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Full text of "Elementary Polish grammar. Key"

LaP.Gr 
S7745el 



Ssymank, Paul 

Elementary Polish 
grammar. KEY. 



^rcsenteb to 
of il]e 

Putersttg of Toronto 

PROFESSOE B.E. SHORE 



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Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages 




Ssy m an k 

Key 



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to the 



Elementary 
Polish Grammar 





Julius Groos, Heidelberg 



L^ PGr Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer. 

S 77^SeE. 



Key 



to the 

Elementary 

Polish Grammar 

by 

Professor Paul Ssymank, Phil, Dr. 



180« 






b*nm1if1iHi9riHi&f>>V '^- 



Heidelberg. 
Julius Groos, Publisher. 

1921 50981-5 



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The Gnspey- Otto -Saner Slethod has become my sole property .by 
right of purchase. These books are continually revised. All rights, 
especially those of adaptation and translation into any language, are 
reserved. Imitations and fraudulent im{)ressions are forbidden by law. 
Suitable communications always thankfully received. 

Heidelberg. Julius Oroos. 



1. The siin^eyor is not attentive. 2. Fortune is blind. 
3. The carpenter is not industrious. 4. The Jesuit is wise. 
5. The woman is virtuous. 6. This man is quarrelsome. 
7. The coimcillor is cautious. 8. The robber is cruel. 
9. Men are virtuous. 10. Artisans are industrious. 11. Wives 
are diligent^ husbands often are idle. 12. The peasant 
often is quarrelsome. 13. The surveyor is cautious. 14. The 
carpenter is diligent. 15. The treasurer is attentive. 16. The 
poet often is celebrated. 17. Tlie bread is good. 18. My 
predecessor is good. 

2. 

1. Wiesniak jest cnotliwy i pilny. 2. Ta kobieta jest 
szczQsliwa. 3. Podskarbi jest ostrozny. 4. Ta kobieta 
jest slepa. 5. Ten wielki poeta polski nazywa sie Mickie- 
wicz. 6. Ostrozny dzierzawca gospodaruje pilnie. 7. Woje- 
woda poznanski nazywa si^ Opalenski. 8. Moj dzier- 
zawca jest dobry. 9. Ciesla jest pilny. 10. Ten dozorca 
jest uprzejmy. 11. Chleb jest wielki. 12. Ten czlowiek 
jest m^dry, a ta kobieta jest piQkna. 13. Ten wielki 
poeta francuski nazywa sIq Racine. 14. Ten chlop jest 
leniwy. 15. Ten poeta angielski jest slawny. 16. Ta 
pracowita i pilna kobieta nazywa sIq Jozefa. 17. Grecki 
zbojca jest okrutny. 18. Jak sIq nazywa wielki poeta nie- 
miecki? 19. Gdzie jest chleb? 20. Moja zona nie jest 
klotliwa. 

Rozmowa. 

Who is cruel? The robber is crael. 

Who is attoiitive? The surveyor is attentive. 

Where is the carpenter? The carpenter is there. 

What is blind? Fortune is blind. 

Who is good? Father is good. 

Is the councillor wise? Yes, sir, he is wise and dili- 

gent. 
Is the treasurer polite? Yes, sir, the treasurer is jpo- 

lite. 

1* 



_ 4 — 

3. 

1. The carriage is shut. 2. Life is short, art is long. 
3. The soul is immortal. 4. The treasure is great. 5. He 
drinks wine and eats bread. 6. The laAV is necessary. 
7. Coldness is disagreeable. 8. The carriage costs six 
hundred marks. 9. The body is mortal. 10. the rich man 
is avaricious. 11. The school is necessary. 12. Truth is 
(well) known. 13. A friend is as necessary as health, 
14. The cap costs Ipss than the hat. 



1. Szkola jest zamkniQta. 2. Kosciol jest peten (pelny). 
3. Czapka kosztuje szesc marek. 4. Przykry glod i wiel- 
ki mroz bogaczowi nie s^; znane. 5. Dozorca pije wino 
i je chleb. 6. Przyjaciel jest skarbem. 7. Dusza jest 
niesmiertelna. 8. Swiatlo jest potrzebne. 9. Czapka jest 
pi(?kna. 10. Ubostwo jest przykre. 11. Slohce jest gwiazda. 
12. Mam kapelusz. 13. Bogacz czQsto nie, ma przyjaciela. 
14. Zycie jest szko^. 15. Wino dla zdrowia nie jest potrebne. 
16. Moj przyjaciel jest cnotliwy i pilny. 17. Wino w^- 
gierskie jest dobre i kosztuje mniej niz wloskie luh fran- 
cuskie. 18. Niemieckie wino jest takze dobre. 19. Moj 
przyjaciel pije wino niemieckie. 20. Swiatlo jest cz^sto 
przykre. 

Rozmowa. 

Where is the carriage? The carriage is there. 

How much does the cap cost? Tlie cap costs six marks. 

What is immortal? The soul is immortal. 

Is coldness disagreeable? Yes, sir, coldness is disagree- 

able. 

AVhat does the rich man drink? The rich man drinks wine and 

water. 

Who has my wine? He has your wine. 

How much does the wine cost? The wine costs six marks. 



1. In the countr^^, where there are many marsh<' 
there live herons. 2. The heron is a wading bird. 3. Heron 
live near the lakes. 4. The heron is a cautious hir.l. 
5. The heron is difficult to shoDt. 6. My sister has books 
in her mother-tongue. 7. My comfort is that this war is 
not (= does not last) long. 8. The Polish waywodes love 
the king of their country. 9. The books of the pupils arc 
in the class on the forms. 10. The Polish king John Sobjeski 
often chased the heron. 11. The mother- tongue is the 
language of the mother, the father, the sisters and th^ 



brothers. 12. John Sobjeski was a brave and celebrated 
Polish king. 13. The docnments of the judge are in the 
room of the clerk. 14. Herons and falcons are birds. 
15. The ears, the eyes and the Avhole face of this gentleman 
resemble (that of) his father. 16. My friends live in 
Germany. 

6. 

1. Jestesn^y w iklasie. 2. Moja klasa jest wielka. 

3. W klasie sc\, lawki, katedra, krzeslo, kreda i gabka. 

4. Naucyciel jest na katedrze, a uczniowie ssi na lawkach. 

5. Katedra i krzeslo sq, dla nauczyciela. 6. Tablica i lawki 
&^_ dla uczni (or uczniow). 7. Nauczyciel ma gt-\bkQ i 
kredQ na katedrze. 8. G^bka jest zolta. 9. Tablica jest 
wielka. 10. Daj mi bron. 11. Kazdy ojciec kocha dzie- 
ci. 12. Ojciec i matka kochaj^i dzieci. 13. Brat kocha 
siostr^. 14. Moi bracia nie lubin^ ksij^zek. 15. Czapla 
jest ptakiem, ktory zyje w bagnie. 16. Ksiq.zki Cycerona 
s^ slawne. 17. Psy s^^ zwierz^tami. 18. Ci panowie sq, 
bracmi ksi^dza. 19. Polacy kochaja JagiellQ i JadwigQ, 
zonQ tego ki-ola. 20. Daj mi chleba, ojcze. 21. Cialo 
czlowieka jest smiertelne", ale dusza jest niesmiertelna. 
22. Wiarus kocha wojn?. 23. Kazdy czlowiek kocha mowQ 
ojczyst^? 24. Nowy zamek krola jest dtizy i pi^kny. 25. Moj 
ojciec i moj brat Sci kupcami. 

Rozmowa, 

What wine do you like, sweet I only drink dry wine. 

wine or dry wine? 
Who sings a song of Chopin ? My daughter sings a song of 

Chopin. 
Do you know the father of I do not know the father of 

your friend? my friend, hut I know his 

uncle. 
Do you already ruulersfand the No, sir, I do not. 

first Polish conjugation? 
Do you know the works of Adam Certainly, I have the works of 

Mickiewicz? tliis poet at home. 

7. 

1. The kindness of God is great. 2. Before God all 
men are equal. 3. God as a ghost is invisible. 4. The 
laws of God are wise and holy. 5. All nations have the 
belief in God. 6. Confide in God, and God will help you. 
7. .Tesus Christ was the son of God. 8. (Jesus) Christ nomi- 
nated twelve apostles. 9. The names of the apostles are 
known. 10. The faith of the a|)Ostles was great and vigo- 
rous. 11. The apostle St. l^aul lived at Rome. 12. He wrote 



— 6 — 

many letters. 13. The name of the "apostle (St.) Paul is 
known. 14. The apostle (St.) Paul had aji advantage beloic 
the other apostles. 15. The brothers of the priest weif 
in his hotise. 16. The knight often is on horseback. 17. The 
horses of the knights please the judge (pan is not to l>e 
translated). 18. The sword was the knight's weapon in 
war. 19. In the town there are the houses of the merchants. 
20. Oh, merchant, where is the house of the baker? 21. The 
teacher with his pupils is at school. 22. The pupils are 
in the field in the afternoon (instead of: after noon). 



1. Jezus Chrystus zyt w kraju Zydow. 2. On jest kro- 
lem krolow. 3. Naznaczyl Pawla apostolem. 4. Zona 
jest towarzyszk^ mQza. 5. Wszyscy aniolowie (or a- 
nieli) kochajt'i Boga. 6. Imi^ Boga jest swi^te. 7. Daj 
mi r6z(j! 8. Roza jest pi^kna. 9. Ufaj dobroci Boga. 
10. GalQzie d^bu sa silne. 

Rozmowa. 

Wliat is the angol? The angel is a spirit. 

To whom did God give an ad- God gave the angel an ad- 
vantage before man? vantage before man. 

Are ghosts invisible? Yes (sir), ghosts are invisilde. 

Is the ant industrious? Yes (sir), tlie ant is industrious. 

AVhen did St. Paul live at Rome? He lived at Rome at the iim<? - 

of the Emperor Nero. 

Is [your] father at home ? No, sir, my faiher is at the war. 

9. 

1. The sound of the bell is agreeable to the pujiils. 

2. He who despises his parents, despises himself. 3. The 
balls make holes. 4. The war of the enemies was unhapj)'?. 
5. Do not confide in war. 6. This soldier is unhappy. 
7. The flatterer is hypocritical. 8. The causes of illnesses • 
are different. 9. This monarch made an unhappy war. >.: 
10. 1 saw the just monarch. 11. In Poland the enemies j 
ravaged the field(s) of the lords and the peasants. 12. Angels 
are the servants of God and the guards (watchmen) of 
men. 13. War often is the cause of illnesses. 14. The 
monarch is at the head of the soldiers. 15. In war 
the soldier defeats the enemy by courage and willi Hi:- 
weapon. 

10. 
1. Boniba nie jest lekka. 2. Widzialem juz granat. 

3. Kula armatnia robi dziury w murze. 4. Sila procliu 
jest znana. 5. Ulalem knlo. (5. Mouarchowie })rowadzili 



— 7 — 

wojiiy. 7. Bomba pustoszy mur. 8. Tea kiaj jest nie- 
sczesliwy. 9.^Przyczyna choroby jest nieznana. 10. Nie 
ufaj pochlebconi. 11. Widzialeni w zamku krola i jego 
zonQ 12. Ten narod jest nieszcz/jsliwy. 13. zolnicrz to w 
rzyszy monarsze. 14. Brat moj towarzyszy rodzicom. 
15 Ten wielki poeta polski nazywa siQ Juljusz Slowacki. 

16. SwiQty Pawel zyl w Rzymie, gdy tarn zyt cesarz Neron. 

17. Choroba mego brata nie jest zarazliwa. 

Rozmowa. 

Is the sound of the mother- Yes (sir), the sound of the mo- 
tongue agreeable? ther-tongue is agreeable to 

everybody. 

Does the cannon-ball make ho- Yes (sir), the cannon-balls make 
les in the wall? large holes m the wall. . 

What was the reason of this I do not know, the reasons of 
^3^j.9 war are different. 

-What was the cause of his ill- The cause of his illness is un- 
ness? known. 

11. 

1 Handwriting is necessary. 2. The use of science 
is great. 3. The building of the (human) body shows power. 
4 The cleanliness of the (human) body sei-ves health. 
5. The grand-duchy of Posen now has the following towns : 
Posen, Bromberg, Ginesen, Lissa, Koscian (Kosten), Buk, 
Inowrodaw (Hohensalza). 6. In the Holy Scripture thej-e 
are excellent doctrines. 7. The building (structure) of the 
eye is full of wonders. 8. Smoke is noxious for the eyes. 
9 At Posen there are fine churches and a new castle; m 
the castle (there) are rooms. 10. The eai-th and the sky 
(instead of: skies) are the work of Grod. 11. The town (of) 
Rome is, in Italy; at Rome there are many churches. 
12. Oh, son, where are the hats of (your) brothers ? 13. Oh, 
children, love God and (your) parents. 14. Before the 
church there were many men with colours. 

12. 

1. Czlowiek jest czQsto bardzo nieszczQsliwy. 2. W \em 
dziecku jest dobre serce. 3. Czystosc ciala jest pozy- 
teczna. 4. W oczach odbija si? dusza czlowieka. 5. Ko- 
lor wlosow jest rozmaity. 6. W morzu znajduj^ siq duze 
i male ryby. 7. Kto ma slawne nazwisko, jest dluznikiem 
swoich przodkow. 8. Brat moj jest w Gnieznie, a ojciec 
Av Bvdgoszczy. 9. \V Poznaniu znajduje siQ zamek krola. 
10. Pozytek pisma jest wielki. 11. Wynalazek prochu byl 
dla ludzi pozyteczny. 12. Widzialem Gniezno i Leszno. 



— 8 — 

13. Miasto Poznan jest wielkie. 14. Ojciec dziecka jest 
kupcem. 15. Dym jest dzieciom szkodliwy. 

■'''•/Avwa. 
What is the use of hjuidwritiiig ? The use of handwriting is great. 
What are the most important The most important towns are: 

towns in the grand-duchy of Posen, Bromberg^ Lissa. 

Posen? (most instead of the 

comp.) 
What does a serene foreliead A serene forehead shows a 

show? merry and good man. 

Is the Holy Scripture known to We only knoAv the Gospel. 

you? 

13. 

