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Full text of "Edvard Munch"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Library and Archives 



http://www.archive.org/details/edvardmunchOOmunc 



Eivm 

11MH 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM, NEW YORK 



© 7965, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York Library oi Congress Card Catalogue Number 65-27459 Printed in the United States of America 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM FOUNDATION 



TRUSTEES 



HARRY F\ GUGGENHEIM, PRESIDENT 



ALBERT E. THIELE, VICE PRESIDENT 



H.H. ARNASON, VICE PRESIDENT, ART ADMINISTRATION 



I'KTKR <>. I.AWSON-.IOHNSTON, VH'K PRESIDENT, HI'SINKSS ADMINISTRATION 



ELEANOR, COFNTESS CASTLE STEWART 



DANA DRAPER 



A. CHAUNCEY NEWLIN 



MRS. HENRY OBRE 



DANIEL CATTON RICH 



M 1*11 \ l.t. I'. W ETTACH 



MEDLEY G. B. WHELPLEY 



I'AHL ZIGROSSHR 



EDVARD MUNCH, in the United States, is more admired than known. Only a very 
few of his important works have found their way into public or private collections in this 
country. In New York museums, for example, his paintings are virtually unrepresented despite 
his acknowledged position as a pivotal innovator of the modern era. 

It has not been easy to borrow for this exhibition from the more fortunate Scandi- 
navian, German, and Swiss sources. Owners, aware of the rare values in their possession are 
understandably reluctant to part with these, even for a brief period of time. As a result, the 
only Munch exhibition organized by an American museum prior to the current effort, goes 
back to 1950 when the Institute of Contemporary Art introduced the Norwegian master's work 
in Boston, sharing it subsequently with ten other cities including New York. The time seemed 
ripe, therefore, to acquaint a new and to re-acquaint older generations with the contribution of 
this great modern pioneer. Long standing plans of The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum as- 
sumed tangible form when at the opening of Oslo's Munch Museum in 1963, Director Johan 
H. Langaard undertook to lend the weight of his influence to the organization of a full-scale 
retrospective showing at the Guggenheim Museum. Ready agreement to participate in such an 
exhibition and to aid it most generously was subsequently obtained from Dr. Sigurd Willoch, 
Director of Norway's National Gallery and from Jan Askeland, Director of the Rasmus Meyer 
Collection in Bergen. Private collectors in Norway and, eventually, museums and collectors 
throughout the world followed suit. Separately listed in this catalogue, they are entitled to 
every gratitude which, as organizers, we are privileged to extend. 

The selection of the works and the preparation of this catalogue proceeded in close 
consultation and with every support of Norwegian Museum officials. Among these, extensive 
and essential contributions have been made by Reidar Revold, and Leif 0stby, respectively 
Curators of the Munch Museum and of the National Gallery in Oslo. By providing a major 
share of the printed documentation these distinguished scholars have placed at our disposal 
the results of years of diligent research. Lastly, I wish to acknowledge the very far-reaching 
assistance rendered through all phases of the preparatory process by Dr. Louise Averill 
Svendsen, the Guggenheim's Associate Curator, who also added her selection of Munch's works 
on paper to my choice of paintings. 

Thomas M. Messer Director. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum 



LEPERS TO THE EXHIBITION 



Johan Henrik Andresen, Oslo 

Nicolai A. Andresen, Oslo 

Mr. and Mrs. Nils Astrup, Oslo 

Mr. and Mrs. Sigval Bergesen, d.y., Oslo 

J0rgen W. Cappelen, Oslo 

Thorvald Johnsen, Oslo 

A. Fredrik Klaveness, Oslo 

Haakon Thomas Onstad, Munkedal, Sweden 

Bergen Billedgalleri, Bergen 

Rasmus Meyers Samlinger, Bergen 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

The Detroit Institute of Arts 

Stddt. Galerie im Landesmuseum, Hannover 

Ateneumin Taidemuseo, Helsinki 

Munch-museet, Oslo 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo 

Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh 

Ndrodni Galerie, Prague 

Nationalmuseum, Stockholm 

Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart 

Kunsthaus, Zurich 



11 



CHRONOLOGY 



This account of the artist's life is based on the information published in Edvard Munch fra At til 
Ar. A Year by Year Record of Edvard Munch's Life, by Johan H. Langaard and Reidar Revold, Oslo, 
H. Aschehoug & Co., 1961. 



1863 Born December 12 at Engelhaugen Farm in L0ten, Hedmark County. Norway, son of Army Medi- 
cal Corps doctor Christian Munch and his wife Laura Cathrine Bj0lstad. 

1864 His parents moved to Oslo, then called Christiania. 

1868 His mother died of tuberculosis; his aunt Miss Karen Bj0lstad took over the household. 

1877 His sister Sophie died of tuberculosis at the age of 15. 

1879 Entered Technical College to train as an engineer. 

1880 Began seriously to paint. November, left Technical College. 

1881 Entered Royal School of Design, attending first freehand and later modeling class, under the sculp- 
tor Julius Middelthun. 

1882 Rented a studio with six fellow artists; their work supervised by the painter Christian Krohg. 

1883 June, included in first group exhibition, Oslo. Autumn, attended Frits Thaulow's "open-air academy" 
at Modum. 

1884 Came in contact with the Bohemian set, the avant-garde of contemporary naturalistic painters 
and writers in Norway. Received first of several grants for continued studies. 

1885 In May, on a scholarship from the painter Frits Thaulow, traveled via Antwerp to Paris where he 
stayed for three weeks. Visited the Salon and the Louvre; particularly impressed by Manet. After 
the summer at Borre returned to Oslo to begin three of his major works: The Sick Child, The 
Morning After, Puberty. 

1886 Completed The Sick Child, the first of several versions. 

1889 April, first one-man exhibition, Oslo. Received State scholarship of 1500 kroner for study abroad. 
To Paris in October where he entered Leon Bonnat's art school. November his father died. Moved to 
St. Cloud in December. 

1890 Continued to attend Bonnat's art school ; moved primarily in Norwegian circle of artists, poets and 
writers. Summer in Norway. On renewal of State scholarship sailed for France, but was hospitalized 
with rheumatic fever for two months in Le Havre. 



12 



1891 January-April in Nice to recover health; May in Paris: Norway in the summer. After third renewal 
of State scholarship returned to Paris; in December to Nice. 

1892 Left Nice at end of March for Norway to arrange large one-man exhibition at Oslo in September. 
Invited by Verein Berliner Kiinstler to exhibit in Berlin, where his paintings stirred such violent 
protest that the show was closed after one week. The German artists who supported Munch, led 
by Max Liebermann. subsequently withdrew from the society to found their own association, the 
Berlin Secession. The exhibition shown thereafter at Diisseldorf, Cologne and Berlin. 

1893 Munch spent the greater part of his time in Germany until 1908, with stays in Paris and summers in 
Norway. Exhibited extensively in Germany, Paris and Scandinavia. Moved in circle of literary men 
and critics including August Strindberg, Richard Dehmel, Julius Meier-Graefe and the Polish poet 
Stanislaw Przybyszewski. Worked on Frieze of Life series, completing Madonna, The Cry, Vampire, 
Death and the Maiden. 

1894 Produced his first etchings. First monograph on his work by Przybyszewski, Meier-Graefe, Servaes 
and Pastor. First lithographs. 

1895 June, visit to Paris; Meier-Graefe published portfolio of etchings. La Revue Blanche reproduced the 
lithograph The Cry. 

1896 To Paris in February; first woodcuts and color lithographs. Worked on illustrations for Baudelaire's 
Les Fleurs du Mai. April-May. 10 paintings shown in Salon des Independants. June exhibition at 
Bing's gallery, L'Art Nouveau, reviewed by Strindberg in La Revue Blanche. 

1897 10 paintings shown in Salon des Independants. Summer in Asgardstrand. 

1898 Partly in Norway and Germany. 

1899 Spring, trip to Italy. Autumn and winter convalescing in Norwegian sanitarium. 

1900 March to Berlin, Florence and Rome; sanitarium in Switzerland. Autumn and winter in Norway. 
Completed Dance of Life. 

1901 Partly in Norway and Germany. 

1902 Winter and spring in Berlin. Introduced to Dr. Max Linde who became his patron, purchasing 
Fertility and commissioning a portfolio of 16 prints. At the end of an unfortunate love affair, he lost 
one joint of a finger on his left hand from a gunshot wound. In December, met Gustav Schiefler 
who bought several graphic works and started systematic cataloguing of Munch's prints. Exhibited 
22 works from Frieze of Life series at Berlin Secession. 

1903 Trip to Paris where exhibited in Salon des Independants. Three visits to Liibeck; worked on por- 
traits of Dr. Linde and his four young sons. 

1904 Concluded important contract with dealers Bruno Cassirer, Berlin, and Commeter, Hamburg, for 
sole rights to sale of Munch prints and paintings in Germany. Became regular member of Berlin 
Secession, which Beckmann. Nolde and Kandinsky joined a year later. 

1905 Involved in violent quarrel with artist Ludvig Karsten. This incident is believed to have inspired 
two 1935 works, The Fight and The Uninvited Guest. Important exhibition at "Manes." Prague. 

1906 Drafted designs for two Ibsen plays, in Berlin. Ghosts and Hedda Gabler. Painted portrait of 
Friedrich Nietzsche at request of Swedish banker Ernest Thiel who subsequently commissioned and 
purchased a great many of his oils. 

1908 Started series of pictures based on workmen and industry. Jens Thiis, Director of Nasjonalgal- 
leriet, Oslo, purchased several works for the museum over strong opposition. Despite evident success, 
entered clinic of Dr. Daniel Jacobson in Copenhagen as result of nervous breakdown. 



13 



1909 Spent winter and spring at the clinic. Composed and illustrated prose poem Alpha and Omega. En- 
tered design competition for decoration of Oslo University Festival Hall (Aula murals). The Nor- 
wegian collector Rasmus Meyer purchased several of his works. Major show in Oslo, at Blomqvist's, 
of 100 oils and 200 graphics. 

1910 Winter and spring at Kragerrt. Bought Ramme estate at Hvitsten on the Oslo Fjord to increase 
working facilities. 

1911 Won Oslo University competition. 

1912 Included in show of contemporary Scandinavian art sponsored by the American Scandinavian 
Society, New York, believed to be the first American showing of his works. Among 6 oils were 
versions of Sick Child, Starlight Night and In the Orchard (Adam and Eve under the Apple Tree). 
Received generally favorable reviews. Honorary guest of the Sonderhund, Cologne. 

1913 Represented in the Armory Show, New York, by 8 graphics. Shown were versions of Vampire, 
Moonlight, The Lonely Ones, Madonna and Nude with Red Hair. Lent by the artist, Munch priced 
them at $200 each. Received numerous tributes on occasion of 50th birthday. 

1914 May 29. Oslo University accepted Aula murals. 

1915 At his third American show, in the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, awarded 
gold medal for his graphics. 10 oils were also exhibited. Now successful enough to give financial 
aid to young German artists. 

1916 Bought house, Ekely. at Sk0yen outside Oslo where he spent most of his time when not traveling. 
The Oslo University murals were unveiled, with resulting rise in his reputation. 

1917 Curt Glaser's book on Munch published. 

1918 Wrote brochure, The Frieze of Life, for an exhibition of the frieze paintings at Blomqvist's in Oslo. 
Continued working with the Aula and Frieze of Life motifs. 

1919-1921 Continued frequent travels. 

1922 Painted 12 murals for the workers' dining room in the Freia Chocolate Factory, Oslo. Major retro- 
spective of 73 oils and 389 graphics held at Kunsthaus, Zurich. 

1923-1927 Continued support of German artists. Frequent trips throughout Scandinavia and Germany. Many 
exhibitions. 

1927 His most comprehensive show held at the Nationalgalerie. Berlin, included 223 oils. Later, show 
enlarged at Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. 

1928 Worked on designs for murals for the central hall of Oslo City Hall. 

1929 Built "winter studio" at Ekely. Major graphics show in the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm. 

1933 70th birthday brought numerous tributes. Monographs by Jens Thiis and Pola Gauguin published. 
New designs for the Alma Mater in the Aula. 

1937 82 works by Munch in German museums branded "degenerate" and confiscated. These were later 
sold in Norway. 

1940-1944 Lived quietly during German occupation of Norway. Refused any contact with Nazi invaders and 
Quislings. Continued to paint and work with prints. 

1944 January 23, a little more than a month after his 80th birthday, he died peacefully at Ekely. To the 
Municipality of Oslo he bequeathed all the work he left behind: approximately 1.000 paintings 
15.000 prints. 4.400 watercolors and drawings, and 6 sculptures— now in the Munch-museet. Oslo, 
opened 1963. 



14 



THE EARLY MOM 



BY SIGURD WILLOCH 



Edvard Munch was 17 years old in 1880 when he decided to become an artist. From then 
until his death in 1944 at the age of 80, he worked ceaselessly, producing an enormous body of paint- 
ings, drawings, watercolors and graphics; an oeuvre ranging from small, intimate paintings and 
etchings to monumental wall decorations. 

The young Munch was impressionable and open to many influences. Though he studied only 
very briefly with the sculptor Julius Middelthun at the School of Design in Oslo. Middelthun's clas- 
sical style may have influenced Munch's feeling for form in drawing. He lived in Oslo among a 
lively and argumentative group of French-inspired painters, and his sensibility was shaped by them 
and marked by the social conflicts dominating the era. The naturalist painter Christian Krohg influ- 
enced him when he supervised his work in 1882. A still bolder naturalism emerged in his painting 
after he had studied at Frits Thaulow's open-air academy in 1883. Munch's earliest work is charac- 
terized by its intimacy of subject, delicate form and charming color. His motifs are drawn from the 
family and its milieu, the town in which he lived and the surrounding countryside. An elevated sense 
of color is already apparent in these canvases of the early 1880's. 

Munch visited Paris for the first time in the spring of 1885, and was overwhelmed by the 
modern painting he saw there. Manet in particular impressed him deeply, and the Impressionists 
appealed strongly to him. their technique soon filtering into his own work. 

Munch spent the summers in small towns like Asgardstrand on the Oslo Fjord, often in the 
company of friends. There he absorbed the feeling of the bright Nordic summer night, which he 
interpreted in his most popular paintings of great spreading trees on the mysteriously illuminated 
shoreline. Typical of these paintings is Summer Night: the artist's sister Inger is shown sitting on a 
stone near the water, figure and nature melting together. The naturalistic strain is particularly 
apparent in Munch's canvases of the late 80's, for example the large Spring and Military Band on 
Karl Johan Street, of 1889. 

But Munch could not confine himself within the limits of naturalism. He needed a richer, 
freer and more individual form language with which to express the ideas that occupied him— mem- 
ories of illness in his family, his sister's death, and his friends' preoccupation with sex which at once 
attracted and repelled him. After his study-tour of 1885-86 Munch painted his youthful masterpiece 
The Sick Child, a theme to which he was to return again and again in the course of the next 40 years. 
In this first remarkable version. Munch expresses his love for his family, releasing painful memories 
of childhood experience. The composition is based on a simple scheme which concentrates atten- 
tion on the meeting of the two heads— the invalid's pale profile and the mother's dark, bowed head. 



