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ith a Supplement of upwards of 4600 New Words 
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Note. — The only authorized Editions of tlm Dictionary are 
those here described : no others published in England 
contain the Derivations and Etymological Notes of Dr. 
Mahn, who devoted several years to this portion of the Work. 
See page 4. 


OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. Thoroughly revised and im- 
proved by Chaunoey A. Goodbich, D.D., LL.D., and Noah Poetee, 
D.D,, of Yale College. 
The peculiar features of this volume, which render it perhaps the most useful 

Dictionary for general reference extant, as it is undoubtedly one of the cheapest 

books ever published, are as follows c — 

5. The Orthogfraphy is based as &r as 
possible on Fixed Principlee. In aU eata 
qf doubt an alternative tpeUing is given. 

1. Completeness. — It contains 114,000 
words— more by 10,000 than any other 
Dictionary; and these are, for the most 
part, onnsnal or technical terms, for the 
explanation of which a Dictionary is most 

2. Accuracy of Definitioii. — In this 

department the labom^ of Dr. Webster 
were most valuable, in correcting the faulty 
and rednndant definitlonE of Dr. Johnson, 
which had previously been almost univer- 
sally adopted. In Uie present edition all 
the defli^tions have been carefully and 
methodically analysed by W. G. AVebeter, 
Keq., the Rev. Chauncey Goodrich, Prof. 
Lyman, Prof. Whitney, and Prof. Gilman, 
with the assistance and under the super- 
intendence of Prot Goodrich. 

3. Scientific and Technieel Terms. — 

In order to secure the utmost completeness 
and accuracy of definition, this department 
lias been subdivided among eminent 
Scholars and Experts, including Prof.Dana, 
Prof. Lyman, &c. 

4. Etymology. — The eminent philo- 
logist. Dr. C. F. MjiKH, has devoted five 
years to perfecting this department. 

The Volume contains 1628 pages, more than 3000 Illustrations, and is sold 
for One Guinea. It will be found, on comparison, to be one of the cheapest 
Volumes ever issued. Cloth, 2ls.; half-bound in <alf, 30a.; calf or half-russia, 
Sl«. 6<f. ; russia, £2. 

6. Pronunciation. — This has been en- 
trusted to Mr. W. G. Websteb and Mr. 
Wreeler, assisted by other scholars. The 
pronunciation of each word is indicated by 
typographical signs, which are explained 
by reference to a Key printed at the bottom 
of each page. 

7. The Illustrative Citations. — No 

labour has been spared to embody such 
quotations from standard authors as may 
throw light on the definitions, or pos- 
sess any special interest of thonght or 

8. The Synonyms. — These are sub- 
joined to the words to which they belong, 
and are very complete. ■ 

9. The Illustrations, which exceed 3000, 
are inserted, not for the salje of ornament, 
but to elucidate the meaning of words 
which cannot be satisfactorily explained 
withont pictorial aid. 

To be obtamea through ail Booksellers. 


New Edition, with a New Biographical Supplement of upwards 
of 8700 Names. 


OF LITERARY REFERENCE. With 3000 Illustrations. Tho 
roughly revised and improved by Chauncey A. Goodbich, D.D., 
LL.D., and Noah Foeteb, D.D., of Yale College. 
In One Yolome, Qnorto, strongly bonnd in clotb, 1919 pages, price £1 lit. 6ct.; hftlf-calf, 
£2 ; calf or half-russia, £2 2s. ; rnssia, £2 10s. 

Besides the matter comprised in the Webster's Guinba Dictionary, this 
volume contains the following Appendices, which will show tliat no pains have 
been spared to make it a complete Literai-y Refereace-book : — 

A Brief History of the Englieh Lan- 
guage. By Professor James Hadlk?. 
This Work shows the Philological Rela- 
tions of the English Langnoge, and traces 
the progress and influence of the causes 
which have brought it to its present con- 

of FronuneiatioiL 

Principles of Fronuneiation. By 

Professor GrOODRica and W. A. Whem^b, 
M.A, Including a Synopsis of Words 
differently pronounced by different au- 

A Short Treatise on Orthography. 

By Abihub W. Weight. Including a 
Complete List of Words that are spelt in 
two or more ways. 

An Explanatory and Prononncing 

Vocabulary of the Names of Noted Fic- 
titious Persons and Places, be By W. A. 

Whkeleb, M.A- This Work includes not 

only persons and places noted in Fiction, 

whether narrative, poetical, or dramatic, 

but Mythological and Mythical names, 

names referring to the Angelology and De- 

monology of various races, and those 

found in the romance writers ; Pseu- 
donyms, Nick-names of eminent persons 

and parties, 9k., &c. In fact, it is best 

described as explaining every name which 

is not strictly historical. A reference is 

given to the originator of each name, and 

where the origin is unknown a qaotati(»i 

is given to some well-known writer in 

wUch the word occurs. 
77it« valuabU Work man «J»o &« ^<m' 

teparaUly, post 8w., 6«. 
A Pronooncing YoGabolary of Scrip- 
ture Proper Names. By W. A. Wheeler, 

M.A, Including a List of the Variations 

that occur in the Dooay verwon oH tlte 


" The cheapest Dictionary ever published, as it is confessedly one cf the best, Tho intro- 
duction of small woodcut illustrations of technical and scientmc terns adds greatly to ttte 
utility ol the Dictionary."— C7iurc/ima». 

Tq he obtained through, all Booksdlen. 

A PronooBicing Vooabolary of Oreek 

and Latin Proper Names. By Professor 
Thaohbe. of Yale College. 

An Etymological Vocahnlary of Mo- 
dem Geographical Names. By the Rev. 
C. H. Wheelbb. Containing :— I. A List 
of Prefixes, Terminations, and Formative 
Syllables in various Langoages, with their 
meaning and derivation ; ii. A brief List 
of Geographical Names f not explained by 
the foregoing List), witn their derivation 
and signification, all doubtful and obscure 
derivations being excluded. 

Pronouncing Vocabularies of Modem 

Geographical and Biogr^hlcal Names. 
By J. Thomas, M.D. 

A Pronouncing Vocabulary of Com- 
mon EngUih Christian Names, with their 
derivations, signification, and diminutives 
(or nick-n&mee), and tfaeir equivalents in 
several other languages. 

A Dictionary of Q^aotations. Selected 

and translated by William G. Wkbstbb. 
Containing all Words, Phrases, Proverbs, 
and Colloquial Expressions from the 
Greek, Latin, and Modem Foreign Lan- 
guages, which are ftequently met with in 
literature and conversation. 

A New Biographical Dictionary of 

up-wards 9700 Naanes of Noted Persons, 
Ancient and Motfern, Including many now 
living -giving the Name, Fronuncialion, 
Nationality, Piofestion, and Date of Birth 
and Death. 

A List of Abbreviatioins, Contrac- 
tions, and Arbitrary Signs used in Writing 
and Printing. 

A Classified Selection of Pictorial 

Illustrations (70 p«g«s). With references 
to thete;s:t. 



From the Quabtkbly Kkyibw, Oct. 1873. 

** Seventy years passed before Johnson was followed by Webster, an 
American writer, who faced the task of the English Dictionary with a 
fall appreciation of its reqtiirementa, leading to better practical results." 

" His laborious comparison of twenty languages, though never pub- 
lished, bore fruit in his own mind, and his training placed him both in 
knowledge and judgment far in advance of Johnson as a philologist. 
Webster's * American Dictionary of the English Language ' was pub- 
lished in 1828, and of course appeared at once in England, where 
successive re-editing Juu as yet kept it in the highest place as a practical 

" The acceptance of an American Dictionary in England has itself 
had immense effect in keeping up the community of speech, to break 
which would be a grievous harm, not to English-speaking nations 
alone, but to mankind. The result of this has been that the common 
Dictionary must suit both sides of the Atlantic." .... 

" The good average business-like character of Webster's Dictionary, 
both in style and matter, made it as distinctly suited as Johnson'a was 
distinctly unsuited to be expanded and re-edited by other hands. 
Professor Goodrich's edition of 1847 is not much more than enlarged 
and amended, but other revisions since have so much novelty of plan 
as to be described as distinct works." .... 

" The American revised Webster's Dictionary of 1864, published in 
America and England, is of an altogether higher order than these last 
[The London Imperial and Student's]. It bears on its title-page the 
names of Drs. Goodrich and Porter, but inasmuch as its especial im- 
provement is in the etymological department, the care of which was 
committed to Dr. Mahn, of Berlin, we prefer to describe it in short as 
the Webster-Mahn Dictionary. Many other literary men, among them 
Professors Whitney and Dana, aided in the task of compilation and 
revision. On censideration it seems that the editors and contributors 
have gone far toward improving Webster to the utmost that he will 
bear improvement. The vocabulary has become almost complete, aa 
regards usual words, while the definitions keep throughout to Webster's 
simple careful style, and the derivations are assigned with the aid of 
good modem authorities." 

" On the whole, the Webster- Mahn Dictionary as it stands, is most 




Dr. Richardson's Philological Dictionary of the 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE. Combiniug Explanation with Etymology, 
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An 8vo. edition, without the Quotations, 158. Half-russia, 20«. 
Russia, 248. 

Synonyms and Antonyms of the English Language. 

Collected and Contrasted. By the late Yen. C. J. Smith, M.A. 
Post 8vo. 58. 
Synonyms Discriminated. A Catalogue of Synonymous 

Words in the English Language, with their various Shades of Mean- 
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late Yen. C. J. Smith, M.A. Demy 8vo. 168. 
A Biographical Dictionary. By Thompson Coopkb, F.S.A., 
Editor of " Men of the Time," and Joint Editor of " Athense Canta- 
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This volume is not a mere repetition of the contents of previous works, 
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" It ifi an important original contribution to the literature of its class by a painstaking 

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ooaaxtrojaxsa mzicbes or tbs ixsnTcre or r&AXCK 

VOL. I. A— F. 
















THOMAS WRIGHT, Esq., M.A., P.S.A., H.M.R.S.L., &e, 








Some seven centuries ago, two distinct languages were spokeik 
throughout England, the Anglo-Saxon, which was that of our Teu- 
tonic forefathers, and consequently one of the pure Teutonic dialects, 
and the Anglo-Norman, one of the Neo-Latin family of tongues, 
which was brought in by the Norman conquest. For some time, 
these two languages remained perfectly distinct, the Anglo-Norman 
being the only one spoken or understood by the higher classes of 
society; while the lower classes, and a great portion of the 
intermediate class, used only the Anglo-Saxon. Some only of the 
middle classes, more especially those engaged in mercantile occu- 
pations, were acquainted with both. It was not until the thirteenth 
century, when the intercourse between the several classes had become 
more intimate, that an intermixture of the two languages began to 
take place, and then all the educated classes appear to have been well 
acquainted with both tongues. From this time forwards, an English 
writer, though using the Anglo-Saxon tongue, adopted just as many 
Anglo-Norman words as he pleased, — in fact it had assumed the 
character of a language of two ing»-dients, which might be mixed 
together in any proportion, from pure Anglo-Norman (pure, as regards 
the derivation of the words) to nearly pure Anglo-Saxon, according 
to the class of society for which he wrote. Thus, as late as the 
middle of the fourteenth century, the language ot Piers Ploughman, 
which was designed for a popular work, contains a remarkably small 
mixture of Anglo-Norman words, while in the writings of Chaucer, 
who was essentially a Court poet, the proportion of the Anglo- 
Norman to the Anglo-Saxon is very great. Much of this Anglo- 
Norman element was afterwards rejected from the English language, 
but much was retained, and of course a proportional quantity of Anglo- 


Saxon \» as displaced by it. In consequence of tLis unsettled state of 
the English language, the writers of the ages of change and transition 
contain a very large number of words belonging to the Anglo-Saxon 
as well as to the Anglo-Norman, which are no longer contained in the 
English tongue- 
Such was the first process of the formation of the English language. 
The limitation of the Anglo-Norman element seems to have taken 
place in the fifteenth century, when a considerable portion of the 
Anglo-Norman words used by previous English writers were rejected 
from the English language, and were never seen in it again. But as 
these disappeared, they were succeeded by a new class of intruders. 
The scholastic system of the age of the Reformation, had caused a 
very extensive cultivation and knowledge of the Latin language, and 
it is probable that the great mass of the reading public at that time 
were almost as well acquainted with Latin as with their own mother 
tongue. Li consequence of this universal knowledge of Latin, the 
writers of the sixteenth century, without any sensible inconvenience, 
used just as many Latin words as they liked in writing English, 
merely giving them an English grammatical form. The English 
language thus became suddenly encumbered with Latin words, until, 
at the end of the sixteenth century and beginning of the seventeenth, 
the practice of thus using Latin words was carried to such a degree 
of pedantic affectation, that it effected its own cure. A popular 
writer of this period, Samuel Rowlands, in a satirical tract published 
in 1611, under the title of " The Knave of Clubbs," has the following 
lines upon this fashion, which had at that date reached its culmi- 
nating point : 


As on the way I Itenerated, 
A Rurall person I Obviated, 
Interrogating time's Transitation, 
And of the passage Demonstration. 
My apprehension did Ingenious scan, 
That he was meerely a Simplitian, 
So when I saw he was Extravagant, 
Unto the obscure vulgar Consonant, 
I bad him vanish most Promiscuously, 
And not Contaminate my company. 

A few of these Latin words have held their place in the language. 


but our writers, from the latter part of the fifteenth century to tht 
middle of the seventeenth, abound in words adopted from the Latin 
which modern English dictionaries do not recognize. 

From these and other causes it happens, that of a very large 
portion of English literature, one part would be totally unintelligible 
to the general reader, and the other would present continual diffi- 
culties, without a dictionary especially devoted to the obsolete words 
of our language. It is the object of the volumes now offered to the 
public, to furnish a compendious and useful work of this kind, which 
shall contain the obsolete Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman words 
used by the English writers of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 
many of the obsolete Latin words introduced in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, as well as words which have been adopted 
temporarily at various times according to prevailing fashions from 
other languages, such as French, Italian, Spanish, or Dutch, or 
which belonged to sentiments, manners, customs, habits, and modes, 
that have existed at particular periods and disappeared. 

There is another class of words, forming at least an interesting 
portion of the English language, and coming especially within the 
objects of a work of this kind, those of the provincial dialects. There 
can be no doubt that the peculiar characteristics, or, we may say, the 
organic differences of dialect, are derived more or less from a diversity 
of tribe among the Anglo-Saxon settlers in our island; for, as far as 
our materials allow us to go, we can trace these diversities in Anglo- 
Saxon times. As, however, during the middle ages, and, in fact, 
down to very recent times, the intercommunication between different 
parts of the country was very imperfect, progress, of whatever kind 
was by no means uniform throughout the kingdom, and we find in 
the provincial dialects not only considerable numbers of old Anglo- 
Saxon and even Anglo-Norman words, which have not been pre- 
served in the language of refined society, and which, in many cases, as 
far as regards the Anglo- Saxon, are not even found in the necessarily 
imperfect vocabulary of the language in its pure state which we are 
enabled to form from its written monuments; but also numerous 
words, in general use at a much later period, but which, while they 
became obsolete in the Euglish language generally, have been pre- 
served orally in particular districts. The number and character of 


these words is very remarkable, and instances will be continuallj 
found, in the following pages, where a word which is now considered 
as peculiarly characteristic of the dialect of some remote district, 
occurs as one in general use among the popular, and especially the 
dramatic, writers, of the age which followed the Restoration. 

Words of this description are a necessary part of a dictionary like 
the present, and they have been collected with as much care as possi- 
ble. On the other hand, the mere organic diflferences of dialect, as 
well as the differences of orthography in words as found in different 
medieval manuscripts and early printed books, have been inserted 
sparingly, as belonging rather to a Comparative Grammar or to a phi- 
lological treatise, than to a dictionary. In fact, to give this class of 
i^ariations fully, would be simply to make a dictionary of each parti- 
cular dialect, and of each medieval manuscript, and to combine these 
altogether, which could not be done within any moderate limits, and 
if done, with regard to the manuscripts especially, the first new 
manuscript that turned up would only show its imperfection. It has, 
therefore, been considered advisable not to insert mere orthographical 
variations of words, unless where they appeared for some reason or 
other sufficiently important or interesting. There are, moreover, 
certain letters and combinations of letters which are in the older 
forms of the English language interchangeable, so that we constantly 
find the same word occurring, even in the same manuscript, under 
two or three different forms, none of which are to be regarded as 
corruptions. To insert all these forms, would be to increase the 
dictionary twofold or threefold, for the words in which those letters 
occur, without any proportionate advantage ; I have therefore in 
general given the word only under the form in which it occurs most 
usually, or which seems most correct ; but, to facilitate the reference, 
1 add at the end of this preface a list of the more common inter- 
changes of this kind, so that if a word be not found under one form, 
it may be sought for under another. 

"Various and indeed numerous glossaries have been already pub- 
lished, both of provincial and of Archaic English, but most of them, 
have been special rather than general. We may mention among these 
the valuable work of Archdeacon Nares, which, however, was de- 
voted only to the writers of a particular period ; the extensive under- 


taking of Boucher, which was not continued beyond the latter B ; and 
the numerous glossaries of particular dialects, among which one of 
the last and best is that of Northamptonshire by Miss Baker. The 
" Dictionary" by Mr. Halliwell, when we consider that it was almost 
new in its class, and that the author had many difficulties to con- 
tend with, which would not, perhaps, have existed now, was in every 
respect an extraordinary work. 

In compiling the following pages, I have taken all the advantage 
I could honestly of the labours of my predecessors, in addition 
to a large quantity of original material which was placed in 
my hands, and I have added to this numerous collections of 
my own, especially from the dramatic and popular writers of the 
latter half of the seventeenth century, and of the earlier part of 
the eighteenth. I have also profited by lists of local words com- 
municated from various parts of the kingdom, and among those who 
have contributed in this manner, I have especially to acknowledge 
the services of the Eev. E. Gillet, of Bunham, in Norfolk. To 
make such a work perfect is impossible ; but I hope that, on the 
whole, the present will be found one of the most generally useful 
works of the kind that has yet appeared. 



a. 0, and sometimes e. 
ar, er, or, ur. 
be, bi, by, as prefixes, 
c, «, ch, sh, sch, 
e, ee, i. 
5, ff, gh, y. 
J, th. 

h. often omitted where it ought to be insertadi 
or used superfluously. 

k, c, ch. 
o, 00, ou, u. 
qu, ton, w. 


tw, squ, qu, 



A, the definite article, is a mere 
abbreviation of an, which was 
used before consonants as well 
as vowels, till a comparatively 
recent period. The obsolete 
modes of employing the article 
are not very numerous. It is 
sometimes repeated with adjec- 
tives, the substantive having gone 
before, in such phrases as, " a 
tall man and a good." It is not 
unusually prefixed to many, as 
"a many princes." It is also 
frequently prefixed to numerals, 
as a ten, a twelve. 
And a grete hole tlierin, whereof the 
Hawme came oute of. And aftyre a vj. 
or vij. dayes, it aroose nortli-est, and so 
bakkere and bakkere ; and so endurjd 
a xiiij. nvKlites, fulle lytelle chnimgynge, 
goynge from the nortli-este to the weste, 
and some tynie it wulde seme aquench- 
ede oute, and sodanly it brcut fer- 
vently ageyne. Warhnortk's Chron. 
The Kynge and his counselle sent unto 
dyverse that were witli the erle of Oxen- 
forde prevt'ly there pardones, and pro- 
mysede to them grete yeftes and landes 
and goodes, by the wliiche dyverse of 
tliem were turned to tlie kynge ayens 
the erle; and so in conclusione the 
erle hade no5t passyuge aiie viij. or ix. 
menne that wolde holde withe hym ; 
the whiche was the undoynge of the 
erle, lb. 
A is very commonly used as an 
abbreviation of one, as " Thre 

persones in a Godhede," (three 

persons in one Godhead). 

Hir a sclianke l)lake, hir other graye. 

Ballad oj True Thomas. 
It is used often as a mere exple- 
tive, generally at the end of a 
line in songs and popular verse. 
A, for on, or at, before nouns ; 
thus we have a place, at the 
place, a field, in the field. As 
representing on, it is frequently 
prefixed to words in composition, 
sometimes apparently giving in- 
tensity to the meaning, but in 
general not perceptibly altering 
it. Thus we have constantly 
such forms as acold, for cold, 
adown,{oT down, abaci, for back, 
areadt/, for ready. It appears 
sometimes, chiefly when used 
before verbs, to represent the 
French preposition a, and was 
then no doubt an adaptation from 
the Anglo-Norman. Thus ado 
seems to represent the Fr. <i /aire. 
The following are the principal 
meanings of a as a separate word. 
(1) Always; ever (from the 
A.-S.) ; still used in this sense 
in Cumberland. 

j4 the more I loke theron, 
A the more I thynke I fon. 

Toteneley Myit(rU$ 



(2) Yes (a contraction of aye). 

(3) And. Somerset. It occurs ia 
this sense not unfrequently in old 
MSS., perhaps an accidental 

(4) An interrogative, equivalent 
to what 1 Far. Dial. 

(5) If. Suffolk. 

(6) He. It is often put into the 
mouths of ignorant or vulgar 
people in this sense by the old 
dramatists, and it is not uncom- 
mon in MSS. of an earlier date. 

(7) They. In the dialect of 
Shropshire. In the western 
counties it is used for she, and 
sometimes for it. 

(8) All. 

(9) Have. As in the common 
expression " a done," i. e. have 

(10) In. " A Latin," in Latin. 
"A Goddes name," in God's 

A that hoio, in that way or manner, e.g. I 
shall do a' that liow. Line. 

(11) An interjection ; for ah! 

A! swete sire,! seide the. 

Piers Ploughman. 

A perse. A person of extraor- 
dinary merit ; a nonpareil. This 
phrase vras used chiefly in the 
Elizabethan age. 
The famous dame, fayre Helen, lost her 

■Whenwithred age with wrinckles chaungd 

her cheeks. 
Her lovely lookes did loathsomnesse en- 

That was the A per se of all the Greekes. 

TurbervilU's Tragicall Tales, 1587. 

That is the A per se of all, the cream of all. 

Blurt Master ConstabU, 1603. 

The phrase is sometimes varied 
by an additional a. 
In faith, my sweet honey-comb, I'll love 
thee, A per se a. Tfllt/ BeguiTd. 

Aa. An exclamation of lamenting. 
It was asserted by the old po- 
pular theologists that a male 
child utters the sound a-a when it 

is born, because it is the initial 
of Adam, and a female e-e, as 
that of Eve. 

Aac, s. (A.-S.) An oak. North. 

Aad, adj. {A..S.) Old. Yorlksh. 

Aadle, v. (A.-S.) To flourish. Suf- 
folk. See Addle. 

Aaint, v. (A.-S.) To anoint. 5m/- 

Aakin, adj. (A.-S.) Oaken. North. 

Aan, (1) adj. Own. Yorks. 

(2) inter. A contraction of anan! 
what say you? East. 

(3) adv. On. A form of the 
word used in a MS. of the 15th 
Century, in the Ashmolean 

Do, cosyn, anon thyn arrays aan. 

Aande, s. {Danish). Breath. A 

form of the word not uncommon 

in MSS. of the 15th Century. 

Hys mynde es schort when he oght thynkes, 

Hys nese oft droppes, hys aande stynkes. 

Hampole, MS. Bowes. 

Aandorn, ■l,^^^..^.) A„^fter- 

AADORN, J ^ ' 

noon's repast ; the afternoon. 
Cumb. See Amdem. 
Aane, 8. (A.-S.) The beard of 
barley or other grain, the 

And that we call the aane, which 
groweth out of the eare, like a long 
pricke or a dart, whereby the eare is 
defended from the danger of birds. 

Googe's Jlusbaudry, 1577. 

Aar, prep. (A.-S. cer). Ere, be- 
fore. This form occurs in the 
Romance of Kyng Alisaunder. 

Aarm, s. (A.-S.) The arm. Wy- 
cliflFe, Bodl. MS. Aarmed, for 
armed, occurs in WyclyfFe's ver- 
sion of the Testament. 

Aaron, s. {.4.-S.) The herb wake- 
robin. Cotgrave. 

Aas, 8. (A.-N.) Aces. 

Aat, s. (A.-S.) Fine oatmeal, used 
for thickening pottage. 

Aata, prep. After. Suff. 

Aath, 8. (A.-S.) An oath. Yorks. 



Ab, ». (A.-SJ) The sap of a tree. 

Yet diverse haveassaied to deale witli- 
ont okes to that end, but not with so 
good suceesse as they have hoped, bi- 
canse tlie ab or juice will not so soone be 
removed and cleane drawne out, wliiclx 
some attribute to want of time in the 
salt water. 

Harrison's Description of England. 

Aback, adv. Backwards. North. 

They drew aback, as half with shame 

confound. Spens. Shep. Kal. June. 63. 

Aback-a-behint, adv. Behind; 

in the rear. North. 
Abacted, part. p. {Lat. abactus). 

Driven aw^ay by violence. 
Abactor, s. {Lat.) One that drives 

away herds of cattle by stealth 

or violence. 
Aba DE, (1)^00*/ /. of abiden (A.-S.). 

Abode; remained. 

(2) s. Delay. In MSS. of 14th 


For soone aftir that he was made. 

He fel withouteu lenger abode. 

Abafelled, part. p. Baffled; 
treated scornfully. 

AbaISED, ^ i re J -XT 

abmst \part.p.{ivomA.-N- 

abaischt, ^ «*"*■««'•)• Asham- 
And unboxomc y-be, 
Nouht abaisscd to agiilte 
God and alle good men. 

Piers PL, p. 518. 
Tlie sodeyn caas tlie man astoneyd tho. 
That reed lie wax, abaischt, and al quakvng. 
Chancer, C. T., 8193. 
I was abaiscMte, he oure Lorde, 
Of our beste hemes. Morte Arthure. 
Abakvvard, adv. Backwards. 
Abaliexate, v. {Lat.) To alien- 
ate ; to transfer property from 
one to another. 
Abande, ». To abandon ; forsake. . 
And Vortigern enforst the kingdom to 
aband. Spenser. 

Let us therefore both cruelty abimde. 
And prudent seeke both gods and nieu 
to please. Mirourfor Magistrates. 

Abandon, adv. {A.-N. a bandon, 
at discretion). Liberally; at dis- 
cretion ; freely, fully exposed. 

Aftir this swift gift tis but reason 
He give his gode too in abandon. 

Bom. of the Rose, "SeUZ. 

His ribbes and scholder fel adonn. 
Men might se the liver abandoun. 

Arthotir and Merlin, p. 223. 

Abandunk, v. (A.-N.) To subject ; 

to abandon. Skelton. 
Abarcy, s. {Med. Lat. abartia.) 

Abare, v. {A.-S. abarian). To 

make bare. 
Abarre, v. (from A.-N. abarrer). 

To prevent. 

Reducynge to rememhraunce the prysed 
uicmoryes and perpetual! renowned 
factes of the famouse princes of Israel, 
which did not only abarre ydolatrye and 
other uugodlynesse, but utterly abo- 
lished all occasyons of the same. 

Monastic Letters, p. 209. 

Abarstick, *. Insatiableness. 
Abarstir, adj. More downcast. 
Myght no man be abarstir. 

Towneley Mysteries. 

Abase, v, {A.-N. abaisser). To 
cast down ; to humble. Spenser. 
Among illiterate persons, it is 
still used in the sense of debase. 

"I wouldn't flJoj* myself by descending 
to hold any conversation with liim." 

Oliver Twist, iii, 134. 

Abashment, *. {A.-N.) The state 

of being abashed. 
Aba ST, part. p. Downcast. See 

Abastardize, v. {A.-N. abastar- 

der). To render illegitimate or 

Abasure, s. {A.-N.) Abasement. 
Abastick, adj. Insatiable. 
Ab.\taylment,». (A.-N.) Battle- 
ment. Sir Gatvayne, p. 30. 
Abate, v. {A.-N.) {V) To subtract. 

Abatyn.subtraho. Prompt. Parv. 

It was the technical term for the 

operation in arithmetic. 

(2) To beat down, or overthrow. 

(3) To cast down, or depress the 
mind. Shakesp. 

(4) To cease. 

Ts coutinatince abated eny host to make. 
Political Songs, p. 216. 



(5) To contract, or cut short. 

(6) To lower, applied to banners. 
Common in this sense in the 
metrical romances. 

Alle the baners that Crysten founde 
They were abaiyde. 

Octovian Imp., 1743. 

(7) To flutter, or beat with the 
wings. A hawking term. 

An hawke that traveyleth upon the 
teyne, a man may knowe if he take 
hede, for suclie is her maner that she 
\rolde pante for abatyiig then another 
dotli, for in and if she shold fle a Utell 
\rhile almoste she wolde lose her breth, 
whether ahe be high or iowe. 

Reliq. Antiq., 1, 300. 

(8) To reduce to a lower temper, 
applied to metal. 

(9) To disable a writ. A law 

Abatement, s. {A.-N.) (1) "A 
mark added or annexed to a 
coat [of arms] by reason of some 
dishonourable act, whereby the 
dignity of the coat is abased." 
Holme's Academy of Armory. 
(2) A diversion or amusement. 

Abaty, r. (A.-N.) To abate. 


And that he for ys nevew wolde, for to 

abaty stryf. 
Do hey amendcment, sawve lyme and lyf. 
Hob. Glouc. 

Abavt, prep. About. North. 

"1 V. (from A.-N. abaubir 

Abawe, I or abaudir.) To asto- 

ABAUE, )> nish, to confound, used 

abavb, I by Chaucer, and writers 

J of his time. 

For, soche another, as I gesse, 
Aforne ne was, ne more vcrmaile ; 
1 was abawed for mer>-eile. 

Som. of the Rose, 3644. 

My mirth and melis is fasting. 
My countenance is nicel6. 
And al abavced where bo I be. 

The Dreme, 614. 

Many men of his kynde sauh him so 
aboued. Lang toft' a Chron., p. 210. 

(2) (^,-5.) To bow ; to bend. 

Alle tlie knyghtes of Walis londe. 
Ho made abaice to his hniide. 

Caynbridi/e MS. of loth Cent. 

Abawt, prep. Without. Staffordsh. 
Abaye, v. (from A.-N. abayer.) 

To bark. 
Abay, «. (A.-N.) The barking of 

dogs ; at abay, at bay. 

And this doon, every man stond abrod 
and blowe the deetli, nud make a short 
abay for to rewarde the huundes, and 
every man have a smal rodde yn his 
lioud to holde of the lioundes tliat thei 
shul the better abaye. MS. Bodl. 546. 

Thus the forest they fraye. 

The hertis bade at abaye. 

Sir Degretante, Line. MS. 

Abay, v. To suffer a heavy pe- 
nalty ; to abie. This form is 
given by Skinner. See Abie. 

ABAYSSHETTE, \ .? . , 

' J Abatssed. 
Abayst, part. p. (A.-N.) Disaj' 

And tliat when that they were travyst. 
And of herborow were abayst. 

Brit. Bibl, iv, 83. 

Abb, s. (from A.-S. ab.) The yarn 

of a weaver's warp. 
Abbakayed, /;as^ /. Started. 

And aftyr that lie knonnyngly abbarayed. 
And to the kvng evya thus he sayd. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 4. 

Abbas, s. An abbess. 

Abbay, v. (A.-N. abbayer.) To bay; 
to bark. See Abay. 

Abben, v. To have. Glouc. Dif- 
ferent parts of the verb in this 
form are found in Robert of 

Arturc, L'ter sone, of wan we tnlde byvore, 

Ye abbyth y-hurd hou he was bygete and 

Abbess, «. According to Grose, 
this is a vulgar name for the 
mistress of a disreputable esta« 

Abbey,*. (A.-N.) The great white 
poplar, a variety of the populut 
alba. Weslm. Yorks. 



Abbey-ltjbber, s. a term of re- 
proach for idle persons. Somer- 
set. Yorks. It is found in most 
of the early dictionaries. 
"Neither was I much unlike those abbey- 
lubbers in my hfe, thousli farre unlike 
them in behef, who laboured till they 
were cold." Lyly's Euphues. 

The most of that which they did bestow 
was on the riche, and not the poore in 
dede, as halt, lame, blinde, sicke, or im- 
potent, but iitlier lubbers that might 
worke and would not. In so much that 
it came into a commen proverbe to call 
him an abbay-hibber, that was idle, wel 
fed, a lone; lewd lither loiterer, that 
might worke and would not. 

The Burnynge ofPauUs Church, 1563. 

Abbigget, v. To expiate: make 
amends for. See Abie. 

Abbod, s. (A.-S.) An abbot. Rob. 
of Glouc. 

Abbreviate, par^/;. {Lat.) De- 
creased ; shortened. 

Abbrochment, s. (A.-N.) Ingross- 
ing of wares to sell by retail. Cock. 

Abbroche, v. (A.-N.) To broach 
a barrel. Prompt. Parv. 

Abbut, conj. Aye but. Yorks. 

Abbyt, s. a habit. 

And chanones gode he dede therinne, 
Unther the abbyt of seynte Austynne. 
Wright's St. Patrick's Purgatory, p. 66. 

Abce, s. The alphabet. A not un- 
common word in the 16th Cent. 

Abdevenham, s. An astrological 
term for the head of the twelfth 
house, in a scheme of the 

Abduce, v. (Lat. abduco.) To lead 

from the whych opinion I colde not 
abduce them with a\ my endevor. 

State Papers, temp. Hen. VIII. 

Abear, v. (from .,^.-5. aberam.) To 
deport ; to conduct. 

So did the faerie knight himselfe dbeare. 
And stouped oft his head from shame 
to shield. Spenser. 

Good abearing, or abearance, the 
proper and peaceful carriay* of a 
loyal subject. A law phras^ 
Whereof eche one was pledgL jnd 
■uretie for others' good abearing. 

Lambarde's Peramb. of Kent, 1596. 

Abearance is still the technical 
word, in law, for such behaviour 
as the lawdeems unexceptionable. 
(2) To bear ; to tolerate. A vul- 
Abece, s. The alphabet; and, 
from this, the elements of a sci- 
ence. Found in writers of the 
14th and 15th Cents. 
Clerc he was god ynou, and yut, as me 

telleth me. 
He was more than ten yer old ar he 
couthe ys abece. Bob. Glouc, p. 266. 
A place, as man may se, 
Quan a cliyld to scole .val set be, 

A bok liyni is browt, 
Naylyd on a brede of tre, 
That men callyt an abece, 
Pratylych i-wrout. 

Reliq. Antiq., i, 63. 
Whan that the wise man acompteth 
Aftir the iormel propirt6 
Of algorismes abece. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Ant. 

i. e. the abc, or elements, of artthmetic. 

Abecedarian, s. {Lat. abeceda- 
rius.) One who teaches ^ learns 
the alphabet. MinsUeu. 

Abecedary, adj. Alphabetical. 

Abeched, part. p. (A.-N.) Fed; 

jit schulde I sum deUe been abeched, 
And for the tyme wel refreched. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Ant. 

Abed, adv. In bed. Var. dial. 

Abede, v. (A.-S.) To bid; to 
offer. In MSS. of 14th Cent. It 
also occurs as the past tense of 

Abeer, v. To bear with ; tolerate. 

Abegge. See Abie. 

In the MS. of Gower, belonging 
to the Society of Antiquaries, we 
have abege, used as though the 
g were soft. 

He wolde don his sacrilege. 
That many a man it schulde dbege. 
So in Urry, a passage from Chau- 
cer's Cant. T. is printed — 

There durst no wight hand on him ledge, 

But he ne swore be shold abedge. 

Abeisadnce, «. {A.-N.) Obedience, 



Abelde, v. (yi.-S.) To become bold. 

Thes folk of Perce gan abelde. 

Kyng Alysaunder, 2442. 

Abele, s.^A.-N.) The white pop- 
lar. A common name in the 

Abel-whackkts, 8. A game of 
cards played by sailors ; the 
loser is beaten with a knotted 
handkerchief, of which he re- 
ceives a blow, or whack, for each 
lost game. 

Abelyche, adv. Ably. 

Abekche, adv. Upon a bench. 
Rob. Glouc. 

Abent, 8. A steep place. Skinner. 

ABEftuiTATE, V. {Lot. abequito.) 
To ride away. This word is 
given by Minsheu, in his Guide 
into Tongues, 1627. 

Aberdavine, «. A provincial name 
for the siskin {^fringilla spinus 
of Linnaeus). 

Abere, v. (A.-S.) To bear. Rob. 
Glouc. See Abear. 

Aberemord, s. {A.-S.) a law 
term, meaning murder fidly 
proved, in distinction from man- 
slaughter and justifialile homi- 
cide. Junius. 

Abering, 8. A law phrase for the 
proper carriage of a loyal subject. 
See Abearing. 

Abebne, adj. Auburn. 

Long abeme beardes. 
Cunningham's Bevels Accounts, p. 56. 

Abesse, v. {A.-N.) To humble. 

See Abase. 
Abestor, s. a kind of stone. 

Among stones abestor, which being hot 
wil never be coUle for our constancies. 
Lyly's Mother Bomhie, 1594. 

Abet, s. Help ; assistance. 
Abettes, «. Abbots. Monastic 

Letters, p. 206. 
ABEW,/>rep. Above. Devon. 
Abeye, v. (1) See Abie. 

(2) To bow ; to obey. 
Abeyde, v. To abide. 

Abeyted, part. p. (A.-S.) En- 
snared. In MSS. of 15ih Cent 

Hys flesshe on here was so aheyted. 
That tliylke woniman he coveyteyd. 

Abeyjedoun, past t. pi. They 
obeyed. A form found in MSS. 
of the 15th Cent. 

Abgregate, v. (Lat.) To lead out 
of the flock. Mins/ieu. 

Abhominable. a pedantic form 
of the word, prevalent in the 
16th Cent., and arising from an 
erroneous notion that it was de- 
rived from ab and homo. Shake- 
speare ridicules it in Love's La- 
bour Lost, V, 1. 

Abhor, v. {Lat.) To protest 
against, or reject formally. A 
term of canon law. 

Abhorrant, s. a person who 
abhors. Minsheu gives this word 
in his Guide into Tongues, 1627. 

Abid. Used as the past tense of 
abide, in writers of the 16th and 
17th centuries. 

Abidance, s. Dwelling; tarrying. 

Abidden, part. p. Endured. 

Abide, V. (from A.-S. abidan.) (1) 
To persevere ; to endure ; to 
suffer. Pegge gives the phrase, 
" You must grin and abide it," 
applied in cases where resistance 
is in vain. It is used by Lydgate 
in the sense of to forbear ; and 
it still occurs provincially in the 
sense of to tolerate. 
(2) It occurs sometimes as an- 
other form of Abie. 
Abie, ^ v. (from A.-S. abic- 

abiggen, ga7i.) To e.xpiate; 

ABE, atone for; make 

ABEGGE, amends ; pay for. A 

abeye, ^word of very common 

ABYCHE, occurrence in early 

abite, MSS., and in a great 

ABUY, variety of forms of 

ABUYjK, J orthography. 

Here he had the destenee 
That the povre man xulde aW. 

Relij. Antiq., i, 63, 



Ther durste no wight hand npon him legge. 
That he ne swor anon he scliuld ahtgye. 

Chaucer, C. T. 3935. 

Therefore I rede, keepe the at home; 
For thou shalt abfi^e tor tliat is done. 

HarUhome, Met. T. 225. 

Ther start in Sander Sydebreche, 
And his fader sowle, lie schnlde 
tibyche. Hunting of the Hare, 179. 

We, yei, that shal thou sore (dile. 

Totciteley Myiteries, p. 15. 

Thi ryot thou schalt now abuy^e. 

Poeitis of W. Mapes, p. 345. 

ABIDING, (1) s. An abode; per- 
severance; suffering; sojourning. 
These four senses of the word 
are found in Rider't Dictionarie, 

(2) adj. Patient. 

And bo)d and abidynge 
Bismares to sutfre. 

Piers PL, p. 413. 

(3) la MS. of the 15th cent., 
abidyngely is used adverbially, 
for remaining. 

And in niyn housolde ben abiJyngely. 
Abiggede, v. (A.-S.) To suffer. 

The wiche schal it aliaqede. 

Legend. Cathol., p. 206. 

Abiliment, abilment, «. (1) Ha- 
biliment. A common ortho- 
graphy of the 16th and begin- 
ning of the 17th centuries. 
(2) AbiHty. 

Never liv'd gentleman of greater merit, 

Hope, or abiliment to steer a kingdom. 

Ford, Broken Heart. 

Abill, v. To make able. See Able. 
Abilleke, eidj. Stronger; more 

Ahillere thane ever was 

S)T Ector of Troye. Morle Jrthure. 

Abime, s. {A.-N.) An abyss. 

Abintestate, adj. {Lat.) Intes- 
tate. Minsheu. 

Abishering, s. {A.-N.) "To be 
quit of amerciaments before 
whomsoever of transgression." 
Rastall, quoted by Cowell. Rider, 
in his Dictionarie, translates it 
hyjuco rum redittu. 

Abit, (1) pres. t. 3d pen. sing, of 
Abide. Abideth. Common in 
Chaucer, and the early writers. 

(2) s. A habit; clothing. Rob. 

Out of ys abyt anon Vortiger hym drow. 
And clothes, as to kyog bicome, dude on 
him faire y-nowj. 

(3) s. A habit or custom. 

(4) *. An obit, or service for the 
dead. Apology for the Lollards, 
p. 103. 

Abitacle, g. (Lat.) A habitation, 
or dwelling. 

In whom also be ^e bildid togidre into 
the abitacle of God in the Hooli Goost. 

Abite. (1)«. A habitation; a dwell- 
To leve his ahite, and gon his waie. 

Bom. of the Rose, 491*. 

(2) 8.(A..N.) A habit. 

Also wymraen in coverable abite with 
schamefastnesse and sobrenesse araignje 

Wickliff<^a New Testament, 1 Tym. ii. 

(3) V. See Abie. 

(4) r. (from A.-S. abitan.) To 

Abited, adj. Mildewed. Kent. 

A.B1TES, part. p. Bitten ; devoured. 
A thousent sliei) ich habbe ahilen. 
And mo, jef hy weren i-writen. 

Reliq. Jntiq., ii, 276. 

Abition, g. (Lat.) Going away; 
dying. Cockeram. 

Abitte, pr. tense, s. from abiden. 

Abject, {Lat.) (1) «. A base, des- 
picable person. 

I deemed it better so to die. 
Than at my loeraan's feet an ahjeel Ke. 
Mirrourfor Magistrates, p. 30. 

(2) V. To reject ; to cast away. 
Abjection, «. {Lat.) (1) Baseness, 
(2) An objection. 

For they must take in hande 
To precli, and to witbstande 
All maner of abjections. 

SleUoH, i,3A 




Abjects, 8. (from the Lat. ahjecti.) 
Castaways ; persons abjected. 
Shakespeare^ 8 Richard III. 

Ablactation-, s. {Lat.) A par- 
ticular method of grafting, where 
the cyon is as it were weaned by 
degrees from its maternal stock, 
but not wholly cut off, till it is 
firmly united to the stock on 
■which it is grafted. See the 
Diciionarium Rusticum. 8vo. 
Lond. 1726. 

Ablated, part. p. (A.-S.) Blinded. 

The walmes ban the ahland. 

Setyn Sages, 2462. 

ABLAaUEATION, 8. (Lat.) The 
practice of opening tlie ground 
about the roots of trees, for the 
admission of air and water. 

Ablaste, *. (A.-N.) A cross-bow. 
Prompt. Pars. The correspond- 
ing Latin word balista in the 
Prompt. Parv. does not give a 
very definite explanation. It is 
said to be synonymous with the 
cross-bow; but in a passage in 
Hall, a distinction seems to be 
made between them. The arb- 
last was doubtless, like the cross- 
bow, a weapon used for the pro- 
jection of arrows, but perhaps of 
a more formidable character, for 
from Hall it would appear that 
there was a difference of some 

Ablaste, j^osf t. Blasted. It oc- 
curs in the MS. of Gower in the 
Soc. Ant. Library. 
Venyra and fyre togedir he caste. 
That be Jason so sore allaste. 

Able, v. {A.-N.) (1) To make 
able, or to give power for any 

And life by tliis (Christ's) death dbled, shall 

Death, whom thy death slew. 

Donne's Divine Poems. 

(2) To warrant, or answer for; 
to undertake for any one. 

JCone does offend, none; I say none; Pll 

able 'em. Lear, iv, 6. 

Admitted! aye, into her heart, I'll aile it. 

Widow's Tears, O. P., vi, 164. 

Constable I'll able him ; if he do come 
to be a justice afterward, let him tliank the 
keeper. Changeling, Anc. Dr., iv, 240, 

To sell away all the powder in the kingdom, 

To prevent blowing np. That's safe, He 

abU it. Middl. Game at Chessc. 

(3) To make fit or suitable for. 

God tokeneth and assygneth the times, 
ahlynge hem to ther propre offyces. 

The \st Dolce of Boetius. 

"Wherfore what tyrae a man dooth what 
he may in ablynge hym to grace, hit 
sufficith to him, for God askith not of a 
man that be seeth impossible to hym. 
Caxton's Divers Fruytful Ghostly Maters. 

(4) adj. Fit; proper. 

A monk ther was, a fair for the maistrie. 
An out-rydere, that loved venerye ; 
A mauly man, to ben an abbot able. 

Chaucer's Canterb. Tales, 165. 

(5) Wealthy. Hereford8h. North. 
An able man, t. e. a rich man. 

Ablectick, adj. (from Lat. ab and 
lego.) Set out for sale. Cockeram. 

Ablegation, «. {Lat.) A dismis- 
sion ; a dispersion. 

Ablementes, 8. Habiliments. See 

Ablende, v. {A.-S. ablendan.) To 
blind ; to dazzle. 

Ablen'ess, «. Power ; strength. 

Ablest, part. p. Blinded; de- 

Ablepsy, s. {Gr. afSXixj^ia.) Blind- 

Abless, adj. Careless and negli- 
gent ; untidy ; slovenly in per- 
son. Lincolnsh. 

Ablet, s. {A.-N. able.) The bleak, 
a small fresh-water fish. It is 
said by Ash in his Dictionary, 
1795, to be "a local word;" but 
ablette is given by Cotgrave as 
the French word for the same 
fish. It is still used in West- 

Ablewe, past t. Blew upon. 



Abliche, fltZw. Ably. MSS. of 15th 

A.BLIGURY, s. (From Lat. abligu- 

rio.) "Spending in belly cbeere." 

Ablinden, v. (from A.-S. ablin,' 

dan.) To blind ; to dazzle. 

Why menestow tlii mood for a mote 

In till brothercs eiglie, 

Siihen a beem in tliyu owene 

Ablyudeth thiselve. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 189. 

Abi-ins, adv. Perhaps; possibly. 
North. Aiblins is used in 
Lincolnsh. \ when a person has 
been taunted by another, and 
wishes to reply contemptuously 
to an inquiry whether he is about 
to do such and such a thing, he 
will say, " aiblins I may, aiblins 
I may'nt." 

Ablocate, v. (Lai.) To set, or 
let out to hire. This is the ex- 
planation of the word in Cocke- 
ram's English Dictionarie, 1639. 

Ablode, adv. Bloody ; with blood ; 
bleeding. We read in an Oxford 
MS. 14th cent., 

Olubrious sat and bylield 
How liere lynies roniie ablode. 

Thou sejc liyne hyder and thyder y-cached 
Frani Pylate to Herode, 

So nie bute hys bare flesclie, 
Tltat byjt arne all ablode. 

W. de Shoreham. 

Abloy, interj. {A.-N. ablo!) An 
exclamation used in hunting, and 
equivalent to On ! On ! 

Ablude, v. {Lat. abludo.) To dif- 
fer ; to be unlike. 

Ablusion, s. {Lat.) A chemical 
term, for the cleansing of medi- 
cines from drugs or impurities. 

Abnegatiox, s. {Lat.) Self-denial. 
O let me imitate so blessed example, 
and by the merits of thy obedience, let 
me obtain the grace of humility, and 
abnegalioti of all my own desires in the 
clearest renunciation of my will. 

Taylor's Great Exemplar. 

Abnorme, v. (from Lat. abnormis.) 
To disfigure : disguise. Chaucer. 


Aboade, part. p. of abide. Suf- 
fered; endured. 

Tor all her maydens much did feare, 
If Oberou had cbanc'd to heare 
That Mab his Queene should have beene 
He would not have aboade it. 


Aboard, v. (from the Fr. aborder.) 
To approach the shore. 
(2) In some games, this phrase 
signifies that the person or side 
in the game, which was previ- 
ously either none or few, has 
now got to be as many as the 
other. Dyche. 

Abobbed, adj. (from A.-N. aboby, 
astonished.) Astonished. 

The messangers were abobbed the. 
Thai nisten what thai mighten do. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. li. 

8. {A.-N.) In- 
crease. Prompt. 

Abode, v. {A.-S.) To bode ; to fore- 
bode. The word occurs in Shake- 
speare. Abodement, s., is also 
used in the sense of an omen or 

(2) s. Delay. 

(3) Past tense of abide. Waited 

Abofe, 8. A dwelling ; an abode. 

Wolde God, for liis modurs luf, 
Bryng me onys at myne abofe, 
I were out of theire eye. 

Cambridge MS., 15th cent. 

Aboffe, prep. Above. 

Be Jhesu Cryst that is aboffe. 

Cokewolds Daunce, 217. 

Abogen, part. p. Bowed. 
Abohte, past tense, sing., of Abie. 

Atoned for. Aboghten occurs as 

the pi. 

Murie he tlier wrohte, 
All Rymenild hit abohte. 

Kyng Bom, 1402. 

Abolete, adj. {Lat. abolitxis.) An- 
tiquated ; obsolete. Skelton 
speaks of " abolete sciens." 




Abone, (1) V. {A.-N.) To make 
good or seasonable ; to ripen ; to 
dispatch quickly. 

(2) prep. Above. 

(3) adv. Well. 

And a good swerde, that wolde byte alone. 
Sir Gawayiie, p. 217. 

ABOODfpast tense of aMde. Waited ; 
expected ; remained. 
And Cornclie abood liem with hise 
cosyns and neccssarie Irendis that weren 
clepid togidre. 

Wickliffe's New Testament, Acts x. 
Aboon, prep. Above; overhead. 

Aboord, adv. From the bank. 
As men in summer fearles passe the foord, 
Which is in winter lord of all the plaine, 
And witli liis tumbling streames doth beaie 
The plouglimans hope and shepheards 
labour vaine. 

Spenser's Suines of Rome, 1591. 

Aboot, part. p. Beaten down. 

Aboove, pret. Above. West. 

Abor^, part. p. Born. Somersefsh. 

Aborment, s. An abortion. Top- 
sell's History of Four-Footed 
Beasts, 1607. We have abors- 
ment in Higins' Nomenclator, 
and abort in Florio, ed. 1611. 

Abort, v. (Lot.) To bring forth 
before the time. 

Abortive, s. (A.-N.) An abor- 

Aboste, v. {A.-N.) To assault. 

A Bretone, a braggere, 

Abosled Piers als. Tiers PI., p. 126. 

Abote. {I) part. p. Beaten down. 
(2) pret. About. 

They cum the towne abate. 

Jteliq. Antiq., ii, 21. 

Abothe, prep. Ab ove. Arthour 

and Merlin, p. 18. 
Abought, (1) the past tense of 

abie. Atoned for. 

(2) Bought. 

(3) An incorrect form of about. 
Aboughwed, part. p. Bowed; 


Aboux, prep. Above. 

Tliey snid lliat songe was this to sey, 
To God abonn be joy and blysse ! 

Tundale's Visions, p. 158. 

Abounde, part. Abounding. 
Ry5t so this mayde, of grace most ahounde, 

Aboure, s. (A.-N.) The same as 
avoure ; a patron. 

By God and Sevnte Marv, mvn aboure. 
MS. of loth cent. 

About, adv. (1) In a circle. It 
is used by Shakespeare in the 
sense of to work ! as in Hamlet, 
ii, 2, " about, my brains !" i. e. 
*' brains, go to work." 
(2) prep. Near, in the dialect of 
the Eastern Counties, where they 
say " worth nothing about twenty 

Abouten, adv. About. Chaucer. 
Still used in Sussex. 

About-sledge, s. A smith's great 
forging hammer. 

About-ward, adv. Near. 

Abouye, v. (A.-S.) To bow. Rob. 

Abovjte, part, past of abie. 

Or it schaUe sone been ahow^te. 

MS. Gower. 

Aboven, prep. Above. 
Abowe, v. {A.-S. abogan.) (1) To 

(2) V. To avow ; tc maintain. 

In blood he stode. icli it abowe. 
Of horse nnd man into the anclowe. 
Ellis's Eomances, ed. 1811, i, 279. 

(3) prep. Above. 

Abowed, part. p. Daunted ; 

ashamed. Cockeram. 
ABOWEN,jBrQt/. Above. 
Abowes, s. {A.-N.) Probably for 

aboures, or avoures, patron saints. 

God and Seinte Mary, and Sein Denis also, 

And alle the abowes of tliischurche, in was 

ore ich am i-do. Hob. Glouc, p. 475. 

ABOWGHT,j»rejo. About. 
Abowtyne, adv. About. 
ABOT,zr>%, past t. Bowed. 
Abo'^, past t. Bought. 




Abrad, part. p. (from A -S. abreo- 
dan.) Killed ; destroyed. 
Tlie gode burgeis on a dai, 
His ympe thriveiide he sai. 
Fair i-woxe and fair i-sprad, 
But the olde tre was abrad. 

Seryn Sages, 610. 
Abrade, v. (Lai. abrado.) To rub, 

or scrape off. 
Abraham-colour, Abraham-co- 
loured. Supposed to be auburn. 
"A goodly, long, thick, Abraham- 
colour d beard," occurs in Blurt 
Master Constable, 1602. See 
Wliere is the eldest son of Priam, 
That Abraham-colour' d Trojan. 

Soliman and Perseda, 1599. 

Abraham-men. The slang name 
of a class of beggars in the six- 
teenth century. Nares thinks 
the phrase " to sham Abraham " 
has some connection with it. 
An Abraham-man is he that walkcth 
bare-armed, and bare-legged, and fayn- 
eth hyraself mad, and carycth a packe 
of wool, or a styekc with baken on it, 
or such lyke toye, and nameth himself 
poore Tom. 

Fratemitye of Vacdbondes, 1575. 
His helpe extends farre and neere to 
fugitive raga-muffins, under the signe 
of impotent soldiers, or wandring Abra- 
ham-men; but his helpe proves the 
maintenance of their function, because 
it proves his owne, by occasion -. for 
being received as a secretary to the 
counsell of vagrants, bee couceales much 
idle property, in advantage of hiniselfe 
and countrymen, not of the common- 
Stephens's Essays and Characters, 1615. 

Abraham's balm, s. An old name 
for a species of willow. Bullo- 
kar, English Expositor, 1641. 
Cockeram explains it as " a wil- 
low in Italy that brings forth 
agnus castus like pepper." 
Abraide, r. (from A.-S, abradian.) 
(1) To awaken ; to start up. 
Ipomydon with that stroke ahrayde. 
And to the kynge thus he sayde. 

Ipomydon, 1149. 
When he espied the 'squire, therewith 
he abrayed and break himself loose, 
and took his sword in his hand, and ran 
to have stai:i that 'squire. 

U^ivry, Eist. of K. Arthur, i, 419. 

Whan all to all 

Shall come, he shall, 

I trust from vyce abrayed. 

The New Notbortine Mayd. 
Tho sche herd the angel voice, 
Sche bigan to abrayd. 

Legend of Seynt Mergrele, p. 115. 

(2) To upbraid. 

Bochas present felly gan abrayde 

To Messaline, and even thus he sayde. 

Bochas, b. vii, c. 4. 
Atreus after with a fuU brode clierc. 
And of envye full dead in hys visage, 
Unto John Bochas he gan approche nere, 
Liche as he had befallen in a rage. 
And furiously abrayde in his language. 
Id., b. i, fol. xxii. 

(3) To draw a sword from its 

(4) To apply one's self briskly to 
a thing. 

I abrayde, I inforce me to do a thynge. 

(5) To rise on the stomach with 
a feeling of nausea. North. 

(6) To excite ; stir up. 
Abram. Naked. A cant word. 

"Abram cove" is an expression 
used amongst thieves, signifying 
a poor man, and also a strong 
thief. "Abram cove, naked or 
poor man." Coles' English Dic- 
tionary, 1677. See also Mid- 
dleton's Works, iii. 32. 

Abram-coloured. This phrase 
is used by Shakespeare in Corio- 
lanus, ii. 3 : " Our heads are 
some brown, some black, some 
abram, some bald, but that our 
wits are so diversly coloured." 
The folio of 1685 alters abram to 
auburn. See Abraham-coloured. 

Abrase, v. {Lat.) To shave. This 
word occurs in Cockeram's Eng- 
lish Dictionarie, 1639. 
(2) Part. p. Smoothed; shaved. 
"The fourth, in white, is Apheleia, a 
nymph as pure and simple as the soul, 
or as an abrase table, and is therefore 
called Simplicity. BenJonson, ii, 366. 

Abread, adj. Unconfined; spread 

out ; exposed. North. 
A BRED, part. p. Brought up. 





Abrede, (1) V. To wander. 

How Troilus nere out of liis witte abrade, 
Aud wept full sore, with visage pale of liewe. 
The Testament of CreseiJe, io. 

(2) adv. In breadth. North. 

(3) adv. Abroad. Yorka. It 
occurs in Chaucer. 

Abregge, 1 V, (A.-N.) To abridge; 
ABREGE, J to shorten. 

Abreke, v. {A.-S. abrecan.) To 
break in. 

Abrenounce, v. {Lot. abrenuntio.) 
To renounce utterly. 

Abrept, v. {Lai.) To take away 
by violence. 

Abreyde. See Abraide. 

Abric, s. Sulphur. Coles. 

Abricock, "I s. (from Fr. abricoi.) 

Abricot, J An apricot. In Ge- 
rard's Herbal it is spelt abre- 
cock. The form abricock is still 
in use in Somersetshire. " An 
aJrfco^ fruite, malum armenium." 
Baret's Alvearie, 1580. 

Whose golden gardens seeme th' Eesperides 
to mock : 

Nor tliere the damzon wants, nor daintie 

Drayton's PolyolUon, song 18. 

Abridge, », {A.-N.) To diminish. 

Whose chilling cold had bound her bowels 

As in no wise she could ahridge his wo. 

Turberville's Tragicatl Tales, 1587. 

Abridgement, s. The word was 
used in Shakespere's time (see 
Mids. N. D., V, 1) to signify a 
dramatic performance; perhaps 
from the prevalence of the histo- 
rical drama, in which the events 
of years were so abridged as to 
be brought within the compass of 
a play. In Hamlet, ii, 2, " Look 
where my abridgement comes," 
the sense is doubtful. But in a 
subsequent passage Hamlet calls 
the players "the abstract, and 
brief chronicles of the time." 

Abrigge, v. (1) To abridge. 
(2) To shield off. 
Alle myscheffes from him to alrigge. 


Abripted, part. p. (Lat.) Ra- 
vished; stolen away. Cockeram. 
Abroach, 1». (from A.-S. abree- 
abrochr /ca«.) To tap; to set 
flowing. Chaucer and Lydgate. 
And mshiiig in amongst his foes, so bote 

a skirmish made. 
That every blone sets blood abroach. 

Warner's Albion's England, 1392, 
Call nil my servants, lay down all my 
nieiit to the fire, set all my hogsheads 
abroach, Sliadwell, Bury lair, 1689. 

^ (1) adj. Broad. Jftn- 

. I sheu. 

Abroad, ! /n\ j t 

' y(2) adv. In pieces; 
abrode, f j /> , 

' I asunder. Comic. Away ; 

J in pieces. Dorset. 

(3) adv. Abroad. North. 

(4) part. p. Spread abroad. 

Abrodieticall, adj. (from Gr. 
a(3po^iaiTog.) "A daintie feeder, 
or delicate person." Minsheu's 
Guide into Tongues, 1627. 

Abroke, part. p. (1) One that 
has a rupture is said to be abroke. 
(2) Torn. Hampsh. 

Abroken, part. p. Broken out ; 

Abron, adj. Auburn. 
A liistie courtier, whose curled head 
With abron locks was fairly furnished. 
Hall, Sal., b. iii, 8. 6. 

Abrood, a<fp. (1) Abroad. 

(2) Sitting, appHed to a hen. 
Abrook, v. To brook, endure, 

suffer. Shakespeare's Henry I'l. 
Abrupt, part. p. {Lat. abruptus.) 

Abruption', s. {Lat.) A breaking 

off. Minsheu. 
Abrygge, v. To be shortened. 

My dayes, make y never so q\iaynte, 

Schullen abrygge and sumwliat swage. 
Cambridge Ml 

Absconsion, *. {Lat. absconsio. 

Assist, v. {Lat.) To desist. 
Absolevi, adj. Absolute. 
Andilltiward, syr, verament, 
They . M°kd hym'knysrht ahsulent. 

Squyr of Lowe Degri, 630. 




Absolete, adj. Obsolete. 

Absolute, (1) adj. (Lat.) Very 
accomplished ; perfect. 
(2) part. p. Absolved; set at 
liberty. Chaucer. 

Absolve, v. {Lat.) To finish. 

Absonant, adj. {Lat.) (1) Dis- 
cordant, disagreeing. Jibsonous 
was used in the same sense. 
(2) Untunable. Cockeram. 

Abstacle, s. for obstacle. 

Abstent, adj. Absent. Tf'arw. 

Absteb, v. {Lat. absterreo.) To 

Abstinent, adj. (Lat.) Abstemious. 

Abstinency, *. Abstemiousness. 

Abstorciued, part. p. {Lat.) 
Wrested away by force. This is 
Minsheu's, explanation in his 
Guide into Tongues, 1627. 

Abstract, s. (from Lat. abstraho.) 
A separation. Shakespeare. 

Assume, v. {Lat. absumo.) To 
bring to an end by a gradual 
waste ; to eat up. Absumption, 

Absurd. A scholastic term, em- 
ployed when false conclusions 
are illogically deduced from the 
premises of the opponent. 

Abthane, s. a steward. Minsheu. 
Said to be the old title of the 
High Steward of Scotland. 

kBV,prep. Above. Devon. 

Abuchyment, s, {A.'N.) An am- 

Abude, v. {A.-S.) To bid; to 
o<!er. MS. \hth cent. 

Abue, 1 V. (from A.-S. abugan.) 
abuy, / To bow ; to obey. 
K\ ng Aylbriglit gret dcspyt adde in ys 


That the Brutons nolde seynte Austyn 

abiie noght. Hubert of Glouc, p. 235. 

Hii ne ssoldeto Englyssemen abue rygt 

nolhyng. lb. p. 234. 

Abuf, /*rep. Above. 

Abuggen, v. Another form of the 

verb to abie, which see. 
Abuin, prep. Above. North. 

Abv^^da^h, part. a. Abounding. 

Abundation, s. Abundance. Here' 

Aburne, adj. Auburn. It is 
sometimes spelt aboume, as in the 
Triall of Witts, 1604. 

Abuschid, part. p. Ambushed. 

Abuse, v. {A.-N.) To deceive ; 
to impose upon. Abusable, that 
may be abused, and abuiage, 
abuse, were words employed in 
the 17th century. 

Abused, /;ar^/>. Fallen into abuse; 
become depraved. 

Abuseful, adj. Abusive. Here- 

Abushement, «. An ambush. 

Abushmently, adv. In ambush. 

Abusion, s. An abuse. Chaucet 
and Spenser. 

He presumeth aud taketh upon hym in 
parlie your estate royal in callyng be- 
tore liym into greate abusion of all your 
laiide, and derogacion of your highnes, 
wliiche haib not been sen'e nor tised in 
no dayes heretofore. 

Hall, Henry FI. foL 62. 

Abusious, adj. Abusive. 
Thou abusious villaine ! 

Taming of a Shrew, 1607. 

Abut, conj. Sometimes used in the 

beginning of a sentence, where 

no more is really meant than 

would be expressed by the word 

but. North. 

Abuttal, s. {A.-N.) A boundary. 

Abuyje. See Abie. 

Abvert, v. {Lat. abverto.) To turn 

away. Cockeram. 
Abvolate, v. {Lat. abvolo.) To 

fly away. Cockeram. 
Abwe^e, prep. Above. 

Tliaiie come of the oryente 
Ewyne hyme agaynez 
A b'iake bustous here 
• Abwene in the clowdes. 

•Morle Arthure. 

Aby, V. To abide ; to feel the effect 
of a thing. Shak. Mids. Night's 
Dream. Same as Abie, 

Abyche. See Abie. 

Abydde, part. p. of abide. 




Abyde, e. (j4.-S.) To forbear. 
Chaucer. See Abide. 

' y An abvss. See AMme. 


Abyt, V. pres. t. of abyde. Abi- 

deth. See Abit. 
Abyyd. A form of abide, found in 

some early MSS. 
Ac, con;. (^.-5.) But. 
Academe, s. {Gr.) An academy. 

Love's Labour Lost. 
Academy, s. This word is used 

by Ben Jonson, and Beaumont 

and Fletcher, with the accent on 

the first sylla1)le. 
AcAiD, s. (A.-S. ceced.) Vinegar. 
Acale, adj. ^from A.-S. acalian, to 

cool.) Cold. 

For blood may suffre blood, 
Bothe hungry and acalt. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 393. 

AcARNE, s. (Lot. acame.) The 

sea-roach. Kersey. 
AcAs, adv. By chance 
AcAsiAN, *. " Acasian, that is jus 

ofwodstone," Med. MS., 14th 

AcASTE, V. (A.-S.) To cast away ; 

to lose. 

The olde tre his vertn ^n aeaste. 

The Sevyn Sages, 600. 

(2) To be cast away. 
AcATER, s. (A.-N. acater.) A ca- 
terer ; a purveyor. 

He is my wardrobe man, my acater, cook, 
"Butler, and steward. Detil is an Ass, i, 2. 

}». (A.'N.) Victuals; 
provisions purchased. 
Abridged to cate, 
which see. 
Whan I cam eerlv or late, 
I pinched uat at hem in myn acate. 

Uocclete, i, 180. 

Cotgrave, defining the term pit- 
tance, says, it imported " meat, 
food, acafes, victual of all sorts, 
bread and drink excepted." 

The Mantuan, at his charges, him allow'th 

Ail fiae acates that tliat same country bred. 

Harrington's Ariost., xliii, 139. 

AcATRY, 8. (A.-N.) The place al- 
lotted for the provisions pur- 
chased for the king by his pur- 

AcAusE, conj. Because. Suffolk. 

AcAWMO, part. p. Coming. So- 

AcAZE, prep. (A.-N,) Against. 
Rob. Glouc. 

AccABLE, V. (Fr.) To press down. 

AccAHiNTs, *. Accounts. Staffords. 

AccEysED, part. p. (Laf.) Kindled. 

AccEPciox,*. (tat.) Reception; 

AccERSE, V. (Lot. accerso.) . To 
summon ; call together. 
Wlierfore the erie, consideryng that 
kyng Edward did dayly encrease hys 
power, as a runnyng ryver by goyng 
more and more augmented, thought it 
moste necessary for hym to gave him 
battayle with spede," and tlierupon 
accersed aud called tozetlier hvs armv. 
Hall, Edward tV, fol. 26. 

Access, ». Used by Shakespeare 
in Hamlet, ii, 1, accented on the 
first syllable. 

AccESSE.s. (in Lot. accessus febris, 
the access of a fever.) A fever; or, 
more properly, the fit of an ague. 

For upon hym he liad an "note accesse. 

That daie by daie liym slioke full pitouslie. 
The Complaint of the Blade Knight, 137. 

AccEssivELiE, adv. (Lot.) Acces- 

sorily ; as an accessory. 
AcciDAVY, s. An affidavit. North. 
1 s. (acctdia in medieval 
Accidie, [Lat., derived from the 
ACCiDE, [ Gr. oK/jcia, carelessness, 
J sloth.) Indolence, sloth. 
He hadde an accidie. 
That he sleep Satcrdav and Sondav. 
'Piers PI., p." 99. 

AcciPiTRi. .lY, 8. {Lat. accipitra- 
rius.) A falconer. 

1 V. (Lat. accire.) To in- 

AcciTE, I cite ; also, to summon, or 

AciTE, I call. Shakespeare, 2 

J Henry IV, and Tit. And. 

We be all by tlie condycyon egall, now 

aci/trd for to appere unto Buche and 

soo niervHvlous jugement. 

Tke Ordynarye of Crysten Men, p. 320. 




AccLtTB, "I (Lat. acclwis.) Slo- 
ACCLivous, J ping ; rising ; steep. 
AccLOY, V. (1) (A.-N.) To cram; 
clog; overload; cloy. 

Gorbo, my comfort is accloyd with care, 
A new mishap my wonted joyes hath 
crost : 
Then men-aile not although my musicke 
When she the author of her mirth hath 
Elphin is dead, and in his grave is laid, &c. 
Drayton, Shepherd's Garland, 1593. 

(2) (from the Fr. enclouer.) To 
drive a nail in shoeing a horse. 
Hence, accloyd, s., a wound given 
to a horse in shoeing, by driving 
the nail into the quick. 

AccoAST, V. To sail by the coast; 
to fly near the ground. 

Ne is there liawk that mautletb her on 

Whether high towering or accoasting low. 
Speiuer'i Faerie Queene. 

AccoiL, V. (A.-N.) To be in a coil, 

or bustle of business. 
About the cauldron many cookes aceoyld 
With hooks and ladles. 

Sfaiser's F. Q., II, ix, 30. 

AccoLE, \v. (A.-N. accoler.) To 

ACOLE, J embrace round the neck. 

Hence, accolade, the ceremony 

of embracing, at the creation of 


Tlien acoles he the knyjt, and kysses hym 

As saverly and sadly as he hem sette couthe. 
Sgr Gawat/ne, p. 71. 

AccoLV'B.r), part. p. Become cold; 
suffering from cold. 
When tliis knyglit that was aecolded, — 
and hit was grcte troste, — and he saw 
the fyre, he descendide of his horse, 
and yede to the fyre, and warmide him. 
Gesta Somanorttm. 

AccoMBERous, adj. Cumbersome; 

AccoMBRE, 1 f-(^-S-)Toencum. 
AcuMBRE, M'er, perplex, or de. 
J stroy. 

Gii of Warwike mi name is; 
Ivel ich am acttmhred v-wis. 

Gy </ trintikc, p. 817. 

Happlye there may be fire less in the same 

nombre ; 
For their sakes I trust thu wilt not the 
rest accombre. Old Flay, i, 20. 

Accommodate, o. (from the Ital. 
accommodare.) This word it 
• was fashionable in Shakespeare's 
time to introduce, properly or 
improperly, on all occasions, 
Ben Jonson calls it one of " the 
perfumed terms of the time." 
The indefinite use of it is well 
ridiculed by Bardolph's vaiu at- 
tempt to define it : 
Accommodated; that is, when a man is, 
as they say, accommodated : or when a 
man is, — being, — whereby, — ^he may be 
thought to be, — accommodated; which 
is an excellent thing. 2 Sen. IV, iii, 2. 

Hostess, accommodate us with another 

The woman does not understand the words 
of action. 

B. Jon., Ev. M. in H., i, 5. 

Will you present and accommodate it to the 

Id., Poetoiter, iii, 4. 

Accomplish, ». (A.-N.) To fur- 
nish ; to perform. Shakesp. 
Merck. Ven. and Tarn. Shrew. 

Accompte, v. {A.-N.) To tell ; to 
recount. Sielton. 

Acconferment, s.(A.-N.) A con- 
firmation. Rob. Glouc. 

AccoRAGE, V. To encourage. Spen- 

AccoRATH-EARTH, 8. A field; 
green arable earth. North. 

Accord, \ s. {A.-N.) An agree- 
ACORD, J ment ; a decision. 
Shakespeare uses this word in 
the sense of affreement in As 
You Like It ; as a verb, to agree, 
in Romeo and Juliet; and ac- 
cordant, agreeable, in Much Ado 
about Nothing. 
Thou opene myne lyppen. Lord, 
Let feltbe of senne out wende. 
And my mouthe wyth wel god acord 
Schel thyne worschypyng sende. 

William de Skoreham. 

Sire knight, quoth he, maister and my 

Now draweth cut, for that is myn acord, 
Chuuter's Canterbury Talet, M9. 




AccoRDATJNT, part. a. Agreeing. 
Snche thynge whereof a man may lere. 
That to vertu is acordaunt. 

Gower, MS. 

The printed edition of Gower has 
the word acordend. 
Nowe mvght thou here next sewend 
Whiche to this vyce is acordend. 

Gwer, ed. 1533, f. 36. 

According, part. a. Granting. 

AccoKT, adj. {A.-N. accort.) 

Wary; prudent. Minsheu. 
Accost, v. {A.-N.) To address 

one's self to a person or thing ; to 

approach ; to attempt, or try. 
AccouNSAYL, V. To counsel with ; 

s. counsel. 
Account, v. {A.-N.) To reckon. 
Long worke it were 

Here to account the endlesse progeny 

Of all the weeds that bud and blossome 

there. ttt • on 

Sjienser's Faene Queene, 111, vi, SO. 

Accountant, adj. Accountable. 

And, I dare think, he'll prove to Desdemona 
A most dear husband. Now, 1 do love her 

too, , 

Kot out of absolute lust, though, perad- 

1 stand accountant for as great a sin. 

Othello, ii, 1. 

AccouPLE, V. {A.-N.) To couple, 
or join together. Acopled is used 
in the Plumpion Corr., p. 50, for 

AccouRAGE, V. To cncouragc. 

AccouRTiNG, part. a. Courting. 

AccoY, V. {A.-N. accoyer.) To 
appease; extinguish; to render 
shy or coy ; to pacify. 

Thou foolish swain that thus art overjoy'd, 

How soon may here thy courage be accoy'd. 
J'eele's Eglogue Gratulatorie, 1589. 

AccoYNTED, part. p. Acquainted. 

AccRASE, V. {Fr.) To crush ; to 

Fynding my youth myspent, my sub- 
stance ynipayred, my credvlh accrased, 
my talent hydden, my follyes laughed 
at't, my re'wyne unpytted, and my 
trewtli unemployed. 

Queen's Prograsa, i, 21. 

AccREASE, V. (from Lat. accresco.) 
To increase : to augment. 

AccREw, V. {Fr.) To increase ; to 
accrue. Spenser. 

But sight and talke accrexp to love, the 
eubstance must be had. 

Warner's Albion's England, 1592. 

AccROCHE, ». {Fr.) To gather; 

to catch hold of; to increase; 

to encroach. 
AccRUMENT, s. (from Fr. accruer.) 

Addition ; increase. 
AccuB, 8. The footmark of any 

animal. Cocieram. 

ACCURSE, 1 / > o \ T 

^„ >v. {A.-S.) To curse. 

ACURSE, J ^ ^ 

Which is lif that oure Lord 
In alle lawes acurseth. 

Piers PI, p. 375. 

Accuse, v. (A.-N.) To discover 
or betray. 
The entrees of the yerde acciiseth 
To him that in the watir niuseth. 

Jlotn. of the Rose, 1591. 

(2) *. Accusation. Shakespeare. 
Accusement, 8. An accusation. 

We do apperceyve by the relation of 
vour graces commissioners Mr. doctour 
Legh and Mr. Williams, that diverse 
and sondrye accusementes have ben 
made upon us unto your liighnes. 

Monastic Lttters, p. 154. 

Ace of Spades. A widow. This 
slang word is given in the Lexi- 
con Balatronicum, 8vo, Lond., 

AcELE, V. To seal. Rob. Glouc. 

AcENTEN, V. To assent. 

Acerbate, v. {Lat.) To make 
sour or sharpen. 

Acerote, s. Brown bread. Min- 

Acersecomick, *. One whose hair 
was never cut. Cockeram's Eng- 
lish Dictionarie, 1639. 

AcERTAiNED, part. p. Informed 
certainly ; confirmed in opinion. 

AcERVATE, V. {Lat.) To heap 

Acescent, adj. {Lat.) Sour. 




AcKSE, V. {A.-N.) To cease; to 

cause to cease. 
AcETARRE, s. {Fv.) A Salad of 

small herbs. Cockeram, 1639. 
AcETH. A form of aseth. See 

Acetk for trcspas, satisfactio. 

Prompt. Pan., ed. 1499. 

AcH, s. Smallage; water-parsley; 

AcHARNE, V. (from Fr. achamir.) 

To set on ; to aggravate against. 
Achat, «. (^.-A^.) (1) A contract; 

a ])argain. Chaucer. 

(2) Bargaining. 

Coemption is to sale, comen achate or 
buying together, that were estalilished 
upon tlie peple by soclie a maner ini- 
posicion, as wlio so bought a bushell of 
eorne, he must yeven the kyng the 
fiveth parte. C/iaucer's ioethius. 

Achates, s. (A.-N.) An agate. 
AcHATOUR, s. (A.-N.) The person 

who had the charge of the acatry ; 

the purveyor. 

A gentil maunciple was ther of a temple, 
Of which achatours migliteu take exeiiiple. 
Chaucer, C. T., 569. 

AcHAUFE, V. (Fr.) To warm ; to 

AcHAVSGEO, part. p. Changed. 
Ache, s. An ash tree. Plumpton 

Correspondence, p. 188. 
Ache-bone, s. The hip-bone. 
Achelor, s. Ashlar, or hewn stone. 

This form occurs in a Yorkshire 

document, temp. Hen. VIII. 
Aches,/;/. Was frequently used as 

a dissvllable. See Hudibras, 111, 

ii, 407. 
Achesoun, v. {A.'N. achaison.) 

Reason; cause. 
AcHETYN, V. To escheat. Prompt. 

AcHEVE, w. {A.-N.) To accomplish. 

AcHOKED, part. p. Choked. 
AcHOR, s. A scab on the head of 

AcHORN, s. An acorn. Cheshire. 

AciSE. For assise. 

AciTB, V. (A.-N.) To cite; sum 
mon. See Accile. 

AcK, V. To mind; to regard. 

Acker, 1 *. (apparently from A.-S. 
AKEHjjeffor, the flowing of the 
sea.) This word is explained 
in the early lexicographers by 
the Latin impetus maris, and is 
stated to be that which pre- 
cedes the "flood or flowing." 
Eager, and Niger, are variations 
of the same term. The follow- 
ing extract from MS. Cott. Titus 
A., xxiii, f. 49, further explains 
the meaning of the word : 

Wei know they tliereume yf it aryse, 

An aker is it clept, I nndeistonde, 

Wlios myglit there may no shippe or wynd 

This reume in thoccian of propre kynde, 
Wytoute wynde hatlie his conimotioun ; 
Tlie maryneer tlierof may not be blynde. 
But wlien and where in eveiy regioun 
It regnethe, he nioste have inspectioun ; 
For in viage it may botlie haste and tary. 
And, unavised thereof, al myscary. 

It appears that the word acker 
is still applied on the Trent to a 
dangerous kind of eddying twirl 
which occurs on the river when 
it is flooded. In the dialect of 
Craven, a ripple on the surface 
of the water is termed an acker. 

(2) s. {A.-S. eecer.) An acre; 
a field. Yorksh. 

(3) Fine mould. North. 
AcKERN, ». An acorn. A Northern 

word, used principally in West- 
moreland and Cumberland. 

AcKER5PRiT,». (//.-5.) Wilbraham 
explains this word as being said 
of potatoes when the roots have 
germinated before the time of 
gathering them. Corn, and par- 
ticidarly barley, which has ger- 
minated before it is malted, is 
said, in the East of England, to 
be acrespired. 

AcKERSPYRE. A word in use 




amongst masons and stone-get- 
ters (or delvers) in the neigh- 
bourhood of Huddersfield, &c., 
in reference to stone which is 
not of a free workable quality, 
but, on the contrary, is of a very 
hard, flinty, or metallic quality, 
and difficult to work. 

AcKETouN, 8. {A.-N.) A jacket of 
quilted leather, worn under the 
mail armour; it is sometimes used 
for the armour itself. 

Ac KNOW, V. (A.-S.) To acknow- 
ledge. North. It occurs not 
unfrequently in the Elizabethan 

AcKSEN, s. (A.-S.) Ashes. Wilts. 

AcKWARDS, adv. Applied to a 
beast when it lies backwards, and 
cannot rise. 

AcLiT, adj. Adhered together. 

AcLiTE, adv. Awry, North. 

AcLOYE. See Accloy. 

AcLUMsiD, part. p. {A.-S.) Be- 
numbed with cold. 

Ache, s. (from Gr. olkhi).) Mature 
age. Jonson. 

AcoATHED, adj. Rotten or diseased 
in the liver, as sheep. Dorset. 

AcoLD, adj. (from the A.-S. aco- 
lian.) Cold. 

Late come to an abbey 
Syx men other seven, 
AnA lat theron aske gode 
For Godd love of heven. 
He gchal stond tkeroute 
Anhungred and acold. 

IF. de Skoreham. 

AcoLASTic, adj. (from the Gr. 
dKoXaffTiKos.) Intemperate; riot- 
ous ; prodigal : lascivious. Min- 
sheu gives these meanings of the 
word in his Guide into Tongues, 

AcoLATE, adj. {Gr.) Froward; 
peevish. So explained in Rider's 
Dictionarie, 1640. 

AcoLDiNG, par/, a. (from the A.^S. 
See Acold.) Getting cold. 

AcoLEX. See Accoie. 



AcoMBRE, r. (^.-5.) Toencnmber; 

to trouble. 

The feend with prede acomhreth ous. 

With wretlie aud with eiivie. 

W. de Shoreham. 

AcoMELYD, part. p. Enervated 
with cold. Prompt. Parv. 

AcoMPUN, adj. Limping. Lane. 

AcoNicK, adj. (from aconite.) Poi- 
sonous. Rider. 

Acop, adv. (from the A.-S. cop.) 
On end ; conically. 

Marry sh' is not in fashion yet; she 
wears a hood, but it stands acop. 

Ben Joiiion, iii, 60. 

(from A.-S. ceorian, 
to lament.) To sorrow; 
to grieve. 
At Gloucestre he deide, ac eir nadde be 


That acorede al this loud, and ys men 

eclion. Rob. Glouc. 

Bu a pcyre of a marc, other thou ssalt hit 

acorye sore. lb. 

AcoRSE, V. {A.-S.) To curse. 
Callcde hem caytyves 
Acorsed for evere. T\er» PI., p. 875. 

AcoRSY, V. (from the A.-N. cars, a 

body.) To bury. " For to acorsy 

here brother body." Oxf. MS. 

AcosT, adv. (from A.-N. u coste.) 

On the side ; near. 

Forth thai passeth this lond acost. 

Artliour and Merlin. 

AcouNTRE, |e;i„tf "^/ij ^0/ 

AcouPE, V. (from A.-N. acoulper.) 

To blame ; accuse ; inculpate. 
Me acojipede hom harde inou, and sethtlie 

atte last. 
As theves and traitors, in strong prison me 

hom caste. Rob. of Glouc, p. 5-14. 

AcouPEMKNT, s. An accusation. 



An onset. 

At the aconpynfj the knijtes [speres] cither 
brak on otiier. W. and the Jf'eric., p. 134. 

AcovERD, past. t. Recovered. 
Acow, adv. Crooked; awry. 




AcoYNTE, V. (from A.-N. acointer.) 

To make acquaintance. 
Heo acoyntede liyni anon, and bicomen 

frendes jrode, 
Bothe for here prowes, and for heo were of 

on blode. Rob. of Ghuc, p. 15. 

AcoYSYNG, s. Accusing. A mere 
corrupt spelling. Kyng Alisaun- 
der, 3973. 

AcauAiNT, s. An acquaintance. 
mine old acquaint is she. 

And one whom 1 liave us'u ui tlial degree. 
Zisle's Uislorie of Uehodoms, 1038. 

AcauAiNTABLE. Easy to be ac- 
quainted with. Minsheu's Guide 
into Tongues, 1627. 

AcauEYNT, adj. (from A.-S, ac- 
wencan.) Quenched, 

so that me tLynketh, 

My thurst sliall never be acqjiej/nt. 


AcauiLL, ». {A.-N.) A term in 
hunting. It was applied to the 
buck and doe, the male and the 
female fox, and all vermin, and 
is nearly synonymous with the 
more modern word imprime. 
Syr huutere, how many bestis acquill? 
Syr, llie buk and the doo, the male fox 
and tlie female, and alle othir vermyn, 
as many as be put in the book. And 
how many braches ? Sire, alle tliat 4)e 
acquilez. Jieliq. Ant., i, 151. 

AcauiSE, V. (A.-N.) To acquire. 

s. {A.-N.) An acqui- 
sition ; something 
acquired or gained, 
(lis servants he with new acquist 
Of true experience from tliis great event 
With peace and consolation haih dismist. 
Samson Ai/onisles, v, 1755. 
Mnd, reposed near the ostea of rivers, 
makes continual additions to the land, 
thereby excluding the sea, and preserv- 
ing these shells as trophies and signs of 
its new acquests and encroachments. 


Skinner has it as a verb, to ac- 

kcdviT, part. p.{A.-N.) Acquitted. 

Ac QUITE, V. To requite. 

AcftuiTTANCB, 8. {A.-N.) (1) Ac- 
quaintance. Skinner, 



• ]' 

>T, r 

J •' 

(2) Requital. Othello, iv, 2. 

(3) A discharge, or release : for* 
nierly in general use for what 
is now called a receipt; and 
it is still so in the northern 

AcRASED. Crazed. 

Acre, s. (from the A.-S. cecer.) A 
field. Originally not a deter- 
mined quantity of land, but any 
open ground. 

(2) A duel fought by single com- 
batants, English and Scotch, be- 
tween the frontiers of the two 
kingdoms, with sword and lance. 

AcRE-uALE, s. {A.-S.) Lands in a 
common field, in which different 
proprietors hold portions of 
greater or less extent. North. 

AcREME, s. Ten acres of land. A 
law term. 

AcREMAN, s. {A.-S.) A husband- 

The foules up, and song on bough. 
And acremen yede to the plough. 

£a^- le Freine, 176. 

AcRESHOT, s. A kind of local land- 

AcRESTAFF, "I Called a plough- 

AKERSTAFF, J Staff" in Huloet. An 

instrument to cleanse the plough- 

culter. See Kersey's English 

Dictionary, 1715. 

AcRiLOGY, s. (from Lat. acer, and 
Ch". Xdyog.) Bitter speaking. 
Minsheu gives this word iu his 
Guide into Tongues, 1627. 

AcROKE, adv. Crooked. 

Acrook'd, adj. Crooked; awry. 

AcRosPYRE, "I ». (from Gr. uKpog, 
AKERSPiRE, J the extremity, or 
end, and airtipa, a curling 
shoot.) To sprout. When un- 
housed grain, exposed to wet 
weather, sprouts at both ends, 
it is said to acrospyre. Potai 
toes, sprouting prematurely, are 




said to be ackerspritted. See 

For want of turning, wlien the malt is 
spread on tlie floor, it comes and sprouts 
at both ends, wliich is called to aero- 
spyre; and then it is fit only for swine. 
Morlimer's Husbandry. 

In a Scottish act of parliament, anent 
malt-makers, it is said they " let their 
malt akerspire, and sliute out all the 
thrift and substance at baith the ends, 
quhare it eould come at ane end only." 
Regiam Majestatem, p. 293. 

Across. A kind of exclamation 
when a sally of wit miscarried. 
Said to be taken from the lan- 
guage used in jousting. See 
Shakesp. AlVs Well that Ends 
Well, ii, 1. 

Acrostic, adj. Crossed on the 
breast, "^cros/tc arms." Middle- 
ton. It may be regarded as a 
punning use of the word. 

AcROTCH, V. (from Fr. acrocher.) 
To take up ; to seize. 

AcsEDK, pret. p. Asked. A rather 
unusual form. 

TTie kyng Alesandre acsede 
Hnrau BiUl that be. 

Beliq. Antiq., i, 30. 

Act, v. To behave ; to conduct. 

Act of parliament. A military 
term for small beer, five pints of 
which, by an act of parliament, 
a landlord was formerly obliged 
to give to each soldier gratis. 

Acts, «. ( Gr. clkti^.) The sea- shore. 

AcTiFS, s. pi. An order of monks, 
who, according to Skinner, fed 
on nothing but roots and herbs. 

AcTiLLY, ado. Actually. Lancash. 

AcTious, adj. Active. 

With divers here not catalogd, and for a 

cheefest take 
All actious Candish, and of these eternall 

peu-worke make. 

Album's England, ed. 1612. 

ACTIT TtON, a. {lot.) 



Active citizen, ». A louse. This 
cant term is given in the Lexicon 
Balalrotiicum, and is too piquant 
to be omitted. 
Acton, s. {A.-N.) A jacket or 
tunic, worn under a coat of mail. 
See Acketoun. 

His acton it was all of blacke. 
His hewberke and his slieeldc. 

Sir Cauline, in Percy's Eel. 

Actoures, 8. (A.-N.) Governors ; 

keepers. Wycklyffe. 
Actuate, v. (from Ital. attudre.) 

To put into action ; to produce. 
Acture, s. (Lat.) Action. 
All my offences, that abroad you see, 
Are errors of the blood, none of the mindj 
liove made them not; with acture they 

may be. 
Where neither party is nor true nor kind. 
Shakes. Lover's Complaint, 

AcuATE, V. (from Lat. acuo.) 

Gryndyng withvynegar tylll was fatygate. 
And also with a quantyte of spyces acuate. 
Ashmole's Theat. Cliem. Brit., p. 191. 

In the following example, the 
word is erroneously altered to 
actuate in the reprint by the 
Shakespeare Society : 
The Lacedemonians trusting the oracle, 
receved the champion, and fearing the 
government of a stranger, made him 
ther citizen ; which once done and he 
obteiniug the dukdome, he asseuded 
the theater, and ther very learnedly 
wyshing tliem to forget theyr folly, and 
to thinke on victory, they being acuate 
by his eloquence, waging battail won 
the field. Lodge's Defence of Plays, 1579. 

Acuis, «.jw/.. Agues. MS. q/" 14 /A 

Acuminate, v. (from Lat. acumina- 
tus.) To whet. Rider's Diction- 
arie, 1640. 

AcuRE, adj. A chemical term, ap- 
plied to a drug, the power of 
which is increased by the addition 
of some other. 

AeuRSEN. See Acorsen. 

AcYDENANDVs, adv. Asidc ; ob- 
liquely. Prompt. Part. Appa- 
rently a corrupt spelling of aside' 




AcfROLOGiCALL, adj. (from Gr. 
uKvpoXoyia, impropriety of ex- 
pression.) Improper speaking. 
This word occurs in Rider's 
Dictionurie, 1640. 

AcYSE, g. {A.-N.) Custom ; law. 

And of these berdede bukkes also, 
Wytli heniself tliy moclie niysdo. 
That leve Crysleu meniiys acyse. 
And liaunte al the iiewe gyse. 

BoM. MS. of lath cent. 

Ad. Hath. Adde. Had, occurs in 

Rob. Glouc. 
Adacted, part. p. (Lat. adactus.) 

Driven in by force. Minsheu. 
Adad, adv. Indeed ; truly. 

I see you wonder at ray changes; what, 
would you never have a man learn 
breeding;, adad? 

Skadvcell, Squire ofAUatia, 1688. 

They are all deep, they are very deep 
and sharp ; sharp as needles, adad; the 
wittiest men in England. lb. 

Ao.EauATE, part. p. {Lat. adagua- 
tus.) Equal to. 

Why did the Lord from Adam, Eve create ? 

Because with him she should not b' ade- 

HaJd she been made of earth, she would 
have deem'd 

Her self his sister, and his equal seem'd. 
Owen's Epigrams, 1677. 

Adam. A serjeanl, or bailiff, was 
jocularly so called. See Shakesp. 
Comedy of Errors, iv, 3. 

Adam-and-Eve. The bulbs of 
orchis maculata, which have a 
fancied resemblance to the human 
figure. Craven. 

Adam-tiler, «. A pickpocket's 
associate, who receives the stolen 
goods, and runs off with them. 

Adamant, s. {A.-N.) The magnet. 

Al true to thee as steel to adamant. 

Green's Tu Quogue. 
.\3 iron, tonch't by the adamant's effect, 
I'o the north pole doth ever point direct. 
Si/h. Du Bartas, p. 64. 

The mutual repulsion of two 
magnets, which takes place in 
Bome situations, is alluded to in 
the following extract : 

^— away; 
We'll be as differing as two adamanlt 
The one shall shun tlie other. 

W%ite Devil, 0. PI., vi, 315. 

Adamantine, adj. Very hard. 
This word occurs in Rider's 
Dictionurie, 1640. 

Adamate, v. (from Lat. adamare.) 
To love dearly. Minsheu. 

Adamites, A sect of enthiu 
siasts who were said to imitate the 
nakedness of Adam in their pub- 
lic assemblies. 

Adam's-ale, s. Water. Var. dial. 

Adam's-apple, s. (1) A kind of 
citron. Gerard, 

(2) The nob in a man's throat, 
so called, because, it is said, 
when Eve swallowed her apple 
with ease, and gave another to 
Adam, his conscience so rebelled 
against it, that it never got 
farther than his throat. 

Adam's-flannel, s. White mul- 
lein ; perhaps from the soft white 
hairs with which the leaves are 
covered on both sides. Craven, 

Adarnech, s. Colour like gold. 

Adarned, adj. Ashamed. Coles. 

Adarris, s. The flower of sea- 
water. Howell. 

Adased, "1 adj. (A.-N.) Dazzled ; 

ADASsiD, J putoutof countenance. 

The glittring tlierof wold have made 

every man's eyes so adased, tliat no man 

should have spied his falshed. 

Sir T. More. 

Adauds, <idv. In pieces. Yorksh. 

Adaunt l^-f^-"^-) To tame; to 
' > reduce ; to daunt, miti- 
adant, f , ' ' 

J gate. 

Adauntreley. Another form of 

avauntlay, which see. 
kii\^,v.{A.-N.) (1) Tobedaunted. 
Therewith her wrathful courage gan appall. 
And haughty spirits meekly to adaw. 

Spenser, F. C, IV, vi, 26. 

As one adaie'd and half confused stood. 
/*., V, v, 45. 

(2) To awake. This seems to 
be a figurative sense, for Pals- 



grave says, " I adawe or adawne, 

as the daye dothe in the morn- 

ynge whan the sonne draweth 

towardes his rysyng ;" and, " I 

adawe one out of a swounde." 

Him to rewakin she did all her pain ; 

And at tlie last lie gan his breth to drawe, 

And of his swough sone after that adawe. 

Trail, and Ores., iii, 1124. 

(3) To kill ; to execute. 

Some wolde have hym adaiee. 
And some savde it was not lawe. 
Rom. dfEicliard C. de L., 973. 

■^°'*"^' \ adv. In the daytime. 


I ryse soner than you do adayes : ie me 

dtscouche plus tost que vuus tons les iours. 


Adays, adv. Now-a-days. East 

Adaz, a. An addice. Kennett. 
Adcorporate, v. {Lat.) To in- 
corporate. Minsheu's Guide into 

Tongties, 1627. 
Addecimate, v. {Lat.) To take 

tithes. Minsheu's Guide into 

Tongues, 1627. 
Addeem, v. (A.-S.) To think ; to 

judge; to determine. Spenser. 
Adder-bolt, s. The dragon fly. 

Var. dial. 
Adder-say. I dare say. Yorksh. 
Adder's-grass, s. The name in 

Gerard for the cynosorchis. 
Adder's-tongde, «. A plant ; the 

Adder-wort, «. The bistort or 

Addice, a. {A.-S.) An adze. 

I had thought I had rode upon addices 

between this and Canterbury. 

Lyly's Mother Bombie, 1594. 

An addis, or little axe. Baret's 

Alvearie, 1580. 

(2) An addled egg. Huloet. 
Addict, part. p. For addicted. 
To studies good addict of comely grace. 
Mirr.for Mag. 

Addiction, a. {Lat.) The state of 
being addicted to anything. 
Since his addiction was to courses vain. 
Sludcap. Henry V, i, 1. 

Additiox, a. {Lat.) A title given 
to a man over and above his Chris- 
tian and surname, showing his 
rank, occupation, &c., or alluding 
to some exploit or achievement. 

Addiwissen. Had I known it. 
North. A corruption of hady- 
wissen, or hadiwist, which see. 
Adywyst occurs in MSS. as old 
as the 15th cent. 

Addle, v. (from the A.-S. eedlean, 
a reward.) So pronounced in 
Yorkshire ; in Staffordshire it is 
d-dle ; in Cumberland, ettle ; and 
in Cheshire, yeddle. To earn by 

With goodmen's hogs, or corn, or hay, 
1 addle my uinepence every day. 

Richard vf Dalton Dale. 

In the Eastern counties it is ap- 
plied to the growth of corn ; as, 
"that crop addles," t. e. thrives. 
Forby. In which sense it is used 
by Tusser — 

Where ivy embraceth the tree very sore, 
Kill ivy, else tree will addle no more. 

It occurs in the Townley Myste- 
ries, p. 195. See Adyld. "To 
addle his shoon " is said in the 
North of a horse that falls upon 
his back, and roils from one side 
to the other. In Sussex, when a 
horse does so, he is said to " earn 
a gallon of oats." 

(2) Labourers' wages. YorJcaJi. 

(3) s. A swelling with matter in 
it. Somerset. 

(4) s. Tlie headland of a field ; 
same as adland. Northampt. 

(5) s. Lees or dregs. 

(6) adj. Empty. 

Addled, adj. Having corruption. 
Used in this sense in Somerset- 
shire. Hence addled egg, said of 
an egg in a state of putrefaction, 
according to Grose and Jennings ; 
but more usually applied to an 
egg forsaken by the hen after her 
sitting. " Urinum ovum, gene- 
rationi ineptum, quod fit incuba- 




none derelicta, an addle egge, a 
winde egge." Rider's Latin Dic- 
tionarie, 1640. 

Addle-headed, adj. Stupid; 
thoughtless. Var. dial. 

Addle-pate, s. A foolish person. 

Addle-plot, s. A* person who 
spoils any amusement. South. 

Addle-pool, *. A pool, or puddle, 
near to a dunghill, for receiving 
the liquid that oozes from the 
dunghill ; in which liquid it is 
not uncommon, in Sussex, to see 
large quantities of mould or 
earth, taken from the connnons, 
thrown to be saturated with it, 

Addlings, s. The wages received 
for labourers' work. Yorkshire. 
See Addle. 

Addolorate, v. (taken apparently 
from the Ital. dolordre.) To 

Address, v. (Fr.) To prepare for 
anything; to get ready. 

Adds. s. An addice. 

Ade, s. To cut a deep gutter across 
ploughed land. Shropsh. 

Adec,s. Vinegar milk. Howell. 

Adelantado, s. (a Spanish word.) 
A lord president or deputy of a 
country ; a commander. 

Invincible adelantado over the armado of 
pimpled faces. 

Masainger, Virg. Mart., ii, 1. 

Open no door ; if the adalantado of Spain 
were here he should nnt enter. 

B. Jon., Ev. M. out of H., v, 4. 

Ademand, s. The loadstone. See 

Adent, v. To fasten. Minsheu. 

Adeption, s. (Lat.) An acquire- 

A portion of time wherein, to my un- 
derstanding;, there hath bin tlie rarest 
varieties, that in like number of suc- 
cessions of any liereditary monarchy 
Imth bin knowne : for it beginnctli with 
the mixt adeption of a crowue, by armes 
and title. 

Bacon, Adt. of Learn., b. ii, p. 114. 

ADEauATE, V. {Lat.) To make even 
or equal. 

Adekcop, s. (A.-S.) a spider. See 
Alter cop. 

Ades, s. An addice. Kennett. 

Adespotic, adj.(Gr.) Not despotic. 

Adewen, v. (from A.-S. deawian, 
to bedew.) To moisten ; to be- 

Thy gracious shourys lat reyne in habund- 

Upon myn lierte t' adeiven every veyne. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 251. 

Adfiliate, 17. (La^) To adopt for 
a son. Minsheus Guide into 
Tongues, 1627. 

Adge, s. An addice. North. 

Adhere, v. {Lat.) To suit; to fit. 

I wotild have sworn his disposition 
would liave gone to the truth of his 
words ; but they do no more adhere and 
keep pace together, than the liundredth 
psalm to the tune of Greene Sleeves. 

Merry Wives oj Windsor, ii, 1. 

Adhib, s. a name of the herb eye- 

Adhibite, v. {Lat.) To admit. 

Adhort, v. {Lat.) To advise, or 

Julius Agricola was the first fliat by 
adhortiny the Britaines pulilikely, and 
lielping them privately, wun them to 
build houses for themselves. 

Stowe's London, p. 4. 

Adiaphoricy, s. (from Gr. dSia- 
^opia, indifference.) Indifference. 
Rider's Dictionarie, 1640. 

Adight, ^ar/. p. {A.-S.) Adorned. 

Thanne sawe they yn a park 
A ciistell stout and stark 
That ryally was adur/ht. 

Lybeaus Dtsconus, 711. 

Adihten, v. (from A.-S. adihtan.) 
To order; arrange ; adorn ; as he 
adihteih him, i. e. fits himself 

Adihleth him a gay wenche of the newe jet. 
fulitical Songs,^.2ii.9, 

Abis, prep. Within. Sussex. 
Ai>iR,pron. Either. A local form. 




Adit, s. (Lat.) A sough or level in a 
mine, for tlie purpose of drawing 
off water. Derbysh. 

Adite, v. {A.-N.) To indite ; to 

Kyng Rychard dcde a lettre wryte, 
A iiobleclerk it gun adijte. 

Rick. Coer de Lion, 1174. 

Adition, s. {Lat.) An entrance or 

approach to. 
Adjoyxate, part. p. Joined. 

Tn"o semely princes, together adjoynate. 
Ilardyng's Chronicle. 

AvjOYKAVST, part. a. Adjoining. 

Trutli it is, that lie (Carelicus) wyth liys 
Britons were dryven into Canilirya, or 
Wales : yet he left not continuallye to 
make reyses and assutes uppon the 
Saxous,next to liim adjuynauiite. 

Fabian's Lkron., p. v, f. 105. 

Adjoynauntes, ». Those who are 

Sought and practised waies and meancs 
Low to joine himself with forein princes, 
and to greve and liurte his neighbors 
and adjoynauntes of the real me of Eng- 
land. Hall, Hen. VI, {. 53. 

Adjoynt, adj. A person joined 
with another; a companion or 

here with these grave adjoynts, 

(These learned maisters) lliey were taught 

to see 
Tliemselves, to read the world, and keep 

their points. Daniel's Civ. Wars, iv, 69. 

Adjourn, v. (from the A.-N. 
adjoumer.) To cite or sum- 
mon any one to appear before 
a judge. 

Adjument, s. {Lat. adjumentum.) 
Help ; succour. Miege. 

Adjunct, part. p. {Lat. adjunctus.) 
United with ; immediately con- 

AcjuTE, V. {Lat. adjuto.) To assist ; 
to help. Jonson. 

Adjutories, s. The arm bones are 
so called in the old English trans- 
lation of Vigo's Book of Chirur- 

Adjuvant, jwar/. a. {Lat.) Assist- 

TrVhich meeting with convenient matter 
and adjurant causes, doc proceed to the 
generation of severall species, accord- 
ing to the nature of the ettirient and 
aptnessc of the matter. Aubrey's Wills. 

Adlands, s. The butts in a 
ploughed field which lie at right 
angles to the general direction of 
the others ; the part close against 
the hedges. Shropsh., North- 
amp t., and Leicestersh. 

Adle, adj. Unsound; unwell. East. 
See Addle. 

Admeasurement, s. {Fr.) A law 
term, defined by Cowell to be "a 
writ which lyeth lor the bringing 
of those to a mediocrity, that 
usurp more than their part." 

Adminiculary, adj. {Lat.) Col- 
lateral; indirect. 

Tliat lie should never help, aid, supply, 
succour, or grant them any snhveii- 
titious furtherance, auxiliary suffrage, 
or adminiculary assistance. 

Uiihelais, iii, 34. 

Admiral, "^ s. This word, which 
ADMERAL, I is very varied in its 
orthography, is a 
yratTe. corruption of 
the Arab emir. Ac- 
I cording to some, 
AMYRALE, J the word is from 
emir-alma, or emir of the water. 
It is used especially in the me- 
dieval romances, where it signi- 
fies a Saracen commander, or 
sometimes a king. According 
to Kennett, the term admiral 
was not introduced, in its present 
sense, before the latter end of 
the reign of Edward I. 

He sende aftur lordyngys, 
I'yftene admerallys and kyngys. 
And armyd them to fyglit. 

Cambridge MS. 

And be the cytees and be the towncs 

ben nmyrnUes,\\i^t ban the governance 

of the peple. Manndetih's Travels. 

A launcc in hys hand he helde, 

Ue smot an nmyraU in the schclde. 

Bichard Coer de Lion, 5012 





TIio spec on admyrold. 

Of wordes lie wes swytlie bold. 

Kyng Horn. 

„^-^Admirablist, a(Ij. Most admi- 
rable. Accented on the ante- 
penult. Yorksh. 

Admiral of the blue. A publi- 
can. This cant word is given 
by Grose, who informs us that 
the blue aprons formerly worn 
by publicans gave rise to the 

Admirative, adj. Minsheu applies 
the term admirative point to the 
note of interrogation (.'). 

Admire, s. Admiration. 

When Arcliidanius dulbelioli] witli wonder, 

Mail's imitation (if Jove's dieiidliill thunder, 

He thus loncliidesliis censure with admire. 

Rovoland's Knave of Uearts, 1613. 

Admittance, s. Used by Shake- 
speare in the sense of a custom 
or power of being admitted into 
the presence of great personages. 
Ford calls Falstaff a gentleman 
" of great admittance." Merry 
Wives, ii, 2. 

Admittible, adj. Admissible. 

Many disputable opinions may be bad 
of wiirre, without the praysinsr of it as 
only admiltibte by infoiced necessitie, 
and to be used onely for peace sake. 

Harrison's Desc. of liritain. 

Admonest, v. (from the A.-N. ad- 
monester.) To admonish ; to 

Admonishment, a. Admonition. 

Admove, V, (from Lat. admoveo.) 
To move to. 

Adnichell, v. To annihilate. 

Adnihilate, v. (Lat.) To annihi- 
late. This word is given by 
Minsheu in his Guide into 
Tonr/ues, 1627. 

Adnote, v. [Lat. adnolo.) To note ; 
to observe. 

Adnul, v. (Lat.) To annuL 

Ado, v. (1) To do. 

I wol that thel togithir go, 
And done al that thei ban ado. 

Romaunt of the Rose, 5080. 

(2) part. p. Done ; finished. So- 
Adonnet, s. a devil. North. 
Adoors, adv. At the door. 
But «liat, sir, I beseech ye, was that 

Your lordship was so studiously imployed 

When ye came out adoors ? 

Woman Pleased, iv, 1. 

ADOPTiocs,a<^'. Adoptive. Shakesp. 
Adorat, s. a weight of four 

pounds, a chemical term. 
Adore, v. To adorn. Spenser. 

And tliose true tears, falling on your pure 

Should turn to armlets for great Queens to 

adore. Beaumont and Fletcher. 

Adornation, s. (Lat.) Adorning. 

Minsheu' s Guide into Tongues, 

Adorne, (1) r. To adore. 

(2) 8. An ornament ; adorning. 

Adote, v. To doat. 

He wax neijh out of wit for wrath that 

And for dol adotetk and doth Mm to hire 


William and the Werwolf, p. 74-. 

Adoubed, part. p. {A.-N.) Armed ; 

"I V. (from A.-N. adoul- 

Adoulce, I cer.) To mitigate with 

adulce, I sweetness ; sweeten. 

J Minsheu's G. T., 1627. 

Not knowing this, that Jove decrees 

Some mirth, t' adulce man's miseries. 

Herrick's Works, ii, 47. 
Adoun, adv. Below. 
Whan Phebus duelt her in this erthe adoun, 
As olde bookes maken meiicioun. 

Chaucer, C. T., 17,037. 
And when the gospel ys y-done, 
Ajayn thou my^th knele adown. 

Constitutions of Masonry, p. 35. 

Adouted, jwar^/;. (A.-N.) .Feared; 

Adpoynte,:;. To appoint. Monastic 

Ixtters, p. 194. 




Adaad, "[part. p. (from ^.-5. 
AVB.E.D, J adr(Bdan.) Frightened; 

— I am adrad, by saynt Thomas, 
It stondeth nat aright with Nicliolaa. 

Chaucer's C. T., 1, 3425. 
Seeing the usrly monster passinar by. 
Upon liim set, of peril naught adrad. 

Spenser's F. Q. 
The sight whereof the lady sore adrad. 

Adraming, adj. Churlish. 

Adrawe, v. (1) To draw away; to 
j\wey fro hem he wold adrawe, 
Yf tliathemyght. Octornan,Zhl. 

(2) To draw forth. , 

Tlie geant, tho he sey hym come, began ys 
mace adrawe. Hob. Glouc. 

Adreamt. (1) I was adreamt, for 

I dreamed. 
Wilt thou believe me, sweeting? by this 


/ was adreamt on thee too. 0. PI., vi, 351. 

I was adreamt last night of Francis there. 

City N. Cap, 0. n., xi, 335. 

I was even now adream'd that you could 

see with either of your eyes, in so much 

as I waked for joy, and 1 hope to find 

it true. 

Wits, Fittes, and Fancies, 1595, p. 94. 

(2) Dosing. Oxfordsh. 
Adrede, ». {A.-S. adradan.) To 

Ganhardin seighe that sight. 
And sore him gan adrede. 

Sir Tristrem. 

\DB.mjiT,part.p.{A.-S.) Drowned. 
A 1 dame, he saide. ich was asschreint, 
Ich wende thou haddest ben adreint. 

The Sevyn Sages, 1486. 

Adrelwurt, s. The herb federfew. 

Adrenchen, v. (from A.-S. adren- 
can.) To drown. Adrente, 
pait t. Adreint, part. p. 

The see the shal adrenche, 
Ne shal hit us of-thenche. 

Kyng Horn, 109. 
And ladde hem out of Egypt bi the liverede 

And the kyng adrente and alle hys, that he 
lie com never age. Hob. Glouc. 

Adressid, part. p. Dressed; 
clothed. Gower. 

Advl^st, part. p. Dressed; adorned 

When spreng, adrest in tutties. 
Calls all tlia birds abroad. 

Jennings, p. 128. 

' >• adv. Aside ; behind. 


Tlie kingcs doughter, which this sigh, 
I'or pure abasshe drewe her adrioh. 
Gower's Confessio Amantis, ed. 1532, f. 70. 

Adrink, adj. Drunk. 

Adrogh, "Xpast. t. Drew away. 
ADROWE, J Roh. of Glouc. 

ADRONauE, part. p. Drowned. 
Kyng Horn, 988. 

Adrop, *. A species of aurichalc, 
mentioned by Jonson in the 
Alchemist, ii, 1. 

Adrowed, adj. Dried. Devon. 

Adry, adj. Dry ; thirsty. " Doth a 
man that is adry. desire to drink 
in gold ?" Burton's Anatomy of 
Melancholy, p. 329. It is still 
retained in various dialects. 

How pleasant 'tis to drink when a man's 

adry ! 
The rest is all hut duUv sipping on. 

Behn, The City Heiress, 1683. 

Adrye, ». (from the A.-S. adreo' 
gan.) To bear ; to suffer. 

Adulable, adj. (Lat.) Easy to be 
flattered. Minsheu. 

Adub 1 '^*' '^"'^ * ^"'S^*' 

' I "Charlemavnearfowd- 

adoube, >, j ■ 1 , . ,. 

I bed many a knveht. 

ADDOUBE, \ n I ' e i6a 

' J Palsgrave, f. 138. 

Adulterate, adj. {Lat.) Adulte- 
rous; also false, in a general 

Th' adulterate Hastings, Rivers, Vaushan, 
Grey. Rich. ///, iv, 4. 

Aye, that incestuous, that adulterate beast. 
Shakesp. Ham., i, 5. 

Adulterine, adj. Adulterous. 
. Mir. for Mag., p. 85. 

Adumbration, *. {Lat.) Accord- 
ing to Huloet, the " light de- 
scription of a house side or front, 
where the lyne do answer to th«» 
compasse and centrye of everye 
parte." Abcedarium, 1552. 




Adun, adv. Down. 
Adunation, s. (Lat.) Union. 
Aduncity, s. (Lat.) Crookedness. 
Adijre, v. {Lat. aduro.) To burn. 

Adust, part. p. {Lat. adustus.) 

Burnt ; parched. 

Drye and adust, and a gret wastour. 

Lydyate's Minor Poems, p. 197, 
Adutante, adj. Astonishing. 

With tlier copiientante 
They loke adutante. 

SkeUon, Work$, ii, 429. 

Advance, v. To grace; to give 

lustre to. Shakesp., Timon of 

Athens, i, 2. 
Advancers, s.jjI. The second 

branchesof abuck's horn. Howell. 

See Avanters. 
Advantage, v. To give advantage 

to another. 

Tims Venus first, to help love's poUicie, 
Adnaiitag'd him with opportuiiitie. 
And r.ow as lovevs wont tlieir times espie. 
This lover can his taske tuU well applie. 
And strives to court his ndstres cunuinglie. 
Tale oj Troy, 1589. 

Advaunt, s. {A.-N.) a boast. 
Advauntour, s. a boaster. 
Advayle, s. {A.-N.) Profit ; ad- 

In any wise to do, 
For lucre or adrayle, 
Ageynst thyr kyng to rayle. 


Adventayle, s. (A.-N.) The open 
and moveable portion of the hel- 
met which covered the mouth, 
for the purpose of respiration. 

Adventurers. It was common in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth for 
young volunteers to go out in 
naval enterprises in hopes to 
make their fortunes, by disco- 
veries, conquests, or some other 
means. These adventurers, pro- 
bably \naking amorous conquests 
a part of their scheme, vied with 
each other in the richness and 
elegance of their dresses. Sir 
Francis Drake, in his expedition 

against Hispaniola, had two thou 
sand such volunteers in his fleet. 
To this Ben Jonson alludes under 
the name of the Island Voyage : 
" I had as fair a gold jerkin on 
that day, as any worn in the 
island voyage, or at Cadiz." Epic, 
i, 4. {Nares.) 

Adventurers upon return. 
Those travellers who lent money 
before they went, upon condition 
of receiving more on their return 
from a hazardous journey. 

Adversant, ^ar/.;». Contrary to. 
Minsheu^s Guide into Tongues, 

Adversation, s. {A.-N.) Oppo- 

Besyringe so a castell in to dwell, 
Hym and his men to kepe frome all adver' 

nardyng's Chronicle. 

Adverse, v. (A.-N.) To be un- 

Adverser, s. \A.-N.) An adver- 

Myn adversers and false wytnes berars 
agaynste me. Archaologia, xxiii, 46. 

Adversion, *. {Lat.) Attention ; 

The soul bestowcth her adversion 
On something else. 

So though the soul, the time she doth ad- 
The bodies passions takes herself to die; 
Yet death now finish'd, she can well 
Herself to other thoughts. And if the eye 
Of her adversion were fast fix'd on high. 
In midst of death 'twere no more fear nor 
Than 'twas unto Elias to let flie 
His uselesse mantle to that Hebrewe swain, 
Wliile he rode up to heaven in a bright 
fiery wain. 

More's Philosophical Poems, p. SQl. 

ADVERTASH'D,jjar/./>. Advertised. 

Advertation, 8. Information. 

Digby Mysteries, p. 106. 
Advertence,*. Attention. ChaU' 




Advertise, v. {A.-N.) To inform 
oneself. This word formerly had 
the accent on the middle syl- 

but I do bend my speech 

To one that can niv part in liim adnertlse. 
]^eaS7trefor Mecsure, i, 1. 

Advertisement, s. (1) Informa- 
(2) Admonition. 

Advest, v. {A.-N.) To put a per- 
son in possession. 

Advice,*, (from A.-N. advis.) Con- 
sideration ; reflection. 

Fair sir, you are well overtaken : 
My loid Bassanio, upon more advice, 
Hath sent you here this ring; and doth 

Tour company at dinner. 

Merchant of Venice, iv, 3. 

Advigilate, v. (Lat.) To watch. 
Advise, v. (from A.-N. adviser.) 
To consider. 

But, if through inward griefe or wilfiJl 

Of hfe, it be ; then better doe adrise. 

Spenser' i Faerie Queene, IV, viii, 15. 

But when they «ime again the next 
day and viewed it likewyse, the kepers 
of the said castell, suspectyng some 
fraude to lurcke in their lokyng, de- 
maundedof Uieini what was their entent, 
and why they vewed and adcised so tlie 
castel. HaU. Henry VII, i. 48. 

Advised, part. p. Acquainted. "I 
am not advised of it." Used in 
the North, and, according to 
Grose, in Norfolk. Shakespeare 
uses it in the sense of acting with 
sufficient deliberation. 

My licge, I am adt'tsed what I say; 
Jieitlicr disturbed with the effect of wine, 
Kor heady-rash, provok'd with raging ire. 
Albeit, my wrongs might make one wiser 
mad. Corned}/ of Errors, \,\. 

Advisement, «. Resolution ; ob- 
servation ; consultation ; advice. 

St. Augustine noteth how he saw the 
tooth iif a man, whcrof he took good 
adcisement, »tid pronounced in the ende, 
that it would have made 100 of his 
owne, or any other man's that lyved iu 
biatjrme. Marriton't Descript. of Brit. 

JToni soil qui nuti, y pense, quoth he, 
Wherewith upon adcizement, tJiough the 

Were small, liis pleasure and his purpose 

T' 'dvaunce that garter and to institute. 
Hotiorofthe Garter, 1593. 

Advisiov, «. {A.-N.) A vision ; a 

Advite, adj. Adult. 

Fyrste such persoties, beyng nowe ad- 
vite, that is to saye, passed their chyile- 
hode, as wel iu maners as in yeres. 

Sir Tho. Elyot's Governor, p. 85. 

Advocacils, «. pi. {A.-N.) Law- 

Be ye not aware, howe that false Poliphete 
Is now about eftsouis for to plete. 
And bringin on you advocacies new ? 

Troil. and Ores., 1, 1467. 

Advocas, ». {A.-N.) Lawyers ; 

As shameful deth as herte can devise, 
Come to thise juges and hir advocas. 

Chaucer, Cant. 2"., 12,225. 

Advocation, *. {Lat. advocatio.) 
Pleading. In Scotland, advoca- 
tion signifies the same as a writ 
of certiorari in Englaud. 

Alas ! thrice gentle Cassio, 

My advocaiion is uot now iu time. 

Othello, iii, 2. 

Advocatrice, s. a female advo- 
cate. Elyot. 

Advoid. v. To avoid ; to leave ; 
to quit. 

Advouch, v. To avouch. 

Advoutress, s. An adultress. 
Revealing Sir Thomas Overburies words 
to the countess of Essex, lord Roches- 
ter's advoutress, she was much enraged 
at it, and from that moment resolved on 
revenge. Bib. Topog., vi, 5. 

Advoutrie, 1 s. (from A.-N. ad- 
avoutrie, V voutrie, avoutrie.) 
advowtry, J Adultery. 
We giffe nojte cure bodyse to Iccher)-e ; 
we do nane advoictrye, ne we do na 
synne wharefore us sulde nede to do 
penaunce. Lincoln JUS. 

And so the good scly man spake and 
made the pese betwene them both, yea 
and farther he gave them a gallon of 
wyne : addynge to his wives advoutry 
the losse ot his wine. 

Tales and Quicke Answer*. 




This staff was made to knock down sin. 

I'll look 
There sliall be no advowtry in mv ward 
But wliat is bouest. 0. PL, x, 299. 

At bome, because duke Humfrey aye re- 
Cailiug this match advoutrie, as it was. 

Mirror for Mag., p. 342. 

Advowe, v. {A.N. advouer.) To 

avow; to plead. 
Advoyde, v. To avoid. 

And 50 he, whiche ought and whose 
duetiewas to \\-A\eadToyded&nA put from 
me the injuries of all other persones. 
Hall's l/«ioM,1548. Hen.JF.f. 27. 

Adward, s. and v. Award ; judg- 
ment ; sentence. Spenser. 

Adwaythe, vjt To wait for. 
Monast. Letters, p. 202. 

Adyld, part. p. Earned. Toume- 
ley Mysteries, p. 195. See 

Adyt, s. (from Gr. dSvrov.) The 
innermost part of a temple ; the 
place where the oracles were pro- 

Beliold, aaiidst tlie adi/ts of our gods. 
Greene's Works, i, Hi. 

Ae, adj. (A.-S.) One; one of 
several; each. North. 

.^ngageants, s. (Fr.) A sort of 
ruffs. " jEngageants, are double 
ruffles that fall over the wrists." 
Lady's Dictionary, 1694. 

Aer, s. An ear. East. 

Aeremancy, «. (Gr.) Divination 
by the air. 

Aerie, ] s. (from A.-S. esg, an 
AiRiE, L ^gg.) The nest of an 
AYERY, [eagle, hawk, or other 
EYERIE, J bird of prey, but some- 
times also the brood of the young 
in the nest. 

One (urie, with proportion, ne'er dis- 
The eagle and the wren. 

Massviger's Maid of Honour, i, 2. 

I found tlie pheasant that the hawk doth 

Seeking for safety bred his ayery there. 

Jhayton, The Owl, iv, 1312 

For as an eyerie from their seesres wood, 
Led o'er the plains and tau<rlit~io get their 

food. Browne, Brit. Past., ii, i. 

On his snowie crest 
Tlie tow'ring falcon whilouie bvult, and 

Strove for that eirie. Ih., i, 1. 

There is a grant, in which the 
"harts and hinds, wild boars and 
their kinds, and all aries of 
hawks," are reserved. Hutchin- 
son's Hist, of Cumb.,\,b2'd. And 
a petit serjeantry was held in 
Cumberland, " by keeping the 
king's aeries of goshawks." 
Blount's Joe. Ten., p. 165. 
(2) V. To build its nest. 

And where the phoenix airies. Drayton. 

iEsTivALL, adj. {Lat.) Apper- 
taining to summer. Rider's Dic- 
tionarie, 1640. 

.^STivATE, V. {Lat.) To remain in 
a place during the summer. 

yEsTivE, adj. {Lat.) Of summer. 

iEriTEs. A pebble, sometimes 
called the eagle-stone. The an- 
cients believed that it was found 
in the eagle's nest, and that the 
eggs could not be hatched with- 
out its assistance. According to 
Lupton, it is a charm to ))e used 
by women in childbirth, and 
brings love between man and wife. 
A singular account of its virtues 
may be seen in Cooper's edition 
of Elyot's Dictionarie, 1559, Sig. 

Aewaas, adv. Always. North, 

Aey, adv. Yes. Var. dial. 

Afaiten. 1 ^' (^-^- "ff'!--^ 

AFFAYTEN, l^," P^J^f " ' '° »"- 

.».,,..„ (struct; to tame, to 

AFAYTY, J,„i^due. 

It afaiteth the flessh 
Fram folies ful manye. 

Piers PL, p. 291. 

He hadde a clergon yonge of age. 
Whom he hath in his chamber affaited. 
The jonge whelpe whicbe is affayted. 




As sone as somer come, to Trlond he gan 

Vor to afayty that lond, and to wynne ech 
ende. Bob. Glouc, p. 179. 

Afalle, part. p. Fallen. 

Afare, «. {A.-N.) Affairs ; busi- 
ness; ado. 

Afarxe, adv. {A.-S.) Afar off. 

Afatement, ». {A.-N.) Be- 
haviour; manners. 

Afayle v. {A.-N.) To fail. 

Afeared, "j 
affeard, ^part.p.{A.-S.)MTaid. 
afert, J 

For be he lewed man or elles lered. 

He not how sone that he shal ben afered. 
The Doctoura Tale. 
Ich am qfert, 
Lo whet ich se. 
Me thinketh hit beth develes thre. 

MS. Arund., 83. 

Afere, "1 V. {A.-S. afceran.) To 

affear, j terrify. 
The flom the soudan nam, Richard for to 
affere. Langtoft's Chron., p. 187. 

And it afereth the fend, 
For swich is tlie mvghte. 

'Fieri Fl., p. 395. 
Each trembhng leafe and whistling wind 

they heare. 
As ghastly bug, does greatly them affeare. 
Spenser's Faerie Qneene, II, iii, 20. 

ArEDE,r.(.<^.-5.) To feed. Chaucer. 
Afefe, v. {A.-N.) To feof ; to give 

Afeld, \adv. {A.-S.) In the 

afelde, j field ; in fight. 

Ant hou he sloh afelde 

Him that is fader aquelde. Horn, 997. 

Afelle, v. {A.-S.) To fell; to 
cut down. 

That lond destmd and men aqneld. 
And Cristcndora tli;u han iiiichel afeld. 
Gy of Wancike, p. 96. 

Afenge, V. {A.-S.) To receive; 
to take. 

A lady, whyt as flowr, 
That hyghte Ut dame d'amore, 
Afe<ig hym fayr and well. 

Lybeaus Disconus, 1401. 

Ateorme, r. {A.-N.) To confirm ; 
to make fast. 
Have who so the maistry may, 
Afeormei faste is this deray. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 7366. 

\ adj. {A.-S.) Afraid. 

Afer, ». {A.-N.) A horse. The 
word is now used generally for 
a common hack, or cart-horse. 
According to S pel man, it was 
current in his time in Northum- 

Aferd, part. p. {A.-N.) In- 



Sche that is aferre lette her flee. 

JlUion, Anc. Soni/s, p. 77. 

Afetid, part. p. {A.-N.) Well- 
shaped, or featured, applied to 

Affabrous, adj. {Lat. affabre.) 
Perfect. , 

Affadil, s. {A.-N.) A daffodil. 
A form of the word common in 
the 15th and 16th centuries. 

Affaied, part. p. {^.-N.) Af- 
frighted ; affected. Langtoft. 

Affaies, *. {A.-N.) Burdens. 

ATTAiiniv,part.p.{A.-N.) Feigned. 

Affamish, v. {A.-N.) (I) To fa- 
mish with hunger. Spenser. 
(2) To die of want. 
There is a cnrious clause in one of the 
Romish Casuists concerning the keep- 
ing of Lent, viz , that beggars which 
aj-e ready to affamish for « ant, may in 
L«it time eat what tliey can get. 

Hall's Triumphs of Borne, p. 123. 

Affabulation, s. The moral of 

a fable. 
Affect, v. {Fr.) To love. 

Who make it their taske to disparage 

what they affect not. 

Ashmole's Theatr. Chem., p. 461. 

Affect, i «. Affections ; passions ; 
affects, j love. 
For every man with his affects is bom. 
Love's Labours Lost, i, 1. 
Is't possible. I should be dead so soon 

In her affects ? 

Marston's What You Will, iii, 1. 
AU overcome with infinite affect 
For his exceeding courtesy. Spenser. 
It shall be so. Grime, gramercie. 
Shut up thy daughter, bridle her affect*. 
Let me not miss her when 1 make 

Greenes Pinner of Wakefield, 1599. 




So her chief care, as carelesse how to please 

Her own affect, was care of peonies ease. 

EiiyUrd's Eliza, Mirr'jil., p. 853. 

Affectated, part. p. (Lat.) Af- 
fected. " A stile or oration to 
much affectated wyth strange 
words." Buret. 

Affectation, s. {Lat.) A curious 
desire of a thing which nature 
hath not given. Rider. 

Affecteously, adv. Affection- 

Affection, ». (^V.) (1) To love. 
" But can you affection the 
'ornan ?". Merry Wives of Wind- 
sor, i, 1. 

(2) s. Affectation. 

(3) Sympathy. 
Affectionated, part. p. {Lat.) 


Affectioned, part. p. Affected ; 
having affections. 

Affective, adj. Touching ; affect- 
ing ; painful. 

Affectuall, adj. {Fr.) Effectual. 
1 adv. Passion- 

Affectually, Lteiv;aflfection- 


So that my writinge rather provokithe 
\ou to (iispleasur ilian it foruerithe me 
in any poynt concernyns; your favour, 
whiche I most affectually coveyte. 

Arclneologia, xxv, 89. 

I have sought hym affectuosly. 

Eeiiq. Antiq., ii, 157. 

Affectuosity, s. The vehemence 
of passion. 

Affeebled, adj. Enfeebled. 

Affeer, v. {A.-N.) To settle ; to 
assess ; to reduce to a certainty. 
All amerciaments — that is,judge- 
meiits of any court of justice, 
upon a presentment or other 
proceeding, that a party shall be 
amerced — are by Magna Charta 
to be affeered by lawful men, 
sworn to be impartial. This was 
the ordinary practice of a Comrt 

Thy title is affeer' i I Fare thee well, lord. 
MacUik, iv, 3. 

Affeereks, ». Persons who, in 
courts leet, are appointed upon 
oath, to settle and moderate the 
fines and amerciaments imposed 
upon those who have committed 
faults, or offences, for which no 
precise penalty is provided by 
statute; and they are likewise, 
occasionally, so employed in 
couits baron. 

Affende, v. To offend. 

Afferaunt, *. {^A.-N.) The haunch 
of a hart. 

Affere, (1) V. {A.-N. afferer.) To 
(2) s. Countenance ; demeanour. 

Afferme, v. {A.-N.) To confirm. 

Among the goddes hye it is affernied. 

Chaucer, Can't. T., 2351, 

Affesild, part. p. {A.-N.) Fright- 
She for a while was well sore affesed. 

Broiciie's Shepheard's Pipe, Eel. i. 

Affie, 1 
affy, I r. {A.-N.affier.) (1) To 
afye, i trust ; to rely in. 
afyghe, J 

For to shewe by experience 
That she is Fortune verilie, 
In wliom no man ne should affie, 
Kor in her yeftis liave tiaunce. 

Romaunt of the Rose, 5480. 

Bid none affle in friends, for say, his children 
wrought his wracke. 

Warner's Albion's England, 1592. 
Pors qfyed in his streyntlie. 

K. Altsaunder, 7351. 
Who that hath trewe amye, 
Joliilich he may hym in lier afyghe. 

lb'., 4753. 

(2) To betroth in marriage. 

And wedded be thou to the hags of hell, 
For daring to affy a mighty lord 
Unto the daugliter of a worthless king. 
Having neither subject, wealth, nor diailem. 
2 Uinry VI, iv, 1. 

Affinage, *. {A.-N.) The refining 

of metals. Skinner. 
Affine, (1) 8, {Lat. affinis.) A 


(2) V. {A.-N.) To refine. 





Affined, adj. Connected by re- 
lationship or otherwise. 

Now, sir, be judge yourself, 

Whether I in any just term am affin'd 
To love the Moor. Othello, i, 1. 

Affire, adv. On fire. Lydgate. 

Affibmably, adv. With cer- 

Afflight, s. Flight. 

Affligit, adj. {A.-N.) Afflicted. 

Affluency, s. (^Lat. affiuentia.) 

You may justly wonder at this vast 
affluenq/ of indulgences. 

Bremnl's Saul, ^c, p. 253. 

Affodell, 8. (A.-N.) The daf- 

Afforce,».(^.-7V.) To strengthen ; 
to compel. See Aforce, (the more 
common form.) 

Affore, v. {A.-N.) To make 

Heete and moysture directyth ther pas- 

With greene fervence i'fl^reyongeorages. 
Lydgate' s Minor P., p. 244. 

Afforest, v. {A.-N.) To turn 
ground into forest. This term is 
used in the Carta de Foresta, 
9 Hen. III. 

Afforme, v. (Lat.) To conform. 

Afforst, adv. Thirsty. See 

Not lialffe ynowh therof he hadde. 
Oft he was afforst. Frere and Boy. 

Affraye, v. {A.'N.) To frighten. 

And whenne kynge Edwardes hooste 
had knowlesje that sere Perysle Brasille 
with the Scottesmen were coniynge, 
tliei remevcd from the sege andwerc 
affrayed. Wariworth's Chronicle, p. 2. 





But yet I am in grete affraie. 

Rom. of the Rose, 4397. 
His herte was in grete afraye. 

Syr Tryavwure, 1382. 
Affray, «. A disturbance. 
Who lyved ever in such delyt a day, 
Tliat him ne meved eyther his conscience, 
Or ire, or talent, or som maner affray. 

Chaucer, Cant. 2'., 6555. 

Affrayne, v. (^A.-S.) To ques- 
tion ; to ask; to know by asking. 
I affrayned liyra first 
Fram whennes he come. Piers PI.,]). 347. 

Affrayor, «. (A.-N.) The actor 
in an affray. 

Every private man being present be- 
fore, or in and during tin- time of an 
aifray, ought to stay the affrayor, and to 
part them, and to put them in sunder, 
but may not hurt them, if they resist 
him; neither may he imprison them 
(for that he is but a private man). 

Dulton's Country Justice, 1629. 

Afframynge, s. (A.-N.) Profit; 

gain. Prompt. Parv., p. 176. 
Affrap, ». (^.-A^.) To encounter; 

to strike down. 

They bene y-mett, both ready to affrnp. 

AffrejA, v. (A.-S.) To make 
friends ; to reconcile. 
And deadly foes so faithfully affrended. 

Affret, *. (Fr.) An assault; an 

And, passing forth with furious affret, 

Affrican, s. a name for a species 
of marigold. 

Affriction, s. Friction. 

Affrightment, s. a frightning. 
I have heard you say that dreames and 
visions were fabulous; and yet one time 
I dreamt fowle water ran through the 
floore, and the next day the liouse was 
on fire. You us'd to say hobgoblins, 
fairies, and the like, were nothing but 
our owiie affrightments, and yet o' my 
troth, cuz, I once dream'd of a young 
batclielour, and was ridd with a night- 
mare. But come, so my conscience be 
cleere, I never care how fowle my 
dreames are. The Vow-Breaker, 1636. 

Affrodile, s. a daffodil. Chesh. 
Affront, (1) w. (r/.-N. affronter.) 
To confront ; to salute. These are 
the direct meanings of the word ; 
but it is also often used to denote 
encountering, opposing, attack- 
ing, and most generally, to offend 
and insult avowedly and with 
For we have closely sent for Hamlet hither, 
Tliat he, as 'twere by accident, may here 
Aff'ront Opheha. Uamlet, iii, 1. 




(2) s. A salutation. 

Only, sir, tliis I must caution you of, in 
your nffront, or salute, never to move 
your l-iit. Green's Tu Qtioque. 

This day thou shall have ingots, and to- 

Give lords th' affront. Jonson, Alch., ii, 2. 

(3) adv. In face of. 

All mortal warres afront the g;ate. 

Phaer's Virgil, p. 124. 
Afront the towne. /*., p. 168. 

.... and on the shore afront them tends. 
lb., p. 221. 

Affrontedness, «. Great impu- 

Affund, v. (Lat.) To pour upon. 

Affyaunce, s. {J.-N.) Trust. 

Afgodness, 8. (A.-S.) Idolatry. 

Afield, adv. Gone to the fields ; 
out in the fields. Northamp- 

Afile, -[v. (J..N.) (1) To 
affile, J polish. 

For «el wy st he, whan that sonp; was souge. 

He moste preche, and wel affi/le his tuns^e. 
Chaucer, Cant. T., 714. 

(2) To defile. 
Alas, heo saide, y nere y-spilled ! 
Jfor men me cleputh queue afiled. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 1064. 

Afinde, v. {A.-S.) To discover. 

And tlia the Sarsens afounde 
Her lord was slayn. 

Octovian, i, 1659. 

Afine, adv. The same as Afyn. 
Afingred, adj. A-hungred ; hun- 
gry. See Afurst. . 
And after many nianer metes 
His mHwe is afyngred. I'iers PI., p. 133. 
A vox gon out of the wode go, 
Afingrel so, tliat him wea wo. 

Relig. Antiq., ii, 272. 

Afit, adv. On foot. North. 

Afive, adv. Into five pieces. 

That his spare brast afve. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 395. 

Aflaming, adj. Flaming. 

Aflat, adj. Flat. 

Aflaunt, adj. Showily dressed. 

Al nflinint now vaunt it ; 
Brave wench, cast away care. 

Promo* and Cassandra, i, 2. 

Afled, part. Escaped. " He 
thought hym well ajled." Sir 
T. More. 
Aflighte,».(.,^.-A'!,) To be uneasy. 
Aflore, adv. On the floor. 
Afo, v. (J.-S.) To take ; to re- 
ceive ; to undertake. 
Ac he therof nold afo, 
I'or nothing that he might do. 

Gy of Warwiie, p. 94. 

Afoat, adj. On foot. Var. dial. 
Afoile, v. {A.-N.) To foil ; to cast 

Afonde, v. (A.-S. afandian.) To 

prove ; to try. 
And nys non ned wyth foule handlynge 

Other other afondeth. W. de Skoreham. 

Afonge, v. {A.-S.) To take; to, 

Nou Gk)d that ous soule jaf, ous lete hire 
lier 80 rede. 

That seint Michel ous mote afonge and to- 
fore him lede ! 
Middle-Age Treatises on Science, p.lJO. 

Aforce, 1 ». (A.-N. afforcer.) 
afforce, J (1) To force ; to com- 
pel. To aforce oneself, to labour 
to do a thing. 
And doth hit tume in yerdis leynthe, 
And aforced hit by streynthe. 

K. Alisaunder, 788. 

And heo aforcede horn the more the hethene 

awey to dryre. Rob. Glouc. 

(2) To violate a female. 

He hath me of vilanie bisought ; 
Me to aforce is in his thought. 

Art/i. and Mer., p. 88 

Afore, I ,j. ^^^ .^^^^ g^. 

AFOREN, >i ' ■ ,.„ '. 

' f fore ; m time past. 

AFORN, J '^ 

(2) Gone. Somerset. 
Afore-tuz. Before thou hast. 

Aforetime, adv. In time past. 
Aforeyene, prep. (A.-S.) Over 

against ; in front of. Somerset. 

Tlie yondir house, that stante aforyene us. 
Troilus and Cres., li, 1188. 

Afornande, adv. Beforehand. 

Prompt. Parv. 
Aforne-caste, adj. (A.-S.) Pre- 
By high imaginacion aforne-caste. 

Vrry's Chaucer. 




Afobran, adv. In store; in re- 
serve ; corrupted from ajorehand. 

Aforse, adv. {A.-N.) By ne- 

Than ffelle it afforse to ffllle Item ajeyne. 
Depoi. of Rich. II, f. 2&. 

Afokthe, adv. {A.-S. afori.) Al- 
ways; continually. 
And yaf hem mete as he myghte oforthe. 
And mesurable hyre. P'iersPl., p. 129. 

Aforwakd, adv. In front. 

Afote, adv. On foot. 

Afoundrit, part. p. Foundered. 
Chaucer, ed. Urry. 

Afrawl, adv. For all ; in spite 
of. Suffolk. 

Afreed, adj. Afraid. Derbysh. 

Afret, adv. {A.-N.) Placed cross- 
wise, or in fret. 

For round environ her cronnet 
Was full of riche stonis of ret. 

Horn, of Rose, 3204. 

Afketie, v. (A.-S.) To devour. 

The fend on afrelie. 

Pol. Songs, p. 240. 

Afreyne, V. {A.-S.) The same as 

Afroxt, adv. In front ; abreast. 
Afrore, adj. Frozen. Somerset. 
Afrodnte, ». (A.-N.) To accost ; 

to encounter. An older form of 


And with Nede I mette, 
That afrounted me foule. 

Piers PI., p. 425. 

Aft, (l)arfp. Oft. 

(2) prep. (A.-S. aft.) Behind ; 
after. North. " I'll come aft 
you." Sussex, but not in general 

After, //rqo. {A.-S.) Afterwards; 
according to. "After that they 
were," according to their degree. 

Afterburthen, s. The afterbirth. 

Aftercaste, s. a throw at dice 
after the game is ended; some- 
thing done too late. 

Afterclap, «. Anything unex* 
pected happening after a disa- 
greeable aflair has been thought 
at an end. 

For the assaults of the devil be craftie 
to make us put our tinist in s\ich armour, 
hee will feine himselfe to flie : but then 
we be most in jeopardie. For he can 
give us Mi aftercliipvUen we least weene, 
that is, suddenly returne unawares to 
us, and tlien he giveth us an afterclap 
that overthroweth us, this armour de- 
ceyveth us. Latimer's Sermons. 

. 1 «. (A.-S.) Incon- 

Afterdeale, ^- J- _J 

y venience ; disad- 
afterdele, I . 

' J vantage. 

The kynge and the duke were before 
put to great afterdeale ; by reason of 
reformatioun of that ille they gat daily 
upon their enemyes. Fabian, ii, 145. 
Thus the battle was great, and often- 
times that one party was at a foredele, 
and anon at aa afterdele, which endured 
Malory, E. cfK. Arthur, &c., b. i, p. 169. 

