should we eat fruit that has perished in the 
same way ? All this may seem speculative and unwortliy 
of attention, but it does seem to the writer worthy of 
careftil consideration. G. B. Smith. Baltimore, Nov., 

Quality of New Fniita. 

From the proceedings of that veteran body, the Jlfaa- 
tachutetts Horticultural Society, we copy the following 
docisions of its able fruit committee, relative to the 
diaracter of some new fruits: 

MsLoir. — CAru^iona,— ^ery fine— on account of ita 

earliness, flavor, and fine quality, maintains its character 

ast he best melon for general cultivation. 

Pkars. — Beurre de Rkint, new, green, pyramidali 
large, melting, juicy, good. 

Beurrt Sprin , yellow and red, pyramidal, large, excel- 
Collins J very fine, juicy, and brisk. 

Jersey Graiiolif large, obovate, yellow dotted with 
ru.ssct, of a fine vinous flavor. 

Beurre Beaumont, very fine. 

Bonne de Zeu, large, oblong, yellow, meltingi sweet, 

Beurre Triquer and BenoUt, melting, juicy, fine. 

Semtrier, promises well. 

Nouveau Poiteau, alrge, promises well. 

Soldat Labortur^ Colmar d^Atemhergy Eyeufoodf 

Apples — Walworth, from Clinton county, N. T., 
large, handsome, yellow with a flush, tender, pleasant, of 
fine quality. 

Nofihsm 8%oeet, same origin, very handaome, fine. 

Bailey Spice, handsome, fine. 

The Diana grape ** continues to maintain Its high re- 
putation." [So fiir it appears to have Diiled at ChKsin- 
nati, where also the Isabella is becoming of little value, 
the Catawba taking the lead there of every thing else.] 


The Beat Pears. 

C. M. HovET, of Boston, who has a very extensive 
knowledge of both old and new pears, gives the follow- 
ing list of nine unexcepttonablo pears for that vicinity: 
Bloodgood, Bartlett, Louise Bonne of Jersey, Seckel, 
Belle Lucrative, Beurre Bosc, Le Cure (Winkfield,) 
Winter Nells, and Beurre d'Aremberg. To these he 
adds the 28 fbllowlng: — GloiitMorceau, Paradise of An* 
tumn, Dix, Beurre Diel, Doyenne Boussock, Beurre d' 
Anjou, Fulton, Andrews, Urbaniste, Tyson, Gansel's 
Bergamot, Rostiezer, Passe Colmar, St. Ghtslain, Easter 
Beurre, Heathcot, Thompson's, Stephens' Genesee, 
Golden Beurre of Bilboa, SlcuUe, Flembh Beauty, 
Coropte de Lamy, Dutchess of Angonleme,LoQg Green, 
Marie Louise, Wilbur, Buffum, Lawrence, Ike. Some 

'* more recent kinds of equal merit'' are not included. 


Ziazge Strawberry Story. 

A writer in the London Gardener^e Chronicle, de- 
scribes the mode in which a distinguished strawberry 
raiser obtains enormous crops. It consists, in substance, 
in the \no of a deep vegetable sandy loam soil, or re- 
claimed osier ground, so situated as to admit of perfect 
irrigation. The latter we know to have an astonishing 
influence on the increase of sise in the growing fruit. 
The British Queen Strawberry is obtained by the most 
skilful cultivators of enormous size In that country ; yet 
when that writer speaks of single specimens weighing 
THEEE ovvcES, that Is, about ss much as a moderate sized 
Spitzenburgh apple^ he draws very heavily on the ere* 
dnlity of those who have not seen them. 




What ForelgnMa Think of U*. 


JVew-/faec}i|Conn., JV(W. 96, lasi. ) 

Mss8B8. E0iTO&»— I take the above Bub)ect as one 
vhich has often, of late, occupied my own mind, and 
one in which we as a nation, whether we acknowledge 
it or not, certainly do feel a strong mterest. Sensitive- 
ness on this point, is one of onr characteristics, and it is 
frequently carried to an absurd extreme. Filled with 
indignation at some foolish mistake, we often neglect hints 
or suggestions that would be of great advantage, if pro- 
perly received and acted upon. This should not be so j 
there was more excuse for it when we were very young 
and comparatively powerless, but now we have grown to 
that stature, and to that established character, that we 
need not turn in a rage upon every snarler that yelps at 
our heels; we can afford to acknowledge imperfections, 
and can look every evil report fairly in the face. 

With such views as these, I design to devote a few 
words to this subject, more particularly with reference 
to foreign reports of our agriculture. Our farmers have 
for tho most part been neglected by foreign visitors, but 
within a few years this immunity has ceased, and they 
have received their full share of attention. The ship- 
loads of agricultural produce that have kept pace with 
every European demand, have drawn the eyes 6f older 
countries to a new and powerful rival; the stories of 
boundless and fertile alluvial districts, have called men 
across the Atlantic to visit them, with the special end of 
deciding what our future would do with the markets of 
the other continent. 

The most numerous of our viaators have been from Great 
Britain, and it is not to be disguised that their reports 
of us have, more than all others put together, awaken- 
ed ill feelings, and caused strong protests against not (mly 
the correctness of the authors, but their desire to dis- 
cover the truth. It must be acknowledged that ground 
has been given for such charges; when men come here, 
and scamper hastily over our country, with upraised eye- 
brows, and stiff, proud reserve; when they greedily swal- 
low every prejudicial report, look out for defects rather 
than excellencies, and regard every variation from Eng- 
lish manners or customs, not as belonging to another 
people and therefore to be considered in its adaptation 
to national characteristics, but as differing from an Eng- 
lish standard, and therefore to be condemned, — then we 
naturally feel aggrieved, and insulted, by their misrepre- 

It is unfortunate that so many Englishmen assume a 
defensive and hostile attitude toward all other peo- 
ple, immediately on leaving their native shores; that 
by their air of immeasurable superiority, and haughty 
condescension, they alienate those who would otherwise 
fraternize with them most cordially. There are most 
. liberal and honorable exceptions to this rule, but in our 
American experience, we are constrained to believe that 
they are exceptions. I do not willingly say these things, 
but with real regret, for I have lived long enough in Eng- 
land and Scotland, to know and love their people. We 
may find fault with the British nation, but after all it 
speaks and will speak for itself. That little island, not 
00 large as some of our single States, exerts a sway fiu* 

mightier than Borne or Greece ever knew, and is at this 
moment more powerful than any kingdom of the world. 
England has her great defects, her glaring inconsistent 
cies, and what nation has not ; but when we see her armi 
stretching around the globe, her colonies growing and 
prospering where others have failed or stood still, her 
sails whitening every sea, her wealth and strength com- 
pelling all others to be subsidiary to her aggrandisement 
and increase, we are filled with astonishment, and cannot 
but be proud to own such a parentage. The virtues and 
the vices of the English are in the main ours ; indomitable 
perseverance, restless enterprise, far reaching energy, and 
strong practical sagacity, are common to the two nations, 
and these qualities are bringing them together in a friend- 
ly contest for supremacy. Already we divide the seas 
between us, and united can almost without a serious e^ 
fort sweep every other fiag from its surface; united as 
for the past fbw years, during the next oentury, and It 
seems probable that the English tongue will prevail gra- 
dually over all others. The same in the prevailing re- 
ligion, the same in so many characteristics both of ex- 
cellence and defect, we should encourage every tie of 
amity, and while each pursues by all proper means, the 
path to its own advantage, should frown upon all who in 
blind prejudice or narrow ignorance, either intentionally 
or unwittingly, pursue a course likely to sow seeds of 
dissension between us. 

It is then in a spirit of kindness that I would examine 
in a general way, some of the criticisms that have lately 
emanated from our &therland. I do not propose to 
mention names, but to point out some reason fbr certain 
erroneous conclusions. 

In the first place, I would say distinctly, that we need 
not expect any satisfactory results when a traveller goes 
over our country by railway and steamboat, for a few 
weeks or months, collecting an item here, and an item 
there, and then comes out with a deep and profound dis- 
quisition upon our minutest springs of action and the 
causes which influence the most important of our nation- 
al movements. He who attempts anything of this na- 
ture, without any apparent fear of error, or the influence 
of preconceived opinions, is so evidently superficial thai 
he may be condemned in advance. If the writer has 
been clearly desirous of giving a candid relation, and has 
fairly tried, although in vain, to see things In their true 
light, we can only feel sorry that he has so greatly mis- 
taken hfs vocation ; but if he has been determined to see 
nothing but what he wished, we are now strong enough 
to express our contempt for his spirit of blind prejudice, 
and let our character and history alone contradict him. 

It is not by any means my object, to deny that there Is 
no good reason for fault-finding with us, for it is not to 
be disguised that we have many and glaring imperfec> 
tions. Our agriculture more particularly, is quite open 
to animadvernon, and the farmers of some districts, sunk 
in apathy, or armed with hostility toward everything 
new, deserve all the pungency, both of ridicule and 
reprehension, that can be bestowed upon them. Yet 
even here there is ample room for telectiofiy as. to the 
points with reference to which they may fairly be blamed. 
Some deists are inseparable fVom our present condition; 
others are the results of our faults and ignorance. It is 




in the inability to diatingulsh between these^ that most 
foreigners offend and alienate ns. 

Any candid obaerver who considers the circninstances 
of our farmers, must at once be struck with many con- 
ditions that differ so entirely iVom those formed in the 
long settled districts of Europe, as to bring us under the 
operation of an almost- distinct set of laws. 

The immense extent of rich country still unsettled, 
where land may be bought fbr a mere trifle, and the con- 
sequent high price of labor, accounts for many of the 
imperfections in our farming. While broad unbroken 
forests invito the pioneer to enter, and let the sunlight 
upon the vegetable accumulations of centuries; while 
verdant prairies open out almost like the boundless sea, 
there is a strong temptation to cultivate only for the pre- 
sent hour, to take off crops with no labor beyond that 
of plowing, and when the produce begins to decrease, to 
move toward another untouched tract. In this way a 
rolling shifting tide of population advances, leaving the 
land behind them in a partially exliausted condition. 

Now it is all very well to say that this is wretched 
forming, and to declaim against our improvidence; but 
the &ct is, that any elaborate Bystem of cultivation would 
not succeed at all in these new lands so remote from the 
sea-board. The former who attempted to cultivate his 
land according to the most improved modern systems, 
would not obtfidn enough, large though his crops might 
be, to pay more than half of his expenses, and this for 
the reason that the conditions of Europe are reversed: 
in place of cheap and abundant labor and dear food, we 
have cheap food with scarce and high priced labor. The 
farmer then In the extreme west, must simplify every 
process to the last possible degree, before he can make a 
profit. As we come east into the longer settled regions, 
the state of society, the value of land, and the abund- 
ance of labor, allow of a higher and higher style of cul- 
tlvaUon. Still even in our oldest agricultural districts, 
I of course exclude market gardens, &c., in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Uirge towns, there are few if any places 
where the highest style of English farming, with all its 
expense of implements, and elaborate finish of cultiva- 
tion, could be profitably carried on. 

This is one of the points in relation to which foreigners 
are often most obstinately prejudiced ; they demand the 
same kind of perfection that they have seen at home, 
the same implements, the same character of stock. In 
this they make the identical mistake that they do in con- 
demning our laws and habits, simply because they differ 
from those to which they have been accustomed. Be- 
fore speaking, they should consider tlie force of circum- 

My opinion is, that in this country a man is a good 
former, whose land is improving under cultivation from 
year to year, and at the same time yielding him a profit. 
Thousands of forms in this condition might be pointed 
out, and yet perhaps not more than one or two would 
elicit the approval of that class of Ibreigners described 
in the preceding paragraph ; they do not consider that 
perfection is relative ; a system of cultivation may be 
essentially as high as any in England, and yet the farmer 
not be able to afford those niceties of the art which dia- 
tmguish the best English and Scotch farms the result 

may be as good, while the ifystem and appliances are 
cheaper and rougher. In shorts— while we would aim at 
the highest perfection, we must still compare ourselves 
with ourselves, and claim the right to decide what is the 
best farming on this nde of the Atlantic, with only a 
secondary reference to foreign standards. We would 
follow all that is profitable and advantageous in the 
practice of others, but will not submit to be tied to their 
criterion of excellence. 

It is my firm belief that some districts of this country, 
have improved as rapidly in their agriculture, during the 
last five years, as any that can be found in the world; 
but I perceive that it will be necessary to defer any fur- 
ther remarks upon this and other points, until my next 
letter. Yours truly, Johs P. Nobtov. 


Milch Oows. 

The American JgrieulturUt , in the number for Feb- 
ruary last, speaking of the '*Oaks cow" and the 
'* Nourse cow," said— ^' We can show numerous instances 
of larger ylelders, whether of milk or butter," In our 
March number, we asked the AgriculturUi to point us 
to these *' numerous instances" claimed. In the Se|^ 
tember number of that paper, (five months after we 
asked for the information,) there is an editorial article 
on the subject, in which, in reference to its previous as- 
sertion, it is said— 

'' We had an impression that many results were on 
record to verify tliis assertion, but on recurring to writ* 
ten authorities, we found our convictions had been formed 
upon oral testimony, rather than the more formal and 

The jSgrieulturisi next calls our attention to '' such 
brief authority," in support of its original assertion, " as 
on a moment's investigation has presented itself." Before 
proceeding to notice this " brief authority," it is proper 
to say that we called for the information alluded to, 
simply in relation to the settlement of a foot, and not, 
as our cotemporary falsely charges, firom '' zeal for up- 
holding the natives." We gave the product of the Oaks 
cow in butter for three years, as follows: 1814, 800 lbs. ; 
1815, 400 lbs.; 1816, 484| lbs., and desired to know 
where we could find the proof in regard to the " numer- 
ous instances of larger yielders from Short-horn herds." 

We obtained the facts in regard to the produce of the 
Oaks cow fVom the Massachusetts Jlgricultural Reposi- 
tory and Journal J Yo\. IV, pp. 254,265. It appears 
from the account, that the product put down as for the 
latter year, embraced but a little over eight months, as 
follows: She calved April 5th. and suckled her calf till 
the 8th of May, when it was killed. While the calf was 
with her, she gave 17 lbs. of butter, and from the time 
the calf was killed, or May 8th to December 20th, she 
gave 467i lbs.— making a total of 484^ lbs.— besides fot- 
tening her calf to the age of four weeks and ffve days. 

Now, the Agriculturist said it could '' show numer- 
our instances" in which this product had been exceeded 
by ^'^hort-hom herds," and we merely asked that the 
'' instances" be shown to us. It has not complied with 
this request, although it has given two pages of what it 
calls *' brief authority." We have carnfully looked over 
all this, and still ask for evidence of the truth of the 
first assertion. 




We have not room to notice all the so called ** au- 
thority'' which the AgrteuUutUt brings forward, but 
will select a few examples, which may be taken as fair 
specimens of the whole. 

The first example cited, is that of a Short-horn cow 
mentioned by Touatt, whkh is said to have yielded 872 
lbs. of butter in 82 weeks. To prove that this beats the 
Oaks oow, the JgrictdtHriit says — ^' Had this rate been 
•continued for 52 weeks, she would have given 606 pounds.'* 
Sage conclusion! This is the rule assumed: If a cow 
will produce, say, 14 lbs. of butter in a week, soon after 
calving, and will continue to produce at the same " rate'* 
for a year, she wHi give 728 Ibe! Suppose we try the 
Oaks cow by this rule, and see how she will compare 
with this Short-horn. In thirty-tvHi weeks and two day*, 
the Oaks cow gave 467 j lbs. of butter; and at the same 
<< rate" for a year, she would have given 785 lbs! But 
every sensible person knows that such a rule is utterly 
fallacious, and that such a case as is supposed, could not, 
in the nature of cows, occur — It being virtually impossi- 
ble that the same " rate" of produce in milk or butter 
should be conthmed for a year, that is yielded for a short 
time after calving. The case mentioned by Youatt is 
stated in his treatise on cattle, p. 247, (English edition,) 
where the number of pounds of butter given each week 
is put down; and the improbability of the same <' rate" 
being continued for a year, may be inferred from the fkct 
that during the last three weeks of the trial, she gave 
lust tevcn pounds of butter each week! 

Another example given by the jSgriculturist, is that 
of a Short-hom cow owned by Mr. Vaii, of Troy, which 
in one produced .19| lbs. of butter. This one toeek ap- 
pears to have comprised the entire trial. But look at 
the deduction which our cotemporary makes from it. He 
says—'' Thus, a thorough-bred Short-hom produced over 
2 pounds 12 1 ounces of butter per day, which rather ex- 
ceeds the quantity yielded by the Oaks cow." And yet, 
according to the same article, the Oaks cow produced — 
" a fraction over an average of 2] pounds per day," from 
the 5th of April to the 25th of September! 

Next follows a statement,— on whose "authority," 
except that of the jigrictUturist, does not appear, as it 
is supported by no reference, — ^in regard to the produc- 
tion of butter from Col. Powell's cow Belina. It is as- 
serted that she gave an average of sixteen pounds of 
butter per week from the 2(Hb of September 1880, to 
the 20th of May following. 

The only account of the butter produced by this cow 

which we have been able to obtain, (although we have 

written to Col. Powell on the subject,) is that published 

in a work entitled "Hints for American Husbandmen 

with Comniunications to the Pennsylvania Agricultural 

Society,"— 1827. It is there stated that, 

" Belina produced milk between Thursday morning 
the 24th, and Saturday evening the 26th [May 1827,] 
i.e., in three days, fW)m which eight pounds thirteen 
ounces of butter were obtained-Hit the rate of 20^ pounds 
per week." 

So much for three days. Will the jtgHctdturist inform 
us where we can find an authentic record of the state- 
ment that the cow in question produced rixteen pounds 
of butter per week from the 20th of September to the 
20th of May? 

National Agricultural Bureau. 

Prc«dent Fillkore, in his late Message, reiterates his 
former reeommendation for the organixation of an Agri- 
cultural Bureau. He says: 

Agriculture may justly be regarded as the great in- 
terest of our people. Four-fifths of our active popula- 
tion are employed in the cultivation of the soil, and the 
rapid expansion of our settlements over new territory is 
daily adding to the number of those engaged in that vo- 
cation. Justice and sound policy, therefore, alike re- 
quire that the Government should use all the means au- 
thorized by the Constitution to promote the interests and 
welfkre of that important class of our fellow citizens. 
And yet it is a singular fact, that wliilst the manufactur- 
ing and commercial interests have engaged the attention 
of Congress dgring a large portion of every session, and 
our statutes abouml in proviaons for their protection and 
encouragement, little has been done directly for the ad- 
vancement of agriculture. It is time that this reproach 
to our legislation should be removed ; and I sincerely 
hope that the present Congress will not close t^eir labors 
without adopting efficient means to supply the omissions 
of those who have preceded them. 

An Agricultural Bureau, charged with the duty of 
collecting and disseminating correct information as to the 
best modes of cultivation, and of the most effectual 
means of preserving and restoring the fertility of the soil, 
and of procuring and distributing seeds and plants ana 
other vegetable productions, with instructions in regard 
to the soil, climate and treatment best adapted to their 
growth, could not fail to be, in the language of Wash- 
ington, in his last annual message to Congress, a '' very 
cheap instrument of immense national benefit." 


Trial of Reaping Haohines. 

The English papers inform us of the result of a trial 
which took place on the 25th and 27th of September, 
between Hussey's and McCormick^s reaping machineS| 
under the auspices of the Cleveland Agricultural Society. 
It was a trial agreed on by the parties interested in the re- 
spective machines, who signed an agreement by which 
the reapers were placed in the hands of thirteen jurors, 
who were directed to ascertain which of the two— 

1. Cuts the com in the best manner. 

2. Causes the least waste. 

8. Does the most work in a given time. 

4. Leaves the corn in the be^ order for gathering and 

5. Is best adapted for ridge and furrow. 

6. Is the least liable to get out of repair. 

7. At first cost is less price. 

8. Requires the least amount of horse labor. 

9. Requires the least amount of manual labor. 
Whichever of the two. so tried, a nu\iority of the jury 

ascertained to combine tne greater number of the abovs 
qualities, was to be pronounced the best implement. 

The following is the substance of the report of the 

The jury regret exceedingly the most unfkvorable state 
of the weather on the days of trial (a perfect hurricane 
raging the whole of the first day,) and their consequent 
inability to make so full and satisfactory a trial as they 
could have wished. 

The machines were tested on a crop of wheat, com- 
puted at 25 bushels per acre, very much laid ; and on 
barley at 25 bushels per acre, very short in the straw, 
and if possible more laid than the wheat. 

The jury, taking the difi^erent points submitted to them 
into consideration, express — 

1. Their unanimous opinion that Mr. Hnssey's ma- 
chine, as exhibited by Messrs. William Dray ana Com- 
pany, cut the corn in the best manner, especially across 
ridge and farrow, and when the machine was working tn 
the direotion the com laid. 




2. By a minority of eleven to one, that Mr. Hufisey's 
machine eansea the leaAt waste. 

8. Taking the breadth of the two machines into con- 
sideration, that Mr. Hnssey's did most work. 

4. That Mr. Huney's machine leares the cat com in 
the best order for gathering and binding* This question 
was submitted to the laborers employed on the occasion, 
and decided by them as above, by a msjority of 6 to 4. 

5. Their unanimous opinion that Mr. Hussey's ma- 
chine is best adapted fbr ridge and furrow. 

6. This question was referred by the jury to Mr. Ro- 
binson, foreman to Messrs. Bellerby, of York, a practical 
mechanic of acknowledged ability. 

7. That Mr. Hussey's machine at first cost is less price. 

8. 9. The Jury decline to express a decided opinion on 
these points, in consequence of the state of the weather. 

In regard to the trial, the Gatttheod Observer re- 
marked — ^^ One thing was clearly demonqjtrated by both 
machines — ^that reaping by machinery is practicable. As 
sorely as the threshing machine has superseded the flail, 
so certain is it, that the reaping machine will set aside the 

scythe and the sickle.'' 


BfaniifiiotDxe of BSaimrs. 

We have been favored with the annual Report of the 
doings of the St. John (N. B.) Jg. Society y for the last 
year, from which we select the following, from a state- 
ment furnished by Mr. Robert Bowss, of the manner 
in which he manufactures annually large quantities of 
manure. It is worth remembering. 

I have the bog earth raised one year before being mix- 
ed with any thing, as muck is so long excluded from the 
atmosphere and sun that it requires a year's frost and 
sun and air to absorb the sour water properly out of it, 
to make room for the rich liquids it is to receive in tanks 
and elsewhere. I keep my cows in the bam at night, 
and place dry muck behind them to absorb the liquid 
manure. The cow stable is cleared out every morning, 
and the manure is mixed once a week with one load of 
rich earth to three of manure. Clay loam is the best. 
If it can be got, to mix a compost, as there is a retainer 
hi clay that other earths are not possessed of. In addi- 
tion to this^ I have in rear of my dwelling house a tank 
sunk that holds thirty common cart loads of dry muck ; 
this tank is fourteen feet long, seven feet wide, and six 
feet deep,* it is made of three-inch plank, with hackma- 
tack posts' and is properly caulked and paved to hold 
water. When this tank is is filled with the dry muck, 
there are conductors that convey all the slops ttom the 
kitchen into it, as well as all the chamber lye and the 
soap suds from an outside kitchen ; the hearth ashes are 
likewise put into it in a dry state. In about a month, 
when the tank gets pretty well filled up with the liquid, 
it gets into an acid state, and in a few days will ripen 
and be ready for removal, which b easily known by a 
disagreeable odour and an increase of yellow flies. In 
the spring and fall of the year it requires tYB or six 
weeks to ripen, ae the weather is not so hot. To prevent 
surface water getting in, the tank has a covering, which 
is removed when required. I can make at least one 
hundred cart loads of good powerful manure by this 
tank in a year. I have manure removed to a large shed 
at the end of my cow stable, the bottom of which is Iq 
the shape of an amphitheatre, from which no liquid can 
escape. I add one load of earth to three loads of tank 
manure, which, in the fall of the year, will cover the 
floor of the shed about four feet deep. The manure 
from the cow stable Is thrown on the top of this through 
the winter, and spread evenly over it. The roof of the 
manure shed is constructed so as to admit the rain freely, 
which washes down the liquid into the compost ; but the 
sun and wind are excluded. 

I have a piece of ground, about a quarter of an acre, 
which was so poor that it would give nothing but weeds . In 
May last I plowed and hurrowed it, and then put on 

six loads of tank manure, unmixed, to try its strength. 
I sowed it with barley, harrowed it well, and rolled it. 
I never saw ranker barley, and I am happy that you saw 
it, so that you could Judge for yourself. 

The Primats Appls. 

About a year since, we noticed an apple which had 
been described as new in Hovey's Magazine under the 
unpomological name of*' Roagh and Ready," remarking 
at the same time that it was an old variety, having been 
cultivated in diflbrent parts of Western Kew-Tork for 
twenty or thirty years. A late number of that Journal 
fhmishes a communication firom A. Fahnestock of Syra- 
cuse, tracing this variety to eastern origin, and to grafted 
trees in Western Kew-Tork fVom twenty to forty years 
old. The oldest name known appears to be tlie Prijultb 
•*-a name that will probably remain fixed to this variety. 

Eds. Cultivator — I have been for several years, a 
successful owner and manager of bees, and am led to 
wonder that farmers do not more generally include this 
among thdr varieties of productive stock. I am confi- 
dent that, on a comparatively small scale, it makes the 
most profitable return for the investment and labor re- 
quired, of aU the stocks a farmer can keep. They re- 
quire no daily feeding, no housing, save the two dollar 
tenement allotted to each separate colony ; no fencing, 
either for protection or escape ; no room, when hung on 
fhimes in open order, where grass can grow under them ; 
and no expense of wintering, as they provide their own 


I have a grass plat of about nine square rods, sur- 
rounded by a clothes line of tinned wire, which has stood 
the weather for the last ten years without msting, and 
within this are arranged my bees on frames. I cut two 
crops of grass each season, and have some thrifty young 
fruit trees interspered. I use Week's Vermont hive, 
and thmk it the best in use. My hives are made of pine 
plank, painted white, so that they neither warp nor al* 
low the comb to bo melted in hot weather. I had 518 
swarms last spring, and shall sell $150 worth of honey. I 
may at some Aiture time give in detail the result of several 
years experience in this business, with some hints or 

management. H. W. Bulkelet. BalUton, Oct. 16&i, 


Seedling Orspes. 

Kicholas Longworth informs us in the Western Hor- 
ticultural Review, that he has a few thousand seedUngs 
from our best native grapes, and of one superior variety, 
has 800 plants of extra vigorous growth, and shall be 
disappointed If he has not grapes of black, white, and 
red color, among them, equal in the aise of the grape 
and the bunch, to the Black Hamburgh, and its rival in 
quality. So much for a man renowned for his doubts 
and incredulity. He says two or three years wiU 
test the question. 

OtdokBDM wemnis Insects. 

Cuthill says '' one bantam is worth fifty toads.'' He 
states that his rabbish comer, where all the rakings, 
leaves, and general refuse of the garden were put, be* 
came the grand for all soris of insects. 
He inclosed it with four-feet laths, and placed a brood 
of bantams there ; it is now the most valuable comer of 
the garden. 



" Constemktion," the propertj' of J. B. Bdbxet, Sy- 
Ttcnte, — received the highest premium of the N. T. State 
Ag. Soo. on Blood Horses, in 1&15, and hai received k- 
Teral certificates as the best horse in that ckss, at several 

labMqDent ihowi. " CoDstenuitJon" was imported b; 

Hr. Albott, (^ Oneida county. He is alibrse itt good 
bone and lubstance, and l9 the wrc of much good stock Id 
that locality. 

Fanning In Pennaylvania. 
BiBiia. — Id that p>rt of PeanaylTaoia throng^ which 

we passed, the bams are generally built of stone. They 
consist of two stories, the lower of which is divided Into 
apartmeDta for horses and cattle, and the npiier is ap- 
propriated to the storage of hay, grain, &c. The walls 
are nsniJl; rery thick— not less than two feet — and being 
well Wd in mortar, are oeArly linpenioui to moistnre 
and air. Windows arc placed in the walls at proper 
places, for ventilation. The large doors are on the side, 
»Dd teams witt loads Teach the Boor of the SBOond story 
by means of a bank or wharf made for the purpose. Sta- 
tionary horse-powers, mostly on the lever principle, re- 
quiring IVom Stc to six horses fbr threshing grain, are 
generally placed in the hasement, or in an adjoiuliig 
buDdiug. fo some instances these poirers are being dis- 
placed by the endlets-chaln powers, which occnpy much 
leas space, and are worked by one or two horsei. The 
stalls are very warm — or can be made so — and in winter 
afford eicellent quarters for the aninula. In warm 
weather, they may be cool, but In some instances there 
appeared to be ituufficlent ventilation. The fodder is 
thrown from the upper itory through scuttles or holes 
fn the floor, and Is then distributed to tlie various ani- 

The practice of pitching hay fVom the load by horse- 
power, prerails on many farms in Bucks county. The 

apparatus for this operation consists of a strong fork, to 
which Is attached a rope passing over a pulley fastened 
to Q» ridgepole of the bam, and thence over another 

pulley attached to the barn-floor. A horse is attached 
to the lower end of the rope and when the fork is plunged 
into the hay be raises it by pulling. The balance of the 
fork when loaded is preserved by a snwU rope, attadied 
t« the end of the handle, and held by a man on the floor, 
who by slacking the bold of tlie rope, permits the fork 
to discbai^ itaelf, when it has reached itadestioed place. 
By this contrivance the hay Is readily r^sed to the high- 
est parts of the bam. A man, with a boy to lead the 
horse, can pitch six tons of bay In an hour, — raising it 
fifteen to twenty feet. 

M*SAGKHEST OF HjHOKB. — The general plan of tbo 
bams is tolerably convenient, as reopects most of the ar- 
rangemcnls; but Ibey diSTer in some important features 
from the plan which ts most approved in some other 
sections, especially as to the accommodations for animals 
and the disposition which is made of the mannre. The 
stalls are dally cleaned, and the masare is thrown into 
the yard. The imprei^on of a Kew-Goglander, accns- 
tomed to depodcing manure in a collar under tlie haro, 
would l>e that this exposure of that suhstanoe, spread 
about as it is over the yard, would bo productive of great 
loss. It ii probable that some loss does take placeunder 
these circumstances, but to a less extent than would oc- 
cur if It were not for the fact that the manure la mixed 
In the yard with a large quantity of vegetable matter. 
Wheat ii lai^ly grown on many of tbe Pennsylvania 
farms, and the straw is at intervals spread orerthc yard, 
and is trodden In by tbe slock with the mannre tVom the 
stalls, which is also q>read about Uk yard. Thiaabsorba 


" Clyde," the property of Mn. Jive Wasd, Mftrk- 
bam, Canadft West, — received Ibe first premium in the 
dam of foreign draft-horses, at the ebow of the N. T. 
State Ag. Soc. ID 1848, and ■ certiflcatc m the best tn the 
Bune claaa, at the show of 1861. Be Is of the Clydes- 
dale breed, so celebrated In ScotUnd, as drafl-horsei. ' 

Be is 

2,000 Ibc. — and evldentlir possesses great strength, as ia 
indicated by bis capacity of chest, muscular riiiartersaiid 
close jointed , unewy limbs. The chief defect in his sbape 
is a boUow over bis loins, nhicb is Bhown by tha figure. 
The figure, however, fails U> giro an idea of the massive 
and imposing appearance of the borae, being com* 

I borao of great size — havii^ wcigiied npwards of paratively loo small and light lo the body. 

the Ii<]uid and prevents the waete of gnKs from the 
manure. The nrine voided by the animftls io the stalls 
is partly taken np by the litter nritb which they are (or 
roajr be) atnindaotly supplied, pertly soaks Into the 
gronnd, (the animals generally Etandlog on the ground 
witbont any mtervening floor) and jiartly rung Into the 
yard. But witb all practicable atl^ntion, there is more 
waste of thU valuable liquid than there is where the 
animals are kept over cellars into which the manure and 
urine fUls, and is there mixed with muck, litter. Sec., 
to any neccemry extent. In nirao instances, it was no- 
ticed that there was a drrinage of the liquid from the 
yards—the ixlracl of the manure being thus carried in- 
to the highway, or astroara, or to some neighboring field 
where it rendered a smnll portion of the soil too rich to 
give good crops. This U scarcely avoidable where there 
are no means of governing tbe quantity of water which 
goes into tbe yard. In seasons of abundant rain more 
water will accumnlate in the yards, unleu It is allowed 
to run away, than is useful for the proper rotting of the 
tninure. For this reason a sheltered depostory, where 
Just the requisite amount of moisture could at all times 
be secured, and where it would be protected from wash- 
ing, and IVom exhalation, would be preferable. 

But It will perhaps be argued, that It is necessary to 
spread the straw and corn. stalks, which are lo be con. 
verted Intomsnnre, over the yard, In order that tbey 
may be broken np and made thort by the tresd of stnclt 
— Ihat Jf the llltpr were thrown into a miM with the 
mannre, It would not rot well, »nd hence could not be 
readily moved with the fork or shovel. The aniiver to 
this is, that it is better (o cut tbe straw and corn.slalki 
with a machine. This Is readily and cheaply done by 

the ajjplicaliOQ of horse power, and is the quickest and 
best wBy of canverling these articles into manure. Thoy 
absorb more liquid when cut, mix better wilb the manure, 
and offer no Impediment to its being worked over for 
composting, or loaded for carrying to the field. 'Vt'heD 
xpreud in the yard, and uncut, these substances decay 
qloivly, and even when deposited on the wheat or com- 
field, are often in so rough a slate as to obstruct theope- 
rations of the plow and harrow. This objection would 
be done away by passing the materials through a cuttiog 

The common practice In the section of which we are 
speaking, Is to spread the maaure on tbe surface of the 
ground, for wheat and com, and plow it in three and a 
half to fonr Inches deep— a very suitable deplhfur bury- 
ing mannre, unquestionably, though It can scarcely be 
doubted that it wonid be useful to loosen the soil, which 
is of a tenacious tendency, to a greater depth. We re 
marked in a previous chapter, that the land here is seK 
dom plowed deeper than five inches. It seemed lo bo 
tbo almost universal te^ttimony, that all experiments at 
a greater depth bad resulted injuriously — that the mix- 
ing of (he underlying clay with the surface soil, tends 
to sterility. Some examples of this kind were dclniled 
lo ui, by persons whom we regard as entirely reliable; 
but no trials at subaoiling, so far aswc learned, had been 
made in this district. It would be highly desirable to 
ascertain what would be the effect of loosening this clay- 
ey stratum, thns opening it in some degree, lo the action 
of the air, and giving to tbe roots of plants a wider ex- 

It should have been mentioned when speaking of the 
course of cropping, that ll Is osnal to apply about firiy 




buflheU of lime, freah from the kiln, to the acre, once in 
six or aeven years. This costs ten cents per bashel. 
Experience, we arc assured, lias demonstrated the use- 
falness of this application, though tho specific effect of 
the lime may nut be fully known. 

Fences.— These are generally made of posts and rails. 
White cedar affords the best rails j white oak is much 
used for posts. Cedar rails will last forty years, oak 
posts twelve years. The rails cost nine dollars per hun- 
dred—the posts the same. The cost of the fence when 
set, is fifty cents per pannel, of eleven feet — four rails 
to the pannel. 

Frequent attempts have been made to raise hedges of 
various kinds of thorn. These attempts have mostly 
failed. The thorns do not grow well, and their proper 
management in hedge form is often neglected. It is the 
opinion, however, of judicious farmers, that such post 
and rail fence as has been described, is on the whole, 
most economical — that the interest on the additional 
'sum which a hedge, or some more permanent fence 
would cost, would more than support a fence of the for- 
mer material. Most of the fences here are well put up, 
present rather a neat appearance, occupy comparative- 
ly little ground, and form a good barrier against stock. 

HoBSES. — The horses api>ear to partake in a great de- 
gree, of the character of the Dutch stock, introduced by 
the early emigrants to this district. They seem to do 
tolerably well for common farm purposes. They are 
large, and throw so much weight into the collar, that 
they readily carry large loads. But in general they are 
not quite the right kind of animal even for draft. Their 
defects are, being frequently long in the back, not well 
ribbed up, inclined to be pot-bellied, long-jointed, with 
a laxness of tendon and muscle which unfits them for 
endurance. They tend to carry much flesh, and when 
in high order, as they often are, make a showy appear- 
ance, and please the eye of the cursory observer. There 
are exceptions to this description, and animals may be 
found which are comparatively free from these defects. 

In a few instances we met with horses begotten by the 
noted Norman horse imported and owned by Edward 
Harris, Esq., .of Moore8t<»wn, New- Jersey. They are 
generally excellent, asfkrm horses,— much more strongly 
made, and of better action than the Dutch stock. A 
general cross with such a horse as Mr. Harris's, would 
be a great improvement in those parts of Pennsylvania 
which wo visited. 

Cattle. — Most of the cattle which we saw, appeared 
to be of mixed blood, and mixed too, Avithout regard to 
any particular rules or object. In some neighborhoods 
the blood of the Short-horn was very obWous. On some 
farms the full bloods of that breed had been tried— the 
stock having been obtained from the herds of Messrs. 
Powell, Wolbkrt. Cope, and others. The general tes- 
timony was that they were not sufficiently hardy, and 
had not, on the whole, manifested any superiority for the 
dairy. Some herds of cows were met with, which were 
a cross of the Short-horn with other stocks, whose dairy 
properties^were evidently good. As examples, we might 
name those of Messrs. John Fbaster, James C, David, 
and Adriah Cornell, Jr„ near Newtown, Bucks coun- 
ty. Mention was made of the latter in a former chapter. 

These men have bred then- cows with an object. That 
object is a good yield of butter, annually, and a profitable 
return of the animal in the shape of beef at last. They 
have already attained a very creditable success, and by 
continuing a judicious course, this success will be in- 
creased. Mr. Jambs C. Cornell keeps twenty cows, 
and they average over 200 hundred pounds of butter 
each, in a year, besides the new milk and cream used in 
a family of fourteen persons. His cows are weil-shaped, 
hardy, and thrifty, but have not the extreme tendency 
to fatten which would iiyure or destroy their value for 
the dairy. He has a cow which is half Aldemey and 
half Holstein, which has given 15J pounds of butter « 
week, on grass feed. 

Swine. — A variety called the " Chester county breed" 
prevails in some neighborhoods. It is a white hog, of 
enormous frame, loosely put together, a thick, heavy 
jlo'P ear, large tail, too heavy for the animal to curl, and 
a general character indicating coarse quality of flesh. 
The animal is not destitute of fattening properties, and 
at eighteen to twenty-four months old, not unfrequenUy 
attains the weight of 600 pounds, dressed. But it Is 
often the case that their disproportion and looseness of 
structure is such that they break down, and become al- 
most totally helpless, with not more than two-thirds this 
weight. The variety appeared to be losing favor with 
many farmers. The Berkshire, and what appears to be 
a cross of the Leicester breed, under the name of the 
** Dutchess county hog," was seen on several farms. 
Either of the latter is far preferable to the former. 

Sheep. — Comparatively few sheep are kept in the 
section we passed through, the farmers in general deem- 
ing thein less profitable than cows. Those which are 
kept, are of the breeds adapted to mutton. The Lei- 
cesters, Cotswolds, and South-Downs,, are occasionally 
met. Mr. Aabon Clement, of Philapelphia, exhibited 
some good specimens of these. The Broad-tailed Afri- 
can sheep were introduced into Pennsylvania from Tunis, 
by Col. Pickering, while Secretary of State, upwards 
of sixty years ago. Traces of their blood are still dis- 
tinctly visible in the sheep of this section. They were a 
hardy race, and the first crosses with the common stock 
were thought to be particularly valuable as early lambs 
for market. But the objections to the stock were, that 
they were not prolific, and that the fat tended to accu- 
mulate chiefly on the outside of the rump, and more 
than any whereelse, on the tail, which, in the fuUbloods, 
sometimes became eight or ten inches wide, and weigh- 
ed ten pounds or upwards. 

It is reasonable to believe that in the vicinity of a large 
city, like that of Philadelphia, there are fkrms on which 
mutton might be fattened to good advantage ; and with 
the facilities of communication by railroad, which are 
now becoming extensive in Pennsylvania, an increased 
attention will be profitably devoted to this branch of bu- 

The Shepherd's Dog.— Without the shepherd's dog 
the whole of the mountainous land in Scotland would 
not be worth sixpence. It would require more hands to 
manage a flock of sheep, gather them from the hills, 
force them into houses and folds, and drive them to mar- 
kets, than tlie profits of tho whole stock would be capa- 
ble of maintaining. 




fifingnlar Dlseaso ia Oattle. 

Editors Cultivator — Having met with a disease in 
calves and young cattle, which I have not heard spoken 
of J or seen descrihed in any farming work, I havn con- 
cluded to send you a description of it, in liopes some 
of your subscribers may give us some further iufor- 
mation on its cause, cure, or a prevention. About 
a year from last August, three of my Ayrshires calves, 
some four or five months old, that had been weaned 
from the cows and were kept iu a pasture lot adjoining 
the farm-house and fed on milk twice a day. were at- 
tacked, apparently, with cold, accompanied by a bad 
cough. I physicked them with sulphur, shifted them in a 
lot of fine young grass, with a shed for them to go un- 
der during the heat of the day or when it rained, gave 
them fresh milk or water to drink as they choose; but 
all to no effect, as they continued to cough as much as 
ever, and two of them became very thin ; the other ap- 
peared to have a good appetite and kept fat. One of 
the lean ones died. I bad it opened, and in its bronchos 
or windpipe, I found nearly half a pint of thin whiteworms, 
somewhat similar to the gap-worms in fowls, having five 
instead of two trunks, much longer bodies, about the 
thickness of a gap- worm, but white instead of being red 
as the gap- worm is. From the position in which I found 
them, they appeared to have collected together in a 
mass or bunch, and to have strangled the animal. They 
were perfectly alive when I examined the calf some 
hours after its death, and continued to move about while 
I was examining them under the miscroscope. With 
one of the remaining calves I attempted to remove or 
loosen the worms, as you do the gap- worms in poultry, 
but neither I nor my assistant succeeded in getting the 
tongue far enough out to see the aperture of the wind- 
pipe, so wc gave it up; but a butcher afterwards told 
me there would have been no difficulty in doing it, if we 
had pulled the tongue out on one side of the mouth, 
and then the bronchus or windpipe might have been 
cleaned out with a large feather. The two other calves 
died about a week after the first, on the same night, 
and upon examining them, I found about the samequan- 
ty of similar worms In the bronchus of the lean one. 
The fat one had very few worms in its bronchus, but up- 
on examining its Inngs I found quite a number through- 
out the air vessels of the lungs. 

I have before this lost cattle, I have no doubt, with 
the same disease, (Vom the cough and other symtoms 
being precisely similar, but considering it in them an in- 
fianunation of the lungs, I never thought of examining 
their bronchus or windpipes, but being in the habit of 
operating on poultry for the gaps, I thought this might 
be somewhat of a similar disease, and was thereby led 
to the examination. 

The only manner in which I could account for the dis- 
ease in these calves, was from their having inhaled some 
minute insects which had been brod in the milk, which 
was left standing in the tun, and that the eggs of these 
animals had turned into these worms, as I liad fi-equent- 
ly observed myriads of almost imperceptible flies hover- 
ing over the tub in which the milk was poured for the 
calves. So this summer I raised four calves in the same 
lot, but took the precaution to have ihsm fed f^om pails 

which were removed and^wasbed out as soon as the calves 
bad fed. and they had nothing of the gap or bronchial 

In page 805 of the 1st. vol. of your new series of the 
Cultivator, you publbbed an article on the subject of 
gapes in chickens, &c., since which time I have practic- 
ed the mode there described, on chickens, turkeys, and 
goslings, with perfect success, and am of opinion, that if 
you make use of a feather of an appropriate size, to the 
bird to be operated on, and go leisurely and carefully to 
work, you will never fail to cure the fowl. With some 
of my goslings they were so large that I had to splice two 
quills together, making them over a foot long, to enable 
me to reach the bottom af the windpipe, and I then re- 
moved twelve large gap- worms from each of them. My 
ducks have never had the gapes; whether ducks are ob* 
noxious to that disease, I cannot say. 

Herewith I send yon a drawing of the bronchial worn 
talten from the calf's windpipe, as it appears when mag- 
nified ; three of the trunks or tubes are filled with eggs, 
similar to the female gap- worm. I remain yours, Ice. 
Charlss F. Mortos. MortonvilU, Orange Co., N. F., 
Nov. 26, 1851. 


Agzioaltnral Soonomy. 

Do our agriculturists study economy as attentively as 
they ought to do? I do not mean economy in the ordi- 
nary sense — in expenditures, saving every cent they can, 
and stinting supplie*. I mean the economy of manage- 
ment. True economy adapts means to ends, applying no 
more or less of the one than is necessary for the comple- 
tion of the other. For example, ten acres of land well 
prepared and thoroughly tilled, will produce five hun- 
dred bushels of corn. The economical farmer, there- 
fore, who intends to produce that amount of corn, will 
not nee twenty acres of poorly prepared, and badly till- 
ed land; to accomplish it; because the same amount of 
crop will require more labor on twenty acres, in plowing 
and tilling, however imperfectly performed, than it will 
on ten acres, however well it shall be tilled and prepar* 
ed. Again, if a farmer have an hundred loads of ma- 
nure only, if he study economy, he will rather apply it 
all to a small piece of land, and thus manure it well, 
than to a large piece, and thus manure it very imperfectly ; 
because, in the former case, it will require less labor to 
produce a given amount of crop, than in the latter. 
Again, a farmer that has a given amount of manure, will 
apply it in snfiScient quantity to as much land only as it 
will supply with sufficient fertilization, and thus, by an- 
nually improving a small piece, at length render the 
whole fertile. So, also, the owner of a large tract of 
land will attempt to cultivate only just so much of it at 




bis forces can cultivate thoroughly. Two farmers, each 
with the same number of acres, and the same amount of 
labor, shall show very different balance sheets at the end 
of the year, the one footing up $1,000 profits, and the 
other $500, simply because the one studies economy in 
the application of means to ends, and the other takes no 
thought of the matter. 

One great fault of many ikrmers may be found in a 
peculiar passion for Urge fields. How much wheat will 
you put in this fall? 250 acres, 500 acres, Slc. The ques- 
tion should be, how much wheat will you produce this 
year, and the passion should be for the large yield, in- 
stead of the large surface seeded. The New-England 
farmers differ from ouf middle and northern state far- 
mers in this. The former study economy in all things. 
They cultivate no more land than they can cultivate well. 
They do not weaken the result of their forces by diffu- 
sion, but strengthen them by concentration. 

There is much want of economy also, and much loss, 
in not closely attending to times and seasons. We con- 
tinually hear farmers complaining that they have not yet 
got their land prepared for fall seeding, and now the 
weather will not admit of its preparation ; one has not 
finished planting his corn yet; another had not secured 
his harvest before the rain set in, and it is beginning to 
sprout. As a general rule, there is a time and a season 
for every thing to be done on a farm, and those who are 
late in any thing, must expect to suffer the consequen- 
ces. To study the economy of times and seasons, is as 
much a part of the science of agriculture, as is the pro- 
per adaptation of means to ends j and both are as neces- 
lary to success in farming, as a correct application of 
skill in mechanics is necessary to success in any mechan- 
ical employment. Many of our farmers seem to sleep 
all winter, wake up in the spring, late or early, as it 
happens, and go to work when the humor moves them, 
without system or forethought, go ahead as chance may 
lead through the summer, and in the fall grumble at the 
ikilure of their crops from unfavorable seasons. If any 
one takes this to himself, let him, — I mean it for him. 
Ah Ons£&VEE. 


Hanresting Com. 

Eds. GutTivATOR — On looking over the pages of the 
Cultivator for September, I noticed an article on " Har- 
vesting Indian Com." The subject is one of great Im- 
poirtance, and comparatively little understood. 

With a view to more light, I have conducted a few 
experiments with some degree of care and accuracy, al- 
though upon a limited scale. Fearing some of the nu- 
merous young farmers who look to the Cultivator for 
advice, may be led to the belief that Mr. Oliver Moore, 
in an article in the October No., has proved that corn 
left to ripen in a natural, or uncut state, produced the 
greatest weight of grain, I send you the result of my ex- 
periments thus far, and intend to pursue them farther as 
opportunity presents. 

About the middle of September, when the corn had 
done growing, and the ends and edges of the leaves be- 
gan to turn brown, I selected a place of uniform appear- 
ance in soil, size, and ripeness. I then proceeded to cut 
close to the gronnd across five rows, taking two hills 

from each, and placing them together in an upright po- 
sition, binding the tops tightly. Next, topped, or cut 
the stalks from an equal number of hills in the same 
rows. And lastly, left two hills natural, in each of the 
same rows, making thirty hills in all, or ten of each kind. 
On the 7th of November I husked and carefully weighed 
each parcel, separately, with the following result : 

10 bilU — cut close lo grouiMl 13 lb«. 13 oz. 

10 bill*— staJlu cut off above the ear, 13 Ibt.* 6 ox. 

10 hills— led ualural, 121bt. 13 oz. 

This experiment was made in 1849, and in the follow- 
ing autumn I made one similar in every respect, except 
the number of hills, which were double the former^ and 
the time of cutting being the 10th of September. Time 
of husking being ali^o about twenty days earlier. Re- 
sult as follows: 

20 hills—cul close to crouud, 20 Ibe. 14 oz 

20 hill»— sialks lopped, 26 lbs. 

20 hillu— left imturul 25Ibt. 

I find the following note in my experiment book, made 
at the time of husking — " Again, as last year, the corn 
cut and put in stook, is much the soundest, and in the 
best condition.^' 

It will be perceived that the experiment of Mr. Moork 
and the above, do not agree — he having arrived at the 
conclusion that '' the most corn will be produced by let- 
ting the com ripen in the order of nature." While lam 
about ready to conclude that the theory of Liebig is 
correct, that '' all plants left in a natural state to m^ 
ture their seed, give back to the earth in the form of ex- 
crementitious matter, a portion of their seed-forming 
substance, thereby diminishing the weight of the graia 
or seed," yet if the stalk be severed before the down- 
ward flow of this substance shall have commenced, ii 
must be retained either in the stalk or the grain, or per- 
haps in both. 

The above experiments show clearly a greater weight 
of grain on cutting near the ground, in the first instance, 
of nearly half a pound, over that topped, and just a 
pound more than that left natural. In the second, only 
two ounces short of four pounds over that topped, and 
two ounces short of five pounds over that left natural. 
That left in a natural state weighing least each time. It 
is my intention to continue the experiment farther, and 
double the number of hills each time. I should have 
done so this fall, had I not been absent during the corn 
cutting season. G. W. Coffix. jSmenia, Nov. 8, 1851. 


On the Culture of the Onion. 

Ens. Cultivator — ^As I have devoted some of my time 
to the cultivation of the onion, this last season, I have 
thought it to be an act of kindness to give your numer- 
ous readers a short sketch of the success I had in rais- 
ing them. I made choice of a piece of wheat stubble in 
the spring, and hauled on leached ashes about two inch- 
es thick. Then I hauled on barn-yard manure, at the 
rate of 40 loads to the acre. After this I plowed it 
about eight inches deep, about the last week in May. On 
the second day of June, after I had it leveled off pretty 
well, I made shallow drills with the hoe, one foot apart, 
and drilled the seed therein, and covered it with a rake. 
About two weeks after the plants wore up, I thinned 
them out to six Inches from plant to plant. Shortly afl 
ter I weeded them, and put on rotted and half-rotted 


oiKiure, M K top-dm^ng, between tbe pUnU tud be- 
tweeo Ibe roits, to (lie depth of about ono inch. I weed- 
ed tbem once more after the top-dresaiiig was put on. 
The onioiu grew to the Mtonishment of «11 (hoie irho 
cast tbeir eyes upon Ihem, and tarned out M the rate 
of two hundred busbelii per acre, some of whicli DicasLtr- 
ed fonrteeu inche« in eiicutnfi-'reiice. Thcj- sell foi- six 
■hillings per bushel, which you see would net $50 from 
one acre. Johx Pibhl. Brulolvitle, O., Oct. 25, ISfil. 

Onuunental Ponlbry. 

In nutny ^tuaUoui tbere U an object dlsUoct from po- 
caniar; proQt,lQ keepingaTariet; of poultry. This ob- 
ject is the oToameDt they add to the premises, end tbe 
pleasant interest and instniction wbich their churocters 
and habit* afford. The cooutry- seat ortbege&tlcmanof 
wealth, cannot be considered complete without Ibis sp- 
pendage. One teasoa tiby il is so seldom found in this 
country is, probably, the want of proper iDforaiatioa in 
regard to the raatugemeat of this kind oT stock. A lead- 
lag cause of the disappoinliueDt aud failure of those who 
hare attempted to forni collections, hoi been the difficul- 
ty of preserving the health of tbe blrda. 

The writer htid lately tbe opportunity of examining tbe 
poidtry-establishmentorMr. JouM GtLKS, of Providence, 
R. I., a few remarks in regard to which, as it is one of 
the most noted in tbe country, may benefit the public. 

We noticed in Mr. Giles' yards, the following qtecies 
and varieties; 

Of the Gallut gtntu, (fowls,)— Cochin. Cliina, Black 
Spanish, Surrey, Speckled Dorking, White Dorking, 
Black BanUm, Wbite Silk Cliina BanlAin, Sebright Ban- 
tAm. Fhtatanli — Silver, Golden, Ring-necked, White, 
Bohemian, Gtt$t — Indian, or Chinese, Canadian, or 
wild, Egyptian, Bcmacle, Brunt, Snow-goose. Ducfci — 
Aylesbury, Ronen, Wbtle top-knot, wild .Mallard, wild 
Black, Gjdwall, Bed.beaded Pochard, Tufted Pochard, 
PtntAll, Whistling, Wood, or Summer,. Guernsey Wid- 
geon, Summer Teal, Penguin. Pigioni — ten varieties. 
Partridge, (Ruffed Qtoum,) and QiiaU. 

Altogether, it is the most beautiful collection we have 
ever seen. Particularly worthy of note, was the health. 
fuIneBS of the stock, their qulctnde, and evident enjoy- 
ment — indicating that all the reqaistea of their natare 
were provided for them. 

The great secret of Mr. Giles' succcsi is care. Strict 
attention is paid that each fowl is placed in a sltuatton 
adapted to its wants. Ifthc weather Is too hot, it can re- 
sort to cool shades; if too cold, it can find aheltur in 
apartments which furnish a congenial temperature. Tlie 
aqnatic tribes can gratiiy their instinct and brighten their 
plumage by a douse In tbe pureit water ; aud tbo balf- 
rcclaimed land species can enjoy tbe secrecy afforded by 
shrubbery and trees. 

Two great points in the general management, are cUan- 
lintu and wholaomt air. To secnre these, all the 
apartments are thoroughly plastered inside, and are pro- 
vided with openings through tbe roof (which can be 
closed at pleasure) for ventilation. The Imttom isparth, 
the Burfaoo of which is frequently renewed by a fresh 
layer. The manure is Bwe]it from each apartment every 
day, and a thorough airing is given whenever the weather 
will justify it, which prevents the origination of noxioni 
gaaes. The plastering prevents the harboring of lice, 
which at« rrequently so li^urious to fowls; but ihonld It 
be necessary, a thorough fum^tlon of tbe spartmeirta, 
with sulphar or tobacco, can be given, 

Wlthsuch conveniencesnnd precautions, Mr. QiLU has 
been little troubled with diseases among his fowls. That 
malignant and contagious disease called roup, hat some- 
times made its appearance among them, having been 
contracted by specimens taken to poultry exhibitions, 
or from diseased subjects being inadvertently introduced 
into the yard. Fowls that are attacked with roup, should 
at once be taken away from others. The bead should 
be ftequently washed with castile soap-suds, and cathar- 
tic medicines, as castor oil, and sulphur, have been ad- 
ministered with apparent sqcccbs. 

The hiner yard Ibr the poultry, contains about a quae. 





ter of an acre, of which thirty feet square in water. In 
addition to this, most of the fowls have a range in ad- 
Joining enclosures, containing from two to three acres. 
The water for the goose and duck-pond is supplied hy a 
pump; worked by a steam engine, which furnishes the mo- 
tive power for a worsted factory belonging to Mr. Giles. 
The pond is walled around the sides^ and the ground 
for several feet from the water is paved, which prevents 
the formation of mud, and keeps the pond and the fowls 
clean. The water is five feet deep, and gold-fish are 
bred in it in great numbers. 

The mode of feeding adopted by Mr. Giles, is to give, 
on alternate days, Indian corn, buckwheat, millet, hemp- 
seed, and barley. Occasionally the fowls are fed witii 
equal parts of corn-meal and shorts, with a little sulphur 

Mr. Giles has taken great pains in obtaining his stock, 
and is very particular in regard to the purity of the dif- 
ferent kinds. Many of his choicest specimens were ob- 
tained direct from Messrs. Baker, of London, who are 
probably the most noted breeders and dealers in orna- 
mental poultry in Europe. 

The Boston Poultry Show. 

The annual exhibition of the New-England Society 
fbr the Improvement of Poultry, took place at Boston 
<m the 11th to the i4th of 2?ovembcr last. The show 
was much inferior in respect to numbers, to the shows 
of the two previous years, and the number of varieties 
was also somewhat less than on those occasions. The 
whole number of specimens exhibited, is stated by the 
secretary to have been 2,468, Of the Gallus genos, the 
large Asiatic fowls, as heretofore, took the lead. This 
tribe has a general tendency to coarseness and too much 
offal; but the specimens exhibited, showed considerable 
Improvement in symmetry over those presented at the 
former shows. It is practicable to produce a good stock 
from this tribe, by careful selection for several genera- 
tions. The (white) fowls exhibited by A. A. Andrews 
and Dr. E. Wight, Boston, those by A. White, East- 
Randolph, and those of the '* Forbes stock" exhibited 
by Mr. Brackett, Newton, showed that an important 
advance has already been made in this direction. 

Of Spanish fowls, some really splendid specimens 

were exhibited by J. P. Childs, of Woonsocket, R. I. 

The history of this stock, as given by Mr. €. is, that 

they were brought from near Bristol, England, by John 

Fricker. in 1850. who stuted that he knew them to have 

been bred for more than fifty years, without crossing. 
They are beautiful in form, and of larger size, in 
general, than any Spanish fowls we have before seen — 
the hens weighing upwards of six pounds each, and the 
cocks large in proportion. 

Very handsome Dorkings were shown by Dr. Wight 
and A. A. Andrews, Boston; Guelderknds,— « good 
sized, ravcn*black fowl, destitute of comb, — ^by H. L. 
Devereux. Boston; Bolton Gmys, or Creoles, by George 
Dorr, Dorchester, and John F. Brown, Woonsocket, 
R. I.; good game fowls by O. and S. Sonlhwick, Danl 
vers.O. M. Stacy, and E. Varney.Lynn; Golden Polands 
(or top-knots) by W. B. Parsons, Rockport — very 
handsome; Sebright Bantams. — good except too large 
in size for that variety, — by Chas. Sampson, Boston. 

There were good specimens of turkeys, geese, (the 
Bremen best and most numerous,) ducks, and pigeons; 
tut nothing particularly rare was noted in these classes. 

liOng-IiUuid Ziaiids. 

In the central part of Long-Island, there are large 
tracts of land which have never been brought into culti- 
vation. Public attention has lately been turned con^ 
siderably towards these lands, through the infiuence of 
Dr. E. F. Peck, of Brooklyn, who is the proprietor of 
several thousand acres, situated io the vicinity of Lake- 
ville, on the L. I. rail-road. 

These tracts have formerly been deemed of very low 
value ; but no reason exists why they are not naturally 
as valuable for farming purposes as the coast lands which 
lie on each side of them, and only four or five miles dis- 
tant, at Smithtown«nd Islip, where farms are held at 
a hundred dollars an acre. The soil is of similar com- 
position, and the indigenous vegetation was the same. 
The writer speaks f^om personal observation, having ex- 
amined the lands in November last. If it is claimed 
that the shore lands have an advantage in respect to the 
facilities for obtaining materials, (as fish, sea- weed, &c.) 
for manure, it may be replied that this is more than 
counterbalanced by the advantage of being near the rail- 
road, which is the main avenue of communication. In 
fkct the only real or apparent advantage hi the former 
case, is that resulting fVom the different social circum- 
stances of the two neighborhoods. On the coast are villages, 
with the various appurtenances of old settlements, while 
on the LakeviUe tract, settlement has but Just com- 
menced. But it is probable that this state of things will 
continue long, as. In addition to equal agricultund ad- 
vantages, the Lakeville lands present good inducementa 
for city people to furnish themselves with country resi- 
dences. They can be reached in about two hours from 
New-Tork or Brooklyn. The railroad divides the tract 
nearly in the centre, north and south, and it is also 
nearly in the centre of the island, in the same direction. 
Near this central line is an elevated ridge, which forma 
the height of land between the north and south coasts. 
The top of a dwelling of two stories high, placed on this 
ridge, would command a view of both shores, either 
of which could be reached In an easy drive of five miles. 
)f ear the ridge alluded to, and within a mile and a-half 
of the railroad station at Lakeville, is Ronkonkoma 
lake, a beautiful sheet of water, nearly circular in form, 
and about a mile across. The water is perfectly clear 
and sweet, and abounds with fish, (red perch) ; the bot- 
tom IS hard and pebbly ; the shores, free from marshes, 
gently shelving to the water, with a beach, which, with 
but little labor, would form one of the lileasantest walks, 
or carriage drives, entirely round the lake. The level 
of the lake is very uniform, being but little aflbcted by 
rain or drouth. 

Few sections can boast of such attractive sites for rural 
dwellings, as the vicinity of this lake affords. There is 
sufficient in the surface of the ground, to ad- 
mit of much beauty being imparted to the landscape by 
tasteful cultivation and improvement. The healthful- 
ness of the location is undoubted, as the longevity of 
the inhabitants of Long-Island is proverbial ; and when 
a beginning is once made, and this cannot be long de- 
ferred, which sliall constitute the nucleus of a good 

neighborhood, these advantages will be highly appre- 


BnngarAD boll tnd co*; the property of R. L. Colt, 
Pkteraon, K. J., — received premlnm* In the cUai of 
foreign alock at the ahoir oT the N. T. Stftte Ag. Soc., 
1861, Tlio« cittle etlilently belong to a »<ry distinct 
breed — ire ItkTe teen none wblcb appeared to be more 
»a — and bave qualities wbtch would render them de- 
tlrable in certain locatiuna. Tbelr InlrodQcllan to thin 

coantry la an experiment. Tor which Mr. Cott la entitled 
to credit, Tbey are hardy, and show mncb rattening 
properly. Tbc flgurei herewith given do not give aa 
fltTorablo an impreulon In regard to the animala, aathey 
arc entitled to. That of the bull Ii fair, but the cov 
has a rongh wild expreaaton which does not belong to 

Dafng Booaa ibr BlaniiTe. 

Ena. Cdltitatob — Can yon, or any of your correa- 
pondenlj tell oa how to uie bonei and homa to the beat 
advantage, In tbe absence of all milla for grinding tbem? 
D. J. BiABoaur. Poriagt to., Ohio, Nov. 1S51. 

Bonea are naed in three waya — lat. By cracking tbem 
with a aledge Into fnigmenta from half an inch to an Inch 
In length; 2d. By grinding into powder; and 8d. By 
dlaolving fn nilpfaaric add. The flrat forma • durable 
mannre, bat aa the fivgmonta diaaolve alowly, it la the 
least powerfo] of the three. Tbe latter, by completely 
diaaolring tbe bones, rendera tbe aame amount several 
timea more active and powerAil than even by grinding to 

On page62of tbe Cultivator tbrlSSl, our correspond- 
Bnt wDl find a descriiAion of the mode of dissolving bonea 
by sulphuric acid, bearing Id mind that as great heat ii 
prodncod by the mixing of the acid with water, it must 
be added gradually by succeaaive portions at Interrala of 
some hours. The acid, bought by the carboy (or large 
bottles) will cost from 2i to 3 cents per pound, the ex- 
pense of which will be well remunerated by the great 
fertilizing power of the mannre. But in places quite 
remote from targe cities, it may be hard to obtain; la 
(ocb cases, one of tbe following ntw methods may be 
tried, and nwy by esperiencc prove valuable; — 

Tbe Qrstis tttamiixf, as described by Frof. Norton on 
page 270 of our last volume, and which is probably the 
cheapest mode for dissolving large qnantitlcs. Prof. 
Norton has nuce informed ns that snfllcient beat cannot 

be obtained with less than a preasore of SO lbs. on the 

square inch, or two gtrao^horea. 

The second mode, is by /trmtiifafian. Thia is de- 
scribed on page S3 of oar last volume. It has as yet 
been but little tried, but if It can bosuccesal^illy rednccd 
to practice, it may possibly prove tbe most conveiJcot 
and che^ mode of reducing them to powder, under or- 
dinary drcumsUoces. 

Livi BABTI.ETT, of Wsmer, M. H., describes in the 
Journal of Jgriculturt, various mode* by which bo bai> 
prepared bones for manure. He has come to tbe con- 
clasion that the best way is to boil the bones Ibr a short 
time, and while hot mix them with nnleached ashes, tbe 
whole to be covered with loam or muck to retain the 
heat and absorb the ammonia which will be set ftee. In 
a few montba, tbe bones would be decomposed. 

Potash for Maanra. 

" Wni yon, or some of your correspondents infbnn oi 
if potaob will not answer the place of ashes Id compost, 
if rightly applied— and if it will quit oosll" P. Pkitt. 
Detp Rivtr, Conn., JVor. H. 

Potash would undoubtedly Ibnn a valuable constituent 
Id composts; bnt where tdiet can be bad, they are 
cheaper and better, because tbe cost of extracting tbe 
potash separately is avoided ; and better, because aahes 
contain several other valuable ingredients beudcs potash, 
such for instance aa lime, gypsum, and phosphates. The 
relative coat of asbe* and potash may be ascertained 
to some degree of accuracy by determining first tbe 
cost of a pound of aahes, and a pound of potaah, and 




then findiDg the proportion in the ashes, which in beech 
and oak is about one seventh to one tenth. Whether 
ashes or potash will ^* quit cost'' is only to be deter- 
mined satisfactorily by careful experiments on the particu- 
lar locality and soil under trial, accompanied with ac- 
curate weighing and measuring for some years. 


Sbelter for Fattening Stock. 

At a late discussion by the members of the Highland 
Agricultural Society, in reference to the winter manage- 
ment of stock designed for slaughter, all the speakers 
agreed that it was most economical to shelter the ani- 
mals — ^that this mode cfiected a saving of food, and at 
the same time there was a greater gain of meat. The 
extra gain is doubtless owing to the food which would 
be consumed in keeping up the necessary warmth of the 
animal under exjiosure, being converted into flesh and 
fat, when the animal is placed in a genial temperature. 
One of the speakers, who had fattened many cattle, said 
his rule was to keep them in such a degree of heat, that 
their skins when touched felt damp with perspiration, 
but not so warm as to .make the pei*8piration run from, 
them. A similar rule has been adopted by successful 
feeders in this country. 



in lor Work-Horses. 

Owners of work-horses are too regardless of the advan- 
tages of grinding or crushing the grain fed to them. They 
do not consider that the expenditure of muscular strength 
by the animal, in grinding grain with its jaws, is as great 
a waste of its energies as an equal outlay of strength in 
any other way; and that besides this, there is much waste 
of grain from its being imperfectly digested. When the 
animal is fatigued, he masticates his grain imperfectly, 
and it often passes through the intestines with so little 
change that it germinates and grows well. By crushing 
the grain, this loss would be saved. Another advantage 
would be, that different kinds of grain, as Indian corn 
and oats, when ground, could be mLxed together, and in- 
corporated with cut straw or hay— experience having 
shown that this is the most economical way of feeding. 
Where power mills are not within convenient distance, 
mills which can be worked by horse-power, or by band, 
may be used. Sinclair's will answer well; a horse will 
gi'ind four to six bushels an hour with it, and it can be 
worked ^ith two men. It costs $35. 


Salting Pork for Summer Use. 

Ens. Cultivator — Last fall, I saw in some paper, a 
recommendation which struck me so forcibly as beiog 
good, tliat I tried the experiment, and with perfect suc- 
cess, and I would recommend tliat you publish it in the 
Cultivator. It was as follows: — In packing jiork for sum- 
mcr use, add to each layer of pork, a sprinkling of fine 
ground black pepper. I put about two pounds pepper to 
a barrel of side pork, containing about 400 pounds. I 
have been a house-keeper for nearly forty years, and I 
can truly say that I never had pork keep so sweet and 
fine. We are now using old pork, as good as if it had 
not been put up over a month. O. F. MjkasHALL. 
Wheeler, N. F., Nov. 19, 1861. 

Morgan Horses. 

One of the editors of the Jlmerican jSgricidturitt, 
who attended the Vermont State Fair, makes the follow- 
ing candid and judicious remarks in regard to this stock 
of horses: 


'* One of our correspondents has recently characterised 
the Morgan horse a humbug. We wish there were more 
such agricultural humbugs. He has equally failed in 
characterising this flne family of horse flesh. He has 
evidently drawn his ideas from the throng of miscella- 
neous brutes that have been picked up by jockeys of 
every hue, and palmed ofi* among the unsophisticated 
wherever such customers could be found. Of course, 
there is no such thing as a pure Morgan horse, as their 
origin dates from a single animal, and less than 60 years 
ago. But they have had about the same period to form 
a peculiar race as the ^Tshire cattle, and their success 
is fully equal. They are not homogeneous in form, ap- 
pearance, nor character J but they are enough so to be 
entitled to the possession of a distinctive family name. 
There are wide departures from their general resemblance, 
in many of the progeny that are bred from uncouth 
dams. We have seen some over 16 hands high, and 
some scarcely 12 ; some with steep rumps, big heads, 
and dull eyes, or sluggish gaits, that were called Mor- 
gans, and probably enough were gotten by them, but the 
characteristics of the dam were too potent to be subdued 
by a single cross. In conclusion, we are compelled to 
say, that the true type of the Morgan horse is as desirable 
an animal for the road, whether our taste, or convenienoe, 
or pockets are concerned, as we have ever seen in har- 
ness ; and success say we to the Vermont enterprise, of 
rearing and maintaining a new and highly creditable 
family of horses." 


^Peaoh Iieather,'* and "FumpUn Pap." 

Elizabeth Dishl, BristolviUe, Ohio, sends us the fol- 
lowing recipes*. 

Peach Leather. — ^Takegood ripe peaches— pare and 
cut them in two. Then with a case knife, spread them 
on a clean smooth board, which should first be rubbed 
with butter to prevent the fruit from adhering. They 
should be dried in the sun or a dry-house. Then with your 
knife, pare them off tlie board and roll them into rolls 
for eating in the winter. In this way they may be kept 
from one generation to another. 

PuMPKiM Pap. — ^I take a good ripe pumpkin, cut it 
into strips about an inch thick — cut off the rind, pare out 
the inside, and cut up in pieces about an inch square. 
Then, after having them washed in clean water, I throw 
them into my dinner pot with water enough to pass ofvcr 
them, and boil till done. Then I take them off the fl^ 
and mash them flne, — ^put in a good sised table spoonful 
of salt to a common sized pumpkin ; and mix up a large 
tea-cup full of wheat flour with sweet milk enough to re- 
duce it to the consistency of thick cream. Then I stir it 
in with the pumpkin, hang it over the flre,and let it sim- 
mer about 15 or 20 minutes. While it is thus boiling, I 
fry a small handful of crumbs of bread, with a lump of 
butter about the size of a hcn*s egg, till brown. I then 
stir it in w^ith the pumpkins, and it is ready to be served 

on the table. 


Cultivating Fruit Trees. — The Prairie Farmer in 
speaking of the injury Ho young orchards occasioned. by 
the common practice of sowing them to grain and seed- 
ing to grass, makes this fair comparison: '' Small grains 
in the orchard, are worse than red i)epper in lemonade. 
So we think." He might have added that they are 
about as nourishing to fruit trees, as ten-penny nails 
would be to a horse, or a Scotch-snuff pudding to young 




▲gricidtiind Societies. 

New- York State. — It should be remembered that the 
amiual meeting, for the election of officers, &c., is to be 
held at the Capitol on Wednesday the 21st of this month. 
At the same time there will be an exhibition of Fruits 
at the Society's Rooms, and an exhibition of grain and 
fat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, &c., at Gallup*s Hotel, 
Washington street. 

Niagara. —We are indebted to A. Hobiksok, Presi- 
dent of the Society, for the Report of its doings the past 
year, from which we infer that It is in a flourishing con- 
dition. The officers elect, for 1852, are Morgan Johnson , 
Pres't. — Moses C. Crawsey, Lockport, and J. W. Bab- 
cock, Somerset, V. PresHs. — B. F. Wilson ,Wilaon,Sec* y. 
— John Onderdonk, Wilson, Treasurer. 

MusKiKOBAM Co., O. — ^We have received the annual 
Report of this Society for 1851, from J. L. Cox, Esq., 
Zanesville. Their exhibition in October, appears to have 
been very successful. The following officere were elected 
for the current year; — Cornelius Springer, Pres't. — J. 
Dillon, V. Pres't. — Jas. L. Cox, Treas., and John Bar- 
nard, Sec'y* ^y^ believe these officers reside at Zancs« 


— ♦ * ■ . 

IksRASE iH Calves. — C. £. U., Monroe, Ct. We 
cannot say, from your description, what is the disease 
with which your calves are attacked. The stiffness of 
the hind legs may be caused by constipation of the bowels. 
A strict observance of the animal would determine 
whether the affection rose from this cause, and if it did. 
give castor oil or salts till a copious discharge is produced. 
But the stiffness may be simply rheumatism. In this 
case give the animal, instantly, warm shelter, and warm 
gniel sea-soned highly with ginger. Rub the loins with 
some stimulating liniment — as a mixture of alcohol, 
spirits of turpentine and laudanum. 

Seed-planters. — A. B., Bucks county, Pa. '^ Can 
any one machine be had which will answer for planting 
all kinds of seeds, from carrots and onions, to beans and 
com? Will any ouo plant corn in rows both ways?" 
Emery's seed-planter is provided with apparatus by 
which the small seeds yon mention may be deposited in 
the desired quantity, and at the proper int«rvals, and 
by the necessary variation will drop the larger seeds with 
equal exatness — the change of gear admhtii^ the seed 
to be dr<^ped at spaces of four inches to four feet. 
There is no drill and can be none, which can be depended 
on to plant in rows both ways. Even if each row were 
commenced prceisoly on the same line, and the seed was 
dropped at exactly the distance, the inequalities in the 
surface of the ground, would inrevent the hills being in 
regular squares^ 

Phosphate of Lihe. — ^R. S., New- York. " What 
liavc been the results from the use of phosphate of lime 
in this country?" We have known but few trials of this 
substance, and those were not conducted in such a way 
as to teach reliable inferences. It would be useful to the 
public to learn the results of «ny trials which have been 
made with phosphate of lime, in any form. It is the 

rock phosphate that is referred to^-^not bones— but it is 
desirable to learn theur comparative effects. 

Potatoes from Seed. — -M. L., Hartford, Ct. ** Have 
potatoes I'aised from seed shown any superiority in es- 
caping the rot, or disease 7'^ There is no evidence that 
potatoes raised from seed have in general escaped the 
rot better tlian others. Some varieties have always 
been more hardy than others, and have been more ex- 
empt from disease. The advantage of raising from seed 
is, that varieties are multiplied, and by trying them, the 
hardiest and best may be selected for general propaga« 
tion. A great proportion of those lately produced from 
seed, have shown as strong a tendency to disease as the 
old varieties; a few appear to have less of that tendency, 
but not becatu€ they were raised from seed, and, besides, 
tliey require to be further tried before their constitution 
can be fully pronounced on. 


Report of the ComiissiONRR of Patents foe trs 
Tear 1 850 : Part II . Aoriovltvex. This vohtme com- 
prises near 600 pages of matter in reference to the agri- 
cultural products of this country, and the means of im- 
proving and increasing them. It contains several elabo- 
rate and able articles, besides many brief oommnnications 
of interest and value. Among the former we notice a 
paper on " The Study of Soils," by Dr. Lee, and one on 
" Fruit Culture," by J. J. Thomas. The volume also 
contains much statistical information in regard to crops, 
fisheries, manufactures, foreign and domestic commerce, 
Sec. Wo are sorry to see that the same objections which 
have heretofore been made in reference to the mechani- 
cal execution of the work, the quality of the paper, and 
the arrangement of the matter, apply to this volume. 
They are objections for which no sufficient excuse can be 

The December No. of Harper's Maqakise has the 
portrait and political history of Kossuth — ^a name that 
is on the H(»s of every one, and whose cause is exciting a 
deep symjiathy in every heart that desires freedom for it- 
self and the oppressed. The impartial record of news, 
both American and Foreign, marks this admirable peri- 
odical, and its style of execution commends it *to the 
favorable notice of those who wish to adorn their tables 
as well as inform their minds. 

The Ikterkatiohal for December contains a rare col- 
lection of historical and biograhical infoiTuation. Among 
the most instructive articles are Nanvoo and Descret, an 
account of the Mormon impostor; Windsor Castle and 

its associations, and Calcutta, social, industrial, and poli- 
tical. The portrait and brief notice of the life of Wil- 
LiAic Cullen Bryant, adds another to the valuable list 
of American authors that has embellished and contribut- 
ed to the popularity of former numbers. 

The American Veteriiiart Journal. — We have 
received several numbers of a monthly publication with 
this title, edited by Geo. H. Dadd, M. D., Boston. Dr. D. 
is well known to the public as author of several valuable 
works on the treatment of the diseases of domestic ani- 
mals, and enjoys a high reputation as a veterinary sur- 
geon. The Journal will be the medium of disseminating 
much useful information. Terms, one dollar a year in 





In entering upon the new year, we roost cordially ten- 
der the compliments of the season to all onr readers and 
friends. We congratulate them upon the rich blessings 
of the year that is past^ as well as upon the fair pros- 
pects which the new year opens before them . At no time 
has the profession of Agriculture held so high a rank in 
the public estimation^ as now; and for the reason that 
farmers are every year becoming more intelligent and 
consequently more respected and powerful. We wish 
we could infuse into the mind of every working farmer, 
B just view of his responsibilities, and the dignity of his 
calling. Too many (krmers, as well as their wives, for- 
get the true respectability and independence of their 
pursuit, and instead of seeking to make their rural 
homes the seat of refinement and happiness, seem to 
consider every other sphere of life, more desirable than 
their own. This should not be so, and would not, if 
parents would train up their sons and daughters for 
farmers and farmers' wives, instead of impressing them 
with the idea that the labors of the husbandman and his 
family are only proper to the ox and the blockhead. A 
change, in this respect, is slowly moving onward, and we 
think we see a brighter day dawning — a day when our 
fiirmers, having become wiser and better men, shall teach 
their children both by precept and example, that there 
is no home capable of higher refinement and purer en- 
ioyment than that of the American farmer. Education 
and intelligence,~a conviction that knowledge, in agri- 
culture as in everything else, is power, — ^will efiect the 
desired reform. Other professions, though few in numbers 
comparatively, have, and do now in a great measure ^vield 
the political and social power of this country. And 
why I Simply because they are educated for their calling. 
Not so with the farmer. Time was when it was not sup- 
pi iscd that MIND was necessary to him. All he had to 
do, was to *' dig and delve." But the truth is beginning 
to be felt, that agriculture affords as large and useful a 
scope for talent as any industrial pursuit, and that all 
that Is necessary to elevate the rural population, and 
give to them the po^ver which, from their numbers, they 
should possess, is to give them the same advantages of 
education which are bestowed upon those destined totlie 
professions. Let farmers, instead of sending their sons 
to the shop or the office, educate them for the farm, and 
we shall not much longer hear complaints that the law- 
yers and doctors possess all the influence in our social 
and political circles. Improve the nu'nd of the farmer — 
give him the power to express Iiis thoughts, and we have 
no fears but what he will take his true position in society. 

To effect this object, — ^to improve the mind, to elevate 
the character, and refine the taste of our rural popula- 
tion, is one of the prominent aims of The Cultivatob. 
It will avail but little if we show the farmer how to in- 
crease his profits, if there is not a corresponding eleva- 
tion of the aims and purposes of his life — ^if he does not 
seek, while his profits are enlarged, to increase the facili- 
ties for the mental improvement of his family, and to cast 
around his homestead those adornments which are, hap- 
pily, within the reach of all our farmers, and which serve 

in so high a degree to strengthen the attachment of both 
parents and children to their homes. The winter eve- 
nings are the time to think of these things, — ^the time 
to read, reflect, and to devise plans to be carried into 
effect, when '^ the time of the unging of birds'' shall 
again come round ; and if the^ pages of the Cultivator 
shall be instrumental in inducing the formation of such 
plans as will lead to a more just appreciation of the ad- 
vantages of their position, — to higher intellectual enjoy- 
ment, as well as to more satisfaction and profit in their 
labors, we shall have accomplished a most laudable ob- 
ject. — — 

AcKNowLEDOMENTs. — ^Lcttcrs from correspondents 
have been received during the past month, from D.J. 
Beai-dsley, John Diehl, Elizabeth Diehl, Charles F. Iffor- 
ton, Hon. F. Holbrook, Geo. Jaques, Dr. G. B. Smith, 
W. G. Edmundson, L. Durand, S. B. Bulkeley, Prof. 
J. P. Norton, E. Vail, J. Wilkinson. 

Books, Pamphlets, kc., have been received as fol- 
lows: — The American Muck Book, by D. J. Browke, 
and the Ladies' Guide, or Skillful House-wife, by Mrs. 
L. G. Abell, from the publisher, C. M. Saxton, New- 

York. Illustrated Agriculturist's Almanac, for 1852, 

from J. G. Reed, publisher, New-Tork. Saxton's 

American Farmer's Almanac fur 1852, from CM. Sax- 
TOH, Kew-Tork. ■ 

Pbbssimo Hat. — ^A corres{K>ndent solicits information 
on the best mode of pressing hay — ^the expense of tho 
press, the weight of the bales, the artrcle used for se- 
curing the bales, &c. &c. Will some one describe tho 
most improved mode? 

Stall Febdxhg. — A correspondent in Maryland, E. 
L., says — ** I have been much pleased with the remarks 
of your correspondent, J. Jobmston, on stall-feeding 
cattle, and would be glad if he would give some farther 
pariiculars, as to kind and quantity of feed, size of stalls, 
and whether he halters his cattle, or has gates between 
twecn them. I sometimes do a little at this business, 
and would like do more as my land improves, if I could 
make it pay at the price of grain generally in this vicini- 
ty." Will our friend Johsistom furnish the information 
asked for? — 

The Stone-Hill Potato. — In our November number, 
p. 879, we acknowledged the receipt of a fine sample of 
potato, to which the originator had given this name. We 
have since received a barrel of them from Mr. Bolke- 
LET, who gives us the following history of them. In the 
spring of 1847, he planted a quantity of seed, saved from 
the Carter potatoe. The product was a great variety <^ 
sorts and colors. Several of the most promising of these 
he planted in 1848. From these he selected three white 
varieties, so near alike as scarcely to be distinguished 
from each other, and planted them promiscuously. These 
he has continued to plant, the potatoes increasing in size 
each year. Some of them the pest season, weighed over 
2 lbs. They are liardy strong growers, productive, and 
of excellent quality — though not as early as the Jnne^ 
are much earlier than the Carter, and will crack open 
when boiled even before they are ripe, and retain their 
fine quality through the year. If they shall prove equal 
to this representation, hereafter, they will be a very 




Taluable acquisition to our varieties of the potato. Hr. 
B. haa some of them for sale — price $2.50 per barrel, 
delivered at the depot. Address D. A. Bulkjelst, Wil- 
liamstown, Mass. ► 

Atbshire Cattle.— Mr. J. C. TxriAUT, of Cossackie, 
has lately purchased of £. P. PasiiTicB, Esq., of Mount 
Hope, an Ayrshire cow, two yearling heifers, and a bull 
calf. They are all animals of superior excellence, and 
with the other stock of this breed whioh yr. Tiffant 
has in his possession, wQl form a good breeding herd. 

Mr, Pasntick procured from Massachusetts, in No- 
Tember, some valuable Ayrsbires; viz, from Mr« Bbmj, 
SflUBTLBTr, of Chelsea, five cows, two yearling heifers, 
and a heifer calf, and from Mr. Piter Lawsoh, of Dra- 
cut, a yearling heifer and heifer calf. Those from Mr, 
Shubtlsfv were of the stock formerly owned by Capt, 
Babda ll, of New. Bedford, and one cow and several of her 
progeny, imported by Mr. S. Those from Mr. Lawsob 
were from cows imported by him, the cows being in calf 
when imported. They are all good animals — somo of 
them quite extra in points compared with the general 
standard for this valuable breed. 

Address betobb tbe Pbbobscov Hort. Socibtt. — 
This address, delivered by Col. Hbbbt Little, of Ban- 
gor, shows much practical acquaintance with horticul- 
ture, and abounds with suggestions, which, if rightly 
heeded, must prove largely beneficial to those for whom 
they were intended. The state of Maine has much land 
that is well adapted to the production of apples, and it is 
well known that winter apples from that section are not 
surpassed in value by those of any part of the country, 
on account of their quality of long keeping. It is a sub- 
ject of surprise, that the advantages of this state, in re- 
ference to this article, have not been more fully improv- 
ed. Her " mission'' is, clearly,. the production of win- 
ter apples on a large scale, for exportation to other pla- 
ces less favored by nature for a profitable trade in this 
fruit. The truth is, it has been the cnstom--end the ci- 
tizens of Maine, are in common with others, diargeable 
with the fault — ^to underrate the value of that region in 
respect to its agricultural and horiicultural capabilities. 
It is gratifying to witness such effectual efforts as this of 
Col. Little's, to check this suicidal current of opinion. 
If the population of Maine will only direct their energies 
to the proper improvement of the resources of their own 
state, instead of carrying their capital to the " far west," 
they will find no cause to complain that they are not well 
rewarded. _ 

Dbath o? S. TV. CoiB, Esq. — We regret to learn that 

this gentleman,— 4ong connected with the agricultural 
press, late editor of the Ntxo- England Farmer, author 
of a treatise on fruit trees, and anotlier on the diseases 
of domestic animals, — died at his residence In Chelsea, 
Mass.. on the 8d of December last. He had suffered 
long from a painful illness. 

Subsoil Plowihq. — The condition of the ground, as 
to moisture, greatly afllbcts the results of this operation. 
If the subsoil is tenacious, it should be in so dry a state 
when the implement passess through it, that it will be 
pulverised, and left in a loose state ; if it is worked when 
wet, the effect is only to pack the earth more doaely to- 

gether. The various opinions in regard to the utility of 
subsoil plowing, have arisen in a great measure from 
these cireumstances. It should be remembered, more- 
over, that on tenacious soils, thorough drainage is essen- 
tial to the development of the advantages of subsoiiing. 

IYaturb or Serpexts. — A Boa Constrictor, in the 
Zoological Gardens at London, swallowed a woolen 
blanket on tbe 8d of October last, and diverged it on 
the 8th of November. It was supposed by the keep- 
er that the serpent wanted food, and a couple of rab- 
bits were therefore put into his cage, but he swallowed 
the blanket instead of the rabbits. 

Wi&s- WORMS. — ^In the Working Farmer for October, 
Prof. Mapbs refers again to the subject of killing wire- 
worms with salt, and in reference to the experinwnt 
spoken of by us, sometime since, in which salt, at the 
rate of 40 bushels to the acre had no effect on the worms, 
he says— ^' If so the wire-worms are not so well behaved 
as with us, for the slightest application of salt kills them 
at once.*' The N€Uh England Farmer of Oct. 2Sth, has 
an article which shows that the wire-worms of New- 
Hampshire are DO better <' behaved" than those on which 
we experimented. The writer says-*'^ He has tried va- 
riouB experiments, such as putting a small quantity of 
salt in the hill and sowing it upon the surface, but with- 
out effect . Finally, be made a brine as strong as it could 
be made, apd placed several wire worms in it, and let them 
remain three or four hours. Upon examination^ they 
were found not only alive, but in excellent spirits, aud 
not at all affected by the pickle they had been in." 


states in Hovey's Magazine, that the number of acres 
under cultivation to supply the various London Markets, 
is about 12,000 acres occupied by vegetables, and about 
5,000 by fruit tKces. Some 35,000 i)eople are employed 
in their cultivation. Besides these, occasional suj^lies 
and sent by the more distant counties ; and hundreds 
of acres in Cornwall and Devonshire are employed in 
growing early potatoes, broccoli, peas, &c. which reach 
London by rail. 

A DomMtio Piotttre. 

The following lines, written by C. G. Eastmab, editor 
of the Vermont Patriot,, are " fiill of nature, truth, and 
tenderness i"^ 

Thu Fanner snt in his easy chair, 

Smokinr hi« pipe of cluy, 
White his liftle old wife, with buty caro, 

Waa clearing the dinner awny. 
A sweet tittle j^irl, willi fine blue eyes, 
On her g^randmiher's knee was catching fljMv 

The old num. laid his hand on her bead, 

With a tear on bi» wrinkled fnce; 
He ibongbt how oficn her mother dead 

Had sat in tlic sclu»ame placa. 
As the tear stole do\ni from his halfshtit eye, 
" Don't sinoke." said the child, '' bow it niakccyoo Ciy.'* 

Tbe botise dof lav stretched out on the floor, 

Where the shaJe after noon used lo steal, 
And the busy old wife, by tiie open door, 

Was taming the ^iiunng- wheel : 
And the old brass clock on the mantle-tree, 
Had plodded along to almost three. 

Still tbe Farmer sat on hia easy chair, 

While close to bis henving breosl, 
The moistened brow and tbe cheek so fair 

or his swoot grandchild was pressed; 
His head bent down on her soft nair lay, 
FaM asleep were they both that svmmcr day. 





T9 OUT SotMcribers* 

With this nnnber we Mnd you, afreeabiy to our promise, a copy 

TIm Pietoriil ddthrmtor AlmaTiuft, 

which has been got up at a heavy expense, expressly as a New 
Yeak's Pbeseht, to the sahscribers of The Culttvatoe. If, iiire- 
torn, all who receive ihis number will use their influence to increase 
the list of our subscribers for the present year, they will confer a fa- 
Tor for which tbey will receive oar hearty thniiku 


Bvery Subscriber an Agent. 

All oar Subscribers, as well as ail Postmitsicrs, are especially in- 
vited to ad as Agents for o«r publications, The Cultivator and 


(C7* Agents who compete for our Premiums, will aid us in keep> 
ing their accounts, if they will number their subscribers, 1, :i, 3. ajid 

Xemember tlie Terms to Clnbf. 

Seven Copies for 95.00 — Fifteen Copies, and tiie Horticulturist, six 
mouths, to the Agent, for SICOO. 

q;7* In answer to several inquiries, we would slate, that it is not 
required that all papers in a club should be sent to one post office 
We will address tbero to as many diflereiU offices as may be ncce«- 

*•• ■ ■ 

Premioms to Agentii of the Caltivator* 

As an inducement to those disposed to act as Agents, the following 
Premiunu will be paid in Cash, Silver Platk, or Agrfcllti-kal 
Books and Implkmknts, to those who send us tlie hirgresi list o.'" sub- 
scribers for TuE Cultivator for 1SJ2, previoui» to the tenth of April 

1. To the one sending us the largest number, with the pay in ad- 
Tance, at the club price of sixty^seveu ceut/< each, the sum of Fifty 

2. To the one sending us the next largPAt list, the sum of Forty 

3. To the one .•tending us the next largest list, the sum of Tiiirtt- 


4. For tlie next largest li<«i, the sum of Thirty Dollars. 

6. For the next largest li«i, the sum of Twentv-Fivk Dollars. 

6. For the next larji^est list, Twkxty Dollars. 

7. For the next largest list, Fiftekx 

8. For the next largest li-.t, Ten Dollars. 
0. For the next largeJt list, Fivk Doli.ars. 

10 To all who send us Thirty t?ul»?cnbers or over, and do not re- 
ceive one of the above Prizes, a copy of The Horticulturist for 
one year. 

II. To all who !»endns Fifteen Subscribers, nud do not receive ono 
of Cho above Prcmium.4, The Horticulturist fur six months. 

Postage of the Cultivator. 

We have been surprised to learn, by letters from different corres- 
pondents during the paM montli, that some Postmasters have cliarged 
three or four times as much a<i the legal postage on The Cultivator. 
We have heretofore published the decisions of several Postmaster Ge- 
rald, that the Cullivulor was subjeel to newspaper postage only. Wa 
now give another decision to the same effect. 


Appointment Office, Nov. 24, LS51. 

Sir— I have received your letter of the 20th Inst. The " Cultiva- 
tor" is considerod a* being under the elavification of a *' nev'spaper,*' 
a.<( that term isdcfniod by tlie Ifith section of the act of 3d March, 
lSi.5; nn<l it tiierefurc is entitled to all the benefit* granted to, and sub- 
ject to all the rcMrictionx imposed by law on such publications. 
Respectfully yours, «. D. JACOIW. 

Isi At^^i P. M. Genl. 

Tlie postage on the Cultivator is therefore as follows : 

For any distance not exceeding 60 miles, 5 cents per year. 

Over 50, and not exceeding 300 miles, 10 cents per year. 

Over300 " 1,000 miles, 15 " " 

Over l.OCO " 2, (100 miles, 20 " " 

Over2,0CO " 4,000 miles, 25 " « 

Over4,(KK) 30 " " 

To prex'cnt any misapprehension we quote the 16th section of the 
law of 9d March, ]&1<5, referred to in the above letter. It is as fol- 
lows : 

And l)e it further enacted, that the term '' Newspaper," 

*"ied, shall be, and the same is hereby defined to be, any 

ion, issued in numbers, cunsi^iting of not more than 

two sheets, and published at short slated uitermlt of not more ihaa 
one month, convejniig intelligence of paesiug erents, and bonm Jidt 
extra* and tuppUwunt* oC such publication." 

By this extract it will be seen that the Pictorial CuUivaior Atmamae 
a entitled to go to our subscriber* as a supplement to The Coltivalor, 
it being a **bona jkde supptemeni^^ to it, and nothing elae. The Al- 
manac is not published for sale, and is sent cnly to subscribers to the 

Albfiny Prices Current* 

* Albany, Monday, Dec. 15, 1851. 

The State canals have closed for the season. So suddenly wsi 
navigation 80spetide<l that a large amount of produce of all descnp- 
tions, but principally of flour, wheat and barley, is frozen in between 
Little Falls aiKl Schenectady. The condition of the markets at New- 
York for flour and wheat is such as to require at that point more 
than an r.rdinary supply to prevent high prices. Our latest advices 
from New- York represent the market there for breadstufls as laboring 
luider much excitement, influenced by the early closing of the caeal, 
the admitted light stock of flour (not exceeding 400,000 brls ,) and of 
wheat (not exceeding 170,000 bushels domestic,) the favorable advices 
from abroad and the good coiKlition of the home markets. We can- 
not place the matter in a belter light before our readers than the fol- 
lowuig quotations of the Xcw-Vorl^ market show: 

Nov. 9B. Dec. VL 

Sta!e,common brands,. ....- 3S7a04 4.37a 

State, straight do 3.04nS4 4.37a4.44 

St;ile, ravonte do 4.aS4.12 4.44a4.50 

Mirh , In., ami Ohio, mixed, 4a406 4.44a 

Miclugaii, fancy, 4.12a4.18 4 50a 

(ieiiewe. fancy, 4.2Sa4.50 4.aSa4.75 

Genesee, extra, 4.62a5.03 4.87a5.75 

Cnitnda, in bond, 4a4.12 4.1Sa4.25 

The greater advance hi the low grades \s owing to that descriptioa 
being in lighter supply than the better descriptions. In regard to the 
European markets we have already advices of the dosing of the 
lialtic, an early period, and the conceded fact by the English com- 
mercial press iliat from the Black Sea and America alone, can any 
supply be expected. 

FIjOUR — The market here has fallen off to the demand for the 
home trade and eastern railway, to be somewhat increased this wia 
ter by the demand from the river towns on the line of the Hudson 
R. R. Qoutaiious are $4.25 for State, 4.25a4.37^ for Michigan, In* 
dinna and Ohio, 4.50a4.62^ for fancy Genesee, $5 for extra Ohio and 
4.75a5.37^ for extra Genesee.* 

GRAIN — The slock of wheat here is light, and sales of Genesee 
are slowly made at 96al00c. for good to prime lots. At New- York, 
wheat has partaken of the upward tendency of floor, Genesee being 
held ut lOUalOjc. The sales of Rye are confined to street transac- 
tions at 02^. Oats in the street at 33a3^1c. Com continues in de- 
maiu! for the East with sales 23,000 to 30,000 bushels at59nG0c. taken 
at the load. Barley, since the close of the Canal, is held firm and 
may be quoted at 77a80c. ; the sales are limited. The stock here in 
store is estimated at 50,000 to 00,000 bushela 

PROVISIONS.— The transactions in barrelled meats uiclode 150 

bis. new mess pork at S15. A sale of 50 bis. beef Hams ywa made 


In cut meats the sales are 107 brls. hams and 93 do. shoulders, 
Chicago packed, pt. The retail quotations are $14 for new prime 
nork, $15 for do. mess and $10 lor do. clear Mess beef 9.50a$10. 
Bc^f hams 14h14.50. New smoked hams 10c. shoulders 8c. Lard 
9a0^. Butter 12al7c. for Stale dairies and Cheese 6a6j^. Dressed 
hoc* have fallen off at the close; the sales of the week aggregate 
3000 head, closing at $5} for still fed and 6aG.12i tor fair to gixtd lots. 

WOOL — Is in better demand tfl impro\'ingrata6 ; a sale of 21,000 
lbs. Michigan fleece was made on the5tb at 39|c. 

During thii week sales of 30.000 lbs. at 3?^. for mixed Michigan, 
40c for common Ohio and the balance p.t. 

At New- York the Reporter says the inquiry is light ; sales of fleece 
durhig the week of 10,000 lbs. full bUiod Saxony at 42^c.; 4,000 lbs. 
do. do. at 47|c ; 2,000 lbs. 3 blood at 40c.: 5,000 lbs. common at 37 ^c; 
8,000 lbs. do. on private terms. In pullea the transactions have been 
limited. We quote sails of 7,000 lbs. and (country) at 37^ , 3,000 
No. 1 do. at 32c. Report savs sheep have advanced 100 per cent in 
Ohio, and that few ysnl\ be slaughtered. This confirms our remarks in 
a previous nuinl>er, and must cause a scarcity of pulled wools for 
the year aiitl on increase in the clip of next year. In foreign m'ooIs 
the demand is small, and confinea entirely to operations helween 
small manufacturers and dealers. Under these circumstances stocks 
show no diminution. At Philadelphia there is a good demand from 
manufacturers, and a very firm market for this article. Further sales 
to tlie extent of G0a70,000 lbs. arc reported, in lots, at 3Ia32c. for 
pulled, oud 35a50c. for fleece, all on the usual terms. 






Field and Gardea Seeds* 

WE fa«ve reeently imported, fniin Eoglmnd, France, wnA Ger- 
iDRiiy, and have growu in the United Slatcn exprcmAy for lu, 
a fine aMortmeni of the best and most approved kuidi of FIELI) 

Agrienltanl and Horticultural Impleinenif, a lor^ aaeortmeiit of 
the varioua kinds suitable for North and Soaih Amenca. 

A. B. ALL.EN ft CO., 

Jan. 1, 185a-tn 

189 and 191 Watcr-gt., NcwTJ^ork. 

North American Sylva* 

'T^HE PUBLISHER woaM respectOdly coll attention to the fol- 
X lowing announcement of the most complete and beautiful work 
on American Ttees now published. It is of great value to Libraries, 
residents iu the oountr)', botanists, nnrserymen, and those who take 
an interest in the cultivation of trees. 

* Subscribers wttl please designate whether the/ wi»h the vrhait 
work, or Nuttall's Supplement separately. 

SuMcriptions received by the iSiblieher, and the principal Book- 
tellers of the United States. 

llie North American Sylva} or a description of the Forest Trees 
of the United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia, considered particular- 
ly with respect to their use in the arts and their introduction into com- 
merce; with a description of the most useful of the European Forest 
Trees. lUustraled by 156 finely colored copperplate engravings, by 
Redoate, dec. In three volumes. Translated from the French of 


KBiCBBm or TUB ▲mkkicaiv philosophical soctett, arc. xtc., 
With notes by J. Jay Smith, member of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Ac. This work is of the highest standard value, with or 
'aotboot the Supplementary volumes by Nuttall. 

A new and ^uendid edition of this work, of the trees most com- 
monly known has jusl been issued in Royal 9vo., colored in a style 
equal to the best French editions. It is completed in three hand- 
somely bound voliunes, gilt edged and stamped, for twenty-four dol- 
lars. Uncolored copies sixteen dollars. 

ROBERT P. SMITH, Publisher. 

*«* Specimens will be forwarded on application post-paid. 

rpHE NORTH AMERICAN SYLVA. or a description of the 
X Forest Trees of the United States, Canada and Nova Scotia. Not 
described in the work of F. Andrew Michnux, containing all the 
Forest Trees discovered in the Rocky Mountains, the territory of 
Ore^o«i, do^vu the shores of the Pacific, and into the confines of Cali- 
fornia, as well as in various parts of the United States. Illustrcted 
by 1*21 finely colored plates, ni three volumes, Royal octave. By 


MtnAer tf ike Amtrican Phiiascphieal Sonetffj and of the Aeademf 

of Natural SeUnees of Pkitadelphta^ fc. ft. 

[The whole completed iu six volumes, Royal octavo, with 276 

Nutiairs continualion, now completed, with 121, finely colored 
plates, ui 3 vtrfs. Royal 8vo., is twculy-one Dollars. 

With uncdored plates, .... $15 

The persons who possess the former edition of Michaux^s work 
can procure the three additional voliunea by T. Nuttall s^yarately, 
and thus complete their copies. 

ROBERT P. SMITH, Publisher. 

Jan. 1, 18Gft— It. 15 Minor street, Philadelphia. 

*«* Specimens will be forwarded on applicatioii post-paid. 


A eompitto Manual of 3tdnure». Frieo SI. 

CM. SAXTON, Bgricnlmral book jiubUsher, hns just published — 
• the American Muck Book— treating of the Nature, Properties, 
Sources, History and Operations of all the principal Fertilizers and 
Manures in common use, with specific directions for their preparation, 
preservation and application to the soil and to crops, as cnmbined 
with the leading principles of practical and scientific Agriculture, 
drawn from authentic sources, actual experience, and personal ob- 
servaiion. ninstrated with engravings. By 

Author of Sylva Americana, a Treatise on Forest Tree9, American 
Poultry Yard, *c. C. M. SAXTON, 

Agricultural Bookstore, ISS Fulton street, New- York. 
The following is from Dr. C. T. Jackson, of Boston, the best Agri- 
cnlmrai Chemist in the U. S. : — 


Boston, November 6ih, 1851. 

Dear Sir : T have the pleamire of acknowledging the receipt of a 
copy of the " American Muck Book," recently published by yoo, 
and edited by Mr. D. Jay Browne. 

From an auentive examination of this book, I have come to the 
conciubion that it is one of the best works extant, on the principles 
of scientific apiculture, and the best compendium of our most recent 
knowledge of the nature of manures and their adoplaiion to particu- 
lar soils and crops. It cannot be expected that a sinsle volume could 
possibly contain the whole sum of ciiemical knowledge applicable to 
the science of chemistry ; but on looking over the closely printed and 
compact tables of analyses, and the nbuudant formulas, which this 
publication contains, I could not fail to be sarprised at the industry 
maniicsied in preparing it. I was also gratined to find it so well 
adapted to the American system of husbandry, and so practical in its 
character. Its copious and accurate hidex adds not a little to its value. 

I shall certainly recommend it to my ogricullnral frieiNU as a very 
useful book., and one necessary to every scientific farmer. I am, 
very respectfully, your ob't. servant, 

CHARLES T. JACKSON, Stale Aasayiat, &c. Sec. 

To C. M. Saxxom, Esq., New-York. Jan. 1, 1883.— >)t 


AND other Fertilicers. Several hundred tons of fiiat quality of 
Peruvian Guano, constantly on hand for sale. 

A. B. ALLEN & CO., 189 and 191. 

Water.sL, New-York. 
Jan. 1— If. 

McCoimick'a Patent Rcapini^ Maohiiiei* 

rpHE undersigned has been appointed Sole Agent for the Sale of 
X McCormick's Reapers and Mowing Machines in the city oT 
New- York. Farmers and otliers in want, will please send iu their 
orders at an eariy dale, that they may be suppliea in due time. 

A LONGETT, at the 
Jan. 1— It State Agricultural Ware House, 2S Cliff street, N. T. 

A Book for Wives and Daoghters* 

twentjf-Jive cents j) being a Complete Guide to Domestic Cook- 
cry, Taste, Comfort and feonomy; tmbncing six kundnd and J^f- 
nins Receipts, pertaining to household duties, Gardeuinr, Flowen. 
Birds, Plants, He. Pubfished by C. M. SAXTON, 

Jan. 1— 9t. 153 Fulton Sueet, New-York« 

Fine Fowls for Sale. 

TTKRY handsome specimens of the Albany Dorking, Black Po- 
V land, end Silver Spangled Pdand, are for sale by 
Aibany, Jan. 1, 1832— 2t. E. B. PLATT. 




Edttki) bt a. J DOWNING, NswvuaoH, 

Author of Landscape Gardening^ Fruits and Fruit Trees vfAsnariea^ 
Cottage Residences^ Country Houses^ tfe.^ |v., 

Is published monthly, at the office of The Cultivator, Albany, by 

LtnrKUl TrcKKR, Predictor. 

This popular publication, which is gndually extending ita influence 
throughout the count ry, and is becoming iiidispensible to the tasteftil 
Gardener, the Fruit Cnlturist and the Floriculturist, will be continued 
as heretofore, under the Editorship of Mr. Dowmikg, whose ability 
and taste in sJl matters of comitry life, are nuequalled by any writer 
of the present day. 

The extended and valuable correspendence of Tna HomnctTLTiT- 
aisT, presents the experience of the most intelligent cultivators in 
America; and the instructive and agreeable articles from the pen of 
the Editor, make it equally sought auer by even the general reader, 
interested in country life. To all persons alive to the improvement 
of their Gardens, Orchards, or Country Seats— to Scientific and prac- 
tical Cultivators of the Soil — to Norser^'men and Commercial Gar- 
deners, this Journal, giving the latest discoveries and improvemeuiSi 
experiments and acquisitions In Horticulture, and those oranches of 
knowledge connected with it, will be found invaluable. 

A NSW voLFMXithe 7ih,) commences with the January number for 
16SS; and it will be the constant aim of the Editor and the Publisher, 
by every means in their power, to render it ^till more worthy, by 
every practicable improvement, of the liberal patronage it is receiv- 

It^ All letters on business must be addressed to the Proprietor 
LUTHER Tl'CKER, Albany, N. Y^ and Editorial correspondence 
to be addressed to tbe Editor, A. J. DOWNING, Esq , Newburgh, 

Terms. — Each number contains 48 pa^es, embellished with a 
Frontispiece and numerous Illustrations, prmted on the finest paper, 
and in tne best manner. Price, 83 a year — Two copies for 95. 


their works, are prepared now to receive and fill orders for I\)U- 
drette Avith dispatch, and in all cases with n freshly manufactured ar» 
tide, at their usual prices, SI .50 per barrel lor any ouontity over six 
barrels. 3 barrels for 95. — 92 for a single barrel, delivered free of 
cartage on bcisrd of vessel or elsewhere, in the city of New- York. 

The Company refer to their pomphlet (furnished gratis) for hun- 
dreds of certificates as to the emcacy, cheapness, ami superiority in 
all respects of their Poudrette over any other, known maimre for 
rai9ina a crop of com— also to A J. Downing, Esq., B. M. Watson, 
Esq., Hon. J. P. Cashing, J. M. Thorbum it Co., and many others 
as to excellency ns a manure for flowers and trees, and the following 
from Hon. Daniel Webster, Secretary of State : . 

Wasbixgton, March 19, 1850. 

" If I neglect th« annual purchase of some af this article, my gar- 
denerer is sure to remind me of it. He thinks it almost indispensa- 
ble, within his garden fence; but there are uses, outside the garden, 
for which it is highly valuable^ and cheoper, I think, thon any other 
manure at your prices. A principal one, is the enrichment of lawns 
and pleasure grounds, in gran, wticre the object is to produce a fresh 
aitd vigorous growth in tbe Spring. Our practice is to Roply it, when 
we go to town in the Autumn, and we have never failed to sec its 
effects in the Spring." 

All communications addressed to the " LODI MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY, 74 Cortlandt street, New-York " will meet with 
prompt atletmon. J«n. 1, 1859— 6i. 




Vnitod Statef AgTioaltaral Waiebooie and Bead Store. 

THE sulMcribern aulicit Ibe attention of the public to the lor^ aiid 
▼aried aMortmeiit of Agrrievllural nad Horticultural Implemenls, 
Field, and Gartlen ^eeds, which tliev have con^taiuly on hawl, aiid 
offer for sale at iha lowest prices, aua on the bevt lemw. Persons in 
want fi[ any articles in their line, would do well to call upon them 
before purchasing elsewhere. A descriptive Catalogue will be eeut 
gratis upon application, post-paid. 

N U. GuaiiOt Bone I)ust, and other fertilizers. 

vuuKP, ««. y^^^ MAYHER k CO. 

. Dec. 1— If. No. Iflt Water-St., New-York. 

Spamflh and Shaagbae Fowls. 

rfB subscriber has for sole fowls of these celebrated breeds, llie 
Spanish are from three to seven mouths old. and the oldesl of the 
pallets have laid regularly for two months. Both cocks and hens are 
of a glowy black color, with the larre sinde comb, and white ear- 
polch which disiuignish tliis race. No fowls, probably, combine in so 
great a degree as iheM, the advantages of fine quality of flesh and 
abundant production of eggs, with great beauty of form and plu- 
mage. The Shaiighaes comprise both the red or yellow, and the 
white. The latter have bred this year entirely imiform in color^-no 
variation from pure while having appeared in several broods. 