15 



The powerful composition and the use of color to express spiritual and emotional content far sur- 
pass ordinary naturalism. The work is a confession: its deeply personal content is like a spirit that 
Munch must exorcise over and over again. Munch's art and its development can be explained only 
in relation to his life. He expressed this himself when he said "My art has given my life a meaning. 
I was seeking the light through it. It has been a stick to lean on which I needed." 

The Sick Child was not an isolated phenomenon in Munch's work of this period. Though still 
working in a technique that may be called Impressionist and naturalistic, by the mid-80's Munch 
was already very much concerned with ideas we associate with the Symbolist movement of the 
1890's. and which he embodied in the Frieze of Life series. He painted the first versions of ideas for 
this series. The Day After and Puberty, in 1886. Unfortunately, both of these canvases have been 
destroyed. 

Munch went to Paris again in 1889 and worked in the studio of Leon Bonnat, a fashionable 
naturalist. Though he was already an independent artist, he was still open to many influences which 
were to be of great importance to his later development. He was particularly impressed by Gauguin's 
simplified figure drawings and compositional ideas, and Degas' unique and startling compositional 
devices. A number of tendencies are reflected in Munch's work of this period: the canvases of St. 
Cloud and Nice with their prevailing blue tones and lyrical atmosphere, and the bright, gay street 
scenes of Paris and Oslo, executed in a fully developed Impressionist technique. 

The early 1890's were the beginning of an era of feverish activity, conflict and fame for Munch. 
He developed a radical new form-language for his deeply personal feelings and ideas. His art may 
now truly be called expressionist. 1892 was a particularly significant year: Munch exhibited his new 
paintings in Oslo and was invited to participate in the Verein Berliner Kiinstler. The latter exhibition 
aroused scandalized protest and was closed after a week. When the paintings of the Verein Berliner 
Kiinstler were shown later in Diisseldorf, Cologne and elsewhere in Berlin, the ensuing publicity 
made Munch famous as a radical of contemporary art. 

Munch lived for the most part in Germany until 1908. and associated with a circle of 
writers which included August Strindberg, Gunnar Heiberg, the Norwegian dramatist, and the 
Polish poet Stanislaw Przybyszewski. It was during this period that Munch worked intensively on 
the series The Frieze of Life. He envisioned the series as a modern conception of love and death, 
indeed a philosophical interpretation of the whole of life. Current ideas of women as demonic, fate- 
destined powers are central to Munch's concept of the series. 

Munch expresses his ideas through symbolic color, Art Nouveau inspired line, and, above all. 
in his powerful draftsmanship. This expressive drawing is especially notable in such paintings as 
Puberty, Death in the Sick Chamber, Madonna, Woman in Three Phases and Ashes. The Frieze 
of Life is not an entirely consistent whole, either in technique or concept, for Munch developed and 
changed as he worked on its separate components. He could not possibly sustain the same youth- 
ful feelings about life in the later works that he had expressed in the early paintings, and many 
new ideas emerged by the turn of the century. Compare, for example, a milestone in the artist's work. 
The Dance of Life, a complex summation of Munch's feelings about eroticism, touched with bitter 
scorn, with the earlier, simpler Woman in Three Phases. 

In 1894 Munch made his first etchings and lithographs. His visit to Paris in 1895 was of 
major significance to the development of his graphic work. Gauguin. Toulouse-Lautrec, the graphics 
of Redon, the Symbolists and the Synthesists, in fact the whole milieu of the Paris art world stimu- 
lated his interest and inspired him to renew his study of reality. Meier-Graefe published a port- 
folio of his etchings, and Thadee Natanson, the editor of La Revue Blanche, became interested in his 
graphics. 1896 was a decisive year: Munch exhibited at the Salon des Independants and at Bing's 
V Art Nouveau; he met Stephane Mallarme and executed the poet's portrait in lithograph and etch- 
ing, and he began his illustrations for Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du Mai. 



16 



Munch had first turned to graphics as a change from painting. Soon, however, etchings, 
lithographs and woodcuts became as important to him as his painting. He discovered that the 
graphic medium offered him a new outlet with new possibilities for the expression of the same 
ideas and feelings he was concerned with in painting. He found that woodcuts were particularly 
suited to his talents and produced some of his finest prints in this technique. An instinctive mas- 
ter of graphics, Munch's great prints— for example The Girl and Death, The Girls and the Skeleton, 
The Kiss, Madonna, and The Sick Child— help to place him in the very front rank of European artists. 

Munch's early work is often contrasted with his production after 1909. He is seen as the 
gloomy, pensive 19th-century artist who was abruptly reborn as the life-asserting creator of the 
Aula murals. Certainly, Munch's work is varied and embraces extreme polarities of feeling and 
expression. But his development is coherent, consistent and unbroken, as an examination of his work 
of the first decade of the 20th century reveals. 

Though these were turbulent years for Munch— years marked by controversies with old 
friends, a restless and irregular mode of life, constant traveling, and eventually, in 1908. a nervous 
breakdown necessitating a stay in Dr. Daniel Jacobson's nerve clinic near Copenhagen— the amount 
of work he produced during this period is overwhelming. This oeuvre consists of graphics and oils, 
figure compositions and landscapes. There are new versions of motifs treated in previous years; and 
new ideas and techniques emerged, yet the thread connecting these new works with Munch's past 
and future production is always evident. 

A major interest of Munch during the first years of the century were life-size, front-face 
portraits, usually of men. Although the many portraits he painted in this format plainly have their 
roots in his earlier painting, they clearly forecast the monumental aspect of his later work. The con- 
cept of masculine vitality and strength embodied in these canvases far surpasses the characteriza- 
tions of the 90's. 

Just as in his earlier work. Munch in this period expressed extremes of both despair and 
lyricism. Thus, on the one hand, there is the series of landscapes in shining color from Asgardstrand. 
so much like his earlier landscapes, the soft, lyrical summer night of Girls on the Bridge and the 
chill winter night of the Oslo Fjord in White Night. The despairing and disillusioned Munch of the 
1890's revealed his bitterness again in the Self-Portrait of 1906 and the violent, erotic fantasy 
Marat's Death. But there is much that is new in these canvases. For Munch developed a vigorous 
and free painting technique at this time. A forceful Fauvism. this method of using broad strips of 
strongly contrasted color stresses the violent character of his subjects. This fresh new manner of 
painting marks the series of landscapes painted in Liibeck and Warnemiinde in 1907-08. of which 
Bathing Men is a major example. In its clarity of concept and sober form. Bathing Men points 
forward to the monumental Aula decorations. It must be stressed, however, that the monumental- 
ity emergent in this work and in the large portraits was always latent in Munch's paintings. Fertility, 
a composition of ornamental clarity, and the portrait of Inger and Mother and Daughter are a few 
examples of works of the 90's that reveal this implicit monumentality. 

When Munch returned to Norway in 1909 after many years of travel and living abroad, he 
was 45 years old. His youth was past and his achievement was already enormous. He had created an 
impressive, masterful body of work and had become famous abroad, often under extremely difficult 
conditions. The recognition he had won abroad he now began to achieve in bis native land. He no 
longer felt homeless. Artistically, his homecoming meant not a break, but a continuity. He now stood 
at the threshold of a new era in his life— the threshold of wider artistic development throughout 
the years. 



17 




28 



18 



THE LITE MUNCH 



BY JOHAN H. LANGAARD 



Edvard Munch, even more than most modern painters, waged a long and bitter struggle be- 
fore achieving recognition. All indications point to the successful completion of this achievement: 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum is organizing a major and lavish exhibition of his work, an 
enterprise involving the dispatch of his major work from Europe to America. Publications on his 
art are constantly increasing and are being printed in many languages. His paintings and prints have 
registered record prices. During the last 10 or 15 years, forgeries of his works have made their ap- 
pearance on the international art market, a curious sort of compliment. 

The name of Edvard Munch has attained the same international acclaim and reputation as 
that of his countrymen Henrik Ibsen and Edvard Grieg. Of the three, however, the least is known 
loday about Munch. One reason for this may be that his later production is apt to be eclipsed by 
his work of the 1890's— the early period upon which Munch's international recognition is founded. 
But it would be regrettable if the accomplishments of the early period should blind art lovers to the 
fact that after 1900, and. indeed, until the day of his death. Munch underwent an unbroken devel- 
opment as an artist, moving towards a liberation of his form language which reached its climax in 
1916, with the completion of the University murals. 

This process was already under way when Munch arrived in Copenhagen from Warnemiinde 
in 1908. to hold an exhibition. At this time he suffered a nervous collapse and found it necessary to 
commit himself for medical treatment and took a rest cure in Dr. Daniel Jacobson's nerve clinic. 
Shortly after his arrival in this institution he was hard at work at his painting as well as his print- 
making. He wrote and illustrated in a new series of lithographs his strange prose poem Alpha and 
Omega, in which he ridiculed love and sex relationships. It was there also that he produced one 
of his loveliest drypoint etchings, the portrait of the young nurse Linke j0rgensen. 

When Munch was admitted to the clinic there was probably no one of whom he stood in 
greater awe than his doctor, who had the power to declare him mentally deranged, and to commit 
him for the rest of his life. He therefore concentrated on the object of his fear, and painted a full- 
length, front-face portrait showing the authoritative doctor in a posture of unshakable self- 
confidence and superior knowledge, qualities that were obviously exaggerated by the dependent 
patient undergoing a nervous crisis. In reality, the worthy professor was comical rather than awe- 
some—his air of pompous vanity was mitigated by his friendliness. The model's personality is con- 
veyed with an expressionist intensity of color far surpassing anything Munch had so far achieved, 
and the figure and the surrounding space merge more effectively than ever before in his portraiture. 

The interlude in the Jacobson nerve clinic, which lasted over half a year, marks no break in 
the artist's activity, nor did it lead to a stagnation of his development. Nevertheless, the year 1908- 
1909 proved to be a turning point in his life. In the clinic he made a number of resolutions. He 
foreswore sleeping draughts and excessive use of stimulants, and abandoned the unsettled, restless 
life away from his native country that he had pursued for the preceding twenty years. He decided 



19 



to find a quiet spot in Norway where he could pursue his artistic aims undisturbed. Isolation was 
imperative if he was to devote himself to the execution of the Frieze of Life as a mural, the form in 
which he had originally planned the work. 

In the summer of 1909 he returned to Norway, and shortly thereafter took a lease on a 
property in Kragero. a small town on the coast of the outer Oslo Fjord. It was a safe distance from 
the capital, where he had met so much opposition and where he would always risk meeting many of 
his more or less imaginary enemies. Occasionally, when an old friend, such as Thorvald Stang. 
looked him up in his retreat at Krager0, he would paint his picture, adding to his impressive series 
of large-scale portraits. Munch referred to these life-size portraits as his artistic bodyguard. These 
portraits belong to a sequence that can be traced back to the Manet-influenced pictures of Jensen- 
Hjell and The Ship Owner of 1885 and 1889. The series includes his portraits of Consul Sandberg 
and Professor Jacobson of 1901 and 1908, and continues until 1932. with pictures of a Norwegian 
society lady and a Swiss professor. Munch once said of his portraiture. "I must aim at the target, 
and if I do hit it, I score a bull's eye." The remark is apt: as presentations of human character his 
portraits are no less searching and revealing than the Frieze of Life in its vision of modern man's 
psyche. 

Inspired by the primeval looking rock formations and the clear light of the coastal scenery. 
Munch created, during the years after 1909, a series of landscapes. Like Winter, Krager0 of 1912. 
these are, as a rule, characterized by a new-found sense of calm and simplicity in their composition, 
which is further enhanced by the cool tones of Munch's palette. In many of these landscapes 
Munch depicts the working man and the rhythm of his toil set against the panorama of the seasons. 
He saw the working man as marked by his struggle for existence: strong, upright and weatherbeaten 
as the fir tree he fells, the lumberjack wields his axe in the forest. The masterpiece of this genre is 
the dynamically composed Workers on Their Way Home of 1915. Though the color reveals Im- 
pressionist features, it is primarily employed for expressive ends. Indeed, it is principally by means 
of this powerfully expressive use of color that Munch conveys in the canvas the feeling of solidarity 
behind the 20th century's triumphant labor movement. 

Once he had settled at Krager0, Munch began sketches for a competition for a mural com- 
mission for the Oslo University festival hall. The murals were to be commissioned in connection 
with the University's impending centenary celebrations of 1911. In Oslo, especially in academic 
quarters. Munch's sketches for the murals were regarded with a mixture of suspicion and incom- 
prehension. But this attitude did not shake Munch's resolve to win the competition, and the com- 
mission was finally awarded to him. Work on a decorative project of this kind must have made 
Munch as happy as a man of his temperament could possibly be. He was more prolific while work- 
ing on the murals than he had ever been. Deciding that his quarters were too cramped, he looked 
for new homes and moved, in 1910 and again in 1913, to larger houses on the coast, nearer to the 
capital. 

At first, Munch thought that the Frieze of Life, which had long occupied his attention, 
would be a suitable theme for the University murals. He soon realized, however, that the erotic and 
morbid nature of the motifs he had chosen might be offensive and out of place at the University. 
These considerations and the architectural demands of the festival hall induced him to use a dif- 
ferent cycle of motifs in the sketches he submitted. 

In the completed murals the sun. representing the light-giving qualities of knowledge and 
research, occupies the focal position. From the white heat of its orb. life-giving rays reach out to 
warm our world, dispelling the darkness of the winter night and rousing man from his slumbers. 



20 



Everything the sunlight reveals in nature excites the curiosity and exploratory urge of man, who 
reaches out to gather the fruits of knowledge and quenches his thirst in its inexhaustible well. In 
the light of the sun, life on earth runs its course and history is the record of this eternal process. 
The paintings are based on the landscapes of the outer Oslo Fjord and depict natural and common- 
place incidents of everyday life. Painted in a surprisingly free style with dazzling pure, bright 
color, and monumental in composition, the murals are universal symbols of the great, eternal forces 
in life and nature. The narrative cycle is executed in 11 large panels, the largest of which measures 
a little over 36 feet wide. All are slightly more than 15 feet high. 

Munch constantly struggled for recognition, never neglecting an opportunity to exhibit his 
work in any country where he could do so. In 1912 he was invited to exhibit as guest artist at the 
Sonderbund in Cologne, and in 1913 at the Armory Show in the United States. By the time his 
murals were finally installed in the Oslo University festival hall in 1916, he had disarmed the ma- 
jority of his critics both at home and abroad. After the first large retrospective exhibition of his 
work, arranged by W. Wartmann at the Zurich Kunsthaus in 1922. Munch's fame and popularity 
grew rapidly. His most successful exhibition, however, was undoubtedly the one-man show pre- 
sented in 1927 at the national galleries of Oslo and Berlin by their respective directors Jens Thiis 
and Dr. Justi. 

Success did not make Munch slacken his pace, though he was now, admittedly, more re- 
laxed about many aspects of his life, turning his gaze more and more often outward to the world 
about him. Sometimes harrowing and bitter memories did revive, occasioned, for instance, by the 
news of the death of a cherished friend. This usually provoked a nervous crisis which he was com- 
pelled to analyze in the mirror of his art, and he produced a steadily growing number of self- 
portraits. At intervals printmaking absorbed him, providing a challenge to his creative imagination. 
In 1915-1917 he made a large number of fresh impressions of various old woodcuts, experimenting 
with up to 18 color variations. At the same time, the countryside around him, the wealth of color in 
the air itself and the freedom of space, filled him with a spontaneous and overwhelming desire to 
paint, resulting in a great number of large and harmonious landscapes, such as The Man in the 
Cabbage Field, of 1916. He continued to work on two large compositions, which he had not com- 
pleted to his satisfaction when he was painting the University murals. These were the Human 
Mountain and Alma Mater. To leave them uncompleted was for Munch as unthinkable as abandon- 
ing his plan of creating the Frieze of Life. 

