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Full text of "A dictionary of words used in the East Indies with full explanations. To which is added, Mohammedan law & Bengal revenue terms; with an appendix, containing forms of Firmauns, Perwanehs, Arizdashts, instruments and contracts of law, passports, together with a copy of the original grant from the Emperor Furrukhseer to the English East India Company, in Persian and English"

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WITH FULL explanations; 
The LKAOiNG Word of each Article being printed in a 




TERMS, i<!!l^^%^ 



forms qffirmauns, Perwatielis, Arizdcislfs, Instruments and 
Contracts of Law, Passporvfy Sfc. 

together with 

A Copy of the original Grant from the Emperor Furrukhscer to thr 
English East India Company, in Persian and English. 




At the Bible, Crown, and Constitution, 
32, Cornhillj 

By Thoir.u Maiden, Sherbourn-Ltne. 



f) ;/ 

( M ) 


Every Gentleman, whom va- 
rious circumllances has occafioned to 
refide in the Honourable Eaft India 
Company's fettlements in Afia, has 
regretted the want of a work of a fi- 
milar nature to that which is now laid 
before the PubUc. "When in the Eaft, 
terms have been ufed, in the way of 
bufinefo or law, which he has been 
unable to comprehend the meaning of; 
and miftakes have arifen owing to that 
want of knowledge, which has fre- 
quently led perfons into difagreeable di- 
lemmas. Befides, many w^ords and ex- 


( iv ) 

preffions occur in the accounts of our 
tranfaflions in the Eaft, that are pub- 
lifhed in our own country as well as in 
Hindooiftaun, which the mere Engliih 
reader is not able to underftand ; and 
therefore, when he has taken the pains 
to perufe feveral volumes concerning 
our Eafl: India pofleflions, he has been 
compelled to iit down with a very im- 
perfect kr^owledge of the fubje<9:, be- 
caufe he hi^§ not been i^ pofleffion of 
any explanatory Dl<ftionary to refer 
to whenever he might be in doubt. 
To remedy this ev'tl, an Indian Voca- 
bulary was publiflied at London in 
1788, l2mo; a Didionary of Moham- 
medan Law and Bengal Revenue Terms, . 
by Mr. Gladwin, at Calcutta, in ] 797 > 
4to ; (but this work is exceedingly 
fcarcein Europe;) and an Indian Glof- 
far}, in cr. 8vo. by Mr. Roberts, in 

( V ) 

1800: yet neither of tliefe works have 
the original words in the Perfian cha- 
rader placed at the beginning of the 
articles. This defed has been often 
mentioned to the Editor, by various 
Gentlemen who have returned from 
the Eaft Indies, who felt the want of 
fuch a vade mecum, and who have 
expreffed a delire to fee a work exe- 
cuted on a more extenfive plan, fuch 
as might be ufeful to thofe who may 
be employed by the Company in the 
feveral departments of Government, 
of Law, and of Commerce. " When 
I arrived in India, fays Mr. Roberts, 
what greatly added to my mortification," 
in not being acquainted with the na- 
tive languages, ^' was, that when I 
perufed a newfpaper, that fource of ne- 
ceflary information, wherein are fre^ 
a 3 

( vl ) 

quen tly inferted very interefting accounts 
«f v^arious occurrences, which men 
learch after with avidity ; or, when I 
looked into works of the authors who 
treated of the manners, cuftoms, trade, 
culture, &c. of the people, amongft 
whom it was my prefent lot to refide, 
my not underftanding a number of the 
particular terms which were made ufe 
©f, left me, when I had finiflied, as 
much uninformed as before I began." 
This being the cafe, then, with almoft 
every gentleman, as well as of JNIr. 
Roberts, who reiides in that country, 
the Editor has endeavoured to coUefl, 
from the beft fources of intelligence, 
a fufficient explanation of thole terms, 
the right underllanding of which is ab- 
folutely neceflary to qualify a gentle- 
man employed by the Company, for 
a due difcharge of his duty, or to rcn- 

( vli ) 
der the perufal of diiFerent authors 
pleafant and profitable. 

That this work might be more exten- 
lively ufeful, the Editor has thought fit 
to add an Appendix, in which is con- 
tained, among other interefting parti- 
culars, copies of Arzdaftits, or Forms 
of Addrefs, ufed in Hindooftaun ; 
Forms of Paflport?, Orders, Addrefles, 
Summonfes, &c. ; the proceedings of 
the felect committee at Fort William 
in Bengal, relative to Gomauflitehs^, 
Duftuks, and Chokeys ; copies of Fir- 
mauns for various offices; the Firmaun 
granted in 1717^ by the Emperor Fur- 
rukhfeer, to theEnghftiEaft India Com- 
pany, for carrying on their trade in 
Bengal, Bahar, and Oriflli; Obferva- 
tions on the Era of the Mohammedans, 
called the Hejira, to which is added a 
Table of Ihe commencement of the 

( vlll ) 
years of the Hejira, as they correfpond 
with thofe of the Chriftian Era, from 
1801 to 2000 inchifive; feveral forms of 
Perwanehs for various offices : render- 
ing the whole an ufeful book of refer- 
ence for the Lawyer, the Writer, the 
Merchant, or the Mihtary Officer. 

To a w^ork of this nature it may 
not be improper to ♦ prefix, by w^ay of 
Introduction, a coYicife Hiftory of the 
Provinces of Bengal, Bahar, and 
Oriffa ; and this talk we the more 
readily undertake, becaufe Calcutta 
is the principal feat of the Eaft India 
trade ; becaufe it was in thefe provinces 
that the Eaft India Company were al- 
lowed, by a grant from the Emperor 
Furrukhfaer, (which grant, as above- 
mentioned, is given in our Appendix, 
p. 265, in the original Perfian, accom- 
panied with an Englifli tranflation,) to 

( ix ) 

trade duty free ; and becaufe it is ab* 
folutely neceflary, that a young gen- 
tleman, deftined for that part of the 
world, fhould have fome acquaintance 
with the country to which he is going, 
before he fets fail for India. "We Ihall 
not, however, enter into a minute detail 
of the tranfactions which have taken 
place in thofe provinces, but con- 
fine burfelves, more particularly, to 
a geographical defcription, which 
will, no (iouDi, pe more interfil- 
ing to thofe perfons for whofe in- 
formation this vade mecum is princi- 
pally intended, than elaborate ac- 
counts of the overthrow of one 
prince and the fetting tip of ano- 
ther; or of the revolutions which 
have been effected by time or ca- 
price; or of the battles which have 

( ^ ) 

been fought with a view to ac- 
quire territory, or to oppofe the 
machinations of an adverfe chiefs 







A HE province or foobali of Bengal is a large 
<ii{lri<5:l of Hindooflaun, at the mouth of the 
Ganges, having Thibet on the North, the king- 
doms of Aracan and Tiperah on the Eaft, the Bay 
of Bengal and Orilfa on the South, and the foobah 
of Bahar on the Weft ; it being, according to the 
Ayeen Akbery, 400 cofs long, and 200 broad. 
In the time of Akber, Elau Afghan carried his Gon- 
quefts fo far towai'ds the eaft, as to enter a country 
called Bhatty, which has fince been reckoned a 
part of the foobah of Bengal. Here he caufed the 
kootbahjOr prayer, to be read, and caufed coins to 
to be ftruck in the name of that viclorious prince* 
tittle worthy of note is related of the country of 
Bhatty, except that it produces vaft quantities of 
mangoe trees, which yield a moft delicious fruit: 
the trees do not grow To high as the ordinary ftature 
of the human race. 

( xii ) 

The original name of this province was Bung; 
al was added to it from the mounds of eartli (that 
being the appellation of thofe mounds) which the 
ancient Rajahs caufed to be thrown up in the low 
lands at the foot of the hills. By the emperor 
Aurungz>ebe it was called Soobah Jennut ul Belaad 
Bengala, i. e. the paradife of nations, the Soobah 
of Bengal. The breadth of thefe mounds was 
ufually about twenty cubits, and their height about 

According to the Ayeen Akbery,the air of Bengal 
Is very temperate. But as this country lies almofl 
entirely within the torrid zone, and in the-middle 
of a very extensive continent, it is fometimes fub- 
ject to fuch extremes of heat, as render it very fa- 
tal to European conftitutions. Dr. Lind is of opi- 
nion, that the climate of Bengal is the moft dan- 
gerous in this refpedl of any of the pngliih territo- 
ries, excepting Bencoolen on the coafl of Sumatra. 
Part of this unheal thinefs arifes from the mere 
circumftance of heat ; for in all the fouthern parts 
of India, when the wind blows over land, it is fo 
extremely hot and fuffocating as fcarcely to be borne. 
The reafon of this is clear from the mere infpcc- 
tlon of a map of Afia, where it is evident that 
whatever wind blows over land, efpecially in 
the fouthern parts, muft pafs over an immenfe tracl 
of country ftrongly heated by the fun ; and as in 
every part of this extenfive continent there are 
fandy deferts of very coniiderable magnitude, the 

( xlii ) 
heat is thus prodigioully increafed. This becomes 
very evident on the falling of a fhower of rain at 
the time the land-wind prevails ; for if the wind in 
its way palfes through the (hower, the air is agree^ 
bly cooled, though the fky Ihould be ever fo ciear* 
while thofe.who reiide only at a few miles diilance* 
but out of the diredl line of the fhower, will be 
fainting under the exceilive heat. Here indeed, 
when the air is clear, the fun- beams are much 
more powerful than in our climate, infomuch that 
the hght at noon-day is too powerful for the eyes to 
bear; and the large liars, as Venus and Jupiter, 
Ihine with a furpriling luftre. Thu-s the reflexion 
of the fun-beams from the earth muft neceflarily 
occalion an extraordinary degree of heat in the at- 
mofphere; fo that from the winds above-mention- 
ed very great inconveniences fometimes arife, li- 
milar to thofe which are occafioned by the Har- 
luattan in Africa. Mr. Ives tells us, that it is 
affirmed they will fnap glafs if it be too much ex- 
pofed to them : he has {een the veneering ftripped. 
off from a chell of drawers by their means; and 
they will certainly crack and chap almoit every 
piece of wood that is not well feafoned. In cer- 
tain places they are fo loaded with fand, that the 
horizon appears quite hazy were they blow, aucj 
it is almoin impollible to prevent the eyes from 
being thus greatly injured. They have likewife a 
very pernicious effect on fuch people as are expofed 

to them while lleeping. This feldom fails to brin^ 

( xiv ) 
on a fit of tKe barbiers, a kind of paralytic dif- 
temper attended with a total deprivation of the ufe 
of the limbs, and which the patient never gets the 
better of but by removing to fome other climate. 
Thefe hot winds are made ufe of with great fuc- 
cefs tor cooling liquors, by wrapping a wet cloth 
round the bottles, and expofing it to the air. 
The reafon of this is the very quick evaporation 
which takes place, and which, in every iimilar 
inftance, produces a great degree of cold. 

The unhealthinefs of Bengal, however, is more 
particularly to be attributed to the inundations of the 
Ganges and Burrampooter, by means of which fuch 
quantities of putrefcible matters are brought down 
as infecl the air with the moft malignant vapours 
when the waters retire. Though. the rainy feafon 
begins in Bengal only in the month of June, the 
river begins to fwell in the mountains of Thibet, 
, early in April, and by the latter end of that month 
in Bengal alfo. The reafon of this is partly the 
melting of the fnow on the mountains of Thibet, 
and partly the vaft collection of vapours brought by 
the Ibutherly or fouth-well monfoon, which are 
fuddenly (lopped by the high mountains of Thibet. 
Hence it is obvious, that the accumulation and con- 
denlation of thefe vapours muft firil take place in 
the neighbourhood of the mountains which op- 
pofe them ; and thus the rainy feafon commences 
fooneft in thofe places which lie nearefl the moun- 

{ XV ) 

In Bengal the watejs rife at firft very flowly, 
increaiing only at the rate of one inch a day for 
the iirll fortnight. It then gradually augments 
to two and three inches before any quantity of 
rain falls in the low countries ; and when the rain 
bfecomes general, the increafe at a medium is five 
inches per day. By the latter end of July, all the 
lower parts of Bengal, contiguous to the Ganges 
and Burrarapoorer, are overflowed, and prefent ^ 
a furfacc of water mcrre than lOO miles wide. Thi» 
vail colle<5lIon of fluid, however, is owing in a great 
meafiire to the rains which fall on the low country 
itfelf ; for the lands in the neighbourhood are over- 
dowed fome time before the bed of the river, is fil- 
led. It muft be obfeved, that the ground on the 
bank of the river, and even to fome miles diftance, is 
higher than that which is more remote: and thus a 
feparation is made for a confide rable time betwixt 
the waters of the land-flood and thofe of the river. 
As the cultivated lands in Bengal would receive 
damage from fuch acop'ous inundation, they muft 
for this reafon be guarded by flrong dykes to refift 
the waters, and admit only a certain quantity. 
Thefe, colle6tively taken, are faid to be more than 
1(X)0 miles in length, and are kept up at an enor- 
mous cxpence; yet they not always anfwer the pur- 
pofe, on account of the loofenefs of the earth of 
which they are compofed, even though fome are of 
the thicknefs of an ordinary rampart at the bafe. One 
particular branch of the Ganges (navigable only in 

the rainy feafon, and then equal in rife only to the 

( XV'i ) 

Thames at Chelfea, is condu^kd for 70 mirej? 
bptween dykes ; and when full, the pafTengers 
iook down upon the adjacent country as from the 
top of a hill. 

The tide becoming lefs capable of coimteraclin^ 
fiich an impetuous torjeiU of freih water, the height 
of the inundation gradually diminiflies as in ap- 
proaches the fea, and totally vanifhes at the point 
of confluence ; which is owing to the facility with 
which the Waters of the inundation fpread over the 
level of the ocean. But when the force of winds 
confpires with that of the tide, the waters are re- 
tarded in fuch a manner as fometimes to raife the 
inundation two feet above|the ordinary level; which 
has be'en known to occafion the lofs of whole crops 
of rice. In the year 1763, a melancholy accident 
happended at Luckipour *, when a ftrong gale of 
wind, confpiring with a high fpring-tide, at a fea- 
fon when the periodical flood was within a foot and 
an half of its higheft pitch, the waters are faiJ to 
have ri fen fix feet above their ordinary level. Thus 
the inhabitants a particular diftrift were fwept away 
with their houfes and cattle ; and to aggravate 
the diftrefs, it happened in a part of the country 
where it was fcarcely poflible to find a tree by 
by which a man might cling in order to fave him- 
ielffrom impending ruin. 

For the fpace of a few days before the middle of 
Auguft the inundation is at a ftand, and then be- 

• Luckipour is a diftridl 285 miles dif^aiit from Cal- 

{ xvii ) 

gins to abate, by a ceflation of rain in the moim- 
. tains, though great quantities ftill continue to fall 
on the low country. The inundation does not, 
however, in iis decreafe, always keep pace with 
that of the river, by reafon of the height of the 
banks ; but after the beginning of Odlober, when 
the rain has nearly ceafed, the remainder goes oiF 
quickly by evaporation, leaving the ground exceed- 
ingly enriched and fertile. Thus the land of Ben- 
galis rendered highly fertile, by inundation. In like 
manner as Egypt is by the overflowing of the Nile, 
which is occafioned by the torrents of rain which 
fail in Abyifiala. 

From the changing of the monfoon in O^ober 
to the middle of March, the rivers are in a ftate of 
tranquillity ; when the north-wefl winds begin, 
and may be expected once in three or four days 
till the commencement of the rainy reafon. Thefe 
are the moll formidable enemies of the inland na- 
vigation which is carried on by means of the 
large rivers. They are ludden and violent fqualls, 
attended with rain ; and though their duration is 
commonly hut ihort, fometimes produce fatal ef- 
fects; whole fleets of trading boats having been 
funk by tht m almoft inftantaneoufly. They are 
more frequent in the eallern than tlie weflern part 
of Bengal, and happen oftencr towards the clofc- 
of the day that at any other time : but as they 
are indicated fome time before tl>e approach by the 
riiing und fiii^u'ar appearance of the clouds, the 

traveller has coiainonly time eaougU to feek. for a. 


( xviu ) 

place of {helter. It is in the great rivers alone tliat 
they are fo formidable, and that about the end of 
May or beginning of June, when the rivers are 
much increafed in width. After the commencement 
of the rainy (esiCon, which varies in different parts, 
from the middle to the end of June, tempeftuous 
weather occaiional I y happens. At this feafon places 
of fhelter are mole common that at any other time 
by the filling up of the creeks and inlets as the 
liver incrcafes : and, on the other hand, the bad 
weather, when it happens, is of longer continu- 
ance than during the feafon of the north-weflers. 
The rivers being now fpread to the diftance of fe- 
veral miles, large waves are raifed on. them, par- 
ticularly when blowing in a direction contrary to 
the rapid parts of the (iream, and the danger arif- 
mg from theie Hiould of courfe be avoided. 

In the interval between the end of the rainy fea- 
fon and the beginning of the north-wefters, this na- 
vigation may be very fafely undertaken; an ordi- 
nary degree of attention being then only requilite to 
pilot the boat clear of fhallows and flumps of 
trees. The feafon of the north-weliers requires 
the greateft care and attention. Should one of 
thefe fqualls approach, and no creek or inlet offer 
for ilielter, the deep bank of the rivers fhould be 
always fought as a place of {belter, if it is not in a 
crumblingrta*.e,wheth€ritbeto the windward or lee- 
■ ward, rather than the other. 1 1 this cannot be done 
the flat fidemafi be taken up with ; and if it be a 
lee ihoie, the anchor Ihouid be thrown out to pie- 

f XIX ) 

vent driving upon it. In thefe cafes the maft is a!- 
ways fiippofed to be ftruck ; and, provided this be 
done, and the cargo judicioully difpofed of, there 
is little danger of any of the boats commonly ufed 
being loft. 

The boats commonly employed in the inland 
navigation of Bengal are called budgerows, and are 
formed fomewhat like a plcafure-barge. Some 
have cabins 14 feet broad and proportionally long> 
drawing from four to five feet water. Their mo- 
tion is very flow, not exceeding the rate of eight 
miles a day when moved by their oars; fo that 
their progrefs down the river muft depend princi- 
pally on the motion of the current. From the be- 
ginning of November to the middle or latter end 
of May, the ufual rate of going down the ftream 
is about 40 miles in twelve hours, and during the 
reft of the year from 50 to 70 miles. The current 
is ftrongeft while the waters of the inundation are 
running off, which happens in part of Auguft 
and September. In many of the fhallaw rivers, 
however, thecurrentns exceedingly llow during the 
dry months; infomuch that the track rope is fre- 
quently ufed by going downwards. In towing 
againft the ftream the fteep iide of the river is ge- 
nerally preferred on account of the depth of water, 
though the current runs much ftronger there than 
on the oppolite lide. On thefe is ne- 
ceffary ta provide a very long track rope, as well 
for avoiding the falling pieces of the fteep ban^; on 
the one fide as the fhallow water oil the oiher, wiita 

( XX ) 

it becomes neceffary to change fide s through tl^e 
badnefs of the tracking ground. The anchor Ihould 
always be kept ready Tor dropping in cafe the track- 
rope breaks. The ufual late of towing agahift the 
ftream is from 17 to £0 miles a day; and to 
make even this progrefs the windings of the 
river require the boats to be dragged againft 
the current at the rate of four miles and a half 
an hour for 12 hours. When the waters are 
high, a greater progrefir will be made, notwith- 
flaiiding the fuperior ftrength of the current ; be^ 
caufe the filling of the rivei oed gives many oppor- 
tunities of^ cutting ofF angles and turnings, and 
fometimes even large windings, by going through 

The foob'ih of Bengal abounds with rivers, the 
fineft of which is the Gung, or Ganges, which 
rifes in the mountains that border on Thibet, in- 
about ninety-two degrees of Eaft longitude, and 
about thirty-two degrees of North latitude. It 
croifes feveral kingdomiss^running from Eaft to Weft, 
and then from North to Soutlj, traverfiiig an im- 
menfe track of country, and falling at length into 
the Bay of Bengal by feveral mouths. The Hindoo 
priefts have a tradition, that its waters now from 
the hail of Mahadeo *. From the northern moun- 

» When the river, frys the '"able, was iirft con- 
ducted froai its fou ce towards the ocean, .by a Prince, 
"wV'.c e name wns Bageerath. Janoo was at his devo- 
tr- ns a^ the mouth o\ the Mahnnr.dct , at a'place called 
Nabjbgunge. The G.ddefs in paaing fwept away the 
ut nfils for his ablutions, which f cnrsgf.d him, that 
h-: diank up her ftro?m ; l.ut artci a while his anger 
was api;eufed, and he iet her ercape iro^n an iacilioo 

( x^ ) 

fains it runs through the Sodbah of Dehly, Agf^> 
Allahabad, and Bahar, into Bengal. Near the town 
of Cazyhuttah, in the Sircah of Barbuckabad^ at 
which place it is called the PudhaWutty, it fendis 
a branch to the eaft, which empties itfelf into the 
fea at Chlttagong. The main river in its courfe to 
the foiuhward forms three ftreams, the Sirfutty, th€ 
Jown, and the Gung, which three ftreams are col- 
lectively called, in the Hindovee language, Tir- 
punny, and they are all held in high veneration 
by the Hindoos. The Gung, after having divided 
into a thoufand channel^i joins the fea at Satagong, 
and the Sirfutty and Jown (lifcharge themfelves 
in like manner. The learned among the Hindoos 
have compofed volumes in praife of ihcfe waters, 
all parts of which are faid to be holy, but fome 
particular places are efleemed more fo than others. 
The great people have the water of the Ganges 
brought to them from vaft diftances, it being ef- 
leemed neccffary in the performance of fome reli- 
gious ceremonies. The water of the Ganges has 
been celebrated in all ages,notonly for itsfaniftity, 
but alfo on account of it its fweetnefs, lightnefs, 
and wholefomenefs, and for, that it does not be- 
come putrid though kept for years. 

There is another very large river, called Btir- 
humpooter, (or Brimhapooter,) which runs from 
Khatai to Coach, and thence through Bazoohah 
, to the fea. 

roade in his thigh j and from this clrcumftance of her 
fecond birth, ihe was afterwards called Janavee, or the 
oftspring of Janoo. 

'( xxli ) 

By far the greater number of the rivers of Bengal 
Lave their banks cultivated with rice, of which 
there are a variety offpecies. The foil is fo fertile 
in fome places, that a fingle grain of rice will yiekl a 
ineafure of two or rfiree feer. Some lands will pro- 
duce three crops in a year. Vegetation is here fo 
extremely quick, that as fad as the water rifes 
the plants of rice grow above it, fo that the ear is 
never immerfed. 

. The principal food of the inhabitans is fifli and 
rice; wheat and barley not being elleemed whole- 
fome. Mod of the vegetables and animals com- 
inon to other countries in the torrid ione, are alfo 
ufually found at Bengal. Its great produce of 
grain is rice, which is commonly exported 
thence into other countries. By various accidents, 
however, the crop of rice fometimes fails, and a 
famine is produced ; and of this there have been 
many inftances in Bengal, as well as in other 
parts of Hindooftaun. One of the moll deplorable 
of this kind happened in the year 1770. The na- 
bob and feveral great men of the country diftributed 
rice gratis to the poor until their iloc'uS began to 
fail, when thofe donations were of confequence 
withd'-awn. Vafl multitudes then came down to 
Calcutta, the capital Englifh fettlement in the 
province, in hopes of meeting with relief at that 
place. The granaries of the Company however 
being quite empty, none could be afforded: fo that 
when the famine had prevailed a fortnight, many 
thouiands fell down in the ftreets and fields ; whole 

{ xx'iii ) 

bodies, mangled by ihedogs-and vultures, compt- 
ingiiiihe air, feemed to threaten a plague as the con- 
fequence of the famine. An hundred people were 
daily employed on the Company*s account, with 
jdoolys, fledges, and bearers, tO throw them into 
the river. At this time the tifh could not be eaten, 
the river being fo full of carcafes, and many of 
thole who ventured to feed upon them died fud- 
denly. Hogs, ducks, and geefe, alfo fed moftly on 
carnage ; fo that the only meat that could be pro- 
cured was mutton; and this, from the drynefs of 
the feafon, was fo fmail, that a quarter of it was 
fcarcely a pound and a half in weight. 

A very lingular and alarming phflenomenon appear- 
ed in the month. of Auguft. This was a large black 
cloud at a diilance in the air, which fometimes 
£)bfcured the fun, and feemed to extend a great 
way over and about Calcutta. Thfe hotter the 
day proved the lower this cloud feemed to defcend, 
and for three days caufed great fpeculation. The 
bramins pretended, that this phajnomenon, which 
,was a cloud of infedris, fhould make its appearance, 
three times ; and if ever they defcendedto the earth, 
the country would be ffeftroyed by fonie un- 
timely misfortune. They fay, that about 130 years 
before there had been fuch another bad tune, when 
the earth was parched for want of water; 
and this cloud of infe^ls made its appearance, 
though it came much lower the fccond time than 
it had done before. On the third day, the weather 
being very hot. and cloudy, they defcended, fo low 

( xxlr ) 

£hat they could be plainly feeii. They feemed to 
be about the lize of a horfe-ftinger, with a long red 
body, large head and eyes, keeping clofe together 
like a fwarm of bees, and, to appearance, flying 
quite on a line. None, however, were caught, 
as the people where frightened by the prognolli- 
cations of the bramins. Whilft it rained they 
continued in one pofition for near a quarter of an 
hour ; they rofe five or fix feet at once, and in a 
little time defcended as much, until a ftroug north- 
weft wind blew for two days fuccei]iively. During 
its continuance they afcended and defcended, but 
more precipitately than before ; and next morn- 
ing the air was quite clear. For fome days before 
the cloud made its appearance, the toads, frogs, 
and infects, which, during the rains, made a con- 
tinual noife through the night, difappeared, 
and were neither heard nor feen but in the 

The caufe of this dreadful famine was a preter- 
natural drought. In this country they have two 
harvefts, one in Aprils called the little harveit, 
which confifts of the fmaller grain ; the fecond 
called the grand harveft, is only of rice. But by 
a drought which happened in 1769 the great har- 
veft of that year failed, as did aifo the little one of 
1770, which j)roduced the dreadful confequences 
already recited. 

Among the vegetable produ<$lions of Bengal, Mr. 
Jves mentions the areca tree, the woody part of 

( XXV ) 

%vliich'is as toiisch as whalebone. Here isalfo a beau- 
tlful tree called chultse, the flower of which is at 
firft a hard green ball on foot (lalks about four inches 
in length. This opens, and the calyx is compofed 
of five round, thick and fucculent leaves ; the 
corolla confifls of the like number of fine beauti- 
ful white petals. After one day the corolla falls off 
and the ball clofes again, and is fold in the markets. 
There Is-a fucceflion of thefe for fevei-al months. 
The mango tree grows here alfo in plenty. Its 
fruit is preferred to all others in the country, ex- 
cepting very fine pine-apples ; the gentlemen eat 
little elfe in the hot months, when thefe fruits are 
in feafon. If no wine is drank with them, they are 
apt to produce boils, which are troublefome but 
healthful. In the walls of Bengal they have a 
tall tree called the tatoon, faid to have been firft 
broiight in England by Captain Birch. The leaves 
are of a deep fhining green, the lower part rather 
paler where it is ribbed, and undulated round the 
edges. The fruit is of the fize, fhape, and colour 
of an olive, with a moderately thin hulk, and a 
kernel like that of the date ; five or fix grow on the 
fame pedicle. Near Calcutta is a large fpreading 
tree called the ruffa, which makes a fine ap-- 
pearance when in full bloom. The natives fay that 
this and another near the Dutch fettlementare tbe 
only two in Bengal. They pretend likewife that 
they can never find the feed : but Mr. Ives informs 
us, that this is to be met with with in plenty, though 

( xxvi ) 

in a bad condition, the ants and other vermin being 
fo fond of them, that not a lingle pod is ever to be 
met with that is not touched by one or other of thefe 
fpecies ofinfe<$ls. This tree bears flowers of bright 
crimfon, and all the iliades from thence down to a 
bright yellowi They are in fuch plenty as almoll 
to cover the tree, but have little or no fmell. The 
fruit is a pod, of the fhape and fize of a large gar- 
den-bean, containing four or five flefliy feedsywhich 
ealily fall into two when dry. They are brown 
on theoutfide, white within, and nearly fquare, but 
convex on the fides. 

. Mr. Ives makes mention of akhid of birds found 
in Bengal, and named argill or hurgill'. They are 
very large, and in the evening majeftically ftalk 
along like fo many naked Indians, for which our 
author in fa<ft at firit miflook them. On difcover- 
ing that they were birds, he refolved to fhoot pne 
of them; which, however, was very difficult to 
be done. The Indians fliowed evident marks of 
diffatisfaction at the attempt; and informed him 
that it was impoflible to fucceed, becaufe thefe 
birds were poffeffed by the fouls of bramins. At 
lafl, however, he fucceeded ; and informs us that 
the bird he fliot extended fourteen feet ten inches 
between the tips of the wings ; from the tip of the 
bill to the extremity of the claw wa^ {even feet and 
a half; the legs were naked, as was alfo one- 
half of tlui thighs ; the naked parts being three 
feet in length. The feathers of the wings and 

( xxvii ) 
back were of an iron colour, and very ftrang ; 
thofe of the belly were very long, and on the breatl 
was a great deal of down, all of a dirty white. The 
bill was 16 inches round at the bafe, nearly of a 
triangular fliape^ and of different colours. In the 
craw was a land tortoife l o inches long ; and a 
large black male cat was found entire in its maw. 
The houfes in Bengal are for the moil part made 
of bamboos, which are of long duration. Tlie 
people travel chiefly by water, efpecially in the rainy 
feafon. They conllru6t boats for war, burthen, 
and travelling. Particularly for bciieging places, 
they make them of fuch a form, that, when they 
run aihore, they are higher than the fort, which 
is thereby eafily entered. For their journies by land 
they make ufe of Sokhafens. This is a machine 
fupported upon the fhoulders of men, by a pole 
formed of a number of ftraight pieces of wood 
joined together by iron rings. The lides of tli« 
machine are ornamented with different metals, 
and over the top is thrown an arched covering 
made of woollen cloth, for defence againllthe fun 
and rain. In thefe machines you may fit or lie 
down and lleep as conveniently as in a room of a 
houfe. Some alfo ride upon elephant-s. Horfes 
are very fcarce. In fome parts of this Soobah arc 
manufactured hempen carpets, fo beautiful, that 
they feem to be made of filk. The inhabitants of 
Bengal are exceedingly fond of falt^ which is fcarce 
in fome this parts Soobah. 

( xxvlii ) 

DlamoiK^g, emeralds, pearls, agates, and cora«- 
Ilans are brought from other countries to the fea- 
ports of this Soobah. 

Their flowers and fruits are fine and in plenty. 
The beetle-nut ftains the lips of thofe who eat it 
quite red. 

As to the diale6^ fpoken in Bengal, it is certainly 
very corrupt ; but notwithftandingits corruption, it 
is abfolutely neceiTary to be learned, as well as the 
Perfian, by all thofc who have occalion to refide 
in that part of the globe. An excellent grammar 
of the Bengal dialect was written by Mr. George 
Uadley, formerly a^captain in the fervjce of the 
Eaft India Company, the fifth edition of which 
has lately appeared, in which is given a Bengal 
alphabet. The board of commerce at Calcutta, 
and the feveral chiefs of the fubordinate fa6lories» 
cannot pi'operly condu<5l the Company's mercan- 
wtile correfpondence and negociations, without the 
intermediate agency of Bengal interpreters ; for the 
whole fyftem of inveftment, in every ftage of 
its preparation and provifion, is managed in the 
language of the country ; in which all the 
accounts of the Au rungs (or manufa<?luring towns) 
thofe of the Company's export warehoufe, all pro- 
pofals and letters form agents, merchants, contrac- 
tors, weavers, winders, bleac)iers, &c. are con- 
ftantly prefented; and into which all orders to Go- 
maufhtehs, Aumeens, and other officers for the 
purchafe and procuration of goods mufl be tianflated. 
Mahmoodabad (the xity of Mahmood) has a 

( xxix ) 

fort fiirrounded by a mai-fh. When Sheer Khaim 
conquered this country, forae of the Rajah's ele- 
phants fled into the wilds, where they have increafed 
to great numbers. This Sircar produces long 

The Sircar of Khaleefutabad abounds alfo with 
elephahts, and long pepper. 

Sircar Bokla is upon the banks of the fea. The fort 
is fituatedaraongft trees. Onthefirildayofthenioon 
the water begins to rife, and continues increafing 
till the fourteenth, from which'time to the end of thft 
month it decreufes gradually every day. In the -JQih 
vcarofthereignofAkber, one afternoon at 3 o'cloplo 
there was a terrible inundation, which deluged the. 
whole Sircar. The Rajah was at an entertaiimient, 
from whence he embarked in a boat ; his fon, Par- 
minund Roy, with many people, climbed to the 
top of a Hindoo temple ; and the merchants betook 
ihemfelves to the high lands. It blew a hurricane^ 
with thunder and lightning for five hours, during 
which lime the fea was greatly agitated. The 
houfesand boats were fwallowed up, nothing re- 
maining but the Hindoo temple and the heights. 
Near two hundred thoufand living creat\ires pe- 
rifhed in this calamity. 

Sircar Choraghaut produces raw iilk, gunneys, 
and plenty of Tanghion horfes. Here are abun- 
dance of fruits in high peifedion, amongll the rell 
is one called the Lutken, of the lize of a walnut, 
but to the tafte is fomewhat like the pomegranate | 
it contains three feeds. 

c 3 

( XXX ) 

Sircar Barbuckabad is famous for a fine cloth, 
called Gungajel, and great abundance of oranges. 

Sircar Bazooha. The forefts of this Sircar fup* 
ply timbers fit for building boats, and for the beams 
of houfes ; and here is an iron mine. 

Sircar Sunargong. In this Sircar is fabricated 
a very beautiful cloth, called Caffah. In the town 
of Cetarehfoonder is a large refervoir of water 
which gives a peculiar whitenefr» to the cloths that 
are waihed in it. 

Sircar Silhet is very mountainous. It furnifhes 
many eunuch flayes for the ferais (or feraglios). 
Here grows a delicious fruit, called Soontara, in 
colour like an orange, but of an oblong form. 
China root is produced here in great plenty, 
•which was difcovered by fome Turks. In thefe 
mountains is abundance of lignum aloes. They 
fell the trees at the end of the rains, and 
leave them expofed to the weather for fome time } 
atfer which they reje<5l all thofe that are any- 
wife rotten. The Bunjraj is a bird with a 
black body, red eyes, a long tail, and wings beauti- 
fully variegated, meafuring a cubit when extended » 
they are eafily tamed, and will imitate the voice of 
any^ animal. The Sheergunj is another bird, which 
differs from the former, but in the colour of its legs 
and bill, wjilch are red. They both eat flcfh,and 
prey upon fmall birds, 

Chittagong is a large city,'fituated amongft trees 
upon the tanks of the fea^ and is a great empo- 

( XXXI ) 

rlum, being the refort of chriftian and other mer- 

Shereefabad produces very beautiful white bul- 
locks, of a great fjze, who will oarry a burden 
of fifteen maunds, and, like camels, they bend 
their knees to be loaded. It is alfo noted for large 
goats and fighting cocks. 

Satgong. Here are two emporiums, a mile 
diftaut from each other ; one called Satgong, and 
the other Hooghly, with its dependencies. Sat- 
gong is fainous for pomegranates. 

Madurun. In this Sircar, ataplacecalled Huneyeh, 
is a diamond mine were are found only fmall ftones. 
The Soobah of Bengal confiits of twenty-four Sir- 
cars, and {even hundred and eighty-feven Mahlsl 
The revenue, in the time of Akber, was fifty-nine 
crore, eighty-four lacks, fifty-nine thoufand three 
hundred and nineteen dams, or ficca rupees* 
1,49,01,482 — 15 — 2. 
A fummary, but a morp particular, ftateraent of the 

revenues of Bengal, extraded from the Tuk- 

feem Jumma of that foobah, in the time of the 

emperor Akber : 
Sircar Oudumber, or Tandeh, con- Dams. 

taining 52 mahls, — ^— 24,079,399^ 

J ennctabad, 66 mahls — — 1,573,196 

Futtahabad, 31 mahls, — — 7,969,56/ 

Mahmoodabad, 88 mahls, — 11,610,256 

Khallfetabad, 35 mahls, — — 5,402^140 

Bokla, 4 mahls, — — — 7,130,643 

Pooreneah^ 9 mahls, — — — 6,408,793 

( XXXI i ) 


Sircar Tajepoor, 29 inalils, — 6,483,85/ 

Ghoragliaut, 84 mahls, — — 8,3 83,07 2 j 

Pingerah, 21 mahls, — — 5,803,273 

Barbuckubad, 38 mahls, — 17,451,532 

Bazooha, 32 mahls, — — 39,516,871 

Sunargong, 52 mahls, — — 10,331,333 

Silhet, 8 mahls, — — — 6,681,620 

Chatgong, 7 mahls, — — 11,424,310 

Shereefabad, 26 mahls , — 22,488,750 

Solimanabad, 31 mahls, — 17,629,964 

Satgong, 53 mahls, — — 16.724,720 

Madarun, 16 jnahls, — — 9,403,400 

• It is generally fuppofed that Bengal is the richeft 
and moH populous province in the empire of Hindoo- 
flaun. Befides its own confumption, which is cer- 
tainly very confiderable, its exports are immenfe. 
One part of its merchandife is carried into the in- 
land country. Thibet takes off a quantity of its 
cottons, befides fome iron and cloths of European 
manufadure. The inhabitants of thofe mountains 
fetch them from Patna themfelves, and exchange 
them for mwfk and rhubarb. 

But the trade of Thibet is nothin«; when com- 
paied to that which Bengal carries on with Agra, 
Delhi, and the provinces adjacent to thofe fuperb 
capitals, in fait, fugar, opium, filk, iilk-ftuffs, and 
an infinite quantity of cottons, and particularly 
muflins. Thefe articles taken together, amounted 
formerly to more than 1,750,0001. per.ann. So con^ 

( x;v-n ) 

lltlcrable a fum was not conveyed to th€ bauts o^ 
the Ganges ; but it was the means of retaining 
one nearly equal, which mull have iflued thence 
to pay the duties, or for other purpofes. Since the 
viceroys of the Mogul have made themfelves nearly 
independent, and fend him no revenues but fuch 
as they choofe to allow him, the luxury of the court 
is greatly abated, and the trade we have been 
fpeaking of is no longer of fo much importance. 

The maritime trade of Bengal, managed by the 
natives of the country, has not fuffered the fame . 
diminution, nor was it ever fo extenlive as the 
oth-er. It may be divided into two branches, of 
which Cuttek pofTefles the greater part. Cuttek 
is a diftridl of fome extent, below the moft wei- 
tern mouth of the Ganges. (See hereafter.) Balafore, 
(ituated upon a navigable river, ferves it for a port. 
The navigation of the Maldives, which the Englifh 
and French have been obliged to abandon on ac- 
count of the climate, is carried on entirely from 
this road. Here they load their veffels with lice, 
coarfe cottons, and fome iilk ftufFs, for thefeiflandp, 
and receive cowries in exchange, which are ufed 
for money in Bengal, and are fold to Europeans. 
The inhabitants of <£uttek, and fome other people 
of the Lower Ganges, maintain a coniiderable 
correfpondence with the country of AlTam. This 
kingdom, which is thought to have formerly made 
a part of Bengal, and Is only divided from it by a 
river that falls into the Ganges, deferves to be bet* 

( Xxxiv ) 

ter known, if what foine authors aflert be true, that 
gun-powder has been difcovered there, and that it 
was communicated from Aflam to Pegu, and from 
Pegu to China. Its gold, iilver, iron, and lead 
mines would have added to its fame, if they had 
been properly worked. In the midft of thefe riches, 
which were of very little fervicc to this kingdom, 
fait was an article of which the inhabitants were 
fo much in want, that they were reduced to the 
expedient of procuring it from certain vegetable 

About thecommencement of the prefent century, 
fome Bramins of Bengal carried their fuperflilions 
to Aflam, where the people were guided folely by 
the dictates of natural reHgion. The prielts per- 
fuaded them, that it would be more agreeable to 
Brama if they fubflituted the pure and wholeibme 
fait of the fea to that which they ufed. The fo- 
vereign confented lo this, on condition that the 
exclulive trade fhould be in his hands; that It 
Ihould only be brought by the people of Bengal ; 
and that the boats laden with it Ihould flop at the 
frontiers of his dominions. Thus have all thefe 
falfe religions been introduced by the influence, 
and for the advantage of the priefts who teach, and 
of the kings who admit them. Since this arrange- 
ment has taken place, 40 veflels from 500 to 600 
tons burthen each, are annually fent from the 
Ganges to A flam laden with falt^ which yfelds 200 
perjcent. profit. They receive in payment a flnall 

( XXX7 ) 

quantity of gold and lilver, ivory, mufk, eagle- 
wood, gum-lac, and iilk in great quantity. Ex- 
cept thefe'two branches of maritime trade, which^ 
for particular reafons, have been confined to the 
natives of the country, all the reft of the velTels 
fent from the Ganges to the difitrent fea-ports of 
India belong to the Europeans, and are built at 

A ftill more confiderable branch of commerce, 
which the Europeans at Bengal carry on with the 
reft of India, is that of opium. Patna (fee here- 
after) is the moft celebrated place in the woifd 
for the. cultivation of opium. The fields are 
covered with it. Befides what is carried into 
the inland parts, there are annually 3000 or 4000 
chefts exported, each \vTeighing 300 pounds. It 
fells upon the fpot at the rate of between 24l. and 
25l. a cheft on an average. This opium is not pu- 
rified like that of Syria and Perfia, which we make 
ufe of in Europe ; it is only a pafte that has under- 
gone no preparation, and has not a tenth part of the 
virtue of purified opium. •.■•; loi.ui u><.-i. y.f 

Rice and fugar are fent to. the- coaft of Cor&r 
mandel, for which they are paid in fpecie, unlefs 
they have the good fortune to meet with fome 
foreign merchandife at a cheap- rate. They feud 
out one or two veff^ls. laden with rice, cottons, 
and filk : the rice is fold in Ceylon, the cottons at 
Malabar, and the filk at Surat; whence they 
bring back cotton, which is ufefully employed iu 

( xxxvi ) 

the coarfer manufa6lures of Bengal. Two or tliree 
fhips laden with rice, gum-lac, and cotton fluffs, 
are fent to Baffora ; and return with dried fruitf , 
i-ofe-water, and a quantity of gold. The rich mer- 
chandife carried to Arabia is paid for entirely in 
gold and iilver. The trade of the Ganges with 
the other fea-ports of India brings 1 ,225,0001. an- 
nually into Bengal. 

Though this trade paffes through the hands of 
the Europeans, and is carried on under their pjo- 
te^ion, it is not entirely on their own account. 
'lP%e 3Vlogids, indeed, who are ufually fatisfied 
•with the places they hold under the government, 
have feldom any concern in thefe expeditions ; but 
the Armenians, who, fince the revolution in Per- 
iia, are fettled upon the banks of the Ganges, to 
which they formerly only made voyages, readily 
throw their capitals into this trade. The Indians 
employ itill larger fums in it. The impoflibllity 
of enjoying their fortunes under an oppreffive go- 
vernment does not deter the natives of this coun- 
try from labouring inceffantly to increafe them. 
As they would run too great a rlik by enga^ng 
openly in trade, they are obliged to have recourfe 
to clandelline methods. As foon as an European 
arrives, the Gentoos, who know mankind better 
than is commonly fuppofed, ftudy his character ; 
and, if they lind him frugal, adive, and well in- 
formed, ofter to a<5l as his brokers and cafhiers, 
and lend or procure him money upon bottomry, 

( ; xxxvii ) 

or at interell. This interell, which k ufnally nine 
per cent, at leaft, is higher when ho is uader a ne- ' 
ceflity of borrowing from the Sheiks. 

Thefe Sheiks are a powerful family of Indians, 
who have, time Immemorial, inhabited the banks' 
of the Ganges. Their riches have long ago pro- 
cured them the management of tlie bank belong-* 
ing to the court, the farming of the public re- 
venue, and the direction of the money, which 
they coinafrefh every year, in order to receive an- 
nually the benefit arifing from the mint. By unit- 
JHg fo many advantages, they are enabled to lend 
tHc government 1^750,0001. 2,225,000l. o& even 
4,373,000l. at a time. When the government 
finds it impoffible to refund the money, they are 
allowed to indemnify themfelves by opprefling 
the people. 

The Europeans who frequent the Ganges have 

not been fufiiclently alarmed at this defpotifm* 

which ought to have prevented them from fubmit- 

ting to a dependence upon the Sheiks. They 

have fa^llen into the fnare, by borrowing confider-< 

able funis of thefe avaricious financiers, appa-^ 

rently at nine, but in reality at thirteen per cenL 

if we take into the account the difference between 

the nioney that Is lent them, and that in which 

they are obliged to make their payments. The 

engagements entered into by the French and 

Dutch companies have been kept within fome 

bounds ; but thofe of the Englifh company have 

{ xxxvlii ) 
beea unliinlted. In 1755, they were indebted to 
the Sheiks about l,225,000l. 

The Portuguele, who fiift frequented tliis rich 
country, had the wifdoni to eftablifh themfelves 
at Chatigan, a port lituatcd upon the frontier of 
Anacan, not far from the moil eaflern part of the 
Ganges. The Dutch, who, without incurring the 
refentment of an enemy at that time fo formidable, 
were defirous of fliaiing in their good fortune, w ere 
engaged in fcarching for a port which, without ob- 
lirucling their plan, would expofe them the leaft 
to hoftillties. In 1G()3, their attention was di- 
rected to Bal afore ; and all the companies, rather 
through imitation, than in confequence of any 
well concerted fchemes, followed their example. 
Experience taught them the propriety of tixing 
as near as poiiible to the inarkets whence they 
had their merchandife ; and they failed up that 
branch of the Ganges,which, feparating itfelf from 
the main river at Mourcha above CoiHmbuzar, 
falls into the fea near Balafore, under the name of 
Hoogbly- The government of the covmtry permit- 
ted them to erect warehoufes wherever there was 
ple.ity of manufactures, and to fortify themfelves 
upon the river. 

The exports from Bengal to Europe coniiil of 
mufk, «umlac, nicaragua wood, pepper, cow- 
ries, and fome other articles of lefs importance 
brought thither from other places. Thofe that are 
the immediate produce of the country are borax. 

( xxxix ) 

fult-petre, filk ftufFs, muftins, and fcveral dilFerent 
forts of cottoa manufaclurcs. 

It would he tedious and ufelefs to enume- 
rate all the places where tickcn and cottons, fit for 
table linnen, or, intended to be worn plain, paint- 
ed, or printed^ 9,re manufadured, Dacca may be 
looked upon as the general mart of Bengal, whete 
the greateft variety of fineft cottons are to be met 
with, and in the greateft quantity. 

'f'he purchafes made in Bengal by the European 
nations, amounted in all a few years ago to no 
more than 870,OOOL One-third of thisfumwa^ 
paid in iron, lead, copper, woollens, and Dutch 
fpices ; the remainder was difchargcd in money. 
Since the Englilhhave made themfelves mailers of 
this rich country, its exports have been increafed, and 
its imports diminiflied, becaufe the conquerorshave 
carried away a greater quantity of merchandize, 
and pay for it out of the revenues they receive 
from the country. There is rcafon to believe 
that this revolution in the trade of Bengal has not 
arrived at its crifis, and that fooner or later it will 
be attended with ftill more important oonfe- 


Thi$ province is ISOcofsin length, from Gur- 

hee to Rhotas, and 110 cofs in breadth from Tir- 

hoot to the northern mountains. It has Bengal 
d 2 

( ^i ) 

on the Eaft, AilahabaJ and Owdli «a the W^ft, 
the mountains of I'hibet on the North, and Oriilk 
on the South, from which it is feparated by a chain 
of mountains. 

The principal rivers of this foobah are the Ganges 
and the Sown ; whatever wood, or leather, or any 
thing of that kind, which is foft, and does not 
fooQ perifii, is thrown into the Sown, becomes 
petrified. The Sown, the . Nerbuddah, and the 
Cheleh (or Chclum), all three fpriiig from one 
fource, near Kurrah. The water of the Sown, is 
cool, pleafant to the ta{te, and wholcfome ; hav- 
ing run to the fouth as far as Muneyr, it then 
unites to the Ganges. The river Gunduck comes • 
from the north, and empties itfelf into the Ganges 
near Hajeepoor, 

Salgram is a' black flonc, which the Hindoos 
hold facred, paying great adoration to it. 1'he cri- 
l^rions of its excellence are rounr^nefs, fmallnefs, 
and an oily appearance. According to the differ- 
ence of their forms, they have various names and 
properties afcribed to them. Some of thefe lloncs 
are perforated with one or more holes, and fome are 
quite perfect. They contain fome gold ore. Some 
pretend that a worm is bred in the fione, which 
eats its way through ; and others fay, that a worm 
jnakes a palTage into the ftone. The Hindoos 
have written a large book upon the properties ^and 
virtues of this ftone. It is a tenet of their religion, 
that any idol which is mutilated, thereby lofes all 
i'aadity, excepting thefc flones, which, al though 

( xll ) 

broken, retain their efficacy. They are found in 
the river Sown, at the dillance of forty cofs froin 
the fource. 

KerumnafTa, is a river, which, after running 
from the fouth to Chowfa, then empties itfelf into 
the Ganges ; its -water is greatly dlfcommended. 
The river Poonpoon runs from the fouth, and en- 
ters the Ganges at Patna. There are a number of 
fmaller rivers in this Soobah, of which we take no 

The fummer months here are very hot ; but the 
winter is very temperate. The rains continue for 
fix months. 

The country is continually covered with ver- 
dure, and the foil is fo hard, that, during the 
ftormy winds which blow here, you are not much 
incommoded with dufl. Agriculture is here iii 
the highcfl: perfe(ftlon, the rice being fo excellent, 
and of fuch a variety of fpecies, as are no where to 
be equalled, Kefaree is a fmall grain, refembling 
peafe, which is eaten by the lower clalfes of peo- 
ple, but it is very unwholefome. Sugar-cane is 
cultivated here in great abundance, and in high 
perfection. Mughc is that fpecies of the beetle 
leaf which is moft efteemed; it is of a very thin and 
delicate texture; of a fragrant fmell, with a beau^ 
tifui colour, and the flavour is delicious. At Mn^ 
neyr grows a flower, called Mujgund, refembling 
the Dchtoorahj and which for fragrance excels that 


of every other place. Milk is here very good, and 
to be procured at a cheap rate. 

Aloft of their hoiifes are roofed with tiles. Plenty 
of good elephants are to be procured here. The 
inhabitants are famous for building boats. Horfes 
and camels are fcarce. Bahar is famous for par- 
rots and goats, and they have cut goats fo fat as 
not to be able to walk, being carried about upon 
litters. Their ligliting cocks are remarkable for af- 
fording great fport; there are alfo plenty of different 
liinds of hawks. Gilded glafs is manufactured here. 

In Sircar Bahar, near a village called Rajgurh^ 
is a quarry of flone, refembling marble, of which 
they make ornaments. Good paper is manufactured 
here. Geya, the place of Hindoo woi*ihip, is in 
this Sircar; they called it Birhm Geya, being 
tx>nfecrated to Brahma. Here is carried on a traf- 
^c of precious Hones, which are brought from 
other countries. 

In Sircar Mungeer is raifed a ftone wall, ex- 
tending from the Ganges to jhe mountains : and 
this wall is confidered to be the boundary between 
Bengal and Bahar. 

In Sircar Hajypoor, there are a great plenty 
qf the fruits called Kuthul, and Budhul; fome of 
the iirft arefo large as to be too heavy a load^for 
one man to carry. 

In Sircar Chumparun, they fow a grain called 
jnafh, without ploughing the ground, and it re- 
quires no further attention. Long pepper grows 
here in the wilds. 

Tirlioot lias from old time been the refidence ol 
Hindoo learning. The water and air of this placei 
are much celebrated. The inhabitants have a me- 
thod of prefeiTing milk curds for a year. Buf- 
faloes are here fo fierce, that they will attack- a 
ti^er. Here are nmny lakes, the bottom of one 
of which is unfathomable, and the water nev«r de- 
creafes. There are delightful groves of oraiige 
trees, which extended thirty cofs in the time of 
Akber. In the rainy feafon, the deer and tigers 
repair to the high fpots, where the inhabitants 
hunt them ; the deer they furround with an eru 
clofure, and take them when they pleafe. 