After-eye, v. To keep a person 
in view ; to follow him. 
Thou should'st have made him 
As little as a crow, or less, ere left 
To after-eye him. Cymbelitie, i, 4. 

Afterfeed, s. The grass after the 
first crop has been mown, which 
is fed off, not left for an after' 
math. Oxford. 

After-game, s. The " after-game 
at Irish" is mentioned in the 
Devil's Law-Case, 1623. It is 
described in the Compleat Game- 
ster, 1709. 

What cursed -accident was this? what 
mischievous stars have the managing of 
my fortune ? Here's a turn with all my 
heart like an after-game at Irish. 

Elherege, Comical Hereiige,1669. 

After-kindred, s. Remote kin- 
dred. Chaucer, 

After-love, s. A second or later 
love. See the Two Gentlemen 
of I'erona, iii, 1, and Richard II, 
V, 3. 

Aftermath, s. A second crop of 
grass. Var. dial. 

AFTER-PARTE.The behind. Prompt. 

AFT 35 


After-sails, s. The sails that 
belong to the main and mizen 
masts, and keep the ship to the 

Afterings, s. The last milk taken 
from a cow. This word is used 
in the Midland Counties. " Dunna 
mix the afterings wi' tothermilk." 
— Do not mix the last drawn milk 
with the other milk. 

Afterlevs, s. Aftermaths. Berks. 

After-longe, adv. Long after- 

And after-hnge he lyved withouten stryfe. 
Seliq. Antiq., i, -17. 

Afterwards. " I must leave that 
for old afterwards" i. e., I must 
do it at some future time. 

After-yerne, v. {A.-S.) To long 

Aft-meal, s. a late meal. 

At aft-meaUs who shall paye for the wine? 
Thynne's Debate, p. 49. 

Afcre, adv. On fire. Rob. Glouc. 

Afurst, adv. Thirsty. The two 
forms a-fyngred and a-furst, ap- 
pear to be characteristic of the 
dialect of the counties in the West 
of England, and occur often in 
Piers Ploughman, and in manu- 
scripts probably written in that 
part of the country. "Affurst 
corrupte pro athirst, sitiens, siti- 
culosus." MS. Glouc. Gloss. 

Afurt, adj. Sullen. Somerset. 

Afwore, prep. Before. Var. 

Afyghte, v. {A.-S. afeohtan.) To 
tame ; reduce to subjection. 

Afyn, "1 V. {A -N. a fin.) In fine ; 
afyne, J in the end ; at last. 

Mete and drynk they hadde afyn, 
Pyemeut, clar6, audEeynysch wyn. 

Launfal, 343. 

Ac, V. To cut with a stroke. North. 
AGAAX,a<fi;. Against; again. North. 
Agadred, part. p. Gathered. 

Agau, s. The ague. North. 

^ \prep. (A.-S.) 
' I near to ; tow 

ST, J ' 

Against ; 



And preyeth hir for to ride agein the 

The lionour of his regne to susteene. 

Ckavcer, Cant. T., 4812. 
Til it were ageyn evyn. 

Songs and Carols, x. 

(2) adv. Used expletively. 
This citie lieth between tlie rivers Don 
and Dee, wherein is the greatest store 
of salmons, that is to be found again 
within the compasse of Albion. 

Descr. ofScotl., Hulinshed, p. 7. 
They have, in this country, suche plenty 
of foules bothe wilde and tame as the 
lyke number agayne is not to be found in 
Britaine. Ih., p. 14. 

Againby'e, "1 V. (A.-S.) To re- 

aghenbie, j deem, 

Agaynbyer, ». A redeemer. 

"Agaynbyer or a raunsomere, re- 

demptor." MS. Hart., 221, fol. 3. 

Ageyn - BYiNGE, s. Redemption. 

Prompt. Parv. 
Agayne-commynge, s. Return. 
Again-rising, s. The resurre«tion. 
Agay'nsay, "I ». (A.-S.) Con- 

AGAYNSAYY'NG, J tradiction. 
Sure it is that he tooke lande peaceably 
wythout any agaynsa;/ or interrupcion. 
Hall's Union, 1548. 
Againstande, ». (A.-S. agens tan- 
dan.) To resist ; to oppose. 
Lorde, thou byddist sufferen both 
wronges and strokes withouten agein- 
stondinge. .. For suffering norissheth love 
and ageinstondeth debate. 
Prayer oj tke PlotPtnan, Harl. Misc., vi, 97 
For cause he came not forth with all his 

The tyrant fell to agaynstand as he hight. 
Hardyng's Chron., foL 48. 
Witli castelles strong and towres for the 


At eche niyles ende iaagaynstande^LWe the 

foonys. lb., fol. 53. 

Agaynewarde, "I adv. (A.-S.) On 

ayenwarde, > the contrary, on 

ageynwarde, J the other hand. 

But agaynewarde the wTctcheth dis- 

posycion of tlie body distourbeth the 

soule. Tretisa, lib. ii, cap. iii, fol. 61. 

And ayenwarde, yf they bey une\-yn in 

proporcyon, and infecte, theune hee 

uredytli evyl and syknesse. 

Biirthol., by Tretisa, lib. iv, p.61. 




Agaitards, adv. {A.-S.) " To gang 
agaitwards," to accompany. A 
Yorkshire word. 

hGAisTH, prep. Against. North. 

Agame, adv. In game. Chaucer. 

Agan, part. p. Gone. 

Agafe, adv. On the gape. Milton. 

Agak, s. a sea monster ; perhaps 
a personification of the Higre, or 
bore of the tide. 

Hee [Neptune] sendetU a monster called 
the agar, against wliose coming tlie 
waters roare, the fowles flie aw ay, and 
the cattel in the field for terrour shunne 
the bankes. Lilly's Gallathea, act i, s. 1 . 

Agar. An exclamation. Devon. 

Agare. An exclamation, equiva- 
lent to — be on your guard, or, 
look out. 

With you again, Beaugard. Agare, ho ! 
Oticay, The Atheist, 1684. 

Agarick, «. {Lat.) The fungus on 
the larch. Gerard. Minsheu 
calls it " a white and soft mush- 
room." It is also given as the 
name of an Assyrian herb. 
Agarified, adj. Having the ague. 

Agas-day. St. Agatha's Day. 
Agased, \part. p. Astonished; 

AGAZED, J aghast. 
The French exclaim'd, "the devil was in 

All the whole army stood agaz'd on him. 
1 Hetiry YI, i, 1. 
The were so sore agased. 

Chester Plays, ii, 85. 

Agast, part. p. Terrified. Still 
used in the North. 

For which so sore agast was Emelie, 

That she was wel neigh mad, and gan to 
crie. The Kuightes Tale, 2343. 

Agaste, v. To frighten. Spenser. 

Agate, adv. {A.-S.) Agoing, ado- 

I pray yon, memory, set him agate again. 
0. P., V, 180. 
To get agate, to make a be- 
ginning of any work or thing ; to 
be agate, to be on the road, ap- 
proaching towards the end. 
(2) 8. A very diminutive person. 

Said to be a metaphor from the 
small figures cut in agate for 

Agate-wards, adv. To go agate- 
wards with any one, to accompany 
him part of his way home, which 
was formerly the last office of 
hospitality towards a guest, fre- 
quently necessary even now for 
guidance and protection in some 
parts of the country. I n Lincoln- 
shire it is pronounced agatehouse, 
and in the North generally aga- 

Agathrid, part. p. Gathered. 

Age, s. (^A.-S. cece.) Ake ; pain. 
Thei feelen myche age and grevaunce. 

Medical MS. \hth cent. 

Age, ». (A.-N.) To grow old. 

" My daam ages fast," i. «., she looks 
older in a short space of time. It is 
sometimes used in Yorkshire in the 
sense of affecting with concern and 
amazement, because those passions, 
wlien violent and long indulged, are 
supposed to bring on gray hairs and 
premature old age. The verb agyn oc- 
curs in Prompt. Parv., p. 8, and Pals- 
grave has, " I age or wexe olde." 

Age, adv. (from A.-S. agen.) 
Against, towards. 

As the kyng Guourguont from Denemarke 

wcnde age 
Hider toward Engoloud. Rob. Glouc., p. 39. 
So gret tempest ther com that drofhem 

here and there, 
So that the meste del adreynt were in the 

And to other londes some y drive, and ne 

come ner a^e. lb., p. 96. 

Agee, adv. Awry; obliquely; askew. 
North. It is sometimes used for 
" wrong," and occasionally a cor- 
ruption of " ajar," as applied to a 

Ageean, prep. Against ; again. 

Ageins, prep. Towards. 

AoEYiivs, prep. Against. 
Also hyt were aieymts good reson, 
To take hys hure, as hys felows don. 

Constit. of Masonry, 167. 

! AGELASTiCK,a4/.(Gr.dyt\a(TriKoe.) 




Sad; sullen. Minsheu, Guide 

into Tongues, 1627. 
Agelt, {\) v. {ivon\ A.-S. agildan.) 

Forfeited ; repaid. 

(2) Offends. For agilt. 
Agen, adv. {A.-S.) Again ; against ; 


Slial have a souper at your aller cost, 
Here in tliis ])lace, sitting by this post, 
Wliau that ye comen agen from Canterbury. 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales, 803. 

Agenfrie, s. {A.-S. agenfrige.) 
The true lord or owner of any 
thing. Skinner. 

Agenhine, *. {A.-S.) A guest at 
a house, who, after three nights' 
stay, was reckoned one of the 
family. Cowell. 

Agen-kising, s. {A.-S.) The resur- 
rection. " This is the firste a^en- 
risyng, blessid, and hooli is he 
that hath part in the firste ajen- 
risyng." Wyckliffe's New Testa- 
ment, Apoc, -xx. 

Agerdows, adj. {A.-N.) Eager; 
keen ; severe. Skelton. 

Agest, adj. Greatly alarmed. Some- 
times used to express such great 
terror, as if a ghost had appeared. 
Used in Exmoor, and according 
to Grose, in the North. 

Agethe, pres. t. Goeth. 

Agg, (1) V. {A.-S. eggian.) To 
incite; to provoke. Exmoor. 
Agging, murmuring, raising a 
quarrel. Devon. 

(2) s. A grudge ; a spite. Nor- 

(3) V. To hack; to cut clumsily. 

Aggexeration, s. {Lat.) A grow- 
ing together. 

Aggerate, s. {Lat.) To heap up. 

Aggested, s. {Lat.) Heaped up. 

Aggie, v. {A.-S.) To dispute ; to 

Agglated. Adorned with aglets. 
Hall, Henry VIII, f. 162. 

Aggle, V, To cut uneven. North- 

Aggrace, (1) ». (.<^..iV.) To favour. 

And, that which all faire workes doth most 
aggrace. Spenser. 

(2) s. Favour. 

Of kindnesse aud of courteous aggrace. 

Aggrate, V. (!) {A.-N.) To please 
or gratify. 

From whom whatever thing is goodly 

Doth borrow grace, the fancy to agqrale. 
Spens., Tears qf Muses. 

(2) To irritate. Far. dial. 
Aggrede, v. To aggravate. Coles. 
Aggreevance, "1 s. {A.-N.) A 

aggrevauns, J grievance; injury. 
Aggregb, "I V. {A.-N. agreger.) 

agregge, V To augment ; to ag- 

aggrbyge, J gravate. 

And some tonges venemous of nature, 
Whan they perceyve that a prince is meved. 
To agreg hys yre do their busy cure. 

Bochas, b. iii, c. 20. 

Aggresteyne, «. {A.-N.) A sick- 
ness incident to hawks. 
Aggroup, v. To group. Dryden. 
Agguise, 1 (1) s. (from guise.) 
aguise, J Dress. 

The glory of the court, their fashions 
And brave agguize, with all their princeW 
state. More's Pkilos. Poems, p. 7. 

(2) V. To dress ; to put on. 

Aghe, pres. t. Ought. 
Aghen, adj. {A.-S.) Own. 
AGHExnor.E, s. An old Lancashire 

measure, containing eight pounds. 

See Aighendale. 

Did covenant with the said .\nne, that 
if she would hurt neitlier of them, she 
should yearely have one nqliendole of 
meale. VotCs Discov. of W'ilches, 1 613. 

Aghful, 1 adj. {A.-S.) Fearful ; 

AGHLicH, J dreadful. 
Aght, (1) pres. t. (from the A.-S, 
agan.) Owes ; ought. 

(2) pres. t. Possesses. 

(3) 8. Possessions ; property. 






• I be 
'J Sir 

(4) 8. Anything. 

Wlian aght was do ajens Lys wylle, 
He cursed Goddvs name wvtli ylle. 

'MS. Earl.] 1701, f. 33. 

(5) adj. {A.-S.) Eight. 

(6) *. The eighth. 
Aghtand, adj. The eighth. 
Aghtele, v. {A.-S.) ' To intend. • 

The knight said, May I traist in the 

For to tel my prcvete 

That I have aghteld lor to do. 

Sevyn Sages {Weber), 3053. 

Aghtene, adj. Eight. 

Agilite, adj. Agile. 

If it be, as I have sayd, moderately 
taken after some weightie businesse, to 
make one more freslie and agilite to 
prosecute liis good and godly affaires, 
and lawful! businesse, I saye to you 
againe, he maye lawfuUye doe it. 
2\orthbrooke's Treat, against Dicing, p. 53, 

V. (A.-S. agiltan.) To 
be guilty ; to oflFend ; to 

He agilte her nere in othir case. 
So here all whoUv his trespasse. 

Bam. of tlie Rose, 5832. 

Tfaay were ful glad to excuse hem ful 

Of thing, that thay never agilte in her ly ve. 
Chaucer, Cant. T., 5974. 

Agin, (1) con/. As if. Yorksh. 

(2) prep. Against. East. 

(3) adv. Again, far. dial. 
Aginate, v. (from Loiv Lat. agi- 

nare.) To retail small wares. 
Rider's Dictionarie, 1640. 

Agixatour, *. A hayker of small 
wares. This word is given by 
Skinner, who says he had met 
with it but once. It occurs in 
Cockeram's English Dictionarie, 

Agipe, s. a coat fall of plaits. 

Agist, v. (from Medieval Lat. agis- 
tare, supposed to be from Fr. 
gesir.) To take in cattle to de- 
pasture in a forest, or elsewhere, 
at a stipulated price ; to put in 
cattle to feed ; also called, in the 
North, yisin^, gisling, or Joisting I 

cattle. Cattle so taken in are 
called gisements. According to 
Coweli, it is a law term, signifying 
to take in and feed the cattle of 
strangers in the king's forest, and 
to gather the money due for the 
same for the king's use. 

Agistment, s. (1 ) The feeding of 
cattle in a common pasture, for 
a stipulated price. 
For, it is to be noted, that agistment is 
in two sortes, that is to say, the agist- 
ment of the herbage of woods, landes 
and pastures, and also the agistment of 
the woods, which is the mast of the 
woods, which by a more proper worde, 
for difference, is called the pinvimire. 

Mamcood's Forest Laws, 1598. 
(2) An embankment; earth 
heaped up. 

Agistor, s. An intendant of the 
royal forests. 

Agitable, ad/. Easily agitated. 

Agleede, v. (A.-S.) To glide 
forth ? 

"When the body ded ryse, a grymly gos 
agleed. Lydgate's Minor'P., ■p. 1\6 

Agler, «. {A.-N.) A needle-case. 

Aglet, 1 s. (A.-N.) The tag of 
aigulet, j a lace, or of the points 
formerly used in dress; a spangle ; 
a little plate of metal. Aglet, " a 
jewel in one's cap." Buret's 

Wliich all above besprinkeled was through- 

With golden aygulets that glistered bright. 

Like twinkling stars. Spenser, F. Q., Ilj iii. 

All in a woodman's jacket lie was clad 

Of Lincolne greene, belay'd with silver 

And on his head a hood with aglets sprad. 
lb., VI. ii. 

Aglet-baby, s. A diminutive being, 
not exceeding in size the tag of a 
point. Shakesp. 
Aglets. The catkins of the hazel. 

Aglotye,w. (from A.-N.gloutoi/er.) 
To glut ; to satisfy. 

To maken with papelotes 
To aglotye with here gurles 
That greden aftur foue. 

Piers P/., p. 629. 




Agluttyd, part. p. Choked. Book 
of St. Albans. 

Agxayles, 1 s. A hang-nail, 
ANGNAYLES, J This word is, pro- 
bably, the same as angnaik (pro- 
nounced in Yorkshire Hanyna?7s), 
which Grose gives as a provincial 
word used in Cumberland, to 
signify corns on the toes. Pals- 
grave has " agnayle upon one's 
too." "An agnaile, or corne grow- 
ing upon the toes." Rider s Dic- 
tionarie, 1640. Minsheu explains 
it as the " sore hetweene the 
finger and the naile." It is used in 
some places to denote pieces of 
skin, above, or hanging over, the 
nails, which are often painful and 
troublesome. These in Stafford- 
shire are called back-friends; 
and in Yorkshire, step-mother' s 

It is good, dronken in wyne, against 
scorpiones, and for agiiayUs. 

Turner's Herbal. 

With the shell of a pomegarned, they 
purge away angnaylles, and sucli hard 
swellinges, &c. Turner's Herbal. 

Agnation, ». {Lat. agnatio.) Kin- 
dred by the father's side. Minsk. 
Agnition, s. {Lat. agnitio.) An 

acknowledgment. Miege. 
Agnize, v. To acknowledge ; to 

confess ; to know. 
Agnominate, v. {Lat.) To name 
from any meritorious action. Ag- 
nomination, according to Min- 
sheu, is a " surname that one 
obtaineth for any act, also the 
name of an house that a man 
commeth of." 
Ago, j V. (A.-S.) To go; to 

AGON, > pass away. The part. p. 
agonne, J is still used in some 
parts of the country; a while 
agone, some time ago. 
Be the Jef, other be the loth. 
This worldes wele al agoth. 

Reliq. Anliq., i, 160. 

Al tliilk trespas is ago. 

Pol. Songs, p. 197. 

And I tolde them lie was ago. 

Cocke Lorelles Hole, p. 14 

"Tyll the thyrd dey be agone. 

MS. of lath cent. 

Uppon thai other syde Palamon, 
■Wliun he wiste that Arcite was agoon. 
Such sorwe makelli. 

Chaucer, Cant. I., 1377. 

A-GOD-CHEELD. God shicld you ! 

Agonious, adj. Full of agony. 
Agonist,*. (Gr.) A champion; a 

prize-fighter. Rider. 
Agonize, v. To fight in the ring. 

Agog, part. p. Gone ; ago ; since. 

Dorset, and Somerset. 
Agood, adv. In good earnest; 

Agrade, v. (A-N.) To be pleased 

Agrame, "I V. (A.-S.) To dis- 
AGREME, > please ; to vex ; to 
agrome, J anger. 

And if a man be falsely famed, 
And wol ymake purgacyoun, 
Than wol the ollicers be agramed. 

Plowman's Tale, 1. 2281 

Lybeauus was sore aschamed. 
And yn hys herte agramede, 
Tor he hadde y-lore hys sworde. 

Lybeaus Disconus, 1916. 

AGRASTE,/>re^ t. Agraced ; showed 
grace and favour. Spenser. 

Agraunte, v. {A.-N. agreaunter.) 
To please ; to satisfy. 

Agrayde, v. {A.-N.) To arrange ; 
to decorate. 

Thyn halle agrayde, and hele the wallo 
With ciodes and wyth ryche pallcs. 

Launfal, 904. 

Agre, adv. (A.-N. a gre.) In good 
part; kindly. 

Whom I ne founde froward, ne fell. 
But toke agre all whole mv plaie. 

Rom. of the Sose,4S49. 

Agre, v. To please. 
If harme agre me, wlierto plaine I thenne, 
Troilus and Creseide, i, 410. 

Agreabilit£,8. Easinessof temper; 




Agkeage, v. To allege. 

Agreat, adv. Altogether. To 
take a work agreat, to take it 
altogether at a price. 

Agreeable, adj. Willing to agree. 
" I am quite agreeable to any- 
thing you likes best." A com- 
mon provincialism, though given 
by Forby as peculiar to East 

Agreeably, adv. Uniform ; per- 
fectly alike. Spenser speaks of 
two knights "armed both, agree- 

Agbeeance,s. (^.-iV.) Accommo- 
dation ; accordance ; reconcilia- 
tion ; agreement. 

Agref, \adv. {A.-N.) In grief. 
AGREVE, I To take agref is a 
common phrase in the old 

And, nece mine, ne take it nat agrefe. 
Troilus and Creseide, iii, 864. 

Agremed. See Agrame. 

Agresse, v. (from Lat^ To ap- 

Agrestical, adj. {Lat.) Rural. 
Rider's Dictionarie, 1640. 

Agret, adv. (A.-S.) In sorrove. 

Agrethe, v. {A.-S.) To dress ; to 

Agreve, v. (A.-N. agrever.) To 
grieve a person-; to vex; to in- 

And now fully porposide witliowte oc- 

casyon of grey ff to be playntyffe agaynste 

me, whom I never agrevi/de in no case. 

Monastic Letters, p. 188. 

Synne offendyth God in liis face. 
And agrevyth oure Lorde ffulle ylle. 

Ludus Cotentriee, p. 41. 

Agriot, «. {Fr.) A tart cherry. 

V. {A.-S. agrisan.) To 
be terrified ; to dread ; 
to terrify ; to disfigure. 

Yet not the colour of the troubled deep, 
Those spots supposed, nor the fogs tliat rise 
from the doll earth, me any whit agrite. 
Drayt., Man in the Moon. 



To hide the terrour of lier uncouth hew. 
From mortal eyes that should be sora 
agrized. Spetuser, F. q., VII, vii. 

Suche rulers moweu of God agr'tse. 

The Plowman's Tale, 1. 2300. 
Who so take ordirs otliirwise 
1 trowe, that they sliall sore agrite. 

lb., 2780. 
The gode knyght up aros. 
Of Homes wordes liira agros. 

Kyng Horn, 1. 1326. 
And in his herte he sodainly agrose. 
And pale he wexte, &c. 

Legende ofThishe, 1. 125. 

Agromed. Angered. See Agrame. 

Agrope, v. To grope ; to search 

Agros. See Agrise. 

Agrose, s. (Lat.) A person who 
has much land. Cockeram's Eng- 
lish Dictionarie, 1639. 

Agroten, v. (A.-S.) To cloy ; to 
surfeit with meat or drink. This 
word is given in Rider s Diction- 
arie, 1640. It is generally ap- 
plied to surfeits. 

Gorges agroteied enbossed their entrayle. 
Bochas, b. V, c. 20. 

Aground, adv. To the ground. 

And how she fel flat downe before his feete 
aground. Bomeus and Juliet, 1563. 

Agrudge, v. (A.-N.) To be 

grieved at. 
Agrum, s. a disease of hawks. 
Agrym, s. Arithmetic. See Al- 

Ague, (1) a<f». Awry; obliquely; 

askew. North. 

(2) s. (A.-N. from aigu, sharp.) 

Swelling and inflammation from 

taking cold. East. 
Agued, part. p. Chilly; cold; 

All hurt behind, backs red, and faces pale 
With fright and agued fear. 

Coriolatius, i, 5. 

Ague-ointment, *. An unguent 
made of the leaves of elder, held 
in Norfolk to be of sovereign ef- 
ficacy in curing agues in the face. 

Ague-proof, adj. Proof against 
an ague. 




60 to, ttiey are not men of their words ; 
they told me 1 was everything ; 'tis a 
lie, I am not ague-proof. 

King Lear, iv, 6. 

Ague-tree, s. The sassafras. 

Aguerry, o.(Fr.) To discipline and 

make warlike. 
Aguili;r, «. (yi.-iV. affuillier.) A 


A silvir nedil forth I drowe. 
Out of rt^!«7frqueint i-nowe, 
And gau this nedill threde anone. 

Horn, of the Rose, 98. 

AouiSE. See Jgguise. 

Agulte, v. To be guilty; to offend. 
The form of the word which oc- 
curs in Piets Ploughman, Robert 
of Gloucester, and other early 
writers. See Jgilte. 

Agwaix. Going. Jgwon, gone. 

Agye, (1) p. To guide ; to govern. 
See Gie. 
{2) adv. Aside; askew. North. 

Agynne, v. {A.-S.) To begin. 

Thou wendest that ich wrohte 
That y ner ne thohte. 
By Rymenild forte lygge, 
Y-wys ich hit withsugge, 
Ne slial ich ner agynne 
Er ich Sudenne « vnne. 

'Kyng Horn, li285. 

Ah. (1) I. Yorksh. 
(2) Yes. Derbysh. 

A-HANG, part. p. Hanged ; been 
hanged. Rob. Glouc. 

Ah but. Equivalent to nay but, 
frequently used in the country. 
It appears to be generally a 
sneering dissent to an assertion 
of an uncomplimentary character. 




adv. On high. 

And ase he henge, levedy, four ous, 

Aheye oppoii tlie hulle. 
I-scheld ous wane we deade hen. 
That we ne hougy in helle. 

W. de Shoreham. 
And owt of the lond no myghte schyp go. 
Bote bytweone roches two, 
80 tthygh so any mon myghte seone. 

Kyng Jlismuuder, 6236. 

A-HEiGHT, a</t). On high. Shakegp, 
Ahent, adv. Behind. Midland 

Ahint, adv. Behind. North. 

A hind, Leicest. 
Ahoh, adv. {J.-S. awoh.) All on 

one side. Northamptonsh. 
A-hoight, adv. Elevated ; in good 

A-HOLD, adv. To lay a ship a-hold, 

to stay her or place her so that 

she may hold or keep to the wind. 
Ahorse, orf». On horseback. A'orM. 
Ahte, (1) s. Possessions ; property. 

Ah ! feyre thinges, freoly bore ! 
When me on woweth, beth war bifore 
Whuch is worldes ahte. 

Lyric Poetry, p. 46. 

(2) pret. t. Ought. 

(3) Eight. 

And sethe he reignede her 
Ahte ant tuenti folle yer. 

Chronicle of England, 416. 

Ahuh, adv. Awry; aslant. Var. 

A-HUNGRY. Hungry. Shakesp. 

Ahje, *. {A.-S. cege.) Fear. 

Ai, adv. {J.-S.) Always ; ever. 

Aid, s. In Staffordshire, a vein of 
ore going downwards out of the 
perpendicular line; in Shrop- 
shire, a deep gutter cut across 
ploughed land, as well as a reach 
in the river, are so called. 

Aider, s. A helper. 

What men should scale the walles of the 
cytie of Worcestre, and who should 
kepe the passages for lettyng of res- 
kewes and aiders. 

Hall, Henry 711, f. 4. 

AiDLE,». To addle; to earn. North. 
AiE, «. (J.-S.) An egg. 

And for the tithing of a ducke, 
Or of an apple, or an aie. 

Vrry's Chaucer, p. 185. 

AiEL, 8. (A.-N.) A forefather. 

To gyve from youre heires 
That youre aiels vow lefte. 

FiersFloughman, p. 314 

AiESE, g. Ease ; pleasure ; recrea* 




Ai6, (1) s. (A.-S.) A haw. Lane. 
(2) s. {J.-\.) Sourness. North. 

AiGHENDALE. A measure in Lan- 
cashire containing seven quarts. 
^sh. See Aghendole. 

AiGHS, 8. An axe. Lane. 

AiGHT, pret. Ought; owed. Yorish. 


AiGLE, s. A 'Spangle ; the gold or 
silver tinsel ornamenting the 
dress of a showman or rope- 
dancer. Shropsh. See Jglet. 
(2) s. An icicle. Midi. Counties. 

AiGRE, adj. {A.-X.) Sour; acid. 
Yorksh. See Egre. 

AiGREEN, s. The bouse-Ieek. Ker- 

AiGULET, s. The clasp of a buckle. 
" Aiguelet to fasten a clasp in." 
Palsgrave. See Aglet. 

AiK, s. An oak. North. 

AiKER, *. Glory. Comw. 

Ail, v. {A.-S. aidlian.) To be in- 
disposed. Var. dial. 
(2) «. An indisposition. 

AiLE, (1) ». A writ that lieth 
where the grandfather, or great- 
grandfather was seised in his 
demaines as of fee, of any land 
or tenement in fee simple, the 
day that he died, and a stranger 
abateth or entreth the same day 
anddispossesseththe heir. Cowell. 
(2) s. {A.-X.) A wing, or part 
of a building flanking another. 

AiLKTTES, *. (A.-N.) Small plates 
of steel placed on the shoulders 
in ancient armour, introduced 
under Edward I, 

Ails, s. (A.-S.) Beards of corn. 
Essex. " The eiles or beard upon 
the eare of come." Hollyband. 

Aim, v. (A.-N.) (1) To intend; to 
conjecture. Yorksh. Shake- 
speare has it as a substantive in 
the same sense in the Two Gent, 
of Verona, in, 1. 

— like Cassins, 
Sits sadly damping, aiming Caesar's death. 
Sreencs Orlando FMrioto, liM. 

(2) To aim at. 

(3) "To give aim," to stand 
within a convenient distance from 
the butts, for the purpose of in- 
forming the archers how near 
their arrows fell to the mark. 
Metaphorically, to direct. 

(4) " To cry aim," in archery, to 
encourage the archers by crying 
out aim, when they %vere about 
to shoot. Hence, to applaud, 
to encourage, in a general sense. 

(5) To attempt. Yorksh. 
AiM-CRiER, s. A stander-by, who 

encouraged the archers by ex- 
clamations. Hence used for an 
abettor or encourager. 
While her own creatures, like aim-crier$, 
beheld her mischance with nothing but 
lip-pity. English Arcadia. 

AiN, (1) adj. {A.-S.) Own. North. 

then bespy'd her ain dear lord, 
As he cam owre the see, &c. 

Ferci/'a Religues. 

{2) a. pi. {A.-S.) Eyes. 
AiNCE, adv. Once. North. 
AiNOGE, adv. Anew. Rob. Gloue. 
AiNT, V. To anoint. Figuratively, 

to beat. Suffolk. 
Air, (1) adv. {A.-S.) Early. 

1 griev'd you never in all my life, 
Neither by late or air. 

Sobin Hood. 

(2) s. {A..N.) An heir. 

Thoj the Sarazyna smyte of myn hed. 
He ys myn ayr after my ded. 

MS. Ashmole, xxxiii, f. 46. 

The right aire of that cuntr6 
£s ciunen, with alle his knightes fre. 
Mitwt's Poemi, p. 14. 

(3) Appearance. 

AiR-DEw, s. An old name for 

AiR-DRAWx, adj. Drawn in the 
air; a creature of the imagina- 

This is the very painting of your fear; 
This is the air-drawn dagger, which said 
Led you to Duncan. Macbeth, iii, 4. 

Aire. s. An aerie of hawks. See 




AiREX, «. pi. {A.-S.) Eggs. 

AiKLES, s. {A.N.; earles in Craven ; 
yearles in Westmoreland ; and in 
Scotland, airle-penny.) Money 
advanced, or given, to confirm a 
bargain. See Aries. 

AiRLiNG, adj. A light airy person ; 
a coxcomb. 

Some more there be, slight airlings, will be 

With dogs and liorses. 

Jonson's Catiline, i, 3. 

AiRMS, «. pi. Arms. A Yorkshire 

Hur nceaked aims teea she liVd te show. 
E'en when t' cawd bitter wind did blaw. 

The Torkshire Dialect, 1839, p. 13. 

AiRN, (1) s. Iron. Maundevile's 

(2) V. To earn. JFills. 

(3) Either of them (e'er a one). 

AiRSTONEs, s. pi. Stones fallen 
from the air ; meteoric stones. 

They talk of divers prodigies, as well in 
tliese parts as in Holiand, but specially 
airstones; the bell in his house doth 
often ringr out two or three hours to- 
gether when nobody is near it, and 
when it is expressly watched; and the 
grates and bars of his windows are con- 
tinually hammered and battered, as if 
there were a smith's forge, which hath 
almost put him out of his wits. 

Letter, dated 1608. 

AiRT, 8. (answering the Germ, art.) 
A point of the compass. North. 

AiRTH, adj. Afraid. Airthful, 
fearful. Sorth. 

Airy. An eagle's nest ; also used 
for the brood of young in the 
nest. See Aerie. 

AisE, s. (A.-N.) (1) Ease. 
(2) The plant axweed. Skinner. 

AiSH, «. Stubble ; as wheat, or 
oat aish, i. e. wheat or oat stub- 
ble. Grose gives this as a 
Hampshire word. 

AisiELiCHE, adv. Easily. 

AisiL, 1 *. (A-.S. aisil or eisil.) 
AYSEL I Tinegar; or at least a 
ASEL, J sort of vinegar. In two 

receipts in the Forme of Curyt 
"wyne, vynegar aysell, other 
alegar," and "vynegar other 
aysell," are mentioned as ingre- 
dients. There was, perhaps, there- 
fore, a difference between what 
was ordinarily called vinegar and 
aisel; and it has been supposed 
that aysell may have been what 
has since been called verjuice; 
that is, an acid obtained from the 
expressed juice of crab-apples, or 

Agnus Castus soden with fenell in asell 

is good to destroy the dropsy Also a 

playster made wyth thys herbe (cher- 
vil]) tempered with aysell, destroyeth 
wylde fyre. Poor Man's Herbal. 

She was like thing for hungir ded. 
That lad her life only by bred 
Enedin with eisel strong and egre. 
And thereto she was lene and megre. 
Chaucer, Bom. of the Rose, 1. 217. 

AisLiCHE, adj. (A.-S. egeslice.) 

There I aantrede me in. 
And aisliche I seyde. 

Piers PI., p. 471. 

AisNECiA, s. (from A.-N. aisne.) 
Primogeniture. Skinner. 

AiST. Thou wilt. Line. 

AisTER-EAL, s. Eastcr-alc, an 
extra-allowance given to labour- 
ers at that season. Northampt. 

AiSTRE, 1 «. (A.-N. aistre, or, as it 
ESTRE, J is verycommonly written, 
estre.) A house ; the parts or con- 
ditions of a house; its apartments; 
also, condition, life. The old 
French phrase, savoir Vaistre, 
which is interpreted connaitre 
tous les reduits d'une maison, will 
help to explain its application in 
some of the English extracts. It 
is still in common use in Staf- 
fordshire, Shropshire, and, pro- 
bably, in most of the Midland 
Coimties, for the fire-place ; the 
back of the fire ; or the fire itself. 
In the early writers the form estre 
is the more common. 




Al peynted was the wal in length and 

Like to the eatrea of the grisly place 
That higlit the gret tempul of Mars in 


Chaucer, Knighes T., 1. 1972. 
This Johan stert-np as fast as ever he 

And grasped by the wallesto and fro 
To fyudea staf, and sclie start up also, 
And knewe the estres bet than dede Jon. 
Reve's TaU, 1. 4290. 

His portes and his estres were ful even 

Of tresour and of lordschyp 


Fyrst by hys subtyU compassyng 
He gan espie the estres of the place. 
Bochas's I all of Princes, i. 74. 

Ait, «. {A.-S.) A little island in a 

AiTCH, s. (^.-5.) An ach, orpain; 
a paroxysm in an intermitting 
disorder. Var. dial. 

Aitch-bone s. The edge-bone 
(os innominatum). Var. dial. 

AiTCHORNiNG,*. Gathering acoms; 
acoming. Chesh. 

AiTH, s. {A.-S. ai.) An oath. 

AiTHE, s. Swearing. 

AiTHER, (1) pron. {A.-S.) Either. 

(2) Each. "Aw so three greet 
hee fellows cummin up t' loanin, 
an' aither o' them had a great 
big stick iv 'is hand." West- 
moreland and Cumberland Dia- 
lects, p. 323. 
(3) «. {A.-S.) A ploughing. North. 

Aits, s. Oats. North. 

AiXES, *. {A.-S.) An ague. Grose 
gives this as a Northumberland 
word, and Brockett explains it, 
"a fit or paroxysm of an ague." 

AiYAH, s. The fat about the kid- 
ney of veal or mutton. Suffolk. 

hix^, adv. This word is some- 
times figuratively used for con- 
fusing, clashing, or shaking. Its 
usual meaning is applied to a 
door partly opened. 

Ajax. Pronounced Ajax (with the 

a long.) Sir John Harrington, in 
1596, published a celebrated 
tract, called " The Metamor- 
phosis of Ajax," by which he 
meant the improvement of a 
Jakes, or privy, by forming it into 
what we now call a water-closet, 
of which Sir John was clearly the 
inventor. The book was an of- 
fence to delicacy, forwhich Queen 
Elizabeth kept him for some time 
in disgrace. Probably from this 
circumstance, the writers of the 
Shakespearian age were conti- 
nually playing on this name, 
by taking it in the sense given 
to it by Harrington. 
A stool were better, sir, of Sir Ajax his 
invention. li. Jon., Epic, iv, 5. 

But, for his wit no matter niucli it wakes. 
Whether he sits at the booid, or on Jjax. 
Duties, Scourge of Folly, 1611. 

Adoring Stercutio for a god, no lesse 
unwoortliily then shanifuUy consti- 
tuting him a patron and protector of 
Ajax and his comnioditii-s. 

Hasp, of Incurab. Fooles, p. 6. 
Inquire, if you understand it not, of 
Cloacina's cliaplaius, or such as are 
well read in Jjax. 

Camden, Remains, p. 117. 

Ajee, adv. Awry ; uneven. Var. 

Ajuggede, part. p. Adjudged; 

Ak, conj. {A.-S. ac.) But. 
Akale, adj. Cold. See Acale. 
Akard, adv. Awkward. North. 
Akcorn, s. An acorn. 
Ake, s. {A.-S. eec.) An oak. 
Akedotjn, *. The acton. See 

Akele, v. {A.-S. acelan.) To cool. 
The kyng hyre fader was old man, and droik 

to feblesse, 
And the anguysse of hys dojter hym dude 

more destresse. 
And akelde hym wel the more, so that feble 
he was. Rob. Gloitc., p. +42. 

Akenne, r. (^.-5.) To recon- 

noitre ; to discover. 
Aker, (1) 9. {.4.-S. eecer.) An 

acre ; a field. 




Thanne tweyne schulen be in an alcer, 
oon sclial be take, and an other left. 
Matthew, c. xxiv, IFyckliffe's version. 

(2) s. An acorn. South. 
Aker-lond, s. Cultivated land. 
Akerman, s. a husbandman. 
Akether, adv. Indeed. Devon. 
Akevere, v. (A.-N.) To recover. 
Akeward, adv. Wrongly. See 

Akixnance, adv. On one side; 

askaunce. Dorset. 
Akker, v. (J.-S.) To shake, or 

tremble. Northamptonsh. 
Akkerd, adj. Awkward. Nor- 

. ttiampt. 
Aknawe, "^ 
akxowe, I adv. {A.-S.) On 
aknen, I knees ; kneeling. 

And made mony knyght alcnatoe. 
On medewe, in feld, dad bylaue. 

Kyng AUsaunder, 3540. 
Tlio Atbelbrus astounde, 
Fel aknen to grouude. 

Kyng Horn, 340. 

Aknawe, v. {A.-S.) To know; 
to acknowledge; to be con- 
scious of. 

Aksis, s. {J.-S.) The ague. See 

That is y-schakyd and schent with the 
ahis. Audelay's Poems, p. 47. 

Akse, v. {A.-S.) To ask. 

Al. Will. A'l, I will, he will. 

Var. dial. 
Alaan, adj. Alone. North. 
Alabastrine, ad/. Like alabaster; 

made of alabaster. 
Anotlier while under the crystal! brinks 
Her alahiistrine well-shapt limbs she 

Like to a lilly sunk into a glasse. 

Sylvester's Du Bartas, 202. 

Alablaster, *. (1) A corruDt pro- 
nunciation of alabaster. 
(2) An arbalest. 

Alabre, s. a kind of fur. 

And eke his cloke with alabre, 
And the kuottes of golde. 

MS. of nth cent. 

Alacche, V, {A.-N. alacher.) To 

faint or fall down from weakness; 

to fell, or strike down. 
Alacrious, adj. {Lat.) Gay ; joyful, 
A-LADY, s. Lady-day. Suffolk. 
Alamire, s. The lowest note but 

one in the scale of music of 

Guido Aretine. 
Alamode, s. {Fr.) A kind of 

Alamort, adj. (Fr.) Half dead; 

in a dying state ; drooping. 

Wliose soft and royal treatment may 

To heal the sick, to cheer the alamort. 

Fansh. Lusiad, v, 85. 

Sometimes written all amort. 
See Amort. 
Aland, adv. On land ; to land. 

Where, as ill fortune would, the Dane with 

fresh supplies 
Was lately come aland. 

Drayton's Polyolbion. 

Aland, "j s. (A.-N. alan, alant.) 
ALAN, > A kind of large dog ; a 
ALAUND, J boar-hound. 

Aboute his chare wente white alauriz. 
Twenty and mo, as grete as eiiy stere. 
To hunte at the lyoun, or at the here, 
And folwed him with mosel fast i-bounde, 
CoUerd with golde, and torettes fylid 
rounde. Chaucer, Cant. 1'., 1. 2150. 

Poure coursers and two allans of Spayne, 
faire and good. 

Bourchier'i Froissart, b. iv, c. 24. 

Alande, v. (from the adv.) To 

Alane, ad/. Alone. North. 
Alanewe, 8. New ale. Huloet. 
Alang, adv. Along. North. 
Alange, ^ ad/'. (1) Irksome; pain- 
alenge, S ful. Apparently only 

another form oietenge, which see. 

In time of winter alange it is ! 
The foules lesen lier bliss. 

Ellis's Romances, ed. 1811, i, 269. 

(2) Strange. Prompt. Parv. 

(3) Lonely. 

Alangenes, a. Irksomeness : 

Alantum, adv. (from Fr. lointain.) 

At a distance. To this word off 




is generally subjoined. It is given 
by Grose, Thoresby, and Carr, 
as a word used in Yorkshire. 
Alapat, v. {Fr.) To hit hard ; to 
beat. Jlapite, in old French, is 
interpreted as meaning farceurs 
qui se donnoient des souffiets poiir 
amuser le peuple. 
Not with a wand to a/apn< and strike them. 
Melton's Siie-fold PolHician, p. 125. 
Alaran, s. Seems to mean a kitid 
of precious stone, in the follow- 
ing passage quoted from a MS. 
of the 15th century. 
Here cropyng was of ryche gold, 

Here parrelle alle of alaran .- 
Here brydyll was of reler bolde, 
On every side liangyd bellys then. 

Alarge, ». {A.-N.) To enlarge ; to 
bestow liberally. 
Such part in tlier nativitie 
Was tlien alargid of beautie. 

Chaucer's Dreame, 156. 
Alas-a-day. An exclamation of 

pity. Var. dial. 
Alas-at-ever. An exclamation of 

pity. Yorksh. 
Alassn, conj. Lest. Dorset. 
Alast, adv. At last ; lately. 
Alate, adv. Lately. 
Alatrate, v. (Lot. allatrare.) To 
growl ; to bark. 

Let Cerberus, the dog of hel, alatrate 
what he h'ste to tlie contrary. 

Stubbe's Anatomie oj Abuses, p. 179. 

Alaund, adv. On the grass ; on 

the ground. 
Alaunder, *. A kind of pottage. 

Alaunder of moton. Take nioton of the 
legge, and seth hit tendur bi hitself, and 
(jwhen liit is sothen, take and braic liit 
in a niorter, or liewe ]iit snial with a 
knyfe, and putte liit in a pot and boile 
hit with the same broth ; and take saf- 
frone, and ponder of clowes, and ot can el, 
and put therto, and seth hit, and serve 
hitforthe. Cookery Receipts, 1381. 

Alaunder of beef. Take leekes of the 
lengthe of a spoune, and take parcel and 
hewe smal, and pouder of pepur, and 
maree, and tern pur hit togedur, and 
take leeches of beef, and roUe hom 
thcrin, and laye hom on a gridirne and 
on the colea t yl they ben rosted ; and if 

ye have no maree, take of the self talghi 
and hewe hit with the parcelle, and tem- 
pur hit as ye dyd before. lb. 

Alawk. Alack; alas. Suffolk. 

Alay, v. (A.-N.) To mix ; to re- 
duce, or lower, by mixing : ap- 
plied most commonly to wines 
and liquors. 

He must be ware of alle such thinges as 
may chafe him: if he drinketh wiuelet 
liim ahii/e it, or let it be soure. 
Hulibush's Homish Apothecary, fol. 41. 

(2) A term in hunting, when 

fresh dogs are sent into the cry. 
Alaye, v. {A.-S. alecgan.) To lay 

low ; depress ; to apply. 
Albacore, 8. {Fr.) A kind of 

The albacore that followeth night and day 
The flying fish, and takes them for his prey. 
Bnt.Bibl., \i,482. 

Albe, conj. Albeit ; although. 
Albk, I s. (A.-N.) A long white 
AUBE, I- linen garment, worn by 
awbe, J Roman Catholic priests. 
Albidene, \adv. (A.-S.) From 
albedene, J time to time; one 
after another; by and by; forth- 
Kend it es how je war kene 

Al Inglis-men with dole to dere; 
Thaire gudes toke je albidene. 
No man born wiild je forbere. 

Minot's Poems. 
The ten comaundementes allebedene. 
In oure play je xal hem sene. 

Ludns Cocentrice, p. 4. 

Alberge, s. (Fr.) The early peach. 

Albespyne, \s. (A.-N.) White- 

aubepyne, j thorn ; hawthorn. 

And there the Jewes scorned liim, and 

madenhim a ciowneof the braunchesof 

albespyne, that is white thorn, tliat grew 

in tliat same gardyn, and setteu it on 

his heved. Mamutetile's Travels, p. 13. 

Albian, *. An old term for that 
variety of the human species now 
called the Albino. 

Albification, s. (Za^) A chemi- 
cal term for malving white. 

Alblast !*• (^-^•) ^° 

' V instrument for 

alblastre, I 1 „ I- 

' J shooting arrows. 




Both alllast and many a bow 
War redy railed open a row. 

Miiwt's Poems, p. 16. 
With alhJastres and with stones, 
They slowe men, and braken bones. 
Kyiig AUsaunder, 1211. 

Alblastere, s. a crossbow-man. 

Albricias, s. (Spanish.) A reward 
or gratuity given to one that 
brings good news. 

Alburn, adj. Auburn. Skinner. 
This word occurs in A New Eng- 
lish Dictionary, 1691, explained 
•' a white brown." 

Alburn-tree, s. This word occurs 
in MS. Harl.,221 {the Prompio- 
rium Parvulorum), explained by 
"viburnum," the wild vine. 

Albyn, adj. {Lat.) White. 

Albysi, adv. (J.-S.) Scarcely; 
i. e. with much business or 
labour, hardly. Rob. Glouc, p. 81. 

Alcamyne, s. a mixed metal. An 
alchymical term. 

Alcatote, Is. A silly fellow. 
alkitotle, J Devon. 
An oaf, a simple alcatote, an innocent. 
Ford's Works, ii, 213. 

Alcatras. Akind of sea-gull. {Ital.) 

Most like to that sharp-sighted alcatras. 
That beats the air above the liquid plass. 

Alchemy, s. A mixed metal. See 

Alchion. Halcyon. This corruption 
occurs in Tatham's Royal Oake, 

Alchochoden, s. The term given 
in astrology to the planet which 
bears rule in the principal places 
of an astrological figure, when a 
person is born. 

ALD,a//>(^..5.) Old. 

(2) V. Not unfrequently used in 
old MSS. for held, or hold. 

Alday, adv. Always. 

They can afforce them aUaij, men may see. 
Bockas, b. i, c. 20. 

Alder, (1) adj. Older. 

(2) s. An elder; an ancestor. 
Our alders, our ancestors. 

(3) A common expression in 
Somersetshire for cleaning the 
alleys in a potatoe ground. 
Alder, "l Forms of the gen. pi. 
aller, I of a/ (all), representing 
alre, [the A.-S. ealra. This 
alther, J was one of the Anglo- 
Saxon forms of inflection which 
were preserved to a very late 
period of our language. It was 
used most frequently in compo- 
sition with an adjective in the 
superlative degree ; of which we 
may give the following ex- 
- best. Best of all. 

Hy ben the altherhest 
That ben from est into west. 

Kyng AUsaunder, 1. 4878, 

For when je weneth alrehest 
For te have ro ant rest. 

Reliq. Aniiq., i, 116. 

That gtandeth yet awrye ; 
It was nat heled alderbest. 

Skelton, ii, 63. 

-fairest. The fairest of all. 

The child he sette next his hende, 
In the altherfairest &e.\e. 

Floris and Blanchflour. 

-first. The first of all. 
Tho allerfurst he undurstode 
That he was ryght kyugis blod. 

Kyng AUsaunder, 1569. 

-formegt. The first of all. 
For there thai make seniblant fairest. 
Thai wil bigile ye alther formest. 

Senyn Sages, 2726. 

-highest. Highest of all. 
And alderhighest tooke astronomye. 

Lydgate's Minor P., p. 11. 

-last. Last of all. 
And alderlast, how he in his citee 
Was by the sonne slajne of Tholom6. 
Bochas, b. v, c. 4. 

Hur own lorde, altherlaste. 

The venom out of hys hedd braste. 

Florence of Rome, 2115. 

-lest. Least of all. 

Love, ayenst the whiche who so defendith 
Hifflselvin moste, him aldirlest availeth. 
Troilus and Cr., i, 605. 




Tliat of the altherleste wounde 
Were a stede brouht to grunde. 

Uavelok, 1978. 

-liefest. Dearest of all. 

— ^ mine alderlemst lorde, or brotbir dere. 
Troil. and Cr., iii, 240. 
An instance has been given in 
which this compound appears in 
the comparative degree. 
An alder-lerfer swaine I weene. 
In the biirge there was not seene. 
Cobler of Canterb., 1608, sig. E, ii. 
-lowest. LovFest of all. 
Infimus, aldyrlowest. 

Reliq. Antiq., i, 7. 

-most. Greatest of all. 

But aldirmost in honour out of doute. 

Troil. and Cres., i, 152. 
To wraththe tlie God and paien the fend 
hit serveth aUerniost. 

Pol. Songs, p. 336. 
The flour of chy valarie now have y lost, 
In wham y trust to alremost. 

MS., 15//J cent. 
Jesu wil tlie help in haste ; 
Thi mischefe es now althermaste. 

Seven Sages {Weber), 3559. 

-next. Nearest of all; next of 
Tlie Saterday althemexte sewyng. 

Lxjdgat., Min. P., p. 20. 

-truest. Truest of all. 

First, Eiiglisli king, I humbly do request. 
That by your means our princess may unite 
Her love unto mine aldertruest love. 

Greene's Works, ii, 156. 

-worst. Worst of all. 
Ye don ous alderwerst to spede, 
"When that we lian mest nede. 

Gy of Wartoike, p. 128. 
Mon, thou havest wicked fon, 
The alre-worst is tliat on. 

Lyric Poetry, p. 104. 

-wisest. The wisest of all. 

For aldirwisist ban therwith ben plesed. 

IVoil. and Cres., i, 247. 

Alderkar, "1 s. An alder 

ALDYR-KYR, k plantation in a 

ALDER-CARRE, J moist, boggy 

place ; explained in the Prompt. 

Parv. by locus uhi alni et tales 

arbores crescunt. See Car. 

Alderlings, «. A kind offish, said 

to be betwixt a trout and a 
Aldermanry, «. A government 
by aldermen. 

The government of Stamford was, long 
before their written charter, held and 
used amongst themselves by an ancient 
prescription, which was called tlie 
aldermanry of the guUd. 

Butcher's Stamford, 1717, p. 15. 

Aldermen, s. {A.-S.) Men of rank 

and dignity above the rest. 
Alderne, s. {A.-S.) The elder 

Aldo, conj. Although. East. 
Aldress, s. (A.-S.) The wife of 
an alderman. The word occurs 
on a brass plate in the church of 
St. Stephen, Norwich, given by 
Bloraefield, Hist. Norw., 1739, 
vol. ii, p. 595. 
Here ly buried Misstresse Maud Heade, 
Sometynie an Aldress, but now am deade. 
Anno MCCCCCLX and Seaven, 
The XIII Day of April, then 
My Lyf I leafte, as must all Men, 
My Body yelding to Christen Uust, 
My Soule to God the faitlifull and Just. 

Aldrian, s. a star on the neck of 
the lion. Chaucer. 

kh^, s. {A.-S.) (1) A rural festival. 
"At wakes and ales." Ben Jon- 
son's Tale of a Tub,prol. 

(2) An ale-house. 

0, Tom, that we were now at Putney, at 
the ale there. 

Thorn. Lord Cromuiell, iii, 1. 

(3) All. 

(4) Also. 

Aleberry, 8. A beverage made 
by boiling ale with spice and 
sugar, and sops of bread. 

Aleccioun, s. An election. 

Besecnyng yon therfore to help to the 

resignacion tlierof, and the kvnges lettre 

to the byshop of Lincoln for the aleccion. 

Monastic Letters, p. 240. 

Alecie, «. Drunkenness caused by 

If he had arrested a mare instead of a 
horse, it had beene a slight oversight; 
but to arrest a man, that hath no fike- 
nesse of a horse, is flat lunasie, or alecie. 
Lyly's Mother Bonnie, 




Aleconner, s. "An officer ap- 
pointed in every court-leet to look 
to the assize and goodness of 
bread, ale, and beer." Kersey. 
It is said of Captain Cox, of 
Coventry, that he was 

Of very great credite and tmst in the 
toun li'eer, for lie liaz been cliozen ale- 
cunner many a veer, when hiz betterz 
liave stond by ; and ever quitted liimself 
M itli such estimation, az yet, too tast of 
a cup of uippitate, liis judgement will 
be taken above the best in the parish, 
be hiz noze near so read. 

Laneham {Progr. of EUz., vol. i.) 

In some parishes, the aleconner's 
jurisdiction v\as very extensive. 

Alecost, s. Costmary; an herb 
which was frequently put into 
ale, being an aromatic bitter. 
Still used in the North. 

Alective, «. (Z^/.) An attraction ; 

There is no better alecthe to noble 
wittes, then to endure them in a con- 
tencyon with their inferiour compa- 

Sir Tho. Wyot's Governmr, p. 16. 

Alective, adv. To wit. Elyot. 
Aled, \part. p. Allayed; sup- 
aleid, J pressed ; abolished. 

From alaye. 
Aledgement, s. {A.-N.) Ease; 

Ale-draper, s. A keeper of an 


Tlie rule is this, let corn be cheap or dear 
The bread should weigh as it is rated here. 
But why should bakers he so strictly us'd, 
And the ale-drapers frequently excus'd : 
They deal in neck and froth, and scanty 

Their short half pints by which they get 

their trensure ; 
Were all they pillory'd that do trade this 

It would take up a very busy dav 

Poor Bobin, 1735. 

A-LEE, adv. On the lee. 

But whan approach! n;z Sicil coast the winde 

thee forth dotli blow. 
And that Pclorus crooked straites begin 

themselves to show, 

Than left hand land, and left hand sea, 

with compas long alee. 
Fetch out aloofe from lands and seas ok 

right hand, see thou flee. 

Phner's Virgil, 1600. 

Alees, 8. Aloe trees. 

Of erberi and alees. 
Of alle maner of trees. 

Pistill of Susan 

Ale-feast. A rural festival. The 
Whitsun ales are common in 
Oxfordshire, and are conducted 
in the following manner : Two 
persons are diosen, previously 
to the meeting, to be lord and 
lady of the ale, who dress as 
suitably as they can to the cha- 
racters they assume. A large 
empty barn, or some such build- 
ing, is provided for the lord's 
hall, and fitted up with seats to 
accommodate the company. 
Here they assemble to dance and 
regale in the best manner their 
circumstances and the place will 
afford ; and each young fellow 
treats his girl with a riband 
or favour. The lord and lady 
honour the hall with their pre- 
sence, attended by the steward, 
sword-bearer, purse-bearer, and 
mace-bearer, with their several 
badges or ensigns of office. They 
have likewise a train-bearer or 
page, and a fool or jester, drest 
in a party-coloured jacket, whose 
ribaldry and gesticulation contri- 
bute not a little to the entertain- 
ment of some part of the com- 
pany. The lord's music, consist- 
ing of a pipe and tabor, is em- 
ployed to conduct the dance. 

Aleft, (1) part. p. Lifted up. 
(2) adv. On the left hand. 

Alegar, s. (ale-aiyre.)' Sour ale, 
used as vinegar in Cumberland. 
According to Mr. Hunter, it is 
ale or beer which has passed 
through the acetous fermenta- 
tion, and is used in Yorkshire as 
a cheap substitute for vinegac^ 




Mr, Cliva, in his MS. Stafford- 
shire Glossary, calls it "a fine 
acid liquor," Skinner gives it as 
a Lincolnshire word, and it is 
still in use in that county. In 
Westmoreland the vpord is pro- 
nounced allekar. 

A licence was granted, 1595. by the 
queens pateutee, to Mr. Francis Ander- 
son to have the sole brewing of ale 
and beer, for making beer, vinegar, 
beerager and alegar within that town, 
and its hberties. 

Srand's Hist, of Newcastle. 

Alegge, ")». (.^.-A^. aleger.) (1) To 
ALEGE, /alleviate. 

The joyous time now nigheth fast. 

That shall alegge this bitter blast, 

And slake the winter sorrow. 

Spetis. Sheji. Kal., iii, 4. 

But if thai have some privilege. 
That of the paitie hem woll alege. 

Rom. of the Rose, 1. 6626. 

(2) To allege. 

They wole aleggen also, quod I, 
And by the Gospel preven. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 207. 

Alegeance,*. {A.-N.) Alleviation. 
" Allegyance, or softynge of d ys- 
ese, alleviacio." Prompt. Parv. 

Aleger, adj. (Fr.) Gay ; joyful. 

Alehoofe, s. Ground ivy ; for- 
merly used in the making of ale. 

Alkiche, adj. Alike; equally. 

Ale-in-cornes, s. New ale. Hu- 
loet's Abcedarium, 1552. 

Aleis. (1) Alas! North. 

(2) «. Alleys. 

(3) s. Aloes. Chaucer. 
Aleived, part. p. Alleviated ; re- 
lieved. Surrey. 

Aleknight, s. A frequenter of ale- 
houses. "A common haunter of 
alehouses, or vittayling houses, 
an aleknight, a tipler." Buret's 
Alvearie, 1580. 

Alende, pret. t. of alande. 

Alknge, arf;. Grievous. SeeAlange. 

Aleond, adv. By land. See Aland. 

Ale-pole, s. Another name for 
what was more usually called an 

Another brought lier bedes 

Of jet or of cole, 

To offer to the ale-poU. Skelton. 

Ale-post, s. A maypole. West. 

Alese, v. {A.-S. alysan.) To loose ; 
to free. 

Ale-shot, s. The keeping of an ale- 
house within a forest by an oflBcer 
of the same. Phillips. 

Ale-silver. A rent or tribute 
yearly paid to the Lord Mayor 
of London by those that sell ale 
within the city. Mentioned in 
Miege, 1687. 

Ale-stake, s. A stake set up at 
the door of an alehouse, for 
a sign. Palsgrave, f. 17, trans- 
lates it by " le moy d'une ta- 
verne." It appears that a bush 
was frequently placed at the top 
of the ale-stake. 

He and I never dranke togyder, 
Yet I Kuowe many an ale-sialce. 

Hawkins's Old Plays, i, 109. 

But, first, quoth he, here at this ale-house. 

I will bothe drinke, and etin of a cake. 

Chauctr, Urnj, p. 131. 
And with his wynnynges he makith his 

At the ale-statis, sittyng ageyn tlie mone. 
Reliq. AiUiq., i, li. 

— not set like an ale-stake 
Froudlie to brag yourselves and bring flies 
in brake. 

HeyvJooiPs Spider and Flie, 1356. 
— the beare 
He plaies witli men, who (like doggs) feele 

his force. 
That at the ale-slake baite him not with 
beere. Dames, Scourge of Folly, 1611. 

Alestalder, s. a stallion. East 

Alestan-bearer, s. a pot-boy. 

Higtns's Nomenclator. 
Alestond, *. Tlie ale-house. 
Ale-stool,*. The stool on which 

casks of ale or beer are placed in 

the cellar. East. 
Alet, 8. (1) A kind of havrk. 





(2) An ailette, or small plate of 
steel, worn on the shoulder. 
Morte Arthure. 

{3) part. p. Carved, applied to 
partridges and pheasants. 

Ale-taster, s. According to Co- 
well, an officer appointed in a 
court leet, and sworn to look to 
the assize, and the goodness of 
hread and ale within the pre- 
cincts of the lordsliip. See Co- 
well's Interpreter, 1658. 

Aleven. Eleven. 

Alew, 1 . , . 

> tnterj. 

ALOW, J •' 

Yet did she not lament with loude aino. 
As women wont, but with deepe si^hes 
and singulis few. Faerie Queeue, V, \-i. 

Ale-wife, s. A woman who keeps 
an ale-house. 

Alex.\nder, s. (A.-N.) The name 
of a plant, great parsley. 

Alexander's-foot, *. The plant 
pellitory. Skinner. 

Alexandrix, adj. Cloth or em- 
broidery of some kind, brought 
from Alexandria. 

Aleve, *. {A.-N.) An alley. 
That in an alrye had a privee place. 

Chaucer, Cant. T. 

Aleyn, adv. Alone. 

Aleyxe, v. {A.-N.) To alienate. 

In case they dyde eyther selle or aleyne 
the same or ony parte therof, that the 
same Edwarde shulde hare yt before 
any other man. Motuulie Letters, p. 86. 
And leyde on liem lordschipe, alevne uppon 
other. Deposition of Richard JI, p. 12. 

Alf, s. {A.-S.) An elf; a devil. 
Alf.\rez, 1 «. (Spanish.) An en- 
ALFERES, J sign. The word was 

in use in our army during the 

civil wars of Charles I. 

And then your thoroughfare, Jug here, his 
alfarez. Ben Jonson's Xew Inn, iii, 1. 
Commended to me from some noble friends 
I'or my alferes. B. and Ft. Rule a W., i, 1. 
The iieliotropeum or sunflower, it is 
said, is the true alferes, bearing up 
the standard of Flt>^ 

£aibl., to the larth. SodaUtie, p. 49. 

\.LFYN, 1 


Al-favourite, s. a term applied 
to a fashion of wearing the hair. 
Al-faiourites, a sort of modish locks 
hang dangling on the temples. 

Ladies' Dictiotiary, 16W. 

Alfeynly, adv. Slothf ully ; slug- 
gishly. Prompt. Pan. 

Alfridaria, s. An astrological 
term, explained by Kersey to sig- 
nify " a temporary power which 
the planets have over the life of 
a person." 

I'll find the cnsp and alfridaria. 
And know what planet is in cazimi. 

Albumazar, ii, 5. 

Alfyn, 1 ^ ^^^ r^^^ j^.^j^^p .^ 

the game of chess. 

The aljjhyns ought to be made and 
formed in manner of judges sitting in a 
chair, with a book open before their 
eyes; and that is because that some 
causes be criminal, and some civil. 

Caxton, Game of Chess. 
(2) s. {A.-S.) A lubberly fellow 
(equivalent to elvish); a slug- 

Now cartel, sais syr Wawayne, 

Myche wondyre have I 

Tliat syclie ah aljifne as thow 

Dare speke syche wordez. 

Morte Arthure. 
Algarot, 8. A chemical prepara- 
tion, made of butter of antimony, 
diluted in warm water, till it turn 
to a white powder. 

}con}. adv. {A.-S. aU 
geats.) Always; every 
way ; by all means. 
Still used in the North. 

So entirely me meveth, that I mnst 
algate recorde the same, and therein be 
uo flatterer. 

AshmoU's Theatr. Chem., p. 109. 
AU merciles he will that it be doe. 
That we algate shall dve both two. 

Bcchas, b. i, f. 39. 
Algate by sleighte or by Tiolence 
I'ro yer to yer I wynne my despence. 

Chaucer, C. T.,7013 
Also that the said Katherine shall take 
and have dower in our realm of England, 
as queens of England hiilier«'ard 
(hitherto; were wont to take and have. 
That is to say, to the sum of forty thou- 
sand crowns by the year, of the vhich 





iwain algates shall be worth a noble, 
English money. 

Letter of King Henry V, 1430. 

And therefore would I should be algates 

slain ; 
For whUe I live his right is in suspense. 

Fairf. T., iv, 60. 

Algate-hole,«. a small recess in 
the wall within the chimney near 
the file, in which is deposited the 
tinder-bo.\, matches, brushes, &c. 
Sometimes it is the receptacle for 
salves, ointments, and other such 
articles. Norf. 

Alge, adv. {A.-S.) Altogether. 

Algere, 8. {J.-S.) A spear used 
in fishing. 

Algid, adj. {Lat.) Cold. 

Algife, conj. Although ; literally, 
all if. 

Algific, adj. (Lat.) Making cold. 

Algose, adj. Very cold. 

Algrade, s. a kind of Spanish 
wine, mentioned in the earlier 

Both algrade, and respice eke. 

Squi/r of Lowe Degre, 756. 


(a contraction of 
algorism.) Arithmetic. 



The name of this craft is in Latyn 
alguTsimus,Kni\uJ^Wf\\B alt/rim; and it 
is namid off ulgos, that is to say, cnift, 
and risrmis, tliat is, nounbre; and for 
tliis skille it is culled craft ot nounbringe. 
MS. quoted bg Halliwell. 

Methonght nothing my state could more 

Than to beare name, and in effect to be 
A cypher in algrim, as all men might see. 
Mirr.for Mag., p. 338. 
Than satte summe, as siphre doth in 

aicgrym. Deposit. ofRic. 11, p, 29. 

Al-hal-day, "j s. All-hallows 

alhalwe-messe, >day, the 1st 
ALHALWEN-TYD, J of November. 
Alhidade, s. An astrological term. 
A rule on the back of the as- 
trolabe, to . measure heights, 
breadths, and depths. 
AiiANT, ». An alien. Rider. 
Alicanf, «. A Spanish wine, for- 

merly much esteemed; said to 
be made near Alicant,in Valencia, 
and of mulberries. 
You'll blood three pottles of AUcant, by 
this liglit, if you follow them. 

0. PI, iii, 252. 
Your brats, got out of Alicant. 

B. and FL, Chances, i, 9. 

J. e., " your children, the conse- 
quence of drunkenness." 
Alie, v. {A.-S.) To anoint. 
Alien, v. {A.-N.) To alienate. 
A-life, adv. As my life; exces- 

I love a ballad in print a-life. 

Shaltsp., Wint. 2'.,iv,3. 
Thou lov'st a-life 
Their perfum'dju^ement. 

B. Jonson. 
A clean instep. 
And that I love a-life. 

B. and Ft., Mons. Th., ii, 2. 

Alife, V. To allow. Skinner. 
Aligant, «. Wine of Alicant. 
Aligge, v. {A.-S) To lie down. 
Alighte, v. {A.-S.) (1) To light; 
to descend; to pitch. 
(2) To light ; to kindle. Surrey. 
Alyne, v. {A.-N.) To anoint (?). 
The cliildren atte chcrchc dore 

So bcth y-primisined ; 
And that hi beetlie eke atte fount 
Mid oylle and creyme alyned. 

W. de Shoreham. 

Alimentary, «. {Lat.) " An ali- 
mentarie," says Minsheu, " is he 
to whom a man giveth his meat 
and drinke by his last will." 
Alinlaz, s. An anlace. This sin- 
gular form occurs in the Romance 
nfHavelok, 2554. 
Aliry, adv. {A.-S.) Across. 
Somme leide hir legges nliry. 
As swiche losels koniieth. 

Piers PI., p. 124. 

Alisaundre, s. {A.-N.) The herb 

With alisaundre thare-to, ache ant anys. 
Lgric Poetry, p. 26. 

Alise, v. (A.-S. alynan.) To release. 
Alisedness, releasing, ransom, re- 
demption. " Ac ali/s us from yfle." 




Old Translation of the Lord's 
Prayer, in Camd. Rem., p. 24. 
Aliways, s. Aloes. Lincolnsh. 
Alkakengy, s. The plant persi- 

caria. Prompt. Pan. 
Alkanet, s. The wild buglos. 

Alkani, s. Tin. Howell. 
Alke. a broad form of ilk ; each. 
Alkekeng, s. The winter-cherry. 
Alkenamye, s. Alchemy. 

Experinienlz a^ alkenamye 
Tlie peple to deceyve. 

Piers PI, p. 186. 

Alker, s. a sort of custard. 

For to make rys alker. Tak figys, and 
raysons, and do awey the kernelis, and 
a god party of applys, and do aney tlie 
paryng of the apphs and tlie kernelis, 
and bray hem wel in a morter; and 
temper hem up with almandemylk, and 
menge hem wyth flowr of rys, that yt 
be wel cliariaunt, and strew therupon 
powder of galynsraic, and -erve yt fortli. 
Cookery ReceiiHs, 1381. 

Alke, s. An elk. 

As for tlie plowing witli ures, which I 
suppose to be uiilikelie, because they 
are in mine opinion untanieable, and 
alkes, a thing commonlie used in the 
east countries. 

Harrison, Descr. of England, p. 226. 

^a"kT;s,J«^>(^-^-) All kinds. 

Alkymistre, *. An alchemist. 

All, adv. (A.-S.) (1) Although; 


And those two froward sisters, their faire 

Came with them eke, all they were won- 
drous loth. 

Spenser's Faerie Queene, II, ii, 34. 

(2) Entirely. A common pro- 

And see, yon workhouse, on that village 

Wliere husbands, all without their wives, 

are seen. 

Poetry attributed to Wakley, 1842. 

(3) 'Tor all" is a common ex- 
pression, meaning " in spite of," 
and is constantly used by country 

(4) " All that," until that. Kyng 
yilisaunder, 2145. 

(5) " For good and all," en- 
tirely. North. 

(6) Each. Prompt. Parv. 

(7) All and some. One and all; 
every one ; every thing ; entirely. 

Thou who wilt not love do this, 
Learn of me what woman is ; 
Something made of thread and thrumme, 
A mere botch of all and some. 

Herrick, p. 8. 
In armour eke the souldiers all and some. 
With all the force that miglit so soon be had. 
Mirrourfor Mat/istrates, p. 91. 

We are betrayd and y-nome ! 
Horse and harness, lords, all and some ! 
Richard Coer de Lion, 228i. 

(8) This word is frequently, in 
popular language, joined with 
others toform an adverbial phrase, 
as in the following examples : 
all-a-hits. All in pieces (Aori/*.); 
ail-about, " To get all about in 
one's head," to become light- 
headed {Herefordsh.) ; " That's 
all about it," that is the whole 
of the matter; ail-abroad, squeez- 
ed quite flat (Somerset) ; all-a- 
hoh, all on one side ( Wilts.) ; 
ail-along, constantly, " ail-along 
of," or "ail-along on," owing to ; 
all-amang, mingled, as when two 
flocks of sheep are driven to- 
gether (Wilts.); all-as-is, "all 

as is to me is this," all I have 
to say about it (Herefordsh-); 
all-a-taunt-o, fully rigged, with 
masts, yards, &c. (a sea term); 
all-b'ease, gently, quietly (He- 
refordsh.) ; all-i-hits, all in pieces 
(North.') ; all-in-a-charm,VdW\ng 
aXund. (Wilts.); all-in-all, every- 
thing, all in all with, very inti- 
mate or familiar with ; all-in-a- 
muggle, all in a litter ( Wilts.) ; 
all-in-one, at the same time; 
all-of-a-hugh, all on one side 
(Suffolk) ; all-on-end, eager, im- 
patient (Somerset) ; all-out, en- 
tirely, quite, to drink all out. 




used of a carouse ; alUto-nought , 
completely ; all-to-smash, smash- 
ed to pieces ; all-yfere, altogether. 

Allane, adj. Alone. 

Allay, v. {A.-N.) (1) To mix, to 
put water to wine. 

The velvet breeches for him aunswered, 
And l(ir strength of his drinke excused 
For he allayed them, botli white and red, 
And oft with water made them small 
and thinne. 
Debate between Fride and XowK»M,p.59. 

(2) To allay a pheasant, to cut or 
carve it up at taljle. Kersey. 

(3) s. The set of hounds which 
were ahead after the beast was 
dislodged. A hunting term. 

Allayment, s. That which has the 
power of allaying or abating the 
force of something else. 
All-bedene, arft;. Forthwith. See 

All-be-thouoh, adv. Albeit. Skin- 
Alle, (1) ado. All {omnino). 
(2)s. Ale. 
Ther was plentfi of alle 
To theym that were in halle. 

Tke Feesl, st. v. 

Alleblaster, s. a not uncommon 
form of alabaster. 

Tn the chappell next to the priours 
Item ij. olde masse bookes. 
Itm ij. imagees of whytealleeblaster. 
Itm one deske, one snkering bell. 

Mouast., iv, 542. 

Allect, v. [Lat.) To allure; to 
bring together; to collect. 

Allectation, ». {Lat.) An allure- 

Allective, 8. An attraction ; al- 

Allectuary. An electuary. 5*e/<ow. 

Allegate, v. (Lat.) To allege. 

Wliy, belike he is some runnagate, that will 

not show his name : 
All, why should I this clUgate ? he \% of 

noble fame. Peek's Works, iii, p. 68. 

Allege, v. {A.-N.) To quote ; to 

Allegeaunce,*. (1) Citation; the 
act of quoting. 
(2) Relief. 

Herof we habbeth tokene gode, 
Wanne we fangelh oeuaunce; 

For sennes that we habbeth i-done 
To pyne allegaunce. 

W. de Shoreham. 

Allegement, s. {A.-N.) An ease; 

Quod sche, "Geve I achal the telle, 
Mercery e I have to selle; 
In boystes soote oyiiementis 
Therewith to don allegementis 
To ffolkes whiclie be not glade. 
The Fylgrim, MS. Coltoii. Tib. A., viii. 

Alleluya, s. The plant wood- 
sorrel. It is found in the index 
to Gerard's Herball, ed. 1633. 
"Alleluya, an herhe called wood- 
sorrell or cuckowes meat, which 
cuckowes delight in." Minsheu's 
Guide into Tongues, 1627. 

Allemash-day, s. AUumage-day, 
the day on which the Canterbury 
silk-weavers began to work by 
candle-light. Kent. Grose. 

Allen,*. Grassland recently broken 
up; unenclosed land that has been 
tilled and left to run to feed for 
sheep. Suffolk. 

Aller, (1) s. (A.-S.) An alder- 
tree. A common form of the 
word in the Western counties. 
The alder tree, which is alsoe called an 
aller-tree, is named in Greek eletlira, in 
Latin alnus, and in Duclie ein Krlen- 
baum Turner's Herbal, 1551. 

(2) gen. pi. of al. Prefixed to 
adjective. See Alder. 
Adam was cure aller fader. 

Piers PL, p. 342. 

Allerbury, s. a plantation of 
alders. Devon. 

Aller-float, s. a species of large 
trout, frequenting the deep holes 
of retired and shady biooks, 
under the roots of the aller, or 
alder-tree ; also called the aller- 
trout. North. 

Allernbatch, s. a kind of botch 
or old sore. Exmoor. 




Allers, s. An acute kind of boil or 
carbuncle. Devon. 

Alles, tbe gen. s. of all used ad- 
verbially. Altogether ; all. 

TIio Corineus was alles wroth, so grete 
strokes lie gaf. £ob. Glouc. 

Allesad, part. p. Lost. 

Alle-solyne-day. All Souls' Day. 
See MS. Harl., 2391, quoted I'n 
Hampson's Kalendariuin, ii, 11. 

Alleve, adj. Eleven. Alleventhe, 
The eleventh. 

Alley,*. (1) The conclusion of a 
game at football, when the ball 
has passed the bounds. Yorksh, 
(2) A marble, for boys' play. 

Alleye, v. To allege. 

All-flower-water, s. The urine 
of cows. Lane. 

All-fours, s. A game at cards. A 
traditional epitaph describes an 
enthusiast : 

Here lies the hody of All Fours, 
Who spent his money aud pawned 

liis clotlies : 
And if you wisli to know his name. 
It is hiyh, low. Jack, and game. 

All-good, s. The herb good Henry. 

Allhallown-summer, s. a late 

All-heal, s. The herb panax. 

All-hid, s. A name, according to 
Nares, for the game of hide-and- 
seek ; but Cotgrave seems to 
make it synonymous with Hood- 

All-holland's-day,s. TheHamp- 
shire name for All Saints' (or 
All Hallows) Day, when plum- 
cakes are made and called Al 
Holland cakes. 

Allhoove, ». Ground ivy. Afin«Ae«. 

Allhose, s. The herb horsehoof. 

Alliciate, v. {Lat.) To attract. 

Alliciency, 8. Attraction. 

Allieny, s. An alley ; a passage in 
a building. 

Alligant. a corruption of Alicant, 
the name of a Spanish wine. 

Alligarta, s. (from Spanish /a- 
garto.) The alligator, or croco- 
dile. The urine of this creature 
was supposed to render any 
herb poisonous on which it was 

And who can tell, if before the gathering 
and making up thereof, the alligarta 
hath not piss'd thereon ? 

B. Jons., Bart. F., ii, 6. 

Alline, s. An ally. Middle/on. 
Allinge, \adv. {A.-S.eallinga.) 
ALLiNGES, J Altogether; totally. 

Tor hire faired and hire chere, 
Ich hire boujte allinge so dere. 

Flor. and Blanch., 674. 

In that lend growen trees that beren 
niele, wlierof men maken gode bred atd 
white, and of gode savour; and it 
semethe as it were ofwhete, but it is 
not allingea of suche savour. 

Maundevile, p. 189. 

All-in-the-well. a game prac- 
tised at Newcastle. Boys make 
a circle about eight inches in 
diameter, termed the well, and 
place in the centre of it a 
wooden peg, four inches long, 
with a button balanced on the 
top. Buttons, marbles, or any- 
thing else, according to agree- 
ment, are given for the privilege 
of throwing a short stick at tbe 
peg. If the button fly out of 
the ring, the player is entitled 
to double the stipulated value of 
what he gives for the stick. The 
game is also practised at races, 
and other places of amusement, 
with three pegs, which are put 
into three circular holes, made in 
the ground, about two feet apart, 
and forming a triangle. In this 
case each hole contains a peg, 
about nine inches long, upon 
which are deposited either a small 
knife or some copper. 

Allison, s. The wood-rose. See 

All-manner-a-wot, *. Indiscri^ 
minate abuse. Suffolk. 




All-of-a-row, *. A child's game. 

Allolida, s. The plant cuckoo- 

Allonge. All of ns. Somerset. 

Allonely, adv. Exclusively. See 

ALLoauY, 8. (Lat.) The act of 
addressing a pirson. 

Allottery, s. An allotment. 

Allow me such exercises as may become 
a gentleman, or give me the poor allot- 
terji my father left me by testament. 

As You Like It, \, 1. 

Allous. All of US. Somerset. 
All-overish, adj. Neither sick 

nor well. Var. dial. 
Allowance, ». Approbation. 

A stirring dwarf we do allowance give 
Before a sleeping jriant. 

Troilus and Crasida, ii, 8. 

Allowed. Licensed. An " allowed 
fool." Shakesp., Twelfth Night, 
i, 5. " An allowed cart or cha- 
riot." Hollyband's Diet., 1593. 

All-flaister,s. Alablaster. Yorks. 

Alls,.?. Earnest money. A'brM. See 

All-sales, adv. {A.-S. from seel, 
a time.) At all limes. Suffolk. 

All-seed, s. The orach. Skinner. 

All-seer. s. One who sees every- 

All-sides. Every one. South. 

All-the-birds- "I Two names of 
iN-THE-AiR, I games pecu- 

All-the-fishes- [liar to Suf- 

IN-THE-SEA, J folk. 

All-the-world-over, adv. On 
every occasion. This common 
familiar phrase is ancient, being 
found in Brome's Queen and 
Concubine, 1659, p. 96. 

Allubescency, 8. (Lat.) Willing- 
ness ; facility in yielding. 

Allusively, adv. (Lat.) With al- 
lusion to something. 
I thought him also in the late times a 
little too nice, and tender of his credit ; 

[GNE, J 

and somewhat too profuse of his logick 
and rhetorick; who being to preach 
upon that of the Acts ; Silver and gold 
have I none, but such as 1 have give I 
thee : Whenever he had named his text, 
desired the people, in all hast, to take 
the words not litterally, but alluskdy, 
for that he tiad good store of money 
chinking in his pockets ; besides what 
he left at home in his coffers. 

Eachard's Obsenatioas, 1671, p. 63. 

Alluterly, adv. Altogether ; 

Alluvion, «. (Lat.) A washing 

All-waters. " I am for all wa- 
ters," i. e., I can turn my hand 
to anything. Shakesp. 

Ally, s. The aisle of a church. 
Var. diaL 

Alma in, 
alemain, l«. (1) AGerman. 
(2) A kind of solemn music. It 
was also the name of several 
dances, the new allemaigne, the 
old, the queen's allemaigne, all of 
which are mentioned in early 
books of dance tunes. 

Almain-leap, s. In dancing, a 
kind of jig. 

Skip with a rhyme on the table from New- 
And take nis almain-leap into a custard. 
Joiuon, Detil is an Ass, i, 1. 

ALMAiN-auARREL, *. A causeless, 
unnecessary quarrel. 
D. John. I met before Don Ferdinand's 
house a serving man who thrusts me, by 
design, upon an almain-qvarrel. 
Tod. That's very true, but somewhat 
unwillingly, like a coward as he is. 

Datenant, The Man's the Master. 

Almain-bivets, s. Moveable ri- 
vets. The term was applied to 
a light kind of armour, used 
originally in Germany. 
Almaixy, 1 
ALMANY, \8. Germany. 
alemayne, J 

I'll cry flounders else. 

And walk, with my petticoat tuck'd ap, likg 
A long maid of Almaing. 0. P., \m, 438. 




Nnw Fnlko conies, that to his brother gave 
His land in Italy, which was not small, 
Aud dwelt in Alma>iy. 

Harrington's Ariosto, 1591, p. 19. 

Upon the londe of Alemayne. Gotcer. 
Ai.MAN, s. A kind of hawk. 
Ai.MANDixE, adj. Made of almond. 
Almaxdre, s. An ahnond-tree. 
And of almandris grete plent6, 
Figgis, aud uianv a date ire. 


Almarie, s. (A.-X.) a cupboard; 
a pantry. See Ambrie. 
Tlier avarice hath almaries. 
And vreu bouudeu eotres. 

Hers PL, p. 288. 

Almariol, ». (A.-N.) A closet, or 
cupboard, in which the ecclesias- 
tical habits were kept. 
Almatour, s. An almoner. 
After him spak Dalmadas, 
A riche almatour he was. 

Kyitg Alisaunder, 3043. 

Alme, s. An elm. Northampt. 
Alinen, made of elm. 

AlmeeSjS. /;/. Alms. East Sussex. 

Almks-dish, *. The dish in the 
old baronial hall, in which was 
put the bread set aside for the 

Almksful, adj. Charitable. 

Almes-row, ». A row of houses 
inhabited by paupers. 
Also whcnne eny pore man or womman 

. is dcd in tlie almys-rewe, the seyd prysts 
to be redy to bryiige the coora to 
churche, aud there to ahyde til liit be 
buryed. Stratford MSS., tern. H. FI. 

Alhksse, s. {A.-N.) Alms. 
Almest, adv. Almost. 

And as he priked North and Est, 
I tel it vow hym had almesl 
Bityd a sory care. 

Chaucer, Tale of Sire Thopas. 

Almicaxtarath, s. An astrologi- 
cal term, applied to a circle drawn 
parallel to the horizon. 
Meaiiwliile, with scioferical instrument. 
By way of azimutli and almicantarath. 
Albumazar i, 7. 

Almodza, s. An alchemical term for 

Almond-por-a-parrot. Some tri- 
fle to amuse a silly person. A 
proverbial expression, which oc 
curs in Skelton and the writers 
of the Elizabethan age. 

Almoxd-butter, s. The following 
is given as a receipt "to make 
almond-butter i" 

Blanch your almonds, and beat them as 
fine as you can with fair water two or 
three hours, then strain them through a 
linncn cloth, boil them with rose-water, 
whole mace, and annise seeds, till the 
substance be thick, spread it upon a fair 
cloth, draining the whey from it, after 
Itt it hang in the same cloth some few 
hours, then strain it and season it with 
rose-water and sugar. 

True Gentlewoman's Delight, 1676. 

Almond-custard, s. Was made 
as follows : 

Take two pound of almonds, blauch and 
beat them very fine with rosewater, 
tlieu strain them with some two quarts 
of cream, twenty whites of eggs, and a 
pound of double refined sugar ; make 
the paste as aforesaid, and bake it in a 
ir.ild oven fine and white, garnish it as 
before, and scrape fine sugar over all. 
The Queen's Royal Cookery, 1713. 

Almoxd-furxace, ». At the silver 
mills in Cardiganshire, they have, 
or had, a particular furnace in 
which they melt the slags, or 
refuseof the lithurge not stamped, 
with charcoal only, which they 
call the almondfumace. Kennett. 

Almoxd-milk, s. Almonds ground 
and mi.\ed with milk, broth, or 

Tlie devil take me, I love you so, that I 
could be content to abjure wine for 
ever, and drink nothing but almond' 
nalk for your sake. 

Shadicell, Epsom-Wells, 1673. 

Almoxesrye, ». The almonry. 
Almose, s. pi. Alms. 
Almoyn, «. pi. (A.-N.) Alms. 
Alms-drink, s. Liquor of another's 

share which his companion drinks 

to ease him. Shakesp. 
Alms.max, «. A person who live* 

on alius ; also, a charitable per« 





Almury, «. The upright part of 

an astrolabe. 
Almusles, adj. Without alms, 
lor tlief 18 reve, the loud is penyles ; 
For pride hatli sieve, the lond is almtisles. 
Pol. Songs, p. 235. 

Almute, s. a governing planet. 
An astrological term. 
Emanguly, eie Ids popular apydanse 
could liiitcli Ids ruine, upon conterence 
with a witch that hee saw (by the almn- 
ten of his nativity) short life attended 
ium, growes fearfuU of his syres incon- 
stancy. Herbert's Travels, 1638. 
Without a sign masculine ? Dem. Sir, you 

mistake me : 
You are not yet initiate. The almutes 
Of the ascendent is not elevated 
Above the almutes of the filial house : 
Venus is free, and Jove not yet combust. 
Batuiolph's Jealous Lovers, 16i6. 

Almifluent, 8. (Lat.) Beneficent ; 
abounding in alms. 

Almyght, adj. A not uncommon 
form of almighty. 

Alnath, s. The first star in the 
horns of Aries, from which the 
first mansion of the moon is 
named. Chaucer. 

Alnegeor, *. One of the king's 
officers, says Cowell, who under- 
took the care of the assize of 
woolen cloth. Rider, in his 
Dictionarie, 1640, explains it by 
the Latin word " ulniger." 

Alner, 8. {A.-N.) A purse, or bag 
to hold money. 
I wyll the yeve an alner, 
1-niad of sylk and of gold cler, 
Wyth fayre ymages tiire. 

Launfal, 1. 319. 

Alneway, adv. {A.'S.) Always. 
And therby heth he alneway the herte 
ine peyse, and the body govemeth by 
the wylle of God. 
Aytnhiie oflnviit, MS. Arundel, 57, f. 25. 

Alnil, adv. And only. (?) 

Sertis, sire, not ic nojt; 
Ic ate gage alnil gras, 
More harm ue did ic no^t. 

Pol. Songs, -p. 201. 

AtOES, 8. An olio, or savoury dish, 
composed of meat, herbs, eggs, 
and other ingredients, something 

similar to the modern dish of 

olives. See the Good House- 

u-ife'8 Jen-el, 1596. 
Alofe, ». {A.-N.) To praise. Morte 

Arthure. See Alowe. 
A-LOFTE, adv. {A.-S.) On high. 

Leve thow nevere that yon light 

Hem alofle brynge, 

Ne have hem out of helle. 

Piers PL, p. 378. 

Aloge, V. {A.-S.) To lodge; to 

pitch a tent. 
I am aloggit, thought he, best, howsoeri* 

it goon. Chaucer, ed. Vrry, p. 597. 

Alogh, adv. {A.-S.) Below. 

Lewed men many tymes 
Maistres thei apposen, 
■^'liy Adam ne hded noght first 
His mouth that eet the appul, 
Kather than his likame alogh. 

Piers PI., p. 242. 

Alogy, 8, (Gr. dXoyia.) An ab- 
Alomba, 8. Tin. Howell. 
Alond, adv. On land. 

Ah, the mansing is so ibroded, 
Tliah no preost ulonde ncre, 
A wrecche neotlieles thu were. 

Ovol and Nightingale, 1. 1301. 

And taketh his leave, and homeward saileth 

And in au ile, amidde the wilde see, .... 
He made his shippe aloud for to sette. 

Chaucer, Leg. Good Women, 1. 2164. 

Alone, adj. (A.-S.) One ; single. 

Now, Jeshu, for thy hu^y name, 
Ase 1 ame but man alone, 
Than be my helpe to nyght. 

Torrent of Portugal, p. 23. 

Alonely, 1 

ALL-ONELY, I ^^^ ^^_g^ q^^j 

He made his mone 
Within a garden al him one. 

Gower, T. 26. 
But he hathe lost alle but Grece ; and 
that lond he holt alle-onhj. 

Maundevile, p. 8. 

Vigenius, or Nigenius, was not king, 
but alonely Peredurus. 

Fabian't Chron., f. 31. 




Alonhj lening to the strong pilor of holy 
scripture, agayne the hole college of the 

Leland's New Year's Gyfte. 
For tlie wyll allniieh/ is deedly synne. 
Institution of a Christen Man, p. 111. 
■Whereof (oniittin;,' many things), my 
muse, alonely suy. 

Warner's Albion's England, 1593. 

Aloof, adv. Nearer the wind. A 
sea term. See Hunter's Disqui- 
sition on the Tempest, p. 46. 

Along, (I) adv. Slanting. Ox- 

(2) prep. Owing to. Var. dial. 
It is found in Chaucer. 

Aloxge, ». {A.-S.) To long for. 
Piers Ploughman, p. 526. 

This wortliy Jason sore alongeth 
To se the straunnre reijionis. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq., f. 147. 

Aloxgst, prep. Along; length- 
wise. Somerset. It is found in 
the Elizabethan writers. 

Aloorke, adv. (A form said to be 
derived from the /stonrfjc.) Awry; 
out of order. 

His heed in shappe as by natures worke, 
Kot one haire amisse, or lyeth aloorke. 
MS. Lansd., 208, f. 4. 

Aloryng, «. (A.-N.) A parapet 

wall. A form of alure. 
Alose, ». (1) (A.-N.aloser.) To 

praise; to commend. 

These ii. bisshoppes tofore that tyme 
were the most alosed bisshoppes among 
alle otUere. Rob. Glouc, p. 450, iiote. 

(2) {A..S.) To loose; to make 
XhosT, part. p. Lost. A Somer- 
setshire word. 
When all England is atoste. MS. James. 

Alothen, v. (A.-S.) To become 


Iscs lion so hot that liit na coleth, 
Ne non so liwit tliat hit nc soleth, 
Ne nojt so leof that liit ne alotheth, 
Ne nojt so glad tliat hit ne awrotheth. 
Owl and Nightingale, 1. 1265. 

Alough, adv. Below. See Alogh. 
Alour, 8. See Alure. 

Aloutb, 1 V. (A.-S. alufan.) To 
alowte, > bow; to pay obeisance. 
ALUTE, J Piers PI., p. 495. 

Ho that passeth the bregge, 
Hys armes he mot legge. 
And to the geaunt alowte. 

Lybeaus Discontts, 1. 1254. 
That child that was so wiide and wlong. 
To me alute lowe. 

Retig. Antiq., i, 101. 

Alowe, (1) adv. (A.-S.) Low down. 

(2) V. To humble. 
Alowe, "1 v. (A.-N. allouer.) To 
ALLOWE, J praise ; to approve. 

Cursyd be he tliat thy werk alowe ! 

Richard Coer de Lion, 4662. 
For he liatlie no knowen congregacion 
to reprove hira or allowe him. 

Sir T. Mare's Works, p. 524. 

Aloyne, V. (A.-N. aloigner.) To 

Aloyse. (1) Alas ! 

(2) A kind of precious stone. 

Book of St. Albans, sig. f, i. 
Alpe, s. (1) (A.-S.) A bull.finch. 

Ficedula, an alpe. MS. Bodl, 604, f. 31. 

There was many a birde sinking, 
Thoroughout the yerde all thringing : 
In many placis nightingales, 
And alpes, and finches, and wodewales. 
Rom. of the Rose, 658. 

(2) (A.-S. elp.) An elephant. 
Alpes-bon, s. (A.-S. e/pen-ban.) 

Alphabet, «. The index or list of 

contents to a book was formerly 

so called. 
Alpi, adj. (A.-S.) Single. 

A, quod tlie vox, ich wille the telle, 
On alpi word ich lie nelle. 

Reliq. Antiq., ii, 275. 

Alpicke, s. a kind of earth. 

Cotgrave, v, Chercee. 
Alpurth, 8. A halfpenny-worth. 

Monast. Angl., i, 198. 
Alre, gen. pi. (A.-S.) Of all. 
Bidde we ure lavedi, 

Swetest aire thinge. 
That lieo ure erende beore 
To then heoven kinge. 
3IS. Cott., Calig., A. ix, f. 2447°. 

Als, (1) conj. (A.-S.) Also; as; 
likewise ; in like manner. 




(2) AV», a contracted form of 
all this. Dorset. 
Alsatia. a jocular name for the 
Wliitefriars, in London, which 
was formerly an asylum for in- 
solvent debtors, and all such as 
had offended against the laws. 

Alsaume, 1 , ,,. ., 

> adv. Altoffether. 


Alse, (1)*. The name Alice. 
(2) adv. (J.-S.) Also. 

The fowrtlie pojnit techytli us «/«, 
That no mou to liys craft be false. 

Const, of Masonry, p. 23. 

Alsene, ». {A.-S.) An awl. Elsin 
is still used in the North of Eng- 
land in the same sense. 

Also, (1) covj. (A.-S. alswa.) As. 
(2) All save; all but. Midland 

Alsone, conj. As soon ; imme- 

AUone as that childe y-bome is. 
It hath wytt or har i-wys, 
And may speken to his dame. 

K. AlUaunder, 1. 5024. 

AxsTiTE, adv. (A.-S.) Quickly. 

Unto the porter speke he thoe, 
Sayd, To thi lord myn eriide thou go, 
Hasteli and alstite. 

Robson's Romances, p. 50. 

Alsuithe, conj. (A.-S.) As soon 
as ; as quickly as. 

Ai.swA, conj. (_A.-S.) Also, 

Altamel, s. A verbal or lump 
account, without particulars, 
such as is commonly produced at 
spunging-houses. A slang word. 

ALTEMETavE, g. The measuring 
of altitudes. 

Alterage, *. A fine or tax to the 
altar; one of the amends for 
offences short of murder. 

Alterate. r. (Lat.) To alter; to 
change ; part. p. altered. 

Altercand, joar^ a. (A.-N.) Con- 

Ai.TERN, adv. Alternately, Milton. 

Altham, s. a slang term. In the 
Fratemityeof Vacabondes, 1575, 

the wife of a " curtail " is said to 
be called his altham. 

Alther, ffen. pi. of al. Prefixed 
to aiijectives. See Alder. 

Altricate, v. {Lat.) To contend. 

Aludels, 8. (A.-N.) Subliming- 
pots without bottoms, which 
fitted into each other, without 
luting. An alchemical term. 

Aluffe, adv. (A.-S.) Aloof; more 
nearly to the wind. 

Alure, \8. (A.-N.) A gutter or 
ai.our, J channel behind the bat- 
tlements, which served to carry 
off the rain-water; sometimes, 
an alley, or passage from one 
part of a building to another; 
the parapet-wall itself. 

Up the ahirs of the castles the laydcs 
thaune stode, 

And byhuld thy s noble pame, and whyrhe 
knyjies were gode. Rot. Glouc, p. 192. 
Alisaunder ronieth in his toun, 
For to wissen his masons. 
The towiis to take, and the torellis, 
Vawtes, alouris, and tlie corneris 

Kyng Alisaunder, 1. 7210. 

Alutation, s. (Lat.) Tanning of 

Alute, v. To bow. See Aloute. 

Alvisch, adj. (A.-S.) Elfish ; hav- 
ing supernatural power. 

Alway, adv. (A.-S.) Always. 

Thereby a rhristall strearae did gently play, 

Which from a sacred fountaine welled forth 
alway. Spenser's Faerie Queene, I, i, 34. 

Always, adv. However ; neverthe- 
less. North. 

Alweldand, \adj. (A.-S. cel- 
alwelding, J tcaWa.) All-ruling; 

I prai to grete God alweldand. 
That thai have noght the heglier hand. 
Ftcaine and Gaunn, 1. 2199. 

Alwes, s. pi. Hallows ; saints. 

Aly, v. (A.-N.) Go. 

Jly! he saide, aly blyvel 

Kyn/f Alisaunder, 1. 4370 
Alyche, ad/. Alike. 
Alye, (1) V. (A.-N.) To mix. See 
(2) s. Kindred; allies. 




If I myg:ht of myn alye ony ther fynde, 
• It wold be grett joye onto me. 

Coventry Mystifies, p. 145. 

Alyes. (A.-S.) Always. 

A-LYGHTELy, adv. Lightly. 

Alykenes, s. Similarity. 

A-LYKE-WYSE,a(/». In like manner. 

Alyn, s. A kind of oil. Skinner. 

Aly, ")«. A lent made of canvas. 
ALKY, J See Hale. 

Alysson, *. (A.-N.) The herb mad- 
wort. Said hy Iltiloet to be a cure 
for the bite of a mad dog. 

Alyz, ad/. A term applied to some 
kind of cloth. A " go wn of green 
alj/z cloth of gold, with wide 
«leeves," occurs in a will of the 
date of 1439. 7'est. Vetusi., p. 240. 

Am, ;»ro». Them. 

Than sal he speke to tliam in his wreth, 

And to dreve am sal he in liis breth. 

Ps. ii, 5, J/5. Coit., Vesp., D. vii. 

Amable, adj. (A.-N.) Lovely- 
Amackily, adv. Partly; in some 

degree. North. 
A-MAD, adj. Mad. 

Heo vrendeth bokes un-brad, 
Ant maketh men a moneth amad. 

Pol. Songs, p. 156. 

Amadetto, \s. a kind of pear. 
AMADOT, J Skinner. 

Amail, ». Mail; armour. 

Amaimon.s. In astrology, the name 
of a king of the East, one of the 
principal devils whose influence 
was to be guarded against from 
the third hour till noon, and from 
the ninth hour till evening. 
" The chief whose dominion is 
on the north part of the infernal 
gulf." Holme. 

Amain, adv. (1) With might; 
mightily ; plentifully. 

He said, and from liis eyes the trickling 
teares ran dnwiie amain. 

Pkaer's Virgil, p. 300. 

(2) Immediately; forthwith; for- 
wards. Shakesp.j'i Henry IV,'\v,9, 

(3) All at once. A sea term. 
Amaister, v. {A.-N.) To teach. 


Amaistren, v. (A.-N.) To over- 
come ; to be master of. 
Ac the Holi Gust is the guode Ipclie thct 
amaystreth his ziknesse and chonsrotli 
his humours. Jyenhl'.e of limit. 

And how I myghte amaistren hem. 
And make hem to werche. 

Piers PL, p. 129. 

Amalgamivg, s. Mixing quick- 
silver with any metal. An alche- 
mical term. 

Amall, s. Enamel. See Amell. 

Am AND. (1) ». (Lat.) To send away; 
to remove. 

Wherefore we ioamand Duke Humplirey's 

For their provision truly is o' th' least: 
A dog dotii fare mucli better with his bones 
Than those whose table, meat, and drink 
are stones. 

Gayton, Art of Longevity, 1659. 
(2) 8. {Fr.) A fine; penalty. 
Amandation, s. (Lat.) A message. 
Amang, prep. (A.'S.) Among. 

The lyejere is amang the men ase the 
valse peny amang the guode, ase the 
chef amang tlie corn. Ayenbite ofjnirit. 

AMANG-HANDs,arft7.(l) Work done 
conjointly with other business. 

(2) Lands belonging to different 
proprietors intermixed. Yorksh. 
Amanse, 1 v.{A.-S.amansumian, 
AMAUNSE, I to excommunicate.) 
amonsi, J To interdict ; excom- 
municate; or accurse. 
Hii amansede tlio 
AUe thulke that rlerkes suche despyte dude 

and wo, 
Tiiat no man, bote the pope one, hem 
asoyley ne mygte. 

Bob. of Glouc., p. 464. 
With a penyles purs for to pleye, 
Lat scho can the pepul amaions. 

Relig. Antiq., i, 74. 
A-many, adj. Many people. 

A-many that I knewe 
Knighted in my remembrance, 1 beheld 
And all their names were in that Register. 
Peek's Honour of the Garter, 1593. 
Amar, v. To mar ; trouble. 
A-marstled, part, p. Amazed .' 
Hupe forth, Hubert, lioscde pye, 
Ichot tharl a-marstled into the mawe. 
Lyric Poetry, p. 1-11. 




Ahartre, v. To sacrifice ; make a 

martyr of. 
Amasedxesse, 8. Amazement. 
AMASEFULL.arf/. Frightened. Pals- 
A-MASKED, adj. To go a-masked, 
to wander or be bewildered. 
Amate, v. {A.-N.) To daunt ; to 

Upon the walls, the pagrans, old and young, 
Stood hush'd and still, nma/fii and amazM. 
Fairfax's Tasio, p. 248. 
Here the townsmen are atnated. 
That their spire should be translated 
Unto Pauls ; and great's their labour, 
How to purchase so much paper 
To enwrap it, as is fittius, 
To secure their spire from spli'tinsr. 

Drunken Bamaby. 

Amatorculist, 8. (from the Lat.) 

A wretched lover or galant. 
Amatyste, «. Amethyst. Minshen 
gives this form of the word, and it 
occasionally occurs in other writ- 
ers. Rider has the form amates. 
Amawst, adv. Almost. West. 
Amate, r. {A.-N. esmayer.) To 
Pors weneth that y am amaied. 
For his gwinris me han bytraied. 

K. Ailsaunier, 1, 7243. 

Ambage, 8. {Lat. ambages), pi. am- 
bagies. Circumlocution. It is used 
as a verb, apparently meaning to 
travel round, in the Morte d' Ar- 
thur, i, 135. 

Epigramma, in which evcrr mery con- 
ceited man might, without any long 
stndie or tedious ambage, make liis 
Trtnd sport, and anger his foe, and give 
a prettie nip, or shew a sharpe conceit 
in a few verses. 

Puttenham, Art ofPoesie, 1. i, ch. 27. 

We have now heard much of the abuses 
reigning in Aligna ; hut now setting 
aparte the ambagies, and superfluous 
vagaries, I pray you describe, &c. 

Slttbbes's Anatomy of Abuses, p. 43. 

Ambagious, adj. Tedious ; wan- 
dering from the purpose. 


am bass ate, 

111 VI 


i, J 

«. {A.-N.) An em- 

Ambassador, s. A game formerly 
played by sailors to duck a lands- 
man. "A large tub is filled with 
water, and two stools placed on 
each side of it ; over the whole is 
thrown a tarpaulin, or old sail; 
this is kept tight by two persons, 
who are to represent the king 
and queen of a foreign country, 
and are seated on the stools. 
The person intended to be ducked 
plays the ambassador, and after 
repeating a ridiculous speech dic- 
tated to him, is led in great form 
up to the tlirone, and seated 
between the king and queen, who 
rising suddenly as soon as he is 
seated, he falls backward into the 
tub of water." Grose. 

Ambassatrie, 8. {A.-N.) An em- 

Amber, v. To scent with amber- 
gris. See Ambergrise. 

Amber-cawdle, s. A preparation 
of ambergrease, of an aphrodisiac 
character. See Ambergrise. 

Yon may talk of your amber-cavdles, 
chocolate, and jelly -broths, but they are 
nothing comparable to youth and 
beauty ; a younz woman is the only 
provocative tor old Rfce, I say. 

Ravenscroft, Ixmdon Cuckoldt. 

Amber-days, «. The ember days. 

Ambergrise, "1 ». {Fr. amber 

AMBERGREASE, J ^ri>,literallygrey 
amber, from its colour and per- 
fume.) This substance was for- 
merly much used in wines, sauces, 
and perfumes. It was consi- 
dered also as an aphrodisiac. It 
was sometimes called merely 

'Tis well, be sure 

The wines be lusty, high, and full of spirit, 

And amber'd all. 

B. andFl., Cust. of Country, iii, 2. 

I had clean forgot ; we must have amier- 

Tile greyest can be found. O. PI., vii, 167. 

Milton has inverted the word : 
— Meats of noblest sort, &c., 
Oru-amber stcam'd. Par. Beg., ii, 841. 




Ambes-as, "1 s. (J.-N.) The low- 

AMES-ACE, Jest throw on the 

dice ; two aces ; figuratively, bad 

Ju'ias tlie emperour with strong power 

Two ^er aftur tlie bataile, to Engelond 

ajeyn drew. 
And tlioujte sle al that folk, and wynne 

tliis kyiidom, 
Ac he cast therof <z)ni«-<u tho he to londe 

com. Sob. Gloiic, p. 51. 

I had rather be in this choice, tlian 
throw ames-ace for my life. 

Shakesp., Mi's Well, ii, 6. 

Ambidexter, s. (Lat.) A kind of 
Vicar of Bray. "That juror that 
taketh of both parties for the 
giving of his verdict." Cowell. 

Ambigu, *. {Fr.) An entertainment 
in which all dishes are mixed to- 
gether, instead of regular courses. 

Ambilogv, s. (^Lat.) An equivocal 

Ambitionate, ad/. Ainbitious. This 
word is given by Minsheu, in his 
Guide into Tongues, 1627. 

Ambitude, s. {Lat.) The circum- 

Xmblere, s.{ J. -N. ambleure.) An 

Ambolife, adj. Oblique. 

And take gode kepe of this chapiter of 
arisinge ol celestiall bodyes, for ther 
trustetli wel that neither mone neither 
sterre in our ambolife orizont. 

Chaucer, ed. Irry, p. 445. 

Ambrose, «. {Lat.) Wild sage. 

^''mry^' 1 *-(^-^-)(l)Acup. 
alme4y, ^ J^oard, a pantry; any 

AUMBRY, I P'T '" T^'^^ "^- 

tuals are kept. 


Some slovens from sleeping no sooner 
be up, 

But hand is in aumbrie, and nose in the cnp. 
Tiisser, 1573. 
By that time he came thither, he had 
but three ofhislierringrsleft; for.bythe 
ivay, he fell into tlii; thievish hands of 
malcontents and of lauce-kni^hts, by 
whom he was not only robbed of all liis 
money, but was fain to redeem his life 
beside with the better part of his amiry 
«f baruished tishes. 

NiuheU Lenten Sl^ffe. 

(2) The almonry was sometimes 
so called, the alms being kept in 
an ambry. 

The place wherein this chapel and 
alms-house stand>rth was called the 
Elemosinary, or almonry, now corruptly 
the ambry, for that the alms of the 
Abbey were there distributed to the 
poor; and therein Islip, abbot of West- 
minster, erected the first press of book- 
printing that ever was in England, 
about the year of Christ l-tTl. 

SloKe's Surceij of London., g. {A.-N.) An ambling 

horse ; an ambler. 
Ambury s. {A.-S. ampre,a swollen 
vein.) A disease in horses' legs. 
Skinner. See Anberry. 
Ambuscado, ». {Span.) An ambus- 
Ambusion, 8. An abuse. 
Ambust, adj. {Lat.) Burnt. 
Ambynowre, *. An almoner. MS. 

of Ibthcent. 
Ame, \{\) v.{A.-N. aemer, aes- 
aime, J »ner, which represented 
the Lat. eesfimo.) To guess; to 
think ; to tell. 
Of men of armes bold the nurabre thei ame, 
A thousand and tuo hundred told of Cristen 
men bi name. Peter Latigtoft, p. 238. 
No mon upon mold mijt ayme the noumber, 
Al that real arav reken schold men never. 
^'ill. and the Werwolf, p. 58. 
Yes, wyth good handelyng, as I ayme, 
Even by and by, ye shall her reclaynie. 

Commune Secretary and Jalovcsye. 
(2) 8. {A.-S, (E]pm, breath, va- 
pour.) The spirit; breath. 
Elin that giern it soclite. 
And til ur note nu liavis it brohte, 
Seo delte it wislic als seo wdde. 
That allc this werde it is fultilde 
Of the ame, and of the smelle; 
I'orthi eg gode thar of to telle. 

Edinburgh MS. quoted by Boucher. 
Amee, *. {A.-N.) The herb ameos. 

Ameked, part. p. Pacified; lite- 

rally, made meek. 
Amel, *. {A.-N.) Enamel. 
Heav'ns richest diamonds, set in amel 
white. Fletch., Purple IH., x, 33. 

The ammell is so faire and fresh of hew. 
As to this day it seemeth to be new. 

An ouldfacioned love, by J. T., 169^ 




He seems a full student, for be is a 
great desirer of controversies ; he argues 
sharply, and cairies liis conclusion in his 
scalibiird, in the first refining of man- 
kind tins was the gold, his actions are 
his amniH, his allay (lor else you cannot 
work him perfectly), continual duties, 
lieavv and weary marches, lodgings 
as full of need as cold diseases. 

Overbury'i Characters. 

Jfeuer mine eies in pleasant Spring behold 

The azure flax, the c'lden marigold. 

The violet's purple, the sweet rose's 

The lillie's snowe, and pansey's various 

ammelt. Sylvester's Du Bartas. 

Amel-corn, s. {A.-S.) a kind of 
corn, " of a middle size betwixt 
wheat and bailie, unlike alto> 
gether unto winter wheat whereof 
we last spake, but of a sort and 
faeultie like unto spelt." Mark- 
ham's Countrey Farme, 1616. 
Gerard calls it the starch-corn, a 
species of spelt. 

AMELL.^rep. Between ; as " ameU 
one and two o'clock." Boucher 
gives the phrase amell-duirs, 
which signifies the passage be- 
tween two doors in a Cumber- 
land farm-house, built according 
to the old style. 

Amelyd, part. p. Enamelled. 

Amenage, v. {A.-N.) To manage; 
to direct by force. Spenser. 

Amenance, s. {A.-N.) Behaviour; 

Soone after did the brethren three advance. 
In brave aray, and goodly amenance. 

Spenser, F, Q., IV, iii, 5. 

And with grave speech and grateful 

Himself, his state, Uis spouse, to them 


fUtehtr's furp. Is., xi, 9. 

AMKNDABt.E, a(^. (perhaps for ame- 
nakle.) Pleasant. 

Am^nden, adv. A sort of oath, 
equivalent to a plague, or a more 
gross word now disused. "Where 
amenden ar yeaw a goen?" A 
Suffolk word. 

Amendment, «. Dutig or compost 

laid on land. Kent. 
Amends, *. (A.-N.) An addition 
put into the scaleof a balance, to 
make just weight. 
Amene, adj. {Lat. amtenus.) Plea- 
sant; consenting. 
Amenne, V. To amend. 

As we be wont, erbnrowe we crave. 
Your life to amenne Christ it save. 

Som. oj tht Rust, 7496. 

Amense, s. Amends. Skelton. 
Ament.s. {Lat. amentum.) A thong; 

a string. This word occurs in 

Cockeram's English Dictionarie, 

Amenuse, v. {A.-N. amenuser.) 

To diminish. 
The fame amenuse of so noble a knight. 

Bochas, f. 29. 
His mercy is surmountin^f of foyson, 
Ever enereaseth without amenusing. 

/*.,f. 67. 

Ameos,». (A.-N.) Theherbbishop's- 

Ameral. See Admiral. 
Amerawd, s. An emerald. 
Amerawdes, s. The hemorrhoids. 
Amerce, \ v. {A.-N. amercier.) 
AMERCY, J To punish with a pe- 
cuniary penalty ; to inflict a fine 
or forfeiture ; to punish, in gene- 
And thou'.'h ye mowe amerey hem, 
Lat mercy be taxour. Fiers PI., p. 119. 

But I'll amerce you with so strong a fine, 
Tliat you shall all repent. 

Romeo and Juliet, iii, 3. 

Amerciament, s. {A.-N.) An 
arbitrary mulct. 

To the archbishop belonged the amercia- 
meut of bloudshed, from such tyme as 
they oease to say alleluja ;it the church 
service, till the octaves of Easter. 

Lambarde's Peramb. of Kent. 

AiSERv:,adv.(A.N. ameir.) Fiercely. 
Dariadas, Daries brother, 
lie hadde y-slawe on and otliir. 
Tauryn and Hardas he slowe with spere. 
Willi sweord ryden he dud amere! 
In this strong fyghtyug cas, 
He mette with Dalmadas. 

Kyng ^Usuunder, 4127- 




Amereli.e, s. {A.-N.) An umhrella. 
Amerre, '\v.{A.-S.amyrran,amer- 
AMERE, J raw, to mar.) To mar; 
to spoil ; to destroy. 
Tlie wif liad tlie tale i-lierd 
Ami tlioughte well lo ben amered; 
And saide, " Sire, thou liast outrage 
To leve a pie in a kage !" 

Stuyn Sages, 1. 2266. 

He ran with a iVawe swerde 

To hys raamentrye, 
And all Iiys goddys ther he amerrede, 

With greet en\ye. Octorian, 1. 1307. 

Amers, s. Embers. Yorish. 
Amervaile,v. (A.'N.) To marvel; 
to be surprised. 

By meane whereof, the kynge's death 
was blowen into the citye, and after 
unto the eares of Cliilpericus, whereof 
he was not amenayUd, nor wolde to it 
geve ferme credence. Trevisa, i. 97. 

Ames-ace. See Ambes-as. 
Amese, v. {A.-N.) To calm. "Amese 

you," calm yourself. Townley 

Myst., p. 194. 
Amesse, s. The amice. 
Amet, *. (A.-S.) An ant. 

So thycke hii come, that the lond over al 

hii gonne fuUe, 
As thvcke as ameten crepeth in an amete 

hulie. Bob. Glouc, p. 296. 

Amethodical, adj. {Gr.) Without 
method; irregular 

Ametised, part. p. Destroyed. 

Ameve, v. (A.-S.) T.0 move. 

Amfractuous, adj. (Lat.) Full of 

Amias. The city of Amiens. 

Amice, "| s. (A.-N.) One of the 
AMITE, [sacerdotal vestments ; a 
AMMTs, [piece of fine linen, of an 
AMMASjJ oblong square form, 
which was formerly worn on the 
head until the priest arrived be- 
fore the altar, and then thrown 
back upon the shoulders. 

' [adv. Amidst. 


Amydon, 8. Fine wheat-flower 
steeped in water; tlien strained, 
and let stand until it settle at 

the bottom ; then drained of the 
water, and dried at the sun ; used 
for bread, or in broth, it is very 
nourishing ; also, starch made of 
Amidwaro, adv. (A.-S.) In the 

And amydward the place 
He mette with Nycolas. 

Kyng Alisamider, 1. 967. 

Amil, 8. Starch. 

Of wheate is made amyl, the making 

whereof Cato and Dioscorides teachetli. 

Googe's Uusbandrie, 1568. 

Amileo, part. p. (A.-N.) Ena- 

Amillier, *. (A.-N.) An almond- 

The hriddes in blossoms thei beeren wel 

On olyvcs, and amylliers, and al kynde cf 

The popejayes perken, and pruynen for 

On peren and pynappe! they joyken in 

pees. Fistill of Susan, St. 7. 

Aminish, v. (A.-N.) To diminish. 
Amire, v. (A.-N.) To assist; to 

remedy. Chaucer. 
Amis, v. (A.-N.) To miss; to fail. 

Amisse, g. A fault. ' 
1 wretch, too late, do sorrow my amis. 
Six Old Phifs, p. 17. 
Yet love, thou'rt blinder than tlivself iu 

To vex my dove-like friend for my amiss. 

Donne, Eleg., xiv, 29. 
He told the erring their amisse, and taught 
them to amend. 

Warner's Albion's England, 1592. 

Amission, s. (Lat.) Loss. 
Am IT, (1) See Amice. 

(2) V. To admit. 

(3) V. (Lat.) To lose. 
Amitte, v. (A.-N.) To set one's self 

to a thing. 
Amiture, s. (A.-N.) Friendship. 
Thow, he saide, traytonr, 
Yusturday thow come in amiture, 
Y-armed so on of myne, 
Me byhynde at my cliyne 
Smotest me with thy spere. 

Kyng Aiisaunder, 3675 




Ammat, « A luncheon, h est. 
Ammis. See Amice. 
Amner, s. An almoner. 
Amxicolist, s. (Lat.) One who 

dwells on the hanks of a river. 
Amnigenous, adj. {Lat.) Gene- 
rated in rivers. 
Amod, adv. Amid. Langtoft. 
Amond, «. (Fr.) An almond. Min- 

Amoneste, "1 ». {A.-N. amones- 
AMMONESTE, J ter.) To admonish. 
Amonestement, «. {A.' A'.) Advice ; 

Amonge, arfr. (y/.-5.) Amidst; at 
intervals. Ever amonge, from 
time to time, ever at inter\'als. 
Amonsi. See Amanse. 
Amoost, adv. Almost. West. 
Amorge, "Xadv. {A.-S.) On the 
amorege, j morrow. See y/morwe. 
Amorayle. See Admiral. 
Amorette, «. {A.-N.) (1) A love 

(2) A love-motto .> 
I'or not i-cladde in silke was he, 
But all in flouris and flonrettes, 
I'paintid all with amoretles. 

Bom. of the Rose, 8QZ. 

Ahorist, s. An amorous person ; 

a lover. 
fie! you look not like an amorist; ihnt 
face would fright lier. 

Carlell's Passionate Lovers, 1655. 
Consume your timorous cringing amorists, 
that would possess their hcav'n, but dare 
not bleed for't. 

Dutfey, Madam FicMe, 1676. 

Amoroso, s. {Hal.) A lover. 

JCo-body many times maketh the good 
man cnckhold, for though his wives 
amoroso have beene at home all day, 
yet if hee aske who hath beene there, 
she answereth suddenly, nobody, who 
should be here, I say againe, sweete 
hart, nobody. 
Rich Cabinet furnished icilh Varietie 
of Excellent Discriptions, 1616. 

Amort, atfr. {Fr.) Dejected; dead. 

See Alamort. 
Amortise, v. {A.-N.) (1 ) To amor- 

tise; to give property in mort- 

mtin. Piers PL 

(2) To kill, or deaden. 
But for als moche as the goode werkes 
that men don whil thay ben in good lif 
ben amortised by synne fohvyng, and 
eek sith that alle the goode werkes that 
men doon whiltliayben in dcdly synne, 
been outrely deede as for to have the lif 
perdurable. Chaucer, jfersones T. 

Amortisement, *. The act of com- 
mitting lands to mortmain. A 
longer explanation is given by 
Skinner, in his Etymologicon, 

Amorwe, "I „^^. (^..5.) On the 

AMOREWE, I ^ ' . .. _ 

' > morrow ; in the 

AMORGE, ( ' 



Wei jerne he wille the bidde and praie. 
That thou come amoretee and plaie. 

I'lorice and Blancheflonr. 

And thai thai ser>'ed him never so faire, 

Amorwen sohold another pair. lb. 

So suart so eni crowe amorwe is fot was. 

Rob. Gloiic, p. 490. 

Amounte, (1) V. {A.'N,) To 
amount to; to be. 
I/jrdyngs, quod he, ther is fnl many 
a nia'n that crieth werre, werre, that 
wot ful litel what werre amottnteth. 

Cltattcer, T. of itelibetts. 

{2) part. p. Smeared, An error 
of the scribe for anointe. 

And I will goe gaither slyche, 

The shippe for to caulke and pyche; 

Jmounte yt mnste be with sticlie, 

Borde, tree, and pynne. 

'Chester Plays, i, 47. 

Amountment, ». Reckoning. 

aR, 1 

JURE, >, 
)WRE, J 

Love ; a 

s. {A.-N.) 
. love affair. 


He luked up unto the toure, 
And merily sang he of amowre. 

Senjn Saffes, 2962. 

Amove, v. To move ; to move 
away from. 

Amper, s. {A-S. ampre, a swollen 
vein.) An inflamed swelling. 
East. A rising scab or sore, 
also a vein swelled with cor- 
rupted blood. Essex. A fault, a 
defect, a flaw ; a fault or flaw in 
linen or woollen cloth. In 
Somersetshire, a person covered 




with pimples is said to be ampery. 
Theword is applied in the Eastern 
Counties to signify weak, or un- 
healthy; in Sussex, to cheese 
beginning to decay ; and some- 
times to decayed teeth. An 
ampre-ang, a decayed tooth. 

Amphibological, adj. (Gr.) Am- 

Amphibologie, s. (Gr.) Ambi- 
guous language. Chaucer. 

Ample, (l) v. (supposed to be cor- 
rupted from amble.) To go. 

(2) adj. (Lat.) Liberal ; generous. 

(3) 8. {A.-N.) An ampulla, or 
vessel for ointment. SeeAmpulle. 
The fifth piiwn, that is set before the 
queen, sigiafieth the physician, spicer, 
and apothecary, and is formed in tlie 
figure of a man ; and he is set in the 
chair as a master, and holdeth in his 
right hand a book ; and an ample, or a 
box witli ointment, in his left iiand ; and 
at his girdle his instrumeuts of iron and 
of silver, for to make incisions, and to 
search wounds and hurts, and to cut 
apostumes. Caxton, Game of Chesse. 

Amplect, v. (Lat.) To embrace. 

Ampliate, v. (Lat.) To amplify. 

Ampoly. See Ampulle. 

Ampot, 8. A hamper. Shropsk. 

Amprey, adj. (A.-S.) Faulty ; de- 
fective ; spoiled ; decayed, applied 
to cheese, &c. Kent. Sussex. See 

Ampte, s. {A.-S. mmette.) An 

Ampulle, "j *. (A.-N.) A small 
AMPOLY, > vessel for holding oint- 
ample, J meat, holy-water, &c. 

X bolle and a bagge 

He bar by his s>de, 

Au hundred of ampalles 

On his liat seten. Piers PL, p. 109. 

Amsel, s. a blackbird. Var. dial. 
Amseuey, s. (a corrupt form.) A 

consistory court. 
Amty, \adj.{A.-S.cemH,(Bmtiff.) 

ampty, /Empty. 
Jmli/ place he made aboute, and folc fleii 
hym taste. Bob. Gluuc, p. 17- 

Amurce, s. (Lat. amurca.) Dregs 

or lees of oil. 
Amurcosity, s. The quality of 

having lees. 
Amuse, v. To amuse, according 
to the cant dictionaries, is to 
fling dust or snuff into the eyes of 
the person intended to be robbed. 
Amwast, adv. Almost. Northampt. 
Amwoast, adv. Almost. Wilts. 
Amy, s. (A.-N.) in the feminine 
amye, amie, ameye. One beloved ; 
a lover, or a mistiess ; a friend. 
He roidud the chaumbre of many uchon. 
For he saide, in that nyght, Ammou 
Scliolde come to theo lady, 
And beon hire leof amy. 

K. Alisanndtr, 1. 520. 
He askid what hire greved so ? 
Scheo saide heo was ameye 
To Ammon the god of pleve. 

'lb., 1. 376. 

An, (1) ». To have. Lane. 

Well Mr Cunstable, sed Justice, Whot 
an ye brought me neaw? Tim Bobbin. 

(2)». (A.-S., from innan,to dwell.) 

A dwelling; a house. 
Nou beth therinne that riche toure 
Four and twenty maidenes boure, 
So wele were that ilke man. 
That mijte wouuen in that an. 

Flor. and Blanchf. 

(3) One. North. 

(4) A. See A. 

(b) prep. (A.-S.) On. 

' (6) conj. Than. North and East. 
It is found in the Cursor Mundi, 
a poem written in a very broad 
Northern dialect; but there it 
has the form and, 
(7) If. 
(.8) And. 

(9) Of. Northampt. "I yerd 
nothing an it," I heard nothing 
of it. 

An.' What.' Whether? Devon. 

Anack, s. a provincial name for 
some kind of fine oaten bread. 
Also with this small meale, oatemeale, is 
made iu divers countries sixe Beverall 
kiiides of very good and wholesome 
bread, every one finer then other, as 
voiir anacks', janacks, and such like. 

Mdrkham't Engliih Hotue-vi/e, 1619, p. 24a 




Anadem, «. (Gr.) A chaplet; a 

Upon this joyfall day, some dainty chaplets 

twiue : 
Some others chosen out, with fingers neat 

and tine, 
Brave atiadevu doe make : some bauldricks 

up do bind : 
Some, garlands : and to some, the nosegaies 

were assign'd. 

Drayton's PolyoVnon, long 15. 

Anadesm, *. (Gr.) A band to tie 
up wounds. Minsheu. 

Anagnostian, s. {Gr.) "A curate 
that serveth onely to reade, 
or a Clarke or scolier that read- 
eth to a writer or his master." 

Anagogical, adj. {Gr.) Pertain- 
ing to the Scriptures. This word 
is given by Minsheu, in his Guide 
into Tongues, 1627. 

Anairmit, at//. Armed. Gawayne. 

Analem, s. (Gr.) An instrument 
for finding the course and eleva- 
tion of the sun. Minsheu. 

An-all, adv. Also. 

Anameld, ad/. Enamelled. 

Anamet, «. A luncheon. Hamps. 

Anamorphosis,*. (Gr.) A change 
of form. 

Anamourd, adj. Enamoured. 
— MSS. of Uth and \hth 

Anan, ado. (1) How.> What did 
you say ? It has been observed 
thatmtef unnan, in Anglo-Saxon, 
means " with permission " and 
unnan is, to yield as a favour; 
so that anan (more properly 
annan) seems to be an elliptic 
expression, like the French 
" Plait-il /" meaning " may I ask 
the favour of your saying it 
again ?" 

(2) A corruption of anon, imme- 

Ananger, v. To incense. 

And when the eraperoure harde tliis, 
he was greatly amoved, and sore «n- 
aagered. VirgiliM, ed. Thomt, p. 13. 

AnANTRES, ^ t /r 

adv. (from on or 

ANAUNTERS, . ^ , , 

in, and adven- 


L tnres.) In case 

ANANTER, f.. » ^ , .. ., ., 

' I that; lest that; 

ENANTER, r j . 

if; perad venture. 

INANTER, J ' *^ 

Anger iiould let him speak to the tree, 
Enaunter his raiie niiglit cooled be. 

Spenser's Shepherd's Calendar. 
For longe durst he nut abyde, 
Itiaunter if men well seyne, 
That he his sister hath lorleyne. 

Gower de Conf. jm., f. 48. 

Anapes, a. Cloth ; apparently some 
fine kind of fustian, which word 
is usually joined with it. 
His doolilet sleevez of black woorsted ; 
upon them a payr ot poviiels of taniiy 
cliumblet, laced along the wreast wyth 
blu threeden points; a wealt toward the 
liand of fustian anapes. 

Laneham's Account of the Queen's Enter- 
tainment at KillingKorth Castle. 
Vestis heteromalla lanea, crepd/xoAAo? 
€(r^. De tripe, de chamois velout6. 
A garment of fustion anapes, of vellure, 
of tuft mockado. Nomenclator, 1585. 

Anarwe, v. (A.-S.) To narrow, 
or constrain ; to render timid. 

He makith heom wavwith scharpelaunce. 
Thy men ananoith tLy continaunce. 

Kyug Alisaunder, 1. 3344S. 

Anathematism, s. {Gr.) A curse. 

In tlie primitive church though in their 
councils they were not backward to pass 
anatheniatisms on everything that they 
judged heresies, &c. 
Surtiefs Hist, of Reformation, fol., p. 23. 

Anatomy, *. A skeleton. 

Anauntrins, adv. Perhaps ; if so 
be. North. See Anantres. 

Anberry, Is. {A.-S. ampre.) (1) 
ANBURY, J A disease in turnips. 
It is a large excrescence, which, 
forming itself below the apple of 
the turnip, grows sometimes to 
the size of both the bands; and, as 
soon as the hard weather sets in, 
or it is, by its own nature, 
brought to maturity, it becomes 
putrid, and smells very offen- 

(2) Akindof spongy wart, full of 
blood, growing upon any part of 
a horse's body. 




Anblere, ». (for amblere.) An 
ambling nag. 

Tlie nieyr stod, as ye may here. 
And saw liyni come ride up anbltre. 

Launfal, 92. 

Anby, adv. Some time hence ; in 

the evening. Somerset. 
Ancar, ». A hermit. See Anchor. 
Anceande, adv. Anciently. 
For men may oppen and se tlini»li this kay, 
Wat lias been anceande, and sail be aye. 

Clatis Scientie, p. 3. 

Ancessour, s. An ancestor. 
Anchaisun, *. {A.-N.) Reason ; 

cause. See Encheson. 
Anchanteor, s. An enchanter. 
Anchilatiox, s. Frustration. 
Anchor, (1) s. An abbreviation of 

anchoret, a hermit. 
To desperation turn my trust and hope, 
An anchor's cheer in prison be my scope. 
Shakesp., Haml., in, 2. 

Sit seven yearcs pining in an anchor's 
cheyre. Hall, Sat., b. iv, s. 2. 

(2) ». A Dutch liquid measure, 
or cask, often used by smugglers 
to carry their brandy on horse- 
back. See the notes of the com- 
mentators on Merry Wives of 
Windsor, i, 3. See Anker. 

(3) V. To hold like an anchor. 

(4) 8. The chape of a buckle. 
North. It is also in use in Glou- 

Anchor-frost, ». Ice found far 
below the surface of the water in 
a running stream. Leicest. 

Anchobidge, 8. The porch of a 
church, particularly tliat belong- 
ing to the cathedral of Durham. 

Anchuse, «. {Lat.) The name of a 
plant ; ox-tongue. 

Ancian, adj. Aged. 

Ancient, \s. (1) {A.-N. ancien, 

auncient, J ancient.) An elder. 

(2) {Fr. ensiffne, an ensign, or 

banner.) The flag or ensign of a 

regiment or of a ship. 

I am appointed to figlit against a snail, 
Aud Wilkin Wren the ancient shall beare. 
UaKkins's 0. I'., i, 201. 

Ten times more dishononrably ragged 
than an old fac'd ancient. 

1 Henry If, iv, 3. 

Full of holes, like a shot ancient. 

The Puritan, i, 2. 

It was a spectacle extremely delightful 
to behold the jacks, the pendants, and 
the ancients sporting in the wind. 

Don Quixote, ed. 1687, p. 569. 

(3) The standard-bearer. 
Please vour grace, my ancient; 
A man )xe is of honesty and trust. 

Othello, i, 9. 

'Tis one lago, ancient to the general. 
/*., u, 4. 

Ancienty, Is. Antiquity. In 
auncienty, J writers of the 16th 
Ancille, s. (ia/.) A maid-servant. 

So fortunate, that I myhte of rihte 
Do trcwe servyce, as ancille ever in sihte. 
Lydt/ate's Minor I'oems, p. 37. 

Ancle-bone, s. A name given by 
sailors to the prickly lobster. 

Ancle-jacks, 5. Pieces of leather 
put round the ancle a little above 
the shoe, tying in front. Norfolk. 
In Derbyshire this name is ap- 
plied to a rough sort of shoes 
which tie above the ancle. 

Anglers, «. Ancles. Shropsh. 

Anclet, *. (1) The ancle. North. 
(2) A gaiter. 

Ancliff, 8. The ancle. North. 

Anclowe, 8. (A.-S. ancleow.) The 

Ancome, 1 8. (A.-S.) A small ul- 
ONcoME, V cerous swelling, form- 
UNCOME, J ed unexpectedly. See 

I have seen a little prick no bigger than 
a pin's he;id, swelling bigger and bigger, 
till it came to an ancome. 0. P., iv, 238. 

Ancony, 8. A term in the iron 
works for a bloom, wrought into 
the figure of a flat iron bar, 
about three feet in length, with 
a square rough knob on eadh end. 
Kennett. la Staffordshire one 


of these knobs is called the an- 
cony-end, the other the mocket- 
Ancre, 8. (A.-N.) An anchor. 

AnCRESSE, 1 (^_^^ ^ fg^jlg 

ANCREs, ^anchoret or hermit. 


And asking wliy slie must be kept a slave, 
Or liow she liatli deserv'd so strict a doome, 
To be so young put in her marble grave, 
(For whais a prison, but a living toombe?) 
Or forwliat cause she may no husband liave, 
But live an ancresse in so strict a roome, 
Knowing herselfe a piincesse ripe and 

Wrougd (as she thinkes) not to be 
married yet. 

Great Britaines Troye, 1609. 

Ancyle, s. a kind of javelin or 
dart, or the leather thong with 
which it is thrown. Phillips. 

And, conj. If. 

Ani- aw, conf. And all; as well; 
likewise. North. Somerset. 

Wi' crackin, and jnokin, and braggin, 
And fratchin, and feightin and aw ; 

Sec glorious fun and divarsion 
Was ne'er seen in castle or haw." 
Anderson's Cumberland BaHadt, p. 91. 

Ande, s. (said to he derived from 
the Danish.) Breath. See Aande. 

Thai rested than a litel stound, 
I'or to tak thair ande tham till. 

Ywaine and Gatcin, 3555. 

Andelono, adv. (A.-S.) Length- 

Andersmas, s. The mass or festi- 
val of St. Andrew. Ybrish. 

Andrrsmeat, s. An afternoon's 

Andesith, adv. {A.-S.) Previ- 

Andirons, I s. (A.-S.) The or- 

AUNDiRONS, >namental irons on 

aundeirys, J each side of the 

hearth in old houses, which were 

accompanied with small rests for 

the ends of the logs. 

Andulees, ». (Fr. andouilles.) 
Puddings made of hog's guts and 

. spice. 

Anocr, conj. {Dan.) Either. 

70 ANE 

ANDYRS, \,pron. (A.-S.) Other. 


As I me went this andj/rs day, 
Fast on my way makvng my raone, 

In a mery mornyng of May, 
Be Huntley bankes nwself alone. 

Ballad of True Thomat. 

Ane, (1) s. {A.-S.) The beard of 
corn. See Aane. 
Flaxen wheate hath a yelow eare and 
bare without anys. Polard whete liatli 
no anis. White whete hath ant/s. Red 
wheate hath a flat eare ful of anis. 
English wheate liath few any or none. 
ntzherherCs Uushandry, t. 20. 

(2) adj. {A.-S.) One. 

That es made als a quarner stane. 
For to make tuin folk is aue. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. 

Cokwold no man I W7II repreve. 

For I ame ane, and aske no leve. 

For all my rent and londys. 

Cotwold's Daunce. 

(3) adv. Alone. " Bi hyme ane," 
by himself alone. 

(4) A. 

Alas! thou seli Fraunce, for the may 

thunche shonie. 
That ane fewe fullaris maketh ou so tome. 
Political Songs, p. 194. 

(5) adj. Own. North. 

(6) V. To aim at. Somerset. 

(7) prep. On. 

(8) V. To dwell. MS. of 15/A 

AvEAOvsT, prep. Near to; almost. 

Anear, (l)^rep. Near. Somerset, 

(2) V. {A.-S.) To approach. 
Anearst, \prep. {A.-S.) Near. 

ANEAST, J Exmoor. 
Aneatb, prep. Beneath. North. 
Anebak, adv. Aback. Gawayne. 
Anede, part. p. of anne, to unite. 

United ; made one. 
Anedel, *. {A.-S.) One part. 

Tlo he the stcde was opon, 
He gave anedel of his fon. 

Jrlliour and Merlin, 1. 4023. 

Ane-end, 1 adv. {A.-S.) On one 
ANiND, l^end ; upriglit; rearing 
AMNEND, J applied to afour-footed 




animal ; perpetually, evermore, in 
Cheshire. Aneend is used simply 
for on end, in Northampt. 
Anehede, s. {A.-S.) Unity. 
. Anelace, "] s. {Med. Lai. ane- 
ANLACE, > lacius.) A kind of 
ANLAS, J knife or dagger, worn 
at the girdle. 
An anlas and a gipser al of silk 
Heng at his gerdul, wliit as niorne mylk. 
Chaucer, Cant. T.,?,h^. 

Anelave, V. To gape. 
Anele, 1 V. {A.-S. an and ele, 
enele, y oil.) To anoint, or give 
anoyle, J extreme unction. 
Cristendora, and bissclioppynge, 
Peiiauns, and eke spousinge, 
Codes body ine forme of bred, 
Ordre, and aneliiiiffe, 

Tlies scvene 
Hetli lioli c}ierclie sacremens, 
Tliat beth tokcnen of hevene. 

iniliam de Shoreham. 
So when he was houseled and aneled, 
and had all t)iat a Christian man ought 
to liave. Mart d' Arthur, p. iii, c. 175. 
The extreme unction or arulynge, and 
confirmacion, lie sayed be no sacra- 
ments of the churcli. 

Sir Thos. Mare's Works, p. 345. 
The byshop sendeth it to the curates> 
because they sliould therwith antioynt 
t)ie si(-k, iu the sacrament oi anoylmq. 
Ih., p.431. 
Also cliildren were christen'd, and men 
liouseld and anuoylfd thorou<;li all the 
land. Holinsh., vol. ii, u. 6. 

(2) {AS. arKslan.) To temper 
in the fire. 

(3) {A.-S. neal(Bcean.) To ap- 

Bothe w^th bullez and berez, and borez 

And etaynez.that hym aneUde, of the he^e 

felle. Stjr Guicayne, p. 28. 

Anelixg, g. (1) One that brings 
forth one young at a time. 
Their ewes also are so full of increase, 
that some dos usuallie bring foorth two, 
three, or foure lambes at once, whereby 
they account our unelings, which we 
Bucii as bring foorth but one at once, 
rather barren than to be kept for anie 
gaine. Harrison's Detc. of Brit., p. 42. 

(2) The sacrament of anointing. 
See Aneh (1). 

Anely,! a<^*. {A.-S. anlic, anlic.) 
AXLY, J Alone ; solitary. Ane- 
lynes, solitariness. 

Anemas, 1 conj. (supposed to be 
anemis, J derived from the Scan- 
dinavian dialects.) Lest; for fear; 
as, " shut that window anemas 
it should rain ;" " spar the door 
anemis he come," shut the door 
lest he come in. Norfolk. It 
appears to be now obsolete. 

An-end, adv. Onwards ; towards 
the end ; " to go an-end," to go 
forward ; " to go right an-end," 
i. e., to go straight forward. 

Anens, «. Chains or fetters. 

Now er his anens wrouht of silvere wele 

over gilt ; 
Davet that therof rouht, liis was alle the 

gUt. Peter Lanytoft, p. X67. 

Anempst, '^ prep. Against ; over 

anenst, I against ; opposite to. 

ANENT, y (In a secondary sense) 

ANENTis, I concerning ; with re- 

ANENDS, J spect to. In the MS. 

Household Book of Henry Lord 

Clifford, 1510, there is mention 

made of an action " anends the 

dean of York." 

And wee humbly beseech your higlines 
wee may knowe your Graces pleasure 
liowe wee shall order ourselves anempst 
your graces sayd cytie and castell, for 
our discharge. Slate Papers, ii, 204. 

And right anenst him a dog snarling-rr. 

B. Jon., Alchem., act ii. 

The king shall sitt anempst hyra, face to 
face, in a chair prepared as to his 
high estate accordetli. 

Rutland Papers, p. 14. 

As it was borne towards the place, 
when the bearers came aneynst the- 
sepulchre of her husband, king Malcolm, 
they were not able to remove the re- 
lykes any further. 
Uolinshed, Hist, of Scot. ; Alexander, 287. 

Foure times the brazen horse, entring, 

stuck fast 
Anenst the ruin'd guirdle of the towne. 

Heyicood's Troja Britannica, p. 394. 

Anenst tiiis partition there was greecet 
and stayres, down to the place of toiuU' 
age, for messengers, &c. 

LeUuuFtQM. t,3S7. 




Of thai donn-cast we may hi chaunce 
Anent this world get coveraunce. 

Cursor Mundi,MS. Cantab., f. 141. 

ANEOUST.jarep. Near; almost. Var. 

Anerde, v. {A.-S.) To adhere; 

dwell with. 
Anerre, v. {A.-S.) To draw near 

to ; to approach. 
Anerthe, adv. On the earth. To 

briny anerthe, to bury, to inter. 
So tliat it was thoru Lyre wyth gret 

honour y-bore 
To the housof Waltam, and y-hro'it. anerthe 
there. Rob. Gloucest., p. 364. 

Anes, (1) adv. Once. 

His lierber lier anes gan he ta, 
Tliiit was bcginyng of our wa. 

I'watne and Gaioin, 1. 3015. 