1. My father is careful, my mother is economical, the 
child is good. 2. The wolf is voracious. 3. The bee is 
not idle. 4. Almost every father is industrious and good. 
5. Not every domestic animal is idle. 6. Almost every mother 
is industrious. 7. The child writes and learns (= in- 
structs itself). 8. The table is black. 9. The pupils have 
books on the form and are reading. 10. In the book of 
the pupil there are fine tales. 11. The children read in the 
l>ooks of lions, camels, horses, dogs and other animals. 

12. A 'fine handwritiug pleases the teachers and all men. 

13. The mother is at church Avith all children. 14. All the 
names of the pupils are not known to the teacher [pan is 
not to be translated). 

14. 

1. Ojciec malego dziecka jest dobry i pilny, pracuje 
w miescie, a takze w zamku. 2. Wielkie okna pi^knego 
zamku krolewskiego ssi, otwarte. 3. Pszczoly s;i pilnemi zwie- 
rz^tami. 4. Widzialem pilne pszczoly. 5. Oszcz«;dna i 
troskliwa matka zna pozytek czystosci. 6. Woly wicsniaka 
sq czQsto czarne. 7. Nie ufaj "zlym pochleboom! 8. Ufaj 
Bogti i dobrym ludziom. 9. Brat moj jescze nie zna przy- 
krej choroby troskliwej matki. 10. Prawie kazdy uczeii 
w klasie mego brata czyta piesni poety polskiego Adama 
Mickiewicza. 

Rozmowa. 

Is (your) father good? Yes (sir), my lather is very- 

good. 

Are the wolves voracious? All wolves arc voracious. 

Of what do you speak? We speak of the bees, which 

ar« not idle. 

Where are the children? The children are at school. 

Are the children industrious? Not all (of them) are industri- 

ous. 



— 9 — 

15. 

1. The white table was short and heavy; the last 
form was long and heavy. 2. The small lamb is not dear. 

3. The brother is not so good as the little sister. 4. The 
domestic animals are useful to men. 5. The dog is faithful. 
6. The brother was at home. 7. The sister resembles the 
mother, and the son (resembles) the father. 8. A brother 
does not always resemble his brother. 9. The lamias are 
in the field; with the lambs there are the children imd the 
dog (instead of: with the dog). 10. On the table there 
are books, pens and ink. 11. The baker has a cheap 
horse ; the rich men have dear horses. 12. Oh, pupil, do 
you know the French kings and emperors? 

16. 

1. Wielki Bog byl i jest dobry. 2. Jest dobrym i 
wiernym ojcem ludzi.^ 3. Zna dobrych i zlych 1-udzi. 

4. Ten czlowiek byl jeszcze maly, a juz byl bardzo ziy. 

5. Male jagniQ bylo bardzo dobre. 6. Czarny pies byl 
bardzo zty. 7. Czarne psy sq. tanie, ale te biate psy sa 
bardzo drogie. 8. Psy s^ wiernemi zwierz^tami. 9. Wi- 
dziatem biale jagniQ. 10. Pies towarzyszy swemu -panu. 
11. Wilk jest dzikim zwierz^ciem. 12. Gdzie byla starsza 
siostra? — Byla w ostatnim domu. 13. DzieciQ bylo bardzo 
mlode. 14. Ojciec moj towarzyszy swej mlodej corce i 
swemu mlodemu synowi. 15. Siostra moja lubi wielkie 
miasto. IG. Ojciec moj jest zdrowy (or zdrow). 17. Ten 
czlowiek jest wesoly {or wesol). 18. W zdrowem ciele 
zdrowy duch. 

Rozmowa. 

Grood day, sir, how do you do? Thank you, I am well. 

I have not seen you for a long I go out very seldom. 

time ? 

Who accompanies the parents The child accompanies the jia- 

to church? rents to church. 

Have you a fine book at Jiome? Here is a fine book. 
Thank you, sir. 

17. 

1. The father and the mother are good and triendly 
to the children. 2. The industrious child often is good too. 
3. The son writes well, and the little daughter reaiis badly 
and not aloud. 4. Not every pupil always works nmcli. 
5. The brother works much and industriously. G. The 
sister sings finely and aloud. 7. This colt will be mine. 
8. The enemy knows the way. 9. The soldier serves his 



— 10 — 

monarch faithfully. 10. The dog is faithful to his master. 

11. The boys are merry and play merrily. 12. Yesterday 
I was wi^h my parents at the judge's (who is) a friend 
of my father; we remained at the judge's for a very long 
time. 13. To-day, it is calm. 

18. 
1. Kto byl szkodliwy? Tamten zly czlowiek. 2. Moje 
dobre dzieci^, ba,dz zawsze pilne, a twoja matka b^dzie 
zawsze szczQsliwa. 3. Kazde male dzieciQ moze bye pilne, 
ale nie zawsze szczesliwe. 4. Nasz dobry ojciec byl zawsze 
zadowolony i szczesliwy, poniewaz byl wesot i zdrow. 

5. Co jest ladne, to jest cz^sto drogie. 6. Moja r^ka b^dzie 
zawsze dosyc silna. 7. W Poznaniu jest teraz nowy 
nniwersyteti polski. 8. Nauczyciel nie byl wcz^praj w domu, 
ale dzisiaj lub jutro b^dzie znow w miescie. 9. Siostra 
moja spiewa malo i rzadko. 10. Ten pan nie b^dzie nigdy 
dobrym nauczycielem. 11. Badz zawsze pilny, moj przyja- 
cielu, a b^dziesz pozytecznym cz.lowiekiem. 12. Matka 
naszego ojca zyje teraz w Warszawie, jest rzadko w 
Poznaniu. 

Rozmowa. 
Who serves the king faithfully? Tlic soldier serves the king 

faithfully. 
■\Vlio works industriously? ^ly mother works industriously. 

When does the soldier waiit a The soldier wants .a weapon in 

weapon ? war. 

AVhere do people sing so finely? They sing finely at church. 

19. 

1. ^ly uncle is healthy, yoiir aunt is. healthier, our 
child is healthiest. 2. The servant is coarser than, the 
master. 3. My knife is blunt, hut yours is blunter. 4. The 
uncle is happier than the grandfather, the grandmother is 
older than the aunt. 5. The white tooth is the healthiest. 

6. ;My book is more useful than yours. 7. Iron is the most 
useful metal. 8. The citizen is good. 9. My servant is 
bad. 10. The churches axe higher than the houses. 11. In 
the country men are by far healthier than in the towns. 

12. Berlin is the largest txDwn of Germany; in Berlin there 
dwells the president of the German republic. 13. Illness 
is a worse evil than poverty. 14. The nightingale sings 
the most finely of all birds. 

20. 

1. Moja i)if;kna ksif^zka jest pozyteczniejsza niz twoja. 
2. Gwiazda byla i)i(;kna, ksiQzyc is pi(^kniejszy, a slonce 



— 11 — 

bylo najpiQkiiiejsze. 3. Im lepsze i cigzsze wiiio, tern 
niebezpieczniejsze. 4. Najkrotsze jest zycie, najdiuzsza 
Aviecznosc. 5. Kto za duzo i za ci^zko pracuje, ten iiie 
moze bye dlugo zdrow i wesol; kto proznuje, ten tez nie 
moze bye szcze.slhvy. 6. Wi^ksze domy sa drozsze niz 
mniejsze. 7. W mniejszych miastach domy sa tansze niz 
w duzych. 8. Najwi^ksze miasta nie zawsze sq^ najpiijk- 
niejsze. 9. Najpi^kniejsi iudzie nie zawsze sa najzdrowsi 
i najlepsi. 10. Zycie czlowieka jest dluzsze niz zycie 
zwierzat. 11. Burmistrz naszego miasta jest moim wujem, 
pracuje pilniej niz jego poprzednik. 12. Badz pilniejszy niz 
twoja siostra, synu moj ! 

liozmowa. 

Who is sadder the industrious The industrious daughter is not 

daughter or the idle brother? sad, she is merry. 

What wild beast is the strong- The lion is the strongest ani- 

est? rnal. 

"What is l>etter, good beer or Crood beer is l)etler liian bad 

bad wine? wine. 

Where stands the largest tree? There it stands. 

What tower is the highest? At Ulni there is the highest Ger- 
man tower. 



21. 

1. I go to the brother, home. 2. I got a present 
from my father. 3. Without attention it is difficult 
to learn [something]. 4. He went from home without 
boots and he returns home enriched. 5. The love of the 
children for [their] parents and [that] of the parents for 
their children is great. 6. I was born at Posen, and you 
were born at Warsaw. 7. I went to fetch the dress. 
8. If you wish, (instead of: you wish and) I shall march 
against the superior power. 9. Without industry instruction 
is difficult. 10. During springtime it is more agreeable in 
the country than in town. 11. The teacher's house is 
opposite the church. 12. Amongst the pupils there are more 
industrious than idle ones. 13. In a healthy body there 
lives commonly a healthy soul. 14. In summer there 
are storks in our fields, in winter there a,re no storks. 
15. Seas are more profound than rivers. 16. I shall walk 
behind the town. 17. The father returns with his son from 
Posen. 18. Among men there are good ami bad ones. 19. Give 
me bread instead of money. 20. During the war these 
men dwell at their brothers' and sisters' in town. 



— 12 — 



1. Ojciec mowil do swoich synow: dzieci, bez pil- 
nosci, nauki i cnoty nie b^dziecie niczem. 2. Pracq. moz- 
na siQ wzbogacic. 3. Jaskolka powraca z ciepl^ wiosnjiy 
z jaskolkami i bocianami powracaj^ i inne ptaki. 4. W 
srodkii miasta znajdiije si^ szkola. 5. Blisko szkoly miesz- 
ka aasz nauczyciel. 6. Naprzeciw szkoly znajduje sIq; 
koscioL 7. Moj brat niieszka przy ulicy Szerokiej. 8. Ten 
dom jest blisko Warty. 9. Ta ksi^izka nie jest dla dzieci, 
10. Moja siostra mieszka u mego stryja w Lwowie. 11. Ten 
chlopiec nczy siQ bez ksif\zek. 12. Dtinaj jest zewnatrz 
miasta Wiednia. 13. Widziatem pomnik krola, znajduje 
si? wewn^trz miasta blisko kosciola. 14. WoIq wiosnQ niz. 
lato. 15. W jesieni b^dzie moja 'dobra matka w Warszawie 
albo Wiedniu. 16. Czy twoja ciotka byla zifnjj, w Byd- 
goszczy? 17. Moj dziadek urodzil si? w Paryzii. 18. P6jd§ 
jutro do miasta. 

Rozmowa. ' 

From whom did your brother My brother got a present imm 

get a present? (his) father. 

When shall you go to scliool? After New Year I shall go to- 

school. 

If God is with us, who will be Nobody can be against us. 

against us? 

With what do people cut down People cut down a tree with 

a tree? the axe. 

By what do people get rich? By trade and commerce. 

23. 

1. Between the town and the suburb there stands the 
town-hall. 2. My friend dwells near Buk, and my parents 
dwell at Buk. 3. Near the highway there stands a cross. 
4. Devils are in Hell. 5. Posen is situated on the Warta. 
6. The eagle rose above the clouds. 7. What town is. 
situated on the Vistula? 8. The nature of the wolf draws 
him to the wood (= A wild goose never laid a tame egg 
fprov.]). 9. Men dwell on the mountains, but on the 
highest mountain,s of the Alps there are no human in- 
habitants. 10. In the midst of a family there ought to 
be harmony. 11. Tar is black. 12. My brother got a 
])resent from his godfather. 13. Yesterday it rained, to- 
day the sky is without clouds. 14. In the wood there are 
higher trees than in the garden. 15. In tbe forests there 
are oaks, in the gardens there are no oaks generally. 
16. The Saviour died on the cross; crosses are in the 



— la — 

churches. 17. The dog is under the table. 18. Children, 
creep under the table. 

24. 

1. Czlowiek powinien pracowac w dnie, spac \v nocy. 
.2. (On) stara sIq o urzq,d. 3. Za ratuszeni znajduje si^ 
nowy kosciol. 4. Ta droga prowadzi poza przedmiescie. 
5. Djabet mieszka w piekle, jest on niewidzialny jak anio- 
lowie {or anieli). 6. W lesie stoi "krzyz Zbawiciela. 
7. Zgoda mi^dzy ludzmi jest pi^knq, cnot^i. 8. Krakow 
lezy nad Wislj\, Kolonja nad Reneni. 9. Moj dziadek 
mieszka pod Warszawq w malej wiosce. 10. Apteka pod 
Bialym Orlem znajduje si^ za kosciolem przy ratuszu. 

Rozmowa. 

Did you hear of ^sop and of Yes (sir), I know all of them. 

his fables? 

Where do you go? I go home. 

For what am I to pay? For my difficult work. 

Did you hear of the doctors I heard of this great misfor- 

death ? tune. 

Did you hear of the apothecary Yes, sir, it is near Green 

of the "Black Swan" ? Street. 

25. 

1. The Rhine has two sources and some mouths. 
2. One hundred years form a century. 3. Only once we 
are young. 4. A set of fifteen (mendel) has fifteen, a dozen 
twelve, and a threescore sixty pieces. 5. Do you know 
how far it is from here to Posen? — I heai'd, more than 
seven himdred kilometres. 6. The body of man consists 
of fifty-eight bones. 7. Columbus discovered America at 
the end of the fifteenth century. 8. 1/2 + 14 = ^k- 9-5x6 
= 30. 10.10 + 12 = 22. 11.8 + 6 = 9. 12.5 + 7 = 12. 
13. 8 — 3 = 5. 14. My father was born in 1852. 

26. 