Munch realized that the completion of the Frieze of Life, as well as the many other com- 
positions that he was anxious to begin, would require more spacious quarters than he occupied. He 
resolved to live in virtual seclusion. In 1916 he bought Ekely, a large property at Sk0yen on the 
outskirts of Oslo, where he lived most of the time, when not traveling, for the rest of his life. The 
house, which had a farm attached to it. was barred to all but a small circle of friends and the 
artist's models. For company he had, apart from these chosen few, his dogs, and a horse whose 
main purpose in life was to serve as a model. The garden was allowed to grow wild, but the house, 
stable, cowshed and barn were converted into studios and connected with covered walks which also 
served as open-air studios. The printmaking presses were set up in the cellar of the main house, and 
after a while the floor was ankle-deep in experimental prints. In 1929 he built a large fireproof 
winter studio. And yet, as a rule, most of what he produced was left standing where it had been 
painted, in farm buildings where the fire risk was considerable, in the open-air studios, or simply out 
in the garden, where pictures might be exposed for years on end to the wind and weather. Munch 
referred to this treatment as a "horse-doctor's cure", which the canvases were forced to undergo, to 
ensure the melting colors and the dry, brittle textural effect he wanted. He had neither the time nor 
the energy— so intensely occupied was he with his work— to bother to look after his completed can- 
vases, to store them in a dry spot, or varnish them. 

In 1918 he exhibited the paintings of the life frieze in Oslo. He described it as one of his 
most important works "if not the most important". "It should", he continued, "likewise be regarded 



21 



as a part of the University murals, for which in many ways it has been a forerunner, and without 
which the murals might possibly never have been completed. It developed my decorative sense. .. ." 
Yet, he compared the frieze to "a wreck which had had half her rigging washed overboard". He 
was referring to the fact that between 1906 and 1909 he had lost several of the most important 
components of this work as the result of three major sales: to the Swedish art patron Ernest Thiel. 
to the National Gallery in Oslo, and to the Norwegian collector Rasmus Meyer in Bergen. He felt 
that he must recreate the works he had sold, so that the series would be complete and consistent in 
style. To keep the series intact, Munch decided he would no longer sell his paintings. Fortunately, 
he was in a position to do this, since the sale of his prints made him financially independent. 

During the 1920's and 1930"s he produced a large number of woodcuts and lithographs, and 
until the very end of his life he painted works of great mastery. Perhaps the most poignant of his 
late paintings is the eloquent self-portrait Between the Clock and the Bed, completed in 1940. 
Munch revealed in it the same fearless self-examination at the age of nearly eighty that he had 
shown in his youth. This canvas shows him making his way, tired and lonely, from the sun-drenched 
room in the background towards the cool blue shadows of the foreground, where his bed. as mag- 
nificently decorated as a tomb, awaits him. He pauses for a moment to listen to the ticking of the 
clock, conscious that the inexorable march of time has brought him to the borderline between the 
world of the living and the world of the dead. He is an old man reconciling himself, calmly and 
patiently, to the thought of death; but he is also an artist who is able to paint with an almost 
paradoxically vigorous and youthful directness. 

In 1922 the Freia Chocolate Company commissioned Munch to decorate 12 wall panels 
in the canteen of their Oslo factory. This was not the opportunity for which he had long been wait- 
ing, and for which he had prepared so assiduously; he realized that the Frieze of Life was no more 
an appropriate subject for mural decor in a hall where factory and office workers spent their 
leisure hours than it had been for the University festival hall. The only part of the frieze he could 
use was the landscape background— though, of course, he would employ the decorative facility he 
had developed while working on it. He began work, using well balanced, pure, strong color sur- 
faces to impart a continuous frieze-like feeling to his murals. 

All his life Munch waited in vain for the chance to realize his Frieze of Life as he had 
always envisaged it: "a poem of life, love and death". That the opportunity never arose is an 
artistic tragedy the full scope of which is difficult to gauge. Yet his will to work and his preoccu- 
pation with decorative problems remained undiminished. As late as 1936 he made a number of 
large sketches for a mural intended for the council chamber in the Oslo City Hall, but eventually 
declined to accept the commission. He felt that his strength was gradually deserting him. He suf- 
fered from a distressing eye complaint and was constantly harassed by the problems of day-to-day 
existence, problems which were, of course, vastly increased after the outbreak of the Second World 
War. When the Germans occupied Norway, he barred the doors of Ekely to the Nazis who admired 
his work, even though it had been removed from the museums of Germany as "degenerate art". To 
humble this proud Norwegian, plans were made to requisition Ekely: but these were abandoned 
when the Germans discovered how Spartan the home of this celebrity was. When Munch was in- 
formed of this reprieve he is said to have remarked: "We can be glad we've never suffered from the 
craze of collecting furniture". 

The war in general— and this situation in particular— distressed Munch far more than this 
lighthearted remark suggests. On April 18th, 1940, only a few days after the treacherous German 
attack on his country, he resolved a problem about which he had been brooding for years. He had 
the necessary legal documents drawn up to bequeath, upon his death, his collection of art to the 
city of Oslo. On December 13th, 1943. from the terrace at Ekely. he watched the conflagration that 
raged in the inner harbor after the explosion of a German ammunition store on the wharf. In the 
chill night air he caught a cold from which he never recovered. On January 23rd. 1944. feeling 
tired, he lay down to rest on a sofa. Later that afternoon, he was found dead. 



22 



When his estate was finally settled, it was found to comprise, in addition to 6 sculptures, 
about 1.000 paintings. 4,400 drawings and watercolors, as well as 15.000 prints of 719 different 
kinds of graphic work, of which 198 were etchings, 380 lithographs and 141 woodcuts. This was 
not only an artistically and financially priceless treasure; it was also a collection of superhuman 
proportions numerically. It would, therefore, be absurd to claim that it consists of nothing but com- 
pletely finished work. It is. rather, an incredibly rich but mixed collection, the fruits of a great 
painter's long and diligent life. No one was more keenly aware of the precise nature of this varied 
art than Munch himself. He described it as "mainly sketches and designs— for large murals. It 
would only be really interesting if one could see it in its complete context and compare all the 
studies and sketches with the more finished work". 

This is probably one of the reasons a number of competent critics have expressed the opin- 
ion that Munch was even greater as a printmaker than as a painter. It is actually very difficult to 
evaluate the comparative merits of his work in the two media. One thing is certain: when Munch 
reached the sublime in his art, as he did in every period of his career, he found the perfect expres- 
sion for his inmost feelings and thoughts, whether his medium was painting or printmaking. All 
his production— masterpieces, incomplete sketches and designs— was permeated by the same poig- 
nant, impressionable sensitivity, and this sensitivity made Edvard Munch first and last a portrayer 
of man. He was a painter driven by an all-compelling need to express himself. The work of his later 
years did not have the same influence on the development of European art that his production in 
the 1890's had, but the enduring value of his art is not the radical form language, which at one 
time so shocked his contemporaries: it is his uncompromising, tireless response to his artistic con- 
science. Indeed, one may state that it is with his later, mature work, such as the lithograph portrait 
of Professor K. E. Schreiner of 1930, the color woodcut Birgitte of 1931, and the painting Between 
the Clock and the Bed of 1940— to mention only a few— that Edvard Munch, both as a painter and 
printmaker, most fully realized his genius. 



PAINTINGS IN THE EXHIBITION 



24 




CATALOGUE 



Entries in this catalogue are chronological. References 
to exhibitions under each heading are abbreviated and 
may be found in detail in the documentation section 
which follows on page 101. 



PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST'S SISTER INGER. 1884. 
Oil on canvas, 38V4 x 26%" (97 x 67 cm.) . 
Signed and dated u. 1. "E. Munch 1884". 
Collection Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of Christian Mustad, Oslo. 
Exhibitions : Annual State Exhibition, Olso, 1886, no. 127. 

Nationalgalerie. Berlin, 1927, no. 4. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 12. 

Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, 1932, no. 197. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 3. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 3. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52, no. 3. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 3. 



25 




1 (Deta 



26 




GIRL SITTING ON A BED. 1884. 

Oil on canvas, 37% x iOYz" (96,5 x 103,5 cm.) . 

Signed and dated 1. 1. "E. Munch 1884". 

Collection Rasmus Meyers Samlinger. Bergen. 

Provenance: Frits Thaulow, Oslo. 

Exhibitions: Annual State Exhibition, Oslo. 1884. 

Architektenhaus, Berlin, 1892, no. 1. 

Georg Kleis, Copenhagen. 1893. no. 1. 

Lichtenberg, Dresden, 1893, no. 1. 

Galerie Blanche, Stockholm, 1894, no. 17. 

Konsthallen, Gothenburg, 1923, no. 197. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 13. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1949-50, no. 51. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1950, no. 51. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 2. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich. 1954. no. 3. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen, 1955, no. 3. 



27 




3. IN THE DIGS (TETE-A-TETE). 1885. 
Oil on canvas, 25% x 29%" (65,5 x 75,5 cm.) . 
Not signed or dated. 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Architektenhaus, Berlin, 1892, no. 25. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo. 1904, no. 3. 

Galerie "Manes", Prague, 1905, no. 63. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1911, no. 80. 

Raadhushallen, Copenhagen, 1946, no. 3. 

Liljevalchs Konslhall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 3. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 4. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 4. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52, no. 4. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern. 1958, no. 1. 

Museum Boymans-van Beuningen. Rotterdam, 1958-59. no. 1. 

Akademie der Bildenden Kiinste. Vienna. 1959. no. 1. 



28 




29 




4. PORTRAIT OF THE PAINTER KARL JENSEN-HJELL. 1885. 
Oil on canvas, 75 x 39%" (190 x 100 cm.) . 
Signed and dated 1. 1. "E. Munch 1885". 
Private Collection, Oslo. 
Provenance: Henrik A. Th. Dedichen, Oslo. 
Exhibitions: Annual State Exhibition, Oslo, 1885. 

Students' Association, Oslo, 1889. 

Jeweler Tostrup's Building, Oslo, 1892, no. 41. 

Architektenhaus, Berlin, 1892, no. 50. 

Georg Kleis, Copenhagen, 1893, no. 49. 

Lichtenherg, Dresden, 1893, no. 49. 

Galerie Blanche, Stockholm. 1894. no. 8. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 18. 

Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, 1932, no. 198. 

Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, 1951, no. 31. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich. 1952, no. 1. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 1. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954. no. 5. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen, 1955. no. 5. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958. no. 2. 

Akademie der Bildenden Kiinsle. Vienna. 1959. no. 2. 

Museum Narodowe, Warsaw, 1959, no. 2. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main, 1962-63, no. 1. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1964. no. 52. 

Kunsthalle, Kiel, 1964, no. 54. 



EVENING HOUR WITH THE ARTIST'S SISTER LAURA 

(THE YELLOW HAT) . 1888. 

Oil on canvas, 29V2 x 39%" (75 x 100,5 cm.) . 

Signed and dated 1. r. "Edvard Munch 1888". 

Collection Thorvald Johnsen, Oslo. 

Provenance: J. Sejersted Biidtker. Oslo. 

Exhibitions: Annual State Exhibition, Oslo. 1888. no. 108. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin. 1927, no. 16. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 32. 

Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, 1932, no. 199. 

Institute of Contemporary Art. Boston. 1950, no. 5. 

Gemeentemuseum. The Hague, 1951-52. no. 5. 

Museum Narodowe. Warsaw. 1959, no. 3. 

Steinernes Haus. Frankfurt am Main. 1962-63. no. 4. 



30 




MILITARY BAND ON KARL JOHAN STREET, OSLO. 1889. 
Oil on canvas, 40% x 55%" (102 x 141,5 cm.) . 
Signed and dated 1. 1. "E. Munch 1889". 
Collection Kunsthaus, Zurich. 
Provenance: Mr. With. Oslo. 

Oskar Moll, Vienna. 

Dr. Curt Glaser, Berlin. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin. 
Exhibitions: Annual State Exhibition, Oslo, 1890, no. 92. 

Galerie Alfred Flechtheim, Diisseldorf, 1914, no. 3. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 20. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 36. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1937, no. 8. 

Ausstelhmg Edvard Munch 1863-1944, Cologne. Hamburg, Liibeck. 1951. no. 1. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1952, no. 4. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 18. 

Haus der Kunst. Munich, 1954, no. 12. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958, no. 5. 

Akademie der Bildenden Kiinste, Vienna, 1959, no. 3. 

Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris, 1960-61, no. 482. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main, 1962-63, no. 5. 

Palais de Beaulieu, Lausanne, 1964, no. 200. 



31 




7. THE SHIP OWNER, c. 1889. 

Oil on canvas, 78 x 43V*" (198 x 110 cm.) . 
Signed 1. 1. "E. Munch". 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Sigval Bergesen, d. y., Oslo. 
Provenance: Alfred Leonhard Tietz, Cologne. 

K. Doebecke, Berlin. 
Exhibitions: Kunsthiitte, Chemnitz, 1929. no. 4. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main. 1962-63, no. f>. 



32 






• .»■ M 




ARRIVAL OF THE MAIL BOAT. 1890. 

Oil on canvas, 38% x 51V4" (98 x 130 cm.) . 

Signed and dated 1. r. L 'E. Munch 1890". 

Collection Nicolai A. Andresen, Oslo. 

Provenance: Mrs. Eva Andresen, Oslo. 

Exhibitions: Jeweler Tostrup's Building, Oslo, 1892. no. 45. 

Architektenhaus, Berlin, 1892, no. 33. 

Georg Kleis, Copenhagen, 1893, no. 33. 

Lichtenberg, Dresden, 1893. no. 33. 

Galerie Blanche, Stockholm, 1894, no. 22. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main, 1962-63, no. 3. 



9. NIGHT IN ST. CLOUD. 1890. 

Oil on canvas, 25% x 21Y4" (64,5 x 54 cm.) . 

Signed 1. r. "E. Munch". 

Collection Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. 

Provenance: Dr. F. Arentz, Oslo. 

Exhibitions: Jeweler Tostrup's Building, Oslo, 1892, no. 5. 

Architektenhaus, Berlin, 1892, no. 5. 

Georg Kleis, Copenhagen, 1893, no. 5. 

Lichtenberg, Dresden, 1893, no. 5. 

Galerie Blanche, Stockholm. 1894, no. 45. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927. no. 40. 

Haus der Kunst. Munich, 1954, no. 15. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954. no. 9. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen, 1955, no. 14. 

Akademie der Bildenden Kiinste. Vienna, 1959, no. 4. 

Museum Narodowe. Warsaw, 1959, no. 6. 



33 




34 




s;H»*iS.S! 



10. RUE LAFAYETTE. 1891. 

Oil on canvas, 36% x 28%" (92 x 73 cm.) 

Signed 1. r. "E. Munch 91". 

Collection Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. 

Provenance: Thora Lynneberg, Oslo. 

Exhibitions: Jeweler Tostrup's Building, Oslo, 1892, no. 13. 

Architektenhaus. Berlin, 1892, no. 54. 

Georg Kleis, Copenhagen, 1893, no. 53. 