Rhotas is a very ftrong fortrefs, lituated upon a 
lofty mountain, of mod difficult accefe; it is iburteen 
cofs in circumference. The enclofed land is culti- 
vated, and within this fpace arc many fprings; and 
water may be procured in any part, by digging three 
or four ells below the furface of the earth. There 
are feveral lakes within the fort. In the rains there 
are no lefs than two hundred delightful catarads^ 
This Soobah contains feven Sircars, fubdividcd inta 
199 Pergunnahs. The grofs amount of revenue 
in Akber's time, was twenty-two crore, nineteen 
lacks, nineteen thoufand four hundred and four 
dams and a half, or iicca rupees 55,57,983 — 1 — 3» 

A fummary, but more particular, ftatement pf 
the revenues of Bahar, from the Tukfeem juinma> 
in the lime of Akber is as follows: 

( xliv ) 


Sircar Baliar, 46 mahls, — . — 33,196,390 
— — Mungeer, 3 1 mahls, — — I09,625,9&ll 
— • — Chumparun, 3 malils, — — 5,513,420 
.— - Hajypoor, 1 1 mahls, — — 27,331,003 

. Sarun, 17 malils, — — 16,172,0041 

— — Tirhoot, 74 mahls, — — 19,179,777^ 
•— Rhotas, 16 malils, — — 40,819,493 


This foobah has Bengal on the North, the Bay 
of Bengal on the Eaft, Golconda on the South, 
and Berar on the Weft. Its length, according the 
Ayeen Akbcry, is computed at forty- three cofs, 
and its breadth at twenty. It was formerly an in- 
dep(?ndent country, confifting of five fircars, which 
have fince been added to the foobah of Bengal. 
In the time of the Emperor Akbcr, this foobah 
contained 129 brick forts. The periodical rains 
continue here eight months ; and they have three 
months of winter, and only one month that is very 
hot. Rice is cultivated here in great abundance. 
The inhabitants live upon rice, iifh, and vegeta- 
tables. After boiling the rice, they deep it in cold 
water, and eat it the fecond day. The men are 
very effeminate, being exceedingly fond of orna- 
ments, and anointing their bodies with fandal wood 
cil. The women cover only the lower parts of 

( x!v ) 

tlie body, and make themfelres dreffes of tRe 
leaves of trees. They live in huts made of the leaves 
of the tewar tree. Here are many idolatrous tem- 
ples built of ftone, and of great height. Their 
women, contrary to the general cullom of Rirl-' 
. doos, may marry two or three times.r Paper and 
ink are feldom ufed here ; for the mod part tHey 
write with an iron ft vie on the leaf of the Taar 
ti-ee, and they hold the pen witbthe lift clenchea. 
Here are manufadhires of cloth. Some elephants* 
are found in this province* The fruits and flowers 
of Oriffa are very line, and in great plenty. The 
Nufree'n is a flower delicately formed, and of an ex. 
quifite fmell : the outer fide of the leaves is white, 
and the inner is of a yellow colour. The Kewrah 
grows here quite common, and they have great 
variety of beetle leaf. They keep all their accounfk 
in Cowris, which is a fmall white fhell, with an 
aperture in the middle, and they are foun-d on the 
fea-fliore. Four Cowries they call a Gundah, five 
tjunddhs a Boory, four Boories are a Pun, fixteeii 
Puns one Khawun (fometimes they reckon 20^ 
Punslo theKhawun) ai^l ten Khawuns arc a Rupee^ 
See hereafter, p. 63. 

CuTTEK. At the capital bearing this name- 
is a flone fort, filuated between two rivers, the 
Mahanuddy and Gunjurry, the former of which 
is held in great veneration by the Hindoos. Within 
the fort are many magnificent buildings. 
The country, for five or fix cofs round the fort» 

( xlvi ) 

is fo low, that in the rainy feafon it is entirely 
under water. 

In the time o^ Akbcr there was at this place is a 
fine palace built by Rajah IMuckund Deo, confifl- 
ing of nine ftories. The iirft ftory was for the ele- 
phants, camels, and horfes. The fecond, for the 
artillery and military flores ; where were alfo the 
quarters for the guards and other attendants. The 
third was occupied by the porters and watchmen. . 
The fourth was appropriated for the feveral artlti- 
cef s. The kitchens made the fifth range. The iixth 
contained the Rajah's public apartments. The 
fevcnth was for the tranfa(5lioii of private bufinefs. 
The eighth was where the women rcfuledjand the 
ninth was the Rajah's fleeplng apartments. To the 
fouth of this palace is a very ancient Jlindoo tem- 

In the town of Pin-fotem, on the banks of the 
fea, ftands the temple of Jagnaut, near to which 
are the images of Kifhen, his brother, and their 
ilfter, made of fandal-wood, which are faid to be four 
thoufand years old. 

It is related that Rajah Inderdummun, of Neel- 
kurburbut, fent a learned Brahmin to pitch upon 
a proper fpot for the foundation of a city. After 
a long learch, he arrived upon the bani.s of the 
fea, which he thought, on many accounts, 
preferable to any place he had yet feen. VVhillt 
he was debating with himfelf whether to fix upon 
this fpot, or to continue his journey in quell of 

( xlvil ) 
a better, lie faw a crow dive into the water, and, 
after having waihed its body, it made obeifance io 
the fea. The Brahmin was allonifticd at this light, 
and as he undcrllood the language of birds, he 
afked the crow the meaning of this flrange proce- 
dure ; the crow anfwered, "I was formerly of the 
tribe of the Dewteh *, and from the curfe of a reli- 
gious man, was transformed into this Ihape ; know 
that this fpot is highly favoured by the Creator of 
the univerfe ; and whoever abides here, and 
applies his mind to the woriliip of God, he (hall 
quickly profper. It is a long time that I have been 
worfhippi ng in this place, and the feafon for the 
accompliftiment of my defires is near at hand. If 
you are of the number of the righteous, remain here 
a fliort period, and behold, and comprehend the 
wonders of this land." The Erahuiin, in confor- 
mity to the words of the crow remained on that fpot; 
and after a fhort time, what the crow had foretold 
was jevealed unto him, and of which he apprized 
the Rajah, who built a large city, and a place of 
worfhip upon the fpot where the crow had appear- 
ed. The Riijah one night, after having diltribated 
juftice, heard in a dream a voice faying, " On a 
certain day cad thine eyes upon the fea flaore, when 
there will arife out of the water a piece of wood 
tifty-two inches long, and one and a huif cubits 
broad; this is the true form of the deity; take it 
up, and keep it hidden in thine houfe feven days, 
• Cckftiald, 

{ xlvlii ) 

and 111 whatever fliape it Ihall then appear, place it 
in the temple, and worfhip it." It happening jufl 
as the Rajah had dreamt, he, as inftrudled by the 
revelation, called the image Juganaut, and having 
ornamented it with gold and precious flones, he 
placed it In the Temple, when it became the ob- 
jed of worihip of all ranks of people, and is reported 
to have performed many miracles. It is pretended 
•that when Callapahar conquered this country for 
tollman Goorzany, he threw the wooden Image 
of Juganaut into a fire, which having no effect 
upon it, he ordered it to be cad into the fea, froin 
whence it was again recovered. And in order to 
give credit to thefe images, they relate a number of 
fuch incredible flories. 

The Brahmins wafli the images of Juganaut iix 
times every day, and drefs them every time in freih 
f-lothes ; as foon as they are dreffed, hfty-iix Brah- 
mins attend them, and prefent them with various 
kinds of food. Th^ quantity of vicTtuals oltere'd 
to thefe idols is fo very great, as to feed twenty 
thoufand perfons. They alfo at certain times 
carry the image in proceifion upon a carriage of 
iixteen wheels, which in the Hindovee language 
is called Ruhth ; and they believe that whoever 
aflifts in drawing it along obtains remiflion of all 
his iins. 

Near to Juganaut Is the temple of the fun, in 
the creeling of which was expended the whole re- 
venue of OrifTafor twelve years. No one can be- 

( xiix ) 
hold iliis immcnfc ediiice without being ftruc 
with amazement. The wall which fiirr o unds ih 
whole is one hundred and fifty cubits high, and 
nineteen cubits thick. There are three entrances to 
it. At the eaftern gate are two very fine figures 
of elephants, each with a man upon his trunk. 
To the weft are two furprifing figures of horfemen, 
coinpletely armed ; and over the northern gate are 
carved two tigers, who having killed two elephants, 
aj-e fitting upon them. In the front of the gate is 
a pillar of black ftone, of an oclagonal form, fifty 
cubits high. There are nine flights of fteps ; after 
alcending which, you come into an extenfive en- 
clofure, where you difcover a large dome, con- 
it ruCted of ftone, upon which are carved the fun 
and the ftars, and round them is a border, where 
are reprefeutcd a variety of human figures, ex- 
prelfing the ditferent pallion^s of the mind ; fome 
kneeling, others pioilrated with their faces upon 
the earth ; together with ininfl.rels, and a number 
of ftrange and wonderful animals, fuch as never 
exiiled.but in imagination. This iii faid to be a 
work of feveu hundred and thirty years' antiquity. 
Rajah Nurliiig'Deo finiflicd this building, thereby 
erecting for himfelF a lafiing monument of fam.^ 
There are twenty-eight other temples belonging 
to this pagoda, fix before the northern gate, and 
twenty-two Without the enclofure V and they are 
all reported to have performed miracles. 

Many pretend that at this place is the tomb of 
^ • . Kcbeer 

( 1 ) 

Kebeer Mowelihed^ and to this day they relate 
many (lories of his fayings and a6lions. lie was 
revered both by Mohammedaas and Hindoos, on 
a<!count of his wifdom and exemplary virtue* 
When he died, the Brahmins wanted to carry his 
body to be burned, ^nd the Mohammedans in- 
lifted on burying it, but when they lifted up the 
iheetfrom the bier, the corpfe could not be found. 
A fummary (latement of the revenues of Orif- 
fa, in the time of Akber, from the Tukfeem 



Sircar, Jelafir, 28 mahls, — 50,052,737 

Buderuck, 7 u^H.hls, — 18,687,770 

Cuttek, 21 mahls, — 91,432,730 

Kullengdundpaut, 27 mahls, 5,560,000 

Pvaje Mahindrah, 16 mahls, 5,000,000 

In modern times the three provinces of Bengal, 
Bahar, and Orilfa, have, by the Eaft India Com- 
pany, been confidered as under one governor, and 
confequently the revenues have been taken in a 
collective manner. By the above ftatements it ap- 
pears, that, in the days of Akber, they were very 
considerable ; but by later accounts (vid. Bolts's 
Confiderations on India Affairs,) it is evident that 
they were greatly increafed. By that gentleman's 
itatemcnt the revenues which the Company collect- 
ed in thefe provinces amounted, in 17 65, to upwards 
nf 3,600,000 pounds fterling, and. according to 
bim, they might with cafe have been improved hy 

( H ) 

1772 to 6,000,000. The fame p:entlcman, in his 
Coniideratioiis, p. 16, fays, that the moft autheii* 
tic account which has been pubUihed of the reve- 
nues of the-eujpirc of HiiMloofbauu, which, in its 
flourifhing ilatc before theinvaiion of Nadir Shah,is 
of the reign of the emperor Aurungzebe, who died 
in 1707; when the annual revenues are fpe'cified 
to have amounted to 37^724,615/. 2^. 6^. flerling ; 
but thofe of /. f. it 

Bengal were — — 1,639,488 b 
Bahar — — 1,272,378 2 6 

OrilTa — — 446,312 10 

3,358,178 17 6 
The country of Hindooftaun, genei*ally fpeaking, 
is in many places greatly favoured by nature for 
commercial advantages, and the provinces of Benr 
gal, which are the more immediate objects of our 
confiderations, above all others. This foobah of 
the empire, which was emphatically (tiled by the 
emperor Aurungzebe, Jennet ul belad, (the Para- 
dife of Nations,) fpontaneoully produces, in great 
abundance, almoft every thing requilite for the 
fupport and even high enjoyment of mankind. No 
country can be better watered, by a variety of con^ 
fiderable dreams falling into or from the great ri- 
vers Pudda and Brimhapooter, which render the 
inlaad navigation very extenfive and convenient 
for the purpofes of trade *. This great facility of 

♦ The Indians of Bengal formerly carried on a con-, 
fiderable trade by fea, and had fome fort of maritime 

e 2 

( Hi ) 
obtaining water, and the naiunil fcilility ^ the 
foil, €very where aflifted by the periodical rains 
from May to September, render the cultivation of 
the earth an inviting tafK, and fo eafy as to afford 
the hufbandman great leifure for application even 
to the arts of manufacturing. 

Dehly, without the aid ofiilvcr or goM mines, 
was^ in her times of prosperity, a receptacle into 
which the gold and filver of the greatcR part of the 
worid had been flowing by regular channels for 
ages, till foreign Invaders interrupted its 'courfes. 
This great influx of wealth was owing, tirfi, to the 
extraordinary fruitful nefs of the dependent domi- 
jiions ; fecondly, to the fober induftry of the inha- 
bitants, either applied to agriculture, which was 
greatly encouraged, or to manufa(fturing thofe 
commodities which have for many ages been in 
eftcem throughout the world ; and, thirdly, to 
the ftfiong protection that was granted to mer- 

power, as we read in many parts of Purchas's Collec- 
tion J particularly, in the yvar 1607^ an account is 
given of a fleet fr. m the King of Bengal having in- 
vaded theMaldivia iilands: Jt is moll pn-bable that 
this fleet was Ci.mpofcd only of coafling b.)ats, fuch as 
are ftil! built in ff;me parts of the Bay. But whatever 
iii!ght be theflate of fuch natives heretofore, it is cer- 
tain that tbe Jndans have not figured in the maritime 
way fince tJi«^ P Ttugueze found thei*- way among tht-m 
round the Cape of Gocd. Hope. However, the late 
Angria, at Ghcria on the cosfl x;f Ma'abar, gave many 
flgnal proofs of what might be done, even by an Indian 
hav}% in Indian feas^ uuder the dire<flion of only one 
able maLh 

( llli ) 

Tlie encouragement of foreign and domcfiic 
trade was more particularly ueceffary in the foolnili 
of Bengal, which, not containing mines of dia- 
monds, gold, or filver, depended folely upon its 
manufactories for that very large balance of trade- 
in its favour, which alone could enable it to pay 
fo conliderable a tribute, as hath been fhewn, an- 
nually to the court of Dehly. Accordingly,- as 
Mr. Scraftonhath cxprciied it, '' till of late years," 
inconceivable numbers of merchants, from all paints 
of Afia in general, as well as from the reft of Hin- 
doollaun In particular, fometlmes in bodies of 
many thoufands at a time, were ufed annually to. 
refort to Bengal witll little elfe than ready money, 
or bills, to purcbafe the produce of thofe provinces^ 

In the foobah ofBcngal (comprehending Bahar 
and Orllia) there have been feveral courts of judice 
eilabllihed, by the authority of the Brltilli legifl'a- 
ture, as appears by the charter granted to the Eaft. 
India Company, January 8, 26 Geo. 11. ( 1 753,) viz. 

The Mayor's Court; being a court of re- 
cord, coiiiiftlng of a mayor and nine aldermen, 
fevcn of which aldermen, together with the mayor^ 
muil be naiural-born Briiilh fubje6ls ; and the 
other two aldermen may be foreigaproteftauts, the 
fubjects of any other prince or ftate in^mity with 
Great Britain ; which court is appointed a body poli- 
tic and corporate,to have perpetual fucceffion ; and^ 
being perfons capable in law to fue and be fue^^y they,, 
or any three or more of thejn, (whereof the majq:^; 
e a 

or (eiiior alderman for the time being, tlicn refid- 
Ingin the fettkment^ to be one,) are authorized ta 
try, hear, and determine all civil fuits, aelions, and 
pleas, between party and parly, that may arife' 
within the faid factories, except fuch fails or 
a<5tions Hioiild be between the Indian natives only ; 
in which cafe, fiich fiiifs orav5l!on^ are to be deter- 
mined atiiong themfclvcs, iinlefs lx)th parties lliall' 
by confcnt fubmit the fame tO' the determination^ 
of the mayor's court. And this court is further 
authorized to grant pn^bate of v.^ill.-;, and letters of 
adminiflra'/ion for the eRates of perfons dying in- 
teftate. For putting this charter in execution, in- 
ftru6tions have been font out by the Company, as- 
drawn up by their law^yers, for the direetioh of this- 
couvt, as to the 'form and method of their proceed- 
ings J which is by bill and anfwer, in imitation oP 
the proceedings ill' the high court of chancery; but 
the court of aldermen, or a quorum of thrce of 
them, as above mentiotied, when the caufe is at 
ilTue, proceed to hearing, and the giving of judg- 
ment in matters of the greateft concern, without 
ever appointing a jury to find damages, as is the 
cuftom in England. The governor, or preiideht 
and council of Calcutta, have, by charter, the ap- 
pointment of the faid mayor and aldermen, who,, 
after that nomination, are to continue for life in 
their refpe<ftive ofRces of aldermen r but the fame 
governor and council are empowered to remove, 
"Without even the conciirrence of the corporition,. 

( w ) 

any aUIermaii, upon reafohable caufe, of whicli they 
are left the Pole judges in Lidla ; fuch their fentence 
or adjudication of removal being oa^y fabje6l to 
an appeal to his Majefty in council in England. 

TheCouuT OF Appeals, being alfo a court of 
record, confilting of the faid governor and council^ 
any three of whom, the governor, or in his abfence 
the feniorof the council being one, are authorized 
by the charter to receive, hear, and finally deter- 
mine every caufe appealed from the decrees of the 
mayor's court, in which the value fued for does 
not exceed one thoufand pagodas, or about four 
hundred pounds fterling; and from all their deci- 
iions in caufes above that fum, there lies an appeal 
to tUe King in council, upon fecurity being given 
for the payment of the fum adjudged, with interell 
from the time of the decree, and cofts of fuit. 

The Court of REQUESTs,confilling of twen- 
ty four commiflioners, felccted originally by the 
governor and council from among the principal in- 
habuants of Calcutta, who are appointed by the 
faid charter to lit every Thurfday, with powers to 
hear and determine fuits in a fummary way, under 
fuch orders and regulations as fhall from time to 
time be given by a majority of the court of Eafl 
India Dire6lors; which commillioners, or any 
three or more of them, are to fit in rotation, and 
have full power and authority to determine all 
^uch a<5lions or fuits as fhall be brought before 
them, where the debt or matter in difpute fliall not 

( IvI ) 
€xceed tlie value of five pagodas, or forty fhllTings. 
One half of the number of the commiffioiiers, 
being thofe who have longeft ferved, are removed 
by rotation annually, on the firfk Thurfday of De- 
cember, and an equal number are chofen by bal" 
lot from among themfelves. By the faid char- 
ter the governor of Calcutta, and all the mem^ 
bers of the council for the time being, and 
they only, are appointed and have power to a6t 
9S juftices of the peace in and for the faid town 
of Calcutta, and all other the fa«5^ories fubordinate 
thereto, with the fame powers as juftices confii- 
tuted by commiifions under the great feal of Great 
Britain, in and for any part of England. 

The Court of Quarter Session, coniifling 
of the laid governor and council for the time being, 
any three or more of whom, the governor, or in his^ 
abfcnce the fenior of the council then in Calcutta 
to be one, are authorized to hold quarter feffions 
of the peace four times in the year, within the 
<li(lii6ls of Calcutta, and were at all times there-^ 
after to be a court of record, in the nature of a 
court of oyer and terminer and gaol delivery; and 
commiflioners of oyer and terminer and gaol deli- 
very for trying and punilhing of all offenders and 
offences (high treafon only excepted) done or com- 
mitted within the diftri(5ls of Calcutta and the fac- 
tories fubordinate thereto : and it is thereby or- 
dained to be lawful for the faid jullices and com- 
miflioners refpeclively, to proceed by indiament,. 
or by fuch other ways and in the fame manner as 

( Ivii ) 

i^uCi^d in Eiiglund, or as near as the condition and 
circumllaiices of the place and inhubiLants will ad- 
mit of, ilTuing their warrant or precept to the ihe- 
rlff, (who is Hkewife elected and appointed by the 
faid governor and council) commanding htm to 
fummon a conrenicnt number of the inhabitants 
to ferve as grand and petit juries; and the faid 
juftices are alfo authorized to do all other ads that 
jufiices of the peace and commiifioners of oyer 
and terminer and general gaol delivery ufually 
and legally do; and the court may affemble and 
adjourn at and unto fuch times and places as they 
iliall judge convenient. 

Belides the above-mentioned courts, eflablifhed 
in Calcutta by the royal charter of juftice, there 
are two others ftill fubfifling, which were granted 
or connived at by the Moguls, or the Nabobs of 
Bengal formerly, when the Company were totally 
dependent on the country government. Thefe 
\vere courts that were allowed the company for 
the prefervation of order and good government in 
Calcutta, and in the limited dillricls formerly be- 
longing to it, when they had no other authority 
for the exercife of any judicial powers. 

One is the Court of Cutcherry, which, 
on its prefent eftabliihment, is compofed of the 
Company*s fervants under council, any three of 
whom, their prefident being one, upon days flated 
at their own option, meet for the hearing, trying* 
and determining, in a fummary way, all matters 
of meum and tuu?n to any amount, wherein only 
tlie native inhabitants of Calcutta are concerned- 

( Mil ) 

The other CotGljcrry is called the Zemindary, 
or Foiijdary Court, in whicli, according to*" late 
pra6tice, preiides a member of the board of coun- 
cil, or fometijues a fervant uivdei conacil, alone ; 
his bufinefs is to enquire into complaints of a cri- 
minal nature among the black inhabitants, and in 
cafes where the natives do not apply to the Englifh 
rftablifhed courts of iufiice; in which cafes the 
charter diredts, that the Englifh lawy only Ihall 
be obferved. He proceeds in a faminary way to 
fentence and punifhment, by fine, imprifomnent, 
condemnation to work in chains upoft the roads 
for any fpace of time, even for life; and by flagel- 
lation, in capital cafes, even to death. The an- 
cient Moguls and Nabobs would not permit any 
of the profeffors of Iflani to be hanged according 
to the Englifh cuflom, efteeraing that too igno- 
minious a death for a Mohammedan to fufFer; there- 
fore, in fuch cafes as were deemed capital, only 
the lafh was permitted to be inflicted until death 
on the Mogul's fubje(fts, Mohammedans, and Geii- 
toos; but the officers of the court called Chaw- 
bukfuwars, or Lafhbearers, ate foraetimes fo dex.-' 
trous as to be able to kill a man with two or three 
flrokes of the Indian chawbuk. In cafes which, 
according to the ufage of this court or office, are 
deemed to deferve death, it has been ufual for the 
zemindar firft to obtain the Approbation of the pre- 
fident and council, before the fatal flroke be grren. 

Bcfules the above mentioned, there is another 

( Hx ) 

Cutckerry, called the CoUetlor^s Cutcherry, which 
has been eltablifhed in Calcutta ever lince the 
Company had any thing to do with the colle<5lioii 
, of ground-rents. By the treaty of June 1757, the 
nabob Jafiier Ally Khawn granted to the Engliih 
Company, as zemindars, all the lands about Cal- 
cutta, to the extent affix hundred yards without 
the ditch called the Malixattah ditch *, which 
partly furrounds the town, and likewife the land 
lying fouth of Calcutta, generally known by the 
name of the twenty-four pergunnahs. 

Defcr'tption of the Principal Towns in Bengal, 
Bahar,. and Orijfa, 
Calcutta, or Fort William, the prin- 
cipal factory of the Englifli Eaft India Company in 
Bengal, feated on one of the branches of the river 
Gauges. The fort was originally built of brick and 
mortar, in the iliape of an irregular tetragon. The 
town is very far from making a regular appearance, 
becaufe every one built a houfe according to his 
taticy. The governor's houfe is within the fort, 
and is reckoned the bcfl piece of archite<5iure in 
thefe parts. Here are convenient offices for the 
Company's factors and writers, with ftore houfes 
for their goods, and magazines for ammunition. 

* This monns a ditcl> fo called, which, in the year 
J742, the iiihaLitants of Calcutta, by oenniirion of the 
governor and council, uiUertook to dig ai their own 
cxpencc, and carry rourd the lettfernrnt, as a fpcurity 
agaiijft tiie iacuiiions of the Mahrattahs. 

( '-^ ) 

About fifty yards from the fort is the church, built 
by the munincence of merchaats refiding here. 
Here is a pretty good hofpital for the iick, though, 
k is faid, very few come out of it alive. It is go- 
verned by a mayor and aldermen, as moft of the 
Company's factories in India now. are. In 1757 it 
was furprifcd by Surajah ud Dowlah, nabob of 
Bengal, who took and plundered it ; his officers 
confined 145 perfons in the Black Hole, a miferable 
dungeon, during a long night in the hotteft wea- 
ther. The immediate confequence of this inhu- 
man conduct was the fuffocation of 123, who died 
before morning, moft of them in a flate of dreadful 
delirium. When they were locked up, the keys 
were carried to the tyrant Surajah ud Dowlah, 
and even the fcanty pittance of water which was 
given them at a grating, was mollly loll by the 
eagernefs of the fufFerers to obtain a portion. This 
cruel acl was fliortly after puniihcd by the death 
of the tyrant, and the total defeat of his army at 
Plalfeyj by Colonel Clive. This victory gave fo 
great a command of. country to the Company's 
forces, that themfelves eftabliilied a fubahdar, 
Meer Jafficr, who was more friendly to the Eng- 
lifli. Calcutta is 35 miles S. of Hooghly, 40 N. 
of the fea, and 695 N. E. of Madras. Lat. 22. 
34 N. Lon. 89. O E. 

■ CuANDEnNAGORE, a fcttlcmcnt formerly be- 
longing to the French, hut at prefent to the Eng- 
liili. It (lands on the fame branch of the Ganges 

( Ixi ) 
as Calcutta does, being about 25 miles N^of tbat 
place. Lat. 22. 50 N. Lon. 69- 5 E. 

HooGHLY isfeated oil the fame branch of the 
Ganges, and is a town of great extent, reaching 
about two miles along the banks of that river. A 
great trade is carried on in the various commodi- 
ties of Bengal, by which 30 or 60 fhips are annu^ 
ally freighted, befides what is carried by other 
means to different towns in the neighbourhood. 
Saltpetre is brought hither from Patna in vcffels 
about 50 yards long, and five broad. The inha- 
bitants are chiefly Indians. It is 35 miles N. of 
Calcutta. Lat. 22. 52 N. Lon. 89- 5 E. 

Sera M PORE, a confiderable town of Bengal, 
on the moll weftern branch of the Ganges, about 
midway between Calcutta and Hooghly. Lat. 22* 
42 N. Lon. 89. OE. 

Barnagore, a town of Bengal, where the 
Dutch had formerly afa<;ilory. It is about 5 miles 
N. by E. of Calcutta. Lat. 22. 38 N. Lon. 89. 2 E. 
BissENPORE, the capital of a diflri6l of the 
fame name in Bengal. Lat. 23. I N. Lon. 88. 1 E« 
BuRDWAN, the capital of the Burdwan coun- 
ti*y in Bengal, is a town of large extent, inhabited 
by the natives, on the banks of the Dummudro 
river. It is 50 miles N. W. of Calcutta. Lat. 23. 
15 N. Lon, 88.37 E. 

Dacca, the largeft town in Bengal, is fltuated 
on the Bunfe river, which is a branch of the Brih- 
mapeoter. Its manufaclure of cotton and filk is 
the bed and the cheapeft in the country. Provi- 


J ML ) 
Sons of all forts are remarkably reafonable and 

plenty, and the inhabitants very numerous, but 
fo pufillanimous,, that, it is faid, five or fix armed 
men will put a thoufand to flight. It is 150 miles 
N. E. of Calcutta. Lat. 23. 40 N. Lon. 91. 1 E. 

CossiMBUZAR, the capital of a diftric^of the 
fame name, on the Bogratty river, 130 miles N- 
of Ca^cuttil. Lat. 24. 2 N. Lon. 88. 57 E. 

MuRSHEBABAD, (literally, the city of in- 
ftrudlors,) is a very large town, and the capital of 
Beerboon. It is fituated on the banks of the Bo- 
gratty river, which is a branch of the Ganges, 140 
miles N. of Calcutta. Lat. 24. 10 N. Lon. 88. 52 E. 

SiLHETT, the capital of a country of the fame 
name, on the Soorma river. It is 270 miles N. E. 
of Calcutta. Lat. 24. 50 N. Lon. 92. so E, 

Rung PORE, the capital of a country of the 
fi\me name, on the Goggot river, near which the 
Englifh have a fa6lory. It is 230 miles N, by E. 
of Calcutta. Lat. 25. 40 N. Lon. 89. 50 E. 

DiNAGE PORE, capital of Dinagepore, where the 
Eail India Company have a factory. It is 212 miles 
N. of Calcutta. Lat. 25. 36 N. Lon. S9. 16 E. 

PuRNEA, capital of Piiniea, 215 miles N. by 
VV. of Calcutta. Lat. 25. 40 N. Lon. 88. 10 E. 

Dure UN G A, the capital of the Tyroot coun- 
try, on the Bogmutty river. It is 300 miles N.W. 
y Cdcuua. Lat. 26. 7 N. Lon. 86. 30 E. 
'"Patna, the capital of a diftricl: of the fame 
rh^e in the foobah of Eahiu%onthe river Ganges,. 
-MHic the Englifh have faiftories for fultpetre, bo- 

( Ixill ) 
rax, and raw filk. It alfo produces large quanti- 
ties of opium. The town is very large, but the 
houfes are built in a ftraggUng manner. It is feat- 
ed in a fertile country, 292 miles N. W. of Cal- 
cutta. Lat. 23. 33 N. Lon. 83. 50 E. 

Raj EM AH L, a large town on the weftern hank, 
of the Ganges, 170 miles N. by W.of Calcutta, 
Lat. 24. 53 N. Lon. 88. 25 E. . 

Maldah, the capital of the Maldah dlllri(51:, 
in Bengal, is fituated on thf* Nagore river, which* 
falls into the Ganges, and near which the Englifli; 
have a fa<$lory. It is 162 miles N. of Calcutta;- 
Lat. 24. 56 N. Lon. 88. 45 E. 

Jennutabad, (the city of paradlfe,) called, 
alfo LucKNOWTY, is a very ancient city. Iw 
modern times it has been called Gowr, but it 
now lies in ruins. It was formerly the capital of 
Bengal. There was a fine fort at this place, to> 
the eaftward of which is a large lake, called Chut- 
teahputt«ea, in which are many iflands. If the 
dams broke during the heavy periodical rains, the 
city was laid under water. To the northward of 
this fort, at the diftance of a cofe, was a large 
building, a work of great antiquity, where there 
was a refervoir of water called Peazbarry, which; 
was of a very noxious property. It was ufual 
when a criminal was capitally condemned, to con- 
fine him in this dungeon, where, being allowed^ 
no other drink th^n this water ^^ expired In a* 
very ihort time. Its ruins are 150 miles N, of 
Calcutta, Lat. 24. 44 N. Lon. 88. 40 E. 

( Ixlv ) 

Facheet,- the principal town of Pacbeet dif- 
tria,. 130 miles N. W. of Calcutta. Lat. 23. 34 N. 
Lon. 67. 28 E. 

Balasore, a town on the fea coaft of OrifTa, 
on the Bay of Bengal, where the Portuguefe ori- 
ginally fettledy in a fruitful foil. Lat. 21. 20 N. 
Lon. 87. E. 

MiDNAPORE, the capital of a diflric^ of the 
feme name in Orifla, 60 miles S. W. of Calcutta- 
It is a large city, and is defended by two forts. 
Lat. 19. 10 N. Lon. 84. 56 E. 

Mahakaunghaut, commonly called Ko- 
TEBPOOR, isa place -of flrength in Oriffa, it being 
defended by a ftone fort. 

Narainpoor, or Kundhar, is likewife a 
town of Oriila, defended by a ftrong hill fort. 

Rayn, on the borders of OrifTa, is a v^ry ftrong 
place with three forts. 

RoYPOOR, is a large town of OriiTa, defended 
by a remarkably flrong fort. 

Bansud, a very large town of Orifla, generally 
called Huftpoor, defended by five flrong forts. 

ATGURH,a town of the lircar of Cuttek, in the 
foobah of OrifTa, where there is a ftrong fort. 

PooRUBDiGH, a very flrong town of Cuttefc, 
in Orifia, defended by four forts. In the time of 
Akberitpaid to the revenue 22,881,380 dams. 

DECANDiGii, another flrong. town of Cuttek, 
in OrifTa, which is likewife defended by four forts. 
Its quota to the revenue in Akber*s time was 
22/065,770 dams»- 







%^BDALLAH. TliJs is an Arabic proper name, 
v/hich (ignlnes the Have or fervant of God > from abd a 
ilaveor icrvant, and /4//jZ' God. 


AhdaUks. A ti Ibe of Afghans, ;iirox:alled Durannle? " 
The King was fomclimeS;, erroneoufly, called Abdally, 
•as if it had been ihe name of a perfon. His authority 
extended over Ghezna, Cnndahar, Cabul, Peiihvver 
with a part of JVkiltan and Sind on the fide of Perfin, 
the greateft part oT Khorafann and Shciftaunj and all 
Eamia, on the fide of Tartar/. 

• u' 

Ahth. An abfconded male, orfemale flavc is termed 
^hik, or fugiihe-j but nn infant {lave is calhd :zal, or 


( 54 ) 

-^hh. Equal to Is. 4d. l-5th iii Arabin, &rc. 
Ahkary, A tax levied on the faleof fpirituous liquors* 
Ahhooruih Preparation to aflault. 

♦ y* 
Ahoah, or Ahvjah. Taxes allefled on the lands, over 
.^nd above the original rent. 

Ahrooan. A fort of line muflin, manufa6luredfolely 
for the ufe of the King's feraglio ; a piece of which, 
cofting 400 rupees, or 501. fterling, is faid to have 
weighed only five Sicca rupees, and, iffpread upon 
wet grafs^ to have been fcarcely vifible. 

Ahwah Foujdary. Permanent taxes, eftabhilied by 
Shuja Khan, on the country rubjc6J: to the jurifdi(5tion 
of the Foujdars. The office of a Fouidar being deemed 
©ppreffive, it was thought necefl'ary to aboiifli it, and 
the Zemindars weie obliged to pay an equivalent fum 
to the amount of the income produced by that office. 

Ahwah Tanehdar A fee fitabhlhed by Shuja Khan, 
and lev.ed on the retailers of fpirituoua liquors and 

(15 ) 

other articles, in bazars (markets), attached to tannabg' 
or garrifons, and payable to the eutwal, who was ap- 
pointed by the commandant of the troops, to fupertn- 
tend the police of thefe markets. 

Acklff, One who has omitted circumcifion } if i^. 
is on account of old age, or fome other fufficient reafon> 
his teflimony is admifliblej but if it has arifen from 
a contempt of the civil laws, by which it is enjoined^ 
his evidence cannot be taken, 

Mawkt, A court of judicature for the trial of caufe^ 
refpeding property. -^i«7 Signifies juflice or equity. 

0^^ . 

AdhuL A fmall weight or meafurer 


Afghan, The fcveral tribes of Mohammedans^ whcj^ 
inhabit the northern parts of India, are called Afghans** 
Some of them arefpread all over India, and are generally- 
known by the name of Patans. They are efteemed the: 
bert foldiers in the country, and have been known to 
perform farprifing feats in war. 

Aidab, An agreement, or contra^. VidealfoWadah^ 

( 16 ) 

•^ i 

Jhdahbundy. Stated periods for the difeharge of a 

iTebtj or the pnyment of a fum ct money. 

Ahdahdar. An officer of the Moghul government ; 
wbo^ for a commiflion of 2 or 3 per cent, engaged 
for the rents of a diftri6t (the fettlement of which had 
been concluded in the name of a Zemindar) and made 
himfelf refponlible for the balance. Vide Wadabdar, 

Ahhucl Adwal. A tax levied firft by Aliverdy Khan* 
It was cftablifhejd under pretence of defraying the ex- 
pence of procurli^g chunam, or lime, from Sylhfit^ far 
the Killab, or foil at Moorfhedabad. 

Abut, A perfon pledged or fecurity for a loan , 

Abya afMowaut. Any piece of ground from which 
no advantage can be derived, either through want of 
water, or from inundation, or from any otlier caufe ; 
literally, dead or wade ground* 


Alia. In its primitive fenl^, fignifies a <vozu. In law, 
it implies a hulband fwearing to abftain from carnal 
knowledge of his wife, for any time above four months> 
if fhe be a free woman, or two jnonths if Ihe be a Have. 

Ahum Shcrkut ylinan, or partnerfliip in traffic, con- 
tracted by each party, refpe<5tively becoming the ageat 
of the other, but not his bail. This fpecies of partner" 
fliip is when two perfons become partners in any par" 
ticular traffic, fuch as in cloths, or wheat (for in- 
ftance) j or when they become partners in all manner o^ 
commerce, indifferently. No mention, however, is to 
be made concernin** bail in their agreement, as bail 
is not a condition, or a partnerfliip of this nature.^ 

Ajarcr, or Ijara, in its primitive fenfejUgnlfies a fale 
ofufufruCt; namely, a fale of certain ufufru6t for a 
certain hire, fuch as rent, or wages. In the language 
of the law, it fignilies acontra6tof ufafrud, for aretiirnl 


Ajarah. A farm of land. 

Ajarabdar. A farmer of the revenues, 

Ajeer Moojhtareh A general or common hireling. 

AJmce, This term applies not only to the natives of^ 
Perfia, but to thofe of every other countiy, except- 
Arabia. The fame as Greek and Barbarian, 

( IS ) 

Alaia, literally, fignifies to cancel ; in thr^ language 
©f the law^it means-thecancclling or diffolution of a laic. 

Akdanah. Marriage-fees, paid to the cauzee, or 
Mufulman prielt : they are now aboliflied. 

Akhartj, A teacher of the Goiterce, 

Akhharnaveefe, A news-writer f intelllgeacerw 

AXbery Hijfauh Kheirha, or 

T^auJ:! Baky Kbercba. **An adjuftment of each ryot's 
account, made out at the end of the year -, ftating the 
jumma, receipts, and balances oi all the Kifts, with, 
the pleas for abatement of rent ) which being deducted, 
leaves the undifputed balance. 

(/I. J- 

J ^ i/>i 

Aklery Jiimma W^ufil Baky. An account of there* 
\^nue of the whole village, diflinguiihed into jumma, 
receipts, and balances. It ftates, firft, the jumma of 
the preceding year, the inaeafe or decreafe which has 
fi nee taken place, the undifputed balajice outfianding, 
the fain advanced for tucavy ; and the amount of all 

( i<r ) 

thcfe conftltutes the jumma to be colleded in the prf ,. 
fent year. Secondly, the fums received, either of the 
I'evenue of the current, the arrears of the former, or 06 
tucavy, are next entered, with the refpedtive difFcrcnt 
articles of pleas for deficicnces. 

Akhery Nekas, An adjulled account made out at the 
end of the year, between the head colledor of a turref,. 
orpergunnah, and the currumcharries of each village 
eompofing fuch divifioa, llating the amount colIe6ted 
from each individual ryot, the retrenchments in the 
currumchary's accounts, the lum total of the revenues 
received from him, and the amount remaining due 
fromJhim, as well' as that which is outftanding with; 
the ryots. 


Akhrajmii. Charges, expences, difburfements, 

Akilai one who is fubjetSt to pay Dtylt, or the fine of^ 
blood, which isalfo called Akkil and Mowakil, becaufe. 
it reftrains men from fliedding blood. — Akkil, among 
a variety, of other fenfes,. means reftraint. 

Aklar, in Arabic, means boufes, tenements, &c*. 
fuch as is termed in the Englilh law, leal property. 


Akraha, is the plural of Keoj'k,. and iignifies, . collcdl^ 
i^ely, Kindred. 

f 20 y 

AUppo Guz. A meaiure equal to three quarters of 
a yard. 


Ahmgeer. One of the titles of king Aurengzebc^ 
It fignifies conqueror of the world. 

jiltinngba. A Turjiifli word, fignifying the red pa- 
tent j the imprertion of the imperial feal affixed to fuch 
grants, being in red ink. It is a grant of land under 
the royal feal, conveying the property to the iiril pro- 
prietor and his heirs, in perpetuit}'-, and efcheating to 
government only in default of iffue, or forfeited' by- 
delinquency. An Hujh ul Hookem, or grant correfpond* 
ing with that under the royal feal, was iffued by the 
Vizier,, another by the Devvan of the province,, and a 
perwannah, or order of releafe, by the Nazim, as in 
the cafe of jageers. It is alienable by fale, gift, or 
otherwife, without the approbation of government, 
which has never attached land held Uiider this tenure, 
whilft it was under mortgage to other perfons. It is alfo> 
an allowance paid from the revenues as a largeis to re*» 
ligious men^ do6tors^ or profeffors of fciences. 

Amaunut. A depo(it_, or truft. 


Aniauny. Lands, the collections of which are neither 
made through a zernindar, nor farmer, but by temporary 

( 21 ) 

officers, appointed by government for that purpofe j 
chiefly pradifed in the province of Bahar. 

Amaury.. A canopied leal for an elephant. An open 
«ne is called llouza or Howda, 

Amd^ This term which fignifies iviljiif, is ufed in 
Mohammedan law, in a fenft analogous to the ma- 
Iclum of the Roman law. 

* T 

Amdany. Receipts of revenue. Importi* 

:f or \/^\ ^t 

Amir cr Emir uhmra, A title, fignifying Lord of lords, 
or chic^of the nobles. See ''Flowers of Perfian Litera- 
ture/' p. 7» 


Amrcc, A life grant, ov life intcreft, 

Amreeta. The water of imnwrtalit^, the ambrofi* 

of the Hindoo gods. 

A A 


Am IFalid. A female Have,, who has borire children 
to her mailer. This is no uncommon thing in the 
Eaftern countries, it having been a fort of cuftom from- 
early times. The Bible ineations feveral iuftances of itf 

( 22 ) 


Ancblnna, Valuation of the crofs. 


Anna. Tlie iixteenth part of a rupee, 

Araav. Taxes which have been occaiionally impo^d^ 
to enhance the original land tax. 

Ar'ijh. Fine of damage. 

Ariz Bcguy. The perfon who prefents ail petition?^ 
whether written, or by word of mouth. 

Arooz. Property which does not confifl either in 
money, lands, or houfes : according to forae, it fignifies 
boufehold furniture^ 

Arfutha. A monthly running treafury account, of 
receipts, remittances, anddiiburfements; particularizing 
the fums, articles, and dates, and arranged under the 
proper heads, and made up from the Seyah Mojoodaut^ 

Arzamin. A counter fecurity given to one wlio l^ 
bound to another in the firil inftance^ 

i 23 ) 

Arzdajbt. An addrefs, or memorial, io called 9tnva 
the two initial words always uled in this addrefs j— 
it is reprefentid. See feveral forms of addrefs in the Ap- 
pendix. No !• 

Arzdi. An addrefs from an inferior ; a petition. 

Arzcez. Coin deficient in weight, orflandard; not 
•current. The word properly fignifies fin. 

As-har, is the plural of Sahr, (pronounced in Aral?ic 
Sehr,) whick is a general term for all relations, by 

Ashar. Tithe, The term tithe in its primitive fenfe^ 
iignifies ten. Vide Ufber. 

AJbir, is employed by the king to colle6t fudehh, 
(for road duties,) on merchandize j and who is ftationed 
on the public roads frequented by merchants, in ordei; 
that they may be preferved by him from moleilation. 
It is difputed in the Bcbr ul Rayek, that an ajbir iliall 
be a free man, and of any Mohammedan tribe, excepting 
that of Holhcm. 

( 24 ) 

Jtfiiiazv. Purification by bathing. 

JJhaoree. Subjed to tithe. Vide VJheree. 

Jfien* One of the three inferior modes of marriage. 

AJk^vammy Fikery. One who difpofes of another** 
property, having an authority fo to do. 

AJfamy. DeiciiptioHj perfon, date, things, &c. Alfo, 
the defendant in a iuit J riiy perfon on whom a claim 
has been made. 


AJfel Jumma, The original rents with which the 
lands were firft charged in the books of the Emperor, 
exclufivc of all additions and impofitions made fnice, 
from time to time, by the government:. 

Jijfoohut, in its literal fenfe, fignlfies binding together 
the branches of a tree, a bundle of arrows, or fo forth. 
In its fecondary fenfe, it is ufed to exprefs the defcent 
of inheritances in tlje male line. 

( 25 ) 

AUeh Free, or manumitted. 

Atmaum. See Etmaum. 

Auhdar Khaneh. The apartment in which water, 
Hierbet, &c. are cooled in ice or faltpetre. 

Aumeen. Afupervifor, or officer employed by govern- 
ment, to examine and regulate the ftate of the revenue! 
«f a diftria j alfo, Ibmetimes, an arbitrator, or umpire' 

/*) '<V 

Aumecny Ditfler. The records of the Aumeens ; alfo, 
an office for the adjuftment of their accounts. 

Auvi'il or Atimikiar. A coUe6torof the revenues, whd- 
iii inferior to both an Aumeen and a zemindar. 


Aum'd NameK A warrant, or ordej. from government^ 
empowering a perfon to take pofleffion of any land, or 
other property. 

Aumum Lowland, which yields only one crop per 


( ^^ ) 

Aurung. A Place where goods arc manufafturcd for 

^/ zf' ^>^' 

Awanja Jumma Kherch. A running trcafury account 
of receipts, remittances, and difburfements, made out 
annually, or ai any ^riod from the Arfutta, 

♦• - j 

Awleyet. An ounce of iilver, or a filver coin of that 
weight, value between fix andfeven lliillings. 

AwJad. Children, defcendants, male and female. 

♦♦ > 

AwJeya, plural of IValu. This term has a multiplicity 
of meanings. Sometimes it iignifies the next of kin, or 
other perfon entitled to exaft retaliation. Vide Wake, 

Ayeefa, literally, defpairer ; that is, a woman whofe 
courfes are (lopped, and who is confequently fuppofed 
to be paft child bearing. 


Ayma. A grant of land given by firmaun, from the 
king, and in fome places fubjed to a fmall quit rent- 
it is hereditary. 

( 27 ) 

j4ynU, is a fale where a merchant, forinftance, having 
been folicited by a perfon for a loan of money, refufeS 
the fame, but offers to fell goods to another on credit> 
at an advanced price; as if he Ihould charge tiltcen 
dirhms for what is worth only ten, and the other perfon 
agrees to to the fame. This is termed Ayniti ov fiib* 
fiantml fale, becaufe it is a receflion from a loan to a 
fpc^ific fubftance. In other words, the merchant de- 
clines grnnting the loan received of him by the bor- 
rower, but agrees in lieu tliereof to fell the jgoods, which 
is a fpecific fubftance. 

BJJDCHUPPY. Fees taken by the MoktunTub, 
for affixing his feals to the weights. 

Baadbatta, The fetting up of a haut, or occasional 
market, near another, to its prejudice. 

Baans. Very high and dangerous waves made by the 
influx of the fpring tides inio the Ganges. 


Baafenee. The pipe**faid to have been invented by 

Chrifhna, the Hindoo Apollo. It is a mulical inftru- 

ment, made of a perforated Bamboo, fimilar to our 

flageobt, except that each hole is not exadly divided 


( ^ ) 

by notes, h\A Icreral by fcmi-notes : it has a foft and 
plaintive tone, and is fo eafily filled, that many people 
blow it with their noftrils. 

Eaat. A clafs of Bramins. gee Batolcr 

£aha. Father, This is given as a very honourable title 


y* * 
Baboo, hoidj fir, mailer, wor/hip, 

Ba/k, or jimhujbt. A tribe formed from the pro- 
driflipn.of a woman of the ,Bice call with a Brarois, 

Bahaudttf, A military title. See Behauder, 
Baladufly, Exadions, or clandeHine collc<Slons. 

^^ H. 

Bala Ghaut. The higher or upper gaut or Ghaut; 
a range of mountains, lb called to diflinguifli them 
from the Payen Ghauts, the lower Ghauts, or pafles. 

>♦ '♦ 
BamhoQ. This is a fpecies of cane, of which there 
are two forts, diftinguiilied as male and female, ti>e 

( 29 ) 

the former being folid, the latter hollow. They are both 
ufed by the natives in forming temporary buildings, 
in making mats, or as fupporters by whict men carry 
large burthens. The greater part of the furniture^ which 
is brought from China is made of this cane. 

Bamboo. A meafure containing a gallon. 600 make 
a coyan at Bencoolen. 


Bandikoof, A remarkably large kind of rat. 

Bang. An intoxicating herb, which many of the 
natives are very fond of, and it is often ufed by them 
Avith very dreadful efFedts. It grows like hemp, and 
its powers are limiiar to laudanum, but not fo potent. 


Banga» A fpecles of cotton produced, exclusively 
in the Dacca diftri6t, andindifpenlibly neceflary, though 
not otherwife of fuperior quality, to form the ftiipcs of 
fome of the finefl kinds of muflin. 

1 V«w«/Vv 

Bank/a til. A ftorehoule where ftores are depofited 
while ihc (hips are unlading and refitting. 

Ban Piruji. A hermit j or one who, after the fif- 
tieth year of his Iffc, wholly renounces the WO) Id. 
C 3 

( 30 ) 

Banyan. A Gentoo fervant employed in the ma- 
nagement of commercial affairs. Every Englifti gentle- 
man at Bengal has a banyan, who either a£fcs of himfeif, 
or as the fubftitate of feme great man or black mer- 
chant. His bufinefs is to go and enquire the prices of 
all goods imported and exported, and to buy and fell 
for his matter, on which he has a cuftom of three pice 
per rupee. He is interpreter, fteward, caflikeeper, Sec. 
Thcfc Banyans are a fet of people who have brought 
difgrace upon themfelves by their chicaneries. The 
celebrated Major Davy, fpeaking of the necellity of 
learning the Perfian language, as a mean of doing 
iiway thefe deceitful interpreters, who have not un- 
fie.quently agreed with the native merchant to divide 
what they could cheat the ftran.ger of, fays, that "hun- 
dreds of Sircars and Banyans, who now eat up two-thirds 
of the merchant's projfits, opprefs the country undrr 
I he name of Englilh Gomauflitehs, and brand the 
,chara&ers of their matters with infamy might be dif-^ 
carded and turned adrift 3 or at leaft meet with fuch 
;ehecks, as would, in a great raeafure, put a flop to 
fuch rogueries." See *' The Flowers of Perfian Litera- 
ture," p. 5y. What Is faid above relates to the Ban- 
yans of Bengal j thofe of Bombay are merchants of a 
iiigh caft, and are men of probity. — A garment worn 
next to the Ikiu is alfa called Banyan. 


B any arty or Baniari Tree, among the Hindoos is a 
facred plant : from its various branches ilioots, exadly 

( .81 ) 

like roots, Iffue, and, growing till they reach the groundV 
fixthemlelves and become mothers to a future progeny : 
tliey thus far as the ground will admit. There 
are two forts, the pipler, which is the female, and 
the ward, which is the male. This is the fame tree 
which is called by botanifts the ficus orientalis. The 
following defcription of a Banian tree in the province 
of Bahar, was written by Colonel Ironfide, " Near 
Manjee, a fmali to\iin at the confluence of the Dewab 
(or GograJ and the Gmiges, about twenty miles Weft 
of the city of Patna, there is a remarkably large Tree 
called a Bur or Batiian Tree, whigh hastlie quality of ex- 
tending its branches, in a horizontal' direction, to a 
confiderable diftance from its Jiem y and of then dropping 
leaflefs fibres, or /do/rs, to the grotmd, which there 
catch hold of the earth, takeroot, embody, grow^hick^ 
and ferve either to fupport the pratra6ted branches, or, 
by a farther vegetation, to compofe a fecond trunk. 
From tliefe branches, other arms again fpring out, fall 
down, enter the ground, grow up again, and conftitute 
a third /lem, and fo on. From 1 he oppofite pretty high 
bank of the G^Tz^f J, and at the dillance of near eight 
miles, we perceived this tree, of a pyravjidical Ihape 
with an eafy fpreading flope from its fummit to the 
extremity of its lower branches > we miftook it at firft 
for a fmall hill. We liad no quadrant to take its 
height J but the middle or principal^rwi is confidembly 
higher, I think, than the higheft ^Jm, or'other tree, 
I ever faw in England. The following comprife fome 
other of its dimenfions, which were taken with a cord 
of a given length: 

( 32 ) 

Yards. Feet. 