1. W Londynie jest przeslo dziewi^c tysi^cy ulic. 
2. Dwudziesty pienvszy gmdzieh jest najkrolszy, a dwu- 
dziesty czwarty czierwiec najdluzszy dzieh roku. 3. Daj 
mi kopQ czyli szescdziesiut sztuk. 4. W wielkich mias- 
tach jest trzydziesci tysiQcy do stu tyslQcy prozniakow. 
5. W grudniu roku tysiq^c dziewi^cset dziesi;\tego w miescie 
Poznaniu mieszkalo sto piQcdziesif^t szesc tysi^cy szescset 
dziewi^cdziesia.t sze.sc ludzi; z tych bylo szescdziesiat piec 
tysiQcy czterysta szescdziesiqt siedem Nicmcow, aosmdzie- 
si;\t dziewi^c tysi^cy czterysta dwadzicscia osin Polakow. 
G. Zaczynamy dzieh o polnocy i liczymy odtad dwa- 



— 14 — 

nascie godzin do poliidnia i tylez do pohiocy. 7. Dom ma 
od tej strony dwa okiia, a od dragiej szesc okien i dwoje 
drzwi. 8. Mam dwadziescia dwa lata, moj ojciec ma 
czterdziesci pifjc, moj brat szesc a iiajstarsza siostra moja 
ma osiemnascie lat. 9. W roku lysine osiemset siedem- 
dziesi^ttym byla wojna Niemcow z Fra.ncuzami; Francuzi za- 
placili pi^c miljardow frankow. 10. Ostatni cesarz nie- 
miecki nazywa si§ Wilhelm Drugi. 

11. Szesc i szesc jest dwanascie. Jedno i siedem jest 
osiem. Szescdziesiat i dwanascie jest siedemdziesiq;t dwa. 
— Trzy i osiem jest jedenascie. Siedem i szesc jest trzy- 
nascie. Dwadziescia pi^c i czteniascie jest trzydziesci 
dziewi^c. — Dwa i dziesi^c jest dwanascie. Osiem i siedem 
jest pi^tnascie. Osmnascie i siedemnascie jest trzdziesci 
pi^c. — Cztery i pi?c jest dziewi^c. Pi^tnascie i trzydziesci 
jest czterdziesci piQc. Dziewi^tnascie i dwadziescia jedea 
sa (jest) czterdziesci. 

Rozmowa. 

How many children have you? I have four cliildren. 

How much does this book cost? It costs three marks. 

What o'clock is it? It is twelve o'clock. 

Has it already struck one? Not yet. 

How many hooks have you? We have 360 volumes. 

When did Cyrus die? In 529 before Christ. 

How many years have we now We have 1920 years since the 
since the birth of Jesus birth of Jesus Christ. 

Christ? 

27. 

1. The parents love us. 2. Hares have short legs, but 
their sight is feeble. 3. Nobody brings us flowers and 
fruits into the town. 4. We shall talce a walk. 5. Courtesy 
wins friends. 6. People say: I saw him and you (jego i 
ciebie), b'ut: I saw him (go); I saw you (cIq). 7. He who has 
fallen in love with himself, begins by himself and sees 
all porfection(s) in himself. 8. It is difficult to speak to a 
furious man. 9. How much do you Avish for shaving? — 
What pleases you! 10. Pass me ink and a pen. 11. I did 
not speak of them to you, but to your brother. 12. For the 
first time I saw her at his hotise. 

28. 

1. Wiosna przynosi nam kwiaty, jesien owoce. 2. Ko- 

cham ciQ, bo ty mnie kochasz. 3. Toloie dzis, mnie jutrol 

4. Gdzie pan (pani) mieszka (mieszkasz)? 5. Czy pan 

(pani) mieska'przy ulicy Szerokiej czy za kosciolem? 6. Jak 



— 15 — 

sie pan (pani) ma (or miewa, masz)? — ]\Iani sie dobrze. 
7. CieszQ si? bardzo. 8. Bog z nami! 9. Kazdy sam dla. 
siebie. Bog dla nas wszystkich. 10. Ta ksiqzka iiie jest dla 
ciebie (niego, nas, was, nich) ! 11. Daj mu (nam, im) 
kwiat. 12. K\^daty sa dla pani (pana), nie dla nas. 13. Moj 
brat pi'zynosi ksi^^zk? pann, nie mnie. 

Rozmowa. 

Where do yoii go? I go to the theatre. 

What do yoii read? I read the novels of Sieukie- 

wicz. 

Shall you go to the hall, gentle- We shall not go, as we are ill. 

men? 

To whom do we owe the great- To the parenfs and the teachers. 

est thankfulness ? 

Were you at my house yester- (No, sir) I was not. 

day"? 

Who wishes bad things to him- Nohody wishes bad things to- 

self ? himself. 

Who will help \;s? Strangers will help us. 

29. 

1. My kinsmen abandoned me as soon as fortune- 
turned its face from me. 2. The real hero pardons 
his enemies. 3. He who has nothing of his own 
wishes to have that of others. 4. Like wages, like 
work; like master, like shop; like parents, like children, 
— but that is not always true. 5. Eveiybody has his 
meaning. 6. Your daughter lost her things. 7. This 
pear is juicy. 8. You were beaten with the cane for 
being rewarded. 9. The corn of our neighbours is already 
at the baxn, and mine is still in the field. 10. As soon as 
there is no com in the fields, the fields are empty and less 
beautiful, but then the gardens are more beautiful, full of 
reddish apples and juicy pears. 11. In autumn the peasants 
are in the fields with horses, ploughs and harrows. 12. A 
monument of Prince Joseph Poniatowski, who was drowned 
in the (river) Elster, is to be found at Leipzig. 

30. 

1. Wczoraj spotkalem w naszej wsi starego wiesniaka, 
ktory tam juz wiele lat mieszka(l). Wracat z pola i l)yl 
bardzo zm^czony. Mial kosz pelen gruszek i jabtek jia 
plecach. 2. Czyj dom i czyje to pole? 3. Nie ufaj temu 
zlemu czlowiekowi! 4. Od kogo mamy wszystko? — 
Wszystko mamy od Boga. 5. Ojcze nasz, ktorys jest w 
niebiesiech! Chleba naszego powszedniego daj nam 
dzisiaj ! 6. Ktora drogq, on idzie? — Idzie drog<-\ do kos- 



— 16 — 

fiola. 7. Ksi.idz, ktoi'ego tarn spotkalem, nazywa si^ J6- 
zef Krolikowski. 8. Bylismy u ksi^cia Czartoryskiego, 
ktorego zaniek jest bardzo pi^kny. .9. Nie dawaj nikomu 
w szkole tej ksif^zki, ona nie jest dla chtopcow. 10. W 
stodole, ktor^i widzialem przy domu, jest duzo zboza. 

11. Jakie zboze widziales tarn? 12. Czyje zdanie jest 
lepsze, twoje czy twego brata? 13. Tadeusz Kosciuszko i 
ksiiiz^ Poniatowski byli ostatnimi wielkimi bohaterami Pola- 
kow (polskimi). 14. Pomnik Kosciuszki, ktorego narod 
polski dzis jeszcze kocha, znajduje si^ przy ratuszu w 
Krakowie. 

Rozmowa. 

"VVliat guests were at the ball? The prince, the earl and other 

gentlemen. 
Wlrnt was in the court? The cattle, the horse and the 

dog. 
"What merchandise do the mer- The merchants sell colonial pro* 

chants sell? duce. 

^Vhose books are these? These are the books of my 

friends. 
In whom do you put your hope? I put my hope in myself. 
"Whose work is the most useful? The work of the peasant. 

31. 

1. A man being in need cannot be merry. 2. A man 
being) in -danger often is more courageous. 3. If my 
brothers were more diligent at school, they would know 
more now. 4. The Phoenicians got rich by commerce. 
5. The youth who does not listen to his parents and his 
teachers seldom becomes a good citizen. 6.^ Many (men) 
get poor by buying many unnecessary things, though at a 
very low price. 7. Asia is the cradle of manldnd. 8. This 
task was difficult. 9. The angels are invisible. 10. To- 
morrow we, the children and our parents, \vi\\ be at church; 
be there too! 11. The horse bought by my father is the 
tallest and finest of all those which were in the market. 

12. Iknow this gentleman, I was with him (= at his house); 
he has four children, three sons and a daughter. 

32. 

1. Ludzie pracuji'i, aby nie byli ubodzy. 2. Gdyby 
nauczyciel byt ostrzejszy, umielibyscie dzis wifjcej; 
3. Salomon powiedzial, ze bojazn Boga jest poczq,tkiem 
mf^drosci. 4. Bez pracy i pilnosci nie b^dziecie aui bo- 
gaci ani szcz^sliwi. 5. Ten bogaty czlowiek nie zawsze 
byl szcz^sliwy. 6. Bylo nas w szkole stu uczni {or 
nczniow) i mielismy czlerech nauczydeli. 7. Bylismy, czem 



— 17 — 

jestoscie: b^^dziecie, czein jestcsmy. JS. Skowvoiiek josi 
iiialym piakiein, ktoiy spiewa ladniej niz kos. 9. Pravvie 
vvszyscy Polacy sa. katolikaini, tylko niewielu jest ewan- 
^elikaiiii. "\A' s/.csiuistvin wiekii wielii l*olakn\v bvlo 
i'waiisclikanii. a [.omicdzy ninii slawne rody polskiej 
szla-hty jak Gorkowio i Piadziwiflowie. 10. Wojsko b^dzio 
iiiedlugo na iilicach naszej wsi. 11. Stodoly byly pusle, 
kiedy je widzialeiii, zbozo bvlo jeszczo na pohi. 12. Bc'\dz 
zawszo pilny av szkole, syuti nioj ! 13. Powinni bye 
zawszt" pihii, a beda iiicza diiiijo l)Oi>'a.ci. 14. Zadauia byly 
czesto za. tiiidnc. 

Rozmowa. 

AViial o'clock is it? It is samewhat pasi nine o'clock. 

Are your satisfied? Certaiiilv. we aie I'lillv satis- 

fied. ■ 
At Avhat o'clock shall you Ite We shall be at duacli at eleven. 

at (diurch? 
Shall you be at the Sax'un .\o (sir), I shall be at the 

Garden to-day? Swiss Valley. 

What is more aiireeable, sum- Summer is more ajiTeeabh', for 

mer or winter? it is warm. 

How was the summer ot (= in i Last year, summei- was rainy. 

the last year? 

33. 

1. We have great giief ;uid need, bal i/oii have careless 
and happy days. 2. Parents often have displeasure. 3. Bad 
men had not. have not and will not have real friends. 
4. We should have more fiiends. if we Avere richer. 5. Have 
courage and perseveiance, and you Avill be ha})py. (>. Tlie 
army exists for the purpose of the nations' enjoying peace 
and freedom. 7. You have a. worthy uncle, that is an 
inestimable man. 8. They wanted much lime for dressing. 
9. The avaricious man loses (everything) t\vic(\ 10. The 
child had two apples, and mother fhad'i live apph^s: hi»\v 
many apples had they together"? 

34. 

1. Ludzic mi('lil)v mniej klopolow, gdybv nic bvli 
cliciwi. 2. A'ie jeden mialby wi^kszv maja.tek, gdyby byl 
oszcz(jdny. 3. Przez cale zycio miej Boga przed oczyjna 
i w sercu. 4. Uniielibysmy wiecej, gdybysniy byli 
mieli ostrzejszych nauczycieli. 5. ]\[iasto ma bogatycli 
mieszczan. (i. Ty nie masz ksic^zki, on nie ma. piora. 
7. .Tezeli zniwa bQda. dobre. wloscianin bedzie mial duzo 
zboza w stod'Ole. 8. Rodzice m'oi mieli wielki d'oni \v miesci<'. 

Kty to tlio Elemom. Polish Gininimir. '2 



— 18 — 

9. Mielismy nasze ksic^zki w szkole. 10. Ci mieszczanie 
bQdji mieh niedhigo wielki majat^k, bvli zawsze pilni i 
oszczQdni. 11. Ta kobieta miata w swoim koszu sAvieze 
owoce 1 piQkne kwiaty. 12. Prusy mialy av rokti tysicic 
dziewi^cset pi^tym trzy miljony trzysta dwadziescia 
piQc tysi^cy siedemset pi^tiiascie Polakow, w roku 
tysi^c dziewiQcset dziesicityra juz trzy miljony pi(jcsel 
tysiQcy szescset dwadziescia jeden. 13. Ten kraj inial 
cztery miljony dziewi^cset szescdziesicit siedem tysiecv 
osmset osmdziesic^t czterech mieszkaiicow, wi^ksza ich 
czQsc zyje na wsi. 14. To miasto b^dzie przy przyszlem 
hczemu ludnosci moze juz mialo sto siedcmdziesicit tysi?cv 
mieszkancoAv. B^dzie mialo zawsze duzo zohiierzV, bo 
jest sihic-i fortecjt i zawsze nia bt^dzie. 

Rozmowa. 

Sliall you have guests at your My parents and my uncle will 

house to-day ? be at our liouse 

Have you^ much money? We have twenty-five marks 

Has Mr. Turowski consider'ible I lieard that he lias six thousand 
^ '^6,^ts? marks of debts, 

l^or how long a time were you For two Aveeks. 

in the country? 

How many inhabitants has tlie I heard that it has almo'^t one 
town of Warsaw? million of inhabitants. 

35. 

1. To which' of you is the battle known, in which tlie 
Great Elector beat the Swedes? 2. In the stniggle of Po- 
land with the Swedes the Great Elector Frederick William 
stood on the Swedish side. 3. In the peace of Oliva 
Brandenburg got a part of Pomerania from Poland, and 
Prussia became an independent duchy. 4. In the German 
Empire there hves the little Slavic nation of the Lusatians. 
5. Do not drink cold water, when you are heated. 6. In 
the morning we Avash our face and our hands. 7. This 
Avater is very cold for AA^ashing, give me a glass of hot 
Avatcr. 8. If yioti fear to go home alone, Ave shall giA^e you 
a servant. 9. The armies stood opposite each other for 
a long time; our chief did not dare to attack the more 
numerous enemy, but also the enemies feared the valour of 
our soldiers. 

36. 

