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3 3433 07598517 









Education in Indiana 



Statements Relating to the Condition of Secondary and 
Higher Education in the State and a Brief History 

OF THE Educational Exhibit 

OrrparrH for t^t Houieiana H^uttttaae (KEfpoeition, brlH at daint Hoiti^ 

8|9aF 1 to r^otormbrr 30, 1904 

By F. a. cotton 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Wm. B. BuRroRD, Contractor for State Printing and Binding 

May I. 1904 

' f f 





I i 


flk '■tf— Bducatioh. 




Introduction 9 

Indiana's Educational Exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase 

Exposition 16 



A. State Superintendent or Public Instruction 19 

1. History 19 

2. Administratioii 30 

a. Election, Tenurei Deputies, Salaries 30 

b. QoalificatioBs 30 

0. Qeneral Daties 31 

d. Visits 31 

e. Reports 31 

1. To the Goremor 31 

2. To the General Assembly 31 

/. Course of Study 32 

g. Township Institute Outlines 88 

h. Arbor and Bird Day Programs 33 

t. Teachers' Minimum Wage Law 84 

j. Schedules of Success Items 34 

k. State Licenses 38 

I Reading Circle Board 38 

m. State Normal School Board of Trustees 39 

B. The State Board of Education 39 

1. History 39 

2. Administration 40 

a. Examinations 40 

6. Regulations Concerning Examinations and 

Licenses 40 

c. School Book Commissioners 46 

d. High School Commissions 46 

e. State Librarian 49 

/. State Normal Visiting Board 49 


A. County Superintendent 50 

1. History 60 

2. Administration 63 

a. Tenure, Eligibility, Salary 63 

b. Examinations 64 

c. School Visitation 68 

d. Circulars 68 



2. Administration — Continued. pages 

e. Reports 71 

/. Township Institutes 71 

g, CJonnty Institntes 72 

h. General Duties 72 

B. CJouNTT Board of Education 72 

1. History 72 

2. Duties 78 


A. Township Trustee 74 

1. History 74 

2. Administration 74 

a. Election, Tenure, Qualifications 74 

h. Greneral Educational Duties 75 

c. Graded High Schools 76 

d. Centralization of Rural Schools 75 

e. Report to Advisory Board 76 

/. Report to County Superintendent 76 

g. Report of Enumeration to County Superin- 
tendent 76 

h. Transfer of Pupils 77 

t. Poor Children Provided for 77 

j. Parental Homes 77 

k. School Directors 77 

Z. Annual Expenditures 78 

B. Advisory Board 79 

1. Duties 79 


A. The Superintendent 80 

1. History , , 80 

2. Administration 80 

a. Tenure and Qualifications 80 

6. Duties 80 

B. City and Town School Boards 81 

1. History 81 

2. Administration 81 

a. Tenure and Qualifications 81 

h. General Duties 81 

('. Reports 82 

d. Kindergartens 82 

e. Manual Training 82 

/. Night Schools 83 



C. Statistios from Cities of 10,000 and Over Relating 

TO 84 

1. Manual Training 84 

2. Kindergartens 84 

3. Night Schools 84 

4. Departmental Work 84 



1. Tenure 86 

2. Contracts 86 

3. Reports 88 

4. Wages 90 

5. School Term 91 

6. Qualifications 92 

7. The Common School Teachers 92 

8. The Primary Teacher 94 

9. Tlie High School Teacher 94 

10. Greneral Duties 96 

11. Examination Questions 95 

a. For County and State Common School License 
and First Division Sixty Months' State Li- 
cense 95 

6. For Primary License 99 

<\ For County and State Higli School and Sec- 
ond Division Sixty Montlis 101 

d. For Professional and First Division Life State 

License 104 

e. For Second Division Life State License 108 

/. For Life State License for graduates of higher 

institutions of learning only Ill 

12. Professional Training. 114 

a. Indiana University 114 

b. State Normal School 115 

c. City Training Schools 115 

d. Colleges and Universities 115 

f. Independent Normal Schools 115 

/. The County Institutes 116 

(J. The Township Institutes 116 

h. Teachers' Reading Circles 1 16 

/. Teachers' AssociatioiLs 116 




A. The Law 117 

a. Children between ages of 7 and 14 most at- 
tend school 117 

h. County Truant officer — Duties 117 

r. City and Town Truant Officer— Duties 117 

d. Salary of Truant Officer 118 

e. School Official and Teachers must make re- 

lK>rts 118 

f. Poor Children Assisted 118 

g. Parental Home for Incorrigibles 119 

h. Confirmed Truants — Disposition of 119 

t. Tax for Executing Compulscny Law 1 19 

j. Enumeration of Children 119 

k. Names of Children furnished to Truant Of- 
ficer 119 

B. Statistics on Truancy 120 

C. Influence and Cost of Compulsory Law 121 

D. The Child Labor Law 122 

E. Illiteracy in Indiana 123 


CIRCLES 126-132 

1. Teachers* Reading Circle 126 

2. Young People's Reading Circle 129 


A. Associations 133 

1 . Stat<) Teachers* Association 133 

a. Historical Sketch 133 

2. Soutliem Indiana Teachers* Association 141 

a. Historical Sketch 141 

h. Program 141 

3. Northern Indiana Teachers' Association 144 

a. Historical Sketch 144 

h. Program 144 

4. City and Town Sujierin tendon ts* Association 148 

a. Historical Sketch 148 

5. County Superintendents' State Association 164 

a. Historical Sketch 164 

b. Program 154 

6 County Associations 166 



B. Institutes 156 

1. Connty Institutes : 166 

a. Statement 156 

6. The Law 167 

c. Statistical Summary 168 

2. Township Institutes 161 

a. Statistics 161 

h, Tlie Law 161 


A. Indiana School Journal 162 

B. The Teacher's Journal and other Educational 

Papers 163 


Xn. SCHOOL FUNDS 174-177 

A. CoBoioN School Fund 174 

1. History 174 

B. Congressional Township Fund 176 

1. History 176 

C. Table Showing Increase in Funds from 1863 to 1903 ... 177 


A. Tuition Revenues 178 

1. From State 178 

a. From State Taxation 178 

6. From Interest on Common School Fund 178 

2. From Local Sources 178 

a. From Local Taxation (township, town and 

city) 178 

6. From Dog Tax 179 

c. From Liquor License Tax 179 

d. From Interest on Congressional Fund 179 

B. Special School Revenue 180 

1. From Local Sources ... 180 

a. From Local Taxation 180 




I. fflGH SCHOOLS 193-498 

A. Commissioned Uiqh Schools 193 

1. General Statement 198 

a. High School Statistics 194 

2. Course of Study for Commissioned High Schools . . . 195 

. (t. Introduction 196 

h. Outline Course 196 

r. Detailed Course 196 

d. List of Books — Supplementary 211 

3. List of Commissioned High Schools 215 

4. The Professional Training of High Scliool Teach- 

ers 219 

5. Statistics and Illustrations of Commissioned High 

Schools 232 

B. Township High Schools 471 

1. Statement Concerning 471 

2. The Law 471 

3. History 472 

C. Academies 477 

1. Friends* Academies 477 

a. Spiceland 477 

h. Bloomingdalc 478 

r. Central 479 

d. Fairmount 479 

('.. Westfield 482 

/. Amboy 482 

2. Military Academies 483 

a. Culver 483 

/>. Howe 484 

3. Girls' Academies 486 

it. Girls' Classical School 486 

/*. Knickerbocker School 487 

r. Tudor Hall 487 

4. Catholic Academies 488 

a. St. Mary's of the Woods 488 

h. St. Augustine's 489 

r. Convent and Academy of tJie Sisters of the 

Third Regular Order of St. Francis 489 

d. St. Joseph's, Evansville 490 

e. St. Rose's 490 


4. Catholic Academies — Continned. paoes 

f, St. Meinrad College 491 

g. St. John»8 491 

h, St. Mary's, Indianapolis 492 

%. St. Charles 493 

j. Sacred Heart 493 

ifc. St. Michael's 493 

/. St. Mary's Academy, Notre Dame 493 

m. Academy of Immaculate Conception 494 

n. Jasper College 494 

0. St. Joseph College 496 



A. State Institutions 601 

1. Statement r»01 

a. Indiana University 503 

h. Purdue University 609 

r. The Indiana State Normal School 615 

B. Denominational Institutions 520 

1. Statement 520 

a. DePauw University 520 

b. Notre Dame University 635 

c. Butler University 543 

d. Taylor University 545 

<'. Hanover College 546 

;'. Wahash College 548 

tj. Earlham College 561 

h. Franklin College 664 

/. Moore's Hill Colleg(^ . 6.'5 

.;. Concordia College 560 

it. Union Cliristian Collego 561 

/. North Manchester College 563 

C. Private Institutions 564 

a. Vim^ennes University 564 

h. Oakland City College 669 

c. Valparaiso College 571 

d. Tlie Central Normal College 675 

e. Tri-State Normal College 678 

f. Marion Normal College 678 

g. Rochester Normal University 580 

h. Goshen College 681 

/. Indiana Kindergarten and Primary Normal 

Training School 682 



D. Special State iNSTixrTioNS 584 

1. Statement 584 

«. Indiana Stat« School for the Deaf 584 

b. Indiana State School for the Blind 592 

r. Indiana State School for Feeble- Minded 

Youth 694 

(L Indiana State School for Soldiers' and Sail- 
ors* Orphans 596 

f. Indiana Boys' School 598 

f. Indiana Industrial School for Girls 600 

g, Indiana Reformatory £>0\ 



It was in May, 1785, that Congress passed an act providing for 
a survey of the Xorthwest Territory which should divide it into 
townships six miles square, each township to be further subdivided 
into thirty-six sections each one mile square and containing six 
hundred and forty acres. This act also provided that Section IG 
in every township shoukl be reserved for the maintenance of public 
schools. Here we have the origin of what have come to be consid- 
ered the two most significant factors in the development of Indi- 
ana's school system — the township unit and the first source of 
revenue. The famous ordinance of 1787, to which we trace so 
largely the f rigin of our free institutions, set up for us a high ideal, 
which has dominated our work in education : "Religion, morality, 
and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happi- 
ness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall be for- 
ever encouraged." An act of 1804 authorized that a township of 
land he set apart near Vincennes to be used in founding a college. 
In 1816 the act which made Indiana a state provided for a section 
in each township for the use of schools, and also that one entire 
township, in addition to the one heretofore reserved for that pur- 
pose, be reserved for the use of a seminary of learning. The con- 
stitution adopted in 181G provided for township schools, county 
seminaries, and state university, ascending in regular gradation, 
with free tuition and equally open to all. In 1818 the general 
assembly of Indiana passed a law making it the duty of the gov- 
ernor to appoint for each county a seminary trustee, who \vas to 
accumulate and invest funds arising from exemption moneys and 
fines, as provided in the constitution, and looking to the establish- 
ment of a high-grade secondary school in each county that should 
receive pupils from the township schools and fit them for the uni- 
versity. In 1821 the general assembly appointed a committee of 
seven to report to the next general assembly a bill providing for a 



general system of education ascending in regular gradation from 
township schools to a state university. The work of this commit- 
tee resulted in the law of 1824, which made the system consist of 
the rural school, the county seminary, and the state seminary. No 
provisions whatever were made for town or city schools. Indeed, 
the schools during all these years, and for many years longer, de- 
l)ended wholly upon the sentiment of the community. In 183»3 a 
law made some attempt to elal)orate the syr;tem hy providing for 
a county connnissioncr of education, three township trustees, and 
three trustees in each school district. 


These acts tell the story'of the progress of education in Indiana 
to the middle of the nineteenth century. School systems are not 
made hy the passige cf laws — t^xcept on paper. The Indiana 
.system was on ])aper. The ideals were good, but they ccmld not be 
realized for more rons( us than one. The resources were meager, 
and in nuuiy cases n<»t ])r(iperly car<»d for. The county seminaries 
furnished ])ractically the only opportunity for education, and this 
opportunity was poor enough, with a few exceptions. The build- 
ings provided were pror, the equi]>ment was poor, and those who 
attended had tuition to i)av. The dav of free schools for all was 
afar off, and illiteracy gnnv apace. The people were busy felling 
forests and draining swamps, and making for themselves liomes. 
They exhausted their time and their energ;v' in providing for their 
families the necessities of life, and in battling with malaria and 
other prevalent diseases. So they had no leisure for the contem- 
plation of educational problems, and the spiritual life had to wait. 
Then, it must be remembered that our forefathers came from 
such diverse sections that the population was made up of almost 
every shade of belief, and with manners and customs as varied as 
the regions whence they came. New England, the Virginias, and 
the Carolinas contributed to the tide of emigration that settled our 
state, and the National Road became a dividing line between two 
sections that were to develop a great commonwealth. With such a 
diversity of opinions upon all subjects, it is not strange that educa- 
tional progress was slow. The people were slow to impose upon 
themselves so-called burdens of taxation for public education, and 
it took a long struggle to bring about a different notion. 



Caleb Mills, who came to Indiana in the thirties as principal of 
the school at Crawfordsville (which afterwards became Wabash 
College), probably did more than any other man to bring a change 
of opinion. It was he who by his insistent messages inspired the 
law of 1849 and dictated practically the educational sentiment of 
the new constitution. Of course, there had been many men of high 
ideals, splendid teachers, who had come to the state at different 
times, and who with real missionary zeal had furthered the cause 
of education. M. Rivet, a Frenchman who had fled to this country 
at the time of the French Revolution — ^a well-educated, cultured 
gentleman — taught school at Vincennes as early as 1793. Then, 
such men as John I. Morrison and Barnabas C. Hobbs conducted 
schools from which young men went to college, and afterwards 
located in other towns in the state and opened schools of their own. 
It was through such men as these that the seminaries and private 
academies were maintained in the forties and fifties. As many as 
seventy-three of these schools had been established before 1860. 
Aside from the efficient work which these schools did in particular 
cases, they were of inestimable service in keeping the question of 
education before the people. The people still believed that parents 
should decide what education their children should have, and 
should provide it for them. They had not yet come into the notion 
that every child has a right to an education, and that it is to the 
public's interest to promote it by taxation. Secondary education 
was thought to belong to private enterprises and religious organi- 
zations. Seminaries similar to those established by the counties 
were founded by the churches, out of which grew many of the 
denominational colleges that are still flourishing and doing good 
work. Among these may be mentioned Wabash and Hanover, 
Presbyterian; DePauw and Moore's Hill, Methodist; Franklin, 
Baptist ; Earlham, Friends ; Butler, Christian ; and Notre Dame, 
Catholic. It was the fact that these provisions had been made for 
secondary and higher education, and that no systematic provisions 
had been made for common schools, that led Caleb Mills to under- 
take the work which he did. He and the men whom he associated 
with him succeeded in arousing the people to a sense of their re- 
sponsibility. The first fruit of their labors came in the law of 


1849, the most significant provisions of which was the consolida- 
tion of schools in the districts. It is an interesting fact that before 
the middle of the nineteenth century Mills had seen the real solu- 
tion of the problem of education in a democracy, and had named 
consolidation as the key. Out of this thought came the idea of 
centers of learning in districts, townsliips, and towns, with combi- 
nations possible in districts and townships, and finally with combi- 
nations possible between and among districts and townships. This 
made the township graded school possible, which in turn made 
possible and necessary the township high school. Mills^ in his 
messages to the legislature in the forties, and afterward in his re- 
ports as state superintendent of public instruction, goes over all 
the arguments for consolidation and centralization of district 
schools. It was through such men as Mills on the outside, and 
John I. Morrison, chairman of the educational committee in the 
constitutional convention, that education received recognition in 
the new constitution. With the new constitution and the law of 
1852, the township became the political and the school unit of the 
state. This fact is of the largest significance in dealing with the 
Indiana school system, for Indiana was probably the first state to 
make the township the school unit. The claims made for it and 
admitted need not be repeated here. The new constitution gave 
state supervision, and the people shortly voted in favor of taxation 
for the maintenance of schools. The movement forward with the 
new c(mstitution was interrupted by unfavorable decisions of the 
courts and by the coming of the Civil War. In the early sixties 
from these causes the schools suffered and dropped to the lowest 
level. It was not \mtil after the Civil War that the revival came. 
The Supreme Court held that local levies for tuition and com- 
mon-school revenues were constitutional, thus making it possible 
for towns and townships to provide for terms of school of respect- 
able length. This really was the beginning of public education in 
Indiana. Out of all these influences, with the township as the 
unit and center of educational activity, came township and county 
supervision and to^vnship and town and city high schools. It was 
an evolution and came naturally. The closing years of the last 
century witnessed a rapid development of our school system. 



The attention of the student of education is called to what are 
believed to be significant features in the Indiana system. 

First, the system has developed from the bottom to the top, from 
lower to higher education, from common schools to special schools, 
from the people. 

Second, the unit of the system is the township for the education- 
al affairs of which one trustee elected by the people is responsible. 
It may be proper to say here that the chief adverse criticisms to 
this arrangement have been three: (1) Too great power placed in 
one man's hands with no check on expenditure of funds. (2) No 
educational qualifications. (3) The incongruity of the triple duty 
placed upon the officer, namely, looking after the paupers, the 
roads and the schools. The first defect has latelv been remedied 
by the provision of an advisory board. The second is being grad- 
ually eliminated by the people who attach great importance to the 
office on accoimt of the schools. As a consequence the third defect 
has been reduced to the minimum. 

Third, the township trustees constitute the appointing power of 
the superintendent of the county schools. In recent years the edu- 
cational and professional qualifications of this officer have been 
increased and as a consequence better men are filling these places. 
It is believed that this mode of election removes the office further 
from politics than it would be with direct election by the people. 

Fourth, the state superintendent of public instruction is elected 
by the people, among whom there is a perceptible tendency to 
attach more importance to the office and to demand better qualifi- 
cations on the part of the incumbent. 

Fifth, the state board of education, membership of which, with 
the exception of three members, is determined ex-officio, Ivas always 
been considered a unique feature of the system. In recent years 
the three members were added and the appointive power was 
placed in the governor of the state, who is himself a member of the 
board ex-officio. This board has legal and advisory control of 
the primary and secondary education of the state. Township trus- 
tee, county superintendent, state superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, and this board constitute the entire machinerv of the common 


Sixth, ample provision has been made for higher education in 
the university at Bloomington, the technical and agricultural 
school at Lafayette and the normal school at Terre Haute, all of 
which are a part of the system and receive students from the high 
schools without examination. These institutions keep in close 
touch with the primary and secondary schools and the tendency is 
constantly toward higher standards. 

Seventh, the student of education will not overlook the impor- 
tance to be attached to the large number of excellent private schools 
and colleges in the state. These furnish every phase of education 
to a great and growing army of students. 

Eighth, referring again to the towTiship as the unit, it may be 
significant that the present tendency is toward centralization. 
With the advent of better roads and better facilities of travel 
there has come the demand for a perfect and complete school, 
covering the entire range of primary and secondary work in the 
center of each township. This demand is being rapidly met and 
it is the hope of the present stat« superintendent to provide for 
every country boy and girl just as good school privileges as are 
foimd in towns and cities in kind of work done and in length of 

Ninth, particular attention may 1x3 directed to the provision 
made for the better preparation of the teachers. Aside from the 
schools, the teachers' associations, teachers' reading circle, county 
institute, and township institute should l>o mentioned as worth the 
student's attention. Particular stress may be placed upon the 
work of the township institute, which has come to be one of the 
important factors in the work of the county superintendent. 

Tenth, finally, it ought to be noted that while the devqlopment of 
education in the state has Ix^en made to de[)end upon the people 
and has been in a sense on the ])rinciple of local option, there is 
the notion that the whole state is responsil)le and tliat it should 
provide from the common funds for any local disability on ac- 
count of low property value and meager population. 


State Snpcrinfendeui of Public Insiruclion. 

Indianapolis, Tnd., ilay 1, 11)04. 

Indiana's Educational Exhibit at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

By an act of tlie general assembly of Indiana, effective March 
0, 1903, a commission was created and empowered to provide 
for an adequate representation of the resources, industries, prog- 
ress, institutions and attainments of the state of Indiana at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, to be held in Saint Louis in 
1904. The act provided for the appointment of the members of 
this conmiission by the governor of the state, who appointed 
the following commissioners : Newton W. Gilbert, Fort Wayne ; 
Henry W. Marshall, Lafayette; J. W. Cockrum, Oakland City; 
W. W. Wicks, Bloomington; W. W. Stevens, Salem; W. H. 
O'Brien, Lawrenceburg ; Crawford Fairbanks, Terre Haute; 
D. W. Kinsey, New Castle; Nelson A. Gladding, Indianapolis; 
Frank C. Ball, Muncie; C. C. Shirley, Kokomo; Fremont 
Goodwine, Williamsport; Joseph B. Grass, Huntington; S. B. 
Fleming, Fort Wayne, and W. W. Mix, Mishawaka. The act 
conferred upon the commission full power to determine the nature 
and extent of exhibits, to employ agents for the organization 
and management of such exhibits, aand to provide for the conven- 
ience and comfort of the people of the state who might be in 
attendance upon the exposition. The act carried an appropria- 
tion of $150,000. Of this fund $10,000 were appropriated for 
the purpose of an exhibit of tlie educational facilities and progress 
of the state. A committee on education was appointed of the 
members of the commission, namely, Fremont Goodwine, chair- 
man, C. C. Shirley and D. W. Kinsey. 

The committee on education requested the endorsement and 
co-operation of the state board of education, which was readily 
given. It also requested the state superintendent of public in- 
struction to take charge of the preparation of the exhibit. Mr. 
Cotton assumed this responsibility, and, with his assistants, 
devoted much of the summer of 1903 to awakening an interest 

2H~BDU0ATio]r. (15) 


in tho matter in all parts of the state. It was early determined 
to make an honest showing of the status of school w^ork of the 
state under all economic and geograj)hical conditions. The mate- 
rial for such exhibit must come from all the schools. It became 
necessary, therefore, to wage a camj)aigii in behalf of the move- 
ment. It is to the credit of Mr. Cotton and the deputy superin- 
tendent, ^Ir. Lawrence iLcTurnan, that sixty-nine counties out of 
ninety-two, one hundred and twenty-seven towns and cities, and 
practically all the colleges and libraries of Indiana contributed 
special exhil)its. This lalwr involved the presentation of the 
question before county institutes, teachers' associations, and other 
educational meetings, conferences with county sui)erintendent«, a 
convention of city superintendents, the issue of a number of bulle- 
tins to school officials and a vast deal of correspondence. With 
this large preliminary work accomplished, upon the request of 
Superintendent Cotton , the commission appointed the under- 
signed, sn]K»rintendent of schools of Crawfcirdsville, manager of 
the exhibit. The manager acts in the capacity of agent jointly of 
the conunission and of the department of jniblic instruction. He 
assumed the responsibility of collating and organizing the mate- 
rial of the exhibit in Decendwr, 10013, and has succeeded, with the 
co-operation of the department of public instruction and a number 
of prominent county and city school men, in submitting to the 
public the most general and faithful representation of all phases 
and conditions of educational effort in Indiana ever made. 

Through the kindness of the educational committx^ it was 
made possible for the state department of public instruction to 
issue this s])ecial r(»port on the schools of Indiana — a volume of 
more than six hundred pages. 

W. A. MiLLIS. 




L State Supervision. 



1. niSTORY. 

In 1843, the treasurer of state was made superintendent of com- 
mon schools, ex-ofRcio. The treasurer was chosen hecause the 
duties were financial rather than educational, the preservation and / 
management of the school fund being the chief requirement of the 
office. It is true he was required to make annual reports to the 
general assembly, showing "the condition and amount of funds 
and property devoted to education ; the condition of colleges, acad- 
emies, county seminaries, common schools, public and private; 
estimates and accounts of school expenditures, and plans for the 
management and improvement of the common school fund, and for 
the better organization of the conmion schools," but his chief duty 
was to look after the finances of the schools. 

The state treasurers who acted in this capacity were George H. 
Dunn, 1841 to 1844; Royal Mayhew, 1844 to 1847; Samuel Han- 
nah, 1847 to 1850; James P. Drake, 1850 to 1853. In 1852 the 
state treasurer was relieved of his school duties by the creation of 
the office of state superintendent of public instruction. It was 
made an elective office with a term of two years and an annual 
salary of $1,300. His duties were "to spend each term at least 
ten days in each of the ten judicial circuits; to recommend a list 
of books, and superintend the purchase and distribution of the 
township libraries; to determine appeals from township trustees; 
to have a watchful care of the educational funds; to prepare all 
blank forms for his office and receive funds from county auditors 
and treasurers, township trustees and clerks ; to report to the gen- 
eral assembly and the governor; to examine all applicants for 
license ; to preside at all meetings of the state board of education 



and to address the board uyKyn liis induction into office, setting 
forth his views of the l)ost method of giving efRcieiicy to our educa- 
tional svsteni, with such suggestions as lie deemed worthy of their 
CN>n si deration." Tn the earlv vears of the existence of the office 
the superintendent was really the sole educational official in the 
state department. Following is a complete list of the superintend- 
ents who have lieM the office up to the present time : 

Rt'tjinniruj of Close of 

Sn mrn . Term. Term . 

William Clark Larrabee Nov. 8, 1862. .Nov. 8, 1851.. Term expired. 

Caleb Mills Nov. 8, 1854. .Feb. 10, 1867. .Term expired. 

William Clark Larrabee Feb. 10, 1867.. Feb. 10, 1859. .Died in May, 


Samuel Lyman RoKg Fob. 10, 1869. .Feb. 10, 1861. .Term expired. 

Miles Johnson Fletcher Feb. 10, 1861. .May 11, 1862. .Killed on R. R. 

Samael Kleinfelder Hoflhour . .May 16, 1862. .Nov. 26, 1962. .Resigned. 

Samuel Lyman Rugg Nov. 26, 1862. .Mar. 16, 1866. .Term expired. 

Grcorgo Wasliington Hoss Mar. 15, 1866. .Oct. 13, 1868. .Resigned. 

Barnabas Coffin Hobbs Oct. 13, 1868.. Mar. 16, 1871.. Term expired. 

Milton Bledsoe Hopkins Mar. 16, 1871 . .Aug. 16, 1874. .Died Aug. 16» 

Alexander CamplK^ll Hopkins.. Aug. 16, 1874.. Mar. 16, 1876. Term expired. 

JamoH Henry Smart Mar. 16, 1875 .Mar. 16, 1881 . .Term expired. 

John McKiiight Bloss Mar. 16, 1881.. Mar. 16, 1888.. Term expired. 

John Walker Holcomb Mar. 16, 1883. .Mar. 16, 1887. .Term expired. 

Harvey Manon LaFollette . . Mar. 16, 1887. Mar. 16, 1891.. Term expired. 

Hcrvey Daniel Vori(»8 Mar. 16, 1891 . .Mar. 16, 1896. .Term expired. 

David M. Gwjting Mar. 16, 1896. .Mar. 16, 1899. .Term expired. 

Frank L. Jones . Mar. 16, 1899. . Mar. 16, 1903. .Term ex^Mred. 

Fassett A. Cotton Mar. 16, liKXS . . 

Th(; ofiiec* hfiH always eommaiHlcMl the respect of the people and 
has generally liad capable men as iiuMimlxMits. The atiident \riH 
notice that nearly every man who has filled the office has stood for 
some distinct a<lv}ince in the cihicational affairs of the state. Su- 
perintendent LarralK'c, the first incumbent, was the pioneer for 
much of the work in the West. \Uy organized the system and began 
the great work of the <lepartment. Superintendent Mills was 
reallv the inspiration of the whoh» svstem. It was he who moulded 
public c»y)inion and directed the legislation that made the office 
and the system possible, lie was particularly interested in libra- 
ries, and was instriinu'ntai in the establishment of township 
libraries. SuperintendcMit Itngg reorganized and ])laced upon a 
substantial hjisis tli^ state sc^ool finances. Superintendent Fletcher 

• -•• • • • • 

• • • • • •• 

« '•• • • • • • 

• • • • • • 

• •• • • • • 


corrected the evil arising from the aiitici])ation of revenues, 
and made institutes more efficient. Superintendent Hoshour 
turned his attention to examiners and examinations and used 
his influence toward securing a larger per cent, of women 
teachers in the State. Superintendent Hoss was instrumental 
in adding history and physiology to the list of common school 
branches, in securing state aid to county institutes, the in- 
corporation of the state normal school, and the reenactment 
of the law allowing local taxation in cities and townships 
for tuition purposes. Superintendent Hohhs, one of the best 
reniembered of the superintendents, saw German made op- 
tional in the public schools, an act for the (nlucation of negroes 
pas8e<l, the girls' reformatory planned, and Purdue university 
founded. Superintendent Hopkins' chief work lay in the estab- 
lishment of the county su]>erintendency, raising the standard of 
examinations, reclaiming school monies, and improving school 
finances. To Su])erintendent Smart more than to any other man is 
due the extended reputation of the Indiana system, brought al>out 
by his splendid organization of an educational exhibit at the Cen- 
tennial exposition. He also made the first cr)mplete codification of 
our school laws. Suy>erintendent Bloss reorganiz(»d the work of 
the oflfice, reformed the school census, put examinations upon a 
higher plane, and introduced better methods in teaching. Superin- 
tendent riolcomb establisliod a uniform course of studv for countrv 
schools, suggested the plan of graduation in them, started the 
Arbor-day custou), and organized the teacliers' reading circle. 
Superintendent LaFollette has the credit of adding $450,000 to 
the school fund, and of making the reading circle one of the most 
fruitful factors in im])roving the profession. Superintendent 
Vories raised the standard of examinations, insisted upon profes- 
sional training for teachers and issued one of the Wt volumes of 
school ]i\\\'A yet published. Superintendent Geeting is rememl)ered 
for the conipulsory education law, the township high school law, 
the I'lw providing for state examination of common school teachers, 
and for rural consolidation. Su])erintendent J(Uies emphasized the 
necessity for bettor school architecture, with more ])erfect sanita- 
tion and decorj^tion, extended rural school consolidation, and was 
largely responsible for the minimum wage law for teachers. The 


present incumbent lias set for himself the large task of maintain- 
ing all that has been accomplished by his predecessors and in 
addition to this of making better the work in every way possible. 
He hopes to plac<^ teaching upon a higher professional plane, and 
to this end he is urging better preparation on the part of the 
teachers in every grade of work. He is placing special stress upon 
the work in the rural schools, and believes that equal privileges 
ought to be secured to the children of country and town. The 
problems of consolidation, improved township high schools, longer 
tenure, better salaries are all receiving his attention. One of the 
plans that he has inaugurated for accomplishing his work is the 
annual conference of county superintendents in each congressional 
district. Since there are only about seven counties in each dis- 
trict, it is possible to consider carefully the problems of each 
county. The following (]uestions will serve to show the nature of 
the problems considered at these meetings: 

1. What sbould characterize the work of the superintendent? 

a. Should a superintendent criticise his teachers while visiting 

them, or later? 

b. Should criticisms be offered unless ac(!ompanied by helpful sug- 


2. What a new superintendent is doing for his schools. 

3. What an experienced superintendent is doing for his schools. 

4. What can be done in classifying and grading rural schools; the object 

of such work. 

5. What can county superintendents do to encourage their teachers to 

attend colleges and normal schools? 

6. What can comity superintendents do to encourage graduates from th(» 

8th grade to attend high school? 

7. What can county superintendents do to create interest in general 

reading among pupils and patrons? 

8. How can we secure more money for rural schools? 

9. Educational exhibit. 
10. Miscellaneous. 

City and town superintendents are invited to attend these meet- 
ings and to participate in the discussions. Another plan which the 
])resent superintendent has ado])ted for the purpose of getting in 
closer touch with the teachers is that of issuing monthly bulletins 
during the scht^ol term. These l)ear upon various phases of school 
work, and he has reason to believe that they are proving very 
helpful. Nos. 5 and of the pres(Mit year in the form in which 
thev w^ere sent to the teachers are submitted here: 


State of Indiana. 


Fabsrtt a. Cotton, State Sup't. 

Lawrrhcr McTurnan, Deputy. 





You have now been at work for some months in your present position. 
It may be that this is not your first year in tlie community in which you 
are teaching. There are some relations existing between your school and 
your community that are worth thinking about, and this is a good time 
to think about them. Doubtless you are by this time thoroughly ac- 
quainted with your school district. You know its bounds; you know its 
hills and valleys and streams; you know its soil, its trees, its vegetation, 
its riches in stone, coal, clay, gas or oil. Doubtless you have used all this 
knowledge to an advantage in awakening your boys and girls to life's 
truth and beauty and in giving them correct notions of simple earth 
facts. I trust that in trying to use God's out-of-doors in your teaching 
you have not been hampered by narrow public opinion. A student told 
me recently that in his boyhood he dwelt upon the banks of the Ohio 
river; and that there in sight of splendid hills and streams and islands 
he studied geography from a book and got poor, starved, inadequate 
notions of things which nature had placed at his very door. 


So much in regard to your knowledge of what nature has done for 
your community. Now what do you know of the social life of your dis- 
trict? How many homes are there? How many parents? How many 
children of school age? In what kinds of houses do the families dwell? 
What has been done to beautify these dwellings without and within? 
What is the spirit that dwells within each home? Doubtless you know 
the conditions of industry. You know what phases of agriculture and 
stock raising are prosperous and profitable. You are acquainted with any 
railroads, pikes, blacksmith shops, groceries or mills that may be in the 
district. You know of any clubs, societies, orders that may exist for 
improvement and amusement. Y^ou know about the postofflco, the rural 
routes and offices of any kind that exist. You are, of course, acquainted 
and identified with the churches and Sunday-schools and their work. 

THE teacher's ATTITUDE. 

I have taken it for granted that you know all these things in your 
community. Now what have you done about it? In the first place, of 
course, you reside in the comniunity. In no other way is it possible to 


catch and live in its spirit. In the second place I trust that you know that 
not one of these things hapi)ened. Every fact that you have come upon 
in your community has reasons for its existence and you can explain this 
existence if you are a student of life. You are there to make tlie condi- 
tions of life better. How many of these homes have you visited? 1 read 
somewhere the other day that the teacher is no missionary. Aye, but 
he is. He comes into the (community to minister and not to be ministered 
to. How many parents have you asked to help you in your work? Have 
you found out just what children ou^ht to be in your school, and have 
you exhausted the full resources of your manhood or womanhood in 
bringing them in before you have taken advantage of the truancy law? 

The school bears the very closest relation to every phase of community 
life. It has been said often that the school is the other institutions in 
miniature. I wonder if you have realized just what that means. It 
means that the school lives the life of the community. It thinks its 
thoughts, feels its emotions, and bases its conduct upon the same princi- 
ples exactly. The school ought to be so life-like that the transition from 
Its life to actual life will be attended by no shocks or surprises. What 
can you do towards bringing this about? 

What is your attitude toward your community? Are you willing to 
do more than you get paid for? A man told me this story recently: He 
had a boy employed in his offices. One morning he found this boy shiver- 
ing in thfe cold office. In reply to his in<iuiry as to why he was working 
In the cold, the boy said the janitor had built no fire yet. He was asked 
If he could not build a tire, and he replied that he could, but that he 
didn't intend to; that he was not paid for making fires. This boy was 
not In line for promotion and never will be. "People who never do any 
more than they get i)aid for seldom get paid for any more than they do.*' 
This Is just as true of school teachers as of persons in other professions. 
Now, what have you done toward making your school an attractive place? 
You haven't left It all to your trustee, have you? I hope that you have 
taken some pride In seeing that everything is as neat as it can be. I 
know a young man who put in several days mowing the school yard, 
repairing the fences and the out-houses, and even in scrubbing the tloor. 
for which he received no pay in money. But he was paid. And after 
that community had Increased his salary as much as it could he was 
called to a higher position. Again, have you learned yet to take the con- 
ditions as you find them and to make ttie very best of them? This is a 
test of your leadership. 


To get a little closer to the every -day practical problem with which 
you have to deal, let us see what you can do to bring your school and 
your community into closer relation. And first, what can you and your 
school do for the home? Well, do you know what the abiding principle 
of the home Is? It is love so full of affection and sympathy that it 
would shield from harm, save from suffering, and smooth life's rough 
places. You are said to stand in the place of the parent. But have you 
realized that many children will come to ycm hungry for this love and 
sympathy and that It may be your privilege to minister to them? Life In 


aoiqe homes is hard and scant fare l)ring8 bitterness to children. Every 
home ought to do certain things for every child. It ought to give him a 
sound mind in a sound body. It ought to teach liim to use good Knglish. 
It ought to mal^e him neat and orderly. It should teach him habits of 
industry. It should teach him to be honest, to respect law, to revere 
sacred things and to work toward lofty aims. If the home be wanting in 
these duties, what can you do in your sclioolV You can speak good 
English and require it spoken. You can provide soap and water and 
towels and coml>8 and have them used. You <'an by life and precept 
teach the life and dignity of lal)or, honesty, respect for law, and reverence, 
and you can inspire in every child an aml>ltion to do his best. But you 
can do more than this. In many of these homes the conditions tliat exist 
are merely the results of Ignorance. I rememl>er an e-\perience like this: 
I was visiting a district scliool ami noticed two l»oys who were bisulfi- 
ciently clad. They looked pinched and poorly uourislied, and they con- 
stantly l)reatlied tJirough tlieir moutlis. 1 supposed they belongetl to some 
l>oor family unal)le to provide for them. But on Inquiry I was told they 
were the children of a prosperous farmer, and that tliey had kindly 
parents who simply didn't know what to feed them or how to clotlie them. 
What could you do in a case of tills kind? With tact you may do some- 
thing directly. But sui)pose you could get tlie parents of your district 
together to discuss some simi)le questions pertaining to the health of 
children. If you are skillful you may l)ring it aljout tliat the parents who 
do know will teach those who do not. And the work need not be confined 
to the health problem, l>ut may be ext(»nded to others upon which there 
is a vast deal of ignorance. 


Second, what can you do for the industry of the community? You 
can make your school a busy worksliop, where the hum of industry is the 
standard of order, and where eacli pupil respects tlie rights of every other 
pupil. But you can do more than this. You can teach the nol)ility of 
honest toil. The greatest thing tliat you could possibly do for your l)oys 
and girls and for your community would lie to Imild into tiiem the liabit 
of doing good work. The w^orld Is full of slip-shod mechanics who sllglit 
their work. You can teach tlie children tliat any task worth doing is 
worth doing well; that success lies in the here and now and not in the far 
oif ; in the little duties of today instead of the Idg things one Is going to do 
tomorrow. And you can teach them to stay on the farm and to work out 
Its problems. It will be a sad day for our national life when all our young 
farmers come to town; wlieu the small, well-cultivated homesteads give 
way to landed estates. The boys on the farms wield the nation's destiny. 
Emerson says: *'Tlie city is recruited from the country. In the year 
1805, it is said, every legitimate monarch in Europe was iml>ecile. The 
city would have died out, rotted and exploded long ago, but that it was 
reinforced from the fields. It is only cemntry which came to town day 
before yesterday that Is city and court today." Tlie problem of glutting 
this thought before your boys and girls and ^fore your community is 
worthy of tlie best there is in you. The friction between capital and 
labor, the almost universal lack of respect for property rights, ought to 


serve as great stimuli towards the intelligent stndy of agricnlture to 
which it would seem constantly increasing numbers must turn. 


Third, what can you do towards bringing the school in closer toucii 
with the state? You liavo it in your hands to malie good citizens out of 
these boys and girls. But you can only make them good citizens by 
making them good men and women. Patriotism is one of the qualities 
of good citizenship. But patriotism is grounded in a wholesome respect 
for law. In a trained sense of justice. As a teacher, there are two things 
that you can do and that you must do if you succeed here. First, you can 
be Just yourself. If by sincere living you make every pupil realize that 
no matter what happens he will find you Just, that he will find in you a 
friend, you will so prepare the way for wielding the largest influence. 
Second, you can lead every pupil to see that what he does he does to him- 
self; that he and not the teacher is the punisher and the rewarder; that 
the consequences of one*s deeds, whether good or bad, must be visited 
upon one's self. This is the very essence of good citizenship. In no other 
way can one come finally to realize that we, the people, are the state. 
There is no better place than the public school to teach this respect for 
law and order, and there never was a time when it needed to be empha- 
sized more than it does now. Every boy sliould realize early his responsi- 
bility for manhood, every girl for womanhood— both for citizenship. But 
in bringing a))out this realization what are you doing? Simply leading 
your boys and girls to live the principles which they are to live in the 
lj*rger world. 


Fourth, has the school any relation to the church? I think that it 
has. The church has an abiding principle which can not be disregarded, 
because it belongs to life. Every soul Is religious. Mercy must touch 
and temper love in the home, regard for property rights, mere Justice, and 
when it does it glorifies them. Service takes the place of selfishness and 
the spirit of humanism Is born. This Is the essence of religion, and you 
can not teach school an hour nor a minute without It in your lives. 

Finally, I have tried to say to you that In your community you have 
nature and social life as factors to deal with. They are your materials. 
You are to use them. The social life of your community is merely an 
expression of conscious life. The institutions are real. They are built on 
principles of life. Your pupils must live in them. It Is yours to direct 
so that they shall come more fully into the real spirit of the Institutions. 
Study the conditions in your community and find there your problem and 
its solution. 


Stati of Indiana. 


Fassbtt a. Cotton, SUte Sap't. 

Lawbknci McTurnan, Deputy. 



Indianapolis, Indiana, Frbruaby, 1904. 


Yon have already put the larger portion of this school year behind you 
and are looking forward to the close of school. There are some things 
that may be said just here by way of caution, suggestion and encourage- 
ment. In the first place, this is a good time for you to examine yourself 
and determine what manner of school teacher you are. AsIl yourself seri- 
ously why you are teaching. What is your attitude toward the profes- 
sion? Does your remaining in the worlc depend upon your failure to 
secure more money at something else? Do you Iluow that the essential 
factors of the school are the child, the teacher and the eternal fire that 
comes from soul contact? That while the school exists for the child, the 
teacher is the determining factor. We may build fine buildings, equip 
them with the best material, centralize, systematize and supervise, and the 
teacher will remain the central figure in the school. The school will never 
be any better than the teacher. His problem has always been and always 
will be how to touch and awaken every child in his presence. And he will 
succeed just in the degree in which he does this. Great armies of un- 
taught children sit day by day in the presence of teachers and never re- 
ceive a message. No fire is struck out, no life is awakened into new 
being; for them it is as if there had been no teacher. I hope you have in 
the months that are 'gone always made the child supremo; that you have 
made constant daily preparation; that in every recitation you have had at 
least one clear-cut truth to present; that you have kept your lines of 
organization closely drawn; and that you have made your work so inter- 
esting that no shadow of indifference has fallen across your school. If 
you have had this attitude nothing can keep you from succeeding. If for 
any reason you have permitted your interest to languish, now is the time 
to renew your energy. Indeed, this is the crucial time. It really doesn't 
take much ability to conduct a school the first few weeks or up to the 
holidays. Indeed, a school which is well organized and conducted to a 
successful close one year will almost run itself till the holidays the suc- 
ceeding year. The real test of the teacher comes in the reorganization of 
demoralized forces and in directing and conducting these forces to a suc- 
cessful close of the year's work, after the holidays. It is the teacher 
who can keep the self-activity of every child to the highest notch who 
can meet the test. Let me suggest some things that may contribute to 
this ^id. 



The greatest thing that you can possibly do for your pupils is to teach 
them how to study. Perhaps you have l)een so intent on driving in cer- 
tain facts that you have neglected this phase of your worli. In a few 
years at best the facts you teach will be forgotten; but the habils of in- 
dustry, of study, you build into these lives will abide and grow. And edu- 
cation is not a matter of learning facts; it is a matter of hal)its, of 
character. Now, have you taken pains to inquire Into the way your chil- 
dren work in getting a lesson? Do you sometimes take up a new lesson 
with them and show them how to go about getting it? Getting a lesson is 
a matter of seeing what there is in it. And ten minutes of good, active, 
alert, wide-awake study is worth hours of stupid, passive stare. Study 
carries with it the concentration that can shut out completely the whole 
world from the subject in hand. It carries with it the power of obesrva- 
tion that can detect In the minutest detail the points in the subject. It 
carries with it a nicet.v of discrimination that can put all points observed 
in their proper relation. Finally it carries with It an ordering power that 
brings independent mastery. Patient work in leading your children to see 
what there is In a lesson, in selecting out the most essential thing, and 
the subordinate things, and in grasping these relations, will prove worth 


This work of fixing the study habits of 30ur children is just as impor- 
tant as the recitation, and Just as much under your control. The study 
periods should be arranged with the same care and should be Insisted 
upon witli the same regularity as the recitations. As a rule the study 
period should be removed as far as possible from the recitation. After 
children are old enough to prepare lessons from assignments the study 
period of a subject should never immediately precede its recitation. A 
lesson should be prepared for eternity and not for the recitation, and the 
habit should be fixed early. With your working schedule you can insist 
upon a strict observance of the study periods. Let a recitation go occa- 
sionally and do quiet, individual work among your pupils. A workshop 
with the busy hum of industry is what a school-room ought to be and it 
is a sure sign of good teaching. 


I said that the real test of a teacher's success may l>e the degree lu 
which he gets In touch with all his pupils and keeps them working up to 
the best there is In them. In order to do this he must deal with each indi- 
vidual. The advance in a subject may be determined by the average 
ability of the class or even by the ability of its weakest meml>ers. But 
the width and depth of investigation must be determined by the strength 
of each individual. Now, while the class as a whole covers « certaiu 
amount of work in the sul>ject the teacher can direct the Individual ineoi- 
bers in supplementary work, giving each one an opportunity to go as de*^ 
into the topics in hand as he can with the material at hand. To illustrate, 
the work that the class as a whole is to do upon some movement in his- 


tory, say the ordinance of 1787, may be limited. But there is a field for 
very wide research. Now, Huppose the teacher has at hand some data for 
thte investigation. Here is an opportunity to call into play individual 
effort and to assign interesting profitable home worliL. And the worliL 
should always be interesting work which the pupil can do without worry 
to himself or his parents. Or suppose some little piece of apparatus would 
be helpful to the teacher in making clear some points in history or geog- 
raphy. Here is an opportunity to use the skill of some boy on the farm. 
To illustrate, a little model of the primitive cotton-gin, or a simple loom, 
might throw much light upon social and indnstrial problems in the history 
of our people. To the resouceful teacher every subject will suggest many 
things to occupy the attention of the boys and girls. 


The value of written work can not be overestimated. Frequent use 
should be made of it for recitations, reviews and examinations. In the 
recitation it will serve to present the indei>endent thought of each individ- 
ual, and it will give splendid training in English expression. In reviews 
it will reveal the powers of organization nnd expression. To be of value, 
every paper handed in should be carefully gone over by the teacher with 
corrections and suggestions for improvement. Indeed, written work is 
worse than worthless if this is not done. And then the examination has 
Its place and it is important. Not that I would have you exaggerate its 
Importance or hold it over the pupils as a menace or threat, or that I would 
put very large stress upon it as a basis for promotion. But it lias a place 
in school work, and if given under right conditions there will be no dread. 
A large part of the adverse criticism that has been made against examina- 
tions is mere drivel and has come more largely from teachers who do not 
like to work than from healthy, wide-awake pupils themselves. I think I 
should seldom announce beforehand any w^ritten work which I wanted to 
serve as a test. It is a part of education to learn to meet the conditions 
tliat confront us. In life the problems are not generally posted. We 
come up against them and must think on our feet. In the crowded rural 
school, then, the examination should sei^e some such purposes as these: 
(1) It should enable the teacher to examine his pupils and himself at the 
same time. (2) It should aid tlie pupil in thinking. (8) It should aid the 
pupil in the expression of good English. (4) It should reveal to the pupil 
his mastery of the p(^nts in question. (5) It should serve to make the pupil 
more self-reliant. (6) It should enable the teacher at times to do double 
work in the school-room. Of course, this all means work for you. But 
it will pay. The suggestions I made above in regard to home work ami 
these in regard to written work are in keeping with the pedagogical prin- 
ciples that expression must keep pace with impression— that construction 
must equal instruction. The child must be encouraged to use that whicli 
be takes In. Herein lies the value of manual training. 


It is just In his ability to do things that tl>e boy on the farm has a 
better chance to succeed than the town or city boy. And it is because the 


boy on the farm has work to do. He is well trained In the expresslTe side 
of life. It is expression, too, that amounts to something, and in It he gets 
the notion that there is work to do in the world— that life is not all play. 
Now, if you can use these good qualities in your school work, well and 
good. And if you can use them in building in the community a larger 
regard for labor and a supreme respect for the farm and its problems that 
will keep the boys in the country it will be all the better tor the boys and 
the nation In the years to come. Of course, if a young man really believes 
that he will have better opportunities for himself and for what he would 
do for humanity by going to the city, he should go. He can succeed, as 
scores who have preceded him to the city are succeeding. But let him 
remember that farm work is just as important, just as honorable, just 
as clean, that it requires Just as much ability, and that it is just as remu- 
nerative as any work he will find to do. 


The close of your term may be made profitable to the community by 
arranging a definite program of your work and sending it to the patrons 
with an invitation to be present at least part of the time. Two or three 
days could be taken up in oral examinations. A schedule of these should 
be made and dignified, interesting examinations conducted. You can 
make a careful preparation and conduct an oral quiz. Or you can make a 
careful list of the questions you wish to ask, write them on slips and let 
the children draw their questions. This device serves to keep Interest 
alive. In addition to oral examinations an exhibit of written work, draw- 
ings and models may be made. If there is also the entertainment feature 
it can carry with it a dignity and an influence for better things in educa- 
tion by selecting that which is worth while for the occasion. Whatever 
you can do to promote a healthful, educational interest in your community 
will be so much gain for the cause in which we are engaged. Emerson 
must have been thinking of teachers when he wrote: **To help the young 
soul, add energy, inspire hope, and blow the coals into a useful flame; to 
redeem defeat by new thought, by firm action, that is not easy, that is the 
work of divine men." 



The state superintendent of public instruction is elected by the 
people at the general elections for a term of two years. There is 
no limit to the number of terms he may be elected. His salary is 
$3,000.00. Three deputies are provided, with salaries of $1,600, 
$1,200, and $720.00. 


While no educational or professional qualifications are fixed by 
the constitution, the people have generally chosen men of high 


moral character, strong educational leaders, practical teachers, well 
acquainted with the educational needs of the state, and capable of 
carrving on the work for which they were chosen. 


The state superintendent has charge of the system of public in- 
stniction and a general superintendence of the business relating 
to the common schools of the state and of the school funds and 
school revenues set apart and apportioned for their support. At 
the request of school officials it is his duty to render, in writing, 
opinions touching all phases of administration or construction of 
school law. 


He visits each county in the state at least once during his term of 
office, and examines books and records relative to the school funds 
and revenues. He meets with teachers and officers in various parts 
of the state, counsels with them and lectures upon topics calculated 
to subserve the interests of popular education. 

(1) Report to the (iovnnor. 

In the month of Januarv in each vear in which there is no 
regular session of the general assembly, he makes a brief report, ^n 
writing, to the governor, indicating, in general terms, the enumera- 
tion of the children of the state for common school purposes, the 
additions to the permanent school fimd within the year, the 
amoimt of school revenue collected within the vear, and the 
amounts apportioned and distributed to the schools. 

(2) Report to General Assembly. 

At each regular session of the general assembly, on or before the 
fift^^nth day of »Tanuarv, the superintendent presents a biennial 
report of his administration of the system of public instruction, in 
which he furnishes brief exhibits — 

First. Of his labors, the results of his experience and observa- 
tion as to the operation of said system, and suggestions for the 
remedy of observed imperfections. 


Second. Of the amount of the permanent school fimds, and 
their general condition as to safety of manner of investment ; the 
amount of revenue annually derived therefrom, and from other 
sources; estimates for tlie following two years; and the estimated 
value of all other property set apart or appropriated for school 

Third. Of such plans as he may have matured for the better 
organization of -the schools, and for the increase, safe investment, 
and better preservation an<l management of the pernument school 
funds, and for the increase and more economical expenditure of 
the revenue for tuition. 

Fourth. Of a comparison of the results of the year then closing 
with those of the year next })receding, and, if deemed expedient, 
of years prcn^eding that, so as to indicate the progress made in the 
business of public instruction. 

Fifth. Of such other information relative to the svvstem of 
public instruction — the schools, their permanent funds, annual 
revenues — as he may think to be of interest to the general 

He ap})ends to this rej)ort statistical tables compiled from the 
materials transmitted to his office bv local school officials with 
proper summaries, averag(\s and totals. He makes a statement of 
the semi-annual collections of school revenue, an<l his apportion- 
ment thereof; and, when he deems it of sufficient interest to do so, 
he appends extracts from the c«orres])ondence of school officers, to 
show either the >2alutary or defective operation of the system or of 
any of its y)arts. 

Ten thousand copies of this report are printed and distributed 
to the several counties of the state; and they have been the means 
of stimulating the schools of the state to greater effort ; for 
instance, the re|x>rt assists in certain movements such as for better 
sanitation and decoration of school buildings, modc^rn architecture 
in building schoolhouses, manual training in ]mbHc schools, con- 
solidation of rural schools into graded township high schools. 


The construction of the course of study and the state manual 
was placed in the hands of the state su])orintendent of public 


instruction by a resolution of the county superintendents' associa- 
tion in June, 1894. The course of study is revised from time to 
time in order to meet the changing conditions. While the superin- 
tendent is responsible for the course of study in its preparation 
and revision he confers with county, city and town superintendents 
who are in closer touch with the schools and know better their 
needs. If the reader cares to examine the present course of study 
he may obtain one from the manager of the exhibit. 


The laws provide that all township teachers shall meet in insti- 
tute one day in each month while the schools are in session. There 
are in Indiana 1,0 H) townships and this number of institutes is 
held each month of the school tenii, or 7,1 12 meetings during the 
year. The programs for these meetings are professional and 
cultural. In addition to the consideration given the branches of 
study which are taught in the schools, two books adopted by the 
Indiana reading circle board are studied each year. During the 
present year the books were Ivanhoe, and Nicolay's Lincoln. 
Those for the coming year are, Dutton's School Management, and 
Henderson's The Social Spirit in America. The reader may 
obtain a pamphlet on the Indiana reading circle work from the 
manager of the exhibit. 


The superintendent issues programs to be used in the public 
schools for the observance of certain days in October and April 
each year. These programs are somewhat elaborate, giving 
something of the historv of the days, the reasons for observance, 
the governor's proclamation, descriptions of trees, with pictures 
and instructions as to what and how to plant them, descriptions of 
birds, with suggestions as to their value and care, poems on trees 
and birds, and appropriate selections. 

In Governor Durbin's last proclamation on arbor and bird day 
he said : "There has been within recent years a widespread aw^ak- 
ening of interest in reforest izat ion, especially in Indiana, a state 
favored lavishlv bv nature with timber resources that to the 
pioneer seemed limitless and inexhaustible. The rapid develop- 

3— Bducatiov. 

34 'education in INDIANA. 

ment of the agri(*iiltiiral and industrial interests of tlie state has 
been accompanied by a sacrifice of onr forests, until the people 
have been brought to a realization of the iniportancM^ of a system- 
atic effort with a view of preventiufi; further (k*vastation." 

Since 1896, the year the state department of (education began 
effectively to urge the im])ortance of this matter, thousands of trees 
have l)een planted by the teachcu's and pu])ils of the state, and the 
birds have received muvo (M)nsid(»ration than ever before. The 
results of this work have Immmi v(?rv gratifying to all lovers of 


It is the duty of the state superintendent of public instruction 
to enforce the minimum wage law. This is a recent piece of 
legislation calculated to increase the salaries of teachers and to 
bring about lx>tter ])r(»])aration of teadu^rs, an<l will be found under 
the discussion of *'The Teachers of Indiana.'' 


An act of the last legislature, api)rove(l March 1), ll)()»i, makes 
it the duty of the state .sii])erintendent of ])ublic instruction "To 
adopt and seheduh* the itiMus entering into teachers" success 
grades," to Ix^ used by th(» city, town and county superintendents 
in grading the ^^teach(*rs under their charge and supervision." In 
compliance with the provisions of this act, the followMUg forms 
have been prepared, which are now used by all county, (Mty and 
town superintendents in grading their teac'hers in success: 

Schedule of Success Items. 


For the JKse of County Siiitrrinffnilenta. 

I. Qualification to 2<l 

1. Natural ability and pi»rsonalit.v (0 to lo) 

2. Scholarship (o to '*) 

ti. Professional training (0 to 5) 

II. The Recitation to 10 

1. Subject matter- ninmjpriatfncss of (i) to 5> 

2. Purpose (0 to ."►) 

3. Plan (0 to T)) 


4. Proparation— 

a. Teacher (0 to 5) 

b. Pupils (0 to 5) 

5. Skill (Oto5) 

6. Thoroughness (0 to 5) 

7. Assignment (0 to 5) 

III. Relation of leacher to the School and (,'ummunity. to 40 

1. Class! tication and gradation (0 to 5) 

2. Industry, and interest in the aims and plans of 

the school community (0 to 5) 

:J. (Governing ability (0 to 10) 

4. Sanitary conditions and neatness (0 to 5) 

5. Care of s<'hool property, keeping re<*ords, mak- 

ing reports (0 to 5) 

r». ('4>-operation witli other teaclH»rs, tlie trustee 

an<l i'oinity superintendent (0 to 5 

7. Libraries, reading circles and journals (0 to 5) 

Total % 


County Superintendent. 

Ind., 1908. 

Schedule of Success Items. 

FORM 11. 

For the (ttr of ('it if ami Toirn Suprrintvndvnts Desirint; a Hrivf inched ule. 

I. Teaching Ability 55% 

1. Professional attainment (20%) 

2. Conduct of the recitation (15%) 

3. Kesults in scholarship of pupils (20%) 

II. <iOverning and l)is<'iplinary Ability 'M)% 

1. M(»ral and .social influence on pupils and commu- 
nity (10%) 

2. Ability to dcvchip self-relian<*e. industry, integrity, 

ridclity. etc (10%) 

3. Personality of the teacher (10%) 

III. Professional an<I Community Interest 15% 

1. (?o-operation with other teachers and supervisors.. .(5%) 

2. Interest in aims and plans of the .school (5%) 

:i Professional ambition and growth (5%) 

Total % 



' Superintendent. 
ToAvn ) 

Ind 1903. 


FORM 111. 

For Use of City and Town Sui>vr\ntvndrntH Dvfdrintj a More DvtaiU'd Schedule. 

1. Teaching Ability 53% 

A. Profossional attainineiit (1I0%) 

1. Scholastic preparation. 

2. Professional training. 

B. The recitation (15%) 

1. Preparation of teaclHT and pnpils. 

2. -ii)propriateness of snl)je<-t matter. 
:\. Detiniteness of aim and pnrpose. 

4. Slvill in questioning. 

r». Progression in plan, 

n. Clare in assignment of lessons. 

7. Balancing of lines of work. 

C\ Results in scholarship of pupils (20%) 

1. Ac<iuisition of facts and relation.s. 

2. Accuracy. 

l\, Ueneral information. 

4. Awakening oi s<-holarly interest. 

T). Clearness and eh»gan<-e of expression. 



II. Governing and Disciplinary Ability lH) 

A. Moral and social influence on pupils and commu- 
nity (10%) 

Ability to d<'vel<»p in the pupils the altruistic 
virtues— recognition of law and social right.^. 
li. Ability lO develop egoistic virtues— industry, hon- 
esty, reliability, fidelity, etc (10%) 

C. Personality and appearance of teacher (10%) 

IVrsonal and moral worth and influence, habits, 
disposition, health, attire, sympatliy. energy, 
manliness or womanlines.s. honesty, etc. 

III. Professional and Ccmimunity Interest ir»% 

A. Co-operation with other teachers and with super- 

visors (0% ) 

B. Interest in aims and plans of school community. .. .(."»%) 

1. Care of school projx'rty— 

a. Protection of supplies anil furniture. 

b. Neatness. 

c. School d4*coration. 

2. Building up of strong school stMitiment in the 

.1. Educati<mal, literary or social clul) work. 
C Professional pursuits (5% ) 

1. Present lines of professional study. 

2. Reading of educational literature. 


C. Professional pursuits— Continued. 

3. Attendance upon summer schools, institutes 
and associations. 

Total % 



[- Superintendent. 
Town J 

Ind., , 1903. 

Form I, as indicateil, is for the use of countj^ superintendents in grad- 
ing the teachers under their supervision. Form II is for the town and city 
superintendents. Form III is a detailed analysis of Form II, and is in- 
tended more especially for guidance of teachers in their study, but 
may be used by the city and town superintendents desiring the longer 

The city and town superintendents should hand the success grades to 
their teachers not later than July 1st each year, and forward copies of 
the same to the county superintendents, who will keep the otTicial success 
records for the counties. 

The county superintendents should asi^ the county councils to provide 
supplies of blanks and records made necessary by the passage of this act. 

The following exftla nations of the schedule are submitted: By 
"scholastic preparation'* is meant th<' time spent in study in some of the 
higher educational Institutions In addlticm to the scholarship as shown on 
license. Teach(»rs should be enconragiHl to study at least fcnir years in 
advance of the work they are engaged in. A high school teacher should 
have a four years' colh'ge course and a grade* teacher at least a four 
year«' high school course, etc. 

The teacher who is really interested professionally is the oiu» who seeks 
most persistently to lK»tter tit h<'rs(»lf both l>y scholastic and professional 
training for more thorougli work. Experi(Mice Is sometimes counted by 
sui>erintendents as a large factor In marking success. Imt the teacher who 
has taught twenty or mon» years may have shown In all that time no 
professional Interest and litth* ability, and may hav<» been tnnvilling to 
spend any of her time or money in n»al i>rei)aratlon for her work. It 
sc»ems to me that a teacher who is willing to teach ten or twelve years 
without first having made extensive preparation for good work in some 
tirst-class scliool. ought to be ranked v(»ry low in sih'ccss. 

The remaining items und(»r I and II will be readily understood. 

By "community interest" is meant the co-operation of teacher with the 
other teachers and the i)rinclpal or suj)erintendent In furtherhig the alms 
and plans of the school community. Many t<»achers who are satisfactoi^y 
in their schoolroom work <lo not tit Into the community life of the school. 
They are controlled by little trou!)les of various kinds, and are often 
exclusive and self-centered. This always gives annoyance to the principal 
and keeps him <»onstantly adjusting troubles. Again, many good teachers 
are without ambition to assist in the general welfare of the school. They 
look after* their own room, but give no time or attention to help carry out 


the suggestions from the principal or superintendent. The best teacher 
co-operates heartilj' with her principal, her superintendent and associates 
in all movements for the improvement of the scliool and the school coni- 

"Professional pursuits" is an important item. A teacher who is 
satisfied simply to teach school without investigating and improving, 
except as suggested by the principal or superintendent, is not doing her 
best. She should be interested in good worlvs on pedagogy, psychology, 
methods, etc. Her reading of school periodicals, attendance upon educa- 
tional gatherings, her knowledge of current events and the literature of 
the day, are all important factors to be considered in marking the success 

The difficulty in applying these schedules will be in marking the 
details. After having marked the items conscientiously the superintendent 
often rtnds that he does not give his real estimate of the teacher. He feels 
that it is too much or too little, especially when she is compared with 
other teachers wliom he has marked just as carefully on the same plan. 

The superintendent should have in mind all the items menticmed in tlie 
schedules, but it will l)e difficult to mark them separately. After all. one*/? 
"general impression" of a school is a Ijetter guide than the summary of 
the several items, especially when the superintendent is in doubt. 

A teacher is successful when she is training her children to love order, 
obedience, politeness, and to have reverence for things sacred. In judg- 
ing the work of a gardener we pay very little attention to the "method" 
of planting, sowing, cultivating or reaping, but the emphasis is placed 
upon the growing plant in its various stages, and to the finished product. 
Likewise, in passing judgment upon the work of the teacher, the general 
spirit of the school, rather than the detailed analysis; the "general 
impression** of the teacher's worth instead of the grading of the several 
items, should guide the superintendent in marking the success grades. 


Til 1899 the logislatnro ^avo applicants for teacliers' license the 
privilege of sending their niannseripts to the department of pnblie 
instrnetion to be graded. This entitles iheni to a license to teach 
in any eonntv in the state instead of in one eonntv if the nianu- 
scripts are examined and graded by the eonntv snperintendent. 
The law has l)een a great convenience to teachers and has at the 
same time assisted materially in raising the standard of examina- 


The state snperintendent is, ex officio, a member of the reading 
circle board of the state. This board and the <1epartment have a 
common pnrpose in selecting the best literature for teachers and 



The state auperintendent is also, ex officio, a member of the 
lx)ard of trustees of the state normal school. This duty serves to 
keep the department in close toucli with the professional training 
of teachers and the everyday practical pedagogical problems. It 
is a duty, too, wliich takes the superintendent away from his 
clerical duties and brings him face to face with the actual problems 
of teachers. 



When Caleb Hills first suggested a board of education for 
Indiana it was to consist of a county superintendent chosen from 
each of the congressional districts. WHien in 1852 the board was 
created it consisted of the state su])erintendont, and the governor, 
secretary, treasurer and auditor of state. In 1855 tho attorney- 
general was added. In 1865, it was changed and consisted of the 
state superintendent, the governor, the president of the state uni- 
versity, the president of the state normal school (not established 
till 18Y2), and the superintendents of schools of the three 
largest cities in the state. In 1875 the president of Purdue Uni- 
versity was added. In 1800 the general assembly enacted a law 
providing for thrc»e additional members to be appointed by the 
governor. They must bo three citizens of prominence, actively 
engaged in e<lucafiomil work in the stat<% nt lenst one of whoni shall 
be a county superinlendent, mmo of whom shall Ix? appointed from 
anv countv in which anv other memln^r of the state board of educa- 
tion resides, or from which any other member was ay)pointed. 
Under this last ])rovision the present board has the following 

Fassett A. Cotton, president, state superintendent public in- 

W. W. Parsons, secretary, ]u*esident state normal school. 

Hon. W. T. T)urbin, governor of Indiana. 

Dr. William L. Bryan, president Indiana university. 

Dr. W. E. Stone, president Purdue university. 


Dr. W. T. Stott, president Franklin college. 

C. N. Kendall, superintendent Indianapolis schools. 

F. W. Cooley, superintendent Evansville schools. 

J. N. Study, superintendent Ft. Wayne schools. 

Prof. J. M. Bloss, ex-state superintendent of public instruction. 

E. E. Robey, superintendent Howard county. 

The state board of education with its ex officio membership has 
always been regarded as a unique feature in the Indiana system. 
Indeed its strength has be^n due to its ex officio membership. At 
times it has had in its meml>ership such men as David Starr 
Jordan, John Merle Coulter, and Lewis H. Jones, men of national 
and international reputation. So constituted it u^ill necessarily 
always have the best qualified educators of the state. 



The state board of education is responsible for all examinations 
of teachers and makes all questions used in these examinations 
which are for the following grades of license : 

1. Primary license, one, tw^o and three years. 

2. Common school license, one, two and three years. 

3. High school license, one, two, three and five years. 

4. Professional license, eight years. 
6. Life state license. 

In addition to making the questions the board conducts the 
examination and examines and grades the manuscripts of appli- 
cants for professional and life state licenses. All other examina- 
tions are conducted by the county superintendent, and the manu- 
script?? are graded by the county superintendent or by the state 
superintendent. The law provides for an examination to be held 
on the last Saturday of the first eight months in each year. 


The following circular was issued by the state superint<?ndent 

of public instruction. 

IndianapoHs, Ind., Janiiarj^ 15, 1904. 

AU applicants for common school or primary licenses during the year 
1904-_either state or county licenses— may select either one of two lists of 


questions on the subjects of history and literature. In each subject, one 
list will be based upon the general field of the subject the other upon the 
reading circle book corresponding with it. 

Grades of Licenses. 

I. Life State License for Graduates of Higher Institutions of Learn- 
ing Only.— The state board of education revised its rules governing appli- 
cants for life state licenses by the addition of the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That the rules of the state board of education relating to 
examinations for and the granting of life state licenses, shall be and are 
hereby amended by the addition of the following: All graduates of higher 
institutions of learning in Indiana, or other institutions of equal rank in 
other states approved by this board, which require graduation from com- 
missioned high schools, or the equivalent of the same, as a condition of 
entrance, which maintain standard courses of study of at least four years, 
and whose work, as to scope and quality, is approved by the state board 
of education, shall, on complying with the conditions enumerated below, 
be entitled to life state licenses to teach In Indiana: Provided, however. 
That graduation by the applicant shall have been accomplished by not less 
than three years' resident study and by thorough, extended examinations 
in all subjects pursued privately and for which credit has been given by 
the institution: And, provided further. That the requirement as to three 
years* resident study shall apply only to applicants graduating after 
January 18, 1900. 

First. Such applicants must have held one or more sixty months' 
licenses or a professional license. (See reciuirements in this circular.) 

Second. They must present to the state board of eilucatlon satisfac- 
tory written testimonials from competent superintendents, special super- 
visors, teachers, or other school officials to the effect that they have 
taught and managed a school or schools successfully for a periinl of not 
less than thirty months, at least ten of which shall have been in Indiana. 

Third. They must pass thorough, satisfactory examinations in any 
three of the following subjects: (1) General history of education; (2) The 
school system and the school law of Indiana; (.*{) Educational psychology; 
(4) Experimental psychology and child study: (5) Leading school systems 
of Europe and America; (li) Science of education, and (7) The principles 
and methods of instruction. 

Fourth. Before entering upon the examination, such applicants shall 
present to the state board of education satisfactory evidence of good 
moral character, and shall pay five dollars each (the fee prescribed by 
law), which can, in no case, be refunded. Examinations in the subjects 
named above may be taken on the last Saturday of April. 

Fifth. A license will be granted to those who make a general average 
of 75 per cent., not falling below 65 per cent, in any subject, 

II and III. For Applicants, not Graduates of Higher Institutions of 
Learning.— Life state and professional. 

£}xaminations for these licenses will be conducted in the mouths of 
February and April. 


Section 1. Subjects for February: Algebra, civil government, Ameri- 
can literature, science of education, and two of the following three 
subjects— Elements of phjsics, elenienia of botany, and Latin (Ijatin 
grammar, two books of Caesar and two of Virgil). A satisfactory exami- 
nation on the above entitles the applicant to a professional license, valid 
in any Indiana school for eight years. 

Section 2. Subjects for April: Geometry, rhetoric, general history, 
English literature, physical geography and two of the following three 
subjects— chemistry, geology, and zoology. A satisfactory examination 
on both 1 and 2 entitles the applicant to a life state license. 

The following requirements govern tlie apiilication for life state and 
professional licenses: 

1. Applicants for life state and professional licenses must have held 
two thirty-six months' licenses in Indiana, or an equivalent in another 
state, obtained by actual examination, and must have taught successfully 
at least forty-eight months, which fact shall be properly certified to and 
sent with the manuscript to the state board of education. 

Before entering upon tlie examination, applicantis shall present to the 
examiner satisfactory evidence of good moral character and professional 
ability. Applicants for life state license shall pay five dollars each (the 
fee prescribed by law), which can, in no case, be refunded. 

2. Applicants for professional license will take the February exami- 
nation only. 

3. No fee is required of applicants for professional license. 

4. A license will be granted to those who make a general average of 
seventy-five per cent, not falling below sixty i)er cent, in any subject, 
and who present satisfactory evidence of professional ability and good 
moral character. 

5. An applicant for a life state license failing in the examination for 
the same, but who will have met all the requirements for a professional 
license, shall receive such license, or if he reach the required average for 
a professional license, but fall below the standard per cent, in one subject, 
he may be conditioned in such subject, and may be granted a professional 
license, on the same conditions as if he liad originally applied for a license 
of this class. 

6. An applicant is '^conditioned," that is, he may complete the work 
at the next regular examination, if he makes the required general average 
and pass successfully upon all the branches except one, required for the 
license applied for. A statement setting forth this fact will be furnished 
such "conditioned'* ai)plioant, who must prosi»nt the same to tlie county 
superintendent, who will forward it with tli«» comlitioned manuscript to 
the department of public instruction. 

Where the Examinatiom May Be Taken. 

Applicants for a professional license or a life state license may be ex- 
amined by members of the state board of education at any one of the fol- 
lowing places on the last Saturdays of February and April, respectively: 

1. In the department of public instruction, state house. 

2. In the oflfice of the city superintendent of schools. Fort Wayne. 


3. In the office of the city superintendent of schools, Evansville. 

4. In the office of the county superintendent of schools, Valparaiso. 

5. In the office of tlie county superintendent of schools, Richmond. 

6. In the office of the county superintendent of schools, Terre Haute. 

7. In the office of the county superintendent of schools, Lafayette. 

8. In the office of the city superintendent of schools, Seymour. 

9. In the office of the city superintendent of schools, Bloomington. 


1. Write upon one side of the paper only, using legal cap. 

2. See that the answers to tlie questions in each branch are entirely 
separate from those of any other branch, and securely fastened together. 

3. Write full name and postofflcc address upon each set of answers, 
and upon every sheet disccmnected from the first one. 

4. Answer the general questions upon a separate sheet. 

5. Furnish the examiner with recommendations required, which are 
to be filed for future reference. 

Applicants should furnish to the examiner the necessary postage to 
send manuscripts. 

IV. Sixty Months* State License.— This license is valid to teach any 
subject in any non-commissioned high school in the state; to teach all of 
the common branches in any school in the state; and to teach the subjects 
upon which the examination is made in any commissioned school. The 
examination may l)e tal;en on the last Saturday of any of the first eight 
calendar months, but must be talcen in two divisions, as follows: 

The first division, an average of 95 per cent., not falling below 85 per 
cent, in the common branches;" the second division, an average of 75 per 
cent., not falling below 60 per cent. In any of the five branches, as 

Group 1— Literature and composition (required by all applicants). 

Group 2— Algebra or geometry (one required). 

Group 3— Botany, zoology, chemistry, physics, or physical geography 
(one required). 

Group 4— History and civics, Latin or German (one required). 

Group 5— One subject from *'2," '%'' or "4" not already taken. Five 
subjects are required in this division. 

In order to secure a sixty months* license the MSS. of both divisions 
must be sent to this department, by number, for gradation. The fee of 
$1.00 must be sent with the MSS. in each division. These examinations 
may be taken in any county. 

Note 1. An applicant who has never taught may take the examination 
in any county. 

Note 2. An applicant who has taught must take the examination in 
the county in which he last taught unless he has permission from the 
county superintendent under whom he last taught, and then he must bear 
recommendations and be fully identified to the county superintendent to 
whom he applies for examination. 

V. Thirty-six Months' State License.— Valid to teach the common 
branches in any common school of the state for a period of three years. 


It is Issued by the state department. The examhiation may be taken on 
the last Saturday of any of the first elj^ht calendar months. General 
average, 95 per cent.: miiiinuim grade. ST) per cent. 

VI. Twenty-four Months* State Li<*onse.— Valid to teach the common 
branches In any school of tlie state. (Jeneral average, (K) per cent.; min- 
imum grade, 80 iH»r cent. Other conditions same as **V.'* 

VII. Twelve Months' State License.— Valid to teach the common 
branches in any school of tlie state for a period of twelve months. Gen- 
eral average, 85 per cent.; minimum grade, 75 per cent. Other conditions 
same as "V.*' 

VIII. State Primary License.— For periods of one, two or three years 
npon averages and toinimums as in V, VI and VII. These licenses are 
issued by the state department of pul>li(* instruction, and examinations 
tnay be taken on the last Saturday of March. April. May, June, July or 

IX. State High School License.— Issued by the department of public 
instruction and valid to teach high school su1»jects in any of tlie schools of 
the state. The applicant must l)e examined upon all subjects he desires 
to teach. No license will be issued for a period of more than one year 
unless the applicant write upon at least five subjects. The averages and 
minimums are the same as in V, VI and VII. The examinations may be 
taken on the last Saturday of any of the first eight calendar months. 

X. County Common School Licenses.— Issued l>y county superintend- 
ents for periods of three, two, one* and one-half years, and valid to teach 
the common branches In the scliools of the county in which the license is 
granted. The questions for these and all otlier examinations are fur- 
nished by the state board of education. Examinations are conducted on 
the last Saturday of each of the first eiglit calendar months. The aver- 
ages and minimums are the same as In V, VI and VII. 

XI. County Primary Licenses.— Issued by the county superintendent 
for periods of one, two and three years. The examinations may be taken 
in March, April, May, June. July or August. Otlier conditions the same 
as in X. 

XII. County Iligli School License.- Issued by the county superintend- 
ent for periods of one, two and three years. Other conditions tlie same 
as IX. 

XIII. Fees.— An applicant for any grade of license mentioned in V, 
VI, VII, VIII and IX above, must i)ay the fee of one dollar. This fee pro- 
vides for one trial only If tlie applicant secures a license. If he fails to 
secure a license he may have a second trial. A tliird trial Is granted in 
ease of a second failure. Tliese three trials may l)e niadc^ for the one fee. 
provided they occur within one* calendar year; otherwise, tlie usual fee 
must be paid for the second or tliird trial. 

Applicants for the first division of a sixty months' license are entitled 
to three trials In any one* calendar year for one fee in case of failure to 
make the required grades, i)rovlded a lower grade of license is not issued. 

XIV. Sixty Months' License— High Scliool License.— If an applicant 
fall too low In the common school brandies, a license will be issmnl on 
each section separately In accordance with tlie standard attained by him 
In such sections; in which case a subsequent examination would make 
necessary an additional fee. 



The state board of education is the stat<3 board of school book 
coiiiinissioners. As such it ado])ts text-lxmks for the common 
schools for periods of five years. When a contract has been made 
with a publisher the books are secured for the j)ublic by a requisi- 
tion of the county superintendent for tlie numl)er of books needed 
in his c-ounty upon the state su])erintendent, who in turn makes 
requisititm upon the contractor for the numb(»r of books needed, in 
the state. Tlie county su])erintendent Inn'ouies the agent for the 
sale of these books and makes his rejiorts to the various contractors. 

This plan of securing uniform text-books lias been regarded as 
very successful and it is believed that the following advantages are 
gained from such uniformity: 

1. It insures good books at a uniform low price. 

2. It obviates the ])urchase of new l)ooks when children move 
from one part of the state to anoth(»r. 

3. It makes classification easy. 

4. It puts t(»achers in closer touch. 

5. Tt makes a uniform course of studv mor(» eflFective. 


The state board of education in order to keep some uniform 
standard of efticiency in high schools has established certain 
requirements in the work which entitle high schools to commis- 
sions. These commissions carry with them exem])tion from exami- 
nation for entran(*e to the frc^shman class in the higher institutions 
of learning. I'p^m the recommendation of the state su])erintendent 
members of the board inspect the work of high schools and deter- 
mine whether the re(]uirements for commission have been met. 
This work of the board has r(»sulted in a perceptible increase in 
the efficiency of the high schools, since all schools want commis- 
sions, and when once obtained every effort is made on the j)art 

of school officials, teachers and patrons to retain them, Following 
are the requirements necessary for a commission: 

The followinp conrso of study for tho com missioned liijrli schools of 
Indiana was adopted by the state board of odncation, .July 2. 1002. It is 
a revision of the course adopted in 1808. It provides for required worli as 
follows: Three years of language, three years of history, three years of 


mathematicB, two years of science, four years of English, and electives to 
complete a full course of four years. It is not intended that the course 
should be an absolute one, but that it should guide local school officers and 
teachers and form the basis of a minimum course. For example, the 
option is given in the first year to study eitlier lK)tany or zoology, or one 
of four languages. In the third year to pursue the study of England 
throughout the entire year, or to divide the year between the French and 
English history; in the fourth year to study either physics or chemistry, 
or both, or to carry throughout the year any one of a number of electives 
It is the desire of the board to have a few sul>jects continued throughout 
the entire course, rather than a great field of sul>jects each through a 
brief period. It would not seem advisable to drop one year of English for 
the purpose of substituting an elective, nor does it seem advisable to drop 
one year of history and substitute an elective in a different department. 
A course of study containing few sul>jects, pursued throughout the entire 
high school course, has many advantages: First. It gives excellent train- 
ing, scholarship and discipline in a given sul)ject. Second, It uialves 
necessary fewer teachers. Third, It requires a .<<maller library and equip- 
ment. The board recognizes the fact that a great many students do not 
continue their education beyond tlie higli school. For that reason, the 
option is given of substituting commercial arithmetic or bool^lceeping for 
solid geometry. It is the intention of the state board of education to 
inspect as many of tlie commissioned high scliools each year as it is pos- 
sible for them to reacli. The points of interest to them are tliose required 
of all commissioned high schools, namely: First. The character of the 
teaching must be satisfactory. S<H*ond. Tlie high school course must 
not be less than thirty-two months in length, continuing from the eighth 
year. Third, The whole time of at least two teachers must be given to 
the high school work. Fourth. The pursuing of few subjects throughout 
the entire course rather than many covering short periods. Fifth, A 
library adequate to meet all the demands for reference work and general 
reading supplementary to the regular text-books. (See recommendations 
in connection with the outlines of the different subjects and reference list 
on page 35.) Sixth, I^aboratories fully equipped to do all of the necessary 
work in the sciences pursued in any given liigh school. Seventh, No 
science should be taught for a term of less than one year. Eighth. Ad- 
mission to the high school must be given only to those who have com- 
pleted to the entire satisfaction of the school officers and teachers, all of 
the work of the grades. Ninth. The high scliool building must be kept in 
good order, the sanitary appliances adequate, the heating and lighting 
good, and outhouses and indoor closets clean and sanitary. Tenth. All 
courses leading to college entrance should provide at least three j'ears 
of foreign language. Eleventh. Psychology, sociology and i)oIitical econ- 
omy should not be taught in high schools. Twelfth, Beginning with the 
school year 1908, each high school must have in its faculty at least one 
graduate from an acceptable normal school, college or university. Thir- 
teenth, The course of study must be at least a fair equivalent of the 




First Ykar. 

Second Year. 

Third Year. 

Fourth Year. 


Aliarebra, one-half 

Plane Geometry, one- 
half year, and Solid 


year, and Plane 

(Geometry, one-half 

(teometry, one-half 

American History 


year, or Concrete 
(leonietry. one-half 
year. < hlective. ) 


and (Mvil (Tovem 

Physics or Chemis- 

Botany or Zooloiary. 





History of Rnfirlanil, 
one year, or French 

Physical (ieoiarra- 

History of (ireece. 


one-half year, and 

and F^nidish His- 


History of Rome, 
one-half year. 

tory, one year (one- 

Commercial Arith- 

(a) liatin. 

half year ea(*h). 


<b) (lerman. 

if) P^rench 

BookkeepinfjT or 


LanffuaiBre, one 

(<li Greek. 




Tlio following is a high sdiool inspection blank nscd by the 
board of education : 


Ind 190. . . 

To the State Board of Education: 

Gentlemen— Having visited the high scliool at 

on the day of 190. . . , 

and having made a careful insix'etion of said seliool, I beg to submit the 
subjoined report: 

I. Physical Conditions: 

(a) Building 

(b) Heating 

(c) Ventilation 

(d) Premises 

(e) Outhouses 


(g) '• 

II. Name and Educational and Pedago^xical Qualifications of the 

(a) Superintendent 

(b) High school principal 

(c) First assistant 

fd) Second assistant 

(e) TJiird assistant 



III. Course of Study (Nunil>er of months of work in): 

(a) Composition and rhetoric 

(b) Literature 

(c) Physics 


III. Course of Study— Continued. 

(d) ZoSlogy 

(e) Botany 

(f) Geology 

(g) Chemistry 

(h) Latin— 





(i) History and civics— 





(j) Algebra 

(k) Geometry 




IV. ♦Libraries: 

(a) No. classical books 

(b) No. mathematical books 

(c) No. scientific books 

(d) No. literary books 

(e) No. reference books, as dictionaries, etc 



V. t Apparatus: 

(a) For work in physics 

No. of pieces and value 

(b) For work in l>otany 

No. of pieces and value 

(c) For chemistry 

No. of pieces and value 

(d) For zottlogy 

No. of pieces and value 



VI. Enrollment: 

(a) In senior class 

(b) In Junior class 

(c) In second year 

(d) In first year 

(e) In grades below high school 

♦List of titleK Hhoiild be attached on separate sheet unless the library is very lartre. 
tList of most important pieces should be attached. 


VII. Remarks: 

(a) On character of instruction 

(b) On spirit of school and community 

(c) On average age of fo'aduating class 

(d) On needs of the school 

(e) On the length of school term 

(f) On attitude of school officers 


VIII. Recommendations: 




The state l)<)arfl of education appoints the state librarian and 
assistants, who hold office during good behavior. It is thus respon- 
sible for the efficiency of the library system of the state. 


The law j)rovides for an annual board of visit^)rs which shall 
inspect the work of the stat^ normal school. This l)oard of visitors 
is appointed by the state lx)ard of education. Its membership is 
chosen from the prominent educators of the country and its work 
is intended to be helpful in a suggestive way to the institution. 


II. County Supervision. 



County supervision lias come to be what it is today through a 
long process of development. As early as 1818 the general 
assembly made it the duty of the governor to appoint for each 
county a seminarv trustee. The dutv of this officer was almost 
entirely connected with the financial problem. In 1824, the law 
provided for the election of three trustees in each township and 
])laced examining teachers and granting licenses among their 
duties. The examiners were not school men, and the meager test 
covered the subjects of reading, writing and arithmetic. There 
were only six organized counties at that time. 

In 1831 the law provided for a school commissioner for each 
county who looked after the funds of the local school corporations 
and who was elected for a term of three years. In 1833 in addi- 
tion to the school commissioner for the county and the three 
trustees for the township provision was made for the election of 
three subtrnstees in each district, to hf)ld office one year. These 
district tnistees examined applicants and employed teachers. The 
law of 183f> made it legal for any householder to employ a teacher 
in case of failure to elect district trustees. In 1837, in addition 
to all these officers, and with only a slight modification of their 
duties, the circuit court was authorized to appoint annually three 
examiners whose dutv it should be "to certifv the branches of 
learning each applicant was qualified to teach." During the next 
decade no change was made in the county system. Tn 1847, Caleb 
Mills in the second of his famous messages gave as one of the 
essential characteristics of a state system of schools, efficient super- 
vision, state and county. The law of 1849 abolished the office of 
county school commissioner, retained the three school examiners 



in each county, and the three township trustees, but substituted 
one trustee in each district instead of three. This was the 
bep^inning of the simplification of the school machinery of the 
county. This law prescribed a minimum school term, made 
schools in each township of uniform length, and adopted an elab- 
orate system of records and reports through teachers, district and 
township trustees, the county auditor and treasurer, the superin- 
tendent of common schools, and the legislature. 

The new constitution in 1851 left the countv school machinerv 
practically as the law of 1841) had left it, and so it remained till 
the sixties. The law of 1852 did make the licensing of teachers a 
part of the duty of the sti^t<^ superintendent of public instruction 
by himself or deputies whom he was authorized to appoint, one to 
a county. This arrangement did not prove satisfactory. In 1856 
Superintendent Mills recommended the appointment of three ex- 
aminers to each county to constitute a board. In 1859, Superin- 
tendent Rugg, s]>eaking of the system, said that there was "a gap 
in the supervision of its interests and affairs, which, if properly 
filled, would contribute much to facilitate its workings and assist 
in \is administration." lie recommended that the examiners, in- 
stead of the audit^)rs, lx» held responsible for the annual school 
reports; that they should visit and inspect the schools of their 
respective counties, looking to greater uniformity in their organi- 
zation and management. The outcome of these recommendations 
was a change in the law of 1861 substituting one examiner with a 
term of three years for the three that had held office in each county 
and placing the appointing power in the board of county commis- 
sioners. This law made all examinations public and prohibited the 
granting of a license upon private examinations. It was another 
step towards the sim])lification of th(» school machinery of the 
county and resulted in great advance. But the greatest advance 
appeared in the provision that '^said examiners shall constitute a 
medium of communication l)etween the state superintendent of 
public instruction and the sulK)rdinatc scliool officers and schools; 
they shall visit the schools of their res])(»ctive counties as often as 
they may deem it necessary, during each term, for the purpose of 
increasing their usefulness, and elevating as far as practicable the 
poorer schools to the standard of the best ; advising and securing. 


as far as practicable uniformity in their organization and manage- 
ment, and their conformity to the law and the regulations and 
instructions of the state lx>ard of education and of the state suix^r- 
intendcnt of public instruction, and shall enwnirage teachers' 
institutes and asscK'iations. Thev shall receive from the trustees 
their reports of enumeratiim and their regular scho<:)l and other 
reports which are required by law to be made by them, and other- 
wise gather up the nec*essary data and information, including that 
relative to private schools, high schools, colleges and other private 
institutions of learning within their respwtive counties, so as to 
present a view of the educational facilities of the state and enable 
them to make full and com])lete reports to the state superintendent 
of public instruction; and receive for, and distribute to the town- 
ship libraries such books as may be furnished for them, and advise 
such a disposition and use of them as will tend to increase their 
usefulness and advise the tnistee as to the most approved school 
furniture, apparatus and educational agencies/' 

While a great advance had In^cn made, the feeling soon became 
apparent that the good of the schools required l>etter service than 
could be rendered bv the examiner imder these conditions. In re- 
spouse to a call mad(» by State Superintendent Iloshour the exam- 
iners met in Indianapolis in convention for the first time on Xor 
vember 6, 18f>2. They discussed such problems as quali fictitious of 
teachers, examinations, visitation, and reports. The second state 
convention of examiners met at the call of State Superintendent 
IIoss in the summer of isno and among the changes recommended 
was one calling for the creation of a couuty l>oard of education. 
In 18f>8 Superintendent TTobbs held that "to be able to judge of 
the practical qualities of teachers the examiners should si.>end 
enough time with them in their schools to know that their work 
is professionally done ; that the entire time of oue man is not too 
much for the work demandefl in a maioritv of the counties." In 
1872 Superintendent Hopkins made the recommendation that the 
office of school examiner 1k> abolished and that of county superin- 
tendent lx» created. As a result of these cumulative recommenda- 
tions by the leading educators of the state the general assembly 
of 1873 created the office of county superintendent. This law 
])rovided that "the townsliip trustees of the several townships shall 


meet at the office of the county auditor of their respec^tive counties 
on the first Monday of June, eighteen hundred and seventy-three, 
and biennially thereafter, and appoint a county superintendent.'' 
The act did not create a new office, it merely changed the name and 
enlarged the powers of the old office. The change made the term 
two years and increased the function of supervision. This law 
carried with it no educational or professional requirements, but the 
people as a rule saw that the best men available were chosen. The 
status of county supervision remained unchanged, but for a few 
simple modifications, till the general assembly of 1899 extended 
the term of office to four years, and holding a thirty-six months' 
license, or a life or professional license a test of eligibility. 

Since 1873 supervision for the rural schools has meant some- 
thing in Indiana. The teachers pass rigid examinations, for which 
the questions are provided by the state Ix^ard of education, and the- 
examination and grading of the manuscripts may he done by the 
county superintendent or the state superintendent. The county 
superintendent makes systematic supervision a large part of his. 
work. The rural schools have all been graded, the standard of 
efficiency has been constantly raised, and through the good work 
of the county superintendent the children are receiving advantages: 
equal to those of the towns and cities. Such men as Dr. B. W. 
Evermann, of the U. S. Fish Commission, and Supt. W. H. Elson,. 
of Grand Rapids, were formerly among the successful county, 
superintendents of Indiana. 



The term of the county superintendent is four years, and he is: 
eligible for re-election during good behavior. The educati(mat 
qualifications, holding a three years' license, is still meager, and 
there is no professional qualification. The office is still often the- 
spoil of party politics, since the political complexicm of the 
majority of the trustees too often determines the election. It must 
be said, however, that Indiana has been fortunate in Iiaving as 
county superintendents men of integrity and ability interested in 
the schools. The salary, which is much too small, is four dollars 


for every day of actual service aii<l the county provides office, 
postage and stationery. 


The county superintendent with questions provided by the state 
board of education holds one public examination on the last Satur- 
day of each of the following months : January, February, March, 
April, May, June, July and August; but special examinations may 
be held at any time upon the written recpiost of school Ixmrds. The 
applicant must file with the suix»rintondent a certificate of good 
moral character from a trustee of the countv or from some other 
satisfactory source. 

The county superintendent may issue liceuvses of twelve, twenty- 
four and thirty-six mo^iths, determined by the answers and other 
evidences of qualification furnished by the applicant. 

A teacher who has taught for six consecutive years and holds a 
thirty-six months' license, is exempt from examination in the 
county in which he has taught, so long as he continues to teach 
without interruption. 

There are three grades of licenses based upon the grade of school 
work done, primary, common school and high school. Teachers 
who do primary work, that is, work up to the fourth grade, are 
permitted to teach upon the primary license, which, while requir- 
ing a knowledge of the principles ])ertaining to prinuiry work, does 
not call for advanced academic training. Tlu* (•ommon school 
license is valid in grades one to eight inclusive, and calls for larger 
scholarship. The high school license is valid in high schools. A 
county or state high school license nuiy Ix^ grantetl upon one or 
more subjects. 

The county superintendent has the power to revoke licenses 
heretofore granted by himself or his predecessors or granted by the 
state superintendent of jmblic instruction, for incompetency, im- 
morality, cruelty or general neglect of duty on the part of the 
teacher. The teacher may appeal to the state superintendent of 
public instruction, whose decision is final. 

The county superintendent provides for the examination of all 
applicants for graduation in the common scIkm)! branches from 
township, district or town schools during the months of March, 
April and May, and furnishes them certificates of graduation, if in 



the judgment of the county superintendent they are entitled 
thereto, which entitles the recipients to enter any township, town 
or city high school of the state. He likewise provides for the 
examination of all applicants for graduation from the township 
graded or town graded liigh schools not employing a superintend- 
ent, during the months of April, May and June, and furnishes 
them certificates of graduation, if entitled thereto. He attends as 
many commencements as he can of tlie township and town schools, 
and also of the township and town liigli schools. 

In addition to these examinations the county superintendent 
provides questions for bimonthly examinations in the schools. 
These questions are prepared by a committee of county superin- 
tendents, and printed and distributed by the state superintendent 
of public instruction. It is upon these examinations that the rural 
teacher promotes his pupils. 

Lists of questions issued by the county superintendent are sub- 
mitted here. 


Questions for the First Ejaminalion, Based on the First Part of the State 

Course of Study, 


Grade the penmanHhip ou lei^ibility (40), 
remilarity of form (25),neatnesM (10), move- 
ment (10), and improvement (15). 


1. In each (^mde teachers select thirty 

words from the spellinfir work of the 
last two mouths, and have pupils 
spell on paper. 

2. Grade each pupil on the entire exam- 

ination, deductinii: one-half per cent, 
for each misspelled word. 



1. Give each pupil a sentence printed or 

written on paper and have him read 
it at sifirht. 

2. Test each pupil on naminii: at ti'ieht 

words selected from lesson 23, pasfe 

3. Have each pupil study a parafirrapli 

in lesson 23, pskge 86. and give it 
from memory. 

4. Select Ave words to be spelled by sound 

and by letter. 

5. Permit each pupil to select and read 
some less(m, or part of a lesson, 
which has been studied durinif the 


1. Study lesson 27, page 141. 

2. Why is the lesson called "A Boy's Tri- 


3. What was Willie's temptation? 

4. Describe Willie's copy-book. 

5. Who had the right idea of honor. Wil- 

lie or the other boys? Why do you 
think so? 

6. Read the lesson orally. 


1. Read silently the lesson on pagre 180. 

2. Why did the Abbot place the bell on 

Inchcape Rock? How was it placed? 

3. Why did the mariners bless the Abbot? 

What is a mariner? What is an 

4. Describe the wicked act of Sir Ralph 

the Rover. What is a Rover? Why 
did he cut loose the bell? 

5. What did Sir Ralph the Rover then do? 

6. What happened on his return? What 

lesson may we learn from this story? 

7. Read the poem orally. 




1. Read silently the lesHon on p&ge 71. 

2. From the first part of this poem, what 

opinion do you fret of the skipper of 
the Hesperusf 

3. What advice was griven him? Why did 

he refuse itf 

4. Did he show affection for his little 

daufirhter? If so, write the lines 
which tell you this. 

6. Tell how he tried to calm her fears 

after the storm besran. 
d. Tell the result of the voyaire. 

7. Read at least a part of the poem. 


1. Read silently the lesson on paire 232. 

2. Between what armies was the Battle of 

Waterloo fouf^htf Where! Its re- 

3. What scene is described in the first 

and second stanzas! The ofiicers of 
which army were at the dance? 

4. What is described in the third and 

fourth stanzas! In the fifth and 

5. What fiifures of speech do you find in 

the first stanza! 

6. Read the selection orally. 


1. Rea<l silently lesson on paire 231. 

2. What is an arsenal! To what does the 

poet liken it! Why! 

3. What does the po6t mean by, ** When 

the death ani^el touches those swift 
keys! " 

4. Who were the Saxons; the Normans; 

the Tartars! 
6. Who were the Aztec priests? What was 
•* their teocallis!" 

6. In the description of a battle given in 

the seventh stanza, why does the 
poet say: '* The diapason of the can- 
nonade! " 

7. In the first part of the poem the poet 

describes the tumult of battle; what 
is his theme in the last four stanzas! 

8. Read the selection orally. 


(Skipper Ireson's Ride— Literary Studies, 

paire 129.) 

1. Tell briefly, and in your own laniruaire, 

the story (riven in this poem. 

2. What is meant by— 

** such as chase 
Bacchus round some antique vase!" 

3. What is meant by, "Hulks of old sailors 

run asrround,'' and why does the 
poet use this flsrure in describinir 
part of the crowd! 

4. Why was Ireson so indifferent to his 

punishment as to say— 
** What to me is this noisy ride!" 

5. Who first took pity on him, and why! 

6. Name three other poems by the same 



(Lincoln's Second Inausniral Address— Lit. 
Studies, page 300— 5th Reader, pasre 310. ) 

1. Read the selection silently. 

2. (^ive a brief sketch of the life of Lin- 


3. What was the situation of the country 

at the time this inaufrural was de- 
livered (March 4th. 1865)! 

4. What does Lincoln say w^as the situa- 

tion in the two contendinsr sectionH 
of the country at the time he de- 
livered his first inauirural address! 

5. What does he say was ** the object for 

which the insursrents would rend 
the Union! " What does he say was 
the riirht claimed by the irovem- 

6. What seemed to be his personal wish! 

7. Give the substance of the last para- 

l^raph of the inauirural. 



1. Write a short story about a flower that 

you like. 

2. Write five statements about your 

school room. 

3. Write a statement, chanfire your state- 

ment to a question. 


1. Write the name of your town, town- 

ship, county and stat^. 

2. Write three rules for usinir capital let- 


3. Write four names of boys, four of girls 

and four of cities. 

4. Write a story that you learned from 

your reader. 


1. Write the plural forms of marble, tree, 

bird, car, spoonful, cupful, basket. 

2. Write the plural of leaf, knife, wife. 

3. How do you form the plural forms of 

words ending in ** y " ! 

4. Write the possessive plural forms of 

the following: boy, bird, lady. 

5. Write a composition on ** Our Flag." 

6. Write a sentence using the and an. 

When is an used! 

7. Write a short letter. 




1. Write a declarative sentence. 

2. Write an imperative Rentence. 

3. What is a simple sentencel Write one. 

4. What is a complex sentence? Write 


5. Write a compound sentence. 

6. Write a business letter. 

7. What are the parts of a letter? 

8. Why is it important to be able to write 

a letter without mistakes? 


1. Write a sentence containini? a personal 

pronoun, a relative pronoun, a com- 
pound personal pronoun. 

2. Parse the pronouns in the followiner: 

'* He that filches from me my srood 
name n)b8 me of that which enriches 
him not and makes me poor in- 

3. What is the antecedent of a pronoun? 

Illustrate in a sentence. 

4. What is an adjective pronoun? Illus- 

trate in a sentence. 

5. To what are the foUowinir usually ap- 

plied: who, which, what, that? 


1. What is a transitive verb? An in- 

transitive verb? Give examples of 

2. Write five sentences usincr adverbs of 

time; five usinf? adverbs of place. 

3. What is a simple adverb? A conjunc- 

tive a<lverb? An interrojrative ad- 

4. Compare the foUowiner adverbs: far. 

much, late, well, rapidly, swiftly. 

5. Write five sentences each containinsr a 

prepositional phrase and two con- 
taininf? an adverbial phrase. 

6. Illustrate the use of a subordinate con- 

junction, and of a co-ordinate con- 


1. What are the principal elements of a 


2. What is a simple modifier? A com- 

pound modifier? A complex modi- 

3. Name the different sentences as to 

form. Illustrate each. 

4. Name the different sentences as to use 

and write one of each kind. 

5. Write a sentence containiner an ap- 

positiveword; an appositive phrase. 

6. Write a complex sentence. Give its 


7. Write five sentences each containiufi: a 

noun clause. 



1. What is a desert? How miiirht this 

country become a desert? 

2. Name the continents in order of their 

size. Which are joined together? 

3. Locate the Pacific ocean. The At- 

lantic ccean. 

4. What is a volcano? Where are they 

found in the United States? 
6. What color is Tibbu? Why does he go 
to bed at dark? 

6. Tell the color of the Japan jriri. Des- 

cribe the furniture in her home. 

7. What animals are found in Tibbu's 

country? What kind of people are 
the Kaffirs? 

8. In what ways are the people of China 

and Japan alike? In what ways do 
they differ? 

9. How do Laplanders dress? W^hy? 

What animals have they? 


1. Which is the most important nation of 

Asia? Name its products. 

2. To what race do the people of India 

belongr? What do they raise? Tell 
from what plant opium is made. 
. 3. Where is Jerusalem? Why is it noted? 
What sea is near this city? Why is 
it so called? 

4. What countries in Asia are thickly in- 


5. What larcre river flows through £(rypt 

and what city is at the mouth of this 

6. What can you say of the wild animals 

of Asia and Africa? Name some of 

7. What is the color of the natives of 


8. What is the direction of the Philippine 

Islands from the United States? 
The Hawaiian Islands? Porto Ricof 

9. What are some of the products of the 

10. Where is Manila? For what noted? 
Where is Havanaf Santiasro? San 
Juan? Ponce f 


1. Sketch an outline of Asia, indicate its 

hisrhlands, show sources, direction 
of the flow and mouths of five of its 

2. Why are the northern plains of Asia 


3. What possessions has En^rland in 

Asiaf What has France? Holland? 
The United States? 



4. Name the inland capitals of Asia. 

5. Traoe the line of the Siberian railway 

from the I'ral niountainH to the 
water» of the Pacific ocean. 

6. Why Ih we»t<»m and southern Europe 

HO much warmer than the interior? 

7. Locate the sources and the mouth of 

the followinsr rivers: Danube, Vol- 
(ra, Po, Khine. Khone, Thames. 

8. Name ten cities of Europe, state 

which is the larcrest and how it 
ranks as a commercial city. 

9. How does Africa compare with Europe 

in sreneral elevation? What portion 
of Africa receives plenty of rain- 
fall f What deserts on each side of 
this areaf 
10. What nations have possessions in 
Africa? What two states are inde- 


1. Why an* none of the African rivers 

navifirable to the interior? I)escril>e 
the important rivers, orivinfr rise, 
course and mouth. 

2. What country of Africa has been re- 

cently conquen»d. 

3. What firovemment c<mtrols New Zea- 

land. What does it export? 

4. How did the Hawaiian Islands come 

under the c<mtnd of the United 

5. Name the smallest continent. Tell all 

you can of its surface, climate and 

6. Name five seas and four peninsulas of 


7. How many nations of Eur(>pe have n 

republican form of government? 
Name them, giving their capitals. 

8. What form of government has Rus- 

sia? Name three cities <>f Russia, 
giving their ItM'ation. 

9. In wliat two industries does San Fran- 

cisco rank first? 

10. Compari* Canada and Mexico as to 

size, surface, inhabitants, form of 
government, natural resources, pro- 
ducts and civilization. 



1. Henry gathered a bushel of beans from 

his garden, and sohl one-half of 
them at 24 cents a pe<'k. How much 
money di<l he nM-eive? 

2. Write in Arabic L: <': CLV: M. 

Write in Roman forty-nin<'; eiglity- 
one: one thousand one. 

3. One-eighth of 24 acres of land is 

planted in com, one-twelfth in pota- 

toes, one-sixth in oats, and the re- 
mainder in meadow. How many 
acres in meadow? 

4. How many pint bottles will it take to 

hold 3 rallonsf 

5. A real estate airent bousrht some land 

for $2,000. How much will he flTAin 
if he divides the land into 4 lots and 
sells them at 1600 each. 

6. A farmer traded 500 pounds of hay at 7 

cents a pound for a new mower 
worth $42.50; how much cash should 
he pay? 


1. What is a decimal fraction? A deci- 

mal point? A mixed decimal? 

2. Change to decimals one-fourth, four- 

fifths, one-eighth. 12 and two twenty- 

3. Find the difference l>etween .8 and .08; 

1005.15 and 105.015; 9 and .0000. 

4. When the dividend is .1 and the divi- 

sor is 12.8 what is the quotient? 

5. If three- fourths of a yard of cloth cost 

$2.16, what will be the cost of 5 and 
one-half pieces each containing 447 

6. Reduce 21 bushels and 1 quart to 



1. What is a proper fraction? An im- 

pn)per fraction? 

2. Give two ways that a fraction may be 

multiplied or divided? 

3. Add 3-6 -h 2-8 -I- 7-9 + 9-10 + 15-20. 

4. Subtract 21 i from 42|. 

5. What is K of i; of iti of H; of 63? 

6. What part of U feet is 34 inches? 

7. There are 5280 feet in a mile. What 

part of a mile is 770 yards? 

8. A man owned % of a factory. He .«*old 

'« of his share. He gave *« of the 
renuunder to his daught<.*r, ?^ of 
what then remained to his son, and 
sold k of the remainder for $9,000. 
What was the value of the factory? 
What was tin' tlaughter's share! 
The sou's share? What was the 
value of what he had left? 

9. Find tlu^ sunk, difference, product and 

quotient of 87 and 121^ 


1. What do we mean by percent.? What 

per cent, is us<*d to repn»sent all of 
anything? Wln-n you see this (per 
cent.), what <lo you call it? 

2. How many ways <'an the per cent, of a 

number be expressed? Give num- 



3. What is 5 per cent, of 300? What is 6 

per cent, of 200? What is 10 per 
cent, of 500f 

4. In a school of 250 pupils, 10 per cent are 

ahsent. How many are absent? 
How many are present? 

5. What per cent, of 12 is 4? What per 

cent, of 00 is 121 What per cent, of 
56 is 8? 

6. 90 is 6 per cent, of what numl>er? 

80 is 10 per cent, of what number? 

7. An etchinsr costs $48. which is 80 per 

cent, of the cost of an enfirravinfir. 
What is the cost of an ensrraving? 

8. A farmer havinsr 600 bushels of wheat 

sold 20 per cent, to one man and 37}^ 
per cent, to another. How many 
bushels did he keep? 

9. A cierk receives an annual salary of 

S3.500 a year. He expends 16 per 
cent, for ])oard, 10 per cent, for 
clothes, 9 per cent, for charity, and 
22 per cent, for other expenses. How 
much does he save per year. 


1. What is ratio, antecedent, consequent? 

2. Find x in the followinfir: 72 : x : : 250 : 4: 

$16 : «5 : : 288 : X. 

3. If a trf>e 100 feet hierh cast a shadow 90 

feet lonsr. how longr a shadow will a 
tower 250 feet hijrh cast at the same 
time and place ? 

4. If 45 men in 16 days of 9 hours each can 

die: a ditch 100 rods lont?, 5 yards 
wide and 4 feet deep, in how many 
days can 16 men working: 10 hours a 
day di(r a ditch 250 rods loner, 4 yanls 
wide and 3 feet deep ? 

5. A, B and C build a road. A furnishes 

50 men 25 days: B 40 men 40 days 
and C 100 nu»n 50 days. They n*- 
ceive $20,400 for the work; what is 
the share of each ? 

6. Find 9 raised to the seventh power. 


V 622,52li 

7. The area of a circle is 962.115 feet. 

What is its diameter and cin-um- 
ference ? 

8. Find the entire surface of a cube 

whose volume is 91,125 cubic feet. 

9. What is the tariff on 40 yards of silk 

that cost $5 a yard, at 50 cents spe- 
cific and 50 per cent, ad valorem ? 

10. Solve + 


= ? 

a* + ab + b« 


1. Tell some of the tinners the early homes 
did not have. 

2. Mention some thinf^s that were used 

loner aero in the homes but are not 
now used. 

3. Tell about Hiawatha. 

4. Tell what you can of Indian tribes t 

5. What weapons did Hiawatha use? 

What clothiner did he have ? 

6. Name some thiners that you have in 

your home that your errand parents 
did not have. 

7. What was the spinnine: wheel use<l 


8. How was clothiner made in early 



1. Name some leadine: men of Indiana. 

2. Tell the story of Columbus. 

3. Who was CJeorere Washinerton ? Tell 

an inten'stiner story of him. 

4. What did Lincoln do ? 

5. Draw an outline map of the United 

States and locate the homes of 
CJeorge Washinerton, Abraham Lin- 
coln, Captain John Smith and Miles 

6. Draw an outline map of Indiana and 

locate the homes of Benjamin Har- 
rison, Thomas Hendricks, James 
Whitcomb Riley. Edward Eersrles- 
ton, Sarah K. Bolton and Governor 


1. Who was Cleon ? 

2. Describe the home of Cleon ? 

3. Who was Hercules ? 

4. Tell what you know of Homer. 

5. Name some erreat men of (ireece. 

6. How many erods and eroddesses did the 

Ci reeks have? 

7. Tell what you know of Solon and 



1. (live the names of some of the Saxon 


2. Describe tht* home of Wulf. 

3. What was the Swan-road ? 

4. What people did the Saxcms plunder? 

5. Who were the Britons ? Where did 

they live ? 

6. Tell a short story of King: Arthur. 

7. Explain this quotation: "The banner 

of the white horse went ever for- 


1. What was the outcome of the discovi»ry 

of America by the North men ? 

2. (tive an account of Columbus' efTorts 

to secure aid« 



3. What induced (!oliimbua to make the 

voya^res to America ? 

4. Who was Ponce de I^eon f 

5. Tell about Sir Francis Drake ahd his 


6. What were the weapons of soldiers in 

early times ? 

7. Compare and contrast the Virjrinia 

colony with that of Massachusetts. 

8. Name Ave persons connected with the 

early history of Virtrinia; Ave with 
the early history of Massachusetts. 

9. What was the Matrna Charta f 

10. Who is firovemor of Indiana f What is 
the length of term of office i 


1. How does the constitution diflPer from 

the articles of confederati(>n ? 

2. Who were some of the ablest men who 

met at Independence Hall in May, 
1787, to form a constitution for the 
United States ? 

3. Whom did Washington select as his 

cabinet officers i 

4. Which was the fourteenth State of the 

I'nion i 

5. What was the Whisky rebellion ? 

6. When was the United States bank or- 

eranized i 

7. Where, by whom and for what purpose 

was the flrst national Thanksorivinf? 
day appointed f 

8. What valuable rights did we secure by 

a treaty with Spain in October, 1795 f 

9. WHiat state of affairs existed between 

our country and France when John 
Adams became president? 
10. What is the purpose of the World's 
Fair at St. Louis this year ? 


1. What was the result of Lincoln's first 

call for volunteers in the North? In 
the South i 

2. Why was Harper's Ferry so valuable 

to the North ? 

3. Name five Unitm and five Confederate 

srenerals of the civil war. 

4. Name five important battles of the 

civil war and state the result of 

5. (five an a<*count of Sherman's march 

to the sea. 

6. What was the one great purpose in the 

West and who carried this out f 

7. For what was An<lrew .lohnscm im- 

p«'aclie<l ? 

8. What presi(b*nts have n(>t been elected 

by the electoral college ? 

9. Who were presidents of the United 

States while the capital was at 
Philadelphia ? 

10. Wliat is the siflrniflcance of the W^orld's 
Fair at St. Lous this year ? 



1. Name three parts of your body. 

2. What trees have notched leaves ? 

3. Describe the kind of day it is. 

4. Will seeds sprout if the earth is dry? 

5. Name as many parts of a plant as you 



1. What makes the leaves fall ! 

2. What seeds do we sow? Name some 

seeds that sow themselves. 

3. What insects can fly ? 

4. How does the old bird feed her young I 

5. Do you sit up straight ? 

6. Which side of the house does the sun 

shine on at noon ? 


1. Of what do we make sugar ? 

2. Tell how to raise potatoes. 

3. Should the windows that light your 

school room be at your sides, your 
back, or in front of you f 

4. What do snakes live on i 

5. What "tame*' animals do you like 

best i What other word can you 
use for tame f 

6. In how many forms have you seen 

water ? 



(A n^^wer any eight, not omitting two, thrrr 

and four.) 

1. Stat* the relation between the skin 

and the kidneys. 

2. (o) Draw a diagram of the brain and 

spinal cord, ih) Where is the in- 
tellect supposed to be located \ 

3. What is the relation of good, whole 

some food to a strong, nervous or- 
ganism ? 

4. What effect has late hours, cigarette 

smoking and personal bad habits 
upon the nervous system f 

5. Describe the heart. 

6. Name th<; organs of special senses. 

7. How many of the special senses are 

located in the head I Why I (An- 
swer fully.) 

8. What is the difference between a 

healthy brain and a drunkard's ! 