N. B. In a previous advertisement it was slated that the Spanish 
fowls would be exhibited at the State Fair at Rochester. They were 
not shown there — an accident preventing them from being sent. 

Albany, De c. l->lf J. M. U)VETT. 


THE great desire manifested ui New-England for procuring good 
PouTiry, has induced H. B. COFFIN, iVtftrfcm, Mut., to pay 
particular attention to breeding and importing first rate stock. All 
persons desirous of having the purest and best to breed from, may de- 
pend upon being (aithfuUy served. Among many kuids of Fowls for 
mle by him, are tlie following, which he js very particular in breed- 

ing. , , 

Bhanghae— Forbes stock. 
Imperial Chinese — Marsh stock. 
Cochin China— Coffin do 

White Shangbae do do 

j^ack Shnngtme do do 

Golden P«^and, or Spangled Hamburgh. 
Dealers in Fowls or Eggs for hatching, supplied upon liberal terms. 
Ortlers addiressed to No. 5 Ctrngrw Square^ Sotlon, will be promptly 

Reference to Mr. J. Yak Dusbn, <^ Cincinnati, Ohio, who will 
take orders for FowU, a« advertised above. 
Boston, Aug. 1, 1831—121. 

Splendid Farm in Ohio for Sale or Rent. 

WE have a splendid farm for sole or rent, containing about 900 
acres. It is situated 21.} miles weM of Uulumbus, and within 
9} miles of London, the couiiiy sent of Madison county. An excel- 
lent McAdamized rood, from Columbus to Xeiiia. pa^sses through it. 
The access to market either east or south, is easy and quick. The 
railroad from Cinciiuiati to Cleveland hns a depot at Loudon, 2^ miles 
from it. 

About 125 acres of the land are cleared and under good improve- 
ment. The balance is well timbered, and the whole u under fence. 
It is well watered, liaving springs or streams in abundance. 

On it is a snbstuiuial brick house ajid iwo other comfort- 
able tenements. The orchard contains a!>out 200 apple, peucli and 
pear trees. The whole farm is well adapted for raising grain, or 
corn, aiul would make m\ admirable dairy or stock farm. 

Tiie pro|irieior hns made urrangements in the west to go uito anoth- 
er kind of business, and will sell the alxrve farm on reasonable terms. 
If not sold by winter the above farm will be rented for a series of 

For terms apply at this office or to 


Oct. 1-- 4t. Real Estate Agents, Columbus, O. 

A Ohoioe Farm in Ohio for Sale, 

LOCATED in Stark county, three and a half miles south of Mas- 
sillon, coiitaunng three hmulretl and three acres alx>ui two hun- 
dred and twenty-five acres cleared, and in a high state of cultivation. 
The bfliance in limber, principally white oak. 

The improvements consist of a frame tenant house and barn, a 
Gothic Cottage, built of stone, lieautifully located, commnmling a 
view of the whole estate ; a thriAy young orchard of choice apple 
trees, Ate. 

The cleared land if a level plain, soil of a superior quality for the 
production of wheat, free from stumps, and all obstructions to a good 
svslem of cultivNlioiL The timber land is what is termed tolling, and 
elevated about thir^ feet above the plaiiL The Erie and Ohio caual 
pass through the farm, forming the western boundary, and the Pcnn- 
svlvania and Ohio Railroad within three miles. In short, it is one of 
tne most desirable estates in Ohio. 

The owner Insing permnnenily located in a foreign country, is the 
reason for the fm m being offered for sale. 


For furllier particulars diiect, i)<>»l-nnid. to the aiUlress of the snb- 
riber, C. NKSKNBR, .Massillon Ohio. Oct. 1— 4t. 

CoIman'R Enropcan Asricultnr?. 

IpUROPEAN AGRICULTURE, from personal observation, by 
!i IIknbt Colmah, of Massachusetts. T\\<t> large octavo vols. 
Price, when neatly bonnd, the same ns published in Nos., 93. For 
■ale at th« offico ofTUE CULTIVATOR. 

New and Important laMuraace* 

IMhamV.Toik Life Stoek Ins. Oo., Flattibiiigh V. T. 

INCORPORATED by the Legislature of the aiate of New-Yorl^ 
July. 1S51. Horses, Cattle, and all kinds of Live Slock inaar«d 
against Death, by the combined risks of Fire, Water, Aocklenis, Dis- 
eases, kc. CAl'ITAL, «SO,000. 

James Farr, Washington eounty. Amasa C. Moore, dintoo eontty* 
Joseph Potter, do John Boyntoii, do 

Olif Abell, do Zephaniah C. Piatt, do 

Pelatiah Richards, Warren eo. Comelina Halsey, do 
Walter Geer, do James Averill, do 

Wm. E. Calkins. Bssex oow Jacob H. Ht>lt, do 

Albert Andnis. FrankUn co. Peter S. Palmer, do 

John Horton. St. Lawrence eo. George Moore, do 

Thomas Coukey, do Heiuy 6. Hewitt, do 

JAMES FARR, President. G. MOORE, Plattsbnt-gh, Scc'y 
A. C. MOORE, Vice-Pest. Z. C. PLATP, do Tnm. 
I. C. MIX, Port Ann, Gca Ageut. 

October 13, 18SL 

This company are now orniiizod and ready to receive applica* 
lions for insurance. It js oonndeiiUy believed tltat the OMriiers oC va- 
luable animals willavafl themselves of the advantages offered by this 
mode of protection. If fire, life and marine insurances are proper 
and ezpedkiit, so is live stock insurance : the reasons for iusorauce 
are equally aj^cable to alL 

The compmiy have adopted such rates as, they believe, wiU for- 
nish the means of paying ordinary losses, without resort lo an assess- 
ment. But to guard against extraordinary losses, which may arise 
from contagious diseases or epidemics, it becomes uBcessary to re- 
quire premium notes. 

To fhe OwiMff of Hones and live sfcoek. 

Office of (As Northtm New-York Live Stock In9. Co., I 
Plattsbusoh, August 16, IdSl. ) 

The Directors of the atove Company, incorporated by the Leguiai- 
ture of the Slate of New- York, at its extra session in Jnly^ 18&1, re- 
spectfully request your attention to the following facts besinngoa ihia 

1st. Value of this class of prmierty. By the census of 1645, there 
were at that time in the S5tate of New- York, as follows : 


One-half a million, 50S,1S5 

Neat CtMU, 

Over two millious, S,07S,330 

Cows milked f 

Nearly a million, 900,490 

Over six nuUions, 6,443,855 

Over one million and a half, 1,584,344 

Whliout making any estimate of the value of this pnmerty, it is 
apparent that it is immense; extending to every uihabited spot, and 
estseuiial to the health and comfort, almost to the existeuce of the in- 

ad. These aiumals are sul^t to diieaae and accident. It is asser- 
ted by a Vermont Company, engaged in the Live Stock Iiisumi\ce, 
as a iact which cainiot be disputra, that the aggregate loss upon this 
species of property throughout New-Enfflaud, is gnater than the 
loMes by fire ;*at all events, it is a fact uncutubted that the amraal lose 
is very great, and the owner is leA unprovided with any means of se- 
curity agninst the hazard incident to this description ot property. 

3d. The knowledge of this risk is one of the leadnig hinuFauces to ' 
improvement in the breed of that useful nud noble animal, the horse. 

Men of capital are slow to invest large sums in a valuable auiroal, 
whose loss toey must every day risk, to the amowit often from five 
hundred to a thousand dollars, in every valuable breeding horse. 

With the ample security to be afforded by sound Insurance Com- 
panies, the investment of capital in horses and live slock may be 
made as safe aiul safer thin the carrying of freight on the seas and 
inland waters. Marine Insurance has rendered this last business 
steady and profitiible ; while without it, it would want the confidence 
which ihnt branch of business now commands. The absence of this 
Insurance in the case of live stock is universally felt, while the own- 
er of real estate can command half or two-thiras oi its value wben 
needed for an emergency. 

While the owner of the ship, *' the play thing of the wind and 
waves," may obtain any reasmiable advance; the owner of eqnallT 
valuable pro|)erty, invested in horses and cattle^ cannot obtaui a dol- 
lar. The only exception being fat cattle destined for market* In 
vain does the owner of the horse appeal to his industry or usefulncas. 
The answer is, thai his property ia liable to disease aiid accident, and 
iknt as security it is utterly worthless. 

4ih. The Insurnnco principle comes in. and does for him what LiAs 
Insurance has done for the young beginner in trade, taking avi'ay the 
risk arising fi om the uncertainty of life. 

It will do for him wtiat Fire Insurance has done for the owner of 
personal property ; placing him nearly on a level whh the owner of 
real estate. 

Your aid is res}>ectruny solicited iu behalf of this company, the first 
chartered in this state for this object. The Directors mtend it shell 
be prudently conducted, and one which shall deserve the confidence 
of the public. 

Terms of insurance will be furnished by the agents of the company. 

Gkorgk Moose, Sccretar}'. JAMES FARR, Presidenl. 

Dec. 1— 6i. 


AgricQltiural Books ^ 

F all kmds, for sole Bt the Cultivator Oflice, 407 Broadway, AU 





n-iEE BTiDncURaf ikc POST ihiok n onneceHrv lo dvRlL upon the dininniialiinc fcinim of Iheir wetl lnxnrn WFgklT. whcnc braiiwit 
X ui:«HdDringui«iueB«arTHIRTrYEAkS,iiiiursguuuiuel'utUisluiiir<>. Ws ban Ibe plcunn oT uiuoiincuiE oof eoD- 
liuBcd couDcuan wiUi Uai ilauiigiiiibaci luiliareB, 

naS. E. D. E. M. SOVTBirOKTH, 

Aalbot at " The Daertsd Wifr," " BttumaaiUle," Ac. Duriiif the eoming ynr, mkan Ilmdriixde DnngecieDti for Uie lollowiDf 


By MBS. CAROUNE LEE HENTZ, ■inhw of " Lind*." " RtM," »«. 


A CanpHUOa la "PRAIRIE FLOWER." By EMERSON BENNETT, nmtinTufPraJrie Ftawer," " Ths Buidlu of Ihe Oofe," ke. 

By T. 8. ARTHUR, »mhorof "The Inu Rind," ''TemperMiM TmIb," lie. Andlul bniaatlcH^ 


A TALB OF EXPIAHON AND REDEMPTION'. By MRd. B. D. E. N. SOUTH^VORTH, mnltaor oT " The Doened Wife," Ac 

Ttw POST vm iIk csDUiD enry wttk, Sdecled Ankt« of ihe ehoieen dcKhption, One or More Eninvingi. Ranurooa 
^^^ AnicLn, Ihe MnMlniiraliiig News, Lwel Newt, Bulk Nole [.in, Siole of tlie Mmrkeu, the Slocli Merliel, eir., cic. 

•nepoK "copies, "... « 00 PER ANNUM. 

8 " (Aiid«»ti.Afeiii,orf««r.iipofib«Clol>,l SIO 00 

U " (AmfaneToAfeot, OTRller-uporiheClub,) tlG DO " 

ao ■• (AndaielDAgeiii, oigfiter-upoflheCliib,) «0 W 

Tite mnney for Clubi moM alwoyii be unl iji sdvajLee. 8ub*crip<Kpin mey be eeul Hi nor riik. When Ihs lom it Ut^, m dnA ihouL] be 
ADlHt££S, lalwayi pon-pnid,) SE&COB A F^EBBOR, 

KOk at Bonth Third StiMt, Fhiladelnhla. 
P. 8.— A eepy of ihe POST will ba km k • iiKeiineii (o iiiy cne reqiiniinK ii. Jul f,— 1l 


BKR iraBX. OB m hossk. 


NOW reodr.ihe SeTenihT)»aMinilor"Yooait 

wiihilicirreiiiedie*,broiiKhtdoimi k>lM«, by W. 
C. SpooDer, M. R. G. v. S., la vhich u prefixed 
■u ■eeDanl of Ihe brrsll ia Ihe Uulled SInta, 
conpUed by H. 8. RandKll, wiih SS iUramtiont, 
)MTgn 13 mo., tS3 pe^eH^piice S1-A0, Bjld Tor Hie 
by bODbcllen genejBlJy, throngbout Ihe Umled 

Onlen iboiikl In •ddmied la 


Pabllihen, Aoburn, N. Y. 

N. B. On receipt of Ibe price we win fonnnl 
MdSiMei. " my leem ni- 

" Every nan wba owM • tooi b(irw--the no- 
UcM, H wdl H the mcKt uaeftil of ■iiimil*. owes 

tahitbcaiihypreHimion. Rudill'i ' Spoanu'a 
Voiult.* it the irreaUH work of ths ege upon thii 
peftieuiu lople."— Am. Courier, 
" No leai Telnable Ihon the miimal it doeribei. 

book n niDch u m hoTH iweib 4 bnmeH in which 
ui perforni tm labort, if he woDid know how la 
make bia beaal of the grsaEaei poaAibla acrviee la 

NqnerrmBiit at Angerg) France) 

RETURNS hit thanka for peal Ihvne, and btst leave to inCann 
h» rrirndi and ilic public ni gcneml thai hit cDialogiie for jeai 
ia iKTW rcnily and can be had on applicaliou lo hit n«nl Mr E. Boa- 
annrc, IM Peari alreel, N^-Yark. He oOeri for tale a largo col- 
Iccii.n of Ihe fineu fruit, foreal and ornameulnl treat cT all hiiidi, 
thtnlH, ioM», »c fte- The aiijerlor qonlhy of hii iic« it alrtady 

Nuraerymen. Oni™ Tind better be jciit early, althongli hi. Nur- 

■re limbed aid Knne of the Ian orden tent Ian year could not be 
eieeuied. Tbe itrmt, nrica, chargea. vid all detirable informaiioii 

of hiiagcnl biNew-Voik, who will nileiid lo Ihe receiving and for- 
wardiiK. For nifther panimlari and for the mlalegue apply id 
Not. I, tSil— 31 E BOSSANGE, I3S FearT nfccl, N T 

L T. ORANT A 00*6 

Patent Fan Milli and Grain Cradla. 

rd Mdli and CraAta. 

n of l^mylTaiiia. Ma. 

ryland, Michigan and Ohii 
first, and they naiid wilha 
"our'?RA°DLE.S have tn 

imiBim al two New- York 

Ordert tolicited 1>oin. and work aent la any pan 
Stntca. r. T. fiRAN' 

May 1— e.o.m.— A. Jiuctioii P, O., Itei 

of the United 




Contents of this Number* 

Pictorial Cultivator Almanac,. ... p* 1 to 33 

Plowing up Hidden Treasure, 33 

AgricuMure a Hcience, • 34 

Raising Cranberries on Upland, OS 

Rajidom Notes on Pears, 96 

Honey Bees— the Apiary, 37 

The Drill Culture of Wheat, &c., by W. G. Bdmcrdsoit, 38 

State Agricultural Societies, by F. Hox.bbooe, 30 

Apples, A^c, ill New-Englaiid. by Geo. Jaqves, 41 

Fruit blighted by Hot Weather, by G- B. Smith— Quality of ) -o 

New Pniils— The Best Pears— Large Strawberry Story, j 

What Foreignera think of Us, by Prof. Noeton , 44 

Most productive Milch Cows, 45 

i^ricultaral Bureau — Trial of Reaping Machines, 46 

Manufacture of Majiure — ^The Primate Appl^— Manageroeui of) 

Bees, by H. W. Bi7Ulsley — Seedlij^; Grapes*- Chickens vs. > 47 

Insects, ) 

Blood Horse Consteruation— Farming in Pennsylvania,....,... 48 

Draft Horse Clyde, 49 

Singular Disease m Cattle, by C. F. Mobton — Agricultural ) ^j^ 

£!conomy, by Am Obsehvxk, ) 

Harvesting Corn, by G. W. Coffin— Culture of ilie Onion, by ) gQ 

John Dikhl, ••• J 

Mr. Giles' OniameuUl Poultry, 53 

Boston Poultry Show — Long-Island Land», 54 

HoAgarian Cattle— Using Bones for Manure — Potash for Ma- ) q^ 

nure, ) 

Shelter for Fattening Stock — Crushing Grain for Work Horses — ) 

Salting Pork, by O. F. Massualj^ — Morgan Horses— Recipes ^ 56 

by Elizabeth Diehl, ) 

Agricultural Societies — Answers to Inquiries— Notice of Publi- ) » 

callous, j 

Notes for the Month— To Correspondents, &c, 56 

Poetry — A Domestic Picture, 50 

Business Notices — ^Postage of the Cultivator— Prices Current,. . 00 


Blood Horse Consternation, 48 

DraA Horse Clyde, 47 

Insect in Throat of Cattle, 51 

Group of Poaliry. 53 

Hungarian Caitlej 55 

University of Albany* 

TmoRT AMD Practice or Aoriccltdrk 


THE Trustees aimonnce the following Courses of Tustraction for 
the ensuing winter, to commence on the 13lh of January, 1852, 
Olid continue three months. 

The facilities for the prosecution of tho^e branches of sicience con- 
nected with agriculture, although not vet perfected, will, it is be- 
lieved, be far greater than huve ever before been oflcred in this 
country. The Courses to be given are iiitondcd to be intelligible to 
every practical farmer, and at ihe same lime to point out Iho leading 
and the special advantages of scientific applications. To accomplijii 
this end the leolureiwill be fully i! I usi rated by experiments, diagrams, 
numerical tables and s|iecimens, while the use of scientific terras 
will be coiiHned to such as are absolutely necessary to tlie compre« 
hension of the various subjects presented. Conversational recitations 
will also be held in connection with the lectures, so that idl who wish 
may have opportunities for seeking the explniintion of every difficulty. 

The general coarse on Sci€nt$_fte and PrxicHcal AgricuUurt^ vt\\\ 
be delivered by Prof John P. Norton, of Ynle College, and of the 
University ; and will commence on the second Tuesday of Jiuiuary, 
and continue about three months, at the rate of three lectures in each 
week. Tickets for the course, 810. 

The course on Geology and PnlaBOiitniogy. will be given by Prof. 
James Hall, oi the New-Ynrk Geological Survey, and of the Uni- 
versity of Albany. This course of lectures will be given with es- 
Eecial reference to its applications in ogricniture, in civil engineer- 
ig, the mechanic arts^ and to mining. It will commence on the 
second Wednesday or January, and continue for three months, at 
the rale of five lectures In each week. TickeU for the course, 910. 

Dr. Henrt Goadbt, fopmeriy of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
London, will deliver a partial course on Kiitomology, with special 
reference to agriculture, commencing on the third Friday in January, 
and continue at the rate of two lectures m each week. Ticket for 
Ibe course, 95. 

In addition to the above courses, the students will have the opnor- 
twiity of attending a course of lectures on Astronomy, by Pror. O. 
M. Mitchell, of the University, and on Elementary Chemistry, by 
Prof. Geo. H. Cook, Principal of the Albany Academy. 

OCT* For Circulars and other information apply to B. P. JOHN- 
SON, Elsq., State Agricultural Rooms, Albany. 

Albany, January 1, \bSfi. 

ImproTed Stock* 

CATTLE, of the Durham, Devon, Hereford, Aldemey, and Ayr- 
shire breeds. 
SHEEP, of the Native and French Merino, Saxony, South-Down, 
and Cotswold. 
PIGS of the Lincoln, Suffolk, and Berkshire breeds. 
From our long ex|)erience as breeders and dealers in the above 
kinds of stock, and our excelleut sittwtion for purchasing and ship- 

Ciiig, we think we can do as good justice to orders, as any other 
onse in the United States. A B. AIXEN ft CO , 

Jan. 1, 1669— If. 160 and 101 Water St., New-York. 

A. B. ALLEN 9l CO., 

189 and 191 Water Street, New^Yark. 

PLOWS of a great variety of patterns and diflerenl sizes, calcnbu 
ted for sward and stubble land, wet meadoM's, and recently drain- 
ed swamps where roots abomid. Am(Nig these plows, also are the 
deep-breaking-up, flat-furrow, lap-furrow, sell'-sbarpening, side-hill, 
double-mould-board, com, cotton, caite, rice, and subsoil with single 
or double wiiiss. 

HARROWS, trian^lar, square, Oeddes, and Scotch. 

ROLLERS, with iron section^ one foot long, and ofdiftrent 
diameters. Tnese can be arranged on an iron shaft for any required 

CULTTVATORS of upwards of twenty dilTerettt kinds, Heel tooth 
and cast iron. 

SEED SOWERS of six different kinds and nricea. 

HORSE POWERS f eudleas chain and circtuar, of wood and eaai 

THRESHERS, with or without Separators. 

GRAIN MILLS of cast iron, and burr atone, to work eldier by 
hand, horse or water power. 

CORN SHELLERS, single and doable, large and small cyliudricai 
to work by hand or otherwise. 

STRA W CUTTERS, spiral, siraighi, or circtlar knives. 

VEGETABLE C l/2T£125 for turnens and other roots. 

T<^eiher with a great variety of alt other Agricultural and Honi. 
cultural Implements kept in the United Slates, such as Hoes, Shovels, 
Siwdes, Rakes, Manure and Hay Forks, Grain Cradles, Scythes, 
Snaths, &c. ftc. 

CASTINGS of sU kinds for Plows, Cotton Gins, and Sugar RoUein. 

WAGONS and CARTS, for horse, ox, or hand. 

STEAM ENGINES for farm and other purposes. 

Our implements occuny three large stores, and we believe ihey 
make up tbe largest and most complete assortment in Amerk:a. lu 
addition, we have a machine shop employing upwards of one him* 
dred men, where any articles in our line can l>e made to order. 

A. B. ALLEN & CO., 

Jan. 1, 18S»~tf. 180 and 101 Water st., New-York. 


THE Mount Airy Agricultural Institute, located at Germantown. 
Pa., will open for the summer term on the first Thursday or 
April next. For paniculars address the Principal, 

Jan. 1, 185g— 3t. Germantown, Pa. _ 

State Agricultoral Warehoase. 

EMERY'S, Kell's, and Wheeler's Horse Powers and Threshers. 
Hovey's, ClintoiVs, Tower's, Siuclair*s and Botts', Straw and 
Stalk Cutters. 

Vegetable Culteis for slicing up potatoes, beets, Ac. 
. Corn tShcllcrs of various puiterns. 

' Fanning .Milla of Bryon's make— this is considered one of the best 
Mills ui use. 

Clinton's, Bamborough's and other makes. 

Prouty A Mears' premium Plows of all sizes. 

Minor tc Honon's and Eagle Plows. 

Harrows of Geddes, Triangle and Scotch patterns. 

Parmg Plow, a superior article made mider the directioQ of Prtrf. 

Subsoil Plows, oi Wier's pattern, which is half the draft of the old 

Ox or Rood Scrapers, Seed Sowers, Cultivators, ice. 

Field and Garden Seeds. 

Feniilizers, such as Guano. Bone dust. Bone Coal, Plaster, Poii> 
drette. Bone Mauura and Sulpnate of Soda. For sale by 


Jan. 1, 1853— 1L No. S5 Cliff street, New- York. 

Balsam Fir, Arbor Vitae, and other Forest Trees* 

HENRY LITTLE ft CO., of Bangor, Maine, wril famish any 
numl>er of Evergreen and other Forest Trees, taken ap wito 
earth on tkt roots, with the greatest care, and sent to any part of the 
United .States by Steamers or Railroad — and carefully packed in latfe 
boxes, at short notice, at the following prices, viz : 

From inches to 1 foot, at 1 cent, or #10,00 per 1000. 
From 1 foot to 2 feet, at 1^ cents, or S15.00 per 1000. 
. Tlie above prices refer more particularly to Balaam Fir and Alter 
Viiae Trees. 
We charge what the boxes cost, but nothing for packing. 
For two years past, the trees we have procured and sent to a dis- 
tance, have lived generally, and have given good satis&urtioa. Efer* 
greens will not live unless taken np with great care. 
Bangor, Jan. 1, 18S2— <4t. 


Is pMisksd on tktjirst qfsaeh month, at Albany, N. Y., hp 

il per Abb.— 7 Copioi for $6—16 ibr tlO. 

07* All subscriptions to commence with the voltime, (the Jan. 
No.,) and to be paid in aovaitcs. 

AvTBBTisxHXRTS.— The charge for Ad^'ertisemenls ii 91 for tl 
lines, for each iuaertioa. No variatioa made from these terms. 



Vol. IX.— No. 2. 

Th« Snb^vlalos of Ftntu. 

Wa ^Ke lud ooctuioii to spmi tome hoan &t Uie re> 
Mmce of an aoqli^Dtuicfi, who ma s ver? idoochCu] 
niaer of floe fniiU, Mid wbo Md & profuMon of garden 
luxuries froq hia well-lreated grounds, but wbo, from 
•ome uaaccooDtAble cause bad biiilt a bouse that seemed 
to be, 

" A mifbtr Buac, and oB wiihaui m plui." 
Tof Ibe roonu, iugtead of being amingcd with a Tiew to 
convenience, appeared lo bare been (brown together ac- 
cording to chance, — very mncb like a heap (^ railroad 
ttaf^age ader a eollisioD. The common entrance was 
through the wood-house into the kitchen, which fbrmed 
the sole lueaM of acceia to the dining-room ; and to pass 
from the latter to the pailor, it was neccn^ny lo 
walk through a portion of the open ;ard, or In common 
pbraM " to go out doors." Kow, this ma; seem eml- 
Dentiy ludicrous to the lover of order, but certainly not 
more ao tban (he arrangement of many a tkrra. Bow 
0>r, for example, would the readerof (hisarticle be com- 
pelled to travel, to find the farmer wbo is in the practice 
of passhig through one field to- reach another — wbo must 
cut a road through the grass of his meadow, (o enter a 
fleld of ripened grain, or to demoli^ whole rows ofun- 
ripo com that he may draw to his bam the contents of 
tlw meadow. 

We have many volttmet of instructions and illustrations 
to show us bow to plan and build our bouses ; but not 
one on laying-out farms. Is it because fences cost less 
tban dwellingsT This cannot lie; for let any one wbo 
occtipies a hundred acres, wcH fenced, but niaie the esti- 
mate ,and be nillDnd that hciscorapclledlokeepup, even 
on tills jmall domain, no lea than four miles of p«rti- 
tion walls between bis fleldn, and the cost, with repairs, 
to be qnite equal to that of a good fkrm-hoiise. Is it 
because easy access to all parts of a Ihrm it not essen- 
tial to good husbandry) Can the fhrmer travel more 
easily k needtcM furlong, than the housewife can take flve 
unnecessary steps from the kitchen to tlie dining-roomf 
Is it eaner for the liirmer lo draw a load of manure ovor 
k hCl fifty feet high, or through a mudbole • foot and 
a-helf deep, than his partner within doors to dcvend and 
return from that nnisancc in domestic arrangement, a 
cellBT kitchen? A moment's reflection must show that 
a well planned sab-division of a ihrm lies at the very 
fonndalJoQ of conTcnlence, system, and economy. 

IjCt the reader carry out in figures the actual yearly 
eort of a single awkward defect. To driVe a herd of 

cowa a half mile between the bam-yard and pasture, 
may seem a slight task; but when this is repeated foni 
Umes daily for eight months of the year, the aggregate 
distance to be traveled is greater than fh>m BuSUo to 
the Atlantic ; and not performed as the latter is with fire- 
car utd tbe tempeel's speed, but with the toDsowe labor 
of the pedestrian or drover. A slight improvement in 
the plan might perhaps easily lessen this journey a hun- 
dred mllea. When therefore the wbc^ amount of oUler 
hrm-travelling Is taken into consideration, with loaded 
cart) and without them, the suttJect of arrangement be- 
comes one of no mean importance. 

In famishing speclmeiylaiM for kjlng-ont ftrmi, a 
difficulty will snggsat itself, namely, tbe endless variation 
in their interior and exterior forms, ta tbe position of 
hills and valkyi, marsh and upland, in woods, springs, 
and water courses, u»d tn Intersectknt by the public 
road. This dilSculty will however be greatly reduced, 
by adoplbig a few general plans with the leading princi- 
ples, which may be modified accordii^ to clrcnmstancei 

The most rimple piece of ground, and tbe most essily 
laid out, Is Uie nearly level parallelograra. There are 
many sncb In ttte country, and when tbe siie is moderals, 
they usually lie with a narrow end to tbe public rnad. 
Such a one may be oasily laid out into fields as shown In 
the annexed figure, (Tig. 1, > where wwyBeM la ooteiwl 




(torn tbe common l»ne, tod the c^ntioiu <d nch kept 
eottrel; KpAratefrum all the rest. Tbe bonnduy Tence*, 
and tboM fbrmiBS tbe Uae, 
may be momble, to *»ry tbe tiae 
bring every portion of the form into occaiionBl cultlrt 
lion. Tbe anuilter divlaions, for garden, cair-pMti 
hog-jard, be., are placed near tbe buOdiaga. Tbii is 
perbapathe rimplest mode or properly snb-diTiding 
hrm, and wtlh oome alfgbt vnriationa vHI apply to 
ki^ portion of IfaMe oT more modeote mie. We fof- 
nldi a ringle hiMance of a modification to tctt a Qinn of 
aneren aarfiM*. Soppoie for example, tbat at the field 
A., there h a til^ and brood hiU,eitenillngnBarly aerotB 
to the oppoaite botuidary; and at B there ii anotbar hill, 
■tretcUng as (hr in the other direction. A Talley will be 
ttw fomed from C to D. Fig. 2 eibiUta tbe fom of 

the first plan varied to apply to thts piece of gronnd. To 
avoid going over the first hill, the lane bends so ai nearly 
to pass ronnd it, riling faoirever gradually as it extends 
backward, until at E it cronpa the valley, aul continnea 
to tiw by a moderate ascent to Us lerminalion. A 
bridge and entbankment are mode at the crossing, tba 
coat of wbloh will be according to tbe meanaof tbe pro- 
prietor, and also adapted to tlie amount of cartage across 

Here, aome one who prefers driving a load up bill and 
down hill three hundred times In tbe year, to spoiling a 
pretty plan on pap<r, exclairos, " now croolied! How 
dbtorled! I want all my fields with utmiglit boundaries 
— and DO crooked lanes mnningthronghmy land." Such 
a former woald have no deSections in the public rosdi 
to avoid mounds or gulA, but would prefer mounting 
right over a bill a hundred feet high, lo bending a hun- 
dred feet to tbe right or left, foralevel. To such an one 
iheae remarks am not addreaaed, but to those only wbo 
pre/br making all their Oexurea in a horizontal plane, 
rather than in a perpendiciUr one. We have indeed 
seen thoae who for years had drawn in all their Htrm crops, 
and returned all tbeir manure, over a laborious BHcent 
and down an inoonvenlent plunge, and we oould not help 
wisbing tbat they might at least make a short tri»l of a 

few easy curves with a flue level rood, even tbo«gb tbe 
beauty of the plantation, as seen from a balloon aboTC, 
mjgbt be aomewbat dimimshed. 

lATge Jkrms usually border tke p«Ulc real ftr a grrat- 
«r breadth than smaller onca, and besce a diArent ar- 
rao^meitt becomes necessary. The anaexed plan, (Flg- 
3) represents one of this sort, with the di^osttfant of tb« 
fnrm-road and flelda. The two eitteroe fields odjotniag 
Ihe ptibHe rood, ore sntned as ta Ae flnt ^an ftvn Om 

This snbject might be very ea^y extended to an )» 
deSniEs length, but we olose with a Cm general nlaa, 
which. If borne b mind, wovM be ef swsaliil vse ti 
planning the anb-divisiona of every fiinn; — 

1 . The (arm-road or lane shonld be aa short as pcMible 
inconneeCingthafleldawlthtbebnlkHBgs. Umtchvted, 
tbe/DDN of the fields if needed, AoaMfaanade to eon. 
form to thli requisite, and to Ua levelMaa. 

2. Tbe barn and olbej (kmi buildings should beuAW 
as [Hacticable to tbe centre of the arablo land, foe acoD^ 
my and expedition in the carlnge of mannre and crops; 
at the same time that access to tbe public road should 
not be forgotten. 

5. The number of fields should be accommodated to 
theaystemof roUtioneatablisbGdouLheriirm, and shonld 
therefore be as nearly as may be of equal slie. 

4. The fields should be made nearly square, for econo- 
my of fencing material and lo save occupancy of land 
by boundaries, less being needed foe a square than for 
any other rectangnlar form. 

6. When the land varies greatly to character, as In 
wetness or dryness, &C., sucb as is most rimilar should 
be brought within the same boundary, to be iab,tected 
to tbe same treatment in rotation. Dissimilar field* 
may however be often rendered alike by draining and 
aiibHoilinp, when not otherwise easily sulgected toarega- 
lar ayxteni, 

6. Brinpng frtrcsmi of water alongside the fences, 
rendering facilities for irrigation, and also supplying wa> 
'— •■> each field, should not be overlooked'. 

Hills should be bronght near Ihe centre of fields, to 
enable the plow lo pass around tbem to throw the earth 
don-nwardB from the raonld-board. 

The aroft of catb field should bo determined, to 
enabUi the farmer lo judge of tbe rpquljite quantity of 
___j _. J ___ I. nieasuro tbe amount of crope, 




^EMI10 rWXBBDf f ' BW MBBiy UH oOCu 

Kany false impresaioDs have gone forth among the 
eaitern flumera, in regard to the expense of breaking a 
prairie fod ; and to thoae who may oontempUite remov* 
tag to a prairie country, a few facts exemplifying the 
antfaod of ezecating this work, and fta (iverage cost^ 
when done by contract, mi^t be (bund Interesting. It 
Is a Tery common practice thronghoui the entire western 
prafrfe cmintry, to get the sod broken by contract, at a 
^tren price per acre, which ranges from $1.50 to $2.60 
Accord^ to the character of the work, and the local in- 
floences govenrtng the value of labor. The plow mostly 
used in breaking sod, turns a furrow two feet wide, and 
fan some cases as high as thirty inches are turned, but 
the average may be rated at eighteen inches, requiring 
three yoke of oxen to do the woilc with ease. From 
two to three acres per day are plowed with an ox team, 
requiring one man to hold the plow, and another to drive. 
Tolerably good wages are made, at an average of two 
dollars per acre; and when all things are considered it 
cannot be said that it costs more to break up a prairie 
sod, than to plow an old meadow in one of the eastern 
or northern states. From two and a half to three inches, 
Is the usual depth that the soil is broken, and the thinner 
it is plowed tjfie better, so long as the vitality of the roots 
of the grass is destroyed. Advocates of deep plowing 
would not find their theory to work well, in breaking up 
prairie, from the fact that the thinner it is plowed the 
sooner will the roots of the grass undergo decomposition. 
When once broken, the case becomes altered. So soon 
as flie first crop is harvested, deep plowing is no where 
productive of more favorable influence than on a rich, 
vegetable prairie soil, recently brought into cultiva- 

In breaking prairie sod for corn, the work issometimcs 
done late in autumn, but more frequently it is performed 
Ib the spring, and the corn is planted immediately upon 
the inverted sod, in rows along the interstices of every 
alternate furrow. A small hole is cut in the sod with an 
old axe, or a grubbing hoe, in which the seed is deposi- 
ted, and covered ; and the crop ixom tliat time forward, 
receives no cultivation, or attention, till it is nuitured, 
ready for harvest. The average yield by this manage- 
ment, ranges from twenty to fifty bushels per acre ; and 
about thirty-five bushels may be a fairly computed pro- 
duct, when the work is done in good Beason, and in a 
creditable manner. The extreme toughness of the un- 
rotted sod, pi-ecludcs the possibility of working the crop, 
and indeed nature herself wisely provides for the exter- 
mination of the wild grasses and plants, that so profusely 
qpread over the prairie surface, requiring only on the 
part of the husbandman, a single i>lowing, by which the 
soil becomes divested of every species of herbage except 
such as may be planted by the band of man. 

Nothing can be so perfectly clean, as a virgin prairie 
soil, but owmg to the prevailing manner of cultivation. 
the lapM of a very few years only, is required to over- 
niQ the whole snrfece of the land with a growth of weeds, 
ndi OS can no where be fonnd except in a prairie coun- 
try. Those weeds being annuals, are easily extirpated ; 
but when they once take jMMsession of the soil, they Im- 

part a very unrightly appearonca, rangmg as they do, fai 
most cases, from three to five feet m height; and the 
cost and dMculty hi destroymg them, are quite eqvol to 
the expense of bringing hito cultivation a prairie sod. In- 
deed, on many accounts, an unbroken prairie is prefera- 
ble to a ferm that has been carelessly cropped six or eight 
years. This fact must become apparent to any one who 
will take the trouble to investigate the matter; and it b 
here mentioned as a warning to those who might be In- 
clined to pay an exorbitant price for improved prairie 
farms, as they are sometimes called, when so overgrown 
with weeds as to make it almost impracticable fbr a per- 
son to pass over the fields without faicurring the risk of 
being lost! 

The best month In the year for breaking prairie is 
Jnne, and when it is intended to sow the land with wheat, 
it is advisable to have the work executed at as early a 
period as this month, so that the sod may obtain a per- 
fect rot before the period for seeding. In some cases the 
land is plowed a second time, and some prefer doing it 
crosswise of the furrow, and others lengthwise ; but it is 
universally conceded that if the rot be perfect, so that a 
heavy harrow will completely pulverize it, the second 
plowing will not contribute in increasing the product of 
the wheat crop, and, therefore, only one plowing is usu- 
ally given. 

Along the borders of the wood-land, vast thickets of 
hazle brush abound, which extt^nds Itself yearly into the 
prairie. The land where the hazle grows Is usually un- 
dulating, and the vegetable soil is much thinner than on 
the open prairie. It costs about $2.60 per acre to break 
up hazle brush land, and not less than four yoke of oxen 
are capable of doing the work. The average height of 
the bush is five feet, and with a strong plow and team, a 
furrow of two feet in width may be turned under with 
the greatest ease. The roots of the brush soon decay, 
and in a dry time the whole mass of brush and roots are 
burned, leavii« the land in the best possible oondiUou 
for a wheat erop. 

In lUhiois and Iowa, and Upper Miasowi, Um fltest 
and most perfect ploivs are in use, and indeed soma ^ 
the patterns oould soarcely be improved, either in lessen- 
ing the draft, or rendering the work more easy for the 
Ijiowman. The strength of this conviction became kh 
creased by repeated practical trials, and after giving the 
matter a full and impartial investigation, we became oon^ 
Wnoed that a prairie sod had no equal as a test, to put to 
trial the skill of a sdentiflc plowman ; and that some of 
the most improved stcd mould-board plows were so per- 
fectly adapted to the char70tcr of tlie work, that any 
farther attempt at improvement would be abortive; Tbt 
best pkyws are suspended on two wheels, supported by an 
axle near the end of tlie beam. The wheels are tweW« 
inches broad on the surfiioe, the one followhig in the 
fVirrow guides the width of the furrow slice, and the one 
on the sod acts as a roller to break and smooth down the 
prairie grsse. By the aid of a lever tiie whttls are hoist- 
ed up, so as to expedite the turning of the plow at the 
head lands, and the only thing the plowman haa to do, Is 
to set the plow at the tummgs, as the wheels guide it 
quite as perfectly as could be done by the most experien- 
eed plowman. W.G. Epmviiosos. Xsefcnlr, />k.1851. 




SapexfioiAl Faming. 

A promineDt came of small profltt and poor raceess 
in many of our farmers, is the parnmonions application 
of capital, in manorea. Implements, physical force, and 
eonTenient buildings. In their eagerness to save at the 
tap, they waste freely at the bnng. They remind as of 
the cultivator who candidly admitted his unprofitable 
system of farming; -'but," said he, ''I am not yet 
rich enough to be economical." We observe by a late 
number of the Mark-Lane Express, that the present me- 
dium estimate in England, of the capital required to carry 
on the business of a.fkrm, is £8 (about 40 dollars) per 
acre, '' and no prudent man <mghi to rent more than he 
has that amount, at least, of avaijable capital to go on 
with; for a smaller possession, with ample means to 
manage It, will yield better returns than a large quanti- 
ty of land inadequately stocked." Now, some of our 
best farms can be bought for about the same sum that the 
English ikrms are rented j and if the above remark is ap- 
plied to purchasing, instead of renting, it will constitute 
excellent advice to Americans. This is a subject for a 
large volume; and we have only space now to say, that 
if the landowner has not suitable buildings, the value of 
the grain and fodder wasted in consequence, would soon 
pay for them ; and the food and flesh wasted by exposed 
and shivering animals would soon pay for them a secqnd 
time. The want of manure will prevent the value of crops 
firom rising higher than the cost of cultivating them ; 
and the want of heavy crops, to feed animals, will pre- 
clude keeping enough to make plenty of manure. In 
other words, a poor and badly cultivated farm will re- 
act, and only support a poor and badly-fed race of ani- 
mals and men,— -Just in the same way that a fertile and 
thoroughly tilled piece of land will sustain animals 
enough to manure it and keep up its fertility^ and men 
enough to give it thorough tillage. 


SnoceMfiil Oultiiie of Melons. 

Dr. Hull of Kewburgh, N. T., gives a statement of 
bis method of culture in the Horticulturist. Holes two 
feet in diameter, and nearly two fbet deep, dug in 
trenched ground ^ were filled, the lower half with equal 
parts clay loam and /ret& manure, and the upper half 
with clay loam and old naanure. Hills fire inches high 
and four feet in diameter were then formed of equal 
parts of poudretted muekj (a barrel of Lodi pondrette 
to a cord of muck,) eandf and decomposed turf. The 
plants wore started on inverted sods in a hot-bed. These 
bills were six fet*t apart from their centres, and the 
whole spaces between the centres were mulched with long 
litter. The bugs were completely expelled by watering 
the plants daily with a strong decoction of piasHei — 
made by pouring four gallons of boiling water on four 
pounds of quassia in a barrel, and after 12 hours filling 
the barrel with water. The intolerable equaehor pump* 
lein bug was^horonghly driven off by a decoction of 
double strength, containing a pound of glue to ten gal- 
lons, to make ft adhere. 

The product of a piece of ground 40 by 180 feet, was 
eixieen hundred euperb melone. It ought to be added, 
that if ihe ground is not trenched, the holes should be 

much larger ; and where the soil is light instead of clayey, 

rotted or fine manure only, well mixed with the earth, 

should be used, to prevent injury by drouth. 

»#« — 

Importation of Berefbtd Cattle. 

Mr. Ebastus Coavuro Jr., of Albany, has recently 
imported a pfir of Hereford cattle, purchased by biaa 
when in England, last seaaon, of Bev. J. R. SinrTUCSf 
of Lynch-Court, Herefordshire. The heifer is two years 
old, past, and the bull a year younger. The writer has 
had the pleasure of seeing these animals, and cannot re- 
frain from expressiag bis gratification that so great an 
acquisition as they, in themselves are, has been made to 
the farming stock of the country. The heifer is a most 
perfect model of beauty, combined with the points which 
indicate constitution, thrift, fine quality of flesh, and 
weight of carcase with lightness of ofial. Although 
just off a long voyage, at an inclement season of the 
year, she is in high condition, and her flesh was, we are 
assured, acquired by grass. The bull suffered more from 
the voyage, and is at an age to appear to the least ad- 
vantage ; but he has points which show that he will make 
a strong and valuable beast. The animals do credit to 
the character of the breed, the skill of the breeder, and 
the judgment of the persons who selected them. 

Mr. Smtthies is a veteran breeder. More than thirty 
years ago, the writer was interested in reading his spir- 
ited articles, which appeared in the London Farmen^ 
Journal, in advocacy of his favorite Herefords. He has 
been a very snccessfiil competitor for the prizes of the 
Royal Agricultural Society, and of the Smithfleld Club. 
The former association, in 1839, offered a prize of fifteen 
sovereigns for the cow '' best calculated for dairy pur- 
poses" — the competition being open to all breeds in the 
kingdom. This prize was awarded to Mr. Smtthies 
for a Hereford — a second prize being awarded to a Short- 
horn. This was the only occasion on which that sodety 
has brought the different breeds into coropetitionwith each 
other — the class alluded to having been from that time 
abolished. The shows of the Smithfleld Club, are fer 
fat cattle ; here all breeders compete together, and the 
success of the Herefords is too well known to require 
details here. 

Mr. Smtthies has offered several challenges to the 
breeders of Short-horns and other cattle, to test the 
merits of the several breeds, by actual trial, on a fkir 
scale; but they have not been accepted. 

Mr. GoHNiNG has exhibited a commendable enterprize 
in the introduction of these fine animals, which with 
others of the same breed, previously in his possession, 
will enable him to produce stock of high value. S. H. 


A niQH Ghimhkt. — A late paper states that one of 
the great chimneys bnilt in Glasgow to carry off the 
smoke and create draft, belonging to the iron works of 
that city, lifts itself up to the enormous height of fdur 
hundred ajtd eeventyfeet. 

Apples im Western Ksw-Tokx. — ^Moore's Kcw- 
Torker states that notwithstanding the great defect ia 
both quantity and quality of apples, the past season, the 
county of Monroe fVimished but little short of 200,000 




Toppkog OonH-Itaq^v0Tiiif Vistetle*, 

Vr^ 'RvwTVK of yirguiia,1uui offered A mi of premhims 
for ezperimeBU is topping oorn* In all Ylrglnia And Ma* 
ryUnd east of the Bltte ridge* The oljeot U to aaoertain 
by experiment, whether cuttiog off the tope of cora, aa 
is the Qsnal practioe in this region, is it^ariiNis or other* 
wise to the crop of com. A glance at Tegetahle physio* 
logy In this relation, may be vseftil. The leaves of plants 
are of the same nse to the plant that the Inngs are to the 
animal^— so say ^stematic physiologists. I must be per- 
mitted to add, that they, the leares, also supply the 
place of the animal gtomack. The Juices containing the 
nourishment of the plant are taken from the earth by the 
roots or radicles, and conTcyed through the sap vessels 
to the leaves, where they are elaborated and prepared, 
jnst as the food in the stomach is, and formed Into chyle 
by the fhnotioBs of the leaves and the action of the at* 
mosphere. Thus prepared, this chyUferous fluid then 
descends through another set of vessels to the various 
parts of the pfaunt, to supply the material each may ce- 
quire for use. A portion of it Is required for the increase 
of the body of the plant,— woody fibre, Sec.; another 
portion for the formation of flowers at a later period ; 
another portion is required for the formation, in the cams 
of com, of the cob, &c. At last, the grand effbrt and 
great object of the plant, is to form seed for Aiture plants, 
that » the gram, and the great object of the fkrmer. In 
the formation of this, all the powers of the plant are 
taxed. The saccharine Juice ^f the plant has to be con- 
verted into starch, and this is done by the exposure to 
the action of the atmosphere in the leaves. Here, also, 
the glnthious principle is formed, and other modiflcations 
necessary to the supply of the material of the grain, are 
efliBcted in the juices of the plant. These Juices now de- 
scend, and the iqiparatns attached to each grain of com 
takes up and appropriates such portion of the descend- 
ing fluid as it requires for the time. In this manner and 
way the gndn is perfected, and as soon as it is perfected, 
the whole plant, except the grain, is found to be com- 
pletely exhausted— drained, when all the operations have 
been perfect, most comj^etely of all Its Juices, and be- 
comes a mere mass of dry vegetable matter. Now, if all 
this be trae, who can doubt that the suppression of a sin- 
gle leaf of the com plant, before the grain is perfect- 
ed, must be li\)nriou8 to the perfection of the grain? If 
the taking off* the tops is delayed till the grain is of full 
size, then the operation may not diminish the metuur^ of 
the crop, but it will certainly diminish its weight and 
quality in proportion to the time, in relation to the per- 
fection of the grain, at which it was performed, and I ap- 
prehend that the only question to be considered by the 
fanner In any such case, is the relative value to him of 
the grain and the fodder. If a fanner considers the va- 
lue of the com fodder greater than that of a small depre- 
ciation in the value of the grain, caused by the topping 
of his com, then he will continue to top his cj op to the 
extent of his want of fodder. But if he has not much 
need of the fodder, or if by saving it he diminish the 
quantity or weight of his grain to a greater extent than 
the fodder wQl pay for, then he will not top his com. 
The experiments, if fiurly tried, will unquestionably es» 

tablish these truths. Let any one measure and weigh 
the shelled com from an acre that has been topped tp 
save the fodder $ and also that fh>m an acre that has not 
been topped at all, and he will find the yield in the for- 
mer case, less by measure or weight, and perhaps both, 
than In the latter casej and the difference will be more in 
proportion to the time of topping. The com plant, be- 
ing an annual organism, has but the one object, and that 
is the perfection of seed for reproducing its spedes, and 
in the performance of this one great Ainction, it most 
c<Mnpletely exhausts itself. Wheat, and all other annual 
cereals, are of the same nature. If we therefore, take 
fl-om them a portion of tl^ power, in the shape of leaves, 
and with the leaves a portion of the very Juices out of 
which their seeds are 'to be formed, how can we expect 
those seeds to be as perfect as thesy would have been had 
the plants been allowed the use of their whole supply of 
organs and nutriment? Surely this argument need not 
be pursued further. It seems to me that it must carry 
conviction to every mind. But let us resort to analogy. 
You have a hog hi the pen fattening for pork. Suppose 
you suppress an eighth or a tenth of his ordinary supply 
of food— will he thrive as last, or will he thrive at all? 
Then why expect the com to be as well filled and per* 
fected, if you cut off an eighth or a tenth of its supply 
of food? For you must bear in mind that every leaf 
taken from a vegetable suppresses to the extent of its 
proportion to the leaves of the plant, the food of the 
growing plant and the growing seed. If we may be per- 
mitted to question nature on this subject, we might ask 
why she docs not stop the growth of the top and leaves 
above the cars, as soon as the tassel has performed its 
functions, if these are of no ftirther use? 

We must not omit to make a distinction between an- 
nual plants, such as corn, and perennial plants, in consi- 
dering this question. Perennials do not perfect them- 
selves in one season. They grow and increase in size, 
even wbQe bearing fruit. Now these may be very pro- 
perly and profitably topped — ^praned— and by doiug it 
properly, the quantity and even quality of the fVuit may 
be greatly improved. By pmning grapevines we causs 
much of the power of the plant that would have been 
exerted in making new wood, to be turned towards the 
formation of fVuit. As we do not want the wood, and as 
we do want the frait, this is a useAil operation. In the 
case of perennials, the plant performs two operations, the 
extension of its size, and the production of fhiit. The 
annual, aftdV it is grown, has but one duty to perform, 
and that is the production of its frait or seed, and always 
entirely exhausts itself In the effort. 

But there is a species of topping com that I have prae- 
tioed with very curious results. It occurred in my ex- 
|ieriments In improving com by cross impregnation. To 
aecomplid) my obfect I was obliged to suppress the /as* 
$el only, not touchhig a single leaf. On all these plants 
I found the ears were larger and the grain longer and 
heavier, than those in which the tassels were allowed to 
grow and perform their Amotions. Now here we can 
readily see the reason of the result. The tassel is a large 
oigan, requiring a considerable portion of the nutritive 
power of the plant to produce and snpport it; if we pre- 
vent its formation and growth, we of course save to the 




«tfaer parts of tke pluii ftU Hm Awd ihi* woiiUI liftve 
been required for the taasd. Tke consfffneBoe ^«s ae 
Above relftted, a oomrideniMe inorette of the iize and 
ifeight of the ears and grain. I mnrt explalft that the 
poHen was rafipKed by other plants MrrouiidiDg the ew 
operated on, bvt at no expenee to them became the pol- 
len that fell upon the experimental plants wonld baTB giyen enough heed to eonparfeon In the eAaftntg pemt of a 
been lost to its parent ptonts ■* att etents. Persons dis* ^fstriet, when trealhig of fts present condltfMi. We may 

. Wkatrwnignevm Think of IlAp^OcntliiwML 

Kite-Hamen, Conn., Jan. ^j Imi. | 

Mkssm. EDrrons— In reference to the cencteding re- 
mark of my last letter, I weald say irsi, thai fcw of 
those who write or speak npon agricnUnral sahfeet^i, have 

posed to try this experiment may do so safely withont 
risk of loss. The tassel of each alternate plant in a field 
may be cut oat jnst as H makes its appearance, and the 
»im or pistas of €he plants wifi be supplied by the tassels 
«f the neighboring plants. In this way new varieties of 
com may be produced at pleasnteand wif>h little trouble. 
Indeed the wonder is tiiat wh^e we are ranghig the wide 
world over in search of new grains, fruits, and vegeta- 
bles, so Httle Js done to produce new ones and Improve 
old ones at home. In the case of eorn, I affirm that 
every improvement that can be desired, can be eflbcted 
in it. It can be made bite or early, large cob or small 
cob, large or small grain, hard and flinty or soli and 
flowery, wbHeor yellow, by the shnple method of cross 
breeding.. It is infinitely more easy and certain tiian the 
processes of improving animals, and in my opinion in- 
finitely more important to the public and to private in- 
terests. Suppose a farmer desires a kind of com that 
ripens earlier than the kind he cultivates. Let him get 
some early kfaid, and plant it alternately with his late 
kind, allowing at the time of planting for the difierence 
of time each one ripens. If his late kind ripens on the 
16th September, and the early kind ripens on the 16th 
of August, then he must plant the late kind Just one 
month before he plants the early kind. They will then 
come i nto flower, — ^that is tassel and silk , together . When 
the tassels begin to show themselves, let him carefully 
cut out all the tassels from the early kind. This is all 
he has to do. MTien the corn is ripe, select the earliest 
and best ears from the early kind, plant the grain by it- 
seK the next year. He will find the produce will be a 
mixture of the two kinds planted the first year, as to 
color, but they will all be early. At harvest select the 
grains desired, and the tliird year will produce the crop 
desired. In this way any change or improvement in com 
can be accomplished. 


Orowth of the Uidted Statea. 

Hnn. Lewu Cass, in his late address before the Mi- 
chigan 9tate Ag. Society, presented Ihe following strik- 
ing illustration of the rapid growth of this country from 
its fir»t settlement: 

*' I have said upon another occasion, but the circum- 
stance \n Ro striking and characteristic that I must re- 
peat it here, that I have often eonvei-sed with a venera- 
ble relative %v!io was a cotemporary of Peregrrinc White, 
tlie first child born to the pilgrims aOer their arrival on 
this continent. What an almost appalling idea does this 
simple fact present of the progress and prospects of this 
vast Republican empire! But one lifb passed away be- 
tween the first and tlie latest born of one of its great 
communities — between its infancy and its maturity — be- 
tween Its weakness, almost without hope, and its power, 
almost without limits — ^hetween its granary holding a 
few kernels of com, and all its rast ' stonNhonses* whose 
contvnts, like those of Pharaoh's, we may /eare number' 
ingf for they are without number." 

pass (Wnn a rich highly- caltlvaled dialrict^ htto a poor 
barren regkm, where appear on afl sides signs of impef > 
feet and ill managed agrieuHnre, and our tni impidM is 
to condemn the one and praise the other; b«i after aU 
il may really be the ease, that the latter has for the hu* 
ten or twenty years made far greater pregresa than the 
former. Its farmers have had to stmggle with thedia- 
advantages of a poor worn out soil, bad elimata. and 
consequent general depcessioD. Probably too the ihcili- 
ties for commimicatiun and transportation have been 
limited, while in the former ease the reverse of all these 
conditions, has long ago laid the foundation of weatth 
aad lastrog prosperity. We are of course disponed lo 
flatter and praise the agricnlturists of the oae district, 
while we condemn those of the other, bat in this we often 
do a most serious ir^ustioe. 

I remember a strikfaig case of this kind. I onoe spent 
some days in one of the Western Hebrides, with aaesai- 
nent scientific ^pricnltnriat, who had been invited to visit 
the island with the expectation Hiat his teachhigs and 
writings would be of much benefit. Agrieultnre in tins 
island at the commencement of the present eentury waa, 
as in all or iicarly all of the Scottish HI|^hHidB and Isl- 
ands, at the lowest ebb; the earth scarcely prodnced 
enough for the wants of mere existence, and ftimine 1^- 
qnently followed even a partial ihHore of tbescaaty 
crops. The implements were all of the rudest and most 
primitive character, the few roads nearly impassibie,snid 
commnnication with the main land uncertain and nnfre- 
qnent. At the time of onr visit, the roads were saffi- 
cientiy mm^erons and in good condition, the tools and 
thrm buildings had beoome respectable, some good stock 
liad been introduced, and the surplus produce of the isl- 
and was sufficient to support a line of steamers ftom two 
diflbrent points, besides numerous sailing vessels. Hie 
original Gaelic language was fkst yielding to the English, 
prejudice and ignorance had been overcome in a wmider- 
ful degree. 

This was a great change to have taken place fn a single 
life time ; it was still incomplete ; but those who knew all 
of the circumstances MX proud to call attention to their 
condition ; they had really good ground fbr their pride, 
and naturally expected warm commendation. Iloir 
were they disappointed then, when thefr visitor in one or 
two public lectures, compared them deliberately with 
the Scottish Lowlands and other highly famied districts, 
finding fhult with all that differed from such standards, 
noticing in severe terms the lack of care in the preserra- 
tion of nianures, in the extirpation of weeds, &c. &c., 
which he had noticed. His remarks were doubtless just, 
but I was even then led to donbt their proprkty, by the 
ill efffects they produced. 

Within twenty years the Lowlands of Scotland bad 
merely advanced from one state of good fhnning to 





another; tbeiy bud added to provloukiioiriedge, and 
caltivated a previoDsly improved loil) until they stood 
acknowledged at the head of well farmed districta. With* 
In the aane twenty years, the Island on which we were, 
bad emended from a state of almost absolute barbarism) 
with respect to its agriculture; with no previous know» 
tedge, with no degrees of excellence to stimulate, and 
scanty ftMsiUtieB of intercourse, the enterprise of a few 
individuals had disseminated right principles through the 
Island, until it had assumed a highly respectable and 
flourishing condition. Had not the advance in this lat- 
ter case been many times more decided and creditable 
than in the former? These people felt that they had 
done a great work, and were proud of it, and even a lit- 
tle too much pride might well have been excused in such 
an instance; it surely was not wise to disenchant them 
rudely, to compare them at once with the beat farmers 
of the world, and to make them feel an overwhelming 
sense of deficiency. 

Tbfa was a case for warm and emphatic praise; every 
step of progress that had been made should have been 
oommonded and noted; eocoaragement should have 
breathed b every word. Such a course need not have 
made them Belf<«itisaed and sluggish ; on the contrary, a 
hfait now and then thrown in among Jodudons praises, 
would have stimulaied to fhrther exertioui and the pe(> 
pie who went away diseoalented and discouraged, would 
have gone on to new improvemente and new exertions. 

Kow, I think that the same course described above has 
Ibo often been parsaed in this country, and with ibe like 
iUeffeot. Foreigneps, looking not at our oomparatire 
advanee> or our drcnmstaDces of situation and cll> 
mate, compare us absolutely with some high standard, 
aad inding of course, a difference, exhaust their wit, iro- 
ny, and sarcasm upon us. I am not to be understood as 
advocating or wishing unqualified praise from onr visi- 
tors, for that is nauseating, because undeserved, but I do 
desire to see a man who can do us justice, who can praise 
as be ought, the great advances which many of our fkr- 
ners have made, and appreciate the desfre for improve- 
ment which prevails in so many districts. Hints of de- 
fect in certain points, and suggestions for improvement in 
others, would come properly from such a man, and would 
be thankfully received. Human nature is alike in all 
lands, and the majority of men will not accept even of 
good advice, when given In a censorious or dictatorial 
spirit. If a roan obstinately refuses to see the good that 
really exists, and dwells constantly on tlie other side of 
the picture, we are insensibly disposed to combat all 
his criticisms, and to distrust the soundness of his opin- 

The farmers of the United States, as a class, are un- 
doubtedly subject to some serious charges on the score 
of imperfect agriculture ; there are whole counties, and 
even states, where a proper system of cultivation is al- 
most unknown ; and there are many broad and fertile 
districts undergoing a species of management which tends 
directly to exhaustion ; these are melancholy statements, 
but true, and yet I contend that a noble minded man, 
free from all little i>rcjndicee, would find much to praise 
even among the most slovenly of our fkrmers, in the new 
states. The broad acres now smiling with golden crops. 

wert hot a ibw yean a^o, aa unbiukeii wBdemass; ail 
(he marks of civiliaatlon around, soattered and fia g m e a * 
tary as they may be, ave the result of the pioneer^ toil, 
aad the cultivatloa, rude though it Is, may perhaps, be 
better for a new ooaatry than the ellbrts of the most fln- 
isbed agriealturist of Burope. 

If e have existed as an independent nation not yet three* 
fourths of a century, and with all (beeommereial reeonr- 
oes of an immense continent to develop, with the attrac- 
tions of ibreign trade, with unparalleled internal improve- 
ments to occupy the attention and draw forth the ener- 
gies of our people, with our way to fight through un- 
touched forests, is it to be wondered at that our agricul- 
ture has not yet attained a finished and perfi^ct charactert 

I maintain that quite as much has been done as could 
posnlbly have been expected — more than any other people 
has ever accomplished in the same length of time, upon 
a similar terrHorial expanse. Our crops, even now, are 
sufllcient to sui^ly the wants of many foreign countries, 
»Bd the production is only limited by the demand. Lei 
England experience a fkmiae, and she will find that we 
can fill aQ the diips that she can send. 

Our implements are in -some classes confessedly superl* 
or to those of any other nation; such axes, forks, shovels 
and scythes as ours, are no where to be seeB;*onr plowB 
have lately takmi a high stand at the World's Fair, and 
our feapers wiH soon cut the crops of aH Great Britahi. 
In stock, too, we now have not only representatives from 
all the best blood of Europe, but whole flocks aad fltmi- 
lies of high pedigree, may be found in most sections of 
the Union. 

Agricultural papers are more numerous, aad more li- 
berally patronised than in any other country; there !■ 
probably no foreign paper devoted purely to agriculture, 
that has half the circulation of The Cultivator. The whole 
number of our papers that labor exclusively in this Add, 
is, I suppose, considerably greater than all the rest thnl 
can be mustered in Europe, or, indeed, in the world. Af^ 
ricultural societiea also are numerous, active, and powe^ 
All; the Kew-York State Society attracts a flu- greatar 
multitude to its shows than I have ever seen in England, 
and the shows tbemselvea would do credit to any people. 

These facts prove that we are awake to our .situatioa, 
that we are aware of imperfections, and are striving to 
remedy them. They ought, coupled with the general 
and remarkable IntelUgenee of our fiirming populatloBy 
to excite in the breast of a generous, liberal trav^er, 
some sentunents of admiration and reqpeot. If a man Is 
not capable of this, he should be somewhat restrained by 
salutary fear of his own reputatiou as an observer, for it 
must be obvious to any unprejudioed mind, that in a com- 
munity where such papers as The Cultivator, Am. Agri- 
culturist, Genesee Farmer, Prairie Farm^, fcc., flour- 
ish, where such a Society as that of Kew-York State has 
grown up, that there is a steady and rapid improvement 
in progress. 

But if injustice is done us, we must endeavor to show 
it to be injustice, not by declaiming against the inconsis- 
tency and obstinate prejudice of foreigners, but by re- 
doubling our efforts to excel. "Words will never prove 
us to be good farmers^-^actions and results may. Let us, 
then, swallow our resentment at misrepresentation, and 




take a nobler revenge bj placing our agrieuHural prac- 
tice at tbe bead of all. 

I bad intended last montb to dcTote a small part of my 
letter to some remarks on tbe communication by Mr. 
BAaTLSTT, in your November No. I am aware tbatasbes, 
fresh and unleached, liberate ammonia from guano, and 
other highly nitrogenous manures. ICy intention, bow- 
ever, in reconMuending such a mixture was^tbat it should 
bo made immediately before sowing; tbe escape of am- 
monia in that case would be trifling. I am obliged to Mr. 
Bartlett for calling my attention to this point, as the ab- 
sence of any direction on tbe subject might lead tbe far- 
mer to make tbe mixture a day or two before the time 
of sowing, if be happened to have leisure time; It would, 
therefore, have been better to insert a caution, or perhaps 
better still, to have said Itachtd aihtSf as these could 
produce no evil effect. 

As to tbe action of gypsum in absorbing ammonia, it 
is rather slow and gradual; when large quantities of am- 
monia are liberated at once, as in Mr. Bartlett's experi* 
•nee with the urine and fVesh asbes, gypsum could not be 
expected to arrest more than a small part of what escap- 
ed. Far more powerful means of preserving ammonia, 
would have failed of entire success In such a case. The 
whole subject of the influence of gypsum in agriculture, 
needs a careful and extended examination ; all such facts 
as those stated by Mr. Bartlett are valuable. Tours 

truly, JoHX P. NoRTOjr. 


<' February ia a hard Month for Stock." 

This has almost passed into an adage. It is usually 
the coldest month of the year, and as cattle are frequent- 
ly fed in such a way that they grow poor from the time 
they come to tbe barn till they go out to grass again, 
their ability to stand tbe weather is less at this time than 
earlier in the season. Grood farmers, however, under- 
stand this and see that their animals are supplied with 
food according to their needs. They must eat in pro- 
portion to the cold, or the fkt and flesh will be wasted 
away in the production of the warmth necessary to sus- 
tain life. Hence they should be exposed as little as prac- 
ticable to severe weather. They can usually be fed to 
the best advantage in the bam, or in comfortable sheds 
attached to the yard. They should have plenty of wa- 
ter, (that which is several degrees above freesing is best,) 
without being obliged to encounter chilling blasts to get it. 
Cows which calve early, should receive better food as the 
tinae of parturition approaches. A mixture of meal and 
bran, in equal quantities, two to four quarts a day to each 
cow, will be found to more than pay all costs in the increas- 
ed return of butter and cbeese,be8ides greatly strengthen- 
ing the cow, and improving the condition of her calf. 
T\)^ same may be said of ewes and lambs. If sheep fall 
off in condition, the wool is ii\jnred. Much loss is 
sustained from this cause. The wool produced while the 
animal is growing poor, is weak, and gives an uneven 

Larof Pear. — A, J. Downing says that a specimen of 
the Dutchess of Angouleme, weighing twenty-five ounces, 
and measuring 15 inches round the longest way, was rais- 
ed by S. Leeds of Boston, last year. 

HavdhMWHi of Gkvfled Apple T^raat. 

A correspondent, (TV. M'C.) who has hhtely set out m 
large orchard of trees, and intends setting out more,. 
wi.shes to know the correctness of tbe common objectiona^ 
that apple-trees, grafted in or near tbe root, arc liable to 
uneven growth, distorted trunks, unsoundness at the 
poiDt of union,and liability to decay at the heart, and poor 

We have never seen anything to warrant the above oh- 
jections to setting out grafted trees. There are some va- 
rictics of the apple, it is true, which usually grow more 
crooked than most natural seedlings, — such for example, 
as the Rhode-Island Greening, Boxbury Russet, and Fall 
Pippin. Handsomer trees of these sorts might be ob- 
tained by selecting very straight stocks, and grafting theia 
at standard height. It might also prove advantageous to 
treat in the same way some of the slower-growing kinds, 
as Lowell, Red Canada, Early Joe, Dyer, Hawley, La- 
dies' Sweet, &c. Beyond these, there are probably no 
advantages in grafting high. This conclusion is founded 
on eoDtinued observation of thousands of old and bear- 
ing apple trees, from twenty to fifty years of age, graft- 
ed at all heights from beneath the surface to seven feet 
above. We have never observed any bad result from the 
graft out>growing the stock, or vice versa, so far aa this 
remark will apply to the apple or apple stocks; nor doee 
the union of stock and graft ever appear to be imperfect 
or unsound, nor the tree to become liable to decay at that 
point more than elsewhere. We have no doubt that dis- 
ease and death, resulting fVom bad cultivation, or froih 
an entire absence of all cultivation, good or bad, has been 
attributed to grafting, so prone are many to av<M self- 
blame. In ungeuial climates, or on unfavorable soils, 
possibly diflbrent results might be developed, whkh 
would never become visible in regions best adapted to 
the growth of the apple. In Wisconsin and in the colder 
parts of tbe western country, where trees grow rapidly ia 
summer, and are then subjected to frosts of some twenty 
degrees below aero, it has been found advantageona to 
bud or graft the more tender varieties of the apple at 
the height of a foot or more frcm the grouiMl. 


Tnseote on Apple and Cherry Orafta. ■ 

Ens. Cultivator — ^For the past two years I have been 
much troubled with an insect destroying my apple and 
cherry gn'^^fts, particularly the latter, by gnawing out the 
buds previous to their starting. If you can give any in- 
formation respecting the insect, its habits, and mode of 
prevention or destruction, in The Cultivator, you will 
confer a particular favor. Johk Waters. New Mil- 
ford, Dec. 18, 1851. 

We liave never met with nor known the insect men 
tinned above, nor sufiercd a similar loss to the one de» 
cribcd, from any cause. We are unable to say anything 
of its habits, nor of the mode of avoiding its depreda- 
tions; for our correspondent having given OS no descrip- 
tion, we find ourselves in a dilemma quite simiUr to that 
of the Chaldean magicians, (although wc have no thought 
of claiming the wisdom they professed,) who deemed it 
sadly puzzling to Ire required to give both dream and in- 
terpretation. The only insect we knew, with simiiar 





habits of eating, ifl^ the steel-blue flea-beetle, (^Halticm 
chalf/beafy which destroys the buds of the grape early in 
spring, by eating out the central parts. The tarsep^fly 
is a near relattre of this little grape-devonrer. 

If oar correspondent will send ppecimcns of the insect, 
poesiMy we may ascertain something further about it. 
Insects may be sent by mail, by enclosing them in small 
paste-board or thi boxes ; or if they are minute, in the bar- 
rel of a large qnill. A small brass thimble wrapped with 
paper, Is a conTenient case for sending them by mail. 
Without some protection of this sort, ibey will scarcely 
fidl to be crushed. 


Pag^s Portable Saw MilL 

Having received several inquiries in relation to this 
machine, we forwarded them to our correspondent at 
Baltimore^ Dr. 6. B. Sxitb, who has favored us with 
the following reply: 

In answer to the inquiries of "6." and ** S. D.," I 
have to say that the Portable Saw Mil1« noticed by me 
In my report of our State Cattle ^how, is manufactured 
by Mr. J. K. Sarborit, at Sandy.Hill, New-York, for 
the state of New-York, and I believe most of the north- 
em states. He can answer the question as to the prices 
of the various sized mills. I must remark that all my 
knowledge of the machines is derived from seeing them 
work. In answer to the questions in their order, I have 
to say, 

1st. I have seen the portable saw mill worked with 
four horses, with eight horses, and with portable steam 
engines. Of course, eight horses, or their equivalent in 
steam power, will work to most advantage on lai^ge logs, 
or logs more than 12 inches diameter. 

2d. The common horse power of a threshing machine, 
if of four or more horse draft, can be applied to it with 
effect accordii^ to the power, as the power is applied to 
the machine b^means of a band and pulley. 

8d. Eight norses will work the mill with ease, cutting 
about three thousand feet of plank per day. A twelve 
horse power steam eqgine will make it cut 6000 to 8000 
fbet per day. 

4th. I cannot estimate the expense of moving the ma- 
chine a few miles and resetting it — so much depending 
upon local contingencies. I should suppose, however, 
that it woHld be a mere trifle, as the whole apparatus is 
as portable as a threshing machine, except being more 
heavy. It can be removed in a common wagon drawn 
by four or six horses, from one part of the woods to 
another, or wherever else its services may be required, and 
put in operation again without delay or difficulty. One 
person with one of these mills has cut with four horses 
ft>om May to October, five months, two hundred thou- 
nnd feet of lumber, and the machine had not got ma- 
terially out of order. 

5th. Weight of a first class saw mill about 7000 lbs., 
second «last 5000 lbs., third class 4000 lbs. Weight of 
horse power for 4, 6, 8, or 10 horses about 3550 lbs. It 
is portable over any road or surface where do heavy a 
load can be carried. 

Mr. Sanborn will of course answer the question as to 
prices of the various sixes. For the largest size, with 
steam engine and everythhig complete, the price will be 

about $2000. For the saw mill alone, 12 feet carriafs, 
24 feet ways, about $700. For second class saw mill 
and engine, 12 horse power, complete, about $1900. Saw 
mill alone about $500. Third class saw mill and engine, 
10 horse power, about $1600. Saw mill alone about 
$S00. To each of the sises, there are various fixings ne» 
cessary which cost one to two hundred dollars. 

But as to the prices I do not know that Mr. Sanborn 
charges so high, nor that he does not ask even more. I 
am obliged to guess at roost of them. 

In conclusion, I do believe that in a timber country 
where lumber is wanted either for common purposes or 
plank roads, there is nothing equal to this portable saw 
mill. I have stood looking at it at work for hours and 
hours in admiration of its performance. I have seen the 
saw cut through a log, 12 feet long and more than a foot 
diameter, hard seasoned oak, in one minute, and in 12 
minutes reduce a log of that kind to inch and a half 

But I have said enough. Those who want further hi* 
formation can readily obtain it from Mr. Sanborn, at 
Sandy Hill. Respect flly, Gideos B. Smith. 


Waahlng, Drying, and Xronlng Olothea. 

So very graat is our difllculty of procuring female 
** help" in norihern Indiana, and I may say the north- 
west generally, that washing day is rendered frequently 
not only one of Imaginary misery, but one of real, and 
almost unendurable labor to the female part of our fami- 

Our (hrms are generally large, compelling us to keep a 
number of hands, and thon^ we are willing to submit to 
almost any tyranny from our " help," yet we will fre- 
quently find our wives in bad health, compelled upon a 
moment's warmiug, to resume the entire household work. 
There is no escape that we can hope for from this state 
of things, — so that I desire to elicit through your Jour- 
nal, such modes as our ingenious eastern brethren may 
have found practical in transferring the labor of washing 
day from the hands of our females, and placing the bur- 
then upon ourselves and sons, or even upon our horses, 
if it has been found practicable to do so. Many of us 
saw our wood with circular saws, and hence the horse- 
power is generally at hand. It appears to me that Yan- 
kee ingenuity certainly has devised a mode to wash by 
horse-power, and I remember to have seen in your paper 
a plan for dryiqg clothes, by placing them in a quickly 
revolving box, but the details not having been given, I 
could not even try the experiment. 

In my youth I remember to have seen a '' mangle," as 
it was called, for smoothing clothes, instead of the flat- 
iron, and though I remember it did the work well, yet I 
have foi^otten how to make one. Now, will not such 
friends to suffering humanity as may be able to give us 
the necessary information, do so upon this apfieal, being 
assured of not only the thanks of every humane man, 
but of the enduring gratitude of the better part of crea- 

To be specific, we need a plan of washing where the 
strength of maa or horses may be made available. Some 
mode of getthig the water out of clothes, except wring 




i^ br hud, ftOd WMy, tutnaUou bow %o mkke • 
"," or otbu- •OBlriraDoe t« Mpenad« ironfaic. 
BooaiM. InHana, D*t. IB51. 

The preoedlnc reaiarki of onr cmrcipoiideDt do Dot 
giTe BO oTcrdrawB picture of tbe dUDcalttn OBdared b; 
UlonMdi. TtM bet la, one greaX dmrbacfc In the 
pletinrei of rani tire, m tb« weariag drndgerj to whkk 
womeD Bra Ire^ncotlf mbjected tbrough tb« Bbsence 
tt good doncBlio. We therefore think ft einlaeail; 
worlby Ifae BttcDlioa of CTery friend of rnni cotDrort, 
aod coBBeqnaDtly of rnral ioiproTenent, to unite Ib b 
tigorooa attempt to remoTa tbe hcBTf burdeoi, vhich 
are DOW loadlBB dona tb«a« fur wbom it aboald b« onr 
fre*t pkaaura Ib live Bud Ubor. Why tben tbuatd not 
•T«iT p«]>er dcToted to tbe Enterettd of coootr; life, be 
wiHing to oMnpy • bu^ ahBre of its colamna with Ihia 
farr Nil^tt W« hope onr cotreq>oadenti will f>Tor 
HI vilb anylhing nlaable tbcy may poiacnfcir redDcing 
the amoant of thii domestic dradgery,- and to themcan 
time m aball •ndeaTor to aoiwer aadl of the preocding 
hqairiet aa we loBy be abla to do. 

After trying diBbreat tilsda of wtaUng mtcUnea, the 
one repreaeDted and deacribed OD,page SIB of the Cul. 
tliator for ISM, has bean found decidedly the be«t, tbe 
writer of tbete remark* baring uaed one to his family 
for eiglit jMia with mneb wtisfcetioe. For Ibe benefit 

• WiinHO Hachui. 

of onr new snhscriben we repeat theflgnre, A boy (en 
or twelve yeara of age will work U with greit hcitlly, 
and It Tcquirei nat a third of the labor of rnbbing on 
tbe beat wasb-board. It la worked by an alternating 
motion of the lever A, turning on the binge or pfvot B, 
Bnd communicating a thrustltig motion to the bar C, 
which movei the perforated board like tbe swinging of a 
pendulum In the' trough. The leverage la precisely like 
tbe elbow-Joint of tbe old-fashioned printing press, and 
bence tbe box ibonid be ttrong, for the preaaure exerted 
Bgalnat Us side Is enormous. The notched end of the 
bar C enables the operator to regalate the space occn- 
pled by the clothes. The leters are all made of cast- 
iron. The whole coat of one of these machine* Is five 
or «ix dollars. We know tt no food washing machine 
worked by boraa power. 

A wringing maeblBa for bnl^oae*, ft made by pro- 
TtdlBg a AaUow troo^ riwut 7 feet long, ntonHiaUw 

ItMise of B bench, at oh end of whidi ia Bi«d, dirvctlj 
oter tbe troa^, b usple wooden acrew-Tiee- At Otm 
Mber ead h B wiadi (or one-hand wkMUaaa) which im 
also furnished with b imall aerew-riea. Tlia article to 
be wrnog isaecnred at its exireioitka in thete two titta. 
when by tnmiiig Ibe winch, any degree of twiatini ma^ 
be given, tbe water pouring oat into the trough beDeaUi. 
Where but few bed dothea are sraahcd, b sborter tron^ 
eny be made, wringing lialf at a Ifaie, and aerriag far 
ordinary wearing ganncata, TIm trongh ahould ba 
lower at one end, nnder wbich b pail is to be set for r^ 
ceiving tbe water. Moat of the water in washed riothea 
may be pressed from them by meaoa of tbe washing ma- 
chine just deacribed, that drBlnlng Uw trongb by diaw- 
tbe plug with which it is nirnisbed- 

Wa hope in our next nnmlwi la gfve a deacription of 
a w,a«st,. 

Will not some of onr correBpiKkdenta deaci^be the mi^ 
chine for drying dotbeat 

We make a snggestion to onr correapondent how 1* 
lessen the naiiiber of "handa" boarded )n the family. 
Build neat cottages on a convenient part of tbe tartn, 
and employ men who have families, and who will board 
themKlves qnilc as cbeaply as tbe farmer hfmaeir can do 
it, and pay them for this board in form prodace. The 
cottages must be neat, or the best bands will not occopy 
tbcm; they need not be expensive. We have tHed thIi 
method of getting labor with entire sncccM. 

Since writing the abore, we fuve been Ikvored by ft. 
kind neighbor and akilful honsewtfe with tbe (b]towtn( 
directions, founded on fiilt experience, for the uae of 
Cran^i Soap, which w« believe is pretty widely disseml. 
nated through the country, and which may be bad at a 
moderate price. Ourown experience confirms Its ralue, 
more especially on those occasions when domestiet am 
missing, and tbe mistress or her daughters are compelled 
to do their own washing: 

After bavli^ tried varlona method* ^wadtlag, and 
nnmerous varietlca of soap, to cleanse clothes with HtUe 
labor, 1 fiare become quite a convert to the efficacy 
of " Crane's Patent Soap" for tbiapnrpoae- I ba*enaed 
It weekly for three months, and find It ■// that the tn- 
veotor represents it to be. Tbe ordinary clotbfcg fo* a 
Sunily of six persona, b generally wadied, rinsed, and 
hung up in the course of three boars. 

The process Is very simple. I take a half pound of 
the soap, and slice it Into two quarts of bet water, and 
keep It hot until tbe soap li dissolved ; then ponr tt (nto 
a tub containing ten gallons of water, heated to about 
100°. Let them loak half an boui^-tben nib llieni 
slightly with the hands, and if any artlctes are nnuraallr 
soiled, I rnb them on the board. It Is astonishing with 
what ease every spot Is removed. Asjoumb them ont, 
throw them into a tub or boHer of acaldlng water, whfeh 
may be kept bot by adding a dipper of hot wat«r occa- 
donally. Ten minutes In tbe scalding water ti mActent 
— then rinse and bine them as Diual- The water in which 
tho dolhes were soaked may have a qnarter of a potUMl, 
(or less according to the number of colored aiticles,) of 
soap added to it, and a little bot water. Then soak your 
colored clolbea just as the white ones were : scald, rinse, 
starch, &c., as lis usually done. My exjierience tells mo 
that tbey do not tai« nearly ao much a* wltlt the ordloa- 
ry bard aoap." 

■raE euLTivATcat. 

A Oonntrjr Sobool Hom^ 

So one otD jcAirwy through any MCtion of the coun- 
try iriihoid being Impreued viifa lh« tmct, that KhooL- 
honm ITO. generally, eoMtincted without tMte, co«- 
Tenlenee, or even comrort. Loc&tedln Iheg^ognphlol 
centre ot the diilrict — be that on a bleak bill-side or In 
a frog. pond— erected at m little coat aa possible, with 
nolhinc without or irithin to tnake it ittraciiTe,— willi 
no gronndiiBTG the pQblic highway belongnnK to it, — like 
■ome relic or the paat, itands the scbooMiotiae. Popa- 
lar sentiment demand* better Khools and more hi(h!y 
qnalifled t«acher«, than it did tirenty yeintiDce; but In 
fbw inifances, haa a corrccponding trnprorement been 
made Id the ediBces devoted to the primary, and almost 
tlie only edncatlon of children. 

We present above a design for a School HoD*e, taken 
ttom the HortioultDrlst for Jaooarj — a work detigaed 
to foru and cultlnle A correct taate la ruralarchilcctnrc. 

"It haa at least th« pBtrlt (taysHr. Dowviaa) of 
ahnylioity in the {ilan, and *t ft ia a parallellogram, of 
«cononiy In its construction. An entrance hiilorloliby, 
opens into a Urge school-rootn for boys upon the one 
aider and ooe fee girl* npan the other. Between tbeae 
two rooms Is a recitation room, which may contain a 
book case for t be school library. The exterior ia bold 
and picturesque — llie tij-Ie a modification of the Swiss 
—.ami well adajited to many sites "in our varied rural 
aeaoery. Tbe widely ever-haniing eaves afford a apeciea 
«r veranda ibelter round Ibe whole building. Thestyle 
II exCDpdmily well adapted for a woodrn building, and 
It* drlail9 are <o simple tbat an; eonnlry carpenter of 
inteHipnoe coald coBatract aoeh a achool hooae wUbout 
•nf further workhf drawing." 

Now, we aak, doea not auch a bnilding commend Itself 
to the taale of every person, and contract favorably with 
Um mde ttructurea *o oommon everywberel The Ar- 
okitect of Nalore haa not failed to scatter locations of 
boButy tltlek over our land, and scaree a sdiool district 
<aa be G>und whero a proper sllc for a model building 
doe* not Invite attention. Tbe additional expense of 
•recliHga building in Ibissjyle, Isnot worth a moment's 
conaideralioD In comparison with the results, growing 
out of the change, Tlieloveofthe beautiful is instinc- 
tive in childhood, and only ttte narrow prejudice of self. 
■eckiDg man can sec aotlilng to admire In tbe lovelineas 
<»f nature, or In the fair proportions of art. Ke»t tothe 
altraetioDt of the home Bmide, the ichool should be 



deiiraUe and Inviting place. Hare doe* mind 
receive Its flrit Impresiioiia and fom It* taUei aod cba- 
Here does tbe boy Ix bis standard of atUl«- 
acqaire bii notion* of geolilily and propriety, 
and Int learn to compare hiinieir with othera. 
An air of nntnese and elegance sbauld be given lb* 
adiool hoa«e, and tapolnt of inlib, decoration attdrumt- 

diDiild equal tbe liest apkrlntcnt of a private reat- 
rieoce. Children woald respect aueb a building, wouM 
be in it, and what la more, would form there, 
habit* of prt^iely which would save tjie inaa many ■ 
bitter kaaoD of mart iflcalion. Children imitate the mas- 

of those around tbem, and rudeness h no moM 
aafuro: than politeneaa. This I* not mere speculation. 
We have teat a school house which had been In conalant 
use for tfaree year*, npon wbo*e carpet there were no 
marks of tbe gormandising tatle* of •cbolars, whose 
neatly stained detks showed no ligna of the Yankee pro- 
clivity to whittle, whose walls were ditfignaed with no 
Mmi-barbarieartittiedeMgnsj yet (here bad been i» 
blows struck in that school, there were no rules to pre- 
vent injury to the building. A gnttlman had taught the 
BChnoI, and as nalnrally as effect fbllows canae, gentle- 
manly and Uiy-lilte aAniar* were in attendance. It Is 
needtesa to remark that Intellectnal improvement waahi 
perfeel keeping with advauce iu other respects. 

Thousaniis of dollars are wisely laid out every year 
in erecting chnrchesinerllie best models, and decorating 
them according to the mo*t approved slandard* of taatf; 
and why should not equal pride be taken in combining 
beauty and fitness in the district Kchool bouset If arcU. 
teclurc he the expression of idess of beauty, if it has a 
meaning, will not six days in a beantlAiI school hone 
do more in impreising the mind with a correct taste, 
a beautiful church I Each haa lis approprtato 




THE AMERICAN MUCK BOOK ; treatuig of Ihe natare, proper- 
ticS| aoorect, hittory, and operaiion* of all the principal fertilizen 
■od mauoraa in oommon ate, with apecifk: dircctioM for their 
preporaUoD, preaerTaiioa and appUeatioo lo ibe adl and to 
crop* ; m combined with the lettding priiiciplea of practical and 
■cientifie agriealnire, ftc By IX J. Baowsn. New-York: C. 
M. 8axlOD-420 pages IStma 

Tbc Muck Book contains a great deal of Talnable mat* 
tor. This has been drawn from a large number of the 
beat authorities on the subjects indicated in the title ; the 
numerous analyses of plants and manures, are particu- 
larly valuable, and are not to be tbaod in any other ringle 

In sifting out from so many authorities, we obaerre 
that a few portions of chaff have found their way among 
wbMi was intended for dear grain. One of these is the 
Tvoommendation of common and Toltaic electricity to 
hasten the growth of vegetables, by burying wires in the 
woU. How is it possible that the minute portions of elec- 
tricity brought down into the earth by these wires, should 
be of the least benefit to plants, since the moment the 
fluid reaches the moist earth, it may be dissipated thou- 
sands of miles in every direction in a moment of timef 
This experiment is recommended for trial ; but it was 
tried some years ago, in various parts of the country, by 
those who did not see its theoretical absurdity, with about 

.'. ;h effect, (as a western editor who tested it amply 

lied,) as if two toads had sat winking at each other 

opposite sides of the garden. It is true, the drill 

«' ns and peas, planted immediately over the wire, 

'.nuch more vigorously than the others, in oonse^ 

.4ice. solely, of the deep trench of mellow earth made 
in laying the wire ; and the grape- vine which grew so as- 
tonishingly at the foot of the lightning-rod, received its 
vigor from the deep bed of loose soil excavated in setting 
the foot of the rod into the ground. This was all. We 
are much in favor of experiment, when there is any pro> 

Stiity or even possibility of success; hence we should 

"umarily reject the ivftnty-eix reeipetj given in the 

3ook, for special manures for different plants or 

although their indiscriminate application to all 

f son, whether containing the same ingredients or 

not, might be regarded as approaching empiricism. 

But we did not intend to write a review of the work, 
but merely to invite attention to its contents, the great 
body of which possesses high value, especially to th^ in- 
vestigating farmer, to whom an occasional sprinkling of 
doubtful matter can be no objection, as such a fkrroer 
does not or ought not to take statements merely upon 
trust. Those who wish to advance towards perfection in 
the saving, mannfkcturing, and judging of the compara- 
tive value of manures, and in applying them with the 
least possible waste to crops, will find in this book a vast 
magarine of suggestions and advice, worth many times 
its cost and the labor of perusal. 

THE SKI|JFUL HOUSEWIFE'S BOOK; or Complete Guide 1o 
Domeetic Cookery^ Ta«tf, Comfort, ami Economy. Embracing 
050 receipts, pertaining to hoiMe-boid <1atie«, gHitlening. flower:*, 
bifd«, planta,&c. By Mra. L. G. Abkbl, New- York: C. M. 
Baxiou— 900 l2mo pagea. 

This work, fromtlie pen of a well known and success- 
ful authoress, we think the best domestic guide for the 

young housewife that we have yet teen, and the veteran 
housekeeper may learn much from it that ia useful. It 
is chiefly a compilation, with enough original matter to 
give it a diaraeter of its own. The selections are evi- 
dently the result of judgment and ezperienoe. 

The " M OBAL Hiins^' are m>t tbe least exeeUent and 
interesting part of the woriL. Asexamples of these, tlie 
following are about iair specimens:— 

*^ ScoLniHo. — I never inew one wlio was in the habil 
of scolding, able to govern a family. What makes peo- 
ple scold? The want of self-government. How then can 
they govern others! Those who govern well are general- 
ly calm. They are prompt and resolute, but steady and 

'^ PoLiTBHBss. — ^Tbe forms and ceremonies of polite- 
ness may be dispensed with in a measure, in the relazations 
and intimacies of one's own flre-dde, but kiso attbs* 
TIOHS HEvaa.'' 

" Truth. — The heaviest fetter that ever weighed down 
the limbs of a captive, » as the web of the gossamer, 
compared with the pledge of the man of honor. Tbe 
wall of stone and the bar of iron may be broken, but bis 
plighted word msvbb." 

^' Childhood is like a mirror, catching and reflectii^ 
Images all around it. Remember that an impious, pro- 
lane, or vulgar thougbt, may operate upon a young heart 
like a careless spray of water thrown upon polished steel, 
staining it with rust that no after efforts can efface." 

A score of pages are occupied with such gems as tbe 
above, which we should like every living person to read. 
The main portion of the book is devoted to directions for 
cooking, and the various operations of household econo- 
my, to a due share of excellent instruction for the treat- 
ment of the sick, preparation of simple remedies, and to 
a vast amount of miscellaneous facts, exceedingly conve- 
nient and useful for every woman to know. The price of 
the book, bound for the mail, is only 25 cents, and the 
postage but a quarter of that sum. 

Ths Daiktmah's Mahual, by G. Eva vs. — We are 
indebted to the author for a copy of his work, consistii^ 
of the history and importance of the dairy, descrfptfons 
of the different breeds of cows, the management of the 
dairy, the diseases incident to cattle, ftc. The book ii 
neatly executed, and contains valuable information. 

Habpbr's Vagazihi for January, contains a biography 
of Franklin wilh forty-five illustrations, — ^follows Napo- 
leon in his Egyptian campaign, and reviews the news 
of the preceding month. Garlyle and Dickens, each fh 
his peculiar style, cater to the public taste, the onegivii^ 
his impressions of the opera, the other in a ghoat story. 
The editor's columns display some reflections, as wAl as 
amusing anecdotes, while Punch Indulges In rare comi- 
calities on tbe Bloomers. 

Thb Imtkrhatioiial, is improving In matter and style, 
and is more decidedly American In its characteristics, 
than Harper's. The January number has some finely 
executed Illustrations of the subterranean scenery of the 
United States. — a comparison of the poetry of Stod- 
dard and Taylor, and a new poem by Alios Cart. Tbe 
foreign articles arc well selected, and, as a whole, It has 
no peer in the literary monthlies of the day. 

Grabah's Magazine, in point of execution, is decided 
ly in advance of its contemporaries. Its plates are beau- 
tiful, and it has a solid, substantial look about it. Tbe 
contents will speak for itself. 





l^KW PiABS. — Among the best new pears, which have 
been to some extent tested are, Latorenct, medium size, 
and of flnt rate qnaUty, ripenliig from Ute autumn into 
mid- winter, a fine grower; Diyyenm Bouttoekf rather 
large, nearly equal in quality to the best White Doyenne, 
and a fine grower on quince ; Beurr4 LangilUr, an ex- 
cellent whiter pear; Gray Wtnter Beurrty {Beurrt grU 
d^kiver nouveaUf) medium in size, high flavored, a good 
bearer ; TysoUf medium in size, melting and high flavor- 
ad, a fine grower, and one of the very flnest late summer 
varieties; jiutumn Paradise f {Paradise d^autamne,) 
rather large, of the highest quality, resembling Beurre 
Boec, but in some respects rather superior; and Dutch' 
eee of Orleans, and Beurre d^Jnjou, fine autumn varie- 
ties. Of those still newer to most, the Bonne de Zees, 
Ott, and Brandywinef among early pears, and Suzette de 
Bavay, for whiter, have proved of high quality. 

WssTEMM Appubs. — B* HoDGx, of Bufialo, in an arti- 
de on the Pomological CJongressof Cincinnati, In the Hor- 
ticulturist, speaks of the high cfaamcter of Pryor's Red, 
as cultivated in Kentucky, where, according to good au- 
thority, it has no superior and few equals. He asks if 
^ any eastern cultivators have fhiited this variety?" It 
has for several years borne fhiit in western New- York, 
where it proves of fine quality, but does not equal in size 
Bor in richness and full maturity of flavor, specimens re- 
ceived from Cindnnat!. It appears that a great diversity 
of opinion prevailed as to the character of the Cooper 
mppUf some pronouncing it " coarse and spongy," and 
** second rate," while others dahued'for it the highest 
merit. The specimens which the writer has received from 
southern Ohio, although not equal to some of our most 
celebrated standard sorts in a high and rich flavor, were 
remarkable for their exceedingly agreeable qualities as a 
table fruit. 

OcTTiHO Dowir Lists. — Every person ikmiliar with 
Hybrid Perpetual Roses, must have observed a striking 
resemblance, both in color and appearance, among a large 
portion of the named varieties. Probably a dozen of the 
most dissimilar might be made to embrace all that would 
be required in one garden. It is therefore rather amus- 
ing to observe the number embraced in the reduced list 
of Rivers' Catalogue, cotai^ing only sixty^seven varie- 
ties, while a neighboring nurseryman still keeps as high 
as a hundred and ten. It is desirable however, not to 
reduce the list too low, as some excel in hardiness, others 
in free growtii, and others stUl again in profuse flower- 
ing, while some may succeed best in one soil and fkil in 
another. Hence the importance pf some chance for se- 
lection and trial. 

FatitT Packed m ICB.^-It appears by a late number 
of the Horticulturist, that " an American has carried 
CQt peaches [packed in tin boxeseacased in ioe,] and had 
ttie pleasure of presenting tiiem to his friends in Eng- 
land, in the finest preservation." 

Trahsplaxtiho A LoADBD PsAB TftSK. — A large pear 
tree, 34 feet hi^, with a top 80 feet in diameter, was, 
ftoeording to the New-England Farmer, tranq>lanted 
when loaded with fhiit, without injury. A trench was 
eat, leaving a Uock of earth ronnd the tree 12feet squaroi 

and three and a half thick, about and under which a 
strong and tight plank box was made. A canal was then 
dug, along which the box was moved 82 feet to its place 
of destination. The weight of earth was 25 tons— the 
whole cost of moving, $60. The tree had about two 
barrels of fhiit upon it. 

Razsiho Applbs pbom Cuttibos.— One of the latest 
editions for this purpose, now going the rounds, is thefol> 
lowing: — Select the kind of fruit you deshre, then take a 
linen string and tie as near the top as may be— let it re- 
main one season, and you will have one year's growth 
above the string, and close over it a bulb of new wood. 
Cut the shoot oiT at Uie bulb, and q^ H in the ground, 
and from the bulb will start out roots, and soon trees of 
dwarfish size will be seen groaning under a burden of 
fk'uit." This is partly correct, and partly humbug. Cut- 
tings of the apple may be made to root in a hot^house 
and in some tropical countries, and the bulb would doubt- 
less contribute slightly to this end. Add to the above, 
burying the shoot under soil as soon as the string is t1e4« 
and roots will soon be thrown out with much certainty. 
But there is nothing in any part of this work tending to 
form dwarf trees. 

Talub of thb Fbuit Cbop. — ^The CommissioDer of 
Patents, Judging from statistics in his possession, esd- 
mates the present annual value of the fruit crop, at tea 
millions dollars. Dowmiho thinks that In a few years, 
when the great number of young trees planted lately, 
come into bearing, the amount will notfltU short of twen- 
ty-five or thirty millions. 

OvBB Stock or F&uit Tbbbs. — The editor of the 
Prairie Farmer, after wide observation, thinks that they 
of the west will not have enough fhiit /or their otpn use 
in much less than 16 or 20 years, so great Is the number 
of trees which die of neglect, or are eaten up by insects. 
He also gives it as the opinion of the editor of the New- 
, England Farmer, a man of great observation and ex- 
perience, that at least one half of the newly transplanted 
trees in Massachusetts are starved to death— one-fourth 
more devoured by borers, cattle, bad trimming, and 
other enemies, so that the ftiU proportion of those set, 
which never bear an apple, is three-fourths. 


in the Horticulturist, the result of his experience hi trans- 
planting strawberries, on the 1st of June, 1st of July, and 
Ist of August; the first gives him a large crop the next 
year; the second, about half a crop; and the thurd about 
one-quarter of a crop. This is about in accordance with 
our own experience. 

AppLBS-^aooD CvLtuBB.— The Genesee Farmer In- 
forms us that Lewis Burtis of Rochester, has a young 
orchard, set 6 years, single trees of which have borne, 
In one case three and^a half bushels of Baldwins; two 
and a half bushels of Rhode-Island Greenings; and half 
a bushel of Roxbury Russets-^all of the finest quality 
—and all owing to high and attentive culture. 

Koss OB Tbbbs.— ^The American Farmer gives the 
following as an excellent application to the scraped trunk 
to prevent the growth of moes,aiid destroy eggs of faiscMsts : 
1 gallon of soft soap, 1 tb. flour sulphur, and 1 quart of 
salt, to be well stirred togetheri and put on with a hard 



The Onltiv»tor— 'Bn pr oviMneiit of the BOnd. 

£]M. CviTiTATOXr-rAUow me^ for the eneovragemeiil 
of the readers of your yaliiable periodical, to ipeak of 
•ome of the pecniuary benefits wbich I have derived firooi 
tte pemeal ; and to make some Buggeatiow, relatiTe to 
tbe meDtal improvemeiit of tbe a^icaUuralcUMof com- 
niuaity. And here let me remark in order that we may 
he the more able to jndge correctly of the merita of the 
Cnltivator, a« an^gricultural guide, that I am .a young 
ianner, and always worked on tbe iarm, under tbe in- 
rtmclioDs of my father, (whom I errer considered a good 
practical Ikrmer,) lytil I was of age; since which time, 
I have had a separate interest, of about eight years, in 
a farm of about 85 acres of tillalde laqd. There being 
QO orchard on my farm, at that time, my first bnsmess 
was, to have one growing, as soon as practicable ; wfaidi 
is now hi a thrifty condition. But could I have had the 
knowledge, then, which I hare Hna obtained from the 
pages of the Cultivator, with regard to the management 
of young fruit trees, ray orchard, with Utt labor than 
has been expended in its cultivation, would have attained 
a growth sufficient to have returned, in fVuit, more than 
two hundred dollars, before I shaU, now, realise 0ne 
iwentieih of this sum. 

At that period, there wa4 not a rod of subterranean 
drain on my farm, although there was not a field which, 
!n some parts, could not l^ greatly improved by draining. 
In this iMtinch of agriculture, I had never had any in- 
stmcttons; and the business, in this immediate vicinity, 
was very imperfectly understood ; therefore, I commenced 
reclaiming tliose parts, when a surplus of water was found, 
at a great disadvantage. While hi some localities the 
first crop paid for the expense of draiiUi^, in others, the 
land was benefitted by tl^ drain, only on one tide of ii. 
I relied for success upon the counsel and experience of 
those who had been engaged in tbe bunness, for a num- 
ber of years; and whose advice is, '' cut your ditches in 
tht lowest and wettist places ,*" which a little science 
proves to be erroneous. But when tbe August number 
of the Cultivator for 1844 appeared, the mystery of some 
of my drains proving a failure on one side of them was 
unravelled. What volumes of instruction are rdlected 
from thai number on the subject of thorough and effectual 
draining! From the illustrations and remarks on draining 
in that number, I immediately discovered, by the applioa- 
tion of the principles of geology tothepivctioal purposes 
•f agriculture, that the drains, which had been made, 
were several rods distant from the place where they 
should have been j and now, in order to secure my crops, 
for the ftature, from tbe injury of surplufl water, another 
drain must be made, at an expense of twenty or thirty 
4olUn. And here, allow me to copy from my agricul- 
tural notes, taken at that time, on this subject: 

" In field number 1, thirty rods of ditch were made 
at an expense of ten dollars, and proves of little utility 
to the crops. This field slopes about 4 or 5 inches in a 
rod J and it has ever been to me, a rnvstery, why such 
ground requires draining; but the Cfultlvator, for the 
present month, has not only Informed mo the souroe 
whence tbe water comes, and where la the most correct 
place to make a drain, whWi will cut off the water veins, 
out has been the means of my unlearning what J had 
learned amiss, on the subject of underdrainTng. • • • 
The loss of grain, on this grotind, by winter-hilling, and 
the expense of making another drain, which is necessary, 
J may, with safety, reckon at one hundred dollars. So 
much fi)r the information on two or three pages of the 
Cultivator." I might iqp«ak of other pecnnlary benefits 
which the cultivator ha« been to me: but I forbear, for 
fear of prolixity. 

To attempt a computation, In dollars and centii, of the 
value, or benefit* which the Cultivator baa been td me, 

in a mental point of view, would be tlie height of al^ 
surdity. But I have no hesitancy in affirming, that, 
could we, by any means, arrive at anything iangibUf tlio 
stipend would double, treble, aye, quadruple the amouiit 
already mentioned. Its instructions and suggesHoiMi 
have been and are even now, a souvet of mflnfle wt»i 
faction to me. it has had more iafluenee in inspiring^ 
desire for correct thought and investigation, on the 
subject of agriculture, than aU other periodicals and 
books combined. 

Who dares make an estimate of the valiie which th^ 
analytical communications, of distinguished chemiata^ 
may be to me, in saving economically, in correctly pre- 
paring, and judiciously applying manure to the soQ, for 
the benefit of crops? Who is able to assure me.that Om 
foundation for agricultural education^ which has bees 
laid, by the perusal of the Cultivator, will not in years 
to come, pay for a thousand copies of it, for one year in 
advance? Who can tell, that the resuU of soma experi- 
ment recorded in the Cultivator — ^some s«ggeatioos--60BM 
manner of performing certain kinds of labor on the fkrm, 
will not prove, in future years, a revenue of many hun- 
dred dollars? 

But what I have learned from the Cnittvatw, othnt 
may have the equal benefit of. A person of superficial 
knowledge, passing through the land, could not fki! to 
discover scores of opportunities for ue appiieatien of 
science to the practical part of agrksnlture. There aam 
yet vast and boundless fields unexplored in the grand 
science of agriculture, which is teeming ^^-ith . so much 
magmfioence and delight, towards the highest stalis of 
perfectibility. And if young men would keep pace witk 
the more important improvements of the agp in which 
they live, which are making such gigantic strides, they 
must labor most assiduously, or they will be left far in 
the distance. If they wish to be a nmenOty — a bdag 
which the human race would be atliamed to own as one 
of their numper. and an abuser of heaven's richest gifts, 
let them relax all efforts — ^throw off all restraints; and a 
few years will have accomplished that obiect.* There is 
no " jtanp on and ride," in the road to usefulness, honor 
and renown. Every one has a mind which he ia under 
obligation to cultivate; and in this day of intelligence, 
there can be no excuse ibr any one, who does not avail 
hunaelf of the ftidlities for aeqairhig a respectahle edu* 

Kow the Cultivator is most happily adapted to impart 
aid, to any one, whose motto is improvement. The con- 
tents of the Cultivator in a good degree are worth jlitdy- 
ing. The novice may here study iiefirst principles of 
agriculture ; and the result of such eSfforts will not fidl 
to improve the mind and the purse. 

I am well aware, that young men plead a -'ujant of 
time,** But, If there is a dienosUionf perhaps no ela« 
of citizens have more leisure nours, and greater oppor- 
tunities for reading and reflection, than farmers. What 
great indncpments the long whiter evenings hold out to 
the agriculturist, after his daily task is done, to cnltl* 
vate the miod, and to store it with useful knowledge! 
It seems as if it was one of the creator's prominent de« 
signs, in sending long evenings in winter, that fiinners, 
while the earth la being prepared to yield fbod for the 
sustenance of their bodies, might be treasuring in tho 
storehouse of the mind, that knowledge which will tend 
to make them wiser, and mankind better. 

It is, undoubtedly, too true, that most young men, 
who labor on the farm, hate an^Hhing like mental sppll* 
cation; and when they are not engaged in manual kbor, 
time hangs heavily upon them. Therefore, as a pastime, 
they fVeqnent the store, the hotel, or any other place 
of public resort, to hear the Tiews, fell and hear silly 
stories; and in many Instances, engage in very unbe» 
coming amusements— in ludicrous nonsense, ic. 

I would not depreciate the social circle ; indeed, It 
should be the aim of every yonng roan to go into the 
society of the wise, the intelligent and the good. It is 
a very important part of edneation, to know how tOKii 
knowledge for the benefit of oarselvss and others. Bu( 
the place where the song of ribaldry is sung, and the 
ind^etnt story toM, fbr the purpose of exettlng laughter' 




and the sordid paaaions, should be, oni vtill bethvnntd, 
as we woald the pestilence, by every one who is desiroas 
of being a useful and respectable citisen, and of leading 
a virtuous life. - The history of the past, f^irnishea any 
amount of the most indubitable demonstration, that 
anch practices, eventually \etid to wretchedness And ruin. 

What would be thought and said, if our mothefs, 
wives and fair daughters, should embrace every oppor- 
tunity of spending their leisure honrs at some public 
place of resort, in gossipping tufotiUf or at the ckess' 

There are thousands of leisure moments, during the 
year, of which multitudes make no reckoning; but it is 
astonishing to consider how much may be accomplished, 
in the way of acquiring knowledge, by appropriating 
such moments to a proper use. Moments when / have 
nothing to do, I know notkiqg of. When I am disen- 
gaged from manttal labor, which occupies my energies 
summer and winter, from ten to sixteen hours a day, 
on the farm, or in the shop, if I am waiting a few mo- 
ments for dinner, t have something at hand to read. In 
cold weather, when I come In to warm myself, I snatch 
up the Cultivator, and ia ten minntes or less, a page is 
read, which will furnish something for reflection while 
at work. In this way, I have been accustomed to pe- 
nise tJ»ea agncoltoral papeis, tiiree religious papeca, 
oaa political^ Missionary Herald, Home Missionary, a 
magasine or two, besides scientific and literary stanaard 
works. When I sit down fbt* the evening, I have pen 
and ink at hand : and when a good train of thouj^t 
is suggested, it k Jotted down. If I meet with the 
chemical name of a sabatance, with which I am not fa- 
miliar, I search it out, and learn its use In the practical 
purposes of llfb. Mark the paragraphs which are par- 
tSenlarly worthy of note; and read them again. Per- 
hapa, pen a few liaea conaeeted with the su^ect. So 
with the botanical name of a plant: it is looked out in 
the botany j its common name, class and order, genus 
and species, Ite., are laid up in the store^house of tiw 
mind tor use, wheal am <* away from iMokSyand among 
t^ flowen.'' 

It will doubtless be said, that '* this Is rather a slow 
way of reporting progress.'' Be it so. Itlsa vareway. 
And those who have never been fitvored with a syate- 
matio oottcse of instraelion, mnst^ like myself, bltmdtr 
along through the world. But none need despair, so 
long as we are favored with so many illuBtrious exam- 
ples, of what a young man mav be, which have been left 
as, by many who have risen from obecurHy, by their 
own exertions, to stations of eminence and distinction. 
What powerful motives are presented, to restrain us 
from habits of indolence and vice, and to inspire with a 
laudable ambRi^, in the history of the many wiM and 
good, ilrfao are now sleeping^ the dust! Stimulated by 
the success of the past, let us 

" Work oil and win." 

S. SowAEDS ToDD. Lake Ridge f Tompkins county, 

*a* ■ 

Ulf Stock itt TMOUb 

A letter from a friend at Matagorda says--'' This 
portion of Texas is divided between the planters and 
flitock raisers; the former occupy the rich alluvial lands 
of Caney and the Colorado, and the latter the extensive 
grassy prairies adjoining. Neat cattle here are very 
hardy, and have never been affected by contagious dis- 
eases. They are the descendants of the cattle brought 
from Spain and the Canary Islands by the early Catho- 
lic Missionaries, but they need much to be improved by 
Imported stock. During our wars with Mexico, what 
between our own commissariat, and the hungry forages 
of our enemy, our stocks of cattle were nearly exter- 
minated, bat a few years of peace under the wings of 
Uncle Sam's eagl€, have caused the cattle to increase to 
nntold thousands. The raising of sheep has Just conv 
maoced. about here; at preseat theie are sot more thap 


two thousand in the county of Matagorda. Stocks of 
cattle are worth three dollars per head, all around. Pas- 
turage costs nothing, and beef cattle can be shipped from 
a dozen points on this bay to New Orleans, where there 
is always a ready market. Another source of profit to 
the small fiirmers here, is honey bees, which yield an 
abundance of their peculiar sweets with little trouble 
and no expense. Mr. Ronain has now about four hun- 
dred hives; they stand on the groaod, and I believe have 
never been troabled with insects." 

TnAt Tt^tm from Outtlngi. 

