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University of Toronto 

Engineering and 
Mining Journal 


January 1 to June 30, 1918 


10TH AVE. AT 36TH ST. 




January 1 to June 30, 1918 

I Ml WATOlti Mil I 


t*) ; book DOtlcea by u daggei 

This Index Is llimli . ■ i. pi . h. n )\ •■ bQt '"n 

else, rains iirf taken tu bring together matter 
keJonglag to ii»'- tame subject, bo tbat when * 
reader looks up mi article, be will be cited to 
related data, Series >o simple pap- Qumbera, fol- 
lowing Danes of mines oi companies, usually 
refer to news notes When minor references are 
numerous, an iu tin iconda," they 

are sometimes separately designated as "Various 

notes." With u major entry or scries uf ■ 

may be placed several minor i s, relating to the 

same subject in order that Its blstorj may ba 
followed, if the anchor's name be known, it is 
the simplest means of reference, rroductions are 
indexed under names uf metals and countries ol 

states, The mere juxtai leraJ and 

geographical name usuall) slgnlflt p an output, but 
may cover other statistical or news matter. Not 
all news are Indexed but a liberal selection of 

them is made. 

Following Is a list of the puges included In 
the several numbers of the volume, by date: 

Jan. 5 Pages 144 

12 •• 46-136 

18 " 137-180 

26 •' 181-224 

Feb. 2 " 22r, -208 

9 " 269-312 

16 '■ 313-358 

23 " 359-402 

March 2 " 403-450 

9 " 451-492 

16 " 493-534 

23 " 535-578 

30 " 579-620 

Apr. 6 " 621-664 

13 •' 6('.o-7os 

20 " 709-774 

27 " 775-816 

May 4 " 817-858 

11 ■' 859-904 

18 " 905-945 

25 " 946-984 

June 1 " 985-1028 

8 " 1029-1068 

15 " 1069-1112 

22 " 1113-1152 

29 " 1153-1198 




A. B. C, Mo 38 

Abe Lincoln Cop., Ark 702 

Abrsms Land, Okla 221 

Abrasion test, tube-mill pebbles 1038 

Absorption determination 1036 

Accidents — Butte & Superior. 1917 881 

— Coal mine fatalities, TJ. S., 1917 429 

— Metal mines, 1916 630 

Editorial 653 

—Mo 220 

—Mont 219 

— Quebes mines 697, errata 695 

— Standardisation of reports 1165 

Acers, N. F 818 

Acetic-acid oil test 1043 

Acid lines, Safety rules need 18ft 

Ackerman, G 1022 

Acme, Okla 448 

Adam Marsh Molybdenum, Aria 854 

Adamant block liners 713 

Adams Chrome, Calif 1063 

H. 11., Flotation concentrates, Utah 


Utah Lsg. flotation plant '535 

Adams, J. H 927 

L. 1)., died 659 

R. E 444 

T. S 688 

Adams W. W.. Triangulation . . . .164. errata 560 

Adanac, Ont 448 

— Annual meeting 356 

Addition ageDts in flotation *915 

Adirondaeks, Gold 612 

— Platinum 612 

Admiralty Alaska Gold Mng 80 

Admiralty Zinc Co 82. 532, 760 

Advantageous method of firing drift round.. *1132 
Advent of modern mill mechanism to nitrate 

leaching «987 

Adverse factors. Transvaal Mng 463 

Advertisements. Poem 977 

Advisory Counc. TJ. K. Iron ore rept '1117 

Aeroplanes, Ryan to build 846 

Aetna Iron & Steel, B. C 1192 

Afterthought, Calif., 81, 354, 446, 575. 661, 

810, 813, 937. 1063. 1149, 1192 

—Shutdown 221 

Agents, Addition, in flotation *915 

Agitators. Brown WalbJ Gold Mng *241 

Agnew, T. E 767 

Agua Santa. Chile 988 

Ahlers, R. O., Valuation of manganese ores.. 1164 

Ahmeek, Mich 355, 4S7, 532, 1064 

— Dividends 260, 843 

—Production ..37. 177, 307, 617, 814. 1026, 1149 

Air blasts, Kolar Gold, India 957 

Air-compressor drive *685 

Air-controlled fire-door ^559 

Air-hose couplings — Nut and gasket *599 

Air-lift for handling tailings '1177 



rati i 
• ■ ■ ■ [, Oolo. . . . , 

AJnx, Ida 37. 899, 818 I 198 

Akr,.n. Colo 981, 1149 

Flake Gn . 2s- 

rt protest. . .. L68 
A labams I Iraphlte ■ ew construct 

Alabama, Qraphlh Indu try •281, 2- 

Aiahaaia Graphite , Oeyloi mi 

i Labor 854 

Aladdin Oobalt, out 4- 

i' ■ inn 2< 

OOP., < »re 942 

Alarms, Train 21 

Alaska I deposits 777 


Nenana lands 243 

—Copper 203, 486, .'.74, sil', 1024 

Fnst 338, 687 

Alaska-Gastlneau Mng '922 

— Mng. costs loi,7 

Alaska, Gold 521 

— Copper River dlst 543 

ilaaka Gold Co Quai terly reporl 

I a i ei 

- Production 1108 

Alaska Juneau Gold Mng., Alaska 80, 870 

— Annual report 1134 

Alaska Mines Corp 109, 870 

Alaska, Nickel 28 

Alaska, Sidelights on 797 

Alaska-Treadwell group 870, 1024 

Alaska, Weather conditions 687 

Albany. Minn 447 

Alberta, Canada — Water discovery 574 

Alcalde Gold, Calif 1193 

AJdrlch, s 7« 

Alexander, Okla 1026 

Alexandria, Colo 813 

Alexo Nickel, Ont 488, 942 

■ — Production 222, 264 

Algeria, MineralB 1174 

Algoma Manganese. Minn 38, 270 

Alice, Colo 26S 

Alice. Mont 1078 

Alkali sulphates In flotation 918 

Allen, A. P 1106 

Allen, A. W 1106, 1146 

— Artificial pebbles for tube-milling "1033 

— Tube milling 245 

Allen, C. A 529 

Allen, C. F. Business law t350 

Allen, G. L 718 

Allen, R. C 688 

— Mineral resources of Mich tH05 

Allen, W P 34 

Allen, W. S 700 

Allison Ranch, Calif . .81, 354, 399, 531, 703, 769 

Allouez Mng. Co 82, 399, 487. 858 

— Dividends 260, 843 

— Production 307, 487, 814, 1026, 1149 

Alnutt-Purse, Ark 1149 

Alpha & Exchequer, Nev 222, 308, 532, 662 

Ajpha & Omega. See "Dig Gold." 

"Alpha" metal location apparatus 380 

Alsace-Lorraine, Iron 809 

Alta, Colo 81. 176, 769, 900 

Alta Consol., Utah 140, 178, 306, 448, 576, 662 

Alta, Mont 941, 1150 

Alta Tunnel & Transp.. Utah 982 

Aluminum alloy in Zeppelins. Analysis 425 

Aluminum alloys, Estimation of manganese.. 407 
Aluminum Co. of Amer., Americanization work 454 

Aluminum, France, price 377 

— Ga., deposits 13 

— Hungary 498 

Aluminum market, 1917 67 

Aluminum, U. S., 1900-1917 567 

Price fixed 1051 

Salts, 1917 1003 

Alums In flotation 916 

Amalgamated, Nev 941 

Amalgamated Silver Mines Co., Mont. 177, 

814, 856, 941, 1110, 1150 

Amalgamated Zinc, Aus 739 

Amalgamation practice. Gold Coast 367 

Amargosa, Sink of the *985, »1000 

Amazon-Dixie, Ida 307, 855, 1193 

Amazon-Manhattan, Ida 355, 941, 1026 

Ambergris, Ida 818 

American Car & Foundry Co 840 

America, Central. See "Central." 
America, South. See "South." 

American- Ariz., Ariz 446 

American Assoc, of Engrs..34, 174, 572. 700, 896 

— Boosting the engineer 433 

— N. T. Chap 304 

American Assoc, of Petroleum Geologists.... 572 

American Brass Co 907 

American Chamb. Comm., London — U. S. 

trade mark 1091 

American Chem. Soc. — Gibbs medal award. . . . 700 

—Papers, etc 919, «997 

— Spring meeting omitted 424 

American Dredging, Calif 399 

American Eagle, Colo 575 

American Eagle, Mo 900 

American Electrochem. Soc. 614, 659, 1022, 1190 

— Papers, etc 163 

American Fed. of Labor — Gompers' statement 612 

American filter 716, «747 

American Gold Dredging. Calif 1025 

American Inst, of Chem. Engrs 572 

Bogre., OH 

Pai en in 

Am, 11,11 iDStltUl 

987, U7h. 

-Annual meeting 


Bl |>rt . .' 4211 

i Becl 

enemy aliens 

I ■ l 'port 

Man; | 1175 

Membership n q rei ts 426 

■font, s, , tlon 218, 396 

.1 11MH 

loo 700. 707 

Waabtngton i ting 1141 

iu Internal. Steel o.rp 804 

i. Iron A Steel Inst 937,978 

Hanganesa price tcheduie 1053 

rial 1057 

—New members 804 

— l'lg tin defined 327 

Pig tin shipments 172 

amerlcau Locomotive Ct 887 

American Metal Co. See also "Ohanute" 37. 
82. 177. 268, 808, B99, 631 B) 841, 1103 

American Mineral Prod. Co., Wash 83, •OOS 

an Mug. Congress 937 

—Colo. Chapter. Denver meeting 852 

—4 Ikla. Chapter 1106 

—Utah Chapter 35, 305 

Protests Govt, control 262 

American peace 842 

American propaganda. Editorial 625 

American Red Cross. See "Red Cross." 

American Sbeei J i n Plate Co 795 

American Sisters, Colo 866, 1025 

American Smg. & Rfg. — Annual report 682 

Editorial 693 

—Bunker Hill suit 177. 854 

—Dividends, 1917 159 

By months 32, 200. 658. 84S 

— Mexican work, 1017 67 

— Smelting schedules 626 

— Smelting investigation, Colo 642 

— Smoke Investigations 283 

—Various notes. .69, SI. 142. 308, 812, 898, 1060 
American Soc. of Civil Engrs. 174, 215, 484. 1022 

American Soc. of Mecb. Engrs 174. 628 

— N. Y. Section ., 700 

American Soc. of Testing Materials — Papers, 

etc 194. 978 

American Steel .V Wire Co 795 

American Trona Corp 855, 907 

American zinc Industry. Editorial 1018 

American Zinc, Lead & Smg 308 

— Dividends 440, 1079 

— Zinc metallurgy 558 

Americanization 648 

— Aluminum Co. of Amer 454 

— Conference 688 

— Steel plants 889 

— U. S. Chamber of Comm 801 

Ammonia conservation 438 

Ammonia licenses 168 

Ammonium molybdatp recovery 249 

Ammonium nitrat,- substitute 1126 

Amparo. Mex., Dividends 1079 

Anaconda Copper Mng. — Accident record 38 

— Annual report 1005 

— Cementation methods 628 

— Dividends 440, 1019 

— Ferromanganese plant 677 

— Ferromanganese production 623 

— Fireproofing shaft ****o 

— Labor commissioner 529, 918 

— Lexington operations 629 

— Payroll 852 

— Production 252. 202 400, 575, 805, 959, 1101 

— Rhodocrosite concentration 573 

— Rod and wire plant 219. S08 

— Safety practices 979 

— Various notes, 37, 57, 68, 82. 222, 264, 308, 

356, 488, 532. 660, 704, 811. 814. 898, 

1026. 1078. 1150. 1194 

Analysis of bismuth in lead bullion 603 

Anchorite Ont 704 

Anderson, A. E 261 

Anderson, G. E. Chinese wolframite 24 

— Hongkong metal trade 683 

Anderson. L. D 1106 

Anderson. R. J 174.1190 

— Ferroalloys In 1917 191 

Anderson, S. L 218 

Andes, Calif 176 

Andes Cop. Mng. Chile, Potrerillos mine 

devel *137 

Andes, Nev 222, 264, 662 

Andesite as tube-mill pebble 1039 

Andrews. M 91| 

Anemometer •99a 

Angels Deep, Arls 940 

Anglo-Amer. riveting contest. See Riveting. 

Ankerlte. Ont 38. 222. 356. 662 

Anna Beaver mill, Okla *733 

Anna May. Ark , 899 

Annex, Colo 4S7 

Annual statistical number 45 

Anode. Lugless copper *924 

Anthracite. Also see "Coal." 

Anthracite allotments 1097 


Volume 105 




1 1.0 


Austr. . 
A.i.r. t 

. S78 

. 707 





Al fmba m— Mialng, 1»17. re.i,.,., 

- Mnko . , :iil 



. 159 

{2?"J*'"" " = ■ "• . 604 



IW 1107 

i-Blo»t , . In4 

*' C * ' 1108 

Ai tKaa Qam m Aria no. 70J 

— *r»ineaila 260 84J 

* • .1081 

g 101a 

: ° •' uoi 


SHE ''■■" .855 


»>• «s-« 

1 107. 114? 

— Munim "nni 


:::::: ass 

, - '■ ■•■ MIS. 1024 1108 !!49 




:: 220 


SHE u 81-'. 940 

Ariaooa. Workmen a compensation 1147 

Arkansaa A Arlx. Cop ijji 

Arkansas. Viiiuw district 990 MI'S 

Arkansaa-Okla.. Ark " i R 7 

Art .-.« rh—pnaie. Ark...... oil 

Arkir..... zinc and ;-a.| fleld »£?£ 

1917 prod 3„J 

Armor plates. Zirconium steel la inrg 

Armour. J A " 940 


t rm * U •> «, 203. 355. 447. c'e'l'. 941 

Army Appropriation Bi: °. n 

Army mental tests . , 

Arp.. • • $« 

AcUl-. s.-e Van Ardsdale. 

Araenlc. C. S .«, 

3 li 

...'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.] 74 

9 '"'*' r- ' -milling ' »1033 

*. Cera wanted 673 

: : . 590 

— Ot. l.r.raiQ . 071 

s««i» :::: ? 1 

—1917 reviewed I,? 

Aeh. C. E lii 

A«n Inn Co., Mien .'.".' i?i 

Manxaneae. Colo ggg 

H. Caonel coal ,-,,i 

iEH ^""^-k?,- M « mb *™ :"".:.:::: 390 

^n . . . I<j2 

Aaaajing metb'.d.'i. Standardltatl.,n ...'...'..' 1024 
**g»* r 'allf .. exemption 33 

::::::::: "SS 

— So tectlon ' q\q 

nt 018" 982" 1110 

>'«! Lead A Zinc. Mo ' 662 

Associated Lead, Ana 930 

AaaorL; . .,„... ' 2 62 

' ' rinra. .!' 896 

Aaao^L- ■ 3 5« 

Association of the 27th Engl ,.,y- 


A Smg 68 «730 


a compensation case 373 

'allf 61 

Atla' :. ;, rimers M133 


August Mng. Co.. Mont as 

Augustus, A. A 8 1B 

Aurora 1150 

• ula. 1917 mng review 11 

Auatra costs 1100 


1917 prodoctaoal ' 952 

„ a- ; ; . . sa 

in controlled mine* 1098 


•ive notatioo . 739 

— Zini 939 

— Zinc o.»>nlni« 1013, 1024 

l; Itnf rABI welfare 





Back :.-';. II ul ei lll« ' 10T0 

Badxcr Mux .v Devi 770, 1 193 

1 lory - 


Baghou- 97 

B.iu. II . 102, 814, 707 

11 ore 1003 


. .U>36 

. 474 


. . 078 

. . 204 

. . 38 

. . 351 

. . 888 



Bak.r. o, Canei 

Baker, 1 and pavemi 

B»k. r G N. Kill.- output 

Bak. r Lead I 

Bak.-r M. v 

Bald B 

Bald 1 Bageley." 

Bald U onel, Mont 

I 11 J., died 

! " 

ltald« 1 re Works 

I I and practice 

Ball-mills. Chalniera i Williunis -7 13 

Ballair 304,980 

11 D 994 

Ballod. Prof, tlt-rumn nutional wealth 1058 

lllf 354 

Banerofi. II. II 664 

■ v, N. L 917 

altnn 841 

1 Lead 3 Zinc, < ikla 400 

Bankers TruM Co., Libert? loan 834 

"Baaket" 100 

Banna, k. M. & M.. Mont 002, 1194 

Banner. Calif 221 

Banner Gold Mux. ,v Mix.. Aril 1063 

Banner Mag., Ariz 854 

Banner Ming; Arix 661 

Barabee, C. A 810 

Barber-tireeue bucket loader M73 

Barcellos Corporation, Brazil 1140 

Barium anlphate preelpltation 956 

Barker. K. K 700 

Barnes Klnx Derel., Mont 2114. 308. 532, 

602, 814. 911, 1150 

— Annual meetinx 575 

— Annual report 1180 

•nds 440, 1019 

ProdnctlOB 856 

Biirn.'Tt Una. Co 1147 

Bai di i.|" 1 

Burr, ( . .1 H08 

Burr, \V. M. Firebrick melting points 22 

Barracks. Oonetroctl Iita 1174 

Barrier Roasting. N. s. \V 532 

Barrh-r South. Aus . . 061 

Barron. C. \V. Taiatlon 1096 

Barrows. W. A.. Jr 304 

Barry. B. Advertisements 977 

Barstow, Colo 37, 703 

Bartlett runnel, Colo 855, 941 

Baruch. B. M 517, 1145 

— Editorial on his administration 524 

— Mines control 656 

as tube-mill pebble 1039 

Base-metal mng. as investment 430 

Bastin, B. s 1022 

Bates. 1. M. Safetj rates Deed for acid lines 188 

Batearllle, Ark., manganese ' 1148 

Batearille Gas ,v OH, Ark 306 

Battelle. J. <;,, ,ii,. ( | 1022 

Battle. J. It. Lubricating engineers hand- 
book tiios 

Battlefield metal salvage 380, 476, 654 

Batton, C. E 940 

Bauiiti- ';a.. Coastal plain 13 

1917 production 1004 

— -Franee 156 

— U. S 974 

Beacon, Ont 1026 

Beam. T. W 768 

Bear Mill. Ark «329 

Bear Lake Pool. Mich 177. 263, 355. 399, 532 

Bear Top, Ida 770, 1193 

Beaty. J. A 937 

Beav.-r A Belfast, f'olo 703. 855 

- C. W B97 

Beaver. Ont 38, 448, 488 858 

— Production 942, 1110 

Bedford. A. C 1190 

Beebe. Calif 81 

Beebe. II. C 896 

Beeblve. Ariz nos 

Beer, Sondbeuner A: Co 843 

Behr. II. C 992 

Behrman, A. S. Safety pipette *249 

Belcher. Wash 307 

Beldim- 1 ' 1 ed 572 

Belgium. Climate ' 040 

■' L. Sili.-a brick . ... 194 

Bell. It. N. Mining in Ida 145, t766 

Bella I.'nion. Ariz 1024 

Bellboy. Mont 704, 814, 941 

lion. I'tah 264 

Belmont Shawmnr Mng., Calif 855 

Belmont Surl [niel . 

• Wagner, Colo 487, 1109. 11*03 

Belt, computing length .*888 

Belt guards, lb-movable •1*14 

Bemls ventilation tubes »337 

Ben B. Hog., Mo 82 355 

Bender Metals ft Milling, Wash 629 

- Amal.. Au»- 661 

Bendlgo goldfleld, Aos. — 1917 review 308 

Benedene, Okla 443 


Bl Minn 221, 662, 770, 1110 

Bl 810 

Bel B >ch, Calif 1003 

Bt R 767 

Her I S 261 

Berry lleilble Joint «472 

p. U D Co., Minn 177 

11. Soil Pipe Co 864 

Bi Belcher, I'nilf 1030 

Bi . in. , Okla 632, 1084 

Bi I Ic 1 li 1 Hri.k Co 1049 

Big Ben, Kan 221 

Bin in i, i>kla 839 

r .. Ida 941 

Ida, [917 169 

"iitlis 32 

I"! ' Mng., Ida 355, 487, 770 

1 . Calif 263 

B in. nkla 882 

Big Blk, Ida 900 

Big Ire, Colo 176. 855 

in. It, Calif 899 

1 . ' "lo 388 

Bl 1 tplor., Dtah 897 

Big Born Basin, Wyo., Petroleum 23 

1 : 1 rrlcane, Ark »313 

Big In, linn OOP., I'tah 83 

Big Jim 1 mis,. I. Mug., Ariz... 854, 898, 840. 1108 

Big Lead, Kun 1020 

Big 1/ dge Derel., Ariz 220, 812, 1114 

Big ' ak, Calif 768 

Big 1 m,- Oonsol., Ariz 661 

Bi g Pine Mng.. Ariz 1108, 1114 

Big pine, Nev. 1110 

Big Shot, Colo 1064 

Big Toud Gold Mng. ft Mlg., Colo 447, 1109 

B died 862 

Billmr/,. Kan 82,618 

Bill 11 ,11, 1 Ikla 448 

Billingsley. 1' 1073 

Bllsky. (Jut 222 

Binding timbers to truck '1132 

Bingtuiiii .Mines, Utah. 

—Dividends 200. 570, 843 

Binoculars wanted 1010 

BirctivlUe Consol., Calif llutl 

Blrdseye, 11. II 444 

Birmingham Clay Products Co., Ala 36 

Birmingham Metall. Soc 1022 

Birmingham Mng.. Colo 263, 447 

Bin EhaxQ Trussville Iron, Ala 80 

Blrney, Calif 486 

Biabee, Ariz. — Prominent citizens arrested... 980 

- — Deportations misunderstood 1055 

Bishops Knoll. Ariz 769 

Bismarck, S. D 900, 1150 

Bismuth analysis In lend bullion 603 

— Colorimetrlc determination 882 

— Gt. Br 1083 

— U. S., 1917 review 134 

Bits — Can- v. cross 18") 

Bituminous. See also "Coal." 

Bituminous schists in Uruguay 828 

Bjorge. G. N.. photo 274 

Bjorkasens mines, Norway 201 

Black Bear. Colo 531, 017, 703, 1109, 1193 

Black Chief. Mont 1078 

Black Diamond, Ariz 1108 

Black Eagle, Okla 982 

Black Giant, Ariz 812, 1024 

Black, H. P 1012 

Black metal, Colo 447 

Black metals, Nev 941 

Black Mountain Mine, N. Y 83 

Black Oak, Calif 703, 708 

Bla.k Reef Cop., Ariz 486 

Black Hock. Mont 1079 

Blackuer. H. M 1107 

Blair, A. A. Chemical analysis of iron tllOo 

Blake. W. P 1079 

Blast furnaces. New, U. S 925 

Blasting — Advantageous method of firing drift 

round '1132 

— Attaching fuse to primers *1133 

— Injury to employees 327 

— Opencut 305, 001, 1130 

—Powder, Perseverance, Alaska *922 

— Primers, salety *'^yu 

Blasts, Air, Kolar, India 957 

Blewett, Wis 488 

Bliss, W. A 889 

Bloomer Hill, Calif 813 

Blow. A. A. Career »152 

—Colo, school tribute 216 

— Death 34 

Blow, G 261 

Blue Bell, Ariz 354, 398 

— Bonus system 461 

Blue Bell Exten.. Ariz 398 

Blue Bonnet, Okla 818 

Blue Bull, Nev 982 

Blue Bagle Mine, Ariz 702 

Blue Grass Phosphate, Tenn '285 

Blue Jay, Colo 1025 

Blue Jeans, Calif 703 

Bluehead, S. D 704 

Blue Ledge, Calif 399 

Blue Ledge, Ore 1150 

Bin,- Monster Cop., Ariz 1063 

Blue River, Colo 1193 

Blue Tent. Calif 221 

Bluebell. B. 1064 

Blueprint holder *338 

Bohlander, J 1165 

Bohn, Colo 813 

Boiling point of metals 425 

Boleo, Compagnie du. Production. 252. 

-IDS. HIS, Mill. !>.->.<>. 111114. 11111 

Bolln. G. H 1163 

Bolinas Cop. Mng.. Calif 981 

Bolivia. Mining, 1917 review. 

— Marketing 1014 

IU fining In Chile 874 

Bolshevik smelterman's diary 468 

Bonanza, Colo 617. 703 

Bonds, N. T. Exchange 86 

.Iuuku-v I to June 80, L918 ENGINEERING AND .MINIM. J01 RNAL 

Bonne if Ifo 


lloiill" \ , N . U • ■ 

Bonui bj item 


ilk' the illK-lliriT 

M I 


B I iltt 

Borax, Calif . ■!> poc Its 


Borat, 0. v.. died 

Bi i onii tunnel 



. 304 



l I 

. 208 

. :;..i 
. i.,i 



aonthi 82, 

Boston A Mont. 1 >. v. i - '. 1194 

Bolton 1 69 

Boston Emerald, V M 

Bostwi, k W. \ 81, 761 

Boulder Canyon, Colo 1193 

Boorkaa Ulnea, Ont 

Bourne vs Fed. Mint 8 Bmg 273 

Boorquln declalon reversal, Editorial 934 

:ind. Alta 

Bowers, P. C 810 

kei .i \ Coal Relde ol S. . . .i93fl 

ncantratae *294 

Boy Scouts 798 

A 810 

Boyd. W. S 4M 

Borer, r 761 

Boyle. J. W 34 

Bratirook. G. H 485 

Braden Cop. Corp 171 

—Production 282, 806. 959, 1101 

Bradford. 1 733 

Bradley, W W. Calif, mineral prod t350 

Bradataaw Redact, Oo„ Ariz 80, 1114 

Brnkpan mines. South Af 129 

Braley, l«. Old miner •1169 

— The slogan 

Branch-raise sub-level caving. Ruth, Nev *503 

Brandy City Hydraulic, Calif 703 

Brant, Calif 899 

Brass, Technical analysis t527 

Brassert, II. A 528, "07 

Bray. Minn 355. 662. 1110 

Brazil — Iron ore deposits 1123 

— Iron situation 1002 

— Manganese 845, 1140 

Imports and exports 28 

Piracaua deposits 479 

— Mica exports 878 

— Mining. 1917 review .' 125 

Brett, M. L 930 

Bricks, Refractory 954 

— Silica, mfr 194 

Brigham. A. P 700, 852 

Brinson-Kirtley. Okla 1026 

Briquetting vs. flotation . . . , 1176 

Brie>uetting zinc charge/. ... .370, 883, 1174. 117« 
Brissenden, P. A., Investigates rustling cards 445 

Bristol-May, Nev 941 

Briston Mng., Mich 856 • 

Britain plans post-war trade 70o 

British Aluminum Co ^. 71 

British Amer. Nickel Corp 84, 661, 814. 

982, 1026, 1087 

— Subsidized 178 

British Columbia, Copper 1100 

— Iron bounties act 939, 985 

— Labor 939 

—Law 702. 854. 939 

—Minerals prod. 1917 318, 353. 1100 

— Taxation 812, 939 

Brockunier, C. R. Mng. -camp welfare 798 

Brockunier. S. H 261. 896 

— Crowning a wooden pulley 431 

— Dietary for miners 627, 883, lOflo 

Broken Hill mines, Aus 4S6 

Broken Hill Prop., Aus 739 

— Annual report 11S0 

Broken Hill So. Silver Mng., Ans ."7^739 

— Semi-annual report 250 

Broken Hills. Ariz 36, 354, 486. 940 

Brokers, Chrome. Calif 967 

Bromine, TJ. S.. 1917 537 

Bronson, B 26 

Brookerson. D. 3 899 

Brooks, G. G 1061 

Brooks Hill. Ark 263, 1129 

Brooks Oil. Calif 1063 

Broome Co., Aria 1108 

Brother, G. H. Filtration f.i' 

Brown, A. H 1190 

Brown. F. C. Tube milling 245 

Brown, G. W 

Brown, H. L. Molybdenum mng., Colo.*905, *920 

Brown Hoisting Mach. Co 597 

Brown, L: L 1108 

Brown, J. B ?s7 

Brown. R. G 1079 

Brown. T. R 1008 

Browne, L. E. R. R. electrification 646 

Browning, A. J., died 898 

Bruhl, P. T. Amalgamation practice. Gold 

Coast 367 

— Cyaniding graphitic ores I'.'T 

Brunker, A 927 

Brunton. D. W 930, 978 

Brush, B. Silver in 1917 45 

Bryce, R, A 767 

Buck, C. A 1012 

Bucket-elevators — Use with concentrates 725 

Bucket loader. Self-feeding # 473 

Buckeye, Mo 941 

Buckshot Mng., Okla 1194 

Buffalo Hunter Mne. & Mis.. Colo lO^r; 

Buffalo, Okla 221, 447 

Buffalo. Ont 488, 814, 900, 1087 

— Flotation 785 

— Production 264, 942. 1110 


• 11H 





Bulldlii, dal i 

Building, 1 . B., 1911 

Building, iry, banned . 

Iiiilnh 11. M 

Hulki'lry Well 

Bully lllll. Calif 37. 221, 57S, cm, BIS, 

Bamberger, Va 

Bumblebee, Calif 
Banker I Ivan, 

a ,\ b -mt 177 

itioD machine 

otea 84, - ' 

Hunker lllll. Arlr. 708, 769 


Banker BU , • 

Bunker Hill, Kim 

\. W 896, 

Batch, 11. K 717 

Hur.-li. I, 


Ol Mines 7o7. 971'. 1012 

it-, 1919 630 

1 343 

—Annual report t766 

Caron proceat teata 065 

notation 422 

I itioti 26 

— Co-operative rescue work 202 

— Co-ordinate metal mng, work 


[ i tromagnetic separator 803 

—Explosives act 378, 1022 

line safety rules 610 

— Globs rescue apparatus *323 

—Liberty loan 974 

—Lignite investigation 24 

Manganese exper 256 

— Oxidized ore flotation 718 

— Proposed transfer 701 

— Quicksilver research 520 

making in r. s 

— Selective flotation exper 768 

— Smelter smoke investigations 283 

— Standardization of accident reports 1185 

— Technical men needed 888 

— War work budget 477 

-Yearbook t350 

Bureau of Standards. See "Standards." 

Iturko. Ida '787 

Burnett, F. H 971 

Burns. J. T 1106 

Burns-Moore, Colo 37 

Burnside, Ont 308, 448. 704, 1026 

Burrage. A. C, vs. L. Ross 1185 

Burton, G. E 1022 

— Petroleum geologists' work 822 

Burton, Wm 700, 1106 

Business favors trade war 474 

"But the Engineers — " 793 

Butchart table covering 207 

Butler Bros., Minn 308 

— Shenango Suit 221 

Butler, G. M 1190 

Butte & Pentus, Mont 618 

Butte & Superior Mng. 

—Accidents. 1917 881 

— Annual report 1005 

— Elm Orlu litigation 4--- 701 

—Flotation litigation 99. 397, 609, 938, 1141 

Editorial 934 

U. S. Ct. of Appeals decision 962, 974 

Editorial 976 

—Production 400, 488, 578, 704 

— Quarterly report 799 

— Various Notes 178, 895, 900, 1194 

Butte Consol. G. & S., Calif 531, 1025 

Butte Cop. & Zinc. Mont 618, 662, 900 

Butte Cop. Czar. Mont 660. 662 900 

Butte-Detroit, Mont 178, 308 811 

— Ophir devel 529 

— Re-opened 305 

Butte district, 1917 review 57 

Butte-Kansas Mng., Mo 35 

— Destruction by fire 36 

Butte Main Range, Mont 900 

Butte Metal Trades Council 673 

Butte, Mont., Labor. See "Montana." 

— Manganese. Description of ores 1076 

— Production 397 

Butterfly, Colo 941 

liutters Salvador Mm - 222 

Buying monopoly 801 

Buzzell, J. W. Cementation 585 

Bwana M'Kubwa Cop. Mng. Co 23 

Bybee, Nev 457 

Byers, A. M. Co. Pipe corrosion 287 

Cabinet, Foreign trade Sec 887 

Cable rates, So. Amer 211 

Cabrillas mine, Mex. — Triangulation 164 

Cafeteria. Kerr I-'ce "946 

Cageway covers # 1047 

Caging, Simplified with heavy mine cars.... '559 

Calaveras Consol., Calif 81, 768 

Calcium chlor. prevents freezing 247 

Calcium sulphate in flotation 916 

Calculations of a German professor. Edit- 
orial 1058 

Caldwell, A., died 659 

Caldwell, C. F 938 

Caldwell, F. S. Ore sales comm 305 

Caledonia, Colo 941 

Caledonia Mng., Ida ■• 37 

— Annual report 616, 800 

—Dividends, 1917 159 

By months 32, 260, 440, 656. 843. 1019 

Caliche deposit, Calif ' _28 

California Alkali. Calif 81, 1061 

California — Borax deposits '985, *1000 

— Caliche deposit - ■ • • 28 

— Chrome. 305. 5fi+. 574. 660. 93S. 

M- i L02 I 1063 11 09, ll+n 

Specifications and producers 420 

California Chrome Co 664 

California Comstock, Utah 178 

— Bought by Silver King Con. ... 264 




Dl * 

• atlfornbl 811 

\1l,k'. Hint: 

80, 813 


ower *99 

178, 615, 
979, 1061 

Naval '!■» 

New map 

l'.il? , 1142 

'985, M000 

■ w 62 

mating Co 80 

i liur 1061, t93« 

California Trona <<,. vs. U. 8 

California, Wage schedule, on Acids 796 

Water luppl] 1147 

Calltun, Mo 38 

Callahan, J. F 614, 017 

Calliope, Colo 487 


J. M 718 

pneumatic cells *708. 710, 717 

— Bottom pans '734 

Calumet & Aria. Mng. Co., Aril.. 80, 306, 980 

— Annual report 885 

—Dividends. 1917 151 

By months 32, 656 

—Production 854. 981. 1149 

Calumet & Hecla Mng. Co.: 

— Annual report 1093 

—Death of T. L. Livermore '234 

—Dividends, 1917 ■ • • JJ» 

By months 32, 6^6 

—Haulage 853 

—Labor • ■ 80 

-Production, 177. 252. 263, 307, 487, 5,0, 

806, 814, 959, 1026, 1101, 1149 
— Various notes, 82, 221, 263, 353, 355, 399 

486, 632, 617, 704, 855. 1064 

— Wage bonus 219 

Calumet & Jerome, Aria., 220, 702, 855, 981, 

1108, 1149. 1192 

Cameron vs. Bass 233 

Camp Bird, Cole., 176, 117 187, 769 - 

941, 1109 

—Dividends .260 

Campbell F. W. Petroleum In Kan '811 

Campbell, H. A. Air lift for tailings '1177 

Campbell. J. A. 659 

Campbell, M. B '"' 

<i ol Tazin. I 


Canada Carbide Co 441 

Canada, Chromite, 1917 590 

Canada, Copper, 1917 688 

Canada Cop. Corp., 83. 532. "4^*2.^ 

—Production, 252. 488. 806, 959. 1101 

— Tax appeal g» J 

Canada Dept. of Mines rept t76S 

Canada. Gas. natural «i" iVna 

—Gold =88, 1108 

—Iron, 1917 590 

0« deposits ..........^...1118 

— Labor ".'..'.'.'.'.'..... 513, 768 

—Lead, 1917 589 

-Macnesite 591 (erratum) 695 

—Mineral production. 1917 513. 588 

— Mining accidents d97 (errat 



1917 production 591 

— Nickel deposits "20 

1917 production •>>>» 

Peat 1108 

— Petroleum fields 10J2 

—Silver. 1917 589 

— Zinc bounty "«■* 

1917 production »<> 

Canadian Electro-Products Co. •■•■■■■■••■■ **\ 

Canadian Klrkland. Ont 488, 576, 770. 982 

Canadian Klondike Mng. Co .109 

Canadian Mng. Inst 572, 852. 1060 

—Annual meeting 513, 1146 

—Officers DJ8 

Canadian Nat. Clay Prod. Assoc 396 

Canadian Soc. of Civil Engrs 659 

(ananea. See "Greene-Cananea." 

Candelarla, Nev llj* 

Cane Springs, Ark «» 

Cannon, J. D "0 

Cantonment contracts • • • • - • g' J 

Canvas tubing for mine ventilation 325, *328, "336 

Cape Copper Co., annual report 800 

—Production 806 

Capital Co., Colo 355 

Capital Issues Comm j»7 

Capron. W. C. .. ; ■ 

Car dumping device 

Car lifter 


Car, Ore, steam shovel *416 

Car repairing and oiling I'' 3 

Car shortage. See "Railroads." 

Carbonate Hill Giant, Ida 447 

Carbonate Hill. Ida ;iZ-}22& 

Carbonero. Colo • ■■ 1 '<• l" 63 

Cardiff. Utah 178, 222. 356. 448. 618. ^770, 

Carlton, A. B s f„ 

Carmelite Mng. & Milling, Aria 80 

Carnahan, A. B 8 j9 

Carnahan, H. L. Assessment work 89 

Carnegie Steel Co 79& 

Carolina, Calif £17 

Caroline. Colo *?? 

Carnegie. D 

Carolyn Metal. Mo 



Volume 105 



•». ««:. 

1 » 

OMt I . 

► ■a Sm rv-ullon •• 
nt «n oot 

«-« fll* • 





... . 

— 0» Aamfalatretloa 

CathoOaa. G- ' 

Cbt«\J In aarr a 

int metboda " 





*«. T04 







. lew . . . 

ilar . . 


OBM ■ 




446, .'■ 

C*ntrml Bill, Itati 

f rallwaj purchi>- 

Century. Oklm. . 







1 1 M 















Alabama graphite -w 


. 422 
. rrlle flo- 

.. 422 
William* ball-mill «713 (errata) 935 

Or* Sampling 

rland. Ol 


-l. r.31 

. 260 

. . 222 

Urica 914 

• in water flotation. 427 



•e ta» report . . 638 

. 786 

308\ 768. 941 


tattoo . 506 

. 190 

md. . . . 919 

47.-! and gcol. map.. cw 


til <»5 

Metals Rfg MSI 

712. 707. 916 

. . 348 
0. lion 
J Army. . . . 

. . 548 

. 760 

77, 770 

Cncstar , 447 

Chief Coco- I 

— Annas! re:- -• 799 

—Dividends . . 440, 1019 

• plant. S*« ''Axis. Pou 
Chllt 1 

.. 252 
— Bnm n. Barrage 

' ,1101 



at una) 




1 008 





. 174 


. 656 







, 918 



u manganate in flotation.... 



r refining furnaces, 

'•'• 1083 

1109, 1149 



' Calif tja 

Chrome fy2 

Chrome. New Caledonia, "-' 4 

H- 4 , 

—Market I"-' 6 

Chrome. Prvidmtion ami ttistrlloiit.m 884 

Chroma — D. s. import control 1139 

- 1911 review 134 

.■tlon and distribution 967 

— Shortage 256 

Wori I depositG 

isits 777 

917 i90 



lni: t.-.l 

Chromium, Calil 

Chrotniuni determination 248 

Chronology ol mining, 1017 77 

J I 


Chute mouth repairing 


Cinnabar. Tuscany 4".'> 

Mo 1 

Co., Ariz :)t; 

Ariz 530 

Digger, Ark »1128 

Clark Co., Nov., Hanganeae 

Clark mints. Calif 398 

Improvement Co 892 

E. Oi- C. Geology ol Meekatharri 

[cation of feed — -Dry sizing ., 908 


1 ado-China ill 


tatii on entrate 715 


: .1 :ill 

E. Estimation of manganea kit 
md Chits 1 . 17. 82 

284, 575, 662, Till 

— Helmer mine 264 575 

Cleveland, Gt. Br., Iron stooe 1117 

Clevenger. G. 11 390, 565 

— Flotation vs. cyanidalion 743 

CUft, A 174 

Climate. France and Belgium 342 

Climax ' um mng. 

Climax Molybdenum Co.. Colo 075 


Clinton Zinc Co., Ark 36 

Cloud. T. C, died 937 

Coahulla, Mo 487 

Coal — Alaska 28 

Nenana lands 243 

— Anthracite, women labor 840 

— Bituminous, D. s 45, 926 

—Dirty coal complaint 475 

434, 916 

Mining aid declined 28 

— Gt. Br., Conservation bv electrification... 27 

Miners drafted 1009 

Goal lands restoration 398 

Coal Mng. Inst, of Amer. — I'ii; • sa »623 

Coal— Mont 305, 352 

— Philippine Islands 17 

as fuel . tllos 

. . .1171 

mans work 166 

742, 1174 


Spontaneous Ores i r,6 

s'e -'.mi 


Fuel Admin." 45. 802 

Anthracite allotments ] o;i7 

Bituminous 926 

Coal week 1010 

>n 21, 11:7 

Distribution 1181 

Exports to Canada restricted.... 928 

Mine fatalities. 1917 429 

Preference llat 754 

Production. 1017 86. 7134 

Editorial 808 

R.Rl to pay full price . 802 


Shortage 211, 518 

Shut down order 258, 388 

lorlals 170, 213, 267, 347 

Potl editorial 238 

What cans,, I crisis 820 

le wuuts binding contracts 607 

distribution system 605,878 

I 400, 488 

.la 1162 

\\ Australia 8 

-\v : production 71 

as, Baeaabl *496 

a Oil, Calif 807 

Coastal plain, Oa.— Bauxite 18 

Cobalt. Out., Flotation 785 

Cobalt, Ont., 1917 prod 368 

reonluni hardening 835 

i, Ida 24 

Cochran. T 978 

Coeur d'Alene Antimony Mng 1192 

district. See also "Idaho". .. .114* 

it gun practice # 787 

— Pine-crushing practice 712 

—Flotation *707 

— Labor 630 

— 1917 review 64,145 

— Sloping methods *1068, 1103 

Coghiil, w 11. Chalcopyrlte flotation 422 

Cohen, 1 396 

Cohen, 8. H 852 

Cohen, S. \V 174, 937 

Coke breeze in copper precipitation 1089 

Coke preference list 754 

Coke prices unchanged 167 

Cole. A. A. Canadian industrial situation... 613 

— Mng. engineering as profession 765 

— Peat coal substitute 176 

Cole, A. N 804 

Colemanlte. Calif «985 

College of Mines. Wash 1054 

Collins. A. E. G 396 

Collins. E. A., died 1190 

Collins. G. E Mining In Colo 143 

i.i — Mining, 1917 review 125 

- l'lu t iiium supply. Editorial 623 

Colorado ,V Argentine. Colo , 355 

Colorado Central Mng. 81. 355. 1193 

Colorado Dragon Consol.. Wage payment ... .1107 

C redo, Gold 1061 

-In 701 

aese 175, 897. 1061 

— Map, mng 498 

Colorado Metal Mng. Assoc 219, 304, 352. 1023 

— Exec, committee 853 

Colorado Mining 1917 review 148 

Colorado Mng.. P. 1 356 

Colorado— Molybdenum mng '905, *920 

—Petroleum 938 

Oil shale treatment "917 

—Potash 897 

Colorado School of Mines 1191 

—Tribute to A. A. Blow 216 

Colorado SeientiBc Soc 572 

Colorado, Smelting investigations 538 

Editorial s 345 

Smelting schedules 626 

Colorado Superior, Colo 399 

Colorado. Sylvanite 703 

— Taxation 897 

— Tuncsten 1023, 1061 

— Whltaker Smelting report 32 

Colorimetrlc determination, bismuth 882 

Columbia, Calif 661 

Columbia Kaolin & Aluminum Co., Ga 14 

Columbine-Victor, Colo 1109 

Columbus-Rexall. Utah 38. 356, 448, 576. 770, 

900, 1064, 1194 

Colver, W. B. Coal crisis 320 

Colvocoresses, G. M 614 

Colwell, W. B 896 

Combat wagon. Engineers # 7 

Coming Wonder, Colo 263 

Commerce Dept. — German trade 839 

Commerce Mlg. & R„ Kan 1026 

Commercial and industrial policy alter war. 


Commercial Mng. & Mlg., Nev 900 

Commission of Conservation. Canaoa. Rept..t936 

Commodities, Price chart, 1914-1917 568 

Commonwealth Mng., Colo 81 

Commonwealth, Okla 447 

Community interest development 830, 883 

Como CodsoI. Mines, Nev 982 

Compagnie Anonyme Industrielle du Platine. . 638 
Compagnle du Boleo. Bee ' i 
Compensation. See "Workmen's." 

Competition. Editorial 417 

Composition of refractory silica brick 954 

Compressor, Air, drive "685 

Comstock Lode 1061 

—Mng. lower levels '1029. '1044 

Lion 811 

Comstoek miners' wages 897 

Comsto.k mines. See also "Union Consol.." 

"Ophir." etc 175, 397 

Comstock Pumping Assoc., Nev 662 

. T B. III. oil fields 182 

Conaclir. H. R. J 107 

Concentrates box # 294 

Treatment «1177 

-Mo - urn concentration 836 

b i Cleaning flotation 715 

— Cyaiji : mi: vs. smelting 454 

— Utah Lsg. treatment *T24 

Concentration. See also "Flotation," "Cyanida- 

Concentration — Chrome 462 

—Costs, comparative 104 

— Determining new flow sheets 792 

—Dry sizing of feed '908 

— 'Elmer,- vacuum, Norway 500 

— Oravirv 720 

— Magri lie, iron. Mlneville. N. Y «912 

—Magnetic machine '912, '914 

:.-. Ont 880 




' "' '' ' MI 

—Bchwan patented • •• °!! 

trator, Morning smr. Ark . •<-•' 

Oonclualveneaa ol department iimiing- » 

Ooncntc. Colo 

Corn rata mill oonitroctlon °" 

rate ablpa, Bao "Ship*. 

Cotillon. W. 10 -I?' 

Oonlia.-u.-i-, I'.illf ••• •;, 10 - 8 

Oanger, Ariz. See "Jerome Mng. 

OOBfO I'lii, f. ivi,. • •■ ■ ■ ■ • .: ■ V.iV'IIou 

Conareu Colo 855. .0,1, 8lty, nou 

Conn! ■ 84 MB .87, 1087, 1160 

—Annual r.-iK.rt £"" 

— Flotation I™ 

—Dividends — ■ oiV'iViK 

—Production -2?*. MS, 1 10 

Oonklln. R. K. Porto BJco mnf, decision 1147 

Conkllni Mug.. Viiiii. Silver King Coal case.. 701 

Conner. C. H "; 7 

Connolly. J. M AL 

Ooimora Steel Co.. Ala 220 

Cooover, C. ■ • ■ • • 300 

Conscientious ohjc. lorn provided for ™ 

Conservation. Editorial »»« 

Conservation of te.-linl.-al engineers . ...... .1056 

Consolidated Aria. Smg 531, 617. 1114. 1192 

Zlirolltllon V V:.V:.V.V.V.16%' '<&.' W9-."noi 
Consul i,i„.,-,i Oop. Mines. Nej..8S\ 178 814 1064 
Consolidated lnierstateCallahan Mng "'j^J'-j,,,, 

— Annual report J,' 7 . 

—Dividends , *?" 

—Main hoist , 5 ?S 

— Quarterly report "'» 

Consolidated Leasing, Colo »» 

Consolidated Mayflower, Nev looa 

Consolidated Mines, Colo. ..... . . . . ...... ■ • • I 1 "- 5 

Consolidated Mng. & Smg. Co. of Cana da.. 8 3. 

632, 812, 854. 938. 982. 1110, 1192 

— Annual report , J 2 , , 

—Bounty "J" 

— New oliorgc^ -**** 

Consolidated Spanish Belt Mng Nev ... .982 1194 
Consolidated Virginia. Nev. .222. ^.6.^62, 

—Mng. methods ViV*ii2 

Consolidated Zinc. Ark 661. 1JJJ 

Consolidation Coal Co »-; 

Constaneia, Mex • ■ ""? 

Constitution Mng. & Milling. Ida <" 

Oonstltntlonal tead & Zinc. Okla J* < 

Construction costs — United Eastern -»•» 

Construction. New. 1917 • • • • »« 

Continental Mng., Ark 263. 306 

— K. and M 4*6, 899 

Contracts. "Cost-plus" '»*. «° 

—Editorial *ii 

Contracts, Govt *')> 

Control of oil lands. Trinidad "«} 

Cook. B. C. Pipette 804 

Cooke, G. D., died J°* 

Cooke. J. H.. -°i 

Cooper. J. C ■ "I" 

Cooperation. Industrial, after the war « 

Co-operative rescue work -■>- 

Co-operative stores In mng. towns »J" 

Co-ordination in conduct of war '« 

Coosa Graphite. Ala ■ ■ • ■ • • ■ • ■ • •••- • »»» 

Copper, Alaska 263, 486. 6i4, 812, 10-4 

Copper amalgam as cement < »" 

Copper anode. Lugless M ;J 

Copper. Aril. 1917 review »» 

—Australia. Costs iii qv' 

Production, 1917 181. 95- 

Selllng . - fjS 

Copper Basin Mng, Ida *i 

Copper, Boronic *"? 

Oopper, B. C. .......... «»» 

Copper, Butte. 1917 review J '» 

Oopper Buttes. Ariz "Vi 

Oopper. Canada. 1917. »»» 

Copper Chief Mng.. Ariz £-" 

Copper Conference *"?" 

Oopper Creek Alta Mng., Ont ■ - • ■ 618 

Oopper determination in oxidized ores.. 552. 645 

— Iodide, with sodium ferroxide Ill" 

Copper, effect on steel - ■ J ' * 

Copper for shipbuilding. Editorial a»J 

Copper, Flotation '],' 

Copper King, Alaska • • • • • • • • ■ JVf* 

Copper King, Calif 399. 1063. 1192 

Copper King, Colo -"* 

Copper King, Ida ■_■ • ■ • ■ -22 

Copper, Lake Superior. 191 . review •>< 

Copper market in 1917 °° 

— Vogelstein & Co.'s review - J» 

Copper metallurgy, 1917 review »« 

Copper, Mich .... "fcl 

Copper Mountain. Utah *™ 

Copper. Nev., deposits «° 

Copper. Ont. ...... • .- - - - "gj, 

Copper ore heap leaching "0. *_•" 

Copper oxide determination *•* 

Copper, precipitation with coke breeze lots* 

Copper. Price fixing • ■ • \"; 

Editorial - 57 - l "iS 

Mont, men dissatisfied ■ -■- 

Copper Producers Assoc, Australia no 

Copper production. Editorial ■ ■<<" 

Copper Queen Consol. Mne ,Wna 

— Air-onntrolled fire-door oo» 

— Change house -1 

— Effloicnov training J"y 

— Pensions and insurance <*■" 

—Production QllS 

— Shift boss duties °'° 

Copper. Queensland '; ' ' 

Copper Ranch. Nev ■ -. •-,■-.■. A 

Copper Range. Mich. See also "Trimountain 
263. 399. 447. 532, 575. 617. 941. 1026, 

—Annual Report 1°£2 

—Dividends. 1917 .- - - - - • • !™ 

Bv months 32, b50 


Coppai raflairlM u>a Uai . »ui 

Copper r.-lliilnu (Ul "" .llaadvimt- 

ar ii '•'• '!;?; 

BUvar, OoU 

0o| ., Boiala "' 

, oppi , aalti In Bi tatlon ' JD 

Ooppar unaltlni and rfu. work». N,,nli Ami 

can Mutistii-K xy 

Ooppar, South Af «■■ 

1917 10*2 

Ooppar Btata Unr, Ariz 

Ooppar aulphata, Qt, »r 

Copper suipliai,- In notation '' 

Copper— Swed.ii •"- 

lrT u *.^v.v.v:.v.v. ::.'.*,-. 

> BMltorUl 488 

''in ,155 

Freight Incroaae }«|5 

Import reatrli tiona 

FrnporUMd'eipor'te,' '17.' '302.' »»»J^«'' 1111 

.-_■ - ,., „.! 

World production ••« .68, 202 

Corperopolis. Utah 222, 44-.. 818 

Cordova Mines, Ont v °f 

—Mining costs . =S 

Cork— Province. B. C °*J 

Oorless, C. V. : "" 

Cornell, I. H °/.° 

Cornwall. G. M "SB 

Corona, Calif • ■ • • - • • ■ • »*" 

Ooronado incline top slicing '-40. «» 

Corrlgan, Ida J»» 

Corrlgan, J j"" 

Corrosion, electrode supports »•»' 

Corrosion, pipe "" 

Corundum, Madagascar <">■> 

Cost of living. See "Living." 

•■Cost plus" contracts 7S *. «" 

—Editorial • ■ ■ • *SJ 

Costa Rica Manganese 4: Mng f°* 

Colta Rica— Minin L91"i revievi 1 • ■ 

Ooate, E 1°|» 

Costigan, B. P., photo >"» 

Costs — Australian copper "«» 

—Blasting powder, Alaska »rf 

—Car repairing X {'J 

— Concentration, comparative J»? 

—Construction, United Eastern.... g" 

Drift-gravel Mng. Siberia and Calif on J 

—Filtration, Utah Lsg ' Jj 

—Flotation, Buffalo i"' 

—Gold mng. U. S. -••••■- .Sio 

—Hotel for workmen, B. C »4i Si 

—Leaching, heap " u . "i 

— Milling, Joplin It', 

Surf Smelt., B. C \f°, 

-Mng.— Alaska-Gastineau }»j^ 

Aus 22 

Cordova, Ont 1n JS 

South Af., 1917 1"" 

—Mng. SuppUes, Aus |=J 

Increase ' HT1 

OR oil 

— Mng., underground, Cuyuna »'? 

S. E. Mo. !>8j 

—Nitrate leaching. Chile <"»" 

—Oil-feed pipes laid 2™ 

—Operating, Kerr Lake "" 

S. E. Mo "5^ 

—Production. Colo SSV 

Jumbo Exten - ^ii 

Tom Boy .rig 

— Silver mng., Niplssing '■%'° 

— Stoping, incline top slicing -'» 

Cotton, price fixing Jxjj 

CottreU precipitator SJJ 

Coulby. H JiJ 

Couldrey, P. S ""••"" o?i 

Council of Nat. Defense— Labor plan 21* 

— Platinum command.-t-i-oil • 

—Wire rope standardization ■ • ■ • ■ »"« 

Coopal, J. S •• ...-S61, li»u 

Couplings, Air-hose— Nut and gasket .599 

Cover for shaft cageway - - • • • • • • x "'' 

Cowan Barrens Deep. Ark. •••••661. 70A vw 

Cowdray, Lord. Petroleum in Gt. Br o-£ 

Cowperthwaite, T. Safety first »8b 

Crago, W. H. ii| 

Cramer, S. W. . . .■ S2| 

Cranberry Iron, N. C. -gij 

Crane Oil Slate Utah ••••■■•• 1VSI 

Crane, W. R., Ore. mng. methods ja^i 

Crankpin, truing g59 

Cranston, R. E ViW 1102 

Crawford-Ansell, Ark " u ^' i'-'j 

Crawford, G. E 10 J5, 

Credits. War .SS5 

Crelghton, Ont • SSS 

Creosote as frothing agent ■•--••• ••£■"• ■ LZi 
Crerar. G. Flotation operators' instructions.. 878 

Crerar-Hewitt, Ida ..„, 

Crescent, Kan ;• — • •_•_'_■ * i<7 " 

Cresson Consol, Colo.. 37, MS. ^J-^f^ 

- D ' B y e months" 32.' ' '260. ' 4.bV '656V '8«. 1019 

Crimora Manganese Corp.. Va »". ?•» 

Crimora, Va., manganese mng "■» 

Cripple Creek Gold Mng.. Colo ■ • • ■ f* 

Crippled soldiers' reconstruction 

Crisis. Editorial ...-■ *- 4 

Cristobalite refractory brick :„ 

Crosby Explor.. Minn • • • • ^ 

Crocker, W. ' Attaching "fuse to primers.. ....'UM 

Croesus. Ont. • • ■ ' lft47 

Crossheads, Cripple Creek. Colo .007 471 

Crowell. B Akn 

Crowell. Iron Ores. Lake Superior t350 

Crown Reserve Mng., Colo „ M 

Crown Reserve, Ont g5a 

— Production ■ „v 7 ' 43 j 

Crowning a large pulley ■»«• M * 


CruaaOonaol., 1 487, 676. 704. 1141 1150 

Oruao Davel Co., Mont "• * H1 

Crushing. See 1 "MUllnf" lull Milling. 

Oraahlng |,r». tl I '„ur d'Aiene _iir 

Crystal Lake, 1 I '?.™ 

Mont ^«« 

0u\» Holetlr, da mlnaa „„,.,',•,, 

Cuba— Iron deposlia 100^. 1WJ 

- Manga m-M- proapecta ' '? 

Mining. 1917 review '" 

. ,? 

:,nd Iron ore d.-|»,slu '■ ' » ' 

Cunningham vs. CoaUW ...•;..••■•••••,••• JJ5S 
Oorrem prteea, 48, :t 1 1 . 491. 778, OO.t. 67 

Curtis, 8. T "'»» 

Curta, Calif ..?'" 

Cuahman diet., Ark., photoa. J f» 

Ouatar Peak Milling t< ore, B. I) 8.1. ill" 

Cut out the wai to Editorial ««« 

Cutout, trollai Hue ■ • ■ • •, f*i 

Cutting. 8. I) 8, «. "12 

Cnrler Adams, Minn ; "' 

m dlatrlcl Manganlfirous Iron mi ?Hlt, ^ 

Cuyuna-Mllle Lacs Iron.. Minn 82. 270 

Cuyuna-Mlnneap.,11* Iron. Minn *'' 

Cuyuna ahipments 191117 f™ 

Cyanide solutions— Gold precipitation 60S 

Cyanldatlon, Costs, Buffalo mine. 2"J 

Cyanldatlon vs Flotation «45. 748 

Cyanide in Flotation ■ '•"' 

Cyanldlng concentrates vs. smelting «• 

C. C. Conaol.. UUb l7B 


Dakota Continental. 8. D 90 <> 

Dalmage. V !ijt 

Dalrymple, J j^'l'\i,'ll .«. 

Dalv-Judge, Utah— Controls DslyWest .... . 529 
Daly-West Mng.. Otah 222, 308 - }JM 

— Annual report iSX 

-Daly Judge controls •■• ^» 

—Dividends 200 ' 212 

Danforth. G. L.. Jr •••• •••• • "» 

Dante, Colo 81: >- 8j5 ' }] n J 

Danube, Minn ft27 

Darling. I. C • -; J,i 

Darlington. T. Ulnese in Industry • ■ ■ «J 

Darwin Devcl.. Calif. ■•••• sl - 7 S; 

Data of world's principal mines . . . ._ ;■•••■■ 
Davenport. I,. D Steam skove! # mng. # M08 .^^ 

— Editorial - /(Ji 


Davies. .7. G 942 

Davies. J. « T gi 

DavtoaiV co,,:. Mon, ;::::::::::: .'83.' 222; ' 1150 

— Production 

Davis, R. B.. Co gi| 

Davis, W. N ' ' 4 . 4g 

Day. J. S .:**i '' 140 

Day. P. C. European climate %" 

Daylight Mng.. Aria »»» 

Daylight saving bill. ...... •• 7ft . 

Dayton Coal, Iron i R. R-. Tenn 704 

De Armond. Knn • . fil 

De Camp, W. V. Bonus system '2 

—Nut for air-hose couplings 1 1 00 

Deadwood. Colo. •••-•■ •• • -•■ • ii - v; 7 'r ' 704' 1150 
Deadwood Lead &. Zinc. S. D..83, 578, ,»i. 1100 

Dean. N. W ,,,, 

Dean. R. 8.. 218 

SStS- ^i4:'cViir-BorVx-::::v.'.ii>; -I,,- 

Debris, Mining. Calif g 3g 

gSS: Sationai. P^cipai ' befligerents ! \ \ \ 872 

Deepest well in world „u- 7 X n 

Deer Trail Mng.. Dtah. 'lllO 

Deer TraU No. 2, Wash J"« 

Del Mar. A. Soda feeder - ;. i? 

—Treatment of flotation concentrates 11^ 

Del Monte. Ariz ' gg^ 

Beirca.^:::::::::::::^^''^^' 11 !? 

Dlm'or^t.Tr Electrolytic' antimony! " " \ 10 

Demurrage rates increased • • • - » g ' 3 

— Colo ^,,<, 

Denbigh Mng.. Colo gl3 

(fines. Colo .W.wi, ' 854! 'l024 

Denn-Ariz.. Ariz.- ° 97 g 

Dennison. W ' qqq 

Densmore. Calif. .•',''. " Q7ft 

Denver Civic & Commercial Assoc ..•• »^» 

Denver Mng. S " 855 ' ?Q2 

Depletion tax cal, alatton. . ... • • • ■ • • -„. 

Deposition removal— Hydrochloric for (-» 

Depreciation and obsolescence "o. 

Depreciation tax calculation ,j™jj 

Derailing switch .... •■ •• „ 55 

Derry Ranch Dr Age, Colo ■■■■ ■■■■ «| 

Deseret Mountain. Utah.... 38. 178, 308 

Desert Power & Water. Ariz g D * 

Desert Prod., Calif br '11*,-, 

Desloee Consol. Lead. Mo. ..........•■• .66. 1155 

Determination of c, per in oxidized ores 552 

Detroit Hoist & Mich. Co jjjj 4 

Detweiler. A. N... 1038 

Deval abrasion te-t ..•■■■■•--■ • u„. „„, 

Development of commanltj Interest 830 ' 1 S°? 

Diabase as tube -r :l pebble ^1036 

Diamond core drill „cq 

Diamond-drill bit recovery ■»» 

Diamond R. Mng . Wash ; «| 

Diamond saw R c^ 

Diamonds, South Africa . °»J 

Diatomaceous earth. B. C gg g 

Dick. J. C ' 918 

Dickinson. E. S 


Volume 105 




943, 1110 

- I'r.Js 

H 810 

71S. 721 
: ardnets marhlne- 


DoutU- I '« 
' - •• 

' ' ll 

r*ir>. u !.i.,. deportations. . 

— Osei- • 

. . 614 



— Coa*. i rortded for 606 

. , r.ns 

— R~-i» inns 


"Itral* leaching "987 

Dragon M * !• \- llns 

Dralna.- •, watering." 

Draper r « How Draper brought oot the 

platinum . 510 

1110. 1193 

- paper. ... 247 


t>r~lr— Gold— Ssfefy rules 853. 1081 

Ir dgtnc pay* . . *1 

. - irel mng. lo E. - »859 




'■*• — Mirkinr method* . ... 79R 

und 600 


•ol'mu. Kan 81!) 

-are. oil well. 646 

• r.r ken . . 

. . 899 

.inldinr vs. smelting 4H4 

... 887 
•••• 1106 

1 • ' .400 

' ' - a- entratlon # 908 

! 1012 

D»BI»1'' 572 

J™*"^ 488, 900 






• ' ' 220 807 UOt 1114 

Donkln l>a<e. Colo 

£»»'»[>■ p \ 


-Ideation 604 

Powder Co 988 

488. 898 

Dtt«t — afansan*** estimat 407 

; 1142 

: rnai Mne grate* 

1 444. 785 

— FlMattoo and ryanldatlon eoata. . . 104 

Utah 38. r,76. 814, I02n 

- 70S 

■•"rant. Ol ' 114'. 

Ea.t P.. i ,,,; 60 n 


00. 48R 
'• '. -j 

. 896 

■••■••• 80. 854 

— O^enr d Alene dl«trict. - 64 

! ^. W. Amer. 8. & B. In M<i 67 



1 1 20 


Mo ...... 804 




. 548 


- Con took 

•1020, MUM 

Editorial... 847 
Coniin ..... . 434 

i S Dominican oil. . . .1041 

Edward- • . 1 . . 400 

Edward M . 21S 

1 .,1 •91G 

1 998 

I 200 

! 771. 


1 . u 

I 1 1025 

Ing Co., Calif 1 

245. 713 

1 20 

1 I illf 617 

532. 617. 900 

King, Oolo 1109 

v . 981 



■ hrome, c.niir 940 

Eldornil H09 

Eldorado Slat Corp., Ariz 940 

Electric Alley - Lncero 234 

I Bolst Mfrs. Assoc 697 

I Mug. C.., Ark 80 

1- I, Wash 042, 1110, 11 B0 

nan* x*&vapai, An/ . . *1113 

power rates. Cnllf 897 

smelting, Phosphate 879 

— Scrap Iron 574 

— Bweden r,38 


Electrical mfrs. to conserve tin 1138 

Electrification, <:t. Br 27 

— R. R.'s urged 434 

— Statistics 483 

— V. S 754 

Metallurgical Co 756 

rorkB. Shawinigan. Can 111 

Electrode rapports, Corrosion 837 


■.tic copper refineries. T". s 05 

Electrolytic Rfg. i Sing., Aus 69 

yttc Zinc Co. patent 1088 

Electrolytic line extraction 97 

Eleventh Engineers 173 

Elk Hills oil land fraud '..1023 

Elk Lake water route 1024 

Elkton, Colo 177, 487, 760. 855. 11119 

Ella B.. Colo 177, 447. 855 

Ella. Mont 1079 

Elliott. A. II.. died 484 

Elliott-Kirkland. On t.... 356, 618, 856. 982 1110 

Elliott, it. H nag 

Elliott. S. R ' 572 

— Photo 788 

Elliott's Copper Works, X. s. W 882 

Ellis. C. B 572 

Ellison draft gage «292 

Elm Orlu Mng.. Mont 83 

— Butte Sup. litigation 48s] 701 

Elmore vacuum concentration, Norway 500 

Elotiis. Mo 1157 

Eloosa. Okla 1110 

Kit n. J. O ii4g 

Ely-Scott Synd.. Ont ..'. 576 

Embree Iron Co.. Tenn # 285 

Emerald Lsle. Ariz 1108 

Emerson. B. T. Geology of Mass t706 

Emery, Xnxos 212 

Emigration after the war 803 

178, 400, 770 856 

Emma Cop., Utah. Production 488 

Emmons. w. II. Economic geology t527 

— Ore deposits 105 

Empire-Ariz. Consol. Cop., Ariz 769 

Calif 81, 631. 673 

Empire • [da 82, 1 108 

— Dividends 260 

Empire Dtot. Elect. Co 733 

Emplre-Duluth. Colo 1025 

Empire Kan 821 

Employer and reconstruction of crippled 

■oldler 1172 

Employers' liability for defective steam shovel 425 


End-dumping mine car 'OOO 

Calif 81, 1025, 1193 

— Production, 1917 529 

■r." Community Interest 883 

mining Bd 1187 

Engineer Regi ■ ' -ty'- 

.th." "Thirty-third." "Replacement." 

"Engineer." Safety practices 966 

Engineering chemistry t527 

Engineering Council. Conservation of tech. 

engineers 1055 

— Industrial efficiency sm 

Engineers— Army and navy need, 167. 424, 

968, 10:i5. 1097 

— Cnmhral action 793 

— -Combat wagon *7 

- ration .1056 

nations 1 1.17 

ay, regiments 1112 

„ Page 

1 >i Western Pa.. ..898, 11122, 1060 

I inert ill); 351 

1 See "I . K." 

ol ore depoi us 105 


1 Hygiene for lead workers 384 

1 Prod, Co., .Mo 1108 

1 1 non-essentlnls. Editorial 480 

1 Gold Dredging, Calif 001, 1028 

Petri 11m in Kan *8n 

Dth Professional 189 

111 Colo 1149 

1 .s nod liners 713 

Km 1 Crane a Holsl Co 0:17 

n 4y 

Don Bullion, I'tah 711 , 

Bur Calif 

Iin Kil.v. Utah 858 062 814 

' anese A Mng., Ark 674 

\\ lilng plant 773 

. 1 tah 222, 488 

U is. line mines ' 3'"> 

Bv« A. W., died 351 

Evan-. II. G not) 

1 . 1 iredge, Colo 81 

i 1 ' I \\ 957 

plant, xitrate leaching ! "989 

Rftr., Kan 821 

Post, "Cost plus" contracts 926 

1 seeks Caucasus manganese 1127 

G blundering 238 

I lent and the war 973 

— Real red tapers 300 

—"Taking over" by the govt 498 

Sun on price control 526 

". Colo 355. 813, 11125 

Everton .Mng. & Devel.. Ark 306 

Every American's duty 716 

Examination of ores ...!*728 

Excelsior Mng. & Lsg., Colo. 263, 307, 4V7', 

855. 1109 
profits tax. See also "Taxation, TJ. S " 

Excess proiits of mines. Editorial 975 

Excess profits tax reviewers 688 

Exchange. Dollar, Chile . 43B 

Exhaust gases in mines — Disposal 633 

"Experts." Times on ' 809 

Explosives Act 615, 1023 

1: I] at ions 378 

Explosives, Permissible tll05 

Exports control 343, 390, 968 

Express companies merged 1051 

Express shipment rules ''' 658 

Express Traffic Assoc. Rules 658 

Extracts from diary of Bolshevik smeltcrman. 468 
Extralateral mng. rights 273 

Fabrc, C, died 444 

Fahrenwald. P. A 572 

Fairbanks Gold, Alaska 1024 

Fairfax Gold Mng.. Colo "ll09 

Fairview, Colo 437 

"Faith" launched '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'' 607 

False representation claim upheld 1147 

Fan, Scblotter ventilator *206 

Fanny Rawlings, Colo ' " 355 

Far Eastern Rand, South Af 129 

Farnon vs. Silver King Coal 187 

Farr-Wiebold Electric, Utah 897 

Farrant. R 0,28 

Kay, A. H. Coal mine fatalities .... ','. '. '.'.'. '. 429 

— Standardization of accident reports 1165 

Fay, Minn. See "llanna Ore." 

Fearn, P. L. R., died 852 

Feats of labor. Editorial !.!l058 

Federal Gold, Calif 813, 1025 

Federal income tax regulations 301 

Federal Lead Co., Mo 66, 1155 

Federal Mng. & Smg 82, 447, 661, 938 

— Bourne law decision 273 

— Dividends, 1917 159 

By months 32, 658 

— Flotation methods 710 

— Morning, Ida., mine.. 177, 307. 39<J, •Vl4. '750 

Maequisten tubes •707 

— Star Mug. case 660 

—War savings campaign 616 

Federal Shipbuilding Co 927 

Federal Spar Co.. Ky 703 

Federal Synd.. Mich. 177, 308. 399, 532, 617, 

704, 981, 1026, 1109, 1149 
Federal Trade Comm. Kept, on anthracite. .+766 

Feed, Concentration, Dry sizing 908 

Feed trouble correction, Janney machine 719 

Feeding stamp platform »925 

Fees, Professional 189 

Feldspar, Potash extraction 176. 382 

— Sweden ' 932 

Feldtmann, F. R. Geology of Kalgoorlle t766 

Fellow ships — Univ. of in inn 

Felsite in tube-milling IO34 

Fennel!, C. G 1146 

Ferguson. C 1025 

Ferguson, G. H 1062 

Ferguson, II. G 759, 1022 

— Graphite 1079 

— Tin deposits, Va 5 

Ferraris. E. Italian mineral prod 331 

Ferro, Minn 270 

Ferroalloys. Metallurgical, 1917 review 191 

Perrochrome situation 244 

lire 1 -.1111 -c. Sic also "Manganese." 
Eerromanganese, Anaconda to produce. . .523, 677 
Perromanganese and spiegeleisen, 1917 review 75 

I erxi anganese data 75 plant. Anaconda 677 

"Ferromanganese." Price of manganese. .. .1175 

Ferr.11 sulphate in flotation 916 

Fertilizer ingredients 996 

— Licensed 555 

Field. A L 34, 700 

Filter. American 71i: 717 

Filter- Continuous *987 



filtration Ooour d'Aleua practlc • i *J 

It, l lull Lag . ., 

1 1 

torn • .- i. 

i nt la i Industrie*. 

Finns u war 

J « . photo 

fin. Iter, S. 

ieur d'Alcno 

Fmiaj. J. li 


ag points ■ -- 

lamp lu gold mini's 

rirsprooflug mine abaft, Am * 1 1 -t) 

fins, (Spontaneous, Lo coal 

Fli>t aid training -•'•- 

First National Oop., Calif 574 

—Dividends 440 

Flab, ■*. P 891 

Flshback, M. Molybdenum and Mines Control 

Utab 38, 

Fitch. 11. A «84 

rising pries ol manganese. Editorial 1057 

Flag Day i 

Flaketown (irnpbltc. Ala 281 

Flannory, J. M t 1012 

Flntui.Tv Zinc. Mo. — Air compressor drive. .•085 

rial Etrver, Mo., district # 1153 

Ing, .'. u. Permissible ea ■ ■ . tnos 
Flinn, A. D. Conservation of technical en- 
gineers 1055 

Fllnls In tube-milling 'lOSS 

Pli ranee Mng. & Milling. Utah 83. CIS, 770, 

850, 1020, 1004 

Florence Silver, B. C 1194 

notation - Ariz, practice 717 

— Belmont Suri inlet mines 

— Brlquettlng vs 1176 

— Callow pneumatic cells •708, 710. 717 

— Cascade machines 717 

Broken Hill unsuccessful 

— Cbalcopyrlte. So. Ore 422 

—Chemicals "12. 797, 916 

—Cobalt, Ont 785 

— Coeur d'AIene district "07 

— Concentrates. Treatment '1177 

— Costs. Buffalo mine 104 

— Cyanidation vs 645, 743 

— Gangue minerals and 738 

— Graphite, Ala 282 

— Groch machine 737 

— Haley's patent 548 

— Handling concentrates. Utah Lsg. *724 

— Heavier than water media 427 

— Hebbard machine 717 

— Horwood process 742 

— Janney machine 710, «714. 715, 717, 719, '748 

— Jones-Belmont cell *720 

— K. & K. machine 711. 718, 746 

— Kraut machine *748 

— Macqnlsten tube '709 

—Mexico 103 

— Minerals Sep. cases. See "Minerals." 

— Minerals Sep. license 332 

— Minerals Sep. machine 717 

—Mo 178 

Economic aspect 364 

—Oils 915 

Canadian experiments 702 

Tests 1043 

— Operators instructions 378 

— Patent litigation. Editorial 934 

— Progressive. 1917 99 

—Ruth machine '749, *752 

— Safety rules needed 188 

— Seale-Sellshear machine 718 

— Selective, Aus 739 

Bureau of Mines experiments 768 

Ida 485 

— Soda feeder *719 

— Sodium manganate in 797 

— Troubles 735 

— Dtab Lsg. plant '535 

— Zeigler machine '708, *711 

Flow sheet — Chalcopyrite pyrrhotite ores.... 423 

—Chrome, St. Francis 462 

— Concentration. Dry feed, wet gravity 908 

910, 911 

— Concentration, magnetic 913 

— Determination in new mills 792 

— Flotation, Belmont Surf Inlet. B. C '720 

Utah lsg 536, 537 

-Milling. Eagle Picher '728 

Flower. H. C 887 

Flue dust cyaniding 369 

Fluorite for optical purposes ">22 

Fluorspar. Wash 9S2 

Flux. Ariz 854, 1024 

Flynn, T. J 810 

Fogg D. E 1012 

Fohs. P. J 896 

Folsom, D. M. apptd. petroleum supervisor.. 388 

Food a mighty weapon 518 

Pood Administration 26 

— Distribution powers asked 342 

Food— Diet for miners 627, 883, 1090 

Pood invention, Maxim's 171 

Foot Hill Cop., Calif 617 

Foote. F. W 614 

— Concentrates box *294 

— Feeding stamp platform *925 

— Shaking screen *207 

— Tungsten determination 838 

For consideration of General Staff. Editorial. 483 

Forbes, A. B 887 

Forbes, C. K 174 

Forbes. D. L. H ' 1022 

Forbes. G. R.. died 978 

Ford Creek Oil. Mont 356 

Ford Gold & Silver. Ariz 1063 

Foreign Mines Devel. Co 907 

Foreign Trade Conv.. Cincinnati 210 

. 18' 

I ! I M 

Portuna, Calif 

Fortuna Consol. Am 

Furluun Mng., Aril 


Fowler, G. W 

Pol, A. W , Cl red tope. . 

Fox Den Mng., Irs 

Fox, II. W 

rowllo, A. B 

—Climate 342 

434, 910 

M Mill 

- -Labor 

I :i» 

i by U. S. Bngra 

Franklin lusl 1022 

Franklin. Mich. 37, 177. 2G3, 303, 447. 

i, 704, 981 

Production 487 


Fraeer. i>. n 804 

.1 887 

rraBer, W 1190 

Fran,] in *v i ,, contracts 754 

rrederlcktown district, Mo 36 

Free Coil I, Colo 813 

Free Coinage, Mont 6 

Freehold Oil ft Gas, Mo 40U. 487 

Freeman. P. \Y 1107 

Prceport Sulphur Co., Tex 83, 1171 

Freezing — Calcium color, prevents 21 . 

Freight rates decision 565 

Freight rates, increases on copper and lead 

1098, 1183 

Fremont. Calif 486, 768 

French Complex-Ore Reduct. Co 854 

French electrolytic separation 853 

French Gulch Gold Dredging. Colo. 177, 487, 

769, 813. 1109 

French, T. S 853 

Frick. Mont 1110 

Friedman. L. A 929 

Frink. L. D. Canvas tube ventilation 325 

Prontenac, Colo 

Frost in Alaska 338 

Pucbs. F. C. Identification of molybdenite. . 991 
Fuel administration. See also "Coal, U. S.". 927 

—Address by G. S. Rice 433 

—Anthracite allotments 1097. 1137 

—Coal complaint 475 

—Coal distribution 1181 

— Coal trade wants binding contracts 607 

—Coal week 1010 

— Fuel order suspended 388 

— May abrogate private oil contracts 606 

— May cancel coal contracts 687 

— Most save coal 1137 

— Non-essential industries 436 

— Oil economy urged 1051 

— Oil situation summarized 517 

— Petroleum price 1053 

— Power generation at coal mines 754 

— Saving in power plants 1008 

— Wire-rope mfrs. meeting 753 

— Zone system 605. 879 

Fuel oil license 341 

Fuel value of wood 16 

Fuming liquids— Pipette *604 

Funk, W. A 810 

Purlow, J. W 930 

Furnaces, Distillation 98, '467 

— Reverberatory, Chrome brick disadvantage- 
ous 9, 1083 

—Roasting 97 

—Zinc distillation '467 

Fuse, Attaching to primers "1133 

Fuse Ignitor *1046 

Gabbro as tube-mill pebble 1039 

Gadsden Cop.. Ariz 220, 702. 1024. 1114, 1192 

Gage. Calif 446 

Gage Mng. N. M 264 

Gages, draft *292 

Gahl. R 767 

— Flotation in Ariz 717 

—Photo '740 

Gale, H. S 28, 529 

— Potash. Pintados Salar, Chile 674, 678 

Galena flotation '707, 741 

Galinro Molybdenum. Ariz 8! 

Galvanized ropes 994 

Gambetta, Calif 81 

Gangue and ore. Editorial 438 

Gangue minerals and flotation 738 

Gannett. R 1012 

Gantt, H. L. Production must be balanced. .. 478 

Gardella. Calif 1063 

Gardens. War 839 

Gardner. W. H. B —Will it pay? '1 

Garfield. See "Fuel Administration. '" 

Garford. Synd.. Ariz 38 

Garland, N. M 937 

Garlichs. H 810, 978 

Garner, A. H 896 

Garnsey. C. Jr 927 

Garrison Monster. Utah 308. 448, 618. 1194 

Garver N". B. Building-construction data.. 1174 

Gary, E. H 614, 928 

i;r,s. Natural — Calif.. 1917 1142 

— Canada, west 1099 

—III. fieids *181 

—Ont 616 

— Overdrilling unprofitable 835 

—Wash 397 

Gases, Exhaust, ; n mines — Disposal . 633 


J l 


Gaulln, a i 

I i 

Gemini, I tab 

llu .14 



General M I . Ariz. . . . 

Gen. nil I. 

f London 014 

i , Work of 822 

i ■ . .109 


Geology i I 

Geology Of Ml , 

' . ii 

George. 1 ' 1 

George, H. C. Brain 

I. K 

George, H. I> 34 

Georgetown Tunnel, Coll ii"i* 

- . Mo 82. 448 

I ' 13 

—11U7 production 101(4 

Georgia Kaolin Co 14 

Gepp, H. W 

German industry 803 

German propaganda i'T7 

German silver renamed 

Zinc LJi 

Germanium detection 249 

Germany — Australian mines controlled 1096 

—Barbarities 1145 

— Iron 809 

— Lorraine Iron ore 1059 

— Low grade mineral utilization 369, 914 

—Manganese, Caucasus, wanted 927 

—Mng. and suig 476 

—National wealth 1058 

— Necessity of defeat 746 

—Nickel 1098 

— Nitrate i 948 

— Oil-saving rules 508 

- — Possession of Russian oil 518 

— South African interests 888 

— Trade war asrainst 474 

— Trade conditions 889 

— 'Union of tech. and learned societies 1138 

Gerolo Mfrg. Co.. Vise «684 

Giant Ledge Mng., Ida 82 

Globs ft Co 889 

Glbbs oxygen rescue apparatus *323 

Gibson Consol. Cop., Ariz 898 

Gibson, E 887 

Gibson, T. W. Ontario mining 117 

Gidel, M. n 1078 

Gifford-Cobalt. Ont 38. 264 

Gifford, Supt 914 

Gila Cop. Sulphide 940 

Gila Devel., Ariz 36. 398 

Gilbert. G. K.. died 1190 

— llvdraulic debris 105 

Gilbreth. F. M. Crippled soldier in industry 4L'8 
Giles. H. P., Manufacturing opportunities. 

Wash 11105 

Gilpin-Eureka. Colo 307, 355 

Giragossian. G 809 

Gish & Kinney, Colo 1149 

Glassware. Chem., compared 248 

Glenco, Utah 1064 

Glendale works. Editorial s 47 

Glenn, L. C 218 

Globe Dominion. Ariz 702 

Gloria Mng.. Ark 661 

Glove. Steel-grip '1049 

Glue — Trouble in flotation 736 

Godfrey. J. R. Air blasts 958 

Godiva. Utah 400, 942. 1064 

Goetchins. J. M 614 

Goff, F. H 887 

Goff well, w. Vn 591 

ft Silver Mng., Calif 486 

Gold — Adirondacks 612 

—Alaska 521 

Copper River 543 

— Amalgamation. Gold Coast 367 

— Art consumpti r 331 

— Australia, production 131 

— B. C 1100 

—Calif 305. 768 

— Canada 1108 

1917 production 588 

Gold cathodes 162 

Gold Chain. Utah 770. 942 

Gold Cliff. Calif 768 

Gold Coast Colony — Amalgamation practice. . 367 

—Views '791 

Gold. Colo 1061 

— Cyaniding graphitic ores 197 

— Cya t -' 454 

Gold-dredging in ml 7 108 

— Safete rules 853 

Gold Hunter. Ida 713. 734 

Gold industry and standard 887 

—Editorial 887 

Gold King Mng. vs. McKirahan 630 

Gold 1 283 

Gold— Metallurgy 645 

1917 review 102 


Go'd mines. Fire damp in 184 

Gold mng. See also Costs. 

Gold mng. as investment 430 


Volume 105 


Ol J 

■ : 





I it 




.. Bl .. 

. . . 30S 

Mng. A Reduct.. Colo 487 

. . 159 
By n. 


-K~. rtf ;r 1. Urn 220 

32, 1064 
. .1134 
iotnperv 8. Statement to Amer. Fed. of 

.. 612 

— Su«*»t« 7 hr.-Jay 344 

.... 899 

Goodwin Br.i.. Me 177 

Goodwin L. H... 1106 

"Goober" bole loading device *408 


Miami 426 

neat-Control. See alio "Mine*." etc.. 895 
— Ar 


—Editorial 215 

—Brtning Pott editorial 498 


Brit 598 


•• Comm. bearings 656 


administration. Editorial.... 213 

t«. corporation*. Editorial 1102 

Government * handicap. Editorial 1 1*8 

CM, 1109 

• r-erty. Ga 15 

lis 282 

• VhwI.. B • M2, 812. 1064, 1110 


ads 1019 


Grand Central. Utah 38, 576. 814 


12. 843 

1 1108 

Grand Pacific Cop.. Ariz 898 


I, 1150 

147, 487. 703. 855, 1109 

Granite Poorman Mine, B. 83 

Grant. F. L 899 

Grant. Q P 

Grant. W. B 

Graphite. Ala «281, 436 

export 327 

D tv Alabama 844 



panles 282 

— Madaia-.z-sr 681 

—V. i em lei 



Graphite Product* Corp 151 

rpoelts 462 

—Sweden . 932 

— C. S 759. 1079 

-t restrictions 608 

1917 review 188 

production. lt>17 1079 

Gram Valley Consol. Gold mine*. C.t :'f -:. 1025 
Graaa Valley Deep Mines Corp 37 


S33, m>8 



I. 1'rlfl 


... 354 

. , . 982 


. .69, llmi 

v _' 

220. 000 


Aril SO 

. . 761) 

... 900 
... 1114 




12, 959. 1101 




of Nuvajo t7«« 

Ala 446 

. Am 354, 44r, 




Grinder '.172 

Grinding teste, Mlnml 420 

Grinding tin.- charge 370, 8S3, 1175 

tlon machine 737 

1' 737, 1)39 

tdunderlng 238 

Groundhog, Ark 446 

B. Food r,18 

Grub Cut. Ark., photo «1129 

Guadaloupe, Colo 855 

II. A 710 

Guggenheim, D 761 

—Liberty loan message, photo ('.21 

— Smelting position. Editorial 698 

ioim. E. A 978 

riuild, F. N. Mi. restructure of silver ores. 106 

Golf States Steel. Ala 80 

Iphur. Tex. — Views "466 

Gum l . ■ 355 

Gnn Division to cxpund G10 

Gun. Long- range. German 7r,4. 1104 

Gunnison Cop., Colt 1U25 

Gurley transit variations 21 

Gurs-ii, Norway 501 

Guston, Colo 176 

Gutlirie, W. B 

Gymple. Queensland 439 


Hackberry Consol. Mng., Ariz 1063 

Hackberry Silver Mng., Ariz 661, 812 

Hadfreed, sir i: 11114, 1138 

Hagnr, E. N.. died 304 

Hague, w. Career and death «148 

Hale, Sir D 896 

Height, V7. It 812 

Haley, E. j 927 

A.. .lr. M ;irk Co., Nev. *775 

)»re deposits. Yellow Pine, Nov 4o.~< 

Hale, G. E. Organization of research work.. 1136 

-ID f786 

Hales A: Symons, Calif 354 

Haley, i>. F. Oil-flotation patent 548 

Halifax, Nov., Production 222, :;.'>«, 77u 1026. 


Halifax Shipbuilders. Ltd 1148 

Hall, F. w 597 

Halt Tunnel. Colo 355 

Halsey, F. A Metric system 1013 

Hamilton, E. 11 1106 

on, F 037, 1107 

Hamilton. S. II 351 

Hamlet Mng. A Milling, Colo 81, 769. 1109 

Hammond. H. 614 

<i, J. II. Teatman Telegram 596 

. den-Cloncurry Cop. Mines. Ltd. Aus.-59, 

952, 1100 
Hancock Consol., Mich. 221. 307. 399, 941, 

1062, 1109 

—Production 263. 487. 017, 900 

Hancock. R T 937 

— Heap leaching 882 

Handling flotation concentrates, Utah Lsg...*724 

Haney, ' e mng., \'a 875 

Hanford shepherd. Ark. 114P. 

Hang. K. 1 852 

Hangars — Space determination chart 473 

II. 106I 

Manna. M. ! b 74, 177. 576, 770 

11-inna, W. J 851, 528 

Co., Minn 177 

Hansen, C. C , . . 917 

Hanson. H. A . 890 

"Tardf-nberg. Calif 1149 

Bardei <illan iron 1002 

— Andes Cop. '> 137 

Harding. .T. E 1022 

Harding. TV. p. r; 887 

Hardlr Mill Co. — Miami Cop. mill 

data 4g4 

Hardlngc. H. \v 1139 

Hardlngo mill tests. Miami 426 


- !«•-(. tube-mill pebbles L036 

1 int 1192 

Uaro.», C. Molybdenum 92 

■ ore market 91 

1*. G 1106 

Harms. E 1 1 .„, 

ton, ('. 1 351 

1 [., died 

;tr, 1 

Hart, <'. E 7.18 


'. T. J ' s^f 

I 218, 978 

E. A 978 

B, Dietary for miners 10110 

i '. A 097 

1 I. H. Gold .illation 430 

Hutch. L. \V lies 

her '-"si 

Range *495 

M -, 1.V.1 

' In '1004 

1 iround, .loplln »411 

Huuser. 1 of electrodes 887 

I A 937 

1 : . 1 tlon 512 

A, W 014 

Haw fcej c. Ark 981 

Haw 1 1: sulphur analysis 885 

Haycock, 1:.. died mo 

Hay.! 761 

Hoyden Devel., Ariz 1024, 1114 

Hayes Mng., Ida 82 

Hnynes, '■ Stelllte '997 

Haynes Stelllte Co., Ida 147 

Hayward, M. w. Molybdenum mug., Colo., 

•905, «920 

Haywood, W. D 395 

Hazel, Calif 354, 399 

dframe. Ariz Hercules 680 

— Union mine, Nev *1032 

Headlight, CalH 1063 

Heal.v, R. L. Powder blasting, Perseverance, 

Alaska 922 

Heap-leaching. See "Leaching." 

Heater, Steel Jacketed electric *336 

Heaton's Annual Commercial Handbook t936 

Heawood, Fed. Malay States 516 

Hebbard floi bine 717 

Heberlr-in, K . B 659 

Hecla .Mng. Co., Ida 82, 575, «750, 981 

— Cementation 789 

— Dividends. 1917 160 

By months 32, 260 

Btoping methods '1069, L103 

Hedky. B. C. — Dividends, 1917 161 

By months 32, 656 

Helntzlentan, P. S. Chinese wolframite 24 

Helena mine, Mont.. 38, 178. 308, 400. 704, 1150 

Heller, A. 11 937 

Helmet mine. See "Cleveland Cliffs." 

Help catch a submarine 1010 

Help save America's boys 153 

Hematite, Lincolnshire deposits 1117 

Henderson Apex law. Wash 979 

Henderson, C. B 700, 810, 841 

Henderson, J. W 1108 

Hendrick, E 1106 

Henry, E. C. Magnetic concentration *912 

Hercules, Ida *714, •751, 938 

—Ball-mills «713 

— Cement gun use »787 

Hercules Primrose Corp., Aus 939 

Hering, C. Electrochemical equivalents t350 

Herington, C. F. Powdered coal as fuel. . . . T1105 

Heriot, E. M. Spanish potash «643 

Herr, I. Graphite flotation 282 

Herrlck, M. T 1098 

Herring, D 1146 

Hess, It. M 444 

Hewett, D. F. Anticlines, Wyo 936 

— TYyo. oil report 23 

Hewitt. C. T 937 

Heyliger, W. German barbarity 1145 

Hiawatha, Colo 307 

Hicks, 11. I.. Mechanical tampers *1048 

Hidden Lake Mine, Mont 82 

Hidden, W. E., died 1190 

Higbee. F. G. Geometry t766 

Higgins Mng., Ariz 812 

High Speed Steel Alloys, Ltd 502 

Highland Mary, Colo 37, 307 

Highways, Pacific Coast 615 

Hill-Annex. Minn 34, 1111) 

Hill, C. W. Determining lead by spectroscope 163 

Hill Mines Co.. Minn 177 

Hill Gold, Ont 400.814 

Hill, J. M 991 

Hill Top Exten., Ariz 1063 

Hines, D. M 261 

Hines. J. I. D 810 

Hines. P. R 978 

— Ball milling 669 

Hock Hocking. Colo 1063 

Hodgkin -.01, II. H 1106 

Hodgson. J. P. Shift boss 376 

Hofman. H. O. Metallurgy of lead 93 

Hoist, Nordberg electric •681 

Hoisting accidents. Mo 220 

— Apparatus, Comstock *1044 

— Consol. Interstate-Callahan 550 

— East. Siberia 860 

— Ropes, Formula? 1047 

Service and care 992 

Holden Mng. & Milling, Nev 83 

Holder, r, G. B 659 

Holland. A. a 980 

Holland. B., died 700 

Holland. Tin embargo 838 

Hollenl.augh. G. 767 

Hollinger Cnsol., Ont., 84. 264. 400. 770, 

•960. 1087 

— report 446, 592 

Rblllsf n mines, Colo 399 

TToiiownv. G. T. Valuation of manganese ores 1163 
Holly Sugar Co 899 

January l to June 80, 1918 ENGINEERING AND MINING 



II.. n. inn. <'. v I 

J. A., Safi ' I 

Builder, Ida 

Home i ilng., 8. D -' 

Home Oil, trli '"' ' 

Homer, Oot Bee " i. mlikamlng." 

:',. Mng CO., I' 




Allll.l.ll I ■ 

Dli , d 1017 
Bj montha. . 

Ii< Hon 

— \\ ngi 

Honduras Mng C>.! 

ong. See olso "China." 


old, W. I 

ii r. i 


■ •• ■ 

,-, ii. o. See Hi-" "Food Ldmlo. 

- Payors U ailn 

ii, t to &. I M B. diners 

— Nat. last, medal award 


Sen Rced'i Inve llgal ■ 

r. T. .1. I [l 

' " 

:, P nw 

lay, \V. D. Tcxos School of Mines.... 994 

1 W.nisl.y. J. A 

Horaburgh, .1 

Hone Mountali ■ 
Horwood flotation pt *s. . 

i, A. J 

. .82, 200, 1 1". 000, 848, 




.11 98 
, . 018 

. . 801 

. . 428 
. . 218 

. . 20 

. . 742 







Indian l*i 

, . . , 
Indiana Gold Mng . ■ 



in.i.. China, Boa "Tonkin." 
Industrial Ai cldent i If. 

, rules (or gold dn dgus 

opera! rter tho war. 


ill housing, Bditoi lal 


trial Wbrkera of the \v..rld. 305, 

Blabs us 


ntlal ll 

mi joo 

e ,i D. Ryan on 

i W. B .i«l 

:,l \.:iti..:iu presentation '590 

testimony 970 

■>i ■■• 5™I 

Zinc metallurgy • 

lagers. 'le David" grinder. . -4.2 





in . 1 in 

I lot cli kiss \V O 1080 

Houghton Cop., Mich 865, 018, 1020, 1149 

Houle, A ■ ,;'•' 

;, Industrial. Editorial 

Housing problem In war Industry 

How Drorer brought out the platinum 510 

Howard. L. O JJ« 

Howe, H. M 1137 

— Erosion of gnus •*-' 

Hnwlcv. J. Tt.. died 17* 

Hubbard. It. S 9 . 2 ' 

Hnddleston, C •••■ J™ 

Hudson Bay. Ont 264. 400 

Hudson, Colo ,JJg 

Hudson, W. B JJJf 

Hnghes, Ii. W. Text book of coal mng T936 

Htichcs, J. See "Amer. Iron & Steel." 

Hughes, w. M 952 

Hull Rust, Minn., Steam-shovel mng.. ■••!*JK 

Humboldt. Colo 941, 1193 

Humbolt Consol. mines. Ariz -J8J 

Humphreys. A. C 89 * 

Hunk:, nn. Poem »•>» 

Hunner. H H 896 

Hunt, F. F. Gold cathodes • v.i?S 

Hunt, W. W 962. 1012 

Huntley. L. Q 11™ 

Hurd, R • S'f 

Hurley. E. N. See also "Shipping' 754 

— Shipping Bd. achievements 755 

Hurricane, Colo 176 

H ur t J I'll 2 

Husk'inson, P. Train alarms and lights '21 

—Trolley cut-out .- • ■ '291 

Hutchins. J. P. Bolshevik smelterman s diary 408 

— Drift-gravel mng *859 

Editorial =94 

— Russia , J:S 

Hutton. P. R.. died : • v v •:i??2 

Hydroelectric power for mng., Yavapai, Anz.'llLf 

Hvdro-Metallurgieal, Calif • • • 399 

Hydrochloric solution for deposition removal.. 726 

Hygiene for lead workers ■ • • • 384 

Hypotheek Mng. & Mlg.. Ida 575, 855 

Ida Blende. Wis 178 

Ida May. Colo 11*9 

Ida May, Minn .•••■ .270 

Idaho Continental, Ida 1109, 1193 

Idaho. Labor 175. 530. 768, 1148 

—Law , I* 7 

Idaho Mica. Wash H' 1 ' 

Idaho M. R. T. & T., Colo 1025 

Idaho — Minerals. 1917 prod 306 

— Mining. 1917 review 145 

Idaho mng. industry t760 

Idaho-Nev., Ida 263 

Idaho School of Mines **5 

Idaho, Tungsten :;X?S 

Ignition, Fuse, improved method M046 

Illinois Geol. Survey rept t766 

Illinois — Petroleum fields '181 

Cementation methods 1080 

Illinois Steel Co 795 

Illinois Dniv. — Fellowships 199 

Illinois Zinc Co ■ • 597 

Imperial Lead, Utah 38, 308 

Imperial Mng., Colo 355 

Imperial Oil, Ltd.. Canada ;, n ?2 

Imperial tie-tamper • • • ■ • • • • 10*0 

Imports control 390, 435. 649, 689, 690, 840, 1011 
Imports restriction affects pyrites and gra- 
phite "08 

Incline top slice stoping *246, 279, "464 

See also "Stoping." 
Income tax. See "Taxation." 

Increase in R.R. rates. Editorial 1057 

Increased cost of living. Editorial 807 

Independence Mng.. Ark 446, 574, 813, 1149 

Independent Mine Owners & Prod. Assoc 1062 

Independent Oil Prod. Assoc, Calif 979 

Index, Colo 355. 703. 1064, 1109 

Index. Mining 41, 267. 442. 697. 850, 1020 

India — Iron ore deposits 1118 

— Manganese export analyses 327 

Indian Chief, Okla 119* 

. S. I> 81* 

lnjurv t.. blasting employees •}-• 


ilvcr in Calif J2 

Inspiration Consol. Cop. Co 220, 1107 

ll report o«X oia 

Dividends -• ' 

Flotntlon practice 

Production, 262, 85*, r.74, 769, 806. 898, 

— War gardens 839 

Institute of Metals, London o72 

Institution of Mng. i Metallurgy 34 

era 1 J™ 

Instructions for flotation operators 878 

Instrument stand ■ • ■ ■ 24, 

Insurance. Naval & military 200. 1, 

l .in- 
I ' . B. , 




Impoi I 

„ iv, n and ■ ■""' 


i :,Iil«lli ill nlti 

Bred Oallf 

Cop. Co. — Aniiinil rc| 

, : 

-Vari .. 177, 221 

1002, 1109 

Italy, Iron 250 

Hon, H'17 

" Largo L!9 

Ivanhoe, Wash 1"" 

Intermountaln, Mont. 


inntaln rate decision .oe.9 

International Agric. Corp 284 

International Molybdenum, Ont . . . 8«l 

International Nickel Co , iiin 

—Annual report ■ ■ • • "80 

814, 898 

— Dividends. 1917 10" 

By months 32, 440, 056. 1019 

Tuxes ■«•■■•■ • • 4->v 

International' Portland Cement Co 111" 

International Smg. Co 1*2 

Interstate-Callahan. See "Consolidated. 
Intel-slate Commerce Comm. — Intermountam 
decision •■;■_;■■■■:■•:■:"■• II? 

— Mineral freight reclassification 

Interstate Iron Co.. Minn 

Inventions Board 

Investing, Gold mng 

Inyo Co.. Calif., map 

Inyo Silv.r-L.ail Synd 

Iodide copper method with sodium fluoride. . 

Iola, Ark • • ■ • 

Iowa Cop., Utah 308, 5i6, 

Iowa Geol. Survey rept 

Irelan. Calif. 

. 930 
. 430 
. 813 

Iridium commandeered 909. 1107 

—Editorial 934 

Irish Creek. Va., Tin deposits •» 

Iron, Algeria 117* 

"Iron and steel of Canada" TWO 

Iron and steel industry. Economic map 11-1 

Iron and Steel Inst. (British) .—Annual meet- 
ing SSL 

—Journal " '''' 

Iron and steel market, 1917 7Z 

Iron — Australia, deposits 1"» 

Iron, Austria-Hungary . .... • ••■ • ■ °'j> 

Iron Blossom, Utah 356, 532. 856 1194 

— Dividends i?ot 

—Wage payment "J" 

Iron— Brazil I""* 

Deposits ■ ■ ■ -"J* 

— B. C 939. 980 

—Canada, 1917 , 5 ?" 

^ sitS •.•.•.•.■.•.•.•.•.•.•.•.■.688: 1062 

Iron cITp. Ariz'. 220. 617. 898 

- Di B v mon-tbs 917 . : : : 3 2. m iioVose; ms/ioS 

Iron, China, deposits 1003 

Iron Clad Joint Co • •■ ■ • - '*72 

Iron — Cuba, deposits 1002, 1 

— Germany 

— Greece, deposits 

India, deposits 



. . 256 

J. & C. Mng., Ark 001 

| I 

Jack Walte, Ida -399 

Jacket, NeT.. 222. 264. 308, 350. *48, 570, 


Jnckllng, D. C 304, 690. 700. 7< 1 

— Directs powder plants 340 

Jackson, G. J., died 700 

Jacks.. n, R 899 

Jacol.son, B. B. Powder In opencul 

365, 601. 1130 

Jager, O. B 261 

Jameson, J. W., Ts. Producers' Transportation 610 
Janney flotation mnchine. 710. *714. 715. 717. 

719. '748 

Japan — Money 1075 

— uvigbts and measures' 1075 

—Zinc 1059 

Jason Lease, Colo 855 

Jean, F 830 

Jefferson. Okla 1004. 1194 

Jenkin, A 218 

Jenkins, O. P. Two manganese deposits. 

North. Wash 1082 

Jennings, II. Gold Industry and standard.. 807 

—Editorial 894 

Jennings, S. J 596, 811 

— Liberty loan message. Photo 622 

Jerome Central Mng.. Ariz 940 

Jerome Cop., Ariz 220, 855. H'24 

Jerome Del Monte, Ariz 1114 

Jerome Mng., Ariz. Conger mine 354 

Jerome-Portland Cop.. Ariz 3~j4, !<55. 1114 

Jerome Superior. Ariz 940. 1068, 1108, 1192 

Jerome Verde Mng., Ariz., 176. 354. 661. 

769. 812, 1024. 1108. 1114 

Jerome Victor Exten.. Ariz 307 

Jerusha Gulch, Mont 941 

Jessie, Colo 1109 

Jessup, D. W., Analysis of bismuth In lead 

bullion 603 

Jigs, "Rougher" and "cleaner" 730. 741 

Jim Butler Tonopah Mng., Nev 982. 1147 

— Annual report 799 

— Dividends 440 

— Production. 38. 178, 222, 358, 488. 532, 
618, 662, 704, 770. 814. 856. 900. M2. 

982, 1026, 1004, 1101. 1150 

Jim Crow. N. M 264 

Jimenez, C. P. Estadistlca minera tll05 

Joan, Minn 177 

John Brennan. Wis 177 

Johnson. A. F 1145 

Johnson, C. M. Zirconium 331 

Johnson, J. B 444 

Johnson, J. E., Jr 1002 

— Blast furnace tH05 

Johnson, Minn 447 

Johnson, R. H 304 

—Oil and gas production 107 

Johnson, W. McA. Fine grinding zinc charge. 

370. 558 

— Marriage 1146 

Johnston, I. H 304 

Johnston, J. Metals of high boiling point.. 425 

Lble *47-; 

Jonathan. Colo 1148 

Jones, A. H. Flotation, Belmont Surf Inlet 

B. C '720 

Photo *740 

iTon^King. ' Utah'. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. M2, TO*".' 770." 1110. ' 1150 Jon«T & **>&*> Co. See also "Interstate ^ 

Iron, magnetic concentration '^70 

I^asTSolo-. 19 ". :-M. ■ 355; 487; Mi' 66? 

-Mta Me *. co : . deposits . : : : : : : : : : : '352; m ■ « 

— Newfoundland, deposits 

— Norway . . 

— Ont 




.1002. 1119 



—Report' of Advis. Connc. Dept. of Sci. & 

Indust. Res- Gt. Br '1117 

-™<-e ««1 

Historical "" 

— Russia, deposits 1119 

— South Afric, deposits 1118 

— Spain, analyses 1122 

Biscayan Prov 421 

Jones. B 1022 

Jones-Belmont flotation ceU 720 

Jones. C. C 852 

Jones, C. S 929 

Jones, R. W. Manganese. Vt 779 

Jones. W. W 965 

Joplin district 1002 

— Descriptive article by Kltson. *359. *411. 

•727, »1153 

— Milling practice *727 

— 1917 review 70 

— Producing companies 301 

— W. S. S. campaign 1147 

—Zinc ores 280 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co 844 

Joseph. H 218 

Josewig-Kennecott. Alaska 1024 

Jost. P 937 


\'()1UI1H' 105 

«. A 




K ! . 

ral right UoMlnf. 




: r 

. marriage 



By month* 32, 


Kennedy, AT... 




Kerue*: ~ fuel from 

rail Admin. Banal 

Kerr Lake. Ont... 1T8. 488. 

— Annual report 

onth* 32 

449, 618. 704, 856. 

m. M. S 

Keweenaw O 447 

Key. A. C. Miner.. Ii Af„ 1917.. 

<-'. B 

154, 074. 7G8 

. 1 report 

Mng.. Aria 

ling. Co 

'late recovery 

. Aria 

• . Minn 

Klrkland Lake Cold Mines. Ont., 36. 
448, loot 

Klrkland Porphyry. Ont 36. 204. 400 



I Mil. '727. 

, .rway . 


11.. Utah. 


. S«4 






10t> 2 





















. 388 


carbon In lead-sliver 2o6 



Ktt-.wnothlnit. Calif 221 



rlaata In 957 





r. - ■ - 
Kwa- . 


-i of coal tll05 


r homp*on " 
l/.w grade minerals, Germany.. 369 

' Platlnnm 288 

China — Wolframite 24 

la I' la 


I, 1026, 

Labor usatiOD. 1 



. BIS, 


lun. program 

. . . . 

> and 


145. 465 BO L023, 

Iron Mng. policy 


—South Af 

■ lule 

--sink, causes analyzed 

— '1 ransvaal dntn 

— U. S. See also ■National Labor Bd." 


Editorials 347, 093 

r Dept 295, 

Ba 1 I reads 


Reflnerlea lose men to govt 

Employment zones 

May use Mexican labor 

Nat. War bd. program 


Skilled enlisted men returned 

Use Federal ltnreau 


—Unrest. Editorial 

— Utah 445. 615. 811, 

Wnge Increase 

— Utah Cop 

— Wages problem. Editorial 

rt, 1914-1917 

— War to transform unionism 

Labor's wastes. Editorial 

Lackawanna. Colo 307. 399, 703, 

Lead & Zinc, Okla 82. 618. 


Laco-1'hilips Co 

Laforgue, C. L.. died 

Lake, Colo 

Lake. E. F 

Lake Milling. Sing. & Kfg., Mich., 82, 177, 

Lake Shore Mines. Ont., 84, 308, 576, 856, 


— Financial statement 

Lake Side mill, Calif 

ii diet 353 


— Iron ore. 1017 

— Copper Industry, 1917 

1017 review 

Lakes. A 




•J Id 


































M. It. Marketing Bolivian tin 1014 

urne, G. w 

Lammcrs, R. 856 

Larnoreaui, W. F 810 

Lamson, H. H 889 

Lanark Mng., B. C 982 

Land, G 1022 

Land office adjudications 232 

Landers, W. II. Photo 786 

Landgrebe, K 1100 

Lane, F. K. Imports control 435 

— Mines control 657 

— Oil land leasing bill 895 

— Potash leasing regulations 76l 

Laney, F. It 810 

—Geology. N. C t350 

Lang, J. U. Tin market 60 

Lang lay rope 002 

Larkln, !■ 896 

Larkin. W. II Cementation 588 

Larsb, W, B. Brancb-raise sub-level caving.. "503 

A. G 700 

eld, N'ev •775 

. P. Kerf, rlirume situation 244 

Latham-Simonds, Calif 1192 

Laucks, I. F 444 

Lauer. A. W 107 

Laurel, Utah 002 

Lanrler, Wash 942 

Ijiw. See alRo "Workmen's Compensation." 

Law — Aria 530 

— B. C 702, B54, 939 

Law, C. E 1190 

Law — Calif. Producers Transport vs. Jameson 615 

— Colo, mine timber 701 

Law decisions — Anti-blacklist law. Aril 1107 

—Butte & Sup. vs. Minerals Sep..9C2, 974, 978 

f dept. findings 683 

— Employer's liability for defective steam 

shovel 425 

— Extra lateral mng. rigbta 273 

— False representation 1147 


Law ■ ■it'll. I 

— Fraud In "cost plus" contracts 754 

it. blasting employees 327 

I i laluis 573 

in- o adjudications 2J3 

engineeri 1S7 

e 907 

- Ri vs, Burrage 1185 

l miners' employment 373 

. law 1147 

Bu ■ "i as ■ si i work 680 

os Income tax 1091 

a 1 laud 852 

Vi mining property. 543 

» opp < ase 1065 

Law I'rance 2.,o 

Ida 147 



ng for engineer 1138 

Lawn ams o:to 

. u 1106 


. Kan 770 

Lawyers, Kan 981 

Y B 1012 

— Antlmon] Nei 797 

LeCbatelier, II. Refractory properties of silica 505 

L« Due M in;., Calif 854 


lea. I . Icldulatlon solution table 228 


3:;o, B82 

Costs 220, 231 

— Copper ores 225, 4:;o 

— Flotation practice, aria 717 

— Nitrates. Modern mill nns hanisro in 987 

—Plant, I'j e. n. m «232 

— Tanks, IValhl Hold Mat;.. N. Z *240 

Lead. Algeria 1174 

Lead ,v Zinc Co., Wash 704 

Lead and zinc, Joplin, 1917 review 70 

Lead- Ark.. Held >313 

B. C 1024 

Hi a tia lysis In 603 

Editorial 1143 

— Canada. 1017 589 

— Determination by spectroscope 103 

— Flota tion »707, 741 

— Market. 1917 61 

'stein & Co.'s review 216 

— Metallurgy, 1917 review 93 

— Mo., 1917 review 65 

—Ont 1087 

r.H7 <3E5) 

C, S. production, 1913-17 61 

Imports and exports, 17, 803, 424. 701, 

1003. 1141 
Lead, white. See "White." 

Lead workers, hygiene 384 

Lendville-Ariz., Ariz 812 

Leadville district — Production, 1917 175 

Leadville Unit. Colo 855 

Leaver, A., died 937 

Leaver, E. S. Copper determination In oxi- 
dized ores 552, 645 

Ledyard. L. W 444, 014, 767. 1022. 1190 

Lee Mountain. Mont 264, 941 

Leggett, T. II 596 

Legislation. See "Law." 

Lehi Tintic. Utah 618 

Lehigh Coal and Navigation 190, 840 

Lelth, c. K. See also "Mineral Imports 

c.uiiiii ' 351, 649, 841, 889, 1180 

Length of service, hoisting ropes 992 

Lenora, Okla 770 

Let us not be too late In Russia. Editorial. .1144 

Levaek, Ont. • 961 

Lever bill 485, 1107 

Leviathan, Ariz 1149 

Lewis Mng. & Leasing, Colo., 81, 263, 399, 

617, 1063 

Lewlsohn, A 761 

Lexington, Mont. See also Anaconda 529 

Li, K. C. Antimony in 1917 89 

Liberty Bell, Colo 176, 399. 447, 899, 941 

Liberty Lead ,t Zinc, Ark 80, 017 

Liberty and labor 739 

Liberty Loan. 011, 647, 686, 716, 719, 739, 

760. 780, 798, 974, 1061 

— Cartoons (facing) »579, 650,092 

—Editorial 847 

— Message to mng. Industry 621 

— Mng. companies subscriptions 761, 806, 845 

Editorials 893, 894 

— Mom 11 ompanies son 

— Price of shameful peace 644 

— St. Joseph Lend r.os 

— Statistics : 838 

— United Verde 892, 948 

Liberty Mng. & Lsg., Colo 617, 709, 1109 

Liberty Mng. & Reduct., Colo 1064 

Liberty, Nev 488 

Liddell. D M 851 

Lie. J. Utah Cop. paintings «18, «19 

Light breaks. Editorial 893 

Light for drafting room 516 

Llgntfoot '01 & Mng., Okla 1026, 1110 

1. a. 1, dalite" 932 

Llgbtner, Calif 1025 

Lignite briquettlng plant, Canada 898 

Lignite investigation, Bur. of Mines 24 

Lime In dotation 712, 718 

Lime, U. S., 1917 914 

Lincolnshire Iron ore deposits 1117 

Lincolnville Lead & Zinc. Okla 1004 

Lindberg, CO 1012, 1190 

Linden ■■ '1 L Iron ore, Canada 527, t7lili 

Llndgren. w. Swedish iron ore 1002 

Llndley, E. H 460 

Liners, mill 245, 713 

Link Belt Co 597 

Lithium hydroxide 1167 

T ittle Corkscrew, Colo 1063 

Little C -lonseed Transp., Utah 264, 979 

"Little Havid" grinder M72 

Little Giant, Ariz 898 

Januarj 1 to June 30, L918 ENGINEERING and MINING J01 RNAL 



Little ' 

i.:n a Martha, Mo US 

Little Platte, Wli 

Little Babbll Ir.m, Minn .171 

LIUen, W. W 


eoate • 

- BJditorlala 308 

on I'lnnt *V?2 

i loyd, Q <' Iron i re report .1117 

Lloyd. J. W 1 ' " 


.1 safi t> dc> Ice '033 


Loafing end malingering J49 

Looey Pnbst Gold Mug., Arli 11 M 

Lochard. A. Zlut- imeltlng, Tonkin 

Lock washer '293 

0. E 174 

Locomotives ordered 00' 

Lode del I ka, Ni nana - s 

London trU • ■ ■ 

London Mug. & Reduct., Oolo .81, (M 

Lone Plue Surprise c. 1^,1 Mng., Wesli 88 

Lone Stor, Ark 

Lone Star. Calif 1J»S 0. B. Graphite 844 

Long John. Calif UVV.fiS 

Long-range gun. German ,.>4,lli>4 

Longfellow. Colo 355 

Longhorn lease, Wis 1028 

Longy.-ar, B. J., Co.. Minn 82 

Longycnr. J. M 6o4 

Lo. mis, SufTern & Fernnld. Depreciation .... 631 
Lorraine, Iron ore excites German greed. .. .1058 

Lost Dutchman. Colo " 1 2?i 

Loughlin. G. F 914 

Lonle d'Or Mng., Aria iii -, .IS? 

Lonlslana Consol. Mng., Nev 9X2. 1 U14 

Low grade ore ntllliatlon, Germany 914 

Lowell Gold Mng., Aria ••••;»» 

Lownev Manganese Assoc., Nev 618. •770 

Lubricating engineer's handbook Ml "5 

Lucas- A. F. Serbian arpenl 845 

Lueae. J. A. Pump rods repair *208 

Lncero -J* 

Lucia Cop., Utah 1110 

Lucky Corner, Colo 487 

Lucky Jake. Cnllf 899 

Luckv Jenny, Okla l nn J 

Luckj Star Cop.. Utah * 4 8 

Lucky Syndicate. Okla 1191 

Luckv Tiger Combination, Mex. : 

— Dividends. 1917 ... 1J1 

By months 32, 656 

Lucky Two. Colo 858 

Lagless copper anode 824 

Lumber in war industries 891 

Lumber industry — Govt, may take 518 

Lumber shortage, France 210 

Luna, G. Formulas for ore suiting 1178 

Lupton, C. T. Anticlines, Wyo 936 

Luty, B. E. V. Pittsburgh iron market, 1917, 72 
Lyoua, T. E 688 


M. A. Hanna Co. See "Hanna." 

M. K. & T., Mo <8T 

Mabee, H. C. Molybdenum determination... 838 
McAdoo, W. G.. appointed Direct. Gen. of rail- 
roads 25 

— Resists R. R. expansion 007 

McAlpin, G. W. Instrument stand *24T 

Mcliean. D. D., died • • • • 484, 

Macbeth, R 929, 971 

McBride & Bloom, Kan 818 

McCallum, Aril 354. 486, 940 

McCarty. Calif •••• 307 

McCaskey, H. D. Quicksilver production.... 31a 
McClave, J. M. Flotation and gangue miner- 

a l s 733 

McConneli,' R. E 852 

McCormick. P 9oT 

McCormick. T. F iV^SS 

McCracken Silver-Lead Mines. Ariz 80. 7b9 

McCrorken. E. P 1146 

McCurdy, Okla 1026 

McCurry Mng. & Milling, Ark 017 

McDaniel. A. K ■ 1022 

MacDonald, J. A. Siphon to unwater mine.. "599 

McDonald. W. W. Cementation method 1080 

MeDougald, W. L 11 4 i? 

MacDowell, C. H 927 

—Minerals Admin, testimony Hjl 

McDowell. J. S. Refractory silica brick . . . . 954 

Mace Iron Mng. Co.. Minn 38 '-„„ 

McEnaney, B. P.. died i"i"" I2S 

McGrath. T. 0. Depletion and depreciation.. 202 

— Standardization of reports 825 

Editorial J 4 ? 

McGregor, A. G 251 

McGregor, J. D., died 


M. Loan, a tt 

.1 m a] 

M< Mi .1 . died 

M< Murtle, I>. C R 

■■ r W 

1 I 

■ ■ 

ti n lube in tlol itlon 

D| , Ida '701 

Macrae, Q B . died 

Madagaai n . Graphlto 907 


. [mi 1 1. wanti <i for Red I r is, 1175 

Arli 702, Ubi, 1192 

Magma Oop, C 718 

a lal report 1180 

By montha -'. 860 

n. 11 806, 959, llul 

Magmaii ucturea loci 

B98, 881, 1192 

Magm Bite, Canada 501 

1.' In mil 111 

to Product! Corp., Vencz 632 

Quebec 03 

Wai ti., .I. poslta 

' 1:11 in war work . 

Magnetic entxatlon, iron, MincTllle, N. S".*912 

U a, Colo 941 

Magnolia Lead 4 Zinc '-'4') 

la Metal Co. Fostering of antimony .. i"-» 

Magnolia Mng., Ark 702 

Magonigal, Calif 575 

Mahoning, Mum. Steam-shovel mng *403 

Maultska, Mo 176 

Maid of the Mist. Colo 1149 

Maier. C. G. Sulphur and copper oxide deter- 
mination 372 

Maler, C. VV 1108 

Mail delays. Editorial 1188 

Main. C. T 891 

Majestic. Utah 178. 448 

Major Gold Mng.. Calif 81 

Major things 760 

Majorca Mine, Mich 355 

Make every stroke count. Editorial 1103 

Maleolmson, J. W., death 34. 160 

Malingering and halting 549 

Malrno Mng. .V. Mlg., Colo 703 

Mammoth. Calif 486. 661. 899 

—Production 806, 959, 1101 

Mammoth Cop.. Utah 81, 264, 1025, 1026 

—Production 252. 307 

Mammoth Devel. Ariz 176, 854 

Mammoth Tunnel, Colo 813 

Mammoth. Wash 1194 

Management. See "Efficiency." 

Manager's rept. — Stautlard form 826 

Mandy. Manitoba 982 

Manganese, Ariz 1191 

—Ark 99 ,; . n - s 

Manganese Assoc, Nev 618. 941 

Manganese — Brazil 845, 1140 

Piracaua deposits 479 

Imports and exports 28 

— Butte. Mont. Description of ores 1076 

—Calif 305. 940. 979 

— Caucasus, Germany wants 927 

—Colo 175. 897, 1061 

— Cuba, prospects 779 

— Determination 248 

Manganese Devel.. Ark 813 

Manganese estimation in alloys and dust 40i 

— Fla. imports 297 

— Gt. Br., resources 683 

— India, analyses 327 

—Mont 811 

Description of ores 1076 

-Nev 1186 

Clark Co. deposits '775 

Manganese Peak, Calif 1193 

Manganese — Price «■■ - - -1175 

Editorial 1188 

— Prospecting ,?7>1 

— Russia, deposits nie 

Manganese sulphate in flotation 916 

Manganese — Sweden 932 

— Tenn 00O 

Tungsten occurrence in 780, 1176 


MacGregor, R. M. 


Machine tools. Govt, appeal 153 

Mclnnis, J. H J'* 

Maclntyre, Mo ^i'-.ioS 

Mclntvre. Ont 38. 178. 942, 1064 10X7 

— Semi-annual report 308. i50 

McKay, A. H 767. 937 

Mackay, A. N 304 

Mackenzie, A. G 1"'™ 

McKenzie. C. S 484 

McKenzie, Colo 10M 

Mackenzie, J. H »J» 

McKenzie. Minn • ■ ■ ■ • ■ - - ' u 

McKinley-Darragh Savage. Ont.. 178. 488, 7^7. ^^ 

—Dividends 356 



-ProdncSon-;::.::.:....... 942.1110 

McKinney Steel. Minn J-J 

McLachlan. D. G • • • • ■ -i: 

McLaughlin, T. P. Labor laws. Calif. •■■•■•+527 
McLaughlin. R. P. . . .: 897. 1022 

— D. S. 



Import restrictions 

1917 review 

Price schedule 


Producers and consumers 

Imports and exports 

— Vt. deposits 

— Va., Shenandoah Valley 

— Washing plant Eureka Mang., Ark 

— Washington, deposits 

— Western TJ. S • • • • 

Manganiferous iron mm:.. Cuyuna. Minn, ^.bj 
Manganiferous ores — Producers and consumers, 

Manhattan Amal. Mines Synd., Nev 

Manhattan apex decision ■•■•••••:••••••■ 

Manhattan Consol.. Nev., 178. 222. 400. 448 
576. 618, 704, 770, 856, 900. 941. 982 
1026, 1110, 

Manhattan Dexter. Nev 

Manhattan Mustang. Nev 

Manhattan Red Top. Nev 

Manitoba mining, 1917 review 

Mann. H. T. Addition agents in flotation 

Mann Mill. Colo • ■ ;;•■•",•, 

Manning. Tan. H. See also "Bur. of Mines. 