9. Why can n(>t the dninkard keep from 

drinking alcohol i 
10. If every boy and girl in our State 
would graduate in scientific tem- 
perance, would drinking alcoholic 
drinks be less in the future 1 


MUSIC. 4. (»ive a quotation from the Battle Hymn 

1. What i8 meant by chromatic scale? _ , i. ^ i . »i ^ ^ »t 

„ u # ^ *.u u « 5. In what key ih Home, Sweet Home 

2. How far does the mnuence of an acci- .^^ i u ^ -^ ^ 

, . I ^ , . - written, and who wrote It I 

dental extend m a piece of muHic _ ,,„ ^ . . , 

, , . . ^ * 1 I 1^ J 6. >Vhat IS muKic { 

and what toneH are affected i>y it i - ^ir -^ • i i • ^ • i • 

.J wu * ^ * I 1*1 1 «* 7. >\ rite H measure in double, triple and 
d, \\hat effect has a dot pla<*ed after a i i *• 

n^^^ f quadruple time. 


Elijah McFarland, Chairman, Martin (bounty. 

Levi H. Scott, Floyd County. 

Sami'EL Scott, Clark County. 

A. A. Manuel, Brown County. 

C. A. Robertson. Crawford County. 

E. A. Gladden. Scott County. 

J. I). HosTETTER. Hendricks County. 

R. H. Harney, Boone County. 

Lee O. Harris. Hancock County. 

19a». May. 1903 


QueathiiA for Examination of Pupih Completing thf Con me of Study in the 

•* Common Branches,** 

Prepared by the following committee of the County Superintendents' Association. 
1901: Isaac F. Myer, Chairman, Carroll County; T. S. Thornbursr, White County: Wil- 
liam F. Landes, Marion County; E. E.' Helt, Vermillion County; J. W. Barlow. Shelby 
County; Levi Scott, Floyd County; R. W. Stine, Wells County. 


Instructions.— Pupils need not copy the (luestions, but must number each answer to 
correspond with the question, and must write the manuscript in ink. When ytm are 
asked to answer "any six" or "any seven,'' etc.. out of eight or ten questions respec- 
tively, stop when you have answered the number required. To answer more is a loss of 
time and may lower your firrade, as all mistakes will be marked off. 

Writinff.— The penmanship shown in the entire manuscript of the examination will 
be grraded on a scale of 100 per cent., with reference to tfaibitity (50), reaularity of form 
(30). and neatnr»s (20). The handwritinii: of each pupil will be considered in itself, ratlier 
tlian with reference to standard models. 

Spellinsr.— The orthofirraphy of the entire examination will be grraded on a scale of 100 
per cent., and 1 per cent, will be deducted for each word incorrectly written. 

The county superintendent will iirrade the manuscripts, and certittcates of irradua- 
tion will be issued to every applicant who attains a greneral averasrelof 75 per cent., witli- 
out falling below 60 per cent, in any subject. 

Notice to Applicants.— On the first white page in your manuscript answer these 

1. Give your name or number. 6. Oive the name of your township. 

2. Give your aio^. 7. Give your postoflice. 

3. Give number of your school district. 8. (Jive place of birtli. 

4. Give your teacher's name. 9. Give date of birth. 

5. Give your trustee's name. 10. Give number of years you have at- 

tended school. 



{Ann wer any eigh t. ) 

1. lu eacli blank space supply the pant 

tense of Kit or set. 

(t. Hawthorne kept many note 

hooks in which he down 

thiniTs he wished to remember. 
I). Mr. Green came in and — awhile. 
c. He always apart <me-tenth of 

his income to give to the Lord. 
(/. He the hen on fifteen esrifs 

an<l there she two weeks. 

2. Define the relative pn)noun. State the 

distinctions in the iiscof ivhOfirhich^ 
what, that. 

3. What is a thought? What is a sen- 


4. Name the kinds of sentences on basis 

of UHC and on basis of form. 

5. Analyi^e: How stranjft'ly the past is 

peepins: over the shoulders of the 

6. W>ite a letter to a business Ann order- 

ini: a bill of eroods. 

7. Give the principal parts of: sit, set. lie, 

lay, see, throw, sinif, run, bid. tight. 

8. Write sentences illustratins: the co- 

ordinate conjunction and the sub- 
ordinate conjunction. 

9. Write the possessive, singular and 

plural of these words: man, chil- 
dren, boxes, tomato, penny, Mr. 
10. What is comparison? What parts of 
speech admit of comparison? ( 'om- 
pan* fast, pretty. <lisairreeable, dea<l, 
little, much. 

{AuKU'er anu fiuht.) 

1. Show how Marc(> Polo's book on his 

eastern travels suggi'sted the dis- 
covery of America. 

2. What two companies were organized 

in F^nglund to colonize America? 
What territory was controlled by 

3. Name four inventions that have ma- 

terially alTe«'ted the industrial 
growth of our country. 

4. Tell the story of the Hostou Tea Party. 

Of the Charter Oak. 

5. What was Kngland's argument for tax- 

ing the cohmiesf 

6. (live a brief account of Hamilton's 

plan for restoring the credit of our 

7. What were the Alien and Sedition 


8. How did slavery divide our country in 

regard to trade with Europe? 

9. Give the most important provisions of 

the Omnibus Bill. 
10. Why did Congress impeach President 



{Answtr any five.) 

1. Construct Hcale ladders, on one place 

the scale names in the key of E; on 
the other, the key of Eb. Show to 
what extent they are alikef I'nlike? 

2. What is an interval f An accent? 

Name two kinds of w'cent. 

3. In four-part music, how many voices 

are represented? Give name of 

4. There are how many kinds of keys? 

Ciive name and signatur(*s of each 

5. What is a sralef Name two kinds. Do 

in one kind is what in the other? 

6. Give all the uses of sharps and flats. 


Based on the I^egend of Sleepy Hollow. 

L C^ive an account of the author. Name 

other selections that he wrote. 
t. Describe Ichabod Crane. 

3. Name two other characters and de- 

scribe them. 

4. W^hat is the author writing about? 

5. Describe the barn-yard scene. 

G. What does the author think of ghost 
stories? Why do you think so^ 

7. Let the applicant be graded from to 

40 on his oral reading. 

( A nttwer any eiyht. ) 

1. At $3.50 per conl. what is the value of 

a pile of wood 16 feet long, 7 feet 
wide and 5 f<*et high? 

2. Ten cents is 5 <>f Frank's money: 

Frank's nnuiey is ? of mine ; how 
much have I? 

3. Defliie ratio, addition, circle, rate per 

cent, and commission. 

4. A num bought 3 bales of hay of 1124 lbs. 

each at $12.00 per ton. How much 
<lid it cost? 

5. A num Ixuight the E. ) of the N. E. J of 

N. W. <iuarter of a section of laud 
at $25.00 per acre. How much did it 
e. Fiml tin* interest on $1,025.00 for three 
months and days ^a 6 per cent. 

7. How many bushels in a bin 12 feet long, 

5 feet wide, and 4 feet deep? 

8. Sold 25 bbls. of apples for $69.75 and 

made 24 per cent. How nmch did 
they cost per bbl.? 



9. The diameter of a spherical balloon is 
25 feet. How many square yards of 
silk will cover it? 
10. An afirent who purchased a lot of wheat 
forwanled his bill for $568,875. If 
this included his commission of 2^ 
per cenL, what sum was paid for 

(Anitwer any eight.) 

1. Give the circumference and diameter 

of the earth. 

2. What is a mountain system? A moun- 

tain rani^ei Give an example of 

3. What is latitude? I^niritudef Give 

the latitude and lonffitude of the 
place in which you live. 

4. Name and describe live larjre rivers in 

North America. 

5. Name the races of men and tell in what 

respects they differ. 

6. What are the chief articles of food of 

the people of the hot beltf 

7. Name the coal districts of the U. S. 

H, I»cate Trieste, Lucknow, Bogota. Va- 
lencia and Tokyo. 
9, Name three state, three reliijrious, and 

three private schools of Indiana. 
10. Describe the state srovernment of In- 


{Answtr any fight.) 

1. What do we mean by lesser circulation? 
By greater circulation? 



Name the orsrans found in the thorax. 

Give four r(*asons why we should not 
use intoxicants. 

Describe the heart. 

Show how the heart is adapted in sev- 
eral ways to do its work. 
6 and 7. Tra<'e a piece of bread and butter 
from the hand until it becomes 
blood, uotiutr the chaniires that oc- 
cur in it. 

Name the parts of the ear. 

Draw a cross section of a long bone. 

Of what benefit do you think the study 
of pbysioloj:y is? 





After you have finished your examina- 
tion, copy and fill the blanks in the follow- 

State of Indiana, 

County of 

Township of 

I am years of agre; have been a stu- 
dent in public schools for years; and 

I do solemnly declare that in the examina- 
tion to-day I have not given or receivetl aid 
in any manner whatever. 

♦(Name or number) 


(Date 1903.) 

♦NoTK.— Tse name or number, as county 
superintendent may desire. 





Queithiu for Examination of Pupils Completing tfw < huriif (tf Study in the 

**High School Branches." 

FiR.sT Examination. 

Prepared by the following committee of the County Superintendent's Association, 
1908: Jas. W. Frazier, Madison County, Algebra, Plane (Jeometry and Stdicl (Jeometry: 
H. E. Coe, Dekalb County, American and English Literature and Rhetoric: Edgar Men- 
denhall. Decatur ('ounty. Chemistry and Physics; Jesse M. Neet. Parke County, (ieneral 
Hintory, (Mvics and Physical Geography; William H. Stone. Owen County, Latin an<i 
German; John W. Lewis, Wabash County, Botany and Zoology. 

To BE HELi> Friday, Apkil 1, 1904. 

iNSTKrcTiONS.— Pupils need not copy the questions, but must number each answer to 
correspond with the question, and must write the manuscript in ink. When you are 
asked to answer **any six" or "any seven," etc., out «>f eight or ten questions re- 
spectively, stop when you have answered the number rt*(|uired. To answer more i.s a loss 
of time and may lower your grade, as all mistakes will be marked off. 



Writini?.— The penmanHhip shown in the entire manuscript of the examination will be 
srnuled on a scale of KXH^ with reference to leaihility (50$). regularity of form, (30^). and 
HfatnesK (20%). The handwriting: of each pupil will be considered in itself, rather than 
with reference to standard models. 

Spellini;.— The orthosrraphy of the entire examination will l>e ^rraded <»n a scale of 
10(H, and H will be <Ieduct^d for each word incorrectly written. 

The county superint<»ndent will ifrade the manuscripts, and certificates of frradua- 
tion will l»e issued to every applicant who attains a creneral averajje of 75ii. without fall. 
infT below 60$ in any subject. 

Notice to Applicants.— On the first white patre in your manuscript answer these 

1. (rive your name or number. 6. 

2. Give your age. 7. 

3. Give number of your school dis- 8. 

trict. 9. 

4. <ilive your teacher's name. 10. 

5. (live your trustee's name. 

Give the name of your township. 
Give your postoffice. 
Give place of birth, 
tiive date of birth. 
Give number of years you have at- 
tended hiirh school. 














{Any sevtu.) 

What is the <lifference between plants 
and animalst 

Make a drawinif of the fresh-water hy- 
dra. Indicate the parts. 

Give full description of hydra and life 

Give a full description of the " fiicker," 
driving: hib nestintr place, number of 
egirs, food, use to the farmer, etc. 

Discuss fully the benefit of honey and 
bumble bees to the fruit grrower and 
farmer. (Be explicit.) 

Give the life history of the house fly. 

(4ive the life history of the electric 
lilfht buif. 

Define symbiosis; ifive an example. 

DistiufTuish beetle and buif. Give two 
examples of each. 


(.-1 ny Hevfii.) 
Factor 9a* +38a»b«+ 49c ». 
Reduce to lowest terms: 


a"+ab + ac. 

The sum of \ of one number and % 

of another is 38: and if 3 be added 

to the first, the sum will be equal to 

Yh of the difl'erence between the 

second and 8. Find tlie numbers. 

1 2 

Solve: — - — — 7,=S. 
X— 1 X— 2 

A rectanifular fiehl is 12 ro<Is Ioniser 
than it is wide and contains 7 acres. 
What is the lenifth of its sides f 

Find the values of x; x*-f3x'=28. 

Find least common multiple of: 
a"+3a-4. a'-6a+5 and a'-a-20. 

What two numbers are there, such that 
their sum increased by their prod- 
uct is 34, and the sum of their 
squares diminished by their sum is 

9. Find the hisrhest common divisor of; 
x*-6xy+8y* and x*-8xy + 16y». 


{Any seven.) 

N. B.— Pupils who have had two yean 
Latin answer any seven; and pupils who 
have had three years answer ei^rht, inelud- 
inir No. 7 or 9, and No. 8 or 10. 

1. Decline one noun from each declen- 

sion. Give principal parts of one 
verb from each conjusration. 

2. (iive rules for the formation of ad- 

verbs from adjectives and compare 
the followinfir: misere, fortiter, pa- 

3. How many infinitives has the reinilftr 

verb in Latinf Name them and five 
rule for the formation of each. 

4. How many participles has the Latinf 

Name them and tell how each is 

5. How is the active periphrastic conju- 

tion formed^ The passive peri- 
phrastic? How is each usedf 

6. Translate: Ca'sur said that he would 

invade Gaul. He (another) said 
that Ceesar would invade Gaul. It 
was said that ('a*sar would invade 

7. Translate: Caesar omni exercitu ad 

utramque partem munitionum de- 
posito, ut, si usus veniat. suum 
quis(iue locum teneat et uoverit, 
equitatum ex castris educi et pro- 
elium committi iubet. 

8. Translate into Latin: But the enemy 

attacked the cavalry so quickly, 
while they had no fear, because the 
deputies a little while before had 
asked Caesar for a truce, that they 
threw them into confusion. 



9. Trannlate: Hi^ce omnibus. Catalina, 

cum 8umma rei publicae Halute. 
cum tua peste ac pemicie, cumque 
eoruni exitio qui se tecum omni 
Hcelere parricidioque juuxerunt, 
prottciscere ad impium helium ac 
10. Translate into Latin: (Mcero prom- 
ised 80 to mauaflre this treacherouH 
war as a civilian that all srood men 
would he safe. For he thoufrhtthat 
the sTods, who had formerly de- 
fended the Roman people from a 
forttism foe, would now defend the 
city and their own temples. 

(Any eight.) 

1. Distingruish between cryptograms and 


2. Draw and describe fully, one of the 

lower cryptogams. 

3. State difference in structure between 

aquatic and dry land plant stems. 

4. (a) Show how funifi are different from 

green plants. 

(b) Name some of the common ones. 

(c) How are they usefulf 

5. How are rootlets especially adapted to 

grow in hard ground f 

6. What constitutes the foo«l of green 

plants f How is it securedf 

7. At present great interest is taken in 

the preservation and maintenance of 
forests. Why is this tnief 

8. Name three native Indiana plants that 

are of economic value. 

9. What is the purpose of the distribution 

of seedsf How is it accomplished^ 

10. What are stoma, where found, and of 

what valuef 

(Any tferen.) 

1. In what way di<i the characters of the 

Spartans and Athenians differf 

2. What were the Crusatlesf 

3. Tell the story of Joan of Arc. 

4. Who were Demosthenes an<l Cicero f 

5. Why noted: St. Helena, Austerlitz, 


6. Tell what you can of the Spanish ar- 


7. What was the edict of Nantes f 

8. What do you understand by feudalism? 

9. Mention some history connected with 

the Bastile: with the tower of Lon- 

10. Describe the assassination of Julius 



N. B.— Second year pupils answer any 
eight: third year answer 6, 12, and any 
other six. 

1. Define ablaut; umlaut. Explain the 

origin of umlaut. 

2. How many declensions has the Ger- 

manf Give the distinguishing mark 
of nouns in the strong declension. 

3. Decline, der Fall; die Polge; der 


4. Write out in German. 101, 8756. 147996. 


5. Give the principal parts of the follow- 

ing verbs: frieren, gleiszen, fan- 
gen, sieden. 

6. Translate: Der beriihmte General 

(ieorg Washington sasz einmal mit 
mehreren seiner Offizieve bei Fis- 
che. Da steisz einer von ihnen 
eiuen Fluch aus. Washington 
liesz Messer und Gabel fallen, warf 
einen strengen Blick auf den Flu- 
cher. so dasz dieser die Augen 
niederschlug Washington sagte 
dann: "Ich hatte geglaubt, wir 
alle betrachteten uns selbst als an- 
stUndige Manner.*' 

7. Translate into German: 

I thought of you, but I did not know 

where you were then. 
You would do wrong if you thought 

so of me. 
I did not know what you would 

think of it. 

8. Give a synopsis of the verb, greisen, 

in the indicative, passive, singular. 

9. Name three poems by Goethe; two by 


10. Translate: Ein Reisender kam an 

einenFlusz und mietete ein Boot, um 
ihn iil>erzusetzen. Da das Wasser 
ein wenig bewegten war, "als ihm 
getlel, so fragte er den Schiffer, ob 
jemand bei dieser Teberfahrt ver- 
loren worrien ware. ** Niemals," 
erwiderte der Schiffer, "niemals! 
Mein Bruder ertrank hier letzte 
Woche, aber wir fanden ihn am 
nUchsten Tag wieder." 

11. Give case and construction of all nouns 

in 10. 

12. Translate into Gennan: Now-a-<lays. 

when a man, a woman or a child 
wants a pair of boots or shoes, he 
usually goes to a shoe store and 
buys ready-made whatever he wants 
in this line. But years ago it was 
different. There were no ready- 
made shoes in those days, and peo- 
ple always went to a shoemaker, 
who took their measure and made 
them the article. 

5— Education. 



(Any seven.) 

1. State the preamble to the constitution. 

2. Name five noteii men who assisted in 

framing; the eonstitutiou. 

3. What is meant hy the writ of habeas 

corpus/ When may it he sus- 

4. How may the constitution be amended? 

5. What bills must originate in the house 

of representatives f 

6. How are United States senators 

chosen? What qualificati<ms must 
they have? 

7. Name and define the different depart- 

ments of our government. 

8. What is statute law? Unwritten law? 

Common lawf 

9. How are judges of the United States 

supreme court chosenf What is 
their term of oflice? 
10. What were the three great compro- 
mises of the constitutional conven- 
tion of 1787? 

(Any seven.) 

1. Define physics. Define physical 


2. Explain action and reaction, giving 

thr(*e illustrations. 

3. Explain the hydraulic press. Upon 

what law of liquids does it depend? 

4. Explain the rainbow. 

5. What is the result and what is its di- 

rection: U) When two fon'es act 
in opposite directions! (2) When 
they act in parallel directions? (3) 
When they act at an angle! Make 
drawings to illustrate. 

6. What is the pendulum? State one law 

of the pendulum. 

7. How is sound propagated? Describe 

and explain the telephone. 

8. Give the construction of any battery 

with which you may be familiar. 
Name the chemicals used in it and 
thoroughly explain its use. 

9. Describe an ordinary camera. Why is 

the image inverte<l? Be explicit. 
10. Explain the compass. Why <loes one 
end always point north? Is this 
properly called the "north pole" of 
the compass? 

(Any svren.) 

1. Account for the shape of the earth. 

2. What are isothermal lines? Why <lo 

they not coincide with the parallels? 

3. Discuss the causes of ocean currents. 

How do they affect climate? 

4. Discuss briefly the effect of climate on 

the <listributi(m of plants and ani- 

5. Compare and contrast the relief of 

N«)rth America and South America. 

6. Account for the arid con<lition of the 

Great Has in. 

7. Give the history of the formation of 

coal. Lo<rat« the coal tlehls of Indi- 

8. Descril^e the gulf stream and give its 

climatic effects. 

9. Account for the heavy rainfall on the 

southern slopes of the Himalaya 
10. Explain the formati<m of the rainbow. 


(A ny seven.) 

1. Distinguish clearly between chemical 

and physical changes. 

2. Describe and draw a diagram of the 

apparatus necessary to obtain oxy- 
gen. How would you obtain oxygen ? 

3. What <lo you understand by "valence"? 

From the following fonuulas: H« 
S04, Hcl. HNo„ Na CI. Cu CI,, give 
the valence of S04, CI. N03. Na and 

4. Explain and give the equation for the 

chemical reaction which takes place 
when <'0 gas is passed through 
lime water. 

5. Is sulphur a metallic element! Ex- 

plain why you answer as you do. 

6. What causes "hardness" in water? 

Give difference between permanent 
and temporary hardness. 

7. If a room were entirely filled with pure 

hydrogen and an electric spark in- 
troduced at center of room, what 
would ])e the result? Explain fully. 

8. By means of what acid can glass be 

etched? How is this acid kept? 

9. If you desire to remove and keep 

moisture from a box. w^hat would 
you use? 
10. What i\o yM)u mean by a reducing 
flame? By an oxidizing flamef 
What part of the Hame is used in 
each case? 


(Any sevm.) 

1. Show that if there are given four 
points in space, no three being col- 
linear, the number of distinct 
straight lines determined by them 
is six: if there are live points, the 
number is ten. 



2. State three meth(Mls of (letermininfr a 


3. Prove: If two intersectiriir planes 

paKH throuflrh two parallel Iine8, 
their internection is parallel to 
thene llneH. 

4. Why Im it that a three-leifsred chair is 

always stahle on the d(K)r, while a 
four leiffired one may not t>ef 

5. Fincl volume of a cut>e whose diafronal 

is ^ "sT 
C Prove: Parallel transverse sections of 
a cylindrical space are concrruent. 

7. Prove: A place section of a sphere is 

a circle. 

8. How many square feet in the surfacte 

of a cylindrical water tank, open at 
the top, its hei^rht heini? 40 feet and 
its diameter 40 feetf 

9. How many points on a spherical sur- 

face determine a small circle f 

{Any seven.) 

1. Define plane, proposition, theorem, 

postulate, corollary. 

2. Prove: The bisectors of two adjacent 

anffles formed by one line cuttinif 
another are perpendicular to each 

3. Prove: Tanirents to two intersectin^r 

circumferences from any point in 
the production of their common 
choni are equal. 

4. If one anfirle of a trian^rle is S of a 

straiifht ansrle, show that the square 
on the opposite equals the sum of 
the squares on the other two sides 
lews their rectanjf le. 

5. How many dianrcmais, at most, has a 

general quadrilateral f A ireneral 
pentatfonf A ifencral hexaeronf 

6. Prove: In any triangle any extenor 

anifle equals the sum of the two in- 
terior non-adja<*eiit antfles. 

7. Prove: All tanifents drav^-n fnmi 

points on the outer of two concen- 
tric circumferences to the inner are 

H. Draw a tanfrent to a ifiven circle from 
a Driven point; the point is on the 

9. Trisect a riifht anifle. 


(A ny tteven, not omitting y-io.) 

1. Is it always best to adhere strictly to 
the rules for punctuation? (Jive 
reasons. What is the present ten- 
dency in punctuation f 

2. ** Sentences and parairrapha must have 

coherence." Define coherence as 
here used. 

3. Write sentences illustratiufir the cor- 

rect use of notorious, noted, famous. 

4. In what forms of discourse do the fol- 

lowing: terms occur: Point of view; 
incident; conclusion. 

5. What is a localism f Illustrate. 

6. Use correctly the followins: words in 

sentences: affect, effect; affifra- 
vate, provoke. 

7. Correct, ifivinff reasons: The watch- 

maker fixed the watch. I have ^rot a 
cold, (^hildren love candy and ex- 
cursions. Can I borrow your pen- 

8. Define "triteness" as applied to writ- 

9-10. Write a description of at least 150 
wortls. ( Select your subject. ) 

{Any seven.) 

1. What was the plan of the Canterbury 

Tales f WTio wrote themf 

2. What is the marked characteristic of 

the literature of the Elizabethan 

3. What irreat names are associated with 

the Lake School of writers? 

4. Place the followinif authors in chrono- 

loicical order: Swift, Spenser, (^ar- 
lyle ami Wordsworth. 

5. Tell what you can of the life and work 

of Addison. 

6. Write not less then 100 words rejfard- 

inir Silas Marner. 

7. Who wrote Marmiont The Ancient 

M a r i n e r f Essay on Manf She 
Stoops to Conquerf 

8. Give a brief outline of the plot in the 

Merchant of Venice. 

9. Write not less than ten lines on Scott's 

narrative poems. 
10. "A prince 1 was, blue-eye<i, and fair in 

Of temper amorous, as the first of 

With lenifth of yellow riniflets, like a 

For on my cradle shone the Northern 

From what is the above quoted f Name 
the author. 


{Any seven.) 

1. What period of American literature 
may justly be calleit the Theoloif ical 
Era* Whyf 



2. Name four authors <if tho Theological 


3. What rank doen Washinertoii Irvinu 

hold anion); American authorsf 
Make four Mtatenieuts to verify 
your answer. 

4. Who wrote The Enihariro? Th«' Vil- 

lage Hla<'k8nuthf The Hoosier 
8ch<H>lniaster? The Gates Ajarf 
What do you know of one of these 
authors f 

5. What is the suhject-matter of litera- 

ture f 

6. What is the chanwteristii' line of 

thought in the writings of Thomas 
Jefferson f J. Fennimore Cooper? 

William Cullen Bryantf O. W. 

7. Name four American authors who have 

emhotlied in their writings the po- 
litical elements of American life. 

8. Name Ave American historians, <me of 

wlumi is an Indiana man. 

9. State briefly some thoughts ytm have 

received fnmi Bryant's writings. 
State the same from Longfellow's, 
Quoting from him. 
10. Who wn)te Snow Bound f Why is it so 
fascinating to reatlf What impres- 
si<ms. do you think, must have been 
made upon the author's mind that 
caused him to write itf 


The law savs that tho eountv sii])erinteinlent sliall visit schools 
while they are in se.ssioii, for the purpose of increasing their use- 
fulness and elevating as far as ])racticabl(» the })oorer schools to the 
standard of the l)est. Perha])s no other one thing has done so 
much for the schools as these ])ersonal visitations. The teach- 
ers who secure their licenses from these superintendents are 
always anxious to do good work and any suggestions offered are 
followed to the In^^^t of their ability. The su])erintendent has a 
great op})ortunity in this capacity to aid the teacher who is 
beginning his work. 

The su])ervisorv ])owers of the county superintendent do not 
extend over cities having duly appointed su])erintendents, but 
they do extend over the smaller incor])orat(Ml towns with no regular 


In many counties the su])erintendents supplement visitation 
with circulars giving specific directions as to the wcu'k they want 
done. These circulars are issued in sonic counties as often as once 
a week, and tliev serve to arouse interest and to make the organiza- 
tion more efficient. Two of these circulars are submitted here, one 
as a guide to teachers while visiting other schools, and the other 
giving directions in the regular work: 


Office of 
HOMER L. COOK, Office day. Monday, 

('ounty Superintendent Marion County Schools. Residence New Phone 4103. 

Indianapolis, Ind., October 13, 1903. 

Read first and second circular letters. How about the appearance of 
your pupils at this time? 

Do you have devotional exercises every morning? Use the Bible. You 
will find that your day*s work will be brighter and better by doing so. 

Have you plenty of material for busy work? 

I have found several teachers allowing pupils to keep their books open 
and recite from them during the recitation. If you will study the schedule 
of success items on your last county license, I think you will mark ofT 
ten for that one fault. 

Talk county library to your pupils. Get a card for your own use. 

Study course of study. 

Begin to work for World's Fair exhil)it. 

(Choose some particular subje<'t on which your pupils can do good 
work, and keep the liest of their daily work. 

Quite a number of teachers have askiMl me what to do in a reading 

My first assignment always has Ijeen to work out new and difficult 

Next get the thought. rrobal)ly ])U])ils can not do this in one day. If 
not. work on the thouglit until i)U])ils have it. It is always well to iiave 
pupils work out pi<'tures in poetry selections. Never allow pupils to read 
orally until you have worked out the tliought of the selection. It is not 
absolutely necessary for ])U])ils to read orally all of a selection. Read 
a paragraph or two orally and have that done well. 

Teachers must make definite assignments. Ask questions and have 
them answered. Have i>u]>ils answer your (piestions in writing. 

Some teachers say that they do not have time to make these assign- 
ments. If that is so, you teach many lessons for wliich you have made 
no preparation. 

It is my judgment tliat it is more profltal)le for you to prepare your 
work and make definite assignments than it is to spend your full time 
on the recitation. For example, we will supi)ose that you have not pre- 
pared your reading lesson. You have fifteen minutes for tliat recitation. 
You have not seen the lesson at all. Take five minutes of the fifteen 
to prei)are it; you will find that you will do more good in the ten minutes 
than you could have done in the fifteen. But a wiser plan would be to 
prei)are your lessons at the proper time. 

Some say, what shall we do if we do not complete the work outlined 
In the course of study? My answer is that you will get along more 
rapidly by preparing your work well tlian if you teach in the old way. Be 
concerned about how you teach instead of how much you teach. 

I once had a parent ask me wliy his l>oy was not allowed to read. I 
had worked on Longfellow's "Rainy Day" one week, but was not ready 
for oral reading. The pupils had been reading every day, but he had the 
idea that he read only when he was allowed to stumble through the 


verse mispronouncing half the words and not getting nor giving any 
of the thought. 

Teach the following: 

Eighth Year Julius Caesar. 

Seventh Year Commit ETxcelsior. 

Sixth Year A Ruffian In Feathers. 

Fifth Year How Little Ceiiric Became a Knight. 

Fourth Year The Pine Tree Shillings. 

Third Year The Three Bugs. 

Some teachers have asked what to do in second and third year arith- 
metic. Don't do much aritliraetic work. The best educators of the 
country to-day advise that no arithmetic be taught until the fourth year. 

In the siH*ond year, teach the pupil the relation betwetni the symlwl 
and the object. In doing this teach the relation of tlie object or objects 
to numbers as expressed by symbols. Use dilTerent objects in teaching 
numbers and the use of figures. Teach old-fashioned counting to one 
hundred. Teach the child to add simple problems. These directions are 
to be carried out during the entire year, and it is not expectcMl that the 
teacher can do this work in less time. For third year work see Course of 
Study, page 61. 

I have this suggestion for your institute work: 

On Institute days meet iu sections for one hour. 

Primary teachers meet to talk over the work for the primary grades. 
Principals and high school teachers meet and talk over your work. 
Teachers of one-room buildings meet with primary section. Take one 
hour for this discussion. Appoint your chairman and make a regular 
organization. I feel that you ought to do this every month and I am 
quite sure you will be greatly benefited by it. In the words of William 
Hawley Smith, "put the grease right where the squeak is." 

Yours respect full.v. 

Homer L. Cook. 

I wish to recommend *'The Story of Our Engli.<«h (Irandfathers" as 
supplementary- work for "The Ten Boys" and the "IT. S. History." You 
can examine it at the office. I would be pleased to have tlie teachers 
examine it. 


This blank is prepared for the teacher's use who visits some school. 
Please till these i)hniks carefull.v and homstly. and send the same to me. 
Take notes with pencil while visiting and make report later on tliis blank 
with pen. These reports will l)e examined by tlie county superintendent. 

Homer L. ("ook. Superintendent of County Schools. 

1. Condition of .vard, including walks. fcMices, pump, grass, out-buildings. 

trees and plants 

2. Condition of schoolliouse. appearance from outside, decorations, 

windows, blinds, blackboard, heating and ventilation , , . , 


3. Is the school provided with a clock, toilet articles, dictionary, cyclo- 

paediH, reading circle books of this year; any library whatever? 
Is the teacher making an effort through the trustee or otherwise 
to get these things? 

4. Appearance of teacher and pupils. 

5. Preparation of teacher for the day's work 

6. Preparation of pupil 

7. Recitation.— Discuss the teacher's method, mentioning his strong and 

weak points as you see them. Discuss the results of the recita- 

8. Discuss some particular lesson given. In this discussion give the 

subject-matter treated and the puri>oses accomplished. Point out 
definitely some of the strongest points In the recitation and also 
mention definitely some points that are not so good 


Genkral Remarks. 

Write a summary Including any special points not mentioned above of 
not fewer than six Hues. 


Tho township trustees of the townships and the school hoards of 
the towns and cities report annually to the county superintendents 
the school enumeration, w^hich includes all persons hetween the 
ages of six and twenty-one years. They also make reports showing 
the financial eon<lition of the schools and statistics regarding the 
teachers, lihraries, value of school property, etc. From these 
reports the county su])erintendent makes a summarized report 
annually to the state s u peri nt<^n dent of public instniction. 


Each townshi]) in every county holds a monthly meeting of its 
teachers — this meeting is known as the township institute. School- 
room problems and tlie teachers' reading circle work are discussed. 
AMienever y)ossihle the county superintendent attends these meet- 
ings, of which he is chairman ex nfprio. More than seven thou- 
sand of these meetings are held every year in the state, and it would 
be impossible to estimate the good results that come from them. 


Here the teachers discuss their problems freely and thoroughly 
and through these frank expressions all are benefited. 


The teachers of everv county are called together annually by the 
county superintendents for a week's session known as the county 
teachers' institute. The work in these meetings is inspirational, 
professional, and academic and serves as a stimulus to higher 
life and better teaching. The Ix^st educators obtainable are em- 
ployed as instructors. In former years the work of institutes was 
purely ac^idemic and served as a preparaticm for the examination 
Avhich usually was held at the close of the institute. \\\ a few 
counties the de])artmental plan has been successfully tried. Just 
at present a movement is on foot to improve the institute and the 
educators of the state are studying the problem. 


The county superintendent decides all questions regarding the 
transfer of scho<»l children from one corporation to another. He 
decides whether or not school districts when once closed shall lx> 
re-opened. His decision in these matters is final, but on other 
questions an appeal from his decision may be made to the state 
superintendent of yniblic instruction. 

The official dockets, records, and books of account of the clerks 
of the courts, county auditor, county commissioners, justices of the 
peace, prosecuting attorneys, mayors of cities, and townshij) and 
school trustees, shall be o]>eu at all times to the inspection of the 
county superintendent, and whenever he finds any irregularity, 
or any misapplication of school funds it is his duty to institute 
suit in the name of the state pro])erly to adjust su(*h matters. 



When the county examiners met in convention at Indianapolis 
in 186r) at the call of State Suju'rintendent Tloss there was a 
resolution adopted calling for the creation by law of a county 


board of education. This is the first expression of the need which 
was felt for some unitv in the countv organization. There was 
neither unity nor unifonnity and it was felt that forces that were 
working at random ought to be working in harmony. Nothing 
came of this resolution directly, but in 1873 when the county 
superintendency was created, the law also authorized a county 
board of education. It is an ex officio organization and is com- 
posed of the townshi]) trustees, and the chairman of the school 
trustees of each town and city of the county, and the county 


While the duties of this board are in the main general, the work 
it does is of larger importance than it seems to be. It really is 
responsible for the school spirit in the county, for the appearance 
of school property, and for the advancement made in education. 
When organized the law said that this board should meet semi- 
annually on the first days of May and September to consider the 
general wants and needs of the schools and school property of 
which they have charge, and all matters relating to the purchase of 
school furniture, books, maps, charts. The school-book law re- 
lieved it of its duty to adopt the text-books in the grades. It 
formerly also regulated the course of study which is now made by 
the state department and adopted and carried out by this board. 
It may adopt rules and regulations for the government of the 
district schools. Another of its duties is to appoint on the first 
Monday in Mav of each vear one truant officer in the countv. 

III. Township Supervision. 



The township, which is the real unit of the educational system 
of Indiana, had its origin in an act of congress in May, 17S5, and 
has figured as an important factor ever since. In IS 10, the state 
legislature provided that ^'upon petition of tw^enty householders in 
any township, there might l)e ordered an election, at which three 
trustees should be chosen to manage the schools of the township." 
Until 1852 the affairs of the tow^iship were not very well defined. 
Indeed two political divisions, the congressional and civil town- 
ship, were maintained. With the new constitution a change was 
made; the congressional township was abolished and the <;ivil 
township became the school unit and took on larger importance 
and uniformity in the affairs of the state at the same time. The 
three trustees were maintained, however, making the school ma- 
chinery very oomi)lex. The law^ of 1851) reduced the number of 
township trustees to one, making a great stride toward that sim- 
plicity that characterizes the school machinery today. Some of the 
claims made and allowed by educators for the township unit as it 
is in Indiana may l)e enumerated: (1) It reduces the school 
machinery to the minimum. (2) It makes one num responsible 
for the schools. (3) It makes uniform facilities in the township. 
(4) It stimulates a healthy educational tone in neighboring 
townships. (5) It makes adjustment of districts and transfers 
possible and easy. (6) It makes centralization of schools i)racti- 



The township trustee is elected by the people for a term of four 
years and can not be re-elected to succeed himself. The only 



qualification is that he shall he a citizen of the township. The 
office has come to he regarded of so much importance that the 
people generally choose good, honest, intelligent men as incum- 


The township trustee has charge of the educational affairs of his 
township. He locates conveniently a sufficient number of schools 
for the education of the children therein, and builds or otherwise 
provides suitable houses, furniture, apparatus and other articles 
and educational appliances necessary for the thorough organization 
and efficient management of the schools. 


When a township has twenty-five common school graduates a 
township graded high sc^hool may Ix? established and maintained in 
the center of the township, to which all pupils who are sufficiently 
advanced must be admitted. The trustee mav, with the assistance 
of a tnistee of another township, establish and maintain a joint 
graded high school in lieu of a separate graded high school. The 
trustees of the two townshi])s have joint control over such schools. 
If the township does not maintain a high school the common school 
graduates are entitled to transfers at public expense to a high 
school in another corporati(m. 


Under the law, above mentioned, the township trustees have 
been doing much toward centralizing their schools; large buildings 
are erected near the center of the township, to which pupils living 
at a distance are transported in wagons at public expense. This 
move is growing more popular every year as its advantages become 
known. The advantages of centralizing schools may he enumer- 
ated as follows: (1) When teachers have but one or two grades, 
pupils are better classified and the work is better organized. (2) 
Pupils are given the advantages of high school facilities which 
they otherwise could not have. (3) Tt is an established fact that 
a graded school can he conducted with less expenditure than a 
number of separate schools. In making this assertion the expense 
of transportation is considered. (4) It is less expensive to the 


parent to have children transported — the saving is in the care of 
the lx)oks and clotliing, and esy>ecially that of hoots and shoes. 
(5) The chihlreii are carefully guarded on the road to and from 
school. (6) The ideal place for a l)oy is a home on the farm with 
high school privileges at hand. 


The township trustee makes rejK)rts to the advisory board 
annually, on the first Tuesday of Se])tend)er, for the school year 
ending the thirty -first day of 'Fuly, and as much oftene^r as the 
board may require a re])ort thereof, in writing. These reports 
must clearly state the following items: (1) The amount of 
special school revenue and .of school revenue for tuition on hand 
at the commencement of the year then ending. (2) The amount 
of each kind of revenue received within the year, giving the 
amount of tuition revenue received at each semiaimual apportion- 
ment thereof. (3) The amount of each kind of revenue ]>aid out 
and expended within the year. (4) The amount of each kind 
of revenue on hand at the date of said report, to l)e carried to the 
new account. 


On the first ^londay in August the trustee makes an annual 
report to the county superintendent, giving statistical information 
obtained from teachers of the schools of his townshiy) and embo<lies 
in tabulated form the following additional items: The numter 
of districts; schools taught and their grades; teachers, males and 
females; average com])ensation of each grade; and a detailed 
report concerning the financial condition of the township funds 
and revenues for schools. 


The trustees of the several townships, towns and cities shall 
take or cause to be taken, between the tenth day of April and the 
thirtieth dav of the same month, each vear, an enumeration of all 
unmarried perscms between the ages of six and twenty-one years, 
resident within the respective townships, towns and cities. The 
enumeration must be summarized, sworn to and then submitted to 
the county superintendent. 



If any child resident in one scIkm)! corporation of tlie state may 
be better aceoniniodated in the schools of another school c()rix)ra- 
tion the parent, gnardian or cnstodian of sncli child may at any 
time ask of the school trnstee in whose township the child resides, 
an order of transfer, which, if granted, shall entitle snch chiUl to 
attend the schools of the corporation to which snch transfer is 


It is the dutv of each townshii) trustee and each citv school 
lx>ard to fnrnish the necessary school books, so far as thev have 
been or may he adopted hy the state, to all such poor and indigent 
children as mav desire to attend the common schools. 



School trustees of townships, towns and citi(?s are authorized to 
establish parental homes, within or without the corporate limits of 
their corporations, a se])i)rate school for incorrigible and truant 
children. Any chihl or children who shall 1h» truant or incorrigible 
may he com|Kdled to attend such separate school for an indeter- 
minate time. 


The law provides that the voters of a district may meet on the 
first Saturday in Octol)er and elect one of their number as director 
of the school; but the ])eople very seldom if ever do thivS, for the 
reason that there is no remuneration for this olfice. In case the 
voters do not elect a director, the trustee is em])owered to a]>point 
one, and almost all the directors are appointed, although they 
exercise so little power that they are now hardly thought of as 
officers. The school director may call a meeting of the voters of his 
district at any time. The director ])resides at these school meet- 
ings and makes a record of the same. He shall, under the direc- 
tions of the townsliip trustee, have genc^ral charge of the* school 
property in his district; and he may also visit and ins])ect the 
school from time to time, and when necessarv mav exclude anv 
refractory pupil therefrom. 



The trustee shall, at least thirty (30) days, and not more than 
forty (40) days, before the annual meeting of the advisory board, 
in each year, post at or near the door of all postoffices in the town- 
ship, a statement of the several estimates and amounts of the 
proposed annual expenditures, and the rates of taxation proposed 
for levy against the property within such townshi]), for the several 
funds to l>e expended for his township during the calendar year, 
and also copies of such notice shall l>e ])ul)lished one time in the 
issue printed in the first week of August of each year in the two 
leading newspapers ])ublished in the county, representing the two 
political parties casting the highest nundier of votes in such county 
at the last preceding general election, and one publication in a 
newspaper in the townshi]) interested, if there be a paper ])ublished 
therein. The cost of such pnblication shall not exceed two dcdlars 
in any one year to any one paper, and the cost of necessary copi(»s 
for posting and delivery to the lH)ard shall not exceed one dollar 
and fiftv cents in anv (me vear. And he shall furnish within like 
periods to each of the members of the advisory board a statement 
of such estimates and amounts. Snch statement shall contain a 
notice of the place of meeting of the advisory l^oard, and shall 
be substantially in the following form : 


The trustee of township, (H>unty, proj)oses for the 

yearly expenditures and tax levies by the advisory board at its 

annual meeting, to Ix^ held at the school house of sch<Mil district 
No. — , the following estimates and amounts for said year: 

1. Township expenditures, $ , and township tax, — cents on 

the hundred dollars. 

2. Tx>cal tuition expenditures, $ , and tax, — cents on the 

hundred dollars. 

3. Special school tax expenditures, $ , and tax, — cents on 

the hundred dollars. 

4. Road tax expenditures, $ , and tax, — cents on the hun- 

dred dollars. 

5. Additional road tax expenditures, $ , and tax, — cents 

on the hundred dollars. 


6. Library expenditures, $ , and tax, — cents on the hundred 


7. Poor expenditures for preceding year, $ , and tax, — 

cents on the hundred dollars. 

8. Other items, if any, expenditures, $ , and tax, — cents 

on the hundred dollars. 
Total expenditures, $ , and total tax, — cents on the 

hundred dollars. 
(Dated) (Signed) , Trustee. 

The trustee shall ])n)cure and lav l)efore the advisory board at 
the annual meeting thereof, the assessed valuation of the taxable 
property of the township for such year, and also the number of 
taxable polls in such township. 


The latest addition to the school machinerv of Indiana is a 
townshij) advisory lx)ard consisting of three resident freeholders 
and qualified voters of the township, (»lected by the people for a 
tenn of two vears. This came in answer to the demand for some 
kind of a check upon the township expenditures. 


The advisory V)ard meets annually on the first Tuesday of 
September to consider the various estimates of township expendi- 
tures as furnished by the township trustee for the ensuing year, 
which it may accept or reject in part or in whole. In addition to 
this power to determine the amounts for which taxes shall be levied 
the advisor^' board determines and fixes the rates of taxation for 
the township. The meetings are open to the public and at any 
session of such board, any taxpayer of the township may appear 
and be heard as to the advisability of any estimate or estimates of 
expenditures, or any proposed levy of taxes, or the approval of the 
township trustee's report or any other matter being considered by 
the board. 

The members of the advisory board are usually among the most 
reliable citizens of the township. The remuneration is only five 
dollars a year, so that the service is an ijidicafiop of the public 
spirit of the citizen chosen, 

IV. City and Town Supervision. 



Provision for separate school systems in incorporated towns 
and cities was not made till 187'3, when school trustees of towns 
and cities were given power to em])loy a superintendent for their 
schools, and to prescribe his duties, and to direct in th(» discharge 
of the same. Previous to this there had simply l)een no city or 
town schools as a rule. The city suix>rint(Mident has come to \h^ 
regarded as one of the most important school officials in the state, 
and though his (hities are not specified by law, his duty and power 
are recognized in the community. 



There is no legalized term of office, but the custom is t^) elect 
annually and to retain during good liehavior. There is a growing 
tendencv to elect for two, three or four vears. Th(»re is neither 
educational nor professional qualification recpiired, but the su])er- 
intendent as a general thing is a man of ability and character and 
is an honor to the community. The strength of the city schools has 
come through the care with which superintendents are selected, the 
long tenure, and the freedom of management conferred. 


The wide-awake city superintendent is a very busy man. He 
has in hand in minute detail the side of equipment, lie knows 
the c<mdition of the buildings and suggests im]>rovements and 
repairs. ITe makes estimates of the budget needcMl each year for 
all expenditures. Tn addition to his res])onsibility for the material 



equipment, he answers for the progress of the schools in the eoni- 
niunity. He chooses the teachers and assigns them. He makes the 
course of study and directs the teachers in making it effective. He 
carries out a plan of systematic supervision based upon his expert 
pedagogical knowledge. These things he does directly and through 
assistant supervisors. 

The scholarly, cultured superintendent has great opportunity in 
his connnunity to direct public opinion in right channels upon 
educational topics. 



Tender the law of 1875 the connuon council of each city and the 
br)ard of trustees of each incorporated town of the state were 
authorized to elect three school trustees to constitute a school 
board. All cities and towns in the state with the exception of 
Indianapolis and Evansville choose their school boards under this 
law. Indianapolis and Evansville schools are operated under 
special charters vsccured from the legislature. 

I • ^ 



Members of school boards are elected for a term of three vears 


and only one new mendx^r is elected each year. Xo qualifications 
are specified by law but the people usually select men of intelli- 
gence and culture for mendxM's of these boards. 


The school boards have charge of the schools in their respective 
corporations. They employ the superintendent, who is directed by 
them to nominate teachers, whom they emjdoy and pay. The 
school l>oards, of course, have under their charge the building and 
protection of the school buildings. They have authority to buy 
and sell school property, erect buildings, establish libraries, and to 
do anything that will promote the l>est interests of the schools so 
long as the school funds of the town or city permit. 
6— Education. 



The schcxjl trustees of the incorporated towns and cities receive 
a special vSchool revenue and a tuition revenue Ix^lon^ing to their 
corporations. They are required to keep accurate accounts of the 
receipts and expenditures of such revenues, which they render to 
the countv conunissioners annually on the first Mondav in Aui^ust 
for the schfM)l year, which, in Indiana, ends on the 31st day of 
July. This report inchules the following things: First, the 
amount of special revenue and tuition revenue on hand. at the 
commencement of the year then ending; second, the amount of 
each kind of revenue receive<l during the year, giving the amount 
of tuition revenue received at each semi-annual ap])ortionmenr 
thereof; third, the amount of each kind of revenue paid out and 
expended within the year; fourth, the amount of each kind of 
revenue on hand at the date of said report to be carried to the new 


By an act j)assed in 188i> school boards were empowered to 
establish in connection with the common scIkm^Is of incorporatcMl 
towns and cities kindergart(»ns for chihlr(»n lx*twe(»n ages of four 
and six, to be paid for in the same manner as other grades and 
departments, provided the expenses are met through local taxation. 
As a result most of the cities in the st^te and quite a number of the 
towns have successful kindergartens in operation. The work done 
covers the complete range of kindergartens. In addition to these 
there are many private kindergartens. 


Under an act of lSi)l, all cities of a given pojndation were 
empowered to establish in connection with and as a part of the 
svstem of the common schools, a svstem of industrial or manual 
training and education, wherein shall Ik* taught the practical use 
of tools and mechanical implements, the elementary principles of 
mechanical construction and mechanical drawing. Indianapolis, 
until quite recently the only city that met the conditions, has a 
splendid manual training high school. Splendid manual training 
schools are now established in Ft. Wayne, Evansville, Richmond, 


Terre Haute and other cities. Some work in manual training is 
done in a number of schools in smaller cities over the state and the 
idea is growing. 


By act of 1889 all cities with a population of three thousand or 
more were authorized to maintain night schools whenever twenty 
or more inhabitants having children between the ages of fourteen 
and twenty-one years of age, or persons over twenty-one years of 
age, who, by reason of their circumstances are compelled to be 
employed during the day for family support, shall petition sch<x>l 
trustees so to do. It was provided that all persons between the 
ages of fourteen and thirty who are actually engaged in business 
or at lalK)r during the day shall 1)0 permitted to attend such 
schools. This furnishes an excellent opportunity for certain 
classes to obtain an educati<m which would otherwise Ix? denied 
them, but no large demand has yet been made for such schools. 
See table, which includes night schools, for statistics. 


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V. Education of Colored Children. 

As early as 1866, while the amendments to the constitution 
were still under discussion, the education of the colored children 
of Indiana was the subject of a re(»oniniendation made to the 
legislature by State Superintendent Hoss. lie suggested (1) that 
the school trustees open separate schools for colored children when 
a given number of such children of school age reside within 
attending distance. He thought the numl)er could not safely be 
less than fifteen. He suggested (2) that in case, in any neighbor- 
hood, the number of children be less than fifteen, the distributive 
share of revenue due each colored child shall be set apart for the 
education of such child in such manner as the proper school 
trustee shall provide. (3) He suggested that it be made specially 
obligatory upon the trustee to make some provision for the educa- 
tion of the children to the extent of the money set apart for the 
same. This same year the examiners in convention at Indianap- 
olis passed a resolution extending the Ix^nefits of the school system 
to the colored children of the state. Two years later State Super- 
intendent Hobbs made a stronger case calling for some legislation 
and finally, in 1869, an act was passed rendering taxation for 
common school purposes uniform, and providing for the education 
of the colored children of the state. At various times since the law 
has been modified and interpreted, so that colored children to-day 
have practically the same privileges as white children. In many 
communities separate schools are maintained even through the 
high school. Where such schools are separate it is insisted that 
just as good facilities and teachers shall be provided as are to be 
found in other schools. In many of the high schools of the cities 
and larger towns colored children attend the same high schools as 
the white children, and the doors of the three state institutions are 
open to them. At present there are enumerated in Indiana 15,443 
colored children betw^een the ages of six and twenty-one years, and 
of this number 9,163 are attending the public schools. 


VI. The Teacher. 

There are at present in Indiana over sixteen tJiotisaud teachers 
employed in the public schools. This army of men and women 
represents the best blood and culture of the state. Really with no 
professional requirement s]K'cified by law the dignity of the voca- 
tion is recognized everywhere, and it is felt that there is a 
profession of teaching. State, county and city supervision has 
constantly advanced the standard of excellence required, and an 
educated public sentiment demands the best service possible. 
Even with the life of the average teacher in the districts only 
about four years, progress is apparent in all phases of school work. 


Teachers are elected annuallv, but as a matter of fact the tenure 
in the state is during good behavior, that is, the position is secure 
as long as good work is done. Rarely does a good teacher lose a 
place in Indiana. 


The law provides that all contracts made by and between 
teachers and school corporations of the state of Indiana shall be in 
writing, signed by the ])arties to Ix* charged thereby, and no action 
can be l)rought uj)on any contract not made in conformity to the 
provisions of this law. The law also provides for uniformity in 
contracts in the state by using the following contract : 

Teacher's Contract. 

For Incorporated Towns and Cities. 

THIS AGREEMENT, Made and entered Into between the township. 

town or city SCHOOL CORPORATION of 

In County and State of 

Indiana, by 

the Board of 

School Trustees of said Corporation, of the first part, and 

a legally qualified teacher of 

said County, of the second part. 



t • t I t • 

Witn€88€th, That said 

hereby agrees to teach, in the Public Schools of said Corporation, 

grade, or such grade in the school department as the 

School Board or Superintendent may direct, in 

School building, during the school year, beginning the day of 

A. D. 190. ., for the salary of 


per (month, year.) to be paid 

«StAt« when all or partx of salary will be paid.) 


further agrees, faithfully, zealously and impartially, to perform all the 
duties as such teacher, using only such text-boolcs as are prescribed by 
said Board, or Superintendent, of said schools; that ..he will accurately 
keep and use all registers and blanks placed in .... hands by said 
Board, or the Superintendent of said schools; that . .he will make a com- 
plete and accurate report at the close of the school term, the blank for 
which is provided on the back of this sheet; that . .he will make all other 
reports required by said Board. Superintendent or School I^aw; that ..he 
will exercise due diligence in the preservation of the school buildings, 
grounds, furniture, books, maps and other school property committed to 

care, and turn same over to said Board at the close of said school. 

In as good condition as when received— damage and wear l)y use excepted; 
and that ..he will conform to the rules and regulations of said Board, 
and Superintendent, and faithfully and impartially enforce them among 
the pupils. 

Said School Corporation, by said School Board, agrees to keep the 
school buildings in good repair and furnish the necessary fuel, furniture, 
books, maps, blanks and such other appliances as may 1)e necessary for 
the successful teaching of the branches in said schools. 

And said School Corporation, by said Scliool Board, further agrees to 

pay said 

for services as teacher of said school, said salary of 

Dollars per (month, year,) 

as above agreed upon. 

Provided, That in case said teacher shall be discharged from said 
school by said Board for incompetency, cruelty, gross immorality, neglect 
of business, or a violation of any of the stipulations of this Contract, or 

In case license should be annulled l)y the County Superintendent, 

or by the State Superintendent, . .he shall not l)e entitled to any compen- 
sation after notice of dismissal or annulment of license. 


Provided further. That the teacher shall have a duplicate copy of this 

In Witness Whereof, We have hereunto subscribed our names 
this day of A. D. 190. .. 




Board of School Trustees. 



(1.) Full authority is sriven School Boards to substitute the words '* principal," " su- 
pervisor" or '* superintendent " wherever the word ** teacher " appears in the Contract, 
when the Contract should be so drawn. 

(2.) This Contract is the official form as made under the provisions of H. B. No. 139, 
of the Acts of 1899. 


To enable the trustees to make reports which are required of 
them, the teacher of each school, whether in township, town or 
city, shall, at the expiration of the term of the school for which 
such teacher shall have been employed, furnish a complete report 
to the proper trustee, verified by affidavit, showing the length of 
the school term, in days; the number of teachers employed, male 
and female, and their daily compensation; the number of pupils 
admitted during the term, di.stinguishing between males and 
females, and between the ages of six and twenty-one years; the 
average attendance; books used and branches taught, and the 
number of pupils engaged in the study of each branch. Until 
such report shall have been so filed, such trustee shall not pay 
more than seventy-five per centum of the wages of such teacher, 
for his or her services. Following is a form of this report: 

Teacher's or Principat/s Report to Township Trustee. 

Note.— This report must be made by each teacher haviug charge of the 
attendance of pupils. A liigh school teacher who works under the direc- 
tion of a principal will not need to nialce the report in case the principal 
reports for the entire high school. In graded grammar schools each 
teacher should report for the pupils directly under his charge. The prin- 
cipal of a gradeti grammar school should report only for the pupils di- 
rectly under his charge. 

Report of 

(teacher, principal) of District. 

Township, County. Indiana. 

to the Township Trustee, for the school term beginning 

and closing 


For all Teachfra Who Have Charge of Attendwice of Pupils. 

1. Number of days school was in session, - - - - 

2. Number of pupils enrolled during year, . - - . 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

3. Number of pupils withdrawn during year, .... 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

4. Number of pupils suspended during year, . - . - 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

6. Number of pupils expelled during year, . . . - 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

6. Number of pupils re-entered during year, . . - - 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

7. Number of pupils remaining in school close of year. - 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

8. Number of pupils neither tardy nor absent during year, 

Male, ; female, ; total 

9. Number of cases of tardiness during year, - . - - 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

10. Number of pupils tardy during year, 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

11. Total days of attendance by all pupils for year, - - - 

12. * *• •• ** absence, ** *' *• an . . 

13. Total c^ses of tardiness, . . Time lost by tardiness, - 

14. tAverage daily attendance for year, 

15. Per cent, of attendance— 11^(11 f 12), 

16. Number of pupils promoted to 

(a) Second year, 

(b) Third 

(c) Fourth 

(d) Fifth 

(e) Sixth 

(f) Seventh •* 

(g) Eighth ** 

(h) High Scliool, 

17. Number of graduatoH from tho coinmoii l)ranches and receiv- 

injf diplomas, - Male : female : total. 

18. Number of graduates from iiou-oommisKioned towiishii) high 

schools, - - Male : femah» : total. 

10. Number of graduates from commissioned towiishii) high 

schools, - - Male : female : total. 

20. How many books in sch(K)l library (not including reading 

circle books) at beginning of year? 

21. How many books were added to the librairy (not in(*luding 

reading circle booksi during year? 


*(1.) AfttT three days* i>t absence the pupil shonhl be withdrawn, and his absence 
counted no more for that period of absence. After being withdrawn, he is n(>t a pupil of 
the Rchool, and can not be atrain until he is re-entered, as in item 6. 

t(2. ) To find averai^e daily attendance divide the whole number of day8 of attendance 
made by ail the pupils by the number of days of school tausrht. 


22. Total now In school library (not Including reading circle 


23. How many reading circle books were added during year? 

24. How many puplis read one or more school library or reading 

circle books during year? 

25. Do patrons read school library books? 

2(5. Number of visits to school. 

Parents, ; officials ; others, total, 

27. Number of teachers employed (if school be high school), 

Male ; female ; total 

28. Number of days teacher attended township institute, - 

29. Books and apparatus left in school room at end of term. - 

1 do solemnly 

swear that the above report is true to the best of my knowledge and 



4. WAGES. 

The wage question lias received a good deal of intelligent con- 
sideration in late years and as a result Indiana has the following 
law regulating the usages of teachers: '*The daily wages of teach- 
ers for teaching in the public schools of the state shall not be less 
in the case of beginning teachers than an amount determined by 
multiplying two and one-fourth (2\) cents by the scholarship 
given said teacher on his highest grade of license at the time of 
contracting; and after the* first school term of any teacher, said 
teacher's daily Avages shall not be less than an amount determined 
by multiplying two and one-half (2i) cents by the general average 
of scholarship and success given the teacher (m his highest grade of 
license at the time of contracting; and after three years of teaching 
said wages shall not b(^ less than an amount determined by multi- 
plying two and three-fourths (2^) cents by the general average of 
scholarship and success given the teacher on his highest grade of 
license at the time of contracting: Provided, That two (2) per 
cent, shall be added to a teacher's general average of scholarship 
and success for attending the county institute the full number of 
days and that said two (2) per cent, shall be added to the average 
scholarship of l)eginning teachers. 

"All teachers now exempt, or hereafter exempt from examina- 
tion, shall be paid as daily w^ages for teaching in the public schools 


of the state not less than an amount determined by multiplying two 
and three-fourths (2|) cents by the general average of scholarship 
and success given said teachers: Provided, That the grade of 
scholarship counted in each case be that given at the teachers last 
examination, and that the grade of success counted be that of the 
teacher's term last preceding the date of contracting. 

"All school officers shall comply with the provisions of this act 
and shall pay the teachers employed by them no less than such an 

amount as shall be determined by sections 1 and 2 of this act. 


School officers who shall be adjudged guilty of violating any of the 
provisions of this act shall be fined in any amount not exceeding 
one hundred dollars ($100) for such offense. The state superin- 
tendent of public instruction is hereby authorized to bring action 
against any school officer violating any of the provisions of this 

Here are some statistics showing the wages paid to teachers in 
Indiana daily during the year 1903-4: 

Males. Females. Total. 

In townships $i;i..5«2 r»l $1 1.242 27 $24,804 88 

In towns 1.732 54 2.2;« (K) 3.0<>7 14 

In cities 2.0.')(5 ST} 9,474 42 12.411 27 

Whole state $18,2.T2 00 .$22.1>51 29 $41,183 29 

Average Daily Wages. 

Males. Females. Total. 

Townships .$2.4.35 $2,275 $2.36 

Towns 3.214 2..397 2.696 

Cities 4.497 2.779 3.055 

Average for state 2.697 2.472 2.567 

The alwve statistics do not include salaries for supervision, which are 
paid from the special school funds. .$25(),0(K) i)eing paid annually to county, 
city and town superintendents. 


The law provides that the miniuium school term shall be six 
months. The average length of the term even for district schools 
is much more than six months. This, with the wage sentiment, has 
helped place teaching upon a higher plane, and has been an incen- 
tive to more thorough preparation on the part of the teacher. 



Teachers must have good moral character and hold a valid 
license. If an applicant is objectionable a majority of the patrons 
through petition to the tnistee may prevent his apjxantnient. If 
a teacher proves unworthy through neglect, incom|)etency or ba<l 
conduct he may l)e removed by the county superintendent who has 
power to revoke his license. 


Comnion scIkmiI teachers are those* who teach in the districts 
and in the grades in cities and towns. They must pass examina- 
tions in orthography, reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, Eng- 
lish grammar, physiology, scientific tenn)erance, V. S. history, 
literature and science of education. The grading is governed by 
the following rules : 
A general average of 85 per cent., not falling below 75 per cent, in 

any one of the 10 items, nor in success, entitles the applicant to 

a twelve months' license. 
A general average of 00 per cent., not falling below 80 per cent, in 

any one of the 10 itenis, nor in success, entitles the applicant to 

a 24 months' license. 
A general average of 05 per cent., not falling below 85 j>er cent, in 

any one of the 10 items, nor lielow 00 in 0, 10 an<l success, 

entitles the applicant to a 3«> months' license. 
The general average is the mean of the average scholarship and 

success Cobtained by divi<liug their sum by two). 

The above standard of license was adopted by the state conven- 
tion of county sui)erintendents, held at Indianapolis, June, lSi)S. 

Here is the form of license used. 




The state board of education has provided an examination for 
primary teachers re(]uiring less knowledge of the branches and 
more knowledge of the work to be done. The license based npon 
this examination is issued almost exclusively to women who do 
WM)rk in the first four grades. 


Still another grade of license is issued to high school teachers 
wdio teach subjects other than the common branches. The tendency 
is to limit the high school teacher to one or two subjects and to 
require special preparation in these. There are five different 
forms of the high school license: (1) The county high school 
license, issued by the county superintendent, valid in the county 
for one, two or three years, according to grade of scholarship. 
(2) The state high school license, issued by the state superin- 
tendent, and valid in any high school in the state for one, two or 
three years. (3) The sixty months' license, issued bv the state 
superintendent. Before this can Ik? secured the applicant must 
hold a three years' common school license, issued by the state 
suj)erintendent. (4) The professional license is granted by the 
state board of education, and is valid for a period of eight years. 
(5) A life state license is issued by the state board of education, 
valid while good character is maintained. Since 18()7 the state 
board has issued upon examinations 303 life state licenses and 
283 professional licenses. Under the following provisions the 
state superintendent has countersigned sixty life state certificates 
from (jther states since the enactment in 1899 : 

The state superintendent of pu!)Uc Instruction may countersign the 
life state certificates of teachers of other states, wlien tlie holders of such 
certificates shall have furnished satisfactory evidence of good moral 
character, and experience and success in teaching, as is reipiired for life 
state certificates In this state; and when so countersigned such certificates 
shall be valid In any of the sch(K»ls in this state: Provideil, That the 
requirements for ol)taining the life state certificates of other states shall 
be equivalent to the requirements for the same certificates in this state. 




The teacher is required to enforce in good faith the rules and 
reguhitions of the county hoard of (Mhu*ation; to exercise care over 
scliiX)! property ; to use kindly means of enforcing obedience. The 
district teacher is required to attend township institute one Satur- 
day in each month, and the town and city teacher is required to 
attend such meetings as the superintendent shall call. The teacher 
is expected to make his sclKM)lroom as cheerful and attractive as 
]>ossihle. lie is required to do professional reading and to take at 
least one g(X>d school journal. He is expected to take ])art in the 
life of the community. He is required by hiw to make reports to 
superintendents, trustees and truant ottic(»rs. 


Following will be found sets of examination questions such as 
are used for different grades of license : 





1. These questions shall be used oii the 
last Saturday of the mouth only. 

2. DuriniT the examination, all books, 
maps, trlobes, or other aids, shall be re- 
moved from siifht. 

3. The writint; of applicants should be 
done in every c*se with pen and ink, to 
prevent erasures and ehantres. 

4. All conversation or communication 
should be absolutely forbidden durini? the 

5. At no time durini: the examination 
Hhould any questions be shown, except 
such as have been or are then being: used. 

6. The printed lists should be divi4le<l, 
so that no opportunity or temptaticm may 
i*e ifiven to applicants to refer to authori- 
ties at recess. 

7. Applicants should not be permitted to 
ask question.s. If they have any doubts as 
to the meaniui: of a question, let these be 
offered in writinjp, so that the superintend- 
ent may consider them when he examines 
the answers to the question, 

H. If a correction is necessary, erasures 
should not be maile, but a sinirle mark 

shouhl be drawn over the error, that the 
superintendent may see the error as well 
as the correction. In arithmetic, the entire 
work should appear on the manuscript. 

9. P]a<*h subject shall be ifraded on a 
scale of a hundred, each question beingr 
valued at an equal part of one hundred, ex- 
cept when marked otherwise. 

10. These rules should be given the ap- 
plicants before enterinif upon the exami- 

*#"The board sujfjfests that, since many 
questions admit of a variety of answers, 
credit be given for the intelligence shown 
in the answers, rather than for their con- 
formity to the views of the superintendent. 

NoTK 1.— Neither the state board of edu- 
cation nor any member of the board pre- 
pares for publication in any perio<iical 
whatever, answers to the questions asked 
by this state board of education. The state 
board is not in any way responsible for any 
such publication. 

Note 2.— For the information of appli- 
cants for teachers' license the following 
orders of the state board of October. 1885, 
are here printed in full ip. 52 record): 



"Ordered. That the Readiner Circle ex- 
aminations in the Hcienee of teachinf? be 
accepted by county HuperintendentM in 
place of the county examination on that 
Hubject, and that the averacre Of their four 
sHccettsive yearly fxanrinatio-mt in the 
science of teachiner l)e a<*cepted i»y the state 
board in the examination for state certifi- 

" Ordered. That the K^adinj; Circle ex- 
aminations in the creneral culture boolc be 
accepted by county superintendents in 
place of the county examination in litera- 
ture, and that the averagreof their four suc- 
cessive yearly examinntiofis in the ireneral 
culture books be accepted by the state 

board in the examination for state certifl- 
cates/'-May 14, 1896. 


The penmanship shown in the manu- 
scripts of the entire examination will be 
(graded on a scale of 100, with reference to 
leoibility (50), regularity of form (30), and 
neatness (20). The handwritinif of each 
applicant will be considered in itself, rather 
than with reference to the standard models. 

The orthogrraphy of the entire examina- 
tion will be frraded on a scale of 100, and 1 
will be deducted for each word incorrectly 

In each list amirer any nir, hut no more. 


1. What must be taken from 446182967 in 

onier that the remainder may be ex- 
actly divisible by 62S93t 

2. The product of three numbers is 8i. If 

the first is A and the second 2{a what 
is the third? 

3. By what decimal part of a pint does 

.006 of a quart exceed .0004 of a peck? 

4. How many yds. of Brussels carpet 

must you buy to carpet a floor 21 ft. 
lonir by 13 ft. 9 in. wide, allowinsr 
9 in. on each strip for waste in 
matchinir the fiirure? 

5. A cylindrical cistern is 6 ft. in diameter 

and 8 ft. deep. How many irallons 
of water will it hold? 

6. The valuation of property in a certain 

city is $24,500,000.00. How much tax 
must be levied on each SIOO.OO to pay 
the interest on l>onds issued to the 
amount of $125,000.00 and bearinir 
34% interest? 

7. If 18 be added to a certain number, I of 

4 of the sum is 45. What is the 
number? Solve by algebra. 

^- 7 3 


Find value of x. 


1. Have the movements in our national 

history been toward a federal irov- 
enmient or a national government? 

2. Name Hve men who were prominent in 

the federalist party. 

3. What led to the adoption of the 12th 


4. What was the cause of the split in the 

democratic party in 1860? 

5. Who were the republican candidates 

for the presidency before the Chi- 
caiTo convention in 1860? 

6. What was the Kansas-Nebraska act? 

7. What contention was the occasion for 

the Webster-Hayne debate? 

8. Write a brief bioirraphy of James B. 



1. What do you understand to be the 

meanini: of the term " school sani- 

2. Describe the red corpuscles of the 

blood and give their function, 

3. StartinsT at the risrht auricle, follow a 

drop of blood in its circulation 
through the larger vessels and the 
heart until it returns to the right 

4. Why does a physician feel a patient's 


5. What digestive changes are effected by 

the gastric juice? 

6. Explain the paths of sensory and motor 

impulses that figure directly in the 
reflex removal of the flnger from 
the hot stove. 

7. What is the real source of danger in 

remaining in a poorly ventilated 

8. What physiological effects of alcohol 

are apparent enough to any observer 
to serve as effective warnings by a 
tactful tea<*her? 


The splendor falls on castle walls 

And snowy summits old in story; 
The long light shakes across the lakes. 
And the wihl cataract leaps in glory. 
Blow, bugle, blow, set the wild echoes 

Blow, bugle: answer, echoes, dying, 
dying, (lying. 
1. Who is the author of the above? When 
and where did he live? Name eight 
poems by this author, underscoring 
those you have reail. 



2. Give the flrst aHsignint^nt you would 

make upon this poem to eitrhth 
irrade pupils. 

3. Give the picture which the above 

stanza suirgrests to youf 

4. What is meant in the second stanza by : 

" O sweet and far from cliff and scar 
The horns of Elfland faintly blow- 

5. What is meant in the third stanza by: 

" Our echoes roll from soul to soul 
And grow forever and forever.*'? 

6. SufTgest some example by which the 

thought in this poem might be 
brought home to the child. 

7. Would you select stories written in 

dialect for the primary grades? Give 

8. In the sentence, " Silverlocks lay down 

on the wee bear's bed and was soon 
fast asleep," how would you teach 
the words Silrrj'lorks and asfeepf 


1. What wat4?rs does the Erie canal con- 

nect f What cities are at its extrem- 
ities? Of what commercial advan- 
tage is this canal ? 

2. (^ompare September and December in 

regard to time of sunrise and sun- 
set: length of sun's rays. Where 
are the sun's rays vertical in ewh of 
these months f 

3. What two countries in P]urope have a 

government similar to our own t In 
whicli continent is there a total ab- 
sence of a republican government ? 

4. Locate Rio Janeiro, Hong Kong, the 

Indus river. Strait of Gibraltar. 

5. Give four important uses of mountains. 

6. What are geysers f Llanos? Steppes? 

Where may each of these be found ? 

7. The following have in recent years 

been discussed with much interest 
in the newspapers: Cuba, Hawaiian 
Islands, Philippines. Martiniiiue. 
Where are these places i 

8. Modem magazines and newspapers 

usually contain maps showing the 
location of regions about which 
there is considerable interest. What 
does this suggest in regard to meth- 
ods in geography teaching? 


1. Take as a sut)ject "oranges" for de- 

scription, and outline your method 
of procedure with a class in lower 
grammar grade. 

2. Give principal parts of went, lie Uo re- 

cline), sit, send, bring. 

3. Give a sentence containing a verbal 


4. When should the study of technical 

grammar be introduced? Justify 
your answer. 

5. Write the following four times, giving 

only a different position each time, 

and stftte exactly what each sentence 


"Only he mourned for his brother." 

6. Give the word or phrase that fits the 

following description: 

(a) Personal pronoun, third, singu- 
lar, masculine, objective. 

(b) Personal pronoun, first, plural, 

(cj Verb 00, subjunctive, present 
perfect, plural. 

(d) Verb ««<•, indicative, present 
perfect, progressive, singular, 

(e) Verb read, indicative, present 
perfect, passive, singular. 

7. Illustrate <iifference between attribute 

compliment, and objective compli- 
H. Mention some of the things to be noted 
in the study of prepositions. 


1. Discuss the purpose and use of the art 

of questioning. 

2. What application will you make of 


3. Discuss the relative value of gymnas- 

tics anil sports in education. What 
can you do to promote the proper 
use of sports ? 

4. Discuss the treatment of children with 

defective hearing. 

5. How may spelling be taught in ccmnec- 

tion with other subjects? Should 
there be special spelling lessons ? 

6. What must be the character of school 

discipline, to prepare pupils for 
American citizenship? 

7. In what way can you make the work in 

nature study practical ? 

8. What kind of acquaintance with her 

pupils should a teacher cultivate to 
make it of service in school work ? 

Systematic Methodolo«y. 

1. Which should be first cultivated, re- 

ceptive or creative imagination t 
What reasons are given ? 

2. Define notion or concept. 

3. The author gives what directions for 

the training of a self-willed child ? 
What do you think of his sugges- 
tions ? 

7— Educatiok. 



4. Wliat four stages are coiisidcnMl neces- 

sary in all riyflit niethtnl of acquir- 
ing knowledjje f 

5. "A (luestion is the teacher's instru- 

ment for niakint; a child think." To 
what extent is the above (flotation 
true i 

6. In teaching primary reading:, is the unit 

of thouerht the souml, the word or 
the sentence t (Jive reason for 
your answer. 

7. What is the distinction between the 

"objective" and the "subjective" 
process of training; sense percep- 

8. When may one safely venture upon 

literary criticism. 


1. Name five works that you think suita- 

ble for eighth year work in litera- 
tun*. <iive reasons for your selec- 

2. What characteristics make Robins(m 

Crusoe thedelitfhtful book that it is? 

H. Why is a crood knowledge of the myths 
of (ireei'e and Home a necessity to 
the rea<ler of English literature i 

4. What <lid Chaucer's writings do for the 
English language? 

a. Name the leading characters in Shakes- 
peare's Julius Ciesar. Which in 
your estimati<»n is noblest an<l why i 

6. " (). f«»r sueh my frien<I. 

We hohi them slitrht: they mind us of 

the time. 
When we ma<le bri<*ks in Egypt." 

To what <lo<*s the author allude in 

the last line ?• 

7. What is an Epic ? Name the lhn*e 

great Epics of the world. 

8. Name five Americans who have distin- 

guished themselves as writers of 
history an<l give the title of at least 
one work of each. • 


1. Why did ".Toe" show such astonish- 

ment when "(iuster" patted him <m 
thcr shoulder? 

2. What was Dickens' representations as 

to the relative advantages of city 
and country ? 
'A. Why not attempt to nuike pupils moral 
by ** prec<'pt " ? 

4. Why does Diekens paint his best char- 

acters as lovers of nature i 

5. What valuable hints as to tea^'bing can 

we get f roin his " American Notes t " 
G What does he teach as to the education 
of the poor an<l outt-ast f 

7. Which is the most suggestive of his 

books as to method.s of education f 

8. What was the purpose of his story of 

** CaleVj Plummer and bis blind 
child "f 

(9) MCSIC. 

1. Draw a staff and place on it the (4 clef. 

The F clef. 

2. Of what use is the staflf and clef f 

H. Place on the staff in whole notes, key 
of A flat, one, tliree, five, sharp-four, 

4. W'hat effect has a dot upon the value of 

the note which precedes it t 

5. Name three points to he eniphasized in 

preparing pupils to sing a new song 
or exercise. 

0. Des«*ribe the position y<m would re- 

(luire your pupils to assume in 

7. Name a pnmiinent (»rchestral con- 


8. Name three operas and their compos- 



Note— These questions must be answered 
in full by all applicants or the manuscript 
will receive no att^nti<m. 

1. (live your name or number. Give post- 

office, (live age if under 21. 

2. What other than the common schools 

has been your educational training i 

3. What professional training have you 

received ? When did y<»u last at- 
tend s<'hool. 

4. What works on Psychology or Peda- 

gogy have you studied f 

5. Have you taught school? How longf 

What grades ? 

6. In what county.did you teach last year? 

What was your grade in succes.s ? 

7. What grades of license have you held f 

In what c(mnties ? When ? 

8. Did you attend County Institute last 

year ? Wlu^re ? How many days ? 

9. Name the educational papers or period- 

icals that you take. 

10. Do you read other educati<mal papers ? 

Name them. 

11. Name the books of the Teacher's* Read- 

ing ( -ircle that you have read. 

12. Have you given or received aid in any 

way during this examination. If so, 
explain fully. 

13. How many Township Institutes did 

you atten<l last year f Did you take 
an active part in all f 





(Avsicfr ttix. but wo more.) 

1 H<iw did the Nomiaii Conquest aflPeet 
the lanfiTuagrc and literature of Eiifr- 

2. Give a eoneise account of some char- 

acter in one of Shakespeare's trag- 

3. Name the fim»atest poet and the grn'at- 

est prose writer of tlie ajre of Queen 
Anne, and the best known work of 

4. Name three Enfrlish and two American 

essayists of the nineteenth century 
with one important W(»rk of emdi. 

5. Mention five jfn'at Phii^lish poets of 

the early part of the ninete(>nth 
centiir>' and an important work of 

6. Briefly characterize Ijontrfellow as a 

man and a poet. Name three loni; 
and three short poems which in 
your opinion will be most endurinur. 

7. Name the author of Silas Manier, The 

Princess, Bijrlow Papers. Ijittle 
Women, The Newcomes, Rise of the 
Dutch Republic, Coriolaiius. The 
Faerie Queene. 

8. Name a erreat epi<' an<l a urent elegry 

written by the same poet. 

(Any aix, hut no morr.) 

1. What do you think is the comparative 

value of oral antl written lanifuaire 
work in primary schocds? (five 
reasons for your decision. 

2. Many chihlren who hear correct Engr- 

lish at home and in school speak as 
incorrectly as children wh<» have 
not had these advantaires. Account 
for this. 

3. Is it worth while for chihlren to put a 

list of disconne<*ted words into sen- 
tences f Why? 

4. Write ten rules for the w^v of capital 


5. Write a brief plan showing how you 

would develop the idea of tlu* com- 
mand (imperative sentence). 

6. What kinds of- exercises do you find 

most interestinjf t<» primary chil- 
drenf Account for the srreater in- 
terest sh<»wn in these. 

7. What should be the characteristics (»f 

the teacher's siM>ken lanvruairef 












What are the sources of the vocabulary 
of the pupil ? 

(Any «<>, but no tnorr.) 

Outline a course in number work, suit- 
able for the first four years. 

What is the object in havini? pupils 
picture problemsf In this work 
what principle should be risridly en- 
forced f 

Illustrate your method of teachinir a 
pupil to "carry the tens." 

What will Im* the lowest cost of carpet- 
ing a room 20 feet loni; and 19 feet 
wide, with canwt % of a yard wide, 
costinjf 65c per yard? 

A case of 200 oranues cost $4. If there 
was a 10<x loss in shipping, what 
would be the grnin per cent, if sold at 
30c per ilozen? 

How many six-inch jjlobes can be 
packed in a box that is 2 feet lone:, 
IH feet wide and 1 foot de<'p on the 

305.75x2.25. Explain fully each step in 
your solution. 

A teacher lives J^ mile north and 1 mile 
east of her schoolhouse. What is 
the nearest distance to her home? 


i A ny six, but no niorf.) 

Name a primer or first reader with 
whij'h you are very familiar. What 
are its trood points? What are its 
poor points? 

In teachinu: a literary selection such as 
The Villaire Blacksmith, would you 
put more tinn' an<i effort on the 
stu<ly of the poiln (»r on the study 
of the author? Why? 

Do you consider books of a literary 
chara<'ter or books containing: in- 
f(«nnation better for supplementary 
reading:? Why? 

Many children in n>adinfi: will accept a 
word iriven them i)y the teacher 
when they hesitate on a word, even 
if. to test tliein, she has offered a 
word that makes nonsense of the 
passage. Account for this in all 
ways that you can. 

Do y<ni rind your children more inter- 
I'sted in the pr(»se or in the poetry 
in the Indiana Readers? Why is 
this HO? 




6. Name some authors who havt* written 

good stories for children. What 
points in their work do you like es- 
pecially? Name some of their sto- 

7. What means do you use to render the 

children independent in makinirout 
words? Be explicit. 

8. It is a common custcmi to have the 

class follow the child who is read- 
ing and give criticisms. Do you 
approve of this? Why? 

{Avsiver six, but no more.) 

1. What. use may the teacher of young 

children make of biographies of 
great men ? 

2. How may the early history of Indiana 

be profitably taught in the reading 

3. What use should be made in elemen- 

tary schools of the history of other 
countries than our own? 

4. What were the two typical English 

settlements? Compan» them as to 
(a) purpose, (b) character of colon- 
ists, (c) government. 

5. Wliat was the great need for a consti- 

tution of the United States? What 
statesman was largely instrumental 
in getting the states to ratify it? 

6. What circumstances led Jefferson to 

purchase Louisiana? What were its 
boundaries? Where and how is this 
event to be celebrated in 1904? 

7. Where is the National Road? What 

effect ha<l the building of this road 
upon the country? 

8. Explain why the North opposed the 

extension of slavery and why the 
South d(*manded it. 

(A ny Kijr, hut no more.) 

1. Give four reasons why physiology 

should be tauglit in the primary 

2. How many teeth should a six-year-old 

pupil have? 

3. Name two diseases of the eye an<l give 

remedy for each. 

4. (live a simple and sufficient dietary for 

one day. Show why the foods 
chosen are wise. 

5. (live the composition of air. 

C. What is the effect of school surround- 
ings upon the taste and morals of 
the pupils? 

1. What are the readiest and surest tests 
for vitiated air in a room? How 
many cubic feet of space should be 
calculated for each pupil? 

8. Name the organs of digestion in their 

physiological ortler. 

9. In what way wouhl you teach the sub.- 

ject of scientific temperance to pri- 
mary pupils? 

{Any six, but no more.) 

1. Draw an outline map of your county, 

locating townships and towns. 

2. Compare and contrast temperate an<l 

torrid zones. (Jive width of each. 

3. What is included in the term "cli- 

mate " ? Upon what physical condi- 
tions does the climate of a place de- 

4. When would you begin to teach formal 

definitions of the physical forms of 
the earth? 

5. Describe Cuba, giving location, size. 

surface, climate, products, govern- 
ment and name its chief executive. 

6. What geography would you teach to 

first year pupils? 

7. Name in order the natural divisions of 

land and water crossed by tlie 

8. What is irrigation? What portions of 

the United States are benefited by it ? 

(A ny nix, but no more.) 

1. What sort of myths and stories would 

you select for children for the first 
two or three gra<les and how can 
you make them of real educational 

2. How can you train children in nature 

work so that they will learn to exer- 
cise " dominion over nature " ? 

3. How should you proceed in teaching 

reading to Ijeginners? 

4. What else shouM a tea<'her, especially 

in the lower grades, do for her pu- 
pils besides " putting them to their 

5. What is the legal limit of the control 

of the tem'her over pupils in and 
out of school? 

6. To what extn«mes may a teacher legally 

proceed to maintain order in school? 

7. What do you reganl as the best atti- 

tude of the teacher toward the pu- 

8. What can be done to arouse and de- 

velop dull pupils? 




Note.— The rt*quin*nieiits for a sixty-nionthn' license are an follows: The first divi- 
sion, an averafire of 95 pt^r cent., not falling below 85 per cent, in the "Common 
Branches; " the second division, an averasre of 75 per cent., not fallini? below 60 per 
cent, in any of the five branches, as follows: 

(irroup 1. Literature and Composition (reqiiinMl of all applicants). 

Group 2. Alfirebra or Geometry (one required). 

Group 3. Botany, Zoology, ( 'hemistry. Physics. or Physical Geoerraphy (one required). 

Group 4. History an<l Civics. Latin or (jemian (one required). 

<iroup 5. One subject fnmi ** 2." "3" or "4 " not already taken. Five subjects are re- 
quired in this division. 

iAnstrrr any six, ineluditiQ o»f and tiro.) 

1. Translate into idiomati<? Ensrlish: 6. 

Mittit primo Brutum adules- 
centem cum cohortibus Ca»sar, 
post cum aliis C. Fabiuni lefiratum; 
postremo ipse, cum vehementius 7. 
pugnaretur. intecros subsidio ad- 
ducit. Restituto proelio ac repul- 
sis hostibus. ec> quo Ijabienum mis- 
erat contend it: cohortes quattuor 
ex proximo castello deducit, equi- 
tum partem setiui, partem circu- 
mire exteriores munitiones et ab 
tersro hostes adoriri jubet. Labi- 
eiius, postquam neque agriferes 
neque fossw vim hostium sustinere 
poterant. coactis una quadrairinta 
cohortibus, quas ex proximis prae- 
sidiis deductas. fors obtulit. Cap- 8. 
sarem per nuntios facit certiorem 
quid facieiulum existimet. Ac- 
celerat Ca>sar. ut proelio intersit. 

2. Write in I^atin, marking lon^r vowels: 

(«) (.'icen» begged Catiline to go 
forth from the city, saying that he 
would be freed from fear provided 
only a wall should be between 
them. 1. 

(b) I do not doubt that Catiline 
departed gladly. 

3. What justification had Cicero for or- 

dering the death of Roman citizens 
without a formal triaH 

4. What nouns and adjectives of 3d de- 

clension are i—stemf Which of the 
above have i as en<ling of ablative 
singular? Which * and e{ Which el 

5. Translate into idiomatic English: 

Hoc autem uno interfecto intel- 2. 
lego banc rei publicie pestem pau- 
lisper reprimi. non in perpetuum 3. 
comprimi posse. Quod^i se eiecerit 
seeumque suos eduxerit et eodem 4. 
ceteros undi<iu«»collectos nnufrugos 
adgregarit, extinguetur atque dele- 

bitur non modo hip<" tam adulta rei 
publicip pestis. verum etiam stirps 
ac semen malonim omnium. 
Explain mode of eiecerit. What is the 
difference in meaning between 
reprimi and vomprimif What is 
the deriviation of vnufrago.Hf 
Translate and scan: 

p]cce antem complexa pedes in 

limine coniunx 
Hff'rebat. parvuni (lue patri ten- 

debat lulum: 
Si periturus abis, et nos rape in 

omnia tecum: 
Sin aliquam expertus sumptis spem 

ponis in arm is, 
Hane prinium tutare ilonum. Cui 

parvus lulus. 
Cui pater et coniunx quondam tua 

dicta relinquor? 
What would you hold forth t^» your 
puplis as the practical benefits to be 
derived from Latin stu<ly? 

(Aiixwer any eignt.) 

Translate: Doch ist's so schon, an den 
Friihling des Lebens zuriickzuden- 
ken, in sein Inneres zuriickzus- 
chauen— sich zu erinneni. Ja, auch 
im schwiilen Sommer, im triiben 
Herbst un<l im kalten Winter <les 
Lebens gibt's hier und da einen 
Friihlingstag, und das Herz sagt: 
" Mir ist's wie Friihling zu Muthe." 
Ein soldier Tag ist's heute. 

Deutsche Liebe.— Max Miiller. 

Compare the four attributive adjec- 
tives in the above selection. 

(live the three principal parts of each 
verb in the quotation above. 

Write a sentence containing prepo- 
sitional phrase **um— willen; " one 
containing preposition ** oberhalb." 



5. Write a sciitt* nee coiitainiiiij: some fomi 

of the verb "helfen"' witli an ob- 
ject: one eontaininu: some form of 
the verb ** rauben '' with two ob- 
jects, one of the person, the other 
of the thint;. 

6. Translate: leh magr <las nieht thiin. 

leh morhte es jfern sehen. Mwh- 
ten Sie lieber das Andere Iiaben? 

7. Translate: He said he had done it. 

Why cannot "hatt**" be used as an 

8. Translate: 

Aber es sassen die tlrei noch imnier 

sprechend zusanmien. 
Mitdem greistlichen Herrn der Apothe- 

ker beim Wirte; 
Tnd es war das (fespriich noch immer 

Das viel bin und her nach alien Seiten 

prefUhrt wanl, 
Aber der treflliche Pfarrer sajfte, wiir- 

dijr tressinnt. drauf : 
'Widersprechen will ich euch nicht. Ich 

weiss es, der Mensch soil 
Immer stre}»en /uni Hessern: und, wie 

wir sehen, er strebt auch 
Immer deni Hoheren nach, zuni wenijr- 

sten sucht er das Neue. 

9. Translate int<» (iennan: Halt van Tas- 

sel was an easy soul: he hived his 
daughter be tter even than his pipe, 
and like a reasonable nuin and an 
excellent father, let her have her 
way in everythintj. His notable 
little wife, too, had enouirh to do to 
attend to her housekeeping.— [The 
LeK<*nd of Sleepy Hollow. -Irvintj. 
10. Name two histori<*s by .^chiller, and 
two historical novels liy the same 


1. Detine oxidation, reducti(»n. oxide. 

atom, molecule. 

2. State the law of definite proportions 

and illustrate by an example the 
meanintr of the law. 

3. Mention stMue important W4»rk of two 

«if the f<dlowin«: men: Priestly. 
Sclieele, Lavoisier. Mi-ndelejeff. 

4. Is pure water a mixture or a chemical 

compound f (live reasons for your 

5. How wcmld you determine the propor- 

tions by weight of oxygen an<l iron 
in iron oxi<lef (iive details. 

(J. State the properties, physical and 
clwmical. of chlorine an<I of hydro- 
gen chloride. 

7. Describe an experiment to show that 
ammonia gaN contains hydrogen. 

8. <7ive a clear statement of the method 

used and the chemistry involved in 
making sulphuric acid. 

9. How is artificial illuminating gas madef 

What is the chief by-product pro- 
duced in making itf What proper- 
ties has the gasf 
10. What weight of oxygen can be pro- 
ducted by heating 245 grams of 
potassium chlorate (Kt^lOaf 


1. Define morphology, physiology, ecol- 


2. State the general rule govern ii^ the 

number of young. 

3. Give the life history of the honey bee. 

4. Name three forms of adaptation. 

5. What is the basis of colonial or com- 

munal lifef 
♦). What is the purpose of warning colors 
and terrifying appearances of some 

7. Define miml in the bi(dogical sense. 

8. Aci'ount for the large numbter of sp*'- 

{*. What is the purpose of sexf 

10. Explain the reproduction of the cray- 



1. What is the effect of strong, dry wimls 

upon vegetation? 

2. What is a fungusf To what plant king- 

dom <loes it belong? Example. 

3. Why are annual plants destitute of 

scale leaves? 

4. Define cell: tissue. Name the princi- 

pal plant tissues. 

5. In what ways are h'guminous plants 

helped by bacteria on their roots? 
♦). Mention the common characters of 
foliage leaves. 

7. What isthe prinuiry meristem? Where 


8. Characterize gymnosperms. (live an 


5). What is meant by pholosyntax or car- 
bon fixation? In what part of the 
plant does it take place? Tnder 
what conditions? 

10. What is the botanical meaning of the 
tenn fruit / What Horal parts enter 
into the formation of an apple? 


•• Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean, 

Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in 




3fan markM the earth with ruin— his con- 

Stops with the shore:— upon the watery 

The wrecks are all thy i\evi\, nor doth re- 

A shadow of ninnV ravage, save his own. 

When for a moment, like a drop of rain. 

He sinks into the depths with bubbling: 

Without a (rrave. unknelled. uncoflfined, 
and unknown/' —Byron. 

1. Sketch the life of the author of the 


2. Name the literary composition that 

first broufrht liini into prominence. 

3. Discuss the influence of his writinjfs. 

4. Quote him. 

5. Explain the illusitms in the stanza 

griven above, 
fi. State some of the weaknesses of the 
modem novel. 

7. Outline a lesson in composition in 

which you wish to teach 
(a) paraphrasing. 
(h) vivid description. 
(r) style. 

8. State a plan for correcting the written 

work of a class of thirty or more 
9 and 10. State some of the «irdinary ob- 
stacles encountered in the t4>nching 
of this subject, and suggest reme- 
dies for the same. 

(AttKirer anu eiuht, but no More.) 

1. A liter of air at ()"(' and 76 cm. pres- 

sure weighs 1.296 gm. What is the 
weight of 100 cu. cm. of air at O-r 
and at a pressure of 740 mm.f 

2. Define dyne. erg. 

3. Calculate the temperature of absolute 

zero expri'ssed on the Fahrenheit 
ami (.'entigrade s<'ales. 

4. What are beats and how are ttiey pro- 


5. Give Huyghen's construction to show 

that the angle of incidence is ecpiul 
to the angle of rtjfiection. 

6. Two equal magnetic poles placed 10 

cm. apart are f<mnd to repel eiwh 
other with a force of 3,600 dynes. 
What is the strength of each pole? 

7. Uive two reasons why copper wire is 

not used in resistance boxes. 

8. What is the difference between static 

electricity and current electricity? 

9. What causes a battery to polarize? 

10. fjive a diagram of and explain fully 
the mo<lem telephone transmitter. 


(Answer <tnu eight, not omitting ninth and 


1. By what processes is the surface of 

the earth broken up and smoothed 
down i 

2. P^xplain why so many rivers of the 

Appalachian region have their 
courses across the mountain ridges. 
What is a superimposed river? 

3. What lan<l forms in Northern Indiana 

are due to glaciationf 

4. Explain the formation of the Great 

Lakes of North America. 

5. To what causes are plains due? Give 

examples of plains due to the dif- 
ferent causes mentioned. 

6. Why have Europe an<i North America 

so many gulfs, bays and islands an 
their coasts and South .Vmerica and 
Africa so few? 

7. What effect does the (lulf of Mexico 

have (»n the rainfall of the United 

8. Why do isotherms not correspond 

with parallels of latitude? 

9. (live outline f(>r lessons in field and 

laboratory work in physical ge- 
10. What is the relation of physical ge- 
ography to political or ctmmiercial 

(A nswer any eight.) 

1. Describe concisely the cdste system of 

Ancient Egypt. 

2. Marathon-What? When? Why? 

3. When and by what battle did Philip 

of Ma<*edon become master of 

4. What were the reforms favoretl by tin* 


5. (iive a brief arcount of the Feudal 


6. What was the Magna Chavtaf When, 

from whom. arnl how was it ob- 

7. Who was Ri<'helieu? Walpole? Wil- 

liam Piatt? Mazarine? 

8. What were the three great compro- 

mises of the constitutional conven- 
tion of 17vS7? 

9. Of what is the congress of the United 

States composed? State qualifica- 
tions «)f membership, length of 
teniis. privileges of members. 
10. Of what is the general assembly of 
Indiana composed? State (lualiticu- 
tions of membership, terms, privi- 
leges of members. 


Ehii \rio\ IS ixr^iAXA. 

*-//»» wyS * i^/r**-* •-//•* iJSb. i-/* 

t^ *U/*thU^ tktA it* ^»'ti*ffait»Mtor in- 

^t^ffttfitiMt/ft iff «J'/«jhWJ jibd it* 
u'tutfrMUif titfr*^**rA Uy 7. it J^- 
*''/»!*'» uutty. Vitt*\ th#r fntrtion. 
*, Kti^f**** »• ft fiuiclf irwx\*m in it* 

% *t %* *%-ii 


«* 3J«*2 x'«x-2 x'-Cx-** 


« X I 

»♦» * X- I 



♦ J - 0, Kiri'l \t*tt\i \-mliji- of x. 

.a •^ ••-' ' • i • '/ *". ?•♦' ••' • ***- 

i»»'£:i*^ -r —" J. 11 **'^'^ ^ ft •"■-rrj*. * '■L-«T*i. 
Ar J rr *u:Trr;/>r* ■:! ft zrxksjigrsr ftrv in- 

If T"»^' ■ •••^ ■?*;* -f ft '■ir^y ftCT- •^4'iftk ibf-y 
ftr*- *»^-ziftiIJT -di^tftE.* fr««e tij*- o-tit*-r. 

Frij<ii ft a&**' j^^'jfc-^y'caL ^«rt^>^n rw»i 
rtT^t -tTmie*! 'r^r-*. p*»»Tinr tb«- 

Kn.T*- tLftt it- ftr«r« -f ft reciil*r P"»ly- 
s^'T. ♦•i'SftN iift":f ib*^ jwv«4art ••f the 
ft;«<L^iD ftfi th*- j*rnin*-t*-r. 

>!#••'■■ L«»'ft' th*- ^ifvTiinf*-nfDrr ••f ft '■irrle 
mftj *«*- r:ivi«i#-.; xni:* ♦4x*^uftl ftrr-^. 

Pn»v«r ihftt *ia*- *»f\hr fttarkr* f<»niM:«i t»r 
th#- Ifi^er-t'tr* f»f th<* I*-**- ftnele* <*i 
ftii iwiTflf-* triftncl*" >* «-«lo«! l«»'»ne 
*tt the f'Xt«Ti«»r *«**• ftn(pk-!< 

Wljftt i» ft pUnef Wfiftt dett-rmint's 
the p't'^ition <*i ft plan*"! 

The j'um «f ftnjr two f»ee «nel*'> «»f • 
trihedral ftni^K* i* greater than the 
third face ani^le. Prove. 


StfTP.. 'I'he followinir rewiliitkm wa- a<l<ipted by the state lK>anl of education. Octo- 
Sfr'M, 1W7: 

lifinth'ftl. That the examination for profenwional license include the followinir 
hranclM'^i: Alirehra. Civil (iovernment, American Literature. Science of Education, and 
fuutitfiUf fulUtwluic tfirn- HiihJectN Kleinents <»f Physics, pjlements of Kotany or Latin 
i\ait\u irrammnr. two hooks of Cfesar. and two of Virt^il): and 

FuHhrr rrMiilrrd, That tlie examination for state license shall include, in a<ldition 
Ui thoM« of profesMionai license. (Jeometry. Rhetoric, (ieneral History. Knfirlish Litera- 
ture. Physical (leoj^raphy, nn*! two of the following fhnt subjects— (^hemistry, <TeoloB:y, 


In view of the fart that the numuscripts of applicants for both life stat** and profes- 
sional licenses are sent to the several members of the state btiard of education for grrada- 
tlon, It \H essential that applicants for such Ii<*enses observe the following rules: 

t. Write on oni* side of the paper onfu, usintr legal cap. 

2. See that tbe answ<*rs to the questions in each branch are entirely separate from 
those of any other branch, and securely fastened t<»>fether. 

M. Write full name and postofllce address upon each set of answers. 

4. Kurnlsh your county superinten<lent rop*V.«< o/ rcrrtmm#'W</^///«w«,as they are tobe 
Mled for future reference, and can not be returned. 

ft. The expense of sendintr numuscripts should be furnished the county superintend- 
ent by the applicant. 





1. Each applicant for a state certificate 
Sihall, at the openiiifr of the examination , 
pay to the county superintendent the sum 
of five dollars, the fee pn*scrihed by law, 
which can in no case he refunded. Appli- 
cants for a " pn>fesHionul " license are not 
required to pay a fee. 

2. Applicants shall provi<le themselves 
with leiral cap paper and pens and ink, and 
shall write all their work In ink. 

3. Each applicant will he furnished with 
a printed list of questions in each subject 
at the hour desiiniated. He shall number 
his answers to correspond with the ques- 
tions, Iwt need not copy the latter. The 
pacres upon each subject should be fastened 
together, and a<*ross the top of the first paife 
should be written at the left the guhjrrt, in 
the middle thr applicant'it name, at tlie 
rifirht thr county. Manuscripts must not be 
folded or rolled. 

4. Xo books shall be consulted nor com- 
munication permitted during: the examina- 
tion. No one shall l>e permitted to make 
inquiries respecting: the import of any 
question. If any one shall be in doubt as 
to the meauiufi: of a question he shall (ex- 
press his doubt in \*'ritinjf, and this state- 
ment shall be submitted t<» the board with 
his examination papers. 

5. If corrections are necessary they shall 
Ik» made by drawing* a sintfle line over the 
amended error, that the error as well as the 
correction may be seen. No slate or trial 
paxKTs shall be used, but all the writing 
shall be upon the sheets of the examination 

6. Any violation of these rules shall be 
reported by the superintendent to the state 

7. The county superintendent will col- 
lect an<l carefully count the manuscripts to 
see that none are missinK*. and will send 
them immediately to the state superin- 
tendent, by mail or express, at the expense 
of the applicants. 

(f>w Meparate ahret.) 

1. Forwhat grade of license do you apply f 

2. If applyinir for a professional or life 
state license, state the dates and general 
averages of your two 3&-months' licens<»s. 

3. How many months have you taught, 
and how many of these have been in In- 
diana f 

4. Make this or an equivalent declara- 
tion: I solemnly declare that in the March 
<livision of the (examination I have n(»t 

given or received aid in any manner what- 
ever, and will neither give nor rtnreive aid 
in the r(>maining division thereof. 

[Sign with fnll name (not initials), and 
add postoffice a<ldress and date. J 


1. Woubl you introduce the subject of 

algebra before entering the high 
school? (live reasons for your an- 

2. If tlie pro<luct of three c<m«ecutive 

numbers be divided by each of them 
in tuni, the sum of the three quo- 
tients is 74, What are the numbers! 


3. Demcmstrate that a" = 1., — =» «., — is 

- n 1 
in<leterminate, that a — — 

an . 

4. Fin<l the nearest approximate fourth 

root of 17, to five decimal places. 

5. If the product of two numbers be added 

to their ditTerence the result is 26, 
and the sum of their squares ex- 
ceeds their ditTerence by 60. Find 
the numbers. 
C. At what time between 10 and 11 o'clock 
is the minute-hand of a watch 25 
minutes in advance of the hour- 
hand f 

7. Stdve the following: 

1 1 1 

— =» a. 

X y z 

1 1 1 


y z X 

1 1 1 

— = c. 

z X y 

8. By using the following, develop the 

law (»f signs, exponents, and coeffi- 
cients, of the binomial theorem 

9. Factor 

(a) a' -h Sl)\ 

(b) 6x' + 5x — 4. 

(c) x* -h x'y' ^ 9*. 

(<li x' - 5x' - 2x -h 10. 
(e) a' - b' - c" -I- 2bc -f a f b 1- c. 
10. Solve the einiation given l)elow and 
thus detennine a formula for the 
solution of all (luadratics: 
ttx' -f bx +■ c =» o. 


^Atm r'mht, but no more.) 

1. (^ive in iletail the processes involved 
in making a treaty with a foreign 



2. What important udvaiitagre wa?* (rained 

for the Unit^'d States in the late 
Hay-Paunrefote treaty? 

3. What iK the title of our hifrhest diplo- 

matic representatives in foreig-n 
eoiintriesf Name the foreijni na- 
tions to whieh we accredit such 
representatives. Name two or more 
of these representatives now in the 

4. Descrihe fully how a hill lK?c<mies a 

law, erivinff all the processes of its 

5. When <loes a man elected to cimirress 

in Novemher. 1902. hec<mie a meni- 
her? extra sessions are 
held, when will the member first 
meet with conirress? 

6. Enumerate six sole powers of the 


7. Write one pajje on the subject: The 

Powers and Duties of the (Governor 
of Indiana. 

8. Write fully on the jurisdiction of the 

United Stat<»s supreme court. 

9. Enumerate some acjts of congrress 

which were ma<le possible only upon 
the basis of "implied powers." 
10. How are congressional vacancies filled 
— in lower housef In senate? 

LI HI/ eiuht, but no wore.) 

1. (Jive a sketch of the life and work <»f 

the l(>adintj: literary character of 
the revolutionary period. 

2. Discuss WashinK-ton Irvinjr as to 

(a) Hunk us an author. 

(b) His important writinjfs. 

(c) The merits of one of his works. 

3. Criticise <me of Eniers(m's essays. 

4. Quote from the Vision of Sir Luunful, 

and indicate the author's rank con>- 
pare<l with contemporary writers. 

5. (Nmipare Holmes with Whittieras to 

(a) Literary style. 

(bi lnMuen<"e. 
"The jfrov<'s were (Jod's first temples. 

Ere man learned 
To hew the shaft and lay the architrave. 
And spread the ro<»f ab(»ve them— ere 

he framed 
The lofty vault, to j^ather and roll back 
The sound of antlu'ins: in the darkling 

wood . 
Ami<l the cool and silenc<', he knelt 

And offered to the Mijrhtiest solemn 

And suppli<'ation." 
G. la) Name the author and K'ive mimes 

of contemporary writers. 

(b) For what was the author of these 
lines particularly noted? 

7. Who is your favorite American poet? 

Quote him. 

8. Who is your favorite American novel- 

ist? Name his important works, 
and crive a brief sketch of one. 

9. Discuss the historical novel as to (a) 

purpose, (b) influence, (c) literary 


1. What are the physical factors chiefly 

determinine: plant distribution ? 
Which of these is the most import- 
ant i Give reasons. 

2. Name the jfreat groups into which the 

plant king:dom is divided. Give an 
example of a plant iform belonifinsr 
to each of these groups. 

3. What characteristics (anatomical) do 

plants srrowinfir in water or in soils 
rich in water show? Give reastms 
for these structural features. 

4. Explain in detail the various protective 

devices of plants growing in desert 
regions. What would be the proba- 
ble effect of irrigation upon the 
plant life of a desert region. 

5. Define plant transpiration and explain 

its necessity. Tlirough what parts 
of a plant does transpiration take 
place ? 
H. How do plants breathe? Show that 
plant breathing is strictly com- 
parable to the breathing of animals. 
What is carbon fixation or photo- 
syntax ? 

7. Define the term roo/as applied to hierher 

plants. Give t\w functions of roots. 

8. In what ways may plants reproduce 

their kind ? (live an example of 
each method. 

a. Explain plant migrations. Explain 
occurrence of arctic plants on moun- 
tain tops in temperate regions. 

10. (_»ive tlu» lif(? history of any plant you 
nuiy select. 


( .1 nswer unit eifjht.) 

I. Translate: ('a»sar paucos (/i> in eorum 
finibus mo/v//f(,«(, omnibus vicis aedi- 
ficis(4ue incenses fatisque Huccisis 
se in fines Uniorum recepit, atque 
his aux ilium suum poUicitus, si ab 
Suebis premerentur, per explora- 
tores pontem fieri romperissi'tit 
more suo concilio habito nuntios in 
<»mn('s partes flimisisitet ut de oppi- 
<lis demiarttrt-nt. liberos, uxores 



suaque omnia in silvis d<*p»n<Tent. 
atquo omnos qui arniaferro poHsont 
iimim in locum convcnirent. Hun<* 
esse delectum medium fere rr- 
ifioniim eanini quas Suehi ohtiner- 
ent; hie Komanornm adrentiint ex- 
peetare at<iue ibi tlecertare eon- 

2. (live the synta<*tienl use of tl>e wonls 

' in italic. 

3. TranslaUMnto Iwiatin: (a) Many have 

been found who have dechired pain 
the trreatest ill. (h) Hefore I come 
hack to the caRe I will say a few 
thinifs concerninsr myself, u-) He 
answered ('if»sar that he ha<i come 
into (Jaul hefore the Honum peoph*. 
What did he want ? Why <Ii<I he 
come into his d<miain f (r/) (*hani;e 
ic) into oratio recta. 

4. (live the forms and uses of the peri- 

phrastic conJu>ration. a<'tive and 

5. Translate: At vero ('. ('H»sar intellei^it. 

legem Semproniam esse de civihus 
Komanis constitutam; qui autem 
rei puhlicfe nit hostis. euni civem 
esse tiuHo tnodo posse: denique 
ipsum latorem Sempnmia* lejjris 
hiiuMSH p<»puli poenas rei puhlicnp 
deprndixne Idem ipsum Lentuhini, 
Utrgitorem et prodierum. non putat 
cum <le pernicie populi Komani, 
exitir huius urhis tam setrbe. tarn 
cmdeliter co^itarit, etiam appellari 
posse popularem. 

6. (live the sp(»cial use of the wonls in 

italic in the above. 

7. (.Tive the ireneral niles of participles— 

as to form— as to use. 

8. Name the prtmiinent p<»ets and prose 

writers of the ** Silver Asre." 

9. Translate: 

En I'riamus! Sunt hie etiam sua 

praem ialaudi: 
Sunt lacrimal* renim et inenti-m 

mortalia tantriint. 
Solve metus; feret haec ali(|uam 

tibi fama salutem. 
Sic ait. atque animuni pictura pascit 

Multa (^emens. lartr^xiue umectat 

flumine vultum. 
Namque videbat, uti bellantes 

Perg-ama circum 
Hac fugerent (Jraii. premeret Troi- 

ana inventus. 
Hac Phryges. instaret rurru crista- 

tus Achilles. 
10. Scan the above, ami give rulrs of 

quantity and accent. 


1. Show how it is possible for an ice-boat 

to sail fa*<ter than the wind. 

2. What sort of a force is acting in the 

case of a body moving {a) with uni- 
form velocity; </>) with uniform 
speed in a straight line: (r) with 
uniform acceh'ration in a straight 
line: (d) with simple hamumic 

3. Without the use of a formula, either 

expresse<l or implied, describe what 
is meant by Moment of Inertia. 

4. Define weight, stress, strain, elasticity, 

density, specitic gravity, work, spe- 
cific heat, water e(iuivalent of a 
cahirimeter. electrical difference of 

5. l)e<luce an expression for the value of 

**g'' in tenns of the length and 
periofl of a simple pendulum, 
fi. Describe any methoil of determining 
the temperature of a funiace when 
you have no thermometer that will 
indicate more than 1(X) (.'. 

7. With an external resistance of 9 ohms. 

a certain battery gives a current of 
0.43 amperes, while with an external 
resistance of 32 ohms, the current 
falls to 0.2 amp<"res. Find the re- 
sistance of the battery. 

8. When large amounts of electrical power 

are to be transmitted long distances 
alt<»rnatiug currents are employed 
instead of continuous <'urrents. 

9. Kxplain why a piece of iron is attra<*te<l 

by a magm>t. 
10. ( five the cause of the color of bod ies. 

\AvxiVfr tiuht, hilt tio more.) 

1. To what extent, in your juilgment, is 

there a science in education f (iive 
reasons for the opinion you express. 

2. In instruction we go fnrni the known 

to the relate«l unknown, it is said. 
On what principle of mind is this 

3. What do you consi«ler the most im- 

portant laws of memory? 

4. If you are t«*aching a child the idea of 

a s<|uare corner, of what value 
would it be to have him, construct a 
square corner? 

5. What are the arguments for and 

against out-door recesses? 
(>. What, in your opinion, should be the 
outcome of all government of chil- 
<lren in the school? 



7. "Action iH the principle of character." 

What doe.s this mean, and is this 

8. "Keep thy heart with all diligrence: 

for out of it are the issues of life." 
Explain the ethical and peda^jro^ical 
principle embodied in this quota- 

9. To what extent, in your opinion, is it 
the duty of the school to train the 
child in social usasres and customs? 

10. Of what value would it be to a teacher 
to study thorousrhly the Greek and 
Roman ideals and systems of edu- 


Questions to he Ihinl on the IjqH Saturday in April. 

Note.— The foUowinfir resolution was adopted by the state board of education. Octo- 
ber 31, 1887: 

RtHolved, That the examination for professional license include the followinjf 
branches: Algebra, Civil (Government. American Literature. Science of Education, and 
two of the followinjf three subjects: Elements of Physics. Elements of Botany or Latin 
(Latin urrammar. two books of ('«»sar. and two of Virgril); and 

Further resolved. That the examination for state license shall include, in addition to 
those of professional license. (Geometry, Rhetoric. (General History, Enirlish Literature, 
Physical Geourraphy. and two of the foUowingr thref subjects: Chemistry, (^Geology, 


In view of the fact that the manuscripts of applicants for both life state and profes- 
sional licenses are sent to the several members of the state board of education for grada- 
tion, it is essential that applicants for such licenses observe the following rules: 

1. Write on one side of the paper only, using legal cap. 

2. See that the answers to the questions in ea<'h branch are entirely separate from 
those of any other branch, and securely fastened together. 

3. Write full name and p<»stoflfice ad<lress upon each set of answttrs. 

4. t'iimish your county superintendent copieH of recommendations, as they are to l)e 
flle<l for future reference and can not be returned. 

5. Necessary postage for sending manuscripts should be furnished the county super- 
intendent by the applicant. 

6. A fee of Hve dollars shonhl be collected from nil applicants for this license. 


(Any eight, tmt tio more.) 

1. Describe and account for the annual 

changes in the climatic conditions ♦». 
of southern California. 

2. (a> Describe the distribution of rain- 

fall in the Unite<l States. 7. 

(b) Annual rainfall in Indiana. 

(c) Account for our summer rains. 

Our winter rains. 8. 

3. (a) What Importance do you attach to 

the fteld work in physical geogra- 
phyf Whyf tt. 

( b) Outline some field work for second 
year high school students. 

4. Describe some of the important geo- 10. 

graphical features that have favored 
the development of the Cnited 

Show that the chariu'ter of soldiers and 
their success in warfare are de- 
pendent largely on geographical 

Discuss northern and southern Indiana 
as to (a) topography: (b) soils; (c) 

(a) What is a contour mapf 

(b) Draw a contour map of Indiana, 
with a contour interval of 100 feet. 

Account for our dally weather changes, 
and the intensity of these changes 
during our winters. 