Diameter of the branches from North 

to South — — — —.— 121 or 363 
Diameter of ditto from North to South 125 or 3/5 
Circumference of the ihadow of the ex- 
treme branches, taken at the meridian 372 or 11 16 
Circumference of the feveral bodies or 
flems taken by carrying the cord 
round the outermofl trunks -— — 307 or 921 
The feveral trunks may amount to 
50 or 60. 

N. B. The dropping ^bres /hoot down from the knofs 
or joints of,the boughs. 

This tree, as well as the P^^pel, and many other 
large trees in Indiaj is a Creeper. It is often feen to 
fpring round other trees, particularly round every fpecies 
of ihepahn. The Date, or Palmyra, growing through 
the centre of a Banian Tree, looks extremely grand -, 
and yet none of the European landfcape painters who 
have delineated views of this country have introduced 
this chara6teriftic objed into their pieces. I have fre- 
quently obferved it alfo ihooting from old walls, and 
running along them. In the infide of a large brick 
well, it lined the whole circumference of the internal 
fpace of it, and thus adually became a tree turned in- 
iide out. 

Under the tree fat a Fakir, a devote^. He had been 
there twenty-five years j but he did not continue under 
the tree throughout the year, his vow obliging him to 
lie, during the four colde^ mouths, up to his neck in 
the Ganges, and to fit, during the four hoiieji months, 
clofe to a large fire." Vide Oriental Collections. 

( »3 ) 


Bar* Saturday. 

Baraat, An aflignraent or draft. 

Barajee. An accoiint,**flatiog fir(l the fum totals and 
then the partidular^i 

Bataun. Ilaio* 

Baraume. A. cloak worn during raitt. 


Barhardarry, Expence of travelling, coolcy-hirci 
carriage-hire, &c, 

Barhek, Lord of audienee, 

Barelly Rupee, A Vpecies of rupees coined at the 
town of Barcllv. 

Barg-a. Place of admittance, or public dewan, where 
audience is generally given* 

( 34 ) 

Barjaui. An oppreflive cuflom, by which the na- 
tives are compelled to purchafe above the market 
price. Or, 



Sarjehefi or Berei, A tribe of Hindoos^ produced 
by the connexion of a Bramin with & woman of the 
Sooder ca(^, 

• -(/kA 

Barjoy, A cuftom of forcing the people buy goods 
at an exorbitant price. Likewife, a free grant of 41 
fpot of ground made by the zemindars and lundholders 
to any of their relations, the rents of which, to prevent 
a lofs- to the donor, are afleflcd upon the reft of his 


BaUna. Internal, or domellic. 


Batohr. Land allotted to a clafs of Bramins, called 
Baat, by way of charity. 

^ or Jb\, 

Batta. An extraordinary allowance paid the military 
when on field duty. Alfo, the agio allowance, or rate 
of exchange, between rupees of different fpecies. 

( 8i ) 

Satiy. A word iifed on the coaft of Malabar, to ex, 
prcfs rice in the hulk. 

D^fyt^ or 0^1^^ 

Batwarra. The partition or divifion of lands. 

t^^l or dI^.L 

Baudjhaub or Paudjhaub, A king. 


A garden, generally with a hoafe. 





A conftant and eftabliflied market, in con 


ion to haut, an occafional one. 




y**^[ ,^ 

Bazee Bahui, or Bazgc iJufeb. Particular taxes, fo 
called from their being entered under this vague head, 
fpecifying no particular account on which they are levied. 

Bazee Jumma. Arbitrary *and unauthorized exadions 
made by the zemindars and landholders, over and above 

( 3$ ) 

the affel and ^hwah jutnma j fuch as fincf for theft> 
fornication, quarrels, and fees on marriages, contribu* 
tions made by Hindoo priefts, acknowledgements given 
for the liberty of grazing cattle on commons, of feliing 
fpirituous liquors, of cutting wood, long grafs, &:c. tax 
on money lent, on the .divifion of eftates and property 
among relations, on fiinuds of admiflion to caft, oa 
fettling in a pergunnah, and on various other occafions. 

Bazge Zemin. Land exempted from payment of re- 
venue under various denominations, as Altumghaj Mud- 
udmaufh, Ayma, Jageer, Nuzzer Dergah, Kharidge, 
Maufee, Serihikun, Khyraut, Bermooter, Boguewitter, 
Naunkar, Inaum, Bhatoler, Chaukaran, Biftinoter, 
Dewutter, Mohetraun, Pecraun, Fuckeeraun, Che-» 
raghee, Nedjejotc. They are therefore called Charity 


BaziL The juice of grapes, boiled until a quantity 
iefs than two-thirds evaporates. 

^■^ .«> • 

Bazayft. The 26t of refuming alienated tands, and 
re-annexing them to the jumma payable to government. 
Refuraptibn of any thing. 

B^.ehee. A 'a ly. The** lower orders of the people 
frequently change this word to Bonbon, 

( 37 ) 

Beegah. About a third part of an acre, l600fquare 
yards. In the Aiiatic Refearches, vol. VI. p. 49. it is 
laid to contain 100 cubits fquare. 

^— ^m/V^ 

Bc-ehecJi. A man who fells his liberty. 

Bed, An inftrument like a large hoe. 

Beelahundy. An account of the fettlement of a 
diftria, fpccifying the name of each Mehal, the farmer 
of it, and the amount at which it is let, 

Beelab. Properly the privy purfe, but ufually applied 
to exprefs funds appropriated to the maintenance of 
the Begum, and to other private purpofes in the family 
of the Nabob. 

♦♦ ♦ 

Beena, A fpecies of long grafs, <> 

Beet, A fpecies of fickly grafs, which has prickles 

en it. 


Bee/hookerma, An artirt, Aiid to have formed the 
weapons for the war maintained in 4he Suttee Y«g, be- 
tweenDewta and Olibon, or the good and bad fpirits, 


< 38 ) 

for the fpace of 100 years. He is faid to have invented 
the Agneeqfier and the^^^ Jghnee. 


Begum. A title given to a lady of rank. 

Beg. Sir, lordj mafter. 

Behal. Reflored to its former, or continuing in its 
prefent fiatc. 

Bchally Sunnud. A grant refloring a perfon to the 
pofleflion of fomething that he has been deprived of, 
or confirming to him what lie at prefent enjoys. 


Behauder. Invincible j a title bellowed on military 
officers. It is often accompanied with the word Jung 
war ; thus, Bebaudurjmur, inviucible in war. 

BebawUly. The partition of the a6tual produce of 
the harveft between government and the cultivator. 

Beid, The moft ancient and venerable of the Hindoo 
fcriptures. There are four beids 5 the Rug, the Huchur, 
the Sam, and the Atreburn. 

Bej entry Mehal. ihe revenues colle6ted from dancing 
girls and muficians. 

( 39 ) 

L/ &■ 

Belaa Kerch. A principle dcpartnient in the houfer 
hold cxpenccs of a nawaub. 

ti / * • 

Benjanrs. Merchants who fuppl/ camps or towns 
with grain. See Brinjara. 

(/A J- 

Beeparec. A petty merchant, or traScker in fmall 
articJeSj but chiefly in grain. He carries his merchan- 
dize upon bullocks. 

Beramy, One of the fiVe fupcrior modes of marriage. 
According to this naethod, the father by entreaty ob- 
tains a bridegroom of diftin6tion, and on that account 
makes magnificent nuptial prefents. v 

Bifhi. Thurfday, ♦• 


y ♦ 

Bepul, A meafure of time, 24 of which are etjuivat 
lent to a fecond, and US to a pul. 

Bcraiit. An affignraent,^ or draught. 

Berk-undauz. A matchlock-man. Literally, one 
who throws lightning, from the Perfia^ word burk 
lightning, and undakbtun to throw. 

( 40 ) 


Berund. The denomination of the lancl^ in theMoor- 
Ihedabad divifion, (ituated to the north-eaftof the Puda 

Betel, The aromatic leaf of a fhrub, growing like 
a vine. The leaf is not unlike that of a kidney-bean, 
and grows on the flirub exadly in the lame manner. 
This is cut fmall, together with the Betel nutj (which 
is, however, the produce of a different tree,) chunam, 
or fine lime, and other ingredients, and chewed con- 
ftantly by the natives of India, of all rank^, between 
mtals. The leaf is called Paariy by the natives. The 
farmers of Madras pay the Company from fix to feven 
thoufand pounds a year, for the exclufive privilege of 
vending it. A fmall parcel of thefe, from the hand of a 
fiiperior, is always received as a pledge andaflurance of 
protedion. The Betel nut (called by the natives Soofaury) 
is of the iize and appearance of a nutmeg. 

Bice. The third original Gentoo tribe. 

B'let. Vide Dar, 



But ul Mah In the marginal notes of Chulapee, 
on the Shereh Wekayeh, and in tlie Hujb ul Muftiiiiy 
and other books, is fet forth, that the revenues of the 

( 41 > 

Bht u! Mdl are derived from four ^fources. 1. Zckat 
fcwayhn ujber, with whatever the ajhir coUeds from 
Mufluh-naun merchants. The detail of the feway'un 
duties is to be found in books under the head of Zekat, 

The objeds to be benefited by tliefe taxes are, 1. 
fakeers ; 2. m'ljlcen j 3. aumih > 4. mokaleheen -, 5. debtors ; 
6. luamandigan j 7. ehi usjehcd, A fakeer is a perfon 
whofe property is lefs than a yniffauh, or if the whole 
of his property fliould be the value of a yn'iffaiih, yet it 
coniifts merely of nece (Tar ies j 2. rmjhecn, is one who is 
totally deftitute of every thing, i. e. an abfolute pauper j 
3. aujnil, is the officer who colle6ls the fudekat and 
iiJJjcr; 4. mokatub, a flave, whofe mafter faith to him, 
** Whenever you have acquired a certain value of pro- 
perty, and given it to me, you ihallhavc your freedom 3'* 
5. the head of debtors, requires no explanation -, 61 
^i.uamandi'b, according to Imam Abee Youfef, is a perfon 
in fuch a ftate of poverty, as rwt to be able to ferve in 
a religions war : and according to Imam Mohammed, 
it is applied to one who is deXtitute of the means of 
^oing the pilgrimage to Mecca ; and it has moreover 
been applied to a lludent, or any perfon who devotes 
his time to religious duties ; 7. ^bn usfebecl, (or fon of 
the road,) is a traveller whofe property is in a diftant 
country. It is moreover politively enjoined, that a 
perfon cannot enjoy the benefit under any of thele de- 
fcriptions unlefs he be in a ftate of poverty. The office 
where this kind of revenue is received, is called jB/^/ 
ul Malfudekeb. 

The fecond kind, is the revenue ailfing from the fiftli 
of the fpoil taken from infidels 5 and the fiith of moadin, 


( 42 ) 
ormin;s, and of rekaz, which is treafure under" thr 
earth, whether produced or depofited there. The de- 
tail of the method of co]Ie6ting the iifth of the fpoil, 
m ly be learned under the liead of iS^^/ir j end all par- 
ticulars concerning mines and hidden treai'ure, may be 
found under the article Zekat. 

The obje6ts to be benefited by thefe laft mentioned 
revenues are orphans, paupers, and travellers. 

The third is kberaj und jezrcyeb, and whatever the 
ajhir collefts from thofe of the tribe of Bfnu Trgllcb^ 
Mujlameriy and Zimmees. A Mufiamen is a perCbn who 
is not a Muffulman, but has taken refuge in a Moham- 
medan country, and dwelt there lefs than a year. A 
Zmmu is one who haviiog agreed to pay jezeeycb, (or 
the poll tax,) refides in a Moham.medan country. 

The perfons to be fupported by thefe lail mentioned 
fevenues, are cauzees^ mullees, mohtilTubs, magiftratcF,. 
and their dependents, as well as bafezan, commenta- 
tors on the Koraun, teachers,, ftudents, and foldiers j 
part alfo is expended on buildings for the accommoda- 
tion of travellers, in creeling bridges, digging canals, 
fbrtiiications^and for preventing theinvafion of enemies. 
The office where thefe revenues are collected is called 
Bid ul Mai kberaj. 

The fourth kind/ confifts of ellates- without heirs 5 
and property found on the highway^ the proprietor 
whereof cannot be difcovered. 

This lad fund of revenue is expended in the raainte- 
Bance of poor fick perfons, and providing them with 
medicines; the funeral expences of lakeet and alul 
jinayiUj and cripples. Lahet is a living infant^ whole 

( 43 ) 

pare nU, from the dread of famine, or for fear of being 
accufed of adultery, have expofed it on the public road*i 
Akulo: Deeyut, is the price Of bloody whatever is paid 
in fatisfadion for the blood of a pcrfon j and akuljcnayui 
here fignifies, that if a perfon kills or maims another, 
or cuts off one of his limbs, and fuoh criminal is a 
pauper, the price of blood, in fuch cafe, is to be paid 
from the But ul Mai. 

It is the duty of kings and governors to keep thefe 
four kinds of revenue dirtin(5i: in the B'let ul Mai 5 and 
whenever i-t happens, that the tj-eafury of one depart- 
ment is c:ihaulled to fupply the deficiency from one of 
the other's, and when the collections come in^ replace 
the fum fo borrowed. 

It is alfo incumbent on them to diftribute their bene- 
iits to thofe who are julUy entitled" to them \ and not 
to withhold, or obferve any degree of partiality in the 

It is lawful for the fovereign.and his officers, to take 
from the But ul Mai whatever is required for the fervice 
of the flate, but nothing farther. It is not advifeable 
for a prince to enrich himfelf, and it is beft not to take 
even two months together, but to receive monthly what- 
ever riiay be requifite. 

If the king fliould fee a Z'lmmee dying of hunger, it 
behoveth him to grant relief from the Biet id MaL 

B'lUar. A man who works with a beil ; a pioneer; 
a gunman^ 

( 44 } 

Birawlrd. An eftmiate. Twenty bifwa make a beeglia. Called alio 

Boodh. Wednefday. 

Book Berttt. A naan who ierves for his fubiiftence. 


Book Lahhy. Intereft produced by ufufrud on articles 

vV' vr. 

Boora Tokra. An account in which the putwarree 
inferts the jumma, the receipt on account of the re- 
venue^ &c. It is formed at the end of every lix months, 
and a new kilibundy is made out therefrom* 

Borah, A Mohammedan fhop-keeper. 

■ c>';r. 

Borah. Mohammed's horfe, on which he is feigned 
to have made his noclurnal journies to heaven. 

Boffinea, A colle^^or of villages in Rumpoor, 

( 45 > 

Bottnga. The furniture and baggage belonging to » 



Bowley. A well faced with ftone. 


Boj'dzu'ilkr. Gifts to fuch as arc poffeffed of the 
knowledge of phyfic. 


Brama, The Deity in his crcfltlve capacity j or 
rather, the fecondary Deity, who is ftippofed by th« 
Hindoos to be the immediate former of all things. 


Braman Doyan. The ihare of the Bramins ', i. e. 
every perqullite, allowance, duty, or the donation, 
that has been, or may be, appropriated for the main-" 
tenance of the Bramins, or other religious perfons. 

Braman, or Bramhi. A divine or theologian. Thia 
is the lirfl and principal caft of the four grand divifions 
of Gentoos, who are, hy reafon of their birth, of 
the lacerdotal order. They (bed no blood on any ac- 
count, and eat no flefh, becaufe they believe in the 
tranfmigration of fouls 3 and even vegetables which 
have been prepared by any other caft than their own 
they cannot touch : they can only marry with perfons 

( 45 ) 

of their own caft, becaufe all others are Inferior : their 
natural duty, according to the Vt:dsy is peace, felfrc- 
ftrainty patience, redlitude, -wifdom, and learnings as 
they were produced from the mouth of Brama, they are 
to pray, to read, to inltrud. 

Branoltoro Zemeen. Lands granted to the pricfts in 

Brihm. The fpirit of God. The Hindoos believe, 
that it is abforbed in contemplation, is prcfent in every 
part of fpace, and is omnifcieot. 

Brhijara, or Brinjaries. People who fupply the army 
with neceifaries of all kinds. They carry their goods 
on camels, elephants, horfes, &:c. &c. : when there is 
danger they are elcorted by a detachment from the army, 
Brinjara is derived from hrinj, rice, and ara, bringing. 
Thefe people belong to no particular caft, or any par- 
ticular part of Hindooftaun ; they live in tents, and 
travel about the country ; many of them have large 
droves of cattle belonging to them : they are governed 
by their own particular laws and regulations j they 
come frequently to towns on the fea-coaft wi^h wheat, 
&:c. and in exchange take away fpices, cotton, and 
woollen cloths, but principally fait, which they carry to 
the interior parts of ihe country; they are rarely mo- 
lelled, even in war-time, except by being fometimes 

( 47 ) 

prelTcd into. the lervice of an army to carry baggage or 
provilions; but Co foon as their lervices are no longer 
waatcd they are paid aud difniiircd. 


Bukfhy. Paymafter of the forces, Sec. and treafurcr. 


BuJbul, A bird of India and Perfia, greatly refem* 
bhng the nightingale. The Bulbul of Bengal is larger 
than that of Periia. In Bengal they are trained to fight. 
Of the fighting Bulbul of Bengal an engraving is given 
in the Oriental Colle6tions, vol. I. The bird from 
which the reprefentation was takeu, was fliot at Sun- 
derbunds, near Calcutta, in December 1/95, by a 
gentleman defirous of fending to Europe a correct 
drawing of that celebrated feathered fongfter, fo familiar 
to every reader of the odes of Haufez, the works of 
Saadee, and the otiierpoets of Perfia, as the people of the 
country afTured him that this was the genuine Bulbul, 
a word which we commonly tranflate Nightingale^ 
the note of the Perfian bird refembling that ofi our 
Philomel. The gentleman who fent the drawing from 
which the engraving above mentioned was taken, fays, 
that its note, though wild and pretty, had not by any 
means the plaintive fweetnefs of the lengthened ftrains^ 
which charm the inhabitants of the fouthern parts of 
Edi'ope. A Perfian writer fays, " He is called in the 
Periian tongue Hazardafitaun, or the bird of a thoufand 
fongs : he is one of the fmaller birds, &c." He alfo 
fays, in relating the common opinion of the Perfiang, 

( 48 ) 
tbat '' the Bulbul has a palfion for the rofe, and that 
whenever he fees a perfon pluck a rofe from a tree, he 
laments and cries/*^ &c. &c. In Bengal, thofe who 
train the Bulbul to fight, hold one oppofite to another 
by a firing fufficiently long to allow him to fly at and 
peck his adverf^ry. 

Biihiul. A fifliermea who keeps boats on the river. 

♦* ' * 

Bundary. Magazines and other offices for the 

magiftrate. Thetreafury. 

Hujider. A port or place where duties are coHe<5ted. 
A cuftom houfe. 

Bundha. Dams or banks to Tecnre lands againft 
iiiundations from adjacent rivers. 

Bundohijl. Literally, tying and binding. The re- 
gulation of any affairs. The difcipline of the army, 
and generally ufed for the fettlement of the Bengal re- 

• *■ 
Bungahnv. A cottage or warehoufe, A thatchec^ 
houle with wall of mud or matting. 

' . ( -49 ) 

Buraiv'md. An eftimate. 

Burmuicr, Land appropriated to the fupport of Bra- 

Burrun Sunkcr, The general denomination of all the 
tribes produced by the intermixture of two different 
tribes. Thefe are moftly retail dealers in petty articles. 

Burt. Charitable grants of lands or money amongft 
the Hindoos in general; but they are confined to no 
particular clafs or order of them, 

Buya, Sale. 

»« ♦ 
Byna, Earneft given to a bargain. 

Byfe. A feal. The feal of Tippoo Sultaun wa? a 
cypher formed by the intermixture of the letters of the 
words Nabbce Maulik, which fignify. The prophet is 

( 50 ) 

Cihskut. An engagement. 

Caffdclas. Thefe are large compnnies of merchants 
or traders, who travel from the interior part of the 
country. They tranfport their goods on oxen. 


Cahawn, Cahaivun, or Caoun. Pronounced (own. 
Sixteen puns of cowries^ equal to about eight pcnce^ 
i^nglifh money. 


Calarryy CaaUarrey or Kallaree. A fait work^ com- 
monly called fait pans. 


CalluTti'dauTtf literally, a pen cafe, but generally ufed 
for a ftandifh. The word is derived from callmn, a pcuy 
and dau7i (from daujbtun to have or boJdJ a Jbeatb or 
cafe. It is likewife the enfign of the vizarut. 

Callum-Urmijb. A penkniic. 

Cdja Sbereefa. Vide Khalfa. 


Camar Mehah (Kiiemr.) Places where arrack and 
fpirituQUS li^juors are fold. 

( 51 ) 

CuTidann. Ten candnrincs make a mace in niCrtcy 
and weight, in China. 


Candy. A weight equal to 56()]bs. at Amjengo, 
Bombay, dndOnorcj 500lbs. at Bengal and Fort St. 
Ototgt; 600lby. at Callicut and Teliiclicrry* 


Canoongoe, An expounder of the laws and cuftoms, 
Jn the vigour of the Moghul government, the duty of 
this officer was to keep counterparts of all accounts of 
new cflablilhments of villages, transfers of land, and 
other circumftances, which occalioned a change in the 
ftate of the country. Every lale and deed of transfer^ 
the meafurement, boundaries, and divifiou of land» 
were regiftered' in the public records which contained 
a complete hiftory of all alterations that took place ia 
the ftate of landed property, throughout the country. 
The Canoongoe was referred to on ever)» point thnt 
refpe6ted the finances, or civil Government, in all dlf- 
putes concerning lands j it ferved frequently as a guide, 
in impofing, or collecting the revenues, and was a check 
on the embezzlements and exadions of the zemindars 
and other public officers. 

Gapaas. Bengal cotton, in contradiftiudion of that 
of Bombay or Susat. 


( -^2 ) 

jCarccon. A civil officer under the zemindars, and 
alfo in the offices of government, whofe bufinefs it is 
tokeep exa6t accounts of the coUedions. 


Carret. A fmall of piece of money, equal to an 
eighth part of a penny. Five and a quarter make a 
caveer, and feven a comaihee, at Mocha, and in Ara- 
bia, &c. 


Cajb. Ten caih make a candarin in China, and 80 
a fanam at Fort St. George, 

Cajt. A tribe. There are four original cafts or tribes 
among the Hindoos, viz. the Bramin, the Chehteree^ 
the Bice, and the Sooder. Each of thefe are fubdivi- 
dcd into many more. There is a fifth call called the 
JBurrun Sunker 5 below which are the Pariars or Chan- 
dalas. The followers of Mohammed have alfo four 
head t)r principal calls who relide in Hindoollaun, 


Catty. A weight equal to 19 ounces and three 
quarters. In China 100 make a pccul. 


Caveer. Equal to 27 fortieths of a penny. 80 cavcers 
make a Spanilh dollar in Arabia, &c. or a Mocha 

( 53 ) 

dollar at Mocha ; and 40, a Spanifli dollar at Beetle- 


Gauffer. This is a term of the greateft abufe. It 
implies one who has neither the fear of God nor man 
before his eyes, 

Cauzy. A Mohammedan judge. 

CauTy ul Kezaat. That is, Judge of Judges, or head 
judge. — ^There is one at Moorfliedabad, whofe deputies 
are eftabliilied in moft of the Bengal diftrifts. The 
Cauzy ul Kezaat formerly held a court at Moorfliedabad, 
which took cognizance of caufes concerning marriage 
contracts and fettlements, the divifion of inheritances> 
teftaments, &c. At prefent this judicial power is not 
exercised by the Cauzy, being abforbed by the De- 
wanny, or Poujdary jurifdidions-. The Cauzy ul 
Kezaat has now 2. feat in the Nizamut Adawlut, at 
Moorfliedabad i but the fepa rate authority ofhimfelf 
and his deputies, feeni confined to giving Fetwas, 
celebrating Mohammedan marriages, and attending 
with his feals all deeds of purchafe, mortgages^ fcttlc- 
Bjents, and the like.' 



• Cawelly. Fees which the pol'ygar received for watch- 
ing and taking care of the crop. 


Cawn. See Khan, 

( 54 ) 


Chahoutra, A tribunal. 

Cbakeraun. Account of the lands appropriated to the 
maintance of public fervants. 

Chakeraun Zemeen. Lands appropriated to the main- 
tenance of public fervants. 


Chalra. A kind of difcuswith a fharpedge, hnrle'i 
in battle from the point of the fore-finger for which 
there is a hole in the center. 

Clallftoon. A building fnpported by AO pillars ; 
(from cbalh forty, and toon a pillar. The palace at Patna, 
which is appropriated to the ufe of the Shawzata, has 
this number of pillars -, whence its name. 

Chandalah. Chandalahs, among the Hindoos, arc 
fuch as have been turned out of their cafls. Their 
condition, after this excommunication, is the loweft 
degradation of human nature. No perfon of any cafl 
will have the lead communication with them, If one 

( 55 ) 

approaches a perfon of the Nair cafl, he may put him 
to death with impunity. Water and milk are con- 
fidcred as defiled by their ihadow pafling over them, 

Chandni Chok, The name of a fquare bazar. 

Chaur Sbumbeh. Wednefday j literally, the fourth 
day after the Sabbath. 

Cbaurkuh, The upper robe or garment, which i$ 
never conferred on any but princes of the blood, the 
vizccr of the emperor, or the ameer ul omra. 


CbawM. A kind of lafli, qfed at the cutcherry 
court to flog delinquents. This word has the genera 
fenfe of the Englifh word whip. 

Chawhukfuwar, The floggers appointed to ufe the 


Chehteree. The fecond of the four grand cafts of the 
Hindoos : they are faid to have proceeded from the 
arms of Brama, which fignifies flrength : it is therefore 
their duty to a6t the loldier and the governor. 

( 56 ) 

CbeTa. A favourite flave, adopted by his mailer. 

Cbeller Cab. The fecond, or after crop, gathered in 
April and May, 

^ Cbendal. A mean tribe of Hindoos, which rofc 
from the connexion of a maii of the Sooder with a 
woman of the Bramin caft j their duty is to feed dogs 
and afles : they are nOt to live in the town :- they are 
executioners, and are to call out the bodies of fuch ar 
die without heirs. 

Cheraugbee, Land bellowed for the provifion of 
iiliuninations, &c. of a Mohammedan mofque, or tomb. 


Cbermaiar. Shoemakers, or workers in leather — a 
tribe of Gentoos, who are defcended from a man of the 
Abheir caft having had connexion with a woman of 
the. Bice call. 

Cb.bedam, A kind of money. Twenty cowries make 
a ch,hedam, 

Cbickerherdejbee. Compound interell. 

( S7 ) 

ChlUaun. An invoI<:e of treafure. 

^ {//? 

Cbiirce, Au umbreUa. 

^ or ii^ 

Cbittah. An accouB't of all the land« of a villagt;, 
divided into dangs or portions, according to the order 
of time in which they were meafured. It contains the 
quantity of land in each dang, a defciiption of its 
boundaries, the articles it produces, and the name of 
the ryot who cultivates it. Wherever a meafurement 
takes place, which is generally in thecourfe often or 
twelve years, fuch an account is drawn out, and figned 
by the Gomaufliteh, and depofited with the Put wary 
of the village. 



Chokey. A guard, watch-houfc. Alfo a place ap- 
pointed in different parts, of the country, for receiving 
the public cuftoms and duties upon all branches of 
foreign and inland trade pailing through thefe didrifls, 
and not included in Duftuk privileges. Generally 
underftood to be a cuftom-houfe fituated by the river 
fide, where all boats pay a toll to the Nuwaub. 


Cbokeydar, The officer of a guard. Likewife, a 
watchman. By the " Gen too Laws, or Ordinations 

( 58 ) 

ffie Pundits," it appears^ that" Whoever are appointed' 
By the magiftrate for the prote6tiob of any city or town, 
fliall be held to protcd fuch city or town : if any tiling 
be ftolen in fuch cityor town, and thofe perfons cannot 
produce the thief, th^y fhall make good the article 
flolen." — " If the guards and watchmen find any ftol'en 
articles upon a thief, and do not know the owner of 
thofe articles, the magiftrate fhall detain in fafe cuftody 
thofe goodS' for one yearj if, within the year, the 
owner of the goods (hould come and prove his property 
therein, the magidrate fhall give up the things to him j 
and if there is no owner, he flinll keep the goods to 
himfelf." — "If the guards and watchmenlind any floleii 
articles upon a thief and do not know the owner of 
thofe articles, the magiftrate fhall detain the goods in 
iafe cuftody for one yCarj if, within this year, the 
owner of the goods fhould not appear, he fhall gi\e one- 
quarter fhare of the goods to the watchmen, and keep* 
the remaining three quarters thereof to hirafelf." — " If a 
"watchman hath found any ftoien goods, and a perfon 
ihould. fay, " This article is my property," he fhall 
then enquire of that perfon, what article it was that 
was ftoien from him, and of what kind it was, and of 
what fize or quantity, and from, what place, and on- 
what day it was ftoien r Then, if that perfon, ac- 
cording to each queftion, can give in an anfwer with 
proof, the magiftrate ftiall give up the article to him;, 
if he cannot bring proof, then, whatever w^s the va- 
lue of the thing claimed, the magiftrate fliall take lo> 
much from him as a fine." 

Choorchitty. A deed of releafe. 

i 59 ) 

choultry. All open houfe for travellers, (imilnr to ft 
"Turkilli caravan fera. A bramln always refides in or 
near it, to keep it clean, and to furnifti travellers 
with water, .&c. he is maintained by an endowment, 


Clout. A fourth part. Tliis demand of the Mah-. 
rattahs, was firft publicly acquiefccd in by Syed HuiTein 
Khan, Soobahdar of the Dekkan, under the Emperx)r 
Ferukhfeer, in 1716. The Emperor, Mohammed Shah 
granted the Mahrattahs permiffion to levy the chout 
from Bengal, in revenge for the ufurpation of Aliverdy 
Khan j who, to get rid of it, ceded all OriflTa, ex- 
cepting Midnapore and Jellafore, to the Mahrattahs, 
in perpetuity, in lieu thereof 3 but at the fame time 
eftabliihed an abwab under this head, at the rate of 
one-feventh of the afful jumma, over all Bengal, that 
he might not be a lofer by the difmembermeiit of Oriffa, 

ChvJ. Six make a at Bombay. 



ClxKodrawy, or Cbowdrafc-i ^ the jurifditftion of a 

Chowdry, A farmer or landholder. lie is properly 
above the temindarin rank 5 but according ^othe Bci»- 

( 60 ) 

gal cuflom, he is deemed inferior to the zemindar : he 
is generally the principal purveyor of the markets in 
towns and camps. 


Choiuk, A conftant daily market, or place of fale. 
In towns, for all articles of wearing apparel and othc^* 
fecond hand goods, the commodities here fold beiijg, for 
the moll part, not new 3 or, if new, coarfe of their kind. 

Cbtihdar. The Chnbdars are fervants of ftate who 
bear filvcr and gold fticks, like thofe now in ufe by the 
commanders and field officers at St. James's palace. He 
proclaims the approach of viiitors, and precedes his 
mafter's palankeen, refounding his praifes and titles to 
the world. 

Chihla. An aflemblage of the fmaller divIHons of a 
province. The jurifdidion of a Foujdar, who receives 
the rents from the Zemindavs, and accounts for them 
with the government. 

Cbukladar, The fuperior of a number of dedars. 

Cbuhladarec. A tax to defray the expenccs of the 

Cbukrce, A cart or fmall carnage for burdens. 

( O'l ) 

Chunam, Lime j which the natives ufe in the form 
of mortar, and alfo to mix with their betel. It re* 
tains its name in both cafes. 

CburrS A fand bank. 

Chute St'lamy. A'fee taken from the bridegroom on 
the morning after his nuptials, and paid to the cauzee, 

Cohalah, A deed of fale^ 

Cjtig, An inflriiment ufcd to proclaim the approach 
of danger among the Polygar diltrids, about the Mug- 
jey pafs into the Myfore country. 

Cojinys. A meafure ot ground, 300 covids long ) 250 
at Luckypoor. 

Coohy. A common porter, or labourer, of any kind. 

Cirge. Twenty pieces ot cloth, at Madrafs. 



Corocoro, A kind of veflei. 

( 62 ) 

Cofs or Khas. Lands under the immediate fuperin-* 
twidence of the government, for\vantof farmers. 

Cofs, or Cofe, A mealure by which diftances are 
commonly computed in India. They are of two forts, 
Jerriby, or meafured, which are faid to be 4CX) Englilh 
yards each 3 and refviy, or computed, which are from 
2000 to 2500 yards, according to the diflerent provinces. 
Others fay, between two and three Englilh miles ; but 
the belt computations make the cofs equal to about one 
flatute mile and nine tenths. In Bombay the word cof» 
is frequently ufed for an Englilh mile. 

Cojid. A meflenger employed to carry difpatches 
from one part of the empire to another : a poft : an 


Cotta. A fpacious warehoufe in which the Com- 
pany'^goods are depolited until they are forted and 

Cottah. One-twentieth of a beegah. 

Covrd, Cwvid, or Ccn^'it. A cubit, generally reckoned 
18 inches; although in fome places it is extended to 
27, and in others to 36 inches. 

( 63 ) 

C(yivry» A rmall ihell which pafles for money in Ben- 
gal. Twenty cowries make a ch^hedam. Eighty are 
called a pun, and from 50 to dO puns, the value of a 
rupee. A cowry may be rated the iCiOth part of a penny. 


Coyaxi, A meafure equal to 800 gallons atBencoleii, 

Cuh%, A receipt. 

Cron, One hundred lacks of ropees. 


Cutnmec* An abatement; deficiency^ 

- / • 

Ctimmce Beyjhee. An abftract account of the increafe 
and decreafe in the jumma at each ryot of a village, at 
the beginning of the year, to which the Putwary, as a 
fandion, procures the fignature of his immediate 

-Oi,/ - 

Curuavg. A gum, which is gathered from a tree 
growing on the iiland of Mindanao. 

Currumchary, The chiet officer of a large village, 
whofc duty it is to colle<:^ the rents from the Munduls, 
and to manage the bufineis of the colledion in general. 


( 64 ) 

Curry. An admixture ^fvarious eatables^ a difli much 
rciiihed by all ranks in India. 

Cusjboon. A legion or brigade, which confifts of* 
about 3dOO men, compofed of cavalry, artillery, and 

Cujfore, or Kujfcr. An allowance upon the exchange 
of rupees, in contradiftindion to bntta. Batta U the 
fum deducted, and cuflbre the fum added. 

Cutcha Amdauny, The grofs import. The payment 
made by the zemindar of his rent, in the various forts 
of rupees, as they come up from the different pergun- 


CiUoherry, A court of juitice. Alfo, the office into 
vhich the rents are delivered 5 or for the tranfadion 
oi uny other public bufinefs. 


Cuttar. A kind of dagger worn by the Indians, 

CutwaU. An inferior officer of the police, whole 
bufinefs it is to try and decide petty mifdemeanors. 
An officer who fuperintend^ the markets. The duty 

( 65 ) 

ofacutwall was thus defined by the emperor Akber. 
This office requires one who is courageous, experi- 
enced, aaive, and of quick comprehenfion. He muft 
be particularly attentive to the nightly patroles, that, 
from a confidence in his vigilance, the inhabitants of 
the city may deep at cafe, and every attempt of the 
wicked be prevented or fruftrated. It is his duty to 
keep a regifter of all the houfes and frequented roads. 
And he fliall caufe the inhabitants to enter into engage- 
ments to aid and aflifl, and to be partakei'S in the joy or 
forrow of each other. And he ftiall divide the city into 
mehals (or quarters) and nominate a proper perfon to 
the fupefintendcnce thereof, under whole feal he Ihall 
receive a journal of whatever comes in or goes out of 
that quarter, together with every other information re- 
garding it. He Ihall alfo appoint for fpies over the con* 
du(5t of the iVleer Mehal, a perfon of that quarter, and 
another who is unknown to him ; and keeping their re- 
ports in writing, be guided thereby. Travellers, whofe 
perfons are not known, he iliall caufe to alight at a fe- 
parate ferai ) and he (hall employ intelligent people to 
difcover who they are. He muft carefully attend to the 
income and expences of every man. His own condu6t 
muft be upright and ftridly honeft -, and he muft make 
himfelf acquainted with every tranfa6tion. Out of each 
clafs of artificers he Ihall fele6t one to be at their head, 
and appoint another their broker for buying and fellings 
and regulate the bufinefsof the clafs by their reports : 
and they Ihall regularly furnifti him with journals at- 
tcfted by their refpe6tive feais. He Ihall endeavour to 
keep free from obftru6tions the fniall avenues and lanes, 
fix barriers at the entrances, and lee that the ftreets are 


{ 66 ) I 

kfpt clean. When night is a little advanced, he ilial 
hinder people from coming in and going out of the city. 
The idle he fliall oblige to learn fome art. He iliall not 
permit any one forcibly to enter the houle of another. 
He Ihall difcover the thief and the fiolen goods, or be 
himfelf anfwerable for the lofs. He (hall not fufFer any 
one to levy baj or tnmgha, excepting upon arms, .ele- 
phants, horfcs, goats, and manufadures j upon each of 
which I'omething is taken in every foobah, at one ap- 
pointed place. He fliall caufe old coins to be melted 
at the mint, or pay them into the treafury as bullion. 
Heflial! be careful that the gold and iilver coins of the 
prefent reign do not pafs current at different rates ; and 
upon coins ihort of weight, he fliall take exaftly the de- 
ficiency. He fliall fee that the market-prices are mo- 
derate J and not fuflfer any one to go out of the city to 
purchafe grain ; neither iliall he allow the rich to buy 
more than is neceiHiry for their own confumption. He 
iliall examine the weights, and fee that the feer be ex- 
aftly thirty dams ; and fliall not fuffer any other meafure 
than the Ilahee guz to be ufed. He fliall prohibit the 
making, drinking, felling, and buying of fpirituous li- 
quors 3 but need not take pains to difcover what men 
do in fecret. If any one die or difappear and leave no 
heir, he ihall make an inventory of his effects, and take 
care of them. He fiiall fte that particular ferries and 
wells are kept ieparate for*ihe ufe of women only. He 
ihall take care to employ trufty people in drawing water 
for fupplying the public water-counes. He ihall not per- 
mit women to ride on horle-back. He fhall take care thn t 
neither an ox, a horfe, a butlaloe^ or a camel bellaugh- 

( 67 ) 

lercd. He miifl not allow private people to confine the 
perfon of any one, nor admit' of people being foW for 
Haves. He fliall not allqw a woman to be burnt con- 
trary to her inclination. He fliall not fuffer any one to 
be empaled. He fliall not permit any one to be cir- 
cumcifed under the age of twelve years 3 but after that 
period, they may be left to their own difcrction. Let 
him expel from the city all hypocritical mallungees and 
calandars, or make them quit that courfe of life j but 
he mufl be careful not to moleft reclufe worfhippers of 
tlie Deity, nor to ofter violence to thofe who refign them» 
felves to poverty through religious principals. Let him 
fee that butchers, thofe who wafli dead bodies, and 
others who perform unclean offices, have their dwellings 
fcparate from other men, who ihould avoid the fociety 
of fuch flony-hearted dark-minded wretches. Whofo- 
ever drinketh out of the fame cup with an executioner, 
let one of his hands be cut of? j or if he eateth of his 
kettle, deprive him of one of liis fingers. Let him fee 
that the cemetry be without-fide the city, in the wefteru 
quarter. Let himprohibit the difciples from mourn- 
ing in blue v^flments, ordering them to wear red cloths 
upon fuch occafions. From thefirft till the nineteenth 
of the month Fervcrdeen, during the whole of Aban> 
on the firft day of every folar month, on feflivals, on 
days of eclipfes of the fun and moon, and on Sundays, 
let him prohibit men from, flaying bealis, except it be 
for feeding animals ufed in huntmg, or for fick people, 
as neccflity may require. Let him have the place of 
execution without-fide the city. Let him fee that the 
Ilahee feflivals are duly obfervAl j and on the night of 
the new year, andihe ICjth night of the month Ferver- 

( 68 ) 

decn be celebrated with illuminations. On the eve of 
a feftival, as well as on the feftivalitfelf, let him order a 
kettle-drum to be beat every three hours. He fliall 
caufe the Jlahee tarikh to be ufed in the Pcrfian and 
Hindovee almanacs, obferving that in the latter the 
month be made to begin from Kifhenputch. 

BAADNEE. Money advanced for the proviiion of 
goods, or merchandize, of any kind. 

Dagb. A mark put on the neck of horfes in the 
army. See Ayecn Akbery, vol. I. p. 210. 


Dale. Inheritable property, or that which may be 

Bale Bhag, The fame as Daie. 

Darios. The title of the fovcrelgns of Japan: ihey 
were at the fame time kings and pontiffs of the natio»;^ 
but, about the eleventh century, thefe princes divided 
the ftate into feveral governments, and the viceroys 
have at different times made themfelves independent. 


Balhda. A receipt. 

( 69 ) 



Laky. A woman appoTnted to ad as a peace officer^ 
in cafes where women arfe concerned.* 

r'' . .■ 

Bmtty or Daunt. A copper coin, in weight five tanks, 
or one tolab eight majhahs and leven rutteei ; in value 
the fortieth part T)f a rupee. Formerly this coin "V^as 

called p!r/*^/& ,«wwv 9cci^ tMq 'Behlooly t J yy now it is 
liTued under this name. On one iide is damped the 
place where it was ftruck j and on the reverfe, the. 
month and year, Accomptants fuppofe the dam xp bo 
divided into twenty-five parts, each of which they call 

a cbeetel , IXs^ and ufe them in calculations. 
Damajhahy, The compofition of a debt. 


Damdary, A branch of revenue arlfing from bird- 
catchers, players, and muficians. 

^'^ . 

Ban. A religious rite, in which the bramins pro^ 
nounce a certain charm or incantation over any thing, 
in the wifh of a happy futurity, and give it as a prefent 
to another perfon. 

Da?idce. A waterman. 

( 70 ) 

Dar. A houfe. A fingle roofed houfe, furrounded 
with walls, with a door, or entry, is termed a hut, or 
room. A'f?iunze^, or tenement, on the contrary, is a 
place compofed of different rooms, fuch as a man may 
refide in with Jiis family. A dar, or houfe, on the other 
hand, is a place confifting of various looms, or tene- 
ments, with an open court. — Dar is a word which like- 
wife fignifies pofleflbr j from the Perfian word dajhiun, 
to hold : at the end of a word it animates and changes, 
the inftrument to the ufer. 

"Dar ul Hirh. In the FuJJbol Amadee, and In the 
Shereb Mukbtujfur Walayeh, compiled by MuUa Ahdul 
All Berj'ejidi, and in other books wc find, that Imam 
Agum fays, that JJar ul I/lam cannot' become Dar ul 
Hirh without the concurrence of three things ; viz. — 
I. a plurality of gods being worihlpped there 5 — 2 
where the Dar ul IJlavi is adjoining to the Dar ul Hirh 
fothat tliere is not any IVIohammedan city interveniiigj 
—3. where there is not remaining in the Dar ul I/Iam, 
one Muffnlman, or Zimtnre, enjoying Uma?i EivwuL 
The fignification of Umtnan Ewwul is, where not any 
individual MuifulmaR, ox Zimmecy has confidence in his 
perConal fafeiy } or where every Muffulman and Z'nnmce, 
comes under the dominion of polytheifts j and until thele 
three circumftances occur, Dar ul IJlam cannot be con- 
verted into Dar jil Hirh ; becaufe a city is Dar id IJlam^ 
by the currency of Mohammedan laws j and therefore, 
as Jong as any part of thefelaws continue to be obferv- 
ed, fuch city is Dar ul IJlam, 

t ( 71 ) 

Sbe'ikh ul IJarn Ifpeecbapec, in his book entitled Mub« 
foot, declares, that as long as one fimple Mohammedan 
law continues in force in any town, that place is Dar 
ul Islam, and cannot become Ddr ul Hlrb, till every 
fign of its having been Dar ul Islam has dilappeared; 
and he adds, that Dar ul Hirby by the removal of a 
few impediments, fo that the Muifulman laws obtain 
force therein, becomes Dar ul Islam, 

And in the MuUuckut it is afferted, that Mohamme- 
dan cities, in the pofleffion of infidels, are doubtlefs 
Iflam territories, and not HirhcCy iince the iniidels do 
not govern by their own laws, thecauzees, there, being 
Mohammedaiis j and kings, who are fubje<5t to infidels 
through neceflity, are nevcrthelefs MuflTulmans > and in 
every city having a Mohammedan governor on the part 
of an intidel, it is lawfvil for fuch governor to eftablilh 
public prayers, to obferve feftivals, colle6t tribute, and 
appoint cauzees. An in a city where there is no Mo- 
hammedan governor on the part of infidels, it is lawful 
for the Mohammedans of themfelves to hold congrega- 
tions on Fridays, to celebrate feftivals, and to eb6t a 

It is the duty of Mohammedans, under the laft^men- 
tioned circumftances, to unite in petitioning the prince 
of the country, who is not a MulTulman, that a Moham- 
medan governor may be placed over their city, in order 
that all apprehenlions of difordes and dilTatisfa6tion 
may be removed. -' 

But according to the fentiments of the two Imams, 
Abu Youjef, and Mohammed, the Dar ul Islam may be- 
come Dar ul Hlrh, from the (ingle circumftance of the 
laws of iiifidels being enforced j they not having con- 

( 72 ) % 

fidered the concurrence of any other circumftances 
as iieceflTary to form this defcription. For, fay they, as 
the Dar ul H'lrh, is converted into Dar ul Islam, by 
the introdu6lion of Mohammedan la\v^ , fo the kUter is 
changed into the former by tlie contrary pradice. 

Bara. In the old Perfian language/ fignifies a fove- 
reign or king. 

Darogah. A fuperintendant, overfeer. 

Darogah Cofs, Superintendant of the houfehold. 

Daffcra. A portion of ten days, appropriated to par- 
ticular religious ceremonies. 


Da^.vli. The poll, llationed letter carriers. Thefe 
are generally at the diftance of ten miles from each other 
for the fake of dilpatch. 

Dayavauj^akat, A Have by long defcent. 

Dee, Ihe ancient limits of a village or dlftrit'^- 
Thus Dee Calcutta means only that part of Calcutta 
which was 01 iginally inhabited. 

■ ( ?3 > 

Dcedar. A perion appointed to attach the barveft of 
the ryot, that the revenue may be fecured. 

Dtwhiry Salamy. A tax of o«e rupee annually, colt 
Iccted from every dee or village of a diftri(5l, to defray 
the expences of a dcedar, or perfon deputed on the par- 
of him who has the charge of the collection, to hinder 
the ryots from carrying off their crops^ till they have- 
paid up their revenues. 

Drep, The world, or islands. The Hindoo pbilo- 
fophers (:\y, that the terrellrial globe contains leven 
deeps or islands, cncompalfed by fcven feas. The whole 
land and water meafuring 7,p57,752 jowjens. 

The Ifland of Jummoodeep is cncompafled by the 
ocean. It is the habitation of the human race, and the 
greatefl part of the brute creation. Half of the ocean 
they conlider as belonging to Jummoodeep. The 
breadth of the ocean is 130 jowjens, and of the land 
llQj jowjens, including Oo jowjens of water. The 
luperficial contents of this illand, including the water 
is 3,9/8,875 jowjens, of which 417,360 jowjens are 
water and the reft land. They lay alfo, that in the 
centre of this deep is a golden mountain, of a cylindrical 
form. That part of the mountain which appears above 
the furfaceof Jummoodeep, and which mealures 84,000 
jowjens, they call Sommeir 5 and they believe that the 
different degrees of paradife are on the lides and fum- 

< 71 ) 

4111 1 of this mountain. This is the account given by 
tliole who believe in fables } but the learned among 
them believe, with the Greeks, that the higheft mountain 
doesnot exceed 2 farfangs and one-third. The Hin- 
doos believe, that it defcends as far beneath as it riles 
above the furface of the earth. The lower part they call 
Budwanel, and tell ftrange flories concerning it. 

Shakdeep j one lide of which is bounded by half of 
the ocean. It meaiiires, including its fea, 427,424 
jowjens. Beyond this deep is a fea of milk, the con- 
tents of which are 810,097 jowjens. 

Shalmuldeep meafures 320,120 jowjens. The fea 
which lies next beyond it is of milk-curds, and meafures 
633,553 jowjens. 

Kulhdeep meafures 286,749 jowj.ens. The fea that 
lies beyond it is of ghee, and meafures 459,792 jowjens. 

Karownchehdeep meafures 1€ 1,084 jowjens. The 
fea beyond it is of the juice of fugar-cane, and mea- 
fuj-es 250,504 jowjens. 

Goomieduckdeep meafures 86,580 jowjens. Beyond 
it lies the fea of wine, meafuring 81,648 jowjens. 

Phowkerdeep meafures 14,204 jowjens. Beyond it 
is the river of freili water, meafuring 28, 16O jowjens. 

Each lea meafures in breadth 103 jowjens, and each 
of the illands, beyond Jummoodeep, is in breadth /O 
owjens. In thefe laft lix deeps they place the diliQrent 
degrees of hell. 

They fay that the earth is not inhabited beyond the 
52d degree of latitude, being 728 jowjens. 

A f articular Dtfcripimi of Jummoodeep, 

A number of fables being related of the other fix 

{ 7^ y 

deeps, which cannot poilibly be reconciled to rcafon> 

I iLalF confine myfclf to a few particulars concerning 


On the four quarters of the earth, at the extremities 

of the equino6tial line, where it is bounded by the 

ocean, they place four cities encompafled with walls 

built of bricks of gold, viz. Jjimkote, Lunka, Siddah- 

pore, and Roomuck. 

Jumkote is that from whence they begin to reckon 

the earth's longitude, in the fame manner as the Greeks 

begin from Gungdudj j but 1 am^ ignorant for what 

reafon they do fo *. 

Thefe four places are fituated at the diftance ofpo 

degrees from each other; thofe that are oppofite to each 

other being diftant 180 degrees. 

The mountain of Sommeir is centrical to the fouc 

being 90 degrees from each. 

The north fides of thefe four cities lie under the 

equator, which, in the Hindovce language, is called 
Nickwuthirt. This is an arch which paifes over the 
zenith of the inhabitams of thofe four cities, and the 
fun, twice in the year, culminates in this point 3 and 
the day and night throughout the year are nearly equal. 
The fun's 'greatefl altitude is 90 degrees. He goes 
from Lunka to Roomuck, from thence to Siddabpor^ , 
then to Jumkote, and returns to Lunka. When the 
fun is on the meridian at Junnkote, he begins to rife at 

* The reafon is very evident j for the time at Lunka was 
reckoned fromfunrifcy and by taking Jumkote for the begin' 
^^^S 9f longitude, the time of the day at Lunka always 
Jhewed the longitude of the place that bad the fun then npvn 
the meridian. Burrow, 


( 7G ) 
Liinka, ieU at Siddahpore, and it is midnight at Uoo- 
niuck; and fo on. There being 15 ghurries diltance 
between each of thole cities. 

• In the northern dire6tion, from Lunka to Sommeir, 
are three mountains, Hecmachel*, Hcemakote, and 
Nekh, and each of thefe mountains extend to the ocean 
on the eaft, and on the weft. 

In the direction from Siddahpore to Sommeir are 
three other mountains, Sirungwunt, Soku], and Neel* 

Between Jumkote and Sommeir is a mountain called 
jMalwunt/ which unites with Nekh and Neel. 

There is alfo a mountain between Roomuck and 
tjommeir, called Gundahmudun, and which likewifc 
unites with Nekh and Neel. 

.Many wonderful (lories are told of thefe mountains^ 
too long to be contained in this volume. But Some- 
thing (hall be faid of what lies between Lunka and 
Heemachel j which trad is called Behrutkhund. 
-. Behrut was a great monarch, and gave name to thi^ 
country. From Lunka to Heemachel, being 52 de- 
grees, is inhabited, but to the 48th degree, morefo than 
the lafl four, on account of the extreme colduefs of the 
climate beyond this degree. 