1. Ktore miasto dawniejszego krolestwa polskiego 
zna (znasz) pan? — Znam Lwow baxdzo dobrze, moja 
inatka i moje dwie siostry mieszkajti lam przy ulicy swiq- 



— 19 — 

tego Jozefa. — Czy pan uie iniai lakze brata, gdy bylismv 
razem w szkole? — Mialem, ale on juz nie zyje, zostat 
zolnierzem i padl w bitwie pod Paryzem w roku tysi^c 
osmset siedemdziesiq,tym. 2. Przy podzialach Polski do- 
slala Austrja GalicJQ, Pinisy ziemie nad Wartq, i Wisl^i, a 
Rosja resztQ cz^sci. 3. Moj brat stat dtugo przed domem, 
bal si^ wejsc. 4. Nie boj sIq, kochane dziecko, nikt ci(j nie 
uderzy. 5. Nie bijcie tych dzieci. 6. Bytem dzis u krawca, 
szyt surdut, ktory mu wczoraj dalera. 7. Znalezlismy 
zoinierza na brzegu drogi, zyt jeszcze, ale obawialismy si?, 
ze dlugo zyc nie b^dzie. 8. Napij siQ tego wegrzyna, jest 
bardzo dobry; zawsze go ch^tnie pilem i myslQ, ze i w 
przyszlosci ch^tnie go pic b^d^. 9. Czy pan znal mego ojca? 
Zdaje mi si^, ze on zyl jeszcze, gdy pan byl ze mnq, na uni- 
wersytecie. 10. Niech zyje cesarz ! to bylo haslem zolnierzy 
Napoleona. 11. Pod Lipskiem pobili Prusacy, Rosjanie i 
Austrjacy cesaiza Napoleona. 

Rozmowa. 

Who beat the Austrians at Sa- The Prussians beat the Austri-. 

dowa? ans at Sadowa. 

Where is the village of Sadowa The village of Sadowa is si- 
situated? tuated in Bohemia. 

Did you know the gentleman No, sir, I did not know this 

who was with us in the gentleman, 
shop? 

What does the blacksmith do The blacksmith forges iron in 

in the forge? the forge. 

What tailor sewed your dress? The tailor whose acquaintance 

we made yesterday at the 
trades-union. 

Why does this boy stand before He waites for his mother, who 

the shop ? is within the shop. 

37. 

1. A Polish proverb says : Where people cut wood, 
there splints fall. 2. Oh father, punish yotir son, he belied 
the teacher to-day, he often lies. 3. The child weeps, 
when you punish it. 4. The brother of the teacher was 
drowned, when bathing in the Vistula. 5. The Christian 
religion orders to love even your enemies. 6. The peasant 
ploughs (the field) since the very morning; he probably 
ploughs up all the field to-day. 7. Hannibal would have 
beaten the Romans at Zama, if he had had more cavaliy and 
more old (i. e. well exercised) soldiers. 8 . Instead of : thi^* 
man lies (klamie), we say with despise: he humbugs (Izc). 
'.). Krasicki, a celebrated Polish poet of the 18^'' ccntun-, 

2* 



— 20 — 

whips, and scoffs in his satires at the huiiuui faults and 
perversities. 10. You tread on the flowers. 11. The boys 
whislle, sing and spring into the forest. 

38. 
1. Polski ksif^ZQ Poniatowski utoujvl podczas odwrolu 
Francuz6\A^ w'wodach Elstery pod Lipskiem. l^onmik z 
napisem polskim wskazuje miejsce, gdzie uniarl. 2. Po- 
jiiewaz pogoda byla pi^kna, ka.palisniy sit; w Warcie. 
i). W powietrzu spiewaly ptaszki. 4. Na wiosn^ rolnik 
zaoral pola i posial zboze w brozdy. 5. Nie wysmiewaj 
starszych i slabych! 6. Moi bracia spiewali piesni ludowe, 
ktore bardzo kochali. 7. Zaspiewaj takze cos, pokai, 
CO tiraiesz, a wtedy powiemy ci, co myslimy. 8. Ten 
slawny poeta sani b(,'dzie jutro wieczorem spiewal swe 
piesni przed wielkii iiczb^ sluchaczy. 9. Nauczyciele karzji 
uczniow (uczni), ktorzy ktamiii. 10. Kobiety ptakaly, gdy iui 
powiedzianu, ze icb bracia uton^li. 11. Pokaz ini dum, 
gdzie niioszka twoja matka. 

Rozmowa, 

Did you already bailie iu the 1 bathed at Zoppot this sujii- 

seaV mer, and my sister bathes 

there still. 
With what does the peasant The peasant ploughs with the 

plough? plough. 

When do children connnonly Children commonly weep, when 

weep? they are hungry. 

ShoAv me your new walch? 1 shall show it you to-morrow, 

to-day I have it not witli me. 
Why do the boys tread on llic Tlicy will stamp it and play 

sand? liii'ji al lawn tennis. 

39. 

1. If J luiv(> nol the o))porUinity of bathing in the 
sea, 1 like to bathe in flowing water: near our village 
there Hows a river which has |)ure water. 2. In llie 
Vistula there swam barges and other steamers. Willi a 
passenger-steamer there came 1he painter, who paints onr 
drawing-room in a red colour. 3. My brother travels in 
Sonthern Germany ; every week he writes letters. 4. Wheji 
f shall travel, 1, loo, shall oflen write to my parents. 5. Tliese 
gentlemen always work, [Jioy never axe idle; when liu'y 
have time free fioin work, they draw, [jaint or hunt. 

6. The painter [lainted a beautiftti i)ictnre, now he is drawing. 

7. Our nciglibours would honour us more, if we always 
lived and acted lionestlv. S. The tatiner lans skins and 



— 21 — * 

works hard. 9. Ho who works is always healthy and 
salisfiod. 

40. 

1. Znaleiu |)ana, k(<>ry tylko ()olowal i pr(')ZJVi)\va]. 
2. Modi sie i pracuj, iiiawial aioj ojciec. ;-3. zli ludzie, 
iniaiiowicie stare kobiety ohmawiaja. bliznich. 4. Strzelcy 
zastrzelili dwa zajj^ce i ugotowali obiad. 5. Ten czlowiek 
oczemia swych dobroczyncow, on nij^dy nie b^dzie zadowo- 
lony. (i. Kazdy narod szanujc swych bohaterow. 7. Kto proz- 
riuje i nigdy nie pracuje. ten b^dzie zawsze iibogi. 8. M(3j 
szewc wvrcparowat wezuraj nioje buly bardzo i)i\Hlb). 
9. Wai"ta przeplywa przez Poznm'i. 10. ^tatko, ezy golujesz 

dzis bajszcz? 11. Co jesl na kolacje, panie kehierze? 

Mamykapuste kiszon^ z kielbasi\ iflaki. - Podaj mi pan flaki 
i kieliszek \vQi2,izyna! Albo ezy ma i)an piwo bawarskie? 
Nie, prosze pana, ale tutejsze piwo jest swieze. — Nie 
pije ch^tnie tntejszego piwa. Podaj mi pan WQgrzyiia. 
Ale proszQ szybko, moj poci^g wkrotct^ odjedzie. 12. Po 
obiedzie czytalisniy w naszych ksi;\zkacli. 13. On poda nam 
na sniadanie kielbasy z kapiista. i szklnnko piwa allx) 
kieliszek nalewki. 

Ilozmowa. 

Shall you still ho iiHc for ;i At r.ncc I he.gin wDckins- 

long time? 

Did the hunters kill uiany 'I'hcy killcil Iwn doiis. 

hares ? 

iJo they still hua( ? Xo (sir), huntinsj, is over. 

Does the (femalc-jcook alioaily Slu' prepared it already. 

prepare dinner? 

Do you shnot well? I do not know, as I had no 

weapon in my hand siuci; 
a l;)ng time. 

What do you drink connnoiily? I drink pure water and beer. 

What water is purer, standing That depends on circunislancos. 

or floM'inij; water? 

41. 

1. A Polish proverb says: There is no lime for roses, 
when tlio woods are ])urning. 2. He himsell does not know^ 
what he desires. 3. Willing or unwilling, I was obliged to 
sell my beautiful horse, as it had fec^t too feeble foi' the 
pavement. 4. In advanced years hair becomes grey. 5. The 
pupil paid no attention, Iherefore he did not know what la 
atiswer. G. Children are to love their parents. 7. You ought 
to learn your lesson earlier, if you wished to play with your 
comrades. 8. Dresses hang in the wardrobe. 9. liinls 



— 22 — 

fly over the sea. 10. The child must instmct itself. 
11. The wise man is silent, if it is necessary, the fools often 
are silent when they ought to speak. 12. Nobody regretted 
that he was silent, (but) many a man regretted that he 
spoke. 13. Be silent instantly! 14. This man does not 
hear well, he is deaf. 15. The cap hangs on the wall. 
16. Look at me! 17. Sit quietly, as your neighbour sits. 

42. 

1. Chory cierpi wi^cej niz zdrowy. 2. Chrystus 
cierpiq,cy ma bye dla nas Avzorem. 3. M^czennicy cier- 
pieli czQsto najoknitniejsze m^ki. 4. Chrystus cier- 
piacy widzial aniola w ogrodzie getsemaiiskim. 5. Chrys- 
tus musial cierpiec za grzechy ludzkie (ludzi). 6. Gdy 
Chrystus cierpial na krzyzu, widzieli hidzie zacmienie 
slonca. 7. Swiety Pawel chcial ciei-piec m^ki jak pan 
jego Jezas Chrystus. 8. Powinienes zostac w domu. 9. Zol- 
nierze musieli sIq cwiczyc. 10. Patrz na mnie, patrz 
w ksif|zk^, patrz presto przed siebie. 11. Zegarek wisi 
na zlotym laricuszku. 12. Kto siQ nie cwiczy w mowie- 
iiiu, nie moze dobrze i szybko mowic. 13. To miasto nie 
lezy ani nad Wartf^, ani nad Wisl^. 

Rozmowa. 

Do you hear the song of the Yes, I hear il from far. 

nightingale ? 
Did you see the father of thiss Yes, I saw him sometimes and 

lady? I spoke to him. 

Did you see the eclipse of the I saw it already sometimes. 

sun? 
Can you already read Greek? I cannot yet, for we had not 

yet any lesson of Greek. 
Why did you not reply to my I did not know where you were. 

letter earlier? 
Do you know the proverb: What I know it and know what il. 
is to he hanged, is not means, 

drowned. 

43. 
1. Bicyclists go on bicycles; formerly when jjcople 
had no bicycles, all went on horseback or in a carriage. 
2. People told me that you want an orderly servajit, (and) 
I dare offer you my senaces. 3. People say justly about us: 
You praise what belongs to others (= that ot others), you do 
not know (what is) your own, you do not know yourselves 
what you possess. 4. He who committed a great crime, will 
never have a quiet conscience. 5. Do not judge of men 
after what they say, but after what they do. 6. Live accor- 
ding to God's commandment and praise God. 7. With a 



— 23 — 

greater army Hannibal could have maintained himself in 
Italy for a longer time. 8. Elephants live for long years. 
9. I counsel and I counselled you to be economical with 
every penny (instead of grosz). 

44. 

1. Sluzylem u twegj ojca., a ty sluzysz u nas. 2. Pra- 
cuj, a bQdziesz zawsze zdrowy i zadowolony. 3. Jezeli 
lubisz zycie, nie marnuj czasu, bo z czasu sklada si? 
zycie. 4. Apostolowie sluzyli panu Jezusowi Chrystusowi. 
5. Wierzyli, ze on byl synem Boga. 6. Swit^^y Pawet 
powiedzial (mowil): Jezus Chrystus zyje, a wIqc i my zyc 
bQdziemy ! 7. Matka Boska byla patronka. Malborga. 8. Mal- 
borg byt stolicq, Krzyzakow za zycia Jagielly (gdy 
zyl Jagiello). 9. Krol Jagiello pobil Krzyzakow pi^tnaste- 
go lipca tysic^c czterysta dziesic^tego roku pod Grun- 
Avaldem czyli Tannenbergiem. 10. Nie St^dzimy, ze w 
tym roku nasi wiesniacy b^dq, mieli duzo zboza. 11. Wszyscy 
ludzie chwala owoc, ktory jest tego roku bardzo pi^kny. 
12. Czy pan mowi po polsku? — Czy pan mowi po 
nieniiecku, francusku, angielskii albo po rosyjsku? 

Rozmowa. 

Wliat do you diiuk commonly? I drink pure, fresh water, very 

seldom wine. 

For what purpose doe.s man Man lives in order to work and 
live on Earth? to be useful to men. 

What animals live for long T'dephants live for long years, 
years ? 

What do you wisli '.' We wish the pupils to be dili- 

gent and obedient. 

Wliat do you counsel me to do? I counsel you to be somewhat 

patient. 

\\]ui knocks at the door? Some guest. 

Which of you knows to swim? All of us swim well. 

45. 

1. Take your pen into your hand and write what I shall 
dictate. 2. The female spinners in the village spin for 
whole evenings and tell each other tales of ghosts. 3. When 
I went into the class, I found the Latin book, and my 
sister found a pair of scissors. 4. Where do you go? — 
I go to church, and then I shall go to school. 5. He went to 
town, to the thealre. 6. The soldiers ate black bread, the 
children ate ham and sausage with a roll, the hostesses 
ate pancakes and cakes and drank coffee. 7. To-day I 
shall eat dinner at eleven o'clock. 8. The father said: OK 



— 24 — 

children, he who will eat hread, nmst be diligent ;ui.d 
industrious. 9. There is nothing move beautiful and nobler 
than to learn always, because by that man becomes more 
and more perfect a.nd resembling God. 10. When gi)iiig to 
the butcher's, I found five pfemiigs. 

46. 

1. Nie na to zyjemy na swieci(», abysmy jedii i piii, 
lecz jemy i pijemy, abysmy zyli. 2. W sobotx^^ ten wies- 
niak (gospodarz) przyprowadzi do miasta woly i konie,- 
chce je tam sprzedac. 3. Pojdziemy w niedziel^ do kosciola. 
Czy pojdziesz z nami? 4. Jemy placki i pijemy kaw$ 
albo czekolad^. 5. Piekarz piecze chleb, placki, pij-czki 
i bulki. 6. Czy znalazles ksiazki lacinskie? 7. Rzeznicy 
ze wsi przywiezli do miasta miQSo i sprzedawali je w 
jatkach. 8. Zbojcy kradn^ i lupi^. 9. Biedny czlowiek 
nie kradlby, gdyby mial co jesc (do jedzenia). 10. Brat zaniosl 
list na pocztQ. 11. Siostra zaniosla kapelusz do mod- 
niarki. 12. Mamy dziesiQcioro przykazan, ktore Bo<i dnt 
Indziom. 

Rozniowa. 

Where du you put llif paper? I generally put it on Ihe table. 

Who does not steal? An honest man docs not steal. 

AVhen shall you go to clmrch? I shall go (there) at twelve 

o'clock. 

Where is your brother? My brother is in the coiuitry. 

Do you not like to eat and Certainly, I wish to drink and 

drink? to cat. 