Discuss the (treat Salt Lake basin as 
to (a) origin; (b) fonner conditions; 
(ci former and present drainage. 

The Piedmont Belt: (a) Location: (b) 
present topography; (c> former con- 
(litions; ul) distribution and occu- 
pations of the people. 



(Afiu eight, but no more.) 

1. (iive chief characteristics separatincr 

animalH from plants. Dixtinfiruish 
between development and differ- 

2. What it* meant by phyHioloirical divi- 

sion of laborf Give an example 
showinfT how division of labor crives 
an advanta)?e in the 8trug:crie for 

3. Prove that the color of wild forms is 

of gre&t value. How may the equal 
color brilliance of the male and fe- 
male bird of certain species be ex- 
plained f 

4. What chancres are broujfht about in 

animal fonns as the result of do- 
mestication? How may these 
changes be explained? 

5. Name the animal sub-kingrdoms. As- 

sign to proper sub-kincrdom the 
following: forms: Lobster, oyster, 
shark, house fly, coral, turtle, spider, 
jelly fish. Paramecium, whale. 

6. Explain respiratory mechanism in in- 

sects, flsh and air-breathing mam- 
mals. How may these differences 
be explained? 

7. What factors determine character and 

numtier of faunal forms of a given 
region? Why are not all species 

8. Illustrate (by at least two examples) 

the economic relations existing be- 
tween lower life forms and man. 
Show the effect of disturbing the 
"balance of life." 

9. (rive characters of any two of the ani- 

mal sub-kingdoms. Name the more 
important tissues of the animal 
body, giving their principal func- 
10. Give the life history of any animal you 
may select. 

(Atiu eight, hut no mon.) 

1. Show how the atomic theory ex- 

plains the laws of combining pro- 

2. How is the qualitative and how the 

quantitative composition of water 

3. Name four substances found in the at- 

mosphere, and give a way of deter- 
mining the presence of each. 

4. Give a method of determining the oxy- 

gen from the air free from the other 
gases in it. 

5. Characterize nitric acid and give an 

explanation of its action on metals. 

6. What results are obtained by heating 

the following nitrates: (1) Potas- 
sium nitrate. (2) silver nitrate. 
(3) ammonium nitrate? 

7. The weight of a litre of oxygen is 1.429 

grams and its molecular weight is 
32. The weight of a litre of a second 
gas is .089 grams. What is its mo- 
lecular weight? 

8. When chlorine acts as a bleaching 

agent or as a disinfectant, what 
principle is involved? 

9. Give the different steps involved and 

the different substances produced 
in the Le Blanc method of making 
sodium carbonate. 

10. What weight of oxygen will it take to 

bum completely 50 grams of pure 
alcohol (('a H5 OH)f What volume 
of carbon dioxide will be produced? 
( 44 grams carbon ox ide »22.39 litres. ) 

(Any eight, tntt no morf.) 

1. The areas of two similar triangles are 

to each other as the squares of any 
two homologous sides. Demon- 

2. Prove that the perpendiculars from 

the vertices of a triangle pass 
through the same point. 

3. Give what you consider to be three 

fundamental theorems of plane 

4. Demonstrate the Pythagorian theorem. 

5. What is the value of the square upon 

the side opposite the obtuse angle 
of a triangle? Demonstrate. 

6. Two chords that intersect in a circle 

are mutually proportional. Demon- 

7. The areas of two circles are to each 

other as — . Complete and demon- 

8. A house and bam are upon the same 

side of the road, but at unequal dis- 
tances from it. I wish to so locate 
a well upon the road that I can build 
the shortest possible walk from the 
house to the bam, touching the 
road at the well. Show how you 
would locate the well. 
9 and 10. Find the volume of the frustum 
of a pyramid. 



(Any eight, but wo more.) 

1. What is the difference l)etween cor- 

rectness and effectiveness in rhet- 

2. What is meant by " line writinjff " 

3. What is the relation of the paraerraph 

to the whole discussion? 

4. What is meant in rhetoric by "cohe- 

rence " ? 

5. What are the essential rhetorical ele- 

ments in argumentation f 

6. Explain somewhat the difference be- 

tween rhetoric as a science and as 
an art. 

7. What are the characteristics and what 

the uses of the climax? 
What are rhetorical fierures an<l what 
their value f How many principal 
ft<ri»resf Name them. 

9. What is meant by jjrace in rhetoric? 

10. With what justice can it be sai<l that 
liberal culture assures a jfopd rhe- 
torical Ktyle? 

(.i»U eiiiht, hut no morr.i 

1. (live an example of the influence of 

litt^rature (po<?try, fiction or the ora- 
tion) upon the developnu-nt of the 
American people. 

2. Write a sketch of u leadincr character 

in one of the followinjr works: 
(a) Vicar of Waketield. (h) Ivan- 
hoe, (c) Dombey <fe Son. 

3. Connect one of the followinpr charac- 

ters with one of Shakespeare's 
' plays, and explain its iufluem-e 
upon the <levelopment of the play: 
Portia, Ophelia. Miranda, Macbeth, 
(^assius, latro. 

4. "As You Like It is a romantic come- 

dy." Explain in detail what this 
sentence means. 

5. (Nrntrast the prose of Ma<'aulay with 

that of (,'arlyle, in reirardto vocabu- 
lary, paratrraphs and the (lualities 
of style. 

fi. Describe briefly the characteristics of 
two periods of Eni^lish literature, 
naminu: in each period four of the 
more important authors and their 
chief works. 

7. I'siny: an illustration one novel of each 
of the followinir writ(?rs, tell some- 
thintr about its autli<)r's ability to 
handle plot and to portray rhar- 
acter: Scott, Dickens. Thm-keray. 
(leorjje Eliot. 

8. Discuss briefly this question: " Are 

the recent historical novels to I>e 
preferred to the ' dialect stories ' of 
a year or so airo? " 

9. Discuss briefly methods in teaehinfir 

literature— (a) In refer(»nce to pur 
pose or aim. (b) As to value of 
studying literary criticism or com- 
ment on the part of others, in com- 
parison with the author's works 
10. Mention the chief works of (1) De- 
Quiucy. (2) Macaulay, (3) Carlyle, 
<4) liuskin. (5) George Eliot. 

{Any eight, l)ut no more.) 

1. Write, briefly, of the reiirn of Charle- 


2. Discuss, briefly, the influence of King 


3. Magna Charta— 

(a) Time. 

(b) State what you consider its most 

important feature. 

4. Write briefly, of the life. charat»ter. 

and influence of Joan of Arc. 

5. Stat«* three important facts in the life 

of liUther. 

6. Discuss Carthage and her people. 

7. Name a c<mtribution to our civiliza- 

tion made by (Jreece: by Rome. 

8. Mention two great causes of the 

French revolution. 

9. State causes and results of the 

Franco-Prussian war. 

10. (live an account of the rise of English 

power in India. 

^Any eight, hut no more.) 

1. What agencies bring about the decay 

of rock? Explain fully how eiwh of 
these act. 

2. (live the geological growth of North 

America, locating the and 
the youngest fonuations. 

3. In what does the geological wealth of 

Indiana consist? In what part of 
the state is each of the leading 
products found? 

4. Illustrate by diagram the different 

kinds of mountains and tell how 
each is f<»rmed. 

5. What has ])een the effect of the glacial 

p(rriod on the surface of Indiana? 
9. Trace back to its origin in the sun, the 
heat produced by u lump of anthra- 
cite coal. 



7. Explain coral formation and locate 

the coral fonuation^ of the United 

8. Draw a diafirrani Hhowintr the forma- 

tion of spriniTH, and .show how ar- 
tesian wells may be made. 

9. What i» a foMHiU What fossils, if any, 

are found in Indiana f Locate. 

10. How do you account for the existence 

of gas and oil fields? Locate the 
most important. 

11. State fully your preparation for teach- 

ing fireolofiry. 

NoTiOK.— The state hoard of education, 
at its meeting March 22. 1895, resolved that 
it reserve ihe right to call before it any ap- 
plicant for life state or professional license 
for oral examination in addition to the 
written examination based upon the ques- 
tions herewith submitted. 

For the state board of education: 


State SiiDt. Public Instruct ion. 


Prest. Indiana State yortnal School. 



1. In October, 1885 (p. 52. record), the state boanl of education ma<le the following 
order: Ordered, That the Heading Circle examinations in the science of teaching be ac- 
cepted by the county superintendents in pliwre of the county examination on that subject, 
and that the average of their four succc^aive yearlu cxa mi nations in the science of teach- 
ing be accepted by the state boanl in the examination for state certificates. 

2. The state board of education reserves the right to call before it any applicant for 
oral examination, in addition to the written examination based upon the questions sub- 
mitted for life state an<l professional licenses (p. 429, n'cord). 

3. Please send manuscripts on Momlay following the examination. 

For Graduates of Higher Iiiatlitutiovs of Leorniiuj OnJy. 


The following rules govern the examination of teachers for life state licenses: 

1. For Graduates of Higher fnstitutions of Jjcarnina Only.— The, state board of edu- 
cation revised its rules governing applicants for life state licenses by the addition of the 
following resolutions: 

Resolved, That the rules of the state board of education relating to examinations for 
and the granting of life state licenses shall be and are hereby amended by the addition of 
the following: All graduates of higher institutions of learning in Indiana, or other in- 
stitutions of equal rank in other states approved by this board, which n^quire graduation 
from commissioned high .schools, or the e(iuivalent of the same, as a conditi<m of en- 
trance, which maintain standard courses of study of at least four years, and whose work 
as to scope and quality, is approved by the state boanl of education, shall on complying 
with the conditions enumerate*! below, be entitle<l to life state board licenses to teach in 
Indiana: Provided, however. That graduation by the applicant shall have been accom- 
plished by not less than three years' residc^nt study and by thorough, extended examina- 
tions in all subjects pursued privately and for which credit has been given by the insti- 
tution: And, pr:>rided further. That the requirements as to three years' resident stu<ly 
shall apply only to applicants graduatin.; after this date, January 18, IJWO. 

First. Such applicants must have hvld one or more sixty months' or pn»fessional 

Second. They must present to the state board of education satisfart(»ry written testi 
monials from compett^nt superintendents, special supervisors, teachers, or other sehool 
officials to the effect that they have taught an<l managed a school or schools successfully 
for a period of not less than thirty months, at lea^'t ten of which shall have been in Indiana. 

Third. They must pass thorough satisfactory examinations in any three of the follow- 
ing subjects: (1) (fcneral history of e<lucation; (2i TIh' school system and the school 
law of Indiana; (3) E<lucational psychology: (4) Experimental psychology ami child 
study; (5) Leading school systems of Europe and America; ((») Science of education, 
and (7) The principles and methods of instruction. 



Fourth. Before enterinsr upon the examination, such applicants shall present to the 
state board of education satisfactory evidence of good moral character, and shall pay Ave 
dollars each (the fee prescribed by law), which can in no case be refunded. 

Fifth. A license will be »f ranted to those who make a greneral average of 75 per cent., 
not fallinfiT below 65 per cent, in any subject. 

In view of the fact that the manuscripts of applicant« for both life state and profes- 
sional licenses are sent to the several members of the state board of education for grrada- 
tion, it is essential that applicants for such licenses observe th(! followinip rules: 

1. Write on one 8i<le of the paper only, using: lejfal cap. 

2. See that the answers to the questions in each branch are entirely separate from 
those of any other branch, and securely fastened togrether. 

3. Write full name and postoffice addresw upon each set of answers. 

4. Furnish the member of the state board of education conducting the examination 
copies of reconmiendatiouif, as they are to be filed for future reference, and can not be 

5. The expense of sending: manuscripts should be furnished by the applicant. 

6. A fee of five dollars should be collected from all applicants for this license. 

{ Answer eight, but tio more.) 

1. What defects in the education in India 

and China were due to the home 
life of those peoples? 

2. In what respects was education anion? 

the Jews superior t« that among: 
other Orientals? 

3. What educational advautajres could 

Eg:ypt have affor<UMl Moses during: 
his residence in the palace? 

4. What were the diflFerences in the 

methods of education in Athens and 

5. Mention some of the chief Roman edu- 

cators and 8:ive their principles and 

6. What direction and impulse were g:i ven 

education by Christianity? 

7. State advantag:es and disadvanlHi?es 

which came to education from the 
Monastic system. 

8. Give an account of the rise of the uni- 

versities of Britain and Europe, and 
grive the main differences in the 
educational methods of the two 

9. What is the status of education in 

France today? 
10. In what respects, if any. do modem 
methods of educaticm excel those of 
antiquity and the middle a>res? 

{Answer right, hut no more.) 

1. Briefly discuss the place of the iniatfin- 

ation in education. 

2. Briefly discuss the statement that the 

g:ranmiar school ag:<! is the period of 
drill, mechanism an<l habituation. 

3. Name what are. in your judgrment. the 

five most pnjvalent faults or weak- 
nesses of American teachers. 

4. What may be the educational value of 

the school recess! 

5. Should the educational process follow 

the so-called natural bent of chil- 
dren! State reasons for answer. 

6. What should be the aim of the teach- 

ing: of history in the {grammar 

7. "Man, in this country, has attained no 

small part of his education by the 
preaching: and practice of the g:ospel 
of work on the American farm." 
Briefly discuss this statement and 
describe what educational movi?- 
ment or movements have lieen 
founded on this idea. 

8. What mistake or mistakes have been 

matle in the practice of schools from 
reg:arding: the child as an adult. 

9. Is the school life itself, or is it a prep- 

aration for life, or is it both? Give 
reasons for your answer. 
10. Discuss briefly the place of '* thoroug:h- 
ness," so called, in the education of 
young: children. 


iAnu eight, but no wore.) 

1. Briefly discuss the educational contro- 

versy groing: on in England in the 
fall of 1902. 

2. What advances have been ma<le in 

education in (Germany under the 
present emperor. 

3. What is the method of tuaching: history 

in the schools of Germany? 

4. How has the Herbatian philosophy in- 

fluenced American scIhkjIs? 

5. Discuss the <'ducational system of 

Switzerlan<l. What, if anything:, 
have we to learn from it? 



6. Name three leuding: centers in th(j 

United States for the scientific 
stndy of educati<ni. 

7. Discnss briefly the influence of Francis 

W. Parker upon American schools. 

8. What provision is made in France? for 

the art instruction of the people? 

9. What contributions have been made to 

American e<lucation by the Scan- 
dinavian countries? 
10. What was the Greek ideal of e<luca- 
tion? What, if anythine:. have we 
to learn from itf 


(.1 nif eight, but fin movf.) 

1. What <io you consider the jrreatest 

weakness in Indiana's system of 
education, as a syst<*mf Discuss 

2. What lepal authority has the county 

superintendent of schools? What 
qualiHcations are require<l for elec- 

3. When may t«»achers be exempt from 

further examination? 

4. The statute authorizes the revocation 

of a teacher's license upon either 
one of four charges. What are 

5. What is meant by a de facto boanl? 

What are the powers of such a 
board ? 

6. In what way was the power of town- 

ship trustees curtailed by tbe en- 
actment of a law requirinj? township 
advisory boards? Explain fully. 

7. Discuss fully the sources of local 

.school revenues. 

8. How may a school library be estab- 

lished in a town or city of say 3,000 

9. What are all of the s<mrces of school 

revenues in In<liana? 
10. What are the duties and powers of 
county boards of education? 


(J tiMirer ei{jhf, hut no morr.) 

1. State the diflFerence between method 

and device. 

2. Explain your method in t^-achinu lonjri- 

tmle in treojrraphy. 

3. Indicate the devices that should b<' em- 

ployed in the process of tea<'hintr 
lonsritude in i^eoBrrophy. 

4. What principles of mind should be 

observed in the process? 

5. What principles of the subject of sreo- 

erraphy should be regrarded? 

6. State the main principles derived from 

the nature of mind that underlie 
method in crrammar. 

7. Name the principles derived from the 

nature of the subject-matter of 
irrammar that underlie the method 
in trrammar. 
8 and 9. Give a brief explanation of your 

method in teaching: g^rammar. 
10. Explain and illustrate the diflference 
between principle and method. 


{xi ny eight, hut no more.) 

1. What are the effects of* arrest of de- 

velopment of the nervous system 
before birth, and during: childhood, 
adtdescence, and at maturinfi:? Edu- 
cati<mal inferences? 

2. What psychological explanati<ms have 

b<*en griven of truancy, bullying: and 
teasing, stealing, lighting, deceiv- 
ing, hunting, collecting, boys' clubs, 

3. Discuss the law of transiency of in- 

stincts (James) in its educational 
bearings. Is this law in harmony 
with President Hall's doctrine that 
nulimentary psychic processes are 
the necessary stepping stones to 
the highest development? 

4. What is the onler of development of 

the interest and ability of children 
in the grades, in historj'. definition 
of objects, drawing, regard for law, 
and freedom from superstition? 

5. What are the main facts known about 

the period of adolescence? 

6. Give a psycholf)gical and educational 

interpretation of play. Dis<'uss 
opinions regarding it of Spencer, 
(Jroos, and Hall. 

7. What does Dr. W. T Harris mean by 

his three orders of thinking? 

8. Wliat is the mental training value of 

the study of a foreign language like 
Latin? Is this training value of use 
in all other subjects? 

!). If you wish to gain the utmost possible 
proficiency in telegraphy or some 
other siniilar occupati<m. what 
would you have to do antl what 
would be the course of your prog- 

10. Discuss the doctrine of apperception 
in its educational applications. 

8— Education. 



(Any eighty but no tuore.) 

1. Discuss the use of instropttctiou in 

experimental psyeholosry. 

2. Explaiu the purpose and manipulation 

of the followiufir instruments: The 
perimeter, color mixer, kymograph, 
jpsthesiometer, chronoscope, eriro- 
firraph, and automatoirraph. 

3. Show how a psychological experiment 

is to be written up hy descrihing 
one of the simple experiments 
upon after»-imaKres. stereoscopic 
vision, or visual illusions. 

4. Write a syllabus of (juestions to ascer- 

tain what differences exist in the 
ability of individuals to recall sen- 
sations of taste. 

5. J)escribe experim€*nts for ascertain inj; 

what the simple sensory elements 
in the skin aref 

6. What are the primary color sensations. 

and what are your reasons f(>r se- 
lectinsr these f What is meant by 
color tone, saturati(m, intensity f 
What must a color theory explain 
and what seems t(> you to be true in 
the diffen'nt theories proposedf 

7. Describe tests for nearsiirht«?dness, 

astifjTmatism. color blindness. <le- 
fective hearing and loss of muscu- 

lar control. Where these <lefects 
exist among: pupils, what should be 
the practice of the teacher and 
school authorities? 

8. Describe experiments by which the 

bodily effects of the emotions or 
mental work may be studied. 
Draw diaerrams of the apparatus 
that should be used. 

9. What experiments show that the space 

perceptions of the adult are made 
up chiefly of the results of experi- 
ence? What is the relation of 
movement and the sensations from 
movement in space perception? 
Cite experiments made in proof of 
your statements. 

10. Describe the experimental work don<' 

in the study of onk of the following 
topics: Mathematical prodijries. 
telejrraphic lan^uatre. the psycho- 
losry of readintf, fatigue, curves of 
mental a<*tivity, visual imaerery, 
sui?>;estibility of chihlren. or hypno- 

Ndtk'E.— The state board of education, 
at its meeting March 22. 1895, resolve<l that 
it reserve the right to call before it any 
applicant for life state or professional 
license for oral examination in addition to 
the written examination based upon the 
questions herewith submitted. 



Probably tlie earliest att(*m])t at professional training for teach 
ers was that made bv the board of trustees of Indiana universitv in 
18']0, when it was proposed to a ])rofessorship to prepare 
teachers for tlie coninion schools. There was no available fund 
for the work and nothin«>' was accomplished. Another similar 
attempt was made in 1S47 which was also unsuccessful. In 1852 
tlu^ university trustees o])ened a normal school in connection with 
the ])re])aratorv de])artment. This de])artment was sustained at 
intervals more or less successful till 187'5, when it was abarnhmed. 
Xothing of permanent value was attempted till 18S<;, when the 
department of ])eda<i:o^y was established. This department has 
always been strong, and today has some of the reco^rnized educa- 
tional leaders in the state as professors. 



The discussion in regard to the estahlishnient of a state normal 
school lx?gan early. There was a wide diversity of opinion as to 
the wisdom of such an institution and it was not till 1805 that the 
general assembly saw fit to make provision for one. In his report 
in 1800 State Superintendent Hoss, after stating what the legis- 
lature had done in regard to a state normal, makes a labored 
attempt to justify the act. The idea of this school from the 
beginning was that it should Ix^ distinctly ])rofessional, and it has 
never departed from this notion. It has always made a distinction 
between merely training teachers in the mechanical manijnilation 
of devices, and practice based upon an understanding of funda- 
mental ])edagogical principles. This last thing the school has 
striven to do, and any distinct merit it may possess is due to this 
fact. The sch<^ol was opened in January, 1870, and from that day 
to this has grown in efficiency. Tlie state has ecpiipped the institu- 
tion well and the substantial encouragement which it received at 
the hands of the last general asseml)ly has given it new life and 
made it ])ossible to realize some long cherished plans. It is now 
ecpiipped to meet the denuinds for Avell ])repared teachers in evrry 
department of public school work. 


A number of the larger cities in the state sustain training 
schools in connection with the city systems. In these high school 
graduates are given a course of training und(»r professional super- 
visors before they are given regidar jdaces as teach(»rs in the 

fi. L\r)KPEM)p:NT (Y)llf:(;ks and universities. 

The independent colleges ami universities of the stat(» in most 
instances offer c(»urses for teachers in various academic branches 
and in ])edag<'gy. The tendency is toward the (Mpiipuuiut of 
strong pedagogical departments. 


Indiana has a nnml>er of very strong independent normal 
.scho(ds which offer training to teachers. Most of these schools 
are well equij)ped and <lo strong work both in theory and practice. 



One of tlie strongest factors in prolessional training of teaeliers 
is the county institute. Tt has had an interesting development in 
Indiana and is at the present time in a transition stage. Educators 
in the state are working at the problem and it is hoped that some- 
thing may l>e done {o make the institute at once more professional 
and more practical. At present the institute is held in each 
county annually for one week. Instructors are employed and the 
work takes a wide range in topics discussed. The work may be 
said to be inspirational, cultural, professional and practical. 


Probably the most efficient work is d(me in the township insti- 
tute. At least it is Ifcere that the largest number of teachers d<> 
systematic work looking toward better teaching. The state depart- 
ment of public instruction prepares each year a careful outline of 
the Avork that is to be done in the township institute and the county 
superintendent organizes the institutes and sees that the work is 
done. Every teacher in the township schools attends these insti- 
tutes one day each month and has some personal work to do. 


The reading circle board selects each year two books which form 
part of the work outlined for the township institute. These books 
are generally professional and cultural and each township teacher 
is required to own them and study them. 


Tn addition to the above forces for professional training the asso- 
ciations mav be mentioned. There is first the state teachers' 
pRSociation, which meets annually during the Phristmas holiday at 
Indianapolis. TsTe^it there are the northern and s(mthern Indiana 
associations, which meet annually during the spring vacation. 
Then there is the county association, which holds an annual moot- 
ing of two days, generally at the Tlianksgiving holiday. All of 
these forces contribute to and kec^p nlive the professional spirit 
among teachers. There never was a time in the state when there 
was larger professional zeal or larger determination to place the 
calling upon a higher plane every way. 

VII. Compulsory Education. 




The Law.— Every parent, guardian, or other person in the state 
of Indiana, having control or charge of any child or children between the 
ages of seven (7) and fourteen (14) years, inclusive, shall be required to 
send such child or children to a public, private or parochial school or to 
two or all [more] of these schools, each school year, for a term or iK»riod 
not less than that of the public; schools of tliM school corporation where 
the child or children reside: Provided, That no child in good mental and 
physical condition shall for any cause, any rule or law to the contrary, be 
precluded from attending schools when such school is in session. 


The county board of education of each county shall constitute a board 
of truancy whose duty it shall be to appoint on the tirst Monday in May 
of each year one truant officer in each county. Tlie truant officer shall 
see that the provisions of this act are comi»li(Hl with, and wh(Mi from per- 
sonal knowledge or by rei)ort or com))laint from any residcMit or teacher 
of the township under his supervision, lie l)clieves that any child subject 
to the provisions of this act is ha1)itually tardy or absent from sc1hm)1. he 
shall immediately give written notice to the i>arent, guardian, or custodian 
of such child that the attendance of such cliild at school is rc(iuired. 
and if within tive (5) days such parent, guardian or custodian of said 
child does not comply witli the i)rovisi(nis of tliis section, then such 
truant officer shall make complaint against sndi parent, guardian or cus- 
todian of such child in any court of record for violation of the provisions 
of this act: Provided, That only one notice shall Ik* required for any 
child in any one year. Any such i)arcnt. guardian or custodian of child 
who shall violate the provisi<Mis of this act sliall i>e adjudged guilty of a 
misdemeanor and upon conviction tliereof shall \h\ tined in any sum not 
less than five ($5.00) nor more tlian twenty-live <h>llars (.$2r>.(Kn, to which 
may be added, in the discretion of the court, imprisonment in the county 
jail not less than two nor more than ninety days. 


A city having a school enumeration of tive thousand or more children, 
or two or more cities and towns in any county having a combined school 
enumeration of five thousand or more. may. in the discretion of the county 



l>onrd of triuincy. eonstituto Ji sei)arat(' district for tlie administration of 
this act. Cities containing a scliool enumeration of t(»n tliousand cliildrcn 
or less sliall liave ]>ut one truant officer, (^ities containinjr a scIi©ol enu 
meration of more tlian ten thousand and less tlian twenty thousand chil 
dren shall have two truant officers. (Mties containing a school enumera- 
tion of twenty thousand and h»ss than thirty thousand shall have three 
truant officers. Cities containinjr a school enum(»ration of thirty thousand 
and less than forty thousand children may have four truant officers. 
(Mties contaiidnj; a school <»numeratlon of more than forty thousand chil- 
dren may have five truant officers to be seh'cted by th(» board of school 
commissioners. Tlie truant officers of cities and such seiKnrate districts 
shall enforce the provisions of this act in the manner and under such 
penalties as are prescribed by section 2 of this act. Truant officers of 
cities mtMitioned In this s^'ction shall be aiipointed by the board of school 
trustees or board of school commissioners, respectively, of the city. 


The truant officers shall receive from the county treasin-y tw<» [dollars] 
($2) for each day of a<'tual service, to be paid by the county treasurer upon 
warrant sijnied by th(» county auditor: Provided, That no county auditor 
shall issue a warrant upon the county treasury for such service until the 
truant officer shall have filed an itemized 5<tatement of time employed in 
such service: and such statement shall have been certified to by the sujM'r 
intendent or superintendents of s<^i<m)1s of the corporaticui or cori>orations 
in which such truant officer is employed and such <-laim have been allowed 
by the board of county commissioners: Provided, further. That no 
truant officer shall n^ceive pay for more days thnTi the avera.ire lenj^th of 
school term, in th(» county, cities or towus under l^is supervision. 


All school officers and t<»achers are hereby required to make and fiu'- 
nish all reports that may be required by the superintendent of public 
instruction, by the board of state truancy i»r the truant officer, with ref- 
erenc(» to the workinjrs of this act. 


If any parent, guardian or custodian of any child or children is too 
poor to such child or children with the necessary books and 
clothinjr with which to attend school, then the schocd trustee of the town- 
ship, or the board of school trustees or ccmimissioners of the city or in 
corporated town where such i)arent, j^uardian or custodian resid(»s shall 
furnish temporary aid for such purpose, to such child or children, which 
aid shall be allowed and paid upon the certificate of such officers by tlie 
board of county commissioners of said county. Such township trustee, or 
board of school trustees, or commissioners shall at once make (»ut and 
file with the auditor of the county a full list of the chihlren so aided, 
and the board of ccmnty commis-sioners at their next rejrular meeting:, 
shall investijrate such cases and make such provision for such child or 
children as will enable them to continue in school as intended by this act. 



Sf'bool coiiunisHiontra, trustees and boards of trustees are empowered 
to maintain, either within or with<mt the corporate limits of their eor- 
I)orations, a separate school for incorrijrible and truant children. Any 
child or children who sliall Ih» truant or incorrijjible nniy 1h» compellecl 
to attend such separate school for an bidet (»rmiimte time. 


Any child who absents it.self from school habitually may be adjudged 
a contirmed truant i>y th(» truant otticer and sup«»rintendent of the schools 
of the county or city. Such confirmed truant may ho sentenced by the 
judjre of the circuit court to the Indiana Boys' School, if a boy. or the 
industrial school for pirls, if a jrirl. provided its ajjre is witliin the lindts 
set for admission to such institution. If deemed advisable by said judjre. 
such incorrijrible child or children may be sent to such other custodial 
institution within the state as may be designated by him. For its nmln- 
tenance in such custodial institution, the school cori)oration in which it 
resides shall pay at the h*gal ratc» for supportinjr depenclent children, 
twenty-tive (2r») cents jier day. with such expenses of transportation as 
are necessary. 


For the defraying of the increased e.xpenditure necessary for tlie carry- 
ing out of the purposes of this act trustees of school townships, boards 
of school trust(»es or commissioners of cities and towns and boards of 
school commissioners are lierei)y empowi'red to levy in addition to any 
and all sums heretofore provided by law. any amount of si)ecial school 
revenue not exceeding ten (KM cents on tlie hundred (10(h dollars of tax- 
able property, such taxes to b<» levied and collected as all otlier si>ecial 
school revenue*. 


In onler that the provisions of tliis act may be more definitely en- 
forced it Is herei>y provided tliat tlie enumerators of scliocd children in 
taking the annual .school census shall ascertain and reconl the place and 
date of birth of every child enumerated, -and tlie parent, guardian or 
cu.stodian of such chihl shall sui»scril)e and take oatli or affirmation that 
such record is true. The enumerator is herei)y empowered to administer 
such oath or affirmation, and any parent, guardian or custodian of any 
child who shall refuse to take such oath or affirmation shall be adjudginl 
guilty of a misdemeanor and up(Ui conviction tliereof shall l>e fined any 
sum not less than one doUar ($1.(M>). 


On the first day of school the trustees, boards of trustees, or com- 
missioners of school corporations, shall furnish the truant officer with the 
names of the children of compulsory age who are enumerate*! on th(» 


rejrular t*iiuiiicratiou lists. These uames shall be alphabetically arranged 
ami give all the inforiiiation contained in the regular euuuieratiuu 
returns. The county coniiuissioners shall provide necessary i)08tagc and 
such blanks as may be required by the state lH>ard of truancy or the 
state su|>erintendent <»f public instruction. 


Triiaiiev is the priniarv scIkk)! of crime. This is the substance 
of the testimony of the judges of many juvenile courts. Since the 
establishment of children's courts in ime after another of our 
larger cities, it has been found that most of the cases of juvenile 
delinquency iK^gan with truancy. A well-executed compulsory 
education law is of the greatest value as a preventive of crime. 
Since the enactment of the first truancy law in this state, in 181)7, 
the results have been noteworthy. The reports of all of the truant 
<»fficers for the last year have been compiled and the information 
gathere<l from them is as interesting as that of the preceding years. 

The law ]^rovides for the appointment of one truant officer in 
each county, with additional officers in counties having large 
cities. This results in one officer in each of eighty -one counties, 
two in seven counties and three in thrt^ counties, while in Marion 
cimnty the city of Indianapolis has five officers and the county 
one. Thnmgh the efforts c»f these 110 officials, 23,*J07 children 
were bnmght into school during the 1JM):2-190*5 term — '22,135 t4> 
the public schools and 1,1.'52 to the private or parochial institu- 
tions. This was accomplished at a financial outlay of $19,201).r>l 
for the salari(^s of officers and $20,215.02 for clothing and books 
given poor children — a total of $*5J>,424.1>.*], or an average of $l.t>9 
for each child brought into school. The aid furnished was given to 
S,(nS children, of whom S,:>1:) wont to the luiblic schools and 305 
to the private schools. In the performance of their duties, the 
truant otTicers made 72,223 visits to the liomes of truant children 
and the schoc)ls, and 15,()5() days were spent in this service. ITnder 
the provisicm of the law whi(»h ]>ermits the truant officer to pros- 
ecute ])avents who vicdate the law, 325 prosivutions were made 
during the year, all but sixty-tive of these being suc(*essful. In 
twenty-seven counties no prosecutions were made; in forty-five 


there were from one to five. St. Josepli county had the highest 
nuniher, twipnty-five ; Vigo came next with twenty-four ; JeflFerson 
eouiitv had twentv, Boone countv, seventeen; Grant and Verniil- 
lion each thirteen, and Marion county eleven. 

The officers of two counties, Stx^uhen and Miami, report no 
children brought into school. Martin county reports one. Twenty- 
eight counties report less than 100; twenty-two counties from 100 
to 200 ; fourteen counties from 300 to 300 ; thirteen counties from 
*^00 tf» 400 ; five counties from 400 to 500. The following coimties 
report the highest numbers: Madison, 568; Dubois, 627; ITenry, 
630; Laporte, 656; St. Joseph, 769; Marion, 2,049; Vigo, 2,485. 

Tn a tabulated form the reports of truant officers for the school 
term 1902-1903 make the following sliowing: 

Number truant officers in state 110 

Total amount salaries paid $19,200.01 

Xuml)er days spent in service 15.(»5<1 

Number visits made 72,223 

Numljer pupils brought into school 23,207 

Numl>er of al>ove attending public srhools 22.135 

Number of above attendinpr i)rivate schools 1.132 

Number who received aid 8,018 

Number aided attending; public schools 8,313 

Number aided attending l)nvjite schools .305 

Total cost of assistance given 20,215.02 

Number of prosecutions 325 

Number of prosecutions successful 260 

Number of prosecutions not successful 05 

Salaries 10.200.01 

Assistance 20,215.02 

Total cost of administering the law $30,424.03 

Amount pi*r capita spent for children brought Into school $1.09 

Amount per capita spent for children aided to attend school 2.34 



The number of children hronght into the schools and the cost 
of enforcing the law since its passage in 1897 as shown hv the 
reports of the secretarv of the board of state cliarities are as 
follows : 


Xo. Children Cost in Salatii-M 
to and AxHistiinrf 
to Poor Children. 

fironaht intr 
thr School:<. 

1808 21,447 .$r)l,;i.jl ()4 

18JM) lO.KM) 43.44-J 54 

1000 28,074 48,:^44 ;n 

1<M)1 25,025 47.(58(» 08 

1002 24.784 ,Sr».745 8() 

11H)3 28.207 :{0.424 08 



The ohild-labor law follows: 

Sec. 2. No child under fourteen years of nj:t» slijill be employed in any 
mnnufacturiii^ or mercantile establislunent. mine, (luarry. laundry, reno- 
vating; works, bakery or printing office within this state. It shall be the 
duty of (»very person employing younj; persons luider the age of sixteen 
years to keep a n»;rister. in which shall be recorded the name, birthplace. 
age and i)lace of residence of every person employed by him under the 
age of sixteen years; and it shall be unlawful for any proprietor, agent, 
forennm or other person connected with a manufacturing or mercantile 
establishment, ndue, (luarry, laundry, renovating works, bakery or print- 
ing office to hire, or employ any young i)erson to work therein without 
there is first i)rovided and placed on lile in th«» office an affidavit made by 
the parent or guardian, stating the ag(^ date and place of birth of said 
young person; if such young person have no parent or guardian, then such 
affidavit shall be made by the young jierson. which affidavit shall be kei)t 
on tile by the employer, and said register and affidavit shall be i>roduced 
for inspection on demand made by the insp«>ctor. appointed under this 
act. Th«*re shall be postecl consi)icuously in every room when* yotmg 
persons are employed, a list of their names, with their ages, respectively. 
No young person und<T the age of sixteen years, who is not blind, shall 
be employed in any establishment aforesaid, who can not read and write 
simple sentences in the Ki\glisli language, exce]>t during the vacation of 
the public schools in the city or town where such minor lives. The chief 
inspector of the department of inspection shall have the pow<»r to demand 
a certificate of idiysical litness from some n^gular physician in the case 
of young pers(ms who hiay seem physically unable to i>erform the labor 
at which they may i)e employed, and shall have the power to prohibit the 
employment of any minor that can not obtain such a certificate." 



Uif inqiiirv of tlio National Census l^nrcaii with respect to tlie 
literacy of the population does not apply to persons under ten years 
of age, but "covers a return on the population schedule concerning 
the ability of each ])er8on ten years of age and over to read and 
write in any language; that is, the test of literacy is based upon 
one's ability to read and write not necessarily the En":lish Ian- 
guage, but the language ordinarily spoken by him.'' The inquiry 
into illiteracy naturally develoiKnl the fact that there are two 
dasvses of illiterates : (1 ) P(»rsons who can neither read nor write ; 
(2) persons who &du read Cin a limited way) but can not write. 
In giving the figures Ix^low both classes are represented in the 
totals and per cents. : 

1. Total populHtion of T^nitcd States, ton years of aj?e and over: 

(a) In ISSO .•^fJJ(n,(M)7 

(h) In ISIM) 47,4i:{.rM0 

(c) In IIMK) 57.049,824 

II. lUiterates in United States, ten years of njje and over: 

HI) In 1880 f;.23l),958 

(]» In 181H) G.:i24.7(>2 

(e) In VMM) r»,18O,0(50 

III. Per eent. of iliiteraey in United States: 

in) In 18W) 17 per eent. 

(I)) lln 18JM) 13.a per eent. 

(c) In IIMK) 10.7 per eent. 

IV. Total population of Indiana, ten years «)f ajre and over: 

(a) In 1880 1.4«8,005 

(1>) In 18JMI 1,074.028 

(c) In 11)00 l.?MKS.2ir> 

V. Total illiterate po])uIation <|f Indiana, ten y«'ars of a^e and over: 

(a) In 1880 110.7(il 

(h) In 181M) 105.820 

(0) In liMMl , 00.530 

VI. Per eent. of iliiteraey on total i>opulation of Indiana, ten years of 
age ancl over: 

(a) In 1880 7..-, per cent. 

(b) In 181M) r,.3 per eent. 

(c) In IIKM) 4.0 per eent. 

(This showing is better than that of any other state lying 
to the east of us. save Ohio.) 

VII. Illiterate male poi)ulation. ten years of age and over: 
1. In the l-nUed States— 

(a) In 1880. 2.0(;0.42l. 15.8 per eent. of males of age as above. 

(b) In 18!M). :{.008.222, 12.4 per eent. of nniles of age as above. 

(c) In 10(X), 3,055,05(;, 10.2 per eent. of males of age as above. 


2. In Indiana— 

(a) In 1SS(I, r>2,u;W, ().!» i)(»r cent, of males of njre as above. 

(b) In 18JX), 40.5()5. 5.8 per eent. of males of aj;e as above, 
(e) In IJKK). 4.*i7(l.*?. 4.;i per eent. of males of age as above. 

N'lll. Illiterate female iiopnlation. ten years of ajre and over: 

1. In the United States— 

(a) in 188fl, 'A:2i:\J^M, 1S.2 per e<»nt. of f (-males of ajre as aliove. 

(b) In 18J)(l. :?,:nr.,480. 14.4 per eent. of females of age as al)ove. 

(c) In IJKK). :{.ll)l.H(n. ll.:5 per eent. of femahs of age as above. 

2. In Indiana— 

(a) In 188n, 58.728, 8.2 per eent. of females of age as above. 

(b) In 181KK 5<>.:i24. r>.l) per eent. of females of age as abov(\ 
(e) In IIKH), 4<t,77t). 4.0 per eent. of females of ag(» as above. 

IX. illiterate native white popnlation. ten years of age and over: 

1. In the United States— 



of Such A ae. 

(a) In 188<) 25,785,781> 

(b) In 1800 :i3.144.187 

(c) In 1000 41,30;{.5<J5 

2. In Indian ; - 

(a) In tsvi) 1,207,150 

(b) In lS:n •. . . 1.405.302 

(c) In 1000 1.780.458 

(This is larger than in the New England and Eastern 

X. Illiterate colored popnlation,* tvn years of age and over: 

1. In the United States- 

Toial Total If lite rah 

Popu la tioH Popu la t io h — A' / n d 
of Agv an a n d A yr a^ Prr 

Above. Above. (\'ht. 

(a) In 188U 4.001.207 8,220.878 70.0 

(b) In 1800 5.482.485 3,112.128 5(J.8 

(c) In 10<K) ().810.034 3.037,252 44.0 

2. In Indiana- 

fa) In 1880 20,140 10,3tkS 35.0 

(I)) In 1800 35,004 11,405 32.2 

(e) In 1000 47,355 \(),i)Hi) T2.i\ 

XI. Illiterate negro popnlation. ten years (»f age and over: 

1. In the United States 

(a) In 1000 Males 43.0 per eent. 

(b) In 1000 Females 45.8 per cent. 

(e) In 1000 Hoth sexes 44.4 per cent. 

2. In Indiana- 

(a) In IIMM) Males 21.7 per cent. 

(b) In 1000 Females 23.4 i>er <»ent. 

(c) In 1000 Both sexes 22.r. per cent. 



of Stirh Age. 
















PerHoiKs of nefirro descent. Chinese, Japanese and Indians. 


XII. Illiterate native wliite populalion of native parentage, ten to four 
teen years of age: 

1. In the United States- 

(a) In 18iM> G.7 per cent. 

(b) In IJMK) 4.4 per cent. 

2. In Indiana— 

(a) In 181X> 2.0 per cent. 

(b) In 11)00 0.5 i)er cent. 

(Grood showing f(»r modern s^chools.) 

XIII. Illiterate foreign white popidation. ten to fonrteeu years of age: 

1. In tlie United States- 

fa) In 18JK) 5.0 per cent 

(b) In IfKK) 5.0 per cent. 

2. In Indiana- 

la) In 1890 a.4 per cent. 

(b) In 1000 2.0 per cent. 

(Good showing.) 

XIV. Illiterate negro popnlation. ten to fourteen years of age: 

1. In the United States- 

fa) In IIKM) :M).1 per cent. 

2. In Indiana- 

lb) In 1000 1.5 per cent. 

VIII. Teachers' and Young People's 

Reading Circles. 


At i\ nioetin^of the Tndinna teacluM's' association liold at Indian- 
opolis Dec'einbor, 18S»'5, the first steps Avere takew t(>ward th(* organ- 
ization of the Indiana teachers' reading circle. According to a res- 
olution introduced bv W. A. Bell it was decided that this circle he 
under the care and direction of the association and that this asso- 
ciation choose a lK)ard of dirc^ctors, select a course of professional 
and literary reading, issue wrtificates of progress and grant di- 
])lonias as evidence of its ccnnpletion. 

The first niCH^ting of the board of directors was h(»ld Februarv, 
1884. .Vt this nieetin*r, after a full discussion of the wavs and 
means to \)v enijdoyed, a counnitlee on ]dans of organization was 
appointed. A month later this committee reported the following- 
plan : 


(SiM' Prosfiit Plan of Orpinization at closo of this division.) 

1. Any toachor or otluT persons in th«» state of Indiana may booouie 
a nuMnbor of tliis cirol** by forwarding? his name to the manager of liis 
county, tojjether witli a i»l«»dp» faitlifnily to pui*sne tlie iiresoribed conrso 
of study, and luiyinj; a fee of twenty-live cents for the present year, and 
for future years, such fees as may be deeidtMl upon at tlie be^innin^ of 
the year. 

2. In ease there is no manager within a coimty. any teacher may 
become a member of the stat(» circle and receive all the IxMiefits of the 
same by applying to the manaprer of an adjoining coimty. The memlxTs 
of the state circle resident In any t(»wn. township or neiphljorhood. may 
form a local circle which shall meet once every we<»k or fortnight, as 
they may elect, for the purpose of reading and discussion. 

3. Each local circle shall elect a secn^tary. whose name shall be 
report tKi to the coimty nnina^er. and who shall act as the medium of 
communication iM'twei'U the local circle and tlie county nuuia^rer: but 
this provision shall not preclude the possibility of Indrviduals who are not 
members of a local circle rei>ortinp directly to the county manaprer. 



4. The Kt*u<'nil direct Ion of the work in each county shall be placed 
in charge of the comity superintendent -or other person to be api)ointed 
l)y the state board of directors, who shall be called the county manager. 

5. It shall be the duty of the county manager to transmit to the 
teachers of his county all circuhirs. books, examination questiims, etc.. 
issued 1)3' the board of directors; to solicit and transmit to the board of 
directors names of members and membership fees, and all examination 
papers, etc.. that shall be called for: and to discharge all duties that nniy 
devolve upon him as the medium of communication i»etween the h)cal 
cir<-le and the board of directors. 

Vt. The board of directm-s shall establish and maintain at the capital 
of the state a bureau under the charge of the secretary of the i>oard. to 
whom all communications from county managers sliall be a<ldressed. 
Said bureau shall, for the present, be located at the office of i\w state 
superinten«lent of public instru<!tion. 

7. It shall Im» the duty of the state lioard of directors to arrange and 
prescribe two or more lines of reading, along which the reading of the local 
circle and individual members sliall Ik» imrsued: but the amount of read- 
ing to be done within any given time and other details of the work not 
herein provided for shall i»e arranged by the county manager In conjimr- 
tion with the secretaries of the local circles of the county. 

8. It shall be the duty of the state lK)ard of directors to make provi- 
sions for all requisite examinations of the issuance of certiticates and 

The results of the first four vears of the history of tho eire!^* 
very fully justified th(^ efforts luade to iuiprove the professioual 
spirit auiong the teachers of the state. It had been proved Ix^youd 
a doubt that the teachers were growing, were beeoniing more 
interested, nion* skillful, more intelligent in their work. Tfowever, 
much progress had been made, tlien^ was an important step takeii 
in 1888 in the adoption, as a part of the reading for tiie next year, 
Hawthorne's "Marble Faun" and Carl vie' s **IIer(tes and Hero 
Worship.'' The work done in the study of real literature rather 
than a study alxmt literature was an epoch-making experience 
among the rank and file of the teachers of \\io state. When they 
had completed the year's work, hel])e(l by a suggestive jdan of study 
for the Marble Faun, for instance, they had learned somethinc; 
al>out how to get real culture from the poet, and the novelist. In 
short this year's work marked a ])eriod of greatest growth in char- 
acter, in insight, that the circle had yet known. Many teachers had 
l^een reached and helped who had not had o])]>ortunities in normal 
schools and coll(»ges. ^lanv were so inspired by their entrance iiito 
the fields of truth. It had been felt bv manv that this pursuit of 


general culture contributes more to the equipment of the teacher 
than does the study of purely' professional lines of thought. 

The state board of education lias recognized the importance of 
the teachers' reading circle to the profession by offering credits on 
examination for county and state licenses. At tlie October meet- 
ing, 1885, the following order was passed by the board: ^'Ordered 
that the reading circle examinations in the science of teaching 
(science of education or theory) be accepted by the county superin- 
tendents in place of the county examinations on that subject, and 
that tli(^ average of their four successive yearly examinations in 
the science of teaching be accepted by the state board of education 
in the examination for state certificates." 

Again at the May meeting, 1896, the following order was unan- 
imously adopted : "Ordered that the reading circle examinations 
in the general culture book be accepted by the county superintend- 
ents in place of the county examinations in literature, and that tlie 
average of their four successive yearly examinations in the general 
culture books be accepted by the state board (of education) in the 
examinations for state certificates.'' 

The^growth of interest has been most gratifying. It is not an 
unusual thing for a new venture to meet with success in the 
beginning and then gi'adually lose its hold and pass into neglect, 
leaving little but a remembered failure. But the Indiana teachers' 
reading circle* has steadily grown, each year fully justifying its 
existen(»e by the improvement in the work done in the schools as a 
direct result of the fostering of higher educational standards, and 
of encouraging a finer professional spirit. 

The membership for 1887-8 was in round numbers 7,000, every 
county in the state, and in thirty counties almost every district, 
being represented in this membership. 

The membership for 1002-*! was 13,274, every county in the 
state l>eiiig re]) resented.- This was an average of 144 members 
for ea(*h c<Minty. The highest membership for any one county was 
300; the lowest 52. These two counties had 356 and 78 teachers 



In the summer of 1887, at a meeting of the state association of 

county superintendents a report of the very satisfactory progress 
made by the teachers' reading circle in the four years then passed, 

was presented. After this report was made it was suggested that 
the work should begin with the children. Following this sugges- 
tion, at a meeting of the state teachers' association in 1887, a 
committee was appointed to consider the feasibility of such a 
movement and this committee made the following report which was 
unanimously adopted by the association : 

We regard the subject one of the highest importance. To place the 
general reading of the half million of children of the public schools under 
competent guidance and control, even to a limited extent, would in our 
judgment, be productive of most benelicial results. To substitute for the 
trashy and often vicious reading matter, which finds its way into the 
hands of children and youth, a grade of literature at once sound in its 
content, chaste in its language and imagery, and pure in its moral tone, 
is an end which may properly command the best and most earnest efforts 
of this association, and of the teachers of Indiana. To your committee 
the enterprise proposed seems a means for accomplishing, in a measure, 
this highly desirable end. 

By vote of the association the organization and management of a 
young people's reading circle was referred to the board of directors 
of the teachers' reading circle. Accordingly the work was at once 
undertaken. T\w guiding thought from the l)eginning has been 
to avoid making the reading in any sense a task. There has been 
done everything to avoid the routine of school work for it has be^en 
felt that the purpose of the reading would be largely defeated if 
the children should come to look upon it as an additional task to be 
performed under compulsion. There have been no examinations 
given, no set ways of reading suggested. Tlie purpose of introduc- 
ing the children to the best in books suited to their needs has been 
felt to bn the highest service that could bo perfr>rnied in this connec- 
tion. Of course, much good has been done by tactful teachers in 
making the children desirous of hooking intf) tlies(» books for them- 

It has been the aim to place no book upon these children's lists 
from year, to year which was not worthy as literature. Whatever 
quality it might possess of value, however interesting, however full 
of information, the book has been subjected to scrutiny as to 

9— Education. 


whether it were an artistic production, worthy as literature, 
whether a beautiful expression of truth. Books have been selected 
appealing to a wide variety of tastes and interests. Books of 
fiction, travel, biography, science, nature study, poetry, history 
have been included. 

Under the plan of organization the reading of one book in the 
year's list is sufficient to constitute a membership in the circle. A 
card of membership has been awarded each member. 

The w^isdom of separating the reading of these books from the 
regular school work has impressed itself more and more upon those 
who have observed the progress of the work. There has been all 
over the state a very noticeable elevation of the taste. A very- 
strong current of influence has set in against the trashy vicious 
stuff so much of which is waiting to corrupt the morals of the 
youth of many communities. These books selected for the young 
people have done their good work not only for the children but they 
liavc gone into the homes and have interested the older picmbers of 
the family. So they have created a demand for more of the best 

From sixteen to twenty books are selected for each year, distrib- 
uted into five groups: (1) Those for second grade, (2) those for 
third grade, (3) those for fourth and fifth grades, (4) those for 
sixth and seventh grades, (5) those for eighth and advanced 

Previous to the year 1902-03, 352,481 books had been distrib- 
uted throughout the state. During this same year and up to April 
1, 1904, 114,132 were added, making a grand total of 40n,(;i3 
lx)oks now in the young |)eople's reading circle libraries. This 
makes an average of 5,071 for each county. The highest numter 
owned bv anv one countv is 16,309; the lowest 631. 

The enumeration for 1902-03 was 500,523 children of school 
age. Of this numl)er more than 200,000 were members of the 

Within the twentv vears that this work has lx?en carried on, 
experience has suggested various changes in the organization and 
management of the affairs. At first, when the work was new, then* 
were many difficulties which have gradually been overcome. One 
of the most gratifying results obs(»rved has been the fact that such 
a market for the l)cst l>ooks has Ix^en created that the very best 


publishers have eonie to thiuk it worth their while to supply books 
at very uiucli lower rates than had before been possible. 

In 1880 by action of the st^ite teachers' association, the state 
superintendent of public instruction was made, **ex-otHcio,'' a 
member of the board of directors of the reading circle. 

Another change was made in the abolition of botli membershij) 
and examination fees from members. During the first three years 
of the circle there were charged a fee of twenty-five cents for 
membership, and an additional twenty-five cents for examination, 
the former going to the board of directors, and ('onstitnting a fund 
for running expenses, the latter to county managers as remunera- 
tion for the examinations. The returns from both were so small 
as to meet but a fraction of the expense. So no remuneration was 
furnished f(>r time spent or services rendered by either local or 
state directors. In 1887, with the prospect of larger sales, some- 
what lower rates were secured from publishers with the provision 
also that the discount usuallv allowed the trade should be paid to 
the b>ard. This arrangement proved a double gnin in that it 
secured to teachers a lower rate on the books, an<l gave a definite 
income for the management in proportion to the membershi]). 


In Decendier, 1807, the following constitution, rules and regu- 
lations for the government (^f the board of directors were author- 
ized bv the state teachers' association : 

1. The Indiana state teachers' assoeiation hereby ronstitiites the 
lK)ar(l of directors for the Indiana teac.'hers' and youn^ people's reading 
circles, and adopts tlie following ndes and regidations for its government. 

2. The aforesaid board of dire<-tors shall be eonu>osed of seven mem- 
bers, including the state snperinten<lent of pnblie instrnetion, who shall 
he ex-offlcio a member of th(» board. Of the remaining six members, at 
least one shall be a eonnty snperintendent: at least one a city superin- 
tendent, and the remainder shall be chosen from the teaching profession 
at large. 

3. No member of a imblishing firm, or agent of such lirni, shall be 
eligible to membership on this board. Should any member of this board 
Iwcome a member of a publishing lirm, or agent of such firm, within the 
term for which he was appointed to this board, his membership herein 
shall immediately cease, and the state teachers' association shall at its 
next meeting fill the vacancy thus arising from tlie unexi)ired ])ortion of 
said term. 


4. The members of this board, except the state super inteudeut of 
public instruction, wliose membership shall be concurrent with his in- 
cumbency- of the state superintenclency, shall be appointed by the state 
teachers' association in annual convention for a term of three years, or 
until their successors are appointed. 

5. Should any member of the board of directors leave the teaching 
profession or quit active school work, his membership shall immediately 
cease. At each annual meeting of the state teachers' association, the 
members of the reading circle board of directors shall meet and organize 
for the ensuing year. 

7. The members of this board shall receive a per diem of four dollars 
and actual expenses, for all time employed in discharging the duties 
devolving upon them as members of said l)oard; but no member shall 
receive any additional per diem or salary as an officer of the board. The 
board shall allow and pay the se(*retary such reasonable salary as will 
be a fair compensation for the duties i)erformed. 

8. It shall be the duty of this l)oard to plan a course of reading from 
year to year, to be pursued by the public school teachers of Indiana, to 
provide for examination on the said course and to prepare questions for 
the same; to issue certificates to such teachers as pass the examination 
satisfactorily, and to issue diplomas to such teachers as pass the exami- 
nations in four successive years satisfactorily. 

It shall also be the duty of this board to plan a course of reading, 
from year to year, to be pursued by the pupils in the public schools in 
Indiana, and to make such rules and regulations as to examinations, cer- 
tificates and diplomas, in the young i)eople's reading circle, as the board 
may deem desirable and practicable. 

It shall be the further duty of this board to select the books to be read 
in such teachers' and young i>eoples ('ourses; to make the most favorable 
terms with the publishers as to prices of such books to members of the 
two reading circles, and to provide a plan for a convenient and inexpens- 
ive distribution of the books to the teachers and pupils. 

9. At each annual meeting of the state teachers* association, this 
board shall make a report of the receipts and disbursements for the year 
just closing and of such other items as in its judgment shall be of interest 
to the association, or as 'the association may from time to time request. 
At each annual meeting of the association, an auditing committee shall 
be appointed for the coming year, to audit the books and accounts of the 
reading circle board. At each meeting of the association, the report of 
this auditing committee shall be appended to the report of the board of 
directors and shall be a part of the report of that board to the state 
teachers' association. 

10. This constitution, rules and regulations may be amended, revised, 
or annulled by a majority vote at any annual meeting of the Indiana state 
teachers' association. 

IX. Associations and Institutes. 



a. 11IST()U1(\\L SKETCH. 

IM-cpnrod by. A. C. Shortrldgo, W. A. Bell, W. E. Henry, Coinmltteo ap- 
pointed by State Teachers* Association, December. 1903. 

In accordance with resolutions previously passed by teachers' 
meetings held at Shelbyville and Salem, a circular was issued 
for the purpose of calling a '^convention of practical teachers'' with 
a view to the organization of a permanent '^state teachers' asvsocia- 

This circular was signed bv the following persons : 

Caleb Mills, E. P. Cole, B. L. Lang, O. J. Wilson, G. W. Hoss, 
Chas. Barnes, John Cooper, M. M. C. Hobbs, Rufus Patch, T. 
Taylor, J. Bright, Cyrus Nutt, James G. May, B. T. Hoyt, 
Lewis A. Estes, J. S. Ferris, R. B. Abbott, Geo. A. Chase, Silas- 

Tn pursuance of the above call a convention was held in Indian- 
apolis, December 25, 1854. 

The first president was Rev. Wm. M, Daily, president of the 
state universitv. 

The first constitution, which has never been materially changed, 
was prepared by Prof. C^ileb Mills, then state superintendent of 
public instruction. 

The preand)le to this constitution is worth remembering. It 
reads : 

As harmony and concert of action are liij^lily necessary for the thor- 
ough and entire acconiplislinient of any important purpose; and l)elleving 
that it is especially so in the dei)artment of education, we. the under- 
signed, as a means of eh'vating the profession of teachinji:, and of pro- 
moting the interests of .*<chools in Indiana, associate ourselves together 
under the following constitution. 



The addresses at this first meeting were as follows: 

"Tiiiportance of civil polity as a branch of common school educa- 
tion," bv Prof. Daniel Read, of the state nniversity; "Graded 
schools," bv Dr: A. T). Lord, of Columbus, Ohio, editor of the 
Educational ^fonthlv; "Drawin*^ in scliools," bv Prof. J. Brain- 
ard, of Cleveland, Ohio; '^TTse of the Bible in schools," by Dr 
R. J. Breckenridge, of Kentucky, author of the public school sys- 
tem of Kentuckv ; "Fenuile education," bv Hon. K. D. Mansfield, 
of Ohio; and the ymncipal address of the session was on "The 
duty of the state to provide for and control tlu* education of 
youth," by TTon. Horace Mann, then president of Antioch College, 
of Yellow S])rings, Ohio. 

The record shows that Calvin Cutter, of Massachusetts, was 
present, but it does not show that he made an address. It will be 
remembered that Calvin Cutter was the author of one of the first 
if not the first public school physiology ever published. 

Tn addition to the above addresses the association considered 
the following: 

The supreme court had, a short time before this, rendered a 
decision to the effect that local taxation for the payment of teach- 
ers in the district schools was illegal. The supreme court, in 1857, 
made a similar decision in regard to incorporated towns and cities. 
' This made it impossible to keep the public schools open more than 
from two to four months in the vear. This was a vital matter with 
the teachers and it was one of the live topics in every association 
for several vears. 

After discnssion a coumiittee was appointed in regard to the 
establishment of an educational journal with Mr. E. P. Cole as 

A resolution was adoy)ted favoring the addition of history, 
physiologN', political and moral science, to the curriculum of com- 
mon school studies. Tt was 

Resolved. That the members of this association will exert their utmost 
efforts to have the Bible introdiieed as a reader or class book into every 
school in the state, in which it is not thus used already. 

Resolved. That we recommend to the lepislatnre of this state to create 
the office of circuit superintendent of public instruction, and to make It 
one of the duties of that officer to hold a series of t(»achers* institutes 
dnrinj? each year, in his circuit. 


Resolved, That in ease such action is not taken by our next legislature, 
we hereby instruct our executive committee to hold Institutes in different 
parts of the state in the name of this assocdatitm. 

Resolveii. That we, as teachers, will use all our efforts to organize 
county associations in our respective eoimties and report our progress 
at the next meeting of our state association. 

Resolved, That the delegates present, as far as practical)le, appoint a 
committee of one, whose duty it shall be to report the condition and 
character of the public schools in his county at the next meeting of this 

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to investigate the 
claims of the phonetic method of spelling . . . and give their views 
of the projuMety of Introducing it into the common schools of the state. 

Resolved, That this association recommend to the county examiners, 
throughout the state, to observe strictly the provisions of om* school law 
in licensing teachers; or if any case be found in which circumstances 
seem to demand the licensing of teachers of defective (lualitications f(»r 
a short time, the examiner should inform such teacher that he will not 
receive a second license initil the requisitions of the law shall be fully 

Resolved, unanimously. As the opinion of this association that the tax 
for school libraries ought to be continued for another period of three years, 
as a great instrumentality of popular education. 

Tliese resolutions were not reported by a resolution eonmiittee, 
and adopted as a whole, but were introduced from session to session 
and discussed separately. 

Tt will Ik» seen from the above that many subjects vital to the 
welfare of the schools of the state were considered in this first 
meeting of the association, and they indicate the general purpose 
of the organization. 

Among the charter members Avere many who continued for 
years to exercise a large influence in shaping the educational 
forces of the state. Among the more conspicuous of these are 
Cvrus Nutt, then of Centerville, but afterward for manv years 
])resident of the state university; B. T. Hoyt, then of Lawrence- 
burg, afterward ])rofessor in Asbury, now DePauw, university; 
James G. ]\rnv, of N^ew Albanv, who continued in active work till 
he was the oldest teacher in the state; Chas. Barnes, for many 
years vsuperintendent of the Madison schools: Rufus Patch, for 
many years principal of the Ontario academy in Lagrange county ; 
E. P. Cole, then of Indianapolis, but afterwards of Bloomington; 
Miles J. Fletcher, afterward superintendent of ]>ublic instruction : 
John B. Pillon, Indiana's most noted historian: Geo. W. IToss, 


afterward state superintendent and professor in the state uni- 
versity, and for manv vears editor of Indiana School Journal ; 
Caleh Mills, the second state superintendent of public instruction, 
for many years connected with Wabash college, but always in- 
terested in the public schools; Geo. A. Chase, superintendent 
of the "Rushville schools, who was the first socretarv of the state 
association : W. T). Henkle, the second editor of the Indiana 
School Tonmal, and afterward state school commissioner of Ohio; 
Moses C Stephens, of Richmond, for many years professor of 
mathematic^s in Purdue university; John Cooper, then of Dublin, 
but afterward superintendent of the schools at Tlichmond and 
later of Evansville; and A. C. Shortridge, then of Milton, but 
afterward for many years superintendent of the Indianapolis 
schools and later president of Purdue university. 

Out of the 17<^ charter members, now at the end of fiftv years, 
only four of them are living, so far as the committee can learn, 
yiz. : Hoss, Stevens, Cooper and Shortridcro 

It will be noticed that the enrollment of this association reached 
1Y8, which was a larger per cent, of the teachers at that time than 
is an attendance of 1,000 of the teachers now employed in the 
state, and this in face of the fact that at that time but few rail- 
roads entered Indianapolis. 

The second meetinc of the association Avas held at Madison, 
December 2f>, 27, 2R, 1R55. At this meetinc: the committee ap- 
pointed at the previous meeting reported in favor of establishing 
an educational journal, and after discussion it was 

Resolved. That this association wiU pubUsh an odncational jonrnal, 
fiimUar In size and typoprraphioal exoontion to tho Ohio .Tonrnal of Educa- 
tion, that this jonrnal be conducted by nine editors appointed by this 
association, one of whom shall be styled the resident editor, and that the 
journal shall be furnished to subscribers at one dollar per annum. 

Geo. P. Stone, superintendent of the Indianapolis schools, was 
appointed resident editor. Members of the association present 
subscribed for 425 copies, and the first issue appeared the follow- 
incr month, Tanuary, l^r>f). For several years the association 
continued to appoint editors and stand responsible for the finances 
of the iournal. 


At this meeting on motion of Aloses ( •. Stevens it was 

Resolved, That we, as teachers, beHevhig the use of tobacco iu aU its 
forms to be unnecessary and Injurious, will exert our influence to restrain 
its use by every laudable effort. 

Tlie resolution was discussed and passed with enthusiasm. J)r. 
Daily, who was presiding, listened to the discussion and put the 
motion without liesitation, but continued chewing and spitting 
as though nothing had happened. 

At this meeting a connnittee was appointed to memorialize the 
next legishiture to provide unmans to sustain a competent corps of 
instructors to assist the state su])erintendent in conducting teach- 
ers' institutes for at least six months annually; and also to consider 
the propriety and wisdom of making provision for the establish- 
ment of at least two nonnal schools. 

In August of this vsame year a semi-annual meeting of the 
association was held at Lafayette, at which resolutions were passed 
in fa vol of longer school terms, more freipient county institutes, 
higher standards for teachers, and a state agent was appointed to 
canvass for the school journal. 

At the meeting of 1857 committees were appointed for each 
congressional district, whose duty it was to conduct teachers' insti- 

These specific citations indicate clearly the scope of the work 
of the association. Its w(»rk may be classed largely under four 
heads: ( 1 ) To create a better public sentiment in regard to public 
s(*hools; (2) To suggest and influence school legislation; (3) To 
secure higher standards for t(*achers and better methods of teach- 
ing; (4) To extend the length of the school term. Working along 
these lines t\w association has accomjdished wonders. In 18f)7 the 
same law that had been declared unconstitutional by the supreme 
court in 1854-7 — the law giving the people the right to levy local 
taxes for tuition purposes — was r(»-enacted, and so great had been 
the change in ]mblic sentiment in ten years, that the constitution- 
ality of this enactment was not tested for eighteen years and then 
it was declared constitutional. 

Largely through \\w influence brought to bear by this association 
the legislature ()f 18(>5 enacted laws adding physioh)gy and IT. S. 
historj^ to the legal connuon schoid branches; extending the powers 
and duties of the school examiner; making the legal age for a 


cliild to outer school six instead of five years; making tlie lioldiug 
of county teachers' institutes obligatory u])on examiners. 

At this session also the school law was amended by the addition 
of tliis (daust»: "The Bible shall not be excluded from the public 
schools of the state." 

It will be remembered that the first meeting of the association 
passed a resolution in regard to the teaching of the Bible, and an 
examination of the records will show that down to the present 
time there has scarcely lx?en a session held in which J^ible and 
Christian teaching has not been commended in some form. And 
the record shows no instance in which one word has ever l)een 
spoken against such teaching. This imglit to be conclusive proof 
that thos(» who denounce the public schools as "(iodless" belong 
io that class wh(> cannot distinguish between religious and dog- 
matic teaching, and that their statements are libelous. 

The figlit for a state normal school, begun in the second meeting 
of the association, was kept up until the year 1S<»5, when the 
normal s(*hool bill becanu* a law. This legislation was hastened be- 
cause of the fact that th(» chainuan of the executive conunittee of 
this association, A. ('. Shortridge, induced Gov. O. P. Morton to 
make an addn^ss before the associati(>n and to recommend in his 
message to the legislature tlu* establishment of a normal school. 
The governor r(»ad to .Mr. Shortridge that part of his message 
which referred to the normal school cjuestion and asked for sugges- 
tions. It was further aided l)ecause a m<»mlx»r of this association, 
Hon. I). K. Khod(»s, of Vermillion county, was a meml)er of the 
legislature and was its chi(»f su]>])orter. 

Next to the law permitting local taxation the county superin- 
tendencv law was the most important ])iec(» of sch(K>l legislation 
ever achi(»ved in the state. It did more to integrate, unify, 
and elevate the countv schools than anv other one law. This law 
was (Miacted in 1ST*» and was the <lire(»t outgrowth of the work of 
this association to elevate^ the standard of teachers and to make 
l)etter the district schools. 

As will l>e s(HMi from the abf)ve, that vears before the state made 
any provision for the h<)l(ling of townshi]) associations or county 
institutes, this ass<»ciation urge*! the holding of such meeting 
voluntarily and often a])])ointed c(»mmittees to look after the work. 
In this way thousands of teachers were reached and helped. 


In 1865 this association appointed John M, Olcott to hold a 
state institute. It was held at Knightstown, and continued three 
weeks, wnth an enrollment of 131. In each of the years 18G0, 
18G7, 1868, four state institutes were held in the four quarters of 
the state. These were under the management of a committee 
appointed by this association. Able instructors were brought from 
other states and the work was of a high order. Jt can readily be 
seen that, under the tlien existing conditions, this work was of 
great value. 

In the early history of this state and for many years after the 
organization of this association no provision whatever w^as made 
for the education of the negroes. The subject was frequently 
brought forward in the association and always aroused animated 
discussion. On one occasion a member introduced a resolution 
favoring the e<lueation of the negro, and the president (James G. 
May) refused to entertain the motion. An appeal being taken to 
the associaticm and a majority deciding against the president he 
vacated the chair rather than put the motion, and did not resume it 
till that question was disposed of. 

Among the agencies for the improvement of teachers in the state 
is the teachers' reading circle. This (►riginated in this association 
and is still controlled exclusively by it without the help of state 
aid. The resolution under which the reading circle was organized 
was introduced by W. A. J^ell in December, 1883, and the reading 
circle l)oard was organized and began its work the following year. 
This has been, from tli(* beginning, the most successful t'cachers' 
reading circle in the United States and has been the means of cir- 
culating among the teachers thousands of good books every year. 
The amount of i»:ood this aijencv has done in the last twentv vears 
can hardly be estimated. 

Another child of this association is the young ])eople's reading 
circle. It came as the result of a ])a]>er nnid before the asscuriation 
by Prof. Jose))h Carhart, in December, 1877, and it began its 
work the following year. It is under the control of the teachers' 
reading circle board and has Wen managed in such a way as to he 
a great success from the start. It is sup])lemental in a way to the 
le«:ally constituted common-school svstem, but this does not <limin- 
ish in any degree its power for good. Through this ag(»ncv good 



books by the hundred thousand go into the hands of children and 
their homes every year. 

In these later years the association has greatly increased its 
scope and its influence by providing for different sections to occupy 
a part of the time. These sections are the high school, primary, 
classical, English, mathematical, musical, elocution, ccmnty super- 
intendents, etc. In these sections the special needs of the various 
departments of work can be considered and the main association 
can give its time to the discussion of the larger more general 
educational problems. 

Of course it is not claimed that this association has been the 
exclusive agency in bringing about all the educational reforms 
named above, but it is claimed that it inaugurated many of them 
and has helped in i\\\ of tliem. 

This closes its fiftieth year's work, and it has reason tc> be proud 
of what it has accom|)lished. We can all rest assured that in the 
future, as in the past, it will strive for what is the highest and best. 

Below w(» give the nam(»s of the various presidents of the asso- 
ciation, with the dates of their service: 

Wm. :M. Daily ;.1854 

\Vm. M. Daily 1855 

Chas. Barnes 1856 

James G. May 1857 

Barnabas C. Hobbs 1858 

Caleb Mills 1859 

E. P. Cole 1800 

Geo. A. Irvine 1861 

(\'rus Tsutt 1862 

A. K. Benton 1863 

B. F. Jloyt 1864 

K. T. Brown 1865 

Geo. W. lloss 1S(;6 

Jos. F. Tuttle 1S67 

A. (•. Shortridge 186.S 

Joseph Tingley 1861) 

D. Eckley Hunter 1870 

Alex. il. Gow 1871 

Wm. A. Bell 1872 

Jas. H. Smart 1873 

Wm. A. J(mes 1874 

Geo. P. Brown 1875 

Wm. JI. Wiley 1876 

J. II. Martin 1877 

John M. Bloss 1878 

J. T. Merrill 187J) 

John Cooper 1880 

H. B. Jacobs 1881 

Horace S. Tarbell 1882 

John S. Irwin 1883 

Harvey B. Hill 18S4 

E. E. Smith 1885 

(Vrus W. Hodgin 18S6 

Emma ^lont McRae 1887 

Lewis H. Jones 1888 

J. A. Zeller 1889 

W. W. Parsons 18i)0 

E. B. Bryan 1891 


J. X. Study 1892 W. II. Glascock 1899 

L. O. Dale 1893 Robert I. Hamilton 1900 

Joseph Swain 1894 H. B. Brown 1901 

Howard Sandison 1895 C. A. Prosser 1902 

J. F. Scull 1896 Charles A. Van Matre. . .190.3 

R. A. Ogg 1897 Wni. L. Bryan 1904 

F. M. Stalker 1898 

•- • »•»■ . 



The state teachers' association' has always contrihut<?d largely to 
the interest which kee])s alive the professional spirit among our 
teachers. But it was observed soon after its organization that 
its influence was not as far-reaching as it should be. In order to 
"bring together, annually, a large nund)er of teachers who seldom 
attend the sessions of the state association, a number of superin- 
tendents and teachers from the southern part of the state met 
during the session of the state teachers' association" held in 
December, 1877, "and formed a new organization, called the 
'Southern Indiana teachers' association.' " Tlie attendance in 
1902 was about 2,000. 

Program Bloominoton Meeting, April 3, 4 and 6, 1902. 

general association. 

Thursday, April 3, 8 p. m. 

Greetings— (a) From the city of Bloom Ington. 

(b) From the public schools. 

(c) From the university of Indiana. 

Response— Charles A. Prosser. superintendent schools. New Albany. 

Address— Retiring president. C N. Peake, superintendent schools. Prince- 

Inaugural Address— President .7. H. Tomlin, superintendent schools, Shel- 

Business— Appointment of committees, etc. 

Social Function— General reception to teachers by the women's council 
of the city of Bloomington. 


Program State Teachers* Association, December 26-28, 19()1. 


'J'lnirsday, DoeonilK^r 2i), 8 p. m. 

Invocation- Tln' Hcv. II. i\ Moserve. pastor riymouth cliiirch. 
Music— Violin solo, Trof. Fred Noble. 

Address- Hot irlnj; president, Snpt. U. I. Hamilton. Huntington. 
Inaugural Addrt»ss— "The Kesponsiliilities of the Kducator." President II. 

B. Brown. Valparaiso. 
Music— Vocal solo, Miss Etfle (1 Hessin. 
Business— Appointment of committees and misct-llaneous business. 

Friday. December 27. HMO a. m. 

Invocation— Tlie Uev. .losliua Stanstield. Pastor Meridian-street M. K. 

Music— Piano solo. Miss Olive Kilgore. 
Symi)osium- "What Shall be Indiana's Next Steps in FducalionV* 

a. As to "Ideals and Processes." Prof Howard Sandison: 20 minutes. 

b. As to "Reforms," I*rof. Amos W. Butler: 2t) minutes. 

c. As to "School Economy,** Supt. F. L. Jones; 20 ndnuto.^. 

d. As to "Supervision." Supt. (Mias. A. Van Matre: 20 minutes. 

e. As to "Manual Training." Supt. U. I. Hamilton; 20 minutes. 

f. As to "T\u^ Training of Teachers." Supt. D. M. Geeting; 20 minutes. 
Discussion of the views ]>resented in the Symposium. Prof W. \V. 

Parsons; 20 ndnutes. 
Address— "Education Through Self-activity." Mrs. O. P. Kinsey, Val- 
paraiso college. 

FrUIay. December 27. 2 p. m. 

Music— Vocal solo. Miss Efflt^ C. Hessin. 
Selection— By Mrs. C. W. Boueher. 

l/ccture— "Some Foundation Stones of Education," Prof. H. P. Ilalhck. 
principal male high s<hool, Louisville. Ky. 
"The Function of tlie Training School." Miss Anna Trueldood, state 
normal training school. 
Di.scussion— Mrs, Elixabeth (). Oopeland. Mari(»n normal college; .Mrs. E. 

E. Olcott. Danville nornnd college. (Jeneral discussion. 
Lecture— "Liquid Air. Its I'ses and Possibilities." Prof. H. B. Thearlc. 

Note— Prof. H. B. Thearle will conn* prepared with apparatus and will 
Uiake liquid air, which the audience will be allowed to examine. Dr. 
Glenn, of (t(»orgia, says that Prof. Thearle's work is wonderful and will 
be highly valuable to the educator. 

Friday. r>ecember 27. 8 p. m. 

Music- Piano solo. Miss Olive Kilgore. 
Violin soh),* Prof. Fred Noble. 
Address— Annual address, "Fads." Supt. F. Lcmis Soldan, St. Louis. Mt». 


Friday, April 4, 9. a. m. 

luvocation— Uev. T. J. Claris, pastor Kirlcwood-avenue Cliristian clnircli. 

AddresH— "Tliinlcinj? in Tilings and in Symbols/* Dr. Nathan C. Scliaeflfer, 
llarrisbiirg, I'a. 

rai)or— ^'Education I)y Occupation," Dr. W. L. Bryan, university of In- 

Discussion— Principal R. V. Taylor, colored high school, Jefiforsonville. 

ludhina as the State Teachers' Association. 

Friday, April 4, 2 p. m. 

Address— "Grades of Tliinl^lng and Thinking in the Grades," Dr. Schaefifer. 
Address— *'Modernizing tlie Course of Study," W. A. Hester, superintend- 
ent schools, Evansville. 
Di.scu8sion— Prof. F. M. Stalker, state normal school, Terre Haute. 
Address— "Art," Mr. A. M. Hrooks, university of Indiana. 

Friday. April 4, 8 p. ni. 

Annual Address— "The Central Factor in Education." F. Trendley, Super- 
intendent schools, YoungstOAvn. Ohio. 

Saturday, April f>, 8:30 p. m. 

Invocation— The Kev. C. E. Clough. pastor Haptist cliurcii 
Address— "Does Education PayV" Dr. S<'haeffer. 
Report— Committee on revision of. constitution. 
Business— M iscelhuu»ous. 


April 4. 2 p. m. 
This work does not come to hand in time for publication. 


April 5. 8:30 a. m. 

Paper— "Music in the Primary (Jrades," Miss Ella Duncan, Columbus. 
Paper— "Sense and Nonsense, in Music Teacliing," Artliur Mason, Co 

Discussions— (a) "Tone." Mr. RItlgeway (tcbliart. New Al!>any. 

(h) "Individual Work." .Mr. J. M. Black. Washington. 
Music — Vocal and iu.*<trumental. will be interspersed tlirough the work of 

the session. 


Exhibit in woman's gymnasium, open Friday and Saturday. Work in 
connection with this to i>e arranged. 



Friday. April 4. i) a. in. 

l*ai>er— "General Secondary School rroblenis,'' W. S. Howe, superintend- 
ent of schools. Connersville. 

Discussion— A. O. Neal, principal hijjh scliool. Franklin; Lotus I). Coflf- 
man. principal high school, Salem. 

Paper— "The High School Principal and His Work." Edward (J. Bauiuan. 
principal high school. Mt. Vernon. 

Discussion— S. H. Hall. Horden college. Horden. 

Paper— "Some Phases of High School English Compositicm Work." A. W. 
Senior, dei)artment of English, university of Indiana. 

Discussion— O. H. Greist, department of English. Bedford high scliool; 
Clara Funk, department of English. .lefl'ersonville high school. 

General discussion and miscellane<ms business. 

J. H. TOMLIX, President. 

FANNIE WATTS, Secretary. 

W. D. KEULIN. Treasunr. 

.1. K. IHOCK, Chairman Executive Committee 



In order to aecoiiiplisli the same results in northern Indiana that 
the southern assoeiation aceoniplislied in the southern pai't of 
the state, an ()rpinizati(>n bearing the above name was effected 
at Island Park (Rome ('ity, Ind.), July i), 1SS:J. 

This assoeiation has enroll(»d large numbers of teachers eaeh 
year, bringing together teachers innn all grades of school work. 
The attendance in A])ril, 1902, was about »*>,0()(). 


PnooKAM OF THE Soi'TH Bknd Mektin(;, 11M)2. 


Thursday, April :5. 2:30 p. m. 
Address of WcU'omc— (a^ On behalf of I lie city. lion. S<huyler Ct>lfax. 

mayor city of South Rend, (b) On behalf of the* s<lio<)ls, Hon. .Tolin 

R. Stoll, president Soutli Rend board of education. Supt. .1. W. Carr. Anderson. Ind. 

Address of Retirinjr President -Supt. J. W. Hamilton. .Monticello. Ind. 
President's Inaujrural Address— Supt. A. II. I)<mj,'lass. L<>pnisi>ort, Ind. 

Miscellaneous business and announcements. 
Appointment of committees. 


Thurs(ia3% April 3, 8 p. m. 

Illustrated Lectnro— **rhysical History of a World," Mr. Jacques W. 

Anu(»uii<'('iiieiits and adjournment. 

Friday. April 4. {) a. ni. 




Address— "Sonie Traditions and Connnon Errors in Geograpliy." Mr. 

Jacques Redway. 

riiysical culture drill by pui)lls from Soutli Hend. 
Address— "Education and Democracy," Mr. Charles Zueblin. 
Rei)ort of committcH* on division. Committee: T. A. .Mott. Richmond: 

W. R. Snyder, Muncie; W. C. Rellman. Hammond: J. X. Study. Ft. 

Wayne: C. W. Henton, Indianapolis: W. A. .Mlllls. Crawfordsville: B. 

F. Moore, Marion: Wm. Clem, Soutii Rend. 
Announcements and adjournment. 


Friday Evening. April 4. S o'<-h>cl\. 


LccttU'e— "Anierican Painters and Sculptors of Today," Mr. Lorado Taft 
With this lecture* are exiiibited V2o !)eautiful illustrations of repre- 
sentative works of American painters :ind sculptors. 
Announcements and adjoiu'nment. 



Ijoctu re—* 'Public Schools,'* illustrated by s(ereoi)tlcon. by Mr. Charles 


This lecture jrives views of school eciuipments. decorations, and classes 
at work in kinderpirten. nature study, manual traininjr, domestic .science, 
vacation schools, commercial work, recreations and athletics. 
Announcements and adjournment. 

Satiu'day .Morning. April r», U o'clock. 




Address— "Rivers and the Lessons They Teach." Mr. Jac(iuc»s W. Redway. 


Address— * 'Social Organization." Mr. Charles Zueblin. 

Reports of committees and election of officers. 

Miscellaneous and adjourmnent. 

IC— Bducatiow. 




Friday Aftoriiooii, Aj)ril 4, 'J o'do<'k. 


Address-'HMilture," Mr. diarlos Ziieblin. 


Address— "Essentials in rriniary Geojrrapliy." Mr. Jacques W. lUnlway. 

Election of officers and iuis<-ellaneous business. 

(). L. W(H)LEY, Ft. Wayne, President. 
J. II. WHITKLY. UrtH-utield. Secretary. 


Friday. April 4, *2 p. in. 


Appointment of connnittees. 

Address— "Some Tendencies in Secomlary Education." (J(»orffe H. Locke. 

A. M., assistant professor of edu<'ation ('lii<-aj^o university, and editor 

of School Review. 
•'Status of IMiysical Culture in Serondary Scliools.'* I. N. Warren, Lai>orte, 

Paper— J. H. Pea ivy. Aiulerson, Jnd. 
Mi.scellaneous business and election of ottitvrs. 

Immediately upon the conclusion of the above i>rograin the section will 
take ui) a round table discussion of su<*h topics as may be presented by 
its members. 

.1. Z. A. Mc(\\Ul;IIN, President, Kokonio, lud. 
S. (\ HANSON. Cli. Ex. iVun.. Williamsport. Ind. 
CATHAKINE HLYNN, Ft. Wayne, lud. 


Friday. April 4. "2 p. m. 


Lecture -"A Cllmpsc of a Sculptor's Studio." or "How Status's Are Made,*' 

Mr. Lorado Taft. 

This l<'cture is illustrated fully at each step by the actual process upon 
the stap'. 

Elertion of otlii-crs and misccllaiu'ous business. 
AiUHmncements and adjournment. 

There will be <'xhibited at the Central hi;;h sehool building; a collection 
of drawinjrs from the publle sehtM»ls of variiuis towns and <*itie8 in 
northern Indiana. 'I'hen* will also be an exhibit of class work from the 
Chicajro art institute. 

EVELYN K. IHCEW. Pies.. Iluntinjrton, Ind. 
•lOSEPH SFLLIV.VN. Sec. Connersville, Ind. 



Friday, April 4, 2 p. m. 

"irsos and AIjusos of Texts," Mr. B. A. WinnanH, Uoriie, Ind. 
Addri*ss—** Nature Study in Country Schools,*' Supt. W. II. Horslmian, 

Hammond, Ind. 
Pa iH»r— "Rewards as a Di.sciplinary Measure,'* Supt. W. S. Gibbons, Ful 

ton county, Ind. 
Paper— "Religious Worship in Public Schools." Mr. Carl Beard, Oakford. 

Report of committees and election of otticers. 
Announcements and adjournment. 

The executive committee invites jreneral discussion on each topic. 

ELBERT LAXGLEY, I»resident, Center, Ind. 
SUPT. GEO. \V. WORLEY. Ch. Ex. Com., Warsaw. 
MARIE KELLY, Secretary, M«ncie, Ind. 


Friday, April 4, 2 p. m. 


ApiK)intment of committees and miscellaneous business. 

Paper— "Is it Practical to Make Independent Readers of Children in the 

First Four Years of School?" Win. Niles, Ft. Wayne. 
Discussion— Dessa Kilander, Wlnamac. 
Report of committees and election of officers. 

On the completion of the above [>roj?ram the section will take up the 

Qw'sfionM for Round Table DiscuAnion. 

1. How much general culture^ outsi<le his immediate specialty should 
the director in music have? How much si)ecial training? 

2. Should the directoi* of music, any more than the regular teacher, 
be absi»nt from meetings when matters of method and discipline are under 

.3. When parents and the director of music disagree as to what part 
the child slnnild sing, what is tlie proper ccmrse to ])ursue? 

4. Should tlie room teacher be aUowed to employ a teacher to instruct 
her pupils in music? 

5. What is to ]>e done witli a pu[>il wlio absolutely can not sing, if 
there be such? 

<». The rhythmic element and its development in child-life. 

7. Cause and cures for singing '*off i)itch." 

8. Should patriotic songs be sung wliile pupils are seated? 


9. A practical lessou on some music problems suggested by members 
of the music section. 

Note.— Supervisors are invited to write and to hand the president of 
the music section the problem they wish to have demonstrated and choice 
will be made from the suggestions oflfered. 

L. M. TILSON, President, U»banon. 

WILL EARIIART. Ch. Ex. Com., Richmond. 

Headquarters— Auditorium Annex, 207 South Michigan Street. 

The annex will be oiK»n at all hours to all members of the association 
and their friends. Malie this your downtown home during the association. 

Offices: Room 1. treasurer: Room 2, executive committee; Room 3. 
local committee. 

Baggage will l)e checked at the office of the local committee, where 
porters and guides will be in waiting. 


President— A. 11. Douglas, Logansport. 

Vice-President— Alexander Thompson, Marion. 

Secretary— Miss Margaret l*orcIi, Anderson. 

Treasurer— W. A. Mills, Crawfordsville. 

R. R. Secretary— T. A. Mott, Richmond. 

Chairman Rusiness Committee— Calvin Moon, Soutli Bend. 

President (Jrade Section- (). S. Wooley. Ft. Wayne. 

President High Scliool Section— J. Z. A. McCauglin. Kolcomo. 

President Connty and Village Secticm— Elbert Langley, Center. 

President Music Section— L. M. Tilson, Lebanon. 

President Art Section— Miss Evelyn DeCew. Huntington. 

President Peninansliii) Section— J. H. Baditenkircher. Lafayette. 

Executive committee— John A. Wood, chairman. Laporte: H. C. Hei- 
ronimus, Richmond: T. E. Kinzie, Indianapolis: W. E. Ervin. Muncie: 
Daniel Freeman. Crawfordsville: Edward Ayres. Lafaj'ette; L. T. Turpin. 
Kokomo: D. A. Lanibriglit, Kendallville; Walter Dunn. Knox. 

Local business committee— William Clem, South Bend: Charles II. 
Bartlett, South Bend: John 11. Rittinger, New Carlisle: Essie B. Dakin, 
South Bend: Sarnli E. Kirby, South Bend; Ludwig S. Fickenscher. River 
Park; Alice E. Hill, South Bend; John A. Byers, S(mth Bend; Winona 
Dodd, South Bend: Calvin Moon. Chairman, South Bend. 




Duriiip: the yoar 1889 a controversy arose over tlie distribntion 
of tlie public school revenues. The county su])erinten(lents and 
others representing the interests of the county schools held that 


the method of distributing the state's school revenues in propor- 
tion to the enumeration of chiklren of school age discriminated 
against the country, because the enumeration in cities was not 
accurately taken. They charged that in some cities the lists were 
deliberately padded by the enumerators to increase their pay for 
taking the enumeration. The question assumed such proportions 
that it became evident that wisdcmi must be used to prevent an 
injury to the school interests of the state. 

Prompted by a desire to aid in the solution of th« problem, at 
the meeting of the state teachers' association in 1889, a few of 
the city su])erintendents met together on December 26th to con- 
sult, and agreed to organize an association of city and town super- 
intendents corresponding to the county superintendents' associa- 
tion. Superintendent J. N. Study, of Richmond, presented a 
plan <if organization, which, with sundry modifications, was 

The following officers were then elected : President, L. II. 
J<mes, Indianapolis; vice-president, R. I. Hamilton, Huntington; 
se(*retarv, P. A. Ogg, Greencastle; treasurer, J. T. Merrill, La- 
fayette; executive committee, J. N. Study, chairman, Kichmond; 
E. IK Butler, Ilushville; W. H. Wiley, Terre Haute; P. P. Stultz, 
Jetfersonville; W. K. Snyder, Muncie; Sheridan Cox, Kokomo. 

A second session was held at which a numl)er of other superin- 
tendents were present. Work was assigned to various commit- 
tees, which were to investigate and re])ort at the next meeting. 
Some of thesf* questions were: Is the school enumeration less 
honestly taken in the citv than in the count rv i Is there anv 
reason in the nature of things why the ratio of children of school 
age to the census should differ in i\w city and country? Are 
there any reasons whv citv schools should naturallv show a smaller 
enrollment upon enumeration than the country schools? K(»lative 
cost per capita per day in city and country ( 

On Novemlx^r 20, 18l)0, the second meeting was held and the 
reports on the various <piesti(»ns were heard and discussed. It 
was felt as a result of the investigation that the system of distri- 
bution of revenues was not unjust to any interest of either country 
or city, if honestly administered, and it was agreed that the asso- 
ciation should labor to secure such auK'udments to the law as 
would insure equity. 


Tlie question at issuo l)ot\v(*on country and city was given formal 
consideration at the following meeting of the state t(»achers' asso- 
ciation bv a discussion of iti^ nuTits on the one side bv the state 
su])crintendent and two county su])erintendents, and on the other 
by three city su])erintendents. The result was a law re<juiring 
a rigid system of emimeration, and wliat threatened to diviih* the 
educational forces of the state, resulted in bringing them into 
greater unity and better understanding. 

This controversy having been happily settled, the association 
began its legitinuite work of discussing to])ics of general interest 
to the citv and town schoids. At the UK^etiuff on Xovember 12, 
ISOl, ''Methods of Promotion/' "The Uniformity of Commis- 
sioned High Schools/' ''The Superintendent's Term of Office/' 
etc., were discuss(Ml. The r(K*ords show that for two years the 
leading questions considered by the association related to exami- 
nations, promotions and the uniform text-lx)ok law. In 189J] 
a departure was made which has prevailed ever since, viz., that 
of a^>poi-nting couimittei^s to make certain investigations and do 
certain work, and re])ort to the following meeting. 

Three of these n^ports were presented and discusscMl in 1804, 
viz., *SSystems of Pnnnotion," by K. A. Ogg; "School Kxamina- 
tions/' bv Edward Avres; 'Mlindrances to the ITi«:hest Effici(»ncv 
of Town and (Utv Schools/' bv J. W. Carr. 

The great "Report of the Committee of Ten," from the national 
educational association had called out a great interest in the ques- 
tion of what should constitute the school curriculum, and on mo- 
tion of Mr. Ayres, the president, D. W. Thomas, of Elkhart, 
appointed a committee to prepare "a report on a course of study 
for the ]mblic schools, said re])ort to indicate the principles which 
should underlie* such a course of studv, and to contain an outline 
of the work of thi» public schools as determined by said principles." 
The committee* was iiuide to consist of R. A. Ogg, chairuian; W. 
R. Snyder, W. II. Sims, W. (\ IWman, W. P. Burris. The 
time of the meeting in 1S05 was largely occupied by the discus- 
sion of this re])ort. The course as proposed by the committee 
was unanimously a])proved for trial for one year and the com- 
mittee asked to rep(>rt at the next meeting such modifications as 
the experience of the su])erintendents might suggest. At the meet- 
ing in ISOn the committee re])orted no changes called for, and 


after discussion the course was adopted without dissent. Super- 
intendent Woody then moved that a committee of forty, eight for 
each of the five lines of study, grammar, arithmetic, geography, 
reading and history, be appointed to amplify the work ])lanned by 
the original committee. These vaiious committees reported in 
1897, and after discussion the reports were referred to the chair- 
men of the various committees with Superintendent W. 1). Weaver, 
president of the association, as chairman, to unify and print the 
course as thus developed. 

At the November meeting of lSi)8 this final report was adopted. 
This discussion of course of study running through four years 
has added largely to the etticiency of superintendents, the discus- 
sion bringing out the fundamental principles of education. Coup- 
led with this was a fine address at the meeting in 181)7 un ^*The 
Principles That Underlie the Formation of a Course of Study, 
and Wliich (\nistitute the Canons of Criticism," bv Lewis H. 
Jones, of Cleveland, O., formerly superintendent of Indianapolis 
schools, and the first president of the association. 

At the meeting in 1891) the matter of greatest interest was a 
report on the uniform course of study for high schools, with 
Supt. W. A. Millis as chairman. An excellent report was pre- 
sented and a full discussion was had. The result will l)e to further 
unify the work in our high schools, though it seems unlikely 
that as large a unity will prevail as in the lower grades becaus3 
of the more diverse conditions under which the hiii:h schools work. 
The awakened interest in th(» subject of art in the schools w\*is 
given impetus by two excellent addressees from Dr. AV. L. Bryan, 
of the state university, and Prof. J. L. Lowes, of Hanover col- 

The meeting of 11)00 was characterized by three re])orts, one 
cm "The School in delation to Institutional Life,'^ bv W. XL 
Glascock, Bloomington, Edward Ayres, Lafayette, and ^L AV. 
Harrison, Wabash ; one on ^''The School as Kelated to Art," by 
W. R. Snyder, Muncie, and Alary K. Xicholson, Endianapolis; 
and one on "Spelling Book,'' by AV. F. L. Sanders, ( ^3nnersville. 
The first of these was a printed re])ort. All elicitet! much interest 
and discussion. The meetings of LSi)l) and 11)00 were character- 
ized by a departure in the way of a dinner on Friday evening, 
at which time a welcome was extended to all new superintendentc^, 


and they were called upon to respond, that the association might 
become acciuainted with them. In 1900 this occasion w^as made 
very enjoyable by a fine address on '^Shylock," by Judge W. D. 
Robinson of the appeUate court. While it is a superintendents' 
association, the friends of the colleges and normal scOiools are 
invited, and a number of them attend and participate in the 

At the meeting in November, 1901, the matter of chief interest 
was a ])rinted report on "Course in Nature Study for Common 
Schools.*' This report w^as presented by Supt. H. B. Wilson of 
Salem and discussed by Prof. Sherman Davis of Indiana uni- 
versity, who had aided the committee in the preparation of the 
report. ^Much difference of opinion was expressed by the mcm- 
lx>i*s of the association regarding the kind of nature study to be 
done and the method to be employed. A departure which marked 
the beginning of a modified order of things was made in having 
an address on "School Boards and Superintendents,'' by William 
George Bru(!o, editor of the American School Board Journal. The 
significance of this may be seen in the following programs which 
provide for certain joint sessions of this association and that of 
school boards, the organization of which followed the address of 
Mr. Bruce. 

Another significant discussion was that wdiich followed a report 
by Supt. 1. V. Busby of Alexandria upon "Defects of State Text 
Books.'' In view of the fact that the state board was providing 
for a revision of some of the adopted texts, the discussion was 
of very great interest. 

At the meeting in Novemlx^r, 1902, a discussion on "The Best 
Method of Selecting Teachers and of Determining their Tenure 
of Office" was led l)y Supt. Robert L. Hughes of Whiting. 
"Needed School Legislation" was discussed by Supt. R. I. Ham- 
ilton of Huntington. A printed re])ort on "Additional Normal 
School Facilities — Xecessitv and Feasibilitv" was made bv Supt. 
»T. W. Carr of Anderson, (\ \V. McDaniel of Madison and R. A. 
Ogg of Kokomo. The re])ort was fully discussed and indorsed 
by the association. At the joint meeting of superintendents and 
school boards, W. H. Anderson of Wabash led the discussion on 
"School Janitors," and Hon. Theodore Shocknev of Union (Mtv 
on "Relation of the Superintendent to the School Board.'' 


The meeting of 1903 was characterized by a printed report 
on "School Heating- and Ventilating," prepared by a joint com- 
mittee of superintendents and school board members with Supt. 
J. A. Wood of Laporte as chairman. Under this topic were special 
(Hscnssions led bv Dr. J. N. Hiirty of Indianapolis, W. H. An- 
derson, Wabash, B. F. Moore, Marion, A. M. Sweeney, Indian- 
apolis. The discussion of "A Uniform Card to Record Work of 
High School Pupils Desiring to Enter Other High Schools or 
Colleges," was j)resented by J. Z. A. McCaughan, principal of 
Kokonio high school, and after discussion was referred to a special 
committee* to perfect and report a year later. "Defects of City 
Su|>eriutendents from the Point of View of Teachers" was dis- 
cussed by Supt. E. L. Hendricks of Delphi. State Superintendent 
F. A. Cotton discussed "The Ideal Superintendent Characterized." 
Two round tables were held at which brief discussions of various 
topics wen* had. "Do Indiana Schools Compare Favorably with 
the Schools of Other States" w^as discussed by Supt. C. N. Ken- 
dall of Indianapolis and Supt. F. W. Cooley of Evansville, both 
of whom have c>f late vears come into Indiana from other states. 
They discussed Ixith the features of superiority of the Indiana 
system and the points of weakness. A printed report on "Needed 
Eliminations and Additions to the Course of Studv for Indiana 
Schools" showed that history repeats itself and that the important 
question of the course of study still appeals to Indiana superin- 
tendents. The committee which made this report consisted of 
Supt. C. A. Prosser, New Albany, Supt. W. A. Millis, Craw- 
fordsville, and Supt. T. A. Mott, Richmond. 

It is safe to say that the association of city and town superin- 
tendents is the most distinctively pedagogical organization of 
the state, and since it^ organization has done more than any other 
to mould the educational sentiment of the state. Its work is 
rather that of a round table, papers seldom being read, and dis- 
cussions being as informal as possible. It is not a meeting for 
pyrotechnics, but for discussion by all who choose to participate. 
It has grown from a small c/impany to an annual gathering of 
over one hundred from all parts of the state. 




State Siipcriiiteii<leiit of Public Instrueti(ni Milton R. Hopkins 
eallod the first state nuvtin^ of county superintendents. The 
convention assembled in the hi^h school hall at Tndiana])olis, 
July 22, 187e3. From that time the association has met annually, 
and has l)een of incalculable service to the state. In the earlv 
meetings many questions arose as to the duties of the super- 
intendents under the new laws. Followin«^ the adjustment of 
these (piestions the su])erintendents addressed themselves to the 
educational questions of the day. Such questi(uis as the followiuf^ 
claimed the attention of the first superintendents: 

1. The oxnniiiuitioi) of teachers. 

2. Visiting soliools. 

li. Townsliip and county institute work. 

4. Duties of the county Ixmrd of education, etc. 

A few years later th(\v began the study of such subjects, as — 

1. Course of study for tlie rural scliools. 

2. (Massiticntion and gradation. 

3. Tlie graduation of piqiils from the eonnnon branches. 

4. T'niform outline of townsliip institute work, ete. 

They ])repared and had printe<l a (*ourse (»f study for the rural 
schools and outlines of township institutes work. The pn^paration 
of these documents was ])laced in the state department of public 
instruction, December, 1804. 

For several years the association has l>een ])re])aring the ques- 
tions for the examination of pupils in the f::ra(l(»s and hi<ih schools 
of the townships and snuill towns. 

Following is a ])rogram of the last meeting of the superin- 
tendents : 

To the County Superintendents of Indiana: 

You are herel)y calh-d to meet in convention on June [\0 and July 1. 
IJMKJ. For wliicli attendance you are allowed the reguhn* per diem as pro- 
vided by law. 

Yours sincerely. 

r. A. COTTON. State Supt. 


Otticors: Siipt. E. E. Kobt*y, president; Supt. E. C. Crider. secretary; 
iSiipt. Claude Uankin, treasurer. Meetings to be lield in the supreme 
court room. Headquarters at Grand hotel; rates, $2.00 per day. 

Tuesday, 10:80 a. m. 
Devotional exercises. 

Address— "The County Institute." Dr. Wm. L. Hryan. president state uni- 
Discussion— Dr. W. T. Stott, president Frnniilin college; Francis M. 
Stalker, associatt* professor of psychology and methods, state normal 

Tuesday, 2:(H» p. m. 

Reailing Circle Work— A. L. (iary. 

"The Ex-County Superintendent," Ex-Supt. Elmer C. .Terman. Decatur 

••The New County Superintendent,*' Supt. J. W. Dunn. Starke county. 
Address— F. A. Cotton, state superintendent. 

Wednesday, 0:00 a. m. 

"Indiana's Educational Exhibit at the World's Fair." Senator Fremont 
Goodwine. chairman educational committee, world's fair committee. 

"The Superintendent's Work with Inexperienced Teachers," Supt. C. F. 
(irosjean, Vigo county. 

Visit to T. B. Laycock's factory. 

Wednesday, 2:00 i>. m. 

"The County Sui)erintendent as a Supervisory Otticer" (10 minutes). 

Supt. E. C. Crider, TipiHH'anoe county. 
"The County Sui)erintendent in Uelatitm to (Jrading Manuscripts" (10 

ndnutes), Supt. Samuel L. Scott. Clark county. 
"The County Superintendent in Uelation to (bounty Institutes" (10 

minutes). Louis H. Hamilton, Jasper county. 
"The County Superintendent in Relation to Townshij) Institutes" (10 
minutes), Supt. William Clem. St. Joseph county. 
The County Superintendent in Relation to the People" (10 minutes), 

Supt. W. O. Baker. Morgan county. 
The County Superintendent in Relation to tlie Common School Gradu- 
ate" (10 minutes). Sui»t. Irvin Brandy berry. Adnms county. 
"(jJeueral Discussion of Special Points in Symposium." F. A. Cotton, 
state superintendent. 
Miscellaneous Business. 

T). rorXTY .\SS()(MATI()XS. 

TCotwithstaiidiiiii tlio fnct tluit tlie attondaiicc^ in tlio state asso- 
ciation ^e\v rajMtUy, fmni year to year, and enrolled toaeliors from 
all grades of sohool work, tlu^re were a gr<»at many prominent odn- 




eators who believed that there was yet a larger and still more im- 
portant field for association work in Indiana. In response to this 
general feeling of the need for an annual meeting that would reach 
all the teachers in the state, the county teachers' associations were 
organized in the several counties. These associations are the most 
efficient agencies in promoting the interests of the rural and vil- 
lage schools. Occurring as they do after the schools have been in 
session, at a time when the teachers really feel the need of ins])ira- 
tion and helpful suggestions, the county associations exert a greater 
influence in the improvement of teachers than the county insti- 
tutes. The meetings are conducted under efficient supervision, 
with instructors capable of increasing the range of thought among 
teachers. In manv of our counties the annual associations are the 
most helpful u'cetings in our system. 

The first associations "were instructed largely by home talent, 
but in recent years the best men in the faculties of our colleges and 
normal schools have been drafted into the w^ork. As a result of this 
change, the professional spirit is growing. Teachers are studying 
educational problems as they never have before. If nothing more 
should come from these meetings than the good from merely get- 
ting away from home for a day or two and making new acquaint- 
ances, the associations are worth much to the profession. But there 
is more than the social element and the rest. 




The connty institute has had an interesting development in 
Indiana and is at present in a transition stage. Educators in the 
state are working at the problem of improving the work, and it is 
hoped that something may be done to make the institute at once 
niore professional and more practical. At ]>resent the institute is 
held in each countv annuallv for one week. Instructors are em- 
ployed and the work takes wide range in topics discussed. The 
work is inspirational, cultural, professional and practical. 


b. TUE LAW. 

In order to the encouragement of teachers' institutes, the county 
auditors of the several counties of this state shall, whenever the 
county superintendent of such county shall file with said auditor 
his official statement^ showing that there has been held, for five 
days, a teachers' institute in said county, with an average attend- 
ance of twenty-five teachers, or of persons preparing to become 
such, draw his warrant on the county treasurer, in favor of said 
county superintendent, for thirty-five dollars; and in case there 
should be an average attendance of forty teachers, or persons pre- 
paring to become such, then the said county auditor shall draw 
his warrant on the treasurer for fifty dollars; and in case there 
should be an average attendance of seventy-five teachers, or per- 
sons preparing to become such, then the county auditor shall draw 
his warrant on the treasurer for one hundred d( ►liars for the pur- 
pose of defraying the expenses of said institute: Provided, how- 
ever. That but one of said payments be made in the same year. 
All laws and parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

1. Superintendent's Duty and Pay.— Such an institute as is contem- 
plated by the law is not a voluntary association, but a teachers' luwting. 
at the head of which is the county suiu'rintendent. He, therefore, has no 
right to surrender it into the hands of an incompetent director, nor to 
permit a course of procedure by any one, or bj' tlie institute itself, by 
which time shall be wasted or unsatisfactory work done. The teachers 
are there to be instructed, and the sui)erintendent must necessarily take 
the responsibility of the institute upon himself. The money which the 
auditor is authorized to pay is to defray the expenses of the institute 
exclusive of the i)er diem of the superintendent, whose compensation 
must be obtained in the usual way. He is also entitled to his per diem 
for reasonable services in nuiking preparations for the institute. 

2. Pay of Teachers.— Teachers are allowed their regular per diem 
when attending both county and township institutes. 

Schools Closed. — When any such institute is in session, the com- 
mon schools of the countv in which said institute shall be held 
shall be closed. (K. S. 1881, §4522; R. R. 1894, §0011; R. S. 
1897, §6231.) 

Sessions. — The several county superintendents are hereby re- 
quired, as a part of their duty, to hold, or (;ause to l>e hold, such 
teachers' institutes, at least once in each year in their respective 
counties. (R. S. 1881, §4523; R. S. 1894, §6012; R. S. 1897, 

l.-.f EIU'i A'rinX ly IX in AX A. 

Th-^ •'•/" ■:-':TN=-riirit-r;'i«-nT> liave i-i:'ire charsre ••£ the institutes. 
Thr-v rjt the 'iiu*- ••! li«'l.]in:! iho Muvtiiii:<-, »'iii]»l««y instructors, etc., 
:ht- "ri-.v -:;:nr"rv n-iriirenienT 1«»:^inir 'ha' ••n«:- in-iinite shall be 
hf?I»i axii:v.allv. Then- is an a]»jin»priaTi..n ••f *1<h» 5n each c*«:»\inty 
f'-r :he s':TM-«n ••: such instirire, wlien the averaiie 'lailv attoml- 
ATi*-*- i< -•>'•'* -n-v-nv*- iir !!;«'n'. Sino- n** f»iiii^v ha-^ an attendance 
V^i-*w :ha* M;T!:V»:r. •!:«• riiiMial a|»|ir*]»ria*i«»n l»y rhe state is 
#'^,4»«i'.l««. The rv-!:iaii;«ier «•! the e -■ i> l» •m»- W »he Teachers. 


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EDl'CATIOy /.V /.Y/)/.l.V.l. 




Local school officers and teachers give increasing attention to 
township institutes. These are the most valuable meetings held 
in Indiana in the name of education. The assembling of all of the 
teachers of a townshi]) at least once each month during the school 
term to discuss matters of educational concern is of great value to 
the stiite. It is a great institution for the regeneration and educa- 
tion of the rural teaching corps. 


Townshii) institute's lu'ld during year oucling July 31, 11)03 0.421 

Average number held in each township 6.3 

Cost in wages to teachers for year $149,602.20 

b. THE LAW. 
(1889. P..C7. Approved and in force March 2, 1889.) 

Township Institutes. 0. At least one Saturday in each montli 
during which the puhlic schools may be in progress shall be de- 
voted to township institut(»s, or model schools for the im])rove- 
ment of teachers ; and two Saturdays may he appropriated, at the 
discretion of the townshij) trustee of any township. Such insti- 
tute shall be presi<led over by a teacher, (►r other person, desig- 
nated by the trustee (►f the township. The township trustee shall 
specify, in a written contract with each teacher, that such teacher 
shall attend the full session of (»ach institute contemplated herein, 
or forfeit one day's waives for (»v(»rv clav's absence therefrom, unless 
such absence shall be occasioned by sickness, or such other reason 
as may be approved by the township trustee, and for each day's 
attendance at such institute each teacher shall receive the same 
wages as for one day's teaching: Provided, That no teacher shall 
receive such wages unless he or she shall attend the full session of 
.such institute and perform the duty or duties assigned. (K. S. 
181)4, §6009; R. S. 1897, §02150.) 

1. A trustee failing to comply with the above is subject to prosecu- 
tion and removal from ottice. 


X. School Journals. 


The Indiana state teaelicTs' association was organized at Indi- 
anapolis, December 25, 1854, and at the first session the snbject of 
an educational journal was considered. The project of establish- 
ing a journal was referred to tlte executive couiniittee with instruc- 
tions to report at the next annual session. 

The second association met at Madison, Ind., in December, 
1855, and the following report was submitted by Prof. E. P. Cole, 
principal of the Indianapolis high school: 

lU'solvrd. (1) That this asHooiation will publish an educational journal, 
similar in size and typographical execution to the Ohio Journal of Educa- 
tion. (2) That this journal be conducted by nine editors api)ointed by the 
association, one of whom shall be styled resident editor. 

The report was ])romj>tly adopted, and the paper was named 
the Indiana School Journal. ^Meml)ers of the association sub- 
scribed for 1V5 copies, and AV. Vk Smith, of Cincinnati, Ohio, do- 
nated $200 to aid the enterprise. The first number was issued in 
January, 1850, and it bore the name of the Indiana School Jour- 
nal until the summer of 1000, when it and the Inland Educator, 
of Terre Haute, were consolidated at Indianapolis under the name 
of the Educator- Journal. 

After the first number of the Indiana School Journal had been 
issued Prof. E. P. Col(» acted as traveling agent for same for only 
a few months, and as a result the subscription became large for a 
new publication. The editors selected were as follows: Geo. B. 
Stone, superintendent Indianapolis schools, resident editor; asso- 
ciate editors, W. I), llenkle, E. P. Cole, (leo. A. Chase, Kufns 
Patch, B. F. Iloyt, Alary AVells, and Jane (-hamberlain. 

In 1858 Mr. Stone left the state and W. D. llenkle became resi- 
dent editor of the Indiana School Journal, and in 1850 he was 
succeeded by Air. O. Phelps, to whom the management of the Jour- 
nal was transferred bv the Indiana state teachers' association in 



Ueceinber, lb")9. In 1862 Mr. Phelps, with the consent of the 
state teachers' association, transferred the Journal to Prof. Geo. 
W. Hoss. In 1S69 Prof. Wni. A. Bell, principal of the Indian- 
apolis high school, became half owner. In July, 1871, Professor 
Hoss, having been elected president of the Kansas state normal, 
sold his interest in the Journal to W. A. Bell, who then became 
editor and sole proprietor, and he continued as such for twenty- 
eight years, when he sold the Journal to Hon. D. M. Geeting, 
state superintendent of public instruction, and his deputy, Hon. 
F. A. Cotton, the latter selling his interest to Mr. Geeting a few 
months later. In July, 1900, the former owners of the Inland 
Educator, which had been published at Terre Haute since 1895, 
united their interests with the owners of the Indiana School Jour- 
nal, and the Educator-Journal Company was incorporated for 
$20,000, and the first number of the Educator-Journal was pub- 
lished at Indianapolis in August, 1900. The first issue consisted 
of 20,000 copies. 

In January, 1901, the following editor and officers were chosen: 
Hon. D. M. Geeting, editor; Wm. H. Wiley, superintendent Terre 
Haute schools, president; Chas. F. Patterson, superintendent 
Edinburg schools, treasurer ; .F. W. Walker, secretary and business 

In 1903 Dr. Robt. J. Aley, professor of mathematics in Indiana 
university, became editor. 

From its first issue in 185G the Journal has been thoroughly 
representative of th(» best thought and sentiment in Indiana, and 
its circulation now extends to almost every state in the union. Its 
subscription price is one dollar per year. The paper was never 
more prosperous than at present. 


In January, 1809, A. C. Sliortridge, superintendent of the 
Indianapolis schools, Ge<>rir(* P. Brown, superintendent of the 
Richmond schools, and W. A. T>(»11, principal of the Indianapolis 
high school, started The Indiana Teacher. At the end of six 


months W. A. Bell bought out his associates and merged the Teach- 
er into the Indiana School Journal and thus became half owner 
of the Journal. W. B. Chrisler, who was for many years at the 
head of Bedford male and female college, edited and published a 
paper called The Common School Teacher. This paper continued 
for a number of years and had more than a local circulation. The 
exact date of this publication is not at hand, but it was in the 

In 1873, A. C. Shortridge, superintendent of the Indianapolis 
schools, and Geo. P. Brown, principal of the Indianapolis high 
school, started the Educationist. This paper continued for two 
years and was edited with much ability. In March, 1875, the 
Educationist was merged in the School Journal and Messrs. Short- 
ridge and Brown became for a time associate editors of the 

In January, 187 4-, 11. A. Ford, editor of the "Michigan Teach- 
er," at Lansing, Mich., started The Northern Indiana Teacher and 
published it at South Bend, Ind. The body of this paper was the 
same as that of the Michigan Teacher, which did not at all detract 
from its merit, but its miscellaneous and personal departments 
were especially devoted to Indiana interests. In July, 187G, W. 
A. Bell bought this paper and merged it in the Journal. 