At anes, at once. 

Both patriark and prophete. 
All thanked tliei God at anes. 


(2) adj. Just like; similar to. 
Anes-to, almost, except. So- 
Anes-kixes, "1 arf». (A.-S.) Any 
ANis-KiNES, J kind of; any. 

Withouten anis-Jdnes duelling, 
Sche gan Gregori to tlirete. 

Leg. of Pups Gregory, p. 26. 

Anesal, v. To nestle (?J. A term 
in hawking. 

Then, wlien he is well reclemyd thertoo, 
anesal hym to a nialard, and when he is 
niude unto a malard, lete oon have a 
tame nialard, 8tc. Reliq. Antiq., i, 299. 

Anet, 8. (A.-N.) The herb dill. 
Anethe, \adv.(A.-S.) Scarcely, 

anethys, / See Unnethe, 
Anethere, v. {A.-S.) To depress. 

Rob. Glouc. 
Aneust, adv. (A.-S.) Much the 

Anew. adv. Enough. Var. dial. 
Anewe, v. To renew. 
Anewst, prep. Nigh ; almost. 

Aney, adv. Enough. 
Aneyment, «. (A.-N.) A plague; 

an injury. 

And that thynge hys ase ich seyde her, 

Tho ich her-an gan worche,. 
The holy joynynge of Grod self 
And or al holy cherclie, 

In tome, 
Of spouhoth thys aneyment 
Louketh jou "tor hordome. 

jrUliam de Shoreham, 

Aneys, s. (A.-N.) Aniseed. 
Anfald, adj. (A.-S. anfeald, one- 
fold.) Simple; single; one. 
Fader and Sun and Haligast, 
That anfald God es ay stedfast. 

Cursor Mundi, 3IS. Edinb. 
Anfald Godd I call on thee, 
Laverd loved in tiinit6, 
To the niak I mi bon. 

MS. Cott., Fesp., Aiii,f.l42. 

Anfeldtyhde, (A.-S.) A simple 

accusation. Skinner. 
Anfeei.d, "I *. (A.-S. anfilt.) An 

anfield, J anvil. 
By this had Vulcan hammered his heate, 

and bad to stay 
The bellowes; and he lymping from the 
anfeeld thus did say. 

Warner's Albion's England, 15921. 

Anfractuous, adj. (Lat.) Wind- 
ing; crooked. 

Anfractuosities, s. (from Lat. 
anfractus.) Mazy and involved 
turnings and windings. 
Which arteries, taking their rise 
from the left capsula of the heart, 
bringing through several circuits, am- 
bages, and anfractuosities, the vital 
spirits, to subtilize and retine them to 
the eetherial purity of animal spirits. 

Rabelais, iii, 22. 

Ano, 8. The hairy part of an ear of 
barley. North. 


Angel, s. (\) A gold coin worth 
from about six shillings and 
eightpence to ten shillings. This 
word was frequently punned 

You follow the young prince up and 
down like his ill-angel. 
Not so, my lord ; your ill angel is light ; 
but I hope he that looks on me will 
take me without weighing. illen.IV, i, 2. 

It appears from the following 
epigram, that a lawyer's fee was 
only an angel: 




Upon Anne's Marriaije icilh a Lawyer : 
Anne is an angel, what if so slie be? 
What is an aac/el but a law yer's fee ? 

tFits Recreation. 

(2) Anangularopening in a build- 
ing. Willis's Architectural No- 
menclature, p. 52. 
Angel-bea ST, s. A game at cards. 

Tliis gentleman offering to play at 
anf)el-heast with 'um, though he scarce 
know the cards, and has no more visible 
estate then what he may lose at a 

Smiley, The Mulberry Garden, 1668. 

Angel-bed, s. A kind of open bed, 
without bed-posts. Phillips. 

Angel-bread, *. A purgative cake, 
made of spurge, ginger, flour, 
oatmeal, &c. 

Angelica, s. A species of master- 

Angelical- STONE, «. An alche- 
mical stone. Angelical-water, a 
sort of perfume. 

Angellize, v. To raise to be an 

Illuding Satlinn cannot shine so bright, 
Though ant/elliz'd. 

Sylvester's Du Bartas, p 161. 

Angelot. (1) A small cheese 
brought from Normandy. See 
Holme's Academy of Armory, 
Sfc, h. iii, p. HI, which he says 
is curds made of milk, cream, 
and rennet, made into thin 

Your anf/elots of Brie, 
Your Marsoliiii, and Parmasan of Lodi. 
The Wits, iv, 1. 

How to make an anfiellet. — Take a pint 
of cream, and double the quantity of 
milk, putting to them a small quantity 
of runnet, and when it thickens, take it 
up with a spoon, and put it into a fat, 
there let it continue till it is very stiff, 
then salt it ; and when it is so, let it dry, 
and at the end of three months eat it. 
The Closet of Uunties, 1706. 

(2) A gold coin of the value of 
half an angel. 
Angel's-pood, 8. Apparently a 
term for heavy ale. Harri- 

son's Description of England, 

p. 202. 

Anger, (1) s. (A.-S.) Sorrow. 

"Angyr or angwysshe, angor, an- 

gustia, tribulacio." Promp. Parv. 

And 8obret6 ^eveth lieere swete dryoke 

And solaceth heere in alle anf/res. 

Piers PI., p. 271. 
And I sal lane to yow my ring, 
Tliat es to me a ful der thing : 
In nane anger sal ye be, 
Whils ye it have and thinkes on me. 
Iivaine and Gawin, 1. 1529. 

(2) An inflammation. 

(3) V. To anger. A provincial 
use of the word, but employed 
also as a verb by Shakespeare. 

Angerfull, adj. Enraged. 

it calls him pitifull. 

Repentant, jealous, fierce, and angfrfuU. 
Sylvester's Du Bartas, p. 115. 

Angerich, adv. Angrily. 

And angerich I wandrede 
The Austyus to prove. 

Piers PL, p. 466. 

Angkrly, adj. Angrily. Shakesp. 
Angild, s. {A.-S.) a fine. Skinner. 
Angine, s. (Fr.) The quinsey. 

[He] knew the cold cramp, th* angine, and 
lunacy. Sylvester, 2>u Bartas, p. 83. 

Angle, s. (A.-N.) (1) A corner. 
(2) An astrological term. 

Angle-berry,*. A sore under the 
claw or hoofof an animal. North. 
See Anberry. 

Angle-bowing. A method of fenc- 
ing the grounds wherein sheep 
are kept by fixing rods hke bows 
with both ends in the ground, or 
in a dead hedge, where they make 
angles with each other. Devon. 

Angledog, s. a large earthworm. 

Angle-legs, s. Bent legs. 

This heard, sir, play stil in her eyes. 

And be a dying, lives, like flyes 

Caught by their angle-legs, and whom 

The torch laughs peecc-meale to consume. 
Lovelactfs Lucasle, 1649. 

Angle-twitch I s. (from Fr. 
angle-twache, Kanguille, an 
angle-touch, J eel.) An earth- 




worm. They are mentioned as 
being troublesome to sick hawks 
by Lady Juliana Berners, and 
called uru/uelles., *. One who begs in the 
daytime, observing what he can 
steal at night. A cant word. 

Anglet, 8. {fr.) A little corner. 

Angnail, *. A coru on the toe. 
Cumberl. See Agnail. 

Angober, s. A sort of large and 
long pear. Diet. Rust. 

Angoras, s. An anchorite. 

AxGROME, V. {A.-S., from an and 
gremian.) To grieve ; to torment. 

Angry, adj. Painful ; inflamed ; 

Angry-boys, s. A set of wild young 
men who delighted to commit out- 
rages, and pick up quarrels. They 
are often mentioned by the dra- 
matists of the time of James I. 

Sir, not so yonng, but 1 have beard some 

Of the angry hoys, and seen 'em take 

tobacco. Ben Jon., Mchem., iii, 4. 

Get thee another nose, that will be puU'd 
Off by the angry boys, for thy conversion. 
B. f F., Hcontf. Lady, iv, 1. 

This is no angry, nor no roaring boy, but a 
blustering boy. 

Green's Tu. Qu., 0. FL, ^ii, 25. 

Angry-water. A liquid of an in- 
flammatory nature arising from a 
sore, as in blisters from chafing, 
the skin not being broke. I^o?-- 

Anguelle,». (Fr.) A kind of worm, 
mentioned by early writers, as 
being troublesome to sick hawks. 

Anguishous, \ adj. (A.-N.) In 
ANGUisous, j anguish ; in pain. 

I was bothe anguishous and trouble, 
I'or the perill that I sawe double. 

Rom. of the Ruse, 1755. 

And fortherover, contricioun schulde be 
M'ounder sorwful and anguisschf/us, and 
therfore givitli him God pleiiily liis 
mercy. Chaucer, Fersones T. 

Anguyously, adv. {A.-N.) Pain- 

My wordcs to here, 
That bought liyiii uere, 
On crosse angvyously. 

New ^otborune Mayd. 
Angusse, s. Anguish. 

ANHANGE, 1 / V ox rp 1 

' )■ V. (A.-S.) To hang. 


I-nome for theofthe and i-demd 
Anhonge lii were there. — 
And anhonge on the rode 
As thu were Jhesu also. 

MS. Harl, 2277, f. 14. 
O, swete levedy, wat the was wo, 

Tho thy f liyld was anhonge, 
I-taclied to the harde tre 
Wyth nayles gret and longe. 

jr. de blu/reham. 

Anhanse, "1 V. (A.-S.) To raise; 
ANHANSY, ^to cxalt ; to ad- 
ANHAUNSE, J vancc. 

Hye nou to unhansy us alle, and y nelle 
no;t be byhynde. Rob. Glouc., p. 198. 

' i adv. On high : aloud. 
AN-HEIJE, J ° ' 

Tlier stont up a jeoluraen, jejeth with a 

Ant hat out an-hek that al the hyrt herde. 
Fol. Soiigs, p. 158. 
And told Iiem this vilanie, 
And seyd lie wold lioiii un-heighe. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 88. 

Anhitte, v. (A.-S.) To hit; to 

Tlio kyng Arture ajen Ihe brest ys felawe 
vorst anhytte. Rob. Glouc., p. 185. 

An-hond, adv. In band, >. e., ia 
his power. 

Me to wreken ye schnl go 
Of a treytour thai is mi to, 
Tliiit 18 y-conie up mi loiul, 
Wer he Iheuketh to biiiij; me an-hond. 
Gy of IrarKike, p. 43. 

Anhove, v. (A.-S.) To hover. 

.\niente, ». (A.-N.) To destroy; 
to annihilate. 
Tliat wikkedliclie and wilfulliche 
AVolde mercy anience. 

Fiers Fl., p. 365. 
An-if, conj. If. 
AtiiGa, prep. Near. Shropsh. 
Anight, adv. In the night. 
Tristrem to Ysoude wan. 
Anight with hir to play. 

Sir Tristrem, p. 239U 




Anile, adj. (Lat. anilis.) Imbecile 
from old age. 

Animable, adj. (Lat.) That may 
be endowed with life. 

Animate, adj. {Lat. animatus.) En- 

I am animate to importntie your poode 
lordship with moste )iiirty desyres to 
contynue my goode lorde in ausrmenting 
the kinges goodc pstiniiicion of me. 

Monastic Letters, p. 141. 

Anime s. a white gum or resin 
brought out of the West Indies. 

Animosite, s. {Lat.) Bravery. 

Anind, adv. On end; upright. 
" Mr. Jones's hos reared anind, 
bout uprit." A Shropshire word. 
Moor gives it as a Suffolk word. 

Anious, adj. (A.-N.) Wearisome ; 

An-ired, adj. {A.-N.) Angry. 

He saiih Richard an-ired, and ])is mykelle 
myglit. Peter Langtoft, p. 151. 

Anjurdogs, s. Kitchen utensils 
for the spit to run on. /. of 

Anker, s. A measure of liquid. 
See Anchor. 

We'll drink it out of the anker, my boys. 
The Barley-Slow Sony, n. d. 

Anker, s. (A.-S.) An anchoret ; a 

hermit. See Anchor, 
Ankeras, ». A female hermit. See 

Ankley, s. An ankle. West Sussex. 

See Anclow. 

I Alone ; single. 



He stod, and totede in at a bord, 
Her he spak anilepi word 

Hateloi, 2107. 
Ane es fornicacion, a flesch16 synne 
Betwene an anelepy man and an anelepy 
woman. MS. Uarl., 1023, f. 73. 

On ich half thai smiten him to, 
And he ogain to hem also; 
Never no was anlemj knight, 
That 80 mani stonu might. 


Gy 0/ rar«!t/t«, p. 189. ' 

That hy ne take hiis for no man, 
Bote onelepy sythe. 

William de Shorehan,, 

Anlas. See Anelace. 
Anlet, s. An annulet ; a small 
ring; a tag, or piece of metal 
attached to the end of laces or 
points. Yorksh. 
Anleth, s. {A.-S. anwlit, andwlit.) 
The face ; the countenance- 
To the mi hert saide the soght face mine, 
I sal seke laverd to face thine ; 
Ne turne thine anleth me fra, 
Ne helde in wrath fra thi hiiie swa. 

MS. Colt., resp., D vii, f. 16 b. 

Anlicne, v. (A.-S.) To liken ; to 

Thuer^'ore hi byeth anlicned to the tayle 
of the voxe, be hare barat, and vor hare 
bezuykinge. MS. Jnindel, 57, f. 17 b. 

}s. (A.-S., anlicnes.) 
An image; a re- 

Tlierefter wendeth onto ure lavedi an- 
licnesse and cneolith mit five Avees; 
alast to the other imaigcs and to the 
relikes luteth other cneoleth. 

MS. Cott., Cleopatra, C vi, f. 9. 

Anly, adj. {A.-S.) Solitary. See 

Anlifen, s. {A.-S.) Livelihood; 
substance. Verstegan. 

Anlote, v. {A.-S.) To pay a share 
of charges, according to the cus- 
tom of the place. Minsheu. 

Annamelyd, ;»ar/.p. Enamelled, 

For the wyche thyng schynis of dyverat 

Schynand full bryght of fyn gold, 
Tliey hongyd full t hycke on vlke a party. 
An annamelyd wonder rycliely. 

fundale, p. 64. 

Annary, s. {Med. Lat. annarius.) 
A yearly description. Fuller. 

V. {A.-S. unnan, annanJ)' 
(1) To give ; to yield ; to 

Bohant that was thare. 
To Mark his tale bigan; 

"Wist ye what Tristrem ware, , 
Miche gode ye wold him an; 

Your owhen soster him bare." 

Sir Tristrem, f. i, st. 7i 







Icli unite hire wel, ant heo me wo, 
Ycham Lire frcnd, ant heo my fo, 
Me thuncheth min licrte »ol breke atwo, 
For sorewe ant syke. 

Zvnc Poeiry, p. 40. 
Ich an wel! cwath tlie ni^tingale, 
Ah, wraniie, nawt for thire tale. 

Rule and HyltingaU, 1. 1728: 

(2) To wish well to, 

Tristram speke bio;an, 
" Sir king, God loke the, 

As y the love and an. 
And thou hast served to me." 

Sir Tristrem. f. i, st. 77- 

Anne, pron. One. The objective 

case of an. 
Anneal, v. (J.-S.) (1) To heat 
. anything in such a manner as to 
give it a proper temper. This 
word is chiefly used by the 
blowers and workers in glass. 
" He that doth aneale pottes or 
other vessels, inustor." Buret's 
Alvearie, 1580. 

Item, a myter for a bishop at St. Nicholas 
tide, garnyslied with sylver, and anelyd 
with perle, and counterfeyt stone. 

Churchwardaia' Accompts, p. 114. 

(2) To anoint. See Anele. 

NNENTISE, L. \ -r u- 

>ter.) Toannihi- 

ANNENTISSCHE, | , . ' . j . 

J late ; to destroy. 
The whiche thre thinges ye have nought 
annentissched or destroyed, neyther in 
youre self ne in youre counseilourcs, as 
ye oughte. Chaucer, 2\ of Melibeus. 

Annet, «. {A.-N.) The common 

gull. Nort/mmb. 
Annett, «. First-fruits ? 

The touching the workes 
to be tjiken in hand, uoe niunicion to 
be lookt for. with some occui-ances of 
the £nglish and Spanish fleets ; for the 
cominw up of Cnpt. Case, and touching 
Sir John Selby'g meadow, I'ownsdale's 
annett. Jrclueologia, xxx, 169. 

Annexment, ». Anything annexed, 

or subjoined. 
ANNiHiLED,j»ar^p. Destroyed. 
Wliich els had been long since annihiled. 
With all other living things beside. 

Loves Owle, 1595. 

Anniverse, «. (Fr.) An anniver- 

■ Shall an annivirse 

Be kept with ostentation to reherse 
A mortal princes birth-day. 
Contemplations Moral and Divine, 1676. 


"1 ». (^.-a: 

1, f ance. 

) An annoy- 

Kor Helen's rape the city to destroy, 
Threat'niug cloud-kissing Ilion with annot/. 
Shak., Rape of Lucrece, p. 551. 

When his fair flocks he fed ui)on the downs. 
The poorest shepherd suffered not annoy. 
Drayt., Eel., 6, p. 1414. 

How many ills do follow one annoy f 
Kow merrily sail our g.'illant Gicekes to 
Troy. Ped^s Farewell, 1589. 

Ther nys lyves mon noon so slygh 
That he neo tholeth ofte nioiiy annye. 

Alisaunder, \. 10. 

Anoyful, adj. Hurtful; annoying. 
.\noiing, s. Harm. 

No might do with hir wicheing 

In Inglond non anoiing. 

Artliour and Merlin, p. 166. 

Anoious, adj. Fatiguing; weari- 
some; unpleasant. 

When driven with wordlie winds, bis 
anoious business waxetli without mea- 
Btue. Chaucer's Boethius, 360. 

Annote, 8. A note. 

In annote is hire nome, nempneth hit non 

Whose ryht redeth ronne to Johon. 

Lyric Poetry, p. 26. 

Annuary, ac^. {Lat.) Annual. 

Annueler. a priest employed 
for the purpose of singing anni- 
versary masses for the dead. It 
is spelt annivolor in Skellon, ii, 

In Londoun was a prest, an annueler. 
That therin dwelled hadde manv a ver. 

Chaucer, Cant.'T., 12940. 

Annunciate, adj. (Lot.) Foretold. 

Lo Sampson, whiche that was annunciate 
By thaugel, long cr his nativite. 

Chaucer, Cant. T., 15501. 

Anny, adv. Only. Northampt. 
Annyle, 8. Anise seed. Huloel. 
Ano, conj. Also. North. 
Anoder, adj. Another. "A pyx of 

svlver, anoder of laten." Invent,, 

MS. Ibth cent. 
Anoyle, v. To anoint. See Anele. 




Tlie bjrsliop sendetn it to the curates, 
because tliey should tlienvith aiinoynt 
the sic-k in the sacrament of anoyUng. 
Sir Thomas More's Workes, p. 431. 

Anoynte, v. To flatter ; to deceive. 
A figurative sense, as we should 
say to grease a person. " I anoynte, 
Palsgrave, verb. 

Anointed, adj. Chief; principal. 
"An anointed scamp." West. 

Anoisaunce, «. A nuisance. 

A'SOLK, adv. Too; also. Yorksh, 

Anomination, «. (i-a^.) An opinion 
contrary to law. 

He that adornes his wliole oration with 
no otlier trope but a sweet subjection or 
an anorni nation, may be tliouglit a trim 
mail in tlie ears of tlie multitude, but in 
the judgement of the elegant orators, he 
shall be known as rude in his art of 
rhctorick. as t!ie butcher that scalded 
the calfe was in his craft of butchei-y. 

Jiril. Bibl., ii, 441. 

Anomy, s. (Gr.) Lawlessness. 
Anon, adv. (1) What do you say.' 
Yorksh. See Anan. 

(2) Instantly ; immediately. 

Now surely, brother, said the fox anon. 

Mother Uubberd's Tale, f. vi. 

All which shall appere anon. 

Lambarde's Peramb. of Kent, p. 108. 

(3) Onwards. 

Tlie kyn^ of Northnmberlonde kyng was, 

icli iinderstonde. 
Of a! tho londe bijonde Hombre anon into 

Scotlonde. Sob. of Glouc, p. 6. 

(4) Anon, sir, is equivalent to 
the modern " coming, sir," the 
phrase used by waiters in inns. 
An uiider-skinker, who never spake 
other English in his life, than— anon, 
anon, sir. 1 Henry IV, ii, 7. 

Anonder, adv. (A.-S.) Under. 

Ten schvprnen to londe yede 
Tose the yie yn lengtlie and hrede, 
And fette water as hem was node 
The roche anondtjr. 

Oclovian Imperator, 1. 550. 

Anone. \adv. At one time; in 

ANONEN, J the first place. 
An ONER, adv. Under. North. 

Anonriohtes, "1 adv. (A.-S.) Inr 
ANANRiHT, J mediately. 

Efter evesongr anonriht sisrgetU ower 
placebo everiche niht liwon je beoth 
eise. MS. Cott., Nero, A xiv, f. 5. 

Scheo hette marchal and knyghtis 
Greythen heom to ryde anonryghtis. 

K. Alisannder, 1. 17a 
He liadde in toun v. hundred knightes. 
He hem ofsent anonrightes. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 88. 

Anont, j?re/>. Against; opposite. 

Anonxcion, 8. (for anunction.) 

Anointing. Hardyng. 
Anonywab, adv. At unawares. 

Tho the Brytons come myd the prisons 

The Romeyns come aten hem al anonywar. 
Rob. Glouc, p. 213. 

Anoth, adv. Enough. 

Anoth, dameseile ! quath Blauncheflonr, 
To scorne me is litcl honour. 

I'lorice and Blauncheffl. 

Another, adv. (A.-S.) Otherwise ; 

Al that therinne were, 

Al thai made glade chere, 

And ete and d'ronke echon wij other, 

Ac Florice thoujte al another; 

Ete ne drinkc mijte he noujt ; 

On Blauncheflonr was al his thoujt. 

Florice and Slaunchefl. 

Me je, qnath the kyng, tho another we 

ssolde do. 
That he ath y-nome wyth treson we ssolde 

with raaystrie. ICob. of Glouc, p. 447. 

Another-gaines, adv. Another 

sort of. 
Another-gates, adv. (A.-S.) A 

diflferent kind; another sort. 


And his bringing up another-gates mar- 
riage than such a minion. 

Lyly's Mother Bombie, act 1. 

When Hudibras, about to enter 
Upon another-gates adventure. 
To Ralpho call'd aloud to arm, 
Kot dreaming of apiiroaehing storm. 
Hudibras, I, iii, 428. 

Another-guess, adv. Another 
sort of. A word in common use 




in the latter half of the 17th 

H' as been a student in the Temple this 
three years, anolher-ghess fellow than 
tliis, I assure vou. 

Diirfey, Madam Fickle, 1682. 

AjfOUGH, adv. Enough. West. 

Thai wende have joie anough, 

Certes it nas nought so, 
Her waning was al wough, 

Untroveand til hem to. ' 

Sir Tristrem, F. II, st. Ivi. 

Anour, *. {A.-N. anor.) Honour. 

After him thon best emperour, 
God hath the don gret anour. 

Gy of Warvoicke, p. 149. 

Anoure, V. {A.-N. anorer.) To 

Thou ne anourest najt Grod aryjt, 

Ac dest is onderlynges. 
Bylef thou in no wychecraft, 

Ne ine none teliinge. 

William de Shoreham. 

Anourement, "1 s. {A.-N.) 

I am tormentide with this blew fyre on 
my hede, for my lecherouse anottrement 
of myne heere, ande other array ther 
one. Geaia Romanarum, p. 431. 

Anottrne, V, (A.-N.) To adorn. 
Axow, adv. Enough. Wesi. 

He kest the bor doun hawes anmoe. 
And com himself doun bi a bowe. 

Seriyn Saget, 921. 

Anoward, adv. Upward ; upon. 
Hearne explains it, "thorough, 

And anoward his rug fur y-maked. 
And doth from jere to tere. 

MS. Harl., 2277, f. 47. 
The hors hem lay anoward. 
That hem thought chaunce hard. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 123. 

Anoyle, ». To anoint. 
Anoymentis, s. The translation of 
limates in an early gloss., in Reliq. 
Antiq., i, 8. 
Anoyntment, ». An ointment. 
Anoyt, s. Trouble ? 

That other branche ful ry^t goyt 
To the lytil fyngere, without anoyt. 

Beliq. Antiq., i, 190. 

Amparse. The character &. The 
expression and per se, and, to 
signify the contraction &, and 
substituted for that conjunction, 
is often found in nursery books, 
more especially in alphabets, such 
as the one commencing, " A, 
apple-pie." Sometimes spelt 
anpassy, and anpasty. 

Anpyre, s. Empire. 

Anrednesse, s. (A.-S.anrcednesse.) 
Unity of purpose. 

An's-afe. I am afraid. Yorksh. 

Ansample, 8. An example. 

Ansel, s. A corrupt orthography 
for hansel. 

Anshum-scranchum. When a 
number of persons are assembled 
at a table where the provision is 
scanty, and each one is almost 
obliged to scramble for what he 
can get, it will often be observed 
by some one of the party, that 
they never in all their life saw 
such anshum-scranchum work. 

Ansine, \s. (A.-S. ansyn.) Ap- 
ONSiNE, J pearance; figure. 

Not no mon so murliel of pine, 
As povre wif that falletli in ansine. 

Dame Siritk. 

Vor nis of ow non so kene 

That durre abide mine onsene. 

Tlie Utile and the Nyitingale, 1. 1694. 


I do remember yet, that anslaight, thou 

wast beaten. 
And fledst before the bntler. 

Beaum. and Fl., Mons. Thomas, u, 2. 

Anslet, v. {Fr.}) An article of 
dress in the latter part of the 
14th cent. Some MSS. of Chau- 
cer read hanselines. 

Upon that other syde, to speke of the 
horrible disordinat scantnes ot clothing, 
as ben these cuttid sloppis or dnsttis, 
that thurgh lier schortiies ne covereth 
not the schamful membre of man, to 
wickid entent. Chaucer, Persones T. 

r, "1 «. {Germ.) A sud- 
HT, fden attack; a sur- 




E, \V. 

ANSauERi j of loth and beginning 
qflGtft cent. 
Anstoxd, v. To withstand. Rob. 

AxsuRER, s. An answerer. 
Answer, (1) v. To encounter at a 

(2) To answer a door, to open 
it when any one knocks. 
(3)*. Retaliation; requital. 
AxT. (1) Am not. Devon. 

(2) couj. And. Common in MSS. 
of the reign of Edward II. 
The lylie lossum is ant long, 
AiVith riche rose ant rode auiong. 

Lyric Foetry, p. 33. 

AxTEM, s. (1) A church. A cant 
word. An antem-morte, " a wj-fe 
marled at the churche, and they 
be as chaste as a cow." Brit. 
Bibl., ii, 520. 
(2) An anthem. 

Antepast, t. (Lat.) A tasting be- 

AxTEPHXE, s. An antiphon. 

AxTEPoxE, V. (Lat.) To prefer; to 
set before. 

AxTER. See Aunter. 

AxTERS, (1) conj. In case that. 

(2) ». Adventures. North. See 

AxTE-TKME, s. A tcxt cr motto 
placed at the head of a theme or 
discourse. Skelton. 

AxTEVERT, V. {Lat.) To avert. 

AxTGATE, *. An occasion. Skinner, 

AxTH. And the. North. 

AxTH0XY-xuT,«. The bladder-nut, 

Anthoxy-pig, ». The favourite or 
smallest pig of the litter. Kent. 
" To follow like a tantony pig," 
to follow close. The friars of 
certain convents of St. Antiioiiy, 
in England and France, are said 
to have enjoyed the privilege of 
having their swine feeding in the 

streets. These would follow any 
one for food; and it was con- 
sidered an act of charity and 
religion to feed them. St. An- 
thony was invoked for the pig. 

Axthony's-fire, 8. A kind of 

Anthropomancy, 8. (Gr.) Divi- 
nation by the entrails of men. 

Anthropophaginiax, adj. X 
high-sounding word put by 
Shakespeare in the mouth of a 
swaggerer. Merry Wives of 
Witidsor, iv, 5. 

AxTiciPATELT, adv. By anticipa- 

What our Lord did intend to bestow on 
all pastors, that he did anticipalely pro- 
mise to him. 

Barrou), Of Ike Popes Supremacy. 

Antick, (1) adj. Old. 

(2) An antimasque. Ford's 
Works, i, 440. 

AxTicKLY, adv. In an antick man- 

Go mUicUy, and show an outward hideous- 
ness. Muck Ado about Nothing, r, L 

Anticks, ». (1) Odd imagery and 

All har'd with golden bendes, which were 

With curious antickes, and full fayre 

aumayld. Sp., F. Q., 11, iii, 27. 

(2) Actors are sometimes termed 

AxTiKE, adj. Grotesque. 
A foule deform'J, a brutish cursed crew, 
In body like to antike work devised 
Ol monstrous shape, and of an ugly hew. 
Harr., Jriost., vi, 61. 

Anticor, "l*. a swelling on a 
ANTOCOW, J horse's breast, oppo- 
site to the heart. 

Antidotary, adj. Having the 
qualities of an antidote. 

AxTiEXTS, s. Ancestors. 

AxTd.LociuiE, «. {Lat.) A preface; 

Tlierefore I will rehearse to this antilluquie. 

But ouly the cogiiisaunce which appeareth 

Holme*"* FaU qfBebeUion, p. 7. 




Aktimasqub, «. A contrast to the 
principal masque, a ridiculous 
interlude, dividing the parts of 
the more serious masque. It 
appears to have been distinguish- 
ed by extravagance, and was 
usually performed by actors hired 
from the theatres ; whereas the 
masque itself was more usually 
acted by ladies and gentlemen. 
It resembled the exodia of the 

Let anti-masts not be long, they have 
been comraonlyof fools, satyrs, baboons, 
wild meu, antiques, beasts, spirits, 
witches, Ethiops, pigmies, turquets, 
nymplis, rustics, cupids, statuas moving, 
and the like. As for angels, it is not 
comical enough to put them in anti- 
tnasis ; and any thing that is hideous, as 
devils, giants, is on the other side as 
unfit,. But chiefly let the musick of 
them be recreative, and with strange 
changes. Some sweet odours suddenly 
coming forth, witlioutany drops falHng, 
are in such a company, as tliere is steam 
and heat, things of great pleasure and 
refreshment. Bacon, Essay 37. 

Tkest. What are yon studying of Jocastus, 

Jo. A rare device, a masque to entertaine 
His grace of Fairy with. 
Thest. A masque ? what i'st ? 
Jo. An auli-masque of fleas, which I have 

To dance curnntos on a spider's thread. 
Jilop. An anti-masgue of fleas? brother, 

me thinks 
A masque of birds were better, that could 

The morice in the ayr^ vrens and rob- 

bin -redbreasts, 
Linnets, and titmice. 

Randolph's Amintas, 1640. 

Antinomies, s. Rules or laws op- 
posite to some other rules or 
laws deemed false and having no 
Antioche, 8. A kind of wine, per- 
haps brought, or supposed to be 
brought, from Antioch. 
Antioche and bastarde, 
Pymeut also, and garnarde, 

Squyr of Lovoe Degri, lyj. 

Antiperistasis, 8. {Gr.) Ex- 
plaitied as " the opposition of a 
contrary quality, by which the 

quality itopposes becomes height* 
ened or intended." Used by 
Ben Jonson. 

Antiphoner, 8. {^A.-N.) A kind 
of psalm-book, containing the 
usual church music, with the 
notes marked, and so called from 
the alternate repetitions and re- 

Antiphons, *. {Gr.) Alternate 

In antiphons thus tune we female plaints. 
0. PI., vii, 497. 

Antiouary, adj. Old ; ancient ; 

Instructed by the antiquary time, 
Ue must, he is, he cannot hut be wise. 
Troilus and Cressida, ii, 3. 

ANTiauE, adj. Ancient. Accented 
on the first syllable. 

Show me your image in some dnti/iue book. 
Sltakesp., Sonn., 59. 

Not that great champion of the antique 
world. Spen., I, xi, 27. 

ANTiauiTY, 8. Old age. 

Antle-beer, a«f». Crosswise; irre- 
gular. Exmoor. 

Antling. a corruption of Anto- 
nine, a saint to whom one of the 
churches in London is dedicated, 
which is often called St. Ant- 
ling's by the older writers. 

Anto. If thou. Yorksh. 

Antpat, adj. Opportune ; apropos. 

Anfre, (1) 8. {Lat. antrum.) A 
cavern, or den. 

Wherein of antres vast and desarts idle, 

Rough quariies, rocks, and hills whose 
heads touch heaven, 

It was my hint to speak. 

Shakesp., Othello, i, 3. 

(2) r. To adventure. See 

AyiTRESSB, prest. t. He adventures. 

Antrums. Affected airs ; whims. 
"A's in as antrums this morn- 
ing." Suffolfi and Chesh. The 
more usual expression is tan- 

Antol. An thou wilt; if thou 
wilt. Yoris/i. 




An't-wart, s. a sort of wart, de- 
scribed in the NoTnenclaior(lbSb) 
as being deep-rooted, l)road be- 
low, and little above. 

Antwhii.e, adv. Some time ago. 

Anty-tump, *. An ant-hill. Heref. 

An UAL, s. {Lai.) A clironicle. Mi- 

AxuDDEii, adj. Another. North. 

Anuel, *. {A.-N.) An annuity; 
particularly one paid to a priest 
for keeping an anniversary. 

And henten, gif I misjlite, 
An anuel for niyne owcii use. 
To lielpen to clothe. 

Fiers PI., p. 475. 

Anunder. '{prep. (J.-S.) Beneath. 

ANONDER, J Cumb. To keep any 

one at anunder, to keep them 

in a subordinate or dependent 


Ten scliypmen to londe yede, 
To se the yle yn lengtlie and brede, 
And fette water as heni was nede 
The roche anondyr. 

Octovian Imperator, 550. 

Anunt, prep. Opposite ; against.' 
This old word exists in Lowland 
Scotch, and is current in the 
dialects of Yorkshire, Cheshire, 
Herefordshire, Shropshire, Wilt- 
shire, and Worcestersliire. 
Anuost. Near to. West. See 

Jennings, p. 185. 
Anur», v. To honour. 
AxuRTHE, adv. On the earth. 
Anuy, s. {A.-N.) Annoyance; vex- 
And to the coiitri that ^e beoth of, 
Suthe ^e schulle wende, 
Al esehcli witlioute u 'uij. 
And there youre lyf ende.^h. 

Anuye, 1 ^ (^ .^) To annoy ; 
to trouble ; to ve.x. 

ruYE. V 
^■^''" Ko 


Mocli me anueth 
That mi diivil druith. 

lieliq. Antiq., ii, 210. 

Tho was alle the court anyed. 

Rjb. of Gloucetter, p. 53. 

Ac mi loverd witeth mi soule wel. 
That thu hire nojt ne spille, 
For tliu ne niijt mid al thi mijte 
Anuye hire wortli a fille. 

MS. Uarl.. 2277, f. 86 b 

For thai hadde tlie country anuwed. 
And with robberie destrwed. 

Sevyii Sai/es, 2613. 

Alisanndre anvlfd was ; 
Over the liihle he gon stoupe, 
And siiiot Litias witli the coupe, 
Tliat he feol duun in tlie flette. 

Kyng Alisannder, 1102. 

Anvelt, \s. {yl.-S.) An anvil. 
ANViLD, J See Arifeeld. 

Upon his anvelt up and downe, 
Tlierof he toke the tirste suwne. 

Dretne of Chaucer, 1165. 

And in eehe liande a srreate hanier, 
and Iherwiih they smyte UDon a an- 
Tilde. Viri/iUus, p. 26. 

Anvempne, r. To envenome. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 75. 
Anvil, s. (I) The handle or hilt 

of a sword. Shakesp. 

(2) A narrow flag at the end o£ 

a lance. Meyrick. 
Anwarpe, v. To warp. Minsheu. 
Anweald, s. (A.-S.) Power ; au- 
thority. Skinner. 
Anword, *. (A.-S.) An answer ; a 

reply. Verstegan. 
Anxiferous, adj. (Lat.) Causing 

Any, adj. Either; one of two, or 

of more. 
Anynge, 1 ». (A.-S.) Union. See 

onynge, \ Ane. 
Any SOT, ». A fool. Prompt. Pare. 
Anythink. Anything. " Like 

anythink agen," exceedingly. 

Anywhen, arf». At any time. "I 

can come anywhen after this 

Anywhile, arfp. At any time. 
Anywhither, adv. To any place. 

Dor. Do you forbid his coming, or I go. 
Aunt. Go? whitlier? 

Dor. Anywhilker, madness ne're wants a 

Mountfort, Grtenmck Pari, 1691. 




AorRNBD, part. p. Adorned. 

So that he that tofore wente clothed in 
clotlies of golde and of sylke, and 
aounied wyth precyous stones in tlie 
cyl6. Ftte Fatrum, f. 86. 

AoT, adv. High. Glouc. 

Apaye, \ V. {A.-N.) To pay, sa- 
APPAY, J tisfy, or content. " Well 
apaid, glad ; ill apaid, sorie." 
Rider's Dictionarie, 1640. 

Therwith was Perkyn apat/ed. 
And preised hem faste. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 123. 

'Till thou have to my trusty ear 

Committed what doth thee so ill apay. 

Spent., Daphnaida, 69. 
So only can high justice rest appaid. 

Milton, P. L., xii, 401. 
Th' unwelcome newes seeme welcome to 

his eares, 
And yet he wishes they awhile had staide ; 
That the ^il'd deed is done, he glad ap- 

Yet in his gladnes, he seemes ill apaid. 

Great Britaines Trot/e, 1609. 
Apaise, adv. In peace. 

The thai were al at aise, 
Ich went to his in apaite. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 87. 

Apaud, part. p. Depressed ; dis- 
couraged ; appalled. 

Apalled, part. p. Wearisome; 

Thanne cometh undevocioun tliurgh 
vliich a man is so blunt, nnd as saith 
seint Bernard, he halh such a lungour 
in Boule, that he may neyllier rede ne 
8yn»e in lioly chirche, ne heere ne 
thuilce on devocioun in holv chirche, 
ne travaylc with his liondes in no good 
werk, that nys to him unsavory and al 
apalled. Chancer, Persones T. 

Av AH, prep. Upon. 

Aparine, s. (Fr.) The name of a 
plant ; clivers. 

Aparseive, v. To perceive. 
The burwis aparseived of his wive, 
Tele nightes was gon him fram. 
And in the dawiymg ayen sche cam. 

The Setijn Sages, 1. 1434. 

Aparti, adv. Partly. 

Apartlie, adv. {A.-N.) Openly. 
Monastic Letters, p. 179. 

^Ipasseo,}^'"''--^- ^'^'^^- 

Apatere, v. (A.'K) To impair. 

Skelton. . 
Ape, (1) V. To attempt? 

And that sche nere so michcl ape 
That sche hir laid doun to slape. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 32. 

(2) *. A fool. To put an ape 
into a person's hood or cap, or, 
to put on his head an ape, to make 
•a fool of him, Tyrwhitt con- 
siders " win of ape," in Chaucer, 
to he what the French called 
vin de singe. 

Haha ! felaws, be war for such a jape. 
The monk put in llie mannes hood an ape. 
And in his wyves eek, bv Seint Austvn. 

Chaucer, Cant. T., '14850. 

Thus was the ape 

By their fair handling put into Maloerco'g 
cape. Spenser, F. Q., Ill, is, 31. 

And thus sche maketh Absolon hir ape. 
And al his ernest torneth to a jape. 

Chaucer, Cant. T., 3389. 

To lead apes in hell, said of a 

woman who lives and dies 


I must dance barefoot on her wedding-day. 

And, for your love to her, lead apes in hell. 

Shakesp; Taming of Shrew, ii, I. 

But 'tis an old proyerb, and you know it 

That women, dying maids, lead apes in hell. 
London Prodigal, i, 2. 

Not to know an ape from an 
apple, to be very ignorant. 
Calculated according to art for the 
meridian of England ; and may, without 
sensible error, serve for any other coun- 
try besides, where they do understand 
att ape from an apple, or a B from a bat- 
tledore. Poor Robin, 1707. 

To say an ape's paternoster, to 
chatter with cold. 

Apece, a corruption of ahece. 
The alphabet. Prompt. Parv. 

Apechrv, part. p. Impeached. 
And asone as he came, he was arestcd 
and apeched of bye treysone, tliat he 
scliuld helpc the trie of Oxenforde. 

ff'arlcKorth's Chronicle, p. 25. 

Apeire, ». (yf.-iV.) To impair. See 
Aud thanne youre neghebores next 
In none wise apeire. Pier* PL, p. 11. 




Apel, s. (A -N.) An old term in 
hunting music, consisting of three 
long moots. 

Apelyt, part. p. Called ; named. 

Apende, v. (A.-N.) To append ; 
to appertain ; to belong. 

Thus the pore peple is ransouiide, 

They say suche parte t'eni sliould apende. 
Flowman'i Tale, 1. 2605. 

Apenione, s. Opinion. 

Apere, v. To appear. 

Aperement, s. An injury ; a mis- 
chief. " Aperemeiit, pejoracio," 
Prompt. Paw., MS. Harl., 221. 

Apern, s. An apron. Apparn is 
still the form in Shropshire, ap- 
peron or appren in the Northern 

Aperner, s. One who wears an 
apron ; a drawer at an inn. 

We liave no wine liere, methinks ; 
Wliere's tliis aperner f 

Chapman's May Bay, IGll. 

A-PER-SE. See A. 

Apert, adj. (A.-N.) (1) Open; 


(2) Bold ; free ; pert. 
Aperte, *. {A.-N. aperte.) Conduct 

in action. 

For whiche the kyng hym had ay after in 

Consyderyngwell his knightly aperte. 

Hardyng's Chronicle, f. 198. 

Aperteliche,|^^_^^ Openlv. 

APERTLY, J ^ / r . 

Apertion, s. (Lat.) A passage; an 

Apertness, s. Frankness; open- 

Apery, ». An ape-house. . 

And vow to ply thy b oke as nimbly as 
ever thou didst tliy raster's apery, or 
the hauty vauliing horse. 

Jpollu Shroving, 1627, p. 93. 

Apesen, p. (A.-N.) To appease. 
Apetitely, adv. With an ap- 
Ape- WARD, s. A keeper of apes. 

Kor I, quod an ape-ward, 
By aught that I kan kiiowe. 


Apeyre, v. (Lot.) To open. 

Apeyrement, s. (A.-N.) Injury. 

Apeyringes, s. Losses. 

A-piCKPACK, adv. Astride on the 
back. See A-pigga-back. 
There's a speech for you, shou'd yoa 
make such a one in the senate liouse, 
we should have you brought home 
a-pickpack in triumph. 

Flora's Vagaries.UJO. 

Apiece, adv. To each. North. 
Apieces, adv. To pieces. Suff. 

Kny, if we faint or fall apieces now. 

We're fools. 

Beaum. and Fl., Island Princess, v, 1. 

Apies, s. Opiates. 

As lie shall slope as long as er the leste. 

The narcotikes and apies ben so strong. 

Chaucer, Leg. of Hypermnestra, 109. 

A-PIGGA-BACK, adv. Carrying a 
child on one's back, with his 
legs under t*ie arms, and his 
arms round the neck. Var. dial. 
Apis, s. A kind of apple-tree, in- 
troduced about the year 1670. 
AprsHNEss.s. Playfulness ; game- 

Apistille, j. An epistle. 
A-piSTY-POLL, adv. Carrying a 
child with his legs on the shoul- 
ders, and arms round the head. 
A-PLACE, adv. In place. Gower. 
A-PLAT, adv. Flat down. 
Aplight, adv. (A.-S.) Certainly; 
truly ; entirely. 
Hidur thei come be mone-lijt, 
tele therof wel aplijt. 

K. Edward and the Shepherd. 
Nou is Edward of Carnarvan 
King of Engelond al aplyht. 

Folitical Songs, p. 249. 
The child yede to bedde anight, 
And ros arliclie amorevven aplight. 

Sevyn Sages (Weber), 203. 

Aplustre, s. (Lat.) The small flag 

of a ship. 
Aplyn, s. pi. (A.-S.) Apples. 
Apock, s. a small red pimple. 

Apodytery, s. (Gr.) A vestry. 




Apoint, adv. At point. 

Apoisox, v. To poison. 

Apollo, s. A name for a ban- 
queting room. 

We moved slowly towards the su!t:iii's 
piiUace, all tlie way passing ilir<iii>:li a 
ranck or file of archers and uiusqueiiers 
on either side doubled, and being 
alighted, usherd him into his ApcUu, 
where upon rich carpets was plac'd a 
ueat and costly banquet. 

Herbert's TraveU, 1638. 

An apology. 

Apon, prep. Upon. 

Apoxted, adj. Tainted. Dorset. 

Apopuak, 8. A kind of herb, men- 
tioned in the ArchcEol., XXX, 404. 

Aporet, part. p. {A.-N.) Made 
poor ; reduced to poverty. 

Aposkx, ». To demand. This word 
occurs in Skinner's Etymolo- 
ffion, 1671. 

Apostata, 8. {Lat.) An apostate. 

Apostem, «. (6?r.) An abscess. 
A joyful casual violence may break 
A dangerous apostem in thy breast. 
Donne's Progress of the Soul, ii, 479. 
A medicine or salve that maketh an 
aposteme, or draweth a swelling to mat- 
ter. Nomenclator, 1585. 

Apostemation, a. An impos- 

Aposthume, 8. An imposthume. 
Prompt. Parv. 

Apostilheed, 8. Apostleship. 

Apostille, «. {Lat.) A marginal 

Apostle-spoons,*. Spoons of sil- 
ver gilt, the handle of each termi- 
nating in the figure of an apostle. 
They were the usual present of 
sponsors at christenings ; rich 
sponsors gave the whole twelve ; 
those in middling circumstances 
gave four ; while the poorer sort 
often contented themselves with 
the gift of one, which bore the 
figure of some saint in honour 
of whom the child received its 
name. It is in allusion to this 

custom, that, when Cranmcr pro- 
fesses to be unworthy of being 
sponsor to the young princess, 
the king replies, "Come, come, 
my lord, you'd spare your 
spoons." Shakesp., Hen. VIII, 
v, 2. 

And all this for the hope of two apostl' 
spouns, 10 suffer! and a cup to eat a 
caudle in '. for that will be thy legacy. 
B. Jons., Barth. Fair, i, 3. 

Apostolione, «. An ingredient, 
apparently a herb, mentioned in 
an old medical MS. lu another 
there is a long recipe to make an 
apostolicone, composed of frank- 
incense, alum, &c. 
Apostrofation, 8. Apostrophe. 

Apozeme, s. (Gr. d7ro^€;ia, a de- 
coction.) A drink made with 
water and divers spices and 
herbs, used instead of syrup. 
Appaire, "1 ». {A.-N.) (1) To 
APPEYRE, J impair, make worse, 
or bring to decay. 
His neygheboures ful of envy, his 
feyned freendes that semede recoun- 
siled, and liis flutereres, maden sem- 
blaunt of wepyng, and appaired and 
aggregged nioche of this matiere, in 
preisyng gretly Melib6 of might, of 
power, of riches, and of frendes, de- 
spisinge the power of his adversaries. 
Chaucer, T. ofMelibeus. 
What mendeth it you though tliat we both 
apaire' Chaucer, Tr.^Cr., hb. ii, 1.329. 
So well it maye with rethorike term^ 

Wliiche by my simplenes I would not wer 
appaired. Harding's Chron., f. 51. 

Gentlewomen, whicli feare neither 
Sonne, nor winde, for appairing their 

Sir Thomas Elyot's Governor, p. 61. 
But if I should so presume, I might 
apayr it; tor it was rigbt wel and 
cunnyngly made, and translatyd into 
rjght godid and fa\r Englishe. Caxton. 
Himself goes patched like some bare cot- 

Lest he might ought the future stock 
appeyre. Bp. Hall's Sat., iv, 2. 

(2) To be brought to decay. 



AU tliat ly\-eth appavreth faste. 

Hawkins's VIJ I'luys, i, 38. 
He was of lioiicst eoiivcrsacion and 
pure iiitegritie, no kiiower of tvil, and 
a kepcr of all goodnes, a dispiser of al 
tliynges wliycli were wonte to cause 
the niyndes of mortall nicnne to slyde 
or appaire. Hall, Edward If, fol. 34. 

Appale, 1 V. To turn anything to 
APPALLE, J a pale colour. 

Hire lisle not appalled for to be, 
Kor ou the monve uiifestliclje for to see. 
Chaucer.. Cant. T., 1U679. 

Kvv\i.i.^,v.{A.-N.) To discourage; 
to terrify ; to appease : it is also 
used as a neuter verb, to be 
terrified ; to grow mild ; to be- 
come weak ; to fail. 
This disconitilure so amazed the wittes, 
and appalled the liartes of the meane 
Gascons, that thei offered many tounes 
to the French part. 

Hall's Chron., Henry VI, f. 79. 

her misshaped parts did them appall, 

A. loathly, wrinkled luig. 

Spetiser, F. Q., I, viii, 4G. 
And to the cuppe ay took I heede and cure 
tor that the dryuke appalle sholde no^lit. 

Wliiclie never shall appallen in my niinde, 
But always fresh beeu in myne mcmorie. 
Prologue to i>turie of Thebes. 

Appalement, s. Consternation. 

Apparaile, v. {A.-N.) To equip ; 
to furnish. 

Apparancie, s. (A.-N.) Appear- 

Wliose fained gestures doe entrap our youth 

With au apparancie of simple truth. 

Browne's Brit. Vast., i, song 2. 

Apparate, s. Apparatus. 
AppAaATOR, *. (Lot.) A Serjeant; 

a beadle. 
Bailiffs, promoters, jailors, and apparalors. 
Theiluses Looking-glass, i, 1. 

AppAREiL,».(.<^.-iV.) A word which 
Skinner inserts in his glossary of 
law terms, witli the following 
explanation : " Integra rationum 
subductio, item summa totius 
debili, quae rationibus subscribi 
solet." The sum at the iicttoiu 
of an account, which is still due. 

Apparemkntes, «. J?/. Ornaments. 

Apparence,«. (.^.-A^.) An appeal 

That is to sayn, to make illusion 
By swiche au apparence or joglerie. 

C/iaucer, Caut. T., 11577. 

Apparented, part. p. Made appa- 
rent. Holinshed. 

Appariblynge, s. a symbolical 
meaning; an allegory. 

To thys ordre croune bet 

Ys an apparyblynge, 
Thet hys in holy cherche y-cleped wel 

The furste scherynge 

' Of clerke ; 
Gierke hys to segge an Englysch, 

Eyr ot Godes werke. W. de Shoreham. 

Apparysshande, adj. Apparent; 
brilliant. Caxton. 

Apparitions, s. (A.-N.) Appear- 
ances. Applied especially to the 
appearance, or supposed appear- 
ance, after death, of departed 
spirits ; yet sometimes, as in 
Shakespeare, understood literallj'. 

As this wicked people were strangers to 
tlit-ir God in their conversation, so was 
God grown a stranger to them in lus 

Bishop HalVs Contemplations, p 3. 

I have mark'd 

A thousand blushing apparitions 
To start into her face. 

Muck Jdo about Nothing, iv, 2. 

Appase, adv. Apace ; in pace. 

An actuarie, clarke or scribe, that wri- 
teth ones wordes appase as they are 
spoken. Nomenclator, 1585. 

Appassionate,». Tohave a passion 

Appassionated, adj. Violently 

stedfast; obstinate. 

The said Gower remained appassionated 

in the opinion of the Pope's supremacy. 

Letter in Strype's Annals, iii, 135. 

Appeach, V. {A.-N. apescher.) To 
impeach ; to accuse. 

Bifore this yonge prophete this preost go 

And he him apeched sonc, with chekes wel 

pale. Susan, st. xxiv. 

Now, bv mine honour, by my life, my troth, 
I will appeach the villain. 

K. Richard II, r, 2. 




George Ariiistronge was pardoned to the 
ende he slioulde appeache the residue, 
which he did. 

Holituhed's Hist, of Scotland, p. 441. 

Appearance, s. An apparition ; a 
vision. The word in this sense 
occurs in Rider's Diciionarie, 

Appecementes, *. Impeachments. 

Appeyre. See Appaire. 

Appeirement, g. (a.-N.) An im- 
pairing; diminution. 

To the grete appeirement of his most 
royalle estate, and enpoverisshyng of 
hym and alle his true commons and 
Bubjettis, and only to the enrieliynge of 
themself. MS. Ashm., 1160. 

Appel-leaf, •. {A.-S. teppel-leaf.) 

The violet. 
Appelye, adt>. Haply. 

Appelen, L-/. (^..5.) Apples. 
appelyn, i *^ ^ / rv 

the mo appelen the tree bereth, the 

more sche bowetli to the folk. 

Romance of the Monk, MS., fol. 2 b. 

Appellacion, s. {A.-N.) An ap- 
peal from an inferior to a supe- 
rior court. 

This sentence shall nerer be repelled, 
ne it may not be appelled, for the 
appellacj/on shall never be receyved. 

Golden Legaid, fol. 5. 

Appeluns, «. A dish made of apples 
and other ingredients. See a 
receipt for making it in Warner, 
Antiq. Culin., p. 89. 

Appende, v. {A.-N.) To belong ; to 
appertain to. See Apende, 

Tel me to whom, madame, 
That tresour appendelh. 

Piers PI, p. 17. 

Appene, v. To happen. Wark- 
worth's Chron., p. 2. 

Appennage, «. {Fr.) That which 
is set apart by princes for the 
support of their younger children. 

Apperceive, v. (A.-N.) To per- 
ceive. See Aperceive. 

Apperceiving, a. Perception. 

Appere, v. (A.-N.) To deck out | 
to apparel. See Appairp. 

Apperil, s. Peril. Middleton and 
Ben Jonson. 

Let me stay at thine apperil. 

Timon of Athens, i, 2. 

Appertainment, *. The circum- 
stance of appertaining to. 

Appertinaunt, juar^ a. Belonging 
to. An astrological term. 

Appertyces, 8. {A.-N.) Dexteri- 

Crete strokes were smyten on bothe 
sydes, many men overtlirowen, liurte, 
and slayn, and grete valyauiices, prow- 
esses and appertyces of werre were that 
day sliewed, whiclie were over long to 
recounte the noble feates of every man. 
Morte d\irl/iur, i, 145. 

Appese, v. (A.-N.) To pacify. To 
appese one's self, to become paci- 

And TuUias saith : Ther is no thing so 
comendal)le in a gret lord, as whan he 
is deljoiiaire and raeeke, and nppesith 
him lightly. Chaucer, T. of Melibeus. 

Appetence, s. {Lat. appelentia.) 

Appetite, v. To desire ; to covet. 

As matire appetilith forme alwaie, 
And from furme into forme it p;issin maie. 
Hypsipyle and Medea, 215. 

Appetition, s. {Lat. appeiitio.) 
Desire for anything. 

Appetize, v. To provoke an appe- 
tite for food. North. 

Appety, «. Appetite ; desire. 

Appiert, adj. Open ; public. See 

Appignorate, v. {Lat. appignoro.) 
To put in pawn ; to pledge. 

Such bibliopolists are much to blame. 
When a good author's dead, t' abuse his 

name ; 
Tbese tricks they play, and act without 

For money they'll appiijnorate their soul. 
Salyricall Poem, 16%. 

Apple, v. To bottom, or root firmly, 
in the ground " The turnips do 
not apple." 

Apple-bee, s. A wasp, Comw. 

Apple-bird, a. A chaffinch. Comw. 




Apell-byer, 8. A dealer in apples. 
Here is Glyed Wolby of Gylforde squyere, 
Andrewe of Habyiigedon apell-byer. 

Cocke Lorelles Bote. 

Appi.e-drone, s. a wasp. West. 
Apple-gray, adj. Dapple grey. 

His liead was troubled in such a bud plight, 
As thoii!;li his eyes were afiple-gray. 
Kiiuj and a Poore Northeriie ilati, 1640. 

Apple-hoglin, s. An apple turn- 
over. Suffolk. It is made by 
folding sliced apples with sugar 
in a coarse crust, and baking 
them without a pan. 

Apple-jack, s. An apple turnover. 

Apple-john, 8. An apple, which 
will keep two years, and conse- 
quently becomes very withered. 

1 am wither'd like an old apple-John. 

2 Men. ir, iii, 3. 
Tis better tlian the pome-water or apple- 

John. 0. J'ortun. Anc. Dr., iii, 192. 

Nor John-apple, whose wither'd rind, en- 

By many a furrow, aptly represents 
Dccrepid age. Phillips, Cider, b. i. 

Apple-moise, 8. (1) Cider. 

(2) A dish composed of apples. 
See Appulmoy. 

kvvL^^, 8. pi. Apples. 

Apple-pear, s. A kind of pear, 
perhaps the tankard pear. 

Apple-pie-bed. A common trick 
in schools. The bed is arranged 
somewhat in the fashion of an 
apple-turnover, the sheets being 
doubled so as to prevent any one 
from getting at his length be- 
tween them. 

Apple-pie-order, #. Anything in 
very great order. 

Apple-pips, s. Divination by apple- 
pips : To ascertain whether her 
pretended lovers really love her 
or not, the maiden takes an apple 
pip, and naming one of her fol- 
lowers, puts the pip in the fire ; if 
it cracks in bursting from the 
heat, it is a proof of love, but if 
it is consumed without noise, she 

real regard in that person towards 
her. Davy's MS. 

Appleplex, s. The apoplexy. lie- 

Apples-of-love, s. The fruit of a 
foreign species of nightshade, said 
to be an aphrodisiac. 

AppLE-sauiRE, 8. This very popu- 
lar word was evidently used in 
more than one sense. An apple- 
squire was sometimes a kept 
gallant ; at others, a person who 
waited on a woman of bad cha- 
racter. The name was also applied 
to the person who fetched in the 
wine. Its most common signifi- 
cation appears to have been a 

Boyes which do attends upon commune 
harlottes, called apple-squires. 

Huloet's Abecedarium, 1552. 

Is Cupid fit to be an aple-squire. 

Of lililiy lust to take the loathsome hyre? 

The Newe Metamorphosis, MS. temp., J ac. I. 

Is lecliery wax'd scarce, is bawdry scant. 
Is there of whores or cuckolds any want? 
Are wliore-masters decai'd, are all buwds 

Are panders, pimps, and apple-squires, all 

fled? Taylor's Works, 1630. 

Each bush, each bank, and each base a/)p2«- 

Can serve to sate their beastly lewd desire. 
Hull's Satires, i, 2. 

Aquariolus, festo, impudicarum mulie- 
runt sordidus assecla, TropvoSidjcovoi, 
Maequereau, rutieu. A ruttinly knave : 
an apple-squire: a filthie and bawdie 
knave attending upon whores : a wittall 
that keepeth the doore whiles his wife 
is occupied. Nomenclator, 1585. 

His little lackey, a proper yong apple- 
souire, called Pandarus, wliiche carrieth 
the keye of his chamber with hym. 

BuUien's Dialoijue, 1573. 

Apple-sttjcklin, s. An apple- 
turnover. Hampsh, 
Apple-terre, «. An apple orchard. 
Formerly used in Sussex, now 
Apple-twelin, 8. An apple-turn- 
■ over. Norfolk. 
' Apple-yard, s. An apple orchard. 




Apfliablb, adj. Capable of being 

Appliance, s. An application. 
Appliment, s. Application. 
Applot, v. To plot ; to contrive. 
Apply, v. {J.-N.) To take a course 

towards ; to ply to ; to apply to. 

A nautical term. 
Appo, s. An apple. Chesh, 
Appoast, r. {Fr.) To suborn. 

Appoint, v. To impute. 
Appointment, «. Preparation. 
Here art thou in appointment fresb and 

Anticipating time with starting courage. 
Troilus and Ciessida, iv, 5. 

Appokk, V. {Lat. appono.) To dis- 
pute with; to oppose in ar- 

Apposayle, #. (.(^.-M) Question; 

Wlian he went out his enmies to assaylc. 
Made unto her this uncouth apposayle. 

Boehoi, b. V, c. 22. 

Appose, ». (A.-N.) To raise ques- 
tions ; to oliject; to dispute with; 
to examine. 

Tho the poeple hyni apposede 
With a peny in tjie temple. 

Piers PL, p. 18. 

Apposition, s. (Lat.) Annexation 
of substantives. A grammatical 

But this yonge childryne tliat gone to 
the scole' have in here Donete this 
questioue, how many thinges fallen to 
apposicion ? Ande it is answeride, that 
case alle only that is afalle. 

Geata Somanorum, p. 473. 

Appositees, s. Opposites ; anti- 
podes. Maundevile, 

Apprehension, s. (Lat.) Catch- 
ing; laying hold of. 

Apprehensive, adj. (Lat.) Of 
quick conception. 

You are too quick, too apprehensive. 

Every Man out of his Humour. 

Thou art a mad apprehetisive knave. 

0. P., iv, 343. 

Appreiffk, I. (Fr.) Contrivance. 

Apprentice-at-law, *. A coun- 
sellor, the next in rank uuder a 

Apprest, ». {Fr.) Preparation. 

All the winter following Vespasian Isie 
at Yorke, making his apprests against 
tlie next spring to go against the Scots 
and Picts. HoUtished, Hist. Scot., p. 48. 

Apprinze, ». (Fr.) Capture. 
I mean not now th' apprinze of Pucell Jone. 
MirrourfjT Miu/istrales, ed. 1610. 

Apprise, *. {A.-N.) Learning. 

Approacher, «. One who ap- 
proaches or draws near. 

Approbate, part. p. (Lat. appro- 
batus.) Approved ; approved of. 
Ha^-yng perfect confidence, and sure 
hope in the approbate fidelitie and 
constaunt integritie wliiche I have ever 
experimented. Hall, Edward IV, fol. 60. 
He utterly refused to reccyve the 
crowne, except the law established by 
liis father Kenneth for the succession 
therof were first confirmed and ap- 
Holinshed's Historic of Scotland, p. 227. 

Thuniasearle of Lancaster wag hanged and 

With sixteene barrona moe in Edward the 
Second's dales ; 

The filthy demeanor that then was ap- 

I abhor to recite, they tooke such nanghtie 
wayes. Holmes's Fall of Rebellion, p. 8. 

Approbation, *. (1) Approval ; 

(2) A noviciate. 
Approchemknt, ». Approach. 
Apprompt, v. To prompt. Bacon. 
Approof, s. Approbation. 

So his approof Uves not in *s epitaph, 
.As in your roval speech. 

jiirs Well that Ends Well, i, 2. 
A man so absolute in my approof. 
That nature bath leserv'd small dignity, 
That he enjoys not. Cynthia's Rerels. 

ApPROPINftUATE, 1 ». {Lat.) To 
APPROPiNttUE, J approach ; to 
come near. 
Appropre, 1 r. {A.-N. appro- 
APPROPER, \ prier.) To appropri- 

The fyrst name is the gone of God, and 
these names beu appropryd to hvm. 

Golden Legend, f. 7. 




The EvangeJystes dyd applye and 
upproper that pionliane word Ecclesia 
to sijfnifythe whole coinpanv of christen 
peple. " Sir T. Move's Iforks, p. 428. 

Approve, s. (Fr.) To justify ; to 
make good ; to bring proof of. 
Matahruu in likewise eudevored her on 
tlie other syde to npprovft the siiid 

injury hi lur couiiuiaed and pur- 

l)eused. Hellas, p. 27. 

Approver, s. (A.-N.) An in- 
former. A person who had the 
letting of the king's demesnes in 
small manors to the best advan- 
tage was termed an approver, 

Appugnant, adj. {Lat.) Quar- 

Appulle, s. An apple. 

Appulmoy, I «. (y/.-5.) Adishin 

APPULMOCE, ^cookery, of which 

APPULMos, J apples were the 

principal ingredient. " Appulmos, 

dishmete, pomacium." Prompt. 

Parv., ed. 1499. 

Appulmoy. — Tiike apples and seetli hem 
in water. Drawe lieni thurgli a stynnor. 
Take almande iiiyike, and hony, and 
flocrot'rvs, siifron, and powdor-lbrf, and 
salt ; and seeth it stondyng. 

Forme ofCury, 1390. 

For to make appulmos. — Nym appelyn, 
and setli hem, and lat hem kele, and 
make Item thorw a clotlie; and on 
flesch dayes kast t]iercto god fat breyt 
of bef, and god wyte grees. and sugar, 
and safron, and ahuande mylk ; on fysch 
dayes oyle de olyve, and gode jjow- 
ders ; and serve it fortlie. 

Cookery Receipts, 1381. 

AppuYED.^ar/./?. (Fr.) Supported. 

Apraine, 8. An apron. 

Item, if any common woman were any 
apraine, she slial forl'ait hit, and make a 
fine after the custume of the manor, 
&c. Regulaliotis of the Slews, \ath cent. 

Apraysut. part. p. Praised. Rob- 
son's Romances, p. 14. 

Apres, «. Cloth of Ypres in Flan- 
ders, famous for its woollen manu- 
facture, "j. cover of a;;re* lynyd 
with lynen clothe." Sir John 
Fastnlfe' s Inventory ,Arc/ieEolof/ia, 
xxi, 263. 

Apricate, v. (Lat. aprico.) To 

bask in the sun. 
Aprication, s. Basking in the 

kpmciTY, s. {Lat. apricitas.) The 

warmth of the sun. 
Apricock, *. An apricot. West. 

See Abricock. 
Hop in his walks, and gambol in his eyes ; 
Feed him with apricocks md dewberries. 
Shakesp., Mids. N. D., iii, 1 

April-gowk, «. An April fool. 

Aprii.led, adj. Applied to beer or 

milk which has turned, or is 

beginning to turn, sour: also to 

a person whose temper has been 

disturbed. Devon. 
Aprine, «. {Lat.) A poison which 

was said to come from swine 

when maris appetentes. 
Aprise, 8. {A.-N.) (1) Learning. 

(2) An enterprise ; an adventure. 

On that other half is Darie, y-wi». 
Wroth and grim, and alle his. 
For Alisauuders gret aprise. 

K. Alisaunder, 1. 3529. 

Tlian sayd Lybeaus, Be seynt Jame, 
To save thys mayde fro schame, 
Hyt wer a fayr apryse. 

Lyb. Discon., 1. 594. 

Apron, ». (1) A hog's caul. East. 
(2) The fat skinny covering of 
the belly of a duck or goose. 

Apron-man, ». A waiter. 

We had the salute of welcome, gentle- 
men, presently: W^ilt please ye see a 
chamber? It was our pleasure, as we 
answered the apron-man, to see, or be 
very neare the rtx)me where all that 
noise was. 

Rotvley's Search for Money, 1609. 

Aprove, v. To prove. See Ap- 

Aps, «. {A.-S. teps.) The asp or 
aspen tree. A word used in 
Warwickshire, and also in the 
South and West of England. 

Apsen, {adj.) Of, or belonging to 
the asp tree. 

Apt, v. {Lat. apto.) To adapt; to 
fit to; to render fit for anything. 




The symbols used, are not, neither 
ought to be, simply hieroglyphics, em- 
blems, or impreses, but a mixed clia- 
racter, partaking somewhat of all, and 
peculiarly apied to these more magnifi- 
cent inventions. BenJonson. 

And some one apteth to be trusted then, 
Though never after. 

B. Jon., Forest. Ep., xii. 

And here occasion apteth that we cata- 
logue awhile. 

Warner's AlUons Engl. 

Aptes, ». pi. Aptitudes. 

Thei ban as well divers aotes, and divers 
maner usynges, and tltilk aptes niowen 
iu will beu cleped affeccions. 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 517. 

Apt-tinoing, adj. Having a ten- 
dency to ignite. 

If th' exhalation liot and oily prove, 
And yet (as feeble) giveth place above 
To th' airy regions ever-lasting frost. 
Incessantly th' apt-linding fume is tost 
Till it inflame : then like a squib it falls. 
Or flre-wing'd shaft, or sulp'liry powder- 
balls. Sylvester's Lu Bartas. 

Apurt, ad/. Impertinent. Somer- 
set. Sullen, disdainfully silent. 

Apyks, s. pi. Apes. 

AauA-AcuTA, *. (Z/fl/.) A compo- 
sition of tartaric and other acids, 
formerly used for cleaning ar- 

AauABOB, s. An icicle. Kent. 

AauAKE.r. To tremble. 

AauAL, adj. Equal. North. 

AauAPATis, 8. A kind of pottage. 

Aqxiapatys. — Pil garleo, and cast it in a 
pot with water and oile, and seeth it. 
Do thereto safroii, salt, and powder- 
fort, and dresse it forth liool. 

Forme of Curt/, 1390. 

AauAT, adv. Sitting on the houghs. 

AauATiL, adj. {Lat.) Inhabiting 

the water. 
Aquatories, s. (Lat.) Watery 

places. xVn astrological term. 
AauA-viTiE, s. (Lat.) A general 

term for ardent spirits. Irish 

aqua-vitae was usquebaugh. 

AauA-viTJi MAX, s. A seller of 
Sell the dole beer to aqiia-t'U<e meti. 

Ben Jons., Alch., i, 1. 

AauEiGHT.jwre^/. oiaquake, (from 
(.^.-5. queccan.) Shook ; trem- 
The gleumen useden her tunge ; 
The wode aqueightte so hy sunge. 

Kyng AUsaunder, 5257. 

AauEixT, (\) part. p. of aquenche. 
Quenched with water; destroyed. 
(2) Acquainted. 
Heo desirith notliyng more, 
Thau to beo to you ai/wei/ut. 

Kyiig AUsaunder, 759ik 

AauEiNTABLE, adj. Easv to be ac- 
quainted with. 
AttUELLEN, V. {A.-S. acwellan.) To 
kill ; to destroy ; to vanquish. 
And her gref anon hem teld, 
llou Fortiger her king agnelJ. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 16. 
And gif y schal be thus aqueld, 
Thurch strong bete in tlie feld. 
It were ogain the skille. 

Gy of mincike, p. 323. 

AauENCHE, V. {A.-S. aacencan.) 
To quench ; to destroy.' 
Nothing he ne fouiidc in al the nijte, 
Wer-mide his lions^r ai/uenche mijtte. 

Reliq. Anliq., li, 274. 

AauETONS, s. Acquittance. Boke 

of Curtasye, p. 23. 
AauiTE, t>. (^.-A'. ) (1) To acquit. 

(2) To requite. 
He wole aqrcyte ns rytli wele oure mede. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 335. 

(3) To pay for. 
Or if his winning be so lite, 
Tliat his labour will not aquite 
SufRciauntly al his living, 
Yet may he go his brede begging. 

Itomaunt of the Rose, 6742. 

AauoiNTE, part. p. Acquainted. 

Rob. Olouc, p. 465. 
AauoT, adj. Cloyed; weary with 

eating. Devon. 
AauoY, adv. Coyly ; shyly. 
With that she knit her brows. 
And looking all aqitoy. 

George Barnwell, 2d pt 




The herb orach. 

Ar, (1) 8. (A.-S.) A scar; a pock- 
mark. North. It is found in MSS- 
of the 15th cent. 
(2) *. (J.-S. ar.) An oar. 
(3)conj. Or. 
(4) prep. {A.-S. ar, eer.) Before. 

Abonte mydnypht, ar the day. 

Kyng Jlisaunder, 344. 

Arace, v. {A.-N.) To draw away 
by force. 

And ill hir swongli so sadly holdith sche 
Hir cliUdren tuo, whan sche gan hem 

That witli gret sleight and gret difflcuU6 
Th e children from lier arm the v gonne arace. 
Chaucer, Cant. T., 8979. 

So that the reraembraunce of theire 
pestylent errours were araced out of 
Xnglishe mennes heartes. 

Sir T. Mart's TTorts, p. 355. 

Arach, 1 


Aradde, pret. t. of arede. Ex- 
Arafe, 8. Some kind of precious 
Hir paytrelle was of a rialle fyne, 
Hir cropur was of arafe. 

MS. Cantab., l*th cent. 

Arafte, pret. t. Struck ; smote. 

Araged, adj. Enraged. 

Araine, \8. (A.-N.) A spider. 

ARRAX, J Notts, and Northampt. 
Sweep th' arrans down, till all be clean, 

neer lin. 
Els he'l leauk all a^e when he comes in. 
lorkshire Dialogue, 1697. 

Araise, ") T, 

i- tj. To raise. 
areyse, J 

Araxee, 1 /^ ^^ ) ^ JJ 

aranye, J ^ J r 

Aranke, adv. In a row. 

Arape, adv. (Lat.) Quickly. 

Over theo table he leop arape. 

Kyng Jlisaunder, 4339. 

Arab, (1) pret. of arise. Arose. 

(2) 8. pi. Arrows. 
Arate, v. (A.-S.) To rate ; to scold. 
And foiile v-rebuked. 
And aratei of riche men 
That ruthe is to here. 

Piffr*PJ., p. 283. 

Thyng that al the world voot, 
Wlierfore sholdestow spare 
To reden it in retorik 
To arate dedly synne ? 

Tiers PI., p. 208. 
Araught, pret. of areche. (1) 
Seized ; took away by force. 

In that forest woned an herd 
That of bestes loked an sterd. 
O best him was arauykl ; 
Wide-war he hit hadile i-sought. 

Seuyn Sages, 1. 895. 

(2) Struck, or seized by the 

Right bifor the doukes fet 

Gij araught him with a staf gret. 

(?y of Wancike, p. 225. 
He araught no man with a ryght strook 
but he bare him doun to the erth. 

Jason, MS. 

(3) Reached. 

Florice the ring here araxf^t. 
And he liim a;en hit breaujt. 

Florice and Blaucheflour. 

Araw£, adv. In a row. 
\"RRlv.}'-f^-^0(l) Order. 

(2) Equipage. 

(3) Clothing. 

(4) Condition, or situation. 

All these different meanings of 
the word are found in Chaucer. 

Araye, Ip. n)Xo dress. 
arraye, J ^ ■' 

Up ryst this jolyf lover Absolon, 
And him arrayeth gay at poynt devys. 

Chaucer, Cant. T., 3689. 

(2) To dispose; to afflict. 

(3) To defile. " I fyie or araye, 
je salts." Palsgrave. " I fyle or 
arave with myer, je emboue." 

Aray'ned, part. p. Tied up by the 

Arayny'e, 9. (A.-N.) Sand. 
Araysing, part. a. Advancing; 

Arber, (l) s. (A.-N.) An arbour; 

a grove of trees. 

And in the garden, as I wene. 
Was an aiber fayre and grene. 
And in the arber was a tre, 
A fayrer in the world might none V«. 
Squyr of Lowe Degrt. 




(2) To make the arber, or arhonr, 
a pl>rase in hunting, to disem- 
bowel the animal. The dogs 
are then rewarded with such 
parts of the entrails as are con- 
sidered to be offal. It is applied 
metaphorically to the embowel- 
ling of a traitor. 

Hubert. Not liere, my lord. 
Let tliem be broken up upon a scaffold. 
'T will shew the belter when their arbottr's 
made. Btaum. mid Ft. 

Arberie, s. (A.-N.) Wood. 
Arbeset, *. {A.-N.) A strawberry 

Thou schalt fynde trowes two : 
Seyntes and holy they buth bo. 
Hygher than in othir contray all; 
Arbeset men heom callith. 

Kyng At'uaunder, 6765. 

Arbitrate, v. {Lat.) To deter- 
mine. Shakesp. 

Arbitrie, 8. {A.'N.) Judgment. 

Arbitrement, s. Arbitration. 

At length came certaine English, Scots, 

and Dutch, 
Who liewing their contention grow so 

Would take upon them an arbitlermetif. 
To make all friends : so unto cups they 


Rowlands, Knaves ofSp. /■ 2>., 1613. 

Flod. Suppose one woman be indebted to 

another, what would yon then determine? 

Breakh. Why, in that case, let her that 

is fairest and most beloved of men in 

commiseration forgive t'other. 

Cler. An arbitrament of love, you'll end it, 


Uovcard, Man of Nevmiarket, 1678. 

Arblast, s. {A.-N.) An arbalest. 

But rise up your mangonel. 
And cast to tlieir tiee-tastel. 
And shoot to them with arblast. 

Sichard Coer de Lion, 1867. 

Arblastir, s. (A.-N.) (1) An 
arbalest, or cross-bow. 
(2) One who shoots with an 

Erles, barons and squyers. 
Bowmen and arblastirs. 

Richard Coer de Uon, 1810. 

Arboret, «. A shrub. 

Arbour. See Arber (2). 

Arbouses, s. Tlie dark bard cherry. 

Arbusted, adj. Filled with straw- 
berry trees. 

What pleasures poets fiime of after death. 
In the Elizean arbusted groves. 

Cyprian Academy, 1647. 

Arc, j. A cirrhiis, or cloud in the 
form of a streak crossing the sky. 
Herefordsh. See Ark. 

Arcane, adj. {Lat.) Secret, 

Ilave I been disobedient to thy words? 
Have 1 bewray'd tliy arcane secrecy ? 

Lvcriue, v, 5, 

Arcel, s. Liverwort. Skinner. 
Arch. (1) A chief; a master. 

The noble duke, my master, 
My worthy arch and patron, comes to- 
night. £i>'ff Lear, ii, 1. 

(2) A piece of ground left un- 
worked. A term in mining. 

Archal, s. Liverwort. Phillips. 

Archangel, *. (1) The dead net- 

(2) A kind of bird. Rom. of the 
Rose, 915, where the origina; 
French is mesange, a titmouse. 

Abchabde, s. An acorn. Prompt. 

Arch-dean, *. Used by Gascoigne 
for archdeacon. 

For bishops, prelates, aich-deans, deans, 
and priestcs. 

Steel. Glac. Cludm. Poets, ii, 558, a. 

Archdiacre, s. (A.-N.) An arch- 

Archer, s. The bishop at chess 
was formerly so called. 

Archet, s. An orchard. JVilts. 

Archewives, «. Wives of a su- 
perior order. 

Ye arckewyves. stondith at defens, 

Syu ye ben strong as is a greet cliamayle, 

Ne suffre not tliac men vow drxi offens. 

C/ia'ucer, Cant. T., 9071. 

Archideclixe. The name given 
to the master of the feast at the 
marriage in Cana. 




Archimastrye, s. a term applied 
to chemistry, as the most im- 
portant of all sciences. Ash- 
mole's Theat. Chem. Brit., p. 13. 

Architect, s. Architecture. 

To finde an house y-built for holy deed, 

■ With goodly architect and cloisters wide. 

Browne's Jirit. taatorals, 1625. 

Architemples, s. Chief temples. 
Rob. Glouc, p. 74. 

Archmastrie, s. Arithmetic. 

Arch-pife, s. The throat. This 
word occurs in Florio's New 
World of Words, 1611, p. 36. 

Arcubalister, s. (Lat.) An arba- 
lester. Holinshed. 

Ard, 1 adj. (1) High: used 
AiRD, j chiefly in the names of 
places. In Cumberland the term 
is used to describe the quality of 
a place, a country, or a field ; 
thus, ard land means a dry, 
parched, arid soil ; apparently a 
secondary sense, such lands being 
dry, parched, etc., only because 
thev lie high. 
(2)' Hard. Rob. Glouc. 

Ardelion, 8. {Lat. ardelio.) A 
busy-body, a meddler. 

Ardelions, busie-bodies, as we are, it 
were much fitter for us to be quiet, sit 
Btill, and take our ease. 

Burton, Anat. of Mel., i, 250. 

Arden, *. Fallow quarter. Cumb. 
See Arders. 

Aroene, 8. An ordinance ; a com- 

Ardentnesse, 8. Earnestness. 

Arder, ». Akindof fish. Versiegan, 
in Ellis's Literary Letters, p. 108. 

Arders, 1 ».(y/.-5.)Fallowingsor 
ARDOURS, J ploughings of ground. 

And being in the tovvne, let him not 
goe to see any man therein, except it 
oe in winter, or at such time ns wlieii 
his harvest is in, and bis seede time 
and first arder lie dispatcht, to tlie end, 
that by one and the same nieanes he 
may attend upon bis causes in con- 
troversie, and goe about the getting in 
of his debts. 
ilarkhaitt. The Countrie Farme, p. 27, 
ed. 1600. 

Ardi, adj. Hardy. Ardiliche, 

Ardure, *. {A.-N.) Burning. 
Are. (1) s. An oar. 

His maister than thai fand 
A hot and an are. 

Sir Triitrem, p. 153. 

(2) 8. A hare. 

(3) adv. Before. 

Ne scije y never are 

So wilde l)est y-wrought. 

Sir Trislrem, F. I, st. xlii. 

(4) V. To plough. Kersey gives 
this as a provincial form of the 
word. See Ere. 

(5) s. An heir. 

(6) a. (A.-S.) Honour ; dignity. 

Dame, he seyde, be Goddys are. 
Haste any money tliou woldyst ware? 
Rilson'a Pop. Poet., p. 70. 

(7) s. A note in music, the lowest 
but one in Guido's scale. 

(8) 8. {A.-S.) Mercy. 

Swcte Ysoude, thin are. 
Thou preye the king for me. 

Sir Tristrem, p. 241. 

(9) s. An hour. Lane. 

^^^^^^\v. {A.-S. areedan.) To 

^ ' I declare ; to explain. 

AREDE, J ' '^ 

Therefore more plain aread tliis doubtful 

Spenser, Daphnaida, 1. 182. 

And many perils doth to us areed 
In that whereof we seriously entreat. 

Drayt., Moses B., ii, p. 1584-, 

F. Sad swain aread, if that a maid may 

What cause so great effects of grief hath 

wrought? Brit. Pastoralf. 

Areadiness, 8. Readiness. 
Aready, ready. 

Arear, adv. Upright. Kent. 

Arearage, s. {A.-N.) The re- 
mainder of an unpaid account; 
money unpaid at the time when 
due. Cowell says, "it signifieth 
the remain of an account, or a 
sum of money remaining in the 
hands of an accountant." 

Areare, "I adv. {A.-N.) Behind ; 
arrear, J in default. 




To tilt and turney, wrestle in the sand, 
To leave wit, speed Atlanta in arrear. 

Fairf. T., ii, 40. 

But when his force pin faile, liis pace pan 
wex areare. Sp., F. Q., Ill, vii, 24. 

Areaut, 1 adv. Out of doors. 

REAWT, J Yorish. and Lane. 
Areche, v. (1) {J.-S. arecan, to 
declare.) To utter; to declare. 

But as sone as Beryn bad pleyne know- 

That his eyen were y-lost, unneth he mycht 

O word for pure anguvshe. 

B'ist. of Beryn, 1. 2999. 

(2) {^A.-S. areccan, to explain.) 

Crist and Seint Stcvene, 

Quoth Horn, areche tliv s«evene. 

K. Horn, 1. 668. 

(3) {A.-S. arcBcan, to reach to.) 
To reach ; to attain. 

He that wyle further streche 
Than hys schetyn wyl areche, 
lathe strau he chalhvs feet feclie. 

Harl. MS., So. 8362, fol. 4, r. 

On foot he was, and he on layde ; 
Manye under liys hand ther deyde, 
Al that hys ax areche myirht, 
Hors and man he slowgfi dounrvglit. 

Richard.'l 7039. 

Areckellt, adv. Directly. /. cf 

Aredde, r. (^A.-S. akreddan.) To 

Ab£de, v. (A.-S. aradan.) (1) To 

guess; to explain or interpret. 

See Aread. 

a tliousand bugles of Ynde, 

And two tliousand oxen, als I fynde ; 
Withouten horses, withouten steden, 
Of whiche no man ne coutlie areden 
The nombre, bot the hevene kyng. 
That woot the sotlie of al thing. 

K. Jlisaunder, 1. 5115. 

To gease and arede upon his dark ridles. 

Sir T. More's Works, p. 515 

(2) To advise ; to give counsel to ; 
to apprize ; to give warning of. 
Peculiar to Spenser. 

Therefore to me, my trusty friend, arede 
Thy counsel : two is better tlian one head. 
Mother Hubberd's Tale,'f. 5. 
Artad, said he, which way did he make ? 

t. q., V, i, 19. 

Aredoe, s. The sharp edge of the 

angle. North. 
Aredily, adv. Easily; readily, 
Aredv, adj. Ready. 

And that we hys mote aredy have, 
Lord, her at ourt- nede. 

William de Shoreham. 

Aredynes, s. Readiness. 
Areed, *. Counsel ; advice. 
Arehthe, 8. {A.-S. yrhi.) Fear, 

Ah neotheles, in one felde. 
Mid belde worde, an mid ilete, 
Detli his i-vo for arehthe swete. 

Hule and Xi/r/hliiu/aU, 1. 1704. 

Areight, pret. of areche. Struck. 
Areise, ». To raise. 

Ful wroth than that werwolf wax of that 

And bremlv his bristeles he san tlio areise. 
irniiam and the WcrtcolJ, p. 156. 

Are-lumes,s. Heir-looms. North. 
Arely, adv. Early ; soon. 
Aren, prest. of be. Are, 
Arexde, s. {A.-S. cerend.) An er- 
rand ; a message. 
Arenge, 1 adv. (A.-N.) On a row ; 
arenk, j in a series. "Arenge, or 
arowe. Seriatim." Prompt. Parv. 

And ladde him and his mouekes 

Into a welfair li;ille. 
And sette hem adouii arenlc. 

And wosclie here fet uUe. 

St. Brandan, p. 12. 

Arenulous, adj. {Lat.) Full of 
fine sand. 

Arerage, «. (.r^.-iV.) Arrear. "The 
remain of an account, or a sum 
of money remaining in the hands 
of an accountant." Cowell. 

Arere, 1 ». {A.-S. arceran.) To 
AREAR, J raise ; to rear, as a horse. 

And yeve us grace goodnesse to lere 
Of ham that before us were, 
Crysteudom how tliey goiine arere. 

Octocian, 1. 21. 

Arere, adv. (A.-N.) (1) Back- 
wards; behind. 

My blaspheming now have I bought ful 

All yerthly joie and mirthc I set arere. 

Testament of Creseide, 353^ 




(2) Back. A term in hare-hunt- 
ing, used when the hounds were 
let loose. 

That all maye h ym here, he shall saye arere. 
Book of St. Albans. 

(3) V. To retreat. 

Arese, v. (from A.-S. areosian, to 
fall down, perish.) To totter. 

Tliourgli themouht the fom was wight, 
The tusches in the tre he smit ; 
The tre aresede as hit wold falle, 
The herd was sori adrad witlialle. 

Setyn Sages, 1. 915. 

Areson, v. {A.-N. aresoner, to in- 
terrogate, to reason.) To inter- 
rogate; to reason, or debate, with. 

Ther foure at Konie were, to areson the 

The ri;;lit for to declare, and for the parties 
to scliape. Langtoft, p. 314. 

Sir, he seyd, we han gon mis, 
Sche hatli aresoun ous biforn. 

Legend of Seynt Katerine, p. 181. 
As the kyng rod with duykes and eorlis, 
He mette with two olde clieorhs. 
To the navel theo herd heng : 
Tlius aresoned heom the kyng. 
Sey me now, ye olde liore ! 
(Mony day is seotlie ye weore bore,) 
Wite ye eghwar by my weyes, 
Any merveilles by this wayes. 

Alisaunder, 1. 6751. 

Arest, (\)s.{A.-N.) Arrest; con- 
straint; delay. 

(2) pres. t. of arede. Relatest. 

Palmer, ryglitly thou arest 

AUe tlie maner. 
Darst thou ryde upon thys best 

To the ryvere, 
And water hym that tliou ne falle? 
Octovian Imperalor, 1425. 

(3) adj. Rancid. Prompt. Parv. 
Akeste, v. {A.-N.) To stop. 

And ther ourc host bigan his hors areste, 
And seyde, Lordus, herkeneth if vow Icsie. 
Chaucer, Cant. T., 829. 

Arestnesse, ». Rancidity. "Arest- 
we*seofflesshe. Rancor. Rancitas." 
Prompt. Parv. See Reasty. 

Arestogie, s. Apparently the name 
ofanherb. Archceoloffia,xxx,'iO'i. 

Arethede, *. (A.-S.) Honour. 

Aretik, 8. Arthritica. " Gowte 
aretik." Medical MS. 14th cent. 

Arette,! ». (A.-N.) (1) To im- 
• arete, J pute ; to attribute, allot, 
or decree. A person was arretted 
who was " covenanted before a 
judge, and charged with a crime." 
Cowell, Interpreter, 1658. 

And yf there be ony thyng wreton 
or sayd to her playsir, y shall thynke 
my labour well employed ; and were as 
tlier is defawte, that "slie arette liyt to 
the symplenes of my connynge, whiche 
is ful smalleinthisbehalve, and requyre 
and praye alle them that shall rede this 
same werke to correct hyt, and hold me 

Caxton, in Herbert's Ames, i, 6. 

As keepers of the church, judges, and 
right sovereign bishops, which do arete 
the arms of the church and of the whole 
world unto their proper glorv. 

ridlpot's Works, p. 350. 

(2) To value, to esteem. 
Arevant, adv. Back again. 
The meyn shalle ye nebylle, 
And I shalle syug the trebille, 
Arevant the deville, 
Tille alle this hole rowte. 

Towneley Mysteries, p. 319. 

Arew, adv. {A.-S.) In a row. 
Arewe, v. {A.-S.) (1) To pity. 

Jhesu Christ arew hem sore. 
Ant seide he wolde vacclie hem there. 
Harrowing of Hell, p. 15. 

(2) To make to repent ; to grieve. 

The mayster mason moste be ful securly 
Bothe stedefast, trusty, and trwe, 
Hyt shal hym never thenne arewe. 

Const, of Masonry, p. 15. 

.T,^„r.\' (A.-S.) Arrows. 
arewes, J ^ ^ 

Areyne, v. {A.-N.) To arrest. 
Arfe, adj. {A.-S.) Afraid ; back- 
ward. North. See Argh. 

Whaugli, mother, how she rowts ! Ise varra 

Shee'l put and rive my good prunella scarfe. 
Yorkshire Dialogue, p. 35. 

Arg, v. {I) To argue. West. 

(2) To quarrel. Northampt. 

(3) To grumble. Sttssex. 
Argabushe, s. A harquebuss. 
Argaile, s. {A.-N.) Potter's earth. 

See Argoil, 




Ay, I know you have arsenic. 
Vitriol, sal-tartar, argaile, alkali. 

Ben Jotuon's Alchemist, i, 1. 

Argal. (1) "Hard lees sticking to 
the sides of wine vessels, and 
otherwise called tartar." Kersey. 
See Argoil. 

(2) Used by Shakespeare as a 
vulgar corruption of ergo. 

Argemone, s. (^Lat.) The wild 

Argent, ». (A.-N.) Silver. 

Argentil, *. {A.-N.) The herb 
percepiere, according to Gerard. 

Argentina, s. {Lai.) The wild 

Argentine, adj. {Lot.) Silver-like; 
composed of silver; silver. 

Argent-vive, s. (Fr.) Quicksilver. 

Argh, \adj. {A.-S. earff.) Timid; 
ARWE, J fearful ; indolent. 
Now tliow seist he is the baste knyght, 
That may beore armes in fyglit. 
Tliou saist soth, hardy, and hard. 
And thou art as arwe coward. 

K. JlUaunder, 1. 3340. 
Frensche men am arwe, and feyute, 
And Sarezynys be war and queyute ; 
And of her dedes engynous : 
The Frensche men be covavtous. 

Bic'hard, 1. 3821. 
jif he i-sith that thu nart are^, 
He wile of bote wrchen barej. 

Hule and Ny^tingale, 1. 407. 

Arghe, \v. (A.-S. eargian.) To 

ARjE, J wax timid. 
Antenor arghet with onstere wordes, 
liade doute of the duke and of his dethe 

Lest the tyrand in his tene hade lurnyt 

hym to sle. Siege of Troy, MS., f. 33. 

Arghnes,! Sluggishness. 


Arghnes also me thinke is hard. 
For that niase a man a coward ; 
That mai be cald litilhcde 
Of troste of helpe in goode dede. 
Nasigngton's Mgrrour, MS. Hunt, {. 29 b. 

Argier. The old form of Algiers. 
Argin, s. {Ital. argine.) An em- 
bankment ; a rampart. 

It must have high argins and cover'd ways, 
To keep the bulwark fronts from battery. 
Marlotcc't Woris, i, 128. 

Argisome, adj. Quarrelsome. 

Argoile, 8. {Fr. argille ?) An 
article used in alchemical opera* 
tions.the exact character of which 
seems to be doubtful. It has 
been taken as signifying potter's 
earth; but it seems to be more 
properly the impure salt de- 
posited from wine ; which, when 
purified, is called bitartrate of 
potash, or cream of tartar. 

Argolets, \ {Fr.) Light 
argoletiers, J horsemen. 

Argology, s. (Gr. dpydkoyia-) 
Idle speaking. 

Argos, g. {Fr.) The small false 
toes at the back of the foot, ap- 
plied to animals. 

Argosie, s. (supposed to be de- 
rived from the name of the ship 
j4rgo.) A large ship, either for 
merchandise or war. 
Wlio sits him like a fuU-sail'd argosie 
Dauc'd with a lofty billow. 

Chapm. Byron's Consp. 
That golden traffic love, 

Is scantier far than gold ; one mine of that 

More worth than twenty argosies 

Of the world's richest treasure. 

Bowleg's New Wonder, Anc. Br., v, 236. 
My instance is a mighty argosie. 
That in it bears, besides th' artillery 
Of fourscore pieces of a mighty bore, 
A thousand soldiers. 

Drayton, Noah's Flood, iv, p. 1539. 

Argue, v. {Fr.arguer, to reprove.) 
To find fault with. 
The false Matabrune began to caste an 
eye on her, and repreved her of the faute 
that her selfe had made, arguing her 
without a cause, and saide, O unhappi 
and miserable woman. Eelyas, p. 28. 

Argufy, "1 v. To argue. Far. dial. 

ARGiFY, J The country people in 

the Midland Counties often say 

*' what argifies ?" in the sense of, 

" what signifies it ? 

Argument, (1) ». (Fr.) To argue. 

(2) s. Conversation. 

(3) A given arch, whereby an- 
other is determined proportional 
to the first. 




As ben his ceutris, and his argvmentis, 
Aud his proporcionels couvenientis. 

Chaucer, Cant. T., 11589. 

Argy, s. An argument ; an asser- 
tion. Shorpsh. Also, a person who 
is not only contentious, but per- 
tinacious in managing an argu- 

Ariches. a. pi. The ends of joists. 

Aride. See Arride. 

Ariereban, «. (^.-.V.) A general 
summons from the king to ail 
his vassals to appear in arms. 

Arietate, p. (ia/.) To butt like a 

Arietatiox, ». Butting. 

Ariete, s. Aries, one of the signs 
in the zodiac. 

Aright. Apparently the pret. of 
areche, and used in the sense of 
reached, effected, did, or per- 

Aripe, s. a kind of bird. 
He chasid aripes, briddes of Archadie. 

MS. Dlghy, 230. 

.\risixge, 8. {A.-S.) Resurrection. 

Ich y-leve ine the Holy Gost, holy 
cbercliK generalliclie, mennesse of hai- 
jeii, ksnesse of zeniies, of vlesse ariz- 
ini/e, and lyf evrelestinde. 

MS. Jrundtl 57, f. 91. 
Arist, Zd pers. s. of the pres. and 
pret. of arise. 
Foules in wode hem make blithe, 
In everich lond arist song. 

Arlhour and Merlin, p. 274. 
She wolde wulke upon a daye, 
Aud that Was er the Sonne arvst. 

Go'cer's Conf. Am., ed. 1532, f. 70. 

Ariste, «. (A.-S.) An arising. 
Ant stcpe adun ant spruptest helle; 
arise, ant thin ariste cuddest thine 
i-corene, ant stihealmven the steorren. 
MS. Reg., 17 A xxvii, f. 67. 
His np ariste do me stepeu upward 
in heie and lioli theawes. 

MS. Coll., Nero, A xiy. 
Aristippus, «. A sort of wine. 
O for a l)i>wl of fat canary, 
Kich AristippHS, sparkling sherry ! 
• Some nectar else from Juno's dairy; 
these draughts would make us merry ! 
Middleton's Works, ii, 423. 

Aristoloch, ». (Gr.) The plant 
called Round Hartwort. 

Arithmancie, *. {Gr.) Divination 
by numbers. 

Arivage, *. (A.-N.) The shore; 
landing place. 
And privilie toke arirage 
Into the coniitrie of Carthage. 

Chaucer, House of Fame, 1. 223. 

Arivaii.e,«. {A.-N.) Arrival. 

Ark, *.(1) {A.S.) A chest. In the 
northern counties, the large 
chests in farm-houses used for 
keeping meat or flour are still 
so called. 

Soth was, that he wolden him bynde, 
And trusse al that he mitheu fyude 
Of hise, in arii, or in kiste. 
That he mouth iu seckes tliriste. 

Hacelok, 1. 2018. 
Quen this com to the knilit was said. 
He did it in an arc to hald. 
And opened this arc the thrid day, 
And fand tharin selcouthe to say'e. 

MS. Coll. Med. Edinh 

(2) Clouds running into two 
points, thus (); more usually 
termed Noah's ark. 

(3) ». An arch. 

Arles, «. Money paid to bind a 
bargain ; earnest-money. To arle 
a bargain, to close it. See Airles. 

Arliche, adv. Early. 

Arling, s. a bird which appears 
sarly in the spring. 

An arling, a byrde that appeareth not 

in winter, a clo'tbyrde, a smatch, cteruleo. 

Buret's Ahearie, 1580. 

Arloop, ». The orlop, or middle 

deck of a ship. 
Arly, adv. {A.-S.) Early. East. 

And noglit over arty to mete at gang, 
Ne for to sit tharat over lang. 

MS. Colt., Galba, E, ix, f. 65. 

Arm, ». (1) Harm. 

So falle on the, sire emperour, 
Swich arm, and schanie, and desononr. 
Seryn Sages, 852. 

(2) r. To lard (in cookery). In 
Warner's Antiq. Culin., p. 26, 
we have a receipt in which it is 
directed that " cranes and hertns 




shal be armed witb lardes of 


(3) V. To take up in the arms. 
Arm, adj. (/t.-S.) Wretched. In 

writings of an early date. 
Arm AN, s. {Fr. armand.) A pre- 
paration given to horses to create 

an appetite. Diet. Rust. 
Armed, adj. Having arms. 

— As a lieated lion, so he looks ; 
His liair hangs long beliiud him, black and 

Like ravens' wings; his shoulders broad 

and strong ; 
Arm'd long and round; and on his thigh a 

Hung by a curious baldrick. 

B. and VI., Two Noh. Einsm. 

Armental, } adj. {Lat.) Relat- 
ARMEKTiNE, S ing to a herd of 
Armentose, adj. {Lat.) Abound- 
ing in cattle. 
Armesin-taffeta, s. a sort of 

taffata. Howell. 
Armet, s. a helmet. " Armet, a 
heed ese of harnesse." Pals- 
tave, f. 18. 
Arsi-gaunt, adj. Lean ; thin. As 
thin as an arm. 

— So he nodded. 
And soberly did mounlaiiar«i-ffaM>ii steed. 
Who neigh'd so high that what 1 would 

have spoke 
Was beastly dumb'd by him. 

Sliakesp., Ant. and CI., i, 5. 

Arm-gret, adj. As thick as a man's 

A wrethe of gold arm-gret, and huge of 

Upon his heed set fal of stones bright. 

Chaucer, Cant. T., 2147. 

Arm IN, s. A beggar ; formed from 
the Dutch arm, poor, to suit an 
assumed Dutch character. 
O hear, God! — so young an armin! 
St. Flow. Annin, sweet heart, I know not 

what you mean 
By that, but I am almost a beggar. 

Lonaon Prod., Supp. Sh., ii, 519. 

Armyn, «. Ermine. 

Armille, 8. {Lat. armilla.) A 
bracelet ; also, a necklace. 
After they had dronke he gave her twf 
tinges to hauge ou hei eeres weyenge 

i]. sycles.and as mtmj armyJletweytng 
X. sycles. Golden Legend, f. IC 

The king thus gird with his swerd, «n4 
standing, shall take armyll of the Car- 
dinall, saying thise words, acclpe armiU 
lam, and it is to wete that armyll is 
made iu maner of a stole wovyn with 
gold and set with stones, to be putt by 
the Cardinall aboute the kinges necke. 
Rutland Papers, p. 18i 

Arming, s. (1) A coat of arms. 
(2) A net hung about a ship's 
hull in battle, to protect the men 
from an enemy. 

Arming-girdle, g. A kind of 
sword girdle. Florio, in v. Selldne, 
mentions an arming -saddle. 

Arming-points, s. Short ends of 
strong twine, with points like 
laces, fixed under the armpits 
and bendings of the arms and 
knees, to fasten the gussets of 
mail which protected those 
parts of the body. 

Arming-sword, s. A two-handed 

And weening to hare play'd a young 
man's part. 

Girts to his a*min(i-sword with trem- 
bling hand. Peelt' s rarewM, lh89. 

Armipotent, ad/. (Lat.) Mighty 

in arms. 
Armite, ». {A.-N.) (1) A sort of 


On the iiij. corners of the waggon were 

iiij. lied peces called armites, every pece 

beyug of a suudery device. 

Hall, Henry VIII, UO. 

(2) A hermit. 

The armyte seyd. So mote thou go, 
Hast thou any othyr herand than so 
Onto mv lord the kvng? 

'Hartshorne's Mel. Tales, p ^04. 

Armivestal, adj. Warlike. 
By his armyveslal contenaunce he 
hive caused us to have fled. 

Morte d' Arthur, i, 110. 

Armlet,*. A bracelet. Armolets, 
armlets. Herbert's Travels, 1638. 
Armonical, adj. Harmonious. 

And in May whan the trees spryngeth 
and bring forthe the>T odiferaunte 
floures, and that the birdes bring their 
armonical tunes ou the smal grene 
twiges. Eelyat, p. 16. 




Armony, s. Harmony. Lydgate. 

Also, a corruption of the name of 

a country, Armenia. 
Armorwe, 1 t^ , 
ARNEMORWE,}'- E^rly moming. 

An armorvce erliche 
Tliemperour aros sikerl'rhe. 

Gy of Warvncke, p. 117. 
Bifor Gormoise that cite 
Ou amemonce than come we. 

Ih., p. 184. 

Armure, s. (A.-N.) Armour. 

Arms, s. Stabbing or daggering of 
arms. Young men frequently 
punctured their arms with dag- 
gers, to show their devout attach- 
ment to their mistresses, and 
mingling the blood with wine, 
drank it off to their healths. 
This explains a passage in the 
Litany to Mercury, at the end of 
Ci/nf/iia's Revels : " From stab- 
bingofarms, flap-dragons, healths, 
whiffs, and all such swaggering 
humours, good Mercury de- 
liver us." 

Have I not been drunk to your liealth, 
Birallowed flap-dra»ons, eat trlasses, 
drank urine, stabb'd arms, and done nil 
the offices ot protested gallantry for your 
sake ? Jlarston's Dutch Courtezan. 

How many gallants hare drank healths 

to me 
Oat of their dagger' d armt f 

Honest Wk., O. f., iii, 299. 

Armwrys, «. Armour. 

Behold the armv!rys which mude myn 
herte quake ! 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 260. 
Arm-wrist, *. The wrist. Comw. 

. "' > pres.t. pl.oi be. Are. 

OfTlsiihes it is scene that dyvers ther 
ar)ie, ilie which forseene not the causis 
precedent and subsequent. 

Heame's Fragment, p. 298. 
In Brytayn this layes arne y-wrjtt, 
Furst'y-founde and forthe v-sete. 

Sir Urplieo, 13. 

Arxe, 0. (1) To earn. Shropsh. 

(2) V. (J.-S.) To run ; to flow. 

K ilo!. erl of Gloucester, also in hys side 

Amde, and kepte her and tlier, and slow 

ii-liouie wyde. Rub. Glouc, p. 140. 

Now rist grete tabour betyng, 
Blaweyng of pypes, and ei. trumpyng, 
Stedes lepyng.'and ek arnyng. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 9166. 

(2) *. {A..S.) An eagle. 

(3) For e'er a one. West. 
Arnaldie, s. {Medieval Lat. amal- 

dia.) A kind of disease, men- 
tioned in the early chronicles. 

Arnary-cheese, s. Ordinary 
cheese made of skimmed milk. 

Arn'd, 1 s. {A..S.) An errand ; 
ARNEDE, J a message. 

Arnderx, «. The evening. See 

When the sad arndem shutting in the 
light. i)ray<o»'j Oic/, ed. 1748, p. 410. 

Arneied, part. p. Broken with 
running ? 

The Iiors was nought i-paied wel. 
He arnede away with the king, 
Thourgh felde and wode withoaten 

And in a mnre don him cast. 
Almost he hadde deied in hast. 
Ac er hii wonne the stede 
Bopes in the contrd thai leide, 
Ac never sithe, witlioute fable, 
Ne com the stede out of the stable. 
So sore he was arneied that tide, 
Siththe dorste no man on him ride. 

Beds ofHamtoun, p. 79. 

Arn'ement, s. {A.-N.) Ink. 

Arnemorwe, adv. Early morning. 
See .-{rmorwe. 

Arneste, s. Earnest money. 
Prompt. Parv. 

Arneys, ». Harness; armour. 

Arxs. The form ofarles, or earnest 
money, prevalent in Lancashire. 

Arnt. (1) A contraction of have 
not ; am not. Var. dial. 
(2) s. An errand. Lane. 

Arnut, s. The earth-nut, or pig- 
nut. North. 

Aroint, interj. A word of expul- 
sion, or avoiding. It occurs in 
Shakespeare, and has been the 
subject of much discussion. 

Aromate, 1 , r . , . 

AROMAZ, l*-.(^'- <'^oma.) A 

AROME, J'P''^^- 

ARO 100 


The tother to mirre, the thridde to flonr, 
The ferthe like to aroHta/«. 

Cursor Mwndi. 

Also he that in renaying lyse, 
Eftyr he be amonest thryse, 
Or aromes beres fro tliat he 
Tlirvse of hys bysschope amonest be. 

Hampole, 3IS. Bovoes, B. 7, P- 10. 
Aron, s. Starchwort. 
Arost, adv. Roasted. 
Thenne mot ych habbe henuen arost. 

Political Songs, p. 151. 

Aroume, ) adv. (^-5.) At a dis- 
AROOM, > tance ; apart from. 
The geaunt aroume he stode, 

His bond he tint, y-wis ; 

He fleighe as he were wode, 

Ther that the castel is. 

Sir Tristrem, F. Ill, st. vi. 
Tho Alisaunder sygh this, 
Aroum anon he drow, y-wis. 

jr. Alisaunder, 1. 1637. 

Aroun, adv. Around. Still used 

in the North. 
Arocte. (1) To go; to move 


In all that lond no Christin durst arout. 
Urry's Chaucer, p. 53. 

(2) An assembly. Gower. 
Arove, (1) adv. Rambling about; 

on the rove. Craven. 

(3) pret. of arive. Arrived. 

In Thamis arote, wher he had ful sharpe 
shores. Eardyng's Chron., f. 36. 

Arow, > adv. In a row, suc- 
AROvyE, > cessively. See Arew. 
This day and yesterday I told arowe. 
That six and thirty they had y-slowe. 

Richard Cceur de L., 1. 1787. 
My master and his man are both broke 

Beaten the maids arow, and bound the 
doctor. Shakesp. Com. ofE., v, 1. 
Thabot present him a sehip 
Ther that raani stode arouwe. 

Legend of Pope Grey., p. 31. 

Arowze, v. {Fr. arroser.) To be- 
dew; to water anything. 
The blissful dew of heaven does arovcze you. 
Beaum. and Fl., Two Nob. Kinsm., v, 4. 

Arpent, «. {Fr.^ An acre. " Halfe 
an arpent, that is, nine hundreth 
foote of ground." Hollyband's 
Dictionarie, 1593. 

Arpeys, «. A sort of resin, com- 
posed of tallow and tar. ArchaO' 
logia, XXX, 404. 
Arpies, «. Harpies ; furies. 
Arpine, s. {Fr.) An acre. 
If he be master 
Of poor ten arpincs of land forty hours 
longer. Webster's Works, ii, 82. 

Arpit, adj. Quick ; ready ; pre- 
cocious in learning. Shropsh. 
Arr, (1) «. A mark or seam, made 
bv a flesh-wound ; a pock or scar. 

(2) V. To incite; to egg on; to 
quarrel. Northampt. 
Arra, HI) /;ron. Either. North- 
ARR, } ampt. 
(2) adv. Ever. Northampt. 
Arra-one, or arrun, either one, 
ever a one. 
Arrable, adj. Horrible. 
Arrabys, «. Arabian horses. 
Elfaydes and arrabys, 
Andolyfaunlez noble. 

Morte Arthure. 

Arracies, s. (A.-N.) A term ap- 
plied to the smaller animals of 
the chase, which were skinned, 
similarly to the process now 
used for hares and rabbits, in 
opposition to flayed. 

Arrage, (1) s. {A.-N. arage.) Vas- 
sal service in ploughing the lord's 

(2) V. (A.-N. arrager.) To go 
about furiously. 

Arrahind, adv. Around. StaJ^. 

Arraign, v. To arrange. Webster. 

Arrals, s. Pimples; pocks. Cumb. 

Arrand, U. An errand. 


Arrant, {\) part. a. {A.-N.) Er- 
rant; wandering. 
(2) adj. Notorious ; as an arrant 

Arras, s. A kind of powder, sup- 
posed to be made of the root of 
the orris. It is mentioned as a 
material used in brewing, and 
also as a powder for sprinkling 
the hair. 




Arraught, prel. of arreach. 
Reached ; seized by violence. 

Ab.raughte, p. (from Fr. ar- 
racher.) To snatch. 

Arraye, r. (1) {A.-N. arrayer.) 
To prepare ; to arrange. 
i'or whoso will make a feste to ony of 
liis frendes, tliere ben certeyn inues in 
every gode touiie, and he that wil make 
the feste, wil seye to the hosteliere, 
arraye for me to morwe a gode dyner, 
for so many folk. Maundetile's Travels, 
ed. 1S39, p. 214. 

(2) To dirty; to defile; to be- 

ray. Palsgrave. Also, to spot 

anything. lb. See Araye. 
Arrawig, *. An earwig. North- 

.\rrawiggle, s. An earwig. Suff. 
Arrayers,*. Officers who had the 

care of the soldiers' armour. 
Arre, v. To snarl. 
Arrear, adv. {A.-N.) Behind. 

To leave with speed Atlanta in arrear 

Fair/. Tajso, ii, 40. 

Ne ever did her eye sight turn arere. 

Spenser, Virgil's G«ai.,v, 468. 

Arreche, 1 t>. To reach. See 
ARREACH, J Areche. 
Conferred them, and the letters ad- 
dressed to the kinges majesl€ oute of 
Ireland, togithers; whiche we have 
wayed, debated, and considered, as farre 
as our poure wyttes can arreche. 

Slate Papers, i, 671. 

Arrect, v. {Lat.) (1) To impute. 
Therfore he arrecteth no blame of theyr 
dedes unto them. 

Sir Thomas Mor^t Wbrlet, p. 271. 

(2) To refer. 

Arrectinge unto your wvse examinacion 

How all that I do is under refformation. 

Skelton's Works, i, 378. 

(3) To direct. "I arecte, I 
adresse a thyng in the ryght 
wave, jadresse ; Be nat afrayde 
if thou be out of the wave thou 
shalte 1)6 arrected, Naies poynt 
de paour si tu es fiors du chemyn 
iu seras adresse." Palsgrave. 

(4) To erect or set up anvthiug. 

Arredy, v. To make ready. 
Arreise, \v. To raise. See 

AREYSE, j Araise. 
Arrer, adv. Rather. NortlMtnpt. 
Arrere, "1 V. (A.-S.) To rear ; ta 
ARREAR, J raise. See Arere. 
And out of Surrye, and out of Turkye, 
and out of other contrees tliat he holt, 
he may arrere mo than 50,000. 

MawtdetiWs Traiels, p. 33. 

And in tlie west parte of the saide walle 
he arrered a fayre and stronge r.ite. and 
commanded it to be called Luddys Gate, 
whiche at this day is deped Luddegate. 
Fabian's Chronicle, f. 32. 

Arrere, adj. Strange ; wonderful. 

Akre RE-SUPPER, 8. (Fr.) A rere- 

supper ; a collation served up in 

the bed-room, after the first 

Arresond. Reasoned with. See 


Of the customes of Sarasines, and of 

hire lawe ; and how the Soudan arresond 

me, auctour of this book. 

MauudeTiWs Travels, p. 131. 

Arret, p. (Fr. arreter.) To de- 
cree, or appoint. Spenser. 

Arretted. " Is he," says Cowell, 
"that is covenanted before a 
judge, and charged with a crime." 
See his Interpreter, fol., Lond., 
1658. It is translated by " ad 
rectum vocatus," in Rider's Dic- 
tionarie, 1640. 

Arride, v. (Laf. arrideo.) To 
please ; to amuse. 
'Fore heav'ns his humour arrides me ex- 

Fveri/ Man out of his Humour, ii, 1. 

Her form answers my affection, it 
arrides me exeeedinglv. • 

The Antiquary, O. P., x, 32. 

This is a good, pretty, apish, dorible 
fellow; really he might have made a 
very pretty barber surgeon, if he had 
been put out in time ; but it arrides rae 
extreamlv to think how he will be bob'd. 
Skadtcell, The Humorists, 1771. 

Arridge, a. The edge of anything 
that is liable to hurt or cause an 
arr. North. 




Arriere, «. (^Fr.) The hinder 

part ; the rear. 
Arrishes,s. The Devonshire term 

for stubble or eddish. 
Arrivance, s. (A.-N.) (1) The 
arrival of company. 
For every minute is expectancy 
Of more arritance. Othello, ii, 1. 

(2) Original abode of a family. 
"I say, mate, which parish do 
you belong to ?" " I can't justly 
say, but father's arrivance was 
fram Sheperd's-vvell." (Sibberts- 
wold.) Kent. 

Arrive, s. Arrival. 

Whose forests, hills, aod floods, then long 
for her arrive 

From Lancashire. 

Drayt., Polyolb., Song, 28. 

These novice lovers at their first arrive 
Are bashful! 'ootli. 

Syhester't Du Bartas, 212. 

So small a number can no warre pretend, 
Therefore their strange arrive they ueede 

not feare. 
As farre as doth their hemisphere extend, 
They view the sea, but see no shipping 

neare. Great Britaine's Troy, 1609. 

The verb arrive is sometimes 

used in an active form, without 

the preposition. 

But ere we could arrive the point propos'd, 

Caesar cried. Help me, Cassius, or 1 sink. 

Shakesp.Jul. C, i,2. 

Milton has adopted this form : 
Ere he arrite » 

Tlie happy isle. Par. Lost, ii. 

Arrode, v. (Lat.) To gnaw. 
Arrogation, s. (Lat.) Arrogance. 

Arronly, adv. Exceedingly. Lane. 
Arrose, r. (Fr. arroser.) To wet; 

to bedew, 

— your day is lengtlien'd, and 
The blissful dew of heaven does arrose yon. 
Bcaum. and Fl. 
His nav7e greate, witli many soudjoures. 
To sayle anone into this Bntayn made. 
In Thamis arrose, wber he had ful sharpe 

Hardyng's Chron., ed. Ellis, p. 76. 

Arrow, at^'. (A.-S.) Fearful. Ri. 
der. See Argh. 

Arrow-headers,*. Manufactir* 
ers of arrow-heads. 

Lanterners, stryn^ers, grynders, 
Arowe-heders, maliemen, and come- 

CocTce Lorelles Bote, p. 10. 

Arry, adj. Any. Somerset. 
Arryn, ». To seize. Coventry 

Mysteries, p. 316. 
Ars, s. {A.-N.) Art ; science. 

Gregorii coutlie not wel his pars, 
And wele riid and songe in lawe. 
And understode wele liis ars. 

Legend of Pope Gregory, p. 25. 

The seven arts, or sciences, of 
the schools were Arithmetic, 
Geometry, Music, Astronomy, 
Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic; 
and these were the arts, par ex- 
cellence, understood in the aca- 
demical degrees, and in ancient 
scholastic education. A " master 
of arts " meant a proficient in 
these seven arts. They are enu- 
merated in the following lines : 

Throjh hye grace of Crist yn heven. 
He commeused yn the syens seven ; 
Gramatica ys the furste syens y-wysse, 
Dialetica tlie secunde so liave y blysse, 
Rethorica the thrydde, wiihoute nay, 
Musica ys the fowrthe, as y jow say, 
Astromia ys the v. by my snowte, 
Arsnietica the vi. withoute dowte, 
Gemetria the seventhe maketh an ende, 
For he vs bothe meke and hende. 

MS. Bib. Reg., 17 A I, fol. 23. 

Arsard, 1 adj. Unwilling ; per- 
ARSET, J verse. Var. dial. 

Arsbawst, s. a fall on the back. 

Arsboord, 8. The hinder board of 
a cart. Staff. 

Arsedine, "I 
assaden, I s. A kind of orna- 
assady, ^-mental tinsel. See 
orsady, I Assad. 


Are you puffed up with the pride of 
your wares ? — yoiu: arsedine ? 

Barth. Fair, ii, 2. 
A London vintner's signe, thick jagged 
and round fringed, with tlieaming 
arsadine. Nash's Lenten Stuff. 

Arsefoote. a small water-fowl; 




given as the translation of " mer- 
giilus " in Higins's Junmi, ed. 
1585, p. 60. 

Arseling-pole, s. The pole vrith 
which bakei's spread the hot 
embers to all parts of the oven. 

Arselin's, adv. Backwards. Norf. 

Arsexick, s. The water-pepper. 
" Water-pepper, or arsenicke : 
some call it kill-ridge, or cule- 
rage." Nomenclator, 1585. 

Arsepush, s. a fall on the back. 

Arsesmabt, ». The persicaria, or 
water-pepper, called in old 
French culrage. See Arsenick. 

Arseverse, s. " A pretended 
spell, written u])on the door of 
an house to keep it from burn- 
ing." Blount's Glossoffraphia, ed. 

ARSEWARD,aff». Backward. Cumb. 

Arsewispe, s. Rider gives this 
word as the translation of aniter. 

Arsle, v. To move backwards; to 
fidget. East. 

Arsmetrik, *. Arithmetic. 

And arsmetryJc, be castyn;; of nonibrary, 
Chees Pyktcgoras for her parte. 

LyJijale's Minor Poems, p. 11. 

Arsomever, adv. However. Leic. 

Arsoun,"! «. (y^.-A\) The bow of 
ARSON, va saddle; each saddle 
ARSUN, J having two arsouns, one 
in front, the other behind. 

An ax lie lieute of metall broun 
Tliat heiig on liys forniest arsoun. 

Octovian, 1. 1106. 
An ax lie hente boun, 
Thai lieng at liya arsoun. 

Lybeaus Disconus, 1. 1323. 
He karf his heorte and liis pomoi), 
And threow him over arsun. 

K. Mlsaunder, 1. 4375. 
Sir Launcelot gave liini such a buffet, 
tliat tlie arson of his saddle broke, and 
80 he flew over liis horse's tail. 

Malory, H. of K. Arthur, v. i, p. 190. 
Sir Launcelot passed tlirough tliera, and 
lightly lie turned him in again, and 
Bniote another kniglit tliroughout the 

body, and through the horse's arson 
more than an ell. Ih., p. 370. 

In the following example it seems 
to be used for the saddle itself: 
He schof liini quycly adoun, 
And leop hiniseoif in the arsoun. 

K. AUsaunder, 1. 4251. 

Arst, adv. {A.-S. esrest.) First ; erst. 
And pride in richesse regneth 
Ratlier than in poverte-. 
Arst in the maister than in the man 
Sora mansion he havctli. 

Piers PL, p. 287. 

Akstable,». An astrolabe. 

Hi,« arstabU he tok out sone. 
Tlieo cours he tok of sonne and mone, 
Tlieo cours of the planetis seven, 
He tolde also undur heven. 

K. AUsaunder, 287. 

Arston, s. a li^rth-stone. 

Arsy-versy, adv. Upside down ; 

preposterously. Drayton. 
Art, (1) s. a quarter; a point of 

the compass. North. 

(2) Eight. Exmoor. 
Arte, "I v. {Lat. arcto.) To con- 
ARCT, J strain ; compel ; urge. 

And ore all this, ful mokil more he thought 
What fortospeke, andwhattoholden inne, 
And wliat to artin her to love he sought. 

C/mucer, Tr. and Cres., Urry, p 272. 
Love artid me to do my observaunce 
To his estate, and done him obcisaunce. 

Court of Love, Urry, p. 560. 
Wherthrugh, they be artyd by neces- 
sity so to watch, labour, and grub in the 
giouiide for their siistenauiice, that tlieir 
nature is much wastid, and the kynd of 
tliem brought to nowglit. 
Furlescue on Absolute Monarchy, p. 23. 

Arteen. Eighteen. Exmoor, 
Artemage, s. The art of magic. 

And through the crafte of artemage. 
Of wexe lie forged an ymage. 

Got«!«r,ed. 1532, f. 138. 

Arter, prep. After. Var. dial. 
Artetykes, s. (Gr.) A disease 

affecting the joints; a sort of 

Arth-staff, s. a poker used by 

blacksmiths. Shropsh. 
Arthur, s. A game at sea, de- 

scribed in Grose. 




Arthur-a-bradley. a very po- 
pular old song, frequently re- 
ferred to. Three songs are still 
preserved relating to this hero. 
One of them is published in Rit- 
son's edition of Robin Hood, and 
another may be seen in Dixon's 
Ancient Poems, p. 161. 

Arthur's-show. An exhibition of 
archery by a toxophilite society 
in London, of which an account 
was published in 1583, by Richard 
Robinson. The associates were 
fifty. eight "in number, and had 
assumed the arms and names of 
the Knights of the Round Table. 

Article, s. (1) Comprehension. 

(2) A p&or creature ; a wretched 

Articulate, v. {Lat.) To exhibit 
in articles. 

Artier, «. (Fr.) An artery. 

Artificial, adj. Ingenious ; art- 
ful ; skilful in art. 

Artillery, g. This word was for- 
merly applied to all kinds of 
missile weapons. 

Artnoon, s. Afternoon. Essex. 

Art-of-memory, «. An old game 
at cards. Compleat Gamester, ed. 
1709, p. 101. 

Artow, v. Art thou ; a common 
contraction of the verb and pro- 
noun in MSS. of the 14th cent., 
and siill preserved in the dialects 
of the North of England. 

Artry, \a. Apparently a con- 

attry, J traction of ar/«//ery. See 

Nichols's Roy. Wills, pp. 28 4 , 288. 

Artuate, v. {Lat.) To tear mem- 
ber from member. 

Arum, s. An arm. 

And he haves on thorn his arum, 
Therof is t'ul mikel harum. 

Haveloi, 1993. 

Arunde, s. An errand. Perhaps 

it should be printed amnde, 
Aruwe, «. An arrow. 

Ac an aruwe oway he bare 
In his eld wounde. 

Sir Tristrem, p. 304. 

Arval, ». A funeral. North. Arval- 
supper is a funeral feast given to 
the friends of the deceased, at 
which a particular kind of coarse 
cake, composed of flour, water, 
yeast, currants, and some kind of 
spice, called arval-bread, is some- 
times distributed among the poor. 

Arvyst-gos, ». A stubble goose. 

A yong wyf and an arvi/si-t/os, 
Moche gagil with bolhe. 

Seliq.Jntiq., ii,\13. 

Arwe, plural arweii, arewen, as 
well as arewes, arwes, s. {A.-S.) 
An arrow. 

Myd arwen, and myd quareles so muche 
folk first me slow. 

ifoi. o/G^ouc, p. 48. 
Of eolde he sent hym a eoroune. 
And a snithe fair faukoune, 
Tweye bugle homes, and a bowe also, 
And fyve arewen ek therto. 

K, Al'isaunier. 

Arwe, (1) v. (A.-S. eargian.) To 
render timid. 

(2) adj. Timid; fearful. See 
Thou saist soth, hardy and hard, 
And thou art as arwe coward ! 
He is the furste in eche bataile ; 
Thou art bjhynde ay at the taile. 

K. Misaunder, 3340. 

Arweblast, s. a crossbow or ar- 
The galcye wente alsoo faste 
As quarrel dos oif the anceblast. 

Richard Coeur de Lion, 2524. 
Arwe-man, s. a bowman. (.') 
He calde bothe anve-men and kene, 
Knithes and serganz switlie sleie 

Uavelok, 2116. 

Arwyggyl, 8. An earwig. Prompt. 
Parv, See arrawiggle. 

Aryne, prest. t. pi. Are. A pro- 
vincial pronunciation of am. 

For alle the sorowe that we aryne inne, 
It as ilke dele for cure syne. 

Sir Isumbras. 

Artoles. (Lat. kariolus.) Sooth- 
sayers ; diviners. 




For aryoU), nygromancers, brought 
tlieym to the auctors of ther god Plioe- 
bus', and nffred tlieyra ther, und th;iu 
they hadde uusweres. 

Barthol., hy Trevisa. 

Arise, part. p. Arisen. K. Ali- 

saunder, 3748. 
Aryste, s. Arras. " iij. peeces of 

aryste." Union Inventories, p. 5. 
As. Tliat; which ; who. Var. dial. 

" He as comes," for he who comes. 

In Leicestersh. they say as yet as, 

for. as yet. 
A-SAD, adj. Sad ; sorrowful. 
AsAiLE, V. To sail. 
As ALT, V. {A.-N.) To assail; to 

Hii bygoniie an lioly Tliores eve then toun 

asaly there. Bob. Glouc., p. 394. 

As-ARHEs, (/^...V.) To arms ! 

AsAOGHT, s. {A..N.) An assault. 
Rob. Glouc. 

AsBATE, s. A purchase. Skinner. 

As-BuiRD,#. Literally, ashes board; 
a box in which ashes are carried. 

AscAPART. The name of a giant, 
whom Bevis of Hampton con- 
quered, according to the old 
legend. His effigy may be seen 
on the city gates of Southampton. 
He was said to have been " full 
thirty feet long," and to have 
carried Sir Bevis, his wife, and 
horse, under his arm ! He is al- 
luded to by Shakespeare, Drayton, 
and other Elizabethan writers. 

AscAPE, 1 _ To escape. 


AscAR, «. A person who asks. Wy- 

AscAT, adj. Broken like an egg. 

ASCAUNCE.I ^^ C^.-5.)(l) Ob. 
ASCANCE, ^li eiy aslant. 


At this question Kosader, turning his 
head ascance, and bending his browes 
as if anger there had plousihed the fur- 
rowes of her wratli, witli his eyes full of 
fire, hee made this replie. 

Eufhuea Golden Legacie. 

(2) As if. 

And wroot the names alway, as he itood. 
Of alle folk that gaf hem eny good, 
Mcaunce that he wolde lor hem preye. 

Chaucer, Cant. T., 7325. 

(3) Scarcely. 

Aakauru she may nat tothelettresseynay. 
Lydgate's Minor Poenu,'j>. 85. 

AscAUNT, jwe/>. Across. 

There is a willow grows ascaunt the brook 

That shews his hoar leaves in the glassy 

stream. Hamlet, iv, 7. (early itos.) 

Ascendant, s. A term in judicial 
astrology, denoting that degree 
of the ecliptic, which is rising in 
the eastern part of the horizon at 
the time of any person's birth : 
supposed to have the greatest 
influence over his fortune. Com- 
monly used metaphorically for 
influence in general, or effect. 

*Tis well that servant's gone; I shall the 

Wind up his master to my purposes; — 
A good ascendant. 0. FL, vii, 137.. 

Ascent, s. See Assent. 
AscH-CAKE, 8. A cake baked under 

AscHE, V. To ask. This form oc- 
curs chiefly in MSS. of the 14th 
cent. The word had soft forms 
in A.-S., ahsian. See Ass. 
AscHES, s. Ashes. See Ass. 
AscHEWELE, r. (^A.-S. ascalian, to 
send away). To drive away. 
An hwanne heo habeth me ofslahe, 
Heo hongeth me on heore hahe; 
Tliar ieh asehevoele pie and crowe 
From than vhe thar is i-sowe. 

Uule and Nygktingale, 1. 1601. 

AscHONNE, V. To shun ; to avoid. 

They myjte not aachonne the sorowe they 
had served. 

Deposition of Bichard II, p. 14. 

AscHORE, adv. {A.-S. on cyrre.) 

A moneth after mon myghtte hom a ffond, 
Lyand gtyll on the grownd, 

Thei myght noaer ryde ne goo. 
Ever after the dogges wer so starke, 
Thei stode aschore wlien thei schuld barke ; 
Her feytt thei drew hom boo. 

Uunttyny of t/ie Mare, 1. 256. 




AscHRENCHE, V. (y4.-S ascreucati.) 
To slirink ; to make to shrink. 

That detli tliat hi luistondeth nou3t, 
Ac ech othreii aschrenclteth. 

William de Shoreham. 

AsciLL, », Vinegar. Chester Plays, 

ii, 75. See Aisel. 
AsciTE, V. To summon; to call. 
AscLANDERD,/;ar<./;. Slandered. 
AscoN, V. To ask. Rob. Glouc. 

ASCRIDE, 1 J , . .J 

I adv. Across ; astride. 

ASKRED, > c, ± 

I (Somerset. 


Kif he'd a pumple-voot bezide 
An a brumstick vor'n to zit ascride, 
O' wizards a mid be thawt tha pride, 
Aniangst a kit o' twenty. 

Jennings' Observations, 1825, p. 118. 

AscRY, V. {A.-N. escrier.) (1.) To 
cry ; to proclaim. 
(2) To assail with a shout. 
(3; To betray. 

(4) To descry, to discover. Pals- 

AscRYVE, e. To ascribe; to impute. 

AsE, (1) s. Ashes. North. 
(2) conj. As. 

AsELE, V. (A.-S.) To seal. 

Tliat brought liym lettres speciele, 
Aselyd with the barouiis sele, 
Tliat toldeii hyni, hys brothir Jhon 
Wolde do corowne hvm anon. 

Richard (kcur de L. 1. 6472. 

AsELY, V. {A.-N.) To assoil, give 

The Englysse al the ny5t byrore vaste 

bygon to synge. 
And soende al the nyjt in glotonye and in 

The IS'ormans ne dude nojt so, ac liii cry ede 

on God vaste, 
And ssryve hem ech after other, the wule 

the nyjt y-laste, 
And aniorwe hem late asdi/ wyth mylde 

Lerte ynou. Sob. Glouc., p. 360. 

AsunE, part. p. Seen. 
AsERE, V. (A.-S. asearian.) To be- 
come dry. 

Nou ben hise bowes awai i-sschore. 
And mochel of hise beauty forlore— 
Tharfore that olde tre les his pride, 
And asered bi that o side. 

Sevyn Sages, 1. 606. 

.\sERVE, V. (1) To deserve. 
(2) To serve. 

AsEssE, r. To cause to cease; to 

But he bethoughte hym, aftyr tlienne, 
That he wolde leve ther al hys nienne. 
And, with his pryvy nieyn6. 
Into Yngelond thenne wolde be. 
And asesse the werre anon 
Betwyxe hym and hya brother Jhon. 

Richard Cceur de L., 1. 6311. 

AsETH, s. Satisfaction for an injury. 

We may not be assoyled of tho tresp;is, 
Bot if we make aseth in that at we may. 
MS. Earl.. 1023, f. 68 b. 

AsETNES, s. {A.-S. asetnys.) A re- 

This ilke abbot at Rnmsai 
Msetnes set in his abhai, 
Tliat in this servis for to stand 
Ai quilis that abbai be lastand. 

MS. Med., cited in Boucher. 
ASEWE, 1 ,^_^, rj.^ fjjjjjj^^ 

ASIWE, J ^ ' 

Alisaundre wente ageyn 
Quyk asiwelh liiin al his men. 

K. Alisaunder, 1. 2494. 

AsEW, adv. Applied to a cow when 
drained of lier milk, at the sea- 
son of calving. Somerset. 
AsEWRE, ad/. Azure. 
AsEWRYD, part. p. Assured. 
AsEYyiT, part. p. (A.-S.) Lost. 

Al here atyl and tresour was al-so aseynt. 
Rob. Glouc, p. 51. 

As-fast, adv. Anon ; immediately. 
AsGAL, *. A newt. Shropsh. 
Ash. (1) Stubble. South. " Le 

tressel, asche of corn." Walter 

de Bibblesworth. 

(2) To ask. Lane. See Ass. 
Ash-bin, «. A receptacle for ashes 

and other dirt. Line. 
AsH-cANDLES, s. The seed pod of 

the ash-tree. Dorset. 
AsHELT, adv. Probably ; perhaps. 

Lane. It is usually pronounced 

as two words. 
AsHEN', *. Ashes. North. 
AsHERLAND, ». "Assarts, or wood- 
land grub'd and ploughed up." 



AsHiED, part. p. Made white, as 
with wood ashes. 

Old Winter, clad in high furres, sliowers of 

Apiieaiing in his eyes, who still doth groe 
In a mi with flakes of snow. 
Heywood's Marriage Triumphe, 1613. 

AsHisH, adv. Sideways. Somerset. 

Ash-keys, s. The fruit of the ash. 
The failure of a crop of ash-keys 
is helieved in some parts to por- 
tend a death in the royal family. 
How to make a quick-set-hedge. Then the 
herries of the wliite or haw-tliorne, 
acoriTCs, ash-keyes mixed tofctlier, and 
these wrouglit or wound up in a rope of 
straw, will serve, hut that tliey wil h( 
somewhat longer in growing. 

Norden's Surveyor's Dialogue, 1610. 

Ashlar, 1 u j 

s. Hewn or squared 

ASCHELER, > . , , ■,\- 

I stone, for huudinff. 


AsHLAR-WALL.s. A wall, the stones 
of which are hewn in regular 
course and size. "An ashler wall, 
free-stone hewed with a mason's 
ax into smoothness, q. axtler." 
Thoresby's Letter to Ray, 1703. 
"A flight of arrows, that harmed 
an ashlar-wall as little as many 
hailstones." The Abbot. 

Ashore, adj. (A.-S.) Aside. West. 
It is used in the sense of ajar, 

• applied to a door. See Aschore. 

Ash-pan, s. A pan fitted to the 
under part of the grate, to receive 
the ashes from the fire. Line. 

Ash-trug,s. a coal-scuttle. North. 

Ashunche, ». To repent.' 

Mid sliuppirg ne mey liit me ashunche, 
Kes y never wycclie ne wyle ; 

Ych am a maide, tlial me of-tliunche, 
Luef me were gome boute gyle. 

Lyric Foetry, p. 38. 

AsiDEN, a<;?». On one side; aslant. 
West. Rider has asidenam in his 
Dictionarie, 1640, in the same 

VsiLE, *. {Lat.) An asylum. 
SIX, adj. Made of ashen wood. 

My deare Warwik, if your lienor and my 
de'sir could accord with the los of the 

ml ASK 

nidefuls fingar I kipe, God helpe me so 
in my most nide as I wold gladly lis that 
one joint fore your safe abode with nie, 
but sins I can not that 1 wold, I wil do 
that I may, and wil rather drinke in an 
asin cup than you or yours sliude not 
be soccerd both by sea and land, yea and 
tliat with all spede possible, and let this 
my scribling liand witnes it to them 
all. Yours as my own, 

Elizabeth B. 

AsiNARY, adj. Asinine. 

AsmvB, part. p. Assigned. Hey- 

wood, 1556. 
AsiNEGO. See Assinego. 
.\siNGS, s. Easings. Shropsh. 
AsiT, V. To sit against, so as to 

receive the hlow without being 

No man ne myghte with slrengthe asytte 

Hys swordes draught. Octovian, 1665. 

Ask, "^ 

ASKER, , A n \ k 

I 8. (A.-S. apexe.) A 

ASKARD, > > J^ J J 

i water newt, or lizard. 



Snakes and nederes thar he fand. 
And gret blac tades gangand, 
And arskes and other wormes felle. 
That I can noht on Inglis telle. 

MS. Med., Uth cent. 

Ask. adj. Applied to the weather, 
•meaning damp. " The weather 
is so ask." Yorksh. 
AsKAUNCE, aJ». Aside; sideways. 
Nearly the same meaning as as- 
kew, and given as the same word 
in Rider's Dictionarie, 1640. See 
AsKK,v. {A.-S.) To ask; to require. 
Ho so hit tempreth by power, 
So hit askith in suche maner. 

Kyng Alisaunder, 1. 6219. 

AsKEFiSE, s. (A.-S.) A fire blower. 
The word is translated by ciniflo 
in the Prompt. Pare. " Ciniflo, 
a fyre blowere, an yryn hetere, 
an askefyce." MS. Medulla. In 
the Prompt. Parv. we find the 
following entry, " Askefise, ci- 
niflo." It seems that askefise 
was used in a contemptuous 
sense to signify a man who re* 




mained snug at home while 

others went out to exercise their 

AsKEN, 8. pi. Ashes. 
AsKER, *. (1) A scab. 

(2) A land or water newt. Far. 

AsKEs, s. Ashes. See Asa. 
Askew, adv. Awry. Barefs Alve- 

arie, 1580. 
AsKiLE, adv. Aslant; obliquely; 

Vliat tlio' the scornful waiter looks asi'Ue, 
And )>oiits and fronns and curseth tliee 

the while. Bp. Hall, Sat., v, 2. 

Askings, ». The publication of 

marriage by banns. Yorksh. 
AsKOF, adv. Deridingly ; in scoff. 

Alisatmder lokid askuf. 
As he no gef nought therof. 

Alisaunder, I. 874. 

AsKowsB, V. To excuse. 

Bot thow can lukotcse the, 
Thow sclialt abey, y till the. 

Frere and the Boy, St. xxxv. 

AsKRTE. s. A shriek ; a shout. 
AsKusE, V. To accuse. 
Owre Lord gan appose them of ther grete 
Botbe to ashue hem of ther synful blame. 
Ludus Coventria, p. 2. 

AsKY, (1) adj. Dry; parched. 

(2) V. (A.-S. ascian.) To ask. 
To oiki tliat never no wes, 
It is a t'ole askeing. 

Sir Tristrem, p. 209. 

AsLAKE, V. {A.'S. aslacian.) To 
slacken, or mitigate. 
Her herte to ease 
And the flesshe to please 
Sorowes to aslnkr. 

TheBuke of May d Emlyn. 

AsLASH, adv. Aslant; crosswise. 

AsL AT, adj. Cracked, as an eai then 
vessel. Devon. 

A-SLAWE, part. p. Slain. For 
y-slawe ; in this and similar cases 
of verbs, a- prefixed merely re- 
presents the usual y- or i-. 

AsLEK, adv. Aslope. Somerset. 

AsLEP£D, part. p. Sleepy. 

And Verniigu, at that cas, 
So sore asleped wiis, 
He no might fi^ht no more. 

Roulami and Temagu, p. 21. 

AsLET, adv. Obliquely. 

Aryde or :icydenaudys, or aslet or 
asloule: Oblique vel alatere. Prompt. 
Pan. Aslet or aslowte : Oblique. lb. 

AsLEW, adv. Aslant. Sussex. 

AsLiDE, c. To slide away; to de- 

i\.-si,oy,part.p. Slain. 

Aslope, adv. Sloping. 

AsLOPEN.^ar^j;. Asleep. An un- 
usual form, used by Middleton 
the dramatist apparently for the 
mere purpose of rhyme. 

AsLOSH, adv. Aside. "St&nd aslosh, 
wooll ye ?■' 

AsLOUGH, pret. t. s. Aslowen, pi. 
Slew; killed. 

AsLOUTE, adv. Obliquely. Prompt. 
Parv. See Aslet. 

AsLUPPE, V. (A.-S.) To slip away; 
to escape. 

Betere is taken a comelichc y-clothe. 
In armes to cusse ant to cluppe, 

Then a wrecche y-wedded so wrotlie, 
Thah he me slowe, ne myhti him asluppe. 
Lyric Poetry, p. 38. 

^^^^' I adv. Willingly. North. 

ASTLY, J ° ' 

AsMATRYK, ». Apparently a cor- 
ruption of arithmetic. Coventry 
Mysteries, p. 189. 

AsMELLE, V. To smell. 

AsociE, V. {A.-N. associer.) To 

AsoFTE, V. To soften. 

AsoMPELLE, ». An example. MS. 

AsoNDRi, adv. {A.'S. on sundran.) 
Asunder ; separately. 

Asondry were thei nevere, 
Na moore than rayn hand may 
Meve withoute my Ivngres. 

Piers PL, p. 358. 