Can people he happy without .\o, for life wilhoul work js 

working? ierliuus. 

47. 

1. To-day, on a workday, I wear old dres.ses, to-morrow, 
on Sunday, I take the new one. 2. Kvery week you took 
from me ten marks, last Sunday you took the rest. ';>. The 
boys went catching butterflies in the meadow, but they did 
not catch any. 4. I shall not give you all the sum at once, 
but I shall give you a hundred marks every month. 5. The 
pupil said: llearned by heart and wrote for Iavo hours ; to that 
the teacher (replied): And yet you did not learn nor writo 
completely what I ordered. Did I give you too many tasks 
imtil now? — The pupils said together: No, sir. 6. At 
what o'clock do you take dinner? Ordinarily at one o'clock, 
(but) to-day I shall eat at my cousin's at two, 7. When 
being at Paris, we were at the theatre every day, but we 



— 25 ^ 

were not once at lh« (Jrcat Opor-a. Every day we read 
newspapers, but we read no provincial newspaper at all. 
S. At the battle of Therninpyla^ aJI Spartans fell. 9. Formerly 
my sister grew very slowly, now she grows faster I ban 1 
do. 10. Why are you sleepy? — 1 did not sleep enough 
!a.st night, for I slept only six hours, and generally I sleep 
<Mght hours^ 



48. 

1. .lak pan spal dzisiejszej nocy? Dzi^kuje. bar- 

dzo dobrze. Mialem pi^kne lozko w duzyni pokoju oil 
sti-ony ogrodu. Bylo zupelnie spokiojnie av domu i wy- 
si)al;em si?. Bylo to dla ninie bardzo polrzebne, bo juoj.i 
podroz z Warszawy do Paryza byla baj'dzo dluga i uci.-iz- 
liwa. 2. jNTapisjiIem tylko ten artykul do lej g:izely, ale nioj 
przyjaciel pisuje cz^sto do niej, i do innych dziennikow. 
3. W dzisiejszej gazecie czytatem, ze kuzyn inoj .spiewaj 
w lej operze. 4. Slyszalem czQsto w Berliiiio nKtwiaccgu 
hrabiego Badziwilla. 5. Oprocz dziennika prowincjoiialnegu 
tzytuJQ' codziennie gazele berlinskji. Dawniej czytywalem 
lakze Dziennik Berlin ski, a nioze go wkrotre znowu b^dj,* 
czytywal. 6. Ojciec dawal mi zawsze nieco pieni(.'dzy, 
gdy szedlem do teatra. 7. Wczoraj wieczorem spali ci 
panstwo w zamku rogalihskim, w ])osiadlosci hrabiego 
Haczynskiego; dzis b(jdfi spali w hotelu Kzymskim w 
Poznaniu. a jutro wieczorem bQd;i inoze spali \v hotelu 
Saskim w Dreznie. 



Rozmowa. 

Hid you srx' (iii^ Lake of Con- Xo, lor Iiicmt was in Swilzcf- 

stance? Iai)d. 

Did the pupil write his lask He feigned lo wtilc, bul hr- 

in a long time? wrote nothing. 

Shall you visit the l)alis in I dnuht, as I have the iiiten- 

this carnival? lion of niarryiiig. 

What was play(Ml al (In- llieaire Uliziiiski's (xiniedy of "Ihr OM 

yesterday? Hacl'.i'lor" was played. 

Were yon oflen at tlie theaire? I was very seldom at the 

Iheatre, as tickets were diffi- 
<uU. to li(^ had. 
Tlirougli what part of the coun- The Warta flows tlirougii llie 

try does the Warta flow? i;randdueliy of Posen. 

l>oes the miller grind corn? lie does not grind (corn), he has 

done grinding. 
Do you eal a soup for dinner? I eat, but to-day I did not eat. 



— 26 — 

Reading Exercise. 
The Trebnitzian Knights. 

In ancient times there came once the Tartars as 
far as Trebnitz with an immense army, demanding that 
the Poles turned to their faith (religion). The Poles, 
though there was only a very small body of them, did not 
wish to consent, but fought so excellently that, although 
nearly one of them was to ten Tartars, they beat them all. 
But of all Poles only one leader remained living. St. Hed- 
wig, the patroness of Silesia, then prevailed on (obtained 
by begging) the Blessed Virgin, that she gave back the 
wounded leader his health and that she changed death 
into sleep to all those (who had) fallen for the holy faith. 

All of them lie in an immense cavern under the 
Trebnitzian church; they are sleeping fast, but they live. The 
leader alone does not sleep : sitting on a stone, he says 
his rosary. 

In ancient times this cavern was not at a very great 
depth under the surface of Earth, and a certain young girl 
once came to the entrance. She entered, and having seen 
those knights, she was frightened; but the leader bade her 
fear nothing, warned her only that, when leaving (the 
cavern), she should not touch the bell, hanging near the 
entrance. The fickle girl touched it on purpose, and at the 
sound of the bell all warriors awoke and took up their arms. 
The angry leader shut himself in with his army deeper 
into the earth, and since that time nobody can find this 
cavern. 

But when there will be a war on account of faith 
(religion), that leader himself will ring the bell, and the 
sleeping knights will rise, fight and vanquish. 



49. 

1. All merchandise has been sold. 2. To-day, people 
brought ten waggons of peas from the field, to-morrow they 
will bring oats and barley. 3. People already put away all 
difficulties. 4. People take spice to the meals. 5. Peas are 
mingled with cabbage. 6. Wares are measured by the 
yard or weighed by hundredweights and kilograms, or are 
sold according to (their) size and beauty. 7. Books are 
written, then printed and at last read. 8. The industrious 
man is honoured. 9. In Poland kings were chosen; Stanis- 
las Poniatowski was chosen king in 1764. 



— 27 — 

50. 

1. zyto, JQCzmien, pszenicQ i owies zwiezli parobcy 
do stodoly. 2. Zienuiiaki wybierajfj. si^ w jesieni, 
3. Owoc sprzeda si^ w miescie, jezeli bQdzie dobry i 
ywiezy. 4. Groch sprzeda sIq jiiz w lecie. 5. To\vai7 
przyniesioiio na staly lad. 6. Wojsko Krzyzakow zostato 
pobite przez krola JagieltQ pod Gnuiwaldem. 7. Twoja 
wymowQ slow polskich b^dq chwalili. 8. Moja wymowa 
stow angielskich i francuskich zawsze bywala chwalona. 

9. Powierzchnia zienii dzieli sIq na wodQ i l^^d staly. 

10. Wszystkio Avyrazy w j^zyku polskim tak siQ pisza. jak 
wymawiajci. 

Rozmowa. 

Wiiero lias the Warta its source ? Near Kromolowo in the King- 
dom of Poland. 
By what is health preserved? Health is preserved by tem- 

perance. 
By what is the body hardened? It is hardened by corporeal 

work. 
By whom were the first coins By the Lydians. 

cast? 
By whom were the old Saxons By Charlemagne. 

beaten ? 
By whom was Stanislas Ponia- He was chosen king by the 
towski chosen king? Polish nobility. 

51. 

1. He who praises himself, is not praised by others. 
2. The horse defends itself by its hoofs, the ox by his corns, 
and the dog by its teeth. 3. Do not laugh \vithout reason; 
it is rude (naughty) to laugh during the lesson. 4. We 
rejoice very much that your occupation pleases you and 
that you please all (persons). 5. Birds differ from one 
another by size, figure and other qualities. 6. Care for the 
health and beauty of your soul and your body. 7. Do not 
rejoice at the fall of your adversary. 8. Many savage tribes 
paint their bodies with colours. 9. We turn when dancing. 
10. Earth turns I'ound the sun. 

52. 

1. MogQ sobie wyob'razic, jak moi i-odzice wygU^daj^, 
chociaz ich teraz nie wddzQ. 2. Moje uczennice starajj^ 
si(j czynic post^py w naukach. 3. Staramy siQ zyc cnot- 
li^\^e i chwalic Boga. 4. Dziwimy si?, ze twoja ciotka 
byla wczoraj wieczorem w teatrze. 5. Trzej najwiqksi 
poeci polscy nazywajEi, sie Mickiewicz, Slowacki i Krasinski. 



— 28 — 

6. Tc Laiice polskie, zwiaszcza krakowiak bardzo nam sii; 
podobaja.. 7. Jezus Chi7stiis (Pan Jezus) nie bronil 
si^, gdy go bill zotnierze. '8. Swi^ci Piotr i Pawei byli 
(przebywali) \v Rzymie za czasow cesarza Nerona. 9. Wy 
wiecie, ze Henryk Sienkiewicz opisal pobyt ai)ostoia Piotra 
w Rzymie w swej po^viesci : Quo vadis? (Dokad idziesz?). 
10. Chrzescijanie nie bronili si(j przed TUQkami, cieszyli 
si?j ze stali sie niQCzennikami. 

Rozinowa. 

Is llie (I'einalej pupil iiuUisitrious? The pupil Icanis diligently ami 

makes good progress. 
By what is the existence of man Ry work, industry and utility. 

improved? 
Where do hares live? In the forests ajid in (tie field?. 

By Avhat do the soldiers defend Ry sahres and lances. 

themselves ? 
What was called the most celo- The most celebrated Athenian 

hrated Athenian orator? orator was callefl Oemos- 

thenes. 



53. 

1. Modesty is due to children. 2. It thundeied last, 
night; it thunders and lightens still. 3. My brother dreamt 
of lions yesterday. 4. It did not concern my brother, 
but it concerned his friend. 5. It is not allowed to sin. 
6. They liked to dance and to spring, but (= and) they did 
not like bo work. 7. My sister dreamt of fine clothes. 8. It 
seemed to all that Wojski played perpetually, but (== and) 
the echo played [in realetyj. 9. It happened to me yesterday 
that I saw an aeroplane and a steerable balloon in the air. 
10. Now that often happens at Berlin and at Paris. 

54. 

1. Dzieciom przystoi zachowac siQ spokojnie. gdy 
mowiji rodzice. 2. Przystaloby ci w koncu, dotrzymac 
slowa. 3. Powiodto sic rzc^dowi zwyci^zyc nieprzyjaciot. 
4. Snilo mi sIq wczoraj wieczorem, ze si(,' spalil nasz dom. 
o. Czy chce ci siQ (or miafbys ochot?) pojsc dzi.s lub jutro 
do teatni? 6. Nie bylo wolno obejrzec zamku krola. 

Rozmowa. 

Did il thunder yesterday? It setMns, il did not. 

Was the reij^ii of this king It was, as far as it seems to 
happy ? ine. 



— 29 — 

Do yi>w ofloii (Ircani of wiuil I oflcn dream even of things 

you read ? which do not exist at all. 

How did you do on your way? Ail right, only it often rained. 

Did the hunter not .succeed in .Xn. he flid not. 
killing the wild boar? 

55. 

1. Castors live by luaiilios in North Ameru.a. 2. They 
(hiefly sojourn near rivers and lakes. 8. Each of them is 
an excellent architect, a clever swimmer and diver. 4. Its 
gait is awkwju'd. 5. They live by hmidreds near the lakes 
of Canada, in qiriet forests and far from human dwellings. 
(i. Also in Russia there are castors; Ihey live only by pairs 
in holes situated on the shores, chiefly in Volhynia. 7. They 
nse their shaip teeth instead of a saw and a knife. 8. The 
skin of the castor is very dear; rich gentlemen nse these 
skins as rollars of /'= at) their furs. 

56. 

1. Skoro sie zbliza jesieii,, zgromadza. bobry zapasy. 
Kazda i-odzina ma osobn^ wlasnosc, a takow^i respektuja.. 
Zima zas bobry wypoczywaja pa jH'acy. Pogodny dziei'i 
zimowy wywabia Je na dwor; sznkaja. swiezej kory i 
p^czkow i bawia si? polowem ryb. Z wios.na rozpraszajii 
siQ z.n6w po lasach. tylko mlode i ich matki pozostaja. w 
domn. — 2. Slychac grzmot dzial, i cznc [)rochem. 

• Kozmowa. 

Did ynu see the castor? Ves, but a stuffed one. 

Did you read soinetliing of rertainly, as his glory is great. 

Boleslas Chrobry? 

Wliere do you liathc in sum- I like most to bathe in the 

mer? lake, but also often in the 

pond. 

Where do you like to spend 1 spend sununer in tlic comilry 

summer? at my uncle's. 

How many pieces of game did Nearly a hundred pieces of dif- 

you kill in this s(;asiin ? ferent game. 

57. 

1. (.'opcniiciis was a celebratiMl astrouunu'i-. 2. The 
dry (= acerb) wine is healthier thai) the sweet one. S. The 
mortal man has an iinmorlal sonl. 4. (led is almighty. 
5. The Delphian temple was celebrated. 6. My deceased 
brother was a good man. 7. This locksmith is an in- 
dustrious artisan. 8. Neighbouring empires ought to live 
in harmony. 9. King Stephen Batory did nnt understand 



— 30 — 

Polish. 10. "Recognize yourself" — was engraved in the 
Delphian temple. 11. The deaf one often errs. 12. Every 
man may err, but only the capricious one persists in his 
error, and sometimes pride does not allow to avow the 
error. 

58. 
1. Dawni Grecy byli waleczni. 2. Rosja i Niemcy 
byly krajami sj^siednimi. 3. To dzieci^ podobne do mei 
siostry. 4. Ziemia jest kulista. 5. Mickiewicz jest najwi(jk- 
szym poet^i Polski. 6. Dobre zdrowie jest skarbem. 
7. Slusarze sj% pozytecznymi rzemieslnikami. 8. Tnidno 
mu uczyc sIq po polsku. 9. Jestesmy jednej mysli. 10. Moj 
brat jest rolnikiem, moi kuzyni sa nauczycielami. 

Rozmowa. 

Are those artisans g-ood? Not in everything, they still 

want much. 
Where Avas Copernicus born? Copernicus was bom at Tlioni 

(Toruii). 
Do you understand music? I learn it only in my advanced 

age. 
Is this smilh diUgent? He never was and will never be 

What wme is heaUhier, sweet Dry Avine is ahvays healthier 

or dry one? 
Who was your first teacher? My first teacher was au ele- 

mentary teacher. 

59. 