The Normal Teacher, edited and published by J. E. Sherrill, 
was started at I^adoga in 1878, but soon afterward, when the 
C^entral Indiana normal school was removed from Ladoga to 
Danville the pa])er was also <^hanged to that place. The paper 
represented largely the thought of the normal school, although not 
formally connected with it. 

The Normal Teacher was pushed with great vigor and secured 
an extensive circulation. After some years the name of the paper 
was changed to the Teachers' Examiner. In 1892 Mr. Sherrill 
sold the paper and its standard was not kept up by its new proprie- 
tor. In a short time after this change \V. A. Bell bought it and 
filled the time of its subscribers with the School Journal. 

In 1881 a paper was started at Valparaiso, called the Northern 
Indiana School Journal, and in 1884 W. J. Bell bought out his 
partner and Ix^c^mu* sole owner and editor. In December of this 
same year Mr. Bell sold the paper to a man, who changed its name 
to "The American," and in 1886 removed it to Iowa. 


The Student was the name of a paper edited and published by 
Prof. Bogarte, of the Xorthern Indiana normal school, from 
February, 1891, to October, 1892. 

In 1882 John M. Olcott started The Educational Weekly. This 
was the only weekly educational paper ever published in Indiana, 
it was pushed with Mr. Olcott's characteristic energy and in a short 
time secured a large circulation, but was never made to pay 
financially. In 1884 Mr. Olcott accepted the superintendency of 
the Greencastle schools, but continued to edit the Weekly. In 
TJ'ovember, 1885, the ])aper was sold to the "N'ew England Journal 
of Education. 

The Teachers' Journal is an educational monthly published at 
Marion, by A. Jones, editor, and O. W. Ford, business manager. 
The proprietors are both members of the faculty of the Marion 
normal school. The first issue of this paper was in July, 1901, 
and it now claims a circulation of 7,000. It has among its con- 
tributors some of the best educational writers in the state. 

Tfumerous county papers have been published by county super- 
intendents, some of them lasting many years. Rome of these were 
well edited and ser\'ed well the purpose for which they were in- 
lended. That these school papers have been a help to teachers 
and thus been a means of advancing the educational interests of 
the state, can not be doubted. 

XI. Indiana Union of Literary Clubs, 

Note.— Mrs. Eva B. Rohbock, president of the Union, appointed Mrs. Elizabeth ('. 
Earl to edit the above chapter and acknowledfirments are due Mrs. May Wright Sewall. 
Mrs. Martha N: McKay, Miss Merica Hoavrland, Mrs. C. B. Woodworth. Mrs. George Felts 
and Mrs. Virerinia (\ Meredith for co-operation. 

The Indiana union of literary clnbs was formally organized in 
Richmond, June 3, 1890, during a convention in which were dele- 
gates representing twenty-six literary clubs. The preliminary 
work of the organization, however, had been undertaken by the 
executive committee of the Indianapolis woman's club, Miss Eliza- 
beth ^sTicholson, with whom originated the idea of a state union of 
clubs, was chairman of this committee. The initial step in the 
organization was a reception given by the woman's club of Indi- 
anapolis in October, 1889, to the literary clubs of the state, when, 
for the first time, members of clubs met socially. 

The object of the union as set forth in the constitution is "the 
discussion in open annual meeting of questions pertaining to so- 
cial, educational and literary matters, and of methods for the best 
culture and advancement of the state." The annual convention 
has been marked by comprehensive programs, strong speakers and 
rich social opportunities: while notable art exhibits and excellent 
musical programs have characterfzed many of the meetings. Four- 
teen annual conventions have been held in the following places: 
Richmond, Terre Haute (twice), Lafayette (twice). Fort Wayne, 
Indianapolis, Tluntington, Connersville, Warsaw, Bloomington, 
Evansville, Valparaiso and Crawfordsville. The presidents elected 
annually have been representative of the diflFerent sections of the 
state — 1890, "Mrs. Tosenhine F. "Martin, Richmond; 1891, Mrs. 
A. B. McGregor, Indianapolis; 1892, Miss Elizabeth Nicholson, 
Indianapolis; 1898, Mrs. J. IT. Smart, Lafayette: 1894, Mrs. C. 
R. Drver, Terre Haute: 1895, Mrs. Virginia C. Meredith, Cam- 
bridge ritv; 1896, Mrs. O. W. Tonnor, Wabash: 1897, Miss Mer- 
ica Hoacland, Fort Wavne: 1898, Mr. John B. Wiselv, Terre 
Haute; 1899, Mrs. Frances M. Swain, Bloom ingt on : 1900, Mrs. 
Emma Mont McRae, Lafayette; 1901, Mrs. George F. Felts, Fort 

(166) H 


Wavne; 1002, Mrs. S. Elliott Perkins, rndianapolis; 1003, Mrs. 
Elizabeth C. Earl, Connersville ; 1004, Mrs. Eva B. Rohbock, 

The delegates from constituent chibs made reports to the first 
conventions concerning the work of their respective clubs, but 
soon the membership grew so large that the very vahiable plan was 
necessarily abandoned. The importance of continuity in club 
work and the advantages of printed programs soon l)ecame appar- 
ent and the eagerness for exchange of programs was a marked fea- 
ture of the earlier conventions, but with age and experience clubs 
have come to take their own initiative, so there is now little de- 
mand for exchanges. The reports of the constituent clubs soon 
disclosed the need for libraries universallv felt outside of the 
larger cities. Study programs participated in by members is the 
general plan pursued by the clubs, therefore access to reference 
books is imperative. A few clubs early adopted the plan of each 
year purchasing with club funds a number of lx)oks relating to the 
subjects of the year's study; this excellent plan could not, however, 
be generally adopted and in consequence there is found recurring 
again and again in the minutes of the conventions resolutions re- 
lating to public libraries and library laws. At the Connersville 
convention the discussion assumed a more definite form, Miss Har- 
riett N'oble, Mrs. Virginia C. Meredith, Mr. Jacob P. Dunn and 
others making some valuable suggestions, but it was at the Warsaw 
convention of 1807 that the Indiana union of literary clubs took 
definite steps toward securing better library legislation and time 
has proved what earnestness of purpose will accomplish. Tn her 
president's address Miss Merica Hoagland "entered a plea for a 
library law which would establish a public library commission and 
secure to even the smallest towns free public libraries." At the 
last session of the same convention Mrs. Elizabeth C. Earl, of Con- 
nersville, introduced the following: 

Resolved, That tho president of this convoiition appoint a oommitteo 
of five, of which she shnU bo one, to co-oporato with the state library 
association, in framing a law which shall secure to Indiana a library com- 
mission, and this committee shall report pro.c:n»ss at the next convention 
at Bloominpton. 

The union adopted the resolution and the following legislative 
committee was appointed: Mrs. Elizabeth C. Earl, Connersville; 


Mrs. Jacob P. Dunn, Tndianapolis; Miss Sarah A. Catlin, War- 
saw ; Prof. T. P. Moran, Lafayette ; Miss Merica Hoagland, Port 
Wavne. After a vear's careful study of the library laws of the 
more progressive states, the committee submitted to the Bloomiug- 
ton conveution its report, which contained the following provi- 
sions : Tlie creation of a public library commission, said commis- 
sion to assume charge of the state library, render the use of many 
of the books contained therein accessible to the whole people of the 
state: to give advice and information concerning the administra- 
tion and organization of public libraries and make possible the 
establishment of a system of traveling libraries and the organiza- 
tion of township libraries. The report was adopted and the com- 
mittee continued, as a legislative committee, with instructions to 
have the bill introduced into the next general assembly. 

Inadvertently while working toward an ideal centralization of 
library interests separated in administrated form, though closely 
related to the school system of the state, the committee found itself 
somewhat involved in the state and nonstate school controversv 
which was coming up in the assembly of 1899. Prof. T. P. 
Moran, of Purdue university, resigned from the committee and 
Mr. Tames P. Rtutesman, of Peru, was appointed by Mrs. Prances 
M. Rwain to tnke his place. The committee introduced what it 
considered an ideal bill, "Senate Bill 58 f Brooks V and allowed 
it to be amended bv the senate committee to which it was referred. 
The irritation caused bv the original measure has never wholly 
disappeared and tho most interested in the library development 
of Indiana now feel that the elimination of that section relating 
to the state librarv was unwise, as there is little doubt but that 
it could have been carried. 

As a direct result of the efforts of the Indiana union of literarv 
clubs, in 1899, there was secured the passage of a law, creating a 
public library commission, providing for a system of free traveling 
libraries, appropriating $8,000 for them and making possible the 
establishment of new township libraries. Governor Mount ap- 
pointed as library commissioners Mrs. Plizabeth C Pari, of Con- 
nersville; Mr. Jacob P. Dunn, of Indianapolis, and Mr. Joseph R. 
Voris, of Bedford. Governor Mount reappointed Mrs. Pari, and 
Governor Durbin, Mr. Dunn. .\t the expiration of his term Mr. 


Voris, declining a reappointment, Mr. William W. Parsons, of 
Terre Haute, was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

To meet an apparent need, the commission induced the general 
assembly of 1901 to make a sufficient appropriation to admit of ex- 
tending the traveling libraries and the appointing of a' library or- 
ganizer. Miss Al erica Hoagland, of Fort Wayne, was appointed ' 
library organizer. The value of the commission's services to the 
state commended itself to the legislature of 1903 and it granted for 
the further extension of library interests an annual appropriation 
of $7,000. At present this is being expended in four departments 
of work: Purchase and circulation of traveling libraries; office 
and publication; instruction of libraries and library institutes; 
organization and improvement of public libraries. In all the com- 
mission's legislation the Indiana union of literary clubs has given 
valuable assistance. 

The commission purchased and equipped 34 traveling libraries, 
which were ready for circulation August 26, 1899. By October, 
1900, these had increased to 80 and at present number 127. Dur- 
ing the second and third fiscal years, for some reason there was a 
decline in the popularity of the traveling libraries, 87 being sent 
out in 1901 and 72 in 1902. With the transfer of the administra- 
tion and custody of the books to the commission's office the interest 
has been revived and the report for the year 1903 shows 244 trav- 
eling libraries circulated in the state. Miss Georgia Reynolds, of 
Elkhart, was appointed librarian of the traveling library depart- 
ment October, 1902. 

From the opening of the office of the public library commission, 
i^ovember 1, 1901, information has gone out from it concerning 
the selection and classification of books, library organization, im- 
proved methods in administration, instruction of librarians, best 
building plans, etc. 

The erection of the Henry Henley library building at Carthage 
and of 39 library buildings, the gifts of Mr. Andrew Carnegie to 
various cities in the state, has laid upon the commission the in- 
spection of plans and the giving of advice concerning the essentials 
of library buildings. 

From the first, the commissicm has given much attention to the 
instruction of librarians, assembling a class of thirteen members 
in its office October 31 to Xoveniber 7, 1901. The first school for 


librarians was held at the state house, xVpril 17 to May 15, 1902. 
In May, 1903, the commission seen red the services of Miss Anna 
R. Phelps as permanent instructor. 

The second course of the school for librarians was held in 1903 
at Winona Lake in connection with the assembly and summer 
school. At the same ])hice will be held the third course in 1904. 
The course has gradually Ikh'u improved until it ranks among the 
best in the country. 

In May, 1J03, the public library commission, following the plan 
of New York state, divided Indiana into seventeen districts for the 
purpose of holding library institutes similar to the teachers' and 
farmers' institutes. The Indiana union of literary clubs and the 
Indiana state federation of women's clubs are co-operating with 
the commission in a])pointing district library institute directors 
who will become responsible for the library interests in their sec- 
tions. This concentration of attention upon a circumscribed area 
can not but be effective in the library development of the state. 

Under the Mummert library law of 1901, amended in 1903, it 
is possible for any incor])orated town or city to organize a free pub- 
lic library and the efforts of the public library commission is to en- 
courage such organization, the library organizer visiting any place 
desiring to secure organization. 

The part ])layed by the* Indiana union of literary clubs in the 
recent library d(»velopment must not only he gratifying to each 
member of its athliated clubs, but to every citizen of the common- 
wealth. In the very beginning it was decided that membership in 
the union sliould net be limited to women's clubs, but that men's 
clubs and mixed clubs should be included, and to this ideal the 
union has r(»mained loyal. During its entire existence, however, 
there has hi'ou an (Oenient in the uni^m that desired aHiliation with 
the general fcMlcr.ition of women's clubs. This, of course, was im- 
possible while tlic cnnstituencv of the union included men's clubs 
and mixe<l clubs. When the ^'Indiana federation of women's 
clubs'' was organized, in 1901, naturally some of the women's 
clubs belonging to the uni<in withdrew in order t<> join that organi- 
zation, thereby reducing the number of clubs in the union, which 
had reached 190 in 1900 to 130 in 1903. This loss in membership 
is ex])lained in ord(»r to forestall incorrect infenMices. 


The annual convention of 1901 authorized four standing com- 
mittees, the object being to secure detiniteness of aim and concen- 
tration of effort in promoting '^the best culture and advancement 
of the state." These standing committees were: Fine arts (music 
and architecture), education (schools, libraries, clubs and press), 
home economics (home and municipal housekeeping and the pro- 
tection of family life), and business (executive work of the an- 
nual convention). Each committee was given the responsibility of 
a program for one session of the annual convention in addition to 
the task of interesting the constituent clubs in their respective 

Mrs, C. B. Woodworth, of Fort Wayne, was appointed chair- 
man of the ''standing committee on fine arts.'' Up to the present 
time three traveling picture galleries have been purchased; one, 
of 45 photographs dealing with the technique of art; one, of 72 
photographs on French painting; and a third, of 82 photographs 
and etchings outlining American art. These galleries are sent 
to any club of the union, the club becoming responsible for ex- 
pressage one way and having the privilege of retaining the desired 
section two weeks or more. The committee is also prepared to 
send lecturers on art whenever requested to do so. 

Mrs. May Wright Sewall, of Indianapolis, was appointed 
chairman of the ' 'standing (•ommittee on education.'' The pur- 
pose of the committee was to find a means of relating clubs to 
the other educational agencies of the state, the home, the school, 
the church and the press. 

"The whole world has always agreed that women have a right 
to be interested in their children, and a democracy more cer- 
tainly and continually than any other form of government takes 
children out of the home. It is Wause children are taken out 
of the home bv democratic institutions that under democratic 
institutions women must go out of the home to follow the chil- 
dren. Each w^oman by lu^r personal influence follows by her care 
and her criticism her own children to and fro from their daily 
school, into the Sunday-school of her church; she may, if she will, 
dictate to her children what and how much of the daily paper 
they may read ; she may, if she will, dictate to her children what 
public entertainments they may attend. It is in tlieir organized 
capacity within the club that this function of guardianship, which 


belongs to woman by virtue of her own nature and her maternal 
function, may be exercised by women." The committee by cir- 
cular letters and by its convention programs has sought to enlist 
each individual club in a study of the schools and the press of 
its locality. 

Mrs. Virginia Meredith was appointed chairman of the "stand- 
ing committee on home economics," The announced object of 
the committee is to promote a public sentiment favorable to the 
teaching of home economics in the common schools and the colleges 
of the state. 

"The wise use of knowledge, time, energy and money, in what- 
ever pertains to the home, is the scope of home economics. Many 
clubs have observed the request of this committee to have special 
programs during the year, while in some instances clubs have 
had a series of conseeutive programs dealing with the several 
phases of home economics. Speakers from schools and colleges 
where the subject is being taught have addressed the annual con- 
ventions. There are a number of schools in the state where a 
beginning is being nuule by the introduction of subjects closely 
related to the art of living. School superintendents usually are 
favorable to the idea, and when the club women of a town are 
sufficiently informed to be hospitable to the proposition to intro- 
duce this subject into the* school, they become a helpful influence 
and one that sometimes prevents the too narrow conception of 
the subject which would limit the teaching to cookery and sewing. 
They may also prev(Mit this by insisting upon specially prepared 
teachers who are com])etent to give instruction in hygiene, the 
distribution of income and house furnishing. The proposition 
that home is a place and an op])ortunity for the right development 
of the ])liysical and spiritual natures is the basis for seeking to 
bring about a system <>f edu(ration that will give some degree of 
preparation to the niw who would organize a home. The subject 
is not considered exclusively a woman's subject, but, on the 
other hand, is thought to be so difficult and so far-reaching in 
its influence that the intelligence and sym])athy of men is solicited 
in its behalf." 

Mrs. Harry (-ook, of Evansville, was appointed chairman of 
the "standing committee on business,'' which has charge of all 
the business of the annual ccmvention, even including resolutions 


and electioTivS. It contributes greatly to the rapid and orderly 
transaction of the business of the convention. 

At the request of the standing committee on fine arts a stand- 
ing committee on music was authorized with Mrs. Eunice A. 
Youche, of Crown Point, chairman. 

The union of literary clubs is intelligent upon and interested 
in public questions, and has brought to its annual conventions 
the best thinkers upon educational and sociological themes, while 
the exhibition of the paintings of Indiana artists at Huntington 
in 1805, the "composition of a picture," graphically illustrated 
by W. R. French, at Evansville, in 1002, and the "embellish- 
ment of backyards," shown by stereopticon views from the Na- 
tional cash register company, of Dayton, Ohio, have had a benefi- 
cent influence not easilv over-estimated because so widelv dif- 

The union discussed forestry and asked legislative action before 
the present forestry laws were ])assed. At the present time it 
is asking a law making it mandatory that school boards shall 
include at least one member a woman. 

The Indiana union of literary clubs is one of the potential 
forces in creating public sentiment favorable to advanced methods 
and agencies in education ; it has become so on account of the 
scope of subjects embraced in club programs, the earnestness of 
its membership and the wide distribution throughout the state 
of its constituent clubs, the aggregate membership of which reaches 
into the thousands. 

XII. School Funds. 

A. COMMON SCHOOL FUND— $8,032,654.79. 


From tlio State Constitution. 

Sec. 2. Tlio common srliool fund Hhall consist of the congressional 
H)wnship fund, and tlie lands belonging thereto: 

The surplus n»venu(» fund; 

The saliiu* fund, and the lands belonging thereto: 

The bank tax fund and th<» fund arising from the one hundred and 
fourteenth section of tlie cliarter of the state bank of Indiana; 

The fund to be derived from the sale of county seminaries, and the 
moneys and i)roperty heretofore held for such semimiries; from the tines 
assessed for breaches of the penal laws of the state: and from all for- 
feitures which may accrue; 

All lands and other estate which shall escheat to the state for want 
of heirs or kindred entitled t(» the inheritance; 

All lands that have been or may hereafter Ik* granted to the state, 
where no special purpose is expressed in thi» grant, and the procee<ls of 
the sales thereof, including the jiroceeds of the sales of the swamp lands 
granted to the state of Indiana by the act of congress, of tin* 28th of 
September, 1S."W). after dtHlucting the exjiense of selecting and draining 
the same; 

Taxes on the i)roperty of corjuirations that may be assessed by the 
general assembly for common school purposes. 

Sec. l^. The principal of the common school fund shall remain a 
perpetual fund, wliicli may be increased but shall never be diminished; 
and the incom«* thereof shall be inviolably appropriated to the supi)ort of 
common schools, and to no other purpose whatever. 

Sec. 4. The general assembly shall invest, in some safe and profitable 
manner, all such i>ortlons of the common school fund as have not hereto- 
fore be<Mi entrusted to the several comities; and shall make provlslon.s. 
by law. for the distribution, among the several counties. <»f the Interest 

Sec. 5. If any county shall fail to deman<l its proportion of such 
interest for common school purpos(»s, the same shall be reinvested for 
the benefit of such county. 

Sec. G. The several count ii»s shall be held liable for the preservation 
of so much of the said fund as may 1h^ entrusted to them, and for the 
payment of the annual interest therecm. 



Sec. 7. All trust funds held by the state shall remain Inviolate, and 
be faithfully and exclusively applied to the purposes for which the trust 
was created. 

The purpose of the general assembly in 1852. upon the adoption of 
the new constitution, was to consolidate the several school funds into one 
common fund (see Art. vili, of constitution of Indiana), but the supreme 
court (6 Ind. 83) decided at the November term of 1854 that the con- 
gressional township fund could not be so used. We have then two dis- 
tinct funds, known as the conj^ressional townshij) fund and the common 
school fund, which latter is made up of several funds, su(?h as the surplus 
revenue fund, the bank tax fund, the saline fund, sinking fund and the 
seminary fund. (See R. S. 1881, sec. 4325, and school law. sec. 4325.) 




The congress of the United States, by an act passed on the 
lOtli of April, ISlfi, "to enable the people of the Indiana terri- 
tory to form a constitution and state government, and for the 
admission of such state into the union on eqnal footing with 
the original states, offered for the free acceptance or rejection 
of the people, the proposition among other propositions that the 
section of land numbered Ifi in every township, and when such 
section has been sold, granted or disposed of, other lands equiv- 
alent thereto, and most contiguous to the same, should be granted 
to the inhabitants of such township for the use of schools, on 
condition that the convention of the people in forming a state 
constitution should provide by an ordinance irrevocable without 
the consent of the Tin i ted States, that every and each tract of 
land sold by the Fnited States should be and remain exempt 
from anv tax, laid bv order or under anv authority of the state, 
county, township, or any other pui7)ose w^hatever, for the term 
of five vears from and after the dav of sale." 

Tn 1827 the legislature of Indiana applied to congress to ex- 
tend to the general assembly the power to sell the school lands. 
By act of congress, 1828, such request was granted and the trust 
estate became a "trust fund." 

The provision of this act declared that "Said land, or any 
part thereof, shall in no case be sold, without the consent of the 
inhabitants thereof." 


By virtue of acts of January 24^ 1828, congressional lands 
were authorized to be sold and the monev loaned, the interest 
applied to the use of schools. 

By virtue of an act of 1833, February 2, which provided for 
three trustees for each congressional township and for a school 
commissioner for each county, the inhabitants of each congres- 
sional to-wnship w^ere authorized to determine by vote whether 
the moneys received from the sale of lands should be forwarded 
to the state loan office (established by acts of January 9, 1821) 
or loaned to the citizens of the countv. 

Tn 1838 (see R. S. 1S38, p. 500) each congressional tOAvnship 
was made a body politic and corporate, and the affairs of the 
several congressional townships situated within each county were 
managed by a school commissioner who made deeds for the lands 
sold and loaned the money for the use of the township. 

Tn 1843 the legislature (art. viii, sec. 114) made the ccunlios 
liable to the inhabitants of the respective congressional townships 
for the preservation of said fund, and the payment of the annual 
interest thereon, at the rate established by law. Up to that time 
$27,018 were lost to this fund through the failure of mortgagors 
to pay the funds borrowed in full. 

The countv auditors of the several counties manage this fund, 
loaning it upon mortgage secured by real estate, at 6 per cent, 
interest, and the interest is collected and apportioned within the 
respective counties managing it. 





FROM 1853 TO 1903. 

Year, Total Fund. 

1853 $2,278,588 14 

1854 2,559.308 12 

185«1 2,7^5.858 87 

ia")8 2.8<J().<501) 72 

18»50 3,293,42r» 70 

1862 7,193,154 91 

18r>4 7,778.355 1>4 

18G«] 7,011,337 44 

1808 8.259,341 34 

1870 8,575,047 49 

1872 8,437,593 47 

1873 8.590.239 00 

1874 8.711,319 00 

1875 8,799,191 04 

1876 8,870.872 43 



No record 
No record 
No record 
No record 
No record 
No record 

year. Total Fund. 

1883 $9,271,748 79 

1884 9.339,205 58 

1885 9,458.085 71 

188r» 9.518,887 &3 

1887 9.617,250 49 

18S8 9.654.552 05 

1889 9,765,598 25 

1890 9.784,170 56 

1891 9,856.585 77 

1892 9.98(>,a55 59 

1893 10.057,649 37 

1894 10,157,16,3 32 

1895 10,141,316 47 

18J»6 10,218,432 19 

1897 10,256,418 72 

1898 10,303,184 01 

1899 10.312,015 27 

1900 10.359,959 05 

1901 10,390,326 33 

1902 10,443.885 32 

1!K)3 10.498,716 09 

12- Education. 

XIII. School Revenues. 




There shall be In the year 1805, and annually thereafter, assessed and 
collected, as other taxes are assessed and collected, the sum of eleven 
cents on each one hundred dollars worth of taxable property, and lifty 
cents on each taxabl(> poll in the state, whieh money, when collecte«l, 
shall be paid into the school revenue for tuition fund in the state treasury, 
and shall be apportioned to the several counties of the state in the manner 
now provided by law. 

h. FROM intp:ri:st on common school FT-NI). 

The principal of all moneys, whether belonjjinj? to the common school 
fund, or the congressional townshii) school fund, received into the county 
treasury, shall be loaned at (> per cent, per annum payable annually at the 
end of each year from the datt» of such loan. The interest from these 
funds go to the tuition revenue. 



The school trustees of the several townships, towns and cities shall 
have power to levy annually a tax not exceeding tifty cents on each one 
hundred dollars of taxable proiH>rty and twenty-five cents on each taxable 
I)oll, which tax shall be assessed and collected as the taxes of the state 
and county revenues are assessed and collected, and the revenues arising 
from such tax levy shall constitute a supplementary tuition fund, to 
extend the terms of school in said townships, towns and cities after the 
tuition fund apportioned to sn<'h townships, towns and cities from the 
state tuition revenues shall be exhausted: rn»vidcd. however. That 
should there hv remaining in the tuition fund of any township, town or 
city levying such tax at the <'los(» of any school year any unexpended 
balances of such supplementarj' tuition finid assessed and <'ollected for use 
in such school year, or previous years, equal to or exceeding in amount 
one cent upon each one hundred dollars of taxable i)roi>erty in .said town- 
ship, town or city, then it shall ])e the duty of the county auditor to take 
notice of the same, and at the time when the trustee or trustees of such 



school cori)oration shall make the annual levy for such tax such trustee or 
trustees shall make, tnder oatli. an esthnat(» of the amount of supple- 
mentary tuition fund that will be recjuired to meet the actual expenses of 
the schools for the next school year, and from such estimate said auditor 
shall deduct the unexinrnded lmlnnc(» of such fund in such trustee or 
trustees* hands on the first Afonday of July, and the said trustee or 
trustees shall make a levy not larf?er than shall be sufficient to produce 
a supplemental revenue equal to the corporation as well as upon money 
capital paid in: Provided, That this act shall not apply to waterworks 


And when it shall so occur on the first Monday of March of any year 
in any township in the state of Indiana that said fund shall accumulate 
to an amount exceeding one hundred dollars over and above orders drawn 
on the same, the surplus aforesaid shall be paid and transferred to the 
county treasurer of the county in which such township is located and the 
fund arising from such surplus from the township of the county shall 
constitute a county* dog fimd and sliall be distributed among the townships 
of the county in wliich the orders drawn against the dog fund exceed the 
money on hand. This distrilmtion shall l)e made on the second Monday 
in March of each year, and if said county dog fund be insufficient to pay 
for all the live sto<'k or fowls maimed or killed by dogs of all the town- 
ships the distrii)ution shall be made in the ratio of the orders drawn 
against the dog fund of the townships and uni>aid and unprovided for, 
which ratio shall l)e ol)tained fr(»m the report of the trustees of the town- 
ships made to the auditor of the county which is hereby directed shall be 
made by each townslili) trustCM* of the county ui)on the first Monday of 
March of eacli year, which report shall show all receipts into the 
dog fund of his township, and all orders drawn against the same in the 
order in which they were drawn. And when it shall occur again upon 
the second Monday in March of any year that there is a surplus left of 
the county dog fund after provisions have been made for the payment 
for all the live stock or fowls killed or maimed, of all the townships of 
the county, such surplus sliall l>e distributed for the schools of the county 
in the same manner the common school revenue of such county is dis- 


The money and incf>m(» derivcMl from licenses for the sale of intoxicat- 
ing liquors shall be applied exchisiv(»ly to furnisliing tuition to the com- 
mon schools of the state, witliout any deduction for the expense of collec- 
tion or disbursement. 


The revenues derived from the congressional township fund are dis- 
tributed by the county auditors to the townships and counties to which 
they belong, 





The trusU'Os of the several townships, towns and cities shall have the 
power to levy a special tax. in their respective townships, towns or cities, 
for the construction, renting, or repairing of school houses, for providing 
furniture, school apparatus, and fuel therefor, and for the payment of 
other necessaiy expenses of the school, except tuition: but no tax shall 
exceed the sum of fifty cents on each one hundred dollars worth of tax- 
able property and one dollar on each poll, in any one year, and the income 
from said tax shall Ik* denominated the special school revenue. Any tax- 
payer who may choose to pay to the treasurer of the township, town or 
city wherein said taxpayer has property liable to taxation, any amount of 
money, or furnish Tmilding money for the construction of school houses, 
or furniture or fuel therefor, shall be entitled to a re<*eipt therefor from 
the trustee of said township, town or city, which shall exempt such tax- 
payer from any further taxes ftir said purposes, until the taxes of said 
taxpayer, levied for such purposes, would, if not thus paid, amount to 
the sum or value of the materials so furnished or amount so paid: Pro- 
vided. That said building materials, or furniture and fuel, shall be received 
at the option of said trustee. 

XIV. Comparative Tables on Funds 

AND Revenues. 

Tlie tables on followiu^r ])a^(»s c:ivo a l)ri(?f survey of the growth 
of Indiana's sdHM>ls. 





Common School Cotigressional Town- 
year. Fund. ship Fund. 

1880 .i;(»,G](;.112 (K> $2,449,142 09 

1885 «.023,8r)4 57 2,4(^,93« 82 

181)0 7.2(K>.W;5 20 2,494,105 35 

18J)2 7.47^.632 41 2.500,701 87 

1893 7.521,220 45 2,472,150 97 

18i>4 7.585,228 10 2,571.935 22 

1895 7.<;45,30S) 22 2.501.51K) 08 

\Sm 7,714,433 4(; 2.503.998 73 

1897 7.752.727 9(; 2,470,004 28 

1898 7.799.150 75 2,504,03:{ 20 

18J>9 7.S42.032 77 2.409.982 50 

1900 7.892,303 52 2,407,055 5;i 

liM)l . 7,925,579 50 2,401,74(J 8.3 

1902 7.978,580 70 2.405.304 04 

1SMK3 S,032.rM4 79 2.4455,983 05 

♦These nniouiits are loaiu'd by county auditors, payable aunually at the 
end of the borrowers' year. Counties must pay Intercast on unloanetl 
balances. The eonjrressional principal has reached its nnixinium (ap 
proximately). The common school fund increases by fines, forfeitures, 
escheats, etc. 





'Tuition Hevenue Special School Rev- 
f or Paying enue for Buildings, 

Y'rar. Teachrrn. Repairs, etc. 

1880 $2.J)43,105 77 lj;i,461,891 1.") 

I880 3,371,205 00 1.545,739 92 

1890 3.794,52(5 03 1,777,598 32 

1892 3,835,918 91 1,773,735 89 

1893 4,428,207 10 1,940,462 09 

1894 4.379,000 10 2,140.847 0(J 

1895 4,735,088 (i3 2,412,507 03 

18JMJ 4,301.413 04 2.275,857 89 

1897 4,5:J3.310 (>2 2,411,351 23 

18J)8 4.9r»0,8:J9 3(5 2,425,340 15 

1899 5,21M).217 01 2.507,825 97 

1900 5,443,092 17 2,578.040 07 

1901 5.480,400 5(5 2,542,4(50 01 

1902 5,7IK).0O2 (50 2,795,352 32 

1903 (5.1(50.381 80 3,1(53.011 29 

♦Those revenues represent the Januaiy and June distributions of each 
calendar year. The June distribution is used, ordinarily, to meet tlie 
expenses of the schools for the first half of the succi»eding school j'ear. 
In view of this fact the sum of the tuition and special revenues set 
opiK>8ite each year above will not accord with tht* total revenues 
available for school expenditure as set fortli in the succeeding table 
(Table C), which shows sources for the actual school year, namely, the 
June distribution of one year with the January distriliution of the 
succeeding year. Neitlier will these figures agree with "Table D,*' 
showing the expenditures. Expenditures are always In excess of the 
revenues from tax and interest sources. The sources other than rev- 
enues are private tuition charges, money realized from bond sales, 
school warrants, and transfers. 






Srli<M)l Yt'ar F^iidiiitr 
.Inly 31- 








«1, 519,791 Mi 

1884 1.40K.113 49 









1.44.x 17« 55 

1.40;i,412 91 

1.:C».092 27 

1,446.255 46 

1.453.568 01 

1.48:{,0:% 42 

l.ilH3,348 \M 

2,077.323 12 

1895 1.9H0.452 20 

1896 I 1,8<5«.745 11 

1897 I l,5;i5,429 04 

1898 I 1.5<J8,187 59 

1899 1.559.144 91 

1900 1.595.344 10 


1901 1,564.955 27 

1902 ' l.(Ki3.170 87 

'19CW ! 1,6J>8,86H 59 

$204,145 30 
211,112 19 
449,612 15 ! 
4^,140 73 ^ 
462,207 22 | 

476.184 31 I 


427.550 42 
436.924 m 
4:^5.197 84 
4:16.960 17 
4:n,994 76 
444.400 13 
422,125 88 
4;r7.794 99 
436.847 51 
451 .a55 84 
443.811 36 
423,130 68 
401.829 06 

$l!r7.675 80 
187.162 70 
197.748 14 
218.118 il3 
199.165 22 
180.188 30 
213.464 60 
191,761 17 
157,246 10 
161.906 62 
15:{.169 95 
154.817 02 
162,729 63 
148,744 53 
167.748 (i8 
147,456 01 
153.145 27 
139,059 59 
144.981 53 


$1,921,612 76 j $2 71 

1.806.388 38 , 2 51 

2.090.536 84 2 80 

2.085.672 67 I 2 74 

2,051,464 71 I 2 71 

2,102,628 07 2 72 

2.094.583 08 2 72 

2,111.722 25 2 76 

2.575.792 28 3 31 

2,676,189 91 3 36 

2,565,616 91 3 17 

2.467.9G2 26 3 08 

2,120.028 55 2 89 

2.154.727 11 2 87 

2.163.741 10 2 86 

2,193,855 96 2 90 

2.161.911 10 2 73 

2,185,961 14 , 2 88 

2.271.570 59 , 2 91 

NoTKs ON Ahovk Tamlk: 1. In ciilumiis II, III. VII. VIII, IX, XI the sources of the 
n'VciiiM's actiiully um«mI un» t\\v J:uniary distribution of any year, together with the June 
(listriliution of the ])revi«»us y<'ar. not tlie t\voilistribnti<»ns <»f a calendar year. The soh<»ol 
year einbra<'es the hist half of oim* and the Hrst half <»f the next calendar year. 

2. In column IV the current y<-ar is usi-d. The ct»njfressi«»nal interest r<»niains about 
the sauK' from year to y<*ar. 

3. The tabic shows that the state's i)arti<'ipation in e<lucatiou is about the same per 
capita ca<'h yiMir. wluTcas tlu* loeal support luis more than doubled in the period from 1880 
to VMi. 





















S58B.0W1 SI 


«i.«ii.sni 15 


•193.512 IS 



15 89 

m.41.^ K 


uio.mi 09 

^.060 11 

279.885 89 

2.517.361 4( 


6 01 



1.54fi.ffin 90 

3I.J77 U 

331.250 59 

2Jf61,273 38 



l.l»8.Crr.; 56 



33.^02 10 

344.342 79 

2.SMI0.004 m 



l.l»1.032 68 

1,5«.B21 40 

31.743 07 


2J>47,350 04 


660 XI 

S45.75:! Ul 

1.777,500 85 

11.474 :» 

337.779 83 

3,344.739 98 

4 42 



1.70S.727 M 


353.155 to 

3,613,292 10 



t.(W.XI6 CI 



18.872 SO 

3S8.407 04 

3.542.M1 12 


7 40 

I.0B1.T96 08 

13.714 71 

lJ110,il7 3» 

25.193 54 

391.554 66 

3.322.676 31 



t.-m.'m 75 

IH.S30 5I 

H.OW.ITB <a 

I8.r4<i 14 

395.621 HO 

S.HIl.XTH 26 



I JIC155 75 

a.4I.^B0O 44 


3»G.I«0 00 

1.412.275 42 

5 45 


a 83 S7.87:i in ' 

>t nfriinl with tli<' per 

Ita iliKtriliiitlciri 'if -h-IuhiI n-vi-iiw' Ik ncvi-r a tnoaHun' of the 
Hiioli- >il>jH-t in iiukiiiB tliix talilc ix to Khciw the n.'lativ<- 




Note.— This table takes no aecoiiiit of oxpeiiditiires for the state's 
higher institutions. 

Total Per Capita Per Capita 

Expend it are Expenditure Expenditure 

for on School on School 

Fear. Schools.* Enamerati&n.* Enrollment* 

1897 $7,(JJ)(i.0a5 13 $10 25 $13 96 

1898 7.84(k139 24 10 39 13 85 

1899 8.188.088 74 10 83 14 70 

1900 8,182.52(5 72 10 82 14 48 

1901 8.444.267 5<; 11 14 15 16 

1902 9.405.513 14 12 34 16 78 

1903 9,901,thI5 41 12 90 17 66 

♦These items sliow all expenditures from the school funds (state and 
local). They do not take account of the following, paid from funds 
outside of school revenues: 

(a) Annmil salaries of township trustees from town- 

ship funds (approximated) $80,000 00 

(b) Compulsory education expenses from county funds 36,0(X) 00 
(cj Salaries of county su|)erintendents from county 

funds (approximated) 92,CKK) 00 

(d) Funds realized from the sale of local school bonds 

for building purposes No data. 

(e) Amount paid by counties out of county fund for 

county institutes (1903) 8,462 40 

(fi The total expended on account of items above (a, b. c, d, e.) 
will approximate $500,000 annually, which added to the 
*'total expenditures,'* would raise the per capita accordingly 
each year. 





Total Ex- >* J t 5.5f.i 

TkA<'HKRS. 1 g g aX'VXi 


u.^ £=: i-r 



$300 07 
312 83 
309 98 
1121 68 
308 54 
Ml 91 
381 65 

AvERA<4E Daily Waoes. 

In Townships. 

Mal«'M. iPemalcs 

In Tciwns, 




In Cities. 




♦ ' 

• • ■ * • • ■ 




.$2 10 

$1 90 

52 99 

$2 04 

$4 34 

2 11 

1 94 

3 08 

2 03 

4 31 

2 14 

1 94 

3 06 

2 07 

4 38 

2 38 

2 20 

3 13 

2 :c 

4 34 

2 43 


2 27i 

3 21 

2 ;«) 

4 49 

$2 33 
2 56 



*The statist ics for 1898 are jjiven for all teaohers in each oorporation-not divided into 
classes of niahis and females: In townships. $1.98: in towns. $2.32: in cities. $2.58. 



A mount Paid 
Trnxteea fitr 

Maun if if 10 
i'far. Affairs. 

1807 $87,007 64 

1898 89,967 77 

1899 110,122 90 

1900 103,818 61 

1901 109.975 (J8 

1902 87,049 58 

1903 95,287 55 

TABLE [i. 

Year tCnumeration. Ktirolltnenf. Attendance 

1880 708,558 511.28,*^ 321,659 

1885 740,949 504.520 332,746 

1890 *770,722 512.955 342,275 

1892 776,963 511.823 360,664 

1893 ♦795,256 519,(K)9 350.963 

1894 ♦808,261 541.570 392,689 

1895 ^798,917 529.345 392.015 

1896 734,640 543,665 401,702 

1897 749,902 551,073 402.747 

18J)8 754,945 566,157 t432,931 

1899 755.<398 556.651 424,725 

1900 756.004 .5(^4,807 429,566 

1901 757,684 55(J,731 420,276 

1902 761,801 560,224 423,078 

irK)3 767,436 5450.523 424,007 

♦From 1890 to 1S95. inchisivf. the i'lninipratloii lists wore "padded." The 
new law on tliis subjeet makes it difficnlt to return an incorrect list. 

IThe att(>iidane(> is shown in 1898. Tliis was due to the then new 
compulsory education law. 



The following table shows total ainouiit of school fund since 1862, an«l 
the per capita belonging to each child of school age in the State: 

Vear. Enumeration. 

i8tJ2 n28,r>8;{ 

18<;4 557.01)2 

186r> .mOJTS 

18«8 r)i)2.8<M 

1870 010,027 

1872 <wn,5:^!> 

1874 VmVMW 

1875 mi.TM\ 

187r, 070.230 

1877 004.7(M; 

1878 <I00,153 

1870 708.101 

1880 703.558 

1885 740,940 

1800 770.722 

1802 770.063 

1803 705.250 

1804 '. 808,201 

1805 708.017 

18JM5 734.CV40 

1897 740.JM)2 

1898 754.r»45 

1890 755.00S 

IJKK) 75(J,(K>1 

1JH)1 757,084 

1902 701,801 

11M>3 7ri7.430 

Total School 

Common and 


of Funds 
on Enu- 

I'pon Basis 
of Funds 
on Enu- 





• • • • 






























































. 4 4 

























































♦It is believed that tlw ligures for 1870, which were taken from a former 
report, are not accurate. 

tit is apparent that the growth in the school funds can no longer exceed 
the growth in sch(H)l enumeration. For seven years the per capita distri- 
bution ui>on the basis of the interest from the funds has been the same 
amount, namely. 82 c(»nts. 




Fine.x Ihtlancr 

and from Other Total 

year. Forfeitures. Sources. Additions. 

1880 $43,910 48 $8,481) tJl $52,400 15 

1881 4{i,2&2 05 SMS 52 47,111 17 

1882 r»:^.591 59 20,644 0<j 80,235 (i5 

188;^ 54,470 93 4,30<) 21 58,771 14 

18iW .■)8.220 40 0,939 11 65,159 57 

1885 4!»,8<M) 77 6,(>64 28 56,525 05 

1880 57.!M>7 91 4.405 27 62,373 18 

1887 08,423 30 14.143 70 82,507 00 

1888 70,017 08 13,167 60 83,784 68 

1889 44,0*^4 58 12,r>99 50 56,794 14 

1S90 («,208 HJ 14.455 88 82,0(54 04 

1891 (»1.71<J 07 9.18J) 97 70,1X)6 04 

1892 71,10(5 23 11,134 8(5 82,241 09 

ia93 57.120 95 9,473 09 (5(5,51>4 04 

1894 58,S:i9 43 5,1(52 22 (U.(K)l (55 

18J)5 59,9()9 57 14.807 0(5 74,830 (W 

189(5 57,119 03 11,945 21 69,0(54 24 

18J)7 34,738 97 7,919 73 42,658 70 

1898 41,(582 94 4,739 85 46.422 79 

1891» 3(5.765 53 8,477 24 45,242 77 

VMMi 44,858 23 (5,439 (54 51,297 87 

1901 :U.36S> 12 2.(598 4(5 37.067 58 

VMTJ 43.444 43 9.700 77 53.151 20 

1903 41,433 82 12,080 IK) 53,514 72 




yum her ' Ar*fitf/e 

of yunibrr Leuath of 

School- of School in 

Year. hounett. Teachers. Days. 

1880 9,647 13.578 i:Ui 

1885 9.877 13,254 127 

1890 9,907 13,278 130 

1892 9.873 13.549 132 

1893 10,007 13,89(^» No data. 

1894 9,327 14,071 No data. 

1895 9,327 13,869 No data. 

181M) 10.051 14,884 No data. 

1897 10,053 15,052 136 

1898 9,754 16,228 144 

18JM) 9,983 15,488 149 

1900 10.038 15,617 152 

1901 10,003 15,979 140 

1902 ♦9,987 16,039 146 

1903 9.375 16,041 tl37 

♦On account of scliool consolidation w(» have probably reached our maxi- 
mum number of schot)lhou.^es. 

tThe increase in teachers' watres has tended to decrease the length of 
school term. 





I. High Schools. 



Indiana is justly proud of her high school system. Sho harf 
704 high schools each enn>loying two teacluu's or more. Add to 
this an ostiniated number employing one teacher each and the 
grand total will reach about 1,000, or approximately one high 
school for each townshi]). We have high sc^huols accessible to nearly 
cverv child in Indiana. 

The law makes it necessary for (^very school officer to provider 
high school facilities at home or in lieu thereof to transfer eligible 
pupils at public (expense to cor])orations maintaining them. 

The following is a summary of high school stativStics: 

13— Bducation. (193) 




1. Number of cominissioiUMl niid iion-eomniissioncd high 

schools in Indiana liaving two or more teachers 7U3 

2. Nunil)fr of higli seliools having one teaclier, about 240 

li. Nunil)er of commissioned liigli scliools 185 

4. Numl>er of graduates (11M)3) from non-commissioned 

high schools 1,344 

5. Number of graduates (1003) from commissioned higli 

scliools 3,090 

0. Number of pupils enrolled in non-commissioned high 

schools 13,305 

7. Total paid teachers in non-commissioned high schools $248,787 21 

8. Total paid during the year for librari(»s, appliances. 

stoves, furniture, etc.. not including janitors* service. . 37,001 42 

9. Total current or annual cost of maintaining non-com- 

missioned high schools 285.788 03 

10. Average cost per pupil in non-commissioned high schools. . 25 00 

11. Number of pupils enrolled in commissioned liigli s<*liools. . 23,330 

12. Total paid teachers in commissioned liigh schools $.'>70,803 90 

13. Total paid for appliances, reference books, stoves and fur- 

niture in commissi<med high schools ()1,4()5 42 

14. Total current or annual cost of commissioned high 

schools r.,32,2r»9 32 

15. Average current cost p<»r pupil in commissioned high 

schools 33 00 

Vk Number of teachei*s employeil in connnissioned high 

schools 981 

17. Number of teachers employed in non-commissioned high 

scliools 848 

18. Average yearly wages of teachers in commissioned high 

schools $720 00 

19. Average yearly wages of teachers in non-commissioned 

high schools 432 00 

From the figures given above it is evident that the state is 
concerned in a large way with secondary education. Tt is im- 
portant, therefore, that the work be carefully supervised to avoid 
waste and incompetent instruction. 




Adopted May 14. 1904. 

The following course of study for the commissioned high schools 
of Indiana was adopted by the state board of education, May 
14, 1J>04. Tt is a revision of the course adopted in 1898 and 
revised in 1902. Jt provides for required work as follows: 

Three years of language, three years of history, three years of mathe- 
matics, two years of science, four years of English, and electives to 
complete a full course of four years. It is not intended that the course 
should be an absolute one, but that I^Tfhould guide local school officers 
and teachers and form the basis of a i^inimum course. For example, 
the option is given in the first year to study either botany or zoology, 
or one of four languages. In the third year to pursue the study of 
English history througliout the entire year, or to divide the year between 
the French and English history; in the fourth year to study either 
physics or chemistry, or both, or to carry throughout the year any one 
of a number of electives. It is the desire of the board to have a few 
subjects contained throughout the entire course rather than a great 
field of subjects each through a brief period. It would not seem advisable 
to drop one yeai^ of Enghsh for the purpose of substituting an elective, 
nor does it seem advisable to drop one year of historj' and substitute 
an elective in a different department. A course of study containing few 
subjects pursued throughout the entire high scliool course has many 
advantages: First, It gives excellent training, scliohirship and discipline 
in a given subject. Second, It makes necessary fewer teachers. Third. 
It requires a smaller library and equipment. The board recognizes the 
fact that a great many students do not continue their education beyond 
the high school. For that reason, the option is given of substituting 
commercial arithmetic or bookkeeping for solid geometry. It Is the 
intention of the state board of education to inspect as many of the com- 
missioned high schools eadi year as it is possil)le for them to reach. 
The points of interest to them are those required of all commissioned 
high schools, namely: First, The character of the teaching must be 
satisfactory. Second. The liigh school course must not be less than 
thirty-two months in length, continuing from the eighth year. Third. 
The whole time of at least two teachers must l)e given to the high schoo. 
work. Fourth, At least one of the high sch(K)l teachers must be a college 
graduate. Fifth, Tlie pursuing of few sul)je(?ts throughout the entire 
course, rather than many covering short periods. Sixth. A library ade- 
quate to meet all the demands for reference work and general reading 
supplementary to the regular text books. Seventli, I.almratories fully 
equipped to do all of the necessary work in the sciences pursued in any 
given high school. Eighth, Xo science should be taught for a term of less 



tliau one year. Ninth. Admission to tlie higli school must l)e jiriven only 
to llioso who have complotod to the (Mitire satisfaction of the school ort1<*ers 
and teadiers, all of the work of the grades. Tenth. The high school 
Imilding must bo kept in goo<l order, the sanitary appliances adequate, the 
heating and lighting go(Kl, and outhouses and indoor closet.s clean and 
sanitary. Eleventh, All courses leading to college entrance should pro- 
vide at least three years of foreign language. (See outline. > Twelfth. 
l*syc'holog3'. sociology and political economy should not be taught in high 
schools. ThirttH»nth, Heginning with the sc1wm)1 year llHK'i each high school 
must have in its faculty at least one graduate from an acceptable normal 
school, college or university. Fourteenth, The course of study must be at 
least a fair etpiivalent of the following: 


First Year. 


Second Year. 

Third Year. 

Fourth Year. 


Botany or Zoology. 

(a) Latin, 
(h) German. 
((•) French 

(d) (ireek. year, 
and Plane (leometry. 
one-half year.or Con- 
crete (ieonietry, one- 
half year. (Elective) 


History of ( i reece. one- 
half year, and His- 
tory of Home. on<*- 
lialf year. 


Plane iJeometrv. one- 
half year, and Solid 
(leometry, one- half 


History of Enifland, 
one year, or F rench 
andEnj^lish History, 
one year, (one - half 
year eiwh. > 



American History 
and Civil (ioveni- 

Physics or Chem try 

Physical iieog-ra- 


Commercial Arith 

Hookkeepiiiff or 
Langrnatre, one 


S( ip:nce. 

Systematic instruction in out* or more branches of natural science Is 
an essential part of the higli school curriculum, but it should not be 
attempted unless a skilled teacher is availalde and proper facilities for 
laboratory work can be provided. The chief object of science teaching 
in the high school is not to impart information or :ittcmi>t scientilic train- 
ing, but rather to fix the interest of the pupil upon natural phenomena, 
to develop his powers of observation, and to cultivate the scientific sidrit 
of accuracy and truthfulness. 

The choi(!e of subjects to be taught shoidd be made deliberately, for 
definite reasons and then adhen d to: it should not be a<*cidental to the 
wishes or convenience of teachers whose services may Ik* of a temporary 
character only. At least on<^ of the teachers in the high school should 
be employed lK»cause of .special training and fitness to administer the 
particular science subjects of the curriculum. 


Wherever i>osRil)le a separate room should be provi(le(i for laboratory 
work, supplied with proper desks or tables and with cases for storing 
of apparatus. The equipment should 'l)e kept elean and in order. It is 
destructive of a proper estimate of the value of science study if the pupil 
is not made to respect and value highly all of the eciuipment and suppliers 
furnished for that purpose. The eipiipment should be well selected, 
simple and for use.* 

A common mistake in i>rcsenting science to liigh school pupils is the 
attempt to do too much. In most instances the amount of time, the char- 
acter of equipment, the capacity of the teacher and the character of the 
pupil forbid the attempt to do more than teach some of the elementary 
principles of a science. Scientific theories which are not well established 
should be avoided and the attention of the pupii dire<-ted to a study of 
objects and phenomena, of causes and results and of relations. Intelligent 
note-taking and recording of work performed should be cultivated. 

Not less than one year's time should be given to any particular l)ranch 
of science. 


Oidy certain phases of botany can l)e protltal)ly pursued in the higli 
school. It is advised therefore tliat these be empliasizcd rather than that 
the work be extended. Much harm has been done both to science and to 
the pupil by the attempt to include in the high school course work which 
can only be given with profit in the college or university. 

Plants as living things may obviously l)e studied in any one of three 


The general ai)peara!ice of plants (form, color, gross anatomy, etc.). 
and their more evident adaptation to their surroundings, animate and 
inanimate, may be observed. At the present time tliis way of studying 
plants is the only one wliich i>upils at the average high school, or at 
many of the commissioned high schools, can profitably attempt. It is 
known as the general morphology of plants. In this course, which should 
be as much as possible out of doors, the pupil should observe the young 
as well as the old plants, not merely as individuals, but as parts of the 
general scheme of nature, noting the conditions of soil, light, moisture 
and exposure under whl<*h they live, and their ada|)tatl<m to these condi- 
tions. For the work of this course eltluT ("Jray's "Structural Botany" 
(American Book Co.. New York), or Coulter's "Plant Studies" (D. Appleton 
& Co.. Chicago.), may serve as a guide. These slxmld ])e suiipleniented by 
such works as Kerner's ".\atural History of Plants" (Henry Holt & Co.. 
New York), or Cfmlter's "Plant Relations" (D. Appleton & Co., Chlcairoi. 


The constructive elements of plants may b(» studied, noting not merely 
the form and the arrangement of the parts, but the fitness of each ele- 
ment, and the sulta]>leness of each arrangement of elements to meet 

•(Members of tin* hoani of e<liicati<m will be triad to srive advice in such matterK when 
requestetl. ) 


oxteriml conditions, largely those of a physical nature, such as mechan- 
ical strains, the force of gravitation, etc. Only in the most advanced 
high schools as yet can pupils prolitably undertake the study of tlie 
microscopic anatomy of plants and the study of plants which, because 
of their minute size, must be examined under the luicroscope to be known 
at all. Some knowledge of the fundamental principle of physics will be 
necessary before such a course is attempted, not only that the pupil 
may understand the instruments with which he works (lenses), but also 
the mechanical and other principles involvcHl in every plant structure, 
even the simplest. The state board of education distinctly advises against 
the introduction of microscopic anatomy into the high school course in 
botany except when the teacher in charge has been well trained for the 
work and the apparatus is ample and appropriate. Assuming that the 
sul)ject is given one-fourth of the pupil's time during one year, the second 
course may be made to cover the following topics: 

1. The Typical Plant Cell.— A study of its structure, general comix)- 
sition, c(mtents, form and methods of multiplication. 

2. Unicellular Plants.— A .^ttudy of tlu* general structure and main 
facts of growth and reproduction of yeasts and protococcus. 

8. Multicellular Plants.— Noting the arrangements of cells together, 
the effect of such groupings on the numl>ers of the groups, the mechanical, 
physical and physiologi<'al results of such groupings and the modes of 
reproduction as shown by: 

a. Spirogyra (common i)ond scum) cladophora. chara or nitella. 

b. Mucor (bread mold). 

c. The rusts and mildews. 

d. A moss. 

e. A fern. 

g. Flowering plants. 

The character and scope of desirable work under these various heads 
is indi(*ated with sufficient accuracy in tlie various K^xt-books in botany 
on the market, .\dditional books n»commended for this course are 
-Spalding's Introduction to Botany" (D. C. Heath & Co., New York). 
Atkinson's "Elementary Botany" (Henry Holt & Co.. New York). *'Bot- 
any." L. H. Bailey (The Macmillan Co.. New York). Sedgwick & Wilson's 
*'Biology," (roodale's "Physiological Botany" (American Book Co.. New 
York), Arthur. Barnes and (^oulter's "Handbook of Plant Dissection" 
(Henr>' Holt & Co., New York). Bergen's "Klemenls of Botany" C^inn & 
Co., Chicago). Bower's "A Course of Practical Instruction in Botany* 
(Macmillan & Co.. New York), Strasburger. Schimper. Schenck and Noll's 
"Lehrbuch d<M* Botanik." English translation (Macmillan & Co.. New 
York). The following apparatus would be required for the efficient prose- 
cution of this course: Compound microscopes, one for each pupil during 
his stay in the laboratory, but by dividing tlie class into small sections 
the total number of microscoi)es need not be large. Tln» Bausch & Lomb 
Optical Co., Rochester. N. Y., or the Cambridge Botanical Supply Co.. 
Cambridge, Mass. (who will import foreign instrum(Mits, duty free, for 
school), can furnish suitable microscopes from $27 upward in price 
Cheaper ones are untrustworthy. In addition will be needed: 


Glass slides, about 75 cents per gross. 

Cover glasses, 75 cents per ounce. 

Razors, $1 to $1.50 each. 

Camel's hair brushes (small), 20 cents or more per dozen. 

Watch glasses (flat on bottom), 25 cents per dozen. 

Dissecting needles (self-made by forcing sewing needles into slender 

Fine pointed forceps, 15 cents to 75 cents per pair. 

Chemical reagentfiu such as iodine, glycerine, potassic-hydrate, 
potassic-iodine, and a few stains such as fuchsin, eosin. safTanin, costing 
in all about $5.00. 


The plant at work may be studied, considering l)oth the nature of tlie 
work done and the means by which it is accomplished. The most im- 
portant facts of plant physiology should be presented by the teacher 
to classes studying plants in either of the ways already descril)ed; l)ut 
the study of plant physiology itself should not be attempted in the high 
school, since the conditions necessai*y for successful experimentation can 
not ordinarily be provided, and especially since the antecedent training in 
chemistry and physics essential to a comprehension of the (luestions 
involved can not have been given under high school conditions. 


Assuming that one-fourth of the student's tinu* for one year is devoted 
to the subject, the following sclieme may !)e followed: 

Fall and winter, a study of comparative anatomy of a series of ani- 
mals, beginning witli the lower types. In this the organism as a living 
thing may be considered, and then its parts, noting the division of the 
bofly into definite organs and systems for definite functions, and the 
gradual increase in comples^ity and eflJciency of these organs and systems 
as the higher types are reached. Detailed outlines for the study of indi- 
vidual forms are to be found in Nos. 1 and 2 of the ])ooks mentioned 
below. The spring may be taken up with a more detailed study of some 
group of local representatives of animals most familiar to the teacher. 
In this connection frequent excursions must l)e taken, and especial atten- 
tion paid to the variety of spi'cies found, the character differing most in 
the different species, the peculiar surroundings in which each one lives, 
the peculiarities that fit each one as to its peculiar liome; the habits of 
each species, the coloration of each species as compared with its surround- 
ings, the comparative number of individuals of each species, the difference 
between individuals of the same species. For this i)urpose Nos. i\ and 7 
of the books given below will 1m» found useful. 

All of the Imoks mentioned l)elow should be accessii)le in the labora- 
tory. Each student should be supplied with 1 or 2. 

1. Elementary Biology, Boyer. Al>out $1.00: pul)llshed by D. C. Heath 
& Co., Chicago. 

2. Elementai-y Lessons in Zoology. Needham. Al>out $1.25: published 
by American Book Co., Cincinnati. 


3. p]lomentnry Biolo^o'. PJirkor. A])out $2.50; published by Macmllhin 
& Co., Now York. 

4. Invertebrate Morpholopj', MiicMurich. About $4.00; published by 
Henry Holt & Co., Boston. 

5. Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, Wiederscheim. About $3.50: 
published by Maeniillan & Co., New York. 

<». Manual of Insects. Comstock. AlK)ut $4.(K1; published by Comstook 
rul)lishing Co., Ithaca, N. Y. 

7. Manual of Vertebrates, Jordan. $2.r>(); published by McClur^ & 
Co.. Chicago. 

S. Colton's Practical Zoology. 80 cents: I). C. Heath & Co.. Chicago. 

1>. Holder's Elements of Zoology; published by D. Appleton Co., 

10. Pratt's Invertebrate Zoology- : pul)lisheil by Ginn & Co.. Boston. 

11. Jordan and Kellogg's Animal IJfe: published by D. Appleton & 
Co.. Chicago. 

Appdratus for a (lass of Ten. 

A well-lighted room with table space of 2VL'Xl!i> feet for each student. 

Two compound microscopes, at $27.00. Bausch & Lom!>. Ro<*hester, 
N. Y. AAB2. 

Five dissecting microscopes, at $5.00. Bausch & Lomb. Rochester. 
N. Y. Imi>roved Barnes. 

One scalpel, one i>air small scissors, ont» pair forceps, one blow pipe, 
liand lens, momited needles. Five sets at $1.00. To be had put up in 
small box form from K. H. Sargent & (^o.. Chicago, or Bausch & Lomb. 
Rochester. N. Y. 

Alcohol may be purcliased for schools at about 50 cents per gaUon. 
Application shcmld be made to some distillery to set aside ten gallons or 
more for withdrawal, duty free. A bond must be given for twice the 
amoimt of the tax of the* alcohol to be so withdrawn. Printed instru**- 
tions may be secmvd from the nearest collector of internal revenue. 


It were better that this science be left out of the high school curricu- 
lum than to entrust its presentation to a teacher who has not had special 
training in a physical laboratory. If pliysics can not be taught well. 
substitute for it a s<-ience that can be. It makes not so much dllTerence 
what is taught as how it is tauglit. 

Physics is an experimental science, and must be taught largely by 
experiment. This means that each higli scIkm)! must have a supply of 
physical apparatus. But the amount tliat is actually required is much 
less than is generally suiiposed. With the aid of the apparatus and sup 
plies mentioned in tho appended list, an enthusiastic and skilled teacher 
will be able to give most of the experiments mentioned in the usual high 
school text-books on physics: 

2 meter sticks (to millimeters and in<'hes», at 25c $0 50 

3 sjiring balances (24 lb.), at 15c 45 

1 platform balance (beam graduated to 1-10 gm) 5 ♦15 


1 set metric weights (2 Isgm. to 1 gm.) $1 75 

1 box metric weights (brass), 100 gm. to 1 cgm 1 50 

1 specific gravity balance (upright) 3 00 

1 pmnp (reversible, condensing and exliaustiug) 3 00 

10 feet 3-10-inch rubber tubing (heavy), at 10c 1 00 

10 lbs. mercury, at (55c <» 50 

10 lbs. glass tubing, soft, assorted sizes, at 54)c 5 00 

1 Bunsen burner (for gas) 35 

2 thermometers, 100 degrees C, etclied on stem, at \)T>v. . . 1 IK) 

2 tuning forlcs, C. & C\ at $1.50 3 00 

1 sonometer 4 (X) 

1 long brass spiral spring— for waves 75 

2 flint glass prisms, at 35c 70 

1 double convex lens, 4 inches, at $1.25 1 25 

1 crystal of Iceland spar 1 25 

1 magnetic needle on stand 50 

2 bar magnets (about 20 cm. long) 50 

1 electro magnet (helix), with remcivable core 1 50 

1 astatic galvanometer 5 00 

2 gravity cells (crowfoot), at 50c 1 00 

1 grenet cell, 1 qt 1 75 

2 lbs. insulated office wire. No. 18, at 35c 70 

1 lb. iron filings 10 

1 gold leaf electroscope . . 75 

1 electrophorus 1 50 

10 lbs. copper sulphate (comnu'rcial). at 5(' 50 

10 lbs. sulphuric acid (commercial), nt 5c 50 

1 lb. chromic acid 40 

1 rubber (ebonite) rod, 1 (!m. diameler 30 

1 soldering outfit 75 

For supplies (as tumblirs, cans, zinc, corks, wire, <liem- 

icals, etc.) that can be purchased as needed of local 

dealers 10 00 

Total $(;7 30 

Suitable texts may be mentioned as foUows: 
Carhart and Cluite's Physics (Allyn & Baccm. publishers). 
Gage's Physics ((4inn & Co.). 

Appleton's School Physics; Outlines of IMiysics (Macmillan & Co., 
publishers, New York). 

Thwing's Elem(»ntary Physics (B. H. Sanborn & Co., Boston). 

The following named are reliable dealers in supplies and ajiparatus: 

W. A. Olmstead, 182 Wabash ave., Chicago. 

Bimer & Amend. 205-211 Third ave.. New York. 

Chicago Laboratory Supply and Scah» Co.. Chicago. 

The Columbia School Supply Co.. Indianapolis. Ind. 



The study of chemistry, accompanied by individual experimental work 
by the pupil and demonstrations by the teacher, provides excellent train- 
ing in observation and a useful lvnowled|?e of important natural and 
industrial processes, as well as in logical thinking. The aim of the course 
in the high school should be mainly to secure an understanding of funda- 
mental principles and tlie development of the j)owers of observation, 
deduction and expression. The pupil should not be led to think that he is 
being trained in tlie practice of analytical chemistry. 

The course should include tlie study of a suitable text accompanied 
by numerous simple exporiments done !>y the pupil to show the method 
of preparation and the properties of various substances. These should be 
supplemented 1)3' demonstrations by the t€'acher if circumstances permit, 
showing the quautitative relations concerned in some fundamental re- 
actions. The pupil may thus become familiar by observation with the 
experimental evidence of the more important quantitative laws, and thus 
realize that our present theories have been deduced from and are not the 
causes of the facts observed. 

With this in view, most of the time commonly devoted to qualitative 
analysis may well be given to more thorough work in general chemistry. 
Analytical work, unless under the guidance of a very exceptional teacher, 
is limited in its instructional value and has little direct application unless 
supplementeil by more advanced study and practice. 

The laboratory' equipment need not be extensive. Table space is essen- 
tial for the performance of experiments. Gas and water attachments are 
not indispensable but <lesirable. A resourceful instructor will be able 
to conduct the work of a class without most of the fixtures considered 
necessary in college and university laboratories. Of course the best equip- 
ment is desirable if the school can afford it. The elementary text-books 
on chemistry usually contain complete lists and prices of materials and 
apparatus needed for the course presented. The cost of such outfits will 
vary from $15 to .$50, and since some of this is of permanent character, 
the subsequent annual cost of maintenance is small. 

Not less than one year should be given to the study even in its ele- 
mentary outline. 

The following are some of the more recent texts which seem best 
adapted to high sdiool work: 

Briefer ("ourse in Chemistry. Reinson. (Henry Holt & Co.) 

Experimental Chemistry. Newell. (D. C. Heath & Co.) 

Elementary Principles of Chemistry. Young. (Appleton & Co.) 

The following are reliable dealers in chemical apparatus and supplies: 

E. H. Sargent & Co., Chicago. 

Eimer & Amend. New York City. 

The Chicago I.aboratory and Scale Co.. Chicago. 

The Columbia School Supply Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 


It would be far better for the student and the school not to attempt 
to teach geology than to give a disconnected and poorly balanced course. 


lu case, however, it is desirable to include this subject, it is recommended 
that it be taught in connection with the iihysical geography, which may 
be elected in the last part of the third year or throughout the fourth year. 
At least one complete year should !)e devoted to the course. As far as 
may be possible, the worlc of the student should Ije. in part at least, of 
an observational nature. The student should be encouraged to reason 
and draw conclusions from observed facts. 

As iireparatory to further worlv. the high scliool courses in geology 
may be based upon Tarr's "Elementary Geology," or W. H. Scott's "Intro- 
duction to Geology." For the work in physical geography the course may 
be based upon Tarr's "Physical Geography." For fuller treatment of the 
topics than can be given in the course fre(iueiit reference should be made 
to the following books: 

Dana, Manual of Geology. American Book Co. 

Geikie, Class Book of Geology. 

Shaler, Story of Our Continent. 

Shaler, Sea and Land. 

Uussel, L. C, Volcanoes of North America. 

Geikie, Physical Geography. 

LeConte, Elements of Geology. D. Appleton & Co. 


Two courses of study for classes in high scliool mathematics are liere- 
with given, either of which covers the amount of mathenuitics required 
of commissioned liigh schools. 

It will be seen that they dlflft r but slightly, one introducing the study 
of concrete geometry which the other does not offer, and requiring its 
study previous to the study of <lemonstrative geometry, tlius pushing 
demonstrative geometry one-half year farther along in the coiu'se. 

The formal study of demonstrative geometry immediately following 
algebra is known to be extremely ditticult for many students, and the 
study of concrete geometry as an introducti(m to demonstrative geom- 
etry, thus familiarizing tlie students with the simpler elements of the 
subject but particularly with the language of geometry, has been found 
by skilled instructors to make the nuistery of demonstrative geometry 
much easier by students generally, and its study more thoroughly enjoyed 
by them. 

It is recommended that those students whose si-hool education will 
end with their graduation from the high school, be permitted to elect 
.some other mathematical sul)ject, say advanced arithmetic, advanced 
algebra or bookkeeping, in the place of solid gcnmietry in the fourth year. 

/. Ahjrbra. 

One and one-half years (at l(»ast twelve school months) of daily reci- 
tations given to the mastery of the fundamental processes, factoring, 
fractions, simple and quadratic equations, simple simultaneous equations, 
powers and roots. (Have omitted logarithms.) 



Tlie following named texts, which have been thoroughly tested by 
competent teachers of algebra, are recommended for use in high school 

1. Taylor's Elements. Allyn & Bacon. 

2. Wells' Essentials. I). ('. Heath & Co. 
8. Wentworth's Revised. Liinn & Co. 

4. Fisher and Schwatt. University of Pennsylvania. 

5. Beman and Smith. Ginn & Co. 

(J. Milne-Academic. American Rook Co. 

12. Concvclv (ivnim'ti'ii. 

One-half j-ear (a mininnim period of fom* .school months) of daily 
recitations to be devoted to the mastery of the "language of geometry" 
and such of the simpler elements of geometry as may be illustrated in a 
concrete way. To be taught orally or witli the assistance of some good 

ii. nemojistratire drowrtrff. 

One year (eight school months) of daily recitati(ms in plain geometry 
re(piired of all students, and one-half year (four months) of solid geometry 
reciuirtni of students who are preparing for entrance to college, but elec- 
tive with those who will cease going to school at the close of their high 
school coiu'se. Special emphasis to be placed on the working out of 
practical exercises and the solution of original problems. 

The following texts are recommended: 

1. Wells' Essentials, Revised. D. C. Heath & Co. 

2. Wentworth, Revi.sed. Ginn & Co. 

3. Reman and Smith, Revis(»d. Ginn & Co. 

4. Philips an<l Kisher. American Rook Co. 

5. Milne. American Rook Co. 

0. Schultze an<l Sevenoak. The Macmillan Co. 




First ! Aljrehra. 




Alirebra, oru'-luilf of year. I Alg-fbra, one-lialf of year. 

r)einonstrativo(»poinetry, one-lialf ' Concrete (Jeonietry', one-half of 
of year. Plane. | year. 

Demonstrative ( ieonietry— Plane, 

one-half of year. 
Demonstrative (ieonietry - Solid. 

one-half of year. 

Demonstrative ( »e<mietry— Plane* 
entire year. 

Fourth I ?ile'*tive. 

Demonstrative (Jeometry— Solid. 

first half of year. 
Elective, second half of year. 


Foreign Languages. 

Latin, GrcH»k, French or German, if equally well taught, may be given 
equal value in the high school course. But in order to meet the require- 
ments for admission to Indiana colleges generally, a student must have 
had not less than three full years' work in some one of these languages. 


The study of Latin in the high school may he divided conveniently 
into periods of nine months each, whether or not thes(» i)eriods correspond 
to the length of the year in the several schools. Each period of nine 
months should be devoted to a distinct subject, the elements of the lan- 
guage, Caesar, Cicero and Virgil. These four subjects, or as many of 
them as the length of the course permits, should be taken in the order 
given al)ove, and no subject should be ])egun until nin<» months has been 
spent upon the one immediately preceding. Schools having a three years' 
course, shoidd. therefore, omit Virgil altogether; those having a two 
years' course should omit Cicero. The course which gives nine months to 
the elements and nine months to (^aesar is a better course than one of 
the same h^ngth which distributes the last nine mcmths among Caesar. 
CMcero and Virgil, or In^twcK'n auj' two of them. 

A school library is as essential to good work in Latin as is a collection 
of apparatus to good work in physics or zoology. Thirty or forty dollars 
will buy a good working collection as a nucleus, and the following list 
is recommended as a good one from which to make selections: 

Madvig's (Oinn & Co.) or Koby's (Macmillan) I^atin (Jrammar; Kiep- 
ert's (Leacli, Shewell tS: Sanborn) or Ginn ik. Co.'s Classical Atlas; I^ewis' 
Latin Dictionary for Scliools (Harper's); Harper's Dictionary of Classical 
Antiquities and Lit€*rature; Schreiber's Atlas of Classical Antiquities 
(Macmillanj; Johnston's Latin Manuscript (S(H)tt. Foresman & Co.); Gow's 
Companion to School Classics (Macmillan); Howard's Quantitative Pro- 
nunciation of Latin (Scott. Foresman & Co.); Mackail's Latin Literature 
(Scribner's) ; any good history of Rome; Plutarch's Lives; Roman Politi- 
cal Institutions, by Abbott ((iinn & Co.); History of Latin Literature, by 
Simcox (Harper's); Private Life of The Romans, by Preston & Dodge 
(B. H. Sanborn iN: Co.); Helps to the Intelligent Study of College Prepara- 
tory Latin, by Harrington (Ginn & Co.); liatin Phrase Book, by Meissner 
(Macmillan); Harper's Latin-pjuglish Dictionary; Smith's Dictionary of 
Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, li vols. (Harper's); Ward 
Fowler's Julius (\iesar (Putnam); Caius Julius ('aesar. by Dodge (Hough- 
ton. Mifflin & Co.); Julius (\-ieNar. by Dodge (Hougliton Mifflin & Co.); 
Julius Caesar, by Xapolc<m III (Harper's); Julius Caesar, by J. A. Fronde 
(Harper's); Caesar's Conquest of (Jaul, by T. Rice Holmes. London, 180?) 
(Macmillan); Roman Britaiin. by H. M. Scarth (Oxford); Roman Poets 
of the Augustan Age— Virgil, by S^'llar (Oxford); Essays on the Poetry 
of Virgil, in connection with his life and times, by Nettleship (D. Appleton 
& Co.); Master Vircil, by Tmiison (Robert Clark & (^o.. Cincinnati); Classic 
Myths, by (rayley (Ginn iS: Co.); Story of the Aeneid. Edward Brooks, 
superintendent public schools, Philadelphin; Myths of (ireece and Rome, 
by Guerber (American Book (^o.); Johnson's Metrical Licenses of Virgil 


(Scott. Foresman & Co.); Trollop's Cicero, 2 vols. (Harper's); Life of 
Cicero, by Forsyth (Scribner's); Catiline, Claudius and Tiberius, by Bees- 
ley (Longmans. Green & Co.); Cicero and the Fall of the Roman Republic, 
by Strachan— Davidson (Putnam's); Roman Life in the Days of Cicero, 
by Church (Dodd, Mead & Co.). 

The first nine months in Latin should be devoted to the study of the 
elements of the language under the guidance of some one of the modem 
books for beginners. It may be safely said that good results may be 
secured from any book in the following list, and also that books not in 
this list should be adopted by experienced teachers only, who have them- 
selves tested the books: rx)llar and Daniels (Ginn & Co.): Coy's (Ameri- 
can Book Co.); Jones' (Scott, Foresman & Co.); Scudder's (Allyn & Bacon); 
Tuell & Fowler's (B. F. Sanl^orn). The main emphasis should be laid 
during the use of the beginner's book upon the pronunciation, the inflec- 
tions, the order of words and the translations. In the average school 
time can hardly be spared for quantitative pronunciation, but the student 
should be well drilled in the Roman sounds of the letters and in accent. 
In regard to the inflections, nothing short of absolute mastery will suffice, 
and at least one-third of the recitation time should be devoted to black- 
!)oard drills upon declensions and conjugations until such mastery has 
been gained. In drilling the pupils to take the thought in the Latin order 
the teacher should follow the method outlined by Professor W. G. Hah' 
(Ginn & Co.) and should give daily exercises. In translation the teacher 
should insist ui>on faultless English, fluent and idiomatic, and should pre- 
pare his own translations of even the easiest sentences with great care 
that they may serve as models for imitation by the class. At least nine 
months will ])e necessaiy for doing well the work given in any of the 
beginner's books named above, and schools having a year of less than 
nine months in length should carry this subject over into the second year. 

During the remainder of the course the work will be centered upon 
some one of th(» three great chissics. and the methods of the several 
periods will fliflfer very slightly. In justice to the teacher the authorities 
should insist*that all members of a class use the same text, and special 
texts for class-room should be provided and owned by the school. As 
the work goes on less and less attention need be given to inflections, but 
the drill in reading in the Latin order and in idiomatic translations should 
be maintained to the end. Special attention must be given throughout 
the rest of the course to syntax. The student should be examined every 
day upon the notes in his edition, and the teacher should test his knowl- 
edge by setting English sentences based upon the vocabulary and syntax 
of the Latin text for translation. These sentences should be short and 
easy, and are best made l>y the teacher from day to day; if, however, the 
teach<»r lacks time to compose the sentences he may draw them from such 
manuals as Collar's (Ginn & Co.); Daniel's (B. F. Sanborn); Moulton's 
(Ginn & Co.); Dodge & Tuttle's (American Book Co.), or Rigg's The Series 
in Latinum (Scott, Foresman & Co.). In addition to this translation there 
should be a systematic drill in syntax based upon one of the older meth- 
ods (Jones' is, perhaps, the most thoroughly tried) which should be con- 
tinued throughout tho second (Caesarian) and third (Ciceronian) period. 
While Virgil is read, prose composition may be suspended and the time 


devoted to reports upon mythology based on assigned references to works 
in tlie libraiy. Sight translation, once a fetich, should be used with 
caution, and only in connection with the text of the next day*s lesson. 
In Caesar a text may be selected from the following: Kelsey (Allyn & 
Bacon); Harper and Tolman, or Harkness (American Book Co.); Chase & 
Stuart (Eldridge & Bro.); Greenough (Ginn & Co.); Lowe & Ewing (Scott, 
Foresman & Co.). 

It is recommended that the class read first Book I, Chai)ter 1-29, then 
Rooks II, III and IV, and then the omitted chapters of Book I, or an 
equivalent amount from Book V. 

In Cicero the class should read first the four orations against Catiline, 
then one of the longer orations (e. g., the Manilian Law, the Milo, the 
Murena or Roscius, then if there is time for further reading, a selection 
from the letters will be found interesting and profitable. The following 
editions are the best: Kelst\v (Allyn & Bacon); "D*Oge" (Sanborn, Bos- 
ton); Greenough's (Ginn & Co.); Johnston's (Scott, Foresman & Co.). 

In Virgil the reading should be confined to the Aeneid and Book III 
may well be postponed or omitted altogether. Scanning should be taught 
from the first, and either the advance or the review lesson ought to be 
scanned in full every day. Tlie following editions are reconunended : 
Greenough & Kittredge (Ginn & Co.); Comstock's (Allyn & Bacon); 
Frieze's six books and vocabulary (American Book Co.). 

Practical suggestions on the teaching of the Latin in the high schools 
of Indiana will be found in a paper read Ijefore the classical section of 
the state teacliers' association in December, 1890, by Professor Johnston, 
of Indiana university. It may be obtained without cost of Scott, Fores- 
man & Co., 8r»8 Wabash ave., Chicago. 

Greek * 

1. A !)eginner's book, followed, if time permits, by the reading of easy 

selections from Xenophon. 

2. Three or four books of the Anabasis, or two of the Anabasis and two 

of the Hellenica. with plentiful exercise in prose composition and 
some study of Greek histoiy. 

3. Three or four books of Homer, either Iliad or Odyssey, with careful 

study of forms and the heroic meter, and a general view of Greek 


1. Elementary German, using a !)eginner's book, supplementing the same 

with Guerber's Miirchen und Brziihlungen. and Storm's Immensee. 

2. German Grammar and reading of Hoher als die Klrche, Aus dem 

Leben eines Taugenichts. Der Neffe als Onkel and Der Bibliothe- 

3. Prose composition and reading of Der Fluch der Schonheit, Wilhelm 

Tell, Hermann and Dorothea, Minna von Barnhelm. A general 
view of German literature. 

♦CouFHe outlined by the city siiperinteiHlents' association. 


French * 

1. A staiHlartl course in eleinontary French, with exercise in composition. 

and the reading of L*Abbe Constantin and liindred selections from 
French literature. 

2. Continue the study of French grammar and read Madame Therese. 

Coppee et Maupassant, and Contes de Daudet. 

3. French comimsition and reading of Hugo's Hernani, Moliere*s Le 

Bourgeois Gt»ntilhomnie. and Racine's Athalie. 

Literature and Composition. 

The object of the English course in the commissioned high school is 
to give the student the ability to speak his native language correctly, to 
write readily and effectively, to read with sympathy and insight, and thus 
to strengthen himself with the best thoughts of others, and to communi- 
cate his own best thoughts in an unmistakable way. To attain this object 
involves the teaching of literature and of composition. One re<*itation a 
day for foin* years should be given in English. 

The teaching of composition should extend over thn full period of 
four years, even if tlie subject can not be taught oftener than once a 
week. The reason for this is that composition is not a subject that seeks 
to impart a given amount of information; it is a subject that concerns 
itself with the student's ability to express himself at all times. This 
ability can be conveyed to the student only by drilling him in writing at 
all stages of his career. As he grows In thought, he must advance in 
expression; and hence practice in comi)osition must be continuous until 
tlu» student has the command of English suggested above. 

There is less reason for making the study of literature continuous; 
in so far as the study of literature consists of information, it may be 
taught like history or science: but in so far as it is a training in taste, 
it requires continuous treatment. Add to this the fact that literature 
is a potent aid to composition, and it appears that, on the whole, literature 
ought to l>e taught continuously through the four years. If, however, 
only one of the two subjects can be taught continuously, that one subject 
should be composition. 

As to the relative amoimt of time to be si>ent on literature and com- 
position, it is suggested that approximately two fifths of the time given 
to English ])e devoted to composition. 

This <'ourse of study is recommended for the non-commissioned and 
township grade<l higli schools of the state also, and teachers are urged 
to follow the suggestions for commissioned high schools whenever 

The work should 1k» done so well that pupils completing one. two or 
three years in the non-commissioned schools sliould receive credit for 
same upon entering any of the commissioned schools. 


The work In composition should consist of constant practice in writ- 
ing. The two great sourc«»s of material that the pupil should use in his 

♦Course outlined by the city superintendents' association. 


work are (1) his own experience, (2) literature. The work in literature 
and composition should be so correlated as to make the first furnish 
a great deal of the material for the second, while the second should 
strongly supplement the first. Themes or essays ui)on sul)jects well 
within the student's range should be called for at least once a week. 
Many short papers, daily, if possible, rather than longer papers weekly, 
will contribute to the ends sought Dltflcult, complex subjects, l)eyond the 
reach of the immature mind, should never be given. These papers should 
l)e corrected, discussed and returned for rewriting. Careful, conscientious 
supervision of the work on the part of the teacher, and judicious, sympa- 
thetic criticism of all the work on the part of the teacher and pupils is 
strongly to be desire<l. There is a large part of the habit-forming element 
in comiK)sition. Correction should involve points in spelling, grammar, 
l)unctuation, choice of words and construction of paragraphs. The teach- 
ing of rhetoric should be made distinctly subordinate to the teaching 
of composition. 

The study of standard authors as models; for example, Irving and 
Stephenson in description; Hawthorne, Toe and James in narration; Thor- 
eau and Martin in exposition; Burke. Welister and Beecher in argumenta- 
tion. Of these forms of discourse, description and narration should re- 
ceive most attention. Exposition should have more time than argumenta- 
tion. It is not necessary, however, that pupils spend a great deal of time 
in learning to make sharp distinctions between these various forms of dis- 

No one text-book in rhetoric or composition will be found adapted to 
the needs of eveiy school. Tlie text-books named below are all practical 
l>ooks; but the teacher must rememl)er that in composition teachhig no 
text-book can take the place of stimulating class-room instruction. 

Studies in English Composition, Keeier and Davis; Outlines of Rheto- 
ric. Genung; Handbook of Composition, Hart; Foundations of Rhetoric, 
Hill; English Composition. Newcomer; Exercises in Rhetoric and Com- 
lM)sition, Cari>i'nter; S<'hool English, Butler; Composition-Rhetoric, Scott 
and Denny; Composition and Rhetoric for Schools. Herrick and Damon; 
Composition and Rhetoric. T.o<*kwood and Emerson; Talks on Writing 
English. Arlo Bates; English C<nnpositlon. Barrett Wend(»ll; Short Story 
Writing, Charles Raymond Barrett; Pliilosophy of the Short Stor.v. Bran- 
der Matthews; Story Compo.sition. Sherman Cody; The Story Teller's 
Art, Charity Dye. 


The work in literature should consist mainly of tlie study of repre- 
sentativ«» selections from the work in English and American authors. The 
simi>ler forms of writing, those that tlie student can interpret most easily, 
should be first presented, narrative* poems and tliose having strongly 
marked symbols coming before descriptive poems and those in which 
the charm is largely in suggestion. As tlie student gains in interpretative* 
power, the more difficult form*^ may be i)ut before him. Thus the litera- 
ture work might fitly l)egin with selections from Ivongfellow and Whittier. 
and end with Slialv(>s]>eare. Browning and Carlyle. 

14— Education. 



The emphasis should at all times be placed upon the study of the liter- 
ature rather than upon books about literature. But this should not mean 
that some very systematic work should not be done in studying the devel- 
opment of the literature and the place occupied by each author in this 
development. This work may be in the form of talks by the Instructor, 
or some of the briefer manuals may be put into the hands of the pupils. 

While it is true that it is better to know a few books well than to 
know many imperfectly, yet it is also true that one purpose of this work 
is to give an idea of the extent of the fields covered. To that end a num- 
ber of masterpieces should be studied in reasonable detail, while many 
more should be r(»ad rapidly for special i>oints and to give some hint to 
the pupil of the great variety and diversity of literary products. The 
greatest objection to a set course of masterpiece study is that it gives an 
utterly false perspective of the subject. This may in some measure be 
corrected by the means suggested. 

In the following list the dat«'s refer to the year or graduation, i. e.. 
a class graduating in 11)02 should read during its high school career the 
books named under that date. 

I. For general reading and composition work: 

ShakeKpean^— Merchant of Venice I « 

Shakespeare— Julius Ca'sar 

A<idison— Ue ( 'overly Papers i * 

Tennyson— The Princess . * 

Lowell— Vision of Sir Launfal ' « 

Scott— Ivan lu)e ' « 

('oleri<ijere— Ancient Mariner « 

Pope-Iliad, r, VI, XXII, XXIV , ♦ 

rioldsniith- Vicar of Wakefield ' * 

Cooper— Last of tlie Mohicans I * 

(leorjre Eliot— Silas Mamer * 

Carlyle— Essay on Burns 

II. FiU' minute and critical study: 

Shakespeare— Macbeth 

Milton— L'Allepro, II Penseroso. Conius. Lycidas 

Macaulay— Milton and Addison 

Burke— Conciliation with America 

* « * 

* i * « 

« ' » * 

« I * * 


(*) An asterisk indicates the year a book is to be used. 

It is greatly to bo (h^sired that (»v(M'y high school be supplied with a 
large number of standard works suited to the needs of l>oys and girls of 
liigh school age. Opportunity would thus be ofTere<l for directing to con- 
siderable extent tlie outside n»a(iing of the l)oys and girls at this impor- 
tant period of their mental development. For purposes of general reading 
and culture it is suggested tliat as many of the works named l>elow, and 
others of similar chara<'t<'r. as <an l)e sui>i>lied be i)la<'ed on the shelves 
of the library in every high school of the state: 



Corvantos. S. M. do. Don Quixote; abridged by Clifton JohnMon. 

HuKO, Victor. Jean Valjean; od. by Sare E. Wiltse. 

Stevenson. K. Louis. Trea.sure Island. 

Moi*se. John T. Jolni Quiney Adams. 

Shuniway. Edgar E. Day in Ancient Rome. 

Harri.son, Benj. This Country of Ours. 

Ball, Robert S. Starland. 

Bulfinch, Thos. Age of Fable. 

Bulwer-Lytton, Sir I^Mward. Last Days of Pompeii. 

Guerber. H. A. Legends of the Middle Ages. 

Hale, E. E. Man Without a Country, and Five Other Stories. 

Curtis. Geo. Wm. Prue and I. 

Dickens, Chas. Story of Oliver Twist; condensed by Ella B. Kirk. 

Matthews. Wm. Getting on in tlie World; or Hints on Success in Life. 

Hcilprin. Angelo. Earth and Its Story. 

Shaler. X. S. Story of Our Continent. 

Thoreau. Henry D. Snc<*ession of Forest Trees. 

Byron, T^ord. Childe Harold; ed. by Andrew J. George. 

Dryden. John. Palamon Arcite; cd. by W. H. Crawshaw. 

Goldsmith, Oliver. She Stoops to Conquer. 

Wordsworth, Wm. On the Intimations of Immortality. 

(JrifHs, Wm. Elliott. Brave Little Holland and What She Taught TJs. 

Hodgin, Cyrus W. Indiana and the Nati<m. 

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The Thought of; ed. by Edwin Ginn. 

Campbell. Thomas. Pleasures of Hope. 

Emerson, R. W. American Scholar, Self-Reliance and Compensation 

Keats. John. Endymion; ed. by Gollancz. 

Moore, Thos. La Ha Rookh. 

Pope. Alex. Essay on Man. 

Sophocles. Antigone and Oedipus King; tr. by Coleridge. 

Moore. Sir Thos. TTtopia: ed. by Gollancz. 

Wallace. JjOW. Ben Ilur. 

Warner, Chas. Dudley. Being a Boy. 

Lamartine. A. de. Oliver Cromwell. 

Mahaffy, J. P. Old Greek Life. 

Whipple, Edwin P. Charact(»r and Characteristic Men. 

Plato. Ai)ology. Crito; tr. by Paul E. More; Republic. 

Mulock. John Halifax Gentleman. 

Kipling, R. Light tliat Failed. Captains CouragiH>u.s. 

Dickens. Clias. David Coppertleld; Nicholas Nlckleby. 

Bryant, Wm. C. Thanatopsis. 

Brooks. Lecture on Biography. 

Burke. Speech on Conciliation with America. 

Coleridge. Ancient Mariner. 

Cooper. Last of the Mohicans. 

DeQuincey. Revolt of the Tartars. 

Dickens, C^has. Tale of Two Cities. 



Gayley. Classic Myths in Eiif^lish Literature. 

Eliot. Geoi-jro. Silas Mariier. 

Goldsmith. Oliver. Vicar of Walietield: Deserted Village: The Traveler. 

Irving, W. Slcetch Rook. 

Johnson. Hasselas. 

Macaulay. Essays on Addison and Milton. 

Milton, Paradise Lost, Bks. I, IL and Lycidas; L'Allegro, II Penseroso. 

Plutarch. Lives. 
Uuskin. Selections. 

Scott. Ivanhoe; Talcs of a (Grandfather. 
Shakespeare. Merchant of A'enice; Julius Caesar; Hamlet; Macbeth: 

ed. by Hudson. 
Coverley, Sir Roger de. Papers. 

Tennyson. The Princess: Enocli Arden: In Menua'iam: Ix)ck8ley Hall. 
Webster. Si>et*<*lies: Pirst Runker Hill Address. 
White. Natural History of Sclborne 
Wriglit. C. 1). Industrial Evolution of the IT. S. 
Clod<l. Edw. Stoiy of l*riniitive Man. 
Atkinson. Philip. Elc<*tricity for Everybody. 
Grinnell. G. R. Story of the Indian. 
Lodge. H. C. and R(K>sevelt, Theodore. Hero Tales from American 

Walker. F. A. Making of the Nation. IT&MSIT. 
Dana. Two Years Refore the Mast. 
Poe. Haven. 

Schurz. Carl. Abraham Lincoln. 

Chauc(>r. Prologue, The Knight's Tale, and The Nun's Priest*s Tale. 
Lowell. Vision of Sir Launfal: Books and Libraries; My Garden Ac- 
Franklin. Renj. Poor Uichjird's Almanac and Autobiography. 
Hawthorne, (ireat Stone Face; Snow-Innige. 
Whittier. Snow- Round: .M.-uid Muller. 
Emerson. Rehavior: R<ioks. 
Everett. (Character of Wsishington. 
Longfellow. Ev.ingeline; Ruilding of the Ship: Courtship of Miles 

Tennyson. Charge of the Light Rrigad<»: Death of the Old Year: 

Crossing the Rar. 
Wordsworth, Wm. To a Skylark; To the Cuckoo; DafTodils; To the 

Rurns. The Cotter's Saturday Night: To a M(mse; For A' That and 

A' That: Auld Lang Syne. 
Lamb. Dream Children: Dissertation Fikju Roast Pig; Barbara S : 

Old China. 
Coleridge. Kuble Khan. 
Racon. Essays: of travel: of Studies: of Suspicion: of Negotiating: of 

Masques and Triumi>hs. 
Lowell. Abraham Lincoln; Commemoration Ode. 
Holmes. Autocrat of the Rreakfast Table. 



Hughes. Tom Browif s School Days. 

Larcom, Lucy. A New England Girlhood. 

Longfellow. Chilron^s Hour. 

Diekens, Chas. Christinas Carol. 

St. Pierre. Paul and Virginia. 

Brown. John. Rab and His Friends. 

Carlyle. (iot^the, an Essay. 

Gray. Elegy in a Country Churchyard. 

Lamb. Essaj's from Ella. 

Thomson. The Seasons. 

Thackeray. Lighter Hours. 

Homer. Hiad; Odyssey: tr. by Bryant. 

Aeschylus. I*rometheus Bound: tr. by More. 

Euripides. Alkestis: Medea; Hippolytos: tr. by Lawtoii. 

Dante. Divine (^omedy: tr. by Norton. 

Omar Khayyfim. UubAiyfit; tr. by Fitzgerald. 

Fiske. War of Indei)endence. 


Second Year- 
History of (xreece (tirst half year). 
History of Home (second half yean. 

Third Year- 
History of England (whole year), or 
History of France (first half of year). 
History of England (second half of year). 

Fourth Year- 
American History and the Civil (Jovernment of United States and In- 
diana (througluMit the year). 


History of Greece. Myers, Botsford. 
History of Rome. Allen. 

History of England. Larned: Montgomery: Oman: Coman and Ken- 
History of Franc*'. The Growth of the French Nation, Macmillan. 
American History. Mcljiughlin: McMaster: Clianning: Fiske. 
Civics— IJ. S. Fiske: Hinsdale: Macy: ^Vrigllt. 
Civics— Indiana. Rawles: Hodgin. 

It is recommended that the third year's work, while particularly de- 
voted to France and England, be made to include a general survey of 
meiliaeval and modern hist<u'y. As a basis for such study France is to be 
preferred. If. however, the year consists of at least nine full months, this 
subject may be taken up during the first half, and the remaining time be 
devoted to England. In this case it would be well to concentrate the 
work in English history on the development of English institutions since 


the accession of the Tudors, going over briefly earlier phases of English 
history like the Norman conquest, Magna Charta and the beginning of 

In the fourth year it is desirable that the work in American history 
and civil government be as closely correlated as iM)ssible. Thus, thr 
study of the text of the articles of confederation and of the constitution 
should come in connection with the stmly of their historical setting. 

Among the books that should be placed in tiie library as reference 
l)ooks in history may 1m» named the following: 

History for Ready Reference. Lamed. (» vols. 

History of Rome. Duruy. 8 vols. 

History of Greece. Botsford. 

History of Rome. Gibbon. 

History of Middle Ages. Duruy. 

History of France. Duruy. 

History of England. Fronde. 

History of England. Green. 

History of England. Oman. 

History of England. Guest. 

The Dutch Republic. Motley. 

United Netherlands. Motley. 

Periods of European History. The Macmillan Co. 

Ferdinand and Isabella. Prescott. 

Philip II. Prescott. 

England in the Eighteenth Century. Leckey, 8 vols. 

Civilization During the Middle Ages. Adams. 

Causes of the Frendi Revolution. Dabney. 

History of the People of the United States. McMa.ster. 

Twelve English Statesmen. The Macmillan Co. 

American Statesmen Series. Houghton, Mitllin & Co. 

History of the United States. Bancroft. 

Epochs of Ameri(!an History. Longmans, Green & Co. 

American History Series. Scribner's. 

Schouler's History of the Ignited States. 

Rhodes' History of the United States. 

Critical Period of American History. 

American Common Wealth Series. 

Bryce's American Commonwealth. 

Also each school should be supplied with: 

MacCoun's Historical Geography of Europe. Ancient and Classical 

MacCoun*s Historical Geography of Europe. Mediaeval and Modern 

MacCoun's Historical Geography of the United States, or some series 

of charts equivalent thereto. 



City. Supermtrmlenf. 

Akron Mrs. Carrie Tompleton. 

Albany W. L. Cory. 

Albion J. A. Cunimiugs. 

Alexandria J. G. Collieott. 

Aniboy A. E. Martin. 

Anderson J. W. Carr. 

Angola H. H. Keep. 

Arcadia E. J. Llowollyii 

Ashley J. A. Moody. 

Attica E. H. Drake. 

Auburn B. B. Harrison. 

Aurora J. R Houston. 

Bedford W. E. Alexander. 

Bloomfield C. B. McLinu. 

Bloomington J. K. Beck. 

Bluflfton W. A. Wirt. 

Boonville C.E.Clark. 

Boswell J. H. Barnes. 

Brazil L. B. O'Dell. 

Bremen W. F. Ellis. 

Broad Ripple S. B. Plaskett. 

Brookville H. L. Smith . 

Brownstown W. B. Black. 

Butler H. G. Brown. 

Cambridge City Lee Ault. 

Cannelton J. F. Organ. 

Carmel John W. Teter. 

Carthage J. H. Scholl. 

Cayuga Colfax Martin. 

Chalmers John Gowers. 

Cliarlestown W. A. Collings. 

Cliesterton S. H. Roe. 

Churubusco Claud Belts. 

Cicero F. A. Gauze. 

Clinton Wm. F. Clark. 

Colfax C.O.Mitchell. 

College Corner E. P. Wilson. 

Columbia City C. L. Hottel. 

Columbus T. F. Fitzgibbon. 

Connersville W. S. Rowe. 

Converse C. E. Spaulding. 

Covington H. S Kauffman. 

Corydon Jesse W. Riddle. 

Crawfordsville W. A. Millis. 

Crown Point F. F. Heighway . 

Dana W. H. Smythe. 

Danville 0.0. Pratt. 


('fty. Sapermtendeid. 

Darlington Daniel Freeman. 

Decatnr H. A. Hartman. 

Delphi E. L. Hendricks. 

Dublin J. C. Mills. 

Dunkirk O. E. Vinzant. 

East Chicago W.C.Smith. 

Edinburg C. F. Patterson. 

Elkhart D. W. Thomas. 

Elwood C. S. Meek. 

EvansTille Frank W. Cooley. 

Fairmount C. H. Copeland. 

Flora J. S. Slabaugh. 

Fortville W. A. Myers. 

Fort Wayne J. N. Study. 

Fountain City B. W. Kelley. 

Fowler Lewis Hoover. 

Frankfort E. S. Monroe. 

Franklin H. B. Wilson. 

Frankton J. B. Fagan. 

Galveston E. E. Tyner. 

Garrett E. E. LoUar. 

Gas City J. H. Jeffrey. 

Goodland M. A. Hester. 

Goshen V. W. B. Hedgepeth. 

Gosport Edwin L. Thompson. 

Greencastle H. G. Woody. 

Greenfield W. C. Goble. 

Greensburg E. C. Jerman. 

Greentown H. E. Shephard. 

Greenwood O. E. Beliymer. 

Hagerstown O. L. Voris. 

Hammond W. H. Hershman. 

Hartford City C. H. Drybread. 

Hobart W. R. Curtis. 

Huntingburg F. D. Kepner. 

Huntington W. P. Hart. 

Hebron S.N. Greery. 

Indianapolis C. N. Kendall. 

Jasper B. Sanders. 

Jeffcrsonville C. M. Marble. 

Jouesboro A. E. Highley. 

Keudallville D. A. Lambright. 

Keutland C. L. Stubbs. 

Kirklin F. B. Long. 

Knightstown W. D. Kirlin. 

Knox C. W. Egner. 

Kokomo R. A. Ogg. 


Citjf. Suj^erfntend^yit. 

Ladoga J. F. Warfel. 

Lafayette R. F. Hight. 

Lagrange W. H. Brandenburg. 

Lapel W. W. Mershon. 

Laporte John A. Wood. 

Lawrencebnrg T. H. Meek. 

Lebanon C. A. Peterson. 

Liberty J. W. Short. 

Ligonier W. C. Palmer. 

Lima A. W. Nolan. 

Linton Oscar Dyo. 

Logansport A. H. Donglass. 

Lowell H. B. Dickey. 

Lynn Ossian S. Myers. 

Madison CM. McDaniel. 

Marion B. F. Moore. 

Markle Jolm Reber. 

Martinsville J. E. Robinson. 

Michigan City P. A. Cowgill. 

Middletown H. N. Coflfman. 

Mishawaka J. F. Nuner. 

Mitchell J. L. Clanser. 

Monon J. H. Shaffer. 

Montezuma J. A. Lineberger. 

Monticello J. W. Hamilton. 

Montpelier L. E. Kelley. 

Mooresvillo W. C. Pidgeon. 

Mt. Vernon E. G. Bauman. 

Muncie G. L. Roberts. 

McCordsville W. B. Stookey. 

Nappanee S. W. Baer. 

New Albany O. A. Prosser. 

New Augusta John Shipman. 

New Carlisle J. W. Rittinger. 

New Castle J. C. Weir. 

New Harmony Joseph Kelley. 

New London M. R. Heinmiller. 

Newport J. W. Kendall. 

Noblesville J. A. Camagey. 

North Judson C. F. Blue. 

North Manchester C. F. Miller. 

North Vernon G. P. Weedman. 

Oakland City R. J. Dearborn. 

Odon F. M. McConnell. 

Orleans M.S. Mahan. 

Oxford M. F. Orear. 

Paoli J. C. Brown. 

Pendleton E.A.Allen. 


City. SuperinienderU. 

Pennville W. W. Knox. 

Peru A. A. Campbell. 

Petersburg Sylvester Thompson. 

Pierceton F. F. Vale. 

Plymoutli R. A. Randall. 

Portland Hale Bradt. 

Princeton Harold Barnes. 

Redkey J. E. Orr. 

Remington J. N. Spangler. 

Rensselaer W. H. Sanders. 

Richmond T. A. Mott. 

Rising Sun R. L. Theibaud. 

Roaclidale E. C. Dodson. 

Roann J. O. Reynolds. 

Roanoke W. T. Lambert. 

Rochester D. T. Powers. 

Rochester Township High School W. H. Banta. 

Rocki)ort F. S. Morganthaler. 

Rockville O. H. Blossom. 

Rusliville A. O. McGregor. 

Salem Lotus D. Coflfman. 

Seymour H. C. Montgomery. 

Slielby ville J. H. Tomlin. 

Sheridan Abraham Bowers. 

Shipshewana J. W. Hostettler. 

Shoals O. H. Greist. 

Soutli Bend Calvin Moon. 

South Wliitley J. W. Coleberd. 

Spencer A. L. Whitmer. 

Summitville A. C. Wooley. 

Sullivan W. C. McCullough. 

Swayzee E. E. Petty. 

Terre Haute W. H. Wiley. 

ThorntowTi T. C. Kennedy. 

Tipton I. L. Conner. 

Toi)eka L. K. Babcock. 

Union City Linnaeus Hines. 

Upland W. W. Holiday. 

Valparaiso A. A. Hughart. 

Van Buren S. W. Convoy. 

Voedt^rshurg W. C. Brandenburg. 

Vovay E. M. Dauglade. 

Vincennes A. E. Humke. 

Wabash Miss Adalaide S. Baylor. 

Walkertou A. E. Clawsou. 

Wanatali F. R. Farnam. 

Warren J. H. Shock. 


City. Superintendent. 

Warsaw Noble Harter. 

Washington W. F. Axtell. 

Warterloo W. S. Almond. 

Waveland Rupert Simpkins. 

Westfield W. A. Jessnp. 

West Lafayette E. W. Lawrence. 

Whiting R. L. Hughes. 

Williamsport S. O. Hanson. 

Winamac W. H. Kelley. 

Wincliester O. R. Baker. 

Windfall John Owen. 

Wolcott E. B. Rizer. 

Worthington W. B. VanGorder. 

Zionsville H. F. Gallimore. 



The public hi^h school as it exists today in America is largely 
the ^rowtli of the ])Jist sixty years. These schools have to a 
lar^e extent sn|)])lanted the endowed academies and private schools 
that formerly constituted the only connection between the ele- 
mentary schools and the college. Its development has been so 
rapid and complete that at the beginning of the twentieth century 
we find it a fundamental part of the system of public education 
in all our states. 

The functions of the high school may be enumerated as follows : 

1. Tt completes and symmetrizes tlie work begun in the ele- 
ment arv schools. 

2. Tt seeks the safety of the state by extending to the more 
capable children of all classes those educational advantages that 
will result in the selection and training of leaders for intelligent 
service in academic, professional, and industrial life. 

3. Tt opens the doors of the college, the technical, and the 
professional schools to capable boys and girls of slender means. 

4. Tt supplies teachers and furnishes incentives to the ele- 
mentary schools. 

5. Tt seeks to maintain political equality and active sympathy 
among all classes. 

6. Tt serves to extend among the mass of people the beneficent 
results of higher training and sound learning. 


7. Tt seeks to implant in the minds of youth the fundamental 
notions of idealism and morality. 

Tn making a study of the high schools of the country one will 
find that the weakest element in their work results from lack 
of trained teachers. A great majority of the teachers have re- 
ceived no professional training whatever. Tt has been too long 
held that teachers like poets are horn, not made, and therefore 
any professional and technical instruction, or criticism of their 
work is superfluous. There seems to he a belief that by some 
mysterious process of mental alchemy college students may be 
transformed into successful teachers by sitting behind the in- 
structor's desk. A yonng man does not become a practicing phy- 
sician after taking a college course in physiology, or a lawyer 
after passing his examination in constitutional law; the state in 
both cases protects, alike, the young man from himself and the 
community from his inexnerience. This sort of protection is 
not extended to the schools of the state, and high school students 
everywhere are sufl^erers from the well meant but crude efforts 
of college graduates to gain experience, an experience that must 
be gained at the expense of their pupils. Hundreds of young 
teachers with hijrh scholarly attainments enter our high schools 
with ambition to succeed, rejoicing in their opportunities for suc- 
cess; yet there is a constant procession of those who as failures 
abandon the profession simiilv because they never were taught 
the first principles of theory and practice, and of method in 
the work before them. 

The secondary school is not merely the first four years of the 
college, nor is it an additional four years of the elementary 
schools. The secoudarv school of today fills a place in the edu- 
cation of the child that is untouched by the elernentary school 
or the true collecre. The child enters the his:h school at from 
thirteen to fifteen years of age, and for the next four or five 
years passes through a distinct and vital period of his develop- 
ment. TTis traininfiT during this adolescent period presents new 
and vital problems that are not met in the primary or elementary 
schools, and which are not important in the real college. 

With this psvcholonrical and new birth, new and distinct meth- 
ods become imperative. The individual at this stage more than 
at any other time of his life, is susceptible to real culture and 


tlevelopinent. In most lives this is the time of natural dawn 
of the educational instinct. It is tlie waking time of life in 
both body and mind, it is now that we find ^'subtle emotions 
are setting into dispositions, and dispositions are becoming char- 
acter." This is especially the period "when the great instincts 
of altruism begin to be felt and transform the soul, and there 
comes to the individual the great conception that life is after 
all not to be lived for self, but for others; there comes to the 
soul the instinct of subordination and sacrifice, of being ready 
to die for what he would live for." 

In this period of tlie child's growth there is demanded of both 
parents and teachers a larger kno\vledge of his physical and 
psychical life than at any other time; here a broader knowledge 
of the child nature and the laws of his growth is imperative. 
Here, as well as in the kindergarten and the elementary schools, 
the teacher trained for his particular work is a necessity. 

It is only during the last few years that there has arisen any 
serious questi(m concerning the necessary qualifications of teach- 
ers in the secondary schools. So long as the only secondary school 
of consequence was the academy or college preparatory school, 
so long the only teacher worth considering was the college grad- 
uate. He who would successfully fit boys for college must him- 
self know^ by experience what the college demanded. But with 
the growth of knowledge of the child's life, with an enlarged 
curriculum, and especially since the grow^th of the high school 
has introduced varicjty, not only in the subject of instruction, 
but in the purposes of the school as well, the lV>rmcr supply 
of teachers has proved inadequate. Unquestionably the lack of 
professional training and technical knowledge in the art of teach- 
ing, on the part of the average college graduate, had great weight 
in promoting the belief that a college education was not an essen- 
tial pre-requisite for teaching in the secondary schools. In hun- 
dreds of cases the normal school graduate, the specialist and 
the elementary teacher who has made a reputation in school man- 
agement have b(Hm selected for positions in the high school in pref- 
erence to those with a liberal college training. 

We may deplore the situation as we will, it is nevertheless 
true that the college-trained teacher without true professional 
knowledge has but a slight advantage in gaining admission to 


our secondary school. The college graduate has been carefully 
weighed these many years and too frequently found wanting. 
The specialist and the normal school graduate have also been 
tested and the popular verdict is that they, too, are often poor 
craftsmen. The educational welfare of the country demands that 
public opinion recognize higher standards of professional prep- 
aration. Those interested in the good of the school must know 
that "School keeping is not necessarily school teaching." The 
technical ability to teach includes both. ''The art of teaching 
is mimicry and a dangerous gift" unless it is founded on the 
true science of life, which takes into account the ends and means 
of education and the nature of the mind to be taught "Gradu- 
ates of colleges and normal schools must fail as teachers in the 
high school if they teach only as they have been taught." The 
methods of college professors are not always the best, and if 
they wore, high school pupils are not taught or disciplined as 
college students are. The work of the s(*coudary school is unique. 
It requires an arrangement and pn^sentation of the subject matter 
of instruction in a way unknown in the elementary school 
and unheeded in most college teaching; it requires tact, judgment, 
and disciplinary powers peculiar to the management of youth. 

In considering the question ai the advanced training of teachers 
for the secondary sduxils wo can not fail to take into considera- 
tion the problem of remuneration of the teacher. It is becoming 
harder, year by year, for the college* graduate to find employment 
in the schools at a living salary, (rranted that the number of 
positions annually falling vacant is relatively stationary, and that 
the number of ap])licants are annually increasing, but one result 
may be expected unless an increase of wages can be brought 
about. The law of supply and demand would seem to force 
the salaries down. In the majority of secondary schools of the 
country, little pecuniary inducement is oflFered to the intending 
teacher to take an advanced course in professional training. It 
may seem true that so lightly is higher professional training re- 
garded in secondary schcK)ls that it is a question whether the 
average teacher who must de])end on the usual salary can aflFord 
to spend the time and money necessary to the higher preparation 
for his work. 


While we acknowledge the strength of this argument, we still 
contend that tlie great advantage of the trained teacher in the 
high school will be finally recognized. When the American people 
see that a thing is really worth having they know how to pay 
for it without grumbling. The better class of secondary schools 
over the country now pay fair salaries and insist on getting the 
ablest teachers. The very fact that the competition for these posi- 
tions is disagreeably keen is the surest guarantee of a better 
system of training teachers for the secondary work. The earnest 
young teacher can not afford to compete, other things being equal, 
with those whose preparation has been less expensive and less 
complete than his; the only hope of the ambitious college grad- 
uate is to put himself distinctively above his competitors in 
the field of his chosen work. This fact furnishes the opportunity 
for the teachers' c(->llege and the school of pedagogy in the uni- 
versity. It is precisely this condition of affairs which makes 
possible for the first time in America a serious consideration 
of ideal methods for training teachers for secondary schools. 

The committee of fifteen have said that ^^One-sixth of the teach- 
ers in the United States are engaged in secondary work and in 
supervision. These are the leading teachers. They give edu- 
cational tone to the communities as well as inspiration to the 
larger body of teachers. It is of great importance that they 
be imbued Avith the professional spirit springing from sound 
professional culture. The very difficult positions which they fill 
demand ripe scholarship, more than ordinary ability, and an 
intimate knowledge of the period of adolescence.'' 

During the sixty years of the existence of the normal school 
in America, its influence on the educational methods and thoughts 
of the country has been teyond estimate and its growth phe- 
nomenal. According to the latest educational report of the na- 
tional bureau of education, 09,593 students were in attendance 
at the different normals and training schools of the United States. 
The excellence and thoroughness of the work in most of these 
.schools have always made them centers of educational thought 
in our country. That these institutions liave as yet failed to 
provide an ideal preparation for all classes of teachers is largely 
due to the fact that they have in nearly all cases disregarded 
some of the most fimdamental principles of professional training 


which were so ably set forth by Coiiiinissioner Harris in his 
article on *^The Future of the Xormal School." The most obvi- 
ous of these defects is the failure to differentiate the work they 
have attempted. The result of this failure is that all students, 
irrespective of the part they are to take in the profession, are 
trained side by side. The same course is supposed to train teach- 
ers to become city superintendents, county superintendents, prin- 
cipals and teachers at high schools, elementary teachers, primary 
teachers, and teachers in normal schools and colleges. It is 
certainly plain that the qualifications and equipment needed for 
teachers in these various positions are different in a very large 

The great advance made in educational methods during the 
past twenty years surely warrants us in saying that a new era 
in the problem of training teachers is beginning, resulting first 
from the demand of public opinion for a higher class of trained 
teachers in all departments of the school, and secondly, from 
the recent movement of colleges and universities in establishing 
professorships of education. It is evident to all students of edu- 
cational processes that the method oi instruction and the organi- 
zation of the work of training teachers should vary according to 
the grade of education in which tlie student expects to work. 
(N)mmissioner Harris, in the article above referred to, says: 
^'There is one method for the higher education and another for 
the elementary. Within each of these* there should be a further 
discrimination of methods, so that five stages of method will 
be noted.'' These five he enmnerates as the method of the kin- 
dergarten, of the elementary school, of the secondary school, of 
the college*, and of the university. S]>eaking of the work w4iich 
will bo re(|uired of the future normal s(*ho<)l and the department 
of education in the university, he says: *^The student will be 
taught how to present a branch of study symbolically according 
to the method of the kindergarten; by typical facts as in the 
elementary school; scientifically as in the secondary school; com- 
paratively as in th(* college; as a specialist would investigate it 
in the post-graduate course." 