According to the belief of thefe people, one celeftial 
degree is equal to fourteen jowjens, by which rule of 
calculation thefe 52 degrees make 728 jowjens j the 
latitudinal extent of the habitable world. 

The tra6t between Heemachel and Heemakote, com- 
pVifing 12 degrees of latitude, they call Kinnerkhund* 

* Heemachel feems to he the Ehymmkh mountahis, &c. of 
Ptolemy : licemdkoU Jceim to he the part of the Imaus and 
the Emod'i mount a'ms ) and Ndh the Decnh, '^c, of Ptolemy. 

( 11 ) 

The tra6t between Heemakote and Nekh, comprif- 
inj 12 degrees, they call Hurrykhund. 

The trad between Siddahpore and Serungwunt, com* 
priling52 degrees of latitude, they call'Koorkhund. 

The tra6t between Serungwunt and Sookul, comprif- 
iijg 12 degrees of latitude, they call Hurrunmeekhund. 
And the whole of this country is of gold. 

The tra6t" between Sookul and Neel, comprifing 12 
degrees of latitude, they call Rummeekhund. 

The tra6t between Jumkote and Malwunt, comprif- 
i'ng 76 degrees of longitude, they call Budralbokhund. 

The trad between Gundahmadun and Roomuck, 
comprifin^ 7^ degrees of longitude, they call Kietmal, 

The tra6t bounded by Malwunt, Gundahmadun, 
Nekh, and Neel, each fide meafuring 14 degrees from 
Sommeir, they call Illawurtkhund. 

The fquare meafurement of each of thcfe nine khunds 
are equal, although Ibme are narrower than others. 

Four othei; mountains furrounded Sommeir, viz. Hin- 
du on the eaft, Suhguiidah on the fouth, Beepul on the 
weft, Sooparfs on the north. The height of each is 
18,000 jowjens. 

Having fpoken of the nineuivifiohs of Jummoodeep 
fomfcthing more lliall be faid of the firft, or Bherut- 

Between Lunka to Heemachel, they place leven 
ranges of mountains, extending from eaft to weft, but 
fmaller than tliofe already defcribed. The names of 
thefe mountains are Mehindcr, Sookole, Moolee, Red- 
lieck, Perjatter, Shelliej, and Binder. 

The trad between Lunka and Mehinder, they call 

( 78 ) 

Indrekhund. What lies between JMehinder and Soo- 
kole, is Koofelrkhund. Sookole and Moolee, include 
Taniberpurrankhnnd. The country between Moolee 
and Redheck, is Gobhiftmuntkhund. Between Red- 
heck and Perjatter, is Nagkhund. Between Perjatter 
and Shefhej, lies Soomkhund. The country between 
Shefhcj and Binder they divide into two equal parts,, the 
eaftern called Koraarkhund, and the weftern Baren- 

Other Divisions. 

The Hindoos alfo divide the world into three regions 
The uppermoft region they call Soorglogue, and be- 
lieve it to be a place where men receive the reward of 
their good adions in this world. The middle region is 
Bhoologue, being the part inhabited by mankind. The 
inferior region they call Patall, and make it to be the 
place of puniihmentj for bud actions in this life. 

The learned among them fay, that the univerfe is 
made up of fuperhcies, which they divide into fourteen 

Tbe Seven Superior Rcgw?is. 1. Bhoologue. S. 
Bhowurloa;ue. 3. Sonoloi^ue. 4. Mahrlofme. 5. 
Junnoologue. u. Tuppoologue. /• Sutlogue. 

The. Seven Inferior, 1. Atul. 2.'Bitul. 3. SootuJ.. 
4. Talintul. 5. Mehatul. 6 Reflitul. 7. Patlall. 

Wonderful fables are told of the inhabitants of each 
legion, too long for infertion here. 

They alfo divide the world into fevcn feas and fcven 
illands. Of Jummoodeep they all give nine fubdivi- 
lions, but difter very much in their arrangement and 
extent, infomuch that forae increafe the height o^ the 
mountain Somnieir to 84,000 jo wjens^ and the breadth 

C n ) 

to lG,OOOjowjens. It is the general benef tliat this 
mountain defcends as far below the furface of the earth 
as it rifes above it. 

They in general believe Behrntkhund to be the only 
part of Jummoodecp that is inhabited by the human 
race. But fome fay, that beyond the ocean, there is a 
land of gold inhabited by mortals, who invariably live 
to the age of one thoufand years, and never fufFer fick- 
nefs nor forrow, neither are they fubjeft to fear, ava- 
rice, or ignorance. They never fpeak ill of, nor envy 
any one, and they are all men of integrity and truth, 
afFc6lionately attached to, and^ ftriving to prevent the 
wiflies of one another. They know not old age, but 
continue in the vigour of youth all their lives. They 
are all of one religion. Many other wonderful ftories 
are told of this ifland, to which thofe who judge from 
common appearances refufe to liften, but they who 
worlliip God, and know his almighty power, are not 
aftoniflied at the relation. 

They alfo divide Koomarkhund into two parts. The 
firft, where the antelope is not to be found, they call 
Muleetchdeys, and confider it as a place not fit to be in- 
habited. The part where the antelope lives, is called 
Jugdeys. This they again fubdivide into four parts; 
1. Arjawurt, bounded on the eaft and welt by the 
ocean, and on the north and fouth by a long chain of 
mountains of Hindoftan. 2. Mudehdeyp, bounded on 
the eaft by Allahabad, on the weft by the river Benaffh, 
(at the diilance of 25 cofe from Tahnelir,) and on the 
north and fouth by the above mentioned mountains. 3' 
Berehmekdeys contains the following places; J. Tah- 
nefu' and its dependencies, Beerat, Cumpalab, Mehtrah> 

{ 8a ) 

and Kenoje, 4. Brlhmawurt Ilea between the liver's 
Sii-footy and Iloodrakufly, See Ayeen Akbery. 


DeerO'. One of he low caft^of Hindoos. In the Cocun 
country they are called Purwaries , In Surat, Sourties. 

Deefmoky. The chief officer of government in a di- 
Ari6t. The office is ufually joined to that of the canongos. 

Deejpondy. The principal tenant of a village. 
«*• ( 

Behhajby. An officer' having the command of ten= 

Dclol. A mean Hindoo tribe; 

DchU. A native broker, employed by the gomaiifli'' 
teh in his dealings with the country \vea vers. 



Be7n'baJeh. The whole crop. Including both the" 
government (lircar)and the farmers' (ryots') ihares, be- 
fore it is divided, 

jL>erja Shehifia, Encroachments of a rlvci% 
Dcrkhiijl. Propofal. _ 

# 81 ) 

Dcroon. A weight or meafure, equal to four adbiiks. 

Derrejbekud. Lands waflied away by rivers. 

Defordejb Kbercha. Particular dilburremcnts of the 
Zemindar, diftinguilhed from his charges at the Svid- 
der, Sec. ^ 

Dctroy, A public declaration or protcft againft iiu» 
proper proceedings of the Indian government. 

A}) )>") 

Deva Doyam. The lliare of goods or duties, which 
are all the perquilites, allowances, duties, and other 
gifts, which have been, or may be, appropriated for 
the ufe and maintenance of the pagodas, or churches. 


Uevaiiagare. The language of angels. This name i» 
ufually given to the Shanfcrit charafter, how ufed iiv 
Upper Hindooftan : it is faid to be the fame original 
letter which was firft delivered to the people now called 
Hindoos, by Brihma> it is howev£rn6w much corrupted. 

DcvauTi. A colle6l:lon of odes, elegies, and ihort 
poems, of various kinds, wliofe couplets muft terminate- 

( 82 ) 

fticceflfivcly with the feveral alphabetic letters, nntiil 
they be extended through the whole. 

Dewan. The colledor general of a province on the 
part of his majefty, next in rank to the Nazim, whofe 
bufinefs it is to fuperintend the lands and colle6lions^ 
and the remittances of them to court j to grant Sunnuds 
under his feal, with the approbation of the Nazim to 
zemindars jageerdars, &c. The fleward of any man 
ofrank, as the titk h now adopted by the principal 
lervants of the zemindar, and thofe of Engliih gentle- 
men are called Dewan.^ 

Dewan. This is fometimes ufed to exprefs the bag* 
in which the cauzee's records and other papers are kept, 

DewAJi Klumpa. An outer room, for doing bufinefs. 

Deivan Khaneh, The dewan's office, or court, 

Deivan Khalfah. The accountant general of the king's 
revenue. See Khalfah. 

Dewanny. The office, of king's dewan, and fuper* 
intendant of the adminftration of civil juftice. He is 
relident at the durbar. He afts as collector of the re- 
venues, receives the monthly payments from the zemia* 

( 83 ) 

<iiirs, ilifburfcs the ftated revenues appropriated to the 
King or Nabob, enquires into the caule of deficiencies, 
rcdrelTes grievances iuftaifled or committed by the 
officers of the revenue, and tranfmits tlie accounts of 
his office, the invoices of treafure, and the monthly ac- 
count of the trealury, with every other' occurrence of 
importance, to the Pufc of Fio. 

Dcwciier. Land held rent free in the nanae of Hin- 
doo deitiesj oftenlibly for the provifion of all the necefr 
faries of divine worfhip. 


Deivry Lands. The Hajah's family farms, reierved 
to hira, his mother and wives, at the rent at which 
they were rated in the Cutcherry books, when the 
Company took poffeflion of the province, 

♦♦ ^ 

Dnuta, That deity to whom prayers may beoiFered. 
Dey'tt, A fine exaded for any offence upon the peribn. 


Dleehautee Jumma, is the' amount of revenue receiva- 
ble at the dhee, or turruf cutcherry, from the feveral 
villages compofing fuch divifion, after deducting thg 
charges of coUc6tion in each. 

DbeehuiUrah. Ten per cent, allowed the zemindars, 
difpoiielfed of the charge of the coUedions, on the jum- 

( 8'i ) 
ma of their dillricts, under the namcof moiliairah;, or 

Dherote. Advance. 

Drgwar. A chokeedar, ufed in Hidjlee. 

■Dinar. A filvcr coin, ellimated at ten dams, or about 
feven fliillings. 


Dlrh or Dirhd?n. A filver coin, generally in value 
about two pence fterling. This coin was originally ui 
the fhape of a date-ftone • in the Khalifat of Omar, 
it was changed into a round form j and in the time 
of ZoMr, it was imprefled with the words Allah (God) 
and B.rket (bleffing). — HejaJ imprelTed it with the 
Soorah Ekhafs *, and fome fay that he llamped his own 
name on it 3 others aflert, that the firft perlon who 
ftamped an impreflion on dirhenn was Omar. According 
\o others, in the time of AhdahnAlek Mei-^vauj Greek 
d'trhemst and thofe of the Kbofroes andof H/mdr, were 
in ufe J and at his command Hej'aJ Yufef \x.r\ic\fi dirhems. 
Some fay that Hejaj refined the bafe dirbcj/is, and 
ftamped on them Allah Ah ed (God is .fingle) and Allah 
Samed (God is eternal) ; and thefe were called the abo- 
minated dirhems, becaufe the facred name was thereby 
expofed to the touch of unclean perfons, and afterwards 
Omar Ehn Hcbcerah coined in Eraky dirhetns like thofe 
of Hejaj ) then Khalad Eh'in Ahdallab Kajhery, who was 

* The I2th chapter rj the Kvratin. 

( 85 ) 

governor of Erak, improved them; and after that, Yufef, 
Omar brought them to the highefl degree of purity. 

Again, it is faid that Majfaeb Ebn Zohierwas the lirft 
perlbn who ftamped dlrbems 5 and tli.cre are different 
accounts of their weights, fome faying that they were 
often or nine, or fix or five viiJkaU 5 and others relate 
that they were of twenty keeratsy twelve kccraiSf and 
ten keerats weight ; and that Omar took a dirbcm of 
each kind and formed a coin of fourteen kccraiSy being 
the third part of the aggregate fum. 

It is likewife faid that, in the time of 0/?wr there 
were current feveral kinds oi iVirbcms of q\'^^ dangeeSf 
which they called Beghaly'y after Rafs Bcgbal, who was 
the aflay-mafter, and who ffruck d'lrhcms by .the com- 
mand of Omar. Others fay that they are called Begbaley, 
from a town of ihat name j and that the dirbems of four 
dangs, called tebry, thofe of three dangs, called mugbrehy, 
and thofe of one dang, mmtdiycmeny, were formed into 
one coin. 

Fdzel Kbojeruly fays, that in former times d'lrbems 
were of two kinds, eight dangecs and fix dangces, 

2 Uebbeh "j C T0\j -, 

2 Tiffuj > make one < Karat j 
2 Keerats J L Darig^ 


DirJi, fignifies properly, any pofTible contingency} 
KeefuJ bd dirk means bail for what may happen, 

Dohaiu A fliop, or ftall. 

■( -86 ) 
Dokandar. A fiio|) keeper, 

DolL Any fortof pull'e, broken 3 or peas, fpllt and 
boiled with rice, which mixture is called kidgere. 


Dooah. Literally, the two rivers, an appellation by 
wliich all the country between the rivers Jumma and 
Ganges is diilinguiilied. 

Dooh, A fort of fine grafs. 

LooJy. A woman's chair, like a fedan, or rather a 
kind oflitter, on which a perfon may lie at length, fu-f- 
pendcu on a firaight bamboo, and carried on four mens' 
^loulders. Moll ofBcers caTry one to the field with 
them for the purpofe of travel h'ng, and ufing as ahed. 
They are ufcd to carry the fick and wounded. 

Doorea, A dog-keeper. 

Doorcas. Striped mullins. 

/ ^•^ 
Dofs, A fiave. There are fifteen forts of (lavcry^ 
which are namcc', lil, Gtrbrjat -, 2d, Kierccut ; 3d, 

( 87 )• • 
JUihiidcf- i 4ih, Dajavaapakut ', 5th, Eanakal -, 6th, 
Ahul^ i 7th> Miiokbucl) 8th, Joodbch Pciraput Bebrut ; pth, 
Punj\ct'y 10th, Opookut ) nth, Ptrherjabe/Bey-y I'ith, 
C^eerut'y X'dxhj Bbckut y l-iih, Btrb a kru^; } Sth', Bkkrnt, 


J)(?w//. State, condition. 

JDi^^y/ hundohufi* A rent-roll of a diflri6t drawn opt 
at the beginning of the year, ihcwing the whole funi 
€xpe6tod to be realized 5 by adding, together the rent of 
each Mufcoory talookdar, fhe amount which each under 
renter has agreed to give for the lands which have b3eii 
farmed out to him, with the eftimated produce of thofe 
parts, which are to be collected by the immediate 
officers of the zenun da r. 

'i^j}i o"* -%. J:?^ 

V _ 

Bofiul Patta. The rent-roll of alarm in the books of 

the cutcherry, which is fubfcribed by the former be- 
fore he receives his order of pofTeffion, and according, 
t© whicli he pays his rents^ 

j^yy : 

Duhi/b, A"~ttnder banyan or fircar. A term uf^tl *- 
©u the coaft of Cororaandcl. 

Dafter, A place where papers are kept. 

Dufterhund, A man who takes care of the papers-, 
&c. in an office. 


( 3S ) 

DufUr Ki>aneh, The exchequer or office for keeping 
accounts belonging to government. In common ufage, 
any office, or counting feoufe. 


Dufkry, The fame. 

LufUr Khafs *i\dvccfy. An office formc-rl;- belonging 
to the Khalfeh, in which bis majefty's accounts were 
kept J the charge of providing the various commodities 
fent to court, were entered in this office j wherein alfa 
were regiftered, an account of all prefents made to the 
king, by the European nations j the efFe6ts of all de- 
ceafed munfubdars, and every kind of forfeited property j 
caufes relative to thefo matter* were alio decided in it» 

Durhan. A door keeper, or porter. 

Durbar, The chamber of audience, or court, of any 
great man. Sometimes it means the palace^ and fome- 
times the levee only. 

I ' 
Ditjave^z, A voucher. 

Diijloor. A cuftomary allowance, or fee. 

( 89 ) 

Diiftoorit, C<italn perquilitcs or per centage allowed 
the zemindars, on the jumma^ of his lands, Vido 


Bu/iuh. A pa{rport,,permit> or order, in the English 
Company's affairs. It is very frequently underftood of 
the permit under the Company's feal which renders" 
goods exempt from the payment of duties. It is alfo a 
fummons. See feveral forms ©f Duiluk in the Appendix^ 

Dwapar Yug, This yug fucceeds the tirtaH yug, and 
is the third, of the four aeras, or periods, of Indian^ 
chronology : in this age half the human race became 
depraved] it continued one milHT)n fix hundred thou- ' 
fand years ; the life of man was then reduced to a thou-- 
fand years. (See Halbcd.J Mr. Roger fays,, it continued 
eight hundrod and fixty-four thoufand years; Mr. 
B.rnier fays, eight hundred and fixty-four thouHind 
years 3 and Col. Dow fays, feventy-two thoufand years. 

EDIT. The tln»c of probation which a divorced wo-- 
man is to wait before llie can engage in a fecond mar- 
riage, in order to determine whether or not fhe be preg- 
jjant by tlic former. 

( so > 


Eed. A Mohammedan feftival, of whieli there are 
two in a year, Eed ul Zoha, and Eed ul Felhr j at the 
former, goats are facrificed in commemoration of the 
angel Gabriel's meflage from heaven to fave Ifaac j or, 
according to the Mohammedan tradition, Abraham from 
being facrificed by his father, and of his fubftituting a 
goat or ram in bis flead : the Eed id Feller is at the 
breaking up of the faft, at the expiration of the Mo- 
hammedan lent. 


Edgal. The place where all the people aflemble to 
prayers, on the two great annual eeds, or feftivals : it 
has fmall minarets, but no covering. 

Eendra, A perfonilication of the vifible heavens^ or 
(he power of tiie almighty over the elements. Thus 
Eendra IS the fprinklerof the rain, the roller of the 
thunder, and director of the winds. He is reprefented 
with a thouHind eyes, grafping the tliunderbolt, &c. 


Ehnarij the plural of Yameen, which, in its primative 
fenlp, means ft rength or power "^ alfo, the right hand. 
In the language of the law, it (ignifies an obligation 
by [means of which the refolution of a vower is ftrength- 
ened in the performance, or the avoidence of any thing j 
and the man who fwears or vows is termed Khaliff,. , 
The thing vowed Mabkof ah he. 

( £)i ) 

EkTaah. A fee formerly collected at the Foujdary: 
cutcherries, from the peons, as a furplus, which they, 
to indemnify themfelves, exacted over and above their 
diet allowance from the parties, over whom they are 
placed as a guard. la fomc diftrifts it was a fee, or 
due, taken from the litigating parties in faits, on account 
©f the government. That collc6ted all the Foujdary 
cutcherries was generally the emolument of the head 

Elrar Nameb, A written acknowlfed^ement, 

Ehual, An account of the names of the ryots of a. 
village, and the meafurement of the Jands they hold* 
under the heads or Pycaflit, Khoodcalht, Khomar^ 
Dewutter, &c. 

EI war. Sunday. 

Emaumhary. Expenfes incurred by the king: or tKc 
nuwaub at his mofqjies in religious matters. 

Emir, See Amir. 

Enahut. A fecond depofit of any ibing in Jruft. 

( 92 ) 

Enakal Behrvi. A Have, whofe life has beea iavcd' 
during famine. 

Enam. A gift from a luperior to an inferior. 

Etmaum, A divifion of a province under the ftiper* 
intendence of an Etmaunidar. 

Etmaum hundy. An account, fpecifying the number 
of pergiirnahs and divifipns in a province, the names of 
the zemindars, and the nature of all fcparated lands> 
vwherc annexed^ and whence feparated. 

Etnaumdaty or ShtiibiLir. A fuperlntcndant of the 
revenue? of a fmall divilion called an etmaum. He is 
a tf'nrjpotary officer, appointed to manage and colleft the 
revenues of a Dhee, a Turrufj or a Pergunnah j is ac- 
countat)Ie for what he colleds; and receives a falary, or 
per centage,. v 

Etmaum Cutcberries. A number of farms thrown 
together, is called an Etmaum, as above. Cutcherries 
were formerly eftablifhed to colleft tbeir rents, by way 
ef aid, or relief, to the grand cutcherry. This mode 
was praailed till the year }/G8 ; but they are now all 

-( &3 ) 

Ezdra^ A farm of tlie revenues. 

Ezardar, A farniei' or reater of land in the new 

FJNAM. A piece of money, fix whereof make a 
rupee at Amjcngo, and five a* rupee at Calllcut ami 
Tellicherry. Thirty-fix make a Pagoda, and the ex- 
change is from forty-two in the Bazar at Fort St, George* 

Tarfang. A Perfian meaiure of length ; about four 
Englilli miles. Xenophon calls it Parafanga. 

faJlL Invalid, null. 

Tafik, A perfon who negledts decorum in his dvefa^ 
and behaviour, and whofe evidence thereof is not held 


Fazel, Whatever is realized over and above the efli- 
mate produce. 

Fazooke, A perfon who a6tsas agent without autho- 

< m ) 

Vazo&ke Beea. The lale*of the property of anotrierr 
'ftithout his con fen t. 

Ftd. An eJephaut. 

F,el Kbaneh. Place for, or eftablifliment of ele- 
phants. Feel Khaneh properly iignifies Elephant Sta- 
bits. The natives of Hindooftaun hold this animal in 
fuch eftimation, that they confider one of them as 
equivalent to five hundred horles. The male elephant 
is of fo generous a difpofition, that he never injures the 
female, although fhe be the iraraediat^ caufe of his 
captivity f neither will he fight with a male who is 
much younger than himfelf > and, from a fenle of gra- 
titude, he never hurts his keeper ^ and out of refpedV 
for his rider he never blows dufl over his body when h« 
k mounted, although at other times he is continually 
amufing himfelf with {o doing. In the rutting feafon 
an elephant was fighting with his match, when a young 
one coming in their way, he kindly fet him afide with 
his trunk, and then renewtd the combat. If a ma'lc 
elephant breaks loofe m the rutting feafon, no body 
dares go near him without being accompanied by a 
female one j and then he fuffers himfelf to be bound 
without offering any refiftance. When the female dies, 
the male will neither eat nor drink for a confiderable 
time. He can- be taught various feats. He learns the 
modes which can only be underliood by thof(^ ikilledia. 

( ^5 ) 

iiiufic, and mm'cs his limbs in time thereto. He i« 
alto taught to flioot an arrow outof a bow, and to take 
up any thing that is thrown down and to give it to his 
keeper. Thc7 are fed with any kind of grain wrapt up 
in grafs ; and, what is very aftonilliing, upon a fignal 
being given him by his keeper, he will hide eatables in 
tlie corner of his mouth, and when they are alone to- 
g(>ther will take them out again and give them to the 
man. An elephant frequently with his trunk takes 
vaier out of his ftomach and fprinkles himfelf with it, 
anditisnotin the iealloffenlivej alio, he will take out 
of his ftomach grafs on the fecond day, without its 
having undergone any change. 

The price of an elephant is from one hundred to a 
•lack of rupees. Thofe of five thoufand and of ten 
•thoufand rupees price, are not uncommon. 

Ihere are four kinds of elephants. Behder is that 
which has well-proportioned limbs, anere^ head, broad 
bread, larg? eyes, and a long tail, with two excrefcences 
in the forehead refembling large pearls. Thefe excrel- 
cences are called in the Hindovce language, guj manik ^ 
and many properties are afcribed to them. Another 
kind, called muud, has a black Ikin and yellow eyes ^ 
as bold .and ungovernable. That called murgh has a 
whiter skin, with moles, and itseycs arc of a mixture of 
red, yellow, black, and white* That called rairh has a 
fmall head, and is eafily brought under command : its 
cplouris a mixture of white and black, refembling 
fmokci and from tnixtures of the above kinds are formed 
others of dilFerciU names and propeities. 

The rej turn is very conmion j and this kind is 

( 9^ ) 
handfome, well-proportioned, and tradable, has not 
much inclination for the female, and is very Jong lived. 
The beyih rej has a dreadful piercing eye, with a tre- 
mendous countenance, has a ravenous appetite, is vicious, 
and flecps a great deal. 

Formerly it was thought unlucky to allow tame ele- 
phants to breed j but the emperor Akber furmounted 
this fcrnple. 

The female goes with young eighteen lunar months, 
. The foetus begins t© have fome form in the eleventh 
month ; in the twelfth month the veins, bones, nails, 
and hair are difcernible j in the thirteenth month its fex 
may be difcovered ; and in the fifteenth mouth it has 
life. If the female increafcs in flrength whilft breed- 
ing, it is align that flie is big of a male j and, on the 
contrary, if flie is weak, it indicates her having a fe- 
male. In general, an elephant has but one young at a 
birth, but fometimes Ihe has two. The young one 
fucks till it is five years old, after which time it feeds on 
vegetables. At this age it is called bal. 'At ten years 
it is called powtj at twenty, bek ; and at thirty, kelbch* 
It undergoes fome change at every one of thefe periods> 
and arrives at maturity in (ixty years. It is a good fign 
in an elephant tohave eyes of ydlow and white, mixed 
with black and red. The elephant has two white tusks, 
an ell in length, and fometimes longer. The tusks are 
faid to be fometimes red, and likewife four in number. 
An elephant ought to be eight cubits high and nine in 
length, and Ihould meafure ten cubits or more round 
the back and belly ; and white fpecks on the forehead 
. are fuppoled to be very lucky. 

( 07 ) 

Tlie male ck;[)hant wants the female la different 
feafoiisj Ibmeiii winter, fomein fumuaer, and otiiers 
in the rains ; and at this time they commit many ex- 
travagancies, throwing down houfes and ftone-walls> 
and pulling men from onhorfeback with their trunks. 
Thefign of their being liot, is a filthy water, of a white 
or red colour, exuding from their temples, and which 
is of an infufterable fmell. Each of the temples of au 
elephant is faid to ha^ve twelve perforations ; before 
this fympton the elephant is outrageous, and looks 
very haudfome. The natural life of an elephant, like 
that of man, is one hundred and twenty years. The 
elephant has many genei-al names, amongft which are 
hufty, guj, feel, peel, and hawtee. An elephant, by 
being properly trained may be made very valuaJjle, fo 
that many who buy an elephant for an hundred 
rupees, in a fliort time make him worth tenthoufand. 

Elephants are tak-en in the following places* in 
Agra, in the wilds of Begawan and Nerwer, as far as 
Berar^ the fubah of AUahal/ad, near Ruttenpoor, 
Nunderpoor, Sirgetcheh j the fubah of Malwah, Hat- 
tendeyah, Achowd, Chundary, Suntwafs, Bijehgur 
Boyfayn, Koihengabad, Gurh, Haryegurh, in the 
fubah of Bihar on the borders of Rohtas, at Juhr- 
khend, and in the fubahs of Bengal and Odffa, par- 
ticularly at Satg )ng» there are great numbers. The 
bell elephants are thofe of Tipperah. 

A herd of elephants is called in the Hindovee lan- 
guage fehan.; which word is alfo applied to a thoufand. 

Tl^e emperor Akber introduced many wife regula- 
tions into this department. 

tlctiril: parcelled out the elephants, committed fomft 

( 98 ) 

to the care of daroghahs, and appropii itcd others to 
his own particular ufe. He arranged the elephants in 
fevcn clafles : 1ft, Muft, which is an elephant that is 
arrived at perfedlion. 2d, Sheergeer, is an elephant 
ufed in war, and who has been rank once or twice, 
and is always fo in fome degree. 3d, Sadeh is one 
that is fomewhat. younger than the fecond. 4th, 
Menjholeh is fmaller than the one next preceding. 
5th, Kerheh is a fize fmaller than the fourth. 6th, 
Benderkeeah is a little fmaller than the iifth. 7-th, 
Mukel is a young elephant that has never been rode j 
and each of thefe are fubdivided into three kinds, ex- 
-cepting the feventh rate, which is fubdivided into ten 
kinds. . 

FeJoos, a copper coin of uncertain value, 

Fdoos Rahiahj means copper coin, in which an ad- 
vantage may be gained, owing to the fluctuation in its 
value, and hence the term Rebiah may be fludluating. 


Fcrd. A fingle fheet, or half, or fmaller part of a 
fhett of paper, containing an account or flatement of 
fome kind or other j as 

Ferd Huhekut. A manifeft, or memorial. 

Fcrd Sa-zi'al. A petition, or application. 

( 99 > : 

Tenaudy. A plain til. 


Fcrajb. A flavc, who is partner of her mafter s bed. 

Fetwa. A ftatement of the law, applicable to an/ 
cafe. The expofition of the law, pronou.iced by a 

Fiddeeya, A redemption fonlwhat is other wile for- 

^ t}> 

Firagb Kbutiig* A wfitteu dilcharge, or de^d of re- 

Flrmaun, A grant, degree, patent, or command of 
the emperor : a royal commillion, or mandate. In 
Bengal the term is ufed for a patent to trade duty free. 
By way of eminence it means the charter which the 
Company obtained from the emperor Furrukhfeer, 
granting them a liberty of trading, and oth«r privileges. 
See Appendix No III. 

■ LT^^ . ■ 

Floos, Ten make a danim, and 100 a mamooda, at 

Fotehdar. A banker, or pcribn who inlpec^s the dif- 
ferent coins, and determines their rate of exchange. 

( loa ) 


Foujdar. The chief magiftrate of a large clifl,i(^l', 
AuVderthe immediate orders of the Nazhn. Whenever 
a zeraeendar, or a colleftor of the royal or Jageer lands 
is difobedient, he fhall endeavour to biing him back to 
his duty by fair words; and if they fail of producing 
the defired eife(5>, he fliall take down in writing an ac- 
count of his proceedings, in the prefence of the prin-^ 
cipal officers of government, and then inflid. a proper 
punifli ment Jf a number confederate together, let him 
fix his quarters near to their abode, and poifefs himfelf 
of their men and property by degrees, without ha- 
zarding a general engagement. For a fervice which can 
be effected by infantry, he fhall not employ cavahy 
He muft not be precipitate in attacking a fort, but en- 
camp his troops beyond the reach of its guns, and block 
up all the avenues thereto. He rauft be guarded againft 
their nightly failles j and he ought to provide a fafe re- 
treat ibr himfelf. Let him be careful that the troops are 
relieved regularly. When he has poife fled himfelf of 
the ftrong hold of the rebels, he muft act with lidelity 
in the divifion of the plunder, a fifth part of which he 
fliall fend to the royal exchequer ; and if after making 
the divilion there be any remainder, that fliall alio l)e 
the properly of the flate. Let him pay conftant atten- 
tion to the horfcs and. accoutrements of the troops. If 
a trooper be without a horfe, his comrades fliall provide 
him with one at their joint expence. If a horfe is killed 
in battle, the trooper is to be mounted again at the ex- 
pence of government. He mufl fend regularly to the 
" prefence a roll of the troops who are prefent> and of 

f 101 ) 

thofe who are abfent. In all inftaiices he muft exert 
himfolfiii carryinginto execution the royal regulations^ 

Foujdary. The appointment, era office of a Foujdar* 

Wingy. A Chriftian. *The Portuguefe arc generally 
kiwwn by this name in India;, 

Fukeer, A. HIndoD caft of a religious order, there 
a^e a great variety of them : they are always in the 
chara6ter of perfons coUedling alms, and are frequently 
known to fubjetft themfelves voluntarily to extreme 
torture, in the hopes of appealing an offended deity. 
They are in general a worthlefs let of villains, who, to 
obtain money from the credulous Hindoo, put ou the 
appearance of religion, under the cloak of \^hich they 
commit the greateft excelfes. 


Fukceraun. Land beftowed upon Mohammedan fu- 
keers, or mendicants, a provifion. Fukeeraun is like- 
wife the chief magiftrate of a diftri6l called a chuclvla. 


Fulker, A revenue accruing from fruit. 


Furhungox Farhang. A vocabulaiy or didi Jiiary. 


FuJfuJ, Harvell > crojTr 


( 102 > 

Fujful Ruhhj!, The iirfl harvell of the yeaiv 

GHALLA MISLA, The common produce of a 
flave's labour in proportion to age, fex, &c. for which 
(whatever defcription the Have be under) the mailer 
has a claim, exclufive of any other advantage dailyr 
weekly, monthly, or annually, as he may have ap- 

Ghaut. An entrance into a country over mountains, 
or through any difficult pafs. Alfo, a public ferry over 
'ciuy river, or a landing pkice where cuftoms are ufual ly 

Ghanthary. The duties levied upon boats at tbc 
ghauts and chokees. 

Goautwalla. The keepers or inhabitants of the 
Ghr.uts are io called. Walla fignifies a fellow or pcrion. 

Gha%h, in its literal fenle, n' '.ans the forcibly taking 
a thing from another. In thai nguage of the law, it 
fignifies the taking of the property of another, which 
is valuable and facred, without the conf^iit of the pro- 
prietor, in fuch a manner as to dclt:r.)y the proprietor's 
poifellion of it. 

( 103 ) 


Gbet. Claiified butter, which will keep good a long 

time. . ^. 

Ghoors. A fine of 500 ^rras, derived from the ap- 
pellation generally given in Arabia to an infant, tnale 
or female Have, of that value. 


Ghur, A houfe. 

Ghurry, A meafure of time comprehending 24 mi- 
rentes, but Europeans generally fuppofe its means an 

Gilandazy, An embarkmerit of earth, with a ditch 
for the purpofeofcanfining water on the lands, and 
to ferve as a refervoir. This work takes place ia Pha- 
gun, Chytc, and Byfack, in order to ijecome iirm be^ 
lore the heavy rains fall. When money is advanced 
for this purp')fe,. in diftri(5ls not farmed, half the 
amount only is recovered fronTthe ryots. In fetting 
a transfer of fums, advanced between an old and new 
farmer, the KJiufrah, or d:iily account of the charges, 
compared with the receipts givsn by the^'orkmen, are 
admitted in proof of the fums advanced j but th^ axf^iml 
meafurement of the work completed, is no rule what- 
ever. Thefe advances ought to be made by the farmer 
himfelf,. and not >y goveriiment, except wlicn lands 
«re held Khafs. 

( lot ) 

Godown. A corruption from the Malabaric. A 


Goiter ee. A gen too incantation, which is .taught 
the bramin at the time of invetling him with the bra- 
minical thread. 


Gola, A ftone-houfe, the wails of which are gene- 
rally raifed of mud and thatched, for keeping grains 
fait, &c. ^ 

Gomajbteh. A native agent, or factor. Alfo a tem- 
porary officer of a village, appointed by the perfon 
immediately in charge of the revenues of a dillridl, as 
a check upon the other officers of the colle(5tioiis» 
Vid Banyan. * 

Gong. In the Periian language lignffies a village. 
Go7i^ WaUa, A militia-man. 


Grah. Name of a velfel, fome of which are three- 
mailed ► 


Gram. A grain of the tare kind : horfes are ^q6. 
with it inliead of oats. la the Bengal dialed the word 
lignifies a village. 

■ { 105 ) 

Gram Seram Jammce. The arrangement of land fer* 
yants for the buliuefs of the village. 

Gram Tacky. A tax on each houfe occupied by per* 
fons who hold but fmall portions of land. 

. o>r or .iaX/ 

Gunda, A tax of the fame nature in the Purne^h 
diftricls, with Bhone, . 

Gundy, A fmall falamy taken from the ryot«, oa 
thcoucafion of the meafuremunt and jtvmmabutulx 
being mad? of thofe lands which are cultivated and 
managed by a zemindar \ and when in confet^ncnte 
of their complaints, any part of thefe lands is given ivp 
to them } but this is not exat^ed by the head farmer 
from the JCutkincdar. 

Gu?ige. Market for grain. Agranary. 



Gunge Behar. Pleafure b >ats annually prepared at 
Dacca, for the nuwaab at Moorfhcdabad, the expence 
of which Wats' paid from the Nowarah MehaU 


Gunny. A c:)arfe fort of bags, wrappers, &:c. ufed- 
generally in the End. The -materials from whiclv 

\ 106- > 
iTiey arc made grow in the greateft profufion in Hui- 
dooflaun. If the gunny bzfgs and wrappers were care- 
fully prefcTved they might become a conliderable ar- 
ticle of trade, fince they have been f Ji\nd of material 
fervice in the manuladlure of paper. Paper made 
made from thefe bags, many fpecimens of which have 
come within the knowledge of the editor, and iome of 
which have been printed upon by him, might be made 
as fubftantial and durable as that which is generally 
/tifed in England for printing. 

Gii/biy MehaJ. A fource ot revenue arifing froip a 
tax levied on boats, in the different zemindaries, con- 
tiguous to the Khafs talooks. It is paid to the pro- 
prietor of thefe talooks, as a compenfj!lion for the re- 
moval of chookees Rationed by him at the principal 
gunges in the neighbouring zemindaries, in order to 
entice the merchants to freqitent his talooks. It was 
paid under the head of Baynom Mehal, till the time 
of Coilim Ally, when it was refumed and annexed to 
thejumma of the Khafs talooks. 

Gujht Salamy. A tax gathered by the cauzees, when 
on a circui. through their diftric^^. It was formerly 
a voluntary gift of the ryots; but fmce arbitrarily 
ellablilhed as a due. ^ 

♦I J 

Gutchan?iy. The imp**firien of goods on the natives, 
at an arbitrary price, or the rendering any one againft 
bis will refponfible for the revenues of a fpot of land. 


( 107 ■) 

or J\/ 

Gutha7iy. A tax levied by the zemindars from the 
lyots, tq makeup diticiences of rupees of furts, which 
are received by the Shrofs in bags, without examina* 


Guz, or Ilahe Guz, A mcafure ufed InHindooflaun. 
Formerly the guz was of three kinds, long, middling, 
and fliort. Each was divided into twenty-four equal 
parts, called Tefuj. A tefuj of the long guz was equal 
to the breadth of eiglit ordinary barley-corns 5 and a 
tefuj of the laft meafured fix barley-corns. The long 
guz was ufed for meafuring cultivated lands, roads, 
forts, refervoirs, and mud-walls. The middling guz 
ferved for meafuring buildings of Hone and wood, 
thatches, religious houfes, wells, and gardens -, and 
the fliort guz was employed for meafuring cloth, ar- 
mour, beds, palkees, chairs, carts, &c. In fome other 
countries the guz confifts of twenty-four tefujes j but 
they divide it after the following manner : — 

12 Weheemahs 1 C Hebbah ; 

8 Hebbahs j Zerrah j 

12Zerrahs ^ Kitmeer 5 

8 Ki tracers V J Nekeer 5 

6 Nekeers I -^ 1 Feteel -, 

CFeteels c Ful 3 


d Muftard-feeds } I Bnrley-cornj 
2 Barley-corns J L Hubbah j 

1 = r 

4 Tefuj I ^ J 
6 Dangs T | i 


r 103 ) 

Others make the guz confift of twenty-four fingers, 
each meafuring the breadth of fix barley-corns, and 
each of the latter being equal to the thickiiefs of fix 
hairs taken from the mane of a Yabu horfe. In fome 
ancient books the guz is laid to confift of two fpans 
and two inches; and this guz was divided into fixteen 
equal parts, each of which was fubdivided into quart- 
ers, called P'her ; fo that thep'her was the fixty-fourth 
part of a guz. Other ancient authors fay the guz was 
offeven kinds: ift. The guz fowdah. confifting of 
twenty-four fingers, and two thirds of a finger, which 
Haroon Refheed meafured from the hand of one of his 
Abyllinian (laves. The nilometer of Egypt is made 
after this meafure, which is alfo ufed for meafuring 
cloths and buildings. 2d, The Kulbeh guz, called alfo 
Aameh and Dowr, coiififts of twenty-four fingers, and 
w^as invented by Ebn Abyliclah. 3d, The Youfefyguz 
confifts of twenty-five fingers, and is ufed at Baghdad 
for meafuring buildings. 4th, The little Halheemeeah 
guz, of twenty-eight fingers and a third, was invented 
by Belal, the fon of Abeebirdeh ; altho' fome atrti- 
bate it to Abu Mufa Afiiaree. 5th, The long Halhee, 
nieeah guz, of twenty-nine fingers and two-thirds, 
v,-as invented by Manfoor Abbaffy. Both the Helhee- 
nieeah guzes are called GuzMullikandGuz Zeeadeeahy 
bccaufe Zeead, the adopted fon of Abu Sofian, 
made ufe of them for meafuring the Arabian Irak. 6th, 
The Omarecah guz, of thirty-one fingers, was in- 
vented by the Khalif Omar. Having added togefher 
the contents of the long, middle, and iliort guz, he 
to:)k a third of the aggregate fum, and added four 
fuieers to it. He cloftd both ends of the meafure with 


< 109 ) 

tin, and Tent It to Hezeefeh, and Ofman the fou of 
H^nif, in order that they might mealure with it tlia 
Babylonian Irak. 7^h, The Mamooneeah guz of lixty- 
nine fingers and a half, Maamoon AbafTy invented and 
ufed it in meafuring rivers, culrivated lands, and roads. 

There was alfo formerly a guz confifting of twenty 
fingers, ufed for meafuring cloths. The guz Meliihet, 
according to fome, was aUb of twenty-eight fingers, 
"whilil others make it of different lengths. 

Sultaun Secunder Loedee invented a guz In Hindoo- 
fiaun, confifting of the breadth of forty-one ilcunderees 
and a half, which wts a round iilver coin adulterated 
with (Copper : Henialoon made it. complete forty-two 
ifcunderees. This guz is equal to thirty-two lingers 5 
but, according to fowifi ancient authors, it was in 
ufc before the time of Loedee. Sheer Khan and Selini 
Khan, who aboliflied the cuftom of dividing the crops, 
and mavle a meafurement of the cultivated lands, ufed 
this guz for that purpofe. ^ 

Till the thirty-firftyearof the reign of Akber, although 
the guz of Akber Shah, confiding of forty-fix fingers, 
was uC das a cloth meafure, yet the fecuuderee guz 
was emploped for every other purpofe. His majefi:y 
taking into confidcraiion the inconveniences arifincr 
from a multiplicity of meafores, commanded that for 
allpurpofcs iherelhould be ufed only one guz, confiding 
of forty-one fingers, and named it the llahee guz. 



Giirzerhamu An officer who collcds the cuftoms 
at the ferries. 

( "0 ) 

Gyktig. A priefl. 

HjiDEES, The fayings of Mohammed. 

Hajet Seyab. Revenues remitted from the diflriiSV^ 
either in bills or fpecie, and ready to be brought to ac- 

Hajet Tujvess, Requiring invefligation, or enquiry* 

Hajee. One who has performed the pilgrimage to 
Mecc;i. Every perfon who is a true MuflTulmaun ought 
to perjbrm a pilgrimage to this place once, at leaft, iii 
the courfe of his life. 

Uakene, An Indian carriage or cart is fo called : it 
is ufually drawn by oxen. 

Hakim or Huk'un. The governor of a city^ judg<i, a 
king: alfo the government of a city. 

Hakim JJ^alt. The magillrate or judge for the time 

( iit ) 

Ifalbu7ijw. An anticipation of the revenue, by bnng-^ 
h*g part of the next year's lents to the account of the 

Haldaree. A tax on marringe, now abolifhed*. 

flal Htikchit. An account t jrmed at the .beginning, 
of the year, fromthe jummabuiKly and nuckul pottah^ 
f^ecifying the afful >umma of each ryct of a village, 
the different abwabs fubfeqiiently impofed, theincrcafi? 
or deureafe of the rent, and the alterations occasioned 
by the ryots' changing their lands. This acouiit*- 
therefore, contains the whale revenue to be colkdtcd 
from the ryots, during the courfe of the year. 

Maljbana. An officer appointed by the zemindar dt 
ardilb-i6t> to meafure and mark cutihe land that each 
ryot poflelTes, and to colle(5l the rents where they arc 
yaid in kind. 

lian'ifa. One of the great or principal dorlor^ 
famous for expoundiiig the law ot MEohamnied. 

Haram or Seraglio, A Mohammedan woman's aijirt- 

jnent. The zenana. The haram is an end )lure offucli 

immenfe extent as to contain a feparate room for every 

woman, whofe number fometimes exceeds fiv&thoufand. 


1X2 ) 

"3 hey nrc divided into companies, and a proper employ^ 
ment is afligned to each individual. Over each of thele. 
companies a woman i^ app,,inied darogha. And one Is 
felecred i'or the eommand of the vvh;^le;, in order th«% 
the affairs of t^e haram may be ccnduaed with the 
fame regularity and good government as the other de- 
partments of the ftate. 

Everyone receives a fal a ry equal to her merit. The 
pen cannot meafiire the extent of the emperor's lar- 
gefles > but here fhall be given fome account of the 
montlily flipend of each. The ladies of the firft quality 
jeceive from I61O rupees down to T028 rupees. Som<4 
of the principal fervants of the prefetice have from 
fifty-one down to twenty rupees y and others are paid 
from two rupees up to forty.. 

i^t the grand gate isftatioiied a muflit'eff* to take ac* 
count of the receipts and expenditures of the hftram ift- 
ready money and in goods, 

^ Whenever any of this multitude of women want any 
thing, they apply to the treafurer of the haram,, who,, 
according to their monthly ftipend, fendea memorandum- 
thereof to the muflirefF of the grand gate, who tranf* 
mits it to the treafurer of the king's palace, and he pays 
the money. In payment of thefe demands no altign- 
pients are given, but only ready money. 

An eftimate of tlie annual expences of the haram 
being drawn out, the muilireff writes a draft for the 
amouKt, whicli is coUtiterligncd by the minifters of 
flate, after which it is paid in a coin that his majefty 
has eaufed to be llruck folely for this purpofe. This 
mone'y is paid by the grand treafurer to the paymafter- 
general of the palace ; and, upon a written order being' 
feat by the muflireff ©f the gate, it is diftrlbutcl 

( ns ) 

amoogft the inferior paymaftcA's of the haram, and by 

them paid to tho different lervants thereof. And this 
money h reckoned in their falaries equal with the cur- 
rent coin. 

The iufide of the haram is guarded by women ; and 
about the gate of Uie royal apartments are placed the 
mod contidential. Immediately on the outfide of the 
gate, watch the eunuchs of the haram, and at a proper 
di (lance are ftationed the rajpoots, beyond whom are 
the porters of the gates } and on the outllde of the en- 
clofure, the omrahs, the ahdeeans^ .end other troops 
mount guard, according to their rank. 

Whenever the begums, or the wives of the- omrahi 
or other women of characSter, want to pay their eompli- 
ments, they firft notify their defire to tho^ who wait 
on the outfide, and from thence their requeft is fent ui 
writing to the officers , of the palace, after which they 
are permitted to enter the haram : and f )me women 
of rank obtain permiflion to remain there for the fyace 
of a month/ 

Hiircarras. Meflengcrs employed to carry letters, and 
on bufinefs of truft j they are commonly bramins well 
acquainted with the neighbouring countries 5 they are 
fent to gain inteUigence, and aie ufed as guides in ttiQ 


Harol. The officer who commands the vanguard of 

an army, and fometimes it iignilies the vanguard. 
«« »* 

Hai Huhekut, An account, fpecifying the affel aed 

( n4 ) 

ab\val>iumma of the ryots, and the fettlement of tHe 
revenue to be eolle^ted during the courfe of the year. 


Ha<vildar. An officer appointed by the zemindar of 
a diftri6t, to tneafure and mark out the land that each 
ryot poireiTes, and to colled the rents where they are 
paid in kind. 


IJainJly Lands. The diftri6t attached to, and in the 
vicinity of the capital of a province. 

s^i or tt 

Hani. A market kept on ftated days: an occafional" 


Haiua. Literally, the air, is a deriiflve appellation, 
given by the funnies to the fheyas. Haiva is likcwife 
ufed to exprefs the fenfual paffions, whence the Ahel 
Haiva fignificB fenfualifis^. or epicureans. 

HatcaJet, in it*liter-al fenle, means a removal^ and^ 
.as derived from Tahool, which imports the removal of 
a thing, from one place to another. In the language 
of the law, it fignifits the removal, or transfer of a 
debt, by way of fecurity and corroboration from the 
faith of the original debtor, to that of the jerfon on 
whom it transferred. 

■ffazeroi. One of the heads in a huHabocd account^: 

( H5 > 

coitiprehendiiag undi^r it every exifting fource of re^ 
venue, as rents of lands a(^ually occupied, taxes, 'caf- 
toins, and every other article of profit really'cxifting,. 

ttazcrxamln. Bail for tlie appeajance of any perlbr).. 

Mi-'hah Navieh, A deed of right.. 

Hehha, In its literal fenfe, fignifies tRe donation* of 
a ihing, from which the donee may derive a benefit : 
in the language of the law it means a transfer of pro- 
perty, made immediately, and without any exchange. 

Ueetopades-* Amicable inftruftlon, are a feries of 
connected fables interfperfed with mora], prudential>. 
and political maxims : this work is in fuch high 
efteem throughout the Eaft, that if has been tranflated'i 
into moll languages fpoken there It did not efcape 
the notice of the emperor Akber: attentive to every 
thing that could contribute to promote lifeful know- 
ledge, he direcfled his vizier, AbuJ Fazelj to put it into 
a flyle fuited to all capacities, an'd to illuftrate the ob- 
fcurc paiTages in it 5 which he accordingly did, and 
gave it the title of the Criterion of'Wifdora: at length 
thefe fables made their way into Europe, and have 
fince been circulated there with additions and altera- 
tions, under the name of Pilpay, or Efop. 


Hcjira, The name of the year^ according fo which 

( n6 ) 

the followers of Mobamcd reckon tlicii' «ra ; it com- 
mences from the flight of IMohimmed froiii Mecca to 
Medina,Juiy.l6th, A. D. 62^2. See Appendix-, No IV. 

Hidd, 111 its primitive fenfe, fignifies o1)fliu(5Vion : 
in law, it exprelTes the corre(5>ion appointed and fpe- 
ciiied by the law, on account of the right of God. 

Hiddad. Monrning. A woman abftaining from the 
ufe of perfumes, or ornaments, 


Hiddcr. Shedding blood, or permitting it to befhed* 


Hijhry in its primitive fenfe, means interdiction or 
prevention. In the language of the law, it fignifies an 
interdi61:ion of a<5lion, with refpedl: to a particular 
perfon, who is either an infant, or an idiot, or a 
flave J the jCaufes of prohibition being three, infancy?, 
infanity, and fervltude. 


HirheCj in its literal fenfe, fignifies an enemy 3 the 
term extends to all mankind, except Mulliilmauns and 
Zimmees, whether they be a(flually at war with the- 
MulTulmuns or not. 

t M , 

Hhkarrah, A melTengcr or f] y. 

( 117 ) 

ITirfunnel. Sicca rupees of various ycar». 
}Tifahdar, A fliarcr or ]iartner, 
U'lffauh^ An account. 

H'lrz, Cuflody is of two kinds ; 1. cuflody by places 
that is, by means of fuqh a place, as is generally ul'ed 
for the prefervation of property, as a houfe, or a (hipj. 
3. by peribnal guard* 

tjoodahtndy, The diftributing *i diftrid\ into ffeveral 
tmall portions, under the charge of different per£6ns. 

.'. V 

Ilvohah.. An indian pi;e for fmoking, 

Hookem Nameh. A written order. 

Hooiidee. A bill of exchange. 

Hoomfyvenn, CommiJiion on bills of exchan^v 

( ]18 3f 

Howalahdnr. A Inndholder, inferior in rank t'o- ^ 
talookdar. He holds his lands on a funned, either 
hereditary, orrefumeableat pleafure ; he is fubjecH: to 
his proportion of the increafc^ ordecreafe, that may 
fee ptit upon the dillri^. 


IlowaJay, A depolit of property in fu:l conlidence^ 

HiikeekutJumma, An account f-^ecifying the revenue 
In all its branches. 

UuJi ul Tebfecl The fixth of the a<51ual coneiflions, 
allowed in Behar, to the perfoii in charge of therft 
in lieu of all expence* whatever, attending the raaking' 
of theno J whereas the a6tual diarges of colkdion^. 
are from 6 to 8 per cent only » 

Hujh ul Hoolim.- A patent, or order, under' th'e 
feal of the vizier, with thefe initial words: *' Accord- 
iiig to command/* An official confirmation under 
the feal of the Vizier, enforcing obedience to»the 

Hiifiuhocd. The pr-fent ftate of the revenues, com- 
pared with formeryears. A rent-roll, either of a^grand 
divihon, or of lefler diltri^s. An imaginary crniputa- 

< 119 ) 
^on, or arbitrary valuation, which the ouftq^ of the 
.country has eftabliflicd. 