Lichtenberg, Dresden, 1893, no. 51. 

Galerie Blanche, Stockholm, 1894, no. 1. 

Dioramalokalet. Oslo, 1900, no. 77. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 48. 

The London Gallery, London, 1936. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich. 1954, no. 16. 

Kunstforeningen. Copenhagen, 1955, no. 15. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958. no. 6. 

Akademie der Bildenden Kiinste, Vienna, 1959, no. 6. 



35 







11. SPRING DAY ON KARL JOHAN STREET. OSLO. 1891. 
Oil on canvas, 31 Yz x 39%" (80 x 100 cm.) . 
Signed and dated 1. 1. "E. Munch 91". 
Collection Bergen Billedgalleri, Bergen. 
Provenance: Jens Z. M. Kielland, Stavanger. 

Kunstforening, Bergen. 
Exhibitions: Jeweler Tostrup's Building, Oslo, 1892, no. 22. 

Architektenhaus, Berlin. 1892. no. 28. 

Georg Kleis, Copenhagen, 1893, no. 28. 

Lichtenberg, Dresden, 1893, no. 28. 

Nationalgalerie. Berlin, 1927, no. 22. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 50. 

Institute of Contemporary Art. Boston, 1950, no. 6. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 5. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52. no. 6. 

Petit Palais, Paris. 1952, no. 5. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954, no. 18. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen, 1955. no. 17. 

Musee National dArt Moderne, Paris, 1960-61, no. 483. 



36 




12 



12. THE KISS. 1892. 

Oil on canvas, 39% x 31%" ( 100 x 80,5 cm.) . 
Signed and dated 1. r. "E. Munch 92". 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of the artist. 



37 




13. EVENING ON KARL JOHAN STREET. OSLO, c. 1892. 
Oil on canvas, 33 Mi x 47 5 /s" (84,5 x 121 cm.) . 
Signed 1. r. "E. Munch". 

Collection Rasmus Meyers Samlinger, Bergen. 
Provenance: The artist. 
Exhibitions: Blomqvists Lokale, Oslo, 1895. 

Ateneumin Taidemuseo, Helsinki, 1909. no. 28. 

Blomqvists Lokale, Oslo, 1909. 

Nationalgalerie. Berlin. 1927, no. 60. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 91. 

The London Gallery, London, 1936. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. 1949-50, no. 62. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1952, no. 53. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 13. 

Haus der Kunst. Munich, 1954, no. 20. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen. 1955. no. 19. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern. 1958. no. 9. 

Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris, 1960-61, no. 484. 

^tcinernes Haus. Frankfurt am Main. 1962-63. no. 11. 

Louisiana Museum. Copenhagen, 1963, no. 49. 



38 




: ;i«^.:<«akJk»^ 




<Wl 





14. MYSTIC SHORE, c. 1892. 

Oil on canvas, 39% x 55%" ( 100 x 140 cm.) . 

Signed 1. r. "E. Munch". 

Collection Haakon Thomas Onstad, Munkedal, Sweden. 

Provenance : Harald Hoist Halvorsen, Oslo. 

Dr. Gunnar Johnson Host. Gothenburg. 

Haakon Onstad. Munkedal, Sweden. 
Exhibitions: Jeweler Tostrup's Building. Oslo, 1892, no. 4. 

Architektenhaus, Berlin, 1892, no. 4. 

Georg Kleis, Copenhagen, 1893, no. 4. 

Lichtenberg, Dresden. 1893, no. 4. 

Galerie Blanche. Stockholm, 1894, no. 39. 

Kungl. Akademien, Stockholm, 1941, no. 527. 

Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, 1944, no. 2. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main, 1962-63, no. 10. 



39 




15 



15. SELF-PORTRAIT BENEATH THE MASK. c. 1892. 
Oil on canvas, 27V8 x 17%" (69 x 43.5 cm. I . 
Not signed or dated. 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions : Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm. 1947. no. 23. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Huston. 1950. no. 20. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton. 1951, no. 19. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52, no. 20. 



40 




16 



41 




17 



16. PORTRAIT OF DAGNY JUELL PRZYBYSZEWSKA. 1893. 
Oil on canvas, 58 V* x 39V4" (148,5 x 99,5 cm.) . 
Not signed or dated. 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Ugo Barroccio, Berlin. 1893. no. 3. 

Galerie Blanche, Stockholm. 1894, no. 15. 

Blomqvists Lokale, Oslo, 1909. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. 1927, no. 71. 
• Raadhushallen, Copenhagen. 1946, no. 12. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall. Stockholm, 1947, no. 17. 

Institute of Contemporary Art. Boston. 1950. no. 10. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951. no. 9. 

Genieentemuseum. The Hague. 1951-52. no. 10. 

Petit Palais. Paris. 1952. no. 9. 

Museum Narodowe. Warsaw. 1959. no. 7. 



17. MOONLIGHT ON THE SHORE. 1893. 
Oil on canvas, 24% x 37 3 /4" (62,4 x 95.8 cm.) . 
Signed 1. r. "E. Munch". 

Collection Rasmus Meyers Samlinger. Bergen. 
Provenance: The artist. 
Exhibitions: Nationalgalerie. Berlin. 1927. no. 37. 

Nasjonalgalleriet. Oslo. 1927. no. 66. 

Hans der Kunsl. Munich. 195 1. no. 26. 



42 




18 



43 




18. MOONLICHT. 1893. 

Oil on canvas, 55V4 x 53 1 /s" (140,5 x 135 cm.) . 
Signed 1. r. "E. Munch". 
Collection Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Harald Nfirregaard, Oslo. 
Exhibitions: Ugo Barroccio, Berlin. 1883, no. 18. 

Georg Kleis, Copenhagen, 1893, no. 43. 

Galerie Blanche, Stockholm, 1894, no. 43. 

Arno Wolfframm (Dresdener Kunstsalon), Dresden, 1900. no. 35. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1904, no. 9. 
Den Norske Kunstudstilling Ved Charlottenberg, 
Copenhagen, 1915, no. 284. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin. 1927, no. 35. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 64. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1949-50, no. 61. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1950, no. 54. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 15. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954, no. 25. 

Kunstforeningen. Copenhagen, 1955, no. 25. 

Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam. 1958-59, no. 2. 

Musee National d'Arl Moderne, Paris. 1960-61. no. 485. 

Nasjonalgalleriet. Oslo. 1964, no. 54. 

Kunsthalle, Kiel, 1964, no. 55. 



19. THE VOICE. 1893. 

Oil on canvas, 34% x 43Y4" (88 x 110 cm.) . 
Signed and dated 1. 1. "E. Munch 1893". 
Collection Museum of Fine Arts. Boston. 
Provenance: Dr. Helge Backstrom. Gothenburg. 

Moderne Galerie Thannhauser, Berlin. 

Harald Hoist Halvorsen. Oslo. 
Exhibitions: Dioramalokalet. Oslo, 1897. 

Salong Joel. Stockholm, 1913. 

Kunstnernes Hus, Olso, 1951, no. 54. 

Gemeentemuseum. The Hague. 1951-52. no. 11. 

Kunsthaus. Zurich, 1952. no. 5. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern. 1958. no. 11. 



44 




20 



20. THE CRY (THE SHRIEK) . 1893. 

Oil and tempera on board, 35% x 29" (91 x 73.5 em.) . 

Signed 1. 1. "E. Munch 1893". 

Collection Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. 

Provenance: Gift of Olaf Schou, 1909. 

Exhibitions: Galerie Blanche, Stockholm, 1894, no. 68. 

Ugo Barroccio, Berlin 1895, no. 14. 

Arno Wolfframm (Dresdener Kunstsalon) , 1900. no. 26. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 74. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 14. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954, no. 23. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen. 1955, no. 23. 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1960, no. 208. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main, 1962-63, no. 17. 

Louisiana Museum, Copenhagen, 1963, no. 50. 

Zeugnisse der Angst, Darmstadt, 1963. 

Ruhrfestspiele, Recklinghausen, 1965. 



45 




21 



21. STARRY NIGHT, c. 1893. 

Oil on canvas, 53 Vs x 55Vs" (135 x 140 cm.) . 
Signed 1. 1. "E. Munch". 
Collection Johan Henrik Andresen, Oslo. 
Provenance: Fridtjof Nansen. Oslo. 

Mrs. Eva Andresen, Oslo. 
Exhibitions: Ugo Barroccio. Berlin, 1893-94. no. 17. 

Calerie Blanche, Stockholm. 1894, no. 42. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1900, no. 85. 

Hollaendergaarden, Oslo, 1901. no. 67. 

Dioramalokalet. Oslo, 1904, no. 1. 

Ateneumin Taidemuseo. Helsinki. 1909. no. 24. 

The American Art Galleries. New York, 1912. no. 145. 

Kiinstlerbund Hagen. Vienna, 1912. no. 16. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall. Stockholm, 1917. no. 142. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin. 1927. no. 36. 

Nasjonalgalleriet. Oslo. 1927, no. 65. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954. no. 17. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich. 1954, no. 28. 

Palazzo delle Esposizioni. Rome. 1955, no. 4074. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958. no. 17. 

Kunstnerforbundet, Oslo, 1958. no. 12. 

Museum Narodowe. \\ arsaw, 1959. no. 6. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main. 1962-63. no. 14. 

Louisiana Museum, Copenhagen. 1963. no. 51. 



46 




22 



22. VAMPIRE, c. 1893. 

Oil on canvas, 30V4 x 38W (77 x 98 cm.) . 
Not signed or dated. 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance : Gift of the artist. 

Exhibitions: Institute of Contemporary Art. Boston, 1950, no. 12. 
Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958, no. 14. 
Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam. 1958-59, no. 



47 




23 



23. MADONNA. 1893-94. 

Oil on canvas, 35 % x 27" (90 x 68,5 cm.) . 

Signed u. 1. "E. Munch". 

Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 

Provenance: Gift of the artist. 

Exhibitions: Raadhushallen, Copenhagen. 1946. no. 17. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm. 1947. no. 19. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston. 1950, no. 13. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 12. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52. no. 13. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 12. 



48 




24 



24. ROSE AND AMELIE. 1894. 

Oil on canvas, 30% x 42%" (78 x 109 cm.) . 

Signed u. 1. "E. Munch 94". 

Collection Munch-museet, Olso (Deposit of the Aker-Collection, Oslo) . 

Provenance : Rolf E. Stenersen, Oslo. 

Exhibitions: Salon des Independants, Paris, 1896. 



49 




25 



25. JEALOUSY. 1894-95. 

Oil on canvas, 26V4 x 39V2" (66,8 x 100 cm.) . 

Signed 1. r. "E. M. 9-?". 

Collection Rasmus Meyers Samlinger, Bergen. 

Provenance: The artist. 

Exhibitions: Ugo Barroccio, Berlin, 1895. no. 11. 

Blomqvists Lokale, Oslo, 1895-96. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1900, no. 43. 

Arno Wolfframm (Dresdener Kunstsalon). Dresden, 1900. no. 39. 

Secession. Berlin, 1902, no. 196. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1904, no. 12. 

Galerie "Manes", Prague, 1905, no. 36. 

Sonderbund, Cologne, 1912, no. 527. 

Nationalgalerie. Berlin, 1927, no. 53. 

Gemeentemuseum. The Hague, 1949-50, no. 59. 

Institute of Contemporary Art. Boston. 1950. no. 19. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 18. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52. no. 19. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1952, no. 6. 

Kunsthaus. Zurich. 1952. no. 15. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954. 

Kunslforeningen. Copenhagen. 1955, no. 13. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958, no. 26. 

Museum Narodowe, Warsaw. 1959. no. 5. 

Louisiana Museum. Copenhagen. 1963, no. 53. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich. 1964, no. 388. 



50 





26. THE DEATH BED. 1895. 

Oil on canvas, 36% x 47%" (90,2 x 120,5 cm.) . 

Signed 1. 1. "E. Munch". 

Collection Rasmus Meyers Samlinger, Bergen. 

Provenance : The artist. 

Exhibitions: Dioramalokalet. Oslo. 1900, no. 13. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1904, no. 18. 

Blomqvists Lokale, Oslo, 1909. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 56. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 87. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 18. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 17. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52, no. 18. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 17. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1952, no. 16. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 21. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954, no. 35. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen, 1955, no. 33. 

Museum Narodowe, Warsaw, 1959, no. 11. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1964, no. 390. 



27. MOTHER AND DAUGHTER. 1897. 

Oil on canvas, 53% x 64%" ( 135 x 163 cm.) . 

Not signed or dated. 

Collection Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. 

Provenance: Gift of Olaf Schou, Oslo, 1896. 

Exhibitions: Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 109. 

London Gallery, London, 1936. 

Haus der Kunst. Munich, 1954, no. 38. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen, 1955, no. 36. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958, no. 28. 



51 




27 



52 



28. THE RED VINE. 1898. (Illustration page 17) 
Oil on canvas, 47 x47 5 /s" ( 119.5 x 121 cm.). 
Signed u. 1. "E. Munch". 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance : Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Arno Wolfframm (Dresdener Kunstsalon) . Dresden, 1900, no. 27. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1910. no. 5. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 33. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 27. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 26. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. 1951-52, no. 27. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 26. 



29. FERTILITY, c. 1898. 

Oil on canvas, 48 x 56%" ( 122 x 144 cm.) . 
Signed 1. 1. "E. Munch". 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Sigval Bergesen, d.y., Oslo. 
Provenance: Dr. Max Linde, Liibeck. 

Christian Langaard, Oslo. 

Heggtveit, Stange, Norway. 

P. M. R0wde. Oslo. 
Exhibitions: Secession, Vienna, 1903-04, no. 50. 

Kunsthalle, Mannheim, 1926-27, no. 9. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 280. 

Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, 1948, no. 70. 

Kunstnerforhundet, Oslo. 1961. no. 16. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main, 1962-63, no. 21. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1964, no. 55. 

Kunsthalle, Kiel, 1964, no. 58. 



53 




29 



54 




30 



55 




31 



30. MELANCHOLY. 1899. 31 

Oil on canvas, 13V4 x 49%" (110 x 126 cm.) . 
Not signed or dated. 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Grossherzogliches Museum, Weimar, 1906. 

Fischer, Bielefeld, 1907. 

Konstnarshuset, Stockholm, 1913, no. 26. 

Galerie Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin, 1914, no. 38. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 65. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 113. 

International Exhibition, Dresden, 1926, no. 241. 

Kunsthalle. Mannheim, 1926-27, no. 6. 

Raadhushallen, Copenhagen, 1946, no. 24. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 32. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 28. 

Edyard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 27. 

Gemeenteniuseum, The Hague, 1951-52. no. 28. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 27. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958, no. 30. 

Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam. 1958-59. no. 13. 

Akademie der Bildenden Kiinsle, Vienna, 1959, no. 18. 



THE DANCE OF LIFE. 1899-1900. 

Oil on canvas, 49% x 75" (125,5 x 190,5 cm.) . 

Signed and dated 1. 1. "E. Munch 99", u. r. "E. Munch 1900". 

Collection Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. 

Provenance: Gift of Olaf Schou, 1909. 

Exhibitions: Secession, Berlin, 1902, no. 190. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1904. no. 11. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1910, no. 51. 

Blomrrvists Lokale, Oslo, 1918, no. 10. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 58. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 89. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston. 1950. no. 25. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 24. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 24. 