AsoNKE, pret. t. Sunk. 
Asoo.v, adv. At even. North. 
AsosHE, ^ adv. Awry; aslant. 
ASHOSHE, J £■««/. ^ttAswaah. In 




the time of Henry VIII, Palsgrave 

introduced this word into his 
Dictionary, intended for the spe- 
cial instruction of the Princess 
Mary, and has added in ex- 
planation, " as one weareth his 

A-souND, adv. In a swoon. 

AsouRE, *. "Gumme of asoure." 
Reliq. Antiq., i, 53. The meaning 
is uncertain. 

AsoYLE, V. See Assoile. 

AsoYLiNGE, s. Absolution. 

AsoYNEDE, part. p. Excused; re- 

Asp, ». The aspen tree. A Here- 
fordshire word. It occurs in 
Fiorios Neio World of Words, 
1611, p. 68. 

As PARE, V. (from A.-S. asparian.) 
To spare. 

And seven he was a nygard, 
That no good myghte aspare 
To frend ne to fremmed. 

PieMP;., p. 303. 

AsPAUD, adv. Astride. North. 
AsPECCiouN, «. (A.-N.) Sight. 
AsPECHE, s. A serpent. SeeAspici, 

the more usual form. 
AsPECTE,*. Expectation. 

Tlie 10. of Jun I was discharged from 
l):\iids at the assizes contrary to the 
aspects of all men. Fonnan's Diary. 

AsPEN-LEAF, s. Metaphorically, 
the tongue. 

For if they myghte be suffred to begin 
ones in the congregacion to fal in 
disputing, those aspen-leaves of theirs 
would never leave wagg\iig. 

Sir T. More's Workes, p. 769. 

AsPER, 8. A kind of Turkish coin. 

ASPERAUNCE, 8. (A.-N.) HopC. 

For esperaunce. 
AsPERAUNT, adj. {A.-N.) Bold. 

And have horses avenaunt, 

To hem stalworthe and asperaunt. 

Jlisauiider, 1. 4871. 

AsPERGiNG, 8. A sprinkling. 

ASPERMCHE, 1 . T> 1, 

>adv. Roughly. 


ASPERNATION, 8. {Lot.) NcglCCti 

AsPERNE, V. (Lat.) To disregard. 
Aspersion', *. (Lat.) A sprinkling. 
AsPHODiL, 8. A daffodil. 
AspiCK, «. (1) A species of serpent, 

an asp. 

So Pharaolis rat yer he begin the fray 
'Gainst the blinde aspick, with a cleaving 

Upon his coat he wTaps an earthen cake. 
Which afterward the suns hot beams doo 

bake. Sylvester's Du Barlas. 

(2) The name of a piece of ord- 
nance, which carried a twelve 
pound shot. 
AspiE, (1) V. (A.'N.) To espie; 
to discover. 

Sche hath at scole and elles wher him 

Til fynally sche gan of hem asvye. 
That he was last seyn in the Jewerie. 

Chaucer, Cant. T.,1. 15001. 

(2) *. A spy. 
AspiLL, 8. A rude or silly clown. 

AspiouR,*. A spy; a scout. 
AsPYRE, V. (Lat.) (1) To inspire. 

God allowed, assysted, and aspyred them 
by his grace tlierein. 

Sir T. Mor^s Works, p. 927. 

(2) To breathe ; to blow. The 
word occurs with this explanation 
in Rider's Dictionarie, 1640. It 
is used by Shakespeare as a verb 
active, to ascend, without the 
particle which now usually ac- 
companies this word. 

Until our bodies turn to elements, 
And both our souls aspire celestial thrones. 
Marlowe's Tamburlaine, 1590. 

AspiREMENT, 8. Breathing. 
Asportation, s. (Lat.) A carrying 

\"pe;, \fj; (^-^■) Sharp; 
' I bitter. 
aspbre, 1 

And makest fortune wrath and asper 
by thine impacience. 

Cliaucer's Boethius, p. 366, col. 1. 




He saith that the waytoheavenisstraite 
and (upre and painful. 

Sir T. Mor^s WorJu, p. 74. 

AspREAD, part. p. Spread out. 

AspRELY, adv. Roughly. 
AspREXESSE, «. Roughness. 
AsPROXG, pret. t. Sprung. 
AsPROUS, aJ/. Bitter; angry; in- 
clement. Leic. They say, "Ifs 

a very asp'rous day." 
AsouAP.ado. Sittingon the houghs. 

AsauARE, "1 arfp. On the square; 
ASWARE, J at a safe distance. 
And 8wore by seyut Amyasi, that he shuld 

With stroks hard and sore, even oppou the 

rigge ; 
Yf he liym myght fynd, he nothing wold 

hvm spare. 
Tlia't herd the pardoner wele, and held hym 

better cuquare. 

Prol. to Bist. ofBeryn, 1. 591. 

AsauiNT, adv. Awry. 
Ass, ^,<BSce.) 

ABB, Ashes. Pronounced 

ASCHES, ess in Staffordshire, 
ASCHEN, > Cheshire, and Derby- 
ASHEN, shire. It occurs in the 
ASKEN, singular, " Aske or 
ASKEs, J asshe:cinisvelciner." 
Prompt. Parv. 

The wynde of thilke helves scholde 
never poudre ne aschen abyde, that is 
dedleche man, wliich is seid'that aichen 
and poudre and dong is. 

Romance of the Monk, MS., f. 56 b. 

And brend til asken al bidene. 

EateUk, 1. 2841. 
Thynk man, he says, askes ertow now, 
And into askcs agayn turn saltow. 

MS. Cott., Galba, E ix, f. 75. 
Therwilh the fuyr of jelousye upsterte 
Withinne Ins brest, and heut him by the 

So wodly, that lik was he to byholde 
The box-tree, or the asschen deed and colde. 
Chaucer, Cant. T., 1. 1301. 
Their heresies be biuned up, and fal 
as flatte to ashen. 

Sir T. Mare's Works, p. 446. 
Y wolde suche damseliys yn fyre were 

That the assket with the wynde awey 
myght fly. Relig. Anliq., i, 29. 

Ass, ». To ask; to command. Cumb. 
and Lane. This form occurs in 
MSS. of the 14th and 15th 
AssADY, ^ s. Gold tinsel. See 
ASSADYN, i Arsadine and Assi- 
ARSEDYKE, |^ due. There is a 
ARSEDYNE, j charge of 2d. for 
ORSADY, •' assady and redde 

ORSEDEN, j wax" in the ac- 
counts of the expences for a play 
at Coventry in 1472, published 
in Sharp's Dissertation, p. 193. 
The word is spelt with many 
variations, and in the one series of 
accounts just mentioned it oc- 
curs in the following different 
forms : 

Expens. ayenst midsomer nyght; 
Imprimis, assady to the crests . vj. d. 

1477. Item, for assadyn, silver papur, and 

gold papur, gold foyle, and grene 
foyle . . . ij. 8. ij. d. 

1478. Item, for osMifc/i for the harnes x.d. 

1494. Item, payd for a paper of arie- 
dyke . . . xij. d. 

AssAiES, s. " At all assaies," i. e., 
in all points. 

Shorten thou these wicked dales; 
Tliinke on tliine oath at all assaies. 
Drayton's Harmonie of the Church, 1591. 

Assail, s. An attack. 
Mv parts had power to charm a sacred sun, 
Wiio, disciplin'd and dieted m grace, 
Belier'd her eyes when I th' assail begun. 
Shakesp., Lover's Complaint. 

AssALVE, V. To salve fto allay. 

Assart, s. (A.-N.) Assart lands, 
parts of forests cleared of wood, 
and put into cultivation, forwhich 
rents were paid, termed assart 
rents. It is used also as a verb. 

Assassinate, s. Assassination. 

What hast tliou done, 
To make this barbarous base assassinate 
Lpon the person of a prince 'r 

Daniel's Civil Wars, iii, 78. 

Assation, 8. {l,at.) Roasting. 
Assault, 1 adv. Maris appetens, 
ASSAUT, J said of a bitch or other 
female of animals, and sometime* 




in a contemptuous sense of a 

Catnlire dicitur canis, r) kviov o-kv^o v, 
quando in Venerem pnirit. Demander 
le masle. To goe tusaut or proud, as a 
bitch dotli. NomeHclator, 1585. 

And whanne the fixene be assaut, and 
goith yu hure love, and sdie seclieth the 
dogge fox, she cryeth with an hoos 
vovs, as a wood hound doith. 

MS. Bodl., 546. 

If any man withinne the lordshipe 
liolde any sicke tliat goeth assault 
withinne the same lordshipe, he slial 
make a fine for hir anto the lord of 

Regulations of the Steves, \oth cent. 

Assaut, 1 s. {A.-N.) An assault. 
ASSAWTE, J Still used in Shrop- 

And by assaut he wan the cit6 aftur. 
And rente douu bothe wal and sparre, 
and rafmr. Chaucer, Cant. 7'., 991. 
And at the lond-g-.ite, kyng Richard 
Held his assawte like hard. 

liichard Coer de Lion, 1900. 

Assautable, adj. Capable of 

being taken. 
AssAVE, V. To save. 
Assay, «. {A.-N.) (1) Essay ; trial. 
.After asay, then may je wette ; 
Why blame je nie w'ithoute offence? 
mison's Ancient Songs, p. 103. 

(2) An examination of weights 
and measures, by the clerk of the 
market; also of silver in the 

(3) The process of drawing a 
knife along the belly of a deer, 
beginning at the brisket, to try 
how fat he is; it was called, 
taking assay, or say. 

Gedered tlie grettest 
of gres that ther were, 
and didden hem derely undo, 
as the dede askez ; 
serched liem at the asay 
summe that ther were, 
two fyn seres thay fonde 
of the' tottlest of alle. 

Gawyn and the Gr.Kn., 1. 2397. 

(4) The point at which the kni^e 
of the hunter was inserted ia the 
breast of the buck, for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining his fatness. 

At the assay kitte him, that lordes may 

Anou fat or lene, whether that he bee ; — 
At the chaules to begyn, soone as ye may. 
And slit him downe to the assay. 
And fro the assay, even down to the bely 
shal ye slyt. 

Book of St. Albans, chap. "Haw y« 
shall brelce an Hart." 

(5) The most frequent use of the 
term in former times, was in 
matters relating to the office of 
praelibator, or taster, in palaces, 
and the houses of barons, where 
there was an officer, who was 
called the assayer. The sewer 
most commonly took the assaiet 
but the other officers also some- 
times did the same ; such as the 
panter, who tasted the contents 
of the trenchers ; the yeoman of 
the ewrie, who drank of the 
water with which the lord was 
to wash his hands ; the marshall 
saluted the towel, with which he 
was to wipe his hands, by way of 
assaie; and the cup-bearer was 
to swallow a small portion of the 
liquor which he presented, as an 
assaie. In short, so great were 
the apprehensions of poison and 
danger in untried food, that no 
viands were served up at the 
tables of the great, without being 
first assaied. 

Kyng Rychardsate downe to dyner, wid 
was served without curtesie or assaye ; 
he muche mervaylyng at the sodavne 
mutncion of the thyng, demaunded of 
the esquier whv he dyd not his duety. 

Hall, Henry IF, {.U. 

(6) Metaphorically, the attempt, 
the moment of doing a thing. 

And ryght as he was at assaye, 
Hys lykyng vanyscht all aw'aye. 
Le Bone Florence of Rome, 1. 1500. 

(7) Experience. 

Shorte wytted men and lyttell ofassaf/e, 
saye that Faradyse islonge sayllynge out 
of the erthe that men dwelle iune, and 
also departeth frome the erthe, and ia 
as hyglie as the mone. 
Quotation in Note* to Morte d' Arthur, 
p. 472. 




▲ssATE, r. (J.-N.) To try; to 
prove ; to taste. 

"Certes," quod Prudence, "if ye wil 
wirche by my eounseil, ye scliul not 
assaye fortune by uo maner WHy, ne 
schul not lene ue'bowe unto hire, after 
the word of Senec." 

Chaucer, T. ofMeliheus. 

Hereu|>on tlie companie assayed to 
convey it to St. Auguatines. 

Lamhard^s Perambulation, p. 116. 

Contynewynge which feaste, twoo noble 
and yonge knightis amonge other hap- 

fiened to assey eyther otlier in wrast- 
ynge. Trevisa, f. 34. 

Assayed, par^ />. Satisfied. Phil- 
pof's Works, p. 376. 

Assaying,*. "An assayin^'.or flour- 
ishing with a weapon before one 
begins to play." Rider's Dic- 
tionarie, 1640. '^Assaying, a 
terra us'd by musicians, for a 
flourish before they begin to 
play." Kersey's English Dic- 
tionary, 1715. 

AssAYNE, s. A term in hare hunt- 
ing. B. of St. Albans, sig. d, iv. 

AssBuuRD, s. A box for ashes. 

AsscHREiNT. See Asshreint. 

AssE. In the following passage at 
asse seems to mean prepared. 

And fond our men alle at asse. 
That the Faiens no might passe. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 278. 

AssEASE, V. {low Lat.) To cease. 

AssEcuRE, ». (1) To make sure of ; 

to make safe. 

And so hath Heiirie asseatr'd that side. 
And therewithal! his state of Gasconie. 

Daniel's Ciril Wars, iv, 9. 


(2) To give assurance. 


AssEcuTiox, s. (Lat.) Acquire- 
ment ; the act of obtaining. 

AssE-EARE, «. The herb comfrey. 
Nomenclator, 1585, p. 137. 

AssEER, V. To assure. Yorksh. 

AssEGE, s. {.4.-N.) A siege. 

Swiche wondring was ther on this hors o( 

That sin the gret assege of Troye was, 
Ther as men wondred on an hors also, 
Ne was ther swiche a wondring, as was 

tho. Chaucer, Cant. T., (Tync.) 1. 10620. 

Moreover his ordre of asser/es, plantyng 
of campes, settvng of battailes, are left 
behind at this iay to our instruction. 

Institacion,ofa Gentleman, 1568. 

AssELE, V. To seal. 
AssEMBLABLE, s. Likcncss. 

Every thinge that berithe lyfe desyreth 
to be conjoynyd to his assembUabh ; 
and every man shall be assocyate to his 
owne symylitude. 

Dial, of Creatures Moralised, p. 96. 

AssEMBLAUNCE, s. ResemblancB. 

AssEMBLEMENT, s. A gathering. 

AssEMYLE, V. To asscmble. 

AssENE, *./>/. Asses. 

AssENEL, s. Arsenic. Prompt. P. 

Assent, {A.-N.) (1) adj. Consent- 
ing ; agreeing. 

(2) s. Consent ; agreement. 
The wyfes of ful highe prudence 
Have of assent made ther avow. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 134. 

(3) part. p. Sent. 

Assentation, *. {Lat.) Flattery. 

Assentator, s. a flatterer. 

AssENTiON, s. Consent. Herrick. 

Assenycke, ». Arsenic. Palsgrave. 

AssEPERSELiE, s. The plant cher- 
vil. Nomenclator, 1585, p. 131. 

AssES-FOOT, s. The herb coltsfoot. 
AssETH, adv. {A.-N.) SuiBciently ; 
enough. See Aseth. 

Kevir shall make his richesse 
Asseth unto his gredmesse. 

Bom. of the Rose, 5600. 

AssETTE, V. To assail. 
AssHE, V. To ask. See Ass. 
AssHEAD, s. A blockhead ; a fool. 
Ass-heard, s. A keeper of asses. 
Ass-HOLE,*. A receptacle for ashes. 

AssHREiNT, \ part. p. (from 
ASSCHREINT, J A.-S. screucun, to 

deceive.) Deceived. Theinfini- 

tive of the verb would be assh~ 





A ! dame, he saide, ich was asschreint, 
Icli wende tliou haddest ben adreint. 

Seryn Sai/es, 1. 14S5. 
Tlieg^'oures lovcden the kyn;r iioughth. 
And woldeu liave liim bycau<rlitli. 
Hy ledden liym therfore, als I fyude. 
In tile straungest peryl ol Ynde. 
Ac, so ich fynde in tli'e book, 
Hy were (ushreyiU in her crook. 

K. Alisaunder, 1. 4819. 

AssiDUAL, adj. (Lot.) Constant. 

As t)v the sun we set our dyals, so 
(Madam) we set our pietys by you ; 
Without whose light, we shud'in dark- 
ness be. 
And nothing truely good nor vertuous 

You in the Temple so assidual are, 
Your whole hfe seems but one continued 
prayer. Flechwe's Epigrams, 1670. 

AssiDUALLY, adv. Constantly. 

AssiDUATE, adj. Constant ; un- 
remitting ; daily. 
By the assiduate lahonre of hys wyfe 
Ethelburga, &c. Fabian, 1. 146. 

AssiDUE, s. A word used in Ilal- 
lainsliire, a district of the county 
of York, to describe a species of 
yellow tinsel much used by the 
mummers at Christmas, and by 
the rustics who accon)pany the 
plough on Plough Monday in its 
rounds through the parisli, as 
part of their fantastic decoration. 
It occurs in an old shop-bill, 
as synonymous with horse-gold. 
See Arsedine and Assady. 

AssiEGE, V. {Fr.) To besiege. 
Rider's Dictionarie, 1640. 

AssiL-TOOTH.s. A grinder. North. 

AssiL-TREE, *. An a.xle-tree. 

AssiMULATioN, 8. {Lot.) Assiuii- 

Besides these three several operations 
of digestion, there is a fourfold order of 
concoction : mastication, or chewing in 
the mouth; chylification of this so 
chewed meat in the stomach ; the third 
ts in the liver, to turn tliis cliyius into 
blood, called sanguification ; the last is 
assimulation, which is in every part. 

' Burton, An. of Mel., v. i, 29. 

AssiMULE, V. To assimilate ; to 

AssiNDE, part. p. Assigned. 
AssiNEGO, "1 «. A Portuguese word, 
AsiNEGo, J meaning a young ass: 
used generally for a silly fellow ; 
a fool. 

Thou hast no more brains than I have 
in my elbows; an assinego may tutor 
thee. Tro. attd Ores., ii, 1. 

When in the interim they apparell'd 

me as you see, 
Made a fool, or an asinigo of me, &c. 

O. PI., X, 109. 

All this would be forsworn, and I again 
an asirugo, as your sister left me. 

B. and Fl., Scomf. Lady. 

B. Jonson has a pun against Inigo 
Jones, on this word : 

Or are you so ambitious 'bove your peers. 
You'd be an ass inigo by your years. 

Epigrams, vol. vi, p. 290. 

Assise,*. (A.-N.) (1) Place; si- 
There ne was not a point truely. 
That it has in his right assise. 

Rom. of the Rose, 1237. 

(2) A Statute. 

Sire, he said, bi God in heven, 
Thise boilouns that boilen seven, 
Bitocnen thine seven wise. 
That ban i-wrowt ayen the assise. 

Sevyn Sages, L 249ft 

(3) A judgement. 

The kyng he sende word ajeyn, that he 

hadde ys franchise 
In ys owne court, for to loke domes 

and asise. Rub. Glouc, p. 53. 

Ur elder God did Jhesum rise, 
The quilc gie hang with fals asise. 


(4) A regulation ; rule ; order. 

And after nicte the lordys wyse, 
Everyche yn dywers qutyntyse. 
To dauuce went, by ryglit asyse. 

Octovian, L 81 

(5) Assizes. 

jow to teche God hath me sent. 

His luwys of lyff that am ful wyse ■ 
Them to lern be "dyligent, 
joure soulys may thei save at »i<e 
last asyse. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 60. 

(6) Things assigned; comn»> 




Wlmn ther comes marchatindise, 
With corn, wyu, and steil, othir other 

To heore lend any schip, 
To house they wnllith anon skyppe. 

K. Alisaunder, 1. 7074. 

(7) The long assise, a term of 

Xou bothe her wedde lys. 

And play thai biginne; 
And sett lie hath the long asise. 

And endred beth tlieriiine : 
Tlie play biginneth to arise, 

Tiistreni deleth atuinne. 

Sir Tristrem. 

(8) Measure. In the romance 
of Sir Tryamour (MS. in the 
Cambridge Public Library), after 
the hero has cut otF the legs of a 
giant, he tells him that they are 
both " at oon assyse," i. e. of the 
same length. 

(9) V. To settle ; to confirm ; to 

AssiSH, adj. Foolish. "Asindggine, 

assishnesse, blockishnesse." Flor. 
AssKES, s. Ashes. 3ee Ass. 
Ass-manure, s. Manure of ashes. 

AssMAYHED, part. p. Dismayed. 
Ass-midden, s. A heap of ashes ; 

a mixen. North. ' 

AssNooK, adv. Under the grate. 

AssoBRE, V. To render calm. 

And thus I rede thou assobre 
Tliyn herte, in hope of such a grace. 
Gotoer's Confessio AmaiUis, b. vi. 

Associate, v. {Lat.) To accom- 

Going to find a bare-foot brother out, 
One of our order, to associate me. 

Romeo and Juliet, t, 2. 

AssoiL, V. To soil. 
Assoile, 1 V. (A.-N.) (1) To ab- 
ASsoiLLE, > solve; acquit; set at 
ASOYLE, J liberty. 

And so to ben assoilled, 
And siththen ben houseled. 

Piers n.^p. 419. 

I at my own tribunal am assoil'd, 
Yet fearing others censure am embroil'd. 
0. PL, xii, 64. 

Here he his subjects all, in general, 
AssoyUs, and quites of oath and fealtie. 
Dan. Civ. Wars, ii. 111. 
Pray devoutly for the soule, whom God 
assoyle, of one of the most worshipful 
knights in his dayes. 

Epitaph, in Camden's Rem. 
Those that labour to oMoyi^ the Prophet 
from sinne in this his disobedience, 
what do they else hut cover a naked 
body with fig-leaves, &c. 

King on Jonah, p. 566. 
But, if we live in an age of iudevotioa 
we think ourselves well assoil'd, if we 
be warmer than their ice. 

Taylor's Great Exemplar, p. 68. 

(2) To solve; to answer. "I 
fl«soy/e a hard question: Je souls." 

Caym, come fforthe and answere me, 
Asoyle my qwestyon anon-ryght. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 38. 

(3) To decide. 

In th' other hand 

A pair of waights, with which he did as- 

Both more and lesse, where it in doubt 
did stand. On Mutab., canto vii, 38. 

AssoiLE, *. Confession. 

When we spcake by way of riddle (enig- 
ma) of which the sence can hardly Be 
picked out, but by the parties owne 
assoile. Pultenh., iii, p. 157, repr. 

AssoiNE, (1) s. (A.-N.) Excuse; 
delay. See Essoine. 

Therfore hit hijtc Babiloyne, 
That shend thing is withouten assoyne. 
Cursor Mundi, MS. Trin. Cantab., f. 15. 
At Venyse com up Alisaunder ; 
Pes men blewe and no loud sclaunder. 
His lettres he sent, withouten assoyne. 
Anon into Grace-Boloyne. 

Alisaunder, 1. 1443. 

(2) V. To excuse ; to delay. 

The scholde no weJer me assoine. 

tlur. and Blanch., &l. 

AssoMON, V. To .summon. 

AssoRTE, «. {A.-N.) An assembly. 
" By one assorte," in one com- 

AssoTE, \ ». {A.-N.) (1) To besot, 
ASSOT, /or infatuate; used by 
Spenser, who also employs it for 
the participle assotted. 

Willye, I ween thou be assot. 





(2) To dote on ; to be infatuated ; 
used especially by Gower. 

Tliis wyfe, whiche in her lustes grene 
Was r'avre and tresslie and tender of age. 
She may not let the courage 
Of hym, that wol on her assole. 

Gotcer, ed. 1582, f. 12. 

AssowE, adv. In a swoon. 

Ass-plum, ». A sort of plum, men- 
tioned by Fiorio. 

Ass-RiDDLTN,s. Astiperstitious cus- 
tom practised in tlie North of 
England upon the eve of St. 
Mark, when ashes are sifted or 
riddled on the hearth. It is be- 
lieved that if any of the family 
shall die within the year, the shoe 
of the fated individual will leave 
an impression on the ashes. 

AssuBjuGATE, V. To Subjugate. 

AssuE, "1 adv. A term applied to a 
AZEw, J cow when drained of her 
milk at the season of calving. 
Somerset. Dorset. 

AssuMENT, s. {Lat. assumentum.) 
A patch or piece set on. 

AssvyiP. part. p. {Lat. assumptus.) 
Raised It occurs in Hall, Henry 
VI, f. 61, and should perhaps be 

Assumpsit, s. A promise. It is 
properly a law term, but in the 
following passage it is used in a 
general sense. 

Tlie king, wliom now a doubted hope of 

profered heipe made glad. 
Made promise of two milk white stcedes 

as chiefest gemnies he had. 
Brave Hercules, whose ventrons heart did 

onely hunt for fame. 
Accepts til' assumpsit, and prepares the 

fiendlike fish to tame. 

Warner's Albion's England, 1592. 

Assumpt, p. {Fr.) To take up from 
a low place to a high place. 

Assurance, s. Affiance; betroth- 
ing for marriage. Pembroke's 
Arcadia, p. 1 7. 

AssuRDE,».(from Fr. soiirdre.) To 
break forth. Skellon, fForit, i, 

Assure, v. {!) To confide. 

(2) To affiance; to betroth. 

There lovely Amoret, that was assur'd 
To lusty Perigot, bleeds out her life. 

Beaumont and Fl., ii. 107. 

(3) s. Assurance. Chaucer, ed. 
L'rry, p. 432. 

Ass WYTHE, adv. Quickly. 

Tnay la^ed and made hem blythe 
Wyth lotez that were to lowe; 
To soper they jede asstct/the 
Wyth dayntes uwe innowe. 

Gavayn and the Green K., 1. 252S. 

AssTGGE, s. A hunting term. Pe^^ 
haps for assiege, or a siege. 

Ye sliuU say, UUosque, illeosqice, alwey 
whan they fynde wele of hym. and then 
ye shul keste out assygge al abowte the 
feld for to se where he be go out of the 
pastore, or ellis to his foorme. 

AssYNE, V. To join. 

Svns they be so loth to be assyned. 

Playe called the Foure PP. 

AssYNG, V. To assign. 

AsT. Asked. Aorth. The same 

form occurs in MSS. of the 14th 

and 15tb cent. 
AsTA. Hast thou. Yorksh. 


astaT, Vs. {A.-N.) State. 

Tlianne is accidie enemy to every aslant 
of man. Chaucer, Persones T 

Whan he is set in his astat, 
Thre thevys be brout of svnful gyse. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 12. 
The kyng lay in the palois of York, and 
kept his astate soleniplv. 

MS. 'Coll. Arm., L. ix. 
AsTABiLisHE, V. To establish. 
AsTABLE, r. To confirm, 
AsTAXTE, V. To stand by. 
The might himse aslant the by. 

Rembrun, p. 479. 

AsTAUNCHE, V. To Satisfy ; to 

And castethe one to rhese to hir delite 

That may better astaunche hir appetite. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. SO. 

AsTE, conj. As if; although. 
AsTRER, adv. Active; bustling 
stirring abroad; astir. North. 




AsTELY, adv. Hastily. 

Or els, Jesu, y aske the reyd, 
Asteiy that y wer deyd ; 

Therto God helpe me then ! 

Sir Amadas, 1. 396. 

AsTENTE, pret. t. of astinte. {A.-S.) 

Aster, ». Easter. North and 

AsTERDE, V. (A.-S.) To escape. 
AsTERisM.s. (Gr.) A constellation. 
AsTERTE, V. (A.-S.) (1) To escape. 

For man was maad of swich a matere, 
He may noght wel asterte. 
That ne som tyme hym bitit 
To folwen his kynde. 

Piers PL, p. 225. 
And so began there a quarele 
Betwene love and her ovrne herte, 
Fro wliiche she couthe not asterte. 
Gotcer's Conf. Am., ed. 1532, f. 70. 

(2) To release. 

And smale tythers thay were fouly sehent, 
If eny persoun wold upon hem pltyne, 
Ther might asterl him no pecunial pevne. 
Chaucer, Cant. T., 6894. 

(3) To alarm ; to take unawares. 

Ko danger there the shepherd can asterl. 
Spetis., Eel. Nov., v. 187. 

(4) To trouble; to disturb. 
Asterte or astered, troubled, dis- 

AsTEYNTE,j»ar/. /». Attainted? 

What dostow here, uuwrast gome ? 
For tliyn harm thou art hider y-come ! 
He ! fyle asteynte horesone ! 

K. Alisaunder, 1. 880. 

AsTiGK, e. (A.-S.) To ascend ; to 
mount upwards. Astiegung, a.s- 
cension. Verstegan. 

Astinte, "| / . o\ m 

ASTENTE, }^-(^-^-) To Stop. 

And whan sche drow to liis chaumber sche 

dede ful sone 
Here maydenes and other meyn6 mekeli 


William and the Wertnolf, p. 56. 

Astipulate, v. {Lat.) To bargain ; 

to stipulate. 
Astipulation,*. {Lat.) An agree* 

ment ; a bargain. 

Astire, s. The hearth. See Aitre 
and Aistre. 

Bad her take the pot that sod over the fire. 
And set it aboove upon the astire. 

Utterson's Pop. Poet., ii, 78. 

Astirte, pret. t. Started ; leapt. 
Astite, 1 adv. (A.-S.) Anon; 
astyt, V quickly. Kersey, in his 
ALSTYTE, J English Dictionary, 
1715, gives astite as a North 
country word with the explana- 
tions, " as soon, anon," taken 
probably from Rav's Collection, 
1674, p! 2. 

God nioroun, sir Gawayn, 
Saydc that fayr lady, 
yt ar sleper un-slyie, 
Mon may slyde hiuer; 
Now ar je tan astyt, 
\ Bot true us may schape. 
Gawayn and the Green K., 1. 1282. 

He dyde on hvs clothys astyte. 

And to seynt ihon he wrote a skryte. 

MS. Harl., 1701, f. 4« b. 

Fnl richeliche he gan him schrede, 
And lepe astite opon a stede ; 
For nothing he nold abide. 

Amis and Amihun, 1. 1046. 

Bot so he wend have passed quite. 
That fel the tother bilor ahlyte. 

I'tcaihe and Gaicin, 1. 686. 



Ther is saphir, and uniune. 
Carbuncle and asliune, 
Smaragde, lugre, and prassiune. 

Poem on Cocaygtie. 

AsTOD, pret. t. of astonde. Stood. 
A-stogg'd, />ar^. p. Having one's 
feet fast in clay or dirt. Dorset. 
AsTONDE, V. (A.-S.) To withstand. 
AsTONED, 'Ipart. p. Stunned. 
ASTONiED, J Rob. GUntc. 


ASTOUND, \pr,t.t.&nApart.p. 
ASTOUNDED, ' [^..ivr.)Astonished. 




Were wonderfully thereat astonyed. 

Stanihursl's Ireland, p. 14 

A kind of precious 




— Adam, soon as he heard 
TJie fatal trespass done by Eve, amaz'd, 
Aslonied stood and blank. 

Milton, P. L., b. ix, 1. 888. 

Sho was astonayd in that stownde, 
For in hys face sho saw a wonde. 

I'waine and Gawin, 1. 1719. 

And with hys hevy mase of stele 
Tliere he gaff the kyug hys dele. 
That hys helme al torove, 
And hym over Iiys sadell drove; 
And hys styropes he forbare : 
Such a stroke had lie never are. 
He was so stonyed of that deute 
That nygh he had hvs Ivff rente. 

'K. Richard, 1. 421. 

The sodeyn caas the man astoiityd tho. 
That reed he wax, abaischt, and al quakyng 
He stood, uunethe savd he wordes rao. " 

Chaucer, Cant. T., 8192. 

Sonderliehe his man astoned 

In his owene mende, 
Wanne he note never wannes he comthe, 

Ne wider he schel wcnde. 

Jfilliam de Shoreham. 

So one of his felowes sayde, go nowe 
speake to her. But he stode styll all 
astonyed. ToIm and Quicke Answers. 

— Th* elfe therewith astown'd 

Upstarted lightly from his looser make. 

Spens., F. Q., 1, vii, 7. 

Aston'd he stood, and up his heare did hove. 

/*., I, ii, 31. 

Their horses backs break under them; 

The knights were both aston'd; 
To void their horses they made haste. 
To light upon the ground. 

Ballad of King Arthur. 
Astoind with him Achates was, for Joy they 

would have lept 
Te joyne their hands, but feare againe them 
held and close y-kept. 

Phaer's Virgil, 1600. 

Astonish, v. To stun with a blow. 

Enough, captain : yuu have astonished him. 
Shahesp., Henri/ V, v, 1. 

AsTONNE, ». {A.-N.) To confound, 
AsToxY, V, {A.-N.) To astonish. 

Florio's New World of Words, 

1611, p. 15. 
AsTOODED, jyar/. p. Sunk fast in 

the ground, as a waggon. Dorset. 
AsTOOR, a</». Shortly; very quickly, 

AsTOPARD, 8. An animal, but of 

what kind is uncertain. 

Of Ethiope he was y-bore. 
Of the kind of astopards; 

He had tuskes like a boar, 
An head like a hbbard. 

Ellis's Met. Bom., ii, 390. 

AsTORE, V. To store ; to replenish ; 
to restore. 

At cit6, borwe, and casiel. 
Thai were astored swithe wel. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 90. 

Astound, v. (A.-N.) To astonish 

AsTOYNYN, V. To shake ; to bruise. 

Prompt. Parv. 
Astraddle, v. To straddle. 
Astragals, s. {Gr. dffrpdyaXoi.) 

A game, somewhat like cockall. 

" Astragalize, to play at dice, 

huckle-bones, or tables." Blount, 

Glossographia. p. 59. 
Astral, adj. (Lot.) Starry. 
A STR ANGLED, /;ar/,j;. Strangled; 


For neigh hy weren bothe for thurst 

jistrangled, and ek for-prest. 

K. Alisaunder, 5099. 

Astraught, part. p. Terrified; 

AsTRAUNGED, joar/. p. Estranged, 
Astray,*. A stray animal. Prompt. 

Astrayly, adv. Astray. Prompt. 

AsTRE, 8. (1) {Lat.) A star; a 


(2) A hearth. See Estre. 
AsTRELABRE, 8. Au astrolabc. 
Astrengthy, r, {^A.-S.) To 

Astretche, v. {A.-S.) To reach. 
Astreynyd, part. p. Constrained. 
Astreyt, adv. Straight. 
Astrick, v. To restrict. State 

Papers, temp. Hen. VIII. 
AsTRicTED. part. p. Restricted. 
Astrid, adv. Inclined. Suffolk. 
AsTRiDGE, *. An ostrich. For es- 

AsTRiDLANDS,arf». Astrldc, North. 
AsTRiNGE, », (^Lat.) To bind; to 





ASTRINGER, 1 s. (A.-N.) A fal- 
ATJSTRINGER, > concf. In All's 
OSTREGIER, J Well that Ends 
Well, act V, sc. 1, the stage di- 
rection says, " Enter a gentle 

We usually call a falconer who keeps 
\hat kind of hawks, an austrini/er. 

CowelVs Law Diet. 

AsTRiPOTENT, s. (Lut.) Having 
power over the stars. 

AsTROD, adv. Straddling. Somerset. 

AsTRODDLiNG, adj. Astride. Leic. 

AsTROiE, V. To destroy. 

AsTROiT, *. A sort of stone, some- 
times called the star-stone, of 
which Brome, Travels over Eng- 
land, p. 12, mentions finding 
many at Lassington, in Glou- 
cestershire, and gives a particular 
account of them. 

Astrology, s. A herb mentioned 
by Palsgrave, and perhaps the 
same as the aristologie. 

AsTROMiEN, s. {A.-N.) An astro- 
nomer, or astrologer. 

Of Kold he made a table, 
Al fill of steorren, saun fable. 
And thougte to seyn, amonges men, 
That he is an astromyen. 

Alisaunder, 1. 136. 

Astronomer, s. An astrologer. 
Astronomer's game. s. 

Gentlemen, to solace their wearied 
miudes by honest pastimes, playe at 
chesse, the astronomer's game, and the 
philosopher's game, whicli whettes tliyr 
wiltes, recreates theyr minds, and hurts 
no body in the meane season. 

Lupton's Too Good to be True. 

Astrophel, s. a hitter herb; 
probably starvvort. 

My little flock, whom earst I lov'd so well. 

And wont to feed with finest grasse that 


Feede ye henceforth on bitter astrofell. 

And stinking smallage an/1 unsaverie rue. 

Spttn'; Baphn., ZiA. 

AsTROSE, adj. (^Lat.) t5orn under 

aii evil star. 
AsTROTE, adv. (1) In a swelling 

manner. "Astrut or strovytingljr. 
Tuigide." Prompt. Parv. 
The raaryner, that wolde have layne hur 

Hys yen stode owte astrote forthy, 
Hys lymmes were roton liym fro. 

Le Bone Floretice, 1. 2329. 

He gafe hym swylke a clowte. 
That hothe his eghne stude one strowte. 
Sir Isttmbras, Lincoln MS. 

What good can the great gloton do with 
his bely standing astrote like a taber, 
and his noil toty with drink, but balk up 
his brewes in tlie middcs of his matters, 
or lye down and slepe like a swine ? 

Sir Thomas More's Works, p. 97. 

(2) Standing out stiff, in a pro- 
jecting posture. 

Godds sowle schal be swore. 
The knyf schal stond astrout, 
Thow his botes be al to-tore 
^at he wol make it stout. 

AsTRYLABE, *. An astrolabc. 

His almagest, and bookes gret and smole. 
His astrylabe, lougyng for his art. 
His augrym stoones, leyen faire apart 
On schelves couched at his bwldes heed. 
Chaucer's Cant. T., 320a 

AsTRYVYD, par f. JO. Distracted. 

Beryn and his company stood all astryryd. 
History of Beryn, 24^9. 

AsTUN, V. (A.-S.) To stuu. 
He frust doun at o dent. 
That hors and man astuned lay. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 233. 

Who with the thundring noise of his swift 
courser's feet 

Astun'd the earth. Bray. Pol., xviii. 

AsTUNTE, pret. t. (from A.-S. 
astandan.) Remained ; stood. 

At Lewes the kingbigan mid is poer abide, 
The barons astunte withoute toun biside. 
Bob. Glouc., p. 546. 

Astute, adj. (Lat.) Crafty. 
AsTY, adv. Rather; as soon as. 

AsTYE, r. (A.-S.) To ascend. Rob. 

AsTYFLED, part. p. Lamed in the 

leg ; said of a dog. 
AsTYLi.E, s. (A.-N.) A shingle; a 

thin board of wood. ^^Astglle, a 




8chyyd. Teda. Astula. Cadia." 

Prompt. Pare. 
AstNDERLY, adv. Separately. 
AsvNDRi, '\adv. {A.-S.) Apart; 
ASYNDRE, J separately. 

In this world, bi Seyn Jon, 
So wise a man is ther non, 
Asundri scliuld hem knawe. 

Amit and Amiloun, 1. 3052. 

And therfnre comyth the thyrde towche, 
that one thynge seme not tweyne, tliat 
sholde falle yt eyther eye ast/ndre sawe 
his owne ymage. 

Trerisa's Barthohm., sig. g v. 

AswARE, adv. On one side ; out 
of the way of anything. See 

Hym had bin beter to have goon more 
oixcare. Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 599. 

AswASH, adv. Slanting. 

Chamarre, a loose and light gowne, that 
may be worne oiwaik or skarfewise. 


AswELT, V. {A.-S.) To become ex- 

Ac sot and snow cometh out of holes. 
And brennyng fuyr, and glowyng coles ; 
That theo snow for the fuyr no melt. 
Kg the fuyr for theo suov asirelt. 

K. Alisaunder, 6639. 

AswETED.^ar/.p. Stupified, as in 
a dream. 

For so astonied and asvofted 
Was every virtue in nie heved. 

House of Fame, ii, 41. 

AswiN, adv. Obliquely. North 


Asvoffh he fell adonn 
An hys hynder arsono. 

Lybeaut Ditcotnu, 1171. 

The kins binethcn, the stede alwve. 
For solhe sir Aiihour was iisicowe. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 123. 

AsTDKNHANDE, odv. On ouc side. 
But he toke nat his ground so even in 
the front afore them as he wold have 
don yf he might bettar have sene them, 
butt somewliate atiidenhande, where he 
disposed all his people in good arraye 
all that nyght. 

Arrual of King Ed. IF p. 18. 

^'^ \adv. (A..S.) In 
' I swoon. 

;NE, J 

AsTGHE, V. To essay. 

Now let seo gef ony is so hardy 
That durste hit him asyghe. 

Kijng Alisaunder, 3S79. 

AsYysD, part. p. Assigned. 

At, (1) prep. To; prefixed to the 
verb, as at say, for, to say ; at do, 
for, to do. Common in MSS. of 
the 14th cent. 

Bred they pard and schare, 
Ynough thei hadde at ete. 

Sir Tristrem, st. 50. 

(2) To ; before substantives, as, 
to do at a thing, instead of to it. 

Here's at ye, what 1 drink won't fat ve. 
Darfs JIS. 

(3) In. 

For certes, al the sorwe that a man 
myght make fro the begynnynge of 
the world, nys but a lite'l tiling, al 
regard of the sorwe of helle. 

Chaucer, Persones T. 

(4) Of. North. 

He tuke his leve at the daye 
At Mildor the faire maye. 

Sir Degrevante. 

(5) For. 

At this cause the knyjt comlyche hade 
In the more half of his schelde hir ymage 
depaynted. Sgr Gavayne, p. 25. 

(6) conj. That. 

Thou ert a fole, al thou ne had are 
Tald me of this ferly fare. 

Twaine and Gaicin, I. 461. 

Still used in the North of £ng- 


It leet weel al the podditch war naw 

scawding. Tim Bobbin, p. 32. 

(7) pron. Who, or which. 

Also he to, a< lawborys thewyus shoold 
ken and wnderstond the w'yd qwych 
shoolde beyr fruyt. 

Shepard's Kalender, sig. F, 7. 

We may not be assoyled of the trespas, 
Bot if we make aseth in that at we may. 
MS. Harl., 1022, f. 68 b. 

(8) Pret. t. of ete, to eat. 

No hadde thai no wines wat. 

No ale that was old, 
No no gode mete thai at. 

Thai hadden al that thai wold. 

Sir Trittrem p. 269. 




(9) At after, after. Still used in 
the North. 

But I pray the what betokned that 
wounderful comete and sterre which 
apperyd «pon this londe the yere of 
our lorde MCCCCII, from the Epiphany 
til two wekes at after Ester? 

l)\ues and Pavper, sig. d, 5 b. 

Atabal, 8. A kind of tabor used 

by the Moors. Dryden. 
Atake, v. (A.-S.) To overtake. 
And to the castel gat he ran ; 
In al the oourt was no man 
That him might atakf. 

Amis and Amiloun, 1. 2070. 
At-alle, adv. Entirely; alto- 
gether. Lydgate and Chaucer. 
Atame, v. (A.-S.) To tame. 
Atanun'e, adv. Afternoon. Suff. 
Atarne, v. {A.-S.) To run away ; 

Manie flowe to rhurche, and the constable 

Atarnde alive, and manie were i-bro5t to 
dethe. Rob. Glouc, p. 539. 

Atastk, v. To taste. 

Ataunt, adv. (A.-N.) So much. 

Atavite, adj. {Lat.) Ancestral. 

But trulie this boldnes, not myne owne 
nature, hath taught mee, but your 
nature, generositie prognate, and come 
from your atavite progenitours. 

Ellis'i Literary Letters, p. 76. 

Ataxy, g. (Gr.) Disorder; irre- 

Atbere, v. {A.-S. cetberan.) To 
bear or carry away. 

Atblowe, v. To blow with bel- 

Atbreste, v. To burst in pieces. 

Atohare, adv. Ajar. Norf. 

ArcHEKED, part. p. Choaked. 

Atcheson, 1 «. A coin, of billon 
ATCHISON, J or copper washed 
with silver, struck under James 
VI of Scotland, of the value of 
eight pennies Scots, or two thirds 
of an English penny. It was 
well known in the North of Eng- 

Nor can the atcheson or the baubee 
For my antiquitv compare with me. 

'Taylor's Works. 1630. 

Atchorn, 8. An acorn. Atchom- 

itiff, gathering acorns. Var. dial. 
Ate, (1) ». To eat. Somerset. 

(2) For atle. At the. 
Ategar, 8. {A.-S.) A kind of lance. 

Ateigne. (A.-N.) To attain ; to 

Ateine, v. {A.-N. atainer.) To 

over-fatigue ; to wear out. 

Moo dyede for hete, at schorte werdes, 
Thenne for dint off sper or swerdes. 
Kyng Richard was ainioost ateynt, 
Aid m the smoke nvgli adrevnt. 

Richard Coer de'L., L 4847. 

In the hete they wer almost ateynt. 
And in the smoke nygh adreyut. 

/*., 1. 6131. 

Ateinte, v. (1) {A.-N. atincter.) 
To give a colouring to. 

Nai, dowter. for God above ! 
Old men ben feUe and queinte. 
And wikkede wrenches conne ateinte. 
Sevyn Sages, 1. 1756 

(2) {A.N.) To reach; to obtain. 
She seid, Thomas, let them stand. 

Or ellis the feend wille the ateynte. 

Ballad of True Thomas. 

(3) part. Convicted ; attainted. 
Atelich, adj. {A-.S.) Foul ; cor- 
rupt ; hateful. 

The bodi ther hit lay on here. 
An atelich thing as hit was on. 

Append, to W. Mapes, p. 343. 

Atelle, v. {A.-S. atellan.) To 
reckon ; to count. 

The kyng thoru ys conseyl encented wel 

her to, 
And god ostage of nom, the truage vor to 

And atel al her god, and let him al bar 

wende. Sob. Glmtc, p. 171. 

Atex, adv. Often. Northampt. 
Atenes, adv. At once. 
Atent, s. {A.-N.) An object ; in- 

Tlier y had an honderthe marke of rent ; 
Y spente hit alle in lyghtte atent. 
Of suche forlok was y. 

Sir Amadas, 1. 372. 

Ateon, v. {A.-S.) To make angry, 
Ater, (1) adv. After. Far. diaL 




(2) *. Attire. 
Aterst, adv. In earnest ; in fact. 
Atgo, '\v.{J.-S.) To expend; 
ATGON, /to go, pass away, or 

Whet may I sugge bote wolawo ! 
Wlien miiif is me algo. 

Lyric Poetry, p. 74. 

Ther ich wes luef, icliam ful lolit, 
Ant alle mya godes me atgoht. 

lb., p. 48. 

Ath, (1) s. {A.-S. a&.) An oath. 

(2) pres. t. of have. Hath. Rob. 

(3) Each. 

Tliai token ath tulke ; 
The roglre raggi sculke 
Rug ham in helle ! 

Pol. Songs, p. 296. 

4THALDE, 1 V. {A.-S.) To with- 
ATHELDE, Wiold ; to keep; to 
ATHOLDE, J retain. Pret. atheld, 
and athuld. Rob. Glouc. 

He him miglit no lenge athelde. 

Gij of Warwike, p. 60. 

3wider, our kyng of this lond, ys truage 

athuld sone. Rob. Glouc, p. G3. 

Ath AN OR, s. A digesting furnace ; 
an alchemical term. 

And se thy fornace be apt therfore, 
Wiiyeli H yse men do call atlunor. 

Ashinole's Tkeat. Ckem., p. 149. 

V'thattens, a^fy. In that manner. 

A't/im-ens, in this manner. Leic. 

4.THEL, adj. {A.-S.) Noble. 

Forthi for fantoum and fayryje 
The folk there hit denied, 
Tlieilbie to auusware waij arje 
Mony aiM freke. 

Gawayn ^ the Gr. Knyght, 1. 440. 

Atheliste, adj. Most noble. 

Thane syr Arlhure one erthe, 
Atheliste of otliere. 
At evene at his aweue horde 
Avantid his lordez. 

Morte Arthure. 

Athene, v. {A.-S. apenian.) To 
stretch out. Athening, s. Ex- 
tension. Lydgale. 

Atheologian, s. {Gr.) One who 
is the opposite to a theologian. 

Atheous, adj. (Gr.) Atheistical. 

It is an ignorant conceit, that inquiry 

into nature sliould make men atheous. 

liishop Hall's Works, ii, 13. 

Ather, adj. Either. 

kTn^viT, prep. Athwart; across. 

Devon and Somerset. 
A-THES-ALF, jorq!;. On this side 

of. Rob. Glouc. 
Athilleyday, *. The rule of an 


Seeke the ground meete for your pur- 
pose, and then take an eistrolobe, and 
hang that upon your thombe by the 
ring, and tlien tunie the athilleyduy or 
rule with the sights up and downe, 
untill that you doo see the marke. 

Bourne's Inventions, 1578. 

ATHiN,/>rej». Within. Var. dial. 

Athinken, v. (A.-S.) To repent, 
Soore it nie a'thyuketh 
lor the dede that I have doon. 

Piers PL, p. 374 

A-THis-siDE. On this side. Var. 

Athog, conj. As though. 

Atholde, v. See Athalde. 

Athout, prep. Without. Somerset. 

Athrang, adv. In a throng. 

Athre, ~I adv. (A.-S.) In three 
ATHREO, /parts. 

Athrep, adv. (A.-S.) With tor- 
ture; cruelly, 

Heo liire awarietli al athrep. 
Also wulves dotli the seep. 

Oclaman, Conybeare, p. 57. 

Athrine, v. To touch, Verstegan. 

Athriste, v. To thrust ; to hurry 

Athroted, part. p. Throttled; 
choked. Chaucer. 

Athrough, adv. Entirely. 

Athrust, adv. Thirsty. 

Athurt, adv. Athwart; across. 
West. Athurt and alongst, a 
proverbial expression when re- 
flections pass backwards and 
forwards between neighbours 
also, when the two ends of a 
piece of cloth or linen are sewml 
together, and then cut through 

AT 122 


the middle, so that the two ends 
become the middle or the 
breadth, and the middle or 
breadth makes the two ends. 
Athyt, part. p. Conditioned ? 

Ko storing of pasture, with baggedgrly tyt. 
With ragged, witli aged, and evcl athyt. 

Tusser, ed 1573. 

Atil, *. (A.-N.) Furniture ; neces- 
sary supplies. JRob. Glouc. 

Atile, v. {A.-N. attiler.) To equip ; 
to supply with necessary stores. 
Used frequently by Rob. of Glouc. 

Atilt, (1) adv. At a tilt ; in the 
manner of a tilter. 
(2) V. To tilt. 

Atire, ». {A.-N.) To prepare; to 
fit out. 

■What dos the kyng of France ? atires him 

gode navie 
Tille Ingloud, o chance to wyune it with 

maistrie. Peter Langtoft, p. 207. 

Atisfement, *. {A..N. atiffemmt.) 

A pavilion of honour, with riche atisfement, 
To serve an emperour at a paiiement. 

Peter Langtoft, p. 152. 

Atitle, V. See Attitle. 
Atlas, «. A rich kind of silk em- 
ployed for ladies' gowns. 

Jndian-govonman. Fine morning gowns, 
very rich Indian stuffs ; choice of fine 
atlasses ; fine morning gowns. 

Shadwell, Bury Fair, 1689. 

Atle, v. To array; to arrange. 
See Ettle. 

Hire teht aren white ase bon of whal, 
Evene set ant cUled al. 

Lyric Poetry, p. 35. 

At-lowb, adv. Below. 

Atnun, adv. Afternoon. North- 

Ato, adv. In two. 
Atok, part. p. Took ; seized. 

^'^°^' \adv. At home. 


Atomy, s. {Gr.) An atom. 

Drawn with a team of little atomiet 
^thwart men's noses, as they lie asleep. 
Shakcsp., Rom. and Jul., i, 4. 


A skeleton. 


Dal. Goodman death ! goodman bones ! 
Host. Ihou atomy, thou !^y,^. 

It is also used in the provincial 
dialects of several of the Northern 
Our Jwohnny's just turn'd till a parfet 

NoH ther works, eats, drinks, or sleeps as 
he sud. AndersoH^s Cumb. Ball., p, 98. 

As I protest, they must ha' dissected 
and made an anatomy o' me first, &<•. 

Ben Jonson, \, 101. 

Atone, v. (1) To agree. 
He and Aufidius can no more alone 
Than violentest contrariuty. 

Shakesp., Coriol., iv, 6. 

(2) To reconcile. 

Since we cannot atone vou. 

Skakesp., 'liich. II, i, 1. 

At-one, adv. In a state of con- 

Sone thai were at-one, with wille at on 
assent. Peter Langtoft, p. 220. 

At fewe wordes thai ben at-one. 
He graythes him and forth is gon. 

Lai le Frene, 1. 279. 

Atonement, *. Reconciliation. 
If we do now make our atonement well. 
Our peace will, like a broken limb united. 
Be stronger for the breaking. 

Shakesp., 2 Hen.. IF, iv, 1. 
Since your happiness. 
As you will have it, has alone dependence 
Upon her favour, from my soul 1 wish you 
A fair atonement. 

Massing., D. of Milan, iv, 3. 

Atop, adv. and prep. On the top; 
upon. In modern dialects it is 
accompanied by of or on. 
The buzzar is very ordinary ; 'tis covered 
atop to keep out the searching beames 
of the scortching suune. 

Herbert's Travels, 1638. 

Mop the chappell is a globe (or Steele 
mirrour) pendant, wherein these linx- 
eyed peoj)le view the deformity of their 
sinnes. lb. 

Atorne, (1) r. To run away. 

Tho Water Tyrel y-sey that he was ded, 

He atomde as vaste as he my^te ; that wa« 

liys best won. Rob. Glouc., p. 419t 




(2) part. p. Broken. Hampsh. 

(3) s. An attorney. 

Atour, prep. (A.-N.) About ; 

Atovrse, V. (A.-N.) To equip. 
Atow. That thou. 
At-pla\\ adv. Oat of v/ork. Staff. 
Atraht, '\pret. t. of atreche. 

ATRAUGHT, J Seized ; took away. 
Atramental, '\adj.{Lat.)B>\dLcV. 

ATRAMENTOus, J as ink. 
Atraye, v. (from A.-S. tregian.) 
To trouble ; to vex ; to anger. 

He sturte him up in a breyd, 
lu his lierte sore atrayyed. 

Kyng of Tars, 605. 

ATRED,arf/. (from Lat. ater.) Tinged 

with a black colour. 
Atrete, 1 adv. Distinctly ; 

ATRiGHTES, J Completely. Trac- 

tim, distincte. Prompt. Parv. 
Atrick, 8. An usher of a hall, or 

master porter. Minsheu. 
Atrie, v. To try ; to judge. 
Chefe justise he satte, the sothe to atrie, 
Tor lei'e no loth to lette the rigi'.t lawe to 

guye. Peter Langtoft, p. 80. 

Atristen, v. To trust ; to confide. 
Atroute, v. (1) To rout; to put 

to flicht. 
(2) to assemble. 
Atrute, v. To appear. 

Hervore hit is that me the shuneth, 
Ami the tatorneth, an tobuueth 
Mid stave, an stoone, an turf, an clute, 
That thu ne mi^t no war atrute. 

Mule and Nyyht'mgale, 1156 

Atscapen, s. (A.-N.) To escape. 
Jesu, thi grace that is so fre 
In siker hope do thou me, 
atscapen peyne ant come to the. 
To the blisse that ay slial be. 

Lyric Poetry, p. 75. 

Atsitte, v. (A.-S.) To withstand; 

to oppose. 
At-square, adv. In dispute. 

Oft times yong men do fall at-sguare, 
For a fine wench that is feat and faire. 

WithaW Dictionarie, p. 271. 

Atston'de, v. {A.-S.) To with- 
stand. Rob. Glouc. 

Attach, v. (Fr.) To join. 

Ten masts attach'd make not the altitude 
Which thou hast perpendicularly fallen. 

Shakesp., Lear, iv, 6. 

Attache, (1) «. {Fr.) A term in 

An attache, is as much as to say, 
vulgarly, tack'd or fasten'd togetlier, or 
one thing fasten'd to another. 

Ladies' Dictionary, \()^i. 

(2) V. {A.-N.) To attach; to 

And comaunded a constable, 
That com at the firste. 
To attachen tho tyrauntz. 

Piers PI, p. 40. 
I gave cute a commission to certaine 
good worshyppefuU folke at Brystow to 
attache Richard Weblie. 

Sir T. More's Works, p. 727. 

Attaint, *. (1) A taint ; anything 

I will not poison thee with my attaint. 
Nor fold my fault in cleanly coin'd excuses. 
Shakesp., Lucrece. 

(2) A term in jousting. See (3). 
The kyng was that daye hyglily to be 
praysed, for lie brake xxiij. speres, 
besyde attayntes, and bare doune to 
ground a man of amies and hys horse. 

Sail, Henry VIII, i.^o. 

(3) V. To hit or touch anything, 
as to strike a blow on a helmet. 

Attal-saresin, s. Aterm formerly 
applied by the inhabitants of 
Cornwall to an old mine that is 
Attame, v. (1) {A.-N. entamer.) 
To commence ; to begin ; to make 
a cut into ; to broach a vessel of 

I pray ye, syr emperoure, shewe me thy 
mynde, whether is more accordynge, to 
attame tliys fysslie here preasente, 
fyrste at the hcade, or at the tayle. The 
emperoure answered shortlye, and 
sayde, at the head the fysshe' shall be 
fyrste attamed. Fabian's Chron. f. 178, 
Yes, ooste, quoth he, soo mote I ryde or 

But I be mery, I wis I wol be blamed • 
And right anon his tale he hath atamed. 
And thus he said unto us everichon. 

Chaucer, Nonnes Priest's Tale, ed. TJrrg. 




For sitliin that payne was first named, 
Was ner more wofuU payiie attained. 

Chaucer's Dreame, 596. 

(2) {A.-N.atainer.) To hurt; 
to injure. Probably, when the 
word occurs in this sense, it is a 
misreading ofthe MS., and ought, 
according to the derivation, to be 
attaine. In the following passage, 
given under this head by Mr. 
Halliwell, the meaning probably 
is that of (1). 

Of liis scholder the swerd glod dorm, 
Tliat bothe plates and bauberjoun 

He carf atuo y plight, 
Al to the naked bide y-wis ; 
And nought of flesche alamed is 

Thurch grace of God Almight. 

Gy of W'ancike, p. 325. 

(3) To tame. 

V«hich made the King change face and 

And specially his pride gan attame, 
Whan he wist Pandosia was the name. 
Bochas, p. 108. 

Attaminate, v. (Lat. attamino.) 

To corrupt ; to spoil. 
Attan. See Atte. 
Attanis, adv. (J.-S.) At once. 
Attar, prep. After. Shropsh. 
Attask'd, part. p. Blamed. 
Attaste, v. To taste. 
Atte, 1 prep. {A.-S. cet ]>an, at 
atten, ^the, softened first into 
attan, J attan, then into alien, 
and finally into atte.) At the. 
And bad bir lyglit it atte fyer. 

Caxton, Reynart, sig. B 6, b. 

Atte prestes hows. /*., sig. B 7. 
Before a word beginning with a 
vowel, the final n was often re- 

So that atten ende 
Mabyle hym ansuerede. 

R. Glouc, p. 431. 

Sometimes, in this case, the n 
was thrown to the next word. 

And tbanne seten somme, 

And songen atte nale. Fiera PI., p. 124. 

Atte-frome, adv. {A.-S. cet fru- 
mau.) At the beginning; im- 

Attelax, s. {Lat. atellanics.) A 
drollery; a satirical piece. 

All our feasts almost, masques, mum- 
mings, banquets, merry meetings, wed- 
dings, pleasintr songs, fine tunes, poems, 
love-stories, playes, eomoedies, attelans, 
jigs, fescenines, elegies, odes, &c. pro- 
ceed hence. Burton, An. o/J/eZ.,ii,341. 

Attele, r. {A.-S.) To aim ; to 
design ; to conjecture ; to go 
towards; to approach. A form 
of ettle. 

ATTEMPERAnNCE, 8. {A.-N.) Tem- 

The felawes of abstinence ben attempe- 
raunce, that holdith the mene in alle 
tliiiiges ; eek schanie, that eschiewith al 
dishonest^. Chaucer, Persones T. 

And it bihoTcth a man putte such 
attemperance in his defence, that men 
have no cause ne matiere to rejireven 
him, that delendiih liim, of e.xcesse and 
outrage. Chaucer, T. of Melibeus. 

Attemperel, adj. {A.-N.) Mo- 
derate; temperate. 
Certes, wel I wot, attemperel wepyng is 
nothing defended to him that sorwful 
is, amonges folk in sorwe, but it is 
ratlier graunted liini to wepe. The 
apostcl Poule unto the Romayns 
wrileth, A man schal rejoyce with hem 
that maken joye, and wepe with such 
folk as wepen. But though attemperel 
wepyng be graunted, outrageous wep- 
ynge certes is detVndi-d. 

Chaucer, T. of Melibeus. 

Attemperelly. 1 ^^_ ^^_^^ 

^"-^^^^^^"^'t Temperately. 
attemprely, J '^ 

Man scbulde love bis wyf by discres- 
cioun, paciently and attemperelly, and 
thanne is sche as it were his suster. 

Chaucer, Persones T. 

Attempre, (1) adj. {A.-N.) Tem- 
perate. Sometimes written at- 

Sche scliulde eek serve him in al 

honesty, and ben attempre of bir array. 

Chaucer, Persones T. 

(2) V. To make temperate. 
Attemptate, *. {A.-N.) (1) An 


(2) An encroachment or assault. 
Attend, v. {Fr.) To wait. 




Snndry of his greatest friends resolving 
to attend the receipt of some comfort 
to be sent from hmi. 

Bowes Correspondence, 1582. 

Attendable, adj. Attentive. 

Attendably, adv. Attentively. 

Attender, s. One who attends; 
a companion, or comrade. 

Attent, adj. Attentive. Shakesp. 

Attentates, s. pi. {Lai. atten- 
tata.) Proceedings in a court of 
judicature, pending suit, and after 
an iniiibition is decreed and 
gone out. 

Attently, adv. Attentively. 

Atter, s. (1 ) {A.-S. alter.) Poison. 
Of iiyeli a werm tliat atter beretli, 
Otlier it stingetli, otlicr it terclli. 

Coni/beare's Octavian, p. 57 . 

(2) Corrupt matter issuing from 
an ulcer. Atlyr fvltli. Sanies. 
Prompt. Para. Still used in 
this sense in some of the dialects. 

Tlie sore is full of matter or atler. 
Ulcus est jmruUnfum. 

Uormanni Vulgaria, sig. I 6. 

(3) An otter. 

Take heare cattes, dogges too, 
Atter and foxe, flllie, mare alsoe. 

Cluster Flays, i, 51. 

(4) An abbreviation of at their. 

And ase tlier mot atter spousynge 

Be ry^t asent of botlie, 
Of man, and of tlier wymman eke, 

Yn love and naujt y-lotlie. 

W. de Shoreham. 

(5) prep. After. Northampt. 

(6) Attire; array. 
mtercoppe, 1 s. {A.-S. atter-cop- 

adercop, ] pa.) (1) A spider. 
Perhaps it signified originally 
some insect of a more hurtful cha- 
racter ; the atter-coppas figured 
in MS. Cotton, Vitel., c. iii, do 
not reserable modern spiders. 

Ac Wat etestu.tliat tliu nc li^e, 
Bute attercoujte an tule vli^e ? 

Hule and Nyff/itingale, 1. 600. 
And though there be no gret venemons 
beeates in that londe, yet ben there 
atiercoppes venemous that ben called 
■palangia in that londe. 

Trevisa's Polichron., f. 33. 

In the towne of Schrowyshnry, setan 
tlire men togedur, and as they seton 
talkyng, an atturcoppe com owte of the 
wowj, and bote hem by tl)e nekkus alle 
thre. Pre/, to Rob. de Brunne, p. cc. 

(2) A spider's web. North. 

(3) A peevish, ill-natured person. 

Atterlothe, 8. {A.-S.) Night- 
shade. E.xplained by morella in 
list of plants in MS. Harl., 978. 

Atterly, adv. Utterh. Skinner. 

Attermite, s. An ill-natured per- 
son. North. 

Attern, adj. (from A.-S. attem.) 
Fierce, snarling, ill-natured, cruel. 

Atterr, v. {Fr. alterrer.) 

Knowing this that your renown alone 
(As til' adamant, and as the amber drawes: 
That, hardest sieel; this, easie-yeelding 

Atterrs the stuhborn.and attracts the prone. 
Sylvesters Sonn. to E. of Essex, p. 74. 

Atterrate, s. {Lat.) To become 

Atterration, s. {Lat.) An old 
word for alluvial ground on the 

Attering, adj. Venomous. 

Attery, adj. Purulent. East. Iras- 
cible ; choleric. West. See Attry. 

Attest, s. Attestation ; testimony. 

Atteynant, adj. Appertaining ; 

Atteynt, part. p. {A.-N.) Con- 

Attice, s. An adze. Somerset. 

Attiguous, adj. {Lat.) Very near ; 
close by. 

Attincture, 8. {A.-N.) Attainder. 

Attinge, v. {Lat.) To touch lightly 
or gently. 

Attires, s. The horns of a stag. 

Attise, v. To entice. 

Servauntes, avoyde the company 
Of them tliat i)laye at cardes or dyse; 

For yf tliiit ye tliem liauriie, truely 
To thefte shall tliey you soone atli/se. 

Anc. Poetica' Tracts, p. 11. 

Attitle, v. To entitle ; to name. 




Attle, 8. Rubbish, refuse of stony 
matter. A mining term. 

Attom'd, adj. Filled with small 
particles ; thick. Drayton. 

Attone, adv. Altogether. 

And his fresh blood did frieze with fearful! 

That all his senses seem'd bereft attone. 
Speiu., F. Q., II, i, 42. 

Attoxes, "ladv. Once for all ; at 
ATTONCE, J once. 

And all altonce her beastly body rais'd 

With double forces high above the stround. 
/A.,I, i. 18. 
And thenne they alyght sodenly, and 
sette their handcs upon hymallat/oHW, 
and toke hym prysoner, and soo ledde 
Lym unto the castel. 

Morted" Arthur, i,Z\^. 

Attorxe, or Atturne, v. {A.-N.) 
To perform service. 
They plainly told him that they would 
not atturne to him, nor be under his 
jurisdiction. Holiiigsh., Rick. 7/, 481. 

Attorney, s. {A.-N.) A deputy ; 
one who does service for another. 

ArrocR, (1) «. {A.-N.) A head- 

{2)prep. {A.-N. entour.) Around. 
(3) prep. Besides. Hence the 
Scottish phrase, by and attour. 

Attourne, v. To return. 

Attournement, 8. {A.-N.) A 
yielding of a tenant unto a new 
lord. Minsheu. A law term. 
Wheruppon dyverse tenauntes have 
openly attorned unto the kynges grace. 
Monastic Letters, p. 88. 

Attract, *. An attraction. 

For then their late attracts decline. 
And turn as eager as prick'd wine. 

Hudibras, III, i, 693. 

Attraits,«.^/. Flattery. Skinner. 
Attrape, v. {Fr.) To entrap. 

And lying and placing tliother vj c. men 
in H secret place nygh in the mydd way 
betwen Warke and the sayd towne of 
Myllerstayenes, aswtll for the releyse 
of the said wawcuriores, as to attrape 
the enemyes, yf they unadvisedly wold 
pursewe or coine to the said fyer or fray. 
MS. Cott., Calig., M v, f. 23 v°. 
And he that hath hyd a snare to altrap 
au other with, hath hym selfe ben taken 
therin. Tales and Quicke Jnaw*re* 

Attrectatiox, s. {Lat.) Frequent 

Attribution, s. Commendation. 

Shakesp., 1 Henry IV, iv, 1. 
XTTB-m, part. p. Poisoned. 
Attried, part. p. Tried. 
Attrite, adj. {Lat.) Worn. 
Attrition, «. {Lat.) Grief for sin, 

arising only from the fear of 


He, the whyche hath not playne con- 
trvcyon, but all onely attri/ci/on, the 
wiiyche is a maner of contrycyon un- 
parfyte and unsuflfycyent for to have 
the grace of God. 
Institution of a Christian Man, p. 162. 

Attrokien, v. {A.-S.) To fail; 

to weary. 
Attry, adj. {A.-S.) Venomous; 

poisonous; filthy. 

And gulcheth al ut somed thet tliea^M 
heorte sent up to the tunge. 

MS. Cott., Nero, A xiv, f. 21. 

Thanne cometh of ire attry anger, 
whan a man is scharply amouested in 
his schrilte to forlete synne, thanne 
wol he be angry, and answere hokerly 
and angrily, to defenden or excusen his 
synne by unstedefastnesse of hisfleisch. 
Chaucer, Personci T. 

Attween, prep. Between, far. 

Atundere, adv. {A.-S.) In sub- 

Atvore, adv. {A.-S. aetforan.) Be- 
fore. Rob. Glouc. 

Atwain, arf». In two; asunder. 

Atwaved, part. p. {A.-S.) Escaped. 

What wylde so at-icaped vry^es that 
schotten. Syr Gawayne, p. 44. 

Atwee, adv. In two. North. 
Atweel, adv. Very well. North. 
Atween, prep. Between. Jar. 

Atwende, v. {A.-S. (Btwindan.) To 
turn away from ; to escape. 
Heo mai hire gult attrende, 
A rihte weie, tliurth cliirche bende. 

Hnle and Nygktiiig., 1. 1415. 

Atwin, adv. Asunder; in two. 
Chaucer. The word occurs in 
this sense in Rider's Dictionarie, 




1640, and according to Moor, is 

still used in Suffolk. 
Atwinxe, v. (A.-S.) To part 

Atwirche, v. (A.-S.) To work 

against ; to do evil work to. 

Al that trowe on Jhesu Crist, 
Thai fond aitrircke ful wo. 

Scynt Meryrete, p. 103. 

Atwist, (1) *. Disagreement. 


(2) part. p. Twisted. Somerset. 
Atwist, pref. t. {^J.-S.) Knew. 

Aho, part, p., known. 

Another dai Clarice aiist. 
And Blauuchellour aticist 
Whi hi made so longe dcmoere. 
Eartshorne's Met. Tales, p. 105. 

Atwitb, v. {A.-S. cetwitan, to re- 
proach.) To twit ; to upbraid. 

That eni man beo falle in odwite, 
\>i schal he me his sor attcite ? 

Hide and Nyghting., 1. 1222. 

This woi-d dude much sorwe this seli olde 

rhat atirytede hyni and j'S Stat, that lie 

nadde hjm sell" nothing. 

Bob. of Gloue., p. 33. 

He was wroth, ye schul here wit«, 
Per Merlin hadde him atwite. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 341. 
Atwixe, "1 
ATwixT, Kprep. Between. 

^TWO, "] 

ATuo, I adv. (A.-S. on twa, on 
ATWAE, ytwagen.) Intwo;asun- 
ATWAix, der. 


Atwot, pret. t. of atwite. Twitted ; 

At-yaxce, ado. At once. North. 
Atyme, adv. On a time. 
Aty'r, s. Attire. 
Au, adj. All. North. 
AuBADE, s. (Fr.) A serenade. 
Auberge, s. (Fr.) An inn. 
AtJBETEoi, *. One of the male sex 

at the age when verging upon 

manhood. A hobbledehoy. GloU' 


AucHT, is used in the dialect of East 
Anglia as the preterite of the verb 
to owe. 

AucTE, *. (A.-S. ahte.) Property. 

To-morwen shal maken the fre. 
And aucte the yeven, and riche make. 
Eatelok, 531. 

AvcriVE, adj. (Lat.) Of an increas- 
ing quality. 

AucTORiTE, s. (Lat.) A text of 
Scripture, or of some writer ac- 
knowledged as authority. 

AuoTouR, *. (A.-N.) An author. 

AucuPATiON, s. (Lat.) Fowling; 
hunting after anything. 

AuD, adj. Old. Var. dial. 

Says t' and man tit oak tree. 
Young and lusty was I when I kenn'd thee. 
Nursery Rhyme. 

Audacious, adj. (A.-N.) Bold; 

Aud-farand, adj. (A.-S.) A term 
applied to forward children, who 
imitate the manners of elderly 
people. North. See Auld/ar'd. 

Audience, s. A hearing. Chaucer. 

AuDiTiov, *. (Lat.) Hearing. 

Auditive, adj. (Fr. attdifif.) Hav- 
ing the power of hearing. 

Aud-peg, *. An inferior cheese, 
made of skimmed milk. North. 

Audrie. " Seynt Audries lace, 
cordon." Palsgrave. See Awdrie. 

Auen, adj. Own. 

AuFF, s. An elf. This word occurs 
in A New English Dictionary, 
1691. Skinner explains it, "stul- 
tus, ineptus," a fool. See Awf. 

AuFiN, \s. The bishop at chess. 
AWFiN, /See Aljin. The tract 
De Fetula (published under the 
name of Ovid) gives the following 
Latin or Latinized names of the 

Miles et alpinua, roccus, rex, virgo, pe- 

AuGENT, adj. August ; noble. 
Hayle, cumly kyngis augent ! 

Sharp's Cot. Myst., p. lOL 




AuGGERE, s. An ague. 

A man that is here yliunge and lyglit, 
Tho never so stahvorthe and whight, 
And comly of shape, lovely and fayr, 
Auggcres and ruelles will soon apayr. 

Hampole, p. 6. 

AuGHKNE, adj. Own. See Aghen. 
Aught, 1 
AujT, >;»re/.^. of OM>e. (1) Ought. 


Floure of hevene, ladi and quene, 
As sche awit wel to bene. 

MS. Addit., 10036, f. 62. 

(2) Owed. 

(3) s. Possessions ; property. 

(4) adj. High. Rob. Glouc. 

(5) adj. Eight; the eighth. 

{<o) s. {A.-S. awiht.) Anything; 

at all. 

(7) adv. In any manner ; by any 


He is ful joconde also dare I leye ; 
Can he auaht tell a mery tale or tweie, 
With which he gladen may this compaijine ? 
Chaucer, C. T., 1UUG5. 

AuGHTAND, adj. The eighth. 
AuGHTED, ^re^. t. Cost. 

Bevis did on his acquetoun, 
Tiiat had aughted many a town. 

Ellis's Met. Rom., ii, 111. 

AuHTEND. adj. Eighteenth. 

AuGHTENE, adj. The eighth. 

AuGHTS. (1) Any considerable 
quantity. North. 
(2) 8. (corrupted from orts.) Bro- 
ken victuals; fragments of eat- 
ables. Heref. and Sussex. 

AuGHTWHERE, adv. Anywhcrc. 

AuGLB, V. To ogle. North. 

AuGRiM, "1 *. Arithmetic. See 
AWGRiM, } Algrim. 

He raeilletli not muche with augrim to 
se to what sumiue the nombcr of men 
ariseth that is multiplied by an c. 

Sir T. More's Works, p. 300. 

AuORiM-sTONES, s. Countcrs for- 
merly used in arithmetic. 

AuGURATioN, s. {Lat.) Conjectur- 
ing. This word occurs in Rider's 
Dictionarie, 1640. 

AuGUKious, adj. Predicting. 

AuGURiNE, *. A fortune-teller. 
Augusta, s. A cant term for the 

mistress of a house of ill-fame. 

Auk, \adi. (1) Angry, ill-natured, 

ACK, J un])ropitious.Prow;o^Pflr». 

Still used in this sense in the 

North of England. 

(2) Inverted ; confused. The old 
signal of alarm was ringing the 
bells backwards, or, as it was 
often termed, aukward, or ack- 
ward. " I rynge aukeivard, je 
Sonne abransle." Palsgrave. In 
the East of England, bells are still 
" rung auk," to give alarm of fire. 

(3) s. A stupid or clumsy person. 

AuKERT, adj. Awkward. Var.dial. 
AuL, s. An alder. Herefordsh. 
AuLD, adj. (1) Old. Var. dial. 

(2) Great. North. 

(3) The first or best, a phrase 
used in games. 

AuLD-ANE, ». The devil. North. 
Auldfar'd, adj. Old-fashioned; 

Thus vearst in legendary teale, 
This auldfar'd chronicle cud tell 

Tilings that jaen's varra lugs wad geale, 
Of what to this and tliat befell. 

Stagg's Cumberland Poems, p. 66. 

AuLD-THRiFT, s. Wealth accumu- 
lated by the successive frugality 
of ancestors. North. 

AuLEN, adj. Of alder. Herefordsh. 

AuLN, s. (Fr.) A French measure 
of 5 ft. 7 in. ; an ell. 

AuM, s. (1) An aim. Palsgrave. 

(2) The elm tree. Northumb. 

(3) AUum. North. 

(4) A Dutch measure for liquids. 
AuMA, *. A sort of pancake. Here- 

AuMAYL, (1) s. (A.-N) Eniimel. 

As growe grene as the gres. 
And grener hit semed 
Then grene aumai/l on golde. 

Gawayn ^ the Gr. Kn., 1. 429. 

(2) V. To variegate ; to figure. 
Aumayl'd, adj. Enamelled or em- 




In gilden buskins of costly cordwayne 
All hard with golden bendes, which were 

With curious autickes, and full fayre au- 

mayl'd. Spens., F. Q., II, iii, 27. 

AuMAiST, adv. Almost. North. 

AuMB, s. Alms distributed to the 
poor at Christmas were formerly 
80 called in Devon. 

AuMBE, s. A measure of lime, con- 
taining three bushels. Norfolk 
Records, earlier part of 16th cent. 

AuMBES-AS. See Ambes-as. 

AuMBLE, «. An ambling pace. 

AuMBRE-STONE, *. Amber. PalS' 

^Tme^r^.V-C^-;^-) AcupJ)oard; 
Aumelet, *. An omelet. Skinner. 

AUMENER, "1 / ^ »TN A 
AUMERE.r-^^-^-)^ ?""•««• 

Than of his aumener he drongh 
A little keie fetise i-nough. 

Rom. of the Rose, 2087. 
Were streighte glovis with aumere 
Of silke, and alway with gode chere. 
lb., 2271. 
AuMENERE, 8. An almoner. 
AuMER, V. {A.-N.) To shadow ; to 

cast a shadow over. Yorksh. 
AuMERD, s. {A.-N.) A shadow. 

AuMONE, s. (A.-N.) Alms. 
AuMous, s. Quantity. When a 
labourer has filled a cart with 
manure, corn, &c., he will say 
to the carter, " Haven't ya got 
your aumous." Line. 
AuMPERouR, 8. An emperor. 
AvMPH,adv. Awry; aslant. Shropsh. 
AuMRS, 8. A cupboard. North. 
AuMRY-soAL, *. A hole at the 
bottom of the cupboard. A word 
formerly used in Yorkshire. 
AuMS-ASE. See Ambes-as. 

^"'^""' Is. Alms. North. 


AuNCEL, 8 A sort of scale or ma- 
chine for weighing, prohibited by 
statute on account of its uncer- 
tainty. "Awncell weight as I 

have been informed, is a kind of 
weight with scales hanging, or 
hooks fastened at each end of a 
staff, which a man lifteth up upon 
his forefinger or hand, and so 
discerneth the equality or diflfe- 
rence between the weight and 
the thing weighed." Cowell, In- 
terpreter, 1658. In Piers PI. we 
find auncer. 

Ac the pound that she paied by 

Peised a quatron moore 

Than myu owene auncer. 

Who so weyed truthe. 

Fieri PI., p. 90. 

AuNCESTREL, *. (A.-N.) A homagc 
which is rendered from genera- 
tion to generation. 
AuNCETRE.s. (v^.-A''.) An ancestor. 
Skelton has auncetryior ancestry. 
AuNciAN, adj. (A.-N.) Ancient. 
The olde auncian wyf 
Hejest ho svttej. 
Gaicayn ^'the Gr. Kn., 1. 1806. 

AUNCIENTE, 1 A ♦• -i 


Avn'd, part. p. Fated. Northumb. 
Supposed to be derived from 
the Islandis andas, to die. 

AuNDER, s. Afternoon; evening. 
Apparently the same as undem. 
Cotgrave uses aunders-meat to 
signify an afternoon's refresh- 

AuNDYRN, 8. See Andiron. 

Aunt, a. (1) A cant term for a 
woman of bad character, either 
prostitute or procuress. Often 
used by Shakespeare. 

To call you one o' mine aunts, sister, 
were aa good as to call you arrant whore. 
0. P., iii, 260. 
And was it not then better bestowed 
upon his uncle, than upon one of his 
aunts? I need not say bawd, for every 
one knows what aunt stands for in the 
last translation. 
JUiddle ton's Trick to catch the Old One, ii, 1 . 

It still exists in this sense in 
Newcastle, as we learn from 




(2) The customary appellation 
addressed by a jester or fool, to 
a female of matronly appearance ; 
as uncle was to a man. 

AuNTE, adv. (A.-N.) Together. 

Heo gederede up here aunte here ost aboute 

And destruyde hire londes evther in his 
syde. Bob. Glouc, p. 37. 

AuNTELERE, «. An antler. 

AuNTERs, 1 «. j»/. Needless scru- 
ANTERS, J pies ; mischances. Ray 
mentions it as a Northern pro- 
vincialism, used in the first of 
these senses ; as, " he is troubled 
with aunters." 

Tho this kynge hadde go aboute in such 
sorwful cas, 

A.t the laste he com to Caric, there ys 
doTter was, 

He bilevede withoute the toune, and in 
wel grete fere. 

He sende the qnene ys dojter worde, 
wuche ya antres-were. Sob. Glouc, p. 35. 

Ise ding tby hams out, thou base mukky 

Thou mak's sic anters, thou'll mistetchmy 
co«-. Yorkshire Dialogue, p. 36. 



Ac atenture, for the fyght. 
This vietorie is the y^vght. 

K. AlisumUer, 1. 3922. 
So I seid, anaunter whanne my enemys 
be to glade over me. 
Fsalnu and Prayers .- MS. Hunt., f. 88, v". 

To do anaunter, to put in 
Tliy love ych abbe wel dere abojt, and my 
lyve aimituter Rob. Glouc., p. 311. 

AuNTER, 1 rp » i 

' I r. To venture; to 

AUNTRE, >-. J 

I hazard. 


How l[udes] for her lele luf 
Hor lyve^ ban auntered, 
Endured for her drury 
Dulful stoundez. 

Gaicayn and the Gr. Kn., 1. 2737. 
I wol arise and aunlre it, in good faith. 
Chaucer, C. T., 4207. 
AuNTER, (A.-N.) (1) ». An adven- 
ture ; a hap, or chance. In aunter, 
for fear. North. 

'ttdv. Perchance. 

Forthi an aunter in erde 
I attle to shawe. 

Warton's Hist. E. P., i, 187 

I conjure the neverthelese be God and 
thy nobley, that thou take it unto none 
ydyotis, in annlyr tliat they by tlier 
unkunning myght werk noy to ony man 
that is yevea unto the comenne prolite. 
MS. \ith cent. 

(2)». An altar. Probably a mere 
clerical error. 

Be-forn his au^Ater he knelyd adoon. 

Songs and Carols, St. xi. 

AuNTEROus, 1 adj. Bold ; daring ; 
AUNTROSE, y adventurous; for- 
AUNTRus, J midable; sometimes, 

I wot, Sir, ye are wight, 

And a wegli nobille, 

Junlerotis in amies, 

And able of person. 

Destruct'on of Troy, MS., f. 10 >*. 

Aunters, adv. Peradventure ; in 

case that ; lest ; probably. North. 

Auntersome, adj. Bold ; daring. 

Auntre, adv. On the contrary ; 
on the other hand. 
Auntre, they swore hym hool oth 
To be hys men that wer there. 

R. Coer de Lion, 3878. 

AuNTREOUSLicHE, odv. Boldly ; 

Al auntreousUche ther he comen wes. 

Gy of Warwilce, p. 83. 

AuNTY, (1) adj. Frisky and fresh, 

generally applied to horses. Leic. 


(2) 8. An aunt. Var. dial. 
Au-out, adv. Entirely. North. 
Aup, (1) «. A wayward child. 

North. Pronounced aupa in 


{2) prep. Up. West. 
A.VPY, adj. Apeish; imitative; pert. 

AuR, conj. Or. 
Aurate, s. A sort of pear. 
AuRE, prep. Over. 
Aureat, adj. (Lat.) (I) Golden; 


(2) Good ; excellent. 




AcRE-HiET, pret. t. Overtook. 

He prekut oute prestely, 
And aure-hiet liini radly. 

Robson'a Met. ^m., p. 66. 

AuRiKiED, part. p. {Lot.) Made 
pure as gold. 

AuRiGATioN, s. (Lat.) The prac- 
tice of driving carriages. 

AuRRUST, «. Harvest. Wore. 

AuRSELs, prort. Ourselves. North. 

AuRUM-MULicuM, s. A Compo- 
sition mentioned in some early 
documents relating to the arts. 

AuRUM-POTABiLE, s. A mcdiclne 
said to have possessed great 

And then the golden oyle called aurum- 

A medicine most mervelons to preserve 

mans health. 

Jshmole't Theat. Chem., p. 422. 

AusE, (1) V. (A.-N.) To try ; to 

promise favorably. See Aust. 

(2) conj. Also. 
AusiER, *. An osier. Suffolk. 
AusNEY, V. To anticipate bad news. 

XvspiCATE, adj. (Lat.) Auspicious. 
Auspicious, adj. Joyful. 
AusT, V, To attempt; to dare. 

Leic. and Warw. Also used as 

a substantive. 


Stem; severe. 

But who is yond, thou ladye faire, 
Tliat looketh with sic an austeme face? 
Percy's Bcliques, p. 73. 
To ansuere the alyenes 
Wyth auslerene woitles. 

Morle Jrthure. 

AusTRiDGE, s. {A.-N.) An ostrich. 
AvT, (\) pret. p. Ought. 

(2) adv. Out. North. 

(3) All the. North. 

AuTEM, 8. A church, in the cant- 
ing language. Autem-mort, a 
married woman ; autem-divers, 
pickpockets who practise in 
churches, &c. 

AuTENTicKE, adj. Authentic. 

AuTENTiftUALi., odj. Authentic. 

AuTEOSE, «. The name of a flower. 

The flowre is of a gode lose, 
That men calletli auteose. 

Reliq. Antiq., i, 195. 
AuTER, «. An altar. 

He lies at Wynchestre, beside an autere. 
Langtoft, p. 20. 

Authentic, adj., "seems to have 
been the proper epithet for a 
physician regularly bred or li 
censed. The diploma of a licenti. 
ate runs authentice licentiatug." 

To he relirqiiished of Galen and Para- 
celsus — 
And all the learned and authentic fellows. 
Shakesp., All's W. that Ends W., ii, 3. 

Or any other nutriment that by tl»e 
judgment of the most authentical phy- 
sicians, where I travel, shall be thought 

Jonson, Every Man out of H., iv, 4. 

AuTHER, adj. Either. 

AuTOLOGY, «. {Gr.) A soliloquy. 

AuTOMEDON, 8. The charioteer of 
Achilles ; hence the early drama- 
tists applied the name generally 
to a coachman. 

Autonomy, «. (Gr.) Liberty to 
live after one's own laws. This 
word occurs in Cockeram's Eng- 
lish Dictionarie, 1639. 

Autopon ! interj. Out upon ! 

Autority, s. Authority. North. 

Autour, "I «. (A.-N.) (1) An au- 
AUCTOUR, J thor. 
(2) An ancestor. 

AuTREMiTE, s. Explained by 
Skinner, another attire. Tyrwhitt 
reads vitremite. 

And she that helmid was in starke stouris, 
And wan by force tounis strong and touris, 
Shall on her hedde now werin aulremite. 
Chaucer, ed. Urn/, p. 1 

AuTURGY, «. {Gr. avTovpyia.) 
Work done by one's self; the 
work of one's own hand. 

AuvE, 8. The helve or handle of 
an axe. Shropsh. 

AuvERDRO, V. To overthrow. West, 

AuvERGiT, V. To overtake. West. 




AuvERLOOK, e. To overlook ; to 
look upon with the evil eye ; to 
bewitch. West. 


Country word. 

Iz vather in a little cot 
Liv'd, auverright tba moor. 

An tliaw a kipt a vlock o' geese, 
A war a thoughted poor. 

Jennings' Dialects, p. 109. 

AuviSE, s. Counsel; advice. For 

Au WARDS, arf». Awkward; athwart. 
North. Sheep are said to be 
auwards, when they lie backward 
so as to be unable to rise. 

Ava', adv. At all. North. 

AvACH, V. To avouch. Beds. 

AvAGE, s. A rent or duty which 
every tenant of the manor of 
Writtel, in Essex, paid to the 
lord on St. Leonard's day, for the 
liberty of feeding his hogs in the 
woods. Phillips. 

Avail, s. {A.-N.) Value ; profit ; 
advantage; produce. 

The avail of the marriage cannot be 
craved but at the perfect yeares of the 
apparent lieir, because he cannot pay 
the atail, but by giving security of his 
landes. Hope's Minor Praclicts, 48. 

Quoth he, " Fayre maye, yet I you pray, 

Tims much at my desyer 
Vonclisafe to doo, as goe him too. 

And saye, an Austen fryar 
Woulde with him spead^e, and materi 
For his avayle certaine." 

A Mery Jest of a Sergeaunt. 

Ilowe'er, I charge thee. 

As heaven shall work in me for thine avail. 

To tell me truly. 

Skaiesp., AlVs W. that Ends W., i, 3. 

AvAiTE, V. {A.-N.) To watch. 

The which ordeynede for a law, that 
what tyme there was any fyre in that 
citd, there shulde be a bidelle y-or 
deined for to avaite hit, and to make an 
bighe proclamacione in the n\t. 

Gesta Horn., p. 52. 

AvALE, \v. (A.-N.avaler.) (1) To 
AVAIL, j descend ; to fall down ; 
to sink. 

And often it hatha befallen, that snmmo 
of the Jcwes ban eon up tlie moun- 
taynes, and araled down to thevaleyes; 
but gret nombre of folk ne may not do 
so. ■• Manndevile, p. 266. 

But when they came in siglit, 

And from their sweatv coursers did avale. 
Sp'ens., F. Q., II, ix, 10. 

(2) To lower; to let down. 
Sometimes abridged to vale, as in 
the phrase " to vale the bonnet," 
to lower the bonnet, or take oflf 
the hat. 

He wold arale nowther hood ne hat, 
Ne abvde no man for his curtesye. 

Chaucer, C. T., 3124. 

(3) To assault. Skinner, 
AvAN, adj. Filthy; squalid. North- 
amp t. 

AvANCE, (A.-N.) (1) V. To advance; 
to profit. See Avaunce. 
(2) s. Advancement. 
AvANCK, 1 s. (A.-N.) The herb 
AVANS, > barefoot, which was 
AVENS, J formerly much used in 

Costmarie and avens are verie pleasant 
hearbes to give a savour like spice in 
pottage and salads. 

Marlcham, Countrie Fame, ed. 1616. 

AvANCEMENT, «. Advancement. 

AvANG, s. A strap, or stay to 

which the girt is buckled ; a 

whang ; the iron strap under the 

lap of the saddle to which the 

' stirrup-leather is fastened. Devon. 

AvANSE, V. To escape from. 

For any cas that may belyde, 
Schall non therof aranse. 

Cohcold's Daunee, 165. 

AvANTAGE, s. Advantage. 
AvANT-cuRRiERS, 8. pi. Winds 

from the east, so named by the 


Etesii, windes blowing verv stifFely for 
fortie daies together from the east, just 
about the dog-daies, called of mariners 
the avant-curriers. Florio. 

AvANTERS, s. pi. Portions of the 
nunibles of a deer, near the neck. 

AvANTMURE, s. (Fr.) The fore- 
wall of a town. 




AvANT-PEACH, «. Au early kind of 

AvANTWARDE, s. (A.-N.) The van- 
ward of an army. 

AvARDE, adj. Afraid. 

AvAROus, adj. {Lat.) Avaricious. 

For it bireveth him the love that men 
to him owen, and tumith it bakward 
agayns al resoun, and makith that the 
atarous man hath more hope in his 

catel than in Jhesu Crist And ther- 

fore saith seint Poule, ad Ephes. that 
an ateroui man is in the tliraldom of 
ydolatrie. Chaucer, Tersona T. 

Avarotiser, more avaricious. 
Are no men ararousfr than hii, 
Whan thei ben avaunced. 

Piers Ploughman, p. 26. 
Avast, interj. A sea term, mean- 
ing stop, hold, enough. 
AvAUNCE, V. {A.-N.) To advance. 
On Filip Valas fast cri thai, 
Thare for to dwell and him avauiice. 
Mi not' 3 Poems, p. 4. 
And as the world hath sent you thes three. 
So he sendth me, Woorshypp, to avatcnce 
your degr6. 

Play of Wit and Science, p. 34. 

AvAUNCERs, s. {A.-N.) The horns 
of a buck. 

Two brannches fyrste pawmyd he must 

And fonre aoauneera the Both yf ye woll 


Booh of St. Allans, ed. 1810, sig. d ii. 

AvAUVCY, V. To advance; to 

AvAUNT, (1) V. {A.-N.) To brag ; 

to boast. 

And by the way he chaunced to espy 

One sitting idle on a sunny bank. 

To whom ataunlitiff in great braverv. 
Spenser, F. Q., U, iu, 6. 

(2) 8. A boast. 

{Z)prpp. Before. 

The morow came, and forth rid this 

To Flaunders ward, his prentis him 

Till he to Bruges came full merily. 

Chaucer, ed. Urry, p. 140. 

(4) adv. Forward. 
And with that worde came Drede ataunt, 
Whiche was abashed and in grete fere. 

Som. qf the Bate, 3968. 

(5) 8. Dismissal. " To give her 
the avaunt." Henry VIII, ii, 3. 

AvAUNTANCE, 8. Boasting. 

AvAUNTLAY, 8. {A.-N.) In the an- 
cient system of hunting, one or 
two couples of hounds were sent 
with a man to several points 
where the game was expected to 
pass. On the approach of the 
deer, these hounds were uncou- 
pled. The term relay was applied 
to any of these sets of hounds ; 
but those which, when a hart was 
unharboured, were a-head of 
him, were the avaunfrelay, or, 
more usually, avauntlay. 

AvAONTOuR, «. A boaster. 

Atauntour, is he that bosteth of the harm 
or of the bounty that he hath don. 

Chaucer, Persones T. 


AVAUNTARYE,}'- ^"^^'^S' 

Ave, (1) V. To have. Aved, he had. 
Aveden, they had. This form is 
of constant occurrence in early 

(2) 8. Evening. For eve. 
The king ther stode with his mein6 
On a palmesonnes ave. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 30O. 

AvBARD, 4xdj. Afraid. West. 

Ave AUNT, adj. Graceful; becom- 

Ave- BLOT, 8. A reckoning ; a pay- 
ment. Minsheu. 

AvE-BOORDS, *. "Aubes, the short 
boords which are set into th' 
outside of a water-mills wheele ; 
we call them ladles, or ave- 
boords." Cotgrave. 

AvEER, 8. Property. See Aver. 

AvEiSE, adj. Careful; wary. For 

AvEL, (1) g. The awn or beard of 
barley. Norf. and Suff. 
(2) V. {Lat. avello.) To tear away. 

AvELONG, adj. Elliptical ; oval ; 
oblong. " Avelong, oblongus." 
Prompt. P. It is still used in 
Suffolk, according to Moor, who 




says that "workmen — reapers or 
mowers — approaching the side 
of a field not perpendicular or 
parallel to their line of work, 
will have an unequal portion to 
do, — the excess or deficiency is 
called avellong work." 

AvKLY, adj. Com is said to be 
avely when a portion of the awns 
adhere to the grains, after it is 
dressed for the market. East. 

AvEN, 8. Promise; appearance. 

AvENAGE, 8. {A.-N.) Tribute, or 
homage, consisting of oats, paid 
to the lord of the manor. 

AvENANT, (1) «. {A.-N.) Agree- 
ment; condition. 

(2) adj. (A.-N.) Becoming; 
graceful; agreeable. 

Madame, sho said, had we tliat knyght, 
Tliat es so curtais and menant. 

Yxcaine mtd Gawin, I. 3885. 

(3) adj. Accomplished; able; 

No dosyper naa so atenaunt 
To stonde bys strok. 

Octoman, 923. 

AvKNANTLi, "1 adv. Suit- 

AVENAUNTLiCHE, J ably ; well; 

Armed at alle pointes 
And avmantli horsed. 

mil. and the Werw., p. 136. 

Of erbes, and of erberi, so avenauntUche 

i-diht. Pis till of Susan, St. 1. 

Avenge, «. (^A.-N.) The feast of 

Avene, (1) s. An ear of corn. Pr, 

(2) adv. In the evening. Per- 
haps a misprint for an-eve. 
Hi sul him and elde folow, 
Both axene and eke a-morw. 

Reliq. Antiq., i, 194. 

AvENG, pret. t. of avonge, for 

ajonge. {A.-S.) Took ; received. 

He aveng dethes wounde, and wonder nas 

yt none. iJoJ. Glouc, p. 223. 

AvESiMKV, part. p. Envenomed. 
AvENOB, «. {A.-N.) The person j 

who, in the household of the 
king, and of great barons, had 
the care of the provender for the 
horses. His duties are described 
in the Book of Curtasye as fol- 

The avfyner sclialle ordeyn provande good 

For iho lordys horsis everychon ; 
Thay scliyn have two cast of hay, 
A pek of provande on a day ; 
Every horse schalle so niurlie have 
At racke and manger that standes with 

stave ; 
A maystur of horsys a squver tlier is, 
Aveyner and ferour undur liym i-wys. 
Those jomen that olde sadels schyn have, 
That scIiyn be last for knyjl and knave, 
I'or yche a hors that ferrmne schalle scho, 
An halpeny on day he takes hym to: 
Undur ben gromes and pages mony one. 
That ben at wage everychone ; 
Som at two pons on a day, 
And som at iij. oh. I jou say ; 
Mony of hem fotemeu ther ben. 
That rennen by the brydels of ladys schene. 

AvENs, 8. The plant herb benet. 

AvENSONG, *. Evening. 

Avent, interj. Avaunt ! 

AvENTAiLE, 8. {A.-N.) The move- 
able front to a helmet, but some- 
times applied generally to the 
whole front of the helmet. 

AvENTE, V. {A.-N.) To open the 
aventaile for the purpose of 
breathing; to admit air to. 
And let hym bayte hym on the ground. 
And aventid hvm in that stound. 

Torrent oj Portugal, i, 1567. 

AvENTERS, 8. Chancc. See Aun- 

AvENTouR, (1) ». To venture. See 
(2) 8. An adventurer. 

AvENTRE, V. {Ital.) To throw a 

Thenne this one knyght axentryd a 
grete spere, and one of the \. knyghtes 
enconntred with hym, but this woful 
knyght smote hym so hard that he felle 
over his hors taylle. 

Morte d' Arthur, i, 177. 

AvENTROus, 8. An adventurer. 

As dootli an heraud of armes 
M'han aventrous cometh to justei. 

Piert PI., p. 37a 




AvENTURE, (1)«. Accident causing 
death. A law term. It is the 
generic term for chance in early 
writers. See Aunter. 
(2) adv. Perchanc^ Site Aunter. 

AvKNTURLY, odv. Boldlv. 

Aver, s. {d.-N.) (1) A man's per- 
sonal property. 

(2) g. A work-horse, or other 
beast employed in farming. 

(3) a<(;. (conjectured to be the Ice- 
landic apr.) Peevish. Northumb. 

Average, 1 *. (A.-N.) Manley, 
AVERiSH, Jin his additions to 
Cowell, says that in the North 
of England this word is used for 
the stublile or remainder of 
straw and grass left in corn- 
fields after the harvest is carried 
in. Boucher gives it as a York- 
shire word, meaning a course of 
ploughing in rotation. Carr ex- 
plains it " winter eatage." 

AvER-CAKE, s. An oat-cake. 

AvERCORN, ». (1) Corn drawn to 
the granary of the lord of the 
manor by tlie working cattle, or 
avers, of the tenants. 
(2) A reserved rent in com, 
paid by farmers and tenants to 
religious houses. 

AvERE, *. Property. See Aver. 

AvERiL, *. (A.-N.) April. A North 
Country word. See the Popular 
Rhymes, Sf'c, of Scotland, by R. 
Chambers, 8vo, Edinb., 1842, 
p. 39, where the same form of 
the word occurs in a rhyme 
popular in StirUngshire. It is 
also an archaism. 

Jteril is meory, and hingith the day ; 
Ladies )oven solas and play : 
Swaynes, justes; knyghtis, turnay; 
Syngith the nyghtyngale, •n'edelhtheo jay. 
K. Jlisavnder, 1. 139. 

AvERiNG, s. " When a begging 
boy strips himself and goes 
naked into a town with a fals 
story of being cold, and stript, 
to move compassion and get 

better cloaths, this is call'd 
avering, and to goe a avering," 
Kennett, MS. Lansd. 
AvERiSH, *. The stubble and grass 
left in corn fields after harvest. 
North. See Average. 

In these mouthes after the cornne bee 
innede, it is meete to putt draughte 
hoTsses and oxen into the aterish, and 
80 lonnge to continue there as the 
meate sufflceth, whirh will ease the 
other pastures they went in before. 

Jrchaoloffia, xiii, S79. 

AvERLAND, ». Land ploughed by 
the tenants, with their cattle, or 
avers, for the use of a monastery, 
or of the lord of the soil. Cowell. 

AvEROUs, adj. Avaricious. Wick- 
liffe renders Prov. i, 19, " of the 
averous man that is gredy of 
gain." See Avarous. 

AvEROYNE, «. {A.-N.) The herb 

AvERPENY, «. Average penny. 
This word occurs in Rider's Die- 
tionarie, 1640. According to 
Cowell, it is money contributed 
towards the king's averages ; and 
Rastall gives the same explana- 

AvERR.AY, V. To aver ; to instruct. 

AvERRONCATE,».(Z^/. averrutico.) 
To root out, or extirpate ; to 

AvERRUNCATiON, s. Extirpation. 

AvERSATioN, s. (Lat.) Aversion, 
great dislike to. 

This almost universal atersation of the 
people had a natural influence upon 
the representative, the Parliament. 

Wilton't Jama 1, 1653. 

AvERSiLVER, s. A custom or rent 
so called, originating from the 
cattle, or avers, of the tenants. 

AvERST, adv. At the first. 

AvERTY, adj. {A.-N. avertin.) 
Mad; fiery. 

The respons were redy that Philip did 

tham here. 
A kiiyght fulle averty gaf tham this an* 

Sucre. Peter Langtoft, p. 260. 




Avery, (1) s. The place of stand- 
ing for draught and work-horses. 
This is Boucher's explanation of 
the term, which is frequently 
met with in old writers. The 
author of A New English Dic- 
tionary, 1691, explains it, "the 
place where oats are put for 
horses," which is prohahly more 
correct, haver being the term 
for oats in the North of England. 
(2) Every. 

AvE-scoT, «. A reokoning; an 
account. Minsheu. 

AvET, «. Weight. 

And yg avet more bi six and thritti leed 
pund'e, tbat beeth to liundred and sex- 
tene wexpunde. Reliq. Jniiq., i, 70. 

AvKTROL, «. {A.-N.) A hastard. 
Thou avelrol, thou foule wreche, 
Here thou hast thvn endyng feched ! 

'K. AUsaunder, 1. 2693. 

AvEYDE. Perhaps an error for 

Taketh and eteth, thys hiis my body, 
Of sothe he ham areyde. 

William de Shoreham. 

AvEXED, adj. Troubled ; vexed. 

Also ye must se tbat she be not avexyd 
nor grevyd with moche noyse, nor wyth 
songe of men. 
Book of St. Jlbans, ed. 1810, sig. B iv. 

AviDULOCs, adj. {Lat.) Rather 

AviEU, \v. To view. "larewe, 
AVEWE, J I take syght of a thing." 

AviLE, V. {A.-N. avilir.) To de- 

AviNTAiNE, a<f». (^.-A^.) Speedily. 

AviROUN, prep. {A.-N.) Around. 

Avis, s. {A.-N.) (1) Advice. 

And riglit as the scbipmen taken here 
atys here, and governe hem be tlie lode 
sterre, right so don scbipmen bejonde 
the parties, be the sterre of the soutiie, 
the whiche sterre apperethe not to us. 
ifaitndftiU, ed. 1839, p. 180. 

(2) Opinion. 
A.V1SE, r. {A.-N.) (1) To observe ; 
to look at. Avisand, observing. 

(2) To consider; to advise with 
one's self; to inform, or teach. 

AviSE, part. p. Circumspect. 

Of werre and of bataile he was fulle arixi. 
g Latigtoft, p. 188. 

AviSELY, adv. Advisedly. 

Over alle thinges ye sebal do youre 
diliftence to kepe youre persone, and to 
warrastore youre house; and seyden 
also, that in this yow aughte for to 
wirche ful avysily and with gret delibe- 
raciouu. Chaucer, T. of Meliheua. 

AvisEMENT, s. Advice ; counsel. 

AvisiNEssE, 8. Deliberation. 

AvisiouN, s. {A.-N) A vision. 
This word is of frequent occur- 
rence in Chaucer, Robert of 
Gloucester, and others. 

And oure Lord defended hem that thei 
scholde not telle tbat avisioun, til that 
he were rysen from dethe to Ivf. 

MaundevlU, ed. 1839, p. 114. 

AvisT, adv. A-fishing. West. 
AviTous, adj. {Lat. avitus.) Very 

AvivES, ». A disease in horses. 

The horse having drunke much, or 
watered verie quickly after bis heat and 
travaile, and upon it growing cold, and 
not being walked, doth beget the ativrs, 
which doe but little differ from the 
disease called the king's-evill, because 
as well in beasts as in man, the king's- 
evill corameth of too much cooling of 
water, the throat having beene heated, 
whereupon the horse looseth his appe. 
tite,to eat, and his rest likewise, and 
his eares become cold. 

Maifcham, Cottntrit Ftrme. 

AvizE. See Avise. 

AvocATE, V. {Lat. avoeo.) To call 
from ; to draw away. 

AvoERY, s. {A.-N.) The right 
of the founder of a house of 
religion to the advowson or pa- 
tronage thereof. These patrons 
had, in some instances, the 
sole nomination of the abbot or 
prior, either by direct investi- 
ture, or delivery of a pastoral 
staff; or by immediate presenta- 
tion to the diocesan ; or if a free 
election were left to the rehgious 




foundation, a licence for election 
was first to be obtained from the 
patron, and the election was to 
be confirmed by him. Kennett. 
Avoid, v. {A.-N.) To go, depart, 
or retire ; to get out of the way. 

Thou basest thing, avoid, hence from my 

Bight. Shakesp., Cym., i, 2. 

Saw not a creature stirring, for all the 

people were avoyded and witbdrawen. 


(2) The word is frequently used 
by old writers, to signify the 
removal of dishes from table. 

Jmoydes the borde into the flore, 
Tase away the trestes that ben so store. 
Boke of Curlasye, p. 33. 

His office to avmd the tables, in fair 
and decent manner. 

Q. Elizabeth's Progress. 

(3) s. The act of avoiding. 

And as well the servyse for the king 
for all night, as the greete avuydes at 
feastes, and the dayiy drinkinges be- 
twixt meles iu the kings chaumbre for 
Liber Niger Domus Beg. Edw. IV, p. 37. 

Avoidance, t. {A.-N.) Expulsion ; 

AvoiDONS, g. In a general sense, 
the vacancy of a benefice ; but 
in some instances, the profits 
during such a vacancy. 

Avoir, s. {A.-N.) Property. See 

AVOIR-DE-PEISE, "1 ». (.<^.-iV.) Ar- 
AvoiRDEPOisE, J ticlcs of mer- 
chandise tliat are sold by weight. 
" It signifieth such merchandise 
as are weighed by this weight, 
and not by Troy weight." Cowell. 

AvoKE, V. To revoke; to call 

AvoKET, «. An advocate. Wyckliffe. 

AvoLATioN, «. {Lot.) A flying 

Only indicate a moist and pluvious air, 
which hinders the avolation of the light 
and faviUous particles, whereupon they 
settle upon the snast. 

Broicne, Vulgar Errors. 

AvoNGE, V. To take. See Afonge. 

AvoRD, V. To afford. West. 

AvoKE, prep. Before. West. 

AvoREWARD, adv. At first ; before- 
hand. Rob. Glouc. 

AvoRN, adv. Before him. West. 

AvoRTH, adv. Forward. 

AvoTE, adv. On foot. Rob. Glouc. 

Avouch, '\s.{A.-N.) Proof; 

AvoucHMENT, J testimony. 

AvouRE, s. Confession ; acknow- 
ledgment. Spenser. 

AvouRY, s. {A.-N.) An old law 
term, nearly equivalent to justifi- 

Therfore away with these atouries: let 
God alone be our avowrye; what have 
we do to runne hether or thether, but 
onely to the Father of heaven ? 

Latimer's Sermons, ed. 1571, f. 84. 

AvocTRER, «. {A.-N.) An adulterer. 
AvouTRiE, s. {A.-N.) Adultery. 
AvowABLE, *. Allowable. This 

word occurs in Rider's Diction- 

arie, 1640. 
Avow, (1) s. {A.-N.) A vow ; an 


Myne avow make I. 

Bobson's Bomances, p. 61. 
Thus be brak his avotce, that he to God had 

suorn. Langtoft, p. 112. 

AvowE, V. {A.-N.) (1) To vow; to 
make a vow. "Avowen, or make 
avowe : Voveo." Prompt. Part. 
(2) To allow ; to pardon. 
AvowE, s. {A.-N.) (1) A friend; 
an advocate. 
And hendely they bysechith the 
That thou beo heore avotce. 

K. Alisaitnder, 1. 3160. 

(2) One who has the right of 
presentation to a benefice. " He 
to whom the right of advowson 
of any church appertaineth, so 
that he may present thereunto 
in his own name." Cowell. 

(3) Patronage. 

Vor thoru avo¥>6 of him, the sone bigan 
that strif. Bob. Glouc., p. 477. 

And so indnred sir Robert Marmyon 
and Somervyle as avowes of the howys 
alle the tyme of the lyve of William 
the Bastarde. Munast. Anylie. 




AvowBRT, «. {A.-N.) (1) Patron- 
age ; protection. 

(2) Cognizance, badge, distinc- 

AvowsAL, 8. A confession. 

AvowT, s. {A.-N.) A countenance. 

AvowTERY, s. Adultery. 

AvoY, inter). (A.-N.) (1) A cry 
used to call hounds out of cover. 
(2) imp. t. Avoid; leave; quit. 

AvRiL, s. April. North. See Averil. 

AvRORE.fld/. Frozen. West. 

AvuRN, adj. Slovenly in dress. 

AvvERMEYL, «. Oatmeal. Yorksh. 

AvYE, V. (A.-N.) To show the way. 

Sir Arthure and Gawayne 
Avyede theme botliene. 

Morte Jrthure. 

AvTNET, 8. A collection of fables, 
so termed from Avienus, whose 
fables were popular in the Middle 
Ages, as from iEsop, an Esopet, 

By the po feet is understande, 
Aa I have lerned ia Avynet. 

Piers PL, p. 243. 

AvTSSETH, adv. A-fishing. 

A-day as he wery was, and a suoddrynge 

hym nome, 
And ys men wery y-wend arysseth, seyn 

Cutbert to hym com. Rob. Glouc, p. 264. 

Aw, (I) pron. I. Nor thumb. 

(2) adv. Yes. Warw. 

(3) adj. All. North. 

(4) adv. All ; totally. Craven. 

(5) pres. t. 8ing. Owe. 

And sir, sho said, on al wise, 
I aio the honor and servyse. 

Ywaine and Gaicin, 1. 720. 

(6) For aw, although. 

I could do uaa less ner mack bond to 
es)i him intot' house, /or aw it wor au a 
clunter. Craven Dialogues, p. 299. 

(7) Aw out, adv. Entirely. 
AwAHTE, />re^ t. (A.-S. awehte.) 

AwAiT,8.(A.-N.) Watch; ambush. 
AwAiTE, e. (A.-N.) To watch ; to 

attend upon. 

And this sire Urre wold never goo from 
sire Lauucelot, but lie and air Gavayn 
awayted evermore upon hym, and they 
were in all the courte accounted for 
good knyghtes. Morte d' Arthur, ii, 387. 

AwAiTER, 8. An attendant; a 

AwAKiD,j»ar/.p. Awake. Somer8et. 

Aw ANTING, ad/. Deficient to; want- 
ing to. 

AwAPE, "1 V. (A.-S. perhaps con- 
AWHAPE, J nected with wafian, to 
be astonished or amazed, some- 
times written wapean,andwoffian, 
to rave.) To confound ; to stu- 
pefy ; to astound. 

Theo noise of heom askaped; 
Al that ost was awaped. 

K. Alisaunder, 1. 3673. 

Ah my dear gossip, answerd then the ape, 

Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. 

Spens., Mother Huh. Tale, 71. 

AwARANTisE, adv. Assuredly. 
Award, v. To ward off. 
Aware, (1) T'o be aware, to per- 

As Robhi Hood walked the forest along, 

Some pastime for to 'spy. 
There he was aware of a jolly shepherd, 

That on the ground did lie. 

Robin Hood and the Shepherd. 

(2) V. To prepare, or make room 
for any one. 

So he led him to the chamber of pre- 
sence, and ever and anon crycs out. 
Aware, roome for me and my uncle ! 

Armin's Nest of Ninnies, 1608. 

Awarie, V. (A.-S. awyrian.) To 

Theves, ye be ded, withouten lesinge, 
Aiearid worth ye iclion. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 16& 

AwARN, V. To warn; to forewarn. 
AwARPE, \v. (A.-S. aweorpan.) 
AWEORPE, J To cause to bend ; to 
cast down. 

Eld me awarpeth, 
That mi schuldren scharpith. 
And jouthe me hath let. 

Reliq. Antiq., ii, 210. 

AwARRANT, V. To Warrant ; to 




AwART, adv. Thrown on the hack 
and unal)le to rise. North, 

AwASSHEN, part. p. Washed. 

A-WATER, adp. On the water. Piers 
PL In the following passage it 
seems to have somewhat the sense 
of at sea. 

But if he had broke his arme as wel as 
iis legge, when he fell out of heaven 
into Cemnos, either Apollo must have 
plaied the l>one-setter, or every occupa- 
tion beene layde a-water. 

Gossan's SchooU of Abuse, 1579. 

Away, s. (1) A way. 

And shall departe his aioayefmrn thence 
in peace. 
Jeremy, chap. 43, CoverdaWs Version. 

(2) Past. "This month away." 
kyfTK^ WITH, ». To bear with ; to 

endure ; to abide. 
I may not awaye toith youre new moones. 
Isaiah, i, 13, Coverdale's Version. 
She could never aviay mth me. 

2 Hen. IV, iii, 2. 

Of all nymphs i' the court I cannot avoay 

vith her. B. Jon , Cyntk. Bevels, iv, 5. 

I, but I am an unfortunate ; for I neither 
can give or take jests, neither can away 
with strokes. Terence in English, 1641. 

Away-going, s. Departure. 

AwAY-THE-MARE. A popular song 
of the sixteenth century, fre- 
quently alluded to by writers of 
that period. 

Of no man ho tooke any care. 
But song, hevho, atcay the mare. 

The Fryer and the Boy, ed. 1617. 

Jway the mare, quod Walls, 
I set not a whitinge 
By all their writing. 

Doctour LoubhU Ale. 

AwAYTE, 8. A spying. See Await. 

AwAYWARD, adv. Going away; 

AwBELL, *. A kind of tree, but in 
consequence of the manner in 
which the word is explained in 
the Prompt. Parv., it is difficult 
to state the exact species. "Aw- 
bellor ebeltre: Ebenus, viburnus." 
It probably means the abele, or 

white poplar, which is called 

ebbel in the Eastern Counties. 
AwBLAST, s. An arbalest. 
AwcTE,j»re/. t. Possessed. 
AwD, adj. Old. North. 
AwDRiEs-DAY, s. St. /Etheldrytha'* 

Awe', r. (1) {A.-S.) To be bound 

by duty. / awe, I ought. 

And the archebysschoppe of Cawnter- 
bury, the erle of Essex, the lorde 
Barnesse. and suclie other as avyde 
kynge Edwarde good wylle, as welle in 
Londone as in othere places, made as 
many nienne as thei myghte in strength- 
ynge the seide kynge Edwarde. 

Warhcorth's Chron. 

(2) To own ; to possess ; to owe. 

(3) s. {A.-S.) An ewe. 

Awe bleteth after lomb, 
Lhouth alter calve ru. 

Rifson's Ancient Songs, i, 11. 

(4) «. {A.-S. oga, fear.) Doubt; 
fear. ^'^Awe or doute : Dubium, 
Arabiguum." Prompt. Parv. 

(5) V. To awe ; to make afraid. 
AwEALDE, V. (A.-S.) To govern. 
AwEARiED,/>ar/./?. Wearied; tired. 
AwEBAND, s. A reprimand; a check 

upon any one. 
AwECCHE, V. {A.-S. awecean.) To 

O frere ther wes among, 

Of here slep hem shulde aveeche. 

Beliq. Anlu/., n, 378. 

AwEDDE, adj. {A.-S. ) Mad. 

Wives ther lay on cliild bedde. 
Sum ded, and sum aicedde. 

Orfeo, 1. 362, JUS. Auck. 

AwEDE, V. {A.-S.) To become 

He rod agayn as tyd, 
And Lybeaus so he smyt, 
As man that wold aicede. 

Lyi. JHsetm., I 967. 

AwEiGHTTE, pret. t. {A.'S.) 


The kyng swoghened for that wonnde, 

And h'astilich hymself mteightte. 

And the launce out pleightte, 

And lepe on fote with swerd of steel. 

And gan hym were swithe wel. 

X Alisaunder, 585& 




AvTEiNYD, part. p. Weaned. 

AwELDE, V. {A.-S.) To govern ; to 

AwBN, adj. (A.-S.) Own. 

AwENDEN, pret. t. pi. Thought. 

AwER, g. An hour. Lane. 

Awesome, adj. (1) Respectful; re- 
specting one another. 

I see they are wise and witty, in dne 
place axosome, lovin» one the other. 

Terence in English, 1641. 

(2) Appalling; awful. North. 
kwKt, V. {A.-S.) To know. 

Be mey home we schall awel 
Yeff Boben Hode be nerhande. 

Robin Hood, i, 93. 

AwEYWARD, "1 arfp. {A.-S.) A- 
AWEYWARDES, J Way. See Away- 

Tlios we beth al atceyvnard. 
That schold her byleve. 

William de Skoreham. 

To winne hem alle awriwarii** fro the white 
beres. William and the Werwolf, p. 79. 

AwF, «. (1) An elf. North. 
(2) An idiot ; a fool. North. 

AwFiN, 8. One of the pieces in the 
game of chess. " Awfyn of the 
cheker, alfinus." Prompt. Parv. 
See Alfyn. 

AwFRYKE, s. Africa. 

Awful, adj. (1) Obedient ; under 
due awe of authority. Shakesp. 
(2) Fearful ; fearing. 

AwGHT, /jrc/. t. Ought. 

AwGHTEND, adj. The eighth. 

AwGRYM, ». Arithmetic. See 

AwHAPE, V. To confound ; to ren- 
der stupid by fear. See Awape. 

A wild and salvage man : 

Yet was no man, but only like in shape, 

And eke in stature liigher by a span. 

All over-grown with hair that could amhape 

An hardy heart. Spens,. F. Q., IV, vii, 5. 

AwHARF, adv. {A.-S.) Whirled 

And wyth quettyng a-wkarf, er he wolde 
lyjt. Syr daviayne, p. 82. 

AwHEELS, adv. On wheels. 
AwHERE, adv. Anywhere. 

Fer yf my foot wolde awher goo. 

GoKcr, MS. 
I knowe ynough of this matter, Pam- 
phagus, not thither awhere but riche. 
AcoUistus, 1540. 

AwHEYNTE, V. To acquaint. 
Awhile, (1) conj. Awhilst. 

(2) V. To have time. Var. dial. 
Awhole, adv. Whole ; entire. 

Awille, v. To will. 
AwiNNE, V. To win ; to gain ; to 

accomplish a purpose. 

Wyth sorwthe of herte and schryft of 

Doth deedbote this tyme nouth, 
jif je wolle God aicvnne. 

Beliq.Jnliq., ii, 243. 

AwiRGUD, />ar/.jB. (1) Accursed. 

(2) Strangled. 
AwiTE, ». {A.-S.) To accuse. 

Be not to hasty on brede for to bite, 
Of gredynes lest men the wolde atcite. 

Reliq. Anliq., i, 157. 

AwiTH, pres. t. of awe. Ought. 

And if the prest sacre Crist wan he 
blessith the sacrament of God in the 
auter, avnth he not to blessith thepeple 
thatdredith not to sacre Ciist? 

Apology -fur the Lollards, p. 30. 

AwKE, adj. {\) Transverse; cross; 
oblique, ".^ifif^e.or wrong: Sinis- 
ter." Prompt. P. 

Tlienne groned that knyght and ad- 
dressyd liym to syre Gawayn, and with 
an aiclce stroke gaf liym a grete wound 
and kytte a vayne. Kyng Arthur, i, 148. 

(2) Angry ; ill-natured. " Awke, 
or angry : Contrarius, bilosus." 
Prompt. P. 

Awkely, adv. Ill-naturedly. 

AwK-END, s. The end of a rod, 
wand, or pole, which is not that 
used for the purpose for which 
the instrument was made. 

Awkert, adj. (1) Perverse. Lane. 
Awkertly, foolishly. 

Tlie dickons tey thee, Meary ! whot on 
avkert wliean ar teau ! whot teh pleague 
did t' flay meh o thiss'n for? 

Tim Bobbin, p. 35. 

(2) Stubborn, obstinate. North. 




AwKWARDE,a<fi>. Backward. Awk- 
ward occurs in a similar sense 
in Shakespeare. 

Awl, adj. All. My awls, my 

AwLATE, V. {A.-S.) To disgust. 

Vor the king was somdel awlated, and to 
gret despit it nom. Uol. Glouc, p. 485. 

AwLDE, adj. Old. 
AwLESSE, adj. Fearless. 
Tlie greater strokes, the fiercer was the 
monster's awlesse fi^ht. 

Warner's Albion's England, 1592. 

AwLUNG, prep. All along ; entirely 

owing to. Awlung o', all along 

of. North. 
AwLus, adv. Always. Lane. 
AwM, (1) s. A measure of Rhenish 

wine, containing forty gallons. 

(2) I am. North. 
Aw-MACKS, s. All sorts, or kinds. 

AwMBKR, "I .<f. (medieval Lat. am- 
AWMYR, J 6ra.) A liquid mea- 
sure ; a kind of wine vessel. 
AwMBRERE, s. An almoncr. 

Prompt. P. 
AwME, (1) V. (A.-N. estner.) To 

guess ; to aim. 

(2) *. A suspicion. 
AwMNERE, s. (A.-N.) An almoner. 

His duties are thus set out in the 

Boke of Curtasye: 

The awmnere by tliis hathe sayde grace, 
And the almes-dysslie liase sett in place ; 
Ther in the kerver alofte schalle sette ; 
To serve God fyrst, withoiiten lette, 
These otiier lofes he pavys aboute, 
Lays hit myd dysshe, withouten doute. 
Tlie snialle lofe he cuttes even in twynne, 
The over dole in two lays to hym. 
The aumenere a rod schalle have in honde, 
As office for almes, y undurstonde ; 
Alle the broken-met he kepys, y wate. 
To dele to pore men at the jate, 
And drynke that leves served in halle. 
Of ryche and pore, botlie grete and sraalle; 
He is sworne tooverse the servis wele. 
And dele it to the pore every dele ; 
Selver he deles ryuand by way, 
And his almys-dysshe, as I 50U say, 
To the porest man that he can fynde. 
Other allys, I wot, he is unkynde. 

AwMOSs, «. pi. Alms. Thoresby 

gives this form of the word in hii 
letter to Ray, 1703. 

AwMRY, s. A pantry. North. See 

Awn, (1) r. To own ; to acknow- 
ledge. North. 

(2) To own ; to possess. North. 

(3) To visit. Yorksh. 

(4) adj. Own. 

As fyrste, the xv. of alle there goodos, 
and thaune ane liolexv., at yett at every 
batell to come feiTC oute there countreis 
at ther awne coste. 

Warkworth's Chron. 

Awa'o, part. p. Ordained. Yorksh. 

I am awn'd to ill. luck, t. e., it is 

my peculiar destiny. 
AwNDERNE,s. An audiron. Prompt. 

AwNE, *. The beard of com ; the 

arista of Linnaeus. North. 
AwNER, s. (1) A possessor; an 

owner. North. 

(2) An altar. 
AwN-SELL, 8. Own-self. North. 
AwNTURS, «. Adventurous. See 

AwoNDER, V. (1) To surprise; to 


He was wijtliche atnondered. 
And gan to wepe sore. 

William, and the Werwolf, p. 12. 

(2) To marvel. 

Heo avjundrede swithe. 

MS. Reg., 17 a xxvii, f. 62. 

AwoRK, adv. On work ; at work. 

I'll set his burning nose once more avoork 
To smell where I remov'd it. 

B. Jon., Case is Alter'd, ii, 5. 
Will your grace set him awork ? 

Bird in a Cage, i, 1. 

AwoRTHE, adv. M'orthily. 
AwR, ^oron. Our. North. 
AwREKE, V. (A.-S.) To avenge, or 
be revenged of. Pret. t. awrake. 

Fort ich have after jou i-sent, 
To awreke me thorouj jugement. 
Now je witen how hit is agon, 
Awreke me swithe of mi fon. 

Florice and Blanchefl., L 679. 

Awreke, part. p. Revenged. 




He suor he wold atoreke be of hys brother 
Roberd. Bob. Glouc , p. 388. 

AwRENCHK, V. To seizB. 
AwRiTTEN, part. p. Written. 
Awao, adj. Any. 

Is ther fiiUen any affray 
In land atoro where? 

Towtieley Mysteries, p, 273. 

AwROKEN, part. p. of awreke. 

AwROTHB, V. (A.-S.) To make 

AwRUDDY, adv. Already. North. 
Aws-BONES, «. " Ox-bones, or 

bones of the legs of cows or oxen, 

with which boys (in Yorkshire) 

play at aws or yawse." Kennett. 
AwsT. I shall. Northumb. 
AwT. (1) All the. North. 

(2) adv. Out, North. 
AWTALENT, s. (A.-S.) Ill will. 
AwTER, (1) ». To alter. North. 

(2) s. An altar. 

Seynt Thomas was i-slawe, 

At Cantyrbury at the aider ston, 

Wher many myraclys are i-don. 

Richard Coer de Lion, 41. 

AwTH. (1) All the. North. 

(2) s. Ought; anything. 
AwTHE, adj. Sad ? 

Pilgremes, in speehe ye ar fuUe awthe. 
Towneley Mysteries, p. 274. 

AwTHBR, adj. Either. 
AwTS, a. Oats. Lane. 
AwvE. I have. Northumb. 
AwvER, adv. Over. Somerset. 
AwvisH, adj. (1) Elvish. Lane. 

£, law I on did 'u the atPtish shap, an 
the pleck jump pan, sed 'u the? 

Tim Bobbin, p. 7. 

(2) Queer ; neither sick nor well. 
AwvisHLY, adv. Horribly; super- 

When he coom in ogen, he glooart 

awvithly ot mezzil fease ; on mezzil 

fease glendurt os wrytlienly ot him ogen. 

Tim Sobbin, p. 20. 

AwwHERE, adv. Everywhere ; all 

AwYRiEN, ». (^A.'S.) To curse ; to 

They wolden avyrien that wight 
For "his wel dedes. Piers PI. p. 490. 

Ax, *. (1) A mill-dam .' See 

Also ther is a or that my master clamei h 
tlie keeping of; I pray you let ihem 
have and occupie tlie same unto the 
same tyme, and tlien we shall take a 
dereccion in every tiling. 

Plumpton Correspondence, p. 71 . 

(2) An axletree. Kent. 
Axe, Iv. (A.-S.) To ask. This 
AX, J word, which now passes 
for a mere vulgarism, is the 
original Saxon form, and used 
commonly by Chaucer and others, 
That also sone as he liym herde, 
The kiiiges wordes he ansuerde; 
What thyng the kyng him axe wolde, 
Therof anon the trowthe he tolde. 

Gower, MS. Camb., Ff. i, 6. 

And axed them this question than. 

Heywood, Four Ps, 0. P.,\, 84. 

AxEN, *. (^.-S.) Ashes. Still used 
in the dialect of the West. 
Y not wharof beth men so prute; 
Of erthe and ajcen, felle and bone ? 
Pol. Songs, p. 203. 

AxEN-CAT, s. A cat which tum- 
bles in the ashes. Devon. 

Axes, s. The ague. Applied more 
particularly to fits or paroxysms. 

In the xiii of king Edwarde, there was 
a greate bote somer And univer- 
sally fevers, axes, and the blody flix pre- 
vailed in diverse partes ot Englande. 

Leland's Coll., ii, 507. 
Not only yong, but some that wer olde, 
Wyth love's axcesse now wer they bote, 
now colde. 

Bochas, Fall of Princes, f. 124. 


the ground. Devon. 

(2) s. One, who by constantly 
sitting near the fire, becomes 
dirty with ashes; an idle and 
lazy person. Devon. 

(3) A dealer in ashes. Devon. 
AxFETCH, 1 *. A plant, so called 

AXVETCH, >from tlie axe-like 
AXWORT, J shape of its pods. 




And we neede not make anv doulit of 
it, but that even good and kinde ground, 
when it should not bring foitli any 
thipg but mustard seede, — blew bottles, 
axfetch, or such other hke unprofitable 
weedes. The Countrie Farme, p. 666. 

AxiL>KAiLs, 8. Nails or bolts to 
attach the axle-tree to the cart. 

Axing, *. A request. 

AxioMANCY, s. Divination by 
hatchets. Cockeram. 

Axle-tooth, s. A grinder. North. 

To drearae of eagles flying over our 
heads, to dreame of marriages, danc- 
ing, and banquetting, foretells some of 
our kinsfolkes are departed ; to dreaiue 
of silver, if thou hast it given to thy- 
selfe, sorrow; of gold, good fortune; 
to lose an axle-toth or an eye, the death 
of some friend; to dream of bloody 
teeth, the death of the dreamer. 

Country-mans Countellor, 1633. 

Ax-PEDLAR, s. A dealer in ashes ; 
a person who hawks about wood- 
ashes. West. 

AxsEED, s. The axfetch. Minsheu. 

AxsY, ». {A.-S. acsian.) To ask. 

Ho that wyll there axsy Justus, 
To kepe hys armes fro the rustus, 
In turnement other fyght. 

Launfal, 1027- 

AxTREE, s. The axle-tree. 
AxuNGER, s. {Lat. axuiigia.) Soft 
fat; grease. 

The powder of earth- wormes, and axvn- 
ger, addetli further, grounswell, and 
the tender toppes of the boxe-tree, 
with olibanum ; all these, being made 
up and tempered together to make an 
eraplaster, he counselleth to bee ap- 
plyed to sinnewes that are layed ooen. 
Topsell, Uislory of Serpents, p. 311. 

AxwoRT, g. Axfetch. Minsheu. 
Ay, 8. {A..S. <Eif.) (1) An egg. 
Ayren,pl. (A.-S. cegru.) Eggs. 

Afterward a flok of bryddis. 
And a faucon heoiu aniyddes. 
And ay he laide, so lie fleygh, 
That feol the kyng Plielip nygh, 
That to-brac, y yow telle 
A dragon crep out of the schelle. 
The bryght sonne so hole hit schon. 
That tlie ay al to coon. 
The dragon lay in tlie strete, 
Myght« he nought dure for hete ; 

He fondith to creope, as y ow telle, 
Ageyn iu to the ay-schelle. 

K. Alisaunder, 11. 566—577. 

Ayren they leggith, as a griffon ; 
Ac they been more feor aroun. 

lb., 1. 66C3 

(2) conj. 

(3) adv. Always ; ever. 

(4) inter/. Ah ! 

Ay ! be-slierewe yow be my fay. 

Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 101. 

^Iye,}'-^^-^-'^^'-) ^^"- 

Of non the had ay to stint ne hold tham 
Btille. Langtoft's Chron., p. 220. 

Thi men er biseged hard in Dunbar with 
grete aye. lb., p. 275. 

Ayance, prep. Against. 
Ayder, conj. Either. 
Aye, "1 

AYEN, \adv. {A.-S.) Again ; 

AYENB, Cprep. against. 


Ye mote abide and thole me. 
Till eftsone y come aye- 

K. Alisaunder, 1. 66. 

Ayel, 8. (A.-N.) A grandfather. 

For kyng Cyrus would not, in hys live, 
Suffre hys ayel of very gentilnesse 
That men should fynalhe him depryve 
Of kingly bouoiu". Bochas, li, 60. 

^' 1 V. (A.-S.) 

E, J ^ 

To redeem. 



Ayenbier, «. (.^.-S.) A redeemer. 
Ayenbyte, 8. (A.-S.) Remorse. 

This hoc is dan Michelis of Northgate, 
y-write an Englis of his ojene baud, 
thet liatte ayenbyte of inwyt, and is of 
th( bochouse of saynt Austines of 
Canteiberi. MS. Arundel, 57, f. 2. 

Ayenrising, "1 «. (A.-S.) Resur- 


Ayensay, "1 
ayensaying, j 

Ayenst, prep. Against. 
Ayenstonde, 1 T, •.!. i J 

AJENSTONDE.) "• ^o Withstand. 
Ayenwarde,!^ Back. 






Ayebe, *. (1) Breed. 

Many fawcouns and faire, 
Hawkis of nobille ayere. 

Syr Degretante. 

(2) An heir. 
I* (3) Air; breath. 

(4) V. {A.-N.) To go out on an 
expedition, or any business. 

There awes none alyenes 
To ayere appone nyglittys. 

Morte Arthure. 

A.Twvt, V. To covet. Rob: Gloue. 
Atfull, adj. Awful ; high ; proud. 
Ayghe, s. (A.-S.) Terror ; fear. 

Sum for eret ayghe and dout. 
To other Kinges flowen about. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 18. 

Aygre, adj. (A.-N.) Sour. 
Aygreex, «. The houseleek. 
Aygclet, s. An aglet. Spenser. 
Ayild, e. To yield. 
Ayl, adv. Always. Skinner, 
Aylastande, adj. Everlasting. 
Aylastandly, adv. Everlastingly. 
Ayle, v. To possess. 

Hir aylede no pryde. 

Sir Perceval. IflO. 

Aylis, Sparks from hot iron. 
Aymant, ». (A.-N.) A diamond. 
Ay-mee. a lamentation ; from 
crying ah me, or ay me! 

I can hold off, and by my chymick pow'r 
Draw sonnets from the melting lover's 

Aymees, and elegies. 

Beaum. ^ Fl., Woman Hater. 
Hero of hie-hoes, admiral of ay-me's, 
and Monsieur of mutton lac'd. 

Htyioood's Lov^i Miatresa. 

Ayuers, 8. pi. (A.-S.) Embers. 
Take cliickes and wry hem in ashes all 
nyjt, other lay hem in hoot aymers. 

Forme of Cury . 

Aynd, 8. Breath ; life. See Ande. 
Ays, Eyes. 
Ayoh, adv. Awry ; aslant. Shropsh. 
Ayont, prep. Beyond. North. 
AY-auERE, adv. Everywhere. 

Ay-quere naylet ful uwe 

For that note ryclied. 

Syr Gatoayn*, p. 84. 

Ay RE, (1) «. An heir. 

(2) adj. Ready ; yare. 

{3) prep. Ere; before. 

(4) s. Air. 
Ayrely, adv. Early. 
Ayren, 8. pi. Eggs. See Ay. 
Ayry, (1) V. To make an aerie. 

(2) adj. Joyful; in good spirits. 
Ayschettb. pret. t. Asked. 

Mercy mekelvche of hym he aysehette. 
Chron. Vilodun., p. 25. 

Ayschis, 8. pi Ashes. 

Ayse, «. (A.-N.^ Ease. 
(2) V. To make at ease. 
I made it not for to be praysed, 
Bot at the lewed mene were aysed. 

Warton's Hist. Engl. Poet., i, 68. 

Ayselle, 8. Vinegar. See Aisell. 

Ayshweed, 8. A herb mentioned 
by Minsheu; perhaps the gout- 

Aythir, adj. Either. 

Ayttene, adj. Eighteen. 

Aywhere, adv. Evrtywhere. 

1%, } ^^^ ^'■^- -^s^''^*- 

(2) adv. Again. 

AzEROLE, s. {Fr.) A diminutive 
kind of medlar tree. 

A.-ZZT, part. p. Set; planted. Dor- 

AzocK, 8. The mercury of metal, 
an alchemical term. 

AzooN, adv. Anon ; presently. Ex- 

Azure-byse, 8. A colour. 

jif thou wilt prove azure-byse, whether 
It be good or bade, take a pensel or a 
penne, and drawe smalle rewles upon 
blewe lettres with that ceruse, and jif 
thi ceruse be nojt clere white bote dede 
fade, theu is the blewe nojt fyne. 

MS. Sloane, 2584, p. 3. 

AzzARD, "I*. A puny child; an 
I insi 

AZZY, J insignificant fellow. 

AzzARDLY, a<^'. Poor; ill thriven. 
AzzLE-T00TH,«. A grinder. Craveiu 
AzzLED, adj. Chapped. Leic. A 

person's hands are said to be 





AjKXNis, prep. Against. 

Mikil more if he pronounce withont 
:iuinrit6 or lif contrariously aiennis the 
Lrfirdis wille. 

Apology for the Lollards, p. 8. 

AJenwobd, adt. On the other hand. 
A5ER, adv. Yearly. 
Heo wol rather bi-leve here truage, that je 
hem bereth ajfr. Rob. Glouc, p. 100. 

AJeyxus, prep. Against. 
A'lez, adj. Fearless. 
A't, -1(1) adj. {A..S.) Noble; 
AHT, J honourable. 

As lie wolde sometyme to Engelond wende, 

At that a'^l was in Engelond he let Eomony 

in ech ende. Sob. Glouc., p. 377. 

For other hit is of tnam tliinge, 
(>~e mai that thridde no man bringe;) 
Otiiar the laverd is wel aht. 
Other a snunde an nis naht. 
jef he is wurthfnl, an aht man, 
Xt'ele no man that wisdom can 
Hure ot is wire do }iim shame. 
Tor jif aht man is hire bedde, 
Thu mi;t wene that the mistide, 
Waune thu list bi hire side. 

Rule and the Ai/ghtitigale, 1. 1467. 

(2) pret. t. Ought. 

(3) adj. Eight. 
AiTR, pret. t. Possessed. 


Ba. (1) adj. {A..S.) Both. 

(2) V. To kiss. Chaucer. 

(3) *. A kiss. 
(4)«. A ball. 

Baad, (1) V. To bathe. Craven. 

(2) pret. t. Continued. Yorknh. 

(3) s. A disreputable woman. 
Cumb. See Bad (7). 

Baa-lamb, s. A childish term for 

a lamb. 
Baal-hills, *. Hillocks on the 

moors, on which fires are said 

to have been formerly lighted. 

Baax, «. A bone. North. 
Ba.\n-cart, *. The body. Craven. 
Baant. Am not ; are not. Var. 

dial. " I baant agoing." 
Baar, r. To bear. Maundevile. I 

Baard, s. a sort of sea-ressel, oi 
transport ship. 

Ba-arge, «. A fat, heavy person. 

Baas, adj. {A.-N.) Base ; low. 
Wherfor empostume off blode and ther 
o4 engendred is callyd fflegmon; em- 
postume sprungen off flewme is callyd 
baas, that is to say law, empostume; 
of rede, coleryk. MS. 14/A cent. 

Baas daunces, were dances very 
slow in their movements. 
And then came downe the 1. prince and 
the lady Cecill, and daunced two baas 
daunces and departed up againe, the 
1. prince to the king and the lady Cecill 
to the queene. Harl. MS., No. 69. 

Baaste, {I) v. To sew; to baste. 
(2) s. Bastardy. Prompt. Parv. 
Baath, adj. Both. North. 
Bab, (1) v. To bob down. North. 

(2) V. To fish, by throwing into 
the water a bait on a line, with 
a small piece of lead to sink it. 

(3) «. A baby ; a child. 
Babbart, 8. A familiar name for 

a hare. Reliq. Antiq., i, 133. 
Babble, (1) v. Hounds were said 
to babble, " if too busie after they 
have found good scent." Gent. 
Rec, p. 78. 

(2) V. To talk boisterously, or 
without measure. 

(3) s. An idle story. 
Babblement, "I s. Idle discourse ; 

BABBLING, J much Speaking. 
Babby, ». (1) .A baby. 

(2) A sheet or small book of 

prints for children. North. 
Babe, ». "A child's maumet." 