We have never been aUe to see nAuit great advantage 
wouM be gained by being able to raise fruit trees from 
Cttttingsimmersed simply 
into the soil, over the 
common practice of first 
inserting the cutting into 
a pcniioB of root, and 
kaawB as root-graftiqg— 
tbe fbrmer being uncer- 
tain at best; the latter, 
when watt done, never 
fkiling of success. There 
is, however, a method of 

treating cuttings, not en- 'DanMe bent cuuing— a, lorikee of 
^. , ^ W , , «oi1-<«,*,BBwroaiiBttfit>ia lower 

Urely new, which has ezuemities. 

been strongly recommended in some of the European 
journals, which maybe highly useful in propagating some 
kinds of trees and shrubs; and, under favorable circum- 
stanqjss, may be adapted to grapes, quinces, and sc^ne oth- 
er sorts of fruit . It condsts simply in bending a long cut- 
ting hito the form of the letter xi inverted, the two limbs 
being immersed into mellow soil, and leaving one good 
bud at the summit, at the surface of the s^. In this 
way, the cut end, instead pf becoming the seat of dry- 
ness, by evaporation from the open pores, is shielded be- 
low by contact with ^e moist earth. A cut surface at 
the end will throw off moisture several times faster thaa 
the pores through the surface of the bark, and hence the 
advantage of this method. If desired, one of the arms 
nuty be cut off and removed, after the cutting is well 

rooted, or two made of each one. 


Tlia way Weeds Multiply. 

Pr. Liadlay astimateft as a low averaii tba foUotrtiff 
■amber of seeds from each of tkese four plastas — 
1 plaat of groiiiidael prodncM 20601 
1 ** dandelion « 2740 ( M«m«l-«i-^ 

1 * Mwthiau « li,a4or M»3Wl»Mtfa 

1 " sparge << 640 J 

or enough seed from these four plants to cover three 
acres and a half, at three feet apart. To hoe this land 
he says will cost 6s. (sterling; per acre, and hence a 
man throws away 5s. 8d. a time as often as he neglects 
to bend his back to pull up a young weed before it be- 
gins to fulfil th^ first law of nature. He recommends 
every gardener, whose vertebral column will not bend, 
to count the number of dandelions, sow-thbtles, &c. on 
the first square rod he can measure off. This same 
operation may be repeated in this country, by applying 
all the above estimate to the pig- weed, burdock, mul- 
ledui fox^taily chick-weed« and purslane. 



Sontli Down Ewes, over tiro ye»rt old, the property i leTenl of them, been obMlned from tb« noted Encliih 
of L. G. UoRkia, Fordh»m, M. T.,— rewlted the flrrt breeder, Johab Wibb, and »re excelteot ipecimeu at 
premlnn M the Show of the New-Tork SUte Ajrlcul- th«t breed, to fimoa* tor the production of Diie mot- 
tnral Society, 1B61. Mr. Hobbu' SodUi Dowd> hare, 1 top. ^~—--^== 

Bmtt utd light Woolwl BhMp. 
Edi. CuLTiTiTOi — It bu become a matter of great 
importaace to the wool-grower to know what kipd of 
wool can be moat profitably grown al the present time ; 
and in view of the low prices paid for fine wool, we niay 
well Inquire, can we any longer afford te keep fine wool- 
ad iheep? The maaufhctnrerEand their agents hare de- 
tired the &rmera to hold on to fine iheep, telling them 
that the time wonld come when they oouid nuke the 
proper diffidence; but most people think Ihey have wait- 
ed long enough, and show t, determination a« quickly a* 
ponlble lo get a kind ofiheep tb«t will yield them a bet- 
ter profit. This is not rtrange, when we lake into con- 
sideration the relative profit* of coarse and fine wool. 
Take, for loalance, a flock of Sue wooled sheep that cut 
hat 2) lbs, of woot,and some will not doeren that ; bnt as- 
■nmlng the average to be 2; lbs., and that of the hardy 
gummy merino, so much in fuhlon at the present time, 
whidi cot from 41 to & lbs. per head, and allowing the 
flue to sell for 41 cents, which is about the present price, 
and the coareer kind to sell for 40 cenig, here wonld be 
■ dlflbrence of 69 cent* per bead in &Tor of tlm coarse 
Mod. Now the qnettion is, what are we to expect in 
fbturef Will the maonfkctnrers continn* to pay al- 
molt as much for gum and dirt, a* Ibey have heretofore 
donel If so, they will every year find a great ii 
create of It od their hands, for it !s a notoriona fact that 
the kind of bucks now most In demand, are such — nt 
least many of them— that their wool would lose from 80 
to 60 per cent in cleansing. The demand for sheep < 
this description Is fast IncreaslDg, and wilt command 
ftr greater price than the finer varlellel. In proof ( 
this I would state, that lambs of this grade, from which 
to r«i«c a flock, consisllng of ewes, and some rams, have 
lately tieen sold in this vicinity for $2,00 per head, whei) 
tbeBner kinds woold hardly bring half tbemoney. Our 
Mlgfabort In Vermont, with a tbreslght which seem 
(aral loUMm, have long been breeding the heavier kinds 

of sheep, and la many InstaiKee have succeeded In «t- 
taiulng a great weight of Beece, many Sock* ahearing 6 
lbs, per head. Now, Ifin that state, where sheep farm* 
can be bought from 98 lo $10 per acre, they cannot af- 
, to grow the finer and lighter grades of wool, bow 
we here, where land is worth fl^m $26 to $40 per 
acre. People are begiDoing to look to their true Into- 
rest, and will not continue a bnslness that will scarcely 
pay the expense of keepi[« and attendance, low, fee. 

Many who kept large flocks of sheep in this county, 
(Washington,) havaqnit the ba«lne«, and gone hitottw 
dairy busioess, which la much more profitable, for when 
cows are rightly mauaged, it la not uocommoQ to realise 
fr^>m$SO toflOperhMd. Almost any kind of businea 
will pay better than growing wool at 21 lbs. per Seece. 
Potatoes are now being raised in large qnantitieSi and 
althoagh they may not yield half of what tbey fonnerly 
did, yet with the Increased bciUtltes forgetting tiiem to 
market, they are one of the most profitable crops gTt>wn. 
Flax is also becoming a most profita>le business — the 
quantity sown i* annually increasing, and when those 
newly invented machines for drea^[« without rottii^, 
ahoU come into general nse, the cultivation of it wiU 
probably be greatly Increased. 

In view of ail these thing*, It nay be well to Inqnlre 
what can be done to save onr finest sheep from destruc- 
tion. I have tiecn la the sheep business for more than 
twenty yeari, and wish to continue in It if I can lire by 
It, and keep the quality of the wool op to Its present 
standard, and at the lame time iacrcase the weight 
of fleece. My object In this commnolcation Is to obtain 
ioformatlon through your columns, where there are any 
of those fine merinos, such aa were comraoa before the 
Introduction of the Saxony sheep, which cut heavy 
fleece* with but little waste. 

Those French merinos lately Imported by S- If. Jiw. 
ETT and others, wonid probably be a profitable kind of 
sheep, and from lamplea of wool now tiefbre me, fVom 
Vr. Jewett'i Hock, I am hidtned to tUnk there wll ba 


Cbinew Swine, the properif dTJobh DctAriELD, Oak- 
Undi, De«rGeDeT>, N.T.,prMenled forrxbibitlonooly, 
St tbe show of the Neir-Tork Slate AgricuUiinil Socle- 
tjor ISfil. There are BeTer>ldl9llnctvarr«t1e9 or snfne 
Id China, gone of which hare a remarkable Icndency to 
htlen, and have l)een tho soarce of tbe principal im- 

prorement which hai been made In the aboriginal stocks ~ 
of Great Britain, from wlience moat of our ilock hai 
becndcrlTed. Tbe Ctiineae itrlne are rrcqnentl]' Tery 
proliflc, producing from twelve to Qfleen pigi at ■ lltler. 
One of those herewith delineated, was iDckling tbiileen 
pigs at the time of the ahow. 

Im waate in It than tn the others nollred aboTe ; jet the 
quality of the wool is far inlbrtor to our best woolin this 
coDDtr;', and the cost of tben aheep will prevent men 
of ordinary means from proflling by them, althongb I 
doabt not but It wiil prove a profllabis iipeculation to 
thoaa enterprising gentlemen who are Interested in It. 
Many who hare not yet changed tWnn light Beece to 
bMT]-, tell me they will do «o next j-ear, but most are 
dedrous of obt^ning a finer tarfcly than those noticed 
h this article. 

Any person ownii^ a flock of pnre merinocs, with 
heavy fleeces, with bnt little waste hi the fleece, and 
who wonld kH at a price which men with common 
means eould afford to pay, would do well to give tiollce 
«r the same in the C^jlirator, stating the average weight 
of their wool for some three or four years past, and a1ao 
tb« price obtained for it tbe tame length of time; the 
time of rear when sold, and if poeslble, the amount of 
waste Id cleansing. Conid sheep of this description ba 
ttU*iDed, to cross with our grade Saxons, we might yet 
liope to preserve a remnant of our fine sheep from de. 
itractlon. W. M'C. Weit Htbron, N. Y. Dtc. 15, '61. 

InJalihle Qik fiw i»««-m»»j Labala for Tzott, Ac 

Eds. Cdltitatok — X am so much pleased with an ar-' 
tide of Ink for writing on line, raade by Mr. HiHai 
H. Kelist, No. 2SS North Second street, Philadelphia, 
that I am induced to Inform yon of It, that you may 
publish it for the beoeflt of your reader*. 

It Is a bl&ck ink, write* beaulifully on sine, and will 
bear exposure to the weather for many years. Itoan 
be obtained of Mr. Kelley for 11.00 per pfni, 

I know of no method of labelling Ireen lo economical 
u to cut small cards of sine, mark them with ibU ink, 
and attach them to tbe trees by ■ ioim of copper 

JOBH WURIHSOB. Mount Mr- ' II— .1 I— 

QtrmantMon, Pa., Dtc. S, 1861 

Stock for tha Dairy. 

Considering the Importance of the dairy In this conn- 
try, II is a matter of SQrpriso tbas so ItltlH attention II 
paid to the character of th^ stock devoted to this ohject. 
According lo tbe statistical relums of New-York for tbe 
year 1845, the whole number of milch cows in the sUte, 
was 890,490. Tbe total produce of bntter is Elated at 
T9,601.73SJ pounds, and tho total produce of cheese, 
86,744,976 pounds— equal to T91 pounds of butter and 
88 pounds of cheese to each cow. The greatest quantity 
of butter, returned from anyone eounly, where no cheese 
wu mentioned, was 110 pounds, from Kings. The great- 
est quantity of cheese per cow, returned from any one 
county, was 226 ponnds, fVom Herkimer ; bnt it is pro- 
bable that some bntter was produced fhnn the same 
cows, in addition to the cheese. From the township of 
Fairfleld, Herkimer county, 860 ponnds of cheese were 
relumed per cow. The dairy produce of cows, In quan- 
tity and quality, depends on thdr natural constitutions, 
and the treatment given them In rerer«nce to food and 
other requlsHei. Both these points should receive ttam 
dairymen tbe strictest attention, if they expect to re. 
ceive the greatest profit. Every fhrmer may kuow that 
there Is a great dlflWence In tbe constitutional propertlea 
of animal). Some, fh>m an toherent principle In their or- 
ganisation, can produce from a given amount of food a 
greater amount of flesh, or (kt, than others; some yield 
a greater quantity of milk or butter, under the same 
circumstances. It may have been noticed that tiiese 
constitutional traits are, to a certain extent, hereditsry, 
and that families or breeds are characterised by peculiar 
propensltieB, which greatly effect their value for special 

The difference in the amount of bntter yielded by oewi 
in the same dairy and saltJeoted to tha same treatment 
in every respect, often amdnnts to 100 per n 




g!riog not more tban four or five pounds per week, and 
Ubers ten to twelve. In most dairies, it is reasonable to 
believe that, if all the cowt were equal in quality to the 
hcrift in the herd, the quantity of butter would be increased 
at least one- third. But suppose attention to the breed, 
or constitutional qualities of cows, should result hi an 
Increase of only one pound per week for each cow in the 
state, for six montli* of the year,— it would give a yeariy 
Increase of 25,986,740 pounds, which at only twelve and 
A-half cents per pound, would give the immense annual 
return of $3,248,8821. When it is considered that this 
if but for one state alone, some idea may be had of the 
vast beneflta which would result to the whole country, 
from an Improvement that might readily be attained in 

milch cows. 

The systematic brccdtag of cattle with reference to the 
dairy, or with that asaprtfliary object, has scarcely been 
attempted In this country, until within a late period, and 
indeed has not boon extensively practiced in Great Bri- 
tain, — the great aim of the most eminent breeders hav- 
itig generally been the development of the fattening prin- 
ciple, beef being in England an object of more conse- 
quence than butter and cheese. It is, however, gratify- 
ing to se<} tliat the establishment of breeds for the dairy 
Is now beginning to be regarded as essential to the pro- 
gressive Improvement of farm husbandry, and it cannot 
be doubted that the proper i^yplicatton of the laws of 
animal economy, will be attended with as great success 
in this department, as has been realised In breeding for 

other purposes. 


A FuiB in WMt«m New-Tork. 

Eds. CuLTiVATOB — ^I am induced to give you a de- 
scription of a 600 acre farm, lately purchased by Hoa. 
Allek Atrault of Greneseo. It is situated near Mount 
Morris; one half upland, gravelly and sandy soil, the 
other half flats divided abont eqaaliy by the Genesee 
Talley canal. When Mr. A. first oame into possession 
of the first part of this form, 100 acres, it was very 
much impoverished by constaat cropping-— receiving but 
A very Hliberal share of manure. Since that, he has 
purchased 200 more adjoining. It is astonishhig to see 
the contrast, the road only dividing the two purchases. 
The former hat been occupied by Mr. A. four years, 
the other he purcliased this spring with the crops. On 
•ne side the surface is covered with beautiful waving 
crope, the other with the biost pemtcions weeds and 
miserably light crops. Mr. A. intends to make this a 
Taluable farm by a proper mode of cultivation. He has 
Bumerous never-failing springs on the elevated land, 
which supply his fields below and his barn- yards and 
•tables, with a constant stream of water, both winter and 
fummer. Many of bis fields are supplied with spring 
water by a penstock in the corner of a field, for the use 
of two or more lots. A small peg is taken from either 
side of it to suit the convenience of each. 

He has built a large barn, to which is attached a stable 
for fattening cattle, a stall being provided for each ani- 
mal, with a gate to enclose him. Here he lies loose on 
a thick bed of straw, whk)b absorbs all the urine; he 
•laeps at his ease, and gets fat at hia leisure, being well 
tttpplied with well cured ** at^rljf cut hant" *ad «b eco» 

nomical portion of Indian meal. Indian com can be 
grown on the flats in abundance. Mr. A.'s stock of cat* 
tie are promising; some Herefords, Short-horns, and 
grades; sheep a cross with the Leicester and Cotswold. 
He has a white breed of pigs, of which he keeps aboot 
76 in number, which I should say were tolerably good, 
but not equal to the Berkshire or Leicester for profit. 
A number of sows with their pigs are lying in a clover 
field adjoining thehou8e,in which there is a small pen made 
for the young ones to get in, and they are there fed with 
corn in the absence of their mothers. These are des- 
tined for the Brighton market, when weighing about 6C 
to 75 lbs. each, where they meet a ready sale at remuner* 
ting prices. 

Mr. John Ayrault, a nephew of Mr. A.'s, has the 
management of this farm, and a very enterprising yooi^ 
man he is. I think he is on bis way to become one of 
the few good and thorough farmtrt. He possesses good 
judgment in cattle and tillage; and his system of neat- 
ness and economy will In a short time rank his fiuia 
amongst the best. He is growing roots of various kinds 
to test the value of each, and intends by careful obser- 
vation to prove the feeding quality of each variety. The 
noted Skirving Swede turnep is amongst the number in 
this experiment. I have alwsys placed a high value on 
this root, and if Mr. A. is successful in growing them, 
it will afibrd a sample for the public to judge from. II 
Is my impression that more beef and muttoa can be 
made per acre from this bulb than any other root, 

Mr. A. has a kirge cellar under his bam, capaUe of 
storing a great quantity. A door opens into kia feeding 
room very conveniently for the herdsman. Every ani- 
mal on the premises is kept in the highest condition, bat 
economy in the management of food is strictly adhered 
to. There is a small '* American Cottage" near to the 
barn, of which Mr. Ayranlt was his own architect. It 
is sheltered by a hill of pictnresque shape, adorned by 
the forest above it. This is improved by the woodnsaa's 
axe and spade, under the guidance of Mr. A.'s good 
taste. A winding carriage road leada through the weed, 
and when you reach the summit of the bill iteonauode 
a view which for beauty cannot be ezceUed in this coaih 
try. The Indians lingered long on this spot, and it was 
a favorite resort for them, acircumstaooe whksb isprettjy 
good proof of fertility. 

We had quite a spirited plowing match at Geaeaeo a 
few weeks since, on the farm of Mr. North. The fhr^ 
rows were straight, deep, and well turned, but I cannot 
reconcile myself to say they were sufficiently narrow to 
be called ^^ $c\eni\fic.^^ I am fiiUy convinced that a 
narrow fVirrow is very important on sod ground, more 
especially when Indian com or other grain Is put In with 
only one plowing. I am inclined to believe that clover 
sod plowed narrowly once, in August, is as good fi>r a 
crop of wheat, as summer fallow. The thfetles and 
other weeds must be kept down. Wx. H. Sothav. 


Gkcevwood CaifmmT.-*Thi8 celebrated cemetery, 
near New-Yori( eity, which taken altogether, is regard. 
ed as unsurpassed by anything of the kind in lite world, 
has we are informed, employed of late about three bun* 
dred persons constantly in the preservation and improve- 
mcat of the grounds) which will give ao»e idea of their 
extent and keeping. 





Hm Soil* 

The polTerisfttioo of the soil— or especially tenftcioas 
■oil— fs of great importanoe to the dereloptnent of its 
rapabilitfcs for tlie Bnpport of a crop. Hence In plow, 
ing, it becomea a matter of the highest coosequeooe 
to obtaio the hnplemeDt irhidi will moat peHectly efffect 
Ihts ohjeet. In the trial of plows by the "New-Tork 
State Agricaltural Society, to I860, this was regarded 
as one of the most essential points, for -'stiff soil," and 
ve are glad to see that it is receiving mnch attention in 
England . Hr. Peter Lote, an English fanner of don- 
uder^ble distinction, has written a letter to the Mark- 
Lane ExprtMM, in which he makea some caociient re- 
marks on the action of plows in reference to the pur* 
pose alluded to. He says: 

'' If it be the faot that the primary object of cnltiTa* 
tioB for the production of the various agricultural crops, 
la a well palverised soil and porons subsoil, then the 
farmt ra ought to draw out the ingenuity of our agricnU 
taral mechanics, by giring prizes tor those plows that 
will invert without smoothing and smearing the under 
•uaU. and most eflfoctaally pulverise the greatest quan- 
tity of land a given depth with the least amount of pow- 
•r, instead, as the present practice is by all our agricul- 
tural societies, awaniing prises to those plows that cut 
•at a farrow with all three of its cot sides well smoothed 
%Dd smeared up, and turned overln as unbroken a state 
as possible, so that it will sliioe from one end to the other, 
Uke a well moulded piece of concrete, and the lM>ttom 
of the ftirrow well polished ever by the friction of a 
broad spied landside and wrest, thus rendering tlie un- 
der strata almost Impervioos to either air or water. 

'* If we could have a plow so made that it would, 
in ibe act of inverting the furrow-sllce, break it into 
pieces, and pass over Sae bottom of the furrow without 
the friction of any smooth snrface of iron or other ma- 
terial being drawn over, closing up all the pores and 
fissures in tliie under strata, I think there is Uttle doubt 
bnt such a plow's cuki>'at4on would approach (when per- 
formed at eqaal depths) fork cultivation. 
^ '' There are a great many of the best (ormers who are 
of opinion that it is a great advantage to have the fur- 
rows turned aa comi^tely over as possible. But the 
great evil is that when the plow is set to turn the furrow 
go, the solid furrows require so much harrowing to pre- 
pare the land for the dibble or the drill ; but such would 
not be the case if we luid plows that In the act of turn- 
ing over the fnrrow would well crack, rent, and brcdc 
it, and completely iov^ert it, and cut it up from the un- 
der strata without smoothing the bottom of the fur- 
roir, dosing all the pores and fissures thereof." 


Oalttvatipn by Steam. 

An interesting article was published in The Cultivator, 
from the Ag. Crazette, on the proper mode of applying 
steam to the purposes of tillsge. The author of that ar- 
ticle has written several others on the same subjeot, which 
hare appeared in the journal before mentioned, one of 
which contains the following ideal description of the ma- 
chine which he supposes is destined to take the place of 
the common plow*. 

'* Be Aire you deport this life, you will see one more 
wonder rao\nng upon the facp of the earth, something 
of this form and fashion — to wit: A complete locomotive 
engine on four wlieels, with tires 10 Inches broad, and 
slightly corrugated cross- wise on the fscc, the fore wheels 
turning on a transome, the hind ones fixed ; behind them 
(suspended) a transversed, cylindrical shaft, three feet 
in diameter, from six to eight feet long, reminding you 
f>f a cross-breed between a clod-crusher and hay-tedding 
machine, armed with case-hardened steel tine-points, in 
d&pe like a dog's daw^ each tine-point alternately long 

and short, ao that the side-lap of each cUiw may cover 
the work of the other, and no interval or ridge be left 
unrent: the extremities of the cylinder just covering the 
wheel tracks. This formidable looking cylinder of da ws, 
you will see raised or depressed at pleasure by the en- 
gine driver, and adjusted to slow or rapid revolutions, 
not worked by clog- wheels, but by one of the new me* 
talic bands, geared from the drum of the engine. That 
is the * Cultivator.' A platform from the engine extends 
over it, ending in a sort of mo^'able tail-board, which 
may be raised or depressed at pleasure, to regulate the 
settlement of the soil which scatters from it. The revo* 
Intion of the cylinder is not a gainst but with that of the 
wheels, not dragging or retarding, but helping tlie ad- 
vance of the whole muichiDe, which is moved dowly for* 
ward (about holf-a-mile an hour) by a detached force 
of about two horse-power, from the same engine.'' 


Farmera' Familiaa. 

lifajor Patbick, in hia address before the Jefferaoa 
county (N. T.) Agricultural Sodety, gave the foUow« 
ing advice in reference to the improvement of fiirmera' 
families. Speaking of the practice, which prevails U^k 
some fiimiliea, of keeping a portioa of the dweUtag al- 
most wholly closed, he said—* 

First: let the front part of that house he thrown open 
and the most convenient, agreeable and pleasant room in 
it be selected as the family room. Let its doors be ever 
open ; and when the work of tlie kitchen is completed, 
let mother and daughters be found there with their ap» 
propriate work. Let it be the room where the family 
altar is erected, on which the father ofiers the morning 
and the evening saerince. Let it be consecrated to neat- 
ness, and purity, and truth. Let no hat ever be seen in 
that room on the head of its owner ; let bo coatlese Indi- 
vid rtal be ijermitted to enter it. If father's head is bald 
(and some there are in that predicament,) his daughter 
will be proud to see his temples covered by the neat and 
graceful silken cap that her own hands have fashkmed 
for him. If the coat he wears by day is too heavy for 
the evening, calicoes are cheap, and so is cotton wadding. 
A few shillings placed in that daughter's hand ensure hira 
the roost comfortable wra])per in the world ; and if hia 
boots are hard, and the nails cut mother's carpet, a bushel 
of wheat once in three years will keep him in sHppers of 
the easiest kind. Let that table which has always stoo4 
under the looking-glass, aeaifitt the vaH, be wheeled 
into the room, Us leaves raised, and plenty of usefbl (not 
ornamental) books and ]ieriodicals be laid upon it. Whes 
evening comes, bring on the lights — and plenty of them 
—for sons and daughters all who can — will be most 
willing students. They will read, they will learn, they* 
win discun the-sabjecta of their studies with each other; 
'and parents will often be quite as much instructed afl 
their children. The well-conducted agricultural jour- 
nals of our day throw a flood of light upon the teience 
and practice of agriculture : while such a work as Down- 
ing'to landscape Gardening, laid one year upon that cen* 
tre table, will show ite efi^cts to every passer-by, for with 
books and studies like these a purer taste is bom and 
grows moat vigorously. 


To Destroy Oalanraa or Sweet Flag. 

Eds. Cultivator — In reply to your correspondent 
who inquires as to the best mode to destroy " Calamua 
or sweet flag," I would say that I succeeded in destroy- 
ing a strong growth of it, by repeated plowhngs and har- 
rowngs for two successive seasons. It is neces.«iry how- 
ever, to drain the land on which it grows thoroughly 
first. W iLKiKSoir . Ifotmf Mry Agricultural InetUvtCf 
Germantown. Pa., Nov. 1, 1851. 

Vo man has «ver regretted that he was vfrtuons and 
honest hi his youth, and kept aloof from klteness. 




lightning Rods— Protootlon of Bams, Aa 

Eos. C0LTiTA5roE — ^The common opinion is, that a 
ligbtniug rod attached to a barn or other building, is in- 
tended to receive the ahad of lightning after it has left 
the cloud, and conduct it harmlesslj to the ground. This 
it may do sometimes, but I am clearly of the opinion 
that this is the smallest service that it renders. I pro- 
pose in this paper, to enter into the subject at large, 
and to examine it thoroughly, with a view to its more 
clear elucidation, for the benefit of farmers and others. 
The cause of a thunder storm, is a disturbance of the 
equilibrium of the electricity of the earth and the at- 
mosphere. Thus, if a cloud be more highly cliargcd with 
electricity than the earth beneath it, there is a disturbance 
of the equilibrium, the cloud becomes positively and the 
earth negatively charged, in relation to each other, and 
an explosion or discharge from the cloud to the earth will 
necessarily take place, unless some medium be provided 
/cH* conducting the excess of the fluid Arom the cloud to 
the earth. A damp atmosphere between the cloud and 
the earth, connecting them, will accomplish this. And 
in all cases of this disturbance, there must necessarily be 
a stratum of very dry atmospliere between the cloud and 
the earth. Let us suppose a storm approaching. A 
heavy black cloud approaches rapidly from the north- 
west. It is highly charged with electricity. Every body 
expects a thunder storm. Kow, the question is, how can 
this threatening storm be prevented ? I believe it can be 
in all cases. The prime conductor of a powerful electri- 
cal machine, represents an over charged cloud. A pow- 
erfully charged Leyden jar, represents the same. Now, 
when either of these are fully charged, if you hold with 
your fingers the point of a needle towards them, you will 
gradually, and insensibly, discharge them. If you are smok- 
ing a segar, and approach the burning end of it near the 
Jar of the conductor, you will effectually discharge them 
through your own body, unfelt. Whereas, if yon ap- 

S roach either with a blunt object, say the knuckle of the 
nger, you will in the case of the conductor, receive a 
sharp spark — a miniature streak of lightning ; in the case 
of the Leyden jar, a violent shock. On this principle X 
have taught many a little girl to play tricks with the pow- 
eri'ul electrical machines at the museums. I direct them 
to bold a needle, or even a pin, between the knuckles of 
the fingers, the point only projecting to a level with the 
apex of the knuckles, so that it will not be seen ; and as 
the operator turns bis crank to get up a charge, hold the 
knuckles within an inch or two of the prime conductor. 
If she do this, in vain shall the operator strive and labor 
to get up a charge. If she allows him to get the conduc- 
tor fully charged, and then hold her knuckles, vrith the 
pin between them, to the prime conductor, say within an 
inch, it will be immediately discharged — and the operator 
is struck with wonderment, being unable to account for 
the failure of his experiments. So, also, shut the fingers 
of the hand closely, and let the knuckles represent a row 
of houses. Place a sharp pointed pin or needle between 
the two middle knuckles, the point not higher than the 
knuckles. Now hold the knuckles towards the prime con- 
ductor, approaching ever so closely, and there will be no 
spark seen, however vigorously the machine may be work- 
^ J but, without withdrawing the knuckles, merely relax 
them so as to drop the pin, and instantly the kr\}ickle8 
will be struck by the spark. You may use the pin in any 
way you please, and you cannot attract to it a spark ; 
but you can discharge the prime conductor of the Ley- 
den Jar of all its excess of electricity, as before described. 
In these cases the excess of electricity passes over the 
point of the pin, and the body of the person holding it, 
ansoen and unfelt. When these experiments are perform- 

ed in a very dark pUwe, the poini of Uieptn is seen to be 
very luminous while the ctmductor is being discharged. 

Now, what is expected to be elucidated by these expo- 
riments in lelatton to the sal^ject of lightning rode, ia 
this X— The great prime object of a lightning rod, is to 
form a medium through which the equilibrium of the 
electrical state of the earth and air may be re-established, 
or its disturbance prevented. Suppose a cloud to be ap- 
proaching, heavily charged with electricity, directly over 
a barn filled with the fresh harvest. If that barn be pro- 
vided with a good lightning rod, it may by chance be pro- 
tected by the rod receiving the shaft as it descends. But 
suppose several good lightning rods were erected at s 
distance to windward of tbe barn, they would effectually 
discharge the cloud of its electricity before it reached the 
barn. And here permit me to remark, tHat I believe a 
lightning rod affords more protection to some neighbor's 
buildings to the leward of it, than it does to that on 
which it is situated. According to my ideas of the laws 
of electricity, the proper protection of farm buildiogs 
should consist in the erection of lightning rods on several 
very high trees, or other elevated objecU at a distaooe 
of at least a quarter of a mile from the buildings, in sadi 
directions from them as such storms usually come fh>m, 
say, north, north-west, west, south-west, south and south- 
east. I would also erect lightning rods on all the bnildings, 
for special protection. If a doeen lightnu^ rods were thus 
erected on a farm, and properly adjusted, I do not see 
how it would bo possible for the buildings on the Ikrm, or 
anything else, to be struck with lightning. 

The reason why so many barns are struck by tlgfatning 
every summer , is very obvious. We rarely hear of an empty 
bam being struck. Barns filled with the fVeshly gather- 
ed harvest, are the usual victims. The reason is, there 
is a large column of vapor xmssing upward from thebani. 
and presenting to the over-charged cloud a large blunt 
point of attraction. This column reaches an altitude 
much higher than any lightning rod can do. It is a very 
powerfiil attractor of electricity. (This may also be 11- 
histruted by holding the mouth within a couple of incfaes 
of the prime conductor of an electrical machine, and 
breathing upon the conductor, which will immediately 
discharge it, insensibly to the operator.) Hence, as the 
cloud arrives over the bam, with its load of electricity, 
the column of vapor being the nearest object of attrac- 
tion, causes an explosion, or streaks of lightning. If this 
column could have been prepared with a sharp metallic 
point, it would have discharged the cloud without an ex- 
plosion. In this connection it becomes important to ob- 
serve that the grain and hay should be made as dry as 
possible before it is placed in the bam or large stacks. 
If it were perfectly dry, the bam would be in no more 
danger f^om lightning than any other building. 

The above theory ai)plies with equal force to all cities 
and villages. It is believed that one hundred lightning 
rods properly arranged, (and of this we will speak pre- 
sently,) would effectually protect the whole city of New- 
York against lightning. Suppose such should be erected 
on Long-Island, on the heigts of Brooklyn, of Hoboken, 
on all elevated places around the northern suburbs,at suit- 
able distances and throughout the city, especially upon all 
high buildings, steeples, to wers,&c . ? If such were done I do 
not see how it is possible for any house In that city, or 
anything else to be struck by lightning, because every 
cloud, from whatever quarter it might approach, would 
be effectually deprived of all superabundant electricity be- 
fore it could reach the city. These rods would not only 
form mediums for equalizing the electricity in the case 
of overcharged clouds, when the earth is in the condi- 
tion of a negative to the positive cloud, but in the re- 
verse condition, when the earth is positive and the at- 
mosphere or cloud, negative. They would form conduc- 
tors equally as well one way as the other. I know of 
no outlay that a city or village could make, that would l)e 
more judicious than this; and the farmer, certainly, can- 
not safely dispense with it. But the position of the rods 
is not the only point of importance. The manner of 
their arrangement is essentially the point of greatest mo* 
ment, and we will now proceed to discuss that. 

A lightning rod, — its material and manner of constrae- 
tion or_ erection, is the simplest thing in nature or me- 




ciiudos. Let us develop the principle upon which it acts. 
The eurth is a large body, always charged with electric!, 
ty. Some have called it a generating battery. The at- 
mospere, and its vB{ionf orclonds, is also a large body of 
matter always charged with electricity. But, owiog to 
(heir difierent densities and compositions, these two bo- 
dies are always in different states of electrical condition. 
Sometimes the earth is more highly charged than the at- 
mosphere ; but this is rare. Very often the atmosphere 
is more highly chai^ged than the earth. Whenever either 
of these relations exists, there must necessarily be a non- 
conducting medium between the earth and the atmos- 
phere, or at least between the clouds and the earth, in 
the form of a stratum of neariy perfect anhydrous or 
dry atmosphere. l)ow, to equalise the electricity of the 
earth and the atmosphere, we have only to form a medi- 
um, through or over wbich the surplus electricity of the 
one may pass to the other. Doctor Franklin discovered 
how this might be effected. He raised a simple 
kite, armed with metalicpointSjand fastened to the earth 
by a Wire. This brought the lightning from the clouds. 
This disarmed the clouds of their lightning. The metal 
of the kite attracted the electricity of the cloud, the 
sharp points divided its current, so that it passed aown 
the wire harmlessly. This was the ^rst lightning rod, 
and illustrates the principle upon which it acts, viz: a 
continuous metalic medium from the earth to the cloud, 
or near it. Now, a perfect lightning rod must, therefore, 
be connected with the earth perfectly f and ascend as near 
as may be to the cloud, with a perfectly tharp point, A 
perfect connection with the earth can be effected by sink- 
ing the lower end of the rod to a depth that will ensure 
perfect and perpetual moisture. In some situations ten 
or fifteen feet deep will be required, in others four or five 
will •be sufficient, owing to the different constituents of 
the earth at the place. It would never be safe to allow 
the lower end of a rod to rest in a sand bed ; that must 
be passed through, though an hundred feet were pene- 
trated. When a situation of permanent and perpetual 
moisture is obtained^ that is the de^^tb to sink the lower 
end. And even then, a few feet square of copper sheet- 
iog should be soldered to the end of the rod. Some re- 
quire a deposite of pulverised charcoal to be placed at 
tiie bottom, in which the end of the rod is to rest. I 
would recommend, if charcoal be used at all, whidi I do 
not consider necessary, that it be mixed intimately with 
the earth at the bottom. It will serve to retain moisture 
in very dry seasons. The rod must be a single continu- 
ous rod, of round iron, three-eights to half an inch dia- 
meter. It must be so long that it will reach from its 
deep insertion in the earth to the highest point above the 
house at which it can be sustained. It ilkould be carried 
up within six inches, not less than four hiches, of the 
house, and must be supported by some non-conducting 
substance in the course of its ascent, such as horn or 
glass. It should not be placed near nails or spikes, that 
is, no nails or n^ikes should be in the house directly be- 
hind the rod. Its upper end must be brought to a per. 
fectly eharp voint. This is of the utmost importance, 
oecause the snarper the point the more easily will the 
fluid be divided by it. In this connection it must be borne 
!n mind that it is the division of the current by the sharp 
point that prevents the shock ; and that it Is the presen- 
tation of an obtuse or blunt surface that produces it. 
Bear in mind, also, tliat it is the interruption of the cur- 
rent in all cases of electricity, that causes shocks. The 
sharp point avoids this, and hence, as has been shown in 
previous remarks, the heaviest charged Leydenjar, may 
he discharged by an infant with the point of a pin. And 
the sharper the point, the more perfect will be the dis- 
charge insensibly. To ensure this the point should be 
composed of platinumj on which metal the atmosphere 
has no efiEect. A cap of thin sheet platinum an inch or 
two long, drawn to a point, and soldered upon the iron 
rod, is sufficient. 

The old fashioned method of connecting several rods 
by a kind of hook and eye connection, is all wrong. 
Bust may and certainly will interfere to break the con- 
nection, ---for it must be borne hi mind that the oxyde 
of any metal (rott,) it a noii-o<»diictor of eleotricity. 

The whole rod roust be made of one continuous rod of 
iron. This may be effected by perfectly welding the 
several pieces together, till you have the length required. 
In its connections for support to the house nothing but 
perfectnon-conductingmateriala should be used. Clampe 
of wood with a section of horn or a ring of glass for the 
rod to pass through, are good contrivances. The higher 
the point of the rod is elevated above the highest part 
of the house, the more protection will be afforded. From 
ouual shafts of lightning it is calculated that an eleva- 
tion of the point, four feet above the high^t part of the 
bouse, will protect the house to the distant ^ eight feet 
each way, and that an elevation of eight feet will protect 
it to a distance of sixteen feet each way. The rule should 
be however to elevate the point of the rod as high as it 
can be supported against the wind, for the higher it Is 
the more protection it will afford. Let me once more 
caution ai^nst jointed rods and placing the rod opposite 
nails or spikes or any metalic substance, as these may 
attract the current from the rod. I would also caution 
against branch rods ; that is, several rods above leading 
to a single rod below ; and also against horizontal rods^ 
running * distance along the roof or top of a house or 
tower, to the perpendicular stem , — its nature is to de- 
scend to the earth, and the horizontal rod affords an un- 
natural medium ; they may pass over a nail or spike 
which would be very likely to attract the current and 
discharge it in the house. The rod may be painted black 
or left without paint at the option of the builder. It 
makes no difference. 

A word as to the nature of electricity. Many if not 
most people suppose that lightning is^re, of course that 
it is hot. This is not so ; it is cold, or of the temperature 
of the surrounding stmosphere. But it is matter, com- 
monly called a fluid, and by its rapid passage through 
the air produces the appearance of fire in thealmotphere, 
by its friction, and in passing over wood or metal, ignites 
the one and melts or fuses the other by Its friction 
merely. Franklin did not draw fire from heaven, as he 
is generally credited with having done, but he drew down 
a current of electricity, in a cool state, and did it so 
coolly that he did not even burn his fingers with it. How 
often do we see a green tree that has been struck by 
lightning, one side of it exhibiting the track of the fluid 
shivered into splinters. A dry tree is often set on fire 
by'the friction. A bam is also set on fire by the fric- 
tion; and nails and other metalic substances are ftised; 
but still the fluid Itself Is cold. 6. B. Smith. BaUi 
more, Dec. 1851. 

Dairy Bnirinesi on the Weetesn Pndriea. 

Ens. GuLTirATOB — Whflst canvassing the fertile 
plains of JUinois and Iowa, In the pursuit of agricultural 
Information, no branch of farming received greater at- 
tention than the management of the dairy. Some very 
unexpected developments were strongTy presented to no- 
tice, all of whteh were highly fhvorable to the profitable 
prosecution of the dairy business on the prairies ; and for 
the benefit of the patrons of the Cultivator, a plain prae- 
tical digest of the subject will be prepared for this and 
fhture numbers, In the hope that It will be the means of 
attracting pubUc* attention to a great interest, which ha$ 
been comparatively overlooked by those who patronise 
the agricultural literature of the Union. 

In the principal cheese districts of New-York and Ohio, 
the value of fteehold property has been for the last fif- 
teen years, gradually on the Increase, until it has at last 
reached a point beyond which It cannot advance unless 
the products of the dairy obtain a corresponding increa^ 
ed value ; which result will scarcely happen so long as an 
abundance of cheap and fertile western lands are In the 
market. The value of land adapted for the dairy bnsl- 
nesB, <tt the upper branches of the M ohawk, may be ni* 




tad at $40 per acre ; ia WettemMew-Yort[BtfS6 to$85, 
and oo ttie Weatem Reserva, Ohio, fttt20per acre. The 
wbulevle value uf cheese oampares Teiy oearl]' in value 
at UuMe tenral poiuta, with the 4iBeieuiM In the value 
of the land, which is occa»ioned mainly from the diflfe- 
leoce to the quality of thu article, and not through local 
lafluencea or denaod. The beat cheeae la tbe UmoD ii 
manufactured ia Uerktmer and the adjuining counties ; 
that whicb r^s next io quality ia i)roduced in Wc«tcni 
Neir-York,'borderiB|[ tboBS streama that Bow IbIo Lake 
Erie ; and tbe next is iQannfiu^ored in the north-<>astem 
cotmtlee of CMifo. Celebrated brands in tbe two Utter 
dtiirf regions, will favorably comiiare with the finest spc- 
otMeat produced In Herkimer; but ia the maia, the po. 
(ition here taken in regard to the relative eompnrative 
qoalilj' of Ibe products of thoss districts, hold altictiy 
BOod. We liaveou former oecauons taken much pains to 
imoitigate llie canaes which prodoced the vnat diSerence 
In quality of cbeeK nad butter, IndiSbrcnt dielrictsj and 
alUiaugb soiJ, chaiactttr of herbage, and wMer for stock 
have much to do in tbe productloD of a good or bad qua- 
lity of dairy produce, yet the management of tbe busi. 
nera itself, in nine cases out of ten, stuups upon tlie clia- 
ractw of tbe irtKle, either IM had or good qualillea. 

So far SB the natural odaptntion of the nvstcrn prai- 
ries are concerned, il is safe to concjnde tbat a superior 
article of cheese and batter could be produced, ivhicb 
would in every particular compare with the most celebra- 
ted dairy products of the Union. Occoaonal instancen 
may be met with in travelling through IHinc^s and Iowa, 
wtiere the articles of butter and cheese are decidedly su- 
perior in quality, but these are eicoptions to tbe general 
rule, and iadeed, it rarely liappeDx tliat a travelleT can 
meet with a sample of either at the public hotels and 
boarding bouaea, that would para iaspeclioii ia any of the 
leading markets in the country. 11 is idle to expect tbat 
tiM present population of the west will do much towards 
establishing a higb character for tlie dairy; and to our 
mind, the best chance to effect tliat object, would be to 
fairly bring the dalms of the country, for tbebasiness, 
before tbe atleation of eastern dairymen. Much pains 
will be takes to effect that object in futnre Bunibers of 
the CcLTiviTua, lo Uiat tbe readers may correctly judge 
of tjie sdaptatioa of a prairie country for tbe profitable 
prosecntioD of tbe dairy buaineee. 

There are many ftatnres connected with tUs important 
nl^ect, tbat dionid be known b; all who may htve any 
desire to transfer their eperatiims from high priced lands 
to tboaa of a nominal value, and nilhout fully enlarging 
apon the details at this time, a synofisis merely, will be 
HiTea, aod an early tqiportunity will be embraced for the 
more fuH development of tbe matter. 

Prairie grass will produce as good a quality of milk 
and cream, us the cultivated grasses, Ihougfa not quite so 
abundant. Cowaare exceedingly partial to It, so much 
■o tbat they prefer it to all otiier descrff^on of potlur- 
•IK, and for at le«M four months in the year it is quHeas 
reliable as either tlawthy or clover. Cows, as well as 
aU other descrfptioo of homed calilc. and horses, may 
te tolerably well wintered on pratrhe hay, at a merely 
■ominal cost; but it isobvlons tbat the male cause of the 
I »tlk in sommw, may be attribslcd to tbe 

almost exclusive vo at tMa deaeripltoa of winter pv»* 

vender, and the abscDce of esculent food; and not to the 
deGeitncy of nutritive propertiea in praitie grass for sum* 
mer pasturage. Summer ranges for cattle, Cor • verr 
long period to come, will be so abnndant, that the stock 
will not hare to travel to an Inconvenient distance from 
the farm buildmgs, if tbcy be judkciouily located. Atth« 
bead of all die streams, both in IIHdoIi and Iowa, ths 
prairie and timbered land are about equally distributed, 
and neither, in those regions ore found in large bodiea 
lying contiguously togethcT, liie country at those pcnnto 
presents a beautiful and undulating appearance, so eqnal- 
ly diversidod in hiU and vale, with an abundance of 
never Jailiog springs,' and comparatively no iwampc er 
waste lanifn, tbat at no distant day It most become 
occupied by an industrious and intelligent class of 
mtfwn brmers, who will introduoe not ouly a snperlor 
(ystem of dairying, but will atao engrafl upon westera 
agriculture tlie most approved systems of management 
included within tlie entire scope of a mixed syMem of 
husbandry. The price of butter aid cheese is fully 80 
per cent higher in tbe western markets than in the eas- 
tern, and can be produced at one half the cost. With 
tbete, and other powerful reaaoiu, we shall at soma fu- 
ture occasion bring this important subject more proml- 
uently before tbe American puUic. 

Tha OsoiadUn or Wild Oooi*. 

This interesting bird, though easily domcsttcated to 
such a degree that it will breed in its captive state, yet 
always, or at least lur many generations, poaaessessnms. 
thing of the migrating instinct Inherent ia the specte*. 

They are freqaenlly restless, and disposed tofly at tbo« 
seasons when the wild geese make their seml.annual 
journeys. They call to their brethren which happen to 
pau within sight or hearing; and if the tame ones are 
disabled from flight, (as is done by amputating one wing 
St tlie outer joint,) the wild ones not unfreqnentlyallgM 
to reconnoitre. If a wild flock is bewildered by having 
lost their leader, as Is sometimes the case, they bare 
been known to be so attracted by domesticatn] ones at 
the same upecles, that they have been ea»ily shot, or 
even taken alive. Col. J*QrEs, who keeps this bird in 
Ills collection, nenr Biislon, sTatcs that Socks of nild 
geese have several tliitcs aliglited near his ponltry-yard, 
and although near a highway which Is constantly tra- 
veled, tbcy have sometimes remained for a wliide da^, 
00 molestation of them being permitted. 





Information ia asked by a correspondent relative to 
the best varieties of the apple for an orchard. Those 
most highly esteemed throughout the country, so far as 
tried, are the following: — For 4i«imB#r fruit — Early 
Harvest, Red Astraclian, Sine Qua Kon, Sops of Wine, 
Benoni, Summer Sweet Paradise, American Summer 
Pearmaio, Sweet Bough, and, when highly or richly cul- 
tivated, AVilliams' Favorite, ^u/umn /rut/—- Autumn 
Strawberry, Gravenstein, Porter, Lowell, Dyer,Famen8e, 
Hubbardston I^onesuch, Bambo, Belmont, and Fall 
Pippin, the four last keeping at the north through a large 
part of winter. Winttr varuf te^^Rhode Island Green- 
ing and Baldwin, for profuse bearing; Swaar andFsopus 
Spitzenbnrgh, for rich or high flavor; Red Canada and 
northern Spy, for agreeable pleasant quality late in 
spring; Ei^lish and Roxbury Russets for even surface 
and long keeping; Newtown Pippin, for high quality and 
high price, when sabjected to very rich culture; and 
Ladies Sweet, Tallman Sweet, Broadwell, Danvers, and 
Sweet Baldwin, for winter Sweet apples. Peck's Plea- 
sant, a fine early winter variety, exceeds nearly every 
other in the uniform fairness of the fruit through all sea- 
sons. The Yellow BeUflower and Jonathan, the Yande- 
Tere and Westfield Seeknofurther, should not be omitted 
in a complete collection of good winter apples; and 
Bawle's Janet and Pryor's Red will be regarded as in- 
dispensable at the Southwest. 


Bdooatioii Neoeasary for the FaniMir. 

The opinion is very general that &rmen need no more 
than a oomroon school education-^that a college or aca- 
demical edncsiion, to them woidd be useless— nay some 
even aver that a college education, instead of being ad- 
Tantageous to a young fiarmer, would be highly detri- 
mental, by engendering habits of laziness, and unfitting 
him for the . laborious occupations of the farm. True, 
)i the boy has not been taught to work, he will dread 
work when a man— hence work should also form an im- 
portant part of his education, nor is there any necessity 
of the entire period of youth being qpeut in fitting for, 
uid going through coll^^, or that a degree should be 
obtained so soon. There is, in this country, too great 
haste to usher young men upon the stage of action, there 
being a striking difference in that reqpect between us and 
Europe. No matter if the young man is even thirty, 
before leaving college. If industrious and prudent, he 
will be better fitted to enjoy happiness and act his part 
on the farm, than a farmer of the same age brought up 
without any taste for reading. We assert that if any 
many needs a college education, it is the farmer. He 
needs it, not to make money and acquire what is termed 
a good living — ^that is enough to satisfy the phyacal wants 
of his nature, but he needs it to gratify the wants of his 
mind. There is no class whose physical wants are bet- 
ter supplied than the farmer: but the mind, that which 
alone renders our enjoyments superior to the brute crea- 
tion-*how little food, how little enjoyment is provided 
for it? Acre after acre is bought, and dollar upon dollar 
is put out at interest, but few or no books are bought or 
newspapers taken. 

* There are few iiumers who would not consider it tfa« 
height of extravagance and folly to buy a library of five 
hundred volume»--a telescope costing one hundred dol* 
lars, and a barometer or microscope. They would much 
prefer to have tlie cost of the above in money at interest 
—and why? Simply because their education unfits them 
to enjoy books or scientific instruments. There are few 
who will deny that the farmer with the library, telescopej 
barometer and mtscroscope, and the knowledge necessary 
to appreciate and use them, has more of the elements 
of hairiness at command, than an unlettered agrical^ 
turist who has thousands of dollars at interest. The 
former has materials for enjoyment at home — the lattet 
has money at interest. I once knew a childless old farm- 
er, with a large ikrm, and many thonsand dollars at in* 
terest. He was fond of reading. He only took a county 
newspaper costing one dollar a year, and borrowed other 
newspapers. I once asked him to subscribe for a city 
paper at one dollar a year. He said he was much pleased 
with the paper, and he intended to take it, but he would 
wait another year, and perhaps congress would reduce 
the postage, and Uien he would subscribe for it. Poor 
man I (mentally) to save eight cents, the difference in 
postage, he deprived himself of the Evening Poet one 
year, nor did he ever take it. 

If we travel among farmers, we meet with few Ubn^ 
ries, and little literary or scientific taste. Nothing has 
tended more to bring about this state of things than the 
impression that a college education is useless to the farm- 
er — the man who above aU others is best calculated to 
enjoy such an education — ^because he has most leisure 
which could be devoted to literature or science without 
the least detriment to his farming business — ^nay that 
would be benefitted with such an intelligent guide at the 

Thanks to our agricultural papers, the prejudice against 

a liberal education is rapidly wearing away, and men are 

becoming more and more convinced that a good classical 

and scientific education is highly advantageous to the 

farmer . S . B . B u c klet . Wui Dresden, Tatet county f 

N, F., Dec. 1. 1861. 


Wheat and Ohees. 

Eds. Cultivator— Without either the ability or In- 
clination to discuss the chess question, permit me to state 
a couple of facts which took place under my observm- 
tion. Some eight or ten years since, my father pur- 
chased one of Gilbert's fanning milb, which were then 
considered the best in this section. Previous to that 
time, we were much troubled with chess; but after using 
the new mill two or three years, the cliess had pretty 
much disappeared. A little previous to the last harvest, 

as I was walking near one of our wheat fields, my at- 
tention was attracted by a very large stool of chess, 
growing in the edge of the margin of the field. Alter 
pulling it np, and satisfying myself that it formed a 
single stool, I counted the stalks, and found it contained 
one hundred and five. Allowing twenty grains to the 
stalk-r-and I think this a moderate calculation — and we 
have more than two thousand fold. From these two 
facts, I drew as many conclusions. The first is, that* 
good fanning-mtll isa capital anti-transmutation machine; 
and second, that chess, from Its Immense power of re- 
production, requires pretty close watching. J. tf • 
ThrwipevilUf 1861. 




Aantial Meeting of the N. T. State Ag. Society.' 

Th« Sociely- coiiveAed at ihe Ajwembly Chamber, at IS o'clock on 
the $l«t~-JoHN Dklafikld, E»q., hi the Chair; B. P. Joujctox, 

AAcr ine usual opportunity for the admlMion oC Members, Mr. 
JoHKanir readtheaiiuoal report of the Kxecmive Commiitee. truumer- 
atiug tiie re»uli8 of their labors for the past year, with such sugg-es- 
lions for the future, as were dictated bv the experience of the past. 
The report wus accepted, atid ordered priuied. 

Mr. Tucker, the 'Treasurer, read his report, which sliowed the 
following nrsults: 

Balance iu treasury, Jan., 1851, 82,043 07 

Receipts during the year, from all sources, 14,575 78 

917,218 85 
Payments daring the year, 12,544 71 

Balance at this date $4,074 14 

Plate Slid Medals on hand, 5J2 25 

5,180 39 
Funds invested, 97,000 00 

8l3,ie6 30 

A commiitee of three from each Judicial District, was appointed 

by the memtiera present rmra each di«irict, to nommute officers for 

ensuing year, and to recommend the place for holding the next Fair. 

The commiliee was as follows : 

Pint Judicial Dislrict—J. D. Develtn, E. D. Morgan, Russell 
Seeond^J. A. King, Ii. G. Morris, W. Kelly. 
TMrd-^Q. Vail, A. Van Bergen, E P. Prentice. 
Fotutk—J. T. Blauchard. Le Roy Morey, E. W. Rogera. 
Fifth^-J. Buttrrfield, A. Z. McCnrly, J. A. Hhermau. 
Sixtk—H. 8. Randall, J. B. Williams, W. Rathbuu. 
Seventh— C. l^e, R. Rome, J. W. Biifsell. 
Eighth— h. F. Allen, J. A. McElwaine, Levi Fish. 
On the report of this committee, the following officers were elected 
tot the ensuing year : 

Presideut—HRNRY WAGER, of On«-ida. 
I. James Moxror, of New- York 
II. Lewis G. Morris, Westchester. 
fir. Anthony Va?i Bergen, Greene. 
IV. WiNSLOW C. Watsok, Essex. 
V. Throdorr H. Faxton, Oneida. 
Vr. OrxtiT C. Chamserlin, Otsego. 
VII. Charles Lee, Yates. 
Vlll. Jauxs McKlwaike, Wyoming. 
Cor. SecreUvy—ll. P. Johnson, Albany 
Ree Secretary— Erastus Cor.nixg, Jr., Albany. 
TVeomrcr— Luther Tucker, Albany. 
Members of the Extcutiw Committee— S. T. Blanchard and J. 
A- CoRT, Saratoga; J. Bctterpisld, Oneida; J. B.Bitrnxtt, Syra- 
cuse, aiul Wm. Kellet, Dutchess. 

Wednesday Evening, Jan. 21. 
Mr. Delatield^ the President, delivered nn address on the sulyect 
of tlie World's Fair, and prensnted the medals, awarded by this So- 
ciety to those who received premiums at the London Exmbiiioii, as 
follows : 

To Mr. A. E. Brown, representing the Adirondac Iron Company, 
a gold medal was presentt-d for specimens of American steel. 

To Messrs. Bell, of Wesicheisier, and Gen. Harmnn of Monroe, 
were proeented each a gold medal lor specimens of wheat; and to 
Mr. W. HotehkiiM, of Niugnra, a silver medal for similar specimens. 
To B. B. Kirtlnnd, of Greenbush, a beaul.fnl silver goblet, for 34 
specimens of Indian corn. 
To Mr. Dix, of Oneida, a silver medal for specimens of flax. 
To Mr. Person, of New-York, for the piano exhibited, as a rare 
achievement in' the mu)«iciil art, a gold metlal. 
To Mr. Pulmer^ a gold medal, for an artificial limb. 
To Rot)ert Livuigslon Pell, a vlver medal, for specimons of the 
American forest, of which honorable mention was made. 
To I>e Roy and Blodgett, a gold medal, for a sewing machine. 
To Messrs. Allen h Co., of New-York, a silver medal, for the ex- 
hibition of tools. 
To Messrs. Prouty h Mears, gold medal, for a plow. 
To Mr. McCormick. a gold medal, for his reaping machine. 
To Dr. Willard ana associates, of the Oswego ^Starch Factory, 
gold and lilver medals of the Society, for the samples of starch 01111 
corn farina. 

Prov Nortor was then announced and delivered an addreai, on 
the absolute dependmice of Agriculture upon Science, for its progress. 
He cantioned mrmers against the notion, that it is an easy thnt^ to 
become a scientific Agriculturist, and argued that extreme cauiiou 
was necessary in order that every step might be certain advnnce. 
Re declared himself in favor of an Agricultural college, but advised 
to a small beginnhig. I^et the essentfals be fir*t cared for— fMcAers 
and sfMrfsMCs— and tne superstructures would follow in their turn. As 
R whole the address \n» well-timed and full of thought, calculated 
to rightly direct public sentiment. 

Tliursday Evenings Jan. 22. 

The Society convened at the A.«sembly Chnml»er. nt 7 o'clock, 
when the Secretary, Mr. Johnson, read the reix>rts of the several 
eommiltees, awarding premiums as followv : 

Management of Farms. — 1. E. S. Hay ward, Brighton, silver cup. 
950—2 B. B Kirtland, Greenbush, oilver cnp, S.&— 3. Albert 6'. 
Ford, Rockton, silver cup, 9*20. 

Erperimmts in Draining. — 1. John Johnston, Scnaea eo , silver 
eiip» 990—2. T. O. Yeomans, Walworth, sdver cup, 990. 

Dairy J7»;irfmgs.— Premiums of 9S5 each, were awarded H» 
Moms Eames, Rutland, and Parts Barber, Homer, for plans of clairy 

Butler.— 1. Israel Denio, Rome. 915~S. Noali Hitchcock, Homer, 
910—3. L. L. French} Warren, 9^. 


Winter Wheat — 1. Samuel L. Thompson, SetauVet^SulTtdk coonty, 
S acres, 54^ bushels per acre, 920—2. E. M Bradlv, East Bloonnfield^ 
Ontario county, 41^ busheU per acre, 915—3. Jomes McCready, 
nattsburgh, Clinton county. 2 acres, 43 bu»hels per acre, 95. 

Spring Wheat— I. Chas. W. Eells, Wesunorelaiid, Oneida, cocuitya 
2 acres. 40 bushels 50 lt)S. per acre, 915. 

Hye—E. W. Bushnell, Hillsdalr, Colombia eoonty, S acres, 40 
bushels, 22 ILs per acre, $15. 

S. Poster, Hillsdale, Columbia cocmiy, 2 acres, 42 buabels per 
acre. No award. 

Oats— I. Peter Crispel. Jr., Hnrley, Ulster co., 2 acres, 73 bosh- 
eU 20 qts per acre. 915—2. H. B. Bartlett, Paris, Oneida coimly, S 
acres, 72] ImiihcU per acre, 910—3. E. W. Baslmelt, Hillsdale, Co> 
lurnbia co., 2 acres, 85 bushel* 4 quarts per acre, ^J-r*- I- Foster, 
Hillsilale, Columbia ro., 2 acres, 64i bu. per acre ; no sample funiiahed. 

Indian Corn—E. M. Bradley, East Bloomfield; 5 55-100 ocres, 98 
bushels i)er acre, 920. 

Flax— Benj. Aikeus. Pittsto>vn, 910. 
* Thbaceo—ThoA. A. Smith, Syracuse, 95. 

Timothy Seed— I. Douw Van Yechten, 95—2. C. W. Bella. 
We!«lmoreland, 93 

Buck Wheat— I. L. L. French, Warren, 910-2. D. Conrsd, Bnia»> 
wick 9^ 

Peas—]. E. S. Salisbury, Ellisburgh, 910—2. L. L. French, Wor- 
reiK 98— 3. E. M. Bradley, E. BI<H>mfield, 95. 

Beans — E. 8. Salifibury, Ellixburgh, 910. 

Barley—}. Beuj. Eno<, De Ruyter, 915-^ E. R. Dix, Vernon, 
910—3. Wm. Davison, Hartwick, 95. 

20 BUSHELS GRAIN— /^ftng Wheat— 1. Geo. K. Eells, Kirt- 
land, 98-^D. Conrnd, Brunswick, 95. 

Barley— Wm. DuviscHi, Hartwick, 95. 

Indian Corn— I. B. B. Kirtland, 95—2. Adam Laborence, Bethle- 
hem. 93. 

Rye—D. Conrnd, 95 

Ooxs— J. McD. Mclniyre, Albany, 95. 

SEEDS— 2VmalAy—C. W. Eelis, Westmoreland, 95. 

Messrs. Rapalje k, Co., Rochester, had on exhibition several sam* 

Sles of Beans, Peas, Ac., for which a silver medal was awarded, 
f essrs. Emery A; Co., Albany, exhibited a great variety of samples 
of Peas, Beans and GnnWn Seeds, which were pronounced by good 
judges as being beautiful samples. 

FATCATTLI-:—J5«»i Fat Oa^L L. Turner, Gcneseo, 915— 2. B. 
McNeil, Schoharie, 910. 

Best Fat Steer— B. McNeil, Schoharie, 915—2. Milton Knicker- 
bocker, .^cliodack, SIO. 

R<5i Fat Cow—\V. A. Mills, Geneseo, 910—2. W. A. Mills, 95. 

Best Fat Hei/$r--D. S. Baker, W. Bloomfield, 910-2. W. A 
Mills, Geneseo, 95. 

FAT SHEEP— Long IToslMr- B. McNeil, Schoharie, 93. 

Middle Wooied—l. J. McD. Mclntyre, Albany, South Down, 98— 
2. D. S. Bnker, W. Bloomfield. 95. 

Cross Brted—i. B. McNeil, 9i»-2. D. S. Baker, 95. 

Swine — C. Knapp, two heavy live ho>g»j Special, 98. 

Special Premiums— M. L. Turner, Geneseo, ox, 93— B. McNeil, 
Schoharie, ox, 9S— L. D. Ledvard, jr., Cazenovia, ox, 98 — D. I* 
Baker, W. Bloomfield, heifer, 95— W. A. Mills, spayeS heifer, 95. 

DRESSED MEATS— J7«e/— I. Chas. Snowden, Albany, faned 
by Saml. McGraw, Cortland, diploma — 2. Jus. Butteraby, Albsmy, 
fatteil l»v Mr. McGraw, smnll silver me<Ial. 

SiTfai— over 300 llw.—l. E. Gove, Watervliet, 95— 2. H.O.Harm, 
Scipio, S3. Under 300 lbs.— 1. Rich. Gregory, Fleming, 95— 2. Mr. 
Davliwm, HnriM'ick. 93. 

Mutton— lAMig W<K>led— 1. P. Downy, 95. Short Wooled-~l and 
2. Cha<i. Snowden. 95 aiul $Q. Cross Breed— 1. P. Downy, 95. 

Turkies—l. B. B. Kirtland, Greenbush, 92— 2. W. H. Richardeoa, 
Albany, 91- 

Geese— Stiml. R. Mott, Mcchnnicsville, 92 

Ducks— W. H. Richardson, Albany, 92. 

The Premiums on Fniits we are compelled to omit for vrant of 
room. The exhibition was uimsually fine. A gold medal waa 
awarded to Mr. Townsekp Glover of Fishkill, for models of Fmit 
and Insects. Tliese were done in plaster and colored to the ^ife. 

The President, Hon. J. Dvlafield, on retiring from the chair, 
pronounced uu elaborate addres.«, in which he reviewed the early 
nistory of the State, alluded to the increased facilities for improve* 
ment in Agriculture, since it had been studied as a Science, and 
urged the duty nnd imperoiive neoessiity of establishing an Tn*tituTion 
in which the principles of Agriculture should be taught. The pro- 
durtion was throughout of a deep and practical nature, and deservee 
a careful perusal. At the olow of hi* address, Mr. Delapisld intnu 
duced the President elect, Hemrt Wager, Esq., of Oneida, who 
briefly thanked the Society for the honor they had conferred upon 
him. and remarked that he was not a talking man, liot that any 
druAs for labor the Society might m -ke np<^n him. would be duly 
honored. The exercises of the Society were we'l aiteiHled, and a 
unanimity and earnestness of feeling, which argues well for the 
t'ulure prospects of the St-^ciety. seemed to prevail. 

We nave only room 10 add Hint the exhibiticni of fiit stock, dressed 
meats. Grains, ic, nitliouph only on experiment, and the weather 
extremely uniavorable. exceeded what \vhs anticipated, and w«a 
such as to warrant a more liberal Hcule of premiums for uitoilier year. 

At n meethjg of the Executive Committee «mi the 23d. it "wns re- 
so'ved that the Fair for this year, be held at UTIC A, on the 7th, 8tk, 
Oth hikI 10th of September, tf the requirements of the committee are 
complied with. 


Mr. Vu2^ Imported Bdiar "Tun !■•■■." 

!». CitTirATon-AIInir me to huid ron tlie Mdigrce of me dT 
Iwo Shnrt-boru heilin, which lixdcrBd hi JnlT IWr'r*"> Mr. 

- ■'- '-■ -■ - -■ - -irflK* llllr TuoBil ItATIU, E<q., of 

OH. Yotl 


...... .1 — ,n,11wl Mr. BiiL^i 

SqiUnibn' Jm. IIsv 
Um ned^rce of lh> brif 

•tiipTta Ciom Uinitoii in The 3TM nC Aggiin, 


!WAIT, £■)., laild nuvcJiDr. New.Cu 

Jin Ilia ■•niduii "Purinr-r'i Migutiiic," 
. Mr. EwiiT RiiHirhf, ipoliiiift of Ih 

■Ivrd »h Jan 

hifhex ^ttftn ; wbiln ike hkle « •idnci«il1i Ibiek M iiidicala n a. 
»lliMe«i«iiiiijoii,ii«*l*aira]r,whcH <m Wiwhh iIi* lii|a»uid 

Ikiinb, und Ml BDMhw uinlcr the hand upoii Iha cellulM ■- 

■■■It, tsfelhtt wilh At lott Hud Ibrry icil ' '' 

in 111 ciiniiinliiiiiry Mgnt ihrDnthmu ihr I 
■mH auit I diBHUiDii u rapid lalihieoii cT 

fcdlgne nflht ibovi heifer, "Yiirin Lul ' t^aivn era jbd., 
1SW-«KI lir the Docbm bull, iih Duke *r York (lOlST)— Ihe dam 
of liiii bull M Dwlwa SIX, amt Ihia 4lliDuke ar Vork-wai MRrkiMil 
at Uia law ule dC Mr. Baiet' lirid liy Ri<ri thicle ai £210 Merlin;, 
■boat Msa, awl jaipaken oT in Ih* •um* aitirla abma qaoiad ffoa 
Iha '' PamMT'i Magazine^' iiiihe MIoH-inc liuit[iw|R — "Thii eiii- 
mal. uDw iIh |mp«Tiy of Earl J>udr, it ihe wm idw of hoTijie ai- 
(•HcBcej Uaniniuacniiaiia.aBd pccliccliiM n cveiT poiol of •!■ 
eiUrwB, enliile hiiB la cnisidciaiiiiii, ai Iha liriglilc*) icin of Mie 
hndi aiid if not iha mv baM baU iu eilHeuee, he ccflaialr «■»« 
bi Hi[|iaHed." The ediior of ihe "Macixine," in an >p|Kiiilcd 
hole, rtmorka-r'* Aaa jmofof duii,aw1 wbal lur be eipvcted from 
hianrodiu'e. wa beg lo obariva, thai Ibc nily ihitenlvrtitnlbtrhini, 
mliHd 11>e Hia of £3711 la.,M«lii«," being equal In «»l each. 
(Ilnarbe well hen loHBIa thai' '^■rnilAfh" la mow iucalf hv 
Ika DitckrH boll Sik Duke af Voik, and ihal he ia an owu hralher to 
the 4ih Duke of Yoik ahova ■ItndeA to, and her tiine of ealviiigalioui 

Diiuh &I.I. tat liy 4ih Duke uf I4.)rihihumbf rliiid |3(M0)— EioiHt dim 
Diiimh, hr ^ F.iTl oTDarlintlan (1MSI aUohralby Mr, Duo— (real 
giaud din Red Tbgopioii, boufhi ul Mr. Bale*. B; Ibi* pedi|re( 

K preiriil prcdael oi *^ YarnB I^h" will hara 
DucbEH bidla, wliich will make ii |iha Duchea 


real hi breeding Hock, id bIidw how tout il m 
benl of ftiiialn of a ihiucbIiii ranilli afiilack. 
illoiTrd lo Kinaik, Ihal hit IrM inninalioii I. 
la IMn, wheii I inMned but Dak* DrWeilingni 
Since liien I have had Qem him and Mr. BelT ai 

inmalioii fron Mr Biu< 
'WelliiiEni and beifcr D 

nwi men) 1 him leun'wd iii mir lienl eiren iwo, haiiui iRWin mi 
lerd uf Ihit ranUr eivhl bawl in alL AH oflhex are in )>re«tiiig c«>- 
iiiou, emM one. ti haa been n* aim H nuke mr bcrd to «niaiM 
milDellr, pTwcipaUr o( ihi>a:nHn of bU»d. 
The yoHiif bolla bred frotn thefe cowt, 1 hnve dinpoaed of, with Iha 
be eicepiKiii af (Bch u [ uerdrd Inr my held, aiid 1 ini graiiGid IB 
ttrm rnta Ibcir awiiara Ihal Ibey bare done naeh gmd where kcr 
mn |aiir. Among ihoH Kid wni "HaliKii," when a cnlf uol 

ilr. WiTiixiiAi.L, of upper Ceunda, Iiitt:o0. ThiebulLuawimf 
MI jreare old, Mr. Kutcumir ued la hia herd three yeeii, and 1^ 
lie reaaou that he eouliT uol breed him In hit own heifer*, he bt oajrfal 

raeik, and At aiile. 'Hut buU^i appeanuire then, too are aware, m- 
racled miteh Mlmiraiifli^ he waa awarded ilk* li^premiun iiiti>« 
lui nT Aireiini Hoct, and wna Kdd ihonhr allrr hi< appearsiiH ni 
lie ground at RWU, to Mr. M. P. Ciuniii of Madim eaunir. la 
. leiier 1 received iron the il«L Amh Fd*obhoii, dnted Nor. 13, 

aywir ia your h 
My brut now 

Iter. I en imly happy 
UDIher hidl calf, and gint 

niuiu of ■liuu iliiny head, young ami old. I beg 

ly be of aome iulereel lo eonia of your iiumeruna 
mid re«peciA:ll) )oun, Ac-- Gko. Vail. TVef . Jan 

UKTOir Col'^TI As. Mmiiut.— The Aianul Mrrtiiig nflliii 
my Agrinritural Hocieiy »» kehl it Flaiulwrgh, on Iba Mb A 
Inlawing i« a lisl of officen for ll« tnauiilg yvM. 

R O. Barber, Beekmanlowu 
Sanl. ChulleHan, do 
B H. Moore, Pen, 

(XiwK. Idfduni. Pern, 
a. M Teylor, Sehay'ar Falb. 
Miner Manin, naiuburgh. 


THE cultivator; 



AoKHowLiDOVKiiTS. — Con|ii»iiiication8 ba^e been re» 
ccWed since oar last, from John Waters, James Fonn* 
tain, Boelbeye, C. £. Goodrich, Wm. McG., An old 
Farnkcr, Hoosier, A. If able, H. R. L., Prof. Korton, S. 
Smith, Jo)in Ltoyd, B., Oeo. Vaii, S. Edwards Todd, 
W. Bacon, A Subscriber, Qeo. Mansfield, L. Durand, 
W. L. Eaton, Wm. Bailey, Ra-ab Shagy, V. A., Geo. 
E. Snider. 

Books, Pavpblkts, Sec., have been received as fol- 
lows: EvAXs' Dairyman's Manual.— An account of 
Mr. J. J. Mkcbi's forming operations at Tiptree Hall, 
England, from B. P. Jobmsov, Esq.— —Transactions of 
Worcester Go. (Mass.) Ag. Society ibr 1851, (Vom Johh 
W. LuiooLii, Esq.— Annual Reports of the New Ha- 
Ten Hort. Society, for 1861.— Descriptive Catalogue 
of Thosp, Smith, Haxchktt, & Go.'s Syracose Nur- 
series. ^Patent Office Report on Agriculture, for 1860 

-61, from Hon. T. Swbajik, Com. Patenta. 

IC^ We have delayed a notice of the retirement of our 
late associate, Mr. Howard, from the Cultivator, in order 
that we might at the same time announce his entrance 
upon his new duties as Editor of the Agricultural De- 
partment of the Botton Cultivator ^ a weekly Journal of 
Tery extensive circulation throughout New England. Mr. 
HowABD has been our associate in the management of 
The Cultivator for many years; and in parting with him, 
aa we do with sincere regret, we take pleasure in con- 
gratulating our New-England brethren of the agi'icnltural 
press on the acquisition to their corps of so valuable a 
member,— one so worthy of their regard and confidence. 
We may also congratuliite the readers of the Boston 
Cultivator on his accession to the editorial chair of that 
paper, for we feel well assured that no one could be found 
whose sound views and thorough knowledge better quali- 
fy him for the place. 

Ubivebsitt of ALBANY. — This institution is now fairly 
in operation. The opening lecture of the Agbtcultual 
Course, was delivered on Wednesday evening, Jan. 14th, 
to a large and attentive audience, by Prof. Nortoh. A 
large number of the members of the legislature, and 
citizens of the city, were in attendance, and the sympathy 
manifested in the purpose of the University, was highly 
gratifying to the friends and projectors of the Institution. 
Several of the Senatorial Districts have already fnmished 
their quota of students, and the prospects are fair for a 
large and respectable class. Prof. Nortob made a brief 
exposition of the general plan of the University, in the 
course of which he stated that at no time before, in this 
country, bad so full a course of popular lectures on 
practical science been accessible to the public. The Law 
Department is succeeding admirably. 

B:^ The inquiry of our friend at St. Hilaire, C. E., on 
the manufacture of maple sugar, we have sent to Mr. 
Hall of Shelburne, Vt. , who we hope will furnish the 
information desired. 

Lead Pipe. — J. L. M. Lead pipe is worth from 5| 
to 6^ cents per pound. The average of pipe of half 
inch calibre, weighs about three pounds to the yard. 

Fbebch Meribo Sheep — Cobrbctiob. — ^In a com- 
munication in the December number of the Cultivator, 
on " Farming m Delaware County," it is said by ja typo- 
graphical error, that French Merino lambs were exhibit- 
ed at the show of ti»e Delaware County Agricultural So- 
ciety, from the flock of " F. M'lntosh*' of Otsego coun- 
ty. The name should have been printed F. M. Rotch, 
of Morris, Otsego county. We greatly regret the mis- 
take, which should have been corrected in our Jaauarx 
number, has it been ascertained in leaaon. Mr. Rotcv 
has fanported on fats own aooonnt, aad as agent for otiiers, 
about 180 head of French Merino sheep. The aBinaali 
were selected by himself, under the most fitvorable cwp 
curastances. He spent much time in France ; visited att 
the celebrated flocks, and thoroughly discussed with the 
owners and shepherds, in their own tongne, all BiatterB 
relating to sheep. He bought the best sheep he could 
obtain — having ample means at his disposal to do so,-— 
and we have learned from good Judges who have seen 
those he sent over, that they are very superior specameaB 
of that noted stock. ■ 

Tbb Wbstbbb World Ibstitbtb. — ^P]ao8f4H' improve- 
mcnt are on foot everywhere. A circular has been soot 
us flrom San Francisco, giving notice of a WssTBur 
World Ibstitvte, whose object is the advancement, 
throughout th^ entire Pacific coast, of all the great ift> 
terests of Agriculture, Commerce, Horticulture, Mining, 
Manufacturing, and the Arts and Sciences — improvement 
in the breed of Horses and Cattle, and the general de* 
veloproent of all the varied resources of the State. A 
Museum and Conservatory arc established in connection 
with the Institute, and addresses on the Natural ScienoeB 
are in contemplation. This magnificent project is in per- 
fect keeping with the gmnd scale upon which Califomians 
act, and will aid in bringing to light the exhaustless r^ 
sources of the country. 

Heavy Litter of Piqs. — Mr. Geo. E. Skider, of 
St. John, V. B., writes us that Mr. Hatward, a farmer 
in Kings county. Parish of Sussex, has recently slaugh* 
tercd nine pigs of extraordinary weight. They Vere all 
of one litter, and killed when eight months old. Their 
weight was as follows: 840 lbs.; 848 lbs.; 808 lbs.; 294 
lbs. ; 858 lbs. ; 867 lbs. ; 828 lbs. ; 886 lbs. ; 800 lbs. To- 
tal weight; 2,974 lbs. Average weight, 880 i lbs. Eight 
of these pigs were sold for $208. Has this ever beea 
beaten? _^. 

MiBERAL Theory or Mabures. — ^Messrs. Lawbs It 
Gilbert have published in the Journal of the Royal Ag» 
ricultnral Society, the results of many experiments, 
made by them in the course of many years, to ascertain 
the correctness of the idea advanced by Liebig, that it is 
only necessary to apply the ashes of plants or mineral 
substances, for the support of crops. They took plots ef 
ground of equal quality, containing equal superfices, and 
applied diiferent substances to the same crop. In one in- 
stance, ground which had no manure, produced 16 bush- 
els of wheat to the acre ; 14 tons of yard manure pro- 
duced 22 bushels; the ashts of 14 tons of yard manure, 
16 bushels ; mean produce of nine plots supplied with 
artificial mineral manures, 16 bushels 8} pecks ; on other 
plots, the addition of 65 pounds sulphate of ammonM, 





(which Liebfg held was '' unnecessary/') gave an ave- 
nge of 21 boalielfl. The increase by the use of the min« 
eral manures recommended by Liebig, was therefore, leas 
than two bushels per acre, and the increase by ashes of 
manure, nothing. 

Sai« Hat.^-TIio saline herbage of nsarshes near the 
aea, is valuable for feeding stock, especially so when fed 
In connection vrith fresh hay. It is most valuable te mix 
with hay which grows on bogs or wet lands. The salt 
hfty imparts a relish to the other, and cattle thrive well 
•o the mixture. It is best to mix the salt and fresh to- 
gether in the mow or stack — ^putting them in alternate 
layers. If the salt hay is not more than half made, it 
MMwers full as well for this purpose. 

VowiKQ Machinx. — A correspondent at Newport, R. 
i., says — " a good mowing macliine is much wanted here. 
Our fields are snnooth, and pretty free from stones, and 
several, I think, would purchase such machines, if they 
would do the work properly, and could be furnished at a 
reasonable price." If any of our readers have used 
KetchumV, or any other mower, we should be glad to 
receive their o|»nion8 as to its usefulness. 

As Address before the Cortland Co. Ag. Society, by 
B. Masks, affords one of many evidences, that public 
ientiment is becoming more universally alive to the ne- 
cessity of educating mind to think and Judge for itself. 
TTe wish the truths presented so clearly and impressively 
in this address — that intelligence is the basis of our boasted 
freedom and power — that worth should form our esti- 
mftte of character — that in a high standard of individual 
attainment is our country's brightest hope, might be 
echoed and re-echoed till every mind had caught some- 
thing of their spirit, and learned to act wisely under their 
inflnence. ■' 

TIiGH Manurihq. — The editor of the Michigan Farm- 
er, in his foreign correspondence, states that Robert 
Craig, a very successful cultivator near Glasgow, ap- 
plies mannre at the rate of one hundred dtjtare per 
aere! — and finds it profitable. Although he makes much 
on his excellent and fertile farm, he draws large addi- 
tional quantities 5 miles after paying overa dollar a load 
for it. It costs him over two and a half dollars per ton 
when applied. He gives forty tons to each acre. This 
keeps the soil in fine condition for several years, or till 
his five-year rotation is completed. 

Lard Oil. — Tlie editor of the Prairie Farmer, In re- 
ply to the condemnation of lard oil for lamps by the 
Patent Office Report, says, <* We have used lard oil for 
cfgnt years steadily, both in the office and In the house, 
and would by no means exehange it for any material for 
light with which we are acquainted. We have used it 
in difibrent sorts of lamps, solar included, and find it 
everywhere and in every way superior. Its single de- 
fect is that in the coldeet weather in the morning it is 
too easily affected with cold, requiring the use of a candle 
till the room is somewhat warmed.'' 

Cost or the Conir-cROP iw the West. — The Prairie 
Farmer says that he has made inquiry of several corn 
raisers in middle Illinois, of the absolute cost of this 
grain per bushel in the crib. There was very little dif- 

ference in their estimates, which ranged from /our toeix 
eenie ! The soil is of such a nature as to be plowed whh 
the greatest ease, no hoeing is needed, all the cultivating 
being done by horses, the rows being flrom half a mile 
to two miles in length, and the husking of the huge ears 
being done from the standing stalks in this field. 

Wire Worms. — According to • sttftemeot in the 
Prairie Farmer, salt is not agreeable t» this larva. LaMl 
infested by thousands was sown in the fall with reftist 
salt at the rate of three and a half bushels per aare. 
The next summer very few were seen, and ai\«rward8 
all gradually diss ppeaied. Worth trying, at least, aU 
though the proportion of salt when dlssc^ed ia the mM 
would be only about one fifty- thoMandth part. 

Wasbihq Sprixq Wheat. — A correspondent of the 
Genesee Farmer, pursues the following method of free- 
ing wheat for sowing of oats and other seeds :*-ne pnin 
three pecks of wheat In a wash-tub, tills It with water, 
and after stirring removes the oats and such other seeds 
as rise to the surface. The oats that will not float are re 
moved by stirring the whole round rapidly by means of 
a I addle in a circular motion, which throws the oats to- 
wards the middle into a heap, when they are removed, 
and the process is repeated till the whole is clean. 

DiGifiTT AED Disgrace or Labor. — Dr.Tuthlll shows 
the dignity of use Ail labor, and the disgrace of that 
wbioh is merely fashionable, in hisaddrets before the SuA 
folk county Agricultural Society, as follows: — *' If a 
stout vigorous citizen has a load of wood lying on the 
side-walk, he may as well hang himself as to be fool 
enough to saw it himself; yet if Faddy has pitched it in 
out of sights we are not sure but he may saw on till 
doonisd.iy, and no one esteem him less of a gentleman. 
Be would no sooner be cangl it carrying a trunk the length 
of a block to an omnibus, than stealing a body from a 
grave-yard ; yet he will boast among his friends of the 
enormous weight he carries in the gymnasium, having 
paid a fee of thirty dollars a year for the privilege!" 

Liquid amd Solid Manure. — Charlss Alexaedee, 
a careful and accurate farmer in Scotland, found that 
while 14 head of cattle would make six loads of solid 
manure, the liquid would saturate seven loads of loam, 
rendering it of equal value. He bad repeated the ex- 
periment for ten years, and found the saturated earth 
fully equal to the best putrescent manure. How many 
dollars worth are thus lost annually by each of the mil- 
lion farmers of this country? And what is the aggre- 
gate loss in the whole country taken together? 

Value o? Guaro.— At a meeting of the Maryland 
Agricultural Society, George W. Dobbhi, the Secre- 
tary, in speaking of the great value of this powerfVil 
manure on old or worn-ont fields, said that SOO lbs. per 
acre, on potatoes, was equal to a dressing of good stable 
manure — ^more than this made too great a growth of 
stalks. It succeeded well on wheat and clover, but not 
on oats. 

Cr#ws.— " An old Farmer," after alluding to the in- 
crease of crows in many places, and the great Injury 
they do to fields of grain, poultry yards, and In the de- 
struction of small birds, recommends that a law be passed 
offering a bounty of 26 cents each for their destruction. 




Faex-Housb. — I wish to build me a farm-boiue, to 
cost ttom $800 to $1;000, and have not, as yet, seen any 
plan that exactly suited me; and should be gratified if 
some of yonr readers, who hare built such a house, 
would furnkh the plans for the Cultivator. G. L. 

AusTEALTAM Whsat. — Wilt some one who has grown 
this wheat, inform me whether it is likely to be more 
prodncti?e and profitable than the Blue Stem or Soules 
Wheat— and if so, where it can be had. C. L. 

If ILL roK GsiHDiHa Feed. — P. N., Connelsville, Pa. 
The best mill for this purpose that we know of, is Sin- 
Clair's of Baltimore. It will grind four or five bushels 
per hour. It may be had in this city of Emery k Co., 
and we presume of dealers in agricultural implements 
In Philadelphia— price $85. 

GoTSEVOR HfiHT, of Kcw-York, in his recent message, 

has the foUowiog remarks on the establishment of an 

Agricultural Institution:— 

** Much interest has been manifested for some years 
past in favor of crentinff an institution for the advance- 
ment of agricultural science and of knowledge in the 
mechanic arts. The views in favor of this measure ex- 
pressed in my last annual communication, remain un- 
changed. My impressions are still favorable to the plan 
of combining in one college two distinct departments for 
instruction in agricultural and mechanical science : but 
many whose opinions are entitled to weight, contend that 
a separate establishment for each branch would be most 
advantageous to both. Before adopting any final action 
on the subject, ^e merits of the several ^'stems of or- 
ganization that have been proposed, should be maturely 
considered. I would respectfully recommend that a 
sufficient portion of the proceeds of the next sale of lands 
for taxes be appropriated to the erection of an institution 
which shall stand as a lasting memorial of our munifl- 
oence, and contribute to the diflllision of intelligence 
among the producing classes, during all fViture time. 



IBr&rj Sahfloriber an Agent. 

All OUT Subaeriben, m well as all Pottmaslers, are Mpecially in- 
▼ited lo aci as Ageiita for our publijalioiia, The CvbTivAToa aixi 


C^ Ag«nl« who cdmpnte for our Preminms, will aid oa in keep- 
ing their accomiu, if they will nomber their rabecriberv, 1, V, 3^ aiid 

■ ■ *♦• 

Bemember the Terms to dubs. 

8eren Copiea for 86.00— FiAeeii Copie9, and the Hortictilturitt, ux 
tnomha, to liie Agent, for SIO.00. 

07* III anawer to aeveral iiiqmriet, we would fate, that it is not 
required that all papers in a club should be sent to one post office 
We will address them to as iniuiy different offices as may be neces- 


Preminms to Ageato of the CaliiTator. 

As an inducement to those disposed to act as Agents, the following 
Prtminms will be paid in Cash, Silvkh Plats, or 
Books and Implxmkkts, lo those who send us the largest list of sub- 
scribers for Thx Cultivator for 1852, previous to the tenth cf Aprii 

I. To the one sending us the largest number, with the pay in ad- 
vance, at the club price of sixty-seven cents each, the sum of Fi/tt 


8. To the one sending us the next largeKt list, the sum of Fostt 


3. To the one sending us the next largest list, the sum of Thibtt- 
FivK Dollars. 

4. For the next largest list, the sum of Thirtt Dou.ars. 

5. For the next largest list, the sum of Twrhty-Fivr Dollars. 

6. For the uf xt largest list, Twxkty Dollars. 

7. For the next laigesi list, FirrKKN Dollars. 

8. For the next largest list, Ten Dollars. ^ 

9. For the next largest list, Five Dollars. 

10 To all who send ns Thirty Siibjicrihers or over, and do not re- 
ceive one of the above Prises, a copy of TiiR Horticulturist for 
mie year. 

II. To ail who send us Fifteen (Hifascrihers, and do not receive oita 
ff ttie above Premiiuns, Tm Horticvltorist for six months. 

Allmnr Prices Cnnneiit* 

Alraxt, Tuesday, Jan. 90, 18St. 

FLOUR.— Tlie market at this point, during the last four weekly 
has been quiet, with an occasional exception of purchasers on speco- 
latioa. The trade is confined to the city and a limited Eastern de- 
mand at •4.89a44l7^ for ordhiary State, •4.37^4.60 for good State 
and Indiana and Michigan, •4.50a4.0S| for Genesee, and IM TSaS^SO 
for fancies and extra. A sale of 1 ,000 bis. Oswego, was made last 
week at $4.25. Buckwheat flour is saleable from store at S'2u2.0i>J. 

GRAIN — We have no soles of wheat to report; holders have ad- 
vanced their views, and prime samples of Genesee wheat are tknaltf 
held at 91 12^, with not much dieposttion to sell at that figtire. doma 
sales of Barley have been mode from store and to arrive, at prieea 
ranging from 70a78c. for ordinary to good lots ; in the street OSaTSe. 
is poid. Oats in the street are now firm at 47c., and Rye 08e. 

HOPS sell iu retail lou at 30a33c. In New-York the moilcet is 
firm at 27a3Sc. for Eastern and Western, with a good demand. Hm 
Shipping Listj at New- York, estimates the new crop of Hops at 
14,000 bales, with 1700 bnles of old Hops on hand, and states the d«- 
deficiciicy at about 5,000 bales. 

PROVISIONS.— In cut and barreled meats, we have no sale* at 
moment, at this market to report ; a sale of 100 bis. mess pork, cm 
from Lake Hogs, was made yesterday at 9f4.50. The retail market 
may be quoted, mess pork at 1 15.50; prime $14; clear 818. Mem 
beef fO.50; prime $5.50; siRoked beef 9c. : smoked hams 0^. ; hami 
in pickle Oc. ; lard 9^c. Cheese 6|a7c. Butter lOalSe. 

Dressed Hogs have sold readily on arrival, the price for oeveral 
days pa«t ranging from $6.50a6.75 for fair to prime \ot%; lots, still fed, 
are taken on the spot and to arrive at $5.0*i|ii5.75. In the West thm 
packing business is nearly closed, the number cut is less tliou lool 
year, but the hqgs are heavier; whether enough so to make up th« 
deficiency and the stock of old Pork oa the sea board, remains to b4 

WOOL.— The market ai this point is quiet; the demand, however, 
is good. At New- York, on the 17lh inst., the Reporter quotes only 
one transaction in domestic; a sole of 12,000 fine fle«)ce at 43e. codu 
Other woob of same class are held at 45c. Quouiious are nominally 
the some, but on abatement of 3c. per lb. from December prices ^I'onld 
be snbmitied to effect soles. In foreign, there has been o small de- 
mand from dealers, but the general tone of the market is flat. Quo- 
tations unaltered. From the other markets there ia nothing of inieresL 

SEEDS.— The New- York papers quote Clover iu better request 
for export both to England and the Continent ; 25 tcs. sold for Scotland 
on private terms. Timothy remains dull ; mowed may be qoted $14r 
18, and reaped $2taS1, without soles. Of Flax, we notice aolea of 
100 tcs.elfRn, within o week, at $12.50; and 1500 bushels rough, m 
lots, $1.44ald60, which for the latter is on advance. 

To Virfinia Farmera* 

A PRACTICAL Farmer and Dairyman wishes to obtain a form 
to manage at a given salary, or on shares, in some healthy lo- 
cality in Vircmio or in Morylond, for a few years, with a view lo 
ultimate settlement afler tesliiig climate and soil. Good referencet 
given, if required. Address, CULTIYATOR OFFICE. 
Feb. 1—U* 


A MONTHLY Periodical devoted to Agriculture, Hortienltsre, 
Florocultmre. Kitchen Gardening^ Management of Hot-hooseo, 
Green-hMues, et. ol. Embracing Agricnlturnl Chemistry, prepara- 
tion of manures, Ac.,&c. 

Edited by Professor JAMES J. MAPES, and published at 2SCliir. 
street, New- York. 

Terms per yeor, in advance,— single copies, $1 00 

" " six copies, 5 00 

" " twenty-five copies,. 90 00 

Boek volumes in covers, at aiibscripiioii prices. 
The Fourth Vo«ume will commence March 1, 1852. Feb 1. 


AND other Fertilizers. Several hundred tons of first quality of 
Pemvioii Guano, constantly on band for sale. 

A. B. ALLEN & CO., 180 and 101. 

Water-st., New- York. 
Jan. 1— tf. 

Fine Fowls for 8a!e. 

"fTERY handsome specimens of the Albany Dorking, Black INv 
V laud, and Silver Spangled Poland, are for sale by 
Albany, Jan. 1, 1859-2t. E. E. PLATT. 


Bnn Iton CTktriM F«wl». 
rrtBB HiUcribar 

«im?M!imlS,'ui- .,.. „ ,. 

Bteek flpuMr. Mmtm (ma AyleMnr)- duck*—* v^rMy tu| 
fflVBd by dpiciir«,lnnilbanperiar iubIiit iV Uiflir onh. 

AUo Idr bIc, Mnnl piilr oTltartiM ud Sliingliiir fnwli. 

arta>biiih,>eb. I, 193.-11. WILUAM S. KIRTLAN] 

Fnrni For Ssta. 
rriHE nbKriber wiH kH uprima Hie, iha Pum in WHiniiMcr, 
X Vt, of (he Ine Vp^JUiun Siwkney, ufvpi wIibi has baoi >M off 

oeUent ueadowlvid. ■bom fortT BcnsoTHMnn wljojniag. wilb 
abou trv Km of lud on Iba Mui iwtl, Iwtiuf > HnalJ buikhiic 
" * ' — bom. DiiE hundred and iiiiy acrea of i^iinring ana 

in dT iba widow'* dower in (arta^ Tfaia Jknoia eu 

known IbBl a further deacriptiod ii deeincd niuig m eary. For u 
■ptdy TO ihe wbecriber, CIiUlwm-aL, Boelon, or >o Siephen Bu 
)BHid WwmiiHicr. ISAAC HTIC^NEY, 

Waatmiunar, Vl, Feb. I,— 11 AdminiHrilor ofWin. Suclou 

Imparted SaBolk, E 

i. SuK 

|alk, E*Ki and Mtdficau Swim 

aikkDer. adminiiinior of Ih* I 

trom^y anouded to, and feleclii 


Cdniet of ChaEham-at. a 

New ud Fine Sknita «ad Flanto. 

ELLWANGER A BARRY, Prapdelon of Die Mnint Bop* 
Knwrjca, RoctinIM, N. Y., ..ll^lhg atlcnlKnioflhoKinI^ 
naied ill Omamenlal RanB, io ihrir large (lock of rare uid beanli- 
ful Dhmba end l^onu, amcmgwUeh are Ihe fsllowiiig 
Dfvttia BtairB. or Garlaud Deotzia, a iiie whhe flowaring ihrob. 
FiKn/tkit Firidunina. 

Sa^iwt jnn i/bliu, llori pleiio. Small dogble while flowert in (ren 
Uroftiiion: Stic flfiiM Knbn. 
Bpiraa lunokni, or Reereal, one of ihe tneal of ilia Kcnoa. 
Sfvoii Cliamadrifitia, /Kawbrii, LindUtaiia, Japntiia, ud 

'^iffo (Phriad<lpbo^ I FHVKflH, ZiTtimi, Ctrdau. tXmiU. Ct- 

Lonirm Ltdi^tvrii, a liiie rHlifomfiin Bhrab. 
THmitrir, Afrieama^ Gmnaniai, OatUelt, ami Liiartotita. 
Fibttrnum l4it(aiioi^i, a bcaaiirul ihrub. 
Wttgfb Rum, Ihe lUwat hardy ibmb laleir jnlrodoced IVom Ctai- 
ua. The ahoR exeelleu ihingi can be raniiahol in qnaiiliiiei al low 


.-*Oar eolLeetloi b 

ava, MagnyUnl, PFtlidtnl, 
proyiajaieil Tarf fly. 

L Kjlleclian of SO 

■n- dt Litgt, Corfrmbttninj aDd aona n 

C»y*Mi>*a i w a gn, auirtloia and ahen 

enlor. XhmMUi ^'v, anl 
RtDMrduu Bivktaa, and 

parb fiann (br 

na of Ihe fin- 


'or, Opfttiti/alim, ^irrea and olhen ; 

fineihrnbb^liUnl, wiih larga elvalere of 

airAW.— 'A cuperb planfi half ahmbhri wilh larf a 
r cnmaan flowere ; blooiaa equally well in tbe open 

large colleeljon, erabracinf aU diitincl and gnod 

LO'lia fvlfttu t<uicai(— flowan of danliui brilli 
Idklisyn^nu aliu; UFW. 
Ferpihu LvtdUyaaa^ — A charming 
aletaiilMpikaaorpalE, Tirarly while N' 

IVie FifllfU, — While and (nrpla- 

" -A fine cullutlao of Ihe i 

flowerinj jJanl; long 

Ci'airarvu.— A jiia f ulleclion of licw ajld heanlifnl Km, Ini^lnding 
tbfifinl, AliUa, Dniid C-Ppr^'U, H-iBinffBi, Bmar ^Kisi' 


nop, lalth, HudMt * Co., PnprlBton, Ijranue, V. T. 
■ MONO iha Fniiiaiat Omamenlal Tree*, Stiniba, Vinta, Roee^ 


Slsaifant OBd Ttiaatf Jfydi IVh). 
Slamiard aitd DWBif Fiir Tnii, 
amJv4 amd Dvarf Cktrrfi TrttI 


ETUoRau Tana, UiclndJug Deodar, Lcluiiwii, and Jann Cedare, 
al much leaa Ibau ihe aaoal raiee ; JnnipeTT, l<pnicea,Tau>diDiB*, 
he. F«ai'ia>,a>|ilendkli»JleciionofTreeand^erbaeeooa. Dta- 

KUWeenlilbt whiiJa"n>DUL "^'er M ofiha'cCISM 
kiiida. RDaia, a,O0O planla of iha Biical TaneiiM, wilh alllhenaw 
aciiniaiuoiiL BDLanna Roora, recnved Inn fnll from ffidland, con- 
iuIiniT of DouUe Tuli^ Hyaciiiibi, Lili», CroriHa. An. Bnniiw 
ODi Puim of tnn daacripliiei. BecainoaH iwo and Ibree veara 
old, very •unil ; aU lor aala, al wholeHle or telaU, aa low aa al any 
olber eaUhlMintenl bi America. 

A raw edition of onr General Calatoguo ia now publi^ed, rm- 
bracnig. taL A full Daacrinlve Gaiahwua of Fniila. 3d. A Hpecial 
Caudoitug of Dahliea, Border Plaiiu,fec.,Biid3d. AueiieiiiiTeCaia- 
Infne of Hnhouie aiid GrecnhoBH Plnnu. Bedding oai Flanla, aul 
Bnlhoui Rooia; 10 Which we refer fordeicripiiaB and prieH. 

0~ As Ihe pcvlaie on ihk Caialocua for SCO milea and under, ia 
*eein.; fminiMlolS«l,Scenu: rwnilSOOIoasCIO, IS ceiila, »«., 
which we ore comjicllod Io peepay, we moal require all applfcanla, 
beiidee paying Iheir pa»ge, Io encloae «■• Utar namy Un any di*. 
lance under dOO milea. and ikat ia any dinanca >-^>jriiii« it. 

Syraeuw, Feb. 1, 1S5»-»L 



THE ahoTa Horaa Powen have beta awarded the kighen Pre. 
minma al Ihe Faira of ihe New- York Siala Agiicuhural Bociei* 
in ISM, and again in mi 1 >!», the bigbeil PremiDni of Ihe Miohl- 
gan Slate Few, al Delroii, Mich., ui S^embor, 1§51, where a im- 

on Iheir farma, ta 

■I Delroii, Mich., in S^embor, 18 

lip farma, living porchated them preriona id : 
"-" Medo] ai Ihe ApMrican Tnatilule in mi- n »»■< 
wBlele Faira of Ohio, MaryUmd, and Peniiiylvnii 
> hiatiMi ■wapda wbieh eould be giren by the n . . . 
it haa been in cempetilion wilh all 

Iheir Socieilea. In avenr eaaa, it baa been in compeiiiion 
endleaa chain Poweraof any note inlhiaeonmry—amungwl 

Whreler'e Rack and Phitan. All of our Powen have I , 

EMERY * CO., can upon every link of Ihoehainandhnbof Laid. 


Hunlltciii, Llbsr^, and ITnioD-itnati. 

'Hia aulHcribera are Ihe originalun and eole proprielanof Ihcabora 

workiL which embroee a very large uoUeeliou of labor anving Ma- 

ing of jlgiirullural Machinery to any deaind extent, and i^iih uui- 
form accuracy and deepatcb. 


1 an 

THE Tranaecliomofihe New 
vdIb. 1 10 ft, (br aale al Ihe O 





Flrnit nttongnn I85»» 

<BE cQlMieribOT wiil furuMh Sciom for ihisieaioa^t grafting, oflbe 
«elebnued fruiU of Woslern New- York : 


Northern Spy, 

Norton'* Melon, 


St LHwreiice, 

Cuiada Red, 



Porome Oriae, 


Hertfordahire Peaimun, 



Tweiity OttBce Apple, 

Hawley, or Dome, 


Bailey ;$weetiiig, 



Rifaelone Pippin, 
Snminef Rose, 

Esopua Spitaenburgli, 
Yellow Beiiaower, 
Roxbiiry Rvawit, 
Early Harvest, 
Earty Strawberry, 
Aoiumu Strawberry, 
Early Joe, 
Fall Pippiii, 
Hotlaud Pippin, 
Rhode IslaHd Oreenuig, 
Tailman Sweeting, 
Oreen Sweeling, 


Oswego Benire, 
Broxvii Bearre, 
Osbaiid'a Sammer, 

Swan's Orange, or Onon- 
snd most of the Foreign \*arieties. 

Apple Scioiu 91.00 per hundred, and Pear Scions Three Shillings 
per dozen. They will be carefully packed and sent by Express or 
Dy Mail. A discount on apple scions will be made to nuriierymen. 

Early orders are requested, to insure a supply. Addreas ine, (post- 
paid.) al Rochester, Monroe County, New-York. 

N. B. — ^In nil cases where it is possible, T will send samples of the 
"Northern Spy." Reference con be made to Mr. Tucker of "the 
Cultivator " Rochester, Monroe Co., N. Y., Feb. 1, 1852.— It. 


THE undersigned has disposed of his interest in the *' State Agrl- 
cultural Warehouse," No. 35 Cliff sireet, to Mr. A. LONGE'rf, 
who will in future conduct tlie business on bis own account. 
New- York, Feb. 1, 1853-lt. GEO. H. BARR. 

State AgrionltHral Warehouse. 

EMERY'S, RelPs and Wheeler's Horse Powers and Thrasher's 
Huvey's, Clinton's, Tower's, Sinclair's and Botts' Straw and 
Stalk Cutlers. 

VegeUihle Cutters, for iliciug up potatoes, be^ts, ice. 

Corn Shelters of vnriotts patterns. 

Faimiiig mills of Bryan's make->this is considered one of the be«t 
Mills in use. 

Clinton's, Bamboroogh's, and other makes. 

Prouty & Meors' Premium Plows of all sizes. 

Minor & Horton's and Eagle pLws. 

Barrows of Geddes, Triaiig[le nnd Scotch natlems. 

Paring llow, a superior article, made uuu«r the direction of Prof. 

Subsoil Plows of Wier's pattern, which is half thedraA of the old 

Ox or Road Scrapers, Seed Sowers, Cuttivater*, &e. 

Field and Ganlen Seed*. 

Fertilizers, such as Guano, Bone Dust, Bone Coal, Plaster, Pou- 
drette, Bone Manure and Sulphate of SoJa. For sale by 


Feb. 1, 1833— It. No. 35 Cliff Street, New- York. 

Devon Bait for Sale. 

THE subscribers offer for sale their thorough bred Devon Bull 
" Uncas," calved the lOih of March, 1851. Sire "Ncguiui. 
cook," grandsirc " Prince Albert," (103 of English Herd l)ook;)— 
Dam '< Non-pareillc," by "L^ord Lynedock;'- grandam a Quarterly 
cow. '< Neg uiiticook" won the first prize at the American Institute 
in 1850; and the first at the State show in 1851. »' Nonpaj-eille" won 
the first prize as a three year old heifer at Borusiable, England, in 
1840; and the first at tlie State sliow in 1851. He may be seen at 
our place ; or further particulars will be given to any one addrcasiuff , 

Feb. 1— St Rhinebeck, Dutchess co.. New- York. 

Splendid Fann in Ohio for Sale. 

WE have a rolendid farm for sole, containing about 900 tu;res. It 
is situated al)out 2^ miles wes*. of Columbus, and within 3^ 
milet of I^udon, the coatitv seat of Madison county. An excellent 
McAdamized road, fromCcMumbus to Xenia, parses through it. The 
access to market, either east or south, is easy and quick. Tlie rail- 
road from Cuicinnati to Cleveland, lias a depot at London. 3} miles 
from it. 

About 139 acres of the land are cleared, and under good improve- 
meiiL The balance is well timbered, and the whole is uiuler fence. 
It is well watered, having springs or streams in abundance. 

On it is a substantial brick dwelling hoa«e nnd two other comforta- 
ble tenements. The orchard contanis alnrnt 306 apple, pench, and 
pear tree*. The whole farm is well adapted for raiding grain, or 
corn, awl would make an admirable dairy or stock farm. 

The proprietor .has made arrungemenis in the west to go into anoth- 
er kind of business, nnd will sell the above farm on rersonablv term*. 

For terms apply al this office, or to 


Feb 1— St. Rcttl Estate Agents, Columbus, Q. 



900BVAL iff BUSAL AM AJtD EttAt X&tOE, 

Edjtko n A. J. DOWNING, I^wbumaxi, 

AtiAer o/Laitdteape Gardening , Frwiu tmdFnrit Tnet tf Am*fim, 
Cottage Residences^ Comniry Homme^ |re., ^.^ 

la published monthly, at the office of The Cultivator, Albany, by 

LuTizsit TucKKx, Proprtelot. 

This popular poUicatiott, which iagradmdij extending ita infimnee 
throMgboul the country, and is becoming iudispeuaible tt> tfao ttsiti'ul 
Gardener, the Fruit Cukuriat and the Floriculturiac, will be eouliiMftd 
as beretoiore, under the Editorobip of Mr. Dowmiw, wbosa ability 
and tasie in all matters of country life, are ouequalled by any wiiter 
of the present day. 

The extended and raluaMe corrcapendetice of Tn HoKTicvLttr. 
KisT, presents the experience of the moet intelligent cultivaton in 
Amenca; and the uutructive nnd agreeable articles from the pen of 
the Editor, make it equally sought after by even the general reader, 
uiterested in country life. To all persons alive to the improvenaeni 
of their Gardens, Orchards, or Country Seat»— to Scientific and prac- 
tical Cultivators of the 8oil— to Nurserymen and Commescia] Giir> 
deners, this Journal, g^ing the latest disoo\*eries and improvement^ 
experiroenu and acquisiiioiis 'u\ Horiiculture, and those braachva m 
knowledge connected with it, will be found invaluable. 

A Ksw voLTtMic (the 7ih.) cornmeoces with the Janwirvnamber Ar 
1653; nnd it will be the constant aim of the Editor and the PuMiaber, 
by every means in their power, to render it rtlU more worthy, by 
every practicable impiovemcnl, of the liberal patronage it is receivn^. 

^y^ All leitcrft on busiiie»4 must t>e addressed to Uio Propcietor 
LUTUER TICKER. Aibaity, N. Y., and Editorud correspoudeiice 
to be addressed to tbe Editor, A J. DOWNING, Esq, Newburgli, 
N.Y.— Each number contains 46 po^, embellished with a 
Frontispiece and numerous Illustrations, printed on the finest pi^ar, 
and in tne best maimer. Price, 93 a year — ^Two copies for 9$. 

New Staminate Strawberry. 


THIS new vanety of the Strtwherry is for sa'e and wil! be feat 
out, to applicants in the spring of J 853, prire one dollar per do- 
zen. Orders may be addressed to Samuel ^Valker, Roxbury, or to 
Mr. Azell JBowditch, at the Massachu^^etis Horticultural i^eed 6tore, 
School Street, 6(»ston. 

T^e Frnit Committee of the Massachusetts Horticvllural Society, 
report of the variety as follows: — * Walker's Heeuung;'' this 
strawberry has now been fruited three yeari); it is a dark colored 
berry, of good size, a very abundant l>earer, of high flavor, very liuc 
quality, and it will be, it i» believed an acquisition. It i« a slanuuaie, 
worthy, as the comnuuce think, of an extended ciUlivotiou. Boston, 
June 2Sr^, lb51. 

Fruit, Ornamental and Evergreen trees, shrubs, Ac. for sale at the 
nursf ries of 8AMUEL V^'ALKEK, 

Feb. I— at. Ruxbnry, Mass. 


THE Mount Airy Agricultural Institute, located at Germamown, 
Pa., will open for the summer term on the first Thursday of 
April next. For particulars address Uie Principal, 

Jan. I, ieS5>-^ . Germantown, Pa. 

Balaam Fir, Arbor Vitie, and other Forest Trees. 

HENRY I^TTI^E it CO., of Bairooft, Maine, will furnish anv 
number of Evergreen aiid other Forest Trees, taken up wicli 
earth on the roots, with the greatest care, and sent to any part of the 
United States by Steamers or Railroad— and carefully pocked in large 
boxes, at short notice, at the following prices, vis: 

From 6 inches to 1 foot, at 1 cent, or 910,00 per 1000. 
From 1 foot to 2 feet, at 1^ cents, or 016.00 per 1000. 
The aliove prices refer more particularly to Balsam Fir aiid Arbor 
VitsE Trees. 
We charge what the boxes eosi, but nothing for packing. 
For two years past, the trees we have procured and sient to a dis- 
tance, have lived generally, and have given good satisfaction. Erer- 
greens \Vill not live iniless taken up witlt great care. 
Bangor, Jan. 1, 1S9d— 4t. 


THE great dc-*ire maiiifeMied in New-England for procuring; gooil 
Poultry, hos induced H. B. COFFIN, JV^irtoo. Mass., to pay 
particular attention to breeding and importing first rate stock All 
jwrsoiis desirous of having the purest and best to breed from, may de- 
pend upon beiiig faithfully served. Among many kimls of Fowls Ibr 
sale by him, are the following, whicli he is very particular in breeding. 
Shanghae — Forbes slock. 
Imperial Chinese — Marsh stock. 
Cochin China — Coffin do 

While Shanghae do do 

Bluck Shungnae do do 

Golden Polnnd, or Spungled Hamburgh. 
Dealers in FowU or Egp* for hatching, supplied upon liberal terms. 
Orders addrc».«e(l to No. 5 Congrest Square^ Boston, will be promptly 

Reierence to Mr. J. Vas I>u*ew, of Ciocuioati, Ohio, who will 
take orders for Fo\vI.«. a> advertised above. 
Boston, Aug. 1, 1831—121. 




bttfroTed Stoolc* 

CATTLE, of the Dnrhain, Devon, Hereford, Aldemejr, vaA Ayr. 
■hire breeds. 

SHEEP, of the Native and Pi«iM>h ft^crino) Saxony, SonthrDowii, 
and Colswold. ^ 

PI03 of the Lincoln, Suffolk, and Berkshire brMdn. 