1. My brother became a priest a short time ago. 2. The 
Word became flesh. 3. He went away as a rich man and 
returned as a beggar. 4. This king was called Wladislas 
Lokietek. 5. This man is no poet, but a miserable verse- 
maker. 6. My uncle was a councillor, and before that a 
teacher. 7. They call the eagle the king of birds. 8. Bona- 
parte proclaimed himself consul. 9. I will not be a bad 
man, I prefer being poor and honest. 10. This man will 
be a useful member of human society. 11. I prefer being 
poor than being a cripple. 12. Boleslas Chrobry was a 
celebrated Polish khig. 13. The monuments of Boleslas 
Chrobry and of his father Mieczyslas are to be found in 
the cathedral of Posen. 

GO. 

1. Sztuka pisania nie jest latwa, a jcdnak bardzo 
stara. 2. Laska wielkich jest niestala jak jDogoda je- 
sienna. 3. Nieskonczona jest milosc Boga. 4. Ten nie- 
ostrozny czlowiek stal si? ofiarq. przypadku. 5. Ten pod- 



— 31 — 

porucznik zostal kapitanem. 6. Bez pracy i pilnosci nikt 
nie staje si(j bogaty i szczQsliwy. 7. Nie kazdy, kto wola: 
panie, zostanie zbawiony. 8. Okrutny Neron zostat za- 
mordowany . 

Rozmowa. 

Who is always merry and con- The diligent and industrious 
tent? nian is mostly merry and 

content. 
Which of these gentlemen is The gentleman, standing at my 

your teacher? side, is my teacher. 

Who would venture to call him- The self-conceited man com- 
self perfect? monly calls himself perfect. 

Where were you yesterday? I went into the country and 

amused myself very much. 
What senses have we? We have sight, hearing, taste. 



scent and feeling. 



61. 



1. The father goes to church, (and) the sisters were 
already at church. 2. The brother writes, and the sisters 
wrote. 3. The Holy Church is a mother and not a step- 
mother. 4. I took a walk, and she went into the garden. 
5. I go to school, and you go to church. 6. To-day, we 
were merry, and you were sad and unsatisfied. 7. I and he 
were prodigal; you and your sister were economical. 
8. The husband and his wife resisted it. 9. The husband 
and his wife are sad; formerly they were too merry and 
amused themselves in the best way. 10. This girl often 
qtiarrels. 11. That farm-labourer is merciless. 12. The 
father and the mother departed Avithout (bidding) farewell. 
13. Numerous inhabitants of the town and its en\drons 
were invited for (the purpose of bidding) farewell to the 
high functionary. 14. All (of them) came willingly, for 
that fimctionary was commonly esteemed. 



62. 

1. Ja id^ do szkoly, a ty idziesz do kosciola. 2. Ta 
razEj, tys wygral, nie ja i nie moj brat. 3. Mj szylismy, 
a wy spiewaliscie. 4. Ty poszedles na spacer, ja zostalem 
w domu i musialem pracowac. 5. Wy pisaliscie, a oni 
czylali. 6. Parobek i dziewka byliby weseli i zadowoleni, 
gdyby mieli chleb i pieniq,dze. 7. Ojciec i matka byliby 
do nas pisali, gdyby wiedzieli, ze jestesmy w biedzie. 
8. Nauczyciel i nauczycielka uczyli dobre i pilne dzieci. 



— 32 — 

Rozinowa. 

Will llie cliildrea go to scbool ? No, to-day there is a holiday. 

■\Vere the brother and the sister They were both industrious and 

industrious? applied willingly to science, 

hid your imcle and your aunt No (sir), to-morrow they will 

come to see you? be with us, for they announ- 
ced their visit. 

\Vere the prince and his wifi' They were and amused tlu'tn- 

at the ball? selves excellently. 

03. 

1. Sheep, tows, [ixnd) horses are \iseful to ine.ii ; 
.science, health and reason are wished for. 2. The vault 
of the church fell down. 3. In my garden people cut down 
a fir-tree, a pine and some wood-pines. 4. For learning,' 
there are absolutely necessary a book, a pen and paper, 
o. The pupils learned at school, and then they went home. 
6. Not. all pupils worked, some Avere idle, some amused 
themselves. 7. Camels and mules are employed to (do) 
hard work. 8. The colt is in the (horse-)stable, the calf 
in the stable for cattle. 9. The cradle is necessary for the 
child. 10. The boys were searching for fishes and crawfishes 
in the rivulet; they did not get aay fish, but they brought 
some crawfishes home, and our mother boiled them. 

64. 

1. Pi^kna ^Vanda b^dzie grata i tahczyla. 2. Zaraz 
inoglibysmy tanczyc, gdybysmy mieli muzyke;. 3. Dziecko 
byloby spokojniejsze, gdyby bylo zdrowsze. 4. Krowy i 
owce daj.-^ duzo mleka. 5. Kanapa, szafa, krzeslo sa 
ruchome. 6. Widelec, noz i lyzka s^. niezbt^dne. 7. Te 
Avoly sq juz stare i zostan^i sprzedane. 8. Kupiec wczoraj 
odjechal do Moskwy, zona jego pojechala z nim. 9. ^ol- 
nierze piiiscy pobili wojsko Austrjakow pod Sadow;\ (w roku 
tysif^c osmset szescdziesit'\tym szostym). 10. iswierki, jodly 
i sosny sa. drzewami iglastemi. 

Rozmowa. 

."^isters, were y.iu ;il schiml to- Yes, but we were too late. 

day? 
.^liall we play? W*- «liould be able to play, 

but there are no instruments. 
Did all pupils work? No, some were idle, and some 

played. 
For how long a time will your lie will stay there all the Easter 

father stay at Moscow? holidays. 

Shall you be at the concerl Yes, we shall, if you Siive us 

lo-day? (some) money. 



— 38 — 

H('\s many inhaiitants has the The graJid-duchy of Posen has 
grand-duchy of Posen? more than two millions of 

inhabitants. 



65. 

1. Poultry and ducks go about in the courtj men go 
lo town, tishes swim in the water and worms creep on the 
earth. 2. Nightingales sing in the shmbs and in high 
trees. 3. On the 12^i» of April 1903 in Gemiany and in the 
grand-duchy of Posen there fell large masses of snow; and 
near Kalisz trains stuck fast in the snow, which was three 
metres high. 4. Ou the table there lie dictionaries. 5. Some 
time ago 1 was at Warsaw, but I did not remain there for 
a long time. 6. You ought to pay attention to what your 
teachers say. 7. Poultry cackle, the goose chatters. 8. In 
July corn, as lye, Avheat and barley, ripens. 9. Cattle, horses 
and sheep belong to the quadnipedal animals, geese and 
poultry to the birds. 



66. 

1. Zimfi Avszystko martwe, wszedzie snieg i lod; 
lod jest bardzo twardy. 2. Wiosn;^ spiewajj^ slowiki. 
3. Czlowiek chodzi na dwoch nogach, zwierz^ta czworonozne 
na czterech, ptaki na dwoch. 4. Pocieszna malpa siedzi 
na niedzAAaedziu. 5. ZwierzQta zyj;\ albo na ziemi, albo w 
wodzie, albo tez w poAvietrzu. 6. Nie kazdy ptak moze latac, 
ale kazda ryba moze plywac. 7. Jedna jaskolka lata nie 
zwiastuje. 8. Zolnierze jadc^ konno, wiesniacy na wozach. 
9. Owoce dojrzewajcT, latem i jesieniq.. 10. Gdy u nas s'aje 
sIq zimniej, odlatuj^^ zorawie do cieplejszych krajow. 



Rozmowa. 

What do ycu call the senses? Sight, hearing, feeling, taste and 

sc-ent. 
What birds say with us in win- Sparrows, crows and magpies 

ter? 
What (birds), on the contrary, Nightingales, wild ducks, wild 
leave us in autumn and re- geese, storks and cranes. 

iw.n in spring? 
Where were you yesterday? I w^ent into the country to my 

friend's in order to chase 
(tliere). 
"Where is the dictionary? It lies on the table. 

By whom was the Polish-Ger- By Lukaszewski and Mosbach. 
man dictionary made? 

Key lo the Element. Polish Giammar. , -^ 



— 34 — 

67. 

1. Every fortnight I write a letter to my parents. 
I commonly have (some) time on Sunday to write a letter, 
hut yesterday I did not write half a letter, for I had no 
time to finish it. 2. He has neither a right nor a left 
hand. 3. I did not see wild heasts. 4. I did not huy a 
Greek book, but I bought four English ones. 5. The shoe- 
maker did not make either boots or shoes. 6. Not 
all animals have sharp claws and (sharp) teeth. 7. Our Lord 
created the first (living) persons in the world : Adam and Eve. 
8. Christ released mankind and therefore we call him 
Saviour. 9. Socrates drank the poison and then he still taught 
his disciples, finally he bade farewell to all (of them). 

10. Do not ti'ust flatterei's, but trust the old tried friend. 

11, The Creator is almighty. 12. In the Polish theatre Ihey 
played yesterday the celebrated national opera of Stanis- 
laus Moniuszko, entitled Halka. I had already seen it at the 
theatre of Warsaw. 



68. 
1. Autor nie wypracowal pozytecznej ksiazki. 2. Moj 
brat nie napisal dlugiego listu. 3. Sluz^ca nie dokoh- 
czyla roboty. 4. Ostrzy nauczyciele karzc% leniwe i nie- 
posluszne dzieci. 5. Nie dorobil klejnot, ale zawsze byl 
uczciwym czlowiekiem. 6. Nie kazdy uczeh lubi swego 
nauczyciela i swych dobroczyhcow. 7. Nie znalem tu zad- 
nego urzQdnika, ale znalem kilku kupcow i rzemieslnikow. 
8. Kup ten dom; kupilbym go, gdybym mial pie- 
niadze. 9. Wiesniak wykopal na swej roli duzo pie- 
ni(^dzy. 10. Nauczyciel wierzyl dobiym i pilnym uczniom, 
ale leniwym nie wierzyl. 11. Cyklista, ktory zanadto 
PQdzi, wystawia siebie samego i innych na wielkie nie- 
bezpieczehstwa. 12. Po bitwie pod Raciawicami, gdzie Ros- 
jmiie pobili Tadeusza Kosciuszk^, narod Polski nie miat 
zadnej nadziei zwyciQzyc nieprzyjaciele. 



Rozmowa. 

Where did you see tlie hare, llie I saw them in tlic field. 

eagle and the partridge? 

When did Golumhus (hscover Columl)us discovered America 

America? in the fifteenlh century. 

Whom do you love more, your I love my father and my mother 

father or your motlicr? e(fually. 

In what way did that artisan He gained his fortune hy work, 

gain his fortune? economy and circumspection. 



- 85 — 

Who losl money yesterday? Pe;)iile say that our neighbour 

lost about four tliousand 
rubles. 
Does this shoemaker m-Ake good A'ot always, someiimes he gives 

lx>ots ? weak leather. 

Does anylwdy trust a false Nobody t usts such a man. 
friend ? 

69. 

1. This man does much, but he never works tj an 
end, he never finishes anything. 2. The lazy man writes 
nothing, lie reads nothing, aaid therefore, he knows nothing. 
3. He never had anything nor gave anything. 4. He who 
never goes out, who has no connnerce anywhere, knows 
nothing (at all). 5. He who has nothing cannot give anything 
to the poor one. 6. This merchant sold nothing at the fair. 
7. They work neither Avith their head, nor with their hands. 
S. Let lis not trust men too much. 9. We demand Ihe 
])romised wages. 10. No country has larger towns and larger 
factories than England, but (also) in Germany factor^'-in- 
dustry is flourishing. 

70. 

1. Nic nie przyniosl, nic nie miai, nic nie widzial, 
nic nie powiedzial. 2. Ojciec nie zq,da od dzieci nic 
niemozliwego. 3. Tego roku jest ostra zinia, ale niema 
sniegu. 4. Wiosn^ sq. pi^kne dni, ale noce S£i zwykle 
zimne. 5. Nigdzie nic nie widzielismy. 6. W miescie 
byla dobra i porzadna szkola, ale nie bylo pilnych i po- 
rza.dnych uczniow (uczni). 7. Jutro b^dzie jeszcze nauka, 
ale pojutrze nauki nie b^dzie. 8. Nie mamy siostr i 
braci. 9. Dzieci, ktore nie majq ani ojca ani matki, na- 
zywamy sierotami. 

Rozmowa. 

Were the soldiers at church ? The soldiers were not in town, 

not even to-day. 

Arc tJiere lessons to-day? No (,sir). 

Will there be fine weather to- Jn my opinion, there will 
morrow? be no fine weather to-morrow. 

Was your sister at churcli ? No, my sister was not at church. 

Will there be still better times Probably there will not be bet- 
after the European War? ter times. 

Do people believe his words? No, they do not believe any- 

body. 

Koadlng Exercise. 
The Stony Loaf of Oliva. 

At a mile from Danzig, near the sea in the village of 
Oliva, there lies a convent, belonging to the order ot the 

3* 



Cistercians. In that church there was on the right side, 
amongst many costly objects, a loaf changed into stone, 
(which Avas preserved) under glass. 

In the year of our Lord 1217, when around Danzig a 
gr>^at famine tormented the people, the pioas abbot of 
Oliva ordered bread to be baked constantly and to be 
distributed to the hungry men. Once it happened that one 
of the poor ones took a loaf of bread and, having gone away 
from the convent, returned and, falsely saying, that he came 
for the first time, he got a second one. 

But when he returns to Danzig, a very venerable 
matron meets him on his way, bearing a pretty little child 
in his arm and begging him to give her (some) bread as food. 
That man says: "I myself have no bread!" To that the 
matron (replies) : "And yet you have in yaur bosom- 
pocket a loaf of bread". "That is a stone, (but) no 
bread", and saying this, he touched it with his finger. 

Therefore she said: "May that be stone!" And she 
disappeared at once. Having gone on a hundred steps, 
that liar and merciless man took out the loaf and saw 
that it was a sfljone and in it the sign of his finger. After 
that (= which), terrified and repentant and enlightened by 
God what sort of matron it was, he returned to the con- 
vent lof Oliva, avowed his lie and told the whole affair, to 
the remembrance of which this loaf of bread was shown 
for a long time. 



71. 