Gemeenteniuseum, The Hague, 1951-52. no. 25. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts. Brussels. 1952. no. 9. 

Kunsthaus. Zurich. 1952, no. 18. 

Palais International des Beaux- Vrts, Brussels, L958, no. 240. 

Akademie der Bildenden Kunste. Vienna, 1959, no. 16. 



56 




32 



32. TRAIN SMOKE, c. 1900. 

Oil on canvas, 33 Vz x 42%" (85 x 109 cm.) . 
Signed 1. r. "E. Munch". 
Collection j0rgen W. Cappelen. Oslo. 
Provenance: Rasmus Meyer. Bergen. 
Exhibitions: Galerie "Manes", Prague. 1905. 

Moderne Galerie Thannhauser, Munich. 1912. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 31. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton. 1951, no. 30. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. 1951-52, no. 31. 

Steinernes Haus. Frankfurt am Main. 1962-63. no. 24. 

Kunsthalle, Kiel. 1964. no. 60. 



33. PORTRAIT OF CONSUL CHRISTEN SANDBERG. 1901. 
Oil on canvas, 93 x 57%" (215 x 147 cm.) . 
Signed u. r. "E. Munch". 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance : Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Hollaendergaarden. Oslo, 1901. no. 61. 

Blomqvists Lokale. Oslo, 1903. no. 34. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1904, no. 48. 

Galerie "Manes", Prague, 1905. no. 115. 

Ateneumin Taidemuseo, Helsinki, 1909. no. 21. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo. 1911, no. 86. 

Sonderbund. Cologne. 1912, no. 528. 

Moderne Galerie Thannhauser. Munich. 1912, no. 7. 

Konstnarshuset, Stockholm, 1913, no. 8. 

Galerie Alfred Flechtheim, Diisseldorf. 1914, no. 19. 

Galerie Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin, 1914. no. 3. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 69. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 118. 

Norwegian Exhibition, London, 1928. no. 133. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1937, no. 12. 

Kungl. Akademien, Stockholm, 1937. no. 21. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels. 1950, no. 52. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1952, no. 25. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1952. no. 12. 



57 




58 




34. MIDSUMMER NIGHT. 1901-02. 

Oil on canvas, 317s x 29%" (81 x 74 cm.) . 
Collection A. Fredrik Klaveness, Oslo. 
Provenance: Anton Fredrik Klaveness. Oslo. 
Exhibitions: Dioramalokalet. Oslo. 1911, no. 38. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main, 1962-63, no. 27. 



59 




35 



35. GROUP OF FOUR GIRLS AT ASGARDSTRAND. 1902. 
Oil on canvas, 35V4 x 4.9Vi" (89.5 x 125,5 cm.) . 
Signed u. r. "E. Munch". 
Collection Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart. 



60 




36 



36. THE BEAST (FEMALE NUDE). 1902. 
Oil on canvas, 37% x 25" (94,5 x 63,5 cm.) . 
Signed 1. r. "E. Munch". 

Collection Stadt. Galerie im Landesmuseum, Hannover. 
Provenance : Bernhard Kohler. Berlin. 
Exhibitions: Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 75. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 129. 

Ausstellung Edvard Munch, Cologne. Hamburg. Liibeck, 1951, no. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954, no. 50. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main, 1962-63, no. 26. 



61 




37 



37. PORTRAIT OF HARRY GRAF KESSLER. 1904. 
Oil on canvas, 33V2 x 29%" (85 x 75 era.) . 
Signed and dated u. r. "E. Munch 1904". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Sigval Bergesen, d.y., Oslo. 
Provenance : Harry Graf Kessler, Weimar. 

Wilhelmine, Marquise de Brion, Paris. 

Comtesse de Brion, Paris. 
Exhibitions: Stadtische Kunsthalle, Mannheim. 1926-27, no. 18. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 85. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 134. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main, 1962-63, no. 33. 



62 



K • "*N ? '^^f 




38 



63 




39 



38. GIRL UNDER APPLE TREE. 1904. 

Oil on canvas. 43% x 39%" (111 x 100.5 cm.) . 

Not signed or dated. 

Collection Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh. Acquired through the 

generosity of Mrs. Alan M. Scaife and family. 
Provenance: H. Nobel Roede, Oslo. 

National Gallery, Breslau. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1939-45 (on deposit) . 

Ragnar Moltzau, Oslo, 1945. 

Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, New York. 
Exhibitions: Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1911, no. 59. 

National Gallery, Breslau, 1927, no. 86. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. [136]. 

Kunsthiitte, Chemnitz, 1929, no. 23. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1952, no. 32. 

Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, 1956, no. 82. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1957, no. 62. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1957, no. 63. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958, no. 45. 

Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam, 1958-59. no. 17a. 

Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, New York, 1963, no. 282. 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1964. 



39. DANCE ON THE SHORE, c. 1904. 
Oil on canvas, 39 x 37%" (99 x 96 cm.) . 
Signed 1. 1. "E. Munch". 
Collection Narodni Galerie, Prague. 
Provenance: Stanislav Sucharda . 

Dr. Palkovsky. 
Exhibition : Galerie "Manes". Prague. 1905, no. 47. 



64 




40 



40. DEATH OF MARAT. 1905-27. 

Oil on canvas, 59 x 78%" (150 x 200 cm.) . 

Not signed or dated. 

Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 

Provenance : Gift of the artist. 

Exhibitions: Raadhushallen. Copenhagen, 1946. no. 32. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 48. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, no. 39. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 38. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1952, no. 39. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 36. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 27. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954, no. 68. 

Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, 1955, no. 4076. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958, no. 53. 

Akademie der Bildenden Kiinste, Vienna, 1959. no. 41. 



65 




41 



41. VILLAGE STREET, ELGERSBURG (BOYS, GIRLS AND DUCKS). 1905-37. 
Oil on canvas, 39V2 x 41%" (100 x 105 cm.) . 
Not signed or dated. 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance : Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Kungl. Akademien, Stockholm, 1937, no. 22. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1937, no. 22. 

Harald Hoist Halvorsen, Oslo, 1938, no. 2. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall. Stockholm, 1947, no. 39. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston. 1950, no. 34. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 33. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52, no. 34. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 31. 

Museum Narodowe, Warsaw. 1959. no. 18. 



66 




42 



42. AVENUE IN SNOW, KOESEN. 1906. 
Oil on canvas, 31% x 39%" (80 x 100 cm.) . 
Signed 1. 1. "E. Munch". 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Nationalgalerie, Berlin. 1927, no. 105. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 154. 

Raadhushallen, Copenhagen, 1946, no. 26. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 47. 



43. SELF-PORTRAIT WITH WINE BOTTLE. 1906. 
Oil on canvas, 43% x 47%" ( 110,5 x 120,5 cm.) . 
Signed and dated u. 1. "E. Munch 1906". 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1910, no. 52. 

Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1911. no. 111. 

Kiinstlerbund Hagen, Vienna, 1912. no. 38. 

Konstnarshuset, Stockholm, 1913, no. 14. 

Galerie Alfred Flechtheim, Diisseldorf, 1914. 

Galerie Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin, 1914, no. 12. 

Konsthallen, Gothenburg, 1923, no. 192. 

Stiidtische Kunsthalle, Mannheim. 1926-27, no. 33. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 106. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 158. 

Kungl. Akademien, Stockholm, 1937, no. 14. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1937, no. 18. 

Raadhushallen, Copenhagen, 1946, no. 33. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 49. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 38. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 37. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52, no. 38. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 35. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958, no. 54. 

Museum Boymans-van Beuningen. Rotterdam, 1958-59. no. 20. 

Museum voor Stadt en Lande, Groningen, 1959, no. 3. 

Akademie der Bildenden Kiinste, Vienna, 1959, no. 38. 



67 




43 



68 




44 



44. CUPID AND PSYCHE. 1907. 

Oil on canvas, 47 x 39" (119,5 x 99 cm.) . 

Signed and dated u. r. "E. Munch 1907". 

Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 

Provenance : Gift of the artist. 

Exhibitions: Dioramalokalet, Oslo. 1910. no. 65. 

Sonderbund, Cologne, 1912, no. 546. 

Kiinstlerbund Hagen, Vienna. 1912, no. 43. 

Konstnarshuset, Stockholm, 1913, no. 23. 

Galerie Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin, 1914, no. 79. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 119. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 172. 

Raadhushallen, Copenhagen, 1946, no. 39. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 55. 



45. PORTRAIT OF WALTER RATHENAU. 1907. 
Oil on canvas, 86 7 /s x 43 Vt" (220 x 110 cm.) . 
Signed 1. 1. "E. Munch". 

Collection Rasmus Meyers Samlinger, Bergen. 
Provenance : The artist. 
Exhibitions: Secession, Berlin. 1908, no. 183. 

Blomqvists Lokale, Oslo, 1909. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 163. 

Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam, 1937, no. 21. 

Kungl. Akademien. Stockholm, 1937, no. 65. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1949-50. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950-51, no. 41 . 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 40. 

Gemeentemuseum. The Hague, 1951-52, no. 41. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 38. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954, no. 69. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen, 1955. no. 44. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1957, no. 86. 



69 




70 






'» 




* 



* 




i 

"-*■■"--■■■. ^' ■ ':. 4 



"- '":' ■ 





46 



71 




46. THE BATHERS (CENTER SECTION OF TRIPTYCH). 1907-08. 
Oil on canvas, 81% x 89%" (206 x 227 cm.) . 
Signed and dated 1. r. "E. Munch Warnemiinde 1907-08". 
Collection Ateneumin Taidemuseo, Helsinki. 
Provenance : The artist. 
Exhibitions: Ateneumin Taidemuseo, Helsinki, 1911. 

Sonderbund, Cologne, 1912, no. 543. 

Kungl. Akademien, Stockholm, 1937, no. 72. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main, 1962-63. no. 41. 



47. ADAM AND EVE UNDER THE APPLE TREE. 1908. 
Oil on canvas, 51V4 x 79%" (130,5 x 202 cm.) . 
Signed u. r. "E. Munch 1908". 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance : Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Sonderbund. Cologne, 1912. no. 248. 

The American-Scandinavian Society, 
New York, 1912-13. no. 147. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1917. no. 1 18. 

Raadhushallen, Copenhagen. 19-16. no. 13. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall. Stockholm. 1117. no. 42. 

Institute of Contemporary Art. Boston, 1950, no. 37. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton. 1951, no. 36. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1952, no. 34. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952. no. 34. 



72 




48. TWO PEOPLE ON THE SHORE (THE SOLITARY ONES). 1908. 
Oil on canvas, 31 7 /s x 43 V4" (81 x 110 cm.) . 
Signed and dated u. r. "E. Munch 1908". 
Private Collection, Oslo. 
Provenance: H. Nobel Roede, Oslo. 

Stadtische Kunstsammlung, Chemnitz. 
Exhibitions: Ateneumin Taidemuseo. Helsinki, 1909, no. 9. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 127. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 182. 

Kunsthiitte, Chemnitz, 1929, no. 34. 

London Gallery, London, 1936. 

Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, 1951, no. 77. 

Kunstnerforbundet, Oslo, 1958, no. 22. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main, 1962-63, no. 42. 



73 




49. MASON AND MECHANIC. 1908. 

Oil on canvas, 35% x 27%" (90 x 69,5 cm.) . 

Signed 1. 1. "E. Munch". 

Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 

Provenance: Gift of the artist. 

Exhibitions: Dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1911, no. 43. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 277. 

Harald Hoist Halvorsen, Oslo, 1938, no. 13. 

Raadhushallen. Copenhagen, 1946, no. 40. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 59. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 42. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 41. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. 1951-52, no. 42. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 39. 



74 




50 



75 



50. PORTRAIT OF DR. DANIEL JACOBSON. 1909. 
Oil on canvas, 80% x 43%" (204 x 111,5 cm.) . 
Signed and dated u. 1. "Edv. Munch Kjobenhavn 1909". 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Blomqvists Lokale, Oslo, 1909. 

Sonderbund, Cologne, 1912, no. 549. 

Moderne Galerie Thannhauser. Munich, 1912, no. 5. 

Konstnarshuset, Stockholm, 1913, no. 5. 

Galerie Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin, 1914, no. 42. 

Den Norske Kunstudstilling Veil Charlottenberg, 
Copenhagen, 1915, no. 275. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1922, no. 35. 

Konsthallen. Gothenburg, 1923, no. 173. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 186. 

Raadhushallen, Copenhagen, 1946, no. 44. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall. Stockholm, 1947, no. 67. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 46. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 45. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52, no. 46. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 43. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 29. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954, no. 43. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen. 1955. no. 46. 

Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, 1955, no. 4077. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958, no. 63. 

Museum Boymans-van Beuningen. 
Rotterdam, 1958-59. no. 21. 

Akademie der Bildenden Kiinste. 
Vienna, 1959. no. 46. 



51. PORTRAIT OF THE NOTARY TORVALD STANG. 1909. 
Oil on canvas, 79% x 38" (202 x 96,5 cm.) . 

Signed and dated u. r. "E. Munch 1908" and u. 1. "E. Munch 1909" 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Sonderbund, Cologne, 1912, no. 547. 

Konstnarshuset, Stockholm, 1913, no. 3. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 130. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall. Stockholm, 1947, no. 69. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 47. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 46. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52, no. 47. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 44. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 30. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich. 1954, no. 75. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen, 1955, no. 48. 




• f 









51 



76 







52 



52. SELF-PORTRAIT IN A BLUE SUIT. 1909. 
Oil on canvas, 39% x 43%" (100 x 110 cm.) . 
Signed and dated u. r. "E. Munch Kj0benhavn 1909". 
Collection Rasmus Meyers Samlinger, Bergen. 
Provenance: The artist. 
Exhibitions: Blomqvists Lokale, Oslo, 1909. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 129. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 184. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1950, no. 58. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954, no. 73. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen, 1955, no. 47. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1958, no. 60. 



77 




53 



53. BOY IN BLUE (STUDY FOR THE MURAL "HISTORY") . c. 1909. 
Oil on canvas, 30% x 26 Vs" (77,5 x 66,3 cm.) . 
Signed 1. r. "E. Munch". 
Collection The Detroit Institute of Arts. 
Provenance: A. Flechtheim, Berlin. 
Exhibitions: M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco. 1915. 

Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. 1946. no. 2. 
University of Minnesota Art Gallery. Minneapolis, January 28-March 7. 1952. 



78 



54. GALLOPING HORSE. 1912. 

Oil on canvas. 58 V\ x 47" ( 148 x 119.5 cm.) . 

Signed u. r. "E. Munch". 

Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 

Provenance: Gift of the artist. 

Exhibitions: Konstnarshuset, Stockholm, 1913, no. 30. 

Galerie Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin, 1914, no. 1. 

Nationalgalerie. Berlin, 1927, no. 148. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927. no. 195. 

Norwegian Exhibition, London, 1928, no. 136. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1932, no. 13. 

Kungl. Akademien, Stockholm, 1937. no. 29. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1937, no. 33. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1940, no. 322. 

Kaadhushallen, Copenhagen, 1946, no. 51. 

Liljevaichs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 80. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 49. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 48. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52, no. 49. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 48. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 32. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954, no. 80. 

Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, 1955, no. 4079. 



79 







4 



t 



54 



80 




55 



55. WINTER. KRAGER0. 1912. 

Oil on canvas, 52 x 51V2" (132 x 131 cm.) . 

