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THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



EUEVENTH EDITION 



FIRST 


edition, 


published in three volume*, 1768— 177 1. 


SECOND 


t* 


,, ten , 


1777—1784. 


THIRD 


1* 


„ eighteen , 


1788-1797- 


FOURTH 


ft 


„ twenty , 


, 1801 — 1810. 


FIFTH 


ft 


„ twenty , 


, 1815—1817. 


SIXTH 


ft 


„ twenty , 


, 1823—1824. 


SEVENTH 


»t 


„ twenty-one , 


, 1830—1842. 


EIGHTH 


** 


„ twenty-two 


« 853— 1860. 


NINTH 


It 


„ twenty-five , 


1875—1889. 


TENTH 


tt 


ninth edition and eleven 








supplementary volumes. 


1902—1903. 


ELEVENTH 


u 


publiihcd io twenty-nine volume 


•8, 1910— I9II. 



THE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 



DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XXI 

PAYN to POLKA 



NEW YORK 

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY 

1911 






Copyright, in the United States of America, 191 1, 

by 
TheEacyclopMdia Britaaoica Gmipany. 



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXL TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS,! WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE 

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED. 



A.B.R. 



A.F.P. 



A. 6. 

A.6.T. 

A.H.* 



A.H.C 

Aa El b> 

A.Hw-8. 

A.H.8. 
A.J.G. 

A.J.H. 



A.J.L. 



A.B. 



Alfsid Bakton Remdle, M.A., D.Sc.. F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Keeper. Department of Botany, Britiah Muaeum. Author of Texi Book om OasH- 
fitchOH ai PumeriMg Plonis; Ac 

Albest Fudesick Pollaid, If .a., F.R.Hist.S. 

Profeaaor of EnsUah History in the Univerwty of London. Felknr of All Souls' 
College, Oxford. Aosittant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biograpky, 1893- 
1001. Lothian Prixeman, Oxford, itez; Arnold rrizeman. 1898. Author of 
atg^and under Ik* Protector Somerset; Hemry VIIL; Lijt qf Thomas Crammeri ftc. 

Majok Axthuk Geokce Fkedekick GsinxTHS (d. 1908). 

H.M. Inspector of Prisons. 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Nemgflte 
Secrets of the Prison House; &c. 

Akthuk Geokge Tansley, M.A., FX.S. 

Lecturer in Botany in the University of Cambridfe. Formerly Assistant Plroiessoi 
of Botany, University College, Loooon. 

AuEKT Hauck. D.Th.. D.Ph. 



{ 



PluilK ClassiJUoHom, 



Pini0» Andifw* 



4 



F61to*. 



Pluiti: Anatowty. 



essor of Church History in the University of Leipzig, a 
Icclesiastical Archaeology. Geheimer Rirchenrat of 



Prof< 

of Ecclesiastical Archaeology 



and Director of the Museum 
the Kingdom of Saxony. 



Member of the' Royal' Saxon Academy of Sciences and Corresponding Member of ' 
the Academies of Berlin and Munich. Author of KirchengesckickU Deu 



Ac Editor of the 
Theologie mnd Kirehe. 



KirchengesckickU Deutscklands; 
edition of Henog's RealencyUofidie jUr ^oleslantiscke 



PilgrillUlf*. 



Sa AsTHUE Herbebt CButCR, M.A.. D.Sc., F.R.S., F.S.A. f _, . 

Professor of Chemistry, Royal Academy of Arts. London. Author of Ckeniistry \ FVBonfl. 
0f Paints and Painting ; Engfisk Eartkenwart ; Englisk Porcelain ; &c I 



AtTHUR HOSSLET HlNTON (1863-1908). 

Editor of The Amateur Pkotopapker, 1 897-1908, and the PhOopaphic 
Caeette, 1904-1908. Author of Practical Pictorial Photoirapky; Ac. 

Snt A. HoxrruM-ScsiNDLEK, CLE. 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. 

Rev. Aechibalo Henry Sayce, D.D., LL.D., Lxrr.D. 
See the bio^irapfaical article: Saycb, A. H. 

Rev. Alexander Jaices Grieve, M.A., B.D. 



Trades \ Photography: Pictorial. 



{ 

I Pmepolli {in part). 



PnsiR: Geography and 
Statistics. 



College, Bradford. Sometime 
Mysore F.diicational Service. 

Alfred J. HmoNS, F.S.A. (1826-1903). 

H 



Pressor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United liidependent 

Registrar of Madras University, and Member of 

Formerly Member of Council and Hon. Curator of the Royal College of Music, 
London. Member of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885:' 



of the Vienna Exhibition. 1893; and of the Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of 



Plymonth Bnttmn {in pert). 



PlaDoforte {in part); 
Pitch, MnsieaL 



{ 



Editor of the Rio News \ Pwu: Geography and StalisHa. 



Andrew Jacksov Lamouretjx. 

Librarian. College of Agriculture, Cornell University. 
(Rio de Janeiro), i879-i90i, 

Alexander Macalister, M.A., LL.D., M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. [ PhraDOlogy; 

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John's ^ Phvsloraorav 
College. Author of Text Booh of Human A natomy ; Ac. I ■^•v •«v»"w«v- 



Alfred Newton, F.R^. 

See the biographical article: Newton, Alprbo 



PMeoek; PeDean; 
Penguin; Petral; 
Pheasant; Pigeon; 
Pipit; PitU; 
Plover; Poehard. 
* A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 

V 



VI 
A.8L 

A.S.WO. 

A.T.L 

B.B. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



an. 



C.B.* 
C.B.A. 

C.B.H. 

ao.K. 

C.L.K. 



apt. 


ap.j. 


cr.s.M. 


C.S.P. 


C.T.* 


C.W.R 



D.O.H. 



AoAM Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S. 

Profesaor of Zoology «t the Imperial Colleffe of Sdeoce and Technolosy, London. 
Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Trinity CoOege, Cambridge. Profeaaor of Zoology 
in the Univenity of Cambridge, 1907-1909. 

AsTHUR Shadwell, M.A., M.D., LL.D. 

Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of Tk$ London Water- 
Supply; Industrial ^JBkieucy; Drink, Temperance and Legislation. 

Andrew Seth Pringlr-Pattison. M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. 



Pressor of Logic and Metaphviics in the University of Edinbui 

Lecturer in the linivernty of^ Aberdeen, 191 1. Fellqwof the British Academy. 



>urgfa. Gifford 



Author of Man's Plau in the Cosmos-, TIk FkHosopkical Radicals i &c 

Arthur Sioth Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of 
the Geological Society of London. 

Alexander Taylor Innes, M.A., LL.D. 

Scotch Advocate. Autnor of Jdm Knox; Law ^ Creeds in Scodan d ; Studies in 
Scottish History; ftc. 

Six Bovsrton Redwood, D.Sc., F.R.S.(Edin.), F.I.C., AssocInst.C.E., 
MJNST.M.E. 
Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office, Corporation of 
London, and Port of London Authonty. President of the Society ot Chemical' 
Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Membo" of Council of 
Institute of Chemistry. Author of " Cantor " Loctmres on Petndeum; Petroleum 
and its Products; Chtmical Technology; ftc. 

Rzv. Charles Bigg, M.A., D.D. (18A0-1908). 

Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the University of Oxford, and Canon 



Ptripttoi. 
PIlglM [in parOf 
PhQosoplv. 

PlMloiRiinii. 
Pilate, PonUns. 



Pttroltiim. 



of Christ Church, 1901-1908. Formcriy Senior Student and Tutor of Christ Church. 
Headmaster of Brighton College. Author of The Christian PlatonisU of Alexandria; 
Ac 

Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. 
Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, ChdotA. 

Charles Edward Akers. 

Formeriy Times Correspondent in Buenos Aires. Author of A History of South 
America. 1854-1904. 

Charles Edward Moss, D.Sc 

Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Curator of the University Herbarium. 

Cargill Gilston Knott, D.Sc 

Lecturer on Applied Mathematio, Edinburgh University. Professor of Physics, 
Imperial University of Japan, Tokyo, 1883-1891. Author of Electricity and 
Magnetism ; Physics ; Ac 

Charles Lethbridce Kincseord, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A. 

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of L^e qf Hemry V. Editor 
of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey ef London, 

Carl Theodor Mirbt, D.Th. 

Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of PuMixistih 
im Zeitalter Cregor VII. ; Quellen ntr Ceschichte des Papstthums; Ac 

Christian Pfister, D. is. L. 

FVofessor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of 
Etudes sur le rhpu de R^tert le Pieux, 



Charles Pierfoint Johnson (1791-1880). 



Editor of J. A. Sowerby's 



Phno (tfi part). 



Phosphates. 



Psni: History {in part). 
Ptents: Ecology. 



PhotonMliy. 



PlJIM, PM«. 



Plus R.; 

Pobqr, CoOoqay oL 



PlffUi L-m. 



Plus. 



Psni: History {in pari). 



Pm1» Sir Robert 



Lecturer on Botany, Guy's Hospital, London, 1830-1873. 
En^ish Botany; &c Aathar oi Ferns ttf Great Britain; Ac 

Sir Clements Robert Marxram, R.C.B., F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Markham, Sir Clements Robert. 

The Rt. Hon. Charles Stuart Pareer, LL.D^D.CL. (1839-1910). 

M.P. for Perthshire, 1868-1874: M.P. for Perth City, 1878-1892. Honofsry FeAow, 
formeriy Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of Life ef Sir Rooert Peel; 
Ac 

Rev. Charles Taylor, M.A., D.D.. LL.D. (1840-1908). r 

Master of St John's College, Cambridge. 1881-1908. Vioe-Chanoellor, 1887-1888. J Pfrks Aboth. 
Author of Geometrical Contcs; Ac 1 

Major-General Charles Walker Robinson, C.B., D.C.L. 

Assistant Military Secretary, Headquarters of the Army, l89<>-l892. Ueut 
Governor and Seonetary, Royal Military Hospital, Chelsea, 1893-1898. Author 
Strategy ef the Peninsular War; Ac 

David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. I Pifft; 
Fellow of the British Academy. Ejccavated at Paphos, 1888: Naucratb, i899<{ Pngamnm; 
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut. 1906-1907. Director, British School at 
Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 



'^1 



PeolBniter Wtr. 



D.a 



B.A.X. 



E.A.80. 

B.Br. 

B.a 

B.Gr. 
B.J.a 

ELM. 
B.H.a 



B.0'1. 
B.Fir. 



B.R.B. 


B.S.* 


E.TL 


F.A.P. 


p.ap. 


p.j.a 


p.ua 



P.V. 
P.W.Oft. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



▼u 



Davd HAmuT. 

Fonneriy Brittth Vice-ConMd at Baroeloaa. Aufhor dl Skcrt Hishry ef At Royal 



Fboiw Admhttl; P»pft; 
PMouB, Haiqab of; 
Peter L-IV. of Angon; 
PMtr of Ciitili; 
Pbiti and PInqr: Hu«0ry; 
Poo, Edgw ABu; 
PoluiA: ffiHtfry {in pert). 



E. A1.FRED Jones. f 

Author of OU £M|fuA CM PtaH; OU Ckmnk Plate of the Ide of Man; Old Siher 
Soeramomtal Vtssdt of Foreitn ProlostooU Ckunkes tn Emtlamd; lUustnled Cala- < Plate (in ^arii 
loiMo ofUopoU do Rothsckilis CoUocHom tif OU Plalo; AFrSatt Caialopu cf tko\ ^ '^'' 

Royal Plaio ai Windsor CaslUi ftc. "^ L 

Edwaio Adolf Somnknschein, M.A., Litt.D. f 

Pro f eMor of Greek and Latin in the Univenity of Binningham. Hon. Secretary J 
of the ClaMical AcMciatioa. Profeaaor of Greek and Latin in MaKm CoUese, | 
Binningham, I883-1900. Editor of wveral of the playt of Plautiu. I 

Ernest Baxkee, llA. 



[EST Baxkee, IfLA. r 

Fellow and Lecturer in Modem History. Sc John's College, Oxford. Formerly 1 P^tW tht Htmitt. 

FcUow and Tutor of Mertoa CoUege. Craven Scholar, 1895. I 

|piodaitei. 
•[plUgiUs. 



EOMTTHD OOSSE, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: GoMB, Edmund. 

ExNEST AxTHUE Gasdnes, M.A. 

See the biographical article: Gakonbk, Pbecy. 



Piv6i» 

Pmia: Ancioia Hishryi 



{ 



Pwttomdi; 

Plutfjmgttii; 

PhkUtik 



Edwaid Joseph Bent. M.A., Mus.Bac. 

Formerly FcUow of King's CoUege. Cambridge. 

Eouaxd Meyee, Pb.D., DXrrr., LL.D. 

Professor of Andent History in the Univerrity of Berlin. Author of Cosikickio 
dosAUorOmmu\C o %c kie kUdotallonAtgypUms;Du Israolilon umd ikn NackborUdotmo, 

Edwasd Morell Holmes. 

Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society, London. 

Edmund Owen, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surnoa to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital. 
Gmt Ormond Street. London. Cheviuier of the Lesion of Honour. Late Examiner 
in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge. London and Durham. Author of A 
Mammal ^ AmaUmyfor Souior Stitdonts. 

Elizabeth O'Neill, M.A. (Mrs H. O. OT^exll). 

Formerly Univenity Fellow and Jones Fdknr of Manchester University. 

Edcae Pbestage. 

Special Lecturer in Pbrtuguese Literature in the Universttv of Manchester. Ex- 
aminer in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, Ac. Com- 
mendador. Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon' 
Royad Academy of Sciences. Lisbon Geographical Soaety; &c Editor of LeUors 
of a Porlmgaaao Num; Azurara's Ckrouido of Cuinoa; ftc. 

Edwth Robebt Bevan, M.A. , «. ,„_ , .- _. „ ^ 

New College, Oxford. Author of Tho Houso of SeUucus; Jonualom under tkei "P* L, IL, and V. Of 
Hitfi Priests, I doote. 

Emil ScBthtEB. D.Ph. (1844-1910). 

Formerly Professor of New Testament 
Kiel and GfiCtingen. Author of Cesckickte 



/poeUiBm, 



John. 



PiBB, Rkj do; 
Pinto, Ptenio Mondot. 






Exegesb in the Um'versities of Giessen, I vhlln Um hnr£S 
Ue dis jtdisckon Volkos imZoUaUor Jesu\ *™" ^** '^'^ 



i Ptotanh (>» ^off). 



r Ponte: History, 1405-1884 {U 



Rev. Etkelbzd Luke Taunton (d. lOo?)* f bau rmwAtm»t 

ha^hx^TkoEntUsh mack Monks of Si Bonedia; History of the JesmiU in Engfand-X^'^ Ctrainu. 

Fbedebick AriBOBP Palsy. LL.D. 

See the biographkal artkle, Palbv, F. A. 

Fbedebick Gymek Pabsons, F.R.C.S., TZS., F.R.Antbbop.Inst. r 

Vioe-Plerident, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on I Phliyni; 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medidne for Women, i Phttttntl- 
London. Fomcrly Huntcrian Professor at the Royal CoUege of Surgeons. [ 

Majob-Genebal Snt Fbedebxc John Goidsmid. 
See the biographical article: Golosmid (family). 

Fbanos Llewellyn GBXTrrrB, M.A., Ph.D., F.S A 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey 
and Archaeological Reports of the Esypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial 
German Archaeological Institute. Formeriy Assistant Professor of Egyptology' 
in Univenity CoUege, Loodon. Author of Stories of the Hitk Priests of Mem^\ 
Ac. 

FBDnov Nanben. 

See the biographical article: Namsen, Fbidtjov. 

Fbedebick William Gamble. D.Sc., M.Sc., F.R.S. 
Professor of Zoology, Bimungfaam University. Fo 
Zoological Laboratories, and Lecturer in Zoolo.. . 
hoOne td Amknal Ufe, Editor of ManbaU and Hunt's Pra«l»ca/^ZM(oty: Ac. 



Pilaiiam; 
Phinoli; 
PhUae; 
Ptthom. 



•fpotar Bogions {in part). 



Professor of Zoology, Birmfngfaam Univer^ty. Formeriy Assistant Director of the J W t n i rl B m ; 
Zoologfcal Laboratories,^ and Lecturer in Zoology. Univmityof Manchester.] PtetfOinilB. 



( 



▼Hi INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

F. W. tL* FiEOBUCK WiLLiAif RuDLCR, I.S.O., F.G.S. r PMMot: Fhoirtiftlai' 

0. A. C.* Rev. George Albert Cooke, D.D. f 

Orid'Profeaaor oi the InteracietatioD of Holy Scripture. Oxford, snd Fellow of 1 Petn; 
Oriel College. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary'a Cathedral. 1 PluMBldft. 
Edinburgh. Author <A Text Book oj North StmitU IuscripHaiu;8DC I 

G. A. Gr. GsoiGE Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Lttt. 

Indian Civil Service, iSt^-iooa. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 189S- 
1903. Gold Medallist, Koffd Asiatic Sodety. 1009. Vioe-President of the Royal 
Asiatic Society. Formeriy r dlow of Calcutta Untverrity. Author of Tkt Laugnaies 
rf India; 8dc 

O, Ol George Chrystal, M.A., LL.D. f 

Professor of Mathematics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Edinburgh University. < PmaClIll MottOB. 
Hon. Fellow and formeriy Fellow and Lecturer, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, t 



G.H.PO. 



G. C. W. George Charles Wiluamson, Litt.D. 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miitiatmres; Life of Richard 
Cosway, RA.\ George Enj^heart; Portrait Drawings; Ac Editor of New Editkm' 
of Brum's Dictionary tff Painters and Engraeers, 



PHttot, Jata; PMitot, J.Loolv 
Flnwdil, OMig» John; 
PDmar, Andraw; 
PDmar, HaflumM; 
.nnmtafo Dnwliip. 



G. K Rzv^GeorgeEomundson, M'.A.^ F.R.Hist.S. 

Uege, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. J Fenric 

Histifry (mi part). 



r. George Eomundson, m.A.. F.R.Hist.S. r 

Formortv Fellow and Tutor of Brasenote College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1900. J FenriOBinr; 

Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society; anid Foreign Member, Netherianos 1 Ptom* Hisi 

Association of Literature. j^«^w«. «•*• 



ish\ 



G. B.^ Robert Geottret Elus. 

Peterhouae, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Jdnt-cditor of Engjlish 
Reports, Author of Peerage Lam and History, 

G. B. C. George Earl Chttrch. f pigta, Rio dt la. 

See the biographical article: Church, G. E. \ 

G. G. P ^ George Grenville PHXLLncoRE,'M.A., B.C.L. / ph^a tim A,m»\ 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Uw, Middle Temple. \ "** ^"* '""^• 

G. H. Bo. Rev. George Herbert Box, M.A. r 

Rector of Sutton Sandy, Beds. Formeriy Hebrew Master, Merchant Taylors' JuiLuUjiijjiii 12^ A^■-#^ 
School, London. Lecturer in Faculty of Theology, Univemty of Oxford. 1908-1 "V"««I K^ pari), 
1909. Author of Translation of Book of Isaiah; Ac [ 

George Herbert Fowler, F.Z.S.. F.L.S., PB.D. r 

Formeriy Berkeley Research Fellow, Owens College, Manchester, and Assistant J PlailklOIL 
Professor of Zoology at University College, London. 1 

G. W. B. George William Redway. r Potmbuig ^^mp*^* 

Author of The War of Secession, 1861-1862; Frederichshnrg: a Stndy in IFor, \ {1864-1865). 

BL BL Hiram Bingham, A.M., Ph.D. # 

Assistant Professor of Latin-American Histoiy, Yale Univernty. Albert Shaw I «^ «. -_._- t.i.«j.. jt'-j^ 

Lecturer on Diplomatic History, Johns Hopkuis University. Author of Jommal\ ""Wl^ WMM* atOary, 
of an Expedition across Venexueta Md Colombia; &c [ 

BL CL Snt Hugh Charles Clifford, R.C.M.G. / 

Colonial Secretary, Cevlon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly 1 ^ __ 
Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 190^1907. Author •{ FnUf. 
of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India; &c Joint-author of A DicHosury I 
^ the Malay Language. \ 

BL Do. HiFPOLYiE Delehaye, S.T. r 

Assistant in the compilation of the BoUandist publicatioos: AnaUcta Botl andittua < Ptflgilii BL 
tMd Acta Sanctorum, L 

BL K Karl Hermann Eth£, M.A., Ph.D. r 

Professor of Oriental Languages, Umversty College, Aberystwydi (University of I r ■rata tiumM^mm 
Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Manuscnpts in, Ae India Office Library, 1 ""•• "'^^Mn. 
London (Clarendon Press) ; &c t 

B. F. 6. Hans Frieorich Gaoow, F.R.S., Ph.D. r 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. \ PbororiiaOQS. 
Author of " Amphibia and Reptiles " in the CamMdgjs Natural Htstory. \ 

B. G. do W. Hermann 



B. BL T. Herbert Hall Turner, M.A., D.Sc., D.C.L., F.R.S. r _ 

Savilian Pressor of Astnmomy in the University of Oxford and Fdlow of New! Photocnplty, Celattlal; 
College. President of the Royal Astronomical Society. 1903-1904. Author of 1 FhoUuMliy, flnhnttal 
Modan Astronomy; Ac I 

BL L. BL Hamiei L. Hxmxzssy, M J). (Brox.), LJLCPX, LJLC.SX / ^JJ^^J^/*^*^^' 

H. M. W. Harrt Marshall Ward, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (d. 1905). 



Formerlv Professor c^ Botany. University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Sidney 
Sussex Cblltte. President of the British Mycological Soaety. Author of Timber, 
and Some of its Diseases; The Oak; Sack's Lectures am the Physiohgy ef PtanU; 
Dieeases in Plants; &c. 



Fluits: Palholcgy. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



flu Bb_H» 
H* Wtm Bu 
E.R.H. 



H.B.T. 
H.Se. 

as. J. 

H.W* 

H.W.C.D. 
LA. 

LG. 

J.A.H. 

J. A. 8. 
J.Bt 

J.D.& 
J.B.8.* 



J. F. P. 

XGa. 
J.G.aA. 



Rabby Recihaio Holland Hall. MA. f 

Awbtant in the Depa rt ment of Egyptian and Awyrian Antiquitio, British Muacum. i Ftato (in part). 

Haixt Robsxt Kexpe, MJnst.C.E. f 

Electrician to the Gcseral Pott Office, Lmidon. Author of Tk$ Engineer*s Yeari Pneninatle Dinitgk* 

HXTOR ROBEKT MiLL. D.Sc., LL.D. f 

Director of British Rainfall Organliatkm. Editor of BriUsh Rnnfall. President 
of the Royal Meteorological Society, 1007-1008. Hon. Member of Vienna Geo- J poi>r Recloiii. 
naphical Society. Hon. Corresponding MemDer of Geographical Societies of Paris, 1 «•»«»«* 

Berlin, Budapest. St Petersburg, Amsterdam, &c Author of Ths Rtalm of Nature; I 
^Tfee IntenaiwHal CtOffapky\ &&' I 

Henxt Richaxd Teddex, F.S.A. 

Secretary and Librariaa of the Athenaeum Qub, London. 

Henxt Scbeksxn, F.Z.S. f 

Asristant Natural History Editor of The FiM. Author of Popular History of< PlBtypas (m part). 
Animals for YoumiPeopUi Pond amdRoek Pools; &C. { 

Exxm Sweet, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D. 



{ 



Periodinb. 



I 



unrveraty iceader in rnoneocs, unora. ^.xMresponaing Memoer 01 the Academics J 
of Munich, Berlin, Copenhagen and Helsinfffors. Author of A Hi^ory of Engfisk | 
Sonnds sime tie Earliest Pertod; A Primortf Phonetics; Ac I 

{ 



PbtoL 



Sn Henet Seton-Kaxk, C.M.G., M.A. 

M.P. for St Helen's, 1885-1906^ Author of My Sporting Holidays; ftc. 

Hekky Stuast Tones, M.A. r 

Formeriy Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British J m.^^ / •« a/,-«\ 
School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. ] "^^ ^*^ P*^'' 
Author of The Roman Empire', Ac. I 

Haxold W. T. Wages, F.R.S. f 

H.M. Inspector of Secondary Schools, Board of Education. London. President, J \ 



Botanical Section, British Assodatioo, 190S. 
ef the Fujiiiii d(C 



Author of Memoirs on the Structure 

■{ 



Pluits: Cytology. 



Peter dM RochM. 



Henet Williav Cailess Davis, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of AH Souls* College, Oxford 
1895-1902. Author of Engfaud under the Normans and A ngeoius ; Charlemag;ne. 

IsBAEL Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. J PeriM, J08e|lb. 
Formeriy President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Slutrt 
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages ; Judaism ; &c. 

ISBAEL GOLIANCZ, M.A., LiTT.D. 



{ 

Professor of English Language and Literature,* King's College, London, and Dean J p^«rl Tha. 
of the Faculty of Arts, iTniversityof London. Fellow and Secretary of the British 1 ■^'* ^"^ 
Academy. Editor of The Pearl; The " Temple " Shakespeare ; &c I 

OHN Aliah Howe. B.Sc. f Jf^*"* 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of ■{ FlelstoceiM; 
The Geology of Building Stones. - [ Pliocene. 



OHN AooiNGTON Symokds, LL.D., D.C.L. 
See the biofpaphical article: Symonds, J. A. . 



{Petnuvh; Peggie; 
PoUtiBD. 



AMES BaBTLETT. 

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at Kind's 
College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior ' 
Engineers. Author of Quantities. 

AMES David Boubchieb, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of TTu Times in Soufh-Eastem Europe. . 
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. 

OHN Edwin Sandys, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D. 



PlBster-werk. 



PhlUppL 



PUny the Elder; 



f__^ , 

Public Orator in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John's College, i pii^ thu VAunrAr 
the British Academy. Author of Htstory of Classical Scholarship; &c [ '^"^ "*' xounger. 



Fdlowof 

AMES FXTZMAUBICE-KeLLY, LiTT.D., F.R.HIST.S. 

Gilmour Prc^essor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. 
Norman McColl L.ecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. ' 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of 
AlphoDSO XIL Autnor ot A History of Spanish Literature ; &c 

08EPR Fbank Payne, M.D., F.R.C.P. (1840-1910). 

Formeriy Harveian Librarian, Royal College of Physicians. Hon. Fellow of. 
Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow df University of London. Author of Lectures 
onAi^lo-Saxon Medicine ; &c 

AMES Gaibdneb, C.B., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Gaibdneb, Jambs. 

OHN Gbobce Clabb Andebson, M.A. 



PeredB, Jos6 Maria de; 
P^res Galdos, Benite; 
Plearesqae Novel, Hie. 



Plague (in part). 



< Percy: family {in part). 



ir OEOBCE ULARB ANDEKSON, m./l. PeSSlDUS. 

Student, Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln < 
College. Craven Fellow (Oxford), 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893. I 



z 

J.H.A.B. 
J.H.H. 



J.H.V.a 
J.L.H. 



I.UW. 
J. ML 

J.H.H. 

J.Ra 
J.B.Gr. 



I.S.P. 



l.T.Ba. 
XT.a 

J.Wa. 



J.WaL* 



i.w.a 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



I 



Jakxs Geokoe Fsazes, MA., D.C.L.. LLJ)., Lm.D. . 

Profeaaor of Social Anthropoloey, Liverpool University, and Fdlow of Trinity J bmm«m f£^ A.-i\ 
Collese. Cambridge. Feilow <^ the Bntidi Academy. Author of Ths CoUat\ '•'■'•• V»» Port), 
Bwih; ftc. 

ORN Hensy Arthuk Hast, M.A. 

Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge. 



Phlrii6M. 




Director 

. _- the South 

Kenaingtoo Museum, 1893-1896. Author of The Engraoed Gems of Qasskai 
Timtsi lUummaUi Matnucripts in Oasskal and Mtdia4mU Twus, 

OHN Horace Roxtmd, M.A., LL.D. 



Phigalia (in part); 
Plnturlcehlo. 



N Horace Roxtmd, M.A., LL.D. . f p««». a,-.;/*. /.•- a-^n. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Ptudai En^andi Studies in Petrage and Family] IT^- J^^^^^ ^*" ^^'» 
History; Fterage and Pedigr^ ^ [VlMatagWtL 



OHN Henry Verrdider Crowe. 

Lieut-Colonel. Royal Artillery. Commandant of the Royal Military College of 
Canada. Formerly Chief Instructor in Military Topography and Military History 
and Tactics at the Royal Militaiy Academy, Woolwich. Author of Epitome erf tke 
Russo-Tnrkisk War, 1877-1878; &c 

OHN Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A.. F.R.G.S. 

Wykeham Professor of Ancient Histoiv in the University of Oxford, and Fellow 
of Magdalen College. Formerly Gladstone Professor 01 Greek and Lecturer in 
Andent Geography, University of Liverpool. Lecturer in Cbasical Archaeology' 
in University of Oxford, and Student and Tutor of Christ Qiurch. Author of 
A History efRome; ftc. 

1S8IB Lazdlay Weston. 

Author of Artknrian Romances mnrepreseiUod in Malory, 

AMES M0F7ATT, MA., D.D. 



Plsvni. 



PtiRsgiaiii. 



{ 



PtttsvaL 



ES M0F7ATT, MA., D.D. f MiflMnAii* 

Minister of the United Free Church of Scotland. Author of Historical New Testa-i llSu^t JL 
wi€nt;8Bc. [RuunHtiis, 



Epistto to the. 



OHN Malcolm Mrcheli. 

Sometime SchoUu* of Queen's CoUe^, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics. East London 
College (University oiLondon). Joint-editor of Grote's History ^ Greece. 



OHN Peroval Postgate, M.A., LiTT.D. 

Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the 
Editor-in-chief of the Corpus Poetarum Laiinorum ; Ac 

06EPH ROGERSON COTTER, M.A. 

Assistant to the Profea 
Dublin. Editor of and edition 



of Trinity College,! 
Classical QuartenyA 



Msistntns; 

FetopomMslan War; 

Fmla: History (Transition 

Periodf); 
Ptutarah (in part). 

Phiadnis. 



M.A. r 

of Naturd and Expcrimentol Phik)sophy, Trinity College. ] PhosphonsetDOed 
ition of Pkeston's Theory a/ Heat. [ 



08KPH Reynolds Green. MA., D.Sc., F.L.S., F.R.S. . 

Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of Downing Collcse, Cambridge. Formeriy Hartley J iM«M«a. dl..^^i^.^. 
Lecturer on Plant Physiok)gy, University of Liverpool. Author of History cf] """• Physiology, 
Botany; 8cc ' 



' j . 






OHN Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S. 
Petrographer to the Geological S 
on Petrology in Edinburgh Uni 
Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London. 



Petrographer to the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Formeriy Lecturer . 
on Petrology jn Edinburgh^ University. ^ NeiU Medallist^ of the Royal Society of 



Psgmttite; Peridotite; 
Perllte; Petrology; Phonollte; 
Phosphates: Mineral Phos- 
phates (in part); Phylllte; 
Plerits; Pltebstone; 
PMamfttolysls. 

OHN Thomas Bealby. rPwm (i« part); 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe, Formeriy Editor of the Scottish Geographical \ PodoDR (in part); 
Magaune. Translator of Sven Hedin's Througf^ Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c I Pofamd, RussUn (in part). 

OSEPH Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S. r 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-western Pdytedinic, London. Formerly Fellow I PBUi; 
of University CbUege, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the 1 PQchard. 
University 01 Edinbutig^. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. I 

AMES WiLUAMS, MA., D.C.L., LL.D. f 

All Souls' Reader in Ronun Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln \ PWSODtl Property. 
College. Barrister of Lincdn's Inn. Author of WHls and Succession ; &c t 

AMES WaTERHOUSB. 

Major-General, Indian Army fretired). Asnstant Surveyor-General of India in 
chaige of Photographic and Lithograpnic Branch, Calcutta, 1866-1897. President • 
of the Rml Photographic Society, 1905-1906. Author of The Preparation of 
Drawings for Photographic Purposes; Ac, 

AiCES Walker, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Demonstrator in the Garendon Laboratory. Formerly! polarization of Ulht 
Vice-Pwsident of the Physical Society. Author of The Analytical Theory of Ltght;^ -^w-..— u u ..«..•. 
&c 



Photography: Apparatus. 



'■■[ 



Whtfly Dixon. 
Captain. R.N. Nautical 



to the Court of AppeaL 



I Pilot (in part). 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

K. Q. Kail Fucobich GnoNEX, Ph.D. f 

PpoCcnor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology in the University of Marburg. -{ Pttnia: Lttngmte. 
Anthor ct Veduckt Siuditm; Ac t 

K. Lb Rsv Kissopp Lakz, MA. f 

Lincoln College. Oxford. Profeaaor of Early Christian Literature and New Testa- J Peter* Saint; 
ment Exegesis in the Univerrity of Leiden. Author of The Text of the New TeUa- \ Petar. EDistlfiS oL 
ment,Tk»Huton€alEMden€€fortkeRtSMnteiumo/JesmsCkrist;&c. ' I * '^ 

Pedal Clarliiet; 
K. S. Katklekn Scrlksinger. 

Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Ankaootogy, Author of Tko Instruments of the 
Onkestnu s ^ 



Xk 



H.D. 


H.1I.T. 


H.aB.a 


M.V. 


K.D.H. 


lf.H. 



Phttomel; Physharmonlea; 
Pianoforte {in part); 
Plooolo; Pipe and Tabor; 



U CouicT LtJrrow, Lrrr D., Ph-D., F.R.G.S. 

Chamberlain of H.M. tht Emperor of Austria, IGng of Bohemia. Hon. Member 
of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, &c. Author' 
of Bohemta, a Htstoncal Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (Ikhester Lecture, 
Oitfofd, 1904); Tho L^e and Timts of John Bus; ftc. 

L. G. Rxv. Lewb Campbell, D.CX^ LL.D. J 

See the tnographical artide: Campbell, Lewis. \^ 

L. P. ViPH. Leveson Fbamos Vernon-Habcouet, M.A., M.Imst.C.E. (1839-1907). f 

Prafenor of Civil Engineering at University College. London. 1882-1905. Author J 

I..J.9. 



PodAnd, Geoist oL 



Plato. 



of Rwers and Canals; Harbours and Dochs; Civil Engineering as applied in Con- 1 
strtution; ftc \ 

r .«.««.» T*w«i Q.*..^.^ -u A f P«ov»Ute; Petaltte; 

LEONAW JAIOS SPEMCEX,M.A._., _ _ Wiarm.«««M«rt«- 



Aaristant in Department of Mineralogy. British Museum. Formeriy Scholar of 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Schohu-. Editor 01 the Miner- 
alogical Magaaino. 

"Loan Macaulat. 



PharmafloaJderite; 
Phenaeite; Ptallllpslte; 
Phlogoplte; Phosgenito; 
I Pltehblende; Plagiodase. 



D Macaulat. /w** 

See the biographical article: Macaulay, Thomas Babingtom Macaulay, Baron. \ ^'^ 

Malcolm Bell. /ptowtv. 

Author clFomler Plate; too. -j^-^wk*. 

Rev. Mabcus Dbos, D.D. r n.i..i«. 

See the biographical article: Doos.MABani -j^FBiacnn. 

Mabcus Niebuhb Too, M.A. r 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College. Oxford. Urnvtrnty Lecturer ii) Epigraphy. < p^ifoeeL 
Jotnt-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. { 

Maxxmiuan Ono Bismabce Caspabz, MA. f PMopidas; Perlander; 

Reader in Ancient History at London Univeruty. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham -\ Perieks; Phoclon; 
Unxvernty, 1905-1908. 

V 

Max Vebwobk, D.Sc., M.D.. Ph.D. 



Phoels; Plataea. 



E VEBWOBK, D.SC., M.D.. FH.D. f 

Professor of Physiology and Director of the Physiological Institute in the UniverBxty < Physiology. 
ofBosm. Aaxhoe 61 Allgemeine Fhysiologie; &c L 

Newton Dennison Mebeness, A.M., Ph.D. f Philippine Idandsr 

Author of Maryland as a Proprietary Prooimu, \ Geography and Stali^ics. 

NoBMAN McLean, MA. f 

Lecturer in Aramaic, Cambridge University. Fellow and Hebrew Lecturer. Christ's < phflOTftnUf. 
CoU^e, Cambridge. Joint-editor of the laiger Cambndgit-Septuagint, [ 

K. V. Joseph Mabie Noel Valois. 

Member of Acadtoie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Paris. Honorary Archivist 
at the Archives Natwnales. Formeriy President of the Sod6t6 de I'Histoire de . 
France and the SodM de TEcole des Chartes. Author of La France a le grand 
schisms d'Occident; dtc 

1. W. T. NoBTncoTE WmTBiDGE Thomas, M.A. 



Pba, Connefl oL 



Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the 1 _. ,_< m. _ 

Sod«t< d'Anthropolpgie of Pkris. Author 3i Thought Transferenu; Kinship audi Pnysttl Phenomena. 
Marriage in Australia; Stc [^. 

UNO AiBY, M.A., LL.D. r 

H.M. Inspector of Schods and Inspector of Training Colleges, Board of I n... iimii«m 
Edocatioo. London. Author of Louis XIV. and the Entfih Restoration; Charles i ^°°* WUliam. 
//.;&& Editor of the lAndcrdo^Papsri; Ac. [ 

'AID Babbon, F.S.A. f _ . .. ., . 

Editor of Tho Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hoo. Genealogy to Standing Council of the < FOM {famUy), 
Honourable Society of the Barooetage. I 

'. Owen Chablbs Whitehouse, M.A., D.D. f ^„^,^^ 

Senior Theological Tutor and Lecturer in Hebrew. Cheshunt College, Cambridge, -j Pemecoit, 
Principal of the Countess of Huntingdon's College, Cheshunt. 1895-1905. L 



O. A. Osmund Aiby, M.A., LL.D. 



0. Bm. Oswald Babbon, F.S.A. 

' ~ho Ancesti., ., ,-^ _ 

Society of the Barooetage. 

O. C W. Rev. Owen Chablbs Whitehouse, M.A., D.D. 



Principal of the Countess of Huntingdon's College, Cheshunt, 1895-1905. 

0. H. Olaus Magnus Fbiedbich HENBia, Ph.D.. LL.D^ F.R.S. f 

I ^x rf essof of Mechanks and Mathematics In the Central Technical College of the j partnaeilva. 
City and Guilds oL London Institute. Author of Vectors and Rotors; Congruent] '^•i^"««* 
Figures; &c. L 

P. A. K. Punch Peteb Alexeivxtcr Kbopotein. f ^•™ (*'» t^'h 

See the biographical article : Kbopotein, Pbincb P. A. i PodoUa (<n part) ; 

I Poland, Russian (m parO* 



P.A.T. 

p.as. 

P.O. 
P.GL 

P.U. 

p. Sol 
P.V. 

B.Q. 

B.LP. 

B.K.D. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



B.1..^ 



B.H.B. 



BaPOU 



B.P.& 



B.s.a 

B.W. 



flLiua 



S.F.B. 



P. A. Tklb. 

Formerly Librarian. Utrecht UniverBity. Author of BiagrapkUal and Historical 
Memoir on Iko VoyagjU <4 tk* Dutch NannUors, ftc 

PiTBS Chaimess Mitchell, M^, T^ELS., T2^S,, D Sc., LL.D. 

Secretary of the Zodogical Soaety of Loodoo. Univentty Demonstrator in 
Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. 
Author of Outlines oj otology', &c 

PncY Gasdner, LL.D^ F.SA^ DXirr. 

Seethe biographical article: Gardner, Pbrct. 

Piter Giles, M.A., LL.D , LiTr.D 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College. Cambridge, and Univerrity 
Reader in Comparative Philology Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological 
Society. 

PBILIF Lake, M.A.. F.G.S. 

Lecturer on Physical and Reslonal Geography in Cambridge University Formerly 
of the Geological Survey of India Author of Monoeraph of Briiuk Camhnan 
Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Keyaer^s Cm/iaroltss CM^. 

PSXSERVEO SkITR, Ph.D. 

Rufus B. Kellogg University Fellow, Amherst College. U.S^ 

Pasqualb Villari. 

See the biographical article . Villari. Pasqualb. 

Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, LL.D., D C.L. 

See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard CLAVERHOOSBi 

Richard Garnett, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard. 

Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S. 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. 

Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas. 

Formerly Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Keeper of Oriental Printed 
Books and MSS. at British Museum, 1893-1907. Member 01 the Chinese Consular < 
Service. 1858-1865. Author of The Lanpiage and Literature of Ckina\ China\ 
Europe and the Far East; &c 

Richard Ltoeeker, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Eeptiles and Birds in the British Museum i The 
Deer of all Lands; &a 

Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1009). 

Assistant Librarian. British Museum.. 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia; the 
Political History of Denmarh, Norway and Sweden, 1$ 13-1000', The First Romanovs, 
2613-1725; Slavonie Europe: The Political History ol Poland and Russia from 
i46gtoJ7g6;&c 

Ren£ Poupardin, D. fis L. «- 

Secretary of the £cole des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Biblioth^ue I 
Nationafe. Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Frooence sous les Carolinpens; RocueU \ 
des chartes de Saint-Germain ; &c \ 

R. Ph£n£ Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. f- 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past 
President ol Architectural Association/ Associate and Fellow of King's College,. 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. 1 Editor of r eiigusson's 
History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c 

Ralph Stockman, M.D., F.R.S.(Edin.), F.R.C.P.(Edin.). 

Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in the University of plasgow. 

Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. 

ProfessOT of Latin and Indo-Eurofiean Philolosy in the University of Manchester. 
Fmnieriy Professor of Latin in University College. Cardiff, and Fellow* of Gonville' 
and Caius College, Cambridge. Author oL The Italic Dialects, 

Robert Wallace, F.R.S.(Edin.), F.L.S. 

Professor of Agriculture and Rural Economy at Edinburgh Univerdty, and Garton 
Lecturer on Colonial and Indian Agriculture. Professor of Agriculture, R.A.C., 
Cirencester, 1883-1885. Author of Farm Live Stoch of Great Britain, The Agri-- 
culture and Rural Economy of Australia and New Zealand; Farming Industries of 
Cape Colony; &c 

Stanley Arthur Coox, M.A. 

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formeriy Fellow. Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambrid^ Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and 
Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic In-' 
scripHons; The Law of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on (M 
Testament Hidory; Rdigion of Ancient Palestine; &c 

Sidney Frederic Harmer, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.Z.S. r 

Keeper of Zoology. Natural History Department. British Museum. Fellow. J PhONDldM. 
formeriy Tutor and Lecturer, King's College, Cambridgie. Joint-editor of The"] 
Cambridge Natural History, L 



Ftaiifln. 

Pliosphonneiios: in Zoology. 

Pheldlas. 

PhOolocy (m parih 

Pmii: Geology. 
Ptni L and n. 



PlndRT (ffi parCi. 



Petooeh; Thomas Lore. 



Pedipalpl; Pentastomlda. 



Pddng. 

Peocuy; Peeon; 
Pin Da?id*8 Deer; 
Perissodactyla; 
Pbalanger; Phenseodiis; 
Pica; Polecat 

Paxminy; PechllD; 

Peter L and IIL of Russia; 

Petdfl, Alexander; PhOaret; 

Piper, Carl; 

Poland: History {in part). 

Phnip the Bold; 
Philip the Good. 



Pier {in arckitecttire). 



{ 
{ 



Phaimacology. 



Pleenom {in part). 



Pig {in parii. 



PhlBstliiei* 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



xiu 



&H.V.* 



T. As. 



T.Bl. 

T.P.C. 
T. G. Br. 



riLL. 

TIlH. 
T.S.* 

T.W^D. 

T.W.H. 
T.W.B.D. 



W.CSa. 

W.D.C. 

W.D.W. 
W.deW.A. 



W. B. G. P. 

w.rt. 

W.P.C 
W.Ga. 



W.HL 
W.B.P. 



Sydney Howaso Vines, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Sherardian ProfeMor of Botaii)r, University of Oxford and Fellow of Magdalen 
College. Fellow of the University of London. President of the Linnean Society, , 



Formerly Reader in 



1^00-1904. 

Fellow and Lecturer of Christ'i 

&c 



r in Botany in the University o' Cambridge and 
B College. Author of A Studenfs Ttxtbook oj Botany; 



SmoN Nbwcokb, D.Sc., LL.D. 

See the biogxaphical article: N^wcomb. Simon. 

I^OMAS AssBY, M.A., D.Lttt. 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Fomerly Scholar of Christ 
Church. Oxford. Craven Fellow. 1807. Conington Prizeman. 1906. Member of 
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Top<h 
grapky of Ike Roman Campagna, 

SzK Thomas Barclay 



{ 



PbUlli: iiorphohgy. 



PbuMt; 
Planet^ Klnor. 

Peragia; 

Pleenum (in part); 
Pipenio. 



r Peace; 



Member of the Institute of International Law. Oflficer of the Legion of Honour. J n^'m^^,^,^^ 

Author of Problems of Inlematumal PraOice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. fori ?*** ConferMie«; 
Blackburn. iQia iPliato and Piracy: La». 

{pittsUL, IV. and V. 



Blackburn, 191a 

Theodore Freyunghuysen Collier, Ph.D. 

Assisunt Professor of History, Williams CoUegie, WUUanutown. Mass.. U.S.A. 

T&OMAS Gregor Brooie, M.D., F.R.S. 

Professor Superintendent. Brown Animal Sanatory 



London. Professor of Physiology, Ro^l Veterinary Colkge, London. Lecturer' 
on Physiology, London School m Medicine for Women. 



Jnstitutlon. Univer&tty of 
Jon. Lectu 
Fellow of King's College. 



Phacoeytotls. 



London. Author of Essentials of Experimeniai Physiology. 

Rev. Thomas Martin Lindsay, LL.D., D.D. r 

Principal of the United Free Church College. Glasgow. Formerly Assistant to the J pivmAnCh RMthtMn /im a«.i\ 
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Author of 1 *^v""""" BTCUIfWI (m part). 



jPciiepoUa {in part). 



Lecturer on Chemistry \ PobOIL 



•[ Poetry. 



Hilary of the Rtformation ; Life of LtUher; &c 

Theodor NOloeke, Ph.D. 

See the biographical article: NOldbkb, Theodor. 

Sir Thomas Stevenson, M.D., F.R.C.P. (i8t&-i9o8). 
Formerly Senior Scientific Analyst to the Home Office, 
and Forensic Medicine at Guy's Hospital, London. 

Walter Theodore Watts-Dunton. 

See the biographical article: Watts*Ddntom, Walter Theodore. 

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, A.M., LL.D. / wuini-- t»^^ «■ 

Author of Atlantic Essays; Cheerful Yesterdays; History of the United States; Ac. \ '™™P^ WendelL 

Thomas William Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D. 

Pro f es s or of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. Preudent of the 
Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of • 
Royal Anatic Society, 188V-IQ03. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Boohs of the 
Buddhists ; Early Buddhism ; Buddhist India ; Dialogues of the Buddha ; &c 

Walter Coventry Summers, M.A. 

Professor of Latin in the University of Sheffield. Formerly Fellow of St John's 
College. Cambridge. Craven Scholar, 1890. Chancellor's Medallist. 1892. Author * 
of A Study of Valerius Flaccus; &c 

William Douglas CarOe, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

Trinity College. Cambridge. Architect to the Ecclesiastical Conunissaon and the •{ Peanon, John LoagllbQrOQflh. 
Charity Commission, London. ' ^^ 

William Dwigrt Whitney. 

See the biographical article: Whitney, William Dwight. 

Sir William de Wivelesue Abney, K.C.B., D.C.L., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Adviser in Science to the Board of Education for England. Member of the 
Advisory Council for Education to the War Office. Formerly President of Roval 
Astronomical Society. Physical Society and Royal Photographic Society. Author 
of InstruOion in Phologjraphy; Colour Vision; 9tc 

WiLUAM Edward Garrett Fisher. M.A. 
Author of The Trasuvaal and the Boas, 

WiLUAM Fream, LL.D. (d. 1906). r 

Formerly Lecturer on Agricultural Entomology. University of Edinburgh, and < Pig (m part). 
Agricultural Correspondent of The Times. [ 

WiLUAM Feiloen Craies, M.A. r 

Barrister-at-Law. Inner Temple and Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College. *{ Pleading. 
London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (23rd edition). L 

Walter Garstang, M.A., D.Sc 

Professor of Zoology in the University of Leeds. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln 
College. Oxford. Scientific Adviser to H.M. Delegates on the International Council 
for tM Expkvatioa of the Sea. 1901-1907. Author of The Impcverishment of the 
5m: Ac 

Wheelton Hind, M.D., F.R.C.S., F.G.S. f 

Sureeon. North Staffs Infirmary. Lyell Medallist. Geological Society. 1902. Author < Pendleslde Series, 
of British Carboniferous Lambalibranckiata; &c I 

Snt William Henry Flower, F.R.S. 

See tbe biogxaphical article: Flower, Sir W. H. 



Pipiiwa. 



Perslos; 

Petronlus {in part). 



I 

I Philology (m part). 



Photograplij. 



-I Phylloxera. 



PbclonttiiN. 



jPlfttypns (hi part). 



XIV 


Wr« ift* Ka 


W.M.Ra. 


* W.P.C. 


W.R.IL 


W.R.S. 


W.R.S.* 


W.S.R. 


W. T. T.-D. 


W. W. R.« 


W.Y.S. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



WiLLiAif Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article: Rossetti, Damtb G. 

Sir William Mitchell Ramsay, LL.D., D.C.L.. DJjtt. 
See the biographical article: Ramsay, Sir W. M. 

WiLUAM Prtoeauz Courtney. 
See the article: Courtney. Baron. 

William Richard Morvtll, M.A. (d. 1910). 

Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Langu^es in the University 
of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution, Oxford. Author of Russta\ 
Slavonic Liieraiurt; &c 

William Robertson Smith, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson. 

William Roy Smith, M.A., Ph.D. 

Associate Professor of History, Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania. Author of 
Sectionalism in Pennsybnuia dnnng the ResoUUton ; &c. 

WiLUAM Smyth Rockstro. 

Author of A Great History of Music from the Infancy of the Creek Drama to the 
Present Period; and other works on the history of music. 

SiK William Tuknee Thiselton-Dyee, F.R.S., R.C.M.G., C.I.E., D.Sc., LL.D., 

Ph.D., F.L.Sv 
Hon. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 
1885-1905. Botanical Adviser to Secratary of State for Colonies, 1903-1906. 
Joint-author of Hora of Middlesex. 

William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theou 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New YorL 

William Young Sellar, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Sellar, W. Y. 



fPerino del Vaga; 
IPanigioo, Pietro. 



{ 



Phiygia; Pfsldk. 



/ Peterborongh and HonmooUi, 
I EadoL 



Poland: Literature, 



/phylaeteiy (m part). 
Polk, JaoMf Knox. 
Plain Song. 



Pianto: Distribution, 



{ 



Pius VL, VIL, and Vnt 



I POlronliis {in part). 



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES, 



PMdk 

Piar. 

Pwt 

Ptteblesshira. 

Ptombroks, Barli oL 

Pembroks. 

Ptombrokishln. 

Pen. 

PendL 

PenttentiaL 

Pennine Chain. 

Pennqrivania. 

PennqriYania, Untvenity 

Pensaeotau 

Pension. 

Penianee. 

Peoria. 



4>L 



Pe^er. 

Peppennint 

Perfnmeiy. 

Pirier. 

Perignenx. 

Peripatetfos. 

Perjorj. 

Pemambneo. 

Penault 

Perrot. 

Personality. 

Perth (HJI.). 

Perthshire. 

Pessiinisin. 

Peterborough. 

PeUUon. 

Philadelphia. 

Philately. 



Phllostratus. 

Phonograph. 

Phorminm. 

Phosphorus. 

Photios. 

Photoehemlstiy. 

Physioeratle SehooL 

Physlolofus. 

Pieardy. 

PieeolomlnL 

Piehegm. 

Pletisin. 

Pigeon-flying. 

PUgrlnL 

Pin. 

Ptaik. 

Pipe. 



Piquet 

PIstoia. 

Piteher PlantiL 

Pittsburg. 

Ptamtation. 

Ptatinum. 

Pleurisy. 

Pleuro-Pneumonla. 

Ploek. 

Ptough and Ploughing. 

Plum. 

Plymouth (U.S.A.). 

Pneumatie Gun. 

Pneumonia. 

Pnom-Penh. 

PolUers. 

Poker. 

PoUu 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XXI 



PATH, JAMES (x830-i898)» English novelist, was born at 
Cl^tenham, on the 28th of February 1830, bis father being 
clerk to the Thames Commissioners and treasurer to the county 
(^ Bcricshire. He was educated at Eton, and afterwards 
entered the Military Academy at Woolwich; but his health was 
not equal to the demands of a military career, and he proceeded 
in 1847 to Trinity College, Cambridge. He was among the 
most popular men of his time, and served as president of the 
UnioD. Before going to Cambridge he had published some 
verses in Leigh Hunt's Journal^ and while still an undergraduate 
pat forth a volume of Stories from Boccaccio in 1852, and in 
1853 a vcriome of Poems. In the same year he left Cambridge* 
and shortly afterwards married Miss Louisa Adelaide Edlin, 
sister of Sir Peter Edlin. He then settled down in the Lake 
district to a literary career and contributed regularly to Household 
Words and Chambers's Journal. In 1858 he removed to Edin- 
burgh to act as joint-editor of the latter periodical. He became 
sole editor in 1859, and conducted the magazine with much 
fiKcess for fifteen years. He removed to London in x86x. In 
the pages of the Journal he published in 1864 his most popular 
story. Last Sir Massingherd. From this time he was always 
engaged in novel-writing, among the most popular of his 
productions being Married Beneath Him (1865), Carlyon*s Year 
(1S68), By Proxy (1878), and The Talh of the Town (1885). In 
1883 he succeeded Leslie Stephen as editor of the Comhill 
Magazine and continued in the post imtil the breakdown of his 
health in 1896. He was also literary adviser to Messrs Smith, 
Elder & Company. His publications included a Handbook 
to the English Lahes (1859), and various volumes of occasional 
esays, Maxims by a Man of the World (1869), Some Private 
Views (1881), Some Uterary Recollections (1884). A posthumous 
woxl:. The Backwater of Life (1899), revealed much of his own 
personality in a mood of kindly, senile reflection upon familiar 
topics. He died in London, on the 25th of March 1898. 

A biographica] introduction to Tks BathBottr of Life was fumiabed 
by Sir Leslie Stephen. 

PATHE, PETER (c. 1380-1455), English Lollard and Taborite, 
the son of a Frenchman by an English wife, was bom at Hough- 
<m-tbe-HiU near Grantham, about X380. He was educated at 
Oxford, where he adopted Lollard opinions, and had graduated 
as a master of arts before the 6th of Octobtf 1406, when he was 
concerned in the irregular proceedings through which a letter 
declaring the sympathy of the university was addressed to the 
Bohemian reformers. Prom 14x0 to 14x4 Payne was principal 
oi St Edmund Hall, and during these years was engaged in 
con tr o v ers y with Thomas Netter of Walden, the Carmelite 
defender eA Catholic doctrine. In X4X4 he was compelled to 
leave Oxford and taught for a time in London. Ultimatdy 



he had to flee from England, and took refuge in Bohemia, where 
he was received by the tmiversity of Prague on the X3th of 
February 141 7, and soon became a leader of the reformers. 
He joined the sect of the " Orphans," and had a prominent part 
in the discussions and conferences of the ten years from 1420 
to X430. When the Bohemians agreed to send representatives 
to the Council of Basel, Payne was naturally chosen to be one 
of their delegates. He arrived at Basel, on the 4th of January 
1433, and his unyielding temper and bitter words probably 
did much to prevent a settlement. The Bohemians left Basd 
in ApriL The party of the nobles, who had been ready to make 
terms, were attacked in the Diet at Prague, by the Orphans 
and Taborites. Next year the dilute led to open war. The 
nobles were victorious at Lipau on the 29th of May 1434, and 
it was reported in England that Payne was killed. When soon 
afterwards the majority of the Orphans joined the moderate 
party, Payne allied himself with the more extreme Taborites. 
Nevertheless his reputation was so great that he was accepted 
as an arbitrator in doctrinal disputes amongst the reformers. 
In February 1437 the pope desired the emperor Sigismund 
to send Payne to be tried for heresy at Basel. Payne had to 
leave his pastorate at Saas, and took refuge with Peter Chelcicky, 
the Bohemian author. Two years later he was captured and 
imprisoned at Gutenstein, but was ransomed by his Taborite 
friends. Payne took part in the conferences of the Bohemian 
parties in 1443-1444, and again' in X4S2. He died at Prague in 
1455. He was a learned and eloquent controversialist, and a 
faithful adherent to Wydiffe's doctrine. Payne was also known 
as Clerk at Oxford, as Peter English in Bohemia, and as Freyng, 
after his French father, and Hough from his birth place. 

BiBLioCRArHT.— The chief facts of Payne's English career are 
given in the Loci e libro veriiatum of T. Gascoigne (cd. Tborold 
Rogers, O^ord, 1881). For his later life the principal sources are 
contained in the Monumenta conciliorum gitnerahum saeculi v.. 
SaecuU X9., or saeculi quintodecimi, vds. L-iii. (Vienna, 1857-1894). 
For modem authorities consult Palacky, Cesckichie von Bdkmen, 
viL-ix., and Creighton's History of the Papacy. The biography 
by James Baker, A Forgotten Great Endiskman (London, 1894) 
Utti) partial (C L. kT 

PATMTER (or Paimtks), WnUAM (c. X540-X594), English 
author, was a native of Kent He matriculated at St John's 
0>llege, Cambridge, in X554. In r56x he became clerk of the 
ordnance in the Tower of London, a position in which he 
appears to have amatwrd a fortune out of the public funds. In 
X586 he confessed that he owed the govenmient a thousand 
pounds, and in the next year further charges of peculation were 
brought against him. In 1591 his son Anthony owned that 
he anid his father had abused their trust, but Paynter retained 
his oflke untfl his death. This event probably followed 



PAYSANDU— PEA 



imiiK(liatd]i upon his wiD, whkh wu nuDcupilivc 
diledlhe i^lh ofFcbniary ijm. Tht firal volumt ofl 
oj PUoiUjt appeared in is66, and wu dedicated \a 1 
Warwicli. ll included >u(y laics, and wu [oUowcd ic 
year by a second volgme conlaining Ihiny-lbur new 
•Kond iraprD«d edition in 1575 contained seven ne 
Paynter bonDwi Irom Herodotus, Plutarch, AuliE 
Adian, LIvy, Tadim, Quintus Cuniusi (iVDi Giialdi 
Mattes Bandello, Scr Giovanni FiorcDliaa, StrapUD 
Margani of Navarre and othets. To the vogue of 
similar collections we owe the Italiaa leiiing of so lu 
■ e Eliiabethan drama. The early tra 



Appiui 



t VirgiTiii 






/rom TAi Palou , 

derived from the book are the ShaLespeari 

AU'i WtU that Emii Well (from Cilelta of Narbonne). 1 

and Fletcher's TriHmpM nf Dttik and Shirley's Lim'i ' 

Tlu Potaa of PUottrt was edited by Jdcpb Hailewoo 



PAYSMTDA, or PusAimA, a town and liver port ol 

and capital of a department of the same name, on tbe 
of the Uiuguay River about jm m. N.W. of MoBtevi 
which it is connected by rail. Pop. (iQaA cslimate). 



lOrlh; i 



is at the head of Id 



on the Uruguay River, and is in regular st< 
with Montevideo and Buenos Aires- 
There are some good public building, including two 
a hospital, a theatre and the government offices, 
eiports cattle and sheep and salted meats, ) 
tongues, wool and other animal pn>ducts. There is 
curing establiahmeut [saladertt) at Gua\'iy1^, in the 
Tbe toWD was named in honour of Pay, or Pai (Falhc 



.arded 1 
a partly destroyed ia 1865 hy a 






richest stock-iaisin 



PATSOH, EDWARD (17S3-1S17), American Cong 
procher, ms horn on the ijlh of July 17E3 at Rin 
Hampshire, where his father, Seth Payson (1758-1! 
pastor of the Congregational Church. His unde, Philli 
(i1]6-iSoi). pastor of a chutch in Chelsea, Mass 
was a phyucist and astronomer. Edward Payson 1 
at Harvard hi jSoj, wis then principal of a school at 
Maine, and in i&>) became junior pastor of the Cong 
Church al Portland, where he remained, after 1811, 
pastor, until his death on the Hid of October 1817. 

The most complete collection of his ■ermons, with a 1 
Ab Cummingi originally published in igig, is the Mm 
TiOLilas and Strmtmi eflki laU Ra. Edmird Foyum (i \ 
land. 1B46: Philadelphia. i9yj). Based on ihi* is th 
Mtmniua ^Eimari Payun (New York. iBri), by the I 
Janes of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

PiZHiKT, PftTEH (is!0-i637), Hungarian can 
statesman, ms bom at Nagyvirad on the jih of Ocii 
4Ukd educated at Nagyvirad and ELolozsvir. at wh 
place he quitted the Calvinist confession for the Ra 
munion (1583). In isB? he entered tbe Jesuit order, 
went Ihrou^ Us prolMtian at Craci>w, took his 
Vienna, end studied theology at Rome, azid finally roir 
academic course at the Jesuit college at Gnu. In iS 
Lo the order's esublishmenl at Sellye, i' 



n back hundreds ti 



includ 



lo the archbishop o( Esatcrgom, and In the foUowinc ytu 
attracted attention by his denunciation, in the Diet, of (he 8th 
point of the peace of Vienna, which prohibited the Jesuits from 
acquiring bnded properly in Hungary. At about the same 
time the pope, on the petition of the emperor Matthias U., 
rehiased Plamlo]' from his monkish vowi. On the ajlh of 
April i6i£ be was made dean of TurAci, and on the 18th of 
Soptemlicr lietame primate gf Hungaiy. He (ectived the red 
hai from Urban VUI. in 1610. VLiaAay wu the soul of the 
Roman Catholic reaction in Hungaiy. Paniculaily rematkable 
ia his liozsAf^a wwts Katata (Gitidt tc Tntih), which a[>peaied 
in t6ij. This manual united all the advantages of scientific 
dcplb, methodical amngement and popular style. As the chief 
putor ot the Hungarian church Ftzminy used every means 






whidl bad ti 



candidates at Nagyssombat, and in ifiij laid the foundations 
of a ti'wiTir institution at Vienna, tbe still famous FaEinanaeura. 

florins towards the foundation of a Hungarian university. 
He also built Jesuit colleges and schools at Prcssburg, and 
Franciscan monasleriei at EtsfkCijvir and KarmtKablinya. 
In politics he played a consideisble pact. It was chiefly due 
to him that the diet of 161B elected the archduke Ferdinand 
lo succeed the childless Mallhiu II. He also repeatedly 
thwaitcd the mart ial ambitions of Gabriel Bethlen, and prevented 
George Rik&ay L, over whom be had a great inSuence, from 
combining with the Turks and the Protestants, But Piiminy's 
most unforgetable service to his countty was his creation of tbe 
Hungarian literary language. As an orator be well deserved 
the ^ilhet ol " the Hungarian purple Ciccio." Of his numerous 
woriis the chief are: r*e four Bvtts oj Tkomia » Ktmpii 
en Ike imimiUm af Ckriil (Hung.. i6oj), of which then ate 
many editions; Dislribt Uadeika dt vijibili Ciriul j* Inrii 
iulaia (Giai. 161s); Viacfiiije tcl/iiaiiUiu (Vienna, 1610}; 
Srmaiii fur curry Sunday IB l*( Vear (Hung., Ptessbutg, i6j6); 
Tit Tiiumph 0/ Trulk (Hung.. Prcssburg. 1614). 
See VilnvAi FraknISi. PiUr PSiminy anf Ml Tiwu " 



tlPitmUnyOi™. 