In France there are three classes of normal schools and tlie 
prospective teacher enters one or the other according to his inten- 
tion of becoming a teacher in the elementary schools, a teacher 


in the secondary schools, or a teacher of teachers. The first 
of these normal schools trains those who are to be teachers of 
boys and girls under the age of fifteen. Eighty-nine of such 
normals have been established for young men and eighty-six 
for young women in France and the French colonies. For the 
training of instructors in these normal schools two special schools 
have been established, one for men and one for women. Here 
the subjects taught in the elementary schools are studied with 
a special reference to the needs of those who are to become a 
teacher of teachers. 

The normal school for the training of teachers for positions 
in secondary and higher institutions of learning is at Paris. 
In this school there are approximately one hundred students who 
are chosen by competitive examinations, open only to those who 
hold the bachelor's degree. At the end of the first year of the 
course all students are required to pass the examination for the 
master's degree. In all these normal schools courses are given 
in philosophy, psychology, history and principles of education, 
and during the last year of the course much time is devoted 
to observation and practice teaching under skilled critic teachers. 

In Grermany's experience we find an illustration of the truth 
that for the true high school teacher "to liberal scholarship must 
be added special scholarship, and to special scholarship profes- 
sional knowledge, and to professional knowledge technical skill." 
There the intending teacher in the secondary schools must first 
of all be a graduate of a secondary school; he must also hold 
a degree from the university; he must then obtain a certificate 
from a state board of examiners. But this certificate confers no 
right to teach. Something more than culture and scholarship 
is required. The applicant must have taken a course in philoso- 
phy, ethics, logic, psychology, and in the history and principles 
of education, and have spent one full year in the tonohrr's i^'Mu- 
inary, where he is trained in special methods of presenting the 
subjects which he expects to teach, in practice teaching under 
guidance, and in familiarizing himself with practical workings 
of a secondary school. It is safe to say that Germany owes more 
to the professional training of her teachers and their strong 
professional spirit than to any other factor in her educational 



When taking up the study of this question your committee 
addressed a letter of inquiry to about sixty leading educators 
of the United States containing the following questions: 

1. In addition to the regular collegiate course, or its equiva- 
lent, what professional training should be required of applicants 
for high school positions? 

2. How can this training be given by colleges? 

3. How can this training be given by our normal schools? 

4. How can this training be given by our city training schools ? 

5. ^Vhat requirements as to professional training are made 
of applicants for high school positions by the Board of Education 
of your city? 

Fifty-one answers were received to this letter. In answer to 
the first question, forty-two said that in addition to the regular 
college course one or more years of strictly professional character 
covering the work of the high school should be required. 

Of these forty-two answers, twenty-one insisted that one-half 
year or more should be given by all students to the observation 
of good high school work and practice in actual teaching under 
skilled critic teachers. Among those favoring the requirement 
of the practice work were the following: Charles Degarmo, Cor- 
nell university; Elwood Cubberly, Leland Stanford; F. Truedley, 
Youngstown, Ohio ; George P. Brown, Bloomington, 111. ; J. F. 
Millspaugh, Minnesota state nomuil; Edwin B. Cox, Xenia, 
Ohio; G. Stanley Hall, Clark university; Henry Wittemore, 
Massachusetts state normal ; J. M. Greenwood, Kansas City ; 
W. X. Hailniann, Dayton, Ohio; Paul H. Hanus, Harvard uni- 
versity; Sain T. Button, Columbia university; Arthur C. Boy- 
uen, Massachusetts state normal; S. T. Dial, Lockland, Ohio; 
C. B. Gilbert, Rochester; C. A. McMurray, Bloomington, 111.; 
Francis W. Parker, Chicago; H. S. Tarbell, Providence, R. I.; 
L. H. Jones, Cleveland, Ohio. Twelve of these forty-two made 
the specializing in the subject the candidate expects to teach, in 
addition to the usual college course, a very important require- 

In the second question the general answer was that the colleges 
and universities could furnish opportunities for the preparation 
of high school teachers by the establishment of schools of pedagogy 
for graduate students. In order to provide for the observation 


and practice work provision would necessarily have to be made 
for co-operation with the public high school in the vicinity of 
the college where students could do work under skilled direction. 

The answers to the third question were nearly uniform and 
to the effect that this work could not be done by the normal school 
as generally organized. But it would require the establishment 
in these schools of special departments for intending high school 
teachers who liave completed the regular course in the college 
or its equivalent, and the establishment of practice school facili- 

Concerning the fourth question the answers were uniform to 
the effect that the city training school could not practically do 
this work owing to the small number of teachers required and 
the large cost of maintaining a special school for this work. 
This plan was tried for a time at Providence, R. I., and at 
Brookline, Mass. 

The answers to the fifth question were to the effect that no 
city from which an answer was received had any uniform re- 
quirement in regard to the professional training of high school 
teachers. Most of the cities require that the candidates have a 
college education or its equivalent, and many of them that they 
should have specialized in the branches they are to teach. Two 
answers held that professional training for elementary work and 
successful practice therein were a good preparation for high 
school teachers. 

What, then, is the ideal preparation to be expected of high 
school teachers? The lowest requirements we can consistently 
demand would include four elements: (1) General academic 
culture. (2) Special academic training in the subjects the can- 
didate expects to teach. (3) Theoretical professional training. 
(4) Practical training in the art of teaching. 

First Greneral culture. Six years ago the committee of fifteen 
said that "the degree of scholarship required of the secondary 
teacher is by conmion consent fixed at a college education. No 
one, with rare exception, should be employed to teach in a high 
school who has not this fundamental preparation." The culture 
gained by a four years' course in advance of the grades to be 
taught is not too much to demand. The inspiring influence that 
comes from a well developed manhood or womanhood taught 



to view the subjects of the secondary school in a comparative 
manner, and trained to see the relationships existing in the vari- 
ous spheres of knowledge, is a force that the managers of a high 
school can not afford to neglect. 

Second. Special training in tlie subjects to be taught. The 
fact that a high school teacher must in some degree be a specialist 
is generally recognized, hi addition to the usual college course, 
the applicant should have 8i)ecialized one or more years either 
during his college course or in the post-graduate courses of the 
university in the subjects he expects to teach. Mr. Russell, of 
Columbia university, in his article on the "Training of Teachers 
for Secondary Schools,'' says: **The strongest argument that 
we can use against the average 'college graduate is that he has 
nothing ready to teach. This argument applies with even greater 
force to the normal graduate, however well he may be equipped 
on the professional side. Neither liberal culture nor professional 
skill can at all replace the solid sub-stratum of genuine scholar- 
ship on which all true secondary education rests. No one who 
knows the scope, purpose, and methods of collegiate instruction, 
no one familiar with the work of the average normal school, will 
for a moment say that such training necessarily gives any remark- 
able degree of special knowledge. Special scholarship is an abso- 
lute necessity to qualifications for secondary teaching. Without 
it the teacher becomes a slave to manuals and text-books; his work 
degenerates into a formal routine with no life, no spirit, no educa- 
tive power." 

Third. Theoretical professional training. The committee of 
fifteen outlined the course in the science of teaching for the 
secondary teacher to include psychology in its physiological and 
experimental features, methodology, school economy, history of 
education, and philosophy of education. The true teacher must 
know the nature of mind. He must understand the process of 
learning, the formation of ideals, the development of the will, 
and the growth of character. The secondary teacher should have 
had such a course in professional work as will enable him to 
view his own subjects and the entire course of instruction in 
their relation to the child and society. "A teacher may be atle 
to teach the subject ever so well, may have the reputation of 
being a distinguished educator, yet through his whole life may 


be a teacher of Latin or physics or history, rather than a teacher 
of children." The secondary teacher needs to know the psychology 
of the adolescent period, in particular. This is that important 
time in a child's life which we know as the period of beginnings, 
the beginning of a more generous and ambitions life, a period 
having the future wrapped up in it ; a transition period of storm 
and stress, in which egoism gives way to altruism and the social, 
moral and religious feelings bud and bloom. To be a guide of 
youth in this formative state requires a nature both deep and 
sympathetic, and a knowledge and insight into the deeper nature 
of child life. 

Fourth. Practical training in the art of teaching. The special 
training for the actual work of the schoolroom is of primary 
importance. It is safe to say that no quality is so absolutely 
desired in the teacher as the technical ability to teach. After 
the question relating to general culture, special and professional 
knowledge have been answered, there comes the all-important ques- 
tion that must be asked of every candidate — "Can he teach ?" 

This training in the art of teaching should include both obser- 
vation and practice. Tn all real training schools for secondary 
teachers, students must be required to observe true high school 
work until they have become saturated with its spirit. They 
must also be given large opportunity to do practice teaching under 
the ^idance of skilled critic teachers. 

Many of the larger colleges and universities of our country 
have within the past few years recognized the importance of 
professional training of college graduates for teaching in high 
schools and colleges and have established post-graduate courses 
in educational work to meet this need. A few of the best normal 
schools have also sought to meet this demand, and have estab- 
lished regular courses, in which college graduates may do a 
high grade of professional work. Tn most instances, however, both 
the normal schools and the colleges have failed to afford oppor- 
tunities for regular practice work in high school teaching. Tn 
many cases they provide ample opportimity for observation, but 
omit entirely the practice work. 

Tn Harvard pedagogical school arrangements have been made 
with the neighboring high schools whereby graduate students, 
before completing their course in professional work, may not only 


observe high school work, but do actual teaching under skilled 
critic teachers. In Brown university we understand that grad- 
uate students in the pedagogical department may teach half the 
time in the Providence high school under skilled supervision. 
The Columbia teacher's college affords opportunities to all stu- 
dents for both observation and practice work. The high school 
at Brookline, Mass., under Superintendent Button, arranged to 
give graduate students from Wellesley college opportunities for 
observation and practice under critic teachers. We understand 
that a few of the state normals in the east have offered similar 
advantages to students preparing for high school teaching. 

The Indiana state normal school attempts to do four things 
in order to aid the student wishing to engage in high school work 
in their preparation: 

1. The course of study affords to the students a fairly ade- 
quate opportunity to study the different branches taught in the 
high school, and to specialize upon them. 

2. In the practice work the students who are to enter upon 
teaching in the high schools are given more extended observation 
and practice in grades seven and eight than in the lower grades. 
This enables them to have a very clear notion of the condition 
of students entering the high schools. 

3. By an arrangement with the city school board and the 
superintendent of the city schools, such students are assigned 
for observation in the Terre Haute high school. This observation 
is both general and special; that is, they observe the work of 
the different departments in general, and give special observation 
in 'the department for which they are preparing. 

4. These students at the end of the work in observation make 
a specific report to the head of the professional department as 
to courses of study, methods and presentations, etc., as found 
in the high schools. 

The Indiana university offers courses in psychology, philosophy 
and pedagogy in educational work which it would require several 
years' study to complete. Some of these are designed especially 
for intending high school teachers and give in compact, separate, 
practical form such a survey of principles, methods, and organi- 
zation in secondary education as is deemed necessary. The fol- 


lowing statements of these special courses are taken with but 
slight alteration from their catalogue: 

1. Special courses in high school pedagogy. High school ped- 
agogy, lectures, reports, recitations. The following topics are 
treated : High school management, including hygiene ; the organ- 
ization and function of secondary schools in different countries; 
the general history of secondary education; the history of meth- 
ods; the psychology of adolescence; the reports of the committee 
of ten and the committee on college entrance requirements, with 
related literature. 

2. Teachers' courses in the different departments. Most of 
the departments whose subjects are represented in high schools 
offer teachers' courses in which the methods of teaching such 
subjects are discussed and illustrated. 

3. Conferences on secondary education. Lectures on the 
methods of teaching the subjects in the high school rurri^nhnn 
are given by the professors of the different departments of the 
university concerned. 

4. Observation and apprentice courses. Each student taking 
this work will teach not less than two weeks as an apprentice in 
some high school to be agreed upon, and will also visit and prepare 
a written report upon the work in at least four other high schools. 

In these schools opportunities for full and sufficient practice 
work are not yet provided. But the indications all point one 
way. The outline of work in the high grade professional school 
of the future, in which high school teachers are to be trained, 
must include in addition to the usual curriculum in special studies, 
full opportunities for observation and practice in high school 
classes under trained supervision. — From report of committee rep- 
resenting the Indiana council of education, Supt. T. A. Mott, 




Mrs. C. H. Templeton, Superintendent, 

Organized, 1896. Commissioned, 1901. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Mr. A. A. Campbell 1896-1899 

Mr. James Heines 1899-1902 

Mr. A. B. Cast 1902-1903 

Mrs. Carrie H. Templeton 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Mr. A. E. Cast 1899-1901 

Mrs. C. H. Templeton 1901-1903 

Mr. J. H. Heiffhway 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Mrs. C. H. Templeton, English and Mathematics. 
Mr. J. D. Helghway, Mathematics and Science. 
Mr. Ralph Noyer, I^tin and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendents, 

Training of teachers: 

Mrs. C. H. Templ(»ton. State Normal. Terre Haute, a graduate; an 

undergraduate of Chicago University; attended three years. 
Mr. J. D. Heighway, a graduate of Valparaiso Normal. 
Mr. Ralph Noyer. a graduate of Akron Higli School; an undergradu- 
ate of Indiana University. attend(»d one year. 

Enrollment in high school 42 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 230 

Number of girls graduated last year (1003) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year n003) 1 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized. : . 22 

Number of these who have attended college ^ 5 


W. L. Cory. Superintendent. . . 

Organized, 1803. Coniniissioned. October. 1890. 

SupcTintendents, with dates of service: 

N. B. Powers 1893-1895 

E. F. Dyer 1895-1899 

H. S. Kaufman, September 1899-1903 

W. L. Cory. September 1903- 

Principals and assistants: 

Principal, J. E. Orr: Assistant, Mrs. H. S. Kaufman 1899-1900 

Principal, W. L. Cory: Assistant, ^Frs. H. S. Kaufman 19n0-19a3 

Principal, J. C. Dickerson: Assistant. Willmr V. Bell 1903- 


Hlgb school teachers und aulijects tlu'f ti'nch: 

W. L. Corji ]*otuiiy, I'liysica nml Histoiy, 

J. C. Dk'kerson, I.nthi and Miithi'iiiiitlcx. 

W. V. Bell. English uikI HlMtory. 
Average yciirly miUiry of higli school ti'iiclKTH. hii-lnilint; siiiHTlnteiKlciit, 

Truiiilni; of Ipuchcrs; 

W. I,. Cory, griulimti- i-hisslc c'c.msr. thr.'c yi'Hi-s. <:i'iitrnl Ni>niiiil 
Culle}i:c: nis') (ri'iKliiiilc. riiui-yoiir i-niii'si', Iiiiliniiii Statu Ni>riiinl 

J. C. DIckcrsoii. Kraduiilc coiivkc. I.i'liiiiicm XorttJiil, 

W. V. Hell. gniJiiiitc .Miiiiiiy lll^'li Sehool. 

Eurollment In hlgli school 34 

Total i>ni-oIliiienl In grml.'M uikI liif-h Mihool .Ti'i 

Niunlier of Kirls ki'ui1uii(i.'<I lii«t yciir illK.i.''.i 5 

Nuinlier of lioys fe'riulimteil liis) yetir ilWL'ii 2 

Number Id Ihls ulass IliJil weni lo collcKe 2 

Nuinlier of RrjidunleH siiiiv Ni-lnml was .iruiiiilwil ."n! 

XuinlxT of these who hiivc iillenile<l ciiUeKe 8 

Ar.BANY HicH Si;:hool 


J. G. Collicott, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1803. Commissioned, 1804. 

Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

T. M. Nuzum 1893-1804 

I. V. Busby 18M-1902 

Lawrence McTunian 1902-11K)8 

J. G. Collicott 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. T. Giles 1894-1900 

J. G. Collicott 1900-1901 

J. H. Wagner 1901-1904 

O. H. Williams 1904- 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Oscar Willinnis, Science. 
Beatrice Jones, Hlstoiy. 
Nellie CoolvC, English. 
D. A. Norris, Latin. 
Esther Schwartz, German. 
Harry Reddicrk. Mathematics. 
Mary Brereton. Music. 
Gertrude Galerin, Drawing. 

Average yearly salary of liigli school teacliers, including superintendent, 

Training of teacliers: 

Oscar Williams, gniduate Indiana State Nonnal; senior, Indiana 

Beatrice Jones, junior Leland Stanford. Jr., University. 

Nellie Coolvc. graduate DePauw T^niversity. 

I). <". Norris. gniduate Indiana State Normal. 

Esther Scliwartz. sopliomore Indiana University. 

Harry Reddick, senior. Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high scliool 140 

Totnl enrollment in grndes and high school 1,335 

Number of girls graduated last year (IIK)^) 6 

Number of boys graduated last 3'ear (1008) 3 

Number In this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 57 

Number of thcs(» who Imve attended college 14 







it ! ! • 

■ T 




■'i' ■ 


■ ■ 

■ ■ 



" _ 




Alexandria HuiH Sc:hool. 

A.MHOY (Academy) IIujh Sciiocil, 



A. E. Martin, SuiM»rintondent. 

Organized, 1872. Commissioned 1889. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. Z. A. McCaughan 1880-1803 

Supt. Kimmell 1883-1895 

P. M. Hoke 1895-1902 

F. D. Perkins 1902-1902, De6. 27 

A. E. Martin 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Jesse Small 1892. 

A. C. Baldwin 1892-1894 

Verne Baldwin 1894-1890 

O. D. Melton 1890-1899 

P. L. Kling 1899-1902 

Mildred Cain 1902-1903 

F. J. Kimball 1903-1901 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
A. E. Martin, Latin, History and Physics. 
F. J. Kimball, Mathematics and English. 

A. S. Thomas, Physiography. Geography, Civics and General History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including sui)erintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

A, E. Martin, high school graduate: student Moore's Hill College, two 
years; Indiana University, one term; and graduate of Earlham, 
F. J. Kimball, graduate Amboy Acndemy; State Normal; and four 

terms at State University. 
A. S. Thomas, graduate Amboy Academy, and one term State Nor- 

Enrollment in high school <»0 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 230 

Number of girls graduated last year (IIXW) None 

Number of ])oys graduated hist year None 

Number in this class tliat went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 125 

Number of these who have attended college 55 


J. W. Carr, Superintendent. 
Organized, 1873. Commissioned, 1875. 
Superintendents, wirii dnteii of service; 

Justin N. Study 1873-1881 

R. I. Hamilton 1881-1887 

A. J. Dlpboye 1887-1890 

.7. W. Cnrr 1890- 

FriDclpuls and assistants: 

B. I. Hamilton. A. .T. Dipboye. Luther Cromer, John F. McGlnre. 
O. L. Kelso, Wilhert Ward, James B. Pearcy. 

Average yearly salary of high school tencliers. Includlntt nuperlntendent. 

Training of teaeliors: 

If you mean liigli scliool teachers alone, nee Hat of teachers. If you 
mean all teachers. I will say that there are 46 college people and 66 normal 
school people. Only three have had neither college nor normal school 
training— 93 teachers In all. So you see some Lave had both normal school 
and college training. 

Enrollment In high school 480 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 3,721 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 48 

Nnmber of boys (rraduated last year (19C6) 22 

Number In this class that went to college 12 

Number ot graduates since school was organized 660 

Number of these who have attended college i:^ 



H. H. Keep, Superintendent 

Organized, 1871. Commissioned, 1902. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

A. B. Stevens No data 

W. O. Bailey No data 

J. W. Wyandt 1«)3-1!K)3 

No data for earlier superintendents. 
Principals and assistants: 

C. J. Sharp, Howard Long, Mrs. Melendy, Orville Smith. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

H. L. Rock wood (Grammar Grade), Algebra and Geometry. 

E. V. Shockley, English, History, Latin, Physical Geography. 

H. H. Keep, Algebra, Science, German. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

H. H. Keep, superintendent, B. S., Tri-State Normal College. 

E. V. Shockley, senior, Indiana University. 

H. L. Rockwood, B. S., TrI-State Normal College. 
Training of teachers: 

No special, except from experience. 

Enrollment in high school 85 

Total enrollment In grades and high school 425 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 13 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) G 

Number in this class that went to college No data 

Number of graduates since school was organized 100 

Number of these who liave attended college No data 


E. J. Llewelyn, SuperlDtendent. 

Organised. 188T. Commissioned. 1902. 

Superintendents, with dates of serrlce: 

C.A.Peterson ,. 1887-188!) 

J. A, Mitchell 1S8»-18!H 

M. C. Mam 18U1-18!>3 

J. M. Ashby 18.I3-18.M 

J. H. Mavlty 1804-18.15 

W. Curtla Day 18(l5-]81Hi 

B. E. Vance 18tMH8!)7 

N. C. Randall 18.i7-l!H)l 

B. J. Llewelyn since lim 

Principals and assistants: 

Preceding the year 1899 the auperinteudent did all the work. 

W. A. Jesaup, Principal 1899-11101 

B. G. Klolz. Principal 1900-1901 

R. G. Beats, Principal 1901-1903 

Miss JulEa E. Stout since 1903 

The Assistant Principals are as follows: 

E. E. Fltzpatrick 1899-1902 

W. B. Shoemaker, A. B 1902-1903 

J. S. HInstaaw, A. B since 1903 

ARCADIA High School. 


TLigh school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Miss Julia E. Stout, High School Principal, English and History. 
Mr. I. S. Hinshaw, First Assistant Principal, Science and Mathe- 
E. J. Llewelyn, Superintendent, Latin. 
Walter Harger, Music Supervisor. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

E. J. Llewelyn, graduate of West field Commissioned High School; 
undergraduate In Earlham College for three years; and attended 
and taught in a county normal three summers. Has taught and 
sui>erintended for 51 months. 
Miss Julia E. Stout, graduate of Cicero Commissioned High School; 
has had 11 terms of work at DePauw University, and has taught 
a number of terms successfully. 
Mr. 1. S. Hinsliaw, A. B., high seJiool graduate; Earlham gradiiate 
spring of 1903; attended summer term (1903) at State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 72 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 351 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number In this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 74 

Number of these who have attended college 22 


James A. Moody, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1894. Commissioned, 1903. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. H. May 1893-1897 

J. Walter Johnson 1897-1901 

H. H. Keep 1901-1903 

James A. Moody 1903- 

Prlnclpals and assistants: 

Miss Roxana G. Johnson. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

James A. Moody, Latin, Geometry. Physics, Chemistry and Book- 
Miss Roxana G. Johnson. Greek and Roman History, English 
History, Literature (American and English). Composition and 
Rhetoric, and Algebra. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

Supt. James A. Moody, A. B., from Trl-State Normal College, An- 
gola, Ind., course 36 months. 


Principal Miss Roxana 6. Johnson, A. B., from Indiana University. 
Seventh and eighth grades, Miss Luella Rempis, undergraduate of 

Indiana State Normal, with three year^ credits. 
Fifth and sixth grades. Miss Berta Mills, undergraduate of DePauw, 
• two years. 
Third and fourth grades. Miss Gussie Courter, Rochester Normal 

graduate, three years. 
Second grade, Miss Ruth 'Keep, undergraduate from Tri-State Nor- 
mal College, two years attendance. 
First grade, Miss Alma Hussleman, undergraduate Tri-State Normal 
College, two years. 

Enrollment in high school 34 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 240 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 20 

Number of these who have attended college 12 


E. H. Drake, Superintendent. 

J. E. Lay ton. Acting Superintendent. 

Organized, 1870. Commissioned, 1875. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Waltz, Caldwell. Barnett. Butler, Buzzell, French, Kenaston, S. E. 
Harwood, Coultrap, W. H. Hershman. W. A. Millls, E. H. Drake, 
J. E. Layton. 
Principals and assistants: 

W. F. Mullinnlx, present Principal. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

W. F. Mullinnlx, Mathematics and History. 

Carolyn S. Greene, English and German. 

Winifred A. Hubbell, Latin and History. 

G. W. Henderson, Science. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers. Including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

J. E. Layton, graduate Indiana State Normal School and Indiana 

Carolyn Greene, graduate Montlcello Seminary. 

Winifred Hubbell, graduate Michigan University. 

W. F. Mulllnnix, graduate Spencer Hlfrh School. 

Enrollment in high school 85 

Total enrollment In grades and high school 601 

Number of girls graduated last year (1003) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 151 

Number of these who have attended college 70 

1&— Eduoatioit. 



B. B. Harrison, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1880. Commissioned, 1886. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. H. Myers 1880^1882 

M. W. Harrison 1882-1886 

B. B. Harrison 188C to present time 

Principals and assistants: 

Dr. Llda Leasure 1882-1884 

H. E. Coe 1884-1888 

Minnie Deming 1888-1880 

H. E. Coe 1889^1894 

J. C. Teeters 1894-1808 

H. G. Brown 1898-1901 

O. D. Tyner 1901- 

Hlgli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

O. D. Tyner, Principal High School, Mathematics and History. 
Julia M. Hodge, Latin and English. 

B. B. Harrison, Superintendent, Latin, German and Science. 
•Mae Provines, Physical Geography. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, Including superintendent 

Training of teachers: 

B. B. Harrison, A. B., Oberlln College. 
O. D. Tyner, undergraduate (several schools). 
Julia M. Hodge, A. B., Michigan University. 
Mae Provines, undergraduate Chicago University. 

Enrollment In high school 72 

Total enrollment In grades and high school 920 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1003) 2 

Number In this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 151 

Number of these who have attended college 54 

Jos. R. Houston, Superintendent. 

Organized. ISiJO. Commissioned, 1904. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

A. W. Freeman 1863-18fi5 

M. Plutchiiison 18G5-18W? 

O. H. Temi)le 1866-1868 

J. M. Davidson 1868-1869 

E. 8. Clarlv 1869-1876 

F. H. Tufts 1876-1881 

R. S. Groves 1881-1883 

F. D. Churcliill 1883-1890 



Robt. Wood 189a-18d5 

Sanford Bell 1895-1896 

J. R. Houston 189S- 

Prlucipals and assistants: 

Thos. W. Records. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Thos. W. Records, Physics, English aed History. 

Miss Iluldab Severin, Mathematics. Civil Government, Physical 
Geography and Botany. 

Miss Kalla Kassebnum. Knglish and Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Thos. W. Records, graduate of State Normal and State University. 

Miss Iluldah Severin, graduate of State Normal. 

Miss Kalla Kassebaum. graduate State Normal and State University. 

Jos. R. Houston. M. S., Moores Hill College. 

Enrollment in high school 118 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 600 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organizeil 334 

NumlH»r of these who have attended college 45 


W. E. Alexander. Sui>erintendent. 

OrganlztMi. 1870. Commissioned. 1884. 
Superintendents, with dales of service: 

Jas. A. Madden 1870-1880 

D. D. Blakeman 1880-1883 

F. P. Smith 1883-1888 

F. M. Stalker 1888-1892 

Chas. Thomas 1892-1893 

E. K. Dye 1893-1895 

Chas. Cunningham 1895-1896 

W. E. Alexander 1896- 

Higli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Arda Knox, Mathematics. 

A. B. Lowder. English. 

R. E. Newland, Science. 

Clara Friedley. History. 

Lillian Bassett, Latin. 
Average y«'arly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

EPVIWTlnN JN lNmMi.\. 245 


Training of teachers: 

W. E. Alexander, Indiana State Normal and Ft. Wayne College. 

Arda Knox, Indiana University. 

A. B. Lowder, Indiana University. 

R. E. Newland, Indiana University. State Normal and DePauw. 

Clara Friodley, DePauw. 

Lillian Bassctt, Dcpauw. 

Enrollment in high school 149 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,518 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 10 

NumlKT of boys graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number in this class that went to college 5 

Number of graduates since school was organized About 300 

Number of these who have attended college 75 

C. B. McLinn, Superintendent. 

Organized. . Commissioned, 1889. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Christian Daniels 1894 

A. J. Johnson 1894-1895 

W. T. Brown 1895-1900 

E. R. Mason 1900-1902 

C. B. McLinn 1902- 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
C. B. McLinn, English. 
W. L. Jones, Mathematics and Science. 
Anne M. Cunningliam, I^tin and History. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Superintendent, C. B. McLinn, Indiana University. 

Principal, W. L. Jones, undergraduate Indiana University. 

Miss Anne M. Cunningham, undergraduate Indiana State Normal 
and Western College and Seminary. 
P^nrollment in high school, tliis year's enrollment, 75: present enroll- 
ment 65 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 450 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 6 

Number of graduates since school was organized Since 1889, 120 

Number of these who have attended college Since 1889, 34 



James K. Beck, Superlnteudent. 

Organtzed, 18^. Commissioned, 18S5. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Margaret H. UcCalla 1885-1800 

C. M. Carpenter 18»0-18!Kt 

Zenas B. Leonard 1803-1893 

W. H. Pertich 1805-1900 

Will H. Glascock 1900-11)01 

James K. Becit 1902- 





" ^K^^i-'- 

^m jy 






Principals and assistants: 

Principal, Jolin W. Curr; Assistants, William A. Bawles, Ella Tnr- 

ner and Grace Woodburn. 
Princljial, Grace Woodburn; Assistants. Laura Hendrix, J. E. SLep- 

ardson and D. T. Weir. 
Principal, 3. Z. A. McCaugiiiin; Assistnnts, Carrie Colvin and Kate 

M. Hfght 
Principal, James K. Beck; Assistants, Kate M. Hlglit. Nester D. 

Dodd and James V. Organ. 
Principal, Howard H. Clnrk; Assistants. J. H. Casileman and J. C. 



Present corps of high school teachers: 

Howard H. Clark, Principal and Instructor in Latin. 
J. C. Castleman. Assistant Principal and Instructor in English. 
R. E. Roudebush, Instructor in Mathematics. 
Minnie B. Ellis, Instructor in History. 
Edith R. Riley, Instructor in Latin and German. 
Sarah V. Hanna, Assistant Instructor in English. 
O. D. Melton, Assistant Instructor in Science. 

John Montgomery, Assistant Instructor In Mathematics and Science. 
Mary Johnston. Assistant Instructor in Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

from 1885 to 11)04, $087.14. 
Training of present corps of high school teachers, including superin- 
James K. Beck. Superintendent, A. B. and A. M., Indiana Univer- 
Howard II. Clark, Principal and Instructor in Latin, graduate Dan- 
ville, Indiana. Normal, and A. B., Indiana University. 
J. C. Castleman, Assistant Principal and Instructor in English, A. 

B.. DePauw University, and A. B.. Indiana University. 
U. E. Roudebush, Instructor in Mathematics, A. B., Indiana Univer- 
Minnie B. Ellis, Instructor in History, graduate Indiana State Nor- 
mal and A. B.. Indiana T'niversity. 
Edith R. Rili»y, Instructor in Latin and (ierman, A. B., Woman's 

College, Baltimore .Mai'jiand. 
Sara V. Hanna. Assistant Instructor in English, A. B.. Indiana 

John Montgomery, Assistant Instructor in Mathematics and 

Science, student Indiana University. 
Mary Johnston, Assistant Instructor in Latin. A. B. and A. M., 
Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 250 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,400 

Number girl graduates. June. liM);{ 24 

Number boy graduates, June. 11HK5 12 

Number girl graduates. June. V.H)'.\. in college 13 

Number boy graduates. June. ]1H)15, in college 9 

Numb€»r gratluates sint-e school was organized 500 

Number of these who have attended college 300 

W. A. Wirt, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1881. Commissioned, 1882. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

P. A. Allen 1881-1801 

W. P. Burris 1801-1807 

E. H. Walker 1897-1809 

W. A. Wirt 1899- 

Principals and assistants: 

Chas. G. Dailey. Principal. 


High school teacbere and subjects tbey toat'h: 

Chas. G, DallP7. Mathematics and Geologry. 

Blanche Kams. Lntln. Encllah and llotany. 

Oliver C. Lockhurt, History and English. 

Simon G. Bngic, Koolotrj'. Physics, Chemistry nntl fii-rman. 

Harriett Fudge. Mnslc and Drawing. 

Ethel ThornburK, Sewing. 

Guy E. WulflnR, Manual Training. 
Average yearly salary of lilgli scliool teaebcrs, including superintendent. 

Training of teachersi 

No teacher In employed for high school work who U not a graduate 
of a standard college or Mnhersity, except In manual training, 
drawing and music departments. 

Enrollment In high school 166 

Total enrollment In grades and bigh school 1.043 

Number of girls graduated last year (1003) 17 

Number of boys graduated last year (l!W3i 11 

Number in this class that went to college 12 

Number of graduules since school was organized 235 

XumlMT of these who have ii I tended coliegc 72 

Bluf^'ton Hiuh Sc-hool. 



Charles E. Clark, Superintendent. 

Organized, 18G8. Commissioned, 1887. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

D. S. Hoover 1868-1871 

Walter Welch 1871-1874 

John W. Davidson 1874-1877 

Martin 1877-1880 

John W. Davidson 1880-1881 

Zacharlah Emerson 1881-1885 

Chas. E. Clarke 1885- 

Principals and assistants: 

M. W. Numbers. Latin and Mathematics. 
R. S. Moore, History and English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Martin W. Numljors, Ph. B., Ann Arbor. 

R. S. Moore, A. B., Indiana State University. 

Chas. E. Clarke. 

Enrollment in high school 67 

Total enrollment In grades and high school 762 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (11)03) 3 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 118 

Number of these who have attended college 19 

J. H. Barnes, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1896. Commissioned, 1901. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. Caldwell 1896 

C. H. Kellog 1897-1900 

C. H. Miller 1900-1904 

J. H. Barnes 1904- 

Principals and assistants: 

Miss Ada Smith. J. G. Winsor, Mrs. C. F. Miller, M. A. Dalman 
and Miss Sara Darby. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

J. H. Barnes, Superintendent, Botany and Mathematics. 

M. A. Dalman. Principal, Latin and Pliyslcs. 

Miss Sara H. Darby, Assistant in German. Literature and History. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 


Training of teachers: 

J. H. Barnes, A. B., DePauw, Superintendent. 

M. A. Dalman, A. B., DePauw, Principal. 

Miss Sara H. Darby, Ph. B., DePauw, Assistant. 

Enrollment In high school G5 

Total enrollment in schools 230 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 19 

Number of these who have attended college 3 


L. B. O'Dell, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1885. Commissioned, 1889. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. C. Gregg Began, 1876 

A. D. Hurst, James W. Brown, W. H. Ferdick and L. B. O'Dell. 
Principals and assistants: 

T. M. James, eighteen years. 

F. M. Garver, two years. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

F. M. Garver, Algebra, Geometry and Physics. 

Wm. Arnett, History, Botany and Physiology. 

Nellie Head, English Grammar, Composition, Rhetoric and English 

Jennie Fisher, Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, Including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

F. M. Garver, undergraduate Indiana University, graduate Indiana 
State Normal. 

Wm. Amett, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Nellie Head, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Jennie D. Fisher, graduate of DePauw and undergraduate of Ann 

L. B. D'Bell, graduate of Indiana State Normal, Northwestern, and 
undergraduate of Columbia University. 

Enrollment In high school 144 

Total enrollment In grades and high school ^ 1,844 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number In this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 273 

Number of these who have attended college No record 


W. F. Ellis, Sui)erlntendeiit. 

Organized, 1887. Commissioned, 1901. 

Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

H. H. SUUer 1878-1892 

J. E. Pomeroy 1892-1893 

D. B. Fliclcinger 1893-1894 

\V. F. Ellis 1894-1904 

i Principals and assistants: 

Lizzie Christy 1894-1895 

I. S. Halin 1895-1897 

John Crowley 1897-1898 

Milo F. Hale 1898-1903 

Chas. H. Barts 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
W. F. Ellis. History. Latin and English. 

C. H. Barts, Science and Mathematics. 

D. O. Miller, German. 

Evelyn Harsch, Assistant in English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent 

Training of teachers: 

W. F. Ellis, A. B., Indiana University, 1890; graduate Indiana State 
Normal. 1892; graduate student Chicago University, 1901. 

C. II. Barts. three years in Valparaiso School. 

D. O. Miller, graduate of Scientific Course, Valparaiso. 
Evelyn Harsch, graduate IMy mouth High School. 

Enrollment in high school 34 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 400 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 68 

Number of these who have attended college 37 

S. B. Plasket. Superintendent. 

Organized, IS&i. Commissioned. 1803. 

Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

J. S. Puett 1883-18J)1 

Thomas Smith 1801-1893 

R. E. Harris 1803-1JK)1 

S. B. Plasket 1001- 

Principals and assistants: 

E. A. Cunningham. 
J. W. Bowden. 
Bessie Hendrix. 
Arthur Jackson. 

J. B. Hessong. 

EDvr.moN IN iNnr.iNA. 253 



^, 1 ^^r^'i^r""*^ -•'- 



Bremen Hiuu School. 

Hlgli school teachers and subjects tUey teach: 
Arthur Jackson, Science and History. 
Bessie Heudrlx, German and English. 
J. B. Heasong, Mathematics and English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, Including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

S. B. Plasket. A. B., Indiana University; graduate Indiana State 
Normal; graduate student Chicago University, summer quarter, 
Arthur Jackson, undergraduate Indiana University, nearly four 

Bessie Hendrlx. A. B.. Indiana University. 
,Tohn B. Hessong, graduate State Normal School 

Enrollment in high school 47 

Total enrollment In grades and high school 260 

Number of girls graduated last year (1003) 6 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Numlier in this class thnt went to college 1 

Number ot graduates since Rchool was organlited 05 

Number of these who have attended college 15 



Henry L. Smith, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1873. Commissioned, 1879. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

A. W. Bleglile 1875-1870 

J. E. Morton 1876-1881 

H. M. Sliinner 1881-1884 

A. N. Crecraft 1884-1886 

C. W. McClure 1886-1803 

K. M. Temple 1893-1895 

Noble Harter 1895-1899 

II. S. Voorhees 1899-1901 

H. L. Smith 1901- 

Principals and assistants: 

Principal, N. V. Patterson; Assistant, Michael Bossert. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

N. V. I*atterson. Latin, three years; Geometry, one year; Physics, 

Chemistry and English, second year. 
Michael Bossert, English, first year; Algebra, first and second years; 
General History, French and English; History, Botany, Review. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

H. L. Smith, A. B. and A. M., Indiana State University. 
N. V. Patterson. A. B., four years. 

Michael Bossert. graduate Indiana State Normal, four years; under- 
graduate Indiana State University. 

Enrollment in high school 46 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 292 

Number of girls graduated last year (1003) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

(These figures are misleading. This year the figures are, boys, 4; girls, 
5. We usually have as many boys in liigh school as girls.) 

Number in this class that went to college 6 

Number of graduates since school was organized 150 


Bh(>okvii,i,k Hujii H< 



W. B. Black. Superintendent. 

Organized, 1Hr)8. Connnissioned, 1882. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

J. L. Lucas 188i>-18a4 

Prof. Sims 1884-l88o 

C. L. Hottel 1885-1888 

E. C. Hobl)s 1888-18a> 

J. T. Perizo 1889-1890 

Prof. Owen 1890-1801 

Prof. p:vans 1891-189^ 

L. X. Fouts 181KJ-1898 

E. W. Davis 1898-19rrJ 

W. B. Blaclc 1902- 

Princlpals and assistants: 
J. C. Browning. 
Will H. Hackendorf. 
Mr.**. L. N. Fouts. 
Essie Shirley. 
Daisy Plunket. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Essie Shirley, Mathematics and Botany. 
Daisj' Plunket, Latin and English. 
W. B. Black. History, Civics and Physics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Daisy Plunket, graduate Indiana University. 
Essie Shirley, graduate Indiana University. 
W. B. Black, graduate Indiana ITnlversity. 

Enrollment in high school (M.) 

Total enrollment in grades and high schtM)! 400 

Number of girls graduated last year iVM)[i) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (190.3) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school wa& organized About 11« 

Number of these who have attended college 40 


H. G. Brown, Superintendent, 

Organized, 1808. Commissioned. 1902. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

No records. 
Principals and assistants: 

No records. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Miss Lillian Hillman, Principal, History and English. 

Miss Anna Taylor. Assistant Principal. Latin and German. 

H. G. Brown, Superintendent, Latin and Science. 


Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

Superintendent, H. G. Brown, B. S., Tri-State Normal School. 

Principal, Lillian A. Uillman, undergraduate University of Michigan. 

Assistant Principal, Anna Taylor, Smith College. 

Enrollment in high school 50 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 450 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized Don*t know 

Number of these who have attended college No record 


Lee Ault, Superintendent. 

Organized, 18(59. Commissioned, 1880. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. M. Oyner 1869-1871 

Jas. R. Hall 1871-1881 

W. H. Simms 1881-188:i 

W. F. L. Sanders 1883-1889 

N. C. Johnson 1889-1896 

Paul Wilkie 1896-1900 

Lee Ault 1900- 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Isadore Wilson, English, History, Literature and Latin. 
W. O. Wissler, Mathematics and Latin. 
Lee Ault, Science. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

I^e Ault, Superintendent, White Water Academy and S. W. Normal 

School, Lebanon, Ohio. 
Isadore Wilson, Earlham College. 
W. O. Wissler, Indiana State Normal School. 

Enrollment in high school 89 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 409 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 269 

Number of these who have attended college 74 

17— Education. 


(;annelton high school. 

James F. Organ, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1800. Commissioned, 189G. 
Superintendents : 

G. P. Weedman. 

O. P. Robinson. 

Abel Powell. 

James F. Organ. 
Principals and assistants: 

Cbas. A. Unnewebr, Principal 1002-1904 

A. J. Blickenstaff, Assistant Principal 1902-1904 

Average yearly salary of bigb scbool teaebers, including superintendent, 

Training of teaebers: 

Superintendent, James F. Organ. A.B., Indiana University. 

Principal, (-. A. Unnewebr. A.B., Indiana University. 

A. J. Bliclvenstaff. A.B., Indiana University'. 

Peter Van Braam. Pb.I>., from Utrecbt, Holland. 

Enrollment in bigli s(rbool 48 

Total enrollment in grades and bigb scbool 900 

Number of girls graduated last year (IJKKi) 4 

Number of iKiys graduated last year (V,)OH) None 

Number in tbis class tbat went to college None 

Numl)er of graduates since scliool was organized 20 

Number of tbese wbo bave attended college 6 


Jobn \V. Toter, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1S87. Conmiissioned, lfK)l. 
Sui»erintendents. witb dates of service: 

J. E. Itetberford 1901-1902 

Jobn W. Tetoi- 1902-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Principal, Clare O'Neal. 

Luella McWurter. 

Maude Wbite. 

Klbert Ilarolcl. 

Join) l.angston. 

Edward Morgan. 
Higb srliool teaebers and sul>jects tliey teadi: 

.Maude Wliite. Latin and Englisb. 

Edward Morgan, Matliematics and History. 

Jobn W. Teter, History and Science. 
Average yearly salary of bigli scbool teadiers, including superintendent, 

Training of teaebers: 

All of tbe teaebers bave bad college training. Tbe superintendent 
and assistant principal are from Indiana University. Tbe princi- 
pal is a graduate of Earlbam College. 


Cannblton High School. 

jroltment in IiIrU school 75 

)tiil (enrollment \n lO'niJo) und Ugh scliuol 2'^, 

iiuber of girls nrjuluntwl Inst year (l!>03) 2 

jluUer of boys Kr"*lii"t*''l '"st i'vat {11*03) li 

.imlipr In tbls elnBs tliut wpiit to college 2 

imbcT ot Kriiiliintes uhtce Kchool wiim nrKiiiilzcd 15 

imber of tliese wLo have uttteuileil i-ollpgL' 2 

J. H. Stlioll, Sniu'ilntfiuk'ut. 
■gBDlzHl. 18T0. OonimisHlom>il, 1X81. 
ilierliitCiMlentM, nllh iliili'S of sprvii^i': 

A. J. Joliiisoii ISTO-lSSt 

B. Martin 1881-1885 

Jx)u[a Morcun 18.'C-1887 

E. r. Truebloiiii 1887-1888 

A. II. Sherer 1888-18.'>5 

Edwin Jay 1805-18.18 

J. H. Sclioll 1808-1004 

inclpals and asalstnnte: 

Mra. A. U. Sherpr, 1888-1805. 
J. K. E\-aua, 1805-1000. 
E. A. Launlng, 1000-1904. 


UigU school teachers and subjects they teach: 

E. A. Lanniug, LMitin, Mathematics, History and Literature. 

J. H. Scholl. Physics. Cliemistrj', Latin, Literature. 

Ida L. Ludlow, English, Mathematics, Civil Government. 

Lulu Robinson, English. 
Average yearly salary ot high school teachers, including superinteudent. 

Training of teachers: 

J. II. Scholl. A. K., Indiana University, 189S. 

E. A. Lanning. B. S.. Tri-State Normal School. 

Ida Ludlow, undergraduate of State Normal School. 

Lulu Uobinsou, graduate Olivet ('oUege, Michigan. 

Enrollment in high school 94 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 295 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1003) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 138 

Number of these who have attended college 06 

Colfax Martin, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1804. Commissioned, 1807. 

Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

R. E. Newland 1894-1895 

O. B. Zell 1896-1898 

Colfax Martin 1899-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

John D. Groves 1896 

Edwin Dodson 1897-1898 

Chas. D. Marley 1899 

J. R. Patrick, assistant 1902 

J. S. Schumalter, assistant 1903 

J. H. Caldwell, principal 1903-1904 

Chas. A. Wright, assistant 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they leach: 
Colfax Martin, History. 
J. H. Caldwell, Latin and Mathematics. 
Chas. A. Wright, Science and English. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

Colfax Martin, graduate Indiana State Normal and graduate of the 

State University. 
J. H. Caldwell, graduate of State Normal, two terms in Indiana Uni- 
versity, one term in Chicago University. 
Chas. A. Wright graduate Indiana State Normal School. 

Enrollment in high school 46 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 302 



Nuiubfii- of i,'lil!i i;ri"lii:>l'«l Iii«t your (ISKKli 7 

Nuiii1>t>r of buys j;i"1(Ih'i''''1 '"St year (llhlu) 4 

Nuiiibor of oni:li in this diiss tliiit weut to wiUoci'. Hii'l" (the Iiidijinap- 

ollii KiiiiiiTKiirti'ii) 1 

Niimlii't' of ^'riidiiiitOM nimn: ki'IhihI niiH orgiiiiJzcd 4<l 

Nliiuber of tbpse wlio liavc iitti'niii-ij i'oHcku Id 

.ti>li[i H. Ciowci's. Suti(>riiilRii<]i^iit. 
Oi'ifiiiiiKul. 1S'.M. roiiiiiiIsKliiiii'il. imxi. 
SjIilH'i'lnti-iiili'iitN. wHli Uiili'K iif Kcrvlcc: 

E. r. Crwti ll>lXI-l!1():i 

.lohu It. <j0wc'i« 1!KI3-1!HM 

I'l-iiii'iimls mill nKsisiiiiiis: 

Ernetit Mutlo.-l: 19004(101 

E. S. DyiT lOOl-lIWi; 

I.yiin Solliio 1!HI2-I!)(H 

llijiti m^lionl tt'iii-licrs jiiid Kub.lci'lK tbi'y lonclii 

.loliii I!. Gowi'i'M. Illi^lory and EnKlinti. 

Lynn Si'l|iU>, MiitljoniiitlrH tinil Sdeucf. 

Florwifc Hwyi'r. I.ntin iind EiikHsI). 


Average yearly salary of high school teachers, iucluding superintendent, 

i'ralnlng or teaciiers: 

John B. (towors, Michigan State Normal School. 

Lynn Scii)Io. Angola Normal. 

l'lort'n<*e Dwyer, Midiigan State Normal. 

Enmllment in high school 40 

Total enrollment in grades .and high school 175 

Nnmber of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Numl)er of each in this class that went to college 

Number of graduates since school was organized No data 

Number of these who have attended college No data 

\V. A. Collings, Superintendent. 

Organized. 18«(». Commissioned, 1901. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

John A. Wo(Kl 188(5-1880 

J. G. Scott 1889-1800 

I). E. lU»ck 1890-1893 

Chas. Ammermnn 1893- 1894 

W. E. Life 1894-1895 

E. E. Olcott 1895-1899 

W. A. Ohlfathor 1899-1900 

W. A. (Pollings 1900-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Allen Ilarbolt. principal. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
W. A. Collings, Mathematics and Science. 
Allen IIarlK)lt. Latin and 
Mrs. A. L. Crawford, History and English. 

Average yearly salary of higli school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of tea<"liers: 

AV. A. Collings, Ph. H., DePauw T'niversity. 

Allen Harljolt, undergraduate in Indiana University, two years. 

Mrs. A. L. Crawford, graduate of the Cincinnati Normal School. 

Enrollment in liigh school 42 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 227 

Number of girls graduated last year (100.*^) 3 

Numl>er of boys graduated last year (100.^) None 

Number of each in this class tliat went to college— girl 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 00 

Number of these who have attended college 25 



S. H. Roe, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1807. Commissioned, 1898. 
Superintendent, with date of service: 

S. H. Iloe, September, 1897. 
Principals and assistants: 

J. E. Derbyshire. 

F. R. Farnam. 

Lois E. Prentiss. 
Higli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

S. H. Roe, Mathematics and Science. 

Lois E. Prentiss, English and Latin. 

Mrs. Alice Ingram, Business Course. 

Miss Matilda Swanson, History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

S. H. Roe, B. S.. Northern Indiana Normal. 

Miss Lois Prentiss, Ph. B., Chicago University. 

Mrs. Alice Ingram, B. A., Northern Indiana Normal. 

Miss Matilda Swanson, Northern Indiana Normal, ten terms. 

Enrollment in high school '. 38 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 300 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Numl)er of boys graduated last year (1903) None 

Number of each in this class that went to college 1 

Nuraljer of graduates since school was organized 22 

Number of these who have attended college 5 


Claude Beltz, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1875. Commissioned, 1903. 
Superintendent, with date of service: 

Claude Beltz 1899-1'.K)4 

Principals and assistants: 

Lavon Chapman. 

Teressa Patterson. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Teressa Patterson, Science and Mathematics. 

Regina Coudrick, History and Latin. 

Claude Beltz, English and German. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

Claude Beltz, Indiana University, three years. 

Teressa Patterson, graduate Missouri State Normal. 

EtiroUment in high school 58 

Total enrollment in grades and high school - 249 


Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of each in this class that went to college— 

Boys 3 

Girls 1 

Number of graduates since the school was organized No data 

Number of these who have attended college 20 


Frank A. Gause. Superintendent. 

Organized, 1894. Commissioned. 1901. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. A. Mitchell 18(M-189«; 

Frank A. Gause lStX}.]904 

Principals and assistants: 

C. M. MeConnell. 

W. A. rollings. 

Ida A. Adams. 

W. M. McCoy. 

Myra Tucker. 

John M. Kreag. 

Ijonore Alspaugh. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

John M. Kreag, Mathematics and Science. 

Lenore Alsi)augh. German and History. 

Frank A. Gause (superintendent), English. 
A^era;;e yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

F. A. Cause, student of Indiana University, i^y* years. 

J. M. Kreag. student at Indiana University, two years. 

Lenore Alspaugh. graduate DePauw T'niversity and student at Chi- 
cago University one year. 

Enrollment in high school 00 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 389 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1003) 2 

Number of each of this class tliat w^ent to college None 

Number of graduat(\s since school was organized 30 

Number of these wlio have attended <'ollege 13 


CicEKo High school. 



Wm. F. Clarke, Superintendent. 
Organized, 188G. Commissioned, 1886. 

Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

J. H. Tomlin 188^18»1 

Will P. Hart 18&l-18e4 

H. P. Leavenworth 18M-189 

H. S. Schell 186»-lffV 

Wm. F. Clarke 1M8-19M 

Principals and assistants: 

Joseph W. Strain, principal. 

Anna O. Marlatt, assistant. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Jos. *W. Sti-ain, Science and Mathematics. 

Anna O. Marlatt, History and Latin. 

Eva L. Keefsnider, History and English. 

Wm. F. Clarke, English and German. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superlntoideBC* 

Training of teachers: 

William F. Clarke, A. M., Ph. D.. Butler College. 

Joseph W^. Strain, graduate State Normal, undergraduftte State 

Anna O. Marlatt, A. B., DePauw. ^ 

Eva L. Reefsnider, graduate of State Normal. 

Enrollment In high school * 75 

Total enrollment in grades and high school T70 

Number of girls graduated last year (1003) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (11)03) 3 

Number of each in this class that went to college- 
Girls 1 

Boys 3 

Number of graduates since the school was organized 8T 

Number of these who have attended college 2(1 


C. O. Mitchell, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1873. Commissioned, 1003. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

F. B. Clark 1889-1807 

F. G. Sharp 1887-1888 

G. E. Long 188^-1895 

Frank Long 1805-1900 

J. W. Lydy 1900-1902 

Abraham Bowers 1902-1903 

C. O. Mitchell 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Geo. A. Rlnehart 1885-1886 

Bruce Clark 1893-1895 


Clinton High School. 

Be»e Eldred 1807-1900 

Dottle Dammond 11>01-1902 

C. W. Miller 1902-190a 

S. H. Watson 1»()3-1!W4 

High Bchool tcai'liers dfA subjects they teach: 

C. O. Mitchell, Lntln, German, Eugllah. 

S. H, Watson, Latin, Mathematics, English, Physics. 

W. F. Uurrougtas, Freucb and English History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

G. O. Mitchell, A. B., Indiana University. 

S. H. Watson, H- B.. Wahash College. 

W. F. Burroughs, undergraduate Wuhash College. 

Bfiirollment In high school 42 

Total enrollment In grades and hlgli school 275 

Number of girls graduated last year (li)03) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of each Id this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 00 

Number of these who have attended college 10 



Eli P. AVilson, Superintendent. 

Oi'KanizcHl, 18U3. Commissioned, llMjl. 
Superintendent, witli djite uf service: 

Eli r. Wilson 1893-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Miss Minnie (Mianil>ers. 

Mr. C. E. (;illesi>ic. 
Uijrh .school teachers and subjects they teatrh: 

E. P. Wilson, Latin, (rconietry, Cliemistry. 

Miss Chambers. Enj^flish. Mathematics. 

Mr. (lillespie, Latin and History. 
.Vveratfe yearly salary of hit:h school teachers, including Kuperintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

E. P. Wilson, student university of Colorado and Indiana University: 
former one year and latter one year and four summer terms: 
also some worlv by corresiM»nden<'e. 

Miss Minnie Chambers, jrraduate of Valparaiso Normal, student 
Ctdonel Parlxcr's s<'ho(»l. Clucajr^). and student Indiana State Xor- 

Mr. (Jillespie, A. U., graduate of Miami Cnlversity. 

Enrollment in liigh school 52 

Total enrollment in grades anil high schcMd 230 

Nundier of girls graduated last year (liMKb 7 

Numlier of boys graduated last year (ll)iKb ii 

Number of ea<-h in tills class that went to c(dlege 3 

Xundicr of graduates sinre school was organizeil 77 

Number of these* who have attendt»il <'ollege 12 

i\ L. Hottel. SuiHTintendent. 

Oi-ganlzed. ^H*\U. Commissi<Micd. 1.SS4K 

Suiierintendents. with dates of servh-e: 

Uev. A. .1. Douglas 1S«»0-187!» 

Augustus C. Mills 1870-1881 

W. C. harnhart 1881-1883 

.fohn C. Kinney 188,3-1885 

W. C. Palmer 1885-181)1 

P. II. Kirsh 180l-189<; 

Luella A. Mellinch 181K;-1808 

(M-aven L. Hottel 181>8-1004 


Columbia City High School. 


Principals and assistants: 

James A. Campbell. 

W. A. Dickey. 

J. E. Doorland. 

Le Uoy D. Thorman. 

L. S. I. Hunt. 

A. C. Miller. 

J. E. McDonald. 

Frank B. Mae. 

R. H. Pierce. 

W. C. Palmer. 

Ira C. Batman. 

Mary L. Stone. 

Charles Egner. 

Helen I. Miilspaugh. 

Emma R. Thatcher. 

Clara Kinney. 

Luella Melllnch. 

Helen I. Miilspaugh. 

Lucien McCord. 

W. A. Beam. 

I. T. Glenn. 

J. C. Sanders. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Helen Miilspaugh, English. 

Olive M. Lawrence, Latin and History. 

C. L. Johnston, I^tin and Mathematics. 

Alma Ball, Latin and Mathematics. 

L. L. Hall, Science and Mathematics. 

Ida Gall)reath, English. 

Herbert Irwig;, Science and History. 
Average yeaily salary of high school teachers, Including Buperintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

J. C. Sanders, from N. O. N. University. 

IIerl)ert Irwig, A. B., from Indiana University. 

Idn (Talbreatli. A. B.. Ix)mbard. 

C. L. Ilottcl, superintendent, Ph. I)., from Ilartsville University. 

Enrolluiont in higli school 07 

Total enroUmont in grades and high school 745 

Number of girls graduated last year (1003) 

Number of l>oys graduated last year (1008) 1 

Number of «Mich in this class that went to college None 

Num!)er of irraduatos since scliool was organized 152 

Nunil)er of thes(» wlio have attended college 30 



T. F. Fitzgibbon, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1859. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Tbeo. P. Marsb 1851K18<51 

J. M. Olcott 18(>1-18«32 

Mr. Vance 1802-1863 

David Sbuok 1863-1864 

Amos Burns 1864-1865 

David (Jrahani 18tK3-l»M» 

A. IL Graham 1860-1800 

J. A. Carnagey 1800-1901 

T. F. Fitzgi))l»on 1001-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Mrs. B. L. Sanders 1872-1887 

Miss Liz/Je Long 1887-1880 

Samuel Wertz 1880. 

High school tenrhers and sul)jccts they teach: 
Samuel Wertz, MathcMuatics. 
Mrs. L. S. Arnien. Latin. 
W. C. Cox, Science. 
Eliza])eth Wright. History. 
Martha Scott, English. 

(^lara Hussey, Shorthand and Typewriting. 
Amy Brown, assistant in Matliematics and English. 
M. L. Sandifor, a.ssistant in Latin and ^lathematics. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

Samuel Wertz, A. P... Hartsville College and student Indiana Uni- 
Mrs. L. S. Armen. A. B.. Hartsville. 
W. C. Cox, A. B.. Eariham College. 
Elizabeth Wright. A. B., Indiana University. 
Amy Brown, undergraduate Indiana University, ^^li^ years. 
Martha Scott, undergraduate Indiana University. 8V{j years. 
Merl L. Sandifor. graduate Indiana State X<u*inal. 

Enrollment in high school 236 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1.750 

XumlKT of girls graduated last year (1003) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1003) 13 

Number of each in this class that went to college — 

Males 3 

Females 4 

Numl)er of graduates since school was organized 457 

Number of these >vho have attende<l college 85 




W. S. Rowe, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1877. Commissioned. 1881. 

Superintendents, with date of service: 

John Brady 1858-1800 

Chas. Rhoel 1865-1867 

J. L. Rippetoe. . , 1867-1871 

Mr. Hughes 1871-1873 

J. L. Rippetoe 1878-1886 

D. Bclcley Hunter 1886-1889 

W. F. L. Sanders 1889-1899 

W. S. Rowe 1899-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

E. A. Turner, principal. 
Catherine Chilton, assistant. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

E. A. Turner, Science. 

Catherine (Uiilton, History. 

W. F. L. Sanders, Mathematics. 

W. R. Houghton, Latin. 

Helen Weston, English. 

Charlotte Griggs, English and Mathematics. 

E. M. Lippitt, Music. 

W. H. Garus, Drawing. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

W. S. Rowe, A. B.. DePauw University, four years. 

E. A. Turner, graduate State Normal (four years' course), four years 
credit in Indiana University, five terms in Biological station. 

Catherine Chilton, graduate State Normal, A. B., Indiana University, 
two years. 

W. R. Houghton, M. A., Indiana University. 

W. F. Iv. Sanders. B. S.. Indiana University, three years. 

Helen Weston, Ph. B., DePauw University. 

Charlotte Griggs, undergraduate Butler University, student two 

W. H. Gams, graduate Northern Illinois Normal School, art depart- 

E. M. Lippitt. 

Enrollment in high school 114 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,001 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of boys graduated last .vear (1903) 4 

Number of each in this class that went to college (a girl) 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 298 

Number of these who have attended college (girls 45, boys 41) 86 

IS— Eduoatiov. 


C. E. Spa Hiding, Su^rintendent. 

Organized, 187.'?. Commissioned, 1895. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

H. S. Miller 18T2-1873 

John S. Stout 1OT8-1875 

S. S. Bowman 1875-1880 

Arnold Tompkins 1880-1882 

Mr. Caroway 1882-1883 

Mr. Crispman 1883-1884 

S. S. Bowman 1884-188C 

Jesse Lewis 1886-iaS8 

Jasper Goodykoontz 1888-1890 

Mr. Hester 1890-1893 

W. E. Alexander 1893-1805 

H. S. Bowers 1895-1897 

S. L. Heeter 1897-1903 

C. E. Spauldinjr 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

S. L. Heeter 1896-1897 

C. C. Marshall 1897-1902 

C. E. Spauldin^' 1902-1903 

B. B. AVetherow 1903- 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

C. E. Spaulding. German, English, English History, Geometry, 

D. L. Cowan, -\lgcbra. Arithmetic, Civil Government. 

E. B. Wetherow, Latin, English, Ancient History, Physics, Geometry. 
Average j'early salary of high school teachers. Including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

Supt. C. E. Spaulding, A. B., Indiana T^niversity. 1807. 

Principal E. B. Wetherow, undergraduate Indiana University. 

Assistant Principal D. Ti. Cowan, high school graduate. 

Enrollment in high school 50 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 314 

Numl)er of girls graduated last year (190:*,) 8 

Numbor of boys graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of each in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 48 

Nuni)>er of these who have attended college 10 

Jesse W. Riddle, Superintendent. 

Organ iz<Ml. 1877. (^>m missioned, 1901. 

Sui>erintendents, with dat<^ of service: 

Joseph P. Funk 1875-1888 

George B. Ilaggett 188&-1800 


Edwin S. Hallett 

Charloa K. Sliafer 1803-1805 

Jesse W. Kiddle 181W-1904 

Principals and asalataiits: 

Herman I. Stern, Blaudie Kldloy, Adam H. Eelsfng, Emma K. Hal- 
k'tt. MolUe M. Riddle. 
Higb Hchool teaclicTH and su)>Jects they teach: 

Adam H. ReisinK. Matliematlca and Science. 

Emma K. Hatlett, I^tla. 

Mollic M. Itlddlo. SIiislc and Drawing. 

Jesse W. Kiddle, Hli<tor.v and Bnglleli. 
AvornRe yearly salary of high scliool tenchers. Including superintendent, 


Training of teachcra; 

Jesse W. Riddle, A.U., Indiana; LI..B.. Michigan. 

Adam H. RelBlntr. gnidiinte Indiana State Normal School. 

Emma K. llallett. grndnate Jefferson ville HIrIi School; Borden lu- 
Stltute. two years. 

Knroilmeiit in hlffh school GO 

Total eiirollnient in grndeia and high school 4D0 

Niimlier of Rlrls graduntiv] last year (1003) 4 

Xiimher of bojs gi-adiinted last year (IflOS) 4 

Xiinrt)er in tlila <dass that went to college 3 

Xnmlier of grndiintcs sincp school was organized 137 

XnmliH- of these who have attendetl college 50 

(toNVERSE High School. 


H. S. Kaufman, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1870. Commission ihI, ISlKi. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. Warren McBroom 1879-1882 

II. M. McKnight 1882-1883 

y. E. Livengood 1883-1887 

S. A. D. Harry 1887-1891 

W. H. Ferticli 1891-1895 

W. P. Hart 1895-1003 

H. S. Kaufman 191)3-1JK)4 

Prinfii>als and asssistants: 

Letlia Ferticli 1891 

Mollio MeMalion 1892 

Edna Hays 1894 

W. r. Hart 18JX? 

J. V. Millis 1S97-18J>8 

s. H. Hall mys- 

Hi>;li seliool teacliers and sul>je<?ts tliey teafli: 

S. H. Hall, Matliematic-s. 

H. S. Kaufman. Matin nia tics. 

H. C. Fish, History. 

Earl yi. Watsmi, Sciencre. 

La\'erne Glascock. Latin. 

Josoi>hine U. ('alli<mn. Enjjlish. 

T-«U!*a Hunter. Musir and Drawlnj;. 
Avera>?e yearly salary of hifrh school teachers, in<*luding superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

H. S. Kaufman, Indiana TJniviMsity, A.R. 

S. H. Hall, Indiana rnivcrsity, A.B. 

La Verne Glascock. Fniversily of Michigan, A.B. 

11. C. Fish. FnivtMsity of WIsronsin, B.L. 

Josephine H. (^dhoun. DePauw University. Ph.B. 

Earl M. Watson. Wahash College, A.B. 

Lura Hunter. Mh-higan Xorni:il College. 

Enrollment in high school 100 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 518 

Nundjer of girls graduated last year (llXK'i) 14 

Number of hoys graduated last year (IIXKO 4 

Numl)»T in this class that went t(» cnllcge 2 

Nund>er of graduates since school was organi/.ed 158 

Number of tht^se who have attende<l college 46 

ETiPCArroy ix ixdiana. 



W. A. Millis, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1876. Commissioned, 1S86. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. T. Fry 1876-1882 

T. H. Dunn 1882-1890 

I. M. Wellington 1890-1897 

G. F. Kenaston 1897-1900 

W. A*. Millis 1900- 

Principals and assistants: 

Miss Anna Willson 1895-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Anna Willson, English. 

Hannah Muhleisen, Latin. 

Sophie Kleinhans, German. 

Lena F. Myers, English. 

Curtis Merriman, Mathematics. 

J. W. Pierce, History. 

Fred L. Cory, Science. 

Elizabeth M. Abernathy, Music. 

Frances Westfall, Art. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

W. A. Millis, A.M., Indiana University. 

Anna Willson, student Chicago University and Harvard College. 

Hannali Muhleisen. Indiana University. 

Sophie Kleinhans. University Gottinger. 

I^na F. Myers. A.B., University of Michigan. 

Curtis Merriman, A.B., Indiana University. 

J. W. Pierce, graduate Indiana State Normal School. 

Fred L. Cory. A.B., Wabash College. 

ETnrollment in high school, 123 boys and 143 girls 266 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,424 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 16 

Numl)er of boys gi-aduated last year (1903) 6 

Number in this class that went to college 9 

Number of graduates since school was organized 387 

Number of these who have attended college 101 

F. F. Heighway, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1883. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. B. Dimon 1881-1884 

G. L. Voris 1884-1888 

M. J. Mallery 1888-1890 

J. J. Allison 1800-1896 

F. P. Heighway 189^1904 



Principaia and assIstimtB: 

Margaret McCowan. 
High BCliool tencliers and subjects tbey teacb: 

Margaret McCowan, Latin, Algel»^, Plane Geometry. 

Clara Vlerllng, Englisli and History. 

Angusta K(^>elke, GermaB and Hlstw;. 

Frank F. Halghway, Science. 
ATcrage yearly salary oC lilj-b school teachers, Including superintendent, 

Truinlni; of teachers: 

Frank F. Helghway, B.S.. and undergraduate student University of 

Margaret McCowan. A.B., Iowa College and University of California. 

Clara Vlerllng. A.B„ Indiana University. 

Augusta Kopelkc, German College. 

Knrollment In high school 8(» 

Total enrollment In grades and high school 407 

Number of girls grtidiiateil last year (lOWt) II 

Number of Iwys graduated last year (1903) r> 

Xuml>er In this class that went to college 5 

Number of graduates since school was organized 15t) 

Numlier of these who have attended college 4o 

^1 jjR 

m\-i^ ti 1 

ir" ' 

.. 31, , n^h 

Cbawfordsville High School. 



\V. K. Smythe, Superintendent. 

Organized. 181K3. CommisRioned, 1897. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

I. (\ Reubelt 1895-1901 

E. M. Hughes 1901-1903 

W. K. Smythe 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. Walton Clark. 

Mr. Large. 

C. E. Dodson. 

Eva Malone. 

Effle 1. Roberts. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

W. E. Smythe, Algebra. Plane Geometry. Physics and U. S. History. 

Ertie I. Kobert.s. English Composition and Rhetoric. Botany. Oriental 

Eva Malone, Latin. Greek and Roman History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

W. E. Smythe, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Ettie I. Roberts. H.L., graduate of College of Liberal Arts, North- 
western I'niversity. 

Eva Malone. one year in Vassar College, graduate of Decatur High 

Enrollment in high scliool 50 

Total enrollment in grades and higli scliool 1*14 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 

Number of lM)ys graduated last year (ltX).3) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized (Mi 

Number of tliese wlio liave attended college 15 

O. C. Pratt, Suiierintendent. 

Organized. 1HT9. Commissioned. 1S95. 

Superintendent.^, witli dates of service: 

J. F. Albin 1879-1880 

Libbie .larrett 1880-1882 

F. F. I»ragg 1882-188:5 

Milton .1. Mallory 1888-1888 

A. Jones 188H-1890 

H. J. Shafer 1890-1892 

F. M. Saxtcm 1892-1894 

P. V. Voris 1894-1897 

Orville C. I»ratt 1897-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Principal, C. W. Baton; assistant. Grace Welshans. 


High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Orville C. Pratt, German, Commercial Geogi-apliy and English His- 

Chas. W. E>aton, Mathematics and Science. 

Grace H. Welshans, Latin and English. 

M. A. Keeney. English and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

O. C. Pratt, Ph.B., DePauw. 

C. W. Eaton, Valparaiso Normal. 

Grace H. Welshans, undergraduate Chicago University. 

M. A. Keeney. 

Enrollment in high school 75 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 425 

Number of girls graduated last year (1003) 11 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of graduates since school was organized No data 

Number who have attended college No data 


Daniel Freeman, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1896. Commissioned, 1903. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

O. H. Ghriest 1890-1900 

W. S. King 1900-1903 

Daniel Freeman ' 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Assistant, W. B. Rodman 1896-1898 

Assistant. Adam Carrick 1898-1901 

Assistant, Margaret Weesner 1901-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Daniel Freeman, GJoometry, General History, Latin, German. 

Margaret Weesner, English, General History, Algebra, Physical 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Daniel Freeman. Ph.B.. Earlham College, and graduate of Indiana 

State Normal. 
Margaret Weesner, Indiana State Normal and undergraduate In 
State University. 

Enrollment In high school 63 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 260 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 45 

Number of these who have attended college Stoics 



II. A. Hartman, Superintendont. 

Organized, 1878. Coinmissionod, 1894. 
Superintoiideiits, with dates of service: 

S. G. Hastings 1878-1881 

C. G. White 1881-1883 

G. W. A. Luckj' 1883-1887 

C. A. Dugan 1887-1801 

J. I^wis 1891-1802 

A. D. Mofifett 1892-1896 

IA>11 M. Segar 1890-1897 

W. F. Brittson 1897-1899 

II. A. Hartman 1899-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
W. J. Meyer. 
Miss 1^11 M. Segar. 
H. D. Merrell. 
C. E. Hocker. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
C. E. IIocktT, Math(Mnatics. 
Miss Ros4» L. I>unatlian. Latin and History. 
Miss Sophia Luzzader. English. 
J. B. Dutcher, Science. 
W. J. Creig, Comraercial. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

II. A. Hnrtnian, A.B., Ph.D., Ann Arl>or and State College Alabama. 

C, E. Hocker, undergraduate Indiana University, one year. 

Hose L. Dunathan. A.B., Ohio Wesleyan University. 

Miss Sopliia Luzzader, A.B., Indiana University. 

J. B. Dutcher, A.B., Tri-State Normal. 

W. J. Creig, Vories Business College. 

Enrollment in high school 07 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 825 

Numl>er of girls graduated last year 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 216 

Numl)er of these who have attended college 56 



E. L. Hendricks, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1872. Coniuiissioned, 1872. 

D. I>. HIakeman. 
A. W. Dunkle. 
W. II. Hershinan. 
W. S. Almond. 

E. L. Hendricks, 
J. M. Hitt. 
John H. Shafer. 

Principals and assistants: 
K. U. Smoot. 
G. W. Julien. 
S. B. McCracken. 
J. M. Culver. 

D. C. Ridgeley. 

F. C. Whitconil). 
Emma H. Shealy. 
Jas. O. Engleman. 

lligli schoo! teaclKM-s and subjects they teach: 

J. O. Enjrleman. Principal, Mathematics, History, Latin. 
F. J. Hreeze. Science, American I^iterature. 
Anna M. Si-lifill, Literature and I^iitin. 

E. Jj. Hendricks, Superintendent, History. 

Averajce yearly salary of hi>?li school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

E. L. Hen<lricks, sui»erintendent, graduate of Franklin College; A.M., 
Indiana University; summer in University of (Miicago; summer in 

J. O. Engleman, graduate Indiana State Normal; correspondence 
work in University of Chicago. 

F. J. Breeze, graduate Indiana State Normal; chemistry work In 
Purdue University. 

Anna M. Scholl, graduate St. Mary; one year post-graduate St. Mary: 
one term Indiana University. 

Enrollment in higli sdiool 114 

Total enroiluKMit in grades and high school 456 

Number of girls graduated last year (1003) 15 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 288 

Number of these who have attended college GO 



C. E. Vinzaut, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1801. C^ommissioned. 181)8. 
Superintendents, with dates of service; 

Elias Boltz 1801-1807 

H. S. Gray 1807-1902 

C, E. Vinzant 1903-1904 

Principals and assiRtants: 

G. 0. Powers. 

Ruth P. Stone. 

W. H. Budders. 

Aita Branagan. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

G. C. Powers. Mathematics and Science. 

Ruth F. Stone. Latin and English. 

(>. E. Vinzant. History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

G. C. Powers, graduate Earlhani. 

Ruth Stone, DePauw. three j-ears. 

C. E. Vinzant. graduate State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 60 

Total enrollment in gi-ados and high school 050 

Number of girls graduated last year (190.'',) 

Number of lioys graduated last year (100;5) 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since scliool was organized Records burned 


J. C. Mills, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1871. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. W. White 1871-1874 

John Mather 1870-1881 

R. N. Johns 1881-1882 

J. McNeil 1882-1885 

Victor C. Alderson 18a5-1887 

T. A. Mott .1887-1801 

F. L. Harris 1801-1802 

D. R. Ein»arger 1892-1803 

J. R. Sparlcs 1893-1805 

S. B. Plaskett 1805-1897 

A. L. Ellabarger 1807-1808 

H. D. Nicewanger r 1898-1000 

W. D. Cook 1000-1001 

J. C. Mills 1001-1904 







,1 .,-.„™^s^i-— 



Dublin High School. 

iiid ai 


Mrs. M. E. F. Stewart- 
High school teacbcrs and subjects Ibey teacb: 

Mra. Stewart, Latin, English, part of work In Science. 

Mr. Mills, Mathematics. History and part of work In Science. 
Average yearly salary oC high school teachers. Including superintendent, 

Training of teacbers: 

.1. C. Mllla. undergraduate Earlhnin, three years. 

Mrs. Stewart, graduate Indiana State Normal; undergraduate Indiana 
State Dnlveralty, one and one-balf years. 

Enrollment in high scbool 3S 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 200 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) None 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 151 

Number of these who have attended college 78 



Win. C. Smith, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1808. Commissioned, 1902. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Irwin F. Mather 189&-1901 

Wm. C. Smith 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

I*rincipal, A. G. Slocomb; assistants, Flora B. Bronson, Ella M. Ly- 
ons, Bertha Wat kins, Kmelie Pooley. Carrie B. Hemenger, Mau- 
tia Bloom, May Rolfe, Kathryn Slieets. 
High school teachers and 8ul)jects they teach: 

A. G. Slocomb, Algebra, Arithmetic, Geometry, Commercal Law. 

Flora B. Bronson. Latin, German. 

Ella M. Lyon.s English, History. 

May llolfe. Physiology, Physical Geography, Physics, Botany, Chem- 

Katliryn Sheets, Boolil^eeping, Shorthand. 
Average yearly salary of higli school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

W. C. Smitli, Washington University, two years; Normal, two j'ears. 

A. G. Slocomb, B.S., Valparaiso. 

Flora H. Bronson, A.B., Valparaiso: undergraduate University of Chi- 
cago, two years. 

Ella M. Lyons, undergraduate Indiana University, one-quarter year; 
University of Chicago, one-half year. 

May Uolfe, A.B.. University of Illinois. 

Kathryn Sheets. 

Em'ollment in liigli scliool 58 

Total enrollment in grades and higli school 800 

Xunilier of girls graduated last year (11)(.K{) 2 

Number of boys gniduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Numl>er of graduates since school was organized 21 

Numl>er of these who have attended college 5 

C. F. Patterson. Superintendent. 

Organized. lS7r>. Commissioned, 1880. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

.lohn Martin 1807-1878 

J. C. Eagle 1878-1888 

\V. B. Owens 1888-1894 

Chas. F. Patterson 1894-1904 


l'rliici|ialit tint] ossltitniitD: 

Jiiiilo DunilDg. 

C. M. JIoDnnlul. 

J. II. Haj-woitli. 

Lcvii M. Foster, 
llifsli Kcliuol teiictiors nud HtiliJt-clM Ihoy toach: 

MIkh Ia-vii M. l-'OHlpi-, Mii1lii'iiiiilk-M ntiil I^itlii. 
Avi'r:iK» yeurlj- Knlurj' of 1lI);1i kcIiiioI ti'nchui^. liieliiilliiK KUiii>i'iiil(>iiil('tit. 

TriiliiiiiK or tt'iLi'liL-iii: 

('. F. I'iitlfrsoii. WiiIi.ikIi luiil Vrniikllii (VIIi-ki*. rmfi'SHioiiiil niKl 
Lire Stiite I.lii'llsi'H. 

U'vu M. Foslpr. IikUiiiiu riilvcrslly. 

Knrolliii.'iit ill hit'li scliwl 7(1 

T'ltiil I'liriilliiiciit In Ki-julcH Jinil hi«1i ki-Ii.h)1 Ms 

NiiiiiliiT of Klrls ;miilii;i1(il IiihI yi-nr (lIKKll II 

XiiiiiliiT iif iMiys KriiiliiiiliHl liiNt yciir ilSKKli T 

Niiiiil»T in lliis I'liiss Hint \v<'iit III ciilli-|;t< .~> 

XiiuiliiT iif tiriitliinli'M siiifi- Nchniil wiiii iirtniiiliHiI ■'"" 

NiimiiiT of tln'Ki' who liiiv.' ulIi-tiilMl (■..ih-iii' 1.'." 

East (Jhi('A(!o High BriiooL. 



I>. W. Thomas. Superintendent. 

Organized. 18G8. Conlnli.s^5ioned, 188(3. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

Valois Rutler 1868-1870 

J. K. Waltz 1870-1874 

J. M. Strasburj,' 1874-1875 

M. A. Barnett 1876-1879 

A. P. Kent 1879-1882 

T. B. Swartz 1882-1880 

D. W. Thomas 188<?-1V)()4 

Principals and assistants: 

Nellie Smith. 

Mary E. Gordon. 

Serene E. Uoadley. 

Lydia A. Dimon. 

Sarah D. Harmon. 

Chas. M. Van Cleave. 

Geo. W. Barr. 

A. G. Hall. 

Leonard Conant. 

Theodore Johnson. 

Horace Phillips. 

Z. B. Leonard. 

S. B. McCracken. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

S. B. McCracken, Physics and Chemistry. 

Clara Van Nuys, English Literature. 

Ella V^llkinson, Latin. 

A. M. Smith, Mathematics. 

Ella Rice, American Literature. 

Hetta Speas, Biology. 

Wm. O. Lynch, History. 

C. W. Blanchard, Commercial Subjects. 
W. L. Gard, Assistant in History. 
Elizabeth Aitken, Assistant in Mathematics. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superiiitendeiil, 

Training of teachers: 

D. W. Thomas, superintendent, A. B., A. M., DePauw University. 
S. B. McCracken, A.B., Indiana State University. 

Clara Van Nuys, Indiana State Normal. 

Wm. O. Lynch, Indiana State Normal. Indiana State University. 

C. W. Blanchard, Indiana Central College, Fayette Normal Univer- 
sity, Ohio. 

Amandus M. Smith. Bucknell University, Pa.: Pennsylvania State 

Ella E. Rice. Michigan University, one year. 

M. Ella Wilkinson. New York State Normal. 


Ketta E. Speas, ludiaua State Normal. 

Willis L. Oard, Indiana SUite University. 

Eliza l)eth Aitkeu, Michigan State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 252 

Total enrollment in grades an^ high school 2,764 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 22 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 496 

Number of these who liave attended college 60 


(\ S. Meek, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1889. Commissioned, 18Sn. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

T. F. Fitzgil>bon 1890-1901 

C^has. S. Meek 1901-1904 

F^rincipals and assistants: 

(Uias. S. Meek 1892-1894 

John Freeman 1894-1898 

L. D. Owens 1898-1901 

J. G. Collicutt 1901-1903 

V. W. Owen 1903-llKM 

High school teachers and subjects they tea<'h: 

Everett Owens, Mathematics. 

Chas. Haseman. Mathematics. 

Otto Sperlin, English. 

Edward McDonald, English. 

Ida Webb, History. 

(J«H). I>. Shafer, Science. 

Edna Chaffee, German. 

Lucy Poucher, I^atin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, inchiding superintendent. 

IVaJning of teachers: 

Clias. S. Meek, A.B.. University of Indiana. 

Everett Owens, A.B.. University of Indiana. 

('has. Haseman. A.B.. University of Indiana. 

Otto Sperlin, A.B.. University of Indiana. 

Geo. D. Shafer. A.B.. University of Indiana. 

Ethel Chaffee, A.B., DePauw ITniversity. 

Lucy Poucher. AB.. DePauw Universty. 

Ida Webb. Indiana State Normal. 

Enrollment in liigh school 245 

Total enrollment in grades and higli school 2,670 

NumlK*r of girls gi*aduated last year (1903) 10 

Numl>er of boys graduated last year (1903) 13 

Number of each in this class that went to college, boys. 4: girls 5 

Number of graduates since school was organized 176 

Number of these who havt* attended college 40 

19— EouoATioir. 



('. II. Copeluud, Superiiitoiideiit. 

Or^aiiizod, ISIMJ. Comiiiissioiica, 1801). 
SupcrlnttMidriits. ^vitli dates of servUro: 

K. \V. lliinolick 180r»-lS07 

<\ H. Copeland 18J)7-1904 

Principals aud assistants: 

M. E. Monaliau. 

W. L. Jay. 

M. N. Iladloy. 

.1. ('. Cast Ionian. 

II. C. lirandon. 
Ilijrli sclmul t(»a<"lHM's an<l sul»jc<*ts tliey toat'li: 

ir. C. Krantlon, riiyslcs and Gconiotry. 

I.. C. U<)lK»y. Kn^lish and Al>;obra. 

K. I>. Sniiili. English and History. 

.Tosophino Alu'I, Latin and Gorman. 

C. H. Cop(»land. liotany. 

Lonora Honton, Music. 
Avcraso yearly salary of hi;xli school teachers, including BUi>erinteiident. 

Training; of t{»achcrs: 

C. II. Copoland, A.M.. Indiana University, Superintendent. 

H. C. Hrandon, A.H., Indiana Uidvorsity. Principal. 

It. I). Smith. Indiana Stale Normal K^'Juluate. 

.foscphine Abel. A.H., Indiana University. 

L. <'. iJol.ey. A. 15.. Wahash College. 

I.ciu»ra Denton. Thomas Xormal Traiidnjr Sch<K>I, Detroit, Mich. 

Kiiroiimcnt in Iii;j:h .sdiool 110 

Total enrollment in jrrades and high school 850 

Number of girls graduated last year (1!)0'>) 7 

Number of boys gradual ed last year (11)0.3) 2 

Number in this class that went to college— girl 1 

Nundjer of graduates since school was organized 38 

Number of these who have attcMided college 5 

EDiJc.vnoN IX ixnr.ihw. 



J. S. Slalmugh. Suporintt'iideiit. 

Orgauized, 1892. Coiimiissloiied. HK>2. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

I . F . My er 1 8J)2- 1 8JM 

E. N. Canine 181M-1897 

Geo. B. Asburj' 18t>7-liH):5 

.Taney S. Slabaujrh 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

<). H. BottorflF, principal. 

K. J. Todd, assistant, 
nijfli s<'Ii<K»I teachers and subjects they teach: 

.1. S. Slabaugh. History and Latin. 

(). H. Botorff, English and I^tin. 

K. J. Tculd, Mathematics and Science. 
Averag(» yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

J. S. Slabaugh, graduate of Indiana State Normal, senior in Indiana 

O. B. Bottorflf, A. B., from Indiana University. 

E. J. Todd, undergraduate of Indiana University, three years. 

Eiu'oUment in high schcml iVl 

Total enrollment in grades :ind higli scliool IWO 

Numl>er of girls graduated l:ist year (llKK'b 4 

Numlier of l>oys gniduatcd last year (1SH»:{» <i 

Xuml>er ill this class that went to college None 

Nnmb«»r of graduates since scliool was organi'/:>d 58 

XuiiiImm" of these who have attendetl college 12 



W. A. Mj'iTH. SuiH»iiuteudent. 

Orj^niiizt^il, ISlNi. Commissioned, 180t). 
Superiiitt'iuleiits, witli datrs of siTvicc: 

J. W. Jay 1S1)5-1SKX) 

William A. Myers 190U-1904 

PrinclpalK and assistants: 

J. M. I'ojnie, W. A. Myers, W. A. Bowman, H. W. WoltV, .lames 
A. Moody, O. L. Morrow. 
High scliool teachers and subjects they teaeh: 

\y. A. Myers. Algebra, Botany, Cieero, American Literature, Amer- 
ican History, Civics. 
O. L. Morrow, (Jeometry. Physics, beginning Latin, Ciesar, English 

Literature, IMiysical < Geography, Ancient History. 
('. H. (irilTey, Algebra, Literature, Composition. 
Averag(» yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

W. A. Myers, suiKn-intendent, A. B., 181K>: A. M., 1899, Indiana Uni- 
(). L. Morrow, principal, graduate Indiana State Normal School. 
C. H. (iriffey, undergraduate Butler College. tw(> terms. 

Knrollment in high school (190:M>4) iV2 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1^17 

Number of girls graduated last year (11M)8) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (19fK^) 2 

Numlier of each in this class that went to college- 
Girls 1 

Boys 1 

Number of graduates since sch(M)l was commission<Ml S.') 

Number of these who have attended college X^ 


B. W. Kelly, Snperintondent. 

Orf^anlzea. 1872. Commlssioued, 1902. 

Snporiiitentlonts. with dates of service: 

David F. White 1872-1873 

John Mather. 
Mary E. Harris. 
Lucius Fall. 
Abbott Mott. 

Mr. Woolford 1885-1880 

J{. E. Kirkman 1886-1888 

Dan Barrett 1880-1800 

J. M. Meek 1801-1805 

A. L. MlabarjrtM- 1806-1808 

C. A. Thoruburg 1800-1003 

Principals and assistants: 

B. W. Kelly, sui)erinteudent. 
Carrie B. GriJIis, principal. 

High school tea<'hers and subjects they teach: 

B. W. Kelly. English. History, Physics. 

Carrie U. (irillis. Latin, Algebra. Geometry. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

B. W. Kelly, superintendent, B.. S.. Earlhara College. 

Carrie 1^. (triflis, principal, undergraduate Indiana University, one 

Enrollment in high school 25 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 225 

Number of girls graduated last year (]1H);3) 1 

Number of l)oys graduated last year (1003) 1 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was commissioned No data 

Number of these who have attended college No data 

Enua.vnoy ly i\niA\A. 


l^wis Hoover. Suiieriiitendout. 

Organized. 18S<>. CommiHHioneil, ISJir*. 

Superlnteiuloiits, with dates of service: 

Lewis Hoover 1(KK>-1»M 

Louis Lambert IgoevUKXi 

T. F. Berry lHn7-18«» 

Burton Berry 188M-1897 

P. V. Voris 18ini.l8JM 

W. J. Bowen ISniMWJ 

Samuel Lilly 1888-18tW 

Mr. Brunton 18S7-1888 

Mr. Buckley 18Ht;-18S7 

W. J. Bowen 18S5-188«; 


J. H. Stanley 10UCM004 

EdwBrd Gardner 1902-1903 

J. G. Perrin 1901-1902 

J. A. Linebnruer 18SW-1901 

Cora Snyder ISJKVISOO 

Higfli 8(*hool teachers and sul)ject« they teach: 
J. H. Stanley, Latin and Mathematics. 
Rose E. Hay, History and Enfflisli. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

I^wis Hoover, sui)erintendent. graduate high school. Hagerstown, 
Ind.: graduate Indiana State Normal: doing senior work in Earl- 
ham College. 
J. H. Stanley, graduate Indiana State Normal: doing senior work in 

State University: Chi<-ago University, summer. IIKHI. 
Rose K. Hay. graduate liigh school, Vermillion. 111.: Westfield Col- 
lege. Illinois, two years: Indiana State Normal, two years. 

Enrollment in high scIkm*! 70 

Total enrollment in grades and high scliool 372 

Number of girls gradunte<l hist year (11H):{» 12 

Numl>er of boys graduated Inst year (IIMK'^) 5 

Number of each in this class tliat went to college- 
Girls 1 

Boys 3 

Numl)er of graduates since school was organized 137 

Number of these wlio have attended college 49 




' .^SBBjH^K^S^S^I^Bl 




■ ■Ml 






-- . 


^^^^^^^^^^^^'^^ ^ . 1 M 'c^^K 


Kdwiu S. Monroe, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1875. Commissioned, . 

Superintendents, with dates of serviee: 

E. H. Slatey 1866-1872 

J. P. Rous 1872-1874 

J. E. Moxton 1874-1876 

Richard G. Boone 1876-1886 

E. E. Griffith 1886-1890 

B. F. Moore 1890-1899 

H. L. Frank 1899-1901 

George L. Rol>erts 1901-1903 

Edwin S. Monroe 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. S. Ludlam, J. F. Millpaugh, A. M. Huycke, J. F. Warfel, C. E. 
Newlin, I). K. Goss, J. A. Wood, J. A. Hill, J. J. Mitchell. 
High school teacliers and subjects they teach: 

J. J. Mitchell, Mathematics. 

F. W. Smith, Science. 
O. A. Rawlins, Science. 

William Robison, Mathematics and English. 

Christiana Thompson. English. 

Anna M. Claybaugh. Latin. 

Alice Hadley, History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teacliers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

J. J. Mitcliell, A. B., Indiana University. 

F. W. Smith, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

O. A. Rawlins. A. B.. Indiana University. 

William Robison. A. B., Indiana University. 

Christiana Thompson. A. B.' Otterbein University. 

Anna M. Claybaui;h. graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Alice lladley. graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Edwin S. Monroe. superintencbMit, A. M., Hanover College. 

Enrollment in IulMi school 282 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,015 

Number of girls graduated last year(l9:).*Ji M 

Number of boys graduated last year (ll>0:b 14 

Number of each in this cLiss that went to college- - 

Boys 3 

Girls 3 

Number of graduates since scIk^oI was organized 405 

Number of tluse who have attendi'd t-ollege 100 


FKANKt'ouT Hmii Si' 



II. H. Wilson. SiiiK*riiiteii(UMit. 

Ori^nuized, 1H71. CoininissioiUMl. . 

Superintendents, with flates of service: 

F. M. Ferguson 18«G-1871 

II. H. Boyce 1871 -187n 

E. B. Thompson. 1874-187.1 

Mr. Hunter 1874-187ri 

Mr. Martin 1875-1881 

Mr. Kemp 1881-1882 

Arnold Thompkins 1882-1885 

Mr. Klrseh 1885-188i; 

W. J. Williams 1887-180^ 

Will Featheringill 18i«-18n8 

N. C. Johnson 1898-191)0 

Horace Ellis 1900-1902 

H. B. Wilson 1902-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Mrs. Boyce. Mrs. Thompson. Miss Nelly, Mrs. Martin. Mrs. White. 
Mary Adams. Mr. Barnett. E. I.. Stephenson. Mr. Martin. Kitty 
Palmer. Alva O. Neal, C. K. Parker, Geo. B. Ashury. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Geo. B. Asbury. principal. Latin. 
Herriott Palmer, History, 
('lara Hannaman, English. 
Nettie C'raft, S(?ience. 
N. C. (Crimes. Mathematics and <ierman. 
Margaret Pritchard, I^itin and English. 
Ethelwyn Miller. Latin and Mathematics. 
.\v(»rage y(»arly salary of high school teachers, including sui^ertntendent, 

$708. I 

Training of teachers: 

H. B. Wilson, superintendent. Indiana State Normal, graduate; In- 
diana Thiivcrsity. t^vo years. 
(ftH)rge U. Asbury. graduate Indiana State Normal: undergraduate 

Indiana University. 
Herriott C. Palmer, Franklin College, B. S.. Ph. M.. summer school. 
Clara Hannaman, Franklin College, three years. 
Nettie C. Craft, Franklin College, B. S., summer school. 
N. C. (Trimes, Michigan State University, three years. 
Margaret Pritchard. Franklin College, A. B. 
Ethelwyn Miller, Franklin College; Boston University, one year. 

Enrollment in high school. . ; : '.'.T7 . 77'. 215 

Total enrollment in grades and high school. » 8*B 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Numl>er in this class that went to college 5 

Number of graduates since school was organized 299 

Number of who have attended college 175 


J. U. rnpiii. 5iiiK-rlnt<.>ii(l<'Ut, 
Ui-gmilzHl. IMI7. ('uiiiiulrtNloiu'il. AjHil l'-*. IKlili: JIiij- 2H. IWrj. hikI Niivfui- 
Ih-i- a. UMKl. 

yillHTlntplHU'lllS. Willi llHtl'S of HITVlcf; 

J. 11. FnRun 1«17-U)I)4 

I'rIiii-liiHiR aud iiKKlHiiiiilx: 

l". E. Grepuf, inliiciiiiil ISlT-liKdi 

I,. Klimclie Mciry. pHucliwl Hm«»-li>iv4 

K Rliinctie Merry. nuKlstaiit 1S!)R-I!»0(i 

.1. H. Staiilpy, iinhIhIiiuI 1!KIO-]!)01 

(irncf Trlplctl. asslstiint JSHil-lflti-J 

>[allsMn B, Furr. fisslstant IIXK-IIMV) 

Hlph Ki'luKil tcaHuTK ii;iii siii>Jp,-t« lli.'.v leiipti: 

1.. Itttiiic1ii> Merry, Kni.'tl)'!) mid Hlntory. 

Muli-wi B. Kiirr. Latin ninl Sdi'iiic. I'liysks. Cht'mlBt ry. 

J. B. Kkkihi, MatlieuiHlifs. 
Average yearly siiliiiy of lilgU enrliwl teuthei's, lui.-ludliig BUinTliileuafiil. 


Traininj? of teachers: 

M:ilissa B. Furr, A. B., Eminence College, Kentncky; graduate In- 
diana State Normal. 

Bliinclie Merry, ^aduate Indiana State Normal; student Michigan 
State University. 

J. B. Fagan, graduate Indiana State NormaL 

Enrollment in high school .% 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 250 

Number of girls graduated last year (19f>3» 1 

Number of l>oys graduated last year (190.3» 1 

Number in this class that went to college 

NumlK?r of graduates since school was organized 14 

Numl»or of these who have attended college 7 


Elmer E. Tyler, Superiutendent. 

Organized, 181)5. Commissioned, 1903. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: • 

Elmer E. Tyner 10(>3.1»)4 

Principals and assistants: 

J. W. Laird, R. C. Ililiis, U. M. Stout, and Miss Ida Galbreath, as- 
sistant; Elmer E. Tyner. and II. R. Bean, assistant, 
lllgli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Elmer E. Tyner, Latin and Science. 

II. R. Bean. Mathematics, English and Histor>'. 
Average yejirly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

Elmer E. Tyner, M. S.. Franklin Collcire. Indiana. 

H. R. Bean, A. B., Toronto University. Canada. 

Enrollment in high school 50 

Total (enrollment in ;rrndes and high schnol 177 

Nnmbor of girls graduated last year (190*>i 5 

Number of br»ys graduated last year (19j).*») 3 

Nun)l>er of each in this class that went to colleg(»— 

(;ii-ls 2 

Boys 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 19 

Numl)er of these who have attended college 7 





^H ^a^B^B^i-^" '™'™ 


^Sr*M^ ™ i^'N J 

Galveston High School, 



Ezra E. LoUar, Superintcudout. 

Organized, 188J>. Com miss ioneil, 1805. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Tlios. S. Merica 188<>-1890 

Francis M. Merica 1890-1806 

George M. Holte 1896-188D 

Ezra E. Lollar 189$V-19a4 

Principals and assistants: 

Principals— F. M. Merica. Ella Vivian, (;po. M. Hoke, G. P. Thielen, 
Efera E. I^llar, C. E. White, J. W. (^olel)ei-d, Estella Wolf. 

Assistants— Maude Kradericlt, J. W. Colel>erd, Delano Brinkerhoff. 
W. A. Hogue. J. B. Tarney. Verna Darby. ' 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Estella Wolf, Latin. English. 

Verna Darby, Mathematics. Science. 

Ezra E. Lollar. History. 
Avt»rage yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$070.00. . 
Training of teachers: 

Ezra E. Lollar A. B.. Otterbeln. 

Estella Wolf, A. B.. Heidelberg. 

Verna Darby. A. B.. Indiana TTniversity. 

Enrollment in high school 64 

Total enrollment in grades and high school (Jd4 

Xuml)er of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1003) 5 

Number in this class that went to college— Boys 3 

Number of graduates since scliool was organized 104 

Number of these who liave i^ttended college , . , 26 


C>ARRpiTT High 

:;0C KDrfWTIoy fX IXDrAXA. 

«;.\s I'lTV Hii;ii j^^.uooL. 

OrirJiiiiz'Ml. IViJ, r'i.iiiij;i«.<:iiii«.-<J. IV. C 
Siiii»Tiiit.«'iiil*iit«.. \\\*]i I hire's Mt" s4Tvi».-t*: 

\V. i }. Wan i' k 1S!>4-1S!KI 

A. II. Sh.r r lSi»l»UKH 

J. H. J.-ITn-y lUiH-lOtM 

rriiM'iii.'iIs ami as«.i-.raM-;: 

15. I.. .M. Vi-ar. Mrs. W. o. Warrick. Mrs. A. II. Sberer, W. R. 
S<-lioMiiii\»'r. K. N. raiiini'. 
Ill'^li s«liiM»I t«ar|iir'« ami si:l»i«'rts ili»»y tf.-H.-h: 

J. 11. .I«'lfrry. siij)'Tiiii»'iiil»'iit. Alirolira. 

Vs. N. i'aiiiiM*. i>riii('ipal. History ami riiysic^. 

Frain*-- N. rurry. Latin and <I«'niian. 

Illizalir-tli r. M »•!;:<. Kn;;!isli. 

.hi<f|ihiiif r.:-M\vn. Si-ii'iir«' ami Matln'niaiirs. 
Av«'rau'«* y*-arly salary nf liitrh s«-hnol toarliiTs. indmliii^ siii)oriiiteiidont. 

Traiitintr of ti-aolifi's; 

J. II. .frtTn-y. NM)M'riii!«'ml«'nf. A. H.. Indiana I'nivorslty. 

I^. N. ranim-. priiiciiial. A. H.. Indiana University. 

.Miss Fr- m«'s N. Curry. A. II.. Wo«ist«'r, (>. 

.Mis> i:ii/al:ri|i I.. .M«'iu-s. i;. S. Purduo. 

.Miss .In«»i*iiliiiM' r»i-o\vn. II. S.. Inwa (*<)ll»';rt*. 

Kiii'»lhji«'nl ill liiu'li <rliu •! 40 

'loial <'iii'i||riniii in i:iad«'S and lii;j:li srhnnj 790 

NiiiiiliiT of ;;irls ;:r:M|uatt d last yrar (llMKIi 1 

.Nnnihir nf iioys ;rraduatJMl last y«»ar jIIMi.'Ii 2 

.\iinil:«'r in this c-la<s tliat wi-nl t<» ■•olh«ix(>- Pmys 2 

.VuMihrr of ;:radnat«'s sinct' sclntol was orjranizt'd 14 

Nuiiili»'r of ilicsp will) liavf atwiidt'd coll*';:*' 5 


Gas City High School, 



M. A. Hl'St*'!', SUIKTilltClHllMlt. 

Orgaiiizod, 1S8J). Coiiiinissiointl. 1S04. 
Superintendents, with dates of serviee: 

M. A. Uester 1903-1904 

Prlneipals and assistants: 

Mr. Huin!)ard. Mr. Joe H. Fa^jjan, Mr. Fretl AVeimar. Mr. Ctarri»<on, 
Mr. Deest, Mr. H. A. Henderson: Miss Maud Ellis, Miss Eduu 
Watson. May Huston. 
Illgli srliool teaeliers and subjects tliey teaeli: 

M. A. Hester, superintendent. (Jecunetry, History, KukHsIi, Latin. 
H. A. Henderson. Hoolvlieepin^, History, Physics, Latin, Chemistry. 

May Huston, En>;lish, Aljrei>ra. 
AviM-a^e yearly salary of liigh selnM>l teaeliers, including sui>oriuteudent. 

Training of teaeliers: 

May Huston, Kranixlin (Ind.) Baptist College, four years. 

H. A. Henderson. Battle ('reek. Mieh.. six years. 

M. A. Hester, I)el*auw. Ind.; Brooliville, Ind.: M<M>res Hill Collogo. 

Enrolliuent in liigli school fJO 

Total enrollment in grades and high school SHO 

Numlx»r of girls gi*nduated last year (10(>.Ti ;i 

Number of boys graduated last year (1003) None 

Number i^f each in this clnss tliat went t(» college None 

Number of gra<luates sln<-e the si-h<K»l was organl/.ed Not known 

Number of these who have atteiKietl college or 8 


GooDLAND High School. 



Victor W. B. Iledgepeth. Superintendent. 

Organized, 1871. Commissioned, . 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

D. D. Lulte July 1, 1871 

Amijroso Blunt July 1, 1877 

W. H. Sims July 1, 1884 

J. F. Rieman July 1, 1899 

V. W. B. Hedgeiwtli July 1, 1901 

Principals and assistants: 

Miss E. R. Chandler, principal; Miss M. Lawrence, Miss Hills, assist- 
ant principals; Miss L. E. Michael, principal; D. J. Tyner, K, A. 
Randall, G. Wuthrich, assistant principal. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

I^illiau E. Michael, A. M., Latin. 

Guy S. Wuthrich, Biologj'. 

Emma L. Butler, A. B., English. 

Elizabeth Dugdalo. History. 

Edwin Jacobs, Ph. B., Science. 

J. W. Bremer, German. 

A. J. Gerber, Ph. B., Mathematics. 

Mary Biggs, Commercial Department. 

(Jrace Galentine, Assistant English and Mathematics. 

Efflo C. Hessin, Music. 

Victor Hedgepeth, A. M., Senior Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of liigh S(.*hool teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

Lillian E. Michael, A. M., Ohio University. 

(iuy S. Wuthrich, Indiana lJniv(»rsity, 2V2 years, one year Valparaiso. 

Emma Ta Butler, A. B., Chicago University. 

Elizabeth Dngdale, Michigan University, two years; two-thirds year 
Indiana Normal. 

Edwin Jacobs, Ph. B., Wooster University. 

J. W. Bremer, graduate Royal Seminary, Cologne. 

A. J. (Jerber, I*h. B., Wooster University. 

Mary Biggs, Commerical Department, Elmira one year, five months 
Chicago University. 

(irace Galentine. six weeks Butler summer school. 

Effl(« C. Hessin, Boston and Chicago. 

Victor Ilcdgepctli, A. M.. Bethany, Wabash. 

Enrollment in higli scliool 323 

Total enrollini'nt in grades and higli school 1,009 

Number of girls graduated last year (IIHKJ) 26 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 11 

Number of each in this class tliat wont to college- 
Girls 3 

Boys 5 

Nnml)er of graduates since school was organized 351 

Number of these who have attended college 108 



K. L. Tlioiiip«on, Superiiiteiideut. 

Organized, 1870. Coniiuissluiied, 1892. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. W. Parsons 1870-1872 

Bruee Carr 1872-1870 

Samuel Lilly 187«M88»J 

J. N. Spangler 188*W1887 

Mr. Hubbard 1887-1890 

Ira P. Baldwin 1890-1895 

W. O. Hiatt 18!>fV-1898 

Mr. Newlin 18S*8-1!MM» 

Mr. Ragsdale 19<X>-1901 

D. M. McCarver 15)01-1902 

E. L. Thompson 1002-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Miss Grimsley 1888-1891 

Miss Rose Newconih lSJ)l-189:i 

Miss Sallie V. Brown 18JKM81M 

Miss Stephenson 18JM-18$»7 

Miss Edith Morton 18J>7-18$W 

Jacol> Kinney 1S97-1!HI4 

Ilijrh sc1kk>1 teachers and snlijccts tliey teacli: 

E. L. Tliompson, History, [-.iitin. Kngllsli. Chemistry, (J(»rnnin. 
Ira P. Baldwin. Mathematics. Latin. Pliysics. Englisli. 
Average yearly salary of liigh scliooi teacliers. including superintendent. 

triu-ollment in hlgli scli(»ol 48 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 2nS 

Number of girls graduated last year (190.*^) 11 

Number of boys graduated last year (UMW) 7 

Number in this class that went to college i\ 

Number of graduates since school was organiznl 270 

Number of these who have attended college Not known 



H. G. Woody, J!?uperiiiteiident. 

Organized, . ConmiiHsioned. . 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Reuben Raj?an 18H1-18H0 

D. D. Waterman 186«-18(»7— 1868-1880 

Gillum Ridpath 18<]7-18()8 

L\ r. Cole 1870-1872 

(Jeorge W. Uh» 1872-1881 

J. N. Study 1881-1884 

J. M. Oleott 1884-188(» 

James Baldwin 188*^-1887 

Robert A. Ogg 1887-18tl8 

H. G. Woody 1808-1!K)4 


Miss Martha J. Ridpath 1882-li)(>4 

High school teachers and subiects they teach: 
Martha J. Ridpath. I^tin. 
Florence Wood. English. 
.It»<ssie E. Moore, Mathematics and Latin. 
Mary E. Hickman, Biology. 
Lillian E. Southard, History. 
Elizabeth Towne, Mathematics. 
Grace W. Birch. German. 
W. M. Mc(»aughey. Physics. 
Kate S. Hammond, Music. 
Training of teachers: 

In high school, university graduates. 100%. 

In high school, with M.A. degi'tn*. 50%. 

In grad(*s, university graduates. 5(>%. 

Entire cori>», university graduates. t50%. 

Entire corps with some college training. (>0%. 

Entire corps, with some college or normal training, 10C>%. 

Entire corps, with normal training, (J2%. 

Enrollment in high school 207 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 778 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 18 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number in this class that went to college 13 

Number of graduates since scliool was organized 483 

Number of these who have attended college. .,,...,.,.,., , . , . , 222 


W. C. Goble. Superiutondciit. 

Organized, 1S75. Comniissioncd, 1871). 

Superintondonts. with dates of service: 

W. H. Sims 1877-1881 

J(»lui W. Stout 1881-1883 

M. ^r. StrasbuijL? 1883-1884 

.1. V. Martin 1884rl889 

W. H. (Hascoek 1889-18D1 

Geo. S. Wilson 1891-1896 

Alpliens J. Reynolds 1898-1901 

.lohn H. Whiteley 1901-1901 

Andrew E. Martin 1901-1903 

\V. (\ Gol»l<» 1903-1901 

Trincipals and assistants: 

.Miss Mary E. Sparlvs 1878-1886 

J. J. Petiit 1877-1878 

(ieo. S. Wilson 1886-1891 

Titus E. Kinsie 1891-1900 

Elwood ^^orris 1900-1901 

.John Whiteley 1901-190S 

.Fohn IT. .Tohnston 1903-1904 

lli;rh selnM>l teacliers and subjects they teach: 
.Tohn H. Johnston, Enj?lish. 
Francos L. Petit. Latin. 
W. (\ Gohle. History. 
Frank Larrabee. Mathematics. 
Huirh E. .Johnson. Science. 
Delia >L .Tanu»s. Music. 

Averaj;e yearly salary of hlirh school teachers, including? superintendent. 

Training:: of te-ichers: 

W. C (Joi>le, sui)i rintendont. Indiana State Normal. 

John IL Johnston, principal, \.l^.. State University. 

Frank Larrabee. U.S.. Central Normal College. 

Francis L. Petit. A.U.. Michijran State University. 

Huffh E. .Tohnson. 

Delia M. James. 

Enrollment in hiprh school 168 

Total enrollni(»nt in ^'rades and hijrh school 960 




H^ ; 1 1 ' 




Greenfield High School, 



Kliiior V. .lorinnu, SuprriiiU'iuhMit. 

Orpinlzod, l»;i>. 

Suporinteiideiitw. with dalos of service: 

C. W. Harvey 18(59-1883 

W. P. Shannon 188:M89i 

G. L. Ro!)ertH 1897-1901 

D. M. Goetinj: 19(»1-19U8 

Elmer C. J er man 1903-1994 


Alfred Kummer. 

W. P. Shannon. 

C. L. Ilottcll. 

Geo. Ij. Roberts. 

Thos. L. Harris. 

Edgar Mendenhall. 

J. W. Rhodes. 
Hi^h school teachers and subjects th(\v tea<*h: 

J. \V. Rhodes, princiiml, Mathematics. 

Eustace Fol(»y, Science. 

Kate F. Andrews. English. 

Cora K. Ragsdale, Latin and History. 

Claribel WinchestiM*. Music. 
Average yearly salary of high scliotil teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

John W. RlKHles. undergraduat(> Indiana Ihiiverslty. 

Eustace Foley. B.S., Indiana rniverslty. 

Kate F. Andrews, R.A.. Wcllesley College. 

Cora Kemp Ragsdale. IMi.R., Franklin Colh»ge. 

Elmer C Jerman. A.M.. Franklin College. 

Clarlbel Winchester, undergraduate student in New England Con- 
servatory of Music, Roston: Cincinnati Conservator.v of Music: 
Potsdam State Normal, Potsdam, N. Y. 

Enrollment in high school Ill 

Total enrollment in grailes and high school SKVi 

Number of girls graduated last year (IJMKb 10 

Number of boys graduated last year (1!HK>) 12 

Number in this class tliat went to college <» 

Number of graduates since school was organize! 421 

Number ()f who have altemlcd coUeg*' 'S"i 




r M nllll-i^Mif 

•"■■^^^i^^**^ -tk 

U i(Ui!:Nf>u[;K<t HiuH Scuoui.. 



II. E. Shephard, Siiporintendont. 

Ovanulzod, 187!). Comniissioiied, 1001-02. 
Siiporinteudents. witli dates of service: 

Mosos Ileinmiller 1893-1805 

lA'e Ohalfaiit 1895-1807 

J. I). While 1897-1000 

II. H. Dickey 1900-1003 

H. E. Shepliard 1003-1004 

rrincipals and assistants: 

IVnelope V. Kern, principal; Etiie KInnlson, assistant. 
IIIkIi scliool teacliers antl subjects they teach: 
H. E. Shepliard. Mathematics and S(!ience. 
Penelope V. Kern, English, Latin and German. 
Etile Ki unison. E'uglish, Ijitln and History. 
Avera;^e yearly salary of hijrh school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

H. E. Shephard. graduate Indiana State Normal; one year at Indiana 

Penelope V. Kern, A.B., lUitler College; Ph.R.. University of Chicago. 
Ettle Kinnison. Pli.K., from Northwestern University. 

Enrollment in liigh school 42 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 335 

Number of girls graduateil last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduateil last year (190.*^) 1 

Number in tills class that wont to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 13 

Numl)er of these who have attended college 4 


Greentown Hkjh School. 




O. L. VoriH. Sup<*rinti»iuleiit. 

Organized, 1H7J). CoiiimissioiUHl, 1S8<>. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

lAH» Aiilt 187S>-188:i 

U. Nelson 18S:MSS4 

K. F. Wissler 1884-1887 

v. V. Voris 1887-1892 

B. V. Wissler 1»>2-I89:i 

Lee Anil 18JVi-l»K) 

O. L. Voris imMUfUM 


W. J. Kowden. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

W. J. Bowden, Latin. Literature, (ieonietry, Algel»ra, Civil (Jovern- 

nient, Physical (iiH»graphy and Psychology. 
O. L. Voris. Latin. Literature. U]H»toric. (Jeonietry, Physics and 
Average yearly salary of high scluw)! teaichers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

W. J. Bowman, graduate Indiana State Xornuil School. 
O. L. Voris, gi'aduate Indiana Slate Normal School. 

Flnrollinent in Idgh school <Ui 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 2tVi 

Nund»er of girls graduated last year (IIKKJ) 7 

Nund)er of Imys graduated last year (190.*^) ri 

Number in this class that went to college I 

Numl)er of graduates since scliocd was organlzi'd 14*1 

Number of these who have attended college 21 


C. H. Dryliread. Superintendent. 

Organized. 1S8(». CommissioncHl. 1S!>7. 
Principals and assistants: 

W. P. Mmllin. principal High Scliooi. 

May C. Keynohls. supervisor of .Music and Drawing. 
Higli scluM»l teaclicrs and sul)*ccts they teacli: 

\V. P. Mmllln, English. 