Prom oar long experience oa brooders and dealers in the abore 
kinds of stock, and our excellent situation fiv purchasing and ship- 
ping, we think we can do as good justice to orders, as any other 
iKn^ in the United Stotes. A B. ALLEN & CO , 

Jan. 1, 18S2— tf. 180 and 101 Water St., New. York. 

United Btatofl Agrienltiml Warehoiue and Seed Storo. 

THE sabscribers sdicil the attention of the public to the large and 
varied oasortnient of Agricultural and Horticultural Implements. 
Field, and Garden Seeds, which lhe¥ have constantly on hand, ana 
offer for sale at the lowest {vices, and on the best terns. Persons in 
-wont of any articles in their line, woold do well to call upon them 
before purcnasmg elsewhere. A descriptive Catalogue will be sent 
gratis upon applicaiion, post-paid. 
N. B. Qnano, Bona iXiat, and other fertilizers. 

Bee. 1— tf. No. 107 Water-Si., New- York. 


A compUu Mamvid of Mcmuns. Priet SI. 

CM. SAXTON, agricnltnral book jpnblisher, hasjosipobliahed— 
• the American Muck Book— ireauiig of the Nature, Properties, 
Sources, History and Operations of all the principal Fertilizers and 
Manures in common use, with speciiicdirectK>ns for their preparation, 
preservation and application to the soil and to crops, as combinH 
with the leadii^ pnncipies ofpractieal and acientific Agriculture, 
drawn from authentic soarees, actual experience, and personal ob- 
sarvacion. Ilhistiaied with aigrarings. By 

Author of Sylva Americana, a Treatise on Forest Trees, American 
Fbuhry Yard, &o. C. M. SAXTON, 

Agricultural Bookstore, 153 Fulton street, New- York. 
The following is from Dr. C. T. Jackson, of Boston, the beat Agri- 
coluural Chemist in the U. 8. :— 


BosTOR, November Qlh, 1891. 

Dear Sir : I have the pleasure of acknowledging the receipt of a 
copy of the " American Mnck Book," recently published by yon, 
am edited by Mr. D. Jay Browne. 

From an attentive examination of this bode, I have come to the 
coDclosionthat it is one of the best works extant, on the princijrtes 
of scientific Mriculiure, and the best compendium of our most recent 
knowledge ofthe natnre of maimres and their adaptation to particu- 
lar soils and cro|s. It cannot be expected that a single volume could 
possibly contain the whole sura of chemieal knowledge applicable to 
the science of '^hemistry ; but on looking over the closely printed and 
compact tables of analyses, and the abtnident foxmulas, which this 
pnbiication contains, I could not fail to be surprised at the industry 
manifested in preparing it. I waa also grntined to find it so well 
adapted to the American system of hosbondry, and so practical in its 
character. Its oopioos and accurate index adds not a little io its val ue. 

I shall certainly recommend it to my agricnlturnl friends as a very 
useful book, aiid one necessary to every scientific farmer. I am, 
Tery respectftdly, your ob't. servant, 

CHARLES T. JACKSON, State Assa>nst, fte. &r. 

To C. M. Saxtow, Esq., New- York. Jou. 1, 1653.—^ 


X their works, arc prepared now to receive ond fill orders for Pou- 
drette with dispatch, and in all cases vrith a/f««*ljr ntani^tMrtdar. 
tirUy at their usual prices, 81 .50 per barrel for any quantity over six 
barrels, 3 barrels for §3.>— f2 for a single barrel, delivered free <A 
cartage on board of vessel or elsewhere, in the city of New- York. 

The Company refer to their pamphlet (furnished rralis) for hun- 
dreds of certificates as to the* efficacy, cheapness, and superiority in 
all respects of their Poudreite over any other Known manure for 
raising a crop of com— also to A. J. Downing, Esq., B. M. Watson, 
Esq., Hon. J. P. Cashing, J. M. Thorbum k, Co., and many others 
as to excellency as a manure for flowers and trees, and the following 
from Hon. Daniel Webster, Secretary of Slate : 

WASHniGTON, March 10, 1850. 
" If I neglect the annual purchase of some of this article, my gar- 
denerer i« sure to remmd me of it. He thinks it almost indispensa- 

and ptensaire grounds, in grass, where the object is to produce a fresh 
and vigorous growth in the Spring. Our practice is to apply it, when 
we go IO town in the Autumn, and wo have never failed to see its 
effects in the Spring.'* 

All commantcations addressed to the « IX)DI MANLTACTUR- 
ING COMPANY, 74 Cortlandt street, New-York," wiU meet with 
prompt attention. Jon. 1, 1653^6!. 

A Book for Wives and Bangliters* 

twenty-Jive eenU.) being a Complete Guide to Domestic Cook- 
ery, Taaie. Comfort Riidftfonemy; tmhnc'mgHx hundred and Jl^y. 
*>«« Receipts, pertaining to hoiuehold duties. Gardening, Flowers, 
Birds, Fhuits, &c. Published by C. M. SAXTON, 

Jan. i-^ 153 FuUen Street, New- York. 

New aiUI InFortanl ituwaaoe. 

IKcBTtkan v. York Jly Stoek Int. Co., Flattibiugh V. T« 

INCORPORATED by the LegiriatBre of the State of New. York. 
July, 1«»1. Horses, Cattle, and aU klnb of Live Stock rasured 
against Death, by the comlMned risks of Fire, Water, Accidents, Dis- 
easee, kc CAPITAL, •60,000. ' 


James Farr, Washington county. Amasa C. Moore, Clinton eomtty* 
Joseph Potter, do John Boynton, do 

Olif Abell, do Zephaniah C jplatt, do 

Pelatiah Richards, Warren CO. Copielhs Halsey, do 
Walter Oeer, do James Averill, do 

Wm. E. Calkins. Essex #k>. Jacob H. Hok, do 

Albert Andrns. Franklui co. Peter S. Palmer, do 

John Horton. OL Lawrence co. George Moore, do 

Thomas Conkey, do Henry G. Hewitt, do 

JAMES FARR, President. 6. MOORE, Plattsburgh, SteW 
A- C. MOORE, Vice-Pest. Z. C. PLATT, do Trei. 
I. C. MIX, Port Ann, Gca Agent. 

^, October 13, 18S1. 

This company are now organised and ready to receive applica- 
tions for inraranoe. It is confidently believed that the o^vners of va- 
luable animals will avail themselves of tlie advantages oifered by thM 
mode of protection. If fire, life and marine iasnrances are proper 
and expedient, so is live stock insurance : the reasons for insurance 
are equally appUcable to all. 

The oompmiy have adopted snch nftt<» as, they believe, will fur- 
nish the means of payii^ ordinary losses, without resort to an assesa- 
mcnt. Bn* to guard against extraordinary losses, which may arise 
from contagious diseases or epidemics, it becomes neceasary to re- 
quire premmm notes. •~— > 

Tb tlM Ownori tf HonM and Lb* itoek. 

QjUUt ef Hu NorUiem Mnp-Ysr* Xt«s Stock Int. Cs., I 
Plattsbuboh, August 10) 1851. j 

The Di.eetors of the above Company, incorporated by the Legisla- 
ture of the State of New- York, at lu extra session in July, 18S], re- 
spectfully request your attention to the fc^owing facts bearing on thia 

1st. Value of this cla« of property. By the census of 1846, ther« 
were at that time in the State or New-Ywk, as follows: 


One-half a millioD, 605,155 


Over two millions, 9,073,330 

Coirs miUud. 

Nearly a miBion, 000,490 


Over six imllions, 0,443,855 

Over one million and a half, 1,584,344 

Without making any estimate of the value of this propesiy, it is 
apparent that it is immense; extending to every inhabited spot, and 
esaeniinl to the health and comfort, almost to the existence or the in- 

2d. These snimals are sulject to disease and accident. It is asser- 
ted by a Vermoin Company, engaged in the Live Stock Insurance, 
as a fact which cannot be disputed, that the aggregate loss upon this 
species of properly throughout New-England, is greater than the 
losses by fire; at nA events, it is a fact undoubted that the aiumal loes 
is very great, ond the owner t^ left unprovided with any means of se- 
curity against the hazard incident to this description of properly. 

91 The knowledge of this risk is one of the leading hindrances to 
improvement in the breed of that useful aud noble animal, the horse* 

Men of capital are slow to invest large sums in a valuable animal, 
whose loss they must every day risk, to the amount oAen from five 
hmidred to a thousand dollars, in every valuable breeding hwse. 

With the ample security to be adbrded by sound Insnronce Com- 
panies, the investment or capital in horses and live stock may be 
made as safe and safer than the carrying of freight on the seas and 
inland waters. Marine Insurance has rendered this last business 
steady jind profitable; while without it, it would want the confidence 
whicn that branch of business now commands. The absence of thii 
Insurance in the case of live stock is universally felt, while the own- 
er of real estate can commmid half or two-thirds of us value when 
neeiled for an emergency. 

While the owner of the ship, " the play thing of the wind and 
waves," may obtain any reasonable advance; tlie owner of equally 
valuable property, invested in horses and cattle, cannot obtain a dol- 
lar. The only exception being fat cattle destined for market. In 
vain does the owner of the horse appeal to his industry or usefulness. 
The answer is, that his property is liable to disease and accident, and 
that as security it is utterly worthless. 

4ih. The Insormice principle comes in. and does for him what IJfe 
Insurance has done for the young beginner hi trade, taking away the 
risk arisinjg: fi om the uncertainty of life. 

It will do for him what Fire Insurance has done for the owner of 
personal property ; placing him nearly on a levd with the owner of 
real estate. 

Your aid is respectfully solicited in behalf of this company, the first 
chartered in this state for this object. The Directors intend it shall 
be prudently conducted, and one which shall deserve the confidence 
of the public 

Terms of insurance will be furnished by the agents of the company 

Gkoegx Mookk, Secretary. JAMES FARR, President. 

Dec. 1— 6t. 


Agricultural Booko 

F all kinds, for sale at the Cultivalor Office, 407 Broadway, Al- 




Contents of this Number. 














The Sab-divl»iou of Farm% 

Pfairie Farming— Breaking ihe Sod, by W. G. Edmi7xd«o3I,. . . 
Superficial Fiirmiiiff— SucccMful Culiare of Melons— Imporia- 1 

lioii of Hereford Caiile, Ac. j 

Topping Corn— Improvemeiil of Varieties, Ac., 

Gro\^n)i of ibe Uiiiied Stuie«— Wlial Foreigners think of us, by J 

Prof. NoRTO.s, j 

Feljruary n hard monUi for Slock— Hanliness of Grnfied Apfrie \ 

Tree*^In»eci8 on Apple and Cherry Grafts, | 

jPage's Portable Saw-Mill, by Dr. G. B. Smith— Washing, Dry- ) 

ing und Ironing Clothes, by Hoosikr, j 

A Country fiichuol Hou«e, 

Notices of New Publications, 

Horticultural Notices, 

The Cultivator— Improvement of the Mind, by S. Edwasds) 

Todd, J 

Live Stock in Texas— Fruit Tree* from Cuttings— The way j 

Weeds increase, j 

Heavy and Lijrhl WocMed Sheen, by W. M'C, 

Stock for the Dairy— ludellible Ink for Marking Labels for Trees, 1 

Plants, Ac, j 

A Farm in Western New- York, by Wm H. Sotuam, 

Plows should Pulverise the Soil — Cultivation by Steam — Farm- 1 

er's Families — To Destroy Calamus or Sweet Flag j 

Lightning Rods, Protection of Barns, Ac, by Dr. G. B. Smith, 
Dairy Business on the Western Prairies, by W. G. Eumumdsox, 

Tlie Canadian or Wild Goom, 

Li«t of Varieties of Apples— Education Necesiwry for the Farmer ] 

— Whesit and Chesit, j 

Annual meeting N. V. Slate Ag. Society, 

Mr. Vait's Imported Durliam Cattle 

Notes for the Rlonih— To Correspondenis, Ac, 


Diagrams of Farms, 65, 66 

Wuiching Machine, 74 

A Conntry School-Hott<e, 75 

Fruit Trecii from Cnuiiigs, 79 

South Down Sheep, SO 

Chinese Pigs, 81 

The Canadian or Wild Goose, 86 

Mr. VaiPs Imported Short-horn Heifer, 87 

Kinderhook Norsery and C«arden, 

At Kindtrkook^ Columbia co., yew-Yorie. 

THE proprietor has oii hand his usual large supply of Fruit aiid 
Ornamental Trees, ISvergreeiw. Flowering .Shrul>#i, Goosel>eny 
Mid Currant bushes, Grapevines, Ueilge plaiitsj^ Raspberries, Straw- 
berries, tec. 

The TTrees are of large size, tlirifty growth, and well rooted, aiu) 
can furnish nearly all the new varieties ordered, and will sell at the 
lowest market prices. 

Ornamental trees being grown exirnsivety, can be fumi^fhed by 
Ihe hundred at very reowinable rates. ICurupcan Linden, Mountain 
Ash, Scotch Elm, English Elms. Euglisli Sycamore, Weeping Wil- 
low, with a good collection of Ro^es, Green-houae plaiils, £c., all 
which can be supplied in qnantities to suit purchasers. Catalogues 
will >>e forwardeil to alt applicants. H. SN VOER, 

Feb. 1— '2t. Nurseryman, Kinderhook. 

French Quince Cnttin;^8. 

I CAN furnish from ten to fifteen tliousand thrifty cnttings from im- 
ported quinces, at f2 per 1,0CNI, at Walworth Nurseri«fS. 
Walworth, N. Y., Feb. 1, ISSa-gi.* T. G. YEOMANS. 

For Sale, 

A THOROUGH bred Devon Bull. He ha* been exhibited at 
"thr**^' agricultural fairs, ami has taken the first prerpium at 
each. IleU a very superior aliimal, ami will be three years old next 
month. TI10.M.\S HANCOCK, 

Feb. 1,1852-31. Ashtou Nurseries, Burlington, New-Jersey. 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees* 

IMJ.WANGER & BARRY beg to remind those who intend to 
J plant next sprhig, that their stock of 
Standard Fruit Trees (or orchards. 
Dwarf Fruit Trees for gardeiw, 

Ornamental Trees for Streets, Park«, Gardens and Pleasure 
Grounds; Roses, &c., ftc, is ver)' large, and offers great inducements 
to those who want first rare articles. 

The Desrripiive Catalogue, sent gratis to all who apply pan-paid, 
and remit stamps f(»r pn!«tage, which must now be prepaid. Five 
cents* 500 miles or lesf. ten cents over 500 and below 1000. 
IC?* See other advertisement. 
Ff b. 1, 185S— *it. Mount Hope Nurseries, Rochester, N. Y. 

Fowls and F?^« 

\7'KRV hantlsome specimens of the Albany Dorking, Black Poland, 
and Silver SpuiiirM Pulaiul are forsalebythesabscriber. Also, 
eg^s of t'.ie alKivc aiicl the following varieties :— 
Shaiigline, IVrly stock. 
Santa Aim, game. 
UKilden I'o.ui.d. 
iitinx li:intam-<. 

Tlie above in:iy be relied upon asgeunlne. E. B. PLATT. 

Aibajiy, Feb. 1, 189!»-9t 


For Qw Honery, Gardes, aaid Fleasoro Groiaid& 

BM. WATfiJON, GUI C<tlony Nurseries, Plymouth, Mass.. o»«.« 
• for sale a very oomi^ete assortineiii of Tr«(>.4 and Plants oievrry 
de^cripiioiij of which a priced Cataiottge will be sent pcKt mkI, to 
all applicants. See also advertiseinent in detail, iu the FeWuary, 
March and A pril numl>ers of the HorticuHuri»t. Feb. 1, 18 5 2—11. 

Warren*! Improved Portable Hone Powers and ThreeheiB. 

^ff^HE undersigned continue to manufacture and sell these celebra- 
X brated machines, aiKl experience lias proved that the FOUR 
HORSE POWER MACHINES have giveu universal satisfactiou 
without a single exception. 

Tlie four horse power may be used Mrith owe to four liorsn— and 
experience up to this time has proved that there are no Horse Powen 
and Threshers so cheap to the purchaser as these. 

Price of Four Horse Po^^•er alone, $75 00 

" of " " Spike Thresher, 90 00 

** of 40 foot Band 3^ mches wide,. 5 00 

Tcrnis Cash. •HO 00 

P. S.— Orders for any kind of AgricnHural Implemeuts and other 
merchandize, will also be promptly attended to. 
Enw. Plaxt. > PLANT, BROTHERS, Com. Merchants, 
J AS. Plaxt, ' ) Feb. 1— gl. 146 William St., New-York. 

Choice Seedlinir Potatoes, 

AS USUAL, for planting; also their seed from the balls. 
Buffalo, Feb. 1, 1852.— It. N. S. SMITH. 


SEVERAL varieties bred from the beM specimens of the late iss* 
ported Stock from the Eastern Market. Cochin Chiiui, Imperial 
Chiiie<ie, Brahma poriu, China Dorking, and othen. 
BuflHlo, Feb. 1, 1S .3a.— It N. 8. SMITH. 

Field and Garden Seeds* 

WE have recently imported, fmm England, France, and Ger- 
many, and have grown in the United States expressW for ns, 
afine as9«ortmentof the best and most approved kinds oTFIBLD 

Agricultural and Horticultural Implements, a lar^ asaortmentof 
the various kinds suitable for North and South America. 

A. B. ALLEN ft CO., 
Jan. 1, ]83!^-tf. 180 and 191 Water-et., New-Yorlc. 


A. B. ALLEN Sl CO., 

189 and 191 Water Street f New-York, 

PLOWS of a great variety of patterna and different sizes, calcitla- 
ted for swani and stubble land, wet meadows, ami recently drain- 
ed swamps where roots aboond. Among these plows, also are the 
deep-breaking-up, fiat-furrow, lap-furrow, self-sharpening, nde-lulU 
douhlc-niould-botird, cum, cotton, cane, rice, and rubsoil With single 
or double wings. 

HARROWS, triangular, square, Geddes, and Scotch. 

ROLLERS, with iron sections one ftxrt long, and ofdiflereot 
diameters. These can be arranged on on imii shaft for any requirod 

CULTIVATORS of upwards of twenty different kinds, sied toolh 
and ca«t iron. 

SEED SOWERS of six different kinds and prices. 

HORSE POWERSj endless chain aivl circular, of wood and caai 

THRESHERS^ with or without Separators. 

GRAIN MILLS of cast iron, and burr stone, to work either bjr 
hami, horse or water power. 

CORN SHELLERS, single and double, large and small cylindrical 
to work bv hand or otherwise. 

STRA }lr CUTTERS, spiral, straight, or circular knives. 

VEGETABLE CUTTERS for tnrncps and other roou. 

Together with a great variety of all other Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Im{demeiiis kept in the United States, such as Hoes, Shovels, 
Spades, Rakes, Manure and Hay Forks, Grain Cradles, ScytheS| 
Snaths, Ac. fee. 

CASTINGS of nil kiiuls for Plows Cotton Gins, and Sugar Rollera, 

WAGONS and CARTS, for horse, ox. or hand. 

STEAM ENGINES for farm and otlier purposes. 

Our implements occupy three large ftorcs, and we lieliove thef 
make up the largest nnu most complete assortment in America. In 
addition, we have a machine shop employing upwards of one him- 
drecl meii, where any articles in our line can be made to order. 

A. B. ALLEN * CO., 

Jan. 1, 1852— if. 19J» and 191 Water St., New- York. 


7s published on the first of each month^ at iUftany, N. IT., 6jr 

$1 per Ann.— 7 Copies for t5— 16 for SIO. 
O*' All subscriptions to commence with the volume, (the Jan. 
No.,) and lo be paid ik advakcs. 

Ai;W]tTisRMRKTS. — The charge for Advertisements is #1 for IS 
Imes, fer each biserlion. No variation made from these tenm. 


Vol. IX.— No. ». 

CoDVTBi ntHknti may be diTtded Iat« tvo cluMs — 
Ifce •««*, wd tlw aloTenl;. Spectmes of Um former 
»»j be kBowa on ■ppr<Bchln| ttwlr dircIHogi, bjr the 
Urof ■at*«nd<MB<b rt »M8li pnmdM Ibe pnakei 

•Mart, doM Ml lad U hud to muter MoU«r,— or, in 

Ba»M*p»g — i> t di imBw ghhMf , neHlitf willba(icr- 
ttltllwdefcoMiMBlarhkdMa-yM^ br «U robUali Iq 
«. IKtkaktt«e^dHaairr«MeMta,llM 


mU laa 

d vWi ao ubnkm l)«dge oTkcfera, 
Mm, ■!>< IfcfaHM »< tiOtra, Ihe fard, >blch «iisht 
hsfe beta* neat UmtaithaUAj Irees, !• noatlf «cr»> 
' pled vhb bmdoeki and mUI**, bnrd«rf«« M dcMyiac 
ka^a^f eU^MlpMla *f kilcben riopfUid tmIoimIj 
htOMpened with aid tNiaMli,liirnl.lKM>pa, and «ha drop. 
ftagaof ealUe, aatt cat^np hf 1''^ wllMla «r carta into 
■mi<holMor«kB«wade^b, BatUaonnded iaadark 
4«wntnK, bf the anwary (bot oT a aelghbor't wife ar 

Th«TB U kfala aa tat t aa e diato da aa ■-ibaloaglag partly 
IB bod) tba precadlaf— H>B are by no meaM tore Ibal 
<lbtj an aot lb* tartart<laa of aH, )■ uMnr dMrlela of 
tfeaeoDntrr. Owr Iheae, aaatneaa and dhoadw nam to 
Md ea4i ■ awt of dnbtftl JttriadkithiB aBwWtmoa ihe 
MM, and acala tb* other, obCalnli^ the aaeeadancr. 
FwbapeaMBt "pkket" fbnoe Id front, bai its connter- 
fU% in a decayed rtil Me* io Ibe rear ; or a flowar.bed 
by the parlor door, bea Ua otfart hi a paddle of aeap- 
•adt at tbe kHcbeo door; or the adur of Jnne nwet nn- 
4er Ibe wtodowa, nay be earlotaly ntngM with breaaee 
Men wUh Ibe perhmei of the bog-pro. Kov, aneh 
t£ ttlle iDtermedlale elaat, ■■ hiM ao deaire for imprere- 
kent, and Who regard the eouoony of aa adnMerated 
ieatneea aa a etnmera, wtll Datnrally thil andertbeHiiie 
head aa the alomtly. For tbcee the IblloniBg remarka 
an not hrtended, and tbey win tberefbre, tr Ibcy hare 
Nad tbo* (hr, pleaae eklp (be net. Bnt thoae who 
natty lore neatnest and order, thonch they nay not 
hare Bttaiaed It Tally, will be likely to aji^reciate mir 
tatenttoae, Sd etidaaTOTiiis to aaaiat In tbe removal of the 
«ni oonmoa eril, namelr, that of coDrertlncoDT pnbtla 
UghwayalDloprawlMiioiM paAirafe (br Oitlle, colli, 
iitep, k^a, aad web-footcd poollry. 
-Ihe«T{la of Uila pracike are Intenalaable. A (rland 
■i*r«i oa tint he iBib It Mat te ImpCMtble' 4* prMarn 

of bti garden from bis tKfghbor'i iwhie. 
wblch have become akilled Id all braoehe* of tbe art of 
sqiieeElng thtoagh imall epocee, crowding rait* and 
boarda aaunder, and borrowing ander ftuccs. Another 
loat, Dot only lome choice young pear treei, but aeveral 
beantil^il and coatly imported evergreene, deroured bj 
the atreat cattle paaalng Uirongb the gale aocideotally 
btown open by Itie wind In hla abfenc*. Why ihotiM 
any one own a cow, when be luu notblaf wherewttlul 
togire bftiT Tet we have kaowntboaa who had eanral, 
depaodlag entlrciy on their akHI t« pkk Ihetr ewa Ihiag 
in tl>o rtreete, — which Ihey did by Tsrlonaly inapplng 
boards and entering meadowi, Tuuttlng into eom-Belda, 
or waleblng with mrprising keenneaa till aone one 
tbonghtlewty opened a gale for a hw teoooda, when 
they would mab in. IleaTy and expensive fences were 
kept Bp by anaeqnalntance; Init he waa cenfielled, Ihr 
tbe lake of milntatnhig a deoent nppeirance In the road 
by hit house, to " remove the deposlta" daily, left by 
street cattle, wtio found hU iliade Ircet tlio moat g<hi> 
f«rient ptaoes In tbe world tbr repoe* ; and not nitfra- 
qnently anine, after throwing tip the turf Into e*er7 
Inwglnablf IrregatarUy, also tonght tepoae In thcaaine 
comrortable shadows. Then evils liave beconeioDoa. 
Bian In moat idaees, that Uier are sttbwiKrd to ai a aort 
of Beaeslity,-'«i an enential share of the evSi af tbtl 
lifc, wlthont aa Inquiry tbe ponibiUljr or iiifiiiHiw 
cy of their removal. 

It has bem aeserted that "no van haia iNvral t4i(ht 
to Iceep more itock than he can fted well on hk owb 
land." Bat if the cottager most have hli cow kept by 
the pnbllo, and every thing la to he turned to profit, 
would it not be quite ai proHlable to convert tlie (oad- 
lide lato meadow, io be mowed aonaally for wintering 
IbacowioT poor men, andnveus fivnall theeellaef 
street manranden, and freqnent tlre-mtte Joan»eya by 
their owners In ••earch of tbem. We throw this oot 
■terely h a bint Io tboae «he iBeaaiire everythbc by 
donsra and cents'. 

Wa may also add, for tbe same etan of ealcnlaton, 
that the amonnt of time and aUeatloB OMMumed la 
opening, ihnlting, and witob<t« galea— 4ba aiHiiiBt tei4 
by the plunderinp of half-starved sCrcet.caltle— the 
eDomtoua oipenie of heavy strect-fencea, — not to kttf 
in the lanaer'iowii stock, but to fc<qi sal bis neighbor^ 
— conBlitnlc altogether a nioat fbrmtdable tax, which If 
Impofcd by govcrometil, would bcrcgardcd asloiaHera- 

A« to tbe fNittUaimM oC 




menty-Hbe people of Masstcbiuetts, and some other 
portioDB of New-EogUod, have farnished the proof. We 
haTe travelled days together in that highly cuUirated 
itate, vitbont e?er aeeiDg any kind of aoiiUAl at large. 
In Brooklioe, which has do equal in America for the con- 
thnied succession for rnfles, of its cultivated landscape 
beauty, one may see gates open from the street into the 
most finished and costly grounds, tritbout the least fear 
of injury from without, and indeed some of the newer 
residences have no gates at all. 
/ Wo bare been gratified with the late decision of the 
Supreme Court of Michigan* on this subject — ^not as 
coptainingany new principle of law, but as opening the 
subject to public attention. Horses, running at large, 
were killed by a passing train of cars, and in an action 
against the company, the owner failed to recover dama- 
ges. The court, a(ler alluding to the township regula- 
tion of making horses /rce commofUTM, remarks: 

" The idea that because horses and cattle tire free 
eammonersj that tlierefore they have the lawful right of 
trespassing on private property is absurd — preposterotis 
in the extreme. What are/rM cosraiojKrs^ Where 
m«y they run? In Holliday vi . Harsh (8 Wend. R. 147) 
the Supreme Court says, ' Suppose a case where a town 
has no common land, and they psss a by-law fiermltting 
cattle and boraes to run at large, where are thev to runf 
Surely not on individual property. Where thenf In 
the highway ? The public has simply a right of paeeage 
over th4 highway. The owner of the land through 
which the highway passes, is the owner of the soil and 
tlie timber, except what is neoessary to make bridges, 
or otherwise aid In making the highwsy passable, and 
if the owner of the soil owns the timber, why not the 
grasa f* The doctrine established by this decision is in 
aeoordanoe with a fundamental principle of the common 
lawy which has been recognized by elementary writers, 
and Judicial decisions in England and this country for a 
ereat length of time. Though every highway is said to 
be the King's, yet the King has nothing except the right 
of passage for himself and his people ; the freehold of 
all the profit, as trees, &c., belong to the lord or owner 
of the soil, who may have action of trespass for digging 
op the ground of the highway." 

According to this decision, erery land-owner has a 
Tight to the grass in front of his own land, and he may 
pasture his cattle there, provided he keeps them from 
wandering on his neighbor's part of the road. 

Aa a sncoeasftil experiment in this reformation, we 

quote A. J* Dowkimo's account of the effort made at 

Kewbufgh, his residence, given in the Horticulturist: 

** That it is only needful for a few good citizens in 
every town to look at the matter clearly, and determine 
to have orderly and sanitary laws like these enforced, 
we have had abnndant proof in the town where we live 
<— which Is, so far as we know, the only one in the State 
of New*Tork where animals are not joint -stock possessors 
.of all the streets and highways. Eight or ten ycarsago. 
Kewbnrgh, which has a population of nine thonsana 
Inhabitants, was one of the least cleanly and orderly 
towns in the Korth. Droves of hogs, cows and geese 
van at large everywhere, and the fKwscssor of a garden 
or even of a bit of sidewalk was always liable, night and 
day, to the nuisance and annoyance of numbers of these 
commoners. At length it was determined by a few of 
the more orderly inhabitants, to endeavor to have en- 
forced the law for pounding animals. The trustees of 
the village doubted the possibility of enfoncing the law, 
and fkltered in their duty. At the next election, how* 
ever, the bog-law was made the test, trustees favorable 
to its execution were elected by a large mslority, not- 
withstanding a fierce opposition. When the law was en- 
forced, so strong was the feeling of resistance, that the 

• Is CfvMi to dM MicMftn Fa 

public ponnd was several times broken into at night, 
and the animals released. But the orderly part ofth« 
community Aood firmly by the authorities, and the lat* 
ter did their duty, until the law triumphed. After 
much grumbling on the part of many who Imagined that 
they had a clear right to prey upon the public In this 
manner, a general acquiescence came about. And now 
for five years we have had cleanly streets, free from aQ 
animals of all kinds, and such an air of neatness and 
rural beauty has sprung up, that the place has almost 
changed its character. The carriage-gates of grounda, 
like our own, which, under the old system of thiugSy 
needed almost an armed huntsman to keep out the brute 
population, are now wide open day and evening, with* 
out the brate population, are now wide open day and 
evening, without the least plant suffering depredatloo; 
and what is the best part of the story, so com|>letelj 
has the feeling of better civilisation triumphed, that ft 
would, we Imagine, be very hard at the present monenk| 
to persuade the population of this town to return to thm 
old condition of streets, overrun with unclean beasts.** 


Thoughts on Manures, Special and QenenJ. 

It is quite common for fiurmers, wIms coiwOTaiog akewt 
any particular manure, to ask — " is It a permanent n»> 
nnret'' « How long wlil it lastt" kc. lEe., inplyiiw ft 
belief that a substance may be in a state of ooatkinnl 
exhaoation, and yet never exhansted. Snob qnealMas 
ate most common in relation to guano. Now it wonM 
seem to the writer that we all mfsundentand the Ira* 
nature of mamire and vegetable nutrition genenUy* 
The growth of a vegetable must be at the expenso of 
tbe vegetable nntrHion In the solL When tbia ia o» 
haoated, tbe soil becomea barren, so ikr as that particn- 
lar vegetable is concerned ; and at last barren to eveiy 
description of vegetablea— as Is most lamentebly demons 
strated by tbe numerous fields of " worn-out" lapda in 
all the middle and southern states. Kow if tbia be ao^ 
the mannre we ap|Hy to the soU ia the food upon whicb 
the growing crop lives and grows; and if this be so, wfaa^ 
are called " permanent manures" are very uodesimbley 
even if there were any such things; becanae-it wonld be 
foUy to expend money and labor in applying mannm 
that would make no return for five or ten yeara. Wn 
all wnnt that which will make tJie qui<^est return Ibr 
our money and labor, and hence we should apply tJbp 
manure that will be all used up in a single year, if wn 
can get It. For example, suppose we apply a mannro 
in sufficient quantity and of a quality to last five yeam^ 
do we not invest money and labor that will make ua no 
return probably the first year, and only one-fourth tb^ 
second and each future year? Is It not better to uaf 
that kind and that quantity that will all be used the flrsit 
year? Tbe improvement of lands is not now the quev 
tion. Bringing sterile lands into a state of fertility is a 
very diflbrent sul^ect. The matter in hand relates t4» 
the policy of investing money and means that are toi 
make no return for several years hence, instead of tln^^ 
which looks to a prompt return of profit on the Invest- 

The writor has often been amused with the theories 
of writers on the subject of manures and vegetable nu- 
trition. Many eminent men have advanced the Iden 
that vegetables derive most, or a large portion of their 
food from the atmosphere. To demonstrate the Incor*' 
rectnesB of this idea, we have only to suppose a caao. 
Suppose we select g sterile spot in the middle of tbn' 




liebMt prairie of the west, and in tliAl spot plaot corn 
or enj otber rogeUble. What adTaaUfe iriU tlie et- 
moepliere, wbieb ii ehftrfcd wttk the esbalation of flay 
tbonniMt Mrw of prairie lead, be to tbet eoni? Will It 
mAe it grow or produce gnM Tbe truth la, the at- 
■loephere has the nme infleence on fogete^i the* it 
Ihwob nnfattnl nntritio n ' n o more, no le«. The nntri* 
lion Is taken from the iofl, conveyed throni^the aeoend- 
tng sap ve«el8 to the IeaTet» in the sarftoee of which It 
in exposed to the action of tiw earhonic add and nNro^ 
gen In the atmo^here, whidi prepares H for the appro* 
priation of the plani to the formation of wood, frnit* he. 

Another error Is rery general in the agricnUnral 
World. It con^ts in supposing that any ringle element 
•f vegetable nutrition eonstltntes a manure. Hence 
pfuter of Paris, UmCi salt, ashes, potash, soda, he, all 
have their advocates as manureSi in the proper sense, of 
the term. Kow none of these can be manure ; they each 
form one of the elements or serre to produce one of the 
Mmponents of manure. If a soil be defldent in potash , 
orYfme, &c.,nnd p oes cisei all the other elements of 
vegetable nutrition, then tbe application of a proper 
<|ttantity of the defleient element will render the soil 
Ihrtlle. Some of Cheee articles, besides themsebres en* 
•erlng into the notrftlon as an element, by combining 
#llh or acting chemieally upon other elements, that had 
mnalned inaetive in the soil, render them aleo nutritious, 
end hence perform a double duty. This Is conspicuous* 
ly tbe ease with lime. A soil may be abundantly sup- 
plied with erery kind of regetable matter in a dormant 
tfate. It Is sterile, or produotlTe only of rank weeds. 
Tbe applleation of Hme immediately cures tbe defects 
Of tins soil, by causing the decomposition of the crude 
regetable matter, and thus rendering it proper food 
for pYantSj and by itself also becoming one of the ele- 
ments of that food. Still, lime cannot be property call- 
ed manure. Plaster of Paris, (gypsum) is supposed to 
act also a double part; first ms a stimulant to the action 
of other elements; and second, by combining with am- 
monia, fixing ft, and gradually giving it np to form anoth- 
er element of food. If gait (common salt, chloride of 
sodium) la ever beneficial to a soil, It must be from the 
action of its chloric acid upon some previously foactive 
element, and by the combination of its soda with the 
kllica of the soil, both of which efifbcts are sometimes 
required no doubt ; but the difficulty will be to ascer- 
tain what lands do require these actions. The presence 
of potaxh In all soils Is generally suffldent for the neces- 
sary supply of silicate of potash for the growing crop, 
and then the silicate of soda is not wanted. What com* 
hfnation the muriatic acid, (Hydrochloric) may eflf^t, I 
rnn not prepared to say. It msy, by combining with one of 
the elements of some compound in the soil.set free another 
element which becomes a portion of the food of plants. 

Good horse manure and gnano, in my opinion, are the 
only real general roanures, applicable to all soils and all 
crops. They each contain all the elements of nutrition 
In proper proportions for immediate use by plants. I 
have saM they are applicable to all soils ; of course I 
mean to all soils that require manure. It would be fol- 
ly to apply either to a soil already surcharged with nu- 
trition. And we have all seen toils that were not bene- 

fitted by either of them. The reason is, they already 
possess too much of nutritious matter ; they are unable 
to digett it ; they require a rtmtdyfor dyspepsia. Gen- 
erally a free application of lime to such soils will render 
them highly fertile. It seems to stimulate the digsatfve 
(lowers of the soil, and then to render them capable of 
preparing the crude matters contained fai it as food tdt 

The reader will see by these reflections^ that spcohil 
manures, or, more properly, single elements of manure, 
can rarely be depended on for profitable application. 
Plants cannot live on lime alone, any more than man 
can live on bread alone. There Is one element, howetvr, 
of vegetable nutrition, that approaches nearer to the 
character of true manure4han any other exoepi gnano 
and stable manure. I refer to water. It Is a necessary 
element in all ftirtlle soils, and without it, of course, no 
manu re would constitute food for plants. In some conn* 
tries no other Is used. But, If a soil be absolutely de» 
fldent in real nutrition, water win be found ntteriy In- 
capable of aiTurding it. It Is merely a solvent of other 
matters, and a vehicle for thdr eonveyinee to their aip- 
propriate places In the plant. 4t 


Agxicultnre of Putnam Ooonty, M. T. 

Ai a meeting of the Putnam CwuAf Ag. Sedely , on 
the first Wednesday of January, for the purpoae of 
awarding premtuma on grain croiis, ihefoUowing awacdt 
were made; 

On Carnal, To Jno. M. Towner, of Patterson, for 
87 bushels of shelled com, raised on one acre. of land-* 
2. To Nathl. Cole, of Potaam Valley, for 74 buriieto 
shelled com, raised on one acre of land. 

On Ooi*— To Nalhl. Cole, Putnam Valley, foe 61 
bushels oats, raised on one acre and six rods of lands. 

On iZye— To Eseklel Hyatt, Putnam Valley, for 96 
bushels, raised on three acres, two roods, and eight 
perches, being at tbe rate of 27 bushels per acre. 

The kind of corn raised by Mr. Towner, was that 
known as the litiU XhUton, princ^Ally an eight-rowed 
yellow. That raised by Mr. Cole, wasa variety of eight 
rowed white com. 

The statements of all the competitors wero given n|^ 
der oath, and accompanied by statements of sorveyon, 
&c,^ also under oath. AU the requirements of the 
Society were fulfilled, leaving no room for doobt In the 
minds of the incredulous. Considering the past dry 
season, we think the yields largo. 

The nett profit on Mr. Towner's acre of com, aftci de^ 

dueting all expenses, interest on land,ftc.,waB. • . • $66 S6 

On Mr. Uole'sacrc of corn, 47 20 

On Mr. Cole'sacre of oats, 19 G2 

On Mr. Hyatt's acre of Rye, 11 m 

Tours truly, H. 0. W. 

»♦« — 

Kjfirc SHAiiPXMiifa.'— The Prairie Farmer says thai 
a newly conatrncted wttcl or knife-sharpener. Is ooming 
into use. "It consists of two small, thin, bevel-edged 
pieces of very hard steel, placed in a handle, in the 
shape of the letter X; the knife Is sharpened by draw* 
ing its edge ona down the crack made by the crosslpg 




DMtruotion of Qaaok Gkus. 

£»•. CoLTiTATOB— From A digger in the PUc§r9 of 
OUIfornifty 1 bftTe become » digger of tbesoil — Sharing ex- 
^i^d some uf tbe dutt of tbe former region, witb the 
pwU precis and honors of apTDfetslon^ for a few *' broad 
aerea" Sa the neigbborhood of this cHy. Some of the 
reralts of mj present occnpatioDi I propose to place at 
jonr disponl, to publish or not, as yon may deem pro- 

In my selection, I haTe purchased what was consider- 
ed the taii-end of a large farm, a full half of which had 
be^oma nearly nnprodnctive, exeepi of every Kind of 
firal vegetable growth; and the balance, save a half 
ieaen aerea, so filled with .fuaekt as I afterwards 
leaned, that little else conid be produced, and which 
vts given as a reason, by a former owner, for a 
sale of tbe premises. The selection was made, not from 
a quixotic agricaltnral disposition to wage a weedy 
wnrfiMPe " for the love of it," bat on account of the 
nmtural (diaracteristka «>f the soil, being mainly of a 
fine sandy and gravelly loam, vnth a frtt mbsoil of 
ievrn'olfeet in depth. The one I deemed as an acciden- 
tal evil, resnlting fW>m bad husbandry, and easily reme- 
died ; tbe other, as a quality of the first importance, 
and where wanting, not readily or cheaply created. A 
Mf doeen-acMs of bottom land, bordering the ereek, 
added, prodnefng annually a most luxuriant growth of 
gelden red, wild parsnep, &c., with patches of blneflsg, 
constitute my '' small farm" of 80 acres. Having thus 
made you acquainted with tbe conditions, I shall pro- 
ceed now or hereafter, with practices and results, snc- 
eessca and fiiilurea. And flrst: 

The CuUwat&r ts. Quack and CotiuM/.— Intending 
to engage somewhat in the culture of tobacco— com- 
paratlvcly a new staple for this county, a field of five 
SOTS was selected as the best on the premises, the crop 
requiring rich, as well as other conditions and peculiari- 
ties of soil. This field had been manured with a liberal 
dressing for a ringle season ,sevon or eight yeat88go,when 
it was put Into corn. Subsequently It had been con.«ctantly 
under the plow, and croped with wheat and oats. The 
last year's crop of spring wheat , was light. I commenced 
by clearlng^ a portion of the field of cobble stone, which 
ed*vered no Inconsiderable portion of the surface, and 
wMch had been plowed In and out for 40 years. The 
latter part of April, the plat was plowed to the depth 
of seven 'or eight inches, generally bringing up a small 
portion of the sub-soil, and following with a sub-soil 
plow, tho earth In the mass was loostened to the depth 
of 12 or 14 Inches. The field was well harrowed and 
left at rest tiH the first of June. In the interim the 
Qttacfc, which in many places at the plowing fbrmed a 
sffflTtnrf, sprung up with Inxuriancc, and covered the 
surfkce like a field of grain. A legal friend who happen- 
ed to view the premises In this condition, expressed a 
private opinion that I wonid not be able to raise a crop, 
and gave a professional one, that 1 could sustain a snit 
for damages against my grantees for jteltrng the premises 
without notice of the existence of this troublesome oc- 
cupant of the soil. Thinking, however, that half the 
amount of a oounsel fbe would procure a good two horse 
wheel adtfwedor, and that the latter would be the best 

quack exterminator, (literally. If not In a double sensei) 
such an Implement was procured. The season for plant- 
ing out having arrived, the field was covered with abo«l 
20 one horse cart loads of wmnre 4o 4h« acra, evenly 
fpread and cultivated In, while at the same tllne the 
quack was cultivated owl— gathered Into whirowa by • 
wire tooth horae-rake, and oarted off the field. TMs 
prooeaa was repeated, croeslng the field dtagenaUy-^nd 
the late green field exhibited scarcely a Hve blade. The 
only extra labor, properly, being the cartiug off Qm 
roots, as the use of the cultivator was aeeeasary to tbm 
proper covering and incorporating the manure wHh tho 
soil, pulverizing,' &c., while the rake served as a good 
substitute for tbe harrow, leveling the surface well, and 
more expeditiously, preparatory to working. Kor has 
tbe carting off* the roots proved any loss 9f labori ag 
they have doubly paid the expense aa food for awlne^ 
and the manure into which they have been converted* 
En passant ; this may afford the material for a chaptec 
on the manufacture of manure, in a futnrs article i as 
its incorporation with the soil by nseans of the cuUWft* 
tor, will another. The present Is with the quack, and 
its exterminator. The after treatment of the field wsa 
but that common to tbe crop, whidi suffered noUui^ 
from tbe former almost sole occupant of tlie so&. Some 
broken and scattered roots remain ; but which, it is b^ 
lieved, a repetition of tbe process for a season or two, 
will entirely remove. The crop wss pronoimoed to ha 
unusually fine-—" one of the best in theicoonty." Had 
the field been prepared merely by plowing and harrow- 
ing| I have some reason to know it would have proved 
nearly or quite a failure ^ but pf Ibis, in tbe history of 
another cro|>— a ftilure. Tours, Ra-abShaqt. Syro* 
rase, Jan. 1861. 

P. S. I am quite wd) satisfied that the Muk-^aa 
plowing was highly beneficial to the crop above referred 



Fruit Destroyed by Rose-Bugs. 

Eds. Cultiyatox— For tbe last four years we hare 
been afflicted with a bng called tbe rose bug, which ha^ 
Doarly destroyed our fruit of most kinds, audi aa apples, 
peaches, and cherries. Can some one tell us whether H 
haa ever appeared in a^y other section of country in suob 
formkialde manner-— and if so, what number of yearahaa 
it been troublesome, and what has been done successfully 
to sare fruit from its ravages. 

It is a small striped bug, very generally known ; makes 
its appearance about the 18tb of June; remaina abou^ 
20 days; Is very ravenous; appears to come from thsp 
ground like the locust, and again to descend to theeartli 
and disappears. EeqiectfuUy yours, IXa vid J. BxAKiNte 
LKT. Freedom f Portage coimly, Qhio, Nov* 10, 1851. 

Having no minute personal acquaintance with tliis In- 
sect, we can only give the observations of others, and 
we hope soDke of our correspondents who may be fami- 
liar with it, will tVimisb additional particulars. Dr. Har- 
ris ^ves the following description of the habits of the 
rose-bug, (so called,) the Mtlolonika svbspinosa of Fi^ 

'^ For some time after they were first noticed, roaa> 
bngs appeared to be conffnca to their favorite, the bloi^ 
soras of the rose ; but within thirty years tbej^ have prou 


t » 



digfomJlj iQcreMod in mraiber, baw atlack«d at random 
variona kinds of planta in gwarms; and bare bo» 
^me notorloos for Uieir ezteDfliSve and deplorable rava- 
get. Hie grape-vine in partknlar, tbe eberry, phim, and 
apple tPM8, bavo aaaaally rafl^rad by tbeir depradik 
tions; many other fruit trees and shmbs, garden Teget»> 
bles and corn^ and even the trees of the forest and the 
ffrasi of the flelds, have been laid under contribution by 
uese indiscriminate feeders, by whom leaves, flowers, 
and fniita are alike eonsomed. The unexpected arrival 
of these insects in swarms, at their first coming, and their 
sudden disappearance, at the close of their career, are 
remarkable facts in their history. They come forth from 
the ground during the second week in June, or about tlie 
time of the blossoming of the damask rose, and remain 
horn thirty to forty days. At the end of this period the 
■u^es become exhausted, fall to the ground, and perish, 
while the (teaks enter the earth, lay their oggs, return 
to the sur&oe, and, ailer liagering a few days, die also. 
The eggs laid by each female are about thirty in number, 
and are deposited from one to four inches beneath the 
surface of the soil ,* they are nearly globular, whitish, 
and about one thirtieth of an inch in diameter, and are 
hatched twenty days after they are laid. The youqg 
larvse begin to feed on such tender roots as are within 
their reach. Like other grubs of the Scarabceians, when 
not eattng, they Ke upon the side, with the body curved 
so tiiat the bead and tail are nearly in contact ; they move 
idth difficulty on a level surface, and are continually fall- 
log over on one side or the other. They attain their full 
rize in the autumn, being then neariy three quarters of 
an inch long, and about an eighth of an inch in diameter. 
They are of a yellowish white color, with a tinge of blue 
towards tbe hinder extremity, which is thick and obtuse 
or rounded : a few short hairs are scattered on the sur- 
Ikoe of the Dody ; there are six short legs, namely a pair 
to each of the first three rings behind the head ; and the 
latter is covered with a horny shell of a pale rust color. 
In October they descend below the reacn of frost, and 
pass the winter In a torpid state. In the spring tbev ap- 
proach towards tbe nxrikoe, and each one forms for itself 
a little cell of an oval shape, by turning round a great 
many times, so as to compress the earth and render the 
hiside of the cavity hard and smooth. Within this cell 
Iho grab is transformed to pupa, daring the month of 
Hay, by casting off its skin, wbidb is pushed downwards 
in folds from the head to the tail. The pupa ha? some- 
what the form of the perfected beetle ; but it is of a yel- 
lowish white color, and Its short stump-like aHngs. Its 
antennse, and its legs are folded upon the breast, ium its 
whole body is enclosed in a thin film, that wraps each 
part sefiarately. During the month of June this ffimy 
dcin is rent, the inslnded beeAla withdraws from it its 
body and its limbs, bursts open itsearthem cell, and digs 
its way to tbe surface of the ground. Thus the various 
changes,. fWmi tbe egg to the tali development of the 
peHbcted beetle, are completed within the spaee of one 

Such being the metamorphoses and habits of these in- 
sects, it is evident that we cannot attack them in the 
egg, the grub, or the pupa state ; the enemy, in these 
stages, ifl beyond our reach, and Is subject to the eontrol 
of the natnnl but unknown means appointed bv the 
Author of Nature to keep the insect tribes in dieck. 
When thev have issued from their subterranean re- 
treats, and have congregated u^ion our vines, trees, 
and other vegetable pr^uctions, in the complete enjoy- 
ment of their propensities, we must unite our efibrts to 
seize and crush the invaders. They must indeed be 
erushed, scalded, or burned, to deprive them of life, for 
they are not affected by sny of the applications usaally 
found destructive to other insocla. Experience hss proved 
the utility of gathering them by hand, or of shaking 
tbftm or brushing them from the plants into tin vessels 
containing a little water. They should be collected daily 
duriog tl^ period of their visitation, and should be com- 
mitted to the flames, or killed by scalding water. The 
late John Lowell, Esq., states,* that in 1828, he dis- 
covered, on a solitary i4>ple-tree, the rose-bngs '* in vast 

RCipotlKiry, vol. TX, p. 14& 

numbers, such as could not be dcsciibed, and would not 
be believed if they were described, or, at least, none but 
an occular witness could conceive of their numbers. De- 
struction by hand wo s out of the question,^ In this case. 
Ho put sheets under the tree, and shook them down, and 
bamed them. Dr. Green, of Mansfield, whose mvestU 
gations have thrown much light on the history of this hi* 
sect, proposes protecting planU with mtllinet, and says 
that in this way only did be sacoeed in securfog his grape* 
vines from def>redation. JUis remarks also show the 
utility of gathering tbem. ' Eighty-six of these spoilers/ 
he says. ' were known to Infest a sipgle rose-bud, and wer« 
crushed with one grasp of the hand.' Suppose, as waA 
probably the case, that one half of them were fbmaleti 
by this detraction, eight hundred eggs, at least, were 
prevented from becoming maiured." 

The insect known as the rose-bug has lately become 
almost overwhelming in its numbers throughout considera- 
ble portions of the western states, and where, as some- 
times happens, whole forests appear to be swarming with 
tbem, it is somewhat puaslii^ to say what we shall do 
with them. Whether the insect spoken of by our cor* 
respondent be same as the preceding, we are unable to 
say, in the absence of a specimen, or a fuU description. 
Dr. Harris describes the rose-bug of the eastern statei 
as seven-twentieths of an inch long, slender, tapering be> 
fore and behind, the thorax long and narrow, widened t^ 
a point on each side; legs slender, pale red ; joints of the 
feet tipped with black, and very long, which caused 
Latrellle to call the genus Macrodaetylutf that is, long 
footed. The body is covered with very short and dose 
ashen-yellow down. 


Deep Plowing 

** How does deep plowing improve the soil?" asks an 
iaquiring farmer. The simple answer la, by increasing 
its depth. '' But,'' says the inquirer^ *' if I plow deep 
I shall tnm up the clay and Inert earth that contain no 
nourishment for plants. *' Well, if clay and inert earth, 
contalniug no nourishment for plants, lie so near the son 
tkce as to be within reach of your deepest working plow« 
they ought to be turned up and exposed to tbe influence 
of sun, air, frost, rain, snow, and manure and cultiva* 
tion, that they may become rteh. ** But/' says inquirer, 
(it is strange how many ** buti*' such people can fin4 
for use on such occasions,) ** it would require too muc|i 
hard work and too long a time to do this, would it notf'' 
That depends upon whether you would prefer five dol- 
lars profit per acre now, and forever hereafter, to twe 
or three dollars now, this year and next, and ten or 
twenty dollars per acre hereafter. Ysas. Sap. 

i^^iioiiltiiral Boonomy. 

Tbe ecomical ikrmer will be careful to select such 
tools and implements, as will require the least labor to 
perform the greatest amount of work. Two plows for 
example, of the same size, working the same depth, and 
turning the same width of farrow, may require very un- 
equal forces to work them, the one requiring but 400 
lbs. traction, the other 600 Ibi. , and this would be equiva- 
lent to two horses for the one, and three for. the other. 
Most farmers nulerstand this perfeotly, and some at- 
tend to it in seleeting thebr plow*; but any one can 
easily see on kxkkfaig at the plows generaUy used, that 
iMiniy negleet H altogether. 




BlUuifeaMiit of Tomif OsIvm. 

Ereiy one who has apent a single aeason in the conn- 
trj mQii be fitmilkr with that peculiar niral music, the 
bellawing of a diaconteDted young calf-— a mnslc not of 
the most agreeable lort, indicating as it does, that the 
little feUow is <* ill at ease'' in some way or other. It is 
worth while to inquire into the cause of this diseontent, 
for a yonng animal cannot be expected to stand and bawl 
lor two hours together, withoat wasttng|tbroaghsuchan 
imoaDt of breath, noise, and effort, a considerable por- 
tion of flesh, to SB J nothing of the real physical suffering 
which most cause these incessant complaints. We can- 
not but think that calves generally are doomed to a posi- 
tion too much like that of young children, — ^that is, they 
are regarded as too small and insignificant a race of ani- 
mals to merit much attention from grown-up persons 
with wise heads. For as children are not unfrequently 
kept in the nursery under the care of those who would 
not be entrusted with the care of monied concerns,— or 
sent to school, to haye their new-bom intellects moulded 
by ''the cheap schoolmaster," whom their parents would 
not suffer to have charge eren of a fayorite horse, — so in 
like manner young calves are shut up or tied up in some 
comfortless out-house, where they receive a few minutes 
attention in feeding, twice in the space of twenty-four 
hours. It may be useful to examine a little in detail the 
proper mode of treating them, as they are to constitute 
the future millions of the cattle of our country. 

Nature points out most distinctly that the young ani- 
mal must at first be allowed to thrive only on the rich 
nutriment furnished by the fresh milk of the cow. The 
practice of separating the two wholly and at once, is un- 
natural and severe. The best mode undoubtedly is to 
give new milk for at least two weeks, and some excellent 
managers prolong this period to a month, the calf sock- 
ing the cow at regular and stated times. When this 
period terminates, and a change of food is about to be 
made, let this change in all cases be gradual, for sudden 
transitions are always attended with more or less haasard 
or loss; for a single check in advancing growth, is like a 
check in the growth of a young apple tree, or transplanted 
tomato plant, — not quickly got over. As sioon as the 
calf has learned to dnnk new milk, (which is done by 
drawing its month into the vessel while snckTng the finger.) 
let a fimall portion of warmed skim-milk be added ; this 
may \ye daily increassd unlfl in two or three weeks more 
the whole food becomes skinmied milk. It will not be 
long after tliifi, that eating solid food may be commenced. 
This ii fionictlmca taught by suspending within reaoh a 
piece of fine hay tied together with a string, which the 
.calf liegins upon by sucking, and aAerwards by eating the 
umall portiiHis that become detached. 

For the sake of economy, it becomes desirable t4> dis- 
continue gmdually the milk. Al first, flour porridge is 
one of the Itest tilings tlmt con be given. The mode of 
-preitnrlng It. is not unlike that for painter's paste; that is, 
let n pint of fl«mr be mixed with water, in such propor- 
tion<« ns to form it Into a oonsistency of thick cream. Then 
A*ld ?mdnally smaH tN»rtlons of bolNng water, stirring it 
to prevent the formation of Inmpe. untH about two gal- 
lons Imvebeeoadded. Thai^applyhaatanonght^CQBgB- 

late the whole mass into a thick nutritious porridge. 
When flrst given to the calf, it Aonld be made by mixing 
with the water, considerable portions of skimmed milk, 
which is alterwards gradually lessened in quantity tHl 
none is used. This mode of cooking the flour, Snatead 
of mixing it cold, not only makes more agreeable food, 
but greatly increases its nutrSUve effects. After a short 
time, cornel or fine ** middlings," may be substituted for 
flour, over which they possess some advantages hi the 
quantity of gluten or muscle-forming elements they con- 
tain, as well as in cheapness. Bean meal haa been pro- 
posed as the best means of restoring the eaaein of tha 
milk, but we need experiments on Its value. 

As soon as fresh |)asture is at hand, and milk b with- 
held, calves soon learn to feed upon grass; bnt he who 
expects to see fine, thriving, vigorous, square bodied 
young animals, must continue also the artificial food Jnat 
described for a longperiod ; andeqiedally the first winter 
must not be a season of neglect. 

A correspondent of this journal described some yean 
tf nee, an efR^ctual mode of weaning calves without per- 
manent separation flrom the eow, and obviating the in«l> 
ancholy lowing of the cow and the incessant bleating of 
the calf, usually for a long time attendant on th» procesi. 
As soon as the young animal has learned to eat and drink, 
he is iVimlshed with a leathern halter-head, through the 
nose-piece of which are driven eight or ten well sharpened 
ten-penny nails, pointing outwards. The cow and calf 
are then brought together, and he makes a plunge ftr 
the inviting udder ; but the moment she ibels the sudden 
impact of this strange chevaux-de-frise, she wheels quick- 
ly about, and informs the little fallow that such pointed 
Jokes will never answer, and after a few unsuccessfbl at- 
tempta he is compelled to give up the chase. In the 
course of a week, if both ran together, all danger Is at 
sn end, and no subsequent arrangement is required Hir 
separate pastures or separate yards. Ten-penny nslh 
are the shortest that will answer for the suoccssfnl appli* 
cation of this treatment. 

Ho argument is needed for the intelligent reader, to 
prove how mudi better a clean, comfortabte and well 
littered place of rest is, than one that is diriy, oAhnsIre, 
and comfortless; nor how much better it is to allow some 
little exercise to bring the growing muscles into play and 
healthhil growth, than by tying him fast to prevent idl 
movement of his limbs, like the prisoner in his cell ; nor 
to show the vital importance of regularity In meals, even 
to a minute of time, In order to avoid the fretting and 
waste of flesh ineritably incident to " hope deferred," 
when feeding time has arrived, and which all annuals 
measnre with great exactness by their alimentary chro- 

There is one other important item in tlieir treatment, 
which is very commonly Veft out in practice. This la, 
feeding often, snd in small quantities statime. Wo 
know many pretty good farmers, who after linving al- 
lowed their calves to distend themselves freely about 
sunrise, compel them to that fourteen hours before another 
meal is given at sunset. The result is, they s^iend from 
two to four hours as the evening approaches, in incessant 
and pitiful bawling, In obedience to the gnawinga of « 
hnngij ^onach. What would be tboqgbt of the man 




who should treat his hone, a hardier animal in the same 
way? Some of the m«8t taooenfal stock rafsers, for the 
first fortnight, feed their calves at least four times a day, 
and in moderate quantities, with the best results. In 
short, the whole treatment may be summed up briefly in 
a rery few wordSj namely, by a careful and strict atten* 
tioD to all the wants of nature, without forcing, over 
straining, or stinting any, to keep the young and growing 
animal at all times lA a comfortable condition. These 
things may not perhaps seem to possem the importance 
we attach to than ; hut one thing is certain, — ^the finest 
and most profitable f\ill*grown cattle can be raised by 
those only who lay the foundation of their success in 
fine, healthy, well Ibd, and well treated young calves, 
wad see that tiiey advance without check to maturity. 

An a general thing farmers do not provide themselves 
with good gardens; at least so far as the writer has 
travelled he has seldom seen what be would call a good 
garden on farms. The excuse for this neglect is general- 
ly the same with all of them — they " have no time to 
attend to such small matters,'' And yet it may safely 
be asserted that an acre of ground appropriated to a 
good garden, will be more profitable to the farmer than 
any other ten acres of the farm. The interests of the 
ftrmer, the comforts of his family, the good condition 
and health of his whole household, require such a garden 
on every farm in the country. And it should be a gar- 
den, not a mere excuse for one, a mere weedy patch. It 
should be one, so managed and arranged, that every 
. feget«ble of a wholesome quality for human food should 
be raised in it^ in perfection, and at the earliest season. 
After a winter's diet on solid and generally salt animal 
Ibod ) the human constitution requires the deterging opera- 
tions of free vegetable and fruit diet ; and as a general 
rule no one can dispense with it safely. Besides this, the 
natural appetite calls for it, and there are few pleasures 
that may be so safely and even beneficially indulged in. 
In the latter psrt of winter and early spring, measures 
' should be taken to secure early vegetables of all kinds 
capable of very early cultivation. Details will not be ex- 
pected here ; there are other books and papers appropria- 
ted to such information ; but I cannot help saying that 
when I am at a farm house, at a season when early peas, 
beans, cabbages, cucumbers, potatoes, green corn, let- 
tuce, &c., are properly in season, and find none of these 
luxuries on the table, nothing but the blue beef, salt 
pork, and beans or potatoes of winter, I am fVee to say 
1 do not envy that farmer's life nor his family their en- 
joyments. These very people are fond enough of such, 
things when they go to the city, and it is not therefore 
want of taste. It is shnply the fault of negligence. Why 
may not every farmer in the state have every kind of 
early vegetables on his tables as early as any gardener 
Dea^ the cities can raise them? There is not a single 
reason why he should not, while there are a great many 
why he should. The gardeners have to incur a very con- 
siderable expense in procuring hot manure for their hot 
beds, while the farmer has it in his barn-yard. The 
gardener has everything to purchase And draw aconsiderw 

able distance, while the fturmer has nothing to buy. The 
small quantity of lumber required is probably rotting 
on his premises. It would only be a source of amuse^ 
ment during winter, for him to construct the tVame of a 
hot bed, and prepare the manure and bed for use. Having 
done this, and got his plants in a thrifty state, he can In 
a short time, when the season arrives, get his garden 
ground in order and make his plantations. And then he 
will have all these vegetable luxuri^ as early as any of 
his town friends can purchase them. It only requires 
a little industry and attention to accomplish this, and at 
said before, his ei^yment, his health and even his inter- 
est, as well as the comforts of his fiunily vrilt be benefitted 
by it. 9(e 

ig ^ft%^Y tg Bteal> 

Mbssbs. EniTORs— Not a little has been written on the 
subject of preparing meat, in the best possible manner 
for domestic purposes, previous to placing it in the smoke 
house J but little or nothing has been said of the manner 
of emoking it. To appearance, it has been taken for 
granted, that this process, (so important in itself, and 
that it be done with care) could»be performed by any 
one, who knows enough to build a fire. Those, who 
have eaten bacon smoked as it thould be, and afterwards 
partaken of that which has been scorched, heat, burned 
to a crust on the outside, as is too frequently the casd 
with the meat of many people, will readily detect a re- 
markable diflerence; and often denounce the /after kind, 
as fit for nothing but soap grease. The process of smok- 
ing meat, should never be left with those who have not 
a faculty of exercising proper care and Judgment in this 
business. It is not necessary that the smoke be drivtn 
tn, by heating the smoke-house like Kebuchadnezzar% 
furnace, seven times hotter than it ought to be heated; 
a emokey eufficient to fill the epace oeeupitd by the meaty 
is the great desideratum. Log heaps, back-logs and fbre^ 
sticks should be dispensed with, because, after they gsl 
once on fire, there will be too great a degree of hesit. 
And besides this, in wooden stnoke-houses, there is great 
danger of setting everything on fire. Such instances I 
have known to occur ,* and loss of the meat was the con- 

The best, most effectual, cheapest and neatest manner 
of smoking meat, that has ever come under my observa- 
tion, is, to place a shovel of live coals in an old pan, or 
some low dish, and lay on them a few sugar maple chips. 

Dry ones are the best, for it requires too much fire to use 
green ones, ^o other wood will produce so sweet smoke 
as*sugar maple; and the coals of it will keep alive na 
long, or longer, than the coals of other wood. In the 
absence of chips^e use corn cobs, which are nearly as 
good as chips. Three or four laid on a few coals wfll 
produce smoke sufficient, to fill any ordinary smoke lioiise. 

As a subrtitnte for a smoke house, we have been ac- 
customed to use a molasses hogshead, covered with 
boM^s on the top, and a hole sawed in the side near the 
bottom, large enough to admit a small pan of coals, with 
a eob or two, or a few small chi|is. Thus we avoid all 
danger of setting fire to tlie smoke house, snd consum- 
ing n>eat and all ; and our meat is not *' half baked j** 
but presents a clean, copper colored appearance. 

Let those, who have been accustomed to smoke their 
meat over a log heap, adopt the mode of smoking it 

83ntlv J and then say which way is (he best. Truly yours, 
,, EdWabDs Tonn. Laks Ridge, Tompkins co.^ N. V. 



Shropahln Ox. 
' TM«MShropthlnbcBed(^c>UIe, according toTon- | booed uid cow-legged j bnt were good milken, ftnd e» 
kit, wera VMs-boriMd, bMdf, of all colon, but geiKrallj teemed for tbe dalr;. The Hereftn-d* h»i« now taken 
bntwn, mixed wttb bajaod whKa, wUhaitrcak of wblte I tbelr place; tbeyoccupf the greater part of tbe gr«iing 
fOBolng along tbe back and nndeT llie bully ; were raw- ' ground), and an occanonall; leen Id Ibe dairj-. 

I^atUag Okttla for MailDBt. 

Ebitom Cdmitatob — I notice an inqulr; in the Cut- 
llTalor of Ihia monlh, from " £. L." of Harylind, as to 

.nj mode of feeding cattle, atalli, lie, Mf ilalli are 
thrveleel from center of tbegale. Thegntei nhntona 
tbt behind the eallle, agalniia tilodi >i)iked on the girt, 
and tbe gale liutenetl by an Inch pin pat lu ihe gin ; the 
^D bung to the gale b^ a pelce of cord, lo that it !■ al- 
ways ready. In front two scantlingi are framed into 
■ aiU, tho*, V two feet three Inches apart at tlie top — 
•aydx feet Id height. The calllc put their heads through 
U tbe wideit part, and then bring tbem down to their 
■nangcrlo eat, which should be iTt Inches higher Ihnn 
where their feet iland. Tliegaleiarelworeetllirec inches 
(Vom the Boor at the hind end, and within a few itkchea 
of llie floor At tiie other end, ilantlng np lo the girt be- 
bind. TliU ii in orJcr to giro the cattle more room to 
lay at, tbuir widest p^irt, and to prevent liieir shouidura 
COlng through niider the gate. Is llie rcaton the galci are 
nade neiir tlie Boor In fnmt. There Is no danger of their 
getting below the gateir behind, as cattle Blwayi turn 
themsetvci alraiglit iImvc tUeir t?gs before they attempt 
to rise; and I need not tell s furtiier Ihey raise witli' 
tbrir hind end Srst. The itaibi mutt not be over three 
feet wide, and seven feet and a half in length Is enongh 

. -^r wbler Ihey will turn in tiiem; ai Ihnt U eufflolent 
fur cattle that will weigh 1,600 Ibi. live vviight; but 1, 
for some years, liave only used my alalli when feeding 
moal, wblch I da miiniing and allernooD. While my 
cattle ara taking their meal, I have llivir boxes in the 
yard ntted with hay, and when they have vat their meal, 

■ ^urn them out. I haroa»iji/( ihidroom/or iktlttr; and 
in lliU way I dad my eallle imprmc mnch ftater than 

when they are kept In their Italia all nigbt and tbe 
greater part of the day, wbaterer tcUnct and Iktorf 
may say to the contrary. I know that (his is the best 
wiy, and my doings show proof. 

We never had a colder December than the lust, and I 
never saw my cattle do better. I ccpmmenced feeding 
40 cattle on the 10th November. They went awsy •« . 
New-Tork market on the 8th of thla month, and Ibe 
drover that bought them was very sure they would be 
the beat In New- York market. None of the cattle weie 
ever In their stsiia longer than while eating their meal; 
my yards and sheda are thotoughiy bedded with straw, 
so lliat liiey can either lay in Ibe sheds or yards, as they 
choose. Except in storms, or very cold nights, I notice 
they prefbr lite yards. In this way, my cattle are al 
clear, wlieo tbey go away, ai when they were brought 
in from the fleTds In November. 

Imniedkleiy on selling my last lot, I bought 40 head, 
and am feeding thorn In like manner. I am also fccdii^ 
IttO three-year-old wethers. They hnve sheds to go tra- 
der nhen they choose. I feed Ibe bay Id racks In tbe 
yards, and llie corn in Ironglii put up along tbo 
yard fence, about one (hot fioni the gronnd. 

With regard lo feeding cattle. I feed wholly on oil- 
cake meal, and corn-meal, fed dry. I feed ver}* light 
the flrsi three wecfca — say not over two or three 
quarts per day ; after tbey become nscd to the feed, I 
increase it to four, live, si.i. nnil eight quorls pi-r day, 
wliicb Is as miicii as Is necessnry or profltabie, with plen- 
ty of good bay, lo fat cattle tboronglily in fruiii 80 to 
100 days, and ll seldom can be made profitable to feed 
liiem longer. 

I have seen an Immense waste of food In feeding In 
Great Britain. Cattle are tbnt np In clow stone hou- 





mB} Md M-«ll they vlU eat, awLaraietimea for a week 
aAatiMe.MeentiTdyorilielr ftod. Oattle feedlog in 
(Ui feetiiMi, b oirty a aair iMMliwMy and <m bmm farm 
it If werj ii^iidioicNMly aMMged. Catile ciamt have too 
nneh of Uk open air, if tboy hav^good BhoUer to go to 
«t plcaaare-^that, with good kay^ and a dry, clean tod, 
and an average of six quarts of eora-meal per day, wlU 
make cattle very &t in ftom 6d to 100 daysi If pretty 
wen forward in condition, they may to ftttened fai 90 
daye— but a great deid depends on tte toeed of cattle. 
Sbort«faom, Durhama^and their gnidea»ted beet; the 
Derona and their grades alio feed lapidlyy but they don^t 
weigh enongfa when Ibt. We have* breed of red cattle, 
a brii^r red than the Devone— longer horns and iacger 
frames, that are excellent feeders. Then we have anoth- 
er breed of red, brindle Sisl bhMk cattle, with coarse, 
hard hair, thick sklnSi and noees Mack, which you may 
fted iliree months, and nmke little improvement. I 
haTe made cattle feeding pay for Uieir feed every year, 
and some years I get great pay. This has been one of 
those years. Trne, I do not know, that this last lot I 
have commenced with, wil pay, yet my prospect is 
equally as good as with the other lot; and althou^ they 
paid me abundaotly. It was readily seen that the pur- 
chaser was much pleased with bis bargain. 

I notice also, in the Caltivator of this month, an Eng- 
lish writer wants his fattening cattle to be In a sweat, 
but not dropping off them. Toa see how we disagree; 
but In England they sweat their horse Jockeys before great 
races, in order to Usten their weight, and sweat their cat- 
tle to make them heavier. Abwrd! Johji Johv- 
STOV. Nemr Oeneva, Jan. 20, 1852. 


Oa Raialiig 

EoiTons GoiiTiTAToar— The subject of breeding and 
managing horses, is one of so much importance, that 1 
)aeed make no apology for agsln presenting it to your 
readers. This, however, I would not hare ventured to 
do, had not the Httle work now before me, awakened a 
new interest In the subject. 

Tto work refered to, is " Ae Stvd Farm^ or Hintt 
en Breeding, ^c, by Cecil. It appeared in London 
during the year Just closed, and is considered worthy of 
its popular author. Who that person is I am not Inform- 
ed. The following passage from his preface, will fdiow 
his claim to the confidence of his readers: 

** For more than flve-and-twenty years the author of 
this little work has been engaged in the management of 
horses and, as during all that period, he has never neg- 
lected any opportunity of acquiring practical informa- 
tion on every point connected therewith, he is not without 
hope that he may to able to throw out a few hints on this 
anljcct, that may to worth the reader's attention." 

I propose, in tto articles I am to send you, to quote 
very freely from this excelleat nvork. It contains very 
many Jiidicionsobservatfc>ns,and is e^dently the produc- 
tion of a man of good sense, and of practical experience. 
Ilis opinion of the importance of the subject is given as 

'^ To the farmer, especially, tlie author desires to ad- 
dress himself, and would earnestly call his attontion to a 
sonroe of profit, which, if seakrasly pursued, wiU assur- 
edly exceed roost, if not every ottor S|ieculation, within 
Ua province. 

It is often said that farmers cannot obtain sufficiently 
remunerative prices for tto horses which ttoy roar. Bui 
tto reason is obvious: ttoy do not breed from tto right 
sort, neither do they take sufficient care of their stock." 

To tto two last assertions, I would call tto particular 
attcntiott of your readers— Ist. Get tkt right etoek^-SA*- 
Take cmre qf jfihtr Heck, 

These certainly are cardinal ivies, and without their 
due observance, disappointnent Is inevitable. In th* 
succeeding (jages the author tells us w tot is tto right sort, 
and what tto care ttoy need. Previously to entering upon 
the main business of the work, however, he discusses fur- 
ttor tto inducements ofiered to farmers for engaging in 
tto bustnesB. He says: 

' * Theappretonsion of railway traveling superceding tbf 
use of stage coaches, led to tto idea ttot there wouM to 
no market for tto immense numtors heretofore requln^ 
for that iHirpoee, and hence, that a great number of tto 
pleasure horses, or those used by private individuals, 
would to dispeneed'with. The expectation ttot tto stage 
coaciies would to run off the roaa by tto united powertf 
of steam and fire, has been Miy realised. Heverttolesiy 
when the immense nunitor of hones now used to convey 
travellers from the railway stations, to tto various towns 
and villages in the vicinity, are considered, it will to 
found that ttore are nearly as many kept as dming tto 
time of the stage coaches. Ttore are infinitely mor« 
persons in private life, who employ horses for pleasure 
and convenience, tton ever there were," he. 

** One of the main points urged by tto farmer agafmH 
brewing horses, is, that to tos -to wait so long for a re- 
turn of his capital. Ttot sssertion is readily met. Ii 
the first place, if he cannot command an adequate capl* 
tid, he cannot emtork in a more iivjudicious speculation 
tton that of agriculture. In tto next, tow much longer 
tos he to lie out of his money , by breeding horses tton buk 
locksf Tto latter are not fit for tto totctor till ttoy tov<e 
attained from three to four yeais. The cost of tearing a 
bullock, is nearly equal to that of rearing a horse, till they 
tove respectively arrived at the age of three years. The cost 
of fktteiring a bullock, which requires nx months or more 
to accomplish, is greater tton is requisite for the keep of 
a horse during a dmilar term at any period of his life. 

A good buRock, wlien fat, is worth atout twemy-flve 
pounds. An Inferior horse at the same age. Is worth 
quite as much money ; and a superior stoped hunter, or 
carriage horse, will fetch three or four times tto sum, 
and higtor.'^ 

On tto next page the author recurs to tto cardnMfi 

rules laid down in the preface, and utters ttom wlCh evefe 

more emphasis— to says: 

** A great number of farmers toveatondoned tto puv- 
suit of breeding horses. In consequence of wtot ttoy de- 
nominate ill luck ; but they tove not set about it in tto 
right way. Ttoy tove made an Injudicious selection of 
mares and stallions, tto produce of which tove been bad- 
ly kept. * * * * In the winter, tto only asylum 
for slieltor has been tto farm-yard, wtore, in company 
with cows-4he roughest food tos been offered them. 
Few Mdmala so treated, are worth a twenty pound no^a 
at four years old. Unless a fanner will determine on 
keeping them well, he tod totter never attempt to breed 
horses, or in fact any other kind of stock.'' 

The author here occupies several pages with his vieHi 
of the proper mode of keeping or stablhig stock. He Is 
decidedly in favor of keeping mares and edts, and also 
young horses, in small enclosures or paddocks, with 
tovcls enclosed or contiguous, by which they can to per- 
fectly shielded from storms. He prefers tto practice of 
soiling to pasturing. Undoubtedly a greater nnmbcr 
may to kept on tto same "average" by this system 
than by pasturing, but our style of fhrming is not suffi- 
ciently ttorough to admit of its general adoption \n this 




ODuntry. The remarks of the author od the importance 
of shelteriog colta from storms and showers is irorthy of 
tsareful consideration. I bare no doubt much injury is 
inflicted on our stock by neglect of this matter. If we 
paid more attention to their protection from the weather, 
we would not hare so many horses with heares and broken 
wind. We certainly hare many more of them than they 
Inve in Great Britain. I must quote our author on this 

*^ Here it is necessary to urge the importance of adopt- 
li^ the utmost caution not to allow them (young foals) 
to be exposed to wet, not even a shower or rain, on any 
aooqnnt i^aterer. At any fiiture period likewise the 
«tniost attention is necessary to guard young stock from 
getting wet across the back or loins. 

The woolly texture of the coat of a foal is of such a 
tfatttre, thai when onee it becomes wet through, ft is 
aone tiasB ere it gets dry again. There may be some 
persona who conceive this to be a species of unnecessary 
caution, and that under the impresrion of bringing up their 
stock more hardy, they should be exposed to the casual 
vidasilades of weather. A greater error cannot be com- 
Mitied. I can only remark that a state bordering on 
disease is not calculated to promote a robust c<m8titution. 
A oatarrfaal affection, or cold, let it aflbct what part it 
May. is a disorder that should never be thought li|g^t4y 
af| »equently r^Mated, it becomes constitutional: thus 
if the bead, toe ^ands, and the throat are attacked, they 
Ikll into an unhealthy state, and, when the strangles makes 
fts appearance, it fan all probability issues in a decided 
ease of roaring. To rear stock that shall be hardy and 
fObust, every event likely to produce disease, however 
trifling it may be in itself, should be carefully avoided.'' 

I repeat the opinion, that this is sonnd advfce. If we 

irould make breedii^ horses profitable, we must take 

more pains. It is what is called bad luck that mterferes 

trith the profits of breeding. Bfany colts die — many get 

maimed, Stc. Now more than one half of them con)d be 

brought profitably to market, if we would but take a 

little more care of them. Accidents and diseases always 

follow neglect. 

, Our author next makes some excellent remarks on 

stabling. He says: 

'' One of the ifrincipal features in the good arrange, 
ment of buildings for the purpose of sheltering horses, 
%s ventHatfon. Most persons are willkig to aduiowledge 
■tba iiaportanoe of ventilation; and yet many buildings 
appropriated to tlie use of horses, are very fmperfectly 
constructed in this respect. It may therefore appear 
necessary to add a fbw more words nn this important 
iBbiJect, the result of investigatioD made by an acknow- 
lodged authority . Bonssinganit calculates that the horse 
consumes thirteen pounds three and a half ounces of oxy- 
gen in twenty four hours, which is used in converting the 
«arbon into carbonic aoM . Presuming therefbre tJiat the 
■ame excess of oxygen is consumed by the horse, that is 
oonsumed of carbon, according the experiments of Bons- 
singanit, a horse requires more than five times the amount 
Of fVesh air essential to the vital process in man; and, 
• Airtbermore, when it is observed that the air in a confined 
room, becomes contaminated and deprived of its vital 

Kroperties by the process of inspiration and expiration — 
ow important it must appear that horses should be kept 
in apartments very perfectly arranged for the admission 
of fresh and the escape of foul air.'* 

This too is a consideration tliat has not yet received, in 
par country, one half the attention it deservos. The 
author also enjoins it upon all farmers, to keep their 
•tables dry. To have no moisture under the floors, and 
no walls that will odtect moisture, as it is a fruitfbl 
source of disease. 

In the construction of stalls he reooimnendsside drains, 

of tiles or other material which shaU convey the wet to a 
tank fai the yard, for tiw ass of flie fiwoi. Vke ^sorl^s 
of stalls he thhiks Aootd bea pavencnt of small smooth 
stones. These he ooosldars better than bricks, because 
the horse is not so liable to slip on them. He prefinw 
wells or mangers for hay to racks, because they pnt the 
head in a more natural position for feedmg, and becaaee 
racks cause more waste of hay by pulling out, 8k., mad 
fill the eyes and ears with seeds, Sec. Our people tfafaik 
colts iriiould eat from high racks, to teadi them to hold 
theur heads h%h. This I think is rattiera whim ; if they 
will not bold up their heads by the excitement of driviqs, 
they are not of the right sort, and I doubt whether any 
kind of early trainiog will raise the bead of a lubber, or 
keep down the head of a flyer. 

The nceeanty of great cleanliness, in all parts of the 
stable, is enforced by various considerarfons, such aethw 
prevalence of epideoEiic dfaeases in stables where this ie 
disregarded. But I have made this article too long. My 
next will contain extracts more particulavly related t» 
breeding. B. ^jFra^iMe, Jan. 1852. 


en a few Taiietlea off 

Eds. Cultivator — Tlie following remarks on the un- 
der named varieties, arc in accordance with my own ex- 
perience, after ten years trial . My soil is lijght and sandy, 
but kept in good condition. It may assist those who are 
are about making a selection for such soil. I have a few 
others on trial, the result of which I shall give from time 
to time, after being fully tested. I do not pretend that 
tHe results given are uniform in every soil and location, 
but only applkable to such as I occupy. 

Bolmar't Wanhingion.-^mB variety, although h^hly 
extolled, I cannot q)eak of in terms of commendation. 
It has fVuited with me for six or eight years, and althoa^ 
the fruit seU well, so great is its liability to rot in aH 
seasons^ and all weathers, that from heavily loaded trees, 
I have never been able to obtain more than five or six 
perfect plums from each tree. I have no hesitation in 
pronouncing it worthless with me, and this Is the charac- 
ter it bears with many i^sons who have cultivated it in 
the part of the state where I reside, and of whom I have 
inquired. Its large size and handsome appearance seems 
to have given it a popularity far beyond its merits. It 
may do better elsewhere. I do nut think It adapted to 
Connecticut. [This is the result with this otherwise fins 
plum, in many other portions of the country. Eds.] 

Prints $ Imperial Gagt.— This I have cultivated for 
the same perfod as the Bolmar. it is a plum of excellent 
flavor and a prodigious bearer, but like the former h 
rather liable to rot. . It is very prolific, and by proteo- 
tion (Vom coreuUo, it generally yields a profitable cro^ 

Rid Gage— This variety I cannot speak too highly of. 
It is of good quality, a regular bearer, and the fruit very 
hardy agafaist the rot. I have retained this as oneof my 
best plums. 

Or/cans--may be Smith's Or/eant.— (The tree and 
fruit, pretty closely agree with the description of the lat. 
ter given in books.) This plum I consider valnable for 
light soito; it is a great and sore bearer, of excellent 
quality, and tolerably hardy againft rot, exc^ng when 
hanging too thick, but pretty sore of yieMiivaprofltabls 
return with proper attention ghen to It. ReapeetfuUy 
yours, J. Waxxis. Ancr MUford, Ct., J)$€. 18, Iflfil 




Tbm Micnirity ior « Twapm fljwlwu ^ Zulraolian 

^*w.JibMi,Cta)tm^ Jmm. 31, 16S1. J 

Bob. CuiTiTATOft— I do n<A propose to take up tbe 
above antject in Its broadest flenee, bat to confine myaelf 
to a comparatively limited field. I Aall say Uttle at 
present aa to tbe want, felt more and more every day by 
im increanng majority amonfC onr farmers, of edncation- 
«1 instltatlons especially adapted tbeir wants, bat would 
call attention to a point wbicb has been overlooked by 
Boany in tbeir zealous adrocacy of tbe general cause. It 
•eems to ae^ that a cblef itason for tbe annaal failure 
of so many plana bearing upon tbe educational interests 
of the fitrmer, may be foand in a real scarcity wbicb ex- 
ists, of men competent to take chai|;e of tbe proposed 
institutions. To those who have never reflected upon 
this subject, my assertion may seem a strong one, when 
t say that if any six states of tbe Union were within the 
present year to make provision for tbe establishment of 
state agricultaral schools, or colleges, within tbelr re- 
ijpective borders— were to endow them largely in every 
department, to furnish them with libraries, implements, 
museums, apparatus, buildings, and lands, tbey could 
not find on this continent the proper corps of professors 
mod teachers to fill them. I will even go fortber than 
ibis, and say that if In your own state of Kew-York, a 
large InstUutlon were planned out, and all proper de- 
partments of instruction pecuniarily provided for, it would 
be a difficuli matter to fill them satisAustorily with tho- 
roughly competent men. Enough of those who would 
gladly accept such appointments as might be oflbred, 
could doubtless be found, but the question is, would tbey 
be Just such Instructors as the fkrmer requires t 

There are certain points relatire to which he demands 
informaUon from various branches of science, and tbis 
Information to be of value must be dorreet. Mistakes, 
blunders, misconceptions, from tbe heads of a great state 
school, sent forUi under authority, and promulgated ra- 
pidly, would cause infinitely greater mischief than our 
going without a school altogether for some years to come. 
For such reasons, extreme caution should be used in tbe 
selection of Instructors for any large or influential school, 
and for such reasons among many others which might be 
adduced, I have ventured to say as above, that we really 
have not In the country the men that are needed. 

If the ihrmers of any state were to select persons to 
Impart instruction, or to serve as examples, in any prac- 
tical department of their business, would they be con- 
tented with mere professions, or mere hearsay reports, 
of their success or skill f Above all would they not be 
disposed to question the expertness of one who professed 
to have made himself fiimHlar with every department of 
mere mechanical labor, in the lapse of a very short timef 
If teacbiog the use of tbe plow in the best posdble man- 
ner, and under every circumstance, were for instance the« 
object, would they be content with a man who could only 
show the experience of one or two yean hi the use of 
that implement? By no means; they would say — we can 
do as well as he «aa ourselves, and do not need such in- 
•tmetioQ as tbls| we want a nsaster of tbe subject, one 
who has tfodied it ibotoiq^ hi every department of 

practice, and has brought an intelligent mind to bear op. 
OB all th» variations of use and construction In differeiA 
districts. With a man of less acquirements than these 
in any practical matter, no community of fkrmers would 
be satisfied; they would not receive his advice with r^ 
spect, and would not consider his opinion as worth much 
more than that of any other hitelligent individual. 

I think all will agree with me, that these views are 
correct with regard to sul^ectsof pure practice, and that 
most Ikrmers would act in accordance with them, liour 
I ask, why do not the same views obtain with regard tq 
the teaching of aeienoet We see men who are hi aQ «fvi 
dinary circumstances, shrewd and sagacious, swallowiqg 
eveiy iMe that oomesto them fai a scientific guise. 

The merest chariataa nay take up has heoka and nf ti 
ierious looking apparatus, and having famiUarised him' 
self with a few hard names, la able to persuade the mast 
of those who meet him that he knows everything wlth^ 
in, upon, and above the earth, that explaina the action 
of nature's laws. Allow me to say a few words in dirsot 
reference to the lalsity and even absurdity of such pre- 

In speaking of the mechanical operations of husband* 
ry, such sa plowing, I have said that as a general fact| 
entire proficiency oould not be attained within one or evei^ 
two seasons; a long course of experlenoe was necessary. 
Is it then so much oasier to read the laws of nature, o( 
rather of God, which bear upon those wonderful struo- 
tures of plants and animals that we see about us! In 
the growth of the humblest weed that flourisiies by tht 
wayside, a series of changes, transformations, and me^ 
tamorphoses, goes on, which as yet the highest effort of 
the human intellect has fafled to fViUy explain and ehici* 

To produce the feeble stem which we crush under our 
feet hi passing, the powers of earth, air and water, haw 
Joined with those of the flir distant sun, and during Its 
short life, it hss been an example of a complication of 
most wonderiVil laws, imposed by the Almighty Makef 
of aU. He has seen fit in his wisdom to ordain, thai 
every step In knowledge must be won by toll and exis^ 
tiott, and thus it is in the present case; we are oniy ablt 
to slowly unfold the wonders that are occurring onevei/ 
side, during the es«ry«4ay experience of life. The AeUI, 
too, widens ar we advance, until we find that every step 
baa its consequence, erery breath of air its appointed 
missioB, evoiy drop of dew its ofiioe to perform; we dif. 
cover that we are in the midst of causes and results, of 
which our knowledge is quite limited ; that the threads 
we have solzed only guide us to new and more dUBcujt 
labyrinths of investigation. What we know dwindlai 
away, when we compare it with the sum of that whldi 
we desire to know. ^ 

The true student of natural mAeaice^ then, the true £q|* 
lower of patient, earnest, truth-seekh]^ research, grows 
not bolder, but more modest, as he wins his way; his 
knowi that his highest reach of knowMgs is, snd evisr 
must be, limited; he feels eadi day so many vrants jH 
unsatisfied, sees so many problems yet partially solved, 
or totally Inexplicable, that he leans constantly towards 
caution, rather than rashness, and is disposed to qualify 
his strongest convictions on all theoretical points. 




or those who are not thus Impressed by the advance 
of yean, and the increase of experience, it mast be said 
lliat their opinions cannot be entitled to great confidence. 
One who can promptly and confidently settle every ques- 
tion proposed, wlio has no donbts as to his own ability of 
decision on the most intricate and complicated problems, 
must be either a man who has advanced very far beyond 
the range of the other votaries of science in his own day, 
or one who fa not able to appreciate the difllcnities which 
•nrronnd fahn, and who fa not, therefore, a safe guide. 
There fa a tUrd supposition in the above case, which is 
to consider such a man designing and unscrupulous, but 
fhfa fa, let us hope, the rarer alternative. 

I might go on at great length, 'but .these bints win, I 
think, be sufildent to show that farmers must not only 
iMnre instruction, but that they must have it of the right 
Character. It fa obvious tliat every person who comes 
Along, claiming to be highly scientific, should not be ta. 
ken upon trust, but should be tested In some way, as to 
lihe soundness of hfa pretensions. Let the evidence of 
Other scientific men be brought in, and let satisfkctory 
prooft be required of hfa ability to do what he professes. 
This fa not said with a view of recommending any parti- 
cular x^erson or persons, as to be followed implicitly, but 
irlth the desire of arousing more caution than has hither- 
to been exercised in these matters. <' Alt fa not gold that 
glitters,'' and all fa not true science, that fa high sound- 

It fa for such reasons that I have said— -we have not at 
present a sufficient number o^ the proper men to found 
and continue our agricultaral schools, in a manner that 
will satisfy the expectations of the community. The 
training of such men, then, is a work of great impor- 
tance, and even urgency. It fa a work that cannot be 
accomplislied at short notice j one or two years will not 
do it J we want those wboha^ie had extensive experience, 
Who have availed tiiemselves of every advantage for the 
acquirement of reliable knowledge, and who have learned 
to know what the liecessities of the ftriner are. 
• Among the wants of the fkrmer I consider thfa lack of 
first rate Instructors, one of the roost pressing and ur- 
gent; it is useless for him to establish schools, bidess he 
oan find proper teachers, and he ought not to be driven, 
by their premature establfahment, into any dependanoe 
on those who can only mislead and disappoint him. 

Here fa a mosC promising field for enterprise and ener- 
gy ; here are many openings that within a few years must 
be filled. Those who now enter upon the study of sci- 
ence as applied to agrfeultnre, will find their acquisitions 
hk hnmedfate demand. If but fifty or one hundred Int^- 
'Hgent young men, would for the coming few years, de- 
tote their efforts to the acquisition of the various bran- 
ches of science connected with agriculture, they would 
control the whole field, and be able to sweep s%ay the 
'glaring errors which are now so prevalent. We could 

then connnence irith schoofa in all directions; quackery* 
and ignorance would deerease, and a great and rapid ad- 

.Tance wpuld be visible in every quarter. 

Let us, then. whHe we are agitating the subject of in- 
itruction, not forget to urge upon our young men of abili- 

' ty, the advantages of fitting themselves as instructors: 
there cannot be too many of them for years to come, ana 
they, therefore, need not fear that the profession will be 
oventocked. Tours respectfully, Jobh P. Koetox. 

OoUiiwKlloBi fif OaioaoA* . 

SniTOM CuLTiVAToa — I observe In the January Ho. 
of the Cultivator, an article on the Culture of the Ouon 
in Ohio ; and as I have been engaged in the growing of 
that important vegetable for the last two years, perhaps 
a statement of my mode and success In raising that arti- 
cle, may be interesting to some of your readers. 

I commenced the business without any knowledge of 
it, except what I obtained from Comstock and Freer'a 
Gardener's Almanac, and the produce the first year was at 
the rate of 400 bushels per acre. The ground was what 
is generally called bog-meadow, with a thin soil, under- 
laid with blue clay, with which it was considerably mixed. 
It was manured with rotted barn-yard manure, at the 
rate of 20 loads per acre. The ground was plowed in the 
fall, and as soon as dry enough in the spring, the msnure 
was spread on, and well harrowed in. The ground waa 
then marked out with a marker with four teeth, placed 
14 inches apart, making three drills at a time, (one foU 
lowhig in the last mark, to keep the rows straight,) and 
the seed (W ethersfield large red,) sown at the rate of 4 
pounds to the acre. It was sown the 2d of April. It 
came up finely, and when the spikes were two or three 
inches high, the hoe was passed through the rows, des- 
troying most of the weeds, leaving only a small strip 
along the plants to weed out. This was repeated as often 
as necessary. They received two slight top-dressings of 
ashes, once in June and once in July. At the second 
weeding, thinking the plants were too thick, they were 
thinned out, which no doubt diminfabed the crop consi. 
derably. They were gathered in September, and sold at 
56 cents the bushel. 

With the knowledge thusgained by experience, I went 
to work in the fsll of 1850, to prepare the ground for the 
next year, feeling confident that a much larger product 
might be obtained. After plowing, I drew wash and soil 
at the rate of 40 or 50 loads per acre, scattering it as 
evenly as possible, and let it lay till spring. The first day 
of April the seed was sown, at the rate of 8 pounds to 
the acre. They grew most luxuriantly, some of the tops 
measuring three feet in height, and bottoms 15 indies in 
circumference. Fart of the piece proved too wet in the 
fore part of the season; but nine square rods of the dry- 
est part of the patdi yielded 64 bushels, or 1,138 bushels 
per acre^ netting at 624 cents, (the price dear of freight,) 
$711.25 cents the acre. Besides yielding so largdy, they 
are highly esteemed by all who have used them, beii^ 
much sweeter than those raised on the upland. A sam- 
ple was on exhibition at the Fair of the American Instl* 
tute, and received the first premium as the best red 

Now, Messrs. Editors, without wishing to detract in any 
manner from the. reputation of the fertility of Ohio, I 
must say that Old Orange can produce some pretty '< talP 
onions, as well as milk and butter. A Subscbibks. 

Cht$iert Orangi Co., N, Y., Jan. 19, 1852. 


The TcRHEP-rLT. — In some parts of England this In- 
sect has been so destructive as to threaten seriously the 
continuance of the tnrnep culture. By the use of guano 
and bone manure, an inherent vigor has been given to 
it, enabling it to resist eff^ectually tW attadLs of the fiy. 




Tbm Pmt em Qatmo^ 

We are receiviDg contintied inquiries as to Uie best 
Itmd of quince for dwarf pears, and of the propriety in 
unj case of going largely into the cultivation of dwarfs. 

The best quince for this purpose is the sort imported 
fh>in Trance, and commonly known as the Angers quince, 
a tob-yariety of the Orange quince^ more vigorous in 
growth than that, and continuing loi^r in growth in 
autumn. There are a few varieties of the pear, however, 
which seem to be so naturally adapted to the quince, as 
to flourish almost if not quite as well on any sort. Among 
Ibese are Louise Bonne of Jersey^ Dutchess Angouleme, 
8cc.| but with most other sorts suitable for dwarfs, it is 
much better to procure, the French stock. 

But there Is a very small proportion of good pears that 
should ever be propagated on the quince. Some will 
not grow at all upon it; and of those that will, most are 
ihort-lived. They flourish flnely for a few years, but as 
0Oon as they come into full bearing, they become feeble^ 
and often the first good crop seems to exhaust nature, 
and they soon perish. It is rare that double-working 
obviates the difficulty. Much disappointment must re- 
sult from the iDdiseriminate dissemination of the many 
•arts which grow freely and flourish for two or three 
years on quince stock, and then linger and perish . There 
la no doubt that a difibrence In the composition of soils, 
and in the treatment the trees receive, have an impor- 
tant influence on their duration, but none should be pro- 
pagated and planted, except fbr experiment, which are 
Dot known to succeed under good culture in all localities. 
More experience is needed to determine a fhll list for this 
purpose; among those which so fiu* appear to have done 
best, are Dutchess Angouleme, Louise Bonne of Jersey, 
Diel, Passe Colmar, Glout Moroean, Doyenne Bou^sock, 
WinkflekL, Summer Frankreal, Stevens' Genesee, &c. 
Ho fear need be entertained fa planting these on a large 
aeale, even to be tramed with heads at standard he^ht 
for field culture, provided the boO receives clean and en- 
riching cultivation. 

Tobaooo far Tveaa aad Flania. 

Ens. OuLTiTAVoa— Could you inform me, through 
your paper, the effect oi tobacco (the ribs or stems and 
reftise) upon peach, plum, pear and ai^le trees, and the 
mode of application. B. H.DmrnLSE. TrapfHtMd, 

Tobacco, for destroying insects, is applied in two ways. 
The most 4sommon is to form a strong decoction. It may 
he prepared by pouring over the tobacco in a tub or bar- 
rel, enough hot water to cover It, and let it stand some 
days. If strong enough, it will destroy plant lice, and 
other small htsecte which infest fhiit trees. It often fails 
for want of sufficient strength. A mixture of a small 
quantity of starch in solution^ will add to Its efficacy 
without increasing in any degree the danger to the trees. 
A mixture with it of a solution of soap also adds to its 
cifect, but if the soap be strong, it proves in some cases 
injorious to the young foliage. Tobacco, being a vegeta- 
ble poison, will not do any ii^ury, however strong it may 
be. Small trees may be bent over and dipped into the 
•olution^ It may be applied to larger trees by a shower- 
fav Byiqge. Smoke from burning tobaoco may be iy>plied 

to plants by means of Bromn^4 Fmdgoimrf a small in- 
strument made of tin, costing from three to five dollars, 
and kept for sale by R. Buiat of Philadelphiai and by 
Hovey & Co.| Boston. 


BSowlng MaohiTWHi. 

. ^DB. CuLTivAToa— -I wisb to inquirei if there is-any 
mowing machine that you think would wwk <mi our 
meadows here, that would do its work well, and not he 
likely to get out of repair, and that would be piSD^tahHi 
for us to buy. I saw in the Tribune last iU), a 9iQ(iQ»,«t 
'^ Ketcbum's," manufactured by Howard feCeu, of BhCh 
falo, N. T., that was rather complimentary. Ferbapa. 
there is soma other, better. A. H. Hai WAa», jSidim^t 
VermBtU, Jan. 1852. 

KKTcarjc's Mowing Macbihe, Is probably the bait 
for the purpose that has yet been made and need. U 
will work well on smooth meadows, whether lavel or rql* 
ling, and even on smooth hill-hides, but not on ron^ 
ground. It is drawn by two horses, and will cut about 
ten acres a day, which ia about the usual rate botwaa«t 
the labor of men and horses, the latter doing about fiva 
times as much as the former. The cost, with one set of 
knives, is $100; with two sets, which no fSurmer should be. 
without, who abhors the delay of sharpeniug hi the mid- 
dle of his operations, the cost is $110, , 

Hussey's Reaping Machine, we are informed, forms a 
good mowing machine. 

J. Rapaljs & Co.j of Rochester, N. T.»are about to. 
commence the nxanufacture of a mowing and reaping 
machine, which from sonoe trial, they are led confidently 
to believe, possesses important points of superiority over 
any other invention of the kind. 

Since the above was written, we have received the fol-. 

In reply to a correspondent at Newport, R. I., I cau 
say that Ketchun^'s mowing machinei manufactured bf 
Howard & Co.. Buffalo, N. Y., has been used in this 
town with entire success. I have used one of them upon 
my farm tor two seasons, cutting one acre per Jbour, with 
one span of horses, and as evenly as it could be done, 
with a common scythe^ The machines have been im- 
proved the present winter, and are now perfect, and Just 
the thing for cutting grass. Any other information as 
to the working of the machine cheerfUUy given. MoaoAjf 
Butler. Neio- Hartford, Oneida co., Feb* 9, 1852. 


Tba Boat ApplaUi 

AiHaterazfalbltion of fraiUwas held at Rochester, 
and aeveral very fine ooKeotioni of apples, and a fcwIlDe 
and rare winter pears, were presented. When the exhi- 
bition was about to dose, and wh9e acme twenty of the 
most succcasiiil and intell%ent oultivatora yet remained 

ia the room, it was proposed to call a vote for heH winiir 
TABLK applBj (not for marketing) ita agreeahie qualities, 
being the chief consideration. The vote was entirely in- 
formal, and the following was the result. The large roioe 
for the Melon was prohsoly owfog to the fact that some 
fine spedmens, Umi Ukpeneotkm, had Just been distribu- 

Melon, 5 votei, lor winter firuiL 

Swaar.S do do 

Red Cuittdo, % do 

BsldwiB, i do do 

NortlMsn Spy, 9 voIm foi tag It sy n* 





TiiJB FOK "DMAimtQ.-^*' What is the most approTed 
form of making tiles for drains, so ai to combine cfaeap- 
nesi and doiaUUtTt" R. J. G. Waynt eo., N. Y. 

For ordinarj ditches, or when the quantity of water 
to be dmwn off is nerer large, small tubular tile, from 
eaa to two Indies in diameter is best. If the ends are 
SD made that one wiU fit within the other, they wfll keep 
tMr places well; bnt if no providon of this kind has 
baen made, the ends may be placed in close contact, with 
aHsaH flat stone underneath, to prerent one end from 
■Bttling )awer than the other after the earth is filled in. 

Mafai drains, or those carrying much water at the wet 
season, have been formerly made by a semi-cylindrical 
tile placed on a shoe or flat plate of tile; but a later im- 
pt O Tcment consists in forming a round tube by placing 
two semi-cylindrica! tiles together, matching together at 
their edges, the upper halves being so laid as to break 
Joints with the lower, and which prsTcnts their settling 
anray ftom escfa other. A tube thus made, five or six 
Incfaes in diameter, will carry off* a laige quantity of wa- 
ter. Some haTe been made in England as large as nine 

CKAVBBaniKs ov UpLJuro.— *' Can you inform me if 
eraaberries have ever been cultivated on upland, so as to 
yield good crops?" F. W. 

We have heard or read of instances where this ttnit 
has been so grown; but they are so few, that we hare 
been led to suppose that the statements of success have 
been greatly exaggerated, or else that it has been on up- 
land possessing some very rare qualities. At all events, 
although many years have elapsed since this mode of 
culture was first announced, we cannot hear of the first 
distinct well authenticated experiment, giving weight and 
measurement, for a succession of years. Why should 
we be without such experiments, with the present high 
prices of cranberries, unless there is some insuperable 

The Prairie Farmer says that the swamp only is the 
home of the cranberry — ^that it will not even fiourish on 
low or wet lands which are filled with water in ^ring, 
and dry up in summer — that the lands must be either 
tpringy or be such as are continually fed (Vom springs 
elsewhere. The reader wfll find a few remarks on this 
subject on p. 85, current volume, of this Journal. 

Flax Cvltvm.^W. H. , Philadelphia. You will find 
the information you want on the culture of flax, in our 
viol, to 1860, pp* 189 and 806. For a aoiioe of the new 
HMde of prepar i ng fliae for use, see Cultivator for 1851, 
pp. 89 and 841. 

Atbskiwb Cattlb-^A. D. H., Addison, Vt. The 
arimalff you inquire for, yearUng Ayrshire bulls, can be 
procured of E. P. Pbkxtiok, Eaq., of this city, who has 
one of the best herds of this breed of cattle, in the coun- 

GiLXOBs's Apiart.^H. T., Vernon, Ot. The uifor- 
nation you dedre in relation to this apiary, may be pro- 
cured, wo presume, by addressing Messrs. EnwAmns fc 
Plavt, Brooklyn, K. Y., who are now the owners of a 
Isige apiary put into operation by Hr. Giuroaa, previous 
to Us death, a year or twb sinoe. So for as w<e know,. 

the plan, both of keei^qg and feeding tike bees, has been 
approved by all who have adopted R. 

DouBLx-woEKiHo PxAB Trkxs. — V. Hart, Lysander, 
N. Y. Double- working Is adopted for such varieties o^ 
the pear as will not grow by ordinary working on the 
quince. It consists merely in first budding on a quince 
stock, some variety which tikes and grows freely, and 
then budding into this pear top, the sort which cannot 
be grown by immediate contact with this stock. It usual- 
ly happens, however, that such " refractory" sorts, evea 
when double-worked, are not of long duration as bear- 
ing trees. 

DxsTAircx Foa Stanuabd Pbabs. — J. A. Donsldson, 
Ravenna, O. From fifteen to twenty feet is a good dis- 
tance for most varieties, as the Tirgalieu or Doyenne and 
others. Where there is plenty of ground, twenty feet 
wonld perhaps be best. 

GoosBBXBBixs.— K. R. The English varieties, although 
sometimes cultivated with great success, sre always more 
or less liable to injury by mildew. The best sort for all 
kinds of treatment and all localities, Is ffovghion't Stid- 
lingf a very hsrdy, fVee growing, and proiNisely produc- 
tive sort, and a native of this country. The berries are 
medium in sise, fine, tender and thin-skinned, and they 
never mildew. 

Tbbatxbbt Of Sksdubo Appub Tbxss.— J, A. Do- 
naldson. If they stand in rows so as to remain for a few 
years, the trees for which they are to fbrnish the base, 
will come forward more rapidly by budding them next 
summer. But If removal is necessary, grafting in the 
root will be best for all those whidi may be large enough, 
that is as large or larger than the inserted grafts. 

Sap BoiLiBfl. — The pans which I use in my sugar 
boilinc^ apparatus, (see Cultivator vol. for 1847, p. 74,) 
are made of a single sheet of Russia Iron, and are four 
feet long, 21 inches wide, and about five inches deep. 
They are supported around the top by a three-elghtainok 
wire. I find the advantage of the cauMrens to be, that 
it takes no more (bel to boil the sap in the cauldrona thaa 
it would to heat the panssoflidently, the fire passing from, 
the pans under the cauldrona and then comptotely around 
them to the chimney. I made use of an old gun barrel 
for tubes from the cauldrons to the pans. I bad holea 
drilled In the cauldrons about tye inches IVom the top, 
and headed the tubes in. I mske use of stop-coeks in 
the tubes IVom reservoir to cauldrons, and trom caul- 
drons to pans, to gauge the siae of the stream, ao aa to 
keep a stream constantly running. Any one putting up 
such an apparatus, wfll find it to their advantage to make 
use of perfectly dry wood, and of some soft kind, and 
also to have some shelter, or buflding over the works. 
Ltwab Haix. Skelhurtu, Vf., Jan, 22, 1852. 

Rat Paoor Gbababt. — A granary matched and bat- 
tened on the Joints, and tin nafled round the door, win- 
dow, and door and window fhimes, wfll usually secure the 
desired end. A bin lined with tin or zinc, will prevent 
any entrance at the ddcs. ^ 

Laws fob Agbicultvbb.— It has been remarked, that 
fkrmers never make laws for tbehr own interests, but al- 
ways fbr other people's — and then take care of them- 
selves as weQ a$ the^ can, 




We promised lost month to ftnnUh a flgnre and de- 
Bcriptlon of tlie mangle, or machine for smoothing clothes. 
We regret that we have heen able to Ailfil this promise 
so iar only as relates to the old fashioned or cheaply eon- 
atmcted mangle, harlng been nnable to exhibit the 
modern improToment, which is at present but little in- 
troduced and known. The machine here described may 
be easily made by any carpenter, and the whole cost 
wonld not probably exceed ten dollars. The new kiad, 
which makes more perfect and expeditions work, costs, 
we are informed, from twenty-fiFC to fifty dollars. Its 
use appears at present to be chiefly confined to England. 
It b remarkable that ingenious Yankees should have 
l^ven so little attention to the improvement and manu- 
&ctnre of a machine, as important and useful as a chum 
or a stove, while the latter are patented by hundreds and 
made by myriads. 

The figure represents a table or bench of frame- work, 
seven or eight feet long, and about two and a half feet 
wide ; it has a railing at the sides, but is open at the ends 
to admit the motion backwards and forwards of the large 
box A, which runs on movable rollers, and which is filled 
with stones so as to have great weight. A rope attached 
to each end of the box passes round the roller B, so that 
by turning in alternate directions the winch C, the box is 
thrown backwards and forwards upon the rollers. Table- 
cloths, sheets, pillow cases, and all smooth articles, or 

those which have not many gathers, are beet adapted to 
the action of this machine. They are first folded so as not 
to equal in breadth, the length of the rollers, and are 
then wrapped snugly round the latter, and again outside 
^f these a coarse linen clotii is bound, when the whole is 
ready for work. The rollers are placed on the vacant 
end of the bench, and the box then trundled upon them ; 
tts great weight presses them nearly as smooth as 
by any ironbiing. Those which need nltimately the 
smoothing-iron, are finely fitted for it, and the work much 
lessened, by first passing them through the mangle. A 
boy to work the winch, and a woman attending at each 
end, will finish a dozen garments in two minutes. Tho 
Improved machine, which is turned continually in one 
dlnMtion, will perform more rapidly. The rollers in the 
Common mangle are of hard wood, and are three or four 
inches hi diameter, and a Httle lodger than the width of 
the bench ,so that their projecting ends prevent them from 
fklling off, when by thdr progressive motion they mch 
uie end of the machfaie. 


QiMiies lor OoiraapoiidMita. 

Plavs or Euurs.— Wishing to erect bams and sheds 
to aooommodate a large (krm, principany In grass, I would 
iiKiuire, threuitb the Cultivator, for the best pbn, say 
for the stofage of 150 tons of hay, a small quantity of 
grain, and stabUng for 100 head of cattle of the different 

I want a plas that wQl oomUne In the greatest degree 
•eonomy in construction, and oonvenienoe and saving of 
labor Ib atoring of hay and feedfa^ the Mme* Can all 

this be best secured In one large bam or a number o 
smaller onesi Wfll you or some of your correqiondents 
reply to this. I would say that the ground is nearly 
level on wUeh it is proposed to bnUd. Y . A. St. Jil- 
6aas, /«fi. 16, 1862. 