Manuel. Calif , ■ 

Manufacturers and labor problem 




















Petl 673 


I'. tro]<- 11 

III . Petri - 1H2 


Mineral i ' 

Kan.. Petri 



i in-, Polaab i;n 

— Va., Pyrrhotl 199 

Tin deposits 6 

- -World iron and i tee] ecoi 1121 

,i<i., 48U 

I . . HI 

Mnt S02 

eporti ^ eekly feature, 

Marketing Boll' 1014 

Marking mine tlona •M 

Markle, Ark 

' 645 

Marriott. II. F :i4 

— Transvaal mining 12M 

Marsh. A. G 484 

Marsh, Ida 307 

MarsterB, V. F 

Martin, H. G. Silicon determination :ih0 

Martin, R. L., died U37 

Mary Agnes, Ark 4411 

Mary I... Mo 982 

Mashonaland Agency, Ltd 23 

Mason. A.J 027 

Mason Valley Mines Co. See also "Gray 

Eagle is,, 

— Production 252, 806, O.'.ll. 1 1 "1 

Masonic Mines Assoc, Calif 661 

MaSB Onnsol.. Mich 177, 532. 856, 981. 1149 

— Annual report . 

— Production 221, 814 

Matchless Mng .'. Colo 899 

Mather, A., die,! 

Matteson, W. G 937 

Matthew AiMy Co., Manganese analyses 327 

Mathewson, E. P 1060 

Matthias, W. G not 

Matthlessen. F. W., career ViM 

Matt), the Finn. Poem 171 

Mauborgne, J. A 930 

Maxim H. Food Invention I7h 

Maxlne, Okla 1150 

Maxwell, H. V. Manganese prospecting 286 

May Day, Utah 222 

Mayer Ore Purch., Aria 981 

Mayflower, Calif £54 

Mayflower Old ' 1 Mich . 2-.-1 , 

617, 814. 856, 900 
M :i\ -I \\ 1 -.'i;l 

Mazapil Cup.. Mex 308 

Mazatzal Mug.. Ariz 30C, 981 

Mechanical efficiency of gravel-pomps *oi."j 

Mechanical tampers In track work *1048 

Meddling with Industry. Editorial 215 

Medicine liat. Alberta j Q 

Meekatharra Muri G dfleid maps ill05 

Megraw, II. A. Gold and silver metallurgv, 

102, 645 

— Progress of flotation 

Melones. Calif 768 

Melting points of firebricks 22 

Mental tests for soldiers 254 

Mercurial poisoning 373 

Mercuric sulphate in flotation 91G 

Mercury mng 709 

Mercury purification 604 

Merriam, J. C 1136 

Merrill, C. W 659. 929 

Merritt. Minn 270 

Mertotl J., died 174 

Mesabi Range district 941 

— Steam-shovel mng *403. '493, '508. *579 

Metal export tax. Mex. See "Taxation." 

Metal industries and Tariff Comni *828 

Metal Mine accidents, 1916 630 

— Editorial 653 

Metal Mine Workers' Union 616 

Metal octopus myth. Editorial 847 

Metaline Oriole Mng., Wash 704 

Metallic sulphates in notation 916 

Metallography or mineralograpby. Editorial, 934 

Metallurgical ferroalloys, in U*17 191 

Metallurgy. See also "Amalgamation," "Cyan- 

iding, " etc 

Metallurgy, Copper, 1917 review 94 

— Gold and silver 102 

— Lead. 1917 review 93 

— Quicksilver, 1917 review 110 

— Research fellowship 979 

— Zinc, 1917 review 96 

Metal exports to Norway 297 

Metal imports. Editorial 570 

Metal Mine Workers' Union 305 

Metals. See also names of metals and counties. 
Metals administration. See "Minerals and 


Metals— Battlefield salvage 3S0. 476 

— Boiling points 425 

— Price chart. 1914 1917 

1915-1917 48, 49 

23 yr. average 199 

Metals, Secondary. C. S 919 

Metals Tunnel Co.. Colo 37 

Methods of valuing oil lands *544 

Metric system 1013 

Metropolitan Zinc Co.. Mo 82 

Metz. A. C 659 

Mexican Gold & Silver Mng., Calif — Mng. 

methods -1029 

Mexican labor may enter U. S. 1182 

Mexican. Nev 532. 662. 942 



Volume 105 



nitrate leachiag 







... 978 



w flow sheets ■ . 792 

7 ',4 
... 942 
v . . 4i0 


Mi:oe- In mng '1113 


Minarets. CM 

M r. a- Ideaa 1916 880 


Mr„ eka 1st I- e. :;1 

Mine forge Heavy '291 

,ri Metals." 
v'-'.. M - .• -■ !■ •'■ bs I '"•" 

V M OMiat -■' A--- . f Picher 11*' 

- filiation* N. T — Proposed hearli • 

V as >M • > I'ri- • -. Joplin ... 411 

. . 701 

-Iihon '699 

Mine Tarnation 838 

Mice ventilation— Canvas tubir.2 

tlon — Editorial . 


' nerals anrl 

Miners Ixil ■• 80 



Imports Gomtr. 849 


— Hearing* . 

n ' 

. . 570 

111 573 

Miner.-, ...83. 7 70 

Miners ••'> 

Miners r, 64 

Miner- ' metallography. Editorial, 934 

Miners ■ • *'■>* 

Mine.- Samel of Minerals and 

tall Admin.. 149. 217, 390. 
701. 7ST. 797. 

19, B9T. ions 
report • - 798 

—Edit. 898, «37, 571, I 

m. hearings 

. . 966 

— Western men advocate 701 

— Weeterrelt <••■- 759 

res :. 


i aga 

\i . . 889 




. 758 



' -rial »:*4 

.. '.'74 

j 843 

I I 


Mis an 

. 301 

I . 4M. IU4, 



Mining. 11"4 



'lOliO, 1103 

• -i «828 

—Cent- rlew 122 

— Chr ronotogy." 

ew 143 




-7. 1194 

—Dividends. 1917 161 

By months - . 82, 650 

— Production 178, 264 

—Cuba. 1917 review 121 

— Cuyuna dlst »269 


— Drift gravel. E. Siberia *859, 894 

Mining engineering as profession 76fi 

Mining — Prance •«3« 

— Germany, situation 476 

—Ida.. 1917 review . . 145 

Mining index 41. 267, 441;, 697, 850, 1020 

Mining industry — Taxation 1139 


Mining— Joplin district. ... *359, 411. *727. '1153 
Mining lower levels, Comstock Lode. .*1029, *lu44 

M;u.ii -. Manganese, V*a. Crimora 875 

itoba, 1017 review 119 

Mining manual tllOo 

Mexico, 1017 review 12" 

-905. «920 

—Open cut, - '863 

Tenn «284 


cut blasting 601, 1130 

— Ontario. 1917 review 117 

Mining property valuation 543 

Mining — Bussia, l9l7 review 126 

'. At. mines closed 349 

Auier., I'dl7 review 123 

— Steam-shovel •403. '493, >508, '579 

Mining storks — Boston exchange 80 

- X. Y. Curb, 1017 85 

NT. 1 114-17 84 

Mining Bupj ! ' ee I "Ms. 

Mining Bles, Mexico 417 

Transvaal, adverse factors 463 

1917 revli n 128 

— Turkey 1162 

— U. S.. 1917 review 112 

Dtah, 1917 review 140 

Minnehaha Mng 4 Mlg.. 703. 899 


Minnesota^. Iron ore 1024 

1017 production 352 

— Mine valuation 353 

liool of Mines See 896 

Minn.-. Colo 1064 

I alif 981 

Minor-c< tala 622 

M,nt Mng., (ikla 582, 1110 

B I) 810, 1146 

Mislma Gold. New Guinea 1062 

- 1 See also "Joplin." 

Missom 36, 66 

Mi-sourl Iron 4 Steel Corp 812. 1150 


id, 1917 review 65 

ve Mng.. Ariz 1024. 1149 

•350. Mil. '727. • 1 153 


Missouri Metals Corp 36, 66 

Missouri, Zinc 616 

Mitke. C. A.. Efficiency 200 

Moctesuma Cop. Co., Mei 34 

rontein Deep, Trans. — Production 1110 

.., Colo 703, 1109 

Moffat. Colo 1063 

Moffat R It. Tunnel. Colo 979 

Mogollon Mines. N M 853 

1917 prod 353 

Safety skip device M65 

Vogue Mng., S. f> 308. 982 

e Annex Tungsten. Calif 81 

Mohawk. Ariz 854 

Mohawk. Mich 37, 487. 1148 

'tlon 808 


■ / . 

oils 440 

| 44T 

m 'ik.- Fluorspar, t'nt 400 

\i m If 7o:; 

Hi Calif 30T 

v, ;e, It. Principles of iron founding ... *52f 

Hi S Am. Cop., Aril 220. lisl 

m I 'i" 899, 487, T89, B18, 1109 

\l ini and Mines (oiilrol Kill 966 

U Canada 530 

1917 production 601 

mng ,n .05, '920 

Concentration 880 

ruination iii ores and concentrates. . . . 836 

ii' alloii 991 

v, industry 499 


578, 7o:;, 
818, 1109 
v ohm Russia 606 

- 1 S., 1017 review 92 


U restricted n s 4 

Co 835, 898. '961 

lent. Editorial 1103 

Moml.ll. It.| 1183 

U \. II 31 


re, Dtah 770 

Japan 1076 

Hill. Ark 263, 981, 1192 

Montana, Accident Bd, rept 219 


082. 1150 

Montana. Coal 305. 352 

Consol., Monl 1194 

Defem 938 

, ; 616, 000 

1023. 1055 

81 1 

nption of ores 1076 

- Petroleum 615 

-■ 107s 

IS Soc. Of Knurs 572, 852 

u State Dm] ' 445 

Montana State School of mines 1062 

■ Statei m ol 941 

1 01 □ 38, I 78, 

22-', : 6, i". 618, 002. 704, 770, 81 I, 876, 

I 012 982, 1064, 1101, 1150 

Monte Carlo, Calif 940, 1025 

Monte Crli to, Ariz 940 

Monte Crlsto Colo 487, 855 

36, 354, 398 

Montezuma, Calif 81 

Montreal KlrHand 982 

Montreal Mets 810 

II. M 927 

lllf 1193 

Moore, K. S, Air blasts, Koiar Gold field, 

In.liu 057 

Moore, F. .1 700 

Moon. P, N 689, 88S 

Moratorium advocated 485 

Bd. .T. M 927 

Morgan, C C, died 896 

Morgan, J. P. & Co, as munition buyers 340 

Morgan, w. F 1098 

Morning Glory, Calif 81 

Morning Glory. Colo 26.1 

Morning Glory. Nev. White Caps suit 1024 

Morning. Ida. See 'Ted. Mng." 

Morning Star Mng., Ark.- < mtrator *329 

Morris. II. C 1012 

Morrison, 71. A. Versatile tractor »1004 

Morrison. J. M 767 

Morrow. W. G 1020 

Morrow, W. W 962 

Moses. W. Riveting record lonft 

Mother Lode Cop Mines, A1askn..80. 870, 1063 

— Flotation practice 745 

Mother Lode dlst.. Calif 34, 768 

rs law suits 852 

—Labor 1104 

Moth.rwell. FI. A. B. Colorimetrie bismuth 

determination 882 

Motor fuel from kerosene distillates 425 

Mount Blaine Oil Shale Prod.. Colo 703 

Mount Champion, Colo 447 

Mount Cuthbert, Aus 59 

Mount Elliott, Aus 511. 952, 1100 

— Refmerv 188 

Mount Fillmore, Calif 1025 

Mount Gaines, Calif 531 

Mt. Jefferson. Calif 307 

Mount I.yell Blocks Cop. Mines, Ana 59 

Mount Lyell Mng. & R. R. Railway. Aus. 59, 

939, 952, 1100 

— After-war project 321 

— Annual report 556 

Mount Morgan Gold Mng.. Aus. 59. 486, 952, 1100 

— Annual report 799 

Mount Stewart Mines, Aus 939 

Mt. Washington, Mont 178. 814 

Mountain Cop.. Calif 221, 354, 486 

Mountain Flower Mng., Colo 941. 1063 

Mountain King. Calif 531 

Mountain States. Mont 264. 575. 814 

Mountain Top Mng., Colo 81. 176, 703, 813 

Mouthpieces, submerged pipe, and flow of water 383 

Moyer, C. H 262 

Mosart, J. F. Wages problem 30. 557 

Miul'i Major 

Mugwump Mines, Calif 81, 354 

Mulr, D 218 

Mulham 887 

Munitions, Gt. Br 840 

Munitions ministry. Editorial 169 

Munitions, v. S., 1917 64 

—Districts and heads 563 

Munn ,T F 486 

Mure! ion medal award 218 

Murphv. J. F 1146 

Mnakogee Lead & Zinc Mng.. Okla. 82. 1110, 1150 

January 1 to June SO, L918 ENGINEERING A.ND minim. JOl Rl 


Mutrh. D. A 

Mutual Oo-optrmtlTi UnJt*i Oolo ! 

Mutuallt, Plan, Oliver lr ..ii Mug 

Unn. II. V Artillery i. Ilium wanted I 

Mythical metal octopus. Editorial 


Nagle. F. J 

Naaon, F. L. Vu. pyrrhotlU 

Natiouul Aiiierlcuuluiikou Comm 

National Army. Cncmlata in 

National JIUUIII.. CO., GU 1H 

National Chamber "t Mines, Ni.. v. i.oon, 

Mex. 7 "° 

N.itU'Uiil City Bank, Petroleum HW 

National Ooal Assoc 

National Copper, Ida ' ' '•'•' 

National debts - s:ih 

National economl i ] ■ <H1 

National Foreign Trade Convention 887 

N:.t i-.iia i Foreign Trade Council -Gold stock. - S M' 

National, Ida JW 

National Indust. Cut. lid 

— Causes of strikes 

Nun,. mil Lead Co. Bee also "Si 

National Metal Trades Assoc 898 

National Mines. Ont 6 

National Potash Oorp., Ont 84. 176 

National Rfg.. Kan 831 

National Research Council 1 ' ■«; 

National Safety Co 8U«- 

National Safety Council 992 

National Silk Buying Co »SU 

National Tube Co ' »•> 

National Tungsten & Silver, Mont ill 

National War Labor Bd. — Members 80d 

—Program 688 

National Zinc & Lead Jgo 

Nations at war L"ll"5»i 

Natomas Co.. Calif V„V 8, ,JS 1, , a ?i 

Naval Appropriation Bill 88S, 801. l'HO 

Naval Service. Engineers wanted 868 

Navy Dept., Engineer officers trained 1097 

Nsxos emery 212 

Nearlng, S. Editorial 935 

Nebel, M. L. Cementation IPSO 

Nebo. Okla u9 * 

Necrology. 1917 g« 

Needles Mng. & Smg., Aril 2.0 

Needles Milt.. Utah 1064 

Negligent hoisting engineers 187 

Nell. Okla. . / 814 

Nellly. B ■ 57^ 

NelBon, W. A 9J8 

Nemo, Okla 1110 

Nenana, Alaska — Coal lands ■'*•> 

— Lode deposits -8 

Nesblt, A ?9« 

Sesbltt, C. B. Silica brick 19* 

Netta MiU. See "Eagle-Picher." 

Nettle. Mont 10 ' % 

Nevada — Antimony deposits '97 

Nevada Consol. Cop. Co 83 

— Annual report joo- 

— Caving system, Ruth mine "ood 

—Dividends. 1917 ••• 160 

By months 32, "56 

—Production 252, 806, 959. 1101 

— Quarterly report "92 

Nevada — Geology jog 

— Manganese Jig* 

Clark Co ." * ' ' J 

Nevada Packard. Nev ll»* 

Nevada, Platinum 4 »» 

Nevada Progressive, Calif 81 

Nevada— Travelling mng. school 898 

Nevada Wonder, Nev. — Dividends 1019 

Nevada— Yellow Pine ore deposits.......... 455 

New Arcadian, Mich 177. 532, 617. 941 

New Baltic Cop., Mich. 177, 355, 532, 703, 

New Caledonia — Chrome deposits 1124 

—Mineral exports 591 

^iclscl » ■ ■••■••■•--.•»■■■■•---■•■*•• ^ '"■ 

New Cornelia Cop., Ariz. 80. 252, 307, 898, 1063 
— Annual report 885 

-Co-operative store 

-Production.. 263, 806. 854, 959, 981, 1101. 1149 

-Steam shovel ore car *416 

New Dominion, Ariz 36 

New Dominion, Colo 941 

New Era, Colo 307 

New Idria, Calif., Dividends, 1917 160 

By months 32. 843 

New Jersey Zinc Co 992, 1026 

—Dividends 440. 1019 

New mining construction, 1917 80 

New publications 350, 766, 9j>6 

New Puritan, S. D •••• 83 

New Quincy, Utah 178, 488 

New regiments railway engineers 1142 

New Russia 2 3| 

New South Wales. Platinum 1176 

New spirit. Editorial 847 

New tax law. Editorial 1057 

New United Verde, Ariz .' 855 

New York Elect. Soc 484 

New York — Graphite, 1917 review 151 

New York State Indust. Comm 965 

New York & Honduras Rosario 122 

New Zealand, Phosphate 821 

Newark Museum Assoc 218 

Newberry, A. W.. photo 953 

Newnrough, W. Variations in transit needle. 21 

Newfoundland, Iron ore deposits 1:ll l- 

Newhouse, Kan 355 

Newkirk, H. A 852 

Newland, D. H. Graphite. N. Y 151 

Newman, S. Handy penwiper 22 

Newray. Ont 400, 532, 704, 942 

News Bureau. Boston. Price fixing 1181 

—Use of millionaire «J> 

— War co-ordination 760 


Newton, \'. 

NeWtOU Mill. OolO 941 

Niagara OOWI . .87 

Nlagua ting, .v Royalty, Okla *2 


Nlcholls, W, .1 

W. ii. Mini i ontrol 

Nicholson, II. M 

M. J 

Nickel, Alaska 28 

—Canada, depoalti 1125 

1 .... ■ 

Qer n.v 

New Caledonia 


Price i"i2 

liver »«'7 


- zirconium hardening 

Nlcklea, J. M. No. Amor, geoli .y 
Night lettergrams by courier. Editorial.. 

1 olo HI 

Nlnlaalng Mines Co., Ltd. — Annual report. . .1179 


Production 17n. 21:4, bi4, 1110 

1, 117. lis. 
448, 704, »5C, 1020, 10B7, 1104 

Nisi Prlus, Colo 39'J. 818 

Nlaieh, a. 10 881 

Nitrate. Calif., Heath Valley 

—Chile 889 

Nitrate — Germany 848 

ilng, '.sis, Chile 

Nitrate plant No. 8 840 

Modern mill mechanl m in 

Nitrate price llxed 212 

Nitrate purchase board 255 

Nitrate Hallways Co.. Chile 674 

Nitrate — flailing vessels to carry 27 

Nitrogen, Synthetic 001 

Nitroglycerine substitute 1 126 

Mx-Knlght-Micbell. Kan 

Nlxon-Nev., Nev 102B 

Noble Chrome. Calif 855 

Non-essential industry. See "Industries." 

Non-l'artjsan League 660 

Noon, T. F. Career and death '597 

Norain ' '- 

Norcross Chem., Colo 531 

Norcross, F. S.. Jr 261 

Nordberg electric hoist *681 

Norris, E. M. Fireprooflng mine shaft '1126 

Norse Mng. Co.. Calif 36 

North American, Mo 1 1 T'O 

North Ark. zinc and lead field *313 

North Beck, Utah 576 

North Butte Mng 83, 704. 1150 

—Dividends 260, 843 

—Granite Mt. Shaft 352 

—Production 222 

— Quarterly report 448 

— Ventilation system 325. «328 

North Davidson, Ont 1028 

North Lake, Mich. 487. 814. 900. 941, 981, 

1064, 1109 

North Star, Ariz 854 

North Star mines, Calif 81, 354, 573, 940 

—Annual report 1134 

—Dividends 1917 160 

By months 32. 656 

North Star Mill, Colo 307 

North Star Mng., Ark 80. 446 

North, W. 218 

Northend mines. See "Comstock." 

Northern Calif. Power Co 615 

Northern Customs Concent., Ont 785 

Northern Light Mng. & Milling., Ida 82 

Northern Mont. Natural Gas Co 352 

Northport Smg. & Rfg., Wash 83, 529 

Northrop, J. D. Petroleum production 67 

Northwest Inspiration, Ariz 220 

Northwest Magnesite Co.. w ish 8 I 662, 

•666. 853. 1150 

Northwest Mng. Assoc 262, 853, 979 

— Annual convention 460 

— ilovt. control of smelting 574 

Northwestern Electric Co 1009 

Norway, Iron 441 

Deposits 1002. 1119 

—Metal imports from U. S 29T 

— Molybdenum industry 499 

— Raw-material dept 512 

—Silver 591 

— U. S. trade agreement 971 

Norwood, Okla 942 

Notman, A., photo 274 

Noyes, A. A. Germanium detection 249 

Number Nine. Calif 81 

Nuoline tests 613 

Nut for air-hose couplings '599 

Nyman Consol.. Calif 221 


OIL Ko. I on." 

till and gas II. la, 111 *1 H > 

Oil ran oxter. ■ ■*"* 

(Ml n.n.l hash . 11 BB 

nil laud vain.. '<■** 

nil, Lubrleatlou, trouble In tlotatlun 

11 . d ermany 

oil idiale, Oolo BOB 

oil shale 1 .. 

—Utah 262, 400 

OH ahalea I' rial 17" 

III! Million Ii. 

(ill varlationc In dotation K>0 

Oiling mine earn 117<j 

Olla. Flotation 1»1B 

— Teats "' 4 -' 

Oklahoma Mng., Mo -982, 1026 

Oklahoma Zinc Mine A Oil operator! ikih 

Oko, Okla. . 

Old Dominion, Aria— Dividend., 1017 100 

By monthB 82, 656 

lion I 11'" 

Old liurcka Mug. Co., Calif. 

— Reopening coat 

Old Hat. Arli MJ 

Old Mexico, Wis ; J08J 

Old miner. Poem ]',.. 

Old Scranton, Utah ' ' •'* 

O'LMty. J. w .58! 

Oliver altera */' •« 

Oliver. Q. S .1098 

Oliver Iron Mng., Minn. 177, 264, 308, 447, 

632, 662. 770, 852, 941. 070 

— Headquarters office * JJJJ 

— Labor co-operation policy in"' 

Oliver, Mich 

Onahman, Minn. 


odred and Thirty-ninth Engrs. ....... 528 

ter) Facing 


—Copper 1087 

Ontario Dept. of Mines J»o 

—Graphite, 1917 review •••• J" 

—Labor *86. «»« 

; ',,2 

1;, 1917 review ;■;",?,:- 

—Molybdenum 591 (errata) 895, 930. 1118, 

Concentration =80 

—Natural gas »« 

— Nlccollte 



O. & M. Mng., Mo 82 

O. K. Rfg., Kan 821 

Oaks Co., N. M 353 

Oatman United Gold, Ariz 398, 940 

O'Brien, Ont 488, 1087 

— Production 178 

Obsolescence and depreciation 631 

Ocean traffic, Needless, abolished 649 

Occupation tax notices, Utah 897 

Ocean Wave, Colo 307 

Ocher, France 156 

O'Donnell, T. A 444. 979 

O'Gara. J H46 

Ogden Chrome, Calif 813 

Ohio 4 Colo. Smg. & Rfg. — Smelting investi- 
gations, Colo 

Ohio Cop. Co 735, 856, 1107 

— Half yearly report 448 

— New construction 83 

Ohio mine. Mich 1026 

Ohio Oil Co.. Ill 1081 

-Photo of mine's . .' '960 •961 

—Silver ' 

Ontario Silver Mng., Utah.. 488. 856. 1064, 1107 

Ontario. Smaltite ■■■ »»" 

Ontario Smg. Co., Okla 82. 662 

Ontario. Utah. Production g« 

Onwatta Mng., Ark .••,•••/, oa8 

Open cnt mng. See also "Mining. 

Opencot blasting, Powder In 365, «oi 

Operating troubles. Flotation <« 

Ophir' lg»-0».'.'N«: 222V264.' '30^356^862.^ 
Ophlr, Mont. See also Butte-Detrolt .352, 529 

Ophir. Ont 88. 488, 942. 1064 

Ophlr Sliver Mng . Calif • J" 

—Mng. methods l j>Jg 

Ordnance base, U. S.. in France &«- 

Ordnance Dept. — Organization chart «o» 

— Reorganizes r 

Ordnance men wanted ,■>'•' '•*' 

Ordnance plant for interior VM. ww 

Ore and gangue. Editorial *»» 

Ore deposits, Nev., Yellow Pine l»a 

Ore freight increase asked SJJ 

Ore mining methods •••■••. ,,07 

Ore price schedule, Argo Reduct "<" 

Ore Sales Comm. advocated ajra 

Ore-sales investigations, Colo J J? 

Ore sorting formulas lx '° 

Orebody valuation ■»;■■-: «TR 

Oregon, Calif, .v Eastern R. R 615 

Oregon — Chalcopyrite flotation J" 

— Chromlte 1"J" 

— Sylvanite I' 1 ,,* 

Oregon-Wash. R. R ""1 

Orem. W. D • ■ ■ • • • • ■ • ■ • 12''" 

Ores and ore dressing products— Examination, l^i 

Ores. Domestk — Greater use urged 841 

Organization of research work ....xl»o 

Oriental Consol Mng 576. (<u 

—Gold treatment .■•■ •••■ ■ •••• • »j™ 

—Production 1'8, 400, 942, lift" 

— Views at chosen *?? 

Ornehommen, Norway 

Oro Hondo. S. D »3 

Oronogo Circle. Mo »-• iVf, 

Oronogo Mutual. Mo - 

— Zinc investigations .. • ... ■• • • •■-••■ ■ fi„ 

Oroville Dredginf. Calif.— Div.dends 1917... 160 

By months <"■ °2V 

— Redredgiug operations • • • • - • - - ■ 

Orpha May, Colo. See "Patterson-Bradley. 

Osage Mng.. Mo :v\ *??i 

Osborne, N. S. Aneroid calorimeter. .. ....Ti»8 

Osceola. Consol. Mng.. M*. 37. 2^1, 355. ^ 

—Annual report • ■ • • 10 ^* 

zSKSSSi ■: :: :m: ■&; »:««: ™« »« 

Osier. Sir E 1060 

Osmiridium. Tasmania ' '••- 

Osterloh, E. A. ■. vi * 

Ostrand, P. M. Manganlferous iron mng.. 

otg^A :::::::::::::::::: US 

Otisee Out. ■;.•.'.■....... 400. 618. 942 

Our deficient minerals. Editorial 65J 

Our economic policy. Editorial 695 

Onrav Consol. Mng. & Reduct., Cole 703 

Onrav Custom Milling. Colo 661 

Oustomah. Calif *°" 

Over-electrolyte trouble in flotation J*j 

Over-oiling trouble in flotation 735 


Volume 105 



1 ■ 




Paa I ; j t s ■». -.- io:;7 


— O I I ,r.'.:,-1 !»;». 1107 



Palan-r W. 1188 

In mangaoo 780, 1176 

Pml.'c : nsneutatlon. IW 

I • 

Paramount Redact SI, 1149 

,1 n 
— M»C.T-.r». 1070 

Park ■ v 1110 

Park i •■ - 



v .'regon obroiMi- 


Para), m Aria 854 

. . 355 
Patchln. It. 11 . . . . 888 

Pat.-otv New. Weekly feature. 
—Enemy ... ■ • 80S 

Patrick Mine. M'.r . . 82 

Patrice • 1194 

Pattrnon * Bradley Leasing. Colo. 177. 


Patterson. R. II. 444 



Pay r 

Payen, E. Fr» n-h mng. law. . 

Payne H. M. Thawing frozen ground. 

Payrwk. I 

Peat.-ly Consol. dp.. Aril 

Peabody. W. S Coal shortage -11 

—Phot.. 'fl? 

Peace. American 842 

Pearce. W. A. Safety signal switch 

Pearl. Ariz 368 

Peara^n. w. K 940 

Peat «■ • 176. 616 

Peat. Canada 1108 

-irlol. for tube-milling '1033 

■ - .- 940 

Peck. 1 919 

i, San Joan. Colo 


1: 978 

Penbertlt I J. died 700 

Penglaae. W . 

Penn Canadian. (Jot... .. 982 

Pennlac Reef. Manit.ta 


Pennsylvania : torial 696 


Petuacola Tar A Turpentine Co. Flotation 

teata 1043 

audy 22 


Parmaaanii " tassium." 

Perry. " 

once. Alaska — Blasting # 922 

-.' gets ■tee] 

BW 124 

Pamrlan Cop.. Utah 17* 

; .-..- Y 

fuel 425 

; - 

Petral 703 

ral gaa register t701 

—Aril 630 

000. 701 
897 1061 

Naval re-crve lands 35 

New nap . 57?, 

.-Hon 1142 

—fane', I oil fields 

an swindle 626 


oil shsle treatment 'in 

a's address 



■■'» work ... . 




:::;:: .: 

Isiati. u 

.lad. control . . 1 1 10 

682, 1140 

Kl ■ 

i .. LO B 
Private i ■ ntrai I ted. . 608 

'; ; 



— Valuation of lands 

1 "'- 


' '40 


Phalen. i88fl 

.• 1766 


Auuuul rep 1 


32. C56 


— Heai -i M '225 

,1 "'- 1 

i:ur. of Science Bept. . . . t»36 

Philippine Islands, Coal 17 

-rnnl ..f S.'l tO.ld 

Philips! Monl 82, 177. 22 

Phlllpsburg district. Mout 397 

— Shipments 175 

Phillips. Kan 818 

Phillips, R 221 

Phillips, W. B., died 1190 

Phillips, W. T. Bismuth determination 882 

Phoenix. Mich 37 

Phosphate. Algeria 1174 

— Electric smelting 879 

— Ky 932 

— New Zealand 821 

— U. S.. 1917 1079 

Western delay 256 

Phosphoric acid — Ammo, molybdate recovery. 249 

Picber-Okla.. Mo 662 

PIckands-Mather, Minn. 74, 82. 221. 662. 941, 

i -ma . . 170 

Plcrlo-acld plants 1058 

Pig Iron. See "Iron." 
rig tin. See "Tin." 

Pilaris. Mont U94 

Pilling. W. S 852 

Pima Mng. & Sing.. Aria 854, 898. 940 

Plnnl Consol.. Ariz 36 

Pinal Dome Oil. Calif 354 

Pinchot. G. Water power bill 338 

Pine Creek Tungsten, Calif 354, 11119 

Plngrey Mines, Colo 575. 708 

Plnney. M. E.. died 1100 

Pintados Salar. Chile, Potash 674 

■Extraction 678 

Pioche Mine-. Ncv 941 

Pioneer, Calif 446, 1063, 1108 

Pioneer Consol., Nev 1064 

Pipe corrosion 287 

Pipe diameter determination chart *684 

Pipe, Iron, test 380 

Pipe-line. Berry joint *472 

Pipe vise, "Chaingrlp" '684 

Pipette for fuming liquids *604 

Pipette, Safety *249 

1 79 

Plttman bill. See "Silver-purchase." 

Pitt^lairgh iron and steel market, 1917 72 

Plttsbu . Ariz 574, 1108, 1114 

Pittsburgh-Liberty, Calif 263 

Pittsburgh-Lorraine. Onl 84, 400. 662, 858 

Piute Co., Utah. Potash 1061 

Placer Chrome Co.. Calif 81 

Placer chrome concentrating, Calif 462 

Placer County Chrome, Calif 899 

Placer Mng., Mont 575 

Plane. Self acting '164 

Plastic refractory for boiler baffles 1049 

Plat- Mine. N. s 980 

Platform for feeding stamps 926 

Platinum — Adirondacks 612 

1 trial 623 

—Draper'! Russian exploit 510 

— Nev.. deposits 455 

— N. S. W 1178 

—Russia 128, 377. 038 

rial 848 

Supply. Editorial 023 

— Sudbury ore source 835 

tj Bj 1917 991 

'Commandeered 470. 605, 909, 1107 

Price fixing. Editorial 978 

Editorial 934 

—Volatile, fake 803 

I production, 1917 61 

- World's stock 288 

Playter Bros 814, BOO. 1193 

Pleasant Valley. Mo 38, 308 

Plight of gold miners. Editorial 1148 

Plug, Slotted survey «560 

I Iraphlte" 752 

Plutus, Calif 486 

Plymouth Consol.. Calif 768. 870, 1149 

—Dividends 200 

Pneumatic tampera *1048 

Pocahontas, Ariz 36, 854 

— Advertisements 977 

— Engineers, The 696 

— Hunka t;n 935 

Ing down the costs 613 

the Finn 171 

v . homist 81 

I L68 

engineer 765 

s lav ."7 

Pole Star Cop., 1 tab 576 

itliard, Ark 813 

Pollard. J 486 

Poh itlon oil teal 1048 

l-oi Crown, out 38. 856. 1028 


Porju . Sweden- Electric smelting 638 

for. brlquetting line charge 870, B88j 

1 op., .triz 308, 

Porphyry IHUe. Mont 662, 

Port Arthur Cop., Ont 84, 

Portland Gold Mng. Co., Colo 81, 203, 769, 


\ .1 report 

l i ads 200, 

Portland Lead & Zinc. Okla 

: mi;, u Et, Conklin decision 

Portm::i ivet mines 

Port I, Tungsten 

Position of sing, industry. Editorial 

Posf, Roston. Taxation 

Po»t-war trude, Gt. Br 562, 

Potash. Ariz 

Potash Rrlne Zone, Calif 

Potash— Calif '985, • 

— Cement dust as source 

— Central America 


Pintados Salar 



— Delay 

— Chilean nitrate source 

— Feldspar source 176, 

— Lands case, Calif. Trona 

—Leasing regulations 

— Recovery from greensand 

— Spanish deposits 

—67 s 









Lands opened . . 841 

1917 production 1142 

—Utah 1 061 

mi i 1 aniile rs Sodium 918 

Potassium permanganate — Sulphur determina- 
tion In 162 

Potassium salts extraction, Chile 678 

Potassium sulphate in flotation 916 

Potosl. Colo 531 

Potosl, Nev 468 

Potrerillos mine. See "Andes Cop." 

Potter, W. C 1022 

— On Aircraft Bd 1182 

Potts Canyon Mng., Ariz 702 

Powder in open cut blasting 305, 601, 1130 

Powder blast. Perseverance, Alaska *922 

Powder River Gold Dredging, Colo.. 177, 813, 1109 

Powell, J. W. Memorial monument 971 

Power & Mng. Machinery's ball mill 935 

Power generation at coal mines 754 

Power, Hydro-electric, Yavapai, Ariz '1113 

Power plants — Saving of fuel in 1008 

Powers, F 980 

Prairie Flower, Nev 457 

Pratt, J. H 34 

— Photo *953 

Precipitation, Copper, with coke breeze 1089 

— Gold, with charcoal 506 

Premier Langmuir, Ont 264 

Prentiss, G. L. Cementation 584 

Preparing for taxation 1138 

President and the war 973 

Prestea, Gold Coast 367, «790 

"Presto" blueprint holder *338 

Price fixing. See also "Minerals Administration." 
Price-Fixing Committee — Copper Conference. .1050 

— Personnel 606 

Price fixing. BoBton News Bureau on 1181 

— Editorials 299, 393, 613, 693, 695 

—Eve. Sun editorial 526 

— Platinum. Editorial 976 

Price of copper and the supply. Editorial. . .1016 

Price of manganese ore 1175 

Price of shameful peace 644 

Price, \v. B. Technical analysis of brass. .. .t527 

Prices and wages 296 

Prices, Current 43, 311, 491, 773, 903, 1067 

Prices, metals, 1915-17 (chart) 48, 49 

—1914 17 (chart) 568 

— 23 vr average 199 

Prices, Rise in. Kditorial 568 

Pride of the West, Colo 307 

Primers — Safety In make and use # 290 

I'rimos Chem. Co. 176, 177, 263, 355, 487, 

531, 617, 1063, 1193 

Prince Consol.. Nev 941, 1110, 1194 

Prince of WaleB, Dtah 682 

Princess A nnie Cop 899 

Princess Estate & G. M. Co., Transv 1110 

Principles of iron founding t527 

Priority regulations 843 

Probert. V. H 1022 

— Leaching 226 

Proctor, T. W 1185 

Producers'" Transportation Co. vs. 3. W. Jame- 
son 615 

Production and ocean transportation. Editorial 170 

Production must be balanced 478 

Profeai nal fee collection 189 

Profiteering In Germany 889 

Progress mine. N. M 264 

Progress of flotation, 1917 99 

Propaganda. American. Editorial 525 

Proposed mines administration. Editorials 298, 

571, 651 

Prospecting for manganese 286 

Prospectors, Okla 1110 

Prouty. W. F. Graphite, Ala 282 

Provincial, Ont 84, 856 

Prudential Mng. & Devel., Aril 855, 981 

Pryor. F. L 1097 

Pulley, crowning a 247. 431 

January l to June 80, L918 ENGINEERING AND MINING J01 RNAL 


Pulp. Hydraullcally classified \ .■ 

palp preparation In fit tal 

ruip thickeners In nitrate leaching. 

i rod r.'i :iir * w 

i I 

i lum, test 

Purchasing, u. 1; . ■ ■ ed 001 

Porlngton, i \\ . iranttd. . .1170 

i. II. I! ..,.484 

Pyne, i\ k. Qiromo furnace linings 

i .1:1 . 1917 6111 

— Heap leaching 

—Import queatlon -131 

—Market 11118 

— 1917 review 13(1 

— Sweden 033 

— D. 8 073 

Import restriction* 008 

Principal consumers 287 

Survey 844 

imports and exports 108. 303 

— Utah 

Pyrolusltc. Sweden 

Pyrrhotlte deposit*, Va., S W M98 

Pyrrhotlte ope'n eur mines. V:i • Hit 


Quail. Colo B.1B 

Quaker Valley. Kan 1193 

Qualification* .>f shift buss .,76 

Quarry lug. France 

Quartz, Sweden 832 

Quartxites lu brick matting 856 

Quebec — Accidents, L917, 597 

—Gold 980, 1148 

— Magnesite 591 (errata) m»5 

Queen Bess. Colo 531 

Queen Creek Cop., Arii 854 

Queen Mine. Arls 898 

Queensland, Minerals, 1917 1171 

Quen. ■an. A. L 1146 

Quicksilver, Calif.. 1917 review 52 

Quicksilver in 1917 51 

Quicksilver metallurgy, 1917 review 110 

Quicksilver, Research work, Calif 520 

Quicksilver, U. S 315, 649. Ml 

Quln, L. H. Metal handwork t706 

Qulncy, Mich 37, 82. 177. 303. 617. 703 1149 

— Dividends. 1917 160 

By months 32, 656 

— Production 981 

Qulrke, T. T. Eapanola Mat.. Ont t936 


Rabb, E. M , 218 

Radio Mines, Calif 818 

Rafferty, B. C 896 

Rahmar Hydraulic Tin 917 

Railroad Administration — Car shortage. Ed- 
itorial 764 

— Express Co.'s merged 1051 

— Locomotives ordered 887 

Railroad Wage Comm. — Cost of living 519 

Railroads — Canada 616 

— D. S. : 

Car shortage, Minn 176 

Centralization of purchases 561 

Demurrage charges increased 167 

During war 753 

Eastern freight embargo 253 

Earnings, 1917 340 

Electrification 434. 646 

Freight rates ease 565 

Government control 25, 474 

Editorials 29 

State directors- not to be apptd 296 

Intermountain rate decision 298 

Labor dilution 215 

McAdoo appoints staff 341 

McAdoo restricts expansion 607 

Mineral freight re-classification 297 

Must hurry bill 254 

Must pay full coal price 802 

Ore freight increase 344 

Rate Increase 971, 1050, 1098. 1145. 1147. 

1 183, 11!U 

Editorial 1057 

Statistics 482 

30,000 freight ears ordered 840 

Wage advance 648, 928 

Editorial 935 

Railway engineers new regiments 1142 

Rainbow Lead & Zinc, Okla 82 

Rainier Mercury, Ore 942 

Rake off, Colo 1063 

Ralston, O. C 718. 735. 798 

— Chemicals in flotation 798 

Ramsay, Sir W. Memorial fund 454 

Ramsdell. W. R 854 

Ramstedt. A. P 688 

Rancheria. Calif 486 

Rand. See also "South Af." 

Rand gold deposits 106 

Rand mine workers union. So. Afrit-. — Wage 

schedule 3 

Randall, H. E. Electrochemical Works. Can.. 441 
Randolph Gold M. M. & Tun., Colo. 899. 941, 1025 

Rainier Mercury, Ore 1194 

Ransom, R. S.. Jr. — Concentrates box *294 

—Shaking screen *207 

— Tungsten determination 836 

Ransome. F. L. Quicksilver 841 

Rapid determination of tungsten 836 

Rappahannock, Calif 703 

Bare Metals Ore. Colo a<J3, 909 

Raritan Cop. Works. N. J. — Selenium & tellu- 
rium 194 

Ransenberger. F. Long-range gun 754 

Raw materials Comm. rept 212 

Rawley. Colo 531, 899, 1063 

Ray Consol.. Aril 220 

— Annual report 884 

—Dividends. 1917 160 

By months 32. 656 


Hon i 

Quarterly reporl 
Bay !■■ 

. Mil Bl 

Uaj Kelvin Hug . axil ,.. 

Raj Bl mis 

Read) ■ 

Real red tapers 

Reconstructing the 

Recovei Lug ■ ai ad slope In na n 


■ rla. 

Ri ,i Chief M i 447 

Bed Oloud, s. ii 

H. ,i Cross campaign . . 968, 1008 

b magaBinee wanted 1170 

— Tracing cloth wanted SOU 

' ll -12, 940 

Bed inn Florence .Mng., Nev 83, 1004, urn 

Bed Ledge, Calif 

Bed Monarch, Ida 1020 

Bad Mountain Consol., Aria 

Bed Mountain Mines. Colo 447 

Bed Prince Oop . Arls 769 

Red Hose, Okla M4 

Red Star Petroleum, Calif 

Red Streak Cor. Mng., Nev 38, 618 

Red Top, Nev 448 

Red Warrior, Utah 1064 

Red Wing. Call! 304 

Redcilffe, Alberta 1099 

Redfield. Sec. Gold reaerre 561 

Redredglng— Will It pay? *1 

Reductio ad absurdum. Editorial 393 

Reeder, A. J 398 

Reese, A. L. Iodide copper method with sodium 

fluoride 1170 

Reese. P. P 896 

Refineries, Copper and preferred list 891 

Refineries losing men to Govt 432 

Refineries, Petroleum, Kan 821 

Refining of sine 1083 

Refinery — Mount Elliott, Alls 188 

Refinite Co., S. D 83 

Reforms, Mex 308 

Refractory, Plastic, for boiler baffles 1049 

Refractory properties. Silica 505 

Refractory silica brick composition 954 

Regnell, R. T 978, 1060 

Regulations, Explosives act 378 

Reid. J. T. Antimony in D. S 646 

Reindeer, Mo 1150 

Reindeer-Queen, [da 

Reinecke. L. Road material surveys t766 

Reiniger Freeman. Ariz 940 

Renfrew Molybdenum, Ont 880 

Renwiek, C. W 810 

Repairing mine cars 1173 

Replacement Regiment 647 

—Schools 802 

Replogle, J. L 072, 754, 886 

Reports of mng. companies — Standardization.. S2-, 

— Editorial 848 

Reports, The right kind. Editorial 808 

Republic. Calif 1063 

Republic Iron & Steel, Ala 80 

Republic Mng. & Mfg. Co., Ga 15 

Requa. M. L. See also Fuel Administration. . 753 

— Appt. Oil Div., Fuel Admin 167 

—Calif, oil field wages 796 

—On Lever bill 485 

— Petroleum Congress address 682 

—Photo *319 

— Valuing oil lands '544 

Rescue apparatus, Gibbs '323 

Rescue, Nev., Production 38, 222 

Rescue work lectures 529 

Research work organization ' 1136 

Retort, oil shade distillation 917 

Rettes Mng. & Oil Co 1023 

Revelstake Internat. Mng. Corn- 1150 

Reverberatory furnaces. See "Furnaces." 

Rex Consol., Ida 399. 575. 703. 770. 900 

Rex Mng. See "Rex Consol." 

Reyer, E. E 444 

Rhea Mng.. Ariz 898 

Rheinbold. S. D 900 

Rhodesia Chrome Mines 23 

Rhodesia, Gold 869 

Rhodesian & Gen. Asbestos Corp 23 

Rhodesian mining operations 23 

Rhodocrosite concentration 573 

Rhodoohxosite. Mont 

Rhyolite as tube-mill pebble 1039 

Rlalto Mng. Co.. Okla 82 

Bice, C. T. Binding timbers to truck »1132 

— Chnte mouth fixing '923 

— Flotation in the Coeur d'Alenes *707 

— Recovering caved stopes in narrow veins 

• »1069 

Editorial 1103 

Rice. E. W. Electrification of R. Rs 434. 64'l 

Sice. G. S.. Cement gun «584, «623 

—Fuel problem 432 

Rich Strike, Mo 177 

Richards, H. De C 174 

Richards, J. W. Metallurgical calculations. .t766 

Richmond, Colo 1193 

Richmond. Ida 770 

Richmond Mng., Milling & Reduct.. Mont... 82 

Rickard. T. A 1060 

Rickard. W. W. Crowning a pulley. .. .247, 431 

Rico Argentine, Colo 813. 941 

Rico, Ariz 812 

Rico Mng.. Colo 941 

Rico Oil Co 810 

Rico-Wellington. Colo 941 

Riddell-Davlson grate 293 

Riddell, G. C 484 

—Photo '829 

Riddell, J. M 700 

Rldder mine. Russia 275 

Ridge & Valley. Utah 3S. 900. 942 

Riedler pumps ■ 1031 

Itpul .... 474 


,.,, ■ I 

Rival Mng. N U i 

B8T, ;•■ 


M II, ■ . . 440 

Roanoke on . . 842 

..- rui 
ig pi 

M 417 

Robertson, J ' "■ 

corder ■ 

Robinson Gold Mng., Transvaal ... . 428 

Kol,li,i-,n. II A 
Rochsetei I 

Ruck Bute, Modi 

Roclia- Cable ghi 

Roderick, J. A., died 301 

k, J. V. 

, G. B ... 7oo 

Boeper Crane \ liolM Works 597 

Rogers. A. II 1022 

Rogers, li. S "" 

Rogovln, I. I., Russian platinum <>3« 

rial 846 

RoDpibun Extended. N. L 917 

Rooney, M. A. Coal conservation 26 

Rose Consol., Mout 1194 

RoOSeTelt Drainage Tuxu L77, 898, 

681, 850 

Roots of the trouble. Editorial 298 

Roots vacuum pomp '205 

Ropes. Hoisting, formulae lOit 

Service and care '•'•'- 

—Wire, standardization 

Ropp furnace 00"? 

Roscdale Rig.. Kan 821 

Bosengarten, A. G & 2 J 

Rosin in dotation 1" J 

Ross, E. M -"'- 

Ross. G. McM. Necessity of gold mining 

Ross, L.. vs. a. C. Burrage 1185 

Boss. B. A 8o4 

Rough Diamond, Calif I'OO 

Round Valley Tungsten, Calif 81, o,4 

Roush, G. A IJjW 

Rowe mine. Minn. Mng.. methods -''J 

Roy. P. S., died V,™ -.52S 

Royal Gem Mng.. Colo 899. 1063 

Royal Ont. Nickel Comm 835 

Royal Okla lu84 

Royal Tiger, Colo 487. 617. 661. 1109 

Royalty lease, Calif »-= 

Royalty sched , Minerals Sep -Sod 

Royster, P. H 34 

Rubber Imports restrictions «» 

Bubenson, C. W 898 

Rubidge, F. T 1W« 

Ruby Cascade, Colo "» 

Ruggles. G. II l%< 

Runckel, F. C ?" 

Russell. D. A JOT 

Russell. J •• • • • • 1060 

Russell, S. R. Powder in open cut blasting. 

601, I130§ 

Russell, W. C 1022 

Russia. See also Siberia. 

—Editorial •''' 

—Future of , ?°7 

— Intervention. Editorial J J« 

— Iron ore deposits Wa 

— Kvshtim Corp. confiscated <JS8 

— Labor. Bolshevik smeltermau s diary 4«s 

— Manganese d.-posits 1* j5 

— Mineral productions °J" 

— Mining. 1917 review "» 

— Molybdenum Jjo 

—New Russia ■• ■ ■ • • • ■ gg 

—Platinum l- s - gJJ. g« 

Editorials 523. 846 

—Tungsten J™ 

— Urquhart on internal situation -J'j> 

Russo-Canadian Devel. Corp. — Takes Irtysh . 275 

Rustling card system. Mont ;,-o'.-t? 

Ruth flotation machine 4iJ, to. 

Ruth, J. P., Jr. Flotation machine '752 

Ruth mine. Caving system ■ ■ - 503 

Ruth Pierce, Calif ,nn* 'inRn 

Rutherford, F 1002 . J ™ 

Ryan, J., died ™i MB 

Ryan, J. D 761. 846 

— Anaconda ferromanganese plant ui< 

—Career 875 

— Criticises govt, methods 1188 

— Heads Aircraft Bd 838 

—Liberty- loan message, photo 621 

— On "influence" 1019 


Sachem Iron Co.. Minn 177, 264 

Saco de Oro, Colo 1149 

Sacramento Farmers Assoc 34 

Safe Deposit. Calif 855 

Safe mng. practices *832. 566, 89o 

— Anaconda 879 

—Chutes 966 

— Measures of the right sort. Editorial 1103 

— Removable belt guards *164 

— Rules, Acid handling need 188 

— Signal switch *1133 

Gold dredges 853 

— Skips *165 

- U. S. Btee] expenditure on 796 

St. Clair Oil. Kan 486 

St. Francis Mill. Tallf. — Flow sheet 462 



Volume ion 

-■ • 


— T» 

* I 

St I 

St. ! 

— PV» 

\ I Batata. 




r- * Kanoah B It 


' JJUr»*l. Oolo.. shlpmcnta . 
t Altlrf Ett-*a . Af • 

dumps. Wind protection 
sauxi pomp. 11:11 Creat. Minn 
8e»dti» J ■ 

8anr>r' ll \\ 

Santa Fe I'redaioa. N. U 





- 1 

. . . ,«6, 1165 

. 616 
. 978 





VWrtwby lumra 655 

slmrw , i \v j Bedlam v. potai 
maUi 018 


Shasta I i it 

Shasta R11U. Calif Ml 

Shasta Klu«, Calif 67B 

Shallurk Aril OOP., Ur , IS. 854 

' report 885 

Dividends 160, M8 


040. 050, 

1101. 1140 


I (HI 

,982, 1064 


. 680, 


B 10. 








t: I 




. 767 




.34. 767 



Bhaw. A. W 

Shaw. E. W 107 

Shaw, G. E 218 

3haw. II Imi 

Shaw. 8 T 174 

— Mint* data 87 

f»earer. II K. Rauilte. Ga IS 

Miettieid \jt M , 

Shello? Chem., Ala 

Shell* 30 


6h,'!N ased in ,.rr, u i, ,■ 



I. J. C. . 661, 987, 878 





Santa Fe Dredg-int. N. 
Santa Fr. Okla 
Santa Crtrudls. Annual rr: 
—Din ■ !. 

Sargent. Minn. 
Bargnoa. J. 
Saovcur a 
Saving. Hoover on. ... 

Saw Diamond 


In rolls! 

— Hangar apace determination 

—Pi; ■ 

Schley. E It 

Srhlotter ventilator fan .Ang 


Sehlocb. E R . y7 ' c (i7 

School of Mines. CopUpo. Chile........ 

School of Mini". R.lla. Mo 915 

School. Travelling mng.. Nev " gug 

Schools for Replacement Engrs '...'. 802 

Srbubert, E. A lluo 

i2n!«- n w Pb " , f l >« te *"»*- ■'■'■'■'"■'■■- 25* 
sennits. R. w g,* 

Schumacher r.old Mines, Ont ...... ,"m 178 200 

Schuster. Sir F. War bonds. 7«^ 

Schuylkill Mng.. Aril 

Schwab. C. 3JT 

— "Coat plna'" contracts 

— Tlmti 00 g2J 

Schwarx. A. Determining new flow sheets. ! 792 

-oocentratlon patent 500 

•Scientific , rch D ept. 

llr 1 

Scolea. J s ; ■ • 

Scope of miner's employment. . 

Scotia. CUh . 

Scott Mdi Co.. Mo 

ml defence hiftiwavi" 



(i Mr controlled lire-dour 

Stii-rinan. II 



Shift t-oss. qualifications aud duties .. 370 
Shimmln, J. r., photo »740 

-t In posl war trade... ' gS8 

Shipbuilder p. build ships 809 

Shipbuilding, N s 1148 

887, 928, 969] mo9 


-M-rii launchlngs 928 

strikes delay 27 

w elding gg7 

Shipping Board '.'.'..'. 211 


blpa 802 

" n Raymand appt .'.'' 341 

1 raffle abolished 643 

program 1010 

Shipping emtmrgo ' 649 

— French 80 o 


Submarine losses 041 

shipping, r. s .....::::;;: m 

Cbromlte Import restrictions 756 

:anese to go tu Flu 007 

Ships. Concrete ' S 0'> 

— "Faith" launched «07 

tnkable. Editorial ' ' -146 

Ships Kill win war " ' 211 

Sblraa, r. Art tine and lead ! ":ii3 

~" plant. ... ' S77Q 

" 940 Jr ,•;'','"„'• - '■'■"'■ T70 Smedrlle. II. ... 

809 "s 10 1010 f, bou,d l -,S. foster domestic antimony r 1088 Smeeth, w. II.. 

..... oi« E a»glea . 5 „ Smelter smoke in 

SI 1,1. Mont 

811 lead smg, works, \.. Araer. 

SI etallurg) 

■ — 1 ' 1 - rot "\\ 

— Mexico, embargo 

— Norway 

— Ontario 

' ores oficrostructura .... 

Bllv. PIi 1 Oon 10I . Nev 

Sllv , Pt. Mines, Colo 

1 1 ad\ "■ ated 

i' Hxing 

I Iditorlal 893 

1917 reviewed 47 

Bill Purchase Act (Plttman) 804,028 

— EOitorluI 703 

— 'IV m 767 

Sliver Queen. Ark 308 

Sih 1 Kuu, Ark 306 

Sweden 032 

— V. S 45. 47 

— Utah 445. 811 

IlUI Ii.i iia 8 

—World production 11<17, Mint statistics 47 

Bllversmlth Mines, i.m., Can 982, 1108 

SIIvitimii. Colo., Shipments :ir, 

Blmonds A Hums, N. V 1106 

Btmplifled caging with heavy mine cars '559 

Simpson, W. B 939 

Ufg., Knn 821 

Blng uald, J. T., Jr. Com tration expcrl- 

nn-nts 936 

Sink of Amargosa "985, *1000 

Slou\ Mines, Utah 222 

Siphon to unwuter mine *699 

Biredalen, Norway 501 

Situation in lead, editorial 1143 

Situation in tin. Edit., rials 846, 1017 

Situation in zinc industry. Editorial 807 

Six Points, Colo 1109 

Six rt'al savings 648 

Sizing, Dry, of feed for concentration *008 

Skead, Out 866 

Skeleton Load & Zinc, Mo 768 

Skinuer, R. V. Post-war questions 562 

Skilled enlisted men to return 1096 

Skinner, W. R. Mug. Manual tll05 

Skip loading — Cal. >* llec 353 

Skip!! — Safety device '165 

Slaughter, N. H 030 

Blessor, R. Australian copper oosts 1100 

— Coke ttreezo in copper precipitation 1090 

Slide Gold Mng„ Colo 941 

Slime dam construction. South Africa 932 

Slime treatment, Agua Santa, Chile 988 

Slimes-Altering screen cleaning device 02.". 

Sloane, D 767 

Slocan Star, B. C. See also "Silversmith".. 856 

Slogan, The. Poem 607 

Sioss-Sheffleld Steel & Iron, Ala 80 

— vs. Harrison 4L'."» 

Slossen-Symmes interests 1029 

Small. CM 1060 

Small-pipe connections, Tightening *518 

Smaltlte, Ont 980 


— 300 ton revolving, dimensions '. . ran 

Shumway oil well. Kan . S 17 

Shuri.k. A. T jg] 








-Top slice stoplnr 

Scoot engineer. Poem ' 705 

BCTeeti, Shaking »207 

■nes-fllterlng— Cleaning! '.'.'.'.'. 905 

Seala A Rad»r. M 

Secondary metals, r S 

Secret Paaa Gold Top. Aria.!;.! 

Seehee. R. R 

Colo. ... 

Selp. R E 

Selective flotation. See "Flotation 

snd tellurinn 

: - 

279, "464 





. 135 


rket loader • -,--■, 

" 58 



Ida 1026 

Mich. 82. 177. 221. 268, 35r,'. 
„..,, 390. **1. 487. 532. 704 

^— ODBll ""Tal 

Ito Cop. Co.. S. M. ".'.". 

8 «' h1 *- A npeal 

— Coal. Germans work.. 

Bevier. I ... 

Seward. J 

Seymour v; 

8hada • 






Sbaklr I 

Shale. 1 

Shanks prv^ , : . ... 987 

Shannon. CM. XSi 

Shannon Cop., Arte... "(!."lll4 

—Annual rei«ort ' Joi. 

— Prodoctlon 252. 806, B59."ll01 


' -it .'.'.'.'.".'." 0(54' Jon 

Sban)l»s.. F F f;old dredging ..." ]08 


' •■ - ' "■ ( 


. '03 
. 845 
. 106 
. 614 
. 937 
. 82 
. 929 
. 473 

Slam. Wolfram 

Siamese Malaya. Tin . . . . ' '9J7 

Siamese Tin Synd 9J7 

Blberia, East.. Drift-gravel mug •850 

rial ... . oq? 

Sibley. II .fit 

Sicily. Sulphur o„ 

Slckal, C, died ,000 

Sidelight, on Alaska 7^7 

Sidney, Ida \ g?i 

.. ..'.'. :>;>'• I'l't-'- , 1 1 no 

il. Calif 1025 

Slerr: allf "446 

Sierra Nevada, Nev. 222, 308, 356 448 ' 576 

' 66 -D?o? 

Sigafoos. M. A. Service and care of hoi 

ropes 009 

Signal codes in mines 'lORI 

Signal switch. Safety ' ., , ,, 

Silg.dd .Mm.-.. Nev 04, 

Siliei, brick composition 0V4 

— Manufacture " foj 

ictory properties 505 

silicon determination ' qoR 

Silk manufaetur, . 1 ,„ in. . '" Sin 

Slier ,'g" 

'option ' ' oof 

Silver 1 ;: "i 

Silver Bell, Colo Ui 

8ilver. B. C 



117 \ 

.Silver I 

Silver Divide, Ariz 


Silver dollars. Con 

. Mont 

Silver- I 

.. Ark 

rcr;:, *.-„, «»a 

10 1110 


' 137 

Silver King Consul.. Ctah, 140 -14. 


— Capitalization Increase ' f7R 

— Divl,len3s. 1917 . i«o 

By months , ;,; (,43 








. .S40. 926 
. ..222 



, r ,:;i 

■4, 898 


Smelting — Colo, investigation 538 

Schedule 626 

— Cyanidlng vs 454 

—Electrical 574 

Phosphate 879 

Sweden 638 

— Germany, situation 476 

— Govt, control 574 

T ' S Editorial 693 

— *jtne, Indo-China 816 

Smith, A 1012 

Smith, A. H. Transportation 753 

Smith, B. H 810 

Smith, C. A 1146 

Smith, C. G. Cost accounting T527 

Smith, G. 34 

— Minerals Admin, testimony 657, 1011 

Smith, H. De W. W. S. S. at United Verde. 947 

Smith. H. E 940 

Smith. J. H. Gravity plane M64 

Smith Mng. & Devel.. Mont 400 

Smith, Sen. II.. on price fixing 299 

Smither, F. W. C-hem. glassware 248 

Smoke. Smelter, investigations 283 

Smuggler 7.(--g.. Colo 1149 

Smuggler-Union, Colo.. 37, 399. 813. 899, I 

941, 1193 

Snyder, !•'. B 1192 

Socavon de Providencia, Mex 308 

Socialism, State and peace 210 

Will 11 remain 7 217 

SocietJ of Cbem, Industry 614. 700 

KpN .in progress of applied chem 

Mn s - M 353 

Socrates, Calif 1025 

Soda feeder *719 

la Pr ducts. Co., Calif 1061 

Sodium da rd solution tests. . , 

Bodlum fin,, ride. Iodide copper determination.. 1170 

ide In flotation 712 

Sodium tartrate in copper determination oT'2 


Soldle assessments protection 616 

Soldiers' mental tests 254 onomlc considerations. ■ 393 

Some exper. In heap leaching »225 

Some things to wonder about. Editorial... 299 

Somers, R. E. Clays of Piedmont, v"a t7(',d 

Somerset, H. St. ,T., Jr 700 

South Africa. See also "Transvaal." "Rho- 

742. 117 1 

1917 production 1042 

Co 712 

1017 1042 

— Diamonds SS5 

— On,,™ Interests 888 

1 its 111S 

January 1 to June 30, L918 ENGINEERING AND MINING J01 RNAL 



South \ 

- Labor 1043 

Wage schedule. 3 

Ul ili it' 


7 1. 

uctlon 932 

Qtabla inlin 849 

South African I'll, in . Mot A ting, So* I'll 

S.'lllll Alinr I'r.. ! . ._ 

South Amor. -Mining, 181T, r.vl.-n.-.i 123 

South OaroUna' Tin deposits 7 

S.nill, Chin... N. M 

South Dakota, Minerals production, 1917 

Smith Hureka-Onelda, Calif 

South Hacla, rtaii 

South Lai*, Mich., 37. 921, 447. sit. 1004, 11 ■ 

—Report T80 

South Uindon. Colo l( 

South Standard, rtau 618 

South Walllngford, Vt., manganese deposits** 771* 

South, ust Missouri, Okie «G2. boo 

Southrru Qraphlts. Co., Ala 614 

Southern, Kan 1026 

Southern Lead i Zinc, Kan 400 

Southern Manganese Corp. Ala 80 

Southeastern Mo. lead district, 1917 review.. 05 

Southern Mont. it. li 979 

Southern Sierras l'ower Co 897 

Southwestern Qraphlts t'**.. Tex 88 

Space deteriniiiation chart, shaft hanger 473 

Spain— Gold basis 10 03 

—Graphite deposits 402 

— Iron ore, analysis 1122 

Deposits 421 

— Potash deposits *643 

B] n ami Sacrsmi nto. Go) 177 

Spectroscope — Use in lead determination 163 

Speculation — G"M ami haso metal mng 430 

Spelter StaUsttCS. Editorial 109 

Spelter — TJ. S., production, 1913-17 68 

Spencer. A. C 1002, 1003 

— Geology, Nev 105. T766 

Sphalerite In ores 173 

Splcer. Mrs. H. N 930 

Splegelelsen data 75 

— 1917 review 75 

Spllsbury. 1'. G 1002 

Splrlet furnace 97 

Spokane Lead & Silver. S. D 83, 704 

Spokane tin mines 938 

Sporting Boy, Calif 221 

Sprague Eleetrie Works 597 

Sprague, C. B., died 1146 

Sprague. H. E.. died 304 

Sprague. T. TV., died 34 

Spreokles. C 26 

Spreckles. 1. D . Jr 1061 

Springer. J. W. Zinc determination 386 

Sprlngfte'.d Tunnel & Devel., Calif.. 37, 354. 

44o. 788, sr.5 1025 

Spurr. J. E 351, K41 

— Minerals Admin 690 

Square Heal Gold Mng. vs. Colomo Mng 810 

Squaw Peak Mng.. Ariz 1108 

Staffordshire Iron ore deposits 1118 

Stamp shoe mfr.. Transvaal 425 

Standard Chem.. Colo 487. 1026 

Standard Magnecdte. Calif 574 899 

Standard Min. Separation. See "Minerals." 

Standard Oil Co 175 

Standard Oil. Calif 573 

Standard Oil. Kan 821 

Standard Silver-Lead. B. 982 

Standard Tungsten Co 81. 938 

Standard Zinc Co.. Ark 80 

Standard Zinc Lead Mng.. Okla 82 

Standardization, Assaying methods 1024 

— Mine accident reports 1165 

— Reports for mng. co.'s 825 

Editorial 848 

Standards Bur. — Chem. glassware 248 

— Work 4 

Stanislaus Devel. Co.. Calif 36 

Standard. E. T., marriage 1 141, 

Stansflpld. A 513. 1149 

Stanton. Mont 38 

Staples, production. 1917 166 

Star Mnr — Fed. Mng. case 660 

Star of the West. Colo 447 

Stark Citv. Mo 900 

Stark. J 887 

Statp distribution of war minerals 520 

State geologists, list 1 50 

State safetv news t350 

sta*<* socialism. See "Sor-ialism." 

Statistical number 45 

Rtoam in filtration 715 

Stean- -shovel mng.. Mesabi. '403. "493. *50S. • ! ;79 

Ed.'orial 524 

StAPTn shovM ore car *416 

ct„, m .,»,ovel. Polk-Southard. Ark '1128 

Ste*. a*"tr.r the war 387 

Stoit — r-anada 262. 6S8, 10R2 

— F^o** of eopner 371 

— Gt. Britain. 1917 1 "41 

Procedure to obtain ~^9 

Steel-grip glove "1049 

Steo'-Maitland. Sir A. D 755 

Steel men pledee outpnt ^86 

Steel — Pershing's supply 754 

Steel prices o48 

Steel snrvev planned 971 

Steel. V S 72 

— Snnplv 109R 

Steole. E. J., died 614 

Steon Hollow district. Calif 37 

Stel"ti "997 

stc^w'tider. Mont 38 

Stephenson. 1.. died 614 

ctophenson. Mich 37 

9tei*nne Silver Wash 83 

C'er-iett ,T E r ' i * 1 

Ktrtfinlnd E. B 387 

Stevens T"st Tech 1097 

SteveoR. J p 25 

Btsjranjr, B B. Lftbor m shipyards 
Stewart, J. linn hole marking 

Stewart. 1 

Stewart, It. II 

Btawart W ^ I in i ■ i 

Mil, nit,-. Lie, trolytlc imb.jii from, ,. lu 

8 tinmen, i. . dli i I, T. l>. Engineering cnemlstrj 

Stockett, a. u )"12 

mng Boston Exchange 

s 1 . 'in i.. 1917 

— N. Y. Exchange, 1914-17 I 

Stoddard Mng., Ana 71 7 

stokes, II. L. Rhodeslau minim' ... : 

Stone, G. C. am] spll 

st R. W. Bromine. 1917 

-Magneslto deposits. Wash •eOB 

Phosphate rack, 1»17 107« 

Stopin r costs. Con 

In, line top slicing 27'.' 

Sloping methods Incline top si i ' I, *«84 

Recovering caved slopes •loou. 1103 

—St. Joseph, Mo 1161 

Storage, Goal *601 

Storrow's common sense. Editorial 347 

Stoughton, H 1083 

Stovel, J. H 810 

Struehan. F. J 7tm 

•si r.-. its tin " See "E ays." 

Stranahan, Colo 1063 

Stratncona 1'nrk amendment act 939 

Stratton. S. W 1136 

Street. A. L. A. Sec "Law decisions." 

Strike bill passed 518 

strik.-s. See "Labor." 

Stripping anthracite 190 

stripping equipment. Mesabi *496 

Sir, uk', Colo 177 

Strontium. U. S.. 1917 review 135 

Stull sets in stuping •1072 

Submarine losses 341 

Success Mng.. Ida., 35. 219. 221, 399, 4s7. 

770, 853, 708 

—Report i;lli 

Sudbury dist.. Can 1 mi 

Sudbury ores, Platinum in 835 

Sufficiency of assessment work 030 

I ti I' i'" ] "■ 

charges 888, 1 1 75 

Sulphide Corp.. Aus 739, 939 

Sulphide mineral dotation 738 

Sulphides In ores ' 173 

Sulphur analysis 385 

Sulphur dioxide in copper determination. 162, 553 

— Italy, embargo 139 

—Mexico §08 

Sulphur oxide determination 372 

Sulphur regulation 1182 

Sulphur, Sicily 911 

— Treatment plant, Tex '400 

-U. S »73 

Sulphuric acid— Flotation 1 12 

— 1917 review ?9 

— Phosphate mfre 283 

— U. S. »73 

1917 production 471 

Transportation 471 

—Utah 1022 

Sultan. Nev 38. 618 

Summers, L. L 027 

Summit Cop. Mng., Colo 176, 1063 

Sun, N. Y. — Crowell cuts red tape "Ho, 

— Editorial on Pres. Wilson 242 

— Editorial on taxation *^®j 

— Mexico's relapse 334 

Sunflower Mng. & Mlg., Ksn 1026 

Sunnvside. Calif 617 

Sunnyside Mng. & Milling. Colo.. SI. 769. 899. 9-11 

— Description of mill *193 

Sunset. Colo 981 

Sunset Mng. & D. Co.. Nev 1064 

Sunset Mng.. Ida 575, 855 

Sunshine, Ida 307. 662 

Superior. See "Lake Superior." 

Superior, Mich 37, 855 

—Production 814, 1026, 1149 

Sure Pop. Ark 981 

Surf Inlet, B. C. Flotation practice • < 20 

Surface plant. Union mine. Nev '1030 

Survey, Geological — Alaskan chromite deposits 7i7 

— Annual rept «f 

—Caliche deposit. Calif 28 

— Chromite prod, inadequate 335 

— Deepest well 591 

— Domestic platinum 991 

— Gas wells and overdrilling 835 

— Petroleum withdrawals 315 

— Petroleum. Wyo. report 23 

— Quicksilver, U. S 841 

— Secondary metals. U. S 919 

—Sulphuric acid. U. S., 1917 471 

Susannah. Utah 1064 

Snwanee Iron Co.. Ky 703 

Swain. G. F »91 

Swansea, Am JJ«>o 

Swastika Mng.. Colo ••"■ '1™ 

Sweden — Iron, deposits 100L. 1113 

1917 production ■■•■ • Jsl 

Imports and exports 789, 1171 

— Minerals and metals 932 

— Oil slate development 1J86 

Sweeney. O. R. Sulphur dioxide determination 162 

Switch. Derailing *•>};> 

Sybil. Calif fig 

Sylvanite. Colo 703 

Svlvanite Gold Mines-. Ont 84 

Sylvanite. Ore 1064 

Symmes. W ■°'' 9 

Table covering • - ■ ■ • 207 

Table Mountain Gold Mng.. Calif Son. 1025 

Table Rock Mng.. Calif 1° 25 

Tailings ah idling 

build *- ltt 


I sblo and Qutatloll ■ • 742 

"Taking ,„i , 

Il.ll.ot. A \\ ..... 21h 

Talbot, II. S 

Talc, Vermont, IU17 


Talladega Iron. .Ma 

6, B 937 

luinaruok A 'ilng.. Ida.. 

Dividends . ... """ 

M. il, In track work 

Tauawuh. Calll 631 

Tanner, W. N 

i,r Kiln, A. 940. 1028 

rarbox Mng.. ■ 

9:io. 1 1 '- • J 

I ■ , DCS 

Metal i,,i'i and 

nil, Min rals, 1917 1" : - 

Taussig, F. u. Photo 

Taxation— B. BJ 

—Colo 897 

— Gt. Britain 

—Mexico 160, 657, 798, h89, 969 

Mining industry 568, U89 

— U. s.. 808, 390, 503, 573, 701, 889, 113N, 

9, 1147 

A.I Ml 639 

Amor. Mng. Cong., Utah Chup 30 

llarrou, I. W., on 1090 

1, .rials 076, 1057, 1187 

i-ii.llts law 173 

! p] 1 w ers 688 

Gold DUg. and 873 

Income tea reguli mine* 301 

JopUn operators want amendment 446 


Supreme Ct. decision 1<>97 

Zinc tax opposed 1183 

— Utah 811 

Taxing program. . Editorial 1018 

Taylor. B. F.. died 34 

Taylor, It H06 

Teas, L. P. Sphalerite In ores 173 

. Conservation 1055 

Technical men needed 888 

ie.k Hughes, Out 53, 17s. 856, 662, 900 

Teddy Bear. Col,, 017, 805, 1025. 1109 

Teknlk Club 1022 

Telescope, Colo 37 

Teller, Colo • ■ -813 

Tellurn! Inimieiits. . . .44.. 617. 941 

Tellurium and selenium 194 

Temiskaming i North. Got. 11.11. Coinm. Heptt936 
Temiskamlng, Ont., 36. 178. 400. 662, 704, 

856, 9tw 

— Annual report 308, 356 

— Hover mine **|4 

— Shareholders' meeting 530 

Temperature, High— Effect on workers 9 ; t» 

Temple Mng., Ark 531 

Templeton, A. A », o 

Tenderfoot Mng.. Ont ■ • • ■ ■ -018 

Tennessee Coal, Iron .* E.B., 220, 795, 898, 1106 

Tennessee Cop. sV Chem. Co 488 

—Dividends 1019 

Tennessee, Manganese °3o 

Tennessee Manganese Co *8» 

Tennessee, Mo *>3^ 

Tennessee^ — Open cut mug. views ^04 

Tennessee Prod. Co ^84 

Terrible, Colo J ^ 

Terry Tunnel. Colo Jl«» 

Tests for flotation oils iZi 

Texas & Nogales Mug.. Ariz »»» 

Texas L'op. i Bfg. Co 4»» 

Texas, Okla 982 

Texas School of Mines »"* 

Thackeray. Ont • :',?sj 

Tharsis Sulphur & Copper Co., Annual report. 1180 

Thawing frozen ground by let water 20 

Thayer, B. B 8 Ji 

— Butte district „g' 

Thayer. W. N. Ky. oil lields 

Theory and practice of ball-milling. 
.11 them devil-ho 


Thief knot 

Third Liberty loan. See "Liberty. 

Thirty-Third EngTS 255 

Thomas. C. S 1010 

— On Silver bill • - • ■■•■ Bu * 

Thomas Cruse Devel., Mont., 1.8, 308. 400. 

.' 932 

...'..'.'.'.'. 351. 1190 

1 in held development 107 

Zinc tax opposed 1183 

Abstracts of current de- 


Thompson-Krist. nut 356, 814, s;,;. soy. 1020 

Thompson. P. Gas and oil fields. W. Can. . . 1099 

Thompson. W. B 34. 444. 761.977 

— New Russia -?5 

Editorial Jj>9 

Printed in Cong. Rec ioo 

— Rocky Mt. Club honors ^59 

Thorium. U. S., 1917 review 135 

Thornberry. M. H. Addition agents in flota- 
tion '915 

Three Forks Mlg.. Mont oof 

Three Hundred and Nineteenth Engrs 44r> 

Three Kids Nev • 775 

Three Kings', Utah 178, 264. 356. 400 

Three Sevens Gold Mng. Co 2.1 

Three Star. Ont ■ »J6 

Tie-tampers, Mechanical i«*j 

Tightening small-pipe connections '516 

Timber. Mine ..-• 344 ;, n Xi 

Timbering in recovering caved stapes.. 

rimes on "experts" 

—On Schwab 

•1.. ■ 



Thomas, J. E 

Thomas. K 

Thompson, A. B. 
Thompson. A. S. 
Thompson, J. W. 




Volume 105 



1. I'tab 






1 tc'l 



. J" ". ' "tr,.l 

■ ... . _T ssten restrlctl, ..... 

■ ""' '• '! • : 

222 I'ui Nevada 

.,, ,;■■; Doll Oatman, Ariz 

''.: R Bureau of Mines," 
leal, . ,, , etc. 

'■'■'* ■* i a, ' 'IT 

,222 ; ■■'_ 


' pi !!.!!!!! M " 

Ion s -' 

ntrol nil" ,88. 

,8 S ' ; '-'' 100 « 

1 ' i latman, Ariz iao'kiii' 'una 

<n, a, .::::: :.lo23 

. ...1102 

ii" r matter.) 

1 142 





398, is,; 

.... 2a 

Truing .nuikl'iu !!!!.'.'! " ,?,li 

.... -*$ 

Lrtlnclal pebbles! ! M033 


- control 

i :, 
















I litorlal 

Tucker, » . .\ 


I, 1110 





— Gt. r.r 

— Ma 

nous. . 


±m ore dtr- 

Tobln. K. J 

~:ambaugh Co. 
Tofo Iron mines; Chile 

Tomboy. Co*.. 3t, 

-Annual rept '"■ ^\ 

— Dividends. 

, Bjr 



1023. 1061 





81. 938 


7S0, 1176 

'!::? TotiiiM.n'iT.Hi 7ds"aik inns 

"l or,' "« 

.1001 — ltussia 

— U. 8., tmporU 


— Manufacture, u 


Tungsten Mil ,[,r 

rungsten 1917 review .... 
.?■} - In niuugaii. 


a Imony 

Should ii be 

— arsenic 

1 917 review ! ! ! ' ' 

v . [oyer ... 
1 ' ... 


— Br.. ii, mi.. 19X7 '.','. 

Ci i prbdm Hon '.'.'.'. 

— Chrome Import control... 

i!'i7 review " ' 

noli and distribution.!.' on? 

Shortage x°' 

— Chromite, production Inadequate'" 

Imports restricted 

—Coal see also i uel Idmin.". ".'.'. V/.".« so 
Anthracite allotments ... -..«o,b< 


("a I week 

iervatlon '.'.'*' 

I iistriliution .'.*.'.'.'.' 

rtj to ('ana, la restricted 
Mm,- facilities, 1917, 

Preference list .... 

Production, 1917 . . .'.'. 

Editorial '.'..'.' 

li.H.'s to pay full price So? 



• inn? 



.26, 1137 



.... 429 


86, 834 



tSSSII. Irmstead' mines! 

Tunnel Petroleum. Calif! .'!!." 


— Annual mei 



. isv 


. 937 

. 574 
7(i4. 1150 

........... ,iir-,||||— C,E 

"« ;j:>^.->. Mining :::::: dll 

. j rnraer, 0. a., died 42? 

'nitration.' .604 

!'l" Turnlnc n\-,.V'.,' ,;'..'.'',;.'."' U ■',''•.' '. •■ 937 

— Dli 

—Surf Inlet flotation practice" 
Toaopab Exten.. tin.... . . 

— Annua] r- 



— Annual rep t . . H35 

"4, ,. 

102C 1064. 110! 

•• '720 

•>■'•■ 1110, lino 
— Production' 1J35 

818. 662. : 

Toncpah Mn, L '"«> 

— DlT. d 

—Jim 1 ,?J2 

662. T 

Tooopah Pl.cer, C. r^S-KH 

"Vt. appeal 




.264, r,70 


941, 1110 


L. ,ampe "' '1048 

eaabl open-pit mine. . . 



™any 839 



Shutdown order . . . ! 


Eve. Post editorial 

Whai caused crisis 

Trad,, wants binding contracts 0U7 

VVant drafted miners returned. rsv 

-Conner diStribu,i< "' Wtm. .....: .\ .'.m, 8? a 

('m "KdltoriaV •.■.■.■.•.■.-. 2i2 - 80U - ""J 

Editorial *°° 

Freight increase ...'.'.'...'.'.'. , ,'.''2 

Import restrictions ... }V?* 

I'roduction, 1917 ... «S 

Imports and exports, IT,' 802, *888 ' 885 
1916, ion 1041, '1141 

211. 518 

■„•• 253, 388 

.170, 213, 257. 347 

Turner, s 

Turnink' over a new leaf 

Turrel Cop. Mng. & Rfg., Colo. .'..'.'.'. 399 

Tuscan ^99 

Twenty-seventh Bi , , ,,, ...,- i ' a 

1-2. 217. 260. 30 12, 4 4,1. '479; 

-Officers ... 521 ' SfJ. 
Twin Bock, c.ilif J°9 

was;;: : ,211 , 19 " reTicw ■•■■•'•'.'.'..•.■.•.■.•.•.'.'.' •""'■ L V/i 

w, h. Buys jopim land*.. ::.::::;.; 1 §§i z"'': ,,! ,j:':M! i " i ""- .'.'.ew. Jio 

DdltorlAl a,K „ 1U10. 1917 ' =o 

° IOrlal ?« —Economic statistics Aj 

— Bxport restrictions "J 

— Gold 8G ? 

industry and standard ".'". !' ! M; -' R J5 

Mining. Editorial i,,v 

Not curtailed 
I'M 1-1917 ... 
— Graphite 


'7, 487.' 1109 
. 17,2 


1 e-mill pebbies. 

Tracing par 
Tra< • 
Trade war. 

ie«s favors. 


le, N 

C. T. . . 990 

rays harmful! !!.'!' ! oI2 

Lncle Sam, Colo ,.? 6 9 

Cnderhlll n. j u4 » 

I'. 7... died.'.' I?? 

underwriters, Mo b 4 

618. ,,■!. 770. 814, 900, 941, H82, 1026, 

Basin Mng., Arl 2 llV>, ' 1 iii 

Union Consol.. Nev., 17.-,. 222 264 ana ' Vi« 

44S. 485, 576, 662. 704?' SSsTmE 'll47 

"S5 ,: . s ^ : .ii 


J-A~J gme^'l^ii'o'ppoiei.'.lMJ 

Union C Calif 

op^atl';"'""' "" n "'' Ka'tangi-Minini 

—Production. 88. 178. 252, "s'fifi. '<u. "o'r.n. 
Union Oil To.. Calif 

Iron and steel production . i., 

Situation ,ir 

1H17 review 4 £e 

Import restrictions *i„ 

p,« •_■ 649 

foVi '-. 395, 932. 1142 

p r , C e 608 

V. S. Steefreport.'.'.'.V.'.'.'.-. 1148 ' "f* 

Imports and exports ,n. 

See "Labor." 6U6 

—Lead, production, 1913-17. o, 

Editorial | „" 

Freight increase }lf t l 

Imports and exports. 17, 303. 424 ' 761 

-Lime, 1917 l0 °8. '"4J 

— Mancanese .... 914 

Districts ....:; .J * 

Editorial "•» 

Import restrictions .. .'.'.' .' tit 

1917 review fi 5 . 

Price schedule .' "J 

Editorial "?? 

Producers and consumers. tQ - 

Imports and exports .. 7,?? 

• 262 Union Sulphur c, . " 2() ',?5? 

Train alarms and llrht, .'.'.'! ?ij United Alloy steel Corp. . all 

J"" war work. ,,,?J 


I : 



', ■■ 200 

*nom. Call 

variationa gj 

971, 1050 

■ Jth Africa. 
'«h3Si . '' '"-nerce. Wage 


- ioSi 

ilo byviecwneation:'.'.:::: 10 !? 

fpu, : . 1 ,:,o; 

United Eastern Mng., Ariz., so, 220 769 

812 . 864. 898. '1024 

—Dividends, 1917 ?|4 

g*J, i6V84'3'.l| 

United ,. I:( -oi 

I, 1109 


OS' hnn ii ™ ... V"' ir ' rcs ono exports „:, 

-Meuit r ,rod„-„„, ;: *j 

Imports and exports, ins, ":io3," ( 'eVral * 12 

-Minerals. Eaitnrlar!. 34 *-. 349 :^ 8 ^^ 

-Mining. 1917 review ... . •■•■««. WS, 651 

—Molybdenum, 1917 review an 

Mo .He, Imports restricted.. iisa" 

—Norway trade agreement. . . o?T 

Sold Mng,. 
I nlted Klntr! 
— Bismuth .. 


Imports and exports. 1917, ' 303', 

(erratum) 349 


...969. 1107 

—Stamp anoe mfr. . . 
Oil Co. 

Ion of mangane... 




. 128 


•818. 820 



— Cop; ,. 

— Govt, control J^j 

—Industrial safeguards '.'!.'.' S?| 

MUr,.}-" "■<<>' Advis. < m . ;;, 117 

-Ja1«5?^.*^ ::::::::::::::::::::1 »» 

• I nese resources' '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. ' ' '.'.'."' fjgl 

—Pall,,, Hum. 1917 review.... 
Commandeered . 

Editorial .'.'.'.' ' ' ' 

— Petr.leum 

1 nomy urged 682 ' J"° 

I ■ 1 051 

Search for new pools ?J 

Situation »7i 

-Pho pliate rock. 1917.. ...'!.'.' All 

V tern delay 10 '9 

Pl*l m, 1917 25? 

' ,,: ' mIcorf " 1 47n'. '605.' '996.'ll07 


Editorial [[ 97^ 


Price fixing. 

January i toJuneSO, 1318 ENGINEERING and MINING JOl RNAL 




i ..I i. .1 Stat ,/ ./ i 

— Potash 


lin; prodttctioo 


Import restrictions 

Principal consumers 


Lmpoi I- and exports ■ 
Quid llvei ......... 

Katlroads, Sea "Railroad! 


s. . oudarj metals 

Selenium, L811 rovlavt 

Spelter prodin I 1018 17 

— Strontium, 1917 roviow 


— Sulphuric add 

1917 production 


— Taxation. See "Taxation. 

— Thorium, 11)1" review 

in, conservation 

Qonaumptlon, 1917 

1017 review 


Shipment advice .?;; 

Situation ""i 

Imports and axporta ™« 

— Titanium. 1017 review "" 

—Tungsten, Imports and exports •>«» 

—Uranium, 11)17 revlevt 
—Vanadium. 1917 review 
— Ziue. Editorial 


Smelting capacity . . . 
Imports unit exports 















I is., 

i Uca tloi 8 IUIUbi 
I rugusj Bitumloou 


hi. 1108 



Vacuum pump 
Vail, i' " 

Vulli'J View, Calif 


Valuation, slanfanaas ores 


Milling prODI "> 

Van Indite,' d'.'b Dpi i hen 

.... 548 

. . . .•644 

. 299 

. 052 
. 591 
. 218 

. 937 
. 21 
. 941 
. 13 

094, 807. 1018. 1191 



17, 09, 303, 424. 

701, 1003, 1141 



. .200, 843 

..354. 574 

—Zirconium. 1017 review 

U. S. Chamber of Commerce. 

— Americanization 

—Daylight saving 

— Favors trade war ■ 

— Water power legislation urged 

s. Qypeum Oo., S. I> 

r. s. Metals Refg. Co. : 

— Hygiene for lead workers 

— Laboratory, Chrome. N. J.... 

— Annual report 

— Dividends 

— Production 

U. S. Steel Corp 

— Annual report 

— Service flag 

— Wage increase 

TJ. S. Tariff Commission. See 

TJ S. Vanadium 30. 80 

TJ. S. »». Calif. Trona Co.... 
United Tungsten-Cop.. Calif 
United Verde & Pacific R 

United Verde, Ariz 

—Dividends. 1917 

By months 32, 440. 050, 843 1019 

—Freight rates case go" 

United Verde Cop.— Liberty loan »•« 

—War Savings Stamps. ........••.•■•• •••■ »•' 

United Verde Exten. Mng...80. 30., W^^j^, 





354, 480, 940, 981 



. E..".. 8 9 2 

220, 1003, 1114. 1192 

11. J. Young's discussion 


Copper ditirmlnitlon 

van Birnevsld, 0, B • •• ■ • ■ 

Ooppar determination In oxidll, I P 

Van Dcrllp, J. It • • ■ ■ 

Vau Mater. I. A. >» pyrrhotltc 

Van Otttrand, D. Deepest well 

Van WagcDeii. 11. R ■ 

Vanadium, U. S., 1017 n view 

Vsndcrboef, E. E • 

Variations In transit needle 

Vasco, Colo 

Veatch, O 

Velle Mines Corp., Okla " 

Velvet. Okla •■•■• ,*!i 

Veneiuela— Bur. of Mines projected 

— Minerals, 1917 

Ventilation fan, Schlotter 

Ventilation. Bonne Terre, Mo 

—Canvas tubing 3 ->> "<*' SSS 

Venus, Colo 

Verae &5b^ '&"&.' **'. '**\^U 

Verde Inspiration. Aril..... J 5 * 

Verde Tunnel & Smelter It. It <"* 

Vermilion Silver Head. Mont « 

Vermont— Manganese deposits ' ' « 

—Talc, 1917 4 £? 

Vernon Mng. , Colo 

Versatile tractor 

Vlckers, T. O. Lock washers 

Victor Amer. Fuel Co. alarm system . . . . . . 

Victor. Colo 6 - ,:> 

Victor Gravel, Calif 

Victoria Chief, N. M ■•• ■■ . 

Victoria, Mich ill ass 981 

—Production *»■ 3o5, .|fli 

Victoria mine, B. C Vn'oR " 1084 

Victoria, Utah 1 g-»- JSgJ 

Victory Gold Mines. Colo 900. 1109 

Vienna metal cement 'g" 

vlrS^o^Coio: \\7:::««7 a* wl 1026. 1109 

•■Vindictive"— Ostend raid •■■ »-" 

Vinegar Hill Zinc. Wis. .......... • • ■ ■ • ■ -70. 9« 

Vipond, Ont. See "Porcupine Vipond. 

Vipont, Utah imoo 

Virginia City, Calif.. Photo 

Virginia Elkhorn Byprod. Coal. Ky.... 
Virginia — Manganese mng., Grimora... 

Virginia Mng. Co.. Wash 

Virginia — Pyrrhotite deposits 

Open cut mines 

Vise, "Chaingrip" pipe • • • • 

Vegelstetn. L. & Co.. Metal situation. 
Volatile platinum fraud 







. 880 

. . . . 620 
140, 780 



. .1150 




. . '293 

. . «21 


. .1025 


. 875 
. 222 

. 805 




' 08, 83 



oil fields.. '1080 





and Russian 


141. 856, 1110 

400, 485 

— Annual report 

— Dividends 

— Production 

United Zinc Smg. Corp 

Universal Electric Welding Co . . 
Unsinkable ships. Editorial... 
L'nwatering — Cementation in 111 

— Comstoek lode 

— Siphon 

Urad Mines, Colo 

Uranium, U. S., 1917 review.. 

Urquhart, L. Irtysh devel. 

Utah Apex. Utah 

Utah, Coal •• ■ ■.■ • • ■ • ■ v«mV 

Utah Consol, Utah.— Dividends, 191.....-.-. 101 
By months 32. 576 bob 

Utah Cop. Co 1092 

— Annual report , Jl 

—Dividends, 1917 ■■■ *°* 

, f* m ° nthS .•■•.■.■.•.445. 788 

— Labor lofil 

— Leaching plant ■,•,■„■ ,io 

—Paintings by J. Lie. . .... .•••• •••• ■• J °. gj 

—Production 252, 400, 80b, Hoa. iiui 

— Quarterily report ' ™i 

— Taxation case 050 

— Wage increase ° . 

Utah Council of Defence J "" 

Utah Elaterite, Utah "^ 

Utah Fertilizer & Chem "i% 

Utah Fuel Co.. Utah ■■•■ • ■ • ■ •■•■• °| 

Utah— Labor *«. 615, 811. 853 

Wage increase • ■ • ,iZi 

Utah Leasing Co.— Flotation plant »« 

— Flotation practice ^- g 

Utah P Metai&' Bingham Canyon Tunnel, Utah. 141 

—Dividends, 1917 x °^ 

By months 1110 

— Production c 7 g 

Utah Mine, Utah ~yi 

Utah — Mineral land decision j>"| 

Utah Mineral Paint °i? 

Utah— 'Mining, 1917 review i?" 

Utah Oil Men's Assoc SSJ 

Utah Oil Shale. Utah "gf 

Utah, Potash j(J 2 3 

— ??? ite /.'.'. '.445, 811 

— Silver • ■ R10 

Utah Soc. of Engrs °iX 

Utah — Sulphuric acid *rf, 

—Taxation 7 „i 

Utah Zinc, Utah 



Waco Mng., Mo - • ■ • • - • • • ■ • ; 397 '.J? ? 

Wadleigh. F. A. Oil Shale Treatment. Colo. 
Wages. See also 'Labor' and 

panies. „ . 

Wage schedule, Calif, oil fields. 

Wages and prices 

Wages problem. Editorial. 

Wages problem. Mexico 

Wages, U. S. Editorial.. 
Wagon, Combat, Engineers 
Waihl Gold Mng., N. Z. 

- — Views 

Wakefleld-Belber, Aria. . . 

Waldman, Ont 

Wales, Zinc ■■■ 

Walker, A. L. Metallurgy of copper 

Walker Cop.. Calif 

Walker, P. H. Chem. glassware 

Walla 'walla OiY Gas and Pipe Line. Wash 

Wallace, H. V 

Wallace, L. R 

Wallace, R. C. Manitoba mng. ••^■•••••59 95a 

Nam - ol Com 

... 796 
... 298 
... 30 







576, «62 










Wallaroo & Moonta Mng. & Smg., AUS....59, »oa 

Wallers. E. A 463 

— Mng. in Transvaal „, 

Walnut Creek Mng. & Mlg.. Aris 1063 

^!ro^ lngs '.. ArlI :.::::::46o;576-,-94 2 :nio 

Ka P, T D G°" r,d--precipi«fion--w.«h ^ 

charcoal »oV 013 

Wanakah, Colo. adl ' ?J| 

Wanderer Mng., Calif w n ' 8 oq 

Wandering Jew Co., Ariz »"• °|| 

Wankie Colliery Co.. Ltd 55g 

War-baby mines 253 

War Cabinet bill V 5g ' 345 

— Editorials ' ' _' 432 

War costs ' ' 359 

War Credits Board 

War Dept. — Inefficiency 2 |g 

— Organization chart •' 1053 

— Picric-acid plants ' ■ 1( j 9 n 

War Eagle, B. C V95 ' 1009 

War Finance Corp 

— Directors 

— Colo, manganese owners 
War. Ind. Bd. .......... 

— Aluminum price fixed 



. . .212, 517 


ft ^7 

Chem. and Explosives sect "- 

— Coal and coke preference 

•.1. 1.. . 


, pi 



Steel price 

H in r«J 1 

Zinc prlct 

War I abOl 1 

Wat Labor ' 

1 1 ,,,,. 1 

War no t 

1 Ineral Appi 

Dlsti [button ■••;••;; „;, ' 

War Mineral Con 

i'p,,.. ed I mines ' torlal... 571 

In 1917 • 2g7 

— I', rite co ers ■ 

' ' "34 

War risk Insurance V-V aaa 

War Savlngi Stamps " • 6 , fl 

1.0 "-'" ' '1147 

— Joplln dlst. campaign "947 

— United Vi rde ,,37 

War t" transtorm upl' ; ' 

War T..pi,s Shipping Bd. 

Aduill.", "War Ind. lid. . Stl 

— Business favors trade war 

— "But the Englni n 

— Chromite prod. Inadequate 

— Cost • ; 

Crisis. Editorial 

.1 ed tape 

—Daylight saving •■ ■•"•■ 

-Direction ■■! tbe war. IvHtorlal. . . . 

ted men reclassified 

Engineer officers wanted ........... 

QxpanslC f Old I, moans pr, 1 

- Financing "iir second >'->ir 

— F 1 a mighty weapon. ■••••■ 

—For consideration of Gen. Stan 

-Foreign trade ••■;■•••;.,',' 

—Foreign trade Sec. for Cabinet 

—French lumber shortage 

—German long-range gun ■;;;:'' 

Germany seeks Caucasus manganese.. 

Slant ordnance plant 2n 

— Gold movement ' " ggg 

—Gold stock threatened , , ,, 

—Gun division to expand. . . . . • ■ c89 

— Hoover favors minerals a, linn. 

—Hoover on buying m ipoly . ■■ :,.,'; 

— Hoover 01 ■ ' 608 

— Housing problem 4:;5 g 40 

— Imports control • ■ ■■• ■ 993 

—Light breaks. Editorial m 

— Magnesium in war ' 780 

— Major things . . " '_ _ 519 

— May control lumber r ,,.,, 

Must maintain gold reserve .... ' ' 187 

—Nations at war •■•••• " \ \ 888 

—Naval Appropriation I, ill 166 

—Ordnance dept- reorganises 

— Pershing gets steel .. . 

Platinum commandeered .... 

—Production must be balanced . . . . . 

—Reconstruction of crippled soldiers... 

— Registration day 


Ryan heads Aircraft Bd 

—Senate against efficiency 

— Serbian coal ...... ■•••.: ■ ■ • 

Ship launchings in April 

— Shipping capacity 

State socialism and peace 3g7 

—Steel after the war . . " . . 886 

—Steel men pledge output 27 

—Strikes delay ship building 34J 

— Submarine losses •-•••■• "" 242 

—Bun edit. Wilson ^ 15 

— Trained men lacking 112 g 

— TJ. S. as employer........ ; 606 

—War Cabinet to meet weeKlJ 27 

— War Dept. inefficiency ■ • " 2 o» 

— War Dept. reorganized _ g3g 

— ^War loan statistics 9g0 

— War metals prices ■•••■.■■• " gg g 

—War taxes spent as received • » 

-What the R, Bs na ,V',i?,? r n i a i .". . . . 611 

—Whose war is it.' Editorial 92g 

will restrict coal to canaaa. . . ■ • - —„ 

-W- spend $400,000,000 on buildings 563 

—Year's expense below estimate «"» 

War 'rrldfBd.-Copper imports restrlchons ^. 11|| 

— Export licences jrjjn 

Import restrictions •■•■•,••' K89 

—Imports not absolutely prohibited ||» 

—License agents unnecessary 297 

—Metal export to Norway S4 

Monazite sand restricted ' ' ' 930 


'.'.'.'. '. 335 
. . . 340 


. ."287 

.... 519 


. loea 


B .1 



210, 800 



.754. 1104 
. . 927 


. .476, 605 


.. 474 
.. 298 
.. 838 
.. 166 
.. 928 
. . 348 
.. 211 

-Rubber Imports 

Ward. C 

Ward-Hopp case . . . 

Ward, Nev 

Waring. W. G. ... • . 
— Zinc ores. Joplln 




. .. 729 

. .. 280 


Volume 105 

e» or d 

r. 11 

HUcb i. 

- 5 

.. es9 


Wa« ■ 

- MUM ch»m:.t 
Webb. H. !I 
»(*1, W. II 

Weldlelo. I 

— Ultra 

- B -i- ' :„• • ' 

Weil. r> 


. - 




. 613 
. 1T1 
. 896 
. 882 





" harmful ; ,Ji 

-.. J 




141, 1193 



I . I 




" ' 672 

II1;i; . . NUll 

"«l •■■ 1100 

. t766 
. 688 


: : : 

« :: n :::: 


IV III!,'," ,'' a , 1. 887 

I 7fl7 

munlty Interest 

X. \ 

X. Wages problem 

• lights on Alaska. . 





Yule ,\,. 


■' o,ai storage, 

' r Ariz. . 
Powne .mi-. Oo 
-l-'lui. fullf 


.354, 940 

£•" dlstrlit Ariz ;,.?* 

'"">',. ii. Aril "J" 

P a V v:.: ■ 

Ml lis A Imir, i. timony' 
«i * Metal Medal presentation.' 
1 ■ ' Ister, Calif. ... 

Jai i. i M, in 

rellov Jacket Mines Colo 

i!"""" ,! .district, Ore deposits'." 

xellow i' .Miit'., Nei 

— Annual report ■ . 
i" ads, nii7 .... 

>". MO, 891, 1188 
262, 702, 981 

• 982 

.81, 417, 1149 


318, 450 



Mental tests. 

. . 617 

. . 82 

. 940 

. . 978 

.. 962 

.88, 930 

V.rl,, Ii. M. 

fongj v m. .. 

Oo Minn ."" 

Yorkshire lr„n ore deposits.. . 

Iroerica, Calif. 
Zonng, 0. M. Storage of ooai.' 
Young. B. W. 

G. J. . . 


H. M. 

M E 


. . 591 

■ ■ M5 

661, 813. 

1064, 1109 
218. 927. 929 

um salt 


. 940 
. 34 


1 1 50 
■ 440. 656 

90o!' 9 5 4 3 !- 
inc? • ...1068 

— Photo 760 





W««t J 
— DIt: ' 
— Production 


! " 981 

.. 613 

.Mine lui-.i in cldents 427 

I - r lSZ 

Bun editorial" on...'.'.' "' 242 

and g~™ 

Bditoriai '.'.'.'." 347 

D, E jo» 

rdor 008 

'''''II"" fOI 914 

: J R. A. Gravel i ps '"•615 

tab .. 8fl« 

\\ Cop., Mich . 37, 22] 807 399" 447' 

BM, L064, '1150 

4. Tin, Va. . . K 

• sport " ' ' in 2 

— Mfrs. meet Renua JJJi 


Bandied uovei.'.'"""".™ 
11 -Mine en ' ,22 

Zinc, 1917 review 3 H 

'■ Zinc Co 70 - /ii 

>ln sine district ' 22 


.1 .'.' i:2 

ee, Sherman A Co.— Magnetic "con 

Witwatersrand. See "Transvaal." 

war 5 ' "' Mo, * b<len,,n > Industry, Nor- 

II. M. Mm;;:,,,,, i „|, : , . 
wolf, A. G 

32. 656 









-Sink ,, ,,^A„,i,. ""•Wo^inSn 
in Alaska ".'.'.:.'. 55| 

J?™*-, "■.!'• j«nd goid deposits". ::.::::• Ul 

ruMj mine, w. Australia -Gold praciplti: 

Ynl ra , ionaoi.', ' Colo'. '.'.'. 5 2? 

—No. 17 dredge ,,°] 

—Redrodglng operations .2 

rnha Dredge, Calif. ... ' r A 

Jnba Manufacturing Co. . ,Vnr 

rnkor Uaska Trust Dividends, 1017" ,"{ 

Ry months .U' ,'oi 

rukon Gold Co., Alaska :.".'.' ' ,22 

—Annual report „"•; 

—Dividends, 1917 .. ,»? 

By months '.'.'. , n - i,J 

Jukon Hold Co.. Ida ei'sT 2?o 

Tukon Gold Mug., Calif 4 ' 82, si? 

Yundt, L. D„ Chemicals in flotation. . . 79? 

Zalinski. E. R. Mining In Utah. , 
Zeigler flotation machine, Success, Ida. 
Popular oil geology. 



■ ■ ■ 1025 

IBS, «8i; 703 


M8, 397. 900 

' V. nc metailnrity". '. " 



WTiat ^an-«l 

VPWl^!. , 7' 


Wlltak.r OB ■ ' - 488 . ,n2fl ,n,1 4 

• : 

White Cap. ■• 


I "25 


WoUT, J. F 

Wolflln, II. U 

Wolfram — Q11. 
—Slam ... 


Wolframite. See also 
'in, Kwangtung . 
Wolverine and Ariz.. Ariz 

lie. Mich 

— Dividends 

luctlon 3Q7 

! Comm. tor 1 

Womole, L. A 

in anthracite Industry! 
Wood -Fuel Value .... 
Woodbrldge, D. W. . 
Woodlawn Cop., utai . 
Woodman Mng.. Utah 

Woods, T s 

Woodward iron. Ala'.' .' 
Woodward, .T. it . died 
Woodward, W N 

.. S. A. 

Woolfolk, \v. 1; ... 


Work of petroleum ','.'.'.'.'. 
Workers. Effect „i , „•,;•••■ 

"" rl ':'.iiti.,ii Ariz 



—Mont ' 

World's Fair mine, Ariz 

W^rei^'s'",,"" n ' ln, ~- rr "'""'i 

Worth. 1 
Wraith, \v. 










.398. 702 
399. 532 


447, 70.3 







B76, 818 


80. 1064 






. ... 822 


. . . . 373 
... 147 
... 34 

ZC tfdn r '. . W .'. L ' " DilTf ' n -"' i: 'i SacTi" iinti fl'o'ta 

— Mine forge 

— Selective flotation "".... 

Zellweger furnace 

Zeppelins— Aluminum alloy' analysis'. 

Zinc. See also ••Spelter" 

— Algeria 

— Ark., fleld 


708. «711 


—Morning G 
Whit* C 
Whltt. I, 

■ .1024 

Wright. C 

WH^'vf A - ' 
Wrtght-Hargreaves. n, 1 38,84 

Wright. W. II. . 

Wyandot. Ml,-h 

Wyaodotte Mi 


• . 572 

.731. 7». 767, 079 



.221. 307. 770 



1017 prod .'.'." 

— Australia 

ConeentrateB . .'. 

Zinc Basin, Ark. 

Zinc Basin, Mo. 

Zinc, Calif.. Shasta. 1910 

Zinc Camp, Ark 

Zinc — Canada, Bountv 

1917 ...'.'.'.'.' 

Zinc carhonate In leari-silver. 

Zinc charge 

—Grinding and briquetting.'. 
Zinc, China. Amer. market 


■ — Distillation furnace 
Zinc Hill Mng., Mo 

Zinc — Flotation 

Zinc industry situation ..'.'.' 

Zinc — Japan 

— Joplln dist 

1917 review 

Zinc market. 1917. Voeelsteln ft CoV's review' 216 
Zinc metallurgy. 1917 review... 
Zinc, Mexico, tax. . . 


—Pneumatic mill, Morning. ' Ida ' 


— Refining 

— Rolling mill, Mo. .'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

smelting possibilities, Tonkin 
Zinc sulphate In flotation.. 

Zin "s,LL„ K : ,i, - ln ' s ■«9*:'8w.'voi8.' 

Smelting capacity []] ll 2« 

Imports and exports 17 89 308 * 424 

-Wale. * 61 - i0o: M, 14 ' 

—Wis.. 10,7 review'..'.'.' "12 

Zlrconlnn, Niekel hardening . ." ' om 

—Properties and uses ,?2 

Zirconium steel for -rmor plates" .'.'.' 1079 

Zirconium - IT. s. 1917 review ' EK 

Zone system f or fw] distribution 870 

Zook. J^ E. Joplin district 7 a 

Zuma, Okla -T2 

Zuma. TJtah WW.' ■ ,??n 

7„r,l r«tn 704. 1110 

•""" Cn, ° 399. 899. 1063 





1013, 1024 









370, 883. 1175 





'707. «74, 





.96, 558 




768, 939, 1012 


176, 262 



Engineering and Mining Journal 

January 5, 1918 

Volume 105 



Redredging — Will It Pay? 


19 to Apr. 7, 1910, California No. 2 dredged from one 

property to another through old tailings, but no attempt 
was made to dig to bedrock, the moving of the dredgs 
being the only desideratum. The cost of transfering the 
dredge was $7900, and the gold recovered from the tail- 
ings handled amounted to only $360. But in this case 
every factor was in favor of a high recovery from the 
original operations. Boston No. 4, however, will be 
tried on an entirely different basis. 

If the tailings are dredged, according to the plans 
practically decided upon by the company, Boston No. 
4 will be reworking ground that was dredged a long 
while ago by Boston No. 1 dredge. Gold-saving devices 
then were far from modern. No quicksilver was used ; 
the gold was caught on cocoa matting and the tablas 
were cleaned up every day. The ground that was 
dredged was comparatively rich, running about 19c. 
per cu.yd. Boston No. 1 was a Risdon dredge, which 
lacked the efficient appliances now found on the up-to- 
date dredge. There is evidence that the dredge did not 
dig to bedrock in some places, therefore it is expected 
that the gold recovered will more than pay the cost of 
operation under the proposed plan. 

Most of the California dredging companies have had 
some experience in redredging. Several years ago the 
El Oro Dredging Co., at Oroville, ran through an area 
of gravel and heavy clay. This clay probably had formed 
from the kaolinization of the gravel in place. The gold 

Oroville Dredging, Ltd., has practically decided to 
redredge the ground formerly worked, near Oro- 
ville, Calif., by its Boston No. 1 dredge. It is be- 
lieved that this can be made -profitable with the 
use of the company's Boston No. 4 dredge, as the 
earlier types lacked equipment provided in mod- 
ern dredges. Some previous attempts at re- 
dredging have been failures, although the Na- 
tomas Co., at Oroville, has succeeded in securing 
a large yardage at costs 40% less than those re- 
quired for virgin operations. 

OROVILLE Dredging, Ltd., will complete the op- 
erations now being carried on with its Boston 
No. 4 dredge early in 1918 and the question will 
then come up as to whether the management will scrap 
the dredge or continue its operation in tailings that 
have been deposited from former dredging operations. 
It is necessary to determine if there is sufficient gold 
remaining in the adjacent old workings to make re- 
dredging worth while. 

A previous experience of this company was somewhat 
discouraging, although conditions were radically differ- 
ent from the plan now under consideration. From Jan. 

•1204 Oakland Ave., Piedmont. Calif. 


Vol. 1?5, No. 1 

tounted to about 22c. per cu.yd.. but the 
i< h so that Bometimos 
imbedded pebble in tw i 
tie day. The bank had t ' 
to till the buckets resulted i:i 
a lui . that passed through the screens, and 

i then th< loubtful as to whether thej 

og up this ground sufficiently to recover all 
ter the opportunity came 
■.he richest part .round. The re- 

worked out. and the 
old dredge w abandoned near this par- 

tent was high and the first washing, to some extent, was 
incomplete, or course this redredging is not conclusive 

proof that some of the gold does not remain in the 
ground. In fact, there is little data to show the effi- 
ciency of the modern dredge, as far as gold recovery is 

Redredging Operations op Isabel Company Failed on 
Account of Clay Deposits Encountered 

Some years ago the Isabel Dredging Co., of Jenny 
Lind, Calif., dug up ground that ran about 26c. per cu.yd. 
over a considerable acreage. Overlying 10 ft. of gravel 



ticular spot. It was decided to continue the operations 
of the dredge and determine if the seven years of 
weathering had completed the disintegration of the 
clayey gravel. The following results were obtained for 
the first of the three months during which the dredge 
worked in the tailings: First block, original yield 12c. 
per cu.yd., redredged yield 3.1c; second block, original 
yield 22c. per cu.yd., redredged yield 3.Gc; third block, 
original yield 26c. per cu.yd., redredged yield 2.1c. In 
all, 235,022 cu.yd. of tailings were handled. Under the 
operating conditions, the returns were less than the 
cost, so the dredge was finally dismantled. This expe- 
rience would indicate the improbability of successful 
redredging in California. In this case, the original con- 

was 10 ft. of clay, and this was covered by another 10 
ft. of loam. The clay rendered dredging operations 
difficul' and tended to "rob the tables" so that a good 
deal of c uicksilver was lost. When the gold recovered 
from the tables was checked against the gold in the clay 
coming in in the buckets the results showed that the 
tables were saving only about 46% of the gold brought 
aboard. Therefore, when the opportunity came about 
a year ago to redredge, every indication pointed to a 
high yield. However, the recovery was only 2c. per yd. 
and the dredge ran only about three weeks in an attempt 
to save more than this. The failure of the redredging 
in thi3 case was due to the fact that this particular clay 
did not disintegrate and was just as difficult to handle as 

January 6. L918 


when fust drsdged. Those In chari a o are 

f the opinion that, undoubtedly, the ground could be 
dredged over several times and approximate^ 2c. per 
yd. would be ra overed each time. The same dredge is at 
present working in tailings of the old Calaveras pi 
arty, but the results have not as ye1 been announced. 

Natomas Company at a Profit 

The only successful redredging on a large scale has 
been accomplished at Oroville, Calif., by Feather River 
No. 1 dredge of the Natomas Co., which has been dig- 
ging in the tailings of the old Couch dredge, the pioneer 
in this territory. The Couch dredge had no save-all. 
was operating in a pond where spring freshets raised 
the water level so that the buckets could not reach bed- 
rock, and dug by the old "chopping up and down method" 
while a modern dredge swings from side to side, tin 
buckets revolving as it swings. The Couch dredge 
dug in one place while the ladder was slowly lowered, 
the buckets were then raised, the dredge was moved 
over 10 ft. and the operation repeated. This was soon 
found to be a wasteful and inefficient method. Feather 
River No. 1 has made good profit from redredging this 
old ground. No difficult digging has been encountered, 
yardages as high as 300,000 cu yd. per month have been 
secured, and the cost of operation has been about 60' c 
of what it would have been in virgin soil. 

Redredging Not Usually Profitable If First 
Operation Is Thorough 

Of the thousands of acres of dredge tailings in Cali- 
fornia, it is doubtful if any great percentage will ever 
be redredged at a profit. If the ground was properly 
dredged originally, it is safe to say that reworking will 
not be profitable. If, however, there is some gold re- 
maining, redredging at a profit may be feasible, as in 
some deposits considerable gold may have been left in 
the ground, due to the following causes: (1) Anti- 
quated or inefficient equipment may have failed to dig 
gravel to bedrock or recover gold. The cocoa-matting 
gold-saving devices of former days were not satisfac- 
tory. Some of the old dredges did not carry sufficient 
riffle area and some had no save-all. This latter is an 
important item, as instances are reported where save- 
alls, when installed, recovered sufficient additional gold 
to take care of the payroll of the dredge. (2) Where 
low gold recovery was made, excessive clay may have 
robbed the tables and prevented complete washing of the 
gravel. An inadequate water supply may give the same 
result. (3) There have been many instances where a 
digging ladder was not long enough to reach bedrock. 
This was true in some of the early workings of Yuba 
Consolidated Gold Fields. It was true in the instance 
of the Couch dredge, which floated in an open pond, sub- 
ject to the rise and fall of the river, and during flood 
times a 25-ft. ladder could not reach bedrock. Before 
the double-cut system, which makes use of double- 
stackers, was generally adopted, the single-cut or single- 
stacker was used. This tended to leave windrows in 
the dredged ground. Other instances also are on record 
where operators, in an effort to procure a high yardage, 
failed to dig to bedrock. There were many other cases, 
also, where it was deemed inadvisable to take a last 
bedrock cut. Values were high, but it was impossible 
to get full buckets. 

In . : that redredging I 

likeh t" prove profitable where tl nd wa thoi 

hi the. tir t plai e it must !»• rem. 
bered, however, that to appl} a modern dredge Into old 
is to incres e the yardage obtained and there 
fore decri -1 operation per cubic yard. Un- 

dei th i nditions, many hundred thousand cubic 

yards of tailings ma> be reworked at a profit, 

Adjustment of Miners' Wages on 

tin- Rand 

The u.i". i •■ lie paid white mine WOrkere "H tile Hand 
are stipulated in an . a\ which has been made 

between the Hand Mine Workers' Union and the Trans- 
vaal Chamber of Commerce. The London Finarn 
Times id' Nov. 5 quotes the following details of the 

"It is to be distinctly understood that the rates of 
day's pay provided hereunder are minimum rates, below 
which no person employed on day's pay is to be paid, 
and that the establishment of these minimum rates shall 
in no way interfere with those who are already on day's 
pay, and in receipt of higher rates, or in any way pre- 
vent the payment of such higher rates in future. The 
gold mining companies, members of the Chamber, under- 
take: (1) Not to engage for underground work a man 
in any capacity, other than as a learner, at a rate of 
pay less than 12s. 6d. ($3) per shift, and not to pay less 
than this rate to any man who has had six months' ex- 
perience underground on any mine or mines. (2) To 
pay at least 15s. ($3.60) per shift to any man employed 
on day's pay who has had 15 months' experience in any 
underground occupation in any mine or mines. (3) Not 
to employ any man on day's pay in any one of the occu- 
pations referred to in Group 1 at a rate of pay less 
than 20s. ($4.80) per shift who has been employed two 
years in any one or more of such occupations, or at a 
rate of pay less than 16s. 8d. ($4) per shift who has 
had 15 months' experience in underground work on any 
mine or mines, nine months of which have been in one 
or more of such occupations. I 4 i Not to employ any 
man on day's pay in any of the occupations referred 
to in Group 2 at a rate of pay less than 20s. ($4.80) per 
shift who has been employed two years in the particular 
occupation in which he is, or is engaged to be, employed, 
or at a rate of pay less than 16s. 8d. ($4) per shift who 
has been employed 15 months in underground work on 
any mine or mines, nine months of which have been in 
the particular occupation in which he is, or is engaged 
to be, employed. 

"The following are the occupations referred to in 
Clauses (3) and (4) as above: Group 1, machinemen, 
hammermen and timbermen; Group 2, platelayers and 
pipemen, truck repairers, pump chargemen, masons or 
stonewallers (excluding waste packers), and ropemen. 
(5) That persons employed on day's pay as mechanics 
— namely, men qualified in any of the trades included in 
the definition of mechanics in the joint agreement be- 
tween the representatives of the Chamber of Mines and 
the mine employees, dated July 26, 1915, who are actual- 
ly required to practice such trade in any underground 
occupation — shall be paid not less than 22s. 6d. ($5.40) 
per shift. It should be noticed that in accordance with 


Vol. 105, No. 1 

the - above such men as Bkipmen, tram- 

mer- arc guaranteed ■ minimum 

not less than 1" B Bhift after r. 

■ ground on any mine or mines. 
"Th. areation between the various classes 

ing the different groups is fairly well 
defined, and. although the adoption of this scheme does 
not the introduction of a schedule Betting 

forth the pay vi each underground occupation, it is pos 
sible that such a schedule may eventually come into be- 
ing, and for that reason it is considered to be most 
important that the mines adopt a uniform method of 
naming the various underground occupations so as to 
avoid the confusion which now arisi 

WEBB OP IS Hoiks Rank to Rank 

"On the question of a 481-hour week, bank to bank, 
the actual terms of the Chamber's offer are: As from 
Jan 1. 191S. the underground working week to be ISi 
hours bank to bank: the length of each shift to be 
counted from the 'first skip down' to the "first skip up,' 
the Saturday shift to be at least one hour shorter than 
the weekday shift, provided that the short shift shall 
not necessarily apply to developers and shaft sinkers if 
mutually arranged to the contrary between the mine 
management and the individual concerned, such mutual 
arrangement being, of course, subject in any case to the 
requirements of the existing law and of mining regula- 
tions. These proposed arrangements are subject to cer- 
tain mines, not exceeding six in all, being exempted 
from the arrangements, and also to the union undertak- 
ing that it will not again raise the question of working 
hours until at least three months after the declaration 
of peace. 'In the case of Randfontein, the present 48 
hours per week bank to bank would, of course, still re- 
main in force, but the Saturday shift would be short- 
ened and the weekday shift correspondingly lengthened.' 
These terms were also accepted. With regard to the 
employment of colored labor, the Chamber undertakes 
to maintain the status quo. 

Temporary War Bonus Provided 

"The additional war bonus offered as from Sept. 1 
is an extra 10s. ($2.40) per month for each 'total de- 
pendent' — wives and children only coming under this 
heading. The offer is that this additional bonus shall 
be applicable to all employees earning up to and includ- 
ing £30 ($146) per month. Between £30 and £32 10s. 
($158.13) per month a similar bonus, but at 7s. 6d. 
($1.80 ) per dependent, would be given; and between 
£32 10s. ($158.13) and £35 ($170.33) per month, 5s. 
($1.20) per dependent. It will be observed that the ad- 
ditional bonus, like the present bonus, does not apply 
to single men without dependents. The Chamber looks 
upon the war bonus entirely as a temporary measure to 
meet special conditions arising through the increase in 
the cost of living due to the war. On the question of an 
additional allowance to single men with dependents, the 
variety of dependency is so great that the Chamber 
prefers that each case should be treated on its merits 
by the mine concerned, as far as possible on similar 
lines to the above additional scale, it to be open to any 
individual who considers he has been unfairly treated 
to bring the matter to the notice of the Chamber for 
inquiry. The war bonus was also accepted." 

Work of Bureau of Standards 

Since the war began, all branches of the U. S 
Bureau of Standards have been conducting researches 
on technical problems of military application. Routine 
activities, however, have not been overlooked. The 
chemical investigations of the Bureau included the de- 
velopment o( new methods of analyzing steel and other 
materials; study of platinum purity; cooperation upon 
military researches involving chemistry, such as the 
preparation of special gases and combustion gas de- 
tectors, and chemical researches and materials testing 
in great variety and quantity for the Government. 
Technologic achievement comprised a wide range of 
researches into the special technologies of the metals, 
cement, clay, clay products, lime, stucco, paints, roof- 
ing materials, and miscellaneous materials, such as 
paper, textiles, rubber, leather, glass and the like. The 
results are published by the Bureau in a series of 
about 20 technologic papers issued from time to time 
during the year. 

The standardization work has comprised the making 
of 155,000 tests of weights, measures, measuring instru- 
ments, and materials; promulgation of a new standard 
screen scale for unifying the sizes of industrial sieves; 
establishing a new gage standard laboratory for testing 
munitions gages; standardization of master scales in 
21 states and of the master scales of the American 
Railway Association; extension of the work on alti- 
tude measuring instruments to include all varieties 
of aviation instruments, and a large number of special 
researches in physics of materials. 

The report describes much interesting work on 
standards for electrical measurements, radio researches, 
practical tests of the Bureau's radio fog-signaling sys- 
tem, radio direction finder, magnetic system of testing 
steels to ascertain quality for tool making, rail making, 
ball bearings, and the like; standardization of radium 
and radio-active preparations, including radium lumi- 
nous paints for watch dials and the dials of aviation 
instruments; inauguration of the work on X-ray stand- 
ardization, improved methods of light measurement, 
and the important work of safeguarding underground 
structures from the damage caused by stray electric 

The optical work of the Bureau is of special interest 
and includes the precise measurement of wave lengths 
of various colors for use as standards in optometry; 
red and infra-red photography as applied to the photog- 
raphy of the spectra of laboratory materials, and of 
the stars and the sun; optical methods of finding im- 
purities in materials; standardization of optical appa- 
ratus such as camera lenses, field glasses, range finders 
and similar equipment, and analysis of radiation with 
respect to energy distribution. The regular growth of 
the Bureau and its special expansion on account of war 
demands have resulted in the construction of several 
new laboratories and a 60% increase in the staff. 

Manganiferous Iron Ore Shipments from mines near Sil- 
ver City, N. M., have totaled over 31,000 tons since April, 
1916, according to Iron Trade Review. The ore averages 
16% manganese, 35% iron, 6% silica and 0.012% phos- 
phorus and has been sent to the Colorado Fuel and Iron Co. 
at Pueblo, Colo., for conversion into spiegeleisen. 

Januarj 5, 1918 


Tin Deposits of Irish Creek, Virginia 

By 111:m:y G. FERGUSONf 

Cassiterite from Rockbridgt County, Virgins 
was first identified in 18U6. Between 1882 and 
1893 several haphazard attempts were made to 
mine the tin lodes of Irish Creek, Though the 
oreshoots worked in the past were nol large, 
there is some hope that systematic development 
might be rt warded. Little < rosion of the tin veins 
has occurred ami no placers of commercial size 
exist in this section. 