Gouldman. See Baby. 
Babelary, «. A foolish tale. Sir 

T. More. 
Babelavante, 8. A babbler. 

Chester Plays, ii, 34. 
Babble, v. n. To totter; to waver. 

" Babelyn or waveryn : librillo." 

Prompt. Parv. 
Baberlupped, adj. Thick-lipped. 

Pier* PI. " Babyrlyppyd : la- 

brosus." Prompt. Parv. 




Babery, "I Childish finery. 


Babeury, s. An architectural or> 

Al was of stone of berile, 
Both the castell and the tonre, 
And eke the halle, and every boure, 
Without peeces or joynings, 
But many subtell conipassings; 
As babeuries and pinnacles, 
Imageries and tabernacles. 

Chaucer, Howe ofF., iii, 99. 

Babewyne, "1 


Babish, adj. Childish. 
Bablative, adj. Talkative. 

A baboon. 

A fool's bauble. 

Mean while, my Mall, think thou it's 

To be my foole, and 1 to be thy bable. 
Earring. Epxg., ii, 96. 

Bables, 8. (Fr.) The glass or 
metal ornaments of the person. 
Their ears are long, made longer by 
ponderous babies they bang there, some 
using links of brasse, of iron, others 
have glasse-beads, chains, blew stones, 
bullets, or oyster-sliells. 

Herbert's Travels, 1638. 

Tliey suppose them most brave, most 
courtly, who can teare or dilacerate 
their eares widest, which they effect by 
many ponderous babies they hang there. 

Baby, s. A child's toy, especially 
a doll. In the North the word 
is still used to signify a child's 

Oscilla, pro imagunculis quse infantibus 
puerisque ad lusum prsebentur. Puppits 
or belies for children to play withall. 

Nomenclator, 1585. 

Babies doe children please, and shadowes 

fooles : 
Shewes have deceiv'd the wisest many a 

time. Griffin's Fidessa, 1596. 

But to raise a dayry 
('or other men's adulteries, consume my- 
self in caudles, 
A.nd scouring work, in nurses, bells, and 

Only for charity. 

Filliers, The Chances, 1692. 

Baby-cloult, was a name given 

to puppets made of rags. Cot- 
grave translates muguet, " a cu- 
riously dressed bable of clowts." 
Babies-heads. A kind of toys for 
children are called babies'-head.s 
in the Book of Rates, 1675. 
To look babies in the eyes, is a 
phrase common among our old 
poets to characterise the amor- 
ous gazing of lovers upon each 
other. In addition to many ex- 
amples which have been quoted, 
we may add the following : 

She clung about his neck, gave him ten 

Toy'd with his locks, look'd babies in his 

eyes. Heyxcood's Love's Mistress, p. 8. 

Look babies in your eyes, my pretty sweet 

There's a fine sport. 

TIte Loyal Subject, ii, 4. 

We will ga to the dawnes, and slubber 
up a siUibub, and I will look babies in 
your eyes. 

Philocles and Dorielea, 1640. 

Clet. How like you one anotbers faces 

Pass. Hast ne're a bahy in thy eye ex- 
traordinary, Maldriu ? or do'st see one 
in mine ? 

Howard, Man of Newmarket, 1678. 

Babyshed, part. p. Deceived 
with childish tales. 

Baccare. An cvclamation, sup- 
posed to be a corruption of back 
there, and found not unfre- 
quently in our early dramatists. 

Baccated, adj. (Lat. baccaius.) 
Garnished with pearls. 

Bacchar, *. The herb ladies' glove. 

Bacches, *. Bitches; or, perhaps, 
a mere clerical error for racches. 

The bacches that hym scholde knowe, 
I'or sone mosten lieo blowe pris. 

App. to Walter Mapes, p 345. 

Bacchus-feast, s. A rural festi- 

val ; au ale. 
Bacciferoos, adj. {Lat.) That 

bears berries. 
Baccivorous, adj. {Lat.) That 

eats berries. 
Bace, (1) s. {A..N.) A kind of 




fish, supposed to be the basse, 
or sea-perch. 

(2) An incorrect orthography of 

(3) r. To beat. Devon. 

Bace ch a umber, «. A room on 
the lower floor. "Bace cham- 
byr : Bassaria, vel camera bassa- 
ria, sive camera bassa." Prompt. 

Bacheler, «. {A.-N.) A young 
man who has not yet arrived at 

Bachelerye, *. {A..N.) (1) The 
condition or grade previous and 
introductory to knighthood; and, 
generally, that period in the life 
of a young man before he has 
entered on a determinate footing 
in the world. There were knights 
bachelors, or young knights. 

(2) The qualification of this age, 
courage and strength. 

(3) A party of bachelors. 
Bachelor's buttons, "I s. The 


flower. It was an ancient custom 
amongst country fellows to carry 
the flowers of this plant in their 
pockets, to know whether they 
should succeed with their sweet- 
hearts. Hence arose the phrase, 
"to wear bachelor's buttons," 
for being unmarried. In some 
parts, still, the flower-heads of 
the common burdock, and the 
wild scabious, are thus named. 
Gerarde mentions two or three 
plants, of which this was the 
trivial name. 
He wears bachelors bullous, does be not ? 
Hegw., fair Maid <^ the Vest. 

Bacine, s. a bason. 

Back, «. (1) A bat. 

(2) In mining, the back of a 
(ode is the part of it nearest the 
surface ; and the back of a level 
is that part of the lode extending 
above it to within a short dis- 
tance of the level above. 

(3) A back and breast, a cuirass, 

(4) V. To mount on the back. 
"To back a horse." 

(5) V. To endorse ; as, to back a 

Back-along, adv. Backward. 

Back and edge. Completely, en- 
tirely. In Yorkshire they say, 
" I can make back nor edge of 
him ;" I can make nothing oi him. 

Backarack. See Backrag. 

Backards-way, adv. Backwards. 

Backas, s. The back-house, or 
wash-house; sometimes the bake- 

Back-band, s. That part of the 
harness which, going over the 
back of the horse that draws, 
keeps up the shafts of the cart 
or carriage. 

Backbar, s. The bar in a chimney 
by which any vessel is suspended 
over the flre. 

Backberand, s. The bearing of 
any stolen goods, especially deer, 
on the back, or open indisputable 
theft. A law term. 

Back-board, s. More commonly 

• called back-breyd. The baking- 
board, or baker' s-board, is a thin 
board about 18 or 20 inches wide 
each way, but the corners and 
end held next to the body of the 
baker rounded off' a little. It is 
cut cross-wise with shallow kerfs 
of a handsaw, about an inch 
asunder, over the faoe of it in 
form of net-work. When used, 
some dry oatmeal is spread upon 
it, and a small wooden ladle full 
of the oatmeal dough [which by 
being elted is previously made 
to about the consistency of thick 
cream] is poured in a heap upon 
it. The baker then, by a pecu- 
liar kind of circular motion of 
the board, slightly elevating and 
depressing the sides alternately 




during the working of It, con- 
trives to spread out the dough 
into a broad thin cake, rarely 
more but often less than one 
eighth of an inch in thickness. 
The cake is then slid off the 
back-breyd upon another thin 
board of lesser dimensions with 
a short handle on called the 
baking-spittle, and by a peculiar 
cast of the baker is spread out 
still thinner upon the hot bake- 
stone, where in a few minutes' 
lime, being turned over once or 
twice in the interval, it is tho- 
roughly baked. Servants used 
to be required to know how to 
bake oatmeal, but this custom is 
rapidly becoming obsolete. 

Backbron, s. a large log of wood 
put at the back of the fire. Dorset. 

Backbt, adv. Behind ; a little way 
off. North. 

Backcarry, v. To carry on the 
the back. 

Back-cast, «. The failure in an 
effort ; a relapse. North. 

Back - cauter, s. " Cautere dor- 
sal, the backe-cauter, somewhat 
like a knife, or having a back 
like a knife, and searing onely 
on the other side." Cotgrave. 

Backen, v. To retard. 

Back-end, «. The latter end; 
autumn. Yorksh. Sometimes, 
the latter end of the year. 

Backening, g. Relapse; hin- 
drance. Yorksh. 

Backer, a<^'. Further back. West. 

Backerd, adv. Backward. Var. 

Backerly, adj. Late, applied? to 

Backerts, adv. Backwai"ds. 

Backerter, \adj. More back- 
backirmore, J wards. 

Back-friend, s. (1) A secret 

(2) A term for an angnail. 

Back-o'-beyond, adv. Of an un 

known distance. North. 
Back-out, s. A back-yard. Kent. 
Back-piece, s. The piece of ar- 
mour covering the back. 
Backrag, j s. A kind of wine, 
bacharach, > made at Bacharach 
BAGRAG, J in Germany. 

I'm for no tongues but dry'd ones, such as 

Give a fine relish to my backray. 

Old PL, ix, 282. 

Backset, s. " To make a backset, 
to make a stand to receive a 
chased deer, and to cast fresh 
hounds upon him at the latter 
end of the course. " Holme. 

Backsevore, adv. The hind part 
before. Devon. 

Backside, s. The hind part of 
anything, generally. But this 
word was used in several par- 
ticular senses, of which the fol- 
lowing are chiefly to be noticed ; 

(1) The yard behind a house. 

Nicholas Ward, unfortunately smoor'd 
to death, in sinking for a draw well in 
liis fathers backside^ \0 feb. 1716. 
Parish Register, Hartlepool. {Chron. Mirab.) 

No innkeeper, aleliouse keeper, victual- 
ler, or tippler, shall admit or suffer any 
person or persons in his house or back- 
side to eat, drink, or play at cards. 

Grindal's Remains, p. 138. 

(2) The back part of the house 

Onely heare mee: I have a certaine 
parlour in the backside, in the further- 
most part of my house, in thither was 
a bed carried and covered with clothes. 
Terence in English, 1&41. 

The backside of the kitchen. 

Durfey, Fond Husband, 1685. 

(3) A farm-yard. Hampsh. 

(4) A man's posteriors. In the 
following passage it is applied to 
the ant, because the latter, as in 
a fable, is spoken of as a human 

A poor ' ant carries a grain of corn, 
climbing up a wall with her head down- 
wards, and her beu:knde upwards. 





(5) The side of a letter on which 
the address was written. 

Come, wrap it (the letter) up now, 
whilst I go fetch wax and a candle ; 
and write on the backtide, "for Mr. 

Wycherley, Country Wife, 1688. 

Backstaff, «. An instrument 
used for talving the sun's alti- 
tude at sea ; so named because 
the back of the observer was 
turned towards the sun when 
using it. 

Backstand, «. Resistance. 

Backster, 8. A baker. North, 

Backsters, 8. Wide flat pieces 
of board strapped on the feet, to 
walk over loose beach on the sea 
coast. South. 

Back-stock, *. A log of wood. 

Backstone, 8. An iron for baking 
cakes, generally hung over the 
fire. A person is said to go 
"like a cat upon a hot back- 
stone," when treading cau- 
tiously and with apparent fear 
and uneasiness. 

Backstrikino, s. a mode of 
ploughing, in which the earth, 
after being turned, is turned 
hack again. Suffolk. 

Backsunded, adj. Shady. Dor8et. 

Back-swanked, adj. Lean in the 
flank, applied to a horse. 

Backsword, s. The game of 
single-stick. Wilts. 

Backward, ». To keep back ; to 

Backward, ». (1) The state of 
things past. Shakesp. 
(2) A Jakes. 

Backword, «. An answer to put 
off an engagement. North. 

Back-worm, a. A disease in 
hawks ; also called the filander. 

Backwort, 8. The name of a 
herb, apparently the same as the 

Backwound, v. To wound se- 
cretly, or from behind. 

Bacon, «. A clown. Shakesp. 
Bacon-bee, s. a small insect of 

the beetle kind, which blows 

bacon. Leicest. 
Bactile. (Lat.) A candlestick. 
Baculometry, 8. {Lat.) The art of 

measuring altitudes or distances 

by means of a staff. 
Bacun, part. p. Baked. 
Bacyn, «. A light kind of helmet 

More correctly, basyn. 

■ Some he hytte on the bacyn, 
Tliat he cleff hym to the chyn. 

K. Richard, 1. 2557. 

Bad, (1) adj. Sick ; ill. 

(2) adj. Poor, Var. dial. 

(3) Offered; invited. 

(4) pret. t. of bidde. Asked ; 

(5) V. To shell walnuts. West. 

(6) 8. A rural game, played with 
a bad-stick, formerly used in 

(7) 8. A bad person or thing. 

That of two badils for betters choyse he 
backe agayne did goe. 

Warner's Albion's England, 1593. 

Baddeliche, adv. Badly. Rob. 

B a ODER, adj. Comp.oibad. Worse. 


^^°^' 1(1) «. Delay. 

BADDE, J ^ ' ^ 

(2) pret. t. of bide. Abode; 

(3) pret. t. of bidde. Prayed. 

(4) Commanded. Chaucer. 

(5) 8. (A.-S.) A pledge ; a surety. 

(6) V. To l)athe. Warw. 
Badelynge, 8. A flock or com- 
pany of ducks. 

Badge, v. To cut and tie up beans 
in shocks or sheaves. Leicest. 

Badger, (1) s. A pedlar; a corn- 
factor ; a person who buys eggs, 
butter, fiC, at the farm-houses, 
to sell again at market. 

(2) V. To beat down in a bar- 

(3) V. To tease ; to annoy. 




Bad6ER-the>beak, 8. A game, in 
which the boy who personates 
the bear places himself upon his 
hands and knees, and another 
boy, as his keeper, defends him 
from the attacks of the others. 

Badget, «. (1) A badger. East, 
(2) A cart-horse. 

Badling, 8. A worthless person. 

Badly, adj. Ill ; sickly. 

Bads, «. The husks of walnuts. 

Bael, 8. (A.-S.) Sorrow ; bale. 

Baelys, s. Rods. Tundale. 

Baffe, v. To yell as hounds. 

Saffen as houndes : Baulo, baffo, latro. 

Baffi/n as houndes after their pray : 


Baffinge or bawlinge of houndes : Bnu- 

latua, vel baftatus. Prompt. Parv. 

Baffers, 8. Barkers ; yellers. 
Baffet, v. To baffle. 
Baffle, \v. (Fr.) To treat with 
BAFFUL, J indignity; to expose. 
Properly speaking, to baffle or 
bdfftd a person was to reverse a 
picture of him in an ignominious 

Bafalling is a great disgrace among the 
Scots, and it is used when a man is 
openly peijured, and tlien tliey make 
an image of liim painted, reversed, with 
his heels upwards, witli his name, 
woondering, crying, and blowing out of 
him with horns. Holiruhed. 

And after all, for greater infamie. 
He by the heels him hung upon a tree, 
And hafful'd so, that all which passed by 
The picture of his punishment might see. 
Spetuer, F. g., B. VI, vii, 27. 
I amdisgrac'd, iropeach'd, and baffledhere, 
Pierc'd to the soul witli slander's venom'd 
spear. K. Richard II, i, 1. 

(2) r. To cheat, or make a fool 
of; to manage capriciously or 
wantonly ; to twist irregularly 
together. East. 

(3) In Suffolk they term ba^d, 
corn which is knocked down by 
the wind. 

(4) ». To twist or entangle. 

Baffling,*. Opprobrium ; affront. 
Baft, adv. Abaft. Chaucer. 
Baftys, adv. (A-.S.) Afterwards. 

Cov. Myst. 
Bag, (1) 8. The udder of a cow. 

Var. dial. 

(2) V. To cut peas with an in- 
strument like the common reap- 
ing-hook. West. 

(3) V. To cut wheat stubble, 
generally with an old scythe. 

(4) 8. The stomach. Hence eat- 
ing is called familiarly bagging. 
(5)r. To move; to shake; to jog. 

(6) V. To breed, to become preg- 

Well, Venus shortly lagged, and ere long 
was Cupid bred. Mb. Engl., vi, p. 148. 

(7) 8. In some dialects, turf. 
The upper sod cut into squares 
and dried for fuel. 

(8) «. A name for the long-tailed 
titmouse. Northampt. 

(9) Among the popular phrases 
in which this word enters, are to 
get the bag, or be dismissed ; to 
give the bag, or leave. The lat- 
ter phrase is also used in the 
sense of, to deceive. 

You shall have those curses which be- 
longs unto your craft ; you shall be 
light-footed to travel farre, light witted 
upon every small occasion to give your 
masters the bag. Green's Quip, 4'C. 

Bag and bottle, a schoolboy's 

An ill contriving rascal, that in his 
younger years sliould choose to lug the 
bag and the bottle a mile or two to 
school ; and to bring home only a small 
bit of Greek or Latin most magisterially 
construed. Eachard's Obseruations, 
8vo, 1671, p. 31. 

Bag and baggage, everything a 
person possesses. 

And counsel'd you forthwith to pack 
To Graecia, bag and baggage, back. 

Homer A-la-Mode, p. 79. 

Bag-of-moonshine, an illusor) de< 
ception ; a fooUsh tale. 




Bagatike, «. An Italian coin, 
worth about the third of a far- 

Bagavel, s. (A.-S. ?) A tribute 
granted to tlie citizens of Exeter 
by a charter from Edward the 
First, empowering them to levy 
a duty upon all wares brought to 
that city for the purpose of sale, 
the produce of which was to be 
employed in paving the streets, 
repairing the walls, and the ge- 
neral maintenance of the town. 
Jacobs' Law Dictionary. 

Bage, T *. A badge. Prompt. 
BAGGE, j Part). 

Bageard, s. a badger. 

Bagelle,*. (^.-A^.) Rings; jewels. 

Baget, s. a sort of tulip. 

Bau-fox, s. a fox that has been 
unearthed, and kept a time for 
sport. Blame. 

Baggabone, *. A vagabond. 

Baggage, s. (perhaps from Fr. ba- 
gasse.) A worthless or pert 

l&\GG.\G^T>,\part.p. Bewitched; 
bygaged, J mad. Exmoor. 

Baggagely, adj. Worthless. Tuss. 

Bagge, v. To swell with arrogance. 
Chaucer. Tyrwhitt conjectures 
that it means to squint. 

Baggerment, s. a corn-field full 
of weeds and rubbish is said to 
be full of baggerment. It may be 
questioned whether this is genu- 
ine Lincolnshire, and it has been 
suspected that it has been intro- 
duced by some sailors ; the only 
word like it being Bogamante, 
a common lobster, and such a 
word it is possible may have 
been corrupted and used meta- 
phorically for rubbish, or that 
which is good for nothing. 

Baggib, ». The belly. Northumh. 

Faggin, «. Food. Cumb. Baggin- 
time, or bagginff'time, baiting- 
time. Lanc- 

Here ample rows of tents are stretch'dl, 
The gurse green common bigg'd on ; 

And bagcfin reddy cuck'd is fetch'd 
Frae Peerith, Carle, an Wigtou. 

Stat/g's Cumberland Poems. 

Bagging, s. (1) The act of cut- 
ting up the haum or wheat stub- 
ble for the purpose of thatching 
or burning. Oxfordsh. 
(2) Becoming pregnant. 

Bagging-bill, Is. A curved 
BAGGING-HOOK, J ironinstrumeut 
for agricultural purposes. 

Baggingly, adv. Squintingly. 

Bag-harvest, *. A harvest in 
which the men provide their own 
victuals, which is commonly car- 
ried by them in bags for their 
daily support. Norf. 

Baghel, s. Jewellery. See Ba- 

In toun herd I telle, 
The baghel and the belle 
Beu filched and fled. 

Political Songs, p. 307. 

Baginet,*. A bayonet. 

Bagle, s. An impudent and dis- 
reputable woman. Shakesp. 

Bagpipes, *. A popular name for 
a flail. Northampt. 

Bag-pudding, «. A rustic dish, of 
which we have no very clear 
description, but it was probably 
like our rolly-polly puddings. 

A big bag-pudding tlien 1 must commend, 

For he is full, and holds out to the end ; 

Siklome with men is found so sound a 
friend. Daviet, Scourge of Folly, 1611. 
True love is not like to a bat; -pudding ; 
a bag-pudding liath two ends, but true 
love hath never an end. 

Poor Sobin, 1757. 

BAGWALETOca, s. A Carrier of 

Bagy, ». A badge. Bemers. 

BAHff, part. a. Going. YorAsh. 

Baibery, s. a bay-berry. Mr. 
Dyce suspects an error here for 
bribery. But see Bay berry. 

I wept and sighed, and tliumped and 
thumped, and raved and randed and 
railed, and told him how mv wife was 
now grown as coninion as baibery. 

Kertlacard Roe, 1607' 




B/.JCU, t. A slip of land. 

A batch or languet of land. 

Sai/'s Travels, p. 280. 

Baics, 8. Chidings ; reproofs. 

If lazar so loathsome in cheese be espied, 
Let baics amend Cisly, or shift her aside. 
Tusser't Husbandry. 

Baigne, v. (Fr.) To dip in liquid; 
to drench ; to soak. 

Bail, (1) «. (A.-S.) A beacon; a 
bonfire. North. 

(2) The handle of a pail, or the 
bow of a scythe. Suff. 

Baile, 8. A wooden canopy, formed 
of bows. 

Bailes, s. pi. (A.-S.) Blazes; 
flames. Slaffordsh. 

Bailey, *. (A.-N.) Each of the 
enclosures round the keep of a 
castle, so named because its de- 
fence was intrusted, or bailie, to 
a portion of the garrison, inde- 
pendent of the others. 

Four tonres ay hit has, and kernels fair, 
Tbre baiUiees al aboute, that may nojt 

apair ; 
Nouther hert may wele thinke ne tang may 

wel telle 
Al the bounty and the bewt6 of this ilk 

cas telle. 
Seven barbicans are sette so sekirly aboute. 
That no manei of shoting may greve fro 

withoute. The CaatU of Lute. 

Bailiwick, ». Stewardship. 

Baillie, 8. {A.-N.) Custody ; go- 

Bails, ». Hoops to bear up the 
tilt of a boat. 

Baily, «. {A.-N.) A bailiff; a 
steward ; a sheriff's officer. 

An honeste husbande man, that 
chaunsed to fynde the sayde bodget, 
brought it to the baily of Ware, ac- 
cordynge to the crye, and required his 
XX. li. for his labour, as it was pro- 
claymed. Tales and (^uicke Answers. 

Baiv, adj. (1) Near; ready, easy. 

(2) Pliant, limber. £att. 

(3) Obedient, willing. 

Water thai asked swithe. 
Cloth and bord was drain : 

With mete and drink litlie. 
And seijauuce that were bayn. 

To serve Tristrem swithe. 
And sir Rohaut ful favn. 

iSir Tristrem, i, 65. 

I saw this wild beste was ful bayn 
For my luf himselfe have slayne. 

Twaine and Gaicin, 1. 3097. 

Baine, (1) «. (jFr.) A bath. 

As the noble emperour Augustus on a 
time cam in to a bayne, he behelde an 
olde man that hadde done good senice 
in the warres, frotte liimselfe agaynste 
a marble pyller for lacke of one to 
helpe to wasshe him. 

Tales and Quicke Ansv>ers. 

Balneator, Cic. ^a-ySvev*. Maistre des 
bains ou estuves. The maister of the 
baines, staves, or hothouse. 

Nomenelator, 1585. 

(2) V. To bathe. 

To haine themselves in my distilling blood. 
F. Lodge, IFounds of Civil War. 

Bained, adj. (A.-S.) Fated. Used 
in Somersetshire by farmcrswhen 
the sheep are affected with liver 
complaints, from which they 
hardly ever recover. 

Bainer. Nearer. North. 

Baines, s. pi. Bans, particularly 
applied to the announcement or 
introduction to a play or mystery, 
as in the Chester Plays. " To 
the players of Grimsby when 
they spake thair bayn of thair 
play." Lincobish. Records, 

Bainge, r. To bask in the sun ; 
to sweat as in a bath. Glouc. 

Baire, adj. Fit ; convenient. Dur. 

Bairn, s. (A.-S.) A child. North. 

Bairnelie, adj. Childish. North. 

Bairn-team, ». (A.-S.) A progeny 
of children. 

Bairnwort,*. The daisy. Yorksh. 

Baisemains,*. (Fr.) Salutations; 
compliments. Spenser. 

Baiskb, adj. (A.-S.) Sour. 

Bath hew doune and caste in the ftre, 
tor the froite of itt is soure, 
And baiske and bittere ot odoure. 
MS, Colt., fatnl,, B. vi, f. 123 v". 




Baist, v. To beat. North. See ' 

Baste. } 

Baiste, adj. Abashed. { 

Bees noghte baiste of pne boyes, 

Ne ot thaire bryghte wedis. I 

Morle Arthure. I 

Bait, (J.-S.) (1) *. A luncheon. { 



(3) «. 




To refresh; to stop to 

Food; pasture. North. 
To flutter. A hawking 

A meat pie, or 

To teaze, or worry. 

BAiTAND,/>ar/. In great haste. 

Baitel, v. To thrash. North. 

Baith, adj. Both. North. 

Bait-poke, s. A bag for provi- 
sions. North. 

Bajardour, s. (j4.-N.) a carter; 
the bearer of any weight or bur- 
den. Kersey. 

Bak, s. a bat. See Back. 

Baked, part. p. Incrusted. Far. 

Bak'd-meat, s. 

perhaps any other pie ; pastry. 

Bake^^, part. p. Baked. 

BAKERtEGGED, adj. A pcrson 
whose legs bend outwards. 

Baker-knee'd, adj. One whose 
knees knock together in walking, 
as if kneading dough. Baker- 
feet, twisted feet. 

Baker's-dozen, s. Thirteen. A 
baker s dozen, was formerly called 
the devil's dozen, and it was the 
number who sat down at a table 
in the pretended sabbaths of the 
witches. Hence arose the idea 
of ill-luck which is still popularly 
connected with it. 

Nais, Minthe, Metra, Phrine, Messalina, 
Abrotonion, Lensa, Affranea, Laurentia, 
Citlieris, Chione, and lascivious Licaste, 
Make a baker's dozen with Astinasse. 

Daties, Scourge of lolly, 1611. 

The refuse of that chaos of the earth, 
.\l)le to give the world a second birth, 
Atfrick, avaunt! Thy trifling monsten 

Bui sheeps-eyed to this penal ignorance. 

That all the prodigies brought forth before 
Are but dame Nature's blush left on the 

Tliis strings the baker's dozen, christens all 
The cross-leg'd hours of time since Adam's 

fall. Rump Songs. 

Bakestbr, 8. A female baker. 

Bakhalfe, 8. The hinder part. 
Bakhouse, *. A bakehouse. North. 
Bakin, 8. The quantity of bread 

baked at one time. Yorkah. 
Baking-draught, s. Part of the 

hinder quarter of an ox. 
Bakke, s. a cheek. 

Than brayde he brayn wod. 
And alle his bakkes rente. 
His berde and his brijt fax 
For bale he totwijt. 

William / the Weno., p. 76. 

Bakpaner, 8. A kind of basket ; 
apparently a pannier carried on 
the back. 

Other habyllementes of werre: First 
jdi. c, paveyses : cc. fyre pannes and 
XXV. other fyre pannes .... Item vc. 
bakpaners al garnished, cc. lanternes. 
Caxton's Fegecius, sig. I v, b. 

Bakstale, adv. Backwards. 

Prompt. P. 
Bal, (1) s. {A..S.) A flame. 
The following lines occur in an 
early poem which contains a 
description of the fifteen signs 
that are to precede the destruc- 
tion of the earth, and the day of 
Than sal the raynbow decend. 
In hew of gall it sal be kend ; 
And wit the windes it sal mel, 
Drit thaim doun into the hell, 
And dunt the develes theder in 
In thair bal al for to brin ; 
And sal aim bidd to hald thaim thar, 
Abon erthe to com no mar. 
The term is comen haf ye sal. 
The incom to be in your bal. 
Than sal tai bigin to cri and calle, 
Laverd fader ! God of alle ! 

Cursor Mutidi : MS. Edinb., f . 7 »" 

(2) 8. A mine. West. 
Balaam. This is the cant term in 
a newspaper oflSce for asinine 
paragraphs about monstrous pro- 
ductions of nature and the like. 




kept standing in type to be used 
whenever the news of the day 
leave an awkward space that must 
be filled up somehow. See Lock- 
hart's Life of Scott, vi, 294. 
Balade-koyal, s. a poem writ- 

ten in stanzas of eight lines. 
Balance, (1) s. Balances. Shakesp. 
(2) Doubt; uncertainty. "To 
lay in balance," to wager. CAawcer. 
In old French we have, estre en 
balance, to doubt. 
Balancers, s. Makers of ba- 
Balase, v. To balance. Baret. 

" Balassen, saburro." 
Balastre, *. A cross-bow. 
Balate, v. {Lat.) To bleat ; to 

bellow. Salop. 
Balayn, s. Whalebone ? 

Afftyr come, whyt as the snow, 
Fvffty thousand on a lowe, 
Ther among was ser Saladyn, 
And his nevewe Myrayn-Momelyn. 
Her baner whyt, wit)iouten fable. 
With thre Sarezynes hedes off sable, 
That wer schapen noble and large, 
Of balayn, both scheeld and targe. 

Richard, 1. 2982. 

Balats, «. {A.-N.) A kind of ruby. 

Balbucinats, v. {Lat.) To stam- 

Balch, (1) V. To sink flower-pots 
in the mould in a garden, level 
with the surface. 
(2) ». Stout cord, used for the 
bead lines of fishing-nets. Cornw. 

Balche, p. To belch. Huloet. 

Balchers,». Very young salmons. 

Balcbing, 8. An unfledged bird, 
Var. dial. Frequently used with 
the prefix blind. Warm. 

Balcoon, \s. {Fr. balcon.) A 
BALCONE, J balcony. Howell. 

This preparation begot expectation, and 
that filled all the windows, balconet, and 
streets of Paris as they passed with a 
multitude of spectators, six trum- 
peters, and two marslmls. 

Wilson's James J, 1658. 

Bald, adj. (1) Bold. Baldore, 

Gentile Johan of Doucaster 
Bid a ful balde dede. 

Minot's Poems, 

(2) adj. Eager ; swift. 

(3) V. To make bald. 
Baldar-herbe, s. The amaran- 

thus. Huloet. 

Baldchick, 8. A callow un- 
fledged bird. Leic. Synonymous 
with Balchin, which see. 

Baldcoot, «. The water-hen. 

Balde, v. {A.-S.) To encourage. 

Baldeliche.I ^^ Boldlv. 
baldely, J 

Baldemoyne, 8. Gentian. Prompt. 

Balder, v. To speak coarsely. 

Balderdash, (1) «. Hodge-podge: 
a mixture of rubbish ; filth; filthy 
language ; bad liquor. It is 
found in the latter sense in the 
early dramatists. 
(2) V. To mix or adulterate 

Baldfaced, adj. White-faced. 

Bald-kite, », A buzzard, 

Baldock, s. a kind of tool, 

Baldore, adj. Bolder. Rob. Glouc. 

Baldrib, 8. A portion cut lower 
down than the spare-rib, and 
devoid of fat. 

Baldrick, ~| 8. {A.-N.) A belt, 
BAULDRiCK, I girdle, or sash; 
B.AUDERiK, I sometimes a sword- 
BAUDRiKE, J belt. In some in- 
stances it seems to have been 
merely a collar round the neck, 
but it was more usually passed 
round one side of the neck, and 
under the opposite arm, 
(2) Some subsidiary part of a 
church bell, perhaps resembling a 
belt, though it is not certain what 
it was. It is often mentioned ii 
old churchwarden's accounts un- 
der such forms as bawdryk, baw- 
dryck, bawdrick, bawdrikke, baU 




drege, bowdreg, bawdry g. Bailey 
(Diet.) says it meant a belt, strap, 
thong, or cord, fastened by a 
buckle, with which the clapper of 
a bell is suspended. The buckle 
is mentioned in some accounts. 
In the vestry-books of St. Peter's, 
Ruthin, Denbighshire, there are 
entries in 1683, and many sub- 
sequent years, in the church- 
warden's account, of wooden bal- 
drocks, from time to time sup- 
plied new to the parish. 

Also liyt ys agreed the same tjrme, the 
Clarke have all the vauntage of tlie 4 
belles, and he to fynde !)oth hawdryckes 
and ropes for the 4 seyd belles. 
Strutt's Horda Angel-Cynnan, iii, 173. 

(3) A kind of cake, made pro- 
bably in the shape of a belt. 

Balductum, s. a term, apparently 
burlesque, applied by writers of 
the 16th cent, to affected ex- 
pressions in writing. 

Baldwein, s. The plant gentian. 

Bale, (1) s. {A.-S. beal.) Mis- 
chief; sorrow. 

Therwhile, sire, that I tolde this tale, 
Thi sone mighte tholie dethes bale; 
Tliannewererai tale forlore ! 
Ac, of-sende thi sone therfore, 
And yif him respit of his bale. 

Seuyn Sages, Weber, 1.701. 
Let now your bUss be turned into bale. 
Spens., Daphitaida, 320. 

(2) 8. Destruction. 

(3) s. (A.-S. balew.) Evil. 

My graunserwith greme gird [liem]unto, 
And sloghe all our sitesyns and our sad 

Brittoned to bale dethe and there blode 

shed. Destruction of Troy, f. 36 v". MS. 

(4) (A..S. beelig.) The belly. 
Pronounced bale. In a curious 
description of cutting up the deer 
after a chase, are the following 
lines : 

Sythen rytte thay the foure lymmes, 
And rent of the hyde ; 
Thf n brek thay the bali. 
The balej out token. 

Gawayn Ir '** Or. Kn., 1.4507. 

(5) ». {A.-S.) The scrotum. 

(6) a. Basil wood. Skinner. 

(7) Ten reams of paper. Kennett. 

(8) ». A bale of dice. A pair of 

For exercise of arms, a bale of dice. 

Or two or three packs of cards to shew the 

And uimbleness of hand. 

B. Jon., New Inn, 1, 3. 

A pox upon these dice, give's a fresh bale. 
Green's Tu Quoque. O. PL, vii, 50. 

(9) r. (Fr. bailler.) To empty 
water out with buckets or other 
small vessels. 

(10) *. The bowed handle of a 
bucket or kettle. 

(11) A bar or rail to separate 
horses in a stable. 

Baleful, adj. Evil ; baneful. 
Bale-hills, s. Hillocks upon the 

moors upon which have formerly 

been those fires called bale-fires. 

See Baal-hills. 
Baleis, s. {A.-N.) a large rod. 
Baleise, v. To beat with a rod ; to 

scourge. Piers PI. Still in use in 

Balena, s. {Lat.) A whale. 

The huge leviathan is but a shrimpe 
Compar'd with our balena on the land. 
Tragedy of Hoffman, 163L 

Balew, s. (A.-S. balew.) Evil. 
Baleyne, s. (Fr.) Whalebone. 

Balej, 8. Bowels. 
Balhew, adj. Plain; smooth. 

Prompt. P. 
Baliage, *. The office of a bailiff. 
Balin, 8. The name of a plant. 

Nor wonder if such force in hearbs re- 

Wliat cannot juice of devine simples bmisd? 
The dragon finding his young serpent 

Having th'herbe balin in his wounds 

Restores his life and makes him whole 

Who taught the heart how dettany is used 

Wlio being pierced through the bones 
and marrow, 

Can with that hearbe expell th'offensive 
arrow. Great Britainei Troye, 1609 




Balist, *. (A.-N.) An engine for 
projecting stones in besieging a 

Balistar, 8. A crossbow-man. 

Balk, *. (J.-S. bale.) (1) A ridge 
of greensward left by the plough 
in ploughing. " A balice or banke 
of earth raysed or standing up 
betweene twoo furrowes." Ba- 
ret's Alvearie. 

(2) A beam in a cottage. A 
pair of couples or strong supports 
is placed between each pair of 
gables, and the balk is the strong 
beam, running horizontally, that 
unites those below. The balk 
was used to hang various articles 
on, such as flitches of bacon, &c. 
Balk ende whych appeareth under the 
eaves of a house, procer. Huloet. 

(3) V. To heap up in a ridge or 

(4) " Balk the way," get out of 
the way. 

(5) *. A contrivance in the 
dairy districts of Sutfolk, into 
which the cow's head is put while 
she is milked, is called a balk or 

(6) Balks, straight young trees 
after they are felled. Var. dial. 

(7) " To be thrown ourt' balk," 
to be published in the church. 
"To hing ourt' balk," marriage 
deferred after publication. Yorksh. 

(8) A division of lands in an open 

(9) To balk a hare, to pass one 
on her form or seat without 
seeing her. Norf. 

Leam'd and judicious Lord, if I should 

Thyne honor'd name, it being in my way, 
My muse unworthy were of such a walke, 
Where honor's branches make it ever Mav. 
Daciet, Scourge of Folly, 16li. 

Balke. (1) To leave a balk in 

But so wel halte no man the plogh. 
That be ne iaZit^/i otherwile. 

Goteer, MS. Soe. Antiq. 

(2) {A.-S.) To belch. 

BalJcyng, sum is smoki and hoot, and 
sura is sour ; the firste cometh of lieate 
and of bote humours that ben in the 
Btomak, the secounde is of coold hu- 
mours either of feble heate of the stomak. 
Medical MS. of the \5th cent. 

(3) To be angry. Reyn. the Foxe. 
Balker, «. (1) A little piece of 

wood by which the mo wers smooth 
the edges of their scythes after 
the whetstone has been used. It 
is commonly fastened to the end 
of the sneyde by a pin. Devon. 
(2) A great beam. East. 

Balkers, *. Persons who stand on 
elevations near the sea-coast, at 
the season of herring fishing, to 
make signs to the fishermen 
which way the shoals pass. 

Balking, «. A ridge of earth. 

Balk-ploughing, «. A mode of 
ploughing, in which ridges are 
left at intervals. East. 

Balks, s. The liay-loft. Chesh. 
Sometimes, the hen-roost. 

Balk-staff, «. A quarter-staff. 

Ball, (I) adj. Bald, Somerset. 

(2) «. The pupil of the eye. 
"Ball, or apple of the eye." 
Huloet, 1552. 

(3) *. Cry ; lamentation. 

Son after, wen he was halle, 
Then began io slak hvr baUt. 

Guy of Warwick, Middlekill MS. 

(4) ». The palm of the hand* 

(5) 8. The round part at the bot- 
tom of a horse's foot. See Florio, 
in V. Cdllo. 

(6) a. The body of a tree. Lane. 

(7) V. To cohere, as snow to the 
feet. Northampt. 

(8) V. To beat a person with a 
stout stick, or with the hand. 

Ballace, v. (supposed to be from 
A.-S. behleestan, to load a ship.) 
To stuff. 




With soTce gall'd trunk, haUa&d with straw 

and stone. 
Left for the pawn of his provision. 

Bp. Hall's Satires, n, 5. 

Ballad, v. To sing or compose 

Ballader, a. A maker of ballads. 
Balladin, s. {Fr.) A kind of 

Balladry, s. The subject or style 

of ballads. 
Ballance, «. (A.-N.) This word 

was formerly regarded as a 


A pair of ballance. 

Barckley's Summum Bonum, p. 431. 

Are there balance here, to weigh 

Tlie fleah? M. of Venice, iv, 1. 

Ballant, s. a ballad. North. 
Ballard, s. A castrated ram. 

Ballart, s. a name for the hare. 

Reliq. Antiq., i, 133. 
Ballast, s. A ruby. See Balayg. 
Ballat, 8. A ballad. North. 
Ballatron, *. {iMt. ballatro.) A 

rascal ; a thief. Minsheu. 
Ballatrough,*. a foolish prating 

fellow. Dev. 
Ballatry, s. {Ital.) A song, or 

jig. Milton. 
Balle, (!) s. The head. Chaucer. 

(2) V. ' To howl. " I balle as a 

curre dogge dothe, je hurle." 

Balled, a(^/'. Bald. 
Ballednesse, s. Baldness. 
Ballenger, \g.{A.-N.) A small 
BALLixGER, J Sailing vessel used 

in ancient times. 
Ballerag, 1 1>. To banter; to 
BULLiRAO, J abuse; to scold. Var. 

Balle.sse, 8. Ballast. Huloet. 

BalUsse or lastage for shippes, saburra. 

Balliards, ». The game of bil- 

Ball-money, ». "Moneydemanded 
of a marriage company, and given 

to prevent their being maltreated. 
In the North it is customary for 
a party to attend at the church 
gates, after a wedding, to enforce 
this claim. The gift has re- 
ceived this denomination, as 
being originally designed for the 
purchaseof a foot-ball." Brocket/. 
BalUmony, given by a new bride to lier 
old play-fellows. Ladies' Dictionary, 1694 

Ballock-grass,». The herb dogs'- 
stones. Gerarde. 

Ballocks, 1 8. {A..N.) Testiculi. 
BALLOKs, ^The word occurs fre- 
BALLoxs, J quently in early medi- 
cal receipts. Sometimes called 
hallok-stones. " Hie testiculus, a 
balok ston. Hie piga, a balok 
iod." Nominate, MS.,\bth cent. 
\i appears from Palsgrave's Aco- 
lastus, 1540, that ballocke-stones 
was a term of endearment. 
Also take an erbe that growith in wodes, 
and is lick an neitle, and it is the 
lengthe of a cubite ether ther aboute, 
and hath as it were hallok sloones 
aboute the roote. 

Medical MS. of the loth cent. 

Balloc broth, I «. A kind of 
BALOK-BROTHE, / broth described 
in the following receipt : 

Balloc broth. — Take eelys, and hild* 
hem, and kerve hem to pecys, and do 
liem to seeth in water and wyne, so tliat 
it be a litel over-stepid. Do thereto 
sawge and ootliir erbis, with ft w oynons 
y-mynced. Whan the eelia buth soden 
ynowj, do hem in a vessel; take a 
pyke, and kerve it to gobettes, and 
seeth hym in the same broth ; do thereto 
powdor gvnger, galyngale, canel, and 
pcper; salt it, and cast the eelys there- 
to, and messe it forth. 

Forme of Cii<nj, p. 12. 

Ballok-kny7, «. A knife hung 
from the girdle. Piers PL 

Balloon, "1». (Fr.) A large in- 
BALOON, J flated ball of strong 
leather, used in a game of the 
same name, introduced from 
France, and thus described in a 
book entitled Country Content*: 
" A strong and moveing sport in 




the open fields, with a great ball 
of double leather filled with wind, 
and driven to and fro with the 
strength of a man's arm, armed 
with a bracer of wood." 
While others have been at the balloon, 
I have been at my books. 

Ben Jon., Fox, ii, 2. 

Minsheu, under Bracer, speaks 
of a wooden bracer worn on the 
arm by baloon players, " which 
noblemen and princes use to 
play." In the play of Eastward 
Hoe, Sir Petronel Flash says, 
" We had a match at baloon too 
with my Lord Whackum, for 
four crowns ;" and adds, " 
sweet lady, 'tis a strong play with 
the arm."* O. PL, iv, 211. 
Faith, from those bums, which she through 

lischtnesse setts 
CFor balhne- balls) to liire, to all that play, 
Who must in time quite voUey them away. 
Davits, Scourge of lolly, 1611. 

Ballop, "1 ». The front or flap of 
BALLCP, J smallclothes. A'or/AuOTJ. 
Ballow, (1) ad/. (^.-5.) Gaunt; 
bony ; thin. 

Whereas the balUno nag outstrips the 
winds in chase. 

Drayton, Polyolbion, song iii. 

(2) V. To select or bespeak ; used 
by boys at play, when they select 
a goal or a companion of their 
game. North. 

(3) s. A pole ; a cudgel. North. 
"A bailer, malleus ligneus quo 
glebae franguntur." Huloet. 

Ball-stell, 8. A geometrical 
quadrant, called in Latinized 
form balla-stella. Nomenclator, 

Ball-stone, s. A local name in 
Shropshire for a measure of iron- 
stone which lies near the sur- 
face ; a kind of limestone found 
near Wenlock. 

Ball-thistle, s. A species of 
thistle. Gerard. 

Ballu, 8. (A.-S.) Mischief; sor- 
rosv. See Bale. 

Ballum-bancum, s. a licentious 
dancing party. An old slang 

He makes a very good odd-man at 
hallum-rancum, or so ; that is, when the 
rest of the company is coupled, will 
take care to see tliere's srood attendance 
paid. Oltoay, The Atheist, 1684. 

Ballcp. See Ballop. 

Bally, (1) ». A litter of pigs. 


(2)». To swell or growdistended. 


(3) adj. Comfortable. Wett. 

Ballys, 1 o „ 

y s. Bellows. 


Balmer, a. If not a corruption, 
this word, in the Chester Plays, 
i, 172, seems to designate some 
kind of coloured cloth. " Bar- 
rones in balmer and byse." 

Balneal, adj. (Lat.) Refreshing. 

Balny, «. {Lat. balneum.) A bath. 

Bald, #. A beam in buildings; 
any piece of squared timber. East. 

Balon, a. (Fr.) Whalebone. 

Balotade, *. {Fr.) An attempt 
made by a horse to kick. 

Balodrgly, s. a sort of broth. 

For to make a bahurgly broth. Tak 
pikys, and spred liem abord, and helys 
^if thou hast, fle hem, and ket liem m 
gobbettys, and seth hem in alf H^n and 
half in water. Tak up the pykys and 
elys, and hold hem hotc, ana draw tlie 
broth thorwe a clothe; do powder tif 
gyngever, peper, and galyngale, and 

canel, into the broth, and boyle yt; and 

the « " 
aud serve yt forth. 

do yt on the pykys aud on the elys, 
yt forth. 
Warner, Antiq. CuUn., p. 49. 

BAi.oviT, {A.-S.) prep. About. 
Balow. (1) A nursery term. North. 

(2) 8. {A.-S.) A spirit ; properly, 

an evil spirit. 
Balow-broth, a. Probably the 

same as ballock-broth. 
Baloynge, a. 

Eyther arm an elne long, 
Baloynge mengetli al by-mong, 
Ase baum ys hire bleo. 

Lyric Poetry, p. 35 




Balsam-apple,*. The name of an 

herb. Florio, v. Caranza. 
Balsamum, T «. (Fr.) Balsam. 

BALSAMINT, J Shakcup. 

Balsomate, adj. Embalmed. Har- 

dyng's Chron. 
Balstaff, s. a large pole or staflf. 

See Balk-staff. 
Balter, v. To cohere together. 


(2) To dance about; to caper. 

Morte Arthure. 
Baluster, s. (Fr.) A bannister. 
BAt.-WE.{V)s. (A.-S.baleiffe.) Evil; 

mischief; sorrow, 

(2) adj. Plain ; smooth. Pr. P. 
Baly, (1) s. {A.-S.) Evil; sorrow. 

(2) s. {A..S.) The belly. 

(3) s. (j.-N.) A bailiff. 
Balye, *. {A.-N.) Dominion. 

Bot for he sau him nolit bot man, 
Godhed in him wend he wax nan, 
Forthi he fanded itlienlye 
To barl him til his balye. 

Cursor Mundi, MS.Ed.,1. 54. 

Balyship, «. The office of a bailiff. 
Balyshyp : Baliatus. Pr. P. 

Balzan, s. (Fr.) A horse with 
white feet. Howell. 

Balje, adj. {A.-S.) Ample; swell- 

Bam, s. (1) A story which is in- 
vented to deceiveor jeer, probably 
an abbreviation of bamboozle. 
(2) V. To make fun of a person. 

Bamble, v. To walk unsteadily. 

Bamboozle, ». To deceive ; to 
make fun of a person. Some- 
times it is used in the sense of to 

Bamby, adj. By and by. Devon. 

Bamchiches, s. " Ariel ini, the 
chichescaWed bamchiches." Florio. 

Bame, s. Balm. 

Bammel, v. To beat ; to pommel. 

Ban, (1) V. (A..N.) To curse. 

Xud here upon my knees, striking the 

I tan their souls to everlasting pains. 

MarUno'a Jevi of Malla. 

(2) *. A curse. 

(3) ». An edict ; a proclamation. 
That was the ban of Keningwurthe, that 

was lo this. 
That ther ne ssolde of heie men deseri'.ed 

be none, 
That hadde i-holde aje the king, bote the 

erl of Leicetre one. Rob. Glouc, p. 568. 

(4) s. A summons ; a citation. 
Of ys rouude table ys ban abonte he sende. 
That eche a Wy tesohetyd to Carleon wende. 

JSob. Glouc, p. 188. 

(5) ». To shut out ; to stop. 

(6) 8. A kind of dumpling. Lane. 
Band, *. (A.-S.) (1) A bond ; an 
engagement or covenant. 

(2) pret. t. of binde. Bound. 
On slepe fast yit sho him fande, 
His hors until a tre sho band, 
And hastily to him sho yede. 

Ywaine and Gatcin, 1. 1776. 

(3) s. Imprisonment. 

His moder dame Aiienore, and the barons 

of this land, 
For him travailed sore, and brouht him out 

of band. Latigtofl'i Chron.. p. 201. 

(4) «. String or tw^ine. Var. dial- 

(5) «. A hyphen. 

(6) 8. An article of dress for the 
neck, worn commonly by gen- 

His shirt he chaungeth, as the moone doth 

His band is starch'd with grease, french- 

russet cleare. 

Davies, Scourge of Folly, 1611. 

Some laundresse we also will entreate. 
For bannes and ruffes, which kindnes to be 

We will confesse, yea and requite it too. 

Rowlands, Knave of Spades, 1613. 

(7) s. A space of ground twenty 
yards square. North. 

(8) s. The neck feathers of a 
cock. Holme. 

Band-box, s. Originally a box for 
bands and other articles of dress 
which required to be kept from 
rumpling and crushing. 

Band-case, s. A band-box. 

By these within a band-case lies thy ruffe, 

And next to that thy brush, and then thy 

muffe. Crauley's AnAtda, p. 3L 




Bandsd-uail, «. A kind of armour, 
formed of alternate rows of 
leather or cotton, and single 

Bandel, s. {A.-N.) A little band 
for wrapping round anything. 

Bandrleer, 1 s. (Fr. bandouil- 
BANDOLEER, K Here.) Abroad belt 
bandilero, J of leather, worn by 
a musqueteer, over the left 
shoulder, to which were hung, 
besides other implements, ten or 
twelve small cylindrical boxes, 
each containing a charge of pow- 
der. The charge-boxes were also 
called bandeleers. Sylvester calls 
the zodiac a bandeleer : 

What shall I say of that bright bandeleer 
Which twice six signs so richly garnish 

DuBart. P. iv, Day 2, Week 2. 

Bandelet, s. A band, or fillet ; a 
narrow scarf. " Cidrpa, any kind 
of scarfe or bandelet." Florio. 


Banders, s. Associators; con- 
spiral ors. 

Baxdish, «. A bandage. North. 

Band-kitt, s. a large wooden 
vessel, with a cover to it. In 
Yorkshire it is said to be known 
by the name of bow -kit t ; and in 
Lincolnshire, of ben-kit. 

Bandle, 0. To bind round; to 
encircle with a scarf. 

Bando, «. A proclamation. Shirley. 

Bandog, s. A fierce kind of dog, 
conjectured by some to have been 
thus named because it was always 
kept tied up on account of his 
fierceness. Bewick describes it 
as a cross breed between the 
mastiff and bulldog. 

But, Grazus, if thy sole repute bee bralling : 
A. iiandogge is thy better, by his balling. 

Dana, Scourge oj Folly, 1611. 

Bandon, «. (.<^.-A^.) Dominion; 
subjection; disposaL 

' y part. p. Bound. 

Merci, queth, ich me yelde 
Recreaunt to the in this felde. 
So harde the smitest upon me krown. 
Ich do me alle in tliy handoun. 

Betes oJ Hamloun, p. 42. 

Bandore, s. (Ital. pandura.) A 
musical instrument, very similar 
in form to a guitar, but whether 
strung with wires like that, or 
with catgut, like the lute, we are 
not told. 

Bandorf, ». A penon banner. 

Bandow, s. {Fr. bandeau.) A band 
round the head, worn especially 
by widows. 

Bandroll, s. (Fr.) A small ban- 
ner, or pennon, fixed near the 
point of a lance. 

Bands, a, (1) The hinges of a 
door. North. 

(2) The rings of a hinge. They 
speak of " hooks and bands." 

Bandsters, s. Those who bind the 
sheaves in reaping. North. 

Bandstring, *. The string or tas- 
sell appendant to the band or 

They were to stand mannerly forsooth, 
one hand at their bandstring, the other 
behind the breech. Jubrey. 

Bandstring-twist, «. A kind of 
hard twist made of bleached 
thread thrice laid, used in making 
laces for females. 

Bandstrot, s. a charm. 

Bandy, (1) ». A game played with 
sticks called bandies, bent and 
round at one end, and a small 
wooden ball. 

(2) V. To toss a ball, a term at 

(3) V. To join in a faction. 

(4) adj. Flexible ; without sub- 
stance ; applied to bad cloth. 

(5) 8 A hare. East. 

(6) s. The small fish called a 
stickleback. Northampt. 

Bandy-hewit, s. a little bandy 
legged dog ; a turnspit. 




B\NDY-HOSHOE,«. A game at ball, 
commoa in Norfolk. 

B ANDYLAN,s. Abad woman. North. 

Bandy-wicket, ». The game of 
cricket, played with a bandy in- 
stead of a bat. East. 

Bane, (1) v. {A.-S. ban.) A bone. 

(2) V. To poison. 

(3) s. {A.-S. bana.) A murderer. 

(4) s. (A.-S.) Destruction. 

(5) adj. Courteous; friendly. 

(6) Near; convenient. North. 

(7) s. In Somersetshire and the 
adjacent counties this is the name 
given to the disease in sheep, 
commonly called rottenness. 
(8)v. To afflict with a bad disease. 
West. This term is not applied 
exclusively to animals. 

(9) s. (A.-N.) A proclamation 
by sound of trumpet. 

Herkenes nowe, hende sires, 
je liaii herde ofte 
Wieli a cri has be cried 
Thurtli cuutres fele, 
Thuith best of tliemperour 
That hatli Rome to kepe, 
That what man upon niolde 
Mijtonwar linde 
Tuo breme wife l)ares, 
The bane is so maked 
He scliold wiiiue his wareson 
To weld for evere. 

William and the Werwolf, p. 81. 

Dec. No, I forbid 
The banes of deatli : you shall live man and 

Your scorn is now sufficiently reveng'd. 

Tlie Slighted Maid, p. 88. 

" bane of a play, or marriage : 
Banna, preludium." Prompt. 
Parv. In Somerset they still call 
the banns of matrimony banes. 
See Bains. 

Baneberry, «. The herb Christo- 
pher ; the winter cherry. 

Baned, adj. Age-stricken. 

Banehound, v. To make believe ; 
to intend ; to suspect. Somerset. 

Banerer. The bearer of a banner. 

Banes. "Fesv banes,-" no difficulty, 
quickly dispatched. Northurnb. 

Banewort, *. The plant night- 

Bang, (1) v. To strike; to shut 
with violence. 

(2) To go with rapidity. Cumb. 

(3) s. A blow. 

(4) s. A stick ; a club. North, 

(5) V. To surpass, to beat. 

(6) " In a bang," in a hurrv. 

(7) *. A hard cheese made of milk 
several times skimmed. Suffolk. 

Bang-a-bonk, v. To lie lazily on 
a bank. Staffordsh. 

Bang-beggar, s. (1) A beadle. 

(2) A vagabond, a term of re- 

Bange, s. Light rain. Essex. 

Banger, s. (1) A large person. 

(2) A hard blow. Shropsh. 

(3) A great falsehood. 
Banging, adj. Unusually large ; as 

a banging child. 
Bangle, {I) v. To spend one's 
money foolishly. Lane. 

(2) s. A large rough stick. 

(3) V. The edge of a hat is said to 
bangle when it droops or hangs 
down. Norf. 

Bangled, part, p. Corn or young 

shoots, when beaten about by the 

rain or wind, are bangled. East. 
Bangle-eared, a<^". Having loose 

and hanging ears. 
Bangstraw, *. A nick -name for a 

thresher, but applied to all the 

servants of a farmer. 
Bang-up, ». A substitute for yeast. 

Bangy, adj. Dull; gloomy. Essex. 
Banis, 8. {A.-S.) Destruction. 
Banish, v. To look smooth and 

bright. Sussex. 
Bank, {\)v. To beat. Devon. 

(2) V. To coast along a bank. 

(3) A term in several old games. 

(4) s. A piece of unslit fir-wood. 




from four to ten inches square, 

and of any length. Bailey. 

(5) s. A dark thick cloud behind 

which the sun goes down. 
Bankafalet, s. An old game at 

cards mentioned in " Games most 

in Use," Lond. 1701. 
Bankage, s. A duty for making 

Banker, s. (1) {A.-N.) A carpet, 

or covering of tapestry for a 

form, bench, or seat ; any kind of 

small coverlet. 
The king to souper is set, served in halle, 
Under a siller of silke, dayntyly diglit ; 
With all worshipp and wele, mewilh the 

walle ; 
Bi'iddes branden, and brad, in hankers 

briglit. Gawan and GaUdon, ii, 1. 

(2) s. A stonemason's bench, 

(3) An excavator. Line. 
Banker, "1 «. A pile of stones raised 

BiNKER, J by masons foi' the pur- 
pose of placing upon it the stone 
they may be working. Line. 

Banket, s. A banquet. 

Bank-hook, *. A large fish-hook, 
baited, and attached by a line to 
the bank. Shropsh. 

Bank-jug, ». The name of a bird ; 
according to some, the nettle- 
creeper; according to others, the 
chifF-chaff. The name is also 
applied to the hay-bird. Leicest. 

Bankrout, "1(1) s. (Fr.) A 
BANauEROuT, J bankrupt. 

Kor shall I e'er believe or think thee dead, 

Though mist, until our bankrout stage be 
sped. Leon. Digges. Prolog, to Sh. 

Of whom, I think, it may be truly said. 

That hee'll prove banquerout in ev'ry trade. 
Hon. Ghost, p. 4. 
And to be briefe, I doe conjecture that 
in this yeare will happen too many dis- 
honest practises by bankroicls. Worthy 
the halter for a rew'ard. 

Almanack, 1615. 

(2) «. Bankruptcy. 

An unhappy master is he, that is made 
cunning by many. shipwTacks ; a mise- 
rable merrhant, that is neither rich nor 
viae, -but aiier some hmikrouts. 

Asckann, Scholtm., p. 59. 

(3) V. To become bankrupt. 

He that wins empire with the loss of failhci, 
Uut-buies it, and will baiikront. 

Thorpe, Byron's Conspiracy. 

Banks, s. The seat on which the 
rowers of a boat sit ; the sides 
of a vessel. 

Banksman, s. One who superin* 
tends the business of the coal 
pit. Derbysh. 

Bank-up, v. To heap up. Devon. 

Banky, (1) adj. Having banks. 
A banky piece, a field with banks 
in it. Heref. 

(2) V. To bank. " I dont banky," 
i. p., I dont keep accounts with a 
banker. Somerset. 

Banles, adj. Without bones. 

Banne, v. (A.-N.) To ban ; to 
curse ; to banish. 

Banner, s. (A.-N.) A body of 
armed men, varying from twenty 
to eighty. 

Bannerell, s. (A.-N.) A little 
streamer or flag. 

Bannerer, s. a standard-bearer. 

Bannering, s. An annual peram- 
bulation of the bounds of a parish. 

Bannerol,*. The same as ianrfro/. 

Bannet-hay.s. Arick-yard. Wilts. 

Banney,*. St. Barnabas. /. Wight. 

Bannian, s. a sort of dressing 
gown, used in the last century. 

Bannick, ». To beat; to thrash. 

Bannikin, *. A small drinking cup. 

Bannin, s. That which is used for 
shutting or stopping. Somerset. 

Bannis, *. A stickleback. Wilts. 

Bannition.s. The act of expulsion. 

Bannisters, s. Persons (with 
passes ) who received money from 
the mayor to enable them to de- 
part out of the limits of his juris- 

Bannock, 1 A thick round cake 

bannack, /ofbread.madeof oat- 

meal, kneaded with water only, 

with the addition sometimes of 




treacle, and baked in the embers. 
A kind of hard ship biscuit some- 
times goes under this name. 

Their bread and drinke I had almost 
forgotten; indeed it was not ruske as 
the Spaniards use, or oaten-cakes, or 
hannacks, as iu North Britaine, nor 
bisket as Englishmen eate. 

Taylor'% Works, 1630. 

Bannut, s. a walnut. West. 

Banniowr, \s. a banner-bearer. 

BANNiKR, J fiannyowr or banner 

berer: Vexillarius. Prompt. Parv. 

BANttUET, s. (1) What we now 
call a dessert, was in earlier times 
often termed a banquet ; and was 
usually placed in a separate room, 
to which the guests removed 
when they had (lined. The com- 
mon place of banqueting, or eat- 
ing the dessert, was the garden- 
house or arbour, with which 
almost every dwelling was fur- 

We'll dine in the great room, but let the 

And banquet be prepared here. 

Massing., Unnat. Comb. 

Tlie dishes were raised one upon another 

As woodmongers do billets, for the tirst, 

The second, and tliird i;ourse ; and most of 
tlie sliops 

Of the best confectioners in London ran- 

To furnish out a banquet. 

Mass., City Madam, ii, 1. 
Oh, easy and pleasant way to glory ! 
From our bed to our glass; from our 
glass to our board ; from our dinner to 
our pipe ; from our pipe to a visit ; from 
a visit to a supper ; from a supper to a 
play ; from a play to a banquet ; from 
a banquet to our bed. Sp. Hall's Works. 

(2) Part of the branch of a 

horse's bit. 
BANauETER, s. (1) A fcastcr; one 

who lives deliciously. 

(2) A banker. Huloet. 
Ban RENT, \ s. A banneret; a 

BANRET, J noble. 
Banshen, v. To banish. Pr. P. 
Bansel, v. To beat ; to punish. 

Banstickle, 8. The stickleback. 

Asperagus (quaedam piscis) a 

banstykyll. Ortus Vocab. In 

Wiltshire it is called a banticle. 
Bantamwork, s. a showy kind 

of painted or carved work. Ash. 
Banwort, s. {A.-S.) The violet. 
Bany, adj. Bony. North. 
Banyan-day, s. A sea term for 

those days on which no meat is 

allowed to the sailors. 
Baning, s. a name for some 

kind of bird. 
Banzell, s. a long lazy fellow. 

Baon, s. See Bawn. 
Bap, s. a piece of baker's bread, 

of the value of from one penny to 

twopence. North. 
Bapteme, s. Baptism. 
Baptiste, s. Baptism. 
Bar, {\) s. {A.-S.) A boar. 

(2) s. A baron. Rob. Gbmc. 

(3) adj. Bare ; naked. North. 

(4) pret. t. of bere. Bore. 

(5) s. A joke. North. 

(6) V. To shut ; to close. North. 

(7) ». To bar a die, a phrase used 
amongst gamblers. 

(8) V. To make choice of (a 
term used by boys at play). 

(9) s. A feather in a hawk's wing. 

(10) s. A horseway up a hill. 

Bara-picklet, *. Bread made of 

fine flour, leavened, and made 

into small round cakes. 
Barathrum, a. (Lat.) (1) An 


(2) An insatiate eater. 
Baratour, s. (A.-N.) a quarrel. 

some person. 

Barratoure : Pugnax, rixosus, jurgosus. 
Prompt. Pan) 

Baratous, adj. Contentious. 

Barayne, *. A barren hind. 

Barb, v. (A.-N.) (1) To shave, or 
to dress the hair and beard. To 
barb money, to clip it; to barb 
a lobster, to cut it up. 




(2) Metaphorically, to mow. 

The stooping scythe-man, that doth barb 

the field 
"niou mak'st wink-sure. 

Marst. Malcontent, iv, 63. 

(3) 8. A kind of hood or muffler, 
wiiich covered the lower part of 
the face and shoulders. Accord- 
ing to Strutt, it was a piece of 
white plaited linen, and belonged 
properly to mourning, being ge- 
nerally worn under the chin. 

(4) Florio has " Barboncelli, the 
harbes or little teates in the 
mouth of some horses." 

(5) The armour for horses. 

(6) The feathers under the beak 
of a hawk were called the barb 

(7) The edge of an axe. Gawayne. 

(8) The points of arrows are 
called barbez, in Sir Gawayne. 

' i- s. A Barbary horse. 


Barbalot, ». (1) A puffin. 

(2) The barbel. 
Barbarin.s. The barberry. Pr.P. 
Barbed, adj. Caparisoned with 

military trappings and armour. 

Spoken of war-horses. 
Barbed-cat, s. A warlike engine. 

For to make a werrely holde, that men 
calle a barbed catte, and a bewfray that 
shal have ix. fadome of lengthe and two 
fadome of brede, and the said caite six 
fadome of lengthe and two of brede, 
shal be ordeyned all squarre wode for 
the same aboute foure hondred fudom, 
a thousand of horde, xxiiij. rolles, and 
a grete quautvt6 of smnlle wode. 

Caxtoii's Fei/ecius, sig. I, 6. 

Barbel, «. (A.-N.) A small piece 
of armour protecting part of the 

Barber, v. To shave or trim the 
beard. Shakesp. 

Barber-monger, s. A fool. 

Barbican, "1 a. When the siege 
barbecan, V of a castle was an- 
barbacan, J ticipated, the de- 
fenders erected wooden pal- 

ing and other timber work in 
advance of the entrance gateway, 
assuming often the form of a 
small fortress, where they could 
hold the enemy at bay for some 
time before it was necessary to 
defend the gate itself; and they 
also placed wood-work before the 
windows, which protected those 
who were shooting out of them. 
Either of these was called a 
barbican, a word which, and 
therefore probably the practice, 
was derived from the Arabic. The 
advanced work covering the 
gateway was afterwards made 
of stone, and thus became per- 
manent. When the old system 
of defending fortresses went out 
of use, the original meaning of 
the word was forgotten, and the 
way in which the word was used 
in the older writers led to some 
confusion. It is explained by 
Spelman : " A fort, hold, or 
munition placed in the front o^ 
a castle, or an out-work. Also a 
hole in the wall of a city or cas- 
tle, through which arrows or 
darts were cast; also a watch- 
tower." The temporary wooden 
defences on the top of the walls 
and towers were called bre- 

Barbles, s. Small vesicular tin- 
gling pimples, such as those 
caused by nettles. East. The term 
was also applied to knots in the 
mouth of a horse. See Barb (4). 

Barboranne, «. The barberry. 

Barborery, s. a barber's shop. 
Prompt. Part). 

Barbs, «. Military trappings. 

Barbwig, s. a kind of periwig. 

Barcary, s. {A.-N.) a sheep- 
cote ; a sheep-walk. 

Barce, s. a stickleback. Yorksh. 

Barcelet, s. a species of bow. 
Gaw. ? A hound. See Barslet. 




Bard, s. (A.-N.) (1) The warlike 
trapping of a horse. The bards 
consisted of the following pieces : 
the chamfron, chamfrein, or shaf- 
fron ; the crinieres or main facre ; 
the poitrenal, poitral or breast- 
plate; and the croupiere or but- 
tock piece. 

(2) adj. Tough. Rob. Glouc. 
(3) part. p. Barred; fastened. 

Bardash, 8. (Fr.) An unnatural 

Bar'd cater-tra, or more pro- 
perly, barr'd quatre trois. The 
name for a sort of false dice, so 
constructed that the quatre and 
trois shall very seldom come up. 

Wliere fullam high and low men bore great 

With the quicke lieipe of a bard cater trey. 
Taylor's Trav. o/12 pence, p. 73. 
Such be also cali'd bard cater treas, be- 
cause commonly the longer end will of 
liis own sway drawe downewards, and 
turne up to tiie eie sice, sincke, deuce, 
or ace. The principal use of tliem is at 
novum, for so long a paire of bard cater 
treas be walking on the bourd, so long 
can ye not cast hve nor nine unless it 
be by a great chance. 

Art of Juggling, 1613. C, 4 

Baeded, pret. p. Equipped with 
military trappings or ornaments, 
applied to horses. 
For at all alarmes lie was the first man 
armed, and that at all points, and his 
horse ever barded. 

Comities Hist, by Danet, 1596. 

Bardgllo, s. {Ital.) The quilted 
saddle wherewith colts are 

Bardolf, a. An ancient dish in 

Bardolf. Take almond mylk, and draw 
hit up tliik with vernagc, and let liit 
boyle, and braune of capons braied, and 
put therto; and cast therto sugre, 
Clowes, maces, pynes, and ginger, 
mynced ; and take chekyns parboyled, 
and chopped, and pul of the skyn, and 
boyle al ensemble, and in tlie settynge 
doune from the fire put therto a lytel 
vynegur alaied with ponder of ginger, 
and a lytel water of everose, and make 
the potage hanginge, and serve hit 
forthe. Warner, Jntiq. Culin., p. 84. 

Bardocs, adj. {Lat. bardus.) Sim- 
ple ; foolish. 

Bards, s. Strips of bacon used in 

Bare, (1) adj. (J.-S.) Mere. 

(2) adv. Barely. 

(3) V. To shave. Shakesp. 

(4) adj. Bareheaded. 

(5) s. A mixture of molten iron 
and sand, lying at the bottom of 
a furnace. Shropsh. 

(6) s. A piece of wood which a 
labourer is sometimes allowed to 
carry home. Suffolk. 

(7) A boar. See Bar. 

(8) A bier. 

(9) A place without grass, made 
level for bowling. 

Bareahond, v. To assist. North. 
Bare-barley, *. Naked barley, 

whose ear is shaped like barley, 

but its grain like wheat without 

any husk. An old Staffordshire 

Bare-bubs, s. A boyish term for 

the unfledged young of birds. 

Bare-buck, s. A buck of six years 

old. Northampt. 
Baregnawn, adj. Eaten bare. 
Barehides, «. A kind of covering 

for carts, used in the 16th cent. 
Barelle, s. (? Fr.) A bundle. 
Barely, adv. Unconditionally ; 

Baren, (1) pret. t. pi. of here. 

They bore. 

(2) V. To bark. 
Barenhond, v. To intimate. 

Bxre-pump, a. A small piece of 

hollow wood or metal to pump 

liquid out of a cask. 
Bares, *. Those parts of an image 

which represent the bare flesh. 
Baret, a. {A.-N.) (1) Strife ; con- 

(2) Trouble; sorrow. 
Bareyntl-, a. Barrenness Pr. P. 
Barf, «. A hill. Yorksh. 




Barphame, «. The neck-collar of 
a horse. Durham. 

Barfray, *. A tower. See Berfrey. 

Barful, adj. Full of bars or im- 
pediments. Shakesp. 

Bargain, ». {A.-N.) (1) An in- 
definite number or quantity of 
anything, as a load of a waggon. 

(2) It's a bargains, it's no con- 
sequence. Line. 

(3) A small farm. /. Wight 
and Northampt. 

(4) A tenement, so called in the 
county of Cornwall, which usually 
consisted of about sixty acres of 
ploughed land, if the land were 
good, or more if barren. See 
Carlisle's ^cc. of Charities,^. 288. 

(5) An unexpected reply, tend- 
ing to obscenity. To sell a bar- 
gain,io make indelicate repartees. 
No maid at conrt is less asbam'd, 
Howe'er for selling bargaitu fam'd. 


Bargains, «. Contention ; strife. 

Bargainer, s. One who makes a 

Bargain-work, «. Work by the 
piece, not by the day. Leieest. 

Bargander, *. A brant-goose. 

Bargany, *. A bargain. Pr. P. 

Bargaret, "1 «. {A.-i\.) A kind 
baeginet, J of song or ballad, 
perhaps of a pastoral kind, from 

Barge, (1) *. A fat, heavy person ; 
a term of contempt. Exmoor. 
A blow-maunger barge, a flat, 
blob-cheeked person, one who 
puflfs and blows while he is eat- 
ing, or like a hog that feeds on 
whey and grains, stuffs himself 
with whitepot and flummery, 
(2) A highway up a steep hill. 

Barge-board, «. The front or 
facing of a barge-course, to con- 

ceal the barge couples, laths, 
tiles, &c. 

Barge - couple, *. One beam 
framed into another to strengthen 
the building. 

Barge-coursb, s. A part of the 
tiling or thatching of a roof, 
projecting over the gable. 

Barge-day, s. Ascension-day. 

Barger, s. The manager of a 

Barget, s. (Fr.) A little barge. 

Bargh, s. (1) A horseway up a 
hill. North. 
(2 ) A barrow hog. Ortua Vocab. 

Bargh-master, «. See Bar- 

Bargh-mote, s. (A.-S.) The court 
for cases connected with the 
mining district. See Bar-master. 

Bargood, «. Yeast. Var. d. 

Barguest, s. a goblin, armed 
with teeth and claws, believed 
in by the peasantry of the North 
of England. 

Barholm,*. " Collars for horses to 
drawe by, called in some coun- 
treves barholmes. Tomices." 
Huloet, 1552. 

Barian, s. (J.-N.) a rampart. 

Bar- ire, s. A crow-bar. Devon. 

Bark, (1) «. The tartar deposited 
by bottled wine or other liquor 
encrusting the bottle. East. 

(2) s. The hard outside of 
dressed or undressed meat. 

(3) s. A cylindrical receptacle 
for candles; a candle-box. North. 

(4) Between the bark and the 
wood, a well-adjusted bargain, 
where neither party has the ad- 
vantage. Suffolk. 

(5) *. A cough. Var. dial. 

(6) V. To cough, Sussex. 

(7) V. To knock the skin off the 
legs by kicking or bruising them. 

Barkaby, «. A tan-house. 




Barked "la<^'. Encrusted with 

BARKENED, J dirt. North. 
Barken,*. The yard of a house; 
a farm-yard. South. For barton. 
Barker, s. (1) A tanner. 
What craftsman art tliou, said the king, 

I praye thee, tell me trowe: 
I am a barker, sir, by my trade ; 
Nowe telle me, what art thou ? 

K. Ed. IV and Tanner, Percy. 
Barter -. Cerdo, frunio. Barkares harke- 
tcater: Nautea. Barke powder for 
lethyr: Frunium. Barkinge of lethyr 
or ledyr : Fmnices. Barke lethyr : 
Frunio, tanno. Prompt. Pan. 

(2) A fault-finder. 

(3) The slang name for a pistol. 

(4) A marsh bird with a long 
bill. Hay. 

(5) A whetstone; a rubber. 

Barkfat, s. a tannei's vat. 
Barkham, *. A horse's collar. 

North. See Barkholm. 
Barkled, «. Encrusted with dirt, 

applied particularly to the human 

skin. North. 
Barkman, s. a boatman. Kersey. 
Bakkselk, s. The time of strip- 
ping bark. 
Barkwater, s. Foul water in 

which hides have been tanned. 
Bark-wax, «. Bark occasionally 

found in the body of a tree. East. 
Barlay, interj. Supposed to be a 

corruption of the French par loi. 
Barleeg,«. An old dish in cookery. 

BarUeg. Take creme of almondes, and 
alay hit with flour of rys, and cast 
thereto 8U»re, and let hit boyle, and 
gtere hit wel, and colour hit with saffron 
and sauuders, and make hit stundyn^e, 
and dresse hit up on leches in disshes, 
and serve hit forthe. 

Warner, Antiq. Culin., p. 83. 

Barlep, s. a basket for barley. 
Prompt. P. 

Barley, v. To bespeak ; to claim. 

Barley-big, «. A kind of barley, 
cultivated in the fenny districts 
of Norfolk and in the Isle of 
Ely. " Beere corne, barley-bygye, 

or mon<^rnt.AehiUeias." Huloet, 

Barley-bird, s. The siskin. It 
is also called the cuckoo's mate, 
which see. Its first name is 
taken from the season of its ap- 
pearance, or rather of its being 
first heard; which is in barley- 
seed time, or early in April. Its 
chirp is monotonous, — tweet, 
tweet, tweet. The first notes of 
the nightingale are expected soon 
to follow, then those of thii 
cuckoo. Moore's Suffolk MS. 

Barley-bottles,*. Little bimdles 
of barley in the straw, given to 

Barley-break, s. An ancient 
rural game, played by six people, 
three of each sex, coupled by lot. 
A piece of ground, was divided 
into three compartments, of which 
the middle one was called hell. 
The couple condemned to this 
division were to catch the others, 
who advanced from the two ex- 
tremities ; when this had been 
effected, a change of situation 
took place, and hell was filled by 
the couple who were excluded 
by pre-occupation from the other 
places. By the regulations of the 
game, the middle couple were 
not to separate before they had 
succeeded, while the others might 
break hands whenever they found 
themselves hard pressed. When 
all had been taken in turn, the 
last couple were said to be in 
hell, and the game ended. 
Jamieson, in barla-breikis, barley 
bracks, says, "This innocent 
sport seems to be almost entirely 
forgotten in the South of Scot- 
land. It is also falling into 
desuetude in the North.'' He 
describes it thus : " A game ge- 
nerally played by young people 
in a corn yard. Hence called 
barla-bracks, about the stacks. 




One stack is fixed on as the dule I 
or goal ; and one person is ap- 
pointed to catch the rest of the 
company, wlio run out from the 
dule. He does not leave it till 
they are all out of his sight. 
Then he sets out to catch them. 
Any one who is taken, cannot 
run out again with his former 
associates, being accounted a 
prisoner ; but is obliged to assist 
his captor in pursuing the rest. 
When all are taken, the game is 
finished ; and he who is first 
taken is bound to act as catcher 
in the next game." 

Barley-bree, 1 s. Familiar and 
BARLEY-BROTH, I jocular names 
SIR JOHN BAR- j fof alc, which 
LEY-CORN, J is made of bar- 
ley. Barley-bree is, literally, bar- 
ley broth. 

Barley-bun, s. a barley bunne 
gentleman, "a gent, (altliough 
rich) yet lives with barley bread, 
and otherwise barely and hardly." 

Barley-corn, s. Ale or beer. 

Barley-hailes,«. The spears of 
barley. South. 

Barley-mung, *. (from A.-S. 
mencgan, to mix.) Barley meal 
mixed with water or milk, to 
fatten fowls or pigs. East. 

Barley-gyles, s. The beard or 
awning of barley. Berks. 

Barley-plum, *. A dark purple 
plum. West. 

Barley-seed-bird, s. The yellow 
water-wagtail. Yorksh. 

Barley-sele, s. {A.-S.) The sea- 
son of sowing barley. 

Barliche, s. Barley. 

Barlichood, *. The state of 
being ill-tempered from intoxi- 
cation. North, 

Barling, s. A lamprey. North. 

Barlings, s. Firepoles. Noi^. 

Barm, s. (1) {A.-S. bearm.) The 
lap or bosom. 

And laide liis heved on hire larme, 
Withoute dcjng of ony harme. 

K. Alisaunder, 1. 535. 

(2) Yeast. 

Bar-master, s. (A.-S.) An oflScer 
in the mining districts; whose 
title is written berghmaster by 
Manlove in a passage cited from 
bis poem on the Customs of the 
Mines, in the Craven Gloss., 
which brings it nearer to a word 
used in Germany for a like officer, 
bergmeister. He is an agent of 
the lord of minerals, who grants 
mines and fixes the boundaries; 
the term is in use in Derby- 
shire, where an ancient code 
of laws or customs regulating 
mines, &c., still prevails ; and in 

Barme-cloth, s. An apron. 

Barm -fel, *. A leathern apron. 

Barm-hatre, s. Bosom attire, the 
garments covering the bosom. 

Barmote, s. a bergmote. Derb. 

Barmskin, \s. a leather apron. 
basinskin, J The skin of a sheep 
with the wool scraped or shaven 
off. There is a proverbial phrase, 
" Her smock's as dirty and greasy 
as a barmskin." To rightly ap- 
preciate this elegant simile, you 
must view a barmskin in the 
tanner's yard. Line. 

Barn. (1) (A.-S.) A child. Still 
used in the North. See Bairn. 

(2) s. A man. 

(3) s. A baron. 

(4) s. A garner. Wiekliffe. 

(5) V. To lay up in a barn. East. 

(6) part. a. Going. Yorksh. 

(7) V. To close or shut up. Oxf. 
Barnabas, «. A kind of thistle. 
Barnaby, s. In Suffolk they cal 

a lady-bird " Bishop Barnaby." 
Barnaby-bright, s. The trivial 

name for St. Barnabas' day, 

June 11th. 
Barnacles, s. A popular term for 





Barnaclk-bikd, ». The tree pro- 
ducing the barnacles. 

Barnage,*. (^.-A^.) Thebaronage. 

Barxd, part. p. Burnt. 

Barx-door-savage, s. a clod- 
hopper. Shropsh. 

Barne, 8. (1) A sort of flower, 
mentioned in Hollyband's Diet., 
(2) A baron. 

Barnhed, s. Childhood. 

Barnkin, "1«. The outermost 

barnekynch, J ward of a castle, 
in which the barns, stables, cow- 
houses, &c., were placed. 

Barne-laikixs, *. {A.-S.) Chil- 
dren's playthings. 

Barxess, "[ V. To grow fat. Lei- 
barn'ish, J ce*/. 

Barngun, s. a breaking out in 
small pimples or pustules in the 
skin. Devon. 

Barxish, [\)adj. Childish. North. 
(2) V. To increase in strength or 
vigour; to fatten. 

Some use to breake off the toppes of the 
lioppes wl)en they ar frowne a xi or xii 
foote liigb, bicause thereby they hamish 
aud stoeke exceedingly. 

R. Scot's Platfurmc ofaHop-Garden. 

Barn-mouse, s. A bat. 
I Barn-scoop, «. A wooden shovel 
^ ^ used in barns. 
^»^ BARX-TEME,«.(y^.-5.) (I) A brood 
of children. 

Antenowre was of that barn-tnae, 
And was fownder of Jerusnlem, 
That was wyglit withowtyn wene. 
Le boiie t'lorence of Some, 1. 10. 

(2) A child. 

Jacob Alpine hame-teme 
Was firste biscop of Jerusalem ; 
Rightwise to him was eal man wone. 
And was ure levedi sistrr sone. 

Curtor Mundi. 

Barxyard, f. A straw-yard. East. 
Barxyskyn, s. a leather apron. 

Pr. P. See Darmskin. 
Barox, *. (1) A child. For bam. 

(2) The back part of a cow. 

Baronage, ». {A.-N.) An a8seni> 

bly of barons. 
Barox BR, *. (1) A baron. 

(2) Some oflicer in a monastery; 

perhaps the school-master, or 

master of the barns or children. 

Bury Wills, p. 105. 
Barr, (1) V. To choose. iSArqpsA. 

(2) s. Part of a stag's horn. 

(3) «. The gate of a city. 

(4) V. To debar. 

Barra, s. a gelt pig. Exmoor. 

■ See Barrow. 

Barracan, ». (Fr.) A sort of stuff, 

a strong thick kind of camelot. 
Barra-horse, s. A Barbary horse. 
Barras, «. A coarse kind of cloth 

— sack-cloth. 
Barre, (1) ». To move violently. 

(2) s. The ornament of a girdle. 

(3) A pig in bar, was an ancient 
dish in cookery. 

Pi/ffge in barre. Take a pigge, and farse 
hym, and roste hym, and in the rostynge 
endorse hym ; and when he is rested 
lay orethwart him over one barre of sil- 
ver foile, and another of golde, and 
serve hym forthe so al hole to the 
borde for a lorde. 

Warner, Antiq. Culin., p. 80. 

Barred, part. p. Striped. 
Barrel, s. A bucket. 
Barrel-fever, s. Sickness occa- 
sioned by intemperance. North. 
Barren, (1) s. Cattle not gravid. 

(2) ». A company of mules. 

(3) «. The vagina of an animal. 

(4) adj. Stupid ; ignorant. Shai. 
Barrexer, #. A barren cow or 

ewe. South. 

Barrex-ivy, s. Creeping ivy. 

Barren-springs, «. Springs im- 
pregnated with mineral, and con- 
sidered hurtful to the land. 

Barrexwort, /. A plant (epi- 

Barresse, s. pi. The bars. 

Barricoat, «. A child's coat 




Barrie, "1 arf;. Fit; convenient. 
BAiRE, j Durham. 

Barriers, s. The paling in a tour- 
nament. To fight at barriers, to 
fight within lists. 
And so if men shall mn at tilt, just, or 
fight at barriers together by the kings 
commaniiement, and one of them doth 
kill another, in these former cases and 
the like, it is misadventure, and no 
felony of death. Country Justice, 1620. 

Barriham, s. a horse's collar. 
North. See Barholm. 

Barriket, \s. a small firkin. 
BARRiLET, J Cotgrave. 

BARRiNG.jjflr/. Except. Var.dial. 

Barring-out, s. An old custom at 
schools, when the boys, a few 
days before the holidays, barri- 
cade the school-room from the 
master, and stipulate for the dis- 
cipline of the next half year. 

Barrow, s. (A.-S.) (1) A mound 
of earth ; a sepulchral tumulus. 

(2) A grove. 

(3) A way up a hill. North, 

(4) The conical baskets wherein 
they put the salt to let the water 
drain from, at Nantwich and 

(5) A castrated boar. 
Barrs, *. The upper parts of the 

gums of a horse. Diet. Rust. 

Barry, v. To thrash corn. Nor- 

Bars, ». The game of prisoner's- 

Barsale, «. The time of strip- 
ping bark. East. See Barksele. 

Barse, s. A perch. Westm. 

Barslets, 8. Hounds. 

Barson,*. a horse's collar. Yorksh. 

Barst, pret. t. Burst ; broke. 

Barte, v. To beat with the fists. 

Barth, \s. a shelter for cattle. 
BARSH, J Var. dial. 

Bartholomew-pig, 8. Roasted 
pigs were formerly among the 
chief attractions of Bartholomew 
Fair ; they were sold piping hot, 

in booths and stalls, and osten- 
tatiously displayed to excite the 
appetite of passengers. Hence a 
Bartholomew pig became a com- 
mon subject of allusion ; the 
puritan railed against it : 
For tlie very calling it a Bartholomew 
fig, and to eat it so, is a spice of idola- 
try. B. Jons., Bart. Fair, i, 6. 

Bartholomew-baby, s. a gawdy 
doll, such as were sold in the 

By the eighth house you may know to 
an inch, how many moths will eat an 
alderman's gown ; by it also, and the 
help of the bill of mortahty, a man may 
know how many people die in London 
every week: it also tells farmers what 
manner of wife tliey should cliuse, not 
one trickt up with ribbands and knots, 
like a Barlholomew-baby ; for such a one 
will prove a holiday wife, all play and 
no work. Poor Bobin, 1740. 

Bartholomew-gentleman, «. A 
person who is unworthy of trust. 

After him comes another Bartholomew 
gentleman, with a huge hamper of pro- 
mises ; and he falls a trading with his 
promises, and applying of promises, and 
resting upon promises, that we can 
hear of nothing but promises: which 
trade of promises he so engross'd to 
himself, and those of his own congrega- 
tion, that in the late times he woiild 
not so much as let his neer kinsmen, 
the presbyterians, to have any dealing 
with the promises. 

Eachard's Observations, 1671. 

Barthu-day, 8. St. Bartholo- 
mew's day. 

Bartizan, s. The small turret pro- 
jecting from the angle on the top 
of a tower, or from the parapet 
or other parts of a building. 

Bartle, *. (1) "At nine-pins or 
ten-banes they have one larger 
bone set about a yard before the 
rest call'd the bartle, and to 
knock down the bartle gives for 
five in the game." Kennett. 
(2) St. Bartholomew. 

Barton, «. {A.-S.) (1) The de- 
mesne lands of a manor ; the 
manor-house itself; the outhouses 
and yards. 




(2) A coop for poultry. 

Bartram, s. (corrupted from Lat. 
pyrethrum.) The pellitory. 

BARTYNiT,/?ar^./?. Struck; beaten 
with the fist. Gaw, See Barte. 

Baku, «. A barrow or gelt boar. 
Rob. Glouc. 

Barvel, s. a short leathern apron 
worn by washerwomen ; a slab- 
bering bib. Kent. 

Barvot, adj. Bare-foot. 

Barw, adj. (A.-S.) Protected. 

Barway, «. A passage into a field 
made of bars which take out of 
the posts. 

Barytone, s. The name of a viol- 
shaped musical instrument, made 
by the celebrated Joachim Fielke 
in the vear 1687. 

Bas, (1) r. (Fr.) To kiss. 
(2) *. A kiss. 

Nay. syr, as for hassys, 
From lience none passys, 
But as in gage 
Of maryage. 

Play of Wit and Science, p. 13. 

Basah, s. The red heath broom. 

Bascles, ». A sort of robbers or 
highwaymen. Langtoft, Chron., 
p. 242.' 

Bascox, s. a kind of lace, con- 
sisting of five bows. 

Base, (1) adj. {A.-N.) Low. 

(2) r. To sing or play the base 
part in music. Shakesp. 

(3) 8. Matting. East. 

(4) a. A perch. Cumb. 

(5) 8. The drapery thrown over 
a horse, and sometimes drawn 
tight over its armour. See Bases. 

(6) A small kind of ordnance. 
Base, "1». Prison-base, or prison- 

bace, J bars. A rustic game, often 
alluded to in the old writers. 

Lads more like to run 
The country hose, than to commit such 
slaughter. S/uikesp., Ci/m., v, 3. 

So ran they all as they had been at bace. 
They being chased that did others chace. 
Spent. F. Q,., V, viii, 6. 

To bid a base, to run fast, cbak 
lenging another to pursue. 

To bid the wind a base he now prepares. 

Shakesp., Veiius and Ad. 

Base- BALL, #. A country game. 

Basebroom,s. The herb woodwax. 

Base-codrt,«. The outer, or lower 

Base-dance, ». A grave, sober, 
and solemn mode of dancing, 
somewhat, it is supposed, in the 
minuet style ; and so called, per- 
haps, in contradistinction to the 
vaulting kind of dances, in which 
there was a greater display of 

Basel, *. A coin abolished by 
Henry II in 1158. 

Baselard, 8. See Bastard. 

Baseler, s. a person who takes 
care of neat cattle. North. 

Basel-pot, ». A sort of earthen 

Which head she plasht within a basellpot. 
Well covered all with harden sovle aloft. 
Turbemille's Tragical tales, 1587. 

Basen, adj. Extended as with 

A.nd stare on him with big looks lasen wide, 
Wond'ring what mister wiaiht he was, and 

whence. Spent., Moth. Hubb. Tale, 1. 670 

Base-ring, «. The ring of a can- 
non next behind the touch-hole. 

Baserocket, 8. A plant (the bur- 

Bases, «. pi. A kind of embroi- 
dered mantle which hung down 
from the middle to about the 
knees, or lower, worn by knights 
on horseback. 
All heroick persons are pictured in bases 
and buskins. Gay ton, Fest. Notes, p. 218. 

Bases were also worn on other 
occasions, and are thus described 
in a stage direction to a play by 
Jasper Maine. 

Here six Mores dance, after the ancient 
.Ethiopian manner. Erect arroweg 
stuck round their heads in their curled 




liair instead of quivers. Their bowes 
in their hands. Tlieir upper paits 
naked. Tlieir nether, from the wast to 
tlieir knees, covered with bases of blew 
satin, edged with a deep silver fringe," 
8w;. Amorous Warre, iii, 2. 

The colour of her bcises was almost 

Like to the falling whitish leaves and 

drie, — 
With cipresse trunks embroder'd and em- 

bost. flare. Ar., xxxii, 47- 

(2) An apron. Butler has used 
it in Hudibras to express the 
butcher's apron. 
Bash, (1) v. (probably from A.-N. 
baisser.) To lose flesh ; become 
lean. A pig is said to bash, when 
it " goes back" in flesh in conse- 
quence of being taken from good 
food to bad. Leic. Northampt. 

(2) V. To beat fruit down from 
the trees with a pole. Beds. 

(3) V. To be bashful. 

(4) s. The mass of roots of a 
tree before they separate; the 
front of a bull's or pig's head. 

Bashment, «. Abashment. 

Bashrone, 8. A kettle. 

Bashy, adj. (1) Fat ; swollen. 

(2) Dark ; gloomy ; sloppy ; said 
of the weather. Northampt. 

Basil, s. (1) When the edge of a 
joiner's tool is ground away to 
an angle, it is called a basil. 
(2) The skin of a sheep tanned. 

Basilez, s. A low bow. Decker. 

Basil-hampers, s. A diminutive 
person who takes short steps, 
and proceeds slowly; a girl whose 
clothes hang awkwardly about 
her feet. Line. 

Basiliard, ». A baslard. 

Basilicok, 8. A basilisk. 

Basilinda, *. The play called 
Questions and Commands ; the 
choosing of King and Queen, as 
on Twelfth Night 



A sort of cannon. 

Basinet, *. The herb crowfoot. 

Basing, 1 «. The rind or outer 
bazing, J coat of a cheese. Mid' 
land Counties. 

Basinskin, 8. See Barmskin. 

Bask, (1) adj. Sharp, hard, acid. 

(2) V. To nestle in the dust like 
birds. Leic. 

Baskefysyke, s. Fututio. Cok- 
wolds Daunce, 1. 116. 

Basket, s. An exclamation fre- 
quently made use of in cockpits, 
where persons, unable to pay 
their losings, are adjudged to be 
put into a basket suspended over 
the pit, there to remain till the 
sport is concluded. Grose. 

Basket-sword, s. A sword with a 
basket hilt. 

Basking, s. fl) A thrashing. 

(2) A drenching in a shower. 

Baslard, s. {A.-N.) A long dag- 
ger, usually suspended from the 
girdle. In 1403 it was ordained 
that no person should use a bas- 
lard, decorated with silver, unless 
he be possessed of the yearly in- 
come of 20/. 

Basnet,*. (1) A cap. Skelton. 
(2) A bassenet. 

Bason,*. A badger. Cotgrave. See 

Basgning-furnace, s. A furnace 
used in the manufacture of hats. 

Bass, (1) «. A kind of perch. 

(2) 8. A church hassock. North. 

(3) A collar for cart-horses made 
of flags. 

(4) Dried rushes. Cumb. 

(5) The inner rind of a tree. 

(6) A slaty piece of coal. Shropsh. 

(7) A twopenny loaf. North. 

(8) Athing to wind about grafted 
trees before they be clayed, and 
after. Holme. 




0, L 
E, J 

BASSADo, ^ s. A bashaw, 


Bassam, s. Heath. Devon. 
Basse, (1) ». {A.-N.) To kiss. 

(2) «. A kiss. 

(3) 8. A hollow place. Hol- 

(4) 8. Apparently, tlie elder 
swine. TopseU'8 Foure Footed 
Beasts, p. 661. 

(5) V. To ornament with bases. 
Bassel-bowls, *. Bowling balls. 

Bassenet, s. A light helmet worn 

sometimes with a moveable 

Basset, s. (1) An earth-dog. 


(2) A mineral term where the 
strata rise upwards. Derbysh. 

(3) An embassy. Past. Lett., 
i, 158. 

Bassett, 8. A game at cards, 
fashionable in the latter part of 
the seventeenth century, said to 
have been invented at Venice. 

Basseynys, s. Basons. 

Bassinate, s. a kind of fish, 
supposed to be like men in 

Bassock, 8. A hassock. Bailey. 

Bast, (1) s. Matting; straw. North. 

(2) s. Boast. 

(3) s. A bastard. 

(4) part. p. Assured. 

(5) V. To pack up. North. 
Basta. Properly an Italian word, 

signifying it is enough, or let it 
8ttffice,hat not uncommon in the 
works of our ancient dramatists. 
Bastard, s. A sort of sweet Spa- 
nish wine, which approached the 
muscadel wine in flavour; there 
were two sorts, white and brown. 
It was perhaps made from a bas- 
tard species of muscadine grape; 
but the term seems to have been 
applied, in more ancient times, 
to all mixed and sweetened wines. 

Spaine bringeth forth wines of a wliit4 
colour, but much hotter and stronger, 
as sacke, rumney, and bastard. 

Coghan's Haven of Health, p. 239. 

I was drunk with bastard. 
Whose nature is to form things, like itself. 
Heady and monstrous. 

B. ^ Fl., Tamer Tam'd, ii, 1. 

(2) 8. A gelding. 

(3) V. To render illegitimate. 
Bastat, *. A bat. North. 
Baste, (1) v. {A.-N.) To mark 

sheep. North. 

(2) V. To sew slightly. 

(3) 8. A blow. North. 

(4) V. To flog. Basting, a severe 

(5) 8. Bastardy. 

(6) {A..S.) A rope. 
Basteler, 8. (A.'N.) A person 

who bastes meat. 

Bastel-house, 8. See Bastile. 

Bastel-roofs, 8. Turreted or cas- 
tellated roofs. 

B aster, (1) «. A heavy blow. 
(2) A bastard. 

Thel5. Octob. A. All. delivered before 
her tynie of a man child. Tliis yere 
was a quiet yere, but that the discour- 
tasi of A. Ail. troblud me often, and 
the buster. Forman's Diary. 

Basterly-gullion^s. a bastard's 
bastard. Lane. 

Bastian, *. St. Sebastian. 

Bastick, s. a basket. West. 

Bastile, «. {A.-N.) A temporary 
wooden tower, used formerly in 
military and naval warfare ; some- 
times, any tower or fortification. 
They had also towres of tymber goyng 
on wlieles that we clepe bastiles or 
somercastelles, and shortly alle tliinges 
tliat nedfulle was in eny maner kyude 
of werres, the legion had it. 

Vegeclus, hy Trevisa, MS. Reg. 
Item the xxviijti of Marche Roger 
Witherington and Thomas Carlell, of 
this towne of Barwyke, rode into Lam- 
merniore to a place called Bowshehill, 
xvj myle from Barwyke, and tber wan 
a bustell-howse, and gote the man ot 
the same, wliiche offred to gyve them 
for his rauosume xl marks. 





And in thi hostel fulle of blisfnlnegge, 
lu lusti age than schalle the wel betide. 
Boetius, MS. 

Bastiments, s. {A.-N.) Provi- 
sions; victuals. 

Kelation of the shipps, galies, galiases, 
and other shippiiige; seamen, iiifan- 
tery, horsemen, officers, and particular 
persons; artillery, amies, muuytions, 
and other necessaries wliich is tliought 
to be needful iu case slialbe performed 
the journey for Ingland, and the hasli- 
nients, with the prices that they may 
cost, tlie partes from whence both one 
and other is to be provided, and Vhat 
all will amount unto, accompting tlie 
army, and at what shalbe levied for the 
saya enterprize to goe provided, payd, 
and bastiaed for 8 months, as all is 
hereafter. Hatfield House Records. 

Bastise, v. To victual. 
Baston, s. (1) {A.-N.) A cudgel. 

(2) A sort of verse, of which the 
following appear to be examples : 

Hail be ye tadurs, with yur scharpe 

schores ! 
To mak wronge hodes ye kitteth lome 

Agens midwinter bote beth yur neldes ; 
Thogh yur semes semith fair, hi lestith 
litel while. 
The clerk that this baston wrowghte, 
Wel he woke and slepe righte nowghte. 
* » » » 

Hail be ye, sutlers, with your mani 

lestes ! 
With your blote hides of selcuth bestis ; 
And trebles, and trifules, both vampe 

and alles ; 
Blak and lothlich beth yur teth, hcri 
was that route. 
Nis this bastun wel i-pight 1 
Euch word him sitte arigbte. 

Reliq. Antiq., ii, 174. 

(3) A servant of the warden of 
the Fleet, whose duty it is to 
attend the king's courts, with a 
red staff, for taking into custody 
of persons committed by the 

(4) A kind of lace. See Bascon. 
Bastone, s. {Hal.) A bastinado. 
Bat, (1) s. {A.-S.) A stave; a 

club ; a cudgel. 

He neraeth is bat and forth a goth, 
Swithe gori and wel wroth. 

Beves ofHamloun, p. 17. 

But what needs many wordg ? whilst I 
am faitlifull to them, I have lost the 
uge of my armes with batts. 

Terence in English, 1641. 
And each of you a good bat on his neck. 
Able to lay a good man on the ground. 
George-a-Greene, 0. P., iii, 43. 

(2) s. A blow ; a stroke. North, 

(3) s. A wooden tool for breaking 
clods of earth. 

(4) V. To strike or beat; to beat 

(5) *. Debate. 

(6) V. To wink. Derbysh. 

(7) *. The straw of two wheat 
sheaves tied together. Yorksh. 

(8) s. State ; condition. North. 

(9) «. Speed. Line. 

(10) s. A leaping-post. Somerset. 

(11) «. A low-laced boot. lb. 

(12) s. The root end of a tree 
after it has been thrown. lb. 

(13) s. A spade at cards. lb. 

(14) *. The last parting that lies 
between the upper and the nether 
coal. Stafford. 

(15) s. A piece of sandstone used 
for sharpening scythes and other 
tools. Norf. 

Eatable, (1) adj. Fertile in nutri- 
tion, applied to land. 
(2) 8. Land disputed between 
two parties, more particularly 
that lying between England and 
Scotland, which was formerly 
called the batable ground. 

Batailed, s. (A.-N.) Embattled. 

Batailous, adj. Ready for battle. 

Batails, s. (A.-N.) Provisions. 

Batale, v. To join in battle. 

Batalle, *. (A.-N.) An army. 

Batand, part. a. Going hastily, 

Batant, s. {Fr.) The piece of 
wood that runs upon the edge 
of a lockside of a door or 

Batardier, ». (Fr.) A nursery for 

Batauntlichb, adv. (A.-N.) 

Bataylynoe, a. A battlemeat. 




Batch, s. (1) A certain quantity; 
part of a number. Berks. 

(2) A quantity of bread baked at 
once; also the whole of the 
wheat flour used for making com- 
mon household bread, after the 
bran has been separated from it. 

(3) A kind of hound. North. 

(4) A mound ; an open space by 
the road-side; a sand-bank, or 
patch of ground lying near a 
river. West. 

Batch-cake, ». A cake made of 
the same dough, and baked with 
the batch of bread. Northampt. 

Batch-flour, s. Coarse flour. 

Bate, (1) s. {A.-S.) Contention; 
debate ; strife. 

(2) V. To abate ; to diminish. 

(3) V. To flutter, applied to 

(4) pret. t. of bite. Bit. 
{b)prep. Without; except. Lane. 

(6) V. To fly at. 

Thus surveying round 
Her dove-befeather'd prison, till at length 
(Calling her nohle birth to mind, and 

Wlicreto her wing was born) her ragged 

Nips offher jangling jesses, strives to break 
Her gingling fetters, and begins to bate 
At ev'ry glimpse, and darts at ev'ry grate. 
Quarles's Emblems. 

(7) V. To go with rapidity. 

(8) V. To fall suddenly. 

(9) s. (A.-S.) A boat. 

(10) *. A sheaf of hemp. Norf. 
{II) pret. t. Did beat. Spens. 

Bate-breeding, «. Causing strife. 

Bated, adj. A fish, when plump 

and fuU-roed, is well bated. 


Batel, Is. (A.-N.) A little 
batelle, J boat. 

Bateless, adj. Not to be abated 
or subdued. 

Bate-maker, s. A causer of strife. 

Batement, a. That part of wood 
which is cut off by a carpenter 
to make it fit for his purpose. 

Batement-lights *. The upper 
openings between the mullions 
of a window. 

Bateb, s. a bye-way, or cross- 

As for the word bater, that in English 
purporteth a lane bearing to an high 
waie, I take it for a meere Irish word 
tliat crept unwares into the English, 
through the dailie intercourse of the 
English and Irish inhabitants. 

Stanihurst, Desc. of Irel., p. 11. 

Batfowling, s. A method of 

taking birds in the night-time. 
Batful, adj. Fruitful. 
Of Bevers batfiill earth, men seeme as 

tliough to faine, 

Reporting in what store she multiplies 

her graine. Drayton, Pol., song xiii. 

The belly hath no eares. No? hath it not? 

What had my loves when she with child 

was got ? 
Though in her wombe the seedsman sowed 

Yet, being battfulle, it bare perfect eares. 
Davies, Scourge of Folly, 1611. 

Bath, (1) adj. Both. North. 

(2) 8. A sow. Heref. See Basse. 

(3) V. To dry any ointment or 
liquid into the skin. 

Bather, (1) v. To nestle and nib 
in the dust, as birds in the sun- 
shine; also to roll and settle 
downwards, spoken of smoke. 
(2) {A.-S.) gen. pi. of both. 

Bathing. See Beating. 

Bathing-tub, s. A bath formerly 
administered to people aflfected 
with the venereal disease. 

Batige, s. a pearl. 

Batilbaby, s. An office in forests. 

Batillage, *. {A.-N.) Boat hire. 

Bat-in-water, s. Water mint. 

Batler, ^ s. The in- 

BATLET, I strument with 

batling- staff, )»which wash- 
BATSTAFF, | crs beat their 

batting-staff, J coarse clothes. 

Batleton, *. A batler. Shropsh. 

Batling, s. A kind of fish. 

Batlins, s. Loppings of trees, tied 
up into faggots. Suff. 




Batner, «. An ox. 
Batoon, g. (Fr.) A cudgel. 
Batour, s. Batter. Warner. 
Bats, *. (1) The short furrows of 
an irregular field. South. 

(2) «. The game of cricket. Dev. 

(3) s. A beating. Yorksh. 

(4) s. The slaty part of coal after 
it is burnt white. Coal deterio- 
rated by the presence of this 
slaty matter is said to be batty. 
Northampt. In Shropshire it is 
called bass, and in Yorkshire 

Bat-swain, *. {A.-S.) A sailor. 

Batt, v. (1) To beat gently. 

(2) To wink or move the eyelids 
up and down. Chesh. 

Battable, adj. Capable of culti- 

Battailant, s. (J.-N.) a com- 

Battaile, s. (A.-N.) a battalion 
of an army. 

Battalia, g. (Fr.) (1) The order 
of battle. 

(2) The main body of an army 
in array. 

Batted, /?ar/./>. Stone worked oflF 
with a tool instead of being 
rubbed smooth. A stonemason's 

Batten, (1) v. (A.-S.) To thrive; 
to grow fat. North. 

(2) g. A rail from three to six 
inches broad, and one or more 

(3) *. The straw of two sheaves 
folded together. North. See Bat. 

Batten-board, s. A thatcher's 

tool for beating down thatch. 
Batten-fbnce, g. A fence made 

by nailing two or three rails to 

upright posts. 
Batter, (1) ». (perhaps from 

A.-N. abattre.) An abatement; 

a wall which diminishes upwards 

is said to batter. Sttggex. 

(2) *, Dirt. North. 

(3) V. To fight one's wav. Mid' 
land C. 

(4) V. To wear out. South. 
Battero, g. A bat. 
Batticle, g. A moveable wooden 

cross-bar to which the traces of 

husbandry horses are secured. 

Battid, adj. Covered with strips 

of wood, as walls are previously 

to their being plastered. 
Battil, "X v. (A.-S.) To grow fat. 
BATTEL, J Also, to fatten others. 

For sleep, they said, would make her battil 
better. Sp., F. q., VI, viii, 38. 

Ashes are a marvellous improvement to 
battle barren land. Say's Prov., 238. 

Batting, «. A bottle of straw. 

Batting-stock, «. A beating 
stock. Kennett. 

Battle, (1) v. To dry in ointment 
or moisture upon the flesh by 
rubbing that part of the body 
while exposed to the fire. 

(2) adj. Fruitful, fertile, applied 
to land. 

(3) V. To render ground fertile 
by applying manure. 

(4) V. To go about a room with 
wet and dirty shoes. Northampt. 

(5) V. To bespatter with mud. 
Battled, splashed or bespattered 
with mud. 

(6) V. To take up commons at a 
college, without immediately 
paying for them. Skinner de- 
rives it from the Dutch betaalen, 
to pay, a term which appears to 
have been formed from the an- 
cient manner of keeping accounts 
by tallies, or tale. 

Eat my commons with a good stomach, 
and battled with discretion. 

furitan, ii, p. 543. 

Battled, />ar/./>. Embattled. 

Battledore, «. (1) A hornbook, 
and hence no doubt arose the 
phrase " to know a B from a 
battledoor," implying a very 




Blight degree of learning, or the 
being hardly able to distinguish 
one thing from another. It is 
sometimes found in early printed 
works, as if it should be thus 
written, " to know A. B. from a 

You sliall not neede to bnybookes; no, 
Bcorne to distinguish a B.from a baltle- 
doore; onely looke that your eares be 
long enough to reach our rudiments, 
and you are made for ever. 

GuU Hortie-booke, 1609, p. 3. 

(2) A flat wooden implement, 
with a slit at one end for the 
hand, used in mending thatch, 
to push the ends of the new 
straw under the old thatch. 

Battledore-barley, s. A kind of 
barley, said to be so called " from 
the flatness of the ear." Aubrey's 

Battler, s. (1) A small bat to 
play at ball. 

(2) An Oxford student ; properly 
one who pays for nothing but 
what he calls for, answering 
nearly to a sizar at Cambridge. 

Battle-royal, s. A fight between 
several cocks, where the one that 
stands longest is the victor. 

Battles, a. Commons or board. 

Battlet, 1 «. A kind of 

batling-staff, I flat wooden 

BEETLE, J mallet used to 

beat linen with, in order to 

whiten it. See Batler. 

Battletwig, 8. An earwig. Mid- 
land Counties and North. 

Battlixg-stone, s. a large 
smooth-faced stone, set in a slop- 
ing position by the side of a 
stream, on which washerwomen 
beat their linen. North. 

Battologist, s. (Gr.) One who 
constantly repeats the same thing. 

Battologize, v. To repeat con- 
tinually the same thing. 

Battolcgy, 8. {Gr. /3arro\oyia.) 

The frequent repetition of the 

same thing. 
Battom, 8. A narrow board, the 

full breadth of the tree from 

which it is sawn. North. 
Batton, 8. (Fr.) (!) A club or 


(2) Strong, broad, fencing rails. 

(3) Doors made by the boards 
being nailed to rails or bars are 
called batton-doors, in contradis- 
tinction to such as are panelled. 

(4) Narrow deals with which the 
best floors are laid. 

Battril, s. a bathing-staff. Lane. 

Battry, *. A copper or brass 
wide-mouthed vessel, not riveted 
together, as plates of metal are 
in larger vessels, but hammered 
or batter'd into union, as tea- 
kettles, &c., are. 

Batts, s. (1) Low, flat grounds 
adjoining rivers ; sometimes, 
islands in rivers. North. 
(2) Short ridges. Wiffht. 

Batty, adj. (1) Belonging to a 
bat ; in the manner of bats. 
(2) A term applied to coal. See 

Batwell, *. A wicker strainer to 
put over the spigot in the mashr 
vat, to prevent the grains from 
passing through. Leic. 

Batyn, v. To make debate. Pr. P. 

Baubee, 8. A copper coin, of 
about the value of a halfpenny. 

Badbery, 8. A squabble ; a brawl. 
Var. diaL See Bobbery. 

Baud, (1) s. (J.-N.) A procurer, 
procuress, or keeper of a brothel, 
or any one employed in bad ser- 
vices in this line, whether male 
or female. 

(2) 8. A badger. 

(3) adj. Bold. 

Baude, adj. {A -N.) Joyous. 
Bauderie, 8. Pimping. 
Baudkin, 8. (A.-N. baudequin.) A 
rich and precious sort of stuff. 




said to have been composed of 
silk, interwoven with threads of 
gold in a most sumptuous 

For cloth of gold, or tinsel figurie, 
For haudkin, uroydrie cutworks, or conceits, 
He set the shippes of merchantmen on 
worke. Gascoigne, Steele Glasse, v. 786. 

*, See Baldrick. 

Baudrick, 1 


Baudry, g. Bad language. Skelton. 

Baudy, adj. {A.-N.) Dirty. 

Baudy-basket, s. a cant term 
for a profligate woman. 

Bauffe, v. To belch. 

Baufrey, s. a beam. 

Bauf-week, s. Among the pitmen 
of Durham seems to mean the 
week in which they are not paid, 
they being paid fortnightly. 
Hone's Table Book, i, 654. 

Bauger, adj. Bald; barbarous; 

Than brought he forth another byll, 
conteyning tliesaid sentence; and that 
also he reddc in his bauger Latine. 

Bale, bir J. Oldcastell. 

Baugh, (1) s. A pudding made 

with milk and flour only. Chesh. 

(2) V. To bark. 
Baughling, s. Wrangling. Cumb. 
Baulchin, *. An unfledged bird. 

Baulk, v. To overlook or pass by 

a hare in her form without see- 
ing her. 
Baulky, adj. A term applied to 

earth which digs up in clots. 

Baulme-mint, s. Water mint. 
Baulter, v. To curl. 
Baun-cock, g. A game cock. 

Baunsey, s. A badger. Prompt. P. 
Baurghwan, g. A horse-collar. 

Bause, v. To kiss. See Base. 
Bauson, adj. Swelled ; pendant. 


Bauson, ^ 


bawzon, I 

bawstone, ys. A badger. 
bawsone, I 


Bautert, adj. Encrusted with 
dirt. North. 

Baux-hound, «. A kind of hunt- 
ing dog. 

Bavaroy, s. {Fr.) A kind of cloak 
or surtout. 

Let the loop'd bararoy the fop embrace, 

Or his deep cloke be spatter'd o'er with 

lace. Gay. 

Baven, "Is. a brush faggot, pro- 
BAViN, J perly bound with only 
one withe, a faggot being bound 
with two. 

Bavins will have their flashes, and youth 
their fancies, the one as soon quenched 
as the other is burnt. 

Mother Bombie, 159-1:. 

With coals and with bavins, and a good 
warm chair. Old Soniji. 

The skipping king, he ambled up and down 
With shallow jesters and rashiariw wits 
Soon kindled and soon burnt. 

1 Hen. IF, iii, 3. 

(2) g. A bundle of small wood. 

Bavens, s. a kind of cake. 

Bavere, «. Bavaria. 

Bavian, s. a baboon, or monkey ; 
an occasional, but not a regular 
character in the old Morris dance. 

Bavier, s. {A.-N.) The beaver of 
a helmet. 

Bavin, s. Impure limestone. 

Bavisenesse, s. (A.-N.) Mockery. 

Bavish, I?. To drive away. East. 

Baw. (1) An interjection of con- 

(2) s. A boy. East. 

(3) s. A bail. North. 

(4) s. A dumpling. Lane. 

(5) V. To bark. See Baugh. 

(6) V. Alvum levaie. Lane. 
Bawaty, s. Lindsey-wolsey. North. 




Bawcock., a. (conjectured to be 
a corruption of the Fr. beau coq.) 
A burlesque word of endearment. 

Why that's my baiccock. What has 
srautch'd thy nose ? 

Sliakesp., W. Tale, i, 2. 

At a later period the word bate- 

cock was used to signify a rogue. 

Bawd, (1) s. The outer covering 

of a walnut. Somerset. See Bad. 

(2) pret. t. Bawled. Yorksh. 

(3) 8. A hare. A word used 
chiefly in Scotland. 

Bawder, v. To scold grumblingly. 

Bawe, «. A species of worm for- 
merly used as a bait for fishing. 

Bawe-line, s. The bowling of a 
sail ; that rope which is fastened 
to the middle part of the outside 
of a sail. 

Bawer, s. a maker of balls. Staf- 

Bawk, (1) V. To relinquish. 

How? let her go? by no means, sir. 
It sliall never be read in chronicle, that 
sir Artlier Addel (my lenowned friend) 
bawk'd a mistress for fear of rivals. 

Caryl, Sir Salomon, 1691. 

(2) *. A balk in ploughing. 

(3) s. A beam. Bawk-hei-t, the 
height of the beam. Cumb. 

Baw, s. a bow. 

Bawker, *. A sort of sand-stone 
used for whetting scythes. So- 
merset. See Balker. 

Bawks, s. a hay-loft. Cumb. 

Bawlin, adj. Big ; large. 

Bawm,». To daub. "He bawmed 

and slawmed it all over mortar 

and wash." 

Bawme, 1 ,,x / . >T \ T, , 

' Ml) (A.'N.) Balm. 

BAUME. J "^ '' ^ ' 

(2) V. To embalm. 

(3) V. To address; to adorn. 

Bawmyn, ». Balsam. Prompt. P. 
Bawn, (1) 8. An inclosed yard, 
especially of a small castle. 

Tliese round hills and square laxr:ns, 
which you see so strongly trenched and 
tlirown up. were at first ordained that 
people might assemble themselves 
therein. Spenser's State of Ireland. 

(2) adj. Ready ; going. North. 

Bawnd, adj. Swollen. East. 

Bawndonly, adv. (A.-N.) Cheer- 

Bawrell, 8. {A.-N.) A kind of 
hawk. The male bird was 
called a bawret. 

Bawse, v. To scream. 

Bawsen, adj. Burst. Derbysh. 

Bawshere, «. A corruption of 

Bawsin, "1 (1) s. An imperious 
BAWSON, J noisy fellow. North. 

Peace, you fat hawson, peace. 

Lingua, 0. PL, v. 232. 

(2) adj. Great; large; unwieldy; 
swelled. Coles has " a great 
bawsin, ventrosus." 

(3) «. A badger. See Bauson. 
Bawsand, "XadJ. Streaked with 

BAWSONT, J white upon the face: 

a term applied only to horses 

and cattle. 
Bawstone,*. Abadger. Prompt. P. 
QxyfT, {\) prep. Without. Yor^sA. 

(2) V. To roar; to cry. North. 
Bawy, s. a boy. 
Baxter, ». (1) A baker. See 


(2) An implement for baking 

cakes, common in old houses. 

Bay, (1) ». A berry. 

(2) A high pond-head to keep 
in the water, for driving the 
wheels of the furnace or hammer 
belonging to an iron mill. Blount. 
In Dorsetshire, any bank across 
a stream is called a bay. Cotgrave 
mentions " a bay of land." 

(3) s. The space between the 
main beams in a barn. Nor- 

(4j «. A principal compartment 
or division in the architectural 




arrangeraent of abuilding.marked 
either by the buttresses on the 
walls, by the disposition of the 
main ribs of the vaulting of the 
interior, by the main arches and 
pillars, the principals of the roof, 
or by any other leading features 
that separate it into correspond- 
ing portions. The word is some- 
times used for the space be- 
tween the mullions of a window. 
Houses were estimated by the 
number of bays : 

If this law bold in Vienna ten years, 
I'll rent the fairest house in it, after 
three-pence a Jay. Meas.forM.,u,\. 

Of one baye's breadth, God wot, a silly 

■Wlrose thatched spars are farr'd with 

sluttish soote. Hall, Sat., v, 1. 

As a term among builders, it 
also signified every space left in 
the wall, whether for door, win- 
dow, or chimney. 

(5) «. A pole ; a stake. 

(6) V. To bathe. Speiiser. 

(7) «. A boy. 

(8) adj. Round. Gaw. 

(9) V. (A.-S. bugan.) To bend. 

(10) V. To bark. Miege. 

(11) V. To open the mouth 
entreatingly for food, like a young 
child. Hollyband. 

(12) s. The nest of a squirrel. 

(13) 8. A hole in a breast-work 
to receive the mouth of a cannon. 

(14) V. To unlodge a martem. 

(15) ». To bleat. 

Bayard, s. {A.-N.) Properly a bay 
horse, but often applied to a 
horse in general. " As bold as 
blind bayard," is an old proverb. 

BAy-BERRY, 8. The fruit of the 

Bacca lanri. ta^voKOKKOi, Pelaffonio. 
Grain de laurier. A hayberry. 

iiomenclator, 1583. 

Bay-dwck, s. a shell-duck. East. 
Baye, adj. {A.-S.) Both. 

Into the chaumber go we baye. 
Among the maidens for to plave. 

Gy of ITarunke, p. 108. 

Bayen, v. To bay ; to bark ; to 

Bayes, s. Baize. 

Bayle, ». A bailiflf. 

Bayles, 8. A bucket. 

Bayly, ». (A.-N.) Authority; any- 
thing given in charge to a bailiff 
or guard. 

BAVLXDtpart.p. Boiled. 

Bayn, *. {A.-S. bona.) A mur- 

Baynyd, part. p. Shelled for 
table, as beans, &c. Prompt. P. 

Bayte, v. [A.-S.) To avail; to 
be useful ; to apply to any use. 

Baythe, v. To grant. Gaw. 

Bayting, 8. A chastisement. 

Bay-window, *. A large window ; 
supposed to derive this name 
from its occupying the whole 
bay. It usually projected out- 
wards, in a rectangular or poly- 
gonal form, or sometimes semi- 
circular, from whence the cor- 
rupted form bow-window arose. 

Bay-yarn, s. Another name for 

Bayyd, adj. Of a bay colour. 
Prompt. P. 

Bazans, s. a sort of leather 
boots, mentioned by Mat. Paris. 

Baze, v. To alarm. Xorth. 

Be, {l)prep. (A.-S.) By. 

(2) part. p. Been. In the pro v. 
dialects, be is often used as the 
pres. t, of the verb. 

(3) Be, bi, or by, is used as a 
common prefix to verbs, generally 
conveying an intensative power. 
(i)s.{A.-S.) A jewel or ring. See 

Bkace, «. (1) Cattle. North. 

(2) A cow-stall. Yorksh. 
Beached, adj. Exposed to tho 





Bead, \ s (A.-S.) A prayer, from 
BEDE, J 6td, to pray. 
A paire of bedis eke she bere 
Upon a lace al of white threde. 
On which that she her bedis bede. 

Jtomaunt of the Rose, 1. 7372. 
Bring the lioly water hither, 
Let us wasli and pray together : 
When our beads are thus united, 
Then the foe will iiy affrighted. 

Herrick, p. 385. 

Small round balls, stringed to- 
gether, and hung from the neck, 
assisted the Romish devotees in 
counting the number of prayers, 
or paternosters, they said, and 
consisted ofthirty.or twice thirty, 
single beads. Next to every tenth 
bead was one larger, and more 
embellished, than the rest ; these 
were called gaudes, and are men- 
tioned by Chaucer : 
Of smal coral aboute hire arme Bche baar, 
A peire of bedes, gaudid al witli grene. 

Cant. T., 1. 158. 

From this practice originated the 
name of beads as applied to per- 
sonal ornaments. 

Bead-cuffs, s. Small ruffles. Miege, 

Bead-faring, s. Pilgrimage. 

Bead-house, s. A dwelling-place 
for poor religious persons, who 
were to pray for the soul of the 

Beadle, s. (A.-S. bcedal, bydel.) 
A crier or messenger of a court ; 
the keeper of a prison or house 
of correction ; an under-bailiff. 

Bead-roll, "1 s. Originally a list of 
BED-ROLL, J the benefactors to a 
monastery, whose names were to 
be mentioned in the prayers ; more 
generally, a list of prayers and 
church services, and such priests 
as were to perform them ; also, 
an inventory. 

And bellow forth against the gods them- 
A bed-roll of outrageous blasphemies. 

OU PL, ii, 251. 
Or tedious bend-rolh of descended blood, 
I'rora fa''jer Japhet since Deucalion's flood. 
ifp. Hall, Sat., iv, 3. 

Then Wakefield battle next we in out 
bedroul bring. Drayton, Folyolb., 22. 

'Tis a dead world, no stirring, he hatli 

Behearseth up a bead-rotole of his losses. 
Rowlands, Knave of Harts, 1613. 

Beadsman, «. One who prays for 
another; and hence, being used 
as a common compliment from 
one person to another, it was at 
length used almost in the sense 
of servant. 

Beadswoman, s. A woman who 
prays for another person. 

Beak, (1) v. To bask in the heat. 

(2) s. An iron over the fire, in 
which boilers are hung. Yorksh. 

(3) V. To wipe the beak, a term 
in hawking. 

(4) ». A terra in cockfighting. 

(5) 8. The nose of a horse. 

(6) «. The point of a shoe, in the 
costume of the 14th cent. 

Beak er, ». ( Germ, becker.) A large 
drinking vessel ; a tumbler-glass. 
Another bowle, I doe not hke this cup. 
You slave, what linnen hast thou brought 

us here ? 
Fill me a beaker, looke it be good beere. 

Boxolands, Knave of Harts, 1613. 

Beakiron,*. An instrument of iron 

used by blacksmiths. 
Beakment, s. a measure of about 

the quarter of a peck. Newcastle. 
Beal, (1) V. To roar out (for bawl). 


(2) V. (A.-S.) To suppurate. 

(3) s. (A.-S.) A boil, or hot in- 
flamed tumour. 

Bealve,v.{A.-S.) To grow in years. 
Jne stat that sacrament ine man, 
Wanne je ine Gode hyaldeth. 

William de Shoreham. 

Bealing, «. Big with child. 
Bealte, 8. {A.-N.) Beauty. 
Beam, (1) ». {A.-S.) Misfortunes 

Rob. Glouc. 

(2) V. To put water in a tub, to 

Slop the leaking by swelling the 

wood. North. 





(3) 8. A band of straw. Devon. 

(4) t. The shaft of a chariot. 
HoHnsh., Hist, of Eng., p. 26. 

(5) 8. A kind of wax-candle. 

(6) «. The third and fourth 
branches of a stag's horn were 
called the beams, or beam- 

(7) s. A part of a plough. 

Tlie heam, is perpendicularly above the 
spit, and connected with it; first, by 
the ploHgli liaudle, or by the lower part 
of that piece of timber whicli terminates 
in tlie handle. The size of this piece is 
equal to the beam at that end of it, and 
both tlie beam and the spit are strongly 
morticed into it. Above the beam it is 
continued in a sweep the length of 5 
feet from the bottom ; the highest part 
of the sweep being 3 feet from tlie ground 
line, or bottom of the spit. 

(8) s. {A.-S.) A trumpet. 

(9) s. The rafter of a roof. 

Beame of a rouffe, not beyng inbowed or 
fretted. Laquear. Huloei. 

Beam, 1 


Beameling, *. A small ray of 

Beam-feathers, s. The long fea- 
thers in the wings or tail of a 

BEAMFUL,a<f;. Luminous. Drayton. 

Beaming-knife, s. A tanner's in- 
strument, mentioned by Pals- 

Beam-ringle, 8. A moveable iron 
ring on the beam of a wheel- 
plough, by which the plough is 
regulated. Norfolk. 

Beamy, adj. Built with beams. 

Bean,«. The old method of choos- 
ing king and queen on Twelfth 
Day, was by having a bean and 
a pea mixed up in the composi- 
tion of the cake. They who 
found these in their portion of 
cake, were constituted king and 
queen for the evening. — " Three 
blue beans in a blue bladder" is 
an old phrase, the meaning of 
which is not very clear. 

F. Hark does't rattle? 
S. Yes, like thrte blue beam in a blu» 
bladder, rattle, bladder, rattle. 

Old Fortunatus, Anc. Dr., iii, p. 128. 
They say- 
That putting all his words together, 
'Tis three blue beans in one blue bladder. 

Prior, Alma, Cant. I, v. 25. 

Bean-bellies, s. An old nick-name 
for the natives of Leicestershire. 

Bean-cod, s. A small fishing vessel. 

Beane, adj. Obedient. 

Beaned, adj. A beaned horse, one 
that has a pebble put under its 
lame foot, to make it appear sound 
and firm. 

Beanhelm, «. The stalks of beans. 

Bear, (1) s. A kind of barley. 

(2) s. A noise. See Bere. 

(3) 8. A tool used to cut sedge 
and rushes in the fens. Norf. 

(4) The V. bear is used in several 
curious old phrases. To bear a 
bob, to make one among many, 
to lend a helping hand. To bear 
in or on hand, to persuade, to keep 
in expectation, to accuse. 

She knowynge that perjurye was no 
greatter offence than advoutry, with 
wepynge and swerynge defended her 
honestie; and bare her husbande on 
hande, that they feyned those tales for 
envye that they lia'dde to se them lyve 
so quietly. 

Tales /• QuicTce Answer). 

To bear a brain, to exert atten- 
tion, ingenuity, or memory. 

But still take you heed, have a vigilant 

eve — 
— Well, sir, let me alone, I'll bear a brain. 
All Fools, 0. PI., iv, 177. 

To bear low, to behave oneself 
humbly. Palsgrave. " I beare one 
wronge in hande, ie iouche." Ibid. 
To bear out a man, to defend one. 
Ibid. Bear one company, i.e., 
keep one company. Ibid. Beare 
one bold, i. e., to set at defiance. 
"Theyknowe well they do agaynst 
the lawe, but they beare them 
bolde of thehe lordeand mayster." 
Ibid. To play the bear voith, to 




Uhire or disadvantage any one. 
"a wet season will play the bear 
with me." Northampt. 

Beakable, adj. Supportable. 

Bbar-away, v. To learn. Pakg. 

Bearbino, s. a species of bind- 
weed. North. 

Beard, (1) ». To oppose face to 

(2) To make one's beard, to de- 
ceive a person. 

(3) V. To trim a hedge. Shropsh. 

(4) s. An ear of corn. Huloet. 

(5) s. The coarser parts of a joint 
of meat. 

(6) s. The bad portions of a fleece 
of wool. 

Beard-hedge,! 5. The bushes 
BEABDixGS, J stuck into the 
bank of a new-made hedge, to 
protect the plants. Chesh. 

Beard-tree, *. The hazel. 

Bearer, s. A farthingale. 

Bearers, *. The persons who carry 
a corpse to the grave. 

Tlie searchers of each corps good gainers be. 
The bearer* have a profitable fee. 

Taylor's Workea, 1630. 

Bear-fly, «. An insect. Bacon. 
Bear-gardex, s. a favorite place 

of amusement in the time of 

Elizabeth, and frequently alluded 

to in works of that period. 
Bear-herd, *. The keeper of a 

Bearing, s. (1) A term at the 

games of Irish and backgammon. 

(2) A term in coursing, giving 

the hare the go-by. 
Bearing-arrow,*. An arrow that 

carries well. 
Bearing- CLAWS, «. The foremost 

toes of a cock. 
Bearing-cloth,*. The fine mantle 

or cloth with which a child was 

covered when it was carried to 

church to be baptized. 
Bearing-dishes, s. Solid, sub- 

stantial dishes ; portly viands. 

Bbaring-of-the-book, t. A term 

among the old players for the 

duties of the prompter. 
Bearing-out, ». Personal carriage. 

" Great bearyng ovX,port." Pals- 

Bear-leap, s. A large osier basket 

to carry chaff out of a barn, borne 

between two men. See Barlep. 
Bear-mouths, *. Subterraneous 

passages to coal mines. North. 
Bearn, s. (1) A barn. East. 

(2) A child. North. 

(3) Wood. Coles. 
Bearsbreech, «. The name of a 


Bears'-college,«. a jocular term 
used by Ben Jonson for the bear 

Bear's-ear, «. The early red auri- 
cula, called in Latin, according to 
Gerard, Auricula Ursi, and in 
French, Oreille d'Ours. 

Bear's-foot, *. A species of helle- 

Bear-stone, s. A large stone mor- 
tar, formerly used for unhusking 

Bearswort, s. The name of a 

Bearward, s. The keeper of a 

Wliat a bragkyng maketh a beareward 
witli his sylver buttened bawdrike, for 
pride of another mannes bere. 

Sir T. More. 

Be.vr-worm,». The palmer- worm. 
Beas, Cows ; cattle. North. 
Beasel, s. The part of a ring in 

which the stone is set. See Basil. 
Beassh, v. To defile. Palsgr. 
Beast, s. (1) A game at cards, 

similar to our game of loo. 

(2) A measure. Wardrobe Ac* 
counts of Edw. IF, p. 129. 

(3) An animal of the beeve kind 
in a fatting state. East. 

Beastial, s. {A.-N.) Cattle. 
Beasting, s A flogging. Lane, 
See Baste. 




Beastixgs, ^ s. (A.-S. bysiynff.) 
BEAST-MILK, j The first milk givcii 
BEESTLiNGS, ) bv a COW after her 
BEESTINGS, j calving. {Byslins 
BESTNiNG, J in Staffordshire.) 

A cow hath iio milk ordinarily, before 
that she hatli calved : the first milk that 
she piveth downe is called beestins ; 
whicli, uniesse it be delaied with some 
water, will soon turue to be as harde as 
a pumisli stone. 

Holland's Pliny, vol. i, p. 848. 
So may the first of all our fells be thine, 
And both the beatning of our goats and 
As thou our folds dost still secure. 
And keep'st ourfountainssweet and pure. 
Ben Jonson, Hymn to Fan, vi, 177- 

Beastle, V. To defile. Somerset. 

Beastliness, ». Stupidity. 

He both cursed the time that he obeyed 
the king's letter to come to him, seeing 
promises had been doubly broken with 
him, and also accused himself of great 
beastliness, by the which these mischiefs 
were sufferea to spring. 

Bovoes Correspondence, 1583. 

Beat, (1) r. To make a noise at 
rutting time, said of hares and 

(2) V. To search. A sporting 

(3) V. (A.-S.) To mend. East. 

(4) *. Peat. Devon. 

(5) V. To hammer with one's 
thoughts on a particular subject. 

(6) *. A blow. 
Beat-away,». To excavate. North. 
Beate, "1 ». (A.-S.) To excite, kin- 

bete, j die, or make to burn. 

Thy temple wol I worship evermo, 
And on thin auter, wlier I ride or go, 
I wol don sacrifice, and fires befe. 

Chaucer, Knighte's Tale, Tymihitt. 

And in a bathe they gonne hire faste shet- 

And night and day gret fire they under 

betten. Second Nonne's Tale. 

Bkate burning, 8. An agricultural 
device, used particularly in the 
AVest. See Denshering. 
About May, they cut up alle the grasse 
of that ground, which is to be broken 

up, in turfeg ; which they call betting. 
These turfes they raise up somewhat in 
the midst, that the wind and the suune 
may the sooner drie them. After they 
have been thoroughly dried, the hus- 
bandman pileth them in little heaps, 
provincially called heat-burrovoes, and 
so bumeth them to ashes. 

Carete's Survey of Cornwall, 

Beatem, s. a conqueror. Yorksh. 

Beaten, adj. Trite. 

Beater, s. A wooden mallet. 

Beatebs, s. The boards projecting 
from the inside circumference of 
a churn to beat the milk. 

Beath, v. (A.-S.) To dry by ex- 
posure to the fire. 

Yokes, forks, and such other, let bailiff spy 

And gather the same as he walketh about : 
And after, at leisure, let this be his hire. 
To beath them, and trim them at home by 

the fier. Tusser's Husbandry. 

Beatilles, (from Fr. abattis.) 

Beating, (1) s. Walking or hur- 
rying about. West. 
(2) A row of corn laid on the 
barn-floor for thrashing. Norf. 

Beatment, s. a measure. North. 

Beatour, adv. Round about. 

BEAT-ouT,/;ar^jB. Puzzled. Essex. 

BEATWORLD,arf». Bcyond controul. 

Beau, adj. (Fr.) Fair ; good. 

Beaufet, a. (A.-N.) A cupboard 
or niche, with a canopy, at the 
end of a hall; a cupboard, where 
glasses, bowls, &c., are put away. 

Beau-pere, «. (1) (.^.-A^.) A friar, 
or priest. 
(2) A companion. Spens. 

Kow leading him into a secret shade 
From his beau-feres, and from bright hea» 

ven's view. 
Where him to sleep she gently would 

Or bath him in a fountain by some covert 

glade. F. q., HI, i, 35. 

Beaupeks, s. Apparently some 
kind of cloth. Book of Rateti 
p. 26. 




Beacpleader, g. A writ that lies 
where the sheriff or hailiff takes 
a fine of a party that he may not 
plead fairly. 

Beautified, adj. Beautiful. Sha/k. 
Polonius calls it a vile phrase, 
but it was a common one in those 
times, particularly in the ad- 
dresses of letters. " To the most 
beautified lady, the Lady Eliza- 
beth Carey," is the address of a 
dedication by Nash. " To the 
most beautified lady, the Lady 
Anne Glemham," R. L. inscribes 
his " Diella," consisting of poems 
and sonnets, 1596. 

Beautiful, adj. Delicious. 

Beau-traps, s. Loose pavements 
in the footway, under which dirt 
and water collects, liable to 
splash any one that treads on 
them. Not^. 

Beauty-spot, s. The patches 
which ladies put on their faces, 
as fashionable ornaments. 

Beauty-water, s. A liquid for- 
merly used by ladies to restore 
their complexions. 

Beaver, (1) *. (A.-N.) That part 
of the helmet which was moved 
up and down to enable the wearer 
to drink, leaving part of the face 
exposed when up. 
(2) s. The bushes or underwood 
growing out on the ditchless side 
of a single hedge. Dorset. 

Beaver, T «. (A -N.) A name 
BEVER, ^ formerly given to the 
BEVERAGE, J aftemoou collation, 
and still in use in Essex, Nor- 
thamptonshire, and other parts. 
See Bever. 

Drinkinge betwene dinner and supper, 
called heaver. Anteceenum. Huloet. 

Betimes in the morning they break 
their fast ; at noon tlicy dine; when tlie 
day is far spent they take their beaver ; 
late at nigiit they sup. 

Gate of Languages, 1568. 
Certes it is not supposed meete tliat «-e 
•Lould now contente oureselves with 

breakfast and supper only, as our eldert 
have done before us, nor enough tliat 
we have added our dinners unto tlieii 
foresaid meales, but we must luive 
thereto our beverages and reare-suppers, 
so that smaU time is spared, wherein to 
occupy ourselves unto any godly exer- 
cise. Description of &'otUmd',\t. id. 

Beaverage, *. {A.-N.) Cider 
made after the first squeezing 

Beaveret, 8. A half-beaver hat. 

Beawte, ^rep. Without. Lane. 

Beazled, adj. Fatigued. Sussex. 

Beb, v. {Lat. bibo.) To sip; to 
drink. North. A bebber, an im- 
moderate drinker. See Bib. 

Bebaste, v. To beat. 

Bebathe, v. To bathe all over. 

The bulls meanwhile each other wounds do 

And gore each others sides, whose bloud 

spurts out, 
And head and shoulders all i?ia<A« about 
\\Tiose bloudy blows the echoing wood 

resound. Virgil, by Vicars, 1632 

Beberied, part. p. Buried. 

BEBLAST,/>ar/.j». Blasted. 

Bebled, part. p. Covered with 

Beblinde, v. To make blind. 

Beblot, v. To stain. 

Bebob, v. To bob ; to bother, or 
mock. See Bob. 

Bebidde, v. To command. 

Becalle, v. (A.-S.) (1) To ac- 
cuse; to challenge. 

(2) To abuse ; to censure. West 

(3) To require. Gaw. 
Becasse, *. (Fr.) A woodcock. 
Becco, 8. {Ital. becco.) A cuckold. 

Duke, thou art a becco, a cornnto. 
P. How ? M. Thou art a cuckold. 
Malcontent, 0. PI., iv, 30 

Bkchatted, part. p. Bewitched. 

Beche, 8. (A.-S.) A beech-tree. 
Becher, 8. (A.-S.) A betrayer. 

Love is becher and les. 

And lef for to tele. ifS. Digby, 86. 

Beck, (1) ». (^A.-S. becc.) A rivu- 
let or small brook. 




(2) s. A constable. 

(3) V. To nod ; to beckon. 

Tliis liere I row, 
Bt my beloved brothers Stygian slow, 
By all those pichy flouds and banks most 

Whereat he bectt, and with a thunder- 
Olympus totall frame extreamlv trembled. 
Virgil, by Ficaw, 1632. 

(4)». A bow, a salutation. A beck 
was a bend of the knee as well as 
a nod of the head. 
(5) The beak of a bird. " Sho 
with a longe becke, sottlier apou- 
laine." Palsgrave. 

I'm none of these same cringing things 

that stoops. 
Just Uke a tumbler when lie vaults through 

Or daw or magpy, when at first it pecks, 
A.ltetnately their tails above tlieir becks. 

Fleckrwe's Epigrami, 1670- 

Becker, s. A wooden dish. Nor- 

Becket, s. (1) A spade used in dig- 
ging turf. East. 
(2) A mantelpiece. Norihampt. 

Beckets, s. a kind of fastening ; 
a place of security for any kind of 
tackle on board a ship. 

Beck-stans, s. Literally, brook- 
stones; the strand of a rapid river. 

Beclappe, v. (A.-S.) To catch. 

Beclarted, adj. Besmeared ; be- 
daubed. North. 

Beclippe, v. (1) To curdle. Maun- 
(2) To embrace. 

Becomes, s. Best clothes. East. 

Becovght, part. p. (A.-S.) Seized; 

Becrike, «. A kind of oath. North. 

Becripple, ». To make lame. 

Becurl, v. (1) To bend in a curve. 
(2) To curl all over. 

Bed, (1) V. A roe is said to bed 
when she lodges in a particular 
place. Diet. Rust. 
(2) t. A horizontal vein of ore in 
a mine. Derbysh. 

(3) V. To go to bed with. 

(4) part. p. of bidtJe. Oifered , 
prayed; commanded. Langtoft. 

(5) s. A fleshy piece of beef cut 
from the upper part c/f the leg 
and bottom of the belly. East. 

(6) s. The uterus of an animal. 

(7) Getting out the wrong side qf 
the bed, a phrase applied to a 
person who is peevish and ill- 

(8) A bed of snakes is a knot of 
young ones. 