CATrLB.— Some of us Uiink the Durham cattle ikil as 
to toughness— that is, are rather tender, and the nollk 
not very rich. If so, would not a croas fhmi the Ayr- 
shire do well? I have seen a good croas of the Durham 
and Devon. Would not the Durham and Ayrshire be 
better, and be more like the descendants of the stock 
introduced by Gen. BAuruM, a good many years ag», 
which, all things considered, were equal at least to tho 
improved breeds as we have them here. A. D. H. mM- 
dwell, K(., Jtfa., 1862. 

Mica AHD Bsxs.^WIU mice kill honey beeaf O. M . 

• •• 
Importanea o£ Farmtag WaU. 

SkilAil (armors are aware that the business cannot be 
profitably conducted without capital enough to do every- 
thing in the best manner. The farmer who has not enough 
funds on hand to enable him to do this, must therefore 
submit to the alternative of either beipg in debt, which 
ought always to be unpleasant, or else reducing the quai^ 
tity of his land that he may obtain the means. For we 
have plenty of Instances where two hundred acres badly 
farmed have not yielded so much clear profit as fifty 
acres under the best culture. 

We have received a statement from Setmodu Smito, 

of Clermont, of his success in farming, illustrating these 

marks, firom which we copy the following: 

** I have taken agricultural papers for more than forty 
years, beginning with Mr. Skinner's at Baltimore — they 
have Deen of great and beneficial use to me. I purchased < 
a farm on the river in Columbia county, then considered 
almost a barren heath. I examined the premises and 
arranged the lots— and then commenced business by 
reakli^ permanent (bnces of stona, posts, and boards. 
All necessary buildings were erected — and particular at- 
tention given to the cultivation of tniH — ^not forgettiog 
Flora. Hollow draining was adopted on every part of 
the farm needing it; and now, where bogs existed and 
flags used to grow, com. wheat and barley are produced 
in abundance. Hollow draining, as well as sowing piaster, 
was a new thing hi those daya— and my neighbors, who 
sowed grass seed (as well as plaster) with thumb and 
finger from a quart measure, predicted my fkllure. I 
gave very particular attention in the selection of stock, 
and have improved my animals by crossing certain kinds. 
And what haa been the result of this fanproved system, 
which I have derived mainly from agricultural reading? 
Of the ftirm that I thus improved, I have sold 108 acres 
for 90 dollars an acre, and can sell 40 acres ou the river 
for 200 dollars per acre. In the commencement of 'my 
fkrming I had but little means, scarcely suiBcient to stock 
the flirm, which I run in debt fbr; and the question 
arose, ** Shall I go on as the farm now Is, and endeavor 
first to pay for It; or shall I improve It according to my 
means, uld then pay for It? The latter course was con- 
dnded on. In ten years, by fisndng, dndning* building, 
and the enltivatlon of the choicest kinds of fruit, the &riii 
had at least doubled Ita value; therefore In one way of 
reckoning It must be said that it had paid ibr itself, but 
not a dollar had yet been paid except the annual interest. 
Thus situated, I commenced tho liquidation of tho debt, 
and the ftrm was so productive that In a few years aU 
incumbrances were paid — which verifies the sssertlofi 
that an improved system of management, according to 
the beat pnctksal and scientiflc rales, as set forth hi agrl. 
cnltural works^ Is the utreit guide to SBOOSM*'' 



DewiipMon of ■ Ooantqr DwalUiir. 

Tbi Mlowing pUn and deocriptlon ««« fbrDlihed n» 
bj K corrctpondcDt, from whon aketch nf id eleTalkm 
weluTe procared the aboTa perspediTo view. Thli 
plsD Ii Id the m>ln, we think, »□ anQsnally good one, 
•nd fnrniibei a large number of conTenieDCea cotubiaed 
together. We caoDot bat think hoverer, that either 
greater height, than oar correspODdent iDdtcatei, mnit 
be gtven to tbe main building, or elte len to the wing, 
in order to prerent tbe laller from being made too flat 
to exjTj off water freelj, and also to allow ipice enough 
between the npper[«rt of thi« roof and the earei abofe, 
to aTotd a heayj' appearance — an erll of almost nnlrer- 
' n1 occurrence (n building winga. We tbink, too, that* 
diflbrent dispoeltiOD i^ the front windows of the parlor 
migbt be adopted, ao at to arotd tbe anpieasant and 
rii^ular defect of a half window In the extreme interior 
.eamer. For loalanoe, the parlor might receive tbe fnli 
beaeflt of both window*, and the amali apartnieDt at Ibe 
end of the ball lighted fhim the " iloop." We dialike 
an awXward exterior, It la tme; and alill more da we 
dialikc an awkward interior. But we ma*t not Sod fault 
—we onlj intended mggotfcHW Ibr a little Improre- 
iBcnl. £d*. 

. Bd*. OvunrAKW. — I hare been much lutereited, fhim 
Ume tetime. In looking orer the Dnmeimu plans of 
boildlugs which hare appeared in the Cultiralor, and I 
cannot bnt Ibiak that anj larmer or other peraoo, con- 
tvmplallng the erection of buildiogs, may, by carefully 
eiaminlog these plans, derive hinta from tlicm,irnot 
obtain entire plans, worth more, and which will tare 
IhcM BMre while building, if adopted, than tbe entire 
cost of yoar paper (torn its Bnt publication, many timea 

Ii b a natter of snrptfM to me, that la a clinale as 
mM M oar*, to llttte attautton 1* glTso In hnndlDg, to 
Moder hooMS warm and cotnfbrtable. A little atten- 
tion and eipansD, during (he conatnictlon of a building, 
woDld add nncft In theae partianlaia. The use of na- 
bnmt brick, or tbe warm covering recommettdtid In tbe 
e&cloaed plan, with the double coat of plaalering around 
Ibe onter portioa, or exposed part of the baildloB, would 
do nnOh to*ai4s accompliibing this. Another thing 
material is to avoid opening doors Immediately Into the 
nottm, ft«m Mitsfde. Wbera a atoop or ball laterrenes 
between Oeflpen air and tba roonu of » boue, tbe;r 

are rendered mncb warmer. With all tbew precantioni, 
air enongb for Teotilalion will seneranj enter through 
tbe windowi. 

Not only ehonld a honae he constructed whh raferenca 
to its being warm and comfortable, bnt the ■rraugement 
of tbe rooma sbouldbe such as to make them convenient 
for all purposes of honsekeepiag; at tbe woe tloM 
they should be welt lighted, to render them cheerful 
and pleasant. Where the windoiva are much expoeed 
to the sun, tbey should be protected by hlinds, or veran- 
dabs if preferred. Aa.a general rule, however, these 
last are objectionable on account of Jlght. 

In the countiT where there la plenty of room for 
building, a hunee should nerer be built whhout an up- 
per kitchen, — (he room of all others In a bouse, that 
should be tbe meet n«ed. In cftles where groand U 
eoftly and lots small, and where there Is no tineiposed 
place forexercise, Itmay, perbape, be neeewarj, to save 
expense and to aflljrd needful exercise to the iotnatea 
of the bonse, by mnnh^ up and down stairs, Ut bidM 
baaemeot kitchena, bnt In the country no surii reaiODa 
exiat. Tbe pure open air is the place of all others, to 
which a perion would desire to resort fur exerciae. The 
kitchen should be easy of accesa fhnn all part* of th« 
bouK, without baling to pass fVoni one room to another, 
in order to reach it, while it should, if poedtile, be In « 
measure disconnected with the principal rooiDB of tlM 
house. The necessary appendages of the kitchen — •• 
the pantry, dosot for kitcbcn uteualls, cistern, sink, kc., 
should be COD V lent If located. 

Since writing the above, I have had tbe curfoeltr t«»- 
haatity run over tbe plana Id the two last volumea of the 
Cultivator, and I find aome one or more of tbe objec- 
tions which I have mentioned ezlitiog in almost every 
[dan; iikdeed, in some of them I Imagine I see sacb 
faults, that I am almoat tempted to take them up lep*. 
ratety) and point out what seems to me to be obJectiM- 
able in each of them; but when I remember tbe old 
adage, "never flud fhult with a man's house or hbwtft," 
I think It will be acting tbe wiser part to let each dim 
find out what is objectionable fbr binuelf, a* all are at 
liberty to do with tbe one eneloaed. 

Explanatio* of plan. — Thcplanendo«ed,tsIntende4 
to be a atory and one half in height, with a lean-to upoa 
one aide and end. It Is 24 by SS feel, with 14 feetpo^. 
The lean-to part Is 13 feet wide upon tbe side, and IA> 
feat wUe at the end, «ith 10 bet foslt. In the prfaM^i 




pal story, are two parlors, or a front parlor and dining 
room, 15 feet by 17 feet, and 10 feet high, connected by 
alidiiig doors-^ bedroom, 11 by 12 feet, off from the 














Stead of framing in scantling as in bonses eovered with 

clapboards, frame aoantUng three and fonr inches every 

three feet npward from 

the rill, horisonlally — 

the four inch side next 

the outside covering. 

On these, naU boards 

vertically inside, to lath 

and plaster upon 5 then 

fuir out with inch 

boards over tbe plaster 

and pnt on another 

coat of lath and plus* 

ter — ^making a doable 

coat of plastering all 

around the outside, or 

exposed part of the 

building. This makes 

a house much warmer, 

and the extra expense 



diniog room, with a dressing room 5 by 8 feet, and 

doMt. A front and ba<dc hall, with stairs in back ball 

fbraoceisto chambers, and underneath to cellar, an. 

■rering as private stairs, or for all purposes for a family, 

befog much more economical than open stairs, and which 

ai« so placed as to accomodate all parts of the house. 

From this hall is a door opening into a closet at the end 

of the hall, and also a door (with sash to light back 

han,) opening Into the kitchen. Connected with the 

kitchen, is a pantry 6 by 9 feet— a closet for kettles, kc, 

6 by 4 feet, and an entry 7 by 8 feet, in which is a sink, 

with a pump to raise water from the cUtern underneath. 

The sink should have a good drain, to carry off the 

the waste water. On the right , in the front hall , a door 

aateisa sitUng room or library, 12 by 13 feet, from 

which a door enters a bedroom 12 by 12 feet, with 

two closets opening Into it. A door may lead from the 

bedroom mto the back hall, or kitchen, if desired. All 

the rooms in the lean-to part, are designed to be 9 feet 

hi height. Up stairs are two bed rooms, 8 by 18 feet 

each, and a chamber 16 by 16 feet, and 9 feet in height, 

with any reasonable number of closets. 

Tbe cellar is under the main 
part of the buikling,which gives 
as much cellar room as is usual- 
ly wanted — if more is desired, 
it can be had by excavating 
under tbe lean-to part. 

Tbe chimneys are ornamen- 
tal, which, with the verge 
boards under the eaves, gives 
a finish to the building in good 
keeping with the Idea of a cot- 
tage or country house. The 
outside finish is of inch boards 
matched, and put on vertically, with battens four Inches 
in width, and not less than one inch thick, rough or 
planed, painted and sanded, with a coat of paint over 
tbe sand. This makes a handsome finish, far superior to 
chip-boards, and looks much better. In framing, use 
timber five by ten inches for posts and girth beams, and 
^ the pri DOlpal floor^ timber eight inches square j in- 

is soon saved in fuel. The timbers, each side of tho 
windows, are six by five inches. By using such timber, 
tlie projections in the corners of the room as in case of 
square timber being used, is avoided ; and is sufficiently 
strong. By nailing cleats to the joists, and cutting in 
short pieces of boards between them, and putting upon 
this, one or one and a half inches of mortar, before lay* 
ing the floors in the principal story, it will tend to keep 
out the dampness from the cellar and add to the warmth 
of the house. J. Clinton, N. F. 













Bow Soienoe a£Eects Agricultare. 

A lecture on this subject by Gbas. Daubkht, M. D.| 
F. R. S., has been published in the North British A^- 
culturist, which shows cleariy that the often repealed 
assertion, that scientific investigation can accompliBfa noth^ 
ing for the industrial clsBses, is withdut foundation, mA. 
•riginates in entire ignorance of the facta m the ease* 
New discoveries become so soon public preperty and ap- 
propriated to private interest, that the commmiity losa 
sight of their origin and forget to whom they are indebted 
for theimprovenwBts,whieball are so ready toavaUtlifmp^ 
selv^ of. More oareful observation will show that sdaaeet 
by referring facts to general principles, affords the only 
safe-guard agabtst impositioB, and also the only reliable 
guide to inqiidry for truth. The lecturer imUaoes sevwal 
diacoveries of great practical benefit to the agrteulturai 
world, which have owed their rise to science. 

The dairy lands in Cheshire, England, were observed 
to become exhausted, tbe grass did not thrive, and cow* 
fed upon it, could not derive the constituenU of their 
milk. A lucky accident (in no way attributable to 
sdenoe) disclosed the fkct that the applksation of booea 
restored fertility io the soil, but scientific men were not 
slow in accounting for this fertilising pvoperty of booea, 
and in suggesting great advantages to be derived from it. 
If the phosphates, which the plants in the process of 
growth draw from the soil, could by external applicatioa 
be restored, the soil would tetala its native productive- 
ten. This led to ikrther invertigaHon and the discovery 
of very valuable deposits, in whidi the phosphate of lima 
was a large component. Aside ft«a the worth of thf 




manure^ tbe landed property, in the dbtricta where it is 
foand, has advanced in yalue, and employment been ^ren 
to hundreds of laborers. 

With regard to tbe use of marl as a fertiliser, it might 
be shown that it was only after it had been analysed and 
ite real nature discorered, that it was employed to any 
considerable extent. The same is true in respect to 
gnano, and tlie whole catalogue of artificial manures. It 
would be diiBcult to point to any great improvement in 
the art of cultivation, that has not owed something either 
fn its discovery or perfection to science. Practice is im- 
potent without principle, and theories are useless with- 
out practice— they mutually support and aid each other. 

Yet it would be an error to suppose that every farmer 
must become a chemist, in order to be a scientific cultur- 
ist. It is the privilege of the industrial classes to employ, 
f^ their owa purposes, the results of science, but they 
should do so acknowledging their benefit. What chem- 
istry has done for agriculture, are but the pebbles upon 
the sea-shore of what it is destined to accomplish. But 
its results will be of no essential service to the farmer, 
i\nless they are brought before the public, their worth 
tested by actual experiment, and the conviction of their 
necessity forced upon every mind. In this, as in every- 
thing else, the force of example is powerful, more so 
than pages of carefully written and profound argument. 

Let a sin^e (armer in a town, commence a system of 
improved husbandry, and more or less will imitate him. 
Ho may be ridiculed for a while, but when it is discovered 
that he is ^ ' making the most money," as well as excelling 
in other respects, he will be sure of some disciples. Ob- 
serve how contagious neatness is in a village ; cottage sue- 
oeeds to cottage, flower garden to flower garden , and lawn 
to hmn, and It is equally tni* that dilapidated bouses, 
broken fenoct and weed-ridden gardens are found side by 
side. So OD a larger scale, will it be with farms. One 
well tilled, productive, improving &rm will extend itself 
beyond its boundary lines, as certainly as an honest, in' 
teiligeat, thoughtful man wHl exert an influence. The 
greet body of fkrmers can never be thoroughly read and 
learned nuui; but they can use the details of other's ex- 
perience in thefar own practice— they can carry out the 
principles, which the study of scientific minds has es- 

In the mechanic arts science hasalwaysbeen the parent 
ef hnprovement, and if the mannliKturer if ould be suc- 
eessful, he must combine all the recent discoveries in his 
practioe^must make hia capital yield the greatest possi- 
ble income. Agriculture is a no less dignified and fan- 
portent art-*it requires no less ability and research 
than manufactures. We trust the time is not fitr distant, 
when a short-sighted ignorance will give place to more 
enlightened views, when the sons of the soil wiU invoke 
the aid of sdence as their patron divinity, and labor be 
invested with new power, 

' Sisi or EaoLUB Gabt Hoesbs. — The editor of the 
Michigan Fanner, says tliat the heaviest horse he saw at 
the great Windsor cattle show, weighed twenty-three 
hundred and fifty. His owner said that many exceeded 
Hiet weight, and mentioned one that weighed twenty, 
seven hundred ftnd fifty. 

Attacks of Inieota on Vef etatiofl. 

The following communicallon, relative to the atlsickB 
of insects on vegetation, contains some good suggestiooe, 
well worthy the attention of entomologists. But the 
writer appears to have committed the same iuiktli»t be 
complains of in others, and in Gafdner^s Dictionary* 
He famishes us with wliat he considers probahilUft and 
which, until thoroughly proved by repeated obaerratlooei 
we cannot but regard as conjecture. All we claim H, 
that none shall assume the position of teackere, when 
they onght to maintain that of inveetigaiors. If the po* 
sitiuns of our correspondent are correct, all we desire Is 
clear, repeated, and undeniable proof, never mistakkv 
cause for effect, and nice versa— not merely in one, bat 
in all 1ocaliiies--not only In one, but in many eeaeone; 
for there are numberless ways of being deceived, and 
single observations, and circumstantial evidence, will 
hardly satisfy scientific observers who cannot ad<^ an 
opinion as truth, until it is established completely by 
wliat Loan Bacoh termed the ** experimentum erucie^** 
or cross-examination of nature. Eds. 

About the beginning of December, (the 11th,) an ar- 
ticle appeared in the Christian Intelligencer, credited to 
the Albany Cultivator. It b headed '' Ret in PotmUm 
^Yellowe in Peach Treu—JHUaae in BtMmwoed 
True /' and the object is to attack certain ejnatoiw ad- 
vanced by Mr. BucKmssTsm, Editor of the Mnssschn- 
setts Plowman. 

My own obj<ict is to furnish a hint, how aside from the 
purpose some investigations seem to be conducted; and 
also to show by a single palpable example, how a ihct, 
that ought to have been fully proven, and set down as 
established in the Natural History of Hortkniltnre, Is 
still bandied about, aflftrmed and denied again for sa»> 
oessive years, as if it were not susceptible of the slmpten 
sort of proof, and that absolute. 

An opinion may lead to the most important ibct. It 
was in consequence of the opinion formed before hand, 
that Kkpler was led to discover those immortal laws 
of the heavenly bodies that bear his name. On the other 
hand, a turkey may have denuded a cabbage plant of 
its leaves; but all parts of the plant may be examined 
by the most powerful magnifiers in existence, without 
finding any such creature. Tbe turkey may be flown, 
or dead, or roasted; yet it was the turkey that did the 
mischief, nevertlieless. 

I wish to bring forward that condition of the peach 
tree called, or which ought to be called, the Curl; that 
is, when the leaves present that peculiar twisted appear- 
ance, with a blistered form or forms on the upper sur- 
face, and a corresponding dimpled one on the under sur- 

Whoever has seen a cabbage plant, or still better, a 
currant bush, infested with the well known little insect 
called the aphis, In systematic language, would immedi- 
ately have the probable cause of the curl suggested to 
him . There are the same swellings on the surface of the 
leaf, while the Insects will be found congregated in large 
numbers In the dimples under it. I do not see how any 
one could escape the suggestion. 

Now there is one thing to be noticed ; that the defor- 
mity of the leaves b not caused by the insects there pre. 



tty for it b wen known that on inort pUnti tbey pre- 
ier almoit cxdosively, tbo small, yovag foliage^ in juicy 
tender state, Jmt developed from tlie bnd. It U at this 
ttnae, that the textnre of the leaf Is beared, whieb aflter- 
'warda shows ttself in the deftirraity. On the grape-vine 
yon will find the yonng tendrils as well as the leaf buds, 
suftd these parts aUme are covered by the aphides. But 
tbe blistered leaveaare raroi and not oonsptoaons on the 

l¥ben we apply these bints to the peach tree» and 
for the aphbt after the tree attrseta oar attention 
\>gf being covered with curled aad blistered leaves^-quite 
Sveen, not yet yellow ones^we shall be disappointed. 
^e QM^ not even flod bis cast skin. But if we bad ex» 
umiiied earlier in the season, in a chilly, wet spring, or 
evaa when snow omj lie on the earliest half*grown leaves, 
«e would have discovered bim readily enough. 

This may exphdn why some who have observed bnt 
cssually and insuiDciently , suspect that this carl of the leaf 
is caused by frost and chilly weather. The truth Is, 
that tbe aphides generally bear a considerable degree of 
eM ; and that the^ remain bnt a short time on the peach 
tree, and only at that early season. They may be found 
00 the common red cherry tree occasionally, in tbe same 
way, but in smaller numbers, so as to affect bnt few 
leaves. These are facte readily established. Why have 
they not been estabUsAied Wog agot 

What is the yellows of the peach tree? If wc consult 
Gardner's Farming Dictionary, we may conclude that 
it fs merely the dying condition of the tree, from what, 
ever cause, in which he incYndcs the depredation of the 
aphis or tree louse. But from this slovenly account and 
Innccorate definition, we might snppose that the investi- 
gation of the cause of the form of disease to which the 
term Is proper, had not been commenced yet. A good 
account of the indications and progress of it is to be 
fbund somewhere, and would be far more appropriate 
than many things to be found in that book. 

Again, as to the leafless condition of the buttonwood 
tree | if one watks in the woods at the time when the 
oak leaves are expanding, he may find under the trees, 
the ground thinly strewn with the young, pinkish, wool- 
ly oak leaves. This is the work of a brown beetle, which 
some one has said to be the ashy-green cut- worm in its 
perfect state, though Gardner tells us, under the head 
of " Cut- worm," that the latter is developed into a pink 
or brown moth. This is worth settling. However, what 
(Gardner quotes, Swainson or Loudon, under the head 
of " Isects," about the cock chaffer, whose larvsB is the 
common white grub, with a red or oracge head^mlght 
be sppHed to it with little alteretlon. They do not al- 
ways scatter the young leaves as they do of the white 

I have seen whole branches of a young elm at the top, 
entirely denuded until late in the season, by this depre- 
dator. How shall we detect him so as to prove it up<m 
himt Vot by shaking the tree at noon, when he Is asleep, 
as is recommended for the cock chaffer ; nor woutd the 
most powerful glasses applied to all psrts of this young 
elm, find him out. It was necessary to shake the tree 
^c^er darkf and these beetles were heard dropping on the 
ground in .great numbers. But they had to be sought 

with a lantern, and nimbly seized before they took wing. 
This sprinkling of oak leaves Is to be found a^ far as 
Georgia, and so too, are buttonwood trees dying young. 
Has any one shaken the branches of the buttonwood at 
night, in the proper season, to discover the cause of thC 

For the diseases of vegetation generally, particularly 
where they are prevalent, the Insect world presents the 
most hopeful source of knowledge. Even fbr the potato 
rot, there is still some hope fVom this quarter, although^ 
the most powerful magnifiers may be unsuccessfully ap- 
plied. There are insects that perforate the leaf, and 
there are others that burrow in the stalk, where the rot 
appears ; it may be none of these ; yet there are a varie- 
ty of modes of investigation, not yet philosophically pur> 
sued, nor accurately determined. What we want Is first, 
that what may be resdiiy proven, shouM be fixed and 
established. H. R. L. Rahwayy N, /. 


Winter thm TIiim to Think. 

Winter is the time for farmera to <AtnXp— spring, sum* 
mer, and fail, to work; and the three latter season^ 
labor will be to little profit. If the time of the first shall 
have been misspent. All the plans of next season's 
operations should be laid and well considered during 
winter. All improvements, all designs for new operas 
tion; all the work to be done, should then be considered 
and prepared for; so that, when the time for work ar* 
rives he will have nothing to do bnt to ''go ahead." 
Then he has no time to think ; bnt if he has been wise 
during winter he will liave no need of it. It is a pitiful 
sight to look at in the spring, when all natnre Is in aa 
ecstacy of delight, to see a former flying about '' l&e m 
hen with her head cut ofl"," trying to do a thousand 
things at once, not knowing which to do first, rnmilng 
here and there In search of his rnsty implements, sobm 
of which require repairs, some can't be found; theplow« 
ii^ season passing away, the planting season rapidly ad« 
vancing, and be not prepared for anything. Obi it it 
piUful. Q. 

Culiura of Potatoea. 

Having noticed many suggestions in the Cultivator, in 
relation to the potato rot, — I send you my experience tha 
past season, in cultivating the potatoe. My soil of a 
light sandy loom — ^plowed pretty deep— thoronghly 
limed, planted flrsi and second week in Msy, In hills 8| 
feet apart. One acre of <' bines*' and whites, with ma* 
nure on the i>otato In each hill, befbre covering. One 
third rotted and one third did not come to half size; 
began to wilt in tops In July, died in August, taken up 
In September. 

One acre planted with long reds, commonly known In 
this country as the '' long Johns," planted same ss above 
— ^no manure— grew fine till cut down with October froti 
— ^flne. large, and little or no rot. 

The first acre worked with the plow and hoe, till 

July, yielded but fifty bnsiiels. The second acre, werht 

ed with the hoe alone till July, and raised in middle of 

of October, yielded two hundred and thirty five bushels^ 
Wherein have I tailed, and what will be an efiectnal 
remedy? Youn truly, G. W. Youxomas. WiUiamt* 
pwri, Lycoming coufUy, Pa. 




▲yxahin OnVOm. 

i!i>0. Cultivator— This breed, which takes its name 
from the couDtyof Ayria Scotland, where it originated, 
baa become widely disseminated ; and, if I may credit ac- 
counts and authorities, is now, as a dairy breed, the most 
popular in Britain. 

The most aathectic acooants represent it to have been 

formed by the union of the Alderney and Teeswater or 

Short-horn, with the ancient stock of the district. This 
% strongly corrobated by the general appearance of the 
animals themselves : not less by their properties— docili- 
ty, hardiness, and fecundity in. and richness of. milk. 

The nucleus of the breed appears to hare been first 
known under the name of the *' Dunlop Stuck/' having 
been possessed by a distinguished family in Ayrsliire, 
by the name of Ihinlop, as early as 1780. 

Bawlio, as quoted by Youatt, who wrote in 1794, 
speaking of the cattle of Ayrshire, says — " They have 
another breed called the Dunlop cows, which are allowed 
to be the best race for yielding milk in Great Britain or 
Ireland, not only for large quantities, but also fur rich- 
ness of quality.'' 

Professor Low says, in his Illustrations, in reference 
io the history of the Ayrshires— " Authentic records are 
wanting to show by what progressive steps this breed has 
become molded into its present form ; but that it had 
spread over a large tract of the country, and had ac- 
quired the character of a distinct and well defined breed " 

Col. Le Cottteur, in his paper on Jersey or Alder- 
oey cows, published in the Transactions of the New. 
Tork State Ag. Society in 1850, refers to a statement 
by Quayle, in which he says — '* The Ayrshire is a cross 
between the Sliort-hom and- Alderney." 

Prof. Low sums up the subject as fciUows: '^ From 
all the evidence, which, in the absence of authentic docn- 
ments, the case admits of, it is clear, the dairy breed of 
Ayrshire owes the character which distinguishes it ft-om 
tibie older raee, to a mixture of the blood of the races 
9f the continent and the dairy breed of Alderney." 

As to the leading points and characteristics of the 
Ayrshires, no description is more correct than that of 
Prof. Low. It is as follows - 

*' The modern Aryshires stand in the fifth or sixth 
class of British breeds, as it respects size. The horns 
are small, and curve inward at the extremities, after the 
manner of the Aidemeys. The shoulders are light, and 
Ibe loins broad and deep-«a conformaiion almost always 
accompanying the property of yielding abundant milk. 
The skin is moderately soft to the touch, and of an orange 
yellow tinge about the eyes and udder. The prevailing 
eolor is a reddisfa* brown, mixed with more or less white. 
The muszle is usually dark, though it is often flesh color. 
The limbs are slender, the neck small, and the head free 
from coarseness. 

. ^< 1^ cows are very docile and qniel, and hardy to the 
degree of being able to subsist on any ordinary food. 
They give a large quantity of milk in proportion to their 
size and the food they consume, and the milk is of an 
. excellent quality. Healthy cows, on good pasture, give 
80O or 900 gallons in the yeai^-although taking into ac- 
count the younger and less productive, 600 gallons may 
be considered a fhir average for the low counties and 
■omewhat less for the high." 

Stephens, in the <' Book of the Farm," and in *< the 
Farmer's Guide," speaking of the milking properties of 
the Ayrshires, says — '* They are in such high repute on 
Ihat account, that most of the nobility throughout the 
kingdom are famished with Ayrshire cows." 

In relation to their color, he says thai, althongh red 
and white are most common, yet that sometimes a clear 
red or even those of a yellow or dun color, are to be 
seen-^that such oolofs are known to be bonie by stocks 
•f the purest and oldest blood. 

In regard to the yield of Ayrshire cows. Martin says, 
f* It has been estimated that a good Ayrshire cow will 
yield for two or three months after calving, five gallons 
of mHk daily ; for the next three months, three gallons 
daily, and a gallon and a half for the next three months. 

This nailk it is calcnHrted will return abont 260 lbs. ^ 
butter annually , or 600 lbs. of cheese. This is, however, 
somewhat exaggerated — four or four and a half gallooa 
of milk a day Is abont the average product." 

The antfaor of *^ Britbh Husbandry" remarks, id f«- 
ferenoe to this yield— ^* If equalled, we believe it wW 
not be found exceeded by any other breed in the kix^- 

TouaU says, in relation to the Ayrsbfres; that tKey 
produce an nnusoal qnantHy of rich cream-— tlMt thieir 
feed kindly and profitably, that their fat is mingled wita 
the fiesh rather than separated in the form of tallow, 
and that they will fatten on psstures and in districts 
where others oonld not be made to thrive at all, eseepi 
partly or principally supported by artificiiilfood. 

Dickson in his work *'on the breeding of live stock," 
says of the Ayrshires — " The cows have obtsined ft 
world-wide celebrity as milkers, and are to be fimnd fm 
most of the dairies of noUeawn andgenflemen. incvefy 
part of the kingdom." ^ 

The cow " Ayr," owned by Mr. Prektice near Al- 
bany, has given regnlarly, on grass feed only, over twem 
ty qnarta daily through the favorable season, and will 
milk the vear round. This cow is of very small sia^ 
and easily kept. Another of Mr. Prentice's cows — a 
grand daughter of the above, a five-year-old, produced 
in 1861, twelve pounds and seven ounces of butter in S 
week, without the least deviation from the ordinary 
treatment of the herd, on grass only; 

In fkct, whether the Ayrshires are Judged by their 
actual produce, or by the external points which, by ex* 
perience and ooservation, are acknowledged to denote 
dairy qualities, it must be admitted that they take • 
high rank ; and it is believed that their adoption for the 
dairy would secure the following advantsges over the 
stock commonly kept for that purpose in Uiis country: 

1st. A greater quantity and better quality of milk, 
for the food consumed. 

2d Better symmetry and constitution, greater docili- 
ty of temperament, and tendency to gain flesh when not 
giving milk. 

.8d. Greater uniformity in the general character of the 
stock, from its inherent or hereditary qualities. Y. Y. 


A Double FnxTOwer 

Eds. Cultivatoe — I send you the plan of a Double 
Furrower, which we have used five years. We find it 
very handy. It furrows twice as much as the old thdi- 
ioned way. It can be set two, three, or ^our feet apart. 

Explanation of the Cut, 

A. The shoe made of plank, 2 inches thick. 

B.B. Shares; same as those on a double mould board 
plow, bolted on the slioe. 

G.G. These pieces are made of 2 inch plank, and mor- 
ticed in the shoe. 

D.D. These rods are made with heads on one end, and 
nut on the other. They pass through the stanchion, C. 
C, through the plank, E., and the upright, F., which 
forms a hinge ; the holes are a little larger than the rods, 
and work iVeely. 

6. Grosspiece, on wbmh are two handles; it is bolted 
loosely on the uprights, and w^orks same as plank, £. 

H. Beam bolted llrmly on the plank, E. 

I. Rod to stiffen the l)eam. 

The plank uprights snd crosspiece. are 14 fneh stuff 

It is necessary to have a wheel on the beam» the same 
as on a plow. A. T. James. New-Boeheilet Weiichet($f 
Cs., 2\r. r., 1861. •■ 





Odds mmI T^**<*p- 

L. TucJCXK, Esq.— In remittiqg 1x17' animal sul)0cHp- 
tion, allow me to ayail myself of the kind and cooaide- 
vale inritatioii extended to your readers, towards the close 
€f the article addressed to correspondents in this month's 
iromher, among whom I count myself as one more ac- 
eustomed to guide the plow than the pen, although I 
eefrtahily tlrink yon cannot blame the "weaker tty" for 
not showing their heads after having been accustomed to 
tbe strong and sterling articles from soch pens as are 
wielded by HotnaooK, Aoucola, Kobton, and a host 
of others. In reading yonr raledictary on the first page 
of this month's number, I was forcibly struck with the 
MUKMUicemenfe that tbo *' twenty-firti year" of your labors 
« an agrioaltaral editor, had now expired. Twenty-one 
long years spent in the promotion of an object, acknow- 
ledged by the wise and good of all ages and all nations, 
to be eminently wortiiy of the highest talent and the 
liilgbest ambitioB. 

• What a host of vint^restlng associations must cluster 
around the heart, when the scenes that have tiaoBplred 
during those long year8,are by ** fond recollection brought 
to the view.'' Think of the mighty influence which has 
been exerted, as tlie monthly leaves of the Genesee Farm- 
er and The Cultivator have found their way to thousands 
of hearths and homes, scattered all over the land. Who 
can tell how many flelds, long since made nearly barren 
under an exhausting system of cropping, have l«en once 
more made to blossom as the rose, and yield their rich 
burdens of golden com, under the guidaBoe of an im- 
proved practice as taught in the pages of those sterling 
Journals, Uius amply rewarding the labors of the husband- 
men, and filling their hearts withfood'and gUidneas? And 
how many young men, think you, daaaled by the sedoc* 
tive influences thrown around the *^ professions." and the 
still more dangerous allorementa of trade ana specula- 
tion, have been brought to fall in love wUh agriculture, 
and in ODnsequenee are now enjoying the solid pleasures 
that cluster around the home of the intelligent cultlva* 
tor of the soil, simply through the influence of these 
Journals. Gould the truth be known, I have no doubt 
that hundreds-, if not thousands, of such young men 
oouM be found, who are to-day tluinkM that they were 
induced to ibllow this peaceful calling. Would to Grod 
ttere were thousands more. The perusal by one individ- 
ual, of one article adapted to that individual's circum- 
ttances, has often been the means of great good to him 
and bis family alone. Multiply this by the thousands of 
others who have read the same, and to whom it may have 
been equally a message of good, and tell me if you can 
the amount of human happiness that has been the result. 
Surely if the nian who ** mi^es two blades of grass to 
grow where but one grew before," is entitled to praise 
as a benefactor of his race, you, my dear sir, who have 
been for twenty-one years saooessfully engaged in this 
useful causa» can have no fears as to the verdict potterity 
will pronounce on you. 

But much remains yet to be done. As has beeo well 
remarked, '^ the scientific practice of agriculture is yet 
in its infancy" — millions of acres of as fine land as ever 
)ajr beneath the sun, are year b^ year wasting away un- 
der the exhausting process of continual cropping, and 
their owners are either indifferent and careless about it, 
or else being aware of the real state of things are sighing 
for the fresh prairies of the west. Tell theip of a better 
way, and they shake their heads dubiously, and tell you 
they ** dont believe in book farming — ^the land is all worn 
out— never was good f>r nothing, and its no use." Aak 
them what they will take for their farms, and of a sud- 
den they brighten np, and verv complacently teU you, 
they think them worth from 80 to 40 dollars an acre, 
when not a mother's son of them is making two per cent 
on the money, and many actually running behind. Even 
la this comparatively young state, this Is the condition of 

things, and an old and respected citizen remarked to me 
the other day, that he was well satisfied the aefahU 
produce of even this county, (Trumbull,) which boasts a 
population as intelligent as a^y other, was yearly dimin- 
ishing; and yet the m^ority slumber on regardless of 
future consequences. If Queen Yktoria should send a 
graceless scape goat to set fire to some man's hay stack, 
the whole country would be burning up with virtuous 
indignation — but here is an annual waste <^ productire 
capability that cannot be measured by any thing less than 
thousands of stacks of bay, and yet but few regard It. I 
say but/eio, for we have some who are awake, and are 
trying to turn the current into a better channel. We^ 
have an agricultural society, that for a few years has been 
doing good, though the h»t fair was pronounced decided- 
ly poor, ana many as usual predict fiiil ure. The sovereign 
people can't afford to pay a sliilling for the privilege of 
seeing a few pumpkins and squashes — ^not they — and tliis 
in the heart of "chceaedom" — ^but enough of this for pre- 
sent. Allow me, my dear sir, in closing, to congratulate 
you on the success which has attended you in the course 
of your long career as an agricultural editor, and may 
kind heaven spare your life at least as many more years, 
that you may not only continue to cheer the husbandman 
in his labors, but may see an abundant harvest as the re- 
sult of your own. Sue Kara. TrvmJifull county, O , 
Dec. 17, 1851. 

A Model Farm SchooL 

The want of a definite system of Agricultural Educa* 
tion, which has made the many discussions on this impor- 
tant subject, of little practical avail, is beginning to be 
1-emedied. In the Granite Fanner, of Feb. 4, is an arti- 
cle headed ** J Modfl Farm School," from the pen of 
HsHET F. FasMCH, Esq., who has distinguished himself 
as a writer of clear, practical common sense, in the Hon- 
TicuLTpaisT, and in different Agricultural Journals. The 
plan proposed has the merit of simplicity and practica- 
bility, features which are seldom combined in schemes of 
this kind. He proposes a farm of two hundred acreS| 
differing as much as possible in soil, upon which should bo 
erected a building with lecture-rooms, apparatus, library, 
&c. , to accommodate some fifty students. A model farm- 
house, barn, and out-houses, to be constructed, and tlie 
farm stocked with the most approved breeds of domestic 
animals. A principal to have the entire control of the 
Institution, under the sufiervision of a Board of Agricul- 
ture appointed by the State, and to be thoroughly vers, 
ed in every branch of scientific and practical farming. 
He would have so much of the elementary branches of 
instruction taught, as would enable the student to pursue 
successfully the higher branches of Chemistry, Natural 
Fhilosopliy, Natural History, Veterinary Medicine and 
Surgery— 4he whole course of study to have especial re- 
ferenoe to appUcatSon on the flwm , and aU the labor to b» 
perlbrmed by the students in rotation. 

These are the principal features of the plan, as detalk 
ed In the article nferred to. Gould su^ InatitutiODS be 
founded in every state, or still better, in every county, 
they would be of immense value — would meet the wonts 
of the great body of farmers. But there is still an im- 
perative want of a nucleus to all these Model Schoola— 
an Institution where teachers can be educated, and sci- 
ence pursued farther than would be possible on a farm. 
Tet we are by no means certain that these Model Schools 
should net be started first; for then tlie need of such a 
higher institution would be more keenly and generally 





Waulm aid TaiiKs Of a9 AHBKiCAirFARMBftiv Eva- 
tAHD. — By the pdlitetiefls of the author^ Fred. Law 
Olmbtkad, we bare reoeived seTerol proof sheets of « 
work, entitled as above, now in press by G^ P. Puinavi 
of Mew- York. Judging from the preface, and a basty 
glance at a few pages, we are disposed to think well -of it. 
It is written in a spirited style, with now and then aionoh 
%of humor to beguile the tedium of narration. The au^ 
tbor, beiog a practical farmer, and having visited England 
for the purpose of becoming better acquainted with the 
eondltion of the laboring cla8ses,*^the syBtems of Agri- 
culture peculiar to that country, and also of discovering 
what in their practice covild be safely and usefully adopt- 
ed here, comes before the reading world in a guise some^ 
what different from an ordinal^ tourist. A much truer 
exponent of the agricultural condition of a country can 
be obtained by direct association with tlie mass of farmers 
than by consulting the records of Agricultural societies 
and the laboratories of agricultural chemists. Tlic au- 
thor seems to have made his tour with this fact in view, 
and to have written faithfully and without prejudice, his 
observations. The book is neatly printed and illustrated 
by engravings of buildings, implements, &c. — 250 pages, 
12 mo. 


ma ov Horses, is the title of a work, translated from 
the French of F. Baucher, published by A. Hart, 
Phfladelphia. It is devoted to directions for training 
horses to the saddle, and follows out the detail of every 
exercise with all the minuteness of the French mind. To 
equestrians, who wish to combine in an animal spirited 
action and perfect managibility, the rules laid down in 
this book, will be valuable. Horses need a competent 
tutor as much as a child, and were more carcAil and Judi- 
cious training bestowed upon them in the outset, we 
should not see so many ill-bred vicious beasts, that de- 
fy every effort to make them serviceable 

Lossivc's Pictorial Field Book or the Revolution, 
is now nearly complete. Embracing, as it does, a suc- 
cinct history of the American Revolution, with illustra- 
tions drawn from scenes of interest to every mind, it 
will be a valuable addition to every library. It is finely 
executed by Harper & Brothers. 

Harvbr's Maoajunr for February is, as usual, bouotl- 
ioXXy supplied with instroctive and entertaiDing matter, 
including the continuance of of the biographies of Bona- 
parte and Franklin. . It enjoys a large circulation, which 
ii frimafaeu evidence of its popularity. 

The InternationaIi, for February, gives brief biogra- 
phies of CowLET and Fox, together with engravings of 
tln?ir residences and favorite retreats. Among other ex- 
cellent articles, we notice " Reminiscent Reflections of 
Chief Justice Stort,^' and the address of Dr. Francis 
at the printer's banquet in Kew-Tork. 

Littell's LiviNO AoE holds a high rank among the 
^tcrary periodigais of the day. Rejecting everything of 
a transient nature, it is a true representative of the litera- 

ture and leading sulgeets of interest, both in Europe and 

our own country. Published weekly by £. Littell hf, 

Co., Boston, Mass., at $6 a year. 

■ - ■ ♦%♦■ 

Al^tiltdre the Mother of ell ProteiioiiB. 

As the earth is the. mother of all mankind, so agricnk 
ture is the mother of all other professions, and this I 
suppose is the reason why all other professions seek and 
find succor from their mother. It is natural for a child 
when it wants bread, to ask its mother for it — ^who elae 
could it ask it of, with as much confldenoe? She is «m^ 
sidered by all her children, rich in this world's gooda. She 
has stores laid up for many years, and she has a good 
fiu-m, and in their timea of need it is natural for her 
children to expect aesiataiice from her. On Urn othec 
hand, the unnatural archina never onoe qsend a thought 
about jur necessities, her hard labora, or of improvii^ 
her condition. She is rich they say, she has stores of 
bread and meat, and she has a good farm,— ihe requires 
no aid from us. And thus it goes* Our good old mother 
has nothing to do but toil and sweat at her dmdgerjTi 
provide bread and meat for all her children, and pay the 
bUU for all manner of expenditures. Now these child* 
ren do very wrong. They should assist the old lady in 
every possible way. They should encourage her work 
people and build good school -houses for them, and edu- 
cate tliem ; and they should give them GhristnMe end 
New Tear's presents and curious trinkets, in the form 
of premiums, medals, and all sorts of fine things. This 
wuuld stimulate them to serve the old lady more faith- 
Ailly, energetically, and efficiently, and would render 
her days more cheerful and her nights more comfortable. 
Let all the world think of this. Only suppose the old 
lady should diti what would become of all of you pro- 
fessional men, merchants, mechanics, all? Where wooM 
you get bread and meat and clothing to your backst 
Think of these things, and treat the dear old lady better, 

I- beg of you. S. 


YwoTiT 07 RAisiNO DucKs. — A Correspondent of ihe 

Rural Kew-Torker, gives the following result of a small 

experiment with 14, four males and ten females: — 

90 doseii ens raid m 12i eta. per dozen, •3.75 

15 »• •• 10" " 1^ 

5 " " l^ " M 

5 •' uerd for feltiiif ♦• ** ...... S3 

3} " " intlioferaify" ** 47 

4 liM. faaiherff m 60 cis. (picked 6 timet) &es 

14eo:dwbcadreMedm8S|cte.pcrpeir, 4:38 

^ 1.^,35 

Deduct bwhels com at SO eiM,^ 3JU0 

Profit, tlOU» 

The cost of the required labor is not given. The eggs 

were placed under hens, and 61 hatched. 

Settiro a Rogus to catcb a Roovk. — A correspond 

dent of the London Farmer's Magasine says, that after 

resorting to all common expedients, to get rid of tlie 

fly that destroys turnips, without success, he succeeded 

by the following novel means. Taking the hint from 

tales of life in India, where certain species of ants infest 

every place, and reign supreme for the tinne, driving idl 

before them, he went to the ant hills in the woods, and 
filled sacks of ants, and with gloves on his hands, turned 

them down in little heaps, at regular distances, over 

i the field, where upon the enemy were exterminated. 






Po«tag« of thm Oottlvmtar and OaltWvlor AlmawT, 

"We re-jBoUiah Ae ibilowing, from oar Jan. No., aiid add a letier 
fimn the Uepvimeuiydeckliiig that ihe Ctrftrmfor JImmmm n •ubject 
only to the mma ekargt a» a mji^ i»iiaiiA«r ^ tk$ foptr iut^^ when 
eNt lo MilNCffibera. 

PotT-OmcK DarABTjfixT, 

Afpoimtt/unt Ct0t*, NO0. «l| 18SI. 

8iK— I luv« rereivad yomt leuer of tha 2O1I1 mmi. The "^ Cohira. 

tiM-" ia oontidered aa baiiif wider the elawificaiioM ofa *■" iievnpuier." 
oa that term ui defined t^ Ihe lAih lection oT the act of 9d March, 
1SI9 ; aiMl it tberaforo is ewlitled toall the banaftla gralMad to, and aab^ 
icct to alt the re«irictioiie impueed by luw 011 such puUicaiious. 
RespeeiAilly yoara, B. D. JACOB8, 

iil AamL i*. M. Genl. 




The postage oil the Cultivator m therefore at folkiws: 

F^itr aiiy dUtance iiol exceeding 50 miles, 5 cetils 

Ovor SO, au4 Mwl Meaediiig aiW oiilea, 10 

OverSUO " 1,UU0 mites, 15 

Overl,U00 ** t,«lOmllea, » 

Over«,UU0 " 4,000 mites, S9 

Over 4,000 ^ 30 

TV> ^ireiil any mtoappreheiaion yn qaMe the I61I1 section of the 
Iaw 01' ai March, IMS, re(erred 10 iu the above hitler. It is as ful. 

Mbs 1& Andbe il fwihar enMtad, that Hm larm *< NewspaiMr/' 

bcreiiiiielore gsrd, sluill lie, aiid the same is hereby defineil to be any 
prhited poMicatioR, issaed in nnmbers, cotMisliiig of not more than 
Xmio stic'eiai and published at stiort staled hitfSvaM of uol more than 
one moiiih, coiive)'iiig intelligence of pasMiig events, and bona fid§ 
mxtrmM mmd smppUttumu of sacih pvUieation." 

By iliis eximci it will be seen that the Pkterial Ctihivaiar Almamac 
h eiiiiilcd to go tu oar sobseribers as a sapplemeiit to The Cultivator, 
fchoiMga **toiM>bassivpiliOTSii<** loh, oudnoihiaf rise. ThaAI- 
nktiiac u luM publislieJ for sale, and is sent only to suUicribers to the 

PosT-Orricic Duabtxixt, 

Appotmtinent Q0te€, Jam. S9, ISSi. 

8ii»— Ifam'o received yoar teller of the XM nisi., asking whether 
the *'Culiivaior Almanac" ought to be cunaidered as a >Sup)ilemeni 
to Ike Albany Odtlvalor, and rated with postage as sudi, or be con- 
sidered OS a iransieut pablicaiioii^ aial rated accordingly. 

A ** 8uptil«ineiii,** to come withui the provisions of the law which 
BlAowasoeii issttea to be seat to snhsrrBtrra wA a postage eqoal to the 
aura paid on a single number of lite principal pulHication, at subscrip- 
Hull rates, ooglit not to exceed three oances in Weight, and should 
contttiu such natter oidy, as will supply thai wUicb is waiued lo make 
the nrincipal puUicaiion complete. 

iJpoii exaflsinaiion of dM '^CaliinMor Almanoe," I have ooma to 
llie coiiclusioii that it may be oousidered us a Huppleroein to the Al- 
bany Colli valor. Respecifoily yours, 8. iJ. JACOBS. 

Isl Astist. P. M. went* 

Jacob Allen, Esq., P. M. Sooth Hartford, Washington Co., N. Y. 

f « 

AllNmy PrtoM Coimit. 

Albaxy, Saturday, Feb. 14. 

Tliere has been a steady demand for flour and provisions daring the 
nonthftha fornwr onder the Inffuenee of lbr^igll advices, and the 
lolicr ill eoiiseqoeuoe of the iuereasing certainty of a light aiaek of 
Mew Pork m the Western markets, have rapidly advanced. Wheat 
loo has kept pace with flour. 

FLOUR— Ttte city and eastern demand for floor during die month 
1ms been good; the sales reaching 10,000 lo 11,000 Us., at rates sliow- 
fi^ a gradualty improving market. We quote State 94 50a$4.68| — 
ibr Stale aiol Western, •t.flBiia#4.75-^lbr favorite Suia and Western, 
•4.7Mi4.87^— lor Genesee and extra do. MSuMSJSit. Tliese fignrea 
Aow a targe advance on the low grades. 

GRAIN— Genesee wheal is now held at 118c.; the Imt reported 
•ales were at llft^ on 7lb hist The transactions in other deseriplious 
of grain are confined to strset sales at 05c. for Rye, d04a37c. for Oais, 
03n64c. for Com, and Ti was the' last figure for Barley. -A sale of 
10,000 bushels Borlry mall, was mode early tliis month in p.t Small 
9fM are flUe., Marrowfiiis •l.TS. White Beans tLSO. 

PROVISIONS— ^le fsttul denaiid Ibr piwisiaos is very gooi and 

prices have further advanced; we quote prime pdrk 914^, mess do. 

tie, dear do. 917.00. Beef, 90JB0 fiat mess and 95.20a9.79 for prime. 

SsBoked beef O^alOe. Smoked hams O^alO^e., do shoulders 7ia8e. 

Butter lOalSc. for Stale and firm. Cheese scarce, 6^a7e. Indresied 

hogs the ha<»iiiess is about closed ; the hut reported sale wns at 97a 
97X9. Vesterdoy a sale of 'Hn ills, city pocked mess wos mode at 
919U10 aiKl within a few days 30.000 iGs. grean hams ai 0|c. The 
teiidenc>' of the market is upwards. 

' WOO(#— The sales of the moinh arc 100,000 lbs. at 41c. for mixed 
Ohio, 30 for Michigan, and ineiudhig some lots on p.t 

HOPS are 30e. with sales 90 to 00 boles. Some 300 boles have 
kceo recei\'ed at PliBadelphia from Enghiud, and an in market at 
rates current in that riiy. 

8BE1>— NtH much donig. liarge clover 90a0.1S(. Timothy 9S.90 
flB,0« foe fcic 10 prima loia. Ftax feed 91.14^. 

Mew-Tork Steto Ooontj Ag. Boototles. 

OrsKoo.— At the annual meeting of thi» Society, at Cooperstown. 
Dec. 30, a deputation was reeeiveu from tlie towns in the sooih and 
southwestern parts of the eoanly proposing 10 abandon the society 
known Air many years as Ihe Duitemau Agricultural Societv, and 
unite with the county socicly. Al\er hearing the amimems lor and 
against the prupotfitioii, which were given with caiMM* end apparent 
good feeloigt it was sgreed to uinle, and h was siipidaled to hold the 
aittiual Fairs aliennUely at Lrooisville ^Morris) and Coopersto%nw 

Ttie society proceeded to the elect ion of oftccrs for the ensuing 
year, whioh resulted as follows ; 

President— Hon. SAMUEL 8. BOWNE. 

Vice.Prcsideitts— HsxAT J. Bowxao, Jons W. ToxxicLiw, K»* 
WAKu Hall. # 

Treasurer— JoHX T. Phixxxt. 

Secreuiry— CaK»TXB Jaxvui. 

Executive Cominiitee— Francis Rolch, R. H. Van Rcnssehun', 
Wtllianu RllhllUl^ Oaviii B. 8t. Sohl^ Rensselaer Boy. Tlioin» 
Jackson, Alexander H. Clark, Hiram Wuite, Nelson H. WashboH, 
Richufd FraiiclKil, David Bundy, W. Fraler, Jonali Davis, JoMcpii 
W. Boll, Abijab Bariium, .S. O. Cone, F. A. Peanall, Wm. A. Wulkar. 

CoRTLASo.— Officers of the Society for 189ei :— Anthony Freer, 
PresM. : G. W. Choinberliii, l*uri« Uorber, Moses Kinney, mid Man- 
ley Uobart,V. PresMleiiis; Ainoa Rice, Homer, Cor. Soe'y; L. 9. 
Pomeroy, Rec. Sec^y; M. L. Webb, Treosurer. 

JKrvKKsox.— Officers for lSS*i:— Jolin A. Shernunr of Rudaad, 
President; George While, RuiIuikI, Curtis GooUuig, rnmetia, John 
J. Green, Adams, Oliver Grow, Homisfieid, Mason Salsbury, EUio- 
burg, Joel Woodworlh, Waleriowii, George J. Knight, Brownvillc, 
Eugene Blanc, I^ Ray, Albert L. miiiney, Rodman, Wm. McCollia> 
icr, Antwerp, Simeon Fulttm, Wiltia, Jason Clark, AlexMidria, Levi 
Torrey, Cape Vincent, V. Presideius; TUculi H.Camp, Watertown. 
Treasarar; Jolui C. Sterling, Wuienowii, Cor. Sacreury ; Blwonl 
S. Mussey, Watertown, Rec. Secreiar)'. 

St. Lawxbxcb.— We are glod to see ihe farmers of this eoonty, 
awakening to the sut^ect of ogricaliural improvement. At a meo^ 
iiig held at Canton on the 29m June, a County Ag. Socicly was or- 
ganised, and the following officers elected : 

Henry Van Rensselaer, Oswegaichie, President ; Vriol H. Orvia, 
Mos-ieiin, Joiwh Saiiford, Hopkiiiion, and Hiram 8. Johnson, Can- 
ton, V. Presidents; Henry G. Fooie, Qrwegatehie, Secretary; Kbo- 
nezer MinerjCauion Trett«urer. 

Galbx.— Tliis town, in Woyiie 00., has sn efficieiu SocielT, of 
we learn by ilie proceedings at its annual meeting on the ISifa Dec. 
Inst. They have established sn A^. Library, uiiu will liuki a Pair 
theensoiiig season. Strong resolutions in favor of legi^tiva akl to 
agricultural education were adopted, and the following officers eliosvu 
for 1^9:— Isoac M. Gillett, Presideni ; D. Jeiinisoii, C. H. Bliss, M. 
D. Beatile, E. B. Kellogg, aiol & H. Sireeier, V. Preaidenu; Joseph 
WstsoiK Secretary; Thomas Plumlrse, Treasurer, and L. S. Ket- 
chum, Ubrarian. 


Bbxxixgtox Covxtt.— Officers for the year ensuing ;— Charles 
Hicks, President; Jerome J. Hill. Martin, Whe«l<M?k, v! Presklcul; 
Norman Boiioro, Treasurer ; P. M. Henry, SeerelaiT. 

Addisox Co.^Officers for ISftl;— Hon. Harvey Nlunsill, of Bristol, 
President; Edwin Hammond. Middlebury, M. W. G. Wright, Shoro- 
hain, V. Presideiiu; Jos. H. Barrett, Mkkllebury. Secretary; B. 8. 
Boitum, New-Huven, Ass't Secreiar}'; Harry Goodrieh, Middlebury, 

Praxklix Covxn.— Ilie annual meeting was held at St. Albonsi, 
en the lOlh January, when the following officers were eloeted :-:- 
Decius R. Bocue, St Albans, PresHlent; Anson Bock, Si. Atbaao, 
Harmon Norinrop, Fairfield, v. Prenkleiits; Victor Alwood, St. Al- 
bans, Treasurer ; G. H. Ha>'deB, St. Albara^ Secrolary. 

Premiiiwi to Ageiita of iho Caltimtor* 

As an imlacemeni to those disposed lo act as Agents, the following 
Pnmiumi will be paki in Cash, Silvbk Platb, or Aobicdlti^ral 
Books and Implbmbxts, to those who send us the lar^gest list of sub- 
scribers for Thb Cvltivatob for 185)1, previoos 10 the umA of AfrU 

I. To the one seialing ns the largest number. wKh the pay in od- 
Tvaoe, nt tho olob priee of sixty-savoa ooiiia oaohy iho som of Flnr 

9. Tb Iho one sanding m die ne« lorgeM llM, iho som of FcMmr 


3. To the one sending us the next largest list, the sum of Thirtt- 
Fivi Dollars. 

4. For tlte next largest list, the sum of Thirty Dollars. 

9. For the next largest list, the sum of Twbstt-Fivr Doixabo. 
0. For the next largest list, Twbntt Dollars. 

7. For the next largest list, FirrKBx Dollars. 

8. For the next largest li»t, Tbx Dollars. 

9. For the next lorvesl Itsi, Fivb Dollars. 

10. To all wlio send us Huny Subscribers or over, mid do not ra- 
ce! ve one of the above l^rizos, a cop)' of Thb Horticultcrist fur 
one year. 

II. To nil wtio send us FiOeen Subscribers, and do not receive one 
of tho above Preminais, Tub HoRTtcvLTimisT for sir monllis. 


Bwrf 8aV9ct{b«r «b AgmiU 

All our Subscribers, as well as all Pnslmostera, are especially !«- 
vheil to act OS Agents for onr publications, Thb Cultivator and 
Tux Hobticoltiiriot. 





AcKVOWLXDGMBVTS. — CommaDicatioos have come to 
band, since our last, from A Subscriber in Orange Co., 
Verb. Sat, V. V., John Johnston, H. C. W., A. Baley , 
Egbert Cowles, A. D. H., Charles Schinz, Lyman Hall, 
Alfred Baylies, Woodford, C. H. Cleveland, F. M. R., 
C, R. Smith, C. D. H., J. W. Colbarn, S. F., W. R. 
Hanley, Ifbrgan Butler, A. H. Avery, D. D. T. More, 
J. R. P., H. W. Bulkley, S. E. Todd. 

Books, Pamphlets, &c., have been received as fol- 
lows: Horsemanship, including the breaking and training 
of Horses, by F. Baucher, from the publislier, A. Hart, 

Philadelphia. An Address before the Lancaster Co. 

(Pa.) Ag. Society, by James Gowkm, Esq., from the 

Author. Transactions of the Agricultural Socteties 

of Massachusetts, for 1860, from M'm. Bacox, Esq. 

Transactrans of the Essex (Mass.) Ag. Society for 1861. 

from J. W. PaocTOa, Esq. Address of Hon. M. P. 

WiLDEB, before the Berkshire Ag. Society, from the 
Author.^— Transactions of Hampden Co. (Mass.) Ag. 
Society for 1861, from J. Brewer, Esq., Treasurer of 
the Society. ■ 

B7* Our correspondents, to whom we tender our grate- 
ful thanks, for their liberal favors, must have patience 
with with us. In due time they will all have a place. 

Ah AaaxcutTi7RAL Bprbav. — Senator Dorr of Wis- 
consin, has introduced into the U. S. Senate, '' a bill to 
establish an Agricultural Bureau in the Department of 
the Interior"-^which provides for the appdntment of a 
Commissioner of Agriculture, whose duty it shall be " to 
collect agricultural statistics; to procure and distribute 
'valuable seeds, cuttings, buds and tubers; to cause to be 
made all desirable analyses of minerals and mineral wa- 
ters, and such as relate to the composition and improve- 
ment of soils; the feeding of domestic animals; the pre- 
paration and preservation of provisions and breadstuff^ ; 
the cotton and manu&cture of flax, hemp, and sugar, 
«Dd su<di other mAttufacttires as may be connected with 
agriculture, and arise immediately out of agricultural 
products ; and to prepare and make annually a fUll report 
to CoBgresB eontaining an aooount of such experiments 
as may have been made, and such useful information as 
tie may have obtained on all the subjects connected with 
the duties of his office." The bill also provides for the 
establishment of a chemical laboratory, the appointment 
of a chemist, clerks, ficc. The plan appears to us to'be 
m good onei and we wosld saggesi to our state and coun- 
ty Agricultural Societies, the propriety of immediately 
sending in petitions in favor of its passage. We cannot 
believe that Congress would refuse the comparatively 
small appropriation necessary to carry it into efTect, if a 
vigorous effort in its favor, was made by the friends of 
agricultural improvement throughout the country. 

Large Fleece. — A correspondent at North Montpe- 
lier, (Vt.) says '' we sheared a merino buck of the At- 
wood stock, last July — the wool, one year's growth, lack- 
ing one day. The weight of sheep befwe shearing was 
121 lbs.*-aftcr shearing, 101 lbs. of carcass. 20 lbs. and 
four ounces washed wool — who can beat it?'' 

ITavioiial AORiovLTVEAL CoKVEifTfoir.— -Prev{ou9 t» 
oar late Stote Fair at Rochester, the Presidoot, H«n. 
Jon Delafibld, invited the attendance at that Fafr, 
of the several Presidents of the different Stale Ag. A» 
Bociations, for the purpose of consnlting on the cxp^ 
diency of calling a National Convention, to consider tfao 
interests of agrkniture, and to organize a Katlooal 
Agricultural Society, if deemed expedient. The calf, 
however, was not responded to. Since then, the MmB' 
saclmsetts Board of Agriculture, and the Pennsjivanis 
State Ag. Society, have both taken up the subject, aod 
recommended the holding of a National Convention. At 
the last meeting of the Ex. Com. of the N. Y. State 
Ag! Society, the project was anproTed; and we hopt 
those having the matter in charge, wiil iasae their <iall 
with as little delay as possible. The f nflaenoe of such a 
convention at this time, might secore the passage of thm 
bill now before Congress, for organising an AgricuUaral 
Bureau at Washington, — an object, we beHeve, rerf 
generally desired. 

Massacrusbtts Board of Aoeioui^ore.*— ThisBoarA 
organised the past year, by a convention of delegates frooi 
the several county Agricultural Societies in the State, ia 
becoming, under the ever active labors of its P iftsid sw ^ 
the Hon. Marsball P. Wildek, a very efficient meant 
of good to the state. Delegates were selected the last 
year, to attend all the County Fairs in the State ; and sA 
a recent meeting of the Board in Boston, the reports of 
the several Delegates were received. The elTorts of the 
Board are also awakening a deep interest on the subject 
of agricultural education. At the late meeting, Hr. 
Wildee, from the Committee on Agricultural Educa- 
tion, submitted a series of resolutions, taking high 
ground on this sul^ject, which were adc^ed ; and a com- 
mittee was apiK>inted to present the same to the Legidi^ 
ture, and to urge the passage of such laws as may be ne* 
cessary to carry out the principles and views contained 
in them. They ask for the establishment of a State De- 
partment of AgricnUnre, with officers commensurate 
with the importance of the duty to be performed ; sug- 
gest the propriety and expediency of reserving a portion 
of the proceeds of the sales of tlic public lands, and d&> 
voting such sum to the promotion of Agricultural Sci- 
ence; and in short claim for Agriculture the same fostei^ 
ing care which is bestowed upon other interests. 

ViRaiifiA State AaniootTOBAL Society .—An {a»> 
portant movement has been made In the Legislature of 
Virginia, which, if its object be consummated, will be one 
of the most important '^ Acts'' of that great commoa» 
wealth. A bill has been iotrodiiced into the House of 
Del^^tes to in'corporate a State AgricuHural Soeiety, 
and providing for the establishment of district socleUes 
throughout the State. The bill proposes to endow each 
district society with an annuity from the public treasury, 
on condition that an eqnal sam shall be annaally contri- 
buted by individuals. There is no state in the Union in 
which such a movement will be more beneficial, none af- 
fording so large a field for its beneficent action ; there fa 
not a state in the whole confederacy that has so much 
land in an unimproved, and almost unproductive state, 
and not one that has the means of improvement in m 







ehiap Mid acoearibte a Iwai. Noting is moted 
giaia Vul tbe Jfnrtt, to make )kei11i9 Terjr flmi iaagri- 
cottural 8U(«8« HsraoU IB capable of Mqrdegrw of loh 
proTement ; her climate is aH tbat can be desired. 8he 
has all the means at hand, and only requires the will, to 
put the willing hand to the plow, and the strong arm to 
tile reaper, and then to gather the largest harvest of any 

€>f her sisters. — 

VxaMOMT Statb Aa. Socibtt.— We notice by the 
Middldmry Register , that at the late meeting of the Ad- 
diaon County Agricultural Society, a discussion arose as 
to the propriety of sustaining their State Agricultural 
Society. It was stated that fears were entertained tliat 
the existence of the State Society would prove injurious 
to the County Societies. Such has not been the result 
in this state. On the other hand, our State Society has 
given new vigor to the county associations previoitsly Ex- 
isting, and has led to the organization of others in almost 
all the counties in the state. In no one particular has the 
Stete Society's influence been more beneficial, than in its 
ilm>rable efibcts upon the oounty societies; and we are 
gM to tee thai a resohition, in faror of sustaining their 
State Soetely, was adopted; and we trust that the 
other county societies In Vermont win do all they can to 
aid in carrying intoeSeetfre operation their state assoei- 
tlon. I 

Ihskcts on THE pLTJif Tbek. — VTo havc been kindly 
fVimlshed by Johk LLOvn, with specimens of an insect 
which he supposes to be the cause of what he terms the 
" canker," or black knot, on the plum. "We hope he will 
excuse us for dilTering from him as to this insect causing 
this disaster, as in a multitude of instances the excres- 
cences arise without the sHghfest external injury, while 
the punctures of this insect, which appears to be allied 
to the Cicada, or American Locust, arc quite conspicu< 
ous. He will, however, please accept our thanks for the 
results of hi%ob6ervations, as examinations of this kind 
are always interesting, and if pursued, cannot fail to lead 
to useful results. We have observed .the punctures of 
<Hher species of this order of insects upon the plum and 
cherry, more formidable in appearance, which never pro- 
dnced any disease or excrescence, whatever; and indeed, 
it is rare that injuries of this kind ever produce anything 
of the sort, T^ith the exception of those like the gall in- 
sect, which are of a very local character. 

Tbb Loccsts.— Dr. Gidboiv B. Smith, of Baltimore, 
ifeys the Scventeen-Tear Locusts will appear this year in 
Connecticut, east of the river, in portions of Tolland, 
Middlesex, and Hartford counties, and probably other 
counties north ; and in Massachusetts, in Franklin, Bris- 
tol, and Hampshire counties, especially about Fall River. 
They will leave the earth early in June, and may he found 
any time in May, by shoving off the top soil in places 
where trees or shrubbery grew in 1885, iu those districts. 
The Connecticut dbtrici Is not connected with the Massa- 
chusetts district. There is also a district in Massachu- 
setts, In which they will appear in 1855, (about Barnstable, 
for example,) and another in Connecticut in which they 
will appear in I860. This district extends westwardly from 
the Conneoticnt RWer to Vew-Terk,and north-westwardly 
east of the Hudson BiTer, to WMbiogton county, K. T* 

BowjiiJie's CouvTET HoDSBS.-^A Iriend, in a private 
letter, says, *'Tonr corresfiondeot, ' C. L.,' wislies ^ 
build a farm-honse, costing tnaa $860 to $1000^ and re* 
quests a plan. I would suggest to yon the propriety of 
iuforming him that Downing's Architecture of Country. 
Houses, would be a valuable work for htm fo the preseni 
exigency. Even if he does not find a plan exactly suited 
to his taste, be may find information and suggestions tbat 
would be worth ten times the cost of the book, while 
building his house." The price of the work, is $2, and 
no man should undertake to build a house without ton* 
suiting it. ^^^^~ 

H ASTT CoHCLVBioMS.— Men are too apt to draw gmeml 
conclusions from particular and local fkcts. We ohserveA 
lately an example In an exchange paper, where a corres^ 
pendent had tried the mode, strongly recommended^ 
of hanging up his cabbages by cords in his cellar for fresh 
keeping through winter. They withered, shrunk, and 
became worthless. The fault was in his cellar— -like most 
other cellars, it was too dry for this purpose — with some 
which are quite damp, it succeeds well. We have kept 
cabbages through winter in fine condition, In a cellar not 
moist, by placing them closely together in one layer on 
boards laid on the bottom, and under the apple shelves^ 
which occupied the central poriion. They were in^ 
moist part of the cellar, and the circulation of air, as 
when suspended, could not dry them rapidly. With 
other cellars, perhaps, this mode would prove a failure. 

DtssoLYiNG BoMEs WITH SuLPPVEic Acu». — ^Thc re- 
ceipts for this operation, direct to use aproportion of 
sulphuric acid equal to half the weight of the bonea. 
Professor AiiosasoH. chemist to the Highland Agricul- 
tural Society, thinks this quantity of acid is larger tluui 
is needed. He recommends, where the preparation of 
bones for manure is carried on to much extent, that a 
cbtem lined with lead, (though wood only will answer,) 
should be provided, and a watering-pot, made of lead< 
The proportions of materials are-— one ten bones, one- 
quarter ton of sulphuric acid, one-quarter of a ton^ ^r 
60 gallons boiling water. A small quantity of hoses 
should be spread on the bottom of the cistern, and th^ 
sulphuric acid gradually poured on from the watering- 
can. Throw in more bones, and more acfd and water, 
managing the process so as to mix the bones, water and 
add, as uniformly as posnble. The mixture should be 
allowed to stand for some days before it is used, and 
should then be mixed with dry peat or soil, to render ft 
sufBciently dry for ase. It may he kept any length of 
time under cover, without loss. , 

DsTOR Cattle.— We saw recently, on ihefr passa^ 
through this city, two very fine Devon heifers, purchased 
by Mr. L. H. Colbt, of Scipiovllle, Cayuga county, of 
of Mr. Lbwis Trai.1, of Torringford, Conn. They were 
bred by Mr. T., from the stock of the Messrs. Hurlburt, 
of Winchester, whose herd of Devons b so well known 
throughout the country. 

ID* The attention of those who wish to engage largely 
hi fkrming operations, and other matters connected wtth 
it, is invited to an advertisement In our present number, 
from nUnols, which appears to aflbrd a fine opportunity 
fer aa expert basiaesaan^. 





PsBSBftTiao POBB S««». — JftiMs Webb, near Ctan- 
Mdge, EngUod, (tays the edftor of the M kbigan Farm, 
er.) who bad a 200 acre wheat* field Just ready^to cut, 
promMng 40 bushels per acre, raises " all his seed^ wheat 
ia a Held by itself on a distant part of the farm, from 
picked ears or heads, the beet only being selected and 
picked out by hand. . In this way he not only IroproTCs 
the quality of bis wheat, but effectually excludes 111 
fimi stqf.^' We should like respectfully to ask fHend 
JamAU if be succeeds In perfectly excluding cAe«t-— and 
whether wheat changes as badly to this weed in England 
as in Michigan? ■ 

Tbb Bostov GcLTiFAToa. — We learn that Mr. Jambs 
Pb0dbb, who has for some years been the agricultural 
editor of this journal, has not left it, as wc supposed; 
and that hereafter that department is to be in the Joint 
cbaige of Messrs. PBonBa and HowAxn. 

Stbainihg ArrxB la bob Statxmeiits. — It b not un- 
usual, in giving fttatements of the extraordinary growth 
of pear trees, pumpkin* vines, Sic., to sum up together 
the several lengths of all the branches. This cannot give 
the reader any definite idea of the real linear growth 
made by the main shoot— one good strong shoot is often 
better than twenty weak and slender ones, and ought to 
tell as well on paper. Whoever thinks of measuring the 
height of the stalks of wheat, by reporting tiie aggregate 
length of a dosen stalks from one stool ; or of the growth 
of a cabbage by the united breadth of all the leaves? 

FiHB Sauplb of Gats. — Mr. P. J. YAXDErBBE, of 
West Glcnvllle, Sdicncctady county, hire exhibited to u« 
a very fine sample of the Black Tartarian Oats, grown 
CD his farm the past season. The stalks were about iSx 
Ibet high. We believe he left some of them for sale at 
Messrs. ExEBT k. Co.'s, in this city. 

it appaart to haveequalled the Bodim exhibtckma, thengl* 
less in Bumbers. At Its close, a " Western Society fot 
the Improvement of Domestic Poultry,'' was o.*gaDi8ed. 

CoxrixBD PovLTBT. — The Ag. Gazette says that if 
poultry are cooped up to fatten, ** they will do well op 
to 12 or 14 days. Keep them in coops beyond this time, 
and feed them as you like, and they will grow leaner 
every day until they die.'' Close confinement produoea 
a similar result on men and most other animals, at least 
to some extent. 

Albabt abd Reksselaeb Hobt. Society. — ^The an- 
nual meeting of this Society was held February 4th— 
V. P. Douw, Esq., President, in the chair. Officers for 
1852 were elected, as follows: 


Viae Prc«id«iit*— K P. Pbshtkb, B. B. Kjbtlam*, U T. Vail, 
XVu. Nkwcohb. 

0«creiafy-^ P» JohiiMn. 

TreMorer— Luther Tucker. 

M«iinper»— V. P. Douw, J. McD. Mc nryre, J. M. Ijovetl, h. Me- 
Miad. E. Conm§t Jr^ C. P. WiUiMW, A. F. Chaifidd, J. 6. Gould, 

The constitution of the society was amended by mak- 
ing the annual fee of membership $1, instead of $2, as 

Koetings and exhibitions for 1862, sre to be held on 
the 22d June, 6th July, and 14th and 16th September. 
Annual meeting, third Wednesday of February, 1868. 

A premium list for 1852 was adopted. This is to be 
printed in pamphlet form. 

There was a fine show of plants and flowers, princi* 
paUc from the green-houses of Messrs. ErastusCozning, 
Jr., li. Menand, James Wilson, and the President, Y. 
P. Douw, Esq. ■ • 

* PouLfBT Show at Cibcibrati . — We bare been h- 
rorcd with the report of a Poultry ExhibitioD held at 
Cincinnati, in December last, from which we infer that 
the ** Chwken fever" has commenced, ita ravsges amoog 
the Buckeyes. Id the variety aad beauty of the birdsi 

Plowirq nsAD-LABUs. — We obscrve that this Is often 
inconveniently and awkwardly done. The best way is to 
leave strips of untouched land at the sides as well as at 
the ends of the field, all of equal width, and then the 
whole is finished by going round with one continuous fur- 
row until it is finished close to the fence. In this waj 
none of the newly plowed ground Is trodden hard. 

Catcrxro Hawks.-^A Michigan correspondent of the 
Genesee Fanner, catches hawks with great fludlity by 
erecting a tall post near the poultiy-yard, and hi an open 
pieoe of ground, on which a imart steel trap is secured 
by a short chain. The Intruder will be sure to iA» hia 
stand there, to make his observations, and as soon at 
caught he should be quickly r e mov ed, so as not to alarm 
others. We should feel much reluctance to destroyiig 
this useful bird, so long as snakes, mice, &c., are nuisan- 
ces, and would only resort to the above from necessity. 
We believe birrls generally are the farmer's best friends; 
the only exception we make being in case of thoae who 
despoil the fruit crop. ■ 

Dbaxbibg IB Ibdiaba. — Gov. Wright, in his address 
before the Wayne connty Agricultural Society, eatimatet 
the amount of marshy lands In Indiana at three mil- 
lion acres. These were generally avoided by early set* 
tiers as being comi«rative1y worthless, but when drained 
they become eminently fertile. He says, ^* 1 know a 
farm of ICO seres that was sold five years ago for 9500, 
that by the expenditure of less than $200, in drainiag 
and ditching, the present owner refuses now $3000." 
Agam, he says, ** I have a neighbor who informed me that 
in 1860, a very dry season, he had ditched a field that he 
had previously put in corn ; in the low and wet parts of 
the field he usually gathered la the fall a few nubbins, 
but went to the high ground fur his crop. In the fkll 
of last year, he obtained his best corn from the low land, 
his worst from the high; and the extra crop of the year 
paid for the whole expense of ditching.'' 

Pronty and Mears' Plows* 

A LARGE assnriment can be found at the State Affricoltiiral 
Warefaouae, No. 25 CtiT atred, New-Yortc. 

March 1—21. 



TX7E have now receiTed our supply of Peruvian Guano, pot apir 

V V liexa, averaghif 160 Iha each. 

Botf Dust pat op in barrel aawiaga, laroiiigt, and crarhed, 
99.525 per barrel. 

BcH§ Cca^ PtoodreiM, Flaatar «r Paria, Sogar-hoon Scmn, PoMia, 
Ita Ac. For wle Vy LONGETT & GBIFPINO, 

March I—*. No S5 Cliff afreet, New- York. 

Colraau's Curopena Agricnltore* 

EITROPEAN AGRICUI^TURE, from perionol obicrvaticm, by 
HsK«T OoiMAif, of Maaaachuaetta. Two lane octavo voIl 
Price, when neatly bound , the aame as publiahed m Noa., 9&. For 
•rfa ai th« oAm ofTBB COLfflYATOK. 





Higlilanil Ifnneriesy Ifewl^afgh, If* Y* 

BAUI« k GO. have the nlewara to sUnoam^ to tlMir jMCrMM, 
ukI the piMie in gnutat^ ili«i ibeir stock of 

which they offer for sole ihM •pringT) i* of the Tery best quality, and 
a wb race e evcrythhig in their line thai oaii be procured in the trade. 

Sealers and PUnitert of trees en a imrge seolt, wiH be irealed with 
on as liberal tenm, as can be doiie by any estoblinhmeiN of reputa- 
tion ill the coniitnr ; they flailer thein«M»lves that for cofrecineas of 
nomenclature of units, (whidi is a serious conaideraiiou to planters,) 
that tlieir stock Is as neartv perfect as cnn be, having all been propa- 
fated on their own grounds, from undoubted wareef, under the per- 
sonal superviAion orMr. Saul. 

Tliey hava propagated hi larve q«Diithwa,«V t*« leading erndttamtl' 
Ofd fforUtieSy which an proved \o lie best adapted forgeueml cultixm- 
tiini, especially those rccominendetl by the Americnn PomolttgioBi 
Congress, at its several sessions^ an well a» nil novttiie*^ and certain 
kinds poniculartysuiifd to certaui sections and localities of tlie Union, 
and the Canadas. 

Their slock of Fear Trees is the birgest they hare ever had to offer 
for sale, aiul among tlie largest in the country, and consists of over 
fiOjOUti saleable trves. 

llie stock of Apple Trees is also very large, as %rdl as Plums, Cher- 
ries, Apricots, Peaches, Nectarines, and Quinces, vXfo Gra|>r- vines, 
Gooseberry, Currant, Raspberry, and Strawberry plants in great 
Tariety, Ac, Ac. 

Also Pearson Quince, Cherry on Mnhnleb, and Apple on Paradiw 
tioeki^ for P]f'rajnids and Dwarf* for ganlen culture, and of which 
there is a choice assortment of the kinds that succeed best on those 

X)ieeMrt«oK* and Ettrgntn Ornamental Trees and SftraAs. 

I00,CI0U Decidun»< ami Krcfgrecn Ornuroenlal Treei^ embracing 
all the well known kiixb siiilable fitr street plunting, of extra eize; 
sneh as tSogar and SHver AInple, Chinese Ailanthus. Horse Chestnut, 
Calalpa, European and American Ash, Upright lentigos leaved Ash, 
Upright Oold Burked A«li, Flowering Ash, Tliree Thorncd Acacia, 
Kentucky Coflee, Silver Abele Tree, American and Eurrnean Rose- 
wood or IJiiden, American ami Enropenn Elm in several x-arieties, 
4bc. Also all the more rare and select, as well as well known kinds 
•uitable for Arboreinins. Ijciwii and doi>r-)*ani pinniiiig, Ac ; such us 
Deodar ami liebantni Cedars; Araooaria or Chilian Pine ; Crypiome- 
ria japonica; the diCereut varieties of Piues, Firs, Spruces, Ve%vs, 

ArlMtrrjiens, &tv 

(Fraxinus leutisrifo- 

rAsli, Weep- 
_ . . . . „ tntWa Headed 

Lfocost, Weeping Momitain Ash, Weeping Wilow, l^argrWeephig 
Cherr>', Weeping Birch, Weening Beech, Ac, Ac; together M'ith 
every \'arieiy rf rare Muple, Native and Foreign j Fh»wering Pench. 
Almond and Cherry; Chesnuits, Spanish and American; Purple aiiu 
Copper Beech; Judns Tree, Ijarcli, Gum Tree, Tnlip Tree, Osage 
C^nge, Paukrwnia, Moantain Ash, (American ami Eompean,) Msg- 
iMilias of sorts, with many other things>-hicluiiiiig some 2UI0 varieties 
of Sliruiis, Vines, Garden and Climbing Roses hi ^reot\-artety : such 

as Hybrii] Perpetual^ or Reromitniits, Hybrid Chiiin. Hybrid Bour- 
bon, Hybrid Damask, HybrU Pnn'eiiee, Bourbon. Tea, China, Noi- 
sette and Prairie Roses; also Herbaceous PlntUs in great variety, 
Ac. Ac. for which see Catalogue, a new edition of wiiich is juirt is- 
•aed, and will be forwanled to all post-paid applicants. 

A hirge quantity of ArbOTvitm for Screens, and Backthoru aiKl 
Osage for Hedge plants. 

Newhttiigh, March 1, 18M-2L 

' ifOTICfi. 

npHE UNDERSIGNED has dispoi<ed of his inttrtm in the State 

X;AgricuUural Warehouse, No. «5 Cliff street, to Mr. A. LON- 

GETT, who will in future conduct the business on his own accoant. 

New. York, March l~lt. GEO. H. BARR. 

Ayrthtres for Sale* 

rpSE aubscriber oflem the following Aj-shriri^ Stock for sate, viz : 
X One Heifer 3 years okl, {in tnttt,) from tiie celebrated imported 
cow « Whitcy," imported by the late R. S. Griswold, E«|. Also, 
one Heifer Calf. mouths old, from the above iwmcd Heifer, got by 
Governor 9d, wno was out of the celebrated cow " Lady Rose,"'' also 
iinponei) by Mr. Griswold. 

Price for the two f 1*23, if applied for before the firM day of April. 


Cottage Farm, West Avon, Coun., March 1, ISjS— It* 

1,000 Ag«nt8 Wanted. 


JUST PUBUSHED, the Life of l^v\t Ko»icth, Ooremor of 
Hungary, with notices of the Distiii^ished IVTcn atal Scenes of 
the Huiiganan Revolution. To which is adtied an Appendix, con- 
Inuiiiig Kossuiii's Atklress to the People of the United States; and the 
mtvd im|)nrtniit of the addrcMe.4, letters, and spceche« of the Great 
IVrajrynr Cliicf. Bv P. C. Ileodley, author of " Life of Empress Jo- 
aepiiiiie,'- •' Life of Lafoyetle," etc., with an introduction by Horace 
Grecly. In one elegont 12mo volume of 4G1 pp., with an accurate 
•tcel portrait. Price SI .35 

N. B. Agent* wanted iu every coonty in the United States, (not 
already occupied.) to sell the ttlKtve popular work. It is believed that 
alrotvi every reading family will be glad of the opportnnhy of pos- 
sessing the Life ami Speeches of the noble Hungarian. Such is the 
present indlcailoit from the unparalleled sale of the work. 

Aiklresa DERBY A MILLER, Auburn, N. Y. 

A suijrie com^ sent by mail,yV«« 9f poitage^ oil recaipC of tlia price, 
poA-paSi. Klarch l-^Sl. 


not XT If CO.y Cambridge Kwturie^f near BoeUm^ . 

INVITE the attention of caltivatore of choico fruit to their verf 
extensive collection of fruit tree*, of all kinds more particular^ 
of pears, aibbracing every variety worthv of euftivation, to be ot>- 
taiuede ithar in EuropA or this country. Of alt their imineiMe variciieef 
specimen trees have been planted out on the herders of the walks, 
numbering more than tKt§oe hundred trees, iaosi of which are naw 
ui bearuig, adbrdiug a ftne opportmiity for the iiMpeetion of tlia frail. 


are now offered for sale, embracnig all the popular, proved, and well 
known s<»rls, as well as every new variety, of recent introduction. 
Their slock is unusually fine this year^ aiHl they invite the auention 
of dealers and fruit cultivators to their very extensive coliectiou. 
Trees of all sizes, from on« to eeven yean okl, both upon the quiiiea 
and pear tuiock. 

3,000 splendid trees of Swanks Orange, or Onoadaga, one of the 
largest and best of autumn pears, one to five years old, naay ef tham 
falfof frail ba<l». 

C^NNI extra sized pftnmidai trees en the qamce, four to six yeara 
old, and full of Iruii buds. 

Appke. — Upwards of tUO varieties, including ad the new and su- 
perior siins. 

CA^rr/tfs.— More than 75 of the very finest kinds in cultivation. 

Fiumt. — ^UpMnrds of fN) varieties, uicludhtg among them the hfe* 
Langhlsn, Gen Haiid, Rente Claude de Bavay, Drap d'or Esperin. 

PsecAfs.— Nearly 80 choice sorts, embracuig SSteiseu's SecdMng, 
While Ball. Reine des Verges, Ac. 

Aprieou^ Neetarinee^ and Qainee* of alt the heat kinds. 

Raspberries. StratoberrieSf Currants^ Gooseberries^ ho. in variety. 

Itttproved High Bhekberrp, one of the finest fruits in enllivalhai 

Grajies.— Sixty varieties of the finest foreign kinds; all cuhivated 
in pots and suhuble fur graperies; also the DfA^iA, which H. It Co. 
first iiilroduee<l into notice, and which Inw proved lo be the moH 
valuable'nativp grape. 

Ff'gs— Twelve of the best sorts, mehkling the Black of St. Mi- 
chaels, Nerii, he. 

Seioiis of the l*e»t kinds of Pears, Apples ami other fra:is. 

Tories for frah trees, of the Pear, Apple, Quince, Plarn, Cbeny, 
he., by the 100 or 100». 

Hedgf Plants — <I0,000 Buckthorn, Privet, Arbervit«, ht. Alsa^ 
a great collection of alt the finest 

OmaineiLtal Treei, Shrnl)!, and Ewgra cn a, 

Among whiek are thefoUowing rare kinds: 

Weeping 3Ve«5.— Weeping Mountain Ash, Weeplna Elm. Weep^ 
ing Lime, (9 sorts.) Weeping Asli, Weeping Poplar, Weepiug Cher- 
ry, (3 soriv,) *c. ' 

Bare SArif6#.— Weigelia Rosea, Forsythia Vfa-klissiina a»l Splrma 
Prunifulia I'teiio, three new and elegant shrubs, by the dozen or hun- 
dred. Bcrberts Purpurea, an unique purple leaved variety, ^th 
foliaee os dark as the purple beech. 

Bnododendrofts ana Azaleas. — A spfendid collection of upwards 
of 00 varieties, aUptrfeetty hardp^ and the mcHit magnificent shralis, 

Oals.— Qnercus Fastigiata and Purpurea, tw» elegant trees, of ra- 
pid growth. 

Erergaeen Trees. — Deodar Cedar end Cednr of I<ebanofi, Araaca- 
ria, Juiiiperus Pendula and Snicicea, Siberian Arborvitas, Pinus 
Cembra, Cryptomeria Japonica, hr. 

Bases.— OiM vorieties, including 90 sorts of Prairies. 

Maksetia Aquifaiimm^ one of the most beaMiful evavgreea uader 
slirulw, perftctly hardy. 

Vines and Climbing PiontSL^Comnion Tri4i Ivy, Large Leaved or 
Giant dn., Gold :ind Silver Striped do. AV'islaria Sinensis, Louicera 
Bnnvnii, and other sorts. Clematisea in variety, Ac., ho 

And a splendkl eolUction af 

Oreen-houu Plaafr, Hardy FerennioT Ftawers, f ., 

among wliich SOO varieties of Camellias; 88 of Aaaleas; £• of Fa> 
larginuams; fiV of Verbeiuts; 600 of Roses; SS of CunmtiMis; 40 
of l*hloxes; 30of Pnonies: :i00 of DBhlias,the rate Ja|wn l«ilfe«» 
ate. he. Messrs. H. h C: nave been awaided the higheoi preminmo 
by the hiass. Hort. Society, for Roses, Carnations, Azuleus, ColfeeU 
lias, PhtoQces, RiMidodendroiis. Pelaraoniame, he 
CC7* Catalog ues will be forwanled by mail to all post -paid appli- 

A lil>eral discount to dealers and to gentlemen purchasing laifa 

IC7* Tkaea packed onMj lor traaspartatiea to any pan of iha ITai- 
ted St-ites. AiLlress 

March 1— !2t. HOYEY * ca^ 7 Merchants Raw, Bnsloa. 

Blaek Hawk Colt. 

THE BLACK HAWK COLT RAVEN, will stand at the staMa 
of the subscriber, flie ensuing season, for the service of a limit- 
ed niunlier of mares. Raven will be fiiur yean old the fir:*i of JtMia 
next. He resembles his noted xire closely, except that he is larger, 
weigliing nt this tinte about 1100 ll». He gives promise of making 
an extraordiimry trotter^ and is one af the .rrry best of the Black 
Hawk Colts. His dam ts a much admired Morgan mare— greol 
gramlsire. Cock of the Rock; 

Tlie subitcriber also offers for sale his Two- Year Old Stalliim Coll, 
Falcon ; sire. Falcon— grandsire, Black Hawk— <ltim, a weU Itknaled 
Virginin mare. Falcon is a very beautifal animal, possessing in a re- 
markable degree the Morgan characteristics— of a kital iiihI ihiHIa 
temper, alreoay well broke to the hanirfls. ni which his aeti«m isbtHd 
aial elegant. If he is not sold be will remiiin at the stable of tlie Mib- 
scciberTbr the coming seusan. ROBBl^S**^ BATTELU 

Iforlbnc, Cbiw., March 1, lOM 9l 




•TiHORP, eMITH^HAMCHBIT A CO., of *• SmcoH Hum- 

AmtriamlrcOdf, graynt Imawttim.lrom tnulsUvnlKlliigh; 

Vfiriitw Friitgt Tmt, from 9 ia M fcrl high. 
Dta^ar Cmlar: (ton t lot feit hlgll ; M. 

rram 4 to Sfoelh^b; tL 

LDcky djid well fnrniibedj rcry 

If vary bjuidii>iii« — by K 


: Yiettritt Cicnwtu, it vvrr Wr^ vu 

weeping Evergnna IVae 
S r«i high— :W eu. euh. 

[illg o/^u) I 

Porneuul^ Te«f Bo 

ForUM^ ChiB*. SB ceiiu— Gntii 1^ M rcii» lioorf, nUler lo 
Kperdoen. We bI« Kb»« IV« Hm.j. from JioS frei tufli » 
muArd Willi IWD dBiiiHt oolon, ■• well h Weeptuf RoHt, rroi 

rel, Aaile, Mor[Aeiu. Clo 

Grtciml^,— - 

.riB»>ei,FanivlhuViriduiiiiui, R 
■«».-^ftHiiiMi«, UmMeVBUu, DoaglnHii, RccvaiL, *c. 

'soeM«["ciemDti>, fkwtywctila, M 

lilde, I*l!'__of ' ■ ' ""'" 

Htai FKJkjioi.— Siieeuliilit, HemliTalia, Acibso. The — ,_.., . _ 
ritr, Blin Mielliex,rr»kleiil Poietiier, ElegiiitiHinn, Sir H. Pot - 
liiinr, Cheateanliriinl, Prince of OrHBtn, A^c. Ac. tS renhneii 

JiVw niiHisi,— iMipH, Pniwe at WiJre, MoMiiiii, F.iKhuiirae, 
Nwlb LxudCHi, MMlaui^ Hehe. Ac. ifcc Sjnr dtneii. 

Ata Cuurarui.— Jclla Trodei, Climu, Cariw, Njrnpli, Scouii, 
JUrle Vilinn, *e., Ab., m •! >o #U per ilnuii. 

Htrtaaau PConte.— Sslaudkl CuiMliMia. PieoietL Fhloiri, Na- 
pnlilau VkJeu, £l^I"^''-^^,P™l;J" J^jjl"" ' "'" ''" "' "" 

1, Aaogn. The Elijah, I*o- 

lolovue uQl 1o po>l-peifl appljriinto eiiclmii 

A. B. ALLEN ft. CO^ 

IS9 aad 191 [FuJcr SfrKf, J^no-rarfc. 

PLOWS <rf > ^nii mricIT ot iMilEnxi nii>t •liSoreul iJKi, culc^ln- 
ipl for jwiinl niHl Muliblolniid, iveime^iloivs.niBlreceiiilj'dfiuii- 
si] •WDinna wliere ronu dIwuikI. Among Ihne plowi, iilin ireihe 
dee|>-bnaliini-ap, nx-lhrriTw, Inp-rinnnr, nlMiHpFning, aideJuU, 



JtOi.i.£A& wilhlrmi r 

(7 Dt rf Fi IY>RS of opwi 

SEEP aOWKRS oT ail il 

THRESHVUIk. wilh er « 
GRAin MILLS of on ii 


i atxmtim 

t, Geddea, ami Beoteh. 

;tfd en au irm ahal\ Jur u 

at twtmi dilereiil kindi, Heel (on 

biiin and circalar, of wood and ca 
DI 8«[iantten- 


■iiigfe and ^oNr, tarfe uidituallcfliiidtical 

" fir«**C0iTKfi&r^Vnraigbl,Bte1tcuJnrknivea. 

W BISTABLE CUTTERS tar \aiiKMara Ml.rr rwu. 

T'lctlher wilh ■ gf«iii vinciy of all oOier Agrlculluial aiid H"rti- 
rullural J mptaineuu kept io Ifae Unilnl Suitn,euch uHoei, Bhovclt, 
e.fim)tt, Rulcei, Manure suil Ha> Foika, Grain Cradlea, Scylhei, 
SunllH, Ac. Ac. 

CT.lsrfA'^S of nllliiiiih for Plow<,ColluaGi»i,«iiclSunit Roller*. 

WtaONS tin] CARTS, far hoTH, 01, or hand. 

STEiM EKGlltES for larm niid mbcr puifioaea, 

Butkc tifi ihe lirgnL aud mo« eoanpfcie avaotiniGiil ii) Americiu In 
Mldti>nii, we bare a mnchiiie ihop employiiiE upuiirda of oiio hpu- 
dr^mcii, where uiy mriiclea in oiulineciui be loado id order. 
A. B. ALLEN * CO., 
Jan. I, IBSS-lT IMaadMl Wiuar n., New.Vtrk. 

Ttamm!, Q arttoaw ', tad FUntan* Stec^ 

A. a. MiH.] ^ a. xonr « oo. (wia. a«n 

EQA Main Slteet, Funr itoon Wow Tliri, LomtBI*, Ky.- 
OPU kindirf QardfH, Flower, Field «id Oiasa Seodi, and ST 

in Iba wciiuiy. Orden 
for Plu »»I, KiMan 
0«» Uiaiqre Plauu 
auw buKhdi Kennel 

elaKamoekT Hemp S 
Omnge Seed, and can 

tiecd, fce, Fnali Oufe Orange Ssed. . 

' Blue Gram. NN hotbeli KeniaeliT Orchard 
iekyRedTop,G(OfaDgheliMillel.l«la m*- 
Bd, lOO buitaeli Oaago Urai^e Seed, SOfOOt 

Terr fall loTe»aa,logwoiir»i ^ 7ofO—K« 


Huntltra, Libar^, and UnloB-ctiMta. 

rr^HE rnhKi iben ire <lw nnginauin anri ula ■oprieiorairfiba it x « 

X worka. which cmWaee a very lajw ceUecuoa of Jabor.eatia^ 

Aim a choice iimnnieni of frvh OARDEN SEEDS, w anau lri 

trne >o Iheir name. Tlia allenlioii of Oaideiienii parlicalarly nIM 

EHERT * rO.'9 

New-Torh State Apicnitural Soalebr^ 



THE aboTe Hone Pnwen haie been awanled Iha higbcM rra> 
niuiBB at ihe Fain of the Kev-VuA Siau AgrlaaliMklSaeln 
Id ISSO, aiid egaia iii I8SI i alao, ibe bigheti Pnmiuai of tl<a UUa. 
gnn Slale Fair, ol Detroit, Mieh., in Seiitember, IRll, where a of 
jotiiT of the Conniniee uwuod awl were uiag \VL««der»' Peuw* 
«u their hinn, haviag parchafcd Uien prevmiB to neing oar ow«; 
alM ■ Gold Hal:il at Ibe Americou liHitlutciii leai. h watulnei* 
hibitad at Ibe Stole Fai» of Ohio, Harytand, ami l*eiHBy<nuiiu, aiii 
reeeina ibe hlglmi awards whkb CMid lie given Iqr ike rutw of 
■heir Societiea. In evaij caae, it hai been in MmpetiliiM wilb lit 
eiiiBeat diaiu FawenoraiiyiMUinlhiicouiiU7~~au>niKwhichwei« 
Wlieeler'a Rack and Fiiwiu. AH of oar 1>awcr> bave Ihe nuns, 
KMERV & CO., can npoii every link of Ibe cliaLiaiHlhuliufbanl- 
wlieoL None ollMn ace gciiuiHe. 

All the iib^ive are offiirea oil liberal Icrmt, at wholeaale or relniLn 
the ATtmr JgrfcBliHral Wanteum mH &<d Sun, 309 aiiOn 
Bnxidwiy, Albatiy,N. Y. 

CiiD.>D3Bcijrnitu,oii.>^ic*iiaa- KMERY k Ca 






OF proper nm for Ibnniiif Tmeyardt, pro|Mifated firom «nd eoD- 
taiuiuij; all IM good qoaRtiet which the moai improvod •cultiva- 
tion for over 18 yean, has conlerred on the vineyards at Cmaii 
Point, are offered to the pablic. 

Thoae who potehaae, urill receive sqeh iostructioiu for foar yean, 
«a will enable ihem to cultivate the Grape with entire suceeie. tpro- 
vided their loeaUtke are not too iar north.) Dr. R. T. Underbill feels 
quite confident that he has so far meliorated the character and habits 
of iha Grapevines in his xViniyards, and nurseries, by improved cul' 
lore. jHiuunfT, Ac, that they will generally rq>en well, and prodoce 
good miit ia roost of the northern, and all the western, middle, and 
soothern states. 

From the experience of the post season, he is fVipy convinced that 
where his directions are ^cuy foflowed in planting the vineyard, 
imd in its subsegnent roanagemeac, a good crop of Isabella Grapes 
may be ripened ni a very uraavoraMe season. AH commnnications, 
post-paid, addressed to R. T. UNDERBILL, M. D., Croton Point, 
Westchester Co., N. Y., will receive prompt attention. 

March 1— It. . 

T^Torable Oppoitniuties fbr Penonn who teek 
Bund Life, md Oocu|Mitioiif ■dBptod, 

rpHE srdvertiser desires to have join him, one, ^two, or more per- 
X sons, in carry hig on one of the largest, best sitnated Farms, and 
in point of soils, anaother advantages, not surpassed in the United 
8latea--%athig abmidance of limber, say 900 acres, within the farm 
—extensive inkier power poesing through if, atkl easily appropriated 
fix milts. &C., and at small otttny. Heveral branches or the main 
creek wind over the place, wliich, with <tirAt never fiiiling springs 
•f pure water, furnish all desirable water for any qaaiitiiy of stock. 
The larm is elevated, and drains perfectly, yet so gradual are the roll- 
ings and slopes, the soil does not wash away— nor is there an acre 
km for culture, except wh*>re the streams pass. There are overdODO 
aorei eonrimied, and ezoepling the timbered spot, is alt cleared, and 
withewt obstacle to the plow. The fimn has been cultivated since 
16^ and numerous and vark>us stock kept thereon — giving very libe- 
rid nrofiis. Sheep, for example, and there are aboai IMO of test btood, 
yield a net gain, ftr htad., of over 81^ avangef oilier animals in pro- 
portion. Tne arrangements and caaobilities are such, that 8000 sheep 
may be well provklM for— also 50 brood mares, 400 head cattle, and 
hogs to slaughter 1000 per amram— all of which stock ytekl liberal 
Mofils, at laast 25 io 40 per cent per annum, net ! The place ia just 
Inr the bsoatifol Rook River, ana the great Csafrol Rati Road runs 
along the margin of the farm, within naif a mile, and at one point 
loochcs my boundary. A Depot wiU be placed within one mile of it. 
Thera are over 9000 frait trees on the plaoe, mostly apple, aeleoied by 
Downing— a part in bearing, and all will come in by 1854. Bare ap- 
Dles sell readuy at SI to Sl^ par bashel; other A-utt in proponaai. I 
And my constitution not adequate to oarry on all these aiairs as is de- 
airaiile, therefore seek ud of one or mora, with means adequate, 

ri take one-quarter to one-third inivrest in the form, stock, Ac, which 
will place at very Unoprieg. I' am about erecting a mill, espeeiaUy 
with view to the obtainuig bran, ahorlA, Jto«, and preparing com and 
other food, to meet waais of ihe ffreat number of animals, thus eoo- 
Bomizing over one-third cost of ineir food. 

I have proved by over eight yean cxpariance, that the stock allud- 
ed to, sell for more than douN* tktir cost of nnstag, every charge in- 
/oludcd^— thos a horse> from cdt to foar yaars of age^ costs under 925, 
and sells readily at $75 to 9100^ Mulos cost under SdO. when 4 years, 
vtd sell at 880 to ttlO. Cattle at 4 years cost aboat 8M, and. sell at 
•S9 to $35. Pork costs 1| cents, and 3^ to 6 cents— sale price. Sheep 
n cents, yearliiwK*«iid sell for 81 ( and 8ai Bucks 810 to 800. All 
ttiese stniemenis I will gtmrantee correct. 

It is desirable, as a village is grovring up rapidly just by, that a 

Great Sale of Sbort-honi Cattle ia 1852. 

■lore should be opfpted near the Mill. At least 890,000 of various 
wDodaaoitable, including Impteroems of Husbandry, Tods, Machines, 
Jfcc., may be sold the first year, at over SiS pv cent profit, lakuig part 

ksoitable, including Impteroems of Husbandry, Tods, Machines, 

may be sold the first year, at over SiS pv cent profit, lakuig part 

■wy in graiii. for the aiH oud slock. A Brewery is much wanted, and 

■MT m graiN* tor tae am oud slock. A Brewery js mocM wanted, and 
wul yield liberal profits. Barley is abundant, at 35 to 45 cents per 

Further particulars in an advertisement are not necessary, for who- 
ever desites to avail of these extraordinary opportunities, will come 
and see. The sooner the belter, for work is begun on the Central 
Railroad, and two others, crossing from Lake Micbiffun to the 
Mississippi, and witliin 15 and 95 miles of the Farm. I will pro- 
vide tkree-Jlfiks or more of the needed fmtds— and if needs be. in- 
ereese the Farm to 3000 or more acres. Population, and really of 
worthv peonle, doubled last four years— and ajde<l by the railroiids, 
pffobably will double in two venrs— for now we can reach New- York 
m 67 hours, and by 1854 do it in 40 hours. 

'I*b« country is unuanally beautiful, as it is rich in soils— diraote 
delightful, only nboai forty-jive gloomy and cloudy days per annum, 
and aa the eousns reiuma show, is more saluLrious than most of the 
olliar states. 

Game very abundant— say Grouse, Quail, Partridge, and Doer— so 
•fa fish. 

For farther particulars apply to the Editor of die Cultivator, if by 

Ogle County, Illiiiois, aaar Rock River, March 1, ISSB^lL . 

THE subscriber, couteroplatiiig some important ehaiwes and in* 
provcments upon his farm, will sett, iCttAovf retervtf his SU- 
tire herd of thorough bred, and high srade Short-horn cattle, con- 
sisting of upwards of ONE HUNDRED head of Cows, Heifers, 
Bulls, and Bull and Hdfer calves. 

This valuable herd of cattle has been nearly all bred by the sub- 
scriber, on his farm, and under his own eye, with a particular view 
to their roilkuig queJity, which he bdieves he has been successful in 
developiiig to a degree not excelled in any herd of cows in the Uniiad 
States. Ever since the year 1834 he has been engaged in bTtvditkm 
Short'homs, in the belief that no cattle kept by Uie farroers of this 
country, were equal ro them in all their qualities, as dairy aiid feediiif 
animals, and this belief has been fully confirmed by seventeen years 

Gomniencing with animals ielected from the best thorough bred 
stocks, then to oe fomid in this country, this herd has been continual* 
ly added to, and improved by selections from the best imponed stock, 
and their immediate desoendants. During the years 1846, '46 and '47, 
the Bhon^hom blood of the late celebrated Thomas Bates, of Kirk- 
leavington, England, was resorted to ui the use of the imported 1}«]I, 
Duke of Wdlingttni, and of Symmetry, (by Dnke oC Weiluigtoii, 
out of the imponed Bates Cow, Duchess,) belonging to Mr. George 
Vail, of Troy, N. Y., which bulls were hired of Mr. Vsil for three 
▼earSk The animals of this herd, since grown up, inlierit, mor« or 
less, of that blood, which ia bdieved by those having opportunity |o 
judge, both in its milking and feeding qualities, to be equal to any 
other previously imported; and that bdief is confirmed by the prices 
obtained during several years past, lor annuals descended from that 

For the quality of the stock bred by the subscriber, be can, with- 
out vanity, refer to the recent Short-horn sales d* Messrs. J.F. Sheafe 
ai^ Lewis G. Morris, in which some of the highest priced animnis 
were immediately descended, or mirchased from this herd. The un- 
rivalled cow, " Grace," owned by Messrs. Sherwood and Stevens, 
and proliablythe beanjbt cow ever bred- in America, described In 
pages 183 and 184, vd. z., of the American Agrictilturisi, was bred 
Dv the subscriber; and numerous animals hi various pnns of the 
United States, the West Indies, and the Canada*, which have sprung 
from hill herd in years past, may be referred to. 

In 1650. the imported buU, Duke of Exeter, of the Princess iril«e 
€tC Short-iionis, (for pedigree of which see (10, 183,) Vbl. ix., of tMs 
English Herd Book,) sent out from BnglaiHl for Mr. Sheafh of New- 
York, by Mr. Stevens, fhrni the distinguished herd of Mr. John 
Stephenson of Wolviston, England, Mras pnitshased and introduced 
into this herd : and about forty of the cowf and beilhrs are now in 
calf to him, all of whi<*h will be cataloged for the cominjg sale. * In 
the quality of his flesh, and in the mHknw exeollcnce of his ancestry, 
no bull imported in the imo the limited Slates can surpass the Duke 
of Exeter. His own slock, in the bonds of several genderoen in the 
State of New- York, are confidently referred to as evidence oC his 

The herd now offered for sale for sale will consist of ahovi FIFTY, 
thorough breds, including cows, heifers, and heifer calves: and pro- 
Imbly TBN or twblvs yoanr bulls, and bull calves. Theremainorr, 
about fiHy m number^ wilt comprise yoon^ cows— good, proved, 
milkera— heifers and heifer oalves, together with a ferw superior Imu 
calves, from fbe best milking- oows, of high grade. Shorthorns, with 
nn occasional dash of Devon blood intermixed— the best of usefW, 
family co^vs. 

All tlie calves, or ncariy all, both thorOugh-bred and grade, will 1m 
the get of the Duke of Exeter; and alt tlie cows, iknA iwo-year-oM 
heifers will be bulled Inr him, (if he lives,) previous to tha sale; thsH 
will be combined the Wood of the Bales, and the Stephenson stocks, 
comprising as much oxceUeuca, both in milk and nesh, as can be 
found in any animals whatever. 

The sale will be made eariy in tha momh of AugtM next, at or 
near Albany, New- York, for tKo greater convenienca of pufcha s am 

Due notice cf the day and p'aoe of sale will be given in the sevi^ral 
Agricuhural Journals; and catalogues describing each animal of tha 
herd, will be publi^ied in the moinh of June, precedinr. 

For further particulars, inquiries may be made by letter, directed 
to the suhscrilier, or to A. D. ALLEN ft CO., New- York. 

Mnrch 1. LEWIS F. ALLEN, Black Rock, N. Vt 


AND other Fertilisers. Several hundred tons of first quality of 
Peruvian Guano, constantly on hand for sale. 

A. a ALI£N dL CO., 180 and IDl, 

Waler-st., New- York. 
Jan. 1— If. 
» I I ■' - ■■ ■ ■ ■ ' III.. .1 

Warren'g Improved Portable Hone Powen and Ilireeheia. 

THE undefsigued continue to manufacture and sell these celebra- 
brated mnrhines, and experience has proved that tha FOUR 
HORSE POWER MACHINES have given universal satisfnclieu 
without a single exceptiou. 

l*he four horse power may be used with one to four horses — and 
experience up io tjiis time has proved that there are no Horse Powers 
and Threshers so cheap to the purchaser as these. 

Price of Four Horse Power alone, f75 00 

" of " " Spike Thrcslier, 30 00 

** of 40 foot Band 3} inches wide,. 5 00 

Terms Caah. $110 00 

P. 8.— Orders for any kind of Agricultural Implements and other 
merchandixe, will also he promptly attended to. 
Edw. PtAMT, \ PI4ANT, BR OTHERS, Cora. Merchants, 
JAa.PLART, J Fab' 1—91. 146 William st., New-Yock. 



Baliam Fir, Arbor Tite, wmd •ther Forest Trees* 

HENRY WTTLE h CO., of Ba^ifoom, Maine, will Cvtrnuk my 
namber of Eve. greeu and other Foreflt Trees, taken ap with 
§artk m tkt rooif, with the greatest cara, and tent to oujr part of the 
United Stales by Steamers or Railroad->aud carefully pocked in large 
boxes, at short notice, at the foUowiug prices, vis : 

From e inches to 1 foot, at 1 cent, tv •10,00 p^ 1000. 
From 1 foot to S feet, at 1| ceuts. or $15.00 per lOOC. 
The above pricef refer more particularly to Rdsam Fir and Arbor 
Vile Trees. . 