CASSITERITE from Irish Creek, Rockbridge Coun- 
ty, Virginia, was identified as early as 1846, but 
the discovery seems to have been forgotten and no 
attempt at mining was made until the occurrence was 
rediscovered in 1882. Between 1882 and 1893 several 
attempts at mining were made and one company built 
an expensive mill. The work was apparently conducted 
in a haphazard manner and litigation over titles added 
to the difficulties of mining. The only tin produced was 
a small amount smelted in blacksmiths' forges from the 
high-grade ore and a little from the concentrates pro- 
duced during experimental runs of the mill. As far as 

The tin-bearing veins occur in a granitic rock of 
peculiar type which outcropa around tl atera oi 

Irish Creek. Thi I i entiall] of orthocl 

quartz, andesine ami hypersthene, with minor amounts 

of hornblende, t tanite, apatite ami, rarely, biotite. it 
may be termed a hypei th me granodiorite. Except fo* 
a greater amount of quartz, it appears to be essentially 
similar to the rock occurring in large amounts else- 
where along the Blue Ridge, called akerite by Watson. 

The I iite occupies a considerable 

area along the crest of the Blue Ridge and to the east- 
ward. East of the divide, however, its appearance is 
greatly altered, due to replacement of the ferromagnesian 
minerals and a pari of the feldspar, particularly the 
plagioclase, by epidote, giving the rock called unakite. 
The age of the rock is probably pre-Cambrian, although 
no direct evidence was obtainable in the area. 

A normal granite consisting of quartz, orthoclase, and 
biotite was found in places between one and two miles 
west of the tin deposits, but does not appear to occur 
over a large area. The other rocks of the Irish Creek 
area are chiefly granitic gneisses, commonly consisting 
chiefly of quartz and orthoclase, with varying amounts 
of ferromagnesian minerals, of which biotite and horn- 

,-~ - ' Blackburg ^ J-' 

' Salem Lynchburg 


Richmond \. '*, ^ 


known no work other than a little prospecting has been 
done since 1893. 

The district lies in an isolated portion of the state, 
just west of the summit of the Blue Ridge. The old 
mine may be reached either from Arrington, on the 
Southern Ry., a drive of 29 miles, or from Vesuvius, on 
the Norfolk & Western Ry., 12 miles by road. The 
country around the head of Irish Creek is hilly, but the 
relief is not so great as in the valleys to the north and 
south. According to Winslow, 1 tin-bearing veins have 
been discovered at various point northward from James 
River Gap as far as the northern boundary of Rock- 
bridge County, but it is only around the headwaters of 
Irish Creek that development work has been done. 

•Published by permission of the director of the U. S. Geological 

tU. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

'Winslow. A.. "Tin Oie in Virginia," "Eng. and Min. Journ.." 
Vol. 40. p. 320 (1885). 

blende are the most prominent. It is assumed that since 
the gneissic structure is lacking in the granodiorite, it 
is younger than the gneiss. Dikes of nelsonite, a fine- 
grained rock consisting of ilmenite and apatite, were 
observed in several places. Small aplite dikes were 
found near the cassiterite veins. These showed es- 
sential quartz and orthoclase, with muscovite and fluor- 
ite as accessories. 

Cambrian sediments occur along the steep ridge 
northwest of the upper reach of Irish Creek. It is 
probable that along this ridge the contact with the 
granodiorite and associated rocks follows a fault plane. 
About two miles southwest of Irish Creek post office, 
however, the sediments appear on the banks of Irish 
Creek apparently overlying the older crystallines. Small 
irregular areas of sediments, which appear to have been 
preserved by folding, were also encountered south of 
the headwaters of Irish Creek. Small dikes of diabase 


Vol: 105, No. 1 

occur throughout the region. These are in all proba- 
bility later U ither rocks of the area and appear 

ug quarti veins. 
The re as were found only in a limited area near the 
about two miles west of the cresl 
of the Blue ! Ml the old workings are caved and 

part the veins are covered. The principal 
nni.- . slightly bluish in color and dense and 

ance Cas as a rule occurs along 

of the vein, usually in fairly large crys- 
talline D i also in extremely small grains in the 
altered wall rock adjacent to the veins. In the course 
the old mining operations large vugs lined with cas- 
tata were found in a few places. The color 
is brown or gray. Rusty brown siderite is in places a 
common vein mineral, and like the cassiterite follows 
■ ly the walls of the vein. At first sight it is easily 
mistaken for cassiterite, owing to the resemblance in 
color and occurrence The cleavage is, however, dis- 
tinctive. In part the siderite is found altered to porous 

-ive arsenopyrite and pyrite were found on 
one of the old dumps, and small grains of pyrite occur 
sparingly in the altered wall rock of some of the veins. 

Numerous Other Minerals Besides Cassiterite 

:' the arsenopyrite quoted by Hotchkiss 1 show 
a content of 38 oz. silver and 0.1 oz. gold per ton. Wol- 
framite, together with a little scheelite, has been found 
in the old workings south of the mill. An assay of con- 
centrates consisting chiefly of siderite, pyrite, ilmenite, 
and cassiterite, showed 0.429i WO... Other minerals 
present are beryl, fluorite, and muscovite. Beryl in long 
slender crystals was found as an important constituent 
of one small quartz vein and also occurs in microscopic 
grains in the altered wall rock at one locality. Fluorite 
is an important constituent of the altered wall rock 
close to the veins, but was not found in the veins them- 
selves, though it also occurs as an apparently original 
constituent of the small aplite dikes in the vicinity of 
the veins. It is commonly colorless or white and only 
rarely shows a faint purple tinge. Muscovite, a rare 
constituent of the veins themselves and usually found 
close to the walls, is the most important mineral in the 
altered wall rock. 

The veins are everywhere accompanied by a peculiar 
greisen-like alteration product consisting essentially of 
muscovite and fluorite with minor amounts of beryl, 
siderite, cassiterite, quartz and ilmenite. This quartz is 
for the most part a residual from the unaltered grano- 
diorite, although close to the veins secondary silicifica- 
tion has taken place. The ilmenite is also residual from 
the granodiorite. This altered zone varies in width 
from a few inches to several feet. 

Old Workings by Opencut, Tunnels and Shafts 

As far as can be judged from the old prospects, the 
veins are not continuous over long distances, nor are 
the widths at all constant; and, according to local in- 
formation, the amount of cassiterite present varies 
greatly within short distances. Most of the early work 
seems to have been done on the veins which outcrop on 
the hill south of the mill, known as the No. 2 workings. 

There are several small opencuts, two caved tunnels, 
probably of considerable extent, and one shaft, said to 
have reached a deptli of GO ft. Two quartz veins out- 
crop aboul 40 it. southwest of the shaft. These show a 
width of ."> and 10 ft. of white quartz and are separated 
by about ."> ft. of altered granite. The strike is N 50° 
E and the dip is til) SE. A parallel vein outcrops about 
30 ft. to the southeast, and a few fragments of quartz 
containing large crystals of cassiterite and several 
pieces of nearly pure cassiterite were found here. 

Vein in No. l Workings Dipped Steeply to the South 
The No. 1 workings are near the bed of the south fork 
of Irish Creek, about 500 ft. southeast of the mill. Here 
the principal vein has a strike of N 87° W and dips 
steeply to the south. It has been followed by tunnel and 
opencut for a distance of about 200 ft. eastward from 
the stream. The old workings have a maximum width 
of 12 ft. This, however, undoubtedly includes both vein 
and altered granite. At the eastern end of the work- 
ings the vein has a width of from 1 to 3 in., with a 
band of altered granite on either side. A little cas- 
siterite is present in the quartz close to the walls of the 
vein and microscopic grains of cassiterite occur in the 
altered wall rock. According to local report, the work- 
ings followed a streak of nearly pure cassiterite along 
the hanging wall. This varies from a knife edge to 
about 2 in. in thickness, with occasional larger pockets 
in which large crystals of cassiterite were found in vugs. 
About 100 ft. north of this vein a small opencut exposes 
a 3-in. quartz vein carrying a considerable amount of 
beryl in long slender crystals and small plates of mus- 
covite. The granodiorite adjoining the vein is intense- 
ly altered, but here the alteration consists of replace- 
ment of the original rock by an aggregate of muscovite 
and beryl, rather than muscovite and fluorite, as in the 
other veins. No cassiterite was found in this vein. 

The other prospects seen in the district are too badly 
caved to afford evidence as to the size or direction of 
the veins. The veins which outcrop on the ridge north 
of the schoolhouse and the hills north of Painter's house 
show fragments of altered granite and quartz on the 
dumps, but no indication of valuable mineralization was 
found in the others. 

Average Grade of Ore About One Per Cent. 

Older reports on the district contain large numbers 
of assays, many showing high percentages of tin, but 
for the most part are too indefinite to be of much value 
in determining the grade of ore. Hotchkiss' gives the 
results of a large number of assays showing a tin con- 
tent of from 0.1 to 13.79%. The report by Winslow, 4 
gives assays from two veins showing a tin content of 
from 0.63 to 1.12%. Benedict 5 gives the following rec- 
ord of test runs of the mill: 90 tons assaying 3.44% Sn 
gave concentrates assaying 43.44 r r ; 75 tons assaying 
3.28% Sn gave concentrates assaying 40.40% ; 125 tons 
assaying 3.26% Sn gave concentrates assaying 45.07%. 

None of the veins was sufficiently well exposed for 
sampling at the time of my visit, but samples were 
taken of the material, chiefly altered granodiorite with 
minor amounts of quartz, in the ore bin of the mill; 
from a pile of crushed ore left on one of the vanners, 

•BotctakteB, .1 Silver and Oold in Virginia Tin Belt: 
Virginias." Vol 4. p. 1S8 (1883). 


•'"Mineral Resources," 1885. pp. 372-375 

CII . p :: !fl 
"'.Mineral Industry." 1892. Vol 1. p. 455. 

January ■">. \'.n» 


aiul from a heap of coarse concentrates on the floor of 
the mill. These last showed much siderite and ilmenite, 
easily removable with an elect romagnot. together with 
a large proportion of quart/., muscovite ami fluorite, 
which might have been removed by better gravity con- 
centration. These samples were assayed by Ledoux & 
Co. with the following results: Material from ore bin, 
0.30 r , Sn; WO,, none. Material from vanner, 0.21 $ 
Sn; WO,, none. Concentrates, 15.809! Sn; WO, 0.-12',. 
The discrepancy in tenor of the ore as shown by these 
assays, compared with the assays quoted above, may per- 
haps be accounted for by assuming that the mill runs 
quoted by Benedict were made on selected ore and that 
in the final stages of operation an attempt was made to 
run low-grade material in order to show a large ton- 
nage. Moreover, according to local information, the 
pieces of ore showing visible cassiterite were not milled, 
but picked and broken by hand. It is probable that the 
assay returns given by Winslow most closely approxi- 
mate the true tin content of the veins. 

Little Possibility of Tin Placers 

The stream sands of Irish Creek and neighboring 
streams were panned in order to determine whether pos- 
sibilities for placer mining existed. The concentrates 
consist chiefly of ilmenite, with minor amounts of epi- 
dote and other minerals as yet undetermined. In sev- 
eral samples a few grains of cassiterite were present, 
but nowhere in sufficient amount to give indication of 
workable placers. From the fact that small patches of 
the sediments were found in the neighborhood of the 
tin deposits, it is believed that the tin-bearing veins 
themselves have been but slightly eroded since Cambrian 
times, and consequently only a comparatively small 
amount of cassiterate has been released. 

In conclusion it may be said that the district offers 
some hope of reward for systematic development of the 
discovered veins and a possibility that prospecting con- 
ducted in the area of hypersthene granodiorite along the 
Blue Ridge in this vicinity may uncover other deposits. 
The best indication of a possible tin deposit appears to 
be the presence of the muscovite greisen-like alteration 
product of the granite. As far as observed, this altera- 
tion everywhere accompanies the tin-bearing veins, and 
where float of fragments of muscovite-fluorite rock is 
found on the hillsides it should be followed up care- 
fully. Panning of the soil of the hillsides may also lead 
to new discoveries. It seems probable that areas in 
which the granodiorite has suffered extensive epidoti- 
zation will be found less favorable than regions in which 
the rock is unaltered. 

Tin Deposits of the Carolinas 

The presence of cassiterite at many places in the 
Kings Mountain district of North and South Carolina 
has led to prospecting and attempts at mining, accord- 
ing to a report 1 issued recently by the U. S. Geological 
Survey on the tin resources of that district. In at 
least one place — the Ross mine, near Gaffney, S. C. — 
placer mining was temporarily profitable. Most of the 
work on the lodes, pegmatite dikes carrying cassiterite, 
was done at a loss, but the results are not conclusive. 

Engineers' ( lombat Wagon 

Each engineer regiment in the United states Army 
has two tool wagons, or combal wagons, which contain 
all the equipment for the pioneer work of 1 1 1 < - company. 
The pioneers are distinguished from the pontonii 

the latter have a bridge train with ■ anvas pontons. The 

pioneers ilo the digging, building, repairing, surveying, 
mapping, etc., and the engineer tool wagon contains 

all the tools. It is a joy and a marvel to the lay 
engineer that it can carry so many different tools ami 
so many of each, not to mention a camera and complete 
developing and printing equipment, and a complete sur- 
veying, map-making and zinc-O-graph map-reproducing 
outfit, so that a survey completed at sundown can be 
mapped and everybody concerned have a copy of the 
map by morning. Saws, hammers, shovels, caps, fuse 
and dynamite all in one wagon is contrary to the deca- 
logue of the mining engineer, but is justified by mili- 
tary necessity, and they are so disposed, the caps in a 
padded compartment, etc., that, as a matter of fact, 
no accidents occur. 

The combat wagon is a wonder, and when its con- 
tents are spread on the ground for inspection or in- 

■Bull. 660-D. TJ. S. Geol. Surv.. Washington, D. C. 


ventory it seems impossible that they ever came out of 
it or would ever go back. The illustration shows a 
combat wagon of B Company, 22nd New York Engi- 
neers, at McAllen, Texas, last year. A loaded tool wagon 
weighs 4700 to 5100 lb. and is drawn by four army 
mules. The following is a list of the contents of two 
combat wagons, one half the quantity being carried in 
each. It is taken from the "Addenda" to Engineer 
Field Manual, Professional Paper 29, Corps of Engi- 
neers, U. S. A.: 

One-Half of Quantities Given Below Carried on Each Wagon 

Carpenter equipment: 
Chest, carpenter's, containing augers, ship, handled (3); scratch awl; 

ax, handled, 32-in. (with extra_ handle): ratchet brace, and bits (2 

auger, 1 expansion, 2 screwdriver) ; chisels, framing, handled < 3) . 

(one extra handle) ; cold chisel: wing dividers; draw knife; files, saw, 

taper (3); hammer, claw (with extra handle); ratchets (5); 24-in. 

carpenter's level; mallet; oiler, |-pt.; oilstone; jack-plane; pliers; 

plumb bob; rules, 2-ft. (4) ; saws, hand irip ( 1), crosscut (2), compass 

(1)]; saw set; screwdriver; squares, steel, carpenter's (1), try (1); 

tape, metallic, 50-ft.: T bevel, and WTenches, monkey, 1 2-in., sets 2 

Carpenter's supplies: 
Chalk, carpenter's, lb ... . , 


Vol. 105, No. 1 

Drain: -■ 

ircutar, o-in ; 

- . h • 

Drafting sir. 


■ itch pad. 6 x 9 in i 2> : blotting paper, 
is; adhesive tap.- twine (2-or. 

ball), set 
rawing paper. 22 x 30 in . sheets 

ill and mapping, with holder (of each) 

k ( 6) . . . 
(3). Di tz i6. 

Id i I2i. Ponton (I) 





















20 x 24 in 



digraph supi> 
Ink. (own • I), red • I), violel '2'. b I 
Paper, book. P x 24 in., quires 

BfineDmneoui equipmi 
Bags t 50-lb , < ne 100-lb 

Cart ■ 



llaneous supplies: 
Canva... 10-or . width 36-in , yds 
Grease, axle, lb 
Marline, lb 
Nails. 60-nenny l 1 00 lb), 30-penny ( 50 lb.) , 16-pemiy (5011) I 

Oil. machine, qt 

Staples, lb 

assorted, gross 
Wicks, extra, dark lantern (6), Diet* (12) 
Wire. B. 4 ,S No. 16. lb 
Photographic equipment: 

Camera, 3A kodak I 

Tripod, metal, folding I 

And the following accessories: Rubber blankets < 2) : canvas backets ( 2); 
bulb, rubber; printing frames. 5x7 in. <2i. graduate, 8 oz.; ruby 
lamp: Photographer's Manual: stirring rod- '. - in.; film 

tank. 3i in ; tnei luoineti 1 

Photographic supplies: 
Albums for 3A film 1 , siz»- 3} x 5J in 1 

Books, phot'. I 

p*-r. M. Q. and Pyro. 8 t boxes 16 

Films, ^ i x 5 1 in 24 

Hypo acid, in i-lh I 24 

Paper. 3A developing, size 3J x 5J in. (I gross), printing out (I gross), 

gross 2 

And the following articles: Potassie I It. . twin.,, ball 

Eh, while, 3yd j p] 12); formalin, 1 11> ; 

j ntru a iftfT . tube ( I) ; pusbpins ( 12); pol idc tabloid tube 

'li: r ' i and wicks, ruby lamp 161 <■ I 

Pioneer equip 
Adzes handl-H. 32 in 4 

Axes, handled, 36-in 26 

Blocks. 8-in, double: 8-in., single: 8-in., snatch; and 8-in , triple. 8 

Bolts, clippers 6 

Climbers, lineman's, set 2 

Oomealongs 4 

Files, crosscut saw 6 

Hammers, el'-dge, handled, 8-lb 4 

Hand ■. 32-in.; ax, 36-in.; pick, railroad, 36-in.; saw, cross- 

' man; and saw, crosscut, 2-man. . . ... 14 

Hat- 6 

-. Gabion |g 

h sheaths 36 

wA 4 


I, handled 
Piok matte 
E D pattern, "intrenching/ 1 handled 
, handled 
pike and hook 

■ iiiila. l-in d 

, I 
oscut, 2-man 
i.-k i with 6 blades) 

! D. patten Dtrem hing" 
long-handled . 

rap b, metallic, 50-ff 

!, • 11, 

I Mill 

Wren a, 1 8-in 

I 111 ... ,411) 

iO-ft. (12) 18-ft. (25) ... . 

with bind 
lap.-, tracing, ft 


i ing sketching board, with alidade, 
ami folding tripod; servio cli timing pad holder; pencil 

ind pact tails 

The foil i ,i ill 

Barometer, aneroid, with casi b 
Clinometer, service, with cases 

box a (2), prismatic, with cases (2), watch (6) 
Field glasses, with oases 

Odometers, with casi B 
Paci tallii b 
Protractors, rectangular 

its. pocket 

Reconnaissance suppli 
Books, note, field 
Cellul i'l sheets 
Erie rs, rubber, pencil 

Pels, timing 

Pap r, sketching, sheets. % 

Pencils, blue (14), drawing, H (42), green (14), rial (14) 

Protectors, pencil-point 

Tape, adhesive, rolls 

Company tool wagon parts, extra (furnished by the Engineer Depart- 
ment) : 
Dolts, king, I x 1 8 in. (1); tire, J x 2J in (I), and 1 x 3 in i Si : square 

head. I x 2i in. (2): carriage, I and J x 4 in. (2>, and 1 x 2 and 3J in, 

(4); carriage, ^x 3} in. (2), eel 
I inks, open 

Nut-, axle (one R. H. and one I. If ) 

Reach, tongue, singletree, extra (of each) 

Rivets, iron A x 2} in. (6) and J x 2} in. (4) 
Wrenches, axle 

Company tool wagon accessories (furnished by the Quartermaster 

Nose bags, halters, and straps (of each) 

Currycomb and horse brush (of each) 

le, lb 

Harness parts, extra (furnished by the Quartermaster Corps): 
' I, I, I, and 2-in 
Clips, trace 


line.-. ;. I, I J, and 2-in 
1.11, and 2-in 

Harness accessories (furnished by the Quartermaster Corps) : 

( >il. neat'a-foot, gal 

i ncss, lb , 

Wire, stove, spool 

Additional supplies (furnished by the Quartermaster Corps) : 
Mule shoes, fitted, and 1 nails 

















Mineral Output of Western Australia 

The mineral production of Western Australia in 1916 
has been officially reported as follows, the items being 
given in long tons, except when otherwise stated, and 
in order of descending value: Gold, 1,061,398 fine oz.; 
coal, 301,526; pig lead, 3523; copper ingot, matte, etc., 
457; tin, 463; silver, 173,012 fine oz.; copper ore, 650; 
lead and silver-lead ore, 428; tantalite, 47; pyritic ore, 
4409 ; zinc, spelter, etc., 14 ; antimony, 27 ; scheelite, 438 ; 
magnesite, 12. The total value of the mineral output 
for 1916 was £4,893,417, or £584,732 less than that of 
the previous year. 

Tungsten and Molybdenum Ores may not be dealt in or 
offered for sale in Great Britain except by permit from the 
Minister of Munit ; ons. This o^der became effective Nov. 30. 
The Minister of Munitions will also fix maximum prices at 
which such ores may be bought or sold. 

January 5, 1918 



Disadvantages of Chrome Brick for 

Copper-Refining Furnaces ' 

The following notes are presented in an endeavor to 
point out the disadvantages attending the use of chrome 
brick in reverberatory furnaces used in the treatment of 
materials thai are too valuable to allow any great 
amount of metal absorption In t he brick. 

Several years ago one of the largo Eastern copper re- 
fineries decided to utilize basic in place of siliceous 
material in the walls of its reverberatory furnaces for 
the treatment of very foul blister copper, as the latter 
rapidly corroded the siliceous linings. It was also ex- 
pected that there would be less slag formation, with a 
consequent decrease in the cost of treatment and a re- 
duction in the metal losses. 

Spalling and Cracking of Magnesite Induced Trial 
of Chrome Brick 

Magnesite brick were first used, but while the corro- 
sive action of the foul material was greatly reduced, and 
the amount of slag formed was much less, the mag- 
nesite proved to be unsatisfactory in certain parts of 
the furnace, because of its tendency to crack and spall 
badly when subjected to the alternate heating and cool- 
ing that takes place in a reverberatory-refining furnace. 
This made many repairs necessary, and consequent fre- 
quent interruption in the operation of the furnace, 
which, together with the high price of the magnesite 
brick, ran up the cost of maintenance to an unreasonable 

It was, therefore, decided to substitute chrome brick 
for magnesite brick in the parts of the furnace affected. 
The results, as far as the reverberatory furnace was con- 
cerned, were satisfactory. The corrosion due to the 
action of the foul blister was small and the amount of 
slag formed was no greater than when using magnesite, 
and the tendency to crack and spall shown by the mag- 
nesite was eliminated. Gradually the use of chrome 
brick was extended to all furnaces, those treating 
blister copper as well as those melting cathodes, and the 
results were so satisfactory that the siliceous roofs were 
replaced by roofs of chrome brick except in certain 
places where experience showed a more satisfactory per- 
formance on the part of the silica brick. It was imme- 
diately recognized, both for the magnesite and chrome 
brick, that the metal absorption was heavy, but it was 
felt that the longer life of the furnaces and the decreased 
cost of slag treatment and metal losses would more than 
offset this disadvantage. 

Difficult To Dispose of Chrome-Brick Cobbing 
When repairs had to be made to the furnaces, the re- 
sulting cobbing was sent to the blast furnaces for the 
recovery of the copper, silver and gold contents. It 
was, of course, realized that chrome was a neutral ma- 
terial and could not be fluxed, but it was thought that, 
at the blast-furnace temperature, the cobbing would be 
melted, releasing the locked-up values and causing the 
chromium oxide to pass out mixed with the blast-furnace 
slag. For a time this method appeared to be satisfac- 
tory, but as more of the cobbing was made and treated 
in the blast furnaces, trouble developed. The capacity 
of the settlers began to be seriously reduced and slag 

•A paper by Francis R. Pyne to be read at the New York 
meeting of American Institute of Mining Engineers, February, 1918. 

loai i impropei ettling. On lnv< 

gation, ii u.i found thai there had formed in the settle) 
between the matte and the regular Blag, a layer of thick, 
mushy slag which wa able, 

This mush] Blag could nol be fluxed, could not be 
tapped out wiiii the matte, and would nol of itself over- 
flow through the Blag spout. The only way it could be 
removed from the settler, without shutting down and 
digging it out, was to inserl a pipe into the layer and 
by the use of compressed air cause it to mix and over- 
flow with the regular slag. While this procedure cleaned 
out the settler, it also resulted in metal losses that could 
not be tolerated. Samples of this mushy slag showed 
it to contain as high as 25% chromium oxide, indicating 
that the cause was in the chrome cobbing added to the 
charge. Upon discontinuing the treatment of the cob- 
bing, the settler trouble disappeared. The natural re- 
sult of this was to accumulate a considerable stock of 
the chrome cobbing, and experiments were undertaken 
to devise a satisfactory process for the removal of the 
values that would leave a residue that could be sent to 
the dump. 

Both Smelting and Wet Concentration Tried 
The cobbing was crushed fine, thereby releasing the 
larger metallic particles, and treated in a reverberatory 
furnace with roasted pyritic ore and silica. This treat- 
ment gave a fairly fluid slag in which the chromium was 
apparently soluble.' A considerable amount of the cop- 
per was thus recovered, but the slag was still too rich 
in copper to throw away, and when sent to the blast fur- 
naces induced a return of the former settler troubles. 
Fine crushing and fusion with low-grade matte were 
expected to remove the copper and leave a slag sufficient- 
ly low in copper to be discarded. The results were un- 
satisfactory, for though the matte absorbed much of 
the values, yet the slag was thick and pasty and con- 
tained considerable copper. 

It was felt that crushing followed by mechanical con- 
centration might result in separating the metal from 
the brick. Accordingly, the material was crushed and 
screened to remove the coarse metallics and was then 
treated on a Wilfley table. There was sizing, but little 
concentration, as it was found that the entire structure 
of the brick was saturated with finely divided copper and 
copper oxide. Flotation was also tried without success, 
as the concentrate was too rich in chromium and there 
was too much metal in the residue. 

Grind and Remove Larger Metallic Particles and 
Reconvert Cobs into Bricks 

The most satisfactory solution yet found for the dis- 
posal of this material is to grind it, thereby freeing the 
larger metallic particles, and utilize the fine material 
in the manufacture of refractory brick, thus using the 
cobbing over and over again. There is, of course, some 
slagging action and a certain amount of chromium goes 
to the blast furnace where the mushy slag is formed, 
but in small amounts it is easily taken care of, and 
eventually the accumlated stock will be "worn out" and 
sent to the dump. There are also possibilities of treat- 
ing this material by converting it into ferrochrome or 
by making chromate salts. 

This experience suggests that chrome brick is not 
especially suitable for this class of work, and that mag- 
nesite should be used if possible. Experiments indicate 



Vol. 105, No. 1 

that • te to crack and spall 

the brick to pressure be- 
lt -- metal abs 
' culty in treating the cob 

in t 

Electrolytic Antimony from Stibnite 

The experiments hero described were fust made on a 

Diversity. Antimony was 
: . at the rate of about a pound a day on cathodes, 
r_* \ 12 in, suspended in a tank, i^ \ 18 x 18 in., using a 
current density of 7 amp. per sq.ft. at 2.7 volts. The 
electrotyi NaOH solution 1 with and 

kept constantly in circulation in a dosed circuil 
through the leaching tank and the electrolytic tank. 
Iron electrodes, the cathodes being perforated, were 
found to be beet, 

Satisfactory Deposition on Perforated Iron Anode 

The antimony deposited in a firm, hard sheet which 
locked itself through the perforations and could be made 
• d without any tendency to fall off. It 
was not necessary to grease the cathodes. To strip the 
deposit from them it was only necessary to strike a few 
sharp blows with a mallet, when it cracked off in large 
cakes, leaving the cathode ready to be used again. It 
was easy to obtain deposits an inch in thickness or as 
heavy as a man can comfortably lift. 

The solution of stibnite in an NaOH or Na.S solution 
is expressed by the reactions: Sh.S. -f 2NaOH = 
<bS ; + NaSbSO + H,0 and Sb = S : , + 3Na : S = 
2Na SbS . which proceed rapidly, especially if the solu- 
tion is warm. When the solution is electrolyzed the re- 
action at the cathode seems to be: Na 3 SbS n + 3H = 
Sb — SNaSH, while at the anode sodium thiosulphate 
and Na S, are formed by oxidation. If the electrolyte 
is evaporated to a small volume and cooled, a great crop 
of brilliant crystals of Schlippe's salt (Na.SbS^HLO) 

Anode I? Attacked Unless Solution Is Regenerated 
The 8', NaOH solution will hold about 3% Sb at 
first, but as thiosulphate accumulates the solvent power 
of the solution decreases until there has accumulated 
one atom of sulphur for each atom of sodium present 
when the solvent power has dropped to about 0.7%. 
When this amount of sulphur has gone into solution the 
iron anode suddenly commences to be attacked, falling to 
pieces rapidly, the iron changing to FeS. At this point 
the solution must be regenerated unless an insoluble 
anode can be found. A graphite anode falls to powder, 
copper changes to copper sulphide, Duriron is rapidly 
attacked, but lead is almost unaffected. The surface of 
the lead becomes covered with a coating of PbO. appar- 
ently, which somewhat increases the voltage but pro- 
tects the lead from attack. Aluminum or magnetite 
might do but have not been tried. 

The quality of the antimony deposited, when the iron 
anodes are being destroyed, does not seem to be injured 
if the anode is enclosed in a bag to keep the sulphide of 
iron from being mechanically carried to the cathode. In 
fact, one run was continued for five or six days after 

•Excerpts from a paper entitled "Electrolytic Production of 
Antimony." by Prof D. J. Demorest. of Ohio State University. 
printed In "The Journal of the American Institute of Metals." 
Vol XI. No. 1. 

tliis point had been reached, very pure antimony being 
luced with about the same electrical efficiency. The 
sulphur during this stage is being continually removed 
as FeS. The antimony in solution remains at about 
0.4' The current efficiency during the entire run was 
which was also obtained on large scale experi- 
ments. Tin antimony contains about 0.02', sulphur, 
0.01' arsenic, no lead and a trace of iron, analyses 
iter melting. 

Accumulation of Sulphur in Solution Harmful 

The drawbacks to this process are comparatively low 
solubility of antimony in the electrolyte (this is in- 
sed by warming), accumulation of sulphur in the 
solution, decreasing its solvent power and causing de- 
struction of iron anodes when there has been deposited 
1 lb. of antimony for each pound of NaOH used. More 
antimony can be deposited, but at the cost of destroying 
the anodes. In one experiment 17 lb. of NaOH were 
diss lived in 210 lb. of water and circulated through the 
leaching tank and electrolytic tank with a current den- 
sity of seven amperes per sq.ft. of cathode surface. This 
was continued until the anodes began to be attacked. 
The antimony was then weighed and was found to be 
17 lb., indicating that the reaction at the cathode is 
Na,SbS : , -f 3H = 3NaSH + Sb, introducing one atom 
of sulphur for each atom of sodium. The amount of 
thiosulphate at the end of the run was 4%, while the 
amount of sulphide sulphur, figured as Na,S, was about 
2%. After the anodes began to be attacked, the elec- 
trolysis was continued for several days with the anodes 
enclosed in cotton bags and the deposition went on 
without further difficulty. 

Larger Scale Plant Confirmed Early Tests 

As a result of these experiments a plant on a large 
scale was built, with a capacity of 5000 amp. and 7.5 
volts, which was capable of producing about 600 lb. of 
antimony per day. The current efficiency on this scale 
was 76%, the same as obtained in the laboratory, and 
the metal was of the same quality. The metal, when 
melted in a Monarch furnace and cast in iron molds 
properly covered with slag, "starred" beautifully. 

At the point where the anodes are attacked it be- 
comes necessary to regenerate the solution or furnish a 
new one. If a new solution is applied it means the con- 
sumption of 1 lb. NaOH per lb. of antimony. The best 
way to handle the situation, as far as tests indicate, 
seems to be to evaporate the solution to dryness with 
the exhaust steam, shovel the residue into a reverbera- 
tory furnace and roast to get rid of about half the sul- 
phur, thus changing the thiosulphate to sulphate; then 
mix with coal and heat until it has all been reduced to 
Na,S, which quickly dissolves stibnite and can be put in- 
to the circu t again. Small-scale experiment shows this 
to be successful, but it has not been tried on a large 
process scale. 

To summarize, it is demonstrated that stibnite dis- 
solves easily in NaOH or Na,S, from which antimony 
in a high state of purity is precipitated with a current 
efficiency of about 76%, a voltage of 2.7 giving a power 
cost about equal to that of the electrolytic production 
of zinc. The solution must be regenerated or renewed 
when 1 lb. of antimony has been produced per pound 
of NaOH used. 

January r >. 101s 



The Search for New Oil Pools in 
the United States 

r.v DORSEY IIAi.l I; 

The greater part o) the probable productivi area 
has been mapped and studied by geologists. In 
general, productive sedimentary arias are not 
closely related to those of igneous origin. V 
developments arc predicted in old proa 
fields. The author advises the testing of studied 
areas where stratigraphic conditions art favor- 
able, and believes that oil will be found in 
some regions that cannot be mapped geologically. 
Attention is called I" nasi quantities o) oil sliale 
in several states and a great future is predicted 
in the mining of it. 

OUR present supply of crude oil, especially light 
oils of refining value, is unquestionably diminish- 
ing, despite efforts to maintain production. Ques- 
tions often asked are: "Is it possible to obtain new 
production?" and "Where is more oil to be found?" A 



'A, \\ R.95 W 


I 1 J L 1 i. 1 

R.C** «K»K R-KtfN RIOt* D100K s^r 

t. Vegan ; J&/ r\Jfrr "»■ 
— M — 1 *w*}>j 

>£ BEIfUC 


review of the general situation indicates that the chances 
of obtaining new pools of magnitude are limited. There 
are probably no great supplies of oil left untouched by 
the drill. 

Geologists are not infallible in their predictions, but 
recently far mora careful and thorough geologic work 
has been done than in the past*. The United States has 
been intelligently mapped and studied, and one can now 
draw sound conclusions within well defined limits. In 
the following discussion, I refer particularly to those 
areas of sedimentary rocks which are characterized by 
sandstones, limestones, sand and shales, as distinct from 
the areas of igneous rocks typified by granites, syenites, 

•Petroleum geologist and 'engineer, 219 Lynch Bldg., Tulsa, 

and basalts, ii i difficult to draw hard and 
tinctions, as m man] plai i i, < 'olorado, v. 

ming and evi mthera Oklahoma granitic forma- 

tions are close to productive petroleum areas. In 
eral of the California oil fields and in many in Mexico 
basalt intrusions arc found, bul in general the produc- 
tive sedimentary areas are in ' related to the 
igneous. I believe thai oil w II be found in areas that 
cannot be mapped geologically, but these are few. 

The topography of Kansas, Oklahoma and north 
Texas lends itself readily to geologic survey. During 
the last four years. 1913-1917, those states have been 
subjected to a fine-combing by geologists. Several 
hundred men have been engaged in mapping this terri- 
tory, with the result that few areas remain unmapped 
or untested by the drill and these are far from promis- 
ing. More intense drilling, the finding of deeper sands, 
and the extension of some of tha oldar pools will a 
in maintaining a large production, but hope for "new 
production" in this region is slight. 

Southern Texas and southern Louisiana may develop 
new pools, but from a geological standpoint predictions 
are difficult to make, as the soft sediments covering these 
areas preclude satisfactory geologic work. The opening 
of a pool in New Iberia Parish, Louisiana, and the 
Damon's Mound and Goose Creek oil pools, in Texas, 
lend encouragement to intense prospecting wherever 
saline domes or gas seepages are discovered. 

Fair Prospect of a Big Field in South 

Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and Florida are states 
wherein fair oil prospects exist. At present, anticlines 
near Vicksburg and Jackson, Miss., are being drilled, 
but the depths to the supposed oil horizon are great — 
3500 to 5000 feet — and it will be some time before the 
drill gives a record. Structure similar to the Texas and 
Louisiana saline domes exists in the Gulf Coast areas. 

Alabama presents some interesting possibilities. The 
great Hatchitigbee anticline is soon to be tested. The 
Jackson anticline and one near Geneva. Ala., and cross- 
ing the Georgia line are also to be drilled for oil. If 
size of structure counts, Alabama and Georgia should 
produce several remarkable pools. The Eutaw "sand." 
corresponding closely to the Caddo formation of Louisi- 
ana, is the most likely horizon. 

Southern Georgia and northern Florida present strati- 
graphic conditions favorable for oil. It is possible that 
pools will be developed there, but improbable. However, 
until a few wells are drilled to test these areas, it is 
unsafe to make positive predictions. 

Middle States Well Prospected but May Contain 
Pools of Medium Size 

Arkansas seems to have been eliminated as an oil 
possibility. That state has produced gas in abundance, 
but so far no oil of commercial importance has been 
found. Any petroleum existing there in earlier times 
was in all probability subjected to heat and volatilized 


Vol. 105, No. 1 

into gas Night to be the ease in the anthracite 

region of West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 

Tennessee holds pro:- vera! small pools along 

the ^ iti arch, where the Ordovician and Devonian 

bed- nil also m the eastern part, where 

an i the Pennsylvania Bediments may be 

product i lul. intensive work may bring out sev- 

eral pay pools, hut Band conditions appear less satis- 

than in Kentucky, where the Rough Creek uplift, 
inline from western to eastern Kentucky, exhibits 
ml promising domes. The Paintsville and Rock 

. m the eastern part of the state, are large 
untested structures. A dome also occurs near Lebanon, 
in central Kentucky, which may prove importer 
hor u the Devonian. A successful test on this 

fold would open possibilities of deeper sands that would 
be well worth while. The Leitchfield-Hartford area, in 
item Kentucky, may also prove up several com- 
mercial fields small well has just been drilled on 
structure near Leitchfield. 

Illinois. Indiana and Ohio have not been fully pros- 
pected. They are more difficult to work because of the 
glacial drift which covers so much of these states, but 
still present opportunities for several new pools. In 
Illinois the Niagaran horizon seems particularly worthy 
of further testing. West Virginia and Pennsylvania 
have been well prospected, and there is little probability 
of opening new pools. Careful prospecting should dis- 
close a few pools that have been overlooked. 

Untested Areas Still Exist in California and 

in tiik intermountain statks 

California has been well surveyed. There are several 
known prospects left untested, notably a big fold in 
the Cholame Hills district, in Monterey County (which 
is in questionable territory, but is too important to 
remain untested at such a time) and two folds near San 
Juan Capistrano, about 100 miles north of San 
Diego, Calif. Any oil found in these areas will likely 
occur in the basal Monterey beds of the Middle Miocene. 

Wyoming presents a large amount of untested acre- 
age, but several large companies and the United States 
Government control the land situation ; so that the small 
operator has difficulty in conducting operations. The 
Government should do something toward encouraging 
development in this area, or should itself develop it to 
supply the needs of the Army and the Navy. Wyoming 
has attracted much interest this year. The Big Muddy 
dome is showing an excellent production both in shal- 
low and deep sands and is booming Wyoming oil. There 
remain several untested areas in south-central Wyo- 
ming, which, though deep, are worth watching; notably 
the Medicine Bow and the Simpson Ridge anticlines. 
Those at Buck Springs and at Sand Draw are also in- 

If the Government withdrawals did not cover such 
a large part of the most promising acreage, Wyo- 
ming would have an oil boom of magnitude. However, 
the situation for the independent producer has been 
greatly improved as the result of the entrance of the 
big Mid-Continent producers, who are strong enough 
to build pipe lines and refineries of their own. 

Oil prospects in Montana are not as favorable as are 
the prospects for gas. There are several untested domes 
that occur in the Big Horn basin area, and they may 

produce oil. Certainly that part of Montana is worth 
t est i in r . but it has the same status as Wyoming. 

Now .Mexico. Utah and Colorado all have showings of 
oil. Colorado has several small, producing pools and 
some chance of opening new ones both east and west of 
the Rockies. The axial anticline south of Craig in Mof- 
fat County, Colorado; the big structure north of Meeker 
in Kio lilanco County, and several other domes may be 
found productive, but petroleum, if found, will in all 
probability range from 4000 to 5000 ft. in depth. The 
horizon will be the lower Cretaceous. In eastern Col- 
orado the Great Plains region may develop pools, but 
favorable geologic structure is scarce and drilling will 
be haphazard, except in areas around Las Animas and 
La Junta, where several domes are known. Drilling 
there will test the Pennsylvanian horizon. 

New Mexico is being prospected, but to date it has 
given little encouragement to the oil operator or to 
the geologist. Utah will in all likelihood produce sev- 
eral oil pools. The San Juan field offers encouragement 
to further prospecting, especially in eastern Utah. 

Lower Missouri Valley States Wildcat Territory 

South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa and Missouri may be 
grouped as distinctly "wildcat" states. No oil of com- 
mercial importance has yet been found in them, al- 
though they are within the bounds of probable oil ter- 
ritory and tests are justified where favorable geologic 
structure and auspicious stratigraphic conditions are 
thought to exist. Those parts of South Dakota and Ne- 
braska bordering the Black Hills region contain geologic 
structure conducive to oil accumulations, and if the 
stratigraphic conditions are favorable, commercial pools 
may be developed. Known domes are at Chadron, Ne- 
braska and Edgemont, South Dakota. 

Iowa and Missouri have, to date, no commercial oil 
pools; but possibilities of small pools in the southern 
part of Iowa and the northwestern part of Missouri 
are not out of reason. 

"Mining for Oil" in the Future 

I am not sounding the trumpet of an alarmist, but 
pointing out the areas that seem likely to give new pools. 
Intense development of our present pools will furnish 
our immediate needs for several years, but no optimist 
should hope for increasing production from them. The 
development of foreign pools, especially in Mexico, will 
give us much oil. However, our great future supplies 
of petroleum must come from the development of our 
oil-shale resources, which, within the next five years, 
should constitute one of our big industries. 

There are vast quantities of oil shale in California, 
Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and Utah. The extent of 
a known area in northwestern Colorado, now being de- 
veloped, is shown in the accompanying illustration. 
These shale areas will be developed in time on as safe 
and sane a basis as our coal mines of today. When that 
time arrives, the romance of oil prospecting will have 
fled, and the whole complexion of oil producing will 
change. It will, literally, be oil mining with steam 
shovels in openpits and gloryholes; and, later, tunnels 
and adits. There will be no lack of oil products for 
several generations to come, but the true oil fields of 
today will probably disappear within another genera- 
tion, and be replaced by oil mines. 

January 5, 1018 



Bauxite in the Coastal Plain of Georgia' 

The bauxite deposits of the Coastal Plain in 
r as lenses in clay interbedded in 
nearly horizontal sands, marls and limestom o) 
Cretaceous and lower Eocene age. Ores low in 
iron arc suitable for manufacture of alum and 
tims, abo\ ■ • ic oxide arc used for the 

manufacture of aluminum. The deposits are 
shallow and are mined by stripping and opencut 

FOR practical purposes bauxite may be defined as 
an ore and not a mineral, being a hydrate of 
alumina, or a mixture of several hydrates of suffi- 
cient purity to serve as a commercial source of aluminum 
or its salts. The definite hydrates of aluminum are 
diaspore (Al,0.,.H 2 0), and gibbsite or hydrargillite 
(A1 J 0,-3H,0). 

Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's 
crust. It has a great affinity for silicon and is never 
found in the native state. Unusual geological condi- 
tions are necessary to produce the oxide or hydroxide, 
and no method of extracting aluminum from its silicate 
on a commercial basis has yet been successfully devel- 
oped. The aluminum anhydrous oxide, corundum, is 
used mainly for abrasives, and bauxite forms the only 
source of commercial aluminum. 

Bauxite Occurrences Comparatively Limited 

Bauxite is found in a limited number of localities 
widely distributed over the earth. All known deposits 
are comparatively small, and the rapidly increasing de- 
mand for aluminum will soon cause an exhaustion of 
the present known sources of supply. New discoveries, 
however small, are therefore important. There are well- 
known deposits of bauxite in France, Germany, Aus- 
tria, Ireland and India. In the United States, the main 
occurrences are in Arkansas, New Mexico, northern 
Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee and in the Coastal Plain 
region of Georgia. 

In northern Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee the 
principal deposits occur in the valley of Coosa River be- 
tween Adairsville, Ga., and Jacksonville, Ala., but sev- 
eral important occurrences are found in Tennessee near 
Chattanooga.- Here the deposits differ from all other 
American and most foreign deposits in so far as they are 
not bedded and are not the products of weathered rocks. 
The production from this region has declined in recent 
years. Small bauxite deposits occur in Virginia and 
Pennsylvania, but are not commercially valuable. 

Arkansas has produced 80 c ' c of the bauxite mined in 
the United States since 1910. The ore is a residual 
product from the weathering of a nepheline syenite 
which outcrops in two areas in Saline and Pulaski coun- 
ties. The beds of bauxite reach a thickness of 30 ft., 
averaging from 11 to 12 ft., and occur as irregular de- 
posits overlain by the Tertiary sedimentaries. In New 
Mexico, near Silver City, an area, covering approximate- 

•Excerpts from report of H. fc. Shearer, assistant state geolo- 
gist. Bull. 31. Geol. Surv. of Georgia. 

i\ on,. ii ..: re ni nearlj hoi i ontal bed i 

volcanic porph; rj and basalt ic br« : deposil 

of bauxite thai are not available al present on account 
oJ transportation difficult i< 

Depo i hi Coastal Plain in Horizontal 

Cei i . Bei 

The bauxite deposits of the Coastal Plain of Georgia 
were discovered bj Otto Veatch, assistant state geo 
gist of Georgia, during a Bta ' survey foi 

clay. The first shipment ei de f i im Wilkinson 
County, in 1910, Nut inn.-. I Bauxite Co. Th< 

Coastal Plain pari of Georgia ith and southi 

of the Piedmont Plain, the line of division passing 
through Columbus, Macon, Milledgeville and Augusta. 
This area, of approximately 35,000 square miles, is un- 
derlain by Cretaceous and later sedimentaries; and also 
several thousand square miles of crystalline rocks un 
deriving the sedimentaries. The Fall Hills area is the 
most distinctive of several low ranges and lies in a belt 
40 to 50 miles wide, ranging across the state just south 
of the Fall line. The Cretaceous and Eocene beds lie 
in a belt along the Fall Hills in which occur the bauxite 
and fuller's earth deposits of the state. The region is 
a low plain having an average tilt, southward and toward 
the sea, of 3 to 4 ft. per mile, with an elevation ranging 
from sea level to 700 ft. along the Fall line. The sedi- 
mentary beds are almost undisturbed, having a slight 
folding in broad anticlines and synclines. This folding 
has somewhat affected the drainage of the area, which 
has cut deep valleys through the Fall line hills by rivers 
rising in the Piedmont region. The crystalline base- 
ment has a slope of 50 to 75 ft. per mile. The lower 
Cretaceous dips 40 ft. per mile; the younger formations 
have progressively lower angles of dip up to the Alum 
Bluff formation, which lies approximately horizontal. 
Within the Coastal Plain all economic deposits of clay 
or bauxite have assumed the form of nearly horizontal 
beds and lenses. 

The underlying sedimentaries consist of beds of Cre- 
taceous and younger sands, clays, marls and limestone, 
lying unconformably upon eroded crystalline rocks of 
pre-Cambrian age. The beds are largely unconsolidated, 
show but little alteration, and no great orogenic move- 
ments have taken place. The only disturbance is a gen- 
eral uplift with slight tilting and warping. The beds 
have a thickness ranging from 4000 to 5000 feet. 

Bauxite Interbedded with Clay in Lenses 

The pre-Cambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks 
consist of granite, gneiss, schist, and basic eruptives, 
and highly metamorphosed shale, sandstone and lime- 
stone. The erosion of these rocks has made the later 
sedimentaries. The Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic series 
are entirely absent in the region, the lower Cretaceous 
beds overlying the older rocks, representing thereby a 
long period of erosion during which intensive weather- 
ing took place. The lower Cretaceous beds consist 
chiefly of coarse, cross-bedded, arkosic sand and subordi- 
nate lenses of white clay or kaolin. Bauxite is inter- 
bedded in lenses with white clay, The series has no 
marine fossils and is of shallow, fresh-water origin. The 


Vol. 105, No. 1 

Una were derived from long 

talline series. The absence of 

■ul significant of deposition of com- 

rial in shallow water. 

The Midi 'i of the upper Cretaceous has 

• and consists of ferruginous sand 

bite clay with fossiliferous lime- 

and calcareous qu&rtxite. Above the 

higher limestone of the section there are a series of 

low w.aer deposits consisting of coarse Band ami 

whit sociated bauxite, almost identi- 

with the other beds of the lower Cretaceous in ap- 

ance and composition. 

Aluminum from Ores Over _ Persic Oxide 

The first bauxite ore mined in Georgia was from the 
lower Cretaceous deposits of \\ ilkinson County. Forma- 
tions of bauxite are known in almost all parts of the 
county. All are at or near the contact of the Cretaceous 
with the unconformable overlying Eocene formation. 
The lower Cretaceous strata are exposed in the valley 
ee River in the eastern part of the county and 
in the Valley of Commissioners and Big Sandy (reeks 
almost to the southern edge of the boundary'- Ore is 
found along both sides of a small branch of Commission- 
ers Creek. It lies in the form of a lens, but grades 
down to white or thin and modeled plastic kaolin over- 
lain by sand and clays. 

The Daniel property is about worked out. The baux- 
ite graded into kaolin on the west, but was mined from 
an area of about 8000 sq.yd. by the Republic Mining 
and Manufacturing Co., which still has an area on the 
Parker property probably equally as large. The maxi- 
mum height of overburden removed was 11 ft., and 
stripping and mining were all done by hand. The ore 
is dried in a rotary kiln and hauled in wagons one and 
a half miles to the railroad station at Wriley. It is low 
in iron and is used therefore for the manufacture of 
alum. The ore in the Honeycutt property contains 2' , 
ferric oxide and is used for the manufacture of alumi- 
num metal. The thickness of ore mined averages 51 ft., 
grading off at the top and bottom. The ore shipped 
averages 55$ AlO, and weighs 3300 lb. per cubic yard. 

Irregular Bauxite Lenses Near Toomsboro 

The General Bauxite Corporation controls a property 
three miles west of Toomsboro, from which bauxite ore 
has been mined from 11 pits. Pit No. 11, the last, shows 
a sandy soil containing fragments of bauxite 1 ft. thick, 
overlying a white bauxite ore of medium hardness con- 
taining hard pisolite up to 1-in. diameter, or a total 
thickness of 6 ft., and grading below for a thickness of 
1 ft. into a somewhat plastic kaolin. This ore occurs 
in small irregular lenses cut by "chimney rock," over- 
lain by sand, and was mined for a thickness of 5 ft. 
The ore averaged from 53$ to 56', (Al,O s ) and con- 
tained less than 2.' , ferric oxide. Silica was not too 
high for the manufacture of aluminum, the ore averag- 
ing 52'f Al.O, as shipped. Some shipments ran as high 
as 58%. There is also a large low-grade deposit of 
clayey bauxite averaging 50 r ' r Al.O,. Mixed with plastic 
clay this material would make a fire brick of superior 
quality. Other properties of less importance in the 
vicinity of Toomsboro are of the Cannon and Cason. 
From the Cason property 4000 tons of 60"/, AlO. baux- 

ite ore has been shipped, but only about 1000 tons are 
estimated as remaining. 

In the vicinity of Mclntyre are the Holleman, Under- 
wood and Fountain properties. The deposits of baux- 
ite in this district occur as boulders in a sandy soil, with 
little or no ore in place. The original deposits have been 
removed by erosion and the boulders are the remnants. 
The Dupree, .lours and McNeal properties in the vicinity 
of Irvington have low-grade alumina and high silica- 
and iron-content ores. The Butler property, north of 
the McNeal deposits, has several shallow pits, showing 
only yellowish, slightly bauxite clay, with occasional 
soft, light-colored nodules. The Sheppard property ad- 
joins the Jones and Dupree on the southeast. The baux- 
ite is light colored. In the valley bottom a number of 
acres is strewn with fragments of indurated clay and 
bauxite, some of the latter being of the high pisolitic 
variety with flinty matrix. An average sample of the 
bed exposed in the pit shows a thickness of 4 ft. and 
an alumina contents of 49.33 r f , silica 25.06% and ferric 
oxide 2.09 per cent. 

Both Bauxite and Kaolin Mined at Gordon 

The Columbia Kaolin and Aluminum Co. has a prop- 
erty three miles south of Gordon and a tramway to 
connect. The intention is to mine both bauxite and kao- 
lin. A large area, at least half a mile in length, is 
strewn with fragments of indurated kaolin, and numer- 
ous small outcrops occur. Several shallow pits cut more 
or less indurated clay with scattered nodules. An anal- 
ysis of the ore shows silica 10.92%, alumina 57.29% 
and ferric oxide 1.13%, which is an ore of good quality 
for the manufacture of alum. The quantity is not large, 
as the bed, 8 ft. thick, underlies a possible area of only 
an acre or tw-o. The overburden consists chiefly of ar- 
gillaceous red sand, and will not exceed a thickness of 
10 ft. at any point. 

In Baldwin County the Ethridge property, two miles 
northeast of Stevens Pottery, shows an area of several 
acres on the north slope of a hill strewn with float ore. 
A shallow pit cuts only Tertiary sand. A second pit, 
10 ft. lower, cuts a foot of bauxite, with hard nodules 
predominating over the softer matrix, and grading down 
into iron stained kaolin. A third pit 10 ft. lower cuts 
a foot of clayey bauxite with hard nodules, also grad- 
ing down into stained kaolin. The ore found on the 
surface is hard, white, and apparently of good quality. 
The structure is coarsely pisolitic, wdth simple nodules 
over half an inch in diameter. The quantity in sight is 
too small to be of commercial value, but the quality is 
good and it is not impossible that a workable bed might 
be found by more careful prospecting. 

Lower Cretaceous Unfavorable for Bauxite 

In Twiggs County the lower-Cretaceous strata are 
exposed in all valleys in the northern part of the county, 
but up to the present no bauxite likely to be of com- 
mercial value seems to have been discovered. At Myrick 
Mill, on Big Sandy Creek, in the northeastern part of 
the county, is a bed of indurated, nodular clay, which 
has a superficial appearance much like bauxite, but low 
alumina content. A part of the kaolin in the mine of 
the Georgia Kaolin Co. is slightly bauxitic. Southwest 
from Twiggs County, to Chattahoochee River, kaolin 
beds become less extensive, and no bauxite is known. 

January 6, L918 



The area of bauxitization of the Cretaceous kaolin 

extends from Wilkinson County, across the Oconee 
River into Washington County, near Oconee Station. 
The property of L. A. Grable lies from one to two miles 
southwest of Sheppards Bridge over Buffalo (reek. 
where there are a number of exposures of more or less 
bauxitic, nodular and indurated clays. A few pits have 
been dug, Imt no bauxite of workable grade has been 
found. Nevertheless, the area between Buffalo Creek 
and the Oconee River is worthy of careful examination. 
Northeast from this point to Augusta there are abund- 
ant exposures of Cretaceous kaolin, but traces of baux- 
itization were noted at only one point. In the lower 
portion of the kaolin bed at the plant of the Albion 
Kaolin Co., near Hephzibah, Richmond County, are a 
few scattered, hard nodules of bauxitic materials. 

The Midway formation occurs in a narrow belt ex- 
tending from Fort Gaines, on Chattahoochee River, to 
Montezuma, on Flint River, and thence a short distance 
into Houston County. The average width of the belt 
is 8 to 10 miles. It is the surface formation over parts 
of Clay, Quitman, Stewart, Randolph, Marion, Schley, 
Webster and Macon counties. The bauxite deposits of 
the lower Eocene are - associated with a horizon of plastic 
to indurated and nodular white sedimentary kaolin and 
white kaolinic and micaceous sand, which extends from 
Flint River, in northern Sumter County, to Macon 
County and the eastern part of Schley County. The 
beds of this horizon cap the hills near Ideal, Macon 
County, and dip beneath the level of Flint River a little 
below Copperas Bluff, Sumter County. During the time 
of formation of these beds, the depositional conditions 
were practically identical with those which existed dur- 
ing the lower Cretaceous period. 

Bauxite Deposits Close to Surface 

In Sumter County the Sweetwater mine is situated 
one and a half miles west of Flint River, and is operated 
by the Republic Mining and Manufacturing Co. The 
bauxite has the form of a true bedded deposit, conform- 
able with both underlying and overlying strata. An 
analysis of certain samples from the working face 
showed alumina 56.3 f ir, silica 11.8%, and ferric oxide 
1.8%. Most of the ore contains less than 2% of ferric 
oxide, and is used principally in the manufacture of 
alum and other aluminum salts. The ore carrying more 
than 2% of ferric oxide is used in making aluminum. 
All work, both mining and stripping, is done by manual 
labor, although this is apparently not the most eco- 
nomical means of handling an overburden which aver- 
ages 30 ft. of soft material over a large area. 

The outcrop of ore has a length of 1300 ft., so the 
deposit may safely be assumed to have the form of a 
half-circular lens of that diameter. The average thick- 
ness is 4 ft. and the tonnage estimated would be 175,000. 
Recent production is about 1000 tons per month. 

The Thigpen property lies to the west. The Republic 
Mining and Manufacturing Co. has the refusal of the 
deposits, but no mining has yet been done. The baux- 
ite deposit lies across the valley of Big Branch from the 
Sweetwater mine, and at the same altitude. There is a 
possibility that the two deposits may have been con- 
tinuous before the valley was cut. The Easterlin mine 
lies on the south side of Sweetwater Creek, three and a 
half miles from Flint River. The bauxite outcrop is 

80 ft above I he l< >• l of Sweetwater ( reek, being a leu 
of bauxite in a bed of kaolin. The bauxite p mall 
kimi! and outcrop around the lope of a hill, maldni 
great Burface Bhowing, having no overburden for a 
considerable area. An analysis of thi ore lum- 

ina 60.22' . , silica 5.65' | ami ide 2.42$ . 

In .Macon Countj Hi' re are two groups of bauxite de- 

i'" i! Oi in the southern part of the county, 

dose to the Sumter Countj line, along Boggj Branch, 
a tributary of Camper Creek, and the other is in the 
center pari of the count) oi Buck Creek. Two small 

properties, purchased m r.»l"> by the National Bauxite 

Co. and later transferred to the Kalbfleisch Corporation, 
of Chattanooga, Tenn., are situated on the south slope 
of Boggy Branch, two and a hall' miles north of Ander- 
sonville, and one and a half miles from the closest point 
on the Central of Georgia R.R. The bauxite exposures 
are found in two spurs of a hill, running north toward 
Boggy Branch, with a slight valley between. On the 
first, large blocks of hard bauxite are found in the soil, 
covering a part of the slope. On the second spur, about 
200 yd. southwest, exploration work shows that the 
bauxite bed extends for a distance of 200 yd. around 
the slope. Most of the work has been done by boring, 
but one pit penetrates thickness of the deposit. The ore 
resembles that of the Sweetwater mine. 

The English property lies on the north slope of 
Boggy Branch, just opposite the National Bauxite Co.'s 
prospect previously described. The deposit is small, but 

■Crossbedded Sand 



of fair quality and favorably situated with respect to 
transportation. The Kleckley holdings are situated on 
the south slope of the valley of Buck Creek, in the west- 
ern part of Macon County, eight and a half miles west 
of Oglethorpe, but the lower slope on this property 
consists of more or less pure kaolin and fireclay, pre- 
vailingly white, and containing lenses of indurated 
nodular clay and bauxite, mantled by a few feet of gray 
or red sand. The hills are capped by red sand of the 
Wilcox formation, which overlies the white clay uncon- 
formably. Other properties have been known or partly 
developed in this vicinity. Bauxite has been discovered 
in the extreme southern part of Macon County and be- 
longs to the Camper Creek group. In Schley and Stew- 
art counties deposits are known to exist, but little work 
upon them has y r et been done. 

Mining by Stripping and Opencut 
The methods used in mining bauxite in the Coastal 
Plain are the simplest possible. Every deposit worked 
up to the present time has had an outcrop at some point 
on the slope of a hill, and mining consists simply in 
removing the overburden and working out the ore. The 
maximum known thickness of ore is about 10 ft., while 
overburden as heavy as 40 ft. has been moved in places 
to get 5 or 6 ft. of ore. All mining is done by manual 
labor, the ore and overburden being trammed to the 
dumps by hand or mule power. Steam shovels and 



Vol. 105, No. 1 

d in any of the bauxite 
vt lj in kaolin and 
vicinity. Their use in 
rtainly be economical in the 
rerburden. Both ore and 
ow 1 thai blasting is ratvh necessarj 

ie upper if the bauxite forms a 

- where an unconformity 
thi re is ren- 
der) il holes and gullies, but ther* 
no difficult) in distinguishing the place where the ore 
per limit of workable ore. however, 
-ly determined, because there is usually a 
lual change from bauxite to kaolin extending through 
a number of feet Most of the ore is used in the nianu- 
jre of alum by treatment with sulphuric acid, 
B.. in which the alumina combined in silicates, such 
caolin, is not readily soluble. The only means of 
finding out just how much of the clayej material may 
be mined and nsed as ore is by keeping a check on the 
shipments, especially at first, by chemical analyses. The 
usual practice is to work far enough into the clayey 
bauxite so that the mixed material, when dried, will 
coin. alumina, as the alum man- 
ufacturers do not usually wish to purchase ore of lower 
grade than that. 

Oris Kiln-Dried Before Shipping 

The only treatment given the bauxite of the Coastal 
Plain pr< shipment consists in drying and, occa- 

sionally, screening. There are small quantities of baux- 
ite which could be enriched by washing with a log 
washer, such as is used in the treatment of iron and 
manganese ores and bauxite in north Georgia, but no 
such washer has yet been installed. 

The ore as mined contains a variable but large per- 
centage of uncombined water, which adds greatly to 
the freight charges. It is customary, therefore, at all 
of the larger mines to dry the ore artificially before ship- 
ment, although that from several small deposits of high- 
grade bauxite is simply air-dried in sheds or on board 
floors in the sun. The driers used are slightly inclined, 
rotary -cylinder kilns, about 30 ft. long by 3 or 4 ft. in 
diameter. They are usually heated by wood fires, the 
wet ore passing downward toward the flame. The dried 
ore is mechanically elevated to overhead bins, from 
which it is loaded on wagons or trucks by gravity. The 
drier at the Sweetwater mine is said to reduce the 
weight of the ore 10 per cent. 

It is not advisable to heat the ore so highly as to 
drive off a large part of the combined water. Experi- 
ments show that calcining reduces the solubility of the 
alumina in sulphuric acid of the strength used, although 
the effect i3 not great until about 80% of the total com- 
bined water is removed. In the type of kiln used it is 
not likely that more than a small percentage of the 
combined water is expelled. A small amount of the peb- 
ble ore is screened to remove admixed sand and clay. 
The screens used are flat, inclined screens or revolving 
trommels of about .'-in. mesh. The bauxite districts 
are well supplied with railroads. All of the deposits are 
within 10 miles of railroad connections, but none so far 
worked are more than four miles from loading points. 
The ore is usually hauled to the railroad station in 
wagons, but one company has recently put a motor truck 

mto service. The truck has a capacity of four tons, and 
carries 10 loads per daj •">' miles to the station. 

In the Sumter and the Macon county district good 
sand-claj roads have been built, while in Wilkinson 
Mtj the materials for constructing such roads are 
able, but so far they are only partially improved. 

The known lenses of bauxite cover only a minute 
fraction of the area of the outcrop of the formations in 
which they are known to occur. There are almost cer- 
tainly buried deposits which give no surface evidence 
o( their existence, but the chances o( finding them by 
random iest holes are small even in the most promising 
localities. Therefore, boring where there are no sur- 
e indicatio nxite is not advisable. When frag- 

ments of bauxite or indurated, nodular clay are found 
on a slope, pits or trenches should be sunk near the high- 
point at which such fragmental material is found. 
It is best to first dig pits around the edge of the orebody, 
in order that the workable thickness may be determined 
and representative samples obtained, after which a com- 
mon clay auger, 2 or 3 in. in diameter, may be used to 
further investigate the character of the orebody where 
the overburden is heavier. 

The Fuel Value of Wood 

Those who plan to relieve the coal shortage this 
winter by burning wood can figure, roughly, that two 
pounds of seasoned wood have a fuel value equal to one 
pound of coal, according to experts of the United States 
Forest Service. Different kinds of wood have different 
fuel values, and in general the greater the dry weight 
of a nonresinous wood the more heat it will give out 
when burned. For such species as hickory, oak, beech, 
birch, hard maple, ash, locust, longleaf pine or cherry, 
which have comparatively high fuel values, one cord, 
weighing about 4000 lb., is required to equal one ton of 
coal; it takes a cord and a half (a total weight of 4500 
lb.) of shortleaf pine, hemlock, red gum, Douglas fir, 
sycamore or soft maple, which weighs about 3000 lb. 
a cord, to equal a ton of coal ; while of cedar, redwood, 
poplar, catalpa, Norway pine, cyprsss, basswood, spruce 
and white pine, two cords, weighing about 2000 lb. 
each, or 4000 lb., are required. 

Weight for weight, however, there is little differ- 
ence between various species. Resin affords about twice 
as much heat as wood, so that resinous woods have a 
greater heat value per pound than nonresinous woods, 
and this increased value varies, of course, with the 
resin content. The available heat value of a cord of 
wood depends also on the amount of moisture present. 
The greater the amount of water in the wood the more 
heat is lost. Furthermore, cords vary as to the amount 
of solid wood they contain, even when they are of the 
standard dimension and occupy 128 cu.ft. of space. A 
certain proportion of this space is made up of spaces 
between the sticks, and this space may be considerable 
in a cord of twisted, crooked and knotty sticks. Out of 
the 128 cu.ft., a fair average of solid wood is about 80 
cu.ft. This, however, applies to the standard cord, in 
which the sticks are cut to 4-ft. lengths and piled 4 ft. 
high and 8 ft. long. Instead of the 4-ft. lengths, how- 
ever, users often have the sticks cut into 2-ft. lengths. 
Care should be taken to see that full measurement is 
given when wood is bought in this way. 

January 5, 1918 



Where wood is to be burned in a furnace intended for 
conl, it will be found desirable to cover the grate partlj 
with iron or firebrick, in order to reduce the draft. If 
this is not done, the wood is wasted by being consumed 
too fast, and makes a very hot tire, which in a furnace 
may damage the firebox. 

Foreign Trade in Lead and Zinc 

Imports of load during September, October and the 
first ten months of 1917 ire reported by the Department 
of Commerce as follows : 

Articles and Countries 
Lead 1 >re 

Contents, Lb 



i ictotx t 

i ,,i,i.iii i, Lb 






..I ii 



1 I, .18,816 









.•114". II ill 





Lead— Base Bullion and Bu 












Lead— Pigs, Bars, etc.: 




















Others . . . 




The gross weight 


of lead ore 


in October 

was 7010 long tons. 

The actual tonnage of zinc ore imported in October 
amounted to 8946 long tons. The countries of origin 
and the metal contents were as follows : 


Contents, Lb. 



Cotents, Lb. 

Jan. -Oct. 

Contents, Lb. 







Zinc in Blocks, Pigs, etc.: 

Costa Rica 



















29,055 15.447 387.447 

Imports of zinc dust in October, 1917, amounted to 
87,300 lb., of which 67,200 lb. came from Japan, and the 
remainder from Canada. » 

Exports of lead and zinc were as follows: 

September October 

Lead: Contents, Lb. Contents, Lb. 

Pigs, bars, etc., produced from do- 
mestic ore ... 8,692.397 5,329,408 

Pigs, bars, etc., produced from for- 
eign ore 207,322 21,039,360 


Pigs, etc., produced from domestic 
.ore . 13,619,619 10,208,889 

Pigs, etc., produced from foreign 

ore 39,249,110 4.901,762 

Sheets, etc 3,878,504 1,905.783 

Jan. -Oct 
Contents, Lb. 



Foreign Trade in Copper 

porta of copper from the United States in Septem- 
ber, October, and I ten i tha of 1917, are re- 

ported by the Department <>r Commi ollows: 


II, ii. 

444. (.84 173,241 4.873.73) 

Unrefined, in b .'.(H7,Hi8 4,256,707 10.421. 344 

Refim i hill 81. 116 imki 870.741., J95 

"Id »nd 4,147 950,270 

. 476 9.442 Mi 11.177,546 

I' d tul , , ii. ',,581 

reepl insulated J <hik i 19 21,01 

1,179,589 11,829 ♦1,199,825 

98,191,954 948,741,369 

I , , , ,K I 

The weight of ore exported in October was 5250 
long tons, and of concentrates, matte and regulus, 5886 
long tons. 

Imports of copper in September, October and the first 
ten months of 1917 were as follows: 

Oct. Oct 

Lb. Ii 

Ore and concentrates, content* M. 279.521 14.206.272 l25.854.U4i 

Matte and regulus, etc 3.613,346 125,659 16,629 

Unrefined, in bai , pigs, eti 21,409.698 18.747.533 289,911,088 

Refined, in bare, etc 620,752 4,362,544 I0.3HH.H,-- 

Old, etc., for remanufactun 752.254 1,583.587 17,599,686 

Composition metal, per chief value. 13,997 31.002 398.074 

Total 39,689,568 39,056,597 460.780.819 

Ore imported in October weighed 32,605 long tons; 
concentrates, 14,103; matte and regulus, 150 long tons. 

Coal in the Philippines 

Heretofore the demand for fuel in the Philippines has 
been met chiefly by imports of Japanese, Australian and 
Chinese coal. The only coal mined in the islands has 
been in Cebu, and that has not been of satisfactory 
quality, and mining there is now carried on only in a 
small way. Recently, however, coal outcrops have been 
discovered on the Island of Mindanao and are being de- 
veloped by a company called the National Coal Co., 
which has been formed in Manila, and in which the 
island government purposes to take an interest. To pro- 
vide for these and other possible developments the Phil- 
ippine Legislature recently passed a law governing the 
disposition of coal mines which may be found on the 
public domain. This law reserves the rights of the gov- 
ernment in all coal deposits and places them under the 
jurisdiction of the Secretary of Agriculture and Natural 
Resources. They will not be sold, but may be leased in 
blocks of 400 hectares — 988 acres — up to 1200 hectares 
to individuals or companies desiring to work them. No 
lease shall be granted unless the majority interest in 
the concern is owned by citizens of the Philippines or 
of the United States. The lessees will be required to 
pay a yearly rental of 2.50 pesos per hectare for the 
first year and 5 pesos each year thereafter, and there 
will be a royalty of not less than 10 centavos — 5c. — per 
native ton on coal mined and sold. The government will 
retain a general supervision over all operations, and will 
not permit one concern to be interested in more than 
one lease at a time. 

Where coal mines are opened, or operated on pri- 
vately owned land, the operator will be required to pay 
a yearly tax of 1000 pesos on each 400-hectare tract, 
and a royalty of 4 centavos per ton on all coal mined. 
The discovery and exploitation of coal would mean much 
to the Philippines, where industrial development has 
been retarded by the scarcity and cost of fuel. 



Vol. 105, No. 1 



of Utah Copper, Jonaa L'e. the arl ;,gain displayed his ability to place o, ra-iya i an 

Austral accompliahm^ts of o-r age. Mi Lie h already well k-o.v, for hh port-ayal of the 
ira }i. JKJ 3 t0 , ** rar^etted that lack of ppace makes impossible photographic reproduction of Mr. 
that the color of the or:^i ■ et in reproduction . 

January 5 L918 






MMMMMMMNaHUIIMmililiimilimilll IHIIIIIII nil llllllllllllllllllllllllllll III! Illllllllllllllll Ullllllllllllllllllllllimiimiltlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 

Details of Practical Mining 

mini in muni i iiiiiiiiiiinim m'iiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i uuimuiiuumuiiiuuunui iiiiiiiuiiuiiu^ 

Dallas Change House at Bisluv 

The importance of having a satisfactory change house 
where miners can not only change their clothes and 

bathe but also be sure of having dry "digging clothes" 
for the next shift is now well recognized. The old-style 
I locker assured security against theft, but did nol 
provide the proper drying facilities. The hook-and- 
chain system without locker has its objections, especial- 
ly with regard to shoes, boots and hats. etc. In the 
shown a combination of both features — 


chain hooks and locker — as used at the Dallas change 
room of the Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Co., at 
Bisbee, Ariz. Small lockers are arranged in tiers at a 
suitable height above a corresponding row of benches 
which is an improvement over boot boxes placed under 
benches as in some change-house designs. Each locker 
is provided with two chain hooks and coat forms, one 
at each end of a single length of No. 2 brass safety 
chain. The chain passes over two pulleys suspended 
from the roof truss at 90° to the line of lockers, and to 
the chain, at points each one third distant from the 
end hooks, is attached a key ring. Between each set 
of chains there is a partition at the top. As shown in 
the illustration, when one hook is up with one set of 
clothes the opposite hook is down with the other set of 
clothes, and either key ring can be locked in a fixed 
position to the locker, securing the owner against theft. 

The change house is heated by steam pipes arranged 
around the walls, and the rising heat performs the 
Function of drying clothes that arc properly exposed to 
the warmer air at the top of the building. 

Thawing Frozen Ground by Hot Water* 

Hot water as a substitute for steam is used in the 
Yukon for thawing frozen gold-bearing gravels prepara- 
tory to dredging operations. Tests showed that by the 
use of hot water four times the amount of gravel can 
be thawed in two-thirds the time with less than half 
the fuel necessary when steam is the medium employed. 
This is attributable to the great condensation losses 
that occur with steam and to the difficulty of driving 
the thawing points to bedrock at one driving in order 
that the thawing process may logically proceed upward 
from the bottom, rather than at irregular intervals 
from the surface down. 

An average of 46 % of the frozen material in place 
is ice. When this is melted, the boulders are loosened, 



so that a thawing process started at bedrock creates a 
subterranean cavern, which, as the thawing continues, 
causes a gradual caving to the surface and a shrinkage 
in volume of the entire mass. 

To drive the thawing points to bedrock a hollow-steel 
rock-drill cross-type bit was welded to the end of a J-in. 
steam point and a :l Vin. hole was drilled at the top of 
each of the four flutes of the bit. Thus, instead of one 
i\ ; -\n. hole at the end, as in the old point, there are five 
holes, four in the sides and one in the end, and as a 
result it is possible to drive the point directly through 
a boulder. A frozen boulder when partly drilled through 
expands from contact with the hot water and splits, al- 
lowing the point to drop below to the next boulder. 
Meanwhile the hot water has a sluicing effect from the 
four side holes, not obtainable with the one orifice only, 
and thawing proceeds with consequent greater rapidity. 
Thus in a comparatively short time the entire valley 
from rim to rim can be thoroughly thawed and a uni- 
form subsidence will take place instead of the scattered 
pot holes that develop when steam is used. 

'Excerpts from "Notes on Yukon Mining Problems." a paper 
by Henry Mace Payne, presented before the Canadian Mining In- 
stitute. Mar^h. 1917. 

Januarj 6, L918 



A furthei advantage oi hoi water thawing is the 
elimination of the possibility of bade pressure or buc 
in. u through the thawing point, with consequent chok 
ing by niud, etc., duo to steam condensation in the 
lines, or pressure drop in the boiler. 

To facilitate and accelerate driving of the thawing 
points and to eliminate the use of ladders and chance 
for breaking points, anvils weighing about ICO lb. maj be 
forged from old dredge-bucket pins, slotted so as to 
pass over the thawing point, and held in place bj a key. 
Handles ma\ be inserted on each side of the anvil and 
the helper can turn the point as in regular rook drilling, 
while the operator standing on the ground alongside 
strikes with a sledge hammer, driving the point until 


the anvil reaches the ground. The key can then be 
knocked out, the anvil raised to a convenient height, 
and the driving operation resumed. 

The thawing point and anvil are shown in Fig. 2, and 
a detail of the anvil is illustrated in Fig. 1. In thaw- 
ing, the points are regularly spaced in triangular rela- 
tion to each other 16 ft. apart between any two adjacent 
points. This establishes a fixed distance from the 
points to the supply line. Rubber hose is used only 
during driving, after which a standard pipe connection 
is put on. Between the pipe connections and the main 
line ordinary railroad-train hose couplings may be in- 
serted, obviating leaky unions and facilitating connect- 
ing and disconnecting operations. Two pairs of point 
men, each equipped with an anvil, «an drive five drill- 
bit points in 10 hours, viz.: Driving, six hours; pulling, 
1*; connecting, 11, and miscellaneous, one hour. 

Rapi^ Tunnel Driving was accomplished during October 
by the Armstead Mines, Inc., at Blacktail, Idaho, when 488 
ft. of 7 x 8-ft. drift was driven in 29 days at its No. 3 tunnel. 
During 28 days in November, 489 ft. were driven in con- 
tinuing- the tunnel, and the records show an advance of 
544.8 ft. made in 31 working days. Two full working: days 
are lost each month when shifts are changed. 

I rain Manns and Lights 

When cat hi i omotive, p 

by a rope, oi lowered down .> dope, a continuously 
ringing bell and .-, red light on the i ronl end of the tram 
are an oil,, i.-ni alarm to warn | I the tracks. Sev- 

eral Buch > gs and lights are manufactured and 

on the market todi 

Some ti i I wai appointed a member of the 

■ tj committee at the mines of the Vii tor Amerii an 

1 ' " • Delag . i rank Hu kinson in 

Cool l0< Realizing the necessity of a suitable "visual" 

well as audible warning signal on tl 
going in .\vn the slope, since this s; 

is also used as a nian\va.\ . I made up several trip li; 
and bells. These are shown in the illustration. 

For the trip lamps, a Btrong wooden box was made 
large enough to hold a one-cell, two-volt storage bat 
ten. This box is fitted with a suitable hanger iron and 
can be easily hung on the front or rear end ,,f the 
mine ears, and it also has an iron handle for convenience 
in placing it on and taking it off the cars. The lamps 

■ - . 

3> - 

> i 



as well as the storage batteries are built from a type of 
miners' head lamp that has been discarded, in preference 
to usin^ the more up-to-date Edison miners' safety 
head lamp. This lamp is fastened to the front of the 
box, and the globe is colored red. The whole makes an 
effective "visual" signal on the trips and can be seen 
at an extremely long distance. 

The bell is arranged like the lamp, the same battery 
and the same size and style of box and hanger irons 
being used. The bell proper is an ordinary 6-in. electric 
gong, and it has been found to operate satisfactorily on 
the one cell. 

The combination of a red light and a continuously 
ringing bell makes an efficient visible and audible warn- 
ing signal for use on the front end of the trains and 
complies with the requirements of the law in regard to 
a suitable warning device to be used on moving trips 
in a coal mine. 

Variations in Transit Needle 

Experiments with a Gurley light mountain transit 
and three magnetic needles showed, according to W. 
Newbrough in Engineering News-Record of Dec. 13, 
1917, considerable variation. The instrument was care- 
fully set up and the needle reading set with a magnifier 
on an even mark of the compass-circle graduations. An- 
other needle was then tried and found to differ in 
meridian by 30'. A third needle was also tried and 


\ ol. L05, No. 1 

foai ' "■ The test was repeated, using 

each of three pins, and the same result obtained, each 

settling nicely to its own meridian. All tin- 
ner idition, as were the pins. 
;p over the same point ami sighting successive- 
ly with l - instrument, one made In Berger, and 

one adings differed in amounts 

All the instruments were 
lition in everj way so far as it was possible 
from an examination made in the field. 

Mining Costs at Corodva, Ontario 

BY S. H. BRiH Kl'MKR* 

aomieal operation at the Cordova gold mine, Cor- 
... Ontario, under the present conditions of costly 
labor and supplies, should be of interest. Labor eosts 
were L'O above normal, labor efficiency was only 80 
and expense for supplies had increased 50' to 400 
The rock was hard and required no timbering in the 

I a Hi i: 
Labor ai 


Piston Drill mmei Drill 
16 4-ft hold ixr 2 shifts 16 5-ft holes per 1 shift 

ji2 od a so 

,i«l lubnrati 



90 60 

80 2 50 

1 60 2 00 

1 60 2 90 

9 60 10 44 

72 72 

80 80 

Cost nrr (l 

$28 02 $23 46 
7 00 4 69 

■ i helper were r. 'luirc-d for two shifts' work with piston machines 
i ■ -. ' ,y track ami pipe. C<w1 of extra man to lay track and pipe fur 

hammer drill included in its items Two trammers shoveled back from the 
drifts t 200 ft. to the ore chutes, thus making the cost ol tramming 

r ton. 


Machine man 
Repairs and lubricatio 
Ste*l a: 


I .:■ :■ 


$0 80 













$12 00 

On- ■ 'ii 

ii. 50r ; per ton of ore, 7 5 

stopes. Shrinkage stoping was the method adopted and 
a hydro-electric plant at the mine made power costs low. 
The ore was hand sorted at the surface, one-third being 
thrown to waste. The costs are based on 125 tons of 
sorted ore per day, derived from 175 tons of rock broken. 
Working under the shrinkage system of stoping 75 tons 
was the maximum amount of ore that could be drawn 
per day for milling, this being the capacity for one shift 
in the mill. Other stopes, which would have doubled 
production, were being opened when a fire occurred 
which destroyed the mill and a large part of the sur- 
face plant. 

By discarding the piston drills in favor of the hammer 
type of drifting drills and hollow steel, a reduction in 
the cost of drifting amounting to $2.30 per ft. was ef- 
fected. The country rock is hard diorite and gabbro. 
Drifts and crosscuts are in hard diorite, chlorite schist, 
or hard quartz — all hard drilling rocks. The vein is 8 
to 30 ft. wide and the ore medium to hard drilling. The 
best speed of the 2t-in. piston drill in drifting was 40 
ft. of hole per nine-hour shift. The average speed of 
the best hammer types of stoping drill with air at 90-lb. 
pressure was 1 ft. per 4 min. In drifting it took 16 

holes to break a 6 \ 7-ft. face. In stoping it took nine 
.Vt't. holes to break 25 tons. Wages per nine-hour shift 
were: Machineman, stoping, $3.25; drifting, $3.50; 
helpers, $2.76; trammers, $2.50; timbermen, $3.50. 
Supply eosts were: Dynamite, 10'. (new stock) 20c; 
and tU> , (old stock) 24c. per lb.; caps, 44c. each; fuse, 
Ic. per ft.; steel, 26c per lb.; rail, 12-lb., $34 per ton; 
timber, $40 per M.b.m.; carbide, 4c. per lb. The tables 
provide other details. 

Because of the heavy cars and flat grades two tram- 
mers were used on each car holding one ton of ore. 
They were required to shovel from the drifts and tram 
30 cars 200 ft. to the chutes per shift. When tramming 
from chutes they were required to tram 45 cars per 
shift 200 ft. The cost per ton for tramming was there- 
fore 17c. from drifts and 12c. from stopes. The cost 
of driving raises was $6 per ft. The total mining cost 
of development, and stoping delivered to the surface, in- 
cluding office and surface expenses, pumping, power and 
superintendence, amounted to $1.60 per ton. 

A Handy Penwiper 

Draftsmen and users of fine pens with heavy india 
ink are bothered by dirt and eraser residue getting 
on the pen. Penwipers are unhandy to use, as both 
hands are engaged at the moment, so the unsightly habit 


is formed of wiping the pen on clothing, board or the 
finger nails of the left hand. 

To obviate this a serviceable penwiper is suggested 
by S. Newman in the American Machinist and is shown 
in the accompanying illustration. A piece of tissue paper 
is wrapped around the second finger of the left hand 
and held in place by the thumb or a rubber. It is a 
handy device and preserves the cleanliness of the drafts- 
man as well as of his pen. 

•Mining engineer. Nevada City, '"alif 

Melting Points of Firebricks 

The melting point of a firebrick is understood to be 
the lowest observed temperature at which it exhibits 
transition from the rigid to the liquid state. William 
M. Barr states in Industrial Engineering (abstr., Journ. 
Ind. Eng. Chem.) that the melting points of 45 samples 
of firebrick including fireclay, bauxite, silica, magnesite 
and chromite brick have been determined in an electric 
vacuum furnace, the temperature being measured by an 
optical pyrometer, and the following melting points 
found: Kaolin 1740° C. ; pure alumina 2010°; pure 
silica 1600°; bauxite 1820°; bauxite clay 1795'; chro- 
mite 2180° ; magnesite brick 2165° Centigrade. 

Januarj •-. L918 



Rhodesian Mining Operations 

Rhodeaian mining activities were touched upon by 
Chairman H. L. Stokes, of Mashonaland Agency, Ltd . 
which holds an interest in a number of important Rho- 
desian mini's, at the annua] meeting in London on 
Nov. 1(>. He discussed the companies' mining interests 
as follows: 

"As regards the Wankie Colliery Company, Ltd., the 
output of coal and coke has continued to increase during 
the present year, and important additions to the present 
plant are be t ig taken in hand. The total monthly out- 
put of coal from the colliery now amounts to about 
50,000 tons. 

"The Bwana M'Kubwa Copper Mining Co. continues 
the production and shipment of copper concentrates, but 
owing to the prevailing difficulties the board of that 
company does not see its way at present to order the 
new plant for the expensive electrolytic process which 
was decided upon, its decision being influenced, no 
doubt, by the increased cost of machinery of all descrip 
tions and the necessity to obtain permits for the manu- 
facture of the plant. 

"Rhodesia Chrome Mines, in which we have increased 
our holding to 9500 shares, has made exceptional prog~ 
ress. During that company's financial year ended Jan. 
31, 1917, it shipped 87,343 tons of chrome ore, and a 
still larger output would have been obtained had the 
carrying capacities of the railway been less restricted. 
Dividends were paid for the last year amounting to 
45%. It has also paid 20 f c in interim dividends in 
respect of the current year. 

"The Kimberley (Mashonaland) Gold Mining Co.'s 
mine has for a long time been disappointing at and 
below the fifth level. At that depth little payable ore 
has been opened out, notwithstanding careful and sys- 
tematic prospecting carried out on lines recommended 
by an eminent geologist. Owing to the ore reserves hav- 
ing considerably exceeded the estimated tonnage, the 
company still continues to crush and treat about 4500 
tons of payable ore per month, and this will probably 
continue into next year. On the surface developments 
are being carried out in the recently discovered section 
of payable ore in the western extension, where prospect- 
ing work has opened a continuation of the reef in this 
direction of 1000 ft., averaging 7i dwt. over 30 in. 

"At the zinc-lead mines of the Rhodesia Broken Hill 
Development Co., progress has been exceptionally sat- 
isfactory. The new plant is now completed, and the two 
large smelters (blast furnaces) are in full work, pro- 
ducing metallic lead at the rate of about 1000 tons a 
month. It is not unreasonable to assume that there 
is a possibility of a great industry being built up in 
course of time. 

"A substantial holding has been acquired in the 
Rhodesian and General Asbestos Corporation, a new 
company registered in Rhodesia with a capital of £400,- 
000 (£30,000 working capital). This company has been 
formed to amalgamate various valuable and proved as- 
bestos properties situated in Victoria, Belingwe and 
other districts in Southern Rhodesia. The properties 
acquired have been developed and are equipped with 
sufficient plant for the production of asbestos on an ex- 
tensive scale. Regular outputs are being produced and 
sales effected at prices which should yield good profits. 

"Touching foi a moment on the general conditions of 
Rhodesia, th< e have not suffered from the adverse 
influences of the war bo much a might hi n ex- 

pected. The output of gold and other products hai been 
fanly maintained and in some i icrea ed, not- 

withstanding greatei of stores and materials. 

This result is the more noteworthy when we remember 
that so large a propc 10 oi the adult white 

male population have answered the call to arms. There is 
now- encouragement for anticipating in the near future 
developments on a large scale in the outputs of base 
metals already alluded to, such as copper, lead and pos- 
sibly zinc, which, in their turn, will create increasing 
demands for coal and coke. These matters, together 
with the thriving asbestos business, promise to become 
industries of great importance and value to the future 
development of Rhodesia." 

Progress in Developing Alaska Coal 

The great demand for coal lends additional interest 
to the report that some progress is being made in open- 
ing up Alaskan coal deposits in advance of the begin- 
nings of railway operations on the Government line to 
the Matanuska district. The Alaskan Engineering Com- 
mission states that it has opened a mine near Chicka- 
loon, just north of the Matanuska River, to supply the 
incomplete railway, and made the first shipment of coal 
Oct. 29. A tract of 1140 acres in the same district has 
been leased to a company of Oakland, Calif., men, and 
equipment is on its way there. Two mines in the lower 
Matanuska field have shipped about 40,000 tons in the 
last year. Land in the Tenana lignite field is soon to 
be offered for lease. It is expected that when the rail- 
road begins operations next season enough coal will be 
shipped out to supply the railroad, the Pacific fleet, and 
all other Government needs on the Pacific coasts. Al- 
ready Portland and Seattle are beginning to look hope- 
fully toward a supply of Alaskan coal for ships, manu- 
factories and domestic needs. It is the best on the coast 
for steam, blacksmithing and coking, and the present 
shortage of fuel makes it more in demand than ever. 

Oil in Big Horn Basin, Wyoming 

The south half of Big Horn Basin, Wyoming, em- 
braces some oil country that is undeveloped but promis- 
ing. A report 1 recently published by the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey presents information regarding 50 domes 
and anticlines in this region. Besides the Greybull, 
Torchlight, and Grass Creek anticlines, which are al- 
ready sufficiently developed to contribute largely to the 
production of oil in Wyoming, there are several other 
domes and anticlines in which oil or gas has been struck 
but which are not sufficiently drilled to indicate their 
value as oil reservoirs. Eleven of the anticlines de- 
scribed have already proved to be productive, and about 
as many more anticlines have been tested by one to 
four holes, though some of the holes have not been the- 
oretically well placed. Oil development in Wyoming is 
still in an early stage, and drilling has not yet covered 
enough ground to indicate the probable productivity of 
all the anticlines. 

'Bull 656. by D. F. Hewett and C. T. Lupton, U. S. Geological 
Survey. Washington, D. C. 


Vol. 105, No. 1 

Wolframite Ore in South China 

in the Canton district lias 
maud for wolfran ite ore, 
and the recent discovery of this mineral in Kwangtung 
•horn China. Consul General P. S 
. writing inton, under date of Sept 

10. isn \ 7), says: "Little re- 

■i on the occurrence and production of 
in this district is obtainable. This is not sur- 
prising, as the discovery of the ore was made only 
i the mining bureau has had few applica- 
tions for mining rights covering this material. The 
natives and even the official deputies mistook it for i 1 
ganeee or iron ore. until the high prices offered raised 
ispicion that it must contain something different 
from the commoner metals. The Japanese first learned 
of the value of the 'iron ore' in Hunan Province, and 
offered about 17c. gold, a pound for it. Other buyers 
learned ^\ the bargain, and offered better prices. Now 
aver. Tings about 32c. gold, a pound at Canton. 

Ore from Kwangtung and Adjacent Provinces 

"Much of the ore comes from Chengchow, Hunan 
Province, adjacent to the border of Kwangtung Prov- 
ince. It is transported on human shoulders from the 
mine southward to Ping Shek, Kwangtung, a distance 
of about 60 miles. From here it is carried in small 
junks down the North River to Shiuchow, an additional 
distance of 80 miles, whence it is brought to Canton 
over t'..e Yueh-Han railway. All the mining is done by 
hand. Production and transportation costs are not 
made public Many anxious buyers, not waiting for 
the ore to reach Canton, have established headquarters 
at Lok Chong, a small town on the west bank of the 
North River. 40 miles above Shiuchow, where they are 
able to intercept the cargoes, and get first choice from 
the middleman who has bought up the ore. The mid- 
dleman daily collects the goods direct from the miners 
in varying small amounts. 

"Several places in Kwangtung are said to produce 
wolfram ore, but since investigation by the Provincial 
Government is so limited, and the differentiation of 
minerals by the natives so unreliable, the importance 
of these finds must be confirmed by experts. Several, 
however, are positively known to produce the valuable 
ore. The Fu Min Co. has a claim at Waichow, on the 
East River. The corporation permits the natives to 
mine in the concession, but insists on the exclusive right 
to buy the product. The current price paid for the ore 
to the miners is about 20c, gold, per lb., and the com- 
pany obtains about 32c. at Canton. The number of 
miners engaged in this enterprise is said to be upwards 
of 1000. Th^ method of mining is principally hand 
placering. The miners dive for the sand and wash it 
for the heavy ore. The ore runt, *rom mere dust to 
the size of walnuts or larger. Again, it is found on the 
hillsides, where it is dug and washed in the usual man- 
ner. No proper study of the mode of occurrence of 
the ore or the geology of the cr intry has been undsr- 
taken and little can be said on these subjects. A small 
sample of the ore from the Waichow district was ana- 
lyzed recently by a qualified mining engineer and chem- 
ist. The ore was found to contain 55 84% tungsten, 
13.25% iron, 11.56% manganese, and the rest in cal- 

cium, magnesium, etc. This sample gives a general 
idea of the nature of the ore. 

"Haifong district has been reported to produce wolf- 
ram ore, but no actual mining has begun there. Official 
deputies were sent recently to survey the places, the . 
names of which are still kept from the public. Kwangsi 
Province also is said to produce wolfram ore. A Chinese 
company, while prospecting for antimony ore some 
time ago in Kwangsi, found small seams of wolfram 
in the Hochi district, 120 miles northwest of Liuchowfu. 
The ore occurs in hard quartz, and the cost of mining 
is excessive. The work there is now suspended." 

In September, 500 Tons Awaited Export 

Of the production of wolframite in South China, 
George E. Anderson, Consul General at Hongkong, re- 
ported on Sept. 13: 

"The course of the trade in tungsten in Hongkong, 
since the development of the South China fields com- 
menced this year, may be shown by the fact that the 
exports from Hongkong in June amounted to 60 tons, 
in July to 78 tons, and for the first half of August to 
92 tons, permits to ship to the United States being with- 
drawn about the middle of August. There is now on 
hand in Hongkong and Canton warehouses perhaps 500 
tons of the ore ready for sending to the United States 
as soon as permission from the British government cov- 
ering trans-shipment at Hongkong can be obtained. 

"The ore so far shipped has been obtained almcst alto- 
gether from surface pockets or deposits in the hills of 
Kwangtung Province, particularly in the North and 
East River country. It has been gathered in charac- 
teristic Chinese style — a litle here and a little there and 
without regard to the origin of the pockets or the pos- 
sibility of developing veins or strata of ore-bearing 
rock. The actual limits of the field, accordingly, are 
not clearly defined. On the other hand, the deposits so 
far found and worked are so widely scattered that there 
is every reason to believe that the actual ore to be ob- 
tained from the field is of large amount. The ore 
varies considerably in quality and, as the pockets now 
known are worked, there seems to be a slight falling 
off in the percentage of tungsten. However, most of 
the buyers on the ground are justified in anticipating 
large returns from the field." 

Bureau of Mines (May Study Lignites 

Secretary Lane has recommended to Congress an ap- 
propriation of $100,000 to enable the Bureau of Mines 
to investigate the commercial and economic practicabil- 
ity of utilizing the lignite coals of the United States 
for producing fuel oil, gasoline substitutes, ammonia, 
coal tar and gas for power. There are immense quanti- 
ties of lignite in the public lands of the country, but 
the coal does not stand transportation in its natural 
state and is of small value for fuel except near the 
mines. If a satisfactory method of extracting fuel oil 
and other substances be secured, it would add immensely 
to the resources of the United States. 

Indications of Cobaltite and Smaltite in Lemhi County. 
Idaho, have been examined by the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 
It is in this district fiat Elwood Haynes, of Kokomo, Ind , 
is erectinp a mill in the hone of securing a domestic supply 
of cobalt for use in the manufacture of stellite. 


iiiinu mi i niuiniiiiiiiiin npimtniiuinHtiuutHriiirLiiiiuitiiuuituniiiuinmiiiiuuiiLiLiiiniMLiiuuiiiimuititruuiiiimTrtfiiiiJTntrTtiiaumimntitmTiiimiuiiriLiin iwiiiiiiiiiuii 

Events and Economics of the War 

ttuitn in mi 1111 iiihi mi mil i ill Him iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinmii in iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

Control of railroads in the United states by tin- 
Federal Government, as a war measure, became an ac- 
complished fact at noon on Dec. 28, when Secretary of 
the Treasury McAdoo, by appointment of the President, 
took office as Director General of Railways with practi- 
cally unlimited power as to control and operation. Mr. 
McAdoo immediately ordered that all traffic should be 
moved by the most convenient and expeditious routes. 
Congress, continuing its inquiry into the conduct of the 
war, was informed by Quartermaster-General Sharpe 
that half of the uniforms ordered were still undelivered. 
The President gave to the press the report of Food Ad- 
ministrator Hoover refuting the charge of Claus 
Spreckels and others that the Sugar Committee was 
favoring the "sugar trust." Announcement was made 
that, beginning Feb. 4, all unnaturalized German males 
more than 14 years old must record data concerning 
themselves and their photographs and fingerprints. At 
San Francisco, 15,000 foundry workers have demanded 
higher wages. 

At Brest Litovsk, peace terms favoring Germany and 
based largely on the status quo ante were proffered the 
Bolsheviki by Count Czernin, acting for the Central Pow- 
ers. The move is regarded in Allied countries either 
as a "feeler" or as an attempt to breed dissension among 
the Western Allies. Bolsheviki at Harbin, Manchuria, 
were defeated by Chinese troops, who occupied the town. 
French troops took Austrian positions at Monte Tomba 
on the Italian front, with 1400 prisoners. German 
attacks failed at Verdun but resulted in small gains 
at Cambrai. Admiral Wemyss succeeded Admiral 
Jellicoe as head of the British Navy; three British de- 
stroyers were sunk by mines or torpedoes off the Dutch 
coast. In Guatemala, a series of earthquakes lasting 
two days practically destroyed Guatemala City. 

Railroads Taken Under Federal Control 

By proclamation of President Wilson the Federal 
Government took possession at noon on Dec. 28 of all 
railways in the continental United States that are 
engaged in general transportation. The control and 
utilization of the roads are to be under the authority 
of William G. McAdoo, who has been appointed and 
designated Director General of Railroads. Mr. Mc- 
Adoo will not resign as Secretary of the Treasury. 
Under his direction are also placed all auxiliary water 
lines, terminals, warehouses, telegraph and telephone 
lines and all other agencies commonly used in operat- 
ing the systems. Secretary McAdoo's powers are un- 
limited under the wording of the proclamation. He 
may perform his new duties "so long and to such 
extent as he shall determine through the boards of 
directors" of the various companies. The various sys- 
tems are to remain subject to all existing statutes and 
orders of the Interstate Commerce Commission and 
of the various states, unless the Director General shall 

otherwise rule. Any ord< made by the latter are to 
have paramount authority . 

Remuneration foi and control of the proper- 

ties is to be made to the owner- "on the basis of an 
annual guaranteed compensation above accruing de- 
preciation and the maintenance of their proper! 

equivalent, as nearly as may be, to the average of the net 
operating income thereof for the three-year period ended 
June 30, 1917. . . Regular dividends hitherto de 

dared, and maturing interest upon bonds, debenturi 
and other obligations, may be paid in due course, and 
such regular dividends and interest may continue to be 
paid until and unless the said director shall from time 
to time otherwise by general or special orders deter- 
mine, and, subject to the approval of the director, the 
various carriers may agree upon and arrange for the 
renewal and extension of maturing obligations." 

The President's proclamation further provides that 
no attachment by mesne process or on execution shall be 
levied on or against any property used by the systems 
in conducting their business as common carriers, except 
on the prior written assent of the Director. However, 
suits may be brought against them and judgments 
rendered, as hitherto, unless the Director shall otherwise 
determine. Control of the roads passed to the Govern- 
ment at noon on Dec. 28. For accounting purposes it is 
to date from midnight Dec. 31, the beginning of the 
railroads' fiscal year. Right is reserved in the procla- 
mation to take over at a later date all street and inter- 
urban electric railways, including subways and tunnels. 

The personnel of the Director General's official board 
is as follows: John Skelton Williams, Controller of the 
Currency; Hale Holden, president of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy R.R. ; Henry Walters, chairman of the 
board of directors of the Atlantic Coast Line; Edward 
Chambers, vice president of the Santa Fe railroad and 
head of the transportation division of the U. S. Food 
Administration; Walker D. Hines, chairman of the ex- 
ecutive committee of the Santa Fe and assistant to the 
Director General of Railways. Upon assuming office, 
Mr. McAdoo immediately ordered that all freight be 
moved by the most direct and expeditious routes. This 
sweeping order was followed by the resignation of the 
Railroads' War Board, the members of which, with the 
exception of Hale Holden, hastened to return to their 
various railroad headquarters to supervise the carrying 
out of the Director's order. Director McAdoo is taking 
steps to relieve the serious coal shortage existing in 
New York and New England. 

John F. Stevens at Nagasaki 

John F. Stevens, chief American railway commissioner 
to Russia, arrived at Nagasaki on Dec. 19, from Vladi- 
vostok. He took the accommodations of an entire hotel 
in Nagasaki for the 320 members of his staff. In a 
statement to the Associated Press Mr. Stevens said that 
he fully expected to return soon to Russia to continue the 


Vol. 105. No. 1 

m of Russ an rail communications. 
He returning to America 

and - 

j the European war front 
but the Russian situation is trebly import 
ant. he return of a million and a half 

- and gives unlimited p 
lii'ii o( Russia's re- 
i r. 
••Ru- I presents a completely chaotic con- 

■ by the most clever German propaganda 
in . I everywhere among all classes of the 

1 believe the better judgment o( 
the pie will he asserted, and Germanv 

will not succeed in forcing a separate peace. Such a 
innot he concluded it" the Allies promptly give 
their help and suggestions." 

Save the Coal 

The U. S. Bureau of Mines recently asked the advice 
of a number of prominent fuel engineers throughout the 
country as to the best way to consent 1 coal during the 
war. Martin A. Rooney. of Detroit, Mich., replied: 

"In every trainload of coal laboriously hauled from 
the mines to our coal bins, one carload out of every five 

going nowhere and worse In a train of 40 cars the 
eight are dead load that might better have been 
in the bowels of the earth. Every fifth shovelful 
"al that the average fireman throws into his furnace 
<erves no more useful purpose than to decorate the 
tmosphere with a Ions black stream of precious soot. 
These are not meaningless statistics nor a 'Goblin' 
-ton-, but cold facts on a warm subject. At best, one- 
fifth of all our coal is wasted. 

"And it is shamelessly and needlessly wasted. Instru- 
ments and machinery for getting out all of the heat 
there is in it are not nearly so complicated nor expensive 
as the cash register which keeps tab on cash receipts or 
the truck which clips a few cents off delivery costs. 
Carbon dioxide, temperature and draft are easier sub- 
jects to comprehend than bank discount or freight rates. 

"The moral is, Mr. Coal User, get busy and learn what 
they are and how to use them. The time is coming when 
the Government is going to limit the amount of coal 
that is dumped down the chute, and in the name of 
fairness, when fuel must be denied a manufacturer, let 
it be to him who cannot show that he is going to use it 
efficiently. In the name of fairness to the miner who 
digs it, in fairness to the heavily burdened railroad 
which transports it, in fairness to a number of people 
whose existence and whose future happiness depend 
absolutely on the use made of this most precious of re- 
sources, let every' one make efficiency the criterion when 
judging which industrial establishment shall survive. 

''In fairness to the manufacturer who is patriotically 
operating his properties at nearly to the breaking speed 
and who is giving up a large part of his profits for the 
general good, let the Government show him how to con- 
serve this most important of his raw materials. Let 
every one send in to the furnace and boiler rooms men 
who can show firemen how to burn fuel with the least 
waste, just as experts have been sent among our fields 
and orchards to show the farmer how to increase the 
productivity of his soil." 

President Thwarts Reed's Attempt 
to Discredit Hoover 

Publication of Food Administrator Hoover's state- 
ment on the sugar situation which the Senate investiga- 
tion committee had refused to record was authorized by 
President Wilson on Dec. 25. The action of the commit- 
tee in refusing to hear Mr. Hoover's aide of the case 
promptly roused the ire of the President, says the Sun, 
who held that his answer should he placed before the 
country while the charges made against his administra- 
tion of the sugar supply were fresh in mind. The 
chairman of the committee is Senator "Jim" Reed, one 
of the chief objectors to Mr. Hoover's appointment. 

The statement contains the Food Administrator's re- 
ply to charges made before the committee by Claus 
Spreckels, president of the Federal Refining Co., that 
the sugar situation was mismanaged, and sets forth in 
detail the Administration's efforts to keep sugar prices 
down while supplying large quantities to the Allies. The 
committee not only had refused to make the statement 
a part of the Congressional record, but had declined to 
permit Hoover to take the stand to answer Spreckels' 
charges. The President's action is considered in the 
light of a vindication of Mr. Hoover and somewhat of a 
rebuke to the committee. 

After reviewing the sugar market conditions of the 
world from the time the Food Administration was or- 
ganized, Mr. Hoover's statement recites the difficulty 
met in obtaining cooperation among the various sugar 
interests. The price in many parts of the country went 
from 8k. to 101 and lie. But the Food Administrator 
adds that without Government supervision the price 
might easily have gone to 25 or 30c, with a cost to 
the public of $200,000,000 in four months. He at- 
tributed the sugar shortage to the fact that this year 
the Allies have taken 1,400,000 tons of sugar from the 
Western Hemisphere, whereas they normally take only 
300,000 tons. 

In discussing the regulations promulgated by the 
sugar division of the Food Administration, he says: 

"I do not contend that they could not have been more 
efficient. They are as efficient as they could be with the 
feeble weapon of voluntary agreement that we have been 
able to wield. Had the right not been stricken out of 
the food bill for us to purchase sugar directly for the 
Government, both the price and the distribution could 
have been handled more efficiently." 

Army Trucks Finish Test Run 

Twenty-nine three-ton auto trucks which left Detroit 
on Dec. 14 arrived at Baltimore on Dec. 28, having cov- 
ered 600 miles. Allowing for three and c half days 
when they did not travel, it is estimated that the trucks 
made about 50 miles a day. The success of the run 
proved the practicability of moving the trucks by their 
own power over long distances, thus relieving the rail- 
roads of the necessity of carrying them. Capt. Bennett 
Bronson was in command of the trucks, with First Lieut. 
L. J. Ward as medical officer and Second Lieut. C. A. 
Riley in charge of 80 soldiers. No direct comparisons 
have been made as to the cost of transporting material 
by auto trucks and by railroad. It is said the Govern- 
ment will move supplies by truck over long distances. 

January 6, l'.US 



Inefficiency in War Departmenl 
Proved at Inquiry 

Investigations by the Senate and House committees 
have revealed inefficiency in the War Departmenl in 
contrast with efficiency in the Navy: they have also 
shown that the Shipping Hoard and Emergency Fleel 
Corporation have made good progress in view of the 
existing labor conditions. There had been complaint- oi 
interference, red tape, and changes in specifications in 
the matter of building ships, all of which, it was claimed, 
had delayed the program. It was developed on the stand, 
however, that Chairman Hurley of the Shipping Board 
had brought in some of the best production experts in 
the country, and in order that he might do so trustees 
of the Emergency Fleet Corporation had changed the by- 
laws so as to give Hurley supreme authority. Previous- 
ly the general manager had such authority as would 
make the president of the corporation a mere figure- 
head. Production has improved since Hurley took charge. 

It developed at the shipping hearing that an entirely 
new industry had to be created to meet the condition 
wherein the Navy had contracted for 70 r , of the space 
in well established yards, while remaining space was oc- 
cupied by merchant ships. Whereas there were 58 yards 
in existence when the Emergency Fleet Corporation took 
hold, there are now 132. The great problem has been 
to train labor for these new yards without taking men 
from the well-established ones. 

The House committee's investigation of the Navy gave 
Secretary' Daniels and Rear Admiral McGowan, the pay- 
master general, an opportunity to show how expansion 
of the Navy has been carried on without shortage or 
friction. On the other hand, the Senate Military Affairs 
Committee has uncovered great weaknesses of the War 
Department, especially in the ordnance and quarter- 
master's departments. Apparently the expansion of the 
army was too great for the administrative ability of the 
personnel in charge. There is an admitted shortage of 
clothing and supplies, and of guns and ammunition. 

Over Half Million Working Days 
Lost in Building Ships 

Strikes in various shipyards throughout the country 
have caused the loss of 596.992 working days, delaying 
to a corresponding extent the Government's wartime 
ship-building program, according to a statement before 
the Senate investigating committee by Raymond B. 
Stevens, a member of the U. S. Shipping Board, who has 
been particularly concerned with the labor situation as 
it affects the building of cargo boats for the Government. 
The loss is equivalent to that caused by a 30-day strike 
of 20,000 men. Most of the strikes have been for more 
pay and shorter hours, though some h#ve been over the 
question of the closed or open shop. In order to keep 
the men steadily at work the Shipping Board has 
thought it expedient to grant a 10% wage bonus for a 
six-day week. The bonus will become a part of the 
regular wage of the men so engaged on Feb. 1. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Stevens, much of the industrial difficulty en- 
countered has been due to the impression among work- 
men that contractors are making -fat profits out of the 
contracts for building ships. 

Niagara Power Requisitioned 

To assure an adequate upply of electric power foi 
e tablishmenl ei n war work at Niagara Kail 

and Buffalo thi Government requisitioned on Dec. 28 
the electrii power produced, imported, and distributed 
by the Niagara Kails Power Co., the Hydraulic Power 
na Falls, and the Cliff Electrical Dl tribui 
ing Co. Canadian demands thai approximately ioo.ooh 
hp, of currenl imported from tin- Canadian side be ap- 
plied exclu ivi i to war work were anl to have been a 
factor in the Government's action. 

The operation of mills is not expected to be affected 
materially by the new order, as a readjustment of the 
power supply had been effected previously by repre- 
sentatives of the War Industries Board conferring with 
the Buffalo manufacturers. Approximately 110 factories 
not working directly on war contracts will curtail their 
electric-power requirements somewhat and will use pow- 
er at times when munitions factories are making their 
smallest demand. They will also substitute steam for 
electricity as much as possible. 

May Electrify Great Britain To Save Coal 

(Copyright, 1 f»l 7. by the "Slim") 

The universal electrification of all Great Britain, in- 
cluding the railroads and all factories, is the gigantic 
project promulgated by the Coal Economy Committee 
for the reconstruction commission and announced by 
the Minister of Reconstruction. It includes the use of 
electricity for domestic purposes. 

It is proposed to consolidate all the electrical estab- 
lishments of the United Kingdom and create 16 gigan- 
tic central super-power stations of 20,000 to 50,000 hp. 
each, supplying their districts through trunk lines. It 
is calculated that this project would save $500,000,000 
in coal annually and would end the notorious London 

An immense cheapening of power is promised, re- 
sulting in the greater employment of mechanical power 
and an increase in the industrial output. The com- 
mission finds that America employs nearly twice as 
much power per workman as Great Britain, which ex- 
plains the greater American production per capita. 

Sailing Vessels for Nitrate Trade 

Between 400 and 500 sailing vessels are to be used to 
bring nitrates from Central and South America to the 
United States, and nearly all the steam vessels now be- 
ing used for that purpose are to be released for trans- 
atlantic service. The sailing vessels are being pro- 
cured by Secretary of Commerce Redfield in response to 
an appeal from the Secretary of War. The only objec- 
tion that has been voiced regarding the use of schooners 
is their lack of speed. Secretary- Redfield points out, 
however, that there will be no delay once a steady stream 
of schooners begins running to and from South Ameri- 
can ports and the United States. Arrangements will be 
made for convoys, and the vessels will operate at a mini- 
mum of risk. Deliveries of 100,000 tons of Chilean 
nitrate purchased through the War Industries Board for 
sale to American farmers at cost will probably begin this 
month. The price will probably be approximately $75 
on board cars at the seaboard. 



Vol. ior>. No. l 

mi mi i nun iiiiHiinniiu limn ii iiiiiiiiiiiiinii i I illinium I I iiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiimmiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiig 

Industrial News from Washington 

Bi Paw Wooton, Speciai Correspondent 

Steel Prices To Remain Unchanged 
During First Quarter 

By limiting contracts to the first quarter of 1918, it 

telieved that the President's latest order concerning 

Aili have a very disturbing influence on all 

struction, which extends over a greater length of 

time. The order presages a revision downward of steel 

price.- for the second quarter, many believe. Producer- 

rOB ore had expected that an increased price would 

allowed them at this time. They ascribe the failure 

to grant them a higher price to the short time that had 

elapsed since they submitted important data as to costs 

When officials have taken time to assimilate these data 

fully, it is believed that the justice of a higher price will 

be recognized. Ore producers fully expect to receive a 

higher price in the April adjustment. The text of the 

ssued from the White House on Dec. 28 follows 

in full: 

The President today approved the recommendation of the 
War Industries Board that the maximum prices heretofore 
fixed by the President upon the recommendation of the 
Board upon ore, coke, pig iron, steel and steel products, 
subject to revision on Jan. 1, 1918, be continued in effect 
until Mar. 31, 1918. No new contracts calling for delivery 
of any of said commodities or articles on or after Apr. 1, 
1918. are to specify a pride unless coupled with a clause 
making the price subject to revision by any author- 
ized U. S. Government agency, so that all deliveries 
after that date shall not exceed the maximum price then in 
force, although ordered or contracted for in the meantime. 
It is expected that all manufacturers and producers will 
observe the maximum prices now fixed. 

France Declines Aid in Mining Coal 

Official notice has been received from France that it 
will not be possible at this time to utilize the proffered 
assistance of American miners in the rehabilitation of 
French coal mines retaken from the Germans. The rea- 
son given is the fact that only a small portion of the 
coal-producing area has been yet regained. 

While no mention was made in the communication of 
other reasons for declining the assistance offered, it is 
understood that the French government feared that it 
would be difficult to make the public in the mining re- 
gions understand why Americans were being used in 
the mines, rather than at the front. Moreover, the pay- 
ment of the American standard of wages would give 
rise to dissatisfaction among the native miners, whose 
rate of pay is much less. 

Occurrence of Lode Deposits Near 
Nenana Coal Fields 

Active prospecting of lode deposits near the Nenana 
coal fields of Alaska is predicted by R. M. Overbeck, of 
the United States Geological Survey, as a result of ex- 
tending the Government railroad thither. While gold 
will be the principal mineral sought, antimony, iron 
pyrite, chalcopyrite and bismuth are known to exist in 
this region and probably will receive attention from 

prospectors. Mr. Overbeck points out the following 
four geologic facts which should be carefully noted by 
one engaged in prospecting for lode deposits in this 
region: The deposits occur in the schist; they are asso- 
ciated with the line-grained dark schist, are near small 
acidic intrusive bodies and are related to faulting. 

Manganese Exports from Brazil 
Increase in 1917 

From 245,185 metric tons in 1914, exports of mangan- 
ese ore from Brazil increased to more than 500,000 tons 
in 1917, the advance in 1916 continuing through 1917. 
The exports in 1917 have been even greater than those 
in 1916 with the exception of one month. Shipments in 
October, '917, were 60,188 metric tons, a larger amount 
than had been exported in any other single month. Fol- 
lowing is a table showing the gradual increase of man- 
ganese shipments from 1914 to 1917 as compiled by the 
American Consul General at Rio de Janeiro: 


Moinl, 1914 1915 1916 1917 

Tom Tons Tons Pons 

l:tl I \ 


April . . 


•July . . 



\. vi mini 


Total .. 245,185 309,880 432,425 457,654 

The manganese producing district is connected with 
the coast by the government-owned Central Railroad of 
Brazil. The line is narrow gage and is approximately 
300 miles in length. 






























'1 1 (i(i 

















Examining Caliche in California 

Promising reports as to the value of a caliche deposit 
in southeastern California, as a source of nitrate, have 
caused the U. S. Geological Survey to send a corps of 
specialists to examine it and to make thorough tests. 
The relation of the caliche to the underlying Tertiary 
formation is to be investigated. The work is in charge 
of Hoyt S. Gale, assisted by G. R. Mansfield, L. F. Noble, 
G. C. Caukins, F. H. Chapin and a force of practical 
prospectors. The expedition is accompanied by a chem- 
ist equipped to make rough nitrate determinations. 

Testing Copper-Nickel Ores of Alaska 

In the hope of finding a way of making the nickel 
in the copper-nickel ores of Alaska commercially availa- 
ble, laboratory tests have been begun by the United 
States Bureau of Mines. The importance of nickel as a 
war mineral and the fact that but little of it occurs 
in the United States, proper, are causing increased atten- 
tion to be paid to this metal by the Bureau of Mines 
and the Geological Survey. 


, niiiiiiiiiiiiimuiiiiiuiiuilmiliiiuiiiiillllllliiiiiliiiiiiiliiimilinimli llllllllll lllllllliliiim I iiiiiiiillm u i miinll i i nun nun uiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiini I I mull m I 



McQraw-Hili Compani i ■ i " ii Hci -h nt 

| „ „i tmiimiiimiimimiiiiiiimiiiimiiiiiiiinii inn iiiiimiliiiliimillilllillil imimmilllll i i imiliinnii i i n llMliminilllllfnnniimn Mm iinimimiinmimmiiiiii 

Government Railway Operation 

AT NOON, Dec. 28, the Government assumed opera- 
tion of all I lie railways of the United States by proc- 
lamation of the President, who appointed William Gibbs 
McAdoo, Secretary of the Treasury, to be Director Gen- 
eral. The railways ire to be guaranteed the same net 
earnings as the average for 1914-16, their obligations 
are to be met ana their financial needs are to be sup- 
plied. A part of this program requires legislation by 
Congress, which will defer to the President's engage- 
ments and wishes, it is expected, and there remain de- 
tails to be worked out, respecting which nobody is 
alarmed, for there is a general recognition of the Presi- 
dent's attitude of fairness toward all parties, including 
the railway stockholders and bondholders. In effect the 
Government guarantees bond interest and dividends on 
stocks during the period of the war, and thus is removed 
the great fear of investors, who saw the railways being 
crushed between an upper and a nether millstone. 

There is a general feeling that, the Government hav- 
ing taken this step, there will never be any return to 
the old system of individual, competitive operation. 
Whether the result will be Government ownership or 
something less than that remains for time to tell. What 
we may now recognize is simply that our old railway 
system is passing, just as passed the turnpike system of 
a former time. The fundamental reason is similar. The 
public will not consent to private control of its means of 

The unification and coordination of the railways 
should theoretically result in an enormous economy. 
This was foreseen by railway operators as early as 20 
years ago. They took steps in that direction, but were 
promptly checked by public opposition, which expressed 
itself in restrictive legislation and executive impedi- 
ments. Then began the crushing of the railways be- 
tween popular opinion on the one hand and the demands 
of unionized labor on the other hand. The people have 
now got what they wanted, or thought they did, and at 
the same time the Government has recognized that the 
theory of the railway operators was right. Perhaps 
was never denied that it was right. The point was 
rather whether the railways were to get the benefit of 
the saving, or the people. The people think that they 
are going to get it, and during war-time it may be so, 
nay, probably will be so, for the railways are going to 
be run by their old operators, and, stifl free from the 
blight of politics, they will be able to effect the immense 
economies that they themselves foresaw. Of course, 
the improvement is not to exhibit itself overnight. The 
job of reorganizing the railway transportation of the 
whole country is too stupendous for immediate results, 
but with the lapse of reasonable time the elimination of 
what is now waste, either owing to the duplication of 
work or th° performance of unnecessary work, is surely 
going to l-turn to Treasury a surplus after the railway 

b mdhoidei - and rtoi kholi been paid fur the use 

of their property whal they have been guaranteed. 

Naturally, much depends upon the good faith of the 
labor brotherhoods, which is now going to I"- t'-sted. 
If their claim be correct thai their wag ■ not ad- 

vanced in proportion to ' in the cost of living, 

without any doubt they will be granted what is right, 
and the public will be required to pay higher rates for 
transportation, which it ought to do cheerfully. If, on 
the other hand, the claim of the brotherhoods be incor- 
rect, they will have to recognize that they are now con- 
fronting the people, instead of a group of corporations 
toward which the people were surly and suspicious. The 
correct policy for the brotherhoods now is to be reason- 
able in their demands and to see to it that their mem- 
bers be efficient in their work. 

The possibilities for economy in the railway amalga- 
mation that unfold themselves are so stupendous that 
they seem too good to be true, nor must we expect that 
we shall realize the maxima of all of them. During the 
period of war we may expect a high degree of efficiency, 
although we shall have to put up with many discomforts, 
in that respect paying the penalty of the starvation of 
the railways at the behest of popular clamor during the 
last 10 years. Such troubles are going to be particular- 
ly acute in certain parts of the country, New England 
for example, where the railway systems have been 
wrecked by legislative and judicial procedure, which 
took them out of the hands of the banking administra- 
tions that were developing just such a policy as the 
Government has now adopted. 

But when we begin to think of what may be after the 
war, we begin to see the subtractions from maximum 
economy that may ensue. We may conjecture how theo- 
retical economy may be offset by slothfulness of hand 
and sluggishness of intellect. We dread lest the kind of 
bungling that characterizes the postal administration 
may spread to the railways. The railways have hereto- 
fore been run by a staff of $10,000 to $50,000 men. The 
Government uses $3000 to $5000 help. From the stand- 
point of industrial managers the railways have not in 
recent years been run with the smartness and intelli- 
gence that other engineers are used to, but as compared 
with what the Government does they have been as the 
hare to the tortoise. For example, the railway stations 
of the country are less dirty and evil-smelling than the 
post offices, and we fancy that trains are more on time 
than mail deliveries. We shall not have such comfort- 
able and speedy passenger trains, for the incentive of 
competition to secure business will be gone. The new- 
mining district that needs a railway extension may not 
have so easy a time in getting it as when it was solely a 
matter of private enterprise and interest. It may be 
that the people will not like what they have thought 
they wanted. Meanwhile, the amalgamation of the 250,- 
000 miles of railway of the United States as a war meas- 
ure was the only thing to do. 


Vol. 105, No. 1 

The Wages Problem 

INT number of Comment and Finance, 
tus F M workingman, contributes 

a very reasonable article on the wages problem, offering 
an ition and asking it it be practicable Con- 

ns slightly, be says; 

. hi or t«.ti hours a day to get a certain 

"int of monej No, we want food, shelter and clothing — 

rforming the same amount of work every day, we 

old be entitled to the same amount of food, shelter and 

every day. But we do not get that, because the 

prices of the necessaries of life ai "ti the wi 

teed of tin wages being based upon the prices of the 

We workingmen, of course, put up a 

stubborn in the race Wo I 

tetimes we win. If we sometimes succeed in 

nK an increase in our wages the real benefit accruing 

to us is never BO great as it may seem. As a general rule 

we seldom get an increase without resorting to strikes. 
which means a total loss of any income whatever And 
strikes cause Innl feelings between employer and employee 

nd oftentimes bloodshed ami destruction of valuable 
property: and this is beneficial to nobody. The present 

tern of settling disputes between capital and labor is not 
endurable any longer — neither L> the capitalist nor the 
working class Arbitration has failed in all other countries 
where it has been tried. It will fail here. But one thing 
which has not been tried anywhere, and which once forever 
will settle this class war between capital and labor, is to 
base the wages upon the prices of the necessaries of life. 
Every man should be given an index salary and by multi- 
plying this with the index price for food, shelter and cloth- 
ing we would arrive at the workingman's weekly wages. 
In other words, the burden of a proper supply and dis 
tribution would be placed where it properly belongs — on 
the shoulders of the capitalist class. This class is highly 
organized, has all the brains and all facilities successfully 
fo check any attempt to tamper with the supply and distri- 
bution of the necessaries of life. 