Signed and dated 1. 1. "E. Munch 1912". 

Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 

Provenance: Gift of the artist. 

Exhibitions: Nationalgalerie. Berlin, 1927, no. 151. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927. no. 197. 

Raadhushallen, Copenhagen, 1946, no. 52. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947. no. 80. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 48. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 47. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. 1951-52, no. 48. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 47. 



56. WORKMEN ON THEIR WAY HOME. 1915. 
Oil on canvas, 49% x 89%" (201 x 227 cm.) . 
Not signed or dated. 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Blomqvists Lokale, Oslo, 1918, no. 37. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1922, no. 47. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 289. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 92. 

Institute of Contemporary Art. Boston, 1950, no. 51. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 50. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52, no. 51. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 50. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1952, no. 57. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1952, no. 16. 

Kunstnerforbundet. Oslo, 1957, no. 26. 

Palais des Expositions, Charleroi, 1958, no. 80. 



81 




56 



82 









_^J 1 



57 



57. WINTER, KRAGER0. 1915. 

Oil on canvas, 54% x 68" (139 x 173 cm.) . 
Signed and dated 1. r. "E. Munch 1915". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Nils Astrup, Oslo. 
Provenance: J. B. Stang, Oslo. 
Exhibitions: Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927. no. 169. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 216. 

Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, 1951, no. 81. 



58. GIRL SEATED ON THE EDGE OF HER BED. 1915-16. 
Oil on canvas, 55y2 x 41%" (141 x 106 cm.) . 
Signed 1. 1. "E. Munch". 
Collection Nationalmuseum, Stockholm. 
Provenance: The artist, 1917. 
Exhibitions: Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm. 1917. no. 162. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 233. 

Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, 1944, no. 32. 



83 




84 




59 



59. MAN IN A CABBAGE FIELD. 1916. 

Oil on canvas, 53% x 71 Vi" ( 136 x 181 cm.) . 
Signed 1. 1. "E. Munch 16". 
Collection Nasjonalgalleriet. Oslo. 
Provenance : Gift of Christian Mustad. 
Exhibitions: Georg Kleis, Copenhagen. 1917, no. 23. 

Kunsthaus, Ziirich, 1922, no. 52. 

Konsthallen, Gothenburg, 1923, no. 193. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 172. 

Nasjonalgalbriet. Oslo. 1927, no. 222. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1952, no. 17. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1952, no. 17. 



85 




60 



60. PEASANT WITH HORSE. 1918. 

Oil on canvas, 51 Va x 59" (130x 150 cm. I. 

Signed and dated 1. r. "E. Munch 1918". 

Collection Haakon Thomas Onstad. Munkedal, Sweden. 

Provenance: Pinakothek, Munich. 

Haakon Onstad, Munkedal. Sweden. 
Exhibitions: Harald Hoist Halvorsen. Oslo, 1938. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich. 1952. no. 63. 

Steinernes Haus, Frankfurt am Main. 1962-63, no. 51. 



86 






61 



61. STARRY NIGHT. 1923-24. 

Oil on canvas, 47% x 39%" (120,5 x 100 cm.) . 

Not signed or dated. 

Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 

Provenance: Gift of the artist. 

Exhibitions: Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 120. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 56. 
XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 38. 



87 




62 



62. SEATED MODEL. 1925-28. 

Oil on canvas, 53% x 45%" (136,5 x 115,5 cm.) . 

Signed and dated 1. r. "E. Munch 1928". 

Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 

Provenance: Gift of the artist. 

Exhibitions: Nationalgalerie. Berlin. 1927, no. 209. 

Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927, no. 265. 

Kungl. Akademien. Stockholm. 1937, no. 54. 

Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam. 1937. no. 56. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 137. 

Institute of Contemporary Art. Boston, 1950. no. 58. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 57. 

Gemeentemuseum. The Hague. 1951-52, no. 58. 

Petit Palais. Paris. 1952, no. 57. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1952, no. 75. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1952, no. 22. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954. no. 41. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1954, no. 98. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen, 1955, no. 58. 



as 




63 



63. SELF-PORTRAIT WITH PALETTE. 1926. 
Oil on canvas, 35% x 26%" (90 x 68 cm.) . 
Not signed or dated. 
Private Collection, Oslo. 
Provenance : Kunsthalle, Mannheim. 

Harald Hoist Halvorsen, Oslo. 
Exhibitions: Stadtische Kunsthalle. Mannheim. 1926-27, no. 72. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1927, no. 214. 

Nasjonalgalleriet. Oslo. 1927, no. 272. 

Kunsthiitte, Chemnitz, 1929, no. 55. 

Kunstverein. Leipzig. 1929, no. 46. 

Kunsthaus. Ziirich. 1932, no. 35. 

Harald Hoist Halvorsen, Oslo, 1938, no. 34. 

Kunsthaus. Zurich. 1952. no. 74. 

XXVII Biennale. Venice, 1954, no. 40. 

Haus der Kunst. Munich, 1954, no. 97. 

Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen. 1955, no. 58. 

Kunstnerlorbundet, Oslo, 1958, no. 42. 

Museum Narodowe, Warsaw, 1959, no. 22. 




64. THE SICK CHILD, c. 1927. 

Oil on canvas, 46 x 45%" (117 x 116 cm.) . 

Signed u. r. "E. Munch". 

Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 

Provenance: Gift of the artist. 

Exhibitions: Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston. 1950. no. 57. 

Edvard Munch. Brighton, 1951. no. 56. 

Gemeentemuseum. The Hague. 1951-52. no. 57. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 55. 

Kunstmuseum, Bern. 1958. no. 82. 

Museum Boymans-van Beuningen. Rotterdam. 1958-59. 

Mcademie der Bildenden Kiinste, Vienna. 1959. no. till 



90 





65 



65. NUDE BY THE WICKER CHAIR. 1929. 
Oil on canvas, 48 Vi x 39%" (122.5 x 100 cm.) . 
Not signed or dated. 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Raadhushallen, Copenhagen, 1946, no. 85. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 136. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950. no. 60. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951-52, no. 59. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1952. no. 60. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 58. 



91 




66 



66. THE FIGHT. 1935. 

Oil on canvas, 41% x 47%" (105,5 x 120,5 cm. ) . 

Not signed or dated. 

Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 

Provenance : Gift of the artist. 

Exhibitions: Harald Hoist Halvorsen, Oslo, 1938. no. 3 b. 

Raadhushallen, Copenhagen, 1946, no. 90. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, 1947, no. 142. 

Institute of Contemporary Art. Boston. 1950. no. 62. 

Edvard Munch. Brighton. 1951. no. 61. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. 1951-52. no. 62. 

Petit Palais. Paris, 1952. no. 60. 



92 



67. "BETWEEN CLOCK AND BED" SELF-PORTRAIT. 1940-42. 
Oil on canvas, 58% x HVz" (149.5 x 120.5 cm.) . 
Not signed or dated. 
Collection Munch-museet, Oslo. 
Provenance: Gift of the artist. 
Exhibitions: Raadhushallen, Copenhagen. 1916. no. 92. 

Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm. 1947, no. 144. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1950, no. 63. 

Edvard Munch, Brighton, 1951, no. 62. 

Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, 1951-52, no. 63. 

Petit Palais, Paris, 1952, no. 61. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1952, no. 77. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1952. no. 23. 

XXVII Biennale, Venice, 1954, no. 43. 

Haus der Kunst, Munich. 1954, no. 103. 

Palazzo delle Esposizione, Rome, 1955, no. 4081. 



93 




67 



94 




14 a. 



14 a. MYSTIC SHORE. 1892. 

Oil on canvas, 33% x 49Y2" (85.7 x 126.4 cm.) . 

Signed 1.1. "E. Munch 92'". 

Collection Haakon Thomas Onstad, Munkedal, Sweden. 



No. 14, mystic shore, illustrated on page 38, is erroneously identi- 
fied as the above painting owned by Haakon Thomas Onstad, 
Munkedal. The version shown on page 38 belongs to the collection 
of Gunnar Johnson Host. Gothenburg, and is not included in the 
exhibition. 

Mr. Onstad's work is correctly recorded in J. P. Hodin's Edvard 
Munch, Stockholm, Neuer Verlag, 1948. no. 95, but is incorrectly re- 
produced as no. 10 in Edvard Munch, exhibition catalogue, Stein- 
ernes Haus, Frankfort am Main. 1962-63. The painting shown as 
no. 10 in the Frankfort catalogue belongs to Dr. Host and is illus- 
trated in Ingrid Langaard's Edvard Munch, Modningsar, Oslo, 
Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, 1960, no. 81, p. 159. 



95 



WORKS 0\ PAPER 



BY LOUISE AVERILL SVENDSEN 



That Edvard Munch is a graphic artist of great distinction and international fame is 
established. His prints increased his reputation during his lifetime; since his death, exhibitions 
of his graphic work have circulated widely throughout the world. It has not been the purpose of the 
subsequent selection, therefore, to recapitulate his enormous versatility in this field, but rather to 
concentrate upon ideas and themes that concerned him as an artist. Examples of works on paper 
have been selected that, with few exceptions, relate directly in subject to those rendered in oil. A 
representative number of Munch's drawings and watercolors from the rxh stores of the Munch 
Museum in Oslo, presented to the American public for the first time, are also added to the 
familiar prints. 

Munch probably did not consider his drawings and watercolors on the same level as his 
paintings and prints. He rarely exhibited them outside Norway and infrequently in Oslo. In his 
large 1927 retrospective at the National Gallery in Berlin, 223 paintings, but only 21 watercolors 
and drawings, were displayed. His legendary disregard for a canvas once he was finished with it ap- 
plies equally to works on paper. Unfortunately the fragile nature of paper has been less able than 
canvas to withstand the dampness and complete lack of care. Exquisite pencil drawings have been 
watersoaked; watercolors and crayon drawings, strong and bold as their analogous oil versions, 
have had whole sections torn away. 

The sheer quantity of sketches that he left, 4,400 in the Munch Museum Collection, is, of 
course, fortuitous. Where another artist might have destroyed them, Munch's living and working 
habits permitted him to cast them aside, thus ironically insuring their survival. The collection 
ranges from boyhood drawings, carefully executed academic nudes, sketchbook jottings, through 
countless preparatory studies for paintings. Many are brilliant but evidently abandoned studies 
whose reverse sides have been covered with random drawings. Almost every medium is used as are 
combinations of media and a variety of techniques. The virtuosity of his technique as well as his in- 
tensity and his vibrant feeling for form is evidenced throughout. Yet the range of subjects is not great. 
For I he most part, the drawings are variations on themes already expressed or to be expressed 
in oil. 

These variations in the smaller scale enrich our appreciation of the creative possibilities the 
artist confronts in the gradual realization of his ideas. One can see, as in a little drawing of 1899. 
Munch putting down in ink and crayon the essential composition for the large scale Dance oj Life, 
1899-1900, at the National Gallery in Oslo. The central couple dances gravely in the foreground, 
while other pairs whirl around them with abandon. The final composition retains this contrast of 
mood although, by the add'tion of a maiden and an older woman, a new and more complicated 
symbolism is introduced. In three studies for The Death Bed, 1895. in the Rasmus Meyer Collection 
in Bergen, the artist creates three different groupings of the mourners. In one, he brushes in broadly 
four figures at the head of the bed, one on one side and three opposite, who watch with agonized 
gestures the pale face on the pillow. In a charcoal study, the figure to the left is reduced to a bent 
head and an arm flung out across the counterpane; the group at the right is condensed into a bearded 
old man turned away from the tragic scene. In a small pencil sketch Munch achieves the arrange- 
ment that he eventually incorporates into the oil version. His viewpoint is now behind the bed so 



96 



that all we can see is the back of the head on the pillow. The old man wrings his hands over the 
edge of the bed in the middle ground; a woman wails beside him. Other figures are indicated in 
the background, but the artist has reduced them to shadowy contours. These, in the final version, 
take their places beside the old man; the wailing woman now stands tight-lipped, controlled. 

Finished studies unrelated to paintings are few— a harbor view, a self-portrait head in crayon, 
a pencil landscape, a watercolor of a model's head, a nude caught in the instant of undressing, to 
mention those chosen for this exhibition— but even these may reappear in the background of a land- 
scape or a life-size self-portrait. However closely a study may correspond to a given canvas or 
however independent it may appear, it remains a separate work in its effect. The unity of rapid 
movement between the starlit sky and the snow-covered pointed trees, in a charcoal version of 
Starry Night, 1923-24, has been replaced in the oil by slower rhythms of broad planes of snow and 
low masses of trees. The mood has shifted. For Munch the possibilities of ideas could never be 
exhausted. His sketches reflect his constant probing for deeper meanings, more sensitive nuances 
within the same theme. 

Munch was a mature artist in his 30's when he was introduced to printmaking. His earliest 
experiments were in drypoint during the winter of 1894 in Berlin ; later that year he produced his 
first lithograph and in 1896 he began working with woodcuts. During these very productive years, he 
used the graphic media primarily to recreate the subjects of his paintings, particularly those of the 
80's and early 90's. In The Sick Child. 1894, he reproduces the impressionist painting of 1885-86 
in drypoint. Here he has simplified the composition and has intensified the mood of grief and yearn- 
ing by sensitive contrasts of dark masses with delicate linear strokes. 

The lithograph offered broader possibilities than the more intimate etching for working out 
directly and vividly problems relating to his paintings. Munch portrays the head of The Sick Child. 
1896. in 4 colors in a series of lithographs which is one of his finest technical achievements. He 
utilizes the range of the medium to its fullest extent in adjusting and varying the colors to create 
tonal effects of the greatest subtlety. 

It was in the medium of the woodcut, however, that Munch became not merely a master but 
a pioneer. Continuing along lines already indicated by Gauguin, he developed a technique which 
combined an emphasis on the quality of the woodblock surface, printing in flat tones and broad 
areas, and revealing the character of the stroke of the knife. He often sawed the block into sections 
which could then be inked and printed separately in a variety of colors. In The Kiss, 1898. Munch 
has used two blocks, first the silhouetted lovers and then over them a beautifully grained pine sur- 
face lightly inked. He has brought into harmony the inherent qualities of the wood and the expres- 
sive representation he sought in his paintings. In his woodcuts he achieved an originality of technique 
and style which profoundly influenced future generations of printmakers. 



97 





■-.-.. 




23 



98 



DRAWINGS AND WATERCOLORS 

All of the works on paper have been lent from the Collection of Munch-museet, Oslo. 