• We charge what the boxes cost, bul nothing for pecking. 

For two years past, the trees we have procured and sent to a dis- 
tance, have lived generally, and have given good satisfaction. Ever- 
greens will not live unless taken np with great care. 
Bangor, Jan. 1, iBSfi—il. 

Now Stamluito Strawberry. 

rpmc new variety of the Strawberry is for sa'e and wB be sent 
X oot, to appliemits in the spring of 189S. price one dollar per do- 
aeob Orders may be addressed to Samuel VValkor, Roxbury, or to 
Mr. Azell Bowdneh, at the Massoohosetu Hortieultural Seed Store, 
Sehori Street, Boston. . _ . 

Tfie Fruit Commtitee oi the M assacbosetu Hoilieidtnral Society, 
report of the variety as follows:— 'WALXtt's Sxxdliko;" this 
■truwb^ry has now been fruited three years; it is a dark colored 
berry, of good size, a very abundant bearer, of high flavor, very fine 
^«al»ty, and it will be, it is believed an acquisition. Ii n a ftamittate, 
wonhy, as the oommitiee think, of an extended ealtivation. .Bosioa, 
/«M« sSc4, 18S1. 

Fruit, Oraamenial and Evergreen trees, shrubs, ftc, for sale altfae 
mrseries of SAMUKLi WALKER, 

Feb. 1— at. Roxtiory, Mass. 


niffp, imifh, Hsaehet ft Oo., Propriston, SyrMwe, V. T 

AMONG the Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Roses, 
Bulbous Roots, Greenhouse PlauU, Ikc.^ cultivated and fur sale 
at this astaMishment, may be found, in quantity and quality, not sur- 
led in tills coontry, 
atHfuUwd mnd Dwarf AfpU 2V»«s. 
Skmdard aiuf iHfarf Pear JVee*. 
Sumdard and Dwarf Chtrrf 2V»ci. 
Standard and Dwarf P§ach IVvcf . 
best sons of Cwrtmtt, Ra$i*erri*Sj SmwberrUi amd GcoMberrin; 
BvxBCIissii Tbkss, iiidoding Deodar, Lebauoii, and ianui Cedars, 
at muck lees than the usual rates; Janiperr, Sfiruces, Taxodiuins, 
he. PjiOKiBs, a spleudklcoilecl'ioii of Tree and Herbaceous. j>ah- 
LIAS, 15U selected sorts, embracing the best English and American, 
tf toOOeeiits fur whole roots. Phloxss, over flO of the choicest 
kinds. Rosxa, 6,000 plants of the finest varieties, with all the new 
•MmnisitimM. Bulbous Roots, received last fall from IloUand, coii- 
aisbisr of JJouUa TuUps, Hya<;iiiths, Lilies, Crocuses, itc, BaDbRf* 
otrr PkANTs of every descriptioii. BocKTUomM two and three /ears 
•Id, very stout $ aU lor sale, at wholesale or retail, as low as at Wiy 
jillipf eslaUisbneiil -in Amorica. 

A new edition of our General Catalogue is now published, em- 
bracing, Ut A full Descripitve Catalogue of Fruits. *l. A Special 
Catalitgue of Delias, B<irder Phuils, Jtc., and 3d. An extensive Cala- 
Utgaa of Hothouse mid Greenhouse PtaiiU, Bedding out Plants, and 
Bulbous Roots; to which we refer for deacripliou and prices. 

07* As the postage on this Catalogue for 5U0 miles and wulcr, is 
4 cents; from 500 to 15U0, 8 eent«; from 1600 m SSOO, 14 cents, Jtc, 
which we are coropellod to prepay, we must require all ap|ilic«ita, 
boudea paying ibeir posuw^ to enclose sns Icitsr siamp for any dis- 
lauee under 500 miles, ana was iur any distance exceeding iL 
Syracuse, Feb. 1, 18W— at. _^ _^ 

Kiuderhook If aracry and Garden, 

At Kinderkook^ ColmmbU eo , New-ToHf. 

^pUE proprietor has on hand his usual large supply of Fruit and 
JL Onuiraeiiia) Trees, Evergreens. Flowering Shrubi, Giiosebeny 
iuid Cnrraiu busliea, Gmpaviiies, Uedge plants, Raspberries, Straw- 
berries. Ae. 

The Trees are of large sise, thrifty grovith, and well rooted, tnd 
ean furnish nearly all tlie new varieties ordered, and will sell i^ the 
•west market prices. 

Oniameiiial trees being grown exleiistrely, can be furnished by 
the hmidred at very reaMMialile rales. ISuropeaii Linden, Mountain 
Asli, Scotch Elm, English Elms, English Sycamore, Weeping Wil- 
low, wKh a gond coifection of Roses, Oreen-honse plants, ftc, all 
whieb ean be supniied in qmnlities to suit purehasers. Catalogues 
wiU be forwaided to all appltcMOs. H. SN YDER, 

Feb. 1— Si. Ntnverymmi, Kinderhook. 



French Quince Caitinfi. 

CAN furnish from ten to fiAeen lhon.«and ihrifly cmtinga from un- 

IKiried quinces, at IS per 1,000, at Walworth Nurseries, 
alwortb, N. Y., Feb. 1, 18Sa-2t.* T. O. YEOMANS. 

A Book A>r WlTce and Banglitent* 

twntf^ve tfnu^) being a Complete Guide to Domestie Cook- 
«ry, Taste^ Comfort mid EroHomir; enibraeingttJtAiMtfr«Elmidf^|r. 
nint Receipts, pertaining to hous^old duties. Gardening, Flowcn, 
Birds, limits, 4U. Pnl^shed by C. M. SAXTON. 

SSt FVdtmi Street, NgwwVorir. 


^T^E Mount Airy Agricultural lastitule, loeaied at 
X Pa., will open for the summer term on the first llwraday 
April next Far partieulam aldreM the Principal, 

Jan. 1, 1 85>-3t 

FrwU and OmanieBtal Treee* 


IJ.WANGER & BARRY beg to remind dHaewho 
plant next wriiw, that ihoir flock of 
Standard Frwt JVtet for orchards. 
Dwarf FrwU IVsrs forgardens, 
OmMwntcA SHsstor mreeis, Pults. 

5, ana* 

Oroonds ; Roses, Ac, Ac, is varv large, and ofers great 
to Ihose who want first rate articles. 

The DeweripUa€ C7«lalsf«r, aent giwtis to all wfio wp^ post-paid 
and remit stamps for postage, which most now be prepaM. Phn 
cents 500 miles or less, ten cents over 500 and below IMO. 

XC^ See other advertisement. 

Feb. 1, 18SS— 91. Monm Hefie Nurseries, Roehealor, If. T 

Vnlted StatM Agrienltnral Warehoait and Seed 

ri^HE sabacribers solicit the mtenlion of the pofalie to the laryv and 
X varied assortment of Agricultural and Horticultural In 
Field, and Garden Seeds, which they have coutantly on 
offer for sale at ih« lowest prices, mid on the best terms. ] 
waiu of any articles in their line, w<ooM do well lo call vpau tteaa 
before purchasing elsewhere. A descriptive Cataiogve wui be aal 
gratia upoti application, post-paid. 

N. B. Guano, Bone JAmi, mid olher fenHiaera. 


Dee. 1— 4f. No. 197 Water-St., N«w-T€ik. 

BTew and Fine Shmbs and Plants. 

ELLWANGF.R k BARRY, Proprietors of the Mount H«pt 
Nurseries, Rochester, N. Y., solicit the atientioo of Ihoae ' 
rested in Oriiaroeiiial Plants, to their large st<x:k of rare aad ' 
ful Shrubs and Plants, among which are the following 


Dentzia Seahu. or Garland Deotma, a fine while flowaringi 

Far$^Ma Yiriduaimn. 

nibts Gondrat^Gordou*s Cnrram— yellow and erimson ; 

Spirwa prunifoUa, flora pleno. Small double white fiowers in greal 
profusion; fine dense habn. 

Spirwa laaesolala, or Reeveai, one of the finest of th* gems. 

Spirma Chatmmirifblm^ Missmlrrfi, Xtwrffc j w w ia, .ra^mtfia, mi 
twenty others. 

Sffnnttt (Phyladelphns, ) Pubttetas, ZtpUrOj CoHmta, DmHc. C^ 
ImmMoim and others, all fine. 

Lonieerm Ledibomrti^ a fine CaJifomian dinib. 

Ihmarix, Afrwanm, Garmaniea^ QmOiea, mid XitBiiofiM. 

WA umm m Mjmtanaida^ a beautiful shrub. 

WUgOn Rtwia, the finest hardy shrob latelv imrodueed ftom CM- 
na. The above excellem ihinp oaa be fumisned fai qaamitaes ai low 


■Fkwfcttas.— Oar coUeriiou is one of the t est in AmeriesL IV mmi 
distinct and best varieties yet introdoced, and quila rare^sseh as 
Pmd ly £»gfaiMr. Fosr Rasomsml, SmaHfMa. SernuifiUm mMjU- 
ro, Fwlgews cerpm^i^om. Corymbi/lma oAa, MtagniJUtnt, P>aiWtBl, 
Prtndtut Pareker, fl^laMis, *e., are propagated largely. 

Fsrftcnas.—A collection of 50 varietiaa, etmiprising avtry^mgtm 
introduced lo this time. 

Arfeefrepss.— SoMomir 4§ Litgtj Carymlbomm^ and i 
rietics jost received, u> beamiomicad hereafW. 

Plamfcigo Laipcate. 

Ca^pksasplaiyeMirB, Strigtriesa aad othara ; the IM ia < 
eat bedding plants.- 

/ , ff w tff wqs.-~EwiHOj ihefiHeiinfrCinelaiiatiwiaiy, 
eolor. MatabiHia Mafar^ and sewral otharsb 

BamaardUu irtpfcytti, uid ethora 


88lefas.~>fi|p<«n<fsiu laa/sr, fl^pparfi^ta, A«tmM «nd oikm: «. 
perb pbuiti for masses. 

FaUmma im brie a M . 

Hydrang^u.'-HortnuU, Joponim, Cioriofta, |». 

SudtOea lAndUyana.^K fine shrvbby plant, with laifo lImImi «f 
purplish tilae flowers in the amumn. 

JfaftMCAannstts cisgwtf .— A auparb plant, half rinnMirt ^riih laige 
dttfters of showy crimson flowen ; Mooms equally well in the opai 
ground in auinraii, and in the hooae in winter. 

Pirfmitas.— A large collectkm, embracing all distinet^md gnti 
sorts. ^ 

LebeliafMgmt fasfgnif—floweri of dazxUng brilliancy; aaw. 

LoAelioyirf^cN^alba; new. 

Yeroniea LmdUfana.—K charming aniimm flowering plant; loif 
elegant spikes of pale, nearly white blossoms. 

frrsntea ^aiCfrsont.— The finest of all ; new. 

IWs Fiobtf.— White and purple. 

Chrysanthsmumi. — A fineooUeciion of the novel and beantififi 
pompniie, or dwaif varieties. 

Dahlia*^ A vnperb collection, Indndhig the English and FreiKh 
prize sorts of 1851, all at very low mtes. 

Cinerarias.— A fine collect too of new and boaotiAil aorta, inehi di M 
Magnifietnt^ AtiOa^ David Coppe^ld^ WmngUm^ Bwmtp tflUm 
tngfen, ^.. ^c. 

All the above nrliclcs furnished in large or small qnanlitiea, at loe 
rates, andnacked so as to go any distance with aafelr. 

Priced Cfatolpgaea of Dahliai, hc.^ ftc, randy first of Mneh. 

Rochester, FA. l--«t "^^ • » ' 



Now r«-*T, '1" 8«™illi Tbmiuid of " Yonul 
gn Ha Blfenra md Ot t m m iif Un Hiw," 
wWi Atlr nmrdin, Imnthl down M IMS, bjr 1V. 
C. Bfooaa, M. B. C. V. S., to vliich if [Rfa«d 
« ■ceonoIoTlbe bcccdi in tha Untlad BiMm, 


Ordcn iluuld be rnddiwed lo 


PsblMien, AabBrn, N. 

N. B. On msfit* OC ibe pile* ■MWill (on 

" &T«y BUI who owiB a fpod bona tba h^ 

w kia huahhj pr m rrMion, Rundall'* ' 8)100110% 
Yooall.' 'm Uh icnaual work of ibc 1^ npni tW 

Dev«B Bill Tor Sale. 

TtlG nbKriliEn oSa (ot ula llicir thoranih brad Daren Boll 
1 '■[tueaa," calvad iba lOih oTMareb, lasl. Sin. "Nhbiiu- 
HKik," inndMn "Princa Albofl," (insT BngHkb Heid book;)— 
Dam ■■Non-|iarrilla,^' by *^Lovd LyufdocfcV' gnunlBn aQoanerly 
^nr. " Pfac untiaoDk" won iIh fim priia at iho Antcricaa liHlRHa 

1b^ ^n priie «• a Ibrea TCAr old hri^ a1 Damtlabla, EiiglaulT iii 
leU; aiidlbaBnlailhaMalaibowin tBU. Ba mar bt aacn *i 
«u Placa : or timber pulicalua will ba cing k> aiiT oat klrlnaniiji, 

w. P, fc o. 8. WAiNWRiasT, 

Fab, 1— «. Bkiiiabn:]!, Duichw co., Nnr-Voik. 

b* BUM Fab* or Pnuujimiia, Ma. 
uiIaTfe nnmlwr of Cbsiily Fain. 


Pattnt fan JiilU atii Oratn CraJltt. 

WB oaUiHa 10 mnWacmn Iheae Cdabcaud Milla ai^ Cndi 
Oo> MOIt hava b«a - - 

Naw-Vork Alala Fain-lbi 
iDMinle in New-Vork-atoi 
^landi Michifaii and Ohio, 

inl,aDddkey lUuid wilbnat ■ i-itbi. i*i mi cmivirm lu iBt:nni. 
■aiuiiw rticni Bi iha beat in market 
Our CRADLES bare laken iha Fi™ Premionu ■! Iwo New. York 

TeafT fijf which we have leKera patentr Th^eanbc taken nparliiii] 
packed in bDxea, and pot lopnher a^ni wilb very UlUe (rouble, by 
aliiKMany one, 

(Mna eoiioiiad Avok and worii aam U> aiiy T»n af Uia Uniied 
StMea. 1. T. ORANT * CO. 

May I~ajt,im.-«L laactiaa P. O., Knoa. Co., N. Y, 

Splmdid Fana i* Ohio Tor Sale. 

WEhananlmdictrinnftiraale.cnilBlniiiEahoiiiaaaaena. Ii 
ii ■iioaie^ aboDl 21 mila weM of, Coionibal, Bod wilbia 1| 

KcAdinijiRl rnai], Trom Cdnmbu 10 Xeuia, [uaca ikrooih il. TIk 
•ceeH M market, cilber eu> i* nulh, ia euy aiid quick. The nil. 
Toadfnna Cinciuaau u CleVEland, bat a depoi ai Lundoa. tf laUet 

Abonl 13ft aerei of Ihe land are eltired, utd under ^ood improve. 
mrrs. The balinea li wdl Umbered, and the whnle it uiidct leiice. 

On il It ■ nbawnial bnck dwriliny boon and iwo oiher cmifonB- 

pear ireet. The athala ftnauweN adijiied for raking rriin, or 

The mnpricm baa ntdi amiuanaiiii in ihawettianlnio innik. 
•r kind of bnwie^ wl win eaU the aboiabnoD TanoiiaMetem. 

Fowla aNd Bmc- 
peeimena of Uie Albaay Do-UnitiBl 

T uw truy^i Hpoiiaird Piiloiid are roraalebyiheauliaci 
e»t of ibeibiwe and the foUowinf varietiet :^ 
Shgiighae. Ferly neck. 

Albany, Yt 


plied upon 1 gennbie. 



TBB freatde^iie nanileHBl in New. England for pneariaa faad 
Poultry, hat iudaced H. B. COFFr.N, Knn- — 

— .. — — — .. [j„j(j^j jmi uDpmihf tn 

mlt hy hin, ate Ihe I 



T^nK LODI HANUFACTURINO company baviua anlarnd 
X their work!, are prepared now 10 racein and fill onjen lor Pas. 
drciia with ditpalck, an] » idleatet wiihalTfMf ■MaijAflarfdaT'. 
(Kb, at their ami nKaa, Sl^Mper banal Ibt anr oHnlily orei aii 
btrrelt. 3 barrdt lur t}.— ta for a liufle barrel, delivered Anif 
canaga on board of veBH or eltcwbcn, in the city of Nrw-Vork. 

l^ompajiy refer 10 their pamphle 

r cenificuiei at 10 the cBcacy, el 

kI rrcea, and the UloMring 

" If I neglrcl Ih' 

nnal parchaae oT an 

. highly valuable, and eheajwr, L _ . 

and pleanra gnaiidt, in grata, H4un the ol jecl ia 10 imhicE a fri 
aiid vigoroui growth ui the Spring. Oar prBtlics ntoaniilri', when 

eJTt^ta ia Ihe ?^priJig.^^ 

All oMwanmianB wUretaed to the "LODI MANUFACTIIIt- 
INeCOIilPASIY,14Cai<b^n(eai,Naw.Yort," wiH meet yrilb 

inmipl tiiauiKia. ■ )ta. 1, 1M»-*. 



rHE cultivator; 


OontMita of Ikis Ifuaifeer. 

*tht " Loi^ PutBTO^'—Evito of) 

Tboof hu <m Mmmrea. Special and Oeiiera],.. . 

AffricnUare of PuUMun Coumy, t»7 H. W. C, 

DMtroction of Q«ack Grass, bf Ra-ab SHAar— FrnitSeatoyed 1 

b^ Rose Bttffs, ikc.> ........) 

Agricultural Economy—Deep Plowiiif , 

Xiuinii^eineiit of Young; Calves, 

Fanner's Gardent— Sinokitir Meat, by 8. £. Todd, 

■ Shropshire Ox— Faiteuiug CalUe for Market, by lows Jobft 


£>n Raisuif Hoffwsi by B.. 

ftemarks on a few Viirieaes of Plums, by J. Watiers, 



Keceasity for a Proper System of f ustruciion in AgricidiDnd 1 

Science, by Prof. Noeton, .^^ | 

fCtdlure ot Onions, by A SvaacKraKR— llie Tarnep Fly, 

{The Pear on Quiiice — Tofaaeoo for Trees aiid Plants— Mowiui; ) 

Machines — Best Winter Applet, .' . | 

(Answers to Various f oqairies, 

TKa Mangle— Queries for Correspondents — Importance 

' Farming Well, by Setmovk Smith, ; 

^esoription of a Country DweUIng, by J.,.. 

How Science affects Agriculture, 

Attacks of Itueets on Vegetables, by H. R. L., 

'Winter the time (o Thmk— Culture of Potatoes, by G. W. 


Ayrshire Cattle, by V. V.— A Double Furrower, by 


Odds and Ends, by Buckstx— Model Farm School, . . . 

New Publicaiioiui — ^Agriculture Uie Motlier of all Professions 

— Profits of Ducks, fcc, 

County Air. Societies— Tlie Market*— Postage of the Culliva 

tor aiMl Ctiltivalar Almanac, ,.,.. 

Notes for the Hontb— To Correspondents, &e., 


Shronbirc Ox, 104 1 Bleration of House,. . . . 

Tbe Mangle, Ill 1 Floors of do., 

A iJoable Pnrrower, 116 




















Wo^Mt WbeamwaUme SbHs, ^r Base Mmnre. 

WE are now receirmg largo quantities of this valuable Maimre, 
put an in barrels, which we will sell at one cent per pound. 
This article is made from the foUowiiw ingredients, ris. 

Ckareoal, Done dust. Plaster, Potash. Calcined Charcoal, Glauber 
Salts, Saltpetre, Ofl or Vitrei, Salts of AmmmiiH, Gas Liquor, aud 

Slala Agricultural Warehouse and Seed Store, 
March 1—21. No. 25 Cliff street. New- York. 

m ■ ■■—-■■■. ■ I ■iMi ■■^■■i I 11 ■■■■ I ■.■■■■. ■■■—■—--■ m, ^ 

Bvckthora and Osage Orange Ibr Hedges* 

nprWO and three year plants of the Buckthorn, (the best of all 
JL hedge plants at the north,) at 95.00 per 1000 for two year, and 
96.00 (br three year plants: and one year plants of the Osage Orange, 
(the best hedge plants for the warmer portions of ihe norlheni slates,) 
at StO per 1MI0, or 91.50 per 100,— for sale by J. J. THOMAS, 
March 1— It. Macedon, Wayne Co., N. Y. 

*i — ■ ■■ ■ ■■ I I ■ ■ ■ ■ »^ ■ ,,■■■■-»■ ^ ■■■ ■■■ -.1 ■*■ ^.■■■■■■■M.i, ,,a 

Union Agrionllnral Warehouse and Seedstore* 

RALPH f Ce., N: S3 FvSum Strttty New- Yerjb, nmr FtiUoH Market^ 

DEALERS in all the most approved AgricaUnral ond Horticultu- 
ral Implements. Importeo and American Field and Garden 
l<eeds, Oruamenial Shade and Fruit Trees, Gnnno. Bone Dust, Pou- 
tlreite, Ac. Wrought Iron Plows, Trucks, Barrows, &c., Ac, al- 
ways on hand. Also the Exeetsior, or California Plow. 

New- York, March 1, 18d»-3t 
■ ■' ■ I «■ ■ — ■■ ■ . - ., ■ ... ., , — _. _,^ 

Seed Com. 

PURE Duttoa Seed Con for aale, at 91 per bushel. 
a B. KfRTLAND, Graenbnsb, 
March 1, 1859— St opposite Allvny* 

Albany Tile Works. 

Ctmtr Pofroon and Em9x Sfrsets, Jtibtrnp. 

THE tnliscriber will furnirii to Agrienllurtsts, of the most oppror- 
ed patterns. Drain Tile suitable for land drainage, of a superior 
Jiality, over one foot in length, 3 to 4^ inches calibre, from 91S to 
18 per 10Q0 pieces. They are formed to admit the water at every 
joint, draining land from IS to '20 feet each side of the drain, being the 
eheapesi end most durable article used. 

Tile solficiently large for drains around dwellings, at 94 and 98 per 
100 pieces, being cheaper and more durable ihajibrtrk drains. 

Tbe great importance of thorough drainage is daily becoming more 
anporeut Ordeis from a distance will receive prompt attemion. 
March 1—61 A. S. BABCOCK, Albany, 

Arrshire Balls fbr Sale. 

ri-^HF. thorough bred Ayrshire BuUs •* General Taylor,** and " Toong 
X Prince,*'— the former is three years old, and the latter two years 
old next April. Both of tbem were sired by the Maasaehaaetts So. 
eiety's Imported Bull "Pr'uiee Albert," and ai« out of the ine Ml 
.blooded Cows " Diana,** and Primrose. They are in color dark 
brown— perfectly sound and docile, aitd are in all respeeta aa desira- 
ble aoioials for tireeders of dairy stook, aa can be found in iha eomi- 
Iry. For terms apply to SAMUEL HENSHA W. 

Apple Seedlings for Sate^ 

^ IMf O fealaiiAjipwardS} fit for root graAiag, 96 perthonsaDd. 
X lto3 feet, 9# fer tlipasairf. Under 1 fwkj 93 per thousand — well 
packM, and odlVered'ih New- York at the above prices, free of < 
penie on all orders amounting to 910 or more, accompanied by 
cash. A discount flrom tbe above prkeii wiR be inade on large orA . 

Middletown Poigt, Monaiooih, Co», N. J., March 1— It* » 

To Fmit GrOwerB« 

PERSONS wishing to praoore astra sisad Frail Tkeca* or '&aaa 
in a bearing state, are respectfully invited to visit the Naraerios 
and maka a selectlbn. 

60,000 fmit snd OmMBflntsl Tifeoi. 

The aafaKriber offrrs for sale bis Entire Slock of Fmit aad Orib- 
menial Trtes, E^errreen Shrubs, Ac., in his various NonKries 
in Rozfrtcry and Darehester. The collectioa erabracea nost aftbm 
varieties of the Pear. Apple j Chtrfp, Pfaai, Pmek, mad oilier Pmiaa 
that are teorfAjr of cultivation. Also <^mi#u»s, Ot 
Rmspbtffti9f SUmwbcrrus, fe. 

Extra sized Pear Trete^ m a bearing state, can be supflied at 
diwed pricesL 

flOjOOO j;adb4ora«. Rose Trees, Honeysuckles, Bawthoraa, 4k«. 

Sctoiu, ia large and onall quantities, iroa fruit bearwg^ TVesae 

The whole for sale at the lowest market price. 


March 1— 2l Eusiis Street, Raxterr. 

*«* 3,500 Imported Fruit Trees for sale. 
Qiy^ Walker's Seedling Slaminue Strawberry— price 91 par dosoaa. 


Ois CtaiU Street^ ffeaeaa, ifew-ror*. 

W. T. * & aaZK, BBopristoEiy 

INVITE the atteiitioiMif Fruit Growers, and1>lanten of TVaea ga>. 
uerally, to their large stock of well grown Trees, grafted aoad bud- 
ded by the proprietors themselves, with great care. Greater iudaea- 
ments are offered here than at any other Nursery. Oar Moi^ of 
trees consists of tbe following kinds : 

40,000 Apple Trees, well grown, with fine heada. 
10,000 Pear, the best sons. 
ao,Ou6 Peach, the beet sortf, one aadSfvaraaM. 
1*2,000 Cherry, fine trees. 
1,000 Plum. 

2,000 Isabella Grapes, one and S years old. 
Dwarf Pears, Dwarf Appies^ Quincea, Apricoia, N 
monds. Raspberries, Sirawhemee, Gooseberries, Currants, PSe 
Asparagus Roots, Dahlias. Ac. Oruamenlal Trees, Buckthorn, E^gZ 
lish Hawtborn. Scions, Seedling Stuck* for Nurserymaft, Jkc, 4m^ 
March 1— at W. T. k B. SMITH. 

Field and Garden 8eeds> 

GROWN expressly for our sales, suitable for any climala in &a 
United States. A large assortment may be found at 

March 1— 8t. No. 25 Cliff street. New- York. 


THE subaeribers offer for sale an improved SnbsoR flow made sa- 
der the advisement of Prof. J. J. Mapes, and ikae from the ek 
jections urged against those formerly in ove. 

The wearing nnrts are so arranged thai they may be e«»3y aal 
cheaply renewed, while the amount of forca reqaUro to maw* then 
is Less than half tiial required by those previously made. Price 9^51 
and 90. For sale by LONGKTT A GRIFPINO, 
March 1— flt. No. 25 Cliff street, New- York. 

Improred Stock* 

CATTLE, of the Durham, Devon, Hereford, Aldemejr, and Ayr- 
shire breeds. 

SHEEP, of the Native and French Marino, Saxony, Soutk^Doinu 
and Cotswdd. 

PIGS of the Luicoln, Suiolk, and Berkshire breeds. 

From our long experience as breeders and dealers in the abova 
kinds of slock, and our excellent situation for purchasing and i 
ping, we think wecan do - — ' ' ^' 
house in the United States. 

Jan. 1, ISW— tf. 



as good justice to orders, as any 
A B. ALLEN dt CO\ 
IdO and 191 Water si., New-Yoik. 

Field and Garden Seeds. 

TT7E have recently imported, from Eaglaiid, Franaa. aad 0«r« 
TV many, and have grown in the United States expressljr for hl 
a fine assortment of the best and most approved kinds aTFt fclJ 

Agricultural and Honicnllttrnl Implements, a large aanrtmeni of 
the varicsis kinds suitable for North and South Araenoa. 

A. B. ALLEN k CO., 

Jan. 1, 18S9— If. 

18» and m Water-«t., New-Yerlr. 


U puUUhsi m tkejkst ^mtk menA, «f Utasy, JT. T., iy 

tt per Ami.-7 Oopieste 99-15 ir tlO. 

C7^ All sabseriptians to eommeaee wMi Hie ^gluine, flbe J^ 
No.,) and to be paid ih auvakcb. 

ADvaansKMBKTS.-^e eharga for Advertisamenti b 91 for II 
liim,foreaoh ii na rl iae. No vaMaa nada from theaa ' 


Wa are nnwilUng to bellere tbe froqnegt remtrk that 
hrntert are leaa intelUgcDt Umd other clasea oTIhe 
■unnitr, or (bat tbdr busluew I« )em perftcted Ibao that 
of DMUiy other proftariona. A Eraat deal oT DDcerlalat j 
and conflictiDg Tiewi eslft. It btnie,wllli regard to man; 
pobxte Id (beir pracUoe. Bat m nml not forjet that 
eren what are tenned, by mj <rf eminence, the learned 
profearioiM, fnrnisb plenty of euinples of similar differ. 
encea of opinion. !rbe " glorions imcertBlnty of the 
law" ii prorerbial, In qiite of tbe thonundi of wfae 
bead* which have exerted their ihrewdneta for centDriet 
to eatablidt naiformjnitlcei for ennat tbe preient day 
tbe moM profaand JqtM U In tome ruea at a low to iay 
wbetber he may or may not be actually commllltDg a 
crime ajainst the lawj and tbe grealett giant hi l^;al 
achievement bhe who can creep throngh the nnallest 
key-bole at tocboical erarfon. If we look at medicine, 
we ibal) hardly regard all difflcnltlea Mtttled, when there 
are atmoet a« many lyatsms for keeping the corporeal 
nucblne In repc^r, •■ there are changes in Parisian fiuh- 
ions, — whilecold water, hot water, gtram tnd red- pepper, 
alternately eiett their powers on the lame dlseaae ; and 
cake* of ice and cantharldea, mineral poisons and vege- 
table polMlB, mercnry and nMameriim, are Id the same 
moment landed and denonneed . Nor ihall we, in taking 
large manci of people together, Bod more general ialel- 
Bgence among carpenlen, tailora, bUcksmllhi, brick- 
Uyeri, and butcher*, thanlnlheagrlcnlturalcommnnlty. 
All of tbcm fnmleh occadonal eiamplea of brilliant men- 
tal •chievemont, and many of lingnlar etopldlty. 

Bnt there 1« one particnlar In which tbe hnnert are 
decidedly in tbe back gronnd. ttlione In which they bare 
naadeqnate Idea of the Immenae loss (hey are nistalning, 
A thorough refonnatlon In Ibis particular, the country 
orer, would effect ai great a change In tbe art of tillage, 
•I railroBdi have achieved In the art of travelling, or 
•team enginea In Dunnfactnret, The deficiency we here 
refer to, 1* the want of rigid accuracy, by weighing and 
measnring. In oondnctlDg tbe varlooi operation* on a 
tkua, and recording the remits sj'Etematically. 

Tfie correction of thi* evil would immediately do more 
to improve and render proQtablo lliis great art of arls, 
than all that cbemMry, botany, geology, sabsolling, and 
tile-draining conld ever accomplish without II. It would 
be perfectly ailoniahlng what an amouot of fog and cob- 
web* would be cleared away from agriculture in a few 
yean, if It could be tboroDghly and onlversally applied 

Vol. IX.— No. 4. 

in practice. We have beard of a certain Yankee (Up- 
oaptain wbo kept hi* "reckonti^' upoaaabiiiBle,- whidi 
•iwwered a very good porpoae bi oounexlon with aone 
■farewd gneaing, until a feIlow.oonDtryman on hoard, in 
a idle hoar tboughUeasly whUtled It all away. Tet Iw 
poaieaaed a decided advantage over many (krmers, wbo 
ke«9 DO leckonli^ whatever. They Bud gut perhap* at . 
tbe end of the year or at the eod of tbe third year kt 
furlbeat, by the amount of their debts, which way Eheir 
vetsel is driflEog, or whether they are makhig any pro- 
greMj but what It Is that gives tbe Impetus, — whether 
favorable gale*, turned Lo tbe best advantage, — or beat- 
ing against tbe wind to great disadvantage, — orevcnrow- 
ing wllb main strength with bo wind at all, — they have 
an exceedingly bideflnlte knowledge at beet. 

To come a litlle more to particular*. There Is not one 
farmer in a hundred but will apply hi* most ikilfol ma- 
thematics in teaching Ibe precise value of wbU passes out 
□r hi* bands — the produce dealer cannot detVaud him of 
a aingla half-dime. Tbe moat accurate balance, and the 
mo«t correct measure, give the true amount of all he 
selb. But In all the transaction* with his own farm — 
transactions la which it is of the highest moment (hat he 
(bonld know whether be i* gainer or loeer— everythinf 
ii enveloped In tbe darkness of uncertainty. He may 
not know after years of trial, whetbu'hisprofl(* orloiMa 
preponderate In the making of pork, — In the fattening 
of tieef, — Id tbe manufacture of cheeae, — hi the cuhiva- 
tion of grain, — in deep or shallow plowing, — in coarse or 
flna wool sheep, — in rounded Berbihlres, or cUpper-built 
laod.[dkea, — or In anything else which may be done or 
managed In two way*. A good fanner informed us that 
he hod found " a decided benefit" In a dressing of luc^ 
•d asbea to bis fields j but the measured amoant ofbene- 
flt, or tlte number of bushel* applied per acre, were hid 
la tbe mists of conjecture ; coDsequently he was unaUe 
to say whether it wonld pay to draw ashes for manure 
two mile* or ten. Another had nsed shell-msrl under 
the same circumstances and witli a like unknown result. 
A third had (ound an increase In bis crop* fh>m the use 
of swamp-muck, bnt whether this increase wunid repay 
the expense, donble, or quadruple It, remained locket* 
up with the secrets of the nnhuowo. 

What shuuld we tljink of a railroad company lliit 
should conduct all their Internal arrangements by gne**' 
es; which should spend day* at the end of each haV year 
In discussing, arguing, end trying to estimate the proflt* 
of Ibe roed, with a view t« declaring a dividend! The 
balance abnet of a bank or other corporation must not 




oontatn tn tvrm of k dngla oont ; wbf iboald not tbe 
(ktiDar know all bli icconnta vitli his Seldi with a (Unt 
d^ree of the nuns accuracyT "Hie colWn mannfactnntr 
can t«ll to a fVaeUoa the coM of hiafkbric,- bnC how few 
even »moDg onr beat agricnltnrista know bow mtxih a 
cert^D animal, or a bnabel of gruD, has coet them ; HDd 
wbat Keou itlll more mrprisbv fi tbat after DODMnnu 
premiDim bavs been offered bj agricaUnntl aocietlM, we 

, are (tltl very mnch tn tbe dark about tbe cmipcnttve 
T»Ine of tooti and grain, of ^onod and nngToiuid fi>od, 
of the best way of ralahig potatoee, and of a moltltnde 
c€ other pointi of great importance, and of which wei^i- 

. hgaodmeasitrlDKWonldatmDfaniMialleaatapnalnate 

If a ringle farmer wonld expend fifty dollar* a year in 
the time and labor required to measare bli Delda or por- 
ttona of tbem ; to reckon accnratei? the amoant of ma- 
nure applied to each portion; to record bithlhlly tbe 
qnantity of labor expended ; and the number of bnibela 
fielded ; if be woald try some of the beet modee for tbe 
feeding and management of cattle, horac*, iheep, and 
■wbe, in connexion with diflbrent breeds or O-agmenta 
of auch breedi, be conld acarcety fall to iwesew in ten 
yean an amonnt of knowledge not at present •mjojed by 
one la ten thousand. What then would be tbe condttloo 
of the art, if every intelligent cultivator should adopt a 
rimitar course, — whataaaccumalatlonof valuable know- 
ledge wonld !» thrown together; — wbat a clear ron-light 
wonld be sent Into every dark comer of doubt, and the 
dim objects of twilight become clear and obvious in fnll 
glare of day. 

Nearly tbe whole expense for banning this proposed im- 
provemeo t Is a weighing machine like a hay-scale, in which 
cattle, loads ofbay,kc. may be quickly examined ;towhicb 
may he added a common grocer's or miller's balance fbr 
■mailer objects; imikets of accurate meMurement, half, 
bushel measures, gallon and quart measuTea, a tape-line 
for measuriog land, and cart-bodies and wagoU'boie* 
with accurately estimated contents. Wdghing animals 
ODoe a week during the varions experiments in fattening 
eould be quickly accomplished with nch convenient 
icales) and tbe small platform balance wonld enable one 
In a moment to determine the weight of a cow'a milk or 
butter, a fleece of wool, or a bushel of grain. It is the 
want of ftkcQIties of this hiod tlisl deter* many ttom ac- 

If any of onr readers widi deSnite directions how to 
k«ep clear and distinct accounts, tbey will Ond the out- 
IIdo of an admirable ^Mcimen on pages 609, 610, and 611 , 
of the last volume of Colman's European Agrlcultnre, 
which we earnestly commend to their attention. 

ExoKLLiiTT ADvici. — P. Barry very justly remarks, 
"Every man who lends an order for a doECD or halfa doten 
Dahlia*, Hoses, Fuchsias, Chrrsanibemums, or any other 
genui, ihoold say, " Send mt none but tchct art rtally 
dirtinct — obvimiMlf dUtinct. I want not merely slight 
botanical distinctions, but such as will enable me to have 
slrt^lng variationt and centrattt i>tgrotBtk,/o!iagi, and 
kabit qf ji.'ant, or in tlu lixt, form, and catoHng of Ihi 
/lowfTt" — a half doaen distinct, well marked lorls, going 
Airther than twe&ty scarcely diitlngulthabte in shade or 

Ebtohtu&'a Uowiu HaoUiMa 
Above we give a cnt of this macMne, which is nam- 
nu^nred by Hessn. HowiKslcCe., of BnflU«. FramaH 
we hear of it, tliere appears to be no room for doubt aa to 
its nsefulness, or its ability to do all that is claimed for it. 
We think tbe^roprietors would greatly promote tbeir 
own interest, as well a* that of tbe public, by making 
arrangements for Its sale in this dty. [See adverttaa- 

We have long held the opinion that tite character and 
morab of a rural community are necessarily improved 
by that most interesting of all kinds of rural etnbellisk- 
ment, ornamental plauting. But for those who canool 
ai^reciale these advantages, we shall present another 
view of the sul^ect,— the saving in dollars and cents. 
This the writer has had an opportunity of witueaung the 
present winter in his owa case. Nine years ago, finding 
a serious inconvenience fVom the sweep of winter tent- 
pests, to which bis residence was much exposed, a large 
portioD of eveigreens were mingled with the trees sot 
shrubbery, then newly set out. Abont a doten white 
pines, as msr.y American Arborviln, and a few bosuns, 
white spruoe, Norway flrs, and hemlocks, were placed, 
so far ss practicable, on those sides of the house the most 
exposed, regard being had at the same time to tba ex- 
clusinn of uninteresting points of view. 

One rule was adopted la removing tbe joni^ evergreens, 
which were chieBy procored from tbe borders of woods, 
and which in some instances were brought twenty milta 
This was, to take up enough earth on the roots, to pre- 
serve tbe tree upright against strong winds, after settiif 
out. By tWa means, not one, out of some thirty or forty, 
was lost by removal. A white plTic, then about three 
I^et high and an inch in diameter, is now eighteen leet 
high, and six inches in diameter, and several others hava 
made nearly an equal growth. 

Now, for the iconomy of this plantation, which soom 
of the neighbors thought was entirely nsslcM labor. It 
has saved, the presont winter, by the protection it affonla 
against storms and wind, at least (en dollari in fire- wood, 
and this amount saved is increasing every year as tbe 
trees advance in growth. The cost of procuring and set- 
ting out the evergreens, is about llirti doUart. What 
farmer, who goes only for " utility,'' can show as larga 
a per ccntage o( profit in Theat raising or making porfcT 
Whose children wonld be most likely to seek the taTcm, 
grog-shop, nnd Iheatix, — those who enjoy a home mada 
atlrectire and bcantinil,— or those whose home is bald, 
bleak, and repulsive, f^om a total wsnt of this eheapat 
and most natural of all meant (br its embellishmenti 



TnaaamaOom ef Ito M. T. 0tiil» Ag^Bo^tx lUa 

We ioteDded to hvn giTen an 6wlier Botioo of this 
rich ooHectioii of ac^altiiral nuttter, which in Interest 
and Tnlne is fully equal, if it does not surpass any of its 
pr^eeessoTS. The Agricultural Survey of Seneca County, 
by J. DELAviKLn, Pre^dent of the Society, the leading 
production of the Tolume, cannot fldl to yield much in- 
struction to every reader, for, independently of the dis- 
tiDsuished ability with which it is executed, that county, 
small as it is, ftundshes spedmeas of the most important 
soUb of Western New-York, namely, the grarel ridges 
of the northern portion, the strong wheat Und of the 
centre, and the thinner soila of the Portage and Chemung 
formations. The county contidns, besides, immense beds 
of peat and shell marl. 

The Prise Essay on Agricultural Dynamics, by J. 7. 
Thomas, is worthy the study of OTery fhrmer. The lo« 
of time and force, which the ignorance of a few general 
principles Gt the pliHosophy of mechanics and the fitilure 
to ohserve a few simple every day occurrences, causes 
the fanner, hi an Item of no small amount in a yearly 
balance sheet. It is due to Xr. Thomas, to say that the 
engraver has made sad havoc with some of the flgares 
fllustratUig its principles, and by which some portions of 
it are rendered perfectly unintelfigible. We refer more 
particularly to the figure on page fJ61 , where the ttraight 
road, inst^ of running over the top of the hill, is made 
to pass by its side, rendering the reocommendation of the 
author to pass round it, perfectly ridiculous. Also, on 
p. 6S2, the beauH/ul curv$ made hy capillary attraction 
between two plates of glass, Is represented like the wany 
edge of a slab,- and on p. 702, the reader is presented 
with the pKposterous exhibition of the course of smoke 
trim, a cbimBey directly in the feoe of a strong wind. 
.For the sake of the reputation of the Society, correc- 
tions of these errors should be made in the next volume. 
Among the lesser papers, the Beport on the trial of 
Flows, the descr^tion of the remarkable farm of D. D. 
T. Moss, of Watervliet, and of the two excellent ferms 
beloqgh^ to 6mv. Habmom and E. M. Bsadlbt, the 
valuable misoellaoeouf matter in the proceedings of tho 
eoanty sodetSes, and in the numerous commmications 
■from various sooroes, and the analyses ftimished by Dr. 
EAUSBvai, are particulariy interesting and important. 


Cheap DralaliiK. 

It is stated in the foreign correspondence of the Michi- 
gan Farmer, that a method of cutting drains has been 
adopted in Scotland, requiring much leas cost than for- 
meriy, being all done with the plow. It is very useful in 
all eases where the ground is clayey and tolerably free 
from stones. ^ In the first place, a common plow is 
passed back and forth, turning a furrow out on each side. 
Then follows the draining plow, which goes down from 
two to two and a half feet, the mould-board being so 
formed as to turn the earth all out. In this manner, 
twelve acres in the vicinity of Stirling were drained with 
three plows in one day, the tile being laid in the furrow 
Just as the plow left it. The earth was returned to the 
ditdi by means of a scraper, in the form of the letter Y , 
tha lep of eovrst pretradipg forward, and a team at- 

tached to each leg, on each side of the ditch." We have 
been long since satisfied that the cost of excavaUqg ditches 
might be much reduced by more horse labor than is 
generally used. For instance, let a large Michigan sub- 
soil plow with ample team be set in a foot deep, a thing 
very easily done ; by throwing a ftirrow each way (leav- 
ing but a narrow strip in the middle) the first foot of the 
ditch is at once thrown out with suiBcient rapidity to 
prepare some miles for the spade in each day. By run- 
ning twice each way, a greater depth and more perfect 
work might be attained. A regular and thorough sys- 
tem of draining is at present quite expensive, costing some 
twenty-five or thirty dollars per acre; and if its cost could 
be reduced one half by the application of horse power, 
it would greatly contribute towards its general introduc- 
tion,--and be worth millions to the country, lying as It 
does, in most cases, at the very foundation of successful 

Rural AzIoBUL 

It is as cheap to raise one ton of grass or clover, as a 
ton of burdocks or pig-weeds. 

It costs no more to raise a hundred bushels of Bald- 
wins than a hundred bushels of cider apples ; or tea bar- 
rels of Tlrgalieus or Bartletts than the same quantity of 
choke pears. 

An axe costing two dollars, with which a laborsr may 
cut fifty cords a month, is a dieaper tool than an axe 
costing but one dollar, and with which he can cut only 
forty cords. 

A " cheap-plow" at five dollars, costing in one season 
three dollars in repairs, and three more in lost time to 
teams, men, and by retarding crops, is a dearer plow than 
one at ten dollars requiring no repairs. 

A cow bought for ten dollars, whose mOk but Just pays 
her keeping, affords less profit than one at thirty dollars, 
giring double the value of milk afforded by the fonaer. 

A common dasher-chum at two dollars, used one hun- 
dred times a year, is not so economical a purchase, as a 
Kendall chum at four dollars, requirhig but half the 
labor to work it. 

A ten-acre field, costing fifty dolUis per acre, and 
ditched, manured, and improved at fifty doUars mors, 
so as to give double crops, is mndi more valuable and 
profitable than twenty acres unimproved, costing the 
ssme money. 

The laborer who wastes half his strength in working 
all day with a dull saw, because he cannot give a shilling 
or afibrd half an hour to get it sharpened, will waste at 
least twenty-five cents per day, or $6 or $7 per month. 

The man who loses half an hour of time, worth one 

ahilUng,— and wears his wagon and team equal to two 

shillings more, by goii^ over a long and rough road, to 

avoid a plank-road toll of sixpence, loses Just two and 

sixpence by the (^ration. This does not apply to the 

loaded wagon, where the loss is much greater from the 

smaller loads. 


Statk Fairs roa 1852.— ^eio- Fork at Utica, Sept. 

7, 8, 9, and 10. Ffrsioiil, at Rutland, Sept. 1, 2 and 

8. P«nn«yirania, Oct. 20, 21 and 22, place not deci- 
ded upon. 






G. F. Bahcroft, of East Calais, Vt., inquires— 1. 
" When is the best time to graft?" Plums and cherries 
should be grafted very early, before the buds have begun 
to swell, usually hefbre the frost is all out of the ground 
—apples and pears may be grafted either early or late, 
proTided the inserted scions have not much swollen, but 
they make a better growth if it is done before the buds 
of the stock burst. 

2. " When 18 the proper time to trani^lant wild black- 
berry and gooseberry bushe»— how are they to be treated 
— and how for apart ore they to be set?" They should 
be transplanted as early in spring as the frost and super- 
abundant moisture ore out of the soil, and before the 
leaves appear — ^they should be treated with the same care 
and skill that the best transplanted fruit tree receives — 
the distance may be three to five feet. 

8. " Will apple seeds, kept froeen during the winter, 
and sown early in spring, grow as well as if sown the fall 
prevtonsl" Quite as well, if kepi in good condition, and 
■own before sprouting; and if the soil is heavy, they will 
do better, unless covered after autumn sowing with sand 
and muck to prevent the formation of a crust. 

LiMB-sToiTB roE MAiruaK.-~WM. G. HorniAV, of 
Frederick, Md., inquires whether ''ground lime-stone 
wHl not answer the same purpose as burnt lime-stone." 
There has been a great deal of theoretical reasoning on 
the <^ration of lime, and very few rigidly accurate ex- 
periments ; but it is obvious to every one that a thin coat- 
log of burnt lime applied to the soil, must hi afew weeks 
at fhrthest receive again its Aill amount of carbonic add 
-^nt as its efficacy is known Ut continue for years, it 
cannot be essential whether it be applied caustic or as a 
earbonatQ. Hence ground lime-stone would doubtless 
answer the same purpose as lime or marl. The only ob- 
JeeUon is Its hardness, rendering difficult the process of 

BoBAKina OzBH. — A correspondent says, " Say to 
fhooe about to break oxen, don't tie their tails together; 
I tried it twice, and in both instances had one of their 
tales polled oflT shortly after yoking them; after which 
they sustained no farther injury, though, as the sailor 
said, I sometimes found ' the starboard ox on the lar- 
board side,' and the yoke turned. I do not believe in 
their breaking their necks." 

J. H., Harrisburgh, Va. See Emery & Co.'s adver- 
tisement in this number, for answer to your inquiry. 
' Plawtebs.— W. C. S., Farrow8>'ille,Va. We should 
recommend Bachelder's Planter for com, on very stony 
land. Theprioe,webelieve,i8$14. It may be procured 
of A. B. ATlen & Co., New-York, or of Emery & Go., 
hi this city. We know of no Illinois plow, to be had, 
either here or In New-York. 

Rbapbos.— D. Z., Youngstown, Pa. You can obtain 

Hussey's Reaping Machine by addresshig O. Hussey, 

Baltimore, Md., and McCormick's by applying to G. H. 

McQprmick, Chicago, Illinois. 


N. Y. State Ao. Sooibtt.-^A bill, renewing the act 
of hioorporation of this Society, has passed both branches 
of the L^;tslatnre. 


KoETH AxBEiCAB Stlva.— This work contains ooen- 
rate descriptions and beautifully colored engravings of the 
forest trees of the United States, Canada and Nova 
Scotia. The elegant typography and binding of the 
volumes, make them an appropriate ornament to the 
parlor table. Every American must feel a sort of no- 
tional pride in having always at hand, the dark, ricfa 
green foliage of the forests of his own country, and the 
directions for the cultivation and propagation of oar na- 
tive trees, give the work a podtive value. The engrav- 
ings and descriptions are fWim the original drawings and 
notes of MiOBAux and his son, who spent several yeacs 
in exploring the forests of this country, in all their leogft 
and breadth. Subsequently the work has been prosecu- 
ted by the distinguished Ncttali., and may now be oo»> 
sidered quite complete. Published by R. P. Smith, of 
Philadelphia, and G. P. Putb^x of New- York, in six 
volumes. Price $45. 

Littbll's Livibg Age. — ^Tbis periodical has ao wide 
and well-earned a reputation, that nothing new can be 
said in its praise. It has maintained the same nnwaver. 
ing character amid the fluctuatmg spirit of the times, 
and constantly presents a true exponent of the cniTeiit 
literature of the day. It contains elaborate articles for 
the profound, pleasiug ones for the casual reader, and 
histruction every where. Published weekly, at Boetoa, 
Mass., by £. Little & Co. 

The iHTBRBATioBAL.-^In the March number we Hod 
an account of those wonderful beings, the ABteec&Odren 
—a beautifully illustrated description of Ghatswottb, 
a moralised legend by the most unique and fasteresthy 
of American story writers, Nathabiel Hawtsobb ; 
the usual rich and entertaining miscellany. 

Haepbe's. — The March number, opens with a new 
story by Jacob Abbott, which no one, who has ever 
read the productions of this attractive author, will M 
to be interested In. "The recollections of St. Peten. 
burgh" let us Into some of the absurdities and peeuliaiitiei 
of Russian manners and society. " Personal dcet^dies 
and reminiscences" of living authors, by Miss Mitioeb, 
is an interesting article, from a work now In press by 
Harper & Brothers. A new novel by Chas. Dickbxs Is 
announced for the April number. 


Abaltsis op the Sweet Potato. — B. Kietlavb gives 
fai the Family Visitor, the following results of his analysts 
of the sweet potato: 

In 119.6 grains of the ashes of the vines, and 1<H.(I7 
grains of the ashes of the roots, there were, 

Sand and charcoal, 6.800 S.4S0 

8aiid and ailiea, iJOO 

Phwphate of nrotoxida of iron E700 1 038 

Pbn»phate of lime, 11.507 11.0i;7 

Ptiofphate of MagiiMia, S.t8B 4.499 

Phosphate of potash, 53.007 16790 

Snlpharicacid. %fn 1908 

Pbosphorie acid, 1.486 8J873 

Chlorine, $M5 X'tn 

CtfboDie aoid, 5M.0M 81.880 

118.137 I8U7S 




BoKtlciiltanl Ilanyb 

Is THi Feuit Majlkbt OmsTOCKn>t— Prof. Mama 
Mtya OD this subject, la speaking of the better kinds of 
pears, " many bushels have been sold in the Xew-York 
market for $6 per bushel ; and in Boston, where the 
ripening of pears in frnit rooms is better understood, 
nuuiy htkve been sold at $8 per dozen ; nor does the sup- 
ply as yet tend to reduce the prices." He adds " there 
sure thousands of dollars worth of grapes sold annually 
1>y the Broadway fruit stores, at from one to four doh 
lort per pottfut, and the finer kinds of pears at five to 
25 cents a piece. Vor can they procure half a supply 
fbr the wealthy purchasers of such luxuries." Good 
fVuit merely, may not sell high • but those at the sum- 
mU of perlSection, always. It is to be obtained not mere- 
' ^ ^ procuring the best Tarteties, but more especially 
"by h^h culture. 

Whits Fbviy» Bisss. — ^The Gardener's Chronicle 
says thai white fruit Is ftoC attractive to birds; that the 
White Tartarian is not subject to their depredations, 
while tlie May duke and other sorts are freely attacked. 
The birds in this country appear to be shrewder fellows, 
as good cherries, white or black, all become Yictims. 

GsAfTXHO Grapb Yisks. — ^Kecp the grafts in a cool, 
shady place, till the stocks you wi&h to graft begin to 
groWj and their leaves are as large as a shilling — then 
graft and you will be successfiil. 

PsACB WoRS . — ^Boning water, says the HortlcuUnrist, 
is a most excellent application In the spring of the year, 
for diseased and feeble peach trees, and is a certain re- 
medy lor the peach worm. A correspondent yery ef- 
^taally excladed the peach worm, by digging a basin 
around the foot of the trunk, forming a cavity a foot in 
. width and four inches deep, and then pouring into this 
basin very thick white- waA, made of fresh lime, and 
suflTered to stand one day before applying. 

PxASS. — ^A. Johnson, jr., of Wiscasset, has a young 
orchard of dwarf standard pears, that is pears on quince , 
with short bare trunks about a foot and a half high, 
which is better than if clothed with limbs to the ground, 
on account of the weight of snow upon them in winter. 
A tree of the Wlnkfleld, four years set out and nine 
feet high, bore a bushel, worth at least t'tt dollars. 

AppuS'Tbbs Boaxs. — At the Illlnohi Pomological 
Oonvention, last autumn. Dr. Kxssicott recommended 
cutting the borer out the first year, and afterwards plug- 
fng them in with camphor, " which kills them to a cer- 
tainty." G. BsTAHT thought the red-headed wood- 
pecker a valuable aid in their extirpation, but this the 
Doctor thought was paying too high woges. The chair- 
man, (J. H. Brtamt,) thought there were two distinct 
Tarieties, one working in the root and the other the limbs. 

Ths Bark-I/Ousi. — At fhe same convention, the sub- 
ject of the bark.lotue on apple trees being under discus- 
sion, J. H. Bryant remarked that he had a tree badly 
affected, but by giving it rapid growth by cultivation, 
the bark-louse left. One orchadist had removed them 
completely by syringing the tree with strong ley, before 
vegetation started in spring. 

SwkbtPotatoxs for ths North. — ^D. P. Kinney, of 
Rock Island. In northern Illinois, states In the Prairie 
FarnMr, that he failed in raisins sweet potatoes until he 

procured a variety ftrom Indiana called the Kansemond, 
an early variety, wbidi he has coltlvated for four yeara 
with great success. They are yellow, short, and mealy 
and sweet, and greatly superior in this respect to all the 
reds. Last year he sprouted sixty bushels of them, but 
was not able to supply the demand. 

To KILL Aphidbs is A Grses.Hodsb. — The Garde- 
ner's Chronicle gives the following: — Take a sheet of 
touch paper, roll an once of tobacco in it, light it at both 
ends, put it in the house, leave it there, remain out-side 
with your hands in your pockets, and the job is done. 
*' In the morning all the green files will be dead." 

Stxauxq from Gabdsss. — The author of ''Rural 
Hours," after qieaking of some well dressed girls, " ele- 
gantly fiounoed," &c., reaching their hands through the 
garden fence, and helping themselves to some of the fin- 
est and rarest flowers, just as If they had a right to them, 
adcs the very pertinent question, ** What would they 
have thought if some one bad stepped up with a pair of 
scissors, and cut half a yard f^om the ribbon on their 
*hats, merely because it was pretty, and one had a flincy 
to itt" Tet the flowers cost more time, labor, and money, 
and could not be so easily replaced. 

LxNOTH or Fibrous Roots. — A correapondent of the 
Gardener's Chronicle examined a plant of mignonette, 
the roots of which had penetrated through several courses 
of bricks and descended into a cellar. Over the cellar 
was a brick pavement, between the joints of which the 
seed had boen sown from year to year. 

Bsadtiful Objbots.— At the exhibition of the Cin- 
cinnati Horticultural Society, according to Dr. Warder^ 
Review, some beanUful floral objects were presented. 
One was a Verbena (Defiance) trained up to a single stem 
18 inches high, and then branched and drooping off grace* 
fully so as to produce a very pretty effect. Another was 
a miniature arbor, perfectly covered with living plants, 
climbers, which being in fVill bloom, presented a fine ai^ 
pearance— '< the rich blue, tender red, aad pure white 
of the varieties of Maurandya, with other species, and 
the delicate foliage of the cypress vine intermingled, pro- 
duced a very pretty effect." How incomparably superior 
are such objects as these, to those artificial monstrosities 
so commonly seen at exhibitions under the names of 
<' floral designs" and *' floral ornaments." 

Horticultural Prxviums. — The amount of premiuma 
offered by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, in 
the various departments, is as follows:— 

Prospective prizes (for new rariety of fruits, flowers, fte.). . . . 9780 

For nrdens, ^reen-hoiMes,ftc SOS 

For fmiu daring the seasou. 68t 

For plants, flowers, and desi|pis, TOO 

For vegetables, 850 

Such an amount, held up to the grasp of sktlfnl cul- 
turists, cannot fail to bring out a rich display of in- 
terestiQg objects, and spectators as well as competitors 
who live within convenient access to such a society's ex- 
hibitions, possess privileges which must be very highly 

Gitano. — ^It is said that the amoxmt of guano annually 

used in Great Britain for the last Ave years, has cost two 

million pounds sterling, or about ten millions of dollars — 
more than equal yearly, to the cost of the Erie canal till 
its first completion. In addition, great quantities of 
lime, bones, diells, and Immense piles of yard manure 
have been anplied to the land 


THE cultivator: 

Th^ PrioMtOB FonLOottvmtlon— W««tani Appte. 

An interesting conyention of the fhiit growers, cbiefly 
of Illinois^ WM held the post autumn at Princeton in that 
State, at which some thirty or forty raemhers enrolled 
their names, among whom we observe a number widely 
known as skilful cultivators. The proceedings occupy 
over a dozen columns in the Prairie Fanner. 

The dlKUssions were almost wholly confined to Apples ; 
and believing that the results of the deliberations in con- 
densed form will prove interesting, more especially to 
our western readers, we give below a list of the fruits 
brought before the convention, and the characters award- 
ed them for that region. The standard of the American 
Pomological Congress for designating grades of quality 
as good, very good, and bttt, was adopted. 

Yellote /im«— good-4he eariiest, no other particular 
merit. The May apple of Carolina. 

Early Hamat-^yetj good north— -but moderate bear- 

Carolina Red Junt-^" very good, probably"— a great 
bearer every year, very profitable— rather acid, for mar- 
ket and cooking unexcelled— keeps long for an early ap- 
pie— very handsome— ^tree ornamental, ''finer than a 

Early Svfeet Bough, — ^Not recommended, being often 
T*'^ry unproductive. On some high land north, has borne 
well— quality very good. 

Sweet June—very good, profitable for ipsneral culture 
— the best early sweet apple of that region. Believed 
by some to be synonymous with High-top Sweeting of 
Massachusetts. [Hovey regards the latter the same 
as the Summer Sweet of Ohio.] 

jimerican Summer Pearmain.—*' Best"— tree a feeble 
grvwth. Very productive, and of excellent quality. 

MaidenU B/ti«A— g*>od j popular market fruit — ^first 
rate for cooking; recommended for general cultivation. 

Hocking (a local name) resembling Rarobour Franc, 
but believed by some to be diffbrent, was regarded by 
some of the members as very fine, productive, and pro- 
fltable for market— one of the best late summer apples 
for tlie west. 

Keewiek Codlinr—eM\^ fruit and early bearer, very 
productive, good for cooking only — ^worthy of limited 
cultivation for every man. 

Early Pennock—g/wA — ^very productive, worthy of 
general cnltivation. 

Fall H^tne— very good — for very general cuUi\'ation. 

Rambo — very good — ^hest for general cultivation — 
unanimously recommended. 

Ftf/idecere— fijw If any superior, good bearer, rather 
subject to blight — worthy of general cultivation. 

Yellow Belljlower-^yery good — some think " best." 
Highly commended. 

Fulton— two members who knew it regarded It as 
" best." 

Swaar—" best." 

While Winter Permain — ^has lieen supposed the Mi- 
chael Ueury Pippin — ^bnt thought by a part of the mem- 
bers to be different — recommended for general cultiva- 

RawM Janet — ^very good. 

Neuftown Ptf^tn— appeara from the discussion to be 
worthless north, fine, south. 

Rhode Island Greening — frnit fine, large, fair — ^a scant 
bearer — not recotnmendod. 

EsopuM Spitzenburgh — a few old and productive trees 
bearhig fine cro|M, known by some members. Tree ten- 
der Aiitl very liable to blight. 

Red Jstrachan — very beautiful, rather acid for des- 
sert, excellent for cooking. 

Poughkeepeie Rutset ^English Rnsset of books] — re- 
coinnicnded north for its productiveness; hot weather 
doi's not It. 

R xbury /7uMe/.— -A poor bearer with most members^ 
boara well with others— dost not keep in spring. 

Baldwin — ^few had known it to bear well — OiXtaAonmMj 
affected by bitter rot«. 

Winesap— well spoken of for pro^nctivenen. 

The following fruits were placed on the Bkjbctkd 

by the convention, which so (ar as they are known it 

much in accordance with the opinions of iBtelligent 

tlvators in. all porta of the country: Early Red Mai^reC, 

Carolina Sweet, President, Hoop's Apple, AmerioBa 

Pippin, Jersey Black, White Pippin, Big Head, Wbite 

Apple, Father Abraham, Dutch Codlin, Bed and Gieem 

Sweety Watson's Yandevere, Kiog of the Pippins, TmoA 

Pippin, Cathead, Saodera' June, Shaker's YeUow, P«b- 

nock, Pumpkin Sweet, Pound Sweet, Twenty Onaoe 

Pippin, Lane's Radstreak, Capp's Seedling, SurpriH^ 

Victuals and Drink, Golden Ball, Clark'a Greeupg, 

Cheeseboro' Russet, Sweet and Soar, Yard ^ple, A^ 

nette, Male Carle, Red Calville. 

Oost of til* Oom dop in Ui* W< 

Eds. Cultivatob — In the February number of the 
Cultivator I see it stated, that the editor of the 
Farmer says he has made inquiry of several com 
in middle Illinois, of the absolute cost of this grtdu per 
bushel in the crib. Their estimate of the cost of raxaqg, 
harvesting, &c., ranged from four to eix cents per busbd. 

To raise com thus cheaply, the climate must be peea> 
llarly adapted to its growth and maturity ; the physiBil 
condition and texture of the soil must be such, as tosd- 
mit of the most easy and cheap cultivation, by the use 
of tiie plow, harrow, &c. And the soil must nalwally 
contain all those elementary constituents, in an ara/Zabfo 
form, re«iuired for a healthy and vigorous growth of the 

With all the above named requisites and facHilics of 
growing corn — it is still a mystery to many of our eaatem 
farmers how the thing can bo done. We have sons 
patches of land, light, friable, and free from stumps and 
rocks, that can be plowed, planted, and cultivated si 
cheaply as the prairie. By the application of $0 or 40 
loads of manure, we can grow from 60 to 80 bnsheH of 
corn per acre — ^now throw out of the account the cost d 
the manure and cartage, and then our corn wunld co4 
us several times the Illinois estimate per bushel. Ife 
hope some of the Illinois farmers will be good cnoo^ 
through the columns of the Cultivator, to enliglitea QS| 
by giving us the Heme of expense of cultivating an acn 
of corn, from the time they start the plow till the o>tii 
is cribbed. Such facts, might be of much practical uis 
to the hard working farmers of the Gbahitb Stats. 
Warner, if. H,, Feb, 18, 1852. 

YsEiiiir OK Cattlb. — The Maine Farmer saj-atlie best 
way to destroy tlicM".. is to reject alf the tronhlestime 
ointments and wnslies, and apply tobacco snioko. He 
snggests a box, with a tul)e In each end ; the bnniinir to- ^ 
bacoo being placed in the 1k)x. and the nose f>f a iieiUnrs ' 
applied to one tube, drives the Hmoke among tlic hair of 
tlie cair and wool of <he sheep. Wiuild not Brown's 
Funiigator. u»ed for smoking the lUMct* on plantx. h<* a 
goofi thing for this pnriH>ae? And wonki not a corvring 
of thin oiUcloth. over the animal's iMick, serve a ^oiid 
pnriK).sc in retaining the smokt-T There nre proliably 
enongh cigars whiffed In one of our large cities In one 
week, to suffocate ail the lice on cattle in tlM Uidted 




of the Fanainf la Ham 
tonlo Vall07. 

AMALTtJCXL Labobatokt, Yai^k Cou.sbv,1 
JV'tfur.lfiNMfi, C9Hn.f F9i. iB, 19S9. J 

Eds . CoLTiVATOK— In carrying forward at the «me 

tfaoe eonrses of lectures here and in Albany, I have had 

oecttai<m, at least once a week, for the last two months, 

to pass through the Talley of the Honsatonie river for a 

part of its coarse. These hare heen flying railway visits, 

mud moreover the grooDd lias, for the most part, been 

conatantly covered with snow. Snch are not the most 

Ikvoiable drenmstanoes for the inspection of an agricnl- 

%«rskl regi<Mi, hat I have nevertheless been able to note 

ttome points which I noticed the mote, as they disclose a 

•late of things which is not by any means oontnedto that 

•ebtioD of New Enigland. 

Of the ooantry throng whibh rans the Hoosatonic 
road in the upper part of its coarse, I cannot say much 3 
It if in the immediate vicinity of tlie rosd, from above Van 
]>ensenviUe to North Canaan, rather flat, and having, I 
flboold Judge, a somewhat light soil. Occadonally in this 
faction I jMiticed fine bams, and outbuildings, with other 
evidences of thrift and good management. In a few 
cases too, large heaps of compost appear, suiBdent to 
tnsnure the fields very extensively and heavily. But it 
is not of this region that I intend to write. 

Below FaUs VlUage we come into a very rough and 
poor district, exteudmg down through Cornwall and Kent, 
at least as ftur as Hew Mllford, though I do not feel oer- 
tdn as to the boundaries of the towns. The land in the 
valleys, back from the stream of the Housatonic, may be 
better than that near the railway; of this I cannot decide, 
as I haye not visited any pointsaway from the line. Along 
the line, and in full view from the cars, may be, and I 
hope are, some good farms ; as to this I would not pretend 
to speak with certainty; but I do feel quite sure that few 
worse specimens of winter management, can be presented, 
than some of those that I haye witnessed this season in 
the Hofisatonic vaUey. 

In rery numerous cases, and as it seems In some of the 
towns lo a passer-by, almost a majority, the cattle of all 
kinds seem to spend their winter on a bleak exposed hill- 
side, without the least protection; they may possibly be 
housed at night, or sheltered In some way, but their days 
they pass in the fields, and there they are fed. Scattered 
ahout the fields are small ill-shaped stacks, many times 
almost flat on the top, and universally without thatch of 
any kind, so far as can be seen. These stacks are sur- 
rounded by crooked rail fences, and the ground for many 
feet in every direction, is covered with hay trampled into 
the snow, it being fed upon the bare surface, without 
racks of any description. Several large circles of this 
kind may be seen in the same fbed, denoting the con- 
sumption and the waste of an equal number of stacks. 

The stacks *are mostly built on sloping ground, quite 
conyenient to some small stream where the cattle can 
drink, and into which all tl)c soluble portion of the ex- 
crements, so plentifully deposited about the stacks. Im- 
mediately runs. This arrangement In fact, is common to 
the yards In most cases. They are usually so located 
that all water and liquid drains away and Is lost. 

Now, I ask, oould there well be deyised a more wretch- 

ed course of winter management than thisf In the first 
place the animals are fod in cold bleak fields, on the snow. 
Their food Is given so that a considerable portion Is lost 
by being trampled under foot, and this food, from the 
manner in which it has been preserved. Is probably not 
by any means of the very best quality. But this is still 
nottlie worst part of the case. It is well ascertained 
that the most uneconomical way of feeding stock Is in 
the open air, at least so long as cold weather lasts. It has 
been found by actual and csreful comparative experimento, 
tliat animals kept sheltered, and warm consumed le^s 
food, and really Increased more In weight. The explana- 
tion Is easy. The frmctions of reqiiratlon keep up the 
heat of the animal body ; by the air of every breath m 
draw, we consume in the luugs and blood vessels, a por- 
tion of the food that has been taken into the stomach. 
Chemically speaking, the carbon of the (bod unites with 
the oxygen of the air, producing carbonic add, whksh 
passes otr Into the atmosphere. It is this union of the 
carbon with oxygen, that Is supposed to keep up the aitl> 
mal heat. 

In cold weather we, as all know, require more food, 
and especially when much exposed to the air. Exercise 
and cold together very soon aiTect the system. If anabuiw 
dance of food is not frimished. A man cannot endure 
cold and hunger long when they come together, but give 
him a full meal, and he will soon feel a glow over the 
whole system, caused by the new supply of what may In 
this case be termed foel. The Esquimaux, and other 
nations living In extremely cold countries, eat eagerly 
enormous quantities of fat, tallow, and oil, without ex- 
periencing evil effects; these articles of food oontainii^ 
much carbon ; are doubtless chlefiy valuable to keep up 
their respiration, and through that the heat of the body. 

If, after nothing such fiicts, we look at one of these 
unfortunate cattle shivering in a wintry blast, we see at 
once the reason why It eats so much more than if it were 
warm and sheltered, and at the same time does not in- 
crease greatly, or may even decrease in siso. The great- 
er part of the carbon In its food, which would otherwise 
go to the production of (kt, is used up In midntalning the 
heat ot it* body, and consequently, with a largo con- 
sumption, It even grows poorer. Surely, lumber Is not 
dear In that part of Connecticut, and even cheap open 
sheds, tVonting towards the south, with racks or boxes for 
feeding, would be a great improvement, and would, I 
have no doubt, turn out to be true economy. 

In the second place, this arrangement Is a mlserahla 
one, on account of the loss of manure. During the win* 
ter, if the formers stock are placed in a yard well cover- 
ed with straw, and peat also, If possible, and properly 
shaped, he accumulates a large quantity of valuable ma- 
nure for his next crops. Here, however, the excrements 
of the animals are scattered about over the snow; when 
this melts, the greater portion of what is soluble, runs 
away with It oyer the frozen ground, while what remains 
lies, unless the ground Is plowed, in lumps, and Is com- 
paratively useless. The land about the stacks Is of course, 
somewhat bem«fltted, but not to nearly the same extent 
that It might have been, by the same manure properly 

But perhaps some of your readers will say that tt it 




easier to find ikult than to amend; that these farmers are 
poor ; that their land is sterile, and thin ; that it is full of 
stones, and only won by the hardest from the rugged 

These things are doubtless true, but they do not at all 
affect the necessity for a vital reform in the system at 
present pursned. They say — ^vre cannot go to the expen- 
ses thai are incurred by your rich farmers, amateurs and 
gentlemen; we know our business better than you can, 
and we have enough to do to live now, without trying 
your new ikngled experiments, building sheds and bams, 
and being so mighty particular about a little manure. 
Such are the remarks that we hear from this class of far- 
mers; they cannot and will not be taught. 

Now, I wonld ask, why in the name of common sense, 
need these men pursue a system so opposite to their true 
interests? It is true, that their crops are thin and scan- 
ty, bat is not that a cogent reason why they should be fed 
out again in the most economical and careful manner? It 
is true that their land is poor, and worn out, but is that 
a reason for letting what would enrich it, flow into the 
nearest brook? It is true that the man himself, is but Just 
able to make both ends meet, but should he, for that rea- 
son, neglect eyerything calculated to better his condition, 
and to make hb limited means go farther? It seems to me 
perfectly plain, that if ever man had need to study true 
economy, it is under such circumstances as those which 
exist in many parts of the Housatonic valley. 

The more oppressive and marked their disadvantages, 
the more ought they to seek how they might best over- 
come them, and so increase their ability to make further 
improvements. It is not to be expected that they can do 
all things at once ; can rectify errors and supply all defi- 
ciencies immediately ; but they can begin and do some- 
thing by the coming spring, if it is only to prevent the 
escape of some of the liquid from the barn-yard, or 
to prepare for forming a barn-yard,, where they have 
none that can be properly so called. If they have no 
barn, and cannot afford one, they can put up a rough 
shed ; if they cannot afford to hire extra labor, thoy can 
do a great deal themselves, at little unemployed intervals 
of time. All that is needed for the improvement of this 
valley, or any other like it. is a conviction that improve- 
ment is neceesary, and a determination that in some way 
it shall be accomplished. 

I do not think that in these remarks I have done injns- 
tioe, or exaggerated the condition of many farms to be seen 
in Cornwall, Kent, New-Milford, &c. Most of those to 
whom I have especially alluded, do not, I am quite cer- 
tain, read the Cultivator, or any agricultural paper, and 
will, therefore, probably never know of my Criticism on 
their system, or rather their utter want of any efficient 
system; I speak of them, therefore, for the warning of 
others. Tours respectfully, John P. Noetoh. 


Carrots for Hor^irr. — ^Ilorses that have a hard, dry 
cough, or that have the heaves, are remarkably relieved 
by moderate and regular feedings of carrots. A horse 
of our own, had once caught such a cold, that his cough 
might be heard half a mile; he was fed on carrots and 
green clover, kept snificiently blanketed, never heated, 
and in six weeks was entfarely well. 

Dry Roads. 

If the 170,000 farmers of the SUte of New-Tork, 
spend on an average but one month annually in driving 
teams upon the public highways, the yearly cort iji team- 
iqg in the state amounts in the aggregate, at two doDars 
per day, to more than eight millions of dollars— equal to 
the original cost of the great Erie canal. Is not then, 
the fanprovement of our public roads, in order to lessen 
as mndi as practicable this enormous expense to tbe (ar- 
raer, a matter well worthy of his careful atteniionf 

At the present ro<mienl we wiaii to urge tbe genetal 
adoption of a single improvement, which appears to be 
but little icnown or appreciated, altfaon^ where it las 
been reduced to practice, it has proved of great vmlne. 
This is thorough draiiHngj — not by the nsnal shallow, 
open ditches, from six inches to a foot deep, on each side 
of the road, and so far from the travelled track as to af* 
ford it very little relief iVom the snrfiioe water merdy. 
But we mean ajirtt rmtt under-drain, directly btnetik 
tht track, which will speedily carry off all the antpios 
water lodged both on and in the soil; and whi<^ if mads 
right, will be the means of reducing mud and miro to 
firmness and solidity in a wonderfully short period of 
time. A large size tile-drain is undoubtedly tbe best Ibr 
this purpose; but where the tile cannot be had, quite ss 
good a ditdi, but costing a little more labor, may be made 
by filling in with stones, placing the smaller and flatter 
at tbe top, and then covering the whole with a close lay- 
er of hard- wood slabs or boards, before the inverted sods 
are laid on, and the earth filled in. The usual mode of 
forming a small under-ground channel, by placing a row 
of stones on each side at tbe bottom of the ditch, and cev. 
ering this with broader stones, before filling in with the 
smaller, must not be forgotten or omitted where mndi 
water is likely to be drawn off. And where the bottom 
is sandy, a layer of flat stones or boards first placed upon 
the bottom to prevent the sinking of the stones, will save 
much trouble in fViture. 

If the soil is clayey, or in any way not readily perrions 
to water, the stones should nearly fill the ditch before the 
slabs are laid on, even if tile be used, or else tbe drainage 
will not be speedy or perfect. 


How to Skin * Oal£ 

My method is as follows, as I do as much of my work 
as I can myself, and in as short a time as possible: First, 
I secure the calf, as soon as the finishing stroke is given 
him, by ^teans of a pin put in at the stalls over tbe small 
of his back, and thus keep him to the place till be has 
done stirring. Then having a horse rcadyharncseed, I 
rip the skin with a knife, and alter removing the skin a 
little round the leg, strip it down with the force of my 
hand, completing it by driving my foojt down lictwcen 
the separated skin and leg. Tlien first remoring with the 
knife the inside corners of the skin, drive ft down s^th' *ly 
as before. When the skin is removed in the same man- 
ner fVom the other leg, a small chain Is secured to it, and 
to this the horse is fastened . The legs being then secnrcd 
by means of another chain, the skin is at once strijipcd 
off by the horse. A skin thus taken is fi^ce from cuts. 
E. Vail. 




Tbm Sofano of AcziovlliiMb 

The art <^«griciiltaro b pretty generally well onderstood 
in this ooQDtry; probably, (cooaderiiig all drcnmfltaii- 
•tanoes,) as well as in any otber. Our fitfrnera can all do 
th€ workf and do it well too. Bnt tbe scitnce, the the- 
asj of agricaUnre, is not so well nnderstood. Agricnl- 
turnl science embraces a constderable number of other 
seiencee. Indeed, it is a combination of sciences, for 
there are yery few that do not enter into the practice of 
the iknner. He may not know it, bnt it is tme, nerer- 
theless. Letns enumerate them. The farmer should 
be a clUmutj mineralagUt and geologiit, because he 
pMctices these sciences every day of his Ufe, whether he 
knows it or not. He shonld be t^botanist, for he practices 
it very largely ; he should be a pAy«tctan, for be has fre- 
quent occasions to resort to this science, in both man and 
besst; he should be an entomologist , ft>r no class or pro- 
iSassion has as much interest in this branch of knowledge 
as the fiurmer ; he should be well yersed in natural huto- 
Tff, and he often is, without knowing a syllable of itsthe- 
Qietical principles; he should be an iutronomer, and this 
too, he is, quite too often, igaorantly ; he should bea po- 
lUical economist, for in him, at Ust, tbe public wel&re 
takes refhge in all iU troubles, and from him it derives 
aU its strength — ^the enlightened fanners constitute the 
■tate. If agriculture be a science composed of nearly all 
otber sdenoes, it is also an art composed of, or compris- 
ing nearly all other arts. The farmer ought to be, and 
lkeqtieat\y is a blacksmith ; some of his fiimily are baksrs 
and brtwers; he is a carpsntsr, a machinist , and quite 
frequently an enginser. Kow if all this be true, what 
daas of the human fiunily require so general and so tho- 
rough an education as the farmer, to make them masters 
of their profession? It seems to the writer that the world 
nets most preposterously in bestowing a thorough liberal 
education upon those who are to practice a single ^mple 
■denoe, and withholding it from him who is to practice 
•lithe sdenoes and aU the arts. Farmers, themselves, 
nn too apt to take the same course, by educating at a 
nniversity one of thehr sons, who is destined to be a doc- 
tor or a lawyer, and contenting themselves with givii^ 
their other sons and daughters, who are to be farmers 
smd fiumer's wives, the simplest of a country school edu- 
cation. They wonld seem to reason somewhat like this 
— ^' Doctoring and lawyering comes from education, and 
fiuming by nature," a remark actually made tome by an 
old and respectable farmer. That even the art of farm- 
ing is incapable of easy and quick acquirement, every 
fiumer knows; but that the science, tbe theory of farm- 
ing, as well as the handicraft, should be expected to be 
obtained more easily, apd in less time, than those of the 
other profesrions^ is, of all human errors, the most unac- 
countable. It is true, the boy raised upon a farm, and 
diligently performing the usual labors of a working far- 
mer, will acquire the handicraft of the art by the time 
he is of lawful age, without the aid of school education — 
be may do so without being able to write his name. But 
then what sort of a farmer is he? A mere mechanical 
operator, who is obliged to follow the patterns and exam- 
ples of bis predeeessors, being incapable of improving 
them in fbrm or substance, not knowing anything of the 

theory of their operation, or upon what principles they 
maybe changed for the better. The common black* 
smith knows not why he blows the bellows— he only 
knows he increases the heat of his forge by it, but he 
knows not why; and so the merely practical fkrmer 
knows that by doing certain things he will produce cer- 
tain results, if the season be propitious, because such 
things produced such effects in his predecessor's time, but 
he knows not why! If the blacksmith and the fanner 
knew all about the theory upon which their labore depen- 
ded for their effects, how much more effectively, and with 
how much more certainty of results, would they not both 
labor? I have seen stable manure applied to land alrea- 
dy too rich in such materials, and have heard wonder 
expressed because it did not produce results there equal 
to those it produced on land where it was wanted. I have 
seen lime applied to land wherein there was already a su* 
perabundance, and have seen it withheld when It was 
much wanted, all because tfie operaton frcre unacquaint- 
ed with the chemistry that properly belongs to their pro- 
fession . Suppose the dairywoman knew the theory of the 
operation of churning, the philosophy, if you please, of 
the separation of the butter f^om the milk or cream, hov 
many houn of hard labor would such knowledge not save 
her, and how much more butter would she not obtain 
fh>m her milk. Even in the kitchen of every farm house, 
yes, every city dwelling house, there are numerous chem- 
ical operations constantly going on, which If properly nn- 
derstood, would result greatly to the advantage and com* 
fort of all. The simple preparation of a cup of coffee, 
will depend for its result upon a chemical operation, and 
the beverage will be good or bad, according as It shall be 
prepared in accordance with i»rrect chemical principles* 
Generally, cooks have made coffee so often under the in- 
struction of othen, that they know how to make it pro- 
perly, but they have not the least Idea of the philosophy 
of the work. The same may be said of all other opera* 
tions in cooking. But the greater interests, such as mak« 
ing, saving, and applying manures; analysing soOs, se- 
lecting and applying renovatora, (lime, fite.,) and mixing 
soile ] these all require a knowledge of chemistry, theo- 
retical and practical. There are bnt few fkrmsthat havo 
not different qualities of soils, in different places, in ex- 
cess. Here, a low, " sour" bottom ; there, an arid sand 
hill; here, a dead day, and by the side of that river a 
wide margin of black vegetable mold. How speedily 
would the truly scientific fkmier commence carrjring sand 
to the clay, and clay and sand to the vegetable mold, and 
the latter to all tbe others— and by thus mixing the vari. 
ous soils, render the whole fertile? If he be in doubt 
whether the soils of his various fields contain the neces- 
sary quantity of lime, how easily can he ascertain that 
fhct, and if they do not, apply the proper quantity of 
this renovator. Possibly his soil Is rich enough in vege- 
table organic mattei^-and If so, be ascertains the fact, 
and applies no more of that class of manures, but resorts 
to chemical renovatora. And probably the reverse turns 
out to be the case— he has found lime and potash enough 
In the soil, and wants vegetable matter, and he applies it. 
In fine, a knowledge of chemistry, vegetable physiology, 
and a modicum of oommen sense, will enable htm to as- 
certain what articles of manure his various fields require. 




And thus avoid not only " carrying coals to New Castle," 
but paying dearly for tbem too. A general knowledge 
of chenUstry and the kindred sctenoes, would also put an 
aflbctual stop to blindfold and costly experiments. It 
would also put a stop to uniTersal agricultural panaceas. 
Ho body would then think of saying that common salt, 
soda, lime, anything, was an unlyersal manure. They 
would then be all good only where and when they were 
wanted in a soil. But, says everybody, how can all this 
be done? How can everybody be educated and made sci- 
mitifie? I answer, by introducing sdentiflc education 
ii^to all the schools. How many a farmer's son is taught 
French, Latin, Greek, Mathematics, Algebra, and a dozen 
other subjects, not one of which will ever be a hundredth 
part as useful to him as chemistjy and yegetable phyuo- 
logy would be. Enough of chemistry, and all the collat- 
eral sciences, should be, and can be, taught in plain Eng- 
lish, in any country school, to make every fiurmer a truly 
scientific agriculturist, and it seems tome the legislatures 
of the states should take the matter in hand. In my 
opinion, there should be in every county of the state, 
•ohools expressly for this object, at which teachers should 
be prepared to teach these sciences in the conmion schools. 
GiDiox B. Smith. Baltimore, Feb., 1852. 


n# Tnflnnnoa of ^i* Oultivator. 

The following extracts, from a letter of a correspon- 
dent in Termont, show in what spirit, and with what pur- 
pose a paper should be readr— 

There are large numbers who are able, (who is notable 
to pay 75 cts?) to pay for an Agricultural Paper, and 
who ought to be better infyrmed on this subject. The 
reply is frequently made, when asked to subscribe, '* I 
don't think much of farming by rules, and some of those 
laid down I know wont do for me." No intellgent read- 
•r of your paper looks upon it as containing fixed rules 
that any farmer can follow implicitly with profit. Be- 
eause a man near Boston can pick $60 worth of tomatoes 
tn a day, a man In this section would be a fool to attempt 
to imitate him. Other cases equally plain might be men- 

Though I value very highly *nany of the experiments 
In, and modes of farming, yc<f *t is not on this account 
alone, that I feel interested in Uie circulation of the Cul^ 
tiyator. A person who should read nothing in our lead- 
ing political papers, but their strictly politk^ articles, 
would read to little profit. These papers have beoome 
a kind of clreulating Ikmily library, of a usefrd and en- 
iertaining character, and be must be an ignoramus, who 
does not learn tuna them something of the principles of 
philosophy, chemistry, geology, law and science, in all its 
branches. Nearly every week brings news from all parts 
of the globe, and a citizen of the United States must foel 
amply paid for a year's subscription each week, as he 
glances at the changes going on everywhere, and sees 
with pride, our republican inititutloDa extending their in- 
fluence, and crushing one despot after another->-and our 
countrymen excelling in every branch of Industrjr and 

It is in this light I look upon AgricuHiiral Papers, 
which are conducted upon sdentlfie principles. I have 
before observed, that I have not for several years receiv- 

ed a single number of Tli^OaltiTStor, for which I would 
not have readily paid its price for a sini^e artide. Whal 
a mighty sum that would be!— about six eeiit»-a son 
that would purchase two glasses of whiskey in your stale, 
(it is more in Termont I believe,) or It might pay Iwo 
small papers of tobacco, or two segars! 

The other day I took one of the back volumes, and 
read the article of a Southerner, asking what he shoald 
do with his seventy slayes, and twelve hundred acres of 
land. I consider the priyflege of reading that artlcW for 
tbe fourth time, as worth more than the coat of four num* 
hers. It is candid, and well written, and shows the db» 
stacles which lie in the way of emancipation. The reply 
of your Kinderhook oorroqwndent Is worth a whole vo> 
lume of the Cultivator; yet neither of these articles are 
strictly agricultural. 

There is y6ur Hinsdale correspondent, who has as maoy 
a^liaieM as Bristol Bill ever assumed. Wh/ such a 
writer should resort to sucb expedients, I cannot eon- 
ceive, but with all his attempts to conceal his real name, 
his character is well known, and his artides can easily be 
traced home. Prof. Noxtov's artides are more proper- 
ly scientific than agricultural, while Mr. Houbook's par- 
take more of the historical and biographical. 

I do not know that I can show a single improvemeBt 
on my form , but that I can point to a number of the Culti. 
vator and say, "I got that ihirt," But while I have 
been reading its agricultural matter, my. attention hss 
been called to other subjects directly or indiroctly cc» 
nected with it, that have been of more value to me than 
the cost of twenty volumes of the paper. Toots tra^, 
JoBv S. Petttbohc. Manchester, Ft., Jan. 1fi62. 

We consider these remarks as remarkably Jast and a^ 
propriate. It is a striking feature of all true knowledge^ 
that it is suggestire. One fiwt leads to inquiry, one truth 
reveals another, and a single ideaconceiyed by a vlgoton t 
sound mind, paves the way for a series of discoveries a^ 
most astounding in their results. Thus it is, that improva* 
ment In any branch of industry, InTariably leads to kik- 
provement in kindred branches, riiowh^ that the po^ 
gressive tendency of the age Is toward a higher standard. 
Though a man Is usually estimated by his success in hk 
own business, and a paper by the rank it holds among 
others of the same class. It would be an error to measora 
the influence of either, strictly by what has been acooia. 
plisbed in a particular sphere. Manly effort put forth in 
any one direction, tells on the elevation of thevi^oW hv- 
man race ; and when, now and then, we hear the ediooa 
of a long since uttered v<rfce, coming back from the green 
hills of Termont, we foel a.sense of gratulation widoh 
spurs on to renewed exertion. Ess. 


Maxmotb Steers. — ^The Granite Farmer says that 

the mammoth steers latdy exhibited at Haymartoal 

Square, Boston, weigh about 4,000 pounds each, and 

that the proprietor has been oifored $15 per hundred for 

them for beef, which would be twelre hundred dollars 

for the pair. Dr. Crosby says, *< While standing by oae 

of them, our eyes came up to within four inches of the 

top of the shoulder, and to see upon his back we were 
obliged to mount a box." If the Doctor had given his 
own height, we should be able to Judge of the height of 
the ox. 




Notot of a Tour In Fnuioe. 

Eds, Cultxtatos — In accordance with yonr widi for 
■ome &w agricultural notes of my last summer's tour in 
France, I send yon the following desultory "Jottings 
down/' from my Journal. They will he of Interest, per- 
liaps, to some of your readers, whose curiosity may have 
been excited regarding the country of the ''French Me- 
rino" sheep— a hreed that, within a fbw years, has oc- 
cnpied the attention of many of our flock-masters, and 
whose steadily increaang popularity, hids fkir to give 
tBem a prominent' place in the sheep husbandry of onr 
country. My rambles this summer, were almost entirely 
confined to tlie department of the. ** Seine et OIre," 
(where the finest flocks of this breed are found,) my es- 
pecial object in visiting France, being to select and send 
to this country the best sheep of that variety. Of my 
snccessj I leave others to Judge; though without the 
cordial assistance and advice of one of tlie best breeders 
in France, I should scarcely have succeeded in meeting 
the approval of the critical Judge in this country, (br 
whom I acted. 

On the — day of last April, I left the Havre and Paris 
railway at Pctey, and bidding good-bye to my traveling 
eompanions, who marveled much at my stopping when 
within an hour of the gay dty of Paris, I entered a Ca- 
liaret, or small imi, to tefresh the inner man before going 
fttriher, and to proente a oonveyanoe to WideviUe, my 
destination for the night. Mine host, a round-faoed 
portly hidividnal, in.Trtiite spfon and cotton night-cap, 
(Ibr be was cook as well as landlord,) received me as If 
I had been an old enstomer, and promising me horse, 
dinner, lodging, anything or everythiiigl Wanted, bnstled 
0ff to his pots and pans with ooinic gravity. By the 
time the stont Vorman stallion that was to take me on, 
h»A eaten his feed of oata, the dinnelr was placed on one 
bf the numerous little tables that, covered with a coarse 
hut snow-white cloth, always stand ready in the large 
^ Salle a Manger,'' or eatfngnroom. With the appetj^te 
Crf a mta just from ship-board, I did ample Justice to my 
•tout host's cookery, and had just finished the bottle of 
Vgfat red wine, the invanahle acoompaniment of a French 
meal, when the cabriolet came to the door. This vehkde 
is the universal one-horse conveyance in the country, and 
resembles our old fa8bl<»ed chaise. It is roomy and 
comfortable, holding three persons. The. hood or top 
projects very far forward, and a wooden apron shutting 
up the front makes it almost close in bad weather. It 
is suspended on steel springs and is very heavy, though 
the large wheels diminish the draught; the rough pave- 
ments require a strong carriage, but the horses being all 
very powerful, its weight Is of little consequence. Still 
our carriage makers would rather laugh at its ponderous 
appearance, and compared with ourlightwagons it would 
look very like a dray-horse by the side of a thorough- 

Leaving Polssy, we soon cleared the narrow crooked 
streets of the town, and once in the country, the sturdy 
black. Incited by sundry applications of the whip, in- 
creased bis pace, and striking into a good rtmnd ten mfle 
, an hpur trot, ^cpt it without flagging, up hfll and down, 
an the way to Wideville about four leagues. These horses, 

though often rather sluggish, possess great wind and hot- 
torn. I had fluent oecask>n to iwnark this in thopt 
taken dh«ctly (Vom the plow; alter a hard day's work 
perhaps, they would go ten, twenty, or even thirty mllet, 
wiUiout sign of fktigue. The general character and ap^ 
pearance of the Korman horse is too well known to need 
any particular description. Strength and endurance ai* 
their distinguishing features, to which, surprising as it 
may seem, is generally Joined docility. My friend's wifii 


drove either of his two cabriolet horses witb 

perfect tofety. They often reach a great age, and retala 
all their good qualities to the last. I have seen twenty 
year old horses working as cheerAUiy as colts. The 
farmers generally use stallions in their teams, the mavai 
being chiefly kept by the breeders. There are several 
horse Hklrs In this part of France ; one of the most oo». 
siderable is at Chartres ; It is held once a year, and theva • 
are sometimes a thousand horses on the ground for sate. 
The most esteemed variety is the " Percheron," so named- 
from the locality where they are bred. At three or fbw 
years old they sell for from one to two hundred dolfcai| 
and even higher, acSsording to size and action, and aw' 
much sought alter by the richer ftrmers and proprietor! 
as cabriolet horses. A young grey of this breed to th«' 
stable of a friend with whom I stayed, at St. Esoovllldy 
struck me as a noble specimen. He stood 16 hands hi^ 
and weU spread. His powerful counter, short back, 
strong loin and bony limbs denoted great strength and 
constitution, and his broad forehead and intelligent eye,, 
spoke well for his temper and ssgacity. Vot was I de« 
ceived, when the next morning, being late in starting ft>r 
the rail, he took two of us in the heavy cabriolet over * 
hilly wood to Estampes, a distance of 14 miles. In le« 
than an hour, without effort or fiitigue, though apparent- 
ly his condition was much too high for such a drive. 
They are generally good Ibeden and easily kept fitL I 
think that a cross of this breed on our conomon stocky 
might improve the shM and substance without injurii^ 
the activity and spirit tiiat characterises the Amerieaa 
horse. For our use it would be fkr more vahiable thaa 
a cross with the English dray horse, whose only recona* 
mendation is his prodigious power, hte best pace being a 
walk. The Canadian horse still bears a resemblance to 
the parent sto<^, though with less sLbc and style, as would 
of course follow i>om crossing with the small Indian race. 
The " Morgan" horse has been said to have a strain of 
tiiis French blood, and their appearance and performance 
would oertainly warrant the opinion. If such be the 
case, no better argument for the cross could be found. 

Onr road now lay through a rolling, cultivated coui^ 
try, dotted with small hamlets, and patches of woo4>^ 
The forests of St. Germain and Marly bounded the view 
to the east, but westward, the eye ranged far over the 
fertile valley of the Seine. These forests were once much 
more extensive, and belonged to the Grown, by whom 
they were carefUly preserved for the purposes of the 
chase. But during the various revolutions that have sha- 
ken France, they have been on various pretexts reduced 
in siae and number. The land has been cleared, and let 
or sold. The high walls that enclosed them )iave been 
suffbred to fall into decay, and sheep and cattle quietly 
gvaie, whore once the stag and the wild boar were the 




obIj «ocapMit8. Some of the best &niifl in thig port of 
ihb coantrjr, are on the sites of these old forests. They 
«xe trayersed in all direetioos by roads and paths, con- 
stmcted in olden times for the convenience of the king 
and court whenhnnting, bnt now overgrown and neglect- 
ed, they are only used by the wood-cutter or charcoal- , 

The first thing in a French landscape, that strikes an 
American, is the absence offences, or visible dividons of 
any kind ; and yet the land is often held in small parcels. 
The usual mark is a stone set in the ground at a comer ; 
often it is little more than laid on the surface ; neverthe- 
less, quarrels and litigation arising out of boundary ques- 
Udos, are very rare. The sub-division of land is most gene- 
ral near the villages, and in their neighborhood the pieces 
are often very small. It is the custom, when a man dies 
and leaves land, (no matter how little it may be,) for his 
lutirs to divide it, and each one hold his portion. On the 
death of one of these it is again divided, and so on until 
accident or neoenity, throws it into the hands of some 
large land-holder. There seems to be but two classes of 
proprietors in this part of France. The one holding 
Uige estates, the other mere patches of ground There 
are few mnall farms either owned or rented. Most of the 
land is rented in bodies of from five hundred to a thou- 
sand acres. The rate depends of course upon the quali- 
ty, &c., varying from five to ten dollars an acre. The 
large tenant &rmers reside on their farms; but the peas- 
antry, or working classes, live in hamlets or villages, as 
is the case in most parts of Europe. Hence it is, that 
around them the land is so divided. The small lots are 
VBUally in the shape of long parallellograms, and with 
their various colored crops, look at a distance, like a huge 
patch- work carpet. The women do most of the labor on 
these little patches, whilst the men are occupied with oth- 
er work. The cultivation is generally rude; the people 
are ignorant and wedded to old customs, and the land 
oropped to deaUi! Spade husbandry is the most com- 
BBon, and I was told the crops were very light, probably 
Ibr want of manure. The poor people try to remedy this 
want^y turning under a green crop, and sometimes with 

The roads are excellent, and are kept in order by gov- 
ernment. They are divided into sections of a few miles, to 
ead) of which a man is appointed, whose sole duty it is to 
fepair the road. There are two kinds of road in Franoe. 
The old road, with a strip of pavement about five yards 
wide through the middle, and a good gravel track on one 
or both sides. This was the ancient poet route, and the 
principal thoroughfares were constructed in this way. 
When new, it is excellent, but the blocks of stone are 
Urge, and soon become uneven, when it is very uncom- 
fortable to travel over. The new roads are MacAdam- 
!zcd, and are equalled by none I have ever seen. 

In this department, as well as in many other parts of 
Franoe, they are bordered with fruit trees, generally ap- 
ples and pears. The latter were in full bloom, and pro- 
mised an abundant crop of fruit. It is, however, very 
poor, being only fit to make cider or perry. ** Cider,'' as 
Mey call it, is made indiscriminately of both apples and 
pears, and is the common drink of the country, at least 

tie attention is paid to making it, as it Is only used bj 
the lower classes. The fruit is neither ground wx press- 
ed, only steeped in water; and as might be expected, ihm 
beverage is very insipid, and I should say, from its taste, 
has no intoxicating quantities. 

As we drove along, I remarked how very few cattle or 
sheep were in the fields, and those few always accompa- 
nied by a shepherd or cowherd, to keep them from tres- 
passing. The cows are sometimes tethered by a rope round 
the horns, fastened to a pin driven into the ground, and 
I observed that they always eat up, without trampHng 
down or wasting, all within their reach ; they were usa- 
ally tethered on clover or lucerne. TTe passed at a dn- 
tance, the Agricultural School of Grignon, one of tbe 
best government establishments of the sort in France, to 
which I afterwards paid a visit; Here, leaving the par- 
ed road, we turned into a crossroad, which soon brought 
us to the gates of the park, within which, and close to 
the old Chateau of WidevUle, my friend Mr. £. resides. 
He, himself was, not at home; but 1 was reeefve^ with 
tnie French hospitality by his family, and at once took 
up my abode here for several days. F. M. B. 

MorrU, Feb., 1852. 


ICulching FotatooB- 

For the purpose of directing attention to the subject 
in season, and inducing the trial of experiments, w« give 
the substance of a mode of raising potatoes described in 
the Plough, Loom and Anvil, as perfonned by three 
diflbrent fkrmers, by mulching copiously withstimw. The 
land, prepared as usual, was laid off in rows two fyet 
apart, manured in the ftirrows ; the potatoes dropped and 
covered as usual, leaving a level surface, and straw then 
applied six inches deep. The straw kept the suxfims 
moist and mellow throughout a prolonged drouth, and 
the crop was SOOburiiels per acre, the tubers b^qg of ths 
finest quality, although potatoes were genenally neaify 
destroyed by rot. <' What stnu^ us as a peculiarity," 
says the editor, ** was their singular smoothness, being 
quite as much so as apples. Mr. Somers laid his potato 
cuttings upon unplowed, unprepared gronnd, merely 
covering them with straw, and his crop we are informed| 
was ftilly equal to Mr. Skinner's." 

A new Mode of Fence BtdldKBg'* 

Ens. CuLTrvATOR — Being desirous to add my mite for 
the benefit of my brother farmers, I describe iny mode 
of fence builduig. In the first place I set a good post 
seven feet four inches in length, two feet four inches into 
the gronnd, leaving five feet above ground. I then drive 
a stake beside the post at sniBcient distance t^ admit a 
rail, then lay in two rails. I now twist a wire firmly 
around the post and stake, then put in two more rails, 
then another wire, completing the fence with two addi- 
tional rails, making six in all. I take the precaution to 
sharpen my posts, as they take their places more readily 
when thrown by the frost. I have had this fence stand- 
ing on my farm for four years, and it proves to be cheap 
and substantial. My neighbors have also tried it and 

,, found it in all respects satis&ctory. A. Baut. Btcmf 

of this part, where the vine is not cultivated. Tory lit- | HilU, Saratoga, N, Y. 




Tb» 1c0 TxmSim, 

Bditosb Guutitator— a view of themetliodfl of cut- 
ting and storing ice, in the vicinity of Boston, and of plac- 
ing it in TMsels for exportation to distant porta, is well 
worth a Journey of one hundred miles. I spent a day 
of the Tery fine weather of the first week in February, 
at Fresh Fond, Cambridge, near Boston, observing the 
processes of the ice business, and learning its statistics 
and capadty as a branch of commerce. It is a large, 
and emphatically a hrUliant business. A substance so 
peridiabie, and ordinarily so valueless as ice, becoming 
an article of profitable exportation to the principal port« 
in warm climates, often in its voyages twice crossing the 
Equator ; the numbers of men and horses engaged in se- 
euring ice, all putting forth their utmost activity ; the 
long trains of the railroads, employed in transporting it 
to the wharves for shipment; the number and variety of 
vessels in the harbor receiving or preparing to receive 
their' loe cargoes, — all conspire to impress the reflecting 
observer with wonder and enthusiasm. 

Frederic Tudor, Esq., of Boston, is distinguished as 

the original projector of the ice trade of the United 

States. In 1805, at the early age of twenty-two years, 

Mr. Tudor conceived the idea of making ice an article of 

commerce, and forthwith commenced arrangements for 

taking a cargo to the West Indies. H!s enterprise found 

little fiEivor with others, and no one being willing to re. 
oeive so novel a freight on shipboard, he purchaied the 
brig Favorite, of 180 tons, loaded her at Gray's wharf, 
In Charlestown, with fee cut in Linn, now Saugus, about 
seven miles distant from the wharf. The Favorite sailed 
on the 13th of February, 1806, with Mr. Tudor on board, 
arriving at St. Pierre, Martinique, in twenty days, with 
her cargo in perfect condition. The experiment resulted 
in a loss of about $2,700; but Mr. Tudor being natural- 
1y inclined to for-reaching views and plans, and to an 
energy and decision of purpose not to be baffled by the 
obstacles it met, made other shipments with various suc- 
cess, until the embargo and war of 1812 put an end to 
hU business. After toe war closed, in 1815, he negotia- 
ted a contract with the government of Cuba, under which 
a good ice business was pursued at Havana. Shipments 
were made to other ports in the West Indies, in some 
cases attended with profit, and in others with loss. In 

1817, he extended the trade to Charleston, S. Uj in 

1818, to Savannah, 6a. ; and to New Orleans in 1820. 
The shipments of ice to ports coastwise and in the 

West Indies^ slowly but steadily increased, and in the 
year 1888, Mr. Tudor succeeded in extending the busi- 
ness to the East Indies, by safelv landing a cargo at Oal- 
cutta. He afterwards shipped ice to Bombay, Madras, 
and to various ports in India and China, and AiUy demon- 
strated that this perishable article could be made to pass 
a voyage of five months, through various climates, cross- 
ing die equator twice, landing safbly at its destined port, 
and might there be preserved throughout the year. 

Up to the year 1&2, the ice trade had been mostly 
conducted by its original projector, the total amount of 
the shipments that year being something over 4,000- tons 
of ice, all of which was taken from Fresh Pond. Many 
perplexities, discouragements, and heavy expenses were 
experienced in placing the business upon a permanent 
footing. The implements and machines for cutting and 
preparing fee for storage and shipment, for hoisting ft into 
the ice-houses, or on board ship, must be invented, and 
afterwards improved, or thrown aside for such others as 
Increasing experience determined to be better ; ice-houses, 
at home and abroad, must be built, and the mode of con- 
8trnctik>n best calculated to preserve the ice,conld be deter- 
mined only by expensive experiment; the cheapest and 
bttrt; mode of transporting ice from the ponds or ice-houses 
to the ships, and froin them, when arriveda to the des- 

tined port, to proper storage again, must be ascertained ; 
the preparation of vessels for receiving and preserving 
cargoes during long voyages through warm climates, was 
the subject of many expenments,involving great expense ; 
and added to the rest, the owners of vessels objected to 
a freight of ice, under an impr^eion that it would injure 
their vessels, and hazard the safety of voyages. Notwith- 
standing these discouraeemente, and the many early dis- 
asters to which Mr. Tudor <was sul^ted, he persevered 
in his operations, has continued in the trade up to the 
present time, and now, forty-six years after his first voy- 
age to Martinique, is considered one of the rich men of 
his native town. 

The difficulties experienced in the early operations of 
the ice trade, are now in a good degree overcome ; Its 
methods are highly excellent: more ice is now taken in 
one favorable day than in 1832 would have been neces- 
sary to supply the whole trade ; many enterprising par- 
ties are now engaged in the business; it has more than 
doubled in importance within the rix years last past ; and 
notwithstanding it has now reached a yearly exportation 
tion of 100,000 tons, Mr. Tudor and others consider it 
as yet in infancy, capable of great enlargement. The 
quantity of ice used m old markets is steadily increasing, 
and new markets are constantly opening to receive it. Its 
use in Kew-Orleans has grown from 800 tons in 1820, to 
80,000 tons in 1851,— or to nearly one-third of the whole 
shipment from Boston. Fresh and Spy Ponds for many 
yeara supplied all the ice the trade wanted ; but within 
the past few years, operations have been extended to a 
dozen or more ponds not fiir from Boston, and ice housei 
have been erected on their shores, of a capacity, in the 
aggregate, for storing a great quantity of ice. Gentle- 
men engaged in the trade are of opinion that in a fbw 
years more, the product of nearly all the waters around 
Boston will be required, to supply the demand. 

The shipmento of Ice from Boston, coastwise and to 

foreign ports, during the year 1851, were as follows: 


Trinidad^ MS 

Mataiisw, 49i 

Porto Rioo, 1,178 

Demwara, SSO 

ChagTM, 191 

Nuaau, 300 

VeraCrnz 100 

Faytl, U 

Sail Joas,.. tS 

Provinoct, 18 

F^rto Cabello, 35 

San Francitco, 987 

SoothMnPona, 08^4 



I Tons. 

Ea« Indifv, ll,aie 

Loiuion, 531 

Liverpool, 816 

RioJaseiro, fl,ia4 

KiiiMNi,. 1,788 

St. Thomas, 1,144 

Oibraliar^ 470 

Alexandria, Egypl, 373 

ManeillM, 115^ 

Cap<« Towu, 3S0 

Barbadoea, 708} 

Poniambac«\.... 180 

Siwl. 390 

St. Vuieeats, 353 

Havana, 5,590 

St. Jngo, €05 

Ice used in Boston ond ricinitXt in 1851, about, 30,000 

Thus the ice trade has sncceeded in converting a rapid- 
ly wasting, and ordinarily valueless substance, into apro* 
duction of large commercial importance, affording a 
handsome return to the parties engaged in Its prosecu- 
tion. It fbmishes inhabitants of countries contiguous to 
the equator, with a grateful, and now indispensable lux- 
ury, both in sickness and health. It has thereby signal- 
ly and powerfully promoted temperance in the use of 
strong drinks; for before itseztonmon to those countries, 
their insipid waters were rarely used as a beverage, 
strong drinks being a universal subetituto ; now, iced- wa- 
ter is the most grateful beverage, and is fV^ly used. Day 
laborers and teamsters with their horses, find employ* 
ment in cutting and storing loe, at a dull season, when 
they most need work, from which they annually realise 
as much as $100,000. Ship owners now derive nrom the 
trade at least $200,000 each year. The State of Maine 
fhmishes the saw-dust used in preparing vessels to receive 
ice, and in packing it, from which her people receive an-- 
nually $15,000; and die also ftimishes lumber for UmI 
same purpose, fbr which they get $16,000. Railroads 
earn from the transport of ice some $50,000. The 
traders to India and Uhfaia get about $85,000. Machin- 
ists and blacksmiths receive $2,000 per annum, and the 
tax-gatherer comes in fbr his share. Orchardiste now 
transport fruits to India in ice, which they once could 
not do, and from which they derive 10 to $15,000 each 
^year. Perishable Yegetablee are sent hi great variety to 




India on ice, from which a profit is realized. Live ani- 
moUi for the supply of fresh provisions, are no longer 
carried to sea in coops and stalls, bnt dead ; they go in 
foe. It is said that the India trade is greatly enlarged 
at Boston, and thai the ice business has secured the re. 
suit; that a majority of the vessels bearing India cargoes 
are sent to Boston Joecause her ice affords a return freight. 
Visiting Fresh Fond, to viejv the operations of cutting 
and storing ice, I found that the parties engaged in the 
trade, had each a given surface, or " privelege," to woiic 
upon, accuratelv laid out by metes and bounds, and de- 
scribed by deeas in writing, and that those boundary 
lines are exactly observed. I was first introduced to 
Xr. Tudor, from whom I derived much information, and 
Tarions statistics relative to the business. I next met 
N. J. Wyeth, Esq., and had the pleasure of some 
conversation with him ; but finding him much occupied, 
and that he had already been actively engaged four sue- 
oessive days and nights in securing his crop of ice, with- 
oot sleep during the time, I did not choose to tax him 
Airther. Kr. Wyeth has dtstinguiahed himself by the 
use of steam power in elevating ice from the pond to the 
receiving doors of his ice-houses, and in dressing the 
blocks of ice to accurate shape and dimensions, for pack- 
iqg. He has also constructed massive ice-honses of brick, 
the walls of which are four feet thick from outside to 
inside, inclosing two sets of air spaces. They are costly, 
but have the advantage of durability. Mr. Wyeth has 
been a distinguished adventurer, has twice crossed the 
Kocky Mountains to Oregon, made investments there, is 
evidently a man of varied knowledge and superior abili- 
ties, and great energy of purpose. 