This suggestion looks toward the equality in the dis- 
tribution of wealth that is the great desideratum. If 
wage earners never felt the pinch of the increasing cost 
of the necessaries of life without doubt there would be 
a diminution of labor troubles. If employers appre- 
ciated better the workings of economic law there would 
be more voluntary increases of wages; and, on the other 
hand, wage earners would be more reasonable about re- 
ductions when they became necessary. Without any 
doubt wages adjust themselves to the cost of living in 
the long run, but the adjustment is clumsy and confused, 
and conditions are apt to be temporarily inequitable. 

The reason for this is also the reason why a fixing 
of wages according to index numbers is impracticable. 
The index numbers themselves are but rough approxi- 
mations even of the composite price of commodities. 
They do not include rents and other elements of the 
cost of living at all. Being a composite, they involve 
factors that exhibit at times wide discrepancies, and 
also there are differences among several parts of the 
country, although in any general price movement of 
major character the tendency is for these discrepancies 
and differences to disappear. This, together with other 
reasons, points out why no index number could feasibly 
be introduced as a factor in fixing wages week by week 
or even month by month. 

Somewhat similar to this idea is that of a sliding 
scale for wages according to the price received for the 
commodity produced, which was introduced a few years 
ago in copper mining, and apparently with a good deal 
of success, especially when the price for copper was 
generally rising. However, when the price for copper 
started downward, while the general index numbers 
were still going up, there was trouble. 

The idea as to the relation that there ought to be be- 
tween wages and index numbers is probably correct to 
this extent : If the index numbers oxer a series of years 
show a certain trend and if the average rate of wages 
ha.- failed to move correspondingly, the demands of 
labor on the ground of increased cost of living ought to 
be examined carefully and not be resisted on the gen- 
eral principle that labor must fight for any advantage. 
As we have remarked previously, wages conform to in- 
dex numbers in the long run. But in the view that is 
even longer they gain upon them, for all progress in 
are arts inures eventually to labor; that is, its share of 
production becomes greater, which means that its stand- 
ard of living rises. The organization of the petroleum 
industry, the invention of the telephone, the mechani- 
calizing of manufacturing, and all such advances in the 
arts have been to the ultimate benefit of labor. 


THE reports of the Anglo-Russian mining companies 
that have lately been holding their annual meetings 
in London give us a better idea of the situation in 
Russia than we get from the press dispatches, which 
are confined mainly to the doings of the Bolsheviki in 
Petrograd and Moscow. Work is still going on at their 
properties, although in a more or less crippled way, and 
we get the impression that in the vast stretches of 
Russia there is relative quiet as compared with the 
chaos in the capitals. In the addresses of the chairmen 
of these companies there is a certain note of optimism, 
while the seriousness of the present situation is not 
minimized, nor even is there any attempt to disguise the 
opinion that possibly it may become worse before it 
begins to get better. All agree that the revolution must 
run its course. 

To the student of history there is a wonderful simi- 
larity between the events of the French Revolution and 
the Russian. The main differences, so far, seem to be 
that the sequence of events in Russia has been swifter 
and there has not yet been exhibited the same ferocity. 
In both cases the causes were economic. In both cases 
the struggle became a war between classes. There was 
demoralization of the army of France, just as there has 
been in that of Russia, but, nevertheless, external wars 
continued to be prosecuted. Early in 1793 the disorder 
in France was such that when the Germans invaded the 
country many expected a quick and triumphal march to 
Paris, but the French rallied and by the end of the year 
they achieved signal military successes against the 
enemy. Intoxicated by the victories, the revolutionary 
convention abandoned itself to the fervor of conquest. 

In France as well as in Russia the control of affairs 
passed gradually into the hands of the worst elements — 
the Jacobins in France, who may be compared to the 
Bolsheviki in Russia. The political measures of the 
Bolsheviki, their financial mismanagement, their enact- 
ment of impracticable laws dictated by passions, simply 
repeat what the Jacobins did in 1793-94. The ideas of 
the leaders were singularly similar. Robespierre finally, 
like Lenine, found himself free to establish the republic 
of virtue. He sketched the plan of an ideal society in 
which every man should have just enough land to main- 
tain him; in which domestic life should be regulated by 
law and all children should be educated by the state. 

January r». litis 



the nation to be ruled bj a dictator while bringing this 

about. rii is fantasj sounds much Like Le e and 

Trotzky, does it not V 

The Fall of the Bastille occurred July 14, 1789. On 
Apr. ."). 1794, after the execution of Danton, there was 
none to dispute the leadership of Robespierre. 'The Rus- 
sian revolution, dating from Mar. 16, 1917, proceeded 
so far as to have Lenine and Trotzky on Nov. 7, 1917. 
Assuming that Robespierre is the prototype of Lenine, 
will the parallel continue, and at an accelerated pace? 
The French could not stand Robespierre for long, and 
they beheaded him July 27. 1794. Then ensued the 
reaction. There were anti-Jacobin outbreaks and mas 
sacres. The property of persons previously executed 
was restored to their families. Exiles returned to the 
country. Meanwhile France achieved great military suc- 
cesses without having any stable government. In order 
to provide the latter it was voted in 1795 that the 
Jacobin constitution of 1793 was impracticable, and on 
Sept. 23, 1795, a new constitution, providing for govern- 
ment by a Directory, was adopted by popular vote, the 
revolution was closed and the nation desired only rest 
and the healing of its wounds. However, the Directory 
did not work well, and it was but a short time until 
Xapoleon came. 

( iniimui 

n i i ru i i 

uiMiMMimiiiiiHi > I ■ J • r i , . • 


HI. MH|III«1IIII. 1IU. I . I. 

A Cornish miner was spending his " 'oliday 'avin a 
look about." It was his first visit to an openpit, and 
not knowing instructions in regard to passengers riding 
on locomotives, "figgered as W a ride through the 
pit on an engine would be a pleasant way of seeing 
these operations. Before he reached the approach and 
could board the locomotive, it started off. " 'old fast," 
yelled Jack, " 'old fast." But the engineer paid no 
attention and opened the throttle wider. Jack, with dis- 
gust, delivered himself of the following: "Oh dam-me, 
go's along you great puffin' devil. I walked afor I ever 
saw thee." 

When Wall Street read that Ambrose H. Monell had 
resigned as president of the International Nickel Co. 
to enter the national service in France it was immediate- 
ly recognized the contribution one individual was mak- 
ing, says the Boston Neivs Bureau, but few realized at 
what great personal sacrifice. For Monell in severing 
his connection with the only great nickel company in the 
world gave up not only the respectable salary attached 
to the position he occupied as president, but also the 
bonus he received for his services in creating new uses 
and demands for the metal. As Colonel Monell on the 
staff of General Foulis, who is in charge of American 
aviation, he will devote to the aviation department his 
exceptional abilities as an organizer. Probably few in 
this country are better qualified to attempt such a prob- 
lem than the restless, energetic, forceful and keen 
Monell. The International Nickel Co. is fortunate in 
having in its personnel so excellent a successor to its 
former president. W. A. Bostwick, who now heads the 
company, performed countless difficult tasks as assist- 
ant to the president. Especially, in the last two years, 
he has had to handle many delicate matters, not the 
least of which were the negotiations with the Canadian 

i 1 1 'in bj u in. h the nickel panj nav< itselt 

over completely to tht upervisi I tht Dominion 

authorities The matter was exceedingh delicate, for 
complaint was repeatedly made in Canada that n j « • 
companj was under German domination Mr. itost- 
w [ck'a handling of th n o skilful t hat I h< 

administration in Canada came to the defence of th< 
companj to the fullest degree. The new president is 
young, dynamic and agg 

Mining engineers who are still looking for "that 
farm" should peruse a little notice that Eoi many months 
has hung almost forgotten in the lobby of a hotel n 
Cuba. The tale runs a "For Sale -6500 at re 

of the very best land in Vuelta Abajo, with about 1600 ol 
forest of cedar and man] others different rich woods, a 
large cattle farm with nice natural pasture, lit t 
also to grow tobacco, sugar cane, oranges, coconuts, i b 
and a valuable field of Gold Sands. Settled on the river 
and borough of Mantua, Pinar del Rio. 12 miles from 
Puerto Dimas, North coast. For information write to 
Marcos Garcia, 39 Escobar (altos) Habana." 

A great service flag, 34x54 ft. in dimension, bearing 
the figures 11,490, has been hung across Broadway, New 
York, from No. 71, the building occupied by the United 
States Steel Corporation. This flag is to honor the 
11,490 employees of the Corporation, including 305 offi- 
cers, now in the Army and Navy, though there is noth- 
ing on the flag to indicate that it is connected in any 
way with the Steel Corporation. It being impossible to 
place 11,490 stars on the flag, the figures 11,490— 
six ft. high and made of stars — were substituted. 
Among the Steel Corporation's subsidiaries, the Car- 
negie Steel Co. leads with 1984 men and other companies 
contributing in an important way to the total are the 
American Steel and Wire Co., 1737; American Sheet 
and Tin Plate Co., 1417; National Tube Co., 1078; Illi- 
nois Steel Co., 1003; Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad 
Co., 911, and 577 for the American Bridge Company. 

The Mine Chemist 

You can tell the noble story 
Of the workers underground : 

You can laud the open-pit boys to the skies; 
You can sing of deeds of glory 
That were never, never found 

'Midst the fumes of acids and of alkalies. 

But I've got a kind of notion 

That the folks don't always know 

The important things in mining every day 
That are done without commotion 
And without a bit of show 

In a quiet, scientific sort of way. 

Just within the legal bound'ry 
Of the company's domain 

Is a dingy house that's standing all alone 
But from mine clear down to foundry. 
Skip and ore dock, boat and train. 

It persists in making its importance known. 

No, the lab. ain't built for beauty, 
And the boys that work inside 

Aren't loaded with collegiate degrees, 
But they're burdened with a duty 
And they're trusty, true, and tried 
Just as much as if they toted Ph. D's. 

Lieut. Charles Webb. 



Vol 105, No. 1 

December Mining Dividends 

r dividends bj IS United States mining .mil 
metallurgical eo totalled $29,004,548, as com- 

ed with disbursement (45,114,891 by 59 com- 
a December, 1916. In view of reductions by 
the large companies, and discontinuance of p 
menta by others, both large and small, on account of war 
abor troubles, etc, the decrease is not remark- 
able. Holding companies pant $323,433, as compared 
with $1.. n 1916. Canadian and Mexican com- 

es paid $1,001,987 in 1917 and $840,824 in Decem- 
ber, 1916. 

l'iiit*d S 

i nan 

\ C. S.-Mei 

$1 50 


M * 

1 75 






\. \ 





Calum. ■ 

2 00 

1 : Mich 

10 00 


Cbino. <• \ \1 

2 00 

Copprr Range, e Midi. 

2 50 


Orrs»on. g. 5 



' 1 \:\ 





\ 1 



Frdenil V - 

1 75 






H.vLt. ! 



Hotncst&kc. ft S n 

1 65 

414. 414 

interim N. 

1 00 


ip. c 
J ld*e Min A - I'tah 





■'tt. c 

1 00 


Magiua. c 



N'pvada 1 

1 00 


New idna. ,| i 



North Star, t 1 



Old Dominion, c 1 

1 00 


Orov. Calif 



1'h It*. Dodge Corpn 1 S -Mox 

10 00 


Qjmcy. Mich 

} 00 


1 00 


St JoeK'ph Lead 



>i!\. r King Con.. 1. s 



"Iintic Standard. 1 ^ Ctah 



Tomtx.y. g 1 



I nited Eastern, g Uii 



t nited Verd \riz 



t'tah Con . .- Dtah 


150 000 

t tah Metal ami Tunnil. c...... 1 



Yellow Pin.-, z 1 



Yukon Gold, g 



L tah Copu 1 Utah 

3 50 


V\ amor Coprx-r. pftl Aril 



Canadian. M> 

Con.; .tion 



Cerro de Pw. ., . So Am 

1 25 





K.IT 1. 


150 000 

Lucky Tiser-Combination. k Mex 



M'-xico Minos of I M. \ 



Min. Corpn of Canada, - 1 >m 


Santa G*Ttru<li-. k' Mex 



Holding Compaii i»iop 

Per Share 


General r>v 

1 00 


1 00 


The total paid by United States mining and metal- 
lurgical companies in 1917 was $317,903,408; by Ca- 
nadian, Mexican, Central and South American mines, 
518,893,070; and by holding companies, $5,302,794. 

A full review of the year's dividends will appear in 
the annual statistical number to be issued on Jan. 12. 
As this will be made up from revised returns, there 
may be some changes in the totals as here given. 

Investigation of Smelters Completed 
in Colorado 

The committee named by the Colorado Legislature 
last winter to make a complete and exhaustive survey of 
the smelting industry of the state has finished its work. 
It was appointed to furnish ore producers with data and 
information upon which they could figure with accuracy. 

and which would enable them to act intelligently in mak- 
ing contracts with smelters. The committee is headed 
by Senator Siewers Fincher of Breckenridge, Colorado. 
The investigation, the first of the kind to be under- 
taken in the country, has been complete and thorough. 
0. K. Whitaker, a well-known mining engineer, a trustee 
of the Colorado School of Mines, was secured to handle 
i he technical work. Armed with the full authority of 
the state, he spent months at the smelteries investigat- 
ing methods and delving into the books showing metal 
It sses, actual cost of handling the various ores, etc. The 
law establishing the committee did not, unfortunately, 
provide sufficient funds for printing enough copies of the 
reports to meet the demand. That the information may 
be given general circulation, the Colorado Metal Mining 
Association will print the Whitaker report and the con- 
clusions of the committee in its annual report to the 
January convention of that body. 

Fund Grows for 27th Engineers 

It you feel like kicking the cat and are out of sorts 
in general, try a subscription to the Comfort Fund for 
the 27th Engineers and see how it will improve things. 
You will feel better — so will we; the list below will be 
longer, and happiest of all will be the man of the Twenty- 
Seventh when he has "one on you" that your gift will 
make possible. The list of those who have thus con- 
ferred happiness on themselves and their brothers in the 
mining regiment is as follows: 

i: urn a 1 1 , urn mill Mining Journal Sli 

New v..] i Engineering Co i 

A Friend, Nov. 23 6.00 

m H - 

I ' I.' 1 'lllli' 6 00 

II \V llanliiitre Mi 10 

\ Spencer 5. mi 

\Y I. . ours, re 5.00 

.1, II Polhemua 

.1. II, Janewaj i 

mi- it i ■ Beers I"."" 

i E Hayes 10.00 

i \ Van Mater 

i. Vogelstein & Co 100 00 

i luprite" Hum 

i: II Bassett (Hanna Ore Mining; Co.) ... 10.00 

A Friend, I iec. l" 10.00 

P A Mosman 10.00 

American /.inc. Lead and Smelting: Co 100.00 

.i <; ii 5.00 

Daniel Guggenheim 100.00 

a, ii. ii : 

Willard s Morse ... 25.00 

August Ha 100.00 

\i ml. i Copp i Mining Co 1000.00 

F W. Bradley 100.00 

Charles l.. eui 

A Friend, I >.•<• 1 :: •. 50.00 

Freeland Jew etl I 

hi A Wagner 5.0(1 

Francis P. sum 10.00 

Total $4740.00 

There have been many calls for money and some per- 
haps feel that they have already given too much. As to 
this, "A Fririd" expressed himself thus in sending in 
hi;i contribution: 

None of us who stay at home should flatter ourselve; 
that we have given too much and that it is time for the 
other fellow to do his share. If we grave every red cent 
that we possess, it would not be too much, even if it left 
us strapped. It would still be less than the hundreds of 
thousands have given who have laid down their lives for 
the cause of the civilization, the benefits of which we con- 
tinue to enjoy. 

The men of the mining regiment deserve all the at- 
tentions we can show them. At best, mining work at 
home is hazardous. There is always present the danger 
of falling ground, a broken rope or a false step in the 
dark, to say nothing of missed shots and other risks 
that are part of the underground routine. But in the 




service the Twenty-Seventh will Bee, these risks will be 
heightened by the presence of the enemy. The hanging 
will always be treacherous with the Boches above It. 
The tunnel will always be ready to change magically Into 
an opencut through the agency of a well-placed shell. 

and even when the job is done and the charges are 
placed, the other follow may beat them to it by shooting 
a countermine first. 

We cannot do too much for these men. lint we can- 
not do a thing without the money to do it. So join us 
in our efforts to look out for the mining industry's regi 
ment. Send in your check payable to the Engineering 
mill Mining Journal. Hold up your end of the game. 

Industrial Co-operation After the War 

Cooperation by the people of the United States in in- 
dustrial lines after the war is urged by Roeer YV. Bab- 
son, of the Cambridge Board of Trade. At a recent 
meeting of the board Mr. Babson made suggestions and 
a prophecy, according to the Boston Transcript. He 
sketched certain lines along which capital and labor 
might work harmoniously, but he was not sure these 
plans would be followed, for, said he, "we hate to give 
the other fellow an equal opportunity with ourselves." 
Both capital and labor must yield something before 
the high cost of living will be reduced, declared the 

"There are two wars in progress today," said Mr. 
Babson. "One war is between nations and the other 
war is between classes. The longer the first war lasts 
the more terrible the industrial conflict at its close. 

"Considering the fact that only 3% of the 100,000,- 

000 people of the United States had income enough 
last year to pay an income tax and that only 51% of 
the people are necessary in order to change laws, con- 
fiscate property and put labor in supreme command, 
some ask why an industrial revolution has not already 
taken place. There are three reasons for this: (1) 
Labor and the radical element is divided among itself 
and cannot agree on any one platform; (2) both labor 
and capital have failed to recognize the importance of 
brains and management in industry; (3) all parties 
lack the courage to tackle the real cause of the diffi- 
culty — namely, the descent of industrial control through 
inheritance and the abuse of the proxies system. 

"When, however, these three obstacles are removed, 

1 feel very dubious as to the outlook of the average 
investor unless the business men now get together alonsr 
some really constructive program. The present method 
of each side staring at the other, unwilling even to talk 
things over together, cannot long continue. If I can 
do so without being considered a propagandist, I will 
give a guess as to the make-up of the future corporation. 

"The future corporation will have only three direc- 
tors. One of these will be elected by the investors 
in the corporation, who could be compared to the pres- 
ent stockholders. This means that instead of the pres- 
ent stockholders electing all the directors they will elect 
only one. This one, however, will really represent them, 
give all his time to the work and be adequately paid 
by them for his services. Another director will be 
elected by the manual workers. This man will be re- 
sponsible for the labor problems of the plant, but he 
will be responsible to and paid by organized labor. The 

third will i.. bj the management of the plant, 
representing the executive end. the .-111110 end and the 
other managerial departments 1 an will like 

wise he paid by the mana>'i'mciil end 

"These I' n Will elect the president, who shall 

be elect eil strictlj on his He will bold the posi- 

tion as an executive oi judge His job will be to gel 
results irrespective of the individual interests of any 

one of the three directors Although there will be 
Only three members on this hoard of directors, yet 

all actions must he unanimous Cooperation can never 
be broughl about through the use oi merely a majority 
vote. Each intere 1 must he satisfied, and when each 
interest knows all the facts each interest can easily 
be satisfied. 'But what if a unanimous vote on some 
project cannot be obtained?' some one may ask. In 
the future corporation this will be provided against by 
a court of appeal for each industry in every state 
These courts of appeal will consist of three commission- 
ers who will be absolutely posted on their own industry. 
They will know what all concerns in this industry are 
paying, are earning, and what troubles they are up 
against. Any one of the three members of the board 
of directors of any corporation can. at any time, ap- 
peal for a decision to the court of appeal for their in- 
dustry and the decision of this court shall be final. 

"I am not urging either labor or capital to adopt 
any such plan. History has shown that we progress only 
under economic pressure and adopt new methods only 
when compelled to. Therefore neither side may have 
sense enough voluntarily to give up anything and so 
avoid a revolution. I am, however, willing to prophesy 
that after the industrial conflict is over the final state 
will not be capitalism, socialism, I. W. W.'ism or any 
other kind of ism. The corporation has come to stay 
in some form. . . . 

"The only radical thing about the future corporation 
as I have outlined it is that it gives all three interests 
an equal opportunity. Strange to say, it takes more 
courage for any one to give the other fellow an equal 
chance with ourselves than to do any other one thing. 

"If I represent any class it is the consumers. There 
are over 100,000,000 of us in this country, and we all 
are trying to pull ourselves up by our boot-straps. 

"Statistics sho\v that the dollar today is worth only 
two-thirds of what it was a few years ago and is becom- 
ing worth less and less every minute. The retailers lay 
it to the manufacturers and the manufacturers lay it 
to the retailers; the capitalists blame it to labor and 
the labor interests blame it to the capitalists. For if 
wages go up, prices must go up; and if prices go up, 
then wages must go up. 

"The way to lower the cost of living and make life 
worth living for all people is to bring about real co- 
operation among these different interests in order that 
all may pull together to increase production and elimi- 
nate waste. Capital is wrong in its unwillingness to 
give labor a real interest in the business ; but labor also 
is absolutely wrong in its basic theory that it can get 
richer by producing less. Capital must learn to give 
up and labor must learn to wake up. 

"The nation which profits most from this great 
European war will be the nation first to bring about 
this spirit of cooperation among the different interests 
involved in production and distribution." 


Vol. 105. No. 1 



.1 i Mtmmu 

■ nut iiiiiiiiiii mill 

Han , .hi Joined iii. Ounfari » lui. i..r 

! It I ll(H'' 

J. P. 
\ il K»k,.., ... 


K.i-I. M IL •• 

iii R 

l.r..r K r on. Smith, 

■ in an 

B»lud nan. r.. n .,;-.■- Ix al the 

during the 

h of J ami 

■ >. II l.ntl>. 

■ with 

K. D. I.mrcr. 

i and gas 

i i Lake, metallurgical engine- 
Ivtrou M Blstani 

superintendent of the Rich Tool Co.. Chl- 

l>r. Joseph H»<!r I'ratt is lieu.. 

■ i Engineers 
lite, s.iuili 

< sin. John I i Daren, Engim 

rps, has been assigned to the 

np Sherman. Chilll- 

othe. • 

i ..i William B. Thompson, head ol the 

trograd f"i the 

inths. arrived In New York on 

Dec. -5 with his stall 

\ \\ Kewbern and I S inker. 

both first lieutenants, have been assigned 
to the Fourth Engineers, now st&tloi 
Dover Barracks, Washington. 
H p, mi. ii. eei .'i the An- 

niston 31 has resigned 

a on the engineering staff ol the 
Tennesac: Coal, iron and Railroad Co. 

Hurh f. Marriott, consulting englneei foi 
■nral Mining and Investment Cor- 
poration, will s ! loi as 
president of the Institution of Mining and 

t ol. J..~e|ih W. Boyle, of Dawson, Yukon, 
who h ■ ' ome months 

enting the British American Commis- 
sion hi ited by Gi 

the i inl.-r of St. Stanislaus. 

i . p. Scallnn. superintendent of the 
coln mine at Virginia, Minn, will take 
eharg. U-Annex mine at c. 

Minn, which is also operated by the In- 
terstate Iron Co.. the Mesabi operating 
subsidiary of Jones & Laughlin Company. 

Major Oconee s. Weinberg, Russian rep- 

id Co., the 
Worthington Pump ami Machinery Co. and 
other Inter* dered t.. active 

duty with the 30th Engineers at the Amer- 
ican Universitv eamp. District of Colum- 

\ I. Field, ■ -istant metallurgisl at tin- 
Lake Superior station of the U. S. B 
of Mil igned to enter private em- 

ent and is succeeded by P. II- Kn, -i.t. 
who r ted with the iron and 

nvestjgation of the Bureau for sev- 
eral years. 

C. T. Watson ami i ii Bchener have 
been commissioned captains in the Engi- 
neer Officer \. K. M.l.uir... 
i T. Pearee and M. W. first lieuten- 
ants, and have received orders to report 
for duty on Jan. 5 at Camp Lee, Peters- 
burg, Virginia 

Brace C. Yates, assistant guperinti 

and chief engineer of the Homestake Mining 
Co.. Lead, S D. has been appointed BUper- 
intendent to succeed Richard Blackatone 
who retired on Jan 1 1918 Mr Yates 
is a graduate of the University of Nebraska 
and has been with the Homestake company 
for the last 20 years 

I~ R. Wallace is general manager of the 
Andes Copper Mining Co., Potrei 

Other members of the staff arc; ( rge 

Montandon. chief engineer, in charge of all 
railroad construction work: X. M. Hoffman, 
engineer in charge of mill and othi ! 
struction work; W. I.. Da Moulin, h 
engineer, in charge of pipe line construc- 
tion; M. Fernandez, mine superintendent ; 
K. Milller, business manager ; and C. Mor- 
reL railway superintendent. 

\. \. in. .». dlstli >■ 

Km. wiiic Tenn., Jan 2. 

i r . ,i i On .ii.-. • oni tilting englneei o1 

the l-.hll Ol u " m 

.i!:.-.i .ii Unite i ■ when the 

automobile in which he was riding wi 
.low ii b) a N'di thei " ' u me nam 

James n . MaleolmKon con lilting 

nlj on I >ec. 
insulting enginei 
Lucky Tiger Combination Gold Mining Co., 
,i i i Tlgre, Son. .1:1. m. ■- 

Joseph ii. v» Iward, pn Idenl of the 

Woodward Iron Co Alabama, died on Dec 
irs He was one 
i s iii the iron Industrj In the Blrmlng- 
i in which he resided for the 

Benjamin Franklin Taylor, former super- 

li in of the /..-il. i mine ai Jackson, 
died .ii .la. kson on I >ec 

and «eni 
became Idei riou mining enter- 

'...... in., \\ . Spragne, consulting eni 

• appendicitis He was horn in 1 866 
.as graduated from the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology H 
as an electrical ene im 187 ami 

was formerlj Identified with the G ral 

Electric Co and the Westlnghouse-Church- 
Ki rr Company 

i ii>, iini stlllman, ., the fukon 

i l tawson on Nov. 23, aged 16 

He was an Englishman and joined the 

Northwest Mounted Police when * young 

to the Yukon iii 1897 with a 

detachment of the force He afterwards 

engaged in mining an I s years since 

joined the stafl of the Canadian K 
Mnmm Co with which hi nnected 

until his death. 

sii,is Wright Eccleti, ,i esident of 

the a rlcan Smelting and Refining Co.. 

died on Dec. 31 ai si Augustine, Fla., 

where he had gone tor his health He was 

al Washington, ill , in l s. r >2. He 

commenced his career in business as 

tion agent ami telegraph operator for the 
Chicago ,V Alton 1: 1: in I s;i; he went 
lo the Denver & Rio Grandi R Ii and a 
■a as appointed genera I passenger 
agent of the system Prior to becoming 

cted with the American Smelting and 
Refining Co., Mr. Ecclcs was trafl 
of the Oregon Short Line KH In 1900 

.ante identified with tlic smelting and 
refining business, and became a dire. tor of 
the American Smelting and Refining Co. 

At the time of [lis death lie was also presi- 
dent of the Nevada Northern R.R., presi- 
dent of the Alaska Steams! 'o , president 

of the Copp nd Northwestern R.R. 

and an officer and director of various other 


" ..Illlllllll.lll.llllltlll 

"ii... .in: 

Coming Meetings 

Mining ami Metal- 
lurgical Society "i" 

rica New York. .Jan 8 

American Institute 
of Consulting En- 
gineers New York.. Jan- 14 

. o|' 
Civil Engineers. ..New York. .Jan. 22-25 

American Concrete 

Institute Boston Feb. 7-9 

American Institute 
of Mining Kngi- 
neers New York . . Feb. 18-21 

Mute College of u ...hoigi.o, — The 

of Mines announces that beginning la-i 7, 

1918. . in mining will be 

i pei tors a nd mining o'pei - 

ators of the Northwest Instruction will 

in mining, metallurgy, geology 

and ore depi . sur- 

and ore testing. These courses will 

iven in the winter School of Mines 

under a faculty of seven professors from 

Hi.- School of Mines, ami th. departments 

of geology and chemistry. 

Colorado Scientific Society at its thirty- 
fifth annual meeting elected the following 
ofHcei ■ during 1918: President , 

Dr. Richard P. .Moore; first vice president, 
B. Skinner; second ci president, M. 
B. Holt; treasu lol W Richards; 

secretary. Harry J Wolf: executive com- 
mittee, term expiring Jan 1, 1921 : J, 

Clare Evans ami M S MaoCarlhy The 

annual dinner of the Sooiet; was held on 
i'c 89 at the t ni\ ersit j Club, Denver. 

\iiieriiiill \s>Hf iiltlnn lit KllglneerM. 

\\ i hington Chapter, held > n ting in 

w a hington, 1 1 C„ on >>>;■ i i The fol- 
lowing were elected officers or the chapter; 
c i; Waller, consulting engineer, presl- 
\ S ... chief designer. 

bureau yards and .locks, first vice presi- 
Harry Stevens, consulting engineer, 
■ .I ii..- president; Cap! D. S. Hays.i 

engineer corps. 1' S A, s. id I I n \ O. . M . 
Sutherland, mechanical engineer, bureau 
'ni docks, treasurer There are 1D0 
members in Washington to date 

American Institute <>t Mining Engineers 

will hold its ll'Uli in., ling in New York 

on Feh 18-21. Ovei n technical papers 

to !"■ presented have i n received by the 

committee on publications. The program 
as announced t" date Includes a "War 

- ' " to he held on the e\ e g of Pell 

1 8 and a "Hoover" dinner al the Hold 
Biltmore on the evening of Feb 20. On 
''lowing day, ^n excursion will be 
made to Princeton I niverslty. The coni- 
mitti membership his drawn up a peti- 
tion tor amendment of the constitutional 
re iulrements for membership to !"■ acted 

on at the meeting The amendment pro- 
ridi that "a persoi to i"' ellgtb'e tor elec- 
tion or transfer into the class of members 
must he at least 1' 7 years of age and must 
have had at least six years' employment in 
Hi.- practice of engineering, mining, geology. 
metallurgy or chemistry, during at least 
three years of which he must have held 
positions of responsibility in one or more 
.ii these fields " 

'.' I" 1 1 HI, .1 llllllll 'I .,,,.,,,,1, Hill, IIIHIIIIHIIIIIIIIHinj 

Industrial News 

Jerome-I)el Monte Copper Co., Jerome. 
Ariz . has ordered a Layne & Bowler sinking 
pump of a new type which will be used in; 
connection with the deepening of one of 
its shafts 

Worthington Pomp and Machinery Cor- 
poration, New York, announces that C. P. 
Coleman was elected president of the Cor- 
poration on Dec. 81, HUT. at a meeting of 
the board of directors. 

Algnmn Steel Corporation of Sault Ste 
Marie, Out., has awarded a contract to the 
YVillputte Coke Oven Corporation of New 
York for the construction of 30 byproduct 
coke ovens. The work is to be completed' 
by the middle of the year, 

American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science opened its seventieth an- 
nual convention at Pittsburgh on Dec L".' 
Discussion of scientific lUbjects and :l'i- 
pliances having direct relation to the war' 
feature of the convention. Dr. Charles] 
P. Van Hise, president of the University 
of Wisconsin, was among those scheduled 
to speak 

mini hi in 'nun. i, iiiniii. in ,,,, .in. iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiihu 

Trade Catalogs 


gmooth-On Instruction Hook, No. 16. 

Smooth-On Manufacturing Co., Jersey City, 
N. J.. 34x63 in.; pp. in The book-- 

let describes various cements for repairing 

i >r leaks in iron piping, castings, etc 

II also contains the standard sizes of 
"Smooth-On" coated corrugated gaskets for 
Hanged pipes from two to 26 inches. 

jlliilm, Illllllll I .llllllll ' Ht.iHillllllllllllllllllllllllllllll'J 

New Patents 

i'nited States patent specifications listed 
below may be obtained from "The Engi- 
neering and Mining Journal" at JSc. each. 
British putents are supplied at 10c. each. 

Crucibles for Fused Quartz — Method of 
Preparing Crucibles for Preparing Fused 
Quartz. Frederick G. K.yes. Hoboken, 
X J., assignor to Cooper Hewlti Manufac- 
turing Company, Hoboken, N. J. (U. S. No. 
1,249.766 ; Dec. 11, 1917.) 

Sampler Mechanism. Krskine Ramsay. 
Birmingham. Ala. if. S. .No. 1.219.491; 
Dec. 11. 1917.) 

Separator. George B. Keller and Jesse 
F Pender. Vancouver, Wash. (U. S. No. 
1,249,635 ; Dec. 11. 1917.) 

Tube Mill. Alexander M. Head, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, assignor to the Jeffrey Manufac- 
turing Co.. Columbus. Ohio. (U. S. No. 
1,249,494 ; Dec. 11. 1917.) 

Zinc-Extracting Furnace with Vertic 
Retorts. Roman v. Zelewski. Kngi ', Bel- 
gium (U. S. No. 1,250.071 ; Dec. 11, 1917.) 


nuiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiii Illllllllllllllllllllllll llllinil I Mil mill i i mull iiiiiiiiiiini iiiiiiiiiiihhiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiii Illlllli 

Editorial Correspondence 

iiimiiiiimiiiniiiHiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiniiniii iiiiiiimiiiitiiti iiniumiiiititi iiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii n imtim nimmiimwiiitMiiiiHniiimo iiiimimiiiiiiiiiiiiim 

s \\ IK VNCISCO — Dec IB 

\miiiul \hhi»mm nt Work Kxemptlon has 

been discussed in a I'lrcu 

missioner of ' 'orporations, II I i*ai 

ilno |>ro\ Mini niHTSsarj hlanl 
i earr> Inn out i he pi m i ions ol the 
resolution ' 'ongi ■■ '" assist 

; ( eral hundred mining claim! 
of California to take advantage of this 
action of Congress The State Coi p. 
Depai tment •■■ I" i illj • ailed i" the alien- 

t the mine elaimholders the import- 
ant fact that even though assessment 
had been done on their claims, it 
disable to till out and file the required 
If tin- assessment work ha 

proof of labor also should be made 
and filed, so that the owners may 
the benefit of this work upon proceeding! 
to obtain a patent In the case of proofs 

sssmenl work there is a provision 
paade for a 30-daj period after Jan l. 
which time the recording of the 
labor claim may be completed But to 
lake advantage of thi suspension of the 
labor requirement, notice must have been 
Bled "In the office where the loca tion 

or certificate is recorded on or before 

: i ■" The notice is to the effect that 

the owner desires to hold his mining claim 

Under the resolution adopted by l longress 

In California alone, corporations listed with 

partment, the saving in labor amounts 

era! hundred thousand dollars an- 
nually by reason of the release from assess- 
ment work 

Naval Oil Reserve Lands, which have 
been the subject of much interest in the 
bill as proposed in Congress in 
the fight against California operators, 
provides for commandeering in a whole- 
sale manner all oil properties within the 
reserves, together with all wells and equip- 
ments thereon The effect of this proposal 
i the stimulation of development work 
d stricts outside of the reserve, notably 
in the MeKittrick and Lost Hills-Bel ridge 
regions It is even intimated in reports 
from the holds that advance information of 
the Navy Department's intention of urging 
such legislation may possibly have had 
something to do with the recent launching 
of an extensive drilling campaign in and 
around MeKittrick by the Standard Oil 
Co- The MeKittrick and Lost Hills-Belridge 
districts are not within, the naval reserve, 
which may explain the greatly increased 
activity in these fields within the last few 
The Standard has been leading in 
activity, while the company's opera- 
tions on lands owned or leased within the 
limits of the reserve have been slowing 
down somewhat. Another factor in this 
Increase of development work is that one 
of the bills now pending in Congress pro- 
vides for the opening under a leasing plan 
of land outside of the naval reserve and 
the abandonment of the Government's 
policy of litigation under the withdrawal 
orders. This is expected to encourage the 
development of the districts of northern 
Kern County. Maricopa and that part of 
the Midway field outside of the reserve. 

Agitation against Mother Lode Mines in 

Amador County again begun by the farm- 
ers on Dry Creek Suits have been brought 
by the Sacramento Farmers Association 
against all the large properties except the 
Old Eureka. South Keystone and Plymouth. 
Two of these mines are not producing to 
an extent to make them liable to the de- 
mands of the farmers and the Plymouth 
is so situated geographically as to avoid 
the squabble. There is an agreement of 
many years' standing between the farmers 
and the miners that no further suits would 
be brought and that all claims would be 
arbitrated either on sufficiency of dams or 
for damages. There has been no well- 
founded claim of insufficiency of dams, 
which have been approved by the Cali- 
fornia Debris Commission, and the water 
passing over these dams is clear and an 
actual asset to the farmers. But the farm- 
ers, with their usual negligence, have al- 
lowed the stream to become choked with 
vegetation which no doubt causes overflows. 
About the only way to satisfy the farmers 
on Dry Creek is for the mine owners to 
furnish the water, keep the stream clear 
of growth and rubbish and furnish the 
money to operate the farms and make 

i izable « 'In isimas pn 

n « ould not <>■ at ■ trpi 
thi nit are pressed, to 

oi tl I down until thi 

01 m .. t o t h e i i ■ ■ t i ■ cost o I 
. . 
and tii-' addition oi fui thei costi in thi 

■ ■ i the pa 

of damage II thi suit should hi 

fui, would make gold mining on 

Lode a losing business The fai 

gaged In the suits are aware thai 

the operation of the nun.-: there would be 

insufficient water tor irrigation How ever. 

the farmers might sue out an injunction 

to restrain the mines from closing down 
and possible persuade tl ' : to re- 
quire the mines to be kept In opt 
for the ben eft 1 of the farmers, even II thej 

produced e igh gold only to tneel the 

cost oi keeping t he pi opei I lea ain «■ if 
thi n la an\ Hunt: the « Jalifornia farn 
mining districts have not demanded or 
would not demand it is evidently something 

h.i have not seen or thought of 

Itl TTE — Dec. .*'» 
Compensation Law provides that ;■ work- 
ing surplus in the industrial accJdenl 

shall i"- created by the board So far it 
was not found necessary to resort to this 
action hut steps ai e now being taken to 
put the provision Into effect According 
to an opinion recent 13 prepared by Assist- 
ant Attorney General R L Mitchell of 
Montana, the act authorizes the board t<> 
Collect assessments or premiums from the 
employers of each class until there shall he 
accumulated in the industrial accident fund 
a sufficient balance to meet the require- 
ments of such fund No announcement has 
as yet been made regarding the methods 
adopted by the board foi collecting the 
assessments and premiums 

DENVER — Dec. .>k 
Ore Shipments from Silverton declined 

during November as a result of the usual 
winter conditions and were as follows: 
from Silver Lake Custom mill, 23 ears: 
Iowa-Tiger. 21; Sunnyside. 13; Pride of 
the West. 11 ; Highland Mary and Koehler 
Tunnel, eight each; Mayflower Leasing Co., 
six; S. D. & G. Leasing Co., five; Celeste 
Fattor and Red Ml Mines, four each . 
Mears-Wilfley mill, Colorado Metals Co., 
;md 'odd King, three each; Dives, Hero, K. 
P & G . and Fattor & Satore. two each : 
1 His ton Leasing Co., Honey Comb Lease, 
Lackawanna, and Ohio & Oklahoma Leasing 
Co.. one car each; total, 124 cars. The 
following shipments were made to the North 
Star Custom mill: S. D. & G. Leasing 
Co., 48 cars; Ross Mining Co., one: Guston, 
four: total, 53. The following shipments 
were made to the Contention mill : From 
Guston Leasing Co.. 15 cars. The follow- 
ing shipments were made to the Silver Lake 
mill: Guston, four cars; Kansas City, 
one ; total. 5 cars Grand total of all ship- 
ments including miscellaneous small ship- 
ments not enumerated above. 209 cars. 

Amendment To Kxce**- Profit* Tax l-inv 

was discussed at the meeting of the Utah 
chapter of the American Mining Congress 
held on Dec. 18. providing that capital in- 
vested should be based on physical condition 
of properties Jan. 1. The meeting was 
called to act on information received from 
Utah mining delegates at Washington, that 
the excess-profits tax law was likely to 
be amended, and 'that an expression from 
metal interests on the invested-capital phase 
was desired It was the sense of the mem- 
bers that such a readjustment would work 
a hardship on the mining interests inas- 
much as the amount of ore in the properties 
was problematical 


Control of S access .M inine Co. was de- 
cided and the long fight came to an end 
on the evening of Dec. 18. when, at the 
annual meeting of stockholders, Franklin 
Pfirman was elected president of the com- 
pany and a board of directors of his selec- 
tion. The fight was precipitated over a 
and a half ago, when Pfirman, as a 
stockholder, made a demand to inspect the 
books, ore contracts, maps, etc., which was 
refused by P. J. Gearon, president and 

. omuu n\ Pfirman applh d 
I >|i ti 1. 1 o 01 di 1 dli 

1 . ■ i t which 
to th. Bu- 
• i pi riding, 

meet i ng oi 
In \ pi ii i.i 1 Pfirman applied 
1 hold- 
ing; 1 1" ground 

ild bi ■ 
iro- anot hei it If 1 he Supreme 

1 order of tl I 
l>cction "i the books, it 
n ould i"- -how o i hat the Intei ■ ■■■■' oi 1 h< 
oldei required 

in. n training order was 1 m d 
and 1 he meeting ol 

11. d until 1 '«•'■ 1 . The Supreme < 'ourt 
a lit t ii on, 1 ne 

embodied in a d< 
tailed report pn pa 1 ■ d bj 1 'firman b rid 
mailed to all st' with a requi I 

id him 1 heir proxies. W\ 
quest, a ma iorltj holders, w ho 

are scattered all ovei thi United States, 
and number about 8000, complied There- 
upon Pfirman applied to the court to dis- 
miss the injunction again: 1 holding the 
annual meeting, for the reason that thi 
de it necea a rj no longei 
existed Upon tins showing, the court dis- 

I the Injunction 
held with the result stated above. The 
new officers have marl.- sweeping 1 
lions in salaries, installed a new superin- 
tendent and promise to make furthei re- 
ductions in operating expenses. 

< Ai.i \n r. mm 11. — Dec. r. 

BonuHet* at Calumet X Heela, together 

with premium payments to the 14,001 
of thi company, Including 1 1 
subsidiary mining, milling and sn 

ties, will continue in force until .Inly. 
1918, according to a notice posted at the 
various properties. The men had been un- 
certain as to whether or not the bonus and 

:i paj ments would be cont h 
They felt that the companies would make 
■ reduction in wages at this time, but, 
because of the uncertainty as to the Gov- 
ernment's attitude on the price oi coppe-i 
after the first of the year, there was some 
question. Now that 1 he a n nouneement has 
been mad.-, however, the labor situation 
as fa i as these companies are concerned 
is favorable. All of the old men are stay- 
ing and few of the men imported from other 
districts are showing any inclination to 
leave. The Calumet & Electa and its sub- 
sidiaries have been paying the highest 
wages offered mine and mill workers in the 
district during the last half dozen years 
and were the first companies to ini 
wages at the beginning of the war. al- 
though labor was more than plentiful at 
that time. For the last year and a half, 
a i if , premium over the regular wages 

has been paid and for the last six months. 

a bonus of 50c. i" i day for e ei 
worked has been given in addition. The 
Copper Range. Qutncy. Mohawk and Wbl- 
ved the Calumet <t Hecla 
in offering sp cial premiums to employees 
and it is anticipated that these com] 
too. will cont i nue such payments into the 
coming year. The labor situation right 
much ■ that it has been. There 

has been a slacking up in the indu 
in many parts of the country' during the 
last month or six weeks and it has not 
been difficult to get men to come to the 
copper-mining regions for work, particularly 
with the wages being: offered. Many men 
are coming in now and more are expi 
There has been a request, sent out by the 
state fuel administrator, that all of the in- 
dustries in Michigan not connected with the 
making of munitions of war, close their 
factories for the week, Dec. 22 to Dec. 29. 
to help save coal, but this does not affect 
the copper-mining industry and there has 
been no suspension whatever here or In 
the iron-mining districts of the peninsular 

IOPIJN, MO. — Dec. 29 

M'ape*. in Sheet -Ground District were cut 

25c. per day per man, according to a de- 
cision reached at a meeting of op* ■ 
Of Webb City-Carterville camp held Dec. 28. 
It was. however, stipulated that no wape 
should be below $2.50 per day. The oper- 
ators were compelled to take this action 
since they were unwilling to operate longer 


Vol. 105, No. 1 


. -lit, ,1 


11 I) 

o« ner, 

timated the 


»1>N M I I Klil . MO. l>rr. .'(. 

1 " ktom itrld i i the south- 

w 'u. ii an 

I.. i Mo 

ii - tons 
pert} produces lead, cop- 

-. lit. lining Hi' 

At present o.iK lead and 
ii in the neaj 

™. tul d iade nun, 

M '. : Con- 

tinental work Is being done 
mplex copi>er-< 
This pro|iert) will i 

lissouri that will do nil 
and has a thickness .,; ap- 
5 it. The present plans con- 
mining th< entire oreb 
I giving it a n- 
■'""* In a 84-| n . Traylor i;.» 

lucl in. in the crusher 
r suitable sizing, will b D a 

d-plcking plant, where the or.- will be 
•i from the barren waste The 
Ice will ih, -ii doubtlessh 
In treating the i pick- 

ing plant. it la Interesting to note thai 
property is the Bret one in southeast 
- ,un to install the Diesel engini Cor 
ration of power These engines are 
giving great satisfaction, producing cheap 

iindhiK the high price of 
.bull Co which 
the old 
Amerli ktown, lias 

I Ion works. 

smeltery, and refinery 

I'll.- mill stai ted In op, i iitlon about Dec i 

irj crushers 
and l> king department 

and m o the mil 


"i ■ lie overflow I 

erlj i 

treat, il d bj dotal lor rhi 


further ground In tul 

The mill mil yield 

H Inch 

to smelting, and , ompli \ copper coball 

nickel concentrates, which present the real 

ii These concentrate: >v mi be treati i 

n.! i... mini mat Ion Is 

d ail ol ii 

operated by 

. o ed down 

I'lns proper!) produci 

..".I tons 
n mine at Silver 
town ; in [ ,,, operty was 
not operating, although there was some 
talk about beginnln 

TOROK I <l — Dee. 20 

inn. .Tint oil. i t,i.. has I Incorporated 

the laws of Canada w itii headquar- 
■ Montr,-., i and a capital stock of 

to take over the busi 

- and marketing petroleui 

iperial I m Co Ltd now 

controlled bj the Standard <~>,| Co of New 

Jersey The provisional ,1m., -tors are: 

Peagle, C O Stillman, G. w. 

and <: II Smith, oil operators, and 

Hon \\ J II, 

11 "trial Prosperity to Continue is the 

opinion in Canadian I 

result of the general parliamentary .-lection 

1 Dec 17, at which the Union Gov- 

ol Sir Robi it Borden was sus- 

by ii,.- majority, which is likely to 

| rablj Increased when the rotes 

oi the soldiers overseas are counted It 

was strongly realized thai an adverse vote 

'''","''' n "-ve I n ruinous to the pi 

industrial prosperity, as discontinuance of 
from England and th.- l-nitci stairs 
i and supplies would have 
been ooked toi The general appreciation 
"' "", attitude ol i anada by the Allies is 
regarded as an assurance thai Canadian re- 
-'""•'••? will continue to be heavllj drawn 

upon for war i ,-, mire, n oils. 

Squabble >i\.-r Kirklund Lake ■>.-,> i 
tween the opposing factions goes merrllj on 
with th- result so far that the public is gel 

ood deal of interesting int'oi 
and the only ones to utTi i are th, n 

clpals. The Ben vi r and the Temiskamlffl 
both have the same board of directors an 
the Beaver has an option on a pimnisini 
' v in Kirkland Lake know n as ih. 

kirklaml Lake Gold \ s This properib 

lias been almost all paid for h\ the 
ana has bei |ied to the TOO-ft level 

1>: the Beaver company t< 

gross ore developed Th. 

Beaver, howi vei i tinning shorl of tnonS 

and has offered the Temiskaming, i . ui 
[ntere I ai 10c a share This deal I 
bitterlj opposed bj Messrs, Willi mi 

« I lai ge shareholders it 

the Cemiskamlng The inside situatiol 

I thai i gentlemen mint 

representation on the Temiskaming boarl 

'" which thej appei I ntitled hut 

■'" unable aln il tr Mr .'uiver 

the president and managing director \ 
meeting of the Temiskaming was 
'ii- deal for the half in- 
tere i in the Kirklaml Lake, but proxies 
'" °PP I k.-.l for In- Wills A 

counterstroke is delivered by Culver who 
■' circular explaining the inside his- 
tory of the Kirklaml Porphyry notation 
Wilis and ttoi tein come back with a 

1 : arj injunction to restrain Culver 

from using any of t Temiskaming sur-J 

plus to acquire mi, -rests in any properties 
and to prevent the payment of dividends 
this is to be heard on Jan. 3. The meet- 

'" '<! Dec 28, but was ailiournedl 
to Dec 31. during winch interval the 
proxies mil be counted It is stated that 1 
Wills will have a majority If the state- 
ments made regarding the value of the 
Kirklaml Lake mine are correct, the deal 

would appear i a good one for the 

Temiskaming Unfortunately, however no 
detailed information about the property is 
available and no reporl has been made by 
an Independent engineer, and. as a matter 
"i fact, there do not appear to be assay 
plans of any sort The Temiskaming is 
asked to enter into a .leal without the 
proper information being given, and this 
appears to be a mistake notwithstanding 
thai the directors of the two companies 
are practically the same Wills and Mor- 
ganstein would seem, on account of their 
-stock holding, to be entitled to representa- 
tion on the board of directors, and if thev 
were given this there would be no oppo- 
o, ?"., ". e meantime it is underatool 
that the Beaver alone is unable to finance 
tin property and it is to be closed down 
according to reports. 

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiuiiii milium iiiimiiimimi Ii 

1111111111111111111 "'n mniiniiio nun i mimii mmiui 

11 mini""!"!! iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii imiiiiiiiiiiiiimiimm 

The Mining News 


siiii'imiiiiiiimiimiimimmiiiiiimiiiiiimiiiimiiiiimmmmi iiiimimmimiiiimimimin 


\l. Alt IMA 

I— Has been organized with 
u B \\ lute, president ; .1 M Hra.ll.-v vice 

• ami j i. Kuck.-r. secretai -ti 

<>il > Cunt.v 
NEW DOMINION (Globe) Payment of 

ently made on property On 

ft level, substantial body of ii-; or.- de- 
d recently. Sinking will continue to 
ft level. 

final fount} 

BROKEN HILLS (Ray)— New oreshoot 

I beneath outcrop uncovered In 

■ road building 

i s VANADIUM (Kelvin)— New con- 

rator estimate,] to be :,»■ , complete 

> ?ariy all equipment received 

DEVELOPMENT (Kelvin)— New 

pumping equipment installed and sinking 
resumed. Lateral development on joti-ft 
level will begin 

ing to railroad by pack animals. High- 
grade silver ore being opened in lower 


RAT HERCULES 'Kelvin)— At central 

r plant first Iiiesel engine unit of 1000 

hp ready for trial run: structural steel 

work on mill and shop buildings practic- 

.mpleted Developing water supply 

on <;ila River 

SILVER I.IVII.I-: (Ray)— New company 
organized to take ovei Bowman croup of 
claims between Ray and Superior De- 
veloping. " e 

Viivnimi Count} 
MONTE DE COBRE .Mayer)—!,, devel- 
pping Barbara mine in ft of ore cut in 
tunnel driven to intercept old shaft. 


— J^irty teet of good ore reported cut on 
600-ft level; carries considerable si ing 

POCAHONTAS (Mayer)— In crosscut at 

"", l ' v ' 1 - I? " Of niilling-grade ore 

op.-m-d being chiefly silver-lead. Material 
has been ordered for, 50 ton flotation plant. 

CmCLE PEAK (May.-,-, Circle Peak 

r "',""i ,','■■ "r^il'izcd by .lohn A Peacock. 

1 Worth. T.-x.. to take over Cumber- 
Jine and mill and develop 10 claims 
near < umberlain ]nui«-riy 

GARFORD (Prescott) — Garford Syndi- 
cate owning Copper Hill group in Copper 

Basm district has taken over Robinson 
group and started development t'.msider- 
able tonnage of zinc, lead and copper ore 

A It l< A NS AS 

11........ County , 

,, K ,. AN ' J . *f,. 'Harrison)— Taken over by 
Continental Mining Co., which is also op- 
erating Bear Hill and Beulah W O 
Krueger. president of Continental, states 


machinery has been ordered for another 
mill to be erected at ono 

.Marion County 
MONKEY HILL (Yellville)— Leased by 
A. .V Stanfield, of Oklahoma City; 
equipped with 100-ton mill and ground 

CLINTON (Rush)— J. L . Le wis and assJ 
elates doing development on Clinton Zinc 
','.'■ s , . Ia ' l<] - near- mouth of Boat Creek. 
Working under lease. 

^ B „\T V (Jellvllle)— Purchased by J. H. 
Griffith and associates, of Oklahoma City 
equipped with small mill. Development 
done by shafts and drifts. 

PHILLIPS (Yellville)— Miami-Ada Min- 
ing I o. lately took over Phillips zinc mine 
near here, completed 30-ft. shaft : drifting 
at this level on a run of blende. Expect to 
start mill within a month. 


1. 1. 1, .rail,, County 
NORSE MINING CO. (San Francisco) 
—P.-rmitted to sell 18.697 shares preferred 
stock to Fritz S. Olsen. 11,283 shares to 
J. b. Anany ; to issue one share each to 
Fred Juell, F. K. Dedrick and Siguard 
Hansen ; to issue 2500 shares each to Han- 
sen and M. G. Axman in exchange for min- 
ing claims and purchase options; to sell 
10,017 shares to above named persons Con- 
sists of placer claims on middle fork of 
Cosumne River. 

Fanuary 5, L918 


[NG AND MINI S l:\.\l. 


Glenn ( h> 

|\ FLOUTS PI! I - 1 ; I < I lollll M Con- 

I |)OI led llH I "'■' 'I covered 

1 1 iiiu.l with small ii mi hi : niil 

Inyo County 

OR \\l> \ IEW in Hi \\ i ftyan)— Mile 

, .is Kill. .1 \n\ I b> lull Into 

N n lulu « I J 

i'i; VNKLIN- \l. \sk \ (Grass Val- 

llption on this group of .'lalitis sold 

. T w Bosanko i" (Ira! Vn lle> I »eep 

,n p..i at ion -'I \'e\ ada i ml in 
illlekl ami Colorado capital Claims 

lll.iti'd at. .nit seven miles south ot' this 

l i .'II mi. ... . r.'.l on I »w est 

,1 propertj w in '" I. > eloped Bos- 
iko retained as superintendent. 

i'Iiiht Counts 

iltser mine reported as having struck 
gh-grade ore Operated by a San Jose 
uipanv for some time and considerable 

Bhnsta County 
•-. ; i .in nt) — This group of copper 
tints bonded to <; C Taylor ami asso- 
iit-s by Chester Lowman for two years 
. .in rat. m1 on 1(>', royalty per ton 
sis to owner on all ores assaying up to 
ton. on- above tins percentage be- 
g on l.V, basis Adjoins Afterthought 
.iui» ami formerly worked by Mammoth 
... inn operations discontinued, 
.ts..a being unknown Stated consider- 
le ore reserves exposed. 
BULLY 1111. 1. MINE (Winthrop) — De- 
toplng ground near Delmar opened good 
jr. mi Rising Star shaft, in Anchor mm.-: 
;h-graCe ore reiwrted in new workings 
.in 1000-ft. level, having good copper con- 
its with some zinc, silver and gold also 
I iwing. Shipping to .Mammoth smeltery 
Kennctt >pr rated by Arnstehi inter- 

. s of New York, planning to erect large 
plant to avoid trouble with farm- 
Is over sulphur fumes. 

Siskiyou County 

SHASTA-BELMONT {Copper City) — 
>per-zinc ore opened in lower levels. 

;i;\Y EAGLE COPPER CO. (Happy 
imp) — Completing surface oi>erations 
[paratory to underground development 

OUghout winter Unusually long, dry 
> son favorable to extensive work. Con- 
lerable exploration being done with dia- 
r nd drills resulting in extension of ore- 
liring area. If results warrant, railroad 
vl be constructed in spring to some point 

Southern Pacific railroad. Owned by 
^son Valley Mines Co. and because of 
tliculties in operating Thompson smeltery, 
i y build flotation plant at this property : 
oer properties in district also being 
vrked tinder bonds and options. 

Stanislaus County 

i lights Ferry) — A. D. Hadsel. of Los An- 
Ijs, operating under name of this com- 
P y. leased 800 acres in old river bed of 
Bnislaus River from Rodden Brothers. 
Ill bankers, intending to install dredging 

ipment for gold recovery. Previous op- 
i lions have not showed profitable results 
& reported pros)>ecting on this site proved 
f 1 in paying quantities. 

Trinity County 

n ing been made on Maple Creek about 
Ir and a half miles from Junction City. 
■ R H. Bailey. 

In. .In in a.- County 

itfENT CO. (Columbia) — "Million Dol- 
a Tunnel" for development of old work- 
will be commenced about Jan. 1. 1918. 
fnethod to secure necessary capital de- 
•j d upon at directors' meeting, in San 
I ncisco, proves successful. Project origi- 
I d with A. L. Horner, who nearly com- 
Med work when it was discontinued be- 
ts?e of his death. Joseph Cademartori. 
H'rintendent of mine. 

Clear Creek County 
ETALS TUNNEL CO. (Idaho Springs) 
-ontract will be let to advance tunnel 


ITTY OUSLEY (Silver Plume)— High- 
irle lead ore opened. Last shipment as- 
»'. from 45 to 50% lead. 

ABITOL (Georgetown) — Lessees, Bruce 
*• o., mined and shipned to local sampling 
'I t 3D tons of high-grade ore. 

It II IPTEM lOeoi 

undei It 

i it lot loloi Bdo & Soutl \ I : 

l..nilf.|,.\ , 111, in,,: 

W \s VTCH . . iLt IRADO n 

-.i on (rated In the mill, from 

tinpllng plant. 
I'.i i: \s MOORI (Idnhi |» 

1 1 I crosscut tunnel i Chi 

ha i ilai . .i n opei 

siim.-.l .|ri\ Ing in in • o 1 

a.H -i i i t Lnt i about 2000 

ft below -in face Prank E Wire, ma 

GUntn C i.\ 

GOLD LODE (Central City)— Proi 

ti d 

RIDGE (i Von. ,i City)— i] at 

resumed Shaft will i unl inotl 

laiu ERS (Central City)—] 
fori & i !o .i mi uii-i.- isees 
i i ,i.- copper ill er ore 
GILPIN-UNION (Central City)- R 
bering shaft . I iteral developmt n1 to be 

do later A Ir « Ml be | :ha ed from 

Carr mine. 

• Ouray County 

M [CK ¥ BRE1 IN i . luraj > I .- 
ping lead-silver ore 

VERNON i it-. mi, ,;i i Work uspended 

for n inter, excepl ion i.-\ elopmenl 

Mill may ' nlarged next spring 

SILVER LINK (Ouray)- Driving drift 
by contract to cut vein several hundred 

feet above wl pet ed in old workit 

in 300 n . I t yel to be driven 

BARSTOW (Ouray)— Five loams haul- 
ing fluorspar to Ouray, tor treatment in 
Forrester mill before shipping Being 

worked by lessees 

Sun .limn County 

TRICT during November to outside smelt- 
ing plants, 1-1 ears: Xortli Star mill, is 
cars; Silver Lake mill, five; to Contention 
mill, 15 cars. 

HIGHLAND MARY (Silverton) — Leas- 
ing company operating steadily. 

TELESCOPE (Chattanooga) — Develop- 
ment will he continued all winter ; will re- 
sume shipments next spring. 

SUXNYSIDE (Eureka)— Mill building 
completed, with exception of lower tram 
terminal ; work will now be inside. New 
aerial tram nearing completion. 

HAMLET (Silverton) — Remodeling mill 
for immediate operation; delayed by non- 
arrival of machinery. Considerable de- 
velopment under way. Operated by Colo- 
rado Springs men. 

Sun Miguel County 

SMUGGLER-UNION (Telluride) — Ore 
from Smuggler. Humboldt and Black Bear 
being treated in Smuggler mill on custom 
basis. Flotation process successful. Both 
zinc and gold-silver-lead concentrates 

Summit County 

GOLDEX QUEEN (Kokomo) — Regular 
shipments made. Vein cut in lower tun- 
nel recently. 

JUNE BUG (Breekenridge) — Lease and 
option taken : work will lie done this winter. 
Good-grade silver ore opened recently in 
development work. Mine in Gibson Gulch 

IRON' MASK (Breekenridge) — Operation 
on large scale contemplated. Shipments of 
iron-silver-gold and lead-carbonate ores 

Tramway from mill to mine at Climax sta- 
tion on Colorado & Southern railroad com- 
pleted. Expects mil] to be completed in 
February. Molybdenum ore will be 

treated; capacity of plant 250 tons daily. 

Teller County 

DEER HORN (Cripple Creek) — Lessees 
on this Stratton's Cripple Creek Mining and 
Development Co. property made initial ship- 
ment to Portland mill at Colorado Springs. 
Shoot of good-grade ore opened. 

ALPHA AND OMEGA (Cripple Creek) 
— These Gold Hill properties being oper- 
ated by the Dig Gold Mining Co. ; M. B. 
Burke, president and general manager. 
Electric hoist and compressor installed. 

CRESSON (Cripple Creek) — Developing 
on fifth level to open ground between shaft 
and Funeral dike, southeast of shaft. Rais- 
ing between 15th and 14th levels, and be- 
tween 16th and 15th. at intersection ot vein 

..i.i ii. 

in \ mi 
KhoNlione * nunt) 

t,l mm- to d 

■ I. now in, 



.... in... . 
p. nil I !.|ii 

about -"'. 
per ton 
t royalty 

M - III Mill 

..Mm .ii i Mm ii below on. 

■ - - - M light 

tweei u i '■'. mi mi and Oom Pi 

continue ot I ol I It radi i 

10 n Hoist in ound sin] 

t at 200 i 

ral i ■ ■ i m jppei 

a.i 1 1. i .1, .: on 1 1 . east and i 

ami on 1 1 i.i ..I companj o 

in Lynn, Wi 

MM II II. \ \ 

t upper 
AHMEEK . \ i • i. i Maintaining pro- 
duct MMI Ml I . "" I 

OSCEOLA "I.. I— Tonnages from 
Kearsargi output was 

better than 80 cai daily, grade of ore being 
slight ly above 

S.HTII LAKE (Houghton) — Rod. 
running about 18 lb in the ton ; Butler Ii 

l- i..|i.,i ii.. mi three plains snows nug- 

gei copper in considerable amount. 

I'M' IEN l.\ i Ph.., -mix i Work susi I. d 

few weeks ago; reported to i.e only ti n 
poran shutdown; pumps being removed 
woiii.i seem t.. Indicate permanent abandon- 

WINONA (Winona)— Tributors getting 
out 120 ion: daily, mostly from King Phill i> 
No. 1. hut also from Nos :: and I Winona 
proper .Mill handling 150 tons daily from 
South Lake 

MOHAWK (Mohawk) — Increase of out 

put due in more n; handling 70 cars of 

ore dally, being an increase from 63 re- 
cently. Wolverine, the other producing 
Stanton property, running 10 cars daily 

MICHIGAN (Rockland)— Test run on 
1000-ton lot ..I stockpile showed 20 lb per 
ton. not counting mass copper: expected 

remainder of run will show just as good 
results. Underground openings in four 
places show good formation. 

ISLE ROYALE (Houghton) — Production 

increasing: three-head mill on south - I 
of Portage Lake, running at full capacit 
during week ami part lime on Sunday (ire 
handled at Point .Mills plant increased from 
12 to l'm .■ario daily. 

QUINC5 (Hancock) — Producing consid- 
erable mass copper, being sent direct in 
smeltery ; special methods being required to 
handle this material, including block and 
tackle at shaft house; eight-ton chunks 
not unusual; mass ore opened at 6500-ft. 

SUPERIOR (Houghton) — Present output 
ir 450 to 500 tons monthly and at this rate 
ore in sight is less than one and a half 

year's supplj . recei m ations in West 

vein on 31st level not good in results ; other 
exploration work will )..- done. Is one of 
Calumet & Becla's lbs liaries. 

FRANKLIN (Demmon) — Continues to 
handle 1000 tons daily; nearly entire out- 
put subject to long haul by electric or com- 
pressed-air power ; necessary to use effi- 
ciency to operate on lean ore at present 
market price : reported to be doing better 
than making expenses. Sinking to 18th 
level on No. - Best ore coming from Pe- 
wabic lode to the north, where good ore- 
shoot being opened. 


peming) — Operating diamond drills between 
Ishpeming and X'egaunee to trace drift- 
covered iron formation, now inaccurately 

STEPHEXSOX (Gwinn) — Inrush of wa- 
ter, which completely stopped all operations, 
now entering Austin mine through connected 
workings and threatens shutdown of this 
mine also. Pumping at Stevenson, sus- 
pended as hopeless, resumed to assist Aus- 
tin property. Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. op- 
erators of both properties making strenuous 
efforts to control flood. 


Vol. 105, No. 




M, - |bl K,«ll(r 


I rauk) Openpll 

pments ol 

..I Portion <>f 
Ing plant 

M K] 

J in .in. I 

PLEAS VN'T V U.l.EY (Carthage) Bulld- 
mlll , has -i producer 


iplln i Have I l-ln P< 
and r entrlfugal 

Itj Ground 

\ 1' er by G. G 

ille. and P \\ •-*•!> 

.n. I will be started when 

3 SMELTING (Baxter. K 
mill .hi N'aj lor land, n est ..f B 

plant with 
:in.l class slimes 


BUNKER Mil. I. (Baxter. Kan.)— Plan- 
mills on trad south- 

o ■ 
: i i 55 ii 1 1" ned by 
-i i 'harlea dark. Baxter 

Lewis and (lurk Count) 

KATIE mini: (Helena)- " 


Tunnel in 100 ft in gold-bearing porphyry 
MWINDER I ll> lena > < Ine carload 
: drifting <>ii lead. 
ST LOUIS '''I (Marysville) Eighty 
monthly put through cyanide plant. 
rig and shipping from 500-ft level 
STANTON MINE (Rimini) — Regular 
shipments silver-lead ore to smeltery from 
tunnel in Red Mountain 

\T''H GRAVEL GOLD (Helena)— 
Three ■• month from :i ' > t • _ rt 

ml silver 
HELENA MINI-: (Helena) — Thirty-five 
er-lead ore i<> smeltery Op< i 
atcd by 1 1 ireau. 

GOULD PLACER (Rimini)- Blind I. -ad 
Iver ore uncovered In ditch 
Buildings up anil shaft down be- 
50 ft 

PhiUipH * ...i hi i 

AUGUST MINING CO (Landusky) - 

1 foi an 
per das , ei Ing shutdown 

for indefinite time. 

-*il\ er BOW full III > 

ANACONDA tButte) — October 

for ea.-h 10,000 shifts In 11' <.f tt.- 
mines -f any kind occurred 

M.\ \ II \ 

(lark County 
COPPERSIDE (GoodspringB) Adjoins 
-I streak property opened similar vein 
of cop] 'I shipped several carloads 

Lead-zinc-silver on- recently encountered 
on north end of 200-ft. level: stoping 
Jam- ger 

SULTAN (Goodsprings) - - Lead-silver 
orebody of milling grade discovered on 
Mill which has been op 
i down ftn i 
ry Robbin il 

■ STREAK (Good prings) — Opei 
d Su— ak Copper Mining Co., I 
incorporated During last two montl 

ers shipped 10 c 

(trade eopiiei ore which .'..ins as chalco- 

eiie iii s-n fissure vein In lime 

r.. iSS (G Ispi Ing! ' \. ■« i.i.mi • 


plat 11111:11 ore from 

this pro|>erl ) Ore nveragi 1 - opper . 

old .".1 1 ■■' 11 " 

Inum n ton. 1 -■- lixi\ la- 

111.11 I- 1 LCtl ' 1" 

i ... be 90 Ship- 

ping about per month : to 

iter 11 K Riddall, manager 

\ > .- < • 1 1 1 ■ • 1 > 

1 1 >ec 22 amounted 1 164 

ions, valued .11 comparing with 

ous week Producers 
ronopnti Belmont, -'(i 16 tons . Tono- 
pah M - lopah Exti 

. 1 End, 
1.1. 196 tons ; Montana, 


1 Manhntl 1 n used toi hoi 1 Ing 

urn. 1, in shall sinking replaced bj cage 
with automatic safetj devices; flrsl round; 

fired 11. • ' ' iIihi 11 i.\ el show .-.1 ex- 

iremelj haul formation, bul expects to 

sii-ii ei ' ock in distance 

WHITE CAPS (Manhattan) Anno s 

with capacitj of 1 50 tons 

1 .1 11. 1 mill Slimes amount 

ough changes Installed are 

maximum ..r m'. slimes Partial 

cleanup of gold precipitates undei way; un- 

,1 cleanup .11 present is satisfactory 

1 nil 

-limit I < I' 

TINTIC |.|.l.\\\ \KE (Eureka) — New 
. 1 . 1 eported In two places 

TINTIC STANDAsRD (Eureka) Recent 
strike on 1300-fl level growing in extent. 
Orebod] opened 12 fi In length and 35 
1 width. 
IMPERIAL LEAD (Tintic Junction) — 
.1 11. Hi, 1 i.n hauling ore ac- 
ated during fall awaiting better ma 1 
ket Property In West Tintic 


11 lood tonnag pper ore Indicated 

ime development with working forces 
lessened by draft and enlistment 
EA( 1LE & BLUE BELL 1 Eun 

Struck a on ol B 1 grade on 1875-fl 

level, the lowest at present worked, al- 
though ground opened to depth of 201JO ft 
1 es of on- available. 
RIDGE AND ' VALLEY (Eureka) — 

Pumping equi] ni tor unwatering this 

and adjoining Gemini being installed. 
Sinking to be started shortly in Ridge & 
Valley, to open two properties at depth. 

GRAND CENTRAL 1 .Mammoth) — Not 
shipping at capacity owing to embargo, 
-.-»■ shortage, etc. However, first six 
: : cars marl 

' nth-. 379 cars, estimated at 1 5.000 

October showed 32 cars; September, 
lugrust, 43 cars, and July. 35. 

Sail I. tike County 

carrying native copper struck in tunnel in 

ii hi. about 1 1 fi from portal, 700 or 

sua n 1 1 1 1 . 1 , .1 ei 1 Ically, and about 

1 1 on dip of formation 1 irifted along 

this fissure for 75 ft to south of tunnel 
, tl to north, where copper cont inues 
throughout vein matter These workings 
1 100 ft below deepest old workings. Most 
,,1 on at present coming from Portuna 
Mill treating 100 tons dally, 

lull Heads sample i tO 

coppei re ol hip 

— 5 to ''•'. copper — being marketed 

and 1 16 teams hauled 39 loads 

of ore, aggi Lot 26 re- 

. . - 1 carried 12 oz silver 
.;.v. copper. In August, September, 
October and November, a total <•! 2518 tons 
of ore shipped, ranging from $-- to $11 a 
ton Production valued at upward ol 560, 

n'l'i s.t richei ore Mian usual found 

along footwall runs well in copper Capi- 

1 6 hares, 13.76 1 ri 

ing in trea ui Lawren© Green, presi- 

dent; M R Evans, vice pn ident and gen- 
eral - 

rink Counts 

Korki- Working Pacifli mine; at present 

of ore da II \ f. cpected itt 

increa to !00 ions when more men se- 
cured Pacific fissure producing this ore 
- ii betv, • •• a walls, and 
tied 700 ft on strike Higher grade 
streak: 00 11 n mill on Fissure opened 
to depth of 300 fi el 

< w . \> t 

O 111 11 1 1 

OPHIR (Cobalt) 1 '1 ;cov< 1 v of 13, 
\ 1-111 carl Vil -I>- sil\ er ore . 



During November shipped approximate 
.; 1 960 lb of ore 

CASTLE (Gowgandii)- Exploration wfc 
will be undertaken early Ihis year; pi 1 
equipment now en route 

McINTTRE (South I'oivupine) lupi 

shaft down 1 ' ft ; lateral work will < 

started Producing about $15i>.iK)i> a 111011, 

Lake) Expected to close Dee 3" on . 
.-mini of Inability of Heaver to fuiancr| 
without assistance. 

WR1GHT-I-1 \RGR WES ( K I r k I a| 
Lake) Installation of new machinery, <sd 

pi 1 mil- ' -hp motor antl 1 2-drill ci 

pressor, 1 pleted 

DAVIDSON (South Porcupine) — Inatl 
ing five-stamp mill, which will be runn| 
...ii\ in Ibis year. t'onsidorable tonnil 
of ore above 100-ft. level that should si. 

tinuation of main ..tebo.h encountered! 
crosscutttng at 1000-ft level, where vl 
compares favorably with previous levels. 1 

WEST DOME (South Porcupine) — 
ranged tq treat 100ft tons of ore in Dri 
Lake mill Ore expected to run $18 Ml 
being examined by M, Summerhayes. ml 
ager of I 'orcupine * Irov. n 

GIFFORD-C< IBALT (Cobalt) — T h rl 
new calcite veins, one to '■'• in. wide, »l 

cobalt and galena encountered ill crospj 
ai 350-ft level; 10-in. vein previously j 
at Ibis level is being driven on and shn 
low silver content 

ANKERITE (South Porcupine) — T?oul 
Montgomery property adjoining U 
working shaft down mo ft.: will he c| 
tinned to a"" ft Longyears have conttl 
for shaft sinking 

DOME MINES (South Porcupine) — Iter 
rise in stock has started rumors that I. 
will be started In spring ; unlikely, as nea 
all of staff have been let R.i this month ; 
operations being confined to undergroi 
development. .Main shaft to he sunk 
1600 ft 


(Guayaquil) — Bullion robbery late in li 
reported In Peruvian papers! was much 1 

erated Fortunately some company 
ficials happened to be at the coast and i 
mediately undertook apprehension of 1 
b.-rs Bullion recovered in three days, j 


TANGA (Elisabethville) I'roduced dull 
first 1(1 month: 1911 'I ."in tons of copi 
comparing with 22,150 ions during yearj 
1916. Five furnaces have been erec| 
and N'o ('. is tine to start in operatl 
shortly and installation of N'o. 7 is nefl 
completed ; entire capacity of seven 1! 
naees when ruiuii ig at full capacity will 
about 10,000 tons iter annum. 

Ill SSI A 

lirrvsil (Bidder via CJsl Kamenofl 
Government of Omsk) — At annual meed 
in London it was stated Kidder mine, wil 
had been flooded, wall not be unwatered ] 
til labor antl Other conditions are improv 
mechanical equipment on ground and 1 
watering can be done in six weeks. At 
kolni. important new bodies sulphide 1 
proved, carrying fair contents in lead 1] 
zinc and low content of silver anil gl 
which new orebodies have increased ore t 
serves by 360,000 in, is. exclusive of exM 
si. ,n in depth; also opened belt of oxidil 
gold ore. U'ni II wide. averaKine nearly 
dwt. sold Sokolni ore proved as profltf 
as Ridder and sufficient in s 1 ^ 1 1 1 i" co 
mill and smell. -i \ requirements for longtl 
to come Geological survey made by c;J 
pany'S geologist- shows five mineral' 
belts containing outcrops similar to Kiel 
but greater in extent, the sixth belt < 
tains gold-bearing gossans which pro! 
in other Instances '<> be capping of col 1 
deposits Ridder railway to I'st Kami 
gorsk, 70 miles in length, now in operati 
Eklbastous railway extended to total ler 
of till miles Two furnaces in operatiorl 
zinc plant and additional furnaces bil 
constructed Output <>f spelter for first 
months of 1H17 was 333 tons, compail 
with 210 tons during entire year of 1 

Lead smeltery has \ n placed in opu 


January r>, 1918 


§»"" iimiiiiiiiiiuiiiiimiiiimiiimiiiiiiimiuimimmuiuiiiii mil iimiinwiim i i Riimniiummumiutwiiiiiii iiiiiiu Him i ,i Hun mm , mm , „ Illllimm 

The Market Report 

■■ I iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiini i iiiiiiiii i ii i i hiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimim inililllll m i m miiiiiii m -,,,,,, r , IMI , JII)1I)M 

sll \ i i; \\n STI i;i l\>. i V HANGE 



Sllv < r 



-i. ,1 

1 V 



■i ork, 


1 ...I . 


1 V ! 



4 7515 
4 75 1 S 
4 7515 






4 7515 
A 75 i 5 



Sew York quotations :\i>- :\~- reported by lltimty 
tin iino lire in renl - per i roy ounce ol bin 
•99 fine, London quotations air in p< in 
.1 of sterling silver, 925 fine. 


l\ NEW MHik 



1 d 






N -i 

S. 1. 

SI 1 



7 60 




e ,n 

Ol 7 65 


6 15 

7 60 





(" 6 40 

(» 7 65 


6 55 

7 60 





i.i i, 40 

(,i 7 65 

6 35 

7 60 




(9 61 

0i b 40 

(,' 7 65 



6 35 

7 60 




(o 6J 


(»> 7 65 

t Nominal. 

•Price fixed by agreement between American 
ipper producers and the l S Government, accord 
g to official statement for publication on Friday. 
Oteinber 21. 1917. 

ibove quotations (except as to copper, the 
which has been fixed by agreement between 

inn an copper producers and the l'. S Govero- 
ent, wherein there is no free market) arc our 
rpraisal of the average of the major markets based 
oerally on sales as made and reported by producers 
id agencies, and represent to the best of our judg- 

ni the prevailing value-- of the metals for the 
liveries constituting tin- major markets, reduced to 
-i> of New York, cash, except win-re St. Louis is 
>• normal basing point. 
The quotations for electrolytic copper are for takes. 

d wirebars 
We quote electrolytic cathodes at 0.05 to 0. 10c. 
ln\ the price of wirebars, cakes and ingots. 
Quotations for spelter are for ordinary Prime 
est em brands. We quote New York priee at 17.5c. 
r 100 lb above St Louis. 

Some current freight rates on metals per 100 lb. 
St. Louis- New York 1 7c.; St Louis-Chicago, 
*c.; St. Louis-Pittsburgh, 13. 1 rents 









3 Mos. 



3 Mos. 



























The above table gives the elosinjr quotations on 
ndon Metal Exchange. All prices are in pounds 
rling_ per ton of 2.240 lb. For convenience in 
nparison of London prices, in pounds sterling per 
40 lb. with American prices in cents per pound 
• following approximate ratios are given, reckoning 
<hangeat$4.75!5. £305 = 6.4696c ; £54= 11.4545c: 
20 = 25. 4544c: £137 = 29.0605,- ; £240 = 50 9089c 
nations, £1 =0.21 21 205c. 

Metal Markets 

XEW YORK — .Jan. ■>. 1918 

The chief feature of interest in the metal 
i.rkets this week was the slump in the 
I ce for tin. The volume of business in 
l:h lead and zinc was small 

"opper — Both the American and the 
feign governments called for a good deal 
i copper, as also did domestic manufac- 
ters. especially wire drawers, who are 

working less directly fi 

menl purposes There «ns ;. little buying 
foi I'Vin uai j .imi March delli 

in. t feature of Inti weeli 

«:is the growing appreciation of ho« trans- 

poi '.ii liiii.iiii lee .mil coal i hoi i.i . 

diminish i he produi n i i hi 

Importanl plants have alreadj losl time 
owing I., i.i, Ic of i ' it is antli 

lej null su Hie in hi-, i, 

<>t raw material 

Copper Mie.-is .,, . .,,,,,1, ,i ■, i 
b., F.o.b mill, t'ni hoi rolled, and Ic higher 
tor mill rolli .1 • opper wire is quol 
26 .i _' re, f.o b mill, .in load lo 

Tin — On Dec. 27 :i 5-ton lol was sold .it 
84c In following days the- market declined 
sharply, although quotations continued t.. 

be nominal, reflect Ing the sense ol 1 1 ar- 

kel rather than actual transactions The 
decline «ns In sympathy with the > 
fall in prices in i .Minion At the end 
i te< ember the stock of tin In this country 
was only 197 tons, which is believed to bi 
the lowest on record on Nov :<u the 
stock was 1592 tons 

I. end- This market continued dull, bill 

in the latter part of the week there were 
distinct evidences of more inquiry. The 
market is becoming difficult to quote, for 
the freight congestion Is preventing the free 
movement ,,r lead, and high prices are paid 
locally for lead on i he spot or what 
be supplied from near-by refineries. Such 
penes relict the urgency of the needs of 
a few buyers, who have run out of stock, 
and the advantageous position of a few 
sellers, lather than the broad market, the 
local transactions at a premium being small 
in the aggregate However, there is a dis- 
tinctly firmer tone in the lead market, and 
the probability that the appearance of only 
moderate buying orders will advance the 
price Several of important producers 
in a sold-out position insofar as January 
production is concerned. 

Ziin — This market was very dull and 
stationary as to price. The sale of some 
round lots for export was the most inter- 
esting feature. 

Zinc Sheets — Price of zinc sheets has not 
been changed. Market is still at $19 per 
100 lb. f.o.b. Peru, less 8',« discount. 

Other Metals 

Aluminum — This market continues com- 
paratively inactive at STfiiSSc. per lb. for 
No. 1 ingots at .New York, though some 
advances are being asked for spot delivery 
owing to railroad congestion. 

Antimony — Dull and weaker We quote 
spot at 14 Ic and futures at 131c c.i.f. 
in bond. 

Kismnth — Unchanged at $3.5n per pound. 

Cadmium — This metal is quoted at $1.50 
hi 2.00 per lb., depending on the quantity. 

Nickel — Steady at 50c. per lb., premium 
of 5c. per lb. for electolytic. 

Quicksilver — Quicksilver to arrive is 
quoted at $115. but owing to the scarcity 
of stocks, spot is realizing fancy prices. 
as much as $125@135 being reported paid 
for small lots until the railroad deliveries 
relieve the scarcity in spot. San Fran- 
cisco reports, by telegraph, $112.50, steady. 

Gold. Silver and Platinum 

silier — During the holiday week silver 
remained steady to firm, with limited trans- 
actions. The United States Government 
was at times in the market, but so far as 
can be ascertained, no mutual understand- 
ing has yet been reached with the British 
authorities in regard to taking over the 
silver-bullion product of this country and 
redistributing same according to the re- 
quirements of the two nations. 

Mexican dollars at New York: Dec. 27, 
685c; 28, 68Jc. ; 20. 69c: 31. 691c; Jan 1 
. . . ; Jan. 2, 70c 

Platinum — Unchanged at $105 per oz. 

Palladium — Strong at $135. with a ready 
market for all that can be offered. 

Zinc and Lead Ore Markets 

". UO lo. , toll. 

Zn, premium 170 . 

Hum to low. diamine, pi 

10% Z 

I U pel Ion 

Pb, $75 ; 
.hi gradi 

Shi pi i 

lead, 10 

Shlpn Blende, I 1 1,863, i ala 

mine. tons. Va! 

ores I . 

Shipi b i . • ' quant Itief ,,t high- 

gradi i dvanced t he 

price of I ■ i . iii the face of a i 

ing market Calamine shipment, on the 
contra ow gi adi 

' .lit direction Of 

I roads will make the local situation 

and generally In. pes lor a I 

incut oi the cat shortage are held. 

Low i ore at Joplin during 

the week ended i iec i . i oi 7. s 

50 : in the Jo 
,. p 1021. the prici 
medium- to low-grade ore was errom 
reported as $65<& 62.50. It should have 
been $65lg .",-' 50. 

Platteville, u is.. Dec. ;» — Blende, basis 

60' . Zn, (60 h. niium or.- down 

to $52 I,., , !<,, second grade. Lead ,"•■ 
basis sir , Pb $76 pi . ton Shipments re- 
ported for the we.k are 3690 tons of zinc 

ore. 1 .", tons of lead ore. and 166 

sulphur me Th.- year's figures compared 
with those of 1916 are as follows: 


i n. 









. ire 





1 18.766 




.21 9.1 IN 







3 911 

Shipped during the week to separating 
plants. 299 1 tons of zinc ore. 

Premium grade blende at Platteville, 
Wis., for the week ended Dec. 15, should 
have been quoted in the "Journal" ,,r 
Dec 22 as ••unchanged at $02 base." and 
not $75 base as reported. The market r< 
port for the week ended Dec 15 should 
have rea, I "Blende, basis t;ii'; Zn, un- 
changed at $62 base for premium grade 
down to $57 has.- for second grade." 

Other Ores 

ManfaneHe Ore — Metallurgical ore is un- 
'l al $1.20 per unit, for 48% grade, 
delivered to buyers. 

molybdenum Ore -Business was done at 
$2.25@2.30 per lb of molybdenum sulphide. 

basis •-•"■, 

Pyrites — Spanish lump is quoted at 15*c. 
per unit, on basis of 10s. ocean freight, 
buyer to pay excess freight and war risk. 
except that concession of Z% of war risk 
is allowed. Ocean rates remain at 35s. for 
Northern. 4Hp. for Southern and 4^s. Od for 
Gulf ports, but recent charters have ex- 
ceeded these rates in several instances. 

Tungsten Ore — This market is quiet, with 
scheelite at $26 and high-grade wolfram- 
ite at J24@24.50 per unit. Lower grades 
are not moving rapidly 



Trade Review 

NEW YORK — .Ian. 8, 1918 

Manufacturing consumers end the year 
as a rule with fair stocks of material 
In many general lines activity has tapered 
off says "Iron Age." and with Government 
price control there has not been the in- 
centive to seek maximum protection through 
contracts. Now that Washington stipulates 
that price revision on deliveries after Mar. 
31 will be in order, the average buyer may- 
show more interest. 

The prospect of orders for 100.000 cars 
that comes with Government control of 
railroads is not unwelcome to equipment 


Vol. 105, No. 1 


ri i rstn lii.n it. . 

: lu I' 



l hi' Air ill aiwi 



l i>. tniii' 

t the mat- 

\ ton nuthorl- 

l- i the prioi' in.iM i more 


have pirs- 
iiiUt'l> , and ;»•- 
would Im 

i s atv 

Thus |iultlii*it\ ha* 

m Bast em plate mill 

i»i.ii.s at 

when lis present orders an 

■ com- 

- he fact that the 

ur until th 

g the Important mar- 
I half a dozen plat« 
• ictlve 
ms at the set price "f 3 26c 

■ \ emenl i*i t raffle con- 
ns of blast furnaces 
nnellsville coke continue at 
for the merchant furnaces and 

the steel-works fui 
J important st.-.-l mills an 

capacity by reason of In- 

tl deliveries Both coke oper- 

i a! producers insist they could 

much larger shipments, and would do 

i t hey were furnished 

Improvement through ' ^o^ ern- 

ment control <>f th*- railroads is exp 

■. gradually. Tl.»- usual comment i i 

trail-* circles is that the chief function 

■ ;..\ ernment operation now being 

.■ill be to annul t he Is « > t hat 

have | full utilization t *( the ph) - 

leal facilities of the railroads, all the way. 

from the anti-pooling laws to the full crew 

■ir laws 

Ordinary commercial buying of steel has 

ally nil dtr several weeks and 

rly itnprov._tn.-nt is expected While 

shipments to ordinary consumers have i n 

ted hj priorities given to G ivernment 

■ he curtailment i-i produc- 
consumers are as a rule making 

and if larger ship- 
were offered there might be some 
ts for curtailment. Th.- mills are 
nursing thr- contracts they have at prices 

me of thest co 
would be d nforcement, delays In 

■ ry having already occurred 
pie Iron- — The market has continued ab- 

■ t, th.* furnaces having 
for delivery In the next 

few m< ml ount of their rei 

orks would buy 

offered, but th< 

•I as they were three or four 

ago We quote the market al the 

set pri< basic and No, 

■1 foundry. $33; malleable, (33.50; forge, 

t. furnace, freight from the valleys 

ii L'h being 95c 

M". K 01 t'l \ I lll\N 


i erromanganeiie — The market continues 
. with $245 the com 
mon quotation for prompt or contract 


ConnellMvllle Car supplies are onl> a 
better this week and blast-furnace 
operations are restricted subs' 
much as formerly There is much com- 
plaint of the poor quality of coke being 
trs attributing this to the 
at they must keep their oven 

igned still fewer 
co • being held too 
■i-i being overturned Contracts ex- 
■ . believed to ex 
lightly in tonnage the new cor 
coming Into operation These contract! 
made before the price was set, Sept 
fl an ■ Unrated to average ^ shade 
over $8. The market remains quotable at 
Furnace, $6 ; 72-hour se- 
foundry, $7 ; crushed, over 1 in . 
per net ton at ovens. 

N'.Y KXt'll i 

M \ 

r . pf 

l'f v 

pi n 

v [>1 



MrUil.-h.-ii) Slwl 
H.-.U. ti. ■.» si, v | pf 



< op 

a Iron 
* Tu<it>l< -!.■- i 
Donu N'tnra 

I - 

a h P r 
■•■ .if 
» iull 

Llil.TiLUlMii:.] M.'k.l 
i ...• . .,ni 

id, pf 

lu Mill 



Repuullel AS 
Republli i .v s . pf 

-'..■111. "Ill 

A I 

I' S Sir |. L<oQ] 

i- s sieel, pi 
Utah c 'opper 

\ ,i iroi ■ a ■ 

N t < I Kin I 

MIl- 1 odce 
Built * N. ^ 

1-lltt. i A / 

Butte Detroit 

i 'aledonlu 

' ":illltin I 

i "an - 'op ' oi pn 

i uhbo) 

mi Sin 
I .in Niv -Utah 

i mma ■ "on 

I tr>*l Vit < 'op 

i i - on 
G ol-in old Merger 

HiN-la Miii 
I [owe sound 
Jerome \ crde 


i u ilana. 

■ l i 

Mlirord . 

. . 
Mother Lode 
N , > a Rond 
XlplsRtag Mines, 
Mm. ii Mi 
Ray Mir. ul. -h 
Ml. tin 1 

estei Mlnei 
si Joseph Lead 

i 3 I.. 



Tonopah \'\ 

i rlbuinon 


i nlted i op 

i niicd \ erd- i ct 

United zinc 

Utlea M Ii 

S ukon ( .old 

SAN 111 w * 

\ in I' - 

i 'aledonla 
f 'hallenKC I on 

Con \ Iralnla 

Hale a > 
Jaeket-Cr PI 
i accidental 


■ on 

■ tan i 'on 
Jim Butler 

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D'l eld i 'al 
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New MM i 

North Butte 

i ko 

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Santa !■>■ 

s^ei ;i ... 



So Lake 
So i tan 
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Utah i "ii 
Utah Metal 

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A A 



Alaska Mines < :orp 
Bingham Mine 
Boston Elj 

Boston A Minn 

Bui tf a Lon'n i lev 
i lalaveras 

i :ihiinrt-l nrhill.. . . 

Chief Con 

I lortez 

i yowii Reserve 
Crystal < "op 
^agle-fi Mi te Bel) 
Gila i hooper 
HoufEhton t opp.r 

Iron Cap. < otn 
Iron Cap Cop . pf 
Mexican Metals 
Mines of America 
Mojave Tungsten 
al Zinc a i ead 

Wvarta-t >OUglaS 

New Baltic 

New Cornelia 

< meco 

Facinc Mines 
Rex i oils 





. 10 


t 01 





: To 






t 3. r . 

SALT I MM • in. 2g 




Big Four 



t lardlfl 



• olorado Mining . 





i lals -Judge. 



] mplre ' 'opper. 



1 Sold 1 li.'iln 


i .mini ( vmral ... 


Iron Bio 


Lower Mammol h 





Prince ( :on 


Rlco Wellli 


Silver-King < loal'n 

■ i 

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Silver Klnu- f on 

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-i, Hecla 


Tlntlc Standard. 


i nele 3am 


■•\ .p.. ,t 






< 'on 


' bambera Ferlaurt. 



3 15 

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w ,ii laufer-Lor.. . . 




Dome Kxtin 


Dome Lake. 


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I'orfii < rown 






mo. k OUOTAl ion^ i ontlnued 

'.'Ii' SPUING 



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Masks Trc'dwell 

: i i us i 

i .octoi Jnok i'"i 


Burma < 'or|i 

i i> i 

1 Ik!., II ( oil 

1 ,ni a M,,t,,r 

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I iilnp Mini 

II 7 , 

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i i i iro 

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i spei ansa 

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Moxli an Mines 

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Mi" corn Can 

111 1. 

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Neclil, "i.i 

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1 0,0 III,' 

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Sants ' lei i.Uh 

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\ Indicator 



1 1 1 

•HI.I price*, t Closing prices, t Lust (ju.uuuiuis. 



\.-\\ Vol I. 





191 . 

loin | 1917 


1 .i, 

Is s .,,, 

77, 630 

12 ■ 

2ti oi'.o :tti (',> 

is 177 

... . , , 

77 585 

22 77,:t 

20 077, ;i7 74 


," '11 

73 siil 

23 7i is 

27 7,07 10 -11 


„, ■ .ii 

"1 117, 

7 1 S7 , 

."■' i 7 "l 96 

1 ■ 

7 1 '"'I 7 1 717, 

17(1 15 177 17 04 


III 034 

24 "6 1171 

7''i 207 :ll (Kill It hi; 


17 610 

".' 1)40 70 OKI 

22 507 :to tmii in 1 1 

Vug . 

17 163 

,... 08 1 s., IU7 

22 7sil 11 |os t t || 

Scpl . 

Is 680 

lis J,', MM 7 III 23 7,01 32 7,s 1 7,11 "■» 


111 IS . 

"7 s',7, s.- 332 23 .'■■.', :ij ;i,,i lt ;t .. 


1 1 

71 "ill R6 sol 25 004 34 1" l ; ■ 


.1 071 

75 70S 85 960 26 .17:; 36 110 13 117, 

■i ear 

10 "si 

il si ii: 23 ,,7 , |i sis hi s - 

Now \ i. ii, quotations cents per ounce troy, "no sllvi 
' Ion, pence per ounce, sterling silver, 0.925 One. 

N,o. ^ ", k I. I,,n 

, r Klcctrolytle Standurd Klectro 

1916 1017 1916 1017 101" 


i , ,, 





i let 

.'I (HIS 28 "7 1 ss list l:il 1121 

26 I In tl 77,0 102 667 l:t7 so", 

26 :i" 31 Isi ni7 71 l 136 77,0 

27 R95 27 935 124 319 133 
>s 13 

25 1,27 

26 "111 29 962 112 l:(2 



380 I III 283 122 

07:1, 1 13 905 1 17 

122 77,11 I 111 

I I" lt',7 I 
133 1"7 1 
136 lino I 

sl2 137 :tso I 

nun 15 

nun 13 

loo 12 

:iii) i 

:i siiTi 

26 120 

26 855 

27 193 

30 625 23 .".mi 134 659 no I I 

:ll son 23.500 I 17, 316 1 10 ooo !"_• 842 I 

500 1H4 I 
inn 142 523 1 


12 so 

Is llll 

7,1 001 

47 l.V 

42 (llll 

12 001 

40 40! 

" "III 




27, 001 

i 001 

"M'ur 27 202:27. 180 I Hi 07,0 121, soj I :t,s 2S1 Lis. 40.1 

\>w York 




1910 1017 




11 177, 


',4S 1S5 811 




51 120 


107 198 07 




54 :tss 

1 03 

mo 207.44: 

April . . 



55 910 


7.1" 220 17 



12 , 

63 17:1 


511 247, 11. 




62 053 


It," 'M2 OS 




62 7,70 


1571242 18'-' 




62 "si 

1 60 

S70 243 971 




61 542 


147, 244 031 

, ictober 



t',1 851 


1117 247 4tr. 

\.,\ ember 




1321274. MS 

i lecember 



s7 120 


1681298 551 

A. year 



"i 802 


196 237 7,t", 



1 ork 



" 1 

1 ollllotl 





116 19*1 

,l.,i i '. 

5 921 



5 826 

7 530 


167 30 7,oi 


f, 246 



" 164 

S 7,07, 



7 136 




120 34 


7 630 


7 i\:,'i 9 158134 

:o',s :tti 50t 


7 l":t 


-'i i , 


32 111 202 32 

0"7 30 501 


!"> 936 

1 1 

17 1 


■to 1 1 128 :il 

llll :to.50( 


6 :t.',2 


. Ill 


85 10.644 28 

1 17 30 . 500 

6 244 



t. oss III 518 211 

734 30 50( 

September . 

6 SHI 


"SI 1 

" 699 s i,i i so 


7 nun 



., sos " 650 :in 

. ,,\ ember . 

7 042 


2 10 

l> r 

46 " IS7 .'ill 

.'.on 30.51 






7 405 6 741 27 30 

7,mi in 501 

6 858 







Ian . .. 
I ri. 










\i.v York 
1916 I 1017 

16 915 
Is 420 

I" si" 
16 695 

I I 276 

II 752 
s 027, 

8 730 
s 990 

9 S20 
1 .0' 

10 665 



.', o 149 

" in ISO ' 

7, 289 • 

6 102'. 

2. 201 I 

.', s 17:1'; 

" s 1011 




0S3 !> 651 
S47 I 1 42: 
685 HI 107, 7 510 7,7, 

13 7,4 15954 
023 54 

S42 7,4 







12 sill t 90! I-' ".'M S.730 72 1171 7.2.41 

Mew York anil St Louis quotations, cents per pound 
London, pounds strrliiu: per long Ion. 

', 7 

Pig Iron, 








101" 1017 

January. ■ 

-7 1 "II 

S35 05 

-Is 7s 

s.;o 0,-, 


1 ebruary. 

21 1" 

a, ::7 

IS 03 

30 07, 


7,1 30.95 


21 SI 

.17 :;7 

10 20 

33 10 


1 , 35 01 


21 1,7. 

17 23 

IS 07, 

38 00 lo 

17, 40 06 

21 7S 

46.94 10 11 42 si 10 

5S 43 60 


7 1 O, 

.1 12 Is 07, 7,11 1)7, 


34 50.14 


21 07, 

7,7 17, 

is 95 

7,3 SO 


!(! ,i ". 


21 05 


IS 07, 

7,0 37 


22 7,3 95 


22 ss 

1" 411 

10 58 

42 24 


53 4S.58 


24 111 

37 , 25 

'l 2" 

33 07, 


7,1 33 95 

November . 


37 27, 2S.18 

...i 07, 


55 33.95 

1 lecember. 

35 16 

137.77, :ill 07, 33 , 


70 33 95 


123.88 $43,571*20 98 839 1.2 


17, S40.83 

\ repo 

Hal by W. P. Snyder & Co. 


iiuuiuiumuiiiiiiiuiiiuiiiiimiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii | imiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i i mum Illllllin miiiimiiiiimimimmii i i iimmii iiiiiiiimiimimiiiiiiimim iimiiiiiiiimiiii 

The Mining Index 

lilllllliwiilllllimiiiimiimmmiiiiiiim n I nit mmmimiiiummi iimmimmi imimimmmimiimmimimimiuimmimiii mi mmimimmiimmimiimmmimimmmimmimiimiimmiiiiiiimiiimimij. 

This Index i^ .1 convenlenl reference i" 
a curi 'in hi. 1 .11 in . ■ .ml metal- 

:c\ published in .ill of ortant 

,ils of Hi. world. \\ <• will luriiish 

of . 1 1 1 > article ( if in print > in the 
Igtnnl language 1. 'i 1 he pi i. ■ quoti .1 

no price i- quoted the cost is un- 

Innsmuch as the papers must be 

dared from the publishers, there will P.- 

:.i\ for ih. foreign papers. Itemit- 
i sent wiih order. Coupons 
-• furnished at the following prici 

oh, -i\ foi 11, ■'•'■'■ foi 15 .mil i "..i - 1 ■ 

hen remittances are made in even dollars, 
i will return the excess over an order in 
opons if so requested. 


8476— ANALYSIS -The Determination of 
i Copper in Ores. H. D. Hunt and 
V Thurston (Colo School of Mines 
ig.. Sept.. 1917 ; 13 pp.) 40c 
s 1 77 — chile — Collahuasi La Grande 
ipper Mines. Tarapaca Province, Chile. 
ul T. Bruhl. (Eng. and Min. .lourn., 
iv. -i. 1917 : :i pp., iilus.) -inc. 
S47S— CHILE- The Carrizal Mining Dis- 
ct. (Teniente Topics, Aug., 1917; 1] pp.) 

8479 — LABi >R — Clifton-Morenci Strike 
ttled. (Eiie. and Min. .lourn.. Xov. 10. 
7; J p.) 20c 

3480 — LABOR — Some Observations on 
flaona Strikes. ("has F. Willis. (Eng. 
id Min .lourn.. Oct. 13, 1917; 23 pp.) 20c. 

■i-m — LEACHING -Ammonia Leaching 
. Copper Tailings at Kennecott. Alaska. 

■ rare M. Lawrence. (Eng. and Min. 

aril,. Xov. 3, 1917; 6 pp., illus.) 20c. 

3482 — LEACHING — Heap-Leaching of 
tpper-Sulphide Ore Courtenay r>e Kalb. 

in. and Sci. Press. Xov. 24. 1917 ; 81 pp., 
lis.) 20c. 

- LEACHING — Hydro-Metallurgv 
(Copper Sulphides. A. E. Drucker. (Min. 
. I Sci, Press. Xov. 17. 1917; :1J pp., illus.) 

i Id. Silver. Copper. Lead and Zinc in New 
:xico and Texas in 1910. Charles W. 
I nderson. (Mineral Resources of the 
, s. 1916 — Part I. Xov. 23. 1917; 29 pp.) 

1485 — POWER — Granby Power Plant at 

vox. B. C. Wakely A. Williams. (Eng. 

:1 Min. Journ., Oct. 27. PUT : 4\ pp., illus.) 

I486 — QUEENSLAND — The Arbouin 
( iper Mines at Cardross. Lionel C. Ball. 
i Jeensland Govt. Min. Journ.. Oct 15. 
1 7 : in ; pp.. illus.) 60c. 

1487— REFINING — The Furnace Rcfin- 
i of Copper. Lawrence Addicks. (Met. 
al Chem. Eng.. Xov. 15.1917: 53 pp.) 40e. 
488 — RUSSIA — Mining and Smelting 
Ciper Ore at Kalata. F W. Draper, 
(in. and Sci. Press. Sept. 1, 1917; 53 pp.. 
i o 

1 3 — Gold. Silver. Copper and Lead in 
Sith Dakota and Wyoming in 1910. Chas. 
\ Henderson, i Mineral Resources of the 
IS.. 1916— Part I. Xov. 21. 1917; 14 pp.) 


490 — EQUADOR — Reconstruction of 
f draulic-Power Canal for Ecuador Gold 
lie. Paul C. Schraps. (Eng. and Min 
I rn„ X'ov. 10. 1917: 6 pp., illus.) 20c. 

' RT (Eng. «md Min. Journ.. Nov. 3, 
17; ?, p.) 20c. 

492 — MILLING — Practice at the . Mt. 
Campion Mill. L. P. Weld. (Eng. and 
■l Journ. Xov. 24, 1917; 1 p.. illus.) 20c. 

493 — NEVADA — Solving the Ore Treat- 
I t Problem at White Caps Mine. John 

Kirchen. (Eng. and Min. Journ.. Xov. 
I 1917 : 3 pp.. illus.) 20c 


Gd. Silver, Copper. Lead and Zinc in Xew 

Mcico and Texas in 1916. Chas. W. Hen- 

i'-ion. (Mineral Resources of t lie T T . S., 

— Part I. Xov. 23. 1917: 29 pp.) 20c. 

1)1 — Gold. Silver. Copper and Lead in 
S'th Dakota and Wyoming in 1916. 
C s. W. Henderson. (Mineral Resources 
I he U. S, 1916 — Part I. Xov. 21. 1917; 
1 ip ) 20c. 

B I".; i i \i i Driving I iperatlom ol th( 
Splro Tunnel of thi Silver Kim Co 

Schick. i Eng. and Mm 
Journ . I i.e i ... 1917 ; i ' pp., iHu I 


8497 -CAST IK' IN- -Note* on thi Heal 
Treatmenl of I irej cast iron .1 E Hui I 
(Advance copy, iron an. I Steel Inst, Sept, 
1917 ; * pp . illus I 

^ 198 ELECTRIC Fl RN V.CE and Ceil 
i ral sta i ion ; Relatio Bel 
and Producer .-i Electricity for Steel Mak- 
ing Standardized Equipment Future o] 
the Electric Steel Fui nace i Ddv 
Crosby, (Iron Age. Dec 6, 1917; 13 pp.) 

84 eOUNDRT PRACTICE— Negative 

Experiments on Waste Core Sand, n w 

Gillelt and E. I. Mack (.lourn Am. Inst, 
of Metals. June, 1917 : 9 pp I 

8500 -GAS CLEANING — A Xew Bla I 
Furnace Gas-Cleaning Machine. John Rud- 
dlman. (Met and Chem. Eng., Xov. 15, 
1917; 3j pp., illus.) In, 


Sleel Works ; Continuous Automatic Fur- 
nace for Long Hound Bars in the Works 
of the United Alloy steel Corporation, Can- 
ton. (Iron Age. Dec. 6. 1917; 3 pp., illus.) 

8502— ORE STORAGE— -Yard and Bins 
for Large ore Storage (Iron Age. Xov. 
22. 191 7 ; 21 pp., illus.) 20c. 

8503 — POWER HOUSE — Modern Steel 
Plant Power House; Exhaust Steam from 
Blowing Engines Used to Operate a Mixed- 
Pressure Turbine Connected to a 250il-Kilo- 
watt Generator. (Iron Tr. Rev, Dec. 13, 
1917 : 5J pp., illus.) 20c. 

Double Pass Recuperative Furnaces ; Spe- 
cial Brick Used in the Const met ion of This 
Type of Furnace- Heats the Incoming Gas 
Continuously and Eliminates the Reversing 
Valves Required in other Heating Systems. 
(Iron Tr. Rev.. Dec 13, 1917: 1 p.. illus.) 

8505 — STEEL PIPE— Progress in Steel- 
Pipe Manufacture i Kng. and Min. Journ., 
Dec 15. 1917; 1J pp.. illus.) 20c. 

8506 — STEEL PLANT — Corrigan. Me- 
Kinney New Steel Plant. (Iron Age, Nov. 
15, 1917; 6J pp., illus.) 


8507 — CANADA — The Lead Situation in 
Canada. Alfred Stansfield. (Bull. 68. Can. 
Min. Inst.. Dec. 1!'17: 6 pp.) 20c. 

8508 — FLOTATIOX — The Effect of Ad- 
dition Agents in Flotation M H. .Thorn- 
berry and H. T. Mann. (Met, and Chem. 
Eng.. Dec. 15. 1917: 41 pp„ illus.) 40c. 

8509 — LEACHING and Purification of 
Zinc Sulphate. K. B Thomas (Min. and 
Sci. Press. Xov. 17. 1917; i p.) 20c. 

8510 — METALLURGY — Losses in Zinc 
Metallurgy. (Eng. and Min Journ.. Dec. 
1. 1917; 13 pp.) 20c 

Gold. Silver. Copper. Lead and Zinc in Xew 
Mexico and Texas in 1916. Chas. W. Hen- 
derson. (Mineral Resources of the D S. 
1916 — Part I. Xov 23, 1917 : 29 pp.) 20c. 

85 1 2 — XEW YORK — The Zine-Pyrite 
Deposits of the Edwards District. New 
York. David H. Newland. (Bull. 2, X Y. 
State Defense Council. Xov.. 1917 : 72 pp., 
illus.) 20c. 

8513 — ST. JOSEPH LEAD — Power Plant 
of the St, Joseph Lead Co. E. D. Broome. 
(Eng. and Min. Journ. Xov. 17. 1917: 4 pp., 
illus.) 2 lie 

ING — Gold. Silver. Copper and Lead in 
South Dakota and Wyoming in 1916. Chas. 
W. Henderson. (Mineral Resources of the 
U. S., 1916 — Part I. Xov. 21. 1917; 14 pp.) 


8515 — AXTIMOXY — Bibliography of An- 
timony from 1909 to 1917. Chung Yu 
Wang. (1917 : 27 pp.) 

8516 — AXTIMOXY Industry in China. 
(Eng. and Min. Journ.. Oct 27. 1917; J p.) 

8517 — AXTIMOXY — Production of Elec- 
trolytic Antimony from Impure Ores. Wm. 

A Burr (Eng and Min Journ.. Nov 8, 

PH7 , ' pp 


1916 i. .11,. \i Mill (Mineral Resource 

ol lli. 1 S , 1916 Pari I. Nov 2. P'17 
12 pp I 

i ii Ri >M iiwi ii . i. .hi i. .... and 

Mining. ( Eng and Mill .lourn . Dei 
11H7 : 1 pp l 

' \i VNGA \i:si: and Chromium i 
Boalich (Calif Stati Min Bun au 

Sepl 1917 ; 32 pp.) I mi. icuri - in i 

. Prices, i ,!..[„ rati . 


8622— MANGANESE I leposlts in Costa 

Mi.i, Murray Conge. (Eng. and 

Min lorn ii Ocl 27, 1917 ; 21 pp , lllu I 


mam; \ N'ESE Fluxing Ore al 
I :he, x . \ (Eng and Min Journ.. Ocl 

27. 1917; ; iii 

8524 MANGANESE in Central Kansas. 
(Eng and Mm .lourn. Xov. 17. 1 9 I 7 

|, ) 


Dl n ii i in Virginia, I Kng. and Mil 

- lourn I tec B, P>1 7 ; ',' p ) J". 

MANGANESE — Utilization of 
Low-Grade Manganese Deposits a Metal- 
lurgical Problem. (Eng. and Min .lourn. 
Dee 15. P>17 : ::; pp i Excerpts from 
or< Engineers' Soc of W 
Pa by .1. !•:. Johnson, -Jr. 20c. 

8527 — MANGANESE — Utilization ol 
Manganese Ores in Sweden, Joh. II. i 
i M.-t and Chem Eng.. Dec. 15, 1!U7 ; 31 
pp.) in, 

8528— MOLYBDENUM at Star Lake 
Manitoba (Eng. and Min. Journ., Nov. 17. 

1917 ; | p ) 20c 

8529— STRONTIUM in 1916. James M 
Hill. (Mineral Resources of the U. S 1916 
— Part II. Sepl 6, 1917; II pp. I 

-TIN- New Methods for the Es- 
timation of Tin in Low-Glade (Ires, Tail- 
ing and Slime. Alfred Adair. (So. Afr 
Mill, .lourn.. Aug, 2Ti. L'17: 1 p.) 

8531 TITANIUM— The Metallurgy of 
Titanium. Robert .1 Anderson. (Jour,, 
Frank Inst.. Xov. and Dec., 1917; 30 PP 
illus.) $1.20. 

8532 — TUNGSTEN — Flow Sheet ,,t 
Round Valley Tungsten Mill. (Kng and 
Min. .lourn.. Xov 24. P> 1 7 : '. p.. illus.) 20c 

8533— TUNGSTEN Mining in Eastern 
Nevada. i Eng and Min. Journ., Oct 17 
1917; ', p.) 20( 

8534— TUNGSTEN— The Kanbauk Wol- 
fram Mine. Lower Burma. Harry D. Grif- 
fiths, i Min Mag., Xov.. 1917: 8'. pp. 

illus.) Ille. 

8535 — TUNGSTENITE, a Xew Mineral 
R. C. Wells and B. S. Butler. (U. < 
Sure, reprinted from Journ. of Wash 
Academy of Sciences, Dec. 4. 1917: 4 pp.) 

8536 — CHROMTTE in 1M16. J. S. Diller 
(Mineral Resources of the U. S.. 1916 
Part I, Oct. 26. 1917; 16i pp.. illus.) 20c 
8537 — CLAYS — A Study of the Micro- 
structure of Some Clays in Relation to 
Their Period of Firing H. Ries and Y 
Oinouye. (Bull. 129, A. I. M. E.. Sept 
P'17: 14 pp., illus.) 

8538 — FELDSPAR in 1916. Frank J. 
Katz. (Mineral Resources of the U. S. 
1916 — Part II. Aug-. 25. 1917; 12 pp.. illus.) 

8539 — GRAPHITE in 1916. Henry G 
Ferguson, i Mineral Resources of the t T S . 
1916 — Part IT. Aug. 13. 1917; 17 pp.) 20( 

8540— GRAPHITE — Plumbago Crucibles 
(Eng. and Min. Journ.. Xov. 3. 1917: ?. n i 

8541 — GYPSUM in 1916. Ralph W. 
Stone. (Mineral Resources of the U. S.. 
1916 — Part II. Oct. 30. 1917: 7 pp.. illus) 

8542 — MICA in 1916. Waldemar T. 
Schaller. (Mineral Resources in the U. S.. 
1916 — Part II. Nov. 28. 1917; 18 pp.. illus) 

8543 — POTASH — Alunite Potash Plant 
in Utah. (Eng. and Min Journ . X'ov. 10, 
1917; I p., illus.) 20c. 


Vol. 105, No. 1 


• \ 10, 

M I II Mil 

U ■' 11 


■ ,,, ) 


[1 || Mill Journ.. 

s v state 

IP . illlis.) 

\l.T — La Oonaommatlon et la 
v 24. 1917 : 23 PP . UiUH.) 

i'III.c ■ . Ralph W Stone 

• the I' s , 1916 

Large Pyrrhotlt 

ind Mm Joui n 

Mineral I: of the 

I 11. July 21. 1917 4 pp.) 

\M> s \ I l l. \ I 


II I Kill I I M 


TKV I Mln Journ.. Nov. :i. 1911 ; 

BOR SITUATION in the Call 
forma OH Fields Q M Swindell, (Mln 

\TA.NA — The Bowdoln I 

Ible ir.-s." or Gas, 

Arthur . I. Collier. (Hull. 661-E, H S. Geol 

Surv.. July 27, 1917; IT pp., Illus.) 20c 

PROSPECTING tor Petroleum. M 

• • I Inlv. of Arts., 191 1-18; 

IS pp. lllu 

OILFIELDS (Eng and Mln Journ., Nov 
Report tor year ended 
Jan. SO, 19 

855S — TANKS — Use -if Concrete t 
Storage Tanks H Colin Campbell (Mln. 
Oil Bull.. Nov. 1917; '■'■: pp.. illus.) 


8559 — CHINA — Bibliography of the Min- 
eral Wealth ami Geolog} of China from 
U12 i 'hung Yu Wang. (1917; 

!1 PP ) 

—INDIA — General Report of the 

Geological Survey of India for the , i ear 

1916. H. H Havden. (Geol. Surv. of In- 


I— LATER1TK. Us Origin. Structure 

and Minerals, Chapter IX J. Morrow 

Campbell (Mln. Mag. Nov. 1917; 5] pp I 

Continuation of article previously ind sea 

Ul-K \ N s a S— Geologl- 

the United States Leavenworth- 

Smlthville Folio. Missouri-Kansas. Henry 

and F. i (U. S, Geol 

Surv.. 1917; 18 pp., illus.) 

1 — NEW MEXIl Atlas 

of the i'r Demlng Folio, New 

. x n I i (U. S. Geol. Surv.. 

HUT 20 pp . illus.) 

—TESTS — Select Blowpipe and Aciit 
for Minerals. (Hull. 71, Univ. oi 
Ariz.. 1917-18; 5 pp.) L'lic. 


8565 — AIR-LIFT DATA— Tabulated Air- 
Lift I >ata. A. W Allen. (Eng. and Mm 
Journ.. Oct. J7. 

-BUTTE MINE FERES- -Hydraulic- 
Filling Method to Extinguish Fires In Butte 
■ Eng and Mln. Journ., Dec. 15, 

-CAGE CHAIRS for Shaft Land- 
ings \V K. Fancy (Eng and Mln. Journ.. 
• 1!< 17 ; 1 p.. illus.) 20c 

CHINA — Bibliography of the Min- 
eral Wealth and Geology of China from 
. l!H7. Chung Yu Wang (1917; 
21 PP ) 

United States. June-.luly-August. 1917. Al- 
bert H Fay (U. S. Bureau of Mines. 
1917 ; 78 pp ) 

R M. Magraw. (Coal Age. Nov. 3. 1917 : 

4} pp. iritis ) 

i> Hubbard x ■> 

i :. 191 : . i l>|i Illus I 

DRILL Machine t"' Punching 
nut Bits and Shanks Drills 

! Mln Journ P 

illus > 30c . 

DRILLING — An Improved Watet 
Machine Drills I i ; Mln 

Journ . I lee ^ 1917; : p illus ) 20c 

EDUCATION Engineers In Train- 
ing Robert Tudor Hill (Met and Chem 

ELECTRIC him >i Ml 1 roi Mines 
w R Evans I Mln Mai 117 : 7 pp . 

illus ) 

ii VULING i '. .it Haulage Prob 
I. -in S..U..I by Caterplll I Bug 

and Mln Journ . Dec B, 1917; 


r. Miiis for Local Hauling Around the Mine. 

| pp., Illus.) 

I h MS'i'- Recent Developments ot 

u hiting Hoist as \pph.-d to i »eep 

Winding B Graj I Whltehouse 

(Journ So Vfr. Inst of Engrs., Sept., 1917; 


HOIST! N G- -Htston ol w Ire 

Holsl a with Notes on Factors ot 

.1 Min Journ . Nov 1". 

pp i Paper read before National 

incll. 20c. 

HOISTING Method of Hoisting 

Rails and Pipe (Eng and Mill Journ.. 

17, 1917; | p., illus.) !0c 

HOISTING- The New Elm Orlu 
Hoist at Butte, Monl (Eng and Mln 
Journ . No\ 3, 1917"; I ' pp., lllu I 

Ton Car and Tipple (Eng and Min. 

Journ 1 8, 1917 ; ! p., illus ) 20c. 

-MINE CAR TIPPLE tutomatic- 
Dumplng Cradle (Eng. and Min. Journ.. 

1 iec 1, mi: : | p., lllu I 

8584 -MINE MANAGEMENT — The Com- 

oM.iis.n-. oi Min.- Management Henry M. 
Adkinson (Eng. and Min Journ., Dec 8. 
1917; 21 pp.) 20c 

-MINE SHAFT l>i>i HI Self-Closing 
Door for Mine Shaft. (Eng. and Min. 
Journ.. Nov :!. 1917; ' p., illus) 20c. 

'I iRTABLE HOISTS— Application 
or Portable Column Hoists 11 L Hicks. 
(Eng and Min. Journ.. Dec. 1. 1917; 1 p.. 
illus.) 20c 

• 8587 SOUTH AFRICA — Stale Operation 
of Mm.s in South Africa. A. Coop.-r Key. 
(Eng and Min Journ. Nov. 17. 1 91 7 ; 2J 
pp.) Excerpts from majority report of the 
Commission on State Mining of So. Africa. 

(Eng. and Min. Journ.. Oct. 27. 1917; i p., 
illus.) 20c 


9589 CASCADE METHOD of Agitation 
for Selective Flotation of Sulphides. (Eng. 
and Min Journ. Dec 8, 1917; 1 ', pp., illus.) 

859(1— PATENT LITIGATION — Status of 
Flotation-Patent Litigation. R. C. Canby 
(Etlg. and Min. Journ.. Dec. 1. 1917; 8} 

-ALLOTS of and Cop- 
ier Janes SCOtl (Met. Intl.. Dec. 1917; 

2 pp . illus I 

8592— CONCENTRATES- Hydro-Metal- 
lurgical Treatment of Concentrate vs. 
Smelting A E. Drucker. I Eng and Min 
Journ . Nov. i". 1917; I p.) 20c. 

8593 COI VERTER TUYERE — Cooden's 
Converter Tuyere (Eng and Mln. Journ.. 
Nov. 10, 1917 : ■',' p.. illus) 20c 


General Discussion. (Proc. Faraday 
Nov . 1917.) 

Type of Water-Jacketed Smelting Furnace. 
Cha C CI (Eng. and Min. 

Joui n . Nov. 10, 1917 IJ pp . illus.) inc. 

SMi IKE-STACKS — Safety Ladder 
for Smoke-Stacks. (Eng. and Min. Journ.. 
Nov 24, 1917 ; I p., illus.) 20c. 

WALES — Ore Smelting in the 
Swansea District of Wales (Eng. and 
Min Journ. Dec. 1, 1917: i p.) 20c 


ilicon. (Iron Age, Dec. 6, 1917; I 
p.) : 

8599 — LABORATORY — Racks for "Slop 
Copper" Flasks. H. D. Hunt. (Eng. and 
Min. Journ., Nov. 17. 1917; : i p., illus.) 20c. 

*'l lis 

i:n I'lli 'PI CT '■' IKE PLANT of 
Hill steel Co F T Moran. (Coal 
Age, No\ ;;, 1917 ; i pp., Illus ) 

8601 BELi HUM Belgian Coal and Coke 
Industry in the War (Eng and Mm 

Journ., Nov 17. 1917; L", pp.) 800, 

COAL Vbsorptlon of MethaiHl 
and Other Gases t>> Coal. S. H. Kati 
i U s Bureau of Mint s, 1917 ; 22 pp. illus.) 

8603 PEAT In 1916. James S. Turp. 
(Mineral Resources of the U. S., 1916-9 
Part II, Nov 19, 1917 . 3 pp ) 20a 

for More Efficients Utilizing Our Fuel Ke- 
sources ; Part VII, General Utilisation of 
Pulverized foal, ll (! Barahurst. (Gel 
Elec. Rev . Dec, 1917; 7'. pp., illus.) 

8606 PULVERIZED COAL- — Method! 
for More Efficiently Utilizing our Fuel Ite- 
sources, Part iv Pulverized Fuel in a 
Power Plant on the Missouri. Kansas and 
Texas Railway. II R Collins and Joseph 
Harrington n fen Elec. Hi . i let . t ;• 1 7 : 
In pp., illus.) Continuation of articles pre- 

\M> mi:t AI.I.I U(il( A 

\..v 24, 1917; } p 


Dec. 15. 