>dUtir 



Lthed 



PAZ SOUAH. HARIAHO FEUPB (iSii-iSSe), Peruvian 
historian and geographer, was bom at Aiequipa, on the iind 
of August iSii. He studied law, and after holding some minor 
judicial olhces, wu minister to New Granada in 1853. After his 
return he occupied himself with plans for the establishment 
of a model penitentiary al Lima, which he wu enabled to 
accomplish thnugh the support of General Culilli. In 1860 
CutUla made him director of public works, in which capacity 
L ■-fended the erection of the Umi . - .. 



n the refon 



y by (I 



withdrawal of the dcbas( ,. 

his great alias of the republic of Peru, and in 1868 the Gist 
volume of his history of Peru after the acquisition of her inde- 
pendence. A second volume followed, and a third, bringing 
the history down to 1830. wu published after his death by his 

Piesident Balla, but shortly aiterwardi retired iiom public 
life to devote himself to liis great geographical dictionary of 
Peru, which wu published in 1S77. During the disutious 
vrar with Chile he sought refuge at Buenos Aires, where he was 
made professor in the National College, and whett he wrote 
and published a hisioiy of the war (1^). He died on tbe 
31st of December 1S86. 

PEA (Fuim), a genus of the order Legumitunae. conusiing 
of herbs with compound pinnate leaves ending in lendriK by 
means of which the weak stems are enabled to support themselve*, 
and with large leafy stipules at the base. The Bowers (Eg. i) 
an typically " papDionaceous," with a " standard " 01 large 
petal above, two ^de petals or wings, and two front petali 
below forming the ked. The stamens an ten— nine united, 
the tench usually free or only alightly joined lo the othen* 



PEABODY, A. P. 




Fkn Kpantiini ilkm ippniadi to tbe bodty riiidi b KcretH] 

1 Ihc but o( tlie lUmijul tube. The amy b pidongcd 

into ft Jong, thick, bent it^c, cocn- 

preocd fnnn aide to side at the tip 

od friDgcd with litdn. The Emit b 

cbitacleristic " legume " or pod 

(Gg. 7), bunling when ripe into lulvci, 

whicb bear tbe large globular leeds 

(peas} OD their edges. These seeds 

are on sbon stalks, the upper a- 

-tremily of which 'a dilated into • 

■ 'low cup (eriO; the two leed-leava 

■, ALu. « winn. lalyUdina) an Illicit and Sesby, with 

mr. Carina, at KecL a radicle bent along Ihdr edges oa 

one tide. The genus is erceedingly dose to Loihynu, being 

only diitinguiih«l tcchoically by the style, which in the latter 

genus is comprfsaed irom above downwards add not thick. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that under 

the general name " pea " aperies both of 

Pis^m and of Lalkyni are included. The 

leaflets is Fisum otaut, which is culti- 
vated In all temperate parta of the globe, 
but which, according to the Italian 
botanista. is truly 1 native of centiat and 
ssuihein Italy; it has puiple flower*. 
The garden pea, P. latiniM, which hu 
white flowen, to more lender thin the 
preceding, and its origin is not known. 
It has not been found in a wild state 
anywhere, and it is considered that it 
may be a form o( P. annul, hiving, 
however, from four to six leaflets to 
ri^ vtoc^ ^M4emi^ "eh leaf and ^ofmlar seeds of uniform 

f^d^Vci P. lalinM «u known to Theoplinitui; 

F,C I.— TTic Pod '"d Ot Candc^le (Orip* iif CnUaaui Plama. 

,rZiJr^ dudMihai the ptawa.knoumtolht Aryans. 

':i2^ and waa pcrhip. brought by them into 

*■=«=»■ Crcm ancTluly. Pcu have been found 

is ibe SwiB laiLfrdwelliufi of ihe brons period. The garden 
pEu (liifer comJderaWy in liie. dupe of pod, degree ct produclive- 
nmfonn ii>dcolaurDr«Td,&c. The sugar peas are those in which 
[be inner lining fj the pod 11 vny [hiti InUead of bdng nmewhal 
hviry, » that the whole pod can be eaten. Unlike most papilion- 
keoui ptanrs. peaflnven are perfrcily fertile without the aid of 
EBect^ andlhntdDnot inlFrcrtMH freely as most similar pfantt do. 
Oaihcotherhand.acaH ja known wherein the pollen from a purple- 
poddH pra applin] id ihe bijgma of one of the gr«n-poddrd Higar 
poi produced a purpjr pod. ihowingthal not only the ovule ^1 even 

cbii^y by •elerticin. Pels conitltute 3 highly nutrilioui article of 

The sweet pea, cidiivated for tbe beauty and fragnnce of its 
&»(rv is a species of the allied genus Laliyria (L. tdatalia), a 
Diiive of uuthtm Europe. The chick pea (ft.) {Cktr ari/il- 
am). not cultivated in England, is siill farther removed from 
Ibt inie peas. The evcrbsling pea of gatdtnt is a apccica of 
Liiliyrai (L lalilatius) wiih very deep Hcshy roots, bold foliage, 
11^ beautilul but scentless flowers: the Geld pea | /■riun orpcnir) 
B Idler adapted than the bean to light soils, and is best culli- 
r.^ed in rows of such a width as lo admit ol horse-hocing. 
Tbe early stage at which the planLi faU over, and forbid further 
tulure, renders it evon more needful than in the case of b«ans 
tniow tfaeni only on bnd already dean. II annual wced« can 
be krpt ia check until the peas once get a close cover, they then 
occupy the ground so compJeLrly that nothing eke can live 
isder them; ud tbe ground, after th^ removal, is found in 
tile choicesl condition. A thin crop of peas should never be 
tllowedtosluid,u the land is sue to get perfectly wild. The 



PEABODY, E. P.— PEACE 



Harvard University and Plummer professor of Christian morals 
from i860 to x88x, and was professor emeritus from x88x until 
his death in Boston, Massachusetts, on the xoth of March 1893. 
On the walls of Appleton Chapel, Cambridge, U.SJV.,isabron2e 
tablet to his memory. 

Bettdes many brief memmra and'articlet, he wrote: Christianity 
the RdigioH of Nature (aid ed., i86a), Lowell Institute Lectures; 
Reminiscences of European Travel (1868); A Manual of Moral 
Philosophy (1873): Christian Belief and Life (1875), and Harvard 
Reminiscences (1888). See the Memoir (Cambridge, 1896) by 
Edward J. Young. 

PEABODY, BUZABBTH PALMER (1804-1894), American 

educationist, was bom at Billerica, Massachusetts, on the x6th 

of May 1804. Eariy in life she was assistant in A. Bronson 

Alcott's school in Boston, Mass., the best account of which is 

probably her Record of Mr AkoU*s School (1835). She had been 

instructed in Greek by Emerson at Concord when she was 

eighteen years old. She became interested in the educational 

methods of Froebel, and in x86o opened in Boston a small school 

resembling a kindergarten. In X867 she visited Germany for 

the purpose of studying Froebel's methods. It was largely 

through her efforts that the first public Idndeigarten in the 

United States was established in Boston in 1870. She died at 

Jamaica Plain, Boston, on the 3rd of Januaxy X894. She was 

the sister-in-law of Nathaniel Hawthorne and of Horace Mann. 

Among her publicattonB are: Kindergarten in Italy (187a); 
Reminiscences of William EUery Channine (1880); Lectures in the 
Training Schools for Kindertartners (1888); and Last Evening with 
AUstcn, and other Papers (1886). 

PEABODY, GEORGE (x 795-1869), American philanthropist, 
was descended from axi old yeoman family of Hertfordshire, 
England, named Pabody or Pebody. He was bom in the part 
of Dan vers which is now Peabody, Mass., on the x8th of February 
I79S' When eleven years old he became apprentice at a 
grocery store. At ,the end of four years he became assistant to 
his brother, and a year afterwards to his uncle, who had a 
business in Cveorgetown, District of Columbia. After serving as a 
volunteer at Fort Warburton, Maryland, in the War of x8t2, he 
became partner with Elisha Riggs in a dry goods store at George- 
town, Riggs furnishing the capital, while Peabody was manager. 
Through his energy and skill the business increased with astound- 
ixig rapidity, and on the retirement of Riggs about 1830 Peabody 
found himself at the head of one of the largest mercantile con- 
cerns in the world. About 1837 he established hixnself in London 
as merchant and money-broker at Wanford 0>urt, in the dty, 
and in 1843 he withdrew from the American business. The 
number of his benefactions to public objects was very large. 
He gave £50,000 for educational purposes at Danveis; £200,000 
to found and endow a scientific Institute in Baltimore; various 
sums to Harvard University; £700,000 to the trustees of the 
Peabody Educational Fund to promote education in the 
southern states; and £500,000 for the erection of dwelling-houses 
for the working-classes in London. He received from Qutcn 
Victoria the oflfer of a baronetcy, but declined it. In 1867 the 
United States Congress awarded him a special vote of thanks. 
He died in London on the 4th of November X869; his body 
was carried to America in a British warship, and was buried 
in his native town. 

See the Life (Boston. 1870) by Phebe A. Hanaford. 

PEABODY, a township of Essex county, Massachusetts, 
U.S.A., in the eastern part of the state, a m. N.W. of Salem. 
Pop. (1905) 13,098; (1910) I5J2X. It is served by the Boston & 
Maine railroad. The township covers an area of 17 sq. m. Its 
principal village is also known as Peabody. It contains the 
Peabody institute (1852), a gift of Cveorge Peabody; in 1909 the 
institute had a library of 43,200 vols., and in connexion with it is 
the Eben Dale Sutton reference library, containing 4100 vols. 
In 1909. In the institute is the portrait of Quetn Victoria given 
by her to Mr Peabody. Among the pUces of interest in the 
township are the birthplace of George Peabody, the home of 
Rufus (^hoate (who lived here from 1823 to 1828), and the old 
burying-ground, where many soldiers of the War of Indepen- 
dence are buried; and the town has a Lexington monument, 



dedicated in 1835, and a soldiers' monument, dedicated in x88i. 

Manufacturing is the principal industry, and leather is the 

principal product; among other manufactures are shoes, gloves, 

glue and carriages. The value of the factory products in 

X905 was $10,236,669, an increase of 47-4% over that for X900, 

and of the total the leather product represented 77*3%. 

Peabody was originally a part of the township of Salem. In 

X752 the district of Danvers was created, and in 1757 this district 

was made a separate township. In 1 85 5 the township was divided 

into Danvers and South Danvers, and in 1868 the name of South 

Danvers was changed to Peabody, in honour of George Peabody. 

See Old Naumheag (Salem, 1877), by C. H. Webber and W. H. 
Nevins. 

PEACE, a river of western Canada. It rises in the Rocky 
Mountains near 55^ N., and breaking through the moiintains, 
flows N.E. into Slave River, near lake Athabasca. The district 
between 56* 40' and 6o* N., and between 1 1 2* W. and the Rocky 
Mountains is usually known as the Peace River district. 

PEACE (Lat. pax; Fr. paix\ Gcr. Friede), the contrary of 
war, conflict or turmoil, and the condition which follows their 
cessation. Its sense in international law is the condition of 
not being at war. The word is also used as an abridgment for 
a treaty of peace, in such cases as the Peace, of Utrecht (17x3) 
and the Peace of Amiens (1802). 

Introduaion. — Peace until quite recently was merely the 
political condition which prevailed in the intervals between 
wars. It was a purely negative condition. Even Grotius, who 
reduced the tendencies existing in his time to a sort of orderly 
expression, addressed himself to the law of war as the positive 
part of international jurispmdencc and dealt only with peace 
as its negative alternative. The very name of his historic 
treatise, De jure belli ac pads (1625), shows the subordination 
of peace to the main subject of war. In our own time peace has 
attained a higher status. It is now customary among writers 
on international law to give peace at any rate a volume to itself. 
Peace in fact has become a separate branch of the subject. The 
rise of arbitration as a method of settling international difficulties 
has carried it a step further, and now the Hague Peace Con- 
ventions have given pacific methods a standing apart from war, 
and the preservation of peace has become an object of direct 
political effort. The methods for ensuring such preservation 
are now almost as precise as the methods of war. However 
reluctant some states may be to bind themselves to any rulies 
excluding recourse to bmte force when diplomatic negotiations 
have failed, they have nevertheless unanimously at the Hague 
Conference of 1907 declared their " firm determination to co- 
operate in the maintenance of general peace " (la ferme volonti 
de concourir au mainiien de la paix glniraUy^ and their resolution 
" to favour with all their efforts the amicable settlement of 
international conflicts " (preamble to Peace Convention). The 
offer of mediation by independent powers is provided for (Peace 
Convention: art. 3), and it is specifically agreed that in matters 
of a " legal character " such as " questions of interpretation and 
application " of international conventions, arbitration is the 
*' most efficacious and at the same time most equitable method " 
of settling differences which have not been solved by diplomacy 
(Peace Convention: art. 38). In the final act, the conference 
went farther in agreeing to the " principle of compulsory arbi- 
tration," declaring that " certain disputes, in particular those 
relating to the interpretation and application of the provisions 
of international agreements, are suitable (susceptible) to be 
submitted to compulsory arbitration without any restriction.** 

These declarations were obviously a concession to the wide- 
spread feeling, among civilixed nations, that peace is an object 
in itself, an international political condition requiring its code of 
methods and laws just as much as the domestic political conditions 
of nations require their codes of methods and laws. In other 
words peace among nations has kow become, or is fast becoming, 
a positive subject of international regulation, while war is 

* This has been incorrectly rendered in the English official trans- 
lation as " the sincere desire to work for the maintenance of general 

peace." 



PEACE 



eoauog, UDODg progretdve peopks, to be lecurded merdy as an 
accidental distnrbanoe of that hannony and concord among 
mankind which oationi require for the fostering of their 
domestic wdfare. 

ThOu^ the idea of preserving peace by general international 
regulation has had several exponents in the course of ages, no 
ddibecate plan has ever yet been carried into effect. Indirectly, 
however, there have been many agencies which have operated 
towards this end. The earliest, known to history, is the Amphi- 
ctyonic Council (q.v.) which grew out of the common worship 
<rf the Hellenes. It was not so much a political as a religious 
body. " If it had any daim," says Freeman,^ " to the title of a 
general councO of Greece, it was wholly in the sense in which we 
speak of general councils in modem Europe. The Amphictyonic 
Coundl r epre se nted Greece as an ecclesiastical synod rq;>re- 
sented western Christendom. Its primary business was to 
regulate the concerns of the temple of ApoUo at DelphL The 
Amphictyonic Council which met at Ddphi was only the most 
famous of several bodies of the same kind." "It is easy, 
however,** adds Freeman, "to understand how the religious 
functions of such a body might assume a political character. 
Thus the old Amphictyonic oath forbade certain extreme 
measures of hostility against any dty sharing in the common 
Amphictyonic worship, and it was forbidden to raae any Amphi- 
ctyonic dty or to cut off its water. As the only deliberative 
body in which most Greek communities were represented, its 
dec^ioos were those of the bulk of the Hellenic people. Itsank 
eventually into a mere political tool in the hands first of Thebes, 
and then under Philip of Macedonia." 

The so-called p(u romana was merely peace within an 
empire governed from a central authority, the constituent 
parts of which were held together by a network of centralised 
authority. 

The feudal system again was a system of offence and defence, 
and its object was effidency for war, not the organized regulation 
of peace. Yet it had dements of federation within the bonds of 
to hierardi]» 

The apiritoal influence of the Church again was teerted to 
preserve relative peatt among feudal princes. The " Truce of 
God " was established by the clergy (originally in Guyenne in 
103 1) to ts^< advantage of holy days and festivals for the purpose 
of restricting the time available for bloodshed. 

The "grand design" of Henry IV. (France), which some 
Uatoriaas regard merely as the fantastic idea of a visionary, was 
probably a scheme of his great minister Sully to avert by a 
federation the conflict which he probably foresaw would break 
oat sooner or later between Catholic and Protestant Europe, 
and which, in fact, broke out some fifteen years later in the 
Thirty Years* War. 

The Holy Roman Empire itself was in some respects an agent 
lor the preservation of peace among its constituent states. In 
the same way the federation of Swiss cantons, of the states of the 
Nwth American Union and of the present German Empire have 
served as means of reducing the number of possible parties to war, 
■ad consequently that of its possible occasions. 

Not only the number of possible war-making states but also 
the territorial area over which war can be made has been 
fcdooed in recent times by the creation of neutralized states such 
•s Swftzerland, Belgium, Luxemburg and Norway, and areas 
soch 9% the Congo basin, the American lakes and the Suez Canal. 

The " balance of ^mtc" which has played in the history of 
Bodem Europe such an important part, is inherent in the 
Botkm of the independence SLiid stability of states. Just as in 
Italy the common weal of the different republics which were 
crowded within the limited area of the peninsula required that 
no one of them should become so powerful as to threaten the 
tadfpfiidfnr* of the others, so western Europe had a similar 
danger to counteract. France, Spain and Use Empire were 
competing with each other in power to the detriment of smaller 
ttates. Great Britain and the Netherlands, Prussia and Russia, 

^History cf Federal Ctmrnment in Cntu end Italy (and ed., 
1893}. p. 97* 



had interests in the preservation of the sUUus qw^ and wars were 
waged and treaties conduded to adjust the strength of states in 
the common interest of preventing any one of them from obtain- 
ing undue predominance. Then came the break up of what 
remained of feudal Europe and a readjustment under Napoleon, 
which Idt the western world with five fairly balanced homo- 
geneous nations. These now took the place of the old hetero- 
geneous areas, governed by their re^>ective sovereigns without 
reference to any idea of nationality or of national representation. 
The leading nations asstmied the hegemony of the west, and in 
more recent times this combination has become known as the 
" concert of Europe." This concert of the great powers, as 
its name implies, in contradistinction to the "balance of 
power," was essentially a factor for the preservation of peace. 
For a century back it has played the part of an upper council in 
the management of Europe. In all matters affecting the Near 
East, it considers itself supreme. In matters of general interest 
it has frequently called conferences to which the minor states 
have been invited, such as the West African Conference in Berlin 
in 1885, and the Anti-Slavery Conference at Brunds in 1889- 
1890, and the Conference of Algedras in 1906. Meanwhile the 
concert has admitted among its members first in 1856 Turkey, 
Uter in 1878 at the Congress of Berlin the United States, and 
now undoubtedly Japan will expect to be induded as a great 
power in this controlling body. The essential feature of the 
concert has been recognition of- the advantage to all the great 
powers of common action in rderence to territorial changes in 
the Near East, of meeting together as a coundl, in prderence 
to unconcerted negotiation by Uie powers acting severally. 

A departure of more recent origin has been the calling together 
of the smaller powers for the settlement of matters of general 
administrative interest, conferences such as those which led to 
the condusion of the conventions creating the Postal Union, 
the Copyright and Industrial Pnq;>erty Unions, &c 

These conferences of all the powers serve in practice as a sort 
of common coundl in the community of states, just as the 
concert of the great powers acts as a kind of senate. We have 
thus the nudeus of that international parliament which idealist 
peacemakers have dreamt of since the time of Henry IV.'s 
" grand design." 

This brings us down to the greatest deliberate effort ever made 
to secure the peace of the world by a general convention. It 
was due to the initiative of the young tsar Nicolas U., who, 
in his famous rescript of the 34.th of August 1898, stated that 
he thought that the then moment was "very favourable for 
seeking, by means of international discussion, the most effectual 
means of assuring to all peoples the benefits of a real and durable 
peace." " In the course of the last twenty years," added the 
rescript, " the preservation of peace had become an object of 
international policy." Economic crises, due in great part to the 
existing system of excessive armaments, were transforming 
armed peace into a crushing burden, which peoples had more and 
more difficulty in bearing. He therefore proposed that there 
should be an international conference for the purpose of focusing 
the efforts of all states which were " sincerely seeking to make 
the great idea of imiversal peace triumph over the dements 
of trouble and discord." The first conference was held in 1899, 
and another followed it in 1907: at the earlier one twenty-six 
powers were represented; at that of 1907 there were forty-four, 
this time practically the whole world. The conventions drawn 
up at the second conference were a deliberate codification of 
many branches of international law. By them a written law 
has been substituted for that unwritten law which nations had 
been wont to construe with a latitude more or less corre- 
sponding to thdr power. At the conference of 1899, moreover, 
a court of arbitration was instituted for the purpose of dealing 
judicially with such matters in dispute as the powers agreed to 
submit to it. 

In the interval between the two Hague Conferences, Great 
Britain and France concluded the first treaty applicable to 
future difficulties, as distinguished from the treaties which had 
preceded it, treaties which rdated in all cases to difficulties already 



Fnnch nwdel, hu mode refer 


encelothe Hague Coi 




rallmatleisw 


hichcan 


u awird of damages or da m 


at .Heel any* 


italnil 


Tbe third HAguc Confcrei 




to be t 


Me«nwhile t. conference of 1 


the maritime 


powen 


London in iQoS-igog Eoc Ibc i 


:laboralioii of ; 




marilime law in lime ol war, 


to be .pplied 


1 in the 


Court o( Pii«, which had been proposed in 




ad ttfaatdum it the Hague Conference ol 








. efforts 



odMini ud confined lo Ihem. TUi treaty nude (tUiraiian soienuneot tnoouiacemenl, . tbe Fiench-ipeiking popuUtido. 

tppUobleto lU miltennol (fleeting" ulionil honour or viul Poland ii UKitber cue of tbe difficulty of muuging a populMlod 

IstereiLi." Since ibea * network of linulit treitici, adopled wbich ipeilu i language not that of the goveming majority, and 

with each other and baaed on Ihe Anglo- Russia^ in trying to solve one problern by absorbing Finland 

rtolAtbilta- ialo the national »yilem, i> burdening heueli wiih anotbcr 

bcsetltedby whicb may work out in cailurics of unieit, if not in domeilic 

onal interest, violence. Not very long ago Pan-Germans vere paying much 

eld in 1917. attenlion to the Cennan settlers in the Braiilian province ol 

was held in RioGraadedaSul.wherelargevilUgesspokcnolhingbutGennan, 

international and Gennan, as the only language known on Ihe spot, bad become 

inlPTUBtional tbe tongue in which municipal businru was ILansacted. Tbe 

:nlion signed Braailian government, in view of the danger Co whicb such a 
state of things might give rise, lolloweil Ihe eiample ol tbe 

wbich have United States in dealing with the language questioP' 

been made by different powers to assure Ihe idgn of justice Thus while in tbe one case homogeneity of tanguage within 

and judicial methods among the itatn of the world was the pro- stale boundaries seems to be one ol Ihe conditions making fat 

posal of Secretary Knoi of the United Stain to insert in the peace, Ihe avoidance of interference with a well-marked homo- 

instniment of ratification of tbe Intemaiional Priie Court geneous am like Finland would seem to contribute equally to 

Convention (adopted at the Hague in 1897) a clause staling the same end. 

that tbe International Piiie Court thill he Invoted with Ihe Meanwhile the difficulties in the way ol coniemporary nation- 

dutic* and functions of a court of arlulral justice, such as making are fosLered by many extraneous influences, as well as 

KOHDmended by the first Voai of tbe Final Act of the con- by dogged resislancE of Ihe nccs in tfueslion. N'ot the least 

Eerence. The object of tkia proposal was to give eEIect to the important of these infiucncs is Ihe sentimental sympathy felt 

idea that the existing " pennanent " court tacked the essential for rhoK who are supposed to be deprived of the use of their 

at all timrs to hear cases, and at needing to be specially con- an alien one. The hardship ioGicled on those who have to 

■tiluled for evtiy case submilled to it. The new court would leam a second language is very easily eiaggeralcd, though it 

be permanently in session at the Hague, the full panel of is to be regretted that in the case of Hungary the second language 

Judges to assemble in. onliiiary ot emaatdiDary session once is not one more useful for intemaiional purposes. 

CmUfapoiiuy Stalarafl. — Nation-making has hilherlo been 



J are increaang, and w 



?wlh due lo Ihe play of circumstance and c 



ilso at worl 


:, as in Canada; 


gradually 








Canada in 




ion of the 


British Empire 



Blablisbing a judiciary to adjust their differences in accordance where Ihe genius of st^ 

with it.' dominion with all the at 

The CtUTOU Crmpiit 'f ManhW ami Nallim-matiiit.— Australia lias not learnt Ihe lesson of Can, 

In tbe cODJulidaiion of peace one of the most Important value miy attach to the 

factors is unquestionably the grouping of mankind Id accordance itself as a factor in spreaauig me peace wnicn reigns wiinin 11, 

with the final territorial and racial limiialions ol their apparent it is also a great contrihulion lo tbe peace of Ihe world that the 

destiny. Language has played a nial part in the formation British race should have founded practically independent state* 

cd Germany and Italy. The language question still disturbs like Ihe Dominion of Canada, the Commonwealth ol Australia, 

the tranquillity of the Near East. The Hungarian govcmment the South African Union and the Dominion ol New Zealand, 

ii regarded by the Slav, Ruman and Geiman inhabitants These self-governing colonies with Ihdr spheres of influence, 

body within the realm to leam Ihe Magyar bnguage. The whicb is dissociated from Ihe methods of an over-peo}Jed 

" Young Turkish " government has problems to face which will Europe, and among Ibem tbe preservation of peace it 

be equally difficult, if it invsis on endeavouring to institute the direct object and condition of their progressive develop- 

cintialized government in Turkey on tbe French modeL ment. Uke the United States, Ihey have or will have their 

Whereas during the i(>th century slates were being cut out Monroe doctrine. Colonized by the steady industrial peoples 

CO suit the existing distribution of language, in Ihe lotb the ol northern Europe, there is no danger ot Ihe turbulence 

tendency seems lo be to avoid furtber rearrangement of boon- of the industrially iudolcnt but more passionate peoples of 

daries, and lo complete the homogeneity, thus far attained, by Central and South America. As in Europe, these noclhem 

tbe artificial method ol forcing reluctant populations to adopt peoples wilt hold the. power which intelligent democracies are 

the language of the predominant or governing race. In the consciously absorbing, and the British faculty for statecralt is 

United Suiei this artificial method has became a necessity, to gradually welding new nalionson the British model, wiihout Ihe 

prevent tbe upgrowth of alien communiiifs, which might at some obsolete traditions and without that human sediment whicb too 

later date cause domestic trouble of a perilous chsrsctec. For Irequenlly chokes the currenlsol national vitaUly b the oldo- 

with British rule, many years ago migrated and setlled in Uililariim. — ll is often staled, as if it were incontrovenible, 

Hassachuseits, they found none ol the tolerance they had that conscription and brge standing armies are a menace to 

been enjoying in Canada for their French schools and the peace, and yet, although throughout the civilised worid, except 

CermaD-Bpeaking imnugcanlt are gradually displacing, under the system employed lor Ihe recruiting of the national forces 
ol both defence and offence, lew ol these countries show any 

' " " le United Stales, with a popublion about equal to that of 

rest ol the American continent, and of Great Britain, an 
on. pbces both 



(!&«>! the Abb* St Pierre', elaboration (t. ITOo) o( Henry IV.'. J 

"grand deiivn " <iec tupra): Jeremy Bcntham's Inlfmationat 

I>>»«iial (l7&-ITgq); K^nl't FlrmaMlOmpta ^ Naltimi ani > 

tidnt. have all conlribuceil 10 populaciilng In 
t tbe idea of a (edntio* o( ouaUBd foe the ' 



d absolute 


need ollarge i 


itM 


iding am 


lies.. 


and rcoden 


lan 


ngsj-stem 


feasible which 




luUbe t 


luiie 


inadequate 


foe 




.f armies on the 


Ft, 


inchorC 




n scale. De: 




progress 


on the Conti 




It ha^ 


howt 




bed 



PEACE 



ooBscriptioii as a feature in the equalization of the citizen's ri^ts 
and liabilities. Just as in Anglo-Saxon lands a national ideal 
is gradually outerializing in the principle of the equalization of 
^•*"«»'-^ (or all citizens, so in continental Europe, along with 
this equalisation of chances, has still more rapidly developed 
tl^ ideal of an equalization of obligations, which in tum> leads to 
the cbim for an enlargement of political rights co-eztensive 
vith the obligations. Thus universal conscription and universal 
suffrage tend to become in continental political development 
compleznentazy conditions of the citizen's political being. In 
Germany, moreover, the military service is designed not only to 
make the recruit a good soldier, but also to give him a healthy 
physical, moral and mental traiiiing. German statesmen, under 
the povcrful stimulus of the emperor William n., have, in the 
eyes of some cdtics, carried this secondary object of conscript 
training to such eaccess as to be detrimental to militaiy efficiency. 
To put it shortly, the Germans have taught their soldiers to 
think, and not merely to obey. The French,- who naturally 
k»ked to German methods for inspiration, have come to apply 
them more particulariy in the development of their cavalry and 
artillery, especially in that of the former, which has taken in the 
French army an ever higher place as its observing and thinking 
organ. 

Militarism on the Continent has thus become allied with the 
very factors which made for the reign of reason. No agitation 
kx the development of national defences, no beating of drums 
to awaken the military spirit, no anti-foreign damour or 
invasion panic, no parading of uniforms and futile clash of 
amis, are necessary to entice the groundling and the bumpkin 
kuo the service. In Germany patriotic waving of the flag, as a 
ptrfitical method, is directed more especially to the strengthen- 
ing of imperial, as dbtinguished from local, patriotisuL Where 
cnucription has existed for any appreciable time it has sunk 
Into the national economy, and men do their military service 
with as little concern as if it were a dvil apprenticeship. 

As imi^led above, military training under conscription does 
not by any meam necessarily tend to the promotion of the 
militaxy spiiit. In France, so far from taking this direction, 
it has resulted, under democratic government and universal 
saffnige, in a widespread abhorrence of war, and, in fact, has 
converted the French people from being the most militant 
ifilo being the most pacific nation in £urop>e. The fact that 
erery family throughout the land is a contributory to the 
ffliGtary forces of the country has made peace a family, and 
bcQce a national, ideal. Paradoxical as it may seem, it is the 
logicsl conclusion of such comparisons that militarism only 
costs in countries where there are no dtizen armies, and that, 
vlxre there are dtizen armies, they are one of the elements 
vhich Bbake for permanent peace. 

Nvmtd Nature of Peace. — America has been the pioneer of 
the view that peace is the normal condition of mankind, and 
tkat, when the causes of war are eliminated, war ceases to have 
znis9md*lire. The objects and causes of war are of many kinds. 
War for fitting's sake, although in the popular mind there may 
be, daring most wars, only the ezdtement and the emotion of 
a great gamble, has no consdous place among the motives of 
those who determine the destinies- of peoples. Apart, however, 
from self-defence, the main causes of war are four: (i) The 
desire for territorial expansion, due to the overgrowth of 
popuUtioii, and insuffidency of the available food-supply; if 
the aecesaary tenitory cannot be obtained by negotiation, 
oooqaest beconxs the only alternative to emigration to fordgn 
hnls. <s) The jvompting of national ambition or a desire to 
wipe out the icoord of a humiliating defeat. (3) Ambitious 
potentates again may seek to deflect popular tendendes into 
<4Miip»«M4fc ncne satisfactory for their dynasty. (4) Nations, on 
the other hand, may grow jealous of each other's commercial 
ncoess or material power. In many cases the apparent cause 
Bay be of a nobler character, but historians have sddom been 
OBBteat to accept the allegations of those who have claimed to 
nny oa war from duinterested motives. 

Oi the Aaiiericaa oonlinent South and Central American 



states have had many wars, and the disastrous effects of them 
not only in retarding their own devdopment, but in impair- 
ing their national credit, have led to earnest endeavours on 
the part of their leading statesmen to arrive at such an under- 
standing as will banish from thdr international polity all 
excuses for resorting to armed conflicts. In 1881 Mr Blaine, 
then U.S. secretary of state, addressed an instruction to the 
ministers of the United States of America accredited to 
the various Central and South American nations, directing 
them to invite the governments of these countries to par- 
tidpate in a congress, to be hdd at Washington in 1882, 
" for the purpose of considering and discussing the methods 
of preventing war between the nations of America." Owing 
to different drcumstances the conference was delayed till the 
autumn of 1889. At this conference a plan of arbitration 
was drawn up, imder which arbitration was made obligatory 
in all controversies whatever their origin, with the single 
exception that it should not apply where, in the judgment of 
any one of the nations involved in the controversy, its national 
independence was imperilled, and even in this case arbitration, 
though optional for the nation so judging, was to be obh'gatory 
for the adversary power. At the second International Confer- 
ence of American States, which sat in the dty of Mexico from 
the 22nd of October 1901 to the 31st of January 1902, the same 
subject was again discussed, and a scheme was finally adopted as 
a compromise which conferred authority on the government of 
Mexico to ascertain the views of the different governments 
represented in the conference, r^arding the most advanced 
form in which a general arbitration convention could be drawn 
up that would meet with the approval and secure ratification 
by all the countries represented, and afterwards to prepare a 
plan for such a general treaty. The third Pan-American 
Conference was hdd in the months of July and August 1906, 
and was attended by the United States, Argentina, Bolivia, 
Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, 
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador and Uruguay. Only 
Haiti and Venezuela were absent. The conference, bdng held 
only a year before the time fixed for the second Hague Conference, 
applied itself mainly to the question of the extent to which 
force might be used for the collection of pecuniary claims against 
defaulting governments, and the forwarding of the principle 
of arbitration under the Hague Conventions. The possible 
causes of war on the American continent had meanwhile been 
considerably reduced. Different states had adjusted their 
frontiers. Great Britain in British Guiana had settled an out- 
standing question with Venezuela, France in French Guiana 
another with Brazil, Great Britain in Newfoundland had re- 
moved time-honoured grievances with France, Great Britain in 
Canada others with the United States of America, and now the 
most difficult kind of international questions which can arise, 
so far as the American continent is concerned, have been removed 
from among existing dangers to peace. Among the Southern 
Republics Argentina and Chile conduded in 1902 a treaty of 
arbitration, for the settlement of all difficulties without dis- 
tinction, combined with a disarmament agreement of the 
same date, to which more ample reference will be made 
hereafter. Thus in America progress is being rapidly made 
towards the realization of the idea that war can be super- 
annuated by elimination of its causes and the development of 
positive methods for the preservation of peace (see Pan- 
American Conferences). 

With the American precedent to inspire him, the emperor 
Nicolas II. of Russia in 1898 issued his invitation to the powers 
to hold a similar conference of European states, with a more or 
less similar object. In 1899 twenty-six states met at the Hague 
and began the work, which was continued at the second con 
fcrence in 1907, and furthered by the Maritime Conference 
of London of 1908- 1909. The creation of the Hague Court and 
of a code of law to be applied by it have further eliminated 
causes of difference. 

These efforts in the two hemispheres aze based on the idea 



-8 PEACE 

thit bleiutlcmil dlBereoca cu be tdjoilid withoot •ni, SecnUiy Eboi ilio propoKil tlut i tunbra eubliag cUuK bt 

where the putia ue hanally iggrievcd. With thii adjiut- imetud pcondinc thai the Inlemitioiul Court ol Friie be 

meat of eiiiling casa the number o[ pouible precuu for the cantpetenl to uttpt Junidictioa in ill mitlen, ariiing beinen 

eioplDVDieot ot force i> beinjE npidly diminiihed. ilfutotit*, lubituiteil to it, the Court lo til at fiinl periodi 

Puiii Prsadurt lautiT lit Hiiu CdukWuiu. — The Btgm evHy yew •od to be compcDed (ccoiding to Che puel which 

Pace CoDventioa oE 1907, which re-cnicts the cBaenti&i parti of wodnwn up at the Hague. Thit court, which the AinericaD 

ttie earlier one of 1B99, aeti out £ve ways of adjusting inter- govenunent proposed lo call a " Couit of Arbitral Juatice/^ 

■utional conflicts without iccounelowu. Finely, the litiiatoir would laie the place of that which It was proposed to institute 

powers have undertaken lo UM their best eSorti loetuure the under Van No. i of the Final Act of the conference of 1907. 

pacific settlement ol iotcmalional difficulties. Thia is a general The Intention of the Hague dnf t anneied to the Fa was to 

dctlaiation of intention to lend themselvea to the peaceable create a petinanent court a> distinguished Inm that etiabliibed 

adjustment of difficulties and employ their diplomacy to this b 1S99, which, though called permanent, wu not so, having to 

end. Secondly, in case of serious disagreement, diplomacy be put together ad koc as the occasion arose. The new court, if 

having failed, they agree to have recourae, as far u drcumstancei adopted, would hold regular and continuous lesaions, conusl of 

allow, to the good offices or mediation of one or more friendly the same Judges, and pay due heed lo the precedents created by 

powen. Thirdly, the lignitory powers agree that il shall not its prior dediions. The two courts would have separate ^faetes 

be regarded as an unf tieodly act if one or more powers, atrangert of activity, and litigants would practically have the option of 

to the dispute, on their own initiative offer their good offices or submiltingtbeirdiSerencestoaJudidal court nhich would regard 

mediatioQ to the states in disagreement, or even during hostUi- itself as being bound by the letter of the law and by judicial 

ties, if war has already broken out. Fourthly, tbe coDvention method) or to 1 ipecial court created od ktc with a purely 

recommends thai in disputes of In Intemitionil nature, involving aitntrative character, 

neither national honour nor vital interests, and arising from a Tki Plact cf Dipltmaey. — The ulilily of the diplomatic lervlce 

difletence of opinion on poiou of fact, Che parties who have not has been consldenbty diminished through the increuing 

been able to come lo an agreement by means of diplomacy efficiency of the public preu u a medium of tnfonnalion. It is 

should Institute an iniematlonal commission of inquiry to not too much to say that at the present day an experienced 

(acililaie a solution ol these ditpulei by an investigation of the journalist, ia a place like Vienna or Berlin, can give more 

facts. Lastly, the high conlnciing parties have agreed that infotmaiion to an ambassador than the ambassador can give 10 

in tiucilions ol a legal nature, and eapedally in interpretation bim. It is even true to aay that an ambusadoc is practically 

or application of intcrpationai conventions, arbitration is recog- debarred from coming Into actual touch with currents of publk 

niied as the most efleccivc, and al the same time the mod feelingandthepasainginfluenceawhich,lnlhIsBgeofdBnocracy, 

equitable, means of settling disputes which diplomjicy bu failed determine the course of events In the political life of peoples. 

to sdjust. The diplomatist has therefore lost one of bis chief functions aa 

Down to loio no niggeition of mediation had actually been u InfOTmant ol the accrediting govemmeDC. The other chief 

carried out, but a number of case* of arbitration had been tried [uscUoo of diplomacy is to be the courteous medium of conveyinf 

by the Hague Court, created by the Hague Peace Conventloa messages from one govenimenc lo another. Even this functioQ 

{see AiBrTiiA'nOH,I)nEiHa'noNat},acidonecase, vli.thatofthe jt losing iu significance. The ciphered telegram leaves little 

Dogger Bank incident, was submitted to a commiuion oflDquity, discretion to the envoy, and written notes are exchanged whicb 

which sat in January 1005,' are practically a mere transcription ol the deciphered telegram 

If Secretary Knox's proposal (see lupra) to convert the or draft prepared at the instructing foreign office. Nevenbe- 

Intemalional Prize Court into a permanently sitting court of ]ca, the personality of an ambassador can play a great part, if be 

arbitration is adopted, a detailed procedure and jurisprudence poatenes charm, breadth of understanding and interest In Ibc 

will no doubt grow out of a continuity which is lacking ia the sodal. inleUectual and Industrial life of the country 10 which he 

present lyitem, under which the court is recruited from a large jg accredited. There are several instances of such men in Europe 

panel for each special case. Secretary Kooi'i idea, aa expiesied and America, but Ibey are so rare that some reformers consider 

b the identical circular note addreued by him on the iSth of them as hairlly justifying the large eipenditure necessary la 

October i;a9tothepoHeia,wu to invest the International Priie m.mi.in the existing system. On the other hsnd, the utlllly 

Court, proposed lo be established by the convention of the iSlh of the consular service has concurrently increased. Adtnlnit- 

of Occober 1907, with the functions of a "Court of arbitral irativc Indifference to the eminently uselul officials forming the 

justice." The court contemplated by the cooveatloB was a service has ted, b many cases, to diminishing iotteid of bcreaa- 

court of appeal for reviewing prize decisions of national courta jng tbdr number and their salaries, but It it obvious that llie 

both as to facts and as to the law applied, and, m Che exercise extension of tbdr duties and a corresponding raising of tbdr 

of ItsjudidaldisctetIon,notonlytoco[iGrmbwholeorlnpart the status would be much more Ln accordance with the national 

national dedsioD or the contrary, but also to certify its Judgment bterest. The French, with that practical sense which dlslin- 

lo the national court for enforcement thereof. The adoption of gulshes so much of their recent adminiatntive work, have 

this jurisdiction would have Involved a revision of the judidal connected the two services. A consul-general can be promoted 

systems of probably every country accepting It- The United ig a diplomatic poit, and take with him to his higher office the 

States government theielore proposed that the ilgnatoties should practical eiperience a consul gains of the material bteiettiof 

Insert m the act of ntificitloo a reservation to the effect Ihal the country to which be belongs. 

resort to the International Prize Court, b respect of decisions of There is thus still good work for diplomacy todo, and [f, in tbe 

their national tribunals, should take the form of a direct claim selection of diplomatic representatives, states followed on the 

fnr mrrnpnsation. Tbi) in any case wotdd remove the United one hand the above-mentioned French example, and on tbe 

slitutlonal objection to tbe establishment of the other band tha American example of selecting for the beads oi 

' ' ' D with thb enabling clause Mi di[domatlc minions men who are not necessarily d( laconlr^ 

diplomacy n^t obtain a new lease of acIiviCy,aDd become once 

' The pnodure adopted by the eommls^n was afterwaids more an extremely useful part of the admlnlitntlve machiaety 

Incorporated In the convention of '^- 'f?*?,''^"|'|^^°'^' by which slates malntab good buabess Klatlon* a* well ii 

SlJ^^''S!r,l2fjiiS?SJ«lIilS'to"^.S£t^£^uSSia!' friendly poUtlcalbtercoutse with one another. 
:SS£?5 a2'™S2SS;?S7i!;3 S«T.3SSrS^^Sr^ /»;en,S«^ E^t^hn h T™.y.-It .e^n. a truism to »y 

tiK eliclliiH U further infonaatloa; and Ihey may not Interrupt that among the agendes which most effectively tend to the 

the witness when be Is In coarse of makini Us •utemenl, but th<y preservation of peace are treaties which regulate the relalloin 

SS-^UJtES^Ihe^pniuTdMie^S^H:;^ ofaUtealntl^lrbtercou^withotherstMe. Such treatJ... 

Coon, wbiiewiiae-ea ate Samined. however, are of quite recent ongm. 1 



PEACE 



the ipural cei adopted at the South African 
Cboference at Berlin in 1885, which laid down the principle, 
wfaidi has since become of still wider application, that " any 
Power which henceforth takes possession of a tract of land on 
the coast of the African continent outside of its present pos- 
sessioas or which, being hitherto without such possessions, shall 
acquire them . . . shall accompany the act rdating to it with a 
notification thereof, addressed to the other Signatory Powers 
flf the present act, in order to enable them, if need be, to make 
good any claims of their own," and, furthermore, that " the 
Sgaatory Powers of the present act recognize the obligation 
to ensure the establishment of authority in the regions occupied 
by them on the coasts of the African continent sufficient to 
imtcct existing rights, and, as the case may be, freedom of trade 
sad transit under the conditions agreed upon." Under these 
sitides occupation of unoccupied territory to be legal had to be 
elective;. Tliis led to the creation and determination of spheres 
ef imjluence. By fixing the areas of these spheres of influence 
oval states in western and central Africa avoided conflicts and 
pfcserved their rights until they were able to take a more 
efective part in their development. The idea of " spheres of 
^*'»«*^«^ " has in turn been applied even to more settled and 
dvXsed countries, such as China and Persia. 

Other cases of regulation by treaty are certain contractual 
engagements which have been entered into by states for the 
preservation of the status quo of other states and territories. 

The Anglo- Japanese Treaty of the X2th of August 1905 sets 
oat its objects as follows>— 

a. "The cooaoUdatioa and maintenance of the general peace 
iathermoQsof Eastern Asia and India; 

k " The preservation of the common interests of the Powers in 
Ckba, of insurix^ the independence and the integrity of the Chinese 
mpini. and the principle of equal opportunities for the coauoerce 
sad iadastry oif aU nations in Cnina: 

c "The maintenance oi the territorial rights of the hieh con- 
tCKtiiv parties in the regions of Eastern Asia and of India, and 
t^^pfriy^ of thiar tptdaS interests in such regions." 

It ii a treaty for the maintenance of the status qua in certain 
ports of Asia in whidi the parties to it have dominant interests. 
He same principle underlies different other self-denying arrange- 
■eots aikl dedaratioos made by the powers with reference to 
CUaese integrity. 

Ihe Treaty <k Algeciras is essentially a generalization of the 
Fcsaco-Gcrman agreement <A the 28th of September 1905. By it 
afl the powers represented agree to respect the territorial integrity 
of Motocco, subject to a possible intervention limited to the 
porpose of jtreserving order within it. 

JX^mog from these general acts in not being contractual Is 
tke Monroe doctrine, which is a policy of ensuring the mainte- 
BiBce of the territorial status quo as regards non-American 
powers thrott^ioat the American continent. If necessary, the 
ka£ag zepubiics of South and Central America would no doubt, 
however, further ensure respect for it by treaty. 

With these precedents and current instances of tendency to 
place the territorial relations of the powers on a permanent 
footing of respect for the existing status quo, it seems possible 
to fD bey<»Ml the mere enunciation of principles, and to take 
8 step towards their practical realization, by agreeing to respect 
ikttgrntonal status quo throughout still larger tracts of the world, 
■ettralise them, and thus pla^ them outside the area of possible 



A third ocmtractoal method of avoiding conflicts of interest 
has been the signing of agreements for the maintenance of the 
"open-door." The discussion on the question of the "open- 
door" in connexion with the Morocco difficulty was useful 
in calling general public attention once more to the undesir- 
ahfilty of allowing any single power to exclude other nations 
bem trading on territory over which it may be called to exercise 
a pratcctorate, espedaUy if eqxiality of treatment of foreign 
tnde had beoi practised by the authority ruling over the 
territory in question before its practical annexation under the 
■ame oi protectorate. The habitable parts of the world are a 
inltcd area, cxcfaisioii from any of which is a diminution of 



the available markets of the nations excluded. Every power, 
is, therefore, rightfully interested in the prevention of such 
exdusicm. 

The United States government in 1899 called attention to 
the subject as regards China, without, however, going into any 
question of principle. It thought that danger of international 
irritation might be removed by each power making a declaration 
respecting the " sphere of interest " in China to which it laid 
claim. Lord Salisbury informed Mr Choate that H.M. govern- 
ment were prepared to make a declaration in the sense desired. 
AU the powers concerned eventually subscribed to the declara- 
tion proposed by the United States government. 

The principle of the " open-door " in fact has already been 
consistently applied in connexion with certain non-European 
areas. As these areas are practically the only areas which of 
late years have come within the scope of European regulation, 
the time seems to be approaching when the principle may be 
declared to be of general application. From the point of view 
of diminishing the possible causes of conflict among nations, 
the adoption of this principle as one of international contractual 
obligation would be of great utility. While putting an end 
to the injustice of exclusion, it would obviously reduce the danger 
of nations seeking colonial aggrandizement with a view to im- 
posing exclusion, and thus one of the chief temptations to 
colonial adventure would be eliminated. 

In the fourth place, there is the self-denying ordinance against 
employment of arms for the enforcement of contractual obliga- 
tions adopted at the Hague Conference of 1907. Under it the 
high contracting powers have agreed not to have recourse to 
armed force for the recovery of contractual debts claimed from 
the government of one country by the government of another 
country as due to its subjects. The only qualification admitted 
under the new convention is that it shall not apply when the 
debtor-state refuses or leaves unanswered an offer of arbitration, 
or in case of acceptance renders the settlement of the terms of 
arbitration impossible, or, after arbitration, fails to comply with 
the award. The theory on which this convention is based is 
known as the Drago theory, having taken a practical form during 
the administration of Dr L. M. Drago, when he filled the post 
of Argentine minister of foreign affairs. The doctrine, however, 
is not new, having already been enunciated a century before 
by Alexander Hamilton and reiterated since then by several 
American statesmen, such as Albert Gallatin, William L. Marcy 
and F. T. Frelinghuysen, as the view prevailing at Washington 
during their respective periods of office. 

Limitations of Disarmament. — Disarmament, or to speak 
more correctly, the contractual limitation of armaments, has 
become, of late years, as much an economic as a humanitarian 
peace-securing object. 

" The maintenance of universal peace and a possible reduction 
of the excessive armaments which weigh upon all nations, 
represent, in the present condition of affairs all over the world, 
the ideal towards which the efforts of all governments should 
be directed," were the opening words of the Note which the 
Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count Mouraviev, handed 
to the diplomatic representatives of the different powers 
suggesting the first Hague Conference. 

" The ever-increasing financial burdens," the Note went on, 
"strike at the root of pubb'c prosperity. The physical and 
intellectual forces of the people, labour and capital, are diverted 
for the greater part from their natural application and wasted 
unproductively. Hundreds of millions are spent in acquiring 
terrible engines of destruction, which are regarded to-day as 
the latest inventions of science, but are destined to-morrow to 
be rendered obsolete by some new discovery. National culture, 
economic progress and the production of wealth are either 
paralysed or developed in a wrong direction. Therefore the 
more the armaments of each power increase the less they answer 
to the objects aimed at by the governments. Economic dis- 
turbances are caused in great measure by this system of excessive 
armaments; and the constant danger involved in this accumula- 
tion of war material renders the armed peace of to-day a crushing 



lO 



PEACE 



burden more and more difficult for nations to bear. It conse- 
quently seems evident that if this situation be prolonged it will 
inevitably result in the very disaster it is sought to avoid, and 
the thought of the horrors of which makes every humane mind 
shudder. It is the supreme duty, therefore, of all states to place 
some limit on these increasing armaments, and find some means 
of averting the calamities which threaten the whole world." 

A further Note submitting the programme proposed gave 
more precision to this item, which thereupon took the following 
form: " An understanding not to increase for a fixed period 
the present effectives of the armed mibtary and naval forces, 
and at the same time not to increase the budgets pertaining 
thereto; and a preliminary examination of the means by which 
even a reduction might be effected in future in the forces and 
budgets above mentioned." 

When the subject came on for discussion at the conference 
the German military delegate stated his view that the question 
of effectives could not be discussed by itself, as there were many 
others to which it was in some measure subordinated, such, 
for instance, as the length of service, the number of cadres 
whether existing in peace or made ready for war, the amount 
of traim'ng received by reserves, the situation of tly: country 
itself, its railway system, and the number and position of its 
fortresses. In a modem army all these questions went together, 
and national defence included them all. In Germany, moreover, 
the military system " did not provide for fixed numbers annually, 
but increased the numbers each year." 

After many expressions of regret at finding no method of 
giving effect to the proposal, the commission confined itself to 
recording its opinion that " a further examination of the question 
by the Powers would prove a great benefit to humanity." 

The Conference, however, were unanimous in the adoption 

of the following resolution: — 

" The Conference is of opinion that the restriction of militaiy 
budgeu, which are at present a heavy burden on the world, is 
extremely desirable for the increase of the material and moral 
welfare of mankind ;" 

and it passed also the following vceu : — 

" That governments, taking into account the proposals made at 
the Conference, should examine the possibility of an understanding 
concerning the limitation of military and naval armaments, and 
of war budgets." 

The general public, more particularly in Great Britain and 
France, shows an ever-increasing distrust of the rapid growth 
of armaments as a possible cause of grave economic troubles. 
A high state of military preparedness of any one state obliges 
all the others to endeavour to be prepared on the same level. 
This process of emulation, very appropriately called by the late 
Sir H. Campbell-Bannerman " a policy of huge armaments," 
unfortunately is a policy from which it is impossible for any 
coimtry to extricate itself without the co-operation, direct or 
indirect, of other nations. 

The subject was brought forward in view of the second Hague 
Conference in both the French and Italian parliaments. 

The declaration of the French government stated that. — 

" France hoped that other nations would grow, as she had done, 
more and more attached to solutions of international difficulties 
based upon the respect of justice, and she trusted that the progress 
of universal opinion in this direction would enable nation3 to 
regard the lessening of the present military budgets, derlarcd by 
the states represented at the Hague to be greatly desirable for the 
benefit of the material and moral state of humanity, as a practical 
possibility." (Chamber of Deputies, June I3, 1906.) 

In the Itah'an Chamber of Deputies, an interpellation was 
addressed to the minister of foreign affairs about the same time 
asking " whether the Government had knowledge of the motion 
approved by the British House of Commons, and of the under- 
taking of the British government that, in the programme of the 
coming Hague Conference, the question of the reduction of 
armaments should be inserted, and in what spirit the Italian 
government had taken or pro{)osed to take the propositions of 
the British government, and what instructions it would give to 
the Italian representatives at the conference." 



The minister of fordgn afitairs, M Tittoni, in reply ezpreaaed 
the adhesion of the Italian government to the humanitarian 
ideas which had met with such enthusiasm in the historic 
House of Parliament at Westminster. " I have always believed," 
he said, " that, as far 03 we are concerned, it would be a national 
crime to weaken our own armaments while we are surrounded 
by strongly armed European nations who look upon the improve^ 
ment of armaments as a guarantee of peace. Nevertheless, I 
should consider it a crime against humanity not to sincerely 
co-operate in an initiative having for object a simultaneous 
reduction of armaments of the great powers. Italian practice 
has always aimed at the maintenance of peace; therefore, I am- 
happy to be able to say that our delegates at the coining 
Hague Conference will be instructed to further the Fji gli«h 
initiative." 

The only existing case of contractual reduction of armaments 
is that of the Disarmament Agreement of the 28th of May 1Q02 
between the Chilian and Argentine republics, adopted " owing 
to the initiative and good offices of His Britannic Majesty/' 
which is as follows: — 

Art. I. — In order to remove all cause of fear and distrust between 
the two countries, the governments of Chile and of the Argentine 
Republic agree not to take possession of the warships which they 
are having built, or for the present to make any other acquisitions. 
The two governments furthermore agree to reduce their respective 
fleets, according to an arrangement establishing a reasonaUe 
proportion between the two fleets. This reduction to be made 
within one year from the date at which the present agreement shall 
be ratified. 

Art. II. — ^The two governments respectively promise not to 
increase their maritime armaments during five years, unless the 
one who shall wish to increase them shall give the other eighteen 
months' notice in advance. This agreement docs not include any 
armaments for the purpose of protccUng the shore and ports, and 
each party will be at liberty to acquire any vessels {.maquinaflotatUe) 
intended tor the protection thereof, such as submarines, &c 

Art. III. — ^The reductions (<>. ships disposed of) resulting from 
this agreement will not be parted with to countries having any 
dispute with either of the two contracting parties. 

Art. IV. — In order to facilitate the transfer of the pending orders 
the two governments agree to increase by two months the time 
stipulated for the beginning of the construction of the respective 
ships. They will give instructions accordingly. 

An agreement of this kind is obviously more feasible as among 
states whose navies are small and of comparatively recent 
origin than among states whose navies are composed of vessels 
of many and widely different ages. It may be diffictilt to agree in 
the latter case on a principle for assessment of the proportionate 
fighting value of the re^)ective fleets. The break-up or 
sale of obsolete' warships is a diminution of the paper effective 
of a navy, and their purchase by another state a paper increase 
of theirs. Even comparatively slight differences in the ages of 
ships may make great differences in their fighting value. It 
would be a hard, though probably not insurmountable, task to 
establish " a reasonable proportion," such as provided for in 
Art. II. of the Chile-Argentina Agreement, as between large 
and old-standing navies like those of Europe. 

On the other hand, as regards military power, it seems some- 
times forgotten in the discussion of the question of armaments, 
that the conditions of the present age differ entirely from those of 
the time of the Napoleonic wars. With conscription a national 
army corresponds more or less numerically to the proportion of 
males in the national population. Great Britain, without con* 
scription, has no means of raising troops in any such proportion. 
Thus, so long as she refrains from adopting conscription, she 
can only oury on defensive warfare. The object of her navy is 
therefore necessarily defensive, imless it act in co-operation 
with a foreign conscript army. As there are practically only 
three great armies available for the purpose of a war of aggression, 
the negotiation of contingent arrangements does not seem too 
remote for achievement by skilful and really well-meam'ng 
negotiation. The Hague Conference of 1907, owing to difficulties 
which occurred in the course of the preliminary negotiations 
for the conference, did not deal with the subject. 

Principle and Capabilities of Neutralization. — Among the 
different methods which have grown up practically in our own 



PEACE 



II 



time for the exclusion of war is neutralization. We have been 
4»*""g hitherto with the elimination of the causes of war; 
aeutialization is a curtailment of the areas of war and of the 
hctms in warfare, of territory on the one hand and states on the 
•thcr. The neutralization of territory belonging to stales 
which are not otherwise neutralized includes the neutralization 
of waterways such as the Suez and Panama canals. 

Under the General Act of Berlin of the 36th of February 1885, 
" in case a power ezerdaing rights of sovereignty or protec- 
torate " in any of the regions forming the basin of the Congo 
and its afBuents, including Lake Tanganyika, and extending away 
to the Indian Ocean, should be involved in a war, the parties 
to the General Act bound themselves to lend their good offices 
k orda that the territories belonging to .this power be placed 
daring the war " under the rule of neutrality and considered 
as t>»WM»ging to a neutral state, the belligerents thenceforth 
abstaining from extending hostilities to the territories thus 
■entrallzed, and from using them as a basis for warlike 
operations " (art. 3). 

Neutralization is not necesarily of general application. 
Thns two Mates can agree to neutralize speciftc territory as 
between them. For example between Costa Rica and Nicaragua 
by a treaty of the 1 5th of April 1858 the parties agreed that " on 
80 aocxHint whatever, not even in case of war," should " any 
act of hostility be allowed between them in the port of San 
Joan dd Norte nor on the river of that name nor on Lake 
Nicaragua " (art. 2).^ 

Again, the Straits of Magellan are neutralized as between 
Aigentina and Chile under a treaty of the 23rd of July 18S1. 
Artide 5 provides that they are " neutralized for ever and their 
free navigatk>n is guaranteed to the ilags of all nations. To 
CHore this neutrality and freedom it is agreed that no fortlfica- 
tioas or military defences which might interfere therewith shall 
be erected." 

Lozemburg was declared by the Treaty of London of the nth 
of May X867 (art. z) to be a perpetually neutral state under the 
guarantee of Gnat Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia. Swit- 
aeriand, by a dedaration confirmed by the Treaty of Vienna, of 
iSis (art. S4), likewise enjoys perpetual neutrality. And now 
Norway has placed herself under a neutral r6gime of a similar 
diaracter. 

A neutralized state does not mean a state which is forbidden 
to have fortifications or an army; in this it differs from neu- 
tralized territory of a state not otherwise neutralized. Thus 
Bc^um, which is a neutralized state, not only has an army but 
bu fortifications, although by the treaties of 1831 and 1839 
dK was recognized as a " perpetually neutral state, bound to 
observe the same neutrality with reference to other states." 

Of waterways, international rivers have been the chief subject 
of neutralization. It has long been an established principle 
m the intercourse of nations, that where the navigable parts of 
a river pa» through difTerent countries their navigation is free 
to alL The rivers Scheldt and Meuse were opened up in this 
•ay to riparian states by a decree of the French O>nvention of 
tfae i6th <^ November 1 7Q2. By the treaty of Vienna of the 9th of 
Joe 1 8 1 5 , the powers whose territories were separated or traversed 
by the same navigable river, undertook to regulate by common 
all that regarded its navigation, and for this purpose to 
cocnmissioners who should adopt as the bases of their 
proceedings the principle that the navigation of such rivers 
along their whole course " from the point where each of them 
becomes navigable to its mouth, shall be entirely free, and shall 
in respect of commerce be prohibited to anyone." The only 
in Europe in which this internationalization of rivers has 
maintained is that of the Danube. On the other hand 
■etttralization has made progress in re^>ect of waterv^ays, 

■Under the treaty of the 3C)th of March 1864. the courts of 
Cieat Britain. France and Russia in thdr character of guaranteeing 
p a m^n of Greece declared with the assent of the courts of Austria 
and Phnua that the islands of Corfu and Paxo as well as their 
d rpe a deu cies ahoaU, after their union to the Hellenic kingdom, enjoy 
Ihr advantages of perpetual neutrality, and the king of the Hellenes 
wknuuk on his part to maintain such neutrality- (Art. 2), 



natural as well as artificial. Thus the Bosporus and Dardanelles 
under the Treaty of Paris of 1856 and by the Treaty of London 
1 87 1 were and remain closed to the passage of foreign armed 
vessels in time of war, though the Porte may permit their passage 
in time of peace in certain cases. The Suez and the Panama 
canals have been permanently neutralized, the former 'by a 
convention among the great powers, and the latter by a treaty 
between Great Britain and the United States. 

Alongside this neutralization has grown up a collateral 
institution, the purpose of which is in some respects similar. 
We refer to "buffer" zones. "Buffer" zones are of quite 
recent origin as a political creation,* i.e. where their object is 
to establish upon the territory of two contiguous states a strip 
or zone on either side of the frontier which the respective states 
agree lo regard as neutral, on which the parties undertake to 
erect no fortifications, and maintain no armed forces but those 
necessary to enforce the ordinary respect of government. The 
word " neutral " does not correctly describe the character of the 
zone. It is not neutral in the sense of being recognized as such 
by any third sta^e, and it necessarily ceases to be neutral in 
case of war between the states concerned. The word " buffer " 
comes nearest to the object, but even this term implies more than 
is meant. Between Spain and Morocco a treaty of the 5th of March 
1894 established between the Camp of Melilla and Moroccan 
territory a zone within which no new roads were to be made, 
no herds to be allowed to graze, no land to be cultivated, no 
troops of either party, or even private persons carrying arms, 
to set foot, no inhabitants to dwell, and all habitations to be 
razed. The zone between Burma and Siam, established by an 
agreement between Great Britain and France dated the 15th of 
January 1896, declared " the portion of Siam which is comprised 
within the drainage basin of the Mcnam, and of the coast streams 
of a corresponding longitude," neutral as between them. Within 
this area the two powers undertook not to " operate by their 
military or naval forces, except in so far as they might do so in 
concert for any purpose requisite for maintaining the indepen- 
dence of Siam." They also undertook not to acquire within 
that area any privileges or commercial facilities not extended 
to both of them. 

" Buffer " zones might fulfil a useful purpose even in Europe. 
They would obviously react against the feeling known as 
" esprit de frontierc," and diminish the danger of incidents 
arising out of this feeling, and nught attenuate the rivalry of 
neighbouring counter-armaments. 