Huzzoory. The prefence j applied^ by way of emi- 
nence, to tlie emperor s court. According to the polite 
ufage, it is now applied to the prefence of every 
Nuwaub, or great man. 

Huzzoory. The privil^e of paying the revenues, 
immediately to government. This indulgence was 
originally confined to zemindars and chowdries, but 
latterly has been extended to talookdars alfo, who 
lafed to pay through the medium of the zemindars, in 
«vhofe diftricts their talooks were fituated. 

Hiizzoor' Navees, A fccretary who refides at court 
ard keeps copies of all firmauns, orders, or letters. 


JAFFEER. One of the imaums, to whofe opinion. In 
many particulars, the funnies themfelves pay the 
created regard. 

Jagbeer, or Jay^heer, An alTignment of a part of 
the revenues of the ftate, to the fu[>erior officers of 
government^ or for the fupport of individuals, or of 
particular eftablifiimcnts. They are either mulliroot, 
or guire mulhroot, that is conditional, or uncondi- 
tional. The grant of the former fpecilies certain 

( 1^0 ) 

fervTces to be performed by the perfon upon whom it 
is conferred, and is ufually given to officers of govern- 
ment, to be held by them whilft in office, but refuma- 
ble on their office being vacated. They are alfo fre- 
quently allotted to perfons for their mill lary fervices. 
An unconditional Jagheer does not fppxify any fervices 
to be performed. In Behar, the jagheers are almoft 
univerfally of this kind. The grant was made under 
the feal and fignaturc of the vizier, for a certain 
number of daums, and the names of the pergunnahs, 
and the amount receivable from each, were particular-, 
ized upon the back of the grant. The dewan of the 
province, on the part of the king, gave a funned mu- 
tauluk, or grant correfpondingwith that of the vizitr. 
In this was fpecified the number and names of the 
villages appropriated for the difchargcof feveral quotas 
of rent, receivable for each pergunnah. The nazim, 
or viceroy of the province, then illued a perwannah 
gozaoiht, or order of delivering up to the proprietor 
the lands, as particularized in the mutauluk funned 
of the vizier. Such a jagheerdar is entitled to ail tli€ 
iinancial regalities of his jaglicer, not only the crown 
rent, but all the fubfequent fubahdary nlfelfments, and 
additional receipts of annual rental, belides inferior 
local -jurifdif^i OH, with ordinary zemindary perquiiites. 
Jagheers are neither alienable nor hereditary j but on 
demife of the proprietor revert to the government. It 
is for this reafon they are always conferred under the 
authority of the vizier, and not under the r^yal feal. 
Whilft the eonflitution of Delhi remained entire, the 
eftablifliment of the Nazim Dewan, the Foujdars, and 
all the great officers of ftate, the charge of maintain- 


( 121 ) 

ing a lleet cf armed boats at Dacca, torepel.tlie at- 
tacks of the Muggs, the artilleiyv and all the principal 
departments of government, were provided for by 
aflignments of the revenue 6f particular tracts of land, 
which were called from that circumftance jagheer me- 
hals. The zemindars in whole territories they were 
iituated were allowed a proportionate redu^ion in 
their jumma : but of late years, as the feveral nuwaubs 
gradually threw off their fubjecflion to the emperors, 
the lyllcm of jagheers has fallen i.ito difufe, and there 
are not at prelent more than two or three inltiftices 
of their exiftence in the Bengal province. The word 
Jagheer is derived from the Perlian jau, a place, and 
gurjftuTf, to take. 


Jagheer AJham, Lands gaanted for the fiipport of 

Jagheer Sirhar. The jagheer of the government of 
<:k' nazim. 

-^^^ j/k 

Ju-hrer Zat. 

Jagheerdar. The hokler or poftclfor of a jagheer. 
See Appendix, N^ IM, 

Jahrez. Veftment, or furniture of any kind, which 
a bride brings 'to her husband's houfc : paraphernalia. 

( 122 ) 

** ♦ 

Jai/a, A (lab, or wound, penetrating into the cavity 
of the trunk, from the brcaft, the belly, or the ribs, 
or from the neck into the gullet j and if it penetrates 
quite through from lide to fide, it is accounted two 
llabs, and two-thirds of ihe fine are accordingly due 
fer it. 


Jakendar. An alTorter. An oflicer belonging to the 
Company, who aflSxes the price on each piece of cloth 
in the cottas. 

Jama. A kind of g<)wn worn by the caftern nations. 

Jar MoIafik» The perfon whole houfe is fituated at 
the back of that which is the objetl of Sheffa, having 
the entry to it by another road. 

Jiijilaad, AlTet, fund, or iburce 3. hence- applied to 
fignify the ability of any diftri6l or province, in re- 
fpecfl of its revenue. 

Ihhak. The abfconding of flaves. 

Jeed. Pure money of the current fandiiig. 

( laa ) 

Jcmidar. A bJack officer, who has the fame raak 
as lieutenant in the Company's f^)rces. 


** * 
Jenayut, in the language of the law, is a term ex- 

preffivo of any prohibited a(ffc committed either upon 

the perfon or property. In the pradtice of lawyers, it 

fignifies that prohibited a(5V coronaitted upon the perfon, 

which is called murder, or upon a part of the body, 

which is termed wounding, or maiming, 

Jenitajaut, Every individual, or particular. 

Jereeh. Meafurement of land. In law books of au- 
thority it well be found, that the jereeb is fixty fquare 
royal %eraas or guz : 
6 Barleycorns in bread th,"! ^ fFinger, 
4 Fingers, I g Kubzeh, or M. 

6 Kubzehs, >^ < Common guz 

7 Kubzehs, g Royal guz, or zeraa. 
60 Koyal guz, J ^ L Jereeb 

The Beegah or Jereeb are names applied indifferently 

to the meafure it felf, as well [as to luch a quantity of 

land. It con fills of 30OO fquare guz. If a piece of 

ground be unequal in length and breath, it is brought 

into fquare meafure. 

20 Unfwanfeh ' 

■) c) f Pitwanfeh 
5 1 Tifwanfeh 

20 Pitwanfeh 


> (u <{ Bifwanfeh 
-S 1 Bifwah J 

20 BifwanfL'h 

20 Bifwah 

. S t Beegah, 


( r^'i^ > 

All thy divlfions below the tifwanfeh are imaginary. 

No revenue is required from nine hifwanfeh -, but 
ten bilwanfehs are accoumcd o!ie bifwah. Vid. A) ecu 
Akbery, edit. gvd. vol. 1. p. 284. 

Jcreel Aumcen. A land furveyor, or mcafurer. 

Jerecha?ia, A taxation on inhabitants, for defraying 
the changes of meafurcment. 


Jezja. A poll-tax, formerly levied on all who were 
not Mohammedans ; efpecially the Hindoos. 


Thram, is the period during wliich the pilgrims re- 
main at Mecca. They are then fubje<5l to a number of 
lb ift regulations, and are particularly enjoined to re- 
frain from all worldly pleafures. 

Ihhkar, in its literal fenfe, fignlfies the laying up oi' 
any thing ; ^Jnd in the language of the law, the pur- 
chafing of grain, or other neci-lfar^cs of life, and keep- 
ing them, up, with a view' of enchancing the price. 

Jlrr. Dragging tlie offender to tlie door, and expo- 
ling him to fcoin. 

JJarah. A farm. 

( 125 ) 

JJarah Jar, A farmer of the revenues. 
Jkhrab, Compulfion. 


Ikhrar, in the language of the law, means the noti- 
fication, or awoval of the right of another upon one's 
felf. The Perfon making fuch acknowledgement is 
termed M;(?^ir. The perfon in whofe favour the ac- 
knowledgement is made is termed Mookir Ice hoo, and 
^he t-hing which is the fubjecft thereof is termed Mco* 
kir he hee. 

Ikhtear, Option. 


Jmanm. By the rightful Imaum is underftood, a pern 
fon in whom all th'e qualities eflential to magiftracy are 
united, fuch as Iflamifm, freedom, fanity of intellect, 
and maturity of ago, and who has been elected into his 
office by any tribe of MufTulraauns, with their general 

Imaumlary. A price illuminated at the feftlval of 
Mohurrum, where the fhrines of Imaum Haflaa and 
HolTdn- are reprefented and worlliippcdr 

.( 1^0 ) 

Joal. A reward or40 dirms, to which a perfuii is 
entitled, for having fcized and brought a fugitive Have 
^rom the diftance of thre^e days journey and upwards, 
/and delivered him up to liis malter. 


Joar. A general maflacre of the women and children, 
which is fometimes performed by the Hindoos, when 
they cannot prevent the enemy from taking the town : 
a place is filled with wood, ftraw, oil, &c. where the 
xri(fUms are enclofed, and it is fet on fire. 


Jootdar. A cultivator, or hufbandman. ■ 

IJelra. Waiting for the purification of women, 

IJeeJadj fignifies a man having a child born to him, 
of a female Have, which he claims or acknowledges* 
as of his own begetting; and the mother of fuch a 
child is termed an jim-walih. 

Ifchlak. Claim of right, pieferred by others, to the 
fubje(51; of falc. 

JjhhJaJ. The ncife made by a child at its birth. 

IJlmrar. A rent not liable to alteratioiT, 

IJliyafah. A de^ of refignation. 

Iftedanet. Defiring to borrow; in its common ac- 
ceptation, it fignifies contrading debt in behalf either 
of one's felf, or of another. 

Ifi-fe-na, A requilition of workmanfhip. 
IJlukJake. Confirming in poffelTion. 

Ittdk, in its primitive feafe, implies power : in the 
language of the law, it fignifies a power by 'efFe<5l, ex- 
ifting in a man, which endows him with competency 
in evidence, and alfo in authority (fuch as raagiflracy, 
and fo forth) enabling him to a(5t with rcfpecfl to other.s> 
and to repel thea^ls of otheis, with refpec^ to himfelf^ 
in confequencc of the extin(5lion of his bondage. 


Jug. A facrifice which is celebrated by pitching a 
tent on a felef^l fpot of ground, and making a fire there > 
ghee is then poured on the fire, and prayers are at the 
fame time offered to their deities. 

( 129 ) 

Jumho Deep or Jumrnodeep. the world: it Is a Shan- 
fcrit word, and particularly fignifies India : it is derived 
fromjumho or jutnhook, a jackal ,*^d deep, any large 
portion of land lurrounded by the (ea. See Deep. 


Jnmtna, is the amount ofaire/Tments on any particii- 
Jar branch of revenue. When applied to land, it means 
the am unt of revenue aflefTed u>>on it, an.^ is of two 
kinds, viz. AfTul jumma, which means the original 
aflelfment made by Turul Mul, the Dcwan of Bengal, 
under the emperor Akber, on an a^lual mealurement 
and valuation of the lands j and abwaub jumma which 
means the amount of fi-ihlequent taxes impofed by Jaf- 
fier Khaun and his lucceHbrs, to the prefent time, on the 
jnmma of Tarnl Mul, which continued till his (Jaffier 
Khaun's) time with little variation, either in the 
amount of aflefiments, or m^de of levying them. Jum- 
ma, when applied to the cufloms, or to any other va- 
riable fciurce of reveviue, ligiiifies tlKJ amount cxpe(51ed 
to be realized from them^ or the amount at which they 
are farmed out. 

Jumma Ahvauh. Rent of land, fixed at a fubfequent 
period to the time of Akber. 



Jumma J/d, See AifclJumma. 


Jummabundy. A rental containing an account of Xh€ 
jumma, as, well as of the land. It fpecifics, Firft, the 
name the ryot : 2dly, the quantity of land which he holds: 
3d]y, the crop which it produces : 4thly, the rate per 
beegah j and 5thly, the total annual rent of each ryot. 
As a new meafurement d.')es not take place every year^ 
this account is ainiially liable to confiderable changes* 
Thus if one ryot relinguifli a portion of his land^ and 
another takes it, or lies uncultivated, in either cafe it 
will occafion an slteration in the original jummabundy. 
This account, although fo very ufeful, is not kept in 
every part of the comitry j the want of it, however, is 
in fome meafiirc, fupplied by means of the Kercha. 

Jumma Dehauty. the nett eflimated amount of the, 
revenue of the whole dhee or turruff. 

Jumma Kherch» Account of receipts and charges^ 

Jumma Mofnjftl. The aggregate amount -of the dif- 
ferent fources of revenue, whether rent cvrcuftom. 

Jumma Musjid. The great mofque. 

Jumma P^rgunnatty. The nett eftimated amount o^ 
the revenue at the pergunnah cutehery. 

( J30 > 

Jumma ff^ajil Baky. An account of the rental, Col-^ 
Ie6lions, and balances of any diilricfk or proyince. 

Jiimnia Zemindary. The nett eftimated amouat of 
the revenue of a zemindary. 

Jungki or JunguL A wood j wild country ) wafte 
grolind ) high gvt\(^, or reeds» 

Jun^kh hory. Clearing ol jungles. 

J5'«0'^'^* '^^^ capitation tax» 

KJBALA. A bail bond. A bill of Talc. 

Kafaht, Bail, 

Kafalut Bel Dirk. Bail for what may happen, 

Kqfeez, A meafure coutainirig about (50 pounds 

< 131 ) 

A'"t?/*^^zr<'^^n Hiring a per fon to grind wheat into 
flour^ in conilderation of a meal are of fl jur for hiis hire. 


Kalar. The Kahars or Bearers are natives of Hin- 
clooitaun^ who .carry aftoniiliing burdens upon their 
flionlders over the inoft uneven ground. They alfo carry 
palekees, fukhafens, chowdowles, with fuch an even 
pace, that the rider is hardly fenfible of the motion. 
The heft are thofe of the Deccan and Bengal ; and there 
are alfo many good ones in the northern foobahs. Se- 
v^rol thoufauds do fervice at the palace. 


Kukl Kbaneb, A duty paid by ihopkeepers who 
retail fpiritdous liquors j likewife the place where they 
ar€ fold. 

Kuk Tik'jda. A heap of fine mould, well fifted, 
and beat ftrongly in between twoftone walls. It is five 
feet high, three feet thick, and the front of it is very 
Ouooth and even, it being beat with a heavy trowel* 
One who is well ikilled, can fhoct his arrow into it 
quite to the head ; whereas one that ihoots ill, (be he 
never fo iLong,) cannot put a third part in. The 
arrows for this exercife, have the iron part quite 
round, about four fingers long, of the fize of a 
reed, until near the point, where they are fonae- 
"what thicker, fxoi?i which part they taper g-adua!]y to 

( 132 ) 
a iliarp point. The length, from the thickeft part to 
the point, is from three quarters to one inch. 

Kavaut. Kanauts are walls of cotton cloth, whicli 
are always pitched round the tents of thofe who can 
afford them. The principal chiefs have them, enclof- 
ing a ground of great, extent. They have a very fplen- 
<iid appearance. 

KandayruB. One of the five fuperior modes of mar- 
riage among the Hindoos. It is when a man and woman 
exchanges necklaces or firings of flowers, and both 
make agreement in fome fecret place. 

Cf^ ^^ 

Karlge Jumma. Alienated from the rental. The 
t-erm is ufed to exprcfs free lands in general. 


Karory, or Croory, An officer of governmrii., wiiOj 
for a commilTion, or a fixed falary, makes the collec^ll- 
ons of a difiiricH:. 

Katharry, or Gbautbarry, Duties levied on boats, sr 
the chokees and ghauts. 

Kefyety Uujlubood, An abwaub alfelfed by Cofiim Ally 
K-haun, on the diftricl:s of Beerbhoom and Dinagepore, 
from an acfiual valuation of their refjurces. 

< 13J ) 

Kefyeiy Foiijiliryy An ab^\^lI) firll brought to credit 
of government by C )nim Ally Kliaun, though 1 wg 
before coUecfled from the frontier provinces by the 
Foujdars, to whofe management they were entmited. 
The proportion of what was levied on roneah, was 
Rs. 15,23,725 J but the aggregate of Bengal was Rs. 

KcIIaut. A drefs given to a perfon invefled with a 
-new otfice, or as a token of confirmation in that 
he holds. This drefs of honour . is likewife prefent^ 
cd, by men of rank to viiitors of diftin6tion, but it is 
generally in pieces, and not made up, the number 
of pieces and their quality are in proportion to the 
rank of the perfons to whom they are prefeated; 
(bmetimes it is lent as a prefent. 



Kerarcummic, A decreafe in the jumma of the ryots. 

Kcrat» A carat, the 20th part of an ounce. 


"J - - * 

Keriah. A parifli or village. 

Kerkutch Nimuk Foreign ialt, imported from the 
coaft^ and from the northward. 

ii ) 


KerzJar* A borrower y a debtor. 
Kcrzlha. A creditor. 


Khalfah. The exchequer, or royal office for the col- 
lection and receipt o( the revenues, and for the deter- 
minaLicn of caufes relating thereto. 


Khamr. Wine in particular^ and all Urong liquors in 

Kbaun, Literally this word fignifies Lord or Noble. 
In Perlia, it is applied to a prince or governor of a 
province 3 but in Hindooftaun it lignifies the loweft 
order of Mogul nobility. It is a title conferred by the 
king of Delhi, for which, according to feme, it is fup- 
pofed the perfon maintains 250 horfe foldiers, of which 
he is the commander for the king's fervice. Jt is likewile 
a general appellative to diflinguilli the Pa tans, and 
given to every man of rank. 

Khan Kbanaun. Lord of lords 5 a title, 

Kbanchhary. A family houfe. 

i 135 J 

Kbanfummnee^ The department which generally in-' 
dudes every expcncc belonging to the houfchold. 

Khanate Mdah Phces'for proflitutos. 



KbariJ Jumma. Land fepa rated from the revenue, 
and fold by the zemindars. It is hereditary, and cou- 
fequently alienable by the the holder of it, either by 
deed, glft^ or otherwife, 

Khafs* LancTs, the rents of which are not leafed 
out, but coIle<5led immediately by the officers of goveiri- 
meiit, appointed for that fole purpofe. 

Kha/sTalook. Lands exclufively belonging- to go- 
vernment, from the original proprietors having died 
without heirs. Jaffier Khan, when nuwaub, having 
compofed a collet^lioir of thefe Innds, in the vicinity of 
Moornicdabad, which he afterwards enlarged by en- 
croaching upon the lands of the neighbouring zemin- 
dars, fettled them upon his fon Sirfraz Khaun. They 
have ever fince been conlidcred the more immediate 
tenure of goternment, being held by, and rented of ity 
by every fucceeding nuwab. 

^V.' cr^y (j^^ 

Khajs Na^ccjec Ahivah. Sundry feparate articles- of 

( ISO ) 
collection, from which the nuzzar of 4679 gold mo- 
hurs, annually fent to his majefl:y, and the princes, of 
rare produd ions of Bengal^ fent to courl, -were de- 
fraying ', afterwards thefe articles were confolidated 
into a tax^ added to the jumma. 

KhaJs'KavceJee'.* The moil ancient fubahdary alTeff- 
ment, inflltuted by JalTier Khan, as a fund for the 
payment of the fee exaded by the KhalfehMutfuddie»> 
from the zemindars, at the renewal of their annual 
leafesj it derives its etymology from two Perfian 
words, lignlfying fpecial writers, or accountants. 

Kbajfoomut. Litigation. 

Khaum Jumdany, Grofs receipts of revenue in rti* 
pees of fort. 

Khaisaneh Nlmuk. The value of fait delivered to 
government by the zemindars of diftricfts, which pay 
their revenues in kind, and where this article of pro- 
duce is greater than aay other. The word khazaneh i* 
ufed in contradiftint^ion to the word teekah, which 
only applies to the rents of the fait works of fuch dif-^ 
trids as yield but a fmall quantity of fait in proportion 
to the grain, or other produce. In the Khazaneh dif- 
trid\ the zeni'ndar ufed to engage to deliver to govern'. 

C V37 ) 
m^iit the whole quantity of fait that his lands were fup* 
pofed capable of producing, on receiving in advance. 
Or on being credited to the amount of his land reve- 
nue, the charge of manufacffcuring it at a fixed rate. 
The difference between the prime coll fo fixed, and 
the acflual value of the fait whfen nlanufacflured^ com- 
pofed the fund from which the revenues of the dif- 
Ui^l were difcharged. , From 17/2 to 1777^ the 
whole of the fait of Bengal, whether teekah or kha- 
zanehwas manufad:uredtDn account of government, 
by the zimindars or farmers of the revenue, or by 
cjntra(!l.ors, who ilipulated to deliver a certain 
quantity from their diftri<fi:3, at a fixed- ratej in cafe 
of an excefs in the in the quantity, they received a 
premium J in the event of a deficiency, thfey for- 
feited a penalty. The cantrac^or paid the ufual rent 
or hire of the of the teeka fait works f but the kha- 
zaneh ones were exempt from" any rent, in the for- 
mer, the price of manufacturing the fait vyas advanced 
from the treafuryj in the latter, the farmer or ze- 
mindar was credited in his accounts for the amount 
The fait thus manufacftured, on account of government, 
was fold to merchants > and the difference in the prince 
yielded a confiderable revenue. 


Kbazatiche^, A treafurer. 

K'hijzanch. The public revenue; treafure, 

( 138 ) 


Khee^hah, Poor land, and which produces onlj 
cullai^ and of this but one crop per annnm. 

KbeeL Wafte land, newly brought into cultivation. 


Khcraj, is of two kinds, MokoJJitneh^ and lP\i%ecfeb, 
•which laft is called Mokaieh and Mowruxzeff. — Kberaj 
Mokofimch is a Ihare of the produce, 5th or 6th, fof 
example, which is taken by government, and which 
like vjher, depends on the produce ot the land, and 
not on the perfonal ability of the cultivator; and 
therefore if a perfon,. notwithftanding his ability, doth 
not cultivate land, the kheraj h not demandable.— . 
Kb.rajll'uzcefeb implies, that the proprietor of the foil 
is refponfible for fomethiiig, and which depends uprn 
his poflelTiug the means of deriving advantage there- 
from } on which acccunt,^ this kind of revenue is due 
once every year, whether the proprietor cultivates tlie 
land once or feveral times : whilll on the contrary, 
kberaj nwkoffimcb, like vjher, is regulated by the number 
cf crops : fo that kheraj mokqfjimtb is like vlher, in that 
both depend upon the produce of the foil, the only 
tlifftrtnce between thcle bf icg in the article of charges. 
^^Rcth, includes cucumbers, gourds, badinjans, and 
fuch kinds of vegetables : fugar-cane has alfo fometimes 
been included in this clafs. — NckheeJ Meilufu, or clullers 
of palm trees, is when they are placed fo clofe trgether, 
that there is not poiTibility of cultivating the laud y and 

( 139 ) 

on the fame principle, if palm trees are fituated on the 
fidos ofland, and the intermediate land is fown, in 
that cafe the dates will not be fu-bjed to kbeiaj, 


Kberchah. An account current of each ryot, fpe- 
cifying on the right lide of tlie page, the particulars 
ofhis jumma as contained in the Hal Hukekut, and 
on the left the fums be has paid^ with the dates of the 

Klercef. Ihe firftcrop in the year, confifting chiefly 
of rice, which is lown in Byfaak, and gathered" in 

Kb'ilas* Rdeafcr 


Kbodkajbt Zemecn. Lajid cultivated by ryots refining 
on the fpot. 

Kbojner MehaL A branch of revenue arifing from' 
the fale of arrack and other fpirituous liquors. 

i^ - 

Khoola, in its prmiitlve fenfe, means to draw off; or 
dig up. In law it fignifies agreement entered into, f&t 
tlie purpofe of dillolving GonnuLial connexion, in 
licm of a Gompenfation paid by the wife to her huf- 
band, out of her property. 

( lio ) 


KlooUeen. Water in ^vflich dates have beenfteeped^ 
mixed with that of railins, and boiled together untii 
they ferment and become fpirituous. 

Kheoufa. An hermaphrodite. 

/• u^^ 

Khofs Ba\ilar. A royal fleet of boat?, ufed to be fcnt 
to his majefty annually, the expences of "which were 
defrayed from the Nowarah Mehals. 


Kbuddy, The plantain tree ; the fliips are put into 
the ground in Alfar and Savon, and ihey produce fruit 
in 12 months, after being planted) they requii^ a 
raoift but not a very wet foil. 

Khulwiit Scliceh. Complete retirement, folus fola, 
where there is no legal or natural impedimt-ntj to the 
commiflion of the carnal a(5l in marriage. 

KhurQUpoJb Zemeen. Lands appropriated for the main-- 
tenance of zemindars and landholders. 


Khuruz. Mcney borrowed on intereil. 
KhurruMa, A creditor. 

(in > 

Khyaniit, Treachery 5 diaionefty. 

Kbyar us^Shirt, Optional condition. In contra^* 
of fale there are five different options: 1. option of 
ftcceptancej 2. optional conditions ; 3. option of deter- 
mination > 4. option of infpedion j 5* option from 

Khyraut, Land given in charity, principally to 
Muffulmauns j it is by cuftom hereditary and alienable. 

KtbUh. That part to which people diredl their face 
in prayer ; efpecially Mecca. 

KillaJar. The commander or governor of a fort, 

K'lUedar. A petty officer, having ten pagodas fir 
his monthly pay. Thefe ofliccrs were frequently pro- 
moted, by Tippoo Sultaun, to the office of Meer Sad- 
door (fapcrintendant-geiieral of forts, &:c.) By fuch 
ridiculous promotions as thefe Tippoo Sultaun is faid to 
have given umbrage to many of the great men of h.\S^ 

Kiraheyut. Abominatioa, 

( M3 y 

Kirhan, Sacrifice. 


KiJxiPiut, The adminittration of an oath» 


Kij[fnt, By kiiTm is underftood the equal partitlorr 
of cohabitation, which a hufband is required by law 
to make among his wives, when he has a phirali ty 
©f them. 


Kijfmut. A divliion, particularly of inheritance^ 
VVhen any part of a pergannah is transferred, from 
one zeraindary to another, each part is called a 
Kiffmut Pergunnah. 

Kijfmut Pergunnaht are reckoned by annas, or fix- 

KaJI, The amount of a ftated payment) inftalmcats, 

Kifihundy. An agreement for a ftated payment of a 
fum ofm.^ney, tobedifcharged at fevera] times. When 
applied to the revenues, it means an account of the 
monthly inftalments, by which the annual rents are to 
be paid. The jumma is thus divided into 12 equnl 
parts, but as the paym-^nts mull: be regulated by the 
^arvefts, the equal proportion or monthly rents- are 

< 143 ) 

"broken imo I months : thus, Byfaak i month, Jayte ^ 
month, AlTiir 2 months, S:c. In fome places taxes are 
knpofedby adding a month's crhall a mcnth's rentto the 
jumma. In fuu'h cafes it is not uncomnion, from the 
accu^iiulation of taxes, tolind that the whole 12 months 
contain nearly double die jbmma j and of courfe, that 
there is as nmcli colleftcd in 12, as there ought to be 
in 20 months. ^ 


Kitduh Iloolmee. The letter of one cauzee to another, 
*vhich is a tranlcript of real evidence, 

^^ . 

Kitauhut, in is literal fenlt, fignifies a flave, purcha- 
lGng his own perfon from his matter, in return for a 
fum to be paid out of his earnings. In the language of 
the law, it lignifics the emancipation of a Have, with 
lefpecft to the rights of poflellion and acflion (in other 
words, the conveyance or appropriation vf property) at 
the time of the contradl, and with refpeCl. to his j erl'on, 
at the time of his paying the confideration of Kitabut, 

Cnf) [/''jy^/ 

Koonkorteky Zemeen. Lands granted for the fupport 
of the families of perlbns who have met with an un- 
timely death. 

Koofoomakara. The feafon of flwers, otherwife called 
Vafant : the two months between the middle of March 
and May. The Hindoos divide the year into lix reetoos. 

( Ml ) 

or feafons, of two months each, which are thus deno- 
minated j Seejar — Dewy feafon, Heemant — Cold leafon, 
Vajant — Mild (fpring), Greejhma — Hot fcafoii, Varfa 
— Rainy feafon, Sara — Breaking (up of the rains). 

Kovofofi, An allowance to zemindars for maintea- 



Kouruh When the king's women in Perfia go out 
any where, a number of men go beforehand to thofe 
places through which they are to pafs, in order to 
lignify'the fame, that nobody may appear there. The 
women are guarded by armed eunuchs, and fometimes 
by a body of foldiers at a diftance, who, if they find^ 
any man or boy in the way, will kill him, or at leall 
drub him very feverelyj and this is called Kouruk. 


Koyal, A weighraan. 


Koyalee» Fees for weighin 



Krere, or Crore, One hundred lacks, or 10 millions, 

Kuhhaiek AbiUoffale. 

Kuhher Salamy. A confideration or due, paid to the 

( 115 ) 

iemindarby the Mohammedans, for his allowing them:, 
to dig a grave f^r their deceafed relations. 

Kuffccl. A f.curity. 

KulJean. Small quntities of land left uncultivated, 
for the purpofe of laying grain upon it, at the time of 
harvcft, in order to its being thrailied. 

Kulma. The Mohammedan confeflion of faith r 
** There is no God, but one God, and Mohammed is 
the prophet of God," ^ 


Kummer Cojhahy, An exa(5lion made by peons, 
placed in reftraint over any one, for permifTion to 
pull off his clothes, and perfomi the ordinary fun6tions 
of life. 

f^ . ' 

Kii7iz. Treafure, or other property, buried in the 


, ;/'/ 

Kurauvy. A deduCVion made by the officers. In charge 
of the coUeClions from the grofs receipts of revenue, 
ovei' and above the eftabliflicd batta. 


knrp Cootatmy, Pieftints madeliy the ryots, on eft: 
mating the quantity of c )i.ton on their liinds. 


( 146 ) 

• ** 

Kurz. A loan of money. 

Kujh hjfi. Perfons who enjoy lands rent-free, a^ on 
condition of fe.ving the g(ivernment in a military 
capacity when called upon. The term is alio extended 
to pe.nple of middling circumflances, who do not cul- 
tivate their lands themfelves, but hire Tervants to do 
it, while they hold other employments. 

kiipior. The allowance on the exchange of rupees, 
in contradiftindlioa to batta. 


Kutkeninatlar. An under renter, who takes in farm 
a portion of a diftri6t, at a fixed annual fnm from the 
head farmer, or zemindar^ who has himfelf engaged 
for the revenues of the whole diftrift payable to 
government. A'«/yttw/a lignilies a fub-leafe, or under 

. ;^ J^ 

Kutl aind. Homicide, by mifadventure. 

'J^^ ,^^ ^„% ^i 

Kutl Khaycm Mokam ha Kbaia. Homicide of the 
fame nature as that by mifadventure. 

KulJ ha Suihtih, Hcmicide by an intei mediate caufe* 

( 147 ) 

KazT'.elhaJb. An order of foldiers among the Per- 
iians, as the janizaries among the Turks. The word 
fjgnilics, in the Turklfh language, red heads ; they 
were fo called from the red caps, which they wore 
when firft inllituted by Shaikh Hyder, father of Skah 
Ifmael firft king of the Sephy family. 

LACKHERJGE. Lauds that pay no revenue. 

Laan, Imprecation. In the language of the law 
it (ignifies teftimonies confirmed by oath on the part 
of a hufband and wife, (whofe tellimony is ftrengthen- 
ed by an imprecation of the curfe of God, on the 
part of the hulband, and the wrath of G( d on the 
wife,) in cafe of the former acculing the latter of 

Lack. One hundred thoufand. This term is ufuary 
applied to money; as^ a lack or 100,CXX) rupees, which 
fuppoling them ftandard, or ficcars^ at 25. and Qd. 
amounts to 12,500/. fterling. 

Lnddvee. A. releafe or acquittance from any demand. 
A (juit claim. 

Lakect, A foundling. 


Lahlaum Bahy Undifputed balance. 

V 148 ) 


La'vjdr'is. Heirlefsj havingj or leaving no heli-i 

Laivaris Mehal. A brajicli of revenue arlfing from 
perfoiiS dying without heirs. 

Loohaj fignifies property which a perfon finds lying 
upon the ground, and takes away for the purpofeof 
preferving it in the manner of a truft. The terms 
Lakeet ap.d Lockta have an affinity witli refpecft to theix* 
fenfe, the difference between them being merely this, 
x\\2ii Laleei is ufed with regard to human fpecies^ and 
Lookia with regard to any thing e!fe. Foundling, 
ftray, trove. 

Lout. Rupees that are defaced by conflant ufe. 


Luvger Khaveh. An hofpital, or houfe, for the 
entertainment of the poor and indigent. 


MAAZOVh, Dumiirei from office. 

Madrcjfdb. A public feminary for the promotion of 
Mohammedan literature. 

Mafkood, in its literal fen fe, means, loft and fought 
after. In the language of the law, it fignifies, a per- 

C 149 ) 

foil who dllappearsj and of whom It Js not known 
whether he be living or dead. 

Mabajin. Shop-keeper, o¥ trader. A banker. 

Mahal. (Mehal). Literally, a place. Any land, 
or public fund producing a revenue to the government. 

Mahalaat, The plural oi Mehal, 

Mehal Serai. The women's apartment. It is alfo 
called Haram, (that is, prohibited or unlawful, with 
refpe<fl to men,) and in Turky, Seraglio. 

Mahajtha, Adjuftment of accounts. 

.. MV- 

Mahayatj in the language of the law, fignlfies, the 
partition of ufufrucfl, and it is allowed, becaufe it is 
frequently impofliblcfor all the partners to enjoy to- 
gether, and at one time, the ufe of the thing held in 

Mahalledar. An officer under the cutwaL to prevent 
er'.mn and abufes. 


Mahjoor, Ai inhibited Have. 

( 150 } 

Mahwarry, Monthly. 

Majhcol. A complete eunuch. 


Malar. A pcrfon whofe bufinefs It Is to let horfes^ 
camels, &:c. to hire. 

Mak Reoh, is the participle paflive of Kurela, xo 
abominate. This word is frequently ufed in a milder 
i^wi^y and may relate to any thing improper or tni- 


Mai. Perfonal eflate, or effecfls. 

♦♦ ^ 

Malecut, Worth 5 the quality or being or confti- 
tuting property. 

Mai Khmeh. A treafury, or ftore-houfe. 



Malguzary. The public revenue, coniifting, ir\ 
iBengal, chiefly of land rents. The proportion taken 
by government has, confequently, always been 
very large, when compared with the land tax of ftatcs, 
•«vhere policy has pointed out various other modes of 
taxation, apparently lel^ burthenfome to the fuljec!!^;, 

( 151 ) 
fliid which raife a revenue, in a manner imperceptibly, 
rom thofe who pay it. 

Malik, The mailer, or proprieter. 

Maliconna. Certain perquifites, or percentage, aK 
lowed to the zemindar, on the jumma of his lands. 

MaJwajih, Revenues, rents, dues. 

Mdlwajtb Sircar, The government's rents, or dues. 

Mahamin, Security for money. A fecurlty tajcea 
by government, from the zemindars and farmers of the 
revenue, for the pun(flual performance of their en- 
gagements. If the zemindar has the management of 
his own lands, and falls in arrears, government mnft 
call upon the fecuiity for payment, and. he, on his 
part, muft recover the amount from the fale of the 
zemindary to the befl bidder, provided no written 
agreement exifts between them to the contrary 3 in that 
cafe, theagreement muft be obferved. The fale of the 
zemindary, however, fhall be a full releafe to the ztmin- 
dar, although the produce of it be not fufhclent for the 
entire payment of the debt. If a zemindar pafs his kifts 
with pun6luality, the fecuriiy cannot take upon himfelf 
the management of his lands3 but if he fails in the pay- 

( 152 ) 
ment of halfofany kill, government may difpoflefs him 
of the management, and allow a fubfillence of ten per 
cent, on thenett jumma, and his inheritance will ftill 
be anfwerable for the payment of the ftipulated reve- 
nue, becaufe, though relcafed from the management, 
' he is not releafed from his engagements. The fecurity, 
however, cannot take poifeiTion by his own authority, 
- but muft obtain the fan(5lion of government. If in the 
event of the fecurity 's being invefted with the manage- 
ment oF the zemindary, a balance ihould accrue, pre- 
vious to a fale of the zemindary, an examination muft 
be made into the accounts of the fecurity, as the ze- 
mindar cannot be refponfible for the fecurity's embez- 
zlements, during his management of the lands 3 (hould 
government have greater dependence on the zemindar 
than on the fecurity, and confequently not allow 
the fecurity to take upon himfelf the management of 
the lands on the zemindar's failure in his kifts, the fe- 
curity muft then be confidered as releafed from his en- 

Maameht. A compact of gardening. Vid. Mojakat, 

^;it J;ft 

ManA^il Molazma. Adj<jining tenements, or fuch' 
as are in the fame houle, one part of them being con« 
tiguous to another. 

Manazil Methayana. Apartments not adjoining, in 
«ontradiftin(ftion to Molazima. 

( 153 ) 

Mankooh comprehends every fpecies of pcrfonal 

Manjan, or Manjon. A tax or IropofUion, levied 
by the 'fficers of the chok es, or ghauts, as a perquifite 
for thcmfelves or zemindars. 

Marocha Holdarj^ Taxes on marriage. 

Mil/hay. The tenth part ofa gold rupee. One twelfth 
df an aflirofy. 

Mq/bkawar, Monthly accountt. ^ 

Mq/buu/, Will^ intention, 

McLta* Perfonal chattels. ^ 


Malai. A prefent beftowed upon a woman di» 
Vorced from her hulband. 

Alaiifce, I^ajids, the rents of which, payable to go* 
yemmcm, are remitted in perpetuity to the holder. 

( 154 > 

Ulaul. Revenue arifing 11 ora permanent and fistd 
fources, fuch as land, fait works, orchards, fugar ma- 
nufadlures. and taxes afieiTed upop perfons following 
particular profeflioni, 


MaimJ. Equal to feventy-four pounds and two-thUd^ 
at Bengal j thirty-ieven pounds and a half at Surat ; 
Iwenty-eight pjunxts at Amjengo/ aixl twenty-five 
pounds at Madras* At Beetle-^ukee and M.ocha^ ten 
make a Frazeil ; at Amjengo, Bombay, Callicut, Ma- 
dras/ Surat, and Telllcherry, twenty make a Candy. 


Maivziha^ A wound which lays bare the bonc^ 



A crier to prayer. 


Mutual amity, or patronage, and clientage. 



With refpe6l to flaves, the mutual 


latlon exifting between the emancipated 





Mazula Jsful; The inferior Maivia, or the client. 


Mavjla Alia. The'Vuperiur Ma'wh, or the patroa. 

(. 155 ) 

!Ma%0on. A privileged flave, 

Mdzoolee Dufiur. An olfice for the examination and 

iic1jultmt*nt of difmilled oflicers' accounts. 

Mccran. Dues, or a reward given for fcrvicflt per- 
fbrmed. ■ > . 

US ^s^ 

Mceran Kauza, Cauzy's dues or fees } thefe are now 

w^-^l (j;'/:r^ 

Mt-eran Yetcfah. The Yetefab's dues or fees) they 
are allbabolilhed. 

^^ /^ 

Meer AduJ. Although it be the immediate duty of a 
monarc!. to receive complaints and adminifter juflice j 
yet, fee'ng that it is not poflible for one perfon to d^ 
every thing, it necelfarily follows that he muft dele- 
gate his power to another. This delegate muft not he 
fatisfied with witneffes and oaths, but make diligent 
invelligation 3 becaufe it is very difficult to come at the 
truth without painful fearch and minute enquiry. 
Conlidering the depravity of human nature, herught 
not to p'ace much reliance on depofitions and folemn 
alTeverations. Di veiling hirafelf of partiality and ava- 

( 156 ) 
Hce, !et him d'ftlnguifh the opprelTed from the op- 
i:i-eiTor ; and when he has difcovered the truth, aci ac- 
cord'r.g'y. He fliall begin with aiking the circum- 
ftanccs of the cafe, and then try it ifi all its parts* 
He mu ft examine .each witnefs liparately upon the 
fame point, and write down their relpeclive evidences. 
Since the'e obje^bs can only be efFecftually obtained hy 
d^hberatenefs, inteUigence, and deep refieclion, they 
will f)metimes require that the caufe fliould be tritd 
again #om the beginning j and, from the fimilarity or 
difagreement, he may be enabled to arrive at the truth. 
The Cauzy tries the caufe; and the perfon who palfes 
fentence and orders puniihment, is called the Mecr 



Meer Bulhjby, Chi*e*i paymaften 


Mccr Tozuk. A marihal, whofe bufinefs it is to pre- 
ferv^e order in proceHion, or line of march, and to re- 
port abfentees. 

Mccrvjary. Fees levied at ferries. 

MehaJ, A fund yieMiug a revenue to government. 

MchaJ Scrai, The women s apartments. « 

Mchr. Dawer. 

( 157 ) 

hUlr Mtjl, Proper dower. 

Mchranah, An authorized fee exa<^ed by the cauzee 
from the Mohammedans, on the occafion of their 

Mejemoudar. A clerk who checks the account of the 
aumil in each pergunnah. His accounts are kept in 
the Mahrattah language, every where throughout the 
Carnatic, and he is under the Seriftadars. 

,M^reex, A pciion lick of mortal ilhiels. 


Milany, Acomparifon, or adjuftment. 


Milk, Property, or right j i. e. peculiarity of pof- 


Miikyet, literally fignifies hereditary, and is therefore 
ajiplied generally to exprefs all grants of land held 
immediately from the crown, fuch as altur^.gha, mud- 
dudmaufh, and aimah. All terras of this kind arc by 
cullom confidered hereditary, and confequently 
alienable by fale, gift, or otherwife, without the ap- 
probation of government, notwithfcanding theftrift 

( 158 ') 
letter of the Mohammedan law declares, that property 
held Ucider a royal giant, being merely a matter of 
favcur, cannot be devifed or inherited. Government 
however, has n.ver attached milkyet lands, whilft 
they were under mortgage, to any other perfoii. 


M'ni-ha-hee. A ^edu(fl;ion, rcmiflion, or fubtra6tion. 
Mrjhcen. Perfons who have no prope rty whatever, 

Moa-jel. Prompt. The payment of a debt is 
termed Moa-jcl, when it takes place at any time within 
a month afier it is due. 

Muaiiik. A freeman. 

Mohab. Common property, whic h it is lawful for 
any one indifferently to take and ufe. 

Molarat. Mutual discharge, Signified by a man 
fayi ig to his wife, " lam difcharged from the marriage 
betvveen you and me 5" and her confenting to it is the 
fame as Kboohe. 

/:■/ /.>• \ 

Modahhk Tudheer, in its primitive fenfe, lignifies, 
looking forwad to the event of a bufinefs : in the 
language of the aw, it means a declaration of a free- 
dom to be eftcbliflied after the nrailer's death. 

( it>9 ) 

MofuJfcJ, The country. 

Mobahat, literally fignifies, connivance. Thus, a 
purchafer, or feller, who gives more, or takes lefs lot 
an article than its real value, connives at the lois. This 
term therefore is not confined to fale, but extends to 
every slS:, in which the perfon connives at his own lofs^ 
fuch as (in the cafe of dower) paying the wife more 
than fhe is entitled to ; or (in cafe of hire) paying the 
hireling more than he had agreed for. 

Mobakila. The fale of wheat in the ear, in exchange 
for a like quantity of wheat by conje(5lure, which 
fpecies of fale was prohibited by Mohammed^ as well 
as Mozahiiiat, 


Moh'ir'ir, An accountant, 

Mohooree, or Mohurree. Any writer, or under clerk, 
among the natives of Bengal. 


Mohr'im. The appellation given to a pilgrim during 
his relidence at Mecca. It is applied to any^ptrfon, 
who havings refolved to undertake a pilgrimage, lays 
hixnfetf under peculiar reftri<5lions, 

( 160 ) 


Mohttffuh. The fuperlutcndantof the poMce, appointed 
hy the Mohammedans to lu])enni:end the morals of the 
people, to regu!ate the weights and meafurcs, and to 
prevent unlawful games^ drinking, and othier diforders. 

Mohir. Afeal; alfoagotd coin, worth iixteen rupees. 

Mohuteran* Lands granted for certain religious 

Mohujfih Peons placed over a perfon, ns a reftraint 
\o prevent his efcape; or to enforce the payment of a 

Mfjaodat, Ready money, calh, fpecies. It alfo Sig- 
nifies the unmeafured and unpartitioned } ait of a per- 
gunnah, in which there are fundry partners. 

Mokayeza, oxajaleofprqfit, means the fale of any 
thing for the price at which it was before purchafed 
by the feller, with the fuperaddition of a peculiar fum 
by way of profit. 

Mokatil. In its literal fenfe, fignifies a fiave, pur- 
cliafinghi* owo perfon from his mafter, in return fov 

( 161 ) 

a Turn to be paid out of his earnings. In the language of 
the law, it fignifies the emanci^^ati -n of a ilave, with re*. 
fpe(5l to the right of polfeHion and action, (in othei' words 
the conveyance and appropriation of pro^.erly,) at the 
time of the contra (51, and with refpeft to his perfon at 
the time of paying the confideration o'l Kitahut, 

Mokajfa. A village held free from rent by a Poligar, 
on condition of his protcdliiig the property of paf- 

.• Mokurery, A fixed tenure in perpetuity. 

Mokurerydar, The pofleffor of a Mokurery tenure. 

Mohof. Sufpended. 


Mokuddtm .The fame as Mundul. 

Moludihimy. An allowance to the chief ryot, col- 
le6lor of fuch independent villages as paid rent imme- 
diately at the Khalfah : it was fimilar to the nauucar 
granted to the higher order of Malghzars. 

Mola^mut. A continual perfonal attendance upon, 
or watch over, a debtor, liberated from prifou. Thi> 

( 162 ) 

js a cuftomary mode of proceeding, with refpc».'i t> 
debtors, amjng the Muffulmauns, and is termed m 
Pcifia and Hindooftaun Nuzerhund, -which may be ren- 
dered holding in fight. 

Moiavies. Dodlors of the Muflulraaun laws ; afiiil* 
ant lawyers. 


MoJungee. A worker of fait, a fait maker. 

Moodalnat. The a(5l of felling to a pcrfon upon 
credit, or the a 61 of granting credit, 

Mooheta. The thing fold. 

Moodaa, The plaintitf. 

Mood-a-lilee, The defeirdant, 

Morjfahid, is the hlgheft degree to which the learnc j 
in the law can attain, and was formerly conferred by 
the MadriiTas, or colleges. 

Mookir. A rcrfcn acknowledging the right of an«- 
4her upon hinafeif. 

( 163 ) 


Moohedee. An exemplary pcrfon, as being eminent 
for iandlity of characlcr, whence the term is applied to 
priefts and other perfons who exercife a holy officer 
The Perfians terra fuch a perfon Peilhwar, or §ne'who 
leads the way, 

MooUaht. The perfon who takes up a foundling !■ 
called the MtoJiaheij or taker up^ 


MooTihr. The perfon who denies. 

Moonjbid, literally, a perfon, who points to the 
place where any thing is loft, a defcription which 
applies equally to the lofer or the finder. Shafie takes 
it in the former fenfc, Hanifa the latter. 

Jtltonjby. A fecretarjTl'or the Per£an language. 

Moorahllut, The fale of any thing for the price at 
which it was before purchafed, with the fuperaddition 
of a particular fum, by way of profit. 

Moofebehee, A legacy. ?r 

Moojeheloos A legatee. 

, ^./-^ 

Me&Jbttree, K purchafer. 


Moojlamm. A perfon refiding in a foreign countiy, 
under a prote(?ilion procured from the flate or fovereign 
ofthat country. 

(Jr^Z" C/Cr' — ^ 

Moojlbeen Murjoom. A technical term, applied to 
all regular deeds, contracts, &c. 

Mooteladem, The participle from Takadcm, by 
which is underftood fuch diftance of time as fuffices 
to prevent punifiiment. It operates in a way fome- 
what limilar to our ftatuary limitations, 


Mootelefih An officer who examines accounts, an^ 
puts his <eal on them, when paffed in the fubordinate 
cutcherries, before they are fent to court. 


Moot iiyaUee. Literally, a perfon endowed with 
authority, a procurator. 


Moplars. A fet of Mohammedans from Arabia, who 
have eftablifhed themfelves by inlinuations on the 
Malabar coaft, and have, by degrees ^ot into their 

( 165 ) 

hands the whole of the commerce, by which, and fup^ 
plying the Nair iTinces and nobles wich money, they 
have become powerful and wealthy. 

Mofakai, in the langwage of the law, fignifies, fl 
com;)a(^, entered into by two men, by which it is, 
agreed, that one (hall deliver over to the other his fruit 
trees, on condition that the other fhall take care of 
them, and that whatever is produced, (hall belong 
to them both, in the proportions of one-half, one- 
third, or the like, as may be ftipulated. 

MofelU. The juice of the grape boiled, until two- 
thirds of it evaporate. 

Mojbaira, Perfonal allowance to zemindars. 


Mouza, k. parl(h, or village; fometiraes a hamlet 
only J but probably a palace. 


Mozvakil, A principal or conftituent, 

Mowakd. Plural oi Mek^la, fignifying a deyii, or fine 
of blood, AkUa and are thofe who pay the fine, which 
is termed Akkel and Mowakel, becaufe it rcftrain* 
men from ifliedding blood. Akkel, among a vaiiety 
€>i other fenfes, meaning reftraint. 

( 15^ ) 

J\I(nVaut Land. In the Jaimi ur K;^m'ioz, which Is 
acrmmenta y on the ALridgemeU ofthe Wckbyeh, 
and in other books, mowlaut is defcribcd to be fuch 
la ,d, as, from be ir.g deprived of fupplifcs of water, or 
from inundation^ or foine other cauies, is reduced to 
fuch aflate, thata man canaot derive any profit from 
it J fuch as having become marftiy, or impregnated 
with fait. 

Wafteland, that is not the property cf any one, or 
propriety land in a Mohammedan country, but whofc 
proprietor is not known, and what is at fuch a diftance 
from any town or village, that if a perfon from the ex- 
tremity thereof, fhould call out with a loud voice, he 
could not be heard at the wafte land, fuch land is alfo 
oi the defcription of mowaut, 

Whofoever cultivates mowaut land, by permiflion of 
the fovereign, becomes the proprietor thereof, even 
although he be a ziramee ; but if he cultivate it with- 
out fuch permiflion, he does not become the proprietor. 

In the Fetwa Alumgeeiee, it is faid, that the king 
has power t . grant mowaut land in oktaa, (or jaygeer,) 
and if the king grant mowaut land in oktaa to a perfon, 
who negle61s to cultivate it, he is to be left tohimfelf 
for thiee years, alter which period the king may grant 
it to another. 

If a perfon makes mowaut land arable, and then 
another fows it, the firft cultivator is the proprietor, 
the fewer having no part therein. 

In order to aafwer the d fcription rf a cultivator of 
Dciowaut land, it is necelfary that he bring the land to 

, , ( '37 ) 

a fit ftate for fowing j therefore, if a perfon merely en- 
c )mpafsliich land with ftones, or enclule it with grafs 
and briers, by way of taking pofleffion, he does not 
thereby become the proprietor. 

Digging wells for fupplying the land with water, 
clearing away reeds and thickets, enclofing the land 
with a wall, building a houfe, and planting trees, are 
airoconfidered as cultivating mowaut land. 

Jf a perfon cultivates more than half of his mowaut 
land, or if he cultivates the centre part, and leaves 
the fides in the original Hate, fiill the whole is con- 
iidered as being in a flate of cultivation. 

But if he cultivates only half the land, the remain- 
der will not be confidered as arable. 

In cales of alluvion, whence a great river, fuch as 
the Tigris, or of the Euphrates, leaves any dry land 5 
if it is rcafonable to fuppofe, that the water will return 
again, it is not allowable for it to be cultivated as wafte 
land } but otherwife it may. 

When the king gives a perfon permifiion to cultivate 
mowaut land on condition that the culiivator fiiall en- 
joy the profit^ but net become the proprietor, in the 
opinion of Imam Abi:e Hanifeh, fuch ftipulation is legal. 
If one perfon cultivates mowaut land, and another 
cultivates a parcel adjoining to it on all fidtuj or 
four perfons poifefs themftlves each of one fide, all at 
the fime time, then the firl\ mentione^perfon may 
take his choice of eithei fide, for a road of ingiefs and 
cgrefs to his grounds. 