Jennie K. Hoover. Latin. 

Wm. Kt»ed. Matliennitlcs. 

Maris Pmtlitt. History and Civics, 

James Simonton, Science. 
.\verage yearly salary iti' liigh sc1uk)1 teacliers. including supiM'intendent, 


Trniiiing or tcaober»; 

\V. I". Miidllii. KrmtHMti' of Sttiic Xoniiul; iiudergroiluiitp Slptf Tiii- 

Will. Re«d, uiidericriKluiitc HiilKdale. tlirec years. 

Jennie K. Hoover. UDtlertri'iKliiaie ('lik-aK<> Unlversliy. one year. 

Mari:' I'rolHtt. umlertiraduate Fniiikliti CiilleKe. Iliree yenrx. 

.lauieH KInioiitoii. Ki'iidimtr IikIIiuiii 1'iilverKlly. 

Kurollmeiil lu hiKli xehool 70 

Total enrollnioiit In grades oud UIkU scIhhiI 1.480 

Number of gMn graduated taetl year (I!"):;! !1 

Number of lioyw (cnidiiiilnl laHt yeitr (l»ii:f] 4 

NiimlKT in thU ehiHs tbat went to eolleRe 

Xiimlier of i;ra<JnnleK Hince mi-1iooI was orcmiixeil 141 






1 . 1 





Haqkrstown HitiH School. 



W. K. Curtis, Sui»erintoiulout. 

()r;.'aiiizod, 1888. Conunissioned, 1898. 
Sui»oriiitoiuk»nts, with dales of sorvico: 

A. J. Smith 18SS-18S)-J 

V. S. Gristy 18!i2-185)5 

A. U. Hardosty 18i>.Vl!>{)l 

W. K. Curtis 1I>;)M:k»4 

rrincipals aud assistants: 

(f. H. Thompson, priiiciital. 

H. Alena Wolfe. 
niv:li sch(M>l tearh(»rs and sub loots tliey toacli: 

(f. H. Tliompson, English History. Stenojj;raphy, Botany. 

H. Ait'iia Wolfe. Algebra. I«-itin, IMiysieal Geojrraphy, German. 

W. K. Ciutis, Al;:ol)ra. IMiysics, Cliemistry. liooklceepiug. 
Avna^^e yearly salary of hi^h srliool teachers, including superlntendeut, 

Training of teachers: 

<i. H. Tliompson. undergraduate Valparaiso College: eight terms In 

H. Alena Wolfe. A.B.. Olivet Colle^'e. 

W. It. Curtis, S.B., Valparaiso College: one year Chicago University. 

Enrollment in high s<'hool 70 

Total enrollment in j::rades ami high scImmiI 324 

Number of girls graduated last year (llWKb U 

Number of boys graduated last year (lIHKb 

Number in this class that went to college 

NuuiIkt of graduates since school was organized (52 

Number of these who have attended college 5 


324 EDViwrioy IX IXniANA, 


W. H. Hershman. Su|)erinton(lent. 

Organized, 1SS7. (%)inmissloiHMl. ISDS. 
Superlnteiul<Mils, with dat(*s of servi<H': 

VV. C. Belman 188Ji-llNK) 

W. H. Hershman IJNMMJMM 

Principals aud assistants: 

W. A. Hill, prlm-lpnl Iligli Scliool, Science and Bookkeeping. 
Higli scliool teacliers and subjects tliey teach: 

Annie Bassett, Mathematics. 

Delia (iandy, I^tiu. 

K\a Page, German. 

(iuy C. Cantrell, Literature, English. 

Minnie Haines, History. 

Flora Merryweatlier, Stenography. 

Agues Benson, Music. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

W. H. Hershman. superintendent, B.A., Indiana University. 

W. A. Hill, B.S., Chii'ago TTniversity. 

Annie Bassett, undergraduate. 

Miss Delia Gaudy, Ph.M., Chicago University. 

Kva I'age, Ph.M., Chicago University. 

Minnie Haines, IMi.B., Northwestern University. 

(fUy Cant well. A.B., Indiana University. 

Agnes Benson, Tondin's Scliool of Music. Chicago Normal School. 

Flora Merryweatlier. undergraduate. 

Knrollnient in high school 120 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 2.085 

Number of girls graduated last year (ll)0:V) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (19():b 3 

Number in this <'lass that went to college (» 

Number of graduat(»s since school was organi/tMl nm) 

Number of tliese who have attended collegt' 60 

EmcATios ly rypjAXA. 

Hammond High School. 


F. B. Kepuor, Superintendent. 

OrKaulzod. lSKr>. CommiHslouod, 1887. 

Supoiintondonts, witli datt»s of servioo: 

r. K. Clark 1872-1885 

Milton IIorsl»orKer 1885-1886 

F. S. MorgtMithaUM- 1886-18&2 

J. T. Worsliam 1802-1900 

F. I>. Churchill 1900-1901 

F. H. Kcpnor 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Wiila McMahnn, principal. 
Kdw. Fborhardt, lirst assistant. 
I. A. Hcnton, second assistant. 

Ill^h school toachors and subjects they teach: 
Willa McMahan, Rnj::lish. Latin, Geometry. 
Edw. Kl)erhardt, German. 
LA. Hen ton, IMiysics. Botany. 
F. B. Kepner, Alpelira, Knplish. 

Averaixc yearly salary of hl^h school teachers, including Hupertntendeut, 

Training of teachers: 

F. B. Kepner, A.B., Indiana University. 

Willa McMahan. .\.B., Indiana University. 

Fdw. Fberhardt, A. B., Wesleyan I^nlversity. 

L A. Bont(»n. 

L'liroIIment in high school 52 

Total enrollment in gra<les and high school 530 

jXnmlMM* of girls graduated last year (10<>:{» 4 

Number of boys graduated last year nOO.3) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of gra<luates since s<'hool was organized 90 

Number of these who have attended college 40 


HvNTixiiHuiin Hiiin School. 



W. P. Hart, Superintendent. 

Organized* 1873. Commissioned, lStH>. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

James Baldwin 1873-1883 

Morgan Caroway 1883-1884 

John Caldwell 1884-1887 

Robert I. Hamilton 1887-1903 

W. P. Hart 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

P. C. Emmons, principal, (lernuui. 

W. I. EJarly, assistant priiuipal. Mathematics and Science. 
High school teachers and sul)jects tliey teacli: 

Evangeline E. liewis. Mathematics. 

Fredrica R. Tuclcer, English. 

Frances E. Hutsell, History. 

Mary E. Hartman, Latin. 

S. J. Stauffachor. Commerce. 

L. C. Ward, Science. 

R. S. Crawford, Eligllsh. 

Mary B. Cox, History. 

Evelyn K. DeCew, Drawing. 

Vivian I. Stoddard, Music. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, Including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

P. C. Emmons, B.S., A.B., Central Normal College; A.B., Indiana 
University; one-third of year graduate work Indiana University. 

W. I. Early, A.B.. Indiana University: some graduate work at In- 
diana University. 

Evangeline E. Lewis, A.B., Indiana University. 

Fredrica R. Tucker, A.B., DePauw University. 

Mary E. Hartman, A.B., Indiana University; some graduate work 
at University of Chicago. 

Robert S. Crawford, B.L., University of Wisc(msin; some gracluate 
work at University of Wisconsin. 

Samuel J. StaufTacher, Ph.B., Northwestern College: graduate of 
Northwestern Business College. 

Louis C. Ward. A.B.. Indiana University: one-third year of graduate 
work at Indiana ITniversity. 

Mary B. Cox, Indiana State Normal: University of Micliigan. 

Frances E. Hutsell. Indiana State Normal: Butler College; Univer- 
sity of Chicago. 

Evelyn K. DeCew, Michigan State Normal: graduate of Detroit Con- 
servatory of Musir, Public Scliool Department, in l»oth Music and 

Vivian 1. Stoddard, gi'aduate of Thomas Normal Training; special 
training in Detroit Conservatory of Music. 

F,mWATlon 7.V INDIANA. -ISfl 

Knrollraeiit In high school 244 

Total eurollment In gradps and high school 1.748 

Numher of girle graduated last yonr (1!M>3» 14 

Nunilicr of hoys graduated Inst year (1903) t! 

Nniiiher In this class that went to college 5 

Nunilier of graduates since scliuol was organized. . ;!ii<i 

Niunlier of these who have ntiended college. ,...,.,.... \\Ti 

Huntington High Schcx>l. 



C. E. Emmerich, Principal. 

Orgauizod, February, 1SU5. Commissioned, 38D5. 

Clias. E. Enmiericli. 
lligli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

George A. AblK)tt, Chemistry. 

Fislve Allen. Mathematics. 

Harvey M. Appleman, Woodwork. 

William H. Ballard, Woodwork. 

Arthur J. Bean, Woodwork. 

Emma S. Bopp, German. 

Nellie M. Bowser. Latin. 

Frank F. Bronson, Mechanical Drawing. 

John 11. Carr, History. 

Maria Leonard, Mathematics. 

Paul W. Covert, Machine Fitting. 

Margaret Donnan, E^iglish. 

Violet A. Demreo, English. 

Mary A. Da vies. Sewing. 

Margaretta DeBruler, English. 

Cora Emrich, English. 

Willard F. Enteman, Mathematics. 

Beatrice S. P^oy, English. 

Anna J. Griffith, English. 

Frank O. Hester, Mathematics. 

Itobert llall, Latin and Greek. 

Elizabeth C. Hench, English. 

Julia C. Hobbs, Latin. 

Leirion IL Johnson, Mechanical Drawing. 

Emma E. Klanke, Mechanical Drawing. 

Josephine M. Loomis, Cooking. 

Mary It. Langsdale. English. 

Anna M. T^ocke. English. 

Hamiltt)n B. Moore, English. 

Mary McEvoy. Stenography. 

Kemper McComb, Englisli. 

Emily McCullough. Sewing. 

Frank K. Mueller. Mechanical Drawing. 

Josepliine Brooks, French. 

Robert Promberger. Foundry. 

Harriet i\ Khetts, History. 

Harriet E. Robinson, Matlienintics. 

Laura Rupp. (Jerman. 

Otto Stark. Fre(» Drawing. 

Heh.Mie (i. Sttn-ni. German. 

Milo H. Stuart, Botany. 

Benjamin F. Swart hout, B(K)kkeeping. 

William J. Thisseb», Bookkeeping. 


Kate A. Thompson, English. 

Chambers H. Underwood, Physics. 

Mabel West, Free Drawing. 

Kate Wentz, Mathematics. 

James Yule, Forging. 

Ida M. Andrus, Mathematics. 

Edith M. Compton, Sewing. 

Warren H. Davis, WoodAvorls. 

Francis M. Bacon, History. 

Hermann S. Chamberlain, Physics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, without superintendent or 

assistants, $955. 
Training of teachers: 

Charles E. Emmerich, Coblentz and Cologne, Prussia; A.M., DePauw. 

Geo. A. Abbott, A.B., A.M., DePauw University. 

Fiske Allen, A.B., Indiana University; Indiana State Normal. 

Ida M. Andrus, A.B., Michigan University. 

Ilarvey M. Appleman, Indiana Normal; Tri-State Normal, one year; 
Purdue, one year. 

Francis M. Bacon, A.B., University of Michigan. 

William H. Ballard. 

Arthur J. Bean, S.B., Worcester Polytechnic Institute, one year; 
graduate work, same school. 

Emma S. Bopp, Indianapolis Normal, one year; Kindergarten Nor- 
mal, one year. 

Nellie M. Bowser, A.B., A.M., Indiana University. 

Frank F. Bronson, S.B., Purdue. 

Josephine Brooks 

John K. Carr, A.B., Butler; Ph.B., Chicago. 

Edith M. Compton. 

Hermann S. Chamberlain, A.B., Allegheny College; Case School, one 

Paul W. Covert. S.B., M.E., Purdue University. 

Margaret Donnan, A.B., Chicago University. 

Violet A. Demree, 01)erlin, one and one-half years; Mt. Holyoke. 
one and one-half years. 

Mary E. Da vies, Stockwell College Institute, two years. 

Warren H. Davis, S.B., Worcester Polytechnic Institute. 

Margaretta DeBniler, A.B., Rockport College Institute; A.M., Indi- 
ana University. 

Cora Bmricli, A.B., Butler; Ph.B., Chicago; two years graduate work, 

Willard F. Enteman, Borden Institute; Indiana University, two and 
one-half years. 

Beatrice S. Foy, Indianapolis Normal, one year. 

Anna J. Griffith, Chicago University, four terms; Indiana University, 
one term. 

Frank O. Hester, A.B., DePauw; graduate work. University of Chi- 

Robert Hall, A.B., Butler College; A.M., Harvard, two years. 

:{;{L> i:i>i'(\\Ti()X ix ixdiaXa, 

Elizjibetli C. Heiicli, I»li.H.. Michlpiii Uiilvorslty: Cambridge, fing* 
laud, one year; Hryn Mawr. two years. 

Julia (?. Ilobbs. A.B., Chicago rniversity. 

lA'irion II. Johnson. rh.B., l.'nivorsity of Vonnont: Cooper Union: 
Pratt Institute. 

Emma E. Klanko. I*ratt Institute. 

Maria Leonard, Butlor. two and one-half years. 

Josephine M. Lftoniis. Pratt Institute. 

Mary U. Laiii^sdnh*. A.H.. DePauw: .M!<higan, one year. 

Anna M. I^eke, A.H.. A.M.. Cohinibia College. 

Hamilton B. M<M)re. Ph.B.. Cornell: A.M., Indiana TTnlversity. 

Mary McEvoy. 

Kemper McConib. A.B., A.M., Hanover Collejj:e. 

Emily MeCullouj?h, Pratt Institute. 

Frank K. Mueller, S.B., I»urdut» T'niverslty. 

Uobert Promberj^er, Prntt Institute: Cineinnati rnlversity, one year. 

Harriet C. Rhetts. A.B.. A.M., Indiana Cniverslty: Indiana Normal: 
Harvard, one term. 

Harriet E. Kobinson. Ph.B.. Hiram Cc^Ilej^e. 

Laura Hupp. A.B.. Butler CoUejje: Indiana I7niverslty aud Cliieaiffo. 
one year. 

Otto Stark, Aeademy of Arts, Paris and Munich. 

Heleue G. Sturm. 

Milo H. Stuart, A.B., Indiniui University; Chieapo. one year. 

Benjamin F. Swarthout. Normal SrluM>l, Mitchell. Inrt. 

William J. Thissfle, L<'banon Normal: Burhtel College, oiie-lmlf year. 

Kate A. TlKmipsuii, I'niversity of Chlca^ro. une year. 

CliamluM-s H. rntlerwmxl. B.S., Burhtel: one year post-graduate. 

MalM'l West, Pratt Institute. 

Kate Weiitz, B.S.. Purdue: M.S.. C«»rni»ll. 

James Yule. 

Enrollment in hijrh scliool, l..^)7r» in V.n):\: in VMH ab(»ut 1.7r>il 

Number of ;rirls graduated last year (l!Ni:b 7\A 

XundHM* of lH)ys jrraduated hist year ( llN»;ji 4S 

Numl>er in tills rlass that went in cnllcj^c. probaltly l.'i 

The colh'jrt'S to whirh these went, witli numb«'r <»f caeh: 







Numbers not known. 

Nimd)er of graduates sin<-e school was or;,'ani/.eil 750 

Nimiber of these who have attenilcd ct)Hc::c 185 

Number of these who have attended eolh»;:e. ai»pro.\imateIy '2ii% 

KlircATKlX ;.V 1X1)1.1X1. 



Geo. W. Bentou, Superintendent 

Orjfanized, 1853. 

Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

A. C. Sliortridge 1871-1874 

Geo. P. Brown 1874-1878 

H. S. Tarbeil 1878-1884 

I^ H. Jones 1884-1804 

David H. Goss 1894-1900 

Calvin N. Kendall 1000-19(M 

Principals and assistants: 

Wm. A. Bell 1864-1865 

Pleasant Bond 1865-18G5 

W. I. Squire 18G5-18«; 

Wm. A. Bell 1866-1871 

Geo. P. Brown 1872-1874 

Junius B. Roberts 1874-1881 

NVillard W. Grant 1881-18ft2 

Geo. W. Hufford 1892-1902 

Lawrence C. Hull 1902-1903 

Geo. W. Benton 1903-1904 

U'lKh school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Chas. S. Thomas, English. 

Angeline P. Carey, Knglish. 

Charity Dye. English. 

Martha Dorsey, English. 

Florence Richards, English. 

Flora Love, Englisli. 

Georgina Montgomery, English. 

Zella O'llair. English. 

Lucia Ray, English. 

Marian Schibsby, English. 

Janet P. Siiaw, Eliglish. 

Josepliinc Brool^s, French. 

Eugene Mueller, German. 

Peter Srlierer, German. 

Virginia E. Claybaugh, Latin. 

Archer Ferguson, Latin. 

Ella G. Marthens. 

Grace Triplett, Latin. 

John E. Iligdon. Mathematics. 

James F. Millis, Mathematics. 

Amelia W. Platter. Mathematics. 

Agnes R. Rankin. Matliematics. 

(Jrace Clifford, Mathematics. 

John C. Trent, Mathematics. 

Ralph Lane, Mathematics 

Walter D. Baker, Physics I. 

Lynn B. McMullen, Physics II. 


Itoseeau McClellnD, Botauy III. 
Frtiuk B. Wncle, Chemistry I. 
Arthur W. Dunn, History. 
Josepbliie Cos, History. 
T.niira Doiinnii, Civil Goveruineiit. 
Edgar T. Forsyth, History. 
Junius B. Boberta, Ulstory. 
Arllnir H, HolmoH. Bookkeeping II. 
Nellif I. Ilamlin. Slfnography. 
Bh'Mla K Selleok, DrnwinR. 
Martha FcUcr. Drawing. 
voraKi' jonrly snlai'.v of lilgli scliocil lu 
SI. 100. 

, liirliidiii!; superintendent. 



f '. ".fli^ 









Ti'ainiLig of leiichers; 

With very few t'Xfeptlous tollegfi s>'ndunteji, and niany of them with 
graduate work to their credit. 

Enrollment la high school l.'2Kt 

Total enrollmeut In grades and high school 

Number of girls graduated last your (1003) KW 

Number ot boys graduated last year (lOM) 35 

Number of this class that went to college 'A> 

Number of graduates since school was orgnniaed 2,000 

Number of these who hnvo attended college OOO 


.lASPEU hi<;h school. 

Bertram Siin<l<»rs. SiiiK»rint<Mident. 

Org;ini%o(l. ISJVJ. (NmiinissioiMMl. 1SJ»7. 
Suporiiit<»iHl<Mits, with datrs of servKu*: 

E. F. SutluMijiiiil 18n7-llKe 

Bertram Samlors \\^n-VM\\ 

Principals ami asKisUiiits: 

P. T. Clarli. principal and assistant 18t>7-l!M> 

Maj?gio A. Wilson, principal and assistant P.MR^-KUM 

High school teachers and siil»jccts they teach: 

Bertram Sanders, Aljrehra. (icometry. IMiysics and Latin. 

Maggie A. Wilson, History, English and Botany. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superiiitendeut. 

Enrollment in higli sch<M)l IT 

Total enrollment in gra<ies and higli school l-H 

N'uml>er of girls graduated last. year (IIMKJ) None 

Number of boys graduated last year (11M>;{| <» 

Numlier in this class that went to college 5 

Numl»er of gradmites since school was organized li^i 

Number of these who have attended college 14 

('. M. Marlde, Superintendent. 

Organized. ISUS. Commissioned, ISSl. 

Superintendents, with date^s of stM-vlre: 

Mr. Smith 

K. S. Hopkins -1881 

D. S. Kelley 1881-1885 

U. W. Woods 1885-188I» 

P. P. Stultz 18S1I-1807 

D. S. Kelley 18y7-18JK» 

A. C. Go<Mlwin 181)0-1904 

C. M. Marble Fel)ruary 1!K>4- 

Principals and assistants: 

V. E. Anderson. C. M. Marl»lc. .Miss F. Simpson, E. S. Hopkins. Mr 
Butler. Miss .1. Ingnini. Mr. Armstrong. 

High school teachers and subjects tliey tea<'h: 

F. E. Andrews, principal. Mathematics. 
Miss Clara Funk. English. 

Miss Ada W. Frank. Latin. 
Miss Mary K. Voigt. History, 
Mr. Lewis Kicliards, Science. 
George Nashtoll. (Jrrmau. 
A. A. Voigt. Music. 


Average yearly salary of high sirliool teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

C M. Marljle, superintendent, IMi. H., from (Hiicago University: 
thriH* years N. W. University, Ohio. 

H. E. Andrews, collegiate education, one year at State Normal. 

Clara Funk, two years normal training. 

Ada W. Frank, collegiate (Mlucation. 

Mary K. Voigt, normal training ami di<l some work in the State 

tJeorge Nashtall, educated in Gernnmy. 

A. A. Voit, no special training. 

Lewis Richards, collegiate education. 

Knrollment in high school 215 

Total enrollment in grades and higli scliool 2,00<) 

NumlKT of girls graduated last year (llMKi) 20 

Numl»er of I)oys graduated last year (11M«> 

Numl)er in this class that went to college 8 

Numl>er of graduates since school was organized Xo data 

Number of these wlio have attended college 50 

22— EppoiTiov. 



A. E. Higliley. Siiperinteiiflent. 

Orpinizfd. . Cinuniissioncd, about 1803. 

SiiporinKMidonts, willi datos of sorvicc: 

Friedlino (Jilrhrist -1898 

U. W. lliniolick 1808-1002 

J. II. Adams 1002-1903 

A. K. lUixhlry 1003-1004 

rrinciiials and assistants: 

Dowitt Carter 

A. E. Ilighlcy 100l-10a3 

IlSvli school toac'lHM's and what thoy tcacli: 

Dolhi S. Wintro(h'. Latin and (Jornian. 

Mrs. C. A. (tn»;:ory. English. 

-Mr. C. A. (}n»g<»ry, SchMH-c. 

I^. (). Mapli'. History and .Xrithnictif. 

A. E. Ilighloy. .Mathcniatir-s. 
Avrragi' yearly salary of hijrh school teachers, including superlutondont. 

Training of t(?achers: 

('. A. <in'gory. I*. S.. Marion Normal. 

Miss Delia S. \Vintrod<*. from l)erauw. 

K. (). -Nfaple, r». S.. Mai ion Normal. 

A. E. Jlighlcy, 15. S.. Maritui Normal: threi* ycMirs State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 50 

Total enrollment in grad<»s and high scIkjoI 430 

Number of girls graduated last year (P.Hi.'b 4 

Numlier of l»oys gra<luated last year (P.MKi) 2 

Number in this rlass that went to college Noue 

Number of graduates since school was organized 00 

Number of these who have attended college 12 

lim'cATjny fx ixiii.\xa. 

;U0 El)n\\TU>S L\ LXDlAyA. 


('. L. Stubbs. SiiiHM*iiit(>iHlont. 

OrjjaniziHl, 1S70. ('oniinissioiH'd, lSt»S. 
Snperinteiulriits. with dates of scrvici': 

K. II. Drake 1K!)(M903 

Minnie B. Kilis 1U01-19<« 

F. A. Harrington 1$M);M»04 

('. L. StiiM)s 1904- 

Prinripals and assistants: 

Minnie 15. Kllis. .1. <\ Collier. V. A. Harrington, (Jeorge Ljin$ou. 
HiKli school tea<-liers and subjects they teach: 

('. L. Stnbbs. English. Kcononiy. Civics and Latin. 

(i(M.>r>:e Larson. Science, Mathematics and History. 

Mande Myers, assistant in I^ttin and AJKelira. 
Average ycnrly salary of lii;rli school teachers, including siiperiutendent. 

$71 ♦L'. 
Training (jf teacln'rs: 

C L. Stnbbs. K. L.. v:radnate of Earlhani. 

(reor^e I^arson. graduate Xornial. Hlinois. 

Mande Myers, ;;radnate Kcntland Hijrh School. 

Anna H. Thompson. Ki'adnate of l*urdne. sp<»cial teacher In drnwiiiji;. 

Enrollment in hijrh scliool ;i3 

Total enrollment in >rrad(»s and lii;?li school 18(» 

Number of pirls .u:raduat(»d last y(»ar ( l!MK{) 7 

.Number of boys ^raduate<l last year (IJMh'b 2 

Number in this class that went t(» college 1 

Number of graduates since s<-lin(»l was orvranized 1(J8 

Numlu'r of tliese \vh<> have atten<i<'i! college 'JH} 


Kentland High School. 


F. K. I^ong, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1800. Commissioned, 1000. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

S. P. Kyger 1890-1892 

A. h. Hiatt 1892-189(5 

J. W. Lyety 1896-1900 

F. B. Long 1900-1904 


Kate M. Smiley, Esther Fay Shover, Mabel Whitenack. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

F. B. Long, Latin, Mathematics and Physics. 
Mabel Whitenacli, English, History and Botany. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Kate Smiley, primary, 2 years at Franklin College, 8 years teacher. 

A. L. Hiatt, 1 year West Point. 
M. D. Boulden, Angola. 

Enrollment in high school 37 

Total enrollment in grades and high sclujol 192 

Number of girls graduated last year (IOO81 1 

Number of boyj? graduatipd last year (190:{) 3 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since sch(K)l was commissioned 11 

Numlicr of these who liave attended college 

W. 1). Kerlin, Superintendent. 

Organized. . Conuiiissioned. . 

Superintendents, witii dales of s^'rvice: 

Charles K. Hewitt -1893 

I). A. Ell.ibarger 1893-1895 

\V. B. Van (Jorder 1895-1899 

H. H. Cooper 1809-1900 

AV. I). K'Tlin. 1900-1904 

Princi])nls -ind jisslsinnts: 

B. F. Franlvlin 1900-1901 

Dora Fre(» 1901-1904 

Higli scliool tejichiMs :nul sulijects they teach: 

Dora Free, Emjlish. 

W. S. Peters. Lntin an<l History. 

I*. H. AVolfiiKl, .Matlieni:iti<s and Science. 
.Vvenige yearly salary of high school t^'achers. including superintendent. 


Traliiiug of teachers: 

W. D. Kcrliii. tndUiiia State Normal and Chicago University. 

Dora Ftw, ludliiuu. State Xormal. Indiana Unlvcmlty nud Chloni;o 

W. S. PeliTS. DeFainv; Clikago University. 

P. II. Wolfiinl, Tiiylor University. 

Knrnllment In hlgli school - 117 

Total enrollment In grades and high )>cliool 450 

Xnmlier of girls grndiiatcd last year (1903) 11 

Numlior of tioys graduated last ^ar (1903) 4 

Xnmher in IhlH clans tliat went to college !) 

Nnuilier of graduoU-H Rince school was organized No data 

NiiuilrtT of tliewp who liave attended college No data 

Knox Hitm School, 



('. W. Kj;n«'r. Suiu'i'lntoinlont. 

Orsrsinlzed. ISfM. fNnninissioiHMl. llHil. 
SuperintiMulciits. witli dntis of s*'rvic»»: 

A. J. Whiteh'MtluT IftM-lSftT 

A. II. ShiMvr 18l>7-l«n8 

J. WalttT Diiiiii 18H8-19I13 

C. W. E-^now .l»n3.19(H 

PriiK'ipHlK niid iis.sistniits: 

AnunboUo SIhmvi- l8tt7-18Jl8 

J. II. Hrkklt's 18J»8-lW>n 

Sopliio H. Luzaddoi- 1809-lJHyj 

Harriot M. Silliniaii 1(103-1004 

High school teachers and siilijects they teach: 

Sophie II. Luzadder. English. History. Latin, Physical (leopraphy. 
Harriet M. Sillinian. Knirlisli. History. Latin. Physical Cieography. 
KInier (lordon. Al^el»r:i. IMiysical (ieo^raphy. Kii^rlish and T^atln. 
lirst year. 
Average yearly .salary of high s<-hool teachers, including snp4^rlntendMit, 

Training of teadiers: 

('. W. Kgner. snperinten(h»nt. undergraduat(>. seidor standing, Indi- 
ana T'niversity. 
Harriet M. Sillinian. graduate Oberlin University. 
Klnier (Jordon. H. S.. Rochester Nornuil Tniversity. 

Enrollment In hiirh school 57 

Total (>nrollnient in grades and high srhooi 4iri 

Nuni])er of girls graduated last year iV.HV.U :\ 

Number of iMjys graduattMl last year jP.MKlj 1 

\und>er in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduat(>s since the school was (»rganized 21 

Nuud)er of these who have attended college 9 

Klin xniis IS iMiiA.y.i. 



R. A. Ogg. Suporintoiiflont. 

Organized, 1S72. Coinmlssionod, 188G. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Sheridan Cox 1872-1803 

Horace G. Wood 1S93-189S 

Robert A. Offg 189S-1904 

I*rineipals and assistants: 

A. J. YonngljlfHMl. Afrs. liessie G. Cox, C. M. Harrison, W, H. Mo- 
Clain. H. (i. Wood. K. R. Rryan, J. Z. A. MeCaughau. 
Higli seliool tea<-liers and sul>.|eots tliey teacli: 

India L. Martz. Latin. 

Anna R. Coilins, En.irlisli. 

Anna R. Ward. Matlieniaties. 

Etliel Pylxe, En.irlisli. 

Howard Arnistronj;, Eniirlisli. 

L. L. R^'einan, History. 

Katliarine Hnjrhes, (German. 

G. E. Mitehell. Science. 

1*. L. Fonclit, History. 

L. il. Goetz. Physi<-s. 
Averap* yearly salary of hi;;li school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

U. A. Ogg, A. M.. IndiaTia T'niversity, four years. 

.1. Z. A. M<*('anj;hnii. A. R., Indiana Uriversity, 4Vj years. 

India Ti. Martz, A. R.. Rutler College, three years. 

Anna R. Collins. A. R.. In<1iana University, two years. 

Anna R. Wanl. Indiana University, 2^. years. 

Eth( 1 Uyke. .\. R.. <)hio AVesleyan. tln'(*e years. 

Howard Armstrong. Rutler College, .'5VL» years. 

L. L. Recnian. A. I*.. Indiana University, four years. 

Kathcrin(» IIugh(»s. A. R.. Hanover ( 'ollege. four years. 

Georg.: E. Mitclicli. A. R., Indiana University, four years. 

r. L. Uonclit. A. R.. Chicatro ITnivj'rsity, four years. 

Ti. G. Goetz, Wabash College, li^ years. 

Ei:rollnient in high school 324 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 2.507 

Number of girls graduated last year (10(>r>) 13 

Number of boys graduated last year (lfX)3) 5 

Number in this class that went to college None 

XiMnl»er of graduates «siuce school was organized 477 

XuiuImm- of these who have attended college Not known 

EDVcATjnx IX ixm-\y.\. .iir 

Laihk;a Hidii Wcmiin.. 



,1. F. Warft'l. Siiperiiitciidont. 

Organized. 1S1>2. Coinniissiuuod. ISOS. 
Superintendents, Avith dates of service: 

J. F. Warfel 1885-1008 

Prineipnls and assistants: 

Mrs. E. (J. Wilson, prineipal. 

J. H. Ewimnlv. assistant. 
lUfih sehcK)! teaeliers and sul»jeets they teaeli: 

J. K. Warfel. Latin and Science. 

Mrs. K. (i. Wils(»n. History and Enj^lisli. 

.L H. E\vl>anlx, Matlieniatics. 

Miss Elsie Marshall. Music. 
Avera^** yearly salary of high school teachers, including suiM?rintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

J. F. Warfel. A. B.. Central Indiana Normal: teacher's, s<'ientitie and 
classical course. 

Mrs. E. (r. Wilson, A. B., National Normal: scientittc and classical 

J. H. Ewlmnk. graduate Indiana State Nornnil. 

EnrollmiMit in high school H*J 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 2<W 

Number o( girls graduated last year (ItMK'i) 7 

Numher of boys graduated last year (1!M>:>) ,'» 

Number In this class that Avent to colh'ge 7 

Number of graduates sine** scIkm)! was organizcl IHS 

Number of these who have attended <'ollege IMS 

R. F. Higlit, Superintendent. 

Organis^i'd, JSr»|. C<mi missioned. - . 

Superintendents, with dates of s('rvi<-e: 

Heiijamin Nayh>r JSr»4-18r>ri 

A. J. Vawter IS-Vi-lSlW 

J. W. Moliere 18<«-1»;7 

.1. T. Merrill 184i7-lHJW 

I<)<lward Ayres lH!)IV-lJ>trj 

Russell K. Bedgood 1002-lfN.»4 

R. F. Hight 1004- 

Trincipals and assistants: 
R. F. Hight. 
.lulius n. Meyer, elected for 11M»4-1JH)5. 


llifrli school teachers and subjects they tench: 

Alice K. Brown, Latin. 

Helen Hand. I>atin and German. 

Selma Mayerstein, (Jerman. 

Helen K. Hlackburn, English. 

Marie Stuart, English. 

Julius K. Meyer. Mathematics. 

Hugh H. Harcus. Mathematics. 

Ernest Holler. Physics and Chemistry. 

U. F. Hight, Biology. 

Lydia C. Marks. History. 

J. H. Bachtenkircher. Bookkeeping. 

Keini Ilice, Music. 

Zoelah Burix)Ughs, Drawing. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Russell K. Bedgood, I>eI*auAv University. 

K. F. Hight. Indiana Uid versify. 

Alict^ E. Brown. 

J. H. Bachtenkircher. 

Mrs. Helen U. Blacklmrn. 

Helen Hand. 

S*'lnni Mayerstein. 

Julius B. Meyer, Purdue I^niversity. 

Marie Stuart, Smith College. 

Lydia C. Marks. Purdue University. 

Hugh Barcus. i*urdue University. 

Ernest Roller. DePauw T^niversity. 

Enrollment in high school :\4\ 

Total em-ollment in grades and high school .'{..S^^ 

Number of girls graduated last year (V.)i):{) 22 

Xundier of Iniys graduated last year (llWKb 8 

Number in this class that went to coUege i:*i 


W. H. Brandenburg, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1S74. Commissioned. l.SK;i. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

A. 1>. Mohler 1874-18S:J 

B. J. Bogue 188:M887 

A. J. Johnson 1887-1800 

F. N. Dewey 18J)(M802 

Mr. McCartney 1892-181W 

C. M. Leib iaa'M89r) 

C. H. Taylor 1895-1897. 

F. M. Merica 1897-1900 

V. W. B. Hedgcpeili 1900-1901 

W. H. Brandenburg 1901-1904 


-J' _ .'J.-V-*. 

J . f • ■ •:. •..■ - i .1. <■ : ,»-■ '• 'A'*" "»n-'!l 

' . " 1 ' •' I 1 " ' 

p. •,.-.. 

' ■ ■ .1 

■♦__; ■^_ 


^ • 

' •< . '. .-..'.1 ■..fV-l*--^ I" IZtljlil 

-w ■ 

»- -i . 

■ - -. I-i -. 1. T'- -. . - - r-i -y -rf ■: 


. - • : . • 

i" -• ' 

I ■■ :l^ ''T'S: liTZ-*! 

. i^i: ' 

iMHaaa CbI- 








Ofi'.;:..z '] I-!fl. » o:;.n.:--;i^:i»-i. r.^c;. 

y'li;. '.:•.*■;.';< fi*-. .•,;?!. *{;j*« - «,f -• rvi«i': 

.\..-".ii'*/i. Kfji-f.- 181>4-1807 

.1 v. 'M«.r 18y7-18lK» 

' l;iM'ii/^- J5;j--<! lSi>S»-lOO(l 

I. 'I '.;n L. no|f/|., IJK.HVlOOTi 

U W. .\f*;-hoii 1»>3-11>04 

I'l in' ;i,.rl .ifi<l i> ■ i-t;int-: 

i: \ Iloo.-r 1S08-U)04 

M *' IS;, ml 1903-1904 

llij'li ■•< )»<i#»| •'■;M)i#-r-- :iiHJ >iil»J»M't> tlH'v t<»:u-li: 

\V W . Mi'iMliofi. Ili.-loiy :iii<l Sci«'li<'«». 

f{ A II«Mi\«r. L.'itiii niMi MjitlirMiinti^-s. 

11. <; I'.Jilnl. Kfiu'llsli. 
A\Mni:«' .vnrl.v M;i);iiy of lilirli srluiol tojirlnM's, including; siiporlnteiideiit, 

'I I iiliihic, "I" Irridn'i's: 

\V. W, M<Tsluiii. A. M., Iiuii.'iiin rnivcrsity, superlntendtMit. 

I{. A. Iln<»\fi', stihU'iit nf Iiidliina irnivcrsity. 

11 n. Itjilnl. 

Ilmnlliiinil III lil;;li sj-Ihhj! 60 

I'lriinlliiiciil III ;;r;hl«'s jiiid hiffli school 325 

NiiiiiImt oI" r.irls jjiiHliiMhMl last year (IJKKV) 3 

Nninlirr nf 1m»\s ;;nulnalrd last year (lIKKi) 2 

Nninlur In tlil.s riass that wiMil to coMojjo 2 


La PEL HiuH School. 

Jiiliii A. WoikI. i>!iipcrlntoiiili.-iit. 

Ur^iiiiizcil. 1H(i.\ I'omnilsHinmil. 1!>02. 

SuiicrititeTiilciiIs. will) (ItiteM of Ki.>rvk'e: 

T. 1.. Aibims 18IJD-18U7 

C. F. KlmliJill 18ilT-1809 

C. E. Ulis, A. B 18G9-1871 

J. E. Ulnuian. A. » 1871-1873 

h. B. Swift. I'll. SI 1873-1870 

I-'iederk- L. Bliss, A, If 1879-1880 

Jolin J. Abel 1880-1882 

Horace PhlUlpB. A. M 1882-:1883 

W, N, Hailmauu, Ph. D 1883-18W 

W. H. Elson. Acting Superintendent 1892-1893 

James F. Knight 1804-1896 

Osman C. Seclye, Ph. B 1896-1898 

John A. Wood. A. M 1808-19M 


PriiK*i]i:ils and nssistaiUs: 

C. F. KiliibjiII 18U5-18I9I 

Coleman Bancroft. H. S 1»J0-1871 

B. F. French, A. H 1871-1872 

L. B. Swift, rii. H 1872-187a 

James Rkldle Goff, Ph. M 1S73-1878 

F. L. Bliss, B. A 1878-1879 

John J. Alwl 1871>-l88n 

Kdward iM. Brown 1880-18te 

(4eorKe Ilemple. A. B 1882-1884 

tidwanl M. Brown 1884-18»J 

FriHlerick ('. Ili<ks 188CHS8S 

Natlian L). Corlun 1888-18S» 

Artlinr G. Hall, B. S 18»MS91 

Jai<. F. Knight 18in-18»{ 

H. J. rA»j|:jrett 18a3-l«97 

John A. Wood. A. B 18f»7-18JW 

I. X. Warren, A. B 18!)8-lfH>2 

Fre<leric L. Sims, B. S l!Kr2-l!NM 

Ilijrh seliool teacliers and snhjiM-ts the.v iea«li: 
F. L. Sims. B. S., Mathennitics. 
Katherine A. Crane, 1^ L., Literature. 
('. (). Nelson, A. M., L:itin. 
(Jeorjre W. (lannon, B. IM.. S<Men<-e. 
F. II. Simons, M. K., Art. 
J. I-.. Criswell, A. B., History. 

Nelle Wrijrht. A. B., German and Enjrlish (Vimposition. 
Helen r<M>le. Mnsir. 

II. ('. Noi». A. M., Commercial I>t»partment. 

Average yearly salary of high school icvirhers, hK'lnding Huperhitendeiit. 

Training of teachers: 

Aiihw A. Wood, A. B., A. M.. Indiana Cniversity, grndiinte State 

F. T^. Sims, jirincipal, B. ., DeFanw and Chicago Universities. 
F. II. Simons. M. F., Berlin. 
(Jeo. W. Gannon. P.. IM.. Vpsllanti, Midi. 
KatluM'inc A. Crane. B. L.. I'nivcrslty of Michigan. 

C. O. Nelson. A. M.. Jewett College»erty. Mo. 
H. <'. Noe, \. M.. Hillsdale, Mich. 

Nellc Wright. A. B.. Ohio State rniverslly. 

J. L. Crisw(»li. A. B.. Ohio Wesleyan rnlversity. 

Helen Foole, graduate National S<*hool of Music. 

Fnn^Ument In high school 243 

Total enrollment in grades and Iiigh sclmol 1.821 

Xuml>er of girls graduated last year (1*.mK{» 2tl 

Xnndu'r of boys graduated last year (lIMKii Ifl 

Number In this class that went to college 10 

Xumb€»r of graduates since school was organized. 485 

Nimiber of tlu»se who have attended college 172 



ssasT.^**.^*:. ( ....-J 





^0j 1 





T. H. Meek, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1879. Commissioned in the seventies. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. M. Olcott 1858-1861 

Professor Hatch 1801-1863 

George Taylor 1863-1866 

Josiah Hurty ,186&-1868 

John Clarke Ridpath 1868-1869 

J. G. Housekeeper 1860-1870 

E. H. Butler 1870-1874 

John R. Trisler 1874-1886 

T. V. Dodd 1886-1887 

W. H. Rucker 1887-1896 

G. D. Knopp 1895-1896 

R. R Call 1896^1898 

T. H. Meek 1888-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

George C. Cole, principal high school. 
Edward W. Koch. 
Clayton J. Slater. 
Else W. Schrader. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Edward W. Koch, Science. 
Clayton J. Slater, English. 
Elsie W. Schrader, German and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, Including sui>erintendeiit, 

Training of teachers: 

T. H. Meek, A.B., University of Indiana. 

Geo. C. Cole, A.B., Indiana State Normal. 

Edward W. Koch, undergraduate University of Indiana. 

Clayton J. Slater, undergraduate University of Indiana. 

Elsie W. Schrader, German and History. 

Enrollment in high school 85 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 700 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 14 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 209 

Number of these who have attended college 45 


Lawrencebueg; High School. 


C. A. Peterson. Superiutendent. 

Organized, 1870. 

Superintendents, with datrs of siTvicc: 

J. K. OwiMi 1870 

A. O. Reubrlt 1874 

J. F. Scull 1876 

O. C. Chariton 1880 

T. U. Dunn 1881 

D. D. Hlakeninn .1883 

K. H. Harney 1883-1887 

Joseph Wiley 1887-1880 

I). K. Goss 1880-1801 

T. H. iMinn 1801-18J)2 

U. J. (JritHth 1892-1804 

.7. K. Hart 1804-1001 

C. A. lVteri5<»n 1001-1004 

Princiimls aiffl ansistimts: 

Miss Mattie Matthews, central huihlin;;. 
Mrs. K. H. Harney, north building. 
Mrs. llattie H. Stokes, scmth buildin'.;. 

High school tearliers and subifcts tln\v teach: 

E. O. Walker, princiiial. Latin. 
G. A. Wilciix. Srjcnce, 
Hattie (V)chran. Kn^^lish. 
Jennie Pnjrh. History. 
Kenneth Foster. Mathematics. 

Average yearly sahiry of hi;;h si'ho'»l tcaclu-rs. including superintendent. 

Training of tca«-]icrs: 

('. A. Peterson, snpcrintcndcnt. A-.H.. Iimiana riiiverslty. 

E. (f. Walker. ])rinci]»al. A.M.. Indiana rniv«»rsity. 

G. A. Wilcox. A.r».. Cornell rniversity. 

Hattie Cochran. Indi:uia Cnivcrsity. 

Jennie IMigh. Indiana T'niversity. 

K(>nneth Foster. Franklin <'t)lley:e. 

Enrollment in high school l.Vi 

Total enrollment in gr.-idcs jind hij;h school 1.1S2 

Number of girls gnidiiatcd last year (ItMK'.j 14 

Number of boys gradnale<l last ycjir {VM):\) 12 

Number in this cljiss that >vcnt to college 3 

Ntimber of graduates since s<-liool was organized 220 

Number of these who have attende<l college 65 




John W. Short, Superintendeut. 

Organized, 1873. Conimissioued. 1887. 
Superintendents, witli datj08 of Horvic€»: 

R. W. Wood -1880 

John W. Short 1880- 

Principals and assistants: 

P. B. Nye, principal. 

A. A. Graham, assistant. 

Kdward Gardner, assistant. 
High school teachers and 8ul)jects tlioy teacli: 

John W. Short, Botany, English Literature and Classics, American 
History, Civics. 

P. B. Nye, Geometry, Algebra, Physics, Rhetoric. 

A. A. Graham, GnH?ic, Roman and English History, Physical Geog- 
raphy and Latin. 

Edward Gardner, Advanced Grammar, American Literature. Chem- 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

John W. Short, A.M., Miami University, Oxford, O., four years. 

P. B. Nye. graduation diploma, B.E., State Normal, MillersvlUe, Pa. 

A. A. Graham, National Normal, Lebanon, O.; Normal at Danville; 
Earlham College. Richmond, Ind. 

Edward Gardner, A.B.. Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 

Kiirollmeiit in high school 67 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 296 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 6 

NunilHT of boys gi-adunted last year (1903) 4 

Nuiiil>er in this class tliat went to college 1 

Number nf graduates since school was organized 259 

NunilM»r of these who liave attended college 53 


W. C. Palmer, Superintendent. 

Organized, 187G. Commissioned. 1901. 
Superintendents, with dates of sorvicc: 

D. D. Luke 1875-1887 

Anibroso Blunt 1887-1889 

Cliarles Dolan 1890-1891 

W. r. Palmer 1891-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Thos. Jackson, principal: Carrie Mcrritt, assistant. 

W. A. Bcane, principal: Carrie Morritt, Martha Fritschell. Helen 
Adair, assistants. 

Minnie Flinn, principal: Dorothy P(>i>py. assistant. 

Dorothy Poppy, principal: W. A. IIoj^iic. assistant. 

W. A. Hogue, principal: H. V. Craig, assistant. 

W. A. Beane, principal; Clara E. Seamens, assistant. 


High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

W. A. Beane, Mathematics and Science. 

Clara £. Seamens, Latin and English. 

W. C. Palmer, Civics and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

W. A. Beane, A.B., Indiana University. 

Clara E. Seamens, A.B., Northwestern University. 

Enrollment In high school 5-1 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 4G5 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 13 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 

Number of these who have attended college 30 


A. W. Nolan, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1875. Commissioned, 1890. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Prof. G. Myers 1886 

Prof. Lieb 1886-1894 

H. S. Gilhams 1894-1898 

S. K. Ganiard 1898-1903 

A. W. Nolan 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

V. G. Myers. 

W. G. Sweitzer. 

Grace Hoff. 
High school teachers and subjects tlioy teach: 

A. W. Nolan, Science and English. 

V. G. Myers, Latin and History. 

W. G. Sweitzer, Mathematics and Physical Geography. 

Grace Hoff, Music and English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

A. W. Nolan, Indiana University, four years; ten years* experience 

V. G. Meyers, A.B., Hillsdale College. 

W. G. Sweitzer, Michigan State Normal, two years. 

Grace Hoff, graduate Chicago Music School. 

Enrollment in high school 45 

Total enrollment in grades and high scho)! 150 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 150 

Number of these who have attended college 40 



Oscar Dye, Superintendent. 

Organized, 39(>0. Commissioned, 1901. 
Snperintondents, with dates of service: 

Oscar Dye, since organization and commission. 
Principals and assistants: 

Laura M. Moore, principal since organization and commission. 

Mary Ilarrali. assistant, 1901-1903. 

Blanrli Hannah, assistant, 1903. 
High schcM)! teachors and subjects they teach: 

Oscar Dye, l*hysics and General History. 

Laura M. Moore, Mathematics and Latin. 

Blancli Hannah, English and Science. 
Average yearly salary of higli s<-hool teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

Oscar Dye, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Laura M. Moore, graduate Indiana University. 

lUanch Hannah, graduate Indiana Stale Normal. 

Knrollnient in high school 91 

Total enrcjllnient in grades and high school l.'M'ui 

Number of irirls graduated last year (190.*?) .*{ 

Number of boys graduated last year (190;5) 2 

Number in this class that went to college l\ 

Number of graduates since school was organized 19 

Number of these who have attended college 9 

A. H. Douglass, Superint(»ndent. 

Organized. ISOT. Commissioned, — . 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Sheridan Cox ^ 18G7-1872 

Mr. Shephard 1872-18r3 

.1. K. Waltz 1873-1881^ 

J. C. r»lack 1886-1889 

Anna V. LalCose 1889-1801 

A. II. Douglass 1891-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. A. Hill, principal. 
High sch(H)l teachers and subjects they teach: 
F. M. Spraker. Latin. 
Uba S. Hattery, I^atin. 
Elizabeth McConnell, Mathematics. 
-Mary D. Torr, Mathematics. 
J. P. Hochhalter, Biology. 

B. E. Curry, Physics and Chemistry. 
Abigail .1. Da vies, English. 

Mary A. Putnam, Ii.'nglish. 
F. M. Starr. German. 
J. A. Hill, History. 

EDUfATfON l.\ IMilAXA. :!iil 

AvprnKt' yeiirly salarj- of high school tent'bers, iiu-Iiidlui; superiiilendeiit. 

TriiiiiliiK of ti-ni'licm; 

J. A. mil. prlnrljKil. A.B,. Kniiikllii College. 

V. M. Spi-Jiki>r. A.M.. IniHiiiin University. 

J. r. Hoi'lihallor, B.S.. Inilliiim UnivMsIt.v. 

It. K. fxicry. Itnll.iiLi UrilviTRlly. four ypjirB. 

Kltanlii'lli Mf-Coiincl!. ChliiiK" Uulverslty, iwo yeiirs. 

Miiry D. T.irr. AM.. Rniltli Colloge. 

AMcnil .T. niivlt's. A.M.. I.iikc Forest rollpuc. 

Miiry A. I'littiriiii. riii.-np. riilvorsity. one yonr. 

F. .M. SiiiiT. A. 11.. Ii.'l'innv fiilvfrsity. 

ri.;i S. HiilliTy. A.H., n.'i'iinw TTtilvi-i-sily. 



ir i ' Mill,, 1 


Lt.liANSfOJlT Hicu Si 

iii-iK ill hl;,'h svliijol 

tirntliiii'iii [ii in-ii'li'^ nnil liitili kcIkihI. 
r of jjh-lN tfrndunli'd liisi yviir lUxi:!).. 

!■ ..r 1I...VS ;:i-ii.lil:lli'<l hist yvnr lliUKW. . 

I- ill till- .'hishi rli;it Hfiit 1 illi-yc. . . 

]■ ..r ;,t;i.1ii;i(i>s -ijii.'.- s.-hiu.l WJls ..rn. 

r i>r ihi'«i' Willi hiivi' ill tciuli-tl I'oIU-kp. 



H. B. Dickey, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1800. Commissioned, 1808. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

G. A. Hawlfins 1891-1803 

W. H. High 1893-1894 

Franlc P. Heigliway 1894-1896 

Wm. M. Sheets 1896-1903 

Homer B. Dicltey 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Wm. H. Morey 1903-1904 

Persis E. Pryse 1903-1901 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Persis B. Pryse, Latin, Algebra, Physics. 
Wm. H. Morey, History, English. 
H. B. Dickey, Botany, Latin, Geometry. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

H. B. Dickey, superintendent, graduate from Indiana State Normal; 
undergraduate in Indiana University, one term; undergraduate in 
University of Chicago, one term. 
Wm. H. Morey, undergraduate in Valparaiso (Ind.) Normal, three 
and one-half years; undergraduate Indiana State Normal, one 
Persis E. Pryse, graduate from Bellevue College, University of 

Enrollment in high school 90 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 847 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 9 

Numl>er of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 96 

Number of these who have attended oollo<?e 35 


Ossian S. Myers, Superintendent 

Organized, 1S92. Commissioned, 1902. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

F. E. Addleman 1892-1900 

Ossian S. Myers 1900-1904 


Mrs. Edith Winslow. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Ossian S. MytM's. I^tin and Mathematics. 

Mrs. Editli Wlnslcw. English. History, Science. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 


Tntlnliig of teuchers: 

Osalaii S. Myera, A.B., from Baldwin University, Berea, O.i 
from Wooster University, Wooater, O. 

Mrs. Edith Wliislow, B.L., from Bnrlliam College. 

Knrullment la h\gh school 

Total enrollment in grades aud high school 

Number of girls graduated inst year <1903) 

Xiimlier of Ijoys gradimted last year (1!M^) 

Xiimber In this clasa that went to college 

Xiimlier of graduates since school was orgnnlzcd 

Nuinl)er of these who have attended collie 

'S illGH bl-'lIOdL. 


C. M. MoOaiiiel, Superiuicudeut. 

Organized, 1852. Coinmissioiied, - — . 

Supei'iuteudcnts, with dates of service (record incomplete): 
Charles Barnes. 
T. B. Dodd. 

John Martin 1S82-1S0U 

F. iM. Churchill 1890-1802 

D. AI. Gecting 1892-1896 

T. A. Mott 1895-1896 

C. M. McDauiel 189G-1904 

Principals and assistants (n^ronl incnniplcttM: 

IJr. W. A. Graham, W. M, Craig, Miss Driggs, Mary D. Reed, Mr. 
Payne, J. A. Carnagey, Geo. Hulilmrd, C. M. McDaniel, Geo. 
Taylor, M. .T. Bowman, Jr., A. O. Xeal. 

High school teachers and sul>jects they teach: 

A. O. Neal, principal, Latin. 
S. Belle inlands. Science. 
Harriet MacKenzie, German. 
Lucina Borton, English. 
Bertha Wrigley, Mathematics. 

B. W. Billings, History. 

L. G. Millisor, Commercial. 
Average yearly salary of liigh school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

A. O. Neal, Franlilin College; also student at Cliicago University. 
Harriett MacKenzie, Normal ScIkm)!, Ypsilanti, Mich.; also student at 

Chicago University. 

S. Belle Hilands, Hanover College; also student of Chicago Univer- 

Lucina lU>rton, University of Illinois and of the Department of Ora- 
tory of Nortli western. 

B. W. Billings, DePauw University. 

L. G. Millisor, Uochester Norma 1 School. 

Josejililne Schumann, Cincinnati College of Music. 

Enrollment in high school 104 

Total tmrollment in grades and higli scliool 1,387 

Number of girls graduated last year HIKKJ) 8 

Number of ?)oys graduated last year (100;j» 2 

Numl)er in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 420 

Number of these who have attended college 70 




Benjamin F. Moore, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1865. Commissioned, 1883. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 
A. H. Harritt. 
William Russell. 
W. C. McCord. 
Mr. Wood. 

r. W. Legg 1879 

Irving Baraliart 1879-1881 

A. H. HasUngs 1881-1883 

Hamilton S. Mt-C^rae 1883-1887 

John K. Waltz 1887-1890 

Welfoid D. Weaver 1890-1899 

Benjamin F. Moore 1899-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
T. D. Thorp. 
Mrs. Wm. Kussell. 
Miss Frone A. Case. 
Miss Nannie Mooney. 

WMll Mclntire 1876-1877 

George A. Osl)orn 1877-1879 

Frank R. Osborn 1879-1881 

Phariba White 1881-1883 

Mrs. Emma Mont McRae 1883-1887 

Alva ciraves 1887-1889 

Mrs. E. C. Gear 1889-1890 

Addison W. Moore 1890-1892 

Russell K. Bedgood 1892-1894 

W. J. Williams 1894 

Francis M. Ingler 1894-1896 

Virgil R. McKnIglit 1896-1902 

J. T. Giles 1902-1904 

High school teachers and sul)..ects they teach: 
J. T. Giles, principal. 
Alva Graves, Mathematics. 
F. K. Mowrer. Biology. 
Frances Benedict. English. 
George C. Bush. Chemistry and Physics. 
Georgetta Bowman, History. 
Mary K. Birch, I^atin and German. 
Mildred II. Keith. I>atin. 
Kate M. Meek, Mathematics. 
Catherine M. Callaway, English. 
J. E. McMullen, English. 
Tillie Billiods, German. 
Minnie May Hodges, Music. 
J. Jj. Massena, Drawing. 
May Servlss, substitute teacher. 


Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

J. T. Giles, principal, graduate Indiana University, 18M; two yean 
post graduate work in Indiana University and Leland Stan- 
ford Jr. 
Alva Graves, Mathematics, high school, Earlham College. 
F. K. Mowrer, Biology, graduate high school; grraduate Union Chris- 
tian College, 1890; undergraduate Indiana State NormaL 
Frances Benedict, English, graduate Indiana State Normal; under- 
graduate Spiceland Academy. 
George C. Bush, Chemistry and Physics, graduate high school; grad- 
uate Indiana University; two years post graduate work in Indiana 
Georgetta Bowman, History, graduate high school; graduate Indiana 
University; post graduate work Indiana University; post grad- 
uate work Harvard University. 
Mary K. Birch, Latin and German, graduate high school; graduate 
DePauw University; one year post graduate work DePauw Uni- 
Mildred H. Keith, Latin, graduate high school; graduate University 
of Michigan, A.B. and A.M. degrees; post graduate work In Chi- 
cago University. 
Kate M. Meek, Mathematics, graduate high school: graduate Indiana 
University; post graduate work in Indiana University and Iowa 
State University. 
Catherine M. Callaway, English, graduate high school; graduate In- 
diana State Normal School; three years post graduate work at 
Chicago University. 
J. B. McMullen, English, graduate DePauw University; graduate De- 
Pauw University Normal School; one year post graduate work in 
Syracuse University. 
Tillle Billiods. German, graduate Indiana State Normal School: 
graduate Indiana University: post graduate work in University 
of Cincinnati and In Berlitz Language School. 
Minnie May Hodges, Music, Paw-Paw (Mich.) High School; Valpa- 
raiso Normal School; work in various music schools and private 
professional courses in music. 
J. L. Massena. Drawing. Central Normal College; Pratt Institute; 

Teachers' College, Columbia University. 
May Serviss, substitute teacher, graduate high school; graduate 
Grant Collegiate Institute: Wellesley College. 

Enrollment in high school 360 

Total enrollment In grades and liipjh school 4,400 

Number of girls graduated last year (10(>;5) 18 

Number of boys graduated last year (190J5) 14 

Number in this class that went to college 11 

Number of graduates since school was organized 392 

Number of these who have attended college 150 

EnrrATinx ix ixniAN.t. sot 



W / M ^ r., 1 


• < 



1 -■".>;. -. 7- rttti 

►_. — 





John Reber, Supeiintendent. 

Organized, 1895. Commissioned, 1901. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

P. H. Beck 1895-1896 

C. O. Ohmert 1898-1899 

John Reber 1899-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Miss Anna Kemp 1899-1900 

J. G. McGimscy 1900-1902 

Miss Victoria Johnson 1902-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Victoria Johnson, English, Latin, Mathematics, History. 
John Reber, Science, Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, Including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

John Reber, A.B.. Indiana University; graduate Indiana State 

Victoria Johnson, graduate of college, Valparaiso, Ind.; student <me 
year, Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 26 

Total enrollment In grades and high school 127 

Number of girls graduated last year (190.^) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (lOo.S) 

Number of each In this class tliat went to colloge 2 

Number of graduates sin<'o st'liool was organizeil IG 

Number of these who lune attended college 8 


Markle High School. 



J. E. Kohinsou, Superiutendent. 

Organized, 1870. Commissioned, 1882. 
SuiK'rintendeuts, with dales of service: 

Mrs. N. D. Standlford 1810-1872 

B. F. French 1872-1876 

J. R, Starkey 1876-1886 

W. D. Kerlin 1896-1901 

J. E. RobiusoD 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Maggie Cox. 

Miss F. A. Case. 

Ella R. Tilford. 

Maggie Boyd. 

Mary E. Long. 

Miss N. M. Woodward. 

Paul Monroe. 

E. W. Abbott. 

W. F. Clarlie. 

J. E. Robinson. 

J. A. McKelvey. 

O. P. West. 
Hi;rli school teachers and subjects they teacli: 

O. P. West, principal. (Jerman, Chemistry. 

IjuIu Claris, Latin, History. 

Chas. F. Jacknian. Mathematics, Ph5'sics. 

Lillian Hart, English and Literature. 

T. W. Ilesler, History, Botany. 
Average yearly salary of high scliool teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

O. P. West, graduate Indiana University, Indiana State Normal 

Chas. F. Jackman, graduate Indiana University. 

J. W. Hesler. graduate Indiana State Normal School and Stadent 
Indiana University. 

Lillian Hart, graduate DePauw University. 

Lulu Clark, student at DePauw and Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 128 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 984 

Number of girls graduated last year (1003) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year noo:*) 8 

Number In this class that went to college 6 

Number of graduates since school was organized 279 

Number of these who have attended college 100 





Paul A. Cowgill, Supcrintoiuleiit. 

Organized, 1871. Commissioned, VJOl. 
Superintendents, Avitli dates of service: 

S. E. Miller 1807-1888 

J. C. Black 1888-1893 

Edward Boyle 1893-1899 

J. G. Monroe ' 1899-1901 

Paul A. Cowgill 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Ix)uis W. Keeler. 

H. A. Ix>ber. 

Edward Boyle. 
. George Burns. 
High school toachors and sul>jocts tlu\v tcncli: 

Margaret Slcezer. English. 

Lelia Childs, Mathematics. 

Sadie Sheehan, I^atln. 

Le Koy La Gess. Botany. 

(trace Gillespie. History. 

Clara Hughes, Art. 

Mrs. Bertha Child. French and (Terman. 

Chas. Kibhy and (ieo. Andt^rson. Commercial. 
Average j^early salary of high school teacliers. in(*luding superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

TiOuis Keeler, University of Mh'hiiran. 

Enrollment In high school 187 

Total enrollment in gi-ades and high school 3,191 

Number of girls gradnatiMl last y<»ar {VMC*) 13 

Number of l)oys graduated last year nniKii 1 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of gi*aduates since school was orgaiiizr<l 351 

EnncATina in tsdiajia. s73 



H. N. Coffman, Superiiiteudeiit. 

Organized, 1890. Commissioned, 1895. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. H. Sanders : 1888-1883 

W. L. Cory 1893-1896 

H. N. Coffman 1896-1904 

Name of principal: 

R. S. Tice, Principal. 
Names of high school teachers and subjects they teach: 

H. N. Coffman, History. 

R. S. Tice, Latin, Algebra, Physics. 

Willian Graves, English, Geometry, Physical Geography and Botany. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

H. N. Coffman, graduate of Indiana State Normal; A.B. and A.M. 
residence work at Indiana University, Department of Philosophy 
and Pedagogy. 

R. S. Tice, graduate of Indiana State Normal; resident graduate of 
Indiana University in the Department of Zoology. 

Wm. Graves, three years* work in Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 48 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 287 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number of boys graduated last (1903) 

Number in this class that went to college 

The colleges to which these went with number of ea(?h 

Number of graduates since school was organizcHl ®L 

Number of these w^io have attended college 21 


MiDDLKTilWN HitiU S<:iIIJ()L. 


B. J. Boffuo, SuporiiitencU'Dt. 

Organized, 1802. CommissioutMl. ISTS. 

Superintendents, with dates uf servi<'e: 

Mr. E. Sumption 18«9-1873 

E. S. Halleck 1873-1877 

E. Wlilpple 1877-1879 

W. H. Fertieli 1879-1883' 

Elias Boltz 1883-1887 

B. J. Bogue 1887-1903 

J. F. Nuner 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
Geo. L. Harding. 

B. J. Bogue. 
H. G. Ix)ng. 

Mrs. ('. V. Sliorwood. 
Geo. A. Powles. 
Miss Olive Batman. 
Cbas. Dolan. 
Mary D. Welch. 
High school teachers and sul»jocts tliey tt-ach: 
Evangeline AI»]m\v, Science. 

C. E. Wliite. Matlieniatics. 
Marie Simpson. En^lisli. 

Mary D. WHcli. principal. Language. 
.\verage yearly salary of high srliool ti*acliers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Mary D. Welcli. ()liv<«t. Mich. 

Evangoline Al»I»ey. Olivet. Mich. 

Marie Simpson, Olivet. Micli. 

r. E. White. Indiana Vniverslty. 

J. F. Ntmer. Indiana St a to Normal: 1 year at Indiana University; 
li years at (Miicago Tniversity. 

Our jrrade teachers are principally high school graduates. 

Enrollment In high s^^hool 0!) 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1JVJ4 

Nnmher of girls ;rrailu:iled last year (llHK'l) 7 

Number of boys graduated last yt»ar (IIHKJ) 3 

Number in this class that went to collcg<» 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 100 

Number of these who have attended collect* 50 


MisHAWAKA High School. 



J. L. Clftuser, Superlutendeut. 

Organized, 18U0. Commissioned, 187U. 

J. C. McLaughlin. 

J. P. Funis. 

R, A. Ogg. 

D. W. Allen. 

A. II. Hastings. 

II. T. rickle. 

(\ W. McClure. 

Mr. Lugenbiel. 

A. K. Southerland. 

£711a Munson. 

D. H. Ellison. 
Mrs. Kate Gilbert. 

E. L. Hendricks. 
J. L. C la user. 

Can not give dates (»f services of each. 
Principals and assistants: 

Ed Odonnel. 

Hugh Holmes. 

Nora Williams. 

Clara Mitchell. 

J. P. Callahan. 

Frank A. Wood. 

Robert Tirey. 

Charles D, Mclntire. 
High school ten<*liers and subjects they teach: 

Rol>ert Tirey. Latin and English. 

Charles D. McIntJre, Science and History. 

J. L. Clauser, Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers. Including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

J. L. <.'lauser, Supc^rintendont. graduate Indiana State Normal Bcbool. 
Robert Tirey, Principal, graduate Southern Indiana Normal BcbooL 

undergraduate Indiana riiiversity. 
Charles D. Mclntire. unriorgraduato Southern Indiana Normal School 
and Valparaiso. 1 year in fornuT. in weeks in latter; graduate 
Vorls Rusiness College. 

Enrollment in high school 4S 

Total enrollment in grades and hi^'h st lion! 650 

Number of girls graduated last year {VMr.\\ 4 

Number of boys graduated last year niMV.i 2 

Number in this elass that went to college 1 





.Tamos H. Shaffer, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1894. CouiniissiontHl, 1002. 
Sui>erintondents, with ilates of service: 

Win. M. Sheets 1894-1896 

James H. Simflfer 1896-19W 

Principals and assistants: 

.Tames II. Sliaflfer. 

.lolni G. Yorlc. 

II. M. Appleman. 

Mrs. Nana Kent. 

Miss FnHlri<*a K. Tuelver. 

Miss Bt»ile .Tonrs. 

(Myde C. Tull. 

Cliarles .T. Carpenter. 
Hijrli scliool teaeliers and sul>jeets tliey teach: 

.Tames II. Sliaffer, Physics. Zocilojry. 

Clias. .?. Carpenter. Matliematies and Latin. 

Miss A^nes Carr. Kn^lisli and History. 
Av<»ra^e yearly salary of hi^h seliool teaeliers. including superintendent. 

Training of tearluM-s: 

.Tames II. Shafl'er. five terms DePanw T^iiiversity; throe terms Indi- 
ana St a to .\ormal Seliool. 
Clias. .1. Cjiriienter, ;rradnate State Normal School. 
Miss .Vgncs Carr. graduate nf Ch'udale College; nearly one year In 
(Miieago University. 

K'nn»llm(>nt in liigli s<*liool 00 

Total enrollment in grades and liigh school 314 

Number of girls graduated this year (UKKS) 11 

Numi»er of hoys graduate*! Inst year (lOlK?) 5 

Ninnber in tliis ehiss that went to college 3 

Number of graciuntes since seliool was organiz-'d 55 

N^ Number of these who have attended college 11 


T.. E. Kflly, Superintendent. 
Otguiilzod. ISfir.. Commissioned. ISOS. 
Snin'riutpiiilpiitK. wltli ibites of sprvirc: 

I,. E. Kolly 


JOllll \V. II<ll<loilllUI. 

Iliuli K(-hooi ti'iii'Iierx mid sntiti'cls tlicy li'.iHi: 

John W. n«id('nL!in, .Mritii.'niiiti.s .iiid HIslory. 
.loiin n. Giiliol. Sflc'in'e. 
rinrlcf M. Lyllp. I.iiriii iind KiiKllBh. 
raroHiio Kiii;liKli, MiibIc. 


verii;.'e yoaily snliir.v "I' lilsili SfUiMil ti.'H 

riiinintr of tpnclicra: 

L. E. Ki'll.v. GniduHlf Indliiiin Stiite Nonnnl. 

.lohii W. lIoMciiiiiii. ;:r:icliiiLli' IndiMOii Kliiti' Norniiil. 

Joliii D. (JiilicI, Kriiduiilf HiinnviT Colli'jM'. 

ClavlL-e itl. Lytle, giaduiite Nuilbwostern. 

iiiid[ng HkiperiiitGndeiil. 


Enrollment in liijrh school 115 

Total enrollment In grades and high school 787 

Number of girls graduated last year (lOcro 3 

Number of l)oy8 graduated last year (llH>a) 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 24 

Number of tliese who have attended college 6 

J. W. Iljiniilton. Sui)erintendent. 

Orgjinl/.ed. 1870. ('i)iiiiiiissiniKMl, 1887. 
Suiicrintcndents, wiMi data's of s<M'vifc: 

.1. (;. Uoyer 1879-1884 

Win. Sinclair 1884-1885 

B. F. Mnori' 1885-1800 

.1. W. Hamiltnii 1800-1904 


Li'wis K. WlnM'hT, prin('ii):il. 
High srhiMil trai'liors and *<nl)jccls they tcarli: 

Lewis K. WliccliT. 

Harriet Harding. Knglish. 

(J'MU'vieve Williams. Latin. 

M;tl»cl Kuihrock. History and (JiTnian. 

Clinton Kontli. Mnslc. 

I-'ran«'«'s Wfstfall. Art. 
Av»M"a^i« yt-arly salary of lii;:li s<-hool teachers, including superintendent. 

Training at' tea<-liers: 

Lewis K. Wheeler, gradnate State Normal, undergraduate 9tate Uni- 

Harriet Hardin;:, A.I?., gradnate PePanw. seven years' experience. 

(ienevieve Williams, innler^ratlmite DePauw. seven years' oxperl- 

.Mabel K«>tlirock. A.P... graduate Indiana Tniversity, two years* ex- 

Clinton Kouili. private seho«>I and student Northwestern College. 
tlu'ee y#ars' (wjHMieiu'e. 

Franef»s West fall, student Art Institute. Chicago, Ave years' expori- 

Enrolbnent In high sr-hof>l 173 

Total enrollment in irradi-s .iimI hiirh seln>ol 700 

NninlM-r of jrirls irradnated i.-ist year tllH»3) 13 

.Nnnilier of boys -radnated last y(\ar (100.'^) 14 

.Vninber in this class tliat went to college 9 

Nrni'ser of graduates since scliool was organizcMl 214 

Xunibrr of these who have attended college 50 


W. C. Pldgeon. Supi^rlntendent. 
Organized, 1895. Comml!<Bioned, 18U5. 
SuperliiteDdcotB, with dates oC service: 

G. B. Coffman 

Alaska Eaton 

W. C. Pidgeou 1903-1904 

Trlucipals and assistaiita: 

Carrie Scott 1899-1903 

Flora M. Guji'j- 1903-1904 

High BCbool teachers and subjects tUey tf^acli: 

W. C. PldRcon, Science, Euglish and Illstoiy. 

Flora M. Guyer, Latin. Mathematics and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, lududlng superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

W. C. PidgeoD, A.M., Indiana University. 

Flora M. Guyer, B.L., Franlilln College. 

Enrollment In high school 00 

Total enrollment In grades and high school 375 

Number of girls graduated Inst year (1003) 3 

Number ot boys graduated Inst year (1903) 2 

Nnmber of each In this class that went to college 

Number of graduates since school was organized No data 

Number of these who have attended college 20 



Kdwiird G. Hanman. SiiiKTinteiidont. 

Oi'Kaiiizod, 1871. Coiunii.'«sion(*d. 1890. 
SuiK»rIiitondeuts, witli dntos of servicv: 

A. J. Snoke 1870-1874 

Alfred Kummer 1874-1876 

K. S. Clark 187G-1879 

W. I. Davis 1879-1882 

P. P. Stiiltz 1882-1889 

II. V, Leavenworth 1889-1806 

Edwin S. Miunoe 1896-1903 

Edward (J. Hanman 190S-1904 

IM'incipals and assistants: 

Alice Cliuate, 

Florence ILuwley. 

.1. W. Ilialt. 

W. S. Biishnell. 

Tbuiiias Orr. 

M. J. Conine. 

Rebecca I*orten.s. 

O. ir. Welker. 

(). L. Sewall. 

T. W. Thomson. 

II. (). (!avanah. 

E. S. Monro(>. 

Charles Pnlliani. 

L. P. DmMT. 

E. G. Bannian. 

G. W. Hishop. 
lli«h sclitK)! teacliers and snl>j<'c,'ts they teach: 

Georj:e W. Bisliop, ciieniistry and Latin. 

T. XL Stoneciplier. Mathematics. 

M. Abigail Smith, History. Stt»no;rraphy. Typewriting. 

Elora Ileldel. (lerman and Latin. 

Helen A. Sullivan, English. 
Av«*raj:e yearly salary of hlKJi s«hool teachers, inelnding superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Edward G. I'.auman. Ph.i:.. A.M., Illinois Wesleyan University. 

George W. IJishop. nnder.Lriaduat*' Illinois University. 

M. Abigail Smith, nnd<'rgi:nlnate Indiana State Normal. 

T. n. StonecipluT, nnder;:radnate Ewing College and Indiana Uni- 

Flora Heidel, A. 15., Central Wesh>yan <'olh?ge. 

Helen A. Sullivan, A. 15.. University of Mirliigan. 

Enrollment In high school 140 

Total enrollment in grades and idgh school 1,100 

Number of girls graduated last year (V.H):\) 7 



Xiiralicr of bo.vB gradunlcd last year (1903) 5 

Xiimlipr ill this class tliat went to college 4 

Xiuulier of gradimtes Bltit-e ecliool was organized '354 

Xiimber of these who have attended college KM 

Mt. Vernon Hhsh School. 


George Ij. Roberts, Superintendent. 

(»r),'anliied. 18i!8. ('oDimiRsloncd, . 

Sn|ii Tint en dents, witti dates of service: 

Charles II- Payni> 

II. S. McRmi 18C7-1881 

F. M. Alien 1881-1882 

II. S. Mcllac 1882-1883 

John M. Bloss 1883-1887 

W. It. Snyder 1887-1903 

George L. Roberts 1903-1904 

!S— Bddcitiom. 



Ki-uest v. Wiles. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Mrs. M. 1. Ivins, Mathematics. 

Emma Cammaclv. Latin and English. 

L. H. Pittinger, English. 

William Thrush, Latin. 

II. S. Peacock, History. 

A. L. Murray, Englis!i. 

J. F. Bower, Comnier<-ial. 
W. I. Underbade, SiMence. 
Ci'rus Hector, Science. 
S. I. Conner, Heading. 
Alma lUirton, (Jerman and French. 
J. O. Potter, Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including suiierintouileiits. 

Training of teachers: 
No data given. 

Enrollment in high sdiool 346 

Total en r< dim cut in grades and higli school 3,918 

N'und)er of girls graduatinl last year (lfM)3) 28 

Number of boys graduattMl last year (190.*^> 9 

Number in this class tluit went to college 6 

Nund>er of graduates since school was organizeil 643 

Num1>er of these wlio have attended college 135 

W. H. Sl(K>lvey, Superintendent. 

Organized. 18S4>. Connnissioned. 18i»7. 

Su]>erintendents, witli dates of si'rvlc(»: 

W. B. SfrM)key 1897-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Peter Hinds 1897-1896 

Mr. Bowman 1898-1899 

Claude Brown 1899-1900 

B. W. Forkuor 1900-1901 

O. L. Morrow 1901-1903 

Will Scott .1003-19(M 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Peter Hinds, Latin. 

W. B. Stookey. teaclies 7 classes. 

Will Scott. teacii(»s S classes. 
Average yearly salary of higli school teachers, including superiutcndont. 

Training of teachers. 

W. B. Stookey. graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Will Scott. .*{ years Indiana State Normal. 




Enrollment In liiRh school 24 

Total pDrollment In Rrades and blgti scliool 144 

Xiiml.oi' of jtirls ernilunted lust year (ISMBI 3 

Xumbprof boys Rrniliinted Inst year (1903f 3 

NumlHT in this class that wpnt to college 2 

Number of grnUuntes since school was orRanlKeii KI 

Xumlier at these wlio have atlended collesc 24 

K 1 

McCoRDSViLLE High School, 

S. W. Hner, SuperlnteHdent. 
<>rK'iiilK<'<l. lS!)r>. CiiiunilMoneil. ISns. 
SnixTliilendcnlN, wllb tlnles of Hervlce; 

S. \V. Hjut 

I'rinclimls nnti nsaistants; 
Olive A. Vollva. 
George W. Bailor, flBslBtniit. 



High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

S. W. Baer. Ciorman, History, Psychology. 

Olive A. Voliva. I^itin and English. 

George W. Bailor. Kcience and Mathematics. 
Av€»rage yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

S. W. Baer, Th.B.. A.M., DePnuw T'nlv<Msity. 

Olive Voliva. Th.B.. l)(»ran\v I'niversity. 

George W. Bail<»r. .\.n.. DePauw T'niversity. 

Enrollment in high srhoni ilj 

Total enrollment in gra«le and hitrh school 402 

Xund)er of girls graduate*! last year (IJMi.ii 5 

Number of boys graduat<Ml last year < ll>n:b 7 

Number in tliis class tlial went to c<>lh*ge IJ 

Nnml)er of graduates since scliool was organized ."ill 

Number of tliese wjio have attended coll(»ge Hi 


Cliarli's A. Prosser. Supi'Hntenilent. 

Orgaidzed, is.'i:{. ('(»mmissi(»ne<l, 1S7.X 
Superintendents, with datt s of service: 

(.'has. Barnes 185G-1S57 

.las. G. May 1857-1850 

Geo. P. Brown 1»M-1Si'm 

Dr. E. Newland lS<r>-1870 

J. K. .Waits 1870-1872 

II. B. Jacol)s 1872-188:^ 

("has. F. Collin 18S:{-188i; 

J. B. Starr 188(M81M 

W. H. llershman 1804-181K> 

('. A. Prosser 18«)-10ii4 

Principals and assistants: 

Georg(» H. Harrison. 

Charles Barnes. 

Jas. G. May. 

O. V. Towsl(«y. 

(Jeo. 1». Brown. 

V. Jj. Morse. 

J. B. Ueyn(»lds. 

Jacol) K. Walts. 

John M. Bloss. 

W. W. Grant. 

E. S. Wellington. 

(i(H)rgo P. Weaver. 

Mrs. .1. M. Lindlev. 

K. A. Og;:. 

J. P. Ftmk. 

H. A. BucTk. 

W. O. Vance (coloretli. 



High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

H. A. Biierk, Mathematics. 

Alice Fiiuk, Botany, Physiology and Biology. 

Mrs. M. II. Slirader, I^tin, History, Greek. 

Frances Fawcott, Literature and Uoman History. 

George Kahl, English and Greek History. 

Edwin Kahl, Physics, Mathematics and Civil Government. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

H. A. Buerk, graduate Harvard; 2 years Indiana University. 

Edwin Kahl, 2 years DePauw: graduate of Indiana University. 

George Kahl. graduate Indiana State Normal; 2 years Indiana Uni- 

Alice Funk, graduate Lebanon (Ohio) Normal; 5 summers Chicago 

Mrs. M. H. Slinider. graduate DoPauw Female Seminary. 

Frances Fawcett, graduate DoPauw Female Seminary. 

Enrollment in high school 275 

Total enrollment in gi-adcs and high school 3.401) 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 20 

Numl)er of boj'S graduated last year (1903) 14 

Number in this class that went to college 7 

Number of graduates since scliool was organiz/.n! 1,250 

Number of these who have atetnded college 125 

John Shipman. Superintendent." 

Organized. 1S89. (V>mmissioned, 1890. 

Superintendents, witli djites of service: 

J. A. Swan 1S89-1891 

B. F. Sisk 1801-1892 

E. L. Maines 1882-1883 

J. A. Swan 1883-1884 

F. C. Senour 1884-1886 

H. C. Berry 1886-1800 

F. C. Senour 1800-1802 

John Shipman 1802-1801 


F. C. Senour. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

John Shipman. Mntlicmatics, Pliysics. German. 

F. C. Senour. Englisli. History, Latin and Botany. 
Average yearly salary of high scliool teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

John Shipman. undergraduate State TJnlvcrsily: undergraduate Pur- 
due University. 

F. C Senour, undergraduate State University. 


I'lnruIIiiiciit iti biKli sc-lirMil 

Tut:il ciirtrlliiiout lu );i-nilos tiilil liit'li scIkhjI. 
NiimlHT of Klrls eiiHliuitiM limt yctiv (lOcKd. 
Xiimlipi' at liw.VM Krntluutr<U lust yciir niXKii. 
XiiiiilH>r in Iblx t-IiiRM tlint went ti> <-rillL<f;o. . 
Xiiiiilicr of t-radimtca slii'.'!" school wnh or^Miilzi'il 
Niinilu'r iif (lu'si> wlin liaw attcnilod iM>llfKi> 

Sew Augusta Hiuii Schooi.. 



J. C. Weir, Suporintendout. 

Organized, 1873. Commissioned, 1883. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

George W. Ilufford 1870-1876 

William McK. Blake 1870-1879 

William A. Moore 187»-1881 

J. W. Caldwell 1881-1881 

Henry Gunder 1881-1883 

C. W. Harvey 1883-1887 

W. D. Kerlin 1887-1888 

J. C. Wier 1888-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Joseph Dobell 1876-1878 

Wm. A. Moore 1878-1879 

George Vinnedge 1879-1881 

John O. Reid 1881-1882 

Frank Norris 1882-1883 

Jno. Schurr 1883-1885 

Pheriba White 1885-1887 

Carrie Furber 1887-1888 

Mary L Root 1888^1890 

Rose R. Mikels 1890^1904 

High school teacliers and subjects they teach: 
Robert McDil, Mathematics. 
Charles Chambers, Science. 
Mary Meek, German and History. 
Wannetnh McCanip])ell, English and Civics. 
Abbie J. Sehrock. Drawing. 
Rose R. Mikels, T^atin and English Literature. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superinteudeut. 

Training of teachers: 

J. C. Wier, A. M., Indiana University. 
Rose R. Mikels, A. M., De Pauw University. 
Robert McDill, A. M., Indiana University. 
Charles O. Chambers, A. M., Indiana University. 
Mary Meek, A. B.. Indiana University. 
Wannetah McCanipbell. A. B., Indiana University. 

Enrollment In high school 145 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 876 

Number of girls graduated last year (IIX).*?) 3 

Number of boys gradujited last year (IIKK?) 5 

Number in this class that went to colh?ge 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 205 

Number of these who liave attended college 41 




Joseph K. KcUoy, Supcriiitendont. 

Orgniiiztul. 1S72. CcniiinlssiuiUMl, 1SS2. 
HiiiKTiiiteiHlcntH, with datos of st»rvk-e: 

(\ H. Wood 1882-1886 

J. W. McCoruiiik 1886-1888 

C. li. Hoi)por 1888-1800 

C. H. Wood 1892-18a> 

H. W. Monlcal 1805-188U 

Josi'pli E. KolU*y 1899-1904 

Hlj?h schtM>I tciU'liLM's and sul»jects tlioy teach: 
Uora ('arv«T Do Lay, Tiatin and SeicMice. 
draco Tote, liltcraturo and History. 
Ida Stallinjjs, A1.2rc))ra. 
Joseph E. Kelley. 
Average yearly sahiry of high seliool teachers, including 8iiiK*rintondent, 

Training of teachers: 

Dora Carver De Lay, Indiana T'niversity. 

Enrollment in high school 01 

Total enrollment in grades and high school :J1>8 

Number of girls graduated last year (IIMkJ) "i 

Number of boys graduated last year (IDli.'J) 2 

Number in this class that went to colleg<* 2 

Number of graduates since school was organizetl 218 

Numl)er of those who have attended college 52 

J. W. Kendall, Superintendent. 

Organized^ . Cinnmissioned, isiU). 

Superintendents, witli dates ot service: 

Clyde L. Wagn<«r 1898-1000 

J. W. Kendall 1900^19i>4 

Principals and assistants: 

Agnes Pochin 1808-1900 

Mary K. Bireli 19(KV1002 

Edith Ravens«n»ft 1002-1903 

Mary Campljoll 190»-1904 

High s<rhool teacliers aiid subjects tliey tearii: 
Mary CamplM'll. l.Mtin and English. 
J. W. Kendali, Matlieniatics, Science and History. 

Average yearly salary (»f liigli s<-1h>o1 teacliers. inciuding suiHTintPuclent, 

Training of teachers: 

Mary Canii)bcll. A. 1?.. Mtmies Hili: A. M., DePauw. 
J. W. Kendall, gnuluate Stale Normal: undergraduate Indiana Uni- 



fiurollment in high school 29 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 175 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Numl>er of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number In this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 18 

Number of these who have attended college 9 

J. A. Caruagey, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1872. Commissioned, 1881. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

James A. Baldwin 1870-1873 

John liacy 1873-1874 

E. E. Henry 1874-1875 

B. F. Owen 1875-187« 

F. W. UeulK'lt 1870-1885 

G. F. Kenaston 1885-1889 

J. F. Haines 1880-1903 

J. A. Carnngoy 1J)03-1904 

Principais and assistants: 

Miss Annis Ilenrj', J. S. White, J. F. Haines. W. J. Greenwood, J. 
W. IIubl)ard. Ueid Carr. F. L Jones, E A. Scholtz, Milton (lantz, 
II. W. Thompscjn. AV. (). Bowers. W. M. Caylor. 
Higli school teacliers and suijocts tliey teach: 

Will M Caylor, j)rincipal. Algebra and Latin. 

(Mara Brown. En^rlish. 

Clara O'Neal. Latin. 

Florence Morgan, History. 

A. J. Burton, Science. 

E. E. Fitzpatriclv, Mathemati<'s. 

W. J. Stabler, Music. 
Average yearly salary of high school teacliers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

J. A. Caruagey, A. M., Hanover. 

W. M. Caylor, Indiana State Normal. 

Clara Brown. A. B., Earlliam. 

Clara O'Neal, A. B., Earlham. •.'.■ 

A. J. Burton, senior Indiana University. .J'T 

E. E. Fitzpatrick. junior Indiana University. 

Florence T. Morgan, senior Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 210 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,240 

Number of girls graduattMl last year (1903) 15 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 17 

Number in this class that went to college 6 

Number of graduates since school was organized 389 

Number of these who have attended college 00 


C. F. Blue, SuperlDtendent. 
Organized, 188U. Commissioned. 1890. ' 

Superlnteudenls, with dates" of eervlce; 

W. R. Murphy 1889-181)2 

J. E. Lung 1882-1894 

C. S. Smith 1894-1896 

J. S. Ilagsdale 1896-1898 

A. K. MuiTiliy 1900-1901 

O. O. Whitoiinck 1001-1903 

O. V. Blue 1903-1904 

ri'lnclpuls flud nxsisIniitH: 

Mr. liediuond -1900 

Florence Kiilpe 1900-1903 

f^Ilgli Hchool teiiclit<rri niid sultjeets tliey teach: 

No dniti. 
Average yearly salary of high school tenchcrs. IncludiDg surer! ntendent, 

Training of teachers: 

C. F. Blue. Michigan Military. Acndeniy: grnUiiate TrI-State Normal. 

KiiroUiiient Iti lil;;li apiHK>l 38 

Total CDi'olliiiMit In tn'iidtii and high school 295 

Nunibei' of giil« KTiidnntcd Inst year (10031 None 

Nuniher of boys Kraduuled Inst year (1903) 3 

Niinilier In I his dass that went to college 2 

Xiimljer of grndiintes since school wns^ organized 46 

.\iiuibcr of tliPMc who liave attended college 27 

Nobles viLLE HioH School. 



Charles F. Miller, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1882. CommiBsioned, 181M. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Walter Irwin 18M-1898 

H. S. Hippenstell 1898-1903 

Charles F. Miller 1908-1904 


A. H. Symons. 
IliKli school teachers and sul)jects they teach: 

A. H. Symons, Science. 

Ella Lorni, English an<l History. 

Ora J. Brooliover, Latin. 

Minnie R. Laver, Art. 
Average yearly salary of high s<*hool teacliers. Including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

Cliarles F. MilhM-, A. R.. DePauw University. 

A. II. Symons. H. S., Karlliam College. 

Ora J. Rrookover, A. R., Wittenhcrg. 

Ella Lorm, A. R., Chicago University. 

Enrollment In high sc-Ikm)! 90 

Total enrollment in gi'udes and high sch(M)l 500 

Number of girls gi'aduatod last year iVMVA) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (llKKiJ 7 

Number in this cImss that went to college 7 

Number of graduates since school was organized . . 170 

Number of these who have attended college t»r> 

(Jeorge V. Weedman. Superintendent. 

Organized, lS7<i. Commissioned. 1887. 

Sni)erintend( nts, with tbites of servici': 

J. W. Stout 1870-1877 

A. W. Dunlvle 1877-1879 

William Isley 18<9.1881 

C. D. Bogart 1881-1883 

Amos Sand'Ts 1883-1887 

Charles N. Peake 1887-1801 

Horace Ellis 1891-1895 

Lena M. Foster 1895-1898 

Curtis R. Newsom 1898-1901 

(Jeorge P. Weedman 1901-1904 

I*rincipals and assistants: 

Charles E. McClintock, principal. 
Ellas Rrewer, assistant principal. 

EnucATiny ;.y ;.vn;.i.v.i. sm 



High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
George P. Weedinan. L4itin and Physics. 
Charles E. McClIntoclc, History and Mathematics. 
Elias Brewer, English and Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

George P. WetMlnian, A. B., Indiana University: graduate Danville 
C. E. Mc(:iintocl«, principal hlgli scliool. undergraduate Indiana Uni- 
versity, one year a student there; one year a student in Franklin 
Elias Brewer, A. B., Indiana T^niversity: six years student of Indiana 
University; one year student State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 101 

Total enrollment in gn\d«'s and high school 500 

Numl)er of girls graduated last year (1003) 4 

Number of Ivoys graduated last year (1003) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 176 

Number of these who have attended college J50 

li, J. Dearborn, Superintendent. 

Organized, lS7r». Commissioned. 188(>. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Lee Tomlin 1873-1881 

Robert Duncan 1881-1883 

N. C. Johnson 1883-1888 

J. M. Robinson 1888-1890 

Josei)li Johnson 1800-1801 

J. L. Price 1801-18a3 

James II. Henry 180:j- 

F. D. Churchill 1803-1000 

J. F. Worsham 10(>!V1!K>2 

R, J. Dearborn 1002-1004 


A. G. Cato. 

High school teneliers and subjects they teaeli: 

A. G. Cato. MatluMnatics, Latin and Physics. 

Virginia Carr. English. Music. Bookkeeping. Physical (fCography. 

R. J. Dearborn, Botany. History. Physiolog.v. 

Average yearly salary of bigli school teachers, incliiding superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

A. G. Cato. A. B., Oakland City College: one term Chicago Univer- 
sity; life State license. 
Virginia Carr. Ph. B.. DePauw University. 

R. J. Dearborn, A. B., Indiana University: graduate Indiana State 
Normal S^chool. 



Enrollment In h'li^h school 69 

Total enroUmont in grades and high school 500 

Number of girls graduated last year (1008) None 

Number of boys graduated last year (1908) 4 

Numl)er in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 128 

Number of these who have attended college 20 


F. M. McC'onnell, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1894. Commissioned, 1902. 

H. H. Clark 1894-1896 

S. W. Satterilold 1896-1899 

Wm. Abel 1899-1902 

E. W. Bennett 1902-19a3 

F. M. McConnell 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. S. Hubbard 1896-1807 

Charles BroolvS 1899-1900 

J. W. Satterfield 1900-1901 

K. W. Bennett 1901-1902 

Cladce Courtney, assistant llHll-1902 

Edna Scomp, assistant 1902-1903 

A. T. Maylield 1903-1004 

Fannie O'Dell, assistant 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

F. M. McConneli. History, Physics. Algebra. 
A. T. Maytield. I^atin, Literature, (feometry. Botany. 
Fannie O'Dell, Latin. Algelna. Physics. 
Average yearly salary of higli school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

F. M. McConnell, Indiana State Normal. 
A. T. Mayfield, Indiana State Normal. 
Fannie O'Dell, Indiana State Normal. 

Enrollment in high scliool 42 

Total enrollment in grades and liigh scIiool 275 

XumlHM* of girls graduated last year (IIM):^) 4 

Number of Imys graduat<»d last year (lfX^.'J) 4 

Numl>er in tliis riass tliat went to college 

NumluM* of gniduatcs since scliool was organized No record 

Numl)er of these wlio liave attended college No record 


>[H>N- lIlNH SCfllMIL. 


M. S. Mahau, Superintendent. 

Organized, ISOli. Commissioned, 1887. 

Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

John M. Bloss 1870- 

Mr. Allen ! 

Mr. Sturgis -1875 

J. Ralph Burton 1875-1870 

J. C. Chilton 1880-1881 

G. M. Seott 1881-1885 

F. M. Stall^er 1885-188<5 

Mr. Smith 

Mr. Sutherlin 

RicJiard Park 1887-1888 

Mr. Relden 

J. F. Ingle 189018»» 

Rol)ert Troth 189G-1898 

C. E. SpauUling 1898-1902 

M. S. Mahan 1002-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
M. S. Mahan, Rotany, Algebra, Geometry. 
Edith Vail, Latin. English, Geometry. 
Mabel Graves, English, History, Civics. 

Average^ yearly salary of higli school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

M. S. Mahan, graduate Central Normal College, undergrnduiite Indi- 
ana University. 

Editli Vail, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Mabel Graves, undergraduate Indiana T'niversiry. 

KnroUment in high school 4;> 

Total enrollment in grades and higli school 350 

Number of girls graduated last vear (I'.MKi) 3 

Number of I)oys graduated hist year iVMKi) 4 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Xundier of grjuluatcs since school was organiz(*d ViT) 

Xnml)er of these who liavc attended college 2r> 

M. F. On'ar. Superintendent. 

OrgMniz<Hl. ISS."). Commissioned, 1S80. 

Superintendents, witli dntes of service: 

Alexander T. Reid 1880-1888 

Thomas L. Harris 1888-1880 

M. F. Orear 1889-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Nora E. Hunter 1892-1896 

Lura E. Grimes 1896-1897 

Eiizal>eth Hewson 1897-1900 


Mary Meek. 

E. G. Sutton. 
HIbIi acliool teacln-TB nnd subjects tbey teacli: 

Mar; Roberts, Latin. 

Selma A. Stemfel, Englisb and Germen. 

R G. Sutton, MatheiDiitlcs and Science. 

M. F. Orear, History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers. Including super In teudeut. 

Training of teachers: 

M. F. Orear. M. L., Mt. Sterling, Ky., College; postgraduate [ndtnnn 
University, one year. 

E. G. Sutton, B. S.. Purdue University. 

Seluia A. Stempel, A. B.. from Indiana University. 

Mjiry A. Itobcrts. A. B., from Indiana University. 

Enrollment In high school T3 

Total enrollment in grades and lilgU school 307 

Xnmlier of girls graduated last year (1003j 12 

Number of boys graduated Inst year (19C3) (i 

Xumber In this clas!) that went to college -I 

Number of griidimtes since school wns organized 133 

Nnmlier of tlieiie who have attended college 42 


if li 


Paoli High School. 



J. C. Brown, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1873. Commissioned, 1903. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. J. Copeland 1002-lJlO:i 

Principals and assistants: 

Bertha Ungle, principal. 

Ivin Batcheor, assistant. 
High school teachers and subjtH'ts they teach: 

J. C. Bown, Mathematics and Literature. 

Bertha IJngle, History, I^tin, Civics, Literature. 

J. W. Simmons, First >L'ithematics, Physical Geography. 
Average 3'early salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

J. C. Brown, graduate Hanover College; special work Chicago Uni- 

Bertha Linglo, graduate Indiana University. 

.1. W. Simmons, Danville Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 48 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 2(57 

Number of girls graduated Inst year (UK)3) 2 

Number of boys graduated last year (11MKS> 4 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized . 153 

Number of these who have attended college 51 


E. I). Allen, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1SS2. CommissiontHl, 18«r». 
Sui>erintendents. with dates of service: 

P. A. Itandall 1882-1885 

A. J. Beynolds 1885-1887 

J. I). White 1887-1892 

E. D. Allen 1892-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

H. F. Hunt. 

Grace Smith. 

Cj. L. l)e Vilbiss. 

S. B. Walker. 

Blanche P. Noel. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

E. D. Allen, superintendent. Science. 

<ft»orge L. De Vilbiss, principal. Mathematics. 

S. B. Walker, English and History. 

Blanche P. Noel, Latin and French. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 


TraiuiDj? of teachers: 

E. D. Alleu. B. S., Earlhain. 

George L. De Vilbi^s, A. B., Indiana University. 

S. B. Walker. 

B. P. Noel, A. B.. Butler; A. M., Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 120 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 400 

Graduates in 1903 19 

Number who went to college 6 

Total number of graduates 237 

Number who have attended college 40 


J. E. Beeson, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1893. Commissioned, 1JK)1. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. T. Knox 1900-1903 

J. B. Beeson 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

O. O. Emmons 1900-1901 

E. E. Emmons, assistant principal 1900-1904 

Morton Myers 1901-1903 

B. B. Baker 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

J. E. Beeson, Political Economy. Geometry, History, Physics and 

English Literature. 
B. B. Baker. American Literature, Chemistry. Latin. Geometry, His- 
E. E. Emmons. Algebra, Rhetoric, Physical Geography. 
Average 3'early salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

J. E. Beeson, IMi. B. and LL. B.. DePauw University. 
B. B. Baker, A. B. Ohio Normal University. 
E. E. Emmons. Marion Normal. 

Enrollment in higli school 38 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 224 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Nunii^er of boys graduated lust year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized (JO 

Number of these who have attendc^d college 10 



A. A. Campbell, Superintendent 

Organized, 18<»1. Conunissioned, . 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

G. G. Manning 1871-1892 

R. J. Stratford 1892-1808 

A. V:, Malsbury 1808-1901 

A. A. Campbell 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Miss Terry. 

Miss Brown. 

Mr. De Hooper. 

A. J. Dipboye. 

W. E. Henry. 

A. D. Moffett. 

Ia E. McCord. 

Mr. Armstronir. 

Victor Hedgopt^th. 

H. L. Hall. 

Ross Ix)ckridgo. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

R. F. Lockri(lg(», History. 

A. J. Reclman, Science. 

Thos. P. Berry. Latin. 

Lillian Bappert, English. 

Elizabeth Wilson, Mathematics. 

(George DenuiUi, Science and Mathematics. 

Grace Armitage. English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

TnUning of teachers: 

A. A. Cn nii>l)cll. University of Michigan. 

R. F. liockridge. Indiana rniversity. 

A. .1. UtHlmt)nd. Indiana University. 

Ellzal)eth Wilson. Indiana University. 

(irace Armitage. DePauw University. 

Lillian Happert. DePanw University. 

(Jeorge Demnth, DePauw T'niverslty. 

Tliomas lUTry. State XormnI and Indiana University. 

Enrollment in liigh scliool 2rW 

Total enrollment in grades and liigh school 1.828 

Number of giris graduated last year (lOOo) 26 

Number of hoys gradualed last year (11K>.'^») 18 

Number in tills elass tliat went to college 7 

Number of graduates since school was organized 492 

Number of these wlio liave attended college 60 



Sylvester Thompson, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1871. Commissioned, 1902. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

A. M. Bryant 1871-1872 

J. W. Wilson 1872-1874 

W. D. McSwain 1874-1878 

W. H. Link 1878-1S81 

A. C. Crouch 1881-1896 

W. H. Foreman 1895-1901 

Sylvester Thompson 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Sylvester Thompson. 

J. H. Risk. 

Welman Thrush. 

J. N. Risley. 

C. A. Coffey. 

Walter Freanor. 

J. B. Clatz. 
Hij?h school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Sylvester Thompson, Geometry and Physics. 

J. n. Risley, Latin, English History, Literature. 

C. A. Coffey, Science, Literature and Rhetoric. 

Walter Treanor, Algebra. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

Sylvester Thompson, B. S., Valparaiso, 

J. N. Risley, Indiana University. 

(\ A. Coffey, Indiana University. 

Winter Freanor, undergraduate, Valparaiso. 

Number in liigh scliool 70 

Total enrollment in grades and high school (>03 

Number of girls graduated last year (lO'i.'l) 1 

Number of boys graduated last year (190't) 1 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 75 

Number of these who have attended college 30 

F. F. Vale, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1870. Commissioned, 1903. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

C. P. Hodge 1870-1872 

I. M. Gross 1872-1874 

O. W. Miller. 18741875 

John H. Lewis 1875-187G 

Mary Sanders .\%1<J$>-^%T\ 


M. P. Scott 1877-1878 

W. J. Spear 1878-1881 

Frank McAlpine 1881-1883 

B. J. McAlpine.. 188S-1887 

Byron McAlpine 1887-1889 

H. J. Gardner 1889-1890 

J. B. McDaniel 1890-1892 

H. B. Cole 1892-1893 

Wm. Bisenman 1893-1897 

Chas. W. Egner 1897-1903 

F. F. Vale 1908-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
F. F. Vale. 
Bertha Sweue}'. 
High school teacliers and subjects they teach: 

F. F. Vale. Orthoepy, Civics, Geometry, Algebra, Latin, Bookkeeping, 

Bertha Sweney, Algebra. History, Composition, Rhetoric, Music, 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

F. F. Vale. National Normal TTnlversity. 

Hertha Sweney, undergraduate Indiana State Normal. 

Fnrollnient in high school 37 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 220 

Number of girls graduated last year (llX):b 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (lfK)3) 2 

Number In this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 70 

Number of these who have attended college 7 


U. A. Randall, Superintendent. 

Organized, 187«). Commissioned, 1880. 
Superintendt»nts. with dates of service: 

U. A. Chase 1871-1903 

U. A. Randall 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

D. F. Redd. 

Kmma Chesney. 

T. B. Carey. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

D. F. Redd, Science. 

Bmma Chesney. Language. 

Alice Mertz, English and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 


Training of teachers: 

D. F. Redd, Ashlnnd, Ohio, two and ono-lialf years; Indiana State 
Normal, one year; Indiana University, one term. 

diana University, one term. 

ETmma Chesncy, A. B., Kalamazoo College. 

Alice Mertz, Indiana State Normal; A. B., Indiana University. 

R. A. Randall, Michigan State Normal; B. S., University of Michigan. 

Enrollment in high school 118 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 801 

Number of girls graduated last year (1003) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1003) 6 

Number in this class that went to college v 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 200 

Nunilwr of these who have attended college 50 

Hale Bradt, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1876. Commissioned, 1870. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Mr. Hastings -1878 

W. C. Ilasthigs 1878-1880 

Mr. McAlpine 1880-1881 

Morgan Caroway 1881-1884 

W. W. Wirt 1884-1887 

H. W. Bowers 1887-1802 

C. L. Hottel 1802-1808 

J. E. Neff 1808-1800 

E. F. Dyer 1800-1001 

J. A. Hill 1001-1002 

Halt Bradt 1J)02-1004 

Principals and assistants: 

W. C. Hastings 

El wood Haynes -1884 

Frank Harris 1884-1885 

K. Van Dermarten 18a5-1887 

C. M. McDaniel 1885-1802 

G. W. Meckel 1802-1803 

J. S. Axtell 18a3-1804 

J. E. Neff 1804-1808 

Mr. Tyler 1808-1800 

E. W. Griffith 1800-1001 

H. W. Bowers 1001-1002 

H. H. Journay • 1002-1004 

High school teachers and sul)joct8 they teach: 
H. H. Journay, Mathematics. 
E. W. Cox, History. 
Evelyn Butler, English. 
Henrietta Hyslop, Language. 
Hale Bradt Science. 


Average 3'early salary of lii^li school teachers, includlnfir snperintendeDt, 

Training of teachers: 

H. H. Journay. A. B.. from Ohio Northern University: also three 
years as undergraduate student at Indiana University. 

E. W. Cox. A.B., from Angola Normal and three years* work done at 
Indiana University. 

Evelyn Butler. A.B.. from Hutler CoUege: two terms of post graduate 
work at Chicago University and Wisconsin University. 

Henrietta Hyslop. A.B.. from Indiana University; two terms of post 
graduate work. 

Enrollment in high scliool 125 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1.220 

Nunibor of girls graduated last year (lOOCii 17 

Number of Imys graduated last year ilf>03» 7 

Number in tliis that went to college 

Numl)er of graduates since school was organized 247 

Number of these who have attendcnl college 125 

Harold Barnes, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1871. Commissioned, 18D2. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

D. Eckley Hunter 1871-1874 

A. J. Snoke 1874-1890 

F. B. Dresslar 1800-1891 

C. N. Peak 1801-1903 

Harold Barnes 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
Anna M. Small. 
Lizzie Ilorney. 
Ella Waldo. 
M. O. Andrews. 
.Josephine Bruce. 
.John A. Ramsey. 
Lida Powers. 
Kuth Gentry. 
Louisa Ko(»Iiler. 
S. V. McOea. 
.L C. Hall. 
T. G. Rees. 
Ida V. Welsli. 
F. B. Dresslar. 
II. W. Mimical. 
J. H. Edwards. 
Hiram Huston. 
W. F. Book. 
R. S. Munfonl. 


Pbinceton High Schooi^. 


High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

K. S. Munford, principal, Sciences. 

Lillian Carter, Latin and Botany. 

A^nes Bross, German and Latin. 

Madeline Norton, History. 

Forrest E. I^mt, Knglish. 

Marjjaret Morgan, Mathematics. 

Klma Boyd, Commercial Branches. 

Anna M. L^-ndall, Music. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Roderick S. Munford. A.B., Monmouth- College. 

Lillian Carter, A.B., Indiana University. 

Agnes Bross, A.B., Wisconsin University. 

Margaret Morgan, A.B., Ohio Weslcyan. 

Forest E. Lunt, A.B.. Tuft's C^ollege. 

Madeline Norton, A.B.. Indiana University. 

Elma Boyd, graduate EvansviHe Commercial Colh»ge. 

Harold Barnes, A.B., Kansas University. 

Enrollment in high school 179 

Total enrollment in grades and high sc1ick»1 lA'iA^ 

Number of girls graduated last year (ltM»3> 11 

Num!)er of l)oys graduated last year (19(»3) 8 

Number in tliis class tliat went to college 8 

Numlier of graduates since school was organized 310 

Number of those who have attended college Unknown 

J. E. Orr. Superintendent. 

Organized. ISiH. Comnnssioned. ISiM). 

Superintendents, witJi dates of service: 

W. L. Morgan 18!»3-18Sr» 

W. A. Wirt 1805-1897 

George E. Dee 1897-1808 

W. I>. (Miam)>ers 1898-1000 

J. E. Orr 1900-1004 

IMincipals and assistants: 
W. A. Wirt. 
(Jeorge E. Dee. 
(i. V. Chenoweth. 
C. E. Wilson. 
N. W. Bortner. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

J. E. Orr, Latin. Geometry, English. History. 

H. W. Bortner. Algebra. Geometry, History. English. Science. 

Average yearly salary of liigh school teachers. Including superintendent, 


Training of teachers: 

J. E. Orr, A.B., Central Normal, Danville, and undergraduate Uni- 
versity of Chicago. 

H. W. Bortner, undergraduate Central Normal College. Danville, Ind. 

Enrollment in high school 3G 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 421 

Numl)er of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 

Xuml>er in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 37 

Number of these who have attended college Unknown 


J. N. Spangler, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1875. Commissioned, 1888. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

L. N. Fonts iaS4-1887 

J. C. Diclcerson , 1887-1892 

Alfred H. BehhMi 1892-1893 

Wm. R. Murpliy 1893-1901 

M. R. Marshall 1901-1903 

J. N. Spangler 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. N. Spangler 1889-1890 

Mary A. Johnson 1890-1892 

Wm. R. Murpliy 1892-1893 

R. M. Vanatta 1893-1895 

Mark Helm 1895-1890 

Jolin X. Johnson 1890-1898 

M. R. Marshall 1898-1901 

(Jeorgo E. Mitchell 1901-1903 

Ira B. Rinker * 1!>1)3-1904 

High school teachers and sulv'ects thej' teach: 

J. N. Spangler. Geometry, Botany and Algebra. 
Ira P. Rinker, English, Chemistry and Bookkeeping. 
Ionise Ford, History and Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers. Including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

J. N. Spangler. A.B. from Indiana University, and A.M. from Uni- 
versity of Illinois. 
I. P. Rinker, A.B., Indiana University. 
Louise Ford, A.B.. Earlham College. 

Enrollment in liigh school 47 

Total enrollment In grades and liigh school 255 

Number of girls gi*aduated last year (1903) 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized VXIV 

Number of these who have attended college ^ 



W. H. Sanders, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1877. Commissioned, 1885. 
Superintendents, with dat€»s of sorvlee: 

G. W. Allen 1877-1880 

Wni. D. M. Hooper 1880-1882 

C. P. Mitchell 1882-1884 

v. N. Kirsch 1884-1885 

F. W. Ueubelt. 1885-1890 

H. L. Wilson 1890-1892 

E. W. Kohaunon 1892-1895 

W. II. Sanders 1895-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Margaret Hill. 

Edgar Taylor. 

H. L. Wilson. 

S. E. Sparling. 

Harry (). Wise. 

E. W. Retger. 

A. H. Purdue. 

Tliomjis Large. 

E. O. Holland. 

1. U. Warren. 

Wni. T. McCoy. 

W. O. Hiatt. 
High school teadiers and subjects they teach: 

W. O. Hiatt, principal, Matlienialics nnd Physics. 

T. J. Headlee. Science. 

E. K. Brooks, Mathematics. 

H. II. Hmss, History. 

Helen Wasson, Knglish nnd Latin. 

Effie Warvelle, Englisli. 

Maude E. Allen, Latin and German. 
Average yearly salary of higli school teach{»rs, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

W. H. Sanders. M.A., Indiana University. 

W. O. Hiatt, A.H.. Indiana University. 

T. J. Headlee, A.M., Indiana University. 

E. E. Itrool^s. graduate State Normal. 

Miss Maude E. Allen, A.H.. Michigan University. 

Miss Effie Warvelle. H.S.. University of Chicago. 

Miss Helen Wasson. graduate State Normal. 

Mr. H. II. Bass, M. A.. Wisconsin University. 

Enrollment in high school 100 

Total enrollment in gi-ades and high school 650 

Number of girls graduated last year (lOOrV) 14 

Number of boys graduated last year (1003) 6 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of ^'aduates since sc\\oo\ was OT^vmV?*^^^ 213 

Number of these who have attoivdeW coW^v^e vsa^ 


Remi.nmton Hh;h W'iiooi.. 

ItlSINC! SIN 111! 

[ s;' 

11. [,. TliHiHiiil, SuiiiTiiin-iiilcnt. 
<>ri.-niilxi-ii. ^^<■;T,. ri>iiiiiiiKHii>]i<tt. issii. 
Hii|)iTliiri-uili-(ilN. Willi iliiliw or MfTvlf.-: 

r. I'. stiiiiK iNT-vis,-*-, 

s. s. OviTluilt i,s.s:;-iss: 

K. IC. StfVl'llH'.ii 1.'<'C,-IM1K 

.1. 11. l■^■lllw i.s!rj.isii: 


It. I,. ThielmiHl l.SH!i-l!Mi- 

ri-lin-l|ial iinil iitislstiiul: 

I't-rry CjiiitieW. |.rim'iii:il, 

I-:. Burke Klf.Ts. !isniMtiiiit |)riii(il""l- 

lllgll Sl'lKHll tl'llClllTH lUlll suliji'cis llll'.V ll':ll-li: 

IC. I.. Tilll-liiuiil. «iii>irriitilliliiit, I^llin mill lli-imii-lry. 
I'eiTj- CiinlU'Iil, |>i'iiii-ii)iil. KiiKliKli. Si'li'jii'i' iiml l.iirlii. 
E. Iturki' KlftTH. jisslMliint iii-lii.-i|i;il. Hislciry. .\Ij;i'1ii-n iiini Kiiclisli, 
Av.TjiKf j-<>iirly wiliiry i>f lii^'li wrtioul i.^aiOnTs. Itic'liuliiiu; sii[" 

B—Kdbba now. 


Training of teachers: 

R. L. Thiebaud, superintendent. Normal Training, two years; Uni- 
versity, two terms; Moores Hill College, one term. 

Perry Cantield, principal, two years, ei^llege. 