These considerations no doubt led the Swedish and Norwegian 
governments, in their settlement of September 1905, to establish 
a " buffer " zone of 15 kilometres on either side of the frontier 
between the two states in question. Within these 30 kilometres 
all existing fortresses are dismantled,' no new ones are to be 
erected, and no armed troops to be maintained; any question 
between the two states relative to the provisions respecting 
the " buffer " zone to be decided by arbitration. 

A rather special case of neutralization of a territorial area 

• The institution of " buffer " zones in a more strictly correct 
sense of the term is of very ancient origin. One is mentioned in the 
annals of China two centuries before our era, between the terri- 
tories of the Huns in the west and those of the Tunguscs in the 
east — a vast area of some 300 to 400 m. on the opposite margin 
of which the two peoples kept watch. In Europe, bands of territory 
from time to time have been made desert to tetter establish sepa- 
ration. The Romans and Germans protected themselves in this 
way. In the middle ages the Teutonic Order established a frontier 
belt on the side of Lithuania. Later, Austria dealt in the same 
way in her policy in regard to Turkey in the organization of a 
" military frontier." Sec Nys, Droit International (Brussels, 1904), 
i. 418. 

* It was stipulated that the dismantling should be controlled 
by a technical commission of three officers of foreign nationality, 
to be chosen, one by each of the contracting powers and the third 
by the two officers thus appointed, or, in default of an agreement 
on their part, by the prendcnt of the Swiss Confederation. The 
dismantling of the forts in question has now been carried out. The 
Commission was composed on the part of Sweden of an engineer 
on the staff of the Austrian army, and on the part of Norway of 
a colonel in the German army, and, by agreement of these, of a 
colonel in the Dutch' army. 



12 



PEACE 



is tbAt of the practical neutralization of the Great Lakes in 
America. In 18x7, at the instance of John Quincy Adams, the 
United States and Great Britain entered into a compact whereby 
the Great Lakes, and the waterways from them to the ocean by 
the §t Lawrence river, which divide the United States from the 
Dominion of Canada, were practically excluded from any 
possible hostilities. Through a simple agreement, ** conditions 
which make for peace and prosperity, and the absence of those 
which so often lead to disastrous war, have for neariy a century 
reigned over these great inland waters, whose commerce, con- 
ducted for the benefit ot the states and nations of Europe and 
America, rivals that which passes through the Suez Canal or 
over the Mediterranean Sea, and with a result foreshadowed 
in these words of President Monroe in his communication to the 
Senate commending the proposed agreement: 'In order to 
avoid collision and save expense.' Forts which had been erected 
at salient points on either side of the lakes and rivers dividing 
the United States from Canada, which but for this agreement 
would, in the natural course of events, have been enlarged, 
increasingly garrisoned, and provided with modem implements 
of destruction, at large expense, have remained substantially 
as when the agreement was made, or now constitute but inter- 
esting or picturesque ruins; and the great cost of constructing 
and maintaining, through a long series of years, naval armaments 
of ever-increasing power has hten. avoided." ' 

As we have already said, the Monroe doctrine is a means of 
excluding European warfare from the American continent and 
therefore is in the nature of a form of neutralization. A sort of 
Monroe doctrine is growing into popular favour also throughout 
the Australian Commonwealth, where it is felt that a continent 
so far removed from European rivalries ought not to be exposed 
to complications on account of them. , 

From time to time questions of adding to existing neutralized 
areas are raised. When it was announced in 1905 that a British 
fleet was about to manoeuvre in the Baltic Sea, several German 
newspapers suggested that Germany should combine with other 
Baltic powers to assure its neutralization.* No official observa- 
tion on the subject, however, was made on the part of any 
Baltic power. The Baltic is still an open sea for the whole 
world, without restriction of any kind; and even hostilities 
between any two non-Baltic powers could be carried on in the 
Baltic, as elsewhere on the high sea, under the existing practice. 
When the Dogger Bank incident occurred, the possibility 
of operations of war being carried on within a few miles of 
British home ports, and amid the busy traffic of the North Sea, 
was brought vividly home to British minds.* 

A movement set on foot at the instance of Edward Atkinson, 
the well-known Boston economist, and warmly supported by 
the Massachusetts State Board of Trade, seeks to establish by 
treaty neutral zones from the ports of North America to the 
ports of Great Britain and Ireland and the continent of Europe, 
within which zones steamship and sailing vessels in the conduct 
of lawful commerce should be free to pass without seizure or 
interruption tn time of war. There is however no precedent of 
neutralization of any such area of the high sea, and international 
rivers, ocean canals and neutralized states are obviously no 
criterion in discussing a proposal to neutralize a strip of the 
ocean, which may be defined accurately enough on the map 
and which skilful navigators could approximately determine, 
but which might be vioUted without any practical means of 
detection by a belligerent commander whenever be misread, 
or it suited him to misread, his bearings. 

Connected with the principle of neutralization is that of 
guaranteeing the integrity of states. Several such guarantees 
have been given in quite recent times. In November 1907 a 
tmty was concluded between France, Germany, Great Britain 
and Russia on the one part and Norway on the other, for the 
maintenance of the integrity of Norway. This treaty differed 

> Memoir of MassachuseUs State Board cf Trade (Feb. 13. 1905). 

'This was merely reviving an idea which had come and gone 
many times before. See Barclay, ProhUmt 0/ ItUemoHenal Practice 
and Diplomacy (1907). 



from the older one of 1855 in whidi France and Great Britain 
guaranteed the integrity of Norway and Sweden, in the fact that 
whereas the older treaty was for the protection of these two 
states against Russia, the new treaty is intended, if it is to serve 
at all as a protection against invasion, to protect Norway against 
Sweden. 

Another sodi guarantee of a vaguer character is that which 
the North Sea powers recently entered into for the maintenance 
of the stiOus quo of their respective North Sea territories; and 
the similar one entered into by the Mediterranean powers for 
the same objects in the Mediterranean. Lastly in the same 
order of ideas Austria-Hungary and Russia are said to have 
concluded an arrangement between them for the maintenance 
of the ftolitf quo in the Balkans. 

The future has no doubt still other extensions of the principle 
of neutralization in store for us. Not the least interesting of 
existing possibilities is the limitation of the area of visit and search 
in time of war itself, as a restriction of belligerent right. It seems 
contrary to common sense that neutral ships should be exposed 
to being detained, taken out of their course, and overhauled 
on mere suspicion of carrying contraband, when they are so ^ 
from the seat of war that there can be no presumption as to their 
destination. Neutrals have a right to carry on their ordinary 
business unmolested in so far as they do nothing to assist either 
belligerent. When they are beyond a certain distance from the 
seat of war it seems reasonable that the presumption that thQr 
are merely carrying on their legitimate business should be 
considered absolute. Such a limitation of the area of hostilities 
is not only feasible, but it was actually put in practice by the 
British government during the Boer War.* 

In the course of the Russo-Japanese War the question came 
up again, being raised this time by Great Britain. Lord Lans- 
downe called the attention of the Russian foreign office to the 
extreme inconvenience to neutral commerce of the Russian 
search for contraband not only in the proximity of the scene of war, 
but over all the world, and esptdaXlLy at places at which neutral 
commerce could be most e£FectuaUy intercepted. H.M. Govern- 
ment had become aware that a large addition was likely to be 
made to the number of Russian cruisers employed in this manner, 
and they had, therefore, to contemplate the possibility that 
such vessels would shortly be found patrolling Uie narrow seas 
which lie on the route from Great Britain to Japan in such a 
manner as to render it virtuaUy impossible for any neutral 
vessel to escape their attention. The effect of such interference 
with neutral trade, he said, would be disastrous to legitimate 
commerce passing from a British port in the United Kingdom 
to a British port in the Far East. The British government 
had no desire to place obstacles in the way of a belligerent 
desiring to take reasonable precautions in order to prevent the 
enemy from receiving supplies, but they insisted that the ri^t 
of taking such precautions did not imply a " consequential right 
to intercept at any distance from the scene of operations and 
without proof that the supplies in question were really destined 
for use of the enemy's forces, any articles which that belligerent 
might determine to regard as contraband of war.' 



» 



' In January 1900 it was re|>orted that the British govemmeot 
had isMicd instructions to British naval commanders not to stop 
or search German merchant vessels at any places not in the vicinity 
of the seat of war. There b no proper statement of the Britiia 
position on this subject, the only official information having been 
given by the German chancellor in a speech to the Reichstag. 
According to this information, the area was ultimatdy limited as 
north of Aden, and afterwards it was agreed that the immunity 
from search should be extended to all places beyond a distance 
from the seat of war equal to the distance from it of Aden. This 
was substantially correct, though the telegrams sent by the Admiralty 
can hardly be said to have fixed any precise area. As a fact, the 
commanders-in-chief on the East Indies and Cape of Good Hope 
stations were instructed that in consequence of the great practical 
difficulty of proving — <U ports so ran<^ from the scene of war 
operations as Aden and Perim — ^the real destination of contraband 
01 war carried by vessels visiting those parts, directions were to be 
given to the officers concerned to cease to search such vessels, and 
to merely report to the commander-in-chief at the Cape the names 
of ships suspected of carrying contraband, and the date of dearance. 




I bawd OB thr " inlcifenncc " with 

It uappafe ud Kucb of vcuell 

D whfihet they luve contiabuid oi viy kind on 

of the [icfad of tbc bcUigcnnl ncccsurily cnlitb cxlcniion o( 
ibc <liiiia of the nrutnl. Tbc bclliErrrnI has in unquchioiwd 
rj^t to " iTUerfcTc " with lU tieutivl vsseU nivigiiing in 
t^ diRCIion of Ihc Kit of wir, for the purpoH of ufertiining 
irikether they ire carrying my kind of contTibmd or not. 
Uider the Declirition of London of the Ttilh of Febnjiry i^oQ 
it d pnrided under iris. 37 and 35 thiL 1 sbip'i pipen in 
oudusin proof as to the vaytff; on which she ii engifcd 
HikB ibe 'a dearly out of the count indiaied by her pipen 

Tha the interference, if the dcclintion ii ntified, will be 
QoifiDed to an cximiution of the ihip'i pipcn w 
ii not bound for 1 bellitercnt port (d. 

AiWiif Proa ^{Heiimli. — Foremou unanf Uuidini peace 
a f ec ui gnti are, of coune, the Interutionil Hifue ConvenLioni 
rtbtid^ directly to peace, agrcecnentK which have not only created 
1 ipeciil peace jurisdictian for the Kltlement of inlcrnationa] 
' ' s by judidil rncthodi but aba a written Law to ippty 

ind nun or lets 



now been followed 
k of inltmational 
Lhe wish for peace 

0:ti>ber 14th t9i>3 






AloncMde the Hafu 


Peace Conve 


tions 


(DDontEd with them 1 


re itindini Irca 




hiic been entered into 


by dlHerent nilioni f 


tcpaiuely. The £i« 


r whit may be 


called 


[hit between CrolBH 


linindFrince. 




by onx 1 bundrtd otben forming 1 


network 




« thit. It iny 




■ nniverul zaoag minkind.- 




'The followiiif lis 


r .iindim irbi 


nlioo 


iftir Ibe ugidnc of the 


Ainlo-Frencn In 


«yor 






[>xember 3, 1904, 



,. Spain, Febfuary lO, 1904- 



Thnc lie, however, t lir 

lllhough not concluded with 
where di£cullia hive iriien, tend in a 
10 contract the itti of pouible difficiUiiea 
for the regulation of inten 



nilioni] un 



venlioni obvioiuly remove occuioni 
ind ire therefore imong the moit effective agenda 
to the preiervition of peice among civiJiied 
I mow citei inch eonventioia hive crated iniei- 
iBS of ilitei for ill mitlen which [end tbtmiclves 
inil co-opemion. The fir»t in order of dile wu 
lioD. The lyjiem it iniugumed ha> now emended 
tclegraphi, copyright, industrial properly, riilway 



a of c 



of n 



me, being lhe cipilal 

Cuslomi tariffi ind 
miraliKd it Bniucli, 



ions, however, 
e-Sweden and Norway, July 9, iQt^. 
5witiedand, December 14. 1904, 
Brazil. April J, 1909. 
Britain-France, October 14. rjoj. 
Cermany. July I), 1904. 
Italy. Febiulry I, 190J. 

„ Nethcdind*, F^ruary 13. 1905 
Colombii, December 30. 190a, 

,. Sweden and Norway. AirEUit 11 
Denmirk. October >s, 1904. 
Portuga'^ November t£, 19(4. 

.. Swimrlind. E^lovember 16, 1901 



Auuria-Hgngirv, February 13. 1906, 
Denmark, hfa-di ao, 1907. 

'.'. NnKcrli^l! Oc'l^ T. 1904. 

N«way ind Sweden, May 6. lops. (Suipended for 
Norway by 1 new one dated December B, I90S.) 

Ruflil-Nar^^iUd'S^en.' N^^bet 1«..I904. 
SpaiR-CrHce.uccrmber j-iti. 1909. 

Swiltcrllnd. May 14. 1907. 
United SuiM-Spilii, April », 190S. 

.. Denmirk. May iB. Ivot. 

.. llaly. Manh 18, loosr 

.. Iipan, Miy 5. ivot, 

,. Netli<Tlancl>.>lay >. 1908. 



Aijentina. 6ecember 13. 19" 
Peru. December j, 190!. 
Silvidnr, December II, 190I 



Fnnct, February I. lOOS. 
Ecuidor. January 7. 1909. 
Bolivia. January 7. 1909- 
Haiti. Jinuary ;, 1909. 

CWli!']anut?ri3, 1909. 

pSiiiaJrMii^h^ia.lw- 
Chiu, October I. 190S. 



Ibe wdghtt aad mttia 
The general pulal ur 



■ nsioD in Fuk and Ibe i 



wuiigncdin Puis in iSjj (rcviicdalSl Fetenbucgii 
by UDther Ihc ume yeu). Bolfa unions issue monlhl 
and other publkalioiu giving useful iofofmatioD « 

The imeiniikirul bureau of weigbu and mcuurc 
•u crealed by a conveoliaa ligncdlhere in 1875, lor 1 
of comparing and verifying wcighu and mcaaurcs on 
lyitem, and preserving their identity tor the contnel 

The double-slandud Lilin union moneliry s] 
rounded by a ronventioa of iSfij, between Bclgiui 
Italy and Switierland. In 1S6S it was joined by I 
tingle standard union eaiiLs between Sweden, Nc 
Denmark under a convention of 187]. 

vention signed in 1S74. The olTidil bureau of th 
at Beme. It iasnes a periodical publication called 
d'aalair ^ving information respecting [he law* o 
stales relating to published matter of all kinds. 



inner as miifhE inEerTupt gr ebiiniel lclc|^phk 
Hther whotl)^ or oarEiallyr such punishment bei 
:c to any dvil action for damages It alio pn>vi 
Acls engaged in layfni or rcfairlnr submarine 
L to the regulations it to fiinals which have bf 

wiih ihe view o( preventini coUiuDni 
ligwl in repiirint - ""- -■^"■' 



k'^ibi 
it of" OH oaulii 



FaT?l '" t£ 



SiauS the ^^^^t a belligerent' woitid^TraTw ■ 
(a Bubmarine mbles is though the convcnlion did not 
act ro carry into effect the above convention i> the 
Teleftaph Act iSSs {48 A 40 Vict, c, «) which . 
modified by JO Vict. i. 3. Section 3 ol the earlier act p 
■ ■ in who injures the cable either wilfully or by cul 



< 11 "guiiiy of a misdem 
d wUfully, shall be liable 



tinder the eonvenUoa dealing the tuslomt lariffi iintaa, 
signed in iSgc. thirty (tale*, including Great Brilain and 
most British colonies, are assodaled for the purpose of prompt 
publication of euslom tarilla and their modihcalions. 

The Bgriculluial institute, crealed by a convention of iga5 
witb its scat at Rome, at the latest in dale is perhaps the most 
intcrating of the Krio. It show* how deep and widespread 
the tense si the utility of international stale co-operation has 

institute, which a recent British official publication tiatet has 
been joined by 38 ilitet, including Great Britain and all other 
great powcn, aa follawi> 

t. It shall be 



lith 



y of the in 




tj^ed 10 agriculture, agriculiural locieliei, Kidcmies, learned 

and fldmi nisi ration of any particular suit, muii be eicluded from 
the iplKie of the iiuiitute. (An. 9). 

Lastly, ihece it a clou of difTicutlies which might arise from 
preferential treatment of trade frotn diflerent countries. To 
obviate them tittcamen have been led to adopt the principle 
o( the " most.favoured-nalion-clauM " — that il to say, a clause 
provitltng that if any reductions of tariff or other advantages are 
granted by cither contracting slate to any third state, the oih«n 
shall have the benefit of it. In Europe this clause has been 
uniformly treated as applying to all leduclions of tariS without 
distinction. The United States interpretation, on the other 
hand, distinguishes between reductions of a genera] character 
and reductions made specifically in return for reductions by 



of the clause, a 






. Theta 



only emiilcd I. 



■usly tfl 



thing has been given for Ihcm, the clause not covering advan- 
tages granted in return for advantages. It b to be hoped that 
this spetnal view of the meaning of the clause will be met in the 
future, asinsomcrccenl treaties, by specifically dealing with the 
eiceptiotia.' 

Tile Ulitily tij PoptJo .E/ort.— Until quite recently it had been 
a distinctive mark of practical wisdom lo treat private efforts for 
the impnjvcment of interaalional rebtionj for the preservation 
of peace, with the patroniiingtoleiaticecourlcous people of the 
" ■■ ling of the 



the leaders of popular opinion I 
This new attitude has been c 
interest displayed by the mereai 






I the I 



See Boaid ol Trade Cmrespondence on Protedion ol 
Cables, primed on the 14th of July iM>; and Pariitme 

C MIO: IS90. 



Dent of Europe. Thai 
■Set Barclay. PrM> 
(I9«J. p. 137 ••«. 



Lgainsi Great Brilain throughout thectmti. 
some four hundred Briiiih manufacturers 
u i4 InUnulisnal Practia and DiflematJ 



PEACE 



«5 



and merchahts, representing about eighty chambers of commerce 
of th^ United Kingdom, -should have swept aside all political 
objedJons.azid'have boldly trusted to the efficacy of friendly 
advances a& between jnan and man, appealed to the French 
people. It Seems tp. have been the first great popular effort 
ever made deliberately by a representative body of the middle 
dass of a nation for the promotion of international friendship 
without the aid of diplomacy and without official assistance or 
even countenance of any. kind. 

Otherwise,- private agencies Of a standing character which 
contribute towards the promotion of peace may be divided into 
four classes, viz. (i) those which, without having peace for their 
direct object, promote friendship among men of different races 
and nationalities; (a) those which directly address themselves 
to the promoting of friendship and goodwill among peoples; 
(3) thoie which r^arding peace as the immediate object of their 
^arts, endeavoxir to educate democracy in this sense; (4) those 
which endeavour to remove the causes of international friction 
by the codification of international law and the promotion of the 
international r^^ulation of common interests. Lastly, there are 
two agencies which cannot be classed among the foregoing; 
one a the International Parliamentary Union and the other the 
Ikbd Prize Committee. 

1. Agencies which are indirectly making for peace are of 
many kinds. Science and medicine now bring men of all nations 
together in periodical congresses. Technology, electricity, 
mining, railways, navigation and many other subjects are now 
dealt with in international congresses. International exhibitions 
are always used as an occasion for holding many such meetings. 

2. One of the most notable efforts directed to the deliberate 
c»neoting of friendship has been the interchange of official 
visits by municipal bodies. In the course of the Anglo-French 
39tation which culminated in March 1903 with the visit of King 
Edward to Paris, the French municipal councils passed many 
resolutions in favour of the entente. After the conclusion of the 
Ani^French standing treaty of arbitration (Oct. 14, 1903) 
aid the arrangements for the general settlement of outstanding 
difficulties with France (April 8, 1904), the municipal bodies in 
France were prepared to go a step farther, and in IQ06 the Muni- 
cipal Council of Paris was invited by the London County Council 
to pay an offidal visit to England. This visit was followed by 
a return visit to Paris and a similar exchange of visits between 
the London City Corporation and the Paris Municipal Council, 
exchange visits uf the city corporations of Manchester, Glasgow 
and Edinburgh and Lyons, and a visit of the Manchester Corpora- 
tion to Dibseldorf, Barmen and Cologne. A society, numbering 
many thousands of working men among its members, which has 
set itself the more special task of promoting the interchange of 
visits between working men of different nations, is called the 
" International Brotherhood Alliance," or, after the initials of its 
cwtto, FraUmUas inter gentes, the F.I.G. Another agency, 
caJkd the ** American Association for International Concili- 
ntkMi,'* seeks by the publication of essays on the different aspects 
o€ international friendship to promote the same cause. 

3. The ** peace societies," which are scattered over the whole 
worid, number several hundreds.* Their first International 
Congress was held in London at the suggestion of Joseph Sturge 
ia 1843. In 1848 a second congress was held at Brussels. The 
third in 1849 took place in Paris, and was presided over by Victor 
Hugo. Other congresses were held at Frankfurt, again in London, 
and in i8s3 at Manchester, where Richard (^obden and John 
Bright took part in the discussions. Then followed an interval 
of wars during which the Pacifists were unable to raise their 
TDMxs. At length in 1878 a congress was held at the Paris 
luemalional Exhibition of that year, but it was not till the next 
Paris International Exhibition of 1889 that these international 
peace congresses became periodical. Since then numerous con- 
gresses have been held, the seventeenth having sat in London 
in 1908, and the eighteenth at Stockholm in 1910. These 

have been supplemented by national congresses in 



both Great Britain and France. Such congresses are doing 
admirable . work in the popularizing of thought upon the 
numerous questions which are discussed at the meetings, 
such as compulsory arbitration, the restriction of armaments, 
private property at sea in time of war, the position of subject 
races, airships in war, &c.* 

4. First among the bodies which try to remove the causes 
of international friction is the Institute of International Law. 
This is a body of international lawyers, consisting of sixty mem- 
bers and sixty associates recruited by election — the members from 
those who " have rendered services to international law in the 
domain of theory or practice," and associates from those " whose 
knowledge may-be useful to the Institute." It was formed 
in 1873, chiefly through the efforts of M. Rolin-Jaequcmyn;. 
The official language of the Institute is French, and i(s annual 
meetings are held wherever the members at the previous meeting 
decide to assemble.' Jts mode of operation is td work out the 
matters it deals with during the intervals between the sessions, 
in permanent commissions, among which the whole domain of 
international law is divided up. .The commissions, under the 
direction of their rapportcws or conveners, prepare reports 
and proposals, which are printed and distributed among the 
members some time before the plenary sittings at which they 
are to be discussed. If the members are not agreed, the subject 
is adjourned to another session, and still another, until they do 
agree. Thus the resolutions of the Institute have the authority 
attaching to a mature expression of the views of the leading 
international jurists of Europe. Another body having a more or 
less similar purpose is the International Law Association, which 
was founded in 1873 as the " Association for the Reform and 
Codification of the Law of Nations," with practically the same 
objects as those which led to the constitution of the Institute 
of International Law. It also meets in different countries, but 
it differs from the Institute in the number of its members being 
unlimited and in all respectable persons being eligible for mem- 
bership. A report is published after each meeting. There are now 
numerous volumes of such rep6rts, many of them containing most 
valuable materials for international jurists. In 1895 the name 
was changed to International Law Association. 

A new society was recently (1906) formed in America called the 
American Society of International Law, " to foster the study of 
international law and promote the establishment of international 
relations on the basis of law and justice." " Membership in the 
society is not restricted to lawyers, and any man of good rnoral 
character interested in the objects of the society may be admitted 
to membership." The publications of this society have already 
taken an important place among the literature of international 
law. 

Still more recently yet another sodety came into being in 
Switzerland with objects ^hich seem to be similar to those of the 
Institute of International Law. 

The Inter- Parliamentary Union, which dates back to 1887, 
owes its origin to the initiative of the late Sir W. R. Cremer. 
It is composed of groups of the different parliaments of the 
world, who meet periodically to " bring about the acceptance 
in their respective countries, by Votes in parliament and by means 
of arbitration treaties, of the prindple that differences between 
nations should be submitted to arbitration and to consider 
other questions of international importance."* The sixteenth 
conference was held at Brussels in August-September, 1910. 



■ See Anmuaire in nunaement pacjAste pour Fannie tgro, published 
by the Bureau Intematioaal de la Paix. at Bern. 



was 



* At the third congress of the new scries, held at Rome in 1891. 
IS created the Bureau International dc la Paix. This most useful 



institution, which has its office at Bern, serves as a means of bringing 
and keeping together all the known peace sodeties. Its Corre- 
spondance btmemuelU and Annuaire du mouvement pacifiste arc well 
known, and its obli^ng hon. secretary, Dr A. Gobat, is always ready 
to supply information from the now considerable archives of the 
Bureau. In this connexion we may mention that the secretary 
of the London Peace Society,^ Dr Evnns Darby, has edited an 
exhaustive collection of materials called International Tribunals. 
His statements every two years on the progress of arbitration at 
the International Law Association meetings also form an excellent 
source of materials for reference. 

* Art. I of Statutes revised Sept. 1908. 



1 6 PEACE, BREACH OF THE— PEACE CONFERENCES 

The Nolcl CoBunEttce ami lU cibtence to Ihc will ol Itae whlcfa the uldlcn nio>t uiinuied wilh the £rc uid puiion thii 

late Alli«I B. Nobd (iS]i-i846).ibeiav«ilciTDl dynamite, who lud to victory luih forward to bayonet the l«. . . . Itiiailow' 

left a eoDiiderablc fortune [oi the ennungemenl of men wbe able to decdve an enemy by fabricated despatchci puiponiog 

■rDtk lor the beneGt of humanity. The interest of thii money to come from bii oirn Bit; by tampering with telegraph me*- 

mt lo be divided into live equal puIi, to be didiibuied every U£ci; by apreadinc lalie inielligeDce in nenpapen; by sending 

year aa rewards to the personlwbo had dcierved bat ol mankind pretended ipiei and deaeiten to give him untrue reports of the 

io numbers or movements ol tbe troops; by employing false lignall 

go to lure him into an ambuscade- On the use of the Hag and 

' uniform ol an enemy for purposes of deception there has been 

go lome controversyi but it is supported by high military aulbofity. 

«: ... Hardly any one nil be ao confident ol the virtue of his 

J[J tulen as to believe that every tm viich his country wages in 

ol every pan cd its dominions with uncivilized as well as dviliaed 

mi populations. Is just and necessary, and it is certainly prima 

"K lade not in accordance with an ideal morality that men should 

^ bind Ihemsetves absolutdy loi life or for a term oi years to kill 

„ wilboul question, at tbe command ol Iheir supeiiDTS. those who 

71 have penooally done them no wrong." ■ 

ebi Surely with all the eiisiing activity in tbe removal ol causes 

"i bI war, in tbe reduction lo precise eiptessioB ol the rules o( law 

ni governing the relations of slate* with one another, in the ciealion 

Is of Inlemalional judicatures lor the application o[ thr« rules, In 

be the conduding of treaties specifically iramcd to facilitate Ihe 

" _ .... P»ci£c settlement of difficulties diplomacy may have failed to 

Pact I. Wat.—VtMt is the olliinate objeet of all MUccnlt ,(|jujt_ in the promotion of democratic dvilian armies wilh 

—peace in the devdopment ol the domestic activities of Ibe everything to lose by war,and aU the other agencies which have 

salum adndanlered, and peace in the relations ol slates with i,„„ described above, the hope seem* watunted that, in 

--- another. Fnr the purpose of ensuring peace an expensive „„ distant luture, life among nations wiU become tliU itiofe 

by aU states, and to perpetuate it closely usimilated lo tile among diizcns of the same oalion, 

treaties are entered into by sUle* with one another. Even war ^^ lepsUiion, administration, reform aU tending to the one 

has no other avowed purpose than that of placing tpednc put object of law, oidet and peace among men. (T. Ba.) 

international rebtions on a definite looting. Ultimate peace PEACE, BREACH OF THE. Theoretically »U crirrunal ofieiice* 

b unilorraly pmUimed by every dictator al home, by every cognizable by English law involve a breach ol the king's peace 

conquetor abroad, as the goal to which he is directing hia cHons. ,nj ^ indictmenU whether for oHencea against the common 

And yet dissentient voices ate sometime* heard defending war ]„ or by lUlute conclude " against the peace ol our lord the 

OS il it were an end in itself. Without going badi to the well- yng^ y, oo^ ,nd dignity." HistoKcally this phrase, oo* 

known reply of Count Moltkc to Proleasor Blunlsehli respecting |eg^|y juperflgous, represents the last trace nt the procea by 

the ifaifuf 0/ Ue Lams ef War drawn up by the Institute ol „|,ich the royal courts assume jurisdiction over all offences, and 

International Law in iSSo,' we need only quote that highly pa^ually e«ruded the jurisdiction of the sheiiH and of lorda 

up'to-aatcphilosopher,NietQche: It ismeremusionandpretty of manors and Irancbises, making crime a matter of national 

sentiment," he observes, " to ezpecl much {even anything at „ncern as disUngnishcd from dvU wrongs or infractions of the 

aU) Irom mankind il It loigels how to matt war. As yet no hgh„ ol local nugnito, ot of the rights ol the tribal chiels of 

metna are known which c»U m mudl into action as a great war, ^^c Teutonic conquerors of Britain, The peace o( the king was 

that tough energy bom of the camp, that deep impcrsonabty j„oin on hia accession ot full recognition, and the jurisdiction ot 

bom of hatred, that conscience bom of murder and cold-blooded- |,j, courts lo punish all violations of that peace was gradually 

ness, that fervour bom of eflMt in the annJulation ol the enemy, ,„tled. The completion ol this process is marked by the 

that proud indifference to too. lo one's own easlence, lo that institution ol the oflice ol lustice ol the peace, 

oi one'* fellows, to thai earthquakeike »ul-shaking which a hmodem timeslheeipression-'breadiol thepcace"Uusually 

It is pleasant 10 contrast this neurotic Joy ol one onlooker oiict. Aite^ar™ "urt oJen™,alih™h 'th^ do noUaS'in* 

with the matter-of-fact tcfleiiona tl another, the Ute W. E. H, ,he dass ol grave crimes docribed as Idonies, officers ol police 

.,^ '■ :. -« „d never can be » mere and even private persons have larger powers and duties, as lo 

July. It IS in lU essence, immediate arrest without waiting lor judidal warrant, thin they 

uceess, to kindle into fierce possess as to other minor oflences (see AasEsi). Justices ol the 

eiercise among great masses of men the destnidive and com- p^ce have under early statutes and the commission of the 

bative passions-passl™ as fierce and as malendent as that p^u^ p„^ „ ^^j ,ur„ia ^f the peace from persons who are 

with which the hound hunts the loi to its death ot the Kger threatening to commit a breach of the peace, and it is within 

qnings upon ill ptty. Destruction is one ol iU chief ends, the power of any court on conviction of any misdemeanoui 

Deception u one of It. chiel means, and one ol the gr»l arts ,„d of many Idonies to require the oflendcr lo enter into > 

of skilful generalship 1. to deceive m order to destroy. Whatever recognizance {?,..) to keep the peace. 

ts may mingle with and dignily war, this at least pucB COHFEREHCES, the offidal title of the two Inlet- 

iluctaatly men may enter into national conlerences held at the Hague in iS« and 1007. Both 

ey may endeavour lo avoid it, «re organized at the instance ol the emperor Nicholas 11. ol 

,„=j now thai wben the scene ol carnage ha* once opened, [(„„;,. yhe chief object ol the fitil conlerence, as set oul in the 

these things must be not only accepted and condoned, but noleol Count Mouraviev.lhe RuisUn minislerol lorngn affairs 

itimulaled, encounged and applauded. It would be difficult (j„_ ,,^ ,g^) y„ [g ^^^^ at an "understanding not 

to concdve a disporilion more remote Irom the morals ol u, increase lor a filed period tbe present effectives of the 

onunary hie, not to speak ol Chnstiao ideals, Ihaa that with armed military and naval forces, and at the same lime not 10 

■" Pmelittl peaee/; he, said, " is a dream^ and il ii not even increase the budgets pertaining thereto; and a preliminary 

^:^'V'S3-.*"w/K^f™',i;:t,rd"'^'';^.^ es^inj^Uon ol the mean, by w^cb ,v» a reduction 

end kiK iiKlf in imtcrialigm." might be eSecied m future m the force, and budget, above 

' M€<uiUiilui, AllHtmiiuiUukii, No- 477- 'Til Uaf it{ Lift, tgra, pp. fi-^J. 



PEACH, C. W. 17 

aeatiooed."' The aMiferenoe, which was attended by lepre- VII. Convention relative to the converrion of merchant-ships 

icBtathrea ol a6 ttates. lat dom the i8th of Blay to the aoth ^ w.T^''5^^'^ ...» 

^TT* p •»««». »«. "Win UK toui w «•/ Lv uic «yui yjii Convcntion relative to the Uying of automatic submarine 

01 July 1099. contact mines. 

When the sabject of ezceadve armaments came up for dis- IX. Convention lespecting bombardment by naval forces in 

cuasion, the objections of the German military delegate led to time of war. 

its abandonment. Other very important matters, however, were ^ ^S?"^?''®"* fe*" ^^^ »«Japtation of the principles of the Geneva 

J 1^ -^t jii. r »• j.j^ *-x)nvention to maritime war.' 

dealt with, and three momentous conventions wereadopted.via.— xi. Convention reUtive to certain restricUons on the exercise 

I. A coBvcotioii for the padfk settlement of hitcmational o^the right of capture in maritime war.* 

^m^^^^^ !«*«' .■«."««»«. «• H.w.u.Mwu^ xn. Convenuon relative to the esubUshment of an international 

U. A ooBveatkm lehidng to the laws and customs of war by land. *'"?fi?"?' ^„»:«„ -«-«--.^*«« •u- -r-u^- — j j .• ^ . • 

IIL A cooventioo for tlfe adaptation to maritime warfare of the n„Ci« Sn ™^^t?i^rjr*^^ * "^*'^' •"** *'"^'" ^'^ ~"^"' 

nrindples of the Geneva Convention of the 33nd of AuKust 1864. ^^v^ w ^^" ?^ *^*^* uw.- j- i. » • -. o. , 

•ThSTdedaratiSon the following matters were also^Sopt^:- haSL^.^^'*"**" prohibiUng discharge of projecules. &c, from 

«. Probibitioo of the launching of projeailes and explosives from ^"^'o***' 

baUoofis or by other similar new methods.* A draft Convention relative to the creation of a judicial 

k Prohibition of the use of projectiles the only object of which arbitraU'on court was also drawn up in connexion with the first 

in the human body, wch as bullets with a hard envelope, of i. The Conference calls the attention of the signatory powers 

which the envdppe docs not entirely cover the core, or b to the advisabiUty of adopting the annexed draft convention for 

piejced with incisions. *. , n • • ^*** creation of a judicial arbitration court, and of bringing it into 

The coofcrenoe luitbermore passed toe followinjj resolutions:— force as soon as an agreement has been reached respecting the sclec- 



*"**»**^ *?***^ .^,** present a heavy burden on the w«ld. b j. The Conlcrence expresses the opinion that, in case of war, the 
mreiiietydeMzable for the increase of the nuite^ responsible authorities, civil as well as miliury. should make it 

"■^■dnd. i. . -J • u !• • their special duty to ensure and safeguard the maintenance of pacific 



The Copfcrence. taking into consideration the preliminary relations, more espccUUy of the commercial and industriiil relations 

«eps UiDen by the Swiss Federal Government for the revision of between the inhabiunts of the belligerent sUies and neutral 

the Geneva Convention, expresses the wish that steps may be shortly countries. 

token for the assembling of a special Conference, having for iu 3. The Conference expresses the opinion that the powers should 

*C* V*?. ^^V***** ^ ^"^^ Convention, regulate, by special treaties, the position, as regards miliury charges. 

The following vonix were adopted, but not uiummously:— of foreigners residing within their territories. 



. ..'• The Conference exprcnes the wish that the qu«tion of the 4. The Conference expresses the opinion that the preparation 

nghts and dutMS of neutrab may be inserted in the programme of a of regulations relative to the laws and customs of naval war should 

conference in the near fu ture. . • u 1. u • • u fiK"re ••* 'he programme of the next conference.^ and that in any 

'\ The Conference expresses the wish that the questions with case the powers may apply, as far as possible, to war by sea the 

regard to nUes and naval guns, as considered by it. may be studied principles of the ConvenUon relative to the Uws and customs of 

by the Govenunents with the object of coming to an agreement ^y^r qq land. 
lenectiM the employment of new types and calibres. 

*3. The Conference expresses the wbh that the Governments, Finally, the Conference recommended to the powers the 

tiking into coMkkratjon the proposab made at the Conference, assembly of a Third Peace Conference, and it caUed their atten- 

BMy examine the possibiuty of an agreement as to the limitation of .. . .u •. « • .1. r .l- tn.> j 

srned foeees by Uodand wa. and <3 %irar budgets. ^^^^ ^^ *^« necessity of prcpanng the programme of this Third 

** 4. The Conference exp r esses the wuh that the proposab which Conference a sufficient time in advance to ensure its deliberations 

ca ntqnpla te the declaration of the inviolability of private property being conducted with the necessary authority and expedition. 

'^It^^S^!*^ "**^ ** referred to a subsequent conference for j^ 0^^^^ to attain this object the Conference considered that it 

" S The Conference expresses the wbh that the proposal to settle " would be very desirable that, some two years before the probable 

the ouestioQ of the bombardment of ports, towns and vilbges by date of the meeUng, a preparatory committee should be charged 

oavaJ forces may be referred to a subsequent conference for by the governments with the task of collecting the various 

coasadKnttoa. proposals to be submitted to the Conference, of ascertaining what 

Great Britain signed and became a party to the three subjects are ripe for embodiment in an international regulation, 

Conventions, but not to all the declarations, &c *"** ^^ preparing a programme which the governments should 

The Conference of 1907, which was attended by representaUves ^ecide upon in sufficient time to enable it to be carefully examined 

oC forty-four sUtes, sat from the isth of June to the i8th of by the countries mterestcd, and that this committee should 

October. Again, m spite of the resolution and vau on arma- 'u^her be entrusted with the task of proposing a system of 

ments handed down from the Conference of 1899 this subject orgamzation and procedure for the Conference itself. (T. Ba.) 

was waived, but stlU more important convenUons than in 1899 PBACH. CHARLES WILUAM (1800-1886), British naturaUst 

were adopted on other matters. These were as follows:- and geologist was born on the 30th of September 1800 at Wans- 

_ -, . - . .i. _^., .#._...• 'o™ m Northamptonshire; his father at the ume was a saddler 

L (Wation for the paafic settlement of international ^^^ harness-maker, and afterwards became an innkeeper 

iT Convention respecting the limitation of the employment of farming about 80 acres of land. He received an elementary 

force for the recovery ol contract debts. education at Wansford and at Folklngham in Lincolnshire; and 

III. Convention relative to the commenccincnt of hostilities. assisted for several years in the inn and farm. In 1824 he was 

^. Cooventioas coooenung the bws and customs of war on appointed riding officer in the Revenue Coast-guard at Weyboum 

V. Convention respectiiig the rights and duties of neutral powers »n Norfolk. Seaweeds and other marine organisms now 

and perwos in war on landT attracted his attention, and these he zealously collected. Hb 

VL Convention relative to the status of enemy merchant-ships duties during the next few years led him to remove successively 

«t the octbresk of hostibtics. ^^ Sheringham, Hasboro (Happisburgh), Cromer and Cley, aU in 

* At the Cooferenoe the Russian government, further developing Norfolk. In. the course of his rambles he met the Rev. James 

the proposal, submitted the foUowing detaib>- Layton, curate at Catficld, who lent him books and assisted in 

of fi^ yS?^lStii" iJ2SSS?~ th?mS^St filraV 'iS '*>^"« ^^*^ foundations of accurate knowledge. About the year 

peace eflStive oiSe ttrops kept up for home use. '830 he was transferred to Charmouth in Dorset, thence to Beer, 

** 7. Fixation, in case of this underBtanding being arrived at, and Paignton in Devon, and to Gorran Haven near Mevagissey 

•ad. if possible, of the figures of the peace effecuve of ^ the powers in Cornwall. Here he continued to pursue his zoological studies 
csoeptiiw colonial troops. 

" 3. Maintenaooe for a like term of five yean of the amount of * This b an amended edition of that of 1899. 

the mifitary budgets at present in force." * This was practically a re-enactment of that of 1899. 

' This Co of erence was held at Geneva in June-July 1906. The * This has since been done to a large extent by the Conference of 

fcvised Cooventioo, co m p osed of 33 articles, b dated July 6, 1906. London (1908-1909). See Blockade, CoNiaABAND, iNTsaNATioNAL 

•This iaao amrndrd edition of that of 18991 Law Pbacb. ^^ 



J 8 PEACH 

uid nipfilitti nuny ipedmow to G. Jdmtton, iHo mi Ihtn the produnlH ud perpMiuUsn o( nrlnb*. At lo the orighi at 

mpuiiit bil HiMrJiflki Britiik ZatpkyUi (i8i8). It m the ptKh iw v™ «re Md. tlu, o( Alphonie dc Cindolk, vho 

tm wo tlui be tat fou»d 1»»U. i«i<.n.e of th. alder met. Ch[Si"'ort5r.,IS'Sl "^"Si'ty' ^'^^U'lli^lirb^lii.^ 

pMvkniily rcprded u UDfowUeroiii— Ihe ducovery ol irliidi «p«wl1y by D»n™, who kniu upon tht ««h u i modiSaiion 

proved ihe pieienct ot Bik Bedi [Oidavid«ii or Lower Silutiin) o( the >Lmond. 

lo Iheoeighboiiiliood ol Gornn Hivea. In 1841 he read » pipet '" "'«5™ Pt*"-.!^ P™*" " » now know it lui been nowhere 

Urguuc Kemaini (oimd on the iou(h-eut cout ol Cornwall, evapc Ironi cultivAtKHi. Aichiion however lAihend in the 

ud in 1S4J he broushl before Ihe RoyiJ Gcologlcfd Sociely ol K^ilrdinkht ravine in AI|haniHia 1 Eorm wiih^iDennt-ihincd 

Comw»lI«ii»tiounlolhudis«)v«yof fishremaiiuiolheDevo. '"'" *">? ■•"' 9* 'he elmond. beinj lirier and flitter "The 

oiin ilileg HIT Folpeno. FeKh ™ iriralened lor m lime ™™ fnS'tj^^.^^ STT?-- "f™?" 'V', '' '''1 '^'' iS 

» Fowey; u>d In 1840 lo Scolknd, firjl 10 Pelerhad ind ihm lo .ild dnutid. Th^ ihole rtwb TelmblH^S^ whTi "r rallK 

Wick (iSsj), where he made acquainUnce with Roberl Dick ol coniider a wHd lorni o( Ihe peach than thai ol the almond " 1* ii 

Thuno. He collected the old red Sandilone hihei. and during •^"li"?^' .h«ever, by ill conipctenl bouniut ihat the almond 

> Bo^oura K Dumoo he finl tound IobiIi In ihe Cambrian i"'™'li'**T;^'u?™^'''fc;'"'''°''''^"'^''*"J"""^']?.^"^ 

limestone (.Sh). Peach retired Irom the govcmmnil .ervice In |i".^^ha;iUun™I.S?«™k ™o to .?i™T,SaV 

lUi. and died at Ediabuiib on Ibe iSth ol Febiuaiy 18S6. the tame word Ihat Ih^ anpiy to Ihe cultivated almoiid. The 

Blographicil notice, viih portnii, in S. Smila't Kittrl Dkt. branchctof thelrccarecarTiril 1^ Ihepiiettt InielliliHiteetenigniei 

«a**r, ifniaa. Gatapil and BelaiU (1878). ',' ■■ not knawn at a wild plani in China or Japan Ai to (he netia- 

PBACH. the name ol a f rull lr«e which i. Included by Benlham "^'i^;^!^^!!^^^."^!?.^ ' E^SnlXuiril^.KMd 

and Hooker (Cr.«™ ^«lafi,«, L 6.0) undo Ihe genu. P-««« the v^\n.^Vn!StSTth:t^7tiii^^i^"?^"*^^n 

{Prunur prriiia), tit rcaemblance lo the plum it indeed obvious, thai nectarine ha^ been produced by bud-variation (rocn a peach. 

Olhen have clised it wilh the almond as ■ dislinci genui, ""' f'^'^'r. P™''«e nttiarin«. or, a. eardenen mt. 'come 

A«,iialu,: while other, again have considered it suffidenUy or'JVad.«^'"hS'.;!S, 'SS^ aXr^tarin;^ 

dislintlloconjliluleaaepamegenui, PerricB. mediate lorma beiween ihe peach and the aln^. So far a< wc 

In general lermi Ihe peach may be said lo be a medlum-uaed know, however, no case hat ycx been recorded ol a peach or a necti- 

tree, with Unceotale, alipulale leavet, borne on long, ilender, ""• producina an almond, or vin veraa. ahKoughil alt have had a 

»i.ii,..i., ....^»„^w.^ >!.*«.- J _-.i. common onain luch an eii-ent Riiohl be emjeeted, Thuathebolanical 

rdalively unbranched ahooH, and wilh .yUlence «^u to indicate thai the wllSISig^ it Ihe aource of 

Ihe OoHen arranged iingly, 01 lo group) culiivaied almoodi. peachet and necurinei. aid csueqiiendy Ihal 

ot two or more, at inlervalt along the Ibe peach waa Intioduced front Asia Minor or Pertla, whence the 

ahoots ol Ihe ptevioua year's growlh. "™ fifitQi «iven lo the peach; and AitehitonV discovery in 

The flower, h.« a hollow lube al the ffio"^Po^to°SSf ™™" hu. ol a -iW p.«± lend. 

hue beating it it) free edge Eve sepall. On the other hand. Alphonae de Caodolle, from philologkal and 

an equal number of petals, uiually cOB- other coniideialioiti, coniideia the peach 10 be of Chineee oritio, 

cave ot ^loon-ahaped, pink or while, ^e peach basnot, it it iiue. been found wild in China, but iihjs 

and a greal number of tlamaia. TTie ,^("11,™^ and t^-Col'lhe'^p'le; an<j i" iS'dei"g^^'"b? 

pislil consislt ol a single carpel with Its , dinlacl name. " to " or " lao," 7 word found in the ivriiin^ li 

^Vl- 1~^'?" 'l™f*' or 'lJrin"o™l^I^*'^irf^'ir7 ™« 4So"[™Ihet«h'«"l^'tefoi'Jh; Chri.IiTn e™.™Th'o,^'™ 

ol Peach cut lengthwiae. 7I- ,? v°^„ . JlX '™„ ^,^(3 cultivated la India, and afraoei wikf in Bme pan. ol IbTnotih. 

(, Skin or epicarp. ^'^'I "?",'« \"^ ™"' 'J™ l«Pi- wett, and, aa »* have teen, pmbably ai» in Afffaniuao. it hai no 

iB,Fleth or metocarp. c^rp) endo^ng the fieth of Ihe peach Sanakrit Bamei It ia not lienlioned in the ilebrcw ten of the 

(.Scone or entloarp. (metocarp), tbeinneilaytnoflfaecarpd Scriplurc^ uit la the eaiUeat Creek timet. Xenophon maket lu 

within wbKh is the becoming woody to lorm the alone, meolk>no[tliepeacii,thoughtbeTeoThouian<lmuuhavetmverted 

Beedorfcemel. ~i,!i. ih. -»,!. t^*.*-. :~i~ ,1,. b^rr.*! the country vveie. accoidint to tome, the peach ii oaliveL but 

while the ovule np«u mto "» kemd jho,,^™,'^ , ]„adaa yS, later, doet tpfiT ot It at a Persian 

. . orsecd. Thuueiacllylhesltuctureof fruii, and De CaK«olle Biggest, thai il might have been introduced 

the plum or apricot, and diSert fnm that ol Ihe almond, which Is into Cnece by Alesander. According to hi. view, the accdt ol Che 

Identical in the hrst inalance, only in the circumilance that Ibe peach, cultivated for ages in China, might liave been earned by Ihe 

floJiypartollheUtlereventuallybeconiesdryuidkathefyaod S,*''°Sr ^ES "i^,"^™' ^'^."/"^r ^p'"™'',.i!!i'J*^nL^ 

crack, open .long a line called the suture, ^ul^ixrJl^:^^i,^^«VT.c^:^. o!^ 

The nectarine Is a variation from the peach, mainly charac the other hand, by Cabul to north-weatem India, where in cultiva- 

tcriied by the drcumilanco that, while the akin of the ripe tion ii not ancienl. While the peach hai been culiivaied in China 

fniil it downy In the peach, it it ihinlng and destitute ol hairs in lor thouandsol yetia^ the almond doe. noi icow wild 10 ihai eountry 

Ih. neclarint Thai ^ is no ^W difference between Ihe t'E'J^''S:'«'™' '" '^""^ n=t 10 go back lanhe, than the 

two is, however, shown by the lads that the seeds ot the peach On the whole, greater weiglit it due to the evidence from bounical 

will produce nectarines, and vice vosa, and that it is not v«y .ourcei than to that derived from philobgy. particularly unce (he 

^.'^™ tiles'" b'" f'^i'r^' Mb"" r^^ib""* s^ASSnSsii'^i\'^:i^hl;;^"^ta'z.'toh;^^ 

Btttannes on the same branch and ftuiU which oombine in Ihra- j„„»] „ ^i^^ f roi tome p«*»i.tlnf and now ein^ torn 

•eivet the characlenitics ol both nectiiuiea and peachs. The wbo« domdant. have ipread over Ihe whole geographic area 

blostoDis ol Ihe peach are lormed the autumn previous to their mentioned ; but tbit ii a men ipeculallon, Ihoogh indiiKt evidence 

ctpansian, and this tacl, together wilh the peeidiarilies of thai ■" '■■. "'?l^°rLI^*!'' *" -'—'—' '- •■- - " — 



ut position, requires lo be borne in mind by the gardener -;;'^^„;^„m Xr;;i:hi5';^™Tt'Si'b7.^-u, ..... 

fnhapruningandlrtiiungoperalions. TTtoonlypomloipraclical offering the cbaiaderittjca ol a apecws in the scl of deveh^'i^ 

Inlercal requiring mention here is the very singular fact altealed fi»ll. 

by all peach-growers, thai, while certain peaches are liable 10 the Thetieatmenl !n hoiticullure of the peach and nectarine is Ihe 

allacki of mildew, other* are not. In Ihe case ot the peach this same in every le^iecl. To perpetuate and multiply the choicer 

peculiarity is in aome way connected wilh the presence of small varieties, peaches and nectarines are budded upon plum or 

^andulal oulgrowlhs on the stalk, ot al the base of the leaf, almond ilocki. For dry tiluationi almond stocks arc preferable, 

Some peaches have globular, others reniform glandi, othen none but they are not tong-lived. while for damp or clayey loams it it 

*t all, and these latter trees are much more subject to mildew better to use certain kinds of plums. Double-working is some- 

than ire those provided wiih glands. times benehcial ; thus an ilmond budded on a plum slocV may be 

The hiMory of the peach, almond and aecurine I. Interesting rebudded wilh a lender peach, greatly 10 the advantage of Ihe 

■sd impwtaoi at refardi ihe question of Ibe origin d qiecieB and lalla. The peach border should be composed of turfy mellow 



PEACH 

loam, skA «t b stiubic for tbe Tiu uid lIuGc: Uuiihouldbi ™J^\ 
tatd in u rough » >UIC *1 pouible, or no! braken iraill lod fine 
TIk bottom ifaouJd tiope (owAidi ihe outer edge, what ■ dnir 
■hontd be cul. with as outlet, lad oo iHi ilopiog bol 
be lud A th i rhnfw of frum g in. to u in. of rough Dutouli, 
■adi u bnAcD brick) « mott« lubbisfa, over which ihouM hi . ^^ . . . 
(luxdaUyo-ofiou^luif with the gniayiidedainiwu4>,uid u^^^aaiMETL _ _ _ 

then the good louay loil ta [om the border, which ihould have ■ The [om 1 li Dmnouiier (fJaV}]. t 
depth al ihont i ft. A in. The pacfa-tree h m«t |Ri>ductin meidy i n^nCDWiit on the Hootret 
■heo the roots in kept neu the lulf ace, and the borden, which 
■kwld be fiom 8 ft. to T 1 ft. wide, ihould not be cropped heavily 
with culinary vegetabia, aa deep treDching i> very injurioua. 
SkUy and unfTuiiful trees may ofteo be revived by bringing up 
thar loou within s or 6 in. of the aurface. It ii quutionabic 
whether it ii not belter, in cold loili and bleak tlluilioiD, to 
abandon outdoor peach culture, and 10 cover the walla with ■ 
that the tn«* may be under •belter during the 




Tbr fniit of the peach ii pnduad on the ripened ahoata of the 
iRTediiiC yew. If Ibne be too luiurlul. tbey yield nolhiiu but 
Iravn; and if too weali. tbey are iDcuaUe of devdoping DoWEr al 
hivU. To Eumish young ahoc^fl In aumdenl abundance, and of it 
RqititJie itrengtb, u the grst object of peach training and pniaing. 
Tnti r* limia-xmwinf, twiggy habit nalurally fall moal leadily 
iBlo the fan ftjem of tnioing, and accordingly thia hai eencnUy been 




D- to begin witb a and 

piMt— that la, a the 

plant of the fim year after by 

il ha> been budded. It ii fin™-. T!__ , 

"■" "■" a thoot J, the growth of w 



heulcd down to five a< < 



ly deftroying the uteteaa apray r above the bloaaoma, ai 



o four ■houli. pincliing oR the poinU of Ihoie which are aeceiaary to perfect llw 

ire trained in, the lalenli (ruit. A repliciiui ihool ii Ihiii obtained, to which the whole b 

nailed lo the wall. II there invariably •tortcned at the end ol ibe year. 

aie ihDnened back at the SeymoiiT'i form (fig. 53 approacbea more nearly to the Fmeh 

luct other*, the two lower oetbod than any other pnctiied in England ; but the direct ch a nnel 

he proceia if rneatfd till 

Tee. The bnnchei may be 

adopted, the main ahoott 
lU length, insead of being 

Flo. J.— Seymour'i Fan Training, 
if the aap ia pot auppreaied, and thia reaulta in the production at 



lint of thin leadini ihoot the encauragement of 

ii aabseqiienDy pinched ofT that it' may not draw away too clow to the will, ge 

nuch lA iHe lap. If the fruit aeti too abundantly, ii muit be blouomi, and genen 

tUflned, Grat when aa large aa peaa. reducing the cluiten. and (hen duced, t>y taking car 

when at large at nutt to disttitTute the crop equally; the ex- to prctcrve a numbc 

tent of the thinning must depeiul on the vigour of the tree, wood, only pinching i 

bat one or two fruitt ultimately lelt to each Huare foot of wall Ihu> t<rnned blouom 

ia a (uH average crop. Tlie final thinning ihould take place after leaion. Thia praclic 

Tlw lie«.placed healthy young iboot produced particularly in the nf 

bodt at the taseol the bearing branch is lobe caiefu bunting 



ifrti!^ 



benefit ir 



w youne ihixM below, copinga 

II Oie pmni of (he latte laken II 

rer, though if the beari ' '" 



wood. Itiail FiTti-i,— The pruning and Irainine ol the IreM in, the pcMh 



., -„ and the ■ 

sss'.s.'seri,'^::. ;.„.;. ,. _.. . 

Inn ooghi occatianaDy lo be wathed with the garden engine or lail. In the forcing of pcachn 
thvoo^iy wyriwed, capecially during very hot aummera. After Ptcember or January; but ii r 
inberuig ilir fran ail the wood not pcedcd («( culrndin) the trt« > Dioatb toontr. . The tmt i 






PEACHAM— PEACOCK, G. 



fiadinDy- ud *l Dnt the iatae ihouM be mmiy knN dcaed it ■ 

[Einptntun oC (bout 4S*, but the hat dwuld gnduJly incRue to 

K'*1 nJEht by the time the treet m in Bower, Mnclia 60' when Ihe 
llL b Kt, tittcT which thf htniH ihould be kept malat by •prinklini 
thewalluiMl psihs, or by j^lng wMer (rouBhi on the letutn pipe^ 




(utbonhip, lUting thit they wen •rritten by > unieuke, " ■ 
divine, s tcholu and i tnvellei." The change wu, however, 

ihem Thomu Dowlud the muiidui, Inigo Jones, snd Edwud 
Wright the mttheouitidui. In i6» ippeued Peachain'i 
mignum opuSi the Cvmpiai Ctniieman^ . Enlarged edition] 
^)puTed in ifii6 and 1617, The 1617 edition wu leprtcled iti 
i6j4, and a third, with additioni] notea on Ijlazoniy by Thomai 
Blount (1617-1679), appeared in 1661. The book ia a leit-book 
of manneia and polite leajning; it mdudea chapteia on cosmo- 
graphy, geometry, poetry, music, antiquities, painting, the live; 



of tlu 






-erl.a 



ig ■■ (Pe« 



I ^ILon* of water-' Ore 
— tbe painted 1 — '* 

quently culli 



■ wet tbe painted wood, u 
re Irequentlyciillivatcdjn 



B been mbvd- 
h well-decayed 



"a niaine 


tultaQe or pitched 


eld in 


eight s 


everaU wayes." 


Tbe book diflera from the CnirKo 


ofCastlglione 


which had been 


the guide of u eailier generati 


n. Peacham 


«» a Cavalier. 




ent polemist in the r. 


«ltnu 


le, but the cenlial point 


ofhiibool 


is a mote or less Puritan sen 








Peachahi was reduced 






eny, and is uid 


10 have wri 


lien children's books 


t a penny each 


His last book 


was published in ifi^', and it maj 


be ooocluded that he died toon 














works include: JfiKr 


nflriiK 




]), dedicated la 


Henry, pri 


ice of Wale.; TTu Ftntd if M 


*nl>» 






prince; riuiiia-i Banput (i6jo), ab. 
imni «■ Loud™ U&^j), and Tlu 
There ii a. ncMly complete collecli 


l-S fc»S 


e Bodleian. CWord. 


Harici 


n MS. 


68sjpul.ir,a 



Early Beatrice . 

S,S5yYork 


b.m.AuK. 


RoyalCeorge . . 

l:IK„' : : 






Aug. 


Dymond? . . . 


Crimion Cslande 




Aug. 


Ute Admirable . 


Cnwford'i Eaily 


bl 


^"1 

a. 


SeaEajle . . . 
WalbunooAdmirabl 


Grow Mignonne 


b- 


Salwey . . - . 


NoblesK . . 


b. 


Princeuol Wales . 






NuK, 


<■«* 


^t^"'" 


"'•■ 


'A 




Sri^'Rivef; : 




S. 


VioIettemU«; . 


Balgowan . . 


b. 


a 


Vicwria^undcrgli*. 


Ehuge - . . 




IS. 


Su^k Eln,ge' 



m of Jam 

diawiDgs. Hii Qmi^JaU CenOemaH was edited by G. 5. Goidaii 
in 1006 for the Clarendon Pre»: the Arl oj Lmnr is reprintoi 
in Ihe Harleian llisc. a.:TitWMktl a Fiwy in E. Arber's Enrliiil 
GunUT (voL vL 1SB3). 

PEACOCK. SIH B&BHBS (iSio-iSgo). English Judge, was bon 
in lAlo, the son of Lewis Peacock, a soticitor. After practising 
as > special pleader, he wu called to the bat in 1836, and ic 
tSu obtained great reputation by painting out the Baw wbicb 
invalidated Ihe canviction of Daniel O'Connell and his fellon 
defendants. In iSji he went to India as legal member of ibt 
r-general's council- He here displayed great activity as ■ 



wrefon 



>o little c 



:k (under glass] m 



.iiibiliiies. Tbe legiiUlive council was established 

""■ soon »Iter his sirival, and although no orator, he was so frequent 
a speaker that legislation enjoining councillois to deliver their 

^"B- speeches sitting was said to have been devised with the sole 

f^- object of testisining him. As a member of Lord Dalhou^e'l 

Sept. council he su[>pDtted the anneiation of Oudh, and he sLoud by 

Sept. Lord Canning all through the Mutiny- In iSjg he became chief 

Sept' justiceof the Supreme Court- He relumed 10 England in 1870, 

S||; and in 187J was pbced upon the judicial commiLtee of the privy 

^*^' council, where Itis Indian experience rendered him invaluable. 
He died on the jrd of December iSgo. 

PEACHUI, BBMKT (c. 1S76-C. 164]). English wriler, was PEACOCK, OEOROB (1791-1858), EngUsh mathematician, 

the son ol Henry Feacbam, curate of North Mimms, Hertford- was bom at Thornton Hall, Denloo, neat DacLngton, on tbe 

ahire, and author ol a book on rhetoric called the Gardai of gib of April 1791- He was educated at Richmond, Yorkshire, 

RWaiic (is7ji. The elder Peacham became in IS97 rector of andcnteredTriniiy College, Cambiidgq, in 1805- Hewassecond 

Levetton, Lincolnshire. The son was educated at Trimly wrangler in 1811 (Sir J.F.W.Herschcl being senior), wu elected 

College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in tS94-iS9i «nd fellow of his college in 1814, became assislanl lutor in iSiJ and 

M. A. in 1598. He was lor some time a schoolmaster at Wymond- full tutor in i8]3. While itill an undergraduate he formed a 

bam. Norfolk, but settled in London in 1611, earning his Uving league with John Heischel and Charles Babbage, to conduct the 

as tutor to young men preparing for the universities- His first famous atniggle of " d-ism nrsiu dot-age," which ended in the 

book was Crafkia (1606). a treatise on fien and water-colour introduction into Carabridgt of the continental notation in the 

drawing, which, a) TAe CtMlimaa'i Earciii, passed through infinitesimal calculus to the eiclusion of the fluiional notation 

three edilioni. The years 1613-1614 he spent abioad. part of ol Sir Isaac Newton. This wu an important lefoim, not so 

the time as tutor to the three young sons of Thomas Howard much 00 account of the mere change of notation (for mathe- 

(is8s-i64W.earlof Arundel, and partly on hisownaccount. He maticianl follow J. L. Lagrange in using both these notations), 

travelled in Italy, France. Westphalia and the Nctbcttands. but because it signilied the opening 10 the malhematidani of 

The table of Sir John Ogle, English governor of Utrecht, was. he Clambtidge of the vast storehouse of continental discoverica- 

sayj.i"liiileacademy."wherehemet<oldiersand>cho1arsof all The analytical codcty thus formed in 181] published vaiioua 

nationalities. When he returned to London be was acctued of memoiis. and translated S. P. Lacroii's Difftratial Calculnt in 

hbcl on the king. Incriminating papers had been discovered in 1816. Peacock powerfully aided the movement by publishing in 

the house of Edmond Peacham, rector of Hinton Saint George. iBio A CalUaiantf Eampla of iSe AttHcalum e/ llit Dijtrtnlitt 

•ho, on being charged with an attack on tbe kinf denied the end Inlttrti CaUatui. In 1S41 he published a pam[dilet m tbt 



PEACOCK, T. L. 