Min. Journ., 

on Fusion Apparatus. 
Pope. (Met. and Chem Eng. 
1917 ; U pp.. illus.) I".- 

S608- LAMPS— Approved Electric Lamps 
for Miners. 11 11. Clark and L. C. Ilsley 

(Bull 181. U S Bureau of Mines, 1917 ; 59 
pp., illus.) 

Sil(i9 PRIME MOVERS — Working Costs 
of the Principal Prime Movers. Oswald 
Wans (Iron and Coal Tr. Rev.. Oct. 26. 
1917; IS pp . Illus.) 

8610— WELDING — Thermit Welding and 
Oxy-Acetylene Welding; Their Respective 
Fields and Applications. J. H. Deppeler.) 
(Reactions. 1917: 5 pp.. illus.) 


8611— BENZOL REC( IVERY — Labora- 
tory Methods for Benzol-Recovery Plant 
Operation. F. W Sperr, Jr. (Met. and 
Chem. Eng.. Nov. 1. 1 9 1 7 ; 7 pp., illus.) 

8612 — COAL PRODUCTS — The Mineral 
Industries of the United States; An object 
Lesson In Resource Administration. Ches- 
ter t; Gilbert. (Bull. 102, Part I, U. S.' 
National Museum. 1917; 1 1! pp., illus.) 20c. 

8613 — CANADA — Shawinigan and Its 
Electrochemical Industries. H. E. Randall. 
(Advance copy. Am Electrochem. Soc. Oct.. 
1917 : 2 I pp . Illus.) 20c 

861 I— NITROGEN — How Do the War- 
ring Nations Obtain Their Nitrogen Sup- 
ply? S. Nauchkoff. (Met. and Chem. Eng. 
Nov 1, 1917; 12 pp.. illus.) Paper pre- 
sented before the Swedish Technologies 
Society. Feb. 8, 1917. 


Relation to a Solution of the Industria 
Deadlock. C. V. Corless. (Bull. 68. Can 
Min. Inst., Dec, 1917; 8 pp.) 20c. 

8616— HYDRATE'O LIME and Its Quali 
fications as a Structural Material Beh 
Nagy. i Pro.- Eng Soc. W. Penn., Oct. J 
1917 ; 32 pp.. illus.) 50c. 

SHI? — LABOR — Industrial Demoerac; 
Established hv Colorado Fuel and Iron Co 
(Eng. and Min. Journ.. Oct. 27, 1917; 1 p. 

8618 — LABOR — Playgrounds for Miners 
Children. (Eng. and Min. Journ., Nov. ■ 
1917 ; ; J p.. illus.) 2uc. 

8619 — LABOR — The Housing and Feed I 
ing of Construction Forces. (Eng. am | 
Contract., Nov. 21, 1917; 43 pp.) 

and tin Laboi Problem. Richard B. Oregp 
(A S. M. V... Dee.. 1917; S pp.) L'lie. 

SOU T II AMERICA — Bolivia' 
Railways, Progress and Prospects. Wm. A 
Kid (Bull. Pan Am. Union. Oct.. 1917; 1 
pp., illus.) 

862X TRACTOR HAULING in Arizont 
II O. Hogue. (Min. and Oil Bull.. Oct 
1917 : 3) pp., illus.) 20c. 

8624 WAP. — Military Books for Engi 
n.ers. (Eng. and Min. Journ.. May 1: 
1917. Ii pp ) 20c 

8625 WAR — The Application of Radiui 
in Warfare ('has. H. Viol and Glenn I 
Kanitner. (Advance copy. Am. Electrf 
.hem SOC, ' 'et.. 1917 ; 8 pp.) 

nomic Imitortance of Wood Preservatioi 
Kurt C. Barth. (Eng. and Min. Journ.. De 
8. 1917; 3J pp.. illus.) 20c. 

January 5, L918 


nigill nil m illllillinillll IM Hilllliiliiiiiiii Ml H ' 


Current Prices — Materials and Supplies 

limn illimii i 

- miiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii n mi nun 


SHKET8 -Quotation!* arc cuts i» i pourd in vuiious cltfed front 

* irchouse also it"' ha*e quotations Ironi null 

\ . .. ■, i 
Large Mill Lots st 9 m !>'■. ■" 

Blue Annealed Pittsburgh Louis Chicago Francisco Lfll" »' 

\,, lit .... 4 36 5.52 ■ i ■ • ' ■ 

. . t 30 .-,..-,7 :. .'i0 6.30 5.50 i .0 

s„ ii 4.35 5.02 5.55 6.36 •■ ■ • • 7 • 

\,.- iv and 20.... 4. HO 11.33 6;25 1.26 • 10 

I •,, ,;:i7 •; 10 6.96 8.30 

4 »0 <i 12 11.85 7 (ill 'i.44 M) 

v 5.00 6.52 ''• t ' "1" l! ■■*•"• •"■■•'" 

i. ih atnzcd 

s,, in 5.25 ti Ii7 6.80 .... 8.70 6.30 

5.35 6.97 6.80 .... 8 80 6.46 

\„ ii ' 5.8S 8.97 6.80 6.80 

- and 20 5 65 7 17 7.1 • 7 Id 8.90 

! and 24 i 80 7.32 7.35 7.90 7.05 

Ii 5.95 7 02 7 10 8.05 7 in 7.30 

6.36 7.77 7 7(1 B.35 7.70 7.50 

STEEL mils — The following quotations are per ton f.o.b. 

Pittsburgh and Chicago (or carload or larger lot* For less than carload 
I mi lb. is charged extra 

. Pittsburgh . , Chicago*. , 

Ii. :u One Dei 31 One 

liU7 Year Ago 1917 Teal 

,1 bessemer mils 138.00 .... (38.00 

... nhearth rails IH 00 .... in "ii 

Light rails. 8 to 10 lb 53.00 17"" 

Light rails. 12 to 14 lb 52.00 16.00 

Light rails 25 to 45 lb 50.00 .... II"" 

Note — No ouotations. Cambria Steel Co. and Camegii Steel Co. re- 
ported to be Riled up on rails for a year, 

TRACK SI I'PI.IKS — The following prices are base per 100 lb. 
f.oh Pittsburgh for carload lots, together with the warehouse 
prices at the places named: 

, Pittsburgh , san 

One Fran- 

Dec. 31. 1917 Ago Chicago st I. (.ins cisco 
ird railroad -pikes. 
a and larger.. S.*.:<<1 $3.50 $5.00 Sii.45 $7.25 

Standard sect] ingle b.:rs 2.50—2.75 1.50 Premium 1.65 

Track bolts 4."" 4 85 6.35 Premium 8 80 

STRUCTURAL MATKRIAI. — The following are the base prices 
fob mill. Pittsburgh, together with the quotations per 100 lb 
from warehouses at the places named: 

Mill —New York — , San 

Pitts- Dee. 31. 1 Yr. St. Chi- Fran 

burgh 1917 Ago Loilis capo Cisco Dallas 

Beams. :t to 1". in $3.00 *4 195 (3 95 *4 27 S4 20 86 00 $5.50 

els 3 to la ill 3.00 4.1SI5 3.95 I 27 4.20 5.00 5.50 

Angles. 3 to « in.. Vt in. thick :i (>(> 4.195 3.95 4:7 4:" 5 00 5.50 

3 in. and larger :i.00 4.19a .'ilia 4 .27 4.2.5 5.00 5.50 

Plates 3.2.1 4.44a 4.7a-.-. 4 .52 4 45 5.25 6.50 

RIVETS — The following quotations are per 100 lb.: 

, Warehouse N 

. — New York — v San 

Mill. Dee 31. One Chi St. Fran 

Pittsburgh 1917 Year Ago eago Louis cisco Dallas 

V. in. and larger. $5.25 S7110 $5.25 $5.50 $5.55 $8.65 S7.50 


a -ii. and larger. 5.35 7.10 5.35 5.60 5.65 6.76 SjOO 

■nil !J 5.5(1 7.25 5 50 5 75 5.80 6.90 S.15 

md A 5.85 7.(10 5.85 hMO 6.15 7,25 8.50 

Lengths shorter than 1 in, take an extra of 50e. Lengths between 
1 in and 2 in. take an extra of 25, 

HORSE AND MULE SHOES— Warehouse prices per 100 lb in eities 
named : 

Pittsburgh Chicago St. Louis Denver Birmingham 

Straight S4.75 Sfi.00 $5.50 S7/>0 $6.75 

Assorted 4.90 6.00-6.50 5.75 7.75 7.00 

STEEL SHEET PILING — The following price is base per 100 ' lb. 
f.o.b. Pittsburgh with a comparison of a month and a year ago: 
Dec 31. 1917 One Month Ago One Year Ago 

$4.00 to $5.00 S4.0" to $5.00 $3.10 

WIRE ROPE — Discounts from list price on regular grades of bright 
»nd galvanized are as follows: 

New York St. Louis 

Galvanized iron rigging List + 20 ' i 4- '.'0 95 

Galvanized east steel rigging Net List List 

Bright plow steel . . 30 % 30 ' i 

Bright ,-ast steel 17 ' 17 '.. ; 

Bright iron and iron tiller 5 91 5% 

SWEDISH (NORWAY) IRON — This material per mo lb sells 
as follows ■ 

Dec. 31. 1917 One Year Ago 

New York $14.00 $fi.00 

Cleveland 15.00 6.30 

Chicago 13.50 5.50 

In coils an advanee of 50c usually is charged : 

Note — Stock scarce generally. 

in-.i m i s i i i i illowi 

Ni w York I 


Illtll I I III 



V ■-■ 


St l.ou < 

I > 
33 ' 

PIPE— The following discounts are foi carload lots f.o.b Pittsburgh. 

i ■ ■ pe 

Steel Iron 


Blaeli ■ 

lllaeu Galvanised 

nd % . 
% to 3 

Hi to >i. . 


to 1% 33* 



33 M 


to i 

to 6 283 


22 ' • ■: S to 1 "■ 3.1 <7c 


36*4 ■: 

:t"| . ", 2 

: i , to \ 

32 '.. •: I '.. to <; 

Nnti National Tube Co. quotes or basing Card dated Apr 1 

From warehouses at the places named the following discounts hold 
for steel pipe: 

%. V. and 

4 to 1 ' 


i ' 



to 4. 

to ii. 

I ■ 



I I 


New York 

\ to :i in butt welded 383 

:s i.. to " in. lap welded I s 

— Black 

I ■ s 
38 s 
27 s 

St. Louis 
1" 1 ", 

N.w York CI, St Louis 

% t,, :i in. butt welded " 27.8 25 I ■; 

3% to 6 in butt welded Lisl 18.83 22 1 ■ , 

Malleable fittings. Class 1! and C from New York stock sell at list 
price. Cast iron standard sizes, 15 and i I 


-Prices of oils for flotation, in cents per gallon. 


in barrels : 

■ Denver . 

In Bbl. In Car 
Lots load Lots 
SO. 30 SO. 27 
.34 >4 


Denver. 44c; 

New York Chicago 

Pure steam-distilled pine oil S" 50 ■ _• $0 15 

Pure destructively distilled pine oil I" |3 

Pine tar oil .28 "i .30 

Crude turpentine 37 At 

Hardwood creosote .19^ • 

•Fob. Cadillac. Mich 

SODIUM CYANIDE — New York price is 37c. per lb 
in Chicago. 50e.: in St. Louis 

SODIUM. SULPHIDE — In New York the price per pound is 4<v to 
4%c. for concentrated. 2'ic to 2%o. for crystals The Denver price for 
concentrated is quoted at S'-jc The Chicago price is :si;e. Concentrated 
comes in 500-Ib. drums the crystals in 40(1 lb barrels 

ZINC DUST- — New York price is 18c. per lb in 1600-lb. barrel: 
Chicago. 18c: in Denver 18c ; in St. Louis 2.5,-. 

ALUMINUM DUST — Chicago price i- «1 per lb. 

CALCIUM CARBIDE — Price f.o.b cars at warehouse points cast of 
Mississippi River lexcept in Alabama Georgia and Florida) is SM7.50 for 
Cameo $103.50 for Union miners' carbide. In territory between M 
sippi River and the Rockies and in Alabama Georgia and Florida, add 5-5: 
west of Rockies, add $10 to S15. 

LINOLEUM — In 50-sq.yd. rolls in carload lots the unce is 96%c. per 
square yard for concentrating tables. 



50 Ft Lengths 

Underwriters' 2 % in 75c per ft. 

Common. 2>4-in 40 % 

First Grade Second Grade Third Grade 

>i -in., per ft B " ,; " S" -35 SO. 30 

Steam — Discounts from list 
First grade. ... 30% Second grade.... 30 r 'r Third grade. 40% 

RUBBER BELTING — Tin- following discounts from list apply 
to transmission rubber and duck belting: 
Competition 50% Best grade 20% 

Standard 3 ' "' 

LFATHER BELTING — Present discounts from list in the fol- 
lowing cities are as follows for cut lengths: 

Medium Grade Heavy Grade 
35 % 

New York 

40 <%. 

St Louis 45% 40 cv 

Chicago .:: 3 S+ 10 * 40 +i% 

Birmingham 35% 40% 

Denver *°% *0% 



Vol. 105. No. 1 


M \ \ II 
1 Jin . 

for l-i- 


• it smaller than |-ln thi t io 

Amounting t>. leas than 600 ft U 

i per pound for the 
. « . I-ln.. 41 ; l-ln. 
m is price per ; 





k for 

-:■ iln 

duck Insertion .... 

.ui.l graphltcd for valve 


.1 I lb balls 8 ■ 



1 l 
i :i 



iiki nun k Quotations on the different kinds In the cities 
named are as follows, fob works: 

New York 

. brick i.t looo 130.00 to 55.00 
No 1 . .. 

M ►-n.k imt net ton 133.00 to 14 

. per • ton I 

brick per net ton 8 i 00 to 

.1 furnace chrome bri.k per net ton 80.00 to TO on 


$55.00 to i.o.oo 

r,o on to B0 no 

.-J size fire brick li i" \ •:'_• m The second quality is $4 
to $*. cheaper per 1000 

st Loots — Hlrt * ■■■ M i: St. Lo lis n id< 140 '■• $50 

Birmmrham — Fire clay. $25 to 130; D I per loon 

KtlLIVAT TIES — For fair-size orders, the following prices per 
tie hold: 


M. it. -rial 

Hew York Yellow I>iiie 

nis No. l white Oak 

_o Whit.- Oak — Plain 

r White Oak — Cn 

»oo Fir — Green 

San Frar..isoo Doutl.i- Fir — Creosoted 

in x !1 in. 
8 Ft 8 In 



l :tn 

1 :i 

2 t ■-• 

|> in x 8 in. 
by S pi 

$1 or, to 1.11 



i .52 

OBKA8B8 — Prices are 

oound for barrel 



Fiber or sponge 

« oiimal 




the following cities in 


3 I .. 

si Louis 
. R 





in ' 




io' . 

■ >'.■ 

"COTTON WASTE- The following prices are in cents per pound: 



-New York 
:i 1911 

1 1 00 ' 
s ,0 i.. 12 on 

One Year Ago Cleveland Chicago 

in on I,, 12 00 16 00 14.00 to 15 on 

7 on l,, o.on I (.no 10. on to 12 00 

WIPING CLOTHS — In Cleveland the jobbers' price per 1001 
as follows: 

l.T. x 13). $85.00 13'. 

In Chieaeo they sell at $30 to $.13 per 

I 10% $4 


I.INSEED Oil. — -These prices are per gallon: 


, New York s 

1017 Y. 

in barreN $1 

cans 1.38 l.OO 

, Cleveland N 

:i One 
1917 Tear Ago 

si 25 $1 00 

1 10 l 10 

, Chicago . 

! i, . ::l (In. 
1017 Year Aero 
11.26 $1.03 

1.36 1.13 

cents per pound: 

KID I.EAD in r.OO-lb. lots sell as follows in 

D,s-. ,ii 1917 


Dry In Oil 

35- and 50-Ib. kc;.'- 11 50 II 00 

12 (A -lb. keg 11.75 1 1 25 

100-Ib. kes II 25 1 1 50 

1 i.. .", lb. cans . . 13 25 13 no 

Dec ::i 1917 

Dry In Oil anil !n Oil 
I I no in 50 

1117:. 11.25 10.75 

1 1 1 ..ii I ion 

I.'!. on 

1 Yi A-o 

and In Oil 
in 50 
in 75 
1 I no 

st T' From warehouse at the places named, on fair-sized 

orders, the following amount is deducted from list: 

. New York- 
Dec ::i Oni 


Hot pressed square 
Hot pressed bexagon 1 00 
Cold nun. t 1 i<" 

i igon l .00 

, Chicago ^ 

Dec :;l One 
1917 Year Ago 

$2 no $3 ni' 

2.00 :tnn 

l .-.(i 3.50 

i :,o :i no 

Semifinished nuts sell at the following discounts from list price: 

D.s- 31 loir One Year Ago 

New York 40 ", to - : 

.-.0—10% is".— ir; 

65 — 10% 

MM HIM BOLTS — Warehouse discounts in the following cities: 

New York Cleveland Chicago 
mailer 3091 |0 ■: 40 — 10% 

Ml. 1. 1 (.111 WASHERS— From warehouses at the 

following amounl is deducted from list price 

N, v. \,„-l. SI ,1,1 Cleveland ».t .11 Chicago 

For ,'asl iron washers the base price per 100 lb is as follows: 

New i*ork $5.00 Cleveland si a' Chicago $8.50 

placeB named the 

. $3.00 

EXPLOSIVES I'll,, per pound in small lots at cities 

»u Freezing 

10 , 

30' , 

$0.37 J4 

so ;i , 


13 . 


'.'(i i , 

.33 ' , 


■:o ; , 


1 11 


•.•:! ', 




.:!:! ! , 


30 J4 

B0 (5 



.33 ' , 






301 . 

$0 i ; |, 



$2 50" 

ii ', 


io '.■ 

to 1 ill. by 30 in . . 15'v 

io « 

30 — 5 % 

N, .. fork 

('in. in n. iii CitJ 
N.-w Orleans . 




St I., Mils , 

' ' 

Los \' 

San Francisco 

I I I I. (III. I'll,, variable, depending upon BtOCk New York 
, in,, tati, nis not available owing to this tact In Chicago an, I si 
i the following prices are quoted: 

Chl, a~u St. Loins 

Mexican heavi I '.' 1 I Baume. 7c. uone 

Domestic light 23-26 Baume .• 7%c. 

Note — There i- practically no fuel oil in Chicago at present time, 


ROOFING MATERIALS — Prices per ton fob. New York or 
Chicago: . _. 

Less Than 
Carload Lois Carload Lots 

Tar f,n ,11 lb per square ol loo sq.ft.) $61 on (62.00 

Tar pitch (in inn lb bbl.l 15.00 16.50 

• pit. I, Hi, barrels I 29.00 ■»' .11 

Asphall felt «0-00 << on 

PREPARED ROOFINGS — Standard made rubbered surface 
complete- with nails and cement costs per square as follows in New 
York and Chicago: 

1-Ply , 3-Ply v , 3-Ply v 

Cl l.el. C.l. I.Cl. el. l.Cl. 

No. 1 grade $1.15 $1.40 $1,1) $1.(10 $1.75 $1.00 

No . .. l Hi L.25 1.25 1 I" Co 1.65 

Asbestos asphalt saturated felt (14 lb per square) costs $5.35 per 

Slate-surfaced roofing (red and green) In rolls ,,i L08 sq.ft. costs 

%] 85 ,„ , roll in carload lots and $°..10 for smaller quantities. 

Shingles red and green slate finish, cost $4,7:, per square in carloads, 

$ smaller quantities, in Philadelphia. 

HOLLOW TILE — „ .„.,,, 

4x12x12 Sxl',:xl2 12x12x12 

Boston *""* $"¥?,<, S °'??., 

si Paul ".... .1.18 .153 

h :„v,. . .:: ii .20 .30 

Los Angeles 0868 .12 .20 

Seattle 06 .10 .It. 

I.I MltlOK — Price per M in carload lots: 

12 x 12 In . 

. 8 x 8 in x 20 Ft. and Under s '10 Ft. and Under 

Y.P. Fir Hemlock Sprue v P Fir 

Boston $52.50 f.2.50 .... $40.00 $60.00 $60.00 

Cincinnati .... 35.00 .... .... .... 85 50 .... 

Kansas City . 42.00 34.00 ... .... 48.00 :i: 

.... '.'7.00 -.'7110 $27.00 '.'7.11(1 27.00 27.00 

New Oilcans.. 28.00 .... .... .... 38.00 .... 

St Paul 38.00 38.0(1 38.00 r.ljln 

Denver .{ion .... 30.00 .... 36.00 

1 In Rough, 10 In. x 16 Ft. 2-In. T. and G. 

and Under io in. x IB Ft 

Y.P. Fir Hemlock Y P Fir 

Boston $45.00 .... .... $50.00 $.->o.()ii 

nnati 35.00 .... ... 87.50 

is City 43.00 $." 51.00 55.00 

Seattle 27.00 27.00 27.00 '.'7 no 

New Orleans 36.00 .... .... ' 

si Paul 53.00 34.00 61.00 37.50 

Denver 30.00 30.00 .... 32.00 

PORTLAND CEMENT — These prices are for barrels in carload 
lots, including bags: 

Dee. 31 1017 One Mouth Ago One Year Ago 

New York $2.22 $2.22 $1.72 

Jersey City 2.16 2 16 i no 

Boston : 2.77 2.77 1.92 

Chicago 2.21 2.31 L.86 

Pittsburgh 2.31 3.31 1.81 

Clevi land 3.44 ". 44 1,04 

Denver 3.10 3.20 

Los Angeles '.'.40 3.40 

Li.MF. — Warehouse prices: 

Hydrated per Ton Lump per 300-Lb. Barrel 
Finished Common Finished Common 

New York $l(i..-,0 $1326 $'M0 $100 

Kansas City 20.00 1 1 50 1 86 1.76 

Chicago 15.00 13.00 r.OO 1.60 

St. Louis 1 3.00 .... .... l.r.ll 

Boston 10.50 14.50 2.76 ':.40 

San Francisco 17.00 .... .... 1 ,66 

st. Paul 17.00 12.60 1.20* 1.00" 

New Orleans .... .... .... 140 

Birmingham 15.00 .... 1 50t .... 

•Per ISO lb. barrel. tBirmingham. 200-Ib. barrels. 

Denver — Then- i- one classification of hydrated lime, quoted at 
5 per ton, paper ones. Lump Lime sells for 05c per bushel of 80 
lb., in hulk or barrel weights. 

Note — Refund ,.f in, i„r bag, amounting to $'2 per ton. 

Engineering and Mining Journal 

January 12, 1918 

'olume 105 

\ r U))lh, | ' 

The production of the more important metals is 
imnmarized in the table on this page. The detail 
tppear on subsequent pages. It will be found that in 
iome cases our contributors give figures that do not 
iK r riv with our own. The explanation of such differences 

UtUl Unit 1915 1916 1917 

Pounds I.42).o98,l60 1.942.776,309 1. 888, 39 5. 945 

:3d (6) Dollars 101.035,700 92,590,300 84. t 

Long tone 29,916.213 39,434,797 38,367.853 

Short tons 535,922 592.241 580.464 

Pounds 56.352.582 72.611.492 J6.807.6I3 

Troy ounces t;7.4SS,60O 74,414,802 74,244,500 

Short toni 507.142 680.018 685.436 

(a) Production from >>iv originating in the United States (6) Tin statistics 

>r 1915 hiii] 1916 are the final and those for 1917 are the preliminary statistics 

potted jointly by the directors "f the Mint and the 1 S Geological Survey 

I Production .>f refined lead from ore and scrap originating in the United States; 

:it iniv'ii i:il lead is included id) Total production of smelters, except those treat- 

if dr iss and junk * v lusively, includes spelter derived from imported ore i- • 

for 1917. first 9 months only. This nickel is refined in the United 

the production of metal, oxide and salt^ 

rill generally be that the articles of outside contributors 
\ere necessarily written and put into type before our 
wn statistics were available. The necessity of handling 
he great mass of material in this huge number in a few 
lays leaves no time for leisurely comparison and re- 
ision to effect a careful coordination of all the data. 

Owing to the congestion of material for this number, 
i*e found ourselves obliged to omit the usual table of 
ividends paid by mining companies. This will be pub- 
ished in the issue of next week. 

The preemption of this issue by matter of statistical 
nd review character excludes many things of timely 
nterest that ought to be covered. Among these are the 
ltroduction in Congress of a bill for Federal control 
f the mining industry. We shall discuss this next week, 
dso we shall then publish biographical sketches of A. 
l. Blow, a distinguished mining engineer, and Lieut. 
William Hague, whose deaths we have to report re- 
retfuliy this week. Some generous contributions to 
ur fund for the 27th Engineers have been received, 
ut acknowledgment of these must also be postponed. 

In 1913 we were able to give at this time figures of 
tie world's production of copper, gold, spelter and tin 
l the year that had closed a few days previously. These 
gures were not mere guesses, but were based on official 
eports covering 10 or 11 months of the year, with esti- 
lates only for November and December. When the final 
gures were published several months later, they were 
3und to vary from our preliminary figures by only a 
"ifling percentage. The statistics that we are able to 
resent this year, as was also the case a year ago, are 
ir more incomplete that in 1913 and previous years, 
ius reflecting the disturbances created by the war, 

hich has put many commercial conditions out of joint. 

The world's production of gold in I'.U7 is eatii 
al ;, 1:50,000,000, compared with $457,006,045 in L916. 

The world's production ol copper in 1917 was 1,413, 
056 metric tons, against 1,406,353 metric tons in 1916. 

The United States product nm of petroleum in 1917 
is estimated by the United States Geological Survey at 
341,800,000 bbl., against 300,767,158 bbl. in 1916. 

Bituminous coal production in the United States is 
estimated by the United States Geological Survey ;.t 
544,142,000 short tons, against 505,519,682 tons in the 
previous year. 

Although both the productions of lead and zinc were 
the largest on record, each of these industries was in a 
state of depression at the end of 1917, the increases 
having been made in the early part of the year. 

To all the contributors who collaborated in this num- 
ber we tender our thanks, and also to the many persons 
who have assisted in the collection of statistical in- 
formation. Our thanks are due also to the producers of 
copper, lead, spelter and other substances, who have 
communicated -to us the amount of their output in 1917 
and have thereby enabled a close approximation to the 
actual production in 1917 to be made by Jan. 9, 1918. 
our time of going to press. 

As is always the case, the matter that ought to go in 
this Annual Review Number exceeds the limits of its 
pages. Consequently a good many interesting and valu- 
able reviews must be deferred for publication in the 
next following issue. Indeed, by force of circumstances, 
the issue following the Annual Review Number is be- 
coming something of a supplement. We recommend our 
readers who preserve separately, for reference during 
the year, this Annual Review Number, to attach to it 
the next following number. 

In view of the fact that the Journal goes to press 
three days before its nominal date of publication, we 
were unable to make the first number of 1918 the 
Annual Statistical Number, as usual, for there would 
have been only one day after the close of 1917 in 
which to tie up the hundreds of loose ends. About 
the middle of 1917 we decided that the next statistical 
number would have to be the second issue of the new 
year. This decision proved to be fortunate, for the 
delays in mail service at the year-end were such that 
the necessary information could not possibly have been 
obtained in time for the first issue. 



Vol. 105, No. 2 M.irkcts 

m w ^ HKK— Jan 

irthoi advance m the 
i and star- 
In, th« sup- 


I ,.|>;>> ! 

■ ■in the 
B which 
serious i> 

noying product re 

•it by the Government 

that they are supplying 

y to the demon of red tape. 

tment is the offender Re- 

■ \ y Department are 


C a p paa Sheets an quoted at 31 j. 

II, for hot rolled, and la higher 

• r wire Is quoted a( 
b. mill, carload lots. 

&D \l I- \\" -U 1:1 1NG EXCHANGE 







Silvi • 


York.! don ( 





4 7515 871 1 : 

4 7515 8»1 4j, 
4 7515 , i 


4 75IS 
4 7515 
4 7515 


45 t 


New York : ILiiuly 

A Harm an ui Is per troy ounce of bar 

•liver, 999 fin*- London quotations are in pence per 
troy ouncv of sterling silver, 925 fine 









N Y 

M 1. 

St L 










(3 61 

6 SO 
@6 70 

6 50 


(n 6i 

(8 6! 


In 6 40 

6 45 
@ 6 iO 

6 45 
ftrt 50 

6 50 
(5 6 55 

6 50 
l.i 6 55 

6 50 




t Nominal . 

* Price fixed by agreement between American 
copper produrers and the V. 8. Government, accord- 
ing to official statement for publication on Friday, 
September 21, 1917 

The above quotations (except as to copper, the 
price for which has been fixed by agreement! I 
American copper producers and the U. 9 Govern- 
ment, wherein there i-. no free market) are our 
appraisal of the average of the major markets based 
generally on *a!es as made and reported by pi 
and agencies, and represent to the best of our judg- 
ment the prevailing values of the metals, for the 
deliveries constituting the major markets, reduced to 
basis of New York, cash, except where St. Louis is 
the normal basing point. 

The quo'a': -'-lytic copper are for cakes, 

ingots and wirebars 

We q lytic cathodes at 05 to 0. I0e 

below the price of wirehar-, cakes and u 

Quota* ions for spelter are for "plinary Prime 
Western brands We quote New York price at 17 5c, 
per 1001b above St Louis 

Some current freight ri Js per 100 lb. 

a-* Bfc Loma-New York 17r; St. Louis-Chicago, 
6 3^ .; St Louis-Pittsburgh, P 1 


Copper Tin 



























29 i 
29 i 






The above table rive* th<- closing quotations on 
London Metal Kichansre All prices are in poun Ifl 
iterliBK p*r ton of 2.240 lb lor eonvenii 
comparison of London prir.*,, in pounds sterling per 
2,240 1b. with amei - pound 

the followinz approximate ratio- arc given. reckoning 
eiehanreatJ4 7515 £30; - 6 4696c; £54 = II. 4545c; 
£120 = 25 4544c : £137 = 29 0605c : £240 - 50 9089c 
Variations. £1=0 2121205c 

i in in thi i ondon mark) i this 
mi rose li\ Plus is reflected In our quo- 
Ich, how< vi othlng more 

than nominal 

i.ead .\t the beginning of the week the 
\ s .>. i: Co advanced Iti pi 
Mew fork b n In .-•• doing II was onlj com- 
ing; up to the market tint had n 
established Tl Increased In- 

quiry and iblj larger volume of 

business than In the previous week, and by 
Jan 7 the market was showing further 

gth The statistical position ha 
come v in" only have 

In the hands of producers been ab- ■ 
but also the principal producers have pretty 
well sold put their books up to the end of 
February, of course making stub reserva- 
i the Government is expected t" re* 
quire. The present strength of the bad 
market without any doubt reflects the cur- 
tailment of production In tin- last quartet 
/in. Tins market was very dull. Some 
-mall sales were made from day to day at 
76c. inn on Jan v producers who had 
Ij sold at that price and desired to 
sell more wi to g--t it. and on Jan. 

of offering's at 7J cents, 
/in. Sheets Price of line sheets has nol 
■ banged Market is still at $19 pel 
100 lb f..t. Peru, less *\ discount 

Other Metals 

Mumiiuim — This market continues com 
parativelv Inactive ., per lb for 

No. l ingots at New Fork, though some 
advances are being asked for spot delivery 
owing to railroad congestion. 

Antimony— Unchanged at 141c for spot, 
and 13}c. for futures, e.i.f., in bond. Some 
houses think thai tiny can discern a little 
stronger tendency. 

Bismuth — Officially unchanged at $3.50 
per lb., but some impure metal from South 
America Is being sold under the price of 
the standard mi 

Cadmium — This metal Is quoted at $1.50 
• i 2 00 per lb., depending on the quantity. 

Nickel — Steady at fine per lb., premium 
of Fie. per lb. for electrolytic. 

Quicksilver — Quicksilver to arrive was 
still quoted at $115 and spot at $125. Small 
business was done In siw>t at prices around 
$130. San Francisco reports, by telegraph. 
JUL' 50 

Gold. Silver and Platinum 

silver — The market has been steady for 
several days at 45Jd. in London and at 
901c, in New York. Shipments to London 
have been delayed owing to the embarrass- 
ments of shipping facilities. San Francisco 
has not been a very' keen bidder lately, 
owing to slightly easier Eastern exchanges. 

Mexican dollars at New York: Jan. 3. 
701c.; 4. 72c; 5. 73c: 7. 73c; 8. 73c; 9. 

Platinum — Strong at $105. 

Palladium — Sales at $135 

Zinc and Lead Ore Markets 

.loplin. Mo., Jan. 5 — Blende, per ton. high 
$72.40; basis i;i>'; Zn. premium $70; me- 
dium to low, $60@50; calamine, per ton. 
'" : Zn, S38@31 ; average selling price, all 
grades of zinc, $55.80 per ton. 

Lead, high $81.7ii; basis 80% Pb. $83 lg 
so ; average selling price, all grades of 
leed. (68.40 per ton. the bulk of the ship- 
ment being of low grade. 

Shipment the week; Blende. 9607 tons, 
calamine, lis tons, lead 913 ions. Value. 
all or.-s the w< ek, $626,460 

Other Ores 

Manganese ore — .Metallurgical ore wa- 
unchanged at $1.20 per unit. 

Molybdenum Ore — Business was done at 
lb. of molybdenum sulphide, 
basis 90 per cent. 

I run Ore — Without any formal opening, 
'or Lake Superior iron ore for 
the 1918 season are now being concluded, 
the sel for iron and steel generally 

having been reaffirmed at Washington to 
Mar :il The ore prices are a continuance 
of the 1917 season schedule, originally an- 
nounced Nov. 23, 1916: Old range bessemer. 
nonbessemer, $5.20; Mesabi bes- 
r $5.70 ; nonbessemer. $5.05 ; at Lake 
Km. dock Contracts carry a proviso that 
the price is to be revised according to any 
change subsequently madi 

Pyriten — Spanish lump is quoted at 151c 
per unit, on basis of 10s. ocean freight, 
buyer to pay excess freight and war risk. 

except I concession of -', "t war ris 
is allowed Ocean rates remain at 3hs. ft 
Northern, 40s for Southern and 12s. 6d. ft 
Gulf ports, but recent charters have e? 
ceeded these rates in several instances. 

Tuns-leu Ore Business was mainly i 
ore of moderate grade, for which $22 wt 
quoted, Low-grade ore was quoted at St- 
and very high-grade, at about $24,5 

Scneefite was quoted at $26 

lion Trade Review 

PI i i mii itt.ii — Jan. k 

The iron and Steel market is very nai 
row as regards ordinary commercial tram 
actions. On the \\ hole there Is si 
any inquiry, and offerings are equally ligh 
Consumers are evldentlj In no rr.ood t 
buy. and are believed to have fa stocli 
on hand, which In the clrcumstai :es the 
would prefer to reduce-, as they feel eoi 
u,i, ui prices will uot be advanced, an 
may lie reduced Mar. 31. Producers ai 
making no effort to force the market, hot 
because they know buyers would take hoi 
of their own accord if they were readj 
and because production is so uncertal 
(hat delivers engagements 'would ian 
little- chance of being k<mi inventor? an 
other year-end adjustments are partict 
larly complicated a this time and otflc 
forces are kept particularly busy, bein 
short-handed, this furnishing another caut 
for market quietness 

Irrespective of these conditions, howevfl 
there is no likelihood of any broad buyin 
tinder the set-price policy There is I 

very Targe volume of contract business sti 
to be filled, and thereafter the tendeno 
will be to do business on a hana-to-mout 

The Pennsylvania and Baltimore & Ohi 
have declared general embargoes again! 
the receipt of all freight, except raw mat* 
rials for the blast furnaces and stet* 
plants, and perishable goods The mea. 1 
ures are not fully understood yet. but 
kept in force would greatly curtail shij 
ments from the mills, and they are at 
sunned to be only temporary There ha 
been a slight loosening up in some of th 
blockades on various divisions, and co. 
and coke are moving a trifle more freel; 
Production of both pig iron and steel cor 
tinues at a reduced rate, many furnact 
being banked. 

Pig Iron — The market is quite devoid t 
transactions. Messrs. W. P. Snyder & Ci 
announced their usual monthly average 
compiled for many years from actual mai 
kit sales, but admitted that the markl 
sales were almost negligible in tounag 
Last October, the first month of the st 
prices, the volume was the largest sine 
June. The December averages were pn 
cisely the set prices, $33 for basic an 
$36.30 for Bessemer, at valley furnace 
The market remains quotable at $33 ft 
basic and No. 2 foundry, $36.30 for Be: 
semer, $33.50 for malleable and $32 ft 
forge, fob. furnace, freight from the va 
leys to Pittsburgh being 96c 

steel — There are no offerings of reguls 
soft-steel billets or sheet bars, set prict 
for which are $47.50 and $51 respective! 
There continue to be free offerings of dii 
card steel in various billet sizes, at abot 
$2.50 below the set prices for soft stec 
but there is only a moderate demand ft 
this material. 



FerroitmniraneMe — Without any partiouU 
cause being apparent and imbed in a du 
market, ferromanganese has stiffened ar. 
the usual quotation is $250. against $24 
for several weeks. 


ConneUsville — far supplies in the col- 
region were much better Monday of th 
with fair promise for the balam 
of the week, and some of the congestion < 
loaded cars at yards and on sidings hi 
been eliminated, but receipts at furnac< 
show no more than a slight improvemei 
and many stacks are still banked The) 
are no offerings in the open market bt 
some are expected if production reachi 
anvthing like a normal rate. A meetir 
was held at Uniontown last Thursday b 
tween Warren S. Blauvelt, national col 
administrator, and the operators of tl 
region, about 200 being present. The ope 
ators asked for more transportation facil 
ties. A committee of seven was appointe 
this committee to appoint an executit 
committee of three to act directly with tl 
Fuel Administration. Set prices remai 
at $6 for furnace. $7 for 72-hour .select* 
foundry and $7.30 for crushed, per' net tc 
at ovens. 

laiiuar.v 12, 1918 



Gold an 

RELIABLE estimates of gold production in 1917 
have been difficult to gel thus soon after the close 
of the year, owing to the disturbed conditions 
prevailing, According to the besl data obtainable, the 
output of the world in 1917 was about $430,000,000 
or approximately 6 r , less than the 101 G output, which 
was $457,006,045. In general, the peculiar economic 
situation existing in the gold-mining industry tended 
to discourage production. Cost of labor and supplies 
mounted steadily, though the value of gold was un- 


m $287,327,833 1008 $443,434,527 

311,505.147 :«M 459,927.482 

1900 258.829.703 1910 434.213.649 

1901 .'1.11.877.42'' 1911 459,377.300 

1902 298.812,493 1912 474.333,268 
I ill 3 329.475.401 1913 462,669,658 

1904 34U.088.293 1914 451.582,129 

1905 (78.411,054 19)5 473,124.590 

1906 405,551.022 1916 457.006.045 

1907 411.294.458 1917 (estimated) 430,000,000 

hanged. The total production of the United States in 
1917 is estimated at $84,456,600 ($92,590,300 in 1916), 
if which $83,052,500 came from continental United 
States; Philippine Islands contributed $1,404,000 and 
Porto Rico a very small amount. California led the gold 
iroducing sections of the country with $20,815,900 in 
1917 against $21,980,400 in 1916. Colorado, which pro- 
luced $19,185,000 in 1916, held on to second place in 
1917, though its output fell to $15,955,100. Alaska 
igain ranked third with $15,170,300 in 1917, compared 
arith $16,124,800 in 1916. 

Silver production of the United States in 1917 was 
(4,244,500 oz. against 74,414,802 oz. in 1916. Of the 

d Silver 

L917 output. 74,227,9 . came from continental United 

and 16,60 •. from Philippine i lands, The lead 

ing silver producing states in 1917 were Utah, Mon 

' IND SILVER PRODI i ill i \ iTATI (o 



' ' 




16,1 ' 

i 266 

1,351 Km 

1 092,800 

i, 680 .' i 

8, If 

I lalifornia 

'ii ii 

I 989 BOO 

i 'nil i adi 


7,551 761 

h hi 600 

B 100 

1 I 570 

j | mi, 

Mir land 



1 Hill 

M ichignn 



.'1 HIM 

Monl tna 



14, 1146.054 

13.71 1 100 

V 1 ii:i 

9 in 4,700 

', 92 



\. u Ihilnj, lui, 


New Mi 





North i 'a 




( Melanoma 






South ( larolina 


i 100 

South Dakota 


7 »2 600 


191, Kill 


V 7(111 




1 1 



,83 200 





14, 3 15,300 









\\ a^litli:: 


4 34.900 

294, 3 ll, 







$83, 052.500 

74 397.159 


Philip) inea 





Porto Rico 



Total* $92,590,300 $84,456,600 74,414,802 74,244,501 

'" \ reported by the Director* "I the United States Mint and tl 
logical Survey 

tana, Idaho and Nevada, in the order named, with re- 
spective productions of 14,315,300 oz., 13,711,100 oz.. 
11,683,100 oz. and 11,441,000 ounces. These states also 
led in 1916 in silver production. 

Silver in 1917 


AT THIS writing, it is impossible to do better than 
to guess as to the production of silver during 
1917, either for the United States or for the 
vorld. It is possible, however, to make a close approxi- 
nation as to this production. 

The Director of the Mint reports the production in 
he United States during 1916 as about 74,500,000 oz.. 
vhieh was derived nearly equally from siliceous ores, 
ead ores and copper ores. The production from lead 
■res was slightly in excess of that derived from either 
■f the other sources. 

It appears, also, that this production varied only in an 
nimportant amount for the first three years of the 
. 7 ar — 1914, 1915 and 1916. Previous to these years, the 
early production of the United States varied, but not 
n a progressive ratio, between 50,000,000 oz. and 60,- 
00,000 oz. since 1889, or a period of 25 years. 

Undoubtedly the increased production since the begin- 
ing of the war was due entirely to the increased prices 
f lead and copper in this period. During the first six 
lonths of 1917, prices were still further enhanced, and 
uring the latter half of the year the production of both 
?ad and copper was considerably restricted, due to 
arying causes. 

From the above, it would seem safe to assume a some- 
what lessened production from lead and copper ores, 
which probably was offset by an increased production 
from siliceous ores, due to the constantly increasing 
price of silver for the first nine months of the year. 
From another angle, it may be concluded that there was 




\'<\\ ^ ork 

1916 1917 







56 775 

75 o30 

22 731 

26 960 

36 682 




56 755 

77 585 

22 753 

26 975 

37 742 




57 935 

73 861 

23 708 

27 597 

36 410 




64 415 

73 875 

23 709 

30 662 

36 963 




74 269 

74 745 

23 570 

35 477 

37 940 




65 024 

76 971 

23 267 

31 060 

39 065 




62 940 

79 010 

22 597 

30 000 

40 1 10 




66 083 

85 407 

22 780 

31 498 

43 418 




68 515 

100 740 

23 591 

32 584 

50 92C 




67 855 

87 332 

23 925 

32 361 

44 324 




71 604 

85 891 

25 094 

34 192 

43 584 




75 765 
65 661 

85 960 
81 417 

26 373 
23 675 

36 410 





31 315 


•Vice president, American Smelting and Renning; Co., 120 
roadway. New York 

New York quotations, cents per ounce ti er; London, pence per ounci 

sterling silver, 0.925 fine. 

(6) Engineering and Mining Journal prices. 

no material change in the amount of silver produced in 
the United States during 1917, as compared with 1916. 
The statistics as to imports and exports of silver is- 
sued by the Department of Commerce indicate that the 
imports for the first eight months of 1917 were approxi- 
mately 3,000,000 oz. in excess of the imports for the 
same eight months of 1916. On the other hand, the ex- 
ports increased about 3,500.000 oz., leaving by de- 


Vol. 105, No. 2 

duct ion the amount produced in this country unchanged, 

un l, 11 in the arts and for coinage was 

mat. ant, which is not probable. 1 can tin.) 

nothing which leads me to believe, therefore, that the 
production of silver in the United States during 1917 

differed to any considerable extent from that of 1916, 

something less than 75,000,000 ounces. 

• the world's production, the Director of the Mint 

reported \*.i\.o^.<m^ ,..-. for 1915, and for 

1916. 0( this decline ••:' 23,000,000 01 . Mexico alone 

• responsible for os. The import statistics 

referred to above show an increase during the first 
eight months of 3,000,000 "... which applied to the year 
will probably equal about 5.000.000 o*., derived almost 
entirely from Mexico. It would seem safe to assume, 
therefore, that the production >'( the world, outsidt 
the United States, increased 10,000 , making the 

production for 1917, 167,000,000 oui 

SiL\hK Market Stationary Until Mid-Yfar. When 
Eastern Demand Stimvlated Prices 

While there was nothing unusual during the year 
lit IT in the production of silver, the situation as to de- 
mand was entirely unprecedented, both as to amount and 
direction. This demand had a decided effect on prii 
which have not been equalled for 40 years. On account 
of Governmental control, the full natural effect, however, 
was not permitted, which will be referred to later. 

The silver market began to feel the effect of war de 
mand in April. 1916, when the quotation of 73k. \va 
made, against 00 c. the highest in the preceding month 
In May, 1916, the average price was about 741c, ant 
except for a brief period of recession in the summer c 
1916, the level of prices remained nearly stationary 
around 75c. per oz. until June, 1017. From averagt 
monthly price tables, it may be noted that the quotation? 
for May. 1017, were not materially higher than thost 
made during May, 1916. 

During May and June purchases were made by Lon . 
don brokers for India and China, for shipment from th( 
Pacific Coast, at sufficiently higher prices than the Nev 
York market to warrant diverting the silver productior I 
usually forwarded to London via New York. In Jul} 
a sale was made of 5,000,000 oz. to the Russian govern! 
ment, for shipment to Vladivostok, and at about tht 
same time the prospects as to India crops became ven 
encouraging, both as to amount, value and demand. Tht 
question became one of world-wide interest as to hov 
the balance of trade in favor of India was to be paid 
Under normal circumstances, the India banks were givei 
their choice as to gold or silver. There was a certaii 
demand for silver on the part of the government foi 
rupee coinage, and by the bazaars for shipment into tht 
interior, in payment for produce, and to be hoarded b.\ 
the natives. After these insistent demands for silvei 
had been satisfied, it had been the policy for many years.i 





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______ — ^ / 










ranuary 12, 1918 



tO K& ij" <sJ o 


u 1 1 i I i I i , i ! : ' .1 III I I li ! i ; \ 


Vol. 105, No. 2 

■:e part of the British government, to discourage the 
importation of silver. Tins, of course, materially in- 
:\d for gold. 

Silver Situation in the East in Large Degree 
.-im e for ai>\ \N»'i in Price 

For the 10 years preceding 1898 the absorption of 
gold in India was (1 »0. During the following 

10 years it was 1440,000,000, and for the three years 

preceding the present war it averaged $150,000,000. or 
about one-half of all the gold produced in the world 
which is tree for coinage or bank reserves. Greal 

Britain soon found after war began that her gold re- 
serve was her most important line i 
United S Government, notwithstanding its im- 

mense importations of gold, is now not willing to ex- 
port any of it, except as an absolute necessity, which is 
-ed upon in each instance by the Federal Reserve 
ltd. There is little wonder, therefore, that Great 
Britain, some time since, prohibited the shipment (if 
gold to India, and also used its greai influence to dis- 
courage shipments t<> China. This threw on silver the 
entire burden of paying the balance of trade in favor 
of India, and, due to good crops and increased prices, 
this balance was much greater than usual. Under this 
stimulus, the average quotations for July. August and 
September are shown in the accompanying table: 

MI.NLli PRH 1 - IS llllKl) Ql AHTII; OF 1917 

\.u ^ ork 

Cents Pence 

Ju l v 79 010 40 110 

^ > , ' 85 407 43 418 

gJEnber 100 740 50 920 

During September the highest quotation was $1.08* in 
New York, and 55 pence in London. 

The danger of these high prices to the domestic and 
financial condition of India was due to the fact that 
the silver in the rupee became of greater value than the 
gold redemption value of the rupee, which would natu- 
rally lead to the melting of the coins in circulation, leav- 
ing India without a currency. It became necessary, 
therefore, for the India Council to promulgate decrees 
making it a penal offense to melt the rupee, or to export 
silver. Later they forbade all importation of silver, ex- 


New York 

' . i.r Pence 

October 87 3?2 44 324 

November" 8; 891 43 584 

December I to 18 85 583 42 899 

cept such as was made by the India government itself. 
The British government also again used its influence 
with the China banks to induce them to stop buying 
silver. Under these influences, the silver quotations de- 
clined during the last quarter of the year. 

The commercial situation in India, and also presum- 
ably in China, has not been met, however, but simply the 
amount of silver which the various governments and the 
arts are purchasing has been purchased at a figure less 
than the September maximum, and either the exporta- 
tion of merchandise from India, China and Japan have 
been restricted, or have not been paid for. Some of 
this commerce is most seriously needed by the United 
States and the other Allies, to say nothing of the stag- 
cr+jon which must be the result of these governmental 
actions in India. Gold will not be spared by any nation, 
except as a last recort. Silver cannot be shipped to 
India except as purchased by the India government, but 

an amount of free silver has not been produced and does 
nol exist sufficient to pay, at the present price of 88c. 
per oz., even a small proportion of the balance of trade 
in favor of India and China, if the produce and supplies 
come forward which the United States and the Allies 
sadly need. 

Good authorities conversant with the exchange situa- 
tion have given their opinion to the effect that as much 
as 200,000,000 oz. of silver could be used to pay for 
needed or past importations from India, China and 
Japan, in excess of the normal production of silver dur- 
ing the first half of the year 1918. The question which 
arises is as to where such an amount of silver can be 

Securing the Great Supply of Silver Needed 

The economist would say, doubtless, that the price 
of silver should be enhanced up to the point of bring- 
ing about the necessary production. One difficulty 
with this general rule, as applied to silver production, is 
that less than one-third of the production of silver is 
received from strictly silver mines. Considerably more 
than two-thirds of the silver is produced either from 
mines producing lead and copper, or from mines ship- 
ping their siliceous ores to lead and copper smelters. 
If the silver production should be stimulated from such 
mines, it would also very largely increase the produc- 
tion of lead and copper, which might possibly depress 
the prices of these metals to an extent which would more 
than offset the advantage to the mines of an increased 
price of silver. It is supposed that the strictly siliceous 
mines produced in the United States this year some- 
thing less than 25,000,000 oz. Probably even a greatly 
enhanced price for silver could not, during the next six 
months, increase this production more than 20%, or, 
say, 5,000,000 oz. This increase, therefore, goes a very 
small way toward a needed supply of 200,000,000 ounces. 

The only source of supply of spot silver in any quan- 
tity is the silver dollars held in the United States Treas- 
ury as security against the circulation of silver certifi- 
cates. The subject is being very seriously considered 
on the part of various governmental departments, on 
account of the war needs in connection with India prod- 
ucts, whether proper legislation can be obtained where- 
by the temporary use of this silver in dollar coins can 
be authorized, the silver to be returned through govern- 
ment purchases at a maximum price which it is expected 
will make possible an increased production of silver. 

Important Silver Shipments Made Direct to the 
East Instead of "Through London" 

The usual flow of silver via New York to London, 
and from London to India and China has been interfered 
with markedly during the last half of 1917 by the high 
cost of transportation from both New York to London 
and from London to India. This has resulted in divert- 
ing a large proportion of the production of silver in the 
United States to the Pacific Coast, for shipment from 
Pacific ports to India and China. At first, the London 
brokers made great effort to continue to purchase in 
New York, shipments to be made at their option. Large 
governmental purchases, however, made for Russia, 
China and the India governments broke the hold of the 
London brokers, and silver was largely sold in unusual 
quantities for shipment over considerable periods of 
time. It is known that, during the last half of the year, 




■ i 

seven separate sales transactions covered as large b 
quantity as 20,000,000 oz. This lefi the New Sfork 
market in great uncertainty. There were periods of 

weeks at a time when there was no market for silver 
excepting London, and yet there was no considerable 
supply of silver for shipment to London. This resulted 
in the New York market being obliged to ignore the de- 
mand via San Francisco in the daily market ((notation.-. 
India was able to secure approximately o.< 
of sycee silver from China and about 15,v0 ,000 Philip- 
pine coined dollars (which had been held in the Philip- 
pine treasury for many years), before the full advance 
in prices registered during the fall months. The demand 
for rupees, however, was so great that new coinage took 
place during the year to the number of 207,737,326, 
against only 1(5. 000. 000 in the previous year. 

Resumption ok London Domination Probable 
After the War 

Since, normally, at least three-quarters of all the sil- 
ver consumed in the world is consumed in India and 
China, it would seem that San Francisco was a more 
centrally dominating market for silver than either New 
York or London, and should any disparity in shipping 
costs continue after the war, this might be one of the 
results of the war's disturbance. But any disparity in 
shipping costs which may prevail after the war will 
probably be overcome by the control of Eastern ex- 
change, which is held in London, and it does not seem 
reasonable to expect, therefore, that anything will in- 
terfere with the resumption of London domination of 
silver values after the present war disturbance is over. 

The notable events of the year in the silver market 
have been: (1) the highest price in 40 years; (2) the 
enormous coinage of rupees; (3) the unusually large 
purchases by India from China and the Philippines; (4) 
the large purchases by Russia and (5) the diversion of 
the usual flow of silver through New York to an equal 
exportation through San Francisco. The year 1918 may 
have even more strange events in store for the silver 


At the beginning of 1917, the supply of platinum 
in the United States was fairly plentiful though Russian 
production was still much below that of the pre-war pe- 
riod. The Russian government had taken over the out- 

( In Dollars per Ounce Troy) 


Russia, Crude Metal 
New York 83 % Platinum 
Petro- Ekaterin- 















41 10 
. 40 00 

39 50 
. 38 63 
. 38 50 

38 00 

38 00 

39 25 
. 50 00 
.. 54 50 
. . 62 63 
. 85 50 

30 38 
30 38 
30 38 
30 57 
32 39 
32 39 
32 30 

37 98 
47 46 
56 40 


30 08 
30 08 
30 08 

30 08 

31 02 
31 02 
30 73 

38 70 
46 64 
56 25 

Russia. Crude Metal 

New York 83 r c Platinum 

Petro- Ekaterin- 

grad burg 

61 25 61 10 

61 14 62 625 



90 05 

90 00 

90 75 

83 10 
80 50 
78 13 
63 60 
62 56 

84 25 
89 75 

101 25 
86 87 

63 70 

66 64 
63 70 
63 21 

67 41 
67 41 
77 42 

— 1917- 

New York 
87 83 
103 75 
103 33 

103 77 
105 00 

104 75 

103 88 

104 55 
104 13 
104 00 
104 52 
104 38 

102 82 
1912. $45.55; 1911. 

63 70 

65 92 
63 92 
63 92 

66 45 
66 45 
71 44 

Year 47 13 .."... 83 40 

New York average for year 1914, $45.14: 1913. $44.1 
$43 12 

put of the mines through the agency of the State Bank 
in November, 1916. The Russian revolution thoroughly 
demoralized the industry, the peasants in several in- 
stances driving the managers of the estates away and 

attempting to work th <► According to 

i P Hutchins, an engineer who recentlj returned from 
Russia, tiie output of platinum from the Urals was 

estimated li\ Ru at 100,000 t I'ov HZ. 

in HUT. with the product ion for the preceding war \ ■ 
as follows: 166,778 oz. in L916, 118,090 oz. in 1915 and 
155,888 oz. in L914. The L917 output of Colombia ii 
e timati'tl at i'.ii.oim) troj oz. and tl tered produc 

tion of remaining countries at about 1500 troy oz. 
Roughly speaking, the world's 1917 output of platinum 
may, therefore, imated at about 131,500 tl 

ouni i 

Early in 1917. the platinum shortage in the United 
States became threatening. Conditions were aggravate d 
by heavy buying on the part of the jewelry trade. I 'Lit 
inum sales were discontinued at all U. S assay offices, 
the intention Ireing to conserve the metal for Govern- 
ment use. The U. S. Bureau of Mines took steps to in- 
crease the reserve of the metal and the public was in- 
formed that platinum in jewelry might be needed for 
war purposes. The problem of remedying the short, 
appeared without solution until late in 1917, when F. \\ 
Draper arrived in this country from Vladivostok with 
40 poods (about 21.000 troy oz.) of platinum, collected 
in Russia with the aid of other American engineers, the 
Russian-English Bank of Petrograd, and U. S. Secretary 
of Commerce Redfield. Thus the U. S. Government was 
assured of a supply much needed for technical purposes. 
The market at the beginning of 1917 was quiet at $80(5 
82i per troy oz., but rose rapidly to $105 by the end of 
February, at which figure it remained during 1917, with 
occasional small fluctuations. 

Quicksi ver 

The domestic production of quicksilver in 1917 was 
about 20 r f greater than that of 1916, which amounted 
to 29,932 flasks of 75 lb. each. The producing states, 
in the order of their importance in 1916, were Cali- 
fornia, Texas, Nevada. Oregon, Arizona and Washing- 
ton. The bulk of the output came, as usual, from Cali- 
fornia and Texas, but Oregon in 1917 may have passed 

In Texas, the Terlingua district continued its produc- 
tion. Unworked parts of the Chisos property were ex- 
tensively drilled, and a new type of rotary furnace was 
put in operation. Quicksilver was produced by the Mari- 
posa Mining Co., which purchased the holdings of the 
Marfa and Mariposa, 90 miles south of Alpine. New 
ore was opened by other operators in the Terlingua dis- 
trict under the stimulus of high prices. Considerable 
development was carried on in Arizona, the demand for 
the metal stimulating exploration. The output for 1917 
was greater than in 1916, but did not reach significant 
proportions, although there is hope for that through 
energetic development. The generally unsettled condi- 
tion of the market and the failure on the part of the 
industry to develop fresh sources of supply or markedly 
improved metallurgical practice discouraged producers. 
Details of California production and an analysis of con- 
ditions in the quicksilver industry in that state are pro- 
vided in an article by Murray Innes, published on a suc- 
ceeding page. 

That much greater quantities of quicksilver were not 
produced in 1917 to take advantage of the high price 



Vol. 105, No. 

demonstrates the comparative inflexibility of 
the industry. Plant increases are costly, and Hum. 
no assurance that a high-price level to justify them — 

M>>\ i'lll 1 PR1C1 "I Ql ICKSII \ I R 






I •* 1 7 - 


S C 16 75 SSI 04 $80 20 


1 9 DO 1 1 J SO 1 12 SO 

17 75 II. e4 II 

"7 SO It. 50 10. 1< 105 00 
I • 

102 18 

74 75 75 00 17 SO IIS 00 III 10 

75 >0 

7J 40 i lllll >)4 100 


8. 00 78 00 18 el I I . 90 I ' 

Xru S | !S 25 £17 75 ! SHU 16 

will be maintained after the war. or, for that matter. 
even while it lasts. 

The strength of the market at New York in the latter 
part of 1917 was largely the result of the freight con- 
gestion on the railroads and the scarcitj of spot metal. 

Quicksilver in ( California 
By Murray I wis 

In 1917 about -10 quicksilver mines and prospects 
were operated in California and about 20 of these prop- 
erties were productive. Approximately 1000 miners 
were employed, and the monthly production of the state 
was approximately 2000 flasks, or a total production of 
24.000 flasks for the year. The figures given by some 
■ if the smaller mines are not always accurate, as their 
output fluctuates from month to month, but it is now 
evident that compared with 1916 there was no consider- 
able increase in quicksilver production in California. 

The increased cost of labor and mine supplies affected 
quicksilver mining in California as it did all mining in 
the West, and it is safe to say that the labor costs alone 
averaged upward of S50 per flask. About 95 % of the 
California output is produced by the use of Scott roast- 
ing furnaces, which have proved the most satisfactory. 
The construction of a 50-ton furnace, with condensers 
and accessories, calls for about 300,000 brick. These 
brick are, as a rule, burned adjacent to the furnace site, 
and it has not proved practicable to make them during 
the winter season. Under average conditions such a 
plant costs about $1000 per ton of daily capacity, and 
as the quicksilver must be shipped to New York for sale, 
several months' expenses have to be carried after the 
furnace is started before returns can be expected from 
sales, which is to say, for example, that on an average 
production of 150 flasks per month there would be about 
$50,000 tied up in the metal. In other words, after the 
mine has been purchased and later developed to supply 
50 tons of ore daily, the owners are still facing an in- 
vestment of about $100,000 before returns can, under 
present marketing conditions, reasonably be expected. 

Quicksilver orebodies are, as a rule, irregular, erratic 
and uncertain. Few are large enough to justify an ex- 
tensive plant and still fewer mines have in sight any 
considerable ore reserves. It is needless to say that 
quicksilver mining has not, during the last 25 years, 
been the source of swollen fortunes, and if the indus- 
try is to survive after the war it must at least receive 

•Mining engineer. 217 Kohl HM? . Snr PTand 

more encouragement and protection than it has received 
ill the past. 

The advance in the market price of the metal was due 
entirely to scarcity, and the United states supply in first 
hands does not exceed 30 days' requirements. The sale 
of the metal was entirely competitive, and there were 
no combinations to control prices in any manner. The 
moderate increase in production during the last three 
years lias not been due to new discoveries, but mainly 
td the fad thai some of the older mines that had been 
shut down found it possible to treat, in existing fur- 
naces, ores of lower grade and were, therefore, encour- 
! to reopen. A drop in the price for even a short 
period would cause a decrease in the present production 
from these low-grade ores, and this decrease would be 
accelerated by increased operating costs. 

It is recognized that the present price of the metal 
is due entirely to war demands, and there is even now 
til inducement to invest in quicksilver mines or to 
build expensive plants that can hardly be productive — 
as explained above — within less than 12 months. The 
risk is too great that the demand may be over by the 
time any quicksilver can be produced and marketed. If, 
however, our Government were to do as Great Britain 
has done and fix a minimum price of at least $100 per 
flask, payable at San Francisco, and at this price accept, 
for the manufacture of munitions, etc., such quick- 
silver as might be offered during a stated period, I be- 
lieve that a considerably increased production would 
result. The price suggested is below the present mar- 
kel and is practically that fixed by Great Britain for 
the metal when for government use. It is mainly the 
uncertainty regarding the future that makes the busi- 
ness unattractive, and this uncertainty must be elimin- 
ated by some such method, and for a stated period, if 
increased production is deemed necessary. 

The Government now requires that al! Eastern ship- 
ments be made in full carlots, and as it is manifestly 
impossible for small producers to make such shipments, 
they are, in California, at the mercy of various dealers 
and agents and often pay large commissions and dis- 
counts for small accommodations. The Government's 
acceptance of such small lots at San Francisco should 
eliminate this feature. Even if such purchases were 
not all required for munitions, the worst that could 
happen would be the possible accumulation by the Gov- 
ernment of some quicksilver, which supply should, in 
my opinion, be carried as a reserve even in times of 
peace. If increased production is now necessary and is 
to be expected, the Government must be prepared to pay, 
in some small degree, for its total neglect of this little 
industry during the 25 years preceding the war. An 
increase in the present import duty from 10% ad 
valorem to, say, $15 per flask, to take effect after the 
war, would add the necessary assurance of future 

Few of the quicksilver mines in California are operat- 
ing at a profit, even at the present price, and without 
this protection I am of the opinion that the low price 
for the metal that will prevail after the war may speed- 
ily put an end to quicksilver mining in this country. 
Now that the rich surface ores have been exhausted, 
California producers can no longer hope to compete on 
an even basis with the European output, produced at 
small cost and skillfully marketed by the Rothschild ;. 





THE situation of copper at the end nf i*.il7 may 
be seen approximately from the figures in the 
accompanying tables. The first table gives the 
smelters' production of copper in the United states, 
this being the summary of reports received from all 
of the producers. The distribution by state of origin 
is approximately correct, but those figures are subjeel 
to more revision than is the grand total, lor the reason 
that it is impossible to make a precise allocation at this 
early date. In the preliminary returns the outputs of 
Alaska. Nevada and New Mexico are usually under 
stated. The copper production of the United States in 
1917 was less than in 1916. It is to be distinctly under- 



















California . 



> 1,358,334 




a. 126,000 













Montana . . 







6b. 394,906 



New Mexico . 














ii.l South 





Other States 





rotala 1,158.581.876 1.423.698.160 1.942.776.309 1,888,395.945 

i it Included in "Other States 


lltl I'mill'l-l 

Source 1914 1915 1916 1917 

North American ore 1,327.488,479 1,612,450,828 2,187.328,864 2, 1 17,2'5, 708 





Foreign ere. 

To foreign refiners. . 

ro American refiners 1.361,718,426 1.647.293.016 2.259,677,563 2.198,901.46(1 
Crude copper import- 
ed 131.125.076 140.415.341 1 52.770.536 281.21 1,588 

1,398.484,346 1,687,027,136 2.298.101 140 2,219,066,922 
36.765.920 39.734,120 38.423,577 33,266,348 

Total crude copper, 1,492.843,502 1,787,708,357 2,412,448,099 2.480.113.048 
la) Estimated on basis of nine months' returns 

stood, however, that the figures here given are the smelt- 
ers' production, not the refiners'. 

The production of refined copper in 1917, as reported 
by the refiners, was 2,350,240,606 lb. against 2,300,000,- 
000 lb. in 1916. 

The second table gives the total supply of crude cop- 
per available to American refiners. 

At the end of 1917 the electrolytic copper refining 
capacity of the United States was about 2,800,000,000 
lb. per annum. Allowing 300,000,000 lb. per annum 
for the capacity for Lake copper, there was a total of 
about 3,100,000,000 lb. The actual production in 1917, 
excluding casting copper, was a little less than 2,300,- 



(In Metrir 










(c) 7 1,046 















(e) 3.000 

(c) 76.039 


(e) 35,000 


(e) 46, 200 

(e) 25,000 









le) 4,000 

(c) 101,467 




(r) 42.000 










O) 45,620 
(9) 75,345 
i.l 4.000 

(el 16.000 



Spain and Portugal 

Other Countries 

(<•) 45.000 
(e) 37.315 
(e) 42.000 
(e) 25.000 

Totals 929,649 1,083.730 1.406.353 1,413,056 

(a) The statistics in this table are our own compilations, except where specially 
noted to the contrary. (6) As reported by Henry R. Merton & Co. (el \- 
offieially reported, (r/1 Privately communicated to us from Japan (g) Esti- 
mated on basis of nearly complete reports. 

000,000 Hi. Although tins supply of refined copper wa 
short of actual requirements, it ii probable that the 
I nited States now ; an adequate refining 

pacitj providing it can be used at the maximum. II 
ever, it is doubtful whether any Buch plant can '"■ opei 
•ii'ii at 100' capacity, or anything like it, in view ot 
the present • ns ot inefficiency , 

tin Nfev i ornelia Copper Co, was a new American 
produce, in 1917 whose output is included with that of 
the smelters, although in fact M produces electrolytic 
eat hmles direct from ore, which cathodes are shipped 
to a refiner simply for melting and casting in ingot . 
cakes or wire-bars. 

The third table summarizes the world's production 
of copper in 1917. Resides the figures for the United 


1916 1917- 

i , ; tobei 

13.087.490 150.962.096 14.331.931 
Unrefined, bli 

etc 14.731.276 229.578.498 

Refined bare, plates, eti 5.782.771 8.411,163 

Old and miscellaneous 976.388 8.643.233 

I'm Months 

18.747.533 289.911.088 
4.362.544 10,388,11,4 

1,614,589 I7.9'i7,7i.n 

I otale 

34,577,925 397.594.990 39.056.597 460.78(1.8 1 'i 

, II D STATES 1 XPOR1 - ' 'I ' OPP1 I 


i Ictober Ten Months 

i ire, matte, etc . con 
I farefined, blister, etc 

Refined ingot-. bars, ilr 

Plates iiml sheets 
Win , except insulated 

I llil ainl scrap 

( lomposil inn mets i cop 

pi i 'lin f valui 
i i ipper pip s ainl tubes 






I 1.326.996 





2,008.1 19 



Pen Months 

3). 177.546 

11.829 (,i) 1.199,825 
523,007 (a) 6.165.581 

Totals 64.713,082 660.148.541 98,191.954 948.741.369 

(a) Figures cover period beginning July 1 

States, Mexico, Canada and Cuba, which are based upon 
our own direct statistical reports, we have received late 
information from Australia. Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Japan, 
Russia, Africa, and Spain and Portugal. Although it 
is inevitable that final returns will alter our preliminary 
total of the world's production, it has been the experi- 
ence of many years that the change is only a small per- 
centage of the preliminary figure. 

In the haste with which these statistics are presented 
it is unwise for us to attempt to draw many deductions 
from them. Moreover, some more detailed statistics 
are necessary. For example, we ought to know the pro- 
duction of American mines at least by quarters. Their 
total production in 1917 fell short of the production in 
1916, but by no such amount as was lost during the 
strike. The probability is that the output of the mines 
had increased greatly during the first and second quar- 
ters of the year; the third quarter was a period of small 
production, while the fourth quarter was again a period 
of large production, but not up to the rate of the first 
half of the year. 

We do not venture at present to draw any deductions 
from the apparent difference between smelters' produc- 
tion and refiners' production in 1917. It is manifest 
that the refiners did not make anything like the increased 
output that a year ago they were expecting to make. 
Their failure was due partly to strikes in their plants, 
partly to delays in ob ining raw material owing to 
freight congestion and strikes at the mines, and partly 
to the increasing inefficiency of personnel and plant. 


Vol. 106, No. 2 

The world's production of copper shows a small in- 
;t nothing approaching the increase o( 

1916 over 1915, The gains in 1917 were made in coun- 
tries other than the United States. Japan being one of 
the most important sources of increased copper supply. 
tralia, Peru. Chile ami Africa all showed 
increases, while I the United States there were 

decreases in Mexico ami Russia. 

Copper-Smelting and Refining Works 
of North America 

The accompanying tables corrected up to Dee. 1. 1917, 
give the names of the companies engaged in copper 
smelting and refining in the United States. Canada ami 
Mexico and the situation of their works. In the case of 
the smelteries the number of their smelting furnaces 

ami the estimated annual capacity in terms of tons of 
(halve, meaning ore and flux, but not including fuel, is 
given. It should be noted, however, that not all of the 
furnaces reported are in operation all the time. In- 
most cases the data have been communicated to the 
Journal by the operating companies. However, the fig- 
ures should be taken as only approximately correct. 
Some companies may have figured their annual capacity 
on the basis of the year of 365 days, and others on the 
basis of 350 days, or something else. Anyway, annual 
capacity is a rather variable figure. In modern practice 
a rather large quantity of ore is reduced directly to cop- 
per by charging it into the converter along with matte, 
this being shown separately in some cases by the last 
column of the table. 

Plants were under construction in 1917 by the Great 
Western Smelters Corporation and the United Verde 
Extension Mining Co. in Arizona. 



Arnrr : 

inn Co 







American <tn 

rarities ■ 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co. 
Anaconda Copper Mining 
Arilona Copp- r < '<> 
Compagnic du Boll 
Calumet 4 Arizona Mining Co 
Canada Copper Corpn . 
Canadian Copper Co. 

Situation of Works 

-. Mex 
Imboy, N .1 
i Imaha, Neb 

3.L.P., Mex. 

ii. Ariz 

Garfield, I tah 

TftCOIliLi. Vs 

Velard- fit. 1 » • >., Mex 

^nacondn, Mont 

i alb , Mom 
Clifton. Wiz 

i. Mex 
Douglas. \n/ 

. ! '. I 

CoppcrelitT. ' 'nr 
( tenant 

Humboldt. Ariz 
Trail. B. (' 
Douglas. Ariz 

Morenci, Wiz 


Butte, Mont . 

Grand Forks. B C 

Anyox, R C 
. Utah 

Miami, Ariz 

tilth, R C. 

Kennett, Calif 

Thompson, Nev 
Concepcion del Oro, Zac, 

Mex . 
Coniflton. Ont . . 
Martinez, Calif . . 
McGill, Nev 

Hill. \ V 
m-: ol \ i 
Globe. \nz 

.1 . . . . 

Campo Seep, Calif 

in. Aria 
San Pedro, s M 
Clifton, Ariz 

Mo ..f Blast 





Bouse, Ariz 
Copperliill. Tenn 
Teziutlan, Puebln. Mpx 
Torreon, Cofth . Mex 
Chrome. N. .1 
Midvale, Utah 
Clarkdale, \riz ... 
Ouray, Colo 
Cooke, Monl 




< ' tji icitj 









V. of Re 

t erberal ory 










; f> hod 

605, :oo 
10). 000 











Cananra Consolidated Copper Co 
Consolidated Arizona - 
Consolidated Mining and Smelting I Jo 
CopperQueen Branch. Phelps Dodge ( 'orpn. . . . 

ins; Co. (c) 
Ducktown Sulph'ir, < Iron Co 

East Bu'te Copp-T Mining Co 
(iranby Consolidated Mining. Smelting and 

Power Co 
Granby Consolidated Mining. Smelting and 

Power Co. 
International Smelting Co. . 
International Smelting Co 
Ladysraith Smelting Corpn '/ ' 

Mammoth Copper Stining Co 

Mason Valley Mines Co 
Mazapil Copper Co 

Mond Nickel Co 

Mountain Copp-r Co 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co 

Nichols Copper Co 

Norfolk Smelting Co 

Old Dominion Co 

Orford Works. International Nickel Co 

Perm Mining Co . ... 

. t /i ..... 

Santa Fe Gold and Copper Co 

Shannon Copper Co 

Swansea Consolidated Gold and Copper Mining 

Co. i /) 

Tenncs* e Coprxr c 

Teiiutlan Copper Mining and Smelting Co. < /) 

Cia. Mel Torreon 

' tab Befining I o 

Cnited \'erde Copper Co. . 
Wanakah Mini 

rn Sm. <fc Power Co 

Raw ore smelted as flux. "•> Inelurl d in furnace tonnagt (c) Vow known as Phelps Dodge Corpn., Morenei Rrr.nJh. 

ing and Refining Co t raw ore chargid f/) No iiion. 







No. of 



in Ore( .) 

















67 000 

irl) Plant sold to Ouray Smelt- 


1 914 Capacity, 1915 Capacity, 1916 Capacity, 1917 Capacity, 

Works lation ids (a) Pounds (a) Pounds (a) I'imbU) 

Nichols Cotrner Co .. Laurel Hill, N. Y. 400,000,000 400,000,000 450,000,000 500,000,000 

. J. 400.000.000 400.000.000 460,000,000 4,3,0)0.000 

,g and Rolling Co . Canton, Mtf. 3-. ,.000.000 354.000.000 600.000.000 720,000.000 

Maurer, N I 216,000,000 240,000.000 240.000,000 288,000.000 

Chrome, N J 200,000,000 200,000,000 230.000,000 250.000.000 

Bally Newark, ' 48,000,000 48.000,000 48,000.000 48.000.000 

AnaeondaC fold plant) Mont. 65,000.000 65.000,000 65,000.000 65.000.000 

Anaconda Cop. Min. Co. u,. w plan, i Falls. Mont (b) (t) 180,000.000 180,000,000 

i nrt.Wash. 48.000,000 120,000,000 1)0,000,000 204,000,000 

Calumet 4: II Hubbell, Mich 65.000,000 65,000,000 65,000,000 65,000.000 

Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co... Trail. B. C. (6) (6) 8,400.000 14,000,000 

Totals. 1.778,000,000 1,892,000,000 2,4), 4)11)1 2.794.000,000 
(ii Official figures furnished by the respective companies (6) New works put into operation in 1916. 

January 12. 1018 



The Copper Market in 1917 

At the beginning of 1917 the quotation for copper 
was 28Jc. and the market was dull. Consumers were 
reselling, and their offerings, frequently made in 
an injudicious way, depressed prices. On Jan. 10 

the quotation was 26Jc. and it looked as if con- 
sumers were nearly through reselling, the price having 
declined below the figure at which many of them 
had purchased. 'Dure was undoubtedly a buying power 
at a little below the existing level. The situation was 
such that, as one producer expressed it, 10,000 tons 
could not be bought without putting the price up 2c 
and could not be sold without putting it down 4c. About 
the middle of January a change in sentiment led to a 
sharp rally, and at the end of the month the quotation 
was 30*c. A strike in the refinery at Perth Amboy and 
bad freight conditions, delaying the transportation of 
both crude and refined copper, were troublesome factors. 
At the beginning of February the market was in a 
very strong position, producers having no copper to offer 
freely except for deliveries in July and later. There was 


New York * ■ London Standard . 

Month 1914 1915 1916 1917 1914 1915 1916 1-917 

January 14 22J 13 641 24 008 28 675 64 304 60 756 88 083 131 921 

February.. 14 491 14 394 26 440 31 750 65 259 63 494 102 667 137 895 

March 14 131 14 787 26 310 31 481 64 276 66 152 107 714 136 750 

April. . 14 211 16 811 27 895 27 935 64 747 75 096 124 319 133 842 

May .... 13 996 18 506 28 625 28 788 63 182 77 oOO 135 457 130 000 

June 13 603 19 477 26 601 29 962 61 336 82 574 112 432 130 000 

July 13 223 18 796 23 865 26 620 60 540 76 Oil 95 1.19 128 409 

-i ... . * 16 "41 2b 120 25 380 * 68 673 110 283 122 391 

September... * 17 502 26 855 25 073 * 68 915 113 905 117 500 

October *. 17 686 27 193 23 500 * 72 601 122 750 110 000 

November... II 739 18 627 30 625 23 500 53 227 77 744 134 659 110 000 

December... 12 801 20.133 31 890 23 500 56 841 80 773 145 316 110.000 

Year 13 602 17 275 27 202 27.180 61 524 72 532 116 059 124 892 

New York, cents per pound. London, pounds sterling per long ton of standard 
copper. * No quotations. 

a large demand for copper for February-April de- 
livery, but no producer was able to furnish much of it, 
or, if he could put his hands on a little, he desired to 
couple it with later deliveries. There was no longer 
any copper offered for resale. In these circumstances, 
premiums were again paid, as high as 34c. being done, 
although the aggregate of such business was but trifling. 
Things became stronger as the month wore on, it be- 
coming clearer that there was an unsatisfied demand of 
considerable proportions for copper to be delivered prior 
to July. At the middle of February the quotation of 
the major market was 32c. and at the end of February 
it was 32 Jc. Owing to transportation troubles, arrange- 
ments were made to bring copper from the West to New 
York by a roundabout way. 

Early in March considerable business for third- 
quarter delivery was done at about 32c. and copper for 
prompt delivery fetched as high as 37c. A strike at the 
Nichols refinery added a new complication to the situa- 
tion. During March it appeared, however, that domestic 
consumers were reluctant to contract for third-quarter 
delivery, which was the only supply for which the pro- 
ducers could sell in quantity. What was of more im- 
portance, though, was the prospect that the United 
States would soon enter the war. The announcement on 
Mar. 21 that copper producers had agreed to furnish the 
U. S. Government with about 45,000,000 lb. of copper at 
16 |c. for deliveries extending 12 months from Apr. 1, 
added to the confusion of thought. This tender by the 
producers was a patriotic gift, but many misunder- 
stood it. At the end of March the price was 30J cents. 

1 ; 'i from tl ■■.He of April the dominating In 

fluence was uncerta i ting governmental ad 

ciallj whether th American Governmenl would re 
quisition m« re i 163< and whether the Allied 

would be supplied on the Bame ten 
There continued to ind for earh 

liveries, hut there was a distinct desire in 
quarter or third-quarter delivery at -harp eon 

cessions, on the th ■>■ that copper would certainly go 

no higher and probably would go lower. This bearish- 
ness was strengthened by the appn thai without 

doubt domestic business had contracted somewhat. Al- 
though manufacturing plants were running a1 full 
P city, then- \\n,k «a i on a mailer kind of business, not 
footing up to so large a tonnage as when they were 
engaged on heavy rods and other heavy material that 
went rapidly through their works. On the other hand, 
an encouraging feature was the clearing up of the rail- 
way situation. By Apr. 20 the market was down to 
25 c, but at that level there was buying interest, and at 
the end of the month the quotation was up to 27 cents. 

The strength of the market exhibited early in May 
was ascribable to the distinct intimation that the I'. S. 
Government was going to buy a very large quantity 
of copper, and that the price would not be determined 
arbitrarily, but would conform to natural market con- 
ditions. This induced a buying movement of consider- 
able proportions, confined to American manufacturers, 
which put the price up to 30c. at the end of May. 

The strength continued into June, the major market 
being quoted at 30k. at the middle of the month, while 
for June deliveries 33 to 35c. was realized. Before the 
end of the month, however, premiums largely disap- 
peared. Important events this month were the strike 
at Anaconda, which attained serious proportions, and 
the announcement by Secretary Daniels that he was go- 
ing to leave the price of copper for Government re- 
quirements to be determined by the Federal Trade Com- 
mission on the basis of average cost of production. At 
the end of June the quotation was 291c. Late in June 
it was reported that the Government had contracted 
with the producers for 60,000,000 lb. of copper at 25c, 
delivery extending over the ensuing 12 months. At the 
end of June the quotation of the market stood at 29!c. 

July opened dull, and about the middle of the month 
there developed real pressure from some quarters that 
wanted to sell copper, which put the price down to 24 k. 
However, copper was intrinsically strong, and the price 
could not remain so low, for buying was induced which 
was superior to all pressure to sell and advanced the 
market to 27 Jc. by the end of the month. 

During July and August there was much discussion 
over probable action by the Government. There was a 
persistent belief in many consuming quarters that the 
Government was going to fix arbitrarily a low price for 
copper, and was going to require that itself, the Allies, 
and all consumers should be supplied at that price. Not 
all consumers, however, were deluded by such talk, many 
failing to see how the price to the outside consumer 
could be determined by anything but the law of supply 
and demand. Nevertheless, the mystery that was 
shrouding affairs in Washington had the effect of neu 
tralizing the strong statistical position and destroying 
any incipient demand, and in the resulting dullness the 
market dropped to 24ic, at which figure August closed. 


Vol. 105, No. 2 

The big contract with the foreign government that 
Oct, 1916, had practically been tilled 
by the end of July. At that time, some refiners had 
shipped away all the copper owed by them. The others 
had completed their deliveries, but some of the copper 
still remained here, owing to inability of the buyers to 
get ship capacity to take it away. During July and 

August the strikes in Montana and Arizona curtailed 
production very seriously, but August showed some im- 
provement in the situation in Arizona However, the 
curtailment of product ion was BO serious that refiners 
who previous]] had been working on accumulated stocks 
began to find themselves compelled to shut down. Great 
Falls being the first refinery to be closed. Political 
tampering with copper was extremely irritating. The 
Federal Trade Commission had been put to work to ex- 
amine the books of the producers and find out their costs 
of production. The purchase of 60,000.000 lb. at 25c. 
about the end oi June was repudiated in higher quar- 
ters, and Secretary Daniels offered the producers 18^. 
The producers refusing to accept that, it was later re- 


(In Cent.- |>. r Pound, f ■> 1> . Mill) 

. 1915 . l»lf. - - 1917 


ppei Wire Copper Wire Copper 

Janusrv 14 80 19 50 25 70 31 00 37 00 42 00 

15 19 20 25 28 60 34 50 37 00 42 12 

lo 09 20 63 29 13 34 50 38 1 1 43 00 

Wil 18 03 22 38 31 10 36 00 38 20 42 20 

Mav 19 95 24 50 33 75 37 88 36 56 40 30 

June 21.13 25 25 32 50 38 00 35 00 38 75 

21 63 25 50 30 25 38 00 34 12 38 22 

19 25 23 90 31 38 37 00 32 85 36 85 

September 1" M 23 50 32 00 38 00 31 00 35 00 

19 28 23 50 32 35 38 00 31 00 35 00 

ber 19 84 24 44 35 56 40 37 28 83 "17 

December . 21 81 26 00 37 00 42 00 26 84 31 74 

19 21 22 93 31 61 37 10 33 87 38 19 

ported that the War Industries Board had agreed to ad- 
vance to the copper producers 22k., leaving the differ- 
ence between that price and 25c. to be settled after re- 
ceipt of the report of the Federal Trade Commission. 
These discussions in no way deprived the Government 
of necessary copper, for the producers supplied all that 
was required, but refused to bill for it at all. This 
finally resulted in the Government owing the producers 
about $10,000,000. At the end of August the statistical 
position of copper had become very strong, for domestic 
consumers were using up the supplies in their yards, 
while, on the other hand, production was diminishing. 
The Washoe and Great Falls works of the Anaconda 
company were closed on Aug. 27, wherefore there was 
complete suspension of operations in the Anaconda 
mines. The Great Falls refinery was idle. The Rari- 
tan refinery, which was the next to exhaust its stock 
of crude copper, was running at only two-thirds capac- 
ity; another large refinery was down to three-fourths 
normal production, and although the other refineries 
were still supplied with crude, their stocks were getting 
low. In spite of politics it was hard to keep the copper 
market down. 

On Sept. 6 it became known that the War Industries 
Board had bought about 77,000,000 lb. of copper for the 
Allies at 25c. per lb., which led to a confident belief that 
the price that our own Government would pay would 
be the same. This advanced the market to 26ic, at 
which figure it stood when on Sept. 21 came the news 
of the fixing of the price at 23k. f.o.b., N. Y., to take 
effect immediately and to continue for four months. 

The summary fixing of the price at 23k-, which was 
by agreement between the War Industries Board and the 

copper producers, immediately threw the copper market 
into a state of chaos. The agreement in no wise took 
into account the status of existing contracts, the po- 
sition of those houses that refine copper from raw ma- 
terial which they buy, or the complicated organization 
^f the business in general. 

New machinery was promptly created by the organ- 
ization of the Copper Producers' Committee. It was im- 
mediately recognized that the supply of copper was in- 
sufficient to meet the demands of the Government and 
also of domestic consumers. Consequently, the latter 
were informed fully respecting the situation and their 
i oSperation in adjusting their business to a ration basis, 
so to speak, was secured. By the end of the month the 
administration of the copper business had been pretty 
well organized. The Copper Producers' Committee be- 
came the controlling and distributing body. The actual 
business was done through the United Metals Selling 
Co., and the American Smelting and Refining Co., which 
became practically the business agents in the dealings 
with the Government. The United Metals Selling Co. 
handles the business with the U. S. Government, while 
the American Smelting and Refining Co. takes care of 
that for the foreign countries. Orders being received, 
these agents requisition the several producers to fill 
them according to information respecting their ability 
to supply just the kinds and shapes of copper that are 
needed. There is no question about the several pro- 
ducers obtaining their proper share of business, for 
there is not enough copper to meet the demand. The 
United Metals Selling Co., and the American Smelting 
and Refining Co. render their bills to the respective gov- 
ernments, and upon receipt of the money they remit to 
the producers who have filled the orders. These two 
concerns are, therefore, clearing houses for the busi- 
ness. Domestic orders are billed and payment is col- 
lected by the individual producer in the old-fashioned 
way. All of the copper is sold at 23 k. f.o.b. New York, 
cash basis. In deliveries to domestic consumers the 
business is done on that basis and freight is added, 
while in the event of a desire to arrange for payment in 
any other way than cash against bill of lading, private 
arrangements covering interest charges, etc., are made. 

By the end of October the copper business was going 
along very smoothly, which was due largely to the gen- 
erous cooperation of manufacturers, who abstained from 
demanding what they did not immediately need, who re- 
duced the stocks in their yards and arranged to conduct 
their business with a smaller quantity of copper in semi- 
finished forms in circulation through their works. They 
drifted gradually to larger business with the Govern- 
ment, and less for domestic industry. About the only 
other feature of major interest was the development 
during December of considerable business with domestic 
consumers for delivery subsequent to January, some 
contracts being entered into for delivery as far ahead 
as June. This business was, of course, outside the 
agreement with the Government. But it was done at the 
price of 23k'. without any guarantee. 

A conference in December between the Government 
and producers respecting the continuation of the agree- 
ment made on Sept. 21, for four months ending Jan. 21, 
1918, reached no conclusion. Some smaller producers 
have bitterly protested their inability to meet expenses 
when receiving only 23k. for copper. 

fanuarj 12, L918 



The Butte District 

i;v B. B. Th \mk 

The production both of copper and zinc in the Butte 

district was approximately normal during the firsl five 
months of 1917, but suffered a decided curtailmenl in 
June, July, August and September, reaching the lowesl 
point in September. The falling off in output was duo 
to the closing down of many of the mines and reduction 
works as a result of labor troubles instigated by a band 
of disloyal agitators, who endeavored by a well-estab- 
lished propaganda to curtail the output of copper and 
zinc, so necessary for the successful prosecution of the 
war in which we had rightfully become involved. 

In the early part of June the North Butte Mining Co. 
suffered from one of the most disastrous shaft fires that 
ever occurred in the district, so far as loss of life was 
concerned, and the agitators, taking advantage of this 
opportunity, proceeded to organize a so-called union of 
the miners, known as the Metal Mine Workers, under the 
guidance of the Industrial Workers of the World. Many 
of the men joined the organization, largely as a result of 
threats and intimidation, and violence to individual 
workmen was freely used. A large number of miners, 
not wishing to take part in the disturbance, left the 
camp, and in the latter part of August the mines and 
smelteries of the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. were 
shut down. About the middle of September work was 
resumed generally throughout the district, and each day 
has shown a decided gain in the number of men work- 
ing, and a marked increase in the tonnage of ore hoisted 
from the mines. The district is operating to above 
90 r r of normal; but there is still a shortage of men, 
due largely to the fact that conscription has taken sev- 
eral thousand employees out of the camp. It should be 
borne in mind that the labor conditions from which 
Butte suffered were general in most of the large 
copper camps of the United States, and all of the 
so-called strikes were fostered by the same organization, 
namely, the Industrial Workers of the World. 

On account of the shortage of manganese in the 
United States, a great deal of attention was given to 
this subject. A considerable tonnage was mined from 
the Hibernia mine, situated in the extreme western end 
of the district, and the Butte Copper and Zinc Co. has 
been giving the matter serious consideration, with fair 
prospects of success. If the tests now being made by 
the steel companies on manganese ore from Butte prove 
successful, it will mean much to the United States so 
far as available supply is concerned, as the normal sup- 
ply of imported manganese to this country has been 
curtailed because of the lack of shipping facilities. 

Notwithstanding the turmoil and agitation which ex- 
isted in the district for several months, prosperity is in 
evidence everywhere, largely due to the fact that all 
of the operating companies have at all times evidenced a 
disposition to advance the wage scale in proportion to 
the increase in the cost of living. 

Butte in particular and Montana in general have done 
more than their share in furnishing their full quota of 
men for the National Army, and the subscriptions to 
Liberty Bonds, the Red Cross, and for other charitable 

obje I in'. -n jri ed, than In 

lar dist i ;. I ,n iiir i Inited Stati 1 he Montana 1 1 
ments which have alreadj i the call to the colore 

comp i favorably with any body of soldiei 

rvice, being composed of hardy men who have lived 
in a i i] and who . tomed to outdoor 

life; thai they will give a ount of themi elve on 

the bat I le line in Prance i a for 

Lake Superior Copper Industry in 1917 
By James M m N vughton* 

The o ling feature of the year's work was the 

rising costs of product ion, which will be shown by forth- 
coming annual reports. With the cost of coal almost 
double what it was in 1916 and other supplies exhibiting 
a proportionate increase, even the best of the companies 
will show a copper cost that leaves little if any margin 
of profit at the average selling price of pre-war years. 
At the established price of 23 ic, such companies as 
Centennial, Lake, La Salle, Mass, Victoria and Winona 
cannot make a profit and still carry on the development 
essential to their growth and future existence. A cur- 
tailment of production in the district ensued and even 
some of the richer companies had to limit their opera- 
tions to the more productive areas. The scarcity of 
labor was not so serious as in other districts, and the 
total copper produced did not show a great decrease 
from 1916. The older companies had to limit operations 
to some extent and little exploratory work was done, 
so that existing conditions do not make for the ultimate 
good of the district. 

The only new company which began active operations 
was the Seneca, which is sinking a shaft to cut the 
Kearsarge lode north of the Ahmeek and below the 
Mohawk. On the other hand, the Adventure and the 
Keweenaw mines shut down entirely, Winona was 
turned over to tributers and other mines temporarily 
closed certain of their shafts. The year witnessed the 
passing of the Tamarack Mining Co., which was ab- 
sorbed by the Calumet & Hecla. 

The improvements made in mining were directed 
toward compensating for a decreased supply of labor, 
present and prospective. Power haulage was extended 
underground, even at increased costs per ton trammed 
when equipment was included, as this was the only solu- 
tion of the production problem. For this work storage- 
battery locomotives seemed best adapted in most of the 
mines. The tendency was toward concentration of min- 
ing operations and increased shaft capacity, thereby de- 
creasing overhead expenses. Increased production is 
the only possible offset for increasing cost of labor and 
supplies and decreasing copper content of the rock. 

Metallurgical developments were few- in 1917. Fine 
grinding in Hardinge conical mills became standard 
practice throughout the district, the extent of fine 
grinding in each plant being determined by local con- 
ditions. Flotation made no great headway, although 
plants are in process of construction at Calumet & Hecla 
and at White Pine. The amygdaloid properties offer no 
great field for flotation as the mine rock is lean and the 
slimes, unlike sulphides, are the leanest of the tailings. 

•First vice president. Anaconda Copper Mining- Co.. 42 Broad- 
way. New York 

•Vice president and general manager, Calumet & Hec'a Min- 
ing Co.. Calumet. Mich. 



Vol. 105, No. 2 

hing on conglomerate ore proved a great success, 
i>ut its application to amygdaloid ores is not likely loi- 
ns thai apply to flotation. 
The year dosed with all the larger mines forcing pro- 
duction to the limit of then- labor facilities, at the ex 
pense both of development and exploration, in an effort 
ipply the war needs of the nation. 

Copper Production in Arizona 
r.\ W U.TEB Douglas 

Another abnormal year in the copper industry of 
ona ended with 1917. Not only wa the quotations] 
market price for the metal during the first seven 
months higher even than in 1916, but labor troubles of 
almost universal prevalence served to reduce and in 
some eases for months at a time to stop completely 
the output of Borne of the mines. The production for 
the first six months assumed record proportions. 
Stimulated by a 28c. copper market, a maximum output 
of the plant of the Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co. 
and from the mines of the United Verde Extension 
was attained. The New Cornelia, at Ajo, also entered 
the producing class, while the Magma and the mines 
at Imperial materially increased their production over 
that of the previous year. The high price of the 
metal permitted the older producers to attack low-grade 
orebodies at a profit, and mills and smelteries were 
operated to capacity. Under these favorable conditions, 
the production for the first half of 1917 reached the 
large total of 400,000,000 lb., though for the calendar 
year the production was only 660,000,000 lb., or 6$ 
less than in 1916. 

While the New Cornelia company, in the throes of 
construction, had experienced labor difficulties in the 
early part of the year, it was not until May and June 
that a concerted and apparently state-wide attempt was 
made to unionize or shut down the important camps. 
The first demand for union recognition and increased 
wages was made on the operators of Jerome. Recogni- 
tion being refused but a wage increase granted, a strike 
was called for May 25. The Industrial Workers of the 
World, controlling the radical union and non-union ele- 
ment, injected themselves into the controversy and 
complicated the situation. The good offices of Federal 
Mediator McBride served to induce the union to with- 
draw its demand and the International Union of Mine, 
Mill and Smelter Workers, formerly the Western Fed- 
eration of Miners, called off the strike on June 5, the 
smeltery of the United Verde having continued to run 
throughout. On June 26, the I. W. W. organization 
called a strike at Bisbee, and through specious argu- 
ments, intimidation and violence induced upward of 
half the miners to quit. On July 12, the sheriff deported 
from the district about 1300 of the most active dis- 
turbers, many of whom were Austrians or natives of 
the Balkan States. This strike was unique in that no 
demands were made by any regular labor organization, 
the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter 
Workers, Western Federation of Miners, through its 
president, repudiating and condemning the strike. July- 
witnessed the complete suspension of all mining opera- 
tions in the Globe-Miami district through a strike 

called bj the International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers and the Industrial Workers of the 
World. The Morenci-l'lifton mines were also closed 
down because of the refusal of demands of the Mexican 
employees tor greatly increased wages. 

In September, the President appointed a labor com- 
mission with Secretary of Labor Wilson as chairman 
to visit the scenes of labor disturbances and endeavor 
to mediate existing strikes and devise a means of pre- 
venting, if possible, the recurrence of similar troubles 
during the war. This commission arrived in Arizona 
in October, and at Globe, where operations had been 
resumed with reduced forces, provided for the reem- 
ployment of those strikers who had not been guilty of 
treasonable speech or acts, and appointed a mediator 
whose decision should be final in matters which could 
not be adjusted between the operators and their em- 
ployees. At Morenci and Clifton similar action was 
taken and the mines of that district were reopened in 

The interesting 5000-ton leaching and electrolyzing 
installation of the New Cornelia Copper Co. was com- 
pleted and put into operation, and from the start proved 
a complete success, not only technically and com- 
mercially, but the nominal output of the plant has been 
exceeded and the estimated costs confirmed. At the 
Copper Queen the removal of Sacramento Mountain, to 
expose for steam shoveling a large body of low-grade 
disseminated ore, was commenced. This operation in- 
volves the removal and transportation to rather remote 
points of 8,000,000 cu.yd. of overburden in order to 
make an estimated tonnage of 6,000,000 of ore avail- 
able for openpit mining. A concentrator of 3000-tons 
daily capacity will be built at a point about three miles 
distant, in which the direct-flotation method will be 
followed. The United Verde Extension Mining Co. has 
designed and expects to have completed next spring a 
smeltery on the Verde River for the treatment of its 
ore by blast furnaces and converters. 

•President. Phelps Dodge Corporation, fifi John St., New Yoi k 

Selling Australian Copper 

Melbourne Correspondence 

An important step with regard to the disposal of 
Australian copper, which before the war was sold al- 
most entirely through the German metal ring, was 
taken in 1917, in the formation of a Copper Producers' 
Association. Arrangements were made for the asso- 
ciation to have entire control of the shipping and 
selling for all the principal producers on lines similar 
to those adopted by the Zinc Producers' Association, 
protecting the mutual interests of the producers, and 
carrying out the shipping and sale on a cooperative 
basis. The policy of selling the bulk of the copper 
direct to the Imperial government will probably be fur- 
ther extended. The Australian production amounts to 
approximately 40,000 tons per annum, and is therefore 
of great importance to both the Commonwealth and the 
Empire generally. Application has been made to the 
Commonwealth treasurer for permission to register the 
Copper Producers' Association Pty., Ltd. 

Membership of the association is confined to pro- 
ducing or treatment companies, and the Commonwealth 
will have a representative on the board of directors in 

Januarj 12, L918 


Melbourne, while the Imperial government has the 
to appoint a representative to the London board. The 
association will have power to enter into contracts for 
the sale of all kinds of copper ores, mattes, unrefined 
and refined copper, and. after satisfying Australian 
requirements, will sell as much copper as possible to 
consumers in Britain, the entire proceeds being returned 
to producers, less the actual cost of administration and 
reali at ion. The basis of all dealings will he equal t real 
ment for producers, irrospoetne ol I. .nn. ,■.■,■ Mm :■..-. 

■lament representation on the hoard protecting the small 

The following companies have agreed already to sell 
through the association: Wallaroo & Moonta Mining 
and Smelting, Electrolytic Refining and Smelting, 
Great Cobar, Hampden-Cloncurry Copper .Mines, Ltd., 
Mount Cuthbert, Mount Ellicott, Mount Lyell Blocks 
Copper Mines, Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Co., 
Ltd., and Mount Morgan Gold Mining Co., Ltd. Other 
producers who may desire to join the association or 
sell copper through it may be included. The capital 
of the company is £50,000, divided into shares of £1 
each, and the original issue is intended to be 10,000 

Provisions in the memorandum of association state 
that each producing company holding not less than 500 
shares, or any two or more producers holding together 
not less than 500 shares, will have the right to nominate 
one director. A director may be removed if the company 
he represents ceases to produce sufficient copper to 
justify his continuance on the board. An executive 
committee, on which the Commonwealth government 
will have a representative, will be selected by the board 
to carry on the general business of the association, 
and the articles of association include provisions that 
the Copper Producers' Association shall remain abso- 
lutely under British control. 

The formation of the association, it is pointed out 
in a statement issued by the prime minister's depart- 
ment, is not intended to interfere with existing arrange- 
ments for the purchase of ores, mattes, etc., but to 
provide that the resulting refined copper reaches the 
market only through the cooperative association. An 
agreement already drafted and substantially approved 
stipulates that the basis of the association is absolute 
equality of treatment to each supplying company. In 
the event of complaints on this head, the Commonwealth 
government will be asked to appoint a referee to inquire 
into the complaint, the parties abiding by the decision. 

Sulphuric Acid 

Right from the first of 1917 the demand created and 
maintained by war conditions continued to increase the 
consumption of sulphuric acid, and the increase in the 
production was not commensurate with the consumption. 
This has been particularly noticeable in the case of 
acids of the higher strength, that is, 66° B. and oleum, 
although it is true also, but to a modified extent, with 
respect to acid of 60° B. The cause was, of course, 
:he limited concentrating capacity and the relatively 
small number of contact acid plants in proportion to 
•he regular chamber plants. 

At the beginning of 1917 the 60° acid market was, 
-elatively speaking, weak, in spite of the fact that a 

e supplj was not available, mo t producers ha 
sold the majoi portion of their production for 
time ahei d. At < bat time 60 w id > manded a pi 

II at seller-' work I MM 

the year, however, tl kel for 60 dil 

i first manifi 
in the late summer, at which time pricee were abi 
g)19 at sellers' work Toward the end oi 1917 * 
of 60 was being old at $22 rtth an increased 

scarcity . 

The price range of 66 acid, whil< bearing no direct 
proportion to the pi ice of 60 , had the ame gem 

tendency. The value of 66 acid was about $22 per ton 
ai the b of 1917, and | radually enhanced to 

about $32@35 per ton at the end of tin; year. 

While certain small producers Of 60 acid still have 

an appreciable pat unsold (adopt 

as they do the procedure of selling their small prod 
tions on the open market) practically all of the larger 
manufacturers arc sold out, or nearly so, until the end 
of 1918, so that from present indications the general 
acid situation i no1 likelj to undergo marked change 
for the next half ear i r so at, least. 

Tin in 1917 

No important new sources of tin were discovered in 
1917, notwithstanding the stimulus given to this indus- 
try by the advance in prices as the year went on. In 
the United States the principal features of the year 
were : The acute shortage that developed at the end of 
November; the commandeering of tin stocks on Nov 
26 by the Navy Department; control of tin imports, be- 
ginning Dec. 10, by the American Iron and Steel Insti- 
tute; and the progress made in the development of a tin 
smelting industry in the United States. Some import- 
ant work was accomplished in this latter feature in 
1917. The new smelting plant of the Williams Harvey 
Corporation, on Jamaica Bay, Long Island, was about 
50' , completed at the end of 1P17, and is expected to 
be ready for operation in April, 1918. This plant is to 
have a nominal capacity of about 6000 tons of metallic 
tin per year, or a smelting capacity for about 10,000 
tons of concentrates. The plant will have three rever- 
beratory smelting furnaces and refining will be done by 
the special methods employed in England by Williams. 
Harvey & Co., Ltd., which has its principal works at 
Bootle, just outside of Liverpool, and another smaller 
plant at Hayle in Cornwall. The American plant is be- 
ing erected by the Williams Harvey Corporation, in 
which the National Lead Co. of New York, and Williams. 
Harvey & Co., Ltd., of Liverpool, are jointly interested. 
An ore supply has been secured from Bolivia and with 
the advantage of a superior situation for the plant, the 
assurance of a permanent and growing market for tin in 
the United States, and the technical experience of the 
Williams-Harvey staff, there is every prospect that the 
new plant will have a successful career. 

As will be recalled, tin smelting on a commercial scale 
was inaugurated in the United States several years ago 
by the American Smelting and Refining Co., at Perth 
Amboy, N. J. This company, which is the only import- 
ant producer of electrolytic tin in the world, had planned 
to make extensive additions to its smelting capacity but 


Vol. 105, No. 2 

these extensions were not ready in ivit. owing to inabil 
itv of manufacturers t i deliver materials and equipment. 
It hail in proi e interesting metallurgical experi- 

ments which may make radical changes in the tin- 
ting industry - . This company draws its ore supply 
from Bolivia, but on account of the electrolytic method 
of refining is able to produce tin of remarkable purity. 

specting for tin deposits in the United Stat. 
vealed no new sources of commercial importance at 

this time. Considerable exploration was done in the 
Appalachian region, but as yet without important re- 
sults. The known deposits in the Black Hills of South 
Dakota and the small deposit in the Franklin Mountains 
near El Paso. Tex., did not prove sufficiently attractive 
to invite exploitation in 1917. In Alaska a small pro- 
duction was made-as usual from plant-. 

The principal stocks on hand in Europe and the United 
tea at the beginning of December, 1917, as well as the 
supplies atloat are covered in the review of the tin 
market by J. H. Lang in this issue. 

The Tin Market in 1917 

By J. H. Lang 

A review of the tin market in 1917 is either simple or 
complex, according to how the subject is treated. It is 
simple if one attributes everything that happened (as 
was practically the case) to the war. It is complex if 



1917 — 





5b rlmg 

Per Long 1 .ii 

180 15 

309 10 

180 15 
281 10 


in < V; 

Pound i i) 

38 40 
65 66 

38 40 
59 82 

New York 


43 00 Jan 
88 00 Nov 
to Dec. 
42 25 .In. 
82 00 Dec. 

- 1917 




2 Open 
29 HiL-li 

4 Low 
il Cloa 

i!7 61 80 

rage, 1916 4} 48 

■ urrency equivalent for London price, i ing figured at $4.76. 

one examines events minutely and analyzes in detail the 
various causes leading up to the present situation. This 
situation is best portrayed by price movements here and 
in London throughout 1917, shown in the accompanying 
tabulation giving the opening, high, low and closing 
price for Straits tin in the two markets. 

It will be noted that lowest prices were made early in 
the year. The rise was progressive and almost un- 
broken except for occasional high premiums for spot in 
New York, with reversion to more normal levels depend- 
ing on supply and demand. A widening of the spread 
between New York and London will also be observed, due 
to the same causes and to increased freight and insurance 
charges. At the very end of 1917, after the Christmas 
holidays, the London market broke, closing £28 below 
the price of Dec. 21, with sympathetic declines here. It 
is to be noted, however, that all New York prices toward 
the end of 1917 (practically during the whole of the 
month of December), owing to the great scarcity here, 
were almost entirely nominal, seldom representing the 
transfer of more than five tons and frequently less. 
Famine conditions in New York sufficiently explain 
these abnormal prices, but speculation must have played 
a part in producing such inordinate values at London 
and Singapore. The elimination of speculation at the 

end o( 1917, through bringing tin under regulations 
similar to copper, lead and spelter, was probably re- 
sponsible for the ensuing fall. 

The New York market had to contend not only with 
the transportation and other problems but with official 
red tape and procrastination. Arrangements recently 
promulgated for the conduct of this business and trans- 
ferring control to this side of the water from the British 
authorities to the American Iron and Steel Institute 
were six months in negotiation and were not completed 
at the end of 1917. The difficulties now confronting 
the trade are largely the result of delays in securing 


New York . 

Month 1915 1916 1917 

I muary 34 260 41 825 44 175 

February 37 415 42 717 51 420 

March 48 426 50 741 54 388 

April 47 884 51 230 55 910 

May 38 790 49 125 63 173 

I ino 40 288 42 231 62 053 

rulj 37 423 38 510 62 570 

34 389 38 565 62 681 

3, i ib mber 33 125 38 830 61 542 

.'. tot* i 31 080 41 241 61 851 

November .... 39 224 44 109 74 740 

I ., i 18 779 42 635 87.120 

IN 1915. 1916 AND 1917 

I'll . 

I in 550 

I7(. 925 

180 141 

I ,6 225 

162 (.75 

167 636 

I. ,7 USD 

151 440 

152 625 
151 554 
167 670 
167 000 

London - 

175 548 
181 107 
193 609 
199 736 
196 511 
179 466 

168 357 

169 870 
171 345 
179 307 
186 932 
183 368 



185 813 
198 97< 
207 443 
220 171 
245 114 
242 083 

242 181 

243 978 

244 038 
247 467 
274 943 

igcyeai 38 590 43 480 61802 163 960 182 096 237 563 

New "i . >i k in inns per pound; London in pounds sterling per long ton. 

export permits from England and the Straits during this 
period. In addition the situation was aggravated during 
the last quarter by the shipping controversy with Hol- 
land, which interfered with supplies of Banka and Bil- 
liton tin. However, many of these vexatious and danger- 
ous delays and diiliculties, especially regarding permits 
and shipments, now seem in a fair way of adjustment 
Also it is hoped that the production by the American tin 
smelters will reach substantial figures in 1918, and, with 
restriction of nonessential uses, insure a sufficient sup- 
ply and at more reasonable prices. 

Latest news is to the effect that no further shipments 
at least against new business, will be permitted frorr 
England but that American requirements must be filled 
by direct shipment from the Straits or other sources ol 
supply. If carried out this will tend, temporarily al 

(January to November, Inclusive) 


\ I , I ! . I I 1 | I 



\i i ill 

Supplies Deliveries 

1917 1916 1917 

Tons Tons Tons 

57.366 56,829 United Kingdom. .. . 15.448 

349 2,357 Holland 915 

14.824 17,223 Continent 11.885 

998 2,491 United States . . 53,314 

7.525 7,331 Lost in transit 

81.062 86.231 

Net increase 







Europe 4,891 

rnited States. . 1.592 







Afloat— Tons 



Total— Tons 

1917 19ll 

13,29! 12,64 

7.319 9,111 



•Specialist in tin. L. Vogelstein & Co., 42 Broadway, New York. 

Jan I, 1917— 21.085 tons: Jan I, 1916— I 7,005 tons: Increase— 4,080 tons. 
Nov 3D, 1917— 20.610 tons: Nov. 30, 1916— 21,751 tons; Decrease— 1 . 1 4 1 tons 

least, to further complicate the situation, owing to th( 
longer transit involved, the present small stock in Nev. 
York constituting an inadequate reserve against de- 
layed arrivals. 

Comparative statistics for 1916 and 1917 are pre- 
sented herewith. Many of the figures for 1917 art 
estimated, but are regarded as measurably accurate 
It will be observed that so far as the situation as i 
whole is concerned, the changes were immaterial and die 
not account for the extreme market fluctuations. 

January 12, L918 




THE production of lead from domestic source 
bibited a small decrease in L917. To what extent 
this was attributable to the curtailment of pro 

duction instituted in the autumn is uncertain. The pro- 

(In rom i 2,000 I.l. t 


.,,1 261,616 

tntimonial lt\ S45 

touri 133,201 

9 w Missouri 22.H2 






10, 1 1 2 



1 1, 1 28 







kntimonial 2,300 

433,476 538.735 535,922 592,241 580,464 










scrap and junk by primary 

57.074 29.594 

totals 490.550 568.329 

eec figures include the lead derived from 

duction of lead from foreign ore increased considerably; 
wherefore the grand total of the output of American re- 


1915 1916 1917 

ore, long tons 54.634 90.735 74.769 

,ntent>, II- 15,246.854 29.648.109 37.080.482 

Lead in bullion, lb 81.651.884 16.192,013 67.470.096 

pigs, bare and old, lb 768.843 10.522.980 6,875.138 


1915 1916 1917 

E1», bus, etc.. from domestic ore, lb. 140,131.961 176.393.359 82.535.280 
etc., from foreign ore, lb.. 30,793,031 (a) 16.244.637 33.489.641 
. ' Period beginning July 1 

finers was larger than ever before. The increased pro- 
duction from foreign ores was due to the resumption 
of smelting in Mexico. 

The Lead Market in 1917 

January opened with the price for lead at about 7Jc. 
New York and about 7?c. St. Louis. During the first 
lalf of the month the market was about stationary 
it both places. An important factor was the delay 
n transportation from Western producing points to 
Eastern consuming points. Lead shipped from St. Louis 
n the first half of November had not been received in 
New York as late as Jan. 17. The normal time of 
ransit from St. Louis to New York is about two weeks. 
Labor troubles having developed at Perth Amboy, and 
here being also troubles at Western refineries, espe- 
cially owing to increasing inefficiency of labor and 
lifficulty K>f obtaining supplies, the market advanced, 
ind January closed with quotations of 8(S8ic. New 
fork and 7.90(a8.10c. St. Louis. 

At the beginning of February there existed a situa- 
ion where anybody requiring lead on the spot in New 
fork might have to pay any kind of a premium. This 
vas due to the traffic troubles. There was an immense 
luantity of lead in transit. Consumers, failing to re- 
ceive what they had previously bought and expected to 
lave by this time, placed additional orders, on the 
heory that the more they had coming to them the 
>etter would be their chances of getting some of it. 
Vt the end of February the quotation was 8A@9Jc. 
^ew York and 8* ©91c. St. Louis. The American 
Smelting and Refining Co. resisted the advance, making 
ts contractual deliveries and booking business with 
ts regular customers at prices as much as lc. per lb. 
)elow what was being realized by other sellers. 

In March, a fit n Iht- market had ri'i'ii to 91c, the 

situation became a little easier, owing t • • gradual relief 
from the freight tion, and also the selling of 

bonded lead, which could easilj i ntered for dome 

consumption with payment of the duty under the ex- 
isting circumstances. Also some smelting furnaces in 
Mexico were put in operation, giving hope of a some- 
what increased supply, At the end of March the 
market was down to about 9 cents. 

1 luring the first half of April the market was quiet. 
but about the middle of the month, when some of 
the important producers became reserved in their selling 
policy, pending negotiations with the Government, 
prices stiffened. Some rather large business was done, 
and it appeared that manufacturers were contracting 
for more supplies than they needed immediately, an- 
ticipating that Government requirements would create a 
squeeze and make lead hard to get. April closed with 
a quotation of 'J nts. 

During May the market became very exciting, the 
primary cause being the distinct intimation that the 
quantity of lead to be required by the Government 
would be very great indeed. Consumers bid up prices 
against each other. Their behavior was depreciated 
by the large producers, who foresaw that continued 
extravagance in this market would restrict consump- 
tion later, to the disadvantage of everybody, and who 
conjectured (rightly as appeared subsequently) that 
consumers were overbuying. They begged certain large 
consuming interests to give back to them lead supplies 



. New Yoi 

1915 1916 

-k > « St. Louis 

1917 1915 1916 1917 

London ■ 

1915 1916 


3 729 5 921 

7 626 3 548 

5 826 

7 530 

18 606 

31 167 

30 500 

February . . . 

. 3 827 6.246 

8 636 3 718 

6 164 

8 595 

19 122 

31 988 

30 500 

March . - 

4 053 7 136 

9 199 3 997 

7 375 

9 120 

21 883 

34 440 

30 500 

4 221 7 630 

9 288 4 142 

7 655 

9 158 

21 094 

34 368 

30 500 


. 4 274 7 4o3 

10 207 4 182 

7 332 

10 202 

20 347 

32 967 

30 500 

. 5 932 6 936 

II 171 5 836 

6 749 

11 123 

25 170 

31 Oil 

30 500 


. 5 659 6 352 

10 710 5 531 

6 185 

10 644 

24 611 

28 137 

30 500 

4 656 6 244 

10 594 4 520 

6 088 

10 518 

21 946 

29 734 

30 500 

September. . 

. 4 610 6 810 

8 680 4 490 

6 699 

8 611 

23 151 

30 786 

30 500 

4 600 7 000 

6 710 4 499 

6 898 

6 650 

23 994 

30 716 

30 500 

5 155 7 042 

6 249 5 078 

6 945 

6 187 

26 278 

30 500 

30 500 

December . . 

5 355 7 513 

5 266 

7 405 

28 807 

30 500 

Year 4 673 6 858 4.567 6 777 22 917 31 359 

New Y'ork and St. Louis, cents per pound London, pounds sterling per long 

with which they might regain control of the market, 
but the consumers would not do so. The statement that 
the Government requirements in May and June would 
not exceed 2500 tons failed to relieve the tension and 
May closed with a quotation of 10© 11 cents. 

During June the market was in the shadow of the 
uncertainty as to what the Government was going to 
require. Producers told their customers frankly that 
after the Government had requisitioned for its needs 
there probably would not be enough lead for everybody 
unless consumption were curtailed. In talking this way, 
the producers simply reflected what they had been told 
by the Government. Everybody was under a miscon- 
ception, for which the responsibility focused in Wash- 
ington, and it was this more than anything else that 
induced the extravagant advance in the market. Before 
the middle of June the quotation was 11(5 12c. Later 
the situation eased a little, but the month closed with 
the quotation of ll@lli cents. 

After prolonged conversations, the Government con- 
tracted with the producers for 8000 tons of lead to be 


Vol. 105, No. 2 


delivered in July at 8c per lb. The load producers' 
mittee prorated this among the several producers, 
and also attended to distribution among manufacturers 
■in orders from the Government During July the 
market became a little easier, in spite of the strike 
Southeastern Missouri. The month closed with the 
quotation oi lOj (§ 11 cents. 

During August the lead market continued strong, but 
the month progressed the tone became easier. At 
the end of the month the quotation was I0@10ic. 
However, the inevitable was impending. Right from 
the beginning of September the market plunged down- 
ward. The high prices had curtailed consumption so 
effectively that buying power was diminished, while 
on the other hand production had increased, in spite 
of the labor troubles in Missouri, more than anybodj 
had supposed. By Sept. 20 the market was down to 
71c. It rallied to 8c. and halted there as if bottom had 
been reached. But this was not so, for a new downward 
plunge ensued, and by Oct. 10 the price was 7c. As fast 
the American Smelting and Refining Co. reduced 
its price, and failed to develop business, insistent 
sellers undercut and carried the market down to some 
new low level. On Oct. 23 the market stood at 6c. The 
American Smelting and Refining Co. then took the 
bull by the horns and cut to 5Jc, taking everybody by 

This drastic cut proved to be the right thing. It stim- 
ulated very large buying, which continued for several 
weeks, eventually absorbing the accumulated stock of 

from an absence of stock to the rapid accumulation o 
slock, and curtailments of production were announce 
by producers which only a few weeks previously ha 
been exerting themselves to make a maximum outpul 
During the autumn there was a considerable accumu 
lation of unsold stock. However, the slump in th 
market, which went beyond what conditions really justi 
fied, led to an absorption of stocks, and at the end o 
1017 the market was again strong but dull. 

White Lead and Oxides in 1917 

The entrance of the United States into the war wa 
responsible for a spectacular rise in pig lead, whicl 
culminated in an official price of 11.10c. for corrodini 
lead in New York. This price was established early ii 
June and continued for about three months. In th 
meantime there were outside sales considerably abov 
this figure, as high as 12JC being paid. The advanc 
began in January and continued uninterruptedly unti 
the peak was reached in June, there having been sevei 
advances of 'c. each in about five months. At no tim 
did the lead pigments fully keep pace with the advanc 


915 1916 1917 


the producers and inducing an advance in the market 
to 61c. which was quoted on Nov. 13. Following that 
the market became more quiet, but continued very 
strong, and 1917 closed with a quotation of 6JJ cents. 

The Government in July had contracted with the pro- 
ducers for 25,000 tons of lead to be delivered during 
August, September and October at 8c. per lb. Before 
October had ended the market price was far below that 
figure. The producers released the Government from 
its contract and enabled it to take advantage of the 
cheap market. Beginning with November, arrange- 
ments were made whereby the Government purchased 
its requirements on the basis of the average quotational 
price at St. Louis. 

The lead market in 1917 exhibited the free play of 
supply and demand. Probably the market would have 
culminated in March with a price a little above 9c. 
if it had not been for the erroneous ideas about the 
immense quantity to be required by the Government, 
for which Washington was responsible. However, the 
extravagant prices that were thus developed had the 
natural effect of stimulating production and curtailing 
consumption. Within a few weeks the situation changed 

on the metal. There was no change on dry white lead unti 
pig lead advanced lie, and even then it went up onl; 
'c This was followed by a 1-c. rise late in April and bj 
four advances of ic. each during the next four weeks 
making the aggregate 2tc. from the opening price o: 
the year. White lead in oil followed a similar course 
but the aggregate advance amounted to 3c. per lb., whili 
the advance in pig lead had been 3Jc over the sam< 
period. For many months the spread between pig leac 
and all of the pigments was narrower than it had evei 
been before, and the average for the entire year wai 
considerably below that of all previous years. 

At the beginning of 1917 the net price of dry whiti 
lead in large lots was 8ilc. per lb., and in June it hac 
reached llic. Then there was a decline to 9c, whicl 
was the closing figure. White lead in oil advancec 
during the same period from 9:|c to 12:iC, with a sub 
sequent reaction to 10? cents. 

Oxides followed the course of the pig-lead market i 
little more closely than white lead, as much less tinv 
elapses between the purchase of the metal and its con- 
version into salable material. At the beginning of 1911 
litharge sold at 9ic. and it reached 121c in June, after 

Januan L2, 1918 


ward declining to 9 <•.. while red lead advanced from 9 c. 
to 18c. in the firs! half of the j car and i losed a1 10 cent 

The differentia] between all of the pigments and the 
nominal quotation for pig lead was unusually wide at 
the dose of the year, duo in some measure to the un- 
settled sti te of the metal market, as the manufacturers 
of lead products were awaiting more stability to the 
price of pig lead before revising their own quotations. 
All materials entering into the production of lead pig- 
nMnts were at an abnormal level, some cf them being 
fully 100 f . above the average if many years before 
the war began. The cost of labor, joal, acetic acid, lin- 
seed oil and packages seriously curtailed the apparent 
margin between pig lead and its products, and under 
prevailing conditions that margin had to be abnormally 
wide to afford manufacturers anything like what was 
considered a fair profit in the past. 

Linseed oil, an important factor in the ultimate cost 
.if paint, sold above $1 per gal. throughout the year and 
reached $1.25. As a consequence and by reason of 
Unfinished building operations the sale of all painting 
materials was below that of 1916. The consumption 
if lead pigments in other industries was, however, large, 
md the export trade, chiefly to South America and the 
.•"ar East, increased in 1917 over that of the correspond- 
ng period of the previous year. 