When a perfon digs a well, or a pond, in mowaut 
land, another perfon cannot dig cither well or pond. 

r 168 ) 

within hereen, or b(>undary, prelcribed by law. The 
iiereea is 500 ordinary guz from each of the four fides 
of a p:;nd 5 and of a well 40 .guz. 

If a j.erfon digs a canal in raowaut land, the hereen 
on each fide; is half the breadth of the canal, and if he 
makes an aqaeducft below the level of the earth, fo that 
the water is not feen from the furface of the earth, the 
heeren in fuch caf-^, is 500 guz on each fide of the 
aquedu6l, but where the water is preceptible, the he- 
rec-u'"is the fame us is allowed for a canal. 

The rule above prefcribed, for the heeren of a ^wnd 
or well, is upon the fuppofiti)n, that it does not in- 
terfere with the right of another : and therefore, if 
a man digs a well on his own ground, no other perfon 
can afterwards be allowed to fink as well to his preju- 
dice, or be allowed any hereen on that quarter. 

Whenever any one plants a tree by the permiiTion 
of the Imam, the hereen thereof is five guz, within 
which di fiance no other perfon is allowed to plant. 

Mozuros. Hereditary. 

Mowroofee. The ftate ul bei:ig hereditary. 

Mowjil. Any pnymen* deferred beyc nd a month. 

Moivaxefa Rat'dm^ Fixed impofts which are exat'Tied 
at Hated periods, fuch as once in the mjnttl, 01 once 
in every two or three months. 

( 169 ) 

Motuzaefa Itatiha. Fixed impjfts which nre exacted 
at ftated periods, fuch as once in the month, or once 
in eyery two or three months. 

M§xabinut. A iaie without weight, or meafure, as 
<lates on the tree, corn in the car, &c. Vide Mobakila 


Mowzabimut, Hindrance, preventing any thing from 
taking its full ^^e^» 

Mozakkce. A purgator ol witnelTcs. 

Mozaribut, A contra(5l of copartnerfliip in the pro* 
iit of flock and laboorj of whkh the one party, viz, 
the proprietor, is entitled to a profit on account of the 
ftock, he being denominated liahb'i inal, or proprietor 
of the ftock, wliich is termed Ras ul mah, and tlic 
other parly is entitled to a profit on the amount of his 
labour, and this laft is denominated the AIo:2it2 rib, or ma- 
nager, inafmuch as he derives a benefit from his own 
labour and endeavours. A contracfl of Mozaribut, 
therefore cannot be cflabliflied without participation in 
tlie profit ; for if the whole of theprofit'bc ftipulated 
to the proprietor of the ftock, then it is^oniidered as a 
Bazat'j or if the whole be ftipulated to the immediate 
manager, it is to be confidered as a loan. 

M^zareah. A compa<!'t bet^^t tw,q perfons, cue 

( 170 ) 

being a proprietor of land, and the other the cultiva- 
tor, by which it is agreed, that whatever is produced 
from the land, iliall belong to both, in fuch propor- 
tions as may be therein determined, 

Muchulka, An indenture, or agreement. An 
obligatory, or penal bor.d, generally taken from infe- 
riors, by an acfl: of compuifion. 

Mudarkar. The principal of af!airsi 

Muddudmaufb. Land granted in perpetuity under the 
royal feal, and is limilar, in mod material refpefts, 
to the altumgha grant. Of late years the property of 
altumgha and muddudmaufh lands has been deemed 
transferable J but in I77^j one inflance only occurred 
in the courfe of an inveitigation in Behar, of a transfer 
liaving taken place in the property of thefe lands. From 
that period the pradlice of mortgaging or felling them 
has prevailed. It does not appear that government 
formerly exerted either the right or power of refum- 
ing thefe lands, except in cafes of delinquency. The 
nuwaub Mohammed Reza Khaun made feveral re- 
fumptions in Behar, in 1766, after the Dewannee was 
granted to the Company 3 but there is no precedent 
previous to that period. 


Mudhoor. The land produce, as diftinguiflied from 
the fait in the diftricfl of Bengal. 

i ♦?• ) 

^hjTis. A judgement feat, a tribunal 
Mukheem. An apptaifer ofgoodsi 

Mukhudckm. A fttpef ior dfficer of the revenue ift a 
village J the fame as the Chowdry. 

Mukkudduma, A canfe, or affair* 

Mukloot Land intermixed, belonging to different 

J^ or JkU 

Mundul. An oflicor correfi^onding with the tithing- 

man, or head-borough, of a narilh in England, the 

chief ryot of a village, chofen ufually from among the 

cldeft and moft experienced of the iahabitants. His 

duty is to colled^ the rent from the ry Jts, and pay 

them to the currumchary, to a(ft as a mediator h&- 

twecu th?m and the petty collecJ^orsof the revenue, to 

alTift them in felling their crops, in raifing money to 

pay their rents, and in fetling the little difputes which 

arife in the neighbourh(^od. Hemaybefaid to hold 

his office at the pleafure of the ryots j and his influence 

a;id fcrvices depends folely upon the good opinio'i 

tliey entertain of him, it is not the intereft of the 

zemindar to remove him, as long as he retain* tlmr 



( ^2 ) 

Munfif. A jadge^ or juftice : an adminillrator of 

Mu7i/uh, A title, dignity, poft, or office. 

Munfubdar. One on whom the dignity of Munfub if 
conferred. The Almighty, for the benefit of mankind, 
felec^s from amongft them one whom he makes a king, 
and fupports with his divine grace and favour. But 
fince the abilities of a iingle man are not equal to the 
duties of every department, the monarch wifely make* 
choice of fome of his moft worthy fubjetfls to affift 
him ; and for this purpofe nominates them to command 
others. \Vith this view Akber eflablilhed mun^ 
fubs from a dehbafhy (or commander of ten) to a 
dehhezaiy (or a commander of 10,000.) But only the 
king's fons have munfubs above 50OO. The number 
ofthele munfubs being fixty-fix, thofe fkilled in the 
numerical value of letters * have d^fcovered that their 
fnm is exprelTed by the word jilaleh (for the mofl 
glorious God) which they confiderasan indication of 
their perpetuity. 

Mtinzeh A dwelling. 


* Ahjed is an Arabic arithmetical verfe, containing a-ll 
the letters in the alphabet which have different f0wers,fy@m 
1 to lOOQ. 

( 173 ) 

Murochah. An unauthorized fee levied by the Zemin- 
dar on a newly married ryot. 

Mujbr'if. An office of the treafury, appointed by 
royal authority, to authenticate accounts and writings. 

Mujbroot, fignifies conditional, and is appUed to 
jagheersj which fee. 

Mujjnd, The Mohammedan place of worihip. A 

Mnfnuii. A cloth or carpet, on which the Hindoos 
ufually fit when in their houfes. It particularly (igni- 
fies tlie feat, or throne, of a prince. 

Mujlajer. A farmer. 

Miiflofy, Examiner or auditor of accounts. The 
principal officer in the department wherein the ac- 
counts oi difmiired aumils are examined, 

Mutaled, The fame as waddadar. 




Muftet, An expounded of law. 

Mutahariffa. A duty paid by people of particular 

^uthote. A temporary unauthorized tax, levied 
over and above the afTel and abwab jumma. The dif- 
ference between a muthote and abwab is, that the 
latter is a permanent tax, and the foi'mer a temporary 
one only. 

Muthote Feel Khaneb. An abwab eftabli/hed by 
Shujah Khaun, at the rate of four per cent, on the 
jumraa, for the expence of the Nazim and Dewan^^ 
eftabiiniment of elephants. 

Midooa. A lunatic, who knows the nature of falfr 
and its defign, although he be incapable of diftinguiih^ 
ing between the profit and lofs attending it. 

Mutfuddee, Properly, an officer of (late j but a-p- 
plied in common to any man who has the charge of 
accounts, either of the government,- or of any private 

iluzkooraut. Sundry petty allowances made to the 

( 175 ) 

zemiudars and others, at the clofe of the accounts of 
the annual fettlement, in addition to the provilion in 
land rent, (naunkar,) allowed thcnft by Tutul Muland 
Jaffier Khaun^ 


Muzkoory, Independent ta!ookdar», who pay their 
own rents to government, -without their pafling through- 
the hands of the zeiaindar in whofe diftridb their 
<alooks ar« £tuated. 

yU^U." iS;//'^ 

Muzkoory Taiookdars, received funnuds for their land* 
from the emperor, as the tukfeem jumma. They wer« 
called Muzkoory, becaufe they were allowed muzkoo-^ 
raut cliarges. 

NABOB, properly Nuwauh, the plural of Nahi 
This title, by pre-eminence, is generally applied to the 
fubahdarf or viceroy. Vide Nazim. 


Kaguree. The ancient character ufed by the Hindooi. 
It was the general and only chara<fl:er before the irvtro- 
daflion of Mohaminedanifm, when the Perlian or 
Nuftaleek hand prevailed. See Hadley's Moorifh 
Grammar^ where an. alpiiabet of the Naguree \% iiw 

Kajaiby, Deficiency in prcdBC«» 

( 176 ) 

Kaih, A deputy. 


Kajijb. The enhancement of the price of goods, 
by making a tender for them, without any intentioiL 
to purchafe them, but merely to excite others to offer a 
liigher, which pra<5tice was pr<Aibited by Mohammed. 


Naik or Nalg. A fubaltem officer of the fcpoys, 
equal in rank to a corporal. The famous Hyder Ally 
was frequently called, by way ofderifion, Hyder Narg. 


Nana. The title of the king of the Mahrattas — or, 
properly, the afting head of the government, and 
general of the forces: the nominal head being ftyled 
Ram Raja and Saha Raja. 


Kankar. An allowance in an affignment upon the 
revenues, or the lands themfelves, originally given as 
charity for the relief of the poor. 

Xa7ikar Zemeen. Part of the zemindary exempted 
from revenues, or fct apart for the immediate fupport 
of the zemindar. 

Naunkar, Lands granted to zemindars, chowdrks, 

( 177 ) 

and talookJnrs, as a maintenance for thc^, cv^n after 
their removal from their ftations} hereditary, andcen'- 
fequently alienable. 


Nazuayeeh, are all extraordinary aids beyond the 
eftablifhed contributions, levied at the difcretion of 
government, to anfwer any particular emergency of 
the (late. 


Nazim. The chief officer of a province j in whof& 
han3s the prote<5\ion of the country, and the execu- 
tion of the laws of the empire are placed. He is ufuaily 
called the fabahdar, or nuwaub, A viceroy. See 

Nazir. An overfeer ftationed at the Khalfeh, whofe 
i)ufincfs is to fend peons into the Mofuflil, to enforce 
payment of the revenues, to call aumils or any officer 
of the collecflions ta the cutchcrry j for which purpofe 
a number of peons arc employed under him. 

♦ ♦♦ 

Ncahit, A deputy- fhip, or lieutenancy from NaiK 

Nejejoct. Such lands as are cultivated by the ae- 
nimdar himfelf, and are rent free. . 



Kmtakky. An allowance formerly given by tbe- 

( 178 ) 

jfcraihdar to the cano ongocs, at the rate cf eigKt aniRW 
per 100 rnpees, oa the afful jumma. Since 17/2, it 
has been colledied along with the general rents of 
goverement, and paid to the canocngoes; agreeably 
to the rate of four annas per 100 rupees, called Pow- 

*« • « 

Nefka. Maintenance. In the language of the la^r, 
it fignifies all thofe things which are neceffary to the 
fiipport of life, fuch as food, clothes^ and lodging. 
Many confine it folely to food* 

Ne%ajs, A daily fair tor cattle, 

Nckafe Navffs. An officer in the zemindary cuf- 
cherry, who takes and examines the account of the 
colledions in tlie MofuiTil.. 

Nemoodary, A compenfation given by the rj^ot, for 
not having the extent of his lands afcertain^d by au 
adual meafuremeiit. 

Nikkab, Marriage. la the primiavefenfe, h raeana 
carnal eonjun^hn. Some have liiid, that it lignilses 
conjiin&wn generally. In the language &' the law, it 
implies a particular contrad, ufed for the the purpoiV 
of legalizing generation. 

( 179 ) 


Kirhb Bundy. The rate of land. 
Kirkh Darogab^ A kind ot clerk of the market* 
JV^5. An eftate equal to 100 dircms. 
Noohozaheen, The infulionofrailins. 


Aoozool. The Koraun was declared by Mohammed, 
to have been delivered down to him in dil?ercnt^(?r/i<77/5 
at various tinies^ and thefe he termed the NoozooJs, or 


Nowarab. An eftablifhment of boats at Dacca, kepr 
up principally for the defence of the coaft againft the 
Muggs and other invaders. For the fupoort of this 
eftablilhment, lands, yielding about 8,43,452 rupees 
per annum, were fet apart under the Nowarah Mehal -, 
in which were alfo included the boats which, under 
the denomination of Khafs Behar, and Gunge Behar, 
were annually fent to the Nuwaub at Moorfhedabad, 
The number of boats in Shujah Khaun's time was 768, 
manned by 923 Portuguefe, exclufive of natives. 

Nukar, The principal drum \iled by the Afiatips in 

( 180 ) 

^belr martial mufic, commonly allowed to perfons of 
^ligh dignity, p 


Nukhara. A drotn made from a hollow cylinder of 
teek wond, the ends of which are covered with goat 
«kin : it is hifpended from the left Ihoulder to the right 
lide, and beat with a flick made of the fame kind of 

^*U )^ 

Nukkar Kbaneb. The place were all the drums and 
smilitary mulical inilruraents are depolited, 


Kufeha. Aduftcr, orofiiceof the Khalfeh, wherein 
the papers of the revenue, that were annually iewi to 
the emperor, were prepared. Its remaining funtfiian 
is now the preparation ofDewanny Sunnuds. 

Xiiwauh. A viceroy. See Sipablillar. 

NuzziT. A prefent to a fuperior. 

Nuz%er Dutgah. Land given as an endowment to 
places of reiig'ous worfhip among the Mohammedans, 
the produce of which is fuppofed to bje applied to the 
■expenses of the eftablifhment j fuch as the fubfiflence 
«f the attendants, illuminations, repairs, &c. 

< iSi ) 


Nuzzer Imaum. Prefents given at the Moham«ieda!i 
■places of worfliip, in memory of the imaums HaiFan- 
and HulTein. — 

♦( ♦* 

NuzTieranel, Fees paid to government, as an ac- 
knowledgement for a grant of land, or any public office. 


Niizzeraneb Mokurety, is an abwab eftabliHied by 
Shujah Khaun, compofed of pecuniary acknowledge- 
ments paid to zemindars, &c. ojleiifihljiy to defray the 
charge of nuzzers feiit to court at the Eedsj but 
'virtually, for improper remiilions, omiilions, indul- 
gences, favour, and prote(!^ion i forbearance of Hull- 
abood inveftgations, or privilege of exemption from 
the fuperintendance of aumils. It was levied originally 
at about fix and a half per cent, on thejumma. 

♦. ** 

buzzer Pooneah. Prclents exatflod from the zerain- 
<lars by the KhallVh officers, at the pedxi of making 
xlie fettlement. 

•ODJD/tR. See Waddadar. 

Oraya. A fale of dat?s unon the tree, (which is law- 
ful, provided the quantity be lefs than five wu^ks,) in 

< 182 ) 
exchange for a quantity which have been plucked, and 
which are iimllar in point of meafurcment according 
to computation* 

, ♦ »^' « I 

Qui pun. Profit or produce over and above the rent 

PAAN. A leaf in which the betel nut, with the 
other ingredients, are put and eaten. 

Pa at, or Pant. A note or obligation to pay a funa 
of money for one's own account, or another's, on an 
appointed day. It is often ufual to accept thefe paats 
from creditable perfons, in payment of the arrears of 
tlie zemindars or renters. 

Paddy. Face in tlie husk. 



Pallee or PaJaiiquhi. A vehicle carried on the fhoul- 
ders of ft>ur men, by means of a bamboo pole extending 
from each end: it carries one perfon in a reclining 
pofture ; it has a canopy which is fupp3rted by a pole 
raifed along the centre, from whence it is pendent on 
either fide. A perfon who is allowed by the emperor 
to ufe zi falkec, is called Palkce-nujbcen ; a right which 
has lately been much ufurped by the lowefi natives } 
particularly by thofe who refide among the Englifh in 

( m ) 

Calcutta. This, like otfier privileges, is the fruit of 
a trer, which however well adapted to the foil of 
Britain" and the banks of the Thames, will not perhaps 
be found fo convenient for, or congenial with, the air 
of India and the waters of the Gunga. TerrcU ^ hnpe- 
rate IS a maxim that we may perhaps think of >vhen k 
will be too late. Conquerors, like religion, ought to be 
feen by the vulgar at a dillance only, and though ever/ 
tody muft confefs, that tyranny and oppreflion are 
bafe and diflionoufable, many will undoubtedly admit 
that/i/w/y aild indulgence may, particularly in this 
ountry;, be carried farther than is confident with found 
])olicy, Sea iempus omnia probat I 

PandaK A temporary Ihcd contrived of bambo. s 
and mats. ' 

Paimob Chuttak. A toll of five chuttaksin a rupee's 

' worth of rice, or paddy, eftablilKed in iarg.e cities to 

defray the expence of Koyals, or weighmfen, ftationed 

In the bazars and gunges, to prevent fraud/in the 

weight andmeafure of commodities fold therein. 


J^cadal. A foot foldier 5 vulgarly called petn. 


Peadeb DakheJy. The A^ot foldiers fo .called, are un- 
der the command of thepmrahs, but receive their pay 
from the ftate. j|^juy|iunfubdar has, in addition tt> 

( 184 ) 

ihe oompkraent of his cavalry, half the number of iir- 
lantry, dcfcriptions of whole perfons are taken dow» 
ii\ writing by his aka or mtinfubdar. Of thefe infantry 
one-fourth are bundookeheean, (matchlock-men,) and 
the reft archers, excepting a few who are carpenters, 
blackfmiths, water-carriers, and pioneers.' 

Peeraun. Land granted for the ere61ion and pre- 
fervation of a tomb over a Muflulmaun faint, or any 
perfon of eminent piety. 

Peifpcti/b. A 'fine, tribute, or quit-rent, paid tch 
government as an acknowledgement for any tenure. 

PcijMar. Afleward; naib } deputy. 

Peons. Footfoldlers, employed as ferrants, or atten- 
dants. They are armed with fwords and targets, and 
fometiraes carry matchlocks. Peon is corrupted from 


Pergu7mah. The largeft divifion of land in a zemln- 
dary. See Appendix, N^ V. 

Pergunnauty Jimma, The amom^t of the revenue 
received at the cutcherry of the pergunnah irom the 
Ctttcherries of the feverai dhees.or^rmffs, compofing 

( 185 ) 

fach pergunnali, after deducfting the charges of c« I- 
Iccfiioii ill each. ^ 


Perowty. Land which is kept out of cultivation for 
a Ihort time, iii order that the foil may recover its 
ftrength. Perowty land, whei> cultivated pays thfr. 
fame revenue as Poolej land. 

Pcrwan?ieh. A grant, or letter, under a great feal, 
from any man of power, to a dependent. See Appen- 
dix, Nov. 



Pbulker. A branch of revenue arifing from the rent 
of orchards. 

Platekah, One of the heads of the hnflabood accounts,^ 
comprehending under it the rated rent of land former- 
ly in collection, but now unoccupied, 

PoJygar. The Polygars are an independent race 
living under their own chiefs, preferring the hills and 
forefts to cities and villages, and the chace to huf* 

Poolhundy, From Pt??/, a bridge. It is the term for. 
dykes, oi dams, that are raifed to prevent in undations-,. 

( 180 J 

^- . 

Pookj. That land which is cultivated for every 
harvefl, being never allowed to lie fallow. 

PooKah. The pooliahs are perfons who profefs a 
fpecies of IMohammedanifm, extremely corrupted by the 
Indian fuperftitions. Tiic Mohammedan Arabs in India 
propagated their religion by buying flaves, to whom, 
aftt-r they had been circumcifed, and inftru(5i:ed in 
their docirlne, they gave their freedom 3 but as a cer- 
lain prida prevented them from mixing their blood 
w ith that of freedmen, the latter in time became a 
diftinft people, inhabiting the coaft of India -from Goa, 
round ihe peninfula to Madrafs : they go by the above 
name in Malabar, and by that^of Coolies on the Cjro- 



Poolichees. A race of men who fuffer Hill greater 
Jiaidihips than the pariahs, a low caft of Hind os. 
'Iliey inhabit ihe forefls of'Malabar, where they are 
not permitted to build huts, but are obliged to make 
a kind of neft upon the trees 5 when they are prelfed; 
by hunger they howl, to excite compalfion from tlufe 
prilling; the charitable depolit feme rice, or other 
f->od, at the foot of a tree, and retire with all [offble 
hafte, to give the famiihed wretch an opportunity of 
taking it witlioui meeting with his bcnefaclor. 

( 187 r 


Fooncah. The firft day of the colledliioiis, when- the 
head officer of government in this department fits i«* 
Itate at the ciitcheny, and adjufts the amount of the 
revenue to be collected the enfuing year. 

I'oojhtahhundee, Embankments of rivers>. 

•> •« 

Pojhthmice Taky. Prefents- received by the zemin> 

dar, for permiflion to make new tanks. 

^ or ii^ 

Pettah. A grant, or leafe, fpecifying the quantlty 
of land pofTefled by each tenant, and the amount of 
rent with which it is charged. This laft article is^- 
however, often omitted in the pottahs to the ryots in 
the mofuflll, many of whom enter into annual bundo- 
bufts with the zemindars, which they keep the account 
of, on a feparate fiird,. or piece of paper. 

Pottahdar.. A leafe-holder; 




Powtaiy, The prefent'fee, orrudbom of the canoon- 
goes, allowed them by government, at the rate of four 
annas per 100 rupees, on the afful jumma of each 
diltrix^j to defray the expcace&of the eftablilhment. 

( res f 

Pun. Eighty cowries. 


Punchuk. Taxes levied by the zemlndai-s, over and 
above the fixed revenue. 

Pundit. An honorary title fignifying doctor or phi* 
lofopher. The pundits are thc> only naen who under- 
ftand the Shanfcrit, the language in which the ancient 
writings of the Hindoos are compofed. 

Purhanny. A tax affelled on the ryots, at the time 
of keeping the pujal. 

Purky. A banker w*ho examines and proves money. 
Tiitteet, Uncultivated, wafte land. 


Tuteei Cumee. A decreafe, cccafioned by lands- 
being left uncultivated. 

V^ Zf' Cr% 

Putten Jumma Kurch. A monthly treafury account, 
fpecifyingthe receipts and difburfements arranged un- 
der the different heads for each month. 

( 189 ) 

Puttorab. The fame as borah tokra. 


Putwary. An inferior officer of the colle(5kions. He 
keeps the accounts of the rents realized in his village^ 
or department, and accounts for them to the Mukud- 
dum. The fuddu-ey putwary (or two per cent, f jr the 
putwary) ufedto be equally divided between the put- 
wary and the canoongoe. The putwary is employed 
on the part of the hufbandman, to keep an account 
of his receipts and dilburfements) and no village is 
without oneof thefe. The canoongoe is the protedor 
of hufbandmen j and there is one in every pergunnah, 
Now the canoongoe's (liare of one per cent, is remitted j 
and thefe officers are paid by government according to 
their rank, 

Pylar. A perfon who purchafes goods from the 
nianufa(5lurer, to fell to the merchant. 

Pjhajbt Zemeen. Land cultivated by ryots not re- 
fiding upon the fpot. 

Pyke. A watchman^ employed as a guard at night, 
Likewife a footman, or ruaner, employed on the 

biilinefs ofthe landij. 

• Pytah. Aiiabftra(5l of all the chittah acceimts of a 
village, arranged under the heads of pykaflit, khood- 
cafnt, khomar,^ dewutter, kc. according to the dates 
of meafufement. 

RABBI MAL, A proprietor of Hock. Vide Motsct^ 

, ;'>,;' 

jRahaJar* Aa o^cer employed la colk^h^g land 

Rahdaiy, An authorized branch of revennej arlijng 
from duties collected from travsllers by the officers of 
government, ftationed on the high roads for the pro- 
te(5lion of palfengers. It was alfo levied on gpods 
palling and repafling the public roads. In Bahar there 
were, in many diftricfls, chowkies or flationary guards, 
for the proteftion of the roads, kiivown by the name of 
chowkyrahadary, on~ account of which revenue was 
. colieCled and paid into the nizamut. 

Eah^t to detain a thing on any account whatever. 
In the language of the law, it means the detention of 
a tiling, on account of a claim, which may be anfwered 
by means of that thing, as in the cafe of debt^ 

( 191 -) 

liakht and 7l/j/^, exprefs, in generaU all articl^g 
Avhich appertain to peribnal elbte or efteO-ls (mal.) 

Rajah. A title given to Hindoo princes or chiefs: 
it fignifies prince, and was firft appropriated to the 
original zemfiadars. 

RjHce. A princefs. 

*• • f 

Rajlahujidy. Making or reparing of the roads. 



Hawayut Sahe&h, or indubitable report. A title be- ^ 
^owed upon two different treatifes on theSoona j the 
firft by A*boo Abdullah Mohamn^ed Ben Ifmail ul 
Joofa, on which a number of comments have been 
written at different times, and the fecond by Jakeddeen 
al Manaree. 

Ravayut Mujboor. Celebrated Reports 5 a work of con* 
fiderable authority. 

Razeenameb, An agreenient -, reconciliation* 
Rebbab. Ulury. 

( m ) 

He'int, or Reyot. See Ryot, 

Ri-jaaty in its primitive feiife, means reftltutlon. In 
law, it fignities a hufband, returning to, or receiving 
back, his wife after divorce, and reftoring her to 
her former fituation, in which fhe was- not liable to 
feparation, from the pafHngofher courfes, or of the 
fpace of time, correfponding with their periods, and 
which fhe recovers by Ri-jaat; according to foine, it 
means fimply a continuance of marriage. 

R}kap. There are three legal terms, which parti- 
cularly belong to mines and buried treafures, and 
which are employed for the ufe of diftincliorii j Madln^ 
the place in which the ore, or metal, is naturally pro- 
duced f Kunz, treafure, or- the property Ijuried in 
the ground j and Rikaz applies equally to either, — to 
J'/^j^/Vi literally, and to Kimz metaphorically. In all 
parts of Afia, it is a common pracl:ice to bury tieafurc. 
Treafures are hidden in the ground, on the com- 
mencement of a war, or other troubles, and it fre- 
quently happens, that the depofitors perifliing, the 
treafure remains concealed, perhaps, for many years, 
till it be difcovered by accident, and at a time when 
no legal claimants are to be found, 

R'lffahlar. Commander oi a body of horfe from lO 
to IQOj they were frequently promoted to the office 

( 193 ) 
df Meer AHof by Tippoo Sultaun. A Mecr Aftof is a 
member of the board of revenue. 

Rackt't. A warinftrument, filled with gun powtler: 
its form is like an E-iglilli skyrocket : it is thrown 
among the enemy, chiefly at night, to put them into 
confulion : they go with great force, fo as to reach 
upwards of a thoufand yards, and to pierce through 
two perfons. The tube is iron, about a foot long, and 
an inch in diameter, fixed to a bamboo rod often or 
twelve feet long j fome have a chamber, and burfl: li^e 
a fliell : others, called ground-rockets, have a fer- 
pentine motion, and on ftriking the ground rife again, 
and bound along till their force isfpent j they make a 
great noife, and annoy the native cavalry who move 
in great bodies, but feldom take effett againft our 
troops, who are formed in lines of great extent but no 

Ro^vanria. A pallport, or certificate from the col- 
letlorof the cuftoms, 

Roy Royan. Tlie principal otBcer under the dcwail 
of the provinces, who has the inmiediate charge of 
the crown lands, and is the fu;.erinteudant of the 
Ki.allch Sherilhteh. 

Rozeenadan Penlioner,, or one who receives a dailjr 
allowance, , 


< 191 ) 

Mozenamah. A day-book. 

Buhee, The autumn crop, confining, chiefly ^f 
vheat, barley, cotton, and the different kinds ofpeaB 
and vetches. The feed is fown in Khautick, (Auguft,) 
and gathered in Maugh, {November.^ 

Rucdad, A reprefentation, orflateofacafe. 

Rupee. A. filvcr coin (truck in the Mogul's mint, 
with an infcription of his name, titles, year of his 
rc'gn, and the place where it was coined. Theie are 
various f )rts of rupees annually coined in India, dif- 
fering a little in caft, weight, and quality. The beft 
are liccas of the currentyear, worth about two fhillingj 
and lix-pence. 

Rufjoom. An eftabliflied fee, or due. 

Ryot. A tenant, or immediate occupant of the foil, 
who enjoys the fruits of the ground he cultivates, x)n 
paying a certain rent to the fuperior landholder, in 
whofe diltri<fl it is fituated. 

With refpe61: to his tenure, he is either Khoodkaflit 
orpykaiht; the farmer cultivates the land of the vil- 
lage where he conftantly rcfides, and is. considered in 

( w^ ) 

the light of an hereditary landholder. The latter civf- 
tivates the lands of a village where he docs not reiidj, 
a^d is looked upon as a temporary tenant. 

In rfigard to the mode of paying his rents, he is 
formed harry, tulVcely, or kho.aar. — The harry ry )t 
hjlds a certain tj^uantity of land, f r which he pays a 
certain fixed rent per beegah, whether cultivated < r 
not i the tuifeely ryot pays according to the pa4-ticuiar 
crop which his Innd" produces^ Thus, land cultivated 
with nwlberry, yieldi a much higher revenue tha.i 
that cultivated with rice, The Khamar ryot pays in 
kind, and gives a proportion to his c;op, as the rent 
of hi& land. 


SAA, About cig^t p.uuds. 

5a«/. An hour. N^i^m Saaty half an hour, 

Sdddhlrt, An ellablilhed chaiity for the fuppoi^of 
poor Hindoos. 

Sddka, Alms-deed. 

Sadka Fitter » The alms belt jwed upon the poor, inr' 
the Eid ul Fitter, or feftival of breaking the faft of 


( 196 ) 

Safynamah. A certificate or writing, fpecifying any 
matter of dilute to be cleared up arxl fettled. 


Sago. A tree of the palm fpecles : a flour is m^de 
from this tree, which, formed into bread, when frefh 
from the oven, eats like hot rolls j when hard, it rc- 
♦juires being foaked in water before it is ufed. Three 
of ths trees are fufficient to maintain a man a year * 
and an acre, properly planted, will afford fubfiflence 
for one hundaed for that time. 

Salam, The compliments of ceremony when per- 
fo>is meet j in a meflTage, refpe6ls, compliments to any 
one. Various are the forms of falutations which have 
been adopted for addrelfing monarchs. Thefe bow 
down the head, and thofe bend theknee, whilft others 
pra6tife different modes, in token of fubmiffion. The 
emperor Akber commanded the palm of the right hand 
to be placed upon the forehead, and the head to be 
bent forwards. This kind of falutation is called koor- 
nifh, I, e. " the head being placed in the hand of fup- 
plication, becomes an offering to the holy affembly.'" 
The tufleem is performed after the following manner : 
The back of the right hand is placed upon the ground, 
and raifed gently till the perfon ftands ere6t j when he 
puis the palm of his hand upon the crown of his head. 
His majcfty (Akber) related*as follows : " One day my 
father beftowed upon me a royal cap> which I put 

tipoa my head, andbecaufe it was too large for me, f 
held it oil with my left hand, bowed down my head, 
and made the tufleem. The king was exceedingly 
pleafed with this new method, and from that time it 
became the mode of performing. that obeifance," Upon 
introdu(5lion, or on taking leave, or upon receiving * 
munfub, or jageer, or a drefs, or an elephant, or a 
horfe, itisufualto make three tufleemsj and on oc-^ 
canons oflefs moment, they perform only one tulleeip. 
Formerly the countries ufed to add the lijdah to the 
koornifh and tufleem 3 but as ignorant and ill-difpofed 
people viewed this a<5tion in the light of impious 
adoration, his mnjefty ordered it to be difcontinucd 
by all ranks of people on public occafions. However, 
in the private affemblies, when any of thofe in wait- 
■jng are ordered to feat themfelves, they on this occa- 
i^on bjw djwn their foreheads to the earth. 

According to the Afratic llyle, he who after any dif- 
grace is permitted to appear in the Iluzzoor Walla, or 
high prefcnccj to make the obeifance called a Salam, is' 
cftcemed to be forgiven and reftored to favour. 


Salamy, A prefent on receiving an appointment, 
SaUrfee. A rbi t ration . ' 


Sallis, An arbitrator. 

< m ) 

SaJIis nameh. Deed of award, 
Satoola, Bafe coln^ 

^avjtiyeem, the plural of Sayeema \ a-nd Sayeema is by 
♦he learned underftood to imply camels, oxen, goats, 
and other animals, which fubfift for the greater part of 
the year upon pafture y wherefore, if they Xis-^ but half 
the year in pafture, and are fed for the other half 
upon forage, they do not fall under the defcription ot" 

St^yn^rjat, All kinds of taxation befides the land rent* 

' Sayeeba, in law,, is a female camel fet at liberty, in 
purfuance of a vow. Literally, it means rtmnhg about 
At liberty. It may be ufed towards a^fcmale flave, as a 
formula of raanumiflion. 

Sayer. The revenue is divided into raal and fayer j 
the former is the land revenue, the rtfidue is fayer. 

Sayer Funchoeira, Tiie cuftoiiis-colle^fl^d by govern- 


( m ) 

Saytr CheTunteb. Unauthorized duties, colledled hf 
aemindars, on goods palling through their dillricfls* 

Seehundy. The allowance for charges of an aumirs 
officers, and. thoie whom he employs. Wages > al<^ 
Iowa nee, , 


Seer, A weight nearly equal to a pound. According 
to the Afiatic Refearches, vol. VI. p. 49, a feer is 
^'qual to the weight of 80 rupees. 


&teivauneh. Boundaries) limits. 


Sehm, The fixth part, 


Sepoy. Vide S'lpah. 

*«. J 

Serai. A building on the high road, or in lar^ 
itiiies, eretfted for tbp accommodation of travellers. 

Serf Sicca* One anna and a half, or about 9 per 
cent. An abwab, eftablilbed by. Colli ni Ally Khaun, 
ill confequence of his difcovory, that the zemindars 
cjllecled this accxmf fr jm the moufuflil, in order to 
-maite up for the Ijfs aliedged to be fuftained by the 

( «)0 ) 

regulation of an Minuat re-coinage, and the decreafecf 
value of rupees, after the firft year of their circulation. 

Scrhui. A bonndary, or frontier. 

Serinda, The Bengal violin : it has three ftrings> 
>vhich are made of a certain kind of filk. 

Scrl/htel. An office of regillry. 

Smjbich dor. The office- , or regii!ry keeper.- 
*♦ J 

Serkuj literal'y means, the /ardly taking away another's- 
property. In the Innguage of the law, it llgnifies, the 
taking away *,.pe]-ty of another in a fecri?t mann-er, 
at a lime when fuch property is in cufti^dy ; that is, 
when the effecfls are in fupjofed fecu;ity fr m. the 
hands of oher people, and when the value is not kfs 
then ten dirhms, and the effe6>s taken, the undoubted 
property of feme other, than of him who takes theia. 

Scrjbicun. This term imi lies breaking the capital. 
It is ufcd to expreis land grani-ed in charily by zemin- 
dars and other landholders, the revenues of which, to 
prevent any o s, either to the zemindar, ortogovern- 
rPvent, where Ua the firft year only levied by a tax 
upon the 3'^ots of tte vi'hg^e,, where this b.Kd wu» 

( 20t ) 

fituated ; bet the lofs arifing from this donation mnft 
ultimately, as is ev'.dent, fa 1 upon government itfelfi 
It is by cuftom become hereditary^ andalfo alienable* 

S^wanahntgar. An olHcer Rationed by the Mogul 
government is dift:\nt provinces, to tranfrait weekly 
to court, an account of all public tranfa<flions, fuch as 
thecoHe<5liona of revenues, the management of lands> 
and the ftate of the country. 



Seyah Jumihnny. " A running treafury account of the 
collecflions, as received day by day from the refpecflive 

Seyab Mojudaut. An account of the daily receipt^ 
remittances, and diiburfements. 

Sizazvnl. An officer employed for a monthly faliry^ 
to collecft the revenues of a diftri<^V the zemindar of 
which has fallen in balance. 

Skabhab Amvd, Manflaucrhter, 

Shadja, Wounds, ©f which there are ten kinds : 1. 
Harijia, or a fcratch, fuch as does not draw blood. 2. 
Damia, or a fcratch that draws blood, but without 
caufing it to flow. 3. Dameca, or a fcratch, fuch a*' 

( 202 ) 
caafes the blood to flow. 4. Bazia, or a cut throircrh 
the {kin. 5. Mctdinila, or a cut into the flefh. 6. 6V/«- 
lak, or a wound reaching to the pericranium. 7. Mazu" 
zibi, or a wound which lays bare the bo;ie. 8. Hj/blma, 
a fraAurc of the skull. 9. Meonakklla, a fradure which 
require? a part of the skuK to be renioVc?d. fO. Amma, 
or a wound extending to the membrane, which encbfes 
the brain# Next fallows Demigba^ or a' waimd' which 
ptnetrates to the brain, which, however, ii not in* 
eluded among the others, as a perfon To wounded 
cannot pofRbly coiuinu^ alive. 

ATv i/^^^ 

Shaglrd Pe)Jba, Retinue j feivants. 
Shabhunder, The oflSee of cuftoms at Dacca, 


Shalkc, Elce unrcaped ) the fame as batty. 

Sbeffa, In the language of the law, /ignifie^the be- 
coming proprietor of lands, fold for the price at which, 
the purchafer has b ;ught them, although he be not 
eonfentiig thereto. This termed 5-^^(2, becaufe the 
root from which ShefFa is derived, fign'i fiis canjun^Jon^ 
and the land fold is here conjoined to the land of the 
Shaffe, or perfon claiming the right of pre-emption, 

^jefec^ Vide above* 

< 203 I 

Sh/ihiar. A temporary officer of the cO)le<^if*9, sip*- 
pointed to fuperinlend and manage the coKe61ions o 
a turruf or pergunnah, and to receive the amount col- 
le(ft;ed by the gome flitchs of the fevcral villages inclu- 
ded in fuch d'.vifion. He is paid by a ruflToom, which 
Ive receives from the ryots. See Etmaumdar, 

Sheoprd, Tlie fame as bermooter. 

ShUinga, A fort of Indian velTel ufod on the flat 
coaft where there are not any harbours. Mr. Barto- 
lome informs us, that, in company with M. Beitcaud* 
he went on board a fmall India;i venfcl called by the 
Inhabitants fliilingn. /\s it is exceedingly dangerous 
and difficult to land at Pondicherry and Madrafpatnam, 
thefe fliilingas are built with a high deck, to prevent 
the waves of the fea from entering them. This mode 
of conft;a6tion is, however, attended with one incon- 
venience, which is, that the waves beat with more 
impetuofity againft the fides, raife the Ihilinga feme- 
times towards the heavens, again precipitate it into a 
yawning gulf, and, at length, drive it on fhore with 
the utmoft violence. In fuch cafes the veflel would be 
entirely daihed to pieces, if the Macoas, ornlh'ermen 
who dire(5l itj did not throw themfelves into the fea, 
force it back by exerting their whole rtreng^h, and in 
this manner leifen the impetuofity of the furf. On the 
ilat coaft of Coromandel tht.'re are iio harbours, and for 

( 204 ) 

that reafon neither people nor goods can be conveyed 
on fhore, but in thefe fliilingas. This labour is very 
dangerous even forfuch fmall veflels, as the Hstnefs of 
the coaft to fo great an extent renders the breakers 
extremely violent. 

Sbirh. A draw well, dug for the purpofe of water! ng 
lands, and the right to the ufe of which is transferable 
in the fame manner as any other property. 

ShirkuU Partnerfhip. In its primitive fen fe, it fig- 
nifies the conjunftion of two or more eftates infueh a 
manner, that one of them is not diftinguifhable from 
the other. The term Shirkut, however, is extended to 
contracfls, although there be no adual conjunction of 
eflates, becaufe a contrail is the caufe of fuch con- 
junftion. In the language of the law, it fignifies the 
union oftwoormore perfons in one concern. 

Shirr a, Purchafe. 

Shrof. A banker or money changer. Properly Seraf, 

Shqffing, So called by the Englifli in Bengal, is the 
examining, forting, and weighing the various kinds 
of rupees, to fix each to its diftricl: fpecies, difcard'the 
refufe, and fettle the batta upon all, according to the 

( 205 ) 

price of thcdny. In order to eftablifli the value in ftand 
aid ur ficca rupees. 

Sbumar. An account of the daily receipts of what- 
ever denomination, wherher collected according to the 
kiftbundee, or received as pre fen ts, Mut totes, or the 
like, and, in gen era! ^coii tains memorandums of every 
day's tran fadlions. 

Siayui. Emancipatory labour. By Siayut is meant 
work or labour of any kind. It is a principle of the 
Mohammedan law, that no perfon can remain partially 
a llave, but that any circumftance, which in its nature 
e ft abli flics the emancipation of a part, provides "for, 
and neceflarily induces, the eventful emancipation of 
theivhole: and h^nce the rule, that a llave, partially 
emancipated, works out the remainder of his value 
at an afcertained rate, being, in fome meafare, in the 
ftate of Mc'katib Sidjel. If witneffes exhibit evidence 
before a cauzeo againft a defendant, the fubjed; of a 
fuir being at a diftance, the cauzee mr.y pafs a decree 
upon fuch teftimony, becaufe it eftabliihci proof. The 
decree lo made ii written down, and this writing is 
called a Sidjeb; or record, and is not couiideredas the 
ktttr of one cauzee to another. 

Sicca JVeJgbt. Equal to 7d wt . 1 1 gr. 55 1 1 in. Bengal. 

S\fttja . Th e del i very of proper t y to a nothcr by way 


i 206 \ 

of loan, and not by way oftruft, in order thaf the 
oiher may deliver it to fome friend of his , aiid tiic 
obje(5l of it is to avoid the dang rs of the road. 


Sihra. Thujisthe term applied in general to the 
exteniivc and barren deiarts of Arabia : it alfo means 
any waft e, or unincbfedland. 

(/>X ^JX^ 

SUi'khu7ide€. An acccunt of the daily receipts of 
revenue made out at the end of the month, when the 
^hole is added together, and formed into one total. 
But this term is more peculiarly applied to the account 
of the month of the year, in which the daily receipts 
are entered as they come to hand, up to the 29ih of 
Cheyte j but the receipts on the 30tii are kept till the 
commencement of the enfning Pooneah, when the 
fevcral fums received within that interval are entered, 
with the date of the receipt of each,' and being added 
to the receipts o? the 30th, are confolidated into one 
furti, and placed under that day's date. 


SiU'im. In the language of the law, is a contrao: of 
fale, cauling an immediate payment of the price, and 
admitting a delay in the delivery of the wares. In this 
kind of fale, the wares are denominated iMoolleem-fee 
bee ; the pric6 Ras-ul-mal, (the capital llock)j the 
feJleriMeflem-alcliee, (the advanced to)i and the pur- 
chafer, Ku-bul-fellem, (the advancer.) 

( 207 ) 

J-.- ^\^^ or JU- ^y^^ 

Singbatty iMchaL A fare for horned cattle. 

Sipiih. The S'pahs, (or fcpoyi,) are native fo!diers» 
who are generaFy ufed for the Indian infantry, but are 
tlifcipH.icd after tiic manner of the Europeans. Their 
Co apanics cohfiitofa Si^bahdar, J.£iimidajV Havildar^ 
Kiiig> md Toin-tom, 

Slpoh-fiJ^, or Viceroy. He is his majefty*s vlce^ 
gereat. The troops and fabjecfls of the foobah are 
under his orders J and the pnfperity thereof depends 
upon his impartial diftribution of jiiftlce. In all his 
aftitViS he iiiuft flrive to pi ale the Deity, to whofb 
throne rt is his duty tj be inceflantly ofKinng up fup- 
p:ication ai>d pralfe. He muA canftantly keep in view 
thehappiupfs of the pe3ple> and never fuft'^r himfelf 
to be negligent in buliiiefs. He maft n )t talk id. y, 
nor fhew an unpleaA. ' countenance. He muft be cir- 
cumfpe(5l in his conduct, and pay due regird t ) tha 
rrnk of everyone, (hewing particular complacency 
towards them who are neareft him in ollice, nor ncgled- 
ing th ->fe whofe duty engages them at a dlftance from 
his perfon. Whatever can be tranfafted by his fervants 
he (hall not c 'mmit to the care of his fons ; neither 
(Irdil he emp-oy hiinfelf upon a hufinefs v/hich can be 
performed by his children. On alloccafi ms, he fhali 
eonfult with a peribn wifer than himfelf j or if fuch 
an one is not to be found, he Ihall alFociate together 

( 208 ) 

feveral of approved wirdora,and deliberate with them, 
lift' ning with attention to the opinion of each, and 
determining with caution. 


" Sometimes an old wife man may counfel foollflily > 
and an ignorant boy may, through mlftake, drive the 
arrow into the butt." 

He muft not admit every one to his counfel, nor 
low people in particular, fince few advife from mo- 
tives of friendfhip and diliiitereftednefs. Confidering 
his office to be that of a guardian, let him acft with 
the utmoft cauti.>n. He mufl regard the knowledge 
of the difpofitions of men as the firmeft balis of his 
power, and, having obtained that, he will live in per- 
fe61: fecurlty. Let him keep under the command of 
reafon, both his favour and his difpleafure. Thedif- 
obcdi' nt be fhaU ftrive to reclaim by good cdvice. If 
thatfiiil, let him punifa with reprimands, threats* 
imprifjnment, ftripes, or even amputation of limbs; 
but he fnall not takeaway life tillafter the moft mature 
deliberation. Hj muft not ftain his tongue with abufe, 
for foul language belongeth to low and inconliderate 
people. Let him not make a pra«5lice of affirming his 
words with an oath, for he will thereby make hirnfelf 
fufpeclied for a liar, and fill his hearers witb diflruft^ 
In judicial inveftigations, let him not be fatisfied with 
witneiTes and oaths, but make repeated and various in- 
quiries, and pay due attention to phyfiognomy. He 
muft n )t intruil thefe inveftigations fo entirely to an- 
other as to confiderhimfflf freed from all refponiibilitjr 

( 209 > 


"Refer not his caufe to the inveftlgaticn of the 
dewan, for poflibly his complaint is againft the dewan." 
Thofe who apply forjuitice, let him not beafflidled 
with delay and expe<ftation. Let him (hut his eyes 
againft offences, and except the excufeof the penitent. 
Let him behave himftlf with befitting ftate and muni- 
ficence. Let him obje6l to no one on account of his 
religion or lecfl:. L t him intruft each divifion of the 
country to the care of an honeft upright man. Let the 
roads be made laTe by ftationing proper guards for the 
proteftionof the traveller, and let him continually 
receive informatior> thereof. Let him appoint to officea 
men of worth, forefight, and integrityj and notfuch as 
are avaricious , and if a fuiHcient number of fuch peo- 
ple are not to b2 found, he lliall join in office feveral 
who are not acquainted or connected together ; and 
writing djwn tli3 reprefeatation of each, he muft en- 
deavour to difcover the trulh. Let his expences 
always be lefs than his income 3 and of what remains 
he Ihould give fome part to the needy, particularly 
thofe who d.) not fet forth their wants. Let him be 
always attentive to the difcipUne of the troops, and fee 
that their arms be kept in good order. And he fliaU 
coaftaiitly exercifL' himfelf and his niv^n in rid'ng, and 
in (hooting with the bow and the mitchlock. Let him 
be circurarpc(ft and deliberate in | laci ig confidence, 
for many who are evil-mind d carry a fair outfide, ami 
life the language of friend llii p j bat as their profef- 
iions are vuid of linceri'y, they conclude with at'Hiing, 
a vicljus part. L.t hiiu ftrive. i:> in:rjare cultivation 

( 210 ) 

and population, and gain the hearts of all our(ubje(^» 
by a faithful performance in his engagements ; and let 
him confider it is his duty to beiriend the induftrious 
hufbandman. Let him be careful to appoint impartial 
colle(^ors of the revenues, and be always watchful 
over their condnf^. He muft give attention to the 
digging of refervoirs, wells, and watcr-courfes ; to the 
planting of gardt^ns ; to the erecting ferais, and other 
pirus and ufrful foundations j and fee that fuch as have 
fallen into decay be repaired. He muft not be fond 
of retirement, njr indulge himfelf in melancholy} 
neither cught he to be familiar with the populace, nor 
always in a crowd. 


"Neither affociate with every one; nor leparate 
yourfelf from every one. Go in the road of wifdom, 
aiid be neither a Hy nor a phoenix." 

Let him venerate thf)fe who devote their lives to the 
fervice oi God, and ref| ert the flies and truly pious 
mend'cants. Let him not conlider impL^ringblelfing* 
from the fun and venerating lamps as ignicoly. Let 
him accuftom himklf to watching, and fleep and eat 
with moderation. Let him employ himfelf in prayer 
at funrife, neon, evening, and midnight. When he 
isat.leifurel'rom religious and worldly duties, he Ihould 
pciufe books of phil jfophy, and guide his a6lions by 
their precepts. If he is not in a temper cf mind to 
rellfh this ftudy, he rariy read the Mufneevy, regardlefs 
of the letter, but confidcring the fpirit of the author. 
He ought alfo to cultivate his mind with the approved 
tales of the Keleilah Dumnah, thus making the experi- 

( 2" ) 

ence of ancient times his own. Let hira llften to trae 
theology, and not give attention to idle tales. Let 
him aflbciatc with the wife, and thofe of good and 
friendly difpcfition, and having felecfted from amougft 
them a man of truth and integrity, diretH: him to give 
due attenotin to all his actions, in order that whatever 
appears improper to him may be prefented by him in 
private. If at any time he mifconceives a motive ©r 
action, he Ihall not therefore bedifplcafed at him, for 
it has long been matter c^ complaint, that people are 
backward in fpeaking any thing that may be difagree- 
able to their fuperiors, and that it is difficult to find one 
who will benefit another to his own injury. Let him not 
be hurried away by the reprefentations of llanderertf but 
exert his own circumfpe6tion on all occafions, becaufe 
men of bad character forge flories, and, palling them- 
felves off for men of integrity and difinrereflednefs, 
labour to injure others. Let him not be revengefuF^ 
but behave witli modefly and kindnefs to every one. 
He mufl not flight the defcendants of ancient families, 
but confider the glorious anions of their anceflors as th* 
recommendation of their lels deferving poflerity. Let 
him obferve that at meals every perfon fays Allah 
Akber, and that the principal man amongft them an- 
Iwcrs JdU-jdaleboo. Let him fee that neither a goaf 
nor a flieep be killed that is not a twelve-month old^ 
For a month following theanniverfary of his birth-day 
he ihall abftain from eating fiefli ; neither fhall he eat 
of any thing that himfelf has llain. Let him nptaddicTt 
himfelf to fenlual gratifications j nor have commerce 
with a pregnant woman. The food which is ufually 

( 2i2 ) 
given away after the death fa perfon, he (liaU prepare 
every year ori his own birth-day, and beftow upon ihe 

Upon the fnn's entering a fign of the zodiac, let 
him employ himfelf in prnycr, and difcharge cannon 
and musketry, toapprifethe populace thereof. And 
let him order the kettle-drum to be beat at lunrile and 
midnight. Let him not confider himfelf as ftati(inary, 
but hold himfelf and fami^y in readinefs to lepair to 
the prefence at the fliorteft fumiuoas. Vide Ayeen 
Akbery, vol. I. p. 204. 

oirf. Beeya Sir/, means a fure fale, of which the 
articles opj:ofed in exchange to each other, are both 
re:^refentat;ves of price, becaufe Shfmc^ns a rimoval ; 
and in this m de of fale, it is neceffary to remove the 
articles opj of' d to each other in exchange, from 
the hands of each of the parties, ref])e(51ively, into 
thcfe of the other. Sir/ aTo means z. Jupcr'wr'ity ', 
and in this k'nd of fale, a fuperiority is the only 
ctje6^, that is, a fuperiority of quality, fafhion, or 
workmanfliip, for gold or filver, being with refpe(^ to 
their fubftance of no ufe^ are only defireable from 
fuch fuperiority. 