(9) s The under side of a wrought 
stone, in masonry. 

(10) s. The horizontal base of 
stone inserted in a wall. 

(11) s. The body of a cart or 
waggon. Northampt. 

Bedaffe, v. {A.-S.) To make a 

fool of. 
Then are you blind, dull-witted, and bedaft. 
North's Flut., p. 105. 

Bedagle, r. To dirty. 

Bed-ale, s. Groaning ale, brewed 
for a christening. Devon. 

Bedare, ». To dare ; to defy. 

Bedasshed, part. p. Covered ; 

Bedawe, v. To ridicule. Skelton. 

Bedde, (1) «. A bedfellow, hus- 
band or wife. 
(2) V. To bed ; to put to bed. 

Bedder, "I «. The under-stone 
bedetter, J of an oil-mill. 

^° ' \s. An upholsterer. 
beddiner. J *^ 

Beddern, *. A refectory. 

Beddy, adj. Greedy ; ofScious. 


Bede, v. (1) {A.-S.) To pray. 

That thou wolt save thi moder and me, 
Thi preyere now I graunte the 
Of that thou bede before. 

JTyn^o/rar*, 1.246. 

(2) To proffer. 

A ring Ysonde him bede 
To tokening at iliai tide : 

He flcighe forth in gret drede, 
In wode him for to h''le. 

iSfr •i'rutrem, iii, 2& 




(3) V. To order ; to bid. 

(4) s. A prayer. 

(5) «. A commandment. 

(6) s. Prohil)ition. 

(7) pret. t. of bide. Dwelt; 

BEDEADED,/7re^. jB. Slain; made 

dead ; deadened. 
Bedeet, j9ar/. />. Dirtied, North, 
Bedehouse, ». See Bead. 
Bedel, «. A servitor: a bailiff. See 

Bedelry, s. The jurisdiction of a 

Bedexe, adv. {A.-S.) Immedi- 
ately ; at once ; continuously ; 

Bederke, v. To darken. 
Bedevil, v. To spoil. South. 
Bedeviled, part. p. Rendered 

like a devil; become very wicked. 
Bedew, v. To wet. 
Bed-faggot, s. A contemptuous 

term for a bedfellow. East. 
Bedfere, Is. {A.-S.) A bed- 

bedpheere, J fellow. 
Bedgatt, «. Command ? Morte 

Bedight, part. p. Decked out ; 

Her weapons are the javelin, and the bow, 
Her garments angell like, of virgin-wliite, 
And tuckt aloft, her falling skirt below 
Her buskin meetes: buckled with silver 

Her haire behind her, like a cloake doth 

Some tuckt in roules, some loose with 

flowers bedight : 
Her silken vailes play round about her 

Her golden quiver fals athwart her backe. 
Great Britaines Troye, 1609. 

Bedizen, v. To dress out. 

No ; here's Diana, who as I shall be- 
dizen, sliaU pass for as substantial an 
alderman's heiress as ever fell into 
wicked hands. 

Mrs. Behn, City Heiress, 1682. 

Bed-joints, ». Joints in the beds 

of rocks. Derbysh. 
Bedlam cowslip, s. The paigle, 

or larger cowslip. Northampt. 

Bedlamite, s. A person who, 
having been put into Bethlehem 
as insane, had, after a due time 
of trial, been discharged though 
not perfectly cured. Not being 
mischievous or dangerous, they 
were afterwards suffered to go at 
large ; and the public took much 
interest in their wild and extra- 
vagant sayings and deeds. Male 
bedlamites were all Toms, and 
Poor Toms; and the females 
Bettys and Bess ; and all, in addi- 
tion to lunacy, were afflicted with 
loathsome bodily diseases. It was 
one of the most popular plans of 
vagrant mendicity; and the coun- 
try was filled with bedlams and 
bedlamites, or Tom of Bedlams, 
as they were indifferently called. 

Every drunkard is so farre estranged 
from himselfe, that as one in an extasie 
of mind, or rather, in a playne phrtuzy, 
he may not be said to be sui animi 
compos, or a man of sounde wit, but 
ratlier, a very bedlem, or much worse. 
Stttbbes's Anatomie of Abuses, p. 123. 

Alas ! thou vaunt'st thy sober sense in vain. 
In these poor Bedl/imites thy self survey. 
Thy self, less inuocently mad than they. 

Fitzgerald's Poems, l'781. 

Till the breaking out of the civill warres, 
Tom o' Bedlams did travel about the 
country. They had been once distracted 
men that liad been put into Bedlam, 
where recovering to some soberuesse, 
they were licentiated to goe a begging. 
They had on their left arm an arniilla of 
tin, about four inches long : they could 
not get it off. They wore about their 
necks a great horn of an ox in a string 
or bawdrick, which when they came to 
a house for alms they did wind ; and 
they did put the drinke given them into 
this horn ; whereto they did put a stop- 
ple. Since the warres I doe not remem- 
ber to have seen any one of them. 

Aubrey, Nat. Hist, of WilU. 

Bkdlawyr, s. a bed-ridden per- 
son. Prompt. Pare. 

Bedmate, 8. A bedfellow. 

Bed-minion, s. A bardash. 

Bedoled, part. p. Stupified with 
pain. Devon, 

Bedolve, V, To dig. 




Bedone, part. p. Wrought ; made 

Bedote, v. To make to dote ; to 

Bedovte, part. p. Redoubted. 
Bed-pheke, 8. Bedfellow. 

And I must have mine ears banquetted 
with pleasant and witty conferences, 
pretty girls, scoffs, and dalliance, in lier 
tliat I mean to cliuse for my bed-pheere. 
B. Jons., Epicocne, ii, 5. 

Bedpresser, «. A dull heavy 

BEDRABfLED, part. p. Dirtied; 

Bedred, />ar^. /?. (1) Dreaded. 
(2) Bedridden. 

Bbdreinte, part. p. Drenched ; 

Bedrepes, «. Days of work per- 
formed in harvest time by the 
customary tenants, at the bidding 
of their lords. 

Bed-roll, s. A catalogue. See 

Bedrop, v. To sprinkle ; to spot, 

Beds, s. The game of hop-scotch. 

Beds-foot, s. The plant mastic. 

Bedstettle, «. A bedstead. Essex. 

Bedstaff, s. a wooden pin stuck 
formerly on the sides of the bed- 
stead to keep the clothes from 
slipping on either side. 

Bed-suster, s. One who shares 
the bed of the husband; the con- 
cubine of a married roan in re- 
lation to the legitimate wife. Rob. 

Bedswerver, 8. An adultress. 

Bed-tye, s. Bed-tick. West. 

Beduele, ». (.(i.-5. edwelian.) To 

Our angels ells thai him lete 
Our Go^is suiie ells thai him helde 
For he cuthe make the men beduelde. 
Cursor Mundi, MS. hdinb., f. 129. 

Bedusk, v. To smudge, darken the 
colour of. 

B EDWARD, adv. Towards bed. 
Bedwarf, v. To make little. 
Bedwen, 8. A birch tree. 
Bedyner, 8. An officer. 

Lyare wes mi latymer, 
Sleutbe ant slep mi bedyner. 

Lyric Poetry, p. 49. 

Bee. To have bees in the head, 
to be choleric ; to be restless. 

Bat, Wyll, my maiater hath bees in Ai» 

If he find mee heare pratinge, I am but 

deade. Damon and Pith , 0. PL, i, 180. 

If he meet but a carman in the street, 
and I find him not talk to keep bim off 
on him, he will whistle liim and all bis 
tunes at overnight in his sleep! he ha.) 
a head full of bees. 

B. Jon., Barth. Fair, i, 4. 

To have a bee in the bonnet, to 
be cross ; to be a little crazy. 

Bee,*, a jewel. See Beigh. 

Bee-band, s. A hoop of iron which 
encircles the hole in the beam 
of a plough where the coulter is 

Bee-bike, s. A nest of wild bees. 

Bee-bird, 8. The willow wren. 

Bee-bread, *. {A.-S.) A viscous 
substance found in the hives of 
bees, supposed to be the ma- 
terial from which the young bees 
are formed. 

Bee-but, «. A bee-hive. Somerset. 

Beechgall, 8. A hard knot on the 
leaf of the beech, containing the 
maggot of an insect. 

Bee-drove, s. A great crowd of 
men, or other creatures. East. 

Bbedy, 8. A chicken. 

Beedy's-eyes, «. The pansy. 

Beef, s. (Fr.) An ox. 

Beef-eaters, s. The yeomen of 
the guard. 

Beefing, s. A bullock fit for 
slaughter. Suffolk. 

Beefwitted. adj. Having no more 
wit than oxen ; heavy-headed. 




Bes-6lue, s. a substance with 
which bees protect the entrance 
of the hive. 

Propolis, Pliii. Gluten quo alvei sui oras 
corapingunt apes, irpon-oAis. Beegleic, 
wliicli tliey make at the entry oif the 
hive, to keepe out cold. 

Nomenclator, 1585. 

Bee-hive, a. A wattled straw- 
chair, common among cottagers. 

Beeked, adj. Covered with dirt. 

Beel, v. To bellow, applied not 
only to cattle, but to human 
beings. A woman at Nettleham, 
whose only cow had been sold 
by her husband, a noted ringer, 
for the purpose of subscribing 
for a new bell, always used to 
say to him when ringing com- 
menced : " Hark ! how my poor 
cow beels !" They also say when 
any one makes a great noise by 
shouting, "How he beels!" 

Beeld, (1) s. Shelter, North. See 

(2) V. To build. North. 
Beelding, s. a shed for cattle. 


Beele, 8. A kind of pick-axe used 
in separating the ore from the 

Bee-lippen, «. A bee-hive. So- 

Been, (1) s. pi. {A.-S.) Bees. 
(2)». Property; wealth. Tusser. 

(3) The plural of the present 
tense of the verb to be. 

(4) adj. Nimble ; clever. Lane. 

(5) «. A withy band. Devon. 
Beenship, s. Worship; goodness. 
Beent-meed, 8. Help on particular 

occasions. Lancash. 
Beeok, 8. An iron over the fire in 

which boilers, &c., are hung; a 

beak. Yorksh. 
Beer, s. Force ; might. Chesh. 
Beer-flip, «. A drink prepared in 

the same way, and with the same 
materials, as "egg-flip," except- 
ing that a quart of strong home- 
brewed beer is substituted for 
the wine ; a glass of gin is some- 
times added, but it is better 

Beer-gooo, ». Yeast. East. 

Beerhouse, s. An old name for 
an alehouse. 

Beerness, s. A beer-cellar. North. 

Beery, adj. Intoxicated. Warw. 

Bees, (1) s. pi. Flies. Line. 
(2) s. pi. Cows. Cumb. 

Beeskn, 1 j. / ,1 o I \ 

beezen '"^^- ^^■'^' *y*^-) 
BISON ' r Short-sighted; half- 
®'''°''' blind. 


Wei wostu that hi doth tharinne. 
Hi fuleth hit up to the cliinne, 
Ho sitteth thar so hi bo biine, 
Tharbi men segget a vorbisne ; 
Daliet habbe that iike best 
That fuleth his owe nest. 

Hule and Nyghtingale, 1. 96. 

Now gylleorys don gode men gye, 
Ryjt gos redles alle behynde, 
Truthe ys turnyd to trechery, 
Tor now the hysom ledvs the blynde. 
MS. Earl., 5396, f. 24. 

Bee-skip, a. A hive or skip of 

Bees-nest, s. A kind of flax. 

Beesnum.- Bethey not. West. 

Beesome, 8. A broom with a long 
brush. This word occurs in 
Hollyband's Dietionarie, 1593, 
and is still in use for a birch 
broom, though never applied to 
one made of hair. 

Sure 'tis an uncouth sight to see some, 
That gweepe their hall without a beesome. 
Men-Miraclei, 1656. 

Beest, 8. The first milk given by 
a cow after calving. See Beaating. 

Beestaile, «. (A.-N.) Cattle. 

Beet-axe, a. The instrument used 
in beeting ground in denshering. 

Beethy, adj. Soft, sticky; in a 




perspiration ; withered. Applied 
to meat underdone. Herefordsh. 

Beetle, ». {A.-S.) A heavy mallet. 
A three-man beetle was one so 
heavy that it required three men 
to manage it, two at the long 
handles and one at the head. 

Beetle-browed, adj. Having 
brows that hang over. 

Beetle-headed, adj. Dull; 

Beetlestock, s. The handle of a 

Beetle-ston, 8. The cantharides. 

Beetneed, «. Assistance in the 
hour of distress. North. 

Befet, s. A buflfet ; a blow. 

Beffing, s. (1) Barking. Line. 
(2) Burning land after it is 
pared. North. 

Befight, v. To contend. 

Befile, v. To defile. 

Beflay, v. To flay. 

Beflecke, ». To spot ; to streak. 

Befoam, v. To cover with foam. 

Befog, r. To obscure. 

When speech is had of these things, 

tliey are so befogged, that they cannot 

tell where they are, nor what they say. 

Dent's Pathway to Heaven, p. 323. 

Bekon, V. To befall. 

BeFORN, 1 f J o\ -a e 

BIFOREN,F'"^-(^-'^-^ ^^^'''■^- 

Tiie time nas once, and may again retorn, 

For ought may happen that hath been 

beforn. Spens., Skep. K. May, 103. 

The little redbreast to tlie prickled thorne 

Return'd, and sung there as he had 

beforne. Browne's Brit. Past. 

BfFOTE, adv. On foot. Pr. P. 
Befrose, part. p. Frozen. 
BEFT,pret. t. Struck; beaten. 
Tliai MTang thair hend and wep ful sair, 
Als men warcarkid al wit car; 
Apon tliair brestes fast tliai be/l. 
And al in God thaimself bileft. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Edinb., f. 46. 

Befyce, ». Beau fils, fair son. 
Beg.\b, v. To mock; to deceive. 
Begalowe, v. To out-gallop. 
Begared, part. p. Adorned. 

Begarred, /?ar/./7. Defiled; very 
much dirtied. Devon. 

Begay, v. To make gay. 

Begayged, part. p. Bewitched. 

Begchis, s. Bitches. Cov. Myst. 

Begeneld, 8. A mendicant. P. PL 

Beggar-my-neighbour,s. A chil- 
dren's game at cards. 

Beggar's-barm, s. The froth col- 
lected by running streams in 
ditches, or in puddles by the 
road-side. Northampt. 

Beggar's-bush, «. A rendezvous 
for beggars. " To go by beggar's 
bush," to go on the road to ruin. 

Beggar's-buttons, 8. The bur- 
dock. Devon. 

Beggar-lice, "!«. The plant 
beggar-weed, J cleavers ( Ga- 
lium aperine). Northampt. 

Beggar's-xeedle, ». Tbe shep- 
herd's needle. Midi. C. 

Beggar's-velvet, 1 8. The light 

beggar's-bolts, j particles of 

down shaken from a feather-bed, 

and left by a sluttish housemaid 

to collect under it. East. 

Beggary, arf;. Full of weeds. East. 

Begin', s. See Biggin. 

Begirdge, r. To grudge. Somerset. 

Begkot, adj. {A.-N.) Foolish. 

BeijTcot an bride, 

Rede him at ride 

lu the dismale. 

Political SonffS, p. 303 

B eglued, /?ar. p. Overcome. /.yrf^. 
Bego, '{part. p. Circumstanced; 
begon, J happened to. 

The soudan com that like tyde. 
And witli }iis wyf he gon to chyde, 
That wo was hire bigon. 

Kyng of Tars, 1. 552. 

Wo was this wrecclied womman tlio biijoon. 
Cant. Tales, 1, '5338. 

Begone, par^./>. Decayed; worn 

out. East. 
BEGosiiE, part. p. Begun. 
Begravb, r. (1) To bury. 

(2) To engrave. 




Bkgrede, v. (A.-S.) To cry out 

Begrumpled, adj. Displeased. 

Begthex, v. To buy. 

Also, t!ie forseyd executours and atnr- 
liyes Lulpyn edefyen and maken liow- 
Bvng lor ])ovre men in a slret clepyd 
l)anel_v3 lane, and hulpe bejthyn and 
jjuichiicyn a place in Wykyn in susty- 
naunce of tne foresevd howsyng of 
povre men. Found. Stat, of Saffron 

Walden Alnuh., 1400. 

Beguile, v. To cover with guile. 

So beguil'd 
With outward honesty, hut yet defil'd 
Witli iuwaid vice. 

Sh., Rape of Ltier. 

Begul, v. To make a gull of; to 

He hath not left a penny in my purse : 
Five shillings, not a farthing more, I had, 
And tlius begtihl, doth wake nie almost 
mad. Sovclands, Knave of Clubbs, 1611 

Beguth, j7re«. /. Began. 

That hliced hodi to wind thai wald, 
And I begulhe it withald, 

Suilk strif hilwix us was tare. 
Cursor Mu/idi.liS. Ediiih., f. 40. 

Brgyngge, adj. (.^.-5.) Careful. 
Relig. Antiq., ii, 8. 

Beh, prel. t. of A.-S. bugan. 
Bent ; inclined. 

Behad, arf;. Circumstanced; be- 
fallen. " You're sadly behad." 

BKHALT,/?re^. t. Beheld. 

Behalve, s. Half; side, or part. 

Behappex, arfi>. Perhaps. Shropsh. 

Behated, ;»ar^jB. Hated ; exceed- 
ingly hated. 

Behave, v. To manage or govern, 
in point of behaviour. 

And with sucli sober and unnoted passion 
He did behate his anger ere 'twas spent, 
As if he had but prov'd an argument. 

Skakesp., Tim. of A., iii, 5. 

How well my stars behave their influence. 

Dateuant's Just Italian. 

Behaviour,*. Representative cha- 

Thus, after greeting, speaks the king of 

In my behaviour, to the majesty, 

The Oorruw'd mi^esiv of England here. 

^hakesp., K. John, i, 1. 

Beheard, part. p. Heard. 
Behelied, ^ar^/>. Covered. 
Behest, s. (A.-S.) (1) A promise 

(2) A command. 
Behete, v. (A.-S.) To promise. 
pret. behight and behote. 

And for his paines a whistle him behight. 
Spens., F. Q., IV, li, 6. 

Behewe, adj. (A.-S.) Coloured. 
Behint, adv. Behind. North. 
Behither, (I) prep. On this side. 

The Italian at this day by like arrogance 
calleth the Frenchman, Spaniard, Dutch, 
English, and all other breed behither 
their mountaines Apennines, Tramou- 
tani, as wlio should say barbarous. 
Puttenh., Art of Engl. Poesie, p. 210. 

(2) prep. Except. 

I have not any one thing, behither vice, 
that hath occasioned so much contempt 
of the clergie, as unwillingness to take 
or keep a poor living Oley's Pref. to 
Herbert, C. Parson, A. 11 b. 

Beholding, adj. Beholden; ob- 

We anglers are all beholditw to the good 
man that made this song. Walton's Ang. 

And I shalle thinke myselfe highly 
beholding unto you. 

Bachelor's Banquet, p. 18. 

Beholdingness, «. Obligation. 

Behoveful, adj. Useful ; profit- 
able ; needful. 

Behounced, adj. Finely dressed; 
smart with finery. Essex. 

Behove, «. (j4.-S.) Behoof; ad- 

Behovely, adj. Profitable. 

Behung, joar^ja. Hung about 

Beie, 1 
BEI EN, > adj. (j4.-S.) Both. 


Ac heo ne m^-jt so rathe come, that the 

kynges twei, 
Nere y-come out Yrloud, wyt gret power 

Of Scottes and of Picars, of Denemarch, of 

Norwei. Hob. Glouc., p. 107. 

And tueie bischopes in ys lond, 
Wei by were beyne v-fond. 

Chron. of EtigL, 'BiltoH'$ Met, Bom. 




Ne beon jit bute tweien. 
Mine sunen ;it beotli beien. 

MS. Coll , Calig., A ix, f. 28. 

Beigh, #. (^.-5. beag.) Anything 
twisted, but generally an orna- 
ment for the neck ; a torques : 
it also is used to express an orna- 
ment in general. 
Sir Canados was tban 

Constable the queu ftil neighe ; 
For Tristram Ysonde wan. 

So weneth be be ful sleighe. 
To make bir bis lenian 

With brocbe and ricbe heighe. 

Sir Trislrem, iii, 66. 

Beight, s. Anything bent; the 

bend of the elbow. North. 
Beike, v. To warm as before a fire. 
Hys flesclie trembylde for grete aide, 
Hvs blode colde, hys body unwelde, 

"Hys lyppes bio for-thy: 
He had more mvstyr of "a gode fyre. 
Of brygbt brondys'breiinyng schyre, 
To heyke hys boones by. 

Le Bone Florence of Rome, 1. 99. 

Beild, 8. (1) See Beld. 

(2) A handle. Yorksh. 
Beildit, /lar^ j9. Imaged; formed. 
Being, (1) conj. Since. 

And being you have 
Decltn'd hia means, you have increas'd his 

B. and Fl., Uoh. M. Fort., act ii. 

Bear. How now? 

So melancholy sweet ? 

Pot. How could I choose 

Being thou wert not here' the time is 

Thou' It be as good unto me as thy word ? 
Carlxcright's Ordinary, 1651. 

(2) «. {A.-S. byan, to inhabit.) 
An abode ; a lodging. Sussex. 

(3) ». Condition. Weber. 
Beire, (1) Of both. 

(2) adj. Bare. 
Beisancb, «. Obeisance. 

How is't then, thicke great shepherd of the 

To whom our iwaines sike humble beisance 

yield. Peele'a Eglogue, 1689. 

Beytb, «. A sharper. Cumb. 

Here pedlars frae a' pairts repair, 
Beath Yorkshire beytes and Scotch fwoak, 

And Paddies wi' their feyne iin ware, 
Tho a' deseyn'd to botch fwoak. 

Stags'* Cumierl. Poems, p. 135. 

Bejade, v. To weary ; to tire. . 
Bejape, v. To make game of; to 

Bekay, *. The jowl or lower jaw 

of a pig. Northarfpt. 
Beke, (1) s. The brim of a hat or 

hood, or anything standing out 

firm at the bottom of a covering 

for the head. 

(2) V. To warm ; to sweat. Be- 

keande, part, a 

Bekene, 1 . , 

' }■ *. A beacon. 


Bekenne, V. (1) {A.-S.) To com- 
mit to. 

(2) {A.-S. becennan.) To give 
birth to. 

Bkkere, v. To skirmish ; to bicker. 

Bekins, adv. Because. Dorset. 

Bekke, t>. To beg. Towneley Myst. 

Beknowe, v. {A.-S.) To acknow- 
ledge ; to confess. 

Thenne watj spyed and spured 

Upon spare wyse, 

Bi prev6 poyntej of that prynce 

Put to hym selven. 

That he bekneio cortaysly 

Of the court that he were. 

Gawayn ^ Ihe Gr. Kn., 1. 1620 

Bekur, «. Fight; battle ; skirmish. 

Bel, adj. {A.-N.) Beautiful. 

Belace, v. To chastise with a strap. 

Belacoil, Is. {A.-N.) A kind 
BiALACoiL, /reception; a hearty 
welcome. Personified in the Ro- 
mance of the Rose. 

Belafte, pret. t. Left ; remained. 

Belagged, /)ar^/;. (1) Tired ; lag- 
ging behind. 
(2) Dirtied ; wetted. 

Belam, v. To beat. 

Belamour, s. {Fr.) (1) A lover. 
(2) The name of a flower. 

B EL-AMY, s. {A.-N.) Fair friend. 

Belappe, v. To lap round; to 

BELAST,j»ar/. /?. Bound. 

Belated, ^ar/.j». (1) Benighted. 
(2) Retarded. 




Belave, v. (A.-S.) To remain. 

Belay, v. (1) To fasten. A sea 
(2) To flog. Northampt. 

B^i,AXZD,part.p. Covered. Spenser. 

Belch, (1) ». Small beer. Yorksh. 
(2) V. To remove the indurated 
dung from sheep's tails. Somerset. 

Belche, v. To decorate. Pr. P. 

Belcone, s. a balcony. 

Beldame, *. {A.-N.) (1) A grand- 
(2) A fair lady. Spenser. 

Belde, (1) V. (A.-S.) To protect. 

This Frein thrived fram yer to yer : 
T lie abbesse nece men wend it were. 
The abbesse her gan teclie and beUe. 

Lay le Freine, 1. 231. 

(2) s. Protection ; refuge. 

His em answer he veld, 

That litel he walil wene. 
Of hot sche was him beld. 

That Moraunt soster had bene. 


(3) adj. Bold. 

(4) 8. Build ; strength. 

She blissid here, and from him ran, 
Intil here chamber anon she cam. 
That was so stronse of beUU. 

Syr Gowgkter, L 81. 

Bi a childe of Htil belde 
Overcomen I am in myn elde. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. 

(5) r. To build. 

(6) V. To inhabit. 

Belder, v. To roar; to bellow. 

Bele, (1) adj. (A.-N.) Fair; good. 
(2) s. (A.-S. deal.) Bad conduct. 
Line. The signification of this 
word, as far as can be gathered, 
appears to be, bad course, or con- 
duct, or censurable proceeding of 
improvident or ill-disposed cha. 
racters. " He'll ne'er bate bele 
whawl hes spend evry hawp'ny" 
is said of a spendthrift. 

Beleakins. By the Lady kin ! 

Bele-chere, «. (^.-iV.) Good com- 

Belechose, s. {A.-N.) Pudendum 
f. Chaucer. Belchos, in MS. 
Addit. Brit. Mus., No. 12,195, 
f. 158. 

Beleddy. By our Lady ! Leie. 

Belee, v. To shelter. Shakesp. 

Beleeke, adv. Belike ; probably. 

As Hector had unhorst Patroclus tho, 
Dispoyhng him in field, alas lor woe, 
Unwares to wreeke thisdeedeof \\\ibeUeke 
He slayes a peereles Troyan for a Greeke. 
Peele's Farewell, 1589. 
Belepered, adj. Infected with 

Beleve, (1) V. (A.-S. belifan.) To 

remain ; to be alive. 

(2) V. To leave. 

(3) s. Belief. 
Belevenesse, *. Faith. Pr. P. 
Bele WING, ». The belling of the 


Beleyn, part. p. of belye. Besieged. 

Belfer, 8. A sort of framework 
of wood or other material sup- 
ported by pillars of brick, iron, 
&c., on which a stack of corn is 
raised. At the top of each pil- 
lar is placed a projecting coping 
stone, and on these stones are 
laid the cross beams : the inten- 
tion of the broad stone is to 
prevent vermin getting up into 
the stack. The proper terra 
for this erection is a brandretk ; 
but many of the common people 
call it a belfer, confounding it 
probably with the word belfry, 
mentioned below. Lincoln. 

Belfry, *. (1) A temporary shed 
for a cart or waggon in the fields 
or by the roadside. Line. 
(2) *. Part of a woman's dress. 
Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 201. 

Belg, r. To bellow. Somerset. 

Belgards, s. (Fr.) Fair looks. 

Belgrandfather, 8. A great 
great grandfather. 

Belier, adv. Just now. Somerset. 

Belike, ^adv. Certainly ; per- 
belikelt, j haps ; probably. 

Belime, e. To ensnare. Dent. 




Beling, «. (1) Suppuration. "In- 

sanies. Belyng." MS., Vocab. 

\bth cent. 

(2) The noise a chicken makes 

when first breaking the shell. 

" You can hear them beling sir, 

afore they comes out." Somerset. 
Belitter,». To bring forth a child. 
Belive, adv. (1) {A.-S.) Quickly; 

immediately ; presently. 

(2) In the evening. North. 
Belke, v. (1) To belch. North. 

(2) To lounge at length. Line. 
Bell, (1) s. A roupie at the tip of 

the nose. Palsyr. 

(2) «. The cry of the hart at 
rutting time. 

(3) V. To swell. 

(4) To bear the bell, to win the 
prize at a race, where a bell was 
the usual prize. 

Among the Romans it [ahorse race] was 
an Olvmpic exercise, and the prize was 
a garland, but now tliey beare the bell 
away. Saltotulall, Char. S3. 

To lose the bell, to be worsted. 

But when in single fig^t h^ lost the bell. 
Fair/., Tasso, xvii, 69. 

Bellakin, part. a. Bellowing. 

Belland, s. (1) Ore, when re- 
duce to powder. North. 
(2) Its pernicious effects, when 
imbibed in small particles. North. 

Bellarmine, s. a sort of stout 
earthen bottle, ornamented with 
the figure of a bearded face, and 
said to have received its name 
from Cardinal Bellarmine, whom 
this face represented. To dispute 
with Bellarmine, to empty the 

Cos. There's no great need of souldiersj 
their camp's 

Jio larger than a ginger-bread office. 

Pan. And the men little bigger. 

Phil. Wliat half heretick 

Book tels you that? 

Bho. The greatest sort they say 

Are like stone-pots icith beards that do reach 

Unto tiieir knees. 

Curtvmght, Lady Errant, 1651. 

Tis dark, we'll have one bellarmine 
there, and then bonus nocius, I must to 
my mistress. 

Shadicell, Epsom Wells, 1673. 

Bellart, s. a bear-leader. Chest. 
Belle, (1) s. A mantle.' See 
Wright's Anecd. Lit., p. 12. 

(2) V. {A.-S.) To roar. 

(3) s. A clock. Cov. Myst. 

(4) s. A bonfire ; for baal. Gaw. 
Belle, v. To swell. 
Belle-blome, s. {A.'N.) The 


Belle-chere, ». {A.-N.) Good 

Belle5eter, s. a bell-founder. 
Prompt. Pare. 

Bell-flowek, a. The daffodil. 

Bell-gate, "1 s. The circuit or li- 
BELL-GAiT, J bcrty in which a beg- 
gar was formerly allowed to beg, 
so named from the bell which 
he tinkled to attract the notice 
of the charitable. 

Bellibone, s. {Fr.) A fair maid. 

Pan may be proud that ever he begot 
Such a bellibone. 

Spen.. Shep. Kal., Apr. 91. 

Belliborion, 8. A kind of apple. 

Bellical, adj. (Lat.) Warlike. 
Belliche, adv. (A.-N.) Fairly. 
Bellicon, *. One devoted to good 

cheer. North. 
Bellicous, adj. {LmI.) Warlike. 
Bellify, v. To beautify. Ray. 

nalde's Byrth of Mankynde. 
Bellin, v. To roar; to bellow. 

Bellitude, a. {Lat.) Fairness. 
Bell-kite, a. A protuberant body. 

Bellman, a. A watchman. Part of 

his office was originally to bless 

the sleepers whose door he passed. 

Thus Herrick : 

Th* Belman. 
I'rom noise of scarefires rest ye free. 
From murders, beneiiicite. 




From all mischances, that may friftht 
Your pleasing slumbers in the night; 
Mercie secure ye all, and keep 
The goblin from ye, while ye sleep. 
Past one o'clock and almost two. 
My masters all, good day to you. 

Hesp., p. 139. 

So Milton, Penseroso : 

The belman's drowsy charm 
To bless the doors from nightly harm. 

Hence our Bellman's verses. 

Bellock, v. To bellow, far. dial. 

Bellosed, adj. Asthmatic. North. 

Bellose, adj. {Lat.) Warlike. 

Bellowfarmer, «. A person who 
had the care of organs, regals, &c. 

Beli.peare, 8. A sort of pear. 
Pirum cucurhitinum, Plin. ab oblonga 
cacurbitte figura. Poire de sarteau, ou 
de campane. A bell peare, or gourd 
peare; so called of his hkeiiesse. 

Nomenclator, 1585. 

Bellrag, v. To scold. Heref. See 

Bellragges, s. A sort of water- 

Bells, s. pi. The ears of oats. 
Northamp. A crop of oats is said 
to have bell'd well, when it pro- 
mises to be heavy. 

Bell-soller, *. The loft in a 
church on which the ringers 
stand. North. 

Bellweather, *. A cross and 
blubbering child. North. 

Belly, s. The widest part of the 
vein of a mine. North. 

Bellyatere, *. A bellfounder. 
Prompt. Parv. 

Belly-band, s. A girth to a cart- 
saddle. North. 

Bellycheat, *. An apron. j4sh. 

Bellycheer, s. Good living. 
A sptnder of his patrimony and goods 
in hellycheere, and untliriftie companie : 
a ipeiid-all : a tcasle-good. 

Nomenclator, 1585. 

Glnttonie mounted on a greedie beare. 

To belhj-rheere and banquets lends his csre. 
Bowlands, Knaves of Spades, ^-c , 1613. 

Belly-clapper, s. A word equi- 
valent, according to Florio, to 
certain senses of the Italian 

words hatfaglio and lattifiille. 
It has been conjectured to be 
some instrument for announcing 

Belly-friend, s. A sycophant. 

Belly-god, «. A glutton, or epi- 

Belly-harm, s. The cholic. 

Belly-holding, s. A crying out 
in labour. Devon. 

Belly-naked, arf;'. Entirely naked. 
A very common expression in our 
earlier writers. 

Belly-piece, s. (1) The apron, or 
covering of the belly. 

If thou shoulds cry, it would make 
streaks down thy face; as the tears of 
the tankard do upon my fat hosts heU\i- 
pieces. Shadwell, Bury Fair, 1689. 

(2) A thin part of a carcase near 
the belly. North. 

Bellys, |,. Bellows. 
belyes, J 

Belly-shot, adj. A term applied 
to cattle, " when in the winter, 
for want of warmth and good 
feeding, they have their guts 
shrunk up." Kennett. 

Belly-timber, «. Food. Var.dial. 

Belly-vengeance, s. Small beer. 

Belly-want, #. A belly-band. 

Belly-watik,«.(.<<.-5'.) The cholic. 

Bkloke, part. p. Locked. 

BEL0KED,j!;ar/. /;. Beheld. 

Belon, s. {Fr.) A distemper com- 
mon to cattle in some parts of 
the North of England. It is sup- 
posed to be caused by the water 
they drink being impregnated 
with lead. 

Belongings, a. Endowments. 

Belook, v. To weep. Beds. 

Beloukk, ». To fasten ; to lock up. 

Belowt, v. To abuse roughly. 

il^^^^' r »• To cheat. Cumb. 


Brlsch, v. (A.-N.) To adorn; to 




Belsh.s. Rubbish; sad stuff. Line. 
Bkl-shangles, s. a cant term. 

Head-master of morrice-dauncere, high 
head-borough of heighs, and ouely 
tricker of your trill-lilles, and best bel- 
thaiiflUs betweene Sion and mount 

Kemp, Nine Dales Wonder, 1600. 

Belsire,».(^.-2V.) a grandfather; 

an ancestor. 
Bklsizb, adj. Bulky; large. East. 
Bel-swagger, s. A swaggerer ; a 

bully ; a whoremaster. 
Belt, (1) v. To suppurate. 

What godly reason can any man alyve 

alledge why Mother Joaue of Stowe, 

speaking these wordes, aad neyther 

more nor lesse, 

" Our Lord was the fyrst man 
That ever thorne prick't upon : 
It never blysted nor it never belled. 
And I pray God, nor this not may," 

sliould cure either beastes, or men and 

women, from diseases ? 
L. Northampton't Defeiuative against the 
Poyson of supposed Prophecies, 1583. 

(2) V. To beat. Shropsh. 
(S) V. To shear the buttocks and 
tails of sheep. Midland C. 
(4)». An axe. Pr. P. 

(5) g. A course of stones pro- 
jecting from a wall. 

(6) Pricking at the belt, a cheat- 
ing game, also called fast and 
loose, as old as the age of Shake- 

Belt AN,*. The first of May. North. 

Belter, s. A prostitute. North. 

Beluted, adj. [Lat.) Covered with 
mud. Sterne. 

Belve, v. (1) To drink greedily. 
(2) To bellow ; to roar. Somerset. 

Belvering, adj. Noisy; blustering. 

Belwe, v. {A.-S.) To bellow. 

Belwort, s- The name of a plant. 

Belye, v. {A.-S. belicgan.) To sur- 
round ; to beleaguer. 

The kyng and heie men of the lend, mid 

strengthe and mid ginne, 
iud beiaxie the castel longe, ar hii him 

mijte i-winne. Rob. Glouc, p. 519. 

Belymmed, part. p. Disfigured. 

Bem, *. A beam ; a pillar. 
Bemaxgle, v. To mutilate. 
Bem, 'Xs. {A.-S. bema.) A trum- 
BEME, J pet. 

Thau sal be herd the blast of bem. 
The demster sal cum to dem. 

Cursor Mundi, MS. 

Trompors gunne heire bemef blowe. 
The kuihtes riden out on a rowe. 
On stedes white and blake. 

Ki/ng of Tars, L 499. 

Beme, s. Bohemia. 
Bemene, v. (A.-S. benuenan.) To 
lament for. 

The kyng of Tars out of his sadel fel. 
The blod out of his wounde wel, 
Mony mon hit bement. 

Kyng of Tars, 1. 1088. 

Bemete, r. {A.-S.) To measure. 

Bemoil, v. To bemire, or be- 

Thou should'st have heard, in how miry 
a place ; how she was bemoil'd. 

Shaiesp., Tarn. ofShr., iv, 1. 

Bemoistex, v. To moisten. 

Bemole, s. a term in music, 
B molle, soft or flat. 

Bemonster, v. To make mon- 
strous. Shakesp. 

Bem COKED, ad/. Dirtied, defiled; 
literally, bemucked. Palsgrave. 

Bemused, adj. Dreaming ; intoxi- 

Bemy, s. a terra in music ; per- 
haps B my, or middle, between 
flat and sharp. 

Ben, (1) ». {A.-S. ben.) To be. 
(2) adj. Prompt ; ready. Gaw. 
{Z) s. pi. {A.-S.) Bees. 

(4) *. pi. {A.-N.) Goods. 

(5) adv. {A.-N.) Well ; good. 

(6) prep. In ; into. Yorksh. 
{7) s. {A.-N.) The truth. Z)«;o». 

(8) The " true ben," the utmost 
stretch or bend. Exmoor. 

(9) s. A figure set on the top of 
the last load of the harvest, im- 
mediately in front, dressed up 
with ribbons, &c. Norf, 




(10) #. Oil of ben (benzoin), 
an ointment formerly in great 

Benar, adj. Better. A cant term. 

Benature.s. (y^.-A^.) A vessel con- 
taining the holy water. 

Bench, s. The shelf of a rock run- 
ning to a main joint. A term 
among quarry-men in Northamp- 

(2) s. A widow's bench, a share 
of the husband's estate which a 
woman enjoys besides her join- 
ture. Sicssex. 

Benchcloth, 8. A carpet to cover 
a bench. " Benchclothe or carpet 
cloth, tapes." Huloet. 

Benched, adj. Furnished with 

Bencher, s. An idler; one who 
spends his time on the benches of 

Bench-floor, «. In the coal mines 
of Wednesbury in Staffordshire, 
the sixth parting or laming in the 
body of the coal. 

Bench-hole, s. The hole in a 
bench, ad levandum alvum. 

Bench-table, s. ■ A low stone seat 
round the inside of the walls of 
a building. 

Bench-whistler, ». An idler, who 
spends his time chiefly on the 
alehouse bench. 

Bend, ». (1) {A.-S.) A bond; any- 
thing which binds. 
Mi lord the douke, lie seyd anon, 
For scliame late the levedis gon, 
Tliat er bothe gode and heiide 1 
For ich am comen hider to-day 
For to saven hem, yive y may. 
And bring hem out of betide. 

Amis and Amiloun, 1. 1233. 

(2) A band of men. 

(3) A band; anything bound 
round another ; a tie. 

(4) A turn of a forest. 
A lierd of deer was in the bend. 

All feeding before liis face : 
Now the best of vou I'll have to my dinner, 
And that in a tittle space. 

£obin Hood and hit Cousin Scarlet. 

(5) Strong ox leather, tanned 
with bark and other ingredients, 
which give it a blue cast. 

(6) Indurated clay. North. 

(7) The border of a woman's 
cap. North. 

(8) A piece of bent plate-iron, 
which went over the back of the 
last horse at plough. Leie. 

(9) (A.-N.) A band or bandage; 
a horizontal stripe. 

Bended, part. p. Bound. Maun- 

Bendel, 8. {A.-N.) A band, or 
stripe ; a bendlet. 

BENDiNG,/?aW.a. Striping ; band- 

Bend-leather, s. Sole-leather. 

Bendsfull, *. Bands-full ; bun- 

Bendware, 8. Hardware. Staff. 

Bend with, a. The name of a 

Bene, (1) v. To be. 

(2) 8. Bane ; destruction. 

(3) 8. A bean. 

(4) 8. {A.-S.) A prayer ; a re- 

(5) adv. (A.-N.) WeU; fair; 
good. Gaw. 

Beneaped, part. p. {A.-S. ) Left 
aground by the ebb of the spring 
tides. South. 

Beneday, *. A prayer-day. 

Benedicite. (Lat.) An exclama- 
tion equivalent to Bles8 tcs ! 

Bknediction-posset, 8. The sack- 
posset taken on the evening of 
the wedding day, just before the 
company retired. 

Benefice, s. (A.-N.) A benefit. 

Benefit,*. A living; a benefice. 

Be^eme, V. (A.-S.) Totajteaway; 
to take from. 

^ee jyven hem all jowre powere, and 
lorte jyve hem jee benemen me, and 
nevere the lattere y myghte nevere 
have 80 mnche power as jow. 
I Romance of the Monk, MS., f. 14i 




Be>?emerent, adj. (Lat.) Well 

BEXEMPT,/;ar/. p. Named; called. 
Bekerth, s. The service which 

the tenant owed the landlord hy 

plough and cart in Kent. Lam- 

Benethe, v. To begin. Cov. Myst. 
Benetoire, 1 ». a cavity or small 
benature, J hole in the wall of a 

church, generally near the door, 

for the vessel that contained the 

holy water. 
Benevolence, s. A voluntary gra- 
tuity given by the subjects to the 

Benevolers, ». Well wishers. Pas^. 

Lett, ii, 336. 
Bexewith, s. The woodbine. Pr.P. 
Bexge, v. To drink deeply. So- 
Benger, «. A chest for corn. 

Pr. P. 
Bexgy, adj. Cloudy; overcast. 

Bexigne, adj. (Laf.) Kind. 
Benime, v. To take away. See 

Benison, *. (A.-N.) A blessing. 
Ben-joltram, *. Brown bread 

soaked in skimmed milk; the 

usual breakfast of ploughboys. 

Bene, s. (A.-S.) A bench. 
Ben-kit, ». A wooden vessel with 

a cover to it. Line. 
Bennet, s. The bent grass, or 

bents. Somerset. 
Bennick, s. a minnow. Somerset. 
Benome, part. p. of beneme. Taken 

BENOTHiNGED.parf.jj. Annihilated. 
Benow, adv. By this time. North. 
Bense, «. A cow-stall. North. 
Bensil, ». To thrash; to beat. 

Bent, (1) «. A plain ; a common ; a 

field ; a moor ; a common term in 

early English poetrv. 

(2) #. The declivity of a hill. 

(3) t. A kind of grass, more 
usually known as bents. 

(4) 8. A chimney. North, 

(5) s. Form; shape. 

(6) adj. Ready. 

Bents, *. pi. Different kinds of 
hard, dry, coarse grasses, ree<is, 
and rushes ; the grounds, or pas- 
tures, on which they grow. Lif- 
ferent writers apply the term to 
the juncus bulbosus; the star- 
wort; the arundo arenaria; the 
alopecurus geniculatus ; and the 

His spear a lent both stiflf and strong, 
Aud well near of two inches long. 

Drayton's Nymphidia, ii, 466. 

Next to that is the musk-rose ; then tlie 
strawberry leaves dying, with a most 
excellent cordial smell ; then the flower 
of the vines ; it is a little dust, likr the 
dust of a hent. Lord Bacon's Essays. 

June is drawn in a mantle of dark ^^ss 
green ; upon his head, a garland of if »<«, 
king-cups, and maideu-hair. 

Peacham, p. 419. 

Bknters, s. Debentures. 
Bentles, s. Dry sandy pastures 

near the sea covered chiefly with 

bent-grass. East. 
Benwyttre, «. The woodbine. 

Benzamyne, "1 ». Benzoin, a kind 

benzwine, J of resin. 
Beo, (1) V. (A-.S.) To be 

(2) prep. By. 
Beode, (1) V. To pray; to offer. 

See Bede. 

(2) *. A prayer. 
Beoryng, s. (1) Burying; a fu- 

(2) Birth ; ». e., child-bearing. 
Beon, v. (A.-S.) To be. 

And tellen we schulen of Ysay, 

That us tolde trewely 

A child ther is i-boren to us. 

And a sone i-^iven us 

Wlios nome schal i-uempned beon 

Wonderful, as me may i-seon. 

Fenion MS., Bi dleian library. 

Beoth, prest. t. of beon. Bej 
are ; is. 




Beouten, jjrcp. (A.-S.) Without. 
Bepinch, v. To pinch all over. 

Amongst the rest, was a good fellow devill, 
feo cal'd in kinds, cause be did no evUl, 
Knowne by the name of Robin (as we 

And that bis eyes as broad as sawcers 

were : 
Wlio came anights, and would make 

kiteliins cleane. 
And in the bed bepinch a lazie queane. 
Eoalands, Knaves of Spades, ^c, 1613. 

Beqdarr£, «. B sharp. An old 
musical term. 

^^^ir, \ (1) «• Beer. 

HERE, J ^ ' 

(2) s. A berry. 

(3) t. A bier. 

Kow frendschip, suld je fande 
Of sir Pliilip jowre fere. 

To bring ^ow out of band, 
Or je be broght on here. 

Minot's Poems, p. 24. 

(4) part. p. Carried. 

(5) 8. The space a person runs in 
order to leap with impetus. North, 

Berafrynde, ». A drinking term. 

King Edward and the Shepherd, 

Hartshome, p. 48. 
Berand, part. a. (1) Rushing; 


(2) Bearing. 
Berandyles, s. Thenameofadish 

in ancient cookery. 

For to make berandyles. Nym hennys, 
and seth hem wylh god buf, aud wlian 
hi ben sodyn, nym the hennyn, and do 
awey the bonys, and bray smal yn a 
mortar, and temper yt wyth the broth, 
and selh yt tliorw a culdore, and cast 
thereto powder of gyngevyr, and sugar, 
and graynys of powmys-gernatys, and 
boyle yt, and dresse yt in dysches ; and 
cast above clowys, gylofres, and maces, 
aud god powder; serve yt forth. 

Warner, Antiq. Culin., p. 40. 

Berascal, v. To abuse like a rascal. 
Berate, v. To scold. 
Berattle, v. To rattle. 
Berayed, part. p. (1) Arrayed ; 


(2) Dirtied- 
Brraixe, v. To wet with rain ; to 


Berber, s. The barberry. 

Berbine, s. The verbena. Kent. 

Bercel, T 
BERSEEL, 8. (A.-N. bersoult.) 
BERTEL, y A mark to shoot at. 
BYSSELLE, j Prompt. Parv. 


Bercelets, 8. pi. Hounds. See 

Bercen, 8. The barton of a house. 

Berche, adj. Made of iron. 
Berd, s. a beard. 
Berdash, s. a neck-cloth ? 

I have prepared a treatise against ths 
cravat and berdash, whicli I am told ia 
not ill done. Guardian, Mo. 10. 

Berde, 8. (1) Margin; brink. 


(2) A lady. See Bird. 
Bere, (1) *. {A.-S.) A noise; a 

roar ; a cry. 

(2) V. (A.-S.) To make a noise. 

(3) s. A pillow-case. See PilloW' 

(4) V. To bear; to carry. 

(5) V. To bear ; to produce 

(6) 8. A bear. 

(7) ». To bear upon ; to accuse. 
Bere-bag, s. One who bears a bag. 
Berede, v. (A.-S.) To advise. 
Bere-franke, s. a wooden cage 

to keep a bear or boar in. Mo- 
nastic Letters, p. 269. 

Beren, v. To bear. See Bere. 

Berent, v. To rent ; to tear. 

Beretta, 8. A kind of hood worn 
by priests. Hall, Satires, iv, 7. 

Berfrey, 8. A moveable tower. 

Berger, 8. {Fr.) A term in hair- 

A berger, is a little lock, plain, with a 
puff turning up like the ancient fashion 
used by shepherdesses. 

Lady's Dictionary, 1694. 

Bergeret, 8. (A.-N.) A sort of 

song. Chaucer. 
Bergh, *. A hill. Yorish. 
Bergomask, «. A name for a rustic 

dance, taken from Bergamasco, 




the people of which were ri- 
diculed for being more clownish 
than any other people in Italy ; 
they were on this account made 
the types of all the Italiau buf- 

Beuhegor, 8. Beer-aigre. 

Berialles, s. Beryls. 

Berie, *, A grove ; a shady place. 

The cell a chappell Lad on tli' easterne side, 
Upon the wester side a grove or herie. 

Orl. Fur., xli, 57. 

Beriel, «. (1) A burial. 
(2) A tomb ; a grave. 
Bering, s. The lap. 

Al so he lay in slepe by nyght. 
Him ihoughte a goshaukwith gret flygM 
Steleth on his hcyng. 
And yenith.and sprad abrod his wyngyn. 
K. Alisaunder, 1. 484. 

Bering-case, s. A portable casket. 
Beringe-lepe, 8. A basket. Pr. P. 
Berispe, v. To disturb. 
Berke, v. To bark. 
Berlin, s. The name of a kind of 
coach in use at the beginning of 
the eighteenth century, so called 
from being first used in the Prus- 
sian capital. 
Beware of Latin anthors all ! 

Kor think your verses sterling, 
Though with a golden pen you scrawl, 
Ana scribble in a lerlin. ' Swift. 

Berlina, ». A pillory. B. Jotison. 
Berly, adj. Barry, an heraldic 

Berme, (1) V. {J.-S.) To foam. 

(2) s. Foam ; froth. 

(3) s. Yeast ; barm. 
Bermen, s. Bar-men ; porters to 

a kitchen. 
Two dayes ther fastinde he yede, 
That non for his werk wolde'him fede ; 
The thridde day lierde he calle ; 
"Bermen, bermen, hider forth alle !" 
Mavelok, 1. 868. 

Bermoothes, 8. The Bermudas. 

Bermudas, ». A cant term for 
certain obscure and intricate 
alleys in London, m which per. 

sons lodged who had occasion to 
live cheap or concealed; called 
also the Streights. They are 
supposed to have been the nar- 
row passages north of the Strand, 
near Covent-garden. 

Meercraft. Engine, when did you see 

My cousin Everhill? keeps he still your 

In the Bermudas. 

Eng. Yes, sir, he was writing 

This morning very hard. 

B. Joiis., Devil an Ass, il. 1. 

Bermudas also denoted a species 
of tobacco; probably brought 

Wliere being furnished with tinder, 
match, and a portion of decayed Bar- 
moodAs, they smoake it most terribly, 
Clitus's Whimz., p. 135. 

Bern, (1) s. {A.-S. beom.) A man ; 
a knight ; a noble. 

(2) 8. (J..S.) A child. 

(3) «. A barn. 
Bernaclk, 8. A gag for a horse. 
Berners, s. Men who stood with 

relays in hunting ; the men who 
fed the hounds. 
Berowe,! ^ 


Berowne, adj. Round about. 
Berrier, 8. A thrasher. North. 
Berry, (1) *. A gooseberry. 

(2) V. To thrash com. North, 

(3) 8. A rabbit-burrow. 

A manie schoUers went to steale conies, 
and by the way they wam'd a novice 
among them to make no noise for feare 
of skarring the conies away. At last he 
espying some, said aloud in Latiue: 
" Ecce cuniculi multi ;" and with that 
the conies ranne into their berries. 
Wherewith his fellowes offended and 
chyding him therefore, he said, " Who 
(the devill) would have thought that 
conies understood Latine." 
Copley's Wits, Fits, and Fancies, 1614. 

(4) «. A herd of conies. 

(5) «. A flood. 

Croscia d'dcque, a suddaine sliowre, a 
storme, a tempesi, a blustring, a berry 
or tlaw of many windes or siormes to- 
getiier, bringing violent ghowres of 
water. Florio. 




(6) s. A borough. 
Berseel, 8. A mark to shoot at. 

See Bercel. 
Berselet, s. a kind of bow ? 
Berst, (1) prest. t. of here. 


(2) pret. t. of breke. Broke. 

(3) «. {A..S.) Injury. 

The levedi, sore adrad withalle, 
Ladde Beves into the halle. 
And of evericlie sonde. 
That him com to houde, 
A dide hire ete altlicrferst, 
That slie ne dede him no berst; 
And drinke ferst of the win, 
That no poisoun was therin. 

Bevea of Uamtoun, p. 75. 

Bert, (1) v. To perspire. North. 

(2) adj. Bright. 
Beruffianise, v. To abuse like a 

Berunge, s. a burial. 
Berwe, s. a shadow. See Berowe. 

berye, J ^ ^ 

Berwham, s. a horse-collar. 

Beryll, 8. Apparently some rope 
belonging to a ship. Cocke Lovel- 
ies Bote, p. 12. 

Beryne.s. a child. MorteArthure. 

Beryse, 8. Berries. 

BERY5T,/>re«. t. oi here. Beareth. 

BER5E, 8. A mount; a hill. 

Bes, j»rc». t. of be. 

Besage, s. {A.-N.) a bed carried 
by horses, called besage horses. 

Besaguy, a. {A.'N.) A two-edged 

Besant, 8. A gold coin, so called 
because first coined at Byzan- 
tium. Its value seems to have 
varied from ten to twenty sols. 

Bescatter, v. To scatter over. 

Beschade, v. To shadow. 

Bescorned, adj. Despised. 

Bescratche, v. To scratch. 

Bescro, v. To beshrew. 

Bescummer, T v. To scatter or- 
BESGUMBEa, f dure. 

Which workiiig strongly with 
The conceit of the patient, would make 

them bescummer 
To th' height of a mighty purgation. 

B. ^ n., Fair Maid of the Inn, iv. 

A critic tliat all the world bescumbers 
With satirical humours and lyi-ical num- 
bers. Jons., Poetaster, act v. 

Bese, v. To see; to behold; ^o 

see to ; to take care. 
Beseek, v. To beseech. 
Beseeme, v. To seem ; to appear. 
Besene, part. p. Clad ; adorned. 
Besenys, s. Business. 
Besbt, part. p. Placed; employed; 

Beshake, v. To shake roughly. 

The country fellow by the fist did take him, 

And in plaiue rusticke manner did beshake 

him. Rowlands, Knave of Spades, 1613. 

Besharf, v. To make haste. 
Var. dial. 

Beshet, part. p. Shut up. 

Beshine, v. To give light to. 

Beshote, joar/. jo. Dirtied. Lane. 

Beshradde, part. p. Cut into 

Beshrewe, v. (A.-S.) To curse. 

BzsiDE, prep. By the side of. 

Besidery, 8. A kind of baking- 
pear. Kersey. 

Besieged, part. p. An astrologi- 
cal term applied to a planet when 
between the bodies of two male- 

Besien, v. To busy ; to trouble. 

Besight, s. (A.-S.) Scandal ; of- 

Besiship, *. Activity. 

Besit, v. To suit; to become. 

Beskyfte, part. p. Thrust off; 
shifted off. 

Beslabber, "1 V. To slobber one- 


Beslomebed, part. p. Dirtied. 
Piers PL 

Beslurry, ». To smear; to de- 
file. Drayton. 

Besme, «. A besom. Pr. P. 




Besmirch, v. To soil ; to daub ; 

to smear. Shakesp. 
Besmotered, part. p. Smudged. 

But he ne was nought gay, 
Of fustyau he wered a gepoun. 
All bysmoterud, with his liaburgeonn. 
Chaucer, C. 2'., 1. 76. 

Beshudge, v. To soil or blacken 

with dirt or soot. 
Besmut, v. {A.-S. besmytan.) To 

soil, or blacken with smut. 
Besnow, v. {A.-S. besniwan.) To 

scatter over like snow ; to whiten. 
Beso, cow;. So be it. Maundevile. 
BESorTE, pret. t. Besought. 
Besognio, 8. {Ital.) A beggar. 
Besore, v. To vex; to annoy. 
Besort, (1) V. To suit ; to fit. 

(2) *. Attendance; society. 

Besparage, v. To disparage. 

Yet am 1 not against it, that these men 
by tlieimiechanicall trades should come 
to besparage gentlemen and chuff-headed 

Nash's Pierce Pennilesse, 1592. 

Bespaul, v. To daub with spittle. 

BespeIjT, part. p. Bewitched ; mis- 
chievous, without being vicious. 

Bespeken, v. To speak to ; to 

Besperpled, part. p. Sprinkled. 

Be-spoke, joar/. J?. Bewitched. 

Besprenged, "I j!?ar^. />. Besprin- 

BE8PRENT, _| klcd. 

And found the springing grass with blood 
besprent. Fairfax's Tasso, p. 191. 

Bespurt, v. To spurt; to cast 

BEsaciTE, s. Biscuit. 
Bessen, r. {A.-N. baisser.) To 

stoop Leic. 
Bessomb, v. {A.-S. besttnmman.) 

To swim ; to sail. 
Bessy, s. A female bedlamite. See 

Best, ». {A.-N.) An animal; a 

Bestab, v. To stab all over. 

With all my heart I'le spend a crowne or 

To meete the rascall in my dish againe : 
1 would bestab his skin like double cuts. 

Rowlands, Knave oj Clubbs, 1611. 

Bestad, s. (.<^.-5.) Circumstanced; 
beset; provided. 

Sum soujte thayre maystnrs, sum hit 

thaym that day, 
Sum ran here and there, like men that 

were madde. 
Sum were ryght hevyand harde bestadde, 
Ryght besy'in thayre wittes away to eoo, 
AUVas for the best, oure Lorde wold it, 

shulde be so ! ilS. Bibl. Reg., 17 D, xv. 

BESTARRED,^ar#. p. Covered with 

Bestial, ». {A.-N.) Cattle. 
Bestially, adv. Beastly. 
Bestiate, v. To make like a beast. 
Bestly, adv. Belonging to a 

beast. Chaucer, 

BeSTOE, T ti i- 

, I ^ Reception. 


They find as bad bestoe as is their portage 

Warner's Albions England, 159ii 

Bestow, v. (1) To lay up; to stow 
away. East. 

(2) To commit suicide. Line. 

(3) To deliver a woman. 
Bestract, \adj. Mad; dis 

bestr AUGHT, J tractcd. 
Bestud, v. To ornament with 

Beswike, v. (A.-S. beswican.) To 

betray ; to deceive ; to cheat. 
Besy, adj. Busy. 

Besyttyn. To set in order. Pr. P. 
Bet, (1) adj. (A.-S.) Better. 

(2) part. p. Beaten. 

(3) part. p. Bettered ; improved. 
\a) pret. t.ioT behet. Promised. 
(5) Go bet, go along, an old 
hunting cry, often used in a more 
general sense. 

Betake, ». {A.-S.) To give; to 

intrust to. See Beteche. 
Betalk, v. To tell ; to give an 

account. Drayton. 
Betars, s. a word used in the 

accounts of the proctors of the 




church of St. Giles, Oxford, for an 
article used at the festival of that 
saint, which has been a subject of 
some discussion, and is supposed 
to mean bitters, or bitter herbs 
dried. In the earlier half of the 
16th cent, there is a regular 
charge in the parish accounts of 
7d. for a pound of belars or bet- 
ters. One of these items seems 
to throw some light on the sub- 
ject: "Comp. 1540. It. for a 
pound of Judas betars Id." Ano- 
ther item occurs occasionally, not 
only in these accounts, but in 
those of other churches, " for a 
pound of betars for Judas light." 
This item, coupled with others, 
for " wax for the dedication day, 
2Qd." — "for a pound of wax at 
dedication day" — "for 4 pound 
of wax at S. Gyles tyde 2s. 6d." 
— " It. for gress (grease) at the 
dedication day," &c., has led to 
the supposition that the betars 
were mixed with combustible 
matter, to cause a smell in burn- 
ing. See, however, Betyng- 

Betattered, adj. Dressed in rag- 
ged clothes. 

Betaughte, pret. p. of beteche. 
Gave to. 

Betayne, s. {A,-N.) The berb 

Betawder, v. To dress gaudily. 

Go, get ye home, and trick and betawder 
yourself up like a right city lady. 

Mrs Bekn, City Heiress, 1628. 

Bete, (1) ». {A.-S.) To amend ; to 
heal ; to abate. " Bete my bale," 
bring me relief from my misfor- 

(2) To light or kindle a fire ; to 
administer fuel. 

(3) {A.-S.) To prepare ; to make 

(4) s. Help ; assistance. Skinner. 

(5) V. {A.-S.) To beat. 

(6) ». To walk up and down. 

(7) part. p. Bit. 

(8) «. A black-beetle. Devon. 
Beteche, v. {A.-S. betecan.) To 

give; to intrust to; to deliver 

Beteem, v. To bestow ; afford ; al- 
low ; deign. 

Yek could he not beteeme 

The shape of any other bird than eagle for 
to seeme. Golding's Chid Metamph. 

And poore heart (were not wishing in 
vaine) 1 could beteeme her a better 
match, than tlius to see a diamond 
buried in seacoale-ashes. 

Case is alter'd, Dram. Dialogue, 1635. 

Therefore the Cretan people much esteemed 

And cal'd him God on earth for his rare 

Much honor he receiv'dwhich Witybeteem'd 

And in their populer judgements held it fit 
To burne hira mirrhe and insence, lor they 

deem'd him 
Worthy alone amongst the Gods to sit. 
Hey wood's Great Britaines TVoy, 1609. 

Betel, s. A hammer. 

Betelle, v. {A.-S.) To deceive; 

to mislead. 
Beten, part. p. Beaten ; worked ; 

Betending, prep. Concerning; 

relating to. Yorksh. 
BKTU,pres. t, of ben. Be; are. 
Bethe, 1 ,. 
bethen, J •^* 
Bethekys, prep. Betwixt. 
Bethink, (1) p. (^.-&) To grudge. 

(2) To recollect. North. 
Bethral, v. To enthral. 
Bethuixt, ^rq». Betwixt. 
The prest taketh that ilke child 

In his hondcn bythuixle. 
And seith, Ich ne cristin thei naujt, 
jef thou ert i-cristned. 

William de Shoreham. 

Bethwins, 8. The wild clematis. 

Betide, v. (A.-S.) To happen. 

Betined, a<f;. Hedged about. Fer- 

Betle, arf;.Soft ; fitted for cultiva- 
tion ; applied to land. North. 





HK, J 

V. {A..N.) To be- 

Betoatled, adj. Imbecile ; stupid. 

BTs.TOKv^, oiheteche. Gave. 

Betossed, adj. Troubled. 

Betouse, v. To drag about. 

Betraitor, v. To call one traitor. 

Betrappe, v. To entrap; to en- 

betratse, . 
bitraisshe, J 

Betrax, s. a bretesche, or bat- 
tlement. Pr. P. 

Betrayne, ;jar/. t. Betrayed; de- 

Betraysshe, v. To go about the 
streets of a town. Palsgrave. 

B^TVLEv, part. p. Prevailed; con- 

Betreiht, part. p. Sprinkled. 

Betrim, v. To adorn ; to deck. 

Betso, «. The smallest coin cur- 
rent in Venice, worth about a 

And what must I give you ? 
Sra. At a word thirty livres, I'll not 
bate you a betso. Antiquary, 0. PI., x. 47. 

Bett, v. To pare the turf with a 
breast-plough. Herefordsh. 

Bettaxb, s. a pickaxe. Devon. 

Bette, a^/- (1) Good. Herefordsh. 
(2) Better. 

Bettee, s. An instrument used 
by thieves to wrench doors open. 

Bettelynges, s. Battlings ; bat- 
tles. Latimer. 

Better, adj. More. Var. dial. 
" Shee has now gotten the better 
way of him," i. e., beat him in 

Better-cheap, «. A better bar- 
gain; cheaper. 

Bettermost, superl. of better. 

Betterness, «. Superior. North. 

Betty-tit, s. The titmouse. Si^- 

Betwan, s. An open wicker bot- 
tle or strainer, put over the vent- 
hole in brewing to px'event the 

grains of malt passing through. 

Betwattled, adj. Confounded; 

stupified ; troubled in mind. 
Betwit, ». To taunt ; to upbraid. 
Betwixen, prep. Between. 
Betyng-candle, s. a candle 

made of resin and pitch. Sharp's 

Cov. Myst., p. 187. 
Betynge, s. a rod, any instrument 

of 1 unishment. Pr. P. Buff. 
Bevel, (1) s. A sloped surface in 


(2) V. To cut an antle. 

(3) s. {A.-N.) A violent push 
or stroke. North. 

(4) s. A kind of square used by 
masons and carpenters. Cot- 

Bever, (1) s. (A.-N.) An inter- 
mediate refreshment between 
breakfast and dinner; any re- 
freshment taken between the re- 
gular meals. See Beaver. 

Appetitus. Your gallants never sup, 
breakfast, nor bever without me. 

Lingua, 0. PL, v. 148. 
He is none of those same ordinary 
eaters, that will devour three break- 
fasts, and as many dinners, without any 
prejudice to their bevers, drinkiugs, or 
suppers. B. ^ Ft., Worn. Hater, i, 3. 
(2) V. (perhaps from A.-S. 
bifian.) To tremble ; to quiver. 

Beveraohe, 8. (A.-N.) Drink ; 

Bev£raoe,«. (A.-N.) (1) The same 
as bever. 

(2) Reward ; consequence. Rob. 

(3) A composition of cider, wa- 
ter, and spice. Devon. See 

Bever-ken, s. a cant term for a 
drinking house. 

Is the top of the shire. 
Of the bever ken, 
A man among men. 

Wits Recreations, 1645. 

Bevish, ». To fall headlong. North. 




Bevy, a, (A.-N.) A company; 
a term properly applied to dif- 
ferent sorts of game, as roebucks, 
quails, and pheasants. An old 
MS., perhaps out of compli- 
ment, speaks of " a bevey of 

Bewaile, v. To cause, or compass. 

As when a ship that flyes fayre under 

All hidden rocke escaped hath nnwares, 
That lay in waite her wrack for to bncaiU. 
Sj>e)i3.,F. Q.,l,\i,l. 

Bewaped, part, p. Astonished. 

See Awhape. 
Bewared, part. p. Expended. 
Be WE, (1) ». To bow ; to obey. 

(2) g. Drink ; liquor. 
Bewed, v. To wed. 
Beweld, "1 V. (A.-S.) To wield ; 
BEwiELD, J to possess ; to govern, 

or sway. 

The whiche shnlde seme to be true, for 
so much as tliis Eadwalyn was of lawful 
age to bexelde his lande when his father 
dyed. Fabian's Chronicle, p. 124. 

Bewexded, ^ar/.^. Turned about. 
Bewepe, v. To weep for; to 

Bewes, s. Boughs. 
Bewet, adj. Wet ; moist. 
Bewete, s. Beauty. 
Bewgle, s. a bull. HampnTi. 
Bewhisper, v. To whisper. 
Bewits, *. The leathers with which 

the bells were fastened to the 

legs of a hawk. 
Bewiver, v. To bewilder. Devon. 
Bewly, adj. Shining ; having a 

lustre. Warw. 
BEwosD,part.p. (A.-S.) Imposed 

upon ; embarrassed. 
Beword, v. (A.-S.) To become. 

Wee mused all what would hereof hemord. 
Tkynne's Debate, p. 61. 

Bewrap, v. To wrap up. 

Bewray, ^ 
bkwrey, (1) V. {A.-S.) To 

bewrie, ^ betray; to (Usco- 
BEWRiGHE, ver. 


(2) V. To defile with ordure. 

Bewreckt, part. p. Wrecked, 

Bewrought, part. p. Wrought ; 

Bewtese, 8. Civilities; cere- 

Bex, 8, The beak of a bird, Norf. 

Bey, (1) 8. {A.-S.) An ornament 
of the person. See Beigh. 

(2) pret. t. Bowed. 

The wolf bey adoun his brest, 
And gon to siken harde and atronge. 
Reliq. Antiq . ii, 376. 

(3) *. An ox. 

And as concemyng beys, all ffate beys, 
excepte a very ffewe for the howse, be 
sold, and mych of the stuf of howshold 
is conveyd awey. 

M'maatie Letters, p. 151. 

(4) 8. A boy. Pr. Pare. 
Beye, (1) V. To aby ; to atone for. 

(2) V. To buy. 

(3) adj. Both. 

(4) «. A bee. 

For the flyes that are abonte the water 
of Egipte, and for the beyes in the 
Asirians londe. 

CoverdaWs Bible, Esay, ch. vii. 

Beyetk, (1) V. To beget; pro- 
Ye sire, heo seide, be seint Katerin, 
Yif halvendel the child were thyn. 

Then miht ye gladnes seo. 
Dame, he seide, how is that ? 
Nis hit not myn that ich beyat ? 
No, sire, i-wis, seith heu. 

Kyng of Tars,\.im. 
(2) 8. An obtaining; gaining; 
{i) part. p. Begotten. 
Beyghed, part. p. Bowed. 
Beyke, ». (1) To beck ; to warm. 

(2) To stretch. Pr. P. 
Beyn, adj. Pliant, flexible. Pr. P. 
Beyne, adv. Quickly ; readily. 
Beynesse, adj. Lively; quick. 

Beytk, s. (1) A sharper. North. 

(2) A bait ; a snare. 
Bez. Be; is. 

Bezantler, 8. The second antlei 
of a stag. 




Bezonian, "Is. (from Ital. be- 
BESsoGNE, J sogno, or besognoso.) 
A beggar. Shakesp. 

What Bezonian is that? 
Middletan's Blurt Master Constable. 
Beat tlie bessognes that lie hid in the 
Brome, Gov. Gard. veeded, act r, so. 3. 

Bezzle, \ P. {A.-N.) To drink to 
BizLE, /excess. 

'Sfoot, I wonder how the inside of a 
tavern looks now. Oh! when shall I 
bizU, bizle ? Honett Whore, part ii. 

That divine part is soakt away in sinne, 
In sensual lust, and midnight bezeluig. 
Mariton, Scourge of V., Lib. ii, Sat. 7. 

Bezzle, s. The slanting side of the 
edge of an edged tool. Norf. 
(2) g. A drunkard. 
Oh me! what odds there seemeth 'twixt 

their cheer 
And the swoln bezzle at an alehouse fire. 
Hall's Satires, v, 2. 

Bezzled, adj. Turned, blunted, as 
the edge of a tool. Suffolk. 

Bi, s. (A.-S. by, bye.) A town or 

Balder bern was non in bi. 
His name was hoten sir Gii. 

Ch/ of H'ancike, p. 267. 

BiACON-WEED, *. The plant goose- 
foot. Dorset. 

BiALACoiL, s. (A.-N.) Courteous 

Bias, \ (1) adv. {Fr. biais.) In 
BiAZ, J a sloping manner. 

(2) s. A slope, "byas of an hose, 

(3) s. Al garter. 

BiAT, (1) *. {Fr. biaut.) A leather 
strap over the shoulders, used by 
miners to draw the produce to 
the shaft. 

(2) " A kind of British course 
garment or jacket worne loose 
over other apparrell." Cotgrave. 

Bib, 1(1) V. {irom Lat. bibo.) 
BiBBE, J To drink ; to tipple. 

Tliere goeth a pretie jeast of a notable 

, drunkard of Syracusa, whose manner 

was, when he went into the taverue to 

drinke, for to laye certaine egges in the 
earth; and cover them withmouid: and 
he would not rise, nor give over bib- 
bing, till the whole war liatched. 

Holland's Pliny, \, 299. 

The muses bacely begge, otbibbe, or both. 
Warner's Albions England, 15921 

(2) 8. A fish, gadus barbatus. 

(3) s. A child's pinafore. 

(4) 8. A piece of cloth attached 
to an apron to protect the upper 
part of a dress. 

Bibbed, adj. Drunk. Chaucer. 
BiBBELER, 8. One who drinks 

I perceive you are no great bybler (i. e., 
reader of the bible), Pasiphilo. 
Pas. Yes, sir, an excellent good bib- 
beler, 'specially in a bottle. 

Gascoigne's Works, sign. C, 1. 

BiBBER, (1) ». A drinker. 
(2) V. To tremble. Kent. 

BiBBLE, V. (1) To drink ; to tipple. 
(2) V. To eat like a duck, gather- 
ing its food from water, and 
taking up both together. 

BiBBLE-BABBLE, s. Idle talk. 

BiBERiDGE, 8. A forfeit or fee in 

He is a passionate lover of morning- 
draughts, which he generally continues 
till dinner-time; a rigid exacterofnum- 
groats and collector-general of foys and 
biberidge. He admires the prudence of 
that apothegm, " lets drink first :" and 
would rather sell 20 per cent, to loss 
than make a dry bargain. 

England's Jests, 1687. 

Bible, s. Any great book. The 
most remarkable superstition con- 
nected with the Bible, is the 
method of divination by Bible 
and key, described in the Athe- 
nian Oracle, i, 425, as follows: 

A Bible having a kev fastened in the 
middle, and being held between the two 
forefingers of two persons, will turn 
round after some words said : as, if one 
desires to find out a thief, a certain 
verse taken out of a psalm is to be re- 
peated, and those who are suspected 
nominated, and if they are guilty, tlM 
book and key will turn, else not. 




It is still practised in Lancashire by 

young women who want to learn 

who will be their husbands. 
BiBLER-CATCH.s. (A Corruption of 

bilboquet.) The game of cup and 

ball. Northampt. 
BiBLE-CJ.ERKSHiP, *. An aucicnt 

scholarship in the Universities, 

for a student who was to read the 

Bible at meal-times. 
BiBLiN, *. A young bird nearly 

fledged. Leicest. 
BicACHE, V. {A.-S.) To deceive. 

Pret. t. and part, p., bicaught, 

BiCANE, s. A poor kind of grape. 
Bi-CAS, a</f. By chance. 
BiCHARRiD,7;ar^/;. (^.-5.) Over- 
turned ; deceived. 
BicHAUNTE, V. To cnchant. 
BicHE, s. A kind of fur, the skin 

of the female deer. 
BicHEij-BONES, s. Dicc. Chaucer, 
BiCHE-soNE, s. Son of a bitch. A 

term of reproach. 
BicK, s. A wooden bottle or cask 

to carry beer to the harvest fields. 

Bicker, (1) p. (^.-5.) To fight; 

to quarrel. 

(2) V. To clatter; to hasten. 

(3) 8. A short race. North. 

(4) 8. A small wooden dish 
made of staves and hoops hke a 
tub. North. 

(5) *. A beaker or tumbler glass. 
BicKERMENT, 8. A Conflict. 
BiCKORN, 8. An anvil with a 

bickern, or beak -iron. 

^iCL^vTfpart. p. Embraced. 

BiCLipPE, T ». {A.-S.) To em- 

BiCLUPPE, /brace. 

BiCLOSE, ». To enclose. 

BicoLLE, V. To blacken. 

BicoRNED, adj. Double-horned. 

Bid, "1 ». {A..S. biddan) (1) To 

BiDDE, J invite. See iWis^MeM;,xxii, 

9, "as many as ye shall find, bid 

to the marriage." Still used in 

the North, especially with re- 
ference to an invitation to a 
funeral, which is termed a bid- 
ding. Two or four people, called 
bidders, are sent about to invite 
the friends, and distribute the 

(2) To pray. North. To bid the 
beads, originally, to say pray- 
ers ; afterwards, merely to count 
the beads of the rosary; each 
bead dropped passing for a 

(3) To entreat. 

(4) adj. Both. Skinner. 
Bid-ale, s. The invitation of 

friends to drink at the house of 
some poor man, in hope of a 
charitable distribution for his re- 
lief; sometimes with a view of 
making a collection for a portion- 
less bride. 

BiDAWE, V. {A.-S.) To dawn. 

BiDcocK, 8. The water-rail. Dray- 

Biddable, adj. Obedient; trac- 
table. North. 

Bidder, s. A petitioner. 

BiDDiEs-NiE, 8. A term of en- 

Jella, why frown'st thou? Say, sweet 

Hast hurt thy foote with treading late 

awry ? Duties, Scourge of Folly, 1611. 

Bidding prayer, s. The prayer 

for the souls of benefactors in 

popish times. 
Biddy, s. (1) A louse. North, 

(2) A chicken. 
Biddy-base, ». Prisoner's base. 

Biddy's-eyes, «. The pansy. 5b- 

Bide,». {A.-S bidan) (1) To dwell; 

to abide. 

(2) To wait ; to endure. 

{3)FoTbidde. To require. North. 
BiDELVE, V. {A.-S.) To bury. 
Bidene, adv. Immediately. See 





BiDE-owE, V. To be punished, or 

suffer punishment. Kennett. An 

old Norfolk word. 
Bidet, «. {Fr.) A small horse. 
Bid-hook, s, A hook belonging to 

a boat. 
BiDowE, 8. (A.-N.) A weapon 

carried by the side, supposed to 

be a sort of lance. 

A hidowe or a baselard 
He berith be his side. 

Piers Ploughmati, p. 540. 

BiDRAVELEN, V. (A.-S.) To Slob- 

ber ; to slaver. 

Bid-stand, s. A highwayman. 

BiE, (1) V. (A.-S.) To suffer; to 
abide. See Abeye. 
{2) prep. "With. 
(3) s. A bracelet. See Beigh. 

BiEL, s. Shelter. North. 

BiELDE, V. To dwell; to inhabit. 
See Belde. 

BiENFAiT, s. (A.-N.) A benefit. 

BiENVENU, s. (A.-N.) A welcome. 

Bier, ». The Redeemer. See Ay- 

BiER-BALR, 8. Tlic church road 
for burials, along which the 
corpse was carried. 

BiERD, s. A lady. See Bird. 

BiERNE, 8. A man ; a noble. See 

BiEST, 8. A small protuberance, 
especially on the stem of trees. 

BiFFEAD, 8. A blockhead. Leic. 

Biffin, s. A sort of apple, pecu- 
liar to Norfolk, sometimes called 
beaufin ; but beefin is said to be 
the true name, from its resem- 
blance to a piece of raw beef. 

Bjfolv, part. p. Folded. 

BiFOLE, V. To make a fool of. 

BiFOREN, />rc/>. (A.-S.) Before. 

BiFORMED, adj. {Lai.) Double 

Big, a) V. {A..S.) To build. 

Neverthelesse some chronicles reporte 
That Irelamall their capitayn had to name. 
By whom it was so biggfd. 

Hardyiu/'a Chronicle, f. xxx. 

(2) V. To remain ; to continue. 

(3) 8. A kind of barley. 

(4) Big-and-big, very large, full 
big. Somerset. 

^''^^^^' L. (^.-5.) Birth. 

BESETE, J ^ ' 

BiG-END, *. The greater part. 
BiGERNYN. {A.-S.) To ensnare. 
BiG-FRESH,a<(^". Very tipsy. North. 
BiGGAYNE, s. A nun. Pakg. 
BiGGE, (1) V. To buy. Weber. 

(2) 8. A pap; a teat. E88ex. 
Usually applied to a cow. 

(3) «. A name for the hare. Reliq. 
Antiq., i, 133. 

BiGGEN, V. {\) To enlarge. 

(2) V. To begin. 

(3) V. To rise after an accouche- 
ment. North. 

(4) 8. A kind of close cap, which 
bound the forehead strongly, used 
for new-born children to assist 
nature in closing the sutures of 
the skull. Shakespeare seems to 
use the word for any coarse kind 
of night-cap. A biggen, or biggin, 
appears to have been part of the 
dress of barristers-at-law. Ken- 
nett describes it as " a cap with 
two long ears worn by young 
children and girls." 

Upon his head he wore a filthy course 
biggin, and next it a garnish of night- 
caps, with a sage butten cap of the 
forme of a cowsheard, overspred verie 
orderly. Naih, Pierce Penniless. 

Ah sir (said he, turning towards tlie 

fentleman) will you perswade me tlieii 
could shew any kindnesse to this old 
biggin' d ape ? Don't you see she has 
notliing in her but what's capable to 
strangle love and ingendtr hate ? 

History of Francion, 1655. 

Bigger, s. (A.-S.) A builder. 

BiGHES, «. Jewels. East. " She is 
all in her bighes to-day," i. e., 
best humour, best graces, &c. 
See Beigh. 




Bir,nT, ». (A.-S.) A bend, the 
hend of the elbow ; a bend in a 
river, &c. Anything folded or 
doubled. Still used in Cheshire. 

In the byit of tlie arme also 
Anojyr liys that mot be undo. 

Reliq. AiUiq. i. 190. 

BiGiNG, *. A building. 

jowre highiges sail men brenne, 
And breke jowre wallas obout. 

Minot's Poems, p. 23. 

BiGiRDLB, s. A girdle worn round 

the loins ; a purse. 
BiGiRT, ad/. Girded. 
BiGLY, adj. (1) Loudly; deeply; 

boldly ; strongly. 

A sweete youth, no doubt, for he hath 
two roses on his shoes, to qualifie the 
heat ot his feete ; he looketh very bigly, 
and conuneth prauncing in. 

T/ie Man in the Moon, 1609. 

(2) adj. Agreeable; delightful. 

BiGNiNG, s. Enlarging. 

BiGOi.D,s. Chrysanthemum. Gerarrf. 

BiGONNE, part. p. Gone; de- 

BiGRADDE, pret. t. (A.-S.) La- 

BiGRAVE, /;ar<. />. (1) Engraved. 
(2) Buried. 

BiGRYPE, V. To seize ; to include. 

BiHALVE. V. (A.-S.) To divide into 
two parts. 

BiHEDDE, 1 , 

y part. p. 


BiHELVE, s. Behalf. 

BiHEST, r. (A.-S.) To promise. 
Bihight, promised. 

BiHEWE, V. To hew to pieces. 

BiHOTE, V. (A.-S.) To promise. 

BiJEN, adv. Truly. Yorksh. 

Bike, s. A nest, especially of wild 
bees or wasps. 

Bikeche, v. (A.-S.) To deceive. 

BiKED,j»re^ /. Fought. 

BiKENNEN, V. (A.-S.) To commit 
to. See Bekenne. 

BiKERE, (1) ». (^.-5'.) To skir- 
mish ; to fight ; to quarrel. 
(2) 8. A quarrel. 


BiKNOVTEN, V. (A.-S.) To know ; 
to recognize ; to acknowledge. 

BiL, s. A fish of the cod kind. Ash. 

BiLAD, part. p. of bilede. Brought. 

BiLANDER, s. A small ship, of 
about eighty tons burthen. 

BiLAPPED, part. p. Wrapped up ; 

BiLASH, V. To flog. 

BiLAVE, V. (for bileve.) To remain. 

BiLAYE, V. To besiege. 

Bilberries, s. The vaccinium 
myrtilliLs, or vitis idma. In 
Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Che- 
shire, and most of the Northern 
counties, they are called whortle- 
berries; elsewhere hurtle-berries, 
black-worts, and wind-berries; 
but, in Cumberland, Westmore- 
land, and Lancashire, they retain 
the older name of blae- or blea- 
berries, from the colour of their 
berries, which are livid, or a 
bluish black. Perhaps bil is a 
mere corruption of blea. 

Bilbo, s. A Spanish sword, so 
named from Bilboa, where choice 
swords were made. A swords- 
man was sometimes termed a 

Bilbocatch, s. a bilboquet. The 
toy generally known as cup and 
ball. East. 
Bilboes, s. Stocks used at sea for 
the purpose of punishing of- 
Bilcock, s. The water-rail. North. 
Bild, s. (A.-S.) A building; a 

BiLDER, 8. (1) A long-handled 
mallet for breaking clods. North. 
(2) s. A builder. 
BiLDERS, 8. A kind of water- 
Bile, «. (1) (^.-5.) AboiL 

(2) Guile. 
Bilede, v. To lead about. 
BihEF, adv. Quickly ; suddenly. 

BlLEIOHE, 1 , . „\ rp u 1 

' yv. (A.-S.) Tobely. 





BiLET, ». A willow plantation. 

Bii-EVE, V. {A.-S.) (1) To remain; 

to stay. 

I know what is the peyne of deth, 

Which liann I felt, for he ne migrhte 

bylete. Chaucer. Cant. T., 1. 10,895. 

(2) To leave ; to quit. 

The smale addren, of whichewe spaake, 
Weren bileved att a lake. 

K. AUsaunder, 1. 5310. 

Bilge, v. To indent. Somers. 

BiLiBRE. 8. (Lat.) Two pounds. 

BihiT), adj. Mad; distracted. Somers. 

BiLiME, V. To deprive of liFnbs. 

BiLiNG, s. The whole number. 
Essex. See Boiling. 

BiLiTHE, *. An image. Verstegan. 

BiLivE, s. {A.-S.) Belief. 

Bilk, (1) v. To cheat; to defraud. 
(2) ». Nothing. An old cant term. 

Bill, *. (1) (A.-N.) A pike or hal- 
bert, formerly carried by the 
English infantry, and afterwards 
the usual weapon of watchmen. 

(2) (A.-N.) A letter; a petition, 
or paper of almost any kind, 

(3) A promontory. 
Billable, s. Liable to having a 

bill preferred by law. 

Billaments, s. Ornaments, espe- 
cially of a woman's head or neck. 

BiLLARD, s. A bastard capon. Suss. 

BiLLEDE prei. t. Built. 

And the day afore the kynge schulde 
have comyne to the archebysshoppe, to 
tlie seid manere of Moore, whiche the 
saide archebisshoppe hade piirehasslied 
and hyllede it ryghte comodiusly and 
plesauntly, the kynge send a gentylnian 
to the seide archebiFshoppe. 

Warkvoorth's Chronicle. 

Billet, s. (1) {Fr.) A piece of 
wood chopped into the length con- 
venient for firewood. In North- 
amptonshire the term is applied 
to cuttings of sallow for planting 
osier beds. 

(2) A stick, or cudgel. 

(3) The game of tip-cat. Derbysh. 

(4) A small bundle of half- 
threshed corn. West. 

(5) The coal-fish. 
Billetings, «. The ordure of the 


Billing, *. Working. Yorksh. 

Billingsgate, s. A fish-market in 
London, proverbial for the coarse 
language of its frequenters ; so 
that low abuse is often termed 
talking Billingsgate. 

Bill'tngs was formerly a gate, though 
now rather partus than porta, being the 
prime landing place and market for some 
sea commodities. Now, although as 
fashionable people live here as elsewhere 
in the City, yet much rude folk repair 
thither, so that one may term this the 
Esculine gate of London, from the drosse 
and dregs of the baser people flocking 
hither. Here one may hear linguas 
jurgatrices ; yea, shrewd «ords are some- 
times improved into smart blows be- 
tween them. I doubt not, but that 
Rome, Venice, Paris, and all populous 
cities, have their Billingsgate language, 
in those places where rude people make 
their rendezvous. Fuller's Worthies. 

In short, if you would please a Russian 
with musick, get a consort of Billings- 
gate nightingales, which, joyn'd with a 
flight of screech owls, a nest of jackdaws, 
a pack of hungry wolves, seven hogs in 
a windy day, and as many cats with 
their corrivals, and let them sing La- 
crymae, and that will ravish a pair of 
Russian luggs better than all the musick 
in Italy, light ayres in France, marches 
iu England, or the gigs of Scotland. 

Present Slate of Russia, 1671. 

BiLLiNSGATRY,*. Coarsc language. 

After a great deal of Billingsgatrg against 
poets. Remarks upon Remarques, 1673. 

BiLLMAN, s. (1) A man who cuts 


(2) A soldier armed with a hill. 
Billy, s. (1) A bull. Wight. 

(2) A bundle of wheat-straw. 

(3) A brother, or young fellow ; 
a term of endearment. North. 

(4) Removal, or flying off; a term 
used by boys at marbles. 

BiLLY-BiTER, 8. Tlie black-cap. 




B tI,LY-FE ATHERPOKE, S. The long- 

tailed tit. North. 
BiLLY-wix, s. An owl. East. 
BihOKE, part. p. Fastened; locked. 
BiLOWE, V. (A.-S.) To bend ; to 

BiLTER, *. The water-rail. North. 
BiLYVE, s. (J.-S.) Food. 
BiM-BOM, (1)«. The sound of bells. 

(2) s. Cobwebs. Somerset. 
BiMEBY, adv. By and by. Somerset, 
BiMELDE, V. {A.-S.) To speak of 

a thing. 

Pame, God the forjelde, 

Bote on that tliou me nout bimelde. 

Wright's Jnecd. Lit., p. 3. 

BiMENE, V. (A.-S. bemcman.) To 
lament; to pity; to bemoan. 
Part, p., himent, bemoaned. 
Pret. t., biminde, mourned, la- 

BiK. (1) Been. 

(2) adv. Being, in the sense of 
because. "Why dessunt stand 
up ?" " Bin ez cant." Devon. 

Bind, s. (1) Any indurated argilla- 
ceous substance. A mining term. 

(2) A certain number of eels; 
according to Kennett, two hun- 
dred and fifty. 

(3) A hop-stalk. South, 

(4) Anything that binds. East. 

BiND-coRN, s. Buck-wheat. 

BxND-DAYS, s. Days on which ten- 
ants were bound to reap their 
lord's corn at harvest-time. 

Binding, s. (1) A hazel rod or 
thorn, used for binding the hedge- 
tops. North. 
(2) The tiring of a hawk. 

Binding-band, s, A girdle. 

Ceinlure. A girdle, or binding -band .- a 
girth. Nomendalor, 1585. 

BiNDiNG-BEAN-TREE,«. The black- 

Binding-course,*. The top course 
of hay before it is bound on the 
cart with a rope. North. 

Binding-day, \s. The se- 

day after Easter. 

BiND-WEED, s. The wild convol- 

Bine, \s. The stalk ofthehop- 
BYNE, J plant. See Bind. In Cam- 
bridgeshire, according to Cam- 
den's Britannia, malt was called 

BiNETUEN, prep. Beneath. 

BiNG, (1) V. To begin to turn sour, 
said of milk. Chesh. 

(2) adv. Away. Decker, 

(3) V. To go. A cant term. 

(4) *. A superior kind of lead. 

(5) s. A bin. 

BiNGE, V. To soak a vessel in water 

to prevent its leaking. Line. Leic. 

It is also used in the sense of to 

soak, generally. 
BiNGER, adj. Tipsy. Line. 
BiNG-STEAD, s. The place where 

ore is deposited in the furnace. 

It was also termed bing-place, 

and bing-hole. 
BiNiME, V. {A,-S.) To take away. 
BiNK, s. A bench. North. " The biuA 

of a coal-pit," the subterraneous 

vault in a mine. 
BiNNE, adv. iA.-S.binnan.) Within. 
BiNNicK, s. A minnow. Somers. 
BiNSTEAD, s. A bay in a barn for 

housing corn. Northampt. 
BiPARTED, \adj. (Lat. biparti- 
BiPARTiTED, J tv.s.) Parted in two. 
Of Quintus Kamista his fat]ier's tliird son. 
As if one tree bare two boughs, nouis be- 
So tliQii dost all things in two parts diviue. 
If all thing else should biparlited be, 
Wliat of thy fathers gooas would nonie 1o 

thee? Owen's Epigrams, 1677. 

BiQUAssHEN, V. {A.-S.) To crush 
to pieces. 

BiRAFTE, \pret. t, oibireve, Be- 

BIRAUJTE, J reft. 

BiRCHiNG-LANE. " To Send a per- 
son to birching-lane" a proverbial 
phrase for ordering him to be 




Bird, "j «. (^.-5.) A lady. Avery 
BURD, y common word in early 
BRiD, J English poetry. 

Bird, (1) s. The pupil of the eye. 

(2) s. Any pet animal. Kent. 

(3) s. Bread. Exmoor. 
Bird-batting, s. A method of 

catching birds at night with a 

net and light. 
Bird-bolt, *. (1) A short thick 

arrow with a broad flat end, used 

to kill birds without piercing. 

(2) The burbot. 
Bird-boy, s. A boy who drives 

birds from the corn. 
Bird-call, s. A small whistle used 

to imitate the call of birds. 
Birder, s. (1) A bird-catcher. 


(2) The wild cat. 
Bird-eyed, adj. Near-sighted. 
BiRDiNG, 8. Bird-catching. 
Bird-knapping, «. Frightening 

away birds from corn by noise. 

Devon. It is termed bird-keepiiig 

in Northamptonshire. 
Bird's-eye, «.(l) Germanderspeed- 


(2) Some kind of cloth. 

1665, May 14. To church, it being Wliit- 
Sunday; my wife very fine in a new 
yelliiw bird's-eye hood, as the fashion is 
now. Pejiya' Diary. 

Birds'-heat, 8. Haws. Somerset. 
Birdsnies, 8. A term of endear- 

Dont talk to a body so ; I cannot hold 

out if vhou dost, my eyes will run over, 

poor fool, poor birdsnies, poor lambkin ! 

Olicay, Soldier's Fortune, 1681. 

Bird-tenting, «. "Watching the 
birds to drive them away from 
the corn. 

BiRE, «. (A.-S.) A stall; a cow- 

BiREDi (1) ». (A.-S.) To counsel. 
(2) part. p. Buried. 

BiRELAY, 8. {A.-N.) A virelay. 
Perhaps a mere clerical error. 

BiREPE, V. To bind. 

BiREVE, r. To bereave. 

BiREWE, V. (A.-S.) To rue. 

BiRFUL, adj. Roaring. 

Birgaxd, \s. A sort of wild 
birgander, J goose. 

Birge, s. a bridge. Northampt. 

Biriel, s. Burial; also, a grave. 

BiRK, s. A birch-tree. North. 

BiRL, 8. A rattling noise. North. 

Birlady. By our Lady. North. 

BiRLE, V. (1) {A.-S.) To pour out; 
to draw wine. 
(2) To powder; to spangle. 

BiRLER,«. The master of the reveli 
at a bidding-wedding in Cumber- 
land, one of whose duties is to 
superintend the refreshments. 

Birlet, 8. {Fr. bourlet.) A band 
for a lady's head. 

BiRNY, s. {A.-S.) A cuirass, or coat 
of mail. 

Birr, s. {A.-S.) Force; impetus; 
a rapid whirling motion. North. 

BiRRET, *. A hood. Skinner. 

BiRSE, *. A bristle. North. 

BiRSEL, V. To roast, or to broiL 

BiRT, 8. A kind of turbot. " Byrte 
fyshe, rhombus." Huloet. 

Birth, s. A place ; a station. 

BiRTHDOM, *. Birthright. 

Birth-wort, s. The aristolochia. 
The English and Greek names 
have the same signification (the 
latter from dpiara rale Xoxoigt 
i. e., good for women in child- 

Birtle, (1) adj. Brittle. East. 
(2) *. A summer apple. Yorksh. 

BiRYE, 8. {A.-S.) A city, or town. 

Bis, s. (1) {A.-N.) A silk of fine 
texture, generally described with 
the epithet purple. " Purple and 
bis " are sometimes mentioned 
separately, but the former is then 
probably used as the name of a 

Girt Winilsore Castle rounde. Anon I saw 
Under a canapie of crymsou bysse. 




Spangled with gold and set with silver beta, 
f hat sweetlie chimed, and luld me halfe a- 

PeeU's Honor of the Garter, 1593. 

(2) A black or dark grey colour. 

BisAYE, "i ». (A.-S.) To see fit; 
BYSEiGHE, J think fit. 

BiscAN, s. A finger-glove. Devon. 

BiscHEDE, V. To overflow. 

BiscHET, //ar/. p. Shut up. 

BiscHYNE, p. To shine upon. 

BiscoRE, adv. Immediately. 

BtscoT, s. (A.-S.) A fine imposed 
on the owners of marsh lands for 
not keeping them in repair. 

BiscoTiN, s. (Fr.) A confection 
made of flour, sugar, marmalade, 
eggs, and other ingredients. 

Bisc'jiT, s. A plain cake as distin- 
guished from a richerone. Sussex. 

BisE, V. {A.-S.) To look about. 

BisEGGEN, V. (a.-S.) To reproach. 

BisEKEN, "1 ». (^.-5.) To be- 
BiSECHEN, / seech. 

BisELET, s. A carpenter's tool. 

BisEMEN, V. (A.-S.) To appear. 

BisEN, adj. Blind. See Bisne. 

BisENDE, V. {A.-S.) To send to. 

BisETTEN, V. To place; to set. 

BiSGEE, *. A short-handled mat- 
tock, to serve for a pickaxe and 
axe. West. 

BisHREWE, V. (A.-S.) To curse. 

BiSHETTE, V. To shut Up. 

Bishop, (1) s. A kind of punch 
made of roasted oranges, lemons, 
and wine. The name is said to 
have been derived from a custom 
in old times of regaling bishops 
with spiced wine, when they 
visited the University. Its cha- 
racter is given in the following 
lines : 

Three cups of this a prudent man may take ; 
The ftrst of these for constitution's sake. 
The second to the lass he loves the best, 
The third and last to lull him to his rest. 

(2) «. A popular name for a lady- 

(3) r. To make artificial marks 

on a horse's tooth, in order to 
deceive buyers as to its age. 

(4) V. To confirm. Bishopping, 

Wanne tlie bisschop hisschopetk the, 
Tokene of marke he set to the. 

William de Shorehan. 

(5) 8. A pinafore or bib. Warw. 

(6) V. To water the balls, a term 
among printers. 

(7) s. " That firy round in a 
burning candle called iht bishop." 

Bishop'd milk, 8. Milk that it 
burned in the boiling, whence it 
acquires a particular taste. In 
Staffordshire it is called griev'd 
or grew'd milk. In many parts, 
especially in Shropshire and Che- 
shire, when milk is burned, in- 
stead of saying " it is bishop'd," 
the phrase is, " the bishop has 
set his foot in it." 

Blesse Cisley, good mistriss, that hxishop 
doth ban. 

For buining the milk of her cheese to the 
pan. Tusser's Husbandry. 

When a thinge speadeth not well, we 
borowe speach and saye, The bysshope 
hath blessed it, because that nothinge 
speadeth well that they medyll withall. 
if the podeche be burned to, or the 
meate over rosted, we saye. The bysshope 
hath put his fote in the potte, or The 
bysshope playd the coke, because the 
byshopes burn who thei lust and who- 
soever displeaseth them. 
TyndaU, Obedience of a Christen Man, 1535. 

BiSHOP's-FINGER, 8. A guidc-pOSt. 

BiSHOPSwoRT, s. (A.-S.) A plant, 

a species of carutn. 
BisiE, adj. {A.-S.) Busy. 
BisiLKE, 8. Some kind of silk. 

" Bisilke the groce conteyning 

xii. dossen peces, x.«." Rates of 

Custome House, 1545. 
BisiTTEN, V. To beset. 
Bisk, (1) s. A term at tennis, a 

stroke allowed to the weaker 

party to equalise the players. 

Car. I am for you at tennis. 

Prigg. I'll give'you a bisk at Longs for fen 

pound. Shadwell, True WidMO, 1679. 




-s. A biscuit. West. 

(2) V. To erase. 

This was at length complained off: and 
he was forced to beg pardon upon his 
knees at tlie council table, and send ihcra 
[the books] back again to the king's 
kitchen to be bisfd, as 1 think the word 
is ; that is, to be rub'd over witU a.u inky 

Calami/, Jccount of Ministers ejected. 

(3) a. Broth made by mixing 
several kinds of flesh. 

BiSKY, "1 

BisMARE, \s. (A.-S. bismer.) In- 
BiSMERE, J famy ; disgrace ; con- 
Of chidynge and of chalangjiige 
Was his chief liflode, 
With bakbitynge and bismere, 
Andberyuge offals witnesse. 

Piers PL, 1. 2649. 

BisME, s. {A.-N.) An abyss ; a pit. 

BiSNE, (l)s. {A.-S. bisen.) Ablind 
(2) s. {A.-S. bysn.) An example. 

BisNEwiD, part. p. Covered with 

BisxiNG, 8. Beestings. 

BisoGNio. See Bezonian. 

BisoKNE, «. Delay; sloth. Rob. 

Bison, s. A bull. 

BisPEKE, V. (I) To speak, to ac- 
(2) To counsel. 

BisPKL, *. (1) {A.-S.) A term of 
reproach. Cttmb. 
(2) A natural child. 

BispKREN, V. {A.-S.) To lock up. 

BispRENGDE, ;oar/.j». Sprinkled. 

Biss, s. {A..N.) A hind. 

BiSHADEWE, V. To shadc over. 

BissEN. Art not. West. 

BissYN, '\v. To lull children to 
BYSjYNE, J sleep. Prompt. P. 

BiST. Thou art ; art thou ? West. 

BisTANDE, V. {A.-S.) To stand 
by or near. 

BisTERE, V. To bestir. 

BiSTOCKTE, «. A stock of provi- 
sions laid by. 

BisTRETE, ndj. Scattered. 

BiswiNKEN, r. To labour hard. 

BisYHED, s. {A.-S.) Business; 

Bit, {I) pres. t. Biddeth. 

(2)*. The lower end of a poker. 
It is also used as a verb, to put a 
new end to a poker. West. 
(3) *. The nick of time. North. 

BiTAiSTE, pret. t. oibitake. Gave. 

BiTAKE, V. {A.-S.) To give ; to 
commit to. 

Bitch, s. (1) A term of reproach, 
given more especially to the 
female companion of a vagrant. 
The term " byche-clowte" is 
applied to a worthless woman, in 
the Cov. Myst., p. 218. 
(2) A miner's tool for boring 

BiTCH-DACGHTER, s. The night* 
mare. Yorksh. 

Bite. (1) To bite the ear, was once 
an expression of endearment. 
Ben Jonson has biting the nose 
in a similar sense. I'o bite the 
thumb at a person, was an in- 
sult; the thumb in this action 
represented &Jig, and the whole 
was equivalent to giving the 
fico, a relic of an obscene gestture. 

— Dags and pistols ! 
To bile his thumb at me ! 

— Wear I a sword 
To see men bite their thumbs ? 

Randolph, Muses' L. Glass, O. PI., il, 220. 

'Tis no less disrespectful to bite the nail 
of your thumb, by way of scorn and 
disdain, and drawing your nail from 
between your teeth, to "tell them you 
value not this what tliev can do. 

Rules of Civility, 1678. 

(2) V. {A.-S.) To drink. 

Was therinne no page so lite. 
That everewolde ale bite. 

Haveloi, 1731. 

(3) s. The hold which the short 
end of a lever has upon the thing 
to be lifted. 

(4) V. To smart. 
'5) To cheat. 




k merchant hearing that great preacher, 

Preach against usury, that art of biting. 
Loyal Garland, 1686 

BiTEL, s. A large wooden hammer 
used in splitting wood. Berks. 

BiTHENKE, V. {A.-S.) To COH- 

trive. Pret. t., bithought. 
^'™''^' 1*. {A..N.) A bittern. 

BITTOR, J ^ ' 

B [TRENT, adj. Twisted. 

BiTT, s. An instrsment used in 

l)lasting in mines. North. 
BiTTE, (1) s. The steel part of 

an axe. 

(2) pret. t. of Udde. Bad. 
BiTTERBUMP, s. The bittcm. Zflnc. 
BiTTERMENT, *. Arbitremcnt. Hey- 

wood, 1556. 
Bitter-sweet, 1*. A sort of 


For al suche tyme of love is lore. 

And like unto the hitter-swete ; 

I'or tliough it tliinke a man fyrst svrete. 

He shal wel felen, at laste. 

That it is sower, and maie not laste. 

Gower. ed. 1554, f. 174. 

Tliy wit is a very bitter-sweeting ; it is a 
most sharp sauce. Shakesp., Bom., ii,4. 

Wliat in displeasure gone 1 

And left me such a bitter-sweet to gnaw 

upon ? Fair Em., 1631. 

Bitter-sweet,*. The wood night- 
shade. Gerard. 
BiTTERFUL,a(i)". Sorrowful. Chauc. 
BiTTLiN, s. A milk-bowl. 
Bitton, s. a bittern. 

Stuck with ostrige, cranes, parrots, 
bittons, cockes, and capons feathers. 
Dial, between the Cap ^ the Hat, 1565. 

BiTTRE, adv. (A.-S.) Bitterly. 

BiTTYWELP, adv. Headlong. Bed^. 

BivE, s. Atwinlaml). Twin lambs 
are still called bive lambs on the 
borders of Sussex and Kent. 

BiWAKE, V. To watch; to guard. 

BiWARE, V. To warn. 

Biwente, pret. t. Turned about. 

BiwEVE, ». (1) (A.-S.) To cover. 
(2) To weave ; to work. 

BtwiccHE, V. To bewitch. 

Biwinne, v. (A.-S.) To win ; to 

Biwite, ». (A.-S.) To know. 
Biwope, part. p. Full of tears; 

Biworpe, v. (A -S.) To cast. 
Biwreye, v. To betray. 
BiYETE, V. To beget. 
Bizon, s. a terra of reproach. 

Bizz, v. To buzz. North. 
Bizzen-blind, adj. Purblind. 

BijE, V. To buy. 
Bi ETE, s. (A.-S.) Gain. 
Bi-jUNDE, jorejB. Beyond. 
Br.AA, s. Blue. Still used in 

BLAANEDjfld/' Half-dried, ybr^s^. 
Blaat, v. To bleat. Northampt. 
Blab, «. An indiscreet chatterer. 

Cacqueteur, habillard, haquenaudier, 
bavard. Ablab, a longtongue: one that 
tcUeth whatsoever he hcareth. 

Nomenclator, 1585. 

Til' Ayre's daughter Eccho, liaunting 

woods among, 
A blab that will not (cannot) keep her 

AVlio never asks, but onely answers all, 
Who lets not any her iu vain to call. 

l>u Bartas. 

Blabber, v. (1) To talk idly. 

(2) To loll out the tongue. 

To mocke anybody by hlabboring out the 
tongue is the part of waghalters and lewd 
boyes, not of well mannered children. 

Schoole of Good Manners, 1629. 

(3) To whistle to a horse. 
Blabber-lipped, ad,j. Having 

thick lips. See Blobber and Blub. 

Black, adj. Mischievous; malig- 
nant ; unpropitious. 

Black-almain, s. a kind of 

Blackamoor, s. (1) A negro. 

Tlie Moore soe pleas'd this new-made em- 
press' eie, 
That she consented to him secretive 
For to abuse her husband's marriage bed : 
And soe iu time, a blackanwre she bred. 

Percy, Beliqiics,\,^'3Z. 




(2) The bull-rush when in full 

bloom. Wight. 
Blackamoor's beahty, s. The 

sweet scabious. Somerset. 
Black and blue. The common 

phrase for a bruise of the flesh. 

But the miller's meu did so baste his 
bones, and so soundly betliwack'd him, 
that they made him both llaci and blue 
with their strokes. Rabelais, i, 29i. 

Black and whitk. Writing or 

Careful III let nothing passe without 
good blaci and tchite. 

Jacie Drum's Entertainment, a. 1. 

Black-a-vized, ad;. Dark incom- 
plexion. North. 

Black-bass, ». A measure of coal 
lying upon the flatstone. Shropsh. 

Blackberries, «. Black-currants. 

Blackberry-scmmer, «. Fine 
weather experienced at the end 
of September and beginning of 
October, when the blackberries 
ripen. Hamps. 

Black-bess, s. a beetle. Shropsh. 
In Berkshire, a black-bob; in 
Yorkshire, a black-clock; and in 
Cornwall, a black-worm. 

Black-bitch, s. A gun. North. 

Black-blegs,». Bramble-berries. 

Blackbowwowers, 8. Blackber- 
ries. North. On Michaelraas- 
day, the devil puts his foot on 
the blackberries, according to 
the general belief of the co'amon 
people. In truth, after this day 
they are seldom to be found 

Blackbrown, adj. Brunette. 

Black-bug, a. A hobgoblin. 

Black-buried, adj. In infernum 
missus. Skinner. 

Black-burnixg shame, and a 
"burning shame," are everyday 
expressions. Northampt. 

Black cap. s. The loiiapyrrhula, 
or bul&nch. Z,anc. InCumberlaud, 

this name is given to the mota- 
cilla salicaria, sedge bird, reed 
fauvette, English mock-bird, or 
lesser reed sparrow ; in Nor- 
thamptonshire, to the greater 

Black-cattle, s. Horned cattle, 
including oxen, bulls, and cows. 

Black-clock, s. The cockroach 
(blatta orientalis). 

Black-coat, s. A familiar term 
for a clergyman, as a red-coat is 
for a soldier. 

Black-cross-day, *. St. Mark's 
day, April 25. 

Blackkyed-susan, s. a well pud- 
ding, with plums in it. Susses. 

Black-fastixg, «. Rigid fasting. 
North. It is believed among the 
peasantry in Northumberland to 
be dangerous to meet a witch in 
a morning " black-fasting." 

Black feathers. Large black 
feathers were fashionablein men's 
hats about 1596. 

But he doth seriously bethinke him whether 
Of the gul'd people he bee more esteem'd, 
For his long cloake or for his great tlackt 
feather. Sir J. Davis, Epigr. 47. 

Black-foot,s.(1) One who attends 
on a courting expedition, to bribe 
the servant, make friends with 
the sister, or put any friend ofl 
his guard. North. 
(2) The name of a bird. 

Melampus, Ovid. fuXoMirov;, nigripes. 

Nomenclator, 1585. 

Black-frost, s. Frost without 

Black-grass,*. The fox-tail grass. 

Black-guard, s. Originally a 
jocular name given to the lowest 
menials of the court, the carriers 
of coals and wood, turnspits, and 
labourers in tlie scullery, who all 
followed the court in its pro- 
gresses. Hence amse the modern 
acceptation ot the word. 




Her majesty, by some meanes I know- 
not, was lodged at his liouse, Ewston, 
farre unmeet for her highnes, but fitter 
for the blacke gardt!. 

, Lodge's Illuslralions, ii, 188 . 
Will you know the companions of my 
journey? I was alone anionge a coach- 
full of women, and tliosc of the electors 
dutchesse chamber forsooth, which you 
would have said to have been of the 
blacke guard. Morison's Itinerary. 

Though some of them are inferior to 
those of their own ranke, as the blacke 
guard in a prince's court. 

Burton, Anatomy of Mel. 

Blackhead, s. A boil. West. 

Black-headed-peggy, s. The 
reed-bunting. Leic. 

Blacking, s. A kind of pudding, 
perhaps a blood-pudding, men- 
tioned in the 17th cent, as made 
in Derbyshire. 

Black-jack, s. (1) A large lea- 
ther can, used for beer. 
There's a Dead-sea of drink i'th' cellar, 
in which goodly vessels lie wreck'd ; and 
in the middle of this delude, appear the 
tops of flagons and black jacks, like 
churches drowu'di' th' marshes. 


Honour is a slippery thing, yet some 
persons will come to great i)refernient : 
as to reign sole King of tlie Pots and 
Black- Jacks, Prince of Ihe Spigot, Count 
Palatine of clean Straw and Provant, and 
Lord High Regent of Rashers of the 
Coals. Poor iJoJin, 1746, 

(2) A small black caterpillar 
which feeds on turnips. 

(3) Sulphuret of zinc, as found 
in the mines. Derbysh. 

Black-jack, "Is. A kind of 
BLACK-JERU- y greens. North- 
SALEMs, J ampt. 

Black-lad-mond.\y, «. Easter 
Monday, so called from a custom 
on that day at Ashton-under- 
Lvne, termed riding the black 

Blackmack, 8. A blackbird. 

Black-ousel, «. A blackbird. 

Black-men, a. Fictitious men, 
enumerated in mustering an 
army, or in demanding coin and 

Black-monday, a. (1) Easter 
Monday; so called from the se- 
verity of that day, April 14, 1360, 
when many of Edward Ill's sol- 
diers, then before Paris, died of 
the cold. 

(2) The schoolboy's term for the 
first Monday after the holidays. 

Black-money, s. Money taken 
by the servants, with their mas- 
ter's knowledge, for abstaining 
from enforcing coin and livery in 
certain places, to the prejudice of 

Black-mouthed Presbyterian, 
s. A man who condemns every- 
thing and accuses everybody, 
cutting ■ off the most innocent 
indulgence, as Presbyterians are 
supposed to have done. North. 

Black-neb, a. The carrion-crow. 

Black ox. The black ox haa trod 
on his foot, a proverbial phrase, 
meaning worn with age, and 
sometimes with care. 

She was a pretie wench, when Juno 
was a young wife, now crowes foote ig 
on her eye, and the black oxe hath trod 
on her foot. Lyly, Sappho Sr Ph., iv, 1. 

The blacke oxe had not trod on his or 
her foote. Heyie. on Totenham. 

Black-poles, a. Poles in a copse 
which have remained after one or 
two falls of underwood. Heref. 

Black-pot, a. Blackpudding. So- 

Blacks, a. Mourning. 

Black's your eye. They shall 
not say black is your eye — that 
is, they shall not find any accu- 
sation against you. Wanley, Vox 
Dei, 1658, p. 85, speaking of St. 
Paul's having said " that he was, 
touching the righteousnesse 
which is in the law, blamelesse," 
observes upon it, " No man 
could say (as the proverb hath 
it) black was hia eye." 




I can gay llaclc's your eye, thongh it be 

1 have conniv'd at this your friend, and 

you. B. and Fl., Love's Cure, iii, 1. 

He is the very justice o' peace of the 
play, and ran commit whom he wili, 
and what he will, error, absurdity, as 
the toy takes him, and no man say 
black is his eye, but lau^h at him. 

B. Jons., Staple of Netcs, 1st intenn. 

Black-sanctus, s. a burlesque 
hymn performed with discordant 
and strange noises ; any extreme 
or horrible din. 

Thither wee came, whereat the entrie 
wee heare a confused noise (like a 
blade sanctus, or a house haunted with 
spirits), such hollowing, shouting, 
danncing, and clinking uf pots, that 
sure now wee suppos'd wee had found, 
for all this revelling could not be with- 
out Mounsieur Mony had beene on of 
tlie crew. 

Rowley, Search for Money, 1609. 

And upon this there was a generall 
mourning through all Rome : the cardi- 
nals wept, the abbots howled, the monks 
rored, the fryers cried, the nuns puled, 
the curtizans lamented, the bels rang, 
and the tapers were lighted, that such 
a blacke sanctus was not seeue a long 
time afore in Rome. 

Tarlton, News out ofPurg., 1630. 

Blacksap, s. The jaundice in an 
advanced stage. East. 

Black-saturday, «.,(!) The first 
Saturday after the old Twelfth 
day, when a fair is annually 
held at Skipton. Yorksh. 
(2) In Northamptonshire, when 
a labourer has anticipated his 
wages, and has none to receive 
at the end of the week, they call 
it a black Saturday. 

Black-sculls, s. Soldiers with 
skullcaps on their heads. 

Black-shoes, s. Shoe-blacks, or 
men who formerly attended in 
the streets for the purpose of 
blacking the shoes or boots of 
any passengers who required it. 
This was a common practice in 
London at the commencement 
of the present century. 

Black-spice, s. Blackberries. 

Black-suxday,s. Passion Sunday. 
Blackthorn, s. The slge tree. 

Spinus A blacke thome tree: a sloe 
tree: a snag tree. Nonienclator,\oiio 

Blackthorn-chats, s. The young 
shoots of blackthorn, when they 
have been cut down to the root. 

Blackthorn-winter, s. Cold 
weather experienced at the end 
of April and beginning of May, 
when the blackthorn is in blos- 

Black-tin, s. Tin ore ready for 

Black-wad, s. Manganese in its 
natural state. Derbysh. 

Black-water, ». Phlegm or black 
bile on the stomach, a disease in 
sheep. Yorksh. 

Black-witch, s. A maleficent 

According to the vulgar conceit, dis- 
tinction is usually made between the 
white and the black tcilch; the good 
and the bad witch. The bad witch they 
are wont to call him or her that workes 
malefice or mischiefe to the bodies of 
men or beasts; the good witch they 
count him or her that helps to reveale, 
prevent, or remove the same. Gaule. 

Black worm, s. The black beetle. 

Blacksaunt, 8. (corrupted from 

black sanctus.) Any confused or 

hideous noise. 
Bladder-headed, adj. Stupid. 
Bladders, s. (1) (J.-S. blcedra.) 

Little rising blisters of the skin. 

(2) The air bubbles in bread. " 

Petite vescie du pain. A bladder or 
little swelling bump rising in the crust of 
a lofe of bread. Nomenclator, 1585. 

(3) The kernels of wheat affected 
Lj the smut. East. 

Blade, (1) v. To trim plants or 
hedges. Shropsh. It is an old 
word, for it occurs in the Prompt. 
Parv., " bladyne herbys, or taike 
away the bladys, detirso." 




(2) g. A brisk, mettlesome, sharp, 
keen, and active young man. 

Id 1667, Samuel Currett, son to Donald, 
a villan bclowe the biirne, buried 25th 
of May, niv godson i^and a stout blade) 
yet died, Samuel Kobinson being then 

Feltham'i Tour to the I. of Man. 

And as he came to Nottingham, 

A tinker he did meet. 
And seeinsr him a lusty blade. 

He did him kiiidlv greet. 

Robm Hood, ii, 39. 

(3) V. To blade it, to play the 
blade, to go about vauntingly. 

Bladed-leek, s. a kind of leek. 
Petit porreau, porrette, civette. Tlie 
unset leeke : maiden leekes : bladed 
ieekes. Nomenclator, 1585. 

Blades, *. (1) The principal raft- 
ers of a roof. 

(2) The shafts of a cart. South. 

(3) '^Blades or yarne wyndles, 
an instrumente of huswyfery, 
girgillus." Huloet. 

Bladesmith, s. A maker of 

Bladge, «. A low woman. Line. 

Bladier, 8. An engrosser of corn, 

Blae-berry, s. The bilberry. 

Bl^ec, s. (A.-S.) The grease taken 
otf the cart-wheels or ends of 
the axle-tree, kept till dry, and 
then made in balls, with which 
the tailors rub and blacken their 
thread. Given by Kennett as a 
Yorkshire word. 

Blaffoorde. a person with any 
defect in his speech. Pr. P. 

Blain, (l)r. {A.-N.) To blanch; 
to whiten. North. 
(2) «. (A.-S.) A boil ; an erup- 
tion. " Blayne or whealke. Pa- 
pula." Huloet. 

Blake, (1) adj. {A.-S.) Bleak; 
cold ; naked. North. 

(2 ) V. To cry till out of breath, 
or burst with laughter ; to faint ; 
to turn black in the face. Devon. 

(3) adj. {A..S.) Yellow. 

(4) V. {A.-S.) To bleach; to 

fade. To make his brows blaie, 
or turn pale, was a common po- 
etical phrase, equivalent to, to 
vanquish him. 
And as he neghet hi a noke, 
The king sturenly him stroke. 
That bothe liis brees con blaie; 
His maistry he mekes 

Robson's Metr. Bom., p. 64. 

Blaked, adj. Blackened. Chaucer. 
Blakeling, s. The yellow bunt- 
ing. North. 
Blakes, s. Cow-dung dried for 

Blakne, v. (A.-S.) To turn black in 

the face ; to grow angry. 
Blame, adj. Blameworthy. The 
phrase " too blame " occurs not 
unfrequently in the old drama- 

— Y' are too blame. 

And, Besse, you make me angry 

The girle was much too blame. 

T. Heywood, Engl. 2'rav., sign. G. 
I were too blanu if I should not tell 
thee anie thing. 

Menechmtis, 0. PL, i, 152. 
Blamefluh. {A.-N.) White-lead. 
^\.K^,pret. t. {A.-S.) Ceased. 
Blanc, T (in the fern. g. blanche 
BLAtiNC, J and blaunche,) adj. 
{A.-N.) White. It is used in 
several terms and phrases, of 
which the following are the 
principal : 
Blanche brewet, s. A sort of 

yor to make blanche brewet de Alyngyn. 
Mym kedys and chekenys, and hew 
hem in morsellys, and setli hem in al- 
mand mylk, or "in kyne mylke. Grynd 
gyngyver, galingale, and cast thereto; 
and boyle it, and serve it fortbe. 

Warner's Antiq. Culin., p. 39. 

Blanc de sore, ~] *. A dish 
BLANK DESSORRE, ( in cookery, 
BLANK DESIRE V-for making 
BLANK DE suRY, | which the 

BLAUNDESORE, J following is 

one of the receipts : 

Blank dcssorre. Take aimandes blanched, 
grynde liem, and temper hem up with 
whyte wyne, or fleissn day with broth, 
and cast thereinne floer of rys, other 




araydDun; and lye it therewith. Take 
brawn of capons y-ground ; take sugar 
and salt, and cast thereto, and flurish 
it Mrith aneys whyte. Take a vessel y- 
holes, and put in safron, and sene it 
forth. Forme of Cury, p. 10. 

Blanche-fevere, *. *' The agues 
wherwith maidens that have the 
greene-sicknesse are troubled." 

Blanc-mange, "1 «. A dish in 
BLANCMANGER, J cookery. 

Blank-mang. Take capons, and seeth 
hem, thenne take hem up. Take al- 
niandes blanched, grynd hem, and alay 
hem up with the same broth. Cast the 
mylk in a pot ; waisshe rys, and do 
thereto, and lat it seeth. Thanue take 
brawn of capouns, teere it smalle and 
do thereto. Take white greece, sugar, 
and salt, and cast thereinne. Lat it 
seeth. Then messe it forth, and florish 
it with aneys in confyt, rede other 
whyte, and with almandes fryed in 
oyle, and serve it forth. 

Forme of Cury, p. 10. 

Blanc-plumb, s. White-lead. 

Blanche-porr^, s. a dish in 

Blaunche porrS. Take the qwyte of 
lekes, and parboyle horn, and hew horn 
smalle; and take onyons, and mynse 
hom therewith, and clo hom in a pot, 
and put thereto gode broth, and let hit 
boyle, and do therto smale briddes, and 
seth hom therewvth, and colour hit 
wyth saffron, anJ do therto pouder 
marchant, and serve hit forth. 

Warner, Antiq. Culin., p. 51. 

Blanch, (1) «. Ore when inti- 
mately mixed with other mate- 

(2) V. To whiten; to change 

(3) V. To peel anything. 

(4) V. To shift off; to evade. 
Blancher, s. Anything set round 

a wood to keep the deer in it. 

Men were sometimes employed 

for this purpose. 
Blanch-farm, «. An annual rent 

paid to the lord of the manor. 

Blandament, "I «. Blandishment; 
blandymente, j flattery. 
Blande, (1) adj. Blended ; mixed. 

(2) V. To flatter. 
Blandise, v. {A.-N.) To flatter. 
Blandrell, "Is. (Fr. blan- 

blaunderelle, J rfwreau.) A 

kind of apple. 
Blank, s. {Fr.) (1) The white 

mark in the centre of a butt, at 

which the arrow was aimed; 

the mark, the aim, a term in 


(2) A small coin, struck by 
Henry V in France, worth about 
four pence. 

(3) The name of a game at dice. 
Blanker, s. (1) A spark of fire. 


(2) A white garment. 
Blankkt-pudding, *. A long 
round pudding, with jam spread 
over the paste, and then rolled 
up. Sussex. 

Blankett, 1 A kind of bird. 
blonkett, J 

Blank-matins, s. Matins sung 
over night. 

Blankness, s. Paleness. 

Blanks-and-prizes,». Beans and 
boiled bacon chopped up and 
mixed together, the beans being 
considered blank, and the meat 
the prize. Shropsh. 

Blank-shbry, «. See Blanc-de- 

Blanpeyn, «. (A.-N.) Oxford 

Blanscue, 8. A misfortune; an 
unexpected accident. Somerset. 

Blare, v. (1) To put out the 
tongue. Yorksh. 

A mocke with the tong, by putting it 
out; a blaring as a dog doth that is 
thirstie and dry. Nomenclator, 1585. 

(2) To roar ; to bellow ; to bleat ; 
to cry. Var. dial. The following 
has been given us as a genuine 
sample of Norfolk dialect : " Lor 
mor dont s'n blarin o' that ne ;" 
which means, literally, "There, 
girl, do not stand crying in that 




(3) To talk loud. Sttssex. 
Blart, v. To bleat. Norlhamp. 

aud Z^ic. 
Blase, v. To blazon arms. See 

Blash, (1) V. To splash; to paint. 


(2) «. Nonsense; rubbish. Line. 

Weak liquor is popularly called 

blashment, and is said to be 

Blashy, adj. (1) Thin, poor, spo- 

i<en of liquor. Norlhamp. 

(2) Wet and windy. 
Blasour, s. a flatterer. 
Blass, s. The motion of the 

Blassen, v. To illumine. 
Blast, (1) v. (J.-S.) To boast. 

(2) V. To miss fire. Devon. 

(3) V. To raise the eyes in 
astonishment. Devon. 

(4) s. An inflammation or wound, 
attributed often to the action of 
witchcraft. Somerset. 

(5) s. The blight. Sussex, 
Blasted, adj. Beaten down by the 

wind, applied to hay. North. 
BLASTETi, part. p. Blown. 
Blastment, *. A sudden stroke of 

Blast, v. To blazon; set forth. 

BLATAy:T, adj. (Lat.) (1) Bellowing. 

A word perpetuated by Spenser 

in his term of the " blatant beast." 

(2) Prattling. 
Blatch, v. To smear or dirty. 

Blate, (1) 17. To bellow. North, 

(2) adj. Bashful ; timid. North. 

(3) adj. Cold ; bleak. 
Blatbroon, s. A babbler. 
Blather, v. To talk nonsense; to 

talk up. 
Tlicre's nothing gain'd by being witty ; fame 
Gathers but wind to blather up a name. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, i, li. 

Blatter, s. A puddle. North. 
Blaun, adj. {A.-N.) White. 

Blaunch, 8. A blain ; a patch of 

large pustules blended in one. 
Blaunchette, «. {A.-N.) Fine 

wheaten flour. 
Blaunchmer, s. (A.-N.) a kind 

of fur. Syr Degore, 701. 
Blaunch-pebreye,*. SeeB/flMcAe- 

Blauner, s. a kind of fur, perhaps 

the same as blaunchmer. 
Blautch, s. a great noise. North. 
Blauthy, adj. Bloated. East. 
Blaver, (1) V. To prattle ; to prate. 

Paston Lett., iv, 22. 

(2) 8. The corn blue-bottle. 

Blaw, v. To cry loud. Sussex. 
Blawe, v. (1) To blow. 

(2) To put to the horn, or ex- 


And nevertlieles in him was more cause 
of cursing than in sum that to-day are 
blatcun iu the kirk. 

Apology for the Lollards, p. 24. 

Blawing, s. a swelling. North. 
Blawnyng, s. White-lead. 
Blawort, s. The corn blue-bottle. 
Blawze, s. a blossom. Yorksh. 
Blay, (1) 8. A blaze. Essex. 

(2) V. To bleat. 
Blaze, (1) s. A yule-log. 

(2) V. To spear salmon. North. 

(3) s. A pimple. Yorkah. 

(4) V. To blazon. 

I beare the badge within my brest, 
Wlierin are blazde your colours brave. 
Turbenille, Eplg. and Sonnettes, 1569. 

Blazed, (1) adj. A term applied 

to a horse when it has a white 


(2) To a tree when marked for 

Blea, (1) adj. (A.-S.) Yellow. 


(2) High ; exposed, in situation. 

(3) s. The part of the sub-stem 
of a tree between the bark and 
the hard wood. 




Bleachy, adj. Brackish. Somerset. 
Blead, s. Fruit. Verslegan. 
Bleak, (1) v. To bleach. 

(2) adj. {A.-S. bl(BC.) Pale with 
cold; pallid, sickly. 

Palle, et blesme. A bleake, pale, or 
somewliat yellowish colour. 

Nomenclator, 1585. 

(3) adj. Sheepish. East. 
Bleart, v. To scold ; to make a 


Blease, 8. (^A.-S. blase.) A blaze. 

Bleat, adj. Cold ; bleak. Kent. 

Bleater, s. a cant term for mut- 

Bleather, s. a bladder. North. 

Bleaut, *] 8. 'A.-N. hleaus, bli- 
BLiAUT, I flMT.) A kind of robe 
BLiHAUT, I which fitted close to 
BLiHAUD,J the body. The editors 
of early English poetry have 
commonly turned the u into an 
n, and printed bliant instead of 
bliaut, and it has even been cor- 
rupted into bleaunt. 

Bleb, (1) s. A drop of water; a 
bubble. North. 

(2) V. To drink. North. 

(3) *. A blister. 

Blech, s. Bleach; water in which 

hides have been tanned. 
Bleche, adj. {A.-N.) White. See 

Blecken, v. To make black. 
Bledoer, (1) s. A blister. 

How may that be? wo dar theroppe steije, 
For doujte of fotes bleddre. 

William de Shoreham. 

(2) V. To cry. North. 
Blede, s. Blood. 
Bleden, v. {A..S.) To bleed. 
Bledewort, «. The wild poppy. 
Blee, s. {A.-S. bleo) (1) Colour; 

complexion. " Bright of blee" is 

not an uncommon epithet of a 


(2) In a secondary sense, counte> 

nance, feature. 

Bleech, s. The bleaching-ground. 

Bleed, ». To yield abundantly. 
Corn is said to bleed well when 
it is productive on being thrashed. 

Bleeding-boist, s. a cupping- 

Bleeding-heart, s. The wall- 
flower. West. 

Bleep, 'Ipret.t.oibileven. Re- 

BLEFEDE, ^^^incd. 

Bleff, adj. Turbulent ; noisy. East. 
Bleffin, *. A block or wedge. 

Bleike, v. (A.-S.) To turn pale. 
Bleine, s. (A.-S.) A pustule. 
Bleit, "1 ,. Bashful. North. 

BLATE, J •^ 

Bt,TE,KE,(\)adj. Black. Prompt. P. 
Blely, adv. Blithely. 
Bleme, adj. Powerful. Morte Arth. 
Blemish, f. A hunting term, when 

the hounds, finding where the 

chase has been, offer to enter, 

but return. 
Blemmere, s. a plumber. 
Blemmle,». To mix anything with 

a fluid, as flour with water, by 

moving. North. 
Blench, (1) v. (A.-S.) To start, or 

fly off; to draw back. 

(2) s. A start or deviation. 

(3) 8. A glimpse. Wartu. 

(4)». To wink, to glance. Shakesp. 

(5) V. To impeach; to beti-ay. 

(6) s. A fault. North. 
Blencher, s. Anything that fright- 
ens, or causes to start. 

Blencorn, s. Wheat mixed with 

rye. Yorksh. 
Blend, v. To pollute or confound. 

And all these storms that now his beauty 

Shall turn to calms, and timely clear away, 
Spenser, Sonn., 63. 

Blende, (1) v. (A.-S.) To blind. 

(2) adj. Blind. 
Blendigo, adj. Cloudy. 




Blendings, s. Peas and beans 

mixed together. 
Blend-water, s. An inflammatory 

disease to which blacl£ cattle are 

liable. North. 
Blene, v. {A.-S.) To blister. 

(2) To arise, to bubble up. 
Blenge, v. To hinder. Tusser. 
Bi.EXKARD, *. A person near- 

sighted, or almost blind. North. 
Blenker, s. a fighting-cock with 

only one eye. 
Blenke, ». (1) To glance at; to 


(2) To appear; to shine. 

(3) To wince. 

Blenkee, w. Mingere perparce. 

Bi.EXKS, s. Ashes. West. 

Blens, s. a fish, the gad%is bar- 

Blenschen, v. To darken ; to ble- 

Blent. The ■pret. t. and part. p. of 
blend, blende, and blenke. 

Bleren, v. {A.-S.) To blear; to 
make a person's sight dim. To 
" blere one's eye," to impose upon 
a person. 

Bleschen, ». To extinguish a fire. 
Prompt. P. 

Blese, *. A blaze. Prompt. P. 

Bless, v.{\) To wave or brandish 
a sword. Spenser. 
(2) {Fr.) To wound, 

Blessing-the-fire-out. An ope- 
ration performed generally, I be- 
lieve always, by a female. She 
wets her forefinger with spittle, 
and moves it in a circular slow 
manner over and round the part 
that may have been burnt or 
scalded, at the same time mutter- 
ing inaudibly a suitable incanta- 
tion or blessing, in the mysteries 
of which I am not initiated. This 
I have often seen done, and have, 
indeed, not unfreqnently experi- 
enced the benefits, be they what 
thev mav, of the process. Moors 
Suffolk MS. 

Blessedlocurre, adj. Blessedly. 
Blessing-fires, s. Midsummer 
Fires. West. 

Neddy, that was wont to make 
Such great feasting at the WEke, 
AjLid the blessing fire. 
Browne's Shepherd's Pipe, 1772. 

Blessing-witch, s. The white or 

good witch. 
Bletch, ». Black, greasy matter ; 

the grease of wheel-axles. Staff. 
Bletheliche, ad». Blithely; free- 
ly; joyfully. 
Blether, s. A bladder. 
Blether-head, s. A blockhead. 

Bletinge, adj. (A.-S.) Flaming. 
Bleve, 1 V. To stay ; to remain. 

blewe, J See Bileve, 
Blew-blow, s. The corn-flower. 

Blewing, *. Blue paint. 
Blewit, s. a kind of fungus. North. 
Blexter, *. A person who blacks. 
Bleye, adj. Blue. 
Bleyme, s. An inflammation in the 

foot of a horse. 
Bl-eynasse, s. Blindness. 
Bleyster, s. a bleacher. 
Bliake, s. a bar of wood with 

holes to take the soles of a hurdle 

while being wreathed. Bars. 
Blice, s. Lice. North. 
Blickent, adj. Bright; shining. 

Blids, s. Wretches. Devon. 
Bligh, adj. Lonely ; dull. Kent. 
Blighted, adj. Stifled. " Blighted 

with the heat." Oxfd. 
Bliken, v. (1) (A.-S.) To quiver. 

(2) (A.-S.) To shine. 
Blim, v. To gladden. Prompt. P. 
Blinch, v. (1) To keep off. 

(2) To catch a sight of a thing 

or person. Comw. 
Blind, (1) adj. Obscure. 

(2) Abortive, applied to flowers 
and herbs. Var. dial. 

(3) s. A fence for skouts and 
sentinels, made of bundles of 




reeds, canes, or osiers, to hide 
them from iBeing seen by the 
enemy; an old military term. 

Blind-is-the-cat, g. An old 
Christmas game, perhaps blind- 
man's buff. 

Blino-alebouse, s. 

la the fidler at band that us'd to ply at the 
blind-alehouse ? 

Elherege, Comical Eetenge, 1669. 

Blind-ball, s. A fungus. 

Blind-bucky-davy, «. Blind- 
man's buff. Somerset and Glouc. 

Blind-buzzard, «. A cockchafer. 

Blind-days, s. The first three days 
of March, which were formerly 
considered as unlucky, and upon 
which no farmer would sow any 
seed. Devon. 

Blind-eyes, «. The corn-poppy. 

Blind-hob, s. Blind-man's buff. 

Dlind-hooky, ». A game at cards. 

Blind-man's-buff, ». (1) A well- 
known children's game. 
(2) A kind of puff-ball. 

Blind-man's-holyday, ». Twi- 

Blind-mares,*. Nonsense. Dccon. 

Blind-nettlk, s. Wild hemp. 

Blind-sim, «. BUnd-man's buff. 

Blind-tharm, 8. The bowel-gut. 

Blind-worm, s. The slow-worm. 

Blinders, *. Blinkers. North. 

Blinding-bridle, t. A bridle 
with blinkers. 

Blindfellenb, ». To blindfold. 
Pr. Para. 

Blinding-board, ». An instru- 
ment to restrain an unruly cow. 

Blinds, ». A term for a black 
fluor about the vein in a mine. 

Bline, s. a kind of wood. Skinner. 

Blink. (1) «. A spark of fire, glim- 
mering or iutermitteut light. 

(2) r. To evade; to avoid the 
sight of. North. 

(3) V. To smile. North. 

(4) V. To wink. 

(5) Blinking the malt, is putting 
it to work too hot. Cambridge. 

Blinkard, s. One who sees badly. 

Blinked, ad,j. Stale or sharp, ap- 
plied to beer. 

Blinker, «. A term of contempt. 

Blinks, s. An old hunter's term. 

Brisies, bonghes rent by hunters from 
trees, and left in the view of a deere, or 
cast overlhwart the way wherein he is 
likely to passe, thereby to hinder his 
running, and to recover him the better; 
our wood-men call them blinies. 


Blinne, V. (1) {A.-S. blinnan.) To 


(2) To stop, to delay. 
Blirt, v. To cry. North. 
Blisful, adj. Joyful ; blessed. 
Blish-blash, *. Sloppy dirt. 

Blisse, v. (1) {A.-S.) To bless. 

(2) {Fr.) To wound. 
Blissene, gen. pi. Of joys. 
Blissey, s. a blaze. Wilts. 
Blissom, adj. (1) Blithesome. 

(2) Maris appetens, applied to 
the ewe. 

(3) V. To copulate, said of sheep. 
Blist, pret. t. of blisse. Blessed. 
Blit, adj. Blighty. Dorset. 
Blith, s. Face ; visage. Kennett. 

Probably a corruption of blee. 

Blithe, «. Blight. 

Blive, arf;. and adp. Quick; ready. 
A contraction of bilive. 

Blizzy, s. {A.-S. blysa.) A blaze. 

Blo, adj. Blue ; livid. 

Bloa, adj. Cold ; raw. Line. 

Bloach, *. A tumour. Skinner. 

Bloacher, «. Any large animal. 

To Bloat, or Blote, v. To dry by 
smoke, applied especially to her- 
rings. A Bloat-herring, or, as 




we now call it, a bloaier, a her- 
ring so dried. 

Lay you an old court ;er on the coals, 
like a sausa°:e or a bloal-herring. 

B. Jon., Masq. ofMer., v. 429. 
Make a meal of a bloat -herring, water it 
with four shillings beer, and then swear 
we have dined as well as luy lord mayor. 
Match at Midn., 0. PL, vii, 343. 
I have four dozen of fine firebrands in 
my belly, I have more smoke in my 
mouth than would Mote a hundred her- 
rings. B. atidFl., Isl. Princ, ii. 
Three pails of sprats, carried from mart to 

Are ns much meat as these, to more use 

A bunch of bloated fools ! 

Id., Q. of Cor., u, i. 

Bloaze, ». A blaze. North. 

Blob, s. (1) A blunt termination 
to what is usually pointed. A 
blob-nose, a nose with a snaall 
bump at the end. 

(2) A small lump of anything 
thick, viscid, or dirty. 

(3) A vulgar term for the lower 

(4) A bubble; a blister. North. 

(5) Thick. See Blub. 

(6) A drop. 

(7) A term applied to the flower 
of the water ranunculus. 

Blobber-lip. See Blub. 
Blob-milk, s. Milk with its cream 

mingled. Yorish. 
Blob-scotch, s. a bubble. Yorish. 
Blob-tale, s. A tell-tale. 
Block, *. (1) The wooden mould 
on which the crown of a hat 
was formed. Hence it was used 
for the form or fashion of a hat. 
A grave gentleman of Naples, who haring 
bought a hat of the newest fashion and 
best blocte in all Italic, &c. 

Is this same hat 
0* the block passant ? 

B. Jons. Staple of News, i, 2. 

That is, " of the current fashion." 
(2) The Jack at the game of 
Blocker, \s. A broadaxe. 


Block-horse, «. A strong wooden 
frame with four handles, to carry 
blocks. East. 

Blockpate, s. a blockhead. 

All these things may well be said unto 
me, that be commonly spoken against a 
fooie, as to be called a bloclrpate, a dull- 
head, an asse, a lumpish sot. 

Terence in English, 1641. 
BLOCKsficK, s. A club. North. 
Block-wheat, s. Buck-wheat. 
Blody, adv. By blood; of or in 

Bloggy, "I V. To look angry or 
BLOGG, J sour ; to be sullen ; to 
frown. Exmoor. 
Blokne, v. {A.-S.) To fade ? 
That, man, thi body arise sehel 
Of deithe nammore to blokne. 

William de Shoreham. 

Blomjvn, g. A trumpeter. 
Blomanger. (A.-N.) 8. A dish 
in cookery. 

For to make blomanger. Kym rys, and 
lese hem, and wascli hem dene, and do 
thereto god almande mylk, and seth 
hem til they al tobrest ;" and than lat 
hem kele: and nym the lire oftheheii- 
nyn, or of capons, and grynd hem smal. 
Kest thereto wite grece, and boyle it. 
Nym blanchyd almandys, and safron, 
and set hem above in the dysche, and 
serve yt fortlie. 

Warner, Antiq. Culin., p. 39. 

For to make bloTnanger of fysch. Tak a 
pound of rys, les hem wel and wascli, 
and seth tyl they breste ; and let hem 
kele; and do thereto mylk of to pound 
of almandys ; nym the perche, or the 
lopuster, and boyle yt, and kest sugur 
and salt also thereto, and serve yt forth. 
Warner, Antiq. Culin., p. 46. 

Blome. (1) V. To flourish. 
(2) s. A blossom. 