21 



udiveisitjf statutes, b which he indicated the necessity for 
rdbnir;aiKf in iSsoand 1855 hewas a membcrof the commission 
of inquiry relative to the unfversity of Cambridge. In 1837 he 
was appointed Lowndcan professor of astronomy. In 183Q he 
took tJie degree of D.D., and the same year was appointed by 
Lord Melbourne to the. deanery of Ely. Peacock threw himself 
with characteristic ardour into the duties of this new position. 
He improved the sanitation of Ely, published in 1840 Obserw^ums 
on Plans for Cathedral Rcjorm^ and carried out extensive works 
of restoration in his own cathedral. He was twice prolocutor of 
the lower house of convocation for the province of Canterbury. 
He was also a prime mover in the establishment of the Cambridge 
Astronomical Observatory, and in the founding of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society. He was a fellow of the Royal, Royal 
Astronomical, Geological and other scientific societies. In 1838, 
and again in 1843, he was one of the commissioners for standards 
of wciights and measures; and he also furnished valuable infor- 
mation to the commissioners on decimal coinage. He died on 
the 8th of November 1858. 

Peacock's original contributions to mathematical science were 
concerned chiefly with the philosophy of its first principles. He 
did good' service in systematizing the operational laws of 
algebra, and in throwing light upon the nature and use of 
imaginaries. He published, first in 1830, and then in an enlarged 
form in 1842, a Treatise on Algebra, in which he applied his 
phiI{»ophical ideas concerning algebraical analysis to the eluci- 
dation of its elements. A second great service was the publica- 
tion in the British Association Reports for 1833 of his " Report 
<m the Recent Progress and Present State of certain branches of 
Analysis." Modem mathematicians may find on reading this 
brilliant summary a good many dicta which they will call in 
question, but, whatever its defects may be. Peacock's report 
remains a work of permanent value. In 1855 he published a 
memoir of Thomas Young, and about the same time there 
appeared Young's collected works in three volumes, for the first 
two of which Peacock was responsible. 

PEACOCK, THOMAS LOVE (1785-1866). English novelist and 
poet, was bom at Weymouth on the i8th of October 1785. He 
was the only son of a London glass merchant, who died soon after 
the child's birth. Young Peacock was educated at a private 
school at Englefield Green, and after, a brief experience of business 
determined to devote himself to literature, while living with his 
nrother (daughter of Thomas Love, a naval man) on their private 
means. His first books were poetical. The Monhs of St Mark 
(1804). Palmyra (1806), The Genius of the Thames (1810), The 
Philosophy of Melancholy (181 2) — works of no great merit. He 
also made several dramatic attempts, which were never acted. 
He served for a short time as secretary to Sir Home Popham at 
Flxisbing, and paid several visits to Wales. In 181 2 he became 
acquainted with Shelley. In i8i5he evinced his peculiar power 
by writing his novel Headlong Hall, It was published in 1816, 
zad Mdinconrt followed in the ensuing year. During 181 7 he 
lived at Great Marlow, enjoying the almost daily society of 
SfKltey, and writing Nightmare Abbey and Rhododaphne, by far 
the best of his long poems. In 1819 he was appointed assistant 
examiner at the India House. Peacock's nomination appears to 
have been due to the influence of his old schoolfellow Peter 
Auber, secretary to the East India Company, and the i>apers he 
prepared as tests of his ability were returned with the comment, 
" Nothing superfluous and nothing wanting." This was char- 
acteristic of the whole of his intellectual work; and equally 
characteristic of the man was his marriage about this time to 
Jane Griffith, to whom he proposed by letter, not having seen 
her for eight years. They had four children, only one of whom, 
a son, survived his father; one daughter was the fii^t wife of 
(jeorge Meredith. His novel Maid Marian appeared in 1822, 
The Misfortunes ofElphin in 1829, and Crotchet Castle in 1831; 
and be would probably have written more but for the death in 
1833 of his mother. He also contributed to the Weslminstrr 
Review and the Examiner. His services to the East India Com- 
pany, outsit the usual official routine, were considerable. He 
dcfa&ided it successfully against the attacks of James Silk 



Buckingham and the Liverpool salt interest, and made the subject 
of steam navigation to India peculiarly his own. He represented 
the company before the various parliamentary committees on 
this question; and in 1839 and 1840 superintended the con- 
struction of iron steamers, which not only made the voyage round 
the Cape successfully, but proved very useful in the Chinese War. 
He also drew up the instructions for the Euphrates expedition 
of 1835, subsequently pronounced by its commander. General 
F. R. Chesney, to be models of sagacity. In 1836 he succeeded 
James Mill as chief examiner, and in 1856 he retired upon a 
pension. During his later years he contributed several papers to 
Eraser's Magazine, including reminiscences of Shelley, whose 
executor he was. He also wrote in the same magazine his last 
novel, Cryll Grange (i860), inferior to his earlier writings in 
humour and vigour, but still a surprising effort for a man of his 
age. He died on the 23rd of January 1866 at Lower Halliford, 
near Chertsey, where, so far as his London occupations would 
allow him, he had resided for more than forty years. 

Peacock's position in English literature is unique. There was 
nothing like his type of novel before his time; though there 
might have been if it had occurred to Swift to invent a stoiy as a 
vehicle for the dialogue of his Polite Conversation. Peacock speaks 
as well in his own person as through his puppets; and his pithy 
wit and sense, combined with remarkable grace and accuracy 
of natural description, atone for the primitive simplicity of plot 
and character. Of his seven fictions, Nightmare Abbey and 
Crotchet Castle are perhaps on the whole the best, the former 
displaying the most vis comica of situation, the latter the fullest 
maturity of intellectual power and the most skilful grouping of 
the motley crowd of " perfectibilians, deteriorationists, statu- 
quo-ites, phrenologists, transcendentalists, political economists, 
theorists in all sciences, projectors in all arts, morbid visionaries, 
romantic enthusiasts, lovers of music, lovers of the picturesque 
and lovers of good dinners," who constitute the dramatis personae 
of the Peacockian novel. Maid Marian and The Misfortunes of 
Elphin are hardly less entertaining. Both contain descriptive 
passages of extraordinary beauty. Mdincourt is a comparative 
failure, the excellent idea of an orang-outang mimicking humanity 
being insufficient as the sole groundwork of a novel. Headlong 
Hall, though more than foreshadowing the author's subsequent 
excellence, is marred by a certain bookish awkwardness char- 
acteristic of the recluse student, which reappears in Grj^ Grange 
as the pedantry of an old-fashioned scholar, whose likes and 
dislikes have become inveterate and whose sceptical liberalism, 
always rather inspired by hatred of cant than enthusiasm for 
progress, has petrified into only too earnest conservatism. The 
book's quaint resolute paganism, however, is very refreshing in 
an age eaten up with introspection; it is the kindliest of Peacock's 
writings, and contains the most beautiful of his poems, " Years 
Ago," the reminiscence of an early attachment. In general the 
ballads and songs interspersed through his tales are models of 
exact and melodious diction, and instinct with true feeling. His 
more ambitious poems are worth little, except Rhododaphne, 
attractive as a story and perfect as a composition, but destitute 
of genuine poetical inspiration. His critical and miscellaneous 
writings are always interesting, especially the restorations of 
lost classical plays in the Horae dramaticae, but the only one of 
great mark is the witty and crushing exposure in the Westminster 
Review of Thomas Moore's ignorance of the manners and belief 
he has ventured to portray in his Epicurean. Peacock resented 
the misrepresentation of his favourite sect, the good and ill of 
whose tenets were fairly represented in his own |>erson. Some- 
what sluggish and self-indulgent, incapable of enthusiasm or self- 
sacrifice, he yet possessed a deep undemonstrative kindliness of 
nature; he could not bear to see anyone near him unhappy 
or uncomfortable; and his sympathy, no less than his genial 
humour, gained him the attachment of children, dependants, 
and friends. In official life he was upright and conscientious; his 
judgment ^zs shrewd and robust. What Shelley justly termed 
" the lightness, strength and chastity " of his diction secures him 
an honourable rank among those English writers whosa claims to 
remembrance depend not only upon matter but upon style. 



22 PEACOCK— PEALE, C. W. 

lonner proi«g«._Sir Hcnty Colt wilh .nSdknt_iwm>ir b; hi! %"^„^*^^^^^^'zi^^J^\.Z^r^}^,^" 



£ii|lud wlihin bis ncmoty,' and C. Dinda (Amimali akd 

r-— ' - ,,---, ...,._, - -. - ._-^ Fiattii undtf Danustiaiiiow, L 399-391) icu iaduied to bdicvc it 

(18911. Stpiiatt iio%t(. .re includrd in ■• Mj^mHlin-t lUuBrtltd only • vukty ; but iu Jirupt »ppHi™nce. which re 



BurSrurndSw'"' '"'"' ' Ot- C ) d»y throw on the quHlion of evolutioii u eihibited in Iht origiii 

PEACOCK (Lit. ffl», O. Eo,. fow, Du. ^»n., Co. P!», f" " •?«)»;" 1> •J""" bt itital thii the J.pin bird i. not 

Ft. Fan), the bird » wcU known from the «.lw<lid plunucc of ^"" " ^ "lywhere u > wOd nn, though .M»™>ly k-IX 



u the proverhiil pmoniScition of pride. Iti>« 'j" J»P»"' pe "co^pwyjn* jUiuUation ii co^ed ft 

nitiveof lbeIndi.npJniii«il*u^Ion.iB»m.^.of whkh ^„™ ^^ J- W"^- R"*" " »■ <=■ Hli«'» ^""r 

it [I very abundant. Setting aside iti imponalion to Palatine '*««""»«■ 

by Solomon (■ King, a, »; > aron. ia- „), il, .«gnn«nt in ^ "^T.'h^'S^nS '^£2!^,^^; 

cl aBai ca t mythology aa the favourite bird of Hen teMifica to the 'Uematiut thry aie niied to I 

early acquaintance the Creeka must have had wiih it; hut, oioat are content to reganj tli« 

though it ia mentioned by Arijtophanta and other older wiilera. 'C"?*^'"' ?''' *'""."' .'t 

their knowledge of it wgt probably very (light until alter the d* Mr Ihem 'i.1^!^I^!bll^ 

conqucsu of Aleiandir. Throughout all Hicceeding time, lie aisutphf— ^-^^- ---'-"- 



of a fam^y, 
PuK i% Pelf 



endcred iuelf to 
y> highly stcemed for Ihclable,' 



tkcoildbi 



jma^. and the exiraordinary Length of the lecqndary 

i^sas; ;s Snis?™ si",i;ir. ii'i^'s „,,.,. iSl'basis'L'biShS^iS 



ut by the linpiiar develofH 

PEIR, THE, a high Ubte-bnd in the north of Derbyihire. 
England, included in the PenniDe range ol hiUa. The lucDe, 
however, ii extended, without definite limits, to cover the whole 
of the hUly diitrict north of Buiton. The table-land reaches an 
eleviiion of >oB3 ft. in Kinder Scout. The geologicat lormatioa 
ta millalone-fril, and the imderlyipg beds are not doRHid, but 
cup-ihaped, dipping invard from the Banks of Lhe rnaia. The 

project at intervals. The name ol this high plateau has from the 
ijlh century been identified with " peak," the pointed or coniol 
topoE a mountain, hut the very early references to the diitrict 
and certain places in it show clearly, ai the Has Ea^iik 
Dittimary pointa out. that thia conneiion ia unwatnDted. The 
name appears in the OU Eotliik CluimiiU (914I as Ptedni, d 
the district governed from the caalle of Peveril of the Peak (ice 
Derbyshiu), and also In the name o[ the cavern under the hill 
at Castlcton, Ptat'i Am. P(ac, it has been suggested, is the 
nameol a local deity or demon, and possibly may be iodeniified 
with Puck. For the etymology of " peak," pmnt. St, and it* 
varianta or related words, " pick " and " pike," lec PlIE. 

nUA CHARLES VILUOH (i;4i-iSi6l> Amerrcan portrait 

painter, celebrated etpecially tor his portraiU of Waihingtoo, 

was horn in Queen Anne county, Maryland, on the i61h of April 

1741. During his infancy the family removed 10 Chestenown, 

Kent county, Maryland, and afler the death ol his father 

{a country Khoolmaslcr) in 17S0 they removed to ApnapoUa. 

'k-ihouldcrrd " Pcafoi^ Here, at the a^ of ij, he was apprenticed to a saddler. About 

1764 he began seriously to study art. He got some ■■i^*! ■>**■* 

imali, iried or while varieties („„ Cusuvus Kesiclius, a Swedish portrait painter then Hving 

l<Uu. ate not infrequently to „,„ AnnapcJis, and from John Singleton Copley ioBotton; 

however, attends what is known as the Japanese or Japan in 1770 he opened a studio in Philadelphia, and met with 
peacock, a form whith has received the name of P. nipifanis, immediate success. In 177', at Mount Vernon, Peale painted 
aa though it were a distinct species. In this loim the cock, a three-quartera-lenph study of Washington (the earliest known 

wing-coverts of a deep lustrous blue instead ol being mollled Thi» canvas b now in the L« Memorial Chapel of Wsshinglon 

wilhhrownandwhite.whiielhehenisofamoreorlesigriailed- and Lee University. He painted various other portiails ol 

while. It " breeds true "-, but occasionally a presumably pure Washington; probably the best known in a full.length, which 

stock of birds of the usual coloration throws out one or more was made in 1778, and of which Peale made many copies. This 

haying the Japan plumage. II is to be observed that the male poniail had been ordered by the Conlinenlal Congress, which. 

to thai of the second indubitably gmd species, the P. mnlUia bought for a private collection in Philadelphia. Peale painted 

{or P. i^i/ff of some wtileti) of Burma and Java, though the two miniatuteiof Mrs Waihington(i77iand 1777). and portraits 

(baracter of the lalier*! crest— the feathers ol which are barbed (,[ many of the famous men of the lime, a number ol which 

along their whde length instead of at the tip only— and its jre in Independence Hall, Philadelphia. His portraila of 

■ ClasKsl aulhon coniain many alluikini tc iti high appiTdal ion Washington do not appeal so Wrongly 10 Americans as do thete 

■tthenoM tumptuom banquets; and medieval billi of fare on uaie of Gilbert Stuart, bul his admitted skill as a draughtsman fiveato 

STiSM J!^ranMTh?I^UIWo'"on'uiiI*''*'™k'^' wlikh's^u all of his work considerable historical value. Peale removed to 
liln been servad up gamidied wilb iu gaudy plumage. ■ A. Newton himadf regarded thii ai pnbabtt' iacorrcct. 



PEALE, R.— PEAR 



.8i 



Pbiluldphia in ij;;, and trrvcd u ■ nvmbn ot ibc committR when the puc h lOBetinMi comidcnd irild, Ihen a *]*■< 
al public alay; he lided in raising i mililii ctmpluiy. bccime i the doubt Ihil it miy not really be to. but (he produce of un 

fieutenant and afleiwards a capuin, and look part in the battia utd ol a culliviled tree depoiited by bird* 01 olberwiK, whii 

of TrcIoo, PriDceton and Cermaniown. In I77(ri7&>bewu bu dttenemted into the wild ipine-bearini tree known i 
a moniKf ol tbe Pennsylvania asiembly, where he voted loi PynttammMmij^ 

the abolition of jlavny—tii freed bii own slaves whom be had Tlie cultivation ol the put eitends lo the ren>oIni aniiquit; 

bmushl from Maiyland. In ifkil he undertook, largely at hii Traces ol it have been found in the Swiss likc-dweElings. it' 
own expense, the eacavaiion of the ikeletons of two mutodont meationed in the oldest Greek wHiings, and bis cultivated h 

in Ulster and Orange csunliei. New York, and in itoiheesUb- the Rooiaia. The word "pear " or in equivalent occurs in a 
Uihcd at Philadelphia Ptale's Museum. He was one of Ibl IbeCellicUnguiges, whileinSlavonicandotherdi'alHttdiffeier 

fouodets, in 1805, of tbe Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arti appellations, but still referring to the same thing, are found — 

at Philadelphia. Al tbe age of eighty-one Peale painted a large diversity and mulUpUdly oE nomentbture which led Alphon 

canvas, " Chrst Healing the Sick st Belhesda," and at eighty, de Candolle to infer a very ancient cultivation of the tree Iroi 

three > full-leagth portrait of bim9df,now in the Academy of the the shores of the Caspian to those of the Atkslic. A certai 

Fine Arts. He died at bis cQuclry home, near Ceimantown, nee of pean, with white down on tbe under surface of the 

Penotjdvania, on the indol February 1816. leaves, itiupposed to have originated from P. Kimlis, and the 

HBbrotheT,jAIiElPuu(t>49-iEji), also an artist, punted fruit i* cUeBy used in France in the manufacture ot Perry (si 

(ws portraits of Washington (one now the properly of the New Cideb). Other snuU-fruiled pearl, distinguished by the 

York Historical Society, and the other in Indepnideoce Hall, precocity and apple-like fruit, may be referred Id P. coriala. 

Philadelphia), besides landscapes and historical compositions, species found wild in western France, and in Devonshire an 

RUI. BKMBBUniT (i;;B-iS6o), American artist, was bom Cornwall 
in Bocks county, Pennsylvania, on the Jind ol February 1778, K^ Itoch epniidmd Dial culliviled pea™ were the dncendmi 

the spo of Cbiriea WiUson Peale (».».). He studied under his SLa^l^Tj^VifiS'^dp"™..) l'^^ 

lather, under Benjamin West in London (iSoi-iSoj), and in the ubjecl'ane ol cniKal iiudy lor 1 number ol yeais. and not onl 

PinsiniSorand i9oo. Aseariy as ijflshehad begun from life inv«liE»td the wiW iDmn. but tarclully uuditd the pcciiliarill. 

■ portrait of Washington. 01 this be made many replicas, the of the numerous ™rieii«i cullivMcd in the Ji rdin des Flames 1 

latest in iBjj, purchased by the United Slates government ^^ tavTin com™ lliSTdfvwJ^inwri^i diitaimlw I 

in 183 >, and now in the Capitol of Washington, Pealc was one ,„ fgnn now ^ races: (t) the Cdi'.including P. ceriata; (i) ili. 

■I the Gnt of American liihographert. He was an eicellenl Germanic, iochidint P. unwnnii, P. admi, and P. piraun: (jj 

drmghtsman.butlncohiurhisworkcannotrankwilhhisfilher's. Ihe HeUeolc incluaini P. paniftn, P. tiwiU and others; iXl 

5 ■»" !« -7"? "• ";• ""*>" !■"'"■ -"»'• ■ 'Tr ' 'SS S'S'^.'SE/JXS.'.X'S'fJiS'^a; 

of teaching drawing and penmanship. His portraits include refcrcnmo ibc Celtic race 7 ignbli it is intemling is note its 

those of PrESJdenl JeDeiwn, Mrs Madison, Commodores Pcny, connciuDn with Arthurian leiend and the Isle of Avakin or tile of 

Decatur, and Baiabridge, Houdon, the sculptor, General Arm- Apples. An lilaDd in Loth Awehasa Cclik iMendcontaiBii^ilie 

strong, and an equeWrian portrait of General Washington, now ET2Z£ ■■ '.S^ S^'ISStT-^iS" PteJ*"«rtStri aSSLS 

in Independence Hall, Philadelphia. His " Court of Death " (ariiianyl wiih a view of iiTS^gatlBg these mailers, and brought 

(iSr) is id the Detroit Art Gallery. In iSij Peale succeeded thence fniiii of a small bcrty-hkc pear. >h>ch were idenliEHl 

Jofao Truoboll >a president of the American Academy of Fine with the Pynu ariaU of weuem France. 

Alt) (founded in rSoi as the New York Academy of Fine Arts). CklfRofimi.— The pear may be readily raised by sowing the 

aad be was one of the original membeii of the National pips of ordinary cultivated or of wilding kinds, these forming 

Academy of Design. He wrote several books, among them what are known as free or pear stocks, on which the choicer 

Saa M /tafy (iSji), RiwtiniicoKa ej Art and AililU [1S45}. varieties are gralled (or increase. For new varieties the flower* 

He died in Philadelphia on the jrd ol October lUo. should be lertiliied with a view to combine, in ibe seedlings 

A brother. Raphielle Pejoe (1774-igij), was one of the whichreaull ErDintheunion,thedesirab1equ>liiiesolthep(TcDit. 

earliest of American still-liie painters; and another brother. The dwarf and pyramid trees, more usually planted in gardens, 

TmAH RusEV Pe:IU (1800-1SS;). made numerous drawings, are obtained by grafting on the quince stock, the Portugal t;uince 

some of Ibem in water-colour, in iUustralion of animal lile. being Ihe best: but this slock, from lis surface-moling habit. 

Sec " Reinbnndl Peale." paRly autotnognphical. in C E. Lener's is most suitable For soils of a cold damp nature. The pear-slock, 

ni ArUiU ffAmrriai (New York, 1B46). having an inclination 10 send its roots down deeper into the soU, 

nAB (Pynu cemmxitii), a member of the natural order is the best (or Ighl dry soils, as the plants are not then id likely 

Rosaccae, bdonging to the same genus as the apple (P. m3ui), 10 tuSer in dry seasons. Some of the flnet pears do not unite 

iriDCh it resembles in floral iiruciun. In both cases the so- readily witb the quince, and in ihis case double working is 

eiBed fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the resoned to; that is to say, a vigorous-growing pear is first 

fkmr-stalk (the so-called cilya tube) greatly dilated, and en- grafted on Ihe quince, and then the choicer pear is grafted on 

contilute tbe "core " and are really Ihe true fruit. From the In selecting young pear trees for walls or espaliers, some 

upper rim of Ihe receptacle are given ofl the five sepals, the £ve persons prefer ptanls one year old from the grsll, but trees two 

and of the apple respectively, although usually characteristic planted immediately beforeorafler the IstI of IhelcaE, Thewill 

esoiigh, is not by itself sufficient to distinguish them, (or there trees require to be planted (rom 15 to }o (t. apart when on free 

ire pears which cannot by form alone be distinguished from slocks, and from 1; to 10 (t. when dwarfed. Where Ihe Itect 

apples, and ar^es which cannot by superlicial appearance be ace trained as pyramids or columns they may siind S or to ft. 

giad from pearv The main distinction is the occurrence apart, but standards in orchards should be allowed at least joft., 

with hard woody deposit in the case of the pear, contliluting In the formilian of the trees thesimeplin maybeidopled as 

grit," while in the apple no such (oimiiioa of woody cells in the case ol the apple. For the pear orehard a warm situation 

ce ol the tree — Ihe bark, the foliage, is very desirable, with a soil deep, subsiiniial, and thoroughly 

-. usually quite characteristic in the drained- Any good free loam is suitable, but a calcareous loam 

IWB species. Cultivated pean. whose number is enormous, are [s the best. Pear trees worked on the quince should have tbe 

witboiil doubt derived from one or two wild species widely uock covered up to ils junction with ibe graft. This is effected 

dsliibuted IhrougbBut Europe and SKHem Asia, asd wmelimes by niung upasmallmoundofrich compost around it. ■ conttiv- 

fciming part o( tbe natural vegetation of the loreM*. In England, ince whidi induces the (tafi to emit iDOlt into the surlace soil. 



j+ PEARCE— PEARL 

•Bd al» keeps ihe U«k tittm becoming h»rd gi b«tk-bound. """y <« i™'™^'^ l 
The Iruil o( ihe p«»r ii proi1u«d on ipun. which ippeu on ihooi* ihe^™5y''!i"iocMDiiji 
more Ihin one year old. The mode moit tommoo]/ idoplel ^nlcr moih (C*rimoJo»i 



>e prcJened, » 



n Ociober ti 



'licir CXEI in (he cr^icki and crevices in iht balk- The uicrgilbn 



jtro««. iho h.if.f.. 0. .he hori»>nL.l i> n^.i >.i,.We. lo the ':it:fS^,i'-^^'fi;:^/]Z^^ '."^"^r'S'hjf 
laller form old Uta. Ihe Kimmer pnining of whith hu been ln,ipt,i(a"BMriimB bore Ihtlr -Jiy ini 
neglecled, are apt lo acquire an undue prO)eclion from the wall the up channels. I[ badly bond. Ihe 
■ml become iciaggy, 10 mvoid whicb a pcotioo ol the old qiun 
ibould be cut oul annually. 

The lURimct ptuning o[ (stabliihed wall oc cspalier-nQ tna 
coniisti chiefly in the limdy displacing, sfaonening back, oi 
rubbing off of the superfluous shoots, so tiiat the winter pruning, 
in hohiontal training, is httle more than adjusting the leading 
shoots and thinning out Ihe sputi, which should be kept dole te 
the wall and allowed to lelain but (mi or at moil three buds. 
In [an-liaining the subordinate hisnchd must be icgulatcd, the 
■PUTS thinned out, and the young laterals finally established in 
Ibeir placei. When horizontal trees have faUen into disocdei, Ihe 
biancha may be cut back to within o in. of the vertical Uen 
and branch, and trained in afresh, or they may be grafted with 
other Hrl!. if a variety ol kinds is wanted. 

Summer and autumn pears should bt gathered before they are 
fully ripe, otherwise they will not In general keep more than a 
few days. The JargoncUe should be allowed lo remain on the 



thus succeeding the produce of the wall trees. In the case of i. Leal >ho«ngEiDu|iic4cup(orBecidia. i. Early Mage of 
the Craisane the crop should be gathered at three different ducaK. J, Cup*. 

a week or ten days after that, and the third when fully ripe. 
The Gnt galhering will come into eating laisi.and thus the 
'''"'' ' nsiderably prolonged. It is 

y be followed with other 



colour, with a firm yellowish-green maitow-like pulp tunoundilg 
a large seed. The pulp 1) much otcemed in the Wrat India and 
a eaten as a salad, usiully with the addition of pepper, salt and 
vinegar. The pulp contains much oil, which is used lor lighting 
and soap-making, and the seeds yield a deep indelible Uack 
slain which is used for marking linen. 

Prickly prai is the popular name lor spedes ol Ofwiiia (see 

The name wooden pear is applied to the fruiU of Xylaiidiim 

woody, inversely peai-shapcd fruits which split into two 

PUBCB, CHAHLEl SPRAOnS (iBji- ), American artist, 
was bom at Boston, Massachusetts, on the ijth of October iSji. 
In 187] he became a pupil of Urn, Bonnat in Paris, and after 
iSSs he lived in Paris and at AuverMur-Oise. He painted 
Egyptian and Algerian scenes, French peasants, and portraits, 
and also decorative work, notably for Ihe Congressional Library 
at Washington. He received medals a( the Paris Saloa and 
ebcwheie. and was decorated wiih the Legion of Honour, the 
order of Leopold, Belgium, the order of the Red Eagle, Prussia, 




Pcai 


Scab (FuiJsii 
res or iiiMia,i. 


'bornVoI 




Wi 


Injured by Ihe peart 


•1 


ale(. 


ijS 





le Decapitation of St John the Baptist" 


mem .ol the fruit, (igBO.inthcAri In: 


stiluleof Chicago; "Prayer" (18S4), owned 


rjp,.i;:i "Sire; ^tocM-achu", 

li., T^Ur.^ H-Unto Return c* the Foe 
X'X^.^on and "Meditation." 




k." in Ihe Bohemian Club, San Frandsco; 


in the New York Mettopolitan Museum. 


v«. Pear tree, may PEARL Pearis 


ire calcareous conaetions of pecuhar lustre. 


,:'ir^^^.' siv. '::^^^'^t 


1 n»au«3. and valued as objects of personal 






regular in shape and stunted in growth, or 



PEARL 



as 



vhacb bear excrescenoes, or are honeycombed by boring pansites, 
are those most likdy to yield pearls. 

The substance of a pearl is essentially the same as that which 
lines the interior of many shells and is known as " mothtf -of- 
pearL" Sir D. Brewster first showed that the iridescence of this 
substance was an optical phenomenon due to the interference of 
rays of light reflected from microscopic corrugations of the surface 
— an effect which may be imitated by artificial striations on a suit- 
able medixim. When the inner laminated portion of a nacreous 
shell is digested in add the calcareous layers are dissolved away, 
leaving a very delicate membranous pdlide, which, as shown 
by Dr Carpenter, may retain the iridescence as long as it is 
undbturbed, but which loses it when pressed or stretched. 

It is obvious that if a pearl presents a perfectly spherical form 
it must have remained loose in the substance of the musdes or 
other soft tissues of the mollusc. Frequently, however, the pearl 
becomes cemented to the interior of the shell, the point of attach- 
ment thus interfering with its symmetry. In this position it may 
receive successive nacreous deposits, which ultimatdy form a 
peari of hemispherical shape, so that when cut from the shell it 
may be flat on one tide and convex on the other, forming what 
jewders know as a *' perle bouton." In the course of growth 
the peari may become involved in the general depodt of mother- 
(rf-pcaxl. and be ultimatdy buried in the substance of the shell. 
It has thus happened that fine pearls have occasionally been 
unexpectedly brought to light in cutting up mother-of-pearl in 
the workshop. 

Wben a pnri oyster a attacked by a boring parasite the 
moUusc protects itself by depositing nacreous matter at the point 
of invaaon, thus forming a boUow body of irregular shape known 
as a ** blister pearL" HoUow warty pearl is sometimes termed 
in trade " coq de perle." Solid pearls of irregular form are often 
(woduced by deposition on rough objects, such as small fragments 
of wood, and these, and in fact all irregular-shaped pearls, are 
termed *' perles baroques," or '* barrok pearls." It appears that 
the Romans in the period of the Decline restricted the name unio 
to the ^bular pearl, and termed the baroque margarilum. It 
was fashionable in the i6th and X7th centuries to moimt curiously 
shaped baroques in gold and enamel so as to form ornamental 
objects of grotesque diaracter. A valuable collection of such 
mounted pauls by Dinglinger is preserved in the Green vaults at 
Dresden. 

A pearl of the first water should possess. In jewelers' language, 
a perfect " skin " and a fine " orient "; that is to say, it must be 
of delicate texture, free from speck or flaw, and of dear almost 
translucent white colour, with a subdued iridescent sheen. It 
should also be perfectly spherical, or, if not, of a qrmmetrical 
pear-diape. On removing the outer layer of a pearl the sub- 
pcent surface is generally dull, like a dead fish-eye, but it 
occaskmally happens that a poor pearl endoses a " lively kemd," 
and may therefore be improved by cardul peeling. The most 
perfect pearl in existence is said to be one, known as " La Pelle- 
grina," in the museum of Zesima in Moscow; it Is a perfectly 
l^obolar Indian peari of singular beauty, weighing a8 carats. 
The largest known pearl is one of irregular shape in the Beresford 
Hiq;>e collection at the Victoria and Albert Museum. This 
magnificent pearl weighs 3 oz., has a circumference of 4} in., and 
is surmounted by an fnamellpd and jewelled gold crown, forming 
a pendant of great value. 

Ptarl Fisheries. — ^The andents obtained thdr pearls chiefly 
from India and the Persian Gulf, but at the present time they are 
also procured from the Sulu seas, the coast of Australia, the shores 
of Central America and some of the South Pacific Islands. The 
aadent fisheries of Ceylon (Taprobane) are situated in the Gulf 
of Manaar, the fishing-banks lying from 6 to 8 ol off the western 
sfame, a little to the south of the bUe of Manaar. The TinneveUy 
fishery Is on the Madras side of the strait, near Tuticorin. These 
Indian fishing-grounds are under the control of government 
izapecton, who regulate the fisheries. The oysters yield the 
best pearls at about four years of age. Fishing generally com- 
■MDces in the teccmd week in March, and lasts for from foiur to six 
weeks, according to the season. The boats are grouped in fleets 



of from sixty to seventy, and start usually at midnight so as to 
reach the oyster-banks at sunrise. Each boat generally carries 
ten divejs. On reaching the bank a signal-gun is fired, and diving 
commences. A stone weighing about 40 lb is attached to 
the cord by which the diver is let down. The divers work in 
pairs, one man diving while the other watches the signal-cord, 
drawing up the sink-stone first, then hauling up the baskets of 
oysters, and finally raising the diver himself. On an average the 
divers remain under water from fifty to eighty seconds, though 
exceptional instances are dted of men remaining bdow for as 
long as six minutes. After resting for a minute or two at the 
surface, the diver descends again; and so on, until exhausted, 
when he comes on board and watches the rope, while his comrade 
rdieves him as diver. The native descends naked, carrying only 
a girdle for the support of the basket in which he places the peari 
oysters. In his submarine work the diver makes skilful use of his 
toes. To arm himself against the attacks of the sharks and other 
fishes which Infest the Indian waters he carries ^ikes of iron- 
wood; and the genuine Indian diver never descends without the 
incantations of shark-charmers, one of whom accompanies the 
boat while others remain on shore. As a rule the diver is a short* 
lived man. 

The diving continues from sunrise to about noon, when a gun 
is fired. On the arrival of the fleet at shore the divers carry their 
oysters to a shed, where they are made up into four heaps, one 
of which is taken by the diver. The oysters are then sold by 
auction in lots of 1000 each. The pearls, after removal from the 
dead oysters, are " classed " by passing through a number of 
small brass colanders, known as " baskets," the holes in the 
successive vessels being smaller and smaller. Having been sized 
in this way, they are sorted as to coloiur, weighed and valued. 

Since the days of the Macedonians pearl-fishmg has been 
carried on in the Persian Gulf. It is said that the oyster-beds 
extend along the enture Arabian coast of the gulf, but the most 
important are on sandbanks off the islands of Bahrein. The chid 
centre of the trade is the port of TJngah. Most of the produtts 
of this fishery are known as " Bombay pearls," from the fact that 
many of the best are sold there. The shells usually present a 
dark colour about the edges, like that of " smoked pearL" The 
yellow-tinted pearls are sent chiefly to Bombay, wliile the whitest 
go to Bagdad. Very small pearls, much below a pea in size, 
are generally known as " seed-pearls," and these are valued in 
India and China as constituents of certain dectuaries, while 
occasionally they are caldned for ckunam, or lime, used with betel 
as a masticatory. There is a small peari-fisheiy near Karachi 
on the coast of Bombay. 

From the time of the Ptolemies pearl-fishing has been 
prosecuted along the coast of the Red Sea, espedaHy in the 
neighbourhood of Jiddah and Koseir. This fishery is now 
insignificant, but the Arabs still obtain from this district a 
quantity of mother-of-pearl shells, which are shipped from 
Alexandria, and come into the market as " Egyptians." 

Very fine pearls are obtained from the Sulu Archipelago, on 
the north-east of Borneo. The mother-of-pearl shells from the 
Sulu seas are characterized by a yellow colour on the border and 
back, which unfits them for many ornamental purposes. Peari 
oysters are also abimdant in the seas around the Am Islands to 
the south-west of New Gtiinea. From Labuan a good many 
pearl-shells are occasionally sent to Singapore. They are also 
obtained from the ndghbourhood of Timor, and from New 
Caledonia. The pearl oyster occurs throughout the Pacific, 
mostly in the dear water of the lagoons within the atolls, though 
fine shells are also tovnd in deep water outside the coral reefs. 
The Polynesian divers do not employ sink-stones, and the women 
are said to be more skilful than the men. They anoint thdr 
bodies with ofl before diving. Fine pearl-shells are obtained 
from Navigators' Islands, the Sodety Islands, the Low Archi- 
pdago or Paumota Isles and the Gambler Islands. Many of 
the Gambler pearls present a bronzy tint. 

Pearl-fishing Is activdy prosecuted along the western coast of 
Central America, especially hi the Gulf of California, and to a le» 
extent around the Pearl Islands in the Bay of Panama. ^The 



PEARL 



SihEDg-craaDib an En waur iboot 40 h. deq>, tad the Muoa 
luu (or (our monlli*. An <itdiDiU7 Gshing-puty opecu to 
obtiin kboat time loiuol tlieJU p«t day, uid iiitoliniuediliu 
one ahdl ifl a iboiuiDd contiju a pe*ri. The peula are thippH 
In burek from San FrandKO and Panama. Some peaili of me 
beauty have been obtained from the Bay of Mulcge, near Loa 
Coyela.inlhcgulfol CaliloniiaiandLniSSiapeariof 7Scanla, 
Uie largisl on ncord Irom Ihu district, wu found dcu La Pu 
(n CaUTomia. Tbe coail o[ CuayaquU alu yield! peadi. 
Columbus found that psul-Sshing nai DUried on In hi) time [a 
the Gulf of Menco, and praiU iiT still obtained [ram the Carib- 
bean Sea. In the Wat India ihn beat pearit aie obtained [ram 
St Thomas and from the island of Maigarita, d9 the coast o[ 
Veneiuela. Fmm Margarita PbiUp 11. of Spain is said to have 
obtained in isyt a famoui pearl of ijo carats. 

Of late years good pearls have btto found In Shark's Bay, on 
the coiut of Welt Ausmlla, cspedilly In an inlet termed Uielaa 
Harbour. Mother.of-peaT] shells are also fished at many other 
points along the wolem coasi, between the 15th and 15th 
parallels of south latitude. An important peail-fisheiy is alio 
established in Tones Strait and on the coast ol Queendand. 
Tbe shells occur in water from four to sli fathoms deep, ahd'tho 
diven are gEuerally Malays and Papuans, (bough sometime* 
native Australians. On the weatern coast of Australia the 
peart-shells an obtained by dredging rather than by diving. 
Peari-sfaells have alio been found at Port Darwin and In 



According to the latest raeaichcs th 
b In moat cases, perhaps in all, tl 

within the tisnes of a moUuic, around which nacreous deposit la 
secreted. Tbeparasile is asiage in the lifebisIOTy of a Trema- 
tode in uma caia, in others of a Cestode^ that is to say of a form 
tesemblini the ooBunon liver-fluke of the sheep, or o( a tape- 
wotm. As biag ago as iSji FDippi of Turin showed that the 
Bpcdca ol Tiematode Dultmitm dutHcaium wss the ausc of a 
pearl fomutioD in tbe ftesfa-water mussel Analimia. Kuchen- 
meiateT nbMquently investigated the question a< Eltler in 
Saxony and came to a diBemt conclusion, namely that the 
central body ol the peail was a amall specimen of a speciea ol 
water mile which is a very common piniite of A twdmla. FDipiri 
however slates that the mile is only rarely found within a 
pearl, the Trematode occurring in (he great majority of cases. 
R. Duboii and Dr H. Lyster Jsmeson have made spedat investi- 
gation! of tbe pcocas in the common mussel llyliliu tdiJit. 
The Utter Matn tbu the pearl b produced in a sac which is 
^tuated beneath the epidermis ol tbe mantle and is lined by an 
e^dthelium. This epithelium is not derived from (he cells of the 
epidermis but from the interna] con]>eclive-tissue cells. This 
statement, if correct. Is contrary to what would be eipected, for 
calcareous matter is usually secreled by the eitemal epidermis 
only. The sac or cyst is formed by the larva of a ^ledes of 
Trematode belonging to the genus LeHciikedendtiitm, a spcdcs 
closely Reembllng and probably identical with L. lemaUrial, 

tarefulty iiiulaied which liva m the adult state in the eider duck. At BilUen, 

5tSj^^'"f^te'tSS^"A(S?nSt'El'1iJ?1iSrf'^ Morbiban, in France, the host of the adult Trematode <$ another 
h i. let. to ren lof tjTTBfteen years. Tbe Bsher-tolk open thi >pedes of duck, namely the common Scoter. Oflfmia «po, which 
valvei of (he muMls with an Iron ionrumenc. and if they &ad lu Is notorious In the locality for its avidity for mussels. Trema- 
pearl reslDie the muad to the water. todes of the family Distomldae. to which the parasite under 

h.ErS.E^'Si^ ^n L'S^l^M^'Tri^ W-^^ «»»^'i«™Uon belong^ usuaUy have three hosts in «^ of which 
t!^^^0^'Si'!^i:^^^^:^Ty:^Z'^. U»ypaMdifl.ren(..ag«oflheUfehis.ory. In this case the fim 
dne. Iowa. Tbe eeasoo enends rmm Jone to October. Japan boat at Bdhers is a tpecm ol bivalve called Tapci itaamlia.XMt 

— ■-- •—'- r pearls, found especisliy in the A%tiBmla at Kel in Lancashire (here are DO Tapes and tbe first stages of (he 

.. f-,. L.. .1.. ^.. ""offi^'^f^ parasite are found In the common cockle. The Tnmatode 

mris, ud use a targe qiu«fty'a[ mothwil-partfor decorative *»'*" the 1^ boat as a minute newly hatched embryo and 

ai — .I..B twHity.twa eenturiea before our era pearls ' SWuthii ti|«i, L.. ii a Gutmind belonging to the family 

jibuUDrtaiiBCUaaiaodtbeyareineiidoiied Strombida^ ot the order Pectinitnndua. Turiiii^la lulyiwiu, 
western |ian of tbe enplic la the JU'ya. a Lan.. is a Gastnpod of the aame order. 

larlEvp than innn m.^. A fwwMfl fw twrtrnmUff * PloOuia piit n ia, L.. bclongS lO the faitlT' " ' --J--- '- :- 

Mind on the sbons o( North Australia. Plan 
- -- -. -, .- . ..,_ jelongs to tbe Ostrcai 



PEARL, THE 



Iwni it is l)w farm oJkd Cercula, whkh b mlb' tn imnutnre 
tooditioa (rf the iduli. Tbc Cociiu mtket iu my into tbe 
tana td a miuKl uul Iben becoma endoicd io the qnt 
previoiBly dcKiibed. If tbe muaci b then mllowed by the 
diKik EheCcTcanaedcvelopLntomdultTreniatodesorflukeaiii tbe 
Gw or intatina of the biitL In tbe muHcLi whicb cscipe bdng 
dcvoimd the puuta cumot devdop Juitber, mnd they die ud 
baome embediled in tbe nacnoils dcpDdt ohldi (omu « pcul. 
Dt Jusoon pointi out tbit, *> in otba cuta, ptiili in Mytiliu 
m (OBUDon in oitaiii qxcinl loolilio and nm eJietrbcre, Mid 
that the uid locilitici uc tboM wbeie tbc puuile utd it* hoMi 
■le plentif uL 

The &nt Biggeajoa that tbe moM valuable pcuti oblained 
from pcail oyiten in tio(BcaI oceani migbt be due to paniaites 
waa made by Kelaart in repotta to the govetnraeal d( Ceyton In 
iSjT-tSsq. Recently a ipedal invcatifatian of the Ceylm pearl 
fiiheiy baa been orjaiiiied by PnifeSMi Herdmui. Herdraaa ud 
~ ~ " " ' 'e tbe pcail ojtter of Cej*)n Uaffarili/efa 
c Dudeui ol tbe peail li. Id all ipedoiena 
d, the larva of a Ccstode or tapewonn. Thii larva Ii of 
and ii of the type known u a cyMIcemia. Ai in 
numd the latva diet in Il> cyM and iti lemalu are 
a depodt. to tlul, >s a Fiencb miter bai 
It aaodated iu all ages with beauty and licbe* 
ia nocfainf but the biilliaat larcophigui of a vonn. 
The cyitkeicia detcribtd by Herdraan and Honietl bat on tbe 

a papilla wtucb can be pTDtiuded. It waa at Gnt Identified a* 
the laiva of a tapcmroi called Tetnthyncbua, and Piofewir 
brdman cmcludcd that ihc life-biitoiy of the peari paiaiite 
'"■■•"—' of lour naget, the firtt beinj exhibited by Irce larvae 
wUchweictaLenat the turface of theses, the lecond that in the 
peail DTiter, tbe third a form found in the bodiei of file-hibei 
■Uch feed on the oyitera, and the lounh or adult itagc living in 
awBC qiedet of lai^ ny. It hai not horever been proved Ihal 
tbe peail puaiitc it a Tetrariiyschui, iwr that II it connected 
»Rh the free larva or the form fonndin tbefile-fith,Btlittetjnor 
Wi the adoll form been identifcd. M thai It certain it that 
the pearh are due to the pnaence of a panaite whkb It tbe larva 
al a Cstode; all the real it prabaUlity or potilbilily. A French 
nainraliii, H. Scurat. atodying tbe pearl cvtlet of ibe Cannbier 
Aidupdago in Ibe Pacific, found that pearl formation was due 
to ■ parasite quite liniilar to that described by Herdman and 
HontlL Thii paraaite was described by Proftttor Ciard at 



ptear. and the neizKbouring ulanda, and it allrd Zan&bar and 
HadaEiKar ibell Bombay ihell it anolher local fonn tibrd in 

... B__!.- ^^if ,jj iJiippid via Bombay. The P-" -^ 

il^rpiiad thell. Anotiier variety occun 

a sulit crfio lb per (wTor ibell'i. ii 
ca byDr JaraHoa aacTini-^ " 



PEARSALU-PEARSON, C. H. 

!ram bei. 

" I roiucd tat, lad Fell in rntt dii 
Add, liihillg, u AyKlf iHid: 



It keeps him from bei. In tbe very cflort 
^ hid " (Uiyed below ". — 



:"i pLcHJUEc*' 

The poem con^ta of one hundred ud one sUzuu, eadi ol 
twelve liocfl, with fbur ecccnLA, Hiymed ab. ab, ai, ab, be, be; 

effecls add to the euy movemeoi uid lyiidl chum of the lino. 
Five iteuzis (la one oie six), with the suae refnio, consiiiute 
■ lectioa, oi which iccoriintfy then ve twenty in all, the whole 
lequeoce beinfi linked together by the device oC raaUng the 
£nt line of each etsiua oitch up the refnin of the previous 
vene, the hut line of the poem t^fdiouig the fint line. The 
■ulhot wu not the creitor of tliit form, uoi »u he the lut to 
uie it. Tlie eit«nt pieces In the metre ue thon leligious poenu. 
some of the later (c.f. CaTt Ctttt^'aM, Calsdy attributed to 
Scottiah authorehlp) revealing the influence of Ptart. 

The dialect Is West Midland, or rather Nonh-Wcat hfidlaad, 
aiKi the vocabulary la remarJtable For the blending ot native 
speech with Scandinavian and Romance elementa, the latter 
partly Anglo-French, and partly learned French, due to the 
■ulhor'9 knowledge ol French litcialure. 

" While the main part of the poem," according to CoUanci, 
" is a pajaphrasc of the closing chaptera oF the Apocalypse and 
the parable of the Vineyard, the poet'i debt to the Remaaitt s/ 
Uu Rose a noteworthy, more particularly in the deacnption of 
the wonderful land through which the dream e r wanden; and il 
can be traced throughout the poetn, in the per^jnificatioo of 
Pearl as Reason, b the form of the colloquy, in the deiails ol 
dress and ornament, In many a charactetlilic word, phrase and 
rdertncev ' The river from the thiDae,' in the Apocalypae. 
here tneeli ' the waters of the wells ' devised by Sir Uinh lor 
the Cardeo of the Rose. From thae two sources, the Book of 
RevelalioD. with its almoat Celtic gUmour. and Tbe Awiuu k/ 
lit Rne. with its almost Oriental allegory, are derived much ol 
the wealth and briUIancy oF the poem. The poet's Fancy revels 
in the richness of the heavenly and the earthly paradise, but 
his fancy ^^ subordinated to his earnestness and inlenaily." 

The leading dumi/i oF Ptart are to be found in the' Gospel— 
in the allegory of the merchant who sold hu all to purchase one 
pearl of great price, and in the words, ao fraught with solace for 
the chtld-bercfl. "for of luch is the Kingdom o( Heaven." 
Naturally arising from the theme, and From tlieae moliji. some 
Iheologicai problems of the time are touched upon, or treated 
aomew hat too elaborately pcrhapa, and an at tempt has been made 
to demonstrate that Pearl a melety allegolical and tbeolo^cal. 
and not really a lament. Those who hold this view surely Ignore 
or fail to recognise the subtle personal touches wheieby the 
poem transcends all its theolo^cat iuierals, and nukes its 
tiDiple and diied appeal to the human heart. Herein, too. ties 
its abii^ng charm, over and above the poetical talent, the love 
of nature, colour and the pictuteaque, the technical skill, and 
the descriptive power, which in a high degree belonged to tbe 
unkrHwn poet 

Various theories have been advanced as to (he authorship of 
Ptart and the otfaei poems in the manuscript. The claims of 
Huchown "of the Awie Ryale" have been tigoiously (but 
unsuccessfully) advocated; the case in favour of Ralph Strode 
(Chaucer's " philosophiol Strode ") — tbe moat attractive ol aQ 
the theories — is still, unfortunately, " noi proven." By inecing 
together the personal ladicsiioos to be found in the poenii 
an imaginary biogtipby of the poet may be consiructed. It 
may safely be iolened that he was bom about ijjo, somewhere 
in Lancashire, or a tittle to the north; that he delighted in open- 
air life, in woodctalt and sport; that his early life was passed 
amid the gay scenes that biighlened existence in medieval hall 
and bower; that he availed hlnuelt of oppoitunilia of study, 
tlMotao and romance alike claiming him; that he wedded, and 
had a child named Matgeiy ot Marguerite— tbe Daisy, ot the 



PEARSON, J.— PEARSON, J. L. 



29 



fenenny regarded as the most brilliant <^ an ezcq>tionaUy 
able set, and in 1854 obtained a feUowship at Oriel College. 
His constitutional weakness and bad eyesight forced him to 
abandon medidoe, which he had adopted as a career, and in 
i8s5 he returned to King's Collie as lecturer in English language 
and literature, a post which he almost immediately quitted 
for the professorship of modem history. He made numerous 
journeys abroad, the most important being his visit to Russia 
in i8s8, his account of which was published anonymously in 
1859 under the title of Russia^ by a Recent TrateUer; an adven- 
turous joum^ through Poland during the insurrection of 1863, 
ol which he gave a sympathetic and much praised account in 
the Spectator', and a visit to the United Slates in 1868, where 
be gathocd materials for his subsequent discussion of the negro 
problem in his National Life and Character. In the meantime, 
besides contributing regularly, first to the Saturday Review and 
then to the Spectator, and editing the NatiowJ Review, he wrote 
the first volume of The Early and Middle Ages of Engfand (1861). 
The woriL was bitterly attacked by Freeman, whosie " extrava- 
gant Sazonism " Pearson had been unable to adopt. It appeared 
in 1868 in a revised form with the title of History of ^gjUind 
dmring ike Early and Middle Ages, accompanied by a second 
vdimse which met with general recognition. Still better was 
the recqption of his admirable Maps of England in the First 
Thirteen Centuries (1870). But as the result of these bbours he 
was threatened with total bh'ndness; and, disappointed of 
receiving a professorship at Oxford, in 1871 he emigrated to 
Australia. Here he married and settled down to the life of a 
sheep-farmer; but finding his health and eyesight greatly 
improved, he came to Melbourne as lecturer on history at the 
university. Soon afterwards he became head master of the 
Presbyterian Ladies' College, and in this position practically 
organLted the vtbxAt system of higher education for women in 
Victoria. On his election in 1878 to the Legislative Assembly 
be definitdy adopted politics as his career. His views on the 
land question and secular education aroused the bitter hostility 
of the rich squatters and the clergy; but his singular nobility 
ai character, no less than his powers of mind, made him one 
of the most influential men in the Assembly. He was minister 
without portfolio in the Berry cabinet (1880-1881), and as 
minister of education in the coalition government of 1886 to 1890 
be was able to pass into law many of the recommendations of 
his report. His reforms entirely remodelled state education in 
Victoria. In 1892 a fresh attack of illness decided him to return 
to England. Here he published in 1893 the best known of his 
works, National Life and Character. It is an attempt to show 
that the white man can flourish only in the temperate zones, 
that the yellow and black races must increase out of all propor- 
ticm to the white, and must in time crush out his civilization. 
He died in London on the 29th of May 1894. 

A volume of his Reviews and Critical Essays was published in 
1896. and was followed in 1900 by his autobiography, a work of 
great interest. 

PBARSOH. JOHM (161 2-1686), English divine and scholar, 
was bom at Great Snoring, Norfolk, on the 28th of February 
161 3. From Eton he passed to Queen's College, Cambridge, and 
was elected a scholar of King's in April 1632, and a fellow in 
1634. On Uking orders in 1639 he was collated to the Salisbury 
prebend of Nether- A von. In 1640 he was appointed chaplain to 
the lord-keeper Finch, by whom he was presented to the living 
of Tborington in Suffolk. In the Civil War he acted as chaplain 
to George Goring's forces in the west. In 1654 he was made 
weekly preacher at St Clement's, Eastchcap, in London. With 
Peter Gunning he disputed against two Roman Catholics on the 
subject of schism, a one-sided account of which was printed in 
Paris by one of the Roman Catholic disputants, under the title 
Scismc UnmashH (1658). Pearson also argued against the 
Puritan party, and was much interested in Brian Walton's 
polyglot Bible. In 1659 he published in London his celebrated 
Exposition of the Creed, dedicated to his parishioners of St 
Qonent's, ^stcheap, to whom the substance of the work had I 
been pleached wevml years before. In the same year he I 



published the Golden Remains of the ever-memorable Mr John 
Hales of Eton, with an interesting memoir. Soon after the 
Restoration he was presented by Juxon, bishop of London, to 
the rectory of St Christopber-le-Stocks; and in 1660 he was 
created doctor of divinity at Cambridge, appointed a royal 
chaplain, prebendary of Ely, archdeacon of Surrey, and master 
of Jesus College, Cambridge. In 1661 he was appointed Lady 
Margaret professor of divinity; and on the first day of the 
ensuing year he was nominated one of the commissioners for 
the review of the liturgy in the conference held at the Savoy. 
There he won the esteem of his opponents and high praise from 
Richard Baxter. On the 14th of April 1662 he was made master 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1667 he was admitted a 
fellow of the Royal Sodety. In 1672 he published at Cambridge 
Vindiciae episloiarum S. Ignatii, in 4to, in answer to Jean 
Daill^. His defence of the authenticity of the letters of Ignatius 
has been confirmed by J. B. Lightfool and other recent scholars; 
Upon the death of John Wilkins in 1672, Pearson was appointed 
to the bishopric of Chester. In 1682 his Annates cyprianici were 
published at Oxford, with John Fell's edition of that father's 
works. He died at Chester on the i6th of July 1686. His last 
work, the Txoo Dissertations on Ike Succession and Times of the 
First Bishops of Rome, formed with the Annates Pauiini the 
principal part of his Opera posthuma, edited by Henry Dodwell 
in 1688. 

See the memoir In Biographia Brilannica, and another by Edward 
Churton, prefixed to the edition of Pearson's Minor Theological 
Works (2 vols., Oxford, 1844). Churton also edited almost the 
whole of the theological writings. 

PEARSON. JOHN LOUGHBOROUGH (i8i7-i897)» English 
architect, son of William Pearson, etcher, of Durham, was bom 
in Brussels on the 5th of July 181 7. He was articled at the age 
of fourteen to Ignatius Bonomi, architect, of Durham, but soon 
removed to London, and worked under the elder Hardwicke. 
He revived and practised largely the art of vaulting, and acquired 
in it a proficiency unrivalled in his generation. He was, however, 
by no means a Gothic purist, and was also fond of Renaissance 
and thoroughly grounded in classical architecture. From the 
erection of his first church of Ellerker, in Yorkshire, in 1843, 
to that of St Peter's, Vauxhall, in 1864, his buildings are 
Geometrical in manner and exhibit a close adherence to pre- 
cedent, but elegance of proportion and refinement of detail lift 
them out of the commonplace of mere imitation. Holy Trinity, 
Westminster (1848), and St Mary's, Dalton Holme (1858), are 
notable examples of this phase. St Peter's, Vauxhall (1864), 
his first groined church, was also the first of a scries of buildings 
which brought Pearson to the forefront among his contempor- 
aries. In these he applied the Early English style to modem 
needs and modem economy with unrivalled success. St Augus- 
tine's, Kilburn (1871), St John's, Red Lion Square, London 
(1874), St Alban's, Birmingham (1880), St Michael's, Croydon 
(1880), St John's, Norwood (1881), St Stephen's, Bournemouth 
(1889), and All Saints', Hove (1889), arc characteristic examples 
of his matured work. He is best known by Truro Cathedral 
(1880), which has a special interest in its apt incorporation 
of the south aisle of the ancient church. Pearson's conservative 
spirit fitted him for the reparation of ancient edifices, and among 
cathedrals and other historical buildings placed under his 
care were Lincoln, Chichester, Peterborough, Bristol and 
Exeter Cathedrals, St George's Chapel, Windsor, Westminster 
Hall and Westminster Abbey, in the surveyorship of which 
last he succeeded Sir G. G. Scott. Except as to the porches, 
the work of Scott, he re-faced the north transept of Westminster 
Abbey, and also designed the vigorous organ cases. In his hand- 
ling of ancient buildings he was repeatedly opposed by the ultra 
anti-restorers (as in the case of the west front of Peterborough 
Cathedral in 1896), but he generally proved the soundness 
of his judgment by his executed work. Pearson's practice was 
not confined to church building. Trebcrfydd House (1850), 
Quar Wood (1858), Lcchlade Manor, an Elizabethan house 
(1873), Westwood House, Sydenham, in the French Renaissance 
style (1880), the Astor estate offices (1892) upon the Victoria 



Embukmcnl, Londan. Ibc mnoddUng of tbe interion of od UDthct apedition to tbe Arctic regioni. Id tliii ud uib- 
ClkvcdeiiHauM(iSg3}andNo.iSC(rltonHauKTcmcc(iS94), lequcnt eipedillani be nccived fiiunoal lid from Mr Monii 
with nuiny puunigu, thav his ipiitude f^i dotnatic uthilcc- Jaup ind the Feity Amic Club. Tbc peitat loieihought 
lun. Id gcaenl dcsigD he fint liincd at foRD, embncirg both wb3 batawcd upoD the orguiiutiDn of Ihe eipeditjon, i four- 
pnfnrlicMi ADd coDlour; uid hii wtak miy be recogiiii«d by yan' prograiDme being laid dovm at the outlet and a lyitcm 
accuntc icholanhip coupled wiib hansooious deUil. Its key- of relief expedilioiu provided for. A diiUnctive feature wai 
lUrtel ue caaliouuieu and lefinemenl niber than boldness, the utililllioa of a minpany oi Eskimos. All hough unsiKCeufiU 
He died on tbe nth of Dccembec 1897, and wu buried in tbe u ngaidi the North Pale, the eipcdiiion ichieved the accurate 
Mvt of Walminiter Abbey, where his gnve is marked by the survey (1900) of the nonbem limit of the GieenhiBd continent 
appropriate motlo 5iultiiiiil d iieiliiiiiil. He maelccted A.R.A. and Ibe demonstration thai beyond it lay a Polii ocean. 
Ini874, R.A. in iSSo, was a fcUow of the Society of Antiquaries, In i«ai Feary with Henun and an Eskimo advanced as 
and a fellow and member of the Council of tbe Royal Institute far nonh as I4I. 84* 1;' Ij', tbe highest point then reached 
of British Archiieas. in the western hemisphere. Lieut. Pcuy hid oon been 

The [ollawirg are isme of Peanon's more imporunl woilii. promoted to the rank of Commander, and on his return he 
not already named: Ferriby chuieh {lUb}: Slow, Lincolnihiie wis elected president of tbe American Geographical Society. 
Iresiorallon. iBjo); WeybiMfe, S..];.me.'.Ji85i);_F.«l.«l church, ,„ November .903 be went to England on a naval commission 
10 inquire into tbe system of nival batncks in Great 
Britain, and was presented wiib tbe UviiwtDne Gold Medal 
of Ibe Royal Scottish Geographical Society. Commander Feary 
IhCD began prcpantions for another eipedilion by the con- 
struction of a special ship, named tbe " Roosevelt." tbe Eiit 
ever built in the United Slates tor the purpose of Arctic 



PBART, ROBERT EDWIN (iBj6- 
tjpbrer, was bom at Crcsson, Fennsylvai 
1S56. He graduated (1 Bowdoin College 
became a civil engineer in the U.S. navy w 
■nt. In 1S84 he wis appointed asustant 
with tbe surveys tor the Nicaragua Ship Ci 
be WIS in chaise of these surveys. In iS! 

of Greenland. Fiam this point be made 

hundred miles into the inleHor, and thi . . 

him with the practicability of using this so-(aIled inland ice-cip the narrative of this journey, fftaral die PbU, wis published. 

ai a highway for exploration. In iSgi he organised an c:(peili- In iqoS Feary started In the " Roosevelt " on tbe journey 

tion under the auspices of tbe Academy of Nilural Sciences <^ which wu to biing him his final soccess. He left Elah on the 

Philadelphia. The party of seven included Lieut. Peary's iSlh of August, winLertd in Grant Land, Indselforwirdovcrthe- 

pcdition. Alter wintering in Ingleficid Gulf on the noilh- >ii Itirtcd with him, and moved in sections, one in front of 

wal coast of Creenbnd, in tbe fallowing spring Lieul. Feaiy, another. They were gradually sent back as supplies diminished, 

with a young Noiwegiin, Eivind Astrvp, crossed the inland AI the end of the mo 

ice-cap along its nonbem limit to the north-east of Greenland man left with Peiiy, ai 

and back. The practical geographical result of this journey blitude then eh'er reacnea. reary, wun nis negro servant ana 

was to esUblish tbe insularity of Greenland. Valuable four Eskimos, pushed dn, and on Ibe 6lh of April 1909 reached 

work WIS also performed by the eipedilion in the dose the North Pole. They remained some thirty hours, took obser- 

aludy which wu made of the isolated tribe of the Cape vitiona, and on sounding, a few miles finm the pole, found no 

York or Smith Sound Eskimos, the most northerly people in bottom it ijoo filhoms. The party, with the eireption of one 

the world.' Lieul. Feiry wis able to fit out another Arctic drowned, returned silely to tbe " Roosevelt," which left her 

eipedition In rSgi, ind wis igain accompanied by Mrs Peary, winter quarlen on tbe iStb of July and leiched Indlin Hirbour 

who gave hiiLb to a daughter at the winter quarten in Inglefield on the jlh of September, Peary's TMt Nordi Pile; lli Diivntry 

Gulf. The eupcdition lEiumed in tbe season of 1894. leaving M igog wu published in igio. 

Peary with his coloured servant Henson and Mr Hu^ C.Lee Just before the news came of Peary's success another 

Hiis they succeeded in doing, but without being able to cairy Greenland to Europe on a Danish ship, claimed that he 
the work o( eiplotaiion any farther on (be opposite side of 
Greenland. During a summer excursion to Mdvilte Bay in 
1S94. Peaiy discovered three large meteorites, which supplied 

reported by Sir John Rosq in iSiS, ind on his return in 1(95 
be brought the two smaller ones wiih him. Hie remaining 
meteorite wu brought to New York In it9;. la 189S Lieut. 
Peary published JVgrUwrd ata Ou Grtal la, a record nl all his 
and in tbe same year he started 









i90i, hiving two yeirs'supplin on board. The " Rooseveh " 




wintered on the north cout of Grant Lind, ind on the list of 




Februuy a start wu made with sledges. Tbe parly esperienced 




serious delay owing to open water between 84" and Bj". >M 




fiilhei north tbe ice wu opened up during a sii dsys' gale. 








bad been established. A steady easterly drift wu esperienced. 


in tbe 6th of May 


But on the irst of April, 1906, 8j*6' was reached— Ihe"l>rthat 


1S7,. and in lUi 


DOIIh " attained by man— by which time Peary and his com- 


hersnkoflieulen- 


panions were suSering severe privations, and had to make the 


ineer in connexion 


return journey in the face ol great difficulties. They reached 


, lndiniSS)-i8&S 




; obtained leave of 


from which, after a week's rat, Peary made i sledge journey 


on the wat cout 


along the north coast of Grant Land. Returning home, the 


lurney of nearly a 


expedition teMhed Hebron, Labrador, on the i)Lh of October, 




the" Roosevelt " having been nearly wrecked «i route. In 1907 



'9.T'''ifh'it}^'. 



by Mn Pf.™. and con._ 
the uJeof J^NlKtic /MrW. 



bad reached the North Pole t 


>n tbe >i 


It of April i< 


308. He had 




ied an expedition 


northwa 


rd in .907, 




attempt t 


reach the Pole if ■ 






m'danotding 


tohisowi 


1 story had done 10, 


.leaving 


his party an 


d taking only 


someEsk 


imos, earty in .90S. 