Sircar Any office under the government j fome-' 
times, the ftate (>r g vernment itfelf. Any number of 
pergunnahs placed under cne head in the government's 
books, for conveniency in keeping the accounts. la 

( 113 ) — 

common ufage, in [Bengal, the 'under banyans of 
European gentlemen are called Sircars. See Banyan. 

Sirdar, Chief j head 3 leaderof a military band. 

Sood, Intereft. 

Soolb, In the language of the law, fignlfies a con- 
tra ft, by means of which contention is prevented, or 

^et afide. 

Soontahurdar, An attendant who caiTies a fflver 
bludgeon, about two or three feet along, in hiu hand, 
aid runs before the palkee. He is inferior to the Chub- 
adar ; the propriety of an Indian fewanry, or retinue, 
requiring two Soontaburdars for every Chubdar in the 

Soopaury. The name given by Indians to beetle-nut* 

Sooree Mujljutiijj^, A tax on the rerenue* of fpiritu- 
ous liquours. 

Sowgtuid, An oath 

{ 2H y 

Suhal. A province. Hindooftan contains \5 ftibahs^ 
which nre fubdivlcled intolircahs, and ihefc again intj 

Suhahdar The viccrojfr, or gixcrnor of a prrv'ilce, 
fequivakiit to nawaiib, ni^am, &c, Se^ SiiahfiilarT 
Tid. alio Appendix, Ne lil, 

Siuhhdafj, Theolliceof a fubahdar. 

Sudder, is ufedln cntradicftion to m^fuflil, which 
-fignifi^^s parts or branches. Thus th? head court of a 
zemindary is termed Sudder j with r.fpafl to ths vil- 
lages, tiTruf«, or pergunn^ihs, of which it is corrpjfedi 
and mjfufTil, with regard to the cu-tcherry at Calcutta. 

^* ;>^ 

Sudder Jumma^ The aniount revenue to be pa'd to 
gc\ernirent by zemindars, chowdries, and huzz:^ory 
talookdars, exclufive of the charges of colledlion, 

Sudder Cutcherry The khalfeb ; alf > the head cut- 
che-ry o^a dift i<5>, gener^ly held at the place where 
the perfon in charge of the collection re(ides j hence 
all orders are ifTued to the fcverat olticers and fubordi- 
Bate cutcherits. 

( 215 ) 

^ufyaneh. Days appointed for abftinence from flelh. 
Summun. Price. 

Sunauiy properly Sunivaiit ; rupees of old dates, on 
which a difcount is allowed. 

Siimiud. A charter, patent, or grant from any man 
In authority. A paper authenticated by proper fig- 
natures is called a funnud j and the dufter (or re- 
gifter) is ihe book in which the fuiinnds are entered. 
S me funnuds have nothing but the royal feal : 
ethers are firft authenticated by the feals and lignatures 
ot the minifters of ftate, and afterwards are ratified 
by affixing the royal feal 3 and Ibme have only the 
feals and fignatures of the mi liifcers, without the royal 

Sunnud Dewannyr^ A grant, or writing for holding 
land, being that by which all zeiiiindarics are held^ 

SuTui Haul. A ftate of the cafe. 

^x. (/-- 

Suttee Yug, or age of purity, is according to the Hin- 
doos, the fi ft of the four seras or peri* ds of Indian 
chronology 5 it is laid to have exiftcd three millions 
two hundred thoufand years, and that the life of man 
was extended, in that age, to one hundred thoufap.d 

( 21(> ) 

years, and that his ftature was twenty-one cubits — 
(Mr. Halhed.) Mr. Rogers fays the futtee yug is a 
period of one million feven hundred and twenty-eight 
thoufand years. Mr. Bernier fays, it was two mil- 
lions five hundred thoufand years. 

Syeeha, A womaa with whom a man has had car- 
nal knowledge. 

TAATA. A mutual furrender, when the feller gives 
die articles fold t« the purchafer, and the purchaftr in 
return gives the price to the feller, without the inter* 
pofition of fpeech. , 

Tabayeen. A title given to thofe do(5lors who luc- 
ceeded the JJbab, or companions of Mohammed. 

Tabeekb. A fpirituous liquor obtained from dates. 

Tadbcery in its primitive fenfe fignifies looking/or- 

luard io the event of a bufinejs) in the language of the 

law, it means a declaration of a freedom to be eftabliihed 

after the mafter's death. 


Tahalif, The fwearing of both the plaintiff and tlie 


Tahkeem. Arbitration. 

( 217 ) 

T<2ht\ Term of purity, n.caning the Tpaces that In- 
tervene between the rat:nftrual fiuxes. 



Tahiid, A leafe, conirad, or agreement. 

TahfceJdar. An officer employed to collecfl the reve- 
^nutsofa dilridV, for a certain fixed falary; he is fre- 
quently called Aumil Sezawul, and Tahfeeldar, indif- 

Tah'veeldar, A treafurer, ©r cafli keeper. 

Takadem. Such a diftancc of time as fuffices to pre* 
vent punifliment. It operates in a way iimilar to our 
itatuaiy Ihmiatmis, 

Taka^a, ExaCling by means of a fult at law. 
f "* 

Takbanj, In the language of the law, a compofi- 
tion entered into by forae heirs, for their fliare of the 
inheritance, in confideration of fome fpecific thing, 
which excludes them from inheritance. 


Tahjah A mint. 


( 2>8 ) 

Talak, Divorce, In its primitive fenfe, it menns 
difmiffion : in law, it fignlfies the dilToIution of a 
mairiage, or the annuhnent of a legality by certain 

Talak Ah/an, or moft laudable divorce, is when the 
huiband repudiates his wife by a fingle fentence, with- 
in a tabr, or term of purity, during which he has no^ 
had carnal connexion with her, and then leaves her 
to perform her edii, or prefcribed term of probati.n. 
This mode of divorce is temied the moji laudable, for 
two reafons j firft, becaufe the companions of Moham- 
med chiefly efteemed thofe who gave no more than 
one divorce until the expiration of the edit, as holding 
this to be a more excellent method, than that of giv- 
ing three divorces, by repeating the fentence in each 
of the fucceeding tahrs ; fecondly, becaufe in purfuing 
this method, the hufband leaves it ftillin his power, 
"without any fhame, to receive his wife, if he be fo in- 
clined, by a reverfal of the divorce during her edit : 
this method is moreover the leaft injurious to the 
woman, as llie remains a lawful fubjeft of marriage to 
her hufband, even after the expiration of the edit, 
which leaves a latitude in her favour unreprobated by 
any of the learned. 

Talah B'lddut, or irregular dvvorcc, is wlien a hufband 
repudiates his wife by three divorces at once, (that is. 

( 219 ) 

included in one fentence,) or where he repeats the 
fentence feparately thrice within the tabr ) and if the 
hufband give three divorces in either of thofe ways, 
the three hold good, but yet the divorcer is an offender 
againtt the law, 

Tdlak Haoftiy or laudable dworce, is when a hulband 
repudiates an enjoyed wife, by three Centences of di- 
vorce in the tabr. 



Tala\ Kanayut, or divorce by implication f is when a mnn 
repudiates his wife, not in exprefs terms, but, by the 
mention of fomething from which divorce is underftood 
and d'.vorce does not take place from this, but by intcn- 
iim, or circumfiantial proof, becaufe the implication is 
not ufed to exprefs divorce alone, fince it may mean di- 
vorceand aUb fomething elfe > and hence intention or 
circumftantial proof is requilite, to determine the con- 
ftrudlion in which it is to be taken. 

Talal us Sonna. Divorce according to the rule of 
the Sonna, in oppofition to Talak Biddut, which figni- 
fiesanovel, u7iautbori%ed, ox heterodox mode of divorce. 

JU- or (/;lj(JfUr 

Talook, or Talookdary, A leafe in perpetuity. A 

fmall zemindary, 



( 230 > 

fahohdar. The proprietor of a talcok. With ref- 
pet"^ to the payment of his revenue, he is either huz- 
zoory or muzkoory ; the former holds his lands of, 
and pnys his rents immediately to government ) the 
latter, whofe lands form a partr^fa zemindary, hcldg 
tliem under the zemindar, or chowdry, to whom he 
p.nys the revenues. All talookdars are fuppofed origi- 
nally to have paid their rent in this manner, through 
the zemindars or chowdries ; among whom, it is belie- 
ved, that the whole of Bengal was diftributed. But 
in order to bring the wafte la:^ds into cuUivation, they 
parcelled out, in consideration of a fum of money, or 
oftheperforrtiance of particular ftrvices, or to provide 
for a relation or dependent, proportions of their diftrivHia 
(v/hich were henceforwa "d calkd talooks.) to perfoJis 
fuVjeft to their authority, and whoengaged to coUecfl: 
and pay to the t^onor an annual revenue. An huzzoory 
talof.k is c nlideed as f.cure a teimre as a zemindary, 
from thecircumftance of the revenue receivable from 
it being, in general, mokurery, or fixed 5 and becaufe 
the proprie or is feidom deprived of the management 
of his lands, as long as he regularly pays his quota of 
the public revenue. 


Tajifcel. A gratuity bellowed upon particular per- 
fons, over and above their fliare of plunder. 



Tank. {Taluh.J A pond or pool of water. 

< 221 ) 


A fmall fort. 

Tannadar, Commander of a fmall fort. 


An exprefs. 

Tareje. An account fpecify'ing the particulars and 
afterwards the amount. 

Tawleeut, A transfer by the proprietor, under the 
original contra6l at the original price, without aa 
addition of profit. 

'♦♦ • 

Tazeer, Chaftifement, or difcretlonary corre(5lioij# 

Tazkeeut, is where a certam number of other wit- 
nefl'es bear teftimony to the competency of witnefles 
who are giving evidence in zay caufe; the former 
being denominated the Moz^ikecs, or purgators. 

■ ' •♦ 
Tci-ka. A branch^ of maal revenue arifrng from 
calaries, or fait works, farmed out by the zemindars, 
at a certain annual rent, payable either in money of 
kind. Fide Kbazanab nhnuk, 

( 222 ) 


Teely. A lock of hair growing from the crown of the 
head, in the manner of the C'hinefe. The Hindoos 
fufter no other hair to grow on their heads, from a re- 
ligious principle. The ihaving of the Teeky, putting 
lime on one, and ink on the other fide of man's face, 
and thus leading him about en an afs, is one of the 

moft ignominious punifhraents that can beinflicfled on 
an Hindoo. 

♦ . 

Tenah. A mode of meafurementufed in the Ealt. 

The Tenab formerly ufed' in Hindooftaun, was made 
of rope, which, being fubjedl to great variations from 
twilling, or from the drynefs or moifture of the air, the 
emperor Akber, in the nmeteenth year of his reign. 
Commanded that it flionld be comppfed of bamboos. 
Joined together by iron ring'"?. 


Tepukchy, an officer, wl.o, according to the Inflitutes 
of the empen-r Akber, muft be of an upright dif .ofi- 
tion, a good writer, skilful in accounts, and induf- 
trious, as the aumil depends folely upon him forjuft 
in'ormation. His duty is this : ?Ie fnaJi take from the 
caiioongoe an account of the medium ftate of the re- 
venues fur ten years in money and in kind, and hav- 
ing thereby made iiimfelf acquainted with the nature 
and capacity of the country, fatisfy, the auniilin c\Gry 
particular. He fliall write down whatever engnge- 
ments are made with the hulbandaian. He Ihali keej^ 

( 223 ) 

n feprirate account of the boundaries of the villages^. 
He fhall draw out a ftatement of the walle and arable 
lands/ to which he (hall fubjoin the names of the 
munfif, the meafurer, and tanahdar, together with 
thofe of the hufbandmen and niyaks (or chiefs of the 
Tillage) the articles of cultivation, villages pergunnah 
and harveftj and fubtracfting the deficiency, leave 
the amount of aflets. When the meafurement of a vil- 
lage is completed^ let him draw out the proportion' of 
affelTment of each husbandman, and Ipecify the re- 
venue to be paid by that place, to ferrt^ as a rule for 
the .aumil's coLle6lions. The account of meafurement 
■which in the Hindoovee language is called kbeffere^, 
ihall be fent to the prefence. At the time of draw- 
ing out the towjee (or account of demands) if 
former ftatements thereof are not proccrrable, let him 
obtain information, by takiiig from the ..utwary art 
account of the land cultivated by each husbandman. 
The towjee, together with accounts of receipts and 
disburfements, fhall be lent to the prcfynce regularly^ 
The name of the co]Ie6lor fliall be written in the 
jour lal at the bottom of the account of each place. 
When an husbandman brings his revenue, let him have 
a receipt f -r it, figned by the treafurer. He fhall 
receive from the puxwary and mokeddem copies of 
their towjee accounts, as a guidance for making the- 
coiie6lions, tgether with copies of the firkhut, or re- 
ceipts, which are given to the husbandmen. Thefe he 
iliall carefully compare together, and if he difcovers any 
f aud or coUufion, inflid a fine upon the offenders. 
He fhail daily report to the aumil the receipts and 
balances of every village, and ftimulate him to the per* 

( 224 ) 

formance of his duty. Whenever a husbandman comes 
to fettle his acconnt, let it be d me immediately. At 
the end of every harveft, he fliall prepare accounts of 
receipts and balances, and compare them with the 
pulwaree's book. He (liall keep a journal of receipts 
and dlsburfements under every name and form, and 
which fliall be every day authenticated by the feals and 
fignatures of the aumii and treafurer. At the end of 
the month he fliall inclofe the above account in a 
khereeteh (or filken bag) under the feal of the aumil, 
and fend it to the prefence ; wliilher he fliall alfo daily 
tranfmit, under the feals of the principal officers, the 
rates of exchange of mohurs and rupees, together with 
the market-prices of every article. At the end of every 
harveft, he fliall draw out a particular ace )unt of the 
treafurer's receipts and disburfements, and fend it to 
him ior his fignature : and at the end of the year let 
there be fen^ to the prefence, u ider the feal of the 
aumil, thamujemmel (orabftra6l) and the jumraabundy 
(or particular accout of aflfeffraent). If any place has 
bee:i attacked and plundered, let a calculation he made 
of the lofs fuftained in cattle and eiFefts, which is to be 
entered in the journal, the circuniftances repre- 
fented to the prefence. When the feafon for making 
the colle6\i ^ns is concluded, he fliall draw out an ac- 
count of what remains due from the country, which he 
fba 1 deliver to the aumil, and fend a copy to the pre- 
fence. In cafe « f difmiflTicn from oifice, he ihall de- 
liver over to the new aumil an account of the balances 
of revenue and tekavy, and, after having fatisfied him 
regarding tbofe particulars, take an abftia(5t thereof, 
and repair to the prefence. 

( 225 ) 

Teep. A contra<!^, or note of hand.— In Bengal it is 
particularly ufed lor notes given before hand, for money 
to be paid for feryices to be performed. 

^f V' ^^ 

Terrije Jumma Kurcb. An annual treafury account 
formed from the Puttun Juirmia Kurch. 


Ticka, Signifies thofe lands, the rents of which are 
paid in money* according to the pottahs of the ryots, a^ 
certain fixed rates. But when the country has fuffered 
much for wantofialn, it is not unufual forgover\m?nt 
to authorize the farmers to colle(5l from thcticka lands 
in the fame manner as from Bhoatee, on cond tioii 
that where the ticka crops had failed no rent fhould be 
demanded from the proprietors. 

Tipdar, A commander of 100 men. Thefe were 
f; equently promoted by Tippoo Sultaun to the olBce of 
Meer Meeran, the higheft military rank. 


TirtabYugt lucceeds fhe Suttee Yug, and is the 
fecond of the four aeras or periods of Indian chrono- 
logy. In this age one third of mankind was corrupted » 
it is fuj pofed to have lafled two millions four hundred 
thoufand years, and that men lived to the age of ten 
thoufand years — (Mr. Halhed). Mr. Roger fays, it is 
one million two hundred and ninety-lix thoufand j 

( 226 ) 
Mr. Beriiier fays, one million two hundr-d thoufarrd 
years} Colonel Dow, one milliou oighiy thouiaud 

TqfauL A co\hS.'ioa of callavies, or fait paas. 

TohiueeJdar. A cafli-keeper or treafurer. See Tall* 


Toomar Jumma, ,The ailVl, or original amount of 
revenue fettled on a meafurement of the lands, and 
regular huftabood, or afcertninment of their value 
by the famous financier, Toorul Mul, Vizier to Akber, 

Toomeree. An Indian muficaMnftruraent, formed of 
a g urd or cuddos nut, and two fmall perforated bam- 
b ^os, with jreeds in each, like thofe of the Scotch 
bag ipe. It is more common in Dekkan than in 

Tope, A wood : fometimes it fignllies an orchard of 
palmettos, or of cocoa-nut trees. , 

Tope Khaneh. The department of the artillery. 

Tojba Khaneh. Store room 3 wardrobe. 

( 227 ) 

■ /^y . ' 

'Powfeer. An iiicreafe on che alTul jumma foomary* 
of tiie j.^geer lands, alFoflld upon them by Jalller Khaun, 
at the moment <.;f their incorporat'on with the khalfa 
lands, proportioned to the aggregate amount. 

Towjet. An account of the monthly demands, col- 
Tedlions, and balances. 

TiicJiavy, is money advanced to the ryots, to aflifl 
tliem in the purchasing of implements of hulbandry, 
and in preparing their lands j for which they pay two 
annas intereft per rupee, Thefe advances are made in 
the Beyhar province, in the months Aflar and Sawun, 
for the khurref harveft, and are colledled again in 
Maugh and Phaugun. Where the former makes thefe 
advances by authority, heisanfwerable for the repay- 
ment of the amount. If difmiffed, his ftPccelfor is re- 
fponfible for whatever amount he can prove to have 
been advanced by the bonds of the ryots, under the 
feal and fignature of the cauziec and canoongoe, com- 
pared with the ryots themfelves. 

Tukfean Jumma-, or Tukjemy. An affelfment of taxes 
divided into lots. The Tukfeem Jumma, or affeirment 
of the lands of Hiiidooftaun> may be feen in the 
" Ayeen Akbery, vol. II. p. \jb, &c. 

( 228 ) 

TuUuh. A demand. Often u fed as paj. 

Tulluh Mozvafihut , or immediate claim, when the 
fliaf e prefers his cla'ra, the m.iinenthe is apprized of 
the r^le being concluded j and this it is neceffary that 
he fh uld do, infumnch, that if he makes any delay his 
right is thereby invalidated. 

TuJIuh IJbad Wa Takreer, or claim of ShefFa, by affir- 
mation a. id taking to witnefs. 

Tulluh Kbafoomety or claim of ShefFa by litigation, 
which is performed by the Shafee petitioning the cauzee 
to command the purchafer to furrender up the ground 
to him. 

Tullub Chiity. A fummons 

f: w-^ 


Tumfook. A bond. 
Tunkhab. An affignment. 

{ 229 ) 



Tnppeh, A divifion of land, fmallcr than a pcr-« 

Turrefdar. An officer employed to collect the reve* 
nucs of particular parts, aad who is paid by a rulfoom, 
either in lands or money. • 

TuJfeeU Colleftion of the revenue. 


TiifeeJdar, A collector of the revenues. 

VEKALUT, Agency i attorncyfhip. 
Vakaktnameb* A power of attorney. 

y, ■ 

l^khel. An attorney, or agent. 

l^zarut. The poft, or office of a vizeer. 

J-tztsr. The firft minifter of the empire. 

( 230 ) 


USHER, in general, means the tenth part, and In 
law, fignifies the tithes which are taken from the pro- 
duce of cultivated lands in Arabia and other places. 
KberaJ, in Arabic, and BaJ, in Periian, is any thing 
thait the fovereign takes out of the produce of cultivated 
lands in Sowad Irak, and other fimilar (ituations ; or 
what is paid him in money by the proprietors of luch 

lands, but which never exceeds half the produce. Vide 


UJheree, The fame as Afliooree j which fee. 

IFADAH, An agreement, or contracft. 

Wadablundy, Stated dates on which to difcharge 
any debt, or pay any money. 


JJ^adahdar, The fame as Adahdar. 


IVafa, literally, ^Jecurity fale ,• fo termed, becaufe 
by it the feller anfwers to the purchafer the debt he 
owes him 5 or when the feller fays to the purchafer, 
" I fell you this article in lieu of the debt I owe you 
in this way, that upon my payjng the debt the article 
is mine." 

( 231 ) 

fFalanagar. A writer of rfews, or occurrences. 
There were formerly officers, eftabjifhed under this 
name, throughout every part of the empire, whofe 
bufinefs it was to tranfniit weekly to court, by the poft, 
an account of the coll e(5Hon, the management of the 
lands, and other matters which' came to their know- 
ledge, veipedling the country and the revenues. A 
head Wakanagar refided at Patna, and his deputies 
were difperfed through every difti i6h 

JVahyanavees. The ofTiee of Wakyanayees, is an 
admirable inftitution, andabf:>lutely neceiTary for the 
well condu(51:ing of the affairs of an empire. Al- 
though the name of the office exifted in former reign?* 
it was never applied to any ufeful purpofe till Akbei's 
apcellion to the throne. For executing the of- 
fices of this department there are appointed fourteen 
able te; ukchees, ten of whom do duty daily in rota- 
tion. Some ot'hers are fo added as fupernumefaries, 
one of whom attends every dcCy ; and if it happens that 
one of the fourteen firft mentioned is abfent upon a 
matter of neceffity, this additional perfon officiates in 
his room. Thefe fupernuraeraries are called kowtel. 

ft is the bufinefs of the wakyanavees to take in 
writing an account of the following occurrences: What- 
ever his majefty does himfelf, and the orders that he 
i flues — what reprefentations are made him by the 
ralnifters of Itate— what he eats and drinks— when he 

( 232 ) 

fleeps, and when he rifes — and what time he fits on his 
throne — how long he continues in the harann — when he 
goes to the bargah khafs, or to the bargah aum — in 
what manner he hunts — what game he kills — when he 
marches, and when he halts — what offerings are pre- 
fented — what books are read to him — what alms and 
donations are bellowed-^-what grants are made of fey- 
urghal — what accidental increale or deduiflion may 
happen in the revenue — what contradls are concluded 
—which given in farm— what is bjught— what is com- 
mitted to the charge of any one — what peiihcufli and 
remittances of revenue are received — what firmauns are 
liTucd under the royal feal — the arrival, intr 'du6tion, or 
departure of any perfon of confequence — what petitions 
aie received, and what anfwers given — what period is 
fixed tor the execution ofa^iy particular order — who is 
absent from his guard — what battles are fought, and 
with what fuccefs — when peace is concluded, and 
U| on what terms— the death of atiy perfon of rank— 
what battles of animals have been exhibited, and who 
won the b ;^ts — what cattie die — what rewards are be- 
lt Aved, orpuniihmeiits inflicted — how long his majef- 
ty fa I in public — what m.arriages and births happen— 
wh. n his majelty ] lays at any game — of public calami- 
ties — and what harvelb are produced. 

The account of the occurences being read to his 
majefty, and approv d by him, the daroghah put his 
feal upon it, after which it is carried to theperwanchee 
and the meer arz for their refpe(flive feals. The paper 
when thus authenticated is called a yadadit : then a 
perfon who writes a clear ftyle and a fair characfler, takes 

( 233 ) 

theyadaftit and makes an abridgement of it, and having 
put his feal to it, gives it in exchange for the yadaflit. 
To this abridgement are added the feals of the wakya- 
navees, the meer arz, and the daroghah of this depart- 
ment. This abridgement is called the taleekeh, and the 
writer thereof the taleekehnavees. Laftly, it is au- 
thenticated by the feal of the perwancbee. 


PTaUe, Guardian. " 

WaJee Beyeed, A guardian of a more diflant degree^ 
than a father, brother, or uncle. 

^^'^ ij: 

XValee Jenayut. The next of kin, or other perfon 
entitled to exa6t retaliation for offences againft the 


Jf'ahe Uddum. The next of kin, or guardian, wli© 
is entitled to be the avenger of blood. 

Waris, Heir. 

Wafaya, Wills ; the plural of If^ufeeut, , 

IVaJfee, The executor oi a wilh *^ 


( 234 ) 

XVe^ufilaut, The whole amount collefled under erery 


IVauJtl Bauly, Colle(5lions and balances^ 

Waufil. Amount of money 3 receipts. 

Widda, in the language of the law, fignifies a pcr- 
fon empowering another to keep his property. The 
propiiet)r of the thi'ig h i\!\\Qdi Moddee, or depofttov, 
the perfon lo empowered the Meda, or trujlee, and 
the property fo left with another, for the puvpofe of 
keeping it^ is filled^ Widdceyui j becaufe Widda, lite- 
rally, means to have, and the thing in queftion is left 
with the Meda, or trujlee, 


WiVa, literally means afiiftanceandfriendfliip. In 
the language of the law, it fignifies that mutual 
affiflance, which is a caufe of inheritance. There is no 
lingle word in our language, ful^y expreflive of this 
term. The lliorteft definition of it is, the relation be^ 
iiveen the majler (cr patron) and his freedom', but even 
this does not exprefs the whole meaning. 

Wu%f, in its prin^itive fenfe, means detenticn. In 
the language of the law^ it fignifies the appropriation 

( 235 ) 

of any particular thing to a pious or charitable Rie, 


WooJfiiUt, That may be realized, or colle(5led. 
YJD DASHT. A memorandum. 


Yamee?i. A vow. In in its primitive fenfe it means 
firengtb or power j at the right band: in the language 
of the law, it fignifie§, an obligation by means of which 
the refolution of the vows is ftrcngthened in the per- 
formance, or the avoidance of any thing, and the man 
who fwcars or vows, is termed the halijff^, and the thing 
fworn to or avowed, the Yavuen GhamooSy (literally, 
afaljt oath, or perjury), lignifies an oath taken, or con- 
cerning as thing already paft, in which is conveyed an 
intentional faliehold, on the part of the fwearer. 

Yameen Moanahd, (Uttrally, a contra(flcd oath or 
lrow), fignifies, an oath, concerning a matter which is 
to come. Thus a man fwears that he will do fueh a 
thing, or he will not do fuch a thing. 

Yameen Lighoo, (literally, a nugatory oath,) is an 
oath taken concerning an incident, or trania(5lion al- 
ready paft, whci^ the fwearer believes, that the matter 

( 236 ) 

to which he thus bears leftimony accords with wliat 
he fwears, and it fhould happen to be aftually other- 

Yefawiil, A (late melTcnger : a fervant of parade, 
carrying a filver, or golden ftaff. 

Yetejab. An officer, for regulating weights. 

«• ♦ » 

Yetmaumhunily . An account of the pergunnahs and 
other fubdiviiions of a province : with the names of 
the zemindars, and the nature of feparated land, 
where annexed, and where alienated. 

Yug. An age. The Hindoos reckon the duration 
of the world by fouryugs or diflind agesj viz. J The 
Suttee Yug, or age of purity, is faid to have lafted 
3,200,000 years 5 and they hold that the life of man 
was in that age extended to 100,000 years, and tha^ 
his flature was 21 cubits. 

2. The Tirtah Yug (or age in which one-third of 
mankind were reprobate) they fuppofe to have con- 
fifted of 2,400,000 years, and that men then lived to 
the age of 10,000 years. 

3. The Dwapaar Yug (in which half of the human 
race became depraved) endured 1,600,000 years, and 
men's lives were reduced to 1000 years. 

4. The Collee Yug (in which all mankind are cor- 
rupted, or rather lellened, for that is the true meaning 

( 237 y 

of Collee) is the prefcnt aera, which they fnppofe or«t 
dained to fubfill for 400,000 years, of which near500O 
are already paft, and man's life in this period is limited 
to 100 years. 

Computation is loft, and conjecfiure overwhelmed 
in the attempt to adjuft fuch aftonifliing fpaces of time 
to our own confined notions of the world's epoch : to 
fuch antiquity the Mofaic creation is but as yefterday > 
and to fuch ages the life of Methufelah is no more than 
a fpan ! — Abfurd as this Geatoo docl^rine may feem, 
mere human reaf n, upon confideration of the prefent 
c.>ntracl:ed meafure of mortality, can no more reconcile 
to itfelf the idea of patriarchal than of braminical lon- 
gevity} and when the line of im, licit faith is once ex- 
tended, we can never afcertain the precife limits beyond 
which it muft not pafs. One circumftance muft not be 
omitted, that the ages allotted to mankindin the feveral 
Yugsby the Bramins tally very exacfbly with thofe men* 
ti :)ned by Mofes, as far as the chronology of the latter 
reaches : for the laft part of the Dwapaar Yug, in 
which men are faid to have attained to one thaufand 
years of life, correfponds with the Mofaic aera of the 
aiitediluvians ; and in the commencement of the 
Collee Yug, which com* s very near to the period of 
the deluge, the porti n of human exiftence was con- 
tracfted to one hundred years, and is feldom fuppofed 
even to go far. 

We are not much advanced in our inquiries, by al- 
lowing with fome excellent authors, that moft of the 
Gentoo Shatters (or fcriptures) were compofed about 
the beginning of the CoUee Yug j for then wc at 

( 23S ) 

once come to the immediate acra of the flood, which 
calamity is never once mentioned in thofeShaftcrs, and 
which yet we mull think infinitely too remarkable to 
have bee:i even but ilightly fpoken ofj much lefs to 
have been totally omitted, had it even been known in 
that part of the world. The Bramins indeed remove 
this obje(5lion by two affertions j one, that all their 
fcriptures were written before the time by us alktted 
to Noah J the other, that the deluge really'never took 
place in Hindoftaun. 

But to wave ihefe vague and indefinite difquilitions, 
as Mr. Halhed obferves, it will not here be fuperflu jus 
to quote a pafTage or two from f; -me of the moft clafli- 
cal and authentic Shafters, w'.ich exprefsly determine 
and fix the dates oi their refp.6tive airasto the earaeft 

The firft fpeclmen here inferted is from the book of 
Munnoo, which the reader may obferv^e ftands foremoft 
in the lift of thofe which furnifhed the code of Gantoo 
Laws, or Oidina:ions of the Pundits, publifhed by Mr. 
Halhed ; and though the fecond quotation is not fo au' 
thoritative, as being the produiflion of a later author, 
(whofe name we do not recollect), in teftimony of the 
date of another, yet Jage Bulk is mentioned among 
the firft leglilators, and his books are valued for their 
antiquity as well as f©r their excellence. 

" When ten thoufand and ten years of the Suttee 
Yug were paft, on the night of the full moon, in the 
month Bhadun, I Munnoo, at the command of Brihma, 
finilhed this Shatter, that fpeaks of men's duty, of ju- 
ftice, and of religion, ever inftrudive. This treatife, 
called Munnoo Smiftee, will enlighten the world like 
a torch," 

( 239 ) 

" In the Tirtah Yug, the au'Tior Jage-Bulk, when 
niiiety-five years werepalt, in the month of Sawun, on 
the moon's increafe, on the Wednefday, (or literally 
on tlie day of Mercnry *), finiflied the treatife, called 
Jage-Balk, which fets forth the offices of religion, and 
alf3 informs men of the duties of the raagiftrate." 

What periods fliall we poflibly aflign to thefe wri- 
ters, if we difallow the authorities here quoted ? If 
they arefalfe^ there mull have been a time when the 
irhpolition would have been too palpable to have paf^ 
fed upon mankind, and when the concurrent teftimony 
of the whole world would have rifen up in judgement 
againft it j for if we grant Munnoo's works to have 
been publiihed during his own lifetime, it is impofli- 
ble that he Ihould have ventured to utter io nionflrous 
a forgery ; and if they were concealed till after his 
death, could the memory of his late exiftence be lo 
fhortly obliterated through the whole country ? — But 
fuppofmg f) much of the book as relates to the date 
to have been foifted in by another, and afterwards pro- 
duced as a part of the original text, which till that time 


* li is very remarlalle, that the days of tie iveek are 
flamed hi the Shanjcrit language from the fame planets to 
*ujbicb tbey were ajjigned by the Greeks and Roma?is : 

Some War^ Lums Dies. Somet tb^ Moon. 

Mungel Jfar, Martis Dies. Mu?igel, Mars, 

Boodbe li^ar, Mtrcurii Dies. Boodbe, Mercury. 

Breebefpei ffar, Jovis Dies. Breebe/pet, Jupiter. 

Shookre H- ar. Veneris Dies. Sbookre, Venus. 

Sbenifcher War, Saturni Diet, Sberiijcbcr, Saturn, 

( 240 ) 

liad lain undlfcovercd^ nobody furely would have be- 
lieved bitn in oppolition to the univerfal faith ! for fo 
miraculous a fiction could never gain credit but upon 
the fupport of fome principle of religious opinion, and 
every religion has eftablilhed a chronology of its own : 
befides, can it be poflible, that none of Munnoo's 
contemporaries, none of the fucceeding writers fhould 
have recorded fo ftriking a circumftance ? for if the 
whole Indian world had till that time believed with us 
in a chronology nearly aniwering to that of Mofes fo 
aftoniiliing a change in their fentiments upon the in- 
trodu(5\ion of the doftrine of the Yugs would have fur- 
niflied ample matter for a thoufand volumes : but, on 
the contrary, all the pai'ts of every Shnfter (how^ever 
different from each other on religious fubjed:s), are 
yet uniform and confiftent throughout upon this j the 
fame mode of computing their annals has always ob- 
tained, and the fame belief of the remotenefs or anti- 
quity that now prevails may be proved to have been 
iiniverfally acknowledged, even at the time in which 
fome pretend to fix the fiift appearance of letters in 

Rajah Prichutt, who, though ranked as a modern on 
the records of India, is yet known to have lived in the 
carlleft ages of the Collee Yug, was no lefs anxious 
than modern philofophers are to pierce through the ob- 
fcurity of time, and to trace the progrefs of the world 
from its infancy ; at his inftigation a work was com- 
pofed by Shukeh Diew, a learned Bramin, (fon of 
Beafs, the famous author oftheMahabharat), contain- 
ing the hiftory of India thi ^ugh the three preceding 

{ 241 ) 

Yugs, with the fucceflion of the feveral Rajahs, and 
the duration of their reigns. This curious hiftory, 
called Shice Bliagbut, ftill lubfifts, divided into twelve 
afcunds or books, (literally branches), and three thou- 
fand and twenty chapters. What Ihiill we Cay to a work 
cornpofed four thoufand y^ars ago, and from thence 
tracing mankind upwards through feveral millions of 
years ? Muft we an-fwer, that the earth was at that 
time an uninhabited marlh, ftill flowly emerging frora 
an univerlal inundation ? 

Great, furely, and inexplicable muft be the doubts 
of mere human realbn U[ on fuch a dilemma when un- 
aflilled and uninformed by divine re-velation j but while 
we admit the former in our argument, we profefs a 
nioftunlliaken reliance upon the latter, before which 
overy fufpicion rauH fublide, and fcepticilin beabforb- 
od in conviction : yet from the premifes already efta- 
biilhcd, this concluiion at leaft may fairly be deduced, 
that the world does not now contain ann&lsofmore 
indifputable antiquity than thole delivered down by 
the ancient Bramins. 

Collateial proofs of this antiquity may be drawn 
from every page of the Hindoo code of laws, in its 
wonderful correfp^mdence with many parts of the in- 
ftitutes of Mofes, one of the tivi't of known legillators : 
frv^m whom we cannot polhbly find grounds to fuppofe 
the HindLios received the fnuilleft article of their reli- 
gion or jurifprudence, though it is not utterly impoffi- 
ble, that the do<5trines of Hindoftaun might have been 
^arly tranfplanted into E^ypt, and thus have become 
lamiliar to Mofes. See Halhed's Code of Gentoos Laws, 

( 242 ) 
paeface, p. xxxvi, & feqq. Vide alfo the AdVertifv - 
iiient to the Aliatic Refearches, vol. V. 


TjAKAT in its primitive fciife, means ptirifijation, 
whence it is alfo ufed to exprefs contribution of a portion 
of property, afTigned to the ufe oi' the poor as a fanClifi- 
cation of the remainder to the proprietor. It is by 
*orne commentators termed the indifpenfible alms. 
♦ ( * 

Zamlnee. Bail. Bail for the perfon is termed Ha- 
%eer Zamince, Bail for property is termed Mai Zamtnce, 

Zat. Perfon, or life j itfignifies the body connected 
with the foul, in oppofition to Eudn, which means 
limply the maUrial body. 

Zehanhindy. A depolition. 

Zeerhar. Overburdened with expence, or borne 
dow n with oppreflion. 

Zehar is derived from Z/br, the back. In the langua£( 
of the law it figniiies, a man comparing his wife to an] 
of his female relations, whether by blood, by fofter.ige 
or marriage, as renders marriage with them invariabb 
imlawful. If a man fays to hii wife, " you are to m 

( 243 ) 

like the back of ray mother," ilie (the wife) becomes 
prohibited to him, and his carnal comie(^Hon with 
her, is unlawful, as well as any other conjugal iami- 
liaiity, until he fliall have performed an expiatioR. 


Zekat. SeeZakat 

Zftnar. If any man has a claim upon another, for 
a debt, and the other difpute the ianle, and fome years 
thus pafs away, and the claimant be deftitute of proof, 
and the debtor afterwards makes a declaration, or 
acknowledgement publicly, infomuch, that there are 
witnelfes of the fame, there is no obligation upon the 
claimant, to render any {Zekai UTpon the property which 
in the fabje(5l of a claim) for fo manyysars as have paffed. 
This unccitain fjrt of property is termed, in the language 
of the law, Zonar ; and trove property and fugitive llaves- 
and ujutpcil property, refpe6ling which there is no proof* 
and ])roperty, funk in the fea, or buried in the defart, 
and its place forgotten and tyrannically feized by the 
fultaun, are all of the defcription of Zemar. 

Zemindar. A perfon who holds a traftof land im- 
mediately of government, OH ondilion of paying the 
rent of it. He is lirft in rank among the landholders; 
if a zemindar be unable to pay up the amount of his 
engagements with government, at the end of the year 
fuch a part of his zemindary fliall be fold, as will dif- 

( 211 ) 

charge the balance, and the lannud fr.>m the khalfth) 
granted to the pnrchafer. If he be difpolTeiled of the 
inaimgemenl of his zeniindary, he is, iieverthelefs, ex- 
clufively refponfible for all debts incurred by him during; 
his pofTelhcn, unlefs amongage wasgiven on thezcmin- 
dary or the money borrowed, applied to the payment of 
the revenue ; in both wlach cafes the zem'ndary isan- 
fwerable, in fach manner however^ as only to deprive 
the new zemindar of a part of his profits : but not to 
lubjecfl him to any lofs -, or afiecfb the revenue of govern- 
ment ^ but no m: rtgage is deemed valid, unlefs it be 
regiftered in the public cutchery. Zemindars, by the 
nature of their tenures,, have no longer a right to their 
lands, than wh lift they pay their revenues j in cafe of 
failure, the fa'e of their land con fequt^ntly is a more 
juft and ufefnl recompence to grvernm'.nt, than fub- 
je(Ming them to c >poreaI'puailhment. Should they, 
however, at any time he prevented fulfilling their en- 
gagemeits, by unavoidable accidents, rather than by 
tlicir own mifmanagement, equity will point out what 
indulgence they may be intitled to on that accciuit. 

Zcmhidary. The office of a zemindar, or the lands 
held by iiim. 


Zcnnar. A facred firing worn by the three higher 
cafls of the Hindoos : it is hung round the body from 
the left fhoulder; it is mnde with a particular kind of 

( 245 ) 

perennial cotton^ called nerma, compofed of a certain 
number of threads of a fixed length. That, worn by 
the Khatry call has fewer threads than that worn 
by the Bramins, and the Bice have fewer ftill 3 bu 
the Sooder caftare not permitted to wear it. 

Zer Mottote. An abwab eftablilhed by Shujah Khau» 
at the rate of about one and a half per cent, of the af- 
fel jumma, andconfifting of the four following articles: 
nuzzer poonea, bhay khelaut, poolhteh bundy, and 
ruflbom nizarut. It is of Hindoo etymology, and fig- 
nifies, literally, a certain proportional increafc of a 
capital fum. 


Zillah. A divilion, or quarter of land 5 a diftri(fi:. 

XUIahdar. An officer of the coUedlions^ the collect 

tor of a diftrid, 
Ziman, A recompence. 

X'lmaji TamaUook. Recompence for an affumptlon of 

property, which is not varied by the circumftance of 

wealth or i)Overty j as when a man makes Amwalid, 

apartnerihip flave, in which cafe be is bound to in* 

, X 5 

( 246 ) 

demnify Itis partner for hi& fijare in her, althotigh he 
be poor j contrary tea cafe when a man emancipates 
his iliare in aparlnerfhip ilave, as he is bound to in- 
demnify hispartner for his fliare, on the condition only 
of his being 77Vi&, becaufe the indemnification in that 
cafe ftands as a Ximaa Jenayuty or recomfence for an 
§ffence ; and the fViUa of the flave refts wholly with the: 
Tudbecn partner, 

,L3tM ^\^ 

Zhnan ul Ifsad. Indemnification for damage. 


Tj'mmec. An infidel, fabje6t to the Mohammedais 
gove; nment. 


Z'mmun, The indorfement of a grant ; literally* 
the contents. 

Zi/JWHE. Whoredom* 

ZuJJum, Opprelfion. 

Zurcorcaut, Neceuaries.- 

{ 247 ) 

Add to the article Pooneah. — At the commencement 
of every year, which in Bengal begins in April, ther& 
is an eftabliftied feftival, called the Pooneah, whic^i i* 
the time appointed for adjufting the accounts of the 
revenues with the different landholders, and confirm* 
ing or revoking their leafes, according to their merits or 
otherwife. At this feall the different rajahs and zemin-^ 
dars either appear at Murfhedabad in perfon, or fend 
their vakeels,^ to negociate and fettle the fum to beef 
tabiifhed for the revenues of their refpedt diftricfis for 
the eafuing year, as well as to adjuft the accounts of that 
expired^ On thefe occafions, whether a zemindar has 
been pun<5l:ual or not in the payment of his rents ac- 
cording to the terms agreed on, the mutludd(:es never 
want a complaint againft him, a pretext for railing his 
rents, or a competitor to be oppofed to him, for the 
purpofes of fecuring his confent to the payment of a 
private nuzzeraneh, or pre lent demanded 3 which nuz- 
zeraneh, is general 'y increaied by the zemindar, in pro- 
portion as the officers,, upon whom the generality of 
the company's chiefs mufl depend for their informa- 
tion, agree to decreafe the fum ftipuiatcd for the next 
year's revenue y in this fituatiou, he who agrees to the 
iargeft fum of nuzzeraneh is let loofe upon to the 
country for the enfuing year. 

This adjuftment, which in Bengal is emphatically 
called the Bundobuft (the tying and binding) naturally 
affords a fine field for the exeroife of the fertile genius 
of tliis race of Aliatics, inferior to none in intrigues. 

( 242 > 
The zemindars, who npon this occalion generally are 
in want of large fums of ready cafhj as well as of fe- 
cnrity to be given for the payment of their rents ac- 
cording to agreement, have been ufually neceflitated 
to call in the Shroffs, or bankers and money-changers, 
to their afliftance. Vid, Conliderations on India 
Affairs, vol. I. p. 156, 

( m ) 


No I, 

Arizdajhts, or Forms of Addrefs. 


THE fiave Illahyar having kifTed the ground offub- 
million and fnbferviency with the lip of refpe(5l, 
in nddro'.s to the fervants of vour celeftial world-pro- 
te(5ling court, fendcth heii'.th to the Ribleh of the 
world, and mankind. The illuftrious Firnnaun that was 
ilfued in the name of your fervant on the fubjecft of 
difpatching treafure, and the materials for fome houfe- 
hold articles, having proceeded with eagernefs. I haf- 
tt'n,id to meet it j and became elevated and d'ftin- 
gailbcd by the honour of the content* of your aufpi- 
cious command. Having inftantly prepared car- 
riages, and on the fifth of Fe;wadi, having delivered 
to the charge of the agents of the Tohvveeldar, the 
fum of twenty-one lacks of rupees of ireafnre and the 
h-mfehold artic'es that were wanted, with a diftin6t and 
feparate accomnt, I have difpatched them along with 
Khajeli Nadir Khaun ; that being watchful en the road 
with guards and fentries he may carry them to court. 
Hail kibleh of your fervants ! The allowance of the 
faid Khojeh is very fmall. For the fake of his own cre- 
dit, he fupports a greater nuaiber of horfemen than the 
eftablilhment of government ; and he is a fervant faith- 
ful and attached to your majefty. lam hopeful that 
lie will be honoured by your royal favour in proportion 
to his fidelity and fincerity ; for it will be the means 
of elevating thi^ moft humble of your fervants. To 

( 250 ) 

urge more would be impertinence. May the worlJ- 
illuniiKiting-luii of your profperity continue to lluiic 
upon the heads^ of mankind ! 


The leaft of your faithful flaves Mohammed iV^ura^^ 
having performed the duties of humility, refignat'on, 
fubmiaion, and ilavery, reprefents at the petiti(min,g 
place at the foot of your imperia! throne, that having 
fometime ago tranfmitted an account of the infolence, 
treachery, and rebeUion ()f the difafil-aed rajalig of the 
hilJs, it m\ift have reached the ears of your highnefs. At 
this time, on the 7th of Ardibehifht, putting my truft 
in Heaven, I marched againft ihofe rebels with my 
own people. When we had come near lo the hills, I 
thought it advifableto march the troops in the morn- 
ing into the h I s, to feize the wives and c'lildren of the 
rebels. At break of dav the men were ready to mounts 
when Dcofin, the raiah of that hill, which is the head 
of the whole, being aihamed and penitent for his 
tranfgreffion andoffc^nce, and having asked ibrg'venefs 
and put the axe round his neck, cair.e forth and waited 
on me. Seeing that yom r yal favour attends the fiancr 
and the penitent, confidering the happy difi)oi'i^ion of 
thatklbleh of both w. rids, and having faved him from 
death and deprtdat'on, I ha^'e removed him !r m his- 
habilation. On the lO'th of Fe-wadi, hav'ng dif atclicd 
the faid rajah and the prifoners vith a prefent of monev 
and different articles ; and of the rarities of the hills r 
together with a diftindt account, along with my bro- 
ther Mahommed Ko4)]i, to your heavenly palace, he 
will ])refent to your royal fight. And having actu- 
ally annexed tie poflellions of thofe people to the 
royal property, I have delivered them to men of cred't, 
that giving confidence and fecurity to the inhabitants, 
they may improve them. Farther whatever order Ihall 
be iflued I Ihail ad: accordingly. Be the Sun v)f prof- 
perity and empire fhining on the heads of men ! 

THE (lave of the court Afghur having adorned the 
forehead of flavery, hujuility, and contrition, with the 

( 251 ) 

(Uift of ruhiniHion ; at the petitioning place of the 
porters of the heavenly celeltial palace of tlie iluidow 
of God, fendeth health to the kibleh of mankind. 
You dif])atched your Have born in ycAir own houfe, 
whom, out of your royal favour, you appointed to 
the duty of Oujeen. Having pofted and travelled ftage 
after ftage, I arrived at the Fort Oujeen on the 7th of 
the great Shaban. By the will of ttie Almighty God 
having ftruggled heartily, as far as it was in my ability 
and pov/er, in the manner which that true monitor, 
giving his inftru6tions verbally, direrted for the exe- 
cution of feverai atfairs of importance, I will not de- 
viate from your facred conmiands. And whatever haj - 
pens I /hall prefent it daily. It was proper to make 
this addrefs. Be the fun of profperity and greatnefs 
fliining on the heads of men ! 

YOUR willing and faithful fervanX having per- 
formed the duties of refpe(5f, humility, and fubmif- 
lion, re[)refc'nrs at the petitioning place of the fer- 
vants of your heavenly palace the feat of Alexan- 
der, the ihrone of Soliman, ihe pomp of Feridoon, 
the fplendor of Darius, the retinue of Jumflieed, and 
the grandeur of King Khufro, (may heaven eftablidi 
your kingdom for ever !) that upon ihe arrival of your 
illuftriius and propit'ous Firmaun, with the honour of 
a princely drefs, and the prefent of a Babylonian 
hoi fe ma iked like Duldul, with which, out of your 
great kindnefs, your diftinguifhed me, having antici- 
pated and haltended to meet it, and having underftood 
the"fortunate and favourable contcntsof your world-fub- 
3e6ting command 3 having put it on my head, and having 
adorned the forehead of fuppiication with the duft of 
fubmiflion, I inverted myfelf with yoiir elegant drefs ; 
and having put round my neck the reins of the briddle 
of a fine-paced horfe -, having performed the ceremonies 
of dependency, and the proud and elevated head of this 
fmcere well wiflier being raifed above the clouds, 'in 
■what words can-I exprefs the acknowledgement of this 
vaft bounty ■ With regard to the facred orders that 

( 252 ) 

v^'QfQ i(Tued, that the ungrateful Mohammed Koo]i, a 
perfon nourilned and protefted h^ your peculiar favour, 
not being fenfiblc of his good fortune, having turned 
away his head Ironi the kibleh of profperity ; and upon 
an iiifurre6tion of fonie difaffet^ed people having raifed 
difturbances, in the country of Ghuzui, and confirmed 
a rebellion ; a'ltliough a It ong detatchment has been 
lent agai \{\ him, who having immed ately defeated him 
or taken him prifoner, may b ing him to your imperial 
throne, like that of Egypt, yet as his family and children 
ar.d other properly, with hish .rfes and camels are in 
a {'lace in Kabu', having gone thither, and having in- 
ftan::y feizedon hischi drendifpatch them immediately 
under the care of a tiufty perfon, to oui- r yal court. 
And whatever of his fubftance and efte(^ts fli^ll be 
there, having taken an account of them, and confifcated 
them, intbrm me of it. Kibleh of the world, hail » 
Agreeably to your royal order, the inftant that I re. 
ceiv^ed into mation of the c intents of your facred com- 
mand I fet out for Kabul equipped for plundering. The 
children and dependants were in readinefs to depart 
wheuyour fervant arrived. Having feizod the aflenders 
children, and difpatched them to court with the ready 
money that was found in Ins honfe, along with Khojeh 
Ahmed, this devoted's real brother, and fifteen horfemcn, 
I hope they will arrive in faiery. Betides having 
taken an account of his camels and horfes, I ihall dil- 
patch them alter to your court, the afy-lum of the 
world. Being proper, I have renrelenred it. Be the 
wm-d-enhghtening-fun of profperity and riches blaz- 
ing ! 


YOUR fincere well-willier Mohammed Mukeem 
reprefents before the fervants of the benevolent Na- 
bob, the feat of profperity and fplendor, the place of 
-my Kibhb, that upon having the joyful tidings of th( 
princely Nabob's coming here, fo great joy and glad 
«efsarofe, that it cannot be properly defcribed. The 
4efire of the honour of killing your feet exceeds all 
l)Ounds. Wherever your highnefs Hiall command 

( 253 ) 

being eager, and having hallencd to your fervlcc, let 
me be lavoured with intelligence of your refplendent, 
and fortunate niaj"%. > I wait for your cammands. 
Fartlicr what can I reprefent ? May the fh.ndnv of 
your profperity be fpreudover the heads of your well- 

No IT. 

Forms ofPaffports, Orders, Addrejfes, &€" 


TO the Gomauflitehs, Jageerdars,Chokeydars,Guzer- 
—ins.and Zemindars on the road to Lahore. Whereas the 
feoble Seyid Murtizi carries by royal orders fome houle- 
hold articles for government, to the metropolis of La- 
hore;it is required, that, being duly attentive, they con- 
duel him through their territories in fafety ; and mino 
refpeA allow him to be neglecfled. And (which God 
forbid) Ihould an accident happen in any body's terri- 
tories, he ihall be brought to an account for it. Con- 
lider this as politive. Written on a certain day of a 
certain month, of a certain year. 

ROYAL chamberlain's OFFICE. 

TO the Fa(!^ors and Agents of the royal Chamber- 
lain's oHice. Whereas tlie fuperintendency of the whole 
of the chamberlain's department is confirmed and de- 
livered by royal command to the care and trufl; of the 
noble Meer Derveilh, it is required, that confidering 
the faid perfon fuperinter.dant and infpe(^or of that de- 
partment, they deviate not from his counfel and advice; 
which in every refpert Ihall be agreeable to the eftablifli^ 
ment and regulations of govenniient : and let them obey 
iiiui as they ougiu. And it is required of the aforefaid, 
that^ diitinguiihing himfclf by the pradlice of inte- 

( 254 ) 

grity and fidelity, he perform the duties and func- 
tions of that olHce in luch a manner, tliat no- 
tbing belter can be conceived. And let the dues 
of his fuperin tendency be exaf'-'ied agreeably to the 
praftfce of that oflice. A6ting in this bufiuefs accord- 
ing to orders niake no opp„litit>n. 