Blome-down. adj. Clumsy; clown- 
ish. Dorset. 

Blommer, s. Noise; uproar. 

Blonc, adj. (A.-N.) White. 

Bloncket, adj. (probably from 
Fr. blanc.) Gray. Spenser. 

Blondren, v. To blunder; to 

Blonk. (1) adj. Sullen. 
(2) V. To disappoint. North. 




Bi ONKE, ». {A.-S.) A steed ; a war- 

Blost, adj. Dull; heavy. 
Bloo, v. To blow. 
Blood, ». Disposition. ShaJcesp. 
Blood-alley, «. A marble taw. 

A boy's term. 
Blood-bo LTERED, ac^. Matted 

with blood. Shakesp. 
Blood-fallen, adj. (1) Chill- 

blained. East. 

(2) Blood-shot. 
Blooding, «. A black pudding. 

Apexabo, intestinum sanguine fartum, 
admista arvina. A blouding or blacke 
puddinge. Nomenclatur, 1585, 

Blood-olph, s. a bullfinch. East. 
Blood-sucker, «. A leech. 
BiooDsupPER, s. A blood-sucker; 
a murderer. 

Blood-wall, s. The dark double 

wall-flower. Northamp. 
Bloodwort, s. {A.-S.) The name 

of a plant. 
Bloody-bone, s. The name of an 

hobgoblin or fiend. 
Bloody-thubsday, ». The Thurs- 
day of the first week in liCnt. 
Bloody-wabbior, *. The dark 

double wall-flower. West. 
Bloom. (1) s. A mass of iron 

which has gone a second time 

through the furnace. 

(2) V. To shine; to throw out 

(3) s. Heat. Bloomy, very hot. 

What a bloom am I in all over ? give me 
wy fan; I protest I am in a general 
dunp. N. Tate, Cuctold'i Haven, 1 6b5. 

(4) «. The hot stage of a fever. 
Blooth, s. Blossom. Devon. 
Blore, (1) V. To bellow like a bull. 

East. The blore is the moan of 
a cow, unsettled for want of her 
calf, or by being in a strange 
pasture. Lincolnshire. 

(2) s. A blast; the act of 

(3) V. To weep. Prompt. P. 

Blobt, v. To chide in a loud tone. 

Bloschem,! a blossom. 
blosle, J 

Bloshy, \adj. Sloppy, windy, 
sloshing, J and rainy. Leic. 

Blosme. (1) V. {A.-S. blosmian.) 
To blossom. 
(2) s. A blossom. 

Blosmy, adj. Full of blossoms. 

Bloss, «. A ruffled head of hair. 

Blossomed, adj. The state of 
cream in the operation of churn- 
ing, when it becomes full of air, 
which causes it to be long in get- 
ting to butter. Nor/. 

Blot, s. A term at backgammon, 
when one in danger of being 
taken up is called a blot. 

Blotch-paper, *. Blotting paper. 

Blote, adj. Dried. See Bhal. 

Bloten, adj. Excessively fond. 

Blother, v. To chatter idly; to 
make a great noise to little pur- 
pose. Var. dial. 

Blots, «. The eggs of moths. 

Bloughty, adj. Swelled; puflfed. 

Blounchet, adj. Blanched. 

Blouse, «. (1) A bonnet. 

(2) A woman with hair or head- 
dress loose and disordered, or 
decorated with vulgar finery. 

(3) A girl or wench whose face 
looks red by running abroad in 
the wind and weather. Kennett. 
Such a woman is said to have a 
" blouzing colour." To be in a 
blouse, to look red from heat. 

Blousy, adj. Wild, disordered, 

Bloute, adj. (A.-S.) Bloody. 
Blow, (1) v. To blossom. 

(2) «. A blossom ; more particu- 
larly the blossom of fruit trees. 

(3) s. A bladder. Devon. 

(4) V. To inform of; to peach 




(5) V. To make a person blush or 
be ashamed ; to be blown, to blush 
on a sudden surprise. 
All blown and red. 

Shakfsp., Rape of Lucrece. 

Blow-ball,*, (perhaps from A.-N. 

blaverole.) The corn-flower. 
Blowboll, *. A drunkard. 
Blowe, ». (^A.-S.) To blow; to 

Blower, s. O) A fissure in the 

broken strata of coal, from which 

a feeder or current of inflammable 

air discharges. North. 

(2) A child's name for the downy 
heads of dandelion. 

(3) " One man's particular lass." 
JDunton's Ladies' Dictionary/, 

Blow-fly, s. The large blue fly 

w^hich blows meat. 
Blowing,*. (1) .\ blossom. Wilts. 

(2) The egg of a bee ? Harrison's 

Descr. o/Engl, p. 229. 
Blow-maunger,». A full fat-faced 

person, with cheeks puffed out. 

Blow-milk, s. Skimmed milk. 

Blown, adj. (1) Swelled; inflated. 

(2) Proud, insolent. 

(3) Stale, worthless. 

(4) To say a cow or beast is blown, 
when in pain from the fermenta- 
tion of green food having caused 
a distention of its carcase, is com- 
mon, perhaps, to many counties. 
When a man or horse is panting 
for breath from over-exertion, he 
is also said to be blown. Moor's 
Suffolk MS. 

Blown-herring. " In some parts 
of England they are called bloated 
herrings ; and the term occurs in 
several of our writers about Eliza- 
beth's day, but not, I believe, in 
Shakespeare. The word bloated 
is a confirmation of the above 
conjecture as to the origin of 
blown, being merely another form 

of the word, but not so applicable. 
We sometimes see and hear blown, 
bloated, and puffed up, in nearly 
the same sense. I have beard 
our blown-herrings called bawen 
herrings, and bone-herrings, but 
never any good reason for so 
calling them. Hoven is another 
sense of blown or puffed up, 
but never applied to a herring. 
Since the a!)Ove was written, I 
have seen (October, 1823) in a 
shop in Great Russell Street, a 
parcel of i/oww-herrings ticketed 
' fine Yarmouth bloaters.' 1824, 
in the autumn of this year, hear- 
ing the blown or bown herrings 
cried in Woodbridge by the name 
of Tow Bowen herrings, I learned 
on enquiry that it is a common 
name for them." Moor's Suffolk 

Blow-point, s. A child's game, 
mentioned in old writers. 

Blowre, *. A pustule. 

Blowry, adj. Disordered. Warw. 

Blows, *. Trouble, or exertion. 

Blowse, s. See Blouse. 

Blow-shoppe, s. a forge. 

Wild bores, bulls, and falcons bredde 
there in times i)aste ; now, for lakke of 
woodde, blow-shoppes decay there. 

Leland, Jliu., vol. vii, p. 42. 

Blowt, r. To make a loud queru- 

lous noise. North. 
Blowth, s. a blossom. 
Blowty, adj^ Applied to a person 

who increases in size by a false 

appearance of fat. Norf. 
Blu> adj. Blew. 
Baub, (1) r. To swell, 

(2) adj. Swollen, plump, round. 

Odd ! She has a delicate lip, such a lip, so 
red, so hard, bo plump, so blub. 

Otviay, Soldier's Fortune, 1C91. 

You have a pretty pouting about the nioutli 
like me, and fine little blub lips. 

Shaduscll, True Wtdow, 1679. 

Bucco, bucculentus, Plauto, cui tuiiii 
diurea sunt buccce, aut os grandius 




yvdduv. Joufflu, on geullai^, qui a la 
bouclie grande. Tliat hath big cheeks, 
or a great and large mouth : blub cheekedj 
sparrow mouthed. Nomenclalor, 1585. 

Blubber, (1 ) *. A bubble. Var. 

(2) To bubble, as ■water. 

(3) V. To cry ; to weep till the 
tears stand in bubbles. 

(4) 8. The name given by sailors 
to the sea nettle. 

Blubber-grass, s. Different spe- 
cies of bromus, so-called from 
their soft inflated glumes. East. 

Bluck, v. " So the true men shall 
be hunted and Mucked." The 
Festyvall, fol. xxvi, r°. 

Blue, (1) *. Bloom, Devon. 

(2) 8. Ale. Somerset. 

(3) V. To " look blue," to look 
disconcerted ; to be mortified or 

Blue-bottle, s. (1) A term for a 

servant or beadle, from the colour 

formerly used for their dresses. 

(2) A large blue fly. 
Blue-bottles, s. The blue flowers 

which grow among wheat. Osfd. 
Blue-caps,s. (l)Meadow scabious. 


(2) The corn Wue bottles. North- 

Blue-inkle, ». Some substance 

which burnt with a strong oflfen- 

sive smell. 

Ah me! help, help my lady! cut her 
lace, cut her lace ! get some arsa foetida, 
bleiB inkle, or partridge feathers, and 
burn under her nose. 

Shadicell, Jmorous Bigolte, 1690. 

Gad take me! hold the gentlewoman, 
bring some cold water, and flower, bum 
some blew inkle and partridge feathers, 
'tis my ladies medicine. 

Skadwell, The Scoicrers, 1691. 

Blue-i8aac,s. The hedge-sparrow. 

Blue- JOHN, s. Fluor spar. Derbysh. 
Blue-milk, «. Skimmed milk. 
Blue-moon, 8. He won't do it for 

a blue mbon, t. e., never. 

Blue-rock, *. The wild pigeon. 

Blue-stocking, «. A woman who 
addicts herself to study or author- 

Blue-tail, 8. The fieldfare. North' 

Blue-vinnied, adj. Covered with 
blue mould. South. 

Bluff, (1) adj. Churlish; surly. 

(2) adj. Big and puffed up, as it 
were with wind. 

(3) V. To blindfold. North. 

(4) 8. A tin tube through which 
boys blow peas. Suffolk. 

(5) «. The blinker of a horse. 
Line, and Leic. 

Bluffer, ». A landlord of an 

Bluffin,». To bluster; to swagger. 

Blufted, adj. Hoodwinked. Line. 
Blufter, 8. A horse's blinker. 

Line., Leie. Blufted, having 

blinkers on. 
Blunder, (1) «. Confusion; trouble. 

(2) V. To disturb. 

(3) V. To blunder water, to stir 
or puddle, to make it thick and 

Blunderbuss, ». A stupid fellow. 

Blunge, v. To break or blend 
whilst in a state of maceration ; 
a potter's term. A long flat 
wooden instrument, called a blun- 
ger, is used for this purpose. 

Blunk, (1) adj. Squally ; tempes- 
tuous. East. 

(2) V. To snow, to emit sparks. 

(3) 8. Any light flaky body. 

(4) *. A fit of stormy weather. 
Blunket, (1) 8. A white stuff, 

probably woollen. 
(2) 8. A light blue colour. 
Blunt, (1) #. The slang term fof 

(2) 8. A pointless rapier, or foil 
to fence with. " Batre le fer. 




to play at blunt, or at foyles." 

Blur, g. A blot. North. 
Blurry, «. A mistake, a blunder. 
Blurt, (1) An inteijection of con- 

tempt. "Blurt, master constable," 

a fig for the constable, seems to 

have been a proverbial phrase. 

(2) V. To blurt at, to hold in 

contempt. "Boccheffgiare,to make 

mouths, or blurt with ones lips." 

Blush, s. Resemblance ; look. At 

the first blush, at the first sight. 
Blushe, v. To look. 
Blushet, s. One who blushes ; 

used by Ben Jonson for a young 

modest girl. 
Blust.s. Erysipelous inflammation. 

Bluster-wood, s. The shoots of 

fruit trees or shrubs which require 

to be pruned out. East. 
Blustre,». To stray along without. 

any particular aim. 

But Uustredcn forth as beestes 
Over baukes and hilles. 

tiers Fl, p. 108. 

Blustrous, adj. Blustering. 

Bluter, (1) adj. Dirty. 

(2) V. To blot, to dii-ty, to blub- 
ber. North. 

Blutter, v. To speak nonsensi- 

Bluv, v. To believe. East. 

Bluzzed, adj. Darkened ; blinded, 

Bly, s. (1) Likeness ; resemblance. 
East. See blee. 
(2) A transient view. East. 

Blycand, adj. (A.-S.) Glittering ; 

Blyfe, adv. Quickly. See Belive. 

Blykked, pret. t. Shone. 

Bo, (1) adj. Both. 

(2) «. A hobgoblin. North. 

BoALLiNG, s. Drinking, i. e., bowl- 
ing, or emptying the bowl. 

Boar, «. A clown, for boor. 

Boar-cat, *. A tom-cat. Kent. 

The word occurs in Wycherley, 
Plain-dealer, 1677. 

Board, (1) v. {A.-N. aborder.) To 
address ; to accost. 
(2) s. An old cant term for a 

(3)». A kind of excavation. North. 
(4) " Set him a clear board in 
the world," i. e., put him in a 
good position as to pecuniary 

Boarder, adj. Made of board. 

Boarding-bridge, #. A plank laid 
across a running stream. West. 

Boar-necked, adj. A term applied 
in some parts to sheep, when 
affected with a disease which 
causes their necks to be bowed. 

Boar-seg, 8. A pig kept for three 
or four years as a brawn. Shrops. 

Boar-stag, *. A gelded boar. 

Boar-thistle, «. Th^ earduus lan- 
ceolatus, Lin. 

BoATioN, s. {Lot.) An uproar. 

Boat-whistles, ». Little bottles 
which grow on the sea shore, 
which the boys cut a hole in and 
make whistles of, and blow in 
imitation of the boatswain's 
whistle; properly, the bottle ore. 

Bob, *. (A.-N. bobe.) (1) A joke; 

a pleasantry. A dry bob, a dry 

joke. To give the bob was a phrase 

equivalent to that of giving the 

dor, or imposing upon a person. 

He that a fool doth very wisely hit. 

Doth very foolislily, altho' lie smart, 

^lot to seem seuseless of the bob. 

As you Hie it, ii, 7- 
I hare drawn blood at one's brains \rith 
a bitter bob. 

Alex, and Campaspe, O. PI, ii, 113. 

C. I guess the business. S. It can be no 

But go give me the bob, that being a matter 
Of main importance. 

Massing , Maid of Honour, iv, 5. 

So, ladies, I thank yon for the tricks you 
have put upon me; but, madam. lam 
even with you for your London tricks, I 
have given vou such a bob. 

'ShadweU, Epsom WelU, 1674 




(2) ». To cheat ; to outwit. 

Tliere binding both, and bobbing them, then 
trembling at her yre. 

Warner's jilbioni England, 1593. 

Let him be bob'd that bobs will have ; 
But who by means of wisdom hie 
Hath sav'd his charge ? — It is even I, 
Pembr. Arcad., Lib. ii, p. 203. 

Imagining that all the wit in plays con- 
sisted in bringing two persons upon the 
stage to break jests, and to bob one 
another, which they call repartie. 

Shadwell, Sullen Lovers, 1670. 

No, I am no statesman, but you may 
please to remember who was bob'd at 
Ostend, ha, ha ! Id., ib. 

(3) V. To disappoint. North. 

(4) «. A blow. 

(5) 8. A bunch. North. 

(6) 8. A ball. Yorksh. 

(7) 8. The burthen of a song. 
To bear a bob, to join in chorus ; 
also, to take a part in some foolish 

(8) To fish. North. 

(9) To " bear a bob," to be brisk. 

(10) ». The pear-shaped piece of 
lead attached to the line of a 
carpenter's level. East. 

(11) V. To swing backwards and 
forwards sitting on a rope. 

(12) *. A ringing of bells. 

(13) t>. To bob up the hair, to 
twist it in papers. 

(14) 8. A louse, or any small in- 
sect. Hants. " Spiders, bobbs, and 
lice," are mentioned in MS., 
Addit. 11812, f. 16. 

(15) s. A short wig. 

(16) p. To strike ; to beat. 

(17) V. To cut. 

(18) V. To pass in or out. 

(19) «. A term applied to a par- 
ticular method of taking eels. 

(20) 8. The engine beam. North. 

(21) adj. Pleasant; agreeable. 

(22) s. A slang word for a shilling. 
BoBAN, 1 8. (A.-N.) Pride ; va- 


I, J mty. 

So prout he is, and of so gret boban. 

Gy of Warwike, p. 9a. 
For certeynly, I say for no bobaunce, 
Yit was 1 never withouten piirveyannce 
Of mariage, ne of no thinges eeke. 

Cliaucer, C. T., 615L 

BoB-AND-HiT, s. BHud-man's-buff. 

BoBBANT, adj. Romping. Wilts. 

B°0M^y,}^- To buffet; to strike. 

Ye thoght ye had a full gode game. 
When ye my sone with buffettes bobbydd. 
Cambr. MS., loth cent, 

BoBBERous, adj. Saucy ; forward. 

Bobbery, s. A squabble; an 

Bobbin, *. A small fagot, Kent. 

BoBBiN-AND-joAN, *. The flowers 
of the arum maculatum. North- 

BoBBiNG-BLocK, 8. A thing that 
may be struck with impunity ; an 
unresisting fool. 

Became a foole, yea more then that, an asse, 

A bobbing-blocke, a beating stocke, an owle. 

Gascoigne's Devises, p. 337. 

Bobbish, adj. A trivial word, used 
in different senses, such as, pretty 
well in health ; not quite sober ; 
somewhat clever. 

Bobble, «. A pebble. Comw. 

Bobble-cock, s. A turkey-cock. 

Bobbs, s. Pieces of clay used by 
potters to support their ware 
before it is baked. Staff. 

Bobby, adj. Smart ; neat. North. 

Bobby-wren,*. The common wren. 

Bob-cherry, «. A children's game. 

Bobet, 8. A buffet or stroke. 

Bobetts, 8. Thick pieces ; gobbets. 

BOBOLYNE, *. A fool. 

Be we not bobolynes, 
Sutch lesinges to beleve. 

Skelton, ii, 445. 

Bobrelle, 8. The nymphs pu- 
dendi. " Haec caturda, AngUce a 




bobreUe." Nominale, MS. \bth 

Bobtail, (1) v. To cut off the tail. 
(2) 8. The steel of an arrow which 
is sniall-breasted, and big towards 
the head. Kersey. 

BoBY, s. Cheese. West. 

Boc, s. {A.-S.) A book. Boc-home, 
a library. 

BocASiN, s. A sort of buckram. 

BoccoNE, *. (Ital.) A morsel. 

BocE (l)r. To cnihoss. Palsgrave. 
(2) s. A boss, or lump. 
Alas! sora men of hem scliewen the 
schap and the ioce of the horrible swollen 
membres, that semeth like to the male- 
aies of himia, in the wrapping of here 
hose. Chancer, Persones T. 

BocES, *. Sardines. 

BocHANT, «. A forward girl. Wilts. 

BocHE, ». A boss or swelling; a 

BocHER, s. (1) A butcher. Bochery, 
butchery, butchers' meat. 
(2) The name of a fish. 

Book, *. Fear. Devon. 

BocKE, (1) A verb to which Pals- 
grave gives the different mean- 
ings, to belch ; to look upon 
any one disdainfully ; to make a 
noise like that of a toad. 

(2) V. To flow out. 

(3) *. A book. 

BocKEREL, \s. A long-winged 
BOCKERET, J hawk. 

BocKNE, r. To teach ; to press 

BocTAiL, «. A bad woman. Coles. 

BoD, p. To take the husks off wal- 
nuts. Wilts. 

BoDDLE, s. A small iron tool used 
for peeling trees. North. 

BoDDUM, s. Principle. North. 

Bode. (1) «. {A.-S.) A stay or 

(2) s. A command. 

(3) 8. A message ; an offer. 

(4) «. An omen. 

(5) V. To forbode. 

{(>) s. {A.-S. beod.) Board, living. 

(7) The pret. t. and sometiroet 
the part. p. of bidde. 

(8) The pret. t. of bide. 
BoDE-CLOTH,s. A tablc-cloth. £■<!»/. 
Boded, ad/. Overlooked ; i^ted : 

infatuated. Devon. 
BoDER, «. A messenger. 
Bodering, s. The lining of the 

skirt of a woman's petticoat. 
Bodge. (1) s. A patch. 

(2) V. To patch clumsily. 

(3) To boggle, to fail. 

(4) A kind of measure, probably 
half a peck. 

Bodget, s. a budget. 

Of the marchaunt that lost his bodgette 
betweneWare and London: — Acertayne 
niarchant betwene Ware and London 
lost his bodget, and a c. 11. therein, 
wherfore he caused to proclayme in 
dyvers market townes, who so ever that 
founde the sayde bodget, and wolde 
bryng it asrayue, shulde have xx. li. 
for his labour. 

Tales and Qu. Atav!. 

Bodily, adv. Entirely, all at once. 

Bodkix, «. (1) {A.-S.) A dagger. 

Was noon so hardy walkyng by the weye, 
That with hir dorste rage or efirs pleye. 
But if he wold be slayii of Symekyn, 
With panade, or witt knvf, or boydekyn. 
CAaucCT-, C.r.,3955 

Know I am for thee, from the cannon shot 
Unto the smallest bodkin can be got. 
Name any weapon whatsoe're thou wilt. 
Botelandi, Knave of Clubbs, 161l 

(2) A sort of ri h cloth, a cor 

riiption of baudkin. 
BoDKiN-woRK, *. A sort of trim 

ming worn on the gown. 
BoDLE, s. A small coin, worth 

about the third part of a half 

penny. North. 
BoDRAKE, I *. Depredation; a bor- 
B0DRA6E, J der excursion. 

By meanes wherof the said castelles be 
not for our defence agaynst ther stelthe 
and bodrates, according as they were 
fyrst ordeyned, but rather take part of 
Buche Iratyes as coraeyth by them to- 
wardes the Irysher)', to kepe the thyng 

Stale Paperi, ii, 480. 




No wayling there nor wretehedness is 

lieard — 
No nightly bodrags, nor no hup and cries. 
Sfiens., Colin CI., v. 315. 

'BoDwoRD, s. (A.-S.) A message; 

a commandment. 
Body-clout, s. A piece of iron 

adjoining the body of a tumbrel, 

and its wheels. 
Body-horse, s. The second horse 

of a team of four. 
Body-staff, a. A stake or rod of 

withy, &c., used in making the 

body of a waggon. Warw. 
BoF, 8. Quicklime. Howell. 
BoFFLE, ». (1) To change; to vary: 

to stammer through irritation. 


(2) To thwart ; to impede. Mid- 
land C. 
BoFFLERS, *. The legs of old 

worsted stockings, or twisted 

haybands, put round the legs to 

keep off snow. 
BoFFY, V. To swell; to puff. 
BoG, (1)*. Sturdy; self-sufficient; 


The cuckooe, seeing him so hog, waxt 
also wondrous wrothe. 

Warner's Alb'unu England, 1593. 

(2) V. To boast. 

(3) V. To move off. 
BoG-BEAN, s. Marsh trefoil, or 

buckbean. Yorksh. 
BoGETT, 8. A budget. 
BoDGARD, «. A Jakes. " Boggarde 

or drawght. Loke in Siege." 

Boggart, ». A ghost, or goblin. 

BoGGARTY, adj. Apt to start aside, 

applied to a horse. 
BoGGE, «. A bug-bear. 
BoGGisH, adj. Swelling. Pr. P. 


child's game in the North. 
Boggle, v. To do anything in an 

awkward or unskilful manner. 

Boggler, 8. A vicious woman, 

You hav3 been a haggler ever. 

Shakesp., Ant. and Ci., iii, 11. 

Boggy, adj. Bumptious: an old 
Norwich school-word. 

BoGGY-BO, «. A goblin. North. 

Bog-house,«. a Jakes. This is an 
old term. 

BoGiXG, adj. Sneaking. Beds. 

Bogtrotter, 8. An Irish robber. 

Bog-violet, <. The butterwort. 

Bogy, s. (1) Budge fur; lamb's 
fur. Dean Colet, by his will, in 
1519, bequeathed his "best coat 
of chamlet, furred with black 
bogys." Wardrobe Accounts o/ 
Edward IV. 

(2) s. A hobgoblin, or spectre ; 
sometimes called a hogle. 

Boh, conj. But. Lane. 

Bo-hacky, s. a donkey. Yorksh. 

Bohemian-tartar, s. Perhaps a 
gipsy ; or a mere wild appel- 
lation, designed to ridicule the 
appearance of Simple in the 
Merry W. of Windsor, iv, 5. 

BoiDER, *. A basket. North. 

BoiE, *. {A.-N.) An executioner. 

He hot mani a wikke boie. 
His sone lede toward the hangging. 
Sevyn Saga, 960 

BoiER,«. Abever. Baret'sAlvearie, 

1580. For boire. 
BoiLARY, «. A place where salt is 

deposited. North. 
Boiling, «. (1) A quantity of things 

or persons. " The whole boiling 

of them." 

(2) A discovery. An old cant 

BoiLOCNS, *. (1) Bubbles in boil- 
ing water. 

(2) Projecting knobs. 
BoiNARD, s. (A-N.) A low person. 

A term of reproach. 
BoiNE, 8. A swelling. Essex. 
Bois, 8. (A.-N.) Wood. 
Boist, «. (1) A threat. SeeBoste> 

(2) A swelling. East, 

(3) {A.-N.) A box. 




BoisTER, s. A boisterous fellow. 

RoisTXESS, s. Cliurlishness. 

BoiSTOus, adj. (1) Rough; bois- 
terous ; churlish ; stubborn, 
(2) Costly, rich, applied to 

BoKE, (1) V. (J.-S. bealcan.) To 
belch; to nauseate; to vomit. 

(2) s. Bulk. Boke-load, a bulky 
load. East. 

(3) V. To swell. East. 

(4) s. A break or separation in 
a vein of ore. 

(5) s. To point, or thrust at. 

(6 ) part. p. Baked. North. 
{l)v. To enter in a book ; to 

BoKELER, *. A buckler. 
BoKEN, V. To strike. Skinner. 
BoKET, s. A bucket. 
BoKED, jwar^.jo. {A.-S.) Learned. 

Sche was wel kepte, sclie was wel lokid, 
Sche was wel tau^te, sche was wel bokid. 
Gower, MS. Soe. Antiq. 

BoKY, s. (1) Soft. Northumb. 
(2) " Boky-bottomed," broad in 
the beam. Line. 
BoLACE, s. Bone-lace. 
BoLAS, s. A buUace. 
BoLCH, V. To poach eggs. Yorksh. 
BoLDE. (1) V. {A.-S.) To become 
When he Clementes gpeche harde, 
Hys harte beganne to bolde. 


(2) V. To render bold ; to em- 
bolden; to encourage. 

It touches us as France invades our land, 
Not holds the king. Shakesp.,Lear, v, 1. 

Alas that I had not one to bold me. 

Ilycke Scorner. 

(3) «. A bold or brave man. 

(4) s. (A.-S.) A building. 

(5) adj. Magnificent ; grand. 

(6) adj. Smooth, applied to 

In chooseing barley for his use the 
malster looks that it be bold, dijr, cweet, 

of a fair colour, thin skin, clean faltered 
from hames, and dressed from foul- 
ness, seeds, and oatts. Aubrey's Wilt). 

(7) adj. Healthy, strong. Nor- 

BoLCHiN, 8. An unfledged bird. 
See Balchiny. 

Bolder,*. (1) A loud report. iVbrM. 
(2) The rush used for bottoming 
chairs. Norf. 

BoLDERiNG,a4/' Cloudyand threat- 
ening thunder. North. 

BoLDERs, ». Round stones. 

BoLDHEDE, s. Boldness ; courage. 

BoLDLOKER, adv. More boldly. 

BoLDRUMPTious, adj. Presump- 
tuous. Kent. 


BowLDisH, \s. k large flat bowL 


BoLE, ». (1) The body or trunk of 
a tree. 

(2) A bull. A free bull, was a 
bull common to the town or 

Tliay thynke hem fre, and han no juge, 
no more than hatli a fre bole, that takith 
whicli cow that him liketh in the toun. 
So faren thay by wommen ; for right as a 
fre bole is ynough for al a toun, right so 
is a wikked prest corrujicioun ynough 
for al a pariscli, or for al a contray. 

Chaucer, Persones T. 

(3) A bowl. 

(4) A measure containing two 
bushels. North. 

(5) A small sea boat. 
BoLEARMiN. s. Sinoplc. 
BoLE-AXE, 8. In the romance of 

Octovian, v. 1023, 1039, this 
word appears to be applied to 
some kind of weapon; but it 
signifies some article used by 
potters in a poem in Reliq. Antiq., 
ii, 176, "hail beje, potters, with 
jur bole-ax." 
BoLE-HiLLS, 8. A provincial term 
for heaps of metallic scoria, 
which are often met with in the 
lead-mining districts. Places on 
hills where the miners smelted 




or run their ore, before the in- I 

vention of mills and furnaces, are : 

called boles. 
Bole-holes, ». The openings in a 1 

barn for light and air. North. 
BoLE-WEED, ». Knopweed. 
Bole-wort, s. Bishop's-weed. 
BoLGED, adj. Displeased; angry 

North. '■ 

BoLGiT, adj. Bulged? I 

And after they rora with gret navi. 
With holyit scliipis ful craftly, 
The havyn for to han schent. 

Reliq. Antiq., ii, 34. 

BoLiNE, "1 «. The bow-line of a 
BOLiNG, J ship. 

BoLiSME, s, \Gr.) Immoderate 

BoLKE, (1) V. {A.-S.) To belch. 
(2) s. A heap. P. Parv. 

Boll, ». (1) A. ghost. Lane. 
(2) A man who manages power- 
looms. North. 

BoLLE, (1) V. (A.-S.) To swell; 
in a secondary sense, to pod for 
seed. Bollynge, swelling. 

And the flax, and the barley was smit- 
ten : for the barley was in the ear, and 
the flax was boiled. Exodus, ix, 31. 

Here one being throng'd bears back, all 
. iotnandred. Sh., Bape of Lucr. 

(2) A bud ; a pod for seed. 

(3) A bowl, or cup. 

BoLLER, s. A drunkard, one who 

empties bowls. 
BoLLEWED, s. Ball-weed. 
BoLLEYNE, «. Bullion. 
BoLLiNG, 8. A pollard. 
Bolls, s. The ornamental knobs 

on a bedstead. 
BoLLYNE, V. To peck. Pr. Parv. 
BoLNE, ». (1) {A.-S.) To sweU. 

(2) To embolden. 
Bolster, ». (1) The bed of a tim- 

ber carriage. 

(2) Pads used by doctors were 
formerly called bolsters. 

(3) V. To prop up ; to support. 
Bolster -PUDDING, s. A long 

round jam pudding. 

Bolt, (1) s. A sort of arrow. "It 
is an arrow with a round or half- 
round bobb at the end of it, with 
a sharp-pointed arrow head pro- 
ceeding thereirom." Holme, Acad, 
of Armory. Bold-upright, bolt on 
end, straight as an arrow. Some- 
times the word is used for an 
arrow in general, but more espe- 
cially for one thrown from a 

(2) *. To sift. North. 

(3) V. To swallow without 

(4) *. A narrow piece of stuflF. 

(5) V. To dislodge a rabbit. 

(6) V. To run away. 

(7) V. To truss straw. Glouc. 

(8) s. Straw of pease. East. 

(9) A quantity of straw tied up 

Boltell, s. a round moulding. 

Bolter, v. To cohere ; to coagu- 
late. Northampt. 

BoLTiN, s. The quantity of wheat 
straw usually tied up together 
after the corn is thrashed out. 

Bolting-hutch. See Boulting. 

Boltings, s. Meetings for dispu- 
tations, or private arguing of 
cases, in the inns of court. 

Bolts, s. The herb crowfoot. Ger. 

Bolt's-head, s. A long, straight- 
necked glass vessel, rising gra- 
dually to a conical figure. 

BoLioN, s. See Bullions. 

BoMAN, s. A hobgoblin or kidnap- 

Bombard, (1) s. {Fr.) A large 
drinking can, made of leather. 

(2) s. A kind of cannon. Boni' 
bardille, a smaller sort of bom- 

(3) adj. High-sounding, as botH' 
bard words, or bombard phrase. 

Their bombard phrase, their foot and 
half foot words. B. Jon., Art of F, 

(4) s. A musical instrument. 




Bombard-man, s. One who car- 
ried out liquor. 

With t)iat they knock'd Hypocrisie on 
tlie pate, and made room for a homhard- 
nuiH, that brouglit bouge for a country 
lady or two. B. Jon., Love Restored. 

Bombards, s. Padded breeches. 
Bom-barrel, s. The long-tailed 
titmouse. Northampt. 


5. J 


Hear for our food, millions of flow'rie 

Witli long mustachoes, wave upon the 

plains ; 
Heere thousand fleeces, fit for princes robes, 
In Serean forrests hang in silken globes : 
Heer shrubs of Malta (for niy meaner use) 
The fine white balls of bombace do produce. 
Du Bartaa. 

Bombast, s. (Fr.) Cotton. 

(2) V. To stuff out, which was 
usually done with cotton. 

Is this sattin doublet to be hombasted with 
broken meat ? 

Honest JFTi., 0. PI., iii, 441. 

An understandmg soule in a grosse 
body, is like a good leg in a winter 
boote; but a foolish spirit in a well fea- 
tured body, is like a mishapen spindle- 
shanke in a bombasted stocking. 

Bone's Polydoron, 1631. 

In the following passages we see 
how it became applied to writing: 

Give me those lines (whose touch the skil- 
ful ear to please) 

That gliding slow in state, like swelling 
Eumi rates, 

In wiiich things natural he, and not in 
falsely wrong. 

The sounds are fine and smooth, the sense 
is full and strong : 

ifot bombasted with words, vain ticklish 
ears to feed, 

But such as may content the perfect man 
to read. Drayt., Polyolb., S. xxi, p. 1054. 

To flourish o're or bumbast out my stile. 
To make such as not understand me smile. 
Taylor's Motto, 1632. 

(3) V. To beat ; to baste. 

I will so codgell and bombaste thee, that 

thou shalt not be able to sturre thyself. 

Palace of Pleasure, Sign. K, 6. 

BoMBAZE, V. To confound; to 
perplex. East, 

BoMBii.ATioN, s, {Lat.) A hum- 
ming noise. 

BoMBLE-BEE, «. A humblc-bee. 

BoMBONE, "[». To hum, as bees. 
BOMME, J "I bomme as a bom- 
byll bee dothe, or any flye, je 
bruys." Palsgrave. 

BoMEswisH, adv. Helter-skelter. 

Bom I NO, adj. Hanging down. So- 

Bon, (1) «. A band. 

(2) adj. for houn. Prepared. 

(3) adj. {A.-N.) Good. 

(4) adj. Bound. 

(5) s. Bane ; destruction. 
BoNABLE, adj. Strong ; able. 
BoNAiR, \adj. {A.-N.) Civil; 

BONERE, J courtly; gentle. 
BoNA-ROBA, s. (/<a/.) A courtezan. 
BoNA-sociA,». A good companion. 
See Bon-socio. 

Tush, the knaves keepers are my hona- 
socias and my pensioners. 

Merry Devil, 0. PL, v, 268. 

BoNCE, s. A kind of marble. 

BoNCHEF, *. (A.-N.) Prosperity; 
the opposite of mischief, misfor- 

BoNCHEN, V. To beat ; to thump. 

Bond, s. (1) Bondage. 
(2) A band, 

BoNDAGER, s. A cottagcr. or ser- 
vant in husbandry, who has a 
house for the year at an under 
rent, and is entitled to the pro- 
duce of a certain quantity of 
potatoes. For these advantages 
he is bound to work, or find a 

- substitute, when called on, at a 
fixed rate of wages, lower than 
is usual in the country. North. 

BoNDEFOLK, s. Serfs, or villains. 

And fortherover, ther as the lawe saytli, 
that temporel goodes of bondefolk been 
the goodes of her lordes. 

Chaucer, Persones T 

BoNDEMAN, «. (A.-S.) A husband* 

BoNDENE, adj. Bound. 




Lues venerea. 

Bonders, «. Binding stones. 
Bond-land, «. Old cultivated or 

yard lands, as distinguished from 

assart. Susses. 
BoNDY, s. A simpleton. Yorksh. 
Bone, (1) adj. {A.-N.) Good. 

(2) adj. for boun. Ready. 

(3) ». {A.-S.) A petition ; a com- 

(4) ». To seize ; to arrest. 

(5) ». To draw a straight line 
from one point to another by 
means of three upright sticks ; 
a term in land surveying. 

(6) ». To steal privately. 
Bone-ace, s. " A game at cards 

called one and thirtie, or bone- 
ace." Florio. 

Bone-ache, 1 



Bone-cart, (1) s. The body. 
(2) V. To carry on the shoulder 
articles more fitted from their 
weight to be moved in a cart. 

Bone-cleaner, s. A servant. 

Bone-dry, adj. Thoroughly dry. 

Bone-flower, s. A daisy. North. 

Bone-hostel, s. A good lodging. 

Bone-lace, s. Lace worked on 
bobbins, or bones. 

Thy band which thow did use to weare, 
Whicli was scarce washd iij. times a yeare, 
Is turned nowe to canibricke cleare, 
With broad hotulace up to ttie eare. 

MS. Lansd., 241. 

Bone-lazy, adj. Excessively indo- 

Boneless, «. A description of 
goblin, or ghost. 

BoNENF., gen. pi. of bones. 

Bonerete, s. {A-N.) Gentleness. 

Bones, *. (1) Dice. 

And on the borde he whyrled a payre of 

Qaater trey e dewi he clatered as he wente. 
Skelton't Works, i, 43. 

(2) Bobbins for making lace. 

(3) The carcase of a hog is di- 
vided into — 1, the flick, or outer 
fat, which is cured for bacon ; 
and 2, the bones, or the rest. 

(4) To make no bones of a thing, 
to make no difficulty about it. 
Cot grave. 

Bonesetter, s. (1) A rough trot- 
ting horse. South. 
(2) A doctor. 

Bone-shave, s. The sciatica. The 
peasantry in Exmoor have the 
fallowing charm against the bone- 
shave : 

Bone-shate right, 
Bone-shave stmight, 
As the water runs by the stave. 
Good for hone-shave. 

The patient must lie on his back on th« 
bank of a river or brook of water, with 
a straight staff by liis side, between 
him and the water, and must have the 
foregoing words repeated over him. 

BoNE-soRE, adj. Very idle. West. 

Bonet, {Fr.) s. A small cap worn 
close to the head. 

Bonetta, s. a kind of sea-fish. 

Boney, s. a cart-mare. Suffolk. 

Bongait, v. To fasten. Cumb. 

Bon-grace, "Is. (Fr.) A border 
bondgrace, J attached to a bon- 
net or hat to defend the com- 
plexion ; a shade for the face. 
" Cornette, a fashion of shadow, 
or boonegrace, used in old time, 
and at this day by some old wo- 
men." Cotgrave. 

Her bongrace, which she ware with her 

French liode, 
Whan she wente cnite alwayes, for sonne 


The Fardoner and the Frere, 1533. 

Tod. You think me a very desperate man. 

Isab. Why so, sir? 

Tod. For coming near so bright a sun as 

you are without a parasol, umbrellia, or 

a bondgrace. 
Dateiumt, The Man's the Master, 1669. 

In this hot quarter women wear masks, 
fans, &c. Sec., and children bongraces to 
keep their faces from being sun-burnt, 
because beauty is delighit'ul to all peo- 
ple. Foot Boim, 1739. 




BoNHOMME, s. A priest. 

BoxiE, «. A blow or wound. Given 

by Kennett as an Essex word. 
BoxiFY, V. (Lat.) To convert into 

BoNiTO, s. A kind of tunny-fish. 
BoNiTY, 8. {Lat.) Goodness. 
BoN'KE, 8. A bank ; a height. 
BoNKER, adj. (1) Large; strap- 
ping. East. 

(2) V. To outdo another in fe*ts 

of agility. Sussex. 
BoNKET, 8. A huckle-bone. 
BoNKKA, adj. Very large. Essex. 
BoxNAOHT, s. A tax formerly paid 

to the lord of the manor in Ire- 
BoN'NETS, s. Small sails. 
BoNxiBEL, 8. A handsome girl. 

BoNNiLASS, 8. A beautiful maid. 

BoxNiLY, adv. Pretty well. North. 
BoxxY, a</;. (1) Brisk ; cheerful. 

(2) Good ; pretty. North. 
BoNXY-CLABBER, s. Cream gone 

thick; buttermilk. 
BoxNY-Go, adj. Frisky. Wight. 
BoxoMABLY, adv. Abominably. 

Peek's Works, iii, 88. 
Box-socio, T ». (Ital) A good 
Boxo-socio, J companion ; a good 


Thence to Kighley, where are mountains 

Steepy-tlireatiiing, lively fountains, 

Kising hills, and barren valUes ; 

Yet bon-socios and good fellows ; 

Jovial, jocund, jolly bowlers. 

As they were the world's controulers. 

Drunken Bamaby. 

BoxsocR, «. {A.-N.) A vault. 

The butras com out of the diche. 
Of rede gold y-arched riche ; 
The bonsour was avowed al 
Of ich maner divers animal. 

Sir Orpheo, ed. Laing, 325. 

BoNTEVOus, adj. Bounteous. 

BoxTixG, 8. A binding; curved 
bars of iron placed round ovens 
and furnaces to prevent their 
swelling outwards. 

Boxes NocHKs, a. A corruption of 

the Spanish words buenos noches, 

good night. 
BoxwoRT, 8. The lesser daisy. 
Boxx, V. To beat up batter for 

puddings. Essex. 
Boxy, s. A swelling on the body 

from pinching or bruising, Pr. P. 
Boo, (1) 8. A bough. 

(2) adj. Both. 

(3) V. To roar ; to make a noise 
like cattle. North. 

BooBY-HUTCH. A covcrcd carriage 
or seat contrived clumsily. East. 

Boon, pret. t. Abode. 

BooDGE, V. To stuff bushes into a 
hedge. Here/. 

BooDiEs, 8. " Broken pieces of 
earthenware or glass used by 
children for decorating a play- 
house, called a boody-houae, made 
in imitation of an ornamental 
cabinet." Brockett. 

Boodle, s. The corn marigold. 

BooF, adj. Stupid. Line. 

Boogth, 8. Bigness. Yorksh. 

Book, s. This terra was applied to 
anything in writing, sometimes 
even to a grant. "There is order 
for the passing of a hook of .£200 
land." Letter dated 1603. 

Bookholder, 8. A prompter. 

oTtxofiv0o«. He that telleth the playen 
their part when they are out, and have 
forgotten: the prompter, or boote- 
holder. Nomenclator, 1585. 

BooKTXG, *. A chastising. South. 

BooKSMAX, 8. A clerk or secretary. 

BooL, V. To bawl. 

BooLK, V. To abuse. Suffolk. 

Boom, s. A term for a stake placed 
at the margin of deep channels 
to warn boats from the mud. 

Boomer, *. Smuggled gin. Brock. 

Boox, (I) adj. (Fr.) Good; fair. 

(2) 8. A bone. 

(3) part. a. Going. North. 

(4) V. To mend the highways* 




(5) V. To glide along. 
The first of tliem booning by hiraselfe 
before the wind, with his nag in the 
maine-top, and all his sayles gallantly 
spread abroad, after him came the 
admirall and the rice-admirall, and 
after them two more, the reare-admirall 
and his fellow. Taylor's Workes, 1630. 

BooNCH, ». To irritate ; to razk& 
angry. Leic. 

Boon-days, s. The days on which 
tenants are bound to work for 
their lord gratis. North. Going 
to assist a neighbour gratuitously 
is called booning in the Midi. C. 

Boons, «. (1) Fowls. Yorkah. 
(2) Rates for repairing the roads, 
the surveyor of which is called a 
boon-master. Line. 

BooN-WAiN, g. A kind of waggon. 

Boor, *. {A.-S. bur.) A parlour ; 
an inner rooir.. North. 

BooRD, V. To board. 

Boord, "1(1) *. (^.-A^.) a jest. 
BOURDE, J See Bourde. 

(2) V. (from Fr. aborder.) To 
attack ; to board ; to accost. 

Ere long with like again he boarded me. 

Spens., F. Q., II, iv, 24. 
Fhilaatns taking Camilla by the hand, 
and an \ime served began to boord her 
on thir . aauner. Suph. Engl. P., 4, b. 

(3) To border, or form a boun> 

Boord's-end, s. The head of the 

Ebriscus cannot eat, nor looke, nor talke, 
If to the boord's-end he be not promoted. 
Davies, Scourge of Folly, \i\\. 

BooRSLAPS, 8. A coarse kind of 

BoosE, s. {A.-S. bosff, bosiff.) A 
stall for cattle. Boosy, the 
trough out of which cattle feed. 
Boosy -pastxtre, the pasture con- 
tiguous to the boose. Boosing- 
stake, the post to which they are 
fastened. North. 

BoosENiNG, V. A method of curing 
mad people by immersion. Brand's 
Pop. Antiq., iii, 149. 

Boosu, V. To gore as a bull. West. 

BoosoN, "1 ». A trough or man- 
BUSHON, >-ger for cattle. Leic, 
BooziNGS, J and Warw. 
BoosTERiNG, part. a. Sweating 
at work; working so hard that 
you perspire. Exmoor. 
BoosY, adj. Intoxicated. 
Boot, (1) s. (A.-S.) Help; resto- 
ration ; remedy. 

(2) s. {A.-S.) A boat. 

(3) pret. t. of bite. Bit. 

(4) 8. A kind of rack or torture 
for the leg. 

(5) s. Surplus ; profit. 
BooTCATCHER, *. The person at 

an inn whose duty it is to pull 
off the boots of passengers. 

BooTED-coRN, «.' Com imper- 
fectly grown, so that the ear re- 
mains partly enclosed in the 
sheath. South. 

BooTHALiNG, s. Frcebooting ; rob- 

— Well, Don John, 

If you do spring a leak, or get an itch, 

'Till ye claw off your curl'd pate, thank 
your night' walks. 

You must be still u boot-haling. 

B. and Fl., Chances, i,i. 

BooT-HALER, s. A frccbootcr. Cot- 
grave explains picoreur to be 
" a boot-haler (in a friend's coun- 
try), a ravening or filching souU 

Sir, captain, mad Mary, the gull my 
own father (dapper sir Davy), laid 
these London boot-halers, the catch- 
poles, in ambush to set upon me. 

Roaring Girl. 

BooTHER, s. A bowl-shaped hard 
flinty stone. North. 

BooTHYR, s. A small ship used on 
rivers. Pr. Parv. 

Booting, s. (1) A robbery. 

(2) A mock ceremony of punish- 
ment among boys in Northamp- 

Booting-corn, s. a kind of rent- 

Bootne, v. (A.-S.) To restore, 
to remedv. 




Biynde and bed-reden 
Were hootnei a tliousande. 

PiewP/., p. 128. 

Booty, v. To play booty, an old 
term at cards, to allow one's 
adversary to win at first in order 
to induce him to continue playing 

Bop, V. To dip ; to duck. East. 

Bo-PEEP, s. A childish game, not 
unfrequently mentioned in old 
writers, and sometimes called bo- 

About tlie arches Thames doth play ho- 
pe eke 
With any Trojan or els merry Greeke. 

The AVtce Metamorphosis, 1600. 

BoR, ». {A.-S.) A boar. 

BoRACHio, *. {Span.) (1) A bottle 
or vessel made of a pig's skin, with 
the hair inward, dressed in- 
wardly with resin and pitch to 
keep wine or liquor sweet. 
(2) Figuratively, a drunkard. 

Boras, «. (.,^.-A^.) Borax. 

Golde solder, of some it is called hcras 
or greene earth, whereof there be two 
kindes, naturall and artiticiall. Nomencl. 

BoRASCOES, *. Storms of thunder 
and lightning. 

BoRATOE, s. Bombasin. 

BoRD, s. (1) (A.-N.) A border. 
(2) {A..S.) A board. 

BoRDAGE. s. A bord-halfpenny. 

BoRDE, s. (A.-S.) A table, which 
was made by placing a board 
upon trestles. Hence, board and 
lodging. "To begin the horde," 
to take the principal place at table. 
The table-cloth was called the 

BoRDEL, *. {A.-N.) A brotheL 

He ladde hire to the hordel thoo, 
>'o wondir is thouje scbe he wo. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 

Tlie same schal the man telle pleynly, 
with alle the circumstaunccs, and whe- 
ther he have synned with commune 
bordeal woraman or noon, or doon his 
synue in holy tymc or noon. 

Chaucer, Ferxme* T. 

That the woemen that ben at common 
hordell be seyn every day what they be, 
and a woman that liveth by hir body to 
come and to go, so that she pate hir 
dutie as olde custume is. 

Regulations of the Stews, Vith cent. 

BoRDELL, «. A border. 
BoRDELLER, s. ■ The keeper of a 

Bordello. {Ital.) A brothel. 

— From the windmill ! 
IVom the bordello, it might come as well. 
£. Jom., Every Man in his H., i, 2. 

Also crept into all the stewes, all the 

brothell-houses, and hurdelloes of Italy. 

Coryat, vol. ii, p. 175. 

Bordered, adj. Restrained. Shak. 

Bord-halfpenny, s. Money paid 
in fairs and markets for setting 
up tables, bords, and stalls. 

BoRDJOuR, s. {A.-N.) A jester. 

BoRDLANDS, «. Lauds appropri- 
ated by the lord for the support 
of his table. 

BoRDOUR, *. Apparently a piece of 
armour attached to the cuirass. 

BoRDRAGiNG, 8. Ravaging on the 
borders. See Bodrag. 

BoRD-You. A phrase used by one 
harvest man to another, when the 
latter is drinking, meaning that 
he may have the next turn. 

BoRDES, 8. {A.-N. behordeU.) 

Bore, (1) part. p. Born. 

{2)8. A kind of cabbage. Tusser. 

(3) s. An iron mould used for 
making nails. Shropsh. 

(4) «. A pore. 

(5) 8. A tiresome fellow. 

(6) *. The head or first flowing of 
the water, seen at spring tides in 
the river Parret, for a few miles 
below and at Bridgewater, and 
also in some other rivers. The 
epithet " Boriall stremys" is 
applied to the Thames in Reliq. 
Antiq., i, 206. 

Boreal, adj. {Lat.) Northern. 




Borecole,*. A species of cabbage, 
BoREE, s. A sort of dance, in 
vogue at the beginning of the 
18th century. 
BoREL, \s. A species of coarse 
BUREL, J woollen cloth, generally 
of a grey or grizzly colour, and 
applied in a secondary sense to 
laymen, in contradistinction from 
the clergy. The term borelfolk 
and borel men, is very common 
in Old English poetry. It thus 
became used in the sense of illi- 
terate. The third of our quota- 
tions contains a pun upon the 

And tlianne shul burel clerkes ben 

To. blame yow or to greve, 
And carpen noght as thei carpe now, 
Ne calle yow doumbe bovmdes. 


For, sire and dame, trustith me right wel, 
Our orisouns ben more eftectuel. 
And moie we se of Goddis secrf thinges, 
Thau horel folk, although tiiat tliay ben 
kinges. Chaucer, C. T., 7451 . 

And we see by ejcperience in travel! the 
rudenesse and sin\plicity of the people 
that are seated far North, which no 
doubt is intimated by a vulgar speech, 
when we say such a man hatli a borreU 
wit, as if we said boreale ittgenium. 
The Optick Glajse of Humors, 1639, p. 29. 

BoRELT, \adj. Large; strong; 

BORLicH, J burly. 
BoRESON, *. A badger. 
BoRFKEiE. See Berfrey. 
BoRGEON, V. {A.-N.) To bud. 
Thus Cham his broode did horgeon first, 
and held the worlde in awe. 

Warner's Jlbions EngUmd, 1592. 

BoRGH, s. (A.-S.) A pledge. 
BoRGHEGANG, s. (A.-S.) A duty 

for leave to pass through a 

borough town. 
BoRHAME, s. A flounder. North. 
BoRiTH, s. An herb used to take 

out stains. 
BoRJouNE,«. A bud. See Borgeon, 
BoRLER, *. A clothier. 
BoRXE, (1) s. A stream ; a burn, 

(2) r. To burn. 

(3) V. To burnish. 

BoRN-FOOL, s. An idiot. 

BoRow, s. A tithing. " That which 
in the West countrey was at that 
time, and yet is, called a tithing, 
is in Kent termed a borow." 

BoROWAGE, s. Borrowing. 

BoROWE, (1) s. {A.-S.) A pledge; 
a surety. 

This was the fi.rst sourse of shepherd's 

That now nill be quit with bale nor borrow. 
Sp., Shep. Kal. May, 1, 180. 

(2) V. To be a pledge for another. 

BoROWEHODE, s. Suretyship. 

BoRREL. «. (1) A borer or piercer. 
(2) A play.fellow. 

BoRRiD,arf;. A sow maris appeteng. 

BoRRiER, s. An auger. 

BoRROw-PENCE,«. A term formerly 
given to ancient coins in Kent. 

BoRSE, 8. A calf six months old. 

BoRSEN,/>arf. /». Burst. 

BoRSHOLDER, s. A sort of consta- 

BoRSOM, adj. Obedient ; buxom. 

Borstal, s. "Any seat on the side 
or pitch of a hill." Kennett. The 
term is still universally current 
in Sussex, applied to the nume- 
rous roads or pathways leading 
up the steep ascents of the whole 
line of South Downs from East- 
bourne to Midhurst. 

BoRSTAX, s. A 

BoRSTEN,^a>'/. jw. Burst, ruptured. 

BoRWAGE, s. A surety. 

BoRWE, (1) *. A town ; a borough. 

(2) 8. A bower ; a chamber. 

(3) 8. A pledge; a surety. 
Thanne Melib6 took liera up fro the 
ground ful benignely, and resceyved 
here obligaciouns, and liere bondes, by 
here othes upon here plegges and bonees, 
and assigned hem a certeyn day to 
retourne unto his court. 

Chaucer, T. ofMelibent, 

(4) t. To give security; to bail; 
to borrow. 




(5) ». {A.-S.) To save , to guard. 
Bi)s,s. A game, mentioned in Moor's 

Suffolk Words, 
BosARDE, s. (1) A buzzard; a 

worthless hawk. 

(2) A worthless or useless fellow. 
Bosc, *. (/f.-N.) A bush. 
Boscage, (1) s. {A.-N.) A wood. 

(2) The food which wood and 
trees yield to cattle. 

(3) Boscage, or leaf-work, in 

BoscHAiLE, s. {A.-N.) A thicket ; 
a wood. 

BoscHES, s. Bushes. 

BosE, (1) jore*. ^. It behoves. 
(2) s. A hollow. 

BosEN, s. A badger. North. 

BosH,(l)*. A dash, or show. East. 
(2) s. Nonsense. A word derived 
from the Turkish. 

Boshes, s. " The bottom of the 
furnace in which they melt their 
iron ore, the sides of which fur- 
nace descend obliquely like the 
hopper of a mill." Kennett. 

Bosholdek, s. The chief person in 
an ancient tithing of ten families. 

Boske, s. a bush. 

Bosked. See Buske. 

Bosky, adj. (1) Drunken. From 
(2) Bushy. 

Bosom, {\) v. To eddy. Yorksh. 
(2) s. A desire ; a wish. Shak. 

Boson, s. A boatswain. 

Boss, (1) s. A protuberance. 

(2) V. To emboss ; to stud. 

(3) s. A stone placed at the in- 
tersection of the ribs of a vault. 

(4) s. A head or reservoir of 

(5) p. To throw. Sussex. 

(6) s. A hassock. North. 

(7) ». A hood for mortar. East. 

(8) s. A large marble. Warw. 

(9) s. \ master, or he who can 
beat and overcome another. 

BossAGE, s. The projecting work 
in building. 

BossocK, (1) adj. Large; coarse; 
(2) V. To tumble clumsily. 

BossocKiNG, adj. The same *s 

Boss-ouT, s. A game at marbles, 
also called boss and span. 

Bossy, adj. (1) Thickset; corpu- 
lent. North. 

(2) Convex. 

Bossy-calf, s. A spoilt child. 

BosT, (1) s. Boast; pride. 

(2)pret. t. Burst. West. 

(3) adj. Embossed. 
Bostal. See Borstal. 
Bostance, s. Boasting ; bragging. 
BosTE, V. To menace. 

And that he was threatened and hosted 

with proud words <fiven by the Colvills. 

Bowes Correspondence, loW. 

BosTKN, V. (A.-S.) To boast. 

BosTLYE, adv. Boasting. Gaw. 

BosTus, adj. Boastful ; arrogant. 

BosvEL, s. A species of crowfoot. 

BoswELL,, s. Some part of a fire- 
grate. Suffolk. 

BoT, (1) «. A boat. 
(2) s. A but. 
(3)pret. t. Bit. 

(4 ) pret. t. Bought. Bevon. 

(5) conj. Unless. 

(6) adj. Both. 

(7) s. A botcher. Yorksh. 

(8) *. A sword; a knife. 
BoTANO, s. A kind of blue linen. 
BoTARGE, "1 ». A kind of salt cake, 

BOTARGO, J orralhersausage,made 
of the hard roe of the sea mullet, 
eaten with oil and vinegar, but 
chiefly used to promote drinking. 

Because he was naturally flegmatic, he 
began his meal with some dozens of 
gammojjs, dried neats* tongues, botargos, 
sausages, and sucli other forerunners of 
wine. Rabelms, B. i, ch. 21. 

Botch, s. (1) A thump. Sussex. 
(2) An inflamed tumour. North. 




(3) A badly done patch. 
BoTCHERY, 8. Patch work ; achirasy 

addition to a work. 
BoTCHET, s. Small beer mead. 

BoTCHMENT, «. An addition. 
Bote, (1) pret. t. of bite. Bit; 

wounded ; ate. 

(2) s. {A.-S.) Help; remedy ; sal- 

(3) V. To help. 

(4) adj. Better. 
BoTELER, K. A butler. 


BoTEMAY, s. Bitumen. 

BoTENK, V. To button. 

BoTENYNG, s. {J.-S.) Help ; assist- 

BoTE-RAiL, «. A horizontal rail. 

boTESCAKL, s. A boatswain. 

BoTEWs, s. A sort of large boot, 
reaching up to or above the knee. 

BoT-FORKE, s. A crooked stick. 

Moil in the mone stond ant strit, 
On is bol-forke is burthen he bereth. 
Lyric Poetry, p. 110. 

BoTHAN, s. A tumour. Devon. 
BoTHE, s. A booth; a shop where 

wares are sold. 
BoTHEM, s. A watercourse. 
both erin 

' Is. Nc 


I some 


f onsense; tire- 
.'some talk. 


Bother, (1)». To teaze ; to annov. 

(2) gen. pi. Of both. 
Bothering, s. A great scolding. 

Bo-thrush,s. The squalling thrush. 

Bothul, 8. The name of a flower. 

Pr. Part. 
Bothcm, *. (1) Bottom. 

(2) (A.-N.) A bud. 
BoTiNG, *. (1) {A.-S.) Assistance. 

(2) " Encrese yn byynge." Pr. 

Botme, «. Bottom. Pr. Parv. 
BoTON, 8. A button. 
BoTOR, «. {A.-N.) A bustard. 

Tlier was vemsoun of hert and bor«, 
Swannes, pecokes, and holors. 

Arlhour and Merlin, p. 116. 

He brojt a heron with a poplere, 
Ctirlews, bolurs, bothe in fere. 

MS. Cantab., £i. v, 48, f. 49. 

BoTRACES, 8. A sort of frogs, said 

to be venomous. 
BoTRASEN, V. To make buttresses. 
BoTRE, 8. A buttery. 
BoTS, s. Small worms which breed 

in the entrails of horses ; a terra 

applied by gardenersin someparis 

to all underground worms. 
BoTTA, adj. Proud, pert ; assuming 

consequential airs. Nor/. 
BoTTE, {I) pret. t. oi bite. Bit. 

(2) 8. A bat ; a club. 
Bottle, s. (1) A small cask, used 

for carrying liquor to the fields. 

(2) {Fr. hotel, boteau.) A bundle, 
more especially of hay or straw. 
Bottles, little bundles. Leic. 

(3) A bubble. Somerset. 

(4) A round moulding. 

(5) {A.-S. botl.) A seat, or chief 
mansion house. 

(6) A pumpion. Devon. 

(7) The dug of a cow. East. 
Bottle-bird, ». An apple rolled up 

and baked in paste. East. 

Bottle-bump, «. The bittern. Ea8t. 

Bottle-flower,*. The blue-bottle, 
a flower growing among wheat. 

Bottle-head, *. A fool. 

Bottle- JUG, s. The long-tailed 
titmouse. Leic. 

Bottle-nose, 8. A porpoise. East. 

Bottle-nosed, «. Having a large 

Bottle-tit, «. The long-tailed tit- 
mouse. Northamp. 

Bottle-up, v. To preserve in one's 
memory ; to keep secret. 

Bottom, (1) s. A ball of thread. 

(2) 8. A vessel of burden. 

(3) s. The posteriors. 
Bottomer, s. The man who con- 
veys the produce of a mine from 
the first deposit to the shaft. 




BoTTOMiNG-TOOL, s. A narrow 
concave shovel used by drainers. 

Bottom-wind, s. A particular mo- 
tion of the water observed in 

BoTTRY, adj. Short, stunty, applied 
to trees. Northamp. 

BoTTRY-TREE, *. An elder tree. 

BoTTY, adj. Proud. Suffolk. 

BoTY, s. A butty ; a partner. Pals- 

BoucE-jANE, s. {A.-N.) An ancient 
dish in cookery. 

Bouce Jane. Take gode cowe niylk, and 
put hit in a pot, and sethe liit, and take 
sa^e, parscl, ysope, and savory, and 
otlier gode herbes, and sethe liom and 
hew hom smalle, and doliom in the pot ; 
tlien take hennes, or capons, or chekyns ; 
wlien thai bjn lialf rosted, take horn of 
the spit, and sniyte hom on paces, and 
do therto, and put therto pynes and 
raysynges of corance, and let hit boyle, 
and serve hit forthe. 

Warner, Jntiq. Ctilin., p. 56. 

BoncHAKT, s. A name for a hare. 
BoucHET, s. (Fr.) A kind of pear. 
BouDE, V. {Fr.) To pout. 
BouDGE, V. To budge; to move. 




BoL'EY, s. A louse. Wore. 

BouFFE, s. Belching. Skinner. 

BouGE, s. (1) A cask. The term is 
applied to the round swelling part 
of a cask, in Sussex. 
(2) {Fr.) An allowance of meat 
or drink to an attendant in the 
court, termed indiscriminately 
bouch, bouge, or bowge, of court. 
"Bowge o/ courte, whyche was a 
liverye of meats and dryncke, 
Sortella." Huloet. In the ordi- 
nances made at Eltham, in the 
17th of Henry VUI, under the 
title bouche of court, the queen's 
maids of honour were to have, 
" for theire bouch in the morning, 
one diet lofe, one manchet, two 
gallons of ale, dim' pitcher of 


wine." " Avoir bouche a court, 
to eat and drink scot-free, to have 
budge-a-court, to be in ordinary 
at court," Cotgrave, v, bouche. 

What is your business? — N. To fetch 
hojidffe of court, a parcel of invisible 
bread, &c. B. Jon., Masq. of Augurs. 

They had houch of court (to wit, meat 
and drink) and great wages of sixpejice 
by the day. 

Stowe's Survey of London. 

(3) P. To project. Leic. 

(4) " To make a bouge," to com- 
mit a gross blunder, to get a 
heavy fall. 

(5) V. To bulge, to swell out. 

(6) V. To prepare a ship for the 
purpose of sinking it. 

(7) s. A small beetle. Leic. 
BouGERON, s. (fV.) Abardash. 
BouGET, *. A budget. 
Bough-houses, s. Private houses 

allowed to be open during fairs 

for the sale of liquor. 
Boughreli., 8. A kind of hawk. 
Bought, s. {A.-S.) A bend; 

joint; applied particularly to the 

curve of a sling where the missile 

was placed. 
Bought-bread, s. Bakers' bread. 

Bougill, s. a bugle-horn. 
BouGOUR, s. {Fr.) A bardash. 
BouGY, s. {Fr.) A small candle. 
Bouke, (1) s. {A.-S.) The bulk; 

the body; the interior of a 


(2) V. {A.-S.) To buck or wash 

(3) s. A pail. North. 

(4) s. The box of a wheel. 

(5) *. A bolt. North. 
BouKED, adj. Crooked. 
BouL, s. An iron hoop. Line- 
Boulder head, s. A work oi 

small wooden stakes made again 
the sea. Sussex. 




BouLTE, V. (A.-S.) To sift. 
BouLTED-BREAD, s. Bicad made 

of wheat and rye. 
Boulter, s. (1) A person who sifts. 

(2) A sieve for meal. " A meale 

sive : a boulter : a serse." Nomen- 

BouLTiNG-CLOTH, s. A cloth for 

straining. " Estamine. A strainer 

of hairy cloth : a boulting cloth." 

BouLTiNG-HUTCH, s. The wooden 

receptacle into which the meal 

was sifted. 
BouMET, adj. Embalmed. 
BouN, (1) adj. (J.-S.) Ready; 


(2) V. To dress ; to make ready ; 
to prepare. 

(3) «. A woman's garment. 
Bounce, s. The larger dogfish. 
BouNCHiNG, adj. Bending or 

Bouncing, adj. Large. 
Bound, (1) a<^'. Sure; confident. 

(2) adj. Apprenticed. 

(3) s. A boundary mark. 
Bounde, s. (J.-S.) A husband. 
Bounder, s. A boundary; a limit. 
Bounding, «. Perambulating the 

bounds of the parish. 
Bound-stone,*. A boundary stone. 

The term occurs in a chaiter 

relating to Poole, co. Dorset, 

temp. Hen. VIII. 
BouNG, *. A purse. An old slang 

BouNTE, a. {A.-N.) Goodness. 


IS, "1 ,. 


Mine, quoth the one, is of a bouiUioiu 

And in the tarerne will be drunke all night. 
Spending most lavishly he knowes not what. 
Somlands, Knave of Spades, J6\Z. 

BouNTT-DAYS,*. HoUdaysonwhich 
provision was given to the poor. 

BouR, ». (A.-S.) A bower; a 

BouRAM, s. A sink. Yorksh. 

BouRDE, (1) g. (A.-N.) A game ; a 

(2)». To jest; to jape; to de- 

Where words may win good wil. 
And boldnesse beare no blame, 

Why should there want a face of brasse 
To bourd the bravest dame ? 
Turbenille, Epig. and Sonnettet, 1569. 

BouRDER, *. A jester. 
BouRDiNGLY, udv. In sport. 
Bourdon, s. (A.-N.) A staff. 
BouRDONASSE, s. (Fr.) A sort of 

ornamented staff. 

Their men of armes were all bardedand 

furnished with brave plumes, and goodly 


Danel's Transl. of Ph. de Condnes. 

BouRDOUR, «. (1) A pensioner. 
(2) A circlet round a helmet. 
Bourgeon, v. {A.-N.) To bud; 

to sprout. 
BouRHOLM, *. The burdock, 
Bourmaidne, *. (^.--S.) A cham- 
Hail be je, nonnes of seint Man house, 
Goddes bourmaidnes and liis owen spouse. 
Beliq. Antiq., li, 175. 

Bourn, «. (1) (^A.-S.) A brook; a 

(2) A boundary, or limit. 

(3) Yeast. Exmoor. 
Bournede, adj. Burnished. 
BouRT, V. To offer; to pretend. 

Bous, s. A box ; a chest. Yorksh. 
Bouse, a. Ore as drawn from the 

mines. Small ore, as washed by 

the sieve, is called bouse-smiihen. 



Bossus wiU bowse, and bragges he can ore- 

(Or make them deadly drunke) an hoast 

of men ; 
When he is foxt he plaies the bull and 

And makes all men and women feare him 
then. Danes, Scourge of FoUy, 161 1 

««' 1 r, 

WSE, j 

To drink, 
cant term. 

An old 




BotrsTOtrs, adj. Impetuous. 
Bout, (1) s. A batch. 

(2) ». A turn ; a go ; a set-to at 

(3) conj. But. 

(4) prep. Without ; except. 

BouTEFEU, s. (Fr.) An incendiary. 

Bout-hammer. The hea\-y two- 
handed hammer used by black- 
smiths. East. 

BouT-HonsE, adv. On the ground; 
anywhere. Wight. 

BouTisALB, t. A sale at a cheap 

BouzixG-CAN, 8. A drinking 

BovATE, s. As much land as one 
yoke of oxen can reasonably cul- 
tivate in a year. 

BovE, prep. Above. 

BovERT, *. {A.-N.) A young ox. 

BovoLi, s. (Jtal.) A kind of snails 
or periwinkles, used as deli- 

Bow, (I) «. A yoke for oxen. 
(2)«. A nosegay. A^.iZ. Yorish. 

(3) *. A bow's length. 

(4) g. A boy. 

(5) 8. A small arched bridge. 

(6) t. An arch or gateway. 
Bow-BELL, 8. One born within the 

sound of Bow bells. 

Bow-BOY, s. A scarecrow. Kent. 

BowcER, s. The bursar. 

BowDiKiTE, «. A contemptuous 
name for a mischievous child ; an 
insignificant or corpulent person. 

BovfDLKD, adj. Swelled out; ruffled 
with rage. 

BowE, (1) V. To bend ; to bow. 
(2) 8. A bough ; a branch. 

BowELL-HOLE, 8. A Small aper- 
ture in the wall of a barn for 
giving light and air. North. 

BowEN, ». (1) A narrative. 

(2) Early or half-cured sprats are 
called botcen sprats. 

BowEB, t. (^A.-S.) A chamber. 

BowERiNGE, 8. The part of a tree 
consisting of the boughs. 

BowERLY, adj. Tall; handsome. 

Bowers, "] s. Young hawks, be- 
BOWETS, I fore they are branch- 

BowETY, 8. Linsey-wolsey. North. 

Bow-HAND, 8. The left hand. To 
be too much of the bow-hand, to 
fail in a design. 

Bowhawler, 8. A man who draws 
barges along the Severn. 

Bowie-frame, s. A phrase ap- 
plied to toads when together. 
Fairfax, Bulk and Selvedge of 
the World, 1674, p. 130. 

Bowit, *. A lanthorn. North. 

Bowk, (1) adj. Crooked. North. 
(2) 8. An article used in the 
shaft of a coalpit. 

BowK-iRox, 8. The circular piece 
of iron lining the interior of a 
wheel. West. 

Bow-KiTT, 8. A sort of large can 
with a cover. Yorish. 

Bow-knot, s. A large, loose knot. 

Bowl-alley, *. A covered space 
for the game of bowls, instead of 
a bowling green. 

Bowling-match, s. A game with 
stone howls, played on the high- 
way from village to village. North. 

Bowltell, 8. A kind of cloth. 

Bown, adj. Swelled. Norf. 

Bowndyn, adj. Ready ; prepared. 

BOWNE, 8. 

Bowne, buttell, or merestafe, or stone, 

Jmiliarius. Hulott. 

Bow-net, s. A sort of net for 

catching fish, made of twigs 

bowed together. 
Bow-pot, "1 «. A flower-pot for 

BOUGH-POT, J a window. West. 
BowRE, V. To lodge. Spens. 
BowREs, ». A dish in old cookery. 
Bowsing, ». A term in hawking, 

an insatiable desire for drink. 
BowsoM, adj. Buxom ; obedient. 

Bowsomnea, obedience. 




BowssEN, V. To dip in water, to 
drench or soak. 

BowsTAVES, s. Staves for bows ? 

Bowsy, adj. (1) Bloated by 
(2) Large ; bulk v. Berks. 

BowT, s. (1) {Fr.j The tip of the 

(2) Part of an angler's ap- 

BowTEL, s. A convex moulding. 

Bow-weed, s. Knapweed. 

Bow-wow, «. A servile attendant. 

Poore unbegotten wether beaten Qualto, 
aah()b-h»nsom man, God wot, and a bow- 
kOw to his lady and mistresse, serving 
a lady in Italy as a Tom drudge of the 
pudding house. Philotimus, 1583. 

BowYER, «. (1) A maker of bows. 

(2) A small ship. 
Box, (1) «. A blow, 

(2) V. To strike. 

(3) *. A benevolent club, the 
anniversary dinner of which is 
called a box -dinner. North. 

(4) To " box the fox," to rob an 
orchard. West. 

(5) Box of a cow, A peculiar 
meaning, apparently the wicket 
of the belly. Yorkshire Ale, 
p. 93. 

(6) To be boxed about, to be 
much discussed and talked of. 

Pray be pleas'd to send me your mind 
about this sermon ; for Goodman 
Staidraan's child is to be cliristcn'd 
next Friday, and there it will be box'd 
about ; and I am in a great quandary 
about it. Dame Huddle's Letter,Yi\0. 

Box-and-dice, s. a game of 

Box-BAKROW, 8. A haud-barrow. 

Box-HARRY, V. To be careful after 

having been extravagant. Line. 
Boxing, adj. Buxom. Line. 
Boxing-day, s. The day after 

Christmas day, when people ask 

for Christmas-boxes. 
Box-iron, s. Aflat-iron. £a«^. An 

iron inclosed in a heater. 

Boy-blind, a<(?". Undisceming, like 

a boy. 
Boydekin, 8. A dagger. See 

Boye, *. (A.-S.) A lad servant. 
B'oye. Be wi' ye. 
BoYKiN, s. A term of endearment; 

a little boy. 
BoYLES, s. Lice. Line. 
BoYLUM, s. A kind of iron ore. 
BoYLY, adv. Boyishly. 
BoYS, s. (A.-N.) A wood. 
BoYSHE, 8. A bush. 
BoYsiD, adj. Swelled. 
BoYs'-LOVE, 8. Southernwood. 

BoYSTiNG MILK, 8. Becstiiigs ; 

the first milk a cow gives after 

BoYSTONE, V. To cup. Pr. Pan. 
BoYT, adj. Both. 
BozzuM, 8. The yellow ox-eye. 
BozzuM -CHUCKED, adj. Red- 
cheeked. West. 
B03E, V. To move; to rise, or go. 
Braa, s. An acclivity. North. 
Brab, s. a spike-nail. Yorksh. 
Braband, s. Cloth of Brabant. 
Brabble, v. To quarrel; to 

Brabblement, *. A quarrel. 
Bracco, adj. Diligent ; laborious. 

Brace, (1) ». {A.-N.) Armour for 

the arms. 

(2) V. To embrace. 

(3) 8. {A.-N.) An arm of the sea. 

(4) V. To brave a person ; to 

(5) 8. The clasp of a buckle. 

(6) {Fr.) A piece of timber with 
a bevil joint, to keep the parts of 
a building together. 

(7) *. Warlike preparation. 
Bracer, "1 «. ( 1 ) (^.-iV.) Armour 

eraser, J for the arras. 
(2) {Fr. Brassart.) A piece of 
wood worn on the arm in playing 
at ball or balloon. 
Brach, s. {A.-N.) A kind of small 




scenting hound. "Catellus, a 
very littell hounde or brache, a 
whelpe." Eli/ot. The word seems 
at a late period to have been used 
generally for a bitch. Brath was 
the ancient Cornish name of the 
mastiff dog. 

There are in England and Scotland two 
kinds of huming-dogs, and no where 
else in the world : the firat kind is called 
ane ruche (Scotch), and this is a foot- 
scenting creature, lx)th of wild beasts, 
birds, and tishes also, wliich lie hid 
among the rocks : tlie female tliereof in 
England is called a brache. A brach is a 
mannerly name for all hound-bitches. 

Gentleman's Recreation, p. 27. 

Brach Merriman, — the poor cur is imbost — 
And couple Clowder with the deep-mouth'd 
brach. Shakesp., Tarn. Shr. induct. 

Ha' ye any braches to spade. 

J), and t'l.. Beggar's Bush, iii, 1. 

Brachicourt, s. a horse with its 

fore-legs bent naturally. 
Brachygr.\phy-man', s. (GV.) A 

short-hand writer. 
Bracing, s. Cool, applied to the 

Bracing-girdle,*. A kind of belt. 

Brack, (1) s. A break, or crack; 

a flaw. 

Having a tongue as nimble as his 
needle, with servile patches of glavering 
flattery, to stitch up the bracks, &c. 

Antonio and MeUida, 1602. 

(2) «. A piece. Kennett. 

(3) *. Salt water ; brine ; some- 
times, river-water. 

Suffolke a sunne halfe risen from the brack, 
Norfolke a Triton on a d<j!|ihins backe. 

Drayiun's Poems, p. 20. 
Where, in clear rivers beautified with 

The silver Naiades bathe them in the brack. 
Drayton, Man in the Moon. 

(4) 8. A sort of harrow. North. 
(a) V. To mount ordnance. 

(6) s. A cliff or crag. 
Brack-breed, adj. Tasted. North. 
Bracken,*. Fern. North. 
Bracken-clock,*. A small brown 

beetle found on fern. 
Braket-rules, «. A trivet for 

holding toast before the fire. 

Brag RLE, ». To break ; to crumble 
to pieces. Northampt. 

Brackly, adj. Brittle. Staff. 

Brackwort, s. A small portion 
of beer in one of its early stages, 
kept by itself till it turned yellow, 
when it was added to the rest, 
Harrison's Descr. of Engl. 

Braconier, *. {Fr.) The berner. 
or man that held the hounds. At 
present the term braconnier is 
applied in France to a poacher. 

Brad, adj. (1) Spread out; ex- 
tended. North. 

(2) {A..S.) Roasted. 

(3) Hot; inflamed. North. 

(4) «. A small nail without a head. 
Bradder, adj. Broader. 

' adj. Comfortably 

BRADDLED, > •' j r • ., " 

I warmed. Letcest. 


Brade, (1) V. {A.-S.) To pretend. 

(2) V. To bray ; to cry. 

(3) adj. Broad ; large. 
Brades, *. Necklaces, or hanging 

Bradow, v. To spread ; to cover. 

Brads, s. (1) Small nails. 

(2) Money. Essex. 
Brafl, *. The back part of a 

Braffam. See Barfhame. 
Brag, (1) adj. (from the Fr. v. 

braguer.) Brisk; spirited; proud. 
It brought the spiders againe, brag and bold. 
Ecywood's Spider and Flic, 1556. 
I was (the more foole 1) so proud and brag, 
1 seut to you against St. James his faire 
A tierce of claret-wine, a great fat stag, 8tc. 
Harringt., Ep., ii, 51. 

(2) 8. A ghost or goblin. North. 

(3) *. An old game at cards. 
Bragance, adj. Bragging. Towne- 

ley Myst. 
Braget, 1 ». a sort of beverage 
BRAGGAT, ^formerly esteemed in 
bragot, J Wales and the West 

of England. 




By me that knows not neck-beef from a 

Nor cannot relish hrapaat from ambrosia. 
B. and'Fl., Little Thief, act 1. 
To male Bragotte. Take to x galons o! 
ale, iij potell of fyne worte, and lij 
quartis uf hony, and putt therto canell 
J. iiij, peper sc'hort or long, j. iiij., gahii- 
gale, J. j., and clowys, 5. j., and gingiver, 
J. ij. MS. \^th cent. 

The following is a later receipt 
for making ^'braggef: 
Take three or four galons of good ale 
or more as you please, two dayes or 
three after it is clensed, and put it into 
a pot by itselfe, tlien draw forth a pottle 
thereof, and put to it a quart of good 
Eughsli hony, and set them over the fire 
in a vesscll, "and let them boyle faire and 
softly, aud alwayes as any froth ariseth 
skumme it awav, and so clarifie it, and 
when it is well clarified, take it off the 
fire, and let it coole, and put thereto of 
pepper a penny worth, cloves, mace, 
ginger, nutmegs, ciuamon, of each two 
penny worth, beaten to powder, stir 
them well together, and set them over 
the fire to boyle againe awhile, then 
being milke-warrae put it to the rest, 
and stirre all together, and let it stand 
two or three dales, and put barme upon 
it, and drink it at your pleasure. 

Savcn of Health. 

Draggable, adj. Poorly; indif- 
ferent. Shropsh. 

Braggadocia, ». A braggart. 

Braggaty, adj. Mottled, like an 
adder, with a tendency to brown. 

Bragged, adj. Pregnant ; in foal. 

B R agger, "1». A wooden bracket, 
BRAGGKT, J or corbel. 

Bragging-jack, *. A boaster. 
" Thraso, a vaineglorious fellow, 
a craker, a boaster, a braggirtg- 
Jacke." Nomenclator. 

Braggle, v. To poke about. West. 

Braggi.ed, adj. Brindled. So- 

Bragless, adj. Without osten- 

Bbagly, adv. Briskly; finely. 

Braid, (1) v. To resemble. North. 

(2) «. A reproach. 

(3) V. To upbraid. 

(4) s {A.-S. bregd.) A start; a 
sudden movement ; a fright. 

— When with a braide 
A deep-fet sigh he gave, aud therewithal 
Clasping his hands, to heav'n he cast his 
sight. Ferrex and Porrex, 0. 1'., i, 148. 

(5) s. A toss of the head. 

(6) s. A moment of time. 

(7)s. Hastiness of mind; passion; 

(8) 8. Craft; deceit. 

(9) adj. Quick; hastv, 

(10) ». (A.-S.) Deceit. 

(11) «. A blade of corn. Norf. 

(12) V. To beat or press, chiefly 
applied to culinary objecis. East. 

(13) V. To nauseate. North. 
(U) V. To net. Dorset. 

(15) s. A row of underwood, 
chopped up and laid lengthways. 

(16) V. To fade or lose colour. 
Braide, v. (A.-S.) (1) To start 

quickly or suddenly ; to leap ; to 

(2) To draw forth, as to pull a 
sword out of the scabbard. 

(3) To strike ; to beat down. 

(4) To brandish. 
Braidery, s. Embroidery. Wight. 
Braids, «. (1) A wicker guard to 

protect newly grafted trees. 


(2) Scales. North. 

Braidy, adj. Foolish. Yorksh. 

Brail, v. (Fr.) To put a piece of 
leather over the pinion of one of 
the hawk's wings to keep it close. 
A term in falconry. Brail-fea- 
thers, the long small white fea- 
thers under the taiL 

Alas! our sex is most wretched, nurs'd 
up from infancy in continual slavery. 
Ino sooner are we able to prey for our- 
selves, but they brail and hood us so with 
sour awe of our parents, that we dare not 
offer to bate at our desires. 

Aibumazar, O. P., vii, 1 79. 

Brain, v. To beat out the brains. 
Brain-crazed, adj. Mad. 




What a ' trim-tram trick is tins ? The 
master and tbe man both braiit-craz'd ; 
as tlieoneus'dme, so did tlie other my 
mistress Bronw's Northern Lass. 

Braikish, adj. Mad. Sfiakenp. 
Brain-leaf, «. A kind of plant. 
Brain-pan, s. The skull. 
BRAiNsicK,a<//. Wildbrained;mad. 
Brain-stones, s. A name formerly 

given to stones the size of one's 

head, nearly round, found in 

"Wiltshire. Aubrey. 
Brain-wood, adj. Quite mad. 
Braird, (1) adj. Tender; fresh. 


(2) 8. {A.-S. brord.) The first 

blade of grass. 
Braissit (for braced.) Inclosed. 
Braist, adj. Burst. 
Brait, 8. (1) {A.-S.) A sort of 

garment, or cloak. 

(2) A rough diamond. 
Brak, j3re^. t. Broke. 
Brake, (I) s. Fern; called also 

braken. Still used in the North. 

Bayly. Sir, you s6e this pSece of ground, 
it liath not the name for nought; it is 
called Fernie close, and, as you see, it is 
full, and so oveigrowne with these 
brakes, that all tlie art we can devise,aiid 
labour we can use, cannot rid them. 

Harden, Surveyors Dialogue, 1610. 

(2) *. A plat of bushes growing 
by themselves, a bottom over- 
grown with thick tangled brush- 

Tis but the fate of place, and the rough 

That virtue must go through. 

S/uikesp., Hen. nil, i, 2. 

HonoTur ghonld pull hard, ere it drew me into 
these brakes. 

B. and Ft., Thier. and Theod., v, 1. 

(3) 8. An enclosure for cattle. 

(4) 8. A snaffle for horses. 
Lyke as the brake ■v'lXh.m the rider's hand 
Doth strain the liorse, nye wood with grief 

of paine, 
Not used before to come in such a band. 

Surrey's Poems, sign. U, 2. 

(5) 8. An instrument of torture. 
(6j s. A flaw. See Brack. 

(7) A strong wooden frame in 
which the feet of young and 
vicious horses are confined by 
farriers, to be shod. 

(8) 8. An engine to confine the 

He is fallen into some brake, some wench 
has tied him by the legs. 

Shirly's Opportunity. 

(9) 8. A sort of crossbow. 

Crosse-bowes werefu-st among the Cretans 

Quarry es and bolts the Syrians bring to 

Tlie ever-bold Phenetians furnisht beene 
With brakes and shngs to clironicle tlieir 

might. Great Britaines Troye, 1609. 

(10) 8. An instrument for dress- 
ing hemp or flax. 

(11) 8. A harrow. 

(12) s. A large barrow. North. 
(13)s. Abaker'skneading-trough. 

(14) s. The handle of a ship's 

(15) s. A sort of carriage used 
for breaking in horses. 

(16) ». To beat. North. 

(17) ». To vomit. Pr. Parv. 

(18) 8. A mortar. North. 
Brake-bush, s. Asmall plot of fern. 
Braken, j»ar/.j». Broke. 
Braket, s. See Braget. 
Braler, s. a bundle of straw. 

BRAMAGE,«.Akindof cloth, of which 

carpets were sometimes made. 
Bramble-berri£s,«. Blackberries. 

Bramble-sith, 8. A hedge-bill. 

Kuncina. A bramble-sith orbush-sith; 

an hedge bill. Nomenclator, 1585. 

Brame, 8. (A.-S.) Vexation. 
Bramish,». To flourish ; to assume 

affected airs ; to boast. East. 
Bramline, «. The chaffinch. 
Bran, (1) v. To burn. North. 

(2) s. A brand, or log of wood. 

(3) 8. Thin bark ; skin. 

(4) adv. Quite. Devon. Bran-nevx 
See Brand-new. 




Brancard, s. (Fr.) A horse litter. 
Branch, (1) w. To make a hawk 
leap from tree to tree. 

(2) r. To embroider, to figure. 

(3) ». A small vein of ore. 
Branch-coach, s. In the old days 

of coaching, a coach, called the 

branch coach, used to go round 

the town collecting passengers 

for the stage-coach. 
Branch-coal, s. Kennel coal. 

Brancher, s. (1) a young hawk, 

just beginning to fly. The term 

is also applied to a nightingale 

by bird-fanciers. 

(2) An officer belonging to the 

Branches, s. Ribs of groined 

Branchilet, a. (Fr.) A little 

branch or twig. 
Brancorn, «. Blight. 
Brand, (1) «. (J.-S.) A sword. 

(2) *. The smut in wheat. 

(3) ». To brand turves, to set 
them up to dry in the sun. Cornw. 

(4) V. To roast. 

(5) 8. A spark. 
Brand-bete, v. To mend or make 

up the fire. Devon. 
Brande, v. To burn. 
Branded, «. A mixture of red and 

black. North. 
Brandellet, «. Some part of the 

armour. Richard Coer de L., 322. 
Branders, s. The supporters of a 

corn stack. 
Brand-irons, s. (1) The same as 


(2) Red-hot irons for branding. 
Brandishing, s. A parapet. 
Brandle, v. (from Fr. brandiller.) 

To totter ; to give way. 
Brandlet. See Brandreth. 
Brandling, «. The angler's dew- 
Brandly, adv. Sharply; fiercely. 

Brand-new, adj. Quite new. 

Brandon, s. (1) A fire-brand. 
(2) A wisp of straw or stubble. 
Brandreth, "| s. An iron tripod, 
brandelede, I on which a pot 
branlet, [or kettle is placed 
branlede, J over the fire. 
Brandrith, s. a fence round a 

well to prevent falling into it. 
Brands,*. The stems or stout parts 
of the thorn, after the small 
branches have been cut off. Norf. 
Branduts, s. Four wooden arms 
fixed to the throat of a spindle 
in an oatmeal-mill. Shropsh. 
Brand-wine, 1 s. The old name 
brandewine, j for eau de-vie, 
now shortened into brandy. 

Buy any brand-wine, buy any brand-Kine. 

Beggar's Bush, iii, 1. 

He confided not in Hanse's hrande-wine. 

a. Tooke, Belides. 

Brandy-ball, s. A Suffolk game. 

Brandy-bottles, s. The flowers 
of the yellow w ater-lily. Norf. 

Brandysnap, s. Thin gingerbread. 

Bbangle, v. To quarrel. 

Brangled, adj. Confused; entan- 
gled. Line. 

Brank, (1) ». To hold up the bead 

(2) V. To put a restraint on any- 
thing. North. 

(3) *. Buck-wheat. East. 
Brankes, «. A saddle of straw. 
Brankke, v. (A.-N.) To wound. 
Branks, (1) s. An instrument, 

formerly used for punishing 

scolds, being a sort of iron frame 

for the head, with a gag for the 


(2) A sort of halter or bridle. 


Bransle, "1 8. (Fr.) A dance, the 
bransel, I same as the brawl. 

Brant, (1) adj. Steep; perpen- 
dicular. North. 
(2) adv. Up. 
(Z) part. p. Burnt. Chesh, 




(4) *. A harrow. Huloet. 

(5) 8. Abrantgoose, or barnacle, 

(6) adj. Consequential ; pompous. 

Bran-tail,*. The redstart. Shrops. 
Braxtkn, adj. Bold ; courageous. 

Brase, \v. To make ready; to 
BRAZE, J prepare. 

Such' was my lucke, I shot no shaft in vaine. 

My bow slood bent and brased all the y eare. 

Mirr.for Mag., p. 509. 

Brasell, adj. An epithet for a 
bowl, used in the game of bowls. 

Blesse his sweet honour's running brasell 
bowle. Marslon, Sat., ii. 

Braset, 1 «. A kind of sauce, 
brasill, J apparently for fish, 

" Pykes in brasey,"' and " eels in 

brasill," are mentioned in the 

Forme of Cury. 
Brash, (1) s. The refuse boughs 

and branches of fallen timber; 

clippings of hedges, 

(2) V. To run headlong. North. 

(2>)adj. Impetuous; hasty; rash, 

(4) g. A violent push. 

(5) s. A rash or eruption. West. 

(6) », Any sudden development, 
a crash, 

(7) V. To prepare ore. North. 
Brash, T «, A sudden 

WATKR-BRA8H, J sickncss, accom- 
panied with a rising of brackish 
water into the mouth, Warw. 

Brashie, adj. Land that is light 
and brittle, and fullof small stones 
and gravel, is said in Gloucester- 
shire to be brashie. 

Brashy, Small ; rubbishy ; delicate 
ip constitution. North. 

Brasil, s. a word used in dyeing 
to give a red colour. It is used 
by Chaucer, Cant. T., 15465 ; and 
in other early writings. 

Brass, «. (1) Copper coin, half- 
(2") Impudence, 

Brassarts, 1 8. (A.-N.) In ancient 
br.'Vssets, J armour, pieces be- 

tween theelbow and the top of tbs 
shoulder, fastened together by 
straps inside the arms. 

Brassish, adj. Brittle, North. 

Brast, pres. and pret. t. Burst. 

Brast, v. To burst, or break. 

Then gan she so to sobbe 
It seem'd her heart would breut. 
Romeiis and Juliet, Supp. to Sh., i, 333, 

Brastle, v. To boast ; to brag. 

Brastnes, «. A rupture. Huloet. 
Brat, *, (1) (A.-S.) A short coarse 


(2) A coarse kind of apron. 

( 3) A child's bib or apron. North. 

(4) A turbot. North. 

(5) Film or scum. North. 
Bratchkt, s. a term of contempt. 


Brathly, adv. Fiercely; exces- 

Brattice, "I «. A partition ; a shelf ; 
BRATTisH, J a seat with a high 
back. North. 

Brattishixg, ». The same as 

Brattle, (1) v. To thunder. 

(2) V. To lop the branches of 
trees after they are felled. The 
loppings are called brattlings. 

(3) 8. A race, or hurry. North. 

(4) «. A push, or stroke. North. 
Bratty, adj. Mean and dirty. Line. 
Brauch,*. Rakings of straw. Kent. 
Brauchin,*. a horse-collar. North. 
Brau6hwham,9. a dish composed 

of cheese, eggs, and bread and 
butter, boiled together. Lane. 

Braunging, a/(/. Pompous. North, 

Bravadoes, s. Roaring boys. 

Bravation, 8. Braverv. 

Brave, (1) adj. (^A.-N.) Finely 

They're wondrons brave to-day : why do 

they wear 
These several habits ? 

tutor. Coromb., 0. PL, vi, 321 




For I have gold, and therefore will be brave ; 
In silks I'll rattle it of ev'rv colour. 

Green's Tu. Q., 0. PI., vii, 35. 

(2) V. To make a person fine. 

Thou bast brav'd many men (that is, 
hast made them fine, being said to a 
taylor) brave not me ; I will neither be 
fac'd nor brav'd. Tarn. Shr., iv, 3^ 

Thou glasse wherein my dame hatli such 

As when she hratti then most on thee to 

gaze. T. Watson, Sonnet 24. 

(3) 8. A boast ; a vaunt. 

(4) s. A bravo ; a ruffian. 

(5) *. A trophy. 

Troph6e, enseigne de victoire. A signe 
or token of victorie : a brave. 


(6) adj. In some dialects, thej 
say of a person just recovered 
from a sickness, " He is brave." 

Bravery, (1) s. Finery. 

(2) g. A beau ; a fine gentleman. 
Bra VI, s. (Lat.) A reward, or prize. 
Brawdry, s. Sculptured work. 

Bra WET, 8. A kind of eel. North. 
Brawl 1 s. {Fr.) A sort of dance, 
BRALL, J brought from France 

about the middle of the sixteenth 


' >8. A brat, or child. 

BROL, J ' 

Shall such a begar's brawle as that, think- 
est thou, make me a theefe ? 

Gammer Gurt., 0. PI., ii, 51. 

And for the delight thou tak'st in beggars 
and their brawls. 

Jovial Crew, 0. PL, x, 357. 

Brawn,*. (1) Smut of corn. West. 

(2) The stump of a tree. Devon. 

(3) A boar; a boar pig. 

(4) Any kind of flesh, not merely 
that of the boar, especially the 
muscular parts of the body. 

Brawned, adj. Strong; brawny. 

Brawneschedyn. Branded. Tun- 
dale, p. 40. 

Brawn-fallen, adj. Very thin. 

Brawns, «. The muscles. 

Bray, (1) v. (Fr.) To beat in a 
mortar ; to beat ; to thrash. 

Twould grieve me to be brai/'d 
In a huge mortar, wrought to paste, &c. 
jlbumazar, O. PI., vii, 161. 

(2) adj. Good; bold. 

(3) V. To throw. 

(4; V. To upbraid. Huloet. 

(5) V. To cry. 

(6) *. A clifl", or rising ground. 
But when to climb the other hill they gan. 

Old AJadine came fiercely to their aid ; 
On that steep bray lord Guelpho would 

not then 
Hazard his folk, but there his soldiers 

staid. Faitf., Tasso, ix, 96. 

Braying-ropes, 8. Part of the 

harness of a horse. 
Brays, ». Hay thrown in rows 

before it is made into cocks. 
Braze, v. (1) To be impudent. 

(2) To acquire a bad taste, applied 

to food. North. 
Brazil, «. Sulphate of iron. 

Breach, (1) a. A break, applied 

especially to the break of day. 

(2) Breach of the sea, the brim 
where the waves beat over the 
sand, or where the foam is carried 
by the breaking of the waves. 

(3) 8. A plot of land preparing 
for another crop. Devon. 

(4) V. To quarrel. Tusser. 
Breach-corn, s. Leguminous 


Breachy, adv. (1) Said of cattle 
apt to break out of their pasture. 
(2) Brackish. Sussex. 

Bread, *. " To know which side 
one's bread is buttered on," f. e., 
to consider one's own interest. 
" To take bread and salt," meant, 
to bind one's self by oath. In 
Northamptonshire they say, " If 
I don't speak to such a one when 
I meet her, there will be no 
bread in nine loaves ;" meaning, 
she will fancy I am offended, or 
too proud to notice her. 

Breadings, a. The swathes ot 




heaps of corn or grass wherein 
the mower leaves them. Chesh. 

Bread-loaf, s. Household bread. 

Break, (1) s. Land in the first 
year after it has been ploughed 
or broken up, after it has long 
lain fallow or in sheep-walks. 

(2) V. A stag breaks cover, when 
he goes out before the hounds ; 
and breaks water, when he has 
just passed through a river. 

(3) V. To break beans, to run the 
horse-hoe between the rows. 

(4) V. To tear. Hampsh. 

(5) To break across in tilting, 
when the tilter, by unsteadiness 
or awkwardness, suffered his 
spear to be turned out of its 
direction, and to be broken across 
the body of his adversary, instead 
of by the push of the point. 

Break-danse, a. A treacherous 

Breakditch,s. a cow which will 
not stay in her own pasture ; any 
one in the habit of rambling. 

Break-neck, s. A ghost. North. 

Breaknet, s. The dog-fish. " A 
breakenet : a seadog, or dog- 
fishe." Nomenclator. 

Break-up, p. To cut up a deer. An 
old hunting term. 

Bream, arf/. Cold and bleak. North. 

Brean, v. To perspire. Yorksh. 

Breant-xeed, s. Assistance in 
distress. North. 

Breast, (1) «. The voice. 

Truely two degrees of men shall greatly 
lacke the use of singiuge, preachers and 
lawyers, because they shall not without 
this, be able to rule their hreastes for 
every purpose. Jscham's Toxoph., p. 29. 

By my troth, the fool has an excellent 
breast. Shakesp., Tie. Night, ii, 3. 

Pray ye stiiy a little : let's hear him sing, 
ii'as a fine breast. B. ^ Ft., Pilgrim, iii, 6. 

(2) V. To trim a hedge. Shropsh. 
C3) *. The face of coal- workings. 

(4) V. To spring up. North. 
Breast-knot,s. Ak not of ribbon* 

worn by women on the breast 

Breat, s. a kind of turbot. 
Breath, (1) «. Exercise; breathing, 


(2) V. To exercise. 

He would every morning breath himself 
and his horse in running at the ring ; 
after dinner he often danced in masks, 
and made sumptuous feasts, and in every 
thing he did shew himself so magnifi- 
cent, that he charmed the hearts of all 
the Italians. History of Francion, 1 653. 

(3) V. To take breath. 

(4) ». A smile. Somerset. 

(5) s. Scent ; odour. West. 

(6) V. To bray ; to neigh. Devon. 

(7) Futuere. "And think'st thou 
to breath me upon trust?" 
Heywood, Royal King, 1637. 

Breathing-hole, «. A vent-hole 

in a cask. 
Breathing-while, ». A time 

sufficient for drawing breath; 

a very short period of time. 

Ingratitude, I hold a vice so \'ile, 

That I could ne'r endure't a breathing 
mhile : 

And therefore ere I'l prove a thanklesse 

Tune in Ids course shall runne quite retro- 
grade. Taylor's Workes, 1630 

Breau, s. Spoon meat. North. 
Breche, «. (A.-S.) (1) Breeches. 

And whan that thay knewe that thay 
were naked, thay sowede of fige leves 
in mauer of breches, to hideu here mem- 
birs. Chaucer, Fersones T. 

(2) The buttocks of a deer. 

Breck, (1) «. A piece of unen- 
closed arable land ; a sheep walk, 
if in grass. East. 
(2) A small hole broken, usuallj 
confined to cloth or like material. 

Bredai.e, », A marriage-feast. 

Brede, (1) V. (A.-S.) To roast. 

Man and hous thai brent and bredden, 
And her godes oway Icdden. 

ArthouT and Merlin, p. 27t 




(2) 8. Breadth. North. 

(3) V. To breed. 

(4) adj. {J.-S.) Broad; extended. 

(5) adv. Abroad. Skinner. 

(6) *. Living; employment. 

(7) 8. A knot. West. 

(8) *. {A.-S.) A board. 

(9) g. A biaid. 
Bredechese, 8. Cream-cheese. 
Bredhitithe, 8. A lump of bread. 

Pr. Parv. 
Bred-sore, s. A whitlow. East. 
Bree, (1) s. a bank. North. 

(2) s. (A.-S.) The eyebrow. 

(3) adj. Short, spoke of earth as 
opposed to stiff and clayey. 

(4) V. To frighten. North. 

(5) 8. Agitation. North. 
Breech, v. To flog; to vvhip. 
Breechmen, s. Sailors. 
Breed, (1) ». To plait. South. 

(2) Breed and seed, birth and 
parentage and relationship. " I 
know the breed and seed of him." 

Breed-bate, s. A maker of con- 
tent on. 

Breeder, s. A fine day. East. 

Breeds, «. The brims of a hat. 

Breefe, 8. A gadfly. See Brief. 
" Flye havynge foure winges 
called a breefe, Tabanus." Hul. 

^ Y 8. Breeches. North. 


Breek-girdille, 8. A girdle round 
the middle of the body. 
At ya breggurdU that swerd astod. 

Ashmole MS., \olh cent. 

Breel, 8. Perhaps for brol. 

Why lowtt je nat low to my Jawdabyll 

Ye brawlyng breeU and blabyr-lyppyd 

bycchys. Digby Mysteries, p. 107. 

Breen, 8. A gob'in. North. 
Breeth, adj. A term applied to 

Hght, open soil. West. 
Breeze, (1) v. To lean hard Devon. 

(2) 8. A quarrel. Var. d. 
Bref, adj. {A.-N.) Brief; short. 
Breffet, v. To rans: ck. Line. 
Bregge, s. a bridge. 
Bregid, /;ar^. j». Abridged. 
Breid, s. {A.-S. breyd.) Grief; fear. 

I'or evere were thou luther and las, 
For to brewe me bitter breid. 
And me to puyten out of pees. 

Walter Mapes, p. 342. 

Breke, v. To break ; to separate. 

Breket, s. a weapon ; a sort of 

Breme, adj. {A.-S. brem.) Re- 
nowned ; fierce ; vigorous ; cruel. 
Brench, *. The brink. 
Brende, (1) V. To make broad; 

to spread about. North. 

{2) part. p. Burn shed. 
Brendston, s. Brimstone. 
Brenk, ». To stand erect in a stiff 

and pompous manner. Yorksh. 
Brenne, (1) V. (A.-S.) To burn. 

(2) s. Bran. 
Brenningly, adv. Hotly. 
Brext, adj. (1) Steep. North. 

(2) Burnt. 
Brenwater, s. Aquafortis. 
Brenyede, s. (A.-N.) Courageous. 
Brero, s. {A.-S.) The surface ; 

Brere, (1) 8. {A.-S. brcer.) A briar. 

(2) V. To sprout. North. 
Brkrewood, 1 «. The brim of a 
breward, j hat. "Aile, a wing ; 

also, the biimme or brerewood 

of a hat." Cotgrave. 
Brhse, v. {A.-N.) To bruise. 
Bressemor, 8. A beam. North. 
Brest-apple, s. A kind of apple. 

Mahi orthomastica, Plin. mammarum ef- 
figie, 'opOonaiTTiKa.. Brest-apples.oiiafe- 
apples, so called of their likenes. 

Nomenclator, 1585. 

Breste, (1) V. {A..S.) To burst. 
(2) 8. A burst, especially of sor- 

Bresure, *. {A.-N.) A bruise or 




Bret, ». To fade away ; to change. 

Bretage, 1 s. {A.-N.) A para- 
BRETESCHE, I pst, Of, morc pro- 
BRETEXE, fperiy speaking, the 
BRETisE, J temporary wood- 
works raised on the battlements 
in a siege. Bretaged or bre- 
tcxed, furnished with bretages. 

Bretfull, adj. Brimful. 

Breth, «. Rage ; anger. 

Brethel, Is. A worthless 

bretheling, > person; a mise- 
BROTHEL, J rable wretch. 

Bret-out, v. Com being very dry 
in harvest time, and falling from 
the busks, is said to bret-out. 

Brettexe, r. (A.-S.) To carve ; to 
cut up. 

Breve, (1) r. To speak; to in- 
form ; to account. 
(2) V. To mark ; to write. 
{3) adj. {A.. N.) Brief; short. 

Brevement, s. An account. 

Brevet, (1) «. (^A.-N.) A small 

( 2) To move about inquisitively ; 
to search diligently. West. 

Brevetour, *. A porter, or car- 
rier of letters. 

Brevial, s. A breviary. 

Breviate, (1) V. (Lat.) To 
(2) «. A compendium. 

Breviature, s. a note of abbre- 

Brevit, (1) r. To rummage for 
anything. Northampt. 
(2) A person who oes hunting 
and fidgeting about. North- 

Brew, (1) s. A kind of bird- 
(^2) g. Broth. Conuc. 

B REWARD, s. A blade of corn. 

Brewer's-horse, s. a drunkard 
was said to be one whom the 
bretcer's horse had bit. 







s. (A.-S. brheas, 
sops.) Pottage ; 
broth. IntheNorth 
they have still a 
brewis, made of 
slices of bread, with 
fat broth poured 

BREYT, J over them. 

lor to make hruet of Almayne. Tak 
partrichys rostyd, and checonys, and 
qualys rostyd, and larkys ywol, and 
demembre the other; aud mak a god 
cawdel, and dresse the flesch in a dysch, 
and strawe powder of galentyn ther- 
upon ; styk upon clowys of gelofre, and 
serve yt torthe. Warner, Ant. Cul., p. 41. 

Brevet of Almony. Take conynges or 
kiddes, and hewe hera small on moscels, 
other on pecys. Parboile hem with the 
same broUi. Drawe an almauiide mylke, 
aud do the tleissh therewith. Cast thereto 
powdor galyugale and of gyuger, with 
floer of rys ; and color it wilb alkenet. 
Boile it, and messe it forth with sugar 
and powdor-douce. Forme of Cury,f. 11. 

For to make bruet of Lombardye. Tak 
chekenvs, or hennys, or otiiere flesch, 
and mak tlie colowre als red as any blod ; 
and tak peper, and kanel, aud gyngyver 
bred, and grynd hem in a morter, and a 
porcon of bred, and mak that bruer 
thenne; and do that flesch in that 
broth, and mak hem boyle togedere, 
and stury it wel. And tak eggys, and 
temper hem wyth jus of parcyle; and 
wryng hem thorwe a cloth; and wan 
that bruet is boylyd, do that tliereto, 
and meng tham toiiedere wyth fayr 
grees, so that ytbe fat ynow; aud serve 
ytforthe. Warner, Antiq. Culin.,f 41. 

Bbew-lede, 8. The leaden cooling 

vessel used by brewers. 
Brewster, «. A brewer. North. 
Breyde, (1) s. Force; violence. 

(2) V. To startle ; to frighten. 
Breje, v. {A.-S.) To frighten. 
Brian, v. To keep fire at the 

mouth of an oven. North. 
Briar-ball, s. An excrescence on 

the briar. In Northamptonshire 

hoys put it in their coat-cuflFs as a 

charm against flogging. 
Briars. Brought in the briars, 

i. e., deserted ; brought in the 

lurch; impeded. To help one 




ont of the briars, i. e., out of any 

Briary, s. a place where briars 

B RIB AGE, s. (/i.-N.) Bribery. 
Bribe, v. {A.-N.) To rob; to 


BaiBE-PIE, s. 

Eat with him ! damn him \ to hear him 
employ his barbarous eloquence in a 
reading upon the two and thirty good 
hits in a shoulder of veal ; and be forc'd 
yourselt to praise the cold bribe-pye that 
stinks. Wt/cherley, Plain-dealer, 1677- 

Bribour, s. {A.-N.) (1) A robber. 

(2) A beggar. 
Bribre, s. Robbery. 
Bricco, adj. Brittle. Chesh. 
Bricue. adj. Happy. 
Brick, (I) v. To break by pulling 


(2) s. A loaf of bread baked in a 
narrow oblong form, somewhat 
resembling the proportions of a 
brick. Warw. 

(3) s. A rent or flaw. Devon. 
Bricken, (1) adj. Made of brick. 


(2) V. To draw the chin to the 

Brickettes, g. The pieces of ar- 

mour which covered the loins, 

and joined the tassets. 
Brick-keel.s. A brick-kiln. South. 
Brickle, adj. Brittle. Still used 

in the North. 

See those orbs, and how they passe ; 
All's a tender brickie glasse. 

Tixall Poetry, p. 59. 

Bbicknoggin, s. An old mode of 
building with frequent wooden 
right-ups, filled in with bricks. 
Half-timbered houses are termed 
brick-pane buildings, 

Brickstone, 1 Abrick.iV(,r//i. 
brick-tile, J 

Brick-walls. Making brick-walls 
is a term sometimes applied to 
swallowing one's meat without 

Bricole, 1 (Fr.) The reboun(J 

brickoll, I. of a ball after a 
brick- WALL, J side stroke at 

Bricole, s. {A.-N.) a military en- 
gine for battering walls. 

Brio, *. {A.-S.) A bird. 

Bridale. See Bredale. 

Bridaltee, s. a nuptial festival. 

liRiDDis, *. (^.-5.) Brood; family. 

Anoone he ordeynlde a vessel afore hir 
hole, ande put iherin everi diiye niilke, 
that the serpent withe his briddis myglit 
licke hit oute. Gesta Romanorum, p. 196. 

Bride, (1) s. (A.-N.) A bridle. 
(2) V. " Cincischiare, to mince 
or bride it at the table or in 
speech as some affected women 
use." Florio. 

Bride-laces, *. (1) A kind of 
broad riband or small streamer, 
often worn at weddings. 
(2) The ribbon grass {calama- 
grostis variegata). Northampt. 

Bride-wain,*. A marriage custom 
in Cumberland. 

Bridewell. A well-known prison, 
and often used for a prison or 
house of correction in general. 
A bridewell-bird, a rogue. 

Ergastulus. Servus ergastulo inclnsns, 
qui e niiculis opus facil. Serf enserrfi. 
A roge kept in prison and forced to 
worke : a bridetcell bird. Nomenclator. 

Bridge-pin, s. Part of a match- 
lock gun. 

Bridges. (1) Bruges. 

(2) *. A kind of thread, made 
probably at Bruges. 

Bridle, s. An ancient instrument 
for punishing a scold. 

Bridlegged, adj. Weak in the 
legs. Chesh. 

Bridle-ro.^d, 1 A road for a 
bridle-sty, korseonly. 
bridle-way, J ^ 

Bridling, s. A bitch maris appe« 

Bridling-cast, ». A parting turn. 

Brioris, «. Breeders. 




Bridwort, g. Meadow-sweet. 
Brief, (1) ». (^.-;V.) A petition; 

any short paper ; a letter ; an 

abstract ; an account. 

(2) adj. Common ; prevalent. 

(3) *. A horse-fly, or gad-fly. 

(4) s. A breve in music. 
Brig, s. A utensil used in brew- 
ing and in dairies to set the 
strainer upon ; a sort of iron, 
set over a fire. 

Brigant, s. {J.-N.) a robber or 
plunderer. Originally, a soldier 
who wore a hrigandine, which 
being light arrnour, these soldiers 
were the most active plunderers. 

Brigantaile, s. (A.-N.) A hrigan- 
dine, a sort of armour composed 
of small plates of iron sewn upon 
quilted linen or leather. 

Bribe, s. (J.-N.) Contention. 

Brigge, *. A bridge. North. 

Briggen, v. To abridge. 

Bright, s. Celandine. 

Brightsome, adj. Bright. 

Brigose, adj.{A.-N.) Quarrelsome. 

Brik, adj. Narrow ; straight. 

Brike, s. {A.-S.) Breach ; ruin. 

Brim, (1) s. The sea; flood; a 

(2) adj. The same as breme. 

(3) «. The forehead. North. 

(4) High, in respect of locality. 

Brimbles, ». Brambles. Devon. 
Brimme, «. Public; known. 

— Yeat tliat thou doest holde me in 
Is brimtae abroad, and many a gybe to all 
tliat keepe tliis plaii\e. 

Warner's Albions England, 1593. 

Brimmer, s. A hat. North. 

I cannot forget (before sashes and broad 
liats caroe into fashion) liow much I 
have seen a small puny wit delight in 
himself, and how horribly he has thou^lit 
to have abused a divine, only in twist- 
ing the ends of his y;irdle, and asking 
him the price of his brimmer; but that 
phansie is not altogether so considerable 
now. as it has been in former ages. 

Eachanei Obseniatiom,\&l\. 

Brimmle, *. A bramble. West. 
Brims, "I k Aa v . 

BRIMSEY.r-^S^^fly- ^"»'- 

Oestrum, Vlrg. asilus, Eid. tabanus, 
Pliii. Vespaium genus armentis infes- 
turn, fjivuxli, ot<7Tpo5, Aristot. Tahon. 
A gadbee; a brecse; a duiiflee; a 
brimsee. Nomenclator, 1585. 

Brimstone, adj. Rampant. South. 
Brince, 1 T. J • 1 • 

BRiNCH, l"- Todrmkinan. 

BRiNDicE, Jswertoapledge. 

Luther first brinced to Germany the 
poisoned cup of his heresies. 

Harding, in Bishop Jewel's Works. 

Let us consult at the taveme, where 
after to the healtli of Memphio, drinke 
Me to the life of Stellio, I carouse to 
Prisius, and brinch you mas Sperantus. 
Lyl^, M. Bombie, ii, 1. 

Brinded, adj. Fierce. Devon. 
Brixdle, s. The state or condition 

of being brindled. 
Brindled, adj. Streaked ; varie- 

Bringen, v. {A.-S.) To bring. To 

bring one going, or to bring one 

on his way, or to bring onward ; 

to accompany a person part of a 


And she went very lovingly to bring him on 
his Kay to horse. 

Woman killed w. *., O. PL, vii, 283. 

Come, mother, sister : you'll bring me oH' 
ward, brother. 

Reeenget's Tr., 0. PL, iv, 312. 

^^^^^^ |s. (A..S. byma.) A 
breny, V . ^ y / 

• cmrass. 


The knyghtis redy on justers, 
Alle y-armed swithe wel, 
Bruny, and lannce, and sweord of stel. 

Brink-wark, s. Small faggots to 

repair the baitks of rivers. East. 

Brise, (1) V. To bruise, or break.* 

(2) ». A bristle. North. 

(3) s. Fallow ground. East. 
Brisk, v. To enliven one's spirits. 
Brisk-ale, s. Ale of a superior 

quality, West. 




Briskex, r. To be lively. 

Brisle-dice, s. a sort of false 

Briss, s. Dust ; rubbish. Devon. 

Brissle, v. To scorch; to dry. 

Bkissour, g. A sore place ; a chap. 

Brist-high, adj. Violent. Yorks/i. 

Bristle-tail, s. A gadfly. North. 

Bristow, Bristol. Bristol milk 
was an old name for sherry. A 
false diamond was called a Bristol 
stone, from a kind of soft dia- 
monds which were found in rocks 
near that town. 

Coffee-lioiises and taverns lie round the 
Change, just us at London; and the 
Bristol milt, wliicli is Spanish sherry, 
no where so ^ood as liere, is plentifully 
drank. Journey thro' England, 1724. 

Oh ! you that should in choosing of your 

Knowe a true diamond from a Bristow 

stone. Wit Beslor'd, 1658. 

Brit, v. To bruise; to indent. 


(2) s. A kind of fish. Comw. 
Britain-crown, s. a gold coin, 

worth about five shillings. 
Brite, v. When hops or corn are 

over-ripe and shatter, they are 

said to brite. East and South. 
Brith, *. Wrath ; contention. 
Britonner, s. a swaggerer. 
Brittene, v. (A.-S.) To carve; to 

break, or divide into fragments. 
Brittling, s. The slow-worm. 
Brize, s. a gadfly. 

This brize has prick'd mv patience. 

B. Jons., Poetaster, iii, 1. 

Iwill put the brize in's tail shall set him 
gadding presently. 

nit. Corom., 0. PI., vi, 251. 

Bro, 8. A brow ; the brink. 
Broach, (1) s. (Fr.) A spit. 

(2) V. To spit or transfix. 

(3) s. A larding-pin. 

(4) «. A spur. 

(5) V. To spur. 

(6) t. A sharply pointed stick 
to thrust into mows of corn. 

(7) ». To deflower. Miege. 

(8) s. A taper ; a torch. 

(9) 8. A rod of willow or hazle 
used by thatchers. 

(10) An irregular growing of 
a tooth. Brochity, a crooked- 
ness, e8i)eciallv of the teeth. 

(1 1) ». To shape stones roughly. 

(12)«. A fishing-hook. Prorw;;/. P. 
Broad, s. A flooded fen. East. 
Broad-arrow, s. An arrow with a 

large head, and forked. 
Broad-band, *. Corn laid out in 

the sheaf on the band, after 

rain, and spread out to dry. 

North. . 
Broad-blown, adj. Full-blown. 
Broad-cast, adj. Corn sown by 

the hand and not drilled. South. 
Broad-heads, «. The heads of 

Broad-set, adj. Short and thick. 
Broak, v. To belch. East. 
Broan, "1 «. Cleft wood for the 
brawn, J fire. Devon. A faggot. 

Bros, v. To piick with a bodkin. 

Brobillr, v. To welter. 
Broc, «. (A.-S.) A rupture. 
Brocage, s. (A.-N.) A treaty by 

a broker or agent. 
Brocale, s. Broken victuals. 
Broche. See Broach. 
Brock, (1) s. {A.-S. broc.) A 


(2) #. A cabbage. North. 

(3) s. A piece or fragment. 

(4) s. (A.-S. broc.) An inferior 
horse. A horseman was called in 
Kent a brockman. The word is 
still used in the North for a cow 
or husbandry horse. 

(5) *. The insect which produces 
the froth called cuckoo-spittle. 
(6"^ «. A brocket. 

Brouke, v. To brook ; to enjoy. 




Brocket, «. {A.-N.) A stag in its 
third year; or, according to some 
authorities, in its second year. 

Brockle, arf;. Brittle. North. 

Brocour, s. (A.-N.) a hroker. 

Broddle, v. To make holes. North, 

Brode, v. To prick. North. 

Brodekins, *. {Fr.) Buskins or 

Brodel, *. A brothel. 

Brodelyche, adj. Strong ; fu- 

Brode-nail, 8. A sort of nail, 
often mentioned in old building 

Brods, s. Money. Line. 

Broerh, adj. (J.-S.) Tractable. 

Brog, (1) ». A swampy or bushy 
place. North. 

(2) V. To crop. Yorksh. 

(3) V. To catch eels with brags 
or small sticks. North. 

(4) V. To troul)le water. 

(5) 8. A trick. East. 
Brogger, s. a badger who deals 

in corn. 
Broggle, v. To fish for eels in a 

manner called in some parts to 

Brogue, (1) s. A sort of shoe 

" made of the rough hide of any 

beast, commonly used by the 

wilder Irish." Holinshed. 

(2) s. Breeches. Suffolk. 
Broided, adj. (A.-N.) Braided ; 

Broke, (1) v. {A.-S. brucan.) To 

deal, or transact a business, par- 

ticularly of an amorous nature; 

to act as a procurer ; to be the 

means of seducing. 
But we do want a certain necessary 
Woman, to broke between tlieni, Cupid said. 
Fansh., Lusiad, ix, 44. 

Tis as I tell you, Colax, she's as coy 
And liatli as shrewd a spirit, as quicke 

As ever wencli I brok'd in all my life. 

Daniel, Queen's Arcadia, iii, 3, p. 365. 

(2) s. A breach. Becon. 

(3) ». A rupture. Kent. 

(4) adj. Exhausted; used up. 

(5) s. A misdeed, or crime. 

(6) s. A brook. 

(7) V. Sheep, when lying under 
a broken bank, are said to broke. 

(8) V. To keep safe. 
Brokele, adj. Brittle. 

Of brokele kende liis tliat he deithe, 
I'or hy ne more naujt dury. 

William de Shoreham. 

Brokeleak, s. The water-dock. 

Brokelette, 8. A fragment. 

Brokell, s. Rubbish. " Gary away 
rubbell or brokell of olde decayed 
houses. Erudero." Huloet. 

Broken-beer, s. Remnants of 

Broken-crosse, «. To come home 
by Broken Crosse, ». e., to be 
bankrupt. Howell, 1659. 

Broken-grass, 8. Grass left and 
mown after a field has been 
grazed by cattle. Leic. 

Broker, s. A pander or go-be- 

Broket, s. (1) A lark. Northumb. 

(2) A little brook. 

(3) A torch or taper. 
Brokking, *. Throbbing; qui- 

Broklembe, 1 
BRAKLEMPE, l^«. The herb Orpin. 


Brol. 8. (1) {A.-S.) A brat or 
(2) Part; piece. 

Brom,«. Thebitofabridle. iVor/A. 

Bromidgham. Birmingham. The 
name was applied to false money, 
of wiiich it was the great manu- 
factory; and to politicians who 
were between "Whig and Tory, 
neither one nor the other, a 

Bronched, joar/.^. Pierced. 

Brond, ». (1) {A.'S.) A sword. 
(2) {A..N.) A torch. 

BaoNCE, r. To brand ; to burn. 




Bkond-iron, g. A sword. Spenser. 
Brong, part. p. Brought. North. 
Bronstrop, 8. A prostitute. 
Broo, «. (1) The top of anything; 

the brow. 

(2) Brother. North. A broo- 

chip, a person of the same trade, 

or likeness. 
Brood, v. To cherish. 
Broodle, v. To cuddle. North. 
Broody, adj. (1) Sullen; ill-tem- 

j)ered. Dorset. 

(2) Dark and cloudy, spoken of 
the weather. Northamp. 

(3) Broody hen, a hen which is 
sitting on eggs. 

Brook, (1) v. Clouds are said to 
brook up, when they draw to- 
gether, and threaten rain. South. 

(2) 8. A boil or abscess. 

(3) s. To digest. Palsgrave. 
Brooklime, 8. \Vater-s^»eedwell. 
Brookmint, 8. {A.-S.) Waterraint. 
Broom-dasher, «. (1) A dealer 

in faggots, brooms, &c. Kent. 
(2) A maker of brooms. Leic. 

Broom-fikld, 8. To sweep broom- 
field, to get possession of the 
whole of anything. East. 

Broomstaff, "Is. The handle of 
BROOMSTALE, J a broom. 

Brose, v. To bruise. 

Broseley, s. a pipe, so called 
from a place in Shropshire where 
pipes were made. 

Brosewort, *. Henbane. Gerard 
gives this name to the consolida 

Brosier, 8. A bankrupt. Chesh. 

Brosshing, 8. Gathering sticks or 

Erosten, part. p. Burst. 

Brotchet, 8. A liquor made from 
the last squeezings of a honey- 
comb. North. 

Brotel, adj. {A.-S.) Brittle ; un- 

Brot-ground, 8. Ground newly 
broken up. IVestm. 

Broth, «. Pottage. North. 

Broth-belly, J. Aglutton.A'or/A. 

Brothe, 1 j- r- J 

' I adj. Enraged: an- 

brothefulle, > ^ • 1 .. 
f Rry ; violent. 

broth LY, J o / > 

Brotue, adv. Abroad. North. 

Brothel, « (A.-S.) A worthless 
person ; a harlot. See Brethel. 

Brothelry, 8. Lasciviousness ; 

Brothered, part. p. Embroi- 

Brotherhed, «, Brotherly af- 

Brother-in-law, «. A half-bro- 
ther. East. 

Brotherwort, 8. Pennyroyal. 

Brothy, adj. {A.-S.) Hard ; stiff. 

Brotts, 8. Fragments ; droppings. 

Brood, ». A forehead. West. 

Brough, 8. A kind of halo. 

Brough-wham, \s. Adishmadeof 


clap-bread, and butter, boiled 

together. Lane. 
Brouke, v. {A.-S.) To enjoy ; 

to use ; to possess. 
Brouse, 8. Brushwood. West. 
Brout, *. A bruit, or rumour. 
Brow, adj. (I) Pert; saucy. North. 

(2) Brittle, Wilts. 
Browden, adj. (1) Anxious about. 


(2) Vain ; conceited. North. 
Browdene, adj. Broad ; ex- 
B RowEN, part. p. Brewed. 
Browes, 8. Pottage. See Brewet. 

They tliank'd him all with one cousent, 
But especiariy maister Powes, 

Desiring nira to bestow no cost. 
But onely beefe and browns. 

King's Halfe-PennyKorth of Wit, 1613. 

Browing, s. Soup ; pottage. 
Brown-clock, s. The cockchafer. 

Brown-crops, s. Pulse. Glouc. 
Brown-day, s. A gloomy day. 





Bbowx-deep, adj. Lost in re- 

■^ection. Kent. 
Brown-george, s. (1) A coarse 

sort of bread. 

(2) A large earthen pitcher. 

(3) A small close wig, with a 
f'Ogle row of curls, said to take 
its name from George III. 

Brown-leemkrs, 1 Ripe brown 
BROWNSHULLERS. J niits ; figu- 
ratively applied to generous per- 
sons. North. 

Brown study. A thoughtful ab- 
sence tti mind. 

And in the niornynge whan every man 
made hyni rcdy to ryde, and sonic were 
on horsobacke" setting forwarde, John 
Reyiioldes louude his companion syt- 
tviige iu a browne study at the inue 
gate. Tales and Quicke Answers. 

Why how now, sister, in a motley muse? 

Fait)i, tliis brotcn study suits not with your 

Your habit and your thoughts are of two 

colours. S. Jonsoii, Case Alter'd, iv, 1. 

Browsage, s. Browsing. 
Browse, s. Dry food for cattle. 

" Browse, or meat for beastes in 

snow tynie. Vesca." Huloet. 
BROW-sauARE, «. A triangular 

piece of linen, to bind tlie head 

of an infant just born. West. 
Browthy, adj. Liglit and spongy, 

spoken of bread ; the opposite of 

clusty, or clayey. Comw. 
Broylery, «. {Fr.) A tumult. 
Broylly, adj. (Fr.) Broiled. 
Brozier. " Brazier my dame," 

i. e., "eat her out of house and 

Bruce, ». Pottage. See Brewet. 
Bruck, s. a field-cricket. North. 
Bruckeled, adj. Wet and dirty; 

liegrinied. East. 
Bruui.e. v. To let a child lie till 

he is quite awake. Devon. 
Brue, v. To enibrue. 
Bbuet, *. Pottage. See Brewet. 
Bruff, adj. (1) Hearty; jolly; 

rough iu manners. 

(2) Brittle Dorset. 

Brugge, #. {A.-S.) A bridge. 

Bruile, v. a sea term. 

Our master Richard Swanley, seeing 
their advantage, caused to bmile nmine- 
saile, and edge within niuski-i-sliot of 
them both, and there maintained tight 
with them till lunne-set. and received 
no hurt at all. Taylor's U'orkes, 1630. 

Bruit, (1) *. {A.-N.) A rumour or 

(2) V. To report. 

A thousand tilings besides she bruits and 
tells. Mirr.for Mag., p. 17. 

Bruitist, s. a brute. 

Bruklempe, s. The herb orpin. 
See Broklembe, 

Item. Also take heyhove, walworte, 
white nialowes, and bruklempe, and huyle 
hem iu watereandwassh the score ther- 
in. MS. \ith cent. 

Brulliment, s. {Fr. brouillement.) 

A broil. North. 
BbUMBLE-GELDER, s. A farmer. 

Brummell, s. a bramble. Hants, 
Brummock, s. a sort of knife. 

Brump, v. To lop trees in the 

night. East. 
Brun, v. To burn. North. 
Brune, s. {A.-N.) Brown. 
Bbungeon, s. a brat; a child. 

Kent. It meant properly a 

Brunned, adj. Shrunk. Dorset. 
Brunswick. *. A sort of dance. 
Brunswyne, *. The seal. Pr. 

Brunt, adj. Sharp to the taste. 

Brunte, v. To leap. 
Brure, «. Brushwood. West. 
Brus, s. Broth. See Brewet. 
Brusell, v. To bruise, or break. 
Brush, (1) v. To jump quickly. 

(2)0. To splash hedges. Yorksh. 

(3) s. A nosegav. Devon. 
i\) s. Stul)ble. 'staff. 

BausHALY, s. The bushy branch 
of a tree. 




Britsk, adj. {Fr. bnisqtie.) Rude. 
Bruslery, s. {A.-N.) a tumult. 
Bruss, (1) adj. Proud; upstart. 


(2) s. The dry spine of furze. 

Brust, (1) g. A bristle. 

(2) adj. Rough, or covered with 

(3) V. To burst. North. 
Brusting-saturday, ». The Sa- 
turday before Shrove-Tuesday. 

Brustle, v. {\) To rise up against 
one fiercely. 

'Sbud I'll brustle up to him ! 

Otieay, The Atheist, 1681. 

(2) To crackle ; to rustle. 

(3) To parch. 
Brusy. Begone! Beds. 
Brute, s. (Fr.) Rough. 
Brutel, adj. Brittle. 
Bruts, s Old clothes. North. 
Brutte, r. To browse. South. 
Bruttle, adj. Wild ; furious, 
Bruzz, v. To blunt, Yorksh. 
Bruzzled, adj. (1) Over-roasted. 


(2) Bruised. 

Buy, s. A kind of tart. "Tartede 
bry." Warner. 

Bryche, adj. Low. 

Bryde, a<^'. Bowed; broke. 

Brygauntes, 8. Robbers. See 

Bryge, 8. (A.-S.) Strife ; conten- 

Amongcst other, he snspectith oon to be 
his Hccusar CiiUyd Champneyg, whiche 
is as fond a feluwe, as maliciouse, and 
as sediciouse a person, as any in tliis 
shire; he is a tenant of myn, and was of 
laate my servant, and for sediciou and 
bryf/es that he had with syr John 
Saynrtlo, and other jentyllmeii here in 
the countre. Letter, 1536. 

Brygous, adj. Quarrelsome; con- 

Brykknder, s. A brigandine, or 
coat of light mail. 




«. An ancient dish. 

For to make brymeus. Nym the tharm^s 
of a pygge, and wasch hem clene in 
water and salt, and seth item wel; and 
than hak hem smale; and gryud pepyr 
and safron, bred and ale, and hoyle 
togedere. Nym wytys of eyren, and 
knede it wyth flonr, and make sinal 
pelotys, and frye hem with wyte {trees, 
and do lieni in disclies above that otbere 
mete, and serve it forthe. 

Warner, Antiq. Culm., p. 39. 

Brymlent, «. A sort of tart. 
Bryn, s. a way or path ; a journey. 
Bryne, 8. Brows or bristles. 
Brynnys, 8. Bourns ; streams. 
Bryon, 8. Wild nepte. 
Bryste, 8. Want; need. 
Bryswort, 8. The less daisy, 
Bryttle, v. To cut up venison. 
Bryve, adv. Brief. 
Bu, (1) V. (A.-S.) To bend. North. 

(2) 8. (A.-xW.) An ox. 
Bub, (1) *. Liquor. 

(2) V. To throw out in bubbles. 
BuBALLE, 8. (Lat. bubalui.) An 

BuBBER, 8. A great drinker. 
Bubble, (1) «. A simple fellow; 

a man easily cheated. 

Are any of these gentlemen good bubbles. 
Sedley, The Mulberry Gardeti, 1668. 

(2) V. To cheat. 

He's a Buckinghamshire grasier, very 
rich ; he lias the fat oxen, and fat acres 
in the vale : I met him here by chance, 
and could not avoid drinking a glass 
o' wine with liim. I believe he's gone 
down to receive money ; t'were an excel- 
lent design to bubble him. 

Elherege, Comical Revenge, 1669. 

This is unlookt for fortune — but 'lis such 
a good iiatur'd old fool, that inctliinks 
'tis pity to bubble him. 

Durfey, Fool turit'd Critiek. 

(3) V. To dabble in the water. 
" Bubblyng,oT bybblyngin water, 
asduckesdo. Amphibolug.'' Hu- 

BuBBLE-AND-SftUEAK, 8. A disb 

composed of beef and cabbage. 
Bubble-hols, ». A child's game. 





said to be the same as nine-holes. 
Bubbly-jock, s. A turkey-cock. 

BuBBY-HUTCH, s. A sort of truck 

or handbarrow. Leic. 
BuB-DouBf.E, "Is. A sort of strong 

DOUBLE BUB, J beer. 
BuBUKLE, *. {Lat.) A botch or im- 

BucHT, s. A herding place for 

sheep. Northumb. 
Buck, (1) v. To wash. 

(2) s. A quantity of linen washed 
at once, a wash of clothes. 

The wicked spirit conid not endure her, 

because slie had washed among her htck 

of cloatiies, a eatholinuc priestes sliirt. 

Decl. of Popish import, 4to, E, 2. 

Then sliall we not have our houses 
broken up in the uiVht, as one of my 
nvghtljois liad, and two creat buckfs of 
cfothes stolen out, and niostot tlie same, 
fync Ijnncn. 

Caveat far Com. Curs., A, 2, b. 

(3) s. That peculiar infection 
which in summer sometimes gets 
into a dairy, and spoils the cream 
and butter. Cornw. To be buckt, 
is, in Devon, to have a rankish 
taste or smell, as we say " the 
beer is bucked," "the cheese is 
buckt." Ill the dialect of Exmoor, 
milk is said to be buckward or 
bucked,\\\\tn it smells of the milk- 
pail or bucket, or turns sour in it. 

(4) To buck com, to pick out all 
the flour or pith of grain in the 
ground, after it has begun to 
spring, leaving only the husk or 
sliell behind, which birds ofiea 
do. Devon. 

(5) ». A gay or fashionable per- 
son ; a word in use as early as 
the 15th cent. 

(6) 8. The body of a wagon. 

(7) 8. The iron in a wagon to 
which the horses are tied. 

(8) V. To spring nimbly. East. 

(9) 8. (A.-S.) The breast, or belly. 

(10) V. To swell out. Somerset. 

(11) V. To fill a basket. Kent. 

(12) ». To beat. Yorksh. 
Buck- BASKET, s. A clothes-basket. 
BucKBEAR, r. To teaze, find tault. 


Buck-buck, 8. A child's game, 
more usually called, " buck, buck, 
how many horns do I hold up?" 

BucKER, (1) s. A bent piece of 
wood, on which anything is sus- 
pended, as a slaughtered animal. 
(2) *. A broad flat hammer, used 
in mining. 

BucKERELs, *. A sort of play used 
by bovs in London, in the time 
of Henry VIII. 

Bucket, *. A pulley. North. 

Buckets, s. Square pieces of boggy 
earth, below the surface. Yorksh. 

BucK-FATT, 8. A Washing tub. 

Buckhead, v. To lop. 

BucKHORN, 8. Dried haddock. 

BucKHORSE, 8. A Smart box on 
the ear; a cant term derived 
from the name of a boxer. 

BucKiNG-sTooL, 8. A Washing 

Buck-in-the-park, s. a child's 

Buckle, v. (1) To bend; to bow. 

(2) To quarrel. Somerset. 

(3) To marry. "Good silly Stellio, 
we must buckle shortly." Mother 

(4) To buckle to, to return to any 
work, &c. ; to set to a thing in 

Buckle-horns, ». Short crooked 
horns, turning inward. Yorksh. 

Buckle-mouthed, adj. Having 
large straggling teeth. North. 

Buckler, (1) f. To defend. 

(2) ». A great beam. Line. 

(3) To give bucklers, to yield, 
or lay by all thoughts of defence. 
To take up the bucklers, to ecu* 




A most tnan\y wit, Margaret, it will not 
hurt a u'onian ; and so, 1 pray thee, call 
Beatrice: J gict thee the buciUrs. 

Much A., V, 2. 

Charge one of them to talce up the bucklers 
Against that hair-monger Horace. 

Decker's Satironiaslix. 

Age is nobodie — when youth is in place, 
it ffives the othrr the bucklers. 


Buck-mast, «. The fruit of the 

Buckram-bearer, «. Adependant. 
His buckram-bearer, cue that kuowes his 

Can write with one hand and receive with 

Taylor's Workes, 1630. 

BucKSHORN, s. A bawd. 

BucKSOME, adj. (1) Blithe; jolly. 

(2) Lascivious. The word was 
used in this sense early in the 
last century. 

BucKSTALL, ». (1) A net for taking 

(2) The stout part of a thorn, 
the branches being cut off. Norf. 

BucK-swANGiNG, «. A sort of 
punishment, which was adminis- 
tered by two boys taking hold of 
the culprit by the hands and feet, 
and swinging him with a bump 
against a wall. 

BucKSTiCK, «. A stick used in the 
game called Spell and Ore. 

BucKWASHER, g. A lauudrcss. 

BucK-WEEL,*. A bow-net for fish. 

Bud, (1) ». To make, or compel. 

(2) s. A calf of the first year. 
{Z) pret. t. Behoved. 
(4) s. A term of endearment, 
generally between man and wife. 

Mrs. Pin. O Lord, buJd, why d'ye fright 
me so ? fTycherley, Country Wife, 16s8. 

Bud-bird, a. The bullfinch. West. 

BUDDLE, 1 ™,, ,, 

' vs. The corn maryeold. 
BUDEL, J 'o 

BuDDLE,r. (1) To suflfocate. Somer- 

(2) To cleanse ore. North. 

(3) s. The vessel for this purpose, 
formed like a shallow tumbrel. 

BuDDLED, adj. Tipsy. Devon. 
Buddy, adj. Fat; corpulent. Line. 
BuDDY-BUD, «. The flower of the 

burdock. North 
BuDE, pret. t. Bode; endured. 

Budge, (1) s. (Fr.) Lambskin with 

the wool dressed outwards. 

(2) adj. Brisk ; jocund. South. 

(3) adj. Proud. 

(4) adj. Stiff; dull. Sussex. 

(5) s. A bag or sack. Kennett. 

(6) ». A kind of water-cask, on 
wheels. South. 

(7) V. To abridge, or lessen. 

(8) s. A thief. 

(9) V. To stir ; to move off. 

Tlie sounding well they like, so in they 

And budge not till the tyler's pots were 

Rovilands, Kimres of Spades, 1618. 
And when wee struck downe one, tlie 
residue budgd not one jot till all were 
vanquished. Herbert's Travels, 1638. 

Budget, "l s. (Fr.) A wallet ; a 
BouGET, ^leather case for carry- 
bogkt, J ingthings behind a man 
on horseback. 

I am a Welshman, and do dwel in Wales, 
I have loved to serche budgets and kxik in 
males. Andrew Borde, B. o/Kiiotcl. 

BuDPiCKER, «. The bullfinch. 

BuDRAM, g. Oatmeal gruel. Norf. 

BvE, adj. {A.-N.) Fair. 

BuEiNGs, s. Joints. Devon. 

BuEN, V. To be. 

BuER, *. A gnat. North. 

BuEss.s. A stall, or station. iVor/A. 

BuF, g. (A.-N.) Beef. 

BuFARious, adj. Mendacious. 

Buff, (1)». To rebound. A wood- 
man will say his axe buffs when 
it strikes on a tough piece of 
wood and rebounds without cut- 
ting. Warw. 




(2) V. To emit a dull sound, as a 
Ijladder filled with wind. Buffed- 
hells are tolled or rung with a 
covering. TJ'arw. 

(3) s. Leather made of a buffalo's 

(4) s. The bare skin. To be in 
tuff", is equivalent to being naked. 

(5) c. To beat or strike. Spenser 
uses it for buffet. 

(6) V. To boast. 

(7) «. A tuft or hassock. Kent. 

(8) 8. The hough of a tree. North. 

(9) «. A buffalo. 

(10) Buff tie baff, neither one 
thing nor another. In North- 
amptonshire they still say buff 
nor bum, in the same meaning. 
A certaine persoiie being of hym [So- 
crates] biilden stood speede, s.iied to livm 
aguiiie neither bvfft «« baff, [tliHt is, made 
liiiu no kmd of answer]. Neither was 
Socrates tlierettiih any tliiiis; discon- 
tented. I'daU, Jpopkik., fol. 9. 

BuFFARD, "1 ». {A.-N.) A foolish 

BUFFER, /fellow. 

BuFFE, 1 r. To stutter, or stam- 

BUKFLE, J nier. 
Buffet, ». (I) A cushion for the 

feet ; a small ottoman ; sometimes 

called a buffet-stool. 

(2) (Fr.) A kind of cupboard. 

(3) A blow. 

Buffie, «. A vent-hole in a cask. 
BuFFiN, s. .\ sort of coarse cloth. 
Buffing-knife, #. A knife for 

scraping leather. 
Buff-jf.rkix,». a leathern jacket, 

worn usually by Serjeants and 

BuFFLE, (1) ». A buffalo. 

(2) ». To handle clumsily. East. 

(3) r. To speak thick and inar- 

(4) V. To puzzle. 
Buffle-greess, s. The Brussels 

sprouts. Northamp. 

BUFPLE-HEADED, adj. Stupld. 

You know nothing, /on luffle-keaded, 
stupid creature vou. 

IfyekerUy, Plain-dealer, 1677. 

BuFT, s. The joint of the knee. ^ 

Bug, {^1) s. A goblin ; a bugbear. 