Nothi, 


,g had been 


beard of him 


since Mai 










perished. 


Cook's daim to have fore 


stalled Pear 


y was il Ant 


credited 




ud he 


was given 


> rapturous 






1 scientific opinion in 


England and 




™a more reserved. 




dually, after a prolonged 


dispute, . 


, special committee 


of tbe ti 


iniveraity of 


Copenhagen, 



PEASANT— PECAUT 



i Lai. >af0uu, 



FBiUnr (O. Fr. taynnl. Mod. faym 

bekuifuig lo tbe fifw orcouDtiy; d. "pigin j,i counirynian 
or mstic, eitbei vroikiiig for Qtben, or, mor? ipecificillv, owDin| 
DC natinc md mikiDi by hii own labour ■ imjiU plot ol (round. 
Tliou^ a word of ool very ilriet ipplkition, il U now (lequenlly 
uicd o[ tbe ninl population oi luch counttin u Fnnu, where 
the Und a chiefly held by snull holdera, " peaiant prDprietor^." 
(See Aluxthemts and Metayacc). 

ftABE. m««BP (i;67-iSs8). the foundcl of a famoui 
induHrial Quakn family in the noclb of England, was born at 
Dariinfton on the jisi of May 1767, hl> fiihec, JoKph Peaie 

zeiired from thia buunen Edward PeaH made the acquainiance 
of Geor^ Stephenson, and with him took a prominent pan in 
cofutructing the railway between Stockton and Darlington. 
He died at Darlington on the jiit of July 1858. Hit lecond 
SOD, Joaeph Peue lijgr'^l')- "bo auiued bii lather in bii 
railway enterprites, was M.P. {or South Durham from iBst t» 
l&4t, being the fint Quaker to Kit in parliament. He vtl 
iateresled in c^lieriea, quarries and ironstone mines in Durham 

factorcs; and be was aclive in educational and philanthropic 
work. AnoLber son, Heniy Peue (iSoj-igSi), wa> M.P. for 
Soulb Durham from iSjT <<> 1865. Like all the memben of 
bii (amily be was a nipportec of Ihe Peace Society, and in its 
interests he visited the emperor Nicholas of Russia just before 
the outbreak of tbe Crimean War, and later the emperor ol the 
French, Napoleon Ol. 

Jo«ph Pease's eldot ion, Sir Joseph Whilwell PttM (iBiS- 
iqoi), was made X buosct in 1883. He wa* M.P, lor South 
Dnrbani fnm 1865 to i83i and far Ihe Barnard Caitle division 
of Durfaunfrora iSSj to iqoj. His elder son, Sir Alfred Edward 
Pea^ (b. 1857), who succeeded to tbe baronetcy, became famous 
u a boDlet o( big ^me, and was M.P. for Vork from i38s to 
1891 and for the Cleveland division of Yorkshire from i8q; to 
1901. A younger son, Joseph Albert PeiM (b. i860), entered 
parliament in i8gi, and in 190S became chief Liberal whip, 
lieing advanced to Ilie cabinet at cbasctUoi of the ducby of 

AaHbei ion ol Joieph Pease wu Arthur Pease (1837-1898), 
member ol parliaineBt from iSSo 10 iBSj atul again from 1895 
(o 189S. Hi* son, Herbert Pike Pease (b. 1867), M.P. foe 
Darliiilon 1S9S-1910, was one of the Unionist Whips. 

nt Diana el E4mBri Pan wen edited by Sir Alfred PeaK In 

PUT (poBibly connected with Med. Lai. feiia, ttcia, piece. 
ultimately ol Celtic ori^i d. 0. Celt, fil, O. Ir. fit, Welsh fiU, 
DOftioD). a product of deayed vegeutioo found in the form of 
ly parts of the wodd. The a 






.of be 



ie United States »,ooo,ooo 
Bcre^ Tbe plants which give origin to thescdeposils are mainly 
aquatic, including reeds, rushes, sedges and mosvs. Sfkagnitm 
b present in most peats, but in Irish peat Thocumilnm lanugina- 
nm predominates. It seems that the disinlegration of Ihe 
vegetable tissues is eHected partly by moist atmiepheric oiida. 
liofi and partly by anaerobic bacteria, yeasts, moulds and fungi, 
in depmions containing fairly still but not stagnant water, 
which is retained by an impervious bed or underlying sinli. 
As decomposition proceeds the products become waterbgged 
and link to the bottom of the pool; in the courM of time the 
diposils attain a considerable thickness, atul the lower layers, 
under the superincumbent pressure of the water and bter 
deposits, are gradually compressed and carbonised. The most 



ual ti 



npeiati 






relou 



between laliludes 4^ N. and 45° S. 
Peal varies from a pale yellow or brown fibrous substance, 
mpKned hay. <»ntaIidD| coiupicuauB pUnl 



»yi*n-H»%. 

land, with lesser 
E specific gravity 



reached recourse 
are allowed to 
ing occasionally 



icacid tower, 
ilphale which 

rrcial akohsl. 



4vd. In another 



d by A. MDnia 

. Nynmn, Put 
linei ol Canada. 
nationalist, 
SalieideB<im, 
laalorat SiHe*, 
lUnluitboiitjr. 



32 



PECCARY— PECK 



He wu ciMiequtnlly compelled (a reiign hii pastorale, *Dd for 
(ome ycus occupied bimseU by uipng Ibe doimi of * liberal 
ChrisEianity. Id i87g he conducEed a general inKpection of 
primary education lor the French govemmtnl, aod levi 
limiLirmi^uiit followed. His fame chielly luti ir. his succes 

ceaseless toiL He died on Ihe jist of July tS^. 

A Himmary of hit educalioml vlen ii given in his Public Eii 
Urn o>id /Jolwiai Life (1897)- 

PBCCART. the name of the New World rrpmentitiva 
the swine {Suidiu:) of Ihc E.hembphcre.ol which they conilil 
lbe<ub-[*DiiiyZ>Kiil>JuHu[orrii(»]iitii«}. (See 
■nd SwlNI.) 

The teeth of the peccaries differ from those of the typical Old 
World pigs (Sm), numerically, in waniinglhe upper outer incis. 
and the anterior premobr on each sidE of each jaw, the dent 
c. 1, p. I, m. 1, total ]8. From IboM of 1 
5iiinae. the upper canines, or tusks, difli 
dowDWarda, nol outwwxii 1 



The Collared Peccary (Piial)lti lajaia). 
upwards; these being very sharp, with cutting hinder edges. 



slightly curved backwards. 1 
series, gradually increasing in 
molars having squire four-( 
much more complex than in 



Tithe first to the last: the 

rowns. The stomach is 

n the true pigs, almost approacking 

:a(arsal bones, which are completely 
nited at their upper ends. On the 
and tilth) outer Iocs are equally 
« the hiod-fool, although the inner 



small, c 



landed, disk-lil 



d there ii 



.ernal 



appearance of a ta. 

Peccatlcs,Hhich range IromNewMeiico andTeias to Patagonia, 
are represented by two main types, of which the £nt is the 
coUued peccary, Dv-iHyUi (or rafsisu) lajacu, which baa an 
alen^ve range in South America. Generally it is found singly 

not inclined to attack oilier animals or human beings. Its 
colour is dark grey, with a white or whitish band passing across 
tie tbesi from shoulder to shoulder. The length of the head 
and body is about 36 in. The second form is typified by the 
white-lipped peccary or wairi, D. (or T.) labiaias, or pecarit 
representing the sub-genus Olidoiui. Typically it fa rather 
larger than the collared species, being about 40 in. in length, 



irth. 



farther north than Cnatemala, or south ol 
met with in large droves of from £f ty to a '. 
ore pugnacious di^mition tbaa tbe forn 



ct appear to produce more tl 



1 peccaries relenble to the modem genus 

in the caverns and superficial deposit ol South America, 

It in the earlier formations. Thb, coupled witb tb* 

?nce ol earlier types in North America, indicates that the 

is a northern one. Of the eitinct North American 

ics, the typical Dkulylcs occur in the PHoccncwhile the 

IE BolMriolaliij, which has tusks of the peccary type, 

imalcs in ths structure of its cheek-teeth to tbe European 

ic genus among the S^iniu. From this it may be inferred 

he ancestral peccaries entered America in the Upper 

me. Plalyimia is an aberrant type which died out in 

the PlcisiocenE. (R.L.*) 

FECHUH. KARL PREDBIK (ifio-tToe), Swedish poUtldu 

id demagogue, son of the Hobteln minister at Stockholm, was 

educated in Sweden, and entered t: 



>ihera 



jsbyb. 



type far ezallcma of the corrupt and egoistic Swedish parlia- 
mentarian of the final period of Ihe Frihetstiden [see Sweden: 
Hillary); be received for many years the sobriquet of " Genetal 
' ' RUisdag." Fechlin first appears prominently in Swedish 



e the "Hats" from impeachmc 

ccluded from power by their forn 

*echlin*s expulvon from the 1 






: Enraged 11 
■ friend, the ■■ 
3 following Riksdag] . 



procured Pi 

In 1769 Pecniin soia ine " tiats " as De naa lormeriy sola toe 
largely instrumental in preventing Ihe pro- 
jected indispensable reform ol the Swedish constitution. During 
ion of 1771 he scaped from Stockholm and kept 
the background. In i^&t, when the opposition 
lavus III. was gathering strength, Pechlin reappeared 
in the Riludng as one of the leaden of the malcontents, and Is 
' have been at tbe same time in tbe pay of the Russian 
Id 1 789 he was ooe of the depuiio whom Giutavus III. 
ider lock and key till he had changed the goverDmeoE 
emi-absolute monarchy. It is fairly certain that Pechlin 
tbe bottom of the plot for murdering Custavus b 1791. 
On the eve of the assassination (March 16) the principal 
coDSpiniots met at hb house lo make tbeir final preparations 
' " icusi the form of govemmeoE which should be adopted 
lie king's death. Pechlin undErtook to crowd tbe fatal 
rrade with accomplices, but look care not to be there 
personally. He was arrested on the i7thol March, but DOihiDg 
'iGnite could ever be proved against bim. Nevertbclen ha 
as condemned to imprisonment in tbe fortien of Vubeis, 
bEre he died four years laicr- 
^^ R. N. Bain. CuUni ///. and til CntmfvrwKi (Londao, 



•905). 



(R. N. B.) 



PBCBORA, a river of N. Russia, rising Ui Ibe Drab, almott 
in 61° N., in the government of Perm. It flows W. for a short 

'bout 66' !□' N. It then describes a double loop, to N. and 
Jt S., and after that resumes its N. course, finally emptying 
nlo the Gulf of Pechora, situated belw.xn tbe White Set ud 
±e Kara Sei. Its total length is 970 m. At Its mouth it formt 
in elongated delta- Although IroEen in its upper reaches lor 
190 days in the year and for ij8 days in its lower reaches, it 
3 navigable thniughoul Che greater part of Iti courae. Its 
Irainage baun covers an aies ol 117,100 sq. m. Tbe principBl 
.ributaries are, on the right, the Ilycb and the Va, and on tb 
eft the lihma. the Tsylma and the Sula. 

PECK, a dry measure of capacity, Espedatly nird for |niD. 
[t eontaini B quarts or a gallons, and is ) of a bnthcL TtA 



PECKHAM— PECORA 33 

impoul peck ooUiD* S54-S4> cob. la., In Ibe Unilal Sutet PBCOCK (or Pucoci), RBOIHALD (c. ijqs-t. Mte), Eogliih 

of America U?'C cub. in. The word is in M.E. fii, and pnlate and wiil«, was piobably bom in Wain, and wu edu- 

■ [osnd laliniatd aa ptccMm or ^ia. In Hed. Lat. an lound catcd at Orid College. Oitaid. Having been ordained prieu 

tii^imms. " mfluuia fnunentaria/' and ^attUt " inensura in 1421, he aecurcd a maatenhip in London in 14^1, and soon 

" (Du Cange, Giou. j.n.). Tbese worda Bcem to be became prominent by hia altadca upon \bt religious poaitioD 

iiilh tbe Fi. fittltr, topeck, of a bird, and thi< would of Ihe LoUarda, In 1444 he became biifaop of St Aaapb. and 

identify Ihe word with " prck," ■ variant ol " pkk," a lap 01 aii yean later blihop ol Chichester. He was in adherent of 

tinike of Ibe beak, especially tued o( the action of a biid in the houieof Lancaslerandin 1454 became a Die mbcr of the privy 

ticking up grain 01 other food. The sense-developinnit in thii council. In attacking the LoUirds Pecock put forward trligious 

cuekvery obscure, and the name of tbe measure i* found much viewi tal in advance al hit age. Heauerted thai the Sciiplures 

earlier than " peck " as ■ vatiant [oim of " pick." were not the only Handaid of light and wrong; he quetlioned 

PECKHAM, JOBa (d. iiQi). ucbblshop of Canierbuty, was lome of the aitides of Ihe cteed and the inliUibihty of the 

probaUy a native of Suuei, and received his euly education Cfauich^ he wished " hi deer witte diawe men into conseme of 

from the Cluniac monkl of Lewea. About iijo he joined the irewe [eilh otherwise than hi Ere and twerd 01 bangemenL " and 

Franciscan order and studied in th^ Oxford convent. Shortly in general he eiallcd the authority of leatoo. Owing to these 

alierwaids be proceeded to the university of Paria, where he views the archbishop of Canterbuiy .Thomas Bourchiet, ordered 

look his degm Di>der St Bonaventure and became regent in his writings to be examined. This was done and be was found 

tbeolosy. Fof many yean Peckham taught at Paris, coming guilty of heresy. He was removed from the privy council and 

inte contact with the greatest icbolaia of the day, among others he only saved hJTTHflf from a painful death by privately, 

St Tboma* Aquinas. About 1370 be relumed lo Oxford and and then publicly (at St Paul's Croaa. Dec. 4, I4j;), icaounc- 

taufht there, being elected in 1375 provindal miniater of the ing his opinions. Pecock, who bag been called "tfie only 

FranciHina in England, but be was soon aflerwardi called great English Iheologiaa of the ijth cestuiy," was then 

IS Rome aa later ntri ftlaiii, or theological lecturer in the forced to le^gn bis bishopric, and wa* removed to Tliomey 

■dnls of the papal palace. In I i;q be relumed to England as Abbey in Cambridgeshire, where he doubtless temalned until hia 

archbiibop of Canterbuty, being appointed by the pope on the death. The bishop's chief work is the famous fUprasor of 

rejection of Robert Bumell, Edward I.'s candidate. Peckham ettr-mndi nwfiiif [blaming] s/ tia Cletpt. which was issued 

was always a slienlioua advocate of the papal power, especially about 1455. In addition to its great importance in the hialory 

as sbown in the council of Lyons in 1174- His enthronement of the LoUard movement the Repraior has an exceptloDal 

in October 1379 marks the bcgiiming of an important epoch interest as a model of the English of tbe lime, Pecock being 

in Ibe history of the English primacy. Its characteristic note one of the first writers to use tbe vernacular. In thought and 

wu an insistence on discipline which oSended contemporaries, style alike il ia the work of a man of icaming and ability. 
Pedtham'a leal was not tempered by discernment, and he ed tolheedilion cJ Ihe Jle^tier 

had little gift at aymuthy or imagination. His first act on ■■ Bold Striei in I860, Pecock'a 

™«l in Er^iand -„ « call a council at Re^, which met in ■^J.^'^itt^'^^M^ 

July I J7» Its mam object was ecclesiastical reform, but the pro- „h„ ,„j „„ " [ and tbe Ftintr 

viiioa thai a copy of Magna Carta should be hung m all cathedral are eiunt in maouiciipl. Hit 

and coDegiale churchea seemed to the king a political action, n the manuKcipI in the libiaiy 

aad parliament declared vmd any action of thil council fiVZi- otbL ifijoT"'' ''"' 

[oacliing DO Ihe n^ power. Nevertheless Peckhom'j relation* _,-„,_., , ,,,,,. .^'\ . ' 1 j ■ 

■itb Ibe king were often cordial, and Edward called on him for PECORA (plural of Lat. p«u,. atUe), a term employed-m a 

bdp a brining order into conquered Wales. The chief note •""« restricted «nse-m pbce of the oldn title Ruminantia, 

ol bis actlvily waa, however, cenolnly eecleiuaalicaL The f designate the group of ruminaUng arliodactyle urwulates 

crime of " pluraLty," the holding by one cleric of two or more "^™°"^. *>> o"™' '^'^: goals, antelopes, deer, giraffes, &c 

beoefico, was especially attacked, aa also clerical absenteeism ^ The leading charactera.ics of the P«ora are given in some 

and ignorance, and laxity in the monastic life. Peckham'. ^^ "• Ibe article A.ttod.ctyl* (e-..); but n u newssary to 

main^riNmnit -as > minnte syuem of " visllation," which he •""'l* '= • '"" "f ""« bcre. Pecora, or true ruminants *1 

used with a frequency hitherto unknown. Dispute, resulted, 'bey nay be convemently called, have complex .tom«hs and 

ud on some pobts Peckham gave way, but his powers as papal '^'T "■= ""'■ ""^ """ °° upper inctsor teeth; and the lower 

Icffle complicated matters, and he did much lo atrengthen canmes are approximated 10 the outer mcisors in such a manner 

Ihe court of Canterbury at the eq«nse of the lower courts. """■ the tiree mcisors and the one canine oi the two sides 

■nie famous quarrd with St Thomaj of Cantilupe, bishop of coUecUvely form a conUnuous semicircle ot lour pairs ol nearly 

Hereford aroe out of sindlar causes. A more a\tiaclive^de 'i''<^ '«tb. In the cheek-teeth Ihe component columns are 

«i Peckham's career b hi. aflivity aa a writer. The numerous creKenl-shaped, constituting the »^"|-il 'JT*. In the fore- 

Banusciipls of his works to be found in the libraries o( Italy, bmbs the bones corresponding to the third and fourth tneUcar- 

Endand and Fiance, lalify to his industry as a philosopher P^j[ "b' P'tf '™t "f f"sed into a cannon-bone; and a umilir 

ai comioenUtor. In philosophy he represents the Franciscan condition obtain, m the c^ of the correspondmg met. ™ls 

■cbool whidi attacked the teaching of St lliomas Aquinas ^ 'bt hind-hmbs. There is generally no sagittal crest to the 

CO the " Unity of Form." He wrote in a quaint and eUborate ''"^i "••^ 'be condyle of Ihe lower jaw Is transversely ebngated. 

»k « Kientifie, scriptural and moral subjects and engaged Another general, although iwt universal characlmstic of the 

>a much eontioversy in defence of the FrandKan nde and P«o™ " "b" presence of smiple or coin plea appendages oo the 

mclke. He waa "an excellent maker of songs," and his forehead commonly known as horns. In a lew eusting speaes, 

hynm. are characteriied by a lyrical tenderness which seems '"Ch aa Ihe musk-deer and the walcr-deer, these appendages 

■Tpieally Francicaa. Printed examples of his work as com- "= .b«nt, and they are biewise locking ,n a large number 

Deotalai ud hymn writer re^iectivdy may be found in the "i e"^" members of the group, m fact 'n aU "« ailieroaa. 

nmtmlMM IriMM «din«„ (Paris, iju), and his offiee (or Tbey are, therefore, a speaab«d fealure, which baa only recenUy 

Trail, Sunday ia the " unrefotmed " breviary. attained its full developmcnU 
The chM aatheiity on Peckham ai archbidiop of Canterbury, These hom> present several distinct stractural lype^ which may 

■ ihe Sttiamm frtlrij /ilkimu PetMkam. edited by C Trice beclaHi6eda^tollowJ^— , , . ,.,... . 
Mania lor tbe Rolls Series (London, iMj-iMj). * ■ympathetic I. The BmpleMtyw u thai of the elraffe, in which^three bop^ 

^bkIci iwiMrtiei (Lyons. 1615. 16H)- See also the' article by •eparate from the underiyinE bone, and cpvenfd during life with 

C L King^ixd in DkL ft'al «»*., and WUkb's Cotalia murnat (km, occupy the front surface of the pkuU. , The suminm of the 

■ -. ."»^| . -J-, * CE.O'lf.) hind pair are wmnHuited by bnally ban In Ihe ertioct 



34 PECORA 

S jm l k t r l nm Aam an too ptin of tuch aiwDdiLteBi ot wUch tbe 
bindcf iiT UTfVAiid wen probably covtfcd durinff life either with 
■Un «c Udn Mrn. Ib tbe (inB« tbc Kpantion ^ tbe bonu Irom 
the ikull mr b« ■ defenente duractcr, 

II. In the AiUtic miinlju deer we Had w pair of ikin-covend 
bonii. or '^pedi dee ,' correapODdinK to the paired homa of tbe 



Dr Gadow b thai calm and Ian 
age. The Bmdtu are thua bniu| 
L the American prongbuck (tbe di 



.— Hc«l ot SamCK Dor (Cant ulumbiirilni). ihowlas 



lodaiy o uta row t ba, at fint covered 

K BEDWth ol a rini of booe at the bu 

iiially drve up aod Ipava bacT boa 

the muntjac the bare boiiy part, oi 

ji a' inu^ dead 'bo« 
e coiuequeatly ibcd at 

■lumal becamea past It* pnme, they aie larger than tba 
BDT8. The perioaical thcdding ii alao nnxHary in order 

an confined to the malca. 

III. The third type of horn ii pcaenled by the 
pronirbuclk or pr — ^ — ' — ■-:-l *. . __(.__ 

'npUceStahinft 

ahed and renewed, although tj 

akui to hair La itruclure, thui ■uncatioff amnity witi 

aunikOUDiLng the firafle'i bonu. Femaie proogbudc hi 



ii imaU Ja prDpoii.ivii ^v 

■t the evpeiue ol the pcdici 
Uke the SiameK deer {if > 

dangeraui; aod the intle 



fallow of 



AuUiRof 

-two-lobed 
miaJmaied. 



which were antied with « very 
. HdlaMlunum waa aiau^ 
irnkaa tkulL Inun tbe PtiocfM 
IomIc. In ibacqiiaUjr Urii 



PECXJRA 

Muihew then, however. Ikil tin ikdttoii ol 



deer. Agiin, tlK 
4 « Ivn number 
tHigbuck, thereby 

il gl the •kclewii. 



ltd Uirycaia u 
QBgbiick In rveiy 
buck, u (nKtope 



leltB view JTrn- 
iQnl^ipendeBn, 



type ctuiaclefinic tA AnHrncan dnr — with an ■nlilDpirw Type of 
■Ku1[, tkeletDD ftod leelh in JJrrycodia ia a m«1 inltrnliDf and 
unexpected feature. Mtrjcodus wai named many yran ago by 

' aa Cturjx. lo nWh Bfiutoiilmii icemi to be allieif. 
* dlacoveiy o( the tVeliton of tbe ^ 



d Ba Ciiaryr, lo wTucli Blastomays mma to be allkd 

itai EUL the dlacovety of the "'"' "' " '"" "" — '^"' *~ 

Mi Mallhew waail poaublc t. , , 

the aflanilfea of thia remarkable ruminant- 

AnlUeapndai.—'&v many modem wiiien the American proni- 
buck, pninKhom « ^' anKfope." alone lorming the genua AxtiH. 

type ala family — AnlUata^ridttc. The chatacleriilk of lh» iamily 

leelh are laU-croviiEd (hypxtdoiitj, and lateral faoofi are wanting 

Bavidar, — Lasily. we have the great family of hollow-hDmed 
ruminanif or Brnidat. in which the homa (preHnt in the main et 
Icaat di all the eiiitin^ ipeciea) lal« the form of umple non-deciduoua 
bolkiw vbeath* nnwmg upon bony corea. At a rule the molart 
ue tall-CTOwned (hypHxlDntl. Utnally only one orihre lo Ihe 
lachrynui canal, uiualed inside Ihe rim ol the orbit, Ijch^miJ 

moteoilen ate represented by Ihe hoofa ilone. njpportcd fronetiiree 
by a very rudimenlaiy ikeleton, conaisling of mere irregular noduls 
ot bone. Lower endi of the lateral metacarpals and metaiarsli 
never preseni. Call-bladder almoit always present. Placenta 

The BohIiii form a mo9t eitensive family, with membeti widely 
distributed throughout the Old World, with Ihe exception of the 
Auuialian nsion; but in Amerka Ihey aie len nvmerous, and 
eonhoed lo the Arctic and norihcm lempente regions, no speciea 
hcing iit^geiKHU dtfaer to South or Central America. The home 
of Ihe fatmly was evidently the Old World, >hen» a unall number 

now Bcrin; Strait. Il has already 
Cfnidat oruinaled in. the northern ci 
and il has been su^gesEcd thai the 

of the Ibsvyi^'ao African origin of 



36 



PECS— PEDANT 



muit for the present be sujipended. ^ For the various generic of simple working people, who, apart from their peculiarity. 

tjjes^see Bovidab, and the special artKles referred to u^e£ that ^ave a good repuUUon; but their avoidance of profeiaional 

** \ • / medical attendance has led to severe criticism at inquests on 

Pics (Ger. Panfkircken), a town of Hungary, capital of chUdrcn who have died for want of iL 

the country of Baranya, 160 m. S.S.W. of Budapest by rail. PEDAOOGUB, a teacher or schoolmaster^ a term usuaUy now 

Pop. (i9oo),42,a5i. It Ues on the outskirts of the Mecsek Hills, appUed with a certain amount of contempt, implying pedantry, 

and is composed of the inner old town, which is laid out in an dogmatism or narrow-mindedness. The Gr. reuiayuyif («uf . 

almost regular square, and four suburbs. Pfe» is the see of a boy. AYcnrAj, leader, fty^w, to lead), from which the English 

Roman Catholic bbhop. and its cathedral, reputed one of the >^ord is derived, was not strictly an instructor. He was a 

oldest churches in Hungary, b also one of the finest medieval slave in an Athenian household who looked after the personal 

buildings in the country. It was built in the nth century in safety of ^^ »»» of the master of the house, kept them from 

the Romanesque style with four towers, and completely restored *»d company, and took them to and from school and the 

ini88i-i89i. In the Cathedral Square is situated the 5ac«tf«m, gymnasium. He probably sat with his charges in scbooL The 

a subterranean brick structure, probably a burial-chapel, dating boys were put m his charge at the age of six. The vaiiayury^', 

from the end of the 4th or the beginning of the 5th century, being a slave, was necessarily a foreigner, usually a Thradan or 

Other noteworthy buildings are the parish church, formeriy a Asiatic The Romans adopted the paedagogiu or pedagogus 

mosque of the Turkish period; the hospital church, also a former towards the end of the repubhc He probably took sonw part 

mosque, with a minaret 88 ft. high, and another mosque, the »» the instruction of the boys (see Schools). Under the empire, 

bbhop's palace, and the town and county halL Pto has the pedagogus was specifically the instructor of the boy slaves, 

manufactories of woollens, porcelain, leather and paper, and ^bo were being trained and educated in the household of the 

carries on a considerable trade in tobacco, gall-nuts and wine, emperor and of the rich nobles and other persons; these boys 

The hills around the town are covered with vineyards, which lived together in a paedagogium, and were known as ptten 

produce one of the best wines in Hungary. In the vicinity are paedagogiani, a name which has possibly developed into 

valuable coal-mines, which since 1858 are worked by the Danube " P^se " (q.v.). 

Steamship Company. PEDAL CLARINET, a contrabass instrument invented in 

According 10 tradition P6cs existed in the time of the Romans "891 by M. F. Besson to complete the quartet of clarinets, as 

under the name of 5<>mp/a«fl, and several remains of the Roman the contrafagotto or double bassoon completes that of the 

and early Christian period have been found here. In the oboe fanuly; it is constructed on pracUcaUy the same principles 

Frankish-Gcrman period it was known under the name of as the clarinet, and consisU of a tube 10 ft. tong, in which cylin- 

Quinque ccclesiae; its bishopric was founded in 1009. King dncal and conical bores are so ingeniously combined that the 

Ludwig I. founded here in 1367 a university, which existed acoustic principles remain unchanged. The tube is doubled up 

until the battle of Mohics. In 1 543 it was taken by the Turks, twice upon itself; at the upper end the beak mouthpiece stands 

who retained possession of it till 1686. out like the head of a viper, while at the tower a metal tube, in the 

PBCTOIIAL, a word applied to various objccU worn on the *bape of a U with a wide gloxinea-shaped bell, is joined to the 

breast (Ut. pectus) ; thus it is the name of the ornamental plate wooden tube. The beak mouthpiece is exactly like that of the 

of metal or embroidery formerly worn by bishops of the Roman other clarinets but of larger size, and it is furnished with a single 

Church during the celebraUon of mass, the breastplate of the or beaUng reed. There are 13 keys and a rings on the tube, and 

Jewish high priest, and the metal plate phced on the breast of the fingering is the same as for the B flat clarinet except for the 

the embalmed dead in Egyptian tombs. The " pectoral cross," eight highest semitones. The compass of the pedal clarinet ii 

a small cross of predous metal, is worn by bishops and abbots as follows: — 
of the Roman, and by bishops of the Anglican, communion. 

The term has also been used for the more general " poitrel " or Notation— 
" pcitrel " (the French and Norman French forms respectively), 
the piece of armour which protected the breast of the war-horse 
of the middle ages. 

PECULIAR, a word now generally used in the sense of that 

which soldy or exdusivdyb^ ^h^ instrument is in B flat two octaves bdow the B flat 

fatic of, an individual; hen« strai^e, odd, qu^r. The Ut ^^. ^^ ^^ . .^ j^ ^ transposing instrument, the musk 

pecutuxru meant pnmarUy " bdonging to pnvate P^Perty," ^ ^^ttek in a key a tone higher than thkt of the 

and IS formed from puuhum pnvate property Particukrly eoir^osition, and in ord<i to avoid ledier lines a whole ocUv« 

the property given by a paUrfamtluxs to his children, or by a highVbesidk The tone is rid, and fuU except for the lowest 

master to his slave, to enjoy as their own. As a term of ecdesias- ~*;^ wk.vu ,^ ,.««^{^«ki„ . i;*f u «»..»». ;ZZ»»k*'^ k..* -.«-.w 

Ucal law " peculiaV " is appUed to those ecclesiastical districts. °*^'«' ^**^^ are unavoidably a htUc rough m quahty, but mudi 

UV4U WW P«.wii«. w Pi/*.»^ , •,.* more sonorous than the corresponding notes on the double 

parishes chapeU or churehcs, once num^^^ ^^^^^^ The upper register re^bl« the dudumeau legistef 

"V^u^'T^"' ^^* ^-J^T'' A K -^U • -^nn of the B flat dariMt, ^ reedy and sweet The inst^oit 

which hey were situated, and were subjecljo a jun^c^^^^^^^^ is used as a fundamenul bass for the wood wind at Kndkr 

" pecuhar to themsdves They were introduced ongmaUy^ ^^y ^„^ j^ has also been used at Covent Garden to accompei^ 

^. r"lT" ^^^^ authonly, in order to limK the poweni ^ ^^^ ^ p^ ^ ^^^^^ ^ ^ Nibdungtn RingT^ 

of the bishop in his diocese. There were royal peculiars, e^. ^^ * • 

the Chapel Royal St James's, or St George's Windsor, peculiars Many attempts have been made since the beginning of the 

of the archbishop, over certain of which the Court of Peculiars iQth century to construct contra clarinets, but all possesseoinhereat 

exerdscd jurisdiction (see Arches, Court of), and peculiars fa"'5« »"<• »«vc been discarded (see Batyphone). A coatrabass 

^r w:ci.«^ -«^ ^-.— A.-^ rk...»\ tu- :..m<.<4:^:^» »1.a rv«*«: clannet in F, an ocuve below the basset horn, constructed by 

of bishops and deans (sec Dean). The jurisdiction and pnvi- ^,,^^ ^j g^^,^ i„ ,8^ ^^ ^^ l^,j^^ considered suocessflZ 

leges of the peculiars were abolished by statutory powers but it differed in design ^m the pedal clarinet. (K. S.) 
given to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, by the Ecclesiastical 

Commissioners Acts 1836 and 1850, by the Pluralities Act 1838, PEDANT, one who exaggerates the value of detailed emdillon 

the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction Act 1847, and other statutes. for its own sake; also a person who delights in a di^lay of the 

PECULIAR PEOPLE, a small sect of Christian faith-healers exact m'ceties of learm'ng, in an excessive obedience to tbeoiy 

founded in London in 1838 by John Banyard. They consider without regard to practioU uses. The word came into Englttli 

themselves bound by the literal interpretation of James v. 14, in the latter part of the i6th century in the sense of schoolmaster, 

and in cases of sickness* seek no medical aid but rely on oil, the original meaning of Ital. pedante, from which it b derived, 

prayer anc^ nursing. The community is in the main composed The word is usually taken, to be an adaptation of Gr. 



@=^s 



Real Sound»~ 



tval 



to tacfa. Otben connect « 
(Ut. t*'. [>»0. oF in vsiur 

PSDEM, ALBZANDEB ((. [6» 
the kading ^nxs in the Cove 
Auchindoich, Ayrahirc, aboul 
Glueow Oi " ■ 



PEDEN— PEDIPALPI 

ith in O. lul. ftian. to tnmp about 



37 



ulhidloltav 



EjccIiDoit Aft ia i66j 
tninpnB cooifort ind succour 10 d 
»ny narrowly tjciping ciptuce H 
i6t3 while holding ■ convcnikcic at 
bt ibc privy council lo 4 ynis lad 
ibc Bib Rock ud a (lutba ij 1 
EdinbuTsb. In Dcccrnbcr 1678 h 
KnicDced to banufanKnt lo the Air 
pinjr ni libcnted in London, and 



nn) niinaler o( New Luct 
lispamh under Middkion'i 
1 he Hindered far and wide. 



untry ai 



north o! Irel 



if hii tifc tielweti 



Hial 



1! spent 



died in 16&6. worn out by hard^ip >nd privgiioo. 

S« A. Srarfhe, Un ■/l*c CcttnaiU. ch. iiiiv. 

PDEBSBM, CHBimEKK (c i4Sa-isst), Danish wriler, 
known u the " Calber of Dani^ lileiature, " was 1 canon o[ Ihe 
calbedral oi Lund, and in 1510 went lo Pars, where he laak his 
nuler'i degree in 1515 In Paris he edited Ihe proverbs of Peder 
Lule and [i;i4l ibc /riilsru tfauics of Siio Ciairmalicus. 
He dowed sign) of Ibc ipiril ol relonn, aueiiing thai the 
pispeb should be translated into Ihe vernacular so thit ihe 
CODiinon people might understand. He worked at a contmuation 
«l the hiltory ol Saio Gramma ticus. and hecame secretary to 
CbriMian II., whom he followed into eiUt in ijij. In Holland 
lie iruslated Ihe New Teslamenl (ijiq) and the Psalon (15J1) 
Inmi the Vulgale, and, becoming a convert 10 Ihe reformed 
opinioD, he bsued several Lutheran tr^c 



Deamrk ii 

paUitbed a Danish version {KiSi 

Uk French romance of Ogier tlie Uane, and 

Charlemagne legends, which is probablr derivi 

Inm the Norwegian KoWtmiiifiini lata. His gn 

Danish vetsioo of Ihe Holy Scriptures, which is k 

u " Cbriaian III 's Bible, " is an importan 

Danish lilerature. It was founded on Luthci 

vatedited by PederPalladius. bishop olZcaliind. 

See C. PeifcTsen'. Bmiti S*ri/«r. edited by C 
B. T. FengH-is vol»..Copmh^en, 1850-1856). 

FESESTAL (Ft. pWtllfli, Hal. pudalillc. foe 
lerm geoefally applied to a support, square 



t-l. piiicHt, tl it pt, tntlptw, fttyt". ^c. It is geneially 
accepteriibaiibewpointtoicoiTuplionolFr, ^dcgrnc, foot 
of a crane, and that the probable reference is lo the marki 
resembling the daw of a bird found in old genealogie) showing 
the lines of descent. Such etymologies as Minshea's ^r detr^, 
by degrees, ot ffre dtpti, descent by the father, are mere 

PBOIMBNT (equivilenla. Cr dirii, Lai. JaslitnM, Ft. 
pentmi), in classic irchilecture Ihe Uiangulii-shaped portion a! 

roof behind it. The projecting mouldings of the cornice which 



lolliei 
ol the 



ilplure. The pediment in classic 
othe gable in Gothic ■rcbiteclure, i 
itch. It was employed by the Creel 
vt which covered Ihe main building, 






onally, in 



The eaiiiesi English fo 
PEDIPALPI, Arachu 



destroying lis original purpc 
ibe wold i> fcrimrni vr ftremi 
onol" pycimid. " 
• ) related to the splden, ■ 



mplan. 



He 



I a Slain, a 
. Although 



in Syria. Asia Minor and Tunisia the Romans 
rued the cotumiB ol their lemplet ot propylaea on square 
pedestals, in Rome ilulf Ihey were employed only to give 
giealei importance to isolated columns, such as those of Trajan 
lad AaioDiout, or as a piJi»m to the columns employed decor. 
sitvely in the Roman iriumphil arches, Tlie architects of the 






^ived il; 
boul a pedestal, and *i 1h 
divide up and decorate a building in 
I the pedestal wai carried through : 



it of considerable dimensions, the pedestal is 1 j t 
g( the ordinary height of ] lo s It. 

pubokictcal symptoms in man due to the p 
Ifidiali). either on the head (ptikului tapilii). b 
trfirii. or nilituxlorum), or pubes IpriUuliii pw 
FEDiaBEK a genealogical tree, a tabulaislilem 
'ste CuEALOCv) The word 61st appears at th. 
the isth century and takes an eitraordinary vai 



ml of descent 
beginning of 
ely ol lorms. 



lean tailed Pedipalp [ifoUrfs^oeliii t't""")- 

t Amblypygl of w)iich Pkrymu is a commonly cited 
! tactile appendages are eiccedingly long and lish- 
isinlhe tailed division, Ihe Uropygi, of which Tbly- 

'Tbrlyplionui and its allies, however, have a long tactile caudal 
" " the homologue of ihe scorpion's slingi but its eiad 

lown. A third division, theTartarides.asuboidinaie 
group of the Uropygi, contains minute Arachnida diflering 
" Iram Ihe typical Uropygi in having Ihe caudal process 

lad short. Apart from tfes Tatlarides, the Pedipalp 



38 PEDOMETER— PEEBLESSHIRE 

tn Urte or medium-uicd Anchoidi. noctumal in hiUu ud Uwn. tht priodpd quarter, on the vHith of the Eddlolon, ud 
^Mndinf llie diy uoder itono, lop of wand or loouDcd bark. Ibe old on the nonh, the Tweed ii croued by * huidionie Eve- 
Some ipeds ol the Uropygi fTlidypbonidse) i^ bunowi; lod arcbed bridfe. Ftebln it i nolcd haunt of inglen. and tbc 
b the east tbeie is ■ lamily ol Amblypyti, tbe Chanatidae, a[ Royal Compuy a( Atcbeis >)ioot hen periodically loi the silver 
which maoy of tbe Ipecits live in the rtcCECS of deep caves, arrow (ivcn by Ihe burfh. The chiil public buildings are Ihe 
Specimens ol anotha ipeda have been [ound under stones town and county halls, the com achaage, tbe hoepital. and 
between tide marks in the Andaman Islands. The Fcdipalpi Chanibcn Instil ution. The last was once Ihe to»D house of the 
feed upon insects, and like spiders, are oviparous. Tbe egp earlaof March, butwasprescntedloFeeblesbyWilliamChafnbeni 
after bant laid are carried about by the mother, adherinj in a, Ihe publi^er, in 1859. The site o( the castle, which tlood till 
glutinous mass 10 the underside of Ihe abdomen. Ihe beginning of Ihe i8Ih cenluty, is now occupied by the parish 

Pcdipalpi date back to tbe Caibonilenius Period, occurring in church, built in iSS;. OlSt Andrew'! Churrb, founded in 1195, 

depoaits ol that age both in Europe and North America. More- nolhmg remains but the tower, restored by William Chambos, 

over, the two main diviiiani of the order, which were as sharply who was buried beside il in i88j. The thuitb tS the Holy 

diSerenliated then as they are now, have eiisled practically Kood wai creeled by Aleunder HI. in iiiJi, lo eontaiu a 

unchanged tiom that remote epoch, ' ... . . _ 

In spile of the untold ages they have been u exislence, Ihe 

Fcdipalpi are more restricted in range than tbe scotpiona. The provide stones for a new pariril church. Pottioc 

Uropygl are found only in Central and South America and in walls glUI eiisl, and there are also viullcd eel' ~ 

south and easlem Ava. from India and soulh China to the Solo- in the 16th and ijth centuries as hiding<pbces agamti noioer 

mon Islands. The absence of the enliie order from Aliica a an freebooters. The old cross, which had stood fur several years in 

Inleiesling fact. The distribution of the Amblypyff practically the quadrangle of Chambers Initilulion. was restored and 

coverathatoflheUropygi.butinaddiliontheyeitendfromlndia erected in Higb Slreel in 1S45. The induslriet contiK of the 

through Arabia into tropical and toulhem Africa. Both groups nunulactutei of woollens and tweeds, and ol meal and Sour 

possibly of the eilrcme north! and in New Zealand. Very liltle The name of Peebles is said 10 be derived from the ptbylli. or 

can be said with certainly about Ihe dill rib ulion of the Tartar- tcnls, which the Cadeni pitched herein Ihe diytof the Komans. 

ides. They have been recorded from the Indian Region, West Theplace was earlyafavourile residence of the ScoU kings when 

Africa and >uh-Iropiul America. (R. I. P.} they umc id hunt In Etliick forest. II probably received ill 

FBDONEtEH (Lat. fa, foot, and Or. iihpBr, measure], an charter from Aleundei 111., was created a royal burgh in 136; 

apparatus in the form of a watch, wliicfa, carried on the person and was Ihe scene of the poem of Ptblij u Uc Play, ascribed to 

ol a walker, counts the number of paces he makes, and thus Jlmet I. In 1544 Ihe town sustained heavy damage in the 

indicates approiimalely tbe distance travelled. Tlic ordinary eipediiioo led by the tst carl of Hcrlfoid,' alterwaids the 

form hai a diatpbte marked lor yards and miles. The regis- protector Somerset, and in 1604 a brge portion of it utas 

traliODisenectedbytbefallofaheavypendulum,uusedbythe destroyed by fire. Thougli James VI. eitended its charter, 

pcrcusuon of each step. The pendulum is forced back to a Peebles lost its imporiance after the union ol Ihe Crowns. ' 

horiiontal position by a delicate spring, and with each stroke a On the north bank ol the Twceii. one mile west of Prcbtn. sands 

fine-ioothed lalchet-whe*! connected with it is moved round a NcUlpaih Cauk. The ancient peel io*cr diit. probably Irom the 

X'i"«'Jk'!'l«7ia^'Sn4r™rn"'?hf "'''■VuTiTm^^^^ Iro^ wffii ;l'iiS^y°"l°^^ 

mile or other known distance is walked and Ihe indication Cromwell in 1650. The third carl ol Twceddile <i64S-i;ij) Bid 

thereby made on the dial-plalc observed. According as it is 100 "'?''" duke ol Queembcrry in 16S6. The carl of W«my» sue- 

great or too small, the stroke of the pendulum is rfwttened or 'ecdm lo the Neidpaik property in 1810. 

lengthened by a screw. Obviously the pedometer is liiile belter PEEBLESSHIRE, or Tweeddivle, a soutfaem inland county ol 

than an ingenious loy, depending even for rough measuremcnls Scolbnd, bounded N and N.E. by Edinburghshire, E. and S.E. 

on the uniformity ol pace nuunUincd throughout the journey by Selkirkshire, S. by Dumfriesshire, and W. by Lanarkshire. 

measured. lis area is iii,sqq acres or 5478 sq. m. The surface consists 

PEDRO II. {1815-1841), emperor of Braiil, came (0 Ihe throne of a suctoslon of hills, which are highest in ilie south, broken 

in diildhood, hiving been bom on the ind of December iBis, by Ihe vale of the Tweed and the glens formed by its numerous 

and nrorlaimed emnernr in Aoril 1811. uoon the abdication of tributaries. South of Ihe Tweed the highest pt^nts arc Brood 
iw and Cnmall Craig on the confines of Selkirkshire (each 

n Hei^ls (>3;i), Ttahcnna Hill (ngi), Fcnvalla (I'Tt^and 
Ladyurd Hill (1714), and in the norih-west tbe Fentland emin- 
ences of Mount Maw (i75]1, Byrehopc Mount (l7S>) and King 
Seat (ijii). The lowest point above sea-level is on Ihe banks ol 



his lather. He wa 


s declared' 


of fidl age in 


1840. Fi 


« a long 


period few thrones 






and his p 




and beneficent ruli 


! might have endured 


throughoui 


I his life 


but for his want ol 






te the sig 


ns of Ihe 


times. The rising 














of Ihe imper 






justly regauled as 




ory, Ihe high. 


er classes 


had been 


estranged by the en 


lancipation 


oftheshves, 


andallth< 






1 eipressio 


n in a milita 




which in 


November .68? ov 


renhrew the seemingly 


solid edini 


:e of the 


Bruilian Empire in 


afewboui 


». DomPedi 


■OKliredl. 


.Europe, 


and died in Paris 


on the 5th of Dcccmbi 


T iSot. Tbe chief 


events ol his r«gn 


had been 




ie sbves, 






in 1864-70. 


Dom Fed 





. The principal river is Ihe Tweed, and from the fad thai for the 
first 36 m. of ils course ol 97 m, it flows through the soulh of 
the shire, the county derives its illernalive name of Tweeddale. 
Its affluents on Ihe right are the Stanhope, Dnmmeltier, Manor 
and Qua>r;an Ihelell. the Biggar.Lyne, Eddlestone and Leilhen. 

. The North Esk, risiog in Caimmuir, forms the boundary Ene 
n Midlothian and Peeblesshire for about tour miles, 

science and letters. He travelled in the United Suies (1876), at Habbie's Howe, where Allan Ramiay kid Ihe sceoeoltbe 
and ihrice visited Europe (1371-1871, 1876-1877,1886-1880). Cniile Skrpierd. For 4 m. ol its course the South Mcdwin 
PEEBLES, a royal and police burgh and county town of divides (he south-western part of the parish of Linton from 
Peeblesshire. Scotbnd, situated at ihe junction of Eddlcston Unarkihire. Potlmoie Loch.asmallsheet of water i m. north- 
Water with Ihe Tweed. Pop. {1901), 5166. It is 17 m. soutb ol cast ol Eddlestone church, lies at a hcighl of 1000 fl. above Ibe 
Edinburgh by the North British Railway (» m. by road), and sia,andistheon1ylBkeinihccDunty. The dire is in favour with 
is also tbe terminus of a branch line of the Caledonian vstem anglers. III streams being well stocked and 
from Conuiri in Lanarkshire. Tbe burgh coDsisU of Ibe new restrictions being placed on Ibe fishing. 



PEEKSKILU-PEEL, VISCOUNT 



The hU'^dc icmcn i( Rommno (re coojectund, BDiewbM 
[ucilully, to be remaini o[ a RomiD inelhod o( cullivllion. On 

■iidtllhougb ibeyareuid lo hive been dcIuEed by King Anhur 

al CidcRiuir in jio, Ibcy held the diitrict untU Ibe conuilidatioD 

or (he kincdam ifler MiJcoJm It.'* victoiy at Carhao in lolS, 

belon vhlch the lind. consliiitly fauried by Dan«, wu uoml- 

nally Inctudtd in the teniioiy ol Nailhumbria. This iraci of 

ScoUand it cJcoely usociated with the legend ot Uerlia. David I. 

made the diitrict a deaneiy in the atthde«conry of Feeblci, 

and it aJtcrwards fonned part of the dloceM <il Glasgow. 

Toward! the middle of the iiih nniuty li wai placed under 

the jurudiction of two iheriHi, one of whom wai HLtled It 

cooauol a lowerdivuian. red and chocoUiIc marliand nndiloiM- Traqiiair and Ihe other at Peehin. Al Happrew, in the valley 

a nkWlr diYiwn, vokanic rock^ pot^yriiM, tuffi, Sc., whkl. iri <^ ^^' L)'«p "« Engliih delealed Wallace in IJ04. The Scoltiih 

diviBcn.siidHanand mnglonKnici. The <Duit-wm mtmniiy uplinds and Ihe adjoining (oreiU. Engliib armiei occaiionally 

ii b.S^^2l^™ Sll'c"ctar«^ J^u ^ toS'nd ta**^ '""■'^ "" """•'^- *"" '"°" f'^"'"")' "« P"Pl* ""e harried 

bctwen Saariu and OM Red nek. by Iwo irapocunl l.ulii. by Border raiders. Many FasLlei and peels were eiecled in Ibe 

B«h CakHfcmH andxsne and Caibonifemu MmrXoni occur, valley of the Tweed from Ihe Bield 10 Berwick. Seve»1 we» 

■itb niefal bed> ol eoal, timeilHie. iniulom. Gnclay and alum renowned in their day, among Ihem Oliver Caslle (buili 



l^. Oliver Fruer in the reign ol David 1.), Dm: 
ml. upofllh. h,gher g^ Thane's Caslle. and Neidpalh. Thre ■ 
Ihe valtyi. stand the ruins of Drochil CaKle. 



L«eT OM Bed Sandslonc. lies soalh of Lintoi. Much glaiia'l t ™,'™ , " '"f Jt'?," V Vu '' "™"""" 
bouklei cla>,wiih gravel aod sand mis upon Ihe higher ground. Thanes Caslle, and Neidpalh^ Three miles south 



CfiiHtf amd l*imslrici.-~Jbe annual nintaD avenges Irom Morion who wu behesdrd at Edinburgh in ijSi, and the 
Si to «■ in-i Ihe Rieui temperature (or Ihe year is 47 ;* P., building wu never compleied. Uemonis of ihe Covenantcn 
(or January J K* F, and (or July jo* F. The character ot the clmler around TWeedhopeloot. Tweedsha»f», Corehead, Tweeds- 
seal varies considerably, peat, grave] and clay being ail tepre- muir, Talla Linns and other spots, tn the churchyard of 
senled. The low-lying linds consist generally ol rich loam, Twecdimuir is the tombstone of John Hunter, the (Datlyr, 
composed o! sind and clay The larming is pastoral rather than which was retellcred by " Old Mortality " The " men ol Ihe 
arable. The average holding is about no acres of arable land, moss hags " did lillle Aghling in Pceblesihitr, but Manlrose hrH 
wilb pulunge for (ram 600 lo Soo shnp. Roughly speaking, drew nin at Traquair House alter he wis delealed at Philip- 
o«-Gllh of the total area i* under cullivation. Oils ire the haugh on the Yarrow in ifi*;. The plain of SheriOmuir near 
ckiefgninaBd turnips Ihethief root crop. The bill paslutii are Lyne i) Ihe place where the Tweeddale wapinscbaws used to be 
bettersnitedlosbeepthantocattie, but both flocksandherdtire held in Ihe IJth century. The Jacobite risings left the county 
conparatively large. Cheviou and ha! 1 -bred s ire prelcrrtd for unlouched, and since the beginning ol the i^lh century Ihe ihirt 
the grass lands, the heathery ranges being stocked with black- has been more conspicunus in literature than in politics. 

m Ayrshires and shorthon 



. „. J. B. Cuni 
: Sir CeoijT Rcid 



ig Aynhirc. Many o( Ihe horses are Oydesdales bred ^y ProfSLr Vcilrh) (Edjnbutih, 1M4) ; Profwor 

inty. Pig-keeping is on the decline. A(ewacrohBve anif /-Kn o/ife Jmuti* BwJir (Edinburgh. 1S9J) _.._, 

been laid down ai nuneriei and market gardens, and about (Edinbunh. i«9«); Rev W. S. Cmckeii, r*t StM Ctunlr, (Ed. 



„ ^.,_ _ „. Apart from PBBKSKILt. a village of Westchester county, New York, 

agrKolture. the only induslricsare the woollen lacloriesand flour USA., on the E. bank oi the Hudson River, about 41 m. N. 

Bulliat Peebles and Innerleithen. of New York City. Pop. ti«io, censusj, 15,145. It il served 

TheNonbBritish tailwaycrosscsthecounlyinthenonhFrom by the New York Centril & Hudson liver railway, and by 

Leadbum to Dolphinton, and runs down the Eddleslone valley passenger and freight steamboat lines on the Hudson river. 

rmnUadbumtoPeeble!aiidThomidee,whileinlhtsomhihe The village it Ihe home of miny New York business men. 

Caledonian railway connects the county town with Bixgar in At PeekskiU are the Peekikill military academy (1833, doq- 

Unaikihire. seclariinl; St Mary's school. Mount St Gabriel (Proteslanl 

Pspwlmiai and AdmiHiitraHoH.—Jn 1901 the population Episcopd), a Khool (or girls esiabbshed by the sisterhood ot 

Eembeied i;,o«or43 petvins to the K). m. In iijoi one person St Mary; Ihe Field memorial library; St Joseph's home (Roman 

■mkeCaeliconly, 71 Gaelic and English. The chief towns are Catholic); the PeekskiU hospital, and aeveial »aBitori». 

Peebles (pop sj64) and Innerleithen (jiSi) West Linton, on Near Ihe village is the (tale miliiaiy camp, where the national 

Ly»e Water, is a hididay resort. The shire combines wiih guard ot the stale meets in annualencampment. Peekskillha* 

Sdkirkshiie to return one member to parliament, the electors many manulactutes, and Ihe factory products were valued in 

of Peehle* town voting with the county Peeblesshire (orms a 190s al *7.»S'.89J. " increase of 306.7% since i»oo. The site 

4cri(tdain with the Loihians and a sheriH-substitute uis in was letlled early in Ihe 18th century, but the village itsell dales 

■heCDanty lawn- There is a high school in Peebles, and one from about 1760. when !l look lis present name from the ad|acent 

or moniebools in tlie county usually earn grants for secondary creek or "kill," on which a Dutch trader, Jans Peck, of New 

tiocMtioa. York City, had esiablished a trading post. During Ihe lalter 

Hijtory.-Thecounlry wasoriginallyoccupiedbytheCadeni. part ol Ihe War of Independence PeekskiU was an important 

a British tribe, of whom there are many remains in the shape of ouipo^l ol the Conlinental Army, and m Ibe neighbourhood 

camps and sepulchral mounds (in which stone coffins, aies and several small engagements were toughl between American and 

hunnen have been found), while several place-names (such ai British scouling parties. The village wm incorporated >n 1816. 

PttUes. Dalwick and Slobo) also allot their presence The PeekskiU was the country home of Henry Ward Beecher. 

lUnding Moaa near the confluence of the Lyne and Tweed are PBBL. ARTHUR WBLLBSLST PEBU 1ST ViscOUNI 

nppB«d to (omiBemoiate a Cymric chief. The natives were (iSjo- ). Englrsh statesman, youngest son o( the great 

nduced by the Romans, rfjo have Ml Iran* of their military Sir Robert Peel, was bom on Ihe jrd of August 1819. and was 

I* in the bM camp al Lyne. locally known ai Raodal's Walls, educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford. He unaucceasfully 



+0 



PEEL, SIR ROBERT 



contested Coventry in 1863; in 1865 he was elected in the 
UbenI interest for Warwick, for which he sat until his elevation 
to the peerage. In December 1868 he wasappointed parliamentary 
secretary to the poor law board. This office he filled until 187 1, 
when he became secretary to the board of trade, an appointment 
which he held for two years. In 1873-1874 he was patronage 
secretary to the treasury, and in 1880 he became under- 
secretary for the home department. On the retirement of Mr 
Brand (afterwards Viscount Hampden) in 18S4, Peel waselectcd 
Speaker. He was thrice re-elected to the post, twice in 1886, and 
again in 1892. Throughout his career as Speaker he exhibited 
conspicuous impartiality, combined with a perfect knowledge of 
the traditions, usages and forms of the house, soundness of judg- 
ment, and readiness of decision upon all occasions; and he will 
always rank as one of the greatest holders of this important 
office On the 8th of April 1895 be announced that for reasons 
of health he was compelled to retire. The farewell ceremony 
was of a most impressive character, and warm tributes were paid 
from all parts of the house. He was created a viscount and 
granted a pension of £4000 for life. He was presented with the 
freedom of the City of London in July 1895. The public 
interest m the ex-Speaker's later life centred entirely in his some- 
what controversial connexion with the drink traffic. A royal 
commission was appointed in April 1896 to inquire into the 
operation and admmistration of the licensing laws, and Viscount 
Peel was appointed chairman. In July 1898 Lord Peel drew up 
a draft report for discussion, in five parts. Some differences of 
opinion arose in connexion with the report, and at a meeting of 
the commissioners on the i3th of April 1899, when part 5 of the 
draft report was to be considered, a proposal was made to 
substitute an alternative draft for Lord Peel's, and also a scries 
of alternative drafts for the four sections already discussed. 
Lord Peel declined to put these proposals, and left the room 
Sir Algernon West was elected to the chair, and ultimately two 
main reports were presented, one section agreeing with Lord 
Peel, and the other — including the majority of the commis- 
sioners — presenting a report which differed from his in several 
important respects. The Peel report recommended that a 
large reduction in the number of licensed houses should be 
immediately effected, and that no compensation should be paid 
from the public rates or taxes, the money for this purpose 
being raised by an annual licence-rental levied on the rateable 
value of the licensed premises; it at once became a valuable 
weapon in the hands of advanced reformers. 

Lord Peel married in 1862, and had four sons and two daughters 
(married to Mr J. Rochfort Maguire and to Mr C. S. Goldman). 
His eldest son, William Robert Welleslcy Peel (b. 1866), married 
the daughter of Lord Ashton; he was Unionist M.P. for South 
Manchester from 1900 to 1905, and later for Taunton, and also 
acted as Municipal Reform leader on the London Cotmty 
Council. 

PEEL, SIR ROBERT. Bast, (i 788-1850), English statesman, 
was born on the 5th of February 1788 at Chamber Hall, in the 
neighbourhood of Bury, Lancashire, or, less probably, at a 
cottage near the Hall. He was a scion of that new aristocracy 
of wealth which sprang from the rapid progress of mechanical 
discovery and manufactures in the latter part of the i8th 
century. His ancestors were Yorkshire yeomen in the district 
of Craven, whence they migrated to Blackburn in Lancashire. 
His grandfather, Robert Peel, first of Peelfold, and afterwards of 
Brookside, near Blackburn, was a calico-printer, who, appre- 
ciating the discovery of his townsman Hargreaves, took to 
cotton-spinning wit h the spinning- jenny and grew a wealthy ma n. 
His father, Robert Peel (i 750-1830), third son of the last-named, 
carried on the same business at Bury with still greater success, 
in fMirtnership with his uncle, Mr Ha worth, and Mr Yates, whose 
daughter, Ellen, he married. He made a princely fortune, 
became the owner of Drayton Manor and member of parlia- 
ment for the neighbouring borough of Tamworth, was a trusted 
and honoured, as well as ardent, supporter of Pitt, contributed 
munificently towards the support of that leader's war policy, 
and was rewarded with abaronetcy (1800). 



At Harrow, according to the accounts of his contemporaries. 
Peel was a steady industrious boy, the best scholar in the school, 
fonder of country walks with a friend than of school games, 
but reputed one of the best football players. At Christ Church, 
where he entered as a gentleman commoner, he was the first who, 
under the new examination statutes, took a first class both in 
classics and in mathematics. His examination for his B. A. degree 
in 1808 was an academical ovation in presence of a numerous 
audience, who came to hear the first man of the day. From 
his classical studies Robert Peel derived not only the classical, 
though somewhat pompous, character of his speeches and the 
Latin quotations with which they were of ten happily interspersed 
but something of his lofty ideal of political ambition. To his 
mathematical training, which was then not common among 
public men, he no doubt owed in part his method, his clearness, 
his great power of grasping steadily and working out difficult 
and complicated questions. His speeches show that, in addition 
to his academical knowledge, he was well versed in English 
literature, in history, and in the principles of law, in order to study 
which he entered at Lincoln's Inn. But while reading hard be 
did not neglect to develop his tall and vigorous frame, and, though 
he lost his life partly through his bad riding, he was always a 
good shot and an untiring walker after game. His Oxford 
education confirmed his atachmcnt to the Church of England. 
His practical mind remained satisfied with the doctrines of his 
youth, and he never showed that he had studied the great 
religious controversies of his day. 