THE order of the court of Jaw to Illahidad is as fol- 
lows : Let him appear in court to anfwer to the fuit 
of Sheit.h Mohminicd Ali j that the matter may be 
fettled according to the noble law. Coniider this as 


THE order of the court of juftice to Mohammed 
Morad is as follows : Abdulla having come into the 
high court of juftice has fet forth that he has a lawful 
claim upon him: which he denies. On feeing this 
order let him appear to anfwer to the charge of the 
faid perfon, that the affair may be decided according 
to the noble law ! 


THE order to the retailers of the corn-market is as 
follows: Upon the arrival of this order let them 
inftantly repair to the Kutwal's office 3 and make no 


THE order to the Gomaflitehs of the Krory, of 
Khezrabad is this : Having brought along with them 
the conceptions and diiburfement c.f the fotedary of the 
faid pergunnah for the term of harveft, let them ap- 
} ear at the royal fecretary's office, and let them not 


THE order to the vakeel of the eminent and noble 
Bahadur Khaun is this ; The horfes of the royal liable 

r * 

( 255 ) 

are committed to the attention and care of the faid 
khaun , let him bring them to be reviewed. 


.THE order to the olHcers and agents of the royal 
houiehold is this: Whereas the march of the ilandard of 
fplendour, vixflory, and profperity, is now determined, 
whatever neceirary conveyance may be required^ of 
the houfehold furniture, ha\ ing drawn out a lill of them, 
fend it to me fealed 3 that a proviiion of carriages may 
be made accordingly. 


• THE order to Bahadur Khaun wiA the troops under 
his command is this: Being ordered to join the illuftri- 
ous and valiant Mohammed Moraad Foujdiir of the per- 
gunnab of Azmutpoor, it is required, that, having carried 
your troops with ail your ftores to him, and having 
fhared with the laid perfon in the duties and fa- 
tigues of that fervicc, you deviate not from his com- 
mand and counfel j and that you pay him due obe- 
dience. And agreeably to the certificates •" of the Mli- 
tuHuddies of the prefence, draw your pay monthly out 0/ 
the hands of the fotedar of the faid pergunnah. Confi- 
dering this as peremptory 5 make no refiitance, 


THE order to'^the MutulTuddies of the boatmen of the 
ferry is this : "Whereas fmall boats have occalion to 
crofs the water on the bulinefs of government, it 
is required, that they give them no trouble, nor Hop 
them. Let them coniider this as pohtive. 


THE caufe of writing this line is this : They have 
brought to the office of the Kutwal of the village of 
Raujpoor the skin, of a black hoi fe, with the mark of 
the Itables of government (which are under the manage- 
ment of Meer Ali Krory of the pergunnah of Sam), 
upon his thigh, which fell down at the inn of Bazeed 
Khaun, on the 21ft of the month Mohurrum ul Herara, 

( 256 ) 

in the year ligo. Accordingly many credltnble people 
uho v/t^re in that inn have given evidence to this effect. 
Therefore^ thele few words are written as a ftate of the 


WHEREAS the world-fubjeding fun-refulgent man- 
date directed to the ieafl of your flaves arrived, requir- 
ing ihat, whofoever of the feiTants of government in 
that foobah iliould ferve properly, and whofe fidelity 
fliould appear, having ftudied his advancement accord- 
ingly, I ibould reprefent it at your heavenly palace. 
Now, as Khojeh Mohammed Huffein has performed 
every kind of laud'ablefervice, and keeps up more men 
than the eftabliihrnent j and your fervant is a well- 
willier of government, having therefore propofed for 
him an addition of two hundred rupees pay and fifty 
horfe, fo that the whole, including the original num- 
ber and the augmentation, may be feven hundred rupees 
and three hundred horfe, I am hopeful, that if it meet 
with your confint, the royal diwan will caufe it to be 
confirmed agieeably to your facred command. 


I The injured fiave Abulkheir, fon of Abdurreheem, 
the Koraifhian, petition, and call for evidence on this 
account, that Khojeh Reeas without any lawful quiho- 
rity, has by force and violence taken poflelhon of a 
garden belonging to me in the village of Seyidpoor j 
and has put my brother Sheikh Ahmed to death : and 
and when he formed a defign of murdering me, I fled 
and efcaped with my life. Whoever has had any in- 
telligence of this affair let him for the fake of God 
•write his evidence, or caufe it to be written j that he 
may not be deprived of his reward. 


THE certilicate of Mohammed Khaun and his troops is 
this : That from the beginning of the month Mohurruni* 
ul-heram of the year 1 igO, to the expiration of the month 
Saffir of the fame year, the faid khaua, together with hit 

( 257 ) 

followers, have been along with me on the fervlce o^ 
government. Let the royal diwans give the body aft 
aHignmeiit for their wages agreeably to the eftablilh- 
ment of government. 


I.ET the lervants of the heavenly palace prefent the 
Arizdiilht of the ihwe Halhini to his moft facred niajeil/. 


LET them who Hand at the foot of the imperial and 
alchyniical throne, prefent the Arizdalht of the Have 


Kilhendofs, having appeared in the court of judica- 
ture, delivered a petition, fetting forth, that he wants 
payment of his debt, and that you do not difcharge it : 
it is required, that, immediately on perufalof this fum- 
mons, you do repair to the court oi' judicature, and 
anfw'.'r to tlie demand, that jullice may be adminiftered* 

Written the loth of Rebby ul Awul, A. H. 1209. 


Abdulrahman, havmg appeared at the fupreme tri- 
bunal, has fat forth liis complaint of the violence com- 
mitted by you on the plaintifiTs (on ; it is required that 
immediately on comprehending the contents of this 
lummons, yourlelf do repair to the court of judicature, 
and give anlwer, in order that judgement may be pafled 
conformably to the refplendent law. 

Written the 19th of Jemady ul Awul. A. H. 1209. 

[The original Perfian of the above forms may be found' 
in the Indiai Herkern, and the two laft in the Per* 
liau Moonlhee.] 

( 258 ) 

Copy of the Proceedings of the fele^ Com* 
mlttee, at Fort TVilUam in Bengal, O^L 
31, 1/60, relative to Gomaufhtelis, 
Dnjluhy andChohys. See above pp, ZO, 
57, 8(J, 104. 

At a Sele6b Committee, prefent. 
The Right Honourable Lord Clive, Prefident, 
Brigadier General Carnac^ and 
Harry Verelft, Elq. 

HAVING in our proceedings of the lC)th day of Fe- 
bruary lafl refolved that nogomauflitehs employed by 
the company's fervants, or by other Europeans trading 
under the licences from the company, llioald in future 
interfere, directly, or indiredly, with affairs relative to 
the government ; and aifo, that fuch gomauflitehs Ihould, 
in ail diiputes with the country people, app'y for re- 
dr^fs and jultice to the chief of the nearefl I'ubordinate,. 
to the niinifters, to the relident at the durbar, or to 
thecour;cil, or fele6t committee. 

And it being now the intention of this committee 
to fulfill, in the moll effedual manner, the Ho- 
nourable Company's inliru(51ions refce6ting the in- 
land trade, and to remave all caufe of difturbance and 
oppreffion committed in the interior country, ua~ 
der fanftion of the Englilh name. 

Refolved, That in future all gomaufhtehs, whether 
employed on account the Company or of individuals^, 
fliall ftrictly refrain from interfering in any matters 
that may tend to interrupt the collecltionsj or dillurb 
the bufinefs of the gv^vernment. 

That they fhall fcru[)ulouily avoid taking cognizance 
of any dlfputes or ditferences they may have with the 
country people, or alTuming to themfelves any de- 
gree of judicial authority. 

That in all fuch points of difference and difpute, 
whether with refped: to trade orotherwife, they Ihall 
?ippeal, fi\i\} to the neareft ofiicer of the government ^ 

»ncl ill cife of (lolny, or refufal of redrcfs from hina, 
they il)all then lay their complaint before Mohammed. 
llezH Khaiin, or the refident at the durbar, or the 
council, or lelect C( mniittee. 

That whoever ihall be found deviating from the evi- 
dent meaning and intent of this refolution {a copy of 
vliich will be f»nt to the refident at the durbar, and 
to Mohammed Reza Khaun) iliall immediately forfeit 
their employments and the Company 'sprotecft ion j 'and 
likcwifebe fubje6t to fuch further punilhraent as the 
council or committee may think proper to infli6fc. 

That, to prevent any interruptioa to trader Moham«^ 
med Reza Khaun be defired to ilfue orders to all 
officers of the government, to yield every pollibhe en- 
couragement to licenced trade, and to the bufinefs of 
thofe gomauihtehs who Ihali duly confine themfelves 
to the above reftri(5lions. 

Alfo, that Mohammed Reza Khaun be .defired to- 
dire(^ the officers of the government to call upon all 
gomaullitehs to regifter their perwanahs, orjicencesof 
trade, and dufluks, at the head cutchery of the aurung 
or diflri(5f where they refide : and likewife to order the 
public oilicers of each aurujig, or diflri6t, to fend hini. 
a regular monthly return oi all perwanahs and duftuks 
lb regiftered. 

Notice having already been given, purfuant to our re- 
folution of the 19th of February laft, that all. gomanlh- 
tehs fhould apply to the prefidentfor perwanahs, and 
the allowance of time for that purpofe being now 
deemed fully fulTicient 3 

Agreed, that Mohammed Reza Khaun be defired to- 
ilTue orders to the officers of the government, to call 
upon the gomauihtehs in tlie different parts of the pro- 
vinces, immediately to regifter thoir perwanahs, and 
to fend all perfons, who cannot produce a proper au- 
thority for thier trade and reiidence, without delay 
to Calcutta. 

And farther,, to prevent all frauds arifing froi» 
counterfeit and forged dufluks : 

Agreed, the cultora-inatter be directed to make ti 
monthly retufn to the refident at the durbar of all 

( 26o 

duftuks and perwanahs entered in his office, the lame 
to be communicated to the minilters J whereby they- 
niay be able to dete6t all impofition and fraud, by 
Comparing the monthly returns from the cuftom-houfe 
vith thofe made from the aurungs, kc. 

Mohammed Reza Khaun delivers into the Commit- 
miuee, a lift of the chokeys for collfc6ting the duties 
on trade, and alfo of the military guards which he 
thinks neceflary at each. 

The fame being approved. 

Ordered, it to be entered after the proceedings j And 

Agreed, that Mohammed Reza Khaun be delired 
to place the guards with all convenient expedition, and 
to get the necelfary draughts made for that purpofe 
i(;om the pergunnai) battalions. 

(Signed) CLIVE. 


No III. 
Copies of Flrmaims, 


WHEREAS the world-illuminating fun ; the impe- 
rial mandate of the iliadow of God, proclaimtth from 
the horizon of favour and mercy, that we have given the 
office of lord of the foobahihip of Reheemabad,, from 
the beginning of the term of harveit, to the pillar of 
our vi(5\orious ftate ; the fupport of our profperous 
government J the firft oi' noblemen in high rank 3 the 
UmditulraoolikMubazuruddeen KooliKhaun Bahadur! 
and having committed the reins of abfolving and 
binding, of contradting and difcharging, in that fcobah, 
to the handi^of his difcretion, it is rcquiiite, that^ ac* 

( 26i ; 

cording as it is conceived and expecHied by onr iHnifri- 
ous foul, irom the proprietv of his condu6l, ikill, for- 
titude, and valour, he deviate not irom that in a lingle 
jot of the molt minute article j and that he be duly 
attentive to the atl^irs of the people, and inhabitants 
of that province J fo that injury and opprellion may 
not fall from the ftrong upon the weak j and controul 
the frauds of difafFe(5lion in fuch a manner, that having 
made the bufmefs of cultivation his ftudy, he may a»- 
fwer to the managers of the royal revenue, and the 
agents of the jageerdars, lor the lawful rent j accord- 
ing to eftablilhed agreement and equity : and correcfl 
and chaftife every one who ftiail make any demur ia 
];ay:hg the jult rentj in fuch a Uianuer that others 
may take warning. And whatever occurrences may 
happen, let him be conftantly reprefenting them. 
Moreover fome of the zemindars at the foot of the hills, 
who every year gave an eftabiifhed prefent oi'fome ele- 
tariels, having taken it from them, fend it to our moil 
auguft court. With regard to the condud of the Mutif- 
fuddles of'ttate affairs, Kroiies, Jageerdars, Chcwdries, 
Kanoangoes, Mukkuddums, andpeafants, haviag con- 
lidered the faid Umditulmoolik, lord of the foobah, 
and abfoiute fuperior, let them not" deviate from hi& 
opinion and prudent advice. And k:t them fliew him 
fubmiliion, as it behoves them. And let them confider 
ills appioUai-ion and difapprobation, in their affairs* 
of confequence. And whoever of the j^ageerdars (liall 
deviate from his refpec^able opinion and advice, let 
the faid Umdituimoolik, having difmilk-d hun, rcpre- 
fent it to our auguft c urt ; that another from the ^re- 
fence may be a^/pointcd in his room, t^<t\ in this 
bufinefs according to orders. ^Make no rcfiltance. 


WHEREAS ii has become incumbent on the duty 
of my auguft inclination, that having br. ught the peo- 
ple of God from the obfcurity of darkuefs, and from 
the narrow path of perdition, I ihould dired them in 
the right way ,. and this wilh'd-for event may take 
place whenever 1 fliall appoint a Kauzee> faithful, abi% 

( 262 ) 

and learned in the law, in every town and city j and 
that having brought the people back from rebellion, 
injuft'ce, and ermr, he may open to them the gates of 
probity and reftitude: feeing that thefe amiable ac- 
compli Ihments exifl in the law-clothed, excellence- 
difiinguilhed perfon df Riafudeen Mohammed, we 
have therefore conferred on him the refpe^lable cilice 
of Kauzeeof the cityof Cabul, thathavi ig exerted him- 
felf properly in this em^jljyment, he may not pro- 
ceed with partiality in the inveftigation of law fuits ; 
and may fettle every dlfpute and tranfaftion, that may 
come before him, according to the noble law j and let 
him not deviate a jot in the moft minute, article from 
what is required of fidelity ; and regulate the bulinefs 
of the law in fucli a manner, that on the day of judge- 
ment, he may be acquited according to the.ternss of 
refponfibility. As to the condu(5l of the magilirates 
and olhcers ; and the body of the peop'e, both private 
and public, ot the faid city, having conlidered the faid 
learned lawyer ablolute judge, let them pay him the 
tribute of refpec!^ that they ought : and in one and all 
of the fuits in law and common tranfa(^i<'ns, refer to 
his decilion and approljation. And wh:)mfoever he 
Ihall detach from.btfore him on the bufinefs of juflice, 
let them acknowledge him his deputy and vicegerent ; 
and obey his ordeis and prohibition. And having 
liftened with the ear of underftanding to his fentence, 
which fhall be conformable to the nohlf- 1«n^, let tiiem 
execute our imperial commands, and make no reliltance 
or de\iauon. 


WHEREAS an account of theaaivity, valour, and 
ability of the fortunate M.)hammed Bakir, has been 
reprefented tomr highness, wehav.^ therefore, out of 
our royal favor, a pointed him to the office of Kutwal 
to the city of Dowlutabad. It is required, that the faid 
perfon, having made the pra^liceof fidelity and re<5li- 
tude his diftinguilhing charader j having obfeived the 
duties and forms of thatollice; and being alert with 
guards and fentries, preferve the inhabitants of that 

•( 203 ) 

city in the bed ofrafcty and. fecurity; fo- tliat bf Ing' 
ealy in their circumftances, they may be employed in 
prayers tor ou • eternal profpeiity : aiul that he exert 
his endeav;jur that the veftige of a thief, enourager 
ofihieves, pilferer, or pickpocket, may not remain in 
that place. Having ca ried on a p •ofecution of old 
bawds and procureffes, who de'uding people's wives 
with fables and encbanin)ents, lead thtm aftray, let him 
rcllrain them fr-.m tills practice j that there may not 
))e a Haw in the reputation of great men. And let him 
make a proper exertion in reducing the price of grain 
and other ])rovifions, as far as it is pofli!)le, that people 
may not fuffer in their circumftances from the dearth 
of grain. And whatever incident fliall happen there, 
let them report the daily occurrences to our auguft 
court, according to reality and truth. And with re- 
gard to the condu6l of the Mutifuddies of public affairs, 
and the principal officers and other inhabitants, and 
the body of the people, both public and private, of the 
faid city, having acknowledged the perfon above men- 
tioned abfolute Kutwal, in every dilpnteand traFifac- 
tion that fhall happen in that city, let' them make a 
reference to him J and deviate not from the fentence 
and opinion of the forefaid perfon j which in every re- 
fpedt mull be conformable to the royal prad"! ice and 
imperial rule. So dire6bing their conducft by this royal 
mandate, let them make no refiftance. 


AT this time the Mandate of high dignity hath ob- 
tained the honour of manifeftation, viz. tiiat in con- 
fequence of the removal (jf the flower of great noble- 
men Mirza Feridoon, I have conformed, by way of 
Jageer from the beginning of the feafon of autumn, 
J.he fum of twenty-one lacks of dams, out of the Per- 
gunneh of Khizrabad, as it is fpecified on the back of 
the Firmaun, to the approved in fervice, the attendant 
of our imperial prefence. Nadir Khaun. It is required 
that,the Chowdries, Kanoongoes,Mukkuddims,andpea- 
fantry ot the faid perguflnah having acknowledged the 
perfon above named Jageerdar of that place^ aod hav- 

( 254 ) 

itig givt-n an account of the jnft rent, and of tlie dutici 
of the Diwany according to the eftabliihed agreement, 
to the agents of the faidKhaun, thall in no relpect oc- 
caiion a!iy diminution or dedu^lion j and whatever the 
former Jageerdar Ihall have collected from the faid 
crop, having taken it back, let them give it to him : 
conlidering this as peremjUory, and having aCled accor- 
ding to royal command, let them deliver it up. 


AS it is a long time that no account of the collef^Ion 
^nd difburfements of the Subali of Multan has arrived 
before our fublimeand elevated prefence ; it is certain 
that the caufe of that can be nothing but the negli- 
gence, incapacity, and infidelity of the Diwan at that 
place. At this time 1 have appointed the cream of 
his equals and contemporaries, the faithful and able 
Khojeh Abduflittar, to the Diwany of that foobah, from 
the commencement of the feafon of fpring ; that hav- 
ing applied himfelf properly to the duties and forms 
of that employment, and that being careful of the rent 
and taxe-s of the royal lands and of the Jageers, he may- 
fettle the collc6tions of that foobah according toefta- 
blifhment and equity j and deliver whatever may he 
the fhare of government into the royal treafury. And 
let him deliver the ihare of the Jageerdars to their 
agents, and let him tranfmit to our court the afylum of 
the univerfe a regifter of the receipts and difburle- 
. ments of that foobah, with an account of the former 
Diwans ; and let him proceed with the peafanti in 
fuch a manner, that being ealy in circurnflances and 
free at heart, they may be employed with their im- 
provements and buildings, and be happy ; and let liim 
excite in the farmers a defire of cultivating good articles, 
that the revenues of the pergunnahs may increafe 
yearly. With regard to the conduct of the Murifud- 
dies, Krorecs, Jageerdars, and Kanoongoes of that foo- 
bah, having confidered the perfon aforefaid abfolute 
Diwan, whatever belongs to the duty of theoiliceof 
Diwan, having referred to him, let them keep nothing 
fecret or concealed from him^ and let them devjatc 

( 503 ) 

not from his opinion and advice, which In every refpcc^ 
fliall be confonnable to propriety and re6litude : and, 
according as it is required, let them pay him obedience. 
Let them a<!:l: in this agreeably to orders, and make no 

Firmaun granted in 1/17, hy the Emperor 
Furrukhfeery to the EngJi/li Eajl India 
Company, for cartyi7ig on the Trade iii 
Bengaly Bahar, and Orijpx, 

■^^^ ^^ji^ , jY i ^^, cji} J^'- 


( 2<56' ) 

•/^ ^ i \J^^ 

;>-. ;) jj 

)^r -'/ J^'^ cA^.- O'-r- J'--^ 

^ M.*-;;^ 

^'.^.^:x wJ'** C^' J/"^ 

< 267 ) 

"f^- J) )i) ^^' fe :>' J'r' ;'• 

_j >/. ^y-^' ^ w^' -^^^ (<-y/ 

^ Aj iS^' (Jh.Y^Vj', ic^ />; '/^ • 

( 2()8 ) 

^U) >: — ^ ,._^ . >V.t'' ;l.:a='l ^\i ^. 

( 2® ) 

jj^\^j\ /..j^/ ■^z* "^'^ ^^y* 

-^' \}='^/-:/r' J^ ^r^ C^.'/ /> 
;yv>, p^' ^y*^ j-A' A -^jj/;?^ 

/" >;/ J>j*^ ^C ^LS^/^ 

( -'v-O 

II) J f 

^^ ;i / c^i 3ii;;p ^. Z^" 

^t- jA^ X^ J^^ ^^,1:^ 



♦ ♦ 


{ 271 ) 

.X-^ ;;./•) JA*X- ^, .^;.; y, ^ 

^•^..^:? ;y^>. '-i::^' ^J; ^/^Z 
.-^;i/^ «^lr* )f^>, ; ^ yL^ *-^;V' 

^ , j^^i ^^ , ;/^ ^ /^ 

( 272 ) 


&c. &c. JU^ ^ 

• KbuJd Mokaan, fpeakhig of the late Emper'r ; iV ?;i^fl7zx 
*' ivboje place is hi Parad'ife.'" It is the cvjiom, out of re- 
fpeB, to leave a blank 171 the body of the grant, and to *ivrite 
tbefe ivords at the top of tbe paper. 

f JVala, the exalted ; injerted alfo on tbe top of tbe pa- 
per for tbe reafon btfore afjigned. 


THE governors, agents, perfbns engaged in public 
affairs, jageerdars, Ibwjdars, cr.lieftors ot" the revenues 
and of the to. Is, and the zemindars, prefent and fu- 
ture, who in the fubah of Bengal, Bahar, and Oriffa, 
the port of Hoogly, and other ports of the faid fubah, 
are in hopes ot the im^^erial favour j Know, that at 
this time, attended with c. nqueil and clol'e^ with vic- 
tory,Tir. John Su:man and Cogee Serhaud, gomaufhtchs 
for the Eiiglifli Crmpany, have canfed to be repreftnt- 
ed to the c.-urt, which difpenfes juftice and cherifiies 
equity, " That by the order of (the protec^ted by the 
" divine clemency, fupported by heavenly grace, fi)rin- 
*' kled with the mercies of the Creator, the only God ;) 
'* the late emperor (whofe place is in paradife, eter- 
" nally happy 3 may God reward him with his gl irious 
"favour!) as well as by former grants, the cuftoms 
" of the Englifh Company, in the empire prr-tc^led 
" by Heaven (except at the port oiSurat) are forgiven ; 
♦* and as in the port of Hoog'y they pay yearly into the 
" high treafury of the Sircar three thoufaiid rupees^ by 

( 273 > 

" way of tribute. In lieu of duties, thc7 are in hopes, 
" that according to farmer grants, the auguft Firmaun 

" may continue this indtilgence." The order, which 

fubducs the world, and brings the univrrfe to fubj ac- 
tion, therefore now iifues forcibly abroad, that the 
goods and eiFec^s which their gomau(htehs mny bring or 
carry within the ports, borders and quarters of the 
Subabs, by land or by water, ye knowing the duties 
thereof to be exempted, Fet them have their free choice 
of buying and feiling ; receive yearly theftipulatedfurn 
of three th jufand rupees,and belides that, let th m not be 
molefted oh any account. And if in an> place aiy of 
their efle(f>s be ftolen, let the officers endeavour dili- 
gently to recover them, and deliver the thieves to pii- 
iiilhmcnt, and the effects to the owner. And where- 
ever th^ey build a fa(^ory (o.- warehoufe) and buy and 
fell goods and n-erchandize, beafliftant and favourable 
to them in rcafo lab e aftiiirs. And upon whatever 
perfoii ftom among the merchantSj weavers; &c. they 
may have any juft demand, caufe juftice to be done to 
their g maulijtehsagreeably to equity and the account j 
and futfer not that any r erfon injure their gomaufhtehs, 
or und r pretence of ghatbarry, &c. impede their boats, 

hired or their own. They have alfo reprefented to 

the moft h. ly and exalted court, *' That in the fubahs 
'* the dewans demand the originaf patent conhrmed 
** under the fcal of the nazim arid provincial dcwan j 
'* that as it is ditTicult to convey the original patent 
** to eveiy place, they hope that credit may be given 
" to a copy under the feal of the kauzee, and that no 
*' demand may be made of the original jiatent, or any 
** impediments occalioned on the account of the nazim 
*' or the dewan's confirmation; alfo that there is a 
** fa6lory of the Company etlabliflied at Calcutta, 
'* that the talookdary of Calcutta, Sootanutty, and Go- 
*' vindpore in thedlllri(5l of the purgunnah of Ameer- 
" abad, &c. of the fubah of Bengal, which is of the 
'* zemindars of old, yields annually the fum of one 
" thoufand one hundred and ninety-five rupees, and fix 
" annas, and thirty-eight villages, whereof the amount 
" of eight thoufand one hundred and tweuty-oue 

( 274 ) 

^'rupees, and eight annas, is the fettled revenue ac- 
*' cording to the ftipuhition ; they reqneft therelorej 
" that they may be alfo indulged vvitli the talookdary 
'* agreeably to the fiipu'ation, and pay the aniovint 
"thereof, year by year, into the trtafdry." — The or- 
der replete with juftice is therefore iifutjd, tliat credit 
be given to the copy under th-j-^eal of ihe knuzee of 
kauzees, and that they remain with the villages which 
they have bought, according to former ; and 
moreover, agreeably to their petition, we are gracioufly 
pleafed to permit, that they i;U. chafe the talookda y 
Irom the owners, and that the < f the foobah 
may pafsthe fame. They have likewife hu.nbly re])re- 
fented, ''That in the time of (the iupported by the great 
Sa])j)orter, favoured by the Almighty, whofe place, &c. 
" may he be caufed to dwell in t.hc highelt feats of pa- 
'* radife) the late emperor, an allowance (cuflbre) 
" was taken in the treafur-es of the foobahs, on the 
" coins ftruck at China; atan^ and now fince the faid 
'* coins aie ftruck after the manner ofthe port of Surat^ 
*' they (\\\e flaves) fufFer a lofs, and they therefore 
" pray the high order may be ilfued, that agreeably 
" tC the cu!u.m of the port.of Surat, kc. there be no 
" impediment in the ftandard coins ; and that whoever 
" be indebted t the company's fervants, and run away, 
"they may fend him to the chief of the factory j 
" and that they may not be expofed to infuit, under 
" pretence of the foujdary and other pr hii)ited arti- 
f'cles, . n accjunt of which the gomaullitehs-and de- 
*' pendents of the com; any are much diftrefled." 
The uofitive and fublime order is thereibre ilfued, that 
from' the fifth year of the fortunate reign, if the coin 
of China; atan be ftruck like the coin of the profpe- 
rous port of Surat, ye do not moleft them unci :r pre- 
tence of culfoi-e J and whnever be indebted to the 
fervnnts, and run away, ye take him and deliver him 
up thechief of thefadory, and do notmolelt them under 
pretence of their taking the prohibited articles. They 
have likewife reprefented, "That there are cftabliihed 
" fa6f;)ries of the company in Bengal, Bahar, and 
" OriiTa, and as they want to iettle other factories in 

( 275 ) 

^' various places, they are in ho,)es, thatwliercver thef 
" eftablilh a factory, they may be favoured from the 
" fircar with forty ^egas'of ground for their fa<ftories; 
" alfa, that by reafon af tempefts fometimes their 
" fhips are caft on Ihore near the ports, and are wrecked, 
" and the governors of the poriaopj-reiVively feize their 
*' eiie^ls, and in feveral places demand the ihareofone 
*' fourth ; and they j^ray, that in the illand of Bom- 
''bay, where Frlngy (P 'rtugueze) coins are current, 
" the fortunate coins may be ftruck in the manner of 

*' Chinapatan." Theieibre the world-fubduing-or- 

der, which muft neceflarily be obeyed, is .(Tued, that ye 
tranfa(5l their affairs as in other factories, and that ye take 
all neceffary care to preferve the effedlis of the wrecked 
or ftranded Ihipping of thefe able people who have got 
fa(5fories in the imperial ports, who t^anfaft bulinefs 
at the fublime court, and who have obtained our 
munificent firmauns of exemption from duties. And 
in the illand of B nnbay let the fortunate coins be 
cunent after the cuftoin of the empire, and in all 
things conforming to the rcfplt-ndcnt grant, diligently 
avoid difobeying this auguft command, and do not 
dc'iiand a new patent every year 3 in this p-oint be 
ftricl-t!)- punc^-lual. Written on the 27 th of the facred 
month Mohurrum, in the fifth year of the. profperous 

reign (thedth ol" January, l/lT). 

By the command of, &c. ^c. &:c. 

Ohfervatmis'on the Era of the Mohamme- 
dans called the Hejira, extracted from 
the PhiJofophical Tranfa^ions, vol. 
LXXVIII.^. .414. 

IN their computation of time, the Arabs, and other 
Mohammedan nations, reckon by a year which is purely 
lunar. It has no reference to the fjlar revolutions. 

( -27(5 ) 

and is of courle unconne(5led with the yic'iffitude of 
leafons. The purpole of its adoption appears to have 
been chiefly religious, for the regulation of fafts and 
ceremonies, rather than of the civil concerns of the. 
people. Perhaps a confcious ignorance in -matters of 
fcience might have determined the inftitutors to prefer 
a period whole limits were marked and obvious to the 
fenfes, to one whofe luperior accuracy depended upon 
aft rono«iical calculation. 

The era of the Mohammedans, called by them the 
Hejira, or departure, is accounted from the year of the 
flight of Mohammed, their prophet, from Mecca, in 
Arabia Petra^a, to Medina, at that time called Yarreb, 
which was the thirteenth of his pretended miihoii, the 
year of Chrift 622, and of the Julian^period 5335. 
This event, but little memorable in itfelf, and deriving 
no celebrity from the circumftances immediately at- 
tending it, was, eighteen years after, diftinguillied by 
the Khalif Omar, as the crifis of their new religion, 
and ertabliflied as an epoch, to which the dates of all 
the tranfactions of the faithful lliould have reference 
in future*. The date of the Hejira was thenceforth ex- 
prell'ed in all the public ads and letters. 

It muft he underftood, that although the account of 
the years, colle6lively coniidered, was vague, that of 
tlie months was certain, and their fuccellion at all 
times fcrupuloully attended to. Omar did not think 
ii expedient to attempt any innovation as to the time 
of beginning the year, againft which the ideas of the 
})eopIe would Ikivc revolted ; and therefore, although 
the efcape of Mi^hammed from the indignation of his 
fellow-citizens was eftl-cled, according to tl#ir records 
on the tirft day of the third month, or Rahee prior (on 
the twelfth day of which he reached Medina), yet the 
Hejira takes date from a period two months antece- 

* Previous to this, the people had been accuflomed to 
compute from the conunejicemeiit of a particular luar, the day 
of a remarkahle battle, or other occafwnal £vmt vf mpOT'> 
tance to their little communities. 

( 275^ ) 

/.lent to tliii flight, namely, from the firtl day of Mo- 
liurram, being the day on which immemonal cuflom 
had eftabJilhed the celebration of the feftival of the 
new year. 

The Arabian and Syrian Chriftians, and the Mo- 
hammedan aftronomers in general, appear to have 
fixed this day to Thurlday the fifteenth of the Syro» 
Macedonian month Tarn joz, anfwering to our July ; 
but fome among^the latter, and ni'?ft of their hiftorical 
writers, refer it to the next day, Friday the fixteeuth, 
and this latter date has, in modern times, obtained 
almolt univerfal acceptance. A religious preference 
which Friday claims above the reft of the week, fecms 
to have given effet'^ to the arguments in its favour. The 
difterencc of opinion on this fubjecH: has arifen, in the 
firft place, from the uncertainty unavoidably attending 
a date, to be afcertained, at a diftant period of time, 
from the phafe of the m(Xin, which is retarded or ad- 
vanced by fo complicated a variety of citcumftances: 
and the ambiguity appears, in the fecond p^ace, to 
have been promoted by the cuftom of the Arabs be- 
ginnintr their day at fun-fet ; conformably with which 
idea, the time when the mocm became vifible at M cca, 
b.*;ng the evening of Thurfday the fifteenth, according 
to our mode of computation •, was to them the com- 
tnencement of Friday j which Friday (beginning a few 
hours later) we term the fixteenth of July. At that 
period the cycle of the fun was 15 ; the cycle of the 
moon, or golden number, 15 ; the Roman indicftiom 
10 j and the dominical letter C. 

* The new moon happened in July 622, on the 14th day, 
ai 5\ hours, A, M. Greenwich timet or about 8 hours Mecca 
time ; and at fun-fit of the fame day, the moon ivas 5i de^ 
grees before the fun in longitude, and in 40 viuiutcs fouth 
iatitudf, and ihefefore about 4 degrees above the horjzon. 
On the 15 tb, at fun-fet, it was l8o;- bffore thejun in longitude, 
37 rnin, n$rtb latitude, ana about 150i above the borizony con- 
fcquently u'ljible with clear weather. The fun fets at Meeca^ 
onthe l5tbJulj>, at 6 b. 40 fn. and the twilight is ther3 
■ onftderahly Jborter than in the high latitudes, 

( 278 ) 

The year of the Mohammedans confifts oftwolv<; 
lunar months, and no embolilin being em^xloycu to 
adjuft it to the Iblar period (as prac^^tifed by the Chal- 
daeans and Hebrews, who were in other particulars their 
guides, and anciently, it is laid, by the Arabs theai- 
lelves), the commencement of each iucceflive lunar 
year anticipates the comnletion of the fjlar, and re- 
volves thf'jugh all its ieafons, the mjuths ref^^eftively 
prefeiving no c rrefpondence. 

In order to form a juft and accu'-ate idea of the 
length of this year, and of its comi> nent m^'nths, it 
will be neceflary to diftiiguifli two modes of eftim-dt- 
ing their commencement anddurati »n. Th fe, though 
their difference is not progreflTive (ntver am>^unting to 
more than two whole days, and rarely to fo much as 
one), may yet, if mifund ^rftood, occafion, in fonie 
inftances, uncertainty and error: and more efoeciaily 
as the writers on this fubje6t have inadvertently lallen 
into contradictions, from neglecting to explain to 
their readers a diftincfiion of which they muft have 
been themfelvcs fufficiently aware. Thefe modes may 
be denominated the vulgar or practical, and the politi- 
cal or chronological reckoning. 

The vulgar or pra<5tical reckoning is that which efti-* 
mates the commencement of the year, or firll day of 
the month Mohurram, from the apoearance of the new 
moon, on the evening of the firll or fecond day after 
the conjunftion, or from that time at whicti it might 
from its age be vifible, if not obfcured by theciicum- 
llances of the weather, which is fcarcely ever fofoon 
as twenty-four hours, and feldom later than forty-eight 
hours, after the a(^ual change. This appearance is 
announced by peifons placed on the pinnacles of the 
mofques or other elevated fituations, to the people be- 
low, who welcome it with the found of inftruments, 
firing of guns, and other demonftrations ofrefpe(*^ and 
zeal *. The month thus commenced is computed to 

• Thefe falutations are more JoUmn or clamourous at the 
return of feme months than of others, and particularly on the 
appearance which terminates the month vffijli^'gi or Ra^ 


( 279 ) 

\ai\ till tho new moon again becomes vlfiblc ; and fo 
of the remaining months, till fhe has completed her 
twelfth lunation, and, emerging from the fun's rays, 
Hjai^es the pradical commencement of another year. 

In the political or chronological mode of reckoning, 
the return of a new yearj, or the duration of the months 
* which conipofe it, is not regulated either by the ap- 
pearance of the rtioon, or the calculated period of coii- 
jun^^iii^n, but according to a certain divifion of a cycle 
of thirty years, adopted for this purpofe. Particular 
attention is due to the explanation of this mode, both 
as being more artificial and complex, and bccaufe it 
ferves to regulate the dates in matters of hiftorical re- 
cord, and indeed of all writings where pretenfion is 
made to accuracy. Upon this the Turkilh, Moorilh, 
and every fy ftematic Mohammedan calendar are 

The lunar months or mean fynodic revolution, ac- 
cording to the computation of the Arabian aftrono- 
mers, confifts of 29 days, 12 hours, and 792 fcruplcs 
or parts in 1080 J and the year of 354 days, 8 hours, 
and 8(54 fcrui-les. But, as the purpofes of manki id 
require that the year Ihould contain an integral imm- 
ber of days, it became expedient to colledAand difpofe 
of thefe fractional exct^edings ia a confident and prac- 
ticable maimer j and with this view, a cycle or period 
of thirty iunar years was chofen, as the loweft number* 
that admi' ted of their being formed into days, without 
fen fib e deficiency or remainder. Their fum being ll 
days, it was determined that 19 of thofe thirty years 
lliouid be c >m »ofed of 354 days, and 11 of 335 days 
each. The juftnefs of this p.uf.ortion will equally apl 
pear, if it be obferved, that 8 hours and 804 fcruplcg 
^or48 miiiutes) conftitutc 11 [)aris in 30 of twenty- 
four. bonis, and cnnlequfntly in thirty, years produce 
and excels of 1 1 whole days *. It remained next to be 

* Tbe mean [yriodic revolutmi htwg 2Qd. 12 t. 44 m. ani 
nearly 3 fee, this cycle falls Jbort of thirty complete lunar years, 
byfometbhigmore than ly, and coffequently advances on 
day in about 2500 years. Tbe Cbaldceans, who made thj 


{ 280. ) 

coiiiidered in what order ajid method tbefe additional 
or intercalary days fhould be inferted, fo as to affe(^l 
the compenlation required with as much equability as 
potftble, and maintain a correi'pon deuce, as near as 
circumftances would admit, with the periods marked 
by the phafes oi' the moon. The ioUowing are the 
years to which, ibr reaibns that Ihall be afierv/ard^ 
afligned, it was judged proj^er to annex an extraordi- 
nary day, and which are termed year;- of cxcefs, viz. 
the 2d, 5th, 7th, lOth, 33th, lOth, 18th, 2irt, 24th, 
26th, and 29th, of the cycle of thirty years. 

Theii -months, conformably with thoie of the He- 
brew calendar, it was deterfniued Ihould Ci)nfirt alter- 
nate.y of 30 and 29 days j-and therefore, in an ordinary 
or limple year of 3^54 days, the twelfth and iaft month, 
Dulhajec, would have only29i bnt, in the years of 
excefs, the intercalary day is added to this month, 
which is tiien made to coniift of 30 days, and the year, 
confcquently, of 355 days. 

This cycle of thirty Mohammedan years, contains 
30,631 days and is equal to 29 years and 39 days of oim: 
com, utation. The annual mean difference is 10 days 
and 21 hours nearly? which, in common calculations, 
ibr Ihort periods of time, may be reckoned at 1 1 days, 
by which number the lunar year anticipates the folar. 

Annexed hereto is a table exhibiting the correfpond- 
«nce of the years of the Hej ira, from the year 12l6 of 
that epoch (which agrees with A. D. 1081,) with 
thofe of the Chriftian era^, to A. D. 2000, in which, 
/^r the convenience of hifiorians yet unborn, the ccm- 
inencement of each year ot the Flejira is afcertained. 
Thefe tables are founded upon thofe of Gravius 
(J. Greaves), in his Epochae celebriores Ulug Beigi, 
publiftied in 1650; but as he, in conformity with the 
principles of feliis celebrated Tart^irian aftronoraer *, 

iimecfihe revolution fo eonfijl of me Jciuple, or 1080/^ 
'Part of an hour, more than the Arahs thought fit t$ alloiUj 
were ^wonderfully near to ths truth. 

* Ulug Beig was the grand/on of Tmour the great 
(Tamerlane.) t to whgfc empire he fucc ceded en the death of 
his father Shah Jiukh, He iVjasbem in 13p3, and d'lr- 
in I UO. 

( 281 ) 

has fixed the epocli of theHejira to the 15th Julr, in- 
flead of the lOth, or hiftorical period, it was judged 
requifite to add one day, throughout, to his calcula- 
tions. The propriety of tiiis alteration is ftrengthen id 
by the authority of chronologifts, and by the practice 
of the modern almanacs*. It is alfo obferved, that 
the tables of Gravius, having been corapofed in the 
iWenteenth century, are calculated both for paft and 
future time, according to the old ftyle; and as the 
change took place in England, in September of the 
year 1/52, it was necellary toadjuft all the fucceeding^ 
years to the new calender, 

*■ According to the. original talks of Greaves, the firfi 
day of Moburram, in tbc year of Cbrijl 1/83, falls en the 
\'ub iS^ovcmbery O.S., or 25tb November, N.S. ; and in 
1784, an the 2d November, O.S., or 13tb Novetnber, 
N.S. J lubereas, by two almanacs, printed at Calcutta in 
Bejigal, it appears, that the days Jhould he the 26th and 
1 4:ib November. Of tbefe almanacs, the one ivas compled 
in the " Offi-ce of the Mijjion j" and the other by an ingenious 
afironomer fromtbe England: and both fou7ide don the if age 
of the Mohammedans of India, 

Table exhibiting the Correfpondence of the Years of 
the Hejira with thole of the Chriilian Era. 














14 May 




25 Jan. 




3 May 




15 Jan. 




22 ApV. 




3 Jan. 




11 Apr. 




23 Dec, 




31 Mar. 




13 Dec. 




20 Mar. 




2 Dec. 




10 Mar. 




20 Nov. 




27 Feb. 




id Nov. 




15 Feb. 




30 oa. 




5 ieb. 




19 0<^. 



( 2«2 . > 



^ An. 


' '^ 








3 236 


8 oa. 




31 Aug. 




27 Sept. 

F ' 



21 Aug. 




17 Sept. 




10 Aug. 




6 Sept 




31 July 




25 Aug. 




19 July 




15 Aug. 




8 July 




5 Aug. 




28 June 




24 July 




17 June 




13 July 




5 June 




2 July 




26 May 




22 June 




15 May 




11 June 




4 May 




30 May 




23 Apr. 



J 833 

20 May 




12 Apr. i 




9 May 




2 Apr. 




28 Apr. 




22 Mar. 




17 Apr. 




10 Mar. 




6 Apr. 




28 Feb. 




26 Mar. 




17 Feb. 




16 Mar. 




6 Feb. 




4 Mar. 




27 Jan. 


3 257 


22 Feb. 




15 Jan. 




11 Feb. 




4 Jan. 




31 Jan. 


J 296 


25 Dec. 




21. Jan. 




14 Dec. 




9 Jan. 




3 Dec. 




29 Dec. 




22 Nov. 


1 203 


19 Dec. 




11 Nov. 




8 Dec. 




1 Nov. 




26 Nov. 




20 Oc\. 




]6 Nov. 




9 oa. 




5 Nov. 




29 Sept. 




26 oa. 




18 Sept. 




14 oa. 




7 Sept. 




3 oa. 

Tu 1307 


27 Aug. 




23 Sept. 

Sa 1308 


iO Aug-ISu 



12 Sept. 




6. Aug. 


( a&3 ) 








.25 July 




14 July 




4 July 




23 June 




11 June 




1 June 




21 May 




11 May 




29 Apr. 




18 Apr. 




8 Apr. 




28 Mar. 




16 Mar. 




6 Mar. 




23 Feb. 




12 Feb. 




2 Feb. 




21 Jan. 




11 Jan. 




31 Dec. 




20 Dec. 

F ' 



9 Dec. 




28 Nov. 




17 Nov. 




^ 7 Nov. 




26 oa. 




16 on. 




5 oa. 




24 Sept 




13 Sept. 




2 Seit. 




22 Aug. 




12 Aug. 




31 July 




20 July 




10 July 




29 Jun. 




18 Juut 


An. An. 




7 June 



27 May 



17 May 



5 May 



24 Apr. 



14 A]>r. 



3 Apr. 



22 Mar. 



12 Mar. 



1 Mar. 



19 Feb. 



8 Feb. 



27 Jan. 



17 Jan. 



6 Jan. 



26 Dec. 



15 Dec. 



4 Dec. 



24 Nov. 



13 Nov. 



1 Nov. 



22 oa. 



11 oa. 



30 Sep. 



19 Sept. 



8 Sept. 



28 Aug. 



6 Aug. 



6 Aug. 



27 July 



16 July 



5 July 



24 June 



13 Jun 



2 June 



23 May' 



11 May 



30 Apr. 







































C 284 ) 
































20 Apr. 
9 Apr. 

29 Mar. 
18 Mar. 

7 Mar. 
25 Feb. 
14 Feb. 

2 Feb. 
23 Jan. 
12 Jan. 

2 Jan. 

21 Dec. 
10 Dec. 
30 Nov. 
10 Nov. 

7 Nov. 

28 oa. 
17 oa. 


























141 1 













J 992 


J 99s 

6 oa. 

25 Sept 
14 Sept. 

4 Sept, 
24 Aug. 
12 Aug. 

2 Aug. 
22 July 
11 July 
30 June 
19 June 

8 June 
29 May 
17 May 
7 May 
26 Apr. 
15 Apr. 
4 Apr. 



















Several Forms of Pervcanahs, 


IT Is fignifiedto the Chowdries, Kanoongoes, Head- 
men, and Peafantry of the Pergunnah of Reheemabad, 
that whereas the bufinefs of the office of Krori, of the 
fajd Pergunnah, is given and entrufted by the wcrld- 
fubje6ling and fun-refulgent command, from the be- 
ginning cf the feafon of autumn, to the fo; tunate 
Kojeh Maf'om, \i is required, that having acknow- 
ledged fhe faid perfon abf;lute Krc;ri of that Pergun- 
neh i and haviisg given an unt to the faid perfon, 
of the lawful rent and dues of the Diwany, every year 
according to engagement and equity, they c ccafion no 
diminution or dedu(5lioB 5 and deviate -not from iii» 

( 285 ) 

fjoocFadvicfj which in every refpeft {hail be conducive 
to loyalty and to the wealth of the ftate. Let them 
not tranlgrels, and let them obey him as it is required. 
And of one anda'il of the tranfaelions of the faid Per- 
gunnch, let them not keep any thing feciet or con- 
cealed from him. And let the condurt of the faid 
perfon be this. Having made the pra6tice of fidelity 
and truth his diftinguifhing charadler, and having per- 
formed with propriety, the duties of that employment, 
let him not tranfgrels the mii.uteft article of thefe j 
either in ikill or attachment. And let him "ollow fo 
pleafing a method with tlie farmers, that being cafy 
in their fituation, they may be intent on forwarding 
cultivation, and building j that the revenue may be 
increaftd every year ;• and whatever ihall be c Healed 
let it be tranfmrted daily to the royal treafury. In 
this matter a6l con iormably to inftruCtions : make no 


"WHEREAS according to the world-fubj ceding fun- 
refplendent mandate, the fum of five lacks of dams, 
in the Pergunneh of Feridabad, in c(i>nf quence i^ the 
removal of the noble and princely Mozufter Khaun, 
having been bellowed and conferred on the illaftriaus 
and honarable Behadar Khaun, by way cf Jjgeer, 1 oin 
the commencement of the feafon ofautujnnj and a 
fecnnd time reprefen ted, o i the 21ft of Jumniadiiiaui, 
the Sai^Ii * is now drawing out a royal commiffi ^n for 
this purp;)fe, it is required that tlie Chowdi ies, Ka- 
noong )cs and Hufbandry of the faid Ptrgunneh, having 
acknowledged the faid perfin Jageerdar of that place, 
Ihall give an account of the jull rent and dues of 
Diwany, to the agent of the faid Khaun; and ihall 
not withhold or dedud a fingle dam from that funi. 
And whatever tlie former Jageerdar Ihall have called- 
^d, after dedudliftg the dues of coUedion, let it be rer, 
turned to the agent of the prefent Jageerdar. Con- 
fidering this as peremptory leth^hem act according, to 
iniiru6tions. .. ., ,j^^ . ^, , 

* A perfon zuhafc hufniefs itk f»- niche out Cini^ifffxm, 

( 28^ ) 


THE very important information is communicated 
to the fortunate and honourable Meer Ibraheem, Kr(>ri 
of the Pergunueh of Mohammcdabnd, that whereas 
the otfice of Fotedar of the faid Pcrguiineh hasbe*^>n 
given and conferred, from the beginning of the feaf:;n 
of harvcll, upon the cream of cjtemporaries Dianit 
Haui, it is required, that having daily committed and 
intrulled to his agent, whatever retits and cuftoms of 
that Pergunnch have been paid, he will keep them 
with great care in the treafury ; and, ttiat having day 
after day tranfmitted an account of the coiledtlcn, 
with the (ignature of the Fotedar, he v/ill fend them 
monthly to the royal regifter ; and' let him not, with- 
out his knowledge have a lingte dam any where eifo j 
and let him be careful left ihe Gomaufhteh of the Fo- 
tedar engag^:ng inufury and trade, embezzle the money 
of government : that if, in future, any balance rt- 
iTiain with the treafurer, he may be acc-^untable for 
it. Conlidcring this bufmefs exprefs, let him make no 
refinance or evafion. 


LET the Chowdries, Kanoongoes, and Mukkudinrs 
of the Pes gun I h vi' Njorpoor know, that as the 
eream of cotcmporariesy the ftedfaft in the faith, 
Khojeh Gnngara^m, is a I'j ointed to tha> office of Kar- 
knn of the laid Pe-gnnneh, it is required that, having 
confidered him ablb^u^e Kavkun of the Pe'gunneh, 
and having inftru£ted hhn in evrry matter both ge:ie- 
ral and particular, they keep nothing hidden or conceaN 
ed from his knowledge: and let them not deviate from 
liis refpe(51able- opinion and advice. And with re- 
gard to the condu€^ :'f the faid per'.on, having made 
the pradiceoi'fidelity and truth liisdiftmguifliing charac- 
ter, let m.:. attend to t'l^e management of the laid Per- 
gunneh ace vrdi ig to ettablifh nent j and having fettled 
the buhnefs -if each viilag ^ feparately, letbimafcer- 
tain the who e rent ^6f the Pergunneh 5 and ha^-ing 
made oul an accounl of t ^e amount figned by the 
Sheikdar, Chowdries, and Kanoougoes, let him difpatch 

( 2^7 ') 

it ; isnd let him oT)rcrve ilich a condu6l that we may re- 
ceive prool's ol I yalty and wealth J and let him draw 
his moiUhiy pay, according to the engagement of the 
prelencc. cut of the hands of the Fotedar, agreeably 
to the practice and eftablifluiient of government : and 
having kept a j,.urnal cf r)).' collecJ-.tioii every month 
and of the receipts and difburfem nts, let it be tranf- 
nutted to the royal regilter. Conlidering this as pofi- 
tive, let him act as direded, 


IT is fignified to the agent of the Jageerdar of the 
Pergunneh of Goheram, and at this time GunherSaho * 
has come and complained that he has a demand on 
Dowlet Khaun the Afghan (for a fum borrowed upon 
bond) who is dilaiory and obftinate in the payment * 
of it. It is required that if this be the cafe, they will 
caufe him to pay whatever is due ; that he who is in 
the right may receive juftice. And if it be otherwife, 
let him fubmit the affair to the decilion of the noble 
law ; that violence may not be allowed againft any one. 
Let him conlider this as politive. 


AFTER falutation, it is fignified to the cream of 
nobles and peers Nadir Khaun, that theaddrefs which 
was fent arrived. And with regard to what was writ- 
ten of his laudable exertions, chaftiling the refrac^iory 
of that diftriiSt, it is the caufe of his being approved of. 
Plcafe God he will meet with a recompence adequate 
to his fervlce and fidelity. It is required that he be 
conftantly reprefeniing the ftateof thefe parts j becaufe 
it will be agreeable. On this fubjed this is fufficient t. 

Sabo in the Hindoo language fignifies a Mert'hant. 
^ Vid. Injbal Herkcrn. 


Printed hyS. Rousseau, 
tit the Arabic and Per/tan Prefs 
Wood Street, Spa Fields. ' 

PK A dictionary