E. B. Klfers, assistant prineii)al, university, four years. 

Enrollment in high school 80 

Total enrollment in grades and high school liSO 

Number of girls graduated last year (19(>3) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (19<>3) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since s^'hool was organized 248 

Number of these who have attended college 72 

T. A. Mott, Superintendent. 

Organized, IStU. Commi.»<sioned, . 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Josiah H. Hurty 18o5-1837 

William 1). Henkle i8r»7-1858 

(}CK)rge H. (^rant 1858-18t;il 

George P. Brown 18IKM8G4 

Jesse II. Brown 1804-1865 

\Vm. A. Bell 18«5-18lJ7 

George P. Brown 1807-18f;9 

James McNeill 1809-1873 

John Cooper 1873-1881 

Jacob A. Zeller 1881-1884 

Justin Study 18S4-180G 

T. A. Mott 1890-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teacli: 

I). R. Ellabargar, principal. Department of Mathematics. 

Bertha K. Hawkins, Mathematics. 

V. Iv. Torrence, Mat liema tics. 

Carolina Stahl. Department of (icrnian. 

Elma Nolte, Latin and (ierman. 

M. A. Stubl)s. DepartmfMit of Latin. 

W. A. Fiske. Department of Physical Sciences. 

Katherine F. S<hat»fer, l^Tiiglish and Pliysical Sciences. 

J. F. Thomp.son. Department of Biological Sciences. 

C. Augusta Mering. DepMrtnicnt of English. 

W. S. Davis, Department of History. 

Carrie Price, Department of Drawing. 

Will Earhart, Department of Music. 

Average yearly salary of liigh school teac'liers. including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

Daniel R. Ellabarger. A. B.. principal. Indiana State University. 
Mary A. Stul)bs. A.M.. Earlliam College. 
Carolina Stahl, stud\ed \\\ Fawovv. 


VAma J.. Noltf. I'li.It.. Kiiilliiiiii Colli'P'. 

i\ AiiKiixtii sr.'ritiir. A.M.. Kiirlliiini c.ill.'nf- 

\V. S. Iiiivis, A.M., CliiiiiKo I'lilveiHlty uixl DcFiiinv Colloue. 

Kliziitx-tli Ci.iiistm'k. It.l... iTiilitiiiii Ktiltf riiivfrHlty. 

J. I'. Tlii>iii]>siiii. M.S.. Aili'iiiii. Mli'h. 

W. A. t'iskf, A.M., lH-riiuw iTiiviTHEIy. 

KJillH-riiiH F. SrliiifftT. A.B.. liKllnnii Stutv fiilv.THlt.v. 

BtTtliii K. lEiiwkliis. A.M., InilliMia Stilt.- UiiIvcmH.v. 

Ciinilini' R I'rice. nf'ii'lutitp MjiNSiiclmscltK Xoruiiil Arl OoII.-kp. 

Will Kiirliiit't. Mtmliiil in Kiiriiiif. 

til I roll men t in lilirli HciionI 

Toliil tnri>lliiifiit in ci'.iiIi-h iind IiIkIl kcIiouI 1 

Xnmb.T of cirlH Rrmliniteil insl yciir (llXWi 

Nnmlifi- of Iki.vm ki'ikIhsiIiiI idst yi-ar (liMH 

NnmluT III tlilM ciiiHs iliiii went lo (■i)ll.>j:e 

Xnniln-r nf erii'Iniili-x kIiu.- hi-IuxiI whh iirKiiiilKiil 

NuiiiluT i>r tlii'S.' win. Ii:lvr iillMiili-il cdIIcki- 

RiuHMONO HI(;h School. 



(Miarli's W. Dodson, Siiporiiitendont. 

Orj^anizod. 1SJ)4. ('oniiiilssicHU'd, 1!M)2. 
SuptTlnttMideiits. with dates of service: 

VaIwUx C. Dodson 1001-1903 

Clias. W. I)(Klson 1903-1904 

Principal and assistant: 

Nora Lockridj^e, principal. 

Charles McCJanghey, assistant. 
Hijfh school teachers and subjects tliey teach: 

Cha.s. W. Dodson. Mathematics and Science. 

Nora l/ockrid^e. Latin, English and Literature. 

(^has. Mc(ianghey, History. 
Averajre yearly salary of hijjrh school teachers, including superintendent. 

*p. >.>>>.•>.». 
Trainin^c of teachers: 

Charles W. Dodson. Indiaiui State Normal: Chicago University. 

Nora loockri^lj^c*. two years* preparatory work. DePninv. 

(■harles ^Ic(Jauj::hey, I>eranw. two years. 

Enrollment in hijrh school CA 

Total enrollment in j^rades and hijrh school 231 

Number of girls gra<lnated last year (llM»:b •. . . 7 

Xundier of boys graduated last year (1!XK») 1 

Number in this <*lass that w«Mit to colh^ge 4 

Numb(M* of graduates since school was commissiouvl V\ 

Numl»cr of thcs«» wh(» have attcndiHl college i) 


RoAi'HUALE HioH School. 

llllill SCIIOOI.. 


Nobli- iriii-lcr I8!i;MK!>.-| 

Tli»M. Iti-rry 1«!I3-1«17 

lli'iiry Uii.iieii-it.ll 1H!17-1K!1!P 

Wllliiim Kis.>uiiiiin ISliiHiwii 

(■lJ■(ll^ L. WiiuomT IIMMMWH 

][. F. Illilc'k 1!HI1-1!HI:! 

J. C. Iteyiuil-ls l!Mr_'-l',)(i4 

ndiDkls iiiKl iiHslsCinls: 

KiinTsiiii Cliiytiiii. 
rr,i (;:li. 
II. It. Youhk. 
II. !•'. llliK'k. 

.1. II. lH'IIUfT, 

A. I. ItfhiJi. 
C. \V. Bofldii. 
:h sclHMil tcjii-lU'i-s jiLiil siiLlfHs tln'y 
J. C. It.'ymJds. Ili.-iinry jiu.l I'liysliii 
A. I. Iti'liiii. Liillii iiiKl KiikIIhIi. 
0. W. ItiitkJii. MiilIii-iii:iU<-x mill i<i'V 


\\vn\iio yearly salary of lii^li s<*liool toa«*lu*rs, iiu'ludin^ suporlntcMuifiit. 

Traininjr of toarhors: 

(\>IIo^<> aTid normal training, all. 

Knrollim'iit in hijjli school 54 

Total oin-ollnicnt in ^rradrs and hi^li si-lnnd 2-17 

Nnnibcr of jrirls ;j:radnat(>d last yoar (UMKl^ H 

XnnilMT of boys ;;radnat(Ml last year tllKKii '2 

NnniluT of jrradnatcs sinrr school was orjranizcd 7t» 

Nnnibcr of these who have atten<l(Ml <'ollej^e .*tt 

Will T. LanilxTt. Snperintendent. 

Orpmized. 1S1»:{. ('otninission(>d, 1IM>4. 

Snperintendent s. witli dates of service: 

Thomas Larj:e 1«>;MSJM 

('. I). Brock ISlM-llMin 

Will T. Land)ert llKKVlfHH 


W. F. Ilnston. 

ii.^li school tea<-hers and snhects they tea<-h: 

W. F. Hnston, Alp'bra. Knv:lish. History. Civics. Botany. 
Will T. LanduM-t. Latin. (Jeometry. Physics. 

Averajre yearly salary of hi^jh school teachers, including superiQtondont. 

Training: of teachcM's: 

W. F. Hnston. ^rrjsdnate Ktate Normal. 

Will T. Lambert. \nid<*r^radnat<' Farlham Collejce. 

Enrollment in hi^h scliool 41 

Tot.d enrollment in irrades ami hi;;h s<'hool 22r» 

Number of jrirls ;rradnat<'d last year (llnKb r> 

Ntnnlier of boys jrradnated last year (IJHKb O 

Number in this <-lass that went to (M>llejre 1 

Nmnber of ^^radnaies since sclnml was or^ranized Mi 

Number of lhes<' wlio liave attended <'olle;;e 11 


BOAi^N HiQB School. 


\K T. I'owiTs. Siii»oriiitomlont. 

OriraiiizMl. 1.n7«». (*oininisv;ioin'<l. 1SS4. 

SujirriiitiMHltMits. wiili dntrs of <i»rv!r<': 

W. J Williams 1872-1881 

W. II. Wanl 1881-18S2 

Jaiiirs F. Snill 1882-10l« 

I>. T. r<»w«Ts 11X«-11»1M 

rriiiripa! aii<l assistant: 

O. A. Joliiison. priiu'ipal. 

Ili^rli .srliool ti'aclHTs and siiircM-ts tlu*y tt*a<*li: 
(). A. Jolnisori, Sci«'nrr. 

Ann«'tti' PowtTs. History and MatluMuatics. 
Marjrarrt lliiirs. Kn^lisli. 
Mary H. I><-nny. Latin and (lornian. 

Avcra;r<* yearly salary of lii;rh srhool ti*a<-lKTs. int'ludinj; suporintoiident. 

Traininji; of tcacln'rs: 

\>. T. IN»wcrs. Indiana Statt' Normal: Indiana State I'lilverslty. 

(). A. Jidnison. Jmiior Indiana State ruiversity: j:radiiale of Val- 
paraiso Collejje. 

Annette Towers, ^radinite Indiana State Normal. 

Margaret Iliin^. ^radnate Indiana State Normal. 

Mary U. Denny, graduate I>el*ainv Fniversity. 

Knrollment in hi;;li seliool Hi2 

'I'olal em'ollmeiit in jrrades and hi^li selniol iri4 

Ninnber of Kirls ;;raduated last year (lIMiri^ 2 

NnmlK»r of lioys ^rradiiated last year (l!>!K*o 7 

Nnndier in this class tliat went to eolh»jre 2 

The e<Mlej;es to whieli tliese went with number of oneh: 

KochestiM* Normal ( 'ollejrt* 1 

Turdue Fniversity 1 

NundM'r of graduates since s<*hool was orj^anized 170 

Nnmlier of tliese who havt? atteniled colh»j;e 35 


F. S. Morjren thaler, Sujierinteiident. 

Organized, unknown. ('<:mmlssloiu'd. llHrj. 
Supcrinlendcnls. witii dates of service: 

A. 11. Kennedy 187S-1889 

Viry:il McKni-ht 1888-1891 

.1. II. 'I'«»mlin 1891-18M 

F. S. Mor;:enthjiler 1894-1904 

Fi'lncipals and assistants: 

.1. II. 1>. Lo;!;Mn. 

i\ L. rulliam. 

II. L. Mali. 

(). P. Foreman. 

(I. r. Wecdman. 

.1. I*. Uicliards. 

Klfrr.vnny /.v /.v/'/.i.v.i. 

Iinni liM.liiTS !lliil lluy l.-.i. :i: 

I'. Ki'Imnls. S<'i<-lli'i- ;lll<l<'[:ltl]|-i'. 

Irll M<>l'(r:ltl. M;ini<-Illiirl<-s. 

IK'S M>'('n':il-.v. I.iiliii iinil Kliixlisli. 

■ y.Mrly s;il;ir.v ..f lii;;li s.'lii.i.l iiM. lives. iii.-lii.liiiK slip.'! 

Nllll s 

I'. ItlHi.-intN. In>li:itiii Suit.' N.n-iii:il. Tii.vl.ii- fiiiv 
li'll M-il-Bllli. Il.'tlinli.v r..|I..K... Kiiisus. 
w» Mirn-iiiy. UlHTliii. (». 

I'lll ill IllKll S<-ll.Hll 

Ii-.>lltii<'ii1 ill ;;niil.'S ^iii.l liiuli s<'li:ii>l 

c.r ^'irls j:r:i.lii!itiil lii-i yi>:Lr il'mrli 

.If iH.ys unnliiiit.'.! Inst y.'rir ilimri. 

XullllilT ill lliis l-liiss Hi: 

.\iitttlH>r .if ^'ni.liiiili'S s 







---y r 

'I'l ~ ■" T TT* ''TT- 

i^ uy ^ ' '' "^ 

rfl*.!:!!* ■ i_|' ^^afcfcl-l 



O. II. Blossom, Superintendent. 

Organized, 187G. CoinmissioiUHl, 1890. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

Mr. Craig 1876-1888 

L. H. Hadley 1888-1892 

John A. Miller 1892-1893 

J. N. Spangler 1893-1890 

J. F. Thornton 1896-1902 

O. H. Blossom 1902-1904 

Principal and assistants: 

Miss H. Hinkle. 

Clara Van Nuys. 

Georgia Byer. 

Delia Brown. 

Georgia Bowman. 

Lillian Snyder. 

O. H. Blossom. 

May Walmsley. 
High school teachers and subjects they teacli: 

O. H. Blossom, superintendent, Science. 

May Walmsley, principal, History, English, German. 

Nellie F. Wallcer, Latin and Mathematics. 

Mary Sandburg. English and Music. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

O. II. Blossom, A.B., Indiana University. 

May Walmsley, A.B., Micldgan University. 

Nellie Walker, A.B., DePauw University. 

Mary Sandlmrg, undergraduate of Cidcago University. 

Enrollment in higli school 100 

Total enrollment in grades and higli s(*hool 450 

Number of girls graduated last year (IJKKi) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (1J)03) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 6 

Numi)er of graduates since scliool was organized 226 

Number of these who have attended colelge 75 


A. G. McGregor. Superintendent. * 

Organized, 1869. Commissioned, 10(W. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

David Graham 1809-1888 

Cyrus W. Hodgin 1888-1884 

James Baldwin 1884-1886 

E. H. Butler 1888-1888 

Samuel Abercrombie .1893-1900 

A. G. McGregor .^a^WH 



PritK-Lpild nud nsxlstanta: 

Mrs. R. A. Mi.fri'tt 1872-188fi 

Mnrj- HfnU'.v 1886-1888 

Mary 1). UolU 1888-1889 

Snmucl AlMTcronililc I881HS1K! 

Mr. Mnsters IHIKt- 

Aiiiia B. CulllnB 1893-1895 

W. C. Bnnihart 18Ki-l!»00 

H. B. Wilson 1900-11)03 

H%li Kfliool tyaclierw and siibji'i-tM tht'j" teiieh: 
A. F. Stewart, Mnt hematics. 
Uartba B. Lacy, HiBtory and German. 
Winifred Muir, EnKllflli. 
T, A. CrnlK, Science, 
luez Abbott, Lnlln. 
Average yenrly sulnry of IiIkIi hcIiouI lencherR, Including superintendent, 

Enrollment In high scliool 151 

Totnl enrollment In ernden and high school 84S 

Nnmher of girls graduflte<l Inst year (1903) n 

Nnmlier of Ijoys gnidnntcil last year (10(01 R 

Nnmlicr In llils clnHs that went to college 4 

Nnnilier of graduntes since whool wan orgnnlae*! 20(i 

Number of these who Iiiive iittended collette 70 




Lotus 1). ColTiiian. Superliitoiulont. 

t)i;:aiiix<ul, IST'J. CouiinissloiKMl, ISSL 
SuiKTiutnult'iits. with dntts of service: 

.laiiics i\. .May 1S72-1874 

William RiisspH 1S74-18T7 

J. A. Wood lS77-lSSri 

L<aac Ilrid^rman issr>-188!> 

\V. S. Almond 18Sl>-lSl)a 

Cliarlrs K. Morris ISiKMSJW 

IL IV Wilson 1808-1U()2 

L. 1). CofTmaii 11MI2-I!>t»4 

I'riiicipals and assistants: 

A. H. Wrijrlit. jirincipal. 
Ili^li school teachers and snh <'cts they t('a<*h: 

A. \\. Wright. i)rincipal. >L'ithcmatics and S<-icnco. 
Myrth' K. Mitchell. Kn^disli and History. 
L. L. Hall. Latin. S<-ienc(». M.athematics. 
(Jrace Sutherlin. Kn^rlisli I and L"i;;hth <Jra(le. 
L. 1>. ColTnian. Latin and Mathematics. 
Averajre yearly salary of hij^li s<-liool teachers, including super) ntendont. 

Traininj; of teachers: 

Lotus 1>. ColTman. irraduate Indiana State Normal and undorjrrad- 

uj.te in Chicaj^o and Indiana I'niversitius. 
A. 15. Wrijrht, one year in Franklin Collejire, j»:radiiate of Indiana State 

Normal; nnderirradnal<» at Indiana University. 
Afyrtle K. Mitchell, A.T... Indiana University. 
L. L. Hall, Indiana State Normal. 
Gra(M^ Sutherlin, .Iiuiior at Indiana State Normal. 

Knrollment in hijirli school 105 

Total enrollmcMit in grades and hijrh si'hool 48S 

Nundier of jrirls ;;raduated last year (llMKlt 7 

Num1>er of hoys jrraduated last year (llNKJi 4 

.Vumber in this class that W(?nt to colleji:(» 4 

NttndM'r of jrrailuates sinc(» school was ori:anizt>d '2fi)\ 

Nund»er of these who havt* attendtHl collejre 80 



11. C. Montgomery, 8iii>»rintondeut. 

0:-^Miilzt'(l, ISTO. CoiniJiissioiuHl, 187.S. 
Superintendents, with dates of servieo: 

J. C. llouselveeper 1S70-1872 

J. W. (^aldweli 1872-1880 

W. K. Wood 18801802 

11. C. Montjroniery 18f)2-llM>4 

Prineipjils and assistants: 

Eliza1)etli (Jranel. 

J. M. Caress. 

H. C Montgomery. 

.Nda Franlc. 

T. K. Sanders. 

J. E. (traham. 

Frances Branaman. 
Uigli school teachers and suljjects tlH\v teach: 

J. K. (traliam, History and Civics. 

Fraii<-es Hrauaman. Science and Matliematics. 

Katlicrine 15. Jackson, (ierman and Al.i;eljra. 

Aniia T^. Hancock. Latin and Eh'ctives. 

Ajrnes L. Andrews, En.irlish Literature*. 

EhMithera V. Davison. Composition and History. 
Averaji:e yearly sahiry of hi^li s<'liool teacliers, includin^x sui)eriutendent. 

Training of teachers: 

H. C. ^lont^omery, A.H., Hanover C^iHe^re: A.M., l^iiiversity of 

J. E. (iraham, graduate (\Mitral Normal College; Butler College, one 

Frances Branaman, several years at Indiana T'nlversity and other 

Katherine B. Jackson, stmh'ut Indiana University, and one year 

Berlin, Germany. 
Anna L. Hancock, A.B.. Indiami University. 
Agues L. Andrews. A.B., the \V<'st<Tn CoUege Oxford O. 
Eleuthera V. Davisijn, A.B.. the Western College. O-fo -^ (). 

Enrollment in high school 15<) 

Total enrollment in grades and high school . 1,2<K) 

Number of girls gi'aduated Ijist year (llHKi) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (lIM):i> 10 

Nniidier in this class tliat went to college 4 

NumluT of graduates since school was organized .*»2H 

Number of these who have attended college 05 






J. If. Toiulin, SuiuM'iiitoiulont. 

Organized. isij4. (\miniissHHHHl. ISHl'. 
Siiperintoiulruts. with thitos of sorvici»: 

L. C. PnKo 

W. II. Kortich 

.1. ('. Kajyrle 

J. H. Toiiilin 

No oxart data pri<n' to isTri. 
Principals and assistants: 

I>. O. Coatc. principal hi^h school. , 

llijrh school teachers and subjects they t(»a<*h: 

l>. O. Toate. principal and p'neral assistant. 

.lanie l)oniin;j. Science. 

Clara .1. Mitchell. History an<l Kn^'lish. 

.Mary L. Isley. Matlu'niatics. 

.1. H. Henke. Latin. 
Avera;:*' yearly salary of hi^h school teachers, includinj? super! iiteiKlent. 

Training of teachers: 

I). O. r<»afe. A.H.. Indiana I'niversity. 

Clara J. .Mitchell. A.M.. Indiana Cniversity. 

.1. H. Ih'nke. A. 15.. Indiana rniversity. 

Km'ollnHMit in hij::h school 

Total enrollnuMit In j^raih's an^l hijrh scIhmiI 

Nnniher of ;,'irls ;rradua(ed last year (llNKii 

Number of hoys graduated last year <ltM»:h 

Nundwr in this class thai went to college 

Xuinher of Kra<luates since school was oi-jrjiid/.rd 
Nuinher of th<*se who have attended colleire. . . . 







Shelby VI LLE High School. 



O. H. (irifsl. Sunorintt'iuh'iit. 

Orgniiizcd, IHU'2. CuiiuuissioiU'd. INJKS. 
SiUKTintondoiits. with datt's of stTviic: 

W. V. Moffctt. 

(;. W. Wriy:ht. 

W. R HouKlitun. 

Z. B. Lt'uiijird. 

W. A. M.VtM'K. 

W. A. l?()wnijui. 

O. H. GiTist. 
PriiiciiKils aiul assistants: 

J. M. Twitty. 

.Mrs. Z. n. L(*o!iard. 

Marf^ucrito Meyer. 

Mabel Yeime, 
Hljrli scliuol tearhers and snbjects tliey teacHi: 

(). H. (Jreist, MallK'iiiatlcs. Silence, Advanced Latin. 

Mabel Yenne, Be^nnnin;; Latin. Lileratnie and History. 
Average yearly salary of high seh(»ol teachers, including superiutendent. 

Training of tcacliers: 

(). H. <;relst, Wabash. 

Mabel Yeinie. Ph.D., Del'anw. 

Knrollinent in high scliool 30 

T<»tal enrollment in grades and high sclionl 288 

Nuinlier of girls gi'aduated last year (llMK^t 1 

XnnilM»r of boys graduated last year (llMi;{) 1 

Nuniljer in this class tliat went to college 

Number of graduates since scIkmiI was organized 35 

Number of these who have attemUnl college 13 

Alirahatn Bowers, Sui)erintendent. 

Organiz4.Hl, 1NS7. ComiuissioiuMl. lirst 1S1>7: last. lt>02. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

T. L. Harris 1887-1888 

C. A. Petersun 1888-1892 

David Wells 1802-1805 

M. H. Stuart 1805-1800 

( '. L. Mendenhall 1800^1003 

Alu-aham Bowers 1903-1004 

ll^rlncijials and a.ssistants: 

W. I^ Shoenial\er. principal high sclimd. 

Jesse L. Harvey, iirincipal I'Mrst Ward grade scliools. 

Miss Daisy Tipton, principal Second Ward grade scliools. 

Iligli school tc^acliers and sul)iects tliev teacli: 

Abraliam Bowers, superintendent. (Jernian A and B. Ciesur. 


W. II. Slioi'imiker. Ku;i;liMli HlHtm-.v, Algt-Uni. (ifumi'lry, I'll; 

\V. II. Hill. Ijitiii, I'liysioBTUiiIiy, EukIIhIi. HoiikkeciHlij.-. 
Miss Kuthri'iiK.' IIoITuiiuu EiikHhIi, i'liiTu. Al^'(.'lll'a. 
(Jforge W. Sfori. Civil Cuvuriinicut. AdvHiicvd A litU luetic, An 

T. S. Harris. I.ecluivr lii AiiwrUiiii Hiwtory. 
Av('ni;;e yciirly siiliiry of liigli scliuol U-;K'licrK. liii-lutlltiu MUiii-riiiti'ii 

TraiuluK of IcarherH: 

Alirnlmm Bowits, Huiwrliitcudi'iit, UiiivtTsity of t'lilcugo, Ti ypjir 

\V. U. .SliiH-tiuik<>i'. \.U.. i>riii<'l|)(il liiKti sdim'l. Imlliiiia Uiilv<-t's 

\V. H. Hill, grndiiiitt! IiuUiina Slali' Noiiiml. 

(ieoi'nc W. Scott, varluiiH Doriiials. coiirxp liifimiplote. 

T. I,. Hjin-ls, A.B„ Harviird rulvi'rult.v. Uiiivi>rnity ot Iniliaiiu. 

.Miss KutbL>ritiL> IloITiutin. SlivrUliiii IIIkIi S.Ikh.I. 

EiiroIliiK'iit ill IiIkIi isi'liool 

Tiita! I'uroUmi'iit In gi'aili'K iiiiil tiluh W'liool 

NiiuilHT uf (ilil-s KraaimtCHl Inst year (1!M«) 

NiiiiiluT of [hj.vs •.TaJuatfd last year (llXKtj 

NiiiulMT In this ,-liiHs tbat went to coIli-BC 

Niimljcr of nmdunlcw sinrt" SfhiH)l was orpiiiliSdl 

Niiiiilicr (it Ilii'He wlio liavo attcmlcil <-cillPC(> 

Shekioan Hich School. 


SOUTH bf:nd high school. 

Calvin Moon. Superintendent. 

OrjJcanized. 18(»7. Commissioned, 1SS8. 

SniHTintendeuts, with dates of service: 

Daniel K.vre 1867-18<i9 

L. E. Densiow 186JM870 

W. K. Kitld 187<l-18n 

David A. Kwinj; 1871-1876 

Alfred Kunnner 187«K187S> 

James DuSliane 1879-18in 

Calvin Moon 180M8SU 


Daniel Eyre 18«7-18»«> 

L. E. Densiow 18(fl>-1870 

W. K. Kidd 187<>-1S71 

Benjamin Wih-ox : . .1871-1875 

James DuSliane 1875-1878 

AlfrcHl Kummer 1878-187!» 

(Miarles H. Hartlett 1871)-18!i<) 

Euffene F. Lohr 1800-1893 

Stuart MacKibben \ 18J«-1«K> 

Mary L. Hinsdale 1895-1897 

John M, Culver 1807-1898 

Dumont I.otz 18J>8-1901 

(^has. H. Hartlett 1901-1904 

Hi^rli school teaciiers and sub ects they teach: 

Clnis. II. Hartlett, i)rincipal (does not hi'ar any recitations). 

Esse H. Dal^in. Mathematics. 

Calvin O. Davis. History. 

Thekla Saclv. (German. 

Katherine Campbell. I-rjitin. 

Lilian Browntield. Enjrlish. 

E'rnest I. Kizer. Cliemistry and Physics. 

Clara Cimninirliam. Hotany and Physical Geography. 

Miriam Dunbar. Assistant in Enjrlisli and Mathematics. 

Elisha M. Hart man. Assistant in Latin and History. 

Etlu»l Mont^romery, Assistant in Science. 

Dora 1. Kelh'r, Assistant in Enjrlish. 

O. Odell Wldtenack. Assistant in Mathematics. 

Mae Milh'r. Assistant in English and History. 

Ayt»ra;re yearly salary of liigh scliool teachers, including; supi»rlntendeiit, 

rraininu of teachers: 

Calvin Moon, superintendent. .'► years* course V. M. and F. Collego, 

Valparaiso Collejje. 
C^has. H. Hartlett. principal. A.H. and M.A., Wabash College, 4 years 

at Wa]>asli. 
Esse Hissell Da kin. B.S., Cornell University, 4 years. 




Ciilvln Olln Diivls. A.It., TJiiivorKlty of MIdiiKiin. 4 years, and has 
dont' two-thirds of rciiiilred work for M.A. deKTP*. 

Ullun Browiillekt. 4 .veiirs tit Ocrjiuw. 2 years forresiioii deuce work 
at l^hiiaso University. Will lake M.A. tliis siniiig (IWM} at Ohio 

MIrl«m Diinliar. U.S. (in, MiclilKUii Onlvereity, 4 ycnrs; 
1 lerm at HUiiimer sehool. University of ChleaKO- 

Kntherliie ('aiii|ilH>l1. A.H,. Micliittau University, :{ years. 

Itorii I. Ki'ller. A.H. mid M.A., Uiinlverslty of Mk-hiuan, 5 yenm. 

Ernest I. Keller, B.S. (;;eneral science). 3 yearn iit Punliie. 

Kthel MontKimier.v. It.S. and M.S.. Purdue UnlverBiry. 3 yenra' resi- 
dent work. 

Clitra CunninKliam. H.K iiiiil M.K., I'nnine Unlvetsily, !> years. 

K. M. irjirtniiin. M.L., T'lilversily of Mlclii«an, ." years. 

O. O. Whllennck. A.B.. Indiana University. 18il7, 2 yearn lio-st-Rrailti- 

Mrs. \V. ]■:. Miller. :( yc.irs in University of Ciilengo.; A.M. degr.-e In 
iVKldenl \vi)rk. lint never wrote the thesis. 

South Bend High School. 

Knrollnient in hluli s.-hool 413 

Total enrollment in grades and lii^h scliool 5,4()(l 

Ximil>er of girls araduatiil last year 29 

Niimher of Ijoys (jradnated last year UWWi 11 

Nunilier in rhts class that went to eollejee 14 

Nnmlier of Kfaduates since sciioul wns urt'anlzed 025 

Number of these wbu buvc attended <.'iillege 121 




.1. \V. (.'ohMirnl. SuinTiiiti'iuU'iit. 

Orjraiiizod. ISM*;. (VMiniiissioiuHl, ISJUi. 
SuiHTinti'iKU'iits. with dnti's of .-it vice: 

(J. M. NalMT 1«84-1S.S7 

L. II. IVIic 1S87-1.SSJ* 

J. E. MoiTiiimii lH.St»-lS!H 

(J. II. Tapy lSin-lSlK» 

(). II. nowiimn 18!»0-l!Mi:; 

J. \V. Cnh'lHMMl 1!HKMI>IM 


A«lrh' lUuul 18!»rHl?<!Hi 

I. T. Mrtz 1S1MM«»7 

Mrs. Hosslo IN'iT.v 1S!)7-1IHH» 

!1. H. Cliunli IJX)<>-1!KC 

E K. Uiiapiiiaii ISXKVIINU 


Mrs. (;. II. Tapy lS!l4-lS!>r* 

Alicf Whit mail IH!HHM»7 

C. E. Woylni^'ht 1S!>7-1!H« 

Mary ('. StrickhT IIMKMIXM 

Ilijfh srh(K»I tracliiTs and siihji»cts thi\v trarli: 
Miss Mary ('. StrifkhM*. Eii>:lish ami History. 
E. K. ('liai)iiiaii. MatlKMuntics and Sciciirc*. 
.1. W. (N.h'iMM-d. Latin. 
Avcrap* yearly salary <»f hij^h srliool ti»a<-lH*rs. inrlnding HiiiH.>rluU*iideiit. 

Training: of toarhrrs: 

Miss .Mary ('. Strirkh»r. IMi.ll.. Nort li\vt'st<M'n Uiilv«T8lly. 
E. K. Chapman. A.H., Ohorlin. 
J. W. ColrlMM-d. rh.H.. Woostt'r. 

Enrollmrnt in hi^h school jCi 

Total enrollment in ;:ra<h's and hl;rh sc1p»o1 *Su 

Nnmhcr ot" ^rirls irraduattMl last year « I'.m.'i) Ti 

NnnilMM* of hoys ;:ra<lnati'd last year (l!H»:;i 7 

Nnmhor in this rlass that went to rolh'jrr O 

NnmlM'r of ;xradnatrs sin<T srhoul was oriranizcd HI 

.NumluT of thrso who havo attcMidcd cMilcj^c 28 

.V. L. Wliitinrr. Snpcrinti'ndcnl. 

Or;:aniz('d. ls72. C<iniFiiissi<unM|. I.ssl. 

SnporinhMHh'iils. with datt-s of si i\ iii-: 

W. U. Wilson 1S7MS74 

.Mrs. Colia llnnt 1S74.1,SS1 


Erank E. AFidcr^^on 1SS7-1SSS 

Jlnrvry Laiitz ISSS-ISIH 

nmrcATws' iK rxnt.iXA. 43: 


KtMios Ulohards 1891-1897 

Fml L. Pocliiii 1807-1900 

A. L. Whitnier 1900-1904 

l*riiicil)als and assistants: 

Mrs. Colia Hunt. 

Lora Sarc'het. 

Nancy White. 

I.ou Al)raliani. 

L. Brown. 

Rol)t. Spear. 

R. J. Aley. 

Martha Ridpath. 

Eva Tarr. 

Chas. AV. Epnor. 

Helen Ciinninfrhani. 

Chas. Zaring. 

Ed. Oden. 

Alice Milllpfan. 

Cora Spears. 

Milton Gautz. 

Frank Hughes. 

AV. I. Early. 

Jacob Kinney. 

C. I). Mead. 
Assistant prin<'li)als of high srhooi: 

HaMie Elliott. 

O. P. Robinson. 

C. I). Mead. 

Harry A. Miller. 

Florence L. Richards. 
High school teachers :ifuI subjects they teach: 

Florence Richanls. Science and Mathematics. 

C. 1). Mead. Literature and History. 

A. L. Whitnier, History and Latin. 
Average y<»arly salary of iiigli scliool teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Fhu'ence Richards, Ph.H.. Northwestern University. 

C. 1). Mead, principal. I'li.R.. DePauw ITniversity. 

A. L. Wliitnicr. A.M., Indiana I'uiveF'sity. 

Enrollment in liigh s<'hool U!i 

Total enrollment in grades and liigii s<*hool 4t>8 

NundxT of girls graduated last year (ll><>:b 2 

Numl>er of lK>ys graduated last year (lIM>:i) 11 

Number in this class that went to college 5 

Number of graduates sini-e scIkjoI was organized 221 

Nundjer of these who have attench'd c(>llege 97 



A. C. Woolley, Superintendent, 

Urgauized 1$9-1. C«uimlsBloued, 1SEI8. 

Sui)t>riut(>Ddeiit3. with diitee of service; 

Orln B. Wulkei- 18a4-18ft7 

Tlionina Smith 1807-lflOO 

A. C. Woolley 11NH>-I!MM 

FrIiK'ipals and aHsixtunttt: 

Wni. 11. TiuBter ISSMHStT 

A. C. Woolley laiT-llHW 

C. E. Greeup 11M)-1HU4 

High tK'liool teachers unil snlije(:()t they tench: 

A. C. Woolley, Algeliru, (Jeonifti'y. Arithmetic, I)uakkee|iiug. 
(;. E, UreeDe. Lfltiii, I'hy»ics, rhemlHtry, Ancient History. 
Katliertiie GvItHi). (ieniiiin, EiiKtish, English mid Unir<Kl Stiites HIh- 

Average yearly snliiry uf lil(,'h sclioul leachers. lucludiiij; su|)eriiitendent. 

Training of teachers: 

A. C. Woolley, A.H., from Indiana I'liiversity. ISfiT: also graduiite 

iDdiunu Stale Normal Sctiuol. 1SH3. 
C. E. (Jreene, graduate Indiana State Normal School. 1897; hIho stu- 
dent Indiana Vnlvprsity 1 term. 
Kutherlue Grltfln. A. B.. Itntler College, I'JDS; also student Chtcaga 
Vulverelry, ijaif year. 

440 EhlCyriON IS IS DIANA. 

Kni-olInuMit in \\\iz\\ scliool 42 

Total (Miiollmont in jrr:i<l(»s ami \\\^\\ school 332 

NninlxT of ^irls jjrrnduati'il last yt'ar (1!HK{) 4 

N'uhiImm- of hoys ^^radiiated last yi'ur (llili.l) 2 

Nuinhcr in this class that wont to collo;:** 1 

XunilMT t)f ;rra(lnati's sinc'c school was or.i^aiiixod .*i(> 

Nii!iiht*r of these who have attended colh'jre 10 

W. ('. McColloTiirh. Snperinteiident. 

(h'L'anized. — . ( Omniissioned. lS'.r_>. 
Sui)erint(»iHlents, with dates of s(M-vice: 

W. U. Xesiiit 18Sn-1891 

S. K. Kaines 18IH-1805 

W. T. Ueid 18aV181MJ 

W. C. A[(!C:olIouj:h 18SHM004 

Principals and assistants: 

A. (J. Mellab l804-a897 

J. W. Walker 1807-1898 

Ira II. Larr 1808-181)9 

\\ M. Price ISOO-llNH 

Hi^rh school teachers and suhjecis they ti'aeh: 

F. M. Trice, priin-ipal, Ilotany. Thysics. IMiysicnl (Jengrapliy. 
Laura K. IrwiFi. History, Latin. 
Adah Shafer. Kn^rlisii. (icM'nian. 
A. L. UatclilT. Mathematics. 
Avera;;e yearly salary of hij^h school teacher.s. including miperlntendeiit. 

Traininj; of teaclnM's: 

W. ('. Mc('olhni.i;h. A.M.. I'niversity of Miehigan. 
F. M. Trice. A.l'».. Indiana Tniversity. 
Laura K. Irwin, A.T».. Indiana Tniversity. 
A. \j. UatclilT. A.T... Union Christian ('ollejj:e. 
Adah Shafer, Th.T... DeTaiiw rniv<M'sity. 

KnrollnuMit in hi^rh s<*hool 90 

Total enroJlnicMl in ^nades and hij^h scliool 800 

Nundier of jrlrls ;;rMduated last year (IIMKJ) 8 

Nnnd)er of l)oys graduated last year (T.KKi) 

.XuFnlJcr in this class tliat went to colle*r(» 

Nnmher of y:radnates siii<-e school was orjraidzed 3(W 

Xninliei" of these who liave attend<Ml <-olle;:(» 40 


SW.W/.KE Hll.JII Sl"lH"K>[.. 



Palmer E. Petty, Suporlntcndent. 

Organizod. Soptomber, 1W)S. ('(nnmissloiuKl. September. 1902. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

O. D. Cljiwson 1898-1901 

C. S. Stubbs 1001-1903 

E. E. Petty 19r>3-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

E. E. IUH»ter. principal. 

T. B. Loor, assistant, 
llijrh sdiool teadiers and subjerts tbey teach: 

E. E. Petty, History, Botany. Physical (4eojrraphy and Literature. 

W. E. Ranch. Music. 

E. E. Heeter, Matlieniatics. Latin. Cliemistry, Physics. 

T. B. Lm^r, Rlietoric. 
Av(»ra;r(» yearly salary of lii^h school teachers, inchKllnji; superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

SuiK'rintentieiit Elmer E. Petty, jjraduate Iinliana State Norninl 
School anti Imliana Mate T'niversity. 

E. E. Ilcetcr. undergraduate (Mii<*a;;o T'niversity. 

Enn»llnient in hi^h sciiool 42 

T(»tal enrollment in grades and hiKh scho(»l 2riO 

Number of jrirls graduated last year (llHKb 1 

Numlier of boys graduated last year (ItHKb 1 

.\nmber in this <*lass tliat went to colle.ire 

Nnmlier of jrraduates since scliool was organized 4 

Numlicr of tlicse wiio liave attended college 1 


\Vm. II. Wiley, SuiJerintendent. 

Or;;anlzcd. ISi;:;. (Nnnmissioned. IST'J. 
Superintendents, witli date of service: 

Wni. M. Uoss 18r>:M854 

.lanu^s 11. Mnoie 18<il>-18(S2 

.loscpli W. Snow 18lG-186:t 

.b.lin M. Oliott 18(£M8flSI 

Will. II. Wiley 18«K)-1904 

Priiicipjils and assistants: 

Wm. H. Crosier. 

Wm. II. Wiiey. 

Wni. H. Valentine. 

Lizzio P. Uyers. 

Howard Sandis^Mi. 

W. AV. Byirs. 

Albert L. Wyotii. 

Cliaries S. .Meelv. 

Wui. A. Lake, 

EDrcATiox IX rMii.iyx i+'i 

441 i:iH'r.\TI<)S IS IXfflAXA. 

U\i:U sHi«MiI tt'ju'lirrs aiiil siilij«'<'is ihvy iivn-li: 

\V. A. Lake, principal, I^itiii. 

I^y«lia Whitakor. Assistant Latin. 

Jcssio Kfritli, lirc^^k and Assistant Latin. 

Mary Stinison, Assistant Latin. 

H. A. ();;(loii, P^n^li.sli. 

Mari(*tta iJrovfr, Virc-rriiirijial and Assistant KiiKli^^Ii- 

AliroC. (JrafT. Assistant Kn;rlisli. 

Klanclu' Fr«M*nian. Assistant Hn^lisli. 

Louise IV'tn's. Assistant Kn^lisli. 

.L i\ Vw\y. History. 

Louistr MariuMir. Assistant History. 

KlisalM>tli .M«»ssniorc. Assistant History. 

ItriM'cca Tornrr, (Sorniaii. 

Tiliic T. NViif, Assistant iirrnian. 

.\niia \\. HotTnian. A.ssistanl (ii'rnian. 

('. J. Waits, Matlicniatics. 

Sarali Scott. Assistant AL*itli(Mnatirs. 

Katiicrinc Walsli, Assistant AL'itlicniatic s. 

Ida l\. Knscy. Assistant Matlicniatics. 

K. H. Stevens. Assistant Matlieniatics. 

.L T. Scovell, Science. 

Lncy Yonse, Assistant Science. 

\V. H. Kessel. Assistant Science. 

T. H. (Jrosjean. Clieinistry. 
.\vera;i:e yeariy salary of liij^li s<-li(»!»l t«'acliers. ineliidiiiji^ siiperluteiidenL 

'I'rainin;: of tencliers. 

All iiave l»een train«>d in tlie lily:li selnml. Sevent(»en are ^'nduntt*K of 
tile Indiana State Xornial Selionl. Nine are graduates of collofres 
and nniversities. 

KnnillnuMit in id^li s<-lu»oi <>IK) 

'I'otal enrollment in ;rrades :nul lii^rii s<'li(»oI 7.517 

Nnnilier ot* jiriris ^radnated last year (l!NKi» r»2 

Nnnilier ut" lH)ys ;;radnated last year (r.Ni."») 2:» 

Nnnil»cr in tliis <'lass tlial went to eollcj;** 51 

.NnniluM' of ur;idn;ites since sriiool was Lol'J 

Nnnil»er of lliese wlio lia\ t» attended eolieire O 

'I'. i\ KeFUHMly, Snpcrintcn<lent. 

Or;:ani/ed. IMN. roiiiinissinncd. tS'.»o. 

SniKM-lntenticnis. wiili d.-iies nt* <i'r\i«-e: 

A. K. M:»l^I»:iry L^^NUSa'^ 

L. n. O'Oell ISllS-llHrj 

r. t '. Ki'nncd> 1SJI2-1«HI4 

rrincjp;ils and ;issi>!ant*i: 

\i. r» iMitr. 

c'.irrh' M. Little. 
(». i /."MkI ' Kiiiiii* k. 



HijrU sclioiil tcni'lii'i-H rii-il iiii1ij''''t!' Ilii-y Ipiioh: 

It. It. IHirr, Liitlii. IIlKlory. 

t'lirrk' M. I.ltlli'. (i<>niiiiii. Itntiiii.v. Kiib'llsU. 

(>. f'l)iuiti> K)riiii<-k. MutlieiiiiiticH, rii.VHli'M. 

T. ('. KHitL<-<l.r. .M('i1li<-viil 1111(1 MtNU'rn lliHtory. Senior Enelisti, 
AviTinti- .vi'^ii-ly Hiiim-y uf lilch hcIiiioI rwiclii-rH. itu-liiiliiiK siiiiehntendinil. 




Thokntown HiUH Si;hool. 

Tniiiiiiit; of li'iii-lii-rs: 

It. It. IHiff. A.H.. Itiiliiilm I'liivil-Mily. 

Cani.- >f. IMIU: Dfl'imw I'liivcrsity. 

<l. riiiiiil<> KiiJiiii'k. Stiirc Nonmil, 

T. <■. K.'inn'.Iy. Siatf Xnniiiil. uii.IiTKrjiiliiaH- IrKliaiiii fniviTsily. two 
ti'i'iiis: Bi-iL.liiiiti' of C.iiiiiHTi-iiil I)i'ii!irtiiiciii XorilnTii IiKllniiii 
Nr.niiMl SHic-ril iiml HiisliH'ss InsilHitr. 

Kiirollnicnt in liijili m.'Iio.iI 7:1 

Tiitiil I'limllnii'nl in k''"!'"'" '""i 'ilKli sc'luml 4:::i 

NiiiiihiT or Klrls RrniluatM ln>;t yivir iliHKli r, 

Xiiiiil»<r of 1m>,v8 KTiiilualcil liist yi-jir (llKKli ."i 

XmnlKT In this ol,^s^^ ihiil wi-nt Id I'Dllot-'i' » 

XiinilMT of Ki'iiilnati'si shu-c «i-liiii)l wms in-snnlzcil 1.14 

XiiiiilitT of tliiw who liiivc nlli'iiilnl roll.%T 40 


I. L. (\)iiiier, SuiKTinteiulent. 

Or;i:anizt'(l, 1S7.*». ('oininissiouod. 1885. 

Snperlntc'iKlcMits, with <lntes of servioo: 

H. L. Uust 1872-1873 

J. v. ( Jivjrj; 187:M87«J 

A. H. Tlirushcr 187«M877 

J. W. Stuart 1877-1881 

A. K. Arnistroiijx 188l-18sS 

W. II. Cleiunu'iis 1882-188:1 

A. I). MofT( tt 1884-1885 

( '. 10. Sntttm 18Sr».l88G 

M. F. KickofT 1880-1890 

K. A. Ki'iiiy 1800-1885 

(\ I ). lUiiUy 18IJ5-180C 

F. L. Jones 18(m-18»» 

J. A. Hill 1809-1900 

I. L. Connor 1900-1904 

IMincipnls and assistants: 

0. C. Flanagan. 
J. M. Ashloy. 
John A. Hill. 

F. C. Whitconil). 

1. L. (Connor. 

K. F;. Ilostotlor. 
Toachors and subjects tlioy teaeli: 

K. K. Hosioth'r. MatluMuatics. 

TUanclic Kuninirr. KuKlisli. 

Kleanor Tonn. Latin and Modern History. 

J. 11. Siuclvratli. (t<Tniar.. .Xm-ient History and Science. 

I. L. C(>nner. Science. 
Avera^re y<*arly salary of IiIkIj scliool teacliers, including superintendent. 

'I'ralninj; of tivu'liers: 

Klean<»r Tonn. j:raduat<' Herauw T'liiversity. 

nian<'Iic Kuninier. irraduate Leland Stanford Jr. T'niversity. 

J. II. StU(kratli, ;rraduatc Iowa Normal Colleire. 

K. K. Hosteller, ^'raduate (MterhclFi rniversity. 

I. L. ConntM". ^'radnate Furdne I'liiversity. 

Flora \VliaM(>n. y:ra<luat<* Indiana Stale Normal School. 

L'iir(»llment in hiy:h s<'liool llij 

Total <'nrollment in u:ra<lcs an<l hiirh scliool 77^) 

.Nundier of ^irls ;;raduated last y(»ai' (ItHKi) 4 

Nnmher of hoys ;:radualcd last year illMKh S 

NumluM* in this <-lass that went lo collcirr 4 

Niimher of ^rradnales sIihm* sclmol was or^ranized UKi 

Ntimher of these who have attended college i»t) 


■ e 


ffCT" "~ 

>^^^<in^SBBai^ri^^^^^3c. |{ 

L. N. Hitler. SupiTlliteiKlt'iit. 
UrRnniziKl. ISTO. ('(iinliilBHlniieil, ^HT2, 
SiipfrliittniilentH, with tlnU'w of worvici': 

F. A. iU-adf 18t«i-l.S82 

Fred Trutnlly 1SS2-1R88 

J. R. Ilnrt 1S8R-18!« 

SuBan ratlprsiitn lSii;(-l«Ki 

H. \V. BowiTH 18!!5-1!X)1 


I'riiicipnlH nnd nssistinilit: 

I-'riHl Tnlwily. 

Mrs. f, A. Mt'nile. 

H. W. BoniTs. 

Nellie npi'iii. 

Ethelliert WcKHllmrn. 

.hinu'sH. (iriiy. 
Teupliem nnd khIiJccIs llii'j- le.ich: 

JnmeH [I. Ciniy, Mnllicuiiitics ami Ellstory. 

Troy Snillii. St-ieticc. Illsror.v iitiil I.Ueniture, 

Frank Trufzi^r, I.ntlii niitl Eutrlisli. 

L. X. Hlaes. Rii^torlc. 


A vernal' yrjirly salary of hijrli scIkk)! tt»arlu*rs. including super! iitotident. 

Training of toaL-hcrs: 

L. N. Ilinos, gradnati* Indiana University, post-gradimte studeut Cor- 
noll Univt'1'sity. 

Janu's II. Ciray, gradimto of Indiana State Xonnal. 

Troy Sndtli, jn'aduate of Indiana University. 

Franlv Trafzor, gradnate of Uidgeville rolloge, holds a State life 

Enrollment In high school 85 

Total enrollni(>nt in grailes and high school 520 

Number of girls graduated last year (I'.XK*) 10 

Nnmher of boys graduated last year OlHKb 2 

Nund»er in tliis chiss that went to coll(»ge .■ f» 

XnmlMM" of graduates since .scIkniI was organiz<Hl 240 

Nundier <»f these wlio have att(>nded c(dlege 50 

rpr.AND iii<;ii scmiool. 

W. \V. IIolli<lay. Supeilntendenl. 

Organized, 1S7T. Commissioned. llMil. 
Superintendents. Avith dates of servict*: 

A. 15. Thompson 1«)7-1808 

K. A. Clawsi.n ISliS-llKH) 

W. \V. Holiday 1!KH.)-1«04 

I*rin<-ipals and assistants: 

i\ ('. Whitcman, priFicipal. 

Daisy Kline, assistant. 
Iligli s<*hool lcM<-liers and snl».|»M'ls tliey teach: 

('. i\ Wliitcman, Al]LrcI»ra. (Irometry, IMiysical fieogrnphy, Botan.v. 
Knglisli and IIist»M-y. 

Daisy Kline, Latin. I jtcratuic'. Klictoric, (icn(>ral History. 

\V. W. Ilolidiiy. ClnMnistry. Tliysics. Triironometry. 
Av<'rav:c ycaily s.iI.Miy of liigli sclioni teachers, including sui>eriiitendent, 

Traininir <if teaeliers: 

\V. W. Holiday, i ye:irN in cnmmon stiiools. 7 years in suporintoiid- 
iiig and learliliii: in hiirli scIwhjIs. normal work at Northern Indi- 
ana .Normal Srlmol. 

i\ r. Wliih'maii, •'» years us enmmnn si-hor>ls. 4 years as principal of 
higli sclinnl, n«»iin:ii wmk at Niirtliern Indiana Xormal Sclmol. 

Daisy Kline, 4 yeirs in mnimon s«'1hmi1, thre(» years as high school 
teaeher. normal wnk at Taylor rniversiiy. 

Knroilment in hi;:li scln>ul ri4 

Total enrollment in grades and IiIlIi scIkmiI 422 

Number of ;:irls graduated last \ear « 1!m:ii 5 

Nund>er of boys m-adnaietl last year ( tH{«:;i 

Number in this rlMs< that went In collcirc 2 

Nundier (»f gratlu.ites >inec silio<»l was organized 27 

Snnihi'V o/" Miese who have aWeuAcA ev»\\v'Mv^ 10 

KnnATKiX IX /V7)/.1,Y.I. 11!] 



' rl 


' ^ mmK 



A. A. Ilu^liart, SiiperinteiHlent. 

Organized, 1S70. i/oiiiDiissioiU'd, . 

SuperintendtMils, with dates of service: 

W. U. Haiita *. ISTOlSlW 

(\ II. \\\hh\ 181>:M1^)2 

A. A. Ilimliart lJXrJ-llM>4 

IViueipals and assistants: 

Jas. MacFetricli. 

Susie Slvinner C'amp]»ell. 

Nona MacQuillcin. 

Reliecea Kartlioloniew. 

Martini F urn ess. 
Illgli school t«»a<'hers and sul>jects they teacli: 

Ma1)el Heuney, Latin. 

Euy:ene Slvinlile, Matlieinatics. 

K. S. Miller. Science. 

Nona MacQuillvin. Enjriish. 

Minnie McI nt yn\ Assistant Kn^lish. 
AAcrajLire yearly salary of higli scliool teachers, includhig .superlutemlent. 

Training of teacliers: 

Nona McQnilkin. undergraduate Chicago rniver.^iity. 

Maltel Henney. Ph.D.. Cliicago University. 

Eugene Slvinlvle, . 

E. S. Miller, .\.M.. Indiana University. 

Minnie Mclntyre. undeigradmite of Cliicago University. 

Enrollment in high school i:':*» 

Total enrollment in grades and high school iY27 

Ninnher of girls graduattnl last year (11KK{> 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1JM).'{> 5 

Number in this class that went to coHege 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 3TS 

Number of these who have atten«h*d college 4 


W. C. Hrandenburg. Supcrinlendent. 

Organized. lSi»!>. Commissioned, 1!MH. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

\V. K. ( 'arsoFi 18t)8-l«W 

\V. C. Hrandenburg 1S99-181M 

rrincijjals and assistants: 

L. M. Barker. i)riiicii)al. 

O. E. ^IcDowell, llrst assistant. 

Loyola MacComas. second assistant. 

Daily Summerman, principal grados. 


Hi^h school teachers and subjects they teach: 

L. M. Barker. EiiKli'^h an^l Botany. 

O. E. McDowell. Mathematics, Physics and Zoiilogy. 

Loyola MacComas, Latin and American History. 

W. C. Brandenburg, History. 
Average yearly salary of Idgh school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

W. 0. Brandenburg, B.S., from Westfield College, Westfield, 111.; 
spent 4 years in work. 

L. M. Barker, undergraduate in Indiana University; spent 3% years 
in work. 

O. E. McDowell, undergraduate in Butler University. 

Loyola MacConias, undergraduate in Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school ? 60 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 371 

Nun\ber of girls graduateil last year (11)()3) 9 

Xuml>er of boys graduated last year (1003) 6 

Number in this class that went to college 7 

Number of graduates since school was organized 37 

Number of these who have attended college 15 

Ernest Danglade, Superintendent. 

Organized, 18G3. Commissioned, 1902. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. O. Wynnt 18G3-1865 

John P. nous 18<55-18(i6 

Hamilton S. McRae 1866-1867 

U. F. Brewington 1867-1871 

.M. A. Barnett 1871-1872 

A. O. Ueubelt 1872-1873 

P. T. Hartford ' 1873-1881 

T. G. Alford 1881-1884 

A. Hildebrand 1884-1886 

Win. R. J. Stratford 1887-1891 

A. L. Trafelet 1891-1900 

Ernest Danglade 19tK)-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
Julia L. Knox. 
( I race Stepleton. 
Hannah Waldenmaler. 

Higli s<'liool teachers and subjects they teach: 
.hilia K Knox. Literature. 
(Inice Stepleton. History. 
Hannah Waldenmaler, German. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 


Trniiiin^ of tcncli'Ts: 

Ernost DiiiiKlJUle. U.S.. Riichtol Tnllojro. 

Julia L. Knox, iindcr^nuhiMtt' Indiana Tniversity. 

liraro Stepleton, un(!t'r«i:ulnale Intliana rniviTslty. 

Eur(»lluien( in liij;li s<-lionl "n 

Total enrollment in grades and lii>rli ^^•llool l^*A} 

Nmnher of girls graduated last year (IIMKJ) 7 

Nundier of l)oys graduated la^t year (ItHKli r> 

NuuiImm' in tins class tliat went to ( oliege 4 

Nundier of graduates since scIh»o1 was orgaidxed 302 

Number of tliese who iiave attiMided c'ollege i>o 


A. E.MIuniki'. Superintendent. 

Organized, 1S71. Comnnssicnied, — . 
Superintendents, willi dates c»f service: 

A. W. J(.nes 1871-lSi7.'? 

T. J. Charleton 187.nSSn 

U. A. Townsend 1SSIV-18S-2 

Edward Taylor 1882-lSfll 

Aliiert Edward llninlvc l«n-19i.»4 

Principals and assistan.ts: 

R. A. Townsend. 

Annabel Fleming M<-('lur(\ 

rhilmer I)ay. 

A. (\ Yoder. 

(). 1* Foreman. 

('. E. Morris, 
lligli s<'hool tea<'liers and subjects (iiey teach: 

('. E. Morris. Englisli. 

(>. F. Fid la r. S<ienc«\ 

EHi(» A. ratce, (Jerman. 

Editli Uavenscroft, Latin. 

J. ('. Slratton, Matliematics. 

Cora A. Snyder. History. 

KatiMM'ine l^'oiey. connn«»n s<*liool liranclies. 

AUuM't Trice, .assistant ill Science*. 

Kosa Kusli. assistant in Englisli. 
Av«'rage yearly salary of higii scliool teacliers, iix'luding sui)eriuteiHront. 

.$7r»< >. 

Training of teaciuM's: 

('. E. Morris, graduate of Indiana State Normal School and Indiana 

O. F. Fidlar. graduate of Indiana State Normal School. 
All)ert Price, graduate of Indian.M State* Normal School. 
Rosa Uush. graduate of Inrliaiia Stat«» Normal Scliool. 
Etiie .A. Fatee. graduate of I>eF;iuw I'niversity. 
Edith Kavenscroft. graduate of l»eFauw I'Uiversity. 


J. C. Sli'iilUiii. ^imhiiUi' of liiilliuiu Unlvt-rslly. 

Ci.ra A. Snyder, K'iulinitc i>f IiliMhiiii Uuivfi'slt.v. 

Kiitlii<rlDP P'oley. Kriidiiiili' iit I'i'rrls Iiistlliilc>. 

Kiirullinuiit \u lii|;h Btliunl 

Tulul enroll moil t lu grnilcK hikI Ii1;:Ii sHiduI 

XunilM'r of glrle gniiliiiiird Insl yciir (lIKKti 

XiimliiT of boys (trudualwl liist yciir MIHKt) 

Xmiilicr ill this cIjiss Hint wi'iit to culliw 

NuiiiliiT iif Ki"i<)iiiil(-H Nliic'c Nctiool wiis oi'KnnixiHl 

Ninnl.iT of tlii-si. who liiivr iitliniiloil i-tAV-^v 

Hiuii School. 




A(li»laiclo S. Baylor. Superintendent. 

Or;:anizecl. ISUili. Ccininussioned. 1S85. 
SuiMTintendents. with dates of si»r\iee: 

Pleasant Bond ISIKMSTl 

J. J. Mills 1871-1R7:! 

I. F. Mills Spring term of 1S73 

1). W. Thomas l87:MS>i»i 

M. W. Harrison 18St>in<i:; 

Adelaide S. Baylor LTkIH-UMU 

Principals and assistants: 
Princiimls - 

J. J. Mills. 

1. F. Mills. 

Levi Beers. 

Mary Byrd. 

Miss Willets. 

Lizzie Herney. 

A. M. Hnyrke. 

Adelaide S. Baylor. 

(\vms W. KnoufT. 
Adelaide Baylor. 

Anna Hnell, 

Aymez Pet tit. 

<ira<*e Mcllenry. 

Emma Bain. 

Bet tine A moss. 

Klla Maylmeh. 

Minnie Flinn. 

Walter Bent. 

Olive Poncher. 

Jane Pettit. 

(Jeorjre Hoke. 

Olive Beroth. 

Alicr Ko1»son. 

Miss Iloino. 

'I'. .\. Hanson. 

Ilnzcl ]Iart«*r. 

(Mara Hans. 

FioriMH-e Ur)ss. 

.Miro Carey. 

Anna ('an-y. 

A\':ili«'r Crccson. 

.lessic Tliompson. 

Kst<»ll;i Monro. 

Herman I''is<-li(r, 

B<»atri<o Haskins. 

EDrCATlOS IN ryin.WA. 

Miiry SultrvEiii. 
K<lnii ^[iiUKDii. 
^[iiiiil Aiitliciii.v. 

]llt,'ll Kt'llliol 1.'ll<'ll>TN lllKl SljllJ(t-tS Illl'.V 

(•.viiis W. Knoiin-. lllsl(.:-,v. 
>M<-1lu Moiin'. IllHt<>i-.r. 
VViirirr Cnx-SKii. ^1l.vs[•-^ niiil ClKI 
l-Aun Milusoli. ti'-niiiiii. 

Kmimi Itin tt<'. l.Mliii. 

Ili'I'iiiiiri l--iwli.T. Miilhi'iiiiilic'S. 
Miiiiil Aiiihuiiy. 1ti»l<)|.'.v. 

IVl'Illl-ifi- IlllSkJILS. KUKlisll. 

M;ir.v SiilliViiiL. r..iiiimTvf!il It<-|i;irt 
Miiiiii.' Ijivr. I'-i-.-.. Ililti.1 iitlil M<-r 
r„r.i SmjiU. Mi.sli. 

ftfiff 1 11 

iii,.nt IIU./iN 

Waiiash Hh;h Si'ikmh.. 

4:>n h:i)l(\\TIi)\' IX iM)L\XA. 

AvcMjiKt' .v<'arl.v salary of liijrh srhool teachers, iucludiiig sui»erintciu1ent. 

$ 74 4. rM, 
Training uf teaclirrs: 

( yriis W. KnoiilT, A. W., Lake Foresl. 

Kstella Moore, uiHler;:ra(iu.ite University of Chieago. 

Waiter (irees<»»i. H. S.. runlue rniversity. 

Edna Muiisoii. A. H., Oxford. (Hiio. 

Maud Anthony. M. A.. Lake Forest. 

Mary Sullivan, undergraduate Business Colleges of Detroit and In- 

l»eatriee Ilaskins. A. l\., Tniversiiy of Michigan. 

Alice ('arey, A. 15.. Oherlin. 

Knuna Barnelte, A. !».. OtterlK'in. 

Herman FischcM*. A. K.. Wlieaton. 

Minnie Laver, graduate of .Vrt Institute. Chicago. 

Cora Small, undergraduate. Oxford. Ohi(». Has studied in several 
.scliools of music. 

Enrollment in high .school .'HO 

Total enrollnuMit iu grades and higli sc1um)1 2.(KV» 

Number of girls graduated last y(»ar (IJMKJ) :V2 

Xumher of l)oys graduated last year (I'.XKJj 10 

Number in this class who went to colh»ge 7 

NundK'V of graduates since school was organized r»:u 

Numl)er of tliese who have attended college i:>r» 




A. K. Clawsoii. Sup<»riiitendoiit. 

Orjcanized, 1HH4. Commissioned. 11H)1. 
SuperintendeiitH, with dates of service: 

I. C. Hamilton 1901-1902 

A. E. Clawson 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. A. Jones. 

A. E. Rowell. 

A. H. Barber. 

John Bear. 

S. C. Urey. 

A. E. Jones. 
William Clem. 
J. W. Rlttenger. 

B. S. Steele. 

A. S. Whitmer. 

E'lmer McKesson. 

O. V. Wolfe. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

A. E. Clawson, Pnysics, Botany, Zoology. Algebra. Geometry, Trig- 

O. V. Wolfe, Rhetori(t and CoiniM>sition, American and English Lit- 
erature, Ancient. Mediirval and Modern History. I^atln (beginning 
Caesar). Cicero, Virgil. 
Average yearly salary of high sc1kk)1 teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

A. E. Clawson, A. H.. from Indiana University. 

O. V. Wolfe, undergraduate of Valparaiso College, five terms. 

Kate Togarty, graduate of home schools. 

Edna Vincent, graduate of home schools. 

Mrs. Lizzie Townsend. graduate of Plymouth High School: kinder- 
garten work in Chicago. 

Enrollment in high school 33 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 240 

Number of girls graduated last year (lIHK'b 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (liXKb 5 

Number in this <'lass th:»t went to college None 

Numl>er of graduates since school was organized tiO 

Number of these who have atten<h>d college 15 



W. F. Axtell, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1870. Commissioned, 1898. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

Mr. Cole 

D. E. Hunter 1876-1885 

W. l\ Hoffman 1885-1894 

W. F. Axtell 1894-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

A. O. Fulkerson. 

Jos. L. Wallace. 

C. F. Maxwell. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Hamlet Allen, Geometry. 

H. R. Gers, Chemistry and German. 

H. C. Wadsworth, Biology. 

Sue H. Reece, Latin. 

J. M. Vance« English. 

C. G. Liebhardt, Algebra and History. 

.1. M. BlacI^, Music. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

W. F. Axtell, A. B., Indiana University: student Chicago University. 

H. Allen, undergraduate of Franklin College. 

H. Wadsworth. B. S., Indiana University. 

H. R. Gers, B. S.. Indiana University. 

J. M. Vance, undergraduate Indiana University. 

C. G. Liebliardt, undergraduate Indiana University. 

Sue H. Ree<t\ A.B., Indiana University. 

J. M. Black. Music. 

Enrollment in high school 1G2 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,600 

Xuml)er of girls graduate<l last year (IJK);^) 15 

Nunil)er of boys graduated last year (190'^) 9 

Numl)cr in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 3(X) 

Numl>er of these who liave attended college 75 


W. S. Almond, Superintendent. 

Organized. 18(>i. Commissioned, 1887. 
Superintendents : 

M. M. Harrison. 

L. B. Griffin. 

H. H. Keep. 

M. D. Smith. 


rrinciiKils nii<l jisslstaiits: 

II. M. Coo. 

Mr. liiiijJTwalt. 

M. U. Smith. 

Mary L. Lcppor. 
Ilij^li school t(\*i<*h<M's nnd sul).;rct.s thoy toach: 

Mary L. Lciipcr, MafluMiiatics. Latin. Hoolvlvoopinjr, English. 

\V. S. Alinond. Sci<Mic(', History, < 'ivies, English. 
AvcMago yoarly salary of high scIkk)! teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of tc'achers: 

Two, normal school: (>ne, Rutler: one. Mrs. Blaker's kindergarten; 
one, Ann Arbor; one. higli school. 

Enrollment in high school 42 

Total em'ollm(»nt in grades and liigh school 27r» 

Number of girls graduated last yis-ir (I'.MKJ) 2 

Number of boys graduated last year (lIMhMi ,1 

Number in tliis class that went to coll(»ge None 

.\umlH»r of graduates since school was organized No reoonl 

Number of these wlio have attended colleg(» No data 


Rupert Simpkins. Sui>erint<Mident. 

OrganiziHl, 1881. Commissioned, UKll. 
Superintendents, with dates of servic<»: 

(i<'orge li. <iuy. 

Marcus A. MotHtt. 

W. V. Mangrum I1KM)-1JK)3 

Rupert Simpkins 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Monta Anderson. 

Hertha M. Switzer. 

Rose Cunningham. 
High schoid teachers and subjects they tea<-h: 

Rup<M'l Simpkins, History, Mathematics aiul Ph.vsies. 

Monta AndcM-son, Latin, Knglisli and Music. 

Rose Cuimingliam, Physiology. (Ji'ogi-aphy, Comm.Tcial Cteography. 
Algelua, ('onj]»osition and Literature. 
Average yearly salary of liigh scIkkiI teach«M-s, including superintendent. 

Training of teacluTs: 

itupert Simpkins. A. H.. M. A.. Ui. P».. Indiana T'idvcisity. 

Monta AndiM'son. graduate Slate Normal. 

Rose (Cunningham, graduate Slate Normal. 

Enrollment in higli school <il 

TcMal em-ollment in grades an<l higli scln:ol 24<» 

Numl)er of girls graduated last year (I'-WKJ) S 

Number of l>oys graduated las! year (!!>!>:{) ,"» 

\miihrr of eacJi in this class \h;vi weut U\ c(»llcgc 1 

yuinhor iff graduates sii\ce sc\\vm\ w;\^ uyvlvwVv/.wX 82 

A'////i5<T of thes«» w ho have svWewAod c oWv^v NSSk 


K. W. LiiwiTUt-i'. SuiH'rlhtciiiiftil. 
OrwiniKiMl. IXIJ.-.. (■(HiiliilsHLiiiiiil. ISSir.. 


.-nil . 


■ lOlliH. 

K. \V. IjnvniH* 

High Ki'liocil tfiiclnTs iiiid siilijfi-tM tln'.v tejirli: 
!■'. !■:. TriK-ksfss, Si^ii'iiir iiiiil <!c-i'iiiiin. 
Alfml A. Miiy. I-'it1ii iiiiil (i('i'ini)ii. 
DMl.liiw Klofr.T. Hl«frn-.v iiiKt Lltmitiinv 
Fl.icH lloWrts, JliitUomiilUs hikI KriKllsli. 



.If lilKli : 

West LaFayette Hiuh School, 

F. 1-:. Ti-m-kscss, A. It., I'lir.Inc l-iiiv,.[sh.v. 
Dnphne Kieffer. kIuiIi'TiI in rinduc riilvnsHy. 
Fl(.ni IMlHTts. A. 11.. Vimhw Tnlvi^isiiy. 

AirrtHl A. M»y. A. 11., Irr.m Wonsl.T, lllii,,. 

Kiinilliiu'iit In lilKli scli.«il I'JIi 

Total L-nriilliiieiit iji jrisiflcs iin.l lil;;li s.-lio<il r,->u 

Nuiiilfr or fttrls jmnluiili'il liisi y*'nv (lifirii ii 

Xuiii1>i'i' or Ijo)'" BraOliiitwl lust ywiv UlltKl) 8 

NuiiiIht ill thin dnns tt-nil lo <-<i|lci£<' VI 

Xiiiiilx'i' nf )tritiiviili-n siitci' mi'IkmiI whs i>vii!>i>lw'A N^-"' 

Siiiiihvi- ul tlifsc wbo Jijivt' iiIU-iKlcil collesi.' ^" 



W. A. JeKsup, Superintendent. 

Organiz«l. . Commissioned. 1898. 


W. (;. Day. tiinv years. 

W. A. JeHHUi). f^»ur years. 
PrincipalH and assistants: 

Gail WJilte. 

I>ara V. Hannu. 

Laura Laughnian. 

Jessie Smith. 
Hijfh school teachers and subje<'t«» they teach: 

H. Ken yon. History and (ieopraphy. 

W. P. Bla<k. S<-ience. 

Jessie Smith. I^tin and English. 

W. A. Jessup, Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teacht»rs: 

W. A. Jessup. A. B.. {"larlham College. 

Jessie Smith. A. B.. Indiana University. 

W. P. Black. A. B.. Wal)ash College. 

H. Kenyon, graduate academy. 

Enrollment in high school / S<» 

T(»tHl ein'ollment in grades and high school 3<M» 

.Number of girls graduated last year (1J)()8» 4 

.Number of boys graduated last year (19031 ."> 

Number In this class that went to college 1 

Xuml)er of graduates since school was organized fiO 

Number of these who have attended college 23 


K<)])ert I J. Hughes, Superintendent. 

Organized, lH9ft. Commlsslonod, UM»2. 
Superintendents, witli dates of .service: 

J. M. \V(mh1 1898-18t>0 

Mrs. F. B. Honinian 1809-19iM> 

Robert L. Huglics 19<M>-1904 

Principals an<I assistants: 

Eugene <;ates. 

H. li. Huglu^s. 

John <\ Hall. 
High school tca<'hers and subjects they teach: 

John <\ Hall, Science and Mathematics. 

Mary Stoerlein, Latin and English. 

Edith ^''aucher. (icrman. 

Edith <ilasfelter. Commercial Branches and History. 

Mabel E. Doty, Music and Drawing. 

J. C. Jones. Manual Tra\n\ng. 



Vvorage yearly salary of lilKh school teachers, including superintendent, 

rrainin^ of teacliers: 

Kobert L. Hughes. A. B.. A. M.. University of Chicago. 

John <\ Hall. A. R, Tnivcrsity of Illinois. 

Mary Stoerlein, A. H., Iowa College. 

Edith Faucher, A. li., Northwestern University. 

Editli (Jladfleter, A. B., Washington University, and \. M., Univers- 
ity of Chiciigo. 

J. ('. Jones, University of Illinois. 

Enrollment in high school &) 

Total enrollment hi grades and high scluwl (>25 

.Numher of girls graduated last year (lIKK^i 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (lfM);{) 1 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 14 

Niunber of these who have att«»nded college 4 


•lohn Owens, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1S!H). Commissioned, IIMH). 
Superintendents, \> ith dates of service: 

Oscar II. Williams 

John Owens 10in-llM)4 

Principals and as.sistants: 

Stella Shrader. 

Flora Ciuyer. 

Maude Bennett. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Maude Bennett, Latin. Mathematics and History. 

John Owens, Science and Literature. 
A^erage yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Flora (fUyer, graduate of Franklin College. 

Stella Shrader, undergraduate Stat(» Normal School. 

Maude Beimett. underirraduate State University. 

Oscar Williams, graduate State Normal Schorl. 

John Owens, graduate Stat«^ Normal School and Franklin College; 
A. M., work at Franklin College. 

Enrollment in high school 50 

Total enrollment in grades and high s<'hor! ,'{00 

Number of girls graduated last year (IJMK'V) 2 

Number of boys graduated last year HOO.'?) 8 

Numl)er in this class that went to college o 

Number of graduates since school was organized 2r> 

Number of tliese who have attendcHl college 12 

Ai\i i:i)l(\\ri()X IX IXDIAXA, 


S. (*. llaiisoii. Siiperliitoiideiit. 

Ol'aKlii/'('<l. l.*<Hr». ('niiiiiiissi<>ut>4l, 1K87. 
SuiMM'iiit<*ii(l<>iits. witli dates of service: 

S. ('. Hanson 1885- 

I*rin<'iimlH and assistants: 

Maude Stearns 18!>3-18J)4 

Kdna Welnier. iirineipal lSI)4-18t)7 

rims. <;. Davis, prineipal 18!>7-in<W 

lOd^ar Wel>i>. prineipal lJ>iXKl?M»4 

Lydia Iteninier. assistant 18I>7-18!K> 

Win. Kvans. assistant ISOfMJKll 

.Mrs. M. V. MeCcM-d, assistant 1!>(»MSK>4 

Hi^li s<'liool teaeliers an<l sniijeets they teaeli: 

S. ('. Hanson. History. Kn^disii, B;)tany, rh.VHit!«, l»h3'8ioj?mpliy. 

K<lpir \Vel»l». Latin, Cjesar. Ci<-ero, Virjxll. Plane and Sblld Geom- 
etry and ('ivies. 
Mrs. M. K. McCord. llrst am! seeond year ICn^lisli, llrHt and second 
year Al^reiua. and a little worlv in eighth year. 
Avera;:e yearly salary of hi^li school teachers. includin>? ttuperhi ten dent, 

Training <»f teaeliers: 

S. (\ Hanson, conipU>t(>d teaeliers' course, two years, in Westfleld 
('oll(%^e; n. S.. M. S. and A. M. later from same institution; A. M. 
also from Lane InivcMsity. Kansas; student In Miami Conserva- 
tory of Music: post ^iraduate student in English, Seliool Organisa- 
tion and (Ieoh>;ry. University of Clii<aj:o. IIHH). 
Kdpn* Wel»lK irraduate Indiana Stat(» Nornnil School: also pursuing 

a course in Indiana University. 
Mrs. M. V. M<-('ord, graduate Indiana State Normal School 

LnroIlnuMit in lii^li scliool 43 

'r<>tal enrollment in grades and hi^li s( liool 300 

Nnmlier of jjirls graduated last year (liMKJi 4 

Nmnlx'r of iMjys graduated last year (IJHi.'li n 

Nnnd)er in tliis class that went to college 2 

Number of .irrMduates since school was oriranized 81 

Numljcr of tliese wlio liave attended college 41 


WiLi.iAMsi'onT HiuH School. 


\V. 11. Kell.v. SuporlntoiKlrnt. 

OrKJiiiizcd. issj). ConiniissioiKMl. ISiH). 

SuperintiMuU'iits. with d.-iti's of s<M'vi<'«»: 

A. T. Unci issinsii;; 

J. O, .lont's lSJ»:VlS!n 

C. W. Klinnu'll ISti.VlS!!-* 

A. T. Uriel ISni-lU'H 

W. M. K«»ll.v UHIMIHU 

Principals and assistants: 
Knmia Uo1>ins(Mi. 
Katlu'.vn Daaruy. 
Carrli' Matlu'ws. 
Alfred KolK^r. 
J. E. l^iyton. 
K. (}. Taylor. 

B. M. Hendricks. 
Albcrl Rocp. 

Julia K. Marbroii;;!!. 

Kd^ar Packard, 

Lida M. Laytoii. 

Mary MacHatton. 
Hi^li scliool teachers and snhjr<-ts they teach: 

W. II. Kelly, r. S. History, Knjjiish and Ht)okki i-plnj;. 

Albert Keep. Mathematics and Physics. 

Ed>?ar Packard. Enjjlish and Botany. 

Mary MacHatton, Latin and (Jeneral History. 
A\rra>re yearly .<*alary of hi^h school tea<-hers. i^clndin-T sunerinti-nle'r. 

Training of tea<-hers: 

W. H. Kelly, A.H.. Indiana rniv(»rsity. 

Albert Keep. \. B., DePauw University. 

Edpar Pa<-kard. >:radnate Indiana State Schcol. 

Mary Ma<'llatton. A. B.. Indiana Tniversity. 

Enrollment in hi^h school S!i 

Total enrollment in jrrades and hij:li scliool \V\ 

Xnnd>er of ;rirls ;;:rjnln;ned last y<*ar (ItMKb 4 

Number of boys jrraduated last year illMKb 4 

Number in this class that went to eolleire I 

Number of ^rraduates sinre school was orpniized 7'.» 

Nund»er of these who have attendtnl colleire \'2 


WiNAMAc Hkjh School. 

K, It. Itizcr. 8ti|H-rliitetHlrnt. 
Orcnnlzcil. 18!t-J. Ciininiisslniu-d. lixk't. 
SniM-rhitpmli'iiiK, with (intt's of kitvIci': 

Mllf KoiiilK 18!I2-1S!m; 

E. B. ItlziT laW-llKM 

PrlnciiuilK iiiitl itsxlKtantH: 

Wert It. Xifl. iJiiii.liHil. 

Aiiiiii lilti KtitltK. iiNsjKiatil. 
HIkIi Mi'liuul U-ai'lii'rH iind sntiji-ds ihcy ti-iich: 

K. K. KiKcr. IllMtiir.v. (icoKmiili.v "i"! PIi.vnI<k. 

WiTt R. Nci-I. M]Llli(>niiitl<-!< mill Bulimy. 

AllllH l<lll SlllltZ. IJllill mill EllKliHll. 

AvwflRP ypHrl.v Hiilnry of liiirh fcliniil tfiichcrH, iiK'tndhiK Huperlntcniloni. 

TrflinhiR of lenohi'rs; 

E. B. Rlzer. iinrti'rKraihmli' of !'iirilin> nnd of Iiullmia I'lilvcrHltlec 
Wert R. Neol. iimlerKrHduiilp of liidlnnn I'ldvcrsilly. 
Anua Ida Stultx, gruduale of ludiunu Uiiherelty. 


Knrollninil in \\\\([\ school .- . 5<» 

Total tMirollnieiit in jrnulos and high school \y^ 

Numlier of girls gnuluatocl last year (UK):5) fl 

Number of boys graduatinl last year (11HK5» 1 

Number in this class that went to college 

Number of graduates since school was organised M) 

Number of these who have attended college 10 


Oscar U. Baker. Sui)erintendeiit. 

Organizi'd, \HT1. Commissioned, 1KS2. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

John Cooper .1870-1873 

Lee Ault .* 187^-1877 

K. H. Duller : . 1877-1880 

(\ H. Wood 18WM891 

F. S. Caldwell 189M8D2 

II. W. Bowers 18Sr2-18d5 

Oscar U. Haker 1805-1004 

Principals and assistants: 

L. E. I^unme. 

Lee Ault. 

K. H. Huller. 

C. H. Wood. _:^ 

J. W. r(»lly. 

U. W. Bowers. 

F. S. (%iMwell. 

Oscar U. Baker. 
Higli scIkkjI teachers and sulgects tliey tea<-li: 

Lee L. Driver. Matliematics and Sci«Micc. 

Clarenc(» K. McKinncy. Latin and Ocrnian. 

Knima (J. Fugle. Fnglisli and History. 

Oscar U. Baker. Civics and ClMMiiistry. 
Average yearly s.ilary of liigli scliool tca<liers. including suiKM*int<»udent. 

Training of tc'acliers: 

L<'e T^. DriviM'. normal antl college work. 

C. F. .McKinncy. college work. 

Fninia Fnglc. college work. 

Oscar U. l»aker. normal and academy work. 

Fnrollment in higli sclioul \{¥(\ 

Totiil enroUmiiil in grades and liigh .scliool 772 

Numl)er of girls graduated la<t y»'ar (lIHi:b S 

Numl)er of boys trrjidu.Hed year (lIMi:b .■....'...-...•.. . G 

.\unil)er ill lliis clas!!t tliat w<'nt to college i . .. . . ,U. .j. . J. %\ 

Nund)er of graduates sinct' school was ory::inized. ........... ;i .i.....//. 273 

Number of these who h:ive attended col'leg«' J»l. j^itii/.. 74 

KDrCATinX I.\ /A7>/.LV.I. 

WlNCilESTlill HillH SCHOOl,. 

\viii!'ini.\<iTu\ iiicii sniooi.. 

\v. I!. Villi lioi'il.T. Kiii"Thit.'iiii.'ii[. 

Oi'uniilxi'il, IMTli. roiiiiiiissiiiiit'il. 
su|><Titii<-iiitt'iirs. with •till r X 

.r.iliii ('. riiiiiiLV 

Ani.ilil Tmi.i'kiiiN 

I>. .M. Ni-lKOn 

I!iilli'.v .Miirlhi 

\V. (>. \V:iiTic'li 

.1. V. Z:irliiJ;lli 

W. 1'. Kirliii 


i:il.-n I.. I'icl. 


Higli school tt»dcliors and slibjecls they teaeli: 

I>. A. Little. I^itin and AljLcebrn. 

Ellen L. Piel« assistant. History and Englisli. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including siiperiutendedi. 

Training of teachers: 

D. A. Little, gi-aduate of State Normal School. 

Ellen Piel. graduate of Ann Arbor University. 

\V. B. Van Gorder, graduate of Taylor' University; also under- 
graduate of Chicago University. 

Enrollment in high school 73 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 415 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 196 

Number of these who have attended college 46 


H. F. Gallimore. Superintendent. 

Organized. 18H5. Commissioned. 1902. 
Supei;int4»<leiK44; with-4a4es of service: 

A. B. Jones 1885-1888 

M. I). Avery 1888-1894 

H. F. (Jalliniorc 1894-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Flora A. Mennin^er. 

Edna .l(»]nison. 

Susie M. Aldrich. 
High school tea<'liers and sul)jects they teach: 

Susie M. Aldricli, Eimlislj and <tcrnian. 

N. K. Mills, Marljcnialics and History. 

H. F. (iallimorc. Scienr(» and History. 
Average yearly salary of iiijrii scliool teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of leadicrs: 

H. F. (lallnnore. suiKM*int«Mident. Indiana State Normal School and 
nndery:radnatc Indian:! I'nivcrsiiy. 

Susie .M. Aldricli. MIcliigan State Normal School. Michigan Uni- 

N. K. Mills, undergradnate Notre I>nnio and Indiana T'niverslties. 

Enn»linicnt in liigii s<'lio(»l 52 

Total enrollment in i^nides and liigli scliool 325 

Number of girls graduated last year (IIMK?) 1 

Number of boys graduated last year (l!MKb 6 

Number in this class who went to college 3 

Number af graduates sinc«» school was organized 92 

Number of these who liave attended college 42 




Tlie greatest activity in higli school circles during the last 
few years has been in the townships. The new transfer law 
has promoted high schools, while the new high school law has 
improved them in quality. It is now required as a prerequisite 
that there shall be at least twenty-five common school graduates 
of school age residing in the township. This last law checked 
the organization of small high schools throughout the state inci- 
dent to the attempt to defeat the transfer law. In nearly every 
case new high schools are now organized only where the demands 
are strong and the conditions favorable. 


(1901. p. 514. Approved March 11. 1901; in force May. 1901.) 

Tho school 1rust(»os .shall tako charjje of the educational affairs of 
their respective townships, towns and cities. They shall employ teachers. 
estnl)lish and locate conveniently a sntticient number of schools for the 
education of the children therein, and build, or otherwise provide, suit- 
able iiouses. furniture, apparatus and other articles and educational 
appliances necessary for the thorouji^h organization and efficient manage- 
ment for said .schools. Such school trustees may also establish and 
maintain in their respective corporations, as near the center of the town- 
ship as seems wise, at least one separate graded high school, to which 
shall be admitted all i)upils who are sufficiently advanced: Provided. 
That the school trustees of tw(» or more school corporations may estab- 
lish and nuiintain joint graded high school fsl in lieu of separate graded 
high schools, and when so done they jointly shall have the care, manage- 
ment and maintenance thereof: I*rovided further. That any trustee, 
instead of building a seimrate graded high school for his township, shall 
transfer the pupils of his township competent to enter a graded high 
school to another school cori>oration: Provi<led further. That all pay- 
ments of tuition, iirovided for under this act, heretofore made by school 
trustees for such high .sch(M)l privileges are hereby legalized: Provided 
further. That no such graded high school shall b(» so built unless there 
are at the time such is built, at least twenty-live common school 
graduates of school age residing in the township. 



It is an iiit(*r(\stin^ fact that Ix^forc the uiiddlc of the iiine- 
teentli conturv State* Superintendent Mills had seen the real Si>hi- 
tion of the ])rnbleni of education in a democracy, and bad named 
consolidation as the key. Out of this thought came the idea 
of cent(»rs of learning in districts, townships, and towns, with 
combinations ])ossible in districts and townships, and finally with 
combinati(»ns possil)le Ix'tween and among districts and townships. 
This maile the townshi]) graded school possible, which in turn 
made ])ossible and necessary the township high school. Sn]>cr- 
intend(Mit ilills, in his messag(»s to the legislature in the forties, 
and afterward in his re])orts as state superintendent of i)ublie 
instruction ihm'a over all the arguments for consolidation and 
centralization of district schools; and, so far as I know, his argu- 
ments hav(» never b'H'U improved or added to. It was tlirough 
such men as Mills on the outside, and John I. Morrison, chairman 
of the educational committee in the c<mstitutional convention, 
that education received n^'ognition in the new constitution. With 
the n(*w constitution and the law of 1852, the township l)ecame 
the ])olilical and the school unit of the state. This fact is of the 
lai'gest signiiicance in dealing with the Indiana school system, 
for Fiidiana was probably the first state to make the loAvnsbip ilie 
school unit. Since, it has Ikhmi ado])ted by other states in the 
Union. The claims made for it and admitted need not lx» re- 
])eated here. Tlu* new constitution gave state supen'ision, an<l the 
])eo])le shoi'tly voted in favor of taxation for the maintenance of 
schools. The m(»v(Mnent forward with the new constitution was 
interrn])te(l bv unfavorable decisions of the courts and by the com- 
inii* of the civil war. In the earlv sixties fnmi these cansc»s the 
schools suffered and dro])])ed to the lowest level. It was not until 
after the civil war that the nnival came. The supreme court held 
that local levies for tuition and common-school revenues wei*e con- 
stitutional, thus making it ]>ossible for towns and townships to pro- 
vitlc for terms of school of res])ectable length. This really was 
the iK'ginning of local, ])ublic high-school education. The law 
had also made it clear that it was the duty of township trustees 
to ])rovide secondary schools for pupils who liave completed the 
work in tho i»r;ides. Out o^ wW \Wsv^ \\\^\\va\v-v^'^. >^*v(^v "^x^ \ss«^- 


ship as the unit and center of educational activity, the townsliip 
liigh school came. It was an evolution and came naturally. 
Academies, seminaries, and other secondarv schools ijrraduallv 
came under the r*ontrol uf the towns and townships, and there 
are few private or drnominational preparatory schools left. The 
closing years of the last century witnessed a rapid development 
in township high schools. 

Tho township high school was usually located in a centrally 
sitiuited town, but not always. There are many flourishing 
schools in rural comnnuiities, s'ome of these bearing commissions 
from the state board of education. Some of these schools are 
located in small municipalities, and are organize? l joint ly let ween 
town and township. Others, as hinted above, are joint township 
rcluK Is under the management of two or more townships. 
These scIhjoIs arc often the centers of really great learning, hav- 
ing, as they do, some of our strongest men and women as 
t(*achers. Bright young graduates of our normal schools, col- 
leges, and universities, and)itious to rise in the ])rof(*ssion, come 
to these schoids and attract to them the best young blood in the 
townshi]). The result is a])])arent in increased educational inter- 
est in the community. The course of study is made to appeal 
to the interests of the many, and everything is done to make the 
time sp(»nt in school worth while. For the vast majority this is 
the finishing scluKd, and it is made to n\can as much as possible. 
And so it becomes a great educational center, and marks an 
epoch in the lives of many who are to take up their life-work in 
its shadow. It is not a ])reparatory school for college, though 
many of its graduates go to college. Its aim is to do the best 
thing it can for those who ])resumably will go no farther. Com- 
munity life determines our course of study, and the puplis are 
prey^ared for life's activities. In doing the best thing for the 
majority who do not enter college, we have found that we are 
doing the best thing for the minority who do go to college, and 
we have come to believe that such a (*ourse prepares for college 
best. Tn the smaller schools courses are articulated with courses 
in the large high schools, so that in 7fiany cases where good work 
is done, and where the teachers are known, one, two, or three 
years' work in small schools is ac'cepted in full and given credit 
for credit in the Inr^er liigh school. 


In the matter of scliool architecture there has been great 
progress in the state. This is particularly true with regard to 
township buildings. Some of these high schools are housed in 
modern, well-equipped buildings that are models in every way. 

The Nineveh township high school in Johnson county has 
been in operation since 1872, and is probably the oldest school 
of its kind in the state. It was established bv the abandonment 
of three district schools located near the village. The high 
school is in the center of the village, and is attended by all the 
pupils in the townshi]) ])repared to do high-school work. I find 
an account of the work of this school in State Superintendent 
Geeting's report of 1898. Sup(»rintendent Geeting gave great 
impetus to this movement; indeed, his name and the growth of 
the townshi]) high schools an* inseparable in Indiana. The fol- 
lowing account of the Xiuevch s(»hool is evidently from the pen 
of one who was familiar with the work of the school: 

It is ono of the most pot^Mit factors in our comimuiity for good, ami has 
unquestionably raised the standard of intelUjyenee. of nioraUty, of taste, 
and therefore, of Ufe among the people. While a few in the township 
are opposed to higher education, the vast majority favor the school and 
would not do without it. The school has many graduates now. some 
of them in higher institutions of learning, and some tilling positions of 
trust in difTerent i)arts of the country. Many have married and settled 
here in the townshii). and have an elevating intluence upon the com- 
munity. The i»rinclpal is also superintendent of the grades, and receives 
four dollars p(»r day. We have two teachers doing high school work. 
The principal is a college graduate witli a master's degree, and the a.s- 
sistant is a high school graduate, and has made other special preparation 
for her work. We have a four-year course, though the terms are only 
six to seven months. The character of th«' work done is e(]ual to that 
done in any of the high schools or j preparatory schools of the state, so 
far as we go. I flrndy lielieve tlie work done by our i)Upils Is far superior 
to that done in the larger towns, as there are fewer things here to take 
attention from the work. Our pui)ils range hi age from fourteen to 
twenty-two, and spend an average of two iiours a day ui>on each study. 
Tliere are five graduates this year, two from town and three from the 
country. Two of these live aliout four miles distant, and their parents 
liave conveye<l them l)jick and forth for four years. In this connection 
1 would state that al»out half of om- pupils live ui)on farms. No provision 
has l>een made by tiie truste(» for conv(»yance, but this Is not felt as 
being a hardship, as those living in the country have rigs or wheels of 
their own. In tlie first year tliere are ten pui)ils: in the second, three; 
in the third, fom*: and in the fourth, live. In Latin, besides the pre- 
liminary work and grammar, we read two books of Capsar and three of 
VfrgiL In mat hematics we co\\iyAv?\v? >V\\\\v^^ VL\^\\ ^^>ft<i\ M.^Qbi:a ^ii<^ 


Wentworth's IMane Geometry. We give two years to English literature, 
two years to general liistorj', one year to geology, one year to physics, 
one year to rhetoric, one year to physical geography, and three months 
to civil government. 

As another example, the Straiighn township high sehool, in 
TIenrv county, is typical of scores of schools over the state. 
What 1 write here is taken from a recent account sent to me of 
the w^ork of this school : 

The township graded school, with a high school, was organized in 
October, 1893, in a three-room l)uilding, with three teachers and one 
hundred five i)upils. eighteen of whom constituted the freshman class 
of the high school. Eight of these freshmen had not (completed the work 
in the common schools nor grades and as a consetjuence six of them 
dropped out tlie llrst year. Two nuirried in the second year, and ten of 
the original eighteen finished the three-year course. Last year another 
r»M>m was added to the building, and there are now four teachers and 
ouf* hundred and twenty pui)ils with a fourth year added to the high- 
school course. The school has graduated thirty-two pupils. Many who 
began the work in tlie Straughn school finished in other high schools, 
and many did only a i)art of the work. 

That the Straughn school lias awakened ideals of culture hitherto 
unknown in the community is conceded by all. Patrons, pupils and 
ttachers have worked in harmony, and are e<iually i)roud of the school. 

Of the thirty-two graduates, sixteen have attended higher institutions 
of learning. Eight are teachers or have taught school. Six are graduates 
of Inisiness colleges. Four are Indiana iwiversity students. Two have 
been students in the farmers* rourse at Purdue. One has been a DePauw 
student. Twelve are farmers, and two are merchants. It is the opinion 
of the writer that the influence of this school has entered every home 
in the commimity, and that it is an influence for better living. 

While there are scores of township high schools working 
tmder widely different conditions, some with short ternm and 
short courses, and no limited nund)er of teachers, the tendency 
is to meet the requirements of the state board of education, and 
there is a constantly increasing number receiving commissions. 
The requirements for a commission are as follows: 

Three years of language, tliree years of history, three years 
of mathematics, two years of science, four years of English are 
required, with electives to complete a full course of four years. 
This is not meant to be absolute but is suggested as a basis upon 
^vhich to form a course and as the minimum amount of work 
required. As further requirements the following may be men- 
(;ioned; (1) The character of t-^e toaeVim^ \i\\3LsX\y^ ^'^^^\^\,^^\^^N^\ 


(2) the liigh-seliool coiirso must not be less than tliirty-two 
niontlis in length, continuing from the eighlh year; (3) the 
whole time of at least t^v<^ teaehers must be given to the high- 
sehool work; (4) the jMirsuing of a f(»w sul)jeets throughout the 
entire course* rather than many covering short ])eriods; (5) a 
library a(le(]nate to me(M all the demands for reference work and 
teneral reading su])])lementarv to the regular textdMjoks; (i\) 
h'boratories fully e(jui])]jed to do all of the necessary work in 
the sciene(»s ])ursue(l in any given high school. 


Number of counties iu Indiana 02 

NunilRT of townships l.Old 

Number of high schools, all jjcrades TtW 

Number of townshij) jirraded sehools doing work in common 

branches only 1 .ol 1 

Nuuiber of township high schools 58n 

Niunber of conunissioned townshii) high schools l.j 

High-school enrollment oti.iUl 

Township high-school cnroUmcMit l.'i.oori 

High-school graduate^ liK);5 4,440 

Townshii> high-school graduat(^s ItKKJ l.:>44 

Number of high school teachers l.Siil* 

Number of townshiji high-school teachers S48 

Salaries of teachers emi>loyed: 

a. Commissioned high-school teachers (170 days average 

school year) per year ^7-t.UK) 

b. Township high-school teachers (1 to days average school 

year) i)er year 432.00 

Per capita cost of maintenance: 

a. In commissioned high schools 33.l¥) 

b. In township high schools 25.00 

The value of thf work that these t<)wnshi|) schools are aeo»ni- 
]dishing cannot Ix^ statec]. JM-ovision is mad(^ for free seeonda'*v 
training for ev(M*v <dnld in the state. The <»ne great end kept in 
view is the ])rej)aration (»f the child as fully as possible for the real 
duties, opportunities, and ]>rivileges of life. W(* are trying to 
nuike an institutiou that will dev(d<»p manly men and womanly 
women; omo that will tc^ach the boys nud girls that there is work 
to d(^ in the world, and that will help each one to find his life- 
work, and show him how to be successful and happy in it. Tho 
i>C('oii(hiry sc/jool can br\i\|2: \<> V\\e \n\vW \\\\v\ V> \\\vi vvw\\\\\>j:^<^; 


tlio p^rcat forces in lifo wliicli ^iiido, iiis])ir(', aiul realize possibili- 
ties. It can minister to the needs of life, not only by bringing 
broad fnndaniental principles of cnlture, but by suggesting 
practical social problems and their solutions, and, more than this, 
by suggesting and pointing out actual vocations and ways to 
succeed in them. Our school machinery has been simplified. 
There is now only one trustee in a township, and the large 
res])onsibility placed upon him is gra<lually being realized, and 
w(» are obtaining Ix^tter men all the while for the position. The 
dignity of the calling is growing, and there is for us not far in 
the. future to see a complete realization of the things for which 
we have hoped and for which we have striven. 




The foun<lation of Spiceland academy was laid as early as 
18o4, when the* meuduM's of the Society ()f Friends living in the 
vicinity of S])icehnid, Ind., decider! that they must have better 
facilities for the education of tluMr children than the common 
schools of the state then afforded. Befcire the Eri(»nds were able 
to buihl a school hous(^, Robert Harrison, a7i ETiglishman, taught 
several terms in a log mcvting Ikmisc. Mr. Harrison was well edu- 
cated and also taught a Latin class, whicdi recited twice a week. 
The schrol increased m int(U"est and members until the Friends 
felt that they were able U) su])])ort a school of their ow7i. A frame 
building was built esp(K'ially for school juirposes. During this 
time the school was under the care of a committee appointed by 
S])iceland monthly meeting. In ISCiO m more c<)mmodious house 
was built and in 1>>71 a brick building was built. 

The school w:is chartered in 1S70 and is the oldest academy in 
charge of the Friends in the state. While the school is under de- 
nominational c( ntrol, it is not sectarian in the least, its purpose 
l>eing to develop ])ractical, earnest and active christian manhood 
and womanhood. 


Practically all tlio toaehors of Henry county and many of the 
adjoining counties have lx»en students of the academy, and we 
might cimclude that the school has influenced the teaching force of 
the surrounding counties to no small degree. 

The board of trustees consist of six memlK»rs, two of whom are 
appointed annually by Spiceland monthly meeting to serve a term 
of three vears. Tsually two of the members are women. At 
present the faculty consists of six mend)ers, and the enrollment is 

The academv has an endowment of nearlv seven thousand dol- 
lars and owns a farm worth at least four thousand five hundred 
dollars. The school is supported from the interest of the endow- 
ment fund, the proceeds of the farm and private tuition. It als<.> 
receives public funds from the townshij) trustee for the towniship 
high school wcn'k. 


The Friends' Bloomingdale academy was founded as a manual 
labor school in 1845 under the care of the Friends in western 
Indiana. About that time there was much speculation on new 
educational schemes. The socialistic system was rampant, com- 
munities were l)eing organized, and manual labor schools had 
manv enthusiastic adv<K*ates. llarvev Thomas, a well known 
educator of Pennsylvania, having conceived the idea of establishing 
a manual lalK)r school somewhere in the west, came out to Parke 
county, Indiana, and found a promising field for such an enter- 
])rise and attentive ears to llst(Mi to his economic plans. Al^mt 
thirty acres of land were ]>urchase<l at Bloomfield (now' Blooming- 
dale) and buildings were erectc^l. In a few years the manual 
labor ])hase oi the institution was abandoned as impracticable. 
Though failing to reach what was desired in technical arts and 
industries, the school was a success in college work. 

Prominent among those to whom the institution owes its success 
was Barnabas ('. llnbbs, I.L. I)., who server] as superintendent 
for twentv-one vears. Durini*- his sui)erintendencv the school was 
reorganized and inc<»r)>orate(l undcM* the laws (►f Indiana as the 
Friends' Bloomingdale academy. The charter provides that this 
institution shall be c(mtrol]ed and managed by Bloomingdale 
quarterly meeting of tlie FY\e\\i\^' c\v\\y<A\. Y\^ q»^^^t'$. ofirs^sAat of 


a board of tnisteos appointed by the ehureli. Tliis board selects 
a principal who has immediate jurisdiction over the school. 

The laboratory facilities, through the energy and earnestness of 
A. F. ilitchell, pr(\sent superintendent, liave been greatly enlarged 
and improved. 

The present enrol Unent is sixty-seven. This academy is sup- 
portcnl mainly by tuition of its students. There is an endowment 
fund that gives an annual revenue of $300. 


Ontral academy was organized in 1878 for the purpose of pro- 
viding thorough secondary educiition for all young people of the 
community who could not otherwise obtain such advantages. 
Afterward the work was taken up by the Friends church. In 1892 
an association was formed with a capital stock of $10,000, and a 
certificate of incorporation under the laws of Indiana was granted. 
At this time three (piarterly meetings in Morgan, Marion and 
Hendricks counties, known as the White Lick, Fairfield and Plain- 
field meetings, took up the work. Later Danville quarterly meet- 
ing was admitted into the association. The school is controlled 
by a board of twelve directors chosen by these quarterly meetings, 
three from each meeting. A president, secretary and treasurer, 
who together wnth a fourth member form an executive committee, 
are the officers of the board. 

At present there are four meml)ers of the faculty, and the 
pre*seut enrollment is fifty. The school is su])ported principally 
by tuition of $30 a year. There is a ])ermauent endowment of 
$2,500, and other funds producing about $250 a year. 


A proposition for the establishment of a quarterly meeting 
school was presented to Northern Quarterly Meeting of Friends 
held at Back creek, two miles north of Fairmount, Indiana, 
December 15, LS88. A committee composed of sixteen men and 
ten women was appointed at this meeting to consider the feasi- 
bilitA' of the proposition. In three months the committee, after 
having met four times, re])orted that they thought the opening 
a good one for the establishment of a higher institution of learn- 
ings and giving in justification of their recoiYvaverv^^XAcrei "^^ ^^- 


l<»\ving: "As we roc<»gnizo in a proporly con<liietocl school tlir 
elemoiits for tlie biiiMing up of character and rendering the ik)s- 
sessor more useful in both church and state." 

This coniuiittee suggested that the quarterly meeting incorj)o- 
rate itself for the purpose of holding property, and also presented 
to the meeting *^an article of association" for an institution of 
this kind. In June, 1S84, the couunittee reported the location 
and [)urcliase of the grounds for the academy building in Fair- 
mount, hid., and preseute<l to the meeting the names of six ]>er- 
sons to serve as trnst(»es of sai<l academy, viz., Jesse ITaislev. 
Samuel ('. Wilson, IVter 31. Wriglit, Enos Harvey, Alwl Knight, 
and W. (\ Winslow; also an incorporating couunittee comiMised 
of Ehvood Ilaisley, James ^^. Ellis, Thomas J. Xixon, Ivy Lu- 
ther and Mahlon Ilarvev. 

In Sept(;mlK^r, 1885, tlie trustees reported the building com- 
pleted at a total cost of $0,1)20.5:], and that the school would 
o])eu Septemlxn* iil, 1885, with Jos(»])h W. Parker as principal 
and instructor of the academic de[)artment, and Ehvood O. Ellis 
as instructor of the gramnuir dc^partment. By action taken by 
tlu' quarterly meeting in ^farch, 1888, the academy w-as inci^r- 
porated. In June, 1888, a contract for taking one hundred pupils 
from the corporation of Fairmount was closed for the sum of 
$720.00 tuition and $145.00 rent and fuel. The school has 
been sui)porte<l by tuition paid by the students, and, from time 
to time, voluntary subscri]>tions for its support by friends of 
the institution. In March, 180:i, the school having outgrown 
its old quarters, a pr(»]>osition to sell the academy building and 
grounds and rebuild in anotber locati(m was presented to the 
quarterly mec^ting. The meeting jq)])roved the plan and ajv 
pointed a committ(;e for this ])urpos(». The ohl building and 
location was sobl for $8,000.00. The new building and grounds, 
costing $17,»527.nO, are located one mile northwest of the center 
of Fairmount. 

IvCgal notice being given, the board of trustees, consisting of 
six members, was a])])oiiitod by the quarterly meeting to scn'e 
for three years, two being elected at each June meeting. 

At present (May, 1004) the board consists of the following 
persons: Ancil E. IJatliil*, President; dames M. Bell, Secretary; 


Joel E. Wright, Treasurer; William W. Ware; (Mrs.) Anna ]\L 
Johnson; (Mrs.) Jda Winslow. 

The faculty (1008-1904) is made up as follows: Principal 
Jjeon L. Tyler, literature and pedagogics; (Mrs.) Minnie L. Ty- 
ler, history and English; Frances A. Sheppard, Latin and Ger- 
man ; Forest Foraker, science and mathematics ; K. E. Dean, com- 
mercial; Harriett E. Henry, piano and voice. 

The enrollment in the academic courses for the present year 
(1903-1004) is 100, in the commercial course 20. 

The school is now approaching the completion of a $20,000 
endowment which it is hoped will be reached by September, 1004. 
This will, in a measure, free the quarterly meeting from special 
efforts to meet the deficits which result yearly, from the fact 
that a merely nominal tuition rate is charged ($25 per year). 
Judged by the character of its 200 graduates, a better place to 
put a gift could not be found. 

In equipment, the academy is practically in the college class. 
Its laboratory was one of the first opened in a preparatory school 
in Indiana, aiid its library, the gift of Iredell B.^Rush, of Co- 
lumbia City, Ind., is rich in reference Avorks and books of rare 
value. The students publish a paper called the Academician. 

The Aurora literary society is the on© central source of pleasure 
and forensic opportunity during the winter months. 

The work is organized so as to give the largest measure of 
latitude in the choice of courses. A four years' course leads 
to university and college entrance; a three years' elective course 
for general education or college; a three years', covering English 
work only with a year's study in pedagogics; tw^o commercial 
courses, preferably for post-graduates, each covering one year, one 
making bookkeeping the major, the other shorthand and type- 

As to subjects offered Avith maximum time: Latin, four years; 
German, two; algebra, two; geometry, one; physics, one; general 
history, two; English, three and one-half; civics, one-half; bot- 
any, one-half; biology, one-half; chemistry, one-half; Bible 
study, four; pedagogics, one; arithmetic, one; iVmerican history, 
one; English grammar, one; physiology, one-half; physical geog- 
raphy, one-half; trigonometry, one-half; commercial arithmetic, 
one-half; commercial law, one-half •, bwsmess eoTTO^^^v^wftL^w^^fc^ <^w^\ 



peumansliip, one; spelling, one; bookkeeping, one; shorthand, one; 
typewriting, one; business practice, one; instrumental music, 
four; vocal music, four. 

Tennis, basket-ball, croquet and other out-of-door sports afford 
diversions, both healthful and attractive. 


No report was submitted by the Westficld academy, though it is 
known to be an excellent sch(X)l. About two hundred students arc 


Amboy academy was established by the Society of Friends at 
Amboy, Miami county, Indiana, in 1872, and w^as under the con- 
trol of the Friends church. The first building was built by the 
Friends and paid for largely by private donations. For the first 
three years after the school Avas founded, it was supported by tui- 
tion and private subscriptions. From the first the obje(*t of the 
school was to do academic or high school work. Consequently an 
academic spirit has always pervaded the institution^ In 1875 the 
Friends leased tins building to the township trustees and school 
was continued under township management. Then the town and 
township bought the Friends' building together; other buildings 
were added and the school became a joint town and township high 
school. The school is at present under the management of public 
officers, and is a commissioned high school. 

Amboy academy is now a joint graded school of Jackson town- 
ship and town of Amboy, ifiami county, Indiana. It is under the 
joint management of the township trustee and three members of 
the tow^n school board. Said trustee is elected by vote of the i>eoplc 
for a term of four years. The members of the school board of 
Amboy academy are elected by the trustees of the town of Aml)oy 
for a term of three years. There are eight members in the facultj' 
and four grade teachers. The school occupies one building. The 
])resent enrollment is two hundred and thirty-five, sixty of whom 
are in the liigh school department. 

It is supporte<l bv state funds and local taxation of Jackson 
township and town of Ambf^y. The township defrays 05 per cent. 
of the running expenses and the town 85 per cent. 

Tlio schoo] has graduated Vl^ )r\\\\^\A9., 
At prosont A. E. Miivt\u \^ s\\v<>^*^^^^'^'^^^^^^^ • 




The Culver military academy, the largest and possibly the best 
known private academy in the world, was founded in 1894 by the 
late 11. IT. Culver, a generous and philanthropic citizen of St. 
Louis. Since his death his widow and sons, residents of St. Louis, 
who with the superintendent, constitute a self -appointing board of 
trustees have vigorously carried out Mr. Culver's plans, constantly 
adding new buildings and equipment, until today the school stands 
a groat monument to its founder, and a credit to the state and 
nation. The rapid growth of the institution is without parallel in 
the history of private schools, its attendance increasing 800 per 
cent, in three years. 

Col. A. F. Fleet, A. M., LL. D., the present superintendent, has 
\yoei\ the head of Culver military academy almost since its begin- 
ning. Under his skillful and almost magic touch, the corps of 
cadets has grown from a company of thirty to a battalion of almost 
two hundred and forty ; with enough applicants in excess of capac- 
ity for each of the past two or three years to fill another school. 
Col. Fleet received his instruction in the great civil war and 
during all the years since he has been teaching. The superin- 
tendent is assisted by a staff of sixteen officers and instructors, 
who are themselves graduates of leading colleges. 

There are three great fire-proof barracks, a steel and brick rid- 
ing hall, a splendid gymnasium of similar structure, equipped 
with running track, baths, etc. These constitute the main build- 
ings of the Culver plant. For military purposes the United 
States government has issued the academy a splendid equipment 
of small arms and artillery. 

The academy is affiliated with the university of Chicago. The 
life of cadets is regulated by the trumpet, and, while strict, has 
many features of great interest to the boys. The cadet black horse 
troop is possibly the most attractive feature to the boys. 

A unique feature of Culver is the summer session. The 
academy is located on lake Maxinkuckee, and the government has 
issued four man-of-war cutters, so that the summer session becomes 
a naval school. The ciidets take one or two studies in the morn- 


ing, and have great sport learning the sailor's art. on the water in 
the afternoon. The schof)l is under the command of Major L. R. 
Gignilliat, who has been for a number of years the commandant of 
the Culver military academy. 


Howe School was founded in 1884 at Lima, Indiana, in the 
northeastern part of the state, in the name of Hon. John B. Howe, 
who had deceased the year before. A property including thirteen 
acres of land and a beautiful residence were left by him at his 
death to the church to be used preferably for educational purposes. 
It was an humble beginning but the gift had behind it a clear view 
of what was lacking in American education. Along with this gift 
of property went a gift of $10,000 which was to serve as an endow- 
ment fund for the education of boys to the church ministry. This 
whole gift seems to have been made without any clear view as to 
how the provisions of the will were to he carried out. Fortunately 
Bishop Knickerbacker, who had been consecrated in 1883, was 
anxious at this time to establish some organized educational work 
in his diocese. This legacy left by ^Ir. Howe, the great healthful- 
iiess of Lima and the l>eauty of the surrounding country, influ- 
enced the bishop into choosing this spot for his school. The condi- 
tions of the gift and the ideals of the donor were so peculiarly in 
sympathy with the bishop's own ideas that the coincidence was a 
very happy one and the school, though humble, was started under 
very propitious circumstances. The endowment and property, 
however, were not large enough, and the bishop out of his own re- 
sources added materlallv to the ^ift. Without the munificence of 
Mr. Howe's widow and brother, however, the ])lan of the bishop 
could never have been brought to fruition. In fact, from the very 
first, the school became the life-long object of the munificence and 
love of Mrs. Frances M. Ilowe. The school opened in 1884 with 
two boys. The Reverend (\ X. Spaulding, formerly rector of St. 
J(>hn's Church, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, was the first rector of 
Howe School. 

But it was not long before the school began to enlarge and more 
room was necessary. The fundamental idea at the beginning had 
l)eon that the school life sliould l)e as nearly as possible a real home 


life. Tliis idea' lias always exercised a definite influence in the 
administration of the school, but as the school increased in num- 
bers a modification of the idea was necessarv. The scliool during 
the next ten years multiplied in every respect, and as a result of 
gifts from various sources, but principally from Mrs. Howe, a 
broad foundation was laid. 

But the school remained in comparative insignificance until Dr. 
Spaulding was su])erseded in 1805 by the present rector, Ur. J. II. 
McKinzie. The first ten years had hardly fulfilled expectations 
and hardly carried out the ideals of its founder and benefactors. 
A more energetic and intelligent policy was necessary for the put- 
ting of the school among the pre])aratory schools of the. west. A 
stronger hand was needed at the helm, and from the time of the 
change in management, the school began to grow and enlarge in an 
encouraging way. The material equipment was soon largely in- 
creased. The horizon of the future began soon to brighten. The 
first few years, to l)e sure, of the new regime were passed under 
very discouraging circumstances, but by grimly holding on and by 
the encouragements w^hich came from the various members of the 
Howe family, and especially from Mrs. IIowt, the dark days were 
successfully weathered and brighter skies came with che^r and 
help. The accommodations w^ere enlarged by the building of the 
James B. Howe Hall and Blake Hall. New quarters were pro- 
vided for the dining room; the plumbing and lighting equipment 
was largely added to; a separate building was soon found for the 
separate organization of the lower school, and finally, and within 
the last year, the school was blessed with an addition in the form of 
a school chapel. The school life growing more and more intricate 
has thus not been hampered by want of increasing accommodations 
and facilities. The founders have seen to it that the school lacked 
nothing in the way of equipment. The increasing usefulness and 
influence of the school have filled all with confidence and manv 
have not hesitated to invest their money, knowing that it would Ik» 
permanently useful ami aid in an enter])rise that is bound to as- 
sume larger and larger proportions as the years pass by. 