In 1809, being then in his twenty-second year, he was brought 
mto parliament for the close borough of Cashel, which he after- 
wards exchanged for Chippenham, and commenced his parlia- 
mcntary career under the eye of his father, then member for 
Tamworth, who fondly saw in him the future leader of the Tory 
party. In that House of Commons sat Wilberforcc, Windham, 
Ticiiiey, Grattan, Perceval, Castlcrcagh, Plunkett, Romilly, 
Mackintosh, Burdett, Whitbread, Horner, Brougham, Pamell, 
Huskisson, and, above all, George Canning. Lord Palmerston 
entered the house two years earlier, and Lord John Russell 
three years later. Among these men young Peel had to rise. 
And he rose, not by splendid eloquence, by profound political 
philosophy or by great originality of thought, but by the closest 
attention to all his parliamentary duties, by a study of all the 
business of parliament, and by a style of speaking which owed 
its force not to high flights of oratory, but to knowledge of the 
subject in hand, clearness of exposition, close reasoning, and tact 
in dealing with a parliamentary audience. With the close of 
the struggle against revolutionary France, political progress in 
England was soon to resume the march which that struggle had 
arrested. Young Peel's lot, however, was cast, through h» 
father, with the Tory party. In his maiden speech in 1810, 
seconding the address, he defended the Walchercn expedition, 
which he again vindicated soon afterwards against the report of 
Lord Porchcstcr's committee. It is said that even then his father 
had discerned in him a tendency to think for himself, and told 
Lord Liverpool that to make sure of his support it would be well 
to place him early in harness. At all events he began official 
life in 1810 as Lord Liverpool's under-secretary for war and the 
colonies under the administration of Perceval. In 181 2 he was 
transferred by Lord Liverpool to the more Important but 
unhappy post of secretary for Ireland. There he was engaged 
till x8i8 in maintaining English ascendancy over a country 
heaving with discontent, teeming with conspiracy, and ever ready 
to burst into rebellion. A middle course between Irish parties 
was impossible, and Peel plied the established engines of coercion 
and patronage with a vigorous hand. At the same time, it was 
his frequent duty to combat Grattan. Plunkett, Canning and 
the other movers and advocates of Roman Catholic emancipation 
in the House of Commons. He, however, always spoke on this 
question with a command of temper wonderful in hot youth, 
with the utmost courtesy towards his opponents, and with warm 
expressions of sympathy and even of admiration for the Irish 
people. He also, thus early, did his best to advocate and 
promote joint education in Ireland as a means of rcconcOinf 



PEEL, SIR ROBERT 



4» 



sects and raising the character of the people. But his greatest 
service to Ireland as secretary was the institution of the regular 
Irish constabulary, nicknamed after him '* Peelers," for the 
protection of life and pn^rty in a country where both were 
insecure. His moderation of tone did not save him from the 
violent abuse of O'Connell, whom he was ill advised enough to 
challenge — an affair which covered them both with ridicule. 
In x8x7 he obtained the highest parliamentary distinction of the 
Tory party by being elected member for the university of Oxford 
— an honour for which he was chosen in preference to Canning on 
account of his hostility to Roman Catholic emancipation, 
Lord Eldon lending him his best support. In the following 
year he resigned the Irish secretaryship, of which he had long 
been very weary, and remained out of office till 1821. But he 
atin supported the ministers, though in the affair of Queen 
Caroline he stood aloof, disapproving some steps taken by 
the government, and sensitive to popular opinion; and 
when Canning retired on account of this affair Peel declined 
Loid liverpool's invitation to take the vacant place in the 
cabinet. During this break in his tenure of office he Jiad some 
tlBK for reftectjon, which there was enough in the aspect of the 
pi^tical world to move. But early office had done its work. 
It had given him excellent habits of business, great knowledge 
and a hi^ position; but it had left him somewhat stiff and 
pancttUoos, too cold and reserved and over anxious for formal 
jiBtifications when he might well have left his conduct to the 
judgment of men of honour and the heart of the people. At the 
same time he was no pedant in business; in corresponding on 
political subjecu he loved to throw off official forms and com- 
]ii:micate his views with the freedom of private correspondence; 
aftd where his confidence was given, it was given without 



At this period he was made chairman of the bullion committee 
on the death of Homer. He was chosen for this important 
office by Huskisson, Ricardo and their feUow-economists, who 
saw in him a mind open to conviction, though he owed hereditary 
alkguDoe to Pitt's financial policy, and had actually voted with 
his Pittite father for a resolution of Lord Liverpool's government 
asKTting that Bank of En^nd notes were equivalent to legal 
coin. The choi<% proved judicious. Peel was converted to the 
currency doctrines of the economists, and proclaimed his con- 
venion in a great q)eech on the a4th of May 1819, in which he 
moved and carried four resolutions embodying the recommen- 
dations of the bullion committee in favour of a* return to cash 
payments. This laid the foundation of his financial reputation, 
aiKi his co-operation with the economists tended to give a liberal 
torn to his commercial principles. In the course he took he 
•omewhat diverged from his party, and particularly from bis 
father, who remained faithful to Pitt's depreciated paper, and 
between whom and his schismatic son a solemn and touching 
paaage occurred in the debate. The author of the Cash Pay- 
ments Act had often to defend his policy, and he did so with 
vigoar. The act is sometimes s&id to have been hard on debtors, 
ioduding the nation as debtor, because it required debts to be 
paid in cash which had been contracted in depredated paper; 
asd Fed, as heir to a great fundholder, was even charged with 
betog biaused by his personal interests. But it is answered that 
the Bank Restriction Acts, under which the depreciated paper 
lad drcolated, themselves contained a provision for a return to 
oA pa3rments six months after peace. 

la 1820 Peel married Julia, daughter of General Sir John 
flqyd, w1k> bore him five sons and two datighters. The writers 
vfao have most severely censured Sir Robert Peel as a public 
aaa have dwelt on tl^ virtues and happiness of his private 
tod domestic life. He was not only a most loving husband and 
father bat a true and warm-hearted friend. In Whitehall 
Gardens or at Drayton Manor he gathered some of the most 
&tii^isbed intellects of the day. He indulged in free and 
dieerful talk, and sou^t the conversation of men of science; he 
took ddight in art, and was a great collector of pictures; he was 
toad of farming and agricultural Improvements; he actively 
piwaoted uaefol works and the advancement of knowledge; he 



loved making his friends, dependants, tenants and neighbours 
happy. And, cold as he was in public, few men could be more 
bright and genial in private than Sir Robert PeeL 

In 183 z Peel consented to strengthen the enfeebled ministiy 
of Lord Liverpool by becoming home secretary; and in that 
capacity he had again to undertake the office of coerdng the 
growing discontent in Ireland, of which he remained the real 
administrator, and had again to lead in the House of Commons 
the opposition to the rising cause of Roman Catholic emandpa- 
tion. In 1835, being defeated on the Roman Catholic question 
in the House of Commons, he wished to resign office, but Lord 
Liverpool pleaded that his resignation would break up the 
government. He found a congenial task in reforming and 
humanizing the criminal law, espedally those parts of it which 
related to offences against property and offences punishable by 
death. The five acts in which Peel accomplished this great 
work, as well as the great speech of the 9th of March 1836, in 
which he opened the subject to the house, will form one of the 
most solid and enduring monuments of his fame. Criminal law 
reform was the reform of RomUly and Mackintosh, from the 
hands of the latter of whom Peel recdved it. But the masterly 
bills in which it was embodied were the bills of Ped — not himself 
a creative genius, but, like the founder of his house, a profound 
appredator of other men's creations, and unrivalled in the power 
of giving them practical and complete effect. 

In 1837 the Liverpool ministry was broken up by the fatal 
illness of its chief, anid under the new premier, George Canning, 
Peel, like the duke of Wellington and other high Tory members 
of Lord Liverpool's cabinet, refused to serve. Canning and Ped 
were rivals; but we need not interpret as mere personal rivalry 
that which was certainly, in part at least, a real difference of 
connexion and opinion. Canning took a Liberal line, and was 
supported by many of the Whigs; the seceders were Tories, and 
it is difficult to see how their position in Canning's cabinet could 
have been otherwise than a false one. Separation led to public 
coolness and occasional approaches to bitterness on both sides in 
debate. But there seems no ground for exaggerated complaints 
against Ped's conduct. Canning himself said to a friend that 
" Peel was the only man who had behaved decently towards 
him." Their private intercourse remained uninterrupted to 
the end; and Canning's son afterwards entered public life under 
the auspices of Ped. The charge of having urged Roman 
Catholic emandpation on Lord Liverpool in 1825, and opposed 
Canning for being a friend to it in 1837, made against Sir Robert 
Peel in the fierce corn-law debates of 1846, has been withdrawn 
by those who made it. 

In January 1838, after Canning's death, the duke of Welling- 
ton formed a Tory government, in which Peel was home secretary 
and leader of the House of Commons. This cabinet, Tory as it 
was, did not fndude the impracticable Lord Eldon, and did 
include Huskisson and three more friends of Canning. Its 
policy was to endeavour to stave off the growing demand for 
organic change by administrative reform, and by Ughtcning 
the burdens of the people. The civil list was retrenched with an 
unsparing hand, the public expenditure was reduced lower than 
it had been since the Revolutionary war, and the import of com 
was permitted under a sliding scale of duties. Peel also intro- 
duced into London the improved system of police which he had 
previously established with so much success in Ireland. But 
the tide ran too strong to be thus headed. First the government 
were compelled, after a defeat in the House of Commons, to 
acquiesce in the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, Peel 
bringing over their High Church supporters, as far as he could. 
Immediately afterwards the question of Roman Catholic emand- 
pation was brought to a crisis by the dection of O'Conndl for 
the county of Clare. In August Peel expressed to the duke of 
Wellington his conviction that the question must be settled. 
He wrote that out of office he would co-operate in the settlement 
but in his judgment it should be committed to other hands than 
his. To this the duke assented, but in January 1839, owing to 
the declared opinions of the king, of the House of Lords, and of 
the Church against a change of policy, Wellington came to the 






42 

■ 

conclusion that without Peel's aid in oflke there was no prospect 
of success. Under that pressure Peel consented to remain, and 
all the cabinet approved. The consent of the king, which could 
scarcely have been obtained except by the duke and Peel, was 
extorted, withdrawn (the ministers being out for a few hours), 
and again extorted; and on the sthof March 1829 Peel proposed 
Roman Catholic emancipation in a speech of more than four 
hours. The apostate was overwhelmed with obloquy. Having 
been elected for the university of Oxford as a leading opponent 
of the Roman Catholics, he had thought it right to resign his 
seat on being converted to emancipation. His friends put him 
again In nomination, but he was defeated by Sir R. H. Inglis. 
He took refuge in the close borough of Westbury, whence he 
afterwards removed to Tamworth, for which he sat till his death. 
Catholic emancipation was forced on Peel by circumstances; 
but it was mainly owing to him that the measure was complete, 
and based upon equality of dvil rights. This great concession, 
however, did not save the Tory government. The French 
Revolution of July 1830 gave frtth strength to the movement 
against them, though, schooled by the past, they promptly 
recognized King Louis Philippe. The parliamentary reform 
movement was joined by some of their offended I^testant 
supporters. The duke of Wellington committed them fatally 
against all reform, and the elections went against them on the 
demise of the Crown; they were beaten on Sir H. Pamell's 
motion for a committee on the dvil list, and Wellington took the 
opportunity to resign rather than deal with reform. 

While in office, Peel succeeded to the baronetcy, Drayton 
Manor and a great estate by the death of his father (May 3, 
1830). The old man had lived to see]iis fondest hopes fulfilled in 
the greatness of his son; but he had also lived to see that a father 
must not expect to fix his son's opinions — above all, the opinions 
of such a son as Sir Robert Ped, and in such an age as that which 
foUowed the French Revolution. 

Sir Robert Ped's resistance to the Rdorm Bill won back for 
him the alle^ance of his party. His opposition was resolute but 
it was temperate, and once only he betrayed the suppressed fire 
of his temper, in the hbtorical debate of the 2 and of April 1831, 
when his speech was broken off by the arrival of the king to 
dissolve the parliament which had thrown out reform. He refused 
to join the duke of WeUington in the desperate enterprise of 
forming a Tory government at the height of the storm, when the 
Grey ministry had gone out on the refusal of the king to promise 
them an unlimited creation of peers. By this conduct he secured 
for his party the full benefit of the reaction which he no doubt 
knew was sure to ensue. The general election of 1832, after the 
passing of the Rdorm Bill, left him with barely 150 followers in 
the House of Commons; but this handful rapidly swelled under 
his nuinagement into the great Conservative party. He frankly 
accepted the Reform Act as irrevocable, taught his party to 
register instead of despairing, appealed to the intelligence of the 
middle classes, whose new-born power he appredated, steadily 
supported the Whig ministers against the Radicals and O'Conndl, 
and gained every moral advantage which the most dignified 
and constitutional tactics could afford. To this policy, and to the 
great parliamentary powers of its author, it was mainly due that, 
in the course of a few years, the Conservatives were as strong in 
the reformed parliament as the Tories had been in the unrc- 
formed. It is vain to deny the praise of genius to such a leader, 
though the skill of a pilot who steered for many years over such 
waters may sometimes have resembled craft. But the duke of 
Wellington's emphatic eulogy on him was,. " Of all the men I 
ever knew, he had the greatest regard for truth." The duke 
might have added that his own question, "How is the king's 
government to be carried on in a reformed parliament ? " was 
mainly solved by the temperate and constitutional policy of Sir 
Robert Ped, and by his personal influence on the debates and 
proceedings of the House of Commons during the years which 
foUowed the Reform Act. 

In X834, on the dismissal of the Melbourne ministry, power 
came to Sir Robert Peel bdore he expected or desired it. He 
liurried from Rome at the call of the duke of Wellington, whose 



PEEL, SIR ROBERT 



sagacious modesty yidded him the first place, and became prime 
minister, holding the two offices of first lord of the treasury and 
chancellor of the exchequer. He vainly sought to indude in his 
cabinet two recent seceders from the Whigs, Lord Stanley and 
Sir James Graham. A dissolution gave him a great increase of 
strength in the house, but not enough. He was outvoted 00 
the dection of the speaker at the opening of the session of 1835, 
and, after struggling on for six weeks longer, resigned on tha 
question of appropriating part of the revenues of the Church in 
Ireland to national education. His time had not yet come; but 
the capadty, energy and resource he displayed in this shoct 
tenure of office raised him immensely in the estimation of the 
house, his party and the country. Of the great budget of 
practical reforms which he brought forward, the plan for the 
commutation of tithes, the ecclesiastical commission, and the 
plan for settling the question of dissenters' marriages bore fruit. 

From 1835 to 1840 he pursued the same course of patient and 
far-sighted opposition. In 1837 the Conservative memben of 
the House of Commons gave their leader a grand banquet at 
Merchant Taylors' Hall, where he proclaimed in a great speech 
the creed and objects of his party. In 1839, the Wliigs having 
resigned on the Jamaica Bill, he was called on to form a govern* 
ment, and submitted names for a cabinet, but resigned the 
commission owing to the young queen's persistent refusal to part 
with any Whig ladies of her bedchamber (see Victoria, Qtjeem). 
In 1840 he was hurried into a premature motion of want of con* 
fidence. But in the following year a similar motion was carried 
by a majority of one, and the Whigs ventured to af^^eal to the 
country. The result was a majority of ninety-one against them 
on a motion of want of confidence in the autumn of 1841, upon 
which they resigned, and Sir Robert Ped became first lord of 
the treasury, with a commanding majority in both Hbuies 
of Parliament. 

The crisis called for a master-hand. The fiiiaxices were in 
disorder. For some years there had been a growing defidt, 
estimated for 1842 at more than two millions, and attempts to 
supply this by additions to assessed taxes and customs duties 
had failed. The great finander took till the spring of 184s to 
nuiture his plans. He then boldly supplied the defidt by im« 
posing an income-tax on all incomes above £150 a year. He 
accompanied this tax with a reform of the tariff, by which pro- 
hibitory duties were removed and other duties abated on a vast 
number of articles of import, especially the raw materials of manu- 
factures and prime artides of food. The increased consumption, 
as the reformer expected, countervailed the reduction of duty. 
The income-tax was renewed and the reform of the tariff carried 
still farther on the same prindple in 1845. The result was, in 
place of a deficit of upwards of two millions, a surplus of five 
millions in 1845, and the removal of seven millions and a half of 
taxes up to 1847, not only without loss, but with gain to the 
ordinary revenue of the country. The prosperous state <^ the 
finances and of public affairs also permitted a reduction of the 
interest on a portion of the national debt, giving a yeariy saving 
at once of £625,000, and ultimately of a million and a quarter t<K 
the public. In 1844 another great financial measure, the Bank 
Charter Act, was passed and, though severely controverted and 
thrice suspended at a desperate crisis, has ever since regulated 
the currency of the country. In Ireland O'Connell's agitatioa 
for the repeal of the Union had now assumed threatening pro-> 
portions, and verged upon rebellion. The great agitator was 
prosecuted, with his chief adherents, for conspiracy and sedition; 
and, though the conviction was quashed for informality, repeal 
was quelled in its chief. At the same time a heah'ng hand was 
extended to Ireland. The Charitable Bequests Act gave Romaa 
Catholics a share in the adminbtration of charities and legal 
power to endow thdr own rdigion. The allowance to Maynootb 
was largely increased, notwithstanding violent Protestant 
opposition. Three queen's colleges, for the higher education oC 
all the youth of Ireland, without distinction of reUgion, were 
founded, notwithstanding violent opposition, both Protestant and 
Roman Catholic. The prindple of toleration once accepted, was 
thoroughly carried out. The last remnaQts of the penal laws 



PEEL, SIR ROBERT 43 

■tn ncpt Iraa tbe lUtilW-boak, ud iaake «■• ateadtd to knd. In 1R4Q, in ■ ^Mcch 00 tbe Iiiih Poor Liwi, he Gnt 

the RoiiBii Cubolic Churdi in Ciiuda ud MilU. la tlie umc lugnatcd, icd in the neii yeu be aided b C3tabliih[ng, 1 com- 

■pint acli ven puied ioT daring trom doubt Iriifa PrabxterUn million to fidlitite tbe lile of eiEaln m ■ hopeleu itate ol 

mniMpx, for miling the titled of ■ latft number of dinnlen' eacurabnoce. Tbe Enounbend Etuio Act nude no iiiempi, 

thipd* in Entfand, and nmovinf th« mtmidpal diubilitia of like liter lepiluion, to kcuic by liw tbe unceitsin cuitomiry 

the Jam. Tbe fnat lot Mliooil eduolloa mt trebled, and rifbu el Iriib lenaata, but It truiifened the land from ruined 

an attempt wat made, though in vain, to inlioduce effective lacdkirdi to aolvent oimen oqiible oi pcifocming the duliei of 

education rliiwii into ihe tactoiy MUa. To the alienation ol any pnpeny tomrdi the people. On tbe iSib ol June iBjo Sir 

pan of the nvenua of the *'■'■"'■'■-' Church Sir Robert Peel Robert Feel made a great qieech on tbe Gntk queitioo againit 

' ' 'x had ivued the ecdesaitical com- Lord Palmenton'i foreign policy of Inlerference. Thii ipeech 

t better proviiion for a number of ma thought to ihow Ibit if necoaary he would return to office. 

, , , otributkni of part of tbe revenuca of It ma hia iiit. On tbe following day he wat thrown from hii 

the ClMn:b. Tbe wnkest. part of tbe conduct of this great harae on Conitllution Hill, and mortally injured by the fall 

govenuDeat, peibapa, wa* ita failure to cootrot tbe railway Three dayi be lingered aod on the fourth (July 1, iSjo) be 

mama, by pnoiptly laying down the lina on a goverameni plan. died. All the tributea which respect and gralilude could pay 

It paaed an act in 1K44 which gave the government a right of were paid to him by the »vereigD, by puliuneui, by public men 

purchase, and it had prepared a palliative meaiure in 1846, but of all pajtiei, by the country, by (he pren, and, above all, by 

vu cooqitiled to lacrihce thli, IDie all other secondary meaiuro, the great towni and the mauei of the people (0 whom be had 

to tbe repeal of ihe com lawi. ft failed alio, though not without given " bread unleavened with injuitice." He would have been 

an efbil, to avert tbe great acbiim in the Church of Scotland, buried among the great men of England in Wcilminiter Abb^, 

Abroad it tnt u piaperoui ai at home. It bad found diuiler but bii will deiired that he might be laid In Dnytoa church. It 

and diifrace in Afghaniitan. It iprcdity ended (he war there, alio renounced a peerage for hii family, ai he had before declined 

and in India the invading Sihha were df^troyed upon the Sullej. the garter for bimieit when it wai offered him by the Queea 

The BR and dangenwi queitioni with France, touching Ibe IhroughLordAberdeen. 

li^t ot leardi, the war in Morocco, and tbe Tahiti alfiir, and Thote who judge Sir Robert Fed will remember that he vaa 

*ilh Ibe Uoilcd Stalea touching the Maine boundary aod Ihe bred a Tory in dayi when party wai a religion; that he entered 

Oregon territory, were Killed by negolialion. parliament a youth, wii In offict at twenty-four and lecreury 

Yet there were malmnienti In Sir Rubert Feel'i party. The for Ireland at twcnty-bve; that hii public life eitended over a 

Young En^anden diiliked him because he had boiited the flag long period rife with change; and that hii own changea were all 

s( CoKrvatim imtcad oi Toryism on Ibe morrow of tbe Reform forward and vilh (he advandng inleUecI of the tine. They will 

BIB. Tbe ilnng philaDlhioiHili and Tory Chartiiti diiUked enumerate the great practical improvementt aod the great acta 

Ura becauM he wa* a Oriel economiit and to upholder of the of legiilatlve juiiice of those dayi, and note bow large a (bare 

ivw poor law. But the fatal question was protection. That Sir Robert Feel had, if not in originating, in ^ving tbOTOUgb 

qaestioa was being fait brou^t to a ctiiii by pubUc opinion and practical eSect to aU. They will reflect that ai a parliamentary 

diB Aiiti-C«n-Law League. Sir Robert Peel bad been recogniied ilatcinian he could not govern without a party, and that it ii 

in 1B41 by Cobden u a Free Trader, and after eaperience In difficult to goyem at once for a party and for the whole people. 

office be had becsme in principle more and more 10. Since his They will think of hli ardent love of hit country, of bii abitinenca 

mart Ml to power he had bwered (he duties of tbe sliding tcale, from intrigue, violence and faction, of hit boundless labour 

and thereby caused the seceuion from (he cabinet of the duke of (brough a long life devoted to the public service. Whether he 

BudinghanL He had alarmed the farmen by admitting foreign wai a model of ttatesmanibip may be doubted. Modeli of 

cattle and meat ander bii new tariff, and by admitting Canadian sutesmanihip are rare, if by 1 model of ilateunanibtp ii meant 

ara. He had done hit best in bii spcecbci to put the maiote- a great adminiitrator and party leader, t great political pbilo- 

nancc of tbe cino laws on low ground, and to wean tbe landed lopher and a great Independent orator, all in one. But if the 

interest from thor reliance on protection. The approach of question 11 whether be wai a ruler loved and (mated by the 

Ihe Irish famine In rSfj turned deciiively (he wavering balance. V.ngfi<>i people there is no arguing against the tears of a Dattoo- 
Vboi at first Sir Robert proposed to hia cabinet the revision of 
tbe en laws. Lord Stanley and tbe duke of Bucdeuch dil- 
•ealcd. and Sir Robert nsigned But Lord John Russell failed 
ta (ena a new government. Sir Robert again came into office; 
aad now, with the consent of all the cabijvt but Lord Stanley, 
who lelired, be. In a great speech on the 17th of January 1846, 
bnight the rqwal of the com laws before tbe House of Commons. 
Ii the kng and bene debate that ensued be sra* assailed, both 
by frrlJTirrl aAd penonal erkemies, with the moat virulent 
Bvective, which he bore wilh hii sronted calmneu, and to which 
he Blade 00 retorts. His measure wai carried; hut immediately 

•flemidt tbe offended protectioniili, led by Lord George Four of Sit Roberl'i five tons attained distinction. Tbe 

BealiMk and Benjamin Diiraeli. coalesced with the Whip, eldest, Sia RoasaT Piel (iSii-iS^j), who became the jcd 

lad Ihnw him out on tbe Iriib Coerdou Bill. He went home baronet on his father'i death, wat educated at Harrow and at 

fm hit defeat, escorted by a great crowd, wbo uncovered as Christ Church, Oxford. He was in the diplomiLic service from 

ke piated, and be immediately resigned. So fell a Conserva(ive 1844 to rSjo. when be succeeded hii father ai member of pirlia- 

lonmmeot which would otherwise have probably ended only meol for Tamwonh, and he was chief secretary to the loid- 

■kk Ihe life of ita chief. lieuleoani of Irebnd from iWi to 1865. He rrpresenied Tan- 

Thou^ OBt o( office he was not out of power. He had " bst wotih until Ihe general declion of iSSo; in 1SS4 he became 

■ ralty,but wonanation." The Whig ministry which lucceeded member for Hun(ingdon and in iSSs for Blackburn, but alter 

taloat much on bissuppor1,with which he never taxed them, 1SS6 he ceased (o siL in Ihe House of Commons. Sir Robert 

Beioined them in carrying forward free-trade principles by the described himself as a Liberat-Conscrvativc, bul in his Ulcr years 

tqssl of Ihe navigation laws. He hdped them to promote Ihe he opposed the policy of Gladstone, allbougb after 1886 he 

priedpk oi religious Uberly by Ihe bill for the emancipilian of championed the cause ol home rule (or Ireland. In 1S71 he sold 

Ike Jews. One iinportani measure was his own. While in hit faihei's collection of pictures 10 Ihe Nnlional Gallery for 

«Sct be btfd ptobcd. by tbe Devon commiuion of inquiry, the £75,000, and in his later life be wat troufaled by financial dlfficul- 

tora of bdiad eonnecled Willi tbe owunhip and occupation at tie*. SiiRobeit waa ioterested in racing, and wat known on the 



44 



PEEL— PEELE 



turf as Mr F. Robinson. He died in London on the 9th of May 
1895, and was succeeded as 4tli baronet by his son, Sir Robert 
Peel (b. 1867). 

Sn FiEDERiCK Peel (1823-1906), the prime minister's second 
son, was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
becoming a barrister in 1849. He entered parliament in that 
year, and with the exception of the period between 1857 and 1859 
he remained in the House of Commons until 1865. In 1851-1852 
and again in 1853-1855 he was under-secretary for the colonies; 
from 1855 to 1857 he was under-secretary for war; and from 
1859 to 1865 he was secretary to the treasury. He became 
a privy councillor in 1857 and was knif.hted in 1869. Sir 
Frederick Peel's chief service to the state was in connexion with 
the railway and canal commission. He was appointed a com- 
missioner on the inception of this body in 1873, and was its 
president until its reconstruction in z888, remaining a member 
of the commission until his death on the 6th of June 1906. 

The third son was Sik William Peel (i 824-1858), and the 
youngest Viscount Peel (q.v.). Sir William was a sailor, who 
distinguished himself in the Crimea, where he gained the Victoria 
Cross, and also during the Indian Mutiny, being wounded at the 
relief of Lucknow. He died on the 27th of April 1858. Sir 
William wrote A Ride tkrough the Nubian Desert (1852), giving 
an account of his travels in 1851. 

Two of Sir Robert Peel's brothera were also politicians of 
note. William Vatbs Peel (1789-1858), educated at Harrow and 
at St John's College, Cambnc»[e, was a member of parliament 
fiom 1817 to 1837, and a^n from 1847 to 1852; he was under- 
secretary for home affairs m 1828, and was a lord of the treasury 
in 1830 and again in 1834-1835. Jonathan Peel (i7{)9-i879) was 
first a soldier and then a member of parliament during the long 

Gtiod between 1826 and 1868, first representing Norwicii and then 
untingdon. From 1841 to 1846 he was surveyor-general of the 
ordnance, and in 1858-1859 and again in 1866-I867 he was a very 
competent and successful secretary of ttate for war. General 
Feel was also an owner of racehorses, and in 1844 his horse Orlando 
won the Derby, after another horse. Running Rein, had been 
disqualified. 

For the history of the Ped family see Jane Haworth, A Memoir 
^ the Family of Fed from the year 1600 (1836). 

PBEI^ a seaport and watering-place of the Isle of Man, on 
the W. coast, ii} m. W.N.W. of Douglas by the Isle of Man 
railway. Pop. (1901), 3304. It lies on Peel Bay, at the mouth 
of the small river Neb, which forms the harbour. The old 
town consists of narrow streets and lanes, but a modem resi- 
dential quarter has grown up to the east. On the west side of the 
river-mouth St Patrick's Isle is connected with the mainland 
by a causeway. It is occupied almost wholly by the ruins of 
Ped castle. St Patrick is said to have founded here the first 
church in Man, and a small chapel, dedicated to him, appears 
to date from the 8th or loth century. There is a round tower, 
also of very early date, resembling in certain particulars the 
round towers of Ireland. The ruined cathedral of St German 
has a transitional Norman choir, with a very early crypt beneath, 
a nave with an early English triplet at the west end, transepts, 
and a low and massive central tower still standing. There 
are remains of the bishops' palace, of the so<alled Fenella's 
tower, famous through Scott's Peveril of the Peak^ of the palace 
of the Lords of Man, of the keep and guardroom above the 
entrance to the castle, and of the Moare or great tower, while 
the whole is surrounded by battlements. There are also a large 
artifidal mound supposed to be a defensive earthwork of higher 
antiquity than the castle, and another mound known as the 
Giant's Grave. The guardroom is associated with the ghostly 
apparition of the Moddey Dhoo (black dog), to which reference 
is made in Peveril of the Peak. In 1397 Richard II. condemned 
the earl of Warwick to imprisonment in Peel Castle for con- 
spiracy, and in 1444 Eleanor, duchess of Gloucester, received 
a like sentence on the ground of having compassed the death 
of Henry VI. by magic. Ped has a long-established fishing 
industry, which, however, has dcdined in modem times. In 
the town the most notable building is the church of St German, 
with a fine tower and spire. Peel was called by the Northmen 
Helen (island, i.e. St Patrick's Isle); the existhig toame is Cdtic, 



meaning " fort " (cf. the ped towers of the borderland of England 
and Scotland). 

PEEL, (i) The skin or rind of a fruit; thus " to ped " k 
to remove the outer covering of anything. The etymology 
of the word is dosdy connected with that of " pill," to plunder, 
surviving in "pillage." Both words are to be referred to 
French and thence to Latin. In French peler and ^i/ier, though 
now distinguished in meaning (the first used of stripping bark 
or rind, the second meaning to rob), were somewhat confused 
in application, and a similar confusion occurs in English tUl 
comparativdy late. The Latin words from which they are 
derived are peUis, skin, and pHare, to strip of hair {pUus). 
(2) The name of a class of small fortified dwelling-houses built 
during the i6th century on the borders between Scotland and 
England. They are also known as " bastd-houses," i^ 
" bastille-houses," and consist of a square massive tower with 
high pitched roof, the lower part being vaulted, the upper 
part containing a few living rooms. The entrance is on the 
upper floor, access being gained by a movable ladder. The 
vaulted ground-floor chamber served for the cattle when there 
was danger of attack. The word appears in various forms, 
e.g. pele, peil, and Latinized as pelum, &c.; " pile " is also found 
used synonymously, but the New English Dictionary (s.v. pile) 
considers the two words distinct. It seems more probable 
that the word is to be identified with " pale," a stake (Lat. 
palus). The earlier meaning of " ped " is a palisaded enclosare 
used as an additional defence for a fortified post or as an 
independent stronghold. 

PEELB, OEORGB (iSS^- X598). English dramatist, was 
bom in London in 1558. His father, who appears to have 
belonged to a Devonshire family, was derk of Christ's Hospital, 
and wrote two treatises on book-keeping. George Pede ^ras 
educated at Christ's Hospital, and entered Broadgates Hall 
(Pembroke College), Oxford, in 1571. In 1574 he removed 
to Christ Church, taking his B.A. degree in 1577, and 
proceeding M.A. in 1579. In 1579 the governors of Christ's 
Hospital requested their d^rk to " dischuge his house of his 
son, George Pede." It is not necessary to read into this 
anything more than that the governors insisted on his beginning 
to eam a livelihood. He went up to London about 1580, but 
in 1583 when Albert us Alasco (Albert Laski), a Polish nobl^nan, 
was entertained at Christ Church, Oxford, Pede was entrusted 
with the arrangement of two Latin plays by William Gager 
(fl. Z580-1619) presented on the occasion. He was also compli- 
mented by Dr Gager for an English verse translation of one 
of the Iphigenias of Euripides. In 1585 he was employed 
to write the Deviu of the Pageant home before WoUston Dixie, 
and in 1591 he devised the pageant in honour of another lord 
mayor. Sir William Webbe. Tliis was the Descensus Asiraeae 
(printed in the Harleian Miscellany, 1808), in which Queen 
Elizabeth is honoured as Astraea. Pede had married as early 
as 1583 a lady who brought him some property, which be 
speedily dissipated. Robert Greene, at the end of bis Groats- 
vorth of Wit, exhdrts Pede to repentance, saying that he hu, 
like himself, " been driven to extreme shifts for a living." The 
sorry traditions of his reckless life were emphasized by the use 
of his name in connexion with the apocryphal Merrie conceited 
Jests of George Peele (printed in 1607). Many of the stories 
had done service before, but there are personal touches that 
may be biographicaL He died before 1598, for Francis Meres, 
writing in that year, speaks of his death in his PaUadis Tamia. 

His pastoral comedy of The Araygnemcnt of Paris, presented 
by the Children of the Chapel Royal before Queen Elizabeth 
perhaps as early as 1581, was* printed anonymously in 1584. 
Charles Lamb, sending to Vincent Novello a song from this 
piece of Peele's, said that if it had been less uneven in execution 
Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess ** had been but a second name 
in this sort of writing." Peele shows considerable art in his 
flattery. Paris is arraigned before Jupiter for having assigned 
the apple to Venus. Diana, with whom the final deduoo 
rests, gives the apple to none of the competitors but to a 
nymph called Eliza, whose identity is confirmed by the furthct 



PEEP-OF-DAY BOYS— PEERAGE 



4-5 



ei|rilaBAtion, '* whom some Zabeta calL" Tke Panums Chronicle 
ef King EdtBord tkejirslt sintamed Edward LongskankeSt naith his 
rtime jroM the holy hind. Also the life of Ueuetlen, rebell 
ts Wales. Lastly, the sinhing of Queen Etinor^ toho sunche 
at Charingcrosse, and rose again at PoUcrs-hilh^ now named 
Qmeenehith (printed 1593). This " chronicle history," fonnless 
enough, as the rambling title shows, is nevertheless an advance 
00 the old chronicle plays, and marks a step towards the Shake- 
spearian historical drama. The Battdl of Alcazar — with the death 
of Captaine Stuhdey (acted 1588-1589, printed 1594), published 
anonymously, is attributed with much probability to Peele. 
The Old Wives Talc^ registered in Stationers' Hall, perhaps 
more correctly, as " The Owlde wifcs talc " (printed 1595), 
was followed by The Love of King David and fair Bethsahe 
(written c 1588, printed 1599), which is notable as an example 
of Eliaabethan drama drawn entirely from scriptural sources. 
Mr Fkay sees in it a political satire, and identifies Elizabeth 
and Leicester as David and Bathsheba, Mary (^een of Scots 
as Absalom. Sir Clyomon and Sir Oamydes (printed 1599) 
has been attributed to Peele, but on insufficient grounds. 
Among ha occaaonal poems are " The Honour of the Garter," 
wiiich has a prologue containing Peele's judgments on his 
contemporaries, and "Polyhymnia" (1590), a blank-verse 
description of the ceremonies attending the retirement of the 
queen's champion. Sir Henry Lee. This is concluded by the 
"Sonnet," *'His golden locks time hath to silver tum'd," 
cpioted by Thackeray in the 76th chapter of The Ncwcomes. 
To the Phoenix Nest in 1593 he contributed " The Praise of 
Chastity." Mr F. G. Fleay (Biog. Chron. of the Drama) credits 
P^ck with The Wisdom of Doctor DoddipoU (printed 1600), 
WHy Beguiled (printed 1606), The Life and Death of Jack 
StraWf a nolaUe rebel (1587?), a share in the First and Second 
Parts of Henry VJ., and on the authority of Wood and 
Winslanley, Alphonsus, Emperor of Germany, 

Fede belonged to the group of university scholars who. In 

Greene's phrase, ** spent their wits in making playes." Greene 

went <m to say that he was " in some things rarer, in nothing 

inferior," to Marlowe. Nashe in his preface to Greene's Mena- 

pkem called him " the chief supporter of plcasance now living, 

the Adas of Poetrie and primus verborum artifex, whose first 

encrease, the Arraignement of Paris, might plead to your 

opinions his pregnant dcxteritie of wit and manifold varietie 

of invention, wherein {me judice) hee goeth a step beyond all 

that write." Tliis praise was not unfounded. The credit 

given to Greene and Marlowe for the increased dignity of 

Eo^ish dramatic diction, and for the new smoothness infused 

into bUnk verse, must certainly be shared by Peele. Professor 

F. B. Gummere, in a critical essay prefixed to his edition of The 

Old Wives Tale, puts in another claim for Peele. In the contrast 

between the romantic story and the realistic dialogue he sees 

the first instance of humour quite foreign to the comic " business " 

of eariier o>medy. The Old Wives Tale is a play within a play, 

sE^ enough to be perhaps better described as an interlude. 

Its background of rustic folk-lore gives it additional interest, 

wd there is much fun poked at Gabriel Harvey and Stanyhurst. 

Peiiups Huanebango,* who parodies Harvey's hexameters, 

ud actually quotes him on one occasion, may be regarded as 

rqnsenting that arch-enemy of Greene and his friends. 

Peele's Works were edited by Alexander Dyce (1828, 1839-1839 
u4 1861): by A. H. Bulicn (2 vols., 1888). An examination of 
tke netrical peculiarities of his work is to be found in F. A. R. 
Uaaerhirt's Ceorg Peele, Untersuchungen iber sein Leben und 
trine Werke (Rostock. 1882). Sec also Professor F. B. Gummere. in 
^epmenbUive English Comedies (1903): and an edition of The 
Baadl of Atcaaar, printed for the Mabne Society in 1907. 

PEEP^F-DAT BOYS, an Irish ProtesUnt secret s6dety, 
forraed about 1785. Its object was to protect the Protestant 
penantry, and avenge their wrongs on the Roman Catholics. 
The " Boys " gained their name from the hour of dawn which 

' Mc Fkay goes so far as to see in the preposterous names of 
HoaaebancDS kith and kin puns on Harvey's father's trade. 
" Pdymarnawopladdus " he interprets as " Polly-make-a-rope- 



they chose for their raids on the Roman Catholic villages. 
The Roman Catholics in return formed the society of "The 
Defenders." 

PEEPUL. or PiPtJi {Ficus religiosa), the " sacred fig " tree 
of India, also called the Bo tree. It is not unlike the banyan, 
and is venerated both by the Buddhists of Ceylon and the 
V'aishnavite Hindus, who say that Vishnu was born beneath its 
shade. It is planted near temples and houses; its sap abounds 
in caoutchouc, and a good deal of lac is obtained from insects 
who feed upon the branches. The fruit is about the size of a 
walnut and is not much eaten. 

PEERAGE (Fr. pairage, med. Lat. paragium; M.E. pere, 
O. Fr. per, peer, later pair; Lat. pan's, " equal "). Although 
in England the terms " peerage," " nobility," " House of Lords " 
are in common parlance frequently regarded as synonymous, 
in reality each expresses a different meaning. A man may be 
a peer and yet not a member of the House of Lords, a member 
of the House of Lords and yet not strictly a peer; though all 
peers (as the term is now understood) are members of the 
House of Lords either in esse or in posse. In the United 
Kingdom the rights, duties and privileges of peerage are 
centred in an individual; to the monarchial nations of the 
Continent nobility conveys the idea of family, as opposed to 
personal, privilege. 

Etymologically " peers " are " equals " (pares), and in Anglo- 
Norman days the word was invariably so understood. The 
feudal tenants-in-chief of the Crown were all the 
peers of each other, whether lords of one manor or fJJjS^jJ 
of a hundred; so too a bishop had his ecclesiastical "*'^'*n 
peer in a brother bishop, and the tenants of a manor their 
peers in their fellow-tenants. That even so late as the 
reign of John the word was still used in this general sense is 
clear from Magna Carta, for the term " judicium parium " 
therein must be understood to mean that every man had a right 
to be tried by his equals. This very right was asserted by the 
barons as a body in 1333 on behalf of Richard, earl marshal, 
who had been declared a traitor by the king's command, and 
whose lands were forfeited without proper trial. In 1233 the 
French bishop Peter des Roches, Henry III.'s minister, dcrued 
the barons' right to the claim set up on the ground that the 
king might judge all his subjects alike, there being, he said, no 
peers in England (Math. Paris. 389). The English barons 
undoubtedly were using the word in the sense it held in Magna 
CsLTta, while the bishop probably had in his mind the French peers 
(pairs de France), a smaJl and select body of feudatories possessed 
of exceptional privileges. In England the term was general, 
in France technical. The change in England was gradual, 
and probably gathered force as the gulf between the greater 
barons and the lesser widened, until in course of time, for judicial 
purposes, there came to be only two classes, the greater barons 
and the rest of the people. The barons remained triable by 
their own order (i.e. by their peers), whilst the rest of the people 
rapidly became subject to the general practice and procedure 
of the king's justices. The first use of the word " peers " as 
denoting those members of the baronage who were accustomed 
to receive regularly a writ of summons to parliament is found 
in the record of the proceedings against the Dcspensers in 132 1 
(Stubbs, Const. Hist. ii. 347), and from that time this restricted 
use of the word has remained its ordinary sense. 

Properly to understand the growth and constitution of the 
peerage it is necessary to trace the changes which occurred in 
the position of the Anglo-Norman baronage, first Aaghh' 
through the gradual strengthening of royal supre- norman 
macy with the consequent decay of baronial power Banaage, 
locally, and subsequently by the consolidation of parliamentary 
institutions during the reigns of the first three Edwards. 

Before the conquest the national assembly of England (sec 
Parliament) was the Witan, a gathering of notables owing 
their presence only to personal influence and standing. TbeSaxoa 
The imposition of a modified feudal system resulted WHeaa- 
in a radical alteration. Membership of the Great tf""^ 
Councils of the Norman kings was primarily an incident of 



46 



PEERAGE 




tenure, one of the obligations the tenants-in-chlef were bound 
to perform, although this membership gradually became restricted 
by the operation of the Royal prerogative to a small section 
(rf the Baronial class and eventually hereditary by custom. The 
Norman Councils may have arisen from the a^es of a Saxon 
Witenagemot, but there is littk evidence of any historical 
continuity between the two. The Church in England, as 
in Christendom generally, occupied a position of paramount 
importance and far-reaching influence; its leaders, not alone 
from their special sanctity as ecclesiastics, but as practically 
the only educated men of the period, of necessity were among 
the chief advisers of every ruler in Western Europe. In 
England churchmen formed a large proportion of the Witan, 
the more influential of the great landowners making up the 
rest of its membership. 

In place of the scattered individual and absolute ownership 
of Saxon days the Conqueror became practically the sole 
owner of the soiL The change, though not imme- 
diately complete, followed rapidly as the country 
settled down and the power of the Crown extended 
to its outlying frontiers. As Saxon land gradually passed 
into Norman hands the new owners became direct tenants 
of the king. Provided their loyal and military obligations 
were duly performed they had fixity of tenure for themselves 
and their heirs. In addition fixed money payments were exacted 
on the succession of the heir, when the king's eldest son was 
knighted, his eldest daughter married, or his person ransomed 
from captivity. In like manner and under similar conditions 
the king's tenants, or as they were termed tenants-in-chicf, 
sub-granted the greater portion of their holdings to their own 
immediate followers. Under Norman methods the manor was 
the unit of local government and jurisdiction, and when 
land was given away by the king the gift invariably took the 
form of a grant of one or more manors. 

When he brought England into subjection the Conqueror's 
main idea was to exalt the central power of the Crown at the 
expense of its feudatories, and the first two centuries following 
the conquest tell one long tale of opposition by the great tenants- 
in-chief to a steadily growing and unifying royal pressure. With 
this idea of royal supremacy firmly fixed in his mind, William's 
grants, excepting outlying territory such as the marches of 
Wales or the debateable ground of the Scottish border, which 
needed special consideration, were seldom in bulk, but took the 
form of manors scattered over many counties. Under such 
conditions it was practically impossible for a great tenant to 
set up a powerful imperium in imperio (such as the fiefs of 
Normandy, Brittany and Burgundy), as his forces were dis- 
tributed over the country, and could be reached by the long 
arm of royal power, acting through the sheriff of every county, 
long before they could effectively come together for fighting 
purposes. The tenants-in-chief were termed generally barons 
(see Baron) and may be regarded historically as the parents 
of the peers of later days. The pages of Domesday (1086), 
the early Norman fiscal record of England, show how unevenly 
the land was distributed; of the fifteen hundred odd tenants 
mentioned the majority held but two or three manors, while 
a favoured few possessed more than a hundred each. Land 
was then the only source of wealth, and the number of a 
baron's manors might well be regarded as a correct index of his 
importance. 

The king's tenants owed yet another duty, the service of 
attending the King's Court {curia regis), and out of this custom 
grew the parliaments of later days. In theory all 
CoMit. * ^^^ king's tenants-in-chief, great and small, had a 
right to be present as incident to their tenure. 
It has therefore been argued by some authorities that as the 
Conqueror's system of tenure constituted him the sole owner 
of the land, attendance at his courts was solely an incident of 
tenure, the Church having been compelled to accept the same 
conditions as those imposed on laymen. But, as already pointed 
out, the change in tenure had not been immediate, and there 
\^ beqi no |eneral forfeiture suffered b^ frrletHtsticri bodies^ 



consequently throughour'the early years of William's reign 
some of the English bishops and abbots attended his courts 
as much by virtue of their personal and ecclesiastical importance 
as by right of tenure. The King's Court was held regularly 
at the three great festivals of the Church and at such other 
times as were deemed advisable. The assembly for several 
generations neither possessed nor pretended to any legislative 
powers. Legislative power was a product of later years, and 
grew out of the custom of the Estates granting suppUes only 
on condition that their grievances were first redressed. The 
great bulk of the tenants were present for the purpose of assenting 
to special taxation above and beyond their ordinary feudal 
dues. When necessary a general summons to attend was sent 
through the sheriff of every county, who controlled a system 
of local government which enabled him to reach every tenant. 
In course Of time to a certain number of barons and high 
ecclesiastics, either from the great extent of their possessions, 
their official duties about the king or their personal importance, 
it became customary to issue a personal writ of summons, thus 
distinguishing them from the general mass summoned through 
the sheriff. That this custom was in being within a century 
of the Conquest is clear from an incident in the bitter fight for 
supremacy between Archbishop Beckct and Henry II. in X164 
(Stubbs, Const. Hist. i. 504), it being recorded that the king 
withheld the Archbishop's personal summons to parliament, 
and put upon him the indignity of a summons through the sheriff. 
During the succeeding fifty years the line becomes even more 
definite, though it is evident that the Crown sometimes dis- 
regarded the custom, as the barons are found compbining that 
many of their number deemed entitled to a personal summons 
had frequently been overlooked. 

The sequel to these compbints is found in Magna Carta, 
wherein it is provided that the archbishops, bishops, abbots, 
earls and greater barons are to be called up to the jn^^^ 
council by writ directed to each severally; and all aadi 
who hold of the king in chief, below the rank of ^ 
greater barons, are to be summoned by a general mS^^m 
writ addressed to the sheriff of their shire.^ Magna awoMs. 
Carta thus indicates the existence of two definite 
sections of the king's tenants, a division which had evidently 
persisted for some time. The " greater barons " are the 
immediate parents of the peerages of later days, every member 
of which for more than four centuries had a seat in the House 
of Lords. As for the rest of the tenants-in-chief, poorer in 
estate and therefore of less consequence, it is sufficient here to 
note that they fell back into the general mass of country families, 
and that their representatives, the knights of the shire, after 
some hesitation, at length joined forces with the city and burgher 
representatives to form the House of Commons. 

In 1254, instead of the general summons through the sheriff 
to all the lesser tenants-in-chicf, the king requires them to elect 
two knights for each shire to attend the council as ^^^ 
the accredited representative of their fellows. In ^os4. 
the closing days of 1264 Simon de Montfort sum- 
moned to meet him early in 1 265 the first parliament worthy of 
the name, a council in which prelates, earls and greater barons, 
knights of the shire, citizens and burghers were present, thus 
constituting a representation of all classes of people. It has been 
argued that this assembly cannot be regarded as a full parlia- 
ment, inasmuch as Simon de Montfort summoned personally 
only such members of the baronage as were favourable to his 
cause, and issued writs generally only to those counties and 
cities upon which he could rely to return representatives in 
support of his policy. Stubbs holds the view that the fiist 
assembly we ought to regard as a full parliament was the Model 
Parliament which met at Westminster in 1 295. This 4fa*f 
parliament, unlike Simon's partisan assembly of PmHiamnm 
1265, was free and representative. To every spiritual •"*■*• 

* Et ab habendum commune consilium rcgni . . . summooeri 
facicmus archicpiacopos. epiacopos. abbates, comites et majcns 
barones neillatim pjer littcras nostras ct praeterca fademus summoneii 
in i^enerait f>cr virccomes ct ballivos nostros omnca illos qui de 
nobis teneot in capite (cited in Stubbs, Const. ^iO, i. ^7 n.). 



PEERAGE 



47 



and temporal baron accustonied to receive an individual 
wzit, one was issued. Every county elected its knights and 
every dty or borough of any importance was instructed 
by the sheriff to elect and to return its allotted number of 
lepresentatives. Slubbs's view (Const. Hist. ii. 223) may prob- 
ably be regarded as authoritative, inasmuch as it was adopted 
by Lord Mhboumc in the Norfolk peerage case of 1906 (Law 
Rtparts [1907K A.C. at p. 15). Edward I. held frequent parlia- 
ments throughout his reign, and although many must be 
legafxkd as merely baronial councils, nevertheless year after 
year, on all important occasions, the knights of the shire and 
the dtixens appear in their places. The parliament of Shrews- 
bury in 1283, for instance, has been claimed as a full parliament 
in several peerage cases, but no dear d^ision on the point 
has ever been given by the Committee for Privileges. It inay 
be taken for granted, however, that any assembly held 
snce 1295, which did not conform substantially* *"* the model 
of that year, cannot be regarded constitutionally us a full 
parliament. The point is even of modem importance, as in 
order to establish the existence of a barony by writ it must 
be proved that the claimant's ancestor was summoned by 
individual writ to a full parliament, and that either he himself 
or one of his direct descendants was present in parliament. 
It is now convenient to consider the various grades into 
which the members of the peerage are grouped, and their 
.elative positions. An examination of the early writs 
issued to individuals shows that the baronage con- 
si^ed of archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, earb 
and barons. In course of time every member of these classes 
came to h<rfd his land by feudal tenure from the Crown, and 
eveotuaUy in every instance the writs issued as an inddcnt 
of tenure. It is Uierefore necessary to discover, if possible, 
what combination of attributes dothcd the greater baron ^ilh 
a right to receive the king's personal writ of summons. While 
the archbishops and bishops recdved thdr writs with regularity, 
the sommoiaes to heads of ecclesiastical houses and greater 
barons were intermittent. The prelate held an ofiice which 
lived 00 regardless of the fate of its temporary holder, and if 
by reason of death, absence or translation the ofiice became 
vacant, a writ still issued to the " Guardian of the Spiritualities." 
The abbot, on the other hand, often outside the jurisdiction of 
the English Church, and owing allegiance to a foreign order,' 
vas but the personal representative of a land-holding community. 
It has already been pointed out that the amount of land held 
direct from the king by individuals varied greatly, and that 
the extent of his holding must have had something to do with 
a man's importance. A landless noble in those days was 
inconceivable. The condusion, then, may be drawn that in 
thec^ the issue of a writ was at the pleasure of the Crown, and 
that in practice the moving factor in the case of the prelates 
vs oflke and personal importance, and in the case of abbots 
sad barons probably, in the main, extent of possession. There 
is K>thing however to show that in the early years of the custom 
any person had a right to daim a writ if it were the king's 
pjexsure or caprice to withhold it and to treat everyone not 
sommoned individually as being duly summoned under the 
feneral writs issued to the sheriff of the county. 

The next point for consideration is when did the peerage, 
as the baronage subsequently came to be called, develop into 
a body definitely hereditary ? Here again growth 
jras gradual and somewhat obscure. Throughout 
the reigns of the Edwards summonses were not 
always nsiied to the same individual for successive parliaments; 
ttd it is quite certain that the king never considered the issue 
of one writ to an individual bound the Crown to its repetition 
f<v the rest of his life, much less to his heirs in perpetuity. 
A^'n we must look to tenure for an explanation. The custom 
of (ffiroogeniture tended to secure estates in strict family 
SKcesaon, and if extent of possession had originally extracted 
tke acknowledgment of a personal summons from the Crown 
it s moce than probable that as successive heirs came into their 
i^eiitance they too would similarly be acknowledged. In 



cariy days the summons was a burden to be suffered of necessity, 
an unpleasant inddent of tenure, in itself undesirable, and 
probably so regarded by the majority of recipients during at 
ieasi the two centuries following the Conquest. The age of the 
Edwards was in the main a rule of settled law, of increase in 
population generally, of growing power in the large landowners 
and of opportunities for those about the person of the king. 
The times were changing, and in place of the idea of the writ 
being a burden, its receipt gradually came to be looked upon 
as a mark of royal favour, a recognition of position aiul an 
opportunity leading on to fortune. Once such a view was 
established it is easy to understand how desirous any individual 
would be to preserve so valuable a privilege for his posterity; 
and primogeniture with its strict settlement of estates pointed 
out an easy way. The Crown was itself an hereditary dignity; 
and what more natural than that it should be surrcunded by an 
hereditary peerage? Thus the free and indiscriminate choice 
of the Crown became fettered by the custom that once a 
summons had been issued to an individual to sit in parliament 
and he had obeyed that summons he thereby acquired a right 
of summons for the rest of his lifetime; and in later years when 
the doctrine of nobility of blood became established his 
descendants were hdd to have acquired the same privilege by 
hereditary right. 

The earl's position in the baronage needs some explanation. 
Various suggestions have been made as to Saxon or Norman 
origin of a high offidal nature, but historical opinion 
seems generally to incline towards the theory that 
the term was a name of dignity conferred by royal prerogative 
on a person already classed among the greater barons. At first 
the dignity was official and certainly not hereditary, and the name 
of a county of which he is said to have been an officer in the king's 
name was not essential to his dignity as an carL There were 
also men who, though Scottish and Norman earls, and commonly 
so addressed and summoned to parliament, were rated in 
England as barons (Lords Reports^ ii. 116, 120; Earldom of 
Norfolk Peerage Case^ Law Rr ports (1907), A'.C. p. 18). Earls 
received individual summonses to parliament by the name of 
Earl (g.v.)', but there is reason to believe, as already mentioned, 
that in early days at any rate they sat not in right of their 
earldoms but by tenure as members of the baronage, 

If we. review the political situation at the beginning of the 
14th century a great change is evident. The line between 
those members of the baronage in parliament and ivrtt 
the rest of the people is firmly and clearly drawn. Supertedt* 
Tenure as the sole qualification for presence in the '"•""'»• 
national assembly has disappeared, and in its place there 
appears for the baronage a system of royal selection and for 
the rest of the people one of representation. The rules and 
customs of law relating to the baronage slowly crystallized so 
as to provide the House of Lords, the history of which for 
generations is the history of the peerage of England, whilst 
the representative part of parliament, after shedding the lower 
dergy, ultimately became the House of Commons. 

Until the reign of Richard II. there is no trace of any use 
of the term baron (g.v.) as importing a personal dignity existing 
apart from the tenure of land, barons owing their seats in parlia- 
ment to tenure and writ combined. This is borne out by the 
fact that a husband was often summoned to parliament in his 
wife's right and name, and while she lived fulfilled those feudal, 
military and parliamentary obligations attached to her lands 
which the physical disabilities of sex prevented her from carrying 
out in her own person (Pike, House of Lords, p. 103). 

Primogeniture, a custom somewhat uncertain in early Anglo- 
Norman days, had rapidly developed into a definite rule of law. 
As feudal dignities were in their origin inseparable pg^^g^ 
from the tenure of land it is not surprising that they bttomtM a 
loo followed a similar course of descent, although i^ruutal 
as the idea of a dignity being exclusively pycrsonal *'*"'^' 
gradually emerged, some necessary deviations from the rules of 
law relating to the descent of land inevitably resulted. In the 
eleventh year of his reign Richard II. created by letters patent 



^B 



48 



PEERAGE 



John Bcauchamp " Lord de Beauchamp and baron of Kyddcr- 
mynster, to hold to him and the heirs of his body." These letters 
patent vrere not founded on any right by tenure of land possessed 
by Beauchamp, for the king makes him " for his good services and 
in respect of the place which he had bolden at the coronation {i.e. 
steward of the household) and might in future hold in the king's 
councils and parliaments, and for his noble descent, and his 
abilities and discretion, one of the peers and barons of the king- 
dom of England; willing that the said John and the heirs-male 
of his body issuing, should have the state of baron and should 
be called by the name of Lord de Beauchamp and Baron of 
Kyddermynstcr." The grant rested wholly on the grace and 
favour of the Crown and was a personal reward for services 
rendered. Here then is a barony entirely a personal dignity 
and quite unconnected with land. From Richard's reign to 
the present day baronies (and indeed all other peerage honours) 
have continued to be conferred by patent. The custom of 
summons by writ was not in any way interfered with, the patent 
operating merely to declare the dignity and to define its devolu- 
tion. Summons alone still continued side by side for many 
generations with summons founded on patent; but after the 
reign of Henry VIII. the former method fell into disuse, and 
during the last two hundred and fifty years there have been 
no new creations by writ of summons alone.* So from the 
reign of Richard II. barons were of two classes, the older, and 
more ancient in lineage summoned by writ alone, the honours 
descending to heirs-general, and the newer created by letters 
patent, the terms of which governed the issue of the summons 
and prescribed the devolution of the peerage in the line almost 
invariably of the direct male descendants of the person 
first ennobled. The principle of hereditary succession so dearly 
recognized in the Beauchamp creation is good evidence to show 
that a prescriptive right of hereditary summons probably existed 
in those families whose members had long been accustomed to 
receive individual writs. By the time the House of Lancaster 
was firmly seated on the throne it may be taken that the peerage 
had become a body of men possessing well-defined personal 
privileges and holding personal dignities capable ol descending 
to their heirs. 

The early origin of peerages was so closely connected with 
the tenure of land that the idea long prevailed that there were 
originally peerages by tenure only, i.e. dignities 
j^H^^ or titles annexed to the possession (and so following 
it on alienation) of certain lands held in chief of the 
king. The older writers, Glanviile (bk. ix. cc. 4, 6) and Bracton 
(bk. ii. c. 16), lend some colour to the view. They are followed, 
but not very definitely, by Coke, Seldcn and ^ladox. Black- 
stone, who discusses the question in his Commentaries (bk. i. 
c. xil.), seems to believe that such dignities existed in pre- 
parliamentary days but says further: " When alienations grew 
to be frequent, the dignity of peerage was confined to the lineage 
of the party ennobled, and instead of territorial became per- 
sonal." The Earldom of Arundel case, in 1433, at first sight seems 
to confirm the theory, but it may be noted that when in later 
years this descent came to be discussed the high authority of 
an act of parliament was found necessary to confirm the succes- 
sion to the dignity. The case is discussed at some length in the 
Lords Reports (ii. 115), the committee regarding it as an anomaly 
from which no useful precedent can be drawn. Other cases 
discussed in the same Report are those of De Lisle, Abergavenny, 
Fitzwalter and Berkeley. The Berkeley case of 1S58-1861 (better 
reported 8 H.L.C. 31) is essential for the student who wishes 
to examine the question carefully; and may be regarded as 
finally putting an end to any idea of bare tenure as an existing 
means of establishing a peerage right (see also Cruise on Dignities, 
and ed. pp. 60 et seq.). 

The main attribute of a peerage is that hereditary and inalien- 

' Not intentional at anv rate. In some cases where it was in- 
tended to call a son up in his father's barony, a mistake in the name 
has been made with the result that a new peerage by writ of sum- 
mons has been created. The barony of Buller, of Moore Park 
(cr. 1663). now in at)eyance, is said to be an instance of such a 
mistake. 



able quality which ennobles the blood of the holder and hit 
heirs, or, as a great judge put it in 1625 in the Earldom of 
Oxford case, " he cannot alien or give away this in- 
heritance because it is a personal dignity annexed 
to the posterity and fixed in the blood " (Dodridge, 
J., at p. 123, Sir W. Jones's Reports). Were the theory of barony 
by tenure accepted it would be possible for the temporary 
holder of such a barony to sell it or even to will it away to a 
stranger possessing none of the holder's blood, with the effect 
that, ia the words of Lord Chancellor Campbell (Berkeley case, 
8 H.L.C. 77), " there might be various individuals isnd various 
lines of peers successively ennobled and created peers of parlia- 
ment by a subject," an impossible condition of affairs in a 
country where the sovereign has always been the fountain of 
honour. Moreover, while no peerage honour can be extinguished 
or surrendered, the owner of lands can freely dispose of such 
rights as he possesses by sale or transfer. Finally we may accept 
the verdict in the Fitzwalter case of 1669 (Cruise, ibid. p. 66), 
which was adopted by the House of Lords in the Berkeley case: 
" and the nature of a barony by tenure being discussed, it 
was found to have been discontinued for many ages, and not ia 
being, and so not fit to be revived or to admit any pretence or 
right of succession thereupon." 

Until the reign of Edward III. the peerage consisted only of 
high ecclesiastics, earls and barons. The earls were banns 
with their special name of dignity added, and their 
names always appear on the rolls before those of the 
barons. In 1337 King Edward created his son, the Black 
Prince, duke of Cornwall, giving him precedence over the rest 
of the peerage. The letters patent (under which the present 
heir to the throne now holds the dukedom) limited the dignity 
in perpetuity to the first-bom son of the king of England.* 
Subsequently several members of the royal family were created 
dukes, but no subject received such an honour until fifty years 
later, when Richard II. created his favourite Robert de Vete, 
earl of Oxford, duke of Ireland (for life). The original intention 
may have been to confine the dignity to the blood royal, as with 
the exception of de Vere i* was some years before a dukedom 
was again conferred on a subject. 

In 1385 Richard II. had created Robert de Vere marquess of 
Dublin, thus importing an entirely new and unknown title into 
the peerage. The grant was, however, only for life, 
and was in fact resumed by the Crown in 1387, when 
its recipient was created duke of Ireland. It was not until 1397 
that another creation was made, this time in favour of one of 
the blood royal, John de Beaufort, eldest legitimated son of 
John of Gaunt, who became marquess of Dorset. His title was 
shortly afterwards taken away by Henry IV 's first pariiaroent. 
Subsequently creations were made only at long intervals, that 
of Winchester (1551) being the only one (of old date) under 
which an English marquess at present sits in the House of Lords 
(see Marquess). 

Under the name of viscount (q.v,) Henry VI. added yet another 
order, and the last in point of time, to the peerage, creating in 
1440, John, Baron Beaumont, Viscount Beaumont T||||„,,f, 
and giving him precedence next above the barons. 
The name of this dignity was also borrowed from the Continent, 
having been in use for some time as a title of honour in the king's 
French possessions. None of the new titles above mentioned 
ever carried with them any official position; they were conferred 
originally as additional honours on men who were already 
members of the peerage. 

The application of the hereditary principle to temporal 
peerages early differentiated their holders from the ^iritual 
peers. Both spiritual and temporal peers were 
equally lords of parliament, but hereditary preten- 
sions on the one side and ecclesiastical exclusiveness 
on the other soon drew a sharp line of division between the tiro 
orders. Gradually the temporal peers, strong in their doctrine 
of " ennobled " blood, came to consider that theirs was an order 

' . . . . prindpi et ipsius et haercdum tuonim Regum Aaffim 
filiis primogenitis {The Prince's Case, 8 Co. Rep. 37a: 77 E.R. S>3)* 



PEERAGE 



49 



abevB and beyond all other lords of ptriiament, and before Vmg, 
arrogitcd to themselves the exdtinve right to be called peers, 
and as such the only persons entitled to t^ privileges of peerage. 
In early parliamentary dajfs it had been the custom to summon 
RCttlarly to attend the Lords for deliberative purposes another 
body of men — the judges. Less important than the prelates, 
they also owed their summons to official position, and like them 
vere eventually overshadowed by the hereditary principle. 
The force of hereditary right gave to ennobled blood a position 
ed by either judge or prelate. It is true the prelate, 
point of antiquity, was senior to both earl and baron, and in 
es superior in extent of possessions; but these attributes 
bdonsed to bis office, the resignation or deprivation of which 
woold at any time have caused him to lose his writ of summons. 
The writ iBiied really to the office. The judge's position was 
His judicial office evoked the writ, but at any 
he might be deprived of that office at the arbitrary 
of the Crown. It is doubtful whether the judges ever 
had voice and vote in the same sense as the other lords of 
pttfiament, and even if they had they soon came to be regarded 
■ody as counsellors and assessors. 