Silver-Lead Smelting Works of 
North America 

The accompanying list, which has been corrected to 
)ec. 1, 1917, gives the several silver-lead smelting works 
f the United States, Mexico and Canada, together with 
he number of their furnaces (in all cases, blast fur- 
aces) and their estimated annual capacity in tons of 
harge. By "tons of charge" is meant ore and flux, but 








East Helena 

Omaha (b) 

Perth Ambov (6) . 
El Paso 

Fur- Annual 
naces Capan 

Kellogg, Ida 

Selby.. Calif 

Salida, Colo 

Midvale, Utah... 
Northport, Wash. 
Carnegie, Penn.... 
Tooele. Utah 







merican Smelting and Refining Co. . 
merican Smelting and Refining Co. . . 
merican Smelting and Refining Co. . . 
merican Smelting and Refining Co. . . 
merican Smelting and Refining Co. . . 
merican Smelting and Refining Co. . . 
merican Smelting and Refining Co. . . 
merican Smelting and Refining Co. . 
on. Kansas City Sm. and Ref. Co.. . . 
Linker Hill & Sullivan Min. and Con- 
centrating Co 

!by Smelting and Lead Co 

lio & Colorado Smelting Co 

aited States Smelting Co. 

orthport Smelting and Refining Co. . 

nnsylvania Smelting Co ... 

ternationat Smelting Co 

Totals, United States 78 

nerican Smelting and Refining Co. . . Monterrey 

nerican Smelting and Refining Co. . . Aguascalientes 

nerican Smelting and Refining Co.. . Chihuahua 

nerican Smelters Securities Co Velardefia 

■mpania Metalurgica Mcxicana San Luis Potosi (c) 

■mpaiiia Metalurgiea de Torreon Torreon 

'mpania Minera de Penoles Mapimi 

Totals, Mexico 

nsolidated Mining and Smelting Co Trail, B. C 4 

(o) Tons of charge, (t.) Smelt chiefiy refinery between-products 
•rated, but plant is expected to start in the near future. 

K coke. The ton of charge is manifestly the correct 
nit. In the case of a self-fluxing ore, the ton of ore 
netted and the ton of charge smelted is the same thing. 
. other cases fuel and labor have to be used in smelt- 
's 1 the flux as well as in smelting the ore, and the 
onomy of smelting depends largely upon the percent- 
;e of ore in the charge. The management of this 

















(c) Not being 

question is aboul the li ■ ..i the metal- 

lurgist's skill. 

I'lir figures in the accompanying table an- in most 
es from official communii the n 

companies. Estimated capacity is always a matter of 
more or less uncertainty, and for this reason the Ih' 
ares given ought to be a i epted oi I pproximatii 

Construction of the Bunker Hill & Sullivan plant was 
completed in 1917, w. erially im the lead 

smelting capacity. The total capacity of the Mexican 
WQrks at the end of 1917 is a little over 2,000,000 t 
per year; of the American works, aboul 5,765,000 I 
With respect to the American works, such capacity has 
never been in use at one time. More or less of it rep- 
resents capacity idle because of changes in the condi- 
tions of ore supply. 

The Empire Smelting and Refining Co. rebuilt an old 
plant at Deming, X. M., and operated until October, 
when its works were destroyed by fire. 

The Ontario Smelting and Refining Co. is building a 
smelting plant near Baxter Springs, Kan., which will 
be equipped with Newnam automatic Scotch hearths. 

Lead Products Other Than White Lead 
B> J. R. Wettstein 

A summary of the industry of lead products, apart 
from white lead, in 1917, must of necessity take large 
account of the demand created by the war, since it 
need scarcely be said that lead is essentially a war ma- 
terial. Lead products cover a wide range of articles 
used in various fields of activity, from the peaceful to 
the warlike, but a brief review will readily disclose 
that under existing conditions a large percentage of 
the production must find its way into those industries 
and channels directly related to the war. 

Mixed Metals: Probably the most important line — 
aside from the actual munitions of war — is that of 
mixed metals, a generic term, embracing solders, babbitt 
metals and casting metals, all of which call for an alloy 
of lead with other metals, chiefly tin and antimony, 
with lead the principal factor. 

The bearing metals are all directly related to indus- 
trial activity, and the tremendous war demand upon' 
industry and transportation was responsible for a de- 
cided increase in the consumption of mixed metals in 
1917. Nor does it seem at all likely that the high prices 
ruling for lead, tin and antimony had any deterrent ef- 
fect upon the demand, which emphasizes the stress of 
the necessity under which these industrial activities 
called for supplies. The year will probably mark a 
record in the volume of this class of lead products, and 
indications point to a continuance of the record-breaking 

Oxides of Lead: These, consisting principally of 
red lead and litharge, find their market in painting ma- 
terial, glass and rubber manufacturing. The rubber 
industry was particularly active during 1917 and called 
for large quantities of litharge. Moreover, the ex- 
port demand from practically all the countries of the 
world where trading is possible was a pronounced and 
rather unusual feature of the business for the year. 
The foreign demand at times, in spite of high prices, 

•President, United Lead Co., Ill Broadway, Xew York. 


Vol. 105, No. 

that grave difficulty was encountered in tak- 

• found the situa- 
tion much easier, however, with excess capacities well 
equal to supplying anj sudden additional demand that 

maj ip- 

rhi 8 art posed entirely oi lead— finds 

channels of sport. Practically all the 
manufactured in this country about 30,000 tons— 
• shells ami used for sporting purposes 
in the field and over the traps. This business suffered 
in 1917 because »'t' tin- high prices of sport- 
ammunition, and it is doubtful whether the normal 

volume i Stored until normal prices return. 

- used principally in the building 
trades, and a study of building statistics reflects the 
condition of the lead-pipe industry. Doubtless due 
the high cost of all building materials, the figures 
on the record of new construction — particularly dwell- 
ing-house construction — appear to have reached a very 
low ebb. Even though current prices for lead pipe are 
lower than they were in the middle of 1917, it 
m likely that a normal demand can appear 
until all building materials have reached a normal level 
1'his particular industry, therefore, may 
be looked upon as very dull, with immediate prospects 
encouraging. The demand for Governmental and 
industrial purposes was relatively large, but this par- 
ticular requirement constitutes a small percentage of 
the total in normal times. 

Sheet Lead: This product also finds its market in the 
building trades, and what has been said of lead pipe, 
on its use in this channel, can be applied equally to 
sheet lead. The Governmental and industrial demand 
is a considerably larger item than in lead pipe, because 
of which circumstance the business done in 1917 prob- 
ably reached normal proportions. The war preparations 
and the building of ships contributed a large share of 
the demand, the continuance of which, however, is rather 
uncertain. The chemical industry, which was so largely 
extended in 1916, was not so much in evidence in its re- 
quirements of sheet lead during 1917, but whatever 
volume of business has been lost in this field has been 
fully offset by the Governmental activities and the ship- 
building industry. 

Munitions: However much general lines of lead prod- 
ucts as thus far reviewed may have suffered in the 
total by decreased consumption, the tremendous demand 
of the Government for munitions more than offset the 
shrinkage. In two important munitions of war, the 
shrapnel shell and the rifle cartridge, lead is a large fac- 
tor. While it is true that this form of munitions was 
manufactured in this country for the Allies previous 
to our entering the war, it is probably equally true thai 
present capacities of the country in the manufacture of 
small-arms ammunition and shrapnel balls are at the 
moment more greatly taxed than they were at any time 
previously. These two war materials call for a tremen- 
dous consumption of lead, and the early estimates of 
quantities required, coming at a time when no surplus 
stocks of lead were available, were probably dii 
responsible for the enormous advance in the price of 
lead and all its products which occurred during the 
first half of 1917. A continuance of this demand must, 
of course, be expected, however cheerless it may be to 




The Coeur d'Alene District 

By Stanly A. Easton* 

The events of first importance in the district in L9S 
were the blowing in of the No. 1 furnace of the Bunk* 
Hill lead smeltery, on July 5, and the extension of tht 
railroad tracks of the Oregon-Washington Railroad & 
Navigation Co. up Beaver Creek to serve the zinc-lead- 
silver properties of Sunset Peak and a similar extensior 
up Pine Creek to serve the zinc-lead-silver producers oi 
the Pine Creek district. These new railway facilities 
will greatly improve operating conditions for these 
groups of mines, and should result in a much greatei 
activity in the section served. There are still a con 
siderable number of undeveloped and unworked zinc 
lead-silver veins in both of these sections, which shou 
be operated in a small way. now that dependable ai 
cheaper transportation is available. It is upon sujj 
developments that the extension of the district and in 
1 1 ease of its production must depend in the future. An 
other event of importance was the launching of an all 
steel dredge by the Yukon Gold Co. to work the deei 
placers at Murray. 

There were no mine developments of importance noi 
new lead producers brought in during 1917 in the Cceui 
d'Alene district of Idaho, but the output of lead, silve 
and zinc closely approximated that of preceding years 
The lead and silver production of the Hecla, the Her 
cules, the Tamarack & Custer and the Bunker Hill i 
Sullivan showed no falling off from former years am 
probably in the aggregate represented a considerable 

An additional bonus when lead sells in New York fo 
8c. and over per pound was voluntarily granted to thei 
employees by the companies operating in the distric 
in March, 1917, the total bonuses amounting to $1.2 
per shift, in addition to the minimum or base rate, an> 
although lead fell to a price below 8c. per lb., the pay 
ment of these bonuses in full was continued by all com 
panies. Strikes, I. W. W. agitation, and general unrest 
particularly during the spring and summer months 
hampered practically all industries in the Northwest 
including the mining camps of Montana and the loggin 
and saw-mill camps of northern Idaho, but the Coeu 
d'Alene district was entirely free from such trouble; 
There was some scarcity of labor and a marked tendenc 
on the part of workmen, because of the certainty of enr 
ployment, to shift about from job to job and take mor 
than the usual amount of time for recreation. Nevei 
theless, all the properties of the district carried on thei 
operations at nearly full capacity. 

The Bunker Hill smeltery, which blew in its No. 
furnace July 5, started the No. 2 furnace a few week 
later; the silver and lead refineries went into operatio 
as required, to take care of the bullion from the fui 
naces, and at the end of the year shipments of refinei 
desilverized lead and bars of fine silver and gold we! 
regularly going forth. Copper in the form of copp< 
sulphate was accumulated but none marketed in 191' 
The gold mentioned is not won from Cceur d'Alene ore 
but from the smelting of iron-sulphide concentrate 
from the Alaska-Juneau mine at Juneau, Alaska. 

•Manager, Bunker Hill & Sullivan MininK and Concentratli 
Co.. Kellogg, Idaho. 

January 12, 1918 


Southeastern Missouri Lead District 


A S USUAL, over 90', of the lead output of South 
l\ east Missouri was furnished by the Bonne Terre, 
*. A-Fhit River, and Leadwood districts, in St. Francois 
County, while Madison County furnished practically all 
of the remainder from the Mine La Motto and Freder- 
icktown districts. The shallow diggings of Washington, 
lefferson and Franklin Counties contributed such t ri- 
lling amounts as to be almost negligible. Ordinarily 
;ueh astonishingly high prices for lead would have 
simulated production from these shallow diggings, for 
dthough the output of a single lot or lease is insignifi- 
cant, the number of leases is such that the aggregate 
jroduction at times has been important. But the high 
.vages paid in the big mines and the great scarcity of 
abor resulted in most of the "diggers" being attracted 
o the Flat River mines. 

Labor participated in the prosperity, wages reached 
i record high point and there was an insistent demand 
or men until Dec. 1, when a cut of 75c. a day was made 
hroughout the district. As wages were still unusually 
ligh, however, the men quietly accepted the reduction, 
end no protest was made by the miners' union. An ag- 
gravating labor disturbance occurred in July, when, 
hrough outside influences if not directly attributable to 
he I. W. W., foreign laborers were suddenly driven out 
f the district by the American miners. Most of the 
oreigners are Hungarians and were engaged in shovel- 
ng and work of that character, so that the disturbance 
aused almost complete cessation of operations for about 
fortnight, when troops took possession of the district 
nd restored order and safety. Since then most of the 
oreigners have returned and there has been no further 
rouble, but one company of soldiers is quartered in the 
eart of the district and will probably remain until the 
nd of the war. While there was little loss of life, 
iere was considerable sacking of the homes of the 
Dreigners, who were roughly treated and badly scared 
ntil the troops arrived. Many of the leaders of this 
utbreak were subsequently arrested, and most of them 
re now in the penitentiary. 

Little Exploration or Development of the 
District by Outside Interests 

Little outside interest was shown in the search for 
ew deposits, nor was any attempt made to acquire 
artly developed properties in the district, although 
lere are several available tracts that will eventually 
ass into the producing list. The lead market was so 
igh as to create a lack of confidence in its permanence, 
) there was less interest by outsiders than in previous " 
ad booms that were based on lower but more stable 
-ices. Diamond drills were operated by New York 
terests west of Irondale in Washington County, on 
nds held under option on Big River, where it is re- 
nted they found an orebody of considerable promise, 
astern interests obtained an option on the Palmer 
•operty, in Washington County, which is a large tract 
at has produced over $2,000,000 from the shallow dig- 

•Mining engineer. 408 Locust St.. St. Louis. Mo 

gings, bul no diamond drilling was don,. m 1917, al- 
though several expert ■ d favorably. 

The' St. Joseph Load Co. bought the old La Grave dig- 
gings, at Bonne Terre, 'ii years ago, paying $1,000,000 
(in stock i for 946 acres -an investment which at that 
time seemed to be the' rankest of wildcats, as such la 
wore valued then at *:> to $25 an aero. The lead pro- 
duced during the ar of operation cost $84,096.10 
and was sold for $17,275.24. An effort to raise work- 
ing capital by the sale ol $100,000 in bonds real 
only $30,000, although it finally cost the company $175,- 
000 for this $30,000 loan. Charles B. Parsons took 
charge of the property in 1867, at a time when the 
outlook was anything but promising for its develop- 
ment, for, with other discouragements, the plant was 
12 miles from the nearest railroads, which could be 
reached only by means of wretched, hilly roads. When 
the pioneer Leschot diamond drill— the first in this 
country— was used on the property in 1869 with its 
200 ft. of cast-iron rods, the first two holes drilled 
were blank, but later good ore was struck at depths 
ranging from 90 to 120 ft., this being the only place 
in the county where disseminated lead is so shallow. 
The first dividend, amounting to l r c , was paid in 1874, 
but dividends were discontinued from 1877 to 1880. In 
1879, with the aid of the adjoining Desloge Lead Co., 
a 13}-mile narrow-gage railroad was built to Summit, 
on the Iron Mountain R.R. This construction cost $150,- 
000 and eliminated the use of hundreds of teams. The 
adjoining Penn tract of 344 acres, on which were a 
few shallow diggings, was bought in 1883 for $100,000, 
and the valuable Desloge property, which comprised 
3218 acres, was acquired in 1886 for $400,000 in stock. 

Growth of the St. Joseph Lead Co. 

Since then there has been a steady, substantial growth 
in all departments of the St. Joseph Lead Co. The 
narrow-gage road, which was the salvation of the com- 
pany, was replaced by nearly 100 miles of well-built, 
finely equipped, standard-gage track, the fine towns 
of Bonne Terre, Herculaneum and Leadwood were 
built to house the employees, the acreage was expanded 
to over 20,000 and the original 100-ton mill replaced by- 
two mills of 2000 tons and one of 4000 tons' daily ca- 
pacity. There are now more than 20 shafts on the 
property and a modern smeltery of 100,000 tons' an- 
nual capacity has been built. The lead output has ex- 
panded, especially since the company recently absorbed 
its junior Doe Run Lead Co., and it produced a larger 
tonnage in 1917 than the rest of the district combined, 
the value of the output exceeding $18,000,000, while 
the dividends paid for the year aggregated $4,900,000. 
The $1,000,000 capitalization of the old La Grave dig- 
gings has developed, through the untiring efforts of 
Charles B. Parsons, into the largest lead mine in this 
country, but only after a long, hard, up-hill struggle. 

The 6000-kw. turbine power plant at Rivermines 1 was 
completed in 1917 and is now furnishing 6600 volts, 
which operate plants at Flat River, Leadwood and Bonne 

'Described in Engineering: and Mining Journal." Nov 17. 1917 


Vol. 105. No. 2 

Terre. five to 10 imK's distant. The gas-producer plant 

■on were employed as against 

a the now plant, was dismantled and cheap slack coal 

instead <->( the best grades oi Illinois coal 

required by the gas-producers. The gas power plant at 

Bonne I'onv is also shut down, but held in reserve for 


A new shaft was sunk at the No. S Hoe Run mill. 

where a new orebody was discovered. A 40-acre 

atime-settling pond, having a depth ^( 40 ft., was 

placed in use at Bonne Tone, a large dam being 

structed with tailings, and a mile of track is being 

take a still larger slime pond out of the 

- tailings when the first pond has tilled 

up. Extensive improvements are under construction at 

the smelting plant at Herculaneum ami will increase 

onomy and efficiency. 

Lower Mining Costs with Shoveling Machines 

The Desloge Lead Co. had a successful year and the 
output was increased 20 over its previous high record. 
The installation of five Myers-Whaley shoveling machines 
made a considerable cut in the costs of hand shoveling, 
heretofore characteristic of the district, and proved 
satisfactory that mechanical loading of the lead- 
bearing rock will soon be exclusively adopted on this 
property. Automatic sprinklers were introduced in the 
mill and a water-softening plant was installed for purify- 
ing the boiler water. 

The St. Louis Smelting and Refining department of 
the National Lead Co. operated its mines at St. Fran- 
cois, in the Flat River district, throughout 1917, ex- 
cept for a short interruption in the summer caused by 
the outbreak against the foreigners. The ore from the 
Eaker Lead Co., on Big River, and the initial output of 
the Boston-Elvins mine at Elvins were treated at the 
National mill. 

Federal Lead Co. Completes 3000-Ton Mill 
The Federal Lead Co., the second largest producer 
in the district, made a new record in 1917, and in- 
creased its output 15 r r above its previous high record 
of 1916. This production would have been larger had 
not the company shut down its new No. 4 mill and 
the Phoenix mine, in Madison County, in October, both 
of which are still idle. No. 4 mill, with a daily capacity 
of 3000 tons, was completed in the spring of 1917, and 
is built directly over a new orebody with the mine 
shaft at the mill door. No. 9 shaft was completed about 
10 years ago, although it was not operated until 1917, 
when it was cleaned out, reiined and equipped with a 
steel headframe, and the orebody is now being developed 
by drifting. The central turbine power plant at No. 
3 mill (4000 tons capacity) was enlarged by the addi- 
tion of two 360-hp. water-tube boilers. 

The Baker Lead Co. mined an average of 500 tons 
daily, assaying 5.5 to 5.75'r lead, from its one shaft 
on the edge of Big River. This ore was hauled over the 
Mississippi River & Bonne Terre R.R. to the National 
mill, 10 miles distant, where it was concentrated, and 
then smelted at the Collinsville plant of St. Louis Smelt- 
ing and Refining Co. This property of the Baker Lead 
Co. is the initial investment of Boston interests 
in this district and was formerly known as the Jake 
Day tract, that had been repeatedly optioned and drilled 
by local men, and always turned down until taken over 

by the Boston interests. Most of the ore thus far 
mined has boon recovered from under Big River, at a 
depth of about 100 ft., anil was unusually rich. 

I"he Boston-Elvins Co. owns the 40-acre tract at El- 
vins. formerly known as the Jones Forty and which ad- 
joins the western side of the old Central Lead Co.'s 1000- 
acre grant. The shaft, which is 5G5 ft. deep and en- 
countered considerable water, was completed about Jan. 
1. 1917. Approximately 10,000 tons of ore was mined 
in 1917 before the pump broke down and the mine was 
flooded. A new 16-stage centrifugal pump of 1500-gal. 
capacity will be installed to unwater the mine. Three- 
ton skips are used to hoist the ore. Excessive water 
and hard luck caused an outlay reported to amount to 
$200,000. whereas $30,000 to $50,000 would usually 
cover the total expenditures to date in this district for 
similar development. 

Madison County Mines to Use Steam-Shovel 
Stripping Methods 

The Mine la Motte, where lead mining has been 
carried on for two centuries, is now controlled by the 
.Missouri Metals Co. The company purposes expanding 
the property into a huge, low-grade proposition, using 
steam shovels to strip 20 to 120-ft. of barren limestone 
that overlies the disseminated ore. The ore horizons in 
the Flat River district are at a depth of 300 to 600 ft. 
whereas at Mine la Motte the surface is relatively shal- 
low, as most of the shafts are only 100 to 200 ft. deep 
For several years steam shovels have been employed tc 
strip the surface clays, which carry more or less coarse 
galena and granules of carbonate of lead, the lattei 
being washed into low-grade concentrates before ship 
ment to the smelteries. It is now intended to abandoi 
underground mining and operate as deep quarries, crush 
ing the entire output in a 64 x 84-in. crusher to 8-in 
size and then picking out the ore on traveling belts. The 
mill is being enlarged to a capacity of 1500 tons t< 
treat the picked ore and a new power plant, equippec 
with two Diesel engines, was built. Considerable copper 
nickel and cobalt occurs on this property, especially ii 
the upper part of the La Motte sandstone that under 
lies the disseminated ore, and more attention will to 
given to these metals. 

Shaft sinking on the Schulte tract at Fredericktowi 
was discontinued in the summer of 1917, after the deatl 
of H. J. Cantwell, who was interested in this propert: 
and did more to develop the disseminated lead belt thai 
any other pioneer in Missouri. 

The Missouri Cobalt Co., a Canadian corporation op 
erating the old North American Lead property a 
Fredericktown, completed its new mill and smeltery 
A 300-ton mill was completed in 1917 and a new refiner; 
is being rebuilt to replace the one recently lost by fire 
Copper as well as metallic nickel and cobalt will be th 
main output, with lead as byproduct, from the chalcopy 
rite and linnaeite mined. The former owners recovere' 
as high as five tons of copper a day from these mixe* 

The old Catherine or Phoenix mine was operated unti 
Nov. 1 by the Federal Lead Co. under a lease. The or 
is shallow and little water was encountered, but the ore 
bodies are not so large as in the Flat River district, » 
the plant was shut down until operating conditions be 
come more normal. 

Januarj L2, L918 



The old Einstein mine, 10 miles wesl ol Fi ed 
town, i>n the St. Francois River, waa mined bj 
\.rk interests for tungsten. More or less wolframite 
occurs with the argentiferous galena in a fissure vein 
in hard porphyry. The vein is narrow and tight, and 
it did not pay when operated as a silver-lead producer 
some years ago, when there was no demand for the 
tungsten. A 25 ton mill was erected and the tungsten 
concentrates were shipped to the East. 
In prospecting for lead in the western part of Iron 
inty, a small fissure vein carrying more or less ar 
tiferous copper sulphides was found in porphyry. 
This is now being developed on a moderate scale. 

American Smelting and Refining Co. in 
Mexico in 1917 


The year 1917 witnessed a gradual resumption 
of the American Smelting and Refining Co.'s mining 
and smelting operations in Mexico. Substantial ton- 
nages of high-grade lead ore were produced from the 
mines in the Santa Barbara and Cuatro Cienegas 

A considerable tonnage of high-grade lead ore. and 
a somewhat small tonnage of zinc ore, were produced 
at Santa Eulalia and moved to smelteries in the United 

The copper mines at Tepezla and Matehuala have 
been constantly increasing their output until they are 
now producing on a normal basis. 

Operations were resumed at the Angangueo mines 
in Michoacan in the latter part of 1917. None of the 
plants or mines of the company was damaged during 
the year. 

Record Petroleum Production 

Preliminary estimates by John D. Northrop, of the 
U. S. Geological Survey, indicate that the quantity of 
petroleum produced and marketed in the oil fields of the 
United States in 1917 reached the record-breaking total 
of 341,800,000 bbl., a quantity nearly 14 r , greater than 
the former record output of 300,767,158 bbl., established 
in 1916. The production was apportioned among the 
major fields* as shown in the table: 


Field 1916 1917 

Aopalachian 23,009.455 24.600,000 

Dona-Indiana 3.905.003 3,500.000 

Illinois 17.714.235 15,900.000 

Oklahoma-Kansas ... 115,809.792 147.000.000 

Central and North Texas 9.303.005 11.000,010 

North Louisiana 11.821.642 8.700.000 

Gulf Coast 21.768.096 24,900.000 

Rocky Mountain 6,476.289 9.200.000 

California 90.951,936 97.000,000 

fields 7.705 

rotala 300.767,158 341.800.000 

The salient features of the industry in 1917 were the 
record levels reached and firmly maintained by prices of 
crude oil at the wells and the enormous demand, which 
absorbed not only the current output of the wells but 
necessitated a net draft of about 21,000,000 bbl. on oil 

in storage, principally in ' alifornia and Illinois. The 
surface i udi oil in i he i Fn ted states at the 

i nd of 1911 i: ei timated at 168,000,000 barn 

The prih rodui n in 1917 were ■ 

E I II County, Kentucky ; Butler County, Kansas . Cart i 

Unty, Oklahoma; Wichita and Harris Conn: 

Texas; Converse County, IVj ing; and Los Angele 

County. California, 

The Aluminum Industry 

In the first quarter of L917 substantially the same 

condition- held a.- for 1916. The price of aluminum 

ingot No, 1 grade was around 37c. per lb, Spot 

by scrap dealers or resale- in small quantities were 
generally made a prici ran in from 55 to 60c. pei 
lb. Thi; price during the last three quarters of 1911 
remained fairly stable around 38c. per pound. 

On the declaration of war with Germany, business 
of all kinds in the United States was compelled to seek 
a readjustment to meet the new conditions. Certain 
industries, as for example the manufacture of pleasure 
I utomobiles, reduced their production, and following 
such reductions the abnormal scrap and resale market 

i At New Y ork, in I Pi Hind) 

Year 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 Year 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 

23 38 17 66 32 38 60 20 55 -8 
22 70 19 88 34 50 60 00 48 88 
21 69 19 94 47 75 61 88 43 64 
20 13 18 50 50 00 65 05 38 90 
,19 35 18 00 57 75 65 12 37 22 
18 88 18 96 57 13 63 00 36 40 

Jan 26 31 18 81 19 08 55 00 60 77 July, 

I eb 26 04 16 81 19 22 58 00 59 00 Au K . 

Mar .27 05 18 50 19 00 60 25 59 00 Sepl 

Vpril 27 03 18 16 18 88 59 50 59 92 Ocl 

May. 26 44 17 95 22 03 59 00 59 84 Nov 

June. 24 68 17 75 30 00 61 50 60 00 Dec. 

Year .... 

2! 64 18 63 J3 ''8 60 71 51 59 

•Since writing these notes Mr. Eccles died Dec. 31 at St. 
Augustine. Fla, He was one of the vice presidents of the Ameri- 
can Smelting and Refining Co.. 12n Broadway. New York 

(a) The quotations summarized En the abovi table 
transactions in the market for uncontracted supplies, which i> 
mainly in metal offered for resale, including ii 
scrap. The bulk of the aluminum production entei !l 

on long-time contracts. Previous to the war the differences be- 
tween the contractual and the open markets were not very great 
but since the beginning of the war thej ha i been very lai 
Thus in llii; contract prices ranged from 20 to 31c; in 1916 
from 31 to 37c. and in 1H17 from 37 to 38c. 

for aluminum gradually disappeared. Simultaneously 
with these reductions came, however, an increase of 
production of materials for war purposes for the United 
States Government. 

Among the war purposes for which aluminum is used 
may be mentioned the high explosive ammonal, machine- 
gun parts and numerous aircraft parts, particularly 
engines. Another important use of aluminum for 
military purposes is in mess equipment such as water 
bottles, cups, plates, and meat cans. It is safe to say 
that nearly all the aluminum produced in the United 
States now is either going directly into materials used 
by the United States Government or its Allies or in- 
directly into other materials which are being used for 
Government purposes. 

In 1917 a large additional producing capacity was 
brought into operation at Badin, N. C. At this place 
a new power plant was started in June and it has run 
substantially at capacity ever since. Construction work 
was begun on a large power plant in the Little Tennes- 
see River and this plant will probably be completed in 
the latter part of 1918. Power will then be taken to 
Maryville, Tenn., where additions to the aluminum- 
producing capacity have already been made to utilize 
this power. 


Vol. 105, No. 2 


THE production of spelter by ore smelters in the 
United States was 685,486 tons in 1917, compared 
with 680,018 tons in 1916. This includes the 
spelter derived both from domestic and foreign ores 
and also a small tonnage obtained from dross, etc., 

by smelters whose chief business is the reduction of 
ore. It is to be noted that there is also a rather large 
production of spelter by dross smelters, pure and simple. 
Their production is not included in the present report. 

The total for 1917 is the aggregate of the reports 
of 30 smelters operating 17 works. So ■'.; as we know, 
these were all the smelters who produced in 1917. The 
list of the zinc smelters, together with the number of 
their retorts at the end of 1017, is given in an accom- 
panying table. 

All of these smelters reported their production by 
quarters, which figures are summarized in a separate 

The statistics of total production for the whole year 
>howed an increase in 1917. From the annual figures 


• In roni ol .'nun Lb.) 

Reports of Ore Smeitera Only 


Kansas- Missouri 
Others (a) 


Illinois .... 

Oklahoma . . . 
I 'thers (a) ... 




Others (a) 



Arkansas . 



( ithers (i) ... 


Illinois .... 


K in=as-Miseouri 



r- (a) 





































211. I 27 




















st ruction at that time was 840, at Terre Haute plant of 
Grasselli Chemical Co., which was completed in 1917, 
anil started operation. The works of the Athletic Min- 
ing and Smelting Co. and of the United Zinc Smelting 
Corporation, at Moundsville, W. Va., were also com- 
pleted. The latter plant will probably start operation in 
March or April of this year. 

At the end of 1017 at least 13 works, operated by 10 
smelters, had been closed down and a considerable num- 
ber of these works had been or were to be dismantled. 

Electrolytic spelter was produced in the United States 
in 1017 by five works, the chief producer being the 

(In Tons, of 2000 Lb.) 
By Ore Smeitera Only 



With th" exception of one plant in Coloradi II Eastern works. 

Ir. tbe fourth quarter of 1915 and 1916 is included Anaconda and other electro- 
lytic production. 

alone, an erroneous deduction might be made. The 
quarterly figures reveal the true situation. Production 
continued at a high rate during the first two quarters, 
probably culminating about the beginning of the second 
quarter. The third and fourth quarters show a severe 
curtailment. At the end of the fourth quarter the rate 
of production was doubtless lower than the average 
for that quarter. 

Operating smelters reported a total of 196,560 retorts 
in December, 1917. Of these, the number in operation 
on Dec. 15 was 127,193. The number of retorts in COn- 


\ r k:iti^M> 

i '..1. rado 

Mi ouri k:in>:i> 

' iklahoma 








358.262 370.312 


























duct ion 

in 1915 

< ii Includes Anaconda and other electrolytic production in 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co. The total production of 
electrolytic spelter was 29,451 tons. 

The stock of spelter at works on Dec. 31, being the 
aggregate of the reports of all the smelters, was 60,415 
tons, compared with 16,085 tons at the beginning of 
1017. These figures include both high-grade and com- 
mon spelter. 

The Zinc Market in 1917 

At the beginning of January common spelter was 
quoted at 9|c, St. Louis basis. There was rather a 
peculiar situation in that smelters in Kansas anc 
Oklahoma, who were experiencing gas trouble, founc 
themselves short of spelter with which to make their 
contracted deliveries and figured in the market as buy- 
ers. Their demands having been satisfied, the market 
eased off, but then rallied and rose to about 93 c. on 


• New York • 

Month 1915 1916 1917 

St. Louis ■ 

1915 1916 1917 




Jan. 6 386 

Feb 8 436 

Mar... 8 541 

Apr 10 012 

May... 14.781 

June. . 
July . 

i let 

Nov. . 

21 208 

19 026 

12 781 

13 440 
12 800 
15 962 

Dec 15 391 

16 915 

18 420 

16 846 

16 695 

14 276 

II 752 

8 925 

8 730 

8 990 

9 829 
II 592 
10 665 

9 619 
10 045 
10 300 
9 459 
9 362 
9 371 
8 643 
8 360 
8 136 
7 983 
7 847 
7 685 

6 211 

8 255 

8 366 

9 837 

14 610 
21 038 
18 856 

12 611 

13 270 
12 596 

15 792 
15 221 

16 745 

18 260 

16 676 

16 525 

14 1 06 

II 582 

8 755 

8 560 

8 820 

9 659 
II 422 
10 495 

9 449 

9 875 

10 130 

9 289 

9 192 

9 201 

8 473 

8 190 

7 966 

7 813 

7 672 

30 884 89 

39 819 97 

44 141 95 

49 888 99 

68 100 94 

100 614 68 

97 250 50 

67 786 51 

67 841 52 

66 536 54 

88 409 56 

89 409 55 

810 48 
762 47 
048 47 
056 54 
217 54 
591 54 
750 54 
587 54 
095 54 
159 54 
023 54 
842 54 


Year. 13 230 12 804 8.901 13 054 12 634 8 730 67 553 72 071 52 413 
New York and St. Louis, cents per pound. London, pounds sterling per long 


Jan. 17, on short covering by speculators. The month 
closed with a quotation of 10@10! cents. 

The idea was still entertained among smelters gen- 
erally that spelter would have a "come-back," but the 
prolonged absence of European buying tended to get 
on the nerves of producers, though the apparent 
tenacity with which the quotations held around 10c. 
during February and March gave some hope. However 
important interests were under no illusion as to whs 
was happening, and were sellers of spelter right alor 

Januar.i 12, 1918 


when contracts could be placed withoul undurj weaken 
ing the market. 

What was happening w:i . thai stinks were increas- 
ing, and probablj had begun to increase previous to 
tin 1 end ni 191G, and, owing to the freight congestion, 

\\ EH M.I PRICl I 'I /.INC SHI I I - 
tin t '. ni* pel Pound] 
1915 I9|6 1917 1915 I9K, 1117 1915 1916 1917 

ii 21 mi M iv 19 I * 24 00 19 ii i >. i .i 16 00 I i mi 19 mi 
ill .'I Oil .1 ni. 29 2 . Ii .11 19 00 i '. i Ii. mi I i 20 19 00 

\l„i H iO 25 01. 21 mi .ink :, ni ii I" mi Not 20 00 16 25 19 00 

Ipril 14 II 25 20 20 44 Ann. 18 80 15 00 19 00 Dec 22 00 21 00 19 00 
r for the year 1915 17.37 cents, 1916 20.14 cents, 1917— 19 6 

Noli I'Ik lm r ordinary sin hects, in carloud lots, f. o Ii 

I a-Sall.-lVrii, Ill . 1. >. 8 , discount 

the surplus was going into railway cars, and not piling 
up at the works. When, however, in April the freight 
congestion was relieved, there was no longer any doubt 
respecting the situation. Consumers began to get out 
of railway cars the surplus for which they had con- 
tracted, and. having no need to enter the market, for 
further supplies, stocks began to pile up rapidly in the 

(Number of Retorts at End <>t ^ ears) 

Name Situation 1 91 r> 1917 

■ i (a) Pittsburg, Km i i B96 (I 1 896 

American Steel & Wire Co.... Donora, Penn. 9,120 9,120 

American Zinc and Chem Co (o) Langeloth, Penn 7,*96 7.296 

American Zinc Co. of 111 Hillsboro, 111 4,864 4,864 

American Zinc, Lead and Smg.Co.(u) Dearing, Kan. 4.480 4,480 

American Zinc, Lead and Smg. Co. (n) Caney, Kan 6.080 6,080 
American Zinc, Lead :,n,l Smg * 'o 

' \ lesha, Kan 3,760 3,760 

in Zinc, Lead and Smg.Co.l I E. SI Louis, 111. 4,864 5,620 

Arkansas Zinc and Smelting Corpn. Van Buren, Ark. 2,400 3,200 

athletic Min. and Smelting Co Fort Smith, Ark I I 1,664 

Bartlesville Zinc Co Bartlesville. okla 7,488 5.184 

Bartlesville Zinc Co Blackwell. nkla 8.800 9,600 

Bartlesville Zinc Co Collinsville, Okla. 13.440 13.440 
lesvillc Zinc Co . 1 anvon-Starr 

Branch . . Bartlesville, Okla. 3,456 3.456 

Chanute Spelter Co. (o) Chanutc, Kan 1.280 < ... i 

Collinsville Zinc Co (n)... Collinsville, 111. 1.984 (6) 1.984 

Bagle-Picher Lead Co Henrvetta, Okla 3.000 iM 3,000 

r Zinc Co... . . Carondelet, Mo 2,000 1.982 

i Zinc Co Cherryvale, Kan. 4.800 5,040 

Smith Spelter Co Fort Smith, Ark. 2,560 2,560 

Hi Chemical Co Clarksburg, W. \ a 5,760 5,763 

Hi Chemical Co Meadowbrook, W . Va 8,544 8,520 

Grasselli Chemical Co Terrc Haute, Ind. w) 3,360 

tlegeler Zinc Co Danville. Ill 5,400 5.400 

Henryetta Spelter Co ... Henryetta, Okla 3,000 (o) 3,000 

Illinois Zinc Co Peru. Ill 4,640 (6) 4.640 

lolaZincCo (n) . Concreto. Kan. (6) 660 (6) 660 

JoiJin Ore and Spelter Co Pittsburg. Kan, (;') 1,792 (<j) 

J. B. Kirk Gas and Acid Co. (a).... Iola, Kan 5.440 3,440 

Kusa Spelter Co Kusa. Okla. 3.720 7.520 

La Harpe Spelter Co Kusa, Okla. 4.000 i/.i 

Lanyon Smelting Co Pittsburg, Kan. 448 (nl 448 

Robert Lanyon Zinc and Acid Co.. Hillsboro. 111. 3.200 ifc) 3.200 

Lanyon-Starr Smelting Co. (e) 

Matthiessen & Hegelei Zinc Co .. La Salle, 111. 6.168 6.168 

Mineral Point Zinc Co Depue, 111 9,068 9,068 

Missouri Zinc S InngCo. la) Rich Hill. Mo (j) 448 (6) 448 

National Zinc Co. . . Bartlesville. Okla. 4.970 4,256 

National Zinc Co Springfield. 111. 3.800 4.480 

Nevada Smelting Co . ... Nevada. Mo. 672 IM 672 

Sew Jersey Zinc Co. of Penn ... Palmerton, Penn. 7,200 7.200 

Oklahoma Spelter Co Kusa, Okla. (j) 1.600 ih) 1,600 

-pelterCo Canev. Kan. 1.920 1.920 

sburgZincCo .. Pittsburg. Kan. 910 (h) 910 

Prune Western Spelter Co GasCity, Kan 4.866 4.866 

Quinton Spelter Co. Quinton. Okla 1,340 2.016 

Sandoval Zinc Co Sandoval. 111. 672 l./l 

Tulsa Fuel and Manufacturing Co.. Collinsville, Okla. 6,232 6.232 

UnitedStatesSmeltingCo.ini Altoona. Kan. 4,600 4.640 

I nited States Smelting Co Checotah, ( Ikla 4,480 5.120 

United States Smelting Co La Harpe, Kan. 1.926 (p) 

United States Zinc Co. If) Henrvetta. Okla. 1.200 2.400 

I nited States Zinc Co Sand Springs. Okla. 8,000 8.000 

United States Zinc Co Pueblo. Colo. 1.984 2.200 

I nited Zinc Smelting Corpn ... Moundsville, W. Va. Id) (m) 1.728 

United Zinc Smelting Corpn. I i).... Clarksburg, W. Va 3.648 3.648 

» eir Smelting Co ... . Weir. Kan. 448 (a) 448 

Totals 212.614 217.194 

""sed during latter part of 1917. (6) No report received; entered the 

sie.ic as previous year, le) Formerly Granbv Mining and Smelting I o I f) 

I nder construction. Irl See Bartlesville Zinc Co. (o) Dismantled, end of I 9 1 7. 

■ iM Idle all of 1917. Ii) Formerly Clarksburg Zinc Co. (j) Idle latter part of 

1916 («) Absorbed by Kusa Spelter Co. (?) Formerly Western Spelter Co. 

) Not yet in operation. 

hands of smelters. From this time the spelter market 
was a declining one, with only trifling, fitful advances. 

After the middle of the year the weakness became 
pronounced. The situation was simple. Production 
was in excess of the demand, and the market was sold 

down in 1 in. k pn duction rathei than to lei Btoi 
accumulate furthei ["henceforward, spelter nevei 
touched 9c. a, 'am i'.arl.\ m September the price wa 
down to v . it,, 11 ,i rallied to about 8 c, but at th< 
end of October it was down to '.' i , rising to 71c. and 
Closing the year at i 

Early in the war the Government appointed a zinc 
committee, which discussed the arrangement of a prio 
for Governmental purchases, but before any conclu 
was reached the market price was below all the figure 
that were talked about and thai wei dered to 

represent a fair price on the basis of cost of produc 
tion. The Government therefore obtained its Bupplieu 
of common spelter by competitive oilers in the old 
fashioned way. Brass special and intermediate wen- 
obtained in a similar fashion. However, in the latter 
part of 1917 a new zinc committee was appointed, its 
purpose being mainly to arrange differentials between 

I XPOR1 - DI RING I M:-i I . .1 IN I HH 

1915 1916 1917 

/.in. on . long tons 743 70 365 en 

Zinc dross, lb 8.329.346 56.525 20.530,634 

Pigs, bare plates, sheets, etc I 28,735,815 e,i 

Pig;., plates, slabs, etc 

l'i 49.418.677(61 233.049,134 232,778.898 

From foreign ore, lb (e) 8,836.247 </.i 72.021.299 110.922.956 

Sheets, Btrips, boiler plates, ete . 

lb 19,605,612 if.i 24,202.936 25.225,287 

en For six months, Januarj to June, inclusivi On Jul} I. 191 5, a changi 

made in method of classificati eriod beginning Jul} I (c) Re 

ported as exports of foreign merchandisi i i to July, 1915 (rf) Nine monthn 

only; i letober figuri s not yet n ceived 


1915 1916 1917 
Zinc me and calamine, gross weight, 

long tons 102,873 297.311 175,284 

Zinc contents, lb 81.355,750 252,951,201 135,668.774 

Blocks or pigs and old, lb 1.526,844 1.192,657 387,447 

Zinc dust, lb 1,337,127 1.686,665 732.647 

common spelter and the other grades, especially high- 
grade, in which there is only small competition, so 
that they could be obtained on the competitive basis 
for common spelter. Up to the close of 1917 no specifie 
arrangement of this nature had been consummated. 

Zinc Mining in Wisconsin 
By J. E. Kennedy* 

The net tonnage of zinc ore shipped to smelteries 
from the Wisconsin district in 1917 increased 13 r , 
over that of 1916, as indicated in the accompanying 
table. The gross tonnage shipped from mines to smel 
teries and to separating plants increased 16 per cent. 

Ore prices in 1917 opened at $75 per ton base for 
premium or best grade of zinc ore. The highest bas2 
price paid was $90, and this high figure prevailed for 
five consecutive weeks in the first quarter. The prica 
fluctuated between $75 and $90 during the first six 
months of the year, but a general decline set in after 
July 1. The year's average base for premium grade 
was $74 per ton of 2000 pounds. 

A total of 68 mills and nine roasters were in opera- 
tion during 1917, as against 82 mills and 14 roasters 
in 1916. Eleven concentrating mills were built new 
or moved and reconstructed; namely, North Survey 
(Dodgeville), New Empire and New Rose No. 2 
(Platteville), C. S. H. (Cuba City), Mud Range 
(Potosi), Copeland (Shullsburg), Jefferson (Hazel 
Green), Hird No. 3, Bearcat, Hoskins, and Ida Blend- 
(Benton-New Diggings). 

•Platteville. Wis 


Vol. 105, No. 

e throughout the soar, luit 
more efficiency was developed than prevailed in 1916. 
Better housing facilities, provided by the larger corn- 
maintenance of the high level of wages 
ontented with their jobs and less e 
about Shovelers at s.-iic. per can. under 

WIS) "■' OR! SHIPMl N is 


M in.— 

lilt, |o|„ i..|; 

.ml . I iM 

1 4 ,t I I. \K4 

1,04] (7,081 

\\.<m i:n 


*Mi 14,852 

*: i 

- 261 


1 Hi US'' 


19. (.40 




4 881 


10,61 1 









114 - 

227.7 r, 


1 6. : i \ 

12. .'7r. 

usual conditions, averaged $4(5)5 per day; underground 
drill men were paid $3.50@3.75 guarantee and avera 

>4 with premium; trammers received $3 on straight 
\\ a^res and made $5 under contract ; hoistermen were 

paid $3.75, grizzlymen $3, crush* . feeders $2.75 and 
millmen $100(5 [50 per month. 

Reduced prices Of ore, on the one hand, couided with th ' 
high record prices of material and wages, discouraged 
prospecting. Few new companies were incorporated 
anil many smaller operators were forced to discontinue 
business, More efficient methods of the larger operators 
were reflected in the increased production attained by 
the district, while the number of producing properties 
was materially reduced. The largest three operators, 
the Mineral Point Zinc Co., Wisconsin Zinc Co. and 
Vinegar Hill Zinc Co., produced 56 r r of the district's 
output of lead and zinc concentrates, each company 
contributing almost an equal amount of tonnage. The 
Frontier Mining Co.. with five producing properties, 
was a close fourth in tonnage output. 

Further macadamizing of country roads facilitated 
transportation. The three operators mentioned above 
built a standard-gage spur, If miles in length with 630 
ft. of tunnel, costing approximately $75,000 and con- 
necting the mines and the Skinner roaster at New 
Diggings with the Chicago & North Western Ry. at 

Lead and Zinc in the Joplin District 

By Jesse A. Zook* 

THE weekly average shipment of zinc concentrates 
from the Joplin district in 1917 was 8503 tons. In 
1916 it was 7491 tons, and in 1915, 5973 tons. The 
incentive for increased tonnage from year to year 
originated in the high prices of June, 1915, and a large 
part of the 1917 production resulted from prospect 
work during the latter half of 1915. In 1917 the gain 
per week was 1012 tons over 1916, while the 1916 gain 
was only 518 tons per week over 1915 production. 

Fewer large-capacity mills were begun in 1917, but 
a large number of mills were removed from one part of 


1 906 


High(a) \ 

$54 00 $43 30 

53 50 43 68 
4 7 llll 34 36 
55 00 41 08 
52 00 40 42 
51 00 39 90 
67 00 53 33 
59 00 42 26 

54 00 40 46 
138 90 79 30 
131 70 84 72 
101 95 67 70 

lli^-li Vverage 

$87 00 $77 78 

88 50 68 90 

66 00 54 66 

60 50 54 56 

58 00 51 98 

64 00 56 76 

68 00 56 60 

58 00 52 52 

54 50 46 55 

80 00 55 08 

104 84 84 07 

115 50 98 00 

nil! nent price recorded W Derived from weekly settlement ■ 

the district to another. At the close of the year, 50% 
of the mills were either removed or sold for removal 
from the "sheet ground" area extending from Duenweg 
northwest to Webb City, and from the small area west 
of Joplin. 

Oklahoma marks a gain for 1917 over 1916 of 107,714 
tons of zinc concentrates, Kansas a gain of 11,680 tons 
and Missouri a loss of 27,627 tons. The increased Okla- 
homa production resulted from the 1915 prospecting and 
1916 developments from Commerce north to the Kansas 

state line, creating progressively the mining camps of 
Tar River, Cardin, Douthat, Century, Picher and St. 
Louis, in Oklahoma, and Treece, in Kansas. Picher took 

(Per Ton nf 2.000 Lb.) 



Zinc < ire 

< 'alamine 

All Grades 


$51 02 

$76 86 

$90 36 

51 35 

82 66 

104 00 

50 97 

82 94 

118 02 

43 70 

75 43 

113 21 

40 73 

71 11 

111 83 

44 31 

71 44 

123 66 

42 08 

67 99 

121 89 

40 90 

67 48 

III 64 

36 54 

66 95 

89 32 

35 40 

60 83 

80 59 

36 79 

57 29 

72 23 

37 76 

56 23 

76 89 

•Joplin, Mo 

January $78 12 

February 85 92 

March 86 70 

\pril 78 27 

May .... 74 73 

.lui,.' 74.27 

Jul;. 70 21 

lugust 69 25 

September 69 03 

October . .... 62 43 

November 59 12 

December. . . 57 31 

the lead and produced a typical frontier mining camp 
by the close of the year. It was founded upon the de- 
velopments of the Eagle-Picher Lead Co., holders of 
several thousand acres of leased Indian lands. With 
not even a guaranteed surface right for any specific 
period, some substantial buildings were erected. 

The increased Kansas production was from new terri- 
tory north of the Oklahoma developments, in part, and 
from new territory west of Waco, Mo., in a newly pros- 
pected area. Most of the production of this area came 
from the Kansas side, the developments on the Missouri 
side not arriving at a producing stage until the year 
end. Waco is the logical center of this area, having 
steam and electric railway connection with Joplin to the 
south, and Pittsburg, Kan., to the north. 

The zenith of shipments was reached the end of 
August, aggregating 14,500 tons of blende. At the end 
of November shipments had declined to only 7200 tons 
per week. Production during this period dropped from 
12,000 to 8500 tons weekly. 

Januan 12, L918 



The year l!M7 opened with blende Belling up to 
$8:'> per ton. The price advanced to $101 n "> by the end 
of February, dropping thereafter steadily to $75.40 at 
the end of April, and then advancing to $84.30 bj the 
sod of May, from which figure the decline was steadj 
to $72.65 at the end of November. While the latter 
amount was paid for only a limited tonnage, the aver- 
age mid-December price was $f>9.16 per ton. Calamine 
opened 1917 on a $50(ji 15 basis for U>\ Zn, advanced 
t» s:.t, ,. .'.(I in .Minh. reeled in in mid-May, went 
up the next week to $45(g 10, and that figure continued 
to mid-August when it dropped to $35(5 30. The next 
week the price moved up to $38(ji 35 and this held to 
the year end. 

Lead opened the year at $93.90, high, rose to $130 by 
the first of March, dropped to $113.70 in mid-April, 



Jasper County 

m County 
p ( lounty 
1 % 
Christian County. 

1 \ 



15,59(,. 000 




190 310 

( lalamini 









es (6)Dece 








5 59, 1 50 




Howell County 



Ottawa ( taunty 




mber estimai 



Total 1917 





ted for each 

Total 1916 

Increase 1917 
- settled for 

700,2(30- 3(1 


through Joplin agenci 

advanced to $135.50 at the end of June, when there 
followed a gradual decline to $64.10 at the end of Octo- 
ber, and an advance to $85.75 at the close. 

Corl gondolas were pressed into zinc-shipping service 
in October and a shortage of cars tied up in the bins 
of producers upward of 30,000 tons of zinc concentrates 
by the end of November. On Dec. 7 a snowfall, un- 
equalled in intensity and accompanying cold, covered the 
district. The average depth was given at thirteen 
inches, with drifts three to four feet deep. Electric in- 
terurban and city traffic was interrupted and many 
mines and all prospect and development work were at 
a standstill three to four days. 

On Dec. 11 the freight management of the Frisco 
railway system was in conference with the Journal 
correspondent concerning the car situation, delving into 
details relative to the respective needs of producers in 
the several camps, and discussing how best to relieve 
the most urgent needs first. 

Coal Production of the World 

The United States in 1917 produced fully 45 f , of 
the world's output of coal, according to an estimate 
of the National City Bank of New York. This country 
has been the world's largest producer of coal for many 
years. In 1913, the latest normal year for world pro- 
duction, it produced 570,000,000 short tons against 
322,000,000 in Great Britain; 306,000,000 in Germany; 
60,000,000 in Austria-Hungary; 45,000,000 in France; 
36,000,000 in Russia; 25,000,000 in Belgium and 24,- 
000,000 in Japan. The total world product of 1913 
was 1,478,000,000 tons, our share being approximately 
38%. In 1916, our share of the world's product was 
about 44%. The coal production of the United States' 

has grown from 270,000,000 short tons m 1900 to a) 
most 650,000,000 short ions m 1:117. According to th< 

bank's statement, the United States' coal supply I'ai 

exceeds that of anj other country, being estimated at 
3,627,000 million shorl tons, against 180,000 millii a 
Great Britain and 164,000 million in Germany, china 
is said to contain 1,50(1,000 million short ton . bul 

far has produced bul little, the 1913 output being but 
15,432.000 short tons. 

Great Britain's coal exports in 1913, the latest normal 
year, amounted to 82,000,000 short tons and Germany's 
to about 37,000,000 short tons, while the United St. 
in the fiscal year 1913 exported but about 23,000,000 
short tons. Since the beginning of the war, however, our 
coal exports have shown a slight increase, having been 
about 20', more in 1917 than in 1913, while those of 
Great Britain meantime declined and those of Germany 
were, of course, confined to trade with the adjacent 
neutral countries. Of the coal exported from the United 
States in the fiscal year 1917, about 68% went to 
Canada, 6% to Cuba. 8', to South America and less 
than half of 1% to Italy. 

British Aluminum Co. Planning 
To Enlarge Plant 

The increased demand for aluminum due to the growth 
of the aircraft industry and of other branches of man- 
ufacture has caused the British Aluminum Co. to take 
steps to enlarge its plant in Scotland, according to the 
London Times Engineering Supplement. The principal 
factories of the company are at Foyers and Kinlochleven. 
The hydro-electric plant at the latter place is even now 
the most important in Great Britain and will be greatly 
enlarged by the proposed scheme. The watershed that 
is to be drawn upon includes that known as Laggan and 
Ossian and a portion of the Ben Nevis area. The sanc- 
tion of Parliament is being sought for the construc- 
tion of nine works. 

The main features of the scheme comprise two dams. 
One is to be across the River Spean, near Roughburn, 
at a point above its union with Loch Treig, and will be 
about 700 ft. long and 100 ft. high; while the second 
dam, planned for impounding the waters of Loch Treig. 
will be about 600 ft. long and 30 ft. high, and will cut 
the stream joining Loch Treig with Idir Loch. Five 
conduits are to be built. The one connecting Lock Treig 
with the Kinlochleven factory is to be 12 ft. in diameter, 
and that between the River Spean dam and Loch Treig 
will be a 10-ft. tunnel. 

The level of Loch Treig will be raised about 40 ft. by 
the proposed changes, but it is thought unnecessary to 
change the level of Loch Laggan. The company is seek- 
ing powers to regulate the level of seven other streams 
also. The acreage of land which will be submerged is 
comparatively small, and is largely rough moorland. The 
new power house will be on a site between the River 
Leven and Kinlochmore, and from the terminus of the 
tunnel there a light railway will give communication 
with the company's property. The proposed works prob- 
ably will not be completed in less than five years after 
the placing of contracts. The decision to raise the level 
of Loch Treig would necessitate the diversion of a small 
length of the North British Railway. 


Vol. 105, No. 2 

Iron and Steel 

THF stool industry of the United States in 1917 not 
only surpas production in l!Mt'>. but was also 

distinguished b\ the manner in which the re 
of the iron and stool trade were placed at the 
dis] rnment and every effort expended 

surd cooperation. With preference given to Go^ 
ernment orders, and the agreement which was entered 
into in September wherebj the prices of steel prod- 
acts were fixed by the War Industries Hoard and the 
manufacturers, the dominating influence of the Gov 
ernment had a stabilizing effect. ' 
of ship stool was probably the greatest now physical de 
velopment that occurred in the steel trade in 1917, the 
increased demand for ship steel lieinK stimulated by 
the expansion of shipyards to rush construction work. 
Lake Superior ore shipments for 1!M7 were 62,499, 
099 tons, a decrease of 2,235,099 tons from 1916, when 
the record shipment of 64,734,198 tons was made. Rail 



' u 

l"u.. Harbors 


Totals l-\ lake 
Totals nil rail i rat .V 

Total shipments 






12.787. i)4t, 




7,157,0 A 

1 3, 9 7 ^ 

20,567.4 1'' 



shipments for 1917 increased and may approach 2,500.- 
000 tons when the final figures are out. most of which 
was shipped to the Minnesota Steel Co. at Duluth. 

Late opening of the Lake shipping season, a shortage 
of boats and the prevailing car shortage appeared to 
offer a curtailment of ore movement early in the season, 
hut, through the intervention of the Government and 
cooperation with the fumacemen, sufficient tonnages 
were secured. Ore prices were: Old Range bessemer, 
$5.95 : Mesabi bessemer. $5.70 ; Old Range nonbessemer. 
$5.20 and Mesabi nonbessemer, $5.05 per ton. 

Vessel freights, which in 1916 wore from 45 to 60c, 
increased to 85c. and $1.10, and later a further advance 
was made and rates as high as $1.50 were paid. Rail 

(In Long I m I 
I'>I4 1915 1916 1917 

1 .... 
3 pond half 

12. 530,1194 I2.2M7»I 
10.796.150 17,682,422 

19,815. ns 


N ■ .11 

132 244 '..213 


1H. W.851 

>. ill: til 



FOR 15 "i EARS 

. In Long Tons) 

It 009,252 
1904 16,497,003 

■•■■ • (go 
I'HIt, 25. 1117. 1'H 
1907 S1.3BI 

1908 15.936.918 

1909 25.795.471 

1910 27. MH.51.7 

1911 23,649.547 

1912 29.72h.tW 


1 'i 1 1. 
1917 i..i 


Deecmbei pi oduction 

■ ■*! imated 

run i i\ 



< trades 

' out Tone % 

1.' >I1L' Tolls 



i oundrj 

Spii '' 1' i>- ii 

All other 

17.684,087 45 

14,422.457 36 5 

"..533.644 14.0 

921,486 2 3 

348.344 1) 9 

186.990 5 

228,544 0.5 

89.245 2 


44 8 
36 6 
13 5 

2 6 


39,434.797 100 



oo Es1 imated 

roads were allowed a 15c. increase by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, so that during 1917 rail freights 
were from 50c. to $1.50 per ton. 

Mine operators contend that ore prices are too low 
when based on price of pig iron, as specified by the 
Government, but no change will be made before the be- 
ginning of the second quarter. 

Production of pig iron in 1916 was 39,434,797 gross 
tons, and in 1917 about 38,750,000 tons. Production of 
steel ingots was 41,401,917 gross tons in 1916 and about 
42,500,000 tons in 1917. Some pig iron stocks were used 
in 1917, and there was doubtless a decrease in the con- 
sumption of pig iron by foundries. The production of 
finished rolled steel in 1916 was 30,557,818 gross tons, 
and in 1917 about 31,500,000 tons. 

Pittsburgh Iron and Steel Markets 

By B. E. V. LUTY* 

THE iron and steel market underwent unusually 
complicated changes in 1917. It was not a simple 
case of price advances and declines, although there 
were both, nor yet a matter of variation in the volume 
or general character of the demand. The circumstances 
under which business was transacted underwent the 
most radical mutations. 

The sharply advancing tendency that was resumed 
about Aug. 1, 1916, after three months of approximately 
stationary prices, continued without material change in 
character during January. Then came Germany's 
declaration, on Feb. 1, of ruthless destruction of mer- 
chant shipping by submarines. The steel market has 
always been one of kaleidoscopic changes, and that cir- 
cumstance has trained both buyers and sellers to be keen 
to appraise the importance and bearing of developments. 

•U71-;: Union At 

While there may have been doubts in many quarters, in 
the iron and steel trade there was one common view, 
that Germany's declaration meant war. 

Iron and steel prices at once began to rise still more 
sharply. Steel producers had been claiming in 1916 
that they had not advanced prices; that buyers had bid 
them up. However that may be, the honors may as well 
be shared, there being plenty for both parties. Quota- 
tions rose sharply in February and March, and with the 
declaration of war on Apr. 6, 1917, they simply con- 
tinued to rise. Using a weighted average of the prin- 
cipal finished-steel products, and the low point in the 
market of December, 1914, as base, steel products were 
at 2.5 prices on Jan. 1, at 2.9 prices Apr. 6 and at 4.1 
prices at the beginning of July. That was the top point, 
there being a slight recession up to the inception of 
Government price-fixing, which eventually established a 




set level al 2.7 prices. Using another basis of compari 
son. the sel prices were 2.1 times the average quotations 
in the 10 years ended 1913 — barely double those actu- 
ally paid in the period, as the highest quoted prices had 
not been paid on any considerable tonnagi 

In April there was a total change in the character of 
the market. Previously, regular contracting had been 
done, for such forward deliveries as the large mills could 
make, and the small mills, which do not customarily sell 
far ahead, but rather depend upon the prompt market, 
and frequently secure premium deliveries, had been de- 
manding a premium. In April the large mills practically 
withdrew from the market. Thereafter they did not 
advance prices, while the small mills continued to make 
advances. Probably the large mills did take some new 
business thereafter, at their last official figures, but 
they did not quote openly any prices at all. 

Thus the market worked itself into an impossible posi- 
tion. The prices that were quoted as "the market" on 
July 1 were in essence premium figures, although they 
were the only ones openly quoted. The great bulk of 
the deliveries being made were based on selling costs 
approximately half as high. Obviously, consumers could 

tween tin' War in. in 1 1 ie Board ami the inm and steel 
manufacturers, held on Sept. 21, an agreement 
reached that there should ho one price for all and that 
a general schedule should be developed which should 

be in proper relation, as to cost of manufacture, 
with certain basis prices, then and there agreed upon. 
viz.: Lake Superior iron ore, no change; pig iron, $33 
per long ton; bars, 2.!)0c. per lb.; shape . 8c; plates, 
3.25c. Prices for other commodities were subsequently 
set by the War Industries Board, and then, at the board's 
invitation, other commodities were given set prices by 
the American Iron and Steel Institute. It should be 
mentioned that the figures agreed on do not apply on 
export sales of material not involved in the war. 

No data have been available as to the tonnages of 
steel ordered by the Government, a rule having been 
made that such information should be withheld. The 
orders up to the end of September may have been more 
or less than a million tons. Thereafter they became 
much heavier, particularly so as the Government then 
began buying for its Allies also. The exact amount of 
steel ordered by the Government, however, would not 
furnish anv definite indication as to the war's real de- 


— Pig Iron . Steel Products -~ 

Mo 2 Ferro- Black Pine, Wire 

I .Mm man- Bessemer Sheets Basing Nails 

Bessemer Base dry ganese Billets Beams Plates Bars No. 28 Discount Base 

bnuary $35 95 $30 95 $30 95 $175 00 $63 50 3.11c 3 61c 3.00c. 4.50c ' 64% $3 00 

February 36 37 30 95 30 95 210 00 65 00 3 25 3 75 3 00 4 63 62J 3 00 

March 17 i7 33.49 35 91 270 00 68 00 3.52 4 33 3 27 4 90 60'. 3 18 

April 42 28 38 95 40 11 325 00 75 00 3 70 4 50 3 39 5 88 55 3 28 

May 46 94 42 84 43 60 400 00 88 00 4 00 4 50 3 64 6 73 49 3 50 

.luii. 54 22 50 10 47 45 400 00 95 00 4 25 7. 10 4 00 7 50 49 3 71 

July 57 45 53 80 53 95 400 00 95 00 4 50 9 00 4 5U 8 00 42 4 00 

Uigust 54 17 50 37 5' 95 375 00 84 00 4.50 8 96 4 50 8 00 43'. 4 00 

nber. 46 40 42 29 48 63 360 00 70 00 4 06 7 05 3 88 8 00 49 4 00 

37 25 33 95 33 95 300 00 55 25 3 00 3 25 2.90 7 32 49 4 00 

November 37 25 33 95 33 95 250 00 47 50 3 00 3 25 2 90 5 06 50; 3 58 

Decembei 37 25 33 95 33 95 245 00 47 50 3 00 3 25 2 90 5 00 51 3.50 

rear .... $43 59 $39 63 $40 61 $309 17 $71 16 3 66c 5 21c 3.49c. 6.29c - $3 56 

Tear 1916 23 88 20 98 21.11 166 72 44 23 2 50 2 82 2 48 3 06 70S 2 53 

Prices of pijr iron, ferromanganese and billets are per long, ton, 2,240 lb ; of steel products, per lb.; of nails, per 100 lb., base; of pipe, in discount on base sizes. 
1 to 2 in., from a list per foot equivalent to 10c. per lb. 

Government prices announced Sept 24. pig iron, beams, plates and bars; I let 1 I. billets; Nov 5. sheets, pipe and wire. 

not afford to pay such high premiums on all their pur- 
chases, and the inflated market would last only as long 
as the famine lasted, perhaps for a few months, perhaps 
to the end of the war. 

On July 12, President Wilson appealed to miners and 
manufacturers that they "forego unusual profits" and 
that there should be "one price for all," the Govern- 
ment, its Allies, and the general public. He insisted 
that the war requirements were varied in character and 
that, no clear line could be drawn between what was war 
material and what was peace material; that, indeed, all 
the resources of the country should be used for prose- 
cuting the war. Tie did not refer to steel in particular 
or to any specific commodity. 

The steel industry was not ready, at the moment, to 
subscribe to the doctrine, and the issue dragged for 
some time. It became so clear, later in the year, that 
President Wilson was exactly right, as regards iron and 
steel, that it may well be assumed the iron and steel in- 
dustry realized that the "one price for all" arrangement 
would have to be made sooner or later, and merely 
wished to delay the settlement while the peace con- 
sumers were taking their steel so freely. The orders 
of the Government were accepted either at special prices 
agreed upon from time to time, or subject to a set price 
to be developed later. At a meeting in Washington be- 

mands upon the iron and steel industry, for two reasons : 
(1) Deliveries against these orders are according to the 
Government's desires, subject to mill possibilities, so 
that the rate of delivery at any one time could not be 
determined for comparison with the total rate of pro- 
duction at the time; (2) steel is required by various 
industries whose activity contributes more or less di- 
rectly toward prosecuting the war, and these indus- 
tries, if necessary, can call upon the Government for 
support in securing deliveries. 

The prospect at the close of 1917 was, indeed, that 
little steel would be used for ordinary commercial pur- 
poses not connected with the war. Ordinary building 
activities had dropped to a low ebb. The production of 
passenger automobiles had greatly decreased, while, on 
the other hand, the Government had ordered 30,000 
three-ton motor trucks. Scarcely any orders for cars 
or locomotives had been placed by domestic roads for 
several months, and the railroads were awaiting Gov- 
ernment action, and probably Government financing, as 
to further increases in their facilities, when President 
Wilson's proclamation of Dec. 26, by the terms of 
which the Government took over the operation of all the 
nation's railroads, including auxiliary water lines, clari- 
fied the situation and established a basis for a clear 
understanding as to the future of the roads. 


Vol. 105, No. 2 

Iron Mining 

in the United States 

IRON mining in the United States in 1917 was active 
in ,-, to the heavy demands for the ore 

throughout the year. !>ut shipments were less than in 
normal conditions curtailed the m< 

men! from the Lake Superior districts. This decrease 

late opening of the shipping season, 

which prevented tree dispatch of boats before June 15, 

and by the scarcity «i \essels necessary to move the "re 
Excellent conditions prevailing in November permitted 

rd shipments from the Lake Superior district in 
that month. 

The activities oi the 1. W. W. at the Lake Superior 
mines led to slight disturbances on the Cuyuna and 
Gogebic ranges, hut both were of small consequence 
Legislation bearing on the iron industry in the Lake 
erior region consisted of the passing of a bill in 
Minnesota providing a fund of $50,000 per year for the 
suppression of emergency disorders, and the defeat of 
the tonnage or super tax. which imposed a 2\ ad 
valorem levy on iron mined in that state, in addition 
to all other taxes. Ore shipments down the Mississippi 
were initiated. 

Mhsabi Range Adopts Labor-saving Devices 

Wages on the Mesabi range reached the highest point, 
common labor receiving $3.60 per day toward the latter 
part of 1917. and some of the contract miners getting 
as high as ST. The shortage of labor, even at these 
prices, led to some of the properties that ordinarily 
would be mined underground being operated as open- 
pits, as this process requires fewer men. This condi- 
tion also stimulated the adoption of several labor-saving 
devices. Among the latter were: In the openpits, 300- 
ton revolving shovels, which require less track laying; 
20-yd. steel automatic air-dump cars, in place of 8-yd. 
hand-dump cars; air-actuated spreaders for leveling off 
dumps; air drills, in place of hand drills, for drilling 
ore in pits; air tamping machines for tamping ties. In 
underground mines, one-man air drills were used. Hoar 
and Middlemiss shoveling machines were being tried 
out and other types were being developed. 

Several properties formerly operated by the Arthur 
Mining Co., a subsidiary of the Great Northern R.R., 
were leased on a royalty basis to the Todd-Stambaugh 
Co., Pickands-Mather Co., M. A. Hanna Co., Jones & 
Laughlin Co. and Butler Bros. Stripping operations 
were conducted at Washoe mine, at Coleraine; Majorca 
mine, at Calumet; Patrick. Kevin, Ann and York mine.-, 
at Nashvvauk; Bennett mine, at Keewatin; Warren 
mine, at Carson Lake; Webb mine, at Hibbing: Missabe 
Mountain, at Virginia : Fayal. Jean. Rutland. Leonidas, 
Adams and Spruce mines, at Eveleth, and St. James, at 
Aurora. Shaft sinking was carried on at the Carson 
Lake, Albany and South Agnew, at Hibbing. Two new 
mines were developed at Grand Rapids by the Newport 
Mining Co.. new operates in this field. New construc- 
tion work included washing plants and rock-screening 
plants. Power lines operated by the Great Northern 
Power Co. were extended. Operations on the Vermilion 
range were characterized by activity in underground 
development work, and considerable exploration done. 

Operations on the Cuyuna range of Minnesota were 

active, owing to the demand for manganiferous iron 
ores, and considerable drilling was done. Shaft sinking 
was carried on at the Rowe, Mille Lacs and Feigh mines, 
and the Barrows shaft, which had been idle for three 
years, was unwatered. Among the new shippers in 
1917 were the Joan. Barrows. Feigh and Rowley mines. 
Scarcity of labor, due partly to the number of men enter-1 
ing Government service, resulted in a lowering of efh-l 
ciency in various organizations. No difficulty was! 
encountered in securing markets for the ore, but re-j 
al from the mines was hampered by lack of boats, 
although there was no shortage of cars and the rail-l 
roads handling the ore between the mines and the docks'^ 
gave excellent service. No further advances were made! 
in benficiating Cuyuna ores in 1917, although there was! 
increased activity and experimentation in that direction.) 

Few New Shippers in Michigan and Wisconsin 
In the Michigan and Wisconsin districts the mines 
were active, but few new properties were opened up.i 
Wages advanced similarly with those on the Minnesota^ 
ranges, but no labor troubles developed except a slight 
disturbance by the I. W. W. on the Gogebic range, in 
the Gwinn district of the Marquette range, the Cleve-f 
land-Cliffs Iron Co. installed new pumping equipment,: 
but this proved inadequate toward the latter part of the} 
year, when excessive amounts of water compelled the 
cessation of mining at the Stephenson and other mines.l 
On the Gogebic range the Plymouth mine, which first 
shipped in 1916, was a large producer. Among new- 
shippers in 1917 were the Spies mine and Hill Top and 
Victoria mines, on the Menominee range, and the 
Athens, on the Marquette range. 

Olh Mines Reopened in Birmingham District 
In the Birmingham district iron mining was affectedi 
by shortage of labor, which was somewhat relieved 
toward the latter part of 1917 by the return of some on 
the negro laborers who had been attracted north by high 
wages and by the influx of farm laborers. Wages in-l 
creased, and toward the end of the year were 40 r f higher! 
than in 1916. High prices paid for ores resulted in 
the reopening of many old mines in the region, particu-j 
larly in Franklin County. 

In New York, properties near Mineville were active) 
in 1917. Other producers were the Forest O'Dean mine! 
at Fort Montgomery, and the Sterling mine, at Sterling-j 
ton. Comp .rot\ 'ely little development is reported from! 
iron mines in Virginia, and the production of hydrox-i 
ide ores in the Shenandoah Valley and limonite ores 
in the N «w River—ripple Creek district, formerly ac-l 
tive, was small. Lirge deposits of magnetite are re-J 
ported as «.''* V<\ in Piedmont County, but no mining 
has yet been done there. In New Jersey and Pennsyl-f 
vania, several old properties were reopened; the opera-j 
tions of the Empire Steel and Iron Co. at Mt. Hope and 
Oxford, N. J., were extensive and considerable magne-j 
tite was mined. In the intermountain region, the Colo-) 
rado Fuel and Iron Co. operated its mines in Sunrise, 
Wyo., and Fierro, N. M. In California some explora-t 
tion and mining of iron ores was undertaken by the! 
Noble Electric Steel Co., but most of its efforts were 
directed toward the production of ferroalloys. 





Ferromanganese and Spiegeleisen 


THERE has been a marked change in the relative 
amounts of ferromanganese and spiegeleisen used 
by the steel trade. Table 1 shows the imports 
and production for three successive periods of live 
years each, also the steel made, the proportion of man- 
pnese to steel and the proportions of total manganese 
supplied by spiegeleisen and ferromanganese. 

Imports of spiegeleisen have almost ceased and the 
production decreased over 40 f r , while the imports of 
ferromanganese were larger in the last two periods and 
the domestic production increased nearly 200 r r . Steel 
production for the three periods increased in the ratio 
100: 126: 184, with a decided reduction in the rela- 
tive amounts of manganese, a ratio of 100: 91: 86. In 
the first period. 10', of the manganese was supplied 
by spiegel and 60*7 by ferro; in the next period, 24.22', 
hy spiegel and 75.8' t by ferro, while in the last one 
11.4', was from spiegel and 88. 6 f , from ferro. 

Spiegeleisen Used with Bessemer, Ferromanganese 
with openhearth process 

Statistics of production show that there was no ma- 
terial increase in the proportion of manufactured soft 
steel, which would be an obvious reason for the in- 
crease in the relative amount of ferromanganese used. 
The accompanying chart shows the proportion of the 


1902-1906 f 1907-1911 

Tons ' , Tons c , 

348.176 26 5 116,850 

960,255 73.5 800,928 

Spiegeleisen imports 

isen production 

spiegeleisen avail- 
.1 I 1,308.431 

! err anganese imports 250,920 

anganese produc- 
tion 255,269 

12 7 

Tons '' 


99 3 


49 5 

50 5 


56 2 
43 8 


38 7 
61 3 

Ferromanganese avail- 
able. total.. 506.189 

Manganese in spiegeleisen 235.518 
Manganese in ferro. 354.332 

Manganese total 

; Tpel produced 

taoentage of manganese 
used to steel produced 

100 740.066 100 1.178.464 100 

39 9 
60 I 


24 2 
75 8 

104.880 II 3 
824,925 88 7 

589,850 100 


683.246 100 
II I. II 1,897 


929.805 100 


e manganese is calculated on the assumption that the spiegeleisen aver- 
ted IS''; and thefer-o 70<~ . 

otal steel made by the bessemer and openhearth process 
uid the proportion of the manganese used derived from 
spiegeleisen. The decrease in the proportion of besse- 
ner is closely paralleled by the decrease in the propor- 
ion of the manganese derived from spiegeleisen. 

In the bessemer process the heats are short and the 
ime of completion is known almost to the minute. 
Under these conditions, spiegel can be melted in a cupola 
vithout unreasonable losses. During the time that the 
>essemer converter was the principal source of steel, 
piegel was largely used. 

In an openhearth furnace the duration of a heat is 
mcertain and so irregular that it is often impossible 
■o have spiegel melted and ready at the termination of 
he heat. With the increasing use of the openhearth it 
therefore became common practice to use ferro, as the 
'mailer quantity required could be placed in the ladle 

. 'Chief metallurgist, New Jersey Zinc Co., 55 Wall St.. New 

and melted by the steel. Where relatively hard steel 
was desired, liquid pig iron was added to give the re 

quired amount of carbon (in excess of thai carried by 

the ferro) needed to release the manganese. 

Economy in Use of Ferro \nh Spiegel Depends on 
Pig-Iron Prices 

Two forms of practice were then common. In one, 
spiegel was added to give both manganese and carbon 
and in the other ferro was added to give manganese 
and part of the carbon and pig iron to supply the bal- 
ance. Some works use spiegel by melting it in the ladle. 
With a "hot" heat, this can be done without trouble. 
It is, however, necessary to have some ferro on hand for 
use with the "cold" heats that are occasionally made. 
The relative economy of the two methods depends on 
the prices of pig iron, ferromanganese and spiegeleisen. 

















% ' 





fro/n c 



^ fl N C ff' o 

o o o o o — 


<u to ^ ir> 


However, it is easier for the steel maker to use ferro 
always, and in most cases he does, regardless of cost. 

In general, while the prices of pig iron, ferroman- 
ganese and spiegeleisen rise and fall together, the 
changes are seldom proportional and the price of pig 
iron must be taken into account, as the proportion of 
iron in spiegel is much larger than in ferro. The price 
of pig iron is always known and with the price of either 



Base 80 c ; Ferro Add or Subtract Add or Subtract 

Per Cent. Mn. at $50. Pig fur Variation of for Variation of 

in Spiegel at $10 $ I in Ferro Pi w, $1 in Pig Price 

70 $44 92 $0 8747 $0 1199 

60 39 87 7498 2375 

50 34 81 6250 3563 

40 28 03 4851 4773 

30 23 14 3633 5946 

20 18 26 2425 7136 

10 13 38 1213 8318 

For instance: When ferromanganese is $275 :ind pig iron $36.30. what is the 
value of 20% spiegel 

Base $18 26 

$225 increase in ferro at 0.2425 54 56 

$26. 30 increase in pig at 0. 7 1 36 18 77 

Value of 20% spiegel $91 59 

spiegel or ferro also known, the relative value of the 
other can readily be calculated. By relative value is 
meant the prices for the alloys that will give equal 
amounts of available manganese for the same cost. The 
calculations in Tables II and III assume that allovs 


Vol. 106, No. 

carrying 40 or leas manganese will be remelted at a 
>l per ton. with a loss of •'! of the manganese. 
Alloys containing more than io\ manganese will not be 

The prices paid for spiegel and ferro are frequently 
out of proportion, as shown in Table IV. which gives 
the quoted prices for ferromanganese and pi^ r and the 
calculated values of spiegel for the years 1907 to L916. 


VU of Subtract 
- \lu >t J." 


I ion of 

inFrrrv> si S $1 in Spiegel Price 

$1 in Pig !'ri,<- 

80 $57 17 »4 1240 

$2 94 10 

70 51 li ) 6075 

1 4556 

60 45 25 1 0924 

SO WW 2 5775 

1 4831 

40 M 51 2 0000 


M 1 4981 


10 14 23 5001 


*-_■*■■■■■ What i» 80''; frrromawmnrw uortli when 

20' , tpigel i ' 

ami pig btnv $ W 10 


$57 17 

$71 59 iti.-r. -. prioe at $4,124 

1 D plK prifr nt $2 941 

77 40 

$275 01 

During a large part of that time, spiegel was sold for 
less and sometimes much less than these prices. Those 
who have used spiegel have found it profitable to con- 
tinue the practice. 

Rigid REQUIREMENTS Demanded by Steel Makers 
The steel maker is unreasonable not only in disre- 
garding the relative values of the two alloys but he ob- 
jects to buying any spiegel that does not contain either 
10 or 20% manganese, and demands unreasonable con- 
cessions in price for intermediate grades. I know of 
many cases where the steel makers have refused to 
pay more for 23 or 25<7 spiegel than for 20%. In one 
case a steel mill was buying 10 and 20% spiegel from 
the same furnace company, which, it was learned, was 
mixing them to give a 15% product. When this mill 
was offered 15 f , spiegel it refused to pay more for it 
than for 10 per cent. 

The phosphorus limits set for spiegel are severe and 
strictly enforced. As a matter of fact, 0.10'r phos- 
phorus in the spiegel is as little as will show a recogniz- 






i mi i\ m i:\t 

BaltiiiiT' 1 

Pittaburgn : 



80' , Ferro 

Bceacmer Pig 

Value 20 c < Spiegel 


$62 75 

$21 74 

$29 73 


44 SI 

lb 14 

21 26 


42 73 

17 45 



40 49 


21 04 


37 25 

15 73 

19 26 


50 40 

16 01 

22 65 


57 87 

17 II 

25 24 


55 80 

14 90 

23 17 


92 21 

15 79 

32 63 


164 12 

23 85 

55 81 

able amount in the steel. With the usual proportion of 
r> r r spiegel, this would give only 0.005 r , in steel, which 
is the limit of accuracy in ordinary works' analysis. I 
have known steel mills that regularly reported about 
0.05 % less phosphorus in spiegel than it actually con- 
tained, although it did not affect the quality of the prod- 
uct in the least. The same mill, however, would have 
rejected spiegel containing much less than this amount 
over the guarantee. 

The same things are true of ferromanganese. The 
steel maker can be persuaded to take 60 r f , but the only 
grades he wants are 70 and 80 f f and there are fre- 
quent cases of rejections where the grade was close to 
the limits. A maximum variation of 2% either way is 
frequently insisted on. 

The requirement of extreme uniformity and purity 
was. perhaps, excusable before the war when the supply 
was ample, for it saved trouble in the steel works and 
the additional cost was not serious. In 1913. the last 
year before the war, 31,300,874 tons of steel were pro- 
duced and 193,170 tons of manganese used. In 1916, 
42,773,680 tons of steel were made and 253,643 tons of 
manganese used. 

The imports of spiegel are negligible. The production 
in 1916 was double that in 1915, but only about two- 
thirds of the previous maximum, while ferro imports 
maintained the average rate of the previous seven years. 
Ferro production in 1916 was 48 r r greater than in the 
previous year, which was the largest on record. 

It is probable that the next few years will show a 
further increase in the production of steel and conse- 
quently in the demand for manganese. If this is to be 
met, the steel makers will have to take whatever grades 
the available ores will make and pay prices equivalent 
to those they paid for the preferred grades. 

The supply of ores necessary to make 80 % ferro- 
manganese is extremely limited. The ratio of man- 
ganese to iron must be 6J: 1 when the silica equals ^ 
the sum of the iron and manganese and the ratio must 
be 7'. : 1 when the silica equals 0.46 of the iron and 
manganese. Table V gives the approximate results that 
may be expected from ores of varying compositions. 


Ratio ii 

Ml, : F. 

1 : 3 
1 : 2 

2 : 1 

3 : 1 

4 : 1 

5 : 1 

6 1 

7 1 

4' j SiO, 


Sil 1, 

20' r S 



Relativi Make 

', Mi. 

Relative Make 

', Mi, 

Relal ive Makt 


20 7 

72 4 




99 7 

28 2 

72 1 

25 5 

52 2 

21 9 

99 1 

43 8 

71 6 

41 6 


38 7 

97 9 

59 8 

70 5 

58 3 

50 8 


96 1 

67 9 


66 6 

49 5 

64 9 


72 7 

67 4 

71 6 

48 2 

70 1 

91 9 

75 9 

65 7 

74 9 

46 8 


89 7 

78 2 

63 9 

77 3 



87 5 

79 9 

62 2 


44 3 

77 8 

Most of the available ore has a ratio of iron to man- 
ganese other than that which will give the grades most 
in demand. Much of it is siliceous and much is high in 
phosphorus so that the demand for extreme freedom 
from phosphorus unduly restricts the salability of avail- 
able ores. The demand for close adherence to certain 
arbitrary percentages of manganese also restricts the 
supply of ores and decreases the output of manganese 
alloys. No ore is absolutely uniform and no furna< 
works with absolute uniformity. If only certain grad 
are salable the furnace manager "plays safe" and ru 
his furnace with a large margin of safety on quali 
to avoid making grades that must be either remelted o: 
sold at a relatively lower price. In some cases, if 
finds he can make an alloy slightly above the desin 
limit and receives no more for it, he increases his bur- 
den and drives harder, making more product but wasting 

Lower grades will have to be used, as not only is then 
a scarcity of ore suitable for making the high grades 
but, in making them, losses of manganese are larger anc 
the capacity of a furnace is reduced. Specifications 
should allow the greatest possible latitude in grade anc 
the maximum phosphorus that can be used without in 
jury to the product. Academic purity and the conve 
nience of the users must be disregarded if we are to get 
a sufficient supply of manganese ores, for which w< 
know no substitute. 

January 12. l'.ns 



Chronology of Mining for 1917 

.1 AM Aid 

Jan. 1 — Reorganized "Ohio Copper Co., of Utah" n 
operation oi pan) account of Ol dm In BlnRham Canyon 

jnn. a — Three men killed in Pittsburgh-Idaho it Oil 

more, Idaho, hj explosion on 100 level; 10 others temporaril) 
tntombed rescued the following daj 

.inn. i — United Eastern's 200-ton mill In the Oatmai 
in Arizona liegun operation 

Jan. s- Electrolytic Zinc Co of Australia beg&i nstructlor 

.»f new electrolytic Bine plant near Hobart, Tasmania 

Jan. ii Mexican decree, embodying forfeiture of idle m ig 

ertles. extended to Feb 14; further postponement asked by 
, stales Government 

.inn. I', i 'i olution ol I'll,, i Butte Mining Co ordered bj 
assets having been purchased bj Inaconda. 

.inn. in i ,abor strike at New Cornells Coppei Co 'i nev 
hint! plant at Ajo. Ariz, praetieally ended by structural steel 
workers returning to work, repudiating jurisdiction of interna- 
tional Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers 

Jnn. I" — Lead shipped from SI Louis In the first half of 
November had not yet been received in New York, 1 1> it- i 

ting the freight congest'on of ilie time' normal transit from 
St Louis to New York is about two weeks 

.Inn. 30 — l-'.rst section of Consolidated Coppermlnei Co.'s 
500-ton notation mill started at Kimberly, Nev.— Machinery 
"turned over" .it new electrolytic zinc plant of Judge Mining 
and Smelting Co., near Park City. Utah. 

Jan. 84 — End of two-weeks strike at Perth ^.mboy plant of 
Am. lean Smelting and Refining Co. 

Jan. 20 — Calumet & Arizona Mining Co.'s stock listed on 
New York Stock Exchange. 

.Ian. 30 — Art 33 of new Mexican constitution, requiring 
foreigners to renounce nationality and treaty rights before ac- 
quiring property, withdrawn for reconsideration. 


Keb. 1— Leasing system re-established at Goldfield Consolidated 
Mines Co.. Goldfield. Nev 

Feb. 2 — British Ministry of Munitions ordered that no person 
should deal in lead except under license — Suit filed against Ten- 
nessee Copper Co. and National Surety Co. by Russian govern- 
ment for $1.1411.1100 advanced on trinitrotoluol purchase. 

Feb. IS — Price of silver reached 79c. per oz.. highest price 
since June. 1893. — Smeltery of Mason Valley Mines Co. at Thomp- 
son, Nev.. resumed operations. 

Feb. 1.1 — Cerro de Pasco Copper Corporation stock listed 
on New York Stock Exchange. 

Feb. 19 — Smelting resumed in Mexico by American Smelting 
and Refining Co. at Monterrey, Xuevo Leon. 

Feb. 25 — Snowslide at Federal Mining and Smelting Co.'s 
North Star mine. 12 miles northeast of Hailey. Idaho, struck 
compressor house and bunkhouse, killing 16 men. 


Mar. 1 — Star Mining Co. filed suit for $500,000 against Fed- 
eral Mining and Smelting Co. for alleged ore trespass through 
latter's Morning mine in Caeur d'Alene district, Idaho — Increase 
of 25c. per day in wages made by Park City. Utah, mines as 
a result of the high prices for lead and silver — In the Coeur 
d'Alene district of Idaho, another increase of 25c per day was 
made effective while lead remains at or above TJe per lb., total 
bonus now being $1 25 per shift 

Mar. 6 — Price of lead in New York touched 93c per lb., being 
the highest since Civil War times. 

Mar. 8 — E. P. Mathewson awarded 1917 medal of Mining 
and Metallurgical Society of America, for distinguished service 
to the industry. — Mazapil Copper Co. resumed smelting operations 
on small scale at its works in Coahuila. Mexico. 

Mar. 12 — First train of ore hauled from Goodwin, terminus 
of new Deep Creek railroad in western Utah. 

Mar. 13 — Capitalization of Copper Queen Consolidated Mining 
Co., of Bisbee. Ariz., increased from $2,000,000 to $50,000,000 
and name changed to the Phelps Dodge Corporation, after having 
taken over the properties of Phelps, Dodge & Co. 

Mar. 14 — Termination of extension period for forfeiture of 
Mexican mining properties unoperated or which failed to request 
exemption because of impossible operating conditions. 

Mar. 15 — Old Dominion Co. of Maine succeeded Old Dominion 
Copper Mining and Smelting Co., a New Jersey Corporation, and 
will henceforth operate the Old Dominion and the United Globe 
mines at Globe, Ariz 

Mnr. iii— Tamai &i ■■ nan holdi 1 1 i ob ■! to ell thi 

' Co giving Ii 

eomplel ntrol ol hlgan copper n 

Mnr. n — Eden Mining Co Tonopah Mining l Idlarj 

m Nicaragua bega old on at Initial 1 1 Itj ol 

ISO ions dallj i-'n i ore from !700-fl level Lodi 

Nevada, ■! during thit weeK from old Co d Virginia 

mine , lowest mining In "bi iOO-ft. 

Mnr. ■;! Leading coppei mine* •■< the United si erei 

Govei urn. m al I oppei at 18Ii 

price in id '" ha i been received bj United Metals Selling 

i v during la I di cadi i 

Mnr. : : End of 17-daj trlke at Copper Co. n 

.it Laurel inn Long island 

Mnr. -M — Fire in Utah 1 ni at Bingham Utah, begin- 

me on liiiio-fi level, extended to 1300-fl level and Hooding 

was resorted t" on Mar n | .■ 'rlzon ton buI- 

i'Imi 1c acid plant started at Douglas, Ariz, providing supplj 
of acid tor New Cornelia's copper leaching .ii \ i" 

Mur. 3ii — Semicentennial of Alaska purchase for $7. 200.000 


\i>r. 1 — Milling began al Alaska Juneau Gold Minim; Co. 
Yuba No 16 gold dredge, with 18-cu.fl buckets and double 
tailings stackers i" reclaim Yuba Etlvei channel, started digging 
near Hammonton, Calif Wages of employees' receiving 13 to 
■ per day at the Homestake Mining 1 '" In South Dakota ad- 
vanced 1691 to in ', respectively- Potash plant, .i.-.ied near 
Se.-nies Lake, at Borosolvay, Calif., by Pacific Coast Borax Co. 

,1 Soivay Process Co began operation 

Apr. 2 — Ohio c,.|>i>,r Co of Utah, acquired all stock ami 
majority of bonds of Bingham Central Railway Co., which owns 
the Mascotte tunnel, the outlet for the Ohio ore, 

Apr. 4 — Sunnyslde and Gold Prince mines In San Juan dis- 
trict. Colorado, optioned to U. S. Smelting. Refining and Mining 
Exploration Co. 

Apr. 5 — New mining tax bill passed by Ontario legislature. 
Increasing mainly the tax on nickel and nickel-copper mines. 

Apr. 6 — United States declared state of war existed with 

Apr. 7 — Herbert C Hoover appointed by United States Council 
of National Defense to head American Commission on food supply 
and prices, Mr. Hoover later to become Food Administrator. 

Apr. 10 — Announcement that Williams-Harvey Corporation, 
controlled jointly by Williams, Harvey & Co.. Ltd.. and the 
National Lead Co.. would erect 300-ton. tin-smelting plant on 
Jamaica Bay. Long Island — Nichols Copper Co. broke ground at 
its Laurel Hill refinery for a new plant to treat the gold ami 
silver slimes obtained in electrolytic copper refining. 

Apr. 16 — Chile Copper Co. increased capital from $110,000.- 
iiiii to $135,000,000 and authorized bond issue of $100. 000. onn. 
of which $35.1100.000 is to be issued for extensions to plant 
to triple present capacity — Final decree granted by United States 
District Court of Montana in suit of Minerals Separation vs. 
James M. Hyde — Suit of Minerals Separation vs. Butte & Superior 
for flotation-patent infringement began at Butte. Mont. 

Apr. 21 — Caving of old workings in Douglas Island mines 
along the Gastineau Channel caused flooding and closing of 
Alaska Treadwell. Seven Hundred and Alaska Mexican mines — 
Ready Bullion mine saved by bulkhead. 

Apr. 23 — Fire in Anaconda's Modoc mine at Butte resulted 
in temporary closing of Modoc and High Ore mines, the Specu- 
lator and Granite Mountain mines of the North Butte company 
and the Butte-Ballaklava mine. 

Apr. 24 — Sale of Big Jim gold mine at Oatman, Ariz., to 
United Eastern Mining Co ratified by Big Jim stockholders — 
Wages advanced 25c. per shift in Tintic district in Utah — Re- 
ceiver appointed in London for Granville Mining Co., which 
controls Canadian Klondyke Mining Co., Canadian Power Co. 
and North West Corporation in Yukon Territory. 

Apr. 27 — Preliminary leaching begun at New Cornelia Copper 
Co.'s 5000-ton plant at Cornelia in the Ajo district of Arizona. 

Apr. 28 — Seven men killed by powder gas on entering un- 
ventilated 1400-ft. level of Mountain King gold mine, in Mariposa 
County. California 


May 1 — Wages in California gold mines increased to maxi- 
mum of $3.50 and minimum of $3 per shift 

May 6 — Cable dispatches announced destructive fire at nickel- 
refining works of A. S Kristianssands Nikkelraffineringsverk at 
Christiansand. Norway. 



Vol. 105, No. 2 

m»< B. 'i'ivr smeltery of Qranby 

of ooke resulting from Btrlke 
in the 

m»* ii Sul pper appointed by Bernard M 

B&ruch. . on ra» material! of the Na- 

Council m< >pper committee Including 

rj Quggenheim. Charlee M MacNelll, 
• i w \ Clark. 
Ma] i» Sales of lead reported al lie In New Tork 
Maj .in that G msolldated Copp 

would n and thai ■ inanea would become the 

holding company for the oopper operations at Cananea, 

Mao 2« Production In Jerome, Ariz . copper mines stopped 
by miners' strike — Utah Apex mine In Bingham Canyon resumed 
ship two months shutdown due to tire and flooding of 

mi n <• 

m»> js — Announcement that Bunker Hill .v Sullivan Mining 
and ting Co. would erect a 10-ton electrolytic zinc 

plant — Case of Minerals Separation. Ltd., V! Copper C 

in U S Circuit Court of Appeals, Philadelphia, for flotation-patent 
Infringement decided In favor of plaintiff. 

M«> 2t» — Peruvian troops sent to quell Btrlke dtsordi 
Cerro de Pasco copper smeltery at La Fundicldn : Bmeltery Btrlke 
settled May 31 — Ontario government passed an Order-in-Council 
tiding for one year assessment work on mining claims. 

May il- -'Smoke" damages allowed against smelting com- 
panies in Sudbury nickel districts. Ontario, but injunction re- 
nlng operation denied, on ground of greatest good to the com- 


junr 4 — Miners resume work in Jerome, Ariz, after 10-day 
strike . union not recognized. 

June : — First electrolytic copper produced by New Cornelia 
Copper Co 's leaching plant. Ajo. Ariz. — Announcement of increase 
in authorized capital stock of American Metal Co. from $3,500,- 
000 to I25.000.iioo. though Immediate actual Increase was only 
to $7,000,000 

June S — Fire in Granite Mountain mine of North Butte Mining 
Co.. Butte. Mont., resulted in death of 164 men 

June 11 — Beginning of I W W strike at Butte. Mont curtail- 
ing work to day shift for the most part with 10 to 2:".'; of the 
normal crews — American Smelting and Refining Co resumed 
operation of two copper furnaces at Agtiascalientes. Mexico 

Jane 12 — Price of lead touched 12< per lb., the highest price 

■ed during 1H17 — U S Steel Corporation and many othei 

mining and metallurgical companies declared special dividends, 

recommending that stockholders endorse checks in favor of 

American R>.l I 

June IS— Strike at Tooele Utah, smeltery of International 
Smelting Co : men voted to return to work on June 30. 

June 15 — Ground broken this month for new reduction works 
of British America Nickel Corporation at Nickelton, Ontario, to 
July. 1919, al cost of (3 

June 20 — Roasting furnaces started at Bunker Hill .V- Sullivan 
lead works. Kellogg. Idaho 

Junr il — Greene-Cananea copiier operations in Sonora, Mexico. 
dosed down as result of inti bj government officials, 

\merican employees returning to the States 

June 22 — Canadian government took over operation of crow's 

■ F'ass coal mines, where a strike had been in force for several 
months resulting in closing of Granny's Grand Forks. B C 

■ r smeltery and restriction of other metal production — 
Exports Council created by President Wilson to assist In regula- 
tion of exports, to be composed of the Secretary of State .-■ 
tary of Commerce. Secretary of Agriculture and the Food Admin- 

June 28 — 1 W W union at Bisbee. Ariz., started strike. 
about 50% of the miners stopping work 

June z7 — United States Navy Department placed order for 
6n. 000. 000 lb. of copper at 25c per lb. 

Jt I.Y 
July 1 — Strikes at copper mines in various parts of country 
■-tarted by I. W. W. organizations, especially at Clifton. Morenci. 
Miami and Globe, same organization having already begun 
strikes at Bisbee and Butte 

July 5 — Federal troops sent to Globe. Ariz, to prevent 
rian strikers from interfering with pumpmen and others en- 
deavoring to keep copper mines open — First lead blast furnace 
' inker Hill & Sullivan works blown in 

j u l v 9 — Proclamation by the President prohibiting exports 
of coal, steel, fuel oils, fertilizers, explosives, ferromanganese 
and other products except by license. 

Jul? II Mm. in 1300 1 W W.'s and sympathizers, interfering 
with miners working In district. Arizona, were deported 

bj Sheriff Wheeler, assisted by Cltlaens Protective League 

rnor Campbell of Arizona requested President Wilson tt 
send Federal troops to preserve order in Clifton, Morenci. Bisbee, 
Jerome. Humboldt, Kay. \ io and in Mohavi County — Conference 
of steel men and Secretarj of Navy, Secretary of War and 
Bernard M Baruch, chairman of raw -material committee, agreed 
upon plan for fixing price of steel. 

July IS— M A. ii. iima Co., of Cleveland. Ohio, leased larg. 
Northern ore lands. 

July 14 — Rioting between Americans and foreigners occurred 
m Flat River and other Southeastern Missouri towns, native 
miners refusing to permit foreigners to work in lead mines. 

Jul] 10 — Montana Power Co, and mining companies on one 

Bide and Metal Trades Council and electrical workers on other 

i igreement and concluded terms satisfactory to both, 

but no agreement made with 1 W. W miners' union — Price of 

silver reached 81. lc. per ounce. 

Jul* is M \ Hanna Co.. of Cleveland, Ohio, purchased Penn- 
sylvania i: i: Co coal lands 

July 80 — Strike of miners in Leadville district resulted in 
shutting down of mines. 

July 26 — Explosion in No. 12 colliery at New Waterford, 
N S., belonging fo nonunion Coal Co., of Sydney, killed Ii:' 

July 30 — Iron miners on Gogebic Range in Michigan struck, 
following I W. W. agitation. 

July 31 — Commandeering of iron mines of Cumberland and 
Lancaster Counties by British Minister of Munitions announced 
by U. S. Consul General Skinner, of London. 

A I til ST 

Aug-. 1 — Frank Little. I W W agitator, hanged at Butte, 
Mont . by masked men. 

tug. 2 — Leadville. Colo, miners' strike ended. 

Aug. t — Explosion of gas occurred in No. 7 mine of West 
Kentucky Coal Co., Clay, Ky . killing a total of 61 men, 34 being 
rescued — Strike at the smeltery of the St. Louis Smelting arxj 
Refining Co. at Collinsville. Ill 

Aug. 8 — New Jersey Zinc Co began rolling sheet zinc .'I' 
Palmerton, Penn. 

Aug. 10 — U. S. Senate adopted Pittman Bill providing for til 
leasing of Government lands containing potash and other chemies 

Aug. 11 — New position of superintendent of experimental st* 
lions, with headquarters in Washington, created by Director Va? 
II Manning of U. S Bureau of Mines. Dorsey A. Lyon being 
named as the first incumbent 

Aug. 15 — Previous sale of copper to Navy Department at 25c. 
having been repudiated, it was reported that the War Industries 
1 ..I had agreed to advance copper producers 22}c. per lb., 
ing the difference between that price and 25c. to be settled 
after receipt of report on cost of production by the Federal 
Trade Commission — Great Falls refinery reported closed, and 
Raritan refinery operated at reduced capacity 

Aug. IC> — Hereafter shipments of steel to Canada and New- 
foundland will not require individual licenses, in order to facili- 
tate exports to those countries. 

Aug. 17 — New mining experiment stations authorized at Min- 
neapolis for the iron industry and at Columbus. Ohio, for the 
ceramic industry 

Aug. 19 — Arrest by U S. military authorities of 27 I W. W, 
leaders, including James Rowan, district secretary, at Spokane, 
who issued orders for a general strike of. workers in Montana. 
Idaho, Washington and Oregon, which threatened to retard neces- 
sary war materials 

Aug. 2 1 — President Wilson fixes base price of bituminous 
coal at about $2 per ton of 2000 lb., at mouth of mine — Exports 
Administrative Board established by the President, superseding 
order of June 22 establishing an Exports Council, to be composed 
of the council with addition of the Chairman of the Shipping 

\uk. 84 — Dr H A Garfield, president of Williams College 
named as Fuel Administrator — Price of anthracite (except for 
buckwheat) fixed at $4 to $5.30, according to locality and size. 

Aug. 27 — Closing of smelteries in Anaconda and Great Falls 
by labor strikes resulted in shutdown of Anaconda mines at 
Butte — Second proclamation of the President prohibiting exports 
of war materials to Central Powers and other countries 

\ug. 30 — Price of silver in New York reached 903c, the highest 
in 25 years 

Januarj L2, L918 



SEP II Mill K 

Bept, i — Spelter production estimated al about 5S.000 tons 
per month, • •! 10,000 tons less than the maximum 

s.'i'i. ">- Minerals Separation won Its sun In U S Dl 
Burt In Mom. in. i for Infringement of flotation patenti i > Butti 
,<• Superior, which continued to operate under special ' agreement 

I \\ u headquarter* throughout the United State* were 
,| on orders from Vttorne) 1 General Gregory 

>,.,,i. s Decree granted by U s Dlatricl Courl of Dela- 
ware in favor "i Minerals Separation In the flotation Bull ... 
du' .Miami Coppei ''■'. which continued i" operate under bond 
Mexican Hun , ,'i Congress passed bill providing for thi 

t>or:ii\ taking ovei and management by the e,.\,t nl "t Idle 


Sept, in Embargo on exportation of gold proclaimed by 
it Wilson 

Sept. I! Among the Eastern copper refineries, one still do 
two others operating at greatly reduced capacltj and a thin! 
. id about ;,i the end of Its stock of blister copper 

Bept. 13 — Shasta County, Calif., copper miners and smelter- 
men returned t<> work 

Sept. i; Vnaconda reported about half the normal force at 
work in Its mines — Exports Administration Board Issued "Con 
Mrvation List" giving partial list of materials the export of 
which is prohibited 

Bept. i!» — Further list of materials Issued, the export of which 
.,.j,i iiniirt license. 

Sept. 80- American Federation of Labor requests President 
Wilson to appoint committee to investigate Arizona labor con- 
ditions — Price of silver advanced to $1.08} per ounce, the hlghesl 
figure reached in 1917 and fur over 25 years. 

Sept. '.'1- Copper price of 2.1Jc per lb. fob. New York. 

to the Government, Allies and the public was fixed by voluntary 

agreement between the Government and leading copper producers, 

for four months, producers agreeing not to reduce wages 

Hid to maintain maximum output. 

Sept. 24 — War Industries Board and steel producers agree 
to reduction in price of pig iron, some steel products and cokes 
effective for four months. $33 for pig iron and $6 for coke. 

Sept. 88 — Copper producers organized a new Copper Producers 
Committee to conduct the copper business of the- country under 
the new conditions. 


Oit. 1 — President Wilson signed the Potash Lands Leasing 

Oct. 2 — The principal copper consumers formed a committee 
:o confer with the Copper Producers Committee 

Oct. 4 — Plant of Empire Smelting and Refining Co. Deming. 
V. M., destroyed by fire. 

Oct. 5 — Bill passed by Congress providing for suspension of 
innual assessment work on mining claims during 1917 and 1918. 

Oct. 6 — Federal Reserve Board arranged to supply necessary 
imount of gold to permit American companies operating in 
Mexico to continue — "Trading with the Enemy Act" approved. 

Oct. 12 — Waj- Trade Board established by order of the Presi- 
ient to regulate exports of certain products. 

Oct. 16 — President Wilson approves site of nitrate plant at 
Muscle Shoals, near Sheffield. Alabama. 

Oct. 17 — The metals division of the National Association of 
iVaste Materials Dealers agreed to work in harmony with the 
War Industries Board on the basis of 23~c. per lb. for copper — 
The Federal Lead Co. curtailed production at its mines in Mis- 
souri to one-half 

Oct. 20 — Rockefeller plan of adjustment of industrial labor 
lisputes upheld by Colorado State Industrial Commission. 

Oct. 22 — Additions to "Conservation List" of materials re- 
pairing export licenses. 

Oct. 23 — Globe-Miami strike settled through efforts of labor 
•ommission appointed by President Wilson. 

Oct. 24 — Headquarters of Metal Mine Workers (I. W W. 
inion) at Anaconda, Mont, raided and strike leaders arrested 
in the charge of interfering with copper production. 

Oct. 25 — Potash plant of Mineral Products Corporation at 
Uunite, six miles west of Marysvale. Utah, destroyed by fire. 

Oct. 29 — Advance of 45c. per ton on bituminous coal allowed 
>y Fuel Administrator. 

Oct. 30 — Labor commission arranges settlement of strike in 
'lifton-Morenci-Metcalf copper district, in Arizona — Labor strike 
eported in Texas and Louisiana oil fields ; about 9000 men out. 
— T. W. W. activity in Tulsa. Okla.. oil fields reported. 

M>\ I Mill It 

\..>. I— Announood that ■ • upecial mining regiment known us 
i lie 27th Englneei Did bi raised bj voluntas*} enlistment 

N"> i -Yuba No i, gold dredge launched mar Hammc 
i ilifornla 

n,,\. .% — i. w u headquarter raided In Tulsa, Okla 

fieldt and nine membei squeal to the dynamiting 

..I Hi, home of j. Edgai Pew genera] manager • •! Cartel 
Co Maximum prlcei approved bj the President i"i cold-rolled 
plate, pipe hi ign ed upon bj 

Wai Indu >ard and steel produoei —Embargo at two 

Murraj sampling mill ..i t tah Ore Sampling Co, lifted 

\,,,. ii — National Fuel Administrator ll. A. Garfield issued 
• •1,1., requisitioning 10$ of outpul ol even U. B ooal mine 

s.,v. 8— Seventeen t w v\ membei Hogged, tarred and 
feathered in Tulsa, okla., bj i nd oi ma ked n 

\.n. is -Osagi Indian ol least , covering area of 20, 

acres, sold 

Nm. 13 Zini producer organized a committee to cooperate 
with the War Industries Board In fixing a basis for establishing 
prices for the several grades of Bpelter 

Nov. is — l,.'i» regulating manufacture, Bali torage and use 
of explosives became effective, v S Peabodj being appointed 
to take charge- of Its enforcement 

Nov. 17 — Oliver Iron. Mining Co announced that part of town 
of Hibbing. Minn, will be removed to facilltati mining of un- 
derlying orebodv 

Nov. 18 — Mexican government during this week issued circular 
prohibiting any new denouncements of mining claims 

Nov. 20 — In Butler County Oil fields of Kansas, 50 I. W W 
workers were arrested in connection with labor troubles. 

Nov. 24 — Comfort flub organized in connection with mining 
regiment, the 27th Engineers. 

Nov. 25 — Mexican decree issued establishing damage claim 
bureaus to adjust claims arising from the revolution 

Nov. 26 — U. S. Government attaches all tin assaying over 
99.75% stored in warehouses — Mill of Dome Mines, Ltd, in 
Porcupine, Ont, ordered shut down by directors, owing to in- 
ability to make profit under current conditions. 

Nov. 29 — Suit involving ownership of tailings dumped on 
adjoining property decided by Canadian court in favor of Peter- 
son Lake. Mining Co. against the Dominion Reduction Co. 

Nov. 30 — Price of tin at New York jumped to 88c. per lb., the 
highest figure during 1917. 

Dec. 1 — Decree issued by Mexican government providing for 
taxation of metal exports — Advance of 35c. per ton allowed on an- 
thracite by Fuel Administrator — Chiksan Mining Co.'s dredge 
went> into operation in Chosen. 

Dec. G — Department of Interior ready to issue permits for 
prospecting for potash on public lands — Yukon gold dredge started 
operating on Prichard Creek. Idaho — International Nickel Co.'s: 
new electrolytic refinery. Port Colburne, Ontario, practically com- 

Dec. 7 — United States declares state of war exists with 

Dec. 10 — Greene Cananea resumed operation, after shutdown 
of mines June 22 — Hereafter, tin imports will be regulated by 
American Iron and Steel Institute. 

Dec. 11 — Ore shipments from Duluth. Minn., docks closed 
at head of the Lakes. 

Dec. 15 — Mexican gold embargo will be raised as result of 
agreement between United States and Mexico, the former being 
obliged to return the entire gold content of the ore and 25% 
of the silver extracted — Navigation between Lake Superior and 
lower lakes closed — D. C. Jackling appointed by Secretary Baker 
to take charge of construction work of Government explosives 
plants involving expenditure of $90,000,000. 

Dec. 18 — I. W. W. union at Butte formally voted to call off 
strike — Production of Anaconda Copper Mining Co. for last sev- 
eral weeks was up to 90% of normal. 

Dec. 21 — End of strike, which started Nov. 15, at smeltery of 
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co.. at Trail. B. C. 

Dec. 25 — Electrolytic Zinc Co. of Australia started its 10-ton 
electrolytic zinc plant near Hobart, Tasmania. 

Dec. 28 — Government operation of railroads of United State3 
begun at noon, under the direction of William G. MeAdoo, 
Secretary of the Treasury — Maximum prices on iron ore, coke, 
pig iron, steel and steel products directed by the President to 
be continued in effect until Mar. 31. 1918, the same having been 
subject to revision Jan. 1, 1918. 



Vol. 105. No. 

New Mining and Metallurgical Construction 



\i.i...... Graphite ootnpai which completed oonsti 

-. bland, completed 200-ton 

i. 18] : . the Alabama at Ash- 

tj dail) and No • ol 100 tons 

plant started Sept IS; American, 

hland, 100-ton, Oot i . Axton- 

lon, July; Ceylon, Qoodwater, 186-ton, Peb- 

ake, Ashland, 100-ton, October; Enterprise, 

\ hland ISO-ton, June IS . 

''! 160-ton, luly; Grtesmer, Ashland, i" 11 ton, 

Southern, Llnevllie, 100-ton, 0( ill States, 

Hood-Graves, Ashla I 10 i ton, Oct l: 

J^iu . I Ashland. 100-ton, July: King Ashland, 100-ton, 

iber; Llnevllie, Llnevllie, 100-ton, May; Monitor, Ashland, 

Sept t. Mao Bros., Ishland, inn-ton. Oct I; National, 

Ash' ton. auk - . Peerless Llnevllie, 100-ton, July; 

Republic Ashland, 100-ton, Oct r; Southern Star, Ashland, 

■ton, Octoher. C work but 

aid not complete plants were as follows Birmingham, Pyrlton 
100-tc • in, Mt, Llnevllie, 100 tons; Empire, Ishland 

100 • bite) Co of America Goodwater, 800 tons; Norway 

phlte Milling Co Chandler Spring:, 100-ton; Orlean i 
Llnevtlle, 100-ton: .Superior Flake. Ashland. 100-ton plant 

iiiriiiinKii»ni-Trii->>iri» Iron Co., Trussville Jefferson County. 

Ala., completed construction of furnace of 260-ton daily capacity. 

installation of skip hoist, four Canal! boilers and new stock house 

st of 1600,000; plant ready for o|ieration about Jan 1, l!'l v 

i rntrni Coal and iron Co., Holt. Tuscaloosa County, Ala., n 
modelling' tipple, relaying tracks and Installing new boilers at 
Valley View mine at estlm of 160,000 

tiulf state- sieel Co.. Shannon. Jefferson County. Ala . started 
construction or mining plant with capacity of 1000 tons Iron ore 

daily at estimated cost of (2S0, I; to be completed in spring 

Of 1918. 

Krpuhlir iron and steel Co.. Thomas (Sta. Birmingham), Jef- 
in County. Ala. ed installation of two Curtis-General 

Electric 2600-kw. generators. 

Bloaa Sheffield Bteel and Iron Co., Birmingham, Jeffi 
County. Ala., completed new tipple at Slose No. 1 Red Ore Mine 
in December. 1917. 

southern Manganese < orporatlon. Anniston. Calhoun County. 
Ala., completed construction of 1" electric furnaces for producing 
ferromanganese. adding two more furnaces making total capacity 

Lbout 1"" tons daily, to be in operation about Jan 1. 1918; 
estimated cost la 1600,1 

Bheffleld Bteel (orporatlon. Sheffield, Colbert County, Ala., re- 
pairing two 260-ton furnaces to be In operation Apr. 1, 1918; also 
equipping brown-ore mines at Uussellville, coke ovens at Jasper; 
oated at Jl, 000. 000. 

Sheibj Iron Co., Shelby, Shelby County. Ala. remodeling sec- 
ond furnace to hav total daily capacity. 

Talladega Iron Co., Talladega, Talladega County. Ala., re- 
modeled 260-ton furnace to be In operation Feb. 1. 1918. 

Woodward Iron Co., Woodward, .l.fferson County. Ala., started 
construction of railroad preparatory to sinking vertical shaft In 
.1, T 24, R. 4. 

Alaska Juneau, Juneau, Alaska, started one unit of new mill 
in operation at end of March and additional units later in 
Planned to increase 12 ball-mill units to 1000-ton daily capacit) 
making total ultimate capacity, 11,000 torn dally. 

Admiralty- Ala-ka Gold Mining Co., Punter, Alaska, started 
construction 2000-ft. power pipe line; installed 12-drill compi 
and expect 10-drilI compressor to be In operation soon 

Kennreott topper Corp., Kennecott, Alaska, enlarging 800-ton 
ammonia-leaching planl foi tailing-, to 800 tons daily capacity; 
extensions to be completed April, 1918. Mill at Beatson plant on 
Latouche Island being increased to 1500-ton daily capacity : exten- 
sions to be completed January. ISIS. 

Mother Lode c >er Mines Co., .McCarthy Alaska, removed 

Kennecott's small mill IB miles to mlUslte; completed 500-kw. 
power plant : installed compressor chamber underground ; addi- 
tional buildings and tramway being installed. 

Calumet i Arizona Mining Co., Douglas, Cochise County, Ariz, 
completed construction of sulphuric acid plant of 200-ton daily 
capacity at cost of 81,000,000 In April, 1917. 

Mineral Development Co.. Mineral Park, Chloride district. 

nlse County. Ariz., known as Golden Hammer, completed in- 

-tallation of new equipment including compressor, engine, hoist, 

i tunnel and 90-ft shaft Also developed process for treal 
meat of ore carrying gold, silver, lead, copper and elnc, 

ShattUCb Arizona Copper Co., Hisbrc. Cochise County, Ariz, 

started construction of lead concentrator of 100-ton daily capacity 
at estimated cost of $226, 

Arizona M iildleinar, li Copper CO., i'enrcc. Cila County, Ariz I 

built notation mill of 100-ton dail] capacit] 

Young Mine- Co., Phoenix, Maricopa County, Ariz., started 

i third unit of 250-ton amalgamating and cyanide 

plant at estimated cost of (20,000, to be completed In March. 1918. 

Arizona Ore Redaction Co., Chloride, Mohave County, Ariz. 
Constructing 250-ton concentrating and roasting plant at Copper 

Age property at estimated cost of $125,000, to be completed In 
January, 1918. 

MeCraeken Silver-Lead Mines Co., Yucca. Mohave County, 
Ariz., started construction of Siehhlns dry concentrating mill of 
1 no-ton daily capacity at site known as MeCraeken. Ariz.; to be 
completed Jan If,, 1918, at estimated cost of $20,000. 

loin Iteed Gold Mines Co., oatman. Mohave County, Arli., 
completed extension of continuous decantatlon cyanide plant to 
300-ton daily capacity at cost of (80,000. 

I nlted eastern Mining Co.. Oatman. Mohave County. Ariz. 
enlarged mill by addition of three agitators and two thickeners. 

New Cornelia Copper Co., Ajo, Pima County. Ariz., complete*] 
5000-ton leaching plant in July. 

Copper state Mining Co.. Copper Cre.k, Pinal County. Ariz., 
remodeled old mill to 150 to 1811 tons daily capacity. 

Raj Hercules Copper Co., Ra) . Pinal County, Ariz., started 
construction at Kelvin of concentrating plant of 1500-ton daily 
capacit y. 

United states Vanadium Development Co., Kelvin, I'inal County, 
Ariz., started construction of 'Bryan" dry classifier and concen- 
trator of 511-ton daily capacity ; estimated cost of $45,000 ; to be 
completed on Jan. 10, 1918; leaching plant may be added later to 
extract vanadium remaining in 200-mesh material by wet process. 

Wandering Jew Co., Alto. Santa Cruz County. Ariz., completed 
Installation of plant including crusher, rolls and tables of 70-ton 
daily capacity at cost of about $5000. 

liradshaw Reduction Co.. Crown King. Yavapai County. Ariz., 
completed construction of 100-ton mill; cost $40,000; at present 
reconstructing old Tiger mill to treat tailings and possibly dumps. 

General Mines Co. of Nevada, Prescott. Yavapai County. Ariz., 
completed 50-ton mining plant at cost of $10,000 <in Oct. 1. 1917 

Great Western Smelters Corporation, Mayer, Yavapai County 
Ariz., started construction of bla-st-furnace and converter plant. 

United Verde Extension Mining Co., Jerome. Yavapai County 
Ariz., started construction of smelting plant of 500-ton da:ly 

capacity at estimated cost of $3,000,000; 20, n yd. concrete 

already laid ; driving long transportation and development tunnel. 

Carmellta Mining and Milling Co., Wenden, Yuma County 
Ariz., started installation of 50-ton mill at estimated cost of 
(26,000; to be completed Feb. 20, 1918. 

King Placer Consolidated, Quartzsite, Yuma County, 
started construction of dry-placer plant, of 2000-cu.yd. 

Liberty Lead and Zinc Co., Yellville, Marion County, 
completed ir,n-ton mill at cost of $40,000. 

North Star Mining Co., Yellville. Marion County, Ark., 
pleted construction of 50-ton zinc mill ; cost $20,000. 

Standard Zinc Co., Helva, Marion County, Ark., started con 
struction of $30,ono mining plant. 

Electric Mining Co., Tomahawk, Searcy County, Ark., recently 
taken over by new interests, started 50-ton zinc plant ; estimate 
cost $5000. 

California Slimes Concentrating Co., Argonaut mine, Jacksoi 
Amador County. Calif,, constructing 300-ton tube-milling, amal 
gamating and concentrating plant ; estimated cost $25,000. 

Old i nr.-i... Mining Co., Sutter Creek, Amador County, Calif 
completed construction of hoisting equipment including installa- 
tion of Wellman-Seaver-Morgan double electric hoist of 16.000-1D. 
capacity with 800-ft. rope speed; cost, $75,000. 

California National Ciold Mining Co.. Oroville, Butte County. 
Calif., completed 503-ton mining plant at Bloomer, at cost of 

Cerise Cold Mining Co., Wilbur Springs, Colusa County, Calif, 
started construction of mill. 



January 12. 1!»18 



< iiiitwrus Conaolldated, m !als intj Calif., In 

■tailed 10-stamp mill, 

Pacific Rlectro Metels Co., Baypolnt, Contra Costa Count] 

rompli i. .1 i. > rnalloj planl . i tlmati .1 co t, % 100,000 

Beebe, < rgetown, Eldorado County, Calif., In tailed Pelton 

wheel, Ingersoll-Hnnd compressor, air holsl five-stamp mill. 

Moni./iiiMii. Nashville, Eldorado Count} Calif., mill under 
,i>iisi ruction 

Placer Chrome Co., New Castle, Eldorado Count] Call! 
■tructed 15-ton concentrating plant; co '00 

California Vlkuli. Olanche, Inyo County. Calif., Installed planl 
einlcaJ products from the waters ol Owens Lake; 
plant sltunted at Cartago 

Darwin Development, Darwin, Inyo County, Calll completed 

in '\v vertical shaft on Lucky Jim, constructed bunk house, llbrarj 

and other surface buildings; pending further action on proposed 

railroad between Darwin and Olanche, the motor-truck road oon- 

ig with Olanche is under reconstruction. 

Bound Vallej Tungsten Co., Bishop, Inyo County, Calif., com- 
pleted 125-ton mill; cost $25, 

Standard Tungsten, Bishop. Inyo County. Calif., enlarged mill 

Tungsten Mine* Co., Bishop, Inyo County. Calif., reconstructed 
portion of mill burned Apr 27 . since then mill lias been entirely 
leled with different How sheet. 

Gambetta, Grub Gulch, Madera County. Calif., installed Byron 
Jgckson sinking pump, amalgamation and concentration plant, in- 
cluding two Overstrom tables, conveyor elevator and bins. 

Number Nine. Hornitos. Mariposa County. Calif., installed hoist 
and surface buildings, 

Kuth Pierce, Hornitos, Mariposa County. Calif., installed hoist 
and constructed surface buildings. 

Nevada Progressive, Silverado. Mono County. Calif, installed 
60-ton cyanide plant 

Allison Ranch, Crass Valley. Nevada County. Calif., completed 
iioisiing and pumping plant. 20-stamp mill, ion-ton cyanide plant. 
installed Oliver filter at cost of $200,000. 

Champion, Grass Valley. Nevada County. Calif., put in new 
concrete floors and rebuilt cyanide plant. 

Delhi. North Columbia. Nevada County, Calif., removed equip- 
ment, including saw mill, from copper works to stamp-mill site. 

Empire, Class Valley. Nevada County. Calif., installed addi- 
tional compressor plant. 

Golden Center, Grass Valley. Nevada County. Calif . installed 
live-stamp mill and concentrating table. 

Grass Valley Consolidated Gold Mines, Allison Ranch Mine, 
Grass Valley. Nevada County. Calif., completed headframe. hoist, 
shops, dryhouse, mill and cyanide plant, of 120 tons daily capacity, 
at cost of $135,000; in operation April. 1917. 

North star. Grass Valley. Nevada County. Calif., remodeleu 
stamp mill and cyanide plant. 