1. A good man wishes health and happiness to every- 
body. 2. The rich ones demand honours. 3. The (female-) 
cook bought meat to-day : beef, veal, mutton, sausage 
and poultry. 4. Bring water into the Avashing-basin ; pour 
ink into the inkstand. 5. The gentleman gave all his 
money to the servant, who bought a pike, two carps and 
a pound of rice. 6. This gentleman bought salt and two 
three scores of eggs. 7. Order to bring water, sugair, 
arrack, lemons and wine. 8. The parents generally give 
their children a good education. 9. This young man got 
from his uncle (some) money, a new cap and a useful 
book. 10. Pepper, cinnamon and cloves come from foreign 
countries. 11. Joking, the uncle asked little Stanislaus: 
"What is heavier, oh, little Stanislaus, a pound of feathers 
or a pound of lead?" 



37 



1. Svii ubogiej wdoAvy dostanie od swego dobroczyncy 
pieniedzy, a takze papieni i pior, do tego zas iio\v;\, ladiit-i 
ksia.zkt^. 2. Cziowiek potrzebuje czluwieka. 3. Ja ciebie 
i twc] pomocy nie potrzebaj(j. 4. Potrzebowalbym polski 
slownik. 5. Podaj mi wszystek chleb, chcQ warn ukrajac 
chleba. 6. Moja siosti-a najadla sie gruszek, jablek i sliwek, 
dlatego nie chce jesc cbleba. 7. Napit si^ piwa i wina. 
8. Nasz przyjaciel przyslal: nam w p'Odaninku zboza i 
ziemniakow. 9. 2yczylem mu dobrego zdrowia i dlugiego 
zycia. 10. Co chwiltj chce co innego. 11. Wspohiczeii 
Waclawa jest wyzszego wzrostu, a jest mlodszy. 

Rozmowa. 

\\'lio gave wiuc? The same (man) that gave us 

beer ytsterday. 

Did you eat enough pears? "We ate not only enough pears, 

but we ate also enough 
plums. 

\Vhy did you not give to eat It does not like to eat and 
to the child? wished something else every 

moment. 

Had the butcher sausage for Certainly, but nobody wished 
sale to-day? to buy sausage, but all (per- 

sons) bought ham. 

Who bought that large pike? The servant who bought all 

fishes (did so). 

73. 

1. The artisan kept his word and finished his work. 

2. AVe lived to see finally beautiful and warm weather. 

3. The enemy stormed the town, but he refrained from laying 
siege to the fortress. 4. Functionaries and teachers seldom 
acquire fortune. 5. My friend caught fish. 6. Last year 
there was a severe winter. 7. Next year* we shall go to 
Cracovia and to Posen. 8. Last night there was a con- 
flagration. 9. It is not proper to work on Sunday. 10. On 
St. Stephen and St. John everybody is his own master, for 
then ser\^ants chang(> their master and are mthout a master 
for some days. 11. In winter the days are shortest and 
the nights longest, in summer vice-versa. 12. He who 
begins with God, finishes everything. 13. It is due to the 
youth to mount on horseback. 14. The wise man guesses 
everything easily; therefore the Polish proverb: "To the 
wise head two words suffice." 

74. 

1. Mozna wymagac tyiko rzeczy slusznych, bo rzecz 
niesluszna hulzi oburza. 2. Dowiedzialem siQ tej nowiny 



— 38 — 

od mego brata. 3. Leniwych robotnikow trzeba (loglr^dac. 

4. Nie mogla doczekac siQ wesela swej siostry. 5. Pi'ze- 
szlego miesiaca mielismy zawsze pi^kiiJi pogod?. 6. Tego 
rokii szkolnego nie mialem szczescia. 7. Rzymu nie 
zbudowano w jednyni dniu. 8. Kazdej srody przychodzi 
poczta z Krakowa. 9. W Nowy Rok wszyscy ludzie skla- 
daja sobie zyczenia. 10. Ze Lwowa mozna w cztery go- 
dziny dojechac do Krakowa. 11. Zyczyl w Nowy Rok 
moini rodzicom wszystkiego dobrego. 12. Wesele nie 
bfjdzie 11-go, lecz 12-go tego miesicica 

Rozmowa. 

In what year was America America was discovered by Cc- 

disoovered, and by whom? kimbus in 1492. 

On wlmt day do we begin our On the 1^' of September. 

lessons? 

In what month is it warmest It is warmest in July. 

generally ? 

Who keeps Saturday holy? The Jews keep Saturday holy. 

In what month did you begin In May. 

to learn Polish? 

On what day shall you come On Wednesday, probably. 

to me? 

On what day will our parents Our parents will arrive on Sa- 

arrive ? turday. 

75. 

1. The pupil replies to the teacher who asks him. 

2. The brother bought a book to his diligent .brother. 

3. The parents gave toys to the well-bred children. 4. The 
sister gave the little white bird to her beloved brother. 

5. It is not necessary to- reply to a stupid man. 6. H.)- 
nour and praise be to the Lord! 7. I gave him the book 
that he might bring it to the priest; he gave it to his 
brother, and the latter gave it to his father. 8. Do not 
tinist a fine face, but to virtue and merit. 9. No raven 
cuts out the eye of another raven. 10. The citizens gave 
honour to merit and accompanied their dead fellow-citizem 
to the grave in great numbers. 11. A. Pole, meeting an 
acquaintance, says: I greet you. But he also says: to 
greet oneself with one. 

76. 

1. Wszystkim przelozonym winnismy uszanowanie. 
2. Dobrodziejom i loilzicom winnih^my wdziecznosc. 3. Njech 
sobie m6wi;\, co chd-i. my zrobimy, co potrzeba. 4. Dzieci 
calujq, rodzicom rQce. 5. (iosciowi podaje si(,^ vi^kii i wiUi 



— 39 — 

sie z nim. 6. Sluz?icy uklonil si? panu i oddal mu list. 
7. Nauczyciel daje pilneniu uczniowi nagrod?. 8. Wiesniak 
przyniosl mojej matce mleko i jaja. 9. Nie moglismy si^ 
obyc bez jego pomocy. 10. Gdy Polacy sie witaja. z krewnymi 
albo sie zegnaj^, to si§ caluja. 

Rozmowa. 

To wlial luercliant did you giw To that merchant who dwells 

money? opposite us. 

What did you- buy for yourself? I bought a fur and boots. 
Did you greet the guests? 1 greeted them by giving them 

my hand, but I did not ki?s 
them. 
^^ ho bi'ouT;ht these toys? My biotlier bought and brouglit 

them (here). 
When shall you give back the I shall give it back on the 

money? next opportunity. 

Wliat wine did you bring us? We brought you some Rhenish 

wine. 
With what may I help you? ^\ ith some strawberries, if I 

may ask you (for them). 



1. That great general was agreeable to God and men, 
faithful to his monarch, terrible to the enemies of the 
country. 2. The Serbs were subject to the Turks for a long 
time. 3. A pupil who is docile and obedient to the coun- 
sels and exhortations of the school-authority, benevolent 
to his comrades, is agreeable and wished-for bb all those 
who think in a loyal way. 4. A youth, burdensome to 
older persons and not attached to his parents, may become 
a noxious citizen. 5. Sleep resembles death. 6. Some 
faults and qua.liti€s are in common to all mankiud. 7. The 
Lord High Steward was friendly to everybody in his house. 
8. The frosts of spring dcr harm to plants. 9. The dog is 
j'aithful to his master. 

78. 
1. Czlowiek oswiecony nie tylko sobie sameniu, ale 
i dla innych jest pozyteczny i pomocny. 2. Czlowiek 
rozumny posiuszny jest pravom i zwierzchnosci, wierny 
Bogu i swojej wierze, dla nikogo nie staje si^ ci^zarem 
i jest zyczliwym i usluznym dla wszystkich. 3. Placil 
temu, ktoremu coskolwiek winien. 4. Byl do smierci wierny 
swemu krolowi. 5. Czlowiek podobny do czlowieka. 
6. Siostry mego ojca sa podobne do swych braci. 7. Wobec 
prawa s^ wszyscy rowni. 8. Wujostwo sa gosciom zawsze 
radzi. 



-- 40 — 

Rozinowa. 

What is absolu'iely necessary to Virtue and knowledge are chiefly 

every man? necessary to every man. 

What animal resembles man? The ape. 

Does the good Christian do No, on the contrary, he even 

harm to his fellow-creature helps everybody. 

on purpose ? 

What animal is the most faith- The dog is the most faithful 

ful ? animal. 

Does sleep resomble death? Yes, sleep reseml^les death. 

79. 

1. Numerous bands accompanied the chief until the 
end of the expedition. 2. No art can make something 
resembling God's Almightiness. 3. Not to everybody is fate 
favoiu'able; the one is shaved by the awls, the other 
camiiot even be shaved by the razors. 4. The journeyman 
drank a glass too much and v\^as not indulgent to the sick 
apprentice, he pressed him hard and did not allow him 
to listen to the conversation(s). 5. Columbus was not 
afraid of the dangers, which menaced him. 6. Do not 
confide the secret to anybody. 7. Do not trust this' world 
nor your understanding. 8. It is difficult to agree Avith 
all persons. 9. If you promised a person something, 
keep your word; for if you do not keep your word once, 
nobody will believe you. 10. The last words of Prince 
Joseph Poniatowski were: "God entrasted to me the honour 
of the Poles, to God I shall give it back." 

80. 
1. Trzeba wierzyc nauczycielowi, i posluchac sIq 
przelozonych swoich. 2. Odpowiadaj kazdemu pytaj<-\cemu 
si§, ale nie rozkazuj innym. 3. Powinno si^ dac zebrakowi 
jalmuzn^. 4. Matka lamieraj^ca blogoslawila dzioriom i 
powierzyla je dobroci Boga wszechmocnego. 5. Gdy dajesz 
ubogim i chorym, jestes posluszny przykazaniom bo skim. 
6. Obiecaj mi, ze b^dziesz dopomagal bratu. 7. Kain 
zazdroscil Ablowi blogoslawiehstwa boskiego i zabil go. 

Rozmowa. 

From what reason is your My brother pressed liim hard 
cousin so sad? and was not willing to help 

him at his work. 
Did you promise my son a Yes, and we shall give it him 

book? ne.xl week. 

Where do you go in such a We go home hastily, in order 
haste? to help Ihi' children at their 

lessons. 



. — 41 — 

Was the wind favourable to Yes, it was very favourable to 

the mariners? them. 

Did you agree with your pa- Certainly, we always do. 

rents ? 

Where did the enemy go? He went to Cracovia. 

Reading Exercise. 
The Parish Church. 

The parish-church stands in the midst of the village, 
lime-trees and birch-trees, which are a hundred years old, 
shade it. Formerly a cemetery surrounded it, but since 
many years people no longer bury their dead near the 
church, but in the new, large cemetery behind the village. 

But near the church there is the parsonage (house) 
and the dwelling of the vicar, not far from it the school 
and the dwelling of the organist. 

Above the church there arises the tower, and in it 
(there are) the bells (of the church). On every ceremonious 
occasion their voice sounds above the fields and villages 
as an announcer of joy and exultation, but sometimes 
also of grief and sadness, for the church is the focus 
arotmd which turns all the life of the parish. 

The new-born child is borne to church by the god- 
fathers, that the priest should baptize it and, by baptism, 
receive it into the ranlc of the faithful (followers) of 
Christ. The growing-up boys and girls go to church to 
hear the doctiine in order to be strengthened in the prin- 
ciples of faith, to recognise the truths of their religion, 
contained in the catechism and to prepare themselves to 
the saclrament of the altar. 

And when they grow up to become virgins and youths, 
they stand before the altar to avow love for all their life, 
and the priest, after having consecrated their wedding- 
rings and having bound their hands together with the 
stole, administers the sacrament of matrimony to them 
and gives them his blessing on their way of life. 

But look! a funeral procession fills the interior of 
the church. On a bier they place a coffin, and in it there 
i-eposes the body of a meritorious man of the parish. 
The priests read a holy mass and sing a funeral requiem. 
From the chorus the song resounds, the priest sprinkles 
the corpse with holy water, and the friends (of the dead 
man) tarry it to the eternal repose. 

Since many (= whole) centuries the cross looks from 
the tower of the church on the villages and farms around 
it, where generations after generations work in their field 



— 42 — 

and pxiaiy at its feet, and where its splendour incessantly 
shows them the way to Heaven. 

81. 
1. With a hold flight the eagle rises aloft to the 
clouds. 2. In prose it is impossible or at least difficult 
to write of nothing, in a verse it is very easy. 3. We 
work with the hand and the head, we speak with the 
mouth, we breathe "with the lungs, we chew with the teeth, 
we digest with the stoma;h. 4. By her commerce England 
is celebrated, Switzerland by the beauty of her nature, 
Sweden and Laponia by their rocks and woods. 5. W^e can 
make a journey in a fourfold way : by going on foot, by 
driving in a carriage, by going in a ship, or by railway. 
6. Corporal punishment often is wrong. 7. On the 
Alps, at Spliigen, Mickiewicz wrote such words to Maryla: 
"Nowhere, nowhere can I separate from you; you go 
with me on sea, and you go on land behind me on my way." 

82. 
1. Przez rozmowQ i obcowanie mozna wkrotce nauczye 
si? JQzyka. 2. Milosci^ i dobrocif^ wi^cej si? wskora niz 
gniewem i zlosliwosci^. 3. JakEj, miark^i innym mierzysz, 
tak<'\ bQdzie ci mierzono. 4. Przez bezczynnosc i nierz^d 
miasta i narody ginf^. 5. To miasto zbogacilo si? hand- 
lem i przemyslem. 6. Krzywd^ nikt sIq nie zbogaci. 7. On 
pracuje dzien i noc. 8. Jemy nozem i widelcem. 

Rozmowa. 

With wliat hand is it easier to It is easier to write with the 
write? right tliau witl) the left hand. 

Who drives tliere witli one The nobleman Dobrzynski drives- 
horse? with one horse. 

By wliat do towns get ricli? By commerce and trade. 

With what do we Hght a fire With wood, coal, colces "and. 
in the stove? in some villages, also with 

straw. 

83. 

1. Make a bet with me! 2. The Teutonic Order con- 
quered the country of the old Prussians by the sword. 
3. The children took a walk with their parents and then 
they learned (together) with their teacher. 4. With whom 
you have intercourse, such a man you become. 5. Love 
of the native country was the watchword of our ancestors 
(forefathers). 6. Verbs govern different cases of sul)stantives. 