The pretensions of the lay peers were not admitted without 

a straggle on the part of the prelates, who made the mistake 

of aiming at the establishment of a privileged position for their 

OVB order while endeavouring to retain every right possessed 

by their lay brethren. They fell between two stools, lost their 

position as peers, and were beaten back in their fight for ecde- 

■if^^^^ privilege. In the reign of Richard II. the prelates are 

fBond clearly defining their position. Neville, anchbishop of 

Yo^ de Vere, duke of Ireland and others, were " appealed " 

for treason, and the archbishop of Canterbury took the oppor- 

tanity in pariiament of making clear the rights of his order. 

He ssid " of right and by the custom of the realm of England 

it bdoAgeth to the Archbishop of Canterbury for the time being 

ss well as others his sufTragans, brethren and fellow bishops, 

abbots and priors and oth^ prelates whatsoever, holding of 

«v bed the king by barony, to be present in person in all the 

klig's parliaments whatsoever as Peers of the Realm aforesaid, 

and there with the other Peers of the Realm, and with other 

petscms having the right to be there present, to advise, treat, 

eidain, establish and determine as to the affairs of the realm 

sad other matters there wont to be treated and to do all else 

vkidi tl»re presses to be done." After this he went on to say 

that as to the particular matters in question they intended to 

be present and to take their part in all matters brought before 

psfliament " save our estate and order and that of each of the 

prdatcs in all things. But because in the present parliament 

there b question of certain matters, in which it is not lawful 

for as or anyone of the prelates according to the institute of the 

Boly Canons in any manner, to take part personally " we intend 

to letire " saving always the rights of our peerage " (Rot. Pari. 

II Rich. IL No. 6 — ^printed iii. 236-237). At the desire of the 

PRiates this statement of their rights was duly enrolled in parlia- 

SKst, but their claim to be peers was neither denied nor admitted, 

aad the proceedingi went on without them. For themselves 

Chondhmen never claimed the privilege of trial by peers. 

Vkenever they were arraigned they claimed to be altogether 

sttside secular jurisdiction, and it was therefore a matter of 

snail concern to them whether they were in the hands of peers 

«rpcssants. Such was the attitude of Bccket towards Henry II. 

(Stibbs, Cffnsi. Hist. i. $04), of Archbishop Stratford towards 

Edward III. (Pike, pp. 188 seq.), and it was probably with 

tbe bistc^ of these two cases in his mind thai the archbishop 

sf Rkhard II. 's rdgn speaks of the saving rights of his order. 

Tbese rights were never willingly admitted in England, and as 

tbe p<^>e's power for interference waned so the prelates were 

loiced under the ordinary law of the land. Henry VIII. cer- 

binly never regarded ecclesiastics as peers, as may be gathered 

boa a grant eariy in his reign to the then abbot of Tavistock 

fcr bimself and each succeeding abbot the right to be " one of 

tbe sfriritual and religious lords of parliament." As to abbots, 

tbcsabscqoent dissolution of the monasteries put an end to the 

.1 a 



discusnon. In thb reign also Cranmer and Fisher, though the 
former was archbishop of Canterbury, were tried by a common 
jury, and they certainly claimed no privilege of peerage. The 
Standing Orders of the House of. Lords for 1625 contain the 
statement that " Bishops are only Lords of Parliament and not 
Peers " (Lords JoumalSt iii. 349)> In 1640 the " Lords Spiritual " 
were altogether excluded from the House of Lords by act of 
parliament, and were not brought back until the second year 
of the Restoration. From that period there has been no ques- 
tion as to their position. Peers and holders by barony when 
parliaments first met, by the end of the i sth century they had put 
themselves outside the pale of the peerage. To-day their ancient 
lands are vested in trustees (Ecclesiastical Commissioners), 
and office alone constitutes a bishop's qualification, and 
that only if he occupies one of the five great sees of Canterbury, 
York, London, Durham and Winchester, or is of sufficient 
seniority in appointment to fill one of the remaining twenty-one 
places on the bench of bishops in the house — for there are now 
only twenty-six seats for thirty-six prelates. 

The reign of Henry VIII. brought about far-reaching changes 
in the position of the peerage. When that king ascended Uie 
throne the hereditary element was in a decided Umyvm^ 
minority, but the bsJance was gradually redressed •m4tko 
until -at length a bare hereditary majority was '^•'ai*. 
secured and the dissolution of the monasteries made 
possible. The peers, many now grown fat on abbey lands, 
at once began- to consolidate their position; precedents were 
eagerly sought for, and the doctrine of ennobled blood began 
to find definite and vigorous expression. So long, the peers 
declared, as there is any ennobled blood, a peerage 
must exist; and it can be extinguished only by act 
of parliament, failure of heirs, or upon corruption 
of blood by attainder. Stubbs writes nfith some contempt of 
the doctrine (Const. Hist. iiL 458 n.), apparently on the ground 
that it is absurd to speak of ennobled blood so long as the children 
of a peer still remain commoners. The doctrine is neither 
unreasonable nor illogical. By it is meant blood in which 
there always exists a capacity to inherit a particular peerage, 
and every person in whose veins the ennobled blood runs is 
competent to occupy the peerage if the chances of nature should 
remove those who are senior to him in the line of decent. A 
good illustration is the popular use of the term " blood royal," 
which of course does not mean that an individual of the blood 
royal necessarily occupies a throne but that he or she is in the 
line of succession to it. Similarly, persons of " ennobled blood " 
are not necessarily peers but in the line of descent to peerages, 
to which they may or may not succeed. (See Nobiuty.) 

The English peer is not like the continental noble the member 
of a caste, but the holder for life of an office clothed with high 
and exceptional legislative and judicial attributes entirely 
dependent on his office and exercisable only in conjunction 
with his fellow peers in parliament assembled. Such privileges 
as he possesses are due primarily to his office rather than to his 
blood. His children are commoners, who though accorded 
courtesy titles by the usage of society have no legal privileges 
not shared with the humblest of British subjects. It is this 
peculiar official quality of an English peerage which saved 
England from the curse of a privileged noble caste such as that 
which so long barred all progress in France and Germany. As 
a result there are hundreds of families in the tlnited Kingdom 
who, commoners there, would yet, from their purity of blood, 
position and influence, be accounted noble in any continental 
country. 

From the doctrine of nobility of blood is derived the rule 
of law that no peerage (a Scots peerage is under Scots Law) 
can be surrendered, extinguished, or in any way got 
rid of unless the blood be corrupted. The rule is SrfliwSw* 
well illustrated by the earldom of Norfolk case 
(Law Reports [1907I, A. C. 10) in which its development was 
traced, and the principle authoritatively confirmed. In 1302 
the hereditary earldom of Norfolk (created in 1135) was in thb 
possession of Hugh Bygod, one of the most powerful nobles d 



so 



PEERAGE 



PlanUgenet days. The eari got into difficulties, and as some 
say, for a consideration, and others, to spite his brother and 
debtor, surrendered his earldom and all the lands thereto 
belonging, to King Edward I. from whom he subsequently 
received it back with an altered limitation to himself and the 
heirs of his body. As he was a childless old man this was practi- 
cally a short life interest to the exclusion of all his relatives, the 
nearest of whom but for the surrender would have succeeided. 
Soon after Bygod died, and the earldom fell into the hands of 
Edward U. who granted it to his brother Thomas of Brothcrton 
in 131a. Lord Mowbray, the lineal descendant of this Thomas, 
recently came forward and claimed the earldom, but in 1906 
the House of Lords decided against his claim on the ground 
that in law Bygod's surrender was invalid, and that therefore 
Edward II. had no valid power to grant this particular earldom 
to Thomas of Brotherton. Historically there is little to support 
such a decision, and indeed this rigid application of the law is 
of comparatively recent date. Without doubt king, nobles and 
lawyers alike were all agreed, right down to Tudor days, that 
such surrenders were entirely valid. Many certainly were made, 
but, according to the decision of 1906, any living heirs of line 
of those nobles who thus got rid of their peerage honours can, 
if their pedigrees be provable, come to the House of Lords with a 
fair chance of reviving the ancient honours. Even as late as 
1663 we find the Crown, naturally Svith the concurrence of its 
legal advisers, stating in the barony of Lucas patent (1663) that, 
on the appearance of co-heirs to a barony, the honour may be 
suspended or extinguished at the royal pleasure. The royal view 
of the law (at any rate as to extinction) was strongly objected 
to by the Lords, who guarded their privileges in Stuart days 
even more strictly than did the Commons. As early as 1626, 
in the celebrated dispute over the earldom of Oxford, the lord 
great chamberlainship and the l>aronics of Bolebec, Badlesmere 
and Sandford, Mr Justice Dodridge, who had been called in by 
the Lords to advise them, said that an earl could not give away 
or alien his inheritance, because it was " a personal dignity 
annexed to the posterity and fixed in the blood." Fourteen 
years later, in the Grey de Ruthyn case, the Lords solemnly 
resolved, " That no peer of the realm can drown or extinguish 
his honour (but that it descends unto his descendants), neither 
by surrender, grant, fine nor any other conveyance to the king." 
In 1678 the Lords became, if possible, even more definite, in 
view probably of the fact that the Crown had disregarded the 
Grey de Ruthyn resolution, having in z66o taken into its hands, 
by surrender of Robert Villiers, and viscount, the viscounty 
of Purbeck. In 1676 the son of the second viscount applied 
for his writ of summons, and on the advice of Sir William Jones, 
the attorney-general, who reported that " this (surrender) 'was 
a considerable question, never before resolved that he knew of," 
the king referred the whole matter to the Lords. The Lords 
were very explicit, being " unanimously of the opinion, and do 
resolve that no fine now levied, or at any time*hereafter to be 
levied by the king, can bar such title of honour {i.e. of a peer 
of the realm), or the right of any person claiming under him that 
levied, or shall levy such fine." On these resolutions passed in 
the seventeenth century, the Lords of 1906 find illegal a surrender 
of 1302. The result seems strange, but it is, at any rate, logical 
from the legal point of vie^ It was urged that in 1302 no 
real parliament, in the sense applied to those of later years, 
was in existence; and consequently, a resolution founded on 
parliamentary principles should not apply. Tq this answer 
was made: Although it may be true that the law and practice 
of parliament had not then crystallized into the definite shape 
of even a hundred years later, the " Model Parliament " was 
summoned seven years before Bygod's surrender, and it is neces- 
sary to have some definite occurrence from which to date a 
legal beginning — a point of law with which an historian can have 
little sympathy. 

Briefly, perhaps, from the teaching of the case, it may be 
permissible to state the rule as follows: In early days thd 
Norman and Plantagenet kings took upon themselves to deal 
with the barons in a manner which, though illegal, was suffered 



because no one dared oppose them; but as time went on, becom- 
ing stronger and more determined to enforce their privileges 
and exalt their order the peers were able to compel recognition 
of their rights, and their r^olutions in Stuart days were only 
declaratory of law which had always existed, but had been 
systematically disregarded by the Crown. This being so, 
resolutions of the peers deliberately and expressly laid down 
must, when in point, always be followed. 

The application of the doctrine of corruption of blood to 
peerages arises out of their cl<»e connexion with the tenure 

of land, peerage dignities never having been regarded 

as personal until well on into the 14th century. «atfi 
Conviction for any kind of felony — ^and treason 
originally was a form of felony — was always followed ■•■•* 
by attainder. This resulted in the immediate corruption of 
the blood of' the offender, and its capacity for inheritance was 
lost for ever. Such corruption with all its consequences could 
be set aside only by act of parliament. This stringent rule of 
forfeiture was to some extent mitigated by the passing in 1 285 
of the statute De Donis Conditionalibus (Blackstone's Commen- 
lories f iL zz6) which made possible the creation of estates tail, 
and when a tenant-in-tail was attainted forfeiture extended only 
to his life interest. The statute De Donis was soon applied 
by the judges to suchi dignities as were entailed {e.g. dignities 
conferred by patent with limitations in tail), but it never affected 
baronies by writ, which were not estates in tail but in the nature 
of estates in fee simple descendible to heirs general. In the 
reign of Henry VIII. an act was passed (1534) which brought 
estates tail within the law of forfeiture, but for high treason only. 
The position then became that peerages of any kind were for- 
feitable by attainder following on high treason, while baronies 
by writ remained as before forfeitable for attainder following 
on felony. In 1708, just after the Union with Scotland, an 
act was passed by which on the death of the Pretender and three 
years after Quttn Anne's death the effects of corruption of blood 
consequent on attainder for high treason were to be abolished, 
and the actual offender only to be punished (stat. 7 Anne, 
c. 21, § 10). Owing to the 1745 rising, the operation of this act 
was postponed until the decease of the Pretender and all his 
sons (stat. 17 Geo. II. c. 39, § 3). In 1814 forfeiture for every 
crime other than high and petty treason and murder was re- 
stricted to the lifetime of the person attainted (stat. 54 Geo. 
III. c. 145). Finally in 1870 forfeiture, except upon outlawry, 
was altogether abolished and it was provided that " no judgment 
of or for any treason or felony should cause any attainder or 
corruption of blood, or any forfeiture or escheat." The necessity 
for ascertaining the exact condition of the law with regard to 
attainder throughout the whole period of English parliamentary 
history will be realized when it is remembered that there still 
exist dormant and abeyant p)eerages dating from 1295 onwards 
which may at any time be the subject of claim before the House 
of Lords, and if any attainders exist in the history of such peerages 
the law governing their consequences is not the law as it exists 
to-day but as it existed when the attainder occurred. The 
dukedom of Atholl case of 1764 is interesting as showing the 
effect of attainder on a peerage where the person attainted does 
not actually succeed. John first duke of Atholl died in 172s 
leaving two sons James and George. George the younger was 
attainted of treason in 1745 and died in 1760, leaving a son John. 
James, the second son of the first duke, who had succeeded his 
father in 1725 died in 1764 without issue. John his nephew then 
claimed the dukedom, and was allowed it on the ground that 
his father never having been in the possession of the dukedom 
his attainder could not bar his son, who succeeds by reason 
of his heirship to his uncle. It would have been otherwise 
had the younger son outlived his brother, for he would then have 
succeeded to the dukedom and so destroyed it by his attainder. 

In many cases there have been passed special parliamentary 
acts of attainder and forfeiture, and these, of course, operate 
apart from the general law. In any event, attainder and 
forfeiture of a dignity, whether resulting from the rules of the 
common law or from special or general acts of parliament can 



PEERAGE 



SI 





on] J be reversed by act of parliament. The procedure in 
fevening an attainder and recovering a dignity is as follows. 
The Crown signifies its pleasure that a bill of restoration shall 
be prepared and signs it. The bill is then brought in to the 
House of Lords, passed there, and sent to the G>mmons for 
assent. The last bills of the kind became law in 1876, when 
Earl Cowper procured the removal of the attainder on one of his 
Ormond ancestors and so by purging the blood of corruption 
became entitled to, and was idlowed, the barony of Butler of 
Moore Park (created in 1663). There should also be noted the 
Earldom of Mar Restitution Act 1885, which, while mainly con- 
firmatory of a disputed succession, at the same time reverseii 
any attainders that esdsted. 

The House of Lords grew steadily throughout the Tudor 
period, and during the reign of the first two Stuarts underwent 
a stfll greater increase. In the Great Rebellion the majority of 
the peers were the king's stoutest supporters and thus inevitably 
invt^ved themselves in the ruin of the royal cause. Immediately 
after the execution of Charles L the Republicans proceeded 
to sweep away everything which savoured of mon- 
archy and aristocracy. The House of Commons 
voted the Lords " useless and dangerous," got rid of 
them as a part of parliament by the simple expedient 
€i a res(4«tion (Ccmms. Joums. 1648-1649, vi. iii) and placed 
the sole executive power in Cromwell's hands, but there was 
no direct abolition of the peerage as such. Evidently it took 
Cromwell but little time to realixe the fallacy, in practice, of 
r« single-chamber government, as he is found ten 
years after the " useless and dangerous " resolu- 
tion busy establishing a second chamber.^ What 
to call it aroused much discussion, and eventually the unruly 
Commons consented to speak of and deal with " the other 
boose." It is very diffictilt to realize what was the constitution 
of th» body, so short was its life and so contemptuous its treat- 
BKot by the Commons. The members of " the other house " 
were summoned by writs under the Great Seal, similar in form 
to those used to summon peers of past days. Some sixty writs 
were issued, and presumably their redpients were entitled 
thoeby to sit for the duration of the parliament to which they 
were summoned; but it may be considered as certain that 
CromweO's lords were never regarded as hereditary peers. 
They were entitled to the courtesy appellation " Lord " and 
appear to have been in the main substantial men — existing 
peers, judges, distinguished lawyers and members of well-known 
county families. Judging from Cromwell's speech at the 
opening of parliament, and subsequent entries in Whitelock's 
daries, the new house appears to have had revising functions 
both of a legislative and judicial nature and also the duty of 
taking cognizance of foreign affairs. Cromwell certainly issued 
two patents of hereditary peerage — the barony of Bumell 
sad the barony of Gilsland (with which went the viscounty of 
Howard of Morpeth), but neither title was recognized on the 
Scstwation, and it does not appear that the possession of these 
titles ever conferred on their holders any hereditary right to a 
vfit of summons to sit in "the other house." Whiteiock 
hrnsetf was promised a viscounty by Cromwell, but no patent 
ever appears to have passed the Great Seal. Eventually business 
between the two houses grew impossible, and Cromwell was 
CDOpeOed to dissolve parliament. Richard's first parliament 
abo contained Lords as well as Commons, the latter considerately 
vociag *' to transact business with the persons sitting in the 
otber bouse as an House of Parliament, saving the right of the 
peers who had been faithful to the parliament," the saving 
duse evidently a loophole for the future. The dissolution 
«f this parliament and the retirement of the protector Richard 
isto private life preceded by only a few months the restoration 
to the throne of Charles II. With the king the peers returned 
to their andent places. 

From the reign of William of Orange the peerage has been 
fac^ened by a steady stream of men who as a rule have served 

'WUtdock's Uemoriats of Endish Affairs (In the retgn of 
Ckuies L and up to the Restoration) (1853 ed. iv. 313). 



their country as statesmen, lawyers and soldiers. Little of 
note occurred in the history of the peerage until the reign of 
Anne. By the Act of Union with Scotland (1707) 
the Scottish parliament was abolished; but the 
Scottish peerage were given the privilege of 
electing, for each parliament of Great Britain, sixteen of 
their number to represent them in the House of Lords. 
Further creations in the Scottish peerage were no longer to be 
made. The effect of this act was to leave the great majority 
of the Scottish peers outside the House of Lords, as only sixteen 
of their number were to become lords of parliament. Close 
upon a hundred years later Ireland was united with Great 
Britain, the Irish parliament being merged in the irM Ktpi^ 
parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain y^o^ w 
and Ireland. Twenty-eight Irish peers were to be ^'•'■' 
elected for life by their order to represent it in the House of 
Lords. One archbishop and three bishops were also chosen in 
turn to represent the Irish Church in the House of Lords, but 
when that Church was disestablished in 1867 the spiritual 
lords lost their seats. The merger of the three kingdoms had 
an important effect on their peerages. Every peer in his 
own country had been a lord of parliament by hereditary right. 
The English peer (and, as the Acts of Union were passed, the 
peer of Great Britain and the p)eer of the United Kingdom) 
continued by hereditary right a lord of parliament. The 
Scottish and Irish peers lost this right though by the two Acts 
of Union they retained every other privilege of peerage. Hence- 
forth they were lords of parliament only as and when their 
fellow peers elected them. Thus though not all were lords of 
parliament in esse, every one was always so in posse, and in any 
case it was the hereditary quality of the peerage which either 
actually seated its holder in the House of Lords or made it 
possible for him to get there by the votes of his fellows. 

It now becomes possible to arrive at the modem meaning of 
the term " a peerage," and we may define it as a dignity of 
England, Scotland or Ireland, which, by its heredi- Modtrm 
tary quaUty, confers on its holder for the time Mtmah yi 
being the right to be or not to be elected a loid of •''^•'U*-'* 
parliament. The term " peerage " is also used in a collective 
sense. 

The reign of Anne is remarkable for an attempt made by the 
House of Lords to limit its numbers by law. The queen, 
in order to secure a majority for the court party, Qm^BAam* 
had created a batch of twelve peers at one time, a aadPteng* 
considerable number in relation to existing p)eerages; '•*■*«<'•■• 
and it was feared this expedient might be used as a 
precedent. A peerage limitation bill was introduced into the 
House of Lords in 1719. Six new creations were to be allowed, 
but after these the Crown, except in the case of royal princes, 
was to create a new peerage only when an old one became 
extinct. Twenty-five hereditary peerages in Scotland were 
to take the place of the sixteen representative peers for all time. 
The bill passed the Lords, but was eventually thrown out in the 
House of Commons, though not by an overwhelming majority. 

In 1856 it was desired to strengthen the judicial element 
in the House of Lords, and the Crown issued letters patent 
creating Sir James Parke, one of the barons of the ^rtuMitydait 
exchequer, Baron Wensleydale and a peer " for ca»9. 
and during the term of his natural life." The 
burden of an hereditary peerage is heavy, and many men 
thoroughly well qualified in legal attainments have been known 
to refuse it on the ground of expense alone. This life-peerage 
was thought to be a way out of the difficulty, and it was on 
Lord Chancellor Cranworth's advice that the Crown issued the 
Wensleydale patent. The House of Lords at once realized 
that the creation of h'fc-peers, at the will of the ministry of the 
day, might put the hereditary section into an absolute minority, 
and possibly in time, by form of law, get rid of it altogether. 
Eventually it was decided by the house that " neither the said 
letters patent nor the said letters patent with the usual writ of 
summons enable the grantee to sit and vote in parliament,", 
a formal resolution which closed the door in the face of every 



52 



PEERAGE 



person whom the Crown might endeavour to nAke a lUe-peer. 
The government of the day accepted the utuation, and soon 
afterwards a new patent was made out which' followed the usual 
limitation to heirs-male. The precedents in favour of the 
Crown's actiod were not strong. The essential and outstanding 
attribute of the house was its hereditary character. The whole 
balance of the constitution worked on the pivot of the indepen- 
dence of the peers.- They existed as a moderating force in the 
counsels <^ parUament, and the alteration of the hereditary 
character of the House of Lords might easily have rendered 
it amenable to whatever pressure the government of the day 
might see fit to exercise. In such drctmistanccs its position 
as arbiter between people and government would tend to di>- 
a|^)ear. A change fraught with so many serious possibilities 
ought not, it was said, to be made by the simple prerogative 
of the Crown. If so far-reaching an alteration in the law were 
justifiable it was for parliament to make it. Further, it was 
pointed out, there had been no life-creations for centuries, and 
those that are recorded to have been conferred since the crys- 
tallization of our parliamentary system were of such a nature 
that the grantees never sat in the house by virtue of their life- 
iiOQOurs, inasmuch as they were existing peers or women.. Soon 
after the Wcnsleydale debates the government 
introduced a bill into the House of Lords to authorize 
the creation of two Ufc-pecrs, who were to be persons 
of at least five years' standing as judges. They were to sit as 
lords of appeal but to be peers for life. Eventually the bill 
disappeared in the House of Commons. In 1869 Earl Russell 
introduced another life-peerage biU of far wider scope. Twenty- 
eight life-peerages might be in existence at any one time, but 
not more than four were to be created in any one year. The 
life peers would be lords of parliament for life. They were to be 
seleaed'by the Crown from the peerages of Scotlaxid and Ireland, 
persons who had sat for ten years in the Commons, distinguished 
soldiers, sailors, civil servants and judges or persons distinguished 
in science, Uterature or art. The bill received a rough handling 
in committee of the Lords, and the time was evidently not ripe 
for change, as the bill failed to pass its third reading. 

In 1870 attempts were made in the House of Lords to alter 
the position of the Scottish and Irish representative peers. In 
S^gnU4 1876 the need of further judicial strength in the 
A»AMns«0tf Lords was tardily admitted, and an act was passed 
AManUnaa, authorizing the creation of two lords of appeal in 
ordinary, and power was reserved to appoint two more 
as certain judicial vacancies occurred. They were to be 
entitled to the rank of baron during their lives but were to sit 
and vote in parliament only so long as they hdd their judicial 
office. Their dignities lasted for life only. Eleven years later 
another act enabled all retired lords of appeal to sit and vote aa. 
members of the House of Lords for life. To those inticrcstcd 
in House of Lords reform the pages of Hansard's Parliamen- 
tary Debates are the best^ authority. In 1888 reform bills were 
introduced by Lords Dunraven and Salisbury, and in 1907 by 
Lord Newton. In December 1908 the publication of a long 
report with sweeping recommendations for reform ended the 
labours of a House of Lords committee which had been appointed 
to consider the question in detaiL In the session of 1910, 
following the general election, long discussions took place in 
both houses of parliament. Opinion generally was freely 
expressed that the time had arrived for diminishing the number 
of lords of parliament and for putting into practice the principle 
that hereditary right alone should no longer confer lordship of 
parliament. fSee Parliament.) 

The Scottish peerage, like that of England, owes its origin 
to feudalism. In Anglo-Norman days Scotland was a small 
country, and for some generations after England 
was settled the Scottish king's writ ran little b^nd 
the foot of the Highlands, and even the Lord of the 
Isles reckoned himself an independent sovereign until the 
beginning of the 15th century. The weak and usually ineffective 
contrd of the Crown resulted in opportunities for acqiuring 
personal j)ower which the nobles were not slow to take advantage 



of. Seldom accustomed to act In concert, they soon devdoped 
particularist tendencies which steadily increased ()ie strength 
of their territorial position. These conditions, of existence 
were entirely unfavourable to the establishment of any system 
of pariiamentary government such as centralization had made 
possible in En^and, therefore it is not surprising to find that the 
lesser barons were not relieved of their attendance at the national 
assemblies until well on in the xsth century (Burton's Scotland, 
iii. xzx). Again, when the Scottish earls axid barons came to 
parlian^t, they did not withdraw themselv^ from the rest 
of the people, it being the custom for the estates of Scotland 
to deliberate together, and this custom perusted until the 
abob'tion of their parliament by the Act of Union in 1707. The 
territorial spirit of the nobles inevitably led them to ttgud the 
honour as belonging to, and inseparable from, their land, and 
until comparatively late in Scottish history there is nowhere 
any record of the conferment of a personal dignity unattached 
to land such as that conferred in England on Beauchamp by 
Richard H. This expbuns the frequent surrenders and altered 
grants which are so conmion in Scottish peerage history, and 
which, in sharp distinction to the English rule df law, are there 
regarded as perfectly legal. To-day there exists no Scottish 
dukedom (except the toytl dukedom of Rothesay), marquessate 
or viscounty created before the reign of James VI. of Scotland 
(and I. of England). Of the existing Scottish peerages sixty- 
three were created in the period between James's accession to 
the En^ish throne and the Act of Union. There are now only 
eighty-seven in all. Unlike one of the English peerages owing its 
origin exclusively to a writ of summons, ancient Scottish 
peerages do not fall into abeyance, and when there are <mly 
heirs-general, the eldest heir of line succeeds. 

Whenever a new pariiament is summoned, prodamatlon is 
made in Scotland summoning the peers to meet at Holyrood 
to elect sixteen of thdr number to represent them in such 
pariiament. The Scottish peerages are recorded on a roll, 
and this is called over by the lord derk register before the 
assembled peers seated at a long table. Each peer answers to 
the name of the peerage (it may be one or more) he possesses. 
The roll is then read again and each peer in turn (but only <Mice) 
rises and reads out the list of those sixteen peers for whom he 
votes. Proxies are allowed for absent peers and are handed in 
after the second roU-calL The votes are counted and the lord 
derk register reads out the names of those dected, makes a 
return, and signs and seals it in the presence of the peers 
assembled. The return eventually finds its way to the House of 
Lords. The Scottish representative peer so dected recdves no 
writ of sununons to pariiament, but attends the House.<^ Lords 
to take the oath, his right to sit being evidenced by the return 
made. It might be thought that the rules of election In so 
important a matter -woxild be more stringent, but the fact 
remains that it is quite possible for an entirely unqualified person 
to attend and vote at Holyrood. No evidence of identity tit 
of a man's right to be present is required and the lord derk 
register is compelled to receive any vote tendered except in 
re^)ect of peerages for which no vote has been given since xSoo, 
these being stiiick off the roll (10 & xz Via. c. 52). Any 
person claiming to represent such a peerage must prove hb 
right before the House of Lords, as was done in the case of the 
barony of Fairfax in 1908. It is true that by the act last dtcd 
any two peers may protest against a vote at Holyrood, and the 
lord derk register thereupon reports the proceedings to the 
House of Lords, who will consider the question if application 
be made for an inquiry, but nothing is done unless an ai^qttion 
is made. The ri^t to vote certainly needs better proof than 
that now accepted. For many years the House of Lords main- 
tained that the Crown could not confer a new peerage of Great 
Britain on a ScotUsh peer, the ground being Uiat the Scottish 
peerage was only entitled to the sixteen representative peers 
given it by the Act of Union, but eventually in 1782 in the case 
of the duke of Hamilton this contention was given up. 

The Anglo-Norman conquerors of Ireland carried with then 
the laws anid the system of tenure to which they were accustoiMd 



PEERAGE 



S3 



in fagUnd, and consequently the growth of the baronage 
and the estaUishment of parliamentary government in Irebnd 
p r oceeded on parallel lines with the changes which 
occurred in England. Until the reign of Henry VIII. 
the Irish were without representation in par-' 
Gament, but gradually the Irish were admitted, and by the 
creation of new parliamentary counties and boroughs were 
enabled to elect representatives. In 16x3 the whole coimtry 
shared in representation (Ball's Legislative Systems of Ireland). 
Jttst as James I. had added many members to the Scottish 
peerage, so he increased the number of Irish peers. 

In 1800 the Union of Great Britain and Ireland abolished 
the parliament of Ireland. By the Act of Union the Irish peers 
bccune entitled to elect twenty-eight of their number to r^re- 
sent them in the Hoiise of Lords. The election is for life, and 
only those peers are entitled to vote at elections of representative 
peers wbo have proved their right of succession to the satisfaction 
of the lord chancellor, who issues his notice to that effect after 
cadi Individual proof. The names of such peers are added to 
the voting-roll of the peerage, and when voting papers are 
distributed — the Irish peers do not meet for election purposes 
as do those of Scotland — they are sent only to those peers who 
have proved their right to vote. If any claim to the right to 
vote is rejected by the lord chancellor the claimant must prove 
hb case b^ore the Committee for Privileges (barony of Graves, 
X907). When an Irish peer has been elected a representative 
peer be receives, as a matter of course, a writ of summons at 
the beginning of each parliament. The great bulk of the Irish 
pecnge owes its existence to creations during the last two 
centuries, only seven of the existing peerages dating back 
beyond the 17th century; of the rest twenty-two were created 
daring the year of Union, and thirty-three have been added 
since that date. Some hundred or more years ago ministers 
Soond the Irish peerage a useful means of political reward, in 
that it was possible to bestow a title of honour, with all 
its social prestige, and yet not to increase the numbers of the 
Bouse of Lords. 

On the death of a representative peer of Scotland or Ireland 
a vacancy occurs and a new election takes place, but in accor- 
dance with modem practice promotion to a United Kingdom 
peerage does not vacate the holder's representative position 
(May's Parliamentary Practice, p. xx n.). Scottish and Irish 
peers, if representative, possess all the privileges of peerage 
and pariiament enjoyed by peers of the United Kingdom; if 
BOQ-repcesentative all privileges of peerage, except the right to 
a writ <d summons to attend parliament and to be present at and 
vole in the trial of peers. A Scottish peer, if non-representa- 
tive, h in the anomalous position of being disabled from serving 
Ibs country in either house of parliament, but an Irish peer 
may ait for any House of Commons constituency out of Ireland, 
tboo^ whUe a member of the Commons his peerage privileges 
abate. 

Thod^ many peers possess more than one peerage, and 
beqnently of more than one country, only that title is publicly 
ved which is first in point of precedence. It was once argued 
that whenever a barony by writ came into the possession of a 
pmoo already a peer of higher rank, the higher peerage " at- 
tracted" or overshadowed the lower, which thenceforth followed 
tbe coone of descent of the dignity which had attracted it. 
Thk doctrine is now exploded and cannot be regarded as apply- 
iag to any case except that of the Crown (Baronies of Fitzwaltcr, 
1660, and De Ros, 1666; Collins's Claims, x68, 261). Every 
peerage descends according to the limitations prescribed in its 
^Btoit of creation or its charter, and where these are non- 
existent (as in the case of baronies by writ) to heirs-general. 
(See Abeyakcz.) 

In dealing with English dignities It is essential to realize 
the difference between a mere title of honour and a peerage. 
The Crown as tbe fountain of honour is capable of conferring 
vpon a subject not only any existing title of honour, but 
Bty even invent one for the purpose. So James I. instituted 
a Older of hereditary knights which he termed baronets^ 



and Edward VII. created the duchess of Fife "Princess 
Royal"— a life dignity. The dignities of prince of Wales, 
earl marshal and lord great chamberlain have been cnmOiuu 
for centuries hereditary, and though of high court and mmMib9 
social precedence, of themselves confer no right to »a»rdtaM 
a seat in the Hoiise of Lords — they are not peerages. ** ''**'* 
The grant of a peerage is a very different matter; iu holder 
becomes thereby a member of the Upper House of Parlia- 
ment, and therefore the prerogative of the Crown in creat- 
ing such an office of honour must be exercised strictly in 
accordance with the law of the land. The Crown's prerogative 
is limited in several directions. The course of descent must be 
known to the law; and so, in the first pbce, it follows that a peer 
cannot be created for life with a denial of succession to his 
descendants (unless it be as one of the lords of appeal in ordinary 
under the acts of 1876 and 18S7). The courses of descent of 
modem patents are invariably so marked out as ultimately 
to fix the peerage in sdme male line according to the custom of 
primogeniture, though the immediate successor of the first holder 
may be a woman or even a stranger in blood. The following 
instances may be dted; Amabell, Baroness Lucas, was in 1816 
created Countess de Grey with a limitation to the heirs-male of 
her sister; a nephew afterwards succeeded her and the earldom 
is now held by the marquess of Ripon. Other courses of descent 
known to the law are as follows: Fee simple, which probably 
operates as if to heirs-general, earldoms of Oxford (11 55) and 
Noriolk (1x35), both probably now in abeyance; and Bedford 
(i3<^7)» extinct; to a second son, the eldest being alive, dukedom 
of Dover (1708), extinct, and earldom of Cromartie (1861) called 
out of abeyance in X895; a son-in-law and his heirs-male by the 
daughter of the first grantee, earldom of Northumberland (i 747) ; 
to an elder daughter and her heirs-male, earldom of Roberts 
(1901); to an elder or younger brother and his heirs-male, 
viscounty of Kitchener (1902) and barony of Grimthorpe (1886). 
It is, however, not lawful for the Crown to make what is called 
a shifting limitation to a peerage, i.e. one which might vest a 
peerage in an individual, and then on a certain event happening 
{e.g. his succession to a peerage of higher rank) shift it from him 
to the representative of some other line. Such a limitation 
was held illegal in the Buckhurst case (1864). A peerage may 
not be limited to the grantee and " his heirs-male for ever." 
Such a grant was that ot the earldom of Wiltes in 1398. The 
original grantee died without issue, but left a male hcir-at-Iaw, 
whose descendants in 1869 claimed the earldom, but the original 
limitation was held invalid. 

There is no limitation on the power of the Crown as to the 
number of United Kingdom peerages which may be created. 
As to Scotland, the Act of Union with that country operates to 
prevent any increase in the number of Scottish peerages, and 
consequently there have been no creations since 1707, with the 
result that the Scottish peerage, as a separate order, is gradually 
approaching extinction. The Irish pycerage is supfwsed always 
to consist of one himdred exclusively Irish peers, and the Crown 
has power to grant Irish peerages up to the limit. When the 
limit is reached no more peerages may be granted until existing 
ones become extinct or their holders succeed to United Kingdom 
peerages. Only four lords of appeal in ordinary may hold 
office at any one time. The number of archbishops and bishops 
capable of sitting in the House of Lords is fixed by various 
statutes at twenty-six, but, as pointed out previously, the 
spiritual lords are not now regarded as peers. 

Since party government became the rule, the new peerages have 
usually been created on the recommendation of the prime 
minister of the day, though the Crown, especially 
in considering the claims of royal blood, is believed jvkrmAw«. 
in some instances to take its own course; and 
constitutionally such action is entirely legal. By far the 
greater number of peerage honours granted during the last 
two centuries have been rewards for (wlitical services. Usually 
these services are well known, but there exists several instances 
in which the reasons for conferring the honour have not been 
quite clear. Until the reign of George III. the peerage was 



5+ 



PEERAGE 



comparatively small, but that monarch issued no fewer than 
388 patents of peerage. Many of these have become extinct 
or obscured by higher titles, but the general tendency is in the 
direction of a steady increase, and where the peers of Tudor times 
might be counted by tens their successors of 19x0 were nxmibered 
in hundreds. The full body would be 546 English peers. 
There are also 12 ladies holding English peerages. The Irish 
peerage has X7S members, but 82 of these are also peers of the 
United Kingdom, leaving 28 representative and 65 without 
seats in the House of Lords. Of 87 Scottish peers 51 hold United 
Kingdom peerages, the remainder consisting of 16 r^resentative 
and 20 without seats. 

As centuries have gone by and customs changed, many 
privileges once keenly asserted have either dropped out of 
m^jf^ *»se or been forgotten. The most important now 
•/Amm. ^ beins f^^ & scat in the House of Lords and the 
nght to trial by peers. The right to a seat in 
parliament is one sanctioned by centuries of constitutional 
usage. The right of a peer in England to a seat in parliament 
was not, as pointed out in the early part of this article, entirely 
admitted by the Crown until late in the Plantagenet period, 
the king's pleasure as to whom he should summon always 
having been a very material factor in the question. Charles I. 
made a deliberate attempt to recover the ancient discretion 
of the Crown in the issue of writs of summons. The earl of 
Bristol was the subject of certain treasonable charges, and 
though he was never put on his trial the king directed that 
his writ of summons should not issue. The excluded peer 
petitioned the Lords, as for a breach of privilege, and a com- 
mittee to whom the matter was referred reported that there 
was no instance on record in which a peer capable of sitting in 
parliament bad been refused his writ. There was a little dcby, 
but the king eventually gave in, and the earl had his writ 
(Lords Journals, iiL 544). 

r At the beginning of a new parliament every peer entitled 
receives a writ of summons issued under the authority of the 
Great Seal; he presents his writ at the table of the House of 
Lords on his first attendance, and before taking the oath. If 
the peer be newly created be presents his letters-patent creating 
the peerage to the lord chancellor on the woolsack, together 
with the writ of summons which the patent has evoked. A 
peer on succession presents his writ in the ordinary way, the 
Journals recording, e.g. that Thomas Walter, Viscount Hampden, 
sat first in Parliament after the death of his father (Lords 
Journals, cxxxix. 4). The form of writ now issued (at the 
beginning of a parliament: for the variation when parliament 
is sitting see Lords Journals, cxxxix. 185) corresponds closely 
to that in use so long ago as the Z4th century. It runs as 
follows: — 

George the Fifth by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and. Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond 
the seas King Defender of the Faith to our right trusty and well- 
beloved Greeting VVhcrcas by the advice and consent of our Council 
for certain arduous and urgent affairs concerning us the state and 
the defence of our said United Kinedom and the Church we have 
ONrdered a certain Parliament to be holden at our City of Westminster 
on the . . . day of . . . next ensuing and there to treat and 
have conference with the prelates great men and peers of our realm 
We strictly enjoining command you upon the faith and allegiance 
by which you arc bound to us that the wcightiness of the said 
affairs and imminent perils considered (waiving all excuses) you be 
at the said day and place personally present with us and with the 
said prelates ^rcat men and peers to treat and give your counsel 
upon the affairs aforesaid. And this as you reeard us and our 
honour and the safety and defence of the said United Kin{^dom 
and Church and despatch of the said affairs in no wise do you onut. 

Formerly all peers were required to attend parliament, and 
there are numerous recorded instances of special grants of leave 
of absence, but nowadays there is no compulsion. 

After the right to a summons the principal privilege possessed 

-. _^ by a peer b his right to be tried by his "peers on a 

tyr^tn. charge of treason or felony. Whatever the origin 

of this right, and some writers date it back to 

Saxon times (Trial of Lord Moricy, 1678, State Trials vii. 



145), Magna Carta has always been regarded as its ood- 
firmatory authority. The important words are: — 

" nullus liber homo capiatur imprisonetur aut disaeisiatur de libero 
tenemento suo vel libertaubus seu liberis consuetudinibus suis, 
aut utlagetur aut exuletur nee aliquo modo distruatur nee dominus 
rex super ipsum ibit nee super eum mittet nisi per legale judidmm 
parium suorum vel per legem terrae." 

The peers have always strongly insisted on this privilege 
of trial by their own order, and several times the heirs of those 
wron^^y condemned recovered their rights and heritage on the 
ground that there had been no proper trial by peers (R.D.P., 
V. 24). In X442 the privilege received parliamentary con- 
firmation (stat. 20 Henry VI. c 9). If parliament is sitting 
the trial takes place before the Hotise of Lords in full session, 
«^. the court of our lord the king in parliament, if not then 
before the court of the lord high steward. The office of lord 
high steward was formerly hereditary, but has not beoi so for 
centuries and is now only granted pro hoc vice. When necessity 
arises the Crown issues a special commission naming some peer 
(usually the lord chancellor) lord high steward pro hoc vice 
(Blackstone's Comm. iv. 258). When a trial takes place in 
full parliament a lord high steward is also appointed, but his 
powers there are confined to the presidency of the court, all 
the peers sitting as judges of law as well as of fact.. Should 
the lord high steward be sitting as a court out of parilament 
he summons a number of p)eers to attend as a jury, but rules 
alone on all points of law and practice, the peers present being 
judges of fact only. Whichever kind of trial is in progress it 
is the invariable practice to summon dl the judges to attend 
and advise on points of law. The distinction between the two 
tribunob was fully discussed and recognized in X760 (Trial of 
Earl Ferrers, Foster's Criminal Cases,.i$g). The most recent trial 
was that of Earl Russell for bigamy (reported xgox, A.C. 446). 
Among others are the Kilmarnock, Cromarty and Balmeriiio 
treason trials in parliament in 1746 (StaU Trials xviiL 441), and 
in the court of the lord high steward, Lord Morley (treason, x666. 
State Trials vL 777), Lord Comwallis (murder, 1678 StoU 
Trials viL 145), Lord Delamere (1686, treason. State Trials xL 
510). Recently some doubt has been expressed as to the 
origin of the court of the lord high steward. It is said that 
the historical document upon which the practice is fouiuied 
is a forgery. The conflicting views are set forth in Vernon 
Harcourt's His Grace the Strtvard and Trial of Peers, p. 429, 
and in Pike's Constitutional History gf the Hotise of Lords, ^. 2x3: 
In any case, whatever its historical origin, the court for 
centuries as a matter of fact has received full legal recognition 
as part of the constitution. The right to trial by peers 
extends only to cases of treason and felony, and not to those 
of misdemeanour; nor can it be waived by any peer (Co. 3 
Inst. 29; Kelyng's Rep. 56). In the case of R. v. Lord Grams 
(1887), discussed in Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, 3rd series, 
vol. cccx. p. 246, Lord Halsbury points out that the question 
of trial by peers is one of jurisdiction established by law rather 
than a claim of privilege in the discretion of the accuseds 
Scottish and Irish peers, whether possessing seats in the House 
of Lords or not, are entitled to trial by peers, the same procedure 
being followed as in the case of members of the House of Lords. 

Peers with a seat in the House of Lords possess practically 
the same parliamentary privileges as do members of the House 
of Commons. Among other privileges peculiar to themselves 
they have the right of personal access to the sovereign (Anson's 
Law of the Constitution, i. 227). In the House of Lords, 
when a resolution is passed contrary to his sentiments, any peer, 
by leave of the house, may " protest," that is, enter his dinent 
on the journals of the house (Blackstone, Comm. L 162). 
Formerly a peer might vote by proxy (Blackstone, ilud.), but 
since 1868 there has been a standing order discontinuing this 
right. In accordance with resolutions passed by the two 
houses, neither house has power by any vote or dedaratioo 
to clothe itself with new privileges xmknown to the law and 
customs of parliament (Commons Journal, xiv. 555). Peeresses 
and non-representative peers of Ireland and Scotland have, 



PEERLKAMP— PEESEMSKY 



iu ittenduii pul 
1 vidowed peera 

CnUy y. Cmlty 

pnbahly deprive! 

acquired by min 

The chiUnn ol 



BbckKK." Sevti 

koaovn br Ihcir F 

bbTS du^i^anl 
befm thnr CliriM 
V oC doke< «nd ii 
tf<vq " Lady," o* 






Tk hme carniM 
br the Crown, u 



'cfiK^^dal 
«UbeuDw 



D Uk 



loirkioii 



J2" LoiX 



>TU. W HN 

cdU ovi vl abc: 
UtUk baustlii 
nUly a! Ibt Cr. 



56 



PEGASUS— PEGMATITE 



Russian nobility, but bis more immediate progeniton were all 
very poor, and xwable to read or write. His grandfather 
ploughed the fields as a simple peasant, and his father, as 
Peesemsky himself said, was washed and clothed by a rich 
relative, and placed as a soldier in the army, from which he retired 
as a major after thirty years' service. During childhood 
Peesemsky read eagerly the translated works of Walter Scott 
and Victor Hugo, and later those of Shakespeare, Schiller, 
Goethe, Rousseau, Voltaire and George Sand. From the 
gymnasium of Kostroma he passed through Moscow University, 
and in 1884 entered the government service as a clerk in the 
office of the Crown domains in his native province. Between 
1854 and 1872^ when he finally quitted the civil service, he 
occupied similar posts in St Petersburg and Moscow. His 
early works exhibit a profound disbelief in the higher qualities 
of humanity, and a disdain for the other sex, although he appears 
to have been attached to a particularly devoted and sensible 
wife. His first novel, Boyarstckina, was forbidden for its 
unflattering description of the Russian nobility. His principal 
novels are Tufak ("A Muff"), 1850; Teesicha dousk ("A 
Thousand Souls "), 1862, which is considered his best work of 
the kind; and Vtbalatnoucluneoe more ("A Troubled Sea"), 
giving a picture of the excited state of Russian sodety about, 
the year 1862. He also produced a comedy, Gorkaya soudhina 
(" A Bitter Fate "), depicting the dark sides of the Russian 
peasantry, which obtained for him the Ouvaroff prize of the 
Russian Academy. In 1856 he was sent, together with other 
literary men, to report on the ethnographical and commercial 
condition of the Russian interior, his particular field of inquiry 
having been Astrakhan and the region of the Caspian Sea. 
His scepticism in r^^ard to the liberal reforms of the 'sixties 
made him very unpopular among the more progressive writers 
of that time. He died at Moscow on the 2nd of February x88i 
(Jan. 21, Russian style). _ 

t PEGASUS (from Gr. vfufK, compact, strong), the famous 
winged horse of Greek fable, said to have sprung from the trunk 
of the Gorgon Medusa when her head was cut off by Perseus. 
Bellerophon caught him as he drank of the spring Peirene on 
the Acrocorinthus at Corinth, or received him tamed and 
bridled at the hands of Athena (Pindar, 01. xiii. 63; Pausanias 
ii. 4). Mounted on Pegasus, Bellerophon slew the Chiroaera 
and overcame the Solymi and the Amazons, but when he tried 
to fly to heaven on the horse's back he threw him and continued 
his heavenward course (Apollodorus ii. 3). Arrived in heaven, 
Pegasus served Zeus, fetching for him his thunder and lightning 
(Hesiod, Tkcog. 281). Hence some have thought that Pegasus 
is a symbol of the thundercloud. According to O. Gruppe 
{Grieckiscke MytkotogU, i. 75, 123) Pegasus, like Arion the 
fabled offspring of Demeter and Poseidon, was a curse-horse, 
symbolical of the rapidity with which curses were fulfilled. In 
later legend he is the horse of Eos, the morning. The erroneous 
derivation from mrf^, " a spring of water," may have given 
birth to the legends which connect Pegasus with water; e.g. 
that his father was Poseidon, that he was bom at the springs 
of Ocean, and that he had the power of making springs rise 
from the ground by a blow of his hoof. When Mt Helicon, 
enchanted by the song of the Muses, began to rise to heaven, 
Pegasus stopped its ascent by stamping on the ground (Antoninus 
Libcralis 9), and where he struck the earth Hippocrcne (horse- 
spring), the fountain of the Muses, gushed forth (Pausanias 
ii. 31, ix. 31). But there are facts that speak for an independent 
mythological connexion between horses and water, e.g. the 
sacrcdness of the horse to Poseidon, the epithets Hippios and 
Equester applied to Poseidon and Neptune, the Greek fable 
of the origin of the first horse (produced by Poseidon striking 
the ground with his trident), and the custom in Argolis of 
sacrificing horses to Poseidon by drowning them in a well. 
From his connexion with Hippocrene Pegasus has come to be 
regarded as the horse of the Muses and hence as a symbol of 
poetry. But this is a modem attribute of Pegasus, not known 
to the ancients, and dating only from the Orlando innamorato 
of Boiardo. 



See monograph by F. Hannig, Breslauer pkiMogisckg Akhani' 
lungen (1902), voL viii., pt. 4. 

PEOAU, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, 
situated in a fertile country, on the Ekter, 18 m. S.W. from 
Leipzig by the railway to Zeitz. Pop. (1905), 5656. It has 
two Evangelical churches, that of St Lawrence being a fine 
Gothic structure, a 16th-century town-hall; a very old hospital 
and an agricultural school. Its industries embrace the manu> 
facture of felt, boots and metal wares. 

FegBLU grew up round a monastery founded in X096, but does 
not appear as a town before the close of the X2th century. 
Markets were held here and its prosperity was further enhanced 
by its position on a main road running east and west. In the 
monastery, which was di^lved in 1539, a valuable chronicle 
was compiled, the Antuues pegavienses, covering the period 
from X039 to X227. 

See FOssel, Anfangund Ende des'Khsters St Jacob au Pegau 
(Leipzig. 18^7) ; and Uillner, Grdsael and GOnther, Altes und neues 
aus Pewu (Leipzig, 1905). The Annates pegavienses are published 
in Bd. XVI. of the Monumenta Cermaniae kistorica. Scriptores. 

PEOMATITB (from Gr. vrjyua, a bond), the name given by 
Haiiy to those masses of graphic granite which frequently occur 
in veins. They consist of quartz and alkali feldspars in crystalline 
intergrowth (see Petrology, Plate IL fig. 6). The term was 
subsequently used by Naumann to signify also the coarsdy 
crystalline veins rich in quartz, feldspar and muscovite, which 
often in great nxmibers ramify through outcrops of granite and 
the surrounding rocks. This appUcation of the name has now 
obtained general acceptance, and has been extended by many 
authors to include vein-rocks of similar stmcture and geological 
relationships, which occur with syenites, diorites and gabbros. 
Only a few of these pegmatites have graphic structure or mutual 
intergrowth of their constituents. Many of them are exceedin^y 
coarse-grained; in granite-pegmatites the feldspars may be 
several feet or even yards in dUmeter, and other minerab such 
as apatite and tourmaline often occur in gigantic crystals. Peg- 
matites consist of minerals which are found also in the rocks 
from which they are derived, e.g. granite-pegmatites contain 
principally quartz and feldspar while gabbro-pegmatites 
consist of diallage and plagiodase. Rare minerals, however, 
often occur in these veins in exceptional amount and as very 
perfect crystals. The minerals of the pegmatites are always 
those which were last to separate out from the parent rock. 
As the basic minerals are the first formed the pegmatites contain 
a larger proportion of the add or more siliceous components 
which were of later origin; In granite-pegmatites there is little 
hornblende, biotite or sphene, but white mica, feldspar and quarts 
make up the greater part of the veins. In gabbro-p^matites 
olivine seldom occurs, but diallage and plagiodase occur in 
abundance. In this respect the pegmatites and apUtes agree; 
both are of more acid types than the average rock from which 
they came, but the pegmatites are coarsely crystalline while 
the aplites are fine-grained. Segregations of the early minerals 
of a rock are frequent as nodules, lumps and streaks scattered 
through its mass, and often dikes of basic character (lampro- 
phyres, &c.) are injected into the surrounding country. These 
have been grouped together as intrusions of melanocrate fades 
(/ilXas, black, Kpieros, strength, predominance) because in 
them the dark basic minerals preponderate. The aplites and 
pegmatites, on the other hand, are leucocraU (Xa;«^, white), 
since they are of add character and contain relatlvdy large 
amounts of the white minerals quartz and feldspar. 

Pegmatites are associated with plutonic or intruuve rodcs and 
were evidently formed by slow crystallization at constderaUe 
depths below the surface: nothing similar to them is kxK>wn 
in lavas. They are very characteristic of granites, e^iedaUy 
those which contain muscovite and much alkali fddspar; in 
gabbros, diorites and syenites pregmatite dikes are comparatlvdy 
rare. The coarsely crystalline structure may be ascribed to 
slow crystallization; and is partly the result of the rocks, in 
which the veins h'e, having been at a high temperature when the 
minerals of the pegmatites separated out. In accordance 
with this we find that pegmatite vdns are nearly always restricted 



PEGNITZ— PEGOLOTTl 57 

to the area occupied l>y the parent fock {e.g. the granite), or PBQNITZ, a river of Germany. It rises near Lindenhanl 

to its immediate vicinity, and within the zone which has been in Upper Franconia (Bavaria) from two sources. At first it 

greatly heated by the plutonic intrusion, via. the contact aureole, is called the Fichtenohe, but at Buchau it takes the name of the 

Another very important factor in producing the coarse crystal- Pegnitz, and ftowing in a south-westerly direction disappears 

lizatioii of the pegmatite^ veins is the presence of abundant below the small town of Pegnitz in a mountain cavern. It 

water vapour and other gases which served as mineralizing emerges through three orifices, enters Middle Franconia, and 

agents and faciliuted the building together of the rock molecules after flowing through the heart of the dty of Nuremberg falls 

in large crystalline individuals. into the Regnitz at FOrth. 

Proof that these vapours were important agents in the forma- See Specht, Das Pegnitxgebiet in Bnug auf seinen WasserhauskaU 

tion of pegmatites is afforded by many of the minerab con- (Munkh, 1905). 

tained in the veins. Boron, fluorine, hydrogen, chlorine and The Pegnits Order (Order of the society of Pegnitz shepherds), 

other volatile substances are essential components of some of also known as " the crowned flower order on the Pegnitz," was 

these minerals. Thus tourmaline, which contains boron and oneof the societies founded in Germany in the course of the 17th 

fluorine, may be common in the pegmatites but rare in the century for the purification and improvement of the German 

granite itself. Flnorine or chlorine are present in apatite, language, especially in the domain of poetry. Geoig Philin;> 

another frequent ingredient of granite pegmatites. Muscovite Harsddrffer and Johann Klaj instituted the order in Nurembog 

and gilbertite both contain hydrogen and fluorine; topaz is in 1644, and named it after the river. Its emblem was the passion 

rich in fluorine also and all of these are abundant in some flower with Pan's pipes, and the motto Mil Nutten erfreulkh, 

pegmatites. The stimulating effect which volatile substances or AUe xu einem Ton einstimmig. The members set themselves 

ezert 00 crystallizing molten nuuses is well known to ezperi- the task of counteracting the pedantry of another school of 

mental geologists who, by mixing tungstates and fluorides with poetry by imagination and gaiety, but kuJung imagination 

fosed powders, have been able to produce artificial minends and broad views they took refuge in allegorical subjects and 

wfaidi they could not otherwise obtain. Most p^matites are puerile trifling. The result was to debase rather than to raise 

truly igneous rocks so far as their composition goes, but in their the standard of poetic art in Germany. At first the meetings 

structixre they show relations to the aqueous mineral veins, of the order were held in private grounds, but in 1681 they were 

Many of them for example have a comby structure, that is to transferred to a forest near Kraftshof or Naunbof. In 1794 

say, their minerals are columnar and stand perpendicular to the the order was reorganized, and it now exists merely as a literary 

walls of the fissure occupied by the vein. Sometimes they have society. 

a banding owing to successive deposits having been laid down See Tittman, Die nUmberger DickterschuU (G^^ttingen, 1847); 

of diffeient character; mica may be external, then feldspar, and »"<* 'he Festsckrifl ntr 250-jdkngen Jubelfeier des pegnesischen 

in the centre a leader or string of pure quartz. In pegmatite ^'«««m^««" (Nuremberg, 1894). 

veins also there are very frequently cavities or vugs, which are PEGOLOTTl, FRANCESCO BAtDUCCI (fi. X3XS~X34o), 

lined by oystals with very perfect faces. These bear much Florentine merchant and writer, was a factor in the service 

vesemUance to the miarolitic or drusy cavities common in of the mercantile house of the Bardi, and in this capacity we 

granite, and Uke them were probably filled with the residual find him at Antwerp from 1315 (or earlier) to 131 7; in London 

Iquid which was left over after the mineral substances were in 13x7 and apparently for some time after; in cfyprus from 

dqxMited in crystals. X324 to X327, and again (or perhaps in unbroken continuation 

Pegmatites are very irregular not only in distribution, width of his former residence) in X335. In this last year he obtained 

and persntence, but also in composition. The relative abun- from the king of Little Armenia (i.e. medieval Cilida, &c.) a grant 

dance of the constituent minerals may differ rapidly and much of privileges for Florentine trade. Between 1335 and X343, 

from point to point. Sometimes they are rich in mica, in probably in X339-X340, he compiled his Libra di divisamenH 

CBonnous crystals for which the rock is mined or quarried di paesi e di misuri di mercalamie e d*aUre cose hisognevcli di 

(India). Other pegmatites are nearly pure feldspar, while others sapere a* mercatantif commonly known as the Pratica ddla 

are locally (especially near their terminations) very full of mercatura (the name given it by Pagnini). Beginning with a 

(piartz. They may in fact pass into quartz veins (alaskites) sort of glossary of foreign terms then in use for all kinds of taxes 

some of which are auriferous (N. America), (^artz veins of or payments on merchandise as well as for " every kind of place 

another type are very largely developed, especially in regions where goods might be bought or sold in cities," the Pratica 

of slate and phyllite; they are produced by segregation of next describes some of the chief trade routes of the X4th century, 

£si(4ved silica from the country rock and its concentration and many of the prindpal markets then known to Italian 

into cracks produced by stretching of the rock masses during merchants; the imports and exports of various important 

fcUing. In these segr<^tion veins, especially when the beds commercial regions; the business customs prevalent in each of 

axe of feldspathic nature, crystals of albite and orthodase may those regions; and the comparative value of the leading moneys, 

appear, in Urge or small quantity. In this way a second type weights and measures. The most distant and extensive trade 

of p^matite (segregatbn pegmatite) is formed which is very routes described by Pegolotti are: (i) that from Tana or Azov 

(fiflkttlt to distinguish from true igneous veins. These two to Peking via Astrakhan, Khiva, Otrar, Kulja and Kanchow 

have, however, much in common as regards the conditions (Gittarchan, Organd, Ottrarre, Armalecco and Camexu in the 

Q«kr which they were formed. Great pressures, presence of Praticq)\ (2) that from Lajazzo on the Cilidan coast to Tabriz 

water, and a high though not necessarily very high temperature in north Persia via Sivas, Erzingan and Erzerum (Salvastro, 

were the principal agendes at work. Arzinga and Arzerone); (3) that from Trebizond to Tabriz. 

Gianice pegmatites are laid down after thdr parent mass had Among the markets enumerated are: Tana, Constantinople, 

id^htA and while It wascoolmg down: sometimes thev contain Alexandria, Damietta, and the porU of Cyprus and the Crimea. 

«idi mmerals as garnet, not found m the main mass, and showing » . ,.., ' ,. _ , 4 *u _*i. t X t>i l e 

that the teropetSure of crystallixation was com^tively low. Pegolotti s notices of ports on the north of the Black Sea are very 

Aaother special feature of these veins is the presence of minerals valuable; his works show us that Florentine exports had now 

coacaining precious metals or rare earths. Gold occurs in not a few gained a high reputation in the Levant. In other chapters 

m: rin in oth«». while sulphide such as copper pyrites are found an account is given of 14th-century methods of packing goods 

abok Beryl IS the commonest of the mmerals of the second group: /^u ^ \ ^r « • -^1 a A / u \ r t.* . 

£do.»^ is another example, and there is mudi reason tShoTd (^*»- ;9); of assaying gold and silver (di. 3$); of shipment; 

t diamond is a native of some of the pegmatites of Brazil and of London m England m itsdf (ch. 62); of monastenes 

btfia. tho«^ this is not yet incontestably proved. The syenite- in Scotland and England (" Scotland of England;" Scozia di 

pegmatites of south Norway are ren^ble both for their coarse Jnghilterra) that were rich in wool (ch. 63). Among the latter 

oyaulfazatioa and for the great number of rare minerals they have . " M*«Ka»#i- n.i^.*:..^^ rs.^.. rv..«fJ^i:.^ n. j.^»..- 

fidded. Among these may be mentioned laavenite. rinkitc. rosea- If Newbattle,BaImcnno Cupar, Dunfermhne, Dundrennan, 

White, nosandrite, pyrochlore. perofskite and lamprophyllitc. Glenluce, Coldmgham, Kelso, Newmmster near Morpeth, 

(J. S. F.) Fumess, Fountaixis, Kirkstall, Kirstead, Swlneshead, Sawley 



■ad Cildcr. PcgalolU'a intcrot In Engluid ud Soolbod ii 

chiefly cormected with the moj tiftde^ 

Then i> only ok MS. of tbe PnHa. vii. No. 1441 Id tbt Ricar- 
duo Ubmry He Flormct (24E Eo1*.» occupyiriE tne whole volume), 

FnncocD PoEpioi'i Bella Dtcima i iiUt altn pntat imptM iai 
umwu di Firaul [Liitwn shI Luca-'mllr FUmKX— 17M) ; 
Sic Henry Yyli, Caliay. ii. 1^9-lf>i^ Ininlited into Eoglith the 

ajmA>"n, Hnkluyl SceSy, iwl"." Soe'^ wI^HeydTcmlwH 
Jn XoMf. ii.. 13, JO, ii, ;S-J9, Bs-86, 111-1ID (Leipiii, iSSb): H, 
Kicpcrt. in ^ilmnknctu ^ ttilni.-tiil. Cl. rfrr tnliiur AkuJ., 
p. ^1, ftc. (BeKiii, iSai); C R- Bouhy. Son iif Jfg^m 
Cwiro^^, iu. J34-JJI. Jjo, MS (Oxrord, 190*}. 

PBOn, 1 tOHn ud fbnnel capital of Lower Bunna, ^ving 
it! name to ■ district and ■ diviiion. The town ii lituated 
on a river of the ume name, 47 m. N£. of Rangoon by nil ; 
pop. U901), 14.131. It ii itiJl unrounded by the old walls, 
about 4a h. wide, on which have been built ihe midenccs of 
the Britiih oSdali. Tbe moit ouitiiicuaus object ii the Sbwe- 
■naw-daw pagoda, J14 ft. high, moiidenbly larger and even 
mare holy than the Shwe-dagon pigoda at Rangoon. Pegu , 
li laid to have been foimded in 573, aa the first capital of the 
Talaingi; but it waa as the capital of the Toungoo dynaaly , 
that it became known to Europeans in the 16th century. About 
the middLfl of the iBth century it waa destroyed by Alompra; 
but It rose again, and was important enough to be the Krne 
of fighting In both the fint and tccood Buimcae Wan. It gave 
tta name to tbe province (induding Rangoon} which wasarmeied 
by the British in 1851. 