Major tiold Mining Co., Nevada City. Nevada County, Calif., 
completed 20-ton stamp mill : cost. $4000. 

Valley View. Lincoln. Placer County, Calif., installed head- 
frame and Hendy ball mill on this copper property. 

Engels Copper, Engelmine, Plumas County. Calif., increased 
notation equipment from 500 tons capacity by one 750-ton unit, 
additional units to be added to a total maximum capacity of 3000 
tons ; this new installation includes two gyratory crushers, two 
ball mills, two ball pebble mills. Dorr classifiers, two Ingersoll- 
Rand compressors; estimated cost of $300,000; to be completed 
in January. 1918 : also completed construction of Indian Valley 
R.R. 22 miles, connecting mines with Western Pacific Ry. at 

Philadelphia Exploration, Crescent Mills, Plumas County. Calif., 
installed pumping plant, hoist and constructed surface buildings. 

N'atomas Company, Natoma, Sacramento County, Calif., started 
reconstruction of No. 2 dredge from single stacker to four stackers 
for reclamation of land coincident with recovery of gold. 

Atolia Tungsten. Atolia. San Bernardino County. Calif., in- 
stalled new concentrating mill for treatment of tailings for re- 
covery of tungstic acid. 

Mohave Annex Tungsten Co., Barnwell, Calif., completed con- 
struction of 25-ton reduction plant. IS miles south of Brant sta- 
tion ; cost. $10.' 

afterthought. Ingot, Shasta County, Calif., installed 300-ton 
concentrating and flotation plant at this copper-zinc property ; 
completed in September. 1917. 

Milium, mth Copper, Kennett. Shasta County. Calif., completed 
installation of new electrolytic zinc plant at cost of $350. 000 ; 
capacity 9000 tons annually. 

Irelan, Alleghany. Sierra County. Calif., installed five-stamp 
mill, Hendy ball mill and two concentrators. 

Mariposa, Uleghany, Sierra County, Calll . Installed Bve stamp 

mill anil 1 n \ I I in 1 1 . ,.i 

M„ 1 11 1 mi i.i,.n, Uleghan] Sierra County, Calif., Installed Bw 

p mill, two compn ai loh "' ' atoi 

Mugwump, County, Calll Installed iw,> Eff-hp 

in"' fl I 1 1 hp electric hole) and Iran 

forme-i hou - 

I'.i, Hie Sold Dredging, Carrville, Trinity County, Calll 
■ ■ ni"\ • 'i and rei j.fl bu< kei dredgi 

1. imi, -shun mm. Shawmut, Tuolun lounty, Calll 

b] Tonopah-Belmonl Development Co tarted construction ol 
flotation piani with stamps and tube nun- .,1 100-ton daily capai 
Itj . to be completed aboul March, 1918 

Viihu Consolidated, rlammonton, ITuba I 1 ompleted In 

Btajlatlon ol Ifuba No 16 cu.fl bucket cap.,' 

equipped with two talllni reclaiming Tuba River 

channel; Brel Bteel laid Oct, IS, 1916, launched No* 26, 1916, In 
commission Apr. 1, 1917; also laid fust steel Yuba No. it dredge 
18-cu ft bi ipaclt] slngli stacker, Aug, I, 1917, launched 

Niii I, 1917, to 1 in March 1 

Consolidated Leasing Co., Eldorado. Boulder County, Colo., 
building 20-ton c titration plant using notation; cost $10,000 

Nil Desperaiuiiiiii Mines Co., Sunshine, Boulder County, Colo.. 
Installed compn 01 .electric power plant, 1000-fl electric hoisi 

I lieu Mining and Milling Co., Ward. Boulder County. C 
Installed pumping plan! for unwatering 1 tics and Stoughtoti 
mines; operation i" be completed aboul Jan. 10, 1918 

Paramount Reduction Co., St Elmo, Chaffee County, Colo.. 
completed 75-ton concentrator including flotation equipment for 
complex sulphide 

Argo Leasing Co., in Daily District, 12 miles west of Empire, 
Clear Creek County, Colo., completed r,n-ton concentrator including 
crusher, ball mill and three Wilfiey tables; estimated cost, $10,000. 

Argo Reduction and Ore Purchasing Co., Jackson Mill. Idaho 
Springs, Clear Creek < '.unity. Colo., remodeled mill installing flota- 
linn and regrinding equipment of 100-ton daily capacity, at cost 
of $15,uiii! Now in operation as custom mill. 

Colorado Central Mining Co., Georgetown, Clear Creek County. 
Colo., started construction of concentrating plant of 150-ton daily 

capacity, main plant of 750-1] capacity and rock house, at 

estimated cost of $80, to be completed in April, 1918. 

iieuesee Mine, Ironton. Ouray County, Colo., completed con- 
struction of flotation mill. 

Mountain Top Mining Co., Ouray. Ouray County, Colo., startei 
construction of 2300-ft. aerial tramway ; underground mill com- 
pleted and in operation. 

Vernon Mining Co., Gladstone, Ouray County. Colo., built 60- 
ton mill : being enlarged to 100 tons. 

Yellow Jacket Mines Co., Ouray. Ouray County. Colo., started 
construction of 50-ton mill for zinc-lead ore. 

Commonwealth Mining Co., Alma. Park County. Colo., com- 
pleted installation of 40-ton cyanide equipment in mill and erec- 
tion of tramway ; cost, $25,000. 

London Mine, Alma. Park County. Colo., completed installa- 
tion of new steam-driven compressor plant at portal of new lower 
adit now being driven. 

Hamlet Mining and Milling Co., Silverton, San Juan County. 
Colo., completed alterations and repairing of 150-ton concentra- 
tion mill. 

Sunnyside Mining and Milling Co., Eureka, San Juan County. 
Colo., started construction of flotation mill of 500-ton daily capac- 
ity. Mil! now operating ; tramway, mining plant and power line 
to be completed by Mar. 1. 1918. 

Alta, Telluride. San Miguel County. Colo., purchased from 
Wagner Development Co. by Tonopah Belmont Development Co. ; 
enlarging mill to capacity of 500 tons daily ; new boarding and 
lunch houses being built 

Lewis Mining and Leasing Co., Telluride. San Miguel County. 
Colo., constructed 50-ton mill and tramway ; repaired plant ; in- 
stalled flotation equipment and unwatered mine. 

Kvans Dredge. Breckenridge. Summit County, Colo. ; construc- 
tion was started by Yuba Manufacturing Co. of California ; capac- 
ity 4000 cu.yd. daily. 

Independence Mill of Portland Gold Mining Co. at Victor. 
Teller County, Colo., being enlarged by sixth unit ; estimated 
capacity of new unit is 250 tons daily. 

Rekl Mill, Cripple Creek. Teller County, Colo., alterations and 
electrification completed. 

American Smelting and Refining Co., Denver, Colo., at Arkan- 
sas Valley plant installed mechanical ore-handling system con- 
sisting of electric-driven lorries for distribution and bedding-down 
of charges ; two new Dwight-Lloyd sintering machines added to 
roasting installation ; large baghouse completed ; Cottrell plant 
under construction. 



Vol. L05, N< 

• r Bnalo Minim I Basin via Mackay, 

a mill 

-ii ol tin n .11 

I Tr I ,.,i|.rr i m |\ 1. 1. ill... , . M 1 1 ] I, I . ll 

k tunnel In Oi 

11 capacity 
• l head house being constructed . framing 

til: ■ 

■ " HU1 I KulUvan, Kellogg Shoshone County*, Idaho, com- 
plet' three blast furnaces of JOO-ton 


i ,iiij«ic-ii laleratate-Callahan Ulalng Co., Wallace, Sho- 
shone. County, Ida) ddltlonal Rotation unit to mill. 

incr. ■ - tons 

t ■• r, - 1 1 < in i..n Mm nit mill Milling <■>.. Masonla, Idaho, Shi 
i Sow ■ 

Federal Minim ami Smeltlni < •• County, 
Idaho completed large addition to Rotation plant at Morning 
Mine, Ifullan pleted change houBe at cost of $20, 

Olaat i.rd«r Mining in, Hurray, Shosh Count] Idaho, 

iii to ha> ■ Initial dallj capacll s of 1 00 

Bayea Ulalng to.. Kellog] - County, Idaho, completed 

• mill of 100-ton dailj capacltj to treal accumula- 
tion of tailings held bj dam in river 

llrcla Mining Co.. Burke, Shoshone County, Idaho, completed 
addition to mill at Gem, Increasing capacity from S00 to BOO tons 
iwr da] 

Northern Light Mining mul Milling Co., Kellogg;, Shoshone 
County. Idaho, started construction of concentrating mill; now 
postponed awaiting completion of Pine Creel: railway. 

Bay-Jefferson Mining i».. Wallace, Shoshone County, Idaho, 
completed on Beaver creek 100-ton lead-sine mill using notation. 

TaiiiHi-m k A raster Consolidated Mining Co., Wallace, Sho- 
shone Count}', Idaho, remodeled plant and added new machinery, 
increasing capacltj to 400 tons per day at old Frisco mill near 
Gem. which was acquired by company. 

V ilk. hi i., ,1,1 < ,,.. Murray, Shoshone County. Idaho, completed 
Installation "f 9-cu.ft dredge on Pilchard ''nek. 

aJOoues Mining to., Allouez. Mich., installed new boilers 
throughout and entire surface plan! improved 

Cainmet * lie.ia. Calumet, Mich., completed 2000-ton am- 
monia-leaching plant in February at Lake Linden and started 
construction of addition to double capacity, having let contract 
to American Bridge Co. ; foundations for substation for power 
transmission and steel addition to coal docks completed ; con- 
structing 9 ' \ -"-ft. drainage canal In Swedetown swamp t., 

eliminate excessive pumping In mine workings. 

Lake Milling. Smelting and Refining Co.. Point Mills. Mich., 
started installation of two additional stamp heads to the six 
already in operation; r,, I mpleted about June. 1918. 

Qalney .Minim; Co., Hancock, Mich., completed installation of 
new hoist capable Of hoisting from inclined depth of 10,000 ft 

Sencra topper, Hancock. Mich . constructed piers for shaft 
house; will install boiler and hoist already purchased; moved 
shaft-sinking equipment to site and started construction of spur 
of Keweenaw Central Railroad. 

Vfnnseea, Iron Mountain. Mich., operated bj Mineral Mining 
Co.. Iron River. Mich completed new concrete-lined shaft for dis- 
tance of 50» ft. at propertj a< Iron River, 

Cleveland < litr-, Ishpemlng, iron district, Mich., started con- 
struction of dam for new hydro-electric plant to develop 10,000 
hp . to he built on Dead River ; also erecting new hospital for 

Cnyuna-MDlc Laes Iron Co., Ironton, Cuyuna range, Minn.. 

onstructlon of new hoisting shaft, boiler and engine 

houje. dry house, Bteel headframe, two electric hoists, cage and 

three one-ton skips, with l -ton dallj capacit) estimated cost 

I75.00d: to be completed In February, 1918 

K. 4. Longyrar Co., Hlbblng, Minn , started building of brick 
sample warehouse replacing one sold to state for chemical 

Great Northern Power Co.. Dulu'h, Minn., completed extensive 
improvement- to ^tcam plant at Virginia. Mesabi range; built 
»0-mile transmission line from hydro-electric plant at Thompson 
Dam, near Duluth ; electric power now furnished to following 
mines: Utlca. Albany. .Mahoning \'orth Uno. Leonard, Frantz. 
Hobart. and others. 

Mare Iron Mining Co., Bibbing Mesabi range. Minn., built 
gravity screening plant for separation of coarse rock and ore 
at Keewatin 

Oliver Iron Mining Co.. Hib' our Mesabi range. Minn., com- 
pleted erection of steam plant at I Carson Lake mine 

Patrick Mine. Keewatin Mesabi range, Minn., Butler Broi con] 
pleted construction of washing plant 

n.l.i. ml.. Mather Co., Hibblng, Mesabi range, Minn. changJ 
plant from steam to eleotricltj at Alban.v mul lit leu nun,: g 
Majorca mine. Calumet, started construction of concentratlni 

plant with abou ins dnll,\ enpactt.x ai estimated cosl o 

1100,1 • be completed June i, 1 918 

Mmdii Mining Co., Nashwauk, Mesabi range, Minn., at Tear 
son mi mmpleted construction of washing plant. 

^ ..rk iron .Mining Co.. Nashwauk, Mesabi range, Minn., conj 
pleted construction of washing plant at York mine. 

American Metal Co., Joplin, Mo., started construction of mil 
on ground acquired from Hayden-Jackllng McKelvle syndicate, 

Ben it. Mining Co., West Seventh st . Joplin, Mo., complete) 
rucl f 116-ton mill; estimated cost, 140,000 

Georgette Mining Co., Wentworth, Mo., completed construction 
mill ; cost, $26,000. 

Metropolitan Zinc Co., Wentworth Newton County. Mo., eon 
structed son-ton mill ; cost, $36,000 

<>. & M. Mining Co.. Webb City, Mo., npleted 600-ton null 

cosl $120, Including installation of Fishkill engine and Xord 

berg compressor; started operating Sept 10, 1917. 

or.. nog., circle Milling «'".. Oronogo, Mo operated bj Con 
to ■ ' "in /.me Corporation, completed construction of l8nti-toi 
mill, using nine jigs, the Dorr thickeners, Snfl-ft. holt conveyo 
and sludge department of 32 tables: also will install steam shove 
for use on trait of Granby land, 

Oronogo Mutual .Mines, Oronogo, Mo., completed 1000-ton mill 

eost. $90,000, 

Rcotl Mining Co., luienweg. Joplin District. Mo., started eon 
struction of 3011-ton mill at estimated cost of $35,000, to be conv 
lili ti ii Feb. 15, lois. 

tdmiraltj Zlne Co., Douthat, Okla., constructed concentratoi 
..I 600-ton capacity; estimated cost of $85,00 

Golden Eagle Mining Co.. St Louis, okla.. completed mo-toi 
mill ; cost. $76,000. 

Laclede Lead and Zine Co., Tar River, okla.. completed Hon 
ton mill ; cost. $65,000. 

Muskogee Lead and Zine Mining Co. (l!ox 191), Quapaw, okla. 
started construction 260-ton mill; estimated cost. $76,000. 

Niaugun Mining and Royalty Co.. near Picher. Okla.. com 
pleted 650-ton mill : eost. $70,1 

O. M. Itilhar/ .Mining Co., Baxter .Springs. Kan., started eon 
struction 600-ton mill on former site of Blue Bird mill, in ottawi 
County, Qkla.; cost, including development of mines. $75.0011; t, 
be completed Mar. 1, 1918. Also building new compressoi planl 
centrally situated between company's three properties. 

Ontario Smelting Co., near Quapaw, Okla . started construe ;j 
tion of 100-ton lead smeltery: eost. $200,000. 

Rainbow Lend and Zinc -Co., Quapaw, Okla.. started construe 1 
tlon of 300-ton mill 

Biaito Mining Co., Tar River, Okla.. completed construction J 
700-ton mill: cost. $156,000. 

Standard /inc. Lead, Mining Co.. Picbei . Okla., completed 250 1 
ton concentrator and mining plant at cost of $150,000, on Inc. 1.'. 

William Poster White Louse, Picher, okla., completed con I 
Struction of zinc-mining and milling plant of 840-ton dailj capac 
ity ; eost. $150,000. 

Velie Mines Corporation. Tar River, okla.. general offices 1 
Frisco Bids., Joplin. Mo., constructed two mills: 1200 tons' capac 1 
ity: cost. $275,0011 

Boston & Montana Development. Wise River, Beaverheai 
County. Mont, constructing 37-mile narrow-gage railroad fro:i ' 
Divide to mines in Elkhorn District: also constructing 500-toi f 

Hidden Lake Mine, Cable District, Derrlodge County. Mont 
• ui, rated by National Tungsten and Silver Co., started construe 
1 inn oi 150-ton cyanide plant. 

Philipsburg Mining Co., Philipsburg. Granite County. Mont 1 
started construction of 300-ton washing and concentrating plan 
at estimated cost of $35,000. to be completed in December, 1917. 

Richmond Mining, Milling and Reduction Co., Saltese. Minera I 
County. Mont., completed tramway, two miles long, of 225-toi I 
daily capacity at cost of $22,500. in April, 1M17 : installing 12 x 12 
in. compressor. 80-hp. gasoline engine and No. G Cameron sinkini 

Vermilion silver and Lead Co.. Trout Creek, Sanders County 
Mont., completing 40-ton mill using notation with cyanidation 01 
galena ore carrying gold and silver, 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co.. Butte. Silver Bow County. Mont, 
completed Cottrell installation: added 50-ton unit to sulphuric-acit 
plant: fireproofing of Tramway shaft for distance of 2475 ft. a 

January L2, L918 


JJ1.B0 |H'I II I ■nlliploteil . Ilew si. el gallon- Main. .mil Olt 

1 1. a I n - iiiii" . Hutte. completed ; ran tructing flume and pipe llni 

Of hydraulic-filling system to extinguish n irted 

itructlon ..I large ii.nii-, .mi mile In length, with ultimate height 
,r en n for settling lino tailings from notation plant ; completed 
'emulations for wire mill at Cnscadi 

DavU-Dalj Copper Co., Butte, Silver Bow County, Wont 
i now hendframi ut Mhernln mine 

Nortti liutii- Minim Co., Butte, Silver Bow County, U 

oneretlng Granite Mountuin shaft : started construction ol 
aer plant at Sarstleld claim. 

iini orin Minim *o., Butte, Silver Bow County, Mont., oom- 
.1,1, a Installation of now electric hoist. 

Boldea Mining and MIIIIiik <"., Tuscarora, Elko C ity, N< a 

•oustrui'iing 160-ton mill at estimated coal ol (I 

K.,i mil Moreno* Mlnlni Co., Goldfleld, Esmeralda Countj 
\,a retlmbered double-compnrtment shaft to 560-ft point and 
linking 250 ft. additional. 

(.,.i,i Top Mining Co., Battle Mountain, Lander County, .\<a 
nstalled S5-ton ball mill now In operation 

white cups. Manhattan, Nye County, Nev., completed 160-ton 
■rushing and cyaniding plant ; also 22J-ft. diameter, seven-hearth 
Wedge mechanical roasting furnace, 

white fans Extension, Manhattan, Nye County, Ne\ com- 
ileted surface planl and hunk house for 16 nun 

Consolidated Coppermlnes, Kiibberly, White Pine County, Ne\ . 
ompleted second unit of dotation mill : Dorr thickener plant. 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co., McGill, White Pine County, 
\iv. Installed new coal-crushing and storage plant al cost of 

lulled Nevada, Ely, White Pine County. Nev., started con- 
struction of three-mile tramway of 200-ton daily capaclt] 

n.-i Mine, Lordsburg. Grant County, N. M . started erection of 
;:,"- to 100-ton mill using flotation; dam being buill mar power 
tOUBe to collect mine water: grading for spur from Arizona ,X- New 
Mexico Railroad. 

Senorito Copper Co., Senorito. Sandoval County. N. M .. con- 
tracted for Greenawalt leaching and electrolytic plant, hut owing 
to delayed delivery, erected 100-ton semi-fusion reduction plant 
for carbonate ore; began construction 60-ton reverberatory. 

Santa Fe l>redging Co., Golden, Santa Pe County. N. M., 
darted construction of gold di-edge of 3000-cu.yd. daily capacity, 
it estimated cost of $250,000. contract given to Yuba Manufactur- 
ing Co. of San Francisco; date of completion. Mar. 1, 19 IX. 

Williams, Harvey Corporation. 115 Broadway, New York, 

n erection of tin-smelting plant on Jamaica Bay. Long Island; 

three reverberatory smelting furnaces and refining department; 

umual capacity. 10,000 tons concentrates or about fiOOii tons pig 

tin; cost, about $350,000; to be ready about April, 1918. 

Black Mountain Mine, Whitehall, Washington County, N. Y., 
■ wiled by Hooper Bros., completed mining, milling and manufac- 
turing plant for treating 100 tons of graphite ore daily; in full 
iperation in December, 1917. 

I nited Gold Mining Co., Granite. Grant County. Oregon, com- 
pleted 75-ton concentrating mill at cost of $40,000 on Nov. 1, 1917. 

Greenback Mines Co., Placer, Josephine County, Oregon, started 
•onstruction of new 50-ton wet-process concentrating plant, at 
•stimated exist of $60,000. to be completed in August. 1918. 

Donora Zinc Co., Donora, Washington County, Penn.. completed 
zinc-oxide plant, in March. 1917. 

Spokane Lead and Silver Co., Custer. Custer County. S. D.. 
-tarted construction of 50-ton concentration mill : nearly com- 

Ketinite Co., Ardmore. Fall River County. S. I), completed 
plant for treatment of kaolinite. 

Custer Peak Milling and Ore Co., Koubaix, Lawrence County. 
S. P.. erected 10-stamp concentrating mill for treating copper ore ; 
operating in September. 1917. 

Deadwood Zinc and Lead Mining and Milling Co., Deadwood. 
Lawrence County, S. D., started construction of 10-stamp, 50-ton 
mill, at estimated cost of $12,000, to be completed in .May. 191S. 

Homestake Mining Co.. Lead, Lawrence County, S. ]>.. built 
hydro-electric plant, including 2000-kw. generator on Spearfish 
Paver, at site known as Manece. Estimated cost of new plant will 
lie $51111,11110; to be completed in summer of 1918. 

Sew Puritan, Deadwood. Lawrence County, S. D.. in Straw- 
berry Gulch erected boarding house and installed machinery pur- 
chased from Wasp Xo. - 

Oro Hondo Mine, Deadwood. Lawrence County. S. D, installing 
large hoisting engine purchased from Alaska Treadwell. 

Trojan Mining Co.. Trojan. Lawrence County. S. D., installed 
ball mill for fine grinding and enlarged slime plant ; installing 

Portl i i'"' 1 i" bo 100 to 600 t lallj Minim 

■ tjutpmi lit ubllc, ••" niacktnii Gulch, and to in 

■ i, ,',,i al Two ,i"ini properts recently purohaaed 

i. s. Uypsum Co., Piedmont \i..ui. '"nun. B D completed 
iiim-ioii lulu.,., and i mill; now in operation 

ii i .' i.niii Mlnlni <n.. Sllvoi Cltj Ponnlm lout 

s i>. completed umatlon-i *ntratlon planl to bi 

enlai >■■ d dui Ini 1918 

Freeporl Rulphur < ■•.. >■'>•■• i Bruaorls ' n * Texas, com- 
pleted '"I, ii ut ii i powei plant, No I 

Southwestern Graphite Co., Bui I el Count Pi 

iiuili mill at old n the Ti to Co 

Dixie Graphite Co., i.i. Llai I ompleted ri 

modeling "t plant, 

i inn i M,i Co., Sunnyi Idi i arl lounty, Utah, buill 112 new 

ivei threi d-stee! 'ham'' how es tor em- 

• es at Sunn paldi nd Jao bull! numi roua hou 1 

for emplo ■ • "I made genei al Impi ovemi at 

Tlntlc Drain Tin 1 Co., Eureka, Ju lounty, Utah, con 

structed boarding and bunk hou • and blacksmith shop 

Deer Trail MiniiiK < ".. MalA-val. PlUte County, Utah, ' 

cted 100 ton mill using cyantdatlon and flotation, to 1 
operation aboul Jan, 1. 1918, on gold-silver-lead ore 

Florence Mining and Hilling Co., Marysvale, Piute County. 
Utah, constructing leaching and refining department al its aiunlte- 
calcining plant; output ol 18 i" 50 ton calcined potash daily. 

Mineral Products Co., Marysvale, Piute County, Utah, Btarted 
rebuilding potash planl partialis destroyed by Are last Octobei 

Ohio Copper Co., Lark, Salt Lake County. Utah, Btarted con- 
struction of 3 -ton flotation plain, in be npleted aboul April, 

1918; includes five 600-ton Minerals Separation units; in. 8 ft. x 
S6-ln. Hardinge ball mills, nine Hon- thickeners and five 20x6-ft 
1 ion- classifiers. 

itnii Copper Co., Garfield, Utah, completed leaching plant of 
1000-ton initial dailj capacity aboul Jan. I. 1918; added new 
crushing equipment Including targe gyratory crushers and new- 
hall mills at Magna and Arthur mills; install, d lt. n-tun Jaime) 
Rotation unit in Arthur mill treating at present up to 6000 tons 
per day in new notation part of mill ; also completed other ext.-n 
sive alterations and improvements at both mills. 

Big Indian Copper Co., Lasal. San Juan County, Utah, started 
construction of 300-ton leaching mill 36 miles east of Moab. 

Judge .Mining and Smelting Co., I 'ark Citv. Summit County. 
Ctah. completed electrolytic-zinc planl for treating 50 tons of 
concentrates daily on Feb. 1. 1917; 12- to 15-ton output of zinc 
per day. 

Fissures Exploration Co., McCormick Block, Salt Lake City. 
Utah, completed 100-ton mill at Pacific mine at American Fork 
Utah County. 

Lone Pine-Surprise Consolidated Mining Co., Republic, l-i 
County. Wash., completed buildings, headframe, two carpentei 
shops and installed hoist, boiler and compressor, at cost of $?,:'. 1 

sterling silver, Metaline Falls. Pend Oreille County, Wash 
started increasing mill capacity to 50 tons dally. 

American Mineral Production Co., Valley. St.viic County 
Wash., started installation of calcining plant to treat 9000 ton- 
monthly of crystalline magnesite. 

Northwest Magnesite Co.. Chewelah. Stevens County, Wash 
constructing 325-ton plant for quarrying and calcining mag- 
nesite, at estimated cost of $200,000 : to be completed March. 1918. 

\iirthport Smelting and Refining Co., Northport. Steven! 
County. Wash., constructing 900-electrodi Cottrell precipita- 
tion plant; building to be ir,n\ 75 ft. and about 86 ft. high. 

United Zine Smelting Corporation. Moundsville. Marshall 
County. W. Va . completed construction of zinc smeltery, includ- 
ing 1728 retorts. 

Wisconsin zinc district had 11 concentrating mills built. 01 
moved and reconstructed, as follows; North Survey (Dodgeville). 
New Empire and New Hose No. 2 (Platteville), C. S. H. (Cuba 
City), Mud Kange (Potosi). Copeland (Shullsburg), Jefferson 
1 Hazel Green), Hird No. 3. Barecat, Haskins and Ida Blende 
(Benton-New Diggings) 

Canada Copper Corporation, Ltd., Princeton, B. C, started de- 
sign and lay-out of 3000-ton concentrator, estimated cost of 
$750,000 ; to he completed in about two years 

Granite-Poorman Mine, Nelson, B. C. Canada, started instal- 
lation of new 1500-cu.ft. compressor plant ; mill to be improved 

Consolidated .Mining and Smelting C f Canada, Ltd.. Trail 

B. C. completed electrolytic zinc plant of 60 to 70 tons daily 
capacity when working on high-grade ore: 10-ton copper refiners 
doubled in capacity: additions made to lead smeltery: concen- 
trator for testing purposes built- 


Vol. 105, No. 2 

llourkr . Mure, oplcted 


British kurlci Nickel Corporation, Ltd., Sudbury, Ontario, 
istrucUon ol smelting *nd reflnlitg works at 
Sudburj tons refined coppei 

i (round 
in June. I91T; to be oompleted In Jub. 

international Nickel to.. 13 Exchange Place, New fork, prao- 
eflnery at Port c. limine. < >nt . for refining 
nick, nickel per year and oorrespondlng 

quantity ol ' 00,000 is about the estimated oo 

Caaej Cobalt -ii>rr Mining c>.. i t.i.. Now Uskeard, Ontario, 
itructton of now mill to replaoe 80-atamp null 
royed by I 

< iini««- Mm.--, i.i.t.. Cobalt, Ontario, completed 180-ton iloFu- 
tton plant iron ting sllvei 

iioiiincrr i ,.,,-, iii, i,iir, i. Timmlna, Ontario 
mill capacity from 1800 100 ions, at estimated 

Including additional power and central-slian equipment, of 
i .000. 

Lake Shore >iinr>. Ltd., Kirkland Lake, Ontario Canada, con- 
structing new 100-ton mill to be completed earl] In 1918 

National. Cobalt. Ontario, Canada, completed 100-ton notation 

National Poteen Corporation, Gravenhurst, Ontario, Canada, 
started erection of potash plant of 86-ton daily capacity. 

NIplHslng. Cobalt, Ontario. Canada, Increased Rotation •.-• ■ iii i >— 
menl to eight callow roughei and two cleaner cells from flvq 
roughers and one cleaner, Increasing capacitj to 250 to 300 ions 


Parson Claims, Minuo Township, Ontario. Canada, acquired by 
Mill Cokl Mining Co., erected camp buildings; installing mining 

Plttsburgh-Lorraln, South Lon-ain, Ontario, Canada, over- 
i Wettlaufer mill tor treatment of low-grade ore. 

Port Arthur Copper Co., .Mine Center, Ontario, Canada, in- 
stalled mining plant including air compressors. 

Provincial, Cobalt, Ontario. Canada, completed extension for 
Hardlnge mill, slime tables, classifier and slime tank with Gro'ch, 

on, oil-flotation machine 

Schumacher Gold Mines. Ltd., Schumacher, Ontario, Canada, 
started construction of addition to cyanide plant increasing crush- 
Ing capacitj from 800 to 800 tons; building completed. 

gylvanlte Gold Ulnes, Ltd., Kirkland Lake. Ontario, Canada, 
started construction of gold-mining plant, including five-drill com- 
pressor, hoist and 60-hp. boiler; stopped work June 1, because of 
shortage of funds. 

Tip Top Mining Co., Port Arthur, Ontario, Canada, started con- 
struction of l»-ton copper-mining plant, in Thunder Bay district, 
including railway. t!j miles long, at estimated cost of $200,000. 

Wright llurgreuves, Kirkland Lake. Ontario, Canada, completed 
installation of new 12-drill compressor, 200 hp. motor and other 
mining equipments. 

Mining Stocks on the New York j 

Stock Exchange ] 

~ '7rl 9U ~, — 7T - ' 915 — — TT-' 916 ■ ■ Range Year 1917 , Total 

Company llinh Low High Low High Low First High Date Low Date Laat Sales 

'>f"£ 1,< r 0ldM ':' , 28; l9! ,?J 2I * "1 l0 i "| II! Jan 4 I Dec .20 1} 233,400 

A aska Juneau Gold Mining i ./>. 1 3j 9> 10 6} 7! 8} Mar 26 I] Dec. 19 l\ 125 974 

A hs-Chalmers Mlg... I4J 6 49| 7) 38 19 27 32! Mav 31 15 Dec 17 184 375 660 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg pf . 49 32| 85 33* 92 70J 85} 86 Mar 10 65 See 3 7*1 6 550 

Am.-r. Smelt, and Ref. Co . 50} 1081 56 1231 88 104} 112* June 2 67i Dee 2 78* 2 726615 

-melt, and Ref. Co. pf 105 ,7. ,13 100 I 18 109 1.4 117 J™ 19(A) 99 Nov .4 101 J "IsMI 

American Smelters pf. A 92 86 102 91J 98} 102 Mar 10 90 Dec. 18 92 ' 33 344 

ncu Smelters pf.B. . 85 79| 85} 78 97} 841 94 99} Jan 31 901 Mav 25 9li 31377 

JSRgtf&Stift 38} 24} ,!j 4,1 ,g, ft U> 4 Slaylo ft Nov.l .1, 27 |f 6 „J 

HEBSi.w :::: ^ 2,i 6oJ1 44 7 °° ! ♦»' - »»? K - " J " »t m 

u- *hl.htin steel, C lass B. com... 1 29 1 56 inn.. 11 iM ftft 1 rw 11 7<;I in<;i*,r. 

.;.<hlehem Steel (Vpf 91] 68 184 9, , M 126 \% * jlT"'".? Ort 90* ^ ! 

Hutte & superior <rf) 79} 53 105} 41} 48 52} Jan. 26 12} Dec. 20 16} 280 575 

■Von ° , ,i.i ) -,,, 39 * 4I Feb. 20 25 Dec 20 31 128,966 

hile Copper. ..(«.... 26 23 39} 19 25} 27| Mar. 12 11} Nov 5 17 670 335 

< hino Copper (() 44 31} ,' 32} 74 461 55J bl> Mir 7 35 f Nov 8 471 771575 

Colorado Fuel andiron.. . 34) 20) 66} 21 • 63} 38J 46 58* .June 7 29 Nov! 8 36} 480! 7 

C on. Inter C allahan 28} 18 21 21 Jan. 3 7 Dec. 28 7 11900 

"T 1 ^ ;;- *J 'Oi 16 291 18 21 24} Jan. 9 6; Nov. 17 8} 153,423 

Federal Mm. and smelt 15 7} 60 8 35 121 14 26* Aue 6 8* Dor 17 17 13 145 

-.1 Min. and Smelt pf 28} 20 571 »SJ 401 54} JuTy3l 28* Dee 12 Mi 35 860 

]80 160 360 165 350 285 249 250 Jan. 15 153 Dec 13 155 4,724 

''? Il17 - 116 106 117 113! 112} 113 Apr. 25 100 Nov 22 100 1707 

r£f,S «T 0l f <U ( ted ^Si ?! l 9 A '1° 80 89 92 * Jan - ,7 65 Nov. 5 78 55,980 

f.reat North, ctfs. for ore prop. 22} 54 25} 50} 32 36J 38} Mar. 4 22} Nov 5 27 1,029,164 

' ' ?">\""\ ■ )2 ' 2I «l ,7 56! 34 46 47 Jan. 26 34 Nov. 16 38 78 423 

lakeMunnj 120} 109} 124 116 135! 126} 1271 131! Jan. 29 (A) 89 Dec. 20 93 2,769 

Inspiration C.,r. .Co., i.| 19] 14} 47! 16} 74; 42} 58 66} June 1 1 38 Nov. 8 47 2,039,140 

»</) 223} 179} 16 38} 42} 47} Mar. 21 24! Dec. 13 30} 7,410 150 

'■'■■ • N " -kel I" HO 105; 111} 105 I07J 108 Jan 6 92 Nov 15 92 2,535 

cottCoppr 59} 25 64} 40 46 50} May 26 26 Nov 5 32} 1,971,559 

Uekawann^ - |{ 40 94] 28 107 64 84} 103} June 13 68 Nov. 5 77 1,066.850 

Miami Copper.., 24} 16! 16] 17; 49} 33 41 43} Apr. 30 25 Nov. 5 29} 493,811 

il Lead to 52 40 70; 44 74; 57 60 63 1 Mar 23 37' Dee 20 44* 89 750 

•,JL«adCo.p, 109 .05 III ,04; 117; Ml] 112 114* Jam' 6 99 ' Dec! 5 99* 8 0J47 

MevadaCou.Coi,, 16) 10} 17 II; !4) 15 24! 26} June II 16 Nov 5 18) 405.495 

Ontano Silver Mining 2J 2} 12! 2 II] 5; 6 7; Sept. 21 3} Nov 8 5 138035 

Pittsburgh Steel pf . 93 82 102! 74 106 93! 102 102 Jan. 9 87 Dec 4 89! 12 559 

3 5> } 6 2 2} 3 Feb. 14 J Nov. 21 1 24^200 

•'"",'■• •;•• * >! <>: 8} 1! 4! 4! Feb. 10 } Nov. 23 J 2IJ00 

Ray Consolidated' 22! 27) 15} 37 20 26} 32} Apr. 3 19) Nov 7 23} 1.187,610 

Republic Iron and - 27 18 57} 19 93 42 79} Q4! June 7 60 Feb. I 79 2,804,520 

Repubbc Iron and .- 91} 112. 72 117 101 105} 105} May 25 89 Dec. 20 40 535 

38 18} 40) 22 27 29; Mar. 9 15 Dec. 20 (h) 16! 130,535 

'?! 6*i M 93} 37 661 74; Mar. 30 33J Nov 7 40 248,750 

Sloes-Sheffield ste-1 and Iron pf 92 85 102 85 103! 91] 96; 99 Feb. 5 88} Sept 25 88} 4 025 

Tennessee Cop. A ' I9J 15] 16] 19; June 20 II Nov. 9 I2J 273,426 

.'".'•' 1A, 1 " ... ■ 44 49} June 2 341 Dec. 20 36 186,950 

elt, Ref . 4 Min (a). 43 24} 81) 57 64! 67; Jan 4 40 Dec 20 45 202 975,,. . 48} 40} 53! 50 52} 52 Jam 3 43} Nov 9 45 10 977 

38 ' 29} 79; 108 136! Mav 31 791 Dec. 20 90! 43 965'840 

eel Corporation pf 112; 103} 117 102 123 115 119; 121; .Ian' 19 102} Dec. 20 108 ' 3 1 9 - 1 19 

5 9 « *l; 48! 130 74; 1055 118; May 25 70} Dee 17 81} 9 739'735 

Vulcan Detinning ... 19 5 I 7 7 10! Mav 17 6 Apr. 14 7 1.520 

\ulcanDctinningpf... 3) 21 43 21 26; 201 20 24; May 18 20 May 17 23} 910 

Highest and lowest prices of the year are b 1 00 shares (a) Far $50. <i>) Par $25 (c) Par $20 (d) Par $10 (c) Par $5. (/) Par value 

.,[ common fto'k r ,.,i„c,.,i fro,,, $100 to $25 in 1916; in 1917, voiint- ir . inged f or Btocl o,i No par value. (h) Ex-dividend 

anuaiy L2, L918 


Mining Stocks in 1917 

THE stock mark.'t of L917 was characterized by 
general declines, which in November took many 
stocks to phenomenally low figures, even below 
those registered in July, 1914. At the end of the year 
there was a reversal in sentiment and a rally in the 
market which carried the leaders — Anaconda and Utah— 
up about 10 points, and other stocks in proportion. 

The accompanying tables show the quotations and 
transactions on the New York and Boston Stock Ex- 
changes and the New York Curb. 

With reference to the table of Curb quotations, 11 
should be noted thai these are nol official, although I 
are probably as reliable as can be obtained. On 
New York Stock Exchange everj precaution is taken to 

insure that quotations are authentic; on the Curb, how- 
ever, there are no restrictions whatever, and anyone 
can make prices and have them recorded in the published 
lists. It is, therefore, impossible to vouch for the trust- 
worthiness of the prices, and they are printed merely as 
a matter of record. 

ipauy Open 

Adanar Silver (nl 22 

ite Mine ' ; 

Uaska-Bril i ol Mining ) 

Mines Co ;: 

Usska Zinc and Copper I 

\in Commander. , . . . (a) 8! 

Ynr Bingliamton Copper. .. . 5J 

bloride Oil 44 

Arii. Copperficlds ... 

Arizona Cornelia i 

Am United (a) 55 

Atlanta (a) 10 

Atlas Copper ! 

Austin Amazon 

Barnes King Development.. . . 
Beaver Cobalt . . (n) 48 

Big Jim ... '1 

Big Ledge Copper .... 

Bingham Mines 12! 

Bisbee Copper J 

Booth (a) 10 

Boston Creek II 

Boston and Montana Dev. ... (a) 77 

Bradshaw Copper 

Buffalo Mines 

Butte Copper and Zinc Hi 

Butte- Detroit 1} 

Butte-New York 1 2 

Calaveras Copper 5 

Caledonia Mining (n) 50 

Calumet & Jerome I ti 

Canada Copper 1 1 

Canada Copper, rts (a) 1 

Carlisle Mining 5 

Cashboy (a) 7 

Cerbat Silver M M (a) 36 

Cerro Gordo Mining 21 

Con. Ariz Smelting 

Consolidated Coppermines 3 § 

Cons Gold Mines (a) 60 

Con Nev. Utah 1 

Cresson Gold 7j 

Crvstal Copper (a) 99 

Darwin Mines Development . . II 

Davis- Daly 6 

Denbigh Mines II 

Doiae Extension (a) 16 

Duncan M. and M 2 J 

Dundee- Ariz 1 1 

Eastern Copper (a) 52 

Ely Consolidated (a) 15 

Emma Copper 

First National Copper 3f 

Ferber Copper (a) 50 

Fortuna Consolidated (a) 14 

Gibson Consolidated Copper. . 2 

Gila Cannon (a) 75 

Gila Copper 16! 

Goldfield Cons (a) 72 

Goldfield Merger (a) 6! 

Gold Hill (a) 10 

Gold Warrior Mining (a) 60 

Green Monster 21 

Hargraves Mining (a) 15 

Hecla Mining 8 

HoUingerG M 5| 

Howe Sound, w. i 81 

Hudson Bay Zinc I* 

Inspiration Needles Co ! 

Int. Mines . ... (a) 9 

Inter. Mt Mines Dev 

Iron Blossom 

Jerome Verde 1 j 

Jerome Victor 2 

Jim Butler (a) 86 

Josevig-Kennecott 1 

Jumbo Extension (a) 27 

Jumbo Mining of X M 1 

Kerr Lake 41 

Kewanas (a) 19 

KirklandP. G. M (n) 50 

La Rose Consolidated 

LaveUe Gold 1 

Loma Prieta 1} 

Loon Lake (a) 48 

Louisiana Consolidated (a) 90 

Magma Chief 1 

Magma Copper 40 

Magmatic Copper (a) 3 1 






























(a) 19 


63 3 ' 


(a) 77 



49 5 




I J 



\ll\l\.. STOCKS ON mr \l W JTORK I I KB 1917 
i m Last pany 

20 20 7.000 Magnate Coppei . in 75 

i„) 5 8 6,200 Majestic Mines . !ft 

A ft 1.339,230 Marsh Milling (o) 10 

828.628 MarysviUe Gold li 

6,000 Mason Valley 6 

31 4 426,400 MoKinlej Darragh (n) 50 

3 31 14,575 Miami Mergi i (o) 40 

A 881,510 Milford Copper (a) 95 

ft 71.800 Mojave Tuug-t. a .... H 

it 300,090 Mohieaii ( '..pp. i I 

32 32 26.700 Monster Chief ... i 

7 9 1,484,200 Montana Gold Oil 81 

i fl 122.200 Mother Lode (ol 43 

343.360 National Leasing Oil 19 

|] |j 100 Natl. Zinc and Lead i.ii 54 

48 48 500 New Cornelia 15 

• > 234,570 N. V & Hon R C. M 16! 

I IJ 1,214,738 Nevada Ophir Mining oil 25 

9} II 15,500 Nevada Rand 10 

A 1 492,910 Newrav Mines 11 

3 4 152,350 New Utah Bingham i 
IJ Ift 209,500 Nicklas Mining 1 

37 45 1,505,200 Nipissing 8j 

I! 73,835 Nixon-Nevada I'll 76 

I IJ 25.800 Ohio Copper IJ 

5| 7 459.300 Ohio Copper, new. w i I| 

A } 524,610 Old Emma Leasing (o) 55 

56,360 Peabc dy Con. Cop I J 

|j |> 5,300 Pitts. Idaho .... 11 

36 46 1,122,950 Pole Star Copper (a) 20 

{ l{ 1,752,280 Portland Con. Copper li 

|i |U 514,200 Progress Mining and Milling. . 

1 2 252,650 Rawley Mines l| 

4 4J 62,675 Ray Hercules ... 4J 
3 4} 1,329,600 Rex. Consolidated Mining Oil 50 

34 39' 68,900 Richmond Copper IJ 

|J || 38,300 Rochester Mines oil 65 

h ij 1,138,580 Round Mountain 00 40 

3 61 335,172 Sacramento Valley Copinr I] 

35 70 10,400 Sagamore Mining Co (o) 81 
1 A 18.000 San Toy ("> 1 5 

2 4| 262,745 Santa Rita Dev H 

(a) 66 75 141,025 Section Thirty I0j 

li 1 2.325 Seneca Copper 15! 

5 5 1,400 Senorito Copper Ift 

24 2J 109,660 Silver King of Ariz f 

16 18 4,500 Silver King Consolidated 4| 

J 1 26 350 Silver Pick Oi) 23! 

76,102 Slocum Star . ... (a) 24 

51 55 389,450 St. Nicholas Zinc 

10 10 328,400 Standard Silver Lead « 

1 ft 3.015.123 Stewart 9-32 

|i |j 67,898 Success Mining (o) 42 

50 61 i 42,450 Superior & Boston 6{ 

12 40 421,100 Superior Copper 

2 2ft 111,368 Teck Hughes (.1)66 

50 50 40,600 Tom Reed H 

161 171 26,025 Tommy Burns I'll 30 

583,456 Tommy Burns G.M.. pf 1 

3 3' 537,080 Tonopah Belmont 4; 

3 4 17.200 Tonopah Extension 4 

60 68 40,700 Tonopah Mining 5; 

5 ft 1,192.150 Tri-Bullion ft 

10 14 1.364,500 Trinity Copper 7 

3| 4» 343,150 Trov-Arizona (a) li 

51 53 200 Temiskaming (o) 42 

3' 41 23,260 Tuolumne Copper 21 

81.480 United Magma Oil 56 

84.235 United Mines of Ariz 1} 

6 15 527,475 United Eastern 5 

U II 1.800 United Copper Mining H 

21-32 143.795 U. S. Tungsten oil 22 

3,244,900 United Verde Extension 38; 

27,850 United Zinc ... H 

(a) 69 77 437,617 Unity Gold H 

1 ft 217,775 Utah Apex 3 

13 15 716,300 Utica Mines i.h30 

} 35 176,050 Utah National Mining (a) 65 

41 5 14,766 Virginia Mine If 

4 5 290,701 West End Consolidated (o) 67 

50 50 89.000 Wettlaufer Silver (a) 10 

J 153,000 White Caps Mining (o) 35 

I 9,700 White Caps Extension I") 32 

I I 149,950 Wilbert Copper . . I 21 

40 61 50,875 Whiteoaks Mining 4| 

} 1,914,650 Yerington Mt. Copper 

ft 257.908 Yukon Gold 2 

31 42 196.150 Yukon Alaska oil 22 

17 21 • 234,095 (a) Cents per share. 






i 1 








(a) 90 












1 1 it'll Low 

2l H 







2 H 
■ i 


















■ i 


29 H 













Oil 25 
(a) 22 

- A 
<<i) 48 
(a) 81 



















(a) 34 












, A 



■ !* 




























Bali - 

H> 980 
20, 1 56 


Vol. 105, No. 2 

Bonds on New York Stork Exchange 

Wlc I"I7 Sale* in 

High 1 ••» I i-i 11,000 

117 - 14 10 151 

-<. 14 18 127 

14 B6] 2,113 

1 04 •>!. '17; t.47 


1931 971 ■ si 41 . 

iik loo.. ioii 1.122 

i .4 i. 'ii i )] H 103 1.305 

101 70 77 1.412 


full i 100) B 560 

Qnuabj - - MIH I0l| 109 •'). 14; 294 

! - 4. ■.. 1040 "4 HI 81 1,916 

1952 Mil. 103 '4 95 l.44« 

I9.M mi 17 I0l| '4. 'ii. 1.174 

1-arW.. - 

450 IIM) 90 107. St. 8bl 6.514 

Nail Tube, latmtce S'a. 1952 I02| 99] 103 "4 94j 876 


1940 102) 'is. nil. 93 931 '•">* 
Trail c 1 ,v ■ I; I I 

I9ii inn; 101; 9S 95 6h 

Tenn l ■ .ii \ f>'-. 

125 88 1011 87) B7| 156 
- - 

192* II5| 107 109 941 '"• * 81 
I - Steel, 10-60 vr . - I 

1961 Iii7. 1031 1071 931 '"< 14.492 

\ . I:.... .• ii |gt5V I "4" "0 82; '"I 85 90 207 

Mining Stocks on Boston Exchange 

High Dsti Low 1 >.it. Last 

V.lvmluiv 41 Jan. 2 I Oct 26 II 

\hn 108 Jan 2 70 Dec. 22 80 

ash 11 Ian. 2 ; Sept. 12 J 

AIMim. 70 Mar 6 45 Dee. 19 50 

Ariaona'Commerrial 15; June II 81 \,,v. 5 III 

Butte Balls) 2; Jan 26 1 Dec 24 26c. 

Calumet A \ 851 Jan. 26 55 Dee. 19 65 

Calumet * Heda 590 Feb 20 411 I),-,- 20 428 

mial 271 .Ian 16 II Dec. 13 14 

Copper Range 68 Jan 17 19; Dec 11 4", 

Dalv « 3 Ian 12 Ij Apr. 21 2 

East Butr. 16 .la.,. 1 81 12 9; 

Krankliu 9 Mar. 6 4 I),-. 24 4; 

,,-k -'" Jan. 19 7 Deo. 20 9; 

4 Mar. 22 . Dec. 18 7V. 

. r ..k 76; June 18 >2 Nov. 7 51 

band Creek. pfd 94 Apr 28 60 Nov. 19 

36 Jan. 18 20 Deo. II 26 

Kerr Uke 6 Aug. 22 I; Apr. 9 5 

4. Jan 27 II June 8 1} 

Lake... If Jan 2 '> Oct 31 7 

- ,||. 5 Jan. Ii I] Dec. 26 I 

\ Olej 8i \ug. 2 4. Nov. 9 5 

i lated 15; Jan. 17 i \'i.v. I 6J 

May0oirer-Old Colony 3 M.i 23 I Nov. 7 11 

Mar 24 I; lug. 20 ij 

Mohawk 98 Jan. 5 ~>7 Dec. 4 b<\ 

New Orcadian . 6 .!an. 2 I Dec 14 2 

17 Apr 1 10 Nov. 7 13 

Nipisaing 9. Sepl 2d 6j July 2 81 

Xortl, I 241 Mar 28 II; c Id IK 14 

Sort! 2 Jan. 1 10, Nm 20 53.. 

Ojibiray - 'an 12 98c Dec. 27 99. 

OU Dominion (.7. Mar. 12 13 Nov. 7 43; 

Oaeeola 95 Mar 12 335 Dec. 20 591 

94 Feb. 21 60 Not' 7 69. 

St M 89. Mar 6 48 Dee 11 55 

2 Jan 2 58c Di-r 28 60c. 

IDOD 10 Jan 5 31 Oct 18 5'. 

61 Jan. 2 89.-. Dei 28 I' 

31. Jan 26 10.:. P 17 10c 

Supcri 16: Mar 6 3; Dec. 17 4j 

Superior * I' 8; Jan. 6 2} Di ■<■. 12 3. 

Trinity Jul' 1 1 3 Nov. 19 3; 

Tuolumne 2,\ Jan. 9 I May 12 I ^ 

.-. Apex Sept. 27 I] Mar 28 2; 

I'tah Consolidate 21 Feb. 20 '» Dec 14 |0« 

Utah Metal anl Turn,, 1 6) Jan 16 2; Dec. 29 2\ 

Victoria 6 Jan. 2 2 Oct. 22 3 

Wir. 5i Jan. 25 2 O, t 8 2 

Wotverini 53; Mar. 3 31 Dee 18 34 

Wvv 2! Jan. 3 15, \,, L , 23 J 

Coal Production in 1917 

The output of bituminous coal in the United States in 
L917 was 544,142,000 short tons, according to the U. S. 
Geological Survey, or 8.:>', more than the 1910 output. 
The production of anthracite was between 90,000,000 
and 100,000.000 short tons. 

Though production increased, demand outstripped it 
and the year was characterized by frequent coal shortage, 
actual and threatened. Had transportation conditions 
prevailed throughout. Early in the year, anthracite 
stmks were forced to their lowest point since 1902. 
A spring rush to buy coal for the winter maintained 
the demand, in the face of which the usual April reduc- 
tions in price were ordered by the Federal Trade Com- 
mission. Traffic was opened on the Great Lakes on Apr. 
16, earlier than usual, owing to coal shortage in the 
Northwest. On June 28 coal prices were agreed upon 
by the coal committee of the National Defense Council 
and the operators at a reduction of about one-third, 
which agreement was repudiated by Secretary of War 
Baker. Anthracite shipments in mid-July broke all 
records. On Aug. 21 the President fixed the base price 
of bituminous coal at approximately $2 per short ton 
at the mine, though operators had asked for a $3 base 
price. On Aug. 24 the appointment of Dr. Harry A. 
Garfield as Fuel Administrator was made. The price 
of anthracite was also fixed at $4 to $5.30 per ton accord- 
ing to locality and size. 

Strain on transportation facilities began to show in 
the latter part of Jury. Price-fixing had little effect on 
production and distribution of anthracite but caused a 
decline in bituminous output. Wages were raised in the 
central competitive field on the condition that higher 
coal prices be allowed. However the bituminous situa- 
tion rapidly became critical in October due to cool 
weather, large Government requirements and heavy con- 
fiscation by railroads in addition to the existing evils. 
On Oct. 29 the President allowed an increase of 45c. 
per ton in the price of bituminous coal at practically all 
mines in the country, following this on Dec. 1 with an 
increase in the price of anthracite of 85c. per ton, to 
meet a proposed wage increase for anthracite miners. 
This, however, did not increase the available supply 
materially. Pooling of output and priority shipment 
were resorted to without result. Traffic conditions were 
already bad and with the sudden advent of cold and snow 
in December transportation became thoroughly demoral- 
ized. New York and New England faced a coal famine. 
Strenuous efforts of the Administration to restore or- 
der, culminating in taking control of the railroads, fea- 
tured the closing days of 1917. At the end of December, 
production of bituminous coal was recovering from the 
extraordinary depression of the middle of the month, 
averaging 1,793.000 short tons per working day during 
Christmas week. 


Among the noted men identified with mining and 
metallurgical industries who died during 1917 were: 

Charles J Moore lun 28 Arnold Hague May 14 

John Adams Church — Feb. 12 John C BndRninn May 28 

Hermann A. Keller IV!,. 16 Robert Bell June 18 

Edward Dyei Peters Feb. 17 K. Birkeland June 18 

David H Browne.. Mar. 30 William Bullock Clark July 27 

Franks Witherbec Vpr. 13 Eugene Franz Rocber Oct. 17 

IntonEilcre Apr. 22 George T. Holloway Oel 24 

January 12, liU.s 


Data of the World's Principal Mines 

Hv S. P, SHAW 

Conu.ib'il rrnn 

i /Annual 

Ropi ' nt il" 

i poctlvo Comp 

I'm.. ■> .. Id 


s,i ,, ti ion 

1 . ,. 



| . I'on 

i ;<>!.! 

•15 Id 
i 116 

II 1,300 
i.i. 4. mi) 

1 80, 1 1 3 


1,41' 71 1 
4 il 1) >f. 


37 69 

, 11 
1 19 

$6 ... 

i s 

i :,.|,| Mm. - 

il 96 






1 57 

1 51 

[Yeadwi II 



671, )78 

658,1 19 

25(1 000 

1 ii. 


1 lit. 

2S6 n/8 

167, ■ ' 

1 92 

1 s 


5(. . 960 

1.5/4, .11 


4 64 

1 96 


,„i 16 



El ... 


. . 16 


1) 'HI 

i i.i 

'in.. 1.. -:til tiiut Smelting 

I S 


9, 31)7, ''(.7 


itla ( 'oppiT 

U s 


5,589, 1 ,7 


Vntrlopc ( loli] 





MM 193 

9 85 

9 28 

■ i ■ inn t 
i ,i. .1 North-m Bloeks.. 

1 s 

' 1 , '16 




9 96 

4 55(,/i 


•1 . '16 



9 15 

8 27 

ited ( told Miti' s 


■16 17 



1, 58 

.6 20 

tins and Milling 

U s 

'15 16 

16 "47 



(. 77 

5 3K 





£7,185 . 

12 83 

14 06 




E9.326 . n 

4 98 

5 14 

Kim* Development.. 

D. S 






Bingham Mines 
Black water 

U s 



\ z 


40 :47 



'i 87 

8 38 





8 15 

2 4« 




14 13,226 to) 



7 51 

4 68 lr<) 

Broken Mill North ... 


1 | 16 




Broken Mill North . . . 


(M '16 

117,1 10 

El .4.203 



13 65 

6 85 

Bn ken Mill Blk.10 



c, 16 
(a) '17 




I , 000 

9 99 

i Mill Blk. 10 

7 23 

;, Mill Hlk. 14 


(a) 17 




28 46 

24 91 


(6) 16 



1 1 H.I 10 


(i | '16 



18 18 

8 08 

Broken Mill South 


1 | '16 





14 00 

6 09 

I S 

r s 







5 76 

5 90 

V s 

4 50 to) 

1" s 



IS, 240,052 


5 16 

:iluiin t & Hecla. 

V s 

2 62 

! Motor 


'15-' 16 




6 78 

6 28 


1 lanada 

'15 '16 


£78,4 36 



30 92 

nrr Corporation 

anial . 

I s 





3 94 

2 III 

' rroGordo. . . 

r. s 




II 08 

Champion Ret 4 " 







12 44 

9 80 

■ in Mining Co 





7.1 '1 1,1 

1 17,000 

8 79 

4 94 






1 i,844 

19 16 
6 19 

& Suburban 


2 00 

.... Tran. 






8 87 

5 41 to) 

' 1 S— ' 1 6 





1 S 

N. Z 




£279,(3t. 1 (») 



7 82 
6 08 

7 04 

Sons 1 anglaag i .... 


3 91 

1 fens. Main Reef 


IS If, 


£162,931 W) 



7 09 

4 78l,;i 

15 16 



3.941. 64S 

8 09 

a. s 

3 06 





£ !0,030 


II 65 
6 20 

10 42 

n Mines. 


4 45 (./. 

I" S 



ill 1917 

•16 '17 







14.1 67 hi 


1 15,050 

6 46 

8 88 
4 72 
4 84 

B Is 

7 30 

B. Is 


8 63 

2 70 


3 85 







6 30 

5 67 

Eagle & Blue B. 11 

D S 






14 13 

East Butte. .... 



8 46 

insa Smelting and Copper 


Reperanza, , . 







Falcon Mines 






11 78 

7 43 

F deral Mining and Smelting 
Ferreira Dei p 

U S 




•15-' 16 





8 55 

5 08 





FrontinoA Bolivia 







18 34 

14 10 

lalka ( fold 





£34, 1 S7 


II 61 

7 48 

Jeduld Prop 




£155.630 to) 



7 57 

5 24 

leldenlmis Deep .... 






1.61 i 

6 18 

5 00 

Jlynn's Lvd nberg 


'15 '16 





8 97 

5 39 

'Joldfield Con 

D s 





6 53 

5 48 

Gulden Horseshoe . . . 







10 31 

8 02 

jranby Con.. 




4 92 

2 79 

Cireat Boulder Prop 







14 47 

7 65 

B Is 
B Is 

(M 1916 
(o) 1917 
(fc) 1916 

21 013 

£9.919 H 

£10.043 , 

5 30 
5 64 

7 46 

7 97 

Hampden & Cloncurry 





299 000 

35 36 

21 54 





3. 006.409 


8 84 

4 03 

D. S 






5 74 

1 76 

U. s 







3 47 

7 73 

2 05 

5 31 


'15 16 








5 27 

19 78 

5 3} 

CJ. s. 


10 80 


4 64 

91 5.000 l.l 


58 43 

1 1 76 

Kinta Tin Mine 


15 16 


100 095 

Knights Central , . , . ....... 



£23,203. ,i 


5 08 


Knights Deep 




£197,942 to) 



3 69 

2 96(91 




Note— Abbreviations used in table: Aus., Australia; B. C . British Columbia; B. Is., British Isles (Cornwall); Hond., Honduras; Malay, Federated Malay Si 
N. Z., New Zealand; Ont., Ontario, Canada; Rhod., Rhodesia; S. Af.. South Africa; S.W. Af., Southwest Africa; Tas., Tasmania; Tran., Transvaal; W. Af, West 


(rc) First half. lb) Second half. (c) Cubic yard* 

profits and li\ id nils arc in dollars, except where otherwise noted. 
Mining engineer, Brady Bldg., San Antonio, Texas. 

(-/i Dump. 

fe) P^so^. 

i f) I.i I- ■ 

rkiug profit or cost A 11 



Vol. 105, No. 2 



Lanat ' 


• l.y.Il 

re . . 

Namaqua Cop < 
Nevada Con <- opper 
Nevada Wonder 

V .. Heri A 


North Anantapur 
North Butte 
North Star. 


t 'aliadu 



Mi * 
I 8 

I S 

- \l 

I H 




I S 

D. s 

I S 

Old Dominion 
vioregu.". . 

Oroya-Links. . 

Ouro Preto. . . 

Pahang Consolidated Malay 

Phelps- Dodg.- 

Pigg 9 Peak Dcv 


Plymouth Con.. 


Poderoea ... 



Quincy U. S. 

i S 
rj. 8. 

N. Z. 

Randfontein Central.. 

Ray Consolidated 

Robinson Deep. 
Roodepoort United 
Rose Deep... 
Round Mountain 


I 3 






Santa Gertrudis 

San Miguel Copper Mines 

Seoul Mining Chosen 

Shannon Copper U. S. 

Shattuck-Anzona U. S. 

i Gold ... Tran. 

* King Consolidated U. S. 

Simmer 4 Jack Proprietary Tran. 

Sissert Russia 

Simmer Deep . Tran. 

South Crofty. B. Is. 

South Heels. ......... U. S. 

South Kalgurli. Aub. 

St. John del Rey Brazil 

Sub-Nigel Iran. 

Sudan Goldficlds S. Af. 

Sulphide Corporation Aus. 

Superior Copper U. £. 

Tanalyk Corp Malay 

Taquah Mining and Exploration \\ \l 

Tekka Malay 

Temiskamini? Canada 

Tennessee Copper I 

Tharsis Sulphur Spain 

Tineroft ........ B. Is. 

Tincroft B. Is. 

Tom Reed D". S 

Tonopah Harbour Malay 

Tonopah Belmont U. S. 

Tonopah Mining U.S. 

Tough-Oakea Canada 

United Copper.. I' S. 

United State.! S. R AM. Co . U.B 

Dusted Vir i I 

Utah Consolidated I 

Utah Copper U.S. 

Van Ryn Deep. Tran. 

Vi"toria I 

Village Deep Tran 

Village Main Reef Tran. 


Waihi Grand Jc. 
Wallaroo A Moonta 

md Consolidated 


Witwatereraad Gold 

Wolhuter .. . ... 

Yellow Pine Mining U. S. 

Corporation Aus. 

N. Z. 

U. S. 

I 'Ho 




'It. 17 

I ') I c. 

I" It. 




•I 5-' 16 


•I 5-' 16 


• 1 5-* 1 6 

■I 5- 16 





" 1 5-' 1 6 















'16-' 17 











(» 1916 

(a) 1917 



' 16 * 17 













I v 127 


















28,590 (/) 


















496,040 1c) 




£ | 7, 111 I'M. Mill) 

£148.8981 i £44.121 

XI 1.616(a) ' - '""> 

£40.099 £4.'. 1106 

£39,117 i'ii.c.OO 

1,097,333 480.000 

i ■ 661 i i 
1 166 £83,327 

282,304) "269,723 
£Jt,8.725(«) £36,357 

£283,966(0) £200,000 
7,759,784 4,295,905 

£4S(.,io3(«l £337,500 

EI7,3i3(/) '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 
£266,642 £289,750 

Li.4.960 £47,165 

282,528 211,251 

£112,863 (a) £55.000 

£101,526 (o) £86,250 

£202,938(o) £57,577 

£10.233 ( S ) £7.531 

2,479,595 1,075.000 

352,294 300,000 

£105.731 £99,050 




7,590 (/) 





£10,413 (/) 

80, 1 59 










£ 1,1 90 



L- 0,808 





6,938 inn 




















12,084,166 4,337.955 

£9,371 (/) 

£436,705 £300,000 


£222,921 (o) £183,750 



£1,835 (/) 

918,502 250,000 





£383,792 (g) £262,500 

Rs. 10.744 


£16,703 £16,250 

£4.050 "£3,125 

£155,593 £64,626 

£32.759(o) £32,368 

£15,194 £6,538 

£771.308 £315,000 

331,933 100,000 









,: 198,875 

II 18,000 








1,11 ..HI 1 


82o,l 18 


Price Yield, 
per Ton 

$0 95 

5 71 

2 54 
10 79 
14 40 

5 35 

22 23 
5 37 








































4 34 
9 50 

12 05 

7 09 

9 17 

5 26 

5 76 

13 30 

6 05 

5 85 

14 27 

4 55 

8 53 

6 08 
38 76 

8 44 

10 48 

10 42 

16 90 

3 91 

12 02 


5 91 








5 38 
4 46 

5 57 

5 29 

10 33 

9 97 

22 88 

6 85 

5 35 

4 33 

6 98 

5 53 

12 21 
9 64 
10 08 

4 18 

14 44 

6 29 

7 49 
II 03 


16 31 

14 31 

124 10 

4 45 

9 58 

7 17 
6 98 

8 60 

2 08 

5 79 

3 75 

6 16 
6 10 

43 52 

per Ton 

$0 60 

4 4 3(0) 

2 00 

7 20 

4 62 

9 75 

4 70 (o) 

2 54 

4 78 

. (ill 

4 64 
2 33 

6 75 

3 30 
5 45 

4 57 



1 78 
8 13 


1 79 
6 67 

6 64 

7 67 
3 68 


7 24 

2 21 








3 50 

5 35 
8 19 
7 90(o) 
7 08 

2 40 

9 85 

3 50 

6 45 
6 90 

6 48 

7 67 

8 71 

5 10 
4 64 

6 65 

3 73(o) 

4 25 

9 92 

anuary L2, 1918 



Antimony in 1917 

l'.l K. C. 1.1 

ANTIMONY did not present in 1917 the same in- 
teresting and sensational movements as were re- 
vealed in l'.UCi. Indeed, were it not for the fact 
that consumption of antimony was much above the nor- 
mal and prices remained 100', above the normal pre- 
war level, 1917 might almost be regarded as a normal 
year. By this I mean that fluctuation in prices during 
most of 1917 was little greater than would naturally 
OOCUr in any ordinary year. 

At the beginning of 1917 antimony was only starting 
to recover from the debacle into which it had been 
thrown in the autumn of 1916 by the unloading of 
large stocks at very low prices. As the year progressed, 
spot prices slowly advanced, until on Mar. 29 the maxi- 
mum of about 36c. per lb. was reached. Spot then stead- 
il\ declined, until on Nov. 13 a minimum of about 13 < 
was touched. Curiously enough, the price for future 
shipments did not increase to an extent corresponding 
to the rise of spot prices. It would seem, therefore, 
that the short-lived boom in spot was due to the fact 
that production and imports fell off toward the end 
of 1916, thus creating in the early weeks of 1917 a 
scarcity of spot. 

The situation in Russia was a factor that tended to 
prevent long continuance of high prices. It is a well- 
known fact that more shrapnel was used on the Russian 
front than on any other front of the war, and a large 
proportion of Russia's supplies was manufactured in 

(In Cents per Pound) 













6 125 

15 85 

42 45 

17 29 

6 100 

18 21 

44 31 

29 80 

6 053 

22 13 

44 75 

32 89 

6 006 

24 88 

42 06 

34 04 

5 845 

35 30 

31 60 

25 20 

5 825 

37 69 

20 05 

19 51 

5 638 

38 13 

14 70 

15 83 

13 800 

33 00 

II 53 

15 06 

9 940 

28 63 

II 81 

14 94 

12 060 

31 45 

12 70 

14 75 

14 450 

38 88 

13 84 

13 91 

13 310 

39 25 

14 59 

15 06 

30 28 

25 37 

20 69 










October ... 



Vea r 8 763 

(fll Engineering and Mining Journal quotations. 

Canada and shipped through England. With the col- 
lapse of Russia as a fighting force, the demand for 
antimony was greatly reduced. Now antimony im- 
porters are waiting patiently to see whether the 
entrance of America into the war will not more than 
counteract the effect of Russia's collapse. Up to the 
present any orders placed by the Government of the 
United States have not affected the antimony market 
to a great extent. At the end of December the market 
was a little stronger than it had been for several 
months, but it remains to be seen whether the speeding 
up of war preparations by America will lead to a boom 
*uch as characterized the antimony trade during the 
winter of 1915-16. 

For the greater part of 1917 antimony sold at a 
price little if anything above the cost of production. 

This was another feature I had in mind when statins 
thai 1917 mighl almo I be regarded as a normal yeai 
The price of any commodity in normal times tends to 
remain fixed at a point just a little above the COfll ol 
production. This is perhaps the chief factor thai 
prevented antimony from going any lower than 18 oi 
1 h '■ '» China, for example, the cost of production hai 
been almosl doubled owing to tin- great rise in the 
price of silver and high prices of fuel. The Chinese 
laborer is paid in silver, and when the price of silver 
is doubled it practically amounts to doubling the cost 
of production of any commodity produced in China. 

It is not possible to say much regarding either 
domestic production or imports for 1917. The com- 
parative dullness in the trade seems to have resulted in 






Pr\ce z 



■ — v - 








• hrrr 


30 « 




. B ,>~- Min ; n ?. en ? in ? er and metallurgist. 4904 Woohvorth Building; 
epresentative in New York of the Wah Chang Mining and Smelt- 
Bg (,o.. Ltd., of Changsha, China. 


1 N 1916 A ND 1 9 1 7 

less interest being manifested in developing further 
domestic production than was the case in 1916. In 
any event, I did not succeed in collecting much informa- 
tion regarding domestic production for the year. The 
Western Metals Co., with a smeltery in Los Angeles, is 
still actively engaged in the production of antimony, but 
little has been heard of other domestic producers. Con- 
ditions are now against the home producer, and on that 
account there is probably little activity in the mining 
of antimony in the United States. 

Information regarding imports of antimony and 
antimony ore is not readily obtained since the Bureau 
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce discontinued its 
highly useful monthly statement of imports of those 
products. In the absence of these statements, it would 
be a laborious task to collect information from the 
different ports of entry, and there is not sufficient time 
available to complete such data. The Wah Chang 
Co. imported in 1917 a smaller proportion of the total 
imports than in 1916. For the 10 months ended in 
October about 12,500 tons of antimony were imported; 
a large proportion of this came in as antimony ore 
and was smelted in this country. Indeed, during nine 
months of 1917 nearly 2000 tons more ore were im- 
ported than was the case for the corresponding period 
in 1916. This would seem to indicate that smelting of 
antimony in the United States was much greater in 
1917 than in the previous year. 

It may fairly be assumed, however, that the actual 
imports of refined metal were less for 1917 than for 
1916, one reason being that less antimony was exported 
from the United States to Canada. In 1916 Canada 



Vol. 105, No. 2 

used a large quantity of antimony, but there has been 
do demand from Canada for some time, indeed, during 
the last few months antimony bought by Canadian 
munition makers for their own requirements was found 
to be unnecessary, and some of it crossed into the 
United States. 

Having embarked upon a war program, some in- 
crease in the consumption of antimony in the United 
as may be expected during the coming months. 
with a consequent recrudescence of activity in the in- 
dustry. Pi ' ~ i'- 1 ' 1 ' f«f antimony at the dose of 1917 
were not encouraging to the Chinese producers, who 

must transport the metal 12,000 miles, and the result 
is that foreign production is falling off. It is essen- 
tial that America be assured of an adequate supply of 
antimony to cover her war requirements, and I venture 
to state that sueh a supply can be secured only by 
paying better prices. The methods of purchase adopted 
by the United States Government will probably tend 
to prevent quotations from soaring as they have done 
in the past, but with the larger volume of trade and 
prices a little better than at the end of 1917, the 
future of antimony would appear cheerful, and pro- 
ducers feel that a revival in antimony is about due. 

The Tungsten Industry 


A PRELIMINARY estimate for 1917 shows an in- 
dicated U. S. production of 6000 tons of tungsten 
centrates, as against 5200 in 1916. Imports 
from Bolivia (via Chile), Peru, Argentina and Portugal 
to the amount of about 4000 tons were noted and 1600 
tons were exported, indicating a consumption in the 
United States of 8400 tons of concentrates per year. The 
steadiness in price in 1917 and the attendant sense of 
securitv lent to the industry caused its establishment on 
• a firmer basis and made it less of a "war baby," as post- 
war use of tungsten on a large scale now seems assured. 

California thk Leading U. S. Producer 
California in 1917 made the largest production, fol- 
lowed closely by Colorado, with Nevada and Arizona 
about even for third place and small productions re- 
ported from South Dakota. Idaho, Utah and Missouri. 
In California the Atolia Mining Co. continued to be the 
chief producer, while the deposits near Bishop, Inyo 
County, gave evidence of soon adding materially to the 
California output. As before, practically the entire 
production of Colorado was derived from the ferberite 
deposits of Boulder County and the northern part of 
Gilpin County. In this district the milling of tungsten 
ores not containing metallic impurities has probably 
reached the highest stage of development attained any- 
where in the world. The Vasco Mining Co., the Primos 
Chemical Co., the Wolf Tongue Mining Co., the Boulder 
Tungsten Production Co. and the Rare Metals Ore Co. 
were the chief operators in the district. Several new 
mills were built during the year and all operators con- 
tinued to alter their plants to keep abreast of modern 
practice. Refining works have been built within the 
last two years in the Boulder District. 

Nevada suffered during 1917 from unsatisfactory ore 
developments and treatment methods, so that little if 
anv increase in production is to be expected. 

Detailed information relative to Arizona is lacking. 
South Dakota production was reduced because of the 
irregular operation at the Wasp No. 2— the leading pro- 
ducer, after the Homestake company. In Missouri the 
Einstein mine, which is 12 miles west of Fredericktown, 
was in operation and produced about 50 tons of concen- 
trates; it is now shut down and the mill is being re- 

•Mining engine, care of Moore * Schley, so Broadway. New 

modeled to conform to present metallurgical practice. 
The property near Trumbull, Conn., was inactive, as the 
mill burned down and was not rebuilt. 

Summing up, the tungsten industry in the United 
States has the following characteristics: The per- 
sistency of the scheelite deposits of California and of the 
ferberite deposits of Colorado has been demonstrated 
and they constitute the backbone of the tungsten in- 
dustry in the United States. Other deposits of com- 
mercial grade have been developed and brought up to a 
production of considerable importance. The metallurgy 
at Atolia and Boulder is good, but at many of the 
small operations in other districts it is poor and in- 
efficient, due to a lack of knowledge of tungsten metal- 
lurgy and the absence of experienced technical direction 
or advice. 

Tungsten in Foreign Countries 

In a review of tungsten activities in foreign countries, 
several important developments are worthy of note. 
In the southern part of China, in Kwantung and Hunan 
Provinces, the natives discovered and began work on 
alluvium deposits, and a production of as high as 100 
tons of concentrates per month was reported from 
these small operations. The work was done entirely by 
hand and the product was transported on men's backs 
and small river junks until it finally reached Canton 
and was shipped out via Hong Kong. Export permis- 
sion for shipping to the United States was cut off in 
August by the British restrictions in Hong Kong. This 
Chinese field should be an interesting one for systematic- 
exploration and development when proper export fa- I 
cilities have been arranged, and might prove capable of 
augmenting the present world's production to no small t 
degree. Another country in which tungsten production 
was obtained in 1917 was Rhodesia. Preliminary work 
on the wolframite alluvium disclosed the presence of t 
the quartz veins from which the alluvium was de- 
rived. By means of hand concentration the coarse allu- I 
vium was treated and small shipments were made. 

Perhaps one of the most strikingly significant feat- 
ures was the doubling of production in Bolivia and Peru, 
due to the competitive activities of English and French 
ore-buying commissions. Imports into the United 
States from South America were about the same as ir 
1916, so that the excess production was shipped to Eng- 

January 12, 1918 



land and Franco to augment the supply from Burma, 
French [ndo-China and Sinm, which was aboul the 
same as in 1916. Higher war-risk insurance in the 
Mediterranean than in the Atlantic may he an explana- 
tion for this pushing of South American production 
instead of that of the Bast. 

In Australia, the working of various placer scheelite 
deposits has been noted from time to time, and in 1917 
it least one property developed sufficient lode tonnage 
to warrant the construction of a concentrating mill. 
The King Island Scheelite Co., a subsidiary of Broken 
Hill Block 14 Co.. was formed to operate this mine 
and plant, which has a present capacity of 150 tons of 
concentrates per year. Work was also done in 
Australia by the Thermo Electric Ore Reduction Cor- 
poration on the metallurgical problem in the separation 
of complex scheelite ores, so that Australia should not 
be counted a waning producer, as development there is 
making fair progress. 

In Europe the chief producing country continues to 
be Portugal. The situation there is somewhat similar to 
that in Bolivia and Peru, with the addition of strong 
American interests. The English and French com- 
panies at Panasqueira and Borralha are forcing pro- 
duction, while the newly started American interests have 
acquired a firm hold in the Viseu district, after suffer- 
ing initial discouragements due to difficulties in securing 
ind maintaining export permission. Portugal is an ex- 
:remely important source of tungsten for the Allies, be- 
ing so near the seat of need and subject to the min- 
imum of war shipping risk of all foreign imports for 
England or France. 

Dressing of Tungsten Ores 

The American practice of tungsten concentration is 
>ecoming more and more standardized as the character 
ind peculiarities of the ores are better understood. The 
ise of stamps for the secondary crushing has practi- 
ally become obsolete and they are being replaced by two 
>r three sets of rolls arranged to give successive reduc- 
ion in stages rather than a shattering such as is pro- 
luced by the use of stamps. This throws a heavier duty 
m the jigging department, so that the tendency in the 
lew mills is to have greater jigging capacity and less 
able capacity. This tends toward compactness and 
auses the recovery of the tungsten in larger form than 
ormerly and reduces the losses by slime. Tungsten 
lime is difficult of recovery, but it seems to be accom- 
ilished fairly well by means of thickening cones, slime 
ables and canvas or "rag" plants. This slime product 
s of lower grade than the coarser products, but is suit- 
ble for electric-furnace treatment. It is a character- 
stic of tungsten concentrates to be lower in grade the 
aore finely they are crushed. 

The practice of hand sorting the high-grade ore from 
he mines is a good one, but this ore should be stored, 
nd when sufficient quantity has been obtained should be 
ized and introduced into the mill at its proper point 
o that it may be mechanically cleaned and its grade 
aised. At present in the Boulder district extractions 
s high as 92% are obtained, so that the cleaning of the 
and-sorted ore would be justified, as the grade could 
e raised to over 70% and thus claim a premium over 
he present practice at some mills of shipping 55 r , hand- 
orted ore. 

For the most part, the American tungsten ores are 
free from the metallic constituents found as a rule 
with the foreign thai the concentration problem 

is more easily handled than it would be if commercial 
separation of tin, load, zinc and iron had to be aco 
plished. Those problems have presented themselves to 
the engineers operating in South America and Europe, 
and proper methods have been worked out that promi e 
satisfactory results. 

Tungsten Ore Market 

By Charles Hakhv 

The year 1916 closed with the business in tungsten 
comparatively dull, and prices had just recovered to a 
price level of $17 per unit, after having been up to 
$90 per unit during the run of 1916. During the first 
week of 1917 considerable arrivals from South America 
prevented a steady and strong market from immediately 
advancing. Arrivals during January exceeded 600 tons, 
which was a larger quantity than had been received in 
the United States during any previous month, and 
naturally such an accumulation prevented an advance in 
prices. However, on the very first business day France 
appeared as a buyer in our market, taking a consider- 
able quantity, which made it possible readily to absorb 
a fair share of the surplus arrivals, thus exercising a 
stabilizing influence upon the market and prevent intr 
any tendency towards serious breaking. 

( In Dollar- p.i Unit, W( i i 

. -1917 . 1917 

Wolframite Scheelite Wolframite Scheelite 

January 17 14 17 50 August 24 66 26 50 

February 16 80 17 50 September.... 23 92 26 00 

March . 17 17 17 77 October 24 00 26 00 

April 17 86 19 04 November 26 00 26 00 

May 19 10 20 94 December 25 24 26.56 

Junr- 20 80 23 50 

Jul) 23.44 2i 68 Year $21 34 $22.75 

(o) Engineering and Mining Journal Quotations 

During January, however, quotations remained at the 
same level of $17, which figure continued into the first 
half of February. Winter conditions in the West then 
interfered with the California and Colorado production 
and shipments to the East, and buyers who had not 
provided themselves with stock, on account of the un- 
certain future of the tungsten market, found themselves 
without supplies, and bought from New York stocks 
for express shipment. The price advanced to approxi- 
mately $18 during February, and in March, when Italy 
appeared in our market as a heavy buyer of ferro- 
tungsten and tungsten powder, the market took a strong 
turn. New York stocks were readily absorbed and con- 
tracts were concluded to cover Western tungsten ore for 
delivery over the greater part of 1917. In the third 
week of April purchases made against contracts for 
several of the foreign governments interested in buying 
amounted to close to 1000 tons, and prices took an 
upward turn. 

Western shippers decided to fix by the first of May 
their lowest quotation at $20 a unit, and naturally the 
New York market followed suit, and before the month 
was a week old business was done in large quantities at 
$20, though foreign ore could still be had below that 
figure. The foreign ore has always to be sold at a 

*5ft Church St.. New York. 



Vol. 105, No. 2 

coming mostly from Bolivia, Peru or Japan, 
it contains impurities such as tin and copper, which 
are rarely found in domestic tungsten ore. New York 
stocks were so much depleted by the end of May that 

it was impossible to make up any carload lot in a uni- 
form quality and the ore had to be bought from 

many different importers in five- and 10-ton lots. 

Karly in June the spot position became serious; the 
Western producers were sold out for early delivery and 
unwilling to contract for future supplies. South 
American ore of good quality was fully sold and any 
wolframite that could be seemed readily obtained a 
premium over the Western schedule price of $20, which 
now only a basis for contracts to be completed, 
as no new ore could be bought on this basis. Such 
conditions, of course, worked for a rise, and this rise 
took effect during the first days of July, when deliveries 
right to the end of 1917 were contracted for at $25 
per unit by the Western producers. 

During the latter half of 1917 prices hardly changed 
from those current in July. The main producers had 
contracted for everything that could be had between 
July and the end of the year at $25(<i26, and they 
were unwilling to make contracts into 1918. The 
foreign ore followed closely the price lead set by the 
Western producers, and while at times arrivals from 
South America were heavy, the demand continued 
steady, and freight congestions on the one hand or 
license difficulties on the other served as a kind of price 
regulator and steadied the market the last half year. 

The average monthly consumption for 1917 in the 
United States amounted to about 800 tons. Importation 
averaged about 300 tons monthly, leaving for home pro- 
duction approximately 500 tons, which was readily 
absorbed. The year closed with wolframite quoted at 
$25. Scheelite, spot delivery, sold at $26, but no for- 
ward delivery from Western producers was to be had 
below $30. At this latter figure business was done for 
delivery well into 1918, and with present conditions in 
the tungsten market the Western producers expect to 
maintain this figure for all of their production. 

Arsenic in 1917 

Prices in the United States reached the high point of 
16 J (a 17c. per lb. for white arsenic in 1917, with a 
heavy demand for export. In the latter part of the year, 
exports were curtailed and the price dropped to 15ic. 
per lb., although higher prices were asked abroad and 
imports were cut off. 

No new processes were developed, although it was re- 
ported that a larger production could be secured by 
byproduct treatments, and through the starting of some 
arsenic mines formerly operated, notably the Brinton 
mine, in Virginia. A greater saving was urged by the 
Food Administration, which assumed charge of the in- 
dustry on Nov. 15. About one-third of the arsenic 
production in the United States was consumed in the 
glass-making industry as a substitute for antimony 
oxide, the price of which had increased. The manu- 
facture of poison gases created a further demand. 

Imports of arsenic for nine months ended Sept. 30, 
1917, were valued at $226,190, having amounted to 
3,525,816 pounds. 


By Charles Hardy* 

The consumption of molybdenum in the United States, 
and in fact in the world, is much smaller than is 
generally supposed. Molybdenum has been so much in 
the forefront of discussion that people assume that 
molybdenum is available in large quantities. However, 
it is a fact that the total production of molybdenum- 
carrying ores in 1915, the last year for which figures 
are available, amounted to a total of only 222.6 tons of 
molybdenum. Of this the United States produced 91 
tons, followed by Australia, in which Queensland pro- 
duced 58.8 tons, and New South Wales about 19 tons. 
Norway came next with about 40 tons. The remainder 
was produced in small quantities, mainly by Canada, 
Spain and Peru. In 1916 and 1917, however, a consider- 
able increase in the molybdenum production occurred, 
and while no exact figures are available, I believe that it 
would not be a wrong estimate to assume that the 
world's production rate practically doubled during the 
last two years. Methods of concentration were im- 
proved and molybdenite ore running as low as 1% was 
successfully treated. 

The users of molybdenum were considerably added 
to on account of the war and the principal buyers are 

(In Dollars per Pound in Concentrates Assaying 90%) 

1917 1917 

Inly 2 16 

Aiurust . . 2,14 

September 2 1ft 

October 2 20 

November 2 20 

December 2 27 

January . 






1 81 
I 80 

1 90 

2 10 
2 95 
2 15 


(a) Engineering and Mining Journal Quotations 

2 16 

the European governments, which found molybdenum, 
or rather ferromolybdenum, an excellent addition to steel 
for the making of trench helmets, gun linings, armor- 
piercing projectiles, and in the form of molybdenum 
trioxide as an addition to mellinite powder. Molybdenum 
ores either in the form of molybdenite or wulfenite are 
found in many places in the United States, but the ore 
is generally so finely disseminated that operations at 
present are carried on in a comparatively small way. 
Should, however, the United States Government require 
molybdenum in quantities, the United States Geological 
Survey is under the impression that under the super- 
vision of Government agents all the molybdenum ore 
necessary could be obtained within this country. 

The molybdenum price rose from $1.75 for 90% con- 
centrates at the beginning of 1917 to $2.25 at the end 
of the year. These high prices helped considerably to 
stimulate the production, and during the last two months 
a little more molybdenite was offered, allowing the 
makers of ferromolybdenum to contract more freely for 
this product. At the beginning of 1917, few ferromolyb- 
denum makers were prepared to enter into any contracts 
unless they had the molybdenum ore required for such 
contract actually at their works, as little reliance could 
be placed upon getting ore regularly from the producers. 
With the world's requirements for molybdenum on the 
increase, the present prices should be maintained in the 
near future even in the face of an appreciable increase 
in production. 

•50 Church St., New York. 

January 12. L918 



Metallurgy of Lead 


LEAD metallurgists noted with sorrow that there 
passed away in 1917 the last of the three American 
pioneer lead smelters. Anton Filers died Apr. 21, 
1917, Otto H. Halm and August Raht preceded him only 
a short time, the former having passed away on July 2G, 
1915, and the latter on Dec. 26, 1916. These men laid 
the foundation of modern lead smelting, which is, that 
the operations of the blast furnace have to be controlled 
strictly by the chemical laboratory. The work of their 
successors was to define more clearly than was possible 
.it the start the limits of the various chemical reactions. 
With the increase in size of plant and, accompanying 
this, the decrease in the number of competitive smel- 
teries, the aim of operators at present is to handle ma- 
terials by machinery instead of by manual labor, as used 
to be the case with smaller plants. In addition, minor 
details are now looked after carefully so as to leave no 
loose ends and to change into marketable products ma- 
terials which formerly went to waste. 

The increased price of lead and silver in 1917 brought 
to smelteries an increased supply of silver-lead ores. 
Refineries received additional amounts of lead bullion 
owing to the starting of some of the silver-lead mines 
and smelteries in Mexico. Thus in 1917 the works of 
the country had more units in operation than was the 
case in the preceding year. 

Lead Smelting Practice 

The smelteries of the lower Mississippi Valley, which 
furnish about 40% of the country's lead, treated various 
grades of galena concentrates, 1 ranging from flotation 
slimes with 50 % Pb to different grades of jig and table 
products with from 60 to 70 and even 80% Pb. Materi- 
als with less than 70% Pb were blast roasted and smelt- 
ed in the blast furnace; those containing 70% Pb and 
over went to the ore hearth. The Newman ore hearth 
referred to last year continued to be a success. A typical 
analysis of undesilverized lead of the Mississippi Val- 
ley region shows Ag 0.0080% (2.4 oz. per ton), As 
trace, Sb 0.0030, Bi trace, Cu 0.0800, Fe 0.0015, Zn 
trace, Ni and Co 0.0080, Pb 99.8995^c. At Herculaneum, 
Mo., and Collinsville, 111., the lead is desilverized by 
means of the Parkes process to recover the silver and 
to furnish a higher grade of lead; the desilverized lead 
contains Ag 0.0005% (0.15 oz. per ton), As trace, Sb 
0.0020, Bi trace, Cu 0.0002, Zn 0.0004, Pb 99.9665%. 

Plants treating silver-lead ores gave considerable at- 
tention to mixed zinc-lead ores, the production of elec- 
trolytic spelter having become a practical process. The 
ore is given a sulphatizing roast, leached with H.SO,, the 
solution purified, and the zinc precipitated, using lead 
anodes, aluminum cathodes and a purified electrolyte 
of ZnSO, which is nearly neutral. Some of the difficulties 
have been overcome; others have not. Thus, while a 
laboratory test of a sulphatizing roast may show an ex- 
traction of over 90 r c of the zinc, actual work at the 
plant yields usually about 60 c c . The Hamilton-Murray- 

Mclntosh experiments with Sullivan ore, Kimberly, n. 
('., showed above 680 C. ZnO combined with l ■ 

into an insoluble compound, that free Al <> had a similar 
tendency, and thai the amount of combination depended 
mainly on temperature and time. The form of furnace 
and the mode of operating must be improved before 
standard working conditions can be obtained. Upon 
neutralizing the acid zinc solution with ore there was 
observed a tendency of zinc to fall out of solution, which 
is unwelcome in the residue and as regards yield. In 
the purification of the electrolyte there is also much 
room for improvement. 

The smelting division at the works of the Bunker Hill 
& Sullivan Mining and Concentrating Co., at Kellogg, 
Idaho, went into blast July 5, 1917. It has one Wedge 
roasting kiln, three Dwight-Lloyd sintering machines, 
and three water-jacket blast furnaces, 48 x 180 in. at 
the tuyeres. A blast furnace at this plant treats in 24 
hours from 250 to 285 tons charge containing from 36 
to 40% lead. 

Experiments in Hydrometallurgy of Lead 

New methods of treatment of lead ores, be they dry or 
wet, usually do not get beyond the experimental stage, 
but two recent modes of procedure studied in the labora- 
tory 3 of the Bureau of Mines at Salt Lake City may 
form an exception to the general rule. One method 
gives low-grade oxide lead ore a chloridizing roast in a 
reverberatory or blast-roasting furnace at a tempera- 
ture of 850°-900° C. with the aim of volatilizing the 
chlorides of lead, gold and silver formed, which are 
collected in a dust chamber supplemented by a Cottrell 
electrostatic precipitator. The extractions obtained on 
a small scale reached 99 % of the lead and from 80-90% 
of the gold and silver. With sulphide ore the lead is 
readily volatilized, but not the precious metal; this re- 
mains behind and has to be recovered by lixiviation. 
The other method involves the lixiviation of raw oxide 
lead ore with saturated brine, acidified with sulphuric- 
acid, and the recovery of this lead either by electrolysis 
or by precipitation with burnt lime. Extractions of 
lead varied from 80-98 r ( , depending upon the amounts 
of lead present as sulphide. 

Experiments' at Kellogg, Idaho, with sulphide lead 
ore, involving chloridizing in a Holt-Dern blast roaster 
and leaching with acidulated brine, gave a yield of lead 
of 85-95 % and of silver of 80-90 per cent. 

Automatic Bag Filter for Furnace Gases 

Most smelteries conduct the gases issuing from blast 
furnaces through baghouses in order to save the vola- 
tilized metals and to serve as a protection against law- 
suits arising from the damages that dust and fume may 
inflict upon the surrounding country. It is at present 
accepted 5 that a filtering surface of 3.45 sq.ft. per cu.ft. 
of gas per minute is needed for this purpose. The au- 

•Professor of metallurgy, Massac .usetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy and Harvard L T niversity, Cambridge, Mass. 
'Garliehs, "Bull.," A. I. M. E., July. 1917. 

-"Bull.," Can. Min. Inst., July, 1917, p. 615. 

3 Ralston-Williams-Udy-Holt. "Bull.," A. I. M. E.. August, 1917. 
•Larson, "Min. and Sci. Press," 1917, Vol. 115, p. 275. 
5 Eilers. "Trans.," A. I. M. E., 1912, Vol. 44, p. 720. 


Vol. 105, No. 2 

ton... fitter at Depue, ill., reduced th s fi ure to 

sq.ft. The essentia] features are that tin- bags of a 
division are alternately inflated from a pres3ure pipe 
connected with tin- blast-furnace Blue, and collapsed from 
tion pipe, and that while under suction the bags 
shaken mechanically, receiving an up-and-down as 
well as an undulating motion. The combination of suc- 
tion and shaking was found to be especially effective 
in cleaning the cloth and thereby increasing the Alter- 
ing capacity. 

While the solids carried by smelter gases are readily 
ived either by filtering or by electric precipitation, 
the purified gases carry sulphurous and sulphuric acids 
in amounts which are harmful to vegetation. The whole 
subject was carefully studied by the U. S. Bureau of 
and the accepted ideas of the harmful effects ..• 
sulphurous gas will have to he somewhat modified. 
There remains the possible recovery of sulphur, and 
one phase of this question was studied by the Bureau. 
With the advent of the war the cost of labor, fuels and 
materials was greatly increased and with them the cost 
of treatment. H. H. Alexander, manager of the Perth 
Amboy, N. J., plant of the American Smelting and Re- 
fining Co., states that the available labor supply had de- 
. that the cost of it had risen from 20-50' < , 

mean, -Bull..- a. l. M. k.. November, i 

g I IU ..f Minis. Washington, D C, 

— Knp. and Min. .lourn." I'.'IT. Vol !"::. p 

and that at the same time the efficiency had fallen off 
from ^.'i-.'!(>' , . As regards mater als required in the 
smelting and refining, he found the following percent- 
age increases in cost: Firebrick, 50', ; common brick, 
80; magnesite brick, 300; iron. 46; steel, 80; castings, 
16; crucibles, L85; retorts, 2(15; nitric acid, 35; sul- 
phuric acid. 80; and zinc, 170 per cent. 

Refining Practice Unchanged 
There was practically no change in the practice of 
desilverizing lead bullion. The Parkes process prevails 
in all plants except in the works of the United States 
Metals Refining Co. at East Chicago, Ind., which uses 
the Betts process. In Canada this process was also 
used by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co.. in 
its works at Trail, B. C. The works at Omaha, Neb., 
treats but a small amount of lead bullion rich in bis- 
muth by the Betts process, in comparison with the total 
output of the plant. The Balbach Smelting and Refining 
Co. had in full operation its new refinery, and is con- 
templating a considerable increase in capacity. 

Attention may be called to the valuable description 
by W. K. Newnam of the Tredinnick process, a- former- 
ly carried out at Omaha, Neb., for concentrating bis- 
muth in a small amount of lead by fractional crysc dila- 
tion on the Pattinson principle. Of special interest was 
the change that the original process had to undergo to 
be suited to modern conditions. 

Bull." A. I M. E., May. 1917. 

Metallurgy of Copper 


THE extraordinary activity in the copper industry 
and the enormous increase in production which 
began in 1915 continued through 1916 and well 
into the first half of 1917. By this time the concen- 
trating, smelting and refining plants had increased their 
capacity so that the ore from the mine could be treated 
and the product refined without delay. By the middle 
of 1917, however, the difficulty of obtaining supplies, 
high prices, serious strikes which occurred in the West 
and labor troubles in general began to have a restrain- 
ing effect on the industry and production for the last 
six months fell off greatly. 

Only One Important New Plant Completed 

To what degree these circumstances affected construc- 
tion is uncertain, but it is known that a number of 
definite propositions for smelting and refining plants 
were held up on account of the conditions which ob- 
tained. The only plant put in commission in 1917 was 
that of the New Cornelia Copper Co. in the Ajo district, 
Arizona." This is a leaching and electrolytic works. 

At this plant the ore. which contains about 1.5', 
copper, is crushed in a No. 24 Gates gyratory breaker 
and then by stages to i-in. size. It is leached in lead- 
lined concrete tanks 15 ft. deep, which was considered 
the proper leaching column for this ore. There are 
12 of these tanks, each having its own pumping unit, 
which handles the solution containing about 3 r , free 

•Professor of metallurgy. Columbia University. New York 
> Eng. and Mln. Joum.." Vol. 1«3. p. 443. 

sulphuric acid. The solution is enriched by passing it 
from tank to tank according to che order of charging, 
the fresh solution passing through the oldest charge 
first. After it is enriched to the proper degree it is 
run to the electrolytic tank house, where there are 158 
lead-lined tanks, each 30 ft. long, 4 ft. wide, and 5 ft. 
deep. In these tanks electrolytic copper is deposited 
on copper cathodes, insoluble lead Anodes being used. 
The solution from the leaching tanks is fairly pure, 
but nevertheless contains some dissolved iron and 
alumina, so that in order to maintain the proper stand- 
ard some solution must be withdrawn as it passes from 
the electrolytic tanks and discarded. The remainder of 
the solution travels back to the leaching tanks, the 
sulphuric acid having been regenerated in the process 
of electrolysis. The discarded solution is passed over 
scrap iron for the purpose of recovering the remaining 
copper content. 

Utah Copper's Leaching Operations Delayed 

During the last decade many metallurgists gave a 
large amount of their time and paid especial attention 
to the wet treatment of copper ores. Many processes 
have been brought forth and attempts made to treat 
different kinds of oxidized ores. Only a few of these 
operations have been successful but these few demon- 
strate that wet methods can be successfully carried on 
for certain ores, and under favorable conditions better 
recovery can be obtained than by any other method. 
The work performed at the big leaching plant at 

January 12, 1918 


Chuquicamata and in the district are striking ex 
amples * < t" what can be accomplished by the process, 
The Utah Copper Co. is now installing a plant similar 
to the ones operating at Chuquicamata and Ajo, This 
plant is designed to treal the oxidized surface ores of 

Bingham Canyon, and if it proves successful, as indi- 
cated at present, it will undoubtedly be one of the 
biggest leaching operations. The ore is crushed to 

j-in. mesh and then leached in large tanks which have 
a length of 100 it., a width of 50 ft, and a depth of 
18 ft. After leaching, the solution containing copper 
runs through a revolving drum charged with scrap iron 
and in this drum the copper is precipitated. The solu- 
tion and precipitated copper are then conveyed to Don- 
thickeners, where the precipitate is separated. The 
copper precipitate is then shipped to the smeltery for 
treatment. The solution overflowing from the Dorr 
thickeners is passed through a series of launders tilled 
with scrap iron, where the remaining trace of copper 
is recovered. The original plant was designed for 4000 

id" experiments' on heap leaching of sulphide o 
at tl . opp< •, i - mines at Bisbee, Ariz., gave 
excel • M . rid I i expo ted that thfc mi. th id 

will i . o a certain extent In I be i uture I he 

prac im.i.i ,i.ii .it the Rio Tinto mine 

In th( hi contained nearly v>00 tons, 

an i traction ot . • ■ oppei was obtained after work- 
ing toj five >' tth o it is thought it ii .,.. two 
years to g i i iction of 80$ of ht oi igina 

copper. The heap is hooded in th< usual nei and 

the solution passing from the heap is run into tainv 
in which the copper is precipitated on iron. The cost 
Of building the heap is lllr. a \n]). and the average 
cost of leaching ,$10 a day. 

Attempts have been made to sulphatize ores with 
weak sulphurous-acid gases' with the idea of utilizing 
this injurious waste product for the recovery of copper. 
The ore is placed in large tanks and the gas brought 
into direct contact in the presence of vapor. The sul- 
phatization is effected by the combined action on the 


Name ol Company 
Balbach Smelting and Refining < '<> 

Nichols Copper Co 

Raritan Copper Works .... 

Baltimore Copper Smelting and Rolling C 

American Smelting and Refining Co. .... 
United States Metals Ref&rlng Co 

anaconda Copper Mining Co 

Taenma Smelting Co. 

Calumet ,v Heela Mining Co 

(n) Offieial data. 






1916 Capacity, 

1917 Capacity, 

of Plant 

i ed 





Newark, N. J. 






Laurel Hill, N. Y. 




480,000,000 <i) 


Perth Arnhoy, N. .1. 






Canton, Md. 

1 Multiple 

, Series 


I28x2bxi0(, i 

444,000,000 (n) 


( Multipl. 



144, .00,000 (a) 


Maurer, N. J. 




100, 000,000 (,) 


Chrome, N. J. 




230,000,000 (6) 


Great Falls, Mont. 

1 Multiple 
\ Multiple 


1 15x28x45 

o. i. nun nun .. i 






Taeoma, Wash. 


1 460 
1 720 


! 144.000,000(6) 


Hubbell. Mich. 



1 <Hx34x48 

(i5.000.000 (e) 
7.584 000.000 


'. 78". ooo. ooo 

(6) Estimated. 

(c) Six-compartment tanks. 

tons and should have been completed last summer, but 
owing to delays it will not be put in operation until 
1918. An enlargement of this plant is now contem- 
plated; also the substitution of electrolytic precipitation 
for scrap iron. 

Ammonia Leaching in Michigan and Alaska 

The original ammonia-leaching plant of the Calumet 
& Hecla Mining Co.' was so successful that the 2000-ton 
plant is being doubled. It is expected that this addition 
will be completed and put in operation before July, 1918. 
During the first four months of 1917 the total cost 
of ammonia leaching is given as 4.75c. per lb. of cop- 
per and the total cost, including selling and smelting 
expenses, at about 6c. per lb. The extraction varies 
with the fineness of the material treated, being greater 
as the fineness increases. The average extraction was 
78 c c for the four months in question. 

At Kennecott, Alaska, the ammonia-leaching plant 
which commenced operations in 1916 gave such excellent 
results 5 that a new plant is being designed that will 
have a capacity of 800 tons a day. This plant will 
treat the tailings from the concentrating mill, and an 
extraction of 75% is expected. The cost per pound of 
copper depends upon the ammonia loss, but was stated 
to be 17c, which is naturally high on account of the 
local conditions. 

""Eng. and Min. Journ.," Vol. 103, p. 344. 
'"Eng. and Min. Journ.,"' Vol. 104. p. 43. 
'"'Eng. and Min. Journ., Vol. 104, p. 781. 
""Min. and Sci. Press." Vol. 115. p. 749. 

wet ore of the hot sulphurous-acid gas, excess oxygen 
in the smoke, oxygen with sulphites and water vapor. 
It has been discovered that the sulphatizing action is 
satisfactory no matter what the sulphur-dioxide content 
of the gas. In fact, a range from 0.3 to 5.5', has 
been found to give satisfactory results. After treating, 
the ore is leached with water to dissolve out the sul- 
phate of copper and the copper precipitated on scrap 
iron. It has been found that the recovery ranged from 
60 to 90',, but undoubtedly difficulties would be in- 
curred in designing a plant for this work. 

Application of Flotation Process Extended 

Concentration by flotation is becoming of greater 
importance, and 1917 witnessed a large increase in the 
amount of ore treated by this method. Flotation for 
the treatment of low-grade sulphide copper ores is 
now used, either exclusively or in part, at all of our 
large copper concentrating plants, and it is apparently 
only a question of time when it will entirely supersede 
table concentration for fine sizes. In addition, material 
like slime, which it is impossible to treat by table 
concentration, can be successfully treated by flotation. 
A loss of at least 20',, and sometimes over 30', , 
was entailed by the older practice but this has now 
been reduced one-half. It is stated 2 that the amount 
of ore worked by flotation at present is largely in 
excess of the tonnage treated by any other process. 

T "Eng. and Min. Journ.," Vol. 104, p. 119. 
-"Journ. Ind. and Eng. Ctiem.," November, 1917. 



Vol. 105, No. 2 

Investigations of the smoke question were continued 

in H>17 in spite of business conditions. The CoUrell 
prove-- is -till found to give the most satisfactory Je- 
suits where it is desired to collect dust particles or 
sulphur trioxide. Scientific experiments conducted by 
the American Smelting and Refining Co." demonstrated 
that sulphur dioxide of a certain degree of concentra- 
tion is more injurious than either dust particles or 
sulphur trioxide. This is a remarkable finding anil is 
at variance with certain preconceived ideas. The smelt- 
ing company's investigations were carried on in such 
a manner that various crops in different stages were 
fumigated with sulphur-dioxide gases of varying deg 
of concentration. It was found that only gas containing 
more than the certain degree of concentration was 
injurious to vegetation, and if the sulphur dioxide tenor 
of these gases was kept below this point no harm 

As a result of these investigations the smelting com- 
pany has constructed or is constructing four large 
chimneys, the aim being to arrange so that the gases 
will be emitted at as high a temperature as possible 
and at such a height that the maximum amount of 
diffusion will result and the SO, content be reduced 
below the danger limit before the gases come in contact 
with vegetation. At the Murray plant, Utah, a stack 
is being built which is 450 ft. high and 20 ft. in 
diameter. At the East Helena plant, in Montana, a 
stack was recently finished which is 400 ft. high and 
16 ft. in diameter. At the El Paso plant, in Texas, 
a stack 400 ft high and 30 ft. internal diameter was 
completed, and at Tacoma, Wash., a stack 571 ft.' high 
and 25 ft. in diameter will be finished in January, 1918. 
This stack will be the highest in this country. 

The only advance in copper-converting operations 
in 1917 was in the size of the vessels used. The 

it and Chera. Eng," Vol. 17, p. 682. 

large vertical converters which have been tried out 
at I neat Falls and Anaconda have given such excel- 
lent results that they have superseded the smaller 
converters of this type at these-plants. At the Garfield 
plant, larger Peirce-Smith converters were installed, 
having diameters of 13 ft., which compares with the 
original diameter of 10 ft., and with about the same 
length as the original converters. It is stated that as 
a result of this increase in diameter the repair of 
linings has been reduced to about one-quarter of that 
observed in the smaller-sized vessels. Undoubtedly the 
reason for this is due in a large measure to the height 
of the upper surface of the brick lining above the 
charge, thereby avoiding to a great extent the corrosive 
action of the metal when blowing. 

Electrolytic Refining 

The capacity of the electrolytic copper refineries has 
been enormously increased during the last two years, 
as shown in a table elsewhere in this issue, in order to 
take care of the output of the mines, which in the 
early part of 1916 was largely in excess of the capacity 
of the refineries. The only new plants built in recent 
years, however, are the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co.'s 
plant at Hubbell and the Anaconda Copper Mining Co.'s 
plant at Great Falls. Both of these plants were started 
prior to the beginning of 1917. The principal increase 
in capacity is due to addition to existing plants. 

At present the Nichols Copper Co. is the only one 
using the series system alone. The Baltimore Copper 
Smelting and Rolling Co. in its new addition uses the 
multiple system. The other large refineries, when in- 
creasing, simply added more tanks having the same size 
as those already installed. At the end of 1917 the 
maximum capacity of the electrolytic copper refineries 
in the United States was 2,788,000,000 lb., as shown 
by the accompanying table which also gives the capacity 
of these works at the end of the preceding year. 

Metallurgy of Zinc 


ASK any individual zinc smelter what important 
new thing was started in his art in 1917, and 
he will probably answer "Nothing at all." Yet 
when we survey the whole field we see many new 
things, and concede that some of these may represent 
beginnings of important new steps in the art. The 
conditions of 1917 were stimulating to imagination 
and experimentation, to which there is never such 
an incentive as hard times, and strange as it may 
appear with spelter selling at 7§@9c. per lb., the zinc 
smelter has experienced hard times. As a whole, the 
industry is confronted with the conditions of an enor- 
mous surplus of plant, which was provided to meet 
the shortage of capacity in 1915 and 1916, when 
the demand of practically the entire world was thrown 
upon the United States. The surplus plant must now, 
to a large extent, be abandoned and written off unless 
some new use can be found for it. The great pos- 
sibilities are manifestly to extend the use of zinc as 
a metal, especially in the form of sheet zinc, which 
may be substituted for other things ; to a minor extent 

as zinc dust, which has some peculiar advantages, 
and, finally, the use of zinc as oxide, for pigment 
manufacture and other purposes. The following review 
will indicate how the thoughts of managers and metal- 
lurgists are being projected along these lines. 

One of the most revolutionary ideas in the metal- 
lurgy of zinc is soon to be tested at Bartlesville, 
Okla., where work along this line has been going 
on for several years. The idea is to distill large ton- 
nages of roasted ore in retorts, using only relatively 
small quantities of reducing fuel and employing rela- 
tively unskilled labor. The metallurgist will be content 
with a low extraction of zinc, say 60%, but will be 
careful not to burn any zinc during this operation. The 
retort residues, high in both lead and zinc, will be 
burned in Wetherill grate furnaces, and there will thus 
be obtained a zinc extraction relatively high, by rougher 
and less expensive methods than the present. 

Another important step that is impending, I feel 
sure, is such improved preparation of the charge that it 
will be possible to introduce a great deal more ore into 

January L2, 1918 



the retort and reduce tin- groat surplus of reduction 
material that is now employed. The possibilities of 
economy in this direction are immense. Methods of 
doing it have already been indicated. 

Zinc Oxide — Several of the large zinc smelters have 
now provided themselves with oxide plants, the original 
purpose of which was to increase the extraction of the 
ore treated in the distilleries by a supplemental burn- 
ing out of the zinc remaining in the retort residues. 
In a general way, residues assaying about (5 to 7\ 
zinc can be made to yield about 60 to 65 % thereof 
without the addition of any more fuel than the un- 
burned surplus contained in the residue itself. The 
labor cost is relatively low, but the plant cost is con- 

Metallurgical^, the use of the Western Wetherill 
furnace is universal for this purpose, this furnace being 
recognized as the best all-around type. In the main, 
the aim is simply to make an impure oxide, which is 
returned to the distillery. This evades the care that 
is necessary to make oxide of the requisite whiteness 
and physical properties for use as pigment. However, 
some smelters have equipped themselves for pigment 
manufacture and have competitively entered the pig- 
ment market. 

Baghouses — In zinc-oxide manufacture, the necessary 
element following the furnace is the baghouse for filtra- 
tion of the fume. The baghouses follow the conven- 
tional lines that were first introduced many years ago. 
However, it is common now to provide for mechanical 
shaking of the bags and removal of the filtered gas 
by mechanical exhaustion. It has been found that the 
cleaner the bags are kept and the better is managed 
the current of gas, the more efficient is the filtering 
surface. Of course, these ideas simply conform to com- 
mon knowledge and experience in the filtering of liquids 
and gases of any kind. It was sought by Simon, 
Buehler & Baumann to combine all the good features 
of the baghouse in a relatively small, compact, self- 
contained apparatus. This apparatus was introduced at 
the works of the Bartlesville Zinc Co., at Bartlesville, 
Okla., and has been in use there for several years. 
The experience with it, however, was finally decided to 
be unsatisfactory, and although the machines are still 
in use, a new baghouse of the usual type was erected 
in 1917 to help them out, and the use of the machines 
will probably be discontinued in the near future. They 
have been found to be mechanically weak and incor- 
rectly designed for the handling of large volumes of gas. 

Roasti?ig Furnaces — The literature has been enriched 
by two very practical articles on blende roasting fur- 
naces, one by Mr. de Lummen, the other by Mr. Chase. 
Zinc smelters have been for a long time in search of 
a thoroughly good muffled blende-roasting furnace. In 
default of anything better, the Hegeler furnace has 
commonly been used heretofore, but it is costly, clumsy, 
and only semi-mechanical. It is now felt that besides 
the Hegeler we may safely rely upon the Spirlet, the 
Merton and the Ridge, with a strong probability that 
the Wedge, with the modification that the designers 
have made in it to suit this special purpose, will also 
be found a successful furnace. Wedge furnaces are 
already used extensively for roasting preliminary to 
electrolytic zinc extraction, but that does not require 
the dead-roast that is necessary as a preliminary to 

distillation. Some Wedge furnaces have been bu it 

for the latter purpose, but they have not yet I << « u 
thoroughly tried .nit. 

The Spirlet furnace is used in this country by the 
Grasselli Chemical Co., by the American Zinc, Lead and 

Smelting Co. (Hillsboro plant), and by the National 
/.me Co. Some mechanical troubles have been exi" ri 
enced, which may be attributed to faulty construct ion 
rather than to wrong principles of design. Under the 
competent direction of Mr. Rissmann, of the National 
Zinc Co., Mr. Harlow, superintendent of his Argentine 
plant, has ingeniously solved the mechanical troubles, 
and has, in fact, developed a new furnace, which is 
called the American Spirlet. Space does not permit 
a detailed description of this at present, but the readers 
of the Journal will have it later. 

Among the older furnaces changes have been made 
in the construction of the Hegeler by the American 
Zinc, Lead and Smelting Co., which has added an extra 
hearth at the bottom. This hearth is direct-fired, the 
combustion gases going directly into the fire flues, and 
thus not mixing with the sulphur-dioxide gases from 
the upper hearths. The open roasting affords an oppor- 
tunity of finishing the desulphurization in a more 
satisfactory manner than by the old method. 

The old, wasteful Zellweger furnace is passing out of 
use. During 1917 three furnaces of this type of the 
Bartlesville Zinc Co. were changed into an adaptation 
of the Ropp furnace. The results have been gratifying, 
inasmuch as gas consumption has been reduced to less 
than one-half the former figure, and the roasting capac- 
ity has been slightly increased. 

The introduction of the Ridge roaster has not yet 
been reported in this country, but in Great Britain its 
adoption is going on rapidly. Mr. Ridge wrote me last 
summer that there would soon be eight furnaces in 
operation at four different works. Dillwyn & Co., Ltd.. 
have been roasting 14 to 15 long tons of Broken Hill 
flotation concentrate per furnace with a fuel consump- 
tion of 7J%, desulphurizing the ore to 1.4 to 1.6%, 
one man per shift looking after each furnace, including 
the fire. Vivian & Sons, Ltd., have been roasting 
various zinc ores at the rate of 12 to 13 tons per day 
with a fuel consumption of 7i%. The United Alkali 
Co. roasts Broken Hill concentrate at the rate of 14 
long tons per 24 hours with a fuel consumption of about 
9%, producing a gas containing about 61% sulphur 
dioxide. Each furnace takes about nine horsepower. 

Mr. Ridge published a valuable paper on the subject 
of blende roasting in the Journal of the Society of 
Chemical Industry last summer. Mr. de Lummen took 
exception to certain of the statements therein, and it 
is worth while to record his corrections, in view of 
his interesting references to the Delplace, Rhenania 
and Spirlet furnaces: 

"With regard to the Delplace furnace, it is said that 
'only 16% of coal is required for heating.' This fuel 
consumption does not agree with that of the Belgian 
and German works, which never reaches such a level, 
and generally varies between 11 and 13%. I cannot 
agree to the assertion that the men prefer to work on 
Rhenania furnaces rather than on Delplace furnaces. 
Working on a Rhenania furnace requires much more 
strength than working on a Delplace, where the charges 
are small (between 170 and 275 lb.). Further, the 



Vol. 105, No. 2 

rit of the working uh>1s o( a Rhenania furnace is 
not to be compared with those of a Delplace Furnace, 
which arv much lighter. 
"With regard to Spiriet furnaces, the capacity with 

:sh. Algerian, or Silesian blende on the Continent 
is t> tons per 24 hours. The coal consumption ranges 
from 7 to 8 With Australian concentrates it varies 

fron 5 tons. I have seen several furnaces work- 

ing nearly a year without being stopped. More than 
-pirlet furnaces have been erected in Continental 

Distillation Furnaces — I do not know of anything 
very important with respect to the design of distilla- 
tion furnaces. In the United States, 1917 was not a 
year of new furnace construction, being:, on the con- 
trary, one of putting surplus furnaces out of commis- 
sion. The English Crown Spelter Co., of Swansea, 
Introduced a new furnace designed by Mr. Ruck, 
general manager of the company. This furnace, which 
is of the reversing regenerative type, is interesting as 
being a combination of the Rhenish and the Belgian in 
its superstructure. It has the three rows of retorts of 
the Rhenish furnace, but the arrangement of the 
facades follows the Belgian. In other words, this fur- 
nace is similar to those at Peru, 111., except that it 
has three rows of large retorts. 

Mr. Ruck tells me that after many years of con- 
sideration, he came to the conclusion that there is an 
economic limit to the size of the distilling furnace. 
vThis is a subject deserving far more extended dis- 
cussion than is possible here). At the English Crown 
Spelter Works the distilling furnaces, which compare 
favorably with the best of the Swansea district, have 
154 retorts each, requiring a crew of nine men, the 
furnace men making their own gas. Mr. Ruck's new- 
furnace has 204 retorts, and, by adopting labor-saving 
devices, is attended by a crew of eight men. plus 
three making gas for two furnaces ; that is, an average 
of 9d men per furnace. The men get better wages and 
make a considerable saving in fuel, the consumption of 
the latter being about 107% of the weight of the ore 

At Vada Ligure, in Italy, the Societa di Monteponi 
put one furnace in operation, this being a novelty in 
practice in that it is fired with the waste gas from a 
neighboring coking plant. The supply of gas was in- 
sufficient, however, for the other two furnaces that are 
contemplated. Extensive experiments in electrothermic 
smelting are to be undertaken at this plant. Italy is 
short of coal, wherefore the development of a zinc in- 
dustry within that kingdom apparently lies in the 
direction of electrothermic smelting or of electrolytic 
extraction, hydro-electric power being available. 

The zinc smeltery at Ekibastus, in Siberia, was put 
in operation, and metallurgical results are reported to 
have been satisfactory, but owing to other troubles the 
production in 1917 did not amount to much. 

Some interest has been exhibited in endurance records 
of distillation furnaces. In the Journal of Mar. 31, 
1917, it was reported that on Mar. 12 block "C," com- 
prising 600 retorts at the Cherryvale works of the Edgar 
Zinc Co., had completed a campaign of 10 years, during 
which time it had produced 29,136 tons of spelter. 
During the 10 years smelting was interrupted for 15 
days owing to labor troubles and for 15 days owing 

to breakage of gas mains, but during those times the 
furnace was on dead-fire. The end of the 10-year period 
did not terminate the compaign of this furnace. 

The record of this Cherryvale furnace is surpassed 
l>y that of several furnaces in the Clarksburg works 
of the Grasselli Chemical Co. In May and June, 1904, 
the first three furnaces of this plant were fired. In 
1905 three additional furnaces were started and the 
remainder in 1907. None of these furnaces has missed 
a single fire or has had to have any repairs worth 
mentioning. They are reported as doing at present as 
good work as they have ever done, and Mr. Ziesing 
considers that their campaign will continue for many 
years yet. 

Zinc Dust — One of the projects for increasing the use 
of zinc is to produce a superior kind of zinc dust, which 
will not only replace the furnace blue powder, but also 
will find new uses. The new kind of dust is produced 
by atomizing zinc by means of compressed air. This 
is already being done by the Anaconda Copper Mining 
Co., by the Grasselli Chemical Co., by the New Jersey 
Zinc Co., and by the Metals Disintegrating Co., of 
Boston. The National Zinc Co., of Bartlesville, Okla., 
has begun experimenting on the same lines. 

The greatest difficulty in atomizing zinc is to produce 
a product that is as fine as furnace blue powder, but 
that difficulty has been mastered. Atomized zinc dust, 
when of proper fineness, is greatly superior to furnace 
blue powder. The atomized dust runs in the coarser 
sizes from 98 to 99% metallic zinc, and in the finest 
dust, all of which passes through a 350-mesh sieve, 
there is 97 to 98 % metallic zinc. Furnace blue powder 
made in the United States hardly ever contains more 
than 86% metallic zinc, though it is reported that some 
is now made running as high as 90% metallic. Furnace 
blue powder is naturally of greater fineness than the 
majority of the atomized product now on the market, 
but it is possible to prepare the latter as a very fine 
and very beautiful product. 

Electrolytic Zinc Extraction. — During 1917 several of 
the new plants went into operation, but none attained 
large production. On Dec. 25 the plant at Risdon, Tas- 
mania, was put in motion. The Mount Lyell company 
will also probably build in that island. 

Early in 1917 the Judge Mining and Smelting Co., of 
Park City, Utah, put its electrolytic zinc plant in oper- 
ation, producing about three tons of zinc per 24 hours, 
which was gradually to be increased to 12-15 tons. This 
plant, which was designed and built by C. A. Hansen, is 
especially interesting from the fact that it is the first 
zinc plant to be equipped with rotating, circular cath- 
odes. That is to say, it is the first modern plant 
using zinc-sulphate electrolyte. Dr. Hoepfner employed 
such cathodes in the old plants at Fuhrfort, in Germany, 
and at Winnington, in England, but at those plants the 
electrolyte was zinc chloride. Rotating cathodes offer 
some distinct theoretical advantages, against which 
there are some disadvantages (among which is con- 
siderably higher first cost). However, the experience 
at Park City soon demonstrated that the disadvantages 
outweighed the advantages, and stationary cathodes 
were substituted. 

Otherwise there were no great novelties in the elec- 
trolytic process. At Anaconda it is considered to have 
passed out of the "high brow" stage and to have be- 

January L2, 1918 



come a matter of everyday working, Many of the 
initial difficulties have disappeared, As Mr. Laist says, 
"they seemed to be like evil spirits, which ran away 
when they found they could not battle us." 

Refining by Redistillation As in L916, a great deal 

of common spelter was refined by redistillation 
up to grades — tt.10', l'b, —0.15', Pb, etc. In the 
West this is done by redistilling in furnaces thai are 
adaptations from the ordinary ore furnace, the retorts 

being inclined upward instead of downward. The 
spelter is either charged in sticks or as molten metal 
(de Saulles furnace). In the Bast furnaces with large, 

bottle-shaped retorts, similar to those of the Faber du 

Paur furnace, are employed. In Sweden the redi tilla 
tiou is done in electric furnaces. Mr. Zicsinr. "1 the 
GraBSelli Company, has designed an electric furnace 
for this purpose, but it has not been tried in practici 

The lack of interest in electric furnaces in this countrj 
is ascribable i<i the relatively high cost of power :, 
compared with conditions iii Scandinavia. 

Sheet-Zinc Rolling The New Jersey Zinc Co. buill 
a rolling mill at Palmerton. We may expect •■ great 
increase of interest in the subject of sheet-zinc rolling 
in the United States during the next few years. 