1. SIESTA, c. 1885. Pastel, 11% x 14" (29,1 x 35,8 cm.) . 

2. AT THE WINDOW, c. 1889. Crayon, 10% x 9%" (27 x 24,5 cm.) . 

3. FROM KARL JOHAN STREET. OSLO. c. 1892. Pencil and crayon, 13% x 9%" (33.5 x 25.2 cm.) 

4. ROSE AND AMELIE. 1893. Pencil, 14%" x 15%" (36,2 x 48,4 cm.) . 

5. AT THE DEATH BED. c. 1893. Gouache. 12% x 13%" (31.5 x 34,7 cm.) . 

6. AT THE DEATH BED. c. 1893. Pencil, 9 x 12 %" (23 x 31,7 cm.) . 

7. AT THE DEATH BED. c. 1893. Charcoal, 16% x 19" (42,2 x 48,1 cm.) . 

8. CONSOLATION, c. 1894. Charcoal, 14% x 24%" (47,8 x 62,8 cm.) . 

9. MODEL STUDY, c. 1894. Charcoal and ink, 24 % x 18%" (61,5 x 47 cm.) . 

10. TWO WOMEN, c. 1895. Charcoal, 18% x 14" (47,2 x 35,5 cm.) . 

11. MYSTIC SHORE. 1895. Ink, 11% x 16" (29.8 x 40.8 cm.) . 

12. ARTIST WITH A LYRE. c. 1896-97. Pencil and watercolor, 25 x 18%" (63,5 x 48 cm.) . 

13. DANCE OF LIFE. c. 1899. Ink and crayon. 12% x 18%" (32,5 x 47,7 cm.) . 

14. SHORE AT ASGARDSTRAND. c. 1900. Pencil. 11% x 16%" (28,7 x 42 cm.) . 

15. DRAWING FOR "GHOSTS". 1906. Charcoal, 10% x 14%" (26,7 x 37 cm.) . 

16. FEMALE NUDE AT THE WINDOW, c. 1907. Charcoal, watercolor and gouache, 24 x 19%" (60,9 x 49,3 cm. 

17. FROM KRAGER0. c. 1910. Watercolor, pencil and crayon, 18% x 23%" (47.2 x 60,7 cm.) . 

18. LANDSCAPE STUDY, c. 1912. Crayon, 8% x 10%" (20,9 x 26,6 cm.) . 

19. WORKERS IN THE DRIVE, c. 1920. Charcoal, 18% x 23%" (48 x 59,8 cm.) . 

20. ON THE VERANDA. 1923. Crayon, 19% x 12%" (50.2 x 31.2 cm.) . 

21. STARRY NIGHT, c. 1923. Charcoal, 26% x 24%" (67 x 61,4 cm.) . 

22. MODEL UNDRESSING, c. 1925. Crayon and watercolor, 13% x 10" (35,3 x 25,3 cm.) . 

23. STUDY OF A HEAD, BIRGITTE. c. 1927-28. Watercolor, 13% x 9%" (34,7 x 24,7 cm.) . (Illustration page 97.) 

24. SELF-PORTRAIT, c. 1930. Crayon, 15% x 10%" (40 x 27 cm.) . 



ENGRAVINGS AND III lint.s 



Sch. refers to the definitive catalogues of Munch's prints by Gustav Schiefler: 

Verzeichnis des Graphischen IP'erks Edvard Munchs bis 1906, Berlin, Bruno Cassirer. 1907, 
and Edvard Munch. Das Graphische If'erk 1906-1926, Berlin. Euphorion. 1928. 
W refers to Edvard Munch. Etchings by Sigurd Willoch, Oslo, Johan Grundt Tanum, 1950. 



25. THE SICK CHILD. 1894. Drypoint, 11% x 10%" (36 x 26,7 cm.) . Sch. 7 V d; W 7. 

26. IN THE DIGS. 1895. Etching and drypoint. 8 x 12%" (20,3 x 31.2 cm.) . Sch. 12 a III; W. 11. 

27. THE KISS. 1895. Etching, aquatint, and drypoint. 13 x 10%" (33 x 26 cm.) . Sch. 22 a; W. 22. 



99 



28. THE LONELY ONES. 1895. Etching, aquatint, drypoint, and roulette, 6% x 8%" (15,4x21,2 cm.). Sch. 20 V; W. 19. 

29. MOONLIGHT. 1895. Drypoint and aquatint, 12% x 10%" (31 x 25,5 cm.) . Sch. 13 III; W. 12. 

30. THE VOICE. 1895. Etching and aquatint, 9% x 12%" (24 x 31 cm.) . Sch. 19 b III; W. 18. 

31. THE NURSE. 1908-09. Drypoint, 8% x 5%" (20,5 x 15.2 cm.) . Sch. 269 II; W. 140. 

32. ADAM AND EVE. 1915. Etching with roulette and needle, 10% x 15" (26 x 38 cm.) . Sch. 430 b; W. 174. 

33. GALLOPING HORSE. 1915. Etching, 15% x 12%" (38,5 x 32,2 cm.) . Sch. 431 ; W. 175. 



WOODCUTS 

34. ANXIETY. 1896. 17% x 14%" (45,5 x 37,2 cm.) . Sch. 62 I). 

35. MOONLIGHT. 1896. 16% x 18%" (41 x 46,7 cm.) . Sch. 81 A b. 

36. THE KISS. 1897. 23 x 18" (58,5 x 45,7 cm.) . Sch. 102 A. 

37. THE KISS. 1898. 16% x 18%" (41,2 x 46,2 cm.) . Sch. 102 C. 

38. FERTILITY. 1898. 16% x 20%" (41,9 x 51,8 cm.) . Sch. 110. 

39. THE LONELY ONES. 1899. 15% x 21%" (39,5 x 53,0 cm.) . Sch. 133. 

40. MYSTIC SHORE. 1899. 14% x 22%" (37.2 x 57,2 cm.) . Sch. 125 a. 

41. BIRGITTE III. 1930. 23% x 12%" (59,6 x 32,2 cm.) . 



LITHOGRAPHS 

42. THE CRY. 1895. 14 x 10" (35,4 x 25,4 cm.) . Sch. 32. 

43. MADONNA. 1895. 24 x 17%" (61 x 44,1 cm.) . Sch. 33 A 11 a. 

44. SELF-PORTRAIT WITH SKELETON ARM. 1895. 18 x 12%" (45,6 x 31,6 cm.) . Sch. 31. 

45. VAMPIRE. 1895. 15% x 21%" (38.5 x 55,5 cm.) . Sch. 34 b. 

46. DEATH BED. 1896. 15% x 19%" (40 x 49,8 cm.) . Sch. 72. 

47. THE SICK CHILD. 1896. 16% x 22%" (42,1 x 56,5 cm.) . Sch. 59 c. 

48. THE SICK CHILD. 1896. 16% x 22%" (42,1 x 56,5 cm.) . Sch. 59 c. 

49. THE SICK CHILD. 1896. 16% x 22%" (42 x 57 cm.) . Sch. 59 d. 

50. NUDE WITH RED HAIR (SIN) . 1901. 27% x 15%" (69,6 x 39,5 cm.) . Sch. 142 c. 

51. JEALOUSY. 1902. 18% x 22%" (47 x 57.2 cm.) . Sch. 58. 

52. MADONNA. 1902. 24 x 17%" (61 x 44,1 cm.) . Sch. 33 A II b 1. 

53. MADONNA WITH THE BROOCH (EVA MUDOCCI). 1903. 25% x 18%" (64,8 x 46,8 cm.) . Sch. 212. 

54. PROFESSOR K. E. SCHREINER. 1930. 24 x 19%" (60.8 x 50.5 cm. I . 



n()(lIME*TATION 



In general only exhibitions which refer to specific paintings in this exhibition are listed 
in the following documentation section. A few major exhibitions have been added. 



101 



om MAN i \aiim i io\n 



students' association, Oslo, April 20-May 12, 1889. 

jeweler tostrup's euilding, Oslo, September 14-October 4, 1892. 

Edvard Munchs Maleriudstilling. 
architektenhaus (Verein Berliner Kiinstler), Berlin, November 

5-12, 1892. 
eduard schulte, Diisseldorf, November 1892; eduard schulte, 

Cologne. November-December 1892. Sonder- Ausstellung des 

Maters Edvard Munch aus Christiana vom November 5-19. 
equitable-palast, Berlin, December 26, 1892-January 1893. 
ceorg kleis, Copenhagen, February 24-March 14, 1893. Den Norske 

Maler, Eduard Munchs samlede Arbejder. 
theodor lichtenberg nachfolger Ferdinand morawe. Victoria- 

haus, Dresden. May 1893. Sonder-Ausstellung von Werken des 

Maler s Eduard Munch. 
ugo barroccio, Berlin, December 1893. Eduard Munch Gem'dlde- 

Ausstellung. 
galerie blanche, Stockholm, October 1-31, 1894. Forteckning ojver 

Edvard Munch Utstdllningen. 
ugo barroccio, Berlin, March 3-24, 1895. Sonder-Ausstellung des 

Edv. Munch. 
blomqvists lokale, Oslo, October 1895; Bergen, November 1895; 

Stavanger, Norway, January 1896. 
s. bing, Paris, June 1896. Salon de I' Art Nouveau. 
dioramalokalet, Oslo, September 15-October 17, 1897. 
dioramalokalet, Oslo, 1900. Edvard Munch. Maleriudstilling i 

Dioramalokalet. Catalogue introduction by Munch quoting 

criticism by Edouard Gerard, Paris. 
arno wolfframm ( dresdener kunstsalon ) , Dresden. 1900. Sonder- 
Ausstellung von Edvard Munch. 
hollaendercaarden, Oslo, October 1901. Edvard Munchs Udstilling. 
blomqvists lokale, Oslo, September 16, 1903. Edvard Munchs 

Udstilling Blomqvists Lokale. Catalogue introductions by Hans 

Rosenhagen, Gustav Schiefler and Marius-Ary Leblond. 
dioramalokalet, Oslo, October-November 15, 1904. Edvard 

Munchs Udstilling. 
GALERIE "manes", Prague, February 5-March 12, 1905. Catalogue 

introduction by K. Svoboda. 
grossherzocliches museum, Weimar, from November 11, 1906. 
otto Fischer, Bielefeld. Germany, Arr'l 6-30, 1907. 
ateneumin taidemuseo, Helsinki, January 3-31. 1909. 
blomqvists lokale, Oslo, March 1909; bergens kunstforeninc, 

Bergen, Summer 1909. 
dioramalokalet, Oslo, March 1910. Edvard Munchs Udstilling i 

Dioramalokalet. 
dioramalokalet, Oslo, April 1911. Edvard Munch-U dstilling i 

Dioramalokalet. 
moderne galerie thannhauser, Munich. February 1912, Kollektiv- 

Ausstellung Edvard Munch. 
sonderbund westdeutscher kunstfreunde und kunstler, Cologne, 

May 25-September 30, 1912. 
salong JOEL, Stockholm, February 1913. Mulningar och Grafisk 

Konst aj Edvard Munch. 
konstnarshuset, Stockholm, September 1913. Edvard Munch. 
calerie fritz gurlitt, Berlin, February 1914. Edvard Munch. 
blomqvists lokale. Oslo, October 1918. Edvard Munch 1918. Cata- 
logue introduction by Edvard Munch. 
kunsthaus, Zurich, June 18-August 2, 1922. Ausstellung Edvard 

Munch, in Ziiri'cher Kunsthaus. Catalogue introduction by W. 

Wartmann. 
stadtische kunsthalle, Mannheim. November 7, 1926-January 9, 
1927. Edvard Munch. GemaT.de und Graphik. Catalogue introduc- 
tion by G. F. Hartlaub. 



nationalgalerie, Berlin, March 15-May 15, 1927. Edvard Munch. 
Catalogue introduction by Ludwig Justi. 

nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, 1927. Edvard Munch. Catalogue introduc- 
tions by Jens Thiis and Ludwig Justi. 

kunsthutte, Chemnitz, Germany, November 15-December 11, 1929. 
Ausstellung Edvard Munch. Catalogue introduction by Will 
Grohmann. 

Dresden, June-September 1929. Kiinstler-Vereinigung. 

the London gallery, London, October 20-November 14, 1936. Ed- 
vard Munch. Catalogue introduction by Herbert Read. 

kungliga akademien for de fria konsterna, Stockholm, March 
1937. Sveriges Allmanna Konstlorening Edvard Munch utstall- 
ning. Catalogue introductions by Pola Gauguin and Sigge 
Bergstrom. 

stedelijk museum, Amsterdam, May 1-June 20, 1937. Edvard 
Munch. Catalogue introduction by Pola Gauguin. 

harald holst halvorsens kunsthandel, Oslo, September 1938. 
Utstilling av Edvard Munch. 

nationalmuseum, Stockohlm; and konstmuseum, Gothenburg. 
Sweden. February 1944. Edvard Munch. Oljemalningar, grafik. 
och teckningar i svensk och norsk ago i Sverige. Catalogue intro- 
ductions by Erik Wettergren, Axel L. Romdahl, Folke Holmer 
and Gunnar Jungmarker. 

raadhushallen, Copenhagen, April 8-25. 1946. Mindeudstil/ingen for 
Edvard Munch i Kpbenhavns Raadhus. Catalogue introduction 
by Johan H. Langaard. 

liljevalchs konsthall, Stockholm. January 4-February 2. 1947: 
goteborcs konstmuseum. Gothenburg. February 25-March 16. 
1947. Edvard Munch. Catalogue introduction by Johan H. 
Langaard. 

institute of contemporary art, Boston, April 19-May 19. 1950; 
phillips gallery - , Washington, D.C., May 28-June 20, 1950; the 
museum of modern art, New York, June 30-August 13, 1950; 
Detroit institute of arts, September 1-29, 1950; Minneapolis 
institute of fine arts, October 12-November 9. 1950; Colo- 
rado springs fine arts center, November 23-December 21, 
1950; los angeles county museum, January 4-February 1, 
1951; M. H. de young memorial museum, San Francisco, Feb- 
ruary 10-March 10, 1951; carnegie institute, Pittsburgh. 
March 24-April 21, 1951; the art institute of Chicago, May 7- 
June 10. 1951; city art museum of st. louis, June 18-July 15, 

1951. Edvard Munch. Catalogue introductions by Frederick B. 
Deknatel and Johan H. Langaard. 

Cologne. Hamburg, Liibeck. Summer 1951. Austellung Edvard 
Munch 1863-1944. Catalogue introduction by L. Reidemeister. 

the arts council of great Britain, Edvard Munch, An Exhibition 
o,l Paintings, Etchings, and Lithographs. Brighton. September 
1-22, 1951; Glasgow, October 1-22, 1951; tate gallery. London. 
October 31-December 2, 1951. Catalogue introductions by Philip 
James and Johan H. Langaard. Substantially the same as the 
American traveling exhibition, 1950-51. 

kunstnernes HUS, Oslo, November 10-December 16. 1951. Edvard 
Munch. Utstilling malerier, akvareller, tegninger, grafikk. 

gemeentemuseum, The Hague, December 13, 1951-February 15. 

1952. Edvard Munch. Catalogue introduction by Johan H. Lan- 
gaard. Continuation of The Arts Council of Great Britain exhibi- 
tion. 

petit PALAIS. Paris, March-April 1952. E. Munch. Catalogue intro- 
ductions by Paul Coirre, Andre Chamson and Johan H. Lan- 
gaard. 

kunsthaus, Zurich, June 22-August 17. 1952. Munch. Catalogue in- 
troductions by R. Wehrli and W Wartmann. 



102 



palais des beaux-arts, Brussels, October 11-November 2, 1952. 

Edvard Munch. Catalogue introduction by Johan H. Langaard. 
xxvii biennale, Venice, 1954. Esposizione Biennale Internazionale 

d Arte. Catalogue introduction by Leif 0stby. 
haus DER kuhst, Munich, November-December 1954; Cologne, 1955. 

Edvard Munch. Catalogue introductions by Sigurd Willoch and 

Ernst Buchner. 
kunstforeningen, Copenhagen, March 5-27, 1955; fyns stiftsmu- 

seum, Odense, Denmark, April 1955. Edvard Munch Udstilling. 