— 43 — 

7. The king rules over his subjects, the functionary ad- 
ministers the country. 8. He who despises his fellow- 
creature, transgresses the commandments of God. 9. This 
man smells of birch-tar. 10. Until the times of Pytha- 
goras, the learned Greeks called themselves 'wise men'; 
Pythagoras first chose a more modest title and called him- 
self a 'lover of wisdom' or 'philosopher'. 11. "Modesty is a 
plant which only grows on noble ground", say the Germans. 

12. It is difficult to some people to learn politeness. 

13. Acquaintances abroad often deceive (us). 14. The sick 
man spits blood. 15. He assured it by his word of honour. 
16. People smeared the sick man's side with unguent. 

84. 
1. ZwierzQta zywia. si? trawi\, ziolami, korzonkami, 
liscmi, zbozem i mi^sem. 2. Najmlodszy brat uczyi siQ 
z siostrq,. 3. Obcuje z cnotli^v^'mi mQzami. 4. W jedena- 
stym roku zycia poszedlem do gimnazjum, w dwudziestym 
trzecim na uniwersytet. 5. Z wielkim trudem dzielo skoii- 
czylem. 6. Wybrano go dyrektorem. 7. Krolowie rza.dza. 
nai^odami. 8. Bogaci nie powinni pogardzac bliznimi. 
9. Pojechalismy z bratem Szczepanem do ciotki do Wie- 
liczki pod Krakowem. 10. W Warszawie zawarlismy zna- 
jomosc z kilku bogatymi panami. 

Rozmowa. 

Who was with you at church? Our parents were with us at 

church. 

If God is witli us, wlio is Xobudy can be against us 
against us? 

Who made this brave soldier a The king made him a noble- 
nobleman? man. 

What will be[come] your son? He will become a carpenter or 

a joiner. 

In what manner does this per- She behaves towards me lik.- 
son behave towards you? a mother. 

85. 
1. ^Marching to the town, they beat the enemies. 
2. Alexander the Great, having passed the straits of the 
Hellespont, vanquished the Persians. 3. Kosciuszko never 
refused his help to those who were in need. 4. Having 
filled their own hive, bees do not think of any other. 
5. Caesar, dictating different letters to his secretaries, still 
conversed with his present friends. 6. While standing on 
one leg, a certain poet wrote some verses doAvn iu a 
sheet. 7. If a man wishes to be an example to others, he 
ought to distinguish himself by morality; otherwise he 



_ 44 - 

cannot be praised by anybody. 8. When passing near a 
village-hut, t heard a child Aveeping and its mother ex- 
horting it. 9. The offended man seeks to revenge himself 
(= for revenge). 10. When bidding farewell to a person 
whom we are to meet soon again, we say: "Farewell" 
(= [I hope] to see you). 11. It is difficult even to the 
simplest man to get on without reading and writing. 
12. We see our parents going with my brothers to School 
Street. 

86. 
1. Przeszedlszy rzek^ by! pewny (bezpieczny). 2. Ob- 
warowawszy sIq (jeszcze), uwazat sIq za pewnego (bez- 
piecznego). 3. Potrzeba wielu godzin, zeby obejsc ja- 
pohskie miasto Jeddo. 4. Islandczycy nie przechodzq, obok 
Gajsyru, nie zajrzawszy do zrodla. 5. Chca.c zachowac 
zdrowe .zQ^by, nie jadajcie gorricych potraw i nie pijcie 
zimnych napojow. 6. Trzeba miec siedem klamstw ,w 
zapasie, aby jedno potwierdzic. 7. Sloh moze wypic dziesi^c 
kwart araku, nie upijaj^c sie. 8. Kiedys widziano tQ mlod^ 
kobietQ, njosftcci rano bulki i mleko. 9. Obejrzawszy obo- 
zowisko, byl smutny ze tyle krwi poplyn^lo. 10. Niema 
sprawiedliwego s^dziego, ktory karze czlowieka, nie wyslu- 
chawszy go. .11. Ten sklad jest do wynaj^cia. 12. Ten 
dom jest na sprzedaz. 

Rozmowa. 

Cotild he not learn the Polisb No, owing to his aversion to 
language, living some years the (Polish) language he did 

in Poland ? not even learn some expres- 

sions. 

What did you do, having re- We finished our lessons, 
turned from your walk? 

Where did he lose bis ]>ook? Going to school, he lost his 

book. 

What did the cbildren do, having They complained at once to their 
got nothing for breakfast? father. 

Ozimina. 

Gdy siQ kohczy lato i zaczyna jesieh, rolnik phigiem 
orze gole pola i sieje duzo ziarn w dlugie brozdy. 
W krotce wziastajq z ziemi male lislki trawy, a cale pole 
podobne jest do zielonej Ic^ki. ZiniH snieg pokrywa wq,llc ros- 
jinki i chroni je jjrzed zmarzniQciem. 

Gdy zaczyna si^ wiosna i i^nieg taje, male zdzhla zyta 
i pszenicy wzrastajf\, a wkrotce u czubka pokazuj;\ siQ 
klosy, ktore zolkuii podczas upalu letniego. Skoro zboze 



- 45 - 

dojrzeje, przychodza zency i scinaJQ: je kosa. Mlocle robot- 
nice wiaz^i zbozo (zdzbla)' w snopy i iistawiajc^ je w kopy. 
Gdy zboza ScV suche, mioci si? je zaraz na polu 
mlocarnici parow£i; tylko ubogi wiesniak mloci jeszcze 
swo zboze cepami \v domu na kicpisku (boisku). Wymlo- 
cone ziarna zbiera sIq w wielkie worki (vvory) i zanosi 
do spichlerza, albo posyla mlynarzowi do mlyna. Tarn 
miele sIq z nich pi^kna, biala maka, z ktorej piekarz piecze 
dla ludzi chlel) i ciastka. 

Na wsi u mego wuja. 

Blisko stolicy wuj nioj posiada duza. wies. Ujechawszy 
koleja az do trzeciej stacji liiiji glownej prowadzcT^cej ku 
poludniowi, idzie sie ])iekaa szosa, posadzona drzewami 
wisniowemi okolo kwadransii. Wtedy z\Yraca siQ na prawo 
i przychodzi przez lasek debowy do witjkszej wioski. 
Od drogi wiejskiej prowadzi aleja, obsadzoiia kasztanami, 
do wielkiej bramy, ktora zamyka na zewn^itrz podworze. 

Wchodzcic 11 a podworze, spostrzega si? po lewej stronie 
skromny, ale nobii^^^e wygla.dajacy dwor, w ktorym miesz- 
ka wiij ze swti rodzinj^. Obok domu stoj^i rozmaite zabu- 
dowania gospodaxskie, drwahiia, sklad na wQgle i czeladnie. 
Naprzcciw brainy wchodowej wziiosi si^ jednopi(^tro\vy doni 
dzierzawcy. Dalej na prawo stojq, stajnie i wozownie, 
nad ktoremi wyzsze pit^tra maj^i poddasza dla zboza 
i siana. Obok tych zabiidowaii znajduje sie draga bra- 
ma, ktora prowadzi na pola. , Blisko niej s£i dwa mate 
domy gdzie mieszkaj^i robotnicy (sezonowi), ktorzy co rok z 
dawTiiejszego Krolestwa Polskiego albb z Galicji przybywajt^. 

W srodkn podworza znajduje sie wielka Kupa nawozu, 
na ktorym gromada kur si^ uwija. Za ni.^ w kaluzy, uganiaj^ 
si§ kaczki i gQsi. Blisko domii dzierzawcy znajduje si^ 
duzy ogrod, gdzie rosnie mnostwo jabloni, drzew grusz- 
kowych, sliwowych i wisniowych. Oprocz sadu jest tam 
takze duzy ogrod warzywny i kwietnik (or ogrod kwiatowy), 
a przy dworze pi^kny park z cienistymi starymi d^bami i 
lipami i staw z pi^knymi lab^dziami. 

Jan Sobjeski. 

U podnoza Kai-pat, tam gdzie Bug ma swoj pocz^tek, 
w starym zamku Olesku urodzit si^ roku tysiac szescset 
dwudziestego dziewiqtego podczas niezwykle silnej burzy 
JaJi Sobjeski. 

Wnuczka slawnego hetmana 2;6lkiewskiego, Teofila, 
byta jego matkj\. Ojciee jego Jakob Sobjeski powierzyl 
wychowanie obu swych synow, Marka i Jana dosvviadczo- 



._ 46 — 

nemu niQzowi, Stanislawowi Orchowskieiim. «Niech Or- 
chowski najwif^cej uu to zwaza, zeby bracia wzajemiiie si^ 
kochali, miodszy starszego szaiiowal, starszy mlodszego ko- 
chal», pisal on w liscie. Nast^pnie przykazal Jakob Sobjes- 
ki iiauczycielowi : «Nie chc?, aby moi synowie rosli roz- 
pieszczeiii, niech ich zot^dki przyzwyczajaj^ siQ do pro- 
stych potxaw, jakie, jezeli Bog da, iia wojnie m-iec b^dfi. 
]\Ioi synowie nie powinni zaniedbac jednego dnia skichanie 
mszy swiQtej {literally majci zadnego dnia sluchac mszQ 
swi^ta). Gdyby przestrog i napomnien, kilkakrotnie nie mieli 
posluchac, o czem (si? spodziewam), ma mnie pan Or- 
chowski natychmiast zawiadomic; b(jd(j wiedzial, co czynic 
trzeba — mam kij, pod ktorym mlodziez dobrze rosnie.» 

Obaj bracia odebrali nauk? w potykaniu, siQ bronic-^ 
taiiczeniu, jezdzie konnej, muzyce i siedmiu j^zykach. W 
roku tysitic szescset czleidziestym czwartym udali si^ obaj 
bracia do Paryza. Na odjezdnem dal im ojciec nastQpu- 
j^ce napomnienie : «Moje dzieci, rzekl, wydoskonalcie siQ we 
wszystkiem, lylko nie w tai'icach, bo tych nauczycie siQ tu 
od Tatar6w». Bylo bowiem wowczas w Polsce w zwyczaju, 
czQste walki z Tatarami nazywac «tancami talarskimi».. 
Pierwszy wyst^p Jana byl w bitwie pod Beresteczkiem, gdzie 
zostal ciQzko zraniony ; brat jego Marek zostai w bitwie pod 
Batowem pojmany przez Tatarow i na rozkaz chana zabity. 
Matka, ktora mimo spartanskiego usposobienia zostala zu- 
pelnie przygn^biona, udala si? na zawsze do Wloch. 

W roku tysif|c szescset szescdziesifitym piq-tyni^ ozenif 
siq Jan Sobjeski z wdowq, po wojewodzie sandomii'skim 
Janie Zamojskim — Marjci Kazimir^ d'Arquion. Szesnasto- 
djiiowa bitwa pod Podhajcami z Turkami ustalila slawQ 
Sobjeskiego, a swietne zwyciQstwo pod Chocimem, ktore 
czterdziestu tysifjcy Turkow pozbawito zycia, bylo glownym 
powodem do wyboru Sobjeskiego krolem. 



Polish Exercises. 

The Farm. 

The wealthy farmer has a si)acioiis, generally S(iuare 
court. On one side there is the dwelling-house, surrounded 
by tlic kitchen-garden and the orchard. Opposite the house 
there are the barn and the coach-house, on the left hand 

1 16G3 is an erratum in the Englisli exercise. 



-- -47 — 

the stable for horses and the store-house, on the right the 
stables for cattle, and swine and the poultiy-yard. 

In the stable for horses there are the horses and, in a 
special part, the colts. In the store-house there lie different 
sorts of corn, the clover-seed and the bran, designed for 
food. In the stable for cattle cows, oxen and calves stand 
fastened in rows. The neat herd presents them hay, clover 
or chopped straw, which he fetches from the store. The 
horses get the same food, but to chopped straw people 
add bran or oats. This food is poured into the crib, 
which generally is made of cement and has two parts, 
ill the one there is the beverage, in the other the dry food. 

In the stables for swine there are swine, that is, sows 
with little pigs and fattened hogs. In the poultry-yard 
there are plenty of all feathered tribe, as poultry, geese, 
ducks, sometimes also turkeys and guinea-fowls. 

In winter the barn is filled with corn, in summer 
empty. Into the coach-house coaches and waggons are 
put when not employed, that they do not get wet by rain 
or get dry by the sun. There are, too, different agricultural 
instruments, as ploughs, harrows, sowing-machines and 
horse-rakes. 

The Harvest. 

Of all sorts of corn, rye ripens with us earliest, after 
it barley, wheat, peas and, at last, oats. As soon as the 
voice of the quail sounded from the ripe corn: 'Come to 
mow, come to mow!' our mothers and fathers look the 
sickles and went 

To those fields, painted with different sorts of corn, 

With gilded wheat and silvery rye; 

And harvest(s) began. 

But those times, when corn was mown with the sickle, 
have a long while gone away, for such a manner of har- 
vesting lasted for too long a time, and at the harvest 
haste is necessary as long as the sun heats (earth) and fine 
weather Iasts\ in order to can-y the corn in a dry state to 
the barns. For that purpose larger spaces were mown 
with scythes, but to-day even scythes are replaced by corn- 
raowing-machines (corn-mowers), sheaves-binder and grass- 
mowers. The coi-n-mowers are machines which mow the 
higher sorts of corn; if they bind sheaves at the same 
time, they are called sheaves binder; for (the harvesting of) 
lower &:)rts of corn, clover and grass peo[)le employ grass- 
mowers. But when, after rain(s) and winds, corn lies down, 
it must be mown with scythes and laid into swaths. 



— 48 -^- 

Behind the reapers there go girls, who bind corn into 
sheaves and put it up into shocks or stacks; when it is dry, 
it is hrought into the barns, or into heaps or stacks. 

For thrashing only peasants of small fanns employ 
flails, those of larger ones employ thrashing-machines 
driven by horses or by steam. 

After corn there remain on the field only stubbles, but 
even they soon are covered with verdure, if corn is 
mingled ■with clover-seed. 

After the (different) sorts of corn there is the turn 
of crops to be hoed, as potatoes, carrots, cabbage- turnips 
and beet-roots. 





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