Tusli, tush ! fear bovs with bugs. 

Shakesp., Tarn. Skr., i, 2. 
Afterwards they tell them, that those 
wliich they saw, were bugs, witches, and 
hags. Lavater. de Spectris, tr. 1572. 

Hobgoblins, or night-walking spirits, 
black bugs. Nomenclator. 

Which be the very bvggrs that tlie 
Psalme nieaneth on, walking in tlie 
night and in corners. Asch. Tuiopk. 

(2) adj. Proud ; conceited ; me- 
nacing, when applied to words, 
seems to be the meaning in 
Skinner. "To take bug," to 
take fright or offence. 

These are higg-mords that aw'd the wo- 
men in former ages, and still fool a great 
many in this. 

Saeenscroft, Careless Lovers, 1673. 
Bra. A very great comfojt — a whore is 
a very great comfort to her husband, 
witliout doubt. 

Beauf. Sin-all, no bttg words, there was 
uo whoredom iu the case. 

Durjey, A nrtuous Wife, 1680. 

(3) V. To take offence. North- 

Bugaboo,*. A bugbear ; a ghost. 

Bdgax, 8. The devil. West. 
Bugasin, 8. Calico buckram. 
BuGE, V. (A.-S.) To bend. 
Buggen, v. (A.-S.) To buy. 
Bugger, (1) v. To cheat at play. 

(2) 8. A hobgoblin. Glonc. 
Buggy bane, 1 *. An old game 
buckee bene, J in Devonshire 
played by children in the dark, 
in which the following rhymes 
were repeated by one of the 
Buggy, buggy, bidde bene. 
Is the way now fair and clean? 
Is the goose y-gone to nest. 
And the fox y-eom to rest? 

Shall I come away f 
BuGLF, 8. A buffalo. 
Bugi.e-rod, 8. The crosier of a 

Bugs-words. Fierce, high-sound- 
ing words. See Bu^. " Chtval de 


^ trompelte, one thats not afraid 

of shadowes, one wliora no l)ig 
nor bugs words can terrific." 

BuGY, adj. Rough. 

BuiLLEN, V. {A.-N.) To boil. 

BuiST, V. To mark sheep. North. 

BuKE, «. A book. 

BcKENADE, s. A dish in cookery. 

Bukkenade. Tiike hennes, other conyn- 
ges, other veel, other other flessh, and 
liewe hem to gobetts; waische it, and 
hit well. Grvnde almandes unhUinched, 
and drawe hem up witli the broth. 
Caste thereinne raysons of corauce, 
sugar, powder gynger, erbes y-stewed 
iu grees, oynouiis, and salt. If it is to 
thynne, alye it up with floer of ryse, 
other with other thyng, and color it wii h 
safroon. Forme ofCury, p. 6. 

Bulbs, s. The tonsils of the throat. 
BuLCH, V. To bilge a ship. 
BuLCHiN, s. A bull-calf. 
BuLDERiNG, adj. Hot and sultry, 

applied to weather. Devon. 
BuLDER-STONK, *. A bouIdcr. 
BuLE, s. (1) A boil or swelling. 

(2) The semicircular handle of 

any article like a bucket. 
BuLGOOD, s. Yeast. Easi. 
Bulk, (I) s. The body, from the 

neck to the hips. 

And strike thee dead, and trampling on 

thy bulk, 
By stamping with my foot crush out thy 

'soul. Four Prentices, O. Fl., vi, 478. 

Beating her bulk, that his hand slinkes 
witluiL Shakesp., Rape of Lucr. 

(2) s. The bottom part of a ship. 

(3) «. The stall of a shop. Tlie 
front of a butcher's shop is still 
called a bulkar in Lincolnshire. 

(4) V. To strike ; to beat. 

(5) V. To throb. 

(6) «. A beam. 

BuLKE, {\)v. {A..S.) To belch. 

(2) To bow, to bend. Prompt. 

BuLKER, g. A night-walker; a 


Tliat ii their last refuge in point of 

cloaths ; and when that's worn out, she 

266 BUL 

must on with the strip'd semar, and 
turn bulker ; at which trade 1 hope to 
see you suddenly. 

Baceiiscroft, Careless Lovers, 1C73. 

BuLK-RiDDEN, adj. Riddcii with 
one's body. 

Wience d'ye come ? 
From what bulk-ridden strumpet reeking 
home ? OU/iam's Foems. 

Bull, (1) adj. Strong. 

(2) V. Cattle are said in York- 
shire to buU up hedges. 

(3) *. An instrument used for 
beating clay. 

(4) s. A sandstone for scythes. 

BuLLACE, s. A wild plum, larger 

than the sloe. See Bullions. 
BuLLAKiN, «. Low vulgar abuse. 

BuLLATE, V. (Lat.) To bubble or 

BuLLBEAR, s. A bugbcar. 
BuLL-BEGGAR, s. A hobgoblin ; 

any object of terror. 

A scarebug : a bulbegger : a sight that 
frayeth and frighteth. Homenclator. 

And they have so fraid us with bull- 
beggers, spirits, witches, urchens, elves, 
&c., and such other bugs, that we are 
afraid of our own shadowes. 

Scot's Disc. ofWitchcr., 1580. 

And being an ill-look'd fellow, he has a 
pension from the churchwardens for 
he'ns; hdlbeggar to all the Iroward 
children in the parish. 

Mounlforl, Greenwich Park, 1691 

Bull-calf, s. A stupid fellow. 
Bulled, (1) adj. Swollen. 

(2) Said of & cow maris appetens. 
BuLLEN, s. (1) The stalks of hemp 

after they are piled. 

(2) Boulogne. 
BuLLER, (1) V. To roar. North. 

(2) s. (A.-N.) A deceiver. 
Bull-faces, 1 «. Tufts of coarse 

BULL- FRONTS, / grass. North. 
BuLL-FEisT, s. A puff-ball. East. 
Bullfinch, (1) *. A stupid fellow. 


{'Z) s. A hedge which is allowed 




to grow high without laying. 

BuLLFiNCHERS, s. A Cant term 

applied to double rows of posts, 

with a quickset in the middle. 
Bullhead, «. (1) A tadpole. 


(2) A small fish, called also a 

Bullheads,, s. Curled tufts of 

hair on a woman's forehead. 
Bullies,*. Round pebbles. South. 
BuLLiMOXG, «. A mixture of oats, 

I)eas, and vetches. Tusser, and 

still in use in Essex. 
Bulling, part. a. Boiling. 

BuUyng, bollynge, or bubblyng of water 

GUI of a spryiige. Ebullilio. Huloet. 

Bullion, s. {Fr. billon.) Base coin. 

And those, which eld's strict doom did 

And damn for bullion, go for current now. 
Sijh.yDu Sartas, week 2, day 2. 

Bullions, 1 „,., , , , 

I ». vV lid plums ; large 
BULLACE, V , ^ ' & 

' f sloes. 


Bullions, «. (1) Hooks used for 
fastening the dress ; buttons ; 
embossed ornaments. 
(2) A pair of hose or doublets 
ornamented with bullions. 

BuLL-juB, 1 «. The fish called 
Bui.L-KNOB, J a miller's thumb. 

BuLL-JUMPiNGs, a. A kind of por- 
ridge. North. 

Bullock, v. To bully. North. 

BuLLOT-STONES, *. Balls of stone. 

The arrowes flewe from side to side, 
The bullotstones did waike. 

Turberville's Tragical Talts, 1587. 

BuLL-PATED, adj. A heavy crop of 
grass driven by wind or rain into 
an eddy, is said to be bull-pated. 

Bulls, s. (1) The stems of hedge- 

(2) Transverse bars of wood into 
wliich the heads of barrows 
are set. 

BuLLS-AND-cows, s. The flower 
of the arum maculatum. 

BuLL-SKG, a. A gelded bull. North. 

Bulls-eyes, *. A sort of coarse 

Bull's-feathbr. To stick a bull's- 
feather in the cap, to make one 
a cuckold. 

Bull's-forehead, a. The turfy 
air-grass. North. 

Bull's-neck, a. To bear one a 
bull's neck, i. e., to bear a grudge 
against, or to be provoked at the 
sight of a person. Devon. 

Bull's-noon, a. Midnight. Eaat. 

Bull's-pink,«. Achaffinch. North. 

Bull-stag, a. A bull gelt after he 
is full grown. Glouc. 

BuLL-sTANG, a. (1) A dragon-fly. 
(2) An upright stake in a hedge. 

Bull-stone, a. A kind of sand- 
stone. Yorkah. 

Bull-trout, a. A large species of 
trout, found in Northumberland. 

Bull-ward, 1 adj. A cow mad 
bull-wood, I for the bull. A sow 
BULLAD, I is said to be hoar- 
BURRAD, ) wood, and a mare 
horsewood, under similar circum- 
stances. The word is sometimes 
applied opprobriously to a woman. 

Bull-week, a. A name given to 
the week before Christmas at 

Bull-works, a. Boisterous be- 
haviour. JVeat. 

Bully, (1) a. A familiar term for 
a companion. 

(2) a. A parlour, or small room. 

(3) V. (A.-N.) To boil. 

(4) V. To frighten. 

(5)». A riot. "To make a bully," 
to kick up a riot. 

Bully-beggar, a. A scare-crow. 

Bullyrag, ». To rail or use op- 
probrious language. Leic. 

BuLLY-ROCK, a. An impudent 
swaggerer. The word was much 




used in the latter half of the 17th 

If they spy a gentle sqnier making 
faces, he poor soul must be hector'd till 
he likes 'em, while the more stubboru 
hully-rock damm's and is safe. 

ShadtPcIl, Sullen Lovers, 1670, Prrf. 
Oh! dear buUij-rock, that wheadlewont 
pass. Shadwell, Sullen Lovers, 1670. 

Upon honour, m a short time not a bully- 
rock of 'em all can come near lliee for 
gallantry, burfey, Madame Fickle,\i&i. 

BuLSE, «. A bunch. North. 
BuLT, (I) ». A silting cloth. 

(2) V. To sift. "Bull, raunge, 
or syeve meale. Succemo." 

BuLTER, s. A bag for fine meal. 

" Bultre, or bultyng poke for fyne 

meale. Cribra." Huloet. 
BuLTiNGARKE, «. A tub or chcst 

for sifting. 
BuLTLE, 8. Bran. North. 
BoLVER, V. To increase in bulk. 


BULVERHEAD, ». A Stupid fcUoW. 


BuLVERiNG.joar/. a. A tree or bush 
whose branches extend over the 
road, is said to Hang bulveriny 
over. Any part of dress, as of a 
gown or coat made large and full, 
so as to stick out, ia said to be 

Bulwark, «. A rampart. 

BcLWORKS, «. Part of the armour, 
used to prevent the thighs of the 
wearer from being chafed by 
the pieces that terminated just 
above the knee. 

Bum, (1) V. To strike; to beat. 
{2) V. To spin a top. North. 

(3) V. To rush with a humming 

(4) V. To dun. 

(5) V. To drink ; to taste. 

(6) ». A bum-bailiff. 

Bum, I «. The posteriors. This 
BUMME, V word was in common 
BOMME, J usewiththeElizabethan 

writers, and with those of the 
century following. It appears to 
have been origmally synonymous 
with buttock. Florio has, "A'd- 
tiche, the buttocks or bummes." 

Phryne is light, and yet she hath two 

Like a ful payre (at least) of mountanetts. 
Davies, Scourge ofFulli/, 1611. 

But when the priest had done his part, and 
that they homeward come. 

The bride, for Baltus, might salute the 
pavement with her bomme. 

Warner's Albions England, 1592. 
The female sex each new moone defying 
pale fac'd Cynthia by turning up their 
bummes, imagining her the cause of their 
distemper. Herbert's Travels, 1638. 

Kound all the roome were placed tacite 
Mirzaes, Chawns, Sultans, and Begler- 
begs, above threescore ; who like so 
many iiianimnte statues sat crosse- 
legg'd , and joyned their bum?ns to the 
ground, tlieir backs to the wall, their 
eyes to a constant object ; not daringto 
speak one to another. lb. 

BuMB, #. The game of bandy. 

BuMBARD, V. Futuere. North. 

Bumbabrel, s. The long-tailed tit. 

Bumbaste, v. To beat, or tlog. 

Bumbe, v. To hum. Prompt. P. 

Bumble, (1) v. (A.-S.) To make 
a humming noise. 

(2) V. To muffle a bell. East. 

(3) ». To start off quickly, ^a*^ 

(4) 8. A confused heap. North, 

(5) *. A small round stone. West. 
Bumble-bee, s. The humble bee. 
Bumble-broth, s. Suds ? 

The olde woman to her payne 
In such a bumble-broth had lavne. 
The Firmentie, Engl. Dr., iii, 189. 
For laundresses arc testy and full of 

When they are lathering in their bumble- 
broth. Taylor's Workes, 1630. 

Bumble-foot, s. A thick heavy 

foot. East. 
Bumblekites, s. Blackberries. 

BuMBLE-PUPPy, s. The game of 

Bumbler, s. (1) A humble bee. 


(2) A bungler. Glouc. 




(3) A wencher. 
Bumbles, s. (1) Rushes. Line. 

(2) A sort of blinkers. North. 
Bumble-staff, s. A stout stick. 

Bum-boat, ». A boat which waits 

upon ships coming into harbour, 

to sell greens, spirits, &c. 
BuMBRUSHER, s. A schoolmaster, 

from the punishment he is in the 

habit of inflicting. 
BuMBY. (1) Bv and bye. far. dial. 

(2) «. A place for lumber ; any 

collection of filth. East. 
Bum-card, \s. A card used by 
BUN-CARD, J dishonest gamesters. 

" Rinlerzdta carta, a dun-card." 


To tliose exployts he ever stands prepar*)!; 
A vUlaine excellent at a hum-curd. 

Rutclands' Humors Ordinarie. 

Bumclock, 8. A beetle. North. 
Bumfeg, v. To beat ; to belabour. 

BUMFIDDLE, (1) S. PodcX. 

(2) V. To take in ; to cheat. 
Have I 
Known wenches thus long, all the ways of 

Tlicir snares and subtilties? have I read 

All their school-leaming, div'd into their 

quiddits ? 
And am I now bumfidUd with a bastard. 

riUiers, The Chances, 1692. 

BcMFiDLER, s. A busy-body ; a 
fidgety person. 

Kate still exclairaes aeainst great medlers, 
A busie-body hardly she abides; 
Yet she's well pleas'd with all bum-fdtfrs. 
And hir owne body stirring still besides. 

Davies, Scourge of FoUy, ICll. 

BuMKix, "I ». A rude country 
BUMPKIN, J fellow; a ploughman. 

Of which hee that hath not heard some- 
I count him but a conntrev humten. 

Sir Thomas Browne, MS. Shane, 1900. 

BuMMELL, » (1) A bramble. Cumb. 

(2) The ball of the foot near the 

toes. Leic. 
BuMMKR, ». A rumbling carriage. 


BuMMLB, V. To blunder. North. 
Bump, (1) v. To beat. 

(2) s. A blow 

(3) V. To ride rough. East. 

(4) s. The noise made by a bit- 
tern with its bill. 

(5) V. To make such a noise. 
Bumping, adj. Large. JFest. 
Bumpsy, adj. Tipsy. 
Bumptious, a<(/. Proud ; arrogant. 
Bumpy, adj. Uneven. 
Bum-rolls, s. Stuffed cushions, 

used by women to make their 
petticoats swell out, instead of 
the more expensive farthingales. 

Nor you nor vonr house were so much 
as spoken of, l)efore I disbased myself 
from my hood and my farthingal, to 
these bum-rowls, and your whalebone 
budice. B. Jon., Poelasl., ii, 1. 

Those virtues [of a bawd] rais'd her 
from the flat petticoat and kercher, to 
the gorget and bum-roll. 

Parson's Wedding, 0. PL, xi, 460. 

Bum-ruffian, a. An outrageous 

Give a drunkard that hath learned t«' 
reele of the tap-spinning Mcarmaide, 
and a ditell bomme.rujpan, the w all, in 
any case; for the one needes it, the 
other in right should have wall on all 
sides of him, viz. Newgate. 

Done's Folydoron, 1C31. 

Bum-troth. An abbreviation of 
by my troth. Bum ladie, by my 

Bun, (1) s. The tail of a hare. 

(2) «. A dry stalk, especially the 
stubble of beans. 

(3) s. A familiar name for a 

(4) *. A term of endearment. 
{h) part. p. Bound. North. 

(6) s. TO alcoiov. Devon, 
Bunch, (1) v. To beat ; to strike ; 

to push.* "I bounche or pusshe 
one, ie pousse." Palsgrave. 

(2) ». To bend or bow out- 

(3) r. The act of a calf when 




sncking, in pushing its head forci- 
bly against the cow's udder, to 
cause the milk to come more 
freely. Norf. 

(4) «. A worthless woman. 

(5) 8. A company of teal. 

(6) 8. A pack of cards. 

(7) 8. The horn of a young stag. 
Bunch- BACKED, adj. Hunch- 
backed. This term occurs in 
Copley's Wits, Fits, and Fancies, 
1614, p. 186, 

BcNCH-BERRiEs, 8. The fruit of 

the rubus saxatilis. Craven. 
BuNCH-CLOD, 8. A clown. 

Term is no sooner out but in comes 
Valentine to trade in sweetliearts, then 
the maids look out sharp if possible to 
have him for a valentine whom they 
could inwardly incline to chuse for a 
husband; and as for those who are 

fovern'd by lump love, if Valemine's 
ay will not do for them, here is Pan- 
cake day a coming:, one to please the 
fancy, and the other the a))petite ; for 
there are a great many himck-clods in 
the world that had ratlier have a belly 
full of victuals than a handsome sweet- 
heart: not that I would encourage 
anybody to neglect their victuals for 
the sake of a woman, mucli less to go to 
plays or masquerades to seek a liandsom 
woman, where you have a better chance 
to meet with beauty than virtue. 


Bun-crow, «. A grey bird which 
commits depredations on thecorn. 

BuNCUs, s. A donkey. Line. 

BuNDATioN, s. Abundance. West. 

Bundle, (1) *, A term for a low 
(2) V. To go away in » hurry. 

Bundling, *. A custom in Wales 
of courting in bed with the 
clothes on. It is still continued, 
and often has rather disastrous 
results. An action for seduction 
on this custom was tried at Car- 
narvon, July, 1846. 

Bunds, ». A species of scabious. 

Bunk, adv. Promptly. 

Bung, .(^) '• ^ pickpocket. A 

cant word, also used for a pocket, 

and a purse. 

(2) *. A heap or bunch. North. 
BuNG-DocK, s. A curtail. East. 
BuNGER, I ». To do anything awk- 

BUNJER, J wardly. Suss. 
Bungersome, adj. Clumsy. Berks. 
BuNGiE, adj. Short and squat. 


The tree is not high nor hingit; the 
branches spread to a great length, and 
beare many cods (not unlike the Indian 
beanes) arm'd with many sliarp prickles. 
Herbert's Travels, 1638. 

Cross-leg'd hee sat : his shash or turbant 
was white and bungle; his waist was 
girded with a thong of lather. 

Herbert's Trawls. 

BuNGY, adj. Intoxicated. Beds. 
BuN-HEDGE, s. A hedge of twisted 

sticks. Lane. 
BuNHiLL, s. A bunyon. Northamp. 
BuNHORNS, s. Briars bored and 

used by woollen-weavers to wind 

yarn on. Lane. 
Bunkas, s. A number of people 

collected together. East. 
Bunking, adj. Fat. Yorksh. 
Bunks, s. The wild succory. East. 
Bunned, adj. Shrunk. Dorset. 
BuNNEL, 8. A dried hemp-stalk. 

Bunny, ». (1) A small swelling. 

East. " Bownche or bunnye, 

Gibba." Huloet. 

(2) A sort of drain. Hants. 
Bunny-back'd, adj. High and 

round sliouldered. Devon. 

Bunny-mouth, a. The snap-dra- 
gon. Surrey. 

Bunt, (1) w. To push with the 
head. West. 
^)v. To rear. Oxf. 

(3) V. To run like a rabbit. 

(4) p. To sift, or to boult meal. 

(5) 8. Smut in corn. 

(6) 8. The part of a sail which 
is inflated by the wind. 

(7) «. A puff-ball. Northamp. 




BuNTER, s. (1) A collector of rags. 

(2) A prostitute. East, 
Bdnting, (1) adj. Mean; shabby; 

untidy. East. 

(2) s. A large piece of timber. 

(3) *. A shrimp. Kent. 

(4) s. A boys' game, played with 
sticks and a small piece of wood. 

(5) s. The wood-lark. 

(6) s. A term of endearment. 
WTiere is ray little bunting ? Why, how 

now, bird ? what, in a pett ? 

N. Tate, Cuckold's Hanen, 1685. 

(7) s. A sort of fine linen of 
which searches or sarsers are 
made {cribra pollinaria). 

Bur, (1) s. A blow; force, or 

(2) s. The halo round the moon. 

(3) *. A stop for a wheel. 

(4) «. A whetstone for scythes. 

(5) s. Sweet-bread of a calf. 

(6) s. A rabbit burrow. Dorset. 

(7) conj. But. Yorksh. 
BuRATo, *. A sort of woollen cloth. 
Burble, 1 _ To bubble. 


Burble, \s. A bubble on the 

BURBYL, J water. 
Burble, s. A small pimple. East. 
BuRCOT, s. A load. Somerset, 
BuRDELAis, 8. A sort of grapcs. 
Burden-band, s. A hay-band. 

BuRDis, s, (A.-N.) A tournament. 
BuRDisE, V. {A.-N.) To joust at a 

BuRDON, s. {A.-N.) A staff. 
BuRDouN, 8. {A.-N.) The base in 

BuRE, s. {A.-S.) A chamber. 
BuREDKLY, adv. Forcibly ; swiftly. 
Burele, s. The spoke of a wheel. 
Buret, s. A drinking vessel. 
BuREWE, r. {A.-S.) To protect. 


BuRGE, s. A bridge. Oxf, 
BuRGEN, "1 ». (1) To bud. See 
BURGEON, J Bourgeon. 
(2) s. A bud ; a sprout. 
Burgh, s, (1) Part of a spear. 

I'll try one speare , though it 

prove too short by the burgh. 

Roaring Girl, 0. PL, vi, S3. 

(2) The projecting rim of a deer's 
horn, close to the head. 
Burghe, ». {A.-S.) (1) A hillock 
or barrow. 

(2) A town or borough. 

(3) A barrow hog. 
Burgmote, s. {A.-S.) A borough 

Burgoin, s. {Fr.) A part of the 

A bnrgoign, is tliat part of the head- 
dress that covers the hair, being the 
first pai't of the dvess. 

Dunton's Lady's Diet., T694. 

Burgon, s. a burganet, or helmet. 

Tytan encounters Jove, Jove him defies, 
AJad from his steely burgon beates out fire. 
Great Sritaines Troye, 1609. 

Burgood, ». Yeast. Norf, 
Burgullian, s. a braggadocio. 
Burjonen, ». To bud. ^teBurgen. 
BuRK, V. To warm byfondhng; 

to nuzzle. Northamp. 
Burke, v. To bark. West. 
Burlace, s, a kind of grapes. 
Burle, (1) ». To welter. 

(2) s, A knot or bump. 

(3) V, To take away the knots 
or impure parts from cloth. 
" Burle cloth, desquamare pan- 
num." Huloet, 

(4) s. The horn of a young stag. 
Burled, /?ar/. JO. Armed. 
Burler, «. (1) One who buries 


(2) A resolver of doubts. 
Burlet, «. A hood, or head-dress. 

" Calantica, a tyre, burlet or 

coyfe, a kerchief, or a hood for a 

woman." Elyot. 
Burley, «. The butt end of the 





BuRLEY-MAN, g. An officcF in 
court-Ieets, assistant to the con> 
stable. Rennet t. 

EuRLiBOUND, adj. Rough; un- 

Burliness, 8. Bulk. 

Burling, s. A young ox. Line. 

BuRLiNG-iRON, *. An instrument 
for burling cloth. 

BuRLiNGs, s. Pieces of dirty wool. 

Burly, adj. (1) Big; stout. 
(2) Red and pimpled. Somerset. 

Burmaiden, 8. A chamber-maid. 

Burn, (1) *. (A.-S.) A man. 

(2) 8. {A.-S.) A brook. North. 

(3) s. A load or burden. North. 

(4) V. To waste, applied espe- 
cially to time, as to burn time. 

(5) To burn daylight, to light 
candles before it is dark. 

Burn-beking, s. Denshering land, 
or burning turf for improving it. 

Burn-cow, s. A kind of beetle. 

Burned, adv. {A.-N.) Burnished. 

Burnel, s. {A.-N.) a name for an 
ass, from its colour. 

Burnet, «. (1) (A.-N.) Brown 
woollen cloth. 

(2) A hood. 

(3) The plant pimpernel. 
BuRNEUx, 8. A sauce, made of 

butter, pepper, salt, &c. 
Burnie-bee, *. The lady-bird. 

Burning, «. Lues venerea. 

Item that no stueholder kepe noo wom- 
maii withynne his hows tint hath any 
sikenes of hrenmjiige, but that she 
be putte out. 

Regulation of the Stews, 15 th cent. 

So heretics bum'd, but wenches' suitors. 
S/iaiesp., Lear, iii, 2. 

Burning-candle, «. The ignis 

The lowest meteor in the air is the 
bnmitifi candle, or, as some call ii., 
i^iiia latiius 

WUUfurd, Nature's Secrets, 1658. 

Bt'RNiNG-oF-THE-HiLL, 8. A me- 
thod of punishing a thief, for- 

merly practised by miners on the 

Mendip hills. 
Burning-sweat, s. A plague 

which occurred in the reign of 

Henry VII. 
Burnish, v. To smooth or flatten. 

Burn-stick, ». A crooked stick, 

on which a piece of coal is daily 

carried home by each working 

collier for his own private use. 

BuRN-THE-BiscuiT, «. A child's 

BuRN-TROUT, «. A trout. "Trocta. 

A bumtrout : a trowt." Notnen- 

BuBNT-wiNE, 8. Brandy. See 


Vinum igni eliquatum, vini latex. Eau 
de vie, eau ardente. Burnt icine, or aqua 
vitje. Nomenclator, 15S4. 

BuRNWiN, 8. A blacksmith. North. 

Burr, *. (1) The broad iron ring 
fixed on the tilting lance just 
below the gripe, to prevent the 
hand slipping back. 

(2) The knot at the bottom of a 
hart's horn. 

(3) The flower of the hop. 

(4) The burdock; applied more 
especially to the prickly calyx of 
the plant. 

(5) The lap of the ear. 
BoRRATiNE, 8. Somc sort of 

clothing. Ben Jonson. 
BuRRiSH, adj. Rough; prickly. 
Burrow, s. Sheltered from the 

wind. Somerset. 
Burrs, s. Upright pieces of armour 

in front of the thighs. 
Burr-stones, 8. Rough unhewn 

Burse, s. (Fr.) An exchange for 


Burseu. Take the whyte of lekes, slype 
Iieni, and shrede hem small. Take 
noiunbles of swyue, and parboyle hem 


». A dish in cookery. 




in broth and wjne Take liym up, and 
dresse hym, and do the leke in the broth, 
bee'.h and do the nuunibies thereto ; 
make a iyorof brode, blodc, and vynegre, 
and do thereto jKjivdor-fort ; seeth 
o\-nouns, niynce hem, and do thereto. 
The self wise make of pigges. 

Forme of Cury, p. 5. 

Bursews. Take pork, seetli it, and 
grynde it smale with sodden ayren. Do 
thereto gfde powders, and hole spices, 
and salt, with sugar. Make tliereof 
snialle biUes and cast hem in abator 
of ayren, and wete hem in flocr; and 
frye hem in grece as frytors, and serve 
hem forth. For'mt of Cury, p. 32. 

BuRSEX-BELLiED, adj. Rupturcd. 
Bl'rst, v. To break. 
BuRSTE, *. (.(^.-5.) Loss; adversity. 
BuRSYD, part. p. Bruised. 
Burt, (1) p. To press or indent 

anything. Somerset. 

(2) 8. A small flat fish. 
BuRTH,/(res. t. Behoves. 
BuRTHEX, (1) *. A quarter of ale. 

(2) V. To press earnestly. East. 
BuRTHENSOME, s. Productive, 

BuR-THisTLE, s. The spear-thistle. 

BuRTLE, 8. A sweeting apple. 

BcR-TREE. 8. The elder-tree. 
BuRTYME, s. Birthtime. R. Glouc. 
BuRWALL, s. A wall leaning against 

a bank. Yorksh. 
BuRWE, V. {A.-S.) To defend. 
BcRWHE. 8. A circle. Pr. Parv. 
Bury, ». (1) {A.-S.) A house or 


(2) A rabbit's borrow. South. 

(3) A place sunk in the ground 
to protect potatoes, &c., from 
frost. Northampt. 

Burying-a-wife, 8. A feast given 
by an apprentice at the expira- 
tion of his articles. 

Bus, pres. t. Behoves ; must. 

BuscAGE.s. (Fr.) A kind of cloth. 

BuscvYLE, s. (A.'N.) A bush. 

Bush, (1) «. The sign of a tavern, 
usually an ivy-bush. Cotgrave 
gives the proverb, " Good wine 

draws customers without any 
help of an ivy-bush." Tlie term 
was afterwards continued to the 
wooden frame of the sign, on 
which the bush was placed. 

What claret's this ? the very worst in 

towne : 
Your taveme-bush deserves a pulling 


Bowlands, Ktuvee ofHarla, 1613. 

{Enter lechUl ahore in a balcony.) I 
found this ladder of ropes upon a slielf, 
but dare not venture down yet, for fear 
some prying rasciil shall snap me be- 
tween earth and heav'n — 'sdeatli, I'll 
creep into this bush, it may be this may 
secure me. {Gels upon the tavern busk.) 
Hah! upon honour I grow cliearful; 
this is so modist a deWee, that I've 
great hopes of good success. 

Durfey, Mailam Fickle, 1682. 

(2) To go about the bush, to 
approach with ceremony or cau- 

(3) V. To butt with the head ; tc 
push. West. 

(4) 8. The inner circle of a wheel, 
en losing the axle-tree. 

(5) V. To retreat from. South. 

(6) 8. A form of the beard. 
BusHET, "I*. A small shoot from 

BUSKET, J a bush. 

Busheting, s. Sprouting out at 
the roots. Glouc. 

BusHLOCK,«. A bushy tuft of hair. 
At nyght Mr. Banyster cauled me up to 
se a comet, but yt w^as Venus witn a 
great fyery haze fyke a bus/iloct about 
hir. MS. 4ddit., 5008. 

BusHMENT,*, (A.-N.) (1) An am- 
(2) A thicket of bushes. 

BusHSiTHE, 8. A bill-hook. Huloet. 

BusHY-BARNABEE, 8. The lady- 
bird. Suffolk. 

BusiNE, V. {Fr.) To trouble with 

Business, «. (1) Trouble. 

(2) A term used affectedly, for 
what is now^ called an aflTair of 
honour, a duel. To make a mas- 
ter of the duel, a carrier of the 
differences, Ben Jonson puts. 




among other ingredients, " a 
drachm of the business," and 
adds — 

For that's the word of tincture, the 
busitiess. Let me alone with the busi- 
tuss. I vrill carry the business. I do 
understand the business. I do find au 
affront in the business. 

Masque of Mercury, ^c. 

— Could Caranza himself 
Carry a business hetter. 

B. ^ Fl , Love's Pilgrim, v. 

Busk, s. (1) A sort of linen cloth. 

(2) A rod of whalebone, or 
sometimes of steel, in the front 
of the stays to keep them 

Her long slit sleeves, stiffe buske, patTe 

Is all that makes her thus angelical. 

Marstoti, Scourge, II, vii. 

(3) A flock of sheep. East. 

(4) (^.-A^.) A bush. North. 

(5) V. To lie in the sun. Essex. 
Buske, ». (/f.-5.) To busk; to go; 

to array, prepare, make ready. 
BusKET, s. {Fr. bosquet.) A small 
bush, or branch. 

Youth's folk now flocken in every where 
To gather May-iu>i«<<and smelhng hreere. 
Spens., tcl. May, 9. 

Busking, adj. (1) Bushy. 

(2) Provoking. Exmoor. 
Buskle, e. To bustle about. 
BusK-poiNT, s. The lace, with its 

tag, which secured the end of 

the busk. 

Whether a kick will raise it. Pray go fetch 

Some aqua vitse ; for the thought of steel 
Has put him in a swound : nothing revive 

Then will I keep thy sword and hang it up 
Amongst my busk-points, plus, and curling- 
Bodkins, and vardingals, a perpetual tro- 
phey. Rajidolph, Jealous liavers, 1646. 

BusKY, ad;. Woody; busby. 

BusMER. See Eismare. 

Buss. (1) A young bullock. Devon. 

(2) V. To kiss. 

(3) V. To butt with the head. 

(4) s. A large pitcher. Devon. 
BussARD, s. A great drinker. 
BussE, (1) s. {Out.) A kind of 


(2) V. To lie in ambush. 
Busses, s. Hoops for the top of a 

wagon. North. 
Bussing, s. Whispering .* 

Without the blind bussings of a Papist, 

may no sin be solved. 

Bale's linage of both Churches. 

BussocK, «. (1) A thick, fat per- 
son. Warw. 
(2) A young donkey. Leic. 

Bust, s. A tar mark on sheep. 

Buster, «. (1) A loaf. 
(2) A heavy blow. 

BusTiAN, «. A sort of coarse cloth. 

BusTous. See Boistous. 

Busy, v. (A.-N.) To be active. 

Busy-good, «. A meddhng person. 

But, (1) s. A cast; a throw. 

(2) pret. t. Contended ; strug- 
gled with each other. Havelok. 

(3) s. A flounder, or plaice. 

(4) s. A small piece of ground. 

(5) s. The thick or fleshy root of 
a plant. A potato or turnip is 
said to be large in the but. 

(6) *. A conical basket used 
for catching salmon in the river 

(7) ». To grow or swell out. 

(8) s. A buttock of beef. West. 

(9) *. A shoemaker's knife. 

(10) s. Strong leather. North. 

(11) " But and ben," the outer 
and inner apartment, where tliere 
are only two rooms in a house. 

(12) *. A hassock. Devon. 

(13) *. A bee-hive, commonly 
ca.]]ed &bee-but. Exmoor. 

(14) s. A kind of cap. North. 

(15) adj. Rough; ragged. North, 

(16) V. To barter. Craven. 




(17) prep. Without. 

(18) conj. Unless. 

(19) V. To abut. 

(20) adv. Suddenly. Devon. 
BuT-BOLT, s. The peculiar arrow 

used in shooting at the butt. 
BuTCHE, V. To kill. North. 
Butcher's-broom, s. a kind of 

rush (ruscm). 
Bqtcher's-cleaver.s. The name 

given in Northamptonshire to the 

constellation of the Pleiades. 
Bute, s. Help; remedy; for bote. 
BuT-GAP, s. A hedge of turf. Devon. 
BuTH, (1) pres. t. pi. of buen. 

(A.-S.) Se; are. 

(2) 8. A situation. Essex. 
BuTLAXDS, s. Waste ground. East, 
But-shot, *. A bow-shot. 
Butt, s. {\\ A boat. 

(2) A cart. Devon. 
Butt AD, *. {Fr. boutade.) A burst 

of passion. 

This brigand had certain violent and 
suddain buttads of furious cruelty, aud 
maxims drawn from tlie very bowels of 
vengeance it self; for if he were never 
80 little offended by another, or sus- 
pected another to be offended with him, 
lie presently commanded such to be 
massacred. BeUum Tartariciim, 16oi. 

Buttal, «. (1) A bittern. South. 
(2) A corner of ground. North. 

BuTTEX, V. To push. 

Butter-and-eggs, s. The daffodil. 

Butter-bit, 8. The small strainer 
in which each pound of butter 
is wrapped when packed for 
market. Northampt. 

Butter-box, s. A cant term for a 

Butter-bump, s. A bittern. North. 

Butter-cup, s. The wild ranuncu- 

Butter-daisy, ». The white ox- 

Buttered-ale, 8. Ale boiled with 
sugar, butter, and spice. Shropsh. 

Butter-fingered, adj. Slippery. 

Butter-ham, a. Bread and butter. 

Butter-mit, 8. A tub in which the 
butter is washed. West. 

Butter-pence, *. The farmer's 
wife's perquisite money gained 
from the sale of her butter. 

And when the father on the earth did live. 
To his sonues faucie he such way did give ; 
For at no season he the plow must hold. 
The summer was too hot, the winter cold ; 
He robs bis mother of her butier-pence. 
Within the alehouse serves liini for expence. 
Taylor's Workes, 1630. 

Butter-print. A bastard child. 

Butter-pumps, *. The ovary of 
the yellow water-lily. Dorset. 

Butter-shag, s. A slice of bread 
and butter. North. 

Butter-tart, s. A tart made as 
follows : 

First you must beat a little green citron, 
a little salt, cinnamon, two raackrooms, 
a piece of butter that is fresh and good, 
with the yolks of four raw eggs; beat 
all this well together, and put this into 
a pan, sheeted with fine paste, and bard 
it over with long slices of paste, and 
when it is baked, put to it some orange 
flowers, and suiar in serving it away. 
The Queen's Royal Cookery. 

Butter-teeth, s. The two in- 
cisors in front of the upper jaw. 

Butter-whore, s. A woman who 
carries butter about, a class who 
were set down in the same cate- 
gory as the fish-women of Bil- 

Buttery-bar, "1 ». A half- 

buttery-hatch, j door between 

the buttery or kitchen and the 

hall, in old mansions, through 

which provisions were passed. 

Buttillary, s. A buttery. 

BuTTiNG-iRON, «. An instrument 
for peeling bark. North. 

Buttock, s. A common strumpet. 

I'll kiss you, you jade, I'll ravish you, 
you btiiliick, I am a justice of the peace, 
sirrah ! Otvoay, Soldier's Fortune, 1681. 

The bawds and the buttocks that liv'd there 

Came flocking then thither. 

Poor Robin, 169i. 

Buttock-strap, ». A strap at- 




tached to the back of cart-har- 
ness, which assists to hold the 
trace up. East. 
Button-, (1) s. A bud. 

(2) s. The chrvsalis of an insect. 

(3) s. A small cake. East. 

(4) V. To shut up. Oxon. But- 
toned-up, closed up, shut. " See 
how her little mouth is buttoned- 

(5) «. A small mushroom. 
Button-nails, «. Roundheaded 


Button-pound, «. Money. North- 

Buttons, (1) *. Sheep's dung. 
Devon. To make buttons, cacare, 
and hence to be in great fear. 
(2) s. In Devonshire, burs are 
called beggar's buttons, and cuc- 
kold's buttons. 

Buttrice, s. a tool used to pare 
ttie hoofs in shoeing horses. 

Butt-shaft, s. A sort of arrow ; a 

Butty, (1) ». A companion or 

(2)». To work in company. 

BuTURE, 8. The bittern. North, 

Butyne, «. (Fr.) Booty. 

BuvER, s. A gnat. North. 

BuviDLY, adc. Stout made. iVor^A. 

Buxom, adj. {A.-S.) Obedient; 
and hence, meek, or humble. 

Buzz, V. To empty a bottle of wine 
in carousing ; to drink. 

Buzzard, s. (1) A coward. 

(2) A sort of large moth that is 
seen in great abundance in the 
meadows, hovering over certain 
flowers in a summer evening. 
Devon. The word is also used 
in Craven, and is supposed to be 
the origin of the proverb, " As 
blind as a buzzard." 

Buzzom-chuck'd, adj. Blowsy, 
or with cheeks of a deep red. 

Buzzy, 8. A familiar term of en- 
dearment. Northampt. 

By, (1) prep. By is often used by 
old writers in the sense of in, as, 
" by his life," in his lifetime ; and 
sometimes in those of for, with, 
or of. " By and by," distinctly, in 
order one after the other. 

(2) *. A by-place. " Burella, a 
bi/ or darke corner." Florio. 

(3) s. A ))racelet. See Beigh. 

(4) s. A bee. 

(5) V. To buv. 

(6) V. To abide. 

(7) V. To able. See Abeye. 

(8) A term in gambling. " Mas- 
sdre, to play or cast at the by, at 
hazard or gresco." Florio. 

(9) adv. Besides. Northumh. 
Byar, s. a cow-house. North. 
Bybbey, 8. Some kind of herb. 

Chester Plays, i, 119. 
By-»low, 8. A bastard. 

In such a ladies lappe, at sucli a slipperie 

That iu a world so wide could not be found 

sucli a wiHe 
Lad ; in an age so old, could not be foimd 

such an old lad. 

Bamefield'a Affectionate Shepherd, 1594. 

Sal. Thou speak'st not like a subject-, 
what's thy name ^ 

Fit. My name is Draco. 

5a/. Of the Athenian Draco's? 

ni. No, of the English Drakes, great Can- 
tain Drake 

(That sail'd the world round) left in Spain 
a by-blow. 

Of wiiom I come. 

The Slighted Maid, p. 27. 

Bycalle, v. (A.-S.) To accuse. 
Byclagge, v. To besmear. 
Bycoket, s. Some ornament for 

the head. 
Bydagge, v. To splash. Weber. 
Byde, *. (A.-S.) Abode ; dwelling. 
Bydryven, v. To commit evil. 

Bydwongen, part. p. Compelled. 
Byebe, s. a dwelling. Ash. 
Bye-bootings, 8. The finest sort 

of bran. North. 
Byet, s. Work not finished. North. 




Br-FAR, adv. Much. 
Byfounde. Found out. Heame. 

By-fruits, «. " Those wens or 
humid bubhies which insects raise 
upon vegetables, wherein they 
lodge their egge and produce 
their young, are call'd by-fruits." 

BvGAGED, adj. Mad ; bewitched. 

Bygates, «. Spoil ; plunder. 

By-gold, *. Tinsel. 

Bygorn, 8. A goblin. North. 

Byhefde, v. To behead. 

Byheter, s, a surety. Wickliffe. 

Byhore, v. To commit adultery 
against ; to cornute. 

By-hours, s. Extra hours at work. 

Byhove, v. To advantage. Chaucer. 

Byland.s. a peninsula. 

Byle, s. a boil ; an ulcer. 

Byle'er, a</». Just now; a little 
before. Somerset. 

By-leman, s. a second lover, or 

Bylie, v. To be'ong. 

Byllerne, s. a kind of water- 
plant. Pr. P. 

Byllyne, v. To use a spade or 
mattock. Pr. P. 

By-lov, part. p. Laughed at. 

By-lye, v. (^A.-S.) To lie with a 

By-matters, s. Irrelevant circum- 

Bymolen, v. (A.-S.) To spot; to 

Bymowe, v. To mock. 

]i\^,prep. Within. 

Byname, v. To nick-name. 

Bynderes,*. Binders; robbers who 
bind. Havelok. 

Byne, s. Malt. 

Bynny,». a kind of pepper. 

Bf-Now, adv. A short time ago. 

Byste, pres. t. of binde. Binds. 

Byox, s. a quinsy. North. 

By-past, adv. Past by. " With order I 

that all faults by-past should be 

forgiven." Bowes Correspondence, 

By-plot, s. A plot of ground out 

of the public way. 

BYauiDE, s. Bequest. Rob. Glouc. 

Byrde, pret. t. Must ; it behoved. 

Byrding, "1 . 1 J 

>s. A. burden. 


Byre, *. (1) The stump of a tree. 


(2) A cow-house. Cumb. 
Byrkyn,*. Breaking. Town. Mysf. 
Byrlakin. a diminutive of by our 

Byrlet, s. SeeBurlet. "Byrlet, or 

tyrynge for women. Calantica." 

Byronne, v. To run over. 
Byryne, v. To bury. 
Bysmalow, s. The hollyhock. 
Bysom, adj. Blind. See Bisen. 
Byspel, s. (A.-S.) a proverb. 
Byspitte, v. To spit all over. 

And yit is it tormentid by impacience of 
adversitfi, and byspit by servage and 
Bubjeccioun of synne, and atte last it is 
slayn finally. Chaucer, Personet T. 

Byspyng, *. Confirmation. An 

abbreviation of bishopping. 
Byssi, adv. Quickly. 
Byssine, s. Fine silk. Wickliffe. 
BYSTfpres.t.ofbidde. Prayest. 
Byste, 8. A temporary bed used 

by hop-driers and maltsters. 

Bysyschyppe, s. Activity. 
Bytack, s. A farm taken by a 

tenant who resides on another 

farm. Here/. 
By-tail, a. The right handle of a 

Byte, (1) v. {A.-S.) To cut with a 

sword, or any instrument. 

(2) *. A morsel ; a bit. 
By-the-walls. Unburied. East. 
By times, adv. At times; occa* 

sionally. Northamp. 
Bytr\ysid, part. p. Betrayed. 

Certis sinful mannes soule is bytrayaid 




of the devel, by coveitise of temporal 
prosperity ; and scorned by discey t, wlian 
he cheseth fleischly delytes. 

Chancer, Pertones T. 

Bytte,«. Abottle; a flagon. TVarw. 

Byvonde, part. p. Found; con- 

Byvore, adv. Before. 

BvwAiT, V. To be patient. 

By-wash, s. The outlet from a 
dam. North. 

By-wipe, s. An indirect sarcasm. 

Byword, s. (A.-S.) A proverb. 

Bywrye, v. To let out ; to betray 

And tlierfore yow is better hyde youre 
counseil in youre berte, than prayen 
liini to whom ye have bytcryed youre 
counseil, that he wol kepe it clos and 
stille. Chaucer, T. ofMelibeus. 

Byzant, ». A besom. Dorset. 
Byjt, «. A bend. See Bight. 

Ca, v. To drive. North, 

Caad, s. Cold. North. 

Caas, *. (for cas.) A chance, or 

Cab, s. (1) A number of persons 

secretly leagued together. Sussex. 

(2) Any glutinous substance. 

Cabbage, (1) s. The part of a 

deer's head on which the horns 

are set. 

(2) V. To grow to a head, ap- 
plied to the horns of a deer. 

(3) g. A part of a lady's head- 
dress. See Choux. 

Behind the noddle every baggage, 
Wears rowls, in English call'd a cabliuje. 
London Ladies Dressing Room, 1705. 

(4) V. To steal silly ; now used 
merely of tailors. 

Cabane, «. {Fr.) A cabin. 
Cabaret, s. {Fr.) A tavern. 
Cabby, adj. Sticky; clammy. 

Cabes, a. A cabbage. 

Cable-hatbaxd, s. a fashion 
supposed to have been intro- 
duced at the very close of the 
16th century, consisting of a 
twisted cord of gold, silver, or 
silk, worn round the hat. 
I had on a gold cable-halband, then new 
come up, whieli 1 wore about a murrey 
French hat 1 liad, — cuts my Imtband, 
and yet it was massie goldsmith's 

B. Jons., Et. Man end ofH., iv, 6. 

Cablish, s. Brushwood. 
Cabob, 8. A leg of mutton, stuffed 

with white herrings and sweet 

Cabobble, v. To puzzle. East. 
Caboche, v. {A.-N.) To bend. 
Cabrioles, s. a lady's head-dress. 
Cabrito, s. {Span.) A kid. 
Cacchen, v. {A.-S.) To catch ; to 

take. Kachone. Const. Freem., 380. 
Cache, »». (1) To go. 

(2) To couch or lay down. 
Cachere, g. {A.-N.) A hunter. 
Cacherele, *. A catchpole. 
Cack, v. Cacare. 
Cackle, v. To babble. 
Cackling-cheat, 8. A cock or 

capon. An old cant terra. 
Cackmag, 8. Idle talk. Eagt. 
Cacorne, 8. The windpipe. Devon. 
Cad, 8. (I) Avery small pig. East. 

(2) The person who guards the 
door of an omnibus, and keeps 
on the look out for passengers. 
It is also a low term of abuse. 

(3) A low fellow who hangs 
about the college to provide the 
Etonians with anything necessary 
to assist tlieir sports. 

(4) A familiar spirit, 

(5) A blinker. Leic. 

Cadar, s. a wooden frame placed 
over a scythe to preserve and lay 
the corn more even in the swathe. 

Cadators, $. Beggars who make 
circuits round the kingdom, as- 
suming the characters of decayed 




Caddee, s. a servant employed 

under another servant. 
CADDEt,,(l)*. Cow parsnip. Devon. 

(2) adv. In a hurry ; confusedly. 

Caddis, s. Worsted ribbon ; also, 

a woollen stuff. 
Caddle, (1) ». To scold ; to hurry ; 

to attend officiously. West. 

(2) *. A dispute ; a noisy con- 
tention. Var.dial. 

(3) V. To tease. West. 

(4) V. To coax ; to spoil. North, 
{b) V. To squander money. 

(6) adj. Nice in appetite. Leic, 
Caddling, /?ar^. a. (1) Dawdling. 


(2) Tale-telling. 
Caddow, s. a jackdaw. East. 
Caddy, (1) s. A ghost or bugbear. 


(2) s. The caddis-worm. 

(3"> adv. Well ; hearty. North. 
Cade, s. (1) A barrel containing 

six hundred herrings. 

(2) In Kent, a cade of beef is 
any quantity of pieces under a 
whole quarter. 

(3) A small cask. 

(4) V. To pet; to indulge. 

(5) s. The testicle. Still used in 
the North. 

Telle scliul wives tuelve, 
jif ani cliilU may be made 
Withouteii kiiowe'.iig of mannes eade. 
Arlhour and Merlin, p. 36. 

Cade-lamb, «. A pet lamb. 
Cadent, adj. (Lot.) Falling. 
Cader, s. a small wooden frame 

en which the fisherman keeps his 

line. South. 
Cades, s. Sheep-dung. Var. dial. 
Cadesse,*. a jackdaw. 
Cadew, s. The straw-worm. 
Cadge, (1) ». To bind. "I cadge 

a garment, I set lystes in the 

lynyng to kepe the plyghtes in 

order." Palsg. 

(2) 8. A circular piece of wood, 

on which hawks are carried when 
exposed for sale. 

(3) V. To stuff, or fill. North. 
Cadge-belly, a full fat belly, 

(4) V. To carry. North. 

(5) V. To beg. Leic. 

(6) V. To talk incessantly. Leic. 
Cadger, s. (I) A packman or 

itinerant huckster. 

(2) A butcher, miller, or carrier 

of any other load. Kennett. 

Cadgy, adj. Cheerful. North. 

Cadilleck, s. A kind of pear, 

Cadle, V. To fondle. Northamp. 

Cadling, adj. False; insincere. 

Cadlock, 1 s. The name of a 
CALLOCK, > plant ; rough cad- 
charlock, J lock, the wild mus- 
tard; smooth cadlock, the wild 
rape. North. 

Cadma, s. The least pig of a 
litter. Var. dial. 

Cadnat, s. {A.-N.) a canopy. 

Cadock, s. a bludgeon. Somerset. 

Caduke, adj. {Lat.) Frail; pe- 

But follow the cadnlce pleasures of this 
world. Bis/iop Fisher. 

Every thing in this world is caduke, 
transitory, and momentary. Id. 

Cady, adj. Foolish; addled. 

CajciTY, «. (Lat.) Blindness. 
Cafart, *. (/■>.) A hvpocrite. 
Caff, (1) «. Chaff. North. "Full 

of kaff." Apol. Lollards, p. 56. 

(2) 8. A gardener's hoe. North. 

(3) V. To run off a bargain ; to 
abandon anytliing. Craven. 

Caffa, s. a kind of rich stuff, 

perhaps taffata. 
Caffle, ». (1) To cavil ; to quarrel. 

Ah if I now put in some caffling clause, 

I shall be call'd unconstant all my days. 

Harr. Ar., xlv, 97. 

(2) To entangle, Somerset. 
Caft, adj. Intimidated. Yorksh. 
Cag, (1) ». A stump. West. 




(2) r. To crawl about. Leic. 

Cagel. v. To harrow ground. 

Cagg, v. To make a vow or re- 
solution not to get drunk for a 
certain time ; or, as the term is, 
till the cagg is out. " I have 
cagged myself for six months." 

Cagmag, (1)». Coarse bad food of 

any kind, properly an old goose; 

a small inferior breed of sheep. 

(2) V. To quarrel. Wore. 

Caie, 1 . 

>»• A quay. 

Caife, s. An iron cap. Grafton. 

Cailes, s. Nine-pins. 

Gained, arf;. Motbery. North. 

Caingel, «. A crabbed fellow. 

Caingy, adj. Peevish ; ill-tem- 
pered. North. 

Cairo, s. A tinker. Northumb. 

Caisar, 9. {A.-N.) A king, or 

Caitche, a. The game of tennis. 

Caitif, s. (A.-N.) (1) a captive. 

(2) A wretch. 

(3) A cripple. 

Caitiftee, 8. Captivity. Wickliffe. 
Cake, (1) v. To cackle. North. 

(2) s. A foolish fellow. Var. di. 

(3) " My cake is dough," I am 
entirely disappointed, my hope 
is gone. 

Notwithstanding all tliese traverses, we 
are confident here that tlie match will 
take, otherwise my cake is dotigh. 

Howell's LeUers, 1, § 3, 1, 12 

Cake-bread, ». Rolls, or manchet. 

Cake-creel, s. A rack for drying 
oat-cakes. North. 

Cake-house, s. A confectioner's. 

Others not so concem'd, walk in tlie fields. 

To give their longing wives wliat cai(r-^oi«« 
yields. Satj/r against Hypocrites, 1689. 

Cake-night, «. A term for the 
eve of All Saints, at Ripon in 
Yorkshire, when a cake is made 
for every member of the family. 

Caker, V, To bind with iron. 

Cake-sprittle, s. a thin board 
used for turning the oat-cakes 
over the oven. Yorksh. 

Calabass, s. a sort of small gun. 

Calaber, s. A kind of fur. 

Calabs. {Gr. xaXvyli.) Steel. 

Calamance, s. Calamanco, a sort 
of woollen stuff. 

Calander, 8. {A.-N.) A kind of 

Calangy, v. (A.-N. calanger.) To 
challenge. Rob. Gl. 

Calash, s. (Fr. caliche.) An open 

Calasses, 8, Alms-houses. Grose, 

Calcar, "1 *. An astrologer. See 
calker, J Calke. 

Calccle, v. {A.-N.) To cal- 

Caldese, v. To cheat, or de- 
ceive, chiefly by fortune-telHng. 

Cale, (1) *. Colewort. 

(2) Pottage. 

(3) A turn. North. 

(4) V. To throw; to gambol. Ea$t. 
Caleever, v. To gambol. North. 
Calender, (1) v. To give the gloss 

to woollen cloths. 

(2) A kind of wood. 

(3) A guide, or director. 
Calenture, «. A hot fever. 

Fear may call 
Friends to partake of palsies, anger strives 
To fire each neighbouring bosome, envie 

By being transplanted ; but a lovers pure 
Flames, though converted to a calenture, 
Unwillingly with the least flame will part, 
Although to thaw anothers frozen heart. 
Chamberlayne's Pharonnida, 1659. 

Cales. The city of Cadiz. 
Caleweis, a. {A.-N.) A kind 

of pear. 
Calf, a. A hart in its first year. 
Calf-lick, 1 ». A tuft of hair on 
cow-LicK, J the forehead which 

cannot be made to lie smooth. 
Calf's-skin, 8. Fools kept for 

diversion in great families were 

often distinguished by coats of 




calf-skin, with buttons down the 
back. See Sfi., K. John, iii. 1. 

His calfsskin jests from hence are clear 
exii'd. Prol. to Wily Beguiled. 

Calf-stages, ». Places for holding 
calves. Glouc. 

Calf-trundle, s. (1) The entrails 
of a calf. 

(2) The ruffle of a shirt, or 
flounces of a gown. 

Calf-yard. v. Tiie dwelling-place 
of our infancy. North. 

Calimaxco-cat, s. a tortoise- 
shell cat. Norf. 

Calis, s. a chalice. 

Calivkr, s. (Fr.) A large pistol 
or blunderbuss. 

Calke, v. (1) To calculate. 
(2) To cast a figure or nativity. 

Calkins, I *. The parts of a 
CAWKiNS, > horse-shoe turned up 
calkers, I and sharpened to pre- 
vent slipping. 

Call, (1) v. To scold. North. 

(2) V. To proclaim by public 

(3) V. A term in hunting: when 
hounds are first cast off, and find 
game, they are said to call on. 

(4) s. The outlet of water from 
a dam. North. 

(5) 8. Occasion ; necessity. 
Gallant, *. A lad. North, 
Callar, adj. Fresh ; cold. Cumb. 
Callards, s. Leaves and shoots 

of cabbages. Wight. 
Call-back, «. A wear. North. 
Calle, (1) «. A sort of cap or 

network worn on the head ; a 


(2) V. To invite. 
Called-home, part. p. Asked in 

the church. 
Caller, (1) adj. Fresh; cool. 


(2)e. To jump; to caper. Wight. 
Callet, (1) s. A scold ; a drab; 

a strumpet. 

(2) V. To rail. 

Or to hear her in her spleen 
Callet like a butter-quean. 

Ellis's Specimens, vol. iii, p. 84. 

Callierd, s. {A.-N.) a hard stone. 

Calling-band, *. A leading- 
string. North, 

Callot, "1 s. {Fr. calotte.) A plain 
callet, J coif or skull-cap. 

Callow, (1) *. (A.-S.) Smooth; 
bare ; unfledged ; applied chiefly 
to birds. 

(2) adj. Smooth, applied to an 
even wood. Suss. 

(3) s. The stratum of vegetable 
earth lying above gravel, sand, 
limestone, &c. East. 

Callow-doctor, *. A quack. 
Calls, s. Pieces of tape. North. 
Callymoocher, s. a term of re- 

I do, thou upstart callymoocher. I do ; 
'Tnas well known to the parish I have been 
Twice ale-cunner. 

Mayor of Quinb., 0. PI., xi, p. 133 

Callyvan, s. a sort of pyramidal 
trap for birds. Somerset. 

Calm, s. Scum of liquor. East. 

Calmes, s. (1) The cogs of a wheel. 

(2) The frames of a window. 
Harrison's Besc. of Engl., p. 187. 

Calmewe, \ »• A kind of sea 
caldmawe, J bird. 

Calmy, adj. Motliery. East. 

Calsey, *. A causeway. 

Calsons, "I s. {Fr. cale^on.) 
CALsouNDS, V Close linen trousers 
CALZOONS, J for men. 

Caltrop, (1) *. (A.-N.) An im- 
plement with four spikes, so con- 
trived that, in whatever direction 
it is thrown, one of the spikes 
always stands upwards. It was 
used against cavalry in war. 
(2) A kind of thistle. 

Calts, s. Quoits. Shropsh. 

Caluz, adj. {A.-N.) Bald. Weier 

Calver, v. To prepare salmon, or 
other fish, in a peculiar way. 




Calvered salmon was a dainty 

celebrated by our old dramatists. 
Ca-ves-henge, *. A calf's pluck. 

Calves-mugget, s. a pie made 

of the entrails of calves. 
Calves-snowt, «. A plant. " Ana- 

gallis silvestris. Muron violet. 

I'oeil du gat. Calves snowt." Hul. 
Calyon, s. (Fr.) A stone or flint. 

Cam, (1) «. A ridge, or old earthen 

tnouud. North. 

(2) adj. Crooked. 

To doe a thing cleane kamme, ont of 
order, the wrong way Cotgraxe. 

(3) adv. Awry. North. 

(4) pret. t. Came. 

Camaca, «. A sort of rich silk 

Camail, 8. (1) {A.-N.) A camel. 
(2) A neckguard ; the thickest 
part of the armour near the 

Camalion, s. The camel-leopard. 

Camarade, *. {Fr.) A comrade. 

Camber, s. A harbour. South. 

Camber-nose, «. An aquiline nose. 

Gamble, ». To prate saucily. 

Cambril, s. (1) The hock of an 

(2) The curved piece of wood 
on which butchers suspend the 
slaughtered animal. See Gambril. 

Ca^mbuck, s. (1) The dry stalks of 
dead plants. East. 
(2) A game at ball. 

Cambure, adj. Hooked. 

Camed, adj. Covered. North. 

Cameline, *. (A-N.) (1) A stuff 
made of camel's hair. 
(2) A kind of sauce. 

Camels, s. A nick-name for the 
natives of Cambridgeshire. 

Camerike, *. Cambrick. 

Camil, s. Chamomile. Somerset. 

Camis, s. (A.-N.) a thin transpa- 
rent dress or robe. 

Camisado, *. (Ital.) A whitf> shirt 
or smock frock, which was often 
worn by soldiers to know each 
other in a night attack. "To give 
a camisado, viz. to wear a white 
shirt over their armes, that they 
mav know one another in the 
dark." Howell. 

Camle, s. a camelion. Maur.Jev. 

Cammed, a<//'. (1) Crooked. 

(2) Cross; illnatured. North. 

(3) Short nosed. 

Cammick, s. The plant restharrow. 
Cammish, adj. Awkward. South. 
Cammock, *. (1) A crooked tree 

or beam. 

(2) Timber prepared for the 

knee of a ship. 

Tliough the cammoci the more it is 
bowed the better it is, yet the bow, the 
more it isbcntandoccupied, the weaker 
it waxeth. Lilly's Eiiphuca. 

Bitter the blossom when the fruit is sour, 
And early crook'd that will a camock be. 

Drayt. Eel, 7. 

Camoise, 1 adj. (A.-N. camus.) 
camuse, I Crooked; flat; ap- 
camused, J plied to a nose. 

Camooch, s. a term of contempt. 

Camoroche, s. The wild tansy. 

Camp, (1) v. {A.-S. cempan.) To 

Get campers a call. 
To camp iherewithall. 

Tusitr, p. 56. 

(2) s. A game of ball, formerly 
practised in the Eastern counties. 

(3) V. To talk of anything. Lane. 

(4) ». A hoard of potatoes, tur- 
nips, &c. North. 

Campable, adj. Able to do. North. 

Campahe, adj. Consisting of fields. 

Camperkngws, s. Ale-pottage, 
made with sugar, spices, &c. 

Campeson, *. The gambison. 

Campestriall, adj. {Lat.) Be- 
longing to the fields. 

Cample, v. To talk, or argue ; to 
contend. Var. diaL 




Camplktes, s. a kind of wine. 

CAMPT,/)arif./>. Encamped. 

Camstekrte, adj. Crazy. North- 

Can, (1) the pref. t. of canne. 

(2) V. To be able. 

(3) Began to; used as an auxi- 
liary before verl)S in the infinitive 
to express a past tense. See Gan. 

Canacin, s. The plague. Bailey. 
Cakakin, *. A small drinking can. 
Canaries, *. (Fr.) A quick and 

lively dance, in which the dancer 

sometimes used castanets. 
Canary, (1) ». A kind of sweet 

wine, much used in the earlier 

part of the 17th cent. 

Canarie-wine, which beareth the name 
of the islands from whence it is brought, 
is of some termed a sacke, with this 
adjunct sweete; but yet very impro- 
perly, for it differelh not only from 
sacke in sweetnesse and pleasantness of 
taste, but also in colour and consistence, 
for it is not so white in colour as sack, 
nor so thin in substance ; wherefore it 
is more nutritive than sack, and less 
Venneri Via recta ad Fit. Umgam, 1622. 

(2) V. To dance; to frolic. 

(3) s. A sovereign. 

(4) 8. A kept mistress. North. 
Can-bottle, s. The long-tailed 

titmouse. Shropsh. 

Cancarde, adj. Cankered. 

Canceleer, 1 «. {Fr. chanceller.) 
cancelier, J The turn of a light- 
flown hawk upon the wing to 
recover herself, when she misses 
her aim in the stoop. 

The fierce and eager hawks down thrilling 

from the skies, 
Make sundry canceUers ere they (he fowl 

can reach. Drayt. Polyolb., xx. 

(2) To turn in flight. 

The partridge sprung, 
He makes his stoop ; but wanting breath, 

is forced 
To cancelier; then with such speed, as if 
He carried li<ilit'uiugiu his wings, he strikes 
The trembling bird. Mom. Guard., i, 1. 

Cancer, t. A plant of some kind. 

Who taught the poore beast having poison 

To seeke th' hearbe cancer, and by that to 

cure him ? 
Wlio taught the bore finding his spirits 

To seeke a branch of ivy to assure him ? 

Great Britaines Troye, 1609. 

Cavch, 8. A word used in the 
Eastern and Midland counties, 
and used to signify a small quan- 
tity of corn in the straw put 
into the corner of a barn ; a short 
turn or spell at anything; a 
trench, cut sloping to a very 
narrow bottom; a certain breadth 
in digging or treading land, or in 
turning over a dung-hill. 

Cancro. {Ital.) A sort of impre« 

Candle, 8. The pupil of the eye. 

Candle-bark, s. A round cylin- 
drical box for candles. North. 

Candle-beam, «. A chandelier. 
" Candle-ieame, suche as hangeth 
in gentlemens halles, with sock- 
ettes, to set candels upon, lacu- 
nar." Huloet, 1552. 

Candle-cap, s. An old brimless 
hat, with a candle in front, used 
by butchers. North. 

Candlegostes, ». Goose-grass. 

Candle-shears, s. Snuffers. 

Candling, *. A supper given by 
landlords of alehouses to their 
customers on Candlemas-eve. 

Candock, 8. A water-plant. 

Cane, *. A small animal of the 
weasel kind. 

Caned, adj. Mothery. York8h, 

Canel, s. {A.-N.) (1) A channel. 

(2) The faucet of a barrel. 5o- 

(3) {A.-N.) Cinnamon. 

(4) A lot. Apol. Loll, p. 93. 
Cane-tobacco, 8. Tobacco made 

up in a particular form, highly 
esteemed, and dear. 




The nostrils of his chimnies are still stnCPd 
With smoke mtire chargeable than cane- 
tobacco. Merry Dnil, 0. PI., v, 257. 

— My boy once lighted 
A pipe of eane-lobncco, with a piece 
Of a vUe ballad. All Fools, O. PI , iv, 187. 

Then of tobacco he a pype doth lack 
or Triuidade in cane, in leaf, or ball. 

Harringt. Ep'ig., iv, 34. 

Caxge, V. To whine. North. 
Caxgle, v. To entangle. North- 

Cangy, adj. Cross ; ill-tempered. 

Caniffle, v. To dissemble; to 

flatter. Devon. 
Caxioxs, s. Rolls at the bottom 

of the breeches just below the 

knee, sometimes indented like a 

Cank, (1) ». To talk ; to cackle. 

(2) *. A gossip. 

(3) V. To persevere ; to over- 
come. Wilts. 

(4) V. To be infested with can- 
kers. Northampt. 

(5) adj. Dumb. Yorksh. 
Canker, s. (1) The common red 

field-poppy. East. 

(2) The dog-rose. 

(3) A toadstool. West. 

(4) A caterpillar. South. 
Cankerfret, s. (1) Copperas. 

(2) A sore or blister in the 

mouth. East. 
Cankerweed, s. The ragwort. 
Canke, v. To whine. Derbysh. 
Canky, adj. Rotten, applied to 

stone. Northampt. 
Cannel, s. The collar, neck. 
Cannel-bone, 1 *. The coUar- 


Canniness, s. Caution; good con- 
duct. North. 

Cannis,©. To toss about carelessly 
from place to place. Comw. 

Caxny, (1) adj. Pretty; good ; neat. 
North. Canny -hinny,& sly person. 
(2) V. To coax. Northamp. 

Canox, «. A portion of a deceased 
man's goods exacted by the priest. 

Caxons, «. The first feathers of a 
hawk after she has mewed. 

CansHjS. (1) A small mow of 

(2) A small pile of faggots, &c 

(3) A strain. Shropsh. 
Caxstick, s. a candlestick. 
Cant, (1) adj. Strong; hearty; 


(2) V. To recover, or mend. 

(3) V. To throw ; to upset. 

(4) s. An auction. North. 

(5) V. To let fall. Susscv. 

(6) s, A corner or division of a 

(7) *. A small bundle of hay. 

(8) s. A niche. 

The first and principal person in tne 
temple was Irene, or Peace; she was 
placed aloft in a cant. 

Jons., Coronation Enlertainm. 

Directly under her, in a cant by herself, 
was Arete intbroned. 

Declcer, Entert. of James I. 

(9) V. To humour, caress. Leic. 

(10) r. To backbite. Herefordsh, 

(11) r. To whine, or play the 

(12) V. To set upon edge. East. 

(13) s. A company, or crowd. 

(14) *. A canter, or vagabond. 

(15) V. To divide. Tusser. 
CAXTABAxaui, s. {Ital.) Ballad- 

Caxtaxkerous, adj. Contentious. 
Caxt-dog, s. a. handspike with a 

hook. North. 
Cantel, '\s.(A.-N.) a corner or 
CAXTLE, J angle ; a small piece or 

portion of anything. 
Canteled. Different pieces of cloth 

worked together. Hall, Henry IV. 
Caxteling, s. a stake or pole. 

Caxter, s. (1) One who cants, a 

vagrant or beggar. 




A rog:ue, 
A very eanter I, sir, one that maunds 
Upon the pad. 

B. Jon., Staple of News, act ii. 

Hey day ! turn'd canter .' this becomes 
thee worse tlian fine di'ess and youthful 
cloths an old woman. There's scarce a 
nuu will talk thus through a grate. 

The Reformation, 1673. 

(2) A pint jug. Northamp. 
C.\NTERBURY, s. A liorsc's cantcr. 
Canting-caller. An auctioneer. 

Cantle, s. (1) The head. North. 

(2) The leg of an animal. North. 
Cantle-piece, s. The part of a 

cask into which the tap is driven. 

Cantly, adv. Strongly. Minot. 
Canton, v. To notch. 
Cant-rail, s. A triangular rail. 

Cantrap, s. a magic spell. North. 
Cantred, ». A terra used in VVales 

and Ireland for a certain division 

of territory. 

Sur. Two knights fees make one eantred, 
which after the first computation, 
amounteth to 3S40 acres. Six cantreds 
11-26 maketh a barony, 25600 acres, 
whose reUefe is 100 marks. One barony \ 
make an earldomc 38400 acres whose 
reliefe is 100 pound. 

Nordai's Surveyors Dialogue, 1610. 

Cant-window, s. a how-window. 

Canty, adj. Cheerful; talkative. 

Canvas, *. To receive the canvas, 
i. e., to be dismissed. The phrase 
is taken from the practice of 
journeymen mechanics who tra- 
vel in quest of work with the 
implements of their profession. 
When they are discharged by 
their masters, they are said to 
receive the canvas or the bag, 
because in this their tools and 
necessaries are packed up prepa- 
ratory to their removal. 

I ha' prorois'd him 
As much as marriage comes to, and \ lose 
My honor, if the don receives the canvas. 
ShirUy, Brothers, act ii, p. 14. 

Cantspar, s. a fire-pole. 

Canty. arf/. Merry; cheerful. North, 
Canvasado, s. Amove in fencing. 
Cap, (1) V. To complete; to finish. 

(2) V. To overcome in argument ; 

to puzzle any one. 

(3)». A challenge to competition. 

(4; s. A master or head. Cumb. 

(5) V. To arrest. 

(6; ». To mend shoes at the toe. 

(7) A shepherd's dog. /. Wight. 

(8) A man's cap was said to ake, 
when he was tipsy. 

To walke and see a friend they both in- 

Souie two mile out of towne, and merne 

So frolique, till the husbands cap did ake. 
Good Neices and Bad Nexces, 1622- 

Cap-of-maintenance, «. A pecu- 
liar cap carried before a high 
dignitary on state occasions. 

About X. of the cloke afore none, the 
king come into the parlement chamber 
in his parlement robes, and on his bed 
a cap of mayntenaunce, and sat in his 
most royall majcst6. 

MS. Cotton., Jul. C, vi, fol. 255, r°. 

Capable, adj. (Lai.) Comprehen- 

Capados, s. {A.-N.) a hood. 

Gap-case, «. A small travelling 
case, or band-box. "A bag: a 
wallet : a port-manteau : a cap- 
case." Nomenclator. 

Cape, «. (1) The coping of a wall. 
(2) The sleeve of a coat. 

Cape-cloak, s. A Spanish cloak. 

Capel,s. The horn joint connecting 
the two parts of a flail. Devon. 

Capellink,s. a skull-cap of steel. 

Caper-cousins, s. Great friends. 

Caperdewsie,«. The stocks. .Suf- 

Caperlash, «. Abusive language. 

Capes, «. Ears of corn broken off 
in thrashing. North. 

Capha, s. a kind of damask cloth. 



Capilome, «. The circumstance of 
one set of reapers being so far in 
advance of the other as to be 
out of sight by the intervention 
of a liill or rise. North. 

Capirotade, 8. Stewed mince- 

Capitaine, s. {A.-N.) a captain. 

Capitle, s. {Lat ) A chapter or 

Caple, s. a horse. See Caput. 

Capling, .?. The cap of a flail. 

Cap-money, *. Money gathered 
for the huntsman at the death of 
the fox. 

Capocchia, *. (Itat.) A fool; an 

Capon, s. (1) A letter. Shai. 
(2) A red-herring. Kent. 

Capon-bell, s. The passing-bell. 

Caponet, s. a small capon. 

Capon's-feather, *. The colum- 

Cappadochio, 8. A cant term for 

a prison. 
Cap-paper, a. A coarse sort of 

brownish paper. 
Cappe, s. a cope. Pr. Parv. 
Cappel, v. To mend or top shoes. 

Capper, (1) v. To chop the hands. 


(2) V. To coagulate ; to wrinkle. 

(3) 8. A cap-maker. 
Cappy-hole, s. a kind of game. 
Caprifole, *. The honeysuckle. 
Capriole, s. A lady's head-dress. 
Caprick, s. a sort of wine. 
Caps, *. (1) All sorts of fungi. 


(2) Hoodsheaves of corn-shocks. 


Cap-screed, 8. The rim of a cap. 

Capsize, v. To turn over. 

Captain, adj. Chief; more excel- 
lent. ShaA. 

Capuccio, s, A hood. Spenser. 


capel, ^s. {A.-N.) a horse. 

Capul, s. A domestic hen. 
Car, (1)». {A.-S.) A rock. 

(2) 8. A wood or grove on a 
moist soil, generally of alders. 

(3) 8. Any hollow place or 

(4) V. To carry. South. 

(5) *. A bottle or keg of one or 
two gallons. Leic. 

(6) s. A gutter. Line. 
Carabins,*. a sort of light cavalry, 

in the 16th cent., armed with 

Caracol, s. The half turn which 

a horseman makes on either 

Caractes, "Is. (A.-N.) Charac- 
carectis, J ters ; figures ; applied 

especially to characters for magi- 
cal purposes. 
Carage, s. (A.-N.) Measure; 

Caraing, 1 8. (A.-N.) A carcase. 
CARF.YNE, \ Caronyes, carcases. 


Caravel, 1 s. {Fr. caravelle.) A 
CARVEL, Y light round ship, with 
carveil, J a square poop, rigged 

and fitted out like a galley. 
Carawayes, *. Comfits made with 

caraway seeds. 
Carberry, s. a gooseberry. North. 
Carbokul, 8. A carbuncle. 
Carbonado, (1) «. A steak cut 

crossways for broiling. 

(2) V. To broil. 
Carcanet. See Carkanet. 
Carcelage, 8. Prison fees. 
Card, (1) adj. Crooked. North. 

(2) 8. A chart. 

(3) #. The mariner's compass. 

We're all like sea cards, 
Alt our endeaTonrs and our motions, 
As they do to the north, still point at 
beauty. B. ^ Fl., Chances, i, 11. 

(4) r. To mix bad and good 




And these ; for that by themselves they 
will not utter, to mingle and to card 
with the apostles' doctrines, &c., that 
at the least yet lie may so vent thera. 
Sermon at St. Giles, 1593. 

You card your beer, if you see your 
guests begin to be drunk, half small, 
half stronjc. 
Greene's Quip for an TJpst. Courtier, 1620. 

(5) To speak by the card, to speak 
with great exactness. 

Carder, s. (1) A card player. 
(2) A jackdaw. Suffolk. 

Cardew, s. An alderkar. 

Cardiacle, *. {Gr.) A disease af- 
fecting the heart. 

Cardicue, s. (corrupted from Fr. 
quart d'ecu.) The fourth part of 
a French crown, about fifteen- 
pence. The other is the spelling 
of the time. 

Did I not yester-morning 

Bring you in a cardecu there from the pea- 

Whose ass I'd driven aside? 

B. ^ FL, Bloody Brother, iv, 2. 

Cardinal, (1) s. A liquor drunk in 

the University, made like bishop, 

except that claret is substituted 

for port wine. 

(2) *. A kind of cloak, in fashion 

about 1760. 
Cardinal-trilost, s. a Cornish 

fish, the three-tailed ray. Borlase. 
Care, s. (I) Grief; vexation. 

(2) The mountain-ash. Devon. 
Care-awayes, s. Caraways. 

Yet, if a stormc should rise (by night or 

Of sugar-snowes, and haile of care-a-wayes. 
Duvies. Scourge of Folly, 1611. 

Care-cake, «. A pancake. North. 

Care-cloth, s. A square cloth 
formerly held over the head of a 
bride by four men. 

Carkcrin, arfw. Cheerfully. North- 

Careful, adj. (A.-S.) Sorrowful. 

Careire, *. {Fr.) The short turn- 
ings of a nimble horse ; the move- 
ments of a drunken man. 

Carer, a. A sieve. Derbysh. 

Care WARE, s. A cart. North. 
Carf, (1) pret. t. Carved. 

(2) s. The breadth of one cut. 

ting in a rick of hay. Kent. 
Carfax, s. (A.-N.) A meeting of 

four roads. 
Cargo, s. A bully or bravo. 
Car-hand, s. The left hand. 

Carien, v. (A.-S.) To carry. 
Caries, s. {A.-N.) Carats of gold 
Carine, (1) 8. The bottom of a 


(2) V. To pick or prune the 

feathers. Leic. 

Let me see, says madam, where's my 
cornet ? Pray carine this, favourite. 

Ladies' Dictionary, 1694. 

Cark, (1)«. {A.-S.) Care ; anxiety. 

(2) V. To be careful and diligent. 

(3) adj. Stiff. Leic. 

(4) ». Forty tod of wool. 
Carkanet, 1 

CARCANET, I s. (i^r.) Anecklacc. 
carquenet, J 

As rings, and stones, and carkenettes. 
To make them please the eye. 

Turberville's Tragicall Tales,\Z9n. 

About his necke a carknet rich he ware 
Of precious stones all set in gold well tried. 
Harr. Ariosl., vii, 47. 

About thy neck a carkanet is bound 
Made of the ruble, pear), and diamond. 
Herrick, p. 30. 

Carl, «. (A.-S.) A churl ; a bond- 
man ; a clown. 

Carl-cat, s. A tom-cat. North. 

Carline, s. a term applied to an 
old woman. North. 

Carling, s. a penguin. 

Carlings, s. Grey peas, steeped 
all night in water, and fried the 
next day with butter, eaten on 
Palm Sunday, formerly called 
Carling Sunday. North. 

Carlish, adj. Churlish. North. 

Carlot, 8. A rustic, or churl. 

Carmes, s. (A.-N.) Carmelite 

Carnadinb, s. The carnation. 




Cabnary-chapel, s. a charnel- 

Carnel, s. (1) (^A.-N.) A bat- 
(2) A dish in cookery. 

Carnel of pork. Take the brawnn of 
8wyne. Parboile it, and grynde it gmale, 
and alay it up with jolkes of ayrenn. 
Set it over the fyre with white greece, 
and lat it not seeth to fast. Do there- 
inne safronn and powdor.fort, and niesse 
it forth; and cast thereinue powdor- 
fort, and serve it forth. Forme of Cury. 

Carn'ey, v. To coax. Var. d. 
Carnifex, 8. {Lat.) A scoundrel. 
Carnilate, v. To build houses 

with battlements. 
Carnill, 8. Kernel. Heywood, 

Carnositt, 8. {Lat.) Fleshiness. 

" Carnositye or an ye thynge that 

is fleashye." Huloet. 
Caroch, s. {Fr.) A large coach. 

Have with them for the great -carvek, six 

And the two coachmen, with my ambler 

And my three women. 

B. Jotis., Der. is an Ass, iv, 2. 

Caroigne, 8, See Caraing. 
Carol, (1) *. {A.-N.) A dance. 

(2) V. To dance. 

(3) 8. A closet or small study. 
Carol-window, a bow-window. 

Carouse, «. A bumper. 

Next he devoured up a loyne of vealc, 
Upon foure capons then his teeth did 

And sent them downe into his pudding 

So tooke the cup, and drinking a carowse. 
Fell to his rabets, and dispatching foure. 
Sou-lands, Knave of Sp. andD.,'iQ\Z. 

Carp, ». (1) {A.-N.) Speech ; con- 
(2) Noise ; tumult. 

Carpe. v. (A.-N.) To talk. 

Carpet-kxights, *. Knights dab- 
bed at court by favour, instead 
of for distinguished military ser- 
vices. Hence, an effeminate 

But as for you, your cloaths are rich and 

Of purple hues, embroidered all most faire, 
Signes of your lazie miudes; and year 

In wanton dancings are, fond carpet- 

In jackets short, with sleeves most delicate. 
And hairelace, bongrace, most effeminate. 

Carpets, s. Covers for tables or 

Carpet-shield, «. An effeminate 

Can I not touch some upstart carpet-shield 
Of LoUu's Sonne, that never saw the field ? 
Hall's Sat., iv, 4. 

Carpet-squire, 8. An effeminate 

For that the valiant will defend her fame. 
When carpet squires will hide their heads 
with shame. 

TurberciUe's TragicaU Tales, 1587. 

Carpet-standing, j. A small 
piece of rich carpet, for royal 
and noble personages. 

Carpet-way, ». A green sward. 

Carpmeals, s. a coarse sort of 
cloth made in the North of Eng- 
land in the reign of James I. 

Carpnel, 8. A kind of white coN 
ton cloth. 

Carr, s. a sort of black fibrous 
material washed up by the sea in 
heavy gales, and used for fuel. 

Carrack, 8. A Spanish galeon ; 
any vessel of great value and 
size. At an earlier period the 
name was given to smaller 

Carrans, s. Buskins or covering 
for the feet and legs, cut out of 
the raw hide. /. Man. 

Carrect, 8. A carat of gold. 

Carrefour, s. {Fr.) A jHace 
where four ways meet. 

Carrel, s. Fustian cloth. 

Carriage, s. (1) A drain. Wilts. 
(2) A belt to carry a whetstone 
behind the mower. 




Carrock, s. a heap of stones for 
a boundary-mark. Aorfh. 

Carrosse, s. (Fr.) A coach. 

Carroy, s. {A.-N.) a square or 
body of soldiers. 

Carry, v. (l) To drive. Craven. 

(2) To recover. North. 

(3) To carry coals, to submit to 
any indignity. 

Carry-castle, ». An elephant. 

So closely amliusht almost every day, 
To watcll the carry castU, in his way. 

Du Bartas. 

Carry-merry, g. A kind of sledge 
for conveying goods from one 
warehouse to another. Somerset. 

Carry -FLECK, s. A boggy place, 
the water of which leaves a red 
sediment. Lane. 

Carry-tale, «. A tale-bearer. 

Carr^'witchet, 8. See Car- 

^^ ' Vs. (A.-S. cers.) Cresses. 

KARSSE, J ^ '' 

Carsey, s. Kersey. 

Carsick, s. The kennel or gutter. 

Cart, s. (A.-S.) A chariot, or car. 

Cart-bread, s, Bouglit bread. 

Carted, adj. Not considered ; 
equivalent to " put on the siielf." 

Carter, s. (A.-S.) A charioteer. 

Carthagines, s. a cant term for 

Cartle, v. To clip, or cut round. 

Cart-loose, *. A cart-rut. North. 

Cartly, adv. Rough; unman- 
nerly. North. 

Cart-rake, s. A cart-track. Essex. 

Cart-sadel, s. The saddle placed 
on the horse in the shafts. 

Carve, (1) ». A plough land. 

(2) V. To grow sour, or curdle. 

(3) r. To cut ; to slice. 
Carvel, ». (1) A small ship, or 


(2) A prostitute. 

(3) {A.-N.) A basket; a chicken* 

coop. North. 
Carvett, s. a thick hedge-row. 

Carvis-cakes, 8. Flat round 

oatmeal cakes, with caraway 

Carvist, 8. A young hawk. 
Car-water, *. Chalybeate water. 

Carwhichet, 1 . 

CARWITCHET, I *" .j^^jP""' «•" 

carrywitchet, J ^ 

All the foul i' the fair, I mean all the 
dirt in Smithfield, — that's one of Master 
Littlewit's carwhickets now, — will be 
thrown at our banner to day, if the 
matter does not please the people. 

B. Jons , Bartk. Fair, v. 1. 

Sir John had always his budget full of 
punns, conundrums, and carrawitchets, 
— at which the king lau^lit tiU his sides 
crackt. Arbuthwt, Dissert. onDumjiling. 

Cary, 8. A sort of coarse cloth. 
Carye, v. To go. 
Carystye, 8. {Lat.) Scarcitv. 
Cas, *. (1) (^A..N.) Chance; 


(2) A case. 
Casardi.y, adv. Unlucky. North. 
Casbald, t. A term of contempt. 
Cascade, ». To vomit. 
Case, (1) v. To skin an animal: 

to strip. 

(2) s. A kind of fish, somewhat 

like a char, hut not so much 

esteemed. Nicolson and Burn'i 

West, and Cumb., i, 185. 
Casehngs, 8. The skins of beasts 

that die by accident. Chesh. 
Caselty, adj. Uncertain ; casual. 

Casemund, *. A casement. Ilet/- 

wood, 1556. 
Case-worm, s. The caddis. East. 
Cashe, v. To cashier. 
Casiers, a. Broad wide sleeves. 

Casings, s. Dried cow-dung used 

for fuel. North. 




Casks, adj. Strong. 
Casket, a. A stalk, or stem. North. 
Caspeke, s. The plant cardiac. 
Cassabully, *. The winter cress. 

Casse, (1) ». (A.-N.) To discharge; 

to cashier ; to disband. 

(2) s. An earthworm. Florio. 
Cassiasistre, s. a plant, the 

cassia fistula. Gerard. 
Cassock \s. {Fr.) A loose out- 

CASSAauE, J ward coat. 
Casson, *. Beef. Dekker. 
Cassydonys, s. The calcedony. 
Cast, (1) ». To speak; to address. 

(2) V. To intend. 

(3) V. To contrive. 

(4) V. To consider; to de- 

(5) «. Chance; opportunity. 

(6) V. To bring forth prema- 
turely, said of beasts. Shropsh. 

(7) V. To vomit. 

(8) V. To empty. 

(9) part. p. Thwarted; de- 
feated. Shropsh. 

{10) part. p. Warped. North. 

(11) ». To choke one's self with 
eating too fast. North. 

(12) V. To vield; to produce. 

(13) V. To add up a sum; to 

(14) ». To think; to cogitate. 

(15) s. A second swarm of bees 
from one hive. 

(16) s. A brace or couple. 

(17) part. p. Cast off; thrown 

{IS) part. p. Plotted; devised. 

(19) s. {A.-S.) A stratagem; a 

(20) s. A flight of hawks. 

(21) V. To set a hawk on a 

(22) V. To purge a hawk. 

(23) \A'hen liounds check, and 
the huntsman tries to recover 

the scent by taking the bounds 
round about the spot, he is said 
to cast them. 

(24) ». To rectify or correct a 
compass. Palsg. 

(25) V. To arrange or dispose. 
Pr. P. 

(26) To cast up, to upbraid. 
North. Also, to forsake. To cast 
afore, to forecast. " I cast my 
penyworthes, ^ejDOMr/ec/e ; whan 
I have all caste mypenyworthes, 
I maye put my wynnyng in myn 
eye." Palsgrave. To cast be- 
yond the moon, to attempt im^^ 
possibilities ; also, to indulge in 
wild thoughts and conjectures. 
To cast water,to find out diseases 
by the inspection of urine. 

(27) ». To groan. Warw. 

(28) a. {A.-S.) Strife; con- 

(29) V. To condemn, 

(30) s. A small portion of bread. 

Castelet, a. {A.-N.) A turret. 

Castelle, s. {A.-N.) A large cis- 

Caster,*. (1) A cloak. Dekker. 

(2) A cow that casts her calf. 

(3) To come the caster,/u/Mcre. 
Abating that expression, I should have 
sworn tliat thou and I sliouid have c<Mn« 
the caster with )ier hy turns. 

Howard, Man of Newmarket, 1678. 

Castes, «. An instrument for 
punishing schoolboys with a 
blow on the palm of the hand. 

Casting-bottle, s. A bottle for 
casting, or sprinkling, perfumes ; 
a fashionable luxury in the days 
of Elizabeth. Sometimes called 
a casting-glass. 

Pray Jove the perfumed courtiert keep 
their caiting-huttles, pick-tootns, and 
shittlecocks lioni you. 

B. Joits., Cynthia's Ret., i, 1. 

Faith, ay : liis civet and liis casting-glass 
Have belpt liini to a place among the rest. 
B. Jon., Jit. M. out ofU., iv, 4. 

, Castle, s. A sort of close helmet. 




Castleward, s. a tax laid on 
those dwelling within a certain 
distance of a castle, for the sup- 
port of the garrison. 

Castling, s. A calf bom before 
its time. 

Castock, «. The heart of a cabbage. 

Castor, ». (Lat.) A lieaver. 

Castrel, s. {A.-N.) An inferior 
kind of hawk. 

Like as the sparrow, from thecaslreU ire, 
Made his as>luiu in the wise man's fist, 
FocM addressed to Lady Drake, 1596. 

Cat, ». (1) A mess of coarse meal, 
clay, &c,, placed in dove-cotes, 
to allure strangers. East. 

(2) A ferret, Suffolk. 

(3) A game played among ooys 
with sticks, and a small piece of 
wood, rising in the middle, so as 
to rebound w hen struck on either 

(4) A stand formed of three 
pieces of wood or iron, crossing 
and united in the centre, to place 
before the fire for supporting a 
plate of buttered toast, 

(5) (From a common usage of 
the Fr. chat.) Pudendum f. 

(6) Mentula, Somerset. 

(7) A shed to protect soldiers 
while lying ready to attack. 

Catadupe, *, ( Gr.) A cataract. 

Cataian, s. a sharper. 

Catapuce, s. {A.'N.) .^ kind of 

Cat-arles, *. An eruptive disorder 
of the skin. North. 

Catayl, s. a sort of vessel, Rich- 
ard C. de L. 

Cat-beagle, «. A swift kind of 

Cat-bill,*. A woodpecker. North. 

Cat-blash, *. Any thin liquid, as 
weak tea. Line. 

Cat-boils, s. Small boils. North- 
amp t. 

Cat-brain, «. A sort of rough clay 
mLxed with stone. West. 

Cat-call, s. A sort of whistle. 
Catch, (1) s. A few hairs drawn 

out of a knot or bunch, woven 

in the silk. 

(2) «. A sort of ship. 

(3) s. The eye of a link. 

Orhiculus. oTrij. Maille. The male, the 
catch, or rundle through which tlie 
latchet passelh and is fastened with tlie 
toung of the buckle : a loope. 

Jfomeiiclator, 1585. 

(4) To catch copper, to take 
harm. To lie upon the catch, to 
seek an opportunity. 

I hope you do not lie upon the catch to 
weary and tire me out, by putting more 
upon me then a liorse is able to endure, 
and then go about to hang me, because 
I, through tiredness, want bodily 
strength and abilities to make and pro- 
nounce my defence. English Worthies. 

To catch a fell. A weaver is said 
to have caught a fell when he 
finishes his piece, because there 
is always a small portion wove 
beyond the actual termination 
of the piece, for the purpose of 
securing the remainder of the 
warp after the finished work is 
cut out. 

Catch-corneb, s. a well-known 
child's game. 

Catched, adj. Entangled, Beds. 

Catcherel, », Acatchpole. Pr. P. 

Catch-land, s. Border-land, of 
which the tithe was disputable, 
and taken by the first claimant 
who could catch it. Norf. 

Catch- water, *. A reservoir of 
water in a newly-erected com- 
mon. Somerset. 

Catchy, adj. Disposed to take ad- 

Cate, v. To b« lecherous. North. 

Catel, s. (A.-N.) Goods; property, 
treasure, or money. 

Cater, v. To cut diagonally. 

Cater-cousin, s. (1) An intimate 
(2) A parasite. 

CATEREYNis,».(,(f.-A'.) Quadrains* 




Caterpillar, a. A cockchafer. 

Caterramel, v. To hollow out. 

Catersnozzled, joaW.^. Zig-zag. 

Catery, 8. The place where pro- 
visions were kept. 

Gates, s. Provisions. 

In a plaine country greeting he invited 
us to drinke and 'eate with him such 
cates as the house afforded. 

Rowley, Search for Money, 1609. 

Cat-gallows, s. A child's game. 

Cathammed, adj. Awkward ; 
clumsy. South. 

Cat-haws, s. Common haws. 

Cathedral, ». A huUy. Line. 

Cather, 8. A cradle. North. 

Cat-hip, «. The burnet rose. 

Cat-ice, s. Ice from which the 
water has receded. Northampt. 

Cat-in-pan, s. a turncoat, or de- 
serter from his party ; to turn 
cat-in-pan, to be a turncoat. 

Our fine pbylosopher, out trimme learned 

Is gone to see as false a spie as himselfe. 
Damon sniatters as well as he of craftie 

And can toume cat in the panne very pre- 

But Carisophus hath given him such a 

miglitie cliecke, 
As I thiuke in the ende will breake his 

necke. Damon and Pithias, p. 206. 

Thus may ye see to tume (he cat in the pan. 
Workes of J. Ueiwood, 1598. 

Catling, s. The string of a lute or 

violin, made of cat-gut. 
Catmallisons, «. Cupboards near 

chimneys for dried beef and 

provisions. North. 
Catrigged, adj. Badly creased; 

applied to linen. North. 
Cats and kittens, a. The blos- 
soms of the salix. 
Cats-cradle, a. A children's 

game, with string twisted on the 


Cats-foot, s. Ground ivy. North. 

Cats-head, *. (1) A kind of po- 
rous stone found in coal pits. 
(2) A sort of apple. 

Cats-heer,«. "Cattes-heere, other- 
wyse called a felon. Furunculus." 

Catso, s. (Ital. cazzo.) A low 
term of reproach ; a rogue ; a 
base fellow. Catzerie, cheating, 

And so cunningly temporize with this cun- 
ning catso. Wily beguiled, O. PI. 

— And looks 
Like one that is employed in catzerie 
And crosbiting ; such a rogue, &c. 

Jew of Malta, 0. PI., viii, 374. 

Cats-smere, a. An old name of a 

plant, axungia. 
Cats-tail, s. (1) The catkin of 

the hazel or willow. 

La fleur de noyer semhlable i, la queue 
d'un rat, minons in Gallia Narbonensi. 
The cats tailea on nut-trees, the long 
bud hanging like a long worme or ae- 
glet. Nomenclator, 1585. 

(2) The plant horsetail. 

(3) A sore place, or fester. Cot- 

Cat-stairs, «. Tape, &c., twisted 
to resemble stairs. North. 

Catter, v. To thrive. North. 

Catton, v. To thump. North. 

Catwhin, 8. The dog-rose. North. 

Cat-with-two-tails, a. An ear- 
wig. North. 

Catwitted, adj. Silly and con- 
ceited. North. 

Cauch, a. A nasty mixture. Devon. 

Cauci, 1 *. {A.-N.) A causeway, 
gauge, j or road. 

Cauciocr, a. A surveyor. Cumb. 

Caud, adj. Cold. North. 

Caudebeg, a. A hat of French 
fashion, used in England about 

Caudel, "Is. {A.-N.) A sort of 
CAWDEL, J pottage. 

Chykens in cawdel. Take chykenns, 
and boile hem in gode ) roth, and ramme 




Jiem up. Tlienne take jolkes of ayren, 
and the brotli, and alve it togedre. Do 
tliereto powdor of "vnjjer, and sugar 
ynowh, safronn, and salt ; and set it 
over the fyre withoute boyllynsre, and 
serve the chykens hole, other y-broken, 
and lay the so«e onoward. 

Forme ofCury, p. 9. 

Cawdel ferry. Take floer of paynde- 
niayn and gode wyne ; and drawe it to- 
gydre. Do thereto a grete quantite of 
sugar cypre, or hony clarified; and do 
thereto s;ifronn. Boile it, and whan it 
is boiled, alye it ud with jolkes of ayren, 
and do tliereto salt, and messe it forth, 
and lay thereon sugar and powdor gyn- 
ger. Forme of Cury, Tp. M. 

Caudel rennyng. Take vemage, or other 
gode swete wyne, and jolkes of eyren 
beten and streyned, and put tlierto 
8uger, and colour hit with saffron, and 
setlie hit tyl hit begyn to boyle, and 
straw e pouder of ginger tlieron ; and 
serve hit forthe. Warner, p. 83. 

Cauderne, s. a caldron. 

Caudle, s. Any slop. Devon. See 

Caud-pie, 8. i. e., Cold pie; a dis- 
appointment or loss. North. 

Caugle, v. To quarrel. North. 

Cauk, s. {A.-N.) Limestone. East. 

Caul, «. (1) A spider's web. 
(2) A swelling. North. 

Cauld, *. A dam-head. North. 

Caule, «. (1) The filament inclos- 
ing the brain. " Les covertures 
de la cervelle. The caules or 
filraes ofthe braine." Nomenclat. 
(2) A coif. " Where is my cau/e.? 
Ou est mon escofion ?" The 
French Alphabet, 1615. 

Cau.mpersome, adj. Lively; play- 
ful. Derbysh. 

Caumy, adj. Qualmy, Northampt. 

Caup, ». {A.-S. ceapian.) To ex- 
change. North. 

Cauphe, 8. Coffee. 

The Tartars have a drink not good at 
meat called cauphe, made of a berry as 
bigge as a small beanc, dryed in a fur- 
nace and beat to powder of a soote co- 
lour, in taste little bitterish, that they 
seeth and dnnke hot as may be en- 
dured ; it is good all liourcs of the day, 
but especially morning- and evening, 
when to that purpose ihey euienaiue 

themselves two or three honres in 
caupkf-houies, which in all Turkey 
ahouud more then inues and alehouses 
with us. 

Blunt's Voyage in the Levant, 1650. 

Caupon'ate, v. (Lat.) To hold an 

Caury, adj. {A.-N.) Worm-eaten. 
Cause, conj. Because. 
Causey, 8. {A.-N.) A causeway, 

of which it is the more correct 

Caush, 8. A sudden declivity. 

Causidick, 8. (Lat.) A lawyer. 
Cautel, 8. {A.-N.) A cunning 

Cautelous, adj. Artful ; cautious. 
Caution, s. A pledge ; a surety. 
Cave, (1) p. To tilt up. Shropsh. 

(2) To fall in, as earth when 

(3) To rake ; to separate. South. 

(4) To thrash corn. 

(5) «. A cabbage. North. 
Caveare, s. The spawn of a kind 

of sturgeon pickled, salted, and 
dried, which was formerly con- 
sidered a great dainty. 

Gavel, (1) v. To divide or allot 
(2) 8. A part or share. North. 

Cavenard, 8. {A.-N.) A term of 

Caversyn,«. {/rf.-A'^.) A hypocrite. 

Cavill, s. a coif, or caule. 

Her golden loekes like Hermus sands, 
(Or then bright Hermus brighter) 

A spangled con'// binds in with bands. 
Then silver morning lighter. 

Engiandt Helicon, 1614. 

Cavillation, 8. {Lat.) A cavil- 
ling; a quibble in law. "Cavil- 
lation, or subtyle forged tale. 
Cavillafio." Huloet. 

Caving, s. Refuse swept from the 
threshing floor. East. 

Cavous, adj. Hollow ; full of caves. 

Caw, (1) 8. The rot iii sheep, 




(2) V. To bring forth a lamb. 
(3) «'. To gasp for breath. Devon. 

Caward, adv. Backward. 

Cawbabv, s. An awkward, shy 
boy. Devon. 

Cawdaw, s. a jackdaw. North. 

Cawdle, «. Entanglement; con- 
fusion ; also a mining term for a 
thick and muddy fluid. Cornw. 

Cawdrife, s. a shivering feeling. 

Cawdy-mawdy, s. The Royston 
crow. Northampt. 

Cawe, v. {A.-N.) To go, or walk. 

Cawf, s. An eel-box. East. 

Cawftail, s. a dunce. Lane. 

Cawhand, s. The left hand. North. 

Cawken, v. To breed, applied 
especially to hawks. 

Cawkv, adj. Frumpish. Line. 

Cawl, (1) s. a swelHng from a 
blow. Yorksh. 

(2) ». To do work awkwardly. 

(3) s. A coop. Kent. 

(4) s. A sort of silk. 

(5) V. To bully. North. 
Cawm, v. In Derbyshire, the rear- 
ing of a horse is called cawming. 

Cawnry, *. A silly fool; a half 
idiot. Berks. 

Cawnse, s. a pavement. Devon. 

Cawte, adj. Cautious. 

Caxon, s. a worn-out wig. So- 

Cay, v. To caw, as a crow. 

Cayn, s. a nobleman. 

Caynard, *. (A.-N.) A rascal. 

Cayre, v. To go ; to come. Cayers, 
comers. Morte Arthure. 

Cayser, \s. (A.-S.) An empe- 
caysere, f ror. 

Cavtefete, s. (A.-N.) Wretched- 

Cayvar, s. a kind of ship. K. 
Alisannder, 6062. 

Cazami, s. The centre or middle 
of the sun ; an astrological 

CAjTE,/>rc<. /. Caught. Rob. Glouc. 

Ceace, s. a layer of earth, straw, 

&c. Norf. 
Cease, v. To die. Shakesp. 
Ceate, s. a membrane. 
Cecchin, s. An Italian coin, a 

Cedule, s. a schedule. 
Cee, s. The sea. 
Cege, s. a seat. See Sege. 
Cegge, s. The water flower de-luce. 

See Segye. 
Ceise, v. {A.-N.) To seize. 

* [■ s. A sort of skull-cap. 
celate, J ^ 

Celature, s. (A.-N.) The under- 

surface of a vault ; the ceiling. 

Cele, (1) adj. Happy. See Sele. 

(2) s. (A.-N.) A canopy. 

(3) s. Time ; season. See Sele. 

(4) V. A term in falconry. " I 
cele a hauke or a pigyon or any 
other foule or byrde, whan I sowe 
up their eyes for caryage or other- 
wyse." Palsgrave. 

Celebrious, s. (A.-N) Famous. 
CEi,ED,part. p. (I) Decorated by 

sculpture or painting. 

(2) Wainscoted. 
Celee, adj. Strange ; wonderful. 
Celerer, «. (Lat) The officer in a 

monastery who had the care of 

the provisions. 
Celestine, s. a kind of plunket 

or coloured cloth, with broad 

Cellar, s. (A.-N.) A canopy, 

especially of a bed. " Cellar for 

a bedde, del de lit." Palsgrave. 
Celle, s. (Lat.) A religious house. 
Celsitude, s. (Lat.) Highness. 
Celwylly, adj. Unruly. Pr. P. 
Ceme, *. A quarter of corn. Pr. P. 

See Seam. 
Ckmmkd, adj. Folded; twisted. 
Cemy, adj. Subtle. Pr. Parv. 
Cencleffe, s. The daffodil. 
Cendal, s. (A.-N. sendal.) A sort 

of rich silken stutF, which was 

much prized. 
Cene, s. (1) A sort of sauce. 




(2) An assembly. Palsgrave. 
Cexs, s. Incense. To cense, to 

sprinkle with incense. 
Cexser, ». An incense pot ; a bottle 

for sprinkling perfumes. 
Censure, (1) s. {Lat.) Judgment ; 


Tmly, madam, he suffers in my censure 

equal with your ladyshi)>s, and I think 

him to be a bundle of vanity, otherwise 

called a fop in extraordinary 

Dnrfey, Fool iuni'd Crilick. 

(2) V. To judge; to give an 

They doffe their upper garments: each 

Unto lier milke-white linnen smocke to 

bare her. 
Small difference twixt their white smocks 

and their skins. 
And hard it were to cmsure which were 

fairer. Great Britahies Troye, 1609. 

Cent, s. A game at cards, supposed 
to have resembled picquet, and 
so called because 100 was the 

Centener, *. An officer command- 
ing a hundred men. 

Cexto, *. {Lat.) A patchwork. 

Ce.ntry-garth,*. The cemetery of 
a monastery. 

s. A game at cards. 

Centy-foot, \ 
cent-foot, j 

I at cards play'd with a girl, 
Rose by name, a dainty pearl: 
At centy-foot I oft'n moved 
Her to love me, wliom I loved. 

Dmnkai Bamabt/. 

Ceout, V. To bark. Shropsh. 
Cep, ». To catch a ball. North. 
Cepe, *. A hedge. 
Cephen, s. The male, or young 

Cep.adene,*. a fresh-water muscle. 

Cercle, v. (A.-N.) To surround. 
Ceremonies,*. Prodigies. ShaJcesp. 
Cerge, ». {A.-N.) A wax taper. 
Cerke, s. a shirt. See Sark. 
Cern, r. To concern. Shakesp. 
Cernoyle, *. Honeysuckle. 
Cerse, r. To cease. North. 
Certacion, s. Assurance. 

Certain, a<fv. Certainly. Chaucer. 

Certed, adj. Certain ; firm. 

Certes, adv. {A.-N.) Certainly. 

Cert-money, s. Head money or 
common fine, paid yearly by the 
residents of several manors to 
the lords thereof. Blount. 

Ceruse, s. Ceruse or white-lead, 
used by ladies for painting. 

Cerve, s. a circlet. 

Cervelle, «. {A.-N.) The brain. 

Cess, (1) v. To spill water about. 

(2) *. (^.-A'^,) Measure; estima- 
tion. " Out of all cess,^ exces- 

(3) v. To call dogs to eat. South. 

(4) s. A layer or stratum. East. 
Cesse, v. (1){A.-N.) To cease. 

(2) {A.-N.) To give seizin or 

Cesser, s. An assessor. 

Ckst, part. p. (A.-N.) Ceased. 

Ceston,s.(.^.-A'^) a studded girdle. 

Cete, s. a company of badgers. 

Ceterach, s. {Fr.) The stone- 

Cetywall, ». See Setewale. 

Chace, *. The groove for the 
arrow in a crossbow. 

Chaceable, «((;. Fit to be hunted. 

Chacechiens, *. {A.-N.) Berners. 

Chackle,». To chatter. Somerset. 

Chackstone, s. a small flint. 

Chacoon, *. {Span.) A dance like 
the saraband, brought from Spain. 

Chad, s. A small trench for drain- 
ing land. Midi. C. 

Chadan, «. The inwards of a calf. 

Chadde, v. To shed. 

Chadfarthing, ». A farthing paid 
formerly for the purpose of hal- 
lowing the font for christenings. 

CuADLE, V. Vo make a small groove 
in which to drive a wedge to split 
stones. Northampt. 

Chads, *. Dry husky fragments 
found amongst food. East. 

Chafb, v. {A.-N.) To grow angry. 




Chafegall, ». A boil caused by 
the friction of the legs. 

Entretail, escorchure et peau par es- 
chauffement, souillure. A gall with 
sweating: a chafegall: a niglilgall: a 
iiierryg;ill, which may come by going 
and riding in a sweat. Nomendator. 

Chafer,*. (1) The May-bug. South. 
(2) (A.-N.) A saucepan. "A 
caudorne, kettle, skellet, or chaf- 
fer to heate water in." Nomen- 

Chafer-house, «. An alehouse. 

Chafery, 8. {A.-N.) A furnace. 

Chafeweed, s. An old name for 
the plant cudwort. Nomenclat. 

Chaff-bone, T «. The jaw-bone. 
CHAFTE-BAN, J Ckaff-fallefi, low- 
spirited. North. 

Chaffere, (1) V. (A.-S.) To deal, 
exchange, or barter. 
(2) s. Merchandise. 

Chaffle, v. To haggle. Ne*th. 

Chaff-nets, «. Nets for catching 
small birds. 

Chaffo, v. To chew. Lane. 

Chaffron, s. a chamfron, or head- 
piece for a horse with a projecting 

Chaflet, ». {A.-N.) A small scaf- 

Chafty, adj. Talkative, Yorksh. 

Chaiere, s. {A.-N.) A chair, or 

Chain, s. A weaver's warp. Somer- 

Chair-hole, ». A recess made in 
the upper part of a rick in which 
a person stands to receive the 
corn or hay to convey it higher 
for completing the rick. East. 

Chaisel, 8. {A.-N.) An upper 

(2) A sort of fine linen, of which 
smocks were often made, 

Chaity, adj. Careful; delicate. 

Chalande, s. a chanter. 

' Chalder, v. To crumble. East. 
Chaldron, "1 *. {A.-N.) A sort 


Chalk, v. To mark up debts with 
chalk in an alehouse. 
Where I drank, and took my common 
In a tan-house with my woman : 
While I had it, there I paid it, 
TiU long ckalk'mg broke my credit. 

Drunken Barnaby. 

Chall, s. The jaw. Leic. 

Challenge, ». A term in hunting; 
when hounds or beagles first find 
the scent and cry. 

Chalm, v. To nibble into minute 
particles. Northamp. 

Chalon, s. a coverlet. Chaucer. 

Chaltered, part. p. Overcome 
with heat. Leic. 

Cham, (1) adv. Awry. North. 
(2) v. To chew or champ, 

Chamberdekins, 8. Irish beggars. 

Chamberer, s. a wanton person, 

Chamberere, *. {A.-N.) A cham- 

Chamber-fellow, s. A chum; 
one who occupies the same cham- 
bers with another. 

Chamberings, s. The furniture of 
a bed or bed-room. 

Chamber-lie, s. Urine. Shakesp. 

Chamberlin, "Is, An attendant 
chamberlain, fin an inn, equi- 
valent to the head waiter or upper 
chambermaid, or both, and some- 
times male, sometimes female. 
Milton says that Death acted to 
Hobson the carrier, 

l^n the kind office of a chamberlin, 

bbow'd him his room where he must lodge 
that night, 

Pull'd off his boots, and took away the light. 

On the Univ. Carrier, 1. 14. 

I had even as live the chamberlaine of 

the White Horse had called me up to 

bed. Peele's Old Wives Tale, i, 1. 

Chamber-piece, s. A gun which, 
instead of receiving its charge at 
the muzzle, had an opening or 
chamber near the opposite extre- 
mity, in which the powder and 





ball, properly secured, were de- 

Chambers,*. Small cannon, with- 
out carriages, used chiefly on 
festive occasions. 

Chamble, v. To chew. 

ChaMBLET, 1 / ^ »rs . 

*. (A.-N.) A vane- 

CHAMLET, > ; 1 i X. 

f gated stuff. 


Chamblings, s. Husks of corn. 


Chambre-forene, s. {A.-N.) A 
Jakes. Rob. Glouc. 

Chambrel,*. The joint or bending 
of the upper part of the hind legs 
of a horse. 

Chamfer, s. (1) The plain slope 
made by paring off the hedge of 
anything; a rabbet. 
(2) A hollow channel or gutter; 
a furrow. " Chamfred brows," 
furrowed brows. Spenser. 
As for the malleoli, a kind of darts, 
shaped they be on this fashion : There 
is an arrow made of a cane, betwixt the 
head and the steile, joined and couclied 
close with an yron full of chamfers and 
teetli. Ammianus Marcellinus, 1609. 

Chamfron, s. (A.-N.) Armour for 

a horse's nose and cheeks. 
Chammer, s. a richly ornamented 

gown, worn by persons of rank in 

Henry VIH's time. 
Champ, (1) adj. Hard; firm. 


(2) V. To bite, or chew. 

(3) V. To tread heavily. Warw. 

(4) «. A scuffle. Exmoor. 
Cham aine, "1 arf/. (.<^.-iV.) Plain; 

champion, J flat; open; applied 
to country. 

Out of this street lies a way up into a 
fair ehampa'ujn heath, where the walks 
are so pleasant, and the air so sweet. 

Brume's Travels over England. 

Champartie, s. (A.-N.) A share 
of land; a partnership in power. 
As a law term, a maintenance of 
any one in his suit on condition 
of having a share of the thing 
recovered iu case of success. 

Champe, s. (A.-N.) The field or 
ground in which carving is 

Champers, s. Hounds. 

Champeyne, s. a sort of fine 

Champignon, *. (Fr.) A mush- 

Champion, v. To challenge; to 

Chance, s. The game of hazard. 

Chance-bairn, s. A bastard. 
A orth. 

Chance-bone, *. The huckle- 
bone. East. 

Chandry, *. The place where can- 
dles were kept. 

CHANE,;;re/. ^. (^.-iV.) Fell. 

Chanfrous, adj. Very fierce. 

Changk, s, a shift. 

Changeable, adj. Variegated. 

Changel, s. The herb bugloss. 

Changeling, *. A child changed 
by the fairies. 

Changerwife, s. A female huck- 
ster. North. 

Changingly, adv. Alternately. 

Chanke,«. An old dish in cookery. 

Chanker, s. a chink. Dorset. 

Chanks, s. The under part of a 
pig's head. South. 

Channel, *. The windpipe. 

Channer, v. To scold. North, 

Channest, v. To exchange. Ex- 

Chant, ». To mumble ; to chatter, 
as birds do. 

Chanter, s. Part of a bagpipe. 

Chantrel, g. A decoy partridge. 

Chap, (1) ». (from A.-S. ceapian.) 
A purchaser. 

(2) A familiar term for a com- 

(3) A chink. 

(4) A knock. 

(5) The lower jaw of a pig. 

(6) V. To crack. 




Cha p-book, s. a small book sold 

by hawkers. 
Chapchurch, s. a parish clerk. 

Chape, s. (1) The hook or metal 

part at the top of a scabbard. 

I'll make him eat tlie sword you speak 
of; nay, not only the sword, but the 
hilt, the knot, the scabbard, tlie chape, 
the belt, and the buckles. 

Durfey, Marriage-hater Match'd. 

(2) The end of a fox's tail. 

Chapel, s. A printing-house, said 

to be so named from having been 

originally held in the chapel at 

Chapelle, «. {Lat.) A chaplain. 
Chaperon, s. A French hood. 
Chapetrel, s. (A.-N.) The capital 

of a column. 
Chapin, s. See Choppine. 
Chapitle, s. {A.-N.) a chapter. 
Chapman, s. {A.-S. ceapman.) A 

merchant, or buyer. 
Chap-money, s. Jloney abated or 

given back by the seller. 
Chappellet, «. {A.-N.) A small 

Chapped, part. p. Chopt. 
Chappy, a(f;. Cleft; gaping open. 
Chaps, *. Wrinkles. Craven. 
Chapyde, pret. t. (for eschapyde.) 

Char, (1) «. A species of trout, 

caught in the lakes of West- 

(2) V. To char a laughter, to 
raise a mock laugh. North. 

(3) adv. Ajar. North. 

(4) V. To hew stones. 
Char, "1 ». A work or business. 

chare, J They still use the word 
in the North, where they would 
say, " That char is charred," that 
work is done. Char-woman, a 
woman hired by the day for 
general work. 

To blush and to make honors, and (if need) 
To pule and weepe at every idle toy. 

As women use, next to prepare his weed. 
And his soft hand to chare-woriea tc 

imploy : 
He profits in his practise (heaven him 

And of his shape assumed grauiit him joy. 
Great Britaines Troye, 160S. 

And look that the han!;ings in the 

malted room be brusht down, and the 

c/utre-tcoman rub tbe rest of the rooms. 

Revet, The Totcu Shifts, 1671. 

Charactery, *. Writing; ex- 

Charbokul, s. (A.-N.) a car- 

Chare, (1 ) s. (A.-N.) A chariot. 

(2) V. To hinder. Pr. Pan. 

(3) V. To stop, or turn back. 

(4) V. To drive away. 

(5) V. To separate chaflf from 
corn. South. 

(6) V. To counterfeit. North. 

(7) s. A narrow street. Newc. 

(8) 8. A wall-flower. 
Charely, adj. Careful ; chary. 
Chare-thursday, s. Maundy 


Charets, 8. Chariots. 

Charge, v. {A.-N.) To weigh, or 
incline on account of weight ; to 
weigh in one's mind. 

Chargeant, adj. {A.-N.) Bur- 

Charged, arf/. Ornamented ; bor- 

Charge-house, *. A paid school ? 

T>o you not educate youth at the charge- 
house on the top of t'be mountain ? 

Shakesp., L. L. Lost, v. 1. 

Chargsous, adj. {A.-N.) Trou- 

Charger, s. A large dish. 

Chariness, *. Caution. 

Charitods, adj. {A.-N.) Cha- 

Chark, (1) V. To chop, or crack. 

(2) s. A crack. North. 

(3) V. To creak. North. 

(i) V. To make charcoal. We8t. 




(5) V. To expose new a'le in an 
open vessel until it acquiiesacidity, 
and becomes clearer and sourer, 
when it is fit for drinking. Line. 

(6) 8. Small beer. Yorksh. 

Chark-coal, s. Charcoal. 

Charles's-wain, 8. The constel- 
lation Ursa Major. 

Charlet, s. {A.-N.) a dish in 

CharUt. Take pork, and seeth it wel. 
Hewe it smale. Cast it in a panne. 
Brake ajrenn, and do thereto, and 
swyng it wcl togyder. Put thereto 
cowe mylke and sal'roun, and boile it 
togyder. Salt it, and messe it forth. 

Forme of Cury, p. 10. 

Charlock, s. The mustard plant. 

Charm, (1) v. (A.-N.) To utter 
musical sounds. 

Here we our slender pipes may safely 
charm. Spens. Shfp. Kal., October, v. 118. 
O what songs will I charm out, in praise 
of those Taliamly strong-stinking 
breaths. Decker, GuU Rornb. Procem. 

(2) 8. A hum, or low murmuring 
noise. " With charm of earliest 
birds." Milton, Par. L., iv, 641, 
Hence, as birds charm together, 
it was used to mean a company 
of birds, as a charm of gold- 
finches, i. e., a flock of them. 

(3) r. To silence. 
Charmed-milk, \s. Sour milk. 

charme MiLKE, J North. 
Charmer, s. {A.-N.) A magician. 
Charx-odrdle, 8. A churn-staff. 

Charneco, "1 ». A sort of sweet 
charnico, J wine, made near 

Come my inestimable bullies, we'll 
talk of your noble acts in sparkling 

Puritan, act 4, Suppl. to Sh., ii, 616. 

Cbarxel, s. The crest of a helmet. 

Ch.\rre, v. To return. 

Charred-drink, s. Drink turned 
sour in consequence of being put 
into the barrel before it is cold. 

Charret, (1) *. (A.-N.) A cart, 
or chariot. 
(2) adj. Dear ; precious. North. 

Chartal, 8. {Lat. chartula.) A 
small document. 

Chartel, 8. (Fr.) A challenge. 

Charterer,*. A freeholder. Chesh. 

Charter-master, s. A man who, 
having undertaken to get coals 
or iron-stone at a certain price, 
employs men under him. 

Charter-party, 8. A bill of 

Charthous, *. (A.'N.) Carthu- 
sian monks. 

Charwort. See Brackwort. 

Chary, at/;. Careful ; cautious. 

Chase, (1) s. (Fr.) A term in the 
game of tennis, the spot where a 
ball fails. 

(2) a. A wood, or forest. 

(3) V. To enchase. Cov. Myst. 

(4) r. To pretend a laugh. North. 
Chasing. An amusement at school 

of pressing two snail-shells to- 
gether till the weaker was 
broken. The strongest is called 
the chaser. 

Chasing-spere, ». A hunting- 

Chasour, s. (A.'N.) A hunter. 

Chasse, 8. The common poppy. 

Chaste, (1) v. (A.-N.) To chastise, 
or correct. 

(2) 8. (A.-N.) Chastity. 

(3) Trained, applied to hounds. 
Chastelain, *. (A.-N.) The lord 

of a castle. 

Chastey, 8. (A.-N.) The chesnut. 

Chasthede, s. Chastity. 

Chastie,v. (A.-N.) (I) Tochastise. 
(2) To chasten. 

Chastilet, 8. (A.-N.) A small 

Chastise, v. To accuse ; to ques- 
tion closely. West. 

Chat, «. (1) (A.-N.) A cat, or 

(2) A child. Devon. 

(3) A tell-tale. Devon. 




(i) A small twig; a fragment of 
• anything. JFest. 

(5) The wheatear. Northampt. 
Chate, s. (1) A feast; a treat. 


(2) A sort of waistcoat. 
Chates, 8. The gallows. Harman. 
Chateus, 8. (A.-N.) Chattels. 
Chats, s. (1) Calkins of trees. 


(2) Small refuse potatoes. Var.di. 

(3) Small hits of dried wood. 
The gathering of them is called 
chatting. Northampt. 

Chatsome, adj. Talkative. Kent. 

Chatter, v. To tear; to bruise. 

Chatter-basket, "Is. An inces- 
chatter-box, J sant talker. 

Chatternoul, *. A lubber. North. 

Chatter-pie, s. A magpie. 

Chatter-water, s. Tea. 

Chattery, adj. Stony, or pebbly. 

Chattocks, *. Refuse wood from 
faggots. Glouc, 

Chaucer's-jests, s. Licentious- 
ness ; obscenity. 

Chaudern, s. a sauce, or gravy. 
The chaudern for swans was 
made of the giblets boiled and 
seasoned with spices. Warner, 
Anttq. Cut., p. &5. 

Chaudron, *. Part of the entrails 
of an animal. 

Chacfe, v. {A.-N.) To warm; 
to heat. 

Chaufere, s. {A.-N.) A basin for 
hot water. 

Hurre thoujt that hurre chaufere the 
whyche was of ledde y-made. 

Ckron. Filodun., p. 54. 

Chaufrain, a. The head-piece of 
a horse. See Chamfron. 

c^HAwr}^^^*- ^'^''^- ^''*- 
Of an asse he caught the chaule bone. 

Bochoi, 33. 
Bonght also and redeemed out of the 
wolves chaws. 

Pre/, to Bullinger'* Sermon), p. 2. 

(2) V. To scold, or, as we say in 
trivial language, to jaw. 
Chaumbre, v. To curb, or restrain, 
applied to the tongue. 
For Critias manaced and threteiied 
hvm. that onelcsst he chaumireed his 
tongue in season, ther should ere long 
bee one oxe the fewer for hym. 

Apopthegmis of Erasmus, 1542. 

Chaumpe-bataile, «. Battle in 
the field. 

Chauncely, adv. {A.-N.) Acci- 

Chauncemele, "I «. A sort of 

Othere spices ther ben of pride whiche 
men and women ben lounuen inne, and 
it encresith fro day to day, of dyvers 
atire about the bodi : as ofte streyte 
clothes and schorte da;,;gid hodis, chaun- 
semUes disgised and iryde op slrayt in 
T. or vi. sifdis : women with schorte 
clothis unnethe to the hipes, booses and 
lokettes about the heed, and vile styn- 
kend homes longe and brode, and other 
dyvers atire, that I can nought witen 
ne discryen of surchc thinges. Everi 
man and woman be liis owne juge and 
loke wed if it be nought thus. 

MS. Cantab., 15M cent. 

Chauncepf,, s. {A.-N.) A shoeing 
horn. Pr. Parv. (For chaucepe.) 

Chaundler, s. {A.-N.) A candle- 

Chaune, v. (Fr.) To gape, or 
open. Chaun, a gape or chasm, 
Chaum is still used in the same 
sense in Warwickshire. 

Chauntement, s. Enchantment. 

Chauntre, *. {A.-N) A singer. 

Chavel, s. a jaw. See Chaule. 

Chavish, (1) s. A chattering, or 
murmuring noise, especially of 
many birds or persons together. 
(2) adj. Peevish ; fretful. Kent. 

Chavle, v. To chew. York.<th. 

Chaw, v. (1) To be sulky. South. 
(2) To chew in an awkward 

Chaw-bacon, s. A country clown. 

Chawcers, s. {A.-N.) Shoes. 

Chawdpys, "I s. {A.-N.) The stran- 
CHAUDPis, J gury. 




Cheadle-dock, s. The Senecio 

Cheance, «.(^.-M) Chance; turn; 

Cheap, (1) s. (AS. ceap.) A 

purchase ; a bargain ; a sale. 

Good cheap, a good bargain. See 


(2) Cheapside, in London. 

(3) V. To ask the price of any- 
thing. Cheapen is still used in 
this sense in Shropshire. 

Cheaps, s. Number. Weber. 

Chear. See Chere. 

Cheasil, s. Bran. 

Cheat, «. \\) The second sort of 
wheaten bread, ranking next to 

(2) A linen collar, and shirt- 
front appended, to cheat the 
spectator into a belief of the 
presence of a clean shirt. 

Cheater, s. An escheator. 

Cheaters, s. False dice. Dekker. 

Cheatry, s. Fraud. North. 

Check, (1) v. To reproach. East. 

(2) V. When a hawk forsakes 
her proper game, and flies at 
crows, pies, or the like, she was 
said to check. 

(3) When a hound loses scent 
and stops, he is said to check. 

(4) " Boccheegiare, to play or 
checke with the mouth as some 
ill horses doe." Florio. 

(5) adv. On the same footing. 

Checked, adj. Chapped. Suffolk. 

Checker, s. {A.-N.) A chess- 

Checklaton. See Ciclatoun, 

Checkroll, s. A roll of the names 
of the servants in a large man- 
sion. To put out of checkroll, 
to dismiss. 

Checkstone, s. a game played 
by children with round pebbles. 

Chee, s. a hen-roost. South. 

Cheek, (1) v. To accuse. Line. 
(2) V. To face a person ; to have 
courage. Leic. 

(3) s. Courage ; impudence. 
Cheek-balls, s. The round parts 

of the cheeks. North. 
Cheeks, $. Uoor posts ; side posts 
in general. " The cheekes or side 
postes of a crane or windbeame." 
Nomenclator. The iron plates 
inside a grate to reduce its size 
are also called cheeks. 
Cheeks and ears. A kind of 
head-dress, in fashion early in 
the 17th cent. 

Fr. then thon can'st tell how to help 

me to cherks and ears. 

L. Yes, mistress, very well. 

Fl. S. Cheeks and ears ! why, mistress 

Frances, want you cheeks and ears? 

metliinks you have very fair ones. 

Fr. Tliou art a fool indeed. Tom, thon 

knowfst what I mean. 

Cin. Ay, ay, Kester; 'tis surh as they 

wear a' their heads. London Prod., iv, 8. 

Cheek-tooth, s. A grinder. North. 
Cheen, adj. Sprouted. Devon. 
Cheep, v. To chirp. North. 
Cheer, v. To feast or welcome 

friends. North. 
Cheering, s. A merry-making. 
Cheerly, (1) adj. Pleasant; well- 


(2) adv. Courageously. 

Ckeerely, prince Otho, ther's such a war 

like siglit 
That would stirre up a leaden heart to fisht. 
Tragedy of Hoffman, 1631. 

Cheese, «. A bag of pommace from 
the cider-wring. 

Cheese and cheese. A terra ap- 
plied in some parts to two fe- 
males riding on one horse, or 
kissing each other. 

Cheese-brigs, "1 «. Two poles of 
cheese-ladder, J wood, crossed 
by two shorter ones, placed 
over a large pan of cream, to 
support the skimming bowl after 
it has been used, so that it may 
drip into the liquid below. Line. 

Cheesecake-grass, s. Trefoil. 

Cheese-crusher, a. An instru* 
ment for crushing cheese. Leic. 




Cheese-fatt, «. A vessel in which 
the whey is passed from the curd 
in cheese making. 

Cheese-ford, s. The mould in 
which cheese is made. 

Cheese-late, s. A loft or floor to 
dry cheese on. 

Cheeselope, s. Rennet. North. 

Cheeser, s. The yellowhammer. 

Cheese-running, s. Ladv's-bed- 
straw. South. 

Cheeses, s. (1) The seeds of the 

(2) Making cheeses, a game 
among girls, turning round seve- 
ral times, and suddenly curtsey- 
ing low, when their clothes spread 
in a large circle round them. 

Cheeste, s. See Cheste. 

Cheeving-bolt, s. a linch-pin. 

Chefe, (1) ». See Cheve. 
(2) s. A sheaf. 

Cheffery, s. a rent due to the 
lord of a district. 

Cheftance, s. (A.-N.) Chieftains. 

Chefts, s. Chops of meat. North. 

Cheg, v. To gnaw. Northumb. 

Chege, 8. A frolic. Kent. 

Cheggle, v. To chew or gnaw. 

Cheho, v. To sneeze. 

Chetsel, s. {A.-N.) a sort of stuff. 

Of V. thinges he bitaujt hem werk, 
As to hem wald bifalle, 
Of flex, of silk, of cheisel, 
Of porpre and of ])alle. 

Legend of Joachim §• Anne, p. 152. 

Cheitif, s. {A.-N.) a caitiff. 
Chek, «. Ill fortune. 
Cheke, (!) part. p. Choked. 

(2) Checked, in chess; and hence 
used nietaphoiically. 

(3) s. A person, or fellow. Line. 
Chekelatoun. See Ciclatoun. 
Chekene, v. To choke. 
Chekere, s. (1) The exchequer. 

(2) The game of chess. 
Chekkefulle, s. Quite full. 
Morte Arthure. 

"1 adj. Choking; 
CHOKELEW, J strangling. 

Chelaundre, s. (A.-N.) A gold- 

Cheld, adj. (A.-S.) Cold. 

Cheldez, s. Shields of a boar. 

Chele, s. (A.-S.) Cold ; chill. 

Chelinge, s. The cod-fish. Pr. P. 

Chelp, v. To chirp. Northampt. 

Cheltered, adj. Clotted ; coagu- 
lated. North. 

Chem, s. a team of horses. West: 

Chemise, s. A wall which lines a 
work of sandy or loose earth. 

Chene, s. a chain. 

Chenile, s. (A.-N.) The henbane. 

Cheorl, s. {A.-S.) a churl. 

Chep, s. The part of a plough on 
which the share is placed. 

Chepe, (1) V. {A.-S. ceapian.) To 
buy ; to cheapen ; to trade. 

(2) s. A market. 

(3) s. Cheapness. 

(4) s. A bargain. See Cheap. 

But the sack that thou liast drunk me 
would have bought me lights as gooi 
cheap, at tlie dearest chandler's in 
Europe. Slialcesp., 1 Hen. IF, ill, 3. 

Perhaps thou may'st agree letter cheap 
now. J)io>i. Plug of Hen. V. 

Cheper, *. A seller. 

Cheping, s. (^.-5.) Market; sale: 

a market place. 
Chepster, s. a starling. North. 
CHEauER-TREE, s. The service 

tree. The fruit is called chequers. 

CnEaTiiN, s. See CeccAin. 
Cherally, s. a sort of liquor. 

By your leave, sir, I'll tend my master, 
and instantly be wiih you for a cup of 
cherally this hot weather. 

B. ^ Fl., Fair M. of Inn, ii, 2. 

Chercher, s. a kerchef. 
Chercock, s. The mistletoe thrush. 

Chere, (1) 8. (A.-N.) Counte- 

nance; behaviour; entertainment. 

(2) s. A chair. 

(3) adj. {A.-h.) Dear. 




Cherel, s, a churl ; a peasant, 

Cherete, |s. (^.-A'.) Dearness; 
CHERTE, J affection. 

Cherice, v. (J.-N.) To cherish. 
Cherisance, comfort. 

Cherke, v. To creak. Pr. P. 

Cherky, adj. Rich and dry, ap- 
phed to cheese. Northampt. 

Cherlich, adv. {A.-N.) Richly. 

Cherlish, adj. (A.-S.) Illiberal. 

Cherlys-tryacle, *. Garlic. 

Cherrilet, *. A little cherry. 

Cherry, adj. Ruddy. Devon. 

Cherry-cobs, «. Cherry-stones. 

Cherry-curd-milk, s. Beast- 
lings. Oxford. 

Cherry-curds, s. A custard made 
of heastlings and milk boiled 
together and sweetened, North- 

Cherry^-fair, s. Cherry fairs, 
often referred to in the early 
writers, especially as typical of 
the transitoriness of human life, 
are still held in Worcestershire 
find some other parts, on Sunday 
evenings, in the cherry orchards. 

T)iys worlde liyt ys fuUe fckylle and frele, 
AUe df.y be day liyt wylle enpayie; 

And so sone thys worldys neelc, 
Hyt farytli but as a cheryfeyre. 

MS. Cantab., \hlh cent. 

Cherry-feast, s. A cherry fair. 

Sumtyme I drawe into mciiioyre 
How sorow may not ever laste. 
And so Cometh hope in at lastc, 
Wlian I non other foode knowe ; 
And tliat endureth but a throwe, 
Ryjt as it were a chery-feste. 

Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq., f. 182 b. 

Chepry-pit, s. a child's game, 
consisting of pitching cherry- 
stones or nuts into a small hole. 

I have loved a witch ever since I play'd 
cherry-pit. Witch of Edmontoi,. 

His ill favoured visage was almost eaten 
through with pock-holes, so that halfe 
a parish of children might easily have 
played at cherry-pit in his face. 

Feuner's Compteri Com. IK in Cat). 
Lit., X, 301. 

Chersid, part. p. Christened. 
Cherven, v. To writhe, or turn 

about. Pr. P. 
Chese, (1) ». (A.-S.) To choose. 

(2) pret. t. Saw. " Even til the 

hegh bord he chese." Sj/r 


Cheseboi.le, "1 . 

>s. A. popDV. 

CHESBOKE, J f 1-.. 

Chesle-money, s. The name given 
by the country people to Roman 
brass coins found in some places 
in Gloucestershire. 

Cheslip, *. A woodlouse, 

Chesoun,*. Reason. ^eeAchesoun, 
which is the correct forna of the 

Chess, v. (1) To crack. Line. 
(2) To pile up. Yorksh. Three 
ches chamber, three chambers 
over each other. Towneley Myst., 
p, 27. 

Chessil, s. (A.-S.) Gravel or peb- 
bles on the shore ; a bank of sand. 

Chessner, s. a chess-player. 

Chessom, s. a kind of sandy and 
clayey earth. 

Chest, (1) s. (Lat.) A coffin. 

(2) V. To place a corpse in a coffin. 
" Chest a dead corps with spyce 
and swete oyntmentes in a close 
coffyn. PoUincio," Huloet. 

(3) The game of chess. "The 
game at draughts or dames : some 
take it for the playe at chests." 

(i)part.p. Chased ; pursued. 

(5) adj. Chaste, 
Cheste, s. {A.-S. ceast.) Strife; 

Chesteine, "Is. (A.-N.) The 

CHESTAYNE, J Chcsnut. 

Chester, s. One who embalms 
or places corpses in coffins. 

Chest-trap, s. A sort of trap for 
taking pole-cats, &c. 

Chet, s. a kitten. South. 

Chete, v. (1) To cut. 

(2) To escheat. Pr. Parv. 

CheurEjV. Towoikorchar. Wilts. 




Chevachie, *. {A.-N.) An expe- 
dition with cavalry. 

Cheve, V {A.-N. c/ievir.) To suc- 
ceed ; to compass a thing; to 
thrive ; to obtain, adopt. Cheving, 
success, completion. 

Ilowsomever t)iat it cheve, 
The knyglit takis his leve. 

Sir Degrevant, Lincoln MS. 

R:ripture saith heritage holdyn wrongfully 

Schal never cheve, ne with the thred heyr 

remayne. MS. \^th ceni. 

Chevelure, s. (Fr.) A peruke. 

Cheven, s. a blockhead. North. 

Cheventeyn, s. {A.-N.) a chief- 

Chever,*. {A.-N.) " Cheville. The 
pin of the trukle : the chever, or 
axe." Nomencl. 

Chevere, v. To shiver or shake. 

Cheveril, *. {Fr.) (1) A kid, 

A sentence in but a cheveril glove to a 
good wit ; how quickly the wrong side 
may be turned outward ! 

Shakesp., Twel. N., in, ]. 

(2) Kid's leather, which being of 
a very yielding nature, a flexible 
conscience was often called a 
cheveril conscience. 

Cheveron, s. {Fr.) A kind of lace. 

Chevesaile, s. {A.-N.) A neck- 

Chevice, v. {A.-N.) To bear up, 

Chevisance, s. {A.-N.) Treaty; 
agreement ; a bargain. 

Chevish, V. {A.-N.) To bargain; 
to provide. 

Chkvorell, s. The herb chervil. 

Chewen, v. To eschew. 

Chewer, s. A narrow passage or 
road between two houses. " Go 
and sweep that chewer." West. 

Chewet, s. a sort of pie. 

Chewetes on ftesshe day. Take the lire 
of pork, and kerve it al to pecys, and 
hennes therewith; and do it in a panne, 
and Irye it, and make a coffyn as to a 
pye, smale, and do thereinne, and do 
thereuppon ^olkes of ayren, harde, pow- 
der of gynger, and salt. Co\ er it, and 
frye it in grece, other bake it wel, and 
serve it forth. Forme ofCury, p. 32. 

Chewre, s. (a corrupt form of 
chare.) A task, or business. It is 
still used in Devon. 

Here's two chewres chewr'd; when wisdom 

is employed 
'Tis ever thus. B. ^ FL, Love'i Cure, iii, 3. 

Chewree-ring, v. To assist ser- 
vants. Wilts. 
Cheyle, s. Cold. For chele. 

For many a way y have y-goo, 
In hungur, thurste, cheyle, and woo. 
MS. Cantab., Ff. ii, 38. 

Chez, v. To choose. North. 
Chibbals, s. {A.-N.) Small onions. 
Chibble, v. To chip, or break off 

in small pieces. Northampt. 
Chibe, s. a kind of onion. North. 
Chice, s. a small portion. Essex. 
Chiche, {\)adj. {A.-N.) Niggardly; 

sparing. Chiche-faced, lean faced. 

(2) s. {A.-N.) A dwarf pea or 

vetch. " Pease chiches, or chich- 

peason." Nomenclat. 
Chichelings, s. Vetches. North. 
Chick, (1) v. To germinate, 

(2) V. To crack. 

(3) s. A crack, or flaw. East. 

Chickeli-,». The wheatear. Devon. 

Chickenchow, s. A swing. North. 

Chicken's-meat, s. a name ap- 
plied to chick-weed, to the en- 
dive, and to dross corn. 

Chickering, s. The cry of the 

Chick-peas, s. Chiches. 
Chiddlens,*. Chitterlings. Wilts. 
Chide, r. (1) (^.-5.) To wrangle; 

to quarrel. 

(2) To make an incessant noise. 

C«'°^«^^^^'U. A female scold. 
chidester, J 

Chidham-white, s. a species of 
corn much cultivated in Sussex. 

Chid-lamb, s. a female lamb. 

Chiel, s. a young fellow. North. 

Chiertee, s. See Cherete. 

Chi EVE, (1) ». See Cheve. 

(2) " Apex, stamen, the chieve or 
litle threds of flowers, as in gillo- 
fers, lillies." Nomencl. 




Chifk. s. a fragment. Suffolk;. 

Chig, (1) V. To chew. North. 
(2) s. A quid of tobacco. 

Chike, s. (J.-S.) a chicken. 

Chilbladder, s. a chilblain. 

Child, s. (1) (A.-S.) A youth 
trained to arms; a knight. 
(2) A girl. Devon. So Shakesp., 
Winter s Tale, iii, 3, " A boy or 
a child, I wonder." 

Childage, s. Childhood. East. 

Childe, v. {A..S.) To be delivered 
of a child. 

Childkrmas, ». Innocents' day. 

Child-gkred, adj. {A.-S.) Of 
childish manners. 

Childing, (1) s. Bringing forth a 
child. Childing-woinan, a breed- 
ing woman. 
(2) adj. Productive. 

Childly, adj. Childish. 

Childness, s. Childishness. Shak. 

Child-of-the-people, s. a bas- 

Childre, plur. of child. (^A.-S.) 

Child's-part, s. a child's portion. 

K<it so skk. sir, but I liope to have a 
child's yart by voiir last will and testa- 
lucnt. IlUl. of Thomas Sluteli/, 1605. 

Childwit, «. A fine paid to the 

Saxon lord when his bondwoman 

was unlawfully got with child. 
Chile, s. A blade of grass. Leic. 
Chill, (1) *. A cold. Dorset. A 

cold shaking fit. East. 

(2) V. To take the chill off liquor. 
Chillery, adj. Chilly. Kent. 
Chilvkr, s. (1) An ewe-sheep. 


(2)Tue mutton of a maiden sheep. 

Chimbe, 8. (A.-S.) The prominent 

part of the staves beyond the 

liead of a barrel. 
C H 1 M BL E, r. To gnaw. Chimblings, 

bits gnawed off. Bucks. 
Chimer, v. (A.-S.) To shiver. 
Chimicke, «. A chemist. Florio. 

Chiming, s. A