Catalogue introductions by F. L. Crone, Sigurd Willoch, Pola 

Gauguin. 
kunstnerforbundet, Oslo, January 25-February 20, 1958. Munch- 

bilder i privat eie. 
KtrasTMusEUM, Bern, October 7-November 30, 1958. Edvard Munch. 

Catalogue introduction by Max Huggler. 
museum boymans-van beuningen, Rotterdam, December 10. 1958- 

February 8, 1959. Edvard Munch. 
museum voor stadt en lande, Groningen, The Netherlands, Febru- 
ary 20-March 16, 1959. Edvard Munch. 
akademie der bildenden kunste, Vienna, May 22-July 5, 1959. 

Edvard Munch. Catalogue introductions by Hofrat Hans Mandl 

and Fritz Novotny. 
museum narodowe, Warsaw, November 2-December 15, 1959. Ed- 
vard Munch, Malarstwo Grafika. Catalogue introductions by 

Johan H. Langaard and Professor Dr. Julius Starzynski. 
steinernes haus, Frankfurt am Main, November 9. 1962-January 6, 

1963. Catalogue introduction by Ewald Rathke. 
ruhrfestspiele, Recklinghausen, 1965. 



i.itoi -p i:xiiii(iiio\s 



rikshospitalets lokaler, Oslo, 1884. Annual State Exhibition. 

Second Annual State Exhibition, Oslo, 1885. 

Annual State Exhibition, Oslo, 1886. 

Annual State Exhibition, Oslo, 1888. 

Annual State Exhibition, Oslo, 1890. 

palais des arts libereaux, Paris, April 1-May 31, 1896. 12 Salon 

des Independents. 
secession, Berlin, 1902. Fiinjten Kunstausstellung der Berliner 

Secession. 
secession, Vienna, December 1903-February 1904. 
secession, Berlin, 1908. 

ateneumin taidemuseo. Helsinki, February- March 1911. 
kunstlerbund hagen, Vienna, January-February 1912, Norwegische 

Kiinstler. 
the American art galleries, New York, December 10-25, 1912. 

Traveled 1912-13 to Buffalo, Toledo, Chicago, Boston. Exhibition 

of Contemporary Scandinavian Art. Held under the auspices of 

the American-Scandinavian Society. Catalogue introductions by 

Christian Brinton. Karl Madsen, Jens Thiis and Carl G. Laurin. 
galerie Alfred flechtheim, Diisseldorf, March 28-April 17, 1914. 

Edvard- Munch, Ernst Barlach. 
den frie udstillings bygninc, Copenhagen, November 1915. Kunst- 

nernes Ejteraars Udstilling. 
Copenhagen, November-December 1915. Den Norske Kunstudstilling 

ved Charlottenborg. 
palace of fine arts, San Francisco, February 20-December 4, 1915. 

Panama-Pacific International Exposition. 
liljevalchs konsthall, Stockholm, March-April 1917. Nutida 

Norsk Konst. 
konsthallen, Gothenburg, 1923. J ubileumsutstdllningen i Gbteborg 

1923. Nordisk Konst. Catalogue introductions by Axel L. Rom- 

dahl and Jens Thiis. 



Dresden, 1926. International Exhibition. 

royal society, London, September 25-October 21, 1928. Norivegian 

Exhibition. 
kunsthaus, Zurich, February 20-March 20, 1932. Edvard Munch, 

Paul Gauguin. 
kunstnernes hus, Oslo, September 5-October 2, 1932. Hpstutstil- 

lingen gjennem de f0rste 25 ar 1882-1907. 
kunclica akademien for de fria konsterna, Stockholm, June 18- 

August 31, 1941. Dansk, Finsk, Isldndsk och Norsk Konst ur 

samlingar i Sverige. 
m. h. de young memorial museum, San Francisco, 1945. United 

Nations-Norway. 
allen memorial art museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, 1946. 

Five Expressionists. 
kunstnernes hus, Oslo, January 10-25. 1948. Rolf Stenersens sam- 

ling. Catalogue introduction by Reidar Revold. 
gemeentemuseum, The Hague, December 17, 1949-February 4, 1950. 

Honderd Jaar Noorse Schilderkunst. 
palais des beaux-arts, Brussels, March 4-26, 1950. Un Siecle de 

Peinture Norvegienne. 
university of Minnesota art gallery, Minneapolis, 1952. Space in 

Painting. 
palazzo delle esposizioni, Rome, April-May, 1955. Finlandia, Dani- 

marca, Islanda, Norvegia, Svezia, Arte Nordica Contemporanea. 

Catalogue introduction by Reidar Revold. 
nationalmuseum, Stockholm, April-June, 1956; kunsthaus, Zurich, 

1957; gemeentemuseum, The Hague, April 19-June 11, 1957. 

Ragnar Moltzau Collection. 
kunstnerforbundet, Oslo, February 9-21, 1957. N aeringslivet i 

Kunsten. 
stedelijk museum, Amsterdam, July 6-September 30, 1957. Europa 

1907. 
palais international des beaux-arts, Brussels, April 17- July 21, 

1958. Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Bruxelles. 50 

Ans d' Art Moderne. Catalogue introduction by Em. Langui. 
palais des exposition, Charleroi, Belgium, July 5-September 14, 

1958. Art et Travail. 
the museum of modern art, New York, June 6-September 6, 1960; 

carnecie institute, Pittsburgh, October 13-December 12, 1960; 

los angeles county museum, January 17-March 5, 1961; the 

Baltimore museum of art, April 1-May 15, 1961. Art Nouveau. 

Catalogue introductions by Peter Selz, Greta Daniel, Henry- 

Russel Hitchcock, Alan M. Fern. 
musee national d'art moderne, Paris, November 4, 1960-January 

23, 1961. Les Sources du XXe Siecle, Les Arts en Europe de 

1884 a 1914. Catalogue introductions by Jean Cassou, Guilio 

Carlo Argan, Nicolaus Pevsner. 
kunstnerforbundet, Oslo, January 14-25, 1961. Kunstnerforbundet 

50 Ar. Utstilling I. 
Darmstadt, 1963. Zeugnisse der Angst. 
Louisiana museum, Copenhagen, October 16-November 1963. Rolf 

Stenersens Sanding. 
marlborouch-gerson gallery, New York, November - December 

1963. Artist and Maecenas. A Tribute to Curt Valentin. 
haus der kunst, Munich, March 14-May 10, 1964. Secession Euro- 

pdische Kunst um die Jahrhundertwende. Catalogue introduc- 
tion by Siegfried Wichmann. 

nasjonalcalleriet, Oslo, May 5-June 7, 1964. Jubileumsutstilling 
1814-1964. 

kunsthalle, Kiel. Germany, June 24-July 26, 1964, 750 Jahre Nor- 
wegische Malerei. Catalogue introductions by Sigurd Willoch, 
Hans Tintelnot and Leif 0stby. 

palais de beaulieu, Lausanne, 1964. Chefs-d'Oeuvre des Collections 
Suisses de Manet a Picasso. Catalogue introduction by Max 
Huggler. 

the solomon r. Guggenheim museum, New York, May-September 

1964. Van Gogh and Expressionism. Catalogue introduction by 
Maurice Tuchman. 



103 



SKI. 14 III! It I It I IIM.lt A l>in 



przybyszewski, stanislaw, ed. Das Werk des Edvard Munch. Berlin. 
S. Fischer Verlag, 1894. Contributions by Stanislaw Przybys- 
zewski, Franz Servaes, Willy Pastor. Julius Meier-Graefe. 

linde, max. Edvard Munch und die Kunst der Zukunjt. Berlin, F. 

Gottenheimer, 1905. Earlier edition 1902. 
esswein, Hermann. Edvard Munch. Munich and Leipzig, R. Piper 

and Co., 1905. 
schiefler, gustav. Verzeichnis des graphischen Werkes Edvard 

Munchs bis 1906. Berlin, Bruno Cassirer, 1907. 

claser, curt. Edvard Munch Berlin, Bruno Cassirer, 1917. 

schiefler, gustav. Edvard Munch. Das graphische Werk 1906-1926. 
Berlin, Euphorion Verlag, 1928. 

langaard, johan h. Edvard Munch. Maleren. Oslo, Nasjonalgal- 
leriet Veileder IV, 1932. 

gauguin, pola. Edvard Munch. Oslo, Gyldendal, 1932. New edition 
1946. 

thus, jens. Edvard Munch og hans samtid. Oslo, Gyldendal. 1933. 
German edition translated by Joachim Dieter Bloch, Berlin, 
Rembrandt Verlag, 1934. 

gauguin, POLA. Grafikeren Edvard Munch. Litografier. Trondheim, 
Brun, 1946. 

caucuin, POLA. Grafikeren Edvard Munch. Tresnitt og raderinger. 
Trondheim, Brun, 1946. 

stenersen, ROLF E. Edvard Munch. Naerbilled av et geni. Stock- 
holm, 1944, Copenhagen, 1945, Oslo, 1945. Enlarged edition, 
Oslo, Gyldendal, 1946. 

Edvard Munch, som vi kjente ham. Oslo, Dreyers Forlag, 1946. Con- 
tributions by K. E. Schreiner. Christian Gierl0fl, Pola Gauguin. 
Johs. Roede, Ingeborg Motzfeld Lochen, Titus Vile Miiller. 
Birgit Prest0e. David Bergendahl. L. O. Ravensberg. 

Edvard Munchs Selvportretter. Oslo, Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, 1947. 
Introduction by Johan H. Langaard. 

Edvard Munch, Memnesket og Kunstneren. Oslo, Gyldendal Norsk 
Forlag, Kunst og Kultur Series, 1946. Contributions by Chris- 
tian Gierlpff, Axel L. Romdahl, Pola Gauguin. Johan H. Lan- 
gaard, Karl Stenerud, N. Rygg, Erik Pedersen, Birgit Prest0e. 
Chrix Dahl. 

SARVIC, OLE. Edvard Munchs Grafik. Copenhagen, J. H. Schultz For- 
lag, 1948. New edition, Copenhagen, Gyldendal. 1964. German 
edition, Zurich-Stuttgart, Flamberg, 1964. 

hodin, j. p. Edvard Munch. Der Genius des Nordens. Stockholm. 

Neuer Verlag, 1948. New edition, Mainz, Florian Kupferberg 

Verlag. 1963. 
Edvard Munchs brev. Familien. Oslo. Johan Grundt Tanums Forlag, 

1949. 
deknatel, Frederick B. Edvard Munch. New York. Chanticleer Press. 

1950. 
willoch, sigurd. Edvard Munchs Raderinger. Oslo, Johan Grundt 

Tanum, 1950. 



stenersen, rolf E. Edvard Munch. Zurich, Biichergilde Gutenberg, 
1949. Later edition, Stockholm, Neuer Verlag, 1950. 

gierloff, christian. Edvard Munch selv. Oslo, Gyldendal, 1953. 

kokoschka, oskar. Der Expressimus Edvard Munchs. Vienna, Gur- 
litt. 1953. 

svenaeus, costa. Ide och innehdll i Edvard Munchs konst. En analys 
av Aulamdlningarna. Oslo, Gyldendal. 1953. 

Edvard Munchs brev fra Dr. Max Linde. Oslo, Dreyers Forlag. 1954. 

gerlach, HANS egon. Edvard Munch. Sein Leben und sein Werk. 
Hamburg, Christian Wegner, 1955. 

GL0ERSEN, inger alver. Den Munch jeg m0tte. Oslo, Gyldendal. 1956. 

langaard, johan h. and revold, reidar. Edvard Munch som tegner. 
Oslo, Kunsten Idag. 1958. English edition, The Draivings of 
Edvard Munch. Oslo. Kunsten Idag, 1958. 

moen, arve. Samtid og miljp. Oslo, Forlaget Norsk Kunstreproduks- 
jon, 1956. English edition. Age and Milieu. Oslo, Forlaget Norsk 
Kunstreproduksjon, 1956. German edition, Edvard Munch. Sein 
Zeit und sein Milieu. Ein Bildwerk. Munich. F. Bruckmann. 1959. 

moen, arve. Edvard Munch. Kvinnen og eros. Oslo, Forlaget Norsk 
Kunstreproduksjon, 1957. English edition, Woman and Eros. 
Oslo, Forlaget Norsk Kunstreproduksjon, 1957. German edition, 
Edvard Munch. Der Kiinstler und die Frauen. Ein Bildwerk. 
Munich, F. Bruckmann, 1959. 

moen, arve. Edvard Munch. Landskap og dyr. Et Billedverk. Oslo, 
Forlaget Norsk Kunstreproduksjon. 1958. English edition. Na- 
ture and Animals. Oslo, Forlaget Norsk Kunstreproduksjon, 
1958. German edition, Edvard Munch. Tier und Landschajt. Ein 
Bildwerk. Munich, F. Bruckmann. 1959. 

benesch, otto. Edvard Munch. London, The Phaidon Press, 1960. 
German edition, Edvard Munch. Cologne. Phaidon Verlag, 1960. 

langaard, johan ii. and revold, reidar. Edvard Munch. Aulade- 
korasjonvne. Oslo. Forlaget Norsk Kunstreproduksjon, I960. 
English edition Edvard Munch. The University Murals. Oslo. 
Forlaget Norsk Kunstreproduksjon, 1960. 

langaard, ingrid. Edvard Munch. Modningsar. Oslo. Gyldendal. 
1960. 

moiir, otto lous. Edvard Munchs Auladekorasjoner. Oslo. Gylden- 
dal, 1960. 

Oslo Kommunes Kunstsamlinger, Arbvkcr. Oslo. 1951. 1960. 1963. 
Detailed bibliographies by Hannah B. Miiller and Reidar Revold. 

LANGAARD, JOHAN H. AND REVOLD. REIDAR. Edvard Munch Ira ar til 
dr. A Year by )'ear Record oj Edvard Munch's Lite. Oslo, H. 
Aschehoug and Co.. 1961. 

LANGAARD, JOHAN H. AND REVOLD, REIDAR. 1/ esterverker I Munch- 

museet Oslo. Oslo. Forlaget Norsk Kunstreproduksjon, 1963 
German edition. Weisterwerke in Munch-Miiseum, Oslo. Stutt- 
gart, An. Belser Verlag. 1963. English edition. Edvard Munch. 
New York. Toronto, McGraw-Hill, and Co.. 1964. 
greve, eli. Edvard Munch. Liv og verk i lys av tresnittene. Oslo. J. vf. 
Cappelens Forlag, 1963. 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM 



STAFF 



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Registrar 

Conservation 

Photography 

Custodian 



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PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS All photographs but the following were made by 0. Vaering, Oslo : 

The Detroit Institute of Arts, no. 53 
Vladimir Fyman, Prague, no. 39 
Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, Inc. New York, no. 38 

The following color plates were lent by: Arts Magazine, New York, no. 28 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, no. 19 

Kunsthalle, Kiel, no. 18 

Munch-museet, Oslo, nos. 49, 54, 67 

Nationalgalleriet, Oslo, no. 1 

Phaidon Press, London, nos. 9, 27, 30, 52, 58 

Skira, Geneva, no. 6 

Steinernes Haus. Frankfurt am Main. nos. 13, 21, 32, 48 



Exhibition 65/6 October 1965-Janaary 1966 

3,000 copies of this catalogue, 

designed by Herbert Matter, 

have been printed by Sterlip Press 

in September 1965 

for the Trustees ol The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 

on the occasion of the exhibition 

"Edvard Munch" 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM, NEW YORK