The ideals and inner life of the school have kept pace with the 
material development. The religious influence of the church has 
always Ix^en carefully looked after. The military discipline and 
drill which came in with the advent oi tVvc w^w t^v.\\,oy \\^^ ^^'^cs'^ 


been an important but not predominant feature of the school. The 
academic requirements have been pushed until the school prepares 
for the most difficult examinations of American colleges. In fine, 
the grade and character of the school has become such that it has 
been admitted as a member in the north central association of col- 
leges and secondary schools. Its diploma now admits without 
examination to any college or university in the west. The history 
of the last nine years are prophetic of a period of great usefulness. 



The girls' classical school was founded by Theodore Lovett 
Sewall, A. B., in 1882. Mr. Sewall, who had in 1876 opened a 
classical school for boys, felt that a local school was even less ade- 
quate for girls than for the education of boys. His wife, May 
Wright Sewall, being deeply interested in education and wishing 
an opportunity to apply some theories of her own in the education 
of girls, suggested to Mr. Sewall that he extend his own in- 
fluence in the field of education by organizing a school which 
would secure to girls the same opportunities for classical culture 
which were provided for boys by the school he was already conduct- 
ing, and at the same time make provision for such special tuition 
and discipline as both Mr. and Mrs. Sewall believed to be required 
for girls. The school was opened in SeptelTiber of 1882. Since 
the school was organized courses of study have been introduced 
form time to time until now there are four distinct courses leading 
to graduation besides special courses which may be pursued by 
students not expecting to graduate, and, in addition to these, 
departments in art, music and household science. While entirely 
non-sectarian the inculci^tion of religious principle and belief are 
steadily maintained. 

Up to date 195 young ladies have graduated from the school ; of 
this number sixty-four entered the best colleges for women in the 

The school is now perfectly ec] nipped for all kinds of work cus- 

toinnry in girls' seliools and besides has a department of household 

firioticc. It now occupies \\vo \nV\V\u\^^. TV\^ ^\vc^\«\^\^ ist the 


current year is 130 pupils. The faculty includes twenty members. 
WTiile it lias a board of advisors, it remains what it was at the be- 
ginning, an individual enterprise, supported solely by the tuition 
of its pupils and conducted under the direction of a single mind. 


No detailed information can be given of this school as no report 
was submitted. 


Founded by Kev. J. Gumming Smith., D. D., and Miss Fre- 
donia Allen, Ph. B., in the year 1902. 

Aim. — The aim of the school is to provide for its pupils a thor- 
ough, systematic training, with a view to an all-around efficiency, 
emphasis furthermore being placed on surrounding the school with 
a liomelike atmosphere. Though the school is absolutely unde- 
nominational, vet the literature of the Bible is used as a basis of 
religious study. 

The college preparatory course receives particular attention, and 
an exceptionally high standard is characteristic of the school. 

Location. — Indianapolis is a healthful and beautiful city, far- 
famed for its homes and churches, and offering unusual opportuni- 
ties in art, music, lectures and the drama. The site of the school 
is in tlie most attractive residential portion. The house, contain- 
ing large, cheerful aj)artments, is heated with hot water and 
lighted by electricity. 

Music. — The music department is under the personal direction 
of Prof. Bellinger and his faculty, in piano, theory, and singing, 
both individual and choral. 

Physical Culture. — Daily work in gymnasium under Miss 
Swan is given to each pupil. 

The Standard. — A school diploma requires four years of 
English, two years of Latin, one year of mathematics, three years 
of French, German or Greek, four years of Bible study, four years 
of choral work, one year of history, one year of mathematics. 

The Primary Dei)artment. — The aim in this department is to 
give the children a wholesome development, laying the foundations 
for future work slowly, wisely and thoroughly. TW \!^^vjW\^ \w 


charge have made a careful study of the application of kindergar- 
ten methods to primary work so that the pupils are led by easy 
steps and a plain path. 

Tn addition to the usual studies of this grade, reading, writing, 
spelling, number and nature study, the children are given lessons 
in physical training, drawing, chorus singing, Bible stories, Ger- 
man, local geography, weather observations and maps. 

Boys are admitted for the first three years of this work. 

The Preparatory Department. — In this department the students 
are taught to investigate for themselves, to consult dictionaries and 
reference books freely. 

They are impressed with the necessity of careful preparation 
and are trained in accuracy of observation and expression by 
teachers who are specialists. 

Since so much of the success in higher grades depends upon the 
work done in this, it is placed on an equal footing and taught by 
the same instructors. 

The Kindergarten. — The kindergarten makes the child at ease 
with himself and his little companions; it teaches the alphabet of 
things, arouses a keen, happy spirit of investigation, translates the 
Golden Rule into daily living, and trains the head, the heart and 
the hand. 

The best results can not be had unless a child is entered during 
his fourth year. The general development of kindergarten pupils 
uinkes their progress more rapid and thorough in after years. 



St. Mary's of the Woods was founded in 1840 by sisters of 
Providence from Ruille-sur-Loir, France. The institution was 
cliartcrcd in January, 184(5, by the state legislature of Indiana, 
and empowered with rights to confer academic honors and collegi 
ate degrees. The instruction is entirely under the direction of the 
sisters, and the education given is practical, solid and refined, em- 
l)racing the development of the student in physical, mental and 
moral powers. 

The present enrollment is 240. The buildings are eight in 
nnnihor^ the throe principal ones beiu^ the church, college and con- 


vent. The curricula of collegiate, academic and preparatory de- 
partments are arranged after the most approved methods. 

The courses in art and music are most excellent, every advan- 
tage of equipment being offered. 


St. Augustine's academy of Ft. Wayne, was founded in 1843 
and chartered in 1848, and is under the supervision of the sisters 
of Providence, whose mother house is at St. Mary's, Terre Haute. 

There are preparatory and academic departments, also special 
work in music and art. 

There is one main building, well equipped in all departments. 

The present enrollment is four hundred thirty-seven, and twenty 
teachers are employed. 

The Institution is self-supporting. 


The founder of the community of the sisters of St. Francis at 
Oldenburg, Indiana, is the Rev. Francis Joseph Rudolph, a native 
of Battenheim, Alsace, who was ordained priest in 1839, at Strass- 
burg, Alsace. Wliilc yet a student of theology, he resolved to de- 
vote himself to the American missions. In 1842 he came to the 
United States and commenced work at Fort Wayne. In 1844 he 
went to Oldenburg and opened a school with the best educated man 
he could find as teacher. He became convinced that the only way 
he could give the youth competent instruction was to open a con- 
vent, and others soon joined him in the work. The community 
now numbers about five hundred. 

The sisters conduct twenty-six parochial schools, one exclusively 
for colored children, and ten are at the same time public schools. 
Furthermore, ten academies are doing successful work in higher 
education. The property consists of a mother-house with 400 
acres of land and twelve mission houses. The community is gov- 
erned by a superior general, each mission by a local superior. In 
1885 the community was incorporated ii\ t\ve ^IsiV^^ ol\Ti'^vKaa^^i:^^ 


Missouri, under the legal title of "Sisters <»f St. Francis, of Olden- 
burg, Ind.," for the j)urj)ose of establishing and maintaining a 
school and institution in Oldenburg, Ind., for training of teachers 
(females) for the education of males and females. 

There is a board of five trustees, ekH?ted for a term of three 
years, by the ballot of the community, every third year. The 
trustees, of whom mother superior is president, make all other ap- 
pointments of faculty, etc. 

The enrollment at ])resent is 120 at the academy, and it is self- 

There is also in the communitv a normal school for those who 
aspire to be teachers. The attendance ranges from twenty-five to 
thirty for the winter term and from forty-five to fifty for the sum- 
mer term. 


The sisters of Providence first came to Evansville from St. 
Mary's of the Woods in 185;]. From that date until 1878 they 
taught the parochial schools of the assumption parish and those of 
Holy Trinity parish. 

Music and art are taught with the regular academic work. 
There are twelve teachers in all in the two parishes. 

The charter provisions of 1846 cover all the branch houses. 

The institution is supported by a salary for the parochial 
schools and the income (►f tli(^ high school, the music and art. 

There arc 450 ])U])ils in the tw(> parish(\s and sixty in music and 


St. Hose's academv was founded in 1854. It furnishes thor- 


(►ugh courses in the common school branches, also a high school 
(academic) course. The school is a branch institution of St. 
Mary's academy (college), Xotre Dame, which is under the direc- 
tion of the religious order of the sisters of the Holy Cross (Roman 

The faculty numbers five members of that order, and has an en- 
rollment of seveiity-oue at present. 

Tho scJiool is su])portev\ oi\\\Ye\\ \a' vV\n^\v^ \\\\\Awvi^%. 



St. Meinrad college, which was first opened for the education of 
young men in January 1, 1857, has developed since its establish- 
ment into an institution with three distinct departments and fac- 
ulties: St. Meinrad seminary, St. Meinrad college, and Jasper 
college. The three departments of this institution are conducted 
by the fathers of the Benedictine order, which for the past fourteen 
centuries has done so much for civilization, education, and the 
spread of Christian piety — and are connected with the abbey of 
St. Meinrad. The first two (for ecclesiastical students) at St. 
Meinrad, Ind., the last named (for secular students) at Jasper, 
Ind. All three departments were incorporated in the year 1890 
under the title of **St. Meinrad Abbey," subject to the laws of 
incorporation of the state of Indiana, and empowered to confer 
the usual degrees. There are seven members of the board of 
trustees chosen annually by the president of the institution from 
among the members of St. Meinrad abbey. 

The faculty of the ecclesiastical departments and the majority 
of the faculty board of the commercial department are likewise 
n^embers of the same abbey, seventeen of them composing the 
former, and four others aided by two lay professors, the latter. 

The current enrollment of the three departments is as follows: 
in the department of theolog\' and philosophy, forty-five; in the 
department of classics, sixty-six; in the commercial department, 

The institution is suj)ported by fees from the students. The 
librarv contains 10,000 volumes. 


Tn June of the present year (1904) St. John's academy hopes 
to celebrate its forty-fifth annual commencement. Shortly after 
the erection of St. John's church, the first Catholic church in 
the city, Rev. Aug. Bessonies began to be solicitous about estab- 
lishing a school, and invited the sisters of Providence of St. 
Mary's of the Woods to undertake this work. In response to 
liis call, a number of sisters opened an academy on the corner 
of Georgia and Tennessee streets. Two years later, an addltiow 


had to be made to accommodate all the applicants. In 1873 
the sisters removed to their present large and commodious struc- 
ture facing Maryland street. 

There are at present three hundred pupils enrolled in this acad- 
emy under the direction of seventeen teachers. The institution 
is self-supporting. A board of examiners, consisting of five mem- 
bers chosen by the reverend mother superior general and the 
Kt. Rev. Bishop of Indianapolis, annually assembles at St. Mary's 
of the Woods for the purpose of holding the institute and the ex- 
aminations. This institute is a yearly reunion of all the teachers 
of the schools in charge of the sisters of Providence. 

The method of instruction followed embraces all that goes to 
form the character of an amiable, useful and accomplished woman. 

To preserve the integrity of the system established by the sis- 
ters of Providence, pupils that aim at graduation must conform 
strictly to the required academic course. There are eight grades 
preparatory to this course. The academic department embraces 
four grades. The music department is one of the most attractive 
of the institution. In this department instruction is given to 
the pupils collectively and individually, in order to preserve and 
cultivate each one's characteristic style. 

To contribute to the development of artistic taste, recitals are 
given semiannually, in which all the pupils who have acquired 
a certain proficiency participate, playing from memory. Aside 
from these there are monthly examinations. The piano music 
course is divided into eight grades. The time required to com- 
plete the course is determined by the pupil's talent and appli- 
cation. The class of music studied embraces selections from the 
best composers, both ancient and modern, and the students are 
expected to conform to the established curriculum. 


St. Mary's academy was established in 1863, the present 
building having been occupied since 1870. The institution is 
under the charge of the sisters of St. Francis, the moral and re- 
ligous training being of paramount importance. 

There arc several departments such as music, art, business, 
nnd liberal arts. The school k ?.\\\)\NOTted by tuition. 



This school was founded in 18G5 by Mother iVngela, superior 
of the sisters of the Holy Cross. It is not chartered, being a small 
parochial school. At present there are eighty pupils enrolled, 
who are taught by three sisters of the Holy Cross sent from St. 
Mary's convent, Notre Dame, Tnd. The school is supported by 
the tuition paid by the pupils. 


This institution, a private lK)arding school for a smjall number 
of pupils, was founded in 1866 under the direction of the sisters 
of the Holy Cross from St. Mary's academy, Notre Dame, Ind., 
it being the third school founded by the order. Its work embraces 
all the branches necessary to a refined and practical education, ten 
years being required to complete the course. The faculty now 
numbers seven, and the ])resent enrollment of pupils is fifty. The 
institution is run on such a ])lan as to make the terms easy for 
f)<)or students, yet it is self-sup] )orting. 

The pupils are encouraged tt) edit quarterly a journal, which 
is of great value in their work. 


This institution was founded in 1870, and is under the direc- 
tion of the sisters of the Holv Cross from their mother house, 
St. Mary's, Notre Dame. There are two brick buildings costing 
$18,000. The school is carried on as a lx»arding school for boys 
under twelve years of age, and a day school for young ladies and 
children. One hundred and thirty pupils are now in attendance. 


St. Mary's academv, under the direction of the sisters of the 
Holy Cross, was chartered Februnrv 28, 1885, under an act of 
the general assembly of the state of Indiana, whereby the insti- 
tution was empowered ^'to confer su(»h degrees upon scholars 
H3 are usual in academies of the lug\\ost ^VawAXw^?^ 


The officers, superior general and four assistants form the 
council of administration and make up the board of trustees. 
The officers are elected by general suffrage, the term of office 
being six years. The second assistant-general is directress of St. 
Mary's academy and is head of a faculty of thirty-eight members. 
Pupils enrolled for 1903-04, 300. 

There are three departments, the senior, junior and minim. 
Girls under twelve years are placed in the minim department. 
The collegiate course requires four years and special advantages 
are offered in music, art, English literature or languages. The 
entire course is practical and comprehensive, and it is the aim 
to train the heart as well as the mind, to form women who will 
grace society with their accomplishments, and honor and edify 
it with their virtues. Every attention is given to moral and 
religious culture. 


This institution was established in 1886 by the sisters of St. 
Benedict, for the purpose of educating young ladies. It is located 
five miles from the well-known college of St. Meinrad. The 
course of instruction includes every useful and ornamental branch 
of education, divided into four departments — primary, interme- 
diate, senior and commercial. Diplomas are awarded to all those 
who complete all the studies of cither senior or commercial de- 
partments. The number in attendance is twenty-five pupils. 


Jasper college was founded in 1889 and was opened for the 
occupation of students on September 12 of the same year. It 
was incorporated in January, 1890, under the laws of the State 
of Indiana, in conjunction with St. Meinrad's college, and em- 
powered to confer the usual academic degrees. Tlie institution 
is supervised and conduct-ed by the Benedictine fathers. 

The Kt. Kev. Athanasius Schmitt, O. S. B., abbot of St. 

Meinrad's monastery, is ex officio president of the institution. 

Ifot residing in the college at Jasper, he is represented by the 

reverend rector of tlie institution, who is the head of the college 

and is assisted by a faculty oi ?ixe \>to1^^'s^c^t'?s. 


The course of study comprises three years for the commercial 
course and two for the scientific course. Applicants who upon 
an examination prove themselves far enough advanced to take 
up any other course than the first may obtain their diploma 
and degree within a shorter period of time. 

The object of Jasper college is to afford the facilities for se- 
curing a solid and complete commercial and scientific education, 
and hence the college is open to all, irrespective of religious 

The college is situated on the outskirts of Jasper, the county 
seat of Dubois county, and is directly accessible by the Tx)uis- 
ville-St Louis division of the Southern railway, Jasper forming 
the terminus of the Evansville and Jasper branch of the above- 
mentioned railroad. 

The college buildings are substantially built of brick and sand- 
stone, with Bedford and Lake Superior limestone trimmings. 
The kitchen, refectory and boiler-room are located in separate 
buildings especially constructed for that purpose, at a distance of 
several yards from the main structure. This separation was made 
in order to obviate divers difficulties and hindrances, which, 
experience teaches, can not be avoided without such precaution. 
All the halls, rooms and corridors in each building are well 
ventilated and lighted by electricty, heated by an excellent system 
of steam heating, and furnished with water-pipes and appurte- 
nances. The lavatory and bathrooms, supplied with hot and cold 
water, have been fitted with the latest modern improvements. For 
cleanliness and convenience they arc almost perfect. Attention 
is called to the fact that there is very little or no danger of fire 
occurring in the building. The absence of stoves, the convenience 
of fireplugs and hose, the caution taken to have every wall built 
of stone, all tend to make the construction safe against conflagra- 
tions. Fire esca])Os are erected on the east and west sides of the 
main building. Tliese were ])iit up strictly according to the 
specifications of the laws of the state of Indiana. Every appli- 
ance has bef»n carefullv and tastefullv selected with a view of 

« c 

giving the college the advantage of a beautiful, commodious rnd 
healthfully arranged edifice. 


The college does not enjoy the support of the state but depends 
upon the attendance of its students. The present attendance is 


This institution is situated near the city of Rensselaer, about 
48 miles north of Lafayette, and 72 miles southeast of Chicago. 
The college was opened in 1891, and is incorporated under the 
laws of Indiana, with powers to confer degrees and academical 
honors. The first class graduated in 1896. 

The main building presents a frontage of 325 feet, and has 
ample accommodations for 200 students. Spacious classrooms, 
recreation, cheerful refectories, fine reception rooms, a beautiful 
chapel, comfortable private rooms, airy dormitories, lavatories, 
bathrooms, a replete gymnasium, etc., form parts of this model 
establishment. A smaller building is devoted to the musical de- 
partment of the institution. A spacious music hall, eight practice 
rooms, besides apartments for the use of the military band and 
orchestra belong to this department. 

The recreation grounds are extensive and afford every facility 
for beneficial and manly sports. The surrounding groves, lawns 
and the campus are very extensive and beautiful. According to 
the American Journal of Health, St. Joseph's "is an ideal board- 
ing school from the view point of the hygienist" 

St. Joseph's college is exclusively a Catholic institution, 
founded and conducted bv the fathers of the Societv of the Most 
Precious Blood, a religious commimity engaged in educational 
and missionary work. 

The board of trustees is composed of six persons, elected by 
the members of the community, in whom the ownership and con- 
trol of the college is vested. The president and other officers are 
appointed by the officials of this comnninity. The faculty at 
present consists of thirteen professors and two assistants. 

The college has three different courses of study, the collegiate, 
tlie nonnal and the commercial. For the completion of the 
normal and commercial courses a three years' attendance is re- 
quired ; for the completion of the classical or regular collegiate, 
^7A' vnu'f^. The degree of lVac\\e\<>T oi X^t-?. k conferred on the 


student who has suceessfnlly oomploted the collegiate course. To 
obtain this distinction he must pass satisfactory examinations in 
religion, logic, ethics, Latin, (Jreek, English literature, poetics, 
plane and spherical trigonometry, geometry, algebra, ancient and 
modern history. 

A diploma is awarded to the students of the normal and com- 
mercial course for proficiency in religion, English, mathematics, 
pedagogy, physiology-, United States history, physical geography, 
civil government. Bookkeeping, commercial law, mathematics, 
tyj)ewriting and stenography form the greater part of the com- 
mercial course. 

Besides these branches there are many optional branches such 
as the principal modern languages, especially German and 
French ; the sciences, astronomy, botany, physics, geology, and 

A complete course of instruction in instrumental and vocal 
music is also included in the curriculum of the college. It in- 
cludes a thorough understanding and application of the principles 
of harmony and musical composition. 

The institution is also equipped with a library of several 
thousand volumes, two reading-rooms and libraries for the stu- 
dents, a well-selected museum of curiosities as also the apparatus 
necessary for the science classes. 

At present St. Joseph's college has an enrt)llmont of loO. The 
College is supporte<l entirely by the tuition fees of the* stnih^nts. 

32— Education. 





I • 







I. Universities, Colleges and Normal 




The first proposition looking toward an appropriation of public 
lands in tlie Northwest territory for the support of education 
was made June 5, 1783, when Col. Bland, of Virginia, moved 
in congress to divide the territory into districts suitable for pros- 
pective states, and for a reservation of lands for the founding 
of seminaries of learning. 

On May 20, 17S5, a law was enacted which provided that sec- 
tion 10 in every township should be reserved for the maintenance 
of public schools. This reservation marks the beginning of the pol- 
icv which, uniformlv observed since then, has set aside one-thirtv- 
sixth of the land in each new state for the miiintenancc of com- 
mon schools. This act of the continental congress may be looked 
upon as the beginning of state education in the west. 

On July 2o, 1787, two additional townships were gained for 
the state of Ohio, for the perpetual support of a university. The 
precedent here established gave Indiana an opportunity to claim 
a similar donation from congress, which she afterward obtained. 

On March 20, 1804, congress passed an act providing for the 
sale of certain lands in the three districts — Detroit, Kaskaskia 
and Vincennes — ^Svith the excey)tion of the section numbered 10, 
which shall be reserved in each township for the support of schools 
within the same; also, of an entire township in each of the three 
described tracts of country or districts to be located by the secre- 
tary of the treasury for th(^ us(> of a seminary of learning.'' On 
the 10th of October, the said secretary located township 2 south, 
range 11 east, now in Gibson county, Indiana, for the above stated 



li\ an act t<) nrovicU- for the admission of Indiana as a state 
into tlio union, congress provided, April 19, 1816, "that one entire 
township, wliich shall be designated by the president of the United 
States, in addition to the one heretofore reserv^ed for tliat purpf>s<^, 
shall be reserved for the use of a seminary of learning to be 
a])])roi)riated solely to the use of such seminary, by the legislature 
of the state." The first general assembly of Indiana territory 
passed *^an act to incorporate a university in the Indiana terri- 
tory." This act was approved Xoveniber 29, 1806, and the insti- 
tution was then and is still known as Vincennes university. 
This was the first institution for higher learning within the limits 
of Indiana. T(» it was given the seminary township, as referred 
to above, and power w^as granted it to sell four thousand acres, 
to receive beque^^ts, and to hold not exceeding one hundred thou- 
sand acres of land. The lottery method was at one time employed 
to raise funds for the support of the institution and to procure 
a library. Public sentiment condenmed this policy, and it soon 
ceased to o])erate. In 1822 an act was passed by the general 
assembly for the practical confiscation of its land for the support 
of its new "sttite seminary'' at Bloomington, and in 1824: the 
state fonnallv declared the Vincennes institution extinct. This 
act provided for the sale of the seminary township in Gibson 
county and for the use of the money as a productive fund for 
the l>enefit of the state seminary, previously established at Bloom- 

The w-ithdrawal of state care and attention from this early 
school is not fully exy)lained. The removal of the capital; the 
carelessness of trustees and indifference of its friends; the rise 
of similar ^'academies" and "seminaries" in other portions of the 
stat(S and ])erha])s, ])olitical influence — all these worked adversely 
to the continuance of the school at Vincennes as a state insti- 

Xotwithstanding the miuiy reverses of this institution, its early 
history is an essential part of the history of higher education 
by the state. Its early life represents the first effort of the people 
toward a state university. Thus, in the wilderness, among hardy 
])ioneers, before* the state took its place in the Union, and years 
before any system of common schools for its people had birth, 


the representatives of the people made provision for higher edu- 


In accordance with section 2, article IX of the constitution 
of 1816, the general assembly, by an act passed and approved 
January 20, 1820, took the first definite step toward the estab- 
lishment of the Indiana imiversity, and as a result the Indiana 
seminary was opened in May, 1824. Within three years it had 
made such progress in number of students and the general char- 
acter of its work that a board of visitors, appointed by the general 
assembly in 1827, recom^mended that the Indiana seminary be 
raised to the dignity of a college. On January 28, 1828, this 
recommendation was enacted into law. The continued growth 
and increasing importance of the institution led the general assem- 
bly, in 1838, to confer upon it the name and style of the Indiana 

The board of trustees of the Indiana university is required 
to report biennially to the governor of the state, and to the super- 
intendent of public instruction whenever by him requested, on all 
matters relating to the university. The whole administration of 
the university is likewise open to the inspection of a board of 
visitors, composed of the governor, lieutenant-governor, speaker 
of the house of representatives, judges of the supreme court, and 
the superintendent of public instruction ; and all accounts of the 
university are regularly audited by the auditor of state. The 
president of the university also is ex-ofiicio a member of the 
state board of education, a body which has general supervision 
of public education within the state. 

Under the system authorized by the constitution and the laws 
of the state, instruction for the first eight years of school life 
is furnished in the grades, the next four in the high school, and 
the last four in the university. 

The annual attendance prior to 1850 ranged from thirty-eight 
in 1841 to one hundred and fifteen in 1848. From 1850 to 1884 
the smallest attendance in the university was forty-eight in 1853, 
the largest one hundred and ninety in 1881. The remarkable 


growth in the last fifteen years is shown by the foUowing five- 
year table: 

1 888 275 

1893 572 

1898 1049 

11K« 14G9 

Dr. William Lowe Bryan is president of the nniversity. He 
is tenth in line of snecession. Tn chronological order the list of 
presidents is as follows: Andrew Wylie, D. D., 1829-61; Alfred 
Ryors, D. I)., 18r)i>-r)3; William Mitchel Daily, D. D., LL. D., 
1853-59; John Hiram Lathrop, LL. D., 1859-60; Cyrus Nutt, 
D. D., LL. D., 1800-75; T^miiel Moss, D. D., 1875-84; David 
Starr Jordan, Ph. D., LL. D., 1884-91; John Merle Coulter, 
Ph. D., LL. I)., 1891-93; Joseph Swain, M. S., LL. D., 1893- 
1902; William Lowe Bryan, Ph. D., since 1902. 

Admission to the university w^as, until the college year 1868-69, 
restricted to men, but by a resolution of the board of trustees 
the doors of the university were at the beginning of that year 
opened to women on the same terms. Since 1869, therefore, 
the university has bc»on co-educational in all its departments. Of 
the fourteen hundred and sixtv-nine students in Indiana uni- 
versity last year, nine hundred and nine were men and five 
hundred and sixtv were women. 

Indiana universitv was one of the first educational institutions 
of the country to ad()])t the elective course of study. This system 
is designed to secure a fundamental uniformity in the work of 
all students, and at the same time be flexible and adaptable to 
the needs of individuals. An equal amount of preparation for 
admission is required of all students — all must take a group of 
similar prescril)ed studies, all nuist follow some special line of 
study during throe or four years. All students meeting the uni- 
v(Tsitv requirements receive the <l(*irree of bachelor of arts. At 
the same time the student is granted great. freedom in the selec- 
tion of his studies, t\w educational value of the element of per- 
sonal choice being fully recognized. 

The board of trustees is composed of (»ight meml)ers, five of 
whom are selected bv the state board of education, and three by 
the alumni of the instituti(>n. The officers of the board are a 
president^ secretary and trev\^\AYeY. 


There are seventy-one members of the faculty who were edu- 
cated in sixty of the leading institutions of America and Europe. 
Exclusive of the school of law and the school of medicine, there are 
nineteen departments, as follows: Greek, Latin, Romance lan- 
guages, German, English, history and political science, philosophy, 
economics and social science, pedagogy, mathematics, mechanics 
and astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology and geography, zool- 
ogy", botany, fine arts, music and physical training. 

The first site of the university adjoined the town on the south. 
This site lay in Perry township, the township granted by congress 
in 1816 for seminary purposes. Here in a temporary structure 
was opened in 1824 what was called the state seminary, the style 
being changed to Indiana college in 1828 and to Indiana uni- 
versity in 1838. In 1886 a more pretentious building was erected, 
which was destroyed by fire in 1854, with its valuable contents 
in the form of libraries and collections. The friends of the uni- 
versity then rallied to its aid, and another and better building 
was erected. This building, one of the most picturesque in Bloom- 
ington, is now known as the old college. It was purchased in 
1897 by the board of education of the city of Bloomington, and 
is occupied by the Bloomington high school. In 1874 a second 
larger building, of similar design to the old college, was erected 
for the libraries and museum. In a second fire, in 1883, this 
building, with all its contents, was destroyed. 

The fire of 1883 marked a turning point in the history of 
the institution. It was decided to remove the university to a 
more ample site and one away from the noise and disturbance 
of the railway. For this purpose the tract known as Dunn's 
wrods, east of the city of Bloomington, was purchased. Including 
later purchases, the campus now has an extent of about fifty 
acres. The cam])us proper is well wooded and of a rolling na- 
ture; a portion of the remainder is more level, and is used for 
the athletic field and for tennis courts. 

The campus is cared for by an experienced gardener, who, 
under the direction of the department of botany, has set out many 
rare plants, shrubs and trees. The chief university buildings 
form an L on the* crest of the campus proper, the longer line 
of the L overlooking the town to the west. The chief buildings, 
beginning with the one nearest the cAty, ?vTe\ "^Vx^^v^ V*^^ 


erected in 1890; Owen hall, 1884; Wylie hall, 1884; Kirkwood 
hall, 1894; Science hall, 1902. Other buildings are: Mitchell 
hall, 1884; Kirkwood observatory, 1900; the men's gymnasium, 
1896; the power house, and the old gymnasium. 

Maxwell hall, which forms the north side of the L, is named 
for Dr. David H. Maxwell, one of the most energetic promoters 
of the state seminary and a life-long friend of the university in 
the three stages of its development, and for his son, Dr. James D. 
ifaxwell, a member of the board of trustees from 1860 to 1892. 
The building is of white limestone and is fireproof. In architec- 
tur(» it is romanesque, \vith the characteristic grotesque and ara- 
hesijuc ornaments of the style. Maxw^ell hall is used chiefly for the 
library and administrative offices. Quarters in the basement 
are occupied bv the co-o])erative association and the woman's 

Owen hall, a scjuare brick building with pentice vestibule, is 
named for Richard Owen, the geologist, who was professor of 
natural science in Indiana university from 1862 to 1879. It 
is practically fire])roof. Ow^en hall contains the collections in 
natural history, and quarters of the departments of zoology and 
botany. A gn^enhouse for the use of the department of botany 
has been erected in connection with this building. 

Wvlie hall (])artially destroyed by fire February 7, 1900, but 
now entirely restored and increased by one story) is larger and 
more imposing than Owen hall. Like Owen it is built of brick, 
trimmed with stone. Dr. Andrew Wylie, the first president of 
Indiana univc^rsity, and Professor Theopolis A. Wylie, the col- 
league of Professors Owen and Kirkwood, are worthily com- 
memorated in this building, erected in 1884. Wylie hall is 
devoted to ehoniistrv (basement, first floor and part of second), 
mathematics (second floor), and law and the law library (third 

Kirkwood hall is the second largest building on the campus, 
and is built of whit<^ limest<me. A romanesque portal surmounted 
by a nuissive square tower is the most striking feature of the 
facade. The building contains the rooms of the following de- 
partments: English (basement and first floor), economics and 
social science (hasenient and first floor), history and political 
science (first floor), Greek (^«^CQO\\v\^ooT'^,\^"5\\;vci (^^^i^^^ 


Komance languages (second floor), German (second floor), fine 

arts (third floor). The Christian associations also liave quarters 

in the third story, while a women's waiting room is provided 

on the first floor. 

Science hall was completed in 1902 and dedicated January 

21, 1903, in connection with the exercises of foundation day 

and the installation of President Bryan. It stands at the tip 

of the L. Its interior construction is of brick, iron and con- 
crete, the exterior being of wliite limestone. It is fireproof, and 

is the largest building on the campus. It contains a basement 

and four stories, and is occupied by the following departments: 

Physics (basement and first fl(X)r), philosophy and psychology 

(second floor, third floor), pedagogy (second floor, third floor, 

fourth floor), geolog\^ and geography (third floor, fourth floor). 

^litchell hall, named for the Hon. James L. Mitchell, a grad- 
uate of 1858 and trustee from 1883 till his death in 1894, is a 
wooden structure east of Science hall, and is at present used 
for the women's gymnasium. 

Kirk wood observatory, situated southwest of Maxwell hall, is 
built of white limestone. It contains six rooms, including a 
circular dome room twenty-six feet in diameter. Both the observ- 
atory and Kirkwood hall are named in honor of Dr. Daniel Kirk- 
wood, one of the most eminent of America's astronomers, who 
was for many years a member of the faculty of the university. 

The men's gymnasiimi was erected in 1890. It is a frame 
structure of modern design. In addition to its athletic uses, it 
servos as an assembly room for the public exercises of the 
university; when so used, the floor and gallery have a seating 
ca])acity of 1,600. The old gymnasium, north of Owen hall, is 
still used for practice games of various kinds. 

Behind the men's gymnasium is the power house. From this 
central plant all the buildings, except Kirkwood observatory, are 
supplied with steam heat and electric light, and the laboratories 
of the departments of physics, chemistry and psychology' with 

In the tract of low ground lying northeast of Owen hall and 
the men's gymnasium is Jordan field, the athletic grounds — named 
in honor of David Starr Jordan, president of the university from 
1884 to 1S91, IToro a field for foo\\yA\\ vvwA. \:i^^^\N\\>\ Vvv'^ \>^^^ 


graded and a running track laid out; on the contiguous ground 
to the west are located a number of tennis courts for the use of tlie 
nen students. In the wooded ground on the south side of the 
campus, conveniently near to Mitchell hall, are two well-shaded 
courts for women. 

The Indiana university biological station is located at Winona 
Lake, Indiana. The Winona Assembly has erected for the sta- 
tion two buildings, eacli 20x45 feet and two stories high. The 
tenth annual session will be held in 1904. 

The funds of the university, in its earlier days, were derived 
almost wholly from the proceeds of the seminary lands, from 
gifts, and from fees paid by students. In 1867, by an act ap- 
proved March 8, the general assembly provided for the increase 
of these funds by an annual appropriation. "Whereas," the act 
r(»ads, "the endowment fund of the state university, located at 
TJloomington, Monroe county, is no longer suflficient to* meet the 
growing wants of education and make said university efficient 
and useful ; and whereas, it should be the pride of every citizen 
of Indiana to place the state university in the highest condition 
of usefulness and make it the crowning glory of our present great 
common school system, where education shall be free," therefore 
eight thousand dollars annually were appropriated out of the state 
treasury to the use of the university. This amount was found 
insufficient, and from time to time the amount of the annual 
appropriation was increased. In 1883, by an act approved March 
S, provisicm was made for a permanent endowment fund to be 
raised by the levy, for thirteen years, of a tax of "one-half of 
one cent on each one hundred dollars worth of taxable property 
in this state," to bo paid into the state treasury to the credit of 
the Indiana university. In 1895 an act was passed (approved 
^[arcli 8), lowing an annual tax of "one-sixth of one mill on 
ovorv dollar of taxable* ])roporty in Indiana," the proceeds to 
bo divided among tlio Indiana university, Purdue university, and 
the Indiana state normal school, in lieu of any further annual 
appropriations for maintenance. Of this amount the Indiana 
university rocoivod one-fifteenth of a mill on the taxable property 
in the state. By an act approved March 5, 1903, this law was 
amended, and Indiana universitv now receives one-tenth of a mill 
on overv dollar of taxable, propeTW \x\ \\\<> ^V.\V^. 


Indiana university is pre-eminently the institution of the peo- 
ple. It is the concrete example of the democracy described by 
President William Tx)we Bryan in his inaugural address when 
he said: 

"What the people need and demand is that their children 
shall have a chance — as good a chance as any other children in 
the world — to make the most of themselves, to rise in any and 
every occupation, including those occupations which require the 
most thorough training. What the people w^ant is open paths 
from every corner of the state, through the schools, to the highest 
and best things which men can achieve. To make such paths, 
to make them open to the poorest and lead to the highest is the 
mission of democracv." 

The rapid increase in the attendance is the best evidence that 
the university is fulfilling its mission. Worth and not wealth is 
the test applied in the class room and in society. Last year almost 
fourteen hundred of the sons and daughters of Indiana alone 
were in attendance. For the last five years every county in the 
state has been represented annually. The course of study keeps 
abreast of the times. Every honorable calling is ably represented 
by the graduates of the institution. 


Purdue university, located at Lafayette, Ind., originated in 
the act of congress approved July 2, 1802, appropriating public 
lands to the various states for the purpose of aiding in the main- 
tenance of colleges for instruction in agriculture and the mechanic 
arts. The state of Indiana accepted the provisions of the act of 
congress by an act of legislature approved March 6, 18G5, thus pro- 
viding for the establishment and maintenance of the institution. 
Two subsequent acts of congress for the further endowment of the 
institution have been formally accepted under the stated conditions 
by the legislature of the state, which has also fixed the name and 
location of the universitv. 

From the first, the institution has been under the control of 
trustees appointed either by the legislature or the governor. These 
trustees, now nine in number, are responsible for all ofiicial acts, 
are subject to removal, and are in the slxlele^t ^ew^^ \?cw%\fe,^^ <5>\ 


the state's interest. The i)roperty of the institutiou is lield in the 
name of the stati* and can not be disposed of without legislation. 

The plan and purpose of the university is to provide liWal 
instruction in those arts and sciences relating to the various 
industries, and to conduct investigation and disseminate informa- 
tion concerning the principles and applications of agricultural 
science. The sco]>e and work of the university is fixed by law as 
set forth in the three acts of ccmgress relating to the establishment 
of the institution as follows: 

The act approved 1SG2, appropriating lands, states that — 

**Tlu' It'jnliiiv: objects shall he, witliout exiluiliiij? other scicntitic ami 
chissicjil stmlics, and iiH-ludiii^ lullitnry tactics, to Xeiivh such hraiiohcs of 
learning as an* rclattMl to a^criculturc anil the meehank* arts, in such man- 
ner as the lej^islatnres of the states may respectively prescribe, in order to 
pioniote tlie lilieral and practical education of tlie industrial classes in the 
several i>ursults an<l professions in life." 

The act approved 1887 appropriates $15,000 annually for the 
experiment station, and states — 


Tliat in order to aid in acquiring and diffusinj^ among tho people of 
tlie Tnited States useful and practieal information on subjects connected 
witli aj:rieult\u*e. and to promote scientific invest i^Ljat ion and experiment 
respecting; tin* principles and applicatiinis of agricultural science, there 
sliall be estal)lished, etc.*' 

The act of 18i)0 appropriates $:i5,000 annually for mainte- 
nance with the ])rovision that it 

*'r»e applied only to instruction in aj^riculture. the mechanic arts, the 
Kn^lisli lan^uaj^e, and tlie various brandies of mathematical, physical, 
natural and economic science, witti special reference to their application 
in tlie industries of life and to the facilities for such instruction." 

In accordance with this law th(^ univcrsitv offers the fcdlowinsr 
courses of instruction: 

1. Agriculture.- (ai Science and practice of a^rriculture, (b) horticul- 
ture. (CI eiitoniolojcy. (di ajiricultural chemistry, (e) veterinary science. 
(f) dairyinjj. (k» animal husbandry. 

2. ApplitMl Science.— (a) Biolojry. (b) chemistry, (v) physics, (d) indus- 
trial art. {v\ sanitary science. 

:{. Meclianical Enjrineerinjj:.— (a) Shop practice, (b) machine desi^i, (c) 
transmission of power, (di liydraulic enjrineerinjx. (e) steam enpineerinjr. 

4. Civil KnpiiH'erinjr.— (a> Shop practice. (b> railway engineering, (c) 
UrUlfH' cii;;'in ecring, (d» \\ydv;\\\\\c o\vj^\\\v>vv\\\\i., Vs^n *!^"5w\\\'sv\v engineering. 


r». Electrical Eugiueeriiig.— (a) Shop practice, (b) machine design, (c) 
electrical engineering, (d) dynamo construction, (e) installation and man- 
agement of electric railway and lighting plants, (f) telephonic engineering. 

(». Pharmacy.— (a) Pharmacy, (b) chemistry, (c) materia medica. (d) 
prescription practice, (e) botany. 

In addition to these departments of instruction the agricultural 
experiment ptation is occupied solely with investigations pertain- 
ing to agricultural problems. 

Instruction was begun at Purdue in 1874. The first class 
graduated in 1875, since which time the instructional work of 
the institution has been continuous. 

One thousand eight hundred students have been graduated from 
the institution, and over six thousand have received instruction 
for a longer or shorter period. 

The faculty numbers one hundred. The courses of study arc 
continuous throughout the year, hence the annual enrollment is 
practically complete by the close of the first semester. At that 
time, February 1, 1004, the enrollment was 1,424. 

The institution is supported by the interest on its endowment 
fund ($340,000) ; by the proceeds of the state educational tax 
of 1-20 of a mill on each one hundred dollars of taxable prop- 
erty, and by an appropriation from the United States of $25,000 
per annum, known as the Morrill fund. 

The Indiana experiment station, which is an organic part of 
the university, receives its support from the United States, and 
the farmers' institutes are supported by funds received from 
the state, of which the university acts as trustee. 

Equipment. — The grounds of Purdue comprise one hundred and 
eighty acres, fifty acres of which constitute the university cam- 
])us, the remaining one hundred and thirty serving as a farm- 
laboratory for the school of agriculture and experiment station. 

Twenty-two large buildings accommodate the various depart- 
ments. University hall is occupied by the library and reading 
room, the halls of literary societies, and the offices of the registrar 
and the secretary of the board of trustees. The engineering build- 
ing, presenting a floor space of more than an acre, contains the 
offices, lecture rooms, drawing rooms, shops and extensive labora- 
tories of the departments of mechanical and civil engineering. 
The electrical building, chiefly chaTae\.0Y\7.eA\\v\ \\^\^^^<:^ \^\\.'ksxssn 


lalx)ratoiy, is devntcnl to tlin departments of electrical eiigineerin*: 
and physics. Science hall is the home of the departments of 
biology and chtmistry. Agriciiltnral hall, the experiment sta- 
tion, the veterinary infirmary and a gronp of extensive farm build- 
ings give accommodation to varions phases of the work of the 
school of agriculture. Purdue hall is occupied entirely by reci- 
tation and lecture rooms, the pharmacy building by the depart- 
ment of pharmacy, and the art hall by the lecture room and 
studios of the art department. The latter building also serves 
as a (lormitorv for women students. The Eliza Fowler haU is 
a beautiful building containing the auditorium used for public 
and official functions of the university, and also the offices of tlic 
])resident of the university. 

In the organization and development of the various departments 
at Purdue, there have been supplied literal facilities for the accom- 
modation of students in experimental study and research. It is 
not too much to sav that a marked characteristic of the universitv 
is to bp found in the number and extent of its laboratories. The 
equipment which fills these laboratories is in all cases of a very 
j)ractical sort. In them, the student of engineering finds machines 
identical in size and character with those which in power-stations 
and factories arc doing the world's work; the student of science 
commands instruiiicnts' and apparatus not inferior to those w^ith 
which professional scientists employ their time; while the student 
of agriculture deals directly with tlie machines, the materials and 
the animals of the farm. 

In the dej)artments of engineering, the work shops for begin- 
ning students are elab()rately equipped with tools and machines 
for cnrpentrv and joinery, pattern making, foundry work, forging 
and machine work, and are sufficientlv extensive to accommodate 
one hnndred and sixty men at a time. The steam engine laV 
oratory for more advanced students contains fifty or more typical 
engines, the hirgest of which is rated at 300-horse power. There 
an^ Corliss engines and plain slide valv(» engines, pumping en- 
gines and mill engines, and of whatever character, they are in 
all cases mounted in such a way as to permit their action to be 
studi(»d and their perf(U'mance to be tested. 

A sopnrnte building conUuwft w locomotive testing plant embrac- 


ing a modem locomotive so monnte<l that it may be fired and 
its motion controlled precisely as if it were upon the road. 

The electrical laboratories contain more than thirty dynamos 
and motors which are served by switchboards having more than 
four hundred terminals. Nine other switchboards serve in con- 
nection with a large array of accessory apparatus. The photo- 
metric laboratory, the telephone laboratory, the storage batteries 
and the instrument cabinets each have their appropriate equip- 

Similarly, for field work in surveying, for hydrographic work, 
and for astronomical work in connection therewith, the equipment 
of the civil engineering cabinets contains types of all instruments 
usually employed in such work, the list including no less than 
sixteen engineer's transits and thirteen levels. 

The laboratory for testing materials contains a large variety 
of testing machines for making tests of materials of construction 
in tension, compression, torsion, and abrasion under both static 
and impact conditions. Facilities exist for testing cement and 
concretes. A full sup])ly of cabinet apparatus for delicate meas- 
urements is provided. 

In the department of hydraulics, also, there are steam and 
power pumps, water-wheels and motors, standpipes and weir tanks, 
together with accessory apparatus for expert testing. 

The engineering laboratory is the repository of the American 
master car-builders' association, and as such c(mtains the air- 
brake testing rack, embracing the complete air equipment for 
two railway trains of fifty cars each, and a brake shoe testing 
machine designed to determine the coefficient of friction between 
brake shoes of various materials, and a standard car wheel, these 
being the property of the association. A locomotive museum 
contains four historic locomotives. 

The science laboratories include a suite of rooms occupied by 
the department of biology. There are rooms for general biology, 
physiological and crvptogamic botany, bacteriology, sanitary sci- 
ence, fermentation, vegetable physiology" and plant pathology. The 
equipment of these laboratories includes microscopes, microtomes, 
dissecting instruments, illustrative apparatus, herbarium and col- 
lections, its extern t being suggested by the fact that there '«vtq ?<.% 



many as twenty Beck, and fifty Bausch and Ix>mb's microscopes. 
Similarly, the department of chemistry has, in addition to its 
general laboratory which is equipped to accommodate one hundred 
and seventy-six students at a time, a laboratory for quantitative 
analysis, special laboratories for advanced study, a departmental 
library, balance rooms, furnace rooms, store-rooms, etc., while 
the pharmaceutical laboratories include a prescription room which 
is equipped as a modern dispensing pharmacy, and a pharma- 
cognosy room, the cabinet of which includes 1,100 specimens of 
crude drugs and chemicals. 

The equipment of the department of agriculture includes a 
laboratory of agricultural physics for work in mechanical analysis 
of soils, a laboratory of agricultural chemistry, a horticultural 
laboratory supplied with modern appliances for the study of 
various operations in plant reproduction, and for the investiga- 
tion of problems in economic botany. A dairy laboratory occu- 
pying a series of twelve rooms is equipped as a modern creamery 
for butter and cheese making, while a room devoted to farm- 
dairying involves more simple apparatus. 

A veterinary laboratory and museum and an entomological lal)- 
oratory contain cabinets and equipment usual in such cases. The 
farm machinery contains an exhibit of modern agricultural ma- 
chinery, and an agricultural museum contains a collection of 
specimens of soils, fertilizers, wools, cereals, etc. 

The agricultural experiment station, while devoted chiefly to 
|)nil)lei!is of agricultural research, opens its well-equi])pe<l labora- 
tories to advanced students in chemistry, botany and veterinary 

The college farm with its one hundred and thirty acres is di- 
vided into fields upon which staple Indiana crops are systemati- 
cally raised, the rotation and the fertilization being after a plan 
covering a considerable number of years. The live stock farm 
is designed to serve in class room work for judging types and 
breeds, and for experimentation. While most of the animals are 
bred on the farm, the university from time to time makes pur- 
chase of stock from some of the best flocks and herds of Europe 
and America. 

The orcliard of the farm contains fifty varieties of Russian and 
standard apph* trees, and ^uuxvc^Tm\'?s n^Vw\a^^ c^i ^«\^^ ^^Wxiis^ 


cherries and other fruit trees, jis well as grapes, bush fruits and 


The act of the general assembly which created the state normal 
school was apimiveil December 20, 1865. This act defined the 
object of the school to be "the preparation of teachers for teaching 
in the common schools of Indiana,'- provided for the appointment 
of a board of trustees, the h)cation of the buildings, the organi- 
zation of a training school and the adoption of courses of study, - 
and created the normal school fund for the inaintenance of the 
institution. The act further required the trustees to locate the 
school at the town or city of the state that should obligate itself 
to give the largest amount in cash or buildings and groimds to 
secure the school. The city of Terre Haute was the only place 
to offer any inducements to secure the institution. A tract of 
land three hundred feet square near the center of the city, valued 
at $25,000, and $50,000 in cash were offered, and the city agreed 
to maintain forever one-half the necessary expense of keeping 
the building and grounds in repair. This liberal ofier was ac- 
cepted, and the construction of the building was begun. Aided 
by subsequent appropriations, the trustees were able to complete 
certain portions of the buihling, and the school was opened Janu- 
ary, 1870. Th(» professi< nal training of teachers was an experi- 
ment in Indiana, and the institution began its work without the 
confidence and united supi)ort of the people of the state. 

Twenty-three stu(U4its were i)resent on the opening day, and 
this number increased to fortv bv the end of the term. The 
attendance has grown steadily since the o])ening of the school, 
and during the year ending October :n, 1903, 1,791 different 
students w^ere enrolled. In 1S87 the s(*hool had become so large 
that it was nt^cessarv for tlie high school of Terre Haute, w-hich 
had occupied a ])ortion of the buihling since its completion, to 
find new quarters, thus leaving the e^ntire building of three stories 
to be occupied by the normal school alone. 

On the forenoon of April 9, 1S88, the Iniihling and its contents 
were almost totally destroyed bv fire. Only the foundatiuus \ve.^<o^, 
left vnimpnirod ; tlio library, furnituYO, xv\i\vaT'A\\V!S v\\\vV ^n^\nn\\\w^ 


ill the building — the aecuinulatioii of eighteen years — were con- 
sumed. Terrc Haute provided temporary quarters for the school, 
and, under the contract to maintain one-half the expense of repairs 
to the buildings and grounds, promptly gave $50,000 in cash with 
which to begin the work of rebuilding. The next general assembly 
appropriated $100,000 for the completion of the building and the 
purchase of a new library, etc. With these sums the school con- 
structed a commodious and beautiful building and purchased an 
equipment for every department much superior to that possessed 
before the fire. 

The legislature of 1803 approi)riated $40,000 for the construc- 
tion of a new building to be used for gymnasia, library and labor- 
atories. The general assembly of 18J5 appropriated $20,000 and 
the general assembly of two years later $10,000 with w^hich to com- 
plete this building. 

Material Equi]mient. — The state normal school occupies two 
large, handsome buildings, each four stories high. The larger 
building, constructed immediately after the fire of 1888, is about 
190x150 feet, and is a very commodious, well-appointed school 
building. It contains an assembly room capable of seating three 
hundred persons, a Ix^autiful chapel which seats comfortably one 
thousand persons, the president's office, reception room, cloak room, 
class rooms, wash rooms, etc. Tt is, architecturally, one of the 
most beautiful buildings in the state, and its internal arrangement 
is well adapted to the purpose for which it was constructed. 

The second building is about 100x100 feet, and is, architec- 
turally, in g(Micral harmony with tlu^ larger building. The base- 
ment story contains tlio two gymnasia ; the second story is occupied 
by the library. This is a large*, well-lighted, beautiful room, ad- 
mirably adapted to library use. The third story is occupied by the 
several science departments. The fourth story is used by the 
literary societies and the Y. M. and Y. W. C. associations. The 
library is eqnip]>ed with every needed appliance, and contains 
about 35,000 wcll-seh^cted volumes. The chemical, biological and 
physical laborat(»ries on the third floor are substantially finished 
and are equipped with everything needed for the science work of 
the school. 

ProJ)aI)Iv there are few, W ^\\\, \wtvc\^\ ^dvcscsU in the United 


States that are more fully equipped in all their departments for 
work than is this institution. 

Proposed Enlargement. — The general assembly of 1903 made a 
very liberal provision for an increased support of the school. A 
specific appropriation of $50,000 was made for the construction of 
a training school building, and a very substantial advance in the 
institution's annual maintenance was given by increasing the tax . 
for the support of the school. 

For many years the school has felt greatly hampered by the 
presence in its main building of the large training schools which it 
is necessary to maintain. These schools have occupied portions of 
the building very much needed for the other work of the school. 
In addition to this fact, it has been impossible to provide room 
enough for maintaining the training school commensurate with the 
important work that it is intended to do in the preparation of 
teachers. A suitable site has been purchased near the present 
buildings and it is the intention to erect thereon a modern building 
complete in all its details, to be used as a training school building. 
Every effort will be made to construct a model building that shall 
afford every facility for the work of the training school. The 
training school itself will then be enlarged so that each of the 
eight grades below the high school will have a large, well-ventilated 
room complete in all of its appointments. ITeretofore it has been 
necessary to have more than one grade in each of several of these 
rooms. With the new building contemplated, each grade will be 
to itself in a separate room and managed by a single teacher. A 
portion of the new training school building will be set apart for 
elementary manual training work. The $50,000 appropriated by 
the general assembly will be supplemented by about $25,000 taken 
from the general funds of the institution, in order that the train- 
ing school building may be in every respect a modern, model and 
complete school building. 

The increase in the tax for the support of the school will give 
the institution, beginning July 1, 1904, about $100,000 annually 
for its maintenance. This will enable the school to enlarge many 
of its courses and provide additional teachers. It is the intention 
to offer courses in the various advanced subjects that will equip 
teachers in every way for teaching the most advawQ^d \\\^ ^^c>c\ 


Tlie Purpose of the Seh(X)l. — The statute of 1805 which create*! 
the Indiana state normal school clearly defined its object. This 
was declared to be "tlie preparation of teachers for teaching in the 
common schools of Indiana." The state normal school, then, is 
not an institution for general culture for its own sake; it is a 
special school — a professional school. Its sole purpose is to confer 
on its students that education, discipline, professional training 
and practical skill which will best fit them for teaching in the pulv 
lie schools of Indiana. The school limits its attention and work to 
this one thing — the preparation of teachers for teaching in tlie 
conmion schools of Indiana. No person is admitted who does not 
enter for the purpose of preparing to teach in the common schools 
of the state, and all the work of the school has this one end in view. 
Perha])s a brief statement of the school's work in its attempt to 
fulfill this one object of its existence may aid some to determine 
whether or not thcv wish to become students. 

Since the common schools of the state consist largely of the 
district and grade schools and the greater part of the common 
school work is in th(» elementary or common branches, the state 
normal school seeks first of all to ground its students (such as do 
not already possess this knowledge) thoroughly in the common 
or legal branches of study. These lie at the foundation of all 
learning and scholarship. They are indeed the "fundamental 
branches of learning." It is also true that the great majority of 
pupils in the public schools do not advance beyond these elemen- 
tary subjects. If the state's system of common schools is to be(*<mie 
what its found(»rs designed it to be, it must be largely through the 
efticient teaching of these elementary branches. About one year of 
the. normal school course is devoted to a thorough, reflective study 
of those. They are not pursued and taught as in a common ele- 
i!i(^ntarv school. TIk^ student is required to possess the usual 
geniM'al kiiowledge of these subjects to be admitted. In the normal 
school he is led to make a more critical and philosophical investi- 
gation of the facts and subject-matter than he has hitherto done, 
lie now studies these subjects from a y)rofessional point of view, 
from a teacher's stjind])(unt. His own method of studying them, 
and the method of ])resentiug th(Mu aj)propriate to the different 
/rni(7e.s (;f t]ir public sc\\oo\s, ivw \\u'\usi'lves objects of attention and 
stiidv. Tlie wli(de presei\tv\\\o\\ v\i \W t^wVy^v^X \^ ^\\t\w\\AfeWNx ^ 


pedagogical atmosphere which is altogether absent from the ordi- 
nary school. The student is not only acquiring a larger and better 
knowledge of the subjects themselves, but he is learning to teach 
them. All persons are required to pursue the conmion school 
branches before graduating except college graduates and persons 
holding three years', sixty months', professional or life state 

In the next place, the course in the normal school requires every 
student to pursue a long line of more strictly professional work — 
that is, work which is designed to give special insight into all edu- 
cational questions and prepare the individual for intelligent and 
reasonable charge of a school. This line of study consists of edu- 
cational psychology, experimental psychology, theory of the school, 
the principles of methods, observation in the training schools and 
the interpretation of the teaching observed, child-study, history of 
education, school supervision, school systems of Europe and Amer- 
ica, science of education, and practice in the training schools. In 
this more strictly professional department of the student's work 
every phase of education receives extended and systematic treat- 
ment — ^the historical, the theoretical and practical. The whole ob- 
ject of this is to lead the student to acquire a knowledge of the 
principles of education and to acquire a reasonable degree of skill 
in applying these as a teacher. He is to be freed from obedience to 
mere prescription and rule as a teacher and acquire genuine orig- 
inality and true individuality. Rational understanding of his 
vocation is aimed at and the power to determine from the stand- 
point of principle what the process and work of the school should 

In the third i)lace, the school requires its students to pursue such 
advanced lines and courses of study as will best reinforce the 
knowledge of the common school branches, and at the same time 
best prepare them for the more advanced grades of public school 
work. Courses in Latin, German, history, mathematics, literature, 
science, etc., are offered, and no student can graduate who does 
not, in addition to his studv of the common school branches and 
the professional line, pursue a sufficient number of these to com- 
plete four years' work in the school. Like the common school sub- 
jects, these branches are studied constantly from the teacher's 
point of view^ and the stii(l(;nt is f roquewlVy \<^v\ \o xq?^^q\ \v^«\\N\\^\^ 


value as moans of education, the method by whieli they are heing 
studied, u'ethods of teaehin^r these appropriate to the grades in 
whieli thev are studied, ete. The object is to make the entire work 
of the seho( 1 stron<j:ly and distinctively professional. 

The faculty now numbers thirty-five. In the spring term, when 
the attendance is largely increas(»d, the faculty is enhir^red bv the 

• . / • CD 9. 

employment of about ten additional teachers. 



Th(» (establishment of denominational schools in Indiana re\eals 
the same s])irit which prompted the Pilgrim fathers to advance 
learning. Their chief purpose was to advance learning in order to 
])ropagate the gospel. They dreaded '*to leave an illiterate min- 
istry to the churches after our present ministry shall be in the 
dust." With just such zeal and earnestness did the early pro- 
tnoters of our denominational institutions accomplish their pur- 
pose. They believed with Francis Lieber, not only that "Christi- 
anity considered as a branch of knowledge constituted an indis- 
pensable elen^ent in a liberal education," but that Christianity 
taken solely as a historical fact is incomparably the mightiest fact 
in the annals of human society; that it has tinctured and pene- 
trated all systems of knowledge, all institutions, both civil and 
exclusively social, the laws, languages, and literature of the civil- 
ized nations, their ethics, rights, tastes, and wants. This influence 
and this religion they conceived the chief end of education to 

The proof of such influence in the habits, minds, wants and 
lives of the early citizens in Indiana is seen in the struggle they 
(Mid u rod to secure and perpetuate the denominational christian c<d- 

I»Y Belle A. Mansfield. A.M., LL.D. 

The development of institutions in n state like our own, where 
tliey have been a part of the indigenous growth, is always of 
peculiar interest. Even in the pioneer days in Indiana there was 


a distinct recognition of needs beyond those for the mere material 
existence, and the life was known ty be more than meat, and the 
body than raiment. Consequently the most far-seeing men and wom- 
( n, with distinct apj)reciation and rare devotion, bent the best ener- 
gies of their lives to bring about the most helpful surroundings, for 
growth and development, not only within their ow^n homes, but also 
in their several communities and within the reach of the still wider 
public. Under this impulse, churches and schools naturally found 
their places aiiiong the homes, the mills, the shops, and the stores 
of the new communities, and the growing civilization. This soon 
meant schools for the higher education, as well as those of primary 
and secondary grade; schools, too, not only under state manage- 
ment and support — but those under religious control as well — 
w^here distinct attention should be given to the spiritual growth, at 
the same time that the intellect was receiving its strictest training 
and most careful direction. As an outgrowth of this idea, the 
Methodist ministers of Indiana, in their annual conference as- 
sembled in IS'^iT), voiced the sentiment of the most progressive, not 
only of their own nund)ers, but also of their congregations, when, 
after long and careful consultation, they drew into a fonnal resolu- 
tion this sentiment that had been grow-ing for several years, and 
adopted it and spread it upon their records — that they would 
found an institution for higher learning, to be knowm as "The In- 
diana Asbury university/- This meant much. The state was, as 
yet, sparsely settled ; its roads, where laid out at all, were well nigh 
impassable; Methodism had only about 25,000 members within the 
state confines — and mon(\v was scarce among them, as it was also 
among their neighbors; but the need seemed great, energy was at 
high tide, and faith in the future unbounded. These ministers 
w-ent from tlieir conference' session, and talked over their new plans 
w'itli the people of thcMr widely extended circuits. 

Several places presented their claims and urged them to be the 
seat of this new center of learning — prominent among which were 
Lafayette, Indiana])('lis, Kockville, Putnamville and Greencastle. 
After it was once decided that the location should be w^ithin Put- 
nam county, the advantageous situation of Putnamville was argued 
seemingly with ])ro]»riety and with special force, because it was 
on that important ^'national road'- that lead in unbroken distance 
even from Pittsburg and boy()nd it westward to tlie Mississippi 


river. J:5ut notwithstanding this really important factor, the bal- 
ance of the argument was against it, and the decision was cast in 
favor of Greencastle. This vote was reached at the conference 
session of 18i]6, which was held in Indianapolis, and on the Satur- 
day afternoon of that occasion. The next Monday morning, Rev. 
J. C Smith and Rev. Aaron Wood were appointed agents to col- 
lect money for the erection of suitable buildings for this impoftant 
new enterprise. A committee also was named to memorialize the 
legislature at its coming sessi<m in the interests of a charter. . All 
the preliminaries were adjusted and w-ork in earnest was about to 
begin. The first serious opposition was encountered when the cam- 
mittee appeared before the legislature with their petition — a 
double line of opposition — from the foes of advancing Methodism, 
and from those who were opposed to attempting anything more 
than was already being done in the matter of education under the 
existing difficulties. But the way was finally cleared — in the lower 
house, by argument; and in the upper by strateg>', combined with 
the argument; and on the 10th of January, 1S87, the charter was 
granted w^hich provided as follows: ''That a seminary of learning 
shall be, and the same is hereby established in the town or vicinity 
of Greencastle, in Putnam county, and state of Indiana, to he 
known by the name and style of 'The Indiana Asbury university,' 
which shall \w founded and maintained forever, upon a plan most 
suitable for the benefit of the youth of every class of citizens, and 
of every religious denomination, who shall be freely admitted to 
equal advantages and i)rivi leges of education, and to all the liter- 
ary honors of said university according to their merit." As yet, it 
will be noticed, that no maiden w-as provided for in all this uni- 
versity outlook; lier presence was not described even on the uni- 
versitv horizon and the ^'vouth" of this charter provision is to have 
its strict interpretation of being, as the graunnarian would say it, 
of masculine g(Mi(ler. 

The claims of this new institution were presented and urged all 
over the state, and money came in at least liberally, if not abun- 
dantly. A building was begun which was to furnish the "local 
habitation and the ])lace," and its corner stone was laid amid 
irreat ceremonv on June 20, 18.*57. This was the noblest occasion 
Putnam county had ever yet seen. Twenty thousand people had 
conio from the surrounding]^ e^AU\\T\ — s<>\\w, c^i \\\^\^^N^:^"tcQ\a dis- 


taut ])tirts to witness this important coreniony. All Greeneastle 
was a center of h()sj)itality in the entertainment of its gnests. The 
.-ormon of the occasion was preached by that splendid orator, Dr. 
lienrv B. Basconi, of Kentnckv, who later on became one of the 
l)islio])s of the Methodist chnrch south. All the incidents consid- 
ered as belonging to such occasions were fully observed, and the 
www and women went to their homes resolved upon renewed zeal 
and added sacrifices in the interests of their "university." The 
building which w^as the original of w^hat is now known as "west 
college," progressed without interruption or serious delay, and was 
really a noble structure from the standpoint of its times and its 

But the educational idea did not wait upon its comjdetion. Kev. 
Cyrus Xutt, of Allegheny college, Pennsylvania, had recently 
opened a school in Greencastle, wdiich within a few^ days of the 
laying of the "corner stone," w^as adopted as the preparatory school 
for the "university ;" it had its beginning in an old school house, 
but in November of its first year was moved into a building on the 
])iece of ground now^ occupied by the College-avenue Methodist 
church. The first home of this school was neither spacious nor 
pretentious — a room of about twelve hy fifteen feet, but this w^as 
quite large enough for the teacher and his five students — the total 
enrollment at the oj)ening of the first term ; of these five, four were 
from Greencastle and the remaining one was from a few miles out 
in the country; their names are carefully preserved and are a part 
of the records. One-fifth of these charter member students contin- 
ued his course even to graduation, and was a member of tlie chiss 
of '42 — the third class that graduated from the institution. 

Several ineffectual attempts to organize a faculty, were made 
within the next two years. The trustees, in their wisdom, saw that 
first-class talent must h^ called and the very best preparation that 
the church could command ; in return they had little but possibil- 
ities to offer by way of inducement. During this period, Prof. 
Xutt — be his name written with reverence — ^lield steadily to his 
course, and was hims(df acting president, professor, faculty, treas- 
urer and whatever other offices the duties of the day might demand. 
With such assistance as he could from time to time secure, he did 
his work bravely and had the reward of seeing it j)rosper under his 


care, and of recognizing tlic promise* of larger things in the times 
to come. 

At a meeting of the board in 183J), upon the recommendation of 
Bishop Roberts, wliose home was then in Indiana, and of Dr. 
Charles Elliott, editor of the Western Christian Advocate, Prof. 
Matthew Simpson, of the faculty of Allegheny college, was elected 
president ; largely through the representations and the urgency of 
those who reconnnended him, he decided to accept this important 
place, and entered upon his duties September 23, 1839. The first 
regular faculty as then constituted was as follows : 

Eev. Matthew Simpson, A. M., M. D. — President and professor 
of mathematics 

Rev. Cyrus Nutt, A. M. — Professor of languages. 

Rev. John W. Weakley, A. M. — Principal of preparatory de- 

John Wheeler — Tutor in Languages. 

Dr. Simpson soon became known as wise in counsel, strong in 
executive quality and eloquent in speech. ITe was a statesman, 
and orator and a c(msecrated man of God. The new being com- 
mitted to his ciire received into its veins some of the rare quality 
that carried him some years later to the eminent distinction of 
being rec('gnized as the greatest man in American Methodism, 
since the days of Bishop Asbury. 

His associates in the faculty, too, were men of genuine merit 
and of unfaltering <lev()tion to their work. All of them became 
in subsequent y(Mirs tlemselves presidents of important educa- 
tional institutions. 

This faculty ontrrcd upon its duties in 1839, the school still 
b(Mng located in the (Id s(miinary building. But at the opening of 
the second term of that scholastic year, in the spring of 1840, tlie 
new structure though not yet completed, was so far advanced that 
one part of it could be used for school purposes while the re- 
mainder was being finished. Work was pushed forward vigor- 
ously, both in th(^ classes and with the brick and mortar, in order 
that bv the commencement time, which was to be about the middle 
of September, everything might be in readiness for a veritable 
"commencement," and the looked for day at length arrived. The 
close of the school year witnessed a great event, the graduation of 
the first class from the "m\\voY?»\V\,"^' ^ oX^^'s* c>i xN^t^^^ <^i^liom Dr. 


Thomas A. Goodwin, of Indianapolis, with a long line of useful 
lalx)rs hack of him, still lives to encourage us with his abounding 
spirits, to enliven lis with his spicy reminiscences and to stimulate 
us with his enthusiastic activity. He still keeps a dear brain and 
wields a trenchant pen. 

On the 13th of September, Dr. Simpson, who had bc^en busily at 
work for nearly one year already, was formally inaugurated and 
the keys of the institution were placed in his possession by the 
ITon. David Wallace, the governor of the state of Indiana; this 
was his official announcement as the first president of "The Indi- 
ana Asbiirv universitv." 

The next day the board of trustees took important action, look- 
ing toward making larger provisions for the growing needs. The 
chair of mathematics was separated from the president's duties and 
Kev. W. C. Larrabee, A. M., then principal of Cazenovia semi- 
nary, was elected professor of mathematics and natural science — • 
but was soon relieved of the latter half of this c-ombinatioii to take 
charge of which Charles 0. Downey, A. ^1., was elected. The? 
chair of languages, too, was divided — its former incumbent retain- 
ing the Greek, his tutor, K(»v. John Wheeler, A. B., being elected 
to the chair of Latin language and literature. The president also 
organized the department of mental and moral science and took 
charge of its classes in addition to his official duties as the head 
of the institution. 

The faculty was now considered quite complete, and was, indeed, 
under all the circumstances one of remarkable strength. Only one 
change and one addition were made in its composition for the 
liberal arts work, until the end of what is sometime called the 
Simpson period; the change was incident to the resignation of 
Prof. T^utt and the succession of the elegant and enthusiastic Prof. 
B. F. Tefft, A. M., from the state of Maine. The retiring pro- 
fessor, however, returned a few years later to serve through another 
period of years in connection with the faculty here, and then in the 
faculty of a neighlxu-ing institution in our own state. The addi- 
tional name placed in the teaching list was that of the accom- 
plished scholar, Pev. S. K. TToshour, A. M., who in 1847 was 
elected as tutor to take* charge of the new work in German and 
French. Tn Tuly 1(S4.^, President Simpson, with his work in full 
tide o£ prosperity, resigned his place \o tveee:\^\. \)c\ci o<\a\p>y'?5v\\\> ^\*^^ 


Western Christian Advocate, to which position he had been re- 
cently elected. lie had been at Asbury about ten years; during 
that time it had grown from its small beginnings, though with a 
large enough name, surely, to the status of a really prosperous and 
well known college. From the first, its educational standards had 
been placed high, and its corps of instructors was from among the 
best scholars and thinkers that the country could furnish. This 
meant very much, not only for those days and years, but for those 
that have followed even down to the present; and it will mean 
much for the subsequent times — not only in the records that aiv 
back of us and the traditions that are about us, but in the impulse 
under which we shall continue to live and grow. 

Students, too, came in goodly numbers — as many as under the 
existing conditions could be well cared for; and these not only 
from our own state, but a liberal proportion from adjoining states 
and even more distant regions — recognizing that here was a place 
to gain an education of a high order, and to gain it under the nd- 
vantages of broad healthful, christian surroundings. The l)esr 
educational interests here subserved, and the importance of chris- 
tian influences was emphasized. 

During the year that follow^ed the resignation of Dr. Siraps<m, 
while the board w^as trying to find a successor who would exactly 
suit the conditions and the needs — the administration was place4l 
in the hands of Prof. Larrabee, and the standards were well main- 
tained during this interim. 

July 14, 1849, Rev. Lucien W. Berry, A. M., was chosen presi- 
dent and entered very soon afterward upon the duties of his official 
position. He was prc-eminontly an orator; one of the most bril- 
liant pulpit orators of his tinve — and withal a man of learning. 
TTe came to the new field of labor with the confidence of his breth- 
ren and the strong support of the church. His formal inaugura- 
tion took place at the next commencement time, nearly one year 
after he commenced his work; the keys of the university were 
placed in his charge by the chief executive of the state, Grovernor 
Wright. He continued to administer the affairs of the institution 
for four years longer, and at the end of that time resigned his 
])lacp here, and accopted the ])re>idencv of the Towa Wesleyan uni- 
vcrsitv at ^fl. Pleasnnt. 


In the following August, the Rev. Daniel Curry, D. T)., of New 
York city, was elected to the vacancy ; he began his work with the 
opening of the school year and remained until July, 1857, a period 
of about three years. Dr. Curry was a superior teacher, a man of 
fine native ability and extensive culture, but not quick to assimi- 
late the spirit of the west into his eastern life and habits ; nor was 
he, perhaps, always wise in government. Passing by entirely what 
may have been the merits of the case, it is a matter of history that 
during these years arose the college relx^llion that threatened such 
dire things to the school. So serious did the conditions become 
that a special session of the board of trustees was called in Decem- 
ber, 1856, to adjust the differences between faculty and students 
that seemed incapable of easier adjustment. During this session 
the resolution was presented and adopted discouraging, as a gen- 
eral principle all appeals from students to the board of trustees as 
against faculty action. But at the end of the school year, the pres- 
ident decided that perhaps the interests of all concerned might be 
best subsen'ed by a change in administration. He resigned his 
place and enjoyed many years of successful lal)or in other fields — 
the greater part of the time as editor of some of the most important 
periodicals under the control of "Methodism. 

From July, 1857, to July, 1858, the institution was again with- 
out an executive head. At this time Dr. Nutt was again elected to 
a professorship, after an absence of a number of years, and was 
also made vic^president. With this arrangement a successful year 
ensued and at the close of it Rev. Thomas Bowman, D. D., was 
elected to the presidency. He brought with him into his work, a 
beautiful spirit and a thorough education. T^pon his coming, the 
school people and the general public rallied about him and the 
fourteen years of his administration were fourteen good years. 
There was genuine progress in those times and a good degree of 
peace on earth, good will among men. Tn 1872 he resigned the 
place which he had held through so many and such successful 
years, because the church in its wisdom had transformed the college 
president into a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church. Rev. 
Reuben Andrus, D. D., at that time pastor of Meridian-street 
church in Indianapolis, was chosen as his successor, and continued 
in the place for three years : he was a strong preacher and a noble 
hearted man whose presence even Am\^Te§'^eA. \»c^cn\\^ V>>^'\^\ *^\^ 


better things. ITe canio to his now work in days of its pros|X}rity 
and after three faithful and suecessful vears conchided to return 
to the work of his choice in the regular pastorate. 

Rev. Alexander Martin, I). 1)., was the choice for the next presi- 
dent. ITe was a Scotclinian by birth and had the true fibre of his 
own strong, rugged country. He was a born ruler and an able 
organizer. Dr. ^Martin came to Asbury in 1875, with ripe and 
brojid scholarship and with firm conviction of right, which he car- 
ried out without fear or favor. Tie knew what a university ought 
to be, and furthermore knew that the one to which he was called 
was (nily an excellent c(dh^ge; he believed though, that the time 
had come to extend its circle of usefulness, and to make it in fact 
what it had all along been in name. To this end he labored and 
with how large degree of success is well known, till he saw Asbury 
(^nlarired an<l itself th(^ liberal arts school of DePauw university, 
with beginnings at least of all the special and professional schools 
that usually enter into the constitution of a university, excepting 
(udy thai of medicine. In 1S80, he feeling that, with advancing 
years, he should be relic^ved from the heaviest of his resi)onsibil- 
ities and th:' most arduous of his duties, his resignation as presi- 
dent, ofi(M*(Ml for the secnnd time, was finally accepted and his ac- 
tive duties in the university were allowed to remain only in connec- 
tion with his department of philosophy — at which post he contin- 
ued until th(» end of his long and useful life in 1893. 

Aft(M* mue'i cnisultation in the matter of the next presidency, 
T\ev. J. P. .Inhn, 1). 1)., was chosen in 1889. He was already one 
(>f the univ(M'sity pr.)iVssnrs and the institution's vice-president 
lie was thonughly a(Mjuainted with the life about him and in full 
sympathy with the course* of development of the last few years. 
With his strong l(>gieal mind and his enthusiastic nature he rec- 
(»gni/<MJ largo ])ossibilities in the very near future, and bent his 
energies toward thoni. lie di^votod himself assiduously to the 
reorganization of tho courses of study, and to the looking out pro- 
fessors of the highest available (juality in their own lines of work, 
so that whenever a ehaiiire had to Ik^ made in the faculty, or an 
a<lditi<»n eould be niade, it might always be the best one possible 
in the interests of the highest order of work in all departments. 
These were the <]ays when the university expectatirnis were at their 
fiTonfcflt ns regarded the \alue oi \\s ewV>^\\w^^^\\"?^ ^wv\W^<5. llun(rs 


seemed to be within the reasonable reach of the institution. But 
hard times can\e this way in '93 and continued through several 
subsequent years. Business interests suflFered ; stocks and shares 
declined in value; productive funds became non-productive; stu- 
dent numbers decreased because incomes in their homes were un- 
certain, and the horizon of present possibilities narrowed and that 
beyond the power of any one to prevent it. Many a man and many 
an institution during those years had to exchange its inquiry of 
"what is best'' for the more available one of "what is now most 
expedient." But a high order of work was done in recitation 
rooms, libraries and lalx)ratories, and young men and yoimg 
women were learning to think, and were getting ready for the 
great world. Dr. John resigned the presidency in 1896 and was 
followed by Kev. IT. A. Gobin, A. M., D. D., who for some years 
])revious had been the dean of the school of theology. He showed 
himself to be a man among men for the time in the midst of which 
he was placed, and answered with rare discretion the best interests 
of the university, and brought it through the severest days of its 
financial difficulties, till the dawn of a new era of prosperity ap- 
])eared on its horizon. 

Within these fifty-two years, and under these seven administra- 
tions that have followed since the times of the first president, 
professors, associates, instnictors and tutors have come and gone — 
many of them of noble quality and a high degree of efficiency in 
their several departments. Nor has it always been in their depart- 
ments alone that they have rendered inestimable and imperishable 
service; for some have been wise and careful counsellors as well, 
and have touched for healing and for health the young life about 
them ; some, too, have contributed bountifully toward the solutions 
of the weightiest problems that have presented themselves through 
these years, for university solution, and have planned and worked 
with zeal and efficiency for enlarging interests and advancing 
opj)ortunities. But there are too many of them whose merits place 
them in honored ranks in the educational world, even to be named 
and titled in the brief pages of this historical sketch. 

Many interesting things present themselves as worthy a place 
in the records of these passing years, but naturally we can stop 
here to make mention of only a few of them, so these few must 


:»:K) education IN INDIANA. 

Ix^ selcKited from among tliose that are conspicuous as ree^)rd 
making ones: 

On tlie 23d of May, 1843, the trustees entered into compact with 
tlie secretary of war to educate ten Choctaw boys, and pursuant 
to this agreement Indians came into the scliool. At first it seemeil 
peculiar but was entirely cousisteut with the provisions of the 
charter as was also the coming in at later times of Japanese, Afri- 
cans and Chinese. 

Hon. James Whitcomb, in 1853, gave the university his valu- 
able library of 4,r>00 volumes, and made provisions for its super- 
vision and enlargement. This furnished a very (M^nsiderable nu- 
cleus for the accumulations of all these years. The regular in- 
come from the endowment which he left for it is still one of the 
important sources of revenue for the purchases of new supplies 
from year to year. 

In ISoJ) it was considered expedient to reorganize the depart- 
ments, and this was done under the following eight titles — c»ach 
memlxT of the corps of instructors fitting in some one of these 

1. IMvsideiit. and i)r()foss()r of niontal and moral plilloKopliy. 

II. Vice-preslilont and professor of niatlioinatics. 

III. Professor of natural science. 

IV. Professor of (ireek language and literature, 
v. Profes.s(»r of I^atin lani^uage and literature. 

VI. Professor of l^elles lettres an<l history. 

Vll. Adjunct i)rofessor of nnitlieniatics and principal of preparatory 
VI 11. Professor of law. 

This new classificati(»n, in itself, made no changes in the work 
about tli(» institution, or in the respective duties of the various 
persons concerned, but merely set forth in more systematic order 
facts that had hoow thrown into more or less of confusion bv manv 
adjustments and readjustments. 

The vear 1S()T witnessed a real innovation; after careful eon- 
sideration and protracted discussion, it was decided in June, that 
ladies should b(» admitted to the college classes. This was a 
great departure froui the obi standards; the mixed student contin- 
gent had as yet appeared in but very few of our colleges — notable 
among this few were Oberlin college and the Iowa Wesleyan uni- 
vcrsity. IVitli the o]>(M\\uj]^ oi \\w xwvw^ sv\wvn\ nv>vvc, ^^ wvvuiber of 


young wuiiien availed themselves of the privileges for higher 
education, and in 1871 four young women were in the graduating 

In 186D, Kobert Stockwell having given $25,000 to the endow- 
ment funds — which then seemed quite a munificent gift — the chair 
of Greek was named in his honor ^^The Robert Stockwell chair of 
Greek language and literature." 

But naturally amid all the growth and expansion of the times, 
the one building that had been so ample in its first years was 
entirely to<3 small to meet even tolerably well the present needs. 
An additional building must be erected and that in the near 
future. After much deliberation, with but little money for it in 
hand and not much more in sight, but with large faith in the 
possibilities, the work was undertaken, and on the 20th of October, 
1869, the comer stone was laid for a new building — the one now 
known as east college. The work progressed but slowly, for the 
trustees and the building committee were not willing to go much 
in advance of the ready money for the payment of the bills; so 
that about six years passed by before the structure was completed, 
though parts of it were ready for occupancy before that time. 
When it was finished it was at a total cost of something more than 
one hundred thousand dollars. Quite a number of its rooms were 
finished, furnished and named by private individuals, and the spa- 
cious clia])el was beautifully furnished by Mr. Jesse Meharrv, and 
named in honor of his w^ife "Meharry hall." 

Tn 18YY a department of military science was established. Tt 
was organized and considerably advanced in drill through the 
generous and unrecompensed labors of Major C. W. Smith, of the 
class of '67, and Major M. Masters, both of Indianapolis, but an 
officer of the regular army was soon afterward secured, and the 
department w^as maintained without interruption until the out- 
break of the recent Spanish Avar, which called in for the active 
service the oflficers and the guns. A department of physical cul- 
ture has for the present superseded it. 

Tn 1870 laboratories were first opened for science work; prior 
to this time, these studies had been pursued from the text book 
wnth occasional experiments made by the teacher in the presence 
of his class; with this new era, the student was sent into the 
laboratory to conduct his own investlgat\OTi§> awSi Tevs^'c^W'^ ^^^k^^V'^s, 


The chemical laboratory was opened first, to be followed soon by 
the physical, and a little later by the biological. 

On February 10, 1870, the old college building was nearly de- 
stroyed by fire. A little later it was rebuilt, enlarged and refitted 
— not at all a thing of beauty in its present state, but spacious and 

Eighteen hundred and eighty-two witnessed two marked actions 
of the board of trustees — the first one the election of Prof. Alma 
Ifolnuin, A. M., to the chair of modern languages, the first lady 
called to a full professorship in the institution; the second one the 
establishment of the department of theology, to which Rev. S. L. 
Bowman, R. T. D., of Xew Jersey, was called as the head. 

On May 5, 1884, there came to a happy termination the series of 
negotiations that had been in progress for nearly three years, and 
that resulted in the change from "Indiana Asbury university" to 
"DePauw univer.^ ity," with the beginnings of all that it has meant 
in the way of strengthening and of enlargement. For the details 
of those important transactions reference must be made to the 
fuller records of the university. Suflice it here to say that impor- 
tant financial interests were subserved, bv which the institution re- 
ceived $^0,000 from Greencasth* and Putnam county, $120,000 
froui the Indiana conferences and friends outside of Putnam 
county, and from Hon. W. C. DePauw, the lilx^ral bequests, wdiich, 
notwithstanding the vicissitudes of subsequent years, have netted 
the institution already about four hundred thousand dollars with 
s(»ttlenients yet to be made within the near future that, according to 
most conservative estimates, will amoimt to about an additional one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

Als(», ])ending these negotiations, arrangements were completed 
for several othov im])ortant enterprises prominent among which 
wjis ihc h'.iilding and (M]uipnient of our excellent McKim observ- 
aturv enrin^ly at the expense of him whose name it bears. And 
this is in tlie line of advan(»eni(Mit which has long been in progress. 
From th(' early beginning of the university down to the present 
time, friends have* come fcn-ward with generous gifts to meet the 
pressure of special difheulties or to open the way for important 
advjinces that conld not otherwise be made. Indeed the institu- 
tion has nev(»r been wanting in friends who have Ix^en willipg to 
hihoj'^ to plan, and even to saeT\?vQ,e \tv \\?.\^Q\v^i. 'Wvx^ W^ \^^e,ti 


one element of its vitality and its strength. Rooms and corridors, 
libraries and alcoves are eloquent in their tributes, and the names 
and generosity of numbers of these earnest and devoted friends 
and helpers are among the most sacred of the records of these 

With the new possibilities that opened with the coming in of 
these larger amounts of money of the past sixteen years the oppor- 
tunity seemed at hand for realizing in fact the name of "univer- 
sity," and several new schools were projected and formally opened ; 
so that by the year 1886 the following schools were in operation, 
and so continued for several years : 

The Asbury college of liberal arts, school of theology, school of 
law, school of military science, school of music, school of art, 
normal school, preparatory school. 

In 1890 it was deemed wise to elect a professor of pedagogy into 
the faculty of the Asbury college of liberal arts rather than to 
maintain a separate normal school — not because of any difficulty 
in maintaining the latter, but because more in harmony with the 
educational idea about a university. 

In 1894, from lack of funds that could appropriately be used 
in developing the law school into what it really should be, it was 
thought best by the board of trustees to suspend it at least for a 
time, and in 1899 similar action, for reasons partly similar, was 
taken in regard to the school of theology, and a professorship of 
biblical literature was added in the liberal arts department. 

In 1890 the name '^preparatory school" was changed to "acad- 
emy," in order that the work done there might be more exactly 
designated. With these changes the several schools continue. 

Incident to the enlargement of the institution in these recent 
years several new buildings have been added. At present the 
buildings are as follows: East college, west college, science hall, 
McKim observatory, woman's hall, music hall, art hall and Flor- 
ence hall — the last named of which is the most recent one, and 
was built through the bounty of Mrs. DePauw and Miss Florence 
DePauw. An additional building devoted to chemistry and 
physics is just completed; it has cost about $60,000, and was 
made possible by the generous gift of the late Hon. D. W. Min- 
shall, of Terre Haute. In addition a handsome residence has re- 


ceiitly IxHMi piirchiisod and rofittcMl for the occupancy of the pres- 

In recent years the university has passed out of its period of 
financial crisis, though tlie problem of larger endowments still 
al)id(»s. The Kev. W. 11. Tlickman, under the title of chancellor, 
served the institution for several years. He brought to his task 
unbounded enthusiasm and tireless energy, and has been a large 
factor in res(»uing the university from its embarrassments. In 
19013 Dr. Gobin and Dr. Hickman lx)th resigned their positions, 
the former remaining as vice-president, the latter accepting the 
j)residencv of the Chautauqua institution. After much canvass- 
ing of the s'tuation the trustees and visitors centered the headsliip 
of the university in one person and rearranged the work ac(»ord- 
ingly. In June, 1903, the Rev. Edwin Holt Hughes, S. T. I)., 
then pastor of the' Centre Methodist Episcopal church, ilalden, 
Mass., was unanimously elected as president of DePauw univer- 
sity. He began his administration at the opening of the fall 
term in 1903. There is now a remarkable turning of confidence 
and <»nthusiiism toward the university from all its natural con- 
stituency. Tlie prophecy is everywhere heard that DePauw uni- 
versity is entering upon an era of imexampled prosperity and 

And now this sketch has reached one of the most important 
factors of university life and university connection — the alumni 
and other former students of all these years from the beginnings 
even unto this present time; these men and, in more recent years, 
these wonen, too, whose lives have been to so large an extent 
molded and directed under its influence. After all this is one 
of tlie true tests of the value of an institution of learning — its 
])ermanent influence on the lives and character under its influents, 
and under this test there are no words or sentences that can ade- 
(]uately express what Asbury and DePauw have meant and are 
still meaning in Indiana and more distant parts of our own coun- 
try and even of other lands. There is already a graduate list 
of near two th )usand and that still longer list of those who have 
pursued longer or shorter coursers of study under these same influ- 
(»nc(\<, but who for various reasons stopj)ed short of their com- 
/detion. Among these gradmttes and others whose lives have been 
Jurm'ly //io/dcd and directed Wve, v\\^^ wuwvs' c^v>\\<$.\aqxvcs>\^ iaLnd able 


leaders — divines, lawyers, doctors, auditors and editors, diplomats, 
statesmen and men of affairs — men and women, whose lives enrich 
the communities in wdiich they live and help to estahlish and 
maintain noble ideals in life and to press toward them. 

DePauw university enters upon the new century with sixty- 
one years of noble and honorable life back of it, with a record 
that contains the accounts of some serious struggles, but all of 
them leading to ultimate victories, with vigorous energy in its 
present life and firm in faith for the coming years. It is rich 
in its traditions and in the sacrifices that have heen mad(» for 
it; rich in its alumni and non-graduate students, and its noble 
and many friends within its own church and outside of it; rich 
in its students and in the spirit within its halls and walls; and 
rich in the prospects tow^ard which it is moving. 



( 'olleure prcKidents 61 

College profeHsorH. etc . . 129 

City and county 

superintendentH 104 

Other teachers 370 

Teachers 664 Governors 2 

Lawyers 510 Lieutenant-jrovemorK — 2 

Ministers and missionaries .380 (^abinet officers 2 

(General business 163 i Foreign ministers 6 

Physicians 147 , Attaches and consuls 5 

Editors and journalists 102 United States senators 

Authors 521 (2 non-graduates J 7 

Farmers 52 Congressmen 10 

Hankers 35 ^^ther state officers 10 

Manufacturers 22 State senators 21 

Engineers 21 , ^'ederal and state fu- 

' preme judges 23 

State representatives 59 

' Army and navy 77 

Note.— In estimating these figures bear in mind (1) That some names are on more 
than one list. (2) That since 390 of the graduates are women, the public offices have been 
distributed among 1,741 of the graduates. CS) That the classes from 1900 on are not yet 

Where can the above record be surpassed ? 


A drive of twenty minutes from South Bend, Tnd., brin^ the 
visitor to a broad and Ix^autiful avenue of maj)les, which mon* 
than a mile in length, is the entrance to Notre Dame. While 
being carried between the neatly trimmed hedges li(» sees far u]) 
that shady arcade the glittering d(mve <\i tW \\\\\\^v\^\\^ ^wvV \W 


lofty spire of the elnircli of the Saered Heart. As he draws nearer 
he passes on eitlior hand the quaint old postoffiee and the keeper's 
lodge. These are the points of tlie large crescent which traces 
the plan of the buildings of the university. Directly before him, 
a quarter of a mile away, is the main building, on either side 
of which is the church and the conservatory of music — Washing- 
ton hall. Beyond the church is the large resident hall, Corby ; 
and beside Washington hall is the new gymnasium. To the vis- 
itor's right as he enters the grounds is the institute of technolog\' ; 
and to his left is the site of Walsh hall, the library building soon 
to be erected. ^Midway between the institute of technology and 
the conservatory of music is science hall; and opposite to it is 
the senior dwelling hall, Sorin. To the rear of Walsh hall is 
St. Joseph dwelling hall ; and near the institute of technology 
is the astronomic-al observatory. 

A hundred other buildings surround this group which occupies 
the main campus. Half a mile to the west, on the shore of St. 
Mary's lake, stands the seminary of Holy Cross, where all stu- 
dents aspiring to clerical orders live apart. Nearly a mile to 
the north, across St. Joseph lake, is the novitiate of the order. 
Midway between them is the community house, where the brothers 
and priests of the congregation of the Holy Cross live. 

This is Notre Dame todav. Situated on an eminence in the 
midst of the charming modulations of the valley of the St. Joseph, 
a lovelv landscape stretches awav before it as far as the eve can 
see. To the west are the picturesque windings of the hardy 
stream, and b(»von(1 the broken horizon. Northward lie the green 
hills and lako-<lotted fields of Michigan. To the east are the rich 
farm lands and untouched woods of Indiana. Two miles to the 
south in the vall(\v stretching in a beautiful panorama lies the 
third citv of the state — South Bend. 

What the ])(:ot has well called "the sense of beauty inspired 
by fair surroundings'' has had much to do with the success of 
Notre Dame as an educational institution. She was founded on 
the shore of twin crvstal lak(^s, that are still embraced bv their 
native groves. The site of Notre Dame is such as the poet would 
wish for. rows of maples line the walks. Evergreens and 
ornamental trees are planted in |)r(>fusi(m thr(mgh the parks and 
grounds of the university. The soft sloj)es and inviting lanes 


by the placid waters of the crystal lakes, the quadrangle with 
its sparkling fountain and flowers of radiant hues, the beautiful 
avenue of approach — all these were planned with an eye to beauty, 
and can not fail to appeal to all. Few who have never visited 
Notre Dame can realize the symmetry and the grandeur of its 
archit-ectural structures or the charm and beauty of its environs. 

Here long ago came the missionaries with the light of the 
truth to the Indians. Ix)ng ago this place was hallowed by the 
voice of prayer and the deeds of saintly men. Through here 
more than two centuries ago crossed Marquette on his last voyage, 
just before his death. Nearby, La Salle wandered about lost in 
the woods during that ijight which Parkman mentions. Here 
likewise came the noted missionaries Frs. AUouez, De Seille, and 
Petit. On the shore of St. Mary's lake the proto-priest of the 
United, Father Badin, built his log chapel on the land he had 
purchased from the government. But they had all come in suc- 
cession and passed away, though still the faithful red man repeated 
tlie prayers that the "black robes'' had taught his grandfathers. 

Such was the condition of the Indian mission of St. Mary's 
of the Lakes w^hen Fr. Sorin laid the foundation of Notre Dame 
in 1842. With him came six brothers of the IIolv Cross from 
France. They were young, and they spoke a strange tongue; 
they were poor, but the inspiration for their work filled their 
whole being. They had devoted their lives to God and the cause 
of Christian education. They sought the patronage of His blessed 
mother; and today in all this broad land is no greater monu- 
ment reared as a tribute to the queen of heaven than the insti- 
tution of Notre Dame. 

In 1844 tlie college was opened. The first student w^as the 
boy who tw^o years before had led Fr. Sorin through the woods 
to the shore of the lakes. He became the famous wagon maker 
of South Bend — Alexis Coquillard. The first graduate of the 
institution was Neil Gillespie, afterward the well-known Fr. Gil- 
lespie, first cousin of the Hon. James G. Blaine. 

Three college buildings have occupied the present site. The 
original w^as soon found to be too small and was replaced by a 
larger one. In '70 the entire community was destroyed by fire, 
the church alone remaining. Yet through the years Notre Dame 
has prospered, and now as one looks back over her history he 


wonders at the strangeness, completeness and rapidity of the 
change from the log chapel in the wilderness, with its single 
priest and half dozen brothers, to the massive pile of architecture 
which is known as the leading Catholic college of the west. 

In '44 the general assembly of Indiana had chartered the 
institution under the name of the university of Notre Dame du 
Lac. To the founders and their perpetual succession was con- 
ferred the full power and authority to grant such degrees and 
diplomas in liberal arts and sciences, in law and medicine as 
are usuallv conferred by the other universities of America. Ac- 
cordingly today the thousand students of Notre Dame, under 
the direction of seventy-five instructors, and professors, are pur- 
suing courses in (1) school of arts and letters, (2) school of 
science, (8) school of engineering, (4) school of law, (5) sch<x>l 
of j)harniacy. In the school of arts and letters there are three 
four-year courses leading to three degrees. The purely clas- 
sical, which includes eight years of Greek and Latin, and the 
modern languages, leading to the degree of A. B. The English 
course, which differs from the classical principally in the sub- 
stitution of English and American history for the Greek, leads 
to the degree Litt. B. The course in history and economics leads 
to Ph. B. Closely allied to these crjurses is the course in jour- 

In th(» sclio^)l of science two courses are given — one in general 
scientific training granting the degree of B. S., the other special- 
izing in biology and gaining the same degree. In the school 
of engineering there are thrive four-year courses. The first leads 
to the (legre(» of civil engineer, the second to that of mechanical 
engineer, the third to that of electrical engineer. In connection 
with the department o{ electrical engineering a short course in 
practical elect ricitv has recently been instituted. 

In the law school there is a three-years course leading to the 
degree of LL. B. For an additicnial year of post-graduate work 
in law the degree of LL. M. is granted. In the school of phar- 
niacy there are two courses — one of three years, leading to the 
degree of ])harniaceutical chemist (Ph. C), and the other a 
cnurse of two y(»jirs, gaining graduate of pharmacy (Ph. G.). 
There is also a f(>ur years cours(» in music and architecture. 


The Very Rev. Andrew Morrissey is president of the insti- 
tution, which distinguished position he has hekl with lionor since 
1893. lie is tnilv a son of T^'otre Dame. As a bov of twelve 
years he came to the institution already Avell advanced in his 
preparatory studies ; during the years he was a student he became 
thoroughly imbued with the spirit of the place. lie distinguished 
himself for his ability in mastering the classics and as a math- 
ematician. He has held many prominent places in the faculty. 
To the fulfillment of his office he brings the resources of a mind 
well trained in all the requirements of his high position. Fr. 
Morrissey is widely known as an orator and as an educator. 

Col. William Iloynes, dean of the laAv school, has a wide ac- 
quaintance in the middle west in the legal profession, lie was 
a very successful lawyer in Chicago before being called to fill 
his present jK^sition at the head of the law department in 1883. 
He is a thorough organizer and a man possessing a most com- 
prehensive knowledge of law. 

Professor John G. Ewing, of the department of history and 
economics, is one of the ablest Catholic historians in America. 
He is widely known as a public speaker, principally in connec- 
tion with the Knights of Columbus, of which organization he 
is a state deputy. 

The main building of the university is of neogathic architec- 
ture. Its dimensions are 320 by 155 feet. It is five stories 
high, and is built Avitli two wrings, and surmounted by a mag- 
nificent dome gilded with gold leaf. This dome itself is crowned 
with an heroic statue of the blessed virgin — the statue of Notre 
Dame. This beautiful figure is more than two hundred feet 
above the ground; and with its electric crown and crescent at 
night, and by day the rays of the sun reflected from the sheen 
of gold beneath, it shines forth an inspiring sight to all for 
miles around. On passing through the main entrance the visitor 
is attracted by the beautiful mural paintings, Avhich illustrate 
in eight panels the life story of Columbus. They arc the work 
of the famous Italian, Luigi Gregori, who spent eighteen years 
at Xotre Dame. In the center of the main building is an open 
rotunda. In the floor at one's feet is worked the seal of the 
universitv; two hundred feet al)ove his head in the concavitv 


of tlie dome are seen the allegorical figures exquisitely wrought 
by Gregori — religion, philosophy, poetry, science, law. 

On the second floor is the memorial hall of bishops, a unique 
and complete collection of the likenesses of all the prelates who 
have ruled over American diocese. Marble busts, fine old en- 
gravings and rich oil paintings line the walls. Here also are 
many old manuscripts and autograph letters. From the earliest 
Spanish mission to the present day the reliques of breivary, 
missal, and cross tell the story of the progress of the faith. Tn 
the words of the noted writer John Gilmary Shea, "in this collec- 
tion is more material for a real historv of the church in America 
than elsewhere is ever dreamed of." It is the first attempt in 
any land to represent and illustrate a nation's whole episcopacy 
in such a monument. On the third floor is the library of 55,000 
volume?, composed of classical and modern works and books of 
reference. Perhaps no library in the country has a more extensive 
collection of Latin works, of the old Roman writers and the 
fathers of the church. With them are thousands of Greek, Span- 
ish, French and German works. The rest of the main building 
is taken up Avith the executive offices, the offices of the members 
of the faculty and recitation rooms. The wings are the study 
halls and the dormitories of Brownson and Carrol halls. 

To the east of the main building is the conservatory of music 
and Washington hall — the assembly hall and place of amusement 
of Notre Dame — with its commodious and perfectly appointed 
stage, and a seating capacity of 1,200. Here all the debates 
and oratorical contests are held, as well as the five plays that 
are presented during the year by the students, and the lecture 
and (ioneert course v:hich brings about twenty-five attractions, 
eom])rising the prominent lecturers and leading concert and oper- 
atic companies. 

Xear Washington hall is the now gvninasium, one of the finest 
in the west. Its dimensions are 2*U) by 100 feet, affording ample 
room for indoor base ball and track moots, as well as an exc(dlent 
tloor for dancing in the part reserved for gymnastics. Beside 
the gA'mnasinm is ('artier fi(»l<l, one of the largest and best ath- 
letic fields in the state, coni])rising gridiron, base ball diam<md, 
a 220-yards straightaway, and a (juarter-niile cinder track. 


The equipment of science hall is most perfect for physical, 
chemical and biological courses. The institute of technology 
and tlie nearby astronomical observatory furnish ample appa- 
ratus and laboratory facilities for the pharmacy and engineering 
students. Opposite science hall is Sorin, the large residence hall, 
aflFording private rooms to more than a hundred upper classmen. 
The first floor of Sorin hall is occupied by the law lecture rooms 
and library. Nearby stands Corby, another residence hall, with 
private rooms for nearly two hundred students. 

But perhaps the most interesting structure at Notre Dame 
is the church of the Sacred Heart, which was more than twenty 
years in building and which on its completion was pronounced 
one of the most magnificent Catholic edifices in America. Its 
gothic spire rises almost three hundred feet in the air; in the 
tower are hung the sweet chimes of twenty -three bells that every 
hour sound the soft strains of "Ave Maris Stella." Just below 
them swings the greatest bell but one in America. Its loud, though 
sweet tones, can be heard for twenty-five miles; within this bell 
fifteen men can stand erect. The united strength of twelve is 
required to ring it 

But the church itself is fairest of all to see; with its exquisite 
frescoes, its stately arches, its wonderful windows, its tAvelve al- 
tars, wherein rest the relics of the saints. Few know that in 
all the world there is but one altar more privileged than the 
one at Notre Dame, which for three centuries stood in Rome 
and which has all the indulgences attached to the portunciila 
of Saint Francis. Here are venerated a section of the garment 
worn by Jesus, a piece of the veil and girdle worn by His sainted 
mother, a part of the true cross, Avhich on each Good Friday is 
elevated in benediction. Above that altar is a statue of the blessed 
virgin adorned with a costly crown of beaten gold, the gift of 
the Empress Eugenie. There, too, is the massive ostensorium 
of purest metal donated by Napoleon III. 

Behind the church is a grotto, where three pilgrimages are 
made each year by the pious people of the neighborhood. 

And this is Notre Dames and under these influences have thou- 
sands of our young men come to manhood's estate, and were 
made fit to enter the battle of life. They liaA^e builded upon 


the rock foundation. Notre Dame is thoroughly and uncompro- 
misingly Catholic. Yet hundreds of her students have been non- 
Catholic, and today many of tliose most prominent in student 
activities are Protestant. She is truly Catholic, and all seeking 
for knowledge are welcome, be they Jew or Gentile. 

Today the community more resembles a town than a college 
campus. For fifty years, through the personal influence of Henry 
Clay, Notre Dame has had a postoffice ; and today our postmaster 
and his assistants handle a business that is exceeded by only five 
offices in the state. It has its own electric light, gas and steam 
heating plants; bakeries, shops and general stores, from barlx^r 
shop to telegraph office. Very few colleges have their own print- 
ing offices. At Notre Dame the weekly college paper, the Scho- 
lastic, has been published for twenty-seven years by Hie students; 
and the monthly magazine, the Ave Maria, has attracted a world- 
Avide reputation in Catholic circles by its literary excellence. 

To an outsid(»r the social life at Notre Dame is perhaps most 
misunderstood. This is a lu^arding school for boys; two miles 
from South Bend; and from September till June there is not a 
regular need of any of the thousand students that can not be 
supplied by the stores and offices Avithin the community. Phy- 
si(!ians and specialists are in daily attendance. Ample attrac- 
tions are furnished in Washington hall. The great intercollegiate 
athletic contests take place on Cartier field. 

The preparatory students and the freshmen live under the 
dormitory and study hall system ; but the three upper classes 
all have ])rivate rooms in Brownson, Corby and Sorin halls. 
Though there are no chapters of the national college fraternities 
at Notre Dame, vet there are students from almost everv state 
in the union who have organized state clubs. The capitol key- 
stone club has sixty mcnibers. The empire state organization 
has fiftv-fivc; th(» Indiana club fortv. The men from Central 
and South America have a flourishing organization of thirty -five 
members, your litcrarv and debating societies are strongly or- 
ganized and actively carricnl on. There is a junior musical and 
<lraniatic societv, a universitv band and a universitv orchestra, 
and the glee and mandolin club: a boat club holding annual 
regattas and races; a thriving tennis club; scores of basketball 
teams, and a most promising handball organization. A football 


team that has the proud record of being the only team in the 
west that has never been scored on; a baseball team that is one 
of the best in the country; a track squad that bids fair to win 
the championship honors of the state this spring. 

Class and hall smokers are almost weekly events. '^Stag dances" 
are very frequent. South Bend's society is always represented 
at intercollegiate and oratorical contests, the student plays and 
entertainments, and at the football and baseball games, l^ut the 
biggest society event of the scholastic year is the senior prom., 
which is held in the gymnasium on Easter Monday night. The 
affair is very elaborate and formal, and the most exclusive event 
of the students. Commencement week is a continuous round 
of festivities. 

Such is Notre Dame with its natural attractiveness, its sylvan 
retreats, its stately buildings, its pleasant grounds, its thorough 
and varied courses, its many and competent instructors, its ever 
increasing number of students. True, she had become one of 
the fairest of all those beautiful gardens planted by our fathers 
in the western wilderness; she had come to take her rank at 
the head of the Catholic universities of our country. 


Northwestern Christian (later Butler) university was incorpo- 
rated by act of the legislature of Indiana, January 15, 1850. 

The object and purposes contemplated by this act of incorpo- 
ration are declared to be to establish, found and build up, main- 
tain, sustain and perpetuate, through the instrumentality of said 
company, at, or in the vicinity of Indianapolis, in the state of 
Indiana, an institution of learning of the highest class, for the 
education of the youth of all parts of the United States and 
especially the states of the northwest; to establish in sudi insti- 
tution departments or colleges for instructing students in every 
branch of liberal and j)rofessional education ; to educate and \yro- 
pare suitable teachers for the common schools of the country ; 
to teach and inculcate the Christian faith and Christian moralitv 


as taught in the sacred scriptures, discarding as uninspired and 
without authority all writings, formulas, creeds and articlc^s of 
faith subsequent thereto; and for the ]>r()moti()n of the sciences 
and arts. 


The affairs and business of the institution by provision of the 
charter are placed under the control and management of a board 
of twenty-one directors, elected by the stockholders every third 
year. At the election of directors, and on all other occasions 
where a vote of the stockholders is taken each stockholder is al- 
lowed one vote for each share owned by him. 

The directors, chosen as above stated, choose one of their own 
body as president, and may choose either from their own members 
or other stockholders a treasurer, secretary and such other servants 
and agents of the board as to them seem necessary and proper. 

The board elected for the current term (July '03- July '06) is 
as follows : Addison F. Armstrong, Alembert W. Brayton, Urban 
C. Brewer, Hilton U. Brown, Howard Cale, Fred C. Gardner, 
Frank F. Hummel, Winifred E. Garrison, Joseph I. Irwin, Pat- 
rick H. Jameson, F. Rollin Kautz, Thomas IT. Kuhn, W. Scott 
Moffett, Charles W. Moores, Louis J. Morgan, William Mullen- 
dore, Marshall T. Beeves, Allan B. Philputt, Albion W. Small, 
Charles F. Smith, John Thompson. 

Officers of the board: Hilton U. Brown, president; Chauncy 
Butler, secretary; Fred C. Gardner, treasurer. 

Change of Name of Institution. — The following resolution was 
adopted by the board of directors, Februarj- 22, 1877: 

Resolved, That under and by virtue of an act of the general assembly 
of the state of Indiana, entitled "an act to authorize a change of name of 
certain educational institutions organized under any special charter in this 
state, and declaring an emergency," approved March 9, 1875, and pub- 
lished in the acts of the general assembly of said state for the regular 
session thereof, paj;c 106, the corporate name of this corporation be, and 
tlie same is hereby clianged from *The Northwestern Christian univer- 
sity" to be from and after tliis date *'Butler university;" and that by such 
name and stylo of "Hutler university" it shall continue to hold and possess 
any and all rights, honors, franchises, immunities, exemptions, estates, 
and interests, real, personal, and mixe<l, of any and all kinds held and 
l>()ssessed in any manner by tliis corporation under its name of the North- 
western riiristian university'. 

During recent years tlie faculty has consisted of about twenty 
members, representing the following departments of instruction: 
(1) Latin language and literature, (2) Greek language and lit- 
erature, (3) Germanic languages, (4) biology and geology, (5) 
sociology and ecrmomics, (0) chemistry and physics, (7) hoini- 


letics and pastoral theologj', (8) English literature, (9) history, 
(10) philosophy and education, (11) romance languages, (12) 
mathematics, (13) physical culture. 

The average annual enrolhnent of students during the past 
five years has been something over three hundred. 

The institution is supported for the most part on proceeds of 
endowment fund, which is invested in real estate mortgages. 
About $5,000 per year also is derived from tuition fees of stu- 


Taylor university was founded at Ft. Wayne in 1846 and 
was known as the Ft. Wayne female college. In 1852 it became 
a coeducational school. In 1890 it assumed its present name. 
In 1892, July 31, it was rechartered and began operations at 
Upland, Indiana. Its charter states that it shall be "maintained 
forever on the plan most suitable for the youths of every class 
of citizens and of every religious denomination, who shall be 
admitted freely without discrimination to equal advantages and 
privileges of education and to all the literary honors in all de- 
partments of said university according to their merits under 
the rules and regulations of the board of trustees." It is con- 
trolled by a board of trustees consisting of twenty-one persons, 
who are elected by the national local preachers association of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. They are chosen annually in 
tliree classes, and hold office three vears. It has thirteen mem- 

bers in its faculty and has six other instructors. Its present en- 
rollment is 190. Its equipment is a campus of ten acres, on 

which stands the main building, called the H. Marie Wright 
hall, an elegant thn^e-story building of brick with additional 
story in mansard roof with towers. This building contains chapel, 
recitation rooms, society room, reading room, library and chem- 
ical laboratory. It has a good library, the gift of Geo. W. Mooney, 
D. D., of XeAv York city. Oti the campus south of the literary 
hall is an observatory, containing a ten and one-fourth-inch re- 
flector telescope, made by Lohmann Brothers, Greenville, Ohio. 
It is one of the few large instruments in the state, and perhaps 
the largest of its kind. On the campus north of the literary 

35— Education. 


hall is a new Sickler dormitory for men, a fine brick building. 
North of the campus the university owns a boarding hall, three 
frame dormitories and eleven cottages, all occupied by students. 
It also has an industrial printing and manufacturing plant, on 
a somewhat small but growing scale. The institution has no 
invested funds from which to draw its support; but is dependent 
upon its income from tuition, whatever it may be able to make 
in tlie boarding hall and from room rent, and then upon the 
gifts of the friends of Christian education throughout the land. 
It is hoping for larger gifts which will enable it to erect needed 
buildings and create an invested fund for the payment of current 
expenses. Taylor university has seven departments — the college 
of liberal arts, with four full four-year courses of study; the acad- 
emy, which prepares for the college; the school of theology, school 
of music, school of oratory, normal school and the business de- 
partment. The Avork of Taylor university is somewhat unique. 
It maintains the highest standard of intellectual culture, and is 
not afraid to be compared with any other similar institution in 
this res])ect. It magnifies the moral and religious side of edu- 
cation. Most of its students are earnest Christians and are 
aiming at the highest things in spiritual culture. From the start 
Taylor university has stood out against intercollegiate athletics, 
while it tolerates and favors reasonable athletics and gymnastic 
exercises in the university. Football it outlaws, regarding it 
as a relic of barbaric brutality. It has no doubt that all other 
educational institutions will ere long assume the same attitude. 
In another respect Taylor university stands somewhat by itself — 
its rates are very low. 


In response to a request made by the presbytery of Salem, 
which then embraced a large part of Indiana and Illinois, Rev. 
John Finley Crowe opened the Hanover academy, January Ist, 
1827, in a log cabin, near where the Presbyterian church of Han- 
over now stands. On the 80th of December, 1828, the legislature 
of Indiana passed an act incorporating Hanover academy. In 
1829 this academy was adopted by the synod of Indiana as a 
sjnodical school. 


One of the conditions on which the synod adopted the academy 
was that a theological department should be opened in connection 
with it. This condition was promptly met, and this theological 
department was continued until 1840, when it was removed to 
New Albany as a separate institution. Thence, still later, it 
was again removed to Chicago, where it was first known as the 
Presbyterian theological seminary of the northwest. More re- 
cently it has taken the name of the McCormick theological sem- 

In 1833, by an act of the legislature, the institution at Hanover 
was incorporated as Hanover college. A brief period of great 
prosperity, especially as to the attendance of students, followed 
under what was then known as the manual labor system; but 
here, as elsewhere, the experiment ended in debt and allied trou- 
bles. In 1837, while the college was struggling with these diffi- 
culties, a tornado destroyed the principal building; but by the 
heroic efforts of friends it emerged out of these adversities, though 
in an enfeebled condition for some years. 

In 1843 the board of trustees undertook to surrender the char- 
ter to the legislature, in return for the charter of a university 
at Madison; but this was earnestly resisted by others, and the 
struggle ended in the restoration of the college at Hanover under 
a new and very liberal charter. This, as also the present charter, 
makes it impossible to alienate the college from the control of 
the synod of Indiana of the Presbyterian church; while it pro- 
vides a way in which the synod is free to leave the ordinary man- 
agement of the college to a board that is partly chosen without 
the synod's immediate action. For instance, at present, the synod 
annually fills only two of the vacancies by a direct election. The 
rest of the board are left to be chosen by the board, one of them 
each year being a nominee of the alumni association. 

The officers of the board consist of a president, vice-president, 
secretary, auditor and treasurer, chosen annually in the meeting 
of the board. 

According to the most recent catalogue the faculty and teaching 
force numbers thirteen. The total number of graduates is now 
almost nine hundred. It is estimated that as manv as four thou- 
sand students have been in attendance at Hanover during the 
period of its existence. At present tide aveta^ ^^atV^ ^\XKvAas\^si- 


is alx)ut one liiindrod and fifty. It is expected that better rail- 
road facilities, wliicli now seem assured, will increase the attend- 
ance. A sinnnier school also is to be opened this year.