Passing on, to the works of Messrs. Gage, Hittinger & 
G«., I foand Mr. Hittinger very polite, and ready to show 
me everything, He had filled all his ice-houses at Fresh 
Pond, which hold 40,000 tons, and was then finishing a 
stack of ice, of 20,000 tons. He explained to me the 
various operations of cutting and housing the ice, which 
I will attempt to describe, thongh a description is not 
easily given, by a novice. 

When ice has formed of sufficient thickness for cuttmg 
and storing, the first operation is to remove the snow, if 
any there be covering the ioo, which is done by light 
wooden scrapers, managed by one man and one horse. 
If then a surface of snow-ice, or ice formed of snow and 
water, presents itself, it Is removed, not being deemed 
ed valuable. It is separated fVom the clear blue ice by 
the " Sce-pUne," a machine drawn by two horses, and 
which shaves two inches deep and twenty-two inches 
wide, at a time, having guides to it which run incrooves 
previoasly made in the Use by the " ice-cutter.'' The 
chips nuuie by the ice-piano, are removed in the same 
way that snow b. All things being now ready for taking 
the clear blue ice, the first tning done is to get a straight 
line the whole length of the body of ice to be cut, which 
is acoomplislied by setting a stake at one comer of it, 
and starting from ita opposite corner, with a long straight- 
edged board and a hand ice-marker, the operator places 
the edge of his board in a range with his starting point 
and stake, makes a grove in the ice the length of the 
board, then moves it along its length towards the stake 
again, places it ia range koA continues the grove, and so 
on, till the whole line is obtained. It is imnortant that 
tUs line should be straight, as the repilarity of all the 
cakes of ice to be cut is governed by it; and if they are 
not of uniform size, they will not pack properly in the 
hovses. This grove is then deepened by a marker drawn 
by one horse. Then follows the '' ioe-cutter/' a machine 
something in the form of a boy's sled, made wholly of iron 
and steel, its runners being a series of steel cutting chisels, 
making grooves two inches deep at a time, and twenty, 
two inches apart, one runner going in the groove pre- 
viously made, and the other making a new groove. The 
cntter is passed back and forth until the whole body of 
ioe to be secured is grooved into strips twenty-two inches 
wide, and of about two-thirds the depth of the Ice, and 
then the same operation is performed at right angles to 
these groves, checking the fee off hito blocks twenty-two 
incfaea wide, each way. 

The ice is now to be separated Arom the main body, 

and conducted to the houses* for storage. The outer 
grooves, on one end and one dde of the body of ioe thus 
prepared, are opened clear down, by an fee-saw worked 
by one man, and another man with a sharp blade or 
chisel, about one-third the size of a i&ovel blade, and 
having a long handle, presses his instrument into every 
third groove, each way, so that blocks of ice ftve and a 
half feet wide, each way, are readily separated from the 
main body. These larger blocks contam three groovei;i 
each way, and nine smaller blocks, twenty-two inches 
wide each way. Blocks are taken from the main body 
of this size, because it is a convenient size to float to the 
shore, and Just about right in weight for one horse !• 
elevate upon an inclined plane fi'om the water to the re« 
ception platform beside the ice-house. The blocks are 
conducted by men with band 8pikes to the shore alongnde 
the ice-houses, through channeb of water kept open for 
the purpose. They are then one at a time elevated 1^ 
horse power to the reception doors of the houses, where 
men are ready to take them, and pass them along on 
wooden rails to their places in the house, where by strik- 
ing a chisel lightly into the grooves, they instantly wefm^ 
rate into nine blocks each, of twenty-two inches wide, 
and of such thickness or depth as the ice may have 
formed. Mr. Hittinger remarked to me that a forma- 
tion of ice thirteen inches in depth is, on the whole, moil 
desirable and easiest managed. These smaller blockaare 
laid up in regular courses, so that when the house ia 
filled, the ice is almost as solid and regular as masonry. 

The tools used in this bunness are its own; peculiar 
and beautiAil. They are of great variety ; many of thea 
are costly, but very effective. The " ioe-cutter," aloaa, 
is considered as of the annual value, to the ice-cutting 
business of the northern United States, of twenty thou- 
sand dollars. It has spread abroad into several states, 
and has even gone to Russia. 

The ice-houses which I saw at Fresh Pond, are built 
above ground, and as near the manin of the pond, as cir* 
cumstanoes allow. Messrs. Gage, Hittinger & Co.'s hoa- 
aes are built of wood . They are 90 feet long, by S2 feet 
wide, and twenty foot posts. Tfacy take 45 blocks of ice 
length wise J and 16 blocks widthwiae, — ^ihe number of 
tiers in height being governed by the thickness the ios 
in different seasons may have formed. Thev have doa- 
ble walls, formed by framing two ranges of joists upright, 
into plates at tbo top, and sills at the bottom. The outer 
range of Joists is boarded up on the inside, and the inner 
range on the outside, leaving a clear ipace between the 
two boardings, of two feet in width. This fq^ce is filled 
with spent tan-bank, well trodden down. Once in about 
every Ave feet in perpendicular height of the two ranges 
of Joists, they are confined together, by iron straps, to 
prevent the sides of the liouse from warping out of 8bape» 

The roofs are of rafters and shingles, in the nanal 
manner of building. The bottoms of the ice-hooses ai«s 
of earih, over which wood-shavings are placed previous 
to getting in ice. When the houses are fall, the ioe is 
covered about ten inches deep with dry shavings. In the 
southern latitudes to which ioe is sent, the houses are ex- 
pensively built, usually of stone or brick, with double 
walls, containing either double air-spaces, or spaces filled 
with light, dry vegetable matter. Their excessive cost 
IS quite a hindrance to the enlargement of the trade; and 
if this could be modified, the business would advance 
more rapidly. Mr. Tudor has alone, $100,000 invested 
in these buildings in Kew-Orleans. 

Mr. Hittinger informed me, that when the weather is 
good, and the business is in (bll blast, he can employ 250 
men, and 70 to 100 horses, in the various methods of se- 
curing ice ; and that on such occasions, A-om 2 to 8,000 
tons of ioe are housed in one day, at an expense varying 
all the way fVom 10 to 50 cents per ton, the cost depend- 
ing upon circumstances, favorable or otherwise. While 
I was reviewing his operations, 80 cars, holding in all, 
240 tons of ice, were loaded in three quarters of an hour, 
or at the rate of a car in a ntinute and a half. The ico 
was taken to the wharf in Charlcstoa'u, to fill a vessel 
then loading. Five horses, each taking a block 5^ feet 
wide each way, and foik>wing sach other In quick su^ 
cession, drew the ioe from the pond,, up an InclUiedpiaDei 




to a platform lerel with the floor of the car ; in an instant 
the block was separated into nine blocks twenty-two in- 
ches wide, which were loaded by hand Into the car. The 
workmen acquire great dexterif^in handling, packing or 
loading ice, and are accustomed to the exertion of their 
utmost activity; but it was a wonder to me in this in- 
stance, howthergot through with the loading process, 
without broken bones. While cutting and securing ice, 
as many yessels are loaded as can be, because once hand- 
Hog of the ice is saved. A railroad track is so laid as to 
accommodate the busbess, and one engine draws a very 
long train at a trip. 

The vesseis for reoeiying and transporting ice. are pre- 
pared with a thoroughness proportioned to the length of 
Toyage, and time of aooomplishing it. For a yoyage to 
Calcutta, the ice-house of the vessel has first a floor of 
boards, then shavings, next saw-dust, and then shavings 
again, in all two feet in thickness. The sides of the house 
are so boarded as to give a space of some eighteen Inches 
between tiie boarding and the sides of the vessel, whioh 
tpaoe is filled with dry saw-dust, packed in as solid as 
posdble. The ends of the house are double boarded, 
with a like space for saw-dust. The ice is covered over 
with dry shavings. The water formed by the melting of 
the Ice, leaches through the bottom of the bouse into a 
well-room, and Is daily pumped out during the voyage. 
For Kew-Orleans and the West-Indies, the preparation 
«f vessels is less thorough. 

Some years, the winters in the immediate vicinity of 
Boston are feeble, and parties engaged in the trade find 
It necessary to seek more shallow waten, or to go up the 
failroads westward, to ponds away fram the tempering of 
the cold by the impulse of ttie sea. To meet this diffl- 
cnlty, Mr. Tudor is now making an artificial pond, in a 
low meadow on his fkrm, on the shores of Fresh Pond. 
It was last &n oompteted to the extent of four acres of 
sorlkea, and the work is to proceed forthwith when the 
* season will allow. It is to be four feet deep, to cover 20 
or 25 acres of ground, and to be fed with pure, fine water 
from the overaow of Fresh Fond. It is estimated that 
its construction will cost something below one thousand 
dollars peraeM. Its superior excelleDoe in produoiog 
farly Ice. has been proved this season, by ita showing 4in 
ice- surface early in December, rix incnes thick, while the 
deep pond bordering on it, was without any Ice. 

GalUng at the eounting-room of Messrs. Gage, Hfttfn- 
^ & Co., in Boston, some convermtion was had as to 
the beat opnsteuction of ioe-houses (br private families in 
the country. Mr. Gage remarked, that an ice-house 
built below the sur&ce of the ground, under a carriage- 
house, wood-shed or bam, would beet preserve ice, audi 
a covering being a good protection from the excessive 
heat of mid-summer ; the cheapest walls for the house. 
In the long ruui would bo those made of stone, laid in 
eement j that if- walls are to be made of a ftama work of 
Umber and boards, there should be a foot of space all 
round between the sides of the house and the tiarth-sides, 
to be flUed up solid with tan«bark— that being a non-con* 
doctor, and tending greatly to protect the ice from the 
warmth of the ground ; that a layer of wood sharings should 
be q>read over tlie bottom before putting in toe ; that the 
lee should be eloseW packed, and when all in, should be 
covered about ten inches thick with dry clean shavings, 
audi thickness being better than more, becanse if too 
thick a covering is put over the ice. the vapor arising 
Will be confined, and heat will thua be generated; and 
that straw is not a very good covering for ice, because 
it soaks and fills with moisture, and then lies compactly 
and hearily upon the ice, thus creating too much heat. 
Bedioniag the expenses of oonstructing family ice- 
houses, of repairing them f^om time to time, and of an- 
nually filling them, the yearly cost to a family of the 
luxury of ice will not &11 much under ten dollars. In 
large villages, where a good deal of ioa la wanted, fami- 
lies might consent to be supplied, daily, semi- weekly, or 
weekly, with a given amount of ice, at a stated price by 
the year, or otherwise. An enterprising individual, or a 
Mmpany, In a viHage, might erect an ice-house of joita- 
Ua sise iW aapplyiag the demand, locating it in a eon* 
venieat qpot contiguous to waters producing fine ioe, and 

do a profitable business at furnishing the inhabitants with 
ice, at less than half what It coats where indiriduala se- 
parately lay in a yearly stock of it. F. Holbeook. 
Brattltbarc^, fib. 10, 1862. 


Amount of Oheeae per Oow. 

Ens CoLnvATOB-^In the February number of the 
Cultivator, under the head " Stock for the Dairy,** I 
find some valuable suggestions upon the best mode of 
managing a dairy. It appears Arom the census of 1845, 
that *< the greatest quantity of cheese per cow, returned 
from any one county, was 226 pounds, from Herkimer; 
also from the township of Fairfield in the same county, 
360 pounds of cheese were returned per cow." 

I wish to make a statement through your oolums, of 
the amount of cheese made per cow, fh>m some of the 
dairies in the town of Newport in the county of Herki- 
mer. James Keith keep* a dairy of thirty-one cows; 
and in 1850, made 20,000 pounds of cheese. He also 
sold one firkin of butter, besides furnishing milk, butter 
and cheese for a family of nine persons. The cows had 
a little extra ibed in the spring of the year. This will 
give about 660 pounds per cow. Nicholas Smith made 
from 20 cows, a Auction over 12,000 pounds, extra ibed 
in the spring of the year. Alpheus Spencer in 1861 , made 
from 53 cows, 27,000 pounds of cheese, besides a couple 
of firkins of butter. John A. Fenner in 1860, fW>m 
thirty cows, made 15,600 pounds of cheese, bettdea ftif- 
nishlng milk, butter and cheese for nine persons. There 
are numbers more of dairies whioh would compare very 
nearly with the above. I think the average yield per 
cow in the town, would be about 400 pounds. S. F. 
Newport f Herkimer eoiinfy, if. Y. 


A finr Faeli from the BectwnltiBJet 

From a late number of this admirable Magazine, wo 
extract the following, well worthy of notice: 

SxLZCT Steawbcerixs. — The best five for family use 

are. Large Early Scarlet, Burr^ New Pine, Hovey's 

Seedling, Hudson and Orimson Cone. 

Law>s. — Red top or blue grass, mixed with white do- 
ver, make the best lawns; three-fourths of either of the 
former, and one-fourth of the lattei^-sown three Umea 
as thick as usual, early In spring, on dry mellow groui^^ 
rolled perfectly smooth. 

Thx Momaech Piae. — This, vrith others of the best 
of Knight's celebrated pears, is put down aa second rate, 
and some of them &r below that, 

MaeiiouAS.-^The only one hardy enough for Maine Is 
the Cuoumber tree, if. acumtao^a. ConepietM and Sou* 
langiana, have borne 20 degrees below zero, on the Hud- 

Rosxs. — ^The 12 following everblooming hardy roses am 
recommended as best: Ifybrid jPtrpcfeait^Madaae 
Laflky . Giant of Battles, Baron Prevost, WOliam Jesse, 
La Reine, Duchess of Sutherland, Aubernon ; Bourbone 
— >Madame Desprez, Bouquet de Flore, Souveidr de Mai- 
maison, Pierre de St. Cyr, Mrs. Bosanquet. 

The best hardy climbing roses, for ** the most north, 
era statet/'—Boursalt Blegans, Queen of Prairies, Balti* 
more Belle, Superba, Eva Corinne. 

PmoFiTS or Fevit. — '* We could point to 10 acres of 

Sound,'' says the Editor, ** from which a larger income 
a been produced, than ft-om any form of 5G0 acres la 
the eouatry." It may be well to add, that this result wae 
doubtless obtained by the combined action of knowledgaf 
industry, and skill, of the highest kind. 



Devon ball, tb« pmpertr of W. F. ftod C. S. Waiv- 
vBioHr, Rhlnebeck, Datchen coDiitj, H. T. — i«oelTed 
the flret pretnlan Tor DeTon ball* orer three years old, 
tX the ihow of tbe N. T. SUU Ag. Society. 1S61. Thli 
udnMl, DOW owned b; B. H. Tah Ruimilaib, Norrti, 
Oteego coDDtf , K. T., wu bred Id Engleod tj Mr. 
Qqabtli, one or tbe most emlneiit breeder* and Im- 

proTen of Devon alock. Heliabnllofniperiorpc^Dto 
—one of tbe bestoT tbe breed we have ever «aeii. Tbe 
ftrtfit, nnlbrtnnatelr, hu tAken tbe antmel la a podtioa 
by which the figure doe* him injnitice— fklling to ihow 
the enbctaiiGe, aod at the M»e time delicacy of poinlB 
and genertil aymmetry, which an united Id a tenerkabto 

partkalar, except for qeick or pkafure driTing, The 
mnle k Dnt a gonnandlier, and )f fed (nfflcleDt); at ught, 
aa3 It If Dot coDTenleDt to fted agaio till the next, be ei- 
perieDcei do IttcoQieDience. 

Tbe flnt coit of a good pair of mDlei, li more tbas a 
tpanof working bonea; bet the lUDle capital will bit 
for thirty yeart, wbila tbe entire borae capital mnit be 
ntDewed, at leait every teo yeara. Hy eatimalc fbr tba 
relative eipcDie of keeping a hone and mule team, !■ 
workiog order, b u follows; 

Span ef AerfM, «m« j/tar. 

V) qowU gm> »c1', par dair— «l bMb*la u !IT| eu Wn m 

Sionita*!. (ttepsr UHi, 40 M 

Shoamg one ■ month, hnir HW, IS ■> 

Famci'ibUl.aiiuBi-iiite. S ■• 

Dcfnciition «c)i veu 10 per CTBt on MX), MIM 

Pair of mulf, ont ytar. 
It qHR* MM, Mcb pn day— ST3 baaMa, •101 IM 

eiwriiif Miwmiii™ii'iaur'Bew,'.V.'.V.'.'.V.'.'.'.'.'.'.V,V.'. nm 

Depncmtun3pflroeDt 00 9300,.,^,,...^^..^, 10 W 

•143 M 
MikiiicilaluKetuhmo/'mBiss'; tlW W 

A mule i« no more likely to be vidoDi than the bone. 
Their virion and bearii^ eeem to be better, and Otef 
never take frigbt--a danger from which you are never 
secure with the horse. 

The breeding of mnlea Is an estemlTe bnsiDeaB Id sooM 
■ectlons of tbe western states. Tbey are mostly bought 
by New UaveD shippers, and shipped at the Sfie of three 
yeara. Tbe market price of anbroken mnles at Hew 
Hsren, Ct., in Urge lote, Is about cm each. This le tba 
best place to purchase, a* they can tbeo be selected ttvn 

AdTaatafee of Mulee over norsee. 

Ens. CoLTivAToa — Having of late received several Id- 
quiries re^MCtliig tbe advaDtage of mnle labor over that 
of the bora?, end thlnklDg some communicatian on this 
subject might be interesting to your readers, I take tbe 
liberty of addressing to you my own experience. 

For neuly three years, I have made use of two pain 
of mules, and meet of tbe time of one spea of borees. 
Tbe present seMon, I have two heavy spans of horva, 
tbe one wetgfalng about 2200 lbs., tbe other 23W— while 
tbe pain of males weigh only 1700 and 1900 Iba., respec- 
tively. Tbe horses and mules have both been used In 
banSng wood, tba average load being a cord of green 
oak. Tbe beavieat pair of mulea can ontdraw either of 
Ibe qiaos of horses, «nd are now Id as good condition aa 
In the fkll, while tbe hones have fiUlen away very much. 
In tbe winter, when taxed to their utmost capadty, the 
mnlei are fed 12 quarla of oats each, per day, and the 
horses 20 qnarts; tbe amount of bay consumed by each 
being In nearly the same proportion. When not in oon- 
■ta£t use, the mules are fed little or no grain, and In tbe 
■nnuner Diay be allowed to go unshod without iqjury. 
They suflbr less tluui horses tmvi the beat; are mt so 
eairfly teaaed by tbe Oiea, and are equally hardy to the 
ooM. They are lar less snt>Ject to disease, and will en- 
dure constant latmr for a much longer time. As they 
walk BO as to bring tbeir feetalmost in an exact line, they 
arc superior for plowing and working between the rows 
ef growing crape, beli« Icm liable to tread tbeni down. 
iPben bitched to a load, their walk Is more npid than 
tbe hone, and 1 conalder tbem preferable la almost every 


New-York State Agricultural Works, Albany, N. Y. 



1. wrN.NOWBR will 

. The ncceMU 

.. „ w Wiiuiow i> itucfaoirwic: 

iilh<ii:iMltTil>iiiMuhuus,niidctfn(iIniii ' 
M,iiHd iDiin euilr profnlM. Illuu ih 

l*<'ii lUirlv tilled. (■Inrfeiiumber having liaeiiiueonuiil OK dunng 
ihB \<n< Tkmhiiiii «*»■■,) uirl hm ■Inahf In nnM laHuiee>,n. 
pcntiM lliv taiM uppruval of tho olber kiiidB of Wiiiiiownit rhe 

Hxlratlfimm ■ LtBirfiam Wm. (Mors, Siq., of WaMreifl., S. Y. 
Kiowa. WuEUa. Aeuce. ti Co.; 
gtwlmun— Mr Uw elt wiaba na to layio too ihai bk Wiiinsmr 

11 ii unqudumiii'ly iln im» ptrfcn ihiiig ev«r gn up fiir Thriahing 
Jtp'H-allafiJHiirliiiiu, aiid 1 iiemr wtMW niiylhiiig whkh (m- hi 

O^iiiJcmni — If youeouLd He (ha adninUan yonr Wlnnowir re- 
cciro fivm all, T<ncBiildii«1>aIpt<s«liiisi>tDad<^ ii. Yon bmj u- 
neciMvanl rinlura froni haraueil •ami. Myucigbbon nieKraia. 
lli.ig furllKir wm lu lisve DH (ki Ibclr UirulJag, ^m will i>m em- 
pluy uilwi iiiMjMliw alihongh ilwy go abmn begging for wcrk. 

Film J. aUudtiuiuif, £•(,, AfUTHTi, X. I. 
M—n Wkidtr, UMiet f C«.: 

Geniltmrn— I iin pleastd !□ My ihu i)i< Threehar utd Winnmnr 

Fran J. U. Crieta, £i|., C«f BHiu, 71, T 
Mt«n. irK-Ar, Mdid. t Co.! 
OeHElamen — The Thretbor aitd Wimtnnw yon «Dt prorei 1o be 

beyiMril my cipectBlioiw- I have ttie pleahire of ^riiiiig to you for 

nieni]«riotiiynfW;._ _. .. 





ute. iSieir cuimriiy hiu b«eii leiled by repealed triaU ai well al Ibe 
Maw-Yorh *<iil I'nwaylvuiiB I^A •■, aion <«T*nl prtvHoDecukim 


caj> one whe™ w» ban an 
■I Fain, it ha* tateii iba hi 

nuAehiiia nerfiirmed iu wrvk jii B minataa Dijd id ce 
nUnale*, beini neariy aiie-Itilid in faiw nf ogi*. 

We have aliueihiluled nun inc«niw1i1>i» wlih th< 
H (be Siare Pair* ia ObM, Michignu hivI rnmylvn 
ibe Provincial Fail ol' Lffper Cujuida, el all of which 

aad DUeiMii 

highea neRUDRH, vii : In Obio a Hlnr Mi 
Mu^bigan WOi inPniuBylTaniaflO; and hi ( 

when webavt altvaya nceived (ba bifbea premiania awaited te 

Chain Power*. 

Priee of ooa Hone Fovar, Tbieabat, Sepvaler and Bdliag,. . •»! 

aaKKig other nnicln, CInrcr Hullen Slmiv uid Hialb Cuilen, fin- 
able Saw Mill! {adajied in Hone Powen,) and Single Puwen witk 
Churn Gear anacbed. TheK Ian are eiicveinly Baed in lain 
Dairiefl, aiHl are to arranged Ihat ihe Power » need al [ieanire tor 
eilhei ihreibniE. cbnnilng, wood Hwingr, a aher pirpaca. 

Orden are ulicileil and will be pronnilly Blind. 

t If tbrniUim, lAtnt t iVina SirHd. 
- -'- '— ■ -iidiiif,) Albany, N. Y. 

Emery 'I Seed Planter, 
^pARHANTED the bi 

or hillii. uiTillHuin anirl. from Then mehis to ei«tit feM 


y well adaplM for hand uae or for hone.. OTerone ihon> 

have been nit in uie during Ibe pan Ibor rear*, wiihooi 

fovliundred loc Ihii iprtng Blea. and aU Olden ahoold be 
J..O i„.,„b«ng*lK"in ™=,..««or,wUlbe n» 


da. Priea, 

Field Seede, anipoHd in pan o^ 

Black 3^ Bpri!«lvhea<, both red and wliha ebaff. 
lulian uid Hed^e Row ^jinug Wbeet 

SlJ^i^-EmuSi al■d^^,^««l Oala,ireryaup«§or fi* weight axl 

Broom Com Seed, tirperier quality. 

TilBolby and Orohaid OraM. 

Ptu aiid Risp eeede. 

ToBicto Sord, Ba-AB and Low leaf 

Piu~a choice aaxnmrnl nf Garden Pear 

P»M and Garden Peu. 

rue ID lhe[r niiine. The Rtlcnlioii of Gardeiicnia panicBlatly ealM 





BalSBM PiTf Arbor YitaB, and other Forest Trees* 

HBNBY UTTLB ft CO., of Bahoox, Maine, will faranh any 
nomber of Evergreen and other Forett Trees, takeii np with 
tmrA on tht roof«, with the greatest care, aiid sent to any pan of ihe 
Uuiied States by Steamers or Railroad— and eareAiUy packed in large 
boMS, at short notice, at the Mlowing prices, viz : 

From 6 inehes to 1 foot, at 1 cent, or #10^ per lOOS. 
From 1 foot lo 3 feet, at 1^ cents, or 915.00 per lOOC. 
Ite above prices refer more particolarly to Bakam Fir and Arbor 
Tilm Xreea. 
We charge what the boxes cost, bot nothing for packing. 
For two years past, the trees we have procured and sent lo a dis- 
tance, have lived generally, and have given good setisfactioii. Kver- 
freeni wiU not live unless taken ap with great care. 
Bangor, Jan. 1, 18Sd— 4l 


Om Catlh Stntty Ommo, Jftw-Yorh, 

V. T. ftXb flkniR, Fwiyrist ow , 

INYITB the atteutiou of Fmit Orowsrs, and Phuiters of Trees ge- 
nerally, to their large stock of well grown Trees, grafted and bud- 
ded by the prc^ietors ibemeelves, with great care. Oreater iuduce- 
ttti areoflbred here than at any other Norsery. Our stock of 
consisti of the lb)lo\ring kinds : 

40,000 Apple Trees, well grown, with ftie headi. 
10,000 Pear, the best softs. 
90,000 Ptech, the best sorts, one and 9 years okL 
13,000 Cherry, fine trees. 
1,000 Plum. 

SjiPO Isabella Orapeo, one and 3 yeaitold. 
Dwarf Pears, Dwarf Apples, Quinces, Apricots, Nectarfnes, Al- 
----- -«_.._ Pieplant, 

Stemliuite Strawberry. 


W. T. 4 E. SMITH. 

Hi^Und Noneriesy NewUnfvliy N* T. 

SAUL lb OO. haTe the plenNire to annowiee to tbeirpMrvM, 
and the fMie tw gnuuu^ that their stock of 

which ihey o0er for sale this spring, is of the very best qwdity, and 
•nbraces everytiiing in their line that can be procured in the trade. 

Dealers and Planters of trees on a large $eakf wiU be ireaied with 
on as liberal terms, as can be. done by any establishment of repota- 
tioo in Uie country ; they flatter themselves that for correctness of 
nomenclalnre of rreils, (which is a serions consideration lo plamers,) 
that their stock ii as nearly perfect as can be. having all been propa- 
gated on their OMm croonds, from mmd o uNcd $omte$j under the per- 
sonal sunervision of Mr. Sanl. 

They liave propagated in large qaantities,an th« hading wad ttamd' 
mrdmriniUj which art proved lo i)e bciit adapted for general onltjva- 

tioo, eqwcially diose roeommendod by the American Poradogical 
Congress, at its several sessions, as weU as all novel^Sj and certain 
kinds particularly soiled tocertaui sections andlooaliiiesof the Uiu<hi, 
and the Canada*. 

Their stock of Pear Trees is the largest they have ever had to ofirr 
Ibr sale, and among the largest in the eomitry, and eousisu of over 
dOjOpO saleable treos. 

Tite stock of Apple Trees is also very large, as well as Plums, Cher- 
ties, Apricots, Peaches, Neciariiies, and Quinces, alio Grape-vines, 
Sooseberry, Currant, Raspberry, and Strawberry pUoits in great 
variety, Ao.^&c. 

Also Pearson C^oince, Cherry on Mahaleb, and Apple on Paradise 
stocln^ for Pyramids aiid Dwarfs for garden culture, and of which 
there is a choice assortment of the kiticl« that succeed best on ihose 

DteiduoHt and Eoergreen Omanunial TVtes and Skrnbo, 

100,000 Deciduous and Evergreen Oniamental Trees, embracing 
all the well known kinds saitable for street planting, of szira tino; 
such as Sagar and Silver Maple, Chinese Ailamhus, HocftsChMtuoi, 
Caialpa, European and American Ash, Upright lentiscos leaved Ash, 
• Upright Gold Barked Ash, Flowerini^ Ash, Three Tlionied Aoacia, 
Kentucky Coflee, Silver Ahele Tree, American and Eorrpean Bass- 
wood or linden, American and European Elm in several varieties^ 
kji. Also all the more rare and select, as wull as well known kuKls 
suitable for Arboretums, Iawii and door-yard plaating, &c.j such as 
Deodar and Lebanon Cedars; Araucaria or Chilian Pine; Cryptome- 
ria japouica; the diiTereut varictiea of Pines, Firs, Spruces, Yews, 
Arborviteas, &c. 

WEEPING TREES.— New Weeping Ash, (Frasinus lontiscifo- 
]ia peudttla,) the okl Weepiug A«k,gohl barked Weening Ash, Weep- 
ing Japanese Sopliora, Weeping Kims (of sorts.) Umhrella Uaaded 
Locust, Weepuig Mountain Ash, Weeping Willow, l4irge Weeping 
Ohtrry, Weeping Birch, Weeping Beech, Ac, A,C4 together with 
eyery variety of rare Maple, Native and Foreign ; Flowermg Poach. 
Almond and Cherry; Chesuiuts, Spanish and American: Purple and 
Copper Beech; Juoas Tree, Larch, Gum Tree, Tulip Tree, Osage 
Orange, PMdowiua, Monutuin Ash, (American and European,) Mag- 
aeiias of sorts, with many other things— including some 900 varieties 
of Shrubs, Vines, Garden and Climbing Roses in great variety ; such 
M Hybrid Perpetuals, or Remootants, Hybrid China, Hybrid Bour- 
bon, Hybrid Damask, Hybrid Provence, Bourbon, Tea, China, Noi- 
saltoand Prairie Roees; also Herbaceous Plants in great variety, 
Ibo,. Jte.. for which see Catalogne, a new edition of whieh is just is- 
•Sed. and wiU be forwarded to all post-paid applicanu. 

A laive quantity of Arborviis for Screens, and ] 
6iiaffe for Hedge plants. 

Newbiu-gh, March 1, 18fil-3t 

Bockthom and 

THIS new variety of the Strawberry is for sale and will be sent 
onl, to appUcants in the spring of 1853. price one dollar per do- 
zen. Orders may be addressed to Samnd Walker, Roxbwy, or u> 
Mr. Aaell dowditch, at the Massachusetts Hortieultiiral Seed Store, 
School Street, Boston, 

The Frait Committee of the Massachveits Horticnltwai Society, 
report of the variety as follows:— ''Walksb's Skkoliso;** thtn 
strawberry has now been fruited three years , it is a dark colored 
berry, of good size, a very abmidant bearer^ of high flavor, very fino 
quality, and it wifl oe^ it is believed an acquisition. It is a stamumte, 
worthy, as the committee diinkf of an exiaided Tultivation. BostSM, 
June adtkj 1851. 

Fruit, Ornamental and Evergreen trees, shrubs, ftc^ for sale atthtt 
nurseries of SaKi UEL WALKER, 

Feb. I— Jt. Roxbnry, Mass. 


HOYSY If CO., Cam^ridgt Nwr$erie$j near BooUm, Mau., 

INVITE the attention of cultivators of choice fruit to their verj 
extensive c<41ection of fmit trees^ of all kinds^ more particulariy 
of pears, cmbraciiig every variety worthy of euttivatiou, fo be ob- 
minede ilfaer in Europe or this country. Of all their immeuee varieties, 
apeeimen trees have been planted out on the borders of the walks, 
iHimbering more than fwrfos hundred trees, most of which aie iiovr 
iu bearing, aflurding a fine opportunity for the iuspectioii of the Ouii. 


are now ofl^red lor sale, embracing all the popalar, pruved, and well 
known sorts, as well as every new variety, of recent introduction. 
Tlieir slock is unosually fine this year, and tlicy invite the auentioo 
of dealers and fruit cultivators to their v-ry extensive collectioM. 
Trees of all sizes, firom tn* lo teoon years old, both upon the qaiac* 
and pear stock. 

3,00U splendid trees of Swan's Orange, or Onondsga, one of th« 
largest and best of autumn pears^ one to five years old, many of tbcm 
follof frnit buds. 

6^000 extra sized ppmrnidai trees <m the quince, four to six yoai» 
oU, and full of firuit buda. 

4l>plM.~-Upwards of 900 vanatiea, inclnding all the new and s»- 
perior sorts. 

CAsTTMs.— More than 75 of the very finest kinds in cultivation. 

Flnms.— Upwards of 60 varieties, uiclodiiig among them Ae Hc- 
Langhlan, Oen Hand. Reine Claude de Bavay, Diap d'or Ei^rin. 

Feodum — Nearly 80 choice sorts, embracing Stetson's Seedtinc, 
White Ball, Reine des Verges, *c. 

JprieotSy NeetarineSj and Quineee of all th^ best kiiKls. 

Jbup6«m'«s. filmwftsmss, Cwrant^^ G itom bt rrU s^ Ste. in variety. 

" .'dprooed High Bladdmrf. one of the finest frails in cnltivaliDa 

4>ra|w«.—Sixiv varieties of the finest foreign kinds ; all eallivated 
A pots and suitable fur graperies i also ibe DIANA, which H. k Co. 
first introduced into notice, and which has pruved to bo the laoei 
valuable native grape. 

Figs.— Twelve of the best soru, including the Blaek of St. BCi- 
chaels, Nerii. Ac. 

Seime of tiie best kinds of Pears, Apples and other fruits. 

Stoeke for fruit trees, of the Pear, Apple, Quitice, Plum, Cherry, 
Ace., by the 100 or 1000. 

aedjge Flan«s-<XJ,000 Buckfhom, Privet, Arborviiss, Jfcc. AlM^ 
a great ooUectieo of all the finest 

Onuontiitia Treoo, Shnibo, and Xfirgneoi. 

Jmong v^ieh are fhefMomng rate hinda: 

Weeping 2W«s.— Weefiiiig Mountain Ash, Weepifiia Elm. Weep* 
ing lame, {^ sorts.) Weeping Ash, Weeping Po|Aar, Weeping Cher- 
ry, (S lortA,) Jkc. 

Bare Sftrnfts.— Weigelia Rosea, Forsythia Viridissima and SpiriM 
Pruuifolia HIeuo, three new and «egani shrubs, by the doaenor hwi» 
dred. Berberis Purpurea, an unique purple leaved variety, wiA 
foliage as dark as the nurple beech. 

Rhododendront and Axaka».-~K nilendid collection of upwards 
of 00 varieties, aUperfieOf hardfj and the most magnificent shrubs. 

Oak*. — Qnercus Fastigiata and Purpurea, twoel^:aat trees, of m- 

Mvergaeen 7Vee«.— Deodar Cedar and Cedar of Lebanon, Arauca- 
ria, Juniperus Pendula and Snicicea, Siberian Arborvitae, Piuiv 
Cembra, Cryptomeria Japonica, &c. 

Aoses.— flOO varieties, including 90 sorts of Prairias. 

Btahonia if«(/bh'wm, one of Uie most beautiful evergreen under 
shrubs, petfeetfy hardy. 

Vines and CUmbing Pfamto.— <7bmmoii Irish Ivy. Large Leaved or 
Giant do., GoM snd Silver Striped do. Wistarie giiiensis, Lonioera 
Brownli, and other sorts. Clematises in variety, J^c, ^e. 

And a iplendid collection of 

Green -kouM Plants, Hardf Perenniai Ftotoers, ^v., 

among which 900 varieties of Camellias; 35 of Aialeas; 50 of Fb- 
largouiums; 50 of Verbenas; 000 of Roses; 9S of Carnations: 50 
of Phloxes; 30 of Pmonies: 900 of Dalilias. the rare' Japan Lilies, 
Ac. he. Messrs, H. h Co. have been awarded the hif^st preminmn 
by the Mass. Hort. Society, for Roses, Carnations, Axaleas, CamcU 

lias, Phloxes, Rhododendrons. Pelargoniums, he. 
Oy^ CatalogiMs will be forvrarded by mail to all post-paid appU* 

A liberal discount to dealers and to gentlemen purchasing larg* 

(O^ Trees packed aaiely for transporlalioii to any pari of the Uni- 
ted Stales. Address 

March 1— 9u HOVEY h CO., 7 Merchant's Row, Boston. 




ImproTed Stock* 

CATTLE, of the Darhain, Devon, Hereford, Aldeniey, and Ayr- 
shire breed*. 
SHEEP, of the Native aiKi French Merhio, Saxony, South-Dowi), 
and Cocswoid. 
PIGS of th^ Lineoln, Suffolk, and Berkshire breeds. - 

From oar long experience as breeders and dealers m the above 
kinds of stock, and onr excellent si(aati<Hi lor purchasing ajid ship- 

C'ug, we think we can do as good jastice to ordeia, as any other 
>use in the United Slates. A B. AXXiEN Jb CO ,^ 

Jan. 1, 18Sa--if. 18B and 191 Water sL, New>York. 

For Sale, 

A THOROUGH bred Devon Boll. He has been exhibited at 
"tAree" agricultaral fairs, and has taken the first premium at 
each. He is a very superior uuiinal, and will be three years old next 

Feb. 1,1858— ^ Ashtmi Nuneries, fiuriingtoii, New-Jersey. 

Ayrshire Ballit for Sale. 

fl'^HF. tboraogk bred Ayrahire Balls *' General Taylor," and " Voong 
JL Prince,*' — the former i^ three years old, and the latter two years 
old next April. Both of them were sired by the Massachaeetts So- 
ciety's Imported IkiU " Prince Albert," and are out of the fine fall 
blooded Cows '^ Diana,'* and Primrose. They are in color dark 
brown — perfectly sound and docile, ajid are in all respects as desira- 
ble animals for l>reeders of dairy stock, as can be found in the coun- 
try. For terms apply to SAMUEL HENSHAW. 
Boston, March 1, 18S&— 3t. 

1^ _ij__i _ _ ■ — — —^ — ■■- 

Blaek Hawk Colt. 

THE BLACK HAWK COLT RAVEN, will stand at the stable 
of the subscriber, the ensuing seascm, will serve a limit- 
ad number of mares. Raven will be four y<*ars old the first of June 
next. He resembles bis noied sire closely, except that he is larger, 
weigbuig at thia time about 1100 Iba. He gives promise of making 
an extraordiiwry trotter, and is one of the wry bett of the Black 
Hawk Colts. His dam is a much admired Morgan maro^-greal 
grandsire, Cork of the Roek. 

Tlie rabscriber also offers for sale his Two- Year Old Stallion Colt, 
Falcon ; sire, Falcoii — grandsire, Black Hawk—dam, a well blooded 
Virginia mare. Falcon is a very beautiful animal, possessing in a re- 
raarkaMe degree the Morgan characteristics — of a kuid and docile 
tamper, already well broke to the harness, in which his action Is bold 
and el^niut. If he is not sold he will remain at the stabl e of th e sub- 
scriber fur the coming season. BOBBINS BATTELL. 

Norfolk, Comi., March 1, 18S2— at. 


THE great desire manifested hi New- England for proeoriiig good 
Pooltry, has induced H. B. COFFIN, i\r«w«M, JIom., to pay 
particular attention lo breeding and importing first rate stock. Ail 
penous desirous of having the purest and best to breed from, may de- 
pend upoii being faithfully served. Among many kinds of Fowls for 
sale by him, are the following, which he ia vary particular in breeding. 
Shanghae — Forbes stock. 
Imperial Chinese — Marsh stoek. 
Royal Cochin China. 
Black Shangbae. 
Bunnah Pootras, 
While Shanghais, 
J)ieal«rB in Fowls or ^gs for hatching, supplied upon liberal terms. 
Orders addressed to No. 40 Stau Sfrcti, Botum, will be promptly ex- 

Reference I » Mr. J. Van DirsKN, of Cincinnati, Ohio, who wil 
take orders for Fowls, as advertised above. 
Boston, Aug 1,1891— ISt. 


their works, are prepared now to receive and fill orders for Poa- 
dreile with dispatch, and in all eases with a/WaUy maMt^/befumlar. 
fftde, at their nsaal prices, 81.50 per barrel tot any onauuty over six 
barrets, .3 barrels R>r $5,— 98 for a single barrel, delivered free of 
cartage on board of vessel or elsewhere, in the city of New- York. 

The Company refer to their pamphlet (furnished gratis) for hun> 
dreds of certificates as to the efficacy, cheapneas. and superiority in 
all respects of their Poodrette over any other known manure for 
raising a crop of com— also to A. J. Downnig, Esq., B. M. Waiaon, 
Esq., Hon. J. P. Cashing, J. M. Thorbum & Co., and many others 
as to excellency as a manure for flowers and trees, and the following 
from Hon. Daniel Webster, Secretary of State : 

WASHncoTOK, March 19, 1850. 
" If I neglect the aimual parchade of some af this article, my gar- 
deuerer is sure to remind me of it. He thinks It almost indiipensa. 
ble, within his garden fence ; but there are uses, outside the garden, 
for which it is highly valuable^ and cheaper, I thiuk^ than any other 
manure at your prices. A prmcipal one, is the enrichment or lawns 
and pleasure growids^ in grass, wnere the object is to produce a fresh 
and vigorous growth m the Spring. Our practice is to apply it, when 
we go to town in the Autumn, and we have never failed to see its 
effects in the Spring." 

All commnnieations addreseed to the " LODI MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY, 74 Cortlandt straet, N«w-York," wfll meet with 
prompt oiiauiion. Jan. 1, 189A— Ot. 

Kew and Important ImviajiGe. 
ITortlMni V. TorkLhro ttook lug. Ck)., FlaMmigk V. T. 

INCORPORATED by the Legialatare of the State of New-Yor^ 
Jtdy. 1861. Horses, Cattle, and all kinds of Live Stoek insure? 
against Death, by the combinea risks of Fire, Water, Aoeideiiti.Dia- 
eases, &c. CAPITAL, •50,000. 

James Fur, Waahinsftoncoauty. Amasa C. Moore, Olintoa oomitf* 
Joa^ Pouor, ao John Boyuion, do 

OUf Abell, do Zephaniah C Piatt, do 

Pelatiah Richards, Warren oo. Cornelias Halsey, do 
Waiter Gaer, do James AveriU, do 

Wm. B. Calkins. Essex co. Jacob H. Holt, do 

Albert Andrns, Franklin oo. Peter S. Palmer, do 

J<^ii Hortoiu St. Lawrence co. George Moore, do 

Thomas Convey, do Henry G. Hewitt, do 

JAME8 FARR, Presklenl. G. MOORE, Platubuivh, 8e<**y. 
A. C. MOORE, Vice-Peat. 2. C PLATT, do TrsM. 
I. C. MIX, IN>rt Ami, Geu. Agent. 

October Id, 1651. 

Tkts company are now organized and ready to receive iq^iem* 
tioiis for insurance. It is confideiitiy believed that the owners ot va- 
luable mumals will avail themselves ci tlie atU-oninges offered by this 
mode of protection. If fire, life and marine immrances are proper 
and expedient, so is live stock insurance : the reasons for insuranee 
are equally applicable to all. 

The company have adopted socth rates aii, they believe, will Air- 
nish the means of paving ordiiuuy looses, without resort to on nsnrns 
ment. Bat to guard against cxtraordhmiy losses, winch may arise 
from contagious diseases or epidemics, it becomes necessary to ra- 
quire prenuum notes. ■ ■ 

To the Ownen of EortM aad Lire stock. 

QgUt ^ the Nwlkem New- York Lwe Stock ln». Co.y I 
Plattsbubgh, August 16, 1851. | 

The Direeiorff of the al)Ove Company, uicorporated bythe Legisia- 
tiure of the Stale of New- York, at iia extra sessioii in July, 1861, re- 
spectfully request your atteuiion tathe following facts bearmgonUna 

IsC. Value of this class of property. By the census of 1845, tbara 
wem at thai lime in the State or New- York, as follows : 


One-half a miUion, 505,155 


Over two millions, 9,079,3X 

Cowi milkedy 

Nearly a miUion, 090,490 


Over six mdlions, 0,443,865 

Over one million and a half, 1,584,944 

Without making any estimate of the value of this property, h is 
apparent that it is immense ; extending to every inhabited not, and 
essential to the health and comfort, almost to the existence of toa in* 

9d. These animals are suliect to disease and accident. It is Baser- 
ted by a Vermont Company, engaged in the Live Stock Inaoranoa, 
as a fuel which cannot be disputod, that the aggregate loss upon this 
species of properly throughout New-Enffland, is greater than the 
lovsea by fire ; at all events, it is a fact mutoubi ed that the annual losi 
is very great, and the oMnier is leA unprovided with any means (^se- 
curity against the hazard incident to this description or property. 

ad. Toe knowledge of this risk is one of the leading niudrauces to 
improvement in the breed of that useful and noble ammal. the horse* 

Men of capital are slow to invest large sums in a valuable animal, 
whose loBB tbey must every day risk, to the amount often from fiva 
hundred to a thousand dollars, in every valnable breeding horse. 

With the ample security to be affoided by sound Insurance Cobk 
paiiies, the investment of capital in horses and live stock may be 
nude as safe and safer than the corn'ing of freight on the seas and 
uilaiid waters. Marine Insurance has rendered this last busineai 
steady and profitable ; while without it, it would want the confidenoa 
which that oranch of bnsiness iww commands. Tlie absence of thia 
Insurance in the case of live stock is universally felt, while the own- 
er of real estate can command half or two-thirds of its value 
needed for an emergency. 

While the owier of the ship, " the play thing of the vritid, 
waves." may obiam any reasonable advance ; lite owner of eqtltaUr 
valuable property, invests) in horses and cattle, cannot obtaui a'doi- 
lar. The only exception being fat cattle destined for market. ' In 
vain does the owner of the horse appeal lo his industry or nsefbllM 
The answer is, that his property is liable to disease aiid accidental 
that aa security it is utterly worthless. 

4tli. The Insurance principle comes in. and does for him what Life 
Insurance has done for the young beginner in trade, taking awigy tbo 
risk arishig from the uncertainty of hfe. 

It \vill w for him what Fire Insurance has done for the owner of 
personal prc^erty ; placing him nearly on a level MritlMhe owner of 
real estate. 

Your aid is respectfully solicited in behalf of this company, thefiiat 
chartered hi thb state for this chfeci. The Directors mtend it aholl 
be prudently conducted, and one which shall deaerve the eoufidaoM 
of the public. 

Terms of insurance will be Aimished by the agents of the oompoaj. 

GsoBos Mooxs, Secretary. JAMES FARR, " 

Dec. 1— 6t. 


Agricultaral Books 

F all kinds, for sale at the Cnltivator Office, 407 Broadway, Al- 

£MEST * 

lUnuftatoiT on HuniltoD. Libwii7, and OaiBaOn^ 


DoitDf Itw l>u< lwoyem™,wel 
lmfni§i INnnn, with Tbiwher 

natt) u tinxd uid libenl. Tlia 

R idU nwiT ode IhoDHbt te 

wl hefinl all Ibey fiouM hj, aad Ibca in |J« 

'vrenly doUs."" 

■mrdeil Ifas Mi|:liMI Preniinir-aod ill bi-lh Itina cvo, kMbn I);* pat- s In ISSI, at thkib Put uiiu> at Rdcbutu. iIk June f^fleiHT^HM 
wo* wen u iierr«t iH luwi ainl iIm wurVinani'liip, hi laHh laving beeii ^ ue|IhiuiwLoiDuonien.kieuerqueli£asl.araUn<1iini uHt cue htvova'M 
dona Ibr Be hy cnulrscl. IhAh* ms nwe euabliil, wilbiwr AuUiike, ludoiJl i tlwwkole taviajtot Ibe I-'air, bir* btin or »ii aiuu lieircDrnLlr"* 

ij. Tl>e coo-unnat 

__. . euiirelyiKW, ai 

uU liie wurUiifr ■» wdl or """' '" """"■" 

il will do IbD nme lliinfi 

Emery 'a — two naiiijiihPmuif fiini 

, _. \ " larpr buuJkj <rf ■ 

/ Ibe lana t<ncialy. Ike iiiejatiiy M' ivbiwi nwlnUa|r commillH V " ihrre mUHiie*. w 

mre nine Uia cunijicuii; Pinter wbii.b rcfrived Uic awDtil iu { " Horws Pnwar ■ ei 

'■— inlWreiice liir na auperior c<milnie1ioii» cnae TiT \ Thii repon of ihi 

.n ■■_^i.« .„. ^^1.. ~..~i — ^.1,. [.ni,;ir ihei J dUTirence iiiUia rn ,., _. 

»..--tf».^ , 1.A1 «i.ij:.i,at_ jt f^figj^iiy ^^[ ^ wb?n -waiiale lliai ilurw LbeMfV 
•aiil Pair.wUiBnemlrelyiKwPuwcMburT'iviod&ribain 

baB>iBDaealablWitdilaAKierinrilynTniwc''iiipeliIar,byrrt(ii-h«ibeHi|tbcal > " laiily of Pumn, Ibcy were lequirnl lofri't-atea 

aad mly PraiaiaD IB ]|ifil,uid in onnpetiliiiu wilb l!.e laiiie Power, ami u > " larpi buinnu tt wbeal; ami iHHwiUieiuiiiliug \V 

.L..._ .. ... 4,..! — ..._..._■__. ._..>. niiaf commillea J " ibr« miimiea, we nro ••!" Ibe i^' ' - -' ■ - 

hI Uic awotil iu { " Horws Pnwar ■ eulblul lo ilie Pre 

jinual Fajr. prox'i 

, , ._j^(,lhiifT"iwiodforibai«««j 

. .. _, .._... -„ , M- Wierwood. «f Anbuni, loiriKHn i1 wiw eolil ei^ne weifct"] 

Pah or TSn Ntw-Yoan Stiti Aaalct-LTSBAL »>c1ktt at J in ■irhante Air oiie of ^,Y^rtn'^ mamlkcinra. but do( ;« aiilW 

Aldast, ™ IMO, Ibe « - 

ooly PnnUnin on iba Budlaau'bain l*owr 

ih ihrw i kM of whei 

tinf b, we rejiawtd^ ibntM, el 

albmi aim ma wliii'li wnellieWhe^orRaJIWAy Power. iDudBUkdemered by i wjib bul two-thinU theirarelof (be Ikonea. reqnjred by Iba Wbaalu ^4 

ibiaailni,(lheBmaa>wehancxunavelrRiniDru:UiTdui>laoldliiraeTe- i lodoilieiaiiie work; whilellialaam aaedby Ohdi weia ft«a«te*H 

niraan.) Tba ahalnaan of ibe ewanUnn conmiiK* eayi of iba loacbiiHa i with and wall Inke to ibeir Poww, and thait Taai Rnnr ^^a anaaM 

mSOamwx " Wa ipaDi Boob tinH in eiamuiinc ihg Tiriooa Pewan, Gia < ud batjac baaa pMrioody aaed at aamal Faka. Hd in «ood *«&■•■ 


%^mm mmmwrn s^aa mm mmm ipowsa- 


o<u* ud Sal* BoEun*, Nw. Me tnd 3n BrMdv^. 

I. ¥. 

Pnwcn, 5 inil uoly Prelniam heinj; iHrtrAsl ii> ■ 


l?t "Wii HjiliMrwnrtlii«iimeiotighiwinnn».oriiMulimnl««TMMf ' 
1*1 |g «Bpn l U> on ortEmrr worV •luriD^ llie wMs Fsir,) wc thii.k i 

n JiDpcrtHi. nd ihsr jvaiice u> iht 

IlI Slid Uijiii'iuB— I1.C Fint 
i>tT— T^t'^'ii Putin. 

r OCICTI or P»K 

peiiiiDn, vhiili ■iiojlsr Tctuil — Ihc i'uLt 1 

R»* Puwei — ihs Mm ami oiJf Prtniiuin I ciiin n»»nkil lo a nnck ninl 
Pinion Biglmj Powv nadc wiibni diu Muie, wl.ich wiu mure pcnrctly fii'dl 
•ml &uihai( iuiill iu ruuiiiiw pul* Ibrii uiyiiinilir inniltiiieiii rvci puliicly 
eahihiiel. working vrlih ilio Icbm pca«i1;lo fiidhfii^-vtliflc mr ovu wu modfl 
» UHid, uid nem luml At il^tiMiiir IwtMy baahda t4 gn'r 
tHiMita si dib Pair. We ihill agrain uy wi chUM ihe n>nt 
bop* IS HKHd in Mwtnuiiiip: ihc HOcd iisne ihcre vlikh h uktoya riarwriETa. 
Ai iHi Put ot Ta« AmmcAK iMTrTliM. ih leal, we »«» icwuita] iha 
only Premium, ihiir '' Gold Mtta„" lot umt Pawn-, coinrauu wiih oiben. 

wc were imrilrd ■ imniijf of Tea IMtsn ■ml ■ IKpionu tor eur Power. « 
eilubiiicgi wjih ilie 'Wlieelen anduben— Il4 Firal Frcmliini not beiDg gwaid. 

At m im Phoiiioil Fii*. m 1861, wc did ngi ccnpet* u tU— (ka 
Wheelei Power abaw bainf aUbiled (rtm IhaSlaltk 
Out Power kai^alaa been eihtbiled ■i»nrt|raU ibe Coanlr Fiin DTOik 






BMt l^lcti«HarT •€ the Kaf Iteli Xi 








EmMre IV^orli. VmsbrMlseti, 14M Paces, Cromrn <i«wrt«, 

8iK Aollara. 












Foiming a Complete Series, and affording a National Standard, thus securing 
Unifonnity of Orthography and Pronunciation for the millions that 

are to oonstitute this vast Republic. 


The leading Series cf School Booke published in this Country y are hosed upon 

WebsUr's System, 

*«* Tbere in no other scknowledoed Standard fai tUa ooimtrv or Great Britain ; and the 
following, among many othen, ahow ue riewa of prominent gentwmen through the oosntry, 
on thia aubject : — 


** We rejoice that it bide fair to beeone Uie Stakbako 
DicnoNART to be naed bj the nttmarooi millioat of 
peojile who ere to inhebit the United StalM." 
9f i04 MtmhtTt af OmgrtfB. 

" We reeommeod it to ill who deiire to iiowew THE 

Danikl WiBiTBR, Lswie CAse, Thovab H. 
fiirroic. end thirty other members of the United 
Btatei Senate. Millard Fillmorr. Tbko- 
i>ORR Frbluiohuyckn, Chftbortlor of UnivertitT 
of N. York. Wiluam H. CAimRLL, Ed. N. T. 
DfBt. Sehool Journal. Gborab N. BRio«e, Gov. 
MamaebmeUe. Wiluam B. Calhour, See. of 
State, MaMaehuetti. Richard B. Rvbt, Com. 
Common Sebooh, N. Hampthfre. T^bodoRb F. 
Kiro, Sup. Behoob,- N. Jetiey. Robbrt C. 
WiMTHROP, Speaker U. S. Hooae of Rep. Ed- 
mund BuRKR. Com. Patent!. Johh Your«, Got. 
New York. CBRiiToraBR Moroan, See. State 
Jc Sup. Com. Seh. N. York. Altah Hninr, Tree*. 
N York. Rer. Samubl H. Coz,D.D. Ltmar 
Bbbchbr, D. D., Pre*. Lane Seminary. Caltin 
E. Stowb, D. D., ProC do. Rot. Hbmar Hum- 
PBRRT, D. D., late Pree. Ambent Collefe. Rer. 
RxRA Krllbr, D. D. Pree. Witlenbeif Collefe, 
Ohio. M. A. Dcrhl, Prof, in do. N. A.Gib«brI 
Prof, in do. Bbiuamin Labarbr, D. D. Prm. of 
Middlebury College ; and other distioguiibed gen- 

pnnrineialiime, lo to apeak; and prodnoe nnifonnitj and 

Wofdi woold then 

elefanee in the oae of our languafe. 
be nied by erery one in the laaie aei 
defined by thai able tosieogiapher.** 

in which (hey are 

Got. Wood, pf 0U», m kis Ammuml M—sagt, J t Mrn arg 

ISSSt, remark* : 
^ It it admitted to be the mort valuable work of the 
kind extant, by the learned men both here and in Europe j 
and iti general nee in our ■chv li would break down all 

Gor. Eaton, tf Fermvut : 

'* I had the giaUfieaUon of Memff WBB9TBR*a Dio- 
TioNART adopted aa the Standard Dictiorart for the 
Sehoob of Vermont. I was gratified— became I Alt that 
this work was worthy tohe* SUndard ; that It afibcded 
a safe harbor after long tossing upon a sea of -doubt and 
uieeitainty ;-^ seeura resting {daee from the fluctuations 
to whieh our hmguage has long been subjected, and to 
which, wUheut this work, H woiUd still, as much as ever, 

Hon. F. W. Sbreman, Btate SuperinUmient ofSekooU 

in Michigan : 
" This work baa been adopted as the Standard Dic- 
tionary in the sehoob and colkwas of most of the States 
of the Union : and State offieen in charge of tlie system 
and sBl^leet of Education, io various Btetes, have reoom- 
meoded appropriations for its purchase by the legishiture.** 

Sbcrbtart Morgan, irf JVe» York: 

"As a Standard of orthography and orthoMy, its 
claims to general adoption have been recognised by tlie 
BMNt eminent scholars and st atesmen of our land ; and as 
a purely American work, prepered at great expense, and 
emanatmg fW»m a sooree entitled to die hMiest eredit and 
respect, it commends itself strongly to the adoption of 
our Sehool Districts generally.** 

PRor«eaoR Stowb, tf 

'*The Standard, wherever the English language is 
spoken, it deserves to be, must be, is, and will be." 


t^gr Dr. Websfcer^a £ JKMtional Booka are belieyed by intelligent judgee to have done more 
than any other oause wliatever, to aeoore that freedom from provincialisma, and uniformity in 
the pronttnoiat;9U and nae of language, ao remarkable in the United Statea, eapeoially oonaider- 
ing tlie great and oonatant in6ux of foreign popnlataon. 

tW * Gentlemen intereated in popular edooation, Saperintendenta, Teachera, Parenta, and 
othera, are respeotfuHy invited to confer the adaptation of Dr. Webster's Series of Dictionariea, 
&o., above mentioned, to secure and perpetuate thia desirable uniformily. 


fllOI«]> BT AtAU BOOKSBIil^BltS. 










<< A N«M» M^jsBMseMl •£ 1irmJkltii»u,**''l.»mitn iMtrurg Oat. 







Tibrating and Revolving Separalon. 

The abore Thrtfhen have been exteiMlvely mannfaetured and 
•old by viibr the past aU yean, and with a iteadily inrrwMiny de- 
maud. Dunnir the two years last past, and with our latest IrajroTed 
Rail Road Power^ their, s^e has more than doubled orar the same 
length of time befere. 

Althooffh over two thousand of these freshen hsTe been sold by 
us up to lEiis time, and whbout exception have given the fullest sati^- 
Actioo as heretoK>re made, we can safely say they are, as now 
made, worth at least fiAy per cent more than hereKNore, and with- 
oal any iiiorease in prices being eharged for them. 

Then- oonstraolion is soeh that the grafai and straw are carried by 
Iha eylinder from a level feeding tame, oww and between it and 
the concave, which is plaoed above instead of below as is generally 
done fai others. The cylinders being 96 lo 30 hiehes long, and 14 
inshea diameter, are much longer but smaller than those generally 
in nse-j-giiong more room for feeding, in pnlportion to work done, 
and doiiw it nearer the centre of motion, and working easier, as 
the smaller the diameter the greater the power. Again, we require 
fa«t about half Uie number of spikes in the cyiuider, and an increased 
aution, so that the spikes may pass through with a velocity soffi- 
eient to take off all tiie grain. 

T^ coneavea have an increased number of spikes, which for both 
eyUnder and concave are swodged into uniform shape and size, from 
the beat Swedes Iron, 'niey are set with an incliniation which ad- 
nits the straw and grain to pass freely, and with as little breakm^ of 
the straw as is oousistent with a perfect separation of the grain— 
thus producing a sort ot strippinff or carding process. The concave 
is so coniued as to be readily aqosted and present any deaired angle 
of Iheapikas to the grain, and also increase or decrease the capacity 
of the throat, thereby retaining the straw a longer or shorter space oif 
time in passing, as the euiditioa and kinds of grain may re- 
quire. By this arraiigement, there is a saving of power of from 30 
lo 50 per cent, over i&e ordinary Tlireshers, whose spikes pass each 
other at right angles, which operation ueceSHirily breaks the straw 
into many pieces at the expense of much power — a process much 
mofe easily done with a good hay cutter with diarp knives, than 
with the roonded edges which well formed spikes present to the 
straw. The feeding-table is level, allowing the feeder to stand ap- 
right and be little annoyed by dost^ dirt, Ac. ; the over*shot motion 
mvoida aeeidants to men or machine, (by pcerventins any stones, 
Btieka, Ae. getting into it in feeding,) which fireqaenuy oecnr with 
the mclined feedina board. The grain by this motion ia elevated 
aofficiently to be tnrown upon a la^e seive or s^Mrator, where it 
in aeparatad tmm the straw and lUls dwongh upon the gronnd or 
floor, together with the fine ehaff, dust, Ac, while the straw is dis- 
chaigedrat the end c4 the separator, rsady for stacking or binding. 

The ShaAs of onr cvlinders are made of solid oast steel, mannme- 
t«ral and imporlad for us exprcHnly for the purpose ; and all the 
bozea or bearmga are made of or lined with BabbeC metal. The 
bozaa used by ua are always of two peta^ in order to be adlosied as 
thay may wear, or to vary the position of tiie cylinder) aa wdl aa to 
allow them to be removed, if necessary for cleaning ot repair, with- 
oot removing the pulleys or other parts of the machine. This is an 
important aovanlage o^er those braces which are made of a aort of 
tube, and only removed by first removing the poDeys, he. he, and 
are never adjastaUe to accommodate themsdves to any wearing. 

The Pulleys are polished and fitted to both ends of the shaft and 
oonfined by nuts ana screws, and with onr India ruM)or bandwhieh 
we invariably uae, form a perfectly air-tight oonnectioo; theroby 
bringing the abnospheric pressure to our aid, and prevenling any 
dipping of the band. A baud of this kind, say 30 feet long and 3| 
inches wide, will drive equally strong when four inches looser 
than if made of leather. This kind of band requires little care, 
oompared with leather, is equally pliable in all temperatnres. and is 
BoC uected by dryness or wet. grease, acid or dust. It is made with 
bat one joint and that smoothly cemented and copper riveted, and Is 
oqnally durable for straight bands as leather, the difference in eoat 
being a little in ftivor of mdia rubber. The chief advantage of naing 
these bands, is cauainf leas alreas vpon the sfaafUk allowing them to 
nm with less fiiction and wear on both riiafts andf boxes. 


Daring the past three years we have spared neither time or money 
■aendeavoriag to produce, at one and th» same time, a CLEANING 
THBBSHER, whieh will perform as well and rapidlv as oar 
Thresher and Separator, witn the aame foree of men ana team to 
oyeiaie it, whMe the increaaad eoat of each oombinaiieo should not 
oaneed the value of a good Ihnning aiU, (say S5 to tao.) Daring 
the past two seasons we have succeeded to onr entire satisfocticn in 
alt l e au e m s excepting eoat of constmotion, the increased expense of 
naaanotoring being some fifty to seventy-five dollars, and bringing 
the price flilly op to that of Pitts' celebrated Patent IVeriier and 

Ubaner, which has been extensively and favorrt>ly known through- 

the past afiae: 
Ihr two hut soi, well made, and driven by oar two horse power, will 

m yeara ; and v^n adapted 

oat tiia whole oooolry for the 

for two hm sei, well made, an^ 

do as well as any now in use, our own not excepted, setting 

perhaps aomething in quantity of work done. 

The gjeat excess of the demand being for our Threshers and Sep- 
arators instead of Cleaners, we are ccnifelled to confiue ourselves 
and fikcilities chiefty to the former, making Cleaners oiily to order, 
sad at the price of one hundred dollars each instead of soTcnty-fiTa 
•i heretofore advertised by ns. 

From oar own observations, and the slow adoptkm of the Cleaner 
QOmbined, when used by farmers with bams ana for their own por- 
poaea, we would not recommend them on the ground of eoonomyi 
aa the grain can generally be threshed better and fhMer with the 
Boparatnr? and the simi^city ol the one as compared with the other, 
togeihor with the diflanace of skin reqalted in those alianding both 

kinds, is vaadT In fiivor of the Thresher and Sepavalor. ThpseAu^ 
mors using their straw for feeding, or selling in market, find it much 
more valuable when threshed with the Seporalor. It is entirely free 
from the dust, dirt and fine chaff which is mixed thoroughly throo^ 
the whole mass by the current of air tlirownfrom a Cleaner. 

In field threshing and where time is of the greatest cnnskleration, 
and there is risk from exposure to weather, the straw of little vanMy 
larxe Cleaners, with more men and horses, are often preferable. 

we have received many complinientajry letters concerning <Nnr 
Thresher and Separator, and in everv instance where both ha?a 
been used the preference for economy naa been given the Thresher 
and Separator for farmers own uae. 

We cannot better expreas the general feelin* emong me ftrmera 
concerning the relative advantages of ThreaheTS and Heparalov^ 
and Threnhers and Cleaners, than by giviuff Extracts from serom 
correspondents who have seen and used both. 
JEstrad /^vmlsttsr •/ Rosol KoLBOuan, •/ PmU flW, if. T. 

"Sirs,— Since the first two hundred bushels of wheatthreahai 
whh your laleM improved Rail Rood Hone Power and Thre^ig 
Machine and Separator, they have performed well. Two or thraa 
fiirmers, neighbors near me, desire machinea for their own oae: 
how soon can you ship ihcm after they are ordered, end c«i yon 
sell them any less on account of the latenem of the m^»*>^ * ^""f* 
very much to sell two or three of them here, if possible, not only 
because I think the purchaners would lie belter pleased with then, 
but because Mr. Osborn, Wheeler's agent, and who has one oT 
Wheeler's Two Horse Power ThrrsherH and W*™*];^ ."^I^ " 
determined that none of yours shaU be ioW if he cmnrprevent it. 

In a subMqneni letter, he again writes us, "TJe ^^orelMeoi 
Wheeler's Power sixl Wmoo wer, the more I don't like it ner aon 
thresh just about seveuty-five bushels of first rate wheal per day.*' 
Sttrmemf UUw frmmY^. H CHALMMa, Iftfi O^iwaf, Sm; C0. 

" OentUmen,-^ have a anpll team, and, wkh «<^*« ««™°5 
and wiUwet their drawing in Siamese, I put through »"«V5«*J^ 
of wheat at the rate of one hundred every ten minutes, 1M«»«JJI 
thorooghiy . Much more could be done for a shwt tune ; bni Imjm 
with t£i elevauon and labor of twm as luse m f<»»^2^SLJ2S!^ 
I firmly beUeve your improved Power Thresher and Separ ator wm 
supeiside anything I have seen Many farmers prefer AeT^r»wher 
ai£separat(« to lEe Winnowers, as grain em be threshed fa.lgr and 
better Jviihoul them^-requirina less raw^'jf.f^ViJ^LSaMS 
time for cleaning with a gooa Faimmg Mttl. ^.J^JJ^/^^JS 

Wheeler's Horse Powers, with T>'«»»«^"!^2?L!™!',**jIiS2 
here, threshing but one quarter ss fast as I dp with »«" ™*<™Jr 
An ^igfat HoSe Power,^with Thresher «d,C»«««i;;^»^*^ 
vicinii?, requiring twice ••. m««y «^^ » J^TS^^tf^KSf ^ 

vicinity, requiring twice as many ™«°i '■ J^^~:7t^r' 'kIA 
taUng awi? the Jtraw from both, to threiji leas par djj »*«« 

I wi^ yoa to write me if you !»▼• °»^« »7J1!2K^^U>> 
mine, and have yoa Powera, Ac , on hand, aa I expect to seU soma. 



•, fhi. 9< last. 

« GeoilaaMn,-^ AAer givnig yoor improved Horse Power ™«*Mir 
mid lKSmSrathoro4k aJTl coosidw^^ 

SSitrtrieTit wStom my P«rf«^V^»SS d2L.ti£?un3?sSJ 

JSS5SS£.g wSl iSrS^ ^^"^ airangemwit. 

power or woikmuMbip." ^ «-«. 

JWrarta/lsttsrAeatW.D Miumii, ^^^"--^ f*^;^;*^^^^ 
"GenUemen,-! write to know y<>wJ«™J SSuZS^^whShl 
Rafi Road Horse Power. 1 enclose a copy of ^®22L\«bWJ 
SSivrffrom his_yent; and if your, <«>P«?ff^:^^2?S 
oousider this an oiSr for one Jfor which Iwill "J^" "SiTof E 
yovawwer. I have tried i^ieeler's J^^^^.^V*' J^lSiSml 
V^L bat find the friction so great upon the pmions that it caMca no 
to thhUc it oaanot be a lasting power." 

JWrwlAoai imtr qf J. N. RorriMa, mf^gtmiU.J^f. ^J^' 
'iJSirsInH-YoS laat ••». o^"^-* Homo P^~jn^ 
and Separaw baa "i^Wy •"Jved^ m J« Jj^^TSSSiioi^ 
whole have giren the best of «t»ifi««»"»~JJ'l!?iJ!S^3^ 
IVe?yone. A Saw MHl has not been tried, tat pie«««i^{^ 

iiBo w !»»%» yoor opinion <~. . 

always ready lo give everythi ng its d uo." 

our Threshers and Separators, and •**;. ^^JJJIm nenooi fiom 

Horse Powers, ^^ ^ ^X^^^^^SS^^^^^ 
among the manylo whom we hnverecoitiy sow »««, ^^^^ ^ 

excloSire the ^lyler PJ^T'.SaSS eih' Sd inSS?3 

favor ofour own, of from five ^J^^^Sl^ ' 

cases, they are being used for public threshing. 
Hon/m. SHERWOOD, Attbwn,N. t. ; 
JNO. McD. McINTYRE, Esq . Albanv> N. T.^^ 
JNO. N. ROTTIBR8, EsqTl^argevitfe, Jefleraonoow,!!. «., 
H. L. 8TEWARTS7Root,Albray Comity, 
JACOB LANSING, Qreenbuah, Rensselaer County, 
REflBEN YOUNG* Berne, Albany 92«a7» . rw.«f . 
OBORGB L. HAYilES. F^dtonham, ?«>ff«SJ,^^ 

SMITH * CO., Canaiohane,Montgon»ry^j«»yi 

DETMAR, Canaioharie, Montgomery ^^^y^yt 

DEIVBNDORP/Fort Plain, Montgomery Coo«y, 

R 8TILWELU Port «>«» M^Ufomery Courtlyj^^ 
COOPER h WOODRUFF, Wmertovim,J^r«mC^ 
JNO. A. DUNN, (Saratoga and WhiiehaBR.R,) SM«Wfa, 
JOHN POST, Boonvffle, Oneida County, N. Y , 
ELA MERRIAM, Leyden, Lewis County, PT ^^. 
J. C. COLLINS, fconiaUovaio, Lewis County, N. Y. 




WM. R. PRINCE * CO., Flwblag, 

• Off AtfiBoKimt IVw.- 
'DEARS.— An InmcnM nuoibcr of mII lina, fnm 3 ID 8 ynn, 
Sl gnAad— mcludiug •miiduiU, niid Pynuiuibuil Psu ninlQiunc*. 
Of Ik(H ■boul B,nw u« mry tun, uid in ■ bearine •lute. 

APPLEa CiknriH, n-nu, Jf™>u, PwJIu »d QnHcn, oT nil 
Ktt^h^taiiftnni'aKiiaiiisAct extra lurceiin, aHLUbls fotim. 
nediala beariiyr. EMr(THi> IV«i ami SknSi. >iid olher Ommim- 
tiil Trttiatd SlmUtry, of ulialutc iiHa fur pronipl oniamcm u 

(mit IViuiiiut Skrsli ^iiniiU(riiiii,yDF miTiwuf, Hid ftir rar- 
Cnten iniHFluiMl uid 'laubtiilicd— ui/ inoompu-Bbly Hiperior 

BTRAWBERtU&S.— A cnUeclioii ■Jtogalbn'oiiivall>d,u^ vlkh 

Ajburvilv Ud ocber EvAfgrMIU, LLid 0«age OrangVT tud Wuh- 
innoa "niiTii, fee badgo. 
Cbany, nun, Feu, Affle, Ajigsn qainci, luil aiber Hoclu, far 

Oiiec BoiiHuof tit 

SprtX HllL Pipfiii, ■ .[iperior Kedl.nR of th. Newin«Ti Pippin, 
tM par doiH. Suiuf Hifl Upiizciibcrg, ■ liiui lecdlMii of lite tm- 
po* B|iitl.nb«(, BIO par doeii. Qusvii nf AufUit Pcur, new Amen. 
«■■; Tarr lBrn--BelunK and diliciuui, (a fur >ii, A large collec- 

varr iBT».-nclun| 
of OfflaDfeaiu* plaul 

Ih%c «l'e 1 'w'lo ciM 

of Tna Pianiei, »w)tiuiig abtna 9,000 JllilPla. 

iE«u* piauli oT all kuidp, Ivr K>le low Lo cluae up, 

b« largefl eolleetioEi — eompiiAliig all llie new anilf 

•_■«_■ <■ srary iliiia, willi ■ Mock of Tie* !(<■<:•, 4 lo "^ ' 

IKm UO Rilcodid doDble nrieilu 

A (pleiipH coUecuMi of Califi] 

All Ibe cboiceD Foreifn and Native Grapei; Ihe Hnefl Figi, Rau- 
beiriei, CoiTBiiie, Gouaebrriiet and Khuborb. llie fiuert iiew Dah- 
liaa, Geraiiintni, Fuchuas. Veibtiian. Ijuge and Litlrpuiiui Chry. 
aauihemunu, Verbeiiai, and Phloi. Japiii end odier Ltliei, Calochor- 
tna, aud ■ general uaoninenl of BdIIii, 

Pricrd CBLBlDgnes, ■« ibllAwa, ■cnlKipDfi'puiapplicajilieiicloaiDg 

No. L Fmaand Omanuntal Treu. SIiidU and Planu. No. 3. 
Rawa, 1,000 nrinio, aiid Supi^eiiKitl. No. 3. Eitra luge Fiail 
andOmunMlilTM, *e. No. 4. Nowaiid raraTrcetninlPlBiiu. 
.._ . ,.,._..__._ ^_... ,_,. April !—». 


ndid A"""-' Bal«, by Auction, of 

TXrH-I- "''• P""" " MOUNT FORDHAM, 1 

JUNE », 185*. 

Applicai™ ,«v- ^ 

aeA, ko u to make it m oUaei fbr penoiia at 
poriiiTo to the biitni bidder, wiilioui rcKr< 

Numbering ahom BUt bead of Homed Stock, inelndinc ■ varirlr 
•r aget and mi. eonuUiia of Pun BrtA SkarUHonu, Ikwu, uul 
JxSiiKa; Smik Dnut Buck Lamii, and a very lew Emi; Omf. 
^ «J ktux amim. CnielopiFi, with Cult Pedigreei, Ao At, 
viU be rcAdy tbrdeliveTy on Ibe firii nf Mny— id bv obiniiicd from 
tkcrabKtiber, oratllieolEceiof auyof the prinripol Altienllnral 
Jonni^ or Store* in Iba Union. Tbu (ale viU olftr Ihe l>eu arpor. 
MaUl' w obtain Tery Sne auiauli I have ever givm, a> I ihall rcdiK* 
niT ben] lower than ever before, cotiMimiliitiiic a trip » EBTope id 
U*bMiIar*ar,andahallnolliaTe>n«ll>erHK until ISM. 

Ilwillbeaeen hf refnenca to ihe prooeeilhigt of onr Stale Agii- 

WDTKa wen in nim^iB : \im\ le. wviHg me mrvien « 
and will nlich propeahion fromiiwh at >re lit lo 
nova^-inie antnH hired will be al ihe risk of tlie o\ 

nt 10 and fton, lo be bonie joint Ijr; tlie tern nf letting lo 

, — or lea, a* paniea atreei nrice to be adjiuled by pnriiea 

—ID be paid in advance, when ihB Ball a taken away ; cinrumHan. 

IfAronthe bragoing oaidjtidi^ihrafl celebrmied prixe DoIIf — 
"HUDt," ■ DsTon. nine yeara old: " LiK^iTtxi,'' Bbcm-tiom, 
ftmryeanoU; Loaa EamouR," SUiiL-h<un,ihm: lennaid Pe- 
dignsa will be a iveu in Calaloguea. 

afaall have lecuiid two or ihrae yearly feiM of their progeny; and u 

0OI sell ibem, aa 1 wiih ig beep control of their propagating qvaliljea 

AH, imported direct from the celebrated Jonu Wehh; and *'« Ave 
jroBlkg DdcId, wiiinan alao, bred by me, from Buck) and Ewea m. 
poclnl direct from Ihe above celebtnled breeder; they will be let ni 

tbe party hiring wiihei them, and ihey mnn be returned to me on « 
•bmn Chrinniai day. By Ihia plan, the party hiring geti rid of the 
liih and trooble of beeping e Bock tbe year roand. All eommuiika- 
twna by mail mnH b* prepaid, and I will prepay iha aiaweia. 
Nouit PordUun, Aprd, ie»-3l. b. O. MORRIS, 

Albwr Dnl> Tile W«ftis. 

tmcmtur SVHt— ITuI i^ Malual CaUtgt, JMamf. 

iber hai imw nu Imiid, Draining Tile of lbs (bliowiilB 
qia- Pricee reduced. 

n<nuc Bbo> Tiia. 

Calibre tie 00 pr. MOO. 

mil water al every joint, dnumoglaat from la to gO feet ea ch aida td 
thedtuD — being the clieapeel end most durable article vaed. 
Tile itUEcieiiily Large lor ilraini around dwelUiLga, al #4 and IS pa 

Albany, April I, I»9-if. JOHN OOTT. 

Valuable New Work for Farmera. 

TH1.1 day ii published, by O. P.PUTNAhl.Kew.Vork, WALKS 

_ __.. 1^ ,]|„„r^,o„ Foimiug vnlnma lima nf PnUi>Mi<> 

Uliiajy, Pricr HSron*. 

D ill England, mncl 
lanall-niaf Iboeei 




ftimiliea, Hlch Ibuigl that l«w in Eiiglaod n> have conveyed jaact^ 

evidence* of timply refined' iBnei, good ftoluiga, and enlarVed chria- 
lian tent imeuta cotong our Eiigliah breibreii, aa ail ab<nld ai^jy bo 

RuMIIp PllMilAt<<— Pulnam'i f 

HtnlUy ijtfory, cf SBnutwrf 

-" -■'- Firaidt. 


arkl. fir IVoecJtlTi 
The Fim Volnnic— HOME AND ROCI 
rom lloUHhold Word), by cbailei Dickeii*. 

The iSieoild Volume— liVHlMfllCAIJTlEa: try inonai Haoa. 
" Uaeful QuJ economical volumei for the million,"— ISuMi Oam, 
" Adauralily ailnpird lo alleviale the tedium Ufa jounieT, or u 

'■The plan iia good one. and will, beyonddouM.pnveblbcbitb. 
II degree niceeaaful."- [Ihiv mil. 
It catmol be lou highly 
»• laMsi and ag»?'— ( 

.._L ..:_L t 1- ...eerM niui a ooehi rawiir.„_, 

I ■holvea-Mt 
T-Yorfc, A^] 


AgTicnltnnl WuahouM ud M«nnftwtwy, 

Juarliofi, JU«$Hleti «,, tf. T, 
"T-HEY hi 

Credlea in the VmMd 

8tal» Eight faifl preminmtof Silver Medi 

the State oTNew.Vork. Four ailvernHdaiaal the great Fair of ft* 
American I nuiiute, New- York. AUn,preiiuoai**iAePeiK»l>aiia 
Bute Fait, Maryland State Fair, Micbigan Slate Fair, aod Okia 

State Fair. Seven Bm Premiuiaa at Ihe Rn ilanr Cnxniir Fulf^ 

- ■'' — ° "'■ -- — . Tboy bav» alwaya lakan 

id before ihe Pnlilic pi 

4 day of tufcov^ 

Alao, ageiieriil anoilineiit of the moU npproved kinda of Agrieol. 
nrnl IntnlniKnie, in all ibeir varieiy. eurh ■• Slriiw Cutlcia,ChuinL 
Com Shellera, Ox Yokea. Eddv t. 6o.'e Wrmgbl Iron Dram Bowi 
HoTK Hay Rakei, and all kbili of llarveMinr and Hayiui TMIa. 

At Junction P, O,. 8 milea north of TtoJ, N. Y., M tlieTW art 


Lai4[-irool«d r»m and eife, wbicb received tlie Qrat I ram belonged to J. XcDoHAto, Warren, Otaego, (>>., 
jtremium for (tock over two ;Mn old, «t the Show of N.T., andlbeeweto Wiu.uMiB*TBB09ia, SprlogMd, 
tbe New-York Slate Agricultnral Society, 1661. Tbe I in Iha tame conoty. 

drovei, and well matcbed. At three yean old, they will 
do a« mach work ai a common apan of borsei, and con- 
tlnae to improve for ten yeari. It appeiti to me that 
I anppoM tbat Id Ihc United Slates tiicre are ttirce 
mllliona of workti^ horaea, wlio»e jilace miglit be equal- 
ly n'ell rnpplled by mules. In my ealiinalc, I mndu 
Ibe balanc* En faror of tiie mule over $50 yearly; but 
allowing ft lo be only $20, Ibe annaal aaving of exjienae 
would be silly million dollara. Yours truly, D. D. T. 
UoKB. H'attrelia, N. V., F^. Ifi52. 

ManagMMttt of Bm*. 

In a diort article on beea Id the Jaonary number, I 
tfated that 1 nae Weeks' Termont hive. Many tiatterna 
of hives are now tn use, each of which, no doubt, hu it« 
szcellendes. It Ib not my purpose to decry any of them. 
I ihall apeak of the one I have uaed, and wblcb hoa done 
me good service. Ai I write to encoura^ a more ex- 
tendve cullivatiuu of bees, so that every family reading 
ta tbe country, may M laait provide, at a cheap rate, 
aufScient booey for Us own consumption, I will give aome 
funiiUr hints on tbe mode of management, which. In an 
eiperieoce of aonte ten ye&ra, I have found successful. 

Let me premise, tbat every person, whether male or 
female, who baa strength lo carry to its place a bivc con- 
taimi« a new swam of bees, can readily become a bee 
manager. I have bad in my employ, a female who conld 
hive a tirarm as aklUfully and composedly sa myself. 
Tbe fear of being itnog (• what detera most peraona from 
attempting to keep beei. It Is, however, an easy matter 
1« provide against them. I never expose myself to thHr 
dfaipleasnro unprotected. A pair of thick woden mlt- 
teiM and a veil aiade of a yard of boUnet lace, formed 
Into a sack and drawn over tbe bead, will render one en- 
tirely w£e anuK^ them. Tbe moat timid person, wbp 
■U ntdwtbe trial U «Qfa« UMi« beM that o^alKted, 

will soon be rid of hia Itars, and wRl Und them the moat 
harmless and agreeable stock be haa ever attended. A 
successful bee-keeper can hardly fall to become enthn- 
tlistlc in his attachment lo his colonlea of indastrioo* 
little honey-gstberers. He is charmed with the thought 
tbnt such myriads of winged insects are ao entirely at fats 
control and subaervient to hia interest, storing up iritb 
consummate skill, one of the richest Luzaries of his Ift- 

Addressing myself to one desirous of eommencing the 
culture of bees, I would say, procure and read attentive- 
ly a copy of the latest edition of Mr, WEax's book on 
the manageruent of beea. It is eminently a practical 
work, composed by one long used to tbe bnsineai. For 
a time you will hardly dure to do all be recommenda, bnt 
gradual familiarity nitli your new laborers will ins[dre 
conSdcoce, and careful obacrvalion wlU iuitiste yon Into 
Ibe nature and degree of attcnlion you will need to be> 
stow on them. Obtain the right to nse the hire; Ihen 
purcbise frmr inarms, already in such hives if possible; 
or make aome hives, and have new awarmsputinto them 
at the time of swarming, by some itelghbor who keep* 
bees. Put only four hives on a frame thirteen Itet long. 
Hake the hivea of inch and a quartor [doe plank, and 
pdnt them white, to guard against wari^ng, and the lo- 
fluence of extreme temperatures. Make yonr boxea 
half the size of tbe chamber, having the sides and fWmt 
entirely of glass, with ten boles for aooew trota Ix'low, 
Instead oftbur, thus equalizing the temperature and In- 
viting the bees to commence much earlier to fill the boxes. 
White honey in thia Uitltnde ii all gathered before the 
middle of Angust, and it ia dedrable to secure as much 
as ponlble of tbft fbr use. 

When a swarm comes out, observe where it sctUca; 
put on yonr defenses, set your hive near tbe front, elev>> 
ted an inch, hold a tin pan close under tbe bees and with 
a table hmah, gently detach a portion of the snarm flltlng 
the pau, poor Uiea vtm gmf'y «( tbe front of tbe bin 





and fill your pan agaio, untQ all are brought down. Ap- 
ply your brush oocarionally to keep the passage into the 
hive open, and in half an hour or less all will be in, and 
ready to be hung upon the frame. If a ladder is needed/ 
the name process is pursued with a little more laror. Pass 
quickly down with your pan full, lest all be on the wiog^ 
when yon will need to wait till they again alight. H. 
W. BuLKLST. Balhton, N. Y., Feb, 11, 1862. 


Plan of m Ooronlio Catcher. 

Facts and figures showing that the Curcuiio can be 
certainly, safely, and cheaply resisted, 

Eds. CuLTirAToa— In the Cultivator for March, 1860, 
p. 110, 1 briefly suggested the plan of a curcuiio catcher. 
Within a few weeks after the penning of that article, 

i 9 S 

the machine, of which the above Is a plan, was made. 
Having used it, with success, for two years, I send you 
a drawing and description of it. It is made of strips 
of board, cloth, and nails. The timber which I use Is 
bass-wood, which is light, strong, pliant, and takes nails 
well. The timber Is all of one size, two inches wide, 
and about three-fourths of an inch thick. The ma. 
cliine consists essentially of two frames, each about nine 
feet long and four and a half wide, fastened In the cen- 
tre by two hinges, (as they may be called,) and is cover- 
ed with cheap and strong cotton cloth, nailed in with 
■mall tacks, a little smaller than those commonly used 
for carpets. 

The whole may be shut together like the cover of a 
book, but not quite so closely, owing to the shape of the 

For very large trees this is too small a machine, while 
for very small ones it is quite large. 

The short pieces, (l,2,8,4,!cc.,) are the foundation. 
They are marked by two lines, drawn near together, 
indicating that they are set on tlie edge. Small blocks 
are inserted below 9-11 and 18-19, and between 10-12 
and 14-20, to keep the two parallel pieces apart, so as 
to admit the pieces 8, 4, and 6, 8, from the other half 
of the frame, to lie between, aot as hinges by the use 
of a peg or nail at the points 16 and 16. No hinge, or 
other connection, is allowed at the point 17, as that 
would fill up the space left for the admission of the tree. 
Vheee ftrst or short pieces are set or laid on the edge, 
rather than flat^ the better to make a firm hinge. Across 
these fonndation pieces lay the other and larger ones 
I'-S, 2-6, 7-18 and 8-14, nalUog them careAOiy and 

strongly at the pointa where they cross the foundation 
pieces. These last are laid on flat, as is indicated by the 
wider parallel lines. This completes the frame. 

It will be seen that the foundation pieces 8-4 and 6-6 
pass beyond the points 16 and 15, where the nails mak« 
the hinges and run under the cross pieces. The object 
of that extension is that it may operate like the back of 
a knife somewhat, and prevent the opening of the frame 
wider than the point or levelneas, as that would render 
it inconvenient in use. 

Over this whole frame nail your cotton eloth, on the 
outer edge of the frame, and also slightly to the two 
middle cross pieces. Cut a slit in your cloth from 7 to 9 
and from 9 to 4, for the admission of the tree. A short 
stick may be nailed to its outer edge, from 7 to 9. Thus 
it can 'be laid back, for the admission of the tree, and 
then restored to its farmer portion, which completes the 
circuit of the tree. 

Mode of using this Machine, — Let two persona re- 
move it n-om some outhouse, (wher^ it had been laid 
up closed for the winter,) lay it open and take hold of 
it at the opposite side from 19 to 6. Carry it to a plum 
tree, which is to be entered at 17. If the ground b not 
planted lay it flat upon the ground and step upon it if 
necessary, otherwise hold it above the vegetables. Lei 
a third person jar the tree. This is done by having a 
flat ball-clab covered with cloth or India rubber, which, 
being laid against the principal brancfaeti of the xree, la 
struck a short and quick blow, as that best disengages 
the curcuiio from his hold. Let all hands engage in 
killing the pirates. This Is best done with the thumb 
and finger. This is better than to attempt to throw 
them into a pail of lye, or tobacco water. The bug fa 
somewhat dry, and this mode is by no means offensive. 

Go over your plums, (peaches, andcAerrt>ttoo,if yon 
have them,) about every other day, till you find you 
have conquered them. 

History of its use for 1861. — I began to use it June 
2d, (a little too late for the tenderest sorts of white 
plums,) and continued its use until the 17th, using it 
nine times in all, and applying it to 66 trees. It cost 
three men two hours labor to get round. The wind waa 
frequently so strong as to blow some of the insecta be- 
yond the compass of the machine. 

Here then are flfty-five hours of labor, equal to five 
and one half days, of one man, which, at 75 centa per 
day, amounts to four dollars and twelve and one half 
cents, which is equal to six cents a piece for my plum 
trees. This is a small sum compared with a crop of 

When first going round, we fVequently found 80 cur- 
culioa on a single tree. On the ninth time, we found but 
182 on the whole. 

Jiesults. — 1. My Washington Bolmars. Green Gages, 
did not flower freely, while they are constiutionally more 
exposed than the dark colored plums. On these the crop 
was light. 

2. Prince's Imperial Gage, and the Yellow Gage, gave 
very heavy crops. 

8. The Blocker, Elfrey, Damsons, and a plum with- 
out a name, bore overwhelming crops. 

I ought to state here, though the statement does not 
affect the present argument at all, that I lost many of 
my plums, gooseberries, and all my grapes, by wet and 
hot weather in July, which defoliated the trees, and 
caused the fVuit to rot and drop without ripening, t had 
a row of Bleekor's Plum in a position where I did not 
wish to retain them. These, in the hurry of bnsinesi* 
were neglected. The curculios took the entire crop ; not 
a plnm ripened. So, also, I had throe very T>roductive 
tree? which grew in the grass, and were neariy neglect- 
ed. Here, too, I lost nearly all the fruit. 

Conc/uMoa.— Here is a machine, simple, cheap, not 
easily got out of order, and readily used. If appned at 
the right time, and with any faithfulness, it Is a certain 
defence against the curcuiio. Kow, if any one with a 
knowledge of it, permits his choice ploras to fall a prey 
to the curcuiio, let him be doomed to eat wild plums, 
and choke pears as long as he lives. Let all, then, who 
would save their plumt this year, be sure to prepare 
their trap for the robbecviu tine.. Let thent^if p«ssi» 




Ue, begin to nse it 8t least tbe day before tbe invasion 
commences. Let tbem prosecute the war while the enemy 
lurks in tbe field. In two or three* years tbe victory will 
substantially have been gained, and then a very little 
timely labor each year, will keep all safe. C. E. G. 
UHca, Jan, 7, 1862. 

P. S. Those who are interested in this subject, need 
not servilely follow my plan. Two things, however, are 
to be kept in mind, in all precautions to guard plums 
from the curculio. One is, that it is cheaper and surer 
to make direct tear upon him, than it is to set up scare- 
crows. The other is, that that method which brings him 
with most speed and certainty, a helpless prisoner at 
your feet, is the best. I claim the discovery of no new 
principle. The idea of catching him upon a sheet is not 
new, but my mode of adjtuting the machinery is new, so 
far as I am acquainted with the history of tbe subject. 
Other shapes, and other modes of spreading and confin- 
ing the cloth, may be devised. It lias always luippened 
in my experience, that at tbe time the curculio must be 
fought, if ever, the state of the wind is such, that all 
efforts to catch him, upon loose sheets spread upon the 
ground, would not only be slow and uncertain, but in 
three eases out of four, perfectly hopeless. A machine 
such as I have suggested, will cost, to those who have 
ready access to tbe right materials, about two dollars. 
Any common man, who can handle a saw and hammer, 
can make it himself. My machine, in two years, has 
not cost one shilling for repairs, and is good for years to 
opme. C. £. G. 

Bjbiiarks. — We ara entirely satisfied of the usefulness 
and efficiency of the above described frame for catching 
curcuUos, having for some years used one somewhat si- 
milar. Our correspondent will find a figure and short 
description on page 182 of the Cultivator for 1848, and 
also, of an umbrella very successfully used for the same 
purpose. This frame was made of strips of common 
sawed lath, an inch wide, and half an inch thick, fasten- 
ed together at the comers by lath nails, previous anneal- 
ed to facilitate clinching. The muslin itself, formed the 
hinges, and the whole being in two pieces, they were not 
cnmbrous, and could be easily managed by one person, 
tliougti not so expeditiously as if entire,, and with an as- 
sistant. About two hours were required to make these 
frames, and their whole weight was about six pounds — 
about one-third of that described by our correspondent. 
We think smaller timber might have been used in con- 
structing the latter, so as to reduce Its weight about one- 
half, and it would then constitute the most complete 
thing of the kind yet known. 

For small trees^ we have found the large white um- 
brella, above alluded to, the most convenient and ex- 
peditious, as one movement threw all the insects caught 
on each tree, into a pail of hot water, enabling one per- 
son to clear 85 trees in 15 minutes. This umberella was 
six feet in diameter, and cost two dollars at the umbrel- 
la &etory. On page 49, of the Cultivator for 1850, R. 
H. Ihrake describes his success with an umbrella eight 
ftet in diameter, made after this snggestKm. 

Our correspondent has shown very conclusively, that 
his practice may be relied on for entire success, and yet 
ve think some modification may be required where the 
circumstances are diflTerent. Twice or even three times 
a day in warm weather, and where the insects are abun- 
dant, will not be too often to attack them ; for if left 24 
hours, a dozen will spoil a great many young plums. 
When tbe trees are quite large, it will be impossible to 
Jar tbem sufficiently through a muffled pounder, or by 
other meooi, applied to the bafkuf tho tvte, wUhont 

bruising it. Tfie only way is to saw off a small limb, 
leaving a stump an inch long to be struck h »harp blow 
with an axe. Anything less efficient will be pure to leave 
a part of the insects on the tree. It is the want of an 
energetic applicatio#of this mode of destruction, that 
has led some cul||priy^ors to denounce it as inefficient. 

Oliiairry Tz%%b Destroyod hf Inoools. 

£ds. Cultivator — An inquiry made by Mr. Jobx 
Waters, of New-Milford, respecting an insect which de- 
stroyed his young grafts, reminds me of something that 
I should have made public before this. 

For several years back I have been perplexed and an- 
noyed by the appearance of my young cherry trees in the 
early part of summer ; for on the springing of the sap 
tliey would appear strong and healthy, and seem to pro- 
mise an early and vigorous growth ^ but as the buds un- 
folded themselves, they would begin to shrivel and to lese 
force, and after struggling for a few days or weeks, would 
finally drop off entirely. 

For a long time, I suppooad it to be the effect of our 
very cold winters, and had almost abandoned the hope 
of rcaiing the finer varieties in these parts; but as there 
was occasionally a tree that did not show any such signs, 
although equally exposed to the weather, and wovld 
thrive exceedingly, I was led to believe it to be the work 
of some insect or animal, which had not yet been des- 
cribed as a tree-destroying thing. 

I was soon convinced that it did not commit its depre- 
dations in the day-time, for I watched closely for some- 
time, without discovering anything, and yet the trees 
continued their sickly appearance; but on watching by 
night, I readily discovered that the young leaves were 
eaten as fast as they shot out, by an enormous beetle-bug, 
that only gnawed by nigh\. I also discovered that these 
same beetles rose from tbe ground immediately under tho 
branches of the ti*ecs; and by further examination by 
day-light, I found that there were fVom one to fifty of 

these bugs under every tree, either in the mulching or 
in the mellow soil. Mow, after having made this, (to 
me.) very Important disco\^ry, I procMded at once and 
deliberately, to knock each one of these malieious bee- 
tles on their heads, until their jaws were broken, and 
they were thus incapacitated for doing any farther injury 
to the cherry trees. My trees at once began to assume a 
fine foliage and to renew their health, and since then I 
have had no difficulty in giving theqi an early start. 

My practice is now to visit each one of mv tmall cher- 
ries, two or three times a week during the first weeks of 
their annual growth, and to hoe them carefully. In thlo 
way I keep a fine nest for the bugs directly around tho 
trees, which they greatly prefer to anymore distant, and 
then I can, as I hoe, pick them out and cripple them at 
my leisure. Now, I ara quite confident that Mr. Watkr's 
trouble is occasioned by this same great beetle, which is 
very common in this whole country. 

It is a bug about three-fourths of an inch in length, of 
a dark red color, and with a small black head. It is 
commonly noticed when it gets into the house on a flno 
May or June rooming— when, after having made a dcs» 
perate pass at the nearest candle or lamp, it brings up 
against the opposing wall, and with soranibling vain ef^ 
forts to regain its lost equilibrium, precipitates itself^ 
sprawling, upon the floor. But seriously, the effects of 
this beetle upon my trees, bofbre I found out itspnictioo 
of eating tbe young leaves, was very peniictous. At least 
one tree in ten was destroyed \ and those the> did not 
destroy they rendered spare and gannt in their forms. Wic; 
B^Maswi. Ntwp4rt,iUrkimtrCo,,N,r.fF^^l96^ 





ViBM for th0 X>«oonitton of OottagML 

We have heretofore noticed A. J Dowhiho's work on 
Country Houses. Every {lerson fftmfliar with his wri- 
tingS| roust have obserred the perfeq^fitness or appropri- 
ateness of eyery part of his omamenUl designs; there 
are no incongruous groupings of obJbA beautiful when 
taken alone— no solicisms in taste. For this reason his 
remarks on the color of houses, their exterior decora- 
tiiom, kc.f nerer fkil to be valuable. With tlie hope of 
interesting our readers, as well as impressing them with a 
more distinct knowledge of the merits of this work, we 
ftimish a few additional extracts. The expression which 
a building derives from the aid of external objects, and 
efipecially from trees, shrubs, and vines, is thus pointed 

'^ It is upon these latter objects tliat the true ruralUy 
of almost all simple cottages depends; and nine- tenths 
of all the cottages that have endeared themselves, through 
their local and living beauty, to ^he hearts of true poets 
and genuine lovers of nature, have owed most of their 
charms rather to this rurality — this wealth of bower, 
and vine, and creeper, than to any carved or sculp- 
tured gaUes, window heads, or other features bestowed 
by the careful hand of the architect. 

" Take almost any of those exquisite cottages in an 
English landscajje, which charm every beholder by a won- 
derful beauty, found in no other land in the same perfec- 
tion, and subject it to the dissecting knife of the searcher 
after the secrets of that beauty, and what does he find? 
That not one of these cottages is faultless, in a strictly 
architectural sense — ^nay, that they abound with all sorts 
of whimsical and picturesque violations of architec- 
tural rules and proportions, and are often quite destitute 
of grace of form or outline. 

'^ But on the other hand, they are so bewitchingly 
rural! Partly, to be sure, by their thatched rooft, and 
latticed windows, and low stone walls, all of which seem 
to grow out of the ground, and to be rather a production 
of nature than of art, (proving Ipcontestibly how genuine 
is the love of rural life in those who build and inhabit 
such cottages,) but mainly through the beautiful vines 
and shrubs that embower them, which, by partly con- 
cealing and partly adorning their walls, give them that 
expressive beauty of rural and home feeling which makes 
them 90 captivating to every passer-by. 

This drafftry of cottaffes---the vines that climb, or trail, 
or creep over them, and around their porches and win- 
dows — deserves, then, something more than a passing 
glance from all who would understand the secret of mak- 
ing a simple country house beautifVil at little cost. For 
It must he remembtsred, also, that while chiselling or- 
naments in stone, or carving theni in wood, soon makes 
a figure in one's account book, a few roota of those vines 
which will soon grow into forms of graceful and perennial 
beauty, may be hadfor atriflle,or will be gladly given by 
some friend whose garden overflows with its wealth of 
■hrnbs and climbers. 

'< But, though all vines are beautiful in their appropri- 
ate plaoes, they are not all fitted for the decoration of 
rural cottages. Some are only at home when trailing 
over rocky precipices, others when climbing high trees, 
and others, again, are so delicate as to need the support 
of slender treuises in the flower-garden. 

*'* A vine fitted by nature for the drapery of rural cot- 
tages, should unite fine foliage, which holds its verdure 
for a long time, and is not olWn the prey of inaects, with 
a good moMity habit of growth. If its flowers are also 
beautiful or fragrant, so much the better, but by no 
means should flne flowers, which last for a fortnight, lead 
ns to forget flne habk of growth and good foliage, which 
are constant sources of |ileasnre. 

'' Besides these requisites, we must add, that popular 
Tines for a cottage mast be such as are perfectly hardy, 
and need no protection, and which have a way, for the 
most part, of taking oare of tbemselvea-^n oilier words, 

which win grow into pleasing or picturesque forms with 
only an hour or two's pruning or tytna up once a year. 

*' For cottages at the north, one of the best hardy vines 
is the Virgina creeper, f better known as the American 
Ivy, or five leaved Ampelnpsis,) a wild plant which grows 
with wonderful luxuriance, and attaches itself without 
any assistance to wood or stone, by the fibres it throws 
out fnmi its stem. lis leaves, glossy green in summer, 
but turning to the finest crimson before they fall in au* 
tumn, the rapidity of its growth, and the absolute no- 
care-at-all which it requires, will commend it as perhaps 
the best of all plants, when the effect of foliage is desired 
in as short a time as possible, as well as for concealing or 
adding to the beauty of any part of a blank wall of a 

'' The Chinese Wistaria, now perfectly naturalized in 
the Middle States, is one of the finest vines for the pQlara 
of the cottage porch or veranda. It will extend itsshoota 
to 40 or 60 feet, if allowed, while it may be kept within 
the limits of a small column, if desired. Its long pen- 
dent clusters of delicate peariy lilac flowers, have a strik- 
ingly elegant appearance when property scattered over 
the shoots in May, and its abundant light green foliago 
has a pleasing ofiect, whether for trellis, wall, or veran- 
da. f 

** Climbing roses are also great favorites for pillars and 
poroh trellises. The moat deservedly popular for the cot* 
tage, are the Boursalt and the Double Prairie roses— be- 
cause they have flne foliage, grow very rapidly and luxu- 
riantly, blossom profusely, and are perfectly hardy in all 
parts of the Union. The AmadU is the best variety of 
the Bonrsalt, and the Queen of Praries and Baltimore 
Belle the best Double Prairies for cottage decoraAion. 
Amateurs who wbh to add a still further charm, and are 
willing to bestow a little more care on them, may, by 
budding tbe long shoots with Bourbon roses, have a suc- 
cession of flne flowers every day during the whole grow- 
ing season. 

^' In the Southern States, the flne Noisette roses, such 
as Cloth of Gold, and Solfaterre, take the place of the 
Prairie roses of the north. 

'' Among the honeysuckles — the '^ lush woodbine" of 
the poets — ^there are two admirably adapted for cottage 
adornment, viz: the Japan or Evergreen Honeysuckle, 
{Lonictra japonicat) and the Trnmiiet Honeysuckle, 
(both scarlet and straw color.) The former is delicioua- 
ly fragrant, and blooms all summer, holding its fiiassea 
of rich, dark green foliage till mid- winter; and the lat- 
ter, though not fragiant, grows in fine masses, and flow- 
ers most abundantly at all times. Neither of these hon- 
ey-suckles is infest^ with the insects which deform somo 
of the other species, and render them unfit to be plantecl 
near a cottage window. 

" For cottages of stone, brick, or rough-cast, there is 
no climbing plant in the whole world equal to tbe Ivy^ 
the evergreen Ivy of Europe. Its dark green foliage 
forms at all seasons of the year, the richest drapery that 
ever festooned or wreathed either castle or cottage ; and 
we need say nothing of the associations without number, 
which the mere sight of this plant always brings to tha 

" The Ivy does not thrive very well in New-England, 
except in sheltered places, for the winters are rather too 
severe for it ; but in all other parts of the Union, it grows 
* In fome of the dm forest* <»f of Weeient New- York, g Tow iq g 
on ibe bvo«d lowlandt, this pliint preeents a most compiewxas mid 
strikmg appearance, when iit leaves ehange color in autumn. TbB 
brauehloM franke of tbe ireee, to a height of eixtj' or leventj feet, are 
not nnfrequenily covered from bottom to top with an nnmterrupied 
mas* of brilliant criniaon, and even many of the larger limbe up 
among the dense green of ihe forest, are enveloped ia the same fiery 
glow. Eds. Cvlt. 

t One of the finest plants of tbe Wistaria in Oiis country is now 
growing on the grounds of Thomas Hogg, at Yockville, near New- 
York. It covers an arbor, some fiAeeu feet in length and breadth, 
and there were (he past season nbout fom tknuemd racemes of flow- 
era, each raceme being nearly large enough to fill one's hat. fins. 

OvLTt -> 

$ ChisMs t«W^Hfl«c|nstte flf asM, 




eufly and rapidly. Kllkesadry and loose soil, and should, 
at the north, while young, be a Httle protected, for a 
wint<>r or two, with boughs of erergreens, till it gets es- 
tabliahed. It will often thrive in cold sites, on the north 
aides of houses, or under the shade of trees, when it fails in 
sunnier sit^s. because it is the sunshine, in mid- winter, 
and not the frost which injures it in the latter situations. 
The Giant lyy, f now quite common about Philadelphia) 
is a larger leared, richer looking, and moi-e Tigorous va- 
riety, than the old species. 

"In New-England, the American Ivy or Virginia 
Creeper may be used as a substitute for the European 
Ivy ; both bearing a resemblance only in attaching tbem* 
selves firmly (by the little rootlets sent out from their 
branches) to the wall, however hard it may be. and 
neither of them inJuriDg it. Indeed, the European Ivy 
tweserves a stone wall ttom decay/' 

To those who prefer uniting the useftil with the beau- 
tiful, the grape and the hop are reoommended— of the 
former, the Catawba and Isabella are named as thriving 
best, and to which we would add the Clinton, as beii^ 
remarkable for Its hardhiess, tree growth, and dense 
masses of light colored foliage. The hop is Justly pro- 
nounced the most rustic of all climbing beauties, and or- 
namental in the highest degree, although usually con- 
demned to a pole in the kitchen garden or hop field. For 
houses that need occasional painting, it is proposed to 
place the trellis for the support of climbers, at least a 
foot from the exterior walls. 

We cannot extend our extracts further-Hind our rea- 
ders who may be interested in the subject, are strongly 
recommended to procure the work at once, and those 
who are not, can hardly fail to become so, by reading one- 
lenth of Its contents. 


Pkodnot of Natiwe Cows. 

Ens. CvLTXTATon — ^In your article in the January 
Cultivator, on (he produce of native cows, I was grati- 
fied to find that you appreciate. In some measure, the 
▼alue of native eows— sure I am the public do not. 
Without looking farther, we are very apt to value an 
animal in proportion to its cost; and as imported stock 
has cost mnch more than our native, the public have 
believed they are so mnch the more valuable. In com- 
paring the produce of two cows for instance, we have 
in a measure disregarded the manner and amount of 
Ibeding, and the sise of the animals. 

Kow it is certain that the same cow may be made to 
produce from one-qnarter to one-half more milk, by the 
manner of feeding — that is, whether fed on grain, or 
grass feed alone, and the difl^srenoe in the quality of pas- 
ture alone, will produce nearly the same resul^. 

Again, animals like the improved Short-'horns, will 
average from one-fourth to one-fifth larger than our na- 
tive cows; and to make a fair comparison between the 
breeds, the Short-horns should produce ss much more 
as they are larger In size, because the cost of keeping 
animals, as a general mle, is in proportion to their sise. 
There may be exceptions to this rule ; but that will not 
militate against the Justness of the rule— therefore the 
worth of the animal may be estimated by comparing the 
cost of keeping with the annual produce. 

Kow, taking these data as a guide in Judging, we can 
Tery easily ascertain the comparative value of different 
breeds of cattle as milkers. Having been for several 
years conaeeled wtthr Afrknlt wal S^detiea, I have been 

in the way of collecting fitcts respecting the produce of 
cows, which have been presented for premiums at the 
different exhibitions within Hartford county, for years 
back ; and these facts have satisfied me that In our de- 
sire to improve our breeds of cattle, we have overlooked 
or miq>ri2ed the worth of our native stock. 

Among the number of certificates, made by the ow»» 
era of the animals, and now In my possesion, I propose 
to give you an abstract of two or three as a specimen of 
the produce of pure native oow»--ihat is, of descendants 
of animals brought to t his country more than 60 years ago, 
and you may publish them or not as yon shall deem best. 
I think I esn vouch for the accuracy of them, because 
they are from Ikrmers I know, and In whom I have toA 
confidence. The first Is fVom Mr. PoxTxm, a near neigh* 
bor, who was requested to give the whole product for a 
year, which is the only one I have been enabled to ob* 
tain for that length of time. Mr. Pobteb's verbal state- 
ment, on giving me the certificate, was, that he owned 
only this cow, and used during the year milk from thai 
cow for his tea and coffte, and that occasionally he ate 
milk at night— (there were two only in the family.)— 
also that a part of the year he furnished a neighbor with 
milk for tea. His certificate gives the weight of each 
separate churning during the year, with the date of the 
same — I will give you the product of each month, as 
shown in his certificate. The cow was of medium siae. 
kept on grass and hay only, without grain—age of ani- 
mal eleven years. — 

lbs. OS. 

October, 4S 9 

November, 40 16 

December, 40 

Janoary, 30 

Pobruary, 33 18 

March, 34 5 

April, M n 

lb*, ox. 