Progress of Flotation in 1917 


THE progress recorded by the flotation process in 
1917 was considerable, but most of it failed to 
come before the public eye. The process was the 
subject of a great deal of discussion, however, because 
of the prominence imparted to it by extensive litigation. 
The appearance before the U. S. Supreme Court late in 
1916 of the case of Minerals Separation against James 
M. Hyde apparently served as a starting point for a new 
series of controversial arguments. In 1917 the cases of 
Minerals Separation vs. Miami Copper Co., decision 
upon which was filed May 24, and the case of Minerals 
Separation vs. Butte & Superior Co., later in the year, 
provided further incentives for discussion. In all of 
these decisions there has been room left for discussion 
of their real intent, since the language used was not 
sufficiently clear to provide an unalterable conclusion. 
Under such circumstances the operator must simply wait 
for the time when he can be advised without fear of con- 

The Progress of Flotation Litigation 

(The situation, so far as the legal status of the process 
is concerned, is badly clouded, and it would require the 
careful study of an expert to arrive at a conclusion that 
might form a basis upon which practical operations 
could be conducted. The claims made by Minerals Sepa- 
ration, the owners of certain patents that they insist 
are basic, and those of other inventors and operators, 
are so broad and overlapping that they do not agree at 
any point, and no one could safely make use of the pro- 
cess in any way without danger of becoming involved 
in litigation. In this regard, the paper by R. C. Canby, 
in the Engineering and Mining Journal of Dec. 1, 1917, 
performs a most useful service by reviewing the field of 
patent litigation and pointing out just where the differ- 
ent processes and claims may be substantiated. 

Much of the agitation about the legal phase of flota- 
tion centered about the use of oil, the quantity or pro- 
portion to be employed, and the method and degree of 
agitation. The decision of the U. S. Supreme Court in 
December, 1916, apparently limiting the claims of Min- 
erals Separation to the use of 1% of oil or a smaller 
amount upon the dry weight of the ore treated was the 
signal for many operators to modify their operations to 
the extent of using larger quantities of oil. Whereupon, 
Minerals Separation, in order to avoid this limitation, 
secured a revision of one of its claims in the patent 
in question, amending it to read in such a manner that 

the Minerals Separation company apparently made no 
claim to the use of more than I', of oil "except where 
the results obtained were the same as the results ob- 
tained with less than \' , of oil." By this skillful word- 
ing the whole subject was reopened. Minerals Separa- 
tion, particularly in the suit against Butte & Superior, 
pointed out that, although quantities of oil much larger 
than l°/ ( were used, the results were still the same as 
where less than 1% was employed, and that the actual 
flotation results obtained were through the small quan- 
tity of appropriate oil applied in the process, and not 
through the use of the much larger quantity of what 
they claim to be an inappropriate oil. They pointed out 
that the larger quantity of oil was of a kind not suit- 
able for flotation and was merely introduced to avoid 
patent infringements, being in effect a subterfuge. 

Clarification of Court Decisions 

It is not the province of this article to go deeply into 
the subject of litigation. It has been discussed at length 
in the columns of the Engineering and Mining Journal 
and other technical periodicals, particularly in the 
article by Mr. Canby, already mentioned, which serves 
to illuminate the situation as it was on Dec. 1, 1917. 
Technically, it may be pointed out that a great number 
of plants operated with the employment of large quanti- 
ties of oil — that is, quantities amounting to more than 
1% — upon the dry weight of the ore treated, while a 
considerable number of experiments were made and 
some practical progress was obtained toward flotation 
without any oil whatever. This, of course, does not 
refer to the oilless surface-film processes, which are 
clearly outside Minerals Separation claims, and which 
may be and are utilized generally in the United States 
and other countries. It does apply, however, to pro- 
cesses that give the same effect as the oil-using methods. 
Of course, the use of reagents other than oil to produce 
a condition of froth such as will support commercial con- 
centration by flotation will probably become the source 
of further litigation should it become practicable, since 
Minerals Separation is the owner of a patent that is 
said to cover the use of all soluble frothing agents. This 
seems to be a remarkably broad patent and to cover 
methods that might be invented or discovered in the 
future as well as those known at the time the patent was 
issued. Naturally, there will be differences of opinion 
on the subject, and litigation to settle the point. On the 


Vol. 105, No. 2 

face of the matter it would appear thai the tonus of this 

at may be so interpreted as t<> cover almost any- 
thing, since if a substance is not soluble, it is difficult 

to Bee how it would influence troth formation. 
Tho question o( the kind of oil to be used in dotation 
•he subject of further study, and. while little public 
notice was taken of the matter, it is believed that a 
number of practically new products were adapted during 
the year. As it stands now, it seems possible that al- 
most any oil may be used in flotation, but what the 
qualities of an oil are that make it desirable for the pur- 
ear. To this latter point one or two research 
laboratories directed particular energy, in the endeavor 
to find a basis by which oils may be judged without go- 
ing through actual tests on the ore itself. The object 
was to define the quality or qualities that make an oil 
appropriate for use in ore flotation. The prospect is 
bright for the discovery of some such basis in the not 
distant future. 

Royalties and Their Payment 

One of the principal points that attracted the atten- 
tion of the outsider in flotation litigation was the stren- 
uous effort made by operating companies to avoid roy- 
alty payments to Minerals Separation, the principal pat- 
ent owner. Indeed, it was publicly urged that operators 
purposing to take advantage of a process of this kind 
ought to be willing to pay a reasonable royalty to the 
inventor of a new and useful method. The opponents 
of Minerals Separation, however, maintained that they 
would be perfectly willing to pay a reasonable royalty but 
were not willing to comply with the terms specified by 
Minerals Separation. It was pointed out that Minerals 
Separation claims impose a severe tax upon the mineral 
industry, and that, in addition to the actual money pay- 
ments, the corporation insists upon becoming the owner 
of any process or improvement along flotation lines that 
may be discovered by its licensees. If the last and ad- 
ditional requirement could be enforced the effect would 
probably be to deaden the ambition of operators, since 
it would leave no incentive for the development of new 
ideas, and apparently it would be much better, even for 
Minerals Separation itself, to open the way for free im- 
provement of the process along every possible line. Min- 
erals Separation might well stand upon its original 
rights, drawing an income from royalties and at the 
same time not hampering general development of the 

It was further contended by opponents of Minerals 
Separation that the basis upon which royalties are 
charged is not logical. The company seeks to impose a 
royalty upon the total tonnage of ore treated by a given 
plant: whereas, the operators contend that this charge 
should be assessed upon the tonnage of ore actually 
treated by flotation. The basis of the claims of the op- 
ponents is evident without discussion, but Minerals 
Separation's ground for argument is not clear without 
further explanation. It is that if the charge is made 
upon the tonnage actually treated by flotation, the oper- 
ators using it will endeavor to limit its application to as 
small a tonnage as possible, thereby not only depriving 
Minerals Separation of the royalty that might rightfully 
be theirs, but, in addition, operating actually to the 
detriment of the process itself, since its efficiency might 
be impaired by the efforts of operators to economize. 

The value of this argument may be weighed by each 
operator in the light of its application to his own prob- . 
[em and the conclusions reached will doubtless be ex- 
pressed from time to time. 

Effect of Variations of Quantity of Oil 

Technical applications of flotation in 1917 were de- 
veloped to a considerable extent, but a great amount of 
data was not made public. Some descriptions of new ap- 
plications were published, however, and it is best in a 
review of the subject to confine one's self to the points 
to which public attention was directed. It is unwise 
to mention those plants at which developments have 
been kept more or less secret, although some reference 
to the work in general terms may be made without par- 
ticular reference to the plants themselves. 

Although the use of more than 1% of oil in securing 
flotation of minerals was more or less widely considered 
as a subterfuge to avoid patents, there were some in- 
stances in which the increased amount of oil was of con- 
siderable benefit. In cases where extremely muddy 
water had to be contended with, that being the only 
supply available for flotation, the increased amount of 
oil delivered better concentrates, cleaner and more of 
them, than when the smaller quantity of oil, as specified 
by the patent, was used. In other cases the larger 
quantity of oil produced concentrates that contained a 
much greater percentage of the mineral content of the 
ore, although they were low grade. This simply meant 
that the material had to be put through a second opera- 
tion, that of cleaning, resulting finally in a product that 
was satisfactory in grade, and at the same time de- 
livered a high percentage of the mineral content of the 
original ore. 

The subject of oil received considerable consideration, 
as has already been said, but it is probable that few if 
any new oils were brought into practical use during the 
year, as in 1915 and 1916 experimenters tried practi- 
cally all available oils to determine their use in flotation. 
It is possible that some of the shale oils and bitumen 
products were experimented with during the year. 

Flotation in the Joplin District 

Among the advances recorded in 1917 may be men- 
tioned the plants of the Southwestern Missouri lead and 
zinc fields. C. A. Wright described 1 , the ore-dressing 
practice in the Joplin district, pointing out that flota- 
tion tests of the ores show that they are amenable to 
flotation and that the sulphide floated rather easily. He 
further said that, "although for the present flotation 
may not prove as important in the mills of the Joplin 
district as in many of the larger copper and zinc mills 
of the West, it is believed that before long many of the 
mills of the district will have small flotation units for 
saving a large proportion of the values in the fines now 
going to waste. Several mills are already using flota- 
tion successfully; with others it is still in the experi- 
mental stage." 

In the Joplin district many tests showed that a fairly 
good grade of concentrates could be obtained by the use 
of rougher and cleaner cells. Oils having a coal-tar base 
gave high recovery but low-grade concentrates, while 
other oils gave better grade of concentrates but not such 

^ull. A. I. M. E., No. 130. October. HUT, p. 1565. 

January 12, 1918 



good extractions. The best ultimate results were ob- 
tained by the combined use of wood creosote and pine 
oil. These with petroleum products form a mixture that 
is satisfactory, a typical combination being 80% coal 
tar ami 20' pine oil or creosote. 

Turpentine and Rosin as Frothing Agents 

Several tests were made with a mixture of turpentine 
ami rosin. The rosin was dissolved in the turpentine 
in such proportions that the three different mixtures 
used contained 10, 20 and 30% of rosin, respectively, 
the remainder being turpentine. The experiments made 
were mostly roughing tests to find out what the mix- 
ture would do with respect to grade of concentrates and 
percentage of recovery. The 20 and 30% mixtures gave 
the best results in both respects. By using from 1 to 
5 lb. of mixture per ton of ore treated in an acid 
pulp of about 5: 1 thickness, that is, water to solids, the 
rough concentrates varied from 37 to 66 % zinc, and the 
zinc recoveries from 50 to 80%. In most cases the 
higher the grade of concentrates obtained, the lower 
the recoveries. The relatively low recoveries, how- 
ever, may be considered good in view of the fact that 
the zinc content of the heads was low, being 1.05 to 
2.18%. It was believed that higher recoveries might 
easily have been obtained had there been richer feeds 

The work done in the experimental way was checked 
by sending samples to Salt Lake City, where the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines, in cooperation with the University of 
Utah, is doing flotation experimental work. The results 
of the tests performed by Messrs. Ralston and Allen 
demonstrated that it is fairly easy to float the sphalerite 
from the gangue by using warm solution and about 1 lb. 
per ton of any suitable oil, either from wood or coal 
distillation, and that acidity, although it does not seem 
to be necessary, allows the froth and fluid to separate 
more quickly. Cold solutions give a higher recovery 
than warm ones, but the grade of product is not so good. 

The Practice in Southeast Missouri 

Describing concentration practice in Southeast Mis- 
souri, A. P. Watt, said 1 that the introduction of flota- 
tion in the district had not greatly altered the metal- 
lurgy of the ores. Flotation is not replacing gravity 
concentration except in the very fine sizes, and econom- 
ically never can replace it. Fortunately, the physical 
nature of the ore of the district is such that an econom- 
ical product can be made on the jigs and tables, and this 
fact precludes the possibility of flotation ever encroach- 
ing into the field of gravity concentration. The logical 
use of flotation in the district is in the treatment of ga- 
lena particles finer than 200 mesh, as efficient work can 
be done with tables on sizes coarser than this. The field 
for flotation thus appears as sharply defined, being 
limited to the treatment of slimes products only, no at- 
tempt being made to displace gravity concentration by 
flotation on sizes coarser than 200 mesh. 

In the Southeast Missouri district the usual feed for 
flotation is the overflow of the desliming cones, classi- 
fiers, jigs, drags, and other like sources. Primary and 
secondary slimes are mixed. The overflows may be 
partly tabled or may all go direct to the flotation plant 

*Bull., A. I. M. E., October, 1917, p. 1525. 

without gravitj concentration. The mill slimes, contain- 
ing 3 to 10', solids, are settled, usually in Dorr tanks, 

the settling area allowed per ton of dry slimes varying 
from 11 to 16 sq.ft. An average figure for the district 

would be about IS sq.ft. per ton of dry slimes. This 
figure applies when the discharge contains -'<>', solids. 
The lead present in the discharge of the Dorr thick- 
eners is practically all liner than JO0 mesh, which is the 
desirable product for flotation 

Adding the Frothing Agents 

The frothing agent is added at the flotation machine. 
The common agent is creosote, which gives excellent re- 
sults, is active and yields clean concentrates. Some 
plants add the entire quantity of creosote at the first 
flotation compartment, and even though the tailings 
from the primary machine may be retreated, no further 
addition of creosote is made, entire dependence being 
placed upon the initial quantity added. The more com- 
mon practice with the agitation type of machine is to 
add the frothing agent at several points. At one plant 
operating a 24-compartment agitation machine, of the 
total creosote used 75% is added at the first compart- 
ment, 13% at the ninth compartment, 8% at the 16th 
compartment, and 4% at the 21st compartment. 

The types of machines used are Federal, Janney, the 
drum and the pneumatic. The pneumatic-type machine 
is never used as a primary treater, being limited to re- 
treatment. The Federal machine is similar to the stand- 
ard agitation type, consisting of an agitation compart- 
ment and a spitzkasten. It was developed by the Fed- 
eral Lead Co. These machines are usually preceded by 
two preliminary agitation cells without frothing com- 
partments, these two being necessary in order to incor- 
porate thoroughly the frothing agent into the pulp. The 
Janney machine is fairly well known and needs no fur- 
ther description, while the Kohlherg & Kraut is of the 
drum type. 

The flotation practice at all the plants is similar, dif- 
fering only in detail. The tailings from primary treat- 
ment are retreated, either with air machines or drum- 
type machines; the latter make finished tailings, and 
concentrates that may be finished or may require re- 
treatment. The drum-type machines recover much of 
the pyrite that escapes the primary machines. The con- 
centrates from the drum tailings machine are finished 
product, requiring no further treatment. 

Flotation as an Auxiliary Process with Arizona 
Copper Ores 

"Concentration at Humboldt, Ariz.," describing the 
work of the Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co., by 
George M. Colvocoresses, in the Engineering and Min- 
ing Journal, of July 14, 1917, included details of flota- 
tion as applied to those ores. It pointed out that the ad- 
vent of flotation worked a considerable change in smelt- 
ing conditions and practice, not only making possible the 
profitable treatment of many ores that could not be suc- 
cessfully handled by gravity, but as an adjunct to grav- 
ity concentration greatly improving the recovery of 
metals and the grade of concentrates produced. 

The commercial minerals in the Consolidated Arizona 
ores float satisfactorily, and when clean sulphide is sent 
to the mills an excellent recovery is obtained, some- 
times running as high as 95 or 96%, including the 


Vol.' 105, No. 2 

en made by the roughing tables. Various mix- 
tures of oil have been tried there, the average mixture 
consisting of 67.7' of the Standard Oil Co.'s stove oil ; 
la Tar and Turpentine Co. s No. -W. 
~ IU , , . other oil. On the average about 1.381 lb. 

of ,.,l per ton of ore was employed, its cost represent- 
ing iust about Sc per ton of ore. A newer mixture in 
use consisted of 70.4' of Standard Oil Co.'s stove oil; 
cola Tar and Turpentine Co.s No. 200, 
and ; ; ■ Standard Oil Co.'s Calol fuel oil. rhe 
amount used per ton was 1.31 lb., and its cost about 
per ton. The figures given for the cost per ton ol 
the concentration at this mill are interesting, and are as 
follows: Crushing. $0*91; grinding, $0,671; tabling, 
Dotation, $0,250 per ton. 
MiKK.x Process Uses Flotation principle 
\t Darwin Calif., concentration of lead-carbonate ores 
was accomplished by the Murex process, described by H. 
S Rexworthy. As is well known, this process consists 
mixing a magnetic mineral with oil so as to form a 
paint, and agitating this with the ore to be treated, 
whereby the magnetic paint adheres, by virtue ol the 
oil to the valuable mineral. The latter is then separated 

by a magnetic separator from the bulk of the ore. This 
process is carried out successfully at Darwin, one of the 
important considerations being the cost of the treat- 
ment. Here the figure is $1.7805 per ton. It is pointed 
out that the Murex process tequires that the ore be 
ground only fine enough to liberate the valuable mineral, 
and that sands end slimes may be treated together in 
one operation, so that no classification is necessary. 

Flotation is described in the practice at the Burro 
Mountain concentrator, by F. C. Hlickensderfer, in the 
Engineering and Minimi Journal of July 14, 1917. The 
fine sands are floated, using Rork drum-type machines. 

In general it may be said that flotation is steadily in- 
n-rasing its hold upon the mining industry and widen- 
ing its field of activity. There have been, however, some 
instances where flotation, once tried, has not proved sat- 
isfactory and had to be eliminated from the flow sheet. 
This, of course, is nothing against the process, but sim- 
ply shows that it is not a cure-all, which the wise oper- 
ator already knew. The proper thing to do is to limit its 
activities, to find out just exactly what kind of ores can 
be successfully treated by it, and not to attempt to ex- 
tend its application into fields in which it is not of prac- 
ticable utility. 

Metallurgy of Gold and Silver 


THF story of gold and silver during 1917 presents 
no record of noteworthy metallurgical advances. 
Most of the attention of the operators was devoted 
to the production of metal on the greatest possible scale, 
and metallurgical experiments received small considera- 
tion It is true, undoubtedly, that processes were im- 
proved, but more was done in the way of development, 
along standard lines, of the usual processes, and little 
or nothing toward the origination of entirely new meth- 
ods was accomplished. 

No Mktallurgical Developments for Gold 
In the metallurgy of gold there is practically nothing 
to record. Gold was produced during the year at about 
the usual rate and there were few, if any, new proper- 
ties opened. The general rise in cost of material and 
supplies used in mining and metallurgy was rapid dur- 
ing the course of the war and, in 1917, due to the entry 
of the United States into it, the rise was more pro- 
nounced. Since there was, of course, no change in the 
nominal selling price of gold, the advance in general 
• was practically equivalent to a decrease in the 
lie of the metal. Consequently, its recovery was con- 
siderable- less profitable than in former years. Never- 
theless, the metal was produced at about the usual rate. 
The great gold mines of the world did not, with slight 
exception, slacken their activities where political condi- 
tions allowed operations to be carried on. The excep- 
tion of course, refers principally to Mexico, where the 
El Oro camp was not able to produce at its normal 
capacity. The gold production of Mexico, in general, 
was less than normal. The metallurgy did not change 
at all. Practically all of the metal was recovered by 
fine grinding and cyanidation, as for the last 10 or 15 

years. In the Porcupine gold district in Ontario there 
was a slackening of production in the latter part of 
1917 and one important mine ceased milling on account 
of increased cost, uncompensated for by increased price 
of the product. 

Gold Metallurgy in Mexico 
The Mexican metallurgy, as it has been standardized 
consists of breaking the ore primarily in breakers 
crushing it in stamps, and regrinding it in tube mills 
The grinding process is sometimes divided into twi 
parts, producing sands and slimes, or, in many case? 
producing slimes only, a minus 200-mesh material beim 
produced for the all-agitation treatment. 

Concentration finds little part in Mexican gold meta! 
lurgy, the ground ore being almost exclusively treate 
by the cyanide process. Agitation is carried on in tank 
of various types. Sometimes the Pachuca tank is use< 
but it is noteworthy that few are being built nowaday: 
The ordinary flat-bottomed, round tank is still employe 
to a great extent, simply because installations were o 
hand and it has not seemed commercially advisable t 
replace them with new tanks of a different type. Tl 
Dorr agitator has had considerable success, and, as 
means of agitating at an extremely low cost, it ca 
hardly be improved upon. The patented types of rap 
cyaniding machines, several of which have appeared ( 
the market during the last four or five years, have be< 
uniformly unsuccessful. They were usually offered by pe 
sons who attempted to set aside the basic principles 
chemistry involved in dissolving metals in cyanide sol 
tions, and they were not able to oppose them. The tii- 
necessary to dissolve metal in cyanides cannot be ra< 
cally reduced by any known method, and, althou; 

January 12, liMS 



iroper nuinipulation designed bo expose the greatest 
luantity of metal to the cyanide solution in ;i given time 
ivill afford notable time reductions for dissolving, the 
process is one involving considerable time and is hardly 
apable of being reduced to a minute oasis. 

Practice Standardized in Soi m Africa 

The metallurgy of the great gold mini's of the Hand, 
>f South Africa, continued to be operated in the usual 
way. The gradual but steadj decrease in the average 

value of the ore of the older mines made economies 
necessary, from time to time, and development was 
toward perfecting the processes already in use. 
As has been the case for many years, cyaniding was 

the principal process for the recovery of gold in South 
Africa, and little change was made in it except for the 
refinement and simplification of the essential factors. 

From all the information obtainable, the same holds 
food with the Australian and New Zealand production 
if gold. Standard methods, used for years, were still 
practiced, development rather than new invention being 
the order of the day. In both these latter countries, the 
[Uestion of labor had a good deal to do with production, 
the enormous drain of men for war purposes showing 
ipon this as well as upon all other industries. 

Thus, it may be said in general that the metallurgy 
of gold throughout the world followed in 1917 much the 
same lines as in the immediately preceding years, no 
metallurgical development of major importance .being 
made; improvement of existing processes and details of 
those processes were the principal factors to be noted. 

The Changed Situation of Silver 

With silver the case was, of course, entirely different. 
The rapidly increasing price of the metal during the 
latter half of 1917, reaching a maximum at one time of 
more than $1 an ounce, was sufficient to put an added 
impetus into production. Here, again, metallurgy was 
rather at a discount, while increasing the volume of 
production was the important object in view. Many 
old mines in production years ago, and some dead for 
the last two years, were reopened and brought into 
profitable production. Producing mines were still fur- 
ther stimulated and every effort was made to take fullest 
advantage of the increase in the selling price of silver. 

The silver situation brought about a rejuvenation of 
the mines of the Cobalt district, of Ontario, Canada, 
where the maximum ore values are a matter of history, 
and the camp was facing the necessity of developing its 
metallurgical processes so as to produce the metal in 
the most economical manner. The high price of silver, 
however, during the year brought another era of profit 
to the camp, which was fully appreciated and full ad- 
vantage was taken of it. The mines at the close of the 
year were working to their fullest capacity, that is, in 
so far as they were able to get necessary labor, and some 
of the older mines were being reopened, new ones de- 
veloped, and even some of the failures were again put 
in operation. 

Silver Metallurgy in Canada and Mexico 

There was considerable metallurgical advance in Co- 
balt, and this consisted principally in the application of 
flotation to the ores of the district. In many cases, it 
proved eminently satisfactory, and it is to be expected 

thai the application ol the process will widen and thai 
it will be responsible lor increa ed recoverj from poi 
tiom of the ore that heretofore have bi en rather poorly 
taken care of, Several of the mills now have flotation 
plants that are doing well. This Bubjecl will be men 
tioned again in furth r detail. 
The silver campa in Mexico were m poor shape at the 

close of 1917. Perhaps only aboul 10', of the normal 
production of sil i wring oul of thai country, and 

it is not to be expected th will be any great in- 

crease in the near future. Many .Mexican producers 
attempted to take advantage of the high price of silver 
and get out large quantities of it but, while it is a com- 
paratively simple matter to operate the mines, trans- 
portation is in such a chaotic condition that nobody can 
depend upon getting the necessary supplies for operation 
nor for safely exporting the bullion when it is produced. 
The conditions have been discouraging and, while it is 
known that some of the well-known operating companies 
are attempting to increase their working scale and some 
smaller operators have gone into the country to institute 
operations, there is nothing so (irmly established that 
any dependence can be placed upon it. 

The metallurgy of the Mexican silver ores is of con- 
siderable importance, since silver is the principal min- 
eral product of Mexico, and that country is, in normal 
times, the greatest producer of silver. Naturally, 
therefore, the silver metallurgy of Mexico has always 
ranked high and has commanded the serious attention 
of the world. 

Flotation in Mexican Silver Orks 

During the last two years Mexican silver producers 
were considerably annoyed, first by the political condi- 
tions that hampered work of any kind, and secondly by 
the war, which put a sudden stop to importations from 
Germany, the principal source of cyanide. This, with 
the difficulty of transporting it, or anything else in 
Mexico, resulted in a deadening of the silver-producing 
industry, and it closed the year considerably below 

The difficulty of obtaining cyanide led to experiments 
upon the ores to devise some other way of treating 
them, and flotation appears to have been useful. The 
principal silver mineral of Mexico is argentite, the sul- 
phide of silver, which is susceptible to flotation. Ex- 
periments made at the Santa Gertrudis plant, in 
Pachuca, showed that it is possible to obtain a good 
extraction of the silver sulphide by flotation. As a 
matter of fact, the plant requirement is much less than 
with the cyanide process; it is cheaper to install and 
more economical to operate. Of course, there is the 
consideration that the product of the flotation process 
is not bullion, but is a material that requires further 
treatment to put it in merchantable state. It has been 
found, however, that wherever a smelting plant is avail- 
able, it may be employed profitably. At isolated plants, 
where it is difficult to ship the concentrates, provision 
may be made for treating them by regrinding and 
cyanidation at a comparatively low cost. The outstand- 
ing features of this system are that the flotation concen- 
trates represent most of the valuable content of the ore 
in such a small bulk that it is practicable to use strong 
cyanide solutions and greater lengths of time to extract 
the silver, which may be practically all recovered. 



Vol. 105, No. 2 

N ■ t only in Mexico has Dotation been applied to silver 
ores, but also in various parts of the United States and 
da. In one Ari.ona silver-producing mill, the 
shortage of cyanide led to experiments with flotation, 
the latter giving such excellent results that the cyanide 
plant was dispensed with and a permanent flotation sys- 
tem installed. In other eases, of course, it has been 
found advisable to use the cyanide process in connection 
with flotation, the flotation being an auxiliary of more 
or less importance, depending upon the character and 
grade of the ore under treatment. 

Mkiuukc.y of the Cobalt Ores 

In the Cobalt district of Ontario. Canada, flotation has 
proved a valuable adjunct to the concentration and 
cyanide systems in use. Concentration plants, that is, 
plants originally equipped to treat the ore only by 
gravity concentration, have been able to secure mate- 
rially improved results, often reaching to more than 
10 r <- addition to the recovery. The additional cost of 
flotation is usually less than 20c. per ton, and often 
much less. Some cases are on record where the cost is 
less than 5c. per ton. Of course, this does not include 
crushing or grinding, or other details of the metal- 
lurgical process. The Cobalt ores seem to require, in 
addition to the ordinary frothing agents, an oil that will 
be strongly adhesive to minerals, and this condition is 
usually fulfilled by using tar. The Cobalt flotation oil 
consists principally of creosote with a small percentage 
of pine oil and still less of the tar. Recovery by flota- 
tion in Cobalt, as has been said, runs up to 90^, al- 
though it is sometimes as low as 70 per cent. 

Comparing Flotation and Cyaniding 

In a paper by Robert E. Dye, read before the Canadian 
Mining Institute early in 1917, the cost of treating the 
accumulated tailings of the Buffalo mine by flotation 
and the comparative cost by cyanidation are given in 
detail. The flotation cost, producing concentrates, was 
74e. per ton, while the cost of cyaniding was $1.62 per 
ton. Since the flotation concentrates are not a finished 
product and the bullion from cyanidation is, the compari- 
son on this basis is not altogether fair, so the smelter 
charge, including freight and losses, of 83c. was included 
with the flotation cost, which brings the total up to 
$1.57 per ton, as compared with the cyaniding cost of 
$1.62 per ton. The same recovery was obtained both 
by flotation and by cyaniding and, as can be seen from 
these figures, the costs are pretty nearly the same. 
There is this advantage in flotation, however, that it is 
a newer process and the possibilities for cost reduction 
are considerably greater than is the case with the cyan- 
ide process, which has been in use many years and is 
highly perfected. An additional advantage in favor of 
flotation is that its installation cost is considerably lower 
than is the case with a cyanide plant. Of course, where 
the two processes have to be used together, no such ad- 
vantage may be claimed, but where one process is be- 
ing weighed against the other for a complete installa- 
tion, flotation has a large advantage over cyanide, both 
in the cost of the plant itself and in the smaller space 
occupied by the installation. 

The system of crushing and grinding gold and silver 
ores is still in a state of evolution, the opinions of va- 
rious authorities differing. One system includes a short 

crushing stage, employing gyratory breakers, jaw break- 
ers, rolls and tube mills, or the series may be further 
shortened by using gyratory breakers, ball mills and 
tube mills. Each system — and many modifications — has 
its adherents and no conclusions are yet possible. 

Few Crushing and Grinding Plants 
Installed in 1917 

The question of crushing and grinding was not 
changed much in 1917. So few new plants were in- 
stalled that it is difficult to make any assertion as to the 
kind of crushing machinery toward which the industry 
is tending. It is certain, of course, that the stamp mill 
has had its day and that other machines are sure to re- 
place it on a constantly increasing scale. The success ob- 
tained by ball mills of different kinds assures the re- 
tirement of the stamp. The only question is, what kind 
of a ball mill? There are many types on the market, 
varying from the standard plain cylindrical ball mill 
to the Hardinge conical type or the Marcy cylindrical 
grate mill. The success of both the Hardinge and the 
Marcy mill in the big copper properties is leading to 
their introduction in gold and silver metallurgy. Both 
are being installed to a considerable extent, and it seems 
probable that their use will increase. The Marathon 
mill, which is a cylindrical tube mill, grinding by means 
of steel shafts instead of the usual balls, did not, ap- 
parently, have any great increase in its application dur- 
ing the year. Its use in Arizona, as described by Blick- 
ensderfer before the American Institute of Mining En- 
gineers in 1916, still persists. It is said that a number 
of these mills were installed in different plants, but the 
results obtained were not made public on such a scale as 
to attract particular attention from the engineering 
fraternity in general. 

For fine grinding, or regrinding the oversize portion 
of the classified ball-mill product, dependence is still 
placed on the tube mill. This device has yet to be im- 
proved upon for delivering very finely ground pulp at 
reasonable cost. The design of the tube mill is changing 
somewhat, however, and is more closely approximating 
the dimensions of the ball mill, reaching greater diam- 
eters and shorter lengths, particularly the latter. 

As a general proposition, it may be said that there 
was little change in the metallurgy of gold and silver 
during 1917. This is more strictly true as regards 
chemical changes than mechanical. There certainly 
was produced no process or development that involves 
a chemical basis not heretofore used. Mechanical im- 
provements were, of course, along the line of develop- 
ment, improvement of results so far as extraction is con- 
cerned, and reduction of costs. In the United States all 
of the old standard plants are following their usual 
course. The California gold mills, those of Nevada, 
such as the Goldfield Consolidated, the Homestake, in 
South Dokota, and the other standard plants are running 
as usual. The gold mines of the Porcupine district, Can- 
ada, are operating in the usual way, with the exception 
of the Dome, which ceased milling in December on ac- 
count of the general advance in operating cost. 

The big silver plants are working along in the same 
way, and no change is to be expected in the immediate 
future. Volume production is the requirement, and the 
silver mines of the country are being forced to deliver 
the greatest possible amount of the metal. 

January 12, 1918 


Economic Geology 



GK. GILBERT analyzed in masterly fashion and 
with far-ranging vision the problem created by 
• the hydraulic-mining debris in the Sierra Ne- 
vada (Professional Paper 105, U. S. Geol. Surv.). Since 
the beginning of hydraulic mining, 1555 million cubic 
yards of tailings have been moved, a volume nearly eighl 
times as large as the material excavated in making the 
Panama Canal. In a full consideration of the debris 
problem there must be added to this amount the volume 
of debris from other forms of mining ( 140 million cubic 
yards) and the nonmining waste (700 million cubic 
yards), making a total of 2365 million cubic yards that 
has been moved in the region tributary to Suisun Bay, 
at the head of the San Francisco Bay system. 

Control of Mining Debris in California 
A large part of the tailings from the hydraulic mines 
was deposited at the base of the range, where it en- 
croached upon the valley lands and also intensified flood 
conditions. The agricultural interests thus endangered 
forced the enactment of restrictive anti-debris legisla- 
tion, and as a result hydraulic mining has practically 
ceased. During this cessation of hydraulic mining the 
streams have been steadily deepening their channels and 
restoring them to their pre-mining state, and under con- 
ditions now being produced by engineering works to 
control flood waters in Sacramento Valley, the capacity 
of the rivers in the valley to transport debris will be 
increased, so that hydraulic mining might now be partly 
resumed without harm to any valley interest except navi- 
gation. Gilbert shows, however, that a far greater in- 
terest — that of the commerce passing through the 
Golden Gate — should now dictate that the debris be 
controlled. For since the discovery of gold, 1146 million 
cubic yards of debris and soil waste have been deposited 
in the San Francisco Bay system, not only shoaling the 
waters, but also reducing the area of the bays. The vol- 
ume of the tidal prism was thus decreased, thereby di- 
minishing the strength of the ebb tide through the 
Golden Gate. As the velocity of the tidal currents is 
one of the two factors determining the depth of water 
on the bar outside the Golden Gate, the matter becomes 
of prime concern to the port of San Francisco. The 
other factor— the supply of sand brought to the bar by 
wave attack on the ocean cliffs— is constant and cannot 
be controlled. It is therefore imperative to control and 
prevent mining debris from being carried to the bays. 
As to the outlook for the renewal of hydraulic mining 
on a large scale with storage of debris, Gilbert believes 
that mining can be resumed only in cooperation with en- 
terprises undertaken to develop the waters of the Sierra 
Nevada for irrigation and electric power. 

Enrichment of Ore Deposits 
^ "The Enrichment of Ore Deposits" (Bull. 625, U. S. 
^eol. Surv.), by W. H. Emmons, is an amplification of 
an earlier report on the enrichment of sulphide ores 
(Bull. 529), published in 1913. The scope of the report 
lias been broadened and is no longer limited only to 
enrichment by secondary sulphides : all forms of enrich- 

"U. S. Geological Survey, Washington. D. C. 

ment effected during oxidation are considered; further- 
more > details concerning the behavior «( 15 chemical 
, ' ,, '""'" ,s ; "" 1 "" ■"' mineral compounds in the zone oi 
" X1,l «ti..ii. not ,1, ,,.,-,! i„ the earlier report, have been 
added. Emmons points out that the theory of secondary- 
sulphide enrichment dates back farther than has been 
previously recognized. As long ago as 1854 Whitney 
applied the theory to account for the rich mass of bluish- 
black copper sulphide that occurred below the gossan at 
Ducktown, Tenn. Although the fundamental principles of 
the theory were clearly grasped by Whitnev, it was not 
until 1900, after their rediscovery and announcement by 
S. F. Emmons and others, that they gained general rec- 
ognition. Since then they have stimulated an enormous 
amount of fruitful research, and in the present volume 
W. H. Emmons has skillfully marshaled the results in 
convenient, usable form. It is an invaluable work for 
all those interested in the geology or chemical problems 
of secondary-sulphide enrichment. 

Disseminated Copper Ores 
In "The Geology and Ore Deposits of Ely, Nevada" 
(Professional Paper 96, U. S. Geol. Surv.), A. C. Spencer 
gave the results of the first monographic study of some 

of the great deposits of disseminated copper ore the 

so-called porphyry coppers. At Ely, the primary sul- 
phides, which average about \% of copper, were de- 
posited early in Cretaceous time, shortly after the in- 
trusion of monzonite porphyry into a series of Paleozoic 
limestones, quartzites and shales. They are believed to 
have been precipitated from magmatic waters that es- 
caped from the differentiating porphyry magma. The 
whole process of primary mineralization appears to have 
lasted a definite and rather short interval of time, and 
because the paragenesis of the metallic sulphides fails 
to indicate that the mineralizing solutions progressive- 
ly changed in character during sulphide deposition, it is 
thought that the solutions had about the same composi- 
tion throughout the chief epoch of mineralization, and 
that this epoch ended abruptly as the result of a critical 
change that occurred in the differentiating magma from 
which the solutions were derived. The sulphides were 
deposited zonally with respect to the axis of the central 
line of porphyry masses. Iron and copper sulphides 
were deposited nearer the axis, and lead and zinc sul- 
phides farther out. This distribution is interpreted not, 
as is commonly done, as a result of the greater solubility 
of lead and zinc sulphides, but as due to their far smaller 
concentration in the ore-forming solutions relative to 
iron and zinc. The redistribution of the copper to form 
ore in the masses of pyritized porphyry resulting from 
the primary mineralization is thought to have been ac- 
complished by the beginning of Quaternary time. 

Billingsley and Grimes (Bull. 124, A. I. M. E.) de- 
scribed briefly the ore deposits occurring in the area of 
the great granitic intrusion in southwestern Montana, 
known as the Boulder batholith, and formulate some im- 
portant generalizations concerning the origin of the de- 
posits. For the deposits genetically related to the 
Boulder batholith they recognized three stages of ore 
deposition, which they term respectively the granite, ap- 


Vol. 105, No. 2 

lite, aiui quarts-porphyry stages; that is, the successive 
intrusions, which are differentiates from a common 
magma, were each followed i>> the deposition of ore. 
The evidence presented indicates that successive mag- 
tnatic differentiates were followed by successively 
greater deposition of ore. but Grimes and Billingsley 
drew the hypothetical conclusion that successive dif- 
were followed by increasingly larger pro- 
portions of vein-forming solutions. The mineralization 
oi the qoartx-porphyrj stage occurred only in the Butte 
district, the copper deposits of which are referred ge- 
netically to the quartz-porphyry intrusions. The restric- 
tion of these intrusions to the Butte district is believed 
to he one of the reasons why the ores of the district 
differ BO strongl) from those of the other districts of the 
Boulder batholith. The great number and richness of 
the copper deposits indicate that the local portion of the 
granite magma was unusually rich in copper. The 
great vertical range of the copper ores at Rutte is 
thought to be due to long continuance of mineraliza- 
tion and the downward migration of the level at which 
ore was deposited during the period of ore deposition. 

Gold ani> Silver Ores 
R. B. Young gave in "The Banket: a Study of the 
Auriferous Conglomerates of the Witwatersrand and 
the Associated Rocks." an attractive work on the Rand 
gold deposits. The volume, which is based largely on 
ries of earlier pipers by its author, is a concise, well- 
written and well-illustrated work. It is chiefly petro- 
graphic. and although Professor Young formerly ad- 
hered to the infiltration hypothesis, he now supports 
the hypothesis of the placer origin of the gold in the 
Rand deposits. The original detrital gold is thought to 
have been dissolved and redeposited essentially at the 
place where it was dissolved, and the pyrite, which av- 
erages 3 f r of the banket, has been formed by the sul- 
phidation of detrital magnetite and ilmenite. Tourma- 
line generally occurs in abnormal quantity in intensely 
sericitized rock and as a rule is closely associated with 
coarse gold. This metasomatic tourmaline is believed to 
have resulted from the solution and redeposition of the 
detrital tourmaline which is fairly common in the ban- 
ket. The introduction of the great quantity of sulphur 
thus admitted by the placer protagonists would seem to 
weaken seriously their argument, or suggest that part 
of the gold at least was conceivably brought in along 
with the sulphur. The data so objectively presented 
in the volume leave the impression that the evidence 
for either the placer or infiltration hypothesis is far 
from conclusive. 


F. N. Guild {Earn. Geol., Vol. 12) presented the re- 
sults of a ground-breaking study of the microstructure 
of the silver ores and their associated minerals. The 
paper was illustrated by a series of exceptionally fine 
photomicrographs of polished sections of silver ores. 
In the ores that he studied he found that there is an 
invariable order in which the minerals were deposited: 
In silver ores carrying lead and zinc the order is 
pyrite, (2) blende, (3) tetrahedrite, (4) galena, 
ruby silver, polybasite, etc., (6) native silver; (II) 
in copper-silver ores the order is (1) pyrite, (2) chal- 
copyrite, (3) bornite, (4) chalcocite, stromeyerite, and 
argentite, C5) native silver; and fill) in silver-cobalt 

ores (1) smaltite, (2) niccolite, (3) argentite, (4) sil- 
ver ami bismuth. Tetrahedrite carrying silver as an iso- 
morphous constituent is believed to be the chief source 
i'[ silver in enriched ores. No criteria were found, how- 
ever, whereby ores enriched by ascending solutions can 
be distinguished from those enriched by descending so- 
lutions. Professor Guild is inclined to believe that as- 
cending solutions effected more enrichment than is gen- 
erally recognized. 


Tolman and Rogers (Leland Stanford Jr. Univ., Pub- 
licat., 1916) carefully studied the microstructures of the 
magmatic sulphide ores, in conjunction with a study of 
the literature of the magmatic sulphide deposits. They 
found that the chief magmatic-ore minerals form in 
definite sequence; magnetite-ilmenite (an intergrowth), 
hematite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and born- 
ite. Pyrite is claimed not to form magmatically. As 
the outcome of their studies they proposed the hypothe- 
sis that "the magmatic ores in general have been intro- 
duced at a late magmatic stage as the result of miner- 
alizers and that the ore minerals replace the silicates." 
This replacement differs from that caused by pneumato- 
lytic or by hydrothermal processes, however, in that 
neither quartz nor secondary silicates are formed with 
the ores. The distinction between magmatic ores thus 
defined and ores of pneumatolytic origin appears to be 
too tenuous for most critics. Graton and McLaughlin 
[Eeon Geol., Vol. 12, pp. 1-38) differed widely from the 
authors concerning the genesis of the copper deposit at 
Engels, Calif.; Bateman (Econ. Geol, Vol. 12, pp. 391- 
426) dissented from their conclusions regarding the 
Sudbury nickel ores, finding that the ores show no evi- 
dence of replacement; and Coleman also (Op. cit, pp. 
427-434) took issue with them concerning the Sudbury 
ores, his point of view being that field evidence out- 
weighs laboratory evidence, and that the field evidence 
indicates that the deposits have segregated from the 
magma under the influence of gravity. Coleman's argu- 
ments, however, were directed mainly against the thesis 
maintained by C. W. Knight (Report, Royal Ontario 
Nickel Commission) that the Sudbury ores were de- 
posited by hot circulating waters. Ries and Somers 
(Bull. 128, A. I. M. E.) dissented from the view that 
pyrite is not a magmatic mineral and brought evidence 
to show that certain Norwegian pyrite bodies were in- 
jected igneous masses. 

Tungsten in Contact-Metamorphic Ores 
The recent discovery and rapid development of the 
contact-metamorphic scheelite deposits near Bishop, in 
northwestern Inyo County, California, drew attention to 
a group of deposits not heretofore widely recognized as a 
possible source of tungsten (Bull. 640-L, U. S. Geol. 
Surv.). The ore consists of scheelite associated main- 
ly with garnet, epidote, and quartz. Such ore resembles 
the contact-metamorphic rock common at many contacts 
of granite and limestone in the western states, but as it 
does not contain metallic minerals, such as magnetite, 
hematite, chalcopyrite, or pyrite, and as the scheelite 
closely resembles calcite, such ore is extremely likely 
to remain unrecognized. In fact in much contact-meta- 
morphic tungsten ore the scheelite is so fine as not to 
be visible to the eye, but it can, of course, be readily de- 
tected by panning. In 1917 an unexpectedly large num- 

January 12, L918 



ber of sum deposits were found in Nevada, California, 
and Oregon; and. according to F. L. Hess, who re- 
cently completed an inventors of the tungsten resources 
Of the country, they will probably yield a large part Of 

the tungsten output of the United States. 
On. anh Gas Deposits 

"Principles of Oil and (las Production" is a valuable 
book by R. H. Johnson and L. G. Huntley. The title does 
not accurately indicate the contents of the book, which, 
as a matter of fact, describes not only the technology 
of oil and gas extraction, but also the geologic occurrence 
and origin of oil and gas; moreover, it gives a very con- 
densed account of the oil fields and gas fields of North 
America. The treatment is in general brief but compre- 
hensive; in places it is somewhat marred by careless 
writing and colloquialisms. Much new matter on the 
theory of oil and gas accumulation is given, emphasis 
being laid on a fuller consideration of the shape of the 
oil and gas reservoirs and on the texture of the reservoir 

"Oil-Field Development and Petroleum Mining," by 
A. Beeby Thompson, is a work of considerably broader 
scope than the preceding. Despite the technologic nature 
of the title of this volume, five out of its 14 chapters 
are devoted to the geology of petroleum. The intro- 
ductory chapter gives the geographical distribution of 
oil throughout the world, and outlines the history' and 
production of the various oil fields. Succeeding chapters 
deal with the factors governing the formation, accumu- 
lation, and preservation of petroleum, with the surface 
indications of petroleum, with oil-field structures, and 
with the composition, characteristics, and origin of pe- 
troleum. Principles rather than detailed descriptions is 
the prevailing idea that has guided the author in his 
treatment of the subject. The book is excellently illus- 
trated and interestingly written, and probably ranks as 
the best on the subject. 

A. W. Lauer (Econ. Geol., Vol. 12) made a detailed 
study of the petrology of oil-reservoir rocks and con- 
cludes that "induced openings," i. e., fractures, joints, 
etc., are more important than porosity in the accumula- 
tion of oil. This view is not wholly new, for J. P. Lesley 
more than 30 years ago wrote at length on the subject, 
but its significance and importance have since been 
possibly overlooked. 

E. W. Shaw (Science, Vol. 46, pp. 553-556) put for- 
ward the interesting suggestion that concealed salt 
domes under the Louisiana-Texas coastal plain may 
perhaps be located by determination of gravity anoma- 
lies. As great pools of oil are associated with some of 
the salt domes, this method offers perhaps a new means 
of prospecting for these immensely valuable deposits. 

Oil-Shale Investigations 

The impend'ng shortage of gasoline is evidently stimu- 
lating the study of oil shales in various parts of the 
world. H. R. J. Conacher (Trans., 16, pt. 2, 1917, Geol. 
Soc. Glasgow), using an improved technique, made very- 
thin sections of Scottish oil shales. He believes that 
these oil shales were formed in quiet estuarine mud 
flats, to which large quantities of finely macerated vege- 
table matter were brought by water flowing from 


'Personal eommuniration. 

The oil sh:ili' hi northwestern Colorado and adjacent 

parts Hi' Utah ami Wyoming was investigated by l». E. 
Winchester (Bull. 641 !•'. r. s. Geol. Surv.) in continu 
ance of earlier worli done bj the Geological Sui 
The ■• hales are ol fresh watei origin, ol Eocene age, 

and arc extremel] rich iii plant debris. It appears that 

in Colorado alone there is sufficient male to yield 20 

billion barrels of crude nil, and 800 million tons of am- 
monium sulphate. The content per ton in oil and am- 
monium salt compares faVOrablj with that of the Scot- 
tish oil shale. 

Estimation ok Petroleum reserves 

The principles governing the estimation of petroleum 
reserves are discussed by K. \V. Pack (Bull. 128, A. 
I. M. E.). After outlining some of the methods previ- 
ously used in estimating the available supply of oil, 
he presented a new method which is particularly ap- 
plicable to such fields as those of California. In brief, 
the method depends on the use of a curve that shows field 
production in unit time and has been modified to take 
into account the number of new wells required to drill 
the field completely. 

G. S. Rogers (Bull. 653, U. S. Geol. Surv.) pointed out 
some significant features in the chemistry of the oil- 
field waters in San Joaquin Valley. Calif. Sulphates, 
which predominate in most of the shallow groundwaters, 
diminish as the oil-bearing zone is approached and final- 
ly disappear. Concurrently carbonates increase, though 
this change is largely influenced by the concentration 
of chlorides. The decrease of the sulphates and increase 
of carbonates as the oil-bearing zone is approached are 
attributed to reactions between the waters and the con- 
stituents of the oil and gas. These relations can there- 
fore be made to serve as a guide in prospecting for oil 
and gas. In fact, E. A. Starke, of the Standard Oil Co 
has for several years "noted the absence of sulphates in 
waters associated with oil and ascribed it to chemical 
reaction between the two, and so has guided his pros- 
pecting to a considerable extent by studying the com- 
position of the waters that are encountered in the pros- 
pect wells." 

Coal Resources of the United States and the 
Production to Date 

In recent years a large amount of detailed quantita- 
tive information has become available concerning the 
coal resources of the nation, and the present time 
seemed opportune to summarize this information. M. R. 
Campbell undertook this task and wrote an introduction 
to a report ("Coal Fields of the United States," Profes- 
sional Paper 100- A, U. S. Geol. Surv.) that is to sum up 
existing knowledge regarding the extent and quality of 
the coal of the United States. The present installment 
described briefly the various fields, and the succeeding 
installments, which are being written by the specialists 
best acquainted with those fields, will give the details 
concerning the coal resources of the country. Campbell 
now estimates that the original tonnage of coal in the 
United States within 3000 ft. of the surface aggregated 
3,538,554 million tons — a considerable increase over 
his earlier estimate. The total production to the end of 
1914 is computed to be approximately 10,358 million 
tons, which is estimated to mean an exhaustion of 15,083 
million tons. 



Gold Dredging in 1917 

By f. f. shakplkss* 

Vol. 105, No. 2 

OTHERWISE than ir some mechanical details, gold 
dredging made little progress in 1917. There were 
but few now installations, owing partb to the 
rt? l l: . • rators to venture into any new projects 

under the present adverse and uncertain conditions. 
These adverse conditions are, in the main, the high cost 
oi labor and its scarcity, and the high cost of all mate- 
rial, thus making the expense of dredge installation ex- 
To these must be added othei uncertain fac- 
SUCh as the constantly diminishing purchasing 
■■ the metal to be recovered, heavy taxation and 
the possibility of gold production being regarded by 
the Government as a non-essential industry. The fore- 
going obstacles apply not only to new plants, but they 
were felt bv dredging enterprises already in operation, 
preventing "their expansion. Foreign dredging enter- 
prises felt the hardship of the present conditions more 
than those in the United States, since it was quite lm- 
ible to have dredges built in foreign countries, or 
even to secure repairs for those already installed, on 
account of the demand for war materials taking pre- 
cedence over all other requirements. 

Few Failures in Properly Prospected Ground 
While the obstacles referred to undoubtedly interfered 
with dredging enterprises, they had a beneficial effect 
in causing managements to search for and introduce 
every possible new economy. This is not now an easy 
task, for each year, of late, has found gold dredging es- 
tablished on a more businesslike and scientific basis, and 
recently there have been fewer failures due to the lack 
of application of these principles. Careful and syste- 
matic prospecting by competent engineers has done much 
to prevent unwarranted dredging installations, and on 
the other hand, this accurate and reliable prospecting, 
together with some improvements in the art of gold 
dredging, has induced a few companies to install dredges 
on ground that had not heretofore been considered profit- 
able for dredging. 

Late improvements have consisted in better design of 
details and better material and workmanship, rather 
than in any one important modification. The principle 
of carefully designing each and every dredge to fit the 
particular and special conditions under which it is to 
operate has accomplished much toward success. In the 
California fields, the problem of resoiling is gradually 
being worked out by the use of multiple stackers. The 
unique distribution of tailings and the making of a new 
channel in the Yuba River have been accomplished by 
the construction of extraordinarily long stackers placed 
athwartship. This method is in successful operation' in 
the Yuba River. Some work is still being done with 
jigs on dredges in California. The result of the in- 
stallation on the Yosemite dredge, at Snelling, Calif., 
shows 1 a total recovery of $3786 during 22i months' 
operations. It will be noted that this amounts to only 
$168 a month, and it is a question whether this saving 

was not offsel by a greater cost, considering the amount j 
of apparatus needed, the cost of repairs and attendance j 
required by the apparatus, and the possibility of a some- j 
what reduced yardage of the dredge itself. There may I 
be a few instances where the loss of precious metals on I 
a gold dredge will warrant the installation of a simple 
form of jig, but it is probable that these instances are I 
not as many as is generally supposed, especially if the J 
dredge is well designed in the beginning and has ample 
table area. Little was recorded of accomplishment in 
1917 that would encourage or warrant general installa- 
tion of jigs, especially where the jigs are belt driven I 
and have many movable and wearing parts. There has 
been recently developed a pneumatically pulsated jigj 
which has no mechanical movable parts, and it would j 
seem to be ideal for dredging work, but the positive need | 
for something of this character must be more fully J 
proved before anyone can expect the ideal type of dredge j 
jig to appear. 

Simplifying the Main Drive 
The main driving apparatus of the present dredge is 
susceptible to considerable improvement. The great, j 
heavy, cumbersome double gears now used on each side ] 
of the tumbler may eventually be replaced by a drive 
on one side of the tumbler, consisting of a much smallei 
gear driven by a herringbone set, operating in an entire- i 
ly self-contained and enclosed automatically lubricatec 
steel housing. This will result in at least 20% saving | 
in power, a reduction in weight and first cost, and wil 
afford unlimited space for greater depth to the dumi i 
hopper. This arrangement will also reduce the lial 
bility of misalignment of all bearings. It would appeal 
that the complicated operating levers and clutches nov i 
in general use might readily be replaced by a systen 
that is pneumatically operated. In fact, such a systen 
has already been devised, and experiments up to th 
present would seem to prove its value. 


•Consulting mining engineer. 52 Broadway, New York. 
i"Eng. and Min. Journ.," Dec. 1, 1917. 
lin. and Sci. Press," Dec. 8, 1917. 

Dredging Results in the United States 
Dredging in California was carried on in 1917 wit 
the usual success. The Yuba company put its Yub 
No. 16 dredge in operation early in the year, while Yub 
No. 17 was launched Nov. 4. The Conrey Placer Co 
in Montana, operated successfully in 1917, and ther 
was no new construction undertaken in that state. . 
small dredge, formerly situated at Castle Creek, N. D 
built some years ago, was knocked down and moved int 
Oregon, but it is understood that it has not accomplishe 
anything more at its new site than it did in its forme 
place, principally on account of low returns, and thi 
in both instances, was probably owing to the lack ( 
careful prospecting. The two dredges on the Powd( 
River in Idaho were reported to have had a successf 


In Colorado, an old dredge was moved from Cahlorn 
and is now in course of reerection at Breckenridge. Tl 
Tonopah Placers Co.'s three dredges at Breckenridj 
also had a good season. Their cleanups were held up 
about the usual yields. The French Gulch dredge ope 
ated steadily and successfully under the management 

January 12, i;us 



Warren I'". Scars, and the usual high recoveries were 

maintained throughout 1917. The Derry Ranch <i"id 
Dredging Co. 'a dredge, at Leadville, remains the only 
installation in that section of the country. Under the 
management of Robert F. Lafferty it had a most success- 
ful season, recovering $111,084. Operating expenses 
in the Leadville district were high, but nevertheless 
profits were large, and the company continued the dis- 
tribution of unusually large lividends. 

Results of Alaskan and Yukon Operations 

The dredges in Alaska and Yukon Territory did not 
contribute much in dividends to their stockholders in 
1917. The Canadian Klondike Mining Co.'s fleet of 
four dredges below Dawson, Y. T., were operating all 
season, but their recoveries were low and the operating 
costs high, which resulted in placing the company in 
financial difficulties. 

The Yukon Gold Co. operated steadily in the Yukon 
district in 1917, and its dredge on the Iditarod in Alaska 
continued in good ground with exceptionally high yield. 
The company installed a new all-steel dredge at Murray, 
Idaho, having 7J-cu.ft. buckets, electrically driven. This 
dredge started into successful operation early in Decem- 
ber. The company moved one of the old 7>-ft. dredges 
from the middle fork of the American River in Cali- 
fornia to the north fork; it is expected this will be com- 
pleted and put in operation in the near future. Its large 
all-steel dredge, that was originally placed at the head of 
Coffee Creek in Trinity County, California, was dis- 
mantled and moved to the lower end of the creek, num- 
erous difficulties in the original plans having made this 
step necessary. This dredge started up early in Decem- 
ber, 1917, in its new situation, and has every promise 
of a successful future. 

At Nome a number of small dredges were operating 
as usual, but few recorded any dividend disbursements. 
The Alaska Mines Corporation floated some stock on the 
Eastern market and an attempt was made to expand its 
operations, but the efforts did not meet with great suc- 
cess. High cost of fuel and labor mitigated against 
profitable dredging operations during 1917 in Alaska. 

South American Dredging 

Dredging operations in British Guiana were con- 
ducted in 1917, along about the same lines as hereto- 
fore, with no new installations. In fact, there was no 
new dredging installation in all South America. In 
Colombia, the General Development Co. has a 6-cu.ft. 
Bucyrus, oil, electric-driven dredge en route to Buena- 
ventura, and it is expected that this will be transported 
and erected at an early date. This company had a 
dredge of foreign make on its property, which was put 
in about four or five years ago, but it has not been 
operated steadily on account of many' local difficulties. 
The Pato and Nechi dredges at Zaragoza, Colombia, had 
a successful year, and the recoveries from the ground 
worked maintained a high average. While the latter 
company felt the heavy hand of excess-war taxes in 
England, both dredges kept up a large production 
throughout 1917, under the general direction of W. A. 
Prichard. A small, Dutch-built dredge belonging to 
the Antioquia Dredging Co., was operated on a tributary 
of the Magdalena River, by Clarence J. London. The 
steam equipment was taken off the dredge and oil en- 

ginea were substituted; it was also equipped with a 
bell stacker in -tead of the former pan type of stacker. 
These improvements enabled the dredge to Bhow an 
operating profit. 

in Australia there are about 10 dredgi operating, 

ami while these make some profit the total dividend-: 
from all 40 dredges were exceeded by the earnings of 

one single dredge in th< I nited States. Practicallj the 

same situation exists in New Zealand. In Portugue e 
Kast Africa, the Andrada company was operating a 
Bucyrus all-steel dredge; while this compan. had diffi- 
culty with boulders at the inception of digging, it was 
reported that all obstacles were overcome, and that op- 
erations were being successfully conducted. 

Gold dredging in the Philippines was not marked by 
new installations in 1917. Three or four foreign-built 
dredges were operating, but it is believed their earnings 
were not great. The old Gumaos company's Empire 
dredge, which operated for five years and worked out 
its ground, was transferred to a new company called 
the Malagno Placer Co., and is being moved to the Mala- 
guit River, where the company has ground that it is 
supposed can be worked at a profit. 

Mambulao's Dredge Successful in the Philippines 

The Mambulao company's Empire dredge, which was 
installed by the New York Engineering Co., had its sec- 
ond year of successful operation. This dredge is a de- 
parture from the usual standard dredge. It has its own 
steam-electric generating plant on board, consisting of a 
steam turbine, direct connected to a 500-kw. electric gen- 
erator, which serves to operate all electric motors of 
the different units. This rendered the dredge highly ef- 
ficient, especially in fuel consumption. It is the first 
gold dredge to be equipped in this manner. 

Another unusual feature of this dredge is a clay sluice 
mounted over the top of the screen. This is for the 
purpose of taking care of about 45 ft. of barren clay and 
muck overburden, the enriched gravel deposit being 
about 10 ft. thick, underlying the overburden of clay. 
When digging the barren overburden, the buckets dump 
directly into the clay sluice, and all of the material is 
washed overboard about 40 ft. to the stern of the dredge. 
When the pay gravel is encountered, a gate is opened 
in the head section of the sluice, the gravel dumps 
into the main hopper, passes through the screen and 
over the gold tables in the usual manner. 

The Mambulao was the first dredge to be built with 
one-piece, all-manganese steel buckets. While this type 
of bucket is not adapted to digging indurated or ce- 
mented gravel, it has proved highly successful and effi- 
cient under the operating conditions for which it was 
designed. The bucket line has been in operation two 
years; its present condition shows an equal wear on 
all parts of the bucket, and the indications are that 
when the lip portion is worn out the back of the bucket 
will also be gone, so that the whole bucket may be 
scrapped at the same time. The special design of this 
dredge has enabled it to handle a difficult piece of 
ground, and proves the value of designing each dredge 
to fit the particular conditions under which it is to 

Gold dredging in Russia was on the verge of making 
considerable advance, but the recent political disturb- 
ances not only interfered with this but set the country's 



Vol. 105, No. 2 

mining activities hack mum years, rhe Bucyrus com- 
pany is building a 17-cu.ft., all-steel dredge, which is ul- 
•ely to be installed on the Lena Goldfields property, 
but present conditions are not favorable for either ship- 
ment or installation of this dredge. Another dredge, 
having 7 -cu.ft. buckets, was also contracted for bj the 
abinet, but the fate of this dredge is uncertain. 
The Orak Goldfields operated with success both of its 
dredges throughout 1917. These dredges were situated 
about 50 miles from Nikolaievsk, near the eastern coasl 
of Siberia. They operate under difficult physical con- 
ditions, owing to their remoteness from any base of 
supplies. However, high gold content of the gravel and 
the efficiency of the plant enabled the company to make 

Nkw Dredging Field in Chosen 

The one new tield of gold dredging that opened with 
a promising outlook in 1917 was in Chosen. The Chik- 
san Mining Co. contracted with the New York Engineer- 
ing Co, for a 10-ft.. all-steel, electrically driven dredge. 
This was erected and went into successful operation on 
1. 1917. The dredge contains some unusual features, 
which were designed to meet certain specific conditions. 
The Chiksan's deposit consists of a barren overburden 
of clay, sand and muck, with pay gravel underlying. It 
was necessary to conserve the water, therefore the fol- 
lowing new design was adopted: The revolving screen 
has spiral-shaped manganese deflecting bars running 
throughout its entire length, arranged similarly to the 
rifling in a gun barrel. When the barren overburden is 

to be dug. the screen is revolved in a direction so that 
the spiral manganese bars assist in rapidly advancing 
the material through the length of the screen to the dis- 
charge end, all water being shut off from the interior 
of the screen. An ample supply of water is led into 
the bottom of the screen housing, in order to wash any 
material over the tables that may pass through the per- 
forations of the screen. The discharged barren material 
from the end of the screen is deposited either on a 
stacker, or a deflecting gate turns it into a chute where 
it may be deposited close to the stern of the dredge in 
order to afford a foothold for the spuds if necessary. 
When pay gravel is encountered water is turned into 
the screen, and the screen is rotated in the opposite 
direction, the spiral bars then tending to retard the 
movement of the gravel so that it is thoroughly washed 
as it is passed through the screen. This gravel, when 
it reaches the end of the screen, may either be dumped 
on the regular elevator conveyor belt or into the tail 
chute. The foregoing arrangement is working most 
satisfactorily, and by its use it is possible to resoil 
the land if that should prove to be necessary or advis- 
able. The Chiksan company has large placer holdings, 
and it is probable that another dredge will be installed 
as soon as conditions in the United States are more 
favorable for dredge construction and the ocean-freight 
situation makes deliveries possible. 

There is little prospect that many gold dredges will 
be installed in this country, or in fact in any country, 
while the war lasts and present labor and material scar- 
citv exists. 

Metallurgy of Quicksilver 


THE outbreak of the war found the California 
quicksilver industry on its last legs. The United 
States production had been steadily declining for 
about 40 years and in 1914 the output of about 30 mines 
estimated at 16,500 flasks, having a gross value of 
$812,000. California's share of this production was 11,- 
300 flasks, of which 6550 flasks were produced by the 
New Idria mine at a net loss for the year of $45,000. 
This gradual death of a once important industry was 
due to inability to compete with the European output 
having lower labor co?ts. The industry had few votes 
and scant Government consideration or protection. 

Average Yield from California Orfs Only 
About 6 Lb. per Ton 

After about three years of war it is now realized 
that a supply of this metal is a desirable thing to have 
in the country ; that production has not kept pace with 
the consumption, and, further, that the present United 
States supply is small. I am informed that there is 
little or no quicksilver in New York or San Francisco 
and only a moderate amount in transit, and were it not 
that certain of the larger producers, appreciating the 
needs of our Government, refused to advance prices 
under stress of war demands, the present market price 
would be much higher. On the other hand, the ores of 

•Mining engineer. 217 Kohl Bldg.. Ran Francisco, Calif. 

California are now of extremely low grade, the average 
recovery being about 6 lb. of metal per ton, and increas- 
ing costs of all sorts have, in some cases, doubled the 
first cost of the metal. 

In view of these facts, a better understanding of the 
metallurgy of quicksilver becomes increasingly import- 
ant. The business had become so small and unattractive 
that our metallurgists ana chemists deserted it for 
more promising fields, and engineers qualified by train 
ing and practical experience to handle quicksilver mine.'- 
and plants were rare indeed. In March, 1917, I tool 
up with Dr. L. H. Duschak, chemical engineer for tin 
U. S. Bureau of Mines in California, the question of i 
thorough investigation of the stack and fume losses ii 
Scott furnace operation, and in the following month Dr 
Duschak was authorized by the Director of the Bureai 
to cooperate in this matter with such of the mines a: 
would share the expense. Since then this researcl 
work has been in progress and considerable valuabl' 
data are about ready for publication by the Bureau. 

Stack Losses from Scott Furnace Practically Nil 

Many small problems were solved, including method 
for the accurate determination of mercury in furnac 
gases, methods for determining the volume of thes 
gases and their sampling over an extended period, ett 
Perhaps the most surprising result obtained was th 

January 12, L918 


i li 

demonstration of the fad thai the stack and fume loesee 

;il' a Scott furnace, when properly operated, are prae 
tii-ally nil. Many quicksilver mines that started in past 

pears with great expectations proved disappointing, 

and the usual explanation was "unaccountable losses of 
metal." The research work under the supervision of 
Dr. Duschak at the New Idria and Oceanic plants 
showed stack and fume losses of out a few pounds per 
Jay, and it would seem that the condensation problem 
was practically solved. Considerable loss sometimes oc- 
curs due to imperfect roasting of the ore. but this is 
usually due to carelessness and is therefore readily rec- 
Ignized and remedied. 

Inadequate Sampling Responsible for 

Many Failures 

The lack of proper sampling facilities and methods 
was the cause of many of the disappointments. Over- 
estimation of the tonnage roasted and its assay value 
and insufficient allowance for moisture also played a 
part. In general, recent work showed that the dis- 
advantages of the Scott furnace, due to rather high first 
i-ost and moderate capacity, are more than balanced by 
its simplicity and durability, its low fuel costs and gen- 
eral efficiency. Another point in favor of the Scott fur- 
nace is that the ore is only crushed to pass a 2 or 2! 

in. ami, therefore, the fine grinding evil ia avoided. 
The Scott roa ting furnace continues to produce about 
96' | of the output of the state, and when rightlj handled 
has proved to be ftcienl and economical roasting 


On the other hand, it is apparent a loss by eon 
cent ration of l lb. of mercury per ton of ore will mori 
than balance the entire cost of roasting, Concentration 
is. therefore, seldom worth consideration, but may oc 
casionally prove useful for the treatment of old dumps, 
etc., where a small investment is the main consideration, 
it being apparent that any quicksilver ore that will yield 
a profit by concentration will be still more profitable if 
properly roasted. 

The new rotary furnace of the cement-kiln type, now 
being installed by the New Idria company, is something 
of an experiment, but has greater possibilities of being 
(as compared with any wet method) an advance in the 
matter of increased tonnage and decreased costs. This 
rotary type of furnace has been tried before, but proba- 
bly never under such favorable circumstances or in 
such able hands. The thanks of the quicksilver miners 
are due the Idria management and Dr. Duschak for 
efficient investigations and research, looking toward the 
general benefit of conditions in the quicksilver industry 
of the future. 

Magnesite in 1917 

THE production of magnesite in the Uniteu States 
in 1917 was probably double the 1916 output, 
which was 154,000 short tons. The great increase 
in production since 1913, in which year only 9632 short 
tons were mined, was due to the cutting off of Austrian 
supplies because of the war California and Washington 
produced the bulk of the magnesite mined in the United 
States. The gain in output in 1917 over that in 1916 
was largely due to the working of deposits in Stevens 
County, Washington, shipments from which state began 
in December, 1916. California, which in 1916 was 
practically the only producer, gained somewhat in 1917. 
About one-half of its output came from the vicinity of 
Porterville, in Tulare County. The chief American pro- 
ducers were the Porterville Magnesite Co., in California, 
and the Northwest Magnesite Co., in Washington. Other 
companies in the new Washington field were the U. S. 
Magnesite Corporation, the American Mineral Produc- 
tion Co. and the Valley Magnesite Company. 

Bad Weather and Transportation Conditions 
Limited Canadian Output 

Magnesite mining in Quebec in 1917 was retarded by 
rainy conditions, the work being done in openpits. The 
magnesite had to be hauled several miles over heavy 
clay roads in some parts. Nevertheless, shipments 
averaged five cars per day. In 1916, Canada shipped 
55,413 tons of magnesite mostly from Grenville Town- 
ship. The North American Magnesite Co. and the Scot- 
tish Canadian Magnesite Co., the principal operators, 
began in 1917 to make dead-burned magnesite con- 
taining a suitable per cent, of iron for furnace lining. 
This was done in the cement kilns of the Canada Ce- 
ment Co. at Longue Point, near Montreal, and at Hull, 

near Ottawa. The North American company also leased 
property in Harrington Township, where it mined mag- 
nesite and stored it for hauling on winter roads. 

The Mansallo and La Plata magnesite quarries, near 
Puerto Viejo, Island of Margarita, Venezuela, were 
worked during 1917, producing about 10 tons of mag- 
nesite per day. Exports to New York was rendered dif- 
ficult by lack of ships. Freight charges on such ships 
as were available were $19.50 per ton of magnesite 
against a quoted price of the mineral of only $25 per 
ton. An economic survey of the magnesite deposits on 
the island was being made. 

Shipping Conditions Restrict Imports 

Imports in 1917 were greatly restricted through lack 
of ships. In 1916, the United States received from 
Greece 60,511 tons of crude and 9514 tons of calcined 
magnesite. During 1917, California crude magnesite, 
90 r c MgCO,, brought about $10 per ton, f.o.b. shipping 
point, against $8 for Washington crude. California 
calcined averaged about $40 for 85 r r MgO, Washington 
calcined bringing about $35, f.o.b. shipping point. The 
better prices for California magnesite were due to its 
superior color. The freight to Atlantic seaboard was 
$12.50 per ton. 

Magnesite is used chiefly for furnace linings, pipe 
coverings, and the manufacture of CO., magnesite ce- 
ment, outside stucco, passenger-car floors, gun-emplace- 
ments, etc. The American Firebrick Co., of Spokane, 
Wash., began the manufacture in 1917 of magnesite 
brick. According to the opinion of some in the 
refractory trade, as good a product for refractory pur- 
poses can be made from the domestic magnesite as from 
the Austrian variety. 



Vol. 105, No. 

General Review of Mining in the 
United States in 1917 

MININC conditions in the United States in the 
early part of L911 were exceedingly favorable. 
and the largest copper, lead and Bine producers 

Of the COUntrj were forcing their plants to the utmost. 
The entrance oi the United States into the war anil 
the unsettled market conditions, labor anil ear shortages 
that ensued had an adverse effect on production and 
the general Rain for the fust part of 1917 was more than 
offset by the months of non-productiveness that occurred 
in many of the largest districts during the period of 
labor agitation and strikes that spread over the country, 
and the general retrenchment that followed. The effect 
of increased wages throughout the country was a de- 
crease in efficiency. The draft and response to the call 
for volunteers reduced the available labor supply mate- 
rially in all but a few favored districts. The gold 
camps suffered from increase in cost of supplies without 
commensurate advance in price of marketable product, 
and were obliged to raise wages to meet the high cost 
of living and the drain put upon the labor supply 
by the attraction of the higher wage base-metal dis- 
tricts. The effect of the Government agreed price for 
copper at 23k. was to eliminate from the field many 
small producers which curtailed the total production 
possible from all sources in this country. 

The curtailment of imports of pyrite, manganese, 
magnesite, potash, graphite, clays, etc., caused domestic 
resources to be investigated and developed to an extent 
hitherto impracticable and in some instances with con- 
siderable financial success. The general high cost of 
labor and supplies in 1917, and the uncertain demand, 
the embargoes and price regulations of the future, 
however, discouraged the exploration and development 
of many new and large mining enterprises. 


The copper production of Arizona for 1917 is re- 
viewed elsewhere in this issue. The main producing 
districts, Ray, Inspiration, Miami, Bisbee, Morenci, 
Jerome, and Globe, maintained a high output early in 
1917, but suffered heavy loss of production during the 
labor strikes of June, July and August, and the Inspira- 
tion did not resume full operation during the latter part 
of the year. The Ajo district was added to the list of 
copper producers, and a number of small shippers in 
the state contributed to the total output. The Bisbee- 
Warren district was also a producer of zinc-lead and 
silver-lead ores, and also shipped manganese and 
pyrite. Arizona-Hercules carried on considerable de- 
velopment work at Ray upon completion of the churn- 
drilling campaign early in 1917; the 1200-ton concen- 
trator and power plant at Kelvin were about half 
completed in December. 

Silver-lead ores from the Ray district were shipped 
by the Ray Lead Development Co., and the Broken 
Hills Mining Co. was under development. A vanadium 
and molybdenum strike occurred near Kelvin. The 
Mammoth Development Co. suffered a setback in pro- 
duction in October due to a shaft fire, which made it 
impossible to fulfill its contract to supply 50 tons of 

wulfenite com cut rates per month; the mill was re- 
modeled, and the entire plant reorganized for greater 
output. The Arizona Rare Metals Co.'s mill continued 
to operate on the old Mammoth tailings, shipping wul- 
fenite concentrates steadily to its furnace in Tucson, 
where a sodium-molybdate slag and a lead bullion were 
produced. At Copper Creek new equipment was 
added to the mill and power plant and flotation intro- 
duced. The Lavell gold mine, near Chilito, was bonded 
to Boston interests in 1917, development undertaken 
and high-grade gold shipments made. 

The Oatman district established a minimum wage of 
$4 a day, and did not suffer for want of a sufficient 
supply of labor, nor was it affected by the labor dis- 
turbances of 1917. In January the United Eastern 
started its new mill and the company treated about 
85,000 tons of $22 ore during the year. It also acquired 
two important claims from the Big Jim company, where 
ore had been opened up. Considerable new ore was 
found by the various operators in the district, including 
the Gold Road mine at Goldroad. Marked activity was 
manifested at Chloride, Golconda, and outside of King- 
man. At Stoddard the Arizona-Binghamton Copper Co. 
was organized to take over the Stoddard and other 
properties; new ore was opened up from the lower 
levels, and 300,000 lb. of copper per month shipped as 
concentrates. Developments of note occurred east of 
Congress Junction, where gold, silver and lead ship- 
ments were made. Quicksilver was discovered and 
shipped from the Phoenix Mountains, and important 
development took place at Courtland, Johnson, Harqus 
Hala, Duquesne, Silver Bell, Twin Buttes, Tombstone 
Pearce, and Dos Cabezas. 


In Amador County the mines of the Mother Lode a 
Sutter Creek, Plymouth and Jackson operated under s 
severe labor shortage and increased costs. The Ply 
mouth Consolidated added two Hardinge mills to it 
plant and handled 11,000 tons of ore per month. Th 
Keystone operated its 40-stamp mill to capacity, hoistin 
ore from between the 900 and 1800 levels. The Centr 
aiu. Old Eureka mines attained greater depth and 
veloped new ore. The Kennedy's 100-stamp mill opera' 
ed steadily in 1917 and new ore was developed at 390 
ft. The South Eureka hoisted a considerable tonna? 
from the deep levels of the Oneida. The Argonaut con 
pleted its equipment for electric pumping in two stag* 
from the 4800 level, and good-grade ore was hoisted. 

California oil production in 1917 was highly stimi 
lated and a great increase over 1916 will probably 1 
recorded. Tungsten production was active at Atol 
and Bishop. Potash was produced from Searles Lai 
deposits, from kelp and from the flue dust of variot 
cement plants. Additions to the plants of the Standa 
Oil and General Petroleum companies were made ai 
working forces increased to maximum. A new refine 
was started late in 1917 at Los Angeles harbor by t 
Union Oil Co. The iron-ore deposits of Southern Ca 
fornia attracted considerable interest. 


January 12. 1918 



in Plumas County the Jamison mine because of 
scarcity i>i labor operated with half the normal crew, 
uul finally closed down for the winter, in the Nelson 

.'rook district the Bulkeley Wells syndicate bonded the 
Morning Star, a Tertiary gravel deposit of considerable 
nagnitude. The Standard Mining Co. had an eight 
weeks' run. The Plumas-Eureka Corporation in De 
•ember started a 1115-ft. raise to connect the "76" 
nine and the Eureka tunnel. 

Owing to inadequate transportation, activity in Del 
>Jorte County was handicapped but promising bodies of 
•hrome ore were uncovered and considerable chromite 
vas shipped. 

The Natomas Co. operated 11 electric dredges on the 
American and Yuba River fields. In the Yuba Basin 
,'uba Consolidated started the first double-stacker dredge. 
In Shasta County, miners received an increase in wages 
■arly in 1917. The Mammoth, Balaklala and Mountain 
•opper mines suspended production for a short time in 
he summer on account of labor troubles, but operations 
vere resumed in September. In Butte County near Yan- 
kee Hill a 20-ft. gold-bearing vein was disclosed near the 
Surcease. In Siskiyou County the Blue Ledge copper 
listrict became more active, machinery was purchased 
md some rich copper and gold ores were shipped to 
he smeltery at Tacoma. In San Luis Obispo County 
tuicksilver and chrome deposits received attention. In 
Sierra County purchase of the Tightner gold mine was 
nade complete by a final payment. 

Colorado, Idaho and Utah 

The mining activities in Colorado, Idaho and Utah 
vill be reviewed in detail in a succeeding issue of the 
'ournal, and will be referred to only briefly at present, 
n Colorado the isolated districts experienced during the 
ummer months an activity not felt for many years. 
>Iany silver properties were reopened, the demand for 
ungsten was steady and the market for manganiferous 
■res increased shipments from Leadville to such an ex- 
ent that at the end of 1917 750 tons per day of such 
■re was being sent to the Colorado Fuel and Iron Co. 
.nd other metallurgical works. In Idaho, the new 
Sunker Hill & Sullivan lead smeltery at Kellogg was 
>lown in, and three important cases of litigation came 
iefore the courts. The diverse metal production of Utah 
howed a slight increase in 1917 over that of 1916. 
^melting difficulties curtailed shipments in the last half 
if the year, but the important districts of Bingham, 
Tintic and Park City operated for the most part steadily. 

Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin 

A review of iron mining appears elsewhere in the 
ron section of this issue. The copper operations in 
he upper Michigan peninsula are also separately dis- 
ussed by James MacNaughton. Iron-ore shipments on 
he lakes began in the middle of April, but navigation 
>'as not fully opened to Duluth and Superior until May 
; the lake shipping season, however, continued a little 
iter than usual, not closing until about Dec. 11, 1917. 
n the southern section of the Cuyuna iron range, in 
linnesota, considerable prospecting was done by drill- 
ng, and results were satisfactory. In the Wisconsin 
inc-lead district new mills and development by drilling 
nd sinking continued in 1917. 

Missouri, Oklahoma and Kansas 

The Southea I Missouri lead and the .loplin ziln di 

tricts are covered elsewhere in this issue. At Frederick 

town the Missouri Cobalt Co., Ltd., remodeled i1 

reduction plant for the treatment ol its complex lead, 

nickel, cobalt and copper ores, and Missouri Metal 
Corporation began the exploitation of the old Mine l„ 
Motte — by steam shovel for the surface carbonate ores 
and by underground methods for the sulphide ores 
of lead, nickel, cobalt, copper and silver. As in 1916, 
the Joplin-Miami district suffered from lack of suffi- 
cient electric power, due to low water at the hydro- 
electric and poor equipment at the steam-turbine plant 
of the district power company. 

In the Oklahoma-Kansas section repeated ore strikes 
by drilling were made in 1917 in all parts of the 
district. Leases were taken at high premiums and 
increased royalties paid. Baxter Springs, Kan., be- 
came a center between Joplin and Picher and the other 
camps in the Miami district, and railroad connections 
were completed from Galena to Baxter, Kan., and to 
Picher, Okla., and also a line between Quapaw and 
Century, Okla. Considerable high-grade ore was fpund 
by drilling around Baxter. The Eagle-Picher Lead Co. 
operated actively with four mills, making a large pro- 
duction of zinc concentrates; flotation was added at its 
Netta mill. In the Kansas zinc field a large tract, 
north of the Eagle Picher holdings and west of Baxter 
Springs, was taken under development by the Miami 
Zinc Syndicate, in which American Metal Co. eventually 
became the predominant interest; this company also 
took over a 1000-acre lease northwest of Picher. The 
Metals Exploration Co. made extensive purchases and 
the Admiralty Zinc Co. sold its leases and three mills 
to Cosden, Aiken & Curtis of Tulsa, Okla. In addi- 
tion a large number of smaller deals were consummated 
in 1917. Twelve new mills were started early in the 
year and a large number started in 1916 were completed 
in 1917. Although 50 % of the electric power was off 
in the latter part of the year, the production of the 
newer field equalled the old. Churn drilling was never 
more active than in 1917, several thousand rigs covering 
all that region from Joplin to Miami and extending 
westward from Baxter, Picher and Commerce. Develop- 
ments in 1917 demonstrated the great possibilities in 
this newer area, and an increasing production may be 
expected. Manganese mining in northern Arkansas was 
stimulated by the high prices and marketability of 
low-grade manganese ores, and in 1917 a considerably 
increased production was made. 


Montana produced in 1917 at a record rate until 
the labor strikes at Butte in June; copper production 
of this district did not again approach the normal 
figures until the last quarter of the year. The Butte 
district is reviewed elsewhere in more detail by Mr. 
Thayer. A notable event of 1917 was the organization 
of Montana mining interests to protect the industry from 
malicious legislation. A new feature of the Butte dis- 
trict was the production of manganese ores. This ore 
was also produced in the Philipsburg district in Granite 
County where an important output was being made at 
the close of 1917. In the Virginia City gold district 



Vol. 105. No. 2 

operations were limited. The Eastern Pacific cyanida 
tion mill worked on tailings from the old Eaaton mine, 
and ■ !■ • amalgamation and concentration 

mill operated in Williams Gulch on ore from the Moun 
tain Chief and Mountain Flower claims. A 20-ton teal 
mill at the Winnetka mine was built, and there was a 
discovery of high-grade gold ore in Barton Gulch from 
from which shipments were made The Rough Rider 
tunnel was extended 600 ft in the Summit district, 
The Boston «!>: Montana Development Co. continued 
the | og o( its properties in the Elkhorn district 

ami began ti • in of a 500-ton mill. In the Sheri- 

dan region there was increased activity in lead-silver 
properties. In the Twin Bridges section electric-power 
lines were extended to the Bielenberg & Higgins mine 
i ii Hear Gulch and to the Lake Shore mine. The Crystal 
Lake Gold Mining Co. purchased the N. J. TraufHer 
mine; the Liberty Gold Mining Co. purchased the M. R. 
Ostronich property. In the Ponj district quiet prevailed, 
the only production coming from small leasers. In the 
Red RlutT area the only events of note were the sales 
of the Birdie and Red Bluff properties and the purchase 
of machinery for development. In the Richmond Flat 
district the Revenue mine operated continuously, and 
new ore was developed. The Madison mine was pur- 
chased and preparations were made to unwater. The 
Missouri mine, at the head of Meadow Creek, made 
regular shipments of high-grade ore and erected a mill. 
In the Madison Valley prospecting was active and the 
results were encouraging. Asbestos deposits were dis- 
covered southeast of Lyon. The manganese deposits of 
Cherry ("reek were mined and explored during the sum- 
mer and regular shipments made, but production sus- 
pended on the advent of winter. 


In Nevada, the Nevada Consolidated's new crushing 
plant was completed in two sections each having a 
capacity of 750 tons of grizzlied ore per hour. A new 
Nordberg hoist was installed and the coal-dust plant 
was nearly completed. Development at the Ruth mine 
for a branch raise system of mining was continued and 
one portion of the mine was drawn to completion, yield- 
ing an estimated recovery of 97.8'< of the orebody of a 
grade that averaged 2.07', copper. The Consolidated 
Coppermines Co. at Kimberly was financed, consider- 
able development performed and a 1000-ton flotation 
mill completed. 

At Tonopah production of silver ore was maintained 
at a high rate. The cyanidation plant at Millers was 
dismantled and installed in Tonopah and new ore was 
developed in many of the subsidiary properties in the 
district. Manhattan experienced a year of renewed 
activities through discoveries at the White Caps mine, 
and metallurgical study resulted in the installation of 
milling equipment. Goldfield Consolidated continued to 
produce and a modified leasing system was put into ef- 
fect Feb. 1. New ore was uncovered in the Aurora Con- 
solidated at Aurora. 

Discoveries and shipments of good-grade silver ore 
were made from virgin deep workings on the Comstock 
Lode, where pumping lowered the water below the 3000 
ft. level. The Jarbidge district attracted attention by 
the advent of new interests and new development. 

In the Searchlight ("strict the Quartette and Duplex 

mines shipped gold, copper and lead ores. A high-grade 
gold milling ore was produced by the Chief of the Hills 
Cold Milling Co., and the Big Casino developed low- 
grade ore. (lark County shipped zinc, lead, copper and 
gold-platinum ores and also developed manganese ore 
in 1917. Gold discoveries were made in the El Dorado 
Canyon district, where several mills were in operation. 

At Tuscarora the Holden Mining and Milling Co. 
leased and pure based adjacent properties, and began the 
erection of a mill. The Delker, 20 miles west of Currie. 
shipped Id cars of copper ore. 

The Western Ore Purchasing Co., at Hazen, increased 
its capacity to 900 tons. The Mason Valley copper 
smeltery at Thompson resumed operations on Feb. 13, 
again affording an outlet for the Yerington district ores. 
The Nevada Douglas and Bluestone maintained steady 
shipments to the smeltery. At Rochester, the Nevada 
Packard Co. increased mill capacity to 100 tons. At Mill 
i ity the Sutter produced 30 tons of tungsten ore per 
day. A number of properties in. Humboldt County in- 
creased production, and at National development was 
active. In Lander County the Nevada Austin Mining 
Co. constructed a mill. 

The Nevada United Co. was leased by outside inter- 
ests. In December 50 tons of ore per day was shipped 
from Aurum. Copper, gold and silver ore was shipped 
from the Lucky Deposit groups. Lead was shipped from 
a discovery in the Quake Range. A five-stamp mill was 
started at Willow Creek. The U. S. Tungsten Co. ceased 

Pioche shipped 150 000 tons in 1917. The Davidson 
Mining Co. was launched and the Amalgamated-Pioche 
plant closed. 

New .Jersey and New York 

The New Jersey Zinc Co. at Franklin Furnace, N. J., 
suffered somewhat from labor shortage. Transportation 
difficulties, however, were not so serious as in other 
parts of the country, shipments being made continuously 
in solid trains that plied between the company's mines 
and reduction works. In New York at Edwards the 
Northern Ore Co. mined zinc-pyrite ore in 1917. The 
St. Nicholas Zinc Co., at Summitville, built a mill but 
later ceased to operate it. At Graham, the New York 
Zinc Co. planned to develop a similar area between Port 
.Jervis and Summitville. The graphite output near Ti- 
conderoga was doubled. The St. Lawrence County talc 
mines and the iron mines in the Lake Champlain district 
produced at maximum capacity. 

New Mexico 

In Grant County, the Chino Copper Co., the most 
important operation in New Mexico, maintained its 
normal output in 1917. The Burro Mountain Copper 
Co. at Tyrone produced steadily at the rate of 40,000 
tons per month ; development was favorable and at the 
company's mill improvements in the application of the 
flotation process were made. The Austin-Amazon 
opened a wide body of copper ore on the 70-ft. level. 
At Steeplerock the Carlisle mine reopened to the 750- 
ft. level, completed its mill, and several other interests 
entered the district. Pinos Altos, Fierro and Han- 
over camps all experienced renewed activity, and the 
Hanover-Bessemer Steel and Iron completed its 400-ton 
mill at Fierro. 

January L2, 1918 


i i . 

The Lordsburg district production was materially 
Increased. The largest producers were the 86 Mining 
Co.. the Lawrence, and the Nellie Bly. The "86" com- 
panj started a new concentrator o( 600 tons capacity. 

The Lawrence Mining Co., a subsidiary of the San Toy, 
purchased the Bouncy mine from the Western Mining 
and Development Co. The South Chino Copper Co. pur- 
ihased the Atwood and the property of the Valedon 
Mining Co. The Tyndale Copper Co. also purchased 
i number of claim groups in the vicinity of the Bonney. 
The Last Chance silver mine, at Leidendorf, near Lords- 
burg, was taken under lease and bond by local interests. 
In Dona Ana County the Phelps Dodge developments 
in the Organ Mountain were curtailed on account of war 
conditions. The Senorito Copper Corporation at Seno- 
rito, in Sandoval County, contracted for a Greenawalt 
leaching and electrolytic plant, but owing to delayed de- 
liveries installed a 100-ton semi-fusion reducing furnace 
for the carbonate ores, and began work on a 60-ton 
reverberatory for high-grade chalcocite found in the 

In Socorro County the mines of the Kelly district 
produced steadily; lead, zinc and copper ores and con- 
centrates were shipped by the Empire Zinc Co., the 
Ozark Smelting and Mining Co. and by leasers. In 
the Mogollon district of this county the usual activity of 
the precious-metal mines continued, Socorro Mines and 
the Mogollon Mines Co. being the leading producers; the 
former completed the tramway to the Pacific mine ores 
of which are now delivered directly to the Socorro mill. 

South Dakota 

In the Black Hills production of gold was maintained 
at normal in 1917 and the period witnessed the continua- 
tion of some important development work and the com- 
pletion of new enterprises. The Homestake practically 
finished the second unit of the new hydro-electric plant 
an Spearfish Creek. Small shipments of tungsten ores 
went forward from Lawrence and Pennington counties. 
The Homestake's five-stamp mill produced tungsten con- 
centrates regularly and shipped several carloads. The 
ore is ferberite and wolframite, and the concentrates 
contain 3 to 3.5% manganese with a little barite and 
scheelite but are free from tin or copper; a little gold 
is also recovered from this mill. The Elkhorn Tung- 
sten Co., near Hill City, prepared its mill for tungsten 
ores. The American Tungsten Co. produced 3550 lb. of 
tin concentrates containing 50% metallic tin, but ceased 
operations during the summer. The Trojan company 
purchased the Two Johns mine and leased the Republic. 
The mill was increased to handle 500 tons and improved 
for higher extraction by finer grinding and slimes- 
plant additions. The Republic and Two Johns proper- 
ties contain ore of milling grade, and with the Portland, 
Empire and Decorah, and considerable custom ore as- 
sured, a good supply for the future is provided. 

J. T. Milliken of St. Louis, after diamond drilling the 
Oro Hondo, adjoining the Homestake on the south, pur- 
chased the property; he also took an option on the 
Montezuma and Whizzers mines, where prospecting by 
diamond drill was conducted with a view to developing 
pyritic ores. The Golden Reward company's 150-ton 
cyanide mill treated the company's gold ores from the 
Bald Mountain district; the Astoria roaster was not 
operated, on account of fuel shortage. Mogul Mining 

Co. operated its mill steadily with a capacity oi 100 
tons per- day. To work ore from the lower levels of 
the Mogul, Ofer ami adjoining groups, a tunnel wai 
started to prospect the oi ol these propertiei 

The New Puritan mine open i a bearing quart 

zite ore after considerable development. The Wasp No. 

2 made a final shipment of tungsten ore. and was 
entirely abandoned and dismantled. 

The Custer Peak Copper Co. completed a 10-stamp 
mill and produced native-copper concentrates from shall 
ore. The Spokane Lead and Silver Co. made one 
shipment of lead-silver ore and completed a 50-ton con- 
centrator. At Galena some old properties were reopened 
and ores containing lead and silver shipped. Two i 
were forwarded to Omaha from the Blue Lead copper 
mine. The Silver Queen shipped II cars of lead-silver 
ore. The Homelode company completed a :?0-ton amalga- 
mation-concentration mill. The U. S. Gypsum Co. com- 
pleted a 100-ton plaster mill, in which operations started. 
The Dakota Plaster Co. erected a mill at Black Hawk. 
The Lithia mines at Keystone operated continuously 
and some ores were valuable for the phosphoric-acid 
content. Mica was shipped from Keystone, Hill City 
and Custer. 

Oregon and Washington 

The most noteworthy development in Oregon during 
1917 was the discovery of new chromite deposits and 
their production; active search revealed bodies of ore 
in southwestern and eastern Oregon in Grant, Josephine, 
Douglas, Coos and Curry Counties, and 30 operators 
shipped. In the Homestead district, Baker County, the 
Iron Dyke gold-copper mine, a body of good-grade ore 
was opened and other old mines in this county were re- 
opened. In the Waldo district, Josephine County, the 
Queen of Bronze, Waldo and Grayback copper mines and 
Simmons-Cameron-Logan hydraulic mine were sold. 
In Washington the development of the great magnesite 
deposits of Stevens County and the construction of cal- 
cining plants therefor were the most important events 
in the mining industry in 1917. At Northport, a Cot- 
trell precipitation plant was added at the lead-smelting 
works of the Northport Smelting and Refining Company. 

Tennessee and Other Southern States 

Labor conditions in Tennessee were generally quiet 
in 1917. The copper companies in the Ducktown district 
operated as usual with but slight interruption. Coal 
lands changed hands in large tracts in the Cumberland- 
Plateau coal field. In Hancock County new zinc de- 
posits were discovered and at one point preparations 
made for development. An event of interest was the 
discovery of manganese in Bradley County, near Cleve- 
land. In Knox County there was a shortage of both 
white and black labor. At Mascot the table section of 
the zinc plant was almost doubled in size. 

In Virginia prospecting for iron and manganese was 
active and several promising deposits were discovered; 
production was mainly from the Crimora and Powell's 
Fort mines. High barite prices created new interest 
in this mineral, and a number of old deposits were 
reopened. Iron blast furnaces that had been idle for 
years were repaired and blown in. The West End 
furnace, at Roanoke, was put into blast by John B. 
Guernsey & Co., who also repaired the furnace at 



Vol. 105, No. 2 

".am: this was put in blast on Spiegel, and in 1918 
will produce ferromanganese, A Dumber of fun 

making foundary iron produced spiege) or 
ferromanganese. A noticeable effect of war conditions 
on blast furnaces in Virginia was thai these were able 
to run more economically on Lake ores than on native 
limonite ores; on account of labor conditions, an ade- 
quate supply of limestone was hard to maintain. 
Virginia pyrite mines operated at capacity and in 
statee pyrite mine in Lumpkin County 
brought into production. Shipments were made of 
sulphide ore from the dumps of the old Tallapoosa mine 
in Haralson County and underground development was 
in pi - In West Virginia the United Zinc Smelting 

Corporation's new works, at Moundsville. was completed; 
about 50 tons of sulphuric acid was being made per day 
and the toasted ore shipped to the Clarksburg plant. 


In Texas the Presidio silver mine in the Shafter dis- 
trict continued to be the principal producer of silver. 
Small shipments of silver-copper ore were made from 
the Allamoore-Yan Horn region, in Culberson County, 
and copper ore from deposits in the "Red Beds" in 
Foard and Hardeman Counties. The Freeport Sulphur 
Co., in Brazoria County, increased its output having 
placed a new "steaming plant" in commission. The 
sulphur deposits of Culberson County attracted con- 
siderable attention but the output was small in com- 
parison with the coast property ; a railroad for the 
district was projected. The Terlingua quicksilver dis- 
trict continued its record production, new properties 
being brought in as a result of the high prices. The 
old tin mine in the Franklin Mountains, 13 miles north 
of El Paso, was bought at receiver's sale by Mayor 
Charles Davis for $21,000. In Llano and Burnet Coun- 
ties, graphite properties were under exploitation. 


In 1017 Alaska produced minerals valued at $41,760,- 
000 which, although about $6,870,000 less than in 1916, 
was greater than that of any other year. The most 
valuable mineral product was copper, of which 88,200,- 
000 lb., valued at $24,000,000, was produced. This is 
less than the output of 1916, which was 119,600,000 lb., 
valued at $29,480,000. The reduction was due largely 
to labor troubles and is not necessarily permanent. 
The gold produced in 1917, $15,450,000, was also less 
than that produced in 1916, which was $17,240,000, and 
is the smallest since 1904. The reduction was due chiefly 
to curtailment of operations because of the scarcity of 
labor and the high cost of materials, but in part to 
the disaster at the Treadwell mine and the depletion 
of some of the richer placers. During the year Alaska 
also produced silver valued at $1,050,000, coal valued 
at $300,000, lead valued at $160,000, tin valued at $160,- 
. antimony valued at $40,000, and tungsten, chromi- 
um, petroleum, marble, gypsum, graphite, and platinum 
valued at $600,000. During 33 years of mining Alaska 
has produced more than $391,000,000 in gold, silver, 
copper, and other minerals. Of this amount, $293,000,- 
represents the value of the gold and $88,200,000 
that of the copper. 

•Excerpt* from advance sheets of the report of <;. C Martin 
for the U. S. Geological Survey 

The data in hand indicate that the value of the placer 
gold output in 1917 was $9,850,000; in 1916 it was 
$11,140,000. The decrease was due chiefly to restric- 
tion of operations because of the high cost of supplies 
and the scarcity of labor. The placer output was in- 
creased only m the Tolovana, Marshall and Ruby dis- 
tricts and at the new Tolstoi camp. 

Aboul 33 gold-lode mines were operated in 1917, com- 
pared with 29 in 1916. The lode gold mined decreased 
from $5,912,000 in 1916 to about $5,250,000 in 1917. 
due chiefly to the disaster at the Treadwell mine. South- 
eastern Alaska, especially the Juneau district, was still 
the only center of large quartz-mining development in 
the territory. Xext in importance is the Willow Creek 
field. Gold-lode mining on Prince William Sound, 
Kenai Peninsula, and in the Fairbanks district was at 
a standstill. 

The copper production of Alaska in 1917 was about 
88,200,000 lb. This is less than the production in 1916, 
which was 119,600,000 lb., but is greater than the pro- 
duction of any other year. The reduction in output 
was mainly caused by labor troubles at Kennecott's 
Bonanza mine. During the year 17 copper mines were 
operated, compared with 18 in 1916 — eight in the 
Ketchikan district, six in the Prince William Sound dis- 
trict, and three in the Chitina. The output of the 
Kennecott mines in the Chitina district overshadowed 
that from all others. 

About 232 tons of stream tin was produced in Alaska 
in 1917. Most of this came from the York field, where 
two tin dredges were operated. Developments were con- 
tinued on the Lost River lode-tin mine. The rest of the 
concentrates were recovered incidentally to placer-gold 
mining, chiefly in the Hot Springs region. The mining 
of antimony ore began in Alaska in 1915 and continued 
on about the same scale throughout the first half of 
1916, when a fall in the price of antimony put an end 
to most of these operations. In 1917 mining continued 
at two properties in the Fairbanks district. 

The Fairbanks district and Seward Peninsula were 
the principal producers of tungsten in Alaska in 1917. 
In the Fairbanks district two tungsten mines were in 
course of development. At one of these mines one unit 
of a 75-ton mill was in operation and late in the summer 
was turning out several hundred pounds of scheelite 
concentrates daily. At the other mine a similar mill 
was in course of construction. Underground work was 
in progress at both mines. The present indications 
give promise of a large increase in the production of 
tungsten in the Fairbanks field. In Seward Peninsula 
tungsten was produced principally by sluicing the resid- 
ual scheelite-bearing lode material in Sophie Gulch. 
Smaller quantities were recovered as the result of placer 
mining at other places. 

The production of petroleum from the only oil claim 
patented in Alaska, in the Katalla district, increased 
somewhat in 1917. Drilling continued on a small scale, 
but no new productive wells were obtained. About 61,- 
000 tons of coal, valued at $300,000, was mined in 
Alaska in 1917. The largest production was derived 
from the Eska Creek mines, in the Matanuska field, 
which were taken over by the Alaskan Engineering 
Commission. Coal was mined also at the Doherty mine, 
in the Matanuska field; at the Bluff Point mine, on 
Cook Inlet; on Cache Creek, and near Candle. The most 

L2, L918 



importanl evenl of the year in connection with coal tnin- 
inj was the completion of the Matanuska branch of 
tin' Government railroad. The high-grade coal on 
Chicaloon River is now being opened by the Alaskan 
ineering Commission, and small shipments to 
Anchorage were reported. Work preparatory to mining 
was undertaken on Moose Creek bj private lessees. 

The coal lands in the Nenana coal field were sub 
divided and will be offered for leasing at an early date. 
The Government railroad is now being built southward 
to this field from Xanana, on the Tanana River, and 
will probably reach the field and make the coal avail- 
able for river shipment in the summer of 1918. A 
private railroad from Controller Bay to a patented coal 
claim in the eastern end of the Bering River field was 
under construction. 

In southern Alaska nine gold-lode mines, eight cop- 
per mines, and two placer mines were in operation in 
1917. In the Ketchikan district no gold mines operated. 
Gold-lode mining on a large scale continued at the 
Alaska-Juneau and Alaska-Gastineau mines. The first 
units of the new mill were placed in operation and treat- 

ing in October about 4000 tons daily and the Ala I 
Ga tineau 7500 ton per day. The Treadwell and Mi 
H. hi mini were flooded by the sea and abandoned The 

Ready-Bullion, ti i i •■< i underground, ••■.., pro 

tected bj a bulkhead, but precautions reduced the nor- 
mal capacity to one third 

In the Copper Riv< r ba in the Jumbo and Kennecotl 
Bonanza were the largest producer On Prince Wil- 
liam Sound six copper and seven gold mines operated. 
In the Susitna region Willow Creek produced from four 
lode mines. Cache (reck continued to be the principal 
source of placer gold in the Ventna basin. In the Yukon 
basin $6,500,000 worth of gold was produced in 1917. 
The principal camps in order of output were: Iditarod, 
Fairbanks, Tolovana, Ruby, Hot Springs, Marshall, 
Koyukuk and Circle. In addition the Fairbanks dis- 
trict produced lode gold, silver, lead, antimony and 
tungsten. In the Kuskokwim basin production was 
limited to placers on about the usual scale. On the 
Seward Peninsula the gold output was $2,700,000 and 
in addition the district produced some stream tin, tung- 
sten and graphite. 

Mining in Ontario in 1917 


THE value of the metal output of Ontario in 1917 
was about $58,000,000, or nearly $3,000,000 more 
than that of 1916. There was probably a small 
decrease, say $250,000 or $300,000, in the value of the 
non-metallic production. The net result, therefore, was 
an increase in the total value, as compared with 1916, 
of over $2,500,000. This was due in the main to the 
higher prices prevailing for three out of the four chief 
metals of production — gold, silver, nickel and copper. 

Gold Output Diminished 

The constantly rising cost of labor and supplies re- 
acted against gold mining. The output was about 
$8,750,000, as compared with $10,339,259 in 1916. Part 
of the falling off was due to the closing of the Dome 
mill in November. The Dome ore is low grade, and 
while producing a profit in normal times, could not 
contend with present conditions. Production for nine 
months was $1,219,000. All the other Porcupine prop- 
erties, however, continued to operate. Hollinger, the 
largest mine, while suspending dividends for part of 
the year, turned out bullion to the value of about 
$4,450,000. Mclntyre-Porcupine had an output of about 
$1,600,000. Other mines in the producing group were 
Porcupine Crown, Porcupine- Vipond-North Thompson, 
and Schumacher. Dome Lake also produced a little 
bullion. Two or three other properties are developing 
and will in time add to the output. The total for the 
Porcupine camp was about $8,300,000. 

There are now two mines at Kirkland Lake in the 
producing class ; namely, Tough-Oakes and Teck-Hughes. 
Lake Shore, Kirkland Lake, Wright-Hargreaves and 
Dther prospects are under development, and when the 
mills now being constructed are completed there will be 
a treatment capacity of 530 tons of ore per day. Other 

•Deputy minister of mines for Ontario, Toronto, Can. 

gold camps, all promising, but in the earlier stages of 
development, are Munro Township, Bourke's, Boston 
Creek, West Shining Tree, Tashota, Dryden and Powell- 
Cairo. Sturgeon Lake has not yet begun to produce 
since reopening, and Long Lake (Canadian Exploration 
Co.) has ceased operations. 

In Munro, the Croesus mine, the shaft of which 
showed quartz of phenomenal richness, is being explored 
at a depth of 400 ft. Buff-Munro is another good- 
looking prospect. The Anderson farm, at Bourke's, is 
developing favorably, and Murray-Moggridge, at Wolf 
Lake, is well regarded. The principal Boston Creek 
properties are Miller Independence and Boston Hollinger 
(now Patricia). West Shining Tree shows samples 
containing much free gold. 

There is usually at least one new gold area located 
in Northern Ontario each year. That for 1917 is 
near the headwaters of Lightning River, a small stream 
which flows into Lake Abitibi from the south. A good 
find was made here last autumn by a prospector named 
Cochenour, and a number of claims have already been 
staked out. The camp is about 30 miles from the 
Temiskaming & Northern Ontario Ry., not far from 
the Quebec border, and is reached by a trail from 
Kirkland Lake, the railway station being Swastika. 
Geological conditions are said to resemble those of 
the Porcupine district. 

Nipissing Loses Long-Held Position of Premier 
Silver Producer 

The Ontario output of silver in 1917 was about 20,- 
000,000 oz. Production came almost entirely from the 
mines of Cobalt and outlying camps. The Mining 
Corporation of Canada assumed the role of leading 
producer, so long held by Nipissing. This company 
operates two mines, Townsite-City and Cobalt Lake. A 



Vol. 105, No. 2 

rich system of veins is being worked in the Townsite- 
beneath tl ts and buildings of Cobalt, 

including the Timiskaming ..v. Northern Ontario Ry. 
Is much high-grade ore. Perhaps one- 
quarter of the entire silver yield from Cobalt in 1917, 

rom these workings. 

Nipissing had a good year, producing about 3,750,000 
ual to its output of L916. This mine has 
dividend payments, up to the 
present, of more than $17,000,000. Kerr Lake also 
nearly equalled its output for 1916, about 2,275,000 oz. 
5 turned out about 1,800,000 oz, and McKinley- 
O'Brien and Temiskaming 
had good yields. Beaver, Buffalo, Crown Reserve. La 
Rose. Hudson Bay, Trethewey. etc, also turned out 
bullion, but for the most part on a reduced scale. The 
unusually rich lode at .Miller Lake-O'Brien has given 
this mine an important place, and is leading to a 
revival of interest in the Gowganda camp. A number 
of the once-famous mines at Cobalt are fast becoming 
memories; nevertheless, the aggregate production for 
1917 was probably equal to that of 1916, and the re- 
ceipts from sales of silver, owing to the marked rise 
in price, were nearly $3,300,000 greater. What seems 
to be a good find of native silver was made by a pros- 
pector named Kell. in Corkill Township, Gowganda 
Mining Division, a considerable distance southeast of 
the known deposits. 

The metallurgical feature of 1917 was the rapid 
advance of the flotation process of concentration. This 
will enable many million ounces of silver to be re- 
covered from hitherto valueless tailings and will add 
materially to th.2 life of the camp. Stout resistance was 
offered by the Cobalt companies to the royalties asked 
by Minerals Separation and the matter was referred to 
the Government of Canada for investigation. 

Progress in Nickel and Copper 

The mattes produced by the Sudbury smelters in 
1917 contained about 41,500 tons of nickel, say 200 
tons more than in 1916. At 27k. per lb. the value 
of the nickel in matte form was $22,400,000. In 1916 
the production, on a basis of 25c, was valued at $20,- 

19 279. Both producers, the Canadian Copper Co. 
and the Mond Nickel Co.. maintained a high level of 
production, and each is now adding another furnace 
to its smelting equipment. The Copper company drew 
upon the Creighton and Crean Hill mines for the bulk 
of its ore, No. 2 mine having been closed down during 
the year. Production from the Creighton shaft rose 
occasionally as high as 5000 tons per day, and is now 
averaging 100,000 tons per month. The new rockhouse 
at this mine, of steel-frame, hollow-tile and cement 
construction, is one of the most complete on the con- 
tinent. The Mond company raised its ore from the 
Garson, Victoria, Worthington and Levack mines. The 
Alexo mine, in Dundonald, had a small production. 

The report of the Royal Ontario Nickel Commission, 
published early in 1917, estimated the "proved ore" 
of the Sudbury region at 70,000,000 tons. The results 
of diamond drilling since that time have, it is said, 
at least doubled these figures. Extensive drilling was 
done at the following mines: Levack, Frood Extension, 
Murray, Falconbridge ( Longyear Syndicate), and in the 
Creighton area. At the Victoria No. 1 mine, the Mond 

company is putting the shaft down from 2600 to 3000 
ft. The British America Nickel Corporation had about 
400 men at work on the power plant and smelter build- 
ings at the -Murray mine, and sunk a shaft about 800 
ft. At Port Colborne, the International Nickel Co.'s 
plant for treating the Canadian Copper Co.'s mattes 
is neaiing completion, and will be refining nickel and 
copper early in 1918. The works have an initial yearly 
capacity of about 10,000 tons of nickel, and a corre- 
sponding quantity of copper. 

Litigation against the nickel companies for damage 
to crops was brought to a head during the year, Judge 
Middleton granting damages, but on a much smaller 
scale than was claimed. The Canadian Copper Co. re- 
moved its roasting yards to Mileage 17 on the Algoma 
Eastern Ry., where the likelihood of damage being done 
is less than at Copper Cliff, and the Mond Nickel Co. 
has given up heap roasting in the summer time. 

Copper in Ontario is a byproduct of nickel, the ores 
of Sudbury carrying on an average 1.5% Cu. The 
mattes in 1917 contained approximately 21,250 tons of 
copper, or about 1000 tons less than in 1916. The value, 
at 18 k per lb. in the matte, was, say. $7,650,000. A 
quantity of non-nickeliferous ore was raised from the 
Tiptop and Mine Centre mines, also by the Sudbury 
Copper and Kenyon Copper companies. At the plant of 
the last named, near Massey station, an oil flotation 
process was installed. 

Iron Ore and Pig Iron 


Two Ontario mines produced iron ore in 1917 — Helen 
and Magpie — both owned and operated by the Algoma 
Steel Corporation. The combined production for nine 
months ended Sept. 30 was 138,808 tons, of which about 
two-thirds was exported to Lake Erie ports in the 
United States, the remainder being sent to the com- 
pany's own furnaces at Sault Ste. Marie. The ore from 
these mines is treated in the roasters at the Magpie 
plant for reduction of the sulphur contents of both ores, 
and the elimination of the carbonic acid from the 
Magpie ore, which is a siderite. The product is a 
good grade of bessemer material, containing a consider- 
able percentage of manganese, and is in demand by 
United States ironmasters. 

Blast furnaces at Sault Ste. Marie, Port Colborne 
Deseronto and Hamilton produced 513,232 tons of pi^ 
iron up to Sept. 30. At the same rate the output foi 
1917 would be around 685,000 tons. About 10% of th< 
ore smelted was from Ontario mines, the remaindei 
being imported from the United States. 

Approximately 540 tons of lead was produced ii 
Ontario during the first nine months of 1917. Mos 1 
of this was obtained at the smeltery of the estate o 
James Robertson, Galetta, and the remainder by th< 
Kingston Smelting Co. The ores were mined at Galetta 
Carleton County, and at Somerville Township, Victori: 
County, respectively. 

Cobalt, Nickel and Non-Metallic Products 

From the silver ores of Cobalt, cobalt and nick 
oxides and other compounds, also metallic cobalt an 
nickel, are recovered as byproducts at the refineries 
These substances were produced to the value of ove 
$900,000 for the nine months ended Sept. 30. Metalli 


January 12, I91K 


I 19 

cobalt is coming into use as a component of stellite for 
high-speed tools. Chromium and tungsten are the other 
ingredients of this alloy. 

Of non-metallic products there is normally an an- 
imal production of Sio.oim.oi • in value. 

Arsenic is another byproduct of the Cobalt silver ores, 
and upward of 2000 tons was made in L917. Supplies 
of arseiiic. hitherto imported into America from Bel- 
gium. England and elsewhere, have diminished, owing 
bo the war, and the price has gone up to 16c. per lb. 
There are deposits of mispickel in Hastings County and 
elsewhere, which might be drawn upon to meet the large 
requirements in the manufacture of insecticides, glass 
and pigments. 

Building materials, such as brick, lime, stone, and 
cement, are produced in large quantities. In 1916 the 
output had an estimated value of slightly under $5,000,- 
000. The building trade in 1917 was in the same 
depressed condition as in 1916, and production was on 
a corresponding scale. 

Petroleum production is declining year by year. 
Domestic crude now suffices for only a small part of 
the requirements for refining purposes. The yield for 
1917 was doubtless under 7,000,000 Imp. gal. The 
natural gas supply is feeling the effect of the heavy 
drafts upon it of late years, and there is at present 
the prospect of manufacturing industries being de- 
prived of its use in part of the field of distribution. 
In 1916 the output of the wells amounted to 17,953,396 
thousand cu.ft, and for 1917 the figures will be ap- 
proximately the same. A well put down in Dover 
Township, Kent County, some distance into the Trenton 
formation, gave an initial flow of over 6,000,000 cu.ft. 
per day. The pressure and output have now been much 
reduced, and oil is taking the place of gas. 

Pyrite Mining in Ontario 

There are large deposits of pyrite in Ontario, and 
this material is in active demand as a source of sulphur 
for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, required particu- 
larly in the making of munitions. In northwestern 
Ontario the mines at Northpines and Goudreau Lake, 
owned by the Nichols Chemical Co., were extensively 
worked in 1917, the output being exported to the United 
States. This company also operates an acid plant and 
pyrite mine at Sulphide, in eastern Ontario. Other 
deposits in that section are being worked as well. 

The talc industry is expanding. There are now two 
mills for grinding and preparing talc for the market. 
The product finds a large use as filling in the manu- 
facture of paper. Finer grades are worked up in the 
cosmetic trade. The talc-producing mines are in the 
neighborhood of Madoc. 

Fluorspar was in strong demand in 1917, and the 
price went up to $20 and $25 per ton. The producing 
area is near Madoc, and is about seven miles wide. 
The veins vary from a few inches up to 10 or 12 ft. 
in length. In places the fluorspar carries calcite and 
barite. In others it is much purer, running up to 90%. 
The most important development, so far, is on a prop- 
erty owned by Messrs. Wellington and Munroe, on 
which a shaft has been sunk to a depth of 80 ft., and 
130 ft. of drifting has been done at the 65-ft. level. 
The body of fluorspar averages about 6 ft. in width. 
Up to Nov. 15, 50 carloads had been shipped from 

this property, most oJ it to the Dominion steel and 
iron Co., in Nova Scotia, Con tgnmenta were also made 

from other deposits. 

An excellenl quality of feldspar is raised from quai 
ries on the Kingston & Pembroke Ky., for shipment 
to the pottei ii Liverpool, I >hio, and Newark. 

N. .1. Operations continued throughout l '.) 17. Aboul 
12,000 or 14,000 tuns is annually exported. The prin- 
cipal mien mine is the Lacey, owned by the General 
Electric Co. It yields the "amber" variety, which is 
esteemed for electrical apparatus. Production wa 
curtailed in 1917. 

Graphite is found in several parts of eastern Ontario. 
Two companies operated mines and mills in 1917 — 
Globe, at Fort Elmsley, and Black Donald, at Calabogie. 
The output was about 4000 tons of refined graphite 
Perhaps a third of this was flake, used in the manufac- 
ture of crucibles, and also for lubricants. The dust, 
or foundry plumbago, is made up for stove polish, mold 
facings, and similar uses. 

A find of the mineral euxenite is interesting as a 
source of radium. A feldspar quarry in South Sher- 
brooke Township contained a zone in which this sub- 
stance occurred. Unfortunately, examination failed to 
reveal a commercial supply. Samples of the euxenite 
contained up to 10.5 ' , of uranium oxido. 

Mining in Manitoba in 1917 
By R. C. Wallace* 5 

It was pointed out in 1916 that three mineral areas 
were being developed in Manitoba. These were: The 
district north of The Pas, the Rice Lake district and 
the Star Lake region. At the end of 1917 the last two 
districts were practically as they were at the end of 
1916. In the Gold Lake area (Rice Lake district) the 
Gold Pan mine, which had been closed since June, 1916, 
was reopened and some phenomenal ore obtained; fur- 
ther work is being carried on. North of Hole River, 
in the Hay Lake district, some good prospects were 
opened, but otherwise the district is marking time. In 
the Star Lake country the only matter of interest in 
1917 was the discovery of molybdenite fairly widely 
distributed in pegmatitic veins. The deposits are pos- 
sibl; ? of economic value, but no development of conse- 
quence was done. 

In the district north of The Pas, work of real import- 
ance was accomplished in 1917. The western end of 
this belt shows mixed sulphides, and the eastern end 
chiefly gold-quartz veins. On both types of deposits 
substantial work was carried on throughout 1917. 
On the Mandy Mining Co.'s copper property over 3000 
tons of ore were mined in the winter of 1916 and freight- 
ed to The Pas, to be transported by rail to the Trail 
smeltery, in British Columbia. This winter over 10,000 
tons will be taken out in similar fashion. Only a high- 
grade deposit could be handled in this way. At the 
low-grade Flin-flon property — now the Great Sulphides 
— drilling was continued during the summer, and it is 
understood that the extent of this deposit is now fairly 
well defined. Buildings were erected to accommodate a 
staff of 85, and it is expected that mining will begin 

•Professor, department of geology and mineralogy. University of 
Manitoba, Winnipeg. Mar Can. 



Vol. M)5, No. 2 

in 1918. It will be necessary to spend a large amount 
•.il on this propertyi as operations must be 
icted on a considerable scale. 
At Herb Lake, at the east end of the belt, shafts won' 
sunk on several gold properties, and the showings en- 
countered justify the expectation of some substantial 
mines in this section. Nothing can yet be said about 
conditions below the 100-ft. level, but lateral continuity 
of the ore in the surface EOnee was shown. A road was 
cut from the Hudson Bay railway to the lake by the 

provincial government. A stamp mill is being erected 
on the Rex mine, and two or three prospects are prepar- 
ing shipments at the end of the year. 

Though the province had made a nonmetallic produc- 
tion for many years, the first output of metalliferous 
minerals was in 1917. Moreover, the production would 
have been much larger were it not for transportation 
difficulties of a formidable nature. Indications point 
to a steady and rapid increase in production, both in 
copper and in gold. 


in Mexico 

THE status of the mining industry in Mexico in 
1917 was, in effect, similar to that of the two or 
three years preceding. While there was no official 
let-up in the state of civil war that has existed so long in 
actual fact the exhaustion of the resources of the country 
made a condition of real war almost impossible. The 
only approach to war conditions were the guerilla activi- 
ties of a few bandits. In the absence of robust au- 
thority, even the weakest of these bands is able to over- 
come the hypothetical resistance offered to it. Under 
such circumstances, transportation cannot be relied 
upon, nor can foreign corporations or individuals at- 
tempt to develop or operate mines with any degree of 
security. The supplies necessary are almost impossible 
to get, and the product, to be exported or shipped to the 
Federal capital, is more than likely to be confiscated en 
route by the patriots who happen to be opposed to the 
government of the moment, whatever it is. 

Excessive Taxes Being Levied 

The Carranza government has trailed along in a vacil- 
lating way, making laws of all kinds, and, consequently, 
making a lot of exceptions to them. The new mining 
tax as it is proposed would be a deathblow to mining 
in the republic, and no one expects it to be enforced 
rigidly. In the report of the El Oro Mining & Ry. Co., 
which was offered in October, 1917, the matter was 
brought out with a good deal of emphasis. The chair- 
man called attention to the fact that taxation has been 
increased severely and said, further: "With the general 
increase in taxes throughout the world at the present 
time, one might not feel disposed to complain of this 
if it was within reason, but in Mexico it is not. To the 
mining companies, particularly those owning low-grade 
mines, it is simply prohibitory. Taking the last com- 
pleted year of the El Oro company, the present scale of 
taxation has risen from a sum equal to 114% of the net 
profits of the company to 32%. Moreover, the arbitrary 
increase in wages enforced by the state and federal 
authorities, and various other penalties imposed upon 
employers of labor under the new constitution, have 
raised the working costs in El Oro's case by $3.11 — 
that is, roundly, by 100^— thus rendering unprofitable 
the treatment under conditions that prevail today of 
more than half of the ore hitherto included in the ore 
reserves. Moreover, the framers of the Constitution, 
with the unconcealed intent of penalizing the employer 
for the benefit of the workman, went a step further. 
In addition to innumerable other provisions of this 
famous document, all having the same object in view, 

the government is authorized to ascertain the profits of 
mining companies, and, having done so, to allocate such 
profits as to it may seem just and fair between the em- 
ployer and the employed. The operation of mining prop- 
erties in Mexico has reached a crisis at which the indus- 
try must either terminate or be conducted under less 
onerous conditions." 

American companies and American officials have 
pointed out the discrepancies in the law as framed, and 
have also made representation as to the practical con- 
fiscation of the mining industry that is affected by the 
laws. It is hoped, and confidently expected, that the 
laws will be changed radically, either in formula or in 
their application. The ordinary mining operation can- 
not stand the kind of taxes that are being levied, and, 
if it is continued, the mines will be abandoned. 

In the States of Sinaloa and Tamaulipas there was 
practically no mining in 1917. In Durango, the mining 
industry struggled along weakly under the burden of 
increased taxation and interrupted transport. The Cia. 
Minera de Penoles was more successful than most other 
properties, having operated at about half capacity in 
the first half and at about 75% of capacity in the last 
half of 1917. In the State of Zacatecas, mining was at 
a complete standstill during the first six months as a 
result of suspension of railroad traffic and unsafe con- 
ditions. Fresnillo Co. resumed operation of its hypo- 
sulphite-leaching plant at Fresnillo, and at the end of 
1917 was treating about 15,000 tons monthly. At Som- 
brerete, the Sombrerte Mining Co. resumed operations 
on a small scale, and at Concepcion del Oro some mines 
reopened and made small shipments to the Saltillo and 
Monterrey smelteries. The old mines comprising the 
camp immediately surrounding the City of Zacatecas 
were practically dormant, though some surface work 
was occasionally done. 

Operation Possible in Some Paris of Sonora 

The mining industry in the State of Sonora was in 
some ways fortunate and in others unfortunate during 
1917. A good part of the state was under the influence 
of the Villa raiding bandits, and consequently was not 
able to call its gold its own. In other sections, espe- 
cially those that are close to the United States border, 
it was possible to continue mining at a respectable rate, 
since transportation was comparatively easy and it was 
a simple matter to provide a guard sufficient to dis- 
courage the bandit raids. 

In the Nacozari district considerable progress wa