May, 38 6 

Jniie, 14 10 

July 38 S 

August, 30 15 

September, 30 7 

403 8 

The Purdy cow produced 16 lbs. in seven days— the 
owner thinks she will average 17 per week through the 
summer months, provided It Is in her first month of 
milk— this eow is one-quarter Devonshire, three- quarters 

The next is a certificate of a heifer of two years— five 
months In milk — ^reserved three pints milk dally for 
fiimily, and produced 18 pounds butter from 9th to 16th 
October, on grass feed alone — the cow Is now seven years 
old, more than medium slse, and I have assertained fVoro 
the family who own her, that during the past summer, 
she has produced daily from 24 to 26 quarts of milk,^- 
grass feed only. 

Another was a trial, at my request, In the month of 

September, owned by W. Stepbshs. It was a dry 

month, and the feed not as good as earlier — 5) months 

in milk — ^produced 14 pounds in seven days. Mr. Ste* 

phens thinks they made two and a half pounds per day 

from her In the preceding June— cow less than medium 

The Mallory cow— milk weighed 461 pounds per day 

— ^made 10 pounds butter In 7 days, besides selling five 
quarts per day of milk, — ^month of June, grass feed- 
medium siae. 

Vow, ask your American Agriculturist friend, to show 
his certificate of eow kept in the same way, of not larger 
size, and when produced. If satlsfkctory I may perhaps 
send you a second batch that I have in reserve. Rcs- 
pectfrilly yonrsi £onuT Cowxss. Farmingion, Ct . 







•< THE DAIRYNTAN^S MANUAL : being m Complete Guide for 
for the American BaJrynuui. With iittmefoat UlutFetioiM. By 


BooK.MAKi«o is working trooderfal progren in theie 

United States. Genuine muikortkip is quite another mat- 

tor. WHh the first, our printing presses teem with a fo- 

eundiCj possible only to the faeility with which paper, 

types, and printing ink, are supplied. Its quality in the 

way of merit, appears to be of little account, provided 

the book will sell. The current demand for agricultural 

books, seems as likely to be supplied from this branch of 

the trade, as that of any other kind of literature ; and 

the work now presented is a genuine, unadulterated type 

of tlie book-making genus. 

▲ ** Dairyman's Manual," as this book professes to be, 

is much wanted in our country, of the right kind ; and 
whether this is the one required, we shall proceed to ex- 
amine. To begin: it is an old fashioned notion — ^perhaps 
It may be nothing more than a notion in the minds of 
some people — that an author, or e^en a creditable book- 
maker, should hare some experimental knowledge of the 
subject on which he ^rit^ or compiles, as almost every 
subject contains some chaflT among the wheat which it of. 
fers ; and the knowledge in question is necessary to sift 
the one from the other j and, when the office of selection 
bthe only toil of getting up the work, the winnowed 
grain only, should be given to the public. 

To say ihat this book of 235 pages, in octavo, is well 

Srinted, in clear, large type, and on good paper, which it 
I, is no more than should be said of any book worth 
printing at ^XiAn the present perfection of the typograph- 
ical art. So far it is unobjectionable. In other things it 
has merit. It is well divided into chapters on the seve- 
ral parts of the subjects discussed ; and which, if well se- 
lected, might become a quite passable authority with 
tiiose who reouire to consult its pages. That the com- 
toiler does, either theoretically, or practically, under- 
stand the sul|)ects of which he has treated, and arranged, 
I must be allowed to entertain some doubts. Still I am 
disposed to deal with him candidly and kindly , commend- 
ing his judgment where it has been well exercised, yet 
condemning it frankly where he has played the quack. 
Fidelity to the truth of agrienltural progress, and to 
the public, will not permit me, for the sake of kind 
words, towards the book-making fraternity, to aid in 
palming off either their mistakes or their crudities, upon 
the confldenoe of our formers. 

The first chapter of the work under consideration, al- 
ludes to the history of the dairy, going back to the Book 
of Job for authority, and in three pages bringing the sub- 
ject down to the current time. Chapter II. treats of the 
importance of the dairy, bv giving some statistics of the 
value of cows, and their dairy productions in the state 
of New-Tork, together with the produce of several in- 
dividual cows, from recorded statements already publish- 
ed, principally from the volumes of Transactions of our 
State Agricultural Society. Chapter III. contains a 
brief notice of some diflfbreot breeds of cattle, acknow. 
lodged to be from the ** Encyclopedia of Grcography," 
accompanied by two portraits — a Jersey bull and cow — 
taken from cuts of the aforesaid " Transactions," and fol- 
lowed by some common-plaoe remarks, for the fortieth 
time reiterated, and as many times discarded, of the po- 
licy of rearing up an jfsicrteaa breed of dairy cows from 
the common heterogeneous blood of our native stock, as 
being superior to any improved foreign blood for dairy 

Chapter IV. on the " different breeds of Cows," with 
die cut of a Short-horn bull, opons decidedly rich. For 
the instruction of my readers, an extract is offered: 

'* The Short-horn, or Durham. This a high bred fing* 
lish variety, some branches of which date back an unin- 
terrupted pedigree for many generations. The improved 
Short-horns criginatid with Mr. Oharlet Oolling, a dis> 

tUiguished cattle breeder of EngUnd, He owned a bull 
named Uubbsck, of the Teeswater breed, smaller thaa 
that breed in general, but remarkably disposed to take on 
fat. From this bull, and a Galloway cow, he commenc* 
ed that famous stock, the Impbovxd Sbort-borhs!" 

This will answer, I think, to start with; and although 
one would infer from a sort of general allusion to hit 
authority fur this paragraph, that the author was so 
instructed from an article, in the ''Transactions*' of 
1841, (mis-printed m this book as 1B19,) by Col. H. 
S. Randall; he should have had discrimination enough 
to discover that Col. Randall neither said nor inferrad 
any such thing, in the article in question. 

This reiterated slander upon the genealogy of the 
Short-homs, by a class of men who profess to inttrmdi 
the public, but who are either too ignorant, or too lavy 
to investigate the truth, has been so long chronicled 
through the pages of our agricultural books and publica- 
tions, that I here desire to place my finger upon it, in i^ 
standing record in your pages, and to settle the question 
as it should be. The long and short of this Colling, and 
Hubback , and Galloway matter, is this. The Short-hora 
breed of cattle can be traced, in the north-eastern coun* 
ties of England, back, not only through many "genera- 
tions,'' but fbr many centuries. Tlie bull ** Hubback,** 
about which so many erroneous assertions have been mada» 
touching his Uncage, and the short time he was used as a 
stock-getter, was, according to the best investigation, m 
thorough-bred Short-horn, andgot calves years before he 
became the property of Mr. Colling, and lor several 
years after Mr. Colling sold him ; and Mr. Colling never 
ascertained his great value until after he had parted with 
him, and the bull became the property of Mr. Hubback, 
from whom the bull afterwards took his name. This bull 
was calved In the year 1777. The Galloway cow, la 
question, which was the great grand dam, by other Short- 
horns bulls than Hubback, of the cow Lady, bred by 
Charles Colling, only one-eighth in Galloway blood, and 
seven-eighths Short-horn, wss calved fn Hw, and Lady, 
her great grand daughter , was calved in 1 7% . F rom this 
cow Lady, and his own unadulturated Short-horn bulls, 
Mr. Colling bred several animals, which ho sold at high 
prioes at his great cattle sale in 1810; and from men, 
among whom was Berry, an often quoted authority, wh^ 
purchased this bastard blood, the descendants of the cow 
Lady — although the animals possessed it in a very remote 
degree— the story has arisen of their superior value^ 
principally to raise the selling reputation of theur owb 
stock. Hubback had nothing to do with this recorded 
" Galloway cow." He died before she was bom ; and at 
to originating the "improved" Short-boms, Charles Col- 
ling had no more to do with it than the man in the mooo- 
He has repeatedly confessed that he purchased as good 
cows of other cattle breeders, as any that he ever bred 
himself: and the chief merit of Colling is. that although 
a good oreeder, he was, by the energy of his character, 
and his perseverance, the leading man of his day in mak- 
ing the Short-horns famous, and introducing them 
throughout many distant counties In England, where they 
had not hitherto been bred. 

We fancy that the American breeders ef Sbort-bome 
will not ffive to our author an asbembled TOte of thanks 
for his inrormation on this head, which, if true, would at a 
comparatively recent date, make these favorite and high- 
ly valuable race of cattle, a compound of bastardy little 
likely to perpetuate the '* long line" of ancient aiid l^ 
timate blood and quality so universally attributed to them. 
Three pages of extracts, not over- well selected, with a 
touch or two of their dairy qualities, do up his notice of 
(he most valuable race of cattle in existence. 

Next follows a notice of the ** DePtmehire. " We bane ^ 
alwsys supposed these to be Devoni^ rimply, without the 
shire. The author puts them down as no milkers, and 
consequently, in their high blood, unfit for the dairy. 
Had he known more about Devon cows, he would have 
written differently. When he can produce a cow, weigh- 
ing, in ordinary condition, not over nine or ten hundred 
pounds, which will produce more milk, or butter, or 
cheese, or of better quality than numerous thorougfc- 
hred Detenf tiMit eenbe^prodnoedr^lntUsends^eWbqg 







ttotet I ire thall hxre % Uttie more req^t for his autho- 

The Herefords and Ayrahires come next imder review, 
in which he quotoe Youatti the Eni^Jsh autboTj and but 
two or three pages are given to them. He notice* veij 
ihvorably, Mr. rrenticc*s fine Ayrshires, with a i>ortrait 
or two from the " Transactions." With Mr. Coming, 
however, our author must have an account to settle, as 
iJae Herefords are given the cut direct, in the omission of 
any portrait of that distingushed race. 

** Breeding for the dairy," is considered in Chapter T ., 
in Which some sad mis-prints, as elsewhere, occur in 
the names of animals— our author eitlier docs not write 
plain, or his proof-reading has been neglected. Here is 
an attempt *to re-laud Col. Jaques' famous herd of 
"Cream-pot" cows,* bred on his "Ten-hills farm," 
near Boston, as a 'distinct breed" of American dairy 
cows. To the uninitiated, this may appear a new dis- 
covery, and achievement. . It is simply an evidence to 
those who understand the subject, of what boasting 
and assurance can do, in palnung off a very common 
thing upon such as know no better. Co). Jacques* cream- 
pots are good anunals, no doubt. We have seen both the 
cows and their " cream," together with the milk which 

S reduced it; and it was all excellent of its kind. But 
'Ol. Jaques' cows are nothing more than the produce of 
Short-horn bulls, and good, native milking cows, and 
tnch as eveiy breeder of such cattle can produce, and 
has produced, by the score, although they may not have 
made quite so much fuss about it. If American dairv- 
men wish to produce the best "cream-pot" cows in exis> 
tenoe, they have but to get a first quality, thorough-bred 
Short-horn bull, of a good milking tribe, and breed hhn 
to the best milking cows they can find, and after a gene- 
ration or two, they wiU be in possession of a race of cows 
meeting their Just expectations in all that constitutes ex- 
cellence in the dairy cow. The author can, neither from 
his own observation, or by printed extracts from others, 
give us any better vradt^a/ truth than this. 

The next two cnapters, YI and YII, are taken from 
Prof. Johnston, Sprengel, and other foreign and domestic 
authorities, hurried over with much less care and atten- 
tion than their subjects are entitled to,mainly, wc imagine, 
from the inability of our book-maker to understand their 
importance. In this latter chapter, the everlasting 
" Oaks" cow — ^he leaves out her cousin, the equally fa* 
mous " Nourse" cow, neither of which ought to be men- 
tioned without the other — " of the old breed, bought out 
of a drove," to prove their superiority, by this single 
a|)ecimen, out of millions of inferior ones, to any thing 
among the improvti races. What a convenient thing it 
is that we have the chronicles of two such fhroous cows, 
with which every non-improver can at once sledge-ham- 
Bier down his antagonist who advocates any thing of a 
better kind, and prove the superior excellence of the 
** old sort of cattle!" It is quite as edifying as the re- 
mark of an old crone that we knew in our boy hood, who, 
Whenever great manual strength was in question, sJways 
squeaked out, that ''after au their big stories, no man 
was half so strong as Sampson ; and as for fox-hunting, 
the best pack of hounds, and all the shooters in the neigh- 
borhood couldn't hold a candle to him." 

Chapter YII I, gives us a very good plan of a dairy 
ham, and cheese house, taken from one built by the So- 
dety of Shakers, at New Lebanon; and observations on 
dairy cows, and their keeping ; all very well, winding up 
wtth the perpetually quoted doggrel lines, fhrni the Eng- 
lish Farmer's Magasine, describing the qualities of a good 
dairy cow: * 

" She's long iu her face," Ac 

The next two chapters, comprising some 78 pages, con- 
tain directions for the cheese and butter dairies, made up 
of extracts chiefly from the Transactions of the If . Y. 
State Agricultural Society. These, so far as they go, 
are well enough, but are not, in completeness, what should 
bo expected from one who assumes to write, or even get 
up a book on a subject of this importance. The subjects 
in band are neither experfanentally, nor philosophkally 
handled; and although a considerable amount of detach* 
ad information is given^ it is not of a kind to histmct the 

dairyman in the detail, or in tha suceessAil prosecution 
of his business. Such isolated fkcts, drawn from the re- 
corded operations of others, without the attendant dr- 
cumstances to their sucoeis or their fiulure, owing to di- 
mate, soil, or position, can scarcely be a safe guide to tl^e 
beginner in the prosecution of his labors ; and certainly 
of very little account to the established dair3rman in deve* 
loping newUeas for his guidance. 

Tlie subject is a broad one,reqniring mature experience^ 
great observation, and an enlai'ged capacity, to instruct 
the dairyman of our country in what particularly apper- 
tains to their calling ; and we fear it will be a long day 
before we shall find a work which will combine the exn 
peiience, thought, ubsorvation, and ability which its im- 
portance demands. Mere compilations of miscellaneous 
matter may be got np by the score; the fledglings of the 
school-honse, or the chemical lecture room, may essay in 
a thousand efforts to enlighten the public, or what is pro- 
bably of more immediate consequence to them, to put a 
few extra dollars into their pockets, by the sale to a cre- 
dulous public of their crude scissor work : but we may 
look in vain for a competent authority on toe sulQ^t ui^ 
til some man of mind shall address himself to the task, 
and devote the time and talent to its prosecution, neces- 
sary to its full understanding, and for which he will hard* 
ly, as yet, get an adequate compensation. Such a work 
I should hail with heartfelt pleasure, and would d6 vcj 
best to advance, and to circulate. 

The remaining eight chapters of the book are devoted 
to diseases of cattle, and their cures, taken from Touatt, 
and just enongh of them to make it of very little value 
to any one who needs a work of the kfiad. Better to ap< 
ply to Touatt at dice, than to resort to the emasculated 
text of a competent authority at the hands of one who 
confessedly does not understand the subject which he is 
'attempting to handle. We confess, in all candor, thai 
the book is little, if any better, with this medical addi- 
tion to its pages. 

It may be thought that I am unnecessarily curt with 
the pages of my young friend, who with laudable mo- 
tives, no doubt, has got up his book for the instruction 
of our ftrmers and dairymen. I would do nothing to 
i«Dund his feelings, or to cut down his ardent aspirations 
for either fame or fortune. Public attention is fast 
turning its eye to our extended agriculture. It is more 
rapidly enlisting the talent, the thought, and the capital 
of our country, into its interest, than formerly, and it i» 
important that the young inquirer be not led astray by 
the crudities of those who write without a knowledge 
of the length and breadth of the subject before them. 



FooT-BOT iH Shbkp.— An iBtsUigent oorrespondentof 
Moore's New-Yorker, condders this disease as not con- 
tagious, ezoept in its most virulent state. Bis own floek, 
of three or four hundred, had been p^ectly healthy for 
a loi^ periody^no disease had ever prevailed among them 
—-they wen on high land, well watered,— «ot a rod of 
wet, stagnant, or swampy ground-— remote from all other 
sheep,— 4K>t a hoof from any other fiock had been among 
them— yet the disease came, slightly on a doien at onoe» 
and during the season some 80 or 100 were attadkcd. 

Chokku Cattle. — A correspondent of the Mass. 
Ploughman says — " Warm a small quantity of lard, and 
mix with it a small quantity of gun-powder, and pour 
into the throat. I once prepared a second dose, but had 
no occaalon to use it." 

Foon FOB Sick Ahimals.— The American Yet. Jour- 
nal states that an excellent diet for sick animals, !s simply 
scalded ekorte. When a horse has taken cold, with dis- 
charge from the nostrils, the maeh may be put into the 
manger while hot, with a view of steaming the nasal 





AcKirowLiDaKiVTS.— Comraanications have been re- 
oelved, since our last, from Granite State, L. C. B, B. 
B., S. B. Buckley, C. F. W., D. W. C, F. Holbrook, 
B. J. U., H. G. W , John Diehl, Elizabeth Diehl, Sal- 
men Cook, W. P. B., G. B. Smith, S. M. Dorr, Prof. 
Korton, L. L. W., Geo. W. Coffin, Jesse Charlton, Ex- 
celsior, B., Daniel S. Curtis, P., A. Subscriber. P. F. E., 
W., F. B., Plowman, Evelyn, Warner, J. R. P. 

Books, Pamphlets, &c. have been received as follows: 
Address of Col. M. P. Wildbr, at tbeN. H. State Fair, 
from the author.^— TranasMstionsof the Norfolk (Mass.) 
Ag. Society, for 1861, from Hon. M. P. Wilder, Pres't 

of the Society. Walks and Talks of an American 

Fanner in England, with Ulustratioas; by Feed. Law ; 
OtvsTED, from the publisher, G. P. Putnam, New-Tork. 

Transactions of the Hampshire (Mass.) Ag. Society 

for 1851, from J. W. Botden, Sec*y Transactions 

of the Middlesex (Mass.) Ag. Society for 1851, from 
Siuoi Beowm, Esq., Editor N. E. Farmer. 

Perservieo Grapes. — ^We received on the 12th 
ICarch, from Dr. T. W. Bljltchvo&o of Troy, a box of 
grapes, in nearly as fine conditktn as when picked from 
the vines last autamn. They were packed in coarse oak 
saw-dust, the finer particles of the dust having been sepa- 
rated by sifting. — 

CT* A correspondent wishes a plan for a cheap hen- 
house. Who viiU furnish a good one? 

Shksp Husbahort. — AVe have received replies to the 
kiquiry of ** W. IC'C," in our February number, firom 
A. H. Avert, Galway, N. Y.— B. H. Avorbws, Watei^ 
bury. Conn., with samples of wool — L.and A. Whitiho, 
Torringfbrd, Conn., who all think they have such sheep 
as our correspondent desires. We have also, a valuable 
paper from D. S. Curtis, Esq., of Canaan Center, K. 
Y., on the general subject of breeding sheep, for which, 
with the others, we shall endeavor to find room next 
month. '<D. W. C," Tunbridge, Yt., will find the 
questions he proposes, discussed in these communications. 

We have also been furnished with the report of a com- 
mittee appointed at a meeting of formers in West West- 
minster, Vt., to examine and report on the merits of the 
flock of French, Spanish, and Sileslan Merino sheep, 
imported last year, by Geo. Cahpbbll, Esq., of that 
town, and Wir. Chaxbbrlaih, Esq., of Bed Hook, 
Dutchess CO., K. Y. The publication of this report in 
our pages, seems tmn ecc s sa ry, inBsmuch as all, or nearly 
all the facts embraced In it, may be found in a oommuni- 
eatioB from tlie Hon. F. Holbrook, in our last volume, 
page 810. The same committee are to be present at the 
sheariog of this flock, and when their report is made, 
we shall be glad to give it a place. 

Homer. — We have been presented, by P. Barbie, 
Esq., with a beautiful colored lithographic view of this 
pretty rural village, situated in Cortland county in this 
state. On the rising ground, back of the village, are 
exhibited some of the finest farms in the county. Among 
them, we notice those of Messrs. P. Barber, Israel Boies, 
A. Ballard, A. L. and Geo. Chamberlain and others. 

The print is from the establishment of Endioott k Co., 
New- York, and is well executed 

Coltivatiov of Flax. — ^If practical proof were wmnt- 
ing of the pecuniary advantage, resulting from scientifle 
investigation, the recent invention of flax-cotton would 
be a esse in point. A description of the peculiarities of 
the flax-cotton and the mode of its preparation has been 
published in the Cultivator. Extenrive preparations are 
being made for the manufacture of linen from the im- 
proved article, and the attention of fiu-mers is Invited to 
the proflt of cultivating flax. A pamphlet, together with 
a sample of the prepared flax, has been received from 
Mr. A. Caherov of New- York. The flax is white and 
soil as cotton, while it seems to retain the firm and deli- 
cate fibre peculiar to Itself. 

Trans ACTiOBS of Coubtt Aa. Socictiks. — We aro 
indebted to our friends, in diffbreut parts of the country, 
for copies of the Transactions of difibrent County Ag. 
Societies. Some of these, are contained in a single news- 
paper, and some in pamphlets of 50 to 100 pages or more. 
They embrace, generally, the annual Address before the 
Society, the Reports of the Judges who award the pre- 
miums, and some of them. Essays of great interest, c»> 
pecially to the localities where published. We have had 
recourse to these Tranactions, for many important facts, 
heretofore communicated to our readers, and intend to 
draw largely from them hereafter. In tenderhigour 
thanks for them, we wish' to make a suggestion to such 
Societies as have not adopted the plan of publishing an- 
nual reports of their doings. We know of no way in 
which they could more cheaply promote the objects they 
have in view, than by circulating through their counties, 
an annual pamphlet, containing the usnal address, reports, 
&c. Let their speakers and their committees understand 
that their papers arc all to be published ; and that such 
reports are exi^ected from them as will be creditable to 
the Society, and useful to the commumty. In additioii 
to this, premiums might be ofi*ered for experiments and 
essays on subjects of practical interest to each locality. 
In this way, a considerable amount of important informa- 
tion might be collected, and circulated very generally in 
the difierent counties, and among many who never see an 
agricoUural paper. — 

A Natiobal Ubivbrsitt. — Spirited meetings have of 
late been held In this city, for the purpose of discusring 
the importance of an Institution of a more broad and 
comprehensive character, than our colleges, and niiging 
its claims upon the Legislature. These meetings have 
been addressed by Prof. Mitchell, Prof. Pierce of Har^ 
vard University, Prof. Bacbb of Washington, Hon. 
Saml. B. Rugolbs of New. York, aa well as by distin- 
guished gentlemen of this city. There seems to be a 
deep interest among scientiAc and literary men, in this 
project, and there can be no reasonable doubt, but that 
the establishment of such an Institution would be the 
crowning stone to the present incomplete system of edu* 
cation . T^e wants of the Agricultural community would 
be cared for in this plan, and ft would form a model for 
and nucleus to lesser institutions, designed to raise the 
standard of popular education. The warmth with wblcli 
the proposal has been received by the leading scientific 




men of the country, goes to abow, that the to-called 
literary aristocracy of the day, against whom so much 
cant is hurled, do not exist, and that no class of com- 
mnnity are so much in favor of diillisiDgwidely the bene- 
fits of a practical, sound education, as thorough scholars. 

Laros Ann Smali. Fa&ms.— TT. A. Ela writes, " I 
wish you would lay down some plan for formers with 
small means and large farms, which would courince them 
that by giving away two-thirds of their land, they would 
be better oiT and raise more than to skin over the whole." 

Plavs or Fabms.— The same correspondent remarks, 
" I take the liberty to make one suggestion in regard to 
your subdivi^n of farms. That is, that the farm build- 
fatgs should be moved back at lesst one tier of lots fVom 
the highway. I am aware that I have a great majority 
of farmers against me, but I think for one to be 20 rods 
firom the highway and the view of a beatiful lawn from 
the IW>nt of the house, would well pay for the extra travel 
in getting (o the public road, and whatever may be writ- 
ten upon the subject should be- to correct bad taste, al- 
though it may be against established custom." [We al- 
ways hail, as the desert-traveller does an 'oasis, all indi- 
cations of a taste for rural beauty in connexion with 
country dwellings, and of course could not object to a 
sacrifice of land or nearness to the road, to the increase 
of landscape effect. It will perhaps, however, occur to 
our correspondent that a greater perf^tion of this nature 
would condst in trees and lawn on the dlfibreut sides of 
the bouse, instead of being only in the direction of the 
road, so that the spectator will not have to keep his head 
fixed in one direction, for fear he may see what is not 
agreeable. Neither will the passing traveller be com- 
pelled to reserve bis sight till he gets exactly in fVont of 
the dwelling. Eds.] 

Spi.rrriRG or Ghkbet Trbbs. — D. C. Bichmohd, of 
Sandusky, informs us that some of his trees have split 
the whole length of the trunk, owing, as he thinks, to the 
severe weather of winter. He proposes to keep the 
bodies well wound with straw during winter oil the first 
indications of the disaster, and intends to keep the parts 
bound together by one or more iron bolts, secured by 
nuts and screws. We have had no experience with trees 
similarly afi*ectcd, but see no harm likely to result fVom 
bolting the parts together, especially when the bolts are 
covered with new wood. In the mean time, an appli- 
cation of graillog-wax, paint, or still better of a solution 
of shellac in alcohol, to any wounded surface, would 
doubtless be quite useful. Driving in nails could not be 
of any use whatever, further than their mechanical effect 
—if the trees need iron, which is very questionable, it 
could be most naturally and equally given by a solution 
of some salt of iron at the roots. 

Plah roE If.UKOis Statb Ubivbrsitt.-— We have re- 
ceived a pamphlet from the pen of Prof. J. B. Turjikb, 
presenting in a clear, vigorous style, the arguments in 
fitvor of an Industrial University. The details of his 
plan do not differ essentially from others, which are be- 
fore the public. The interests of popular education are 
dftiming notice and gaioiqg ground everywhere. 

Potato Rot abd Rust.-— B. Tovva (near LowisviUe, 
Ky.,) states that the only portion of his potato fields 
where the rot was destructive, was in a rich cavity or 
basin where the growth of the plants was most luxuriant. 
He has observed, too, that it is in these localities that his 
wheat is most affected by rust — in both of which cases 
h« ascribes thedificulty to. an overgrowth and supers 
bundance of moisture in the plants, aad suggests whether 
manure copieusly applied to such cr^psnay not increase 
the disaster, and asks for hiformation. 

There is no question but that rust in iriieat is often 
greatly promoted by a luxuriant growth of stalk, occa- 
sioned by an undue proportion of mould or vegetable 
matter in the soil, and that the remedy consists In a 
greater application of mineral and nitrogenous manures. 
We are by no means sure but that these might be ad- 
vantageously furnished in rich y a rd manure . Soils vary, 
and experiment must determine. As for the potato rot, 
it remains involved in much mystery, but a moderately 
fertile soil is certainly more favorable to the health of ibti 
crop, than one unuanally rich. 

Dbstbuctiob or tri Pbacb CBOB.«^Mr. J. CiwAEX, 
of Lewis, i)rown co., Ohio, writes us, that the peach crop 
in his section of the State, is entirely destroyed by the 
iVost. On the '20th January, 1862, he says the thermoat- 
ter fell to 15^ below zero, and after spending nearly half 
a day in examination, he did not find a single Uve bad. 
This appears to confirm the statement, that the peach 
will not endure a temperature colder than 14® below 
lero. Heart cherries and fine plums have shared the 
same fate. . 

Rbsults or Dbaibihg.— It has been remarked^ that 
'* to apply manure to undrained land, is to throw money 
away,'' an illustration of which is fHimished by a state- 
ment in the Transactions of the New-Toric State Agri- 
cultural Society, where seven acres of low wet land, 
manured annually at the rate of 25 loads to the acre, 
produced 81 bushels of oats per acre ; but after beiag 
thoroughly underdrained at a cost of about 60 dollars 
for the whole, the first crop of oats without manure, was 
891 bushels per acre. 

Raisibo CaBSTBVTS.—Chestnuts will not grow rapidly 
on all soils, hut on such soils as are suited to them ; near- 
ly all the ihilnres we liave knovm, have resulted from at- 
tempts to transplant them. We know of no tree so had 
to transplant as this. The best way is to plant the seed 
in hills, l&e com, but rather more remote; pull out all 
but the most vigorous plant, and they will soon Ibrm a 
beautifVil young forest, and obviate all necessity of culti- 
vating the ground, which at first is requisite. Thehr ra- 
pid growth is well knovn ; a correspondent of the Ohio 
Cultivator, judging from his own experience, thinks that 
1400 trees might be raised on an acre, averaging in 20 
years 8 to 10 indies in diameter, making four rails the 
first cut, two the second, and one the third — about 10,- 
000 rails per aero. 

BT* " B." on " Raising Horses," will appear In our 
next. It came too late for this month. 

HT* Answers to several inquiries, are necessarily de- 
ferred till next month. 






Fill V Fauc. — Any one wwhitig to porchaae one of the 
best farms in the State, is refened to the advertisem^t 
of Hod. Jorv DiuumBLD, in thjs paper, who, it will be 
seen, widies to dispose of the flne tkTm on whidi be now 
resides, near Geneva. 

Livt Stock IvsunAircn.*— Owners of higb^rised ani- 
mals would do well to look to the advertisement of the 
Northern N. Y. Live Stock Insurance Company, in this 
paper. The names oonnected with it, afford a sufficient 
guaranty that the company will fulfil its obligations. 

MonoAH Hoasss. — ^Thoee interested in this breed of 
horses, are raferred to the adyertiseraents of Mr. Mowrt, 
in this number of the Cultivator. He has now five ani- 
-mals of this breed, embracing some of the highest blood 
In existence. 

o:^ Our readers will notice that this number consists 
of 40 pa ges e ight more than usual— to enable us to ac- 
commodate our advertising friends. ThU doe$ not tn- 
<rease the pottage on this number. See extract from post 
office law on page 155. 

s:^ Our correspondent, L. L. W., Clear Branch, Ya., 
can obtain the information he desires, by addressing Ed- 
wards & Piatt, Brooklyn, N. Y. It is not in our power 
to furnish it. ■ 

FtHB Pios.— We copy the following from the rq>ort 
of the Hartford Co. (Ct.) Fair for last year:—" S. E. 
Obapman , of East Hartford, exhibited a sow, 5 years 
oM, with a litter of 9 pigs, nine weeks old. These pigs 
' laid out all others.' They were admired by all who 
ssw them. They were the most beautifHiI pigs ever seen 
in this region. One of them, (and there was no great 
difference in their size,) weighed 74 lbs. the day before 
the Fair. Mr. Chapman purchased the sow onboard of 
a Liverpool packet in New- York, when she was about 
6 months old. She was an English shoat, of fine points. 
He raises two litters a year from her, for which he gets 
f5 each. She brings him in about $80 a year, her pigs 
being considered greatly superior to any others produced 
in this region." Mr. C. writes us that Mr. H. Beaumont 
of East Hartford, fatted two of her pigs — one at months 
old, weighed 404 lbs.— the other, at 10 months, 422 lbs. 

PnoFiTABLS Fowls. — The raising of fancy poultry is 
gettiug to be quite a handsome busmess. Mr. John T. 
Aimsvws of Sharon, Ct., has published, in the Litdifield 
Enqmrer, an aecount of his success in breeding fowls, 
from which it appears, that his profit on six pullets of the 
bla<^ Spanish variety, amounted to $181, or $80 each, 
he having sold 200 chickens at an average of $1.25. Bet- 
ter business than the dairy, that. 

Apply iHQ MAiiDax.<— The following excellent practice 
is described by a correspondent of the Journal of Agri- 
culture. We have often insisted on the importance of 
thorough intermi.\ture with the soil, and aro glad to see 
it reduced to pracUce* *' 1 take much pains to spread 
the manure as evenly as possible, and harrow it thorough- 
ly with a heavy iron-tooth harrow, first lengthwise and 
then crosswise the furrow, until the soil is well pulverized 
and the manure thoroughly incorporated with it." Tlie 
same writer also remarks, " My manure is under cover 
during winter, and I am satisfied it is worth nearly double 
for bcii^ houssd.'* 

Fmom CjurtLS.*— The last London Farmer's MagazioiD, 
contafais a list of the breeds to which the first and seoood 
prices have been awarded at the Smithfield Club Show 
of fat cattle, for twenty years. They are as follows: 

To Short-bonN, .'. 145 

Herefords,... 138 

DevoiUi .... 33 

Scotch, • 7 

LoDff-Horni, 3 

Ayrtnire, 9 

Highland, S 

Wert Highland, t 

Aniren, «. t 

Oafloway, 1 

PembrokCi 1 

OsAOE Oeaiiob Hxnass.^Bryan Jackson, of Dek- 
ware, informs us through the Boston Cultivator, that he 
considers this hedge as decidedly the cheapest fence that 
can be made; and that those planted on his own grounds 
in the spring of 1840, ** are now a good fence, capahio 
of turning horses and cattle." This is but three sum- 
mers growth. Their r^>id growth when young, render* 
ing them capable of heiag shorn two or three times » 
year, brings them forward sooner than any other hedge 
plant. *.—.— 

PauRma Hsdoss.— J. Wilkinson, well known as the 

principal of Mt. Airy Institute, and who has had much 
experience in hedging, gives it as his opmion, (in the 
Prairie Farmer,) more eq>ecially in relation to the Ossge 
Orange which has a vigorous growth, that wfaereverfiul- 
ure has occurred, it has been in consequence of lack of 
pruning. He has never in a single instance known or 
heard of a hedge being cut too low or trimmed too often, 
but on the contrary has known *' miles upon miles, ruined, 
so far as small pigs are concerned, by the opposite course." 
He adds, '* I think all the writers in the periodicals for 
the west, fail, if they fail any where, in not ra^aag a 
niore frequent and relentlen mode of pruning, after the 
first year." — — 

Not too late to Plaht.— The New England Fanner 
furnishes a communication Arom H. F. French of Exeter, 
N. H. in which he says, " Mr. McClintock, of Forts- 
mouth, who is now ninety-four pears of age, this year 
ate the fruit from trees pUnted with his own hand when 
he was eighty-nx," Another gentleman, having a vety 
fine orchard, said, '' I am more than seventy years old, 
but I have iet over a hundred apple trees this ftdl." 
Again, he informs us that ** Mr. Robinson says that when 
he planted his orchard with seedling trees more than 
fifty years ago, his friends told him there could never be 
a demand for so much fruit!" Yet this same year ho 
Ays a gentleman of Hampton, in that State, sold fhiit 
from about /our acret of land this season for $800, and 
last year for $1400. 

Ah iMpaovsn Msadow.— Charles Yates furnishes te 
American Farmer an account of the very successful treat- 
ment he gave a five sere meadow, by which he almost 
doubled the average yield of the three previous years, 
or increased the number of loads of hay from 19 to 82. 
The higher parts of the meadow were manured with 
wood-pile manure, and the lower with clay from a cellar 
— it was harrowed, sowed with throe bushels of plaster, 
salt, and leached ashes, mixed together, and then rolled 
with a common roller. The grass was a mixture of 
timothy, herds grass, and ctover. By *' herds grass**- is 



meftoti we presume, the rtd-top or Jgro$tis vulgariSf 
•nd Doi the herds grass of the north, which is tmoiky. 

Thx Bso Cidar from Ssed. — Isaac Hildreth, a sUl* 
All cultivator of trees, states in Moore's New-Yorker, 
that in DO case where the trees hang full of berri^, has 
be been able to find perfect seeds, and in nearly all that 
he has examined he has found no seed at all ; while, where 
the berries grow scattering and singly, the seed are found 
perfect. He plants them in sifted leaf-mould, and shades 
the young plants. 

Woot AHD Sbsxv. — I>r. Lee, in his Southern Gultinu 
tor, in speaking of his tour to the north, says, '< Within 
tlie last thirty days we have seen a good many flocks of 
•heep, and pumped all the information we could from 
fheir keepers and owners, without finding much that Is 
new In sheep husbandry. Crood feed, plenty of aalt, pns 
tection from vicious dogs, and care to use only the very 
best males for the increase of the flock, and to have the 
ewes yean at the proper season, are the cardinal points 
in this branch of rural industry." He says, '* We have 
no doubt it costs the farmers of the south, all things con- 
ridered, as much to grow 100 lbs. of poor wool, fliled 
with dirt and burs, which sells at $15, as it need to cost 
to produce a like weight of clean good wool worth $80.'' 

PuxcTCALiTT. — ^Fcw are aware how mach time is lost 
by a want of punctuality. Twenty men meet together 
for business, detained fiAeen minutes by the slack- 
twisted habits of one, lose in ail no len thanySvc hourt 
tf time — ^a donation wbieh they have to make usually 
with DO thanks, or a very faint and flippant apology. A 
celebrated Frenchman, employed in arduous oflicial du- 
ties, found that his wife was habitually ten minutes too 
late in coming to dinner. He found the difiicnlty incura- 
ble; and therefore determined to write a book. ''He 
'fixed on his subject, thought of it during his walk to and 
from home, wrote dnring ihesc ten minutes every day 
and no longer, and in the course of a couple of yean 
published one of the most able books of the age." 

Irvcrtkd Crops ts. Feequbnt Plowixos.-^A gen- 
tleman in Maryland, (says Timothy Pickering,) plowed 
up part of a field of clover in March, but failing to plant 
it, treated it as summer fallow by repeatedly plowing it, 
ind sowed with wheat in September. The residue of the 
clover field was mown twice, plowed once, and sown with 
wheat the same day as the other. The fiillowed part 
yielded only 14} bushels per acre; the otlier part, besides 
the two crops of clover hay the preceding year, yielded 
24} bushels per acre. 

Tastb. — The Michigan Farmer gives us a rery good 
bint about some noted specimens of false taste, observed 
at the World's Fair. He thinks the painter and sculptor 
should copy nature; hence objects to suchfiagrant viola- 
tfons as ** a nest of little marble cnpids, as if hatched 
from eggs-— cupids, snakes, and other aulmals carved upon 
pillars fi>r sustaining a mantle-piece, and on the mantle 
itself, as if they were flre^proof, or delighted in being 
roasted — marble nms, big enough to crush a dozen men, 
itipportcd by a slender-made man underneath — fountains, 
with streams issuing from the mouth of a carred goose," 

GopBSRs.-^The following mode of treatii^ this animal, 
so troublesome in some jiarts of the western states, oonv- 
municated to the Prairie Farmer, may be elsewhere use* 
ful as a]4>lled to other depredston. '* When they are 
throwing np the ground their hole wlU be open—put f 
little arsenic or strychnine into a potato, and roU it into 
the hole, and the gopher will trouble yon no more." 

Poalag* of Um OuttlTator and OnltiTator Almanao. 

We re-pobltfh Um Ibllowing, from our Jan. No., and td4 b lc1t« 

rrom the Department, deciding that the C^OHvator Almnme m nrtfect 

only to Um mm* eharg$ as m ringft uwmUr ^ iJk jN^pir iNcj^, whaa 

«cut 10 •nbseribers. 

Po«r-Omcs DsrAaTmsaT, 

ifp^Smtmnmt C(gkty Htm. M, 188K 

Sia— I have recetred yoar letter of tha SOib imt. Tka ^^Callira- 
tor" w ccoMidered ae being undar tha claaeification of a ** newapiuiaj." 
M that term 19 defined by the Iflih section of tha act of ad March, 
1849; and it ihereA>ra is entitled toaU tba bcnefila graiiiedio,aiidaub- 
Ject 10 nil the rentrkrtioiM impoaad by law cm aueh pubUcationi. 
ReepectfnUy youra, 8. D. JACOBS, 

1st As«isL P. M. Odd. 

Tba postage on tha Cullivator is tliereforc as folloivs : 

For any disiance not exceeding 50 miles, S cents ytt ftat. 

Over SO, and not exceeding 3w miles, !• aems jmt mv. 

OverSUO '* l.OUS miles, 14 '' '^ 

OverlOOO '* S,0UO miles, SO ** *^ 

Over9i;0(iO " 4,000 miles, 95 « « 

Over4,000 M « *• 

To prevent any miMipprehension we qaole the ISib scetlon of tha 
taw of 9d March, 1B4S, referred to in the abora lauer. It » as iiil- 

Skc in. And be it fnrther enacted, that Hie term ** Newspaper,'* 
hereinbef(>re used, shall be, and the same is hereby defined to b« nny 
printed publicaiion, issued in numbers, consisting of not more lliaa 
two sheets, and publislied at short siuted uitervals of noi more than 
one moiiiii, conveying mteltigence of passing events, andteaa^s 
trtra$ and Mfppbmsnfs nf sach pablieatmn." 

By this exlruci it will be seen thai the PietoriaiCvbivator Almanat 
is cniltird to go to our subscribers as a supplement to The Cultivutor, 
it being a "tena./En« sappliinsiif" to it, and nothing rise. The AU 
manne b not puUislied for sale, and is sent only to subscribers to the 

PoeT-OrvxcK DxPAitTMBirr, 

Jlppoinimtmt Q^«, Jam. S8, 18Bt. 

Sim—I hare received your letter of the 33d inst., asking wheffier 
tlie '* Cultivator Almanao" ought to be ooiiaidered as a 8upplemaiii 
10 the Albany Cultivator, and rated with postage as such, or be oou* 
sidercd as a transient publicntion, nml rated accordingly. 

A ^* Supcilcmeui," to come within the provisions of the law whMi 
allows *ucli issues to be sent 10 snbeeribera at a postage equal to the 
sum paid on a single number of the principal publication, at subscrip- 
tioii rates, ought not to exceed three inntces in weight, and should 
contain such matter only, as will supply that which ia wanted to make 
the principal publication complete. 

Upon examination of the "Cultivator Almanac," I have come te 
the conclusion that it may be considered as a Snralemcni to the Al* 
baiiy Cultivator. KespeetfoUy years, 8. D. JACOBS, 

1st Assist. P. M. 6ei4. 

Jacob Allen, Esq., P. M. Sootb Hartford, Washington Co., N. Y. 

Albany Prices Current* 

ALBAinr , Tuesday, Mareb 10^ 
FLOUR.— Our market, which, at the date of our last report, wa* 
booyanf , with an upward tendency, has become dull ami heavy, wttb 
only a limited home and Eastern demand. Quotations may be g1t«a 
at 94M^fAJBn^ for commoiMo gooil State and Michigan, •4.87|a5.1fi| 
for fancy Stale and Michigan, t5.12)a5.S0 for extra Ohio, and •5.37|a 
ft.fi0 for extra Genesee. Buckwheat sclb al 91.50. 

ORAIN.— Wheat has followed the diillneas ia flour, and the saka 
since our last have been on a limited scale, we quote sales ef oaly 
3300 bushels m lots, at 114c. for Aiir Oeiiesee, and 11 7r. for a prime 
lot delivered at the East Railway Depot. In com the soles include 
4,000 Iraahels, yellow round, to arrive at the railway, part deliverable 
between Isi and 18th Mafch, and part between the 10th March and 
lOlh April, at 63^. Also, 8,000 do., delivered at the road, at 90^ 
The only sales of Barley are 3,000 bushels two rowed, at the nod, 
at 7fie., 8,000 do. do for delivery on board a boat at the opening of 
the river, at 75c., and 000 do. do. al the roed at 70c. ; thero are A«e 
sellers of Barley, taken as it arrives at the road, at 7]a79c. BuHey 
malt reddte at A8aMe. A aale of 4,000 bivbetB Rye waa made, de- 
liverable in N. T. at the opening, at 78e. The street trade mgrain ii 




ttwdorauly MUkw, we qoole OumJI^aOdt^ Con MQ07e., Rye 7U 
Tte^ Beder aSiTSe^ SmaU Pees 75c., Marrowfala •an2.9S. 

SEEDS.— Dnriiif the UuM week bsTe had e dull but firm mar- 
ket in Clover, owiuf to the favorable advices from Europe and 
the large ahipmenta from New- York and Philadelphia; weqtioienc- 
dhun et OlaHte.; Urge lOie. Timothy tSaS. Flax SliB. 

PROVISIONS.— We notice an advance in all de«criptions, with a 
good market, eapecielly for the retailera. The ooiitinaed favorable 
•dvicea from New- York and New-Orleans can not &il lo be without 
Its Influence on oar market We quote prime pork S14.50al5, mess 
do. 917. Beef, SIO for mess. Smoked beef 0|c. liSrdlOe. Smoked 
hnmi lOalle., ahonUecs 8c. Butter VMUc. for State and firm. Cheese 
«earoe at 7ta8. The sales during the last week include 3S0 pkgs 
Canadian butter, to a New- York operator, at about 18c. ; 34 bis. 
elear pork, early in the week, at tl7; 108 bis. Michigan mess beef 
at 90, and 75 do. Western prime pork at 913, and now held for ad- 
mnce. At New Orleans meas Pork on 13lh was firm at 917. At 
New- York the stock had fallen off to 9,000 bis. of which 1,000 do. was 

HOPS are in light retail demand at 27c 

WOOL.— The sales in this market, since our last, embrace 19,000 
lbs. Selahie at 40a41c., and 90,000 lbs. fine fleece at p.t. 

The N. Y. Dry Goods Reporter, of Saturday, says of the Domestic 
ICarkei : The operations of the week have been tu considerable ex- 
tent, but prices are so carefully gnarded that it is impossible to arrive 
at any other eonclosioa than a naatcrial dccluie. The sales that have 
come to our knowledge are 25,000 lbs. decidedly fine on private terms ; 
18,000 lbs. medium at 3Bc. ; 10,000 lbs. at 43c. ; and 4,000 lbs. country 
palled at 37^0. We thmk every thing tends to the depression of prices 
l<w wool. Mannfactarers antear to be well supplied, while the low 
latrs for fobrics will cause many to stop a portion of their machuiery . 

In reference to the market for foreign wools the ReiH>rter says : 

We notice an increased activity in this mardet, with sales aggrega- 
ting 12a1500 bales, 1200 of m-hich (all Uie stock held by one heavy 
importer) were sold to a large eastern consumer on private terms. 
We are miable to learn the particulars of the above heavy sale, bni 
know enough to say it includes Mogadore, African, Smyrna, and 
some nnwashed Spanish. We also quote sales of 70a60 bales un- 
washed Smyrna at 14c., and SOaflO bales washed Cordova at 21c. 

At Boston the market has been very quiet for both fleece and p«dled 
wool, and the tendency of prices is in favor of buyers ; sales mode- 
rate in the range of quoted rates. In foreign there have been sales of 
70 bales of Cape of Good Hope on private terms; and one of our 
large maunfocturers has been purchasing some 1600 bales African 
and other foreign wool in New- York on terms we did not learn. 

At Philadelphia the demand has been limited, bot prices are steadily 
maintained. Sales of 40,000 lbs. within the range of 31a50c. for com- 
mon and fine Washington co. 

Farm for Sale* 

F>R sale, a form consisting of 154 acres, situated eight miles south 
of Michigan city, and the same distance west of Laporte. Tlie 
fiurro is well umberea, and has two never failbg streams of Mrater. 
About 50 acres of the farm are under tillage, and an orchard of Apple, 
Peach Olid Pear irvea, is floorishmg finely. There is on the place, a 
two-story frame house and bam, with sheds and other out boildiiigs. 
Tbera are two plank roadi within two mile* of the form, adbrduig 
easy access to a good nnd constant market. Railroads are now being 
bnilt^ which will make the location more deriraUe. 

Being desirous of femovhig to Oregon, the above premises will be 
■old at 98M per acre. 

Also for sole, forty acres of land Ivbigontlie Southern Plank Road, 
partly in timber, and partly in mewhnp land— either with or without 
the farm. GKORGB SMITH. 

Cool Spring, Laporte Co., Ind., April 1— It.* 



X desire lo sell this valuable horse for the low price of 9300. 
His pedigree may be found in the American Turf Regular. 
R.iMvia N. Y., April 1, 18S2-2i.« EDGAR C. DIBBLE. 

Imported CoAstenMition* 

THIS celebrated thoroogfabred horse will sund, this season, as 
heretofore, at the farm of the subscriber near Syracuse. Terms 
910, j)a)*able in advance, for which a receipt wOi be given, promisiug 
to refWid the money, if the mare is proved not to have got in fool, 
and provided also she is leA with the subscriber, or regularly returned 
to tlie horse during the season, or until the groom is satisfied she is in 
foal. Pasturage of the best character funushed at 9s. per week. No 
mares taken except at the risk of the owners, in all respects. 
Syracuse, April 1, 1862— at. J bTbURNET. 

Bloodgood If araenr, 

JlMsfctng, Lmg'Idamdf near N. T. 

THE Ptoprieton of this well established Nursery, edbrforsnle fkm 
largest and foiesi stock of Trees, ftc, ever offered by them, eon- 
sisting d every variety of 


XvmnaBi, Qrapevinai, nowering Shruhi, Hedge Flanti» 

Sa^henriee, Strawberriee, QooMberriei, to. to. 

Orden sent to them at 944 Pearl street, New-York, (wliere Cata- 
lognes may be obtained gratis,) will receive immediate attention, 
aiKl the Trees packed with great care for transportaiioii. 

New-York, AprU 1-lt &1NG h RIPLKY. 

Old Rochester Nureery. 

OA AAA Osage Orange plants, at 910 per thousand, proves prr^ 
mVMKjxj fectG^ hardy acre, and makes e.xcelle«t orchasd fenee. 

30,000 Northern Spy apple trees. 

9,000 Giant Rhubarb, \ery low by the thovsand. 

3,000 fine dwarf pear of large size, together with a lane general 
assortment of hardy Orchard and Garden Fruits and Ornamental 
Trees, Shmbs, Dahlias, and general ^oUeelioo of bulbs, box edfing, 
Ac. Ac 

The asKMtment is very complete, comprising the leadinf hardr 
items requisite for elegance or Jiiiiitj. Orders carefully filled, packet^ 
Ac. for any disiniice. 

Nmeery, oomer of CUntoo and Norton streets, OOee 38 From 
treet, Rochester, N. Y. Catalogues gratis. 


EYergreen and Decidnoiis Forest Trees, 

FURNISHED to order, at short notice, by WM. BCANN, 
Maine—among whi<w are, 
American Arborviie 

Double and single Spruce. 
Double and Silver Fir. 
White Drooping Hemlock. 
Hackmelache or Larch. 
White and Norway Puie. 
High Cranberry. 

White and Yellow Birch. 
Sugar and While Maple. 
Black Wabiut. 
Red Ash. 

American Moontaia Aih. 
White and Red Beech. 
American Whne Elm. 
Balm of Gilead, Ae. Ae. 

The subscriber havhigbeett fbr manv years eng a ged inraisiuff Prak 
and Ornamental Trees, and especially in executmg orden lor die 
above named Forest Trees— is prepared to furnish superior trees ef 
all sizes, from seedlings, to as large as can be safely taken np and 

ties that I have, enables me to carry out my motto, " as good as the 
best^ and cheapest." Prices for specified kinds, quantities snd sties, 
furnished per mail, postage pre-paid. WM. MANN. 

Bangor, Maine, April 1, ISM-^ 

PnlTerieed Ckareoal, 

PREPARED for Agricdtaral parpoaea, pot on m bnrrela. at 9ft 
per liarrel, hidnding the package. In bulk 918.75 by the 
bushels. For sale at the Stale Agriculmral Warehooae. 

April 1— 2t No. 99 CtiOr street, New-Yoifc 


Stowell's EvergreeB Com. 

have a small qoamitv of this vahial^ com, raised by FndL 
J. J. Mapes,— price 9i.fi0 

April l-^SL 

per quart- 

No. is Cliff street, New-York. 

Famcy Fowie* 

THE snbseriber has for sale several pair of Coehin Chinas, 
ghaes, Dorkings, Golden Pheasants, Silver Pheasants, and Fria- 
zled Fowls. 

Any of the above breeds, oooped and delivered in Albany or New- 
York city, free of charge. 
All onierspromptly execeted. W. H. SOUTHWICK. 

New-Iialtunore, Cireeno Co., N. Y., April 1— It.* 

A Prodoctive Farm for Sale* 

THE subscriber, unaUe to give his active attenti<ni to the farm ba 
has cultivated for many years, offers the some for sale; either 
the whole or a part. 

Two huadrco and eighty-ftve acres are cultivated-cither crapped 
with grain, in meadow, psstare. or in preparation for spring crops. 
Stxty-five acres are in innfty Wood. 

Thia farm obmuied the siaiepremium, and a full description may 
be seen in the State Society^s Irniisactlons for tS47. 

Benig in a system of rotaiicsi, cropped and seeded, a purchaser will 
find all neceasary work prepared for the season, admiltmg of posseoe. 
ion whenever desirablv. 

Tlie dwellings and bniUings are comfortable, sufficient, and in good 

A reasonable portioa of the piiifhaafi mooey amy remam on good 

For other information and terms, ap^y to Messrs. Ht. A Wk. Db« 
UknxLO, Front-sL, New- York : to B. U. Johksom, Esq., Agricidttt- 
ral Rooms, Albany, or to the suDscriber on the premises, at C^lanAL 
near Gkitsva. J. DKLAFIEUX 

April 1, 18S»-1L 



Ma IhBBfkataiari fer tlu UnlM Wt^am, 
Naw^Toaii 8tato ApSmltanJ Socdaty^ 

rutattd br E. L. nOXT, IMtbht M, UfiS. 



Afncslnm) S«t«f 

Ubilail ulkaSlau FunoCOIiio, Marrlnid, niiil PeuHT^nnli, > 
nednd lb* Ughmaaiud* which eonid ha pi-sn by il» nila 
Ibolr SocMlo. In ereiT can, a bH h«ni In mnpttiiiaa wiih 
^■dkH chain Pcrwer* or anjr nota ia IhiacaamiT. 

OtO'BIX hundred hUi cf Ihe ibnc Pcnnn mrs Hid ind 
pa in BHrrOm /aae to JamaiTlaH, not m baing munwl or r " 

ot^en, vo hcrg ihDWiu princiii^, uid nofl Iniporimjii ptru, b 

B^h and PiaiAi Power, an made br canelvut W^eclen, Bjid oih- 
an; and alio ihe ftflch and PiiiiDa wiih vpicycloFdal leeih, which hai 
led ill lhi« TJcuiily, and which, wilh oar n- 
iuadaplaijon ai«i applkalion to oar Hona 
ealiha fintsuibalMotiUiA tud Pinko 

C'^RHla upon the miin ikaA, which eappon Ihe an 

lonrinc in in circoil, and carrr iha iliaA, 
■JL4I.*.— Conp'ian apou Iha EUdi of iha ihaft*, Gldug il 
palliea and aaai^ 
Vif. ■. Bhowa a wla and Aft naw, (enlartcd,) of ih 

Fi«. 3. Slda nvw of connin - ■■■■■ ' 

Fig. 4, SOa Tiaw of one at Uu 

DuUeir il uaod Bpnii the Mme ihan, which lot Ulraihiiu, la 
toat feel dianiMer. The lower Tiew reprtaeuu Uie leeU or 
cofi, ai (cen wilh liulu inienad. 


I ilda view of eiw er the linke ti nelkiiia of the . 
lek ihera aie but nitTi or thin* on a dde, ai 
HTcn iiKhet toiif ; ererr allerniti link ii eail wilh 
■^j.a.a.jrraectiiiccaeh lidii; 
If wah the oiher luika. while the 




l«dg«d hf att neolniilOB aikl «nfffaieeri to be the stron^ett tiid 
moM perfect form of tMtb, end %vorks wiili lev friction and 
weer, ae tW drivfaig •vrfkeee preaent lo each odier a rollin|^ 
imfead of slklmgfriclioii; ihukind of teeth| on aooovnt ofthear 
roanded form, work much deeper into each other, and bavb 
Utile or no inetinatioa to UA o« of ifear. 

The last cut aliows the coiiMraciioo <tf the tnick wbeela, 

which ere U incfaea larger in diameter, and revolve on hufer 

circles at Ike ends of Ike power-^viiw them an advantage 

ever the ematler wheele. A MCtioii of a link ia akown with 

the end of the flooring attached; these planka are all one inch 

wider, aiid coiweqnently wear up by um ranch clofcr, hefore 

bending or breaking uniler the weight of the animab.. Am a 

Rack and Pinion Ptiwer, the latter has every advanlage over 

thecoBiooii kinds ia nae ; ia manufacgired at a leas cost ; i$ 

equally stfxwg and durable, and is more easily handled, as ilfe 

weight is some two hundred poauds less. 

EUmt of the above kinds of powers are offered to the puUie, each 

Ifpou its owru merits, with a full warranty as- to workmanship, mat»i 

naJa, and operation, (and with a guarantee of right of nsiug in a|l 

parts of the United Stales,) subject to be returned within three months 

■— «nd porchase anoiiey reAnided. For prices, *e.^ see IliuslraiedCi^ 

lalogue, furnished gratis on application, or by mail. 

llie first on the liat is the highest in cost, and is found preferable 
m all eases, and mider all circiunstaikces. The power of the revdv- 
Ing platform being applied to the main sliaft. by means of reels 
with larger diametem inan the pinions used in tlie Rack and Pinion 
powers, the stress npon the sereral parts is in no vrav as greM 
— and toe liablhy of wear or breakage, from use or accident, is re- 
■Mvcd. The whole of the gearing consists of less than one-seventh 
the number of cogs in the Rack and Pinion Power; and these are 
wholly removed from under the hones to the outside of the power — 
free from din, dust, fco., and always easily kept in order or cleaned, 
which is an advantage over all Rock and Pinion Powers. Hiis pow- 
er has also the advantage of the chajigiiig of force and velocity to ao 
commodate it to any variety of work, without any additional cost or 
danger to the gCHriiig or oUier paru. When the main shaA runs but 
fifty-six revolutions per minute, the dtameiers of the gears are such 
as to increase or decrease the velocity to two hundred and twenty, 
four, or as slow as fourteen revolutions per mhinte, when the aniimd, 
(either horses or oxen,) walk but two miles per hoor-obeiug about 
two-thirds the travel which is nerci«&ry with the Rack and Pinion 
Powers, to produce the same effect. This last fiict is one of its 
prinripeJ features, and of the greatest importance to the farmer. Tlie 
gearing, as well asjpullies and couplings, rII agree, and can instantly 
be traiispoeed— each to each, and side to side. In tnis power the cen- 
ters of motion of the gears are always in the same poailioti to each 
oilier — requiring no guard or binding track over the chain above the 
pinions, to keep the gears together, as is alMoIutely neceesnry with ell 
rack powers, and which serve to check the force of the power ; and 
Vs Uie driving facsa of the teeth on the rack and inninns become worn 
off, the loss of force increases, until they eveiitunlly slop, break, or slip 
bv each other. The length of the sections or links of the cnan, as 
auo the width of the planks of the flftoring, are same as in the Im- 
proved Reek Power last dcacribed. With the above advantages, to- 
gether with the epicydoydal form of teeth^ adopted this season in its 
eonslruction, the superiority of this power is readily seen. 

This |x>wer is admirably i^pied for driving Threshing Map* 
ehttiea. Circular Saws, Cotton Gins, as also Machine Slrafis, Klev»> 
tors, Ferr)'-lioats, Discharging and Loading vessels, Pile-driving^ 
Cross-cut sawing. Pumping, urindiiig gntin, Chumuig Batter, Cut- 
thig Ha^ and t<udks, Shelling Corn, Grhiding Apples, ice. The angle 
of elevstioii necessary to operate this power, is never gt eater, but c^en 
less thoii either of the others here described, and which is inside of 
one and a half niches to the foot, with horses weighing 1000 pounds 
each, Aid without any harness. It has also an admirable arrange- 
ment for adjusting aiid tightening the chain, not po»$u$€d bp ri&tr 
qf tko others— logeKhtr vmh an improved brake for stopping the 
whole hMaiHly'-^l within the power, and independent of the band 
and pulleys, and does not require to he changed, when gears and puU 
leya may be. The palley used for ihreshhig, with tkis power, is but 
tbrce feet diameter, to effect the same as a lour fool wheel does with 
the Rack and Pinion Power 

lu all cases thesheftiiigof all machinery manufaetared by us is 
nmde to run in Babbetted Boxes, they benig the moat durable and 
p erfect box in use — and not genei«lly used by other mairafacturers. 

DeTOB Bnlit for Sale. 

npHB sahserlber offers for sale, two young Devon bulla, ealled 
± **Washiiigtou'*and«'Ajax.'* 

Washington was dnmped the 98lh Mareh, 1851. Sire, bidl Moltoii 
-^raiid sire, celebrated bull Major, bred by R. C. Oapper, and now 
owiied by Lewis O. Morris, Esq. Maior took the firrt premium at 
the iMate Fair at Alliany, in 18G0— and is admitted t? be the best 
Devon bull ever brought faito the United Mates. 

Dam of Washington, cow Beaniy-— grand dam, cow Sophia^bodi 
bred by Ambrose Stevens, Esq., and both received the highest pre- 
miums in their respective classes at the State Society's Shows, in 
1849 niKl iSSO. 

Bull Ajax, was dropped the 7lb of Augmt, 18S1. Sire, bull Molion 
•-<lom, cow Rnby. 

Ruliy was bred by Mr. Cowlef of Parraington, Ct., and was dred 
)j bull Rover, bred by I^wis F. Allien. Esq., Black Rock. 

Price for Washington $75. for Ajax S50, or will be exchanged for 
Heifers of equal age and pedigree. Address ihesubachber at Green- 
wich, Wasliington co., N. Y. LE ROY MOWRY. 

April 1-Ot. 

ProQtr and Hears' Plows. 

AIiARGB assortmenl ean be found at the State Agrientinral 
WarehooM. No. fiS CUT street, New-York. 
liarcfa 1-tL IjONOSTT * OBIFFINO. 

Ketcliaai's Pateal Howiag MaebiBe. 

'piHE anbscribers having entered largely inio the mannlhetnra 
X the above Mewiiig Btaehine, are newprepnied to sapply 

for the same from all parts of the' United States, and heaitaie nee to 
sell the Machine under the following 

WARRANTY.— On lands free from ohstractions, wa wamnt ov 
machide to cut and spread from ten to fifteen acres per day, (of any 
kind of grass,) with one span of horses and driver, and do it aa well 
as is done with a scythe by the best mowers. 

lie Price of the Machine ia tliO, with extra cutter, 4e. 

Bnfialo, April 1— lt.« 



Buffalo, Brie en., N. T. 
Dbab Sis :-THav1iig had Ihe pleaawe of wimeasing the perfor- 
mance of your Mowing Machine, yesterday, in CcL Binl^s mea dow, 
below Black Rock— (the anrface of whieh waa onite mievmi,) en 
assure you that we consider it one of the most valuable Agncutiural 
implements evr^r brought into use. The grass was cut belter than it 
could have been done with a seythe, and with a facility and irpadi 
tion truly aateiushing* We have no heaiiaikn in aagmg it is all a 
farmer coidd desire for cutting Ms grass. 

LEWIS F. ALLEN, Piesidenl N. A. Stale Ag . aDeiely. 

O. ALLEN, Mayor of the City of BaOaio. 



Bnfialo, Decemb e r, tBSL 

We have used Ketchom's Mowing Machine durbig the], 
and find it a most valuable improvement in euttiiia graas. On 
dows free (rom stnmria and tolerably smooth, it will cut. with a good 
team and competent driver, from six to eiglit acres in half a day/bct- 
ter and more even than it can be done witn a scythe, and vHwu done, 
the grass is leA evenly spread on the ground where it grew. Wn 
coundeutly reoonunend it to the patronage of the farming commnnihr. 





East Genoa, Cayuga eo , N. Y., An^M, laSL 

Dbax Six -.—The Mowing Machine I purchased of yon Insi June, 
has more than answered my expectations. I find it will work upon 
ground quite mieveii, and there is le^ risk from ii^uriug it from stones 
than most nersous would suppose who have no experience in its nacL. 
I find it will cut all kinds of graas, and do it well, when profieriy 
managed. Persons who have large quantities of grasa to cut, wiia 
tolerably smooth ground, will find it much to their interest to use one 
of these machhies. HORACE LEAVENWORTH 

Messrs. Howam) St Co.— Sns :— I have em the pael season 290 
acres with one of your grastf cutters, and I do say it is one of the 
greatest uiventioiis of the age for labor-saving. It cats rerr eloot^ 
and i> easily kept in cutting order. It will cut 1 j acres per boor or 
grass that will yield two tons and over to the acie. Since aainK H, I 
consider it iudispeiisaMeon a farm like this. H. MOUNT. 

Tifll's Farm, Black Rock, February, 186S. 

Horgaa Hone Tnwtee. 

THIS horse will stand, (for a limited number of mares,) the pre- 
sent season, at the Farm of theaubscriber, within five minmea 
drive of Union Village, Washington comity, N. Y. 

Pedlgrei of Korgan Traitog. 

Shred by the old Gifford Morgan— gr. sire, the Woedbnry or 
Morgan--gt. gr. sb^, the origino] Justin Morgan horse. 

His dam wus sired by old Morgan Bulrush — his ar. dan by 
gan Fortune— his gl. gr. dam by the original Justin Morgan. 

The dam c^ Morgui Fortime was sired by the original Jn 

CBmTiTiCATX. — We hereby certify the above to be a correct 

Eee of Morgan Horse Trustee, bred by ns. and thw day sold to Mr. 
owry of Washington county, N. Y. Signed, Walpole^ N. H., 
Mareh 5ih, 186S. Fksi>nEiCK Voas. 

Bbr^amir GATsa. 
It will therefore be seen that Morgan TmMee is of exactly theaama 
degree of Morgan blood, as was the old Gen. Giflbrd Morgan. Tbn 
old Giflord beuig deed, Trnslee is the highest blooded Morgan al^ 
now living. 

He is a dark mahogany bay color, with Uack main and tail ; o 
form and action, and la-ill be four years old tlie 10th day of May, 
Terms 910 to ensure a foal. 

Marea disposed of before the usual time of fooling, will I 
ed m foal, and charged accordingly. LE ROY MOWRY, 
April 1— at. Greenwich P. O., Washington co.. If. T. 

Hone Gen* Gillord Moffan, 

WILL stand, for a limited number of mares, the nrcaent seaaoa, 
at the Farm of the subscriber, withhi five minnles drrve er 
Union Village, Washhigton ca, N. Y., and at theaaoM ainfaie with 
Moi)Fan Horse Trustee. 

Gifford Morgan, was bred by Wm. Arnold of Walpole, N. H. Rn 
is three years old the 94th day of May, 1859— is a horse of splendid 
form and action, and a perfoct pattern of his celebrated aire. Hit 
color Is a beautiful dapple cheslnm. He was aired by the old 
Gifford Mergan. His dam ia one of the beat nersa m ik 
of oountry, and whose edia invariably bring exotbimutpri 

Terms $10, to ensnre a foU. Mares disposed of before the l^ 

time of foaling, wilt be considered in foal and charged n coerJ Inal T 

April t—ai. Ot — a wiBb P. a, Wateftai ga» W. T 






189 and 191 Water Street, New-York. 
iWS of a neat Tarietv of patterna and diflerent «>€■, caleiua- 
ted for mrara and stobble huid, wet meadows^ and recently drain- 
ed twampe where roots aboond. Among these plows, alto are the 
daep-breakioc-ap, flat-Aurow, lap>farrow, telf-elmrpeninfr, sida-hill, 
doobic-moukwbo a rd, ooni, ootloo, cane, rice, and rabeoil wiih tingle 
or double winjs. 

JEtARROWS, trian^Qlar, tqtnre, Ocddes, and Sootcli. 

JROIrLJKAS. with iron tectioni one foot long, and of diflerent 
diameteia. lliete can be arranged on an iron ihaik for any required 

CULTTTAfORS of npwardt of twenty difliBrent kmda, tieel tooth 
sud cast iron. 

SEED SOWERS of ttx diflerent kinda and pricet. 
. HORSE FOWMRSf endlcet chain and eirewar, of wtMd and cntt 
ir cii. _ 

THRESffERSf with or without Sepaimtora. 

ORAIN MILLS of east iron, and bnrr etooe, to work either by 
liand, horte or water power. 

CORir SMELLERSf tingle and doable, large and tnaa cylindrical 
to work by hand or otherwite. 

STRAW C UTTER S, wpk ni, ttraight, or circular knives. 

YSOBTABLE C UTTERS for tomept and other roolt. 

Together with a great Tariety of all other Agricultural and H«vti- 
eoltoral Impleiaenlt kept in Uie Uiiilcd 8tatee.tach at Hoes, Shovelt, 
Spadet, Raket, Manure and Hay Forks, Grain Cradles, Scythes, 
Siialltt) fte. Ac. 

CASTINGS of all kinds for Plows, Cotton Gins, and Sugar RoUerk 

WAOONS and CARTS^ for horse* ox, or hand. 

STEAM Et^TNES for farm ana other purposes. '^ 

Our implenientt occupy three large stores, and we bellere they 
make up the largest ana most con^Ncte assonnem in America. In 
addition, we have a machine shop employing upwarda of one huU' 
dred men, where any articles in our line can oe made to order. 

A. B. ALLEN it CO., 

Jan. 1, 18Sa-tf. 180 and 101 Water St., New-York. 

Vaitod StetM Igriealtanl Wanhonao and Sood Storo. 

THE subscribers solicit the attention of the public to the large and 
varied assortment of Agricultural and Honiculiural Implements. 
Field, and Garden Seeds, vrhich they have coustnutly on hand, and 
ofler ibr sale at the lowest mriees, ana on the best terms. Persons in 
wont of anv articles in their line, would do well to call upon them 
before purohasing elsewhere. A descriptive Catalogue win be sent 
gratis upon apjriication, pcst<paid. 
N. Ji. Ouanow Bone tkm. and other fertilisers. 

Dec. 1— 1£ No. 107 Water-St., New-Tork. 

Union Africnltaral Warehoaae and Seedttore* 

RALPH f Co^ Na. 93 Fabon fllr«tl, New- York, luar FiOtom, Marktt, 

T^BALERS in alt the most approved Agricultural and Horticultu- 
ral Implements. Iraported and American Field and Garden 
I, Omamemal Shade and Pmtt Trees, Guano. Bone Dust, Pon- 
Wnmght Iron Plows, Tracks. Barrows, ftc, 4c., al- 
aya on hand. Alao the Ezoebior, or Caliiomin Plow. 
New- York, March 1, 189S)--9l 


A eoatpif tt MantuU tf Memurts. Priet 81. 

CM. SAXTON, agricultural book publisher, has Jost pnblishedv- 
• the American Muck Book->treaimg of the Nature, Ptopcrtiea, 
Bonrcea, Hiaiory and Operations of all the princmal Fertilisers and 
Manures in common use, vritb specific direciioiis lor their preparation, 
preservation and application to the soil and lo cro|)it, as combinrd 
^riih the leading pnnciples of practical and scientific Agriculture, 
dimwn from authentic sources, actual experience, and personal ob- 
nervation. Illustrated with engravings. By 

Author of Sylva Americana, a Treatise on Forest Trees, American 
Fouliry Yard, kc. . C. M. SAXTCN, 

Agricultural Bookstore, lfl3 Fulton street, New- York. 
The followiiig is from Dr. C. T. Jackson, of Boston, the best Agri- 
cultural Chemist in the U. S. :— 

[COPT.I . 

BnsTo:i, Noveralier 0th, 1851. 

Dear Sv ; I hare the pi?easin-e of acknowledging the receipt of a 
nopyof the ** American Muck Book," recently published by you, 
nnd edited by Mr. D. Jay Browne. 

Prom an attemive examination oi this book, I have come to the 
conclusion that it is one of the best works extant, on the principles 
nf scientific Ufrtcultnre, and the best compendium of our most recent 
knowledge of the nature of manures and their adaplntion to particu- 
lar ooila and crops. It cannot be expected that a single volume could 
possibly contain the whola sum of cliemical knowledge applicable to 
the science of chemistry; but on looking ovpr the closely printed and 
comnact tables of analyses, and the abundant formnlaa, M'hich this 
pttblicatiun contains, I could not fail to bo surprised At the industry 
manifestad in preparing it. I was also graiiMto find it so well 
adapted to the American svstem of huslmndry, and so practical in iis 
character. Its copious and aocuraie index adds not a httlc lo its value. 

I shall certainly recommend it to my ogrlcuUuml friends as a very 
nseAd book, and one necessary to every scientific farmer. I am, 
f«ry respectfully, your ob*l. senmnt, 

CnARLES T. JACKSON, Stale Assayist, See. kc, 

Vb O. M. SAXtnif,- Esq., Ncw-Yevki Jan. 1, IStt-^ 

JLy ral In 


To Fralt Cirawen* 

PERSONS wishmg to procure extra staed Fruit Trees, or Trees 
in a bearing state, arc respectfidly invited to visit the Nurseries 
ai\d make a selection. 

60,000 Init tad QnuuaaatiQ Troec 

The anbacriher oflen for sale his Entire Stock of Frail and Onuu 
menial Trees, Everfveen Shruba, ke.y hi his various Nnraoriee 
In JKoxfrnry and i>oriM«st<r. The colleciioD embraces most of the 
varieties of the Ftor, Apph^ Cktrrf, ftam, P«or4, and other Fraita 
that are wortkf af cultivation. Also Qii<jic«s, g eessts u iis, Cnrraw Ci , 

Extra siced Faar IVsts, in a bearing state, can ha supplied al ra- 

90,000 JlacMorai, Rose Trees, Honevaackles, Hawthoms» Jbe. 

Scfen«. in large and small quaaiitiea, from frait bearing Treea. 

The wnda for sale at the lowest market price. 


March 1— ft. Eustas Street, Roxbuff^ 

*«• 3,500 Imported Fruit Treea for sale. 
0^ Walker's Seedling Staminate Strawberry— price SI per donen. 

Field and Garden Seeds, 

GROWN expressly for our sales, suitaMe for any dhnala ui Iha 
United States. A largs assortmem may be found at 

March l-«t. No. OS aiff street, New. York 

Seed Com* 

^URE Dutton Seed Com for sale, at 01 per bushel. 

B. B. KIRTLAND, Greenbosh, 
March t, ISW—fit. opposite Albany. 


nr^Eanbaeribers oder for sale an inwroved Subsoil Row made pn* 
X der the advisement of Prof. J. J. Mapes, and free IVom the (rf>* 
jeciionsurgnd against those formerly in use. 

The wearing naru are ao arrai^ed that they may ha aarily and 
cheaply renaweo. while the amount of force requisite to move diem 
is less than half that required by those prerionriy unide. PricaO&M 
and 00. For eale by LONGBTT k GRIPPING. 

March 1"^. No. 05 Cliff street. New. York. 

Wood*! ReaovatiBf SalU, or Bone Maavre. 

WE are now receiving large quantities of this valuable Manure, 
put up in barrels, which we will sell at one cent per pound. 
This article is made from the followinc ingredienta, viz. 

Charcoal, Bone dnai. Plaster, Potash, Calcined Charcoal, Glauber 
Salts, Saltpetre, Oil of Vitrol, Salts of Ammonis, Gas liquor, and 
Bttlioek's Blood. LONOETT k ORIFFING. 

Stale Agricultural Worehouse and Seed Store, 
March 1-^. No. 85 Cliff street, New-Yor^ 


TTTE have now received our suraly of Peruvian Guano, put iqi to 
VY bitts, averaging 100 lbs each. 

Boas Dutt put up in barrels, sawings, tunUngs, and emsbed, 
S2.25 per barrel. 

Bom Coal, Poudrette, Plaster of Paris, Sngar-house Scnm, Potash, 
kc kc. For sale by LONGBTT k GRIFFING, 

March 1— St. No SS Ctlff street, New- York. 

Albany Tile Works. 

Cornsr Palroon and Enok Streets, AXbanf, 

THE subscriber will (tarnish to Agriculinrists, of the most approv- 
ed paitenia, Drain Tile suital4e for land drainage, of a superior 
Quality, over one foot in length, 3 to 4^ inches calibre, from Sltlo 
918 per 1000 pieces. They are formed to admit the water at every 
joint, draining land from 12 to SO foet each side of the drain, being tha 
cheapest and most durabl« article used. 

Tile sufficiently large for drains around dwellinsps. at 91 and 98 per 
100 pieces, being cheaper and more durable than Brick drains. 

Tna great importance of thorough drainage is daily beconung mora 
apparent. Orders from a distance will receive prompt attention, 

March l-Si A. S. BABCOCK, Albany. 
—' i.»...^i. ^. , 

1,000 Ageati Wanted. 


JUST PUBLISHED, the Ijife of Lovis Koastrrn, Governor of 
Hungary, with notices of the Distinguished Men and Scenes of 
the Hntiffarian Revol alien. To which is added an Appendix, con- 
taining K^wsuth's Address to the People of the United Stales ; and iho 
most important of the addresses, letters, and speeches of the Great 
Maayur Chief. Bv P. C. Headtey, author of ** Life of Emprens Jo- 
sephine,'- " Life of Lafayette," etc, with an introduction by Horace 
Greely. In one elegant YSmo volume of 461 pp., with aji accurate 
steel portrait. Price 91-05. 

N. B. Agents wanted in every county in the United States, Cnot 
already occupied.) to sell the above popular work. It is believed that 
almost everjr reading family wilt be glad of the ojiportanity of pos- 
!>essing the Life and Speeches of the noble Hun^rinn. Such is the 
OTCScut indication from the unparalleled sale of the work. 

AfMress DERBY k MILLER, Auburn, N. Y. 

A single copy sent by vamB,/rto ef postage, on receipt of the price, 
»nM-iMmi March 1 — ^jt 




CamlmmtB •f tUs If oailwr. 

Inacenraey ia FaroBiaf, 1» 

Kctcham's Mowing BI«Jiuie— The Eeouomy « tvergreeiia— I y^ 

ExceUeiM Advice, I , 

IVauMCtioiit N. Y. State Ag. Soeiety— Cheap Pnunhig^Ra. 1 j;^! 

nl AxUnm, • I ^„ 

Amwen te luninee— Notices of Booka, 4c., 138 

Horticnltaral Iteins, f*i,* v*** *® 

Weileni Applee-^Coat of the Corn Crop in the Wett, by Gsa- ) J34 

HITS iiTATS— Vermin 00 Catile, J 

Remarks on tome of the Farming in the HooMloiiie Valley, I 135 

by ProCNoBTow, •• I 

Dry Roade— Carrots for Horses— How to Skin a Cali; hy E. | 13Q 


Tbe SoMBce of Agrienhare, by Dr. O. B. Smith, 

Influence of the Cubii'ator, by J. 8. Pbttiboiic— Mannnoih \ jgg 

NoMMof aTovr in Pnuice* by P.'m'iL,.. .! 1» 

Mirichiiig Potatoee— A new node of Boildhig Fence, by A. ) .in 

BaiiST, ) 

3telceinide,by Hon.F. HoLBBOoK, Ml 

AwMiii of Cheese per Cow, by 8. F^ A few Facts from the ) J43 

Horticttltarist. I 

AdTmttagea of Mates over Hones, by D D. T. Mobs, 144 

Management of Bees, by H. W. Buulbt, 145 

Flan of a CurcoUo Catcher, by C. E. G., 148 

Cheiry Trees destroyed by Insect^ by W. R. Mamlst, 147 

Vines for the Deooratlon of Cottages, Iw 

FrodBCt of Notire Cows, by EoBCTT CowLBS, 14» 

Review of Dairyman's Mauoal, by Platahvs, 150 

Notes for the Mouth— To Correspnndenti, ice., 1® 

Fricos C«rrcut for the Mouth, 15ff 


Deyon Boll, 144 I Ix>iig-wooled Sheep, 145 

Ketchura^s Mowing Machine, 130 


natmsMS ior fUib 

11BE mhseriber o&rs for sale, this aiaiiftg, a very laige and 
. stock of trees embracinr the nwsleboice and leading kindt 

of which will be sold 00 the Fewest terms. 

A large qoaniity of two year oM BaMwin apples and S eekel _ 
trees, (preferable where freight is mnck of an item.) CMalbiMa 
sent to all applicants. CHARLES DUBO&. 

FishkiU Lending, April l~lt. .__ 

Seneca liiike HigbiaBd Nvneries, 

Catkaritu^ Chgmumg cs., N. F., tutor Jbatma Depots N, Y. and Srh 

A COMPLETE ssM>rtmem of Nurseiy articles, wholesale and 
retail. Great indocements to Eastern, Southern, and Western 
dealers. Packages p.monntiDf to tlO delivered at New-York and 
Dunkirk, or any in'ei mediate station on the New-York and ^''^ 
Railrosd, free from charges te the " 

Price and DescripUreUatalognesfiuniriied gratis by mafl 
April 1— lU C.E.FH 


Fruit and Shade Trees. 



THIS new varietv of the Blackberry is intended expressl^r for the 
Garden, being hardy, vigorous, aiw extremely prodoctive. 
A single plant of four years growth the past season, produced II 
qnarts of good fruit, witlioot extra care or cultivation. 

llie plants can be sent to any part of the country, packed in boxes, 
Bt §10 per docen, or single planu f L 
Ciregburs giving AiU tuformatioa, will be sent with the ^mits. 
Dsuvera, Mass, April 1, 1853-11.* J. SHED NEEDHAM. 


Mwsrfoa, ITaisie cetEBly, W. Y. 

ALL Frm'f 9Vr«f jold at this Nurterp an pnpagaUd Jrvm frsts 
proved M bearing, and a selection of the best sorts made out of 
Dearly sa* ttunuand proved varieties. 

A large colteclion of APPLE TREES includes Gravenslcui, Early 
Joe, Northern ^jiiy, Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening. Strawberry, 
Porter, Fall Pippin, Swnar, and many others. 

PEARS dw ufM —lMxia^ Bomie of Jersey, Winkfield, Angon- 
leme, Tyson, dec. StoMlanls^Virgnlieu, Dix, Banlett, Seckel, and 

PEACHES— TinotsoB, Early York, Crawford, Nivette, and many 
ether sorts. 

CHERRlE.S^Early Purple Guigne, Tartarian, Holland Bigarreau, 
Elton, Kiiighi^s Early Black, Dcwuer, Nanoleon, Ac. 

GRAI'1'^^— Isslielfa^ CatMWba, York Aladeira. Clinton, Bland, 
Black Cluster, Malvowic, Roynl Mttscadiue, Black Hamlmrgh, Ac. 

RASPBKRRlK.'^Fraiioouia, FasuiUr, Cretan, Red Autwrrn. Ac. 

STRAWBERRIES— Burr's New Pine, Hovey's, Boston Pino, 
Large Scnriet, Hudson, ftc. 

OOOSKHERRIES^Hnughtou's, and many English soru. 

ORNAMENTAL TREES— Horseehesinats. European Lsreh, 
Monntaui Ash, Honey Locust, Weephig Ash, Ailanthtis, Magnolia, 

EVERGREENS— Bskam. Whhe Spruce, Deodar, Norway Fv, 
Silver Fir, Ac. 

ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS— Dentzia, Frinjre tree, (white and 
purple,) Japan Quince, Dwarf Almoml, Dwarf Haneeheatnut; Sibe- 
rian Liiae, Crimion Curraiii, Tree Paeoiiia, lArge flowering 'Phil*, 
delphus, Mczereoii, 8weei-Scemed Shrubs, Ae. SnajBAS— race- 
mosa, fkaible flowered nronifolia, and adosen other fine sons. Hoxay. 
svcELvs— Tanarian, Scarlet Trumpet, Yellow Trumpet, Woodbfaie, 
Chinese, Rwecl-Sceuled, Ac. Bwhokia— great flowering, common 
crinwoii, Ac. 

CLIMBING ROSES— Queen of Prairies, Balthnora Belle, Crim- 
son Bnurealt, Qneeu of the Belgians, Pallitb^ Carsdori Allan, Mount 
Joi', Ae. 

HTBaro PxEPSTirAL Rosas— liU Heine, Ma'ame Laflay, Baron 
Prevovt, Rivers, and many other brilliant forts. 

Sviuaca Rosks— Red Moss, Prhicem Adelaide, and several other 
moss roses; Triomphe d* Abbeville, Fulgeiis, George IV, La Tour- 
tcrctle. nml nienv othen. 

in:Rr\. «•:( 'r.*< Pl.RKNN'Af. H^ANTP— a line nnd ver>- se- 
lect coUcctioii, iiicludiiij; many of the most splcmlid Pcbonibs. as 
Pottsii, Rrevesii, Humei, Whitleii, Frngraiis. Ac. ; Phloxbs. inclod- 
ing Van Houilii, Picts, Spcciosa, Breck's, Fieur de Marie, decussa- 
ta, Ac; SpiEJBAS, comprising lobata, oruncus, japonica, Ac; Ixis,' 
moiiy fine sorts; LythrumSj Diciamnuf, Deiphuiiums, Aconites, 
Burtisias, Campenulas^ Fmdtiss, Yuccas, kc. Ae. 

Catalogues gratis— orders with remittances promptly filled — packing 
done in the most secure manner for uiy distance by canal or railway. 

AprU 1-lU 

F>R sale at Moimt Ida Nuntry, SVoy, W. Y^ a choice vaneiy of 
Fruit Trees, comprising Apples, Pears, Faaehas, Flamsi and 
Cherries, of the meat approved knais. 

Currants, Goosebcnwsj Raspbeirica, Onpevinet and Birawbar* 
ries, of the ehoieest varietica. 

AlM> a good variety of shade trees, eonsiiting of Scotch Elm, Enr- 
liih Sycamore, Linden, Horse Chestnut, Mountain Asb^ Laieb, Oai^ 
Ac. Ex'ergreen, Privet and Buekthom, for Hedges. 

Rhubarb ukI Asparagus Plants, Ac. Catalcwuea and oiker iiiAr- 
maiion cmi be had of the NBrser>'man. JOSEPH CALDWELL. 

Troy, April I, ISM— It. 

liinnsan Botanic Garden and If aneries, 

Ylvdiing, Vov-Tdric 

WM. R. PRINCE A CO., wishhig to retire from bosaiesa, and la 
use 50 acres of their gromids for buildmg lots, wiU sell th* 
whole or any part of their stock, at liberal rates; and if any parties 
wish to coniniue the Nursery bueiiicaB on their own aeeoimt, wiU 
advance $8,tXK) to ilO,000 for the purchase of the land in this vicmity, 
they allowuig us rental therefor ; and a very suitable plot can ba 
ohtaiued at this time. It would be useless for any person to under- 
take, unless they have S5,<NXI lo 140.000 hi cash. April 1— It. 

Frail Ti ec »'»« 8 pecial If otice* 

THE proprietor has siill remaining in his Nurseries, a lai^ num- 
ber of thrifty JFVaii IVees, whieh must be remoired the presem 
year, in order to complete the improvements now in progress on his 

The Osnsml CollsrtMm contains many thousands, and from which 
selertioiH can be made iif almost every appr ov ed variety extauL 

4psc«al GtAti^mtion hiM been bestowed en the F«r, and ire«a of 
sxfra »iz4^ let (A frwU budt^ con be supplied, of many of the popu- 
lar sorts, and at moderate prices. 

Also, most of the new varieties of Pean, Cherries, Plums, Hbs^ 
berries, Currants, Strawberries^ and other fruity and at rates lemttum 
is aenendly charged for novelties. ^ 

Beietu kv exportation and the home trade, ean be had from frtril 
bearing Trees, thereby ensuring eorrenmesi of noreendalura. 

Seltetiamt, when desired, founded onthe experienoe of masiyyean, 
will be made by the proprietor, and which wul seldom fail to pleaae 
the correspondent. 

.iifdr»«<—*' The Superintendent of the Nurseries^ at Hawtbon 
Grove, Dorchester, Mass.." to the care of the subscriber, 

N. R— Grove Hall Coaches leave Na 11 Franklin-st. four timet 
each day. AprU 1, 18W—K 

, are for aala 
■nd'iha fottowiqf 

Fowls and 

VERT handsome specimens of the Alban 
by the subscriber. Also^ eggs of the a! 

Shanghae, Perly stock. 

Santa Anna, nme. 

Golden Poland. 

Java Bmitams. 

The above may be relied upon as genusM. 

Albmiy, AprU 1, lesai— It. 



AND other Feriilixers. Several hundred tons of fint 
Peruvian Guano, constantly on hand for sale. 

A. B. ALLEN A CO., 160 ami 101. 

Water-at., NeW-Tofk. 
Jan. 1— If. 


/« yubliiktd <m tktjlrst tftatk mtrnthy at Hbony, If. Y^ bf 

91 p«r Aim.— 7 OopiM fcr $8—16 itar dO. 

It^ All subscriptions to commence with the volume, (the Ji 
No.,) uid to iie rATD w advakcs. 

Aj)VBRTisB]iE«Ts^— The eharge fi>r Advertisemaits Is 91 ftr 
lines, for each hiaertioii. No vanaUon made firgn Ibaw 

ALBANT, HAY, 1&53. 

Vm,. IX- 

Th* FoaoM of tha Tnm. 

SDOont fa anybiuiiMMreqiilTetitboTOiighkBcrwIedce 
of tbe m«ma >od materials ander cmplor. Place tbe 
Itt«n oT a loeofflotire In tbehaodsaf one who kad never 
befi>T« feen tbb powerftil macUoe, and instead of befog 
iMe to drtn It wltl) the speed of t)ie irhid and the fn- 
(Monof iBatbematn»,hettoiildbe sadly puuled toknow 
what first to do with hit fupoHAUt cbarge. What contd 
ft plowman do If nqnired to saperiulend a cctton factory! 
Or a bU^imlth tbe madilnary of a wholesale raerehantf 
Wbat could a shoi&eeper aecom^iih If placed Id cfaar^ 
of a thiuhtngBuchliM, a hone-reaper, oratabvollplowf 
Ve ihoald «n donbt tbe tanltr of the man who wonld 
■end Gh' a ImwTetto set a ftiMtnred limb, although he 
tnt^t point ant to tbe nicety of a hair the rights, prlrl- 
leges, and Uabfilties of John Doe and Richard Roe, and 
tbelT legal repreaentatiTea. Bnt It needi no argument 
to draw tbe absnrdfty of looking for knowledge where it 
b not to be band) It b not, howerer, qnlte so plain to 
ffverj one, tltat no bndneM can be weB condnded wllh- 
OTt AoroD^ koonledge of its parte. The idea that men 
■nceeed 1^ a sort of lueky gnesring, Instead of a tho- 
roii^ naltoTT of fbeti and prhiclplea, b quite too ftt- 

We remember some jetn ago, as an example, that a 
newly inrented water-wheel was higtily Tecommended to 
Oe pubUe, at) pomesstng, wttb an equal aaonnt and fkll 
ef water, three times the power of the best orenhot 
Wbeel. Tbe wildnew of mch a cUm would have been 
bataatly erldent, to many who were deluded by It, bod 
they only known, or reflected, that the priueiplet of 
Brarttj are such, that one hnndred poaada of water de- 
aeending ten (bet, coald never, by tbe most cunningly In. 
vented machine, be made to elevate more than a like 
quantity of water to a similar height, or do Its equlva- 
lent in any other way. Tbe heathen poet, who, In bis 
hktoiical fictions, spoke of wine that was twenty times 
Hronger than common, that Is, fonr tlmoi stronger than 
pure alcohol, did not commit a greater blunder, than 
many do In their estimates, or rather vague coiijoctures 
of the power of machinery. 

iDtentort of fiirm machines, hlie most other men, re- 
tembleveryunchaflock of sheep, and follow where some 
one it bold enongh to lead. Henoe we see that they have 
net stroefc off so much Into every ponlble avenue, as they 
have travelled irttb the mass in certain beaten tracks. We 
bare a plow invented for nearly every countyln the north- 
«niWc*,b(it nothalf adoienwellcottitnietedharrows; 

we have bad for a long time, a vast ntmibn ef U 
mMcUsea, bat until very lately, scaroely a reapii^ aia- 
chine KM known. Tbe World's Fair, it ii true, has 
tunwd tbe tide of bsbloo In tbe Utter direottoa, and ■« 
dwU now soca have tbam by weom. We have been mv- 
plied with as great a variety In chnrM, aa hi the didiea 
of a Franeh cook) yet a foed milking machine, a tUag 
of mnch greal«r a>BBB(|uenoe, (annntlng tbe time qi>»- 
•omed,) baa never yet beenmade. We b^e efteo woo- 
dered why Yankee li^enuity bad sraver j«t devised a 
HQgle good noagl*, aUboagb boors ai« coosomed evary 
week, tit nearly aU bniiliea of this bread ccnmliy of SO 
milliou, by tbe hard tabor of the Ironiiw table ; yet ma. 
sage-ttuSbrs, and sanMge-mlneera, paring-marjiinea and 
pq>per<KrlBdeia, have all bad a large sbaie of attention^ 
altboD^ perbaps uird bnt once a year. 

We cannot hot believe, that one great reasen of the 
deideBCy in Osae, and in DMsy other particnkn, kth^ 
brmers themselves do not adaqaately conpfehend what 
Is needed, and what may be accompUshed. Tliey do sot 
poeaess a suffldent knowledge of the principka of machi- 
nery, in many iostances, to qualify tbam for Judging of 
tbe merits of new machines; to know how moch and no 
more, tbe beat application «f force c»n accompUiibj and 
especially to enable tbem to Judge with soma degreg of 
confldcnce, whether inventors have nearly rettcbed per* 
fcction in aoy particular point, or whether there yet ro- 
maiiM a great field usachievad before tbnn. It is here, 
if anywhere, that a thorough knowledge of means and 
materials, of facta and prlociples. Is needed, to enable 
every one to conduct bis business understandlngly. W« 
will furnlih a few ezamplea, by way of eiplanatlon. 

The crow-bar is simple and eOective, and so br aa It 
foea, may be considered as having abont readwd perflMi 
tion. It poeseeses bnt little fnctlon, and a gtven ford 
applied to it is wholly applied, witbout any loss, to the de> 
sired end. How is it with tbe reaping macbinet One 
man, with the best hand- macbiDe, will cut twoandahalf 
acres of wheat En adsj; ahorse is reckoned to the work 
of five men, consequently a two horse reaper, deducting 
one-fourth for the Mclion of the parts, should do seven 
and a half tlaies as mnch as a single hand, or nineteen 
acres In a day, an siDonnt which has been nearly reach- 
by the best reapers. They cannot, therefore, be expect- 
ed to be greatly improved In the qnantlty, but rather Id 
tbe perfection of their work, and in cheapness and sira- 
plidty. Apply tbe same kiod of calculation to .the 
plow, and the reader cannot bat be turprised at the great 




field yet open for Improyement. A cubic foot of earth 
we^hs about 125 pounds; a team turning a slice a foot 
wide and six inches deep, and moving four feet per se- 
cond, lifts two cubic feet of soil or 250 lbs. in each second, 
about on an average seven inches high. Now, a good 
American horse has been found in ordinary work to lift 
100 lbs. at the rate of four feet per second, or 700 lbs. 
seven inches high per second, which is nearly three times 
as great as the amount effected by two horses attached 
to a plow. That is, five-sixths of the force applied in 
plowing is expended in overcoming friction and cohesion. 
Here is a chance for inventors to exercise their ingenuity 
fbr a long time to come, hi endeavoring to lessen this loss 
of '500 per cent. 

" A two-horse team, as we have Just remarked, should 
do nearly ten times as much work as a single hand. This 
remark applies to cases where the tall strength of the 
man is exerted to the best advantage. But the gain by 
machinery is much greater, if well perfected, in doing 
what men perform to a decided disadvantage, or where 
their strength can be only partially applied. Such for 
example, is the case with some of the best seed planting 
machines, as compared to planting by hand ; or of some 
of the most perfect horse hoes or cultivators, as compared 
to the slow and tedious process of hand weeding, — in 
neither of which instances is one half of the human strength 
advantageously applied. It is here that inventors are to 
look for extraordinary results. The manufacture of cot- 
ton furnishes an interesting illustration, — ^where the best 
modem machinery turns out in each day at least two hun- 
dred times as much goods as the tedious process of hands 
and fingers accomplished eighty years ago. 

Oar limits will not allow us to enter into the details of 
this subject, which would furnish ample materials for a 
volume. We only vnsh to call the attention of farmers, 
whose business it is to Judge of farm machinery, and fur* 
nish suggestions to manufacturers, to the unportance of 
thoroughly understanding the subject. It is interesting 
to look back and see what has already been done. The 
capital now constantly invested in farm-labor and farm- 
forces in the United States is not less than 500 millions 
of dollars per annum, although but one half of what it 
would have been, but for the improvements in the plow, 
the thrasher, the fiinning-mill, the seed-sower, the horse- 
rake, and the reaper. What may yet be done towards 
reducing this enormous amount, must depend on the in- 
genuity of OUT inventors, and ou the general knowledge 
and sagacity of our farmers. 


Fraud x» Guano. — Every thing which brings a high 
price, invites fraud, and impositions in the form of spu- 
rious merino sheep, artificial fertilizers, fcc, are natural 
results where men do not know the '^ beginning of wis- 
dom," or that honesty is best policy. Prof. Norton says 
"the most barefaced impositions are practiced in Eng- 
land, certain parties having sold a species of loam resem- 
bling Peruvian guano, at a high price, the bags having 
been dusted, both inside and out, with some of the real 
article to counterfeit the true smell"— thus selling cha- 
racter and conscience for life to get a few weeks dishonest 
gain,--« hard bargain. 

Eby and Foddflr— Catting and Outing. 

It may be safely averred that there is not a single ope- 
ration on a farm that cannot be, and that ought not to be 
conducted upon scientific principles. Hence tlie utility, 
the necessity, of a sdentific education of farmers. If the 
remark be true of farm operations generally, it is more 
especially so of the subject of hay-making. In this we 
require a knowledge of vegetable physiology, of cfaemis- 
istry, of pharmacy. Vegetable physiology will teach oe 
the nature and functions of the various organs and parts 
and Juices ot the plants with which we have to do ; chen^ 
istry will teach us the theory, and pharmacy the art, of 
curing and saving the article in the best manner. There 
is no doubt that a very large portion of the nutritive mat- 
ter of hay, and all kinds of fodder, is lost by a want of 
knowledge of this kind. The writer of this has never 
seen a hay-field at haying time, that he was not forcibly 
impressed with this truth. To illustrate this subject-^ 
suppose a pharmaceutist, the Shakers, for example, were 
to gather their medical herbs, and cure them, and houas 
them in the same way that hay and fodder are asmally 
gathered, cured, and saved — ^what,let us ask, would they 
be worth? Gathered at very improper seasons, cured in 
such a manner as to ferment and evaporate all their m> 
trinsic virtues, and at last housed in a place, and hi a 
condition, to make assurance of its destruction;' doubly 
sure," it may well be conceived they would not be worth 
much. There are certain rules to be observed in this, u 
in all things, to attain the highest degree of perfection. 
Every kind of hay and fodder will be good or good for 
nothing, according to the degree of attention to these 
rules. The grass should be allowed to attain the bigb" 
est degree of perfection before it is cut, and tliat degree 
is found to be at the time of ftototring or blooming, jnal 
before the seed begins to form. It being a kerhacmuM 
plant, the whole natural object of it is to make seed, 
and all its Juices are, at the time of fiowering, in their 
richest state. This is the time to cut it. If cut before 
this time, the Juices are imperfect, and the fibrous mat- 
ter immature; and if delayed beyond this time, more 
or less of the richness of these Juices is expended in mak- 
ing the seed. If the seed is allowed to become rtpe, the 
hay is comparatively worthless. We never saw a load 
of hay in th^ market for sale, that did not exhibit une^ 
quivocal signs of having had a very large portion of ito 
rich qualities exhausted, either before it was cut, or in 
curing. When it is understood, that if allowed to ripen 
seed perfectly, the grass loses all its rich Juices, and be- 
comes mere dry strw— woody fibre, a little silicate of pot> 
ash, and a very trifling quantity of vegetable extractive 
matter, the importance of cutting it at the right time will 
be apparent. 

And here it is proper to mention another error ot al- 
most, if not quite equal importance. It is that of mix* 
ing different kinds of grass together. There are scarcely 
any two grasses that flower at the same time, exactly, 
and if two be mixed that flower at different times, one 
or the other will be greatly deteriorated by being cnt too 
soon or too late. All grasses should, therefore, be kc|)t 
in distinct meadows. 

The cuijng process is, however, of much the moat im* 
portance. No matter at what times the grass be cnt, if 




ft be Bot properly cured, the bay wiU be worth le», in 
proportion to this imperfection. Two tons of hay shall 
be taken from the same field, the one cored properly, the 
other carelessly^-and the one shall be worth twenty dol- 
lars, while the other will be dear at any price, except for 
mere straw. Let us descend to particidars, fbr the sub- 
ject is sufficiently important to authorise it. Nearly the 
whole nutritious properties of the hay are in a fluid, or 
semi-fluid state, hij^ly susceptible of fermentation; and 
if fermentation takes place, they will be immediately 
dtssipated in Taper. The ol(|ect to be attained is to cure 
the hay, by CTaporating the vfotir only, of these Juices, 
leaving the saccharine and other principles in a solid state 
in the body ol the grass. But if the Juices of the grass be 
allowed to ferment, then all these principles are rapidly 
changed, and pass off with the water in vapor. The 
usual method of curing hay, especially in the middle 
states, permits the green cut hay to lay in masses till it 
gets more or less heated, especially the under portion of 
it. This heat is produced by fermentation. We usually 
see the hay in the swath till the next day, and then it is 
merely turned over, and eyen that very carefully. The 
underside wifl then be fbund to be very warm. Now, all 
this Is wrong. The hay should be shaken up lightly, and 
loosely^ so that none of it wUl lay in compact masses, and 
that the air may pass freely through it. It should be 
gathered into winrows as late as possible in the evening, 
and these should be well opened and turned, and loosen- 
ed, early in the morning, so as to avoid spontaneous fer- 
mentation. If the weather be fair, the hay cut yester- 
day will be flt for cocking this afternoon, but it is not 
ready for housing or stacking. A great error is often 
committed in cocking hay, in allowbg it to remain in 
these small stacks too long. When cocked, the bay is 
merely wilted, not cured, and if allowed to remain in 
cocks, will ferment there. They should be opened and 
spread about, and re-cocked several times before being 
permanently stacked or housed. Shaking hay about has 
a great effbct in curing it, much more than is generally 
supposed. It exposes it to fresh air, which carries off 
the water, and the oAener it is shaken up, the sooner and 
better it will be cured. Many object to shaking up the 
hay while the dew is on it in the morning. This is an 
error. A good shaking at that time, will efi^^ctually dry 

Many an old fiirmer will undoubtedly laugh at my sim- 
plicity, in thinking it necessary to give such plain, com- 
mon-place notions, publicity. But if they will take a 
look at the hay that is daily brought to all our markets 
for sale, they will find abundant excuse for me. Nine- 
tenths of the hay thus exposed for sale, is a mere mass 
of dry straw; much of it made so by curing, and the rest 
by unseasonable cutting. Hay, in a perfect state, should 
be of a bright greenish color, and as odoriferous as green 
tea; but the mass of that brought to our markets, is of 
■uch a.dull straw color, that it requires some close in- 
spection to ascertain whether it be hay or mere chess 
straw, and you may run your nose into the middle of a 
load of it, (if it be long enough!) without detecting any 
odor at all — ^unless it be a musty one. 

I must i^e the New-York farmers the credit of pro* 
dndii^ the beat hay we hftre aeen in o«r ci^ maiketa. I 

have frequently used that sent by them to the Baltimore 
market, pressed in bales, and found it to be worth, intrin- 
sically, twenty*flve to tiurty per cent more than that nsu- 
ally brought here tnm the surrounding country. And 
the reason of this difference in quality evidently grew out 
of the more perfect mamier of curing, and attention to 
the tlBie of catting. There are many individual excep- 
tions here. There is as good hay made here, as there is 
in the north, and as good ikrmers, and as scientific for- 
mers too, but they are exceptions to the rule, not Uw 
rule itself. My otject, of coarse, is to do my part to 
make all oor formers what the exceptions are admitted to 
be. G. B. S. 

Tr&ntamm lor Biaapm and Bay Pmaiaa. 

The following resolutions were adopted at a recent 
meeting of the Maryland State Agricultural Society , 
and are worthy the attention of patentees of Reaping Ma* 
chhies, and Hay and Tobacco Presses. The pompetitioa 
for the premiums, is open to the whole country, and a 
Jury of twelve persons has been appointed to award the 
prises, after a careful and thorough trial of the maohinea. 

Col. J. G. Walsh, of Harford, called the attention of 
the society to the importance of a change in the present 
mode of awarding premiums for certain objects which he 
specified, and to correct which, he offered the following 
preamble and resolutions: 

Whereas f It being a matter of considerable importance 
to the agricultural community of our state, that all form- 
ing implements, especially those involving a considerable 
expense in their purchase, and which, if properly con- 
structed, would be profitably and extexsively used, should 
be properly tested, and their merits and demerits made 
known by a fair and impartial examination and trial, it is 

Resolved f That a committee of twel^ members heap- 
pointed by the chair, whose duty it shall be, at sumecon* 
venient period during the ensuing harvest, to examine any 
reaping or mowing . machines that mav be presented to 
their notice, and to report to this society, at its annuid 
meeting in October, an opinion of their respective merits, 
based upon their actual performance in the field. It shall 
be the duty of said committee to give notice in the public 
prints, of the time and place selected for the trial. It is 
further resolved, that to the exhibitor of the machine 
possessing the most valuable properties, as decided by the 
committee, a premium of $100 shall be awarded by the 

Resolved 1 That a committee of twelve members be ap« 
pointed by the chair, who shall, at as early a day as prac- 
ticable, invite the proprietors of the several hay or straw 
presses now in use, or any others which may be exhibit- 
ed, to an actual test of their qualities in presence of said 
committee j and to the exhibitor of the press decided by 
it as most deserving, a premium of $50 dollars shall be 
awarded by the society. 

Col. Bowie then moved that a premium of $50 be of. 

fered for the best tobacco press, and that a committee of 

twelve be likewi;)e appointed to make a practical test of 

the capacity of the machines which may be offered to their 

inspection, at such time as the committee may select— 

which motion was adopted. 


EcoNOMT or FAau-PowKR. — B. P. Johnson, in his 
letters from England, in speaking of the skilful farm ar- 
rangements of J. J. Mechi, the celebrated English agri- 
cnlturist, says that by means of an engine of six-horse 
power, he drives a pair of mill stones for grinding feed, 
threshes and dresses grain, pumps water, cuts chaff, turns 
the grind-stone, raises the sacks of grain, and the waste 
rteam cooks the food for cattle and swine — the work 
being aU performed in a first rate manner. 




Pxxuhig and OhnMag Shavn. 

Good treatmeot of f rait trees is always promoted by 
ooBTenient tools ; and tlie oxcusos for negUgence are les- 
sened wUh every iacflity for ttieir proper management. 
7or many of tbe operations of pmamg, sbwteniiig-m 
pesfibesi &o,y where bnaoebes aot erer an ineh in diame- 
tfir are to be ent off, the hand-sheara will be fonnd ex- 
ceedingly convenient, and do the work with thrice the 
mpidity of the knifi». 

These are nsnaUy made as shown in the amiexed figare, 
(F%. 1 f ) and their great power depends npon the ** draw- 

Pi£. 1. 

cut," or sawing motion imparted to the blade by their 
pecnUar eonstmction. The principal cutting blade has a 
movable center, so that when the handles are pressed 
together, the Connecting bar a draws this blade down- 
wards, giving it A componnd motion, and increasing its 
power many fold over the simple caiting movement of a 
pair of scissors. The spring b serves to throw the diears 
open when not nnder the pressure of the hand. 

This instmment has been known among gardeners for 
many years. A mndi simpler mode of obtaining tlie fall 
power of this draw-cut, more especially as applied to cat- 
ting off and slitting stocks for grafting; was described 
some years idnee in tbe ^' Fruit Guitarist. '** It may 
however, be ai>plied wl& equal advantage to any kind 
^ of shears for pnming. The annexed figure, (Fig 2,) re- 

Fig. 8. 
presents this instrument as used for grafting. The thin 
blade A, two or three inches long, is set at an angle with 
the handle 6, of about a hundred and twenty degrees; 
and for this very reason, when the shears are closing, the 

Fig. 3. 

blade makes a draw-cut towards the concave bed C, 
which is placed against tbe stock to be cut. A tree an 
inch in diameter is chipped square off by this tool, with 
as much ease as a Jack-knife wlU clip a carrot. This 
grafting Instrument may be at once transformed into 

* This histnunent woa invented and •ucceatfnlly used, by the late 
Abbl Thomas, of Aurora, Cayugm co., N. Y., and has since been 
prored of great value by thoi»e who have adopted .iu nee ; the writer of 
ihii notice after fifteen yeere trial era ipeak eonSdeiMiy of iia meriii. 

shears for pruning, by substlhiting ibr^he heA-pieceC^ 
another and blunter blade, Fig. 8. 

In order to make the principle of the irorkf ng part of 
this instrument more cleariy vnderstood, we annex two 
simple figu^B, (Fig. 4,) 
the one representing the 
objectionable mode, 
sometimes adopted, of 
placing the pivot at the 
angle in the blade, the 
dotted lines (which are 
nothing more than circles 
described around the pi- 
vot a as a center,) clear- 
ly showing that this blade 
cuts only at right angles, pig, 4. 

and consequently does not possess the power of the other 
blade, where the pivot being placed below the angle, tb« 
cut is made obliquely,— it has the (fraio-cvf . 

We have been surprised that so few persons have ever 
used this improved form, and that its merits appear to be 
so little known, although several yeara have elapsed since 
it was made public. Not only in journals of the day, 
but in elaborately written books, the old construction 
alone b given. Within a few years, an higenious but 
complex " stock-splitter" was figured and described in 
the Horticulturist, by A. FooTB, of Williamstown, Mass., 
and has been much commended; but although great 
force is given to the blade by the handle and small wheel, 
yet it lacks the draw-cut, and the power, possessed by 
the instrument already described. Our object in thus 
alluding to this subject is not only to call the attentjon 
of cultivators, but to Induce some of onr excellent 
American cutlers to improve the instruments they ai6 
now manufacturing. 


Onano and Xiimo. 

Wm. Boulwore of Ta., has furnished the American 
Farmer the statement of an interesting experiment, show- 
ing that guano is not so evanescent In soils as it has gen> 
erally been believed to be. Three years ago, 60 hnshela 
of lime per acre was applied to a field of com Sn sining- 
The next autumn, two acres of this field were