The district, which was formed in tSSj, consists of an alluvia] 
tnut betweeu the Pegu Yoma range and the Sitlang rivet: 
area, 4Jj6 sq. tn.; pop. (1901), 339,S7'. showing an increase of 
43% in the decade. Chriitinns nurabeied nearly 9000, mostly 
Karens. Almost the only crop grown is rice, whidi is exported 
in large quantities to Rangoon. Hk district is traversed by 
the railway, and also crossed by the Fegu-Siltang canal, navi- 
pble [or 8 s m., with locks. 

Tbe diviiion of Pegu comprises the Eve districts of Rangoon 
dty, Hanthawaddy, Tharrawaddy, Pegu and Prome, tying east 
of the Irrawaddy: vtA 13,084 sq. m.; pop. (1501), 1,810,638. 

Tegu has also given its name to the Pegu Yoma, a range of hills 
running north and south for about aoom., I>et ween the Irrawaddy 
and Siltang rivers. The height nowhere exceeds looo ft. 
but the slopes are steep and rugged. The forests yield teak 
and other valuable timber. Tbe Pegu river, whidi rises in 
this range, falls hito the Rangoon river just below Rangoon 
dty, after a course of about tSo m. 

PEILB, JOHH (iBjS-iyio), English philologist, was bom 
■t Whitehaven on the i4lh of AprU i8j8. He was educated at 
Septan and Giiigt's College. Carabiidge. After a distinguished 
career (Craven schohir, senior classic and chancellgr's medallist), 

philology in the universily (1584-1841), and in 1S87 was elected 
master of Christ's. He took a great interest in the higher 
education of women and became president of Newnham College. 
He was the first to introduce the great philological works of 
Ceoigc Cuitius and WUhclm Consen to the English student 
in his Itilraiudim It Cretk and Lalia Bymtloty (iK<j), He 
died at Cambtidge on the glh of October iflto, leaving 
practically completed his eihaustive histoiy of Christ's College. 

PEINB, a town of Germany, hi the Prussian province of 
Hanover, 16 m. by rail N.W. of Brunswick, on the laUway to 
Hanover and Hamburg. Pop. (t^os), 15,411. The town has 
a Roman Catholic and a Pmtestant church and several schools. 
Its indusliiel mclude iron and steel works, breweries, distilleries 
and brickyards, and tbe manufacture of starch, sugar, malt, 
maihinery and artificial manure. There are also large hone 
udcattk markets held here. Peine was at one lime a strongly 
fortified place, and untU 1803 belonged to the bishopric of 
Hildesheim. 

PBIMB FORTB R DURB (French (or " hard and severe 
punfahment "), ihelerm fot a baihatous loKure ioflktcd on those 
wbo, ifnisned of felony, refused to plead aod stood silenl, or 



-PEIRCE 

challenged more than twenty Jnton, whidi wu deemed • con- 
tumacy equivalent to a icfnsil to plead. By eariy English bv 
a prisoner, befoie he could be tried, muu plead " gi^ly " « 
'■ not guilty." Before the ijth century it was usual to imprison 
and starve till submiiuon, but in HSiiy IV. 's reign tbe faiu 

or was pressed to death. Pressing to death was abolished In 
1771^ "standing mute "on an arraignment of felony being then 
niade equivalent to coavictioa. By an act of iBiS a plea of 
" not guilty " was to be entered agaioM any prisoner refusing 
to plead, and that Is the rale to-day. An alternative to the 
feim was tbe tying of the thumbs tightly together with whip- 
cord until pain forced the prisoner to ^Kak. lliis was said to be 
■ common practice at tlie Old Bailey up to the 19th centuiy. 

•pea king derinvily of 
invr of York " (is86)i 
e munlec of his childreB 



n\ia friends ol Slraag- 



p[ the penalty in 



1, was 
of tbe 

lake of north-west Runia, 



^itei at Salem. 'Sum- 
it refusing to plead, was 



PBIPS8, or Ceudskoye Omo, a 

Esthonia. Including its sonibem oiecsion 
as Lake Pskov, it has an area of iJsA sq. 
flat and sandy, and in part wooded^ its wi 
aflord valuable fishing. The lake is fed by tbe Vehkaya, 



they 



the Embach, which 
flows in hall way up its western shore; it drains into the Gulf of 
Finland by th e Narova, which issues at its north-east comes. 

PBIHABUS, or Pibazus (Ci. Ibvanh), the port town 
of Athens, with which ils history is inseparably connected. 
Pop. (J907), 67,g8i. It consists of a rocky promontory, contain- 
ing three natural harbours, a large one on Che north-west which 
is still one of the chief commercial bar bonis of the Levant, and 
two smaller ones on the east, which were used chiefly for naval 
purposes. Themistodcs was the first to urge the Aiheniani 
to take advantage of these harbouis, mstesd of using tbe sandy 
bay of Pbalcron; and tbe fortification of the Pelraeus waa begun 
in 493 B.C. Later on it was connected with Athens by the Long 
Walls in 4fip I.e. The town of Peiraeus was laid out by the 
architect Hippodamus of Miletus, probably in the time of 
Pericles. The promontory Itself consisted of two part*— the 
hill of Munychia, and the projection of Actc; on tbe opposite 
side of the great harbour was the outwork of Eetioneta- The 

of M onychia by Thrasybulus and the exiles from Phyle, and Ibc 
consequent dcstmclion of the " 30 tyrants " In 404 B.C. Tlie 

Zea and Canlharui, and they conlained galley slips for Si, igt 
and 94 ships respeclivdy in the 4th century a.c 

See undtr Athens. AI» Angelnpoutos, Uffi nn/m tk irsf rfir 
t-^lOt^ •i'gS (Athens, 189K). 

PEIRITB, BEHJAHIK (1809-1S80), American matbematkiaii 

4lh of April 1S09. Graduating at Ilarvard College in 1S19, 
he became mathematical lutot there in 1B31 and professor b 
183]. He liad already assisted Nathaniel Bowditch In his 
translation ol the Mlcaniqat iHcilt, and now produced a »erk« 
of mathematical leitbooks cbaracieriied by tbe brevity and 
terseness which made his teaching unnttroctive to inapt pti[^ 
Young men of talent, on the contrary, found 
most stimulating, and after Bowditch's death ln_iS3S F 

stood first among American malhematidans. Z 

into the perturbations of Uranui and Neptune {Pfc. Amir. 



, IM) g»« 



(mk; be became bi 1S49 cod- 
iian NaUicBl Almamu, ud foi 
thit aatk pnpurd df* laUei of tbe nwon (iSji). A docuuioc 
gi tbc equiblirium of Siiurn'i rlnta [ed him to conclude ia lEjj 
that Ibey must be of 1 fluid uiuie. From iK; 10 187* he wu 
■opeiiDlaukot of the Coui Simey. In 1857 be published his 
belt known umk, ibe Syilcm cf AruiylUat Uakanki, which 
was, bowevei, >iu[«utd in brilliant originality by hii Linai 
Aanalae Alfeira DitboiTapbed privately ia • few copies, 
iSjo; npRDted in tbe Amtr. Jnm. ifalk., iSSi}. He died at 
Cambridge, Mass., on the 6(h of October i&ga 
^__ .._ ._._ -<--■— --adiipipyMd Dana), toI. ml. (1B61); 
_- -.;! .„. «,,yrr. nii. 607: R. Cnnl, 

I. of Camints in Rboda, Greek epic poet, >up- 
r flourished about 640 B.C. He waa tbe author 
of a Heradoa, in which be lotioduced a new conception of the 
Lero, the Hon'i skin and dub taking tbe place of tbe older 
Hoomc equipment. He ia also said to have filed the number 
if tbe " labouisof Hercules " at twelve. Tbe work, which accord- 
inf to Clement of Akaandria {Stromaia, vt. cb. 3) was simply 
1 plagiarism fiom an unknown PisinuB of Lindus, enjoyed 
to ta^ a reputation that tbe Aleaandrian critics admitted tbe 
sBthor to the epic canon. From an epigram (10) of Theocritus 
ve leain that a statue was erected in honour of Peisander by 
bis OHmtiymea. He is to be distlnguitbed (mm Peiucder 
of Laranda in Lycia, who lived during the reign of Alexander 
Smrua(jU>' iii-ijsl.andwiDtcapaemon the miird mauiago 
«f nds nod moitals, after the manner of the Eoici of Hesiod. 

SeefiviBnitsinC. Kinkr!. EpUantm raaanm I'aptunLi f.\9jSi\ 
■ki V. C. Welckrr. Kltim Sckrifla, vgl. L (iSm). on Ibe Iwelve 
hbous vi HerruWfl in Fetsander. 

PnSUTHATm, (Soi?-ji7 B.C.), Athenian statesman, was 
Ikiaa of Hippocrates. He wai named after Peiiiiiraiui, the 
jnngat Km of Nestor, tbe alleged ancestor of his family; he 
ns BEcmd oMsin on bis mother's tide to Solon, and numbered 
!■«( his ancestors Gidnis tbe last great king of Athens. Tbua 
aasof tbooe who became " tyrants " in tbe Greek world he 
piocd his position as one of the old nobility, like Pbalaiil of 
Agrifeatom, and Lygdamis of Naxos; but unlike Orthagoras of 
Sicjtm, who had previously been a cook. Peisistratua, though 
Sokia's junior by thirty years, was bis lifelong friend (though this 
adenied), aos did tbeir friendship suffer owing to their political 
uutooiim. From this widely accepted belief arose the almost 
onainl/ false statement that Peisistralus took pan in Solon's 
BuaaifiJ wai against Megara, which necessarily took place 
txfore Solan'a arcbonsbip (probably in 600 B.C.). Aristotle's 
Qatfiliilini 0f AUimi (ch. 17) carefully distinguishes Solon's 
Higsrian War from a second m which Peisistratus was no doubt 
h commaiHl, undertaken belveen 570 and S65 to recapture 
Rjbea (the port of Megara) which bad apparently been recovered 
^ the Uegarians since Solon's victory (see Sandys on The 
Ct^ilaliom of Atkeni, cb. 14. i, note, and E. Abbott, Hhlory 
•jCnat, voL L app. p. $44). Whatever be the trueeaplanalion 
tl Ibis problem, it is certain (1] thai Pcisisttatus was regarded 
ti a l*f'f'"g soldier, and {2) that his position was strengthened 
ij the prestige of his family. Furthermore {3) he was a man 
ol great ainbitiDD, penuiBvt eloquence and wide generosity; 
quiities wbicb eq>MialIy appealed at that time to Ihe classes 
fioiB whom be was 10 draw his support— hence the warning of 
Scilaa (Frag- II. B); "Fools, you are treading in the footsteps 
iJlbe foa; can you not read the hidden meaning of these charm- 
ing words?" Lastly, (4) and most iinportant, the limes were 
tipe for revolution. In the article on Solon (ad fin.) it is shown 
ihal Ilu Solonian reforms, though they made a great advance 
B some dirrclioTis, failed on the whole. They were too moderate 
to ploue the people, too democratic for the noble). It was 
fouBd that tbe govetiunent by BouK and Eccksia did not mean 
pt^aiar ontrol in tbe full sense; it meant govemDent by tbe 



PEISANDER— PEISISTRATUS 



I feuds whose origia we ca 
to three greal 



a split up 



trace, the Athenian people 

■-- Plain (PoiiB,) 

lilies; the Shore 



IS knot 



I Hill or 






ie Ecclesi 



hetdsmtn 



led by Lycurgus andMUliadi 

(Paroli) led by tbe Alcmaecnidae, representci 

Mcgades, who was strong in hii wealth and by h 

with Agarisle, daughter of Clelslhenes of Sic 

Upland (DiaoHi, DiacrO) led by Peiitslralua 

owed his influence among these hillmen partly 

of large estates at Marathon. In the two toimer divtsiou 

tbe influence of wealth and birth predominated; the hillmea 

were poorly housed, poorly clad and unable to make use of the 

privileges which Solon had ^ven them.' Henre their attachment 

to Peisistratus, the " man of the people," who called upon them 

10 sweep away the last barriers which separated rich and poor, 

nobles and commonera, dly and countryside. Lastly, there 

was ■ class of men who were discontented with ibe Solonian 

constitution: some had lost by his Seisaihtbeia, others bad 

vainly hoped for a general redistribution. These men saw their 

only hope in a revolution. Such were tbe factor* which enabled 

him to found bis tyranny. 

To enter here into an eihaualive account of tbe various theories 
which even before, though eipcdally after, tbe appearance of 
the Conttilntum of Alhtns have been propounded as to tb* 
chronology of tbe Feiststratcan lyraimy, b impoasible. For 
a summary of these hypotheses see J. E. Sandys's edition of the 
CanUUiUiim of AUuhs (p. 56, c r* no:e). The following Is in 
brief the sequence of events: In ^ s.c. Peisbtratus dmve 
into the market-place, showed to an indignant assembly marks 
of violence on himself and Us mutes, and claimed to be the 
victim of assault at the hands of political enemies. The people 
unhesitatingly awarded their "cfaampion" a bodyguard of 
Gity men (afterwards [aur hundred) armed with duba. With 
thb force h« proceeded to make himself master of the Acropolis 
and tyrant of Athens. The Alcmaeonids fled and Feisutralua 
remained in power for about Eve years, during which Solon's 
death occurred. Id m or 554 n.c a coalition of the Plain 
and the Coast succeeded in eipelling him. His property was 
confiscated alTd sold by auction, but in his absence the strife 
between the Plain and the Coast was renewed, and Megsdea, 
unable to hold his own, invited him to return. The csndiliOD 
was that their families should be allied by the marriage of 
Pdsistratus to Mcgades' daughter Coeiyra. A second cdii^ d'Uat 
was then effected. A beautiful woman, it is said, by nsnie 
Phya. was disguised as Athena and drove into the Agora with 

the goddess herself was restoring Feisistratus to Athena. The 
ruse was successful, but Feisistratus soon quarrelled with 
Mcgacles over Coesyla. By a former marriage he already had 

hrsl tyranny or his gist eiile he married an Argive, Timonoisa, 
by whom he had two other sons lophon and Hegesistrstus, Ibe 
latter of whom is said to be identical with Thcssalus iAA. Pit. 
c. 1;), though from Thucydidca and Herodotus we gather that 

a bastard, and Thucydides says that lliessalus was legitimate. 
Further it is suggested that Pebbttatus was unwilUng la have 

The result was that in the seventh year (or month, see Alk. Pal. 
[. 15. I, Sandys's note) Megacles accused him of neglecting hla 
daughlcr, combined once mare with Ibe third faction, and 
drove Ihe tyrant into an elite lasting apparently for ten or devcn 
rears. During this period he bved Gist at Rhaecdus and later 
near Mt Pangaeus and on the Sirymon collecting resources af 
men and money. He came finally to Eretria, and, withthchdp 
3l the Thebans and Lygdamis of Naios, whom he afterwards 

Ihe Athenian forces at Ihe battle of Pallenb or Pcllene. From 
Ihis time till hisdeath he remained undisputed master of Athens, 
nte Alcmaeonids were compelled 10 l''ave Athens, and from 
1 1t is niggeited with prDbability that (he Diacrii were rather 
the miners of the Uurium district (P. M. Ure. Jcun. HiU. SIml, 
1906, pp. 131-143). 



Uu other noble tunilia which RnMiaed be ended tea boitiga 

whom he put ui the are of hii ally Lygdunii. 

Id the heyday of the AtbcniiD democnty, dtisens both 
conienrativc ud progrcBive, polJLiciuu, phQoaophcn uid 
hUtoiiAoi were unanimous in their denunciation of *' tyranny." 
Yet tbere is no doubt that the rule of Feisistratus was most 
beneficial to Atheni both id her foreign and in her interna] 
relations, {i) During his enforced absence Irom Athens he 
hid evidently acquired a [ir more eitended idea of the future 
of Athens than had hithetto d*wned on the somewhat parochial 
minda of her leaden. He was IHendly with Thebes and Argos; 
his son Hegesiitialus he set in power at Sigcum (see £. Abbolt, 
fill', tj Cr, voL i. tv. g) and bia [lisnd Lygdamis at Naios. 
From the mind ol Thrace, and perhaps fiom the harbour dues 
■nd froni the mines of Laijriura, he derived > large [evenue; 
under his encouragement, Miltlida had planted an. Atbenian 
colony an the shota of the Thradan CbFrtonoei he had even 
made Iriends with Tfassaly and Macedonia, ai It evidenced by 
the hospitality (aiendid by ihem to Hipiuai on his final ei- 
pulslon. Finally, he did not allow his friendliness with Argos 
to involve him in war with Sparta, towards whom he pursued a 
policy of moderation- (3) At home it is admitted by all authori- 
lid that his nile wu moderate and beneficent, and that he was 
careful to preserve at least the form of the ealabliahed coaalitu- 
tfon. It is even said that, being accused of murder, he was ready 
to be tried by the Areopagus, Everything which he did during 
his third period of rule was in the interests of discipline and order. 
Thus he hired a mercenai> bodyguard, and utilized for his own 
purpcoea the public revenues; be kept the chief magistracies 
(through whicb he ruled) in the bands of his family; he imposed 
a general tai' o( 10% (perhaps reduced by Hippiaa to 5%) 
on the produce o( the land, *Dd tbua oblaioed control over the 
fleet and spread the burden of it over all the dliiens (see the 
spurious tetter of Peisiilnitua la Solon, Dint, Labi. s. jj; Tliuc. 
vi. M and Arnold's note at Ix.; Boeckh iU. 6; Tfairiwalt c li., 
PP' 7>~T4; and Cnite). But the great wisdooi of Feisistratus is 
ihoon most deariy in the skill witb which he blinded the people 
to his absolutism. Pretending to maintain the Solonian can- 
stilution (as be could well afford), be realiied that people would 

were ensured. Secondly, he knew that the greater the propor- 
tion of the Athenian} who were prosperously at work in the 
country and therefore did not Iroubte to interfere in the wotli 
of government the lets would be the danger of sediiion, whose seeds 
■R in a crowded city. Hence he appears to have encouraged 
■griculiure by abating the tax on small farms, and even by 
assiiling them with money and slock. Secondly, he esublished 
deme law-courts to prevent people froni having recourse to 
the dly Itibunalai it is said that be himself occasionally " went 
on circuit," and on one of these occasiona was so struck by the 
plaints of an old farmer on Hymcttus, that he remitted all 
taxation on his land. Thus Athens enjoyed immunity from 
war and internecine struggle, and lor the first time for years 
was in enjoyaienl of settled financial prosperity (see CoHilUuligH 
ij AlktiH, c. lO. 7 A trl Kfimi 01a). 

Construction of roads and public buildings. Like Cleistbenes 
of Sicyon and I^riander of Corinth, he realized that one great 
aource of strength to the nobles had been their presidency over 
the local cults. This he diminished by iorreasing the splendour 
of the Panathenaic festival every fourth year and the Dionysiac' 
rites, and so created a national rather than a local religion. 
With the same idea he built the temple of the Pythian Apollo and 
began, though he did not finish, the temple of Zeus (the magni- 
Gc«nt columns now standing belong to the age of Hadrian). 



Tohim are ascribed also the original Pattbeoon on tb 

afterwarda burned by the Fenians, and replaced by thi 
ol Fetidea. It is said that he gave a great impetus to the 
dramatic representations which belonged to ibe Dionysiac 
cult, and that it was under his encouragement that TbeSj^ 
of Icaria, by impersonating character, laid the foundation of 
the great Greek drama of the sth and 4th centuries. Lastly. 
■' ■ ■ Dtlo,, the Bscred 



as; all ll 



light and joy. 



le of the god of 



We have spoken of his services to the state, to the poor, to 
religion. It remains to mention bis alleged services to literature. 
AH we can reasonably believe it that he gave encouiagemenl 
10 poetry as be had done to architecture and the drama; Onoma- 
critus, the chief of the Orphic succession, and collector of the 
oracles of Uusacut, was a member of bil household. Honestly, 
or to impress the people, Peiiiilralus made considciable use ol 
oracles Ce.f. at the battle of Pellene), and his descendants, by 
the oracles of Onomacrilus, persuaded Darius to underiake 
Ihdr restoration. As to the library of Peisisttatui, we have no 
good evidence; it may perhaps be a fiction of an Aleuwdoad 
writer. There is strong reason for believing the tloiy that he 
first collected the Homeric poems and that his waa the tttt 
which uttinutely prevailed (see IliMEa}. 

It appears that Feisistratus was benevolent to the last, and, 
like Julius Caesar, sbon-ed no resentment against enemies and 
calumniiton. What Solon said of him in his youth was true 
throughout, "there is no belter-disposed man in Athena, lave 
lor hii amiHiion." He waa succeeded by his sons Hippiaa 
and Hipparchus, by whom the tyianny was in various wayi 
brought into disrepute. 

It should be observed that the tyranny of Pei^tntua ia one 
of themanyepochsof Greek history on which opinion has almcHt 
entirely changed since the age of Grole. Shortly, his servico 
to Gmce and to the worid may be summed up under three heads: 
In foreign policy, he sketched out the plan on which Athens 
was to act in her eitemal relations. He advocated (a) alliancci 
with Argos, Thessaly and MacedoB, (t) ascendancy in the Aegean 
(Nai» and Delos), (c) control of the Heilespontine route 
(Eigeum and the Cheisoncsc), (<f) control of the Sttymon valley 
(Mt Pangacus and the Sliymon). Further, hit rule exemplifies 
what is characletislic of all the Greek tyrannies — the advantage 
which the andent monarchy had over the republican fora 
of government. By means of hit sons and his deputia (or 
viceroys) and by his system of moirimonial alliances he gave 

and bnjugbt her into conneiion with Ibe growing tDuim 
of trade and production in the eastern pant of the Greek 
world, (i) Hit importance in Ibe tpheie of domestic policy 
has been frequently undemtrd. It may fairly be held that 
the tefotlns of Solon would have been futile had they not been 
fulfilled and ampUfied by the genius ol Pelsisltatut. (j) It 

literature. From this period we musl date the 1 
of Athenian h'tcraty ascendancy. But lee Athehe. 



■It ihoul 



d as against this, the 1 



Thucydides. ipezkiiii apparently with 
■s .Iwr* (s%); the Con^ ' ' - ' " 
i»«4(ioll). 

• DionyiuH. ai the (rad ( 

teems likely that Peiiiitn 
the Gly-IHHytia. 



U. M. M.) 

, ,^, PKKIH. a dty and the county-seat of Tazewell county, 
he tii Illinois, U.S.A., on the Illinois river, in the cenirtl part of Ibe 
miLir] state, about 11 m. S. of Peoria, and about s6m. N. of Springfield. 

,. , Pop. (rgie), oS(i7. It is served by the Atchison, Topcka 

^.[PP™ ft Sanu Ft, the Chicago ft Alion, Ihe Chicago, Peori« k 

lirwted StLoub.the IllinoisCenttal.the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Cbicajo 

& St Louis, the Peoria Railway Terminal Company, the Peoria 



PEKING 



6i 



k FduB Union mnd (for freight between Peoria and Pekin) the 
IQuxNS Valley Belt railways. Situated in a rich agricultural 
region and in the Illinois coalfields, Pekin is a shipping point 
and grain market of considerable importance, and has various 
mannlactmei. The value of the factory products in xgos was 
$i,iii,jjo. Pekin was first settled about 1830, was incorpor- 
ated in 1839, ^^ re-incorporated in 1874. 

PBXIM6, or Pekin, the capital of the Chinese Empire, situated 
in 39* 57' N. and 116" 29' E., on the northern extremity of the 
great alluvial delta which extends southward from its walls for 
700 m. For nine centuries Peking, under various names and 
undo' tlie dofoinion of successive dynasties, has, with some 
short intervals, remained an imperial city. Its utuation near 
the northern frontier recommended it to the Tatar invaders as 
a ooovenient centre for their power, and its peculiarly fortunate 
position as regards the supematuial terrestrial influences per- 
taimng to it has inclined succeeding Chinese monarchs to accept 
it as the seat of their courts. In 986 it was taken by an invading 
force of Khitan Tatars, who adbpted it as their headquarters 
and named it Nanking, or the " southern capitaL" During the 
early part <rf the 12th century the Chinese recaptured it and re- 
doced it from the rank of a metropolis to that of a provincial 
city of the first grade, and called it Yen-shan Fu. In 1151 it 
leQ into the hands of the Kin Tatars, who made it a royal 
residence under the name of Chung-tu, or " central capital" 
Less than a century later it became the prize of Jenghia Khan,* 
who, luLving hb main interests centred on the Mongolian steppes, 
declined to move his court southwards. His great successor, 
Koblai Khan (1280-1294), rebuilt the town, which he called 
Yenklng, and which became known in Chinese as Ta-tu, or 
" great court/' and in Mongolian as Khanbalik (Cambaluc), or 
"dty of the khan." During the reign of the first emperor of 
the dynasty (1368-1399) which succeeded that founded by 
Jen^hiz Khan the court resided at the modem Nanking, but 
the succeeding sovereign Yung-lo (1403-1425) transferred his 
ooort to Pe-king {i^ " north-court "), which has ever since been 
the seat of government. For further history see Cambaluc 

During the periods above mentioned the extent and boundaries 
of the dty varied considerably. Under the Kin dynasty the 
vaOs extended to the south-west of the Tatar portion of the 
present city, and the foundations of the northern ramparts of 
the Khan-balik of Kublai Khan are still to be traced at a distance 
of about 2 m. north beyond the existing walls. The modem 
dty conssts of the net ck*hii,or inner dty, commonly known to 
loragners as the ** Tatar dty," and the vtai ch'ing, or outer 
dty, known in' the same way as the " Chinese dty." These 
UBies are somewhat misleading, as the inner dty is not endosed 
vithin the outer dty, but adjoins its northern wall, which, being 
knger than the net ck'ing is wide, outflanks it considerably at 
both ends. The outer walls of the double dty contain an area 
of aboat 25 sq. m., and measure 30 m. in drcumfcrence. Unlike 
the walls of mo^ Chinese dties, those of Peking are kept in 
pofact OTder. Those of the Tatar portion, which is the oldest 
psrt of the dty, are 50 ft. high, with a width of 60 ft. at the base 
ud 40 ft. at the top, while those of the Chinese dty, which were 
built by the emperor Kia-tsing in 1543, measure 30 ft. in hdght, 
lad have a width of 25 ft. at the base and 1 5 ft. at the top. The 
tcnt^^dein weD and smoothly paved, and is defended by a 
"mrflafyd parapet. The outer faces of the walls are strength- 
eaed by square buttresses built out at intervals of 60 yds., and 
OQ the sammits of these stand the guard-houses for the troops 
oe duty. Each of the sixteen gates of the dty is protected by 
a lemi-circular encdnte, and is surmounted by a high tower 
boft In galleries and provided with countless loopholes. 

Pddng suflTered severdy during the Boxer movement and the 
Kge of the legations in the summer of 1900. Not only were 
■ost of the foreign buildings destroyed, but also a large number 
of iBq)ortant Chinese buildings in the vicinity of the foreign 
garter, induding the andent Hanlin Yuen, the boards of war, 
rites, Itc Almost the whole of the business quarter, the 
ocailnest part of the Chinese dty, was laid in ashes (see 
Ctana: History). 



The population of Peking is reckoned to be about 1,000,000, 
a number which is out of all proportion to the immense area 
endosed within its walls. This disparity is partly accounted 
for by the facts that large spaces, notably in the Chinese dty, 
are not built over, and that the grounds surrounding the imperial 
palace, private residences and temples are very extensive. One 
of such enclosures constitutes the British legation, and most 
of the other foreign legations are similarly, though not so 
sumptuously, kxlged. Viewed from the walls Peking looks like 
a dty of gardens. Few crowded ndghbourhoods are visible, 
and the characteristic features of the scene which meets the eye 
are the uptumed roofs of temples, palaces, and mansions, gay 
with blue, green and yellow glazed tiles, glittering among the 
groves of trees with which the city abounds. It is fortunate 
that the dty b not dose-built or crowded, for since the first 
advent of fordgners in Peking in i860 nothing whatever had been 
done until 1900 to improve the streets or the drainage. The 
streets as originally laid out were wide and spacious, but bdng 
unpaved and undrained they were no better than mud tracks 
diversified by piles of garbage and foul-smelling stagnant pools. 
Such drainage as had at one time existed was allowed to get 
choked up, giving rise to typhoid fever of a virulent t3rpe. Some 
attempt has been made to improve matters by macadamizing 
one of the prindpal thoroughfares, but it will be the labour of a 
Hercules to deanse this vast dty from the accumulated filth of 
ages of neglect. 

Endosed within the Tatar dty is the Hwang ck*ing, or 
" Imperial city," which in its turn endoses the Tsse-kin ck*ing, 
or " Forbidden dty," in which stands the emperor's palace. 
On the north of the Tsu-kin ck'ing^ and separated from it by 
a moat, is an artifidal mound known as the /Ctn^jAan, or " Pros- 
pect Hill." This mound, which forms a prominent object in 
the view over the dty, is about 150 ft. high, and is topped with 
five summits, on each of which stands a temple. It is encirded 
by a wall measuring upwards of a mile in drcumfcrence, and is 
prettily planted with trees, on one of which the last emperor 
of the Ming dynasty (1644), finding escape from the Manchu 
invaders impossible, hanged himsdf. On the west of Prospect 
Hill is the Si yuan, or ' Western Park," Which forms part of 
the palace grounds. This park is tastefully laid out, and is 
traversed by a lake, which is mainly noticeable from the remark- 
ably handsome marble bridge which crosses it from east to west. 
Directly northwards from Prospect Hill stands the residence of 
the Titu, or "governor of the city," and the Bell and the Drum 
Towers, both of which have attained celebrity from the nature 
of their contents — the first from the huge bell which hangs in it, 
and the second from the appliances it contains for marking the 
time. The bell is one of five which the emperor Yung-lo ordered 
to be cast. In common with the others, it weighs 120,000 lb, 
is 14 ft. high, 34 ft. in circumference at the rim, and 9 in. thick. 
It is struck by a wooden beam swung on the outside, and only 
at the changes of the night-watches, when its deep tone may be 
heard in all parts of the dty. In the Dmm Tower incense-sticks, 
spedally prepared by the astronomical board, are kept burning 
to mark the passage of time, in which important duty thdr 
accuracy is checked by a depsydra. Another of Yung-lo's 
bells is hung in a Buddhist temple outside the north-west angle 
of the dty wall, and is covered both on the inside and outside 
with the Chinese texts of the Lank&vatdra SMra, and the Sad- 
dktarma pundarika Sutra. 

Turning southwards we come agun to the Forbidden City, the 
central portion of which forms the imperial palace, where, in halls 
which for the magnificence of their proportions and barbaric 
splendour are probably not to be surpassed anywhere, the Son 
of Heaven holds his court. In the eastern and western portions 
of this dty are situated the residences of the highest dignitaries 
of the empire; while beyond its confines on the south stand the 
offices of the six official boards which direct the affairs of the 
eighteen provinces. It was in the " yamto " of one of these 
boards— the Li Pu or board of rites— that Lord Elgin signed 
the treaty at the condusion of the war in i860 — an event which 
derives especial interest from the fact of its having been the first 



62 



PELAGIA, ST— PELAGIUS (POPES) 



occasion on which a European plenipotentiary ever entered 
Peking accompanied by all the pomp and circumstance of his 
rank. 

Outside the Forbidden CiVy the most noteworthy building is 
the Temple of Heaven, which stands in the outer or Chinese 
dty. Here at eariy morning on the 3ist of December the 
emperor offers sacrifice on an open altar to Shang-ti, and at 
periods of drought or famine presents prayers for relief to the 
same supreme deity. The altar at which these solemn rites 
are performed consists of a triple circular marble terrace, 210 ft. 
wide at the base, 150 in the middle and 90 at the top. The 
uppermost surface is paved with blocks of the same material 
forming nine concentric circles, the innermost consisting of nine 
blocks, and that on the outside of eighty-one blocks. On the 
central stone, which is a perfect circle, the emperor kneels. 
In the same temple stands the altar of prayer for good harvests, 
which is surmounted by a triple-roofed circular structure 99 ft. 
in height. The tiles of these roofs are glazed porcelain of the 
most exquisite deep-blue colour, and add a conspicuous element 
of splendour to the shrine. 

The other powers of nature have shrines dedicated to them in 
the altar: to the Earth on the north of the city, the altars to the 
Sun and Moon outside the north-eastern and north-western 
angles respectively of the Chinese city, and the altar of agricul- 
ture inside the south gate of the Chinese dty. Next to these 
in religious importance comes the Confucian temple, known as 
the Kwo-lsit-kien. Here there is no splendour; everything b 
quite plain; and one hall contains all that is sacred in the 
building. There the tablets of "the soul of the most holy 
ancestral teacher, Confudus," and of his ten prtndpal disdplcs 
stand as objects of worship for their countless followers. In one 
courtyard of this temple are deposited the celebrated ten stone 
drums which bear poetical inscriptions commemorative of the 
hunting expeditions of King SOan (827-781 B.C.), in whose reign 
they are believed, though erroneously, to have been cut; and 
in another stands a series of stone tablets on which are inscribed 
the names of all those who have obtained the highest literary 
degree of Tsin<ki for the last five'centuries. 

In the south-«astern portion of the Tatar dty used to stand 
the observatory, which was built by order of Kublai Khan in 
1296. During the period of the Jesuit ascendancy in the reign 
of K'ang-hi (1661-1721), the superintendence of this institution 
was confided to Roman Catholic missionaries, under whose 
guidance the bronze instruments formerly existing were con- 
structed. The inhabitants of Peking being consumers only, 
and in no way producers, the trade of the dty is very small, 
though the dty is open to fordgn commerce. In 1897 a railway 
was opened between Tientsin and Peking. This was only 
effected after great opposition from the ultra-Conservatives, 
but once accomplished the facilities were gladly accepted by all 
classes, and the traffic both in goods and passengers is already 
enormous. Out of deference to the scruples of the ultra-Conser- 
vatives, the terminus was fixed at a place called Lu-Kou-ch'iao, 
some 4 m. outside the walls, but this distance has since been 
covered by an electric tramway. The trunk line constructed 
by the Franco-Belgian syndicate connects Lu-Kou-ch'iao, the 
original terminus, with Hankow — hence the name Lu-Han by 
which this trunk line is generally spoken of, Lu bdng short for 
Lu-Kou-ch'iao and Han for Hankow. 

Bibliography.— .\ Williamson, Journeys in North China, Man- 
churia and Eastern Mongolia (a vols., London, 1870) ; S. W. Williams, 
The MiddU Kingdom, revised ed. (New York. 1883): A Favtcr. 
Pihing, histoire et description (Peking, 1900— contains over 800 
illustrations, most of them reproductions of the work of Chinese 
artists) ; N. Oliphant, A Diary of the Siege of the Legations in Peking 
during the Summer of ipoo (Condon, 1901); A. H. Smith, China in 
Convtdsion (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1902). (R. K. D.) 

PELAGIA, ST. An Antiochene saint of this name, a virgin of 
fifteen years, who chose death by a leap from the housetop 
rather than dishonour, is mentioned by Ambrose {De virg. iii. 
7i 33: ^P' xxxvii. ad Simplic.), and is the subject of two sermons 
by Chrysostom. Her festival was celebrated on the 8th of 
Octob^ (Wright's Syriac Martyrology). In the- Greek synaxaria 



the same day is assigned to two other saints of the name of 
Pelagia — one, also of Antioch, and sometimes called Margarito 
and also " the sinner "; the other, known as Pelagia of Tarsus, 
in Cilida. The legend of the former of these two is famous. 
She was a celebrated dancer and courtesan, who, in the fuU 
flower of her beauty and guilty sovereignty over the youth of 
Antioch, was suddenly converted by the influence of the holy 
bishop Nonnus, whom she had heard preaching in front of a 
church which she was passing with her gay train of attendants 
and admirers. Seeking out Nonnus, she overcame his canonical 
scruples by her tears of genuine penitence, was baptized, and» 
disgubing herself in the garb of a male penitent, retired to a 
grotto on the Motint of Olives, where she died after three yeu% 
of strict penance. This story seems to combine with the name 
of the older Pelagia some traits from an actual history referred 
to by Chrysostom {Horn, in Malth. Ixvii. 3). In associating 
St Pelagia with St Marina, St Margaret (9.V.), and others, oi 
whom dther the name or the legend recalls Pelagia, Hermann 
Usener has endeavoured to show by a series of subtle deductions 
that this saint is only a Christian travesty of Aphrodite. But 
there is no doubt of the existence of the first Pelagia of Antioch, 
the Pelagia of Ambrose and Chrysostom. The legends which 
have subsequently become connected with her name Are the 
result of a very common development in literary history. 

See Acta sanctorum, October, iv. 248 seq.; H. Usener, Legendeu 
der heiligen Pelagia (Bonn. 1879): H. Dclehaye, The Legends of lk§ 
Saints (London, 1907), pp. 197-305. (H. Ds.) 

PELAGIUS, the name of two popes. 

Pelagius I., pope from 555 to 561, was a Roman by birth, 
and first appears in history at Constantinople in the rank of 
deacon, and as apocrisiarius of Pope Silverius, whose over- 
throw in favour of Vigillus his intrigues promoted. Vigilius 
continued him in his diplomatic appointment, and he was 
sent by the emperor Justinian in 542 to Antioch on eccle- 
siastical busines.^; he afterwards took part in the synod at 
Gaza which deposed Paul of Alexandria. He had amassed some 
wealth, which on his return to Rome he so employed among the 
poor as to secure for himself great popularity; and, when Vigilius 
was summoned to Byzantium in 544, Pelagius, now archdeacon, 
was left behind as his vicar, and by his tact in dealing with ToUla, 
the Gothic invader, saved the dtizens from murder and outrage. 
He appears to have followed his master to Constantinople, and 
to have taken part in the Three Chapters controversy; in 553, 
at all events, he signed the " constitutum " of Vigilius in favour 
of these, and for refusing, with him, to accept the decrees of the 
fifth general council (the 3nd of Constantinople, 553) shared 
his exile. Even after Vigilius had approved the comdemnatioo 
of the Three Chapters, Pelagius defended them, and even pub- 
lished a book on the subject. But when Vigilius died (June 7, 
555)1 be accepted the council, and allowed himself to be desig- 
nated by Justinian to succeed the late pof>e. It was in these 
circumstances that he returned to Rome; but most of the dergy, 
suspecting his orthodoxy, and believing him to have had some 
share in the removal of his predecessor, shunned his fellowship. 
He enjoyed, however, the support of Narses, and, after he had 
publicly purged himself of complicity in Vigilius's death in the . 
church of St Peter, he met with toleration in his own immediate . 
diocese. The rest of the western bishops, however, still held 
aloof, and the episcopate of Tuscany caused his name to be 
removed from the diptychs. This elidtcd from him a drcular, 
in which he asserted his loyalty to the four general councils, 
and declared that the hostile bishops had been guilty of schism. 
The bishops of Liguria and Aemilia, headed by the archbishop 
of Milan, and those of Istria and Venice, headed by Paulinus of 
Aquileia, also withheld their fellowship; but Narses resisted 
the appeals of Pelagius who would have invoked the secular 
arm. Childcbert, king of the Franks, also refused to interfere. 
Pelagius died on the 4th of March 561, and was succeeded by 
John III. 

Pelagius II., a native of Rome, but of Gothic des(;ent, was 
pope from 579 to 590, having been consecrated successor of 
Benedict I., without the sanction of the emperor, on the 26th of 



PELAGIUS 



63 



November. To nuke hb apologies for this irregularity he sent 
Dcacoa Gicfory, wlio afterwards became Pope Gregory the Great, 
as hb apocnsiarius to Constantinople. In 585 he sought to 
beal the schism which had subsisted since the time of Pelagius I. 
ia c oap rgirm with the Three Chi4>ters, but his efforts were 
without mcms. In 588 John, patriarch of Constantinople, by 
icvhriog the old and disputed claim to the title of oecumenic 
patfiafcli, didted a vigorous protest from Pelagius; but the 
decretai which professes to convey the exaa words of the 
docioiic&t is now known to be false. He died in January 590, 
and was succeeded by Gregory L 

PBJUIiUS ie. 360- c, 430), early British theobgian. Of the 
origin ol Pelagius almost nothing is known. The name is 
soppoaed to be a graedied form o( the Cymric Morgan (sea- 
begotten). His contemporaries understood that he was of 
British (probably of Irish) birth, and gave him the appellation 
BrJto. He was a large ponderous person, heavy both in body 
and mind (Jerome, ''stolidissimus et Scotorum pultibus prae- 
gravatos")* He was influenced by the monastic enthusiasm 
which had been kindled in Gaul by Athanaslus (336), and which, 
thnm^ the energy of Alartin of Tours (361), rapidly communi- 
cated itself to the Britons and Scots. For, though Pelagius 
itmalned a layman throughout his life, and though he never 
appcan in any strict connexion with a coenobite fraternity, 
he yet adhered to monastic discipline ("veluti monachus")i 
and distinguished himsdf by his purity of life and exceptional 
sanctity (" ^;regie Christianus ")• He seems to have been one 
of the earliest, if not the very earh'est, of that remarkable series 
of men who issued from the monasteries of Scotland and Ireland, 
and carried back to the Continent in a purified form the religion 
tbey hMd received from it. Coming to Rome in the beginning of 
the 5th century (his earliest known writing is of date 405), he 
iooDd a scandalously low tone of morality prevalent. But his 
were met by the plea of human weakness. To 
this plea by exhibiting the actual powers of human 
■stare became his first object. It seemed to him that the 
Aofostiaian doctrine <rf total depravity and of the consequent 
boadage ol the will both cut the sinew of all human effort and 
tkrew upon God the blame which really belonged to man. His 
hvoorite maxim was, "HI ought, I can." 

The views <rf PeUgius did not originate in a conscious rraction 
ipnat the influence of the Augustinian theology, although each 
of these systems was developed into its ultimate form by the 
oppoBtion of the other. Neither must too much weight be 
sBovcd to the circumstance that Pelagius was a monk, for he was 
saqoestionably alive to the delusive character of much that 
paind for monkish sanctity. Yet possibly his monastic training 
Bay have led him to look more at conduct than at character, 
and to believe that holiness could be arrived at by rigour 
of (bdpline. This view of things suited his matter-of-fact 
tenpcrament. Judging from the general style of his writings, 
ba rd^knis development had been equable and peaceful, not 
Bsxked by the prolonged mental conflict, or the abrupt transi- 
tioQs, which characterized the experience of his great opponent. 
With no great penetration he saw very clearly the thing before 
hia, and many of his practical counsels are marked by sagacity, 
isd are expressed with the succinctness of a proverb (" corpus 
BOQ frangendum, sed regendum est "). His interests were 
prunarfly ethical; hence his insistence on the freedom of the will 
aad his limitation of the action of divine grace. 

The peculiar tenets of Pelagius, though indicated m the 
coauaentaries which he published at Rome previous to 409, 
m^^ not so speedily have attracted attention had they not 
been adapted by (^lestius, a much younger and bolder man than 
hk teacher. Coelestius, probably an Italian, had been trained 
ss a bwyer, bat abandoned his profession for an ascetic life. 
When Rome was sacked by the Goths (410) the two friends 
to Africa. There PeUgius once or twice met with 
but very shortly sailed for Palestine, where he justly 
wpected that hb opinions would be more cordially received. 
Codestios remained in (^rthage with the view of receiving 
Bvt Aurdius, bbhop of Carthage, being warned 



against him, stunmoned a synod, at which Paulinus, a deacon 
of Milan, charged Codestius with holding the following sue 
errors: (i) that Adam would have died even if he had not sinned; 
(2) that the sin of Adam injured himself alone, not the human 
nice; (3) that new-bom children are in the same condition in 
whicb Adam was before the fall; (4) that the whole hunum race 
does not die because of Adam's death or sin, nor wiU the race 
rise again because of the resurrection of Christ; (5) that the law 
gives entrance to heaven as well as the gospd ; (6) that even before 
the coming of Christ there were men who were enlirdy without 
sin. To these propositions a seventh b sometimes added, " that 
infants, though unbaptized,have eternal life," a corollary from 
the third. Codestius did not deny that he hdd these opinions, 
but he maintained that they were open questions, on which the 
Church had never pronounced. The synod, notwithstanding, 
condemned and excommunicated him. Codestius, after a futile 
appeal to Rome, went to Ephesus,and there received ordination. 
In Palestine Pelagius. lived unmolested and revered, until in 
415 Orosius, a Spanbh priest, came from Augustine, who in the 
meantime had written hb De peccatorum mtrUis^ to warn Jerome 
against him. The result was that in June of that year Pelagius 
was dted by Jerome bdore John, bishop of Jerusalem, and 
charged with holding that man may be without sin, if only he 
desires it. Thb prosecution broke down and in December of 
the same year Pelagius was summoned before a synod of fourteen 
bisliops at Diospolis (Lydda). The prosecutors on thb occasion 
were two deposed Gallican bishops, Hcros of Aries and Lazarus 
of Aix, but on account of the illness of one of them neither could 
appear. The proceedings, being conducted in various languages 
and by means of interpreters, lacked certainty, and justified 
Jerome's application to the synod of the epithet " mberable." 
But there b no doubt that Pelagius repudiated the assertion of 
Codestius, that " the divine grace and help b not granted to 
individual acts, but consists in free will, and in the giving of the 
law and instruction." At the same time he affirmed that a 
man b able, if he likes, to live without sin and keep the command- 
ments of God, inasmuch as God gives him this ability. The 
synod was satisfied with these statements, and pronounced 
Pelagius to be in agreement with Catholic teaching. Pebgius 
naturally plumed himself on hb acquittal, and provoked Augus- 
tine to give a detailed account of the synod, in which he shows 
that the language used by Pelagius was ambiguous, but that, 
being interpreted by hb previous written statements, it involved 
a denial of what the Church understood by grau and by man's 
dependence on it. The North African Church as a whole 
resented the decisions of DiospoHs, and in 416 sent up from 
their synods of Carthage and Mileve (in Numidia) an appeal to 
Innocent, bbhop of Rome, who, flattered by the tribute thus 
paid to the see of Rome, decided the question in favour of the 
African synods. And, though his successor 2^imus wavered 
for some time, he at length fell in with what he saw to be the 
general mind of both the ecclesiastical and the civil powers. 
For, simultaneously with the largely attended African synod 
which finally condemned Pdagianism in the West, an imperial 
edict was issued at Ravenna by Honorius on the 30th of April 
418, peremptorily determining the theological question and 
enacting that not only Pelagius and Coelestius but all who 
accepted their opinions should suffer confiscation of goods 
and irrevocable banishment. Thus prompted, 2U>simus drew 
up a drcular inviting all the bishops of Christendom to subscribe 
a condemnation of Pelagian opinions. Nineteen Italian bbhops 
refused, among them Julian of Eclanum in Apulia, a man of good 
birth, approved sanctity and great capadty, who now became 
the recognized leader of the movement. But 'not even his 
acuteness and zeal could redeem a cause which was rendered 
hopeless when the Eastern Church (Ephesus, 431) confirmed the 
decision of the West. Pelagius himself disappears after 420; 
Codestius was at Constantinople seeking the aid of Nestorius 
10428. 

Pdagianism. — The system of Pelagius is a consistent whole, 
each part involving the exbtence of every other. Starting from 
the idea that " ability limits obligation," and resolved that men 



64 PELAGIUS 

■IkmIiI Cm! their wipciMlliiBtY. bt InuMd tbit mia m utile to da (929)- howevH. which ceaitnatd ScniptUiiuImi, did n vhb 

■U that God csmnindi, ud Uiu Ihtn ii, mnd cu be, no lin when Ihe ligni&cul rnltkiion Ihat predeninitian 10 rvil w*i dm ts be 

the will it not mbioluMly fm— aUa to chome good or evil. The Uughl— * minciiDii u igieeable 10 the Eenenl (criiDE o( the 

favourite [VUgiu [oRDuli, "Si nmnititii at. piccatiini nan eS; Church Ihii, thiee ceniurici liter, CmlKhalk wu Knmccd to be 

11 voluBtatiit vituj pocott" had an appcanncc oi finality whkh decided {mm the pricxhood, ecourged and impriaooed for teachiaf 

impoad on HpecCdal mindi. The Iheoni of the will involved in nprotstion. The qimtjona niied bjr PcUgiue continually lecur. 



relemd to God, who haa bestowed thli on Hit creature; the other ovenv> The 

two, the wilLand the act, muft be referred toman, becauK they flow lenuand the 

from the fountain oi fna will " (Aug., Dt p. CkniH. ch. 4). But at aupenuliciui 

other timet he admiCi a much nder laiwe to grace, to at to make iLnf or t^Dt 

Auguitine doubt whether hit neanin^ u not, alter all, orthodox, believinv it, the fabily and cnicUy engendered and ixnpantr^ 

But, when he ipcakt of grace " lanctifyir^" "uilitin^,'* and to by ihcldeailut in theChurch'icau«all wtapoot were juAibablr, 



it only that 



ct of grace " lanctifyiiii," "utlitine,'* and to by ihcldeailut in theChurch'icau«all wtapoot were iuAibbI 
I nan may "more ttuSy' accompUdi what he Ihetevicet were undoubtedly due to tite belief that the viable chun 



could with more diflVculty accompHih without Erace. A decikive wat the tole divinely-appointed repository of fii£t. 

puage occuri in the letter he tent to the tee of Rome along with hu iharply accentuated lone in which Auguitiniaiiltn] aAim 

Cnfiiiie fiiii: " We maintain (hat free will exiui generally in all inability quicVencd the craving for that grace or direct i 



in Chrixiani. jewt and Centiin; they have all equally Cod upon the 1 
iD-civm iL by nature, but In ChiiHiani only it it atuled by gi — -j-t-s- — 1 -i. 



but, though bit arnimenti nnvailcd, they did not wholly coDvlnce, to di 

and the r& of Semipelai^uilaB-an attempt to hold a middle coune failt . 

between the hanhneiaof Auguitlniaidfem and the obvloua erron of ilitgDdleH.lhali1kDowi.anuacrK9iuBnuw, nutning «■ imnnpiiaH 

E'elagianiim — it full of ilgniKancb Thit camen and conciliatory and thai it n dDrninaled by an empty Eormalitm {a aotioihl nyibo- 

movenent ditcovercd itidi iiiniUaaeo«ul|r in North Afika and in mice at no angle puinl to actual (|uaflUlieh 

aouihem Caul, la the lainer Church, which naturally desred to ination c«uiu> o( thcer coniradiciiona. In the 

adheietotheviewisf ill own great Iheologian.ihemonlii of Adrum- octrine wat Harmed by PcUigiui— and in fact 

etum found themtelvta either lunk to the verge of detpair or pr^ with all the accommodalioni to which he 

VDked to licentioumeet by hit predcttinarian leaching- When Ihit u not a novelty. Bui id iia fundanotal 

waa reported 10 Aunitlioe he wrote two elaboiate treatliea u ibow ther, il was an innovuioo becaLieit abasdooed 

that when God ordaina Ihe end He alto ordaina the meant, and if mmodatioot in eipreataon, the pc4e of the 

any nun it ordained to Ufe eternal he it thereby ordained to holinen redemnion, which Oie Church bad tttadfuthr 

and leakiui effort. But meiniddle tome of the monk* IhemKlvn ide witli Ihe doctrine of freedom." 

had Kruck out a tiS ludui which aacnbcd to Cod tovereign grace mlroveray tome of the fundamental diSennre* 

and yet kfl intact man't mponiibility. A limilar icheme waa ind Wettem theologiea appear. The former laid 

adopted by Caiuan of Maneilln (hence Semipeligiini are often riutural character of Chrirtlanity at ■ fact ia 

tpoken of aa iiauilioiay. and wafl afterwards ably advocated by the objective worid "anddcveloped the doctrioea of the Trinity and 

Vincent of Lerini and Fsuttut of Rhcgium, Thete writot, in the Incarnation Mhe Wcttem flnphaated " Ihe wpematnnl cbarac- 

oppodtion to FelagiUB. maintained that man wai damaged by ter of Chiiuianity at an agency in the uibjective world " a^ 

Ihe fall, and teemed indeed diuued 10 puirhaK a certiteate of devrlopnl the doctiinei of Bn and ^race- AH the Greek falhcn 

(raoac, muicae motiturae, ftc.). The diflerentia of Scmipclagianiun loath lo make tin a nalur^power, though of coune admittiag a 

b Ihe tenet that iniTgencntion, and all that rewlu from it. Ihedivine general lUte of Hnfulntat. The early Britiih monaBeriea had bea 

and (he human will are co-openting (lynergittic) cocAdenl factora. connecled with the Orient. PeUgiui wai familiar with the Greek 

After flnding consderable acceptaacc. Ihit theory wu uliimaiely Itnguage and Ihlnloiy. and when he ame Id Rome he wat moch la 

condemned, oeceuK it retained Ihe root-prindple of Peltgianiim — the company of Rubnui nod hit drele who wen dkdckYOdffi^ to 

that man hat tome ability lo will good and lliai ihe beginning a< propagate Creek theology in the Latin Church, 

lahnlioa may be with nun. The Coundli of Orange and Valence LlTlkAmu.— Pelagnit't CnmnlarW « tfiiMat ftM, UUtm 



PELASGIANS— PELEUS 



65 



fin mi lumounUmm And EfiUota ad Denutriadem are preserved 
n Jcfome'ft works (vol. v. 01 Martiani's ed., vol. xi. of Va 



/allani's). 
Tbe laat-aamed was also published separately by Semler (Halle, 
1775). There are of oourae nuiay citations in the Anti-PelaKian 
Treatises of Ausustine. On the Commentaries see Joumai of Tkeol. 
SudieSf viL s6«, viii. 526; an edition a being prepared for tbe 
Cambridge Texts and Studies by A. Souter. 

See also F. Winers, DarsteUunt des Augnstinismns und Pelagtanis- 
wna (2 vob.. Bemn, 1831-18^: Ene. trans, of vol. i.. by R. Emerson, 
Aadovcr, >8ao); J* l^ Jacobi, Die Lehre d, Pelagius (Leipzig, 1843); 
F. Klaaen. Du tnnere Entwiekeluni des Pdagianismus (Freiburg, 
.1883); B. B. Warfield, Two Studies tn Ike History of Doctrine (New 
York, 1893): A. Haniack. History of Dogmas Eng. trans., v. 168-203; 
F. Loofs, Dogmengeuhisckte and art. in Hauck-Hcrzog's Real- 
encyUa^ fOr pntt, Tneoloeie u. Kircke (end of vtA. xv.), where a full 
liiuagraphy b given. (M. D.) 

PBLASGlAllS* M, name applied by Greek writers to a pre- 
historic people whose traces were believed to exist in Greek lands. 
If the statements of ancient authorities are marshalled in order 
of tbrir date it will be seen that certain beliefs cannot be traced 
back bejrood the age of this or that author. Though thb does 
•ot prove that the beliefs themselves were not held earlier, it 
ioggests caution in assuming that they were. In the Homeric 
poenis there are Pelasgians among the allies of Troy: in the 
catalogue, Iliads ii. 840-843, which is otherwise in strict geogra- 
phical order, they stand between the HcUespontinc towns and 
the Thracians of south-east Etiropc, i.e. on the HcUespontine 
bofder oC Thrace. Their town or district is called Larissa and 
is fertile, and they are celebrated for their spearmanship. Their 
dneb are Hippothous and Pylaeus, sons of Lethus son of 
Tcutamus. .Iliad, x. 428-439, describes their camping ground 
between the town of Troy and the sea; but this obviously 
pcofcs DOtbing about their habitat in time of peace. Odyssey, 
xviL 175-177, notes Pelasgians in Crete, together with two appa- 
icatly indigenous and two immigrant peoples (Achaeans and 
Dorians), but gives no indication to which class the Pelasgians 
bdoog. In Lemnos {IKad, vii. 467; xiv. 330) there are no 
Pdu^ans, but a Minyan dynasty. tWo other passages (Iliad, 
i. 681-^84; xvL 233-235) apply the epithet " Pclasgic " to a 
district called Argos about Mt Othrys in south Thcssaly, and 
to Zens of Dodona. But in neither case are actual Pelasgians 
OKstioaed; the Thessalian Argos is the specific home of Hellenes 
aod Achanns, and Dodona is inhabited by Perrhacbians and 
Aeoiancs {Iliads ii. 750) who arc nowhere described as Pclasgian. 
It looks therefore as if '* Pelasgian " were here used connota- 
Ufdy, to mean either " formerly occupied by Pclasgian " or 
smpfy *' of immemorial age." 

Hesiod expands the Homeric phrase and calls Dodona " scat 
of Masgians " (fr. 225); he speaks also of a personal Pcbsgus 
as father of Lycaon, the culture-hcro of Arcadia; and a later 
epic poet, Asius, describes Pclasgus as the first man, whom 
tke earth threw up that there might be a race of men. Hccataeus 

Pclasgus king of Thessaly (expounding Iliad, ii. 681-684); 
applies this Homeric passage to the Peloponncsian 
AifH, and engrafts the Hesiodic Pelasgus, father of Lycaon, 
into a Peloponnesian genealog>'. Hcllanicus a generation btcr 
fepeau this blunder, and identifies this Argive and Arcadian 
Fefasgtts with the Thessalian Pclasgus of Hecataeus. For 
Acxfayha {jSupplices x, sqq.) Pelasgus is earthbom, as in Asius, 
tad rules a kingdom stretching from Argos to Dodona and the 
1; but in Promeihetu 879, the " Pelasgian " land simply 

Aifoa. Sophocles takes the same view {Inackus, fr. 256) 
■ad for tbe first time introduces the word " Tyrrhenian " into 
the story, apparently as synonymous with Pelasgian. 

Herodotus, like Homer, has a denotative as well as a'conno- 
Ulive use. He describes actual Pelasgians surviving and 
■BtuaDy intelligible (a) at Plade and Scylace on the Asiatic 
of the HeUe^nt, and (b) near Creston on the Strymon; 
the huter area they have " Tyrrhenian " neighbours. He 

to other districts where Pelasgian peoples lived on under 
nanses; Samothrace and Antandrus in Troas are 
pnbcddy instances of this. In Lemnos and Imbros he describes 
t Pdasgian population who were only conquered by Athens 
dboftly before 500 B.C., and in this connexion he tells a story of 

raids of these Pelasgians on Attica, and of a temporary 



settlement there of HeUespontine Pelasgians, all dating from a 
time *' when the Athenians were first beginning to count as 
Greeks." Elsewhere " Pelasgian " in Herodotus connotes 
anything typical of, or surviving from, the state of things in 
Greece before the coming of the Hellenes. In this sense all 
Greece was once " Pclasgic "; the clearest instances of Pclasgian 
survival in ritual and customs and antiquities are in Arcadia, 
the " Ionian " districts of north-west Pcloponnesc, and Attica, 
which have suffered least from hcUcnization. In Athens itself 
the prehistoric wall of the citadel and a plot of ground close 
below it were venerated in the slh century as " Pelasgian "; so 
too Thucydides (ii. 17). We may note that all Herodotcan 
examples of artual Pclasgi lie round, or near, the actual Pclasgi 
of Homeric Thrace; that the most distant of these b confirmed 
by the testimony of Thucydides (iv. 106) as to the Pelasgian 
and Tyrrhenian population of the adjacent seaboard: also 
that lliucydidcs adopts the same general Pclasgian theory of 
early Greece, with the refinement that he regards the Pelasgian 
name as originally- specific, and as having come gradually into 
this generic use. 

Ephorus, relying on Hesiodic tradition of an aboriginal Pelas- 
gian type in Arcadia, elaborated a theory of the Pelasgians as a 
warrior- people spreading (like " Aryans ") from a " Pclasgian 
home," and annexing and colonizing all the parts of Greece 
where earlier writers had found allusions to them, from Dodona 
to Crete and the Troad, and even as far as Italy, where again 
their settlements had been recognized as early as the time of 
Hcllanicus, in close connexion once more with " Tyrrhenians." 

The copious additional information given by btcr writers 
is all by way either of interpretation of local legends in the light 
of Ephorus's theory, or of explanation of the name" Pclasgoi "; 
as when Philochorus expands a popular etymology " stork-folk " 
{irtkaayol — ireXap7o() into a theory of their seasonal migrations; 
or Apollodorus says that Homer calls 2^us Pclasgian " because 
he is not far from every one of us," 6rt rrjt 7^ ir^Xas iarh. 
The connexion with Tyrrhenians which began with Hcllanicus, 
Herodotus and Sophocles becomes confusion with them in the 
3rd century, when the Lemnian pirates and their Attic kinsmen 
are plainly styled Tyrrhenians, and early fortress-walls in Italy 
(like those on the Palatine in Rome) are quoted as " Arcadian " 
colonics. 

Modem writers have either been content to restate or amplify 
the view, ascribed above to Ephorus, that " Pelasgian " simply 
means " prehistoric Greek," or have used the name Pclasgian 
at their pleasure to denote some one element in the mixed * 
population of the Aegean — ^Thracian, Illyrian (Albanian) or 
Semitic. G. Sergi {Origine e difusione delta stirpc mediter- 
ranea, Rome, 1895; Eng. trans. The Mediterranean Race, 
London, 1901), followed by many anthropologists, describes 
as " Pelasgian " one branch of the Mediterranean or Eur-African 
race of mankind, and one group of typ>es of skull within that race. 
The character of the ancient citadel wall at Athens, already 
mentioned, has given the name ** Pclasgic masonry " to all 
constructions of large unhewn blocks fitted roughly together 
without mortar, from Asia Minor to Spain. 

For another view than that here taken see Achaeans; also 
Greece: Ancient History, § 3, " Homeric Age." 

Bibliography. — Besides sections on the subject in all principal 
histories of Greece and bibliographies in G. Busolt, Cr. Ceschickle, 
i • (Gotha, 1803, 164-182) : and K. F. Hermann (Thumser), Gr. Slaats- 
allerthUmert § 6, sec S. Bruck, Quae vcUres de Pelasgis tradiderint 
(Brcslau, 1884); B. Giseke, Thrakisck-pclasgische Stdmme auf der 
Balkanhalbinsd (Leipzig, 1858); F. G. Hahn, Albanesische Studien 
(Jena, 1854); P. Volkmulh. Die Pelasgcr als Semiten (Schaffhauscn, 
i860); H. Kicpert, Monalsbcricht d. berl. Akademie (1861), pp. 114 
sqq.; K. Pauli, Eine vorgriechische Inschrift auf Lemnos (Leipzig, 
1886); E. Meyer, " Oie Pclasger " in Forsckungen t. alien Ceschickle 




(in Journal of .. . . 

peJasgicae (Cambridge, 1815); L. Bcnloew. La Crkce avant Us Crecs 

fpanl 1877). U- L. M.) 

PELEUS, in Greek legend, king of the Myrmidones of Phthia 
in Thessaly, son of Aeaais, king of Aegina, and brother (or 



66 



PELEW ISLANDS— PELHAM (FAMILY) 



intimate friend) of TeUmon. The two brothers, jealous of the 
athletic prowess of their step-brother Phocus, slew him; but the 
crime was discovered, and Peleus and TeUmon were banished. 
Pdeus took refuge in Phthia with his uncle Eurytion, who 
purified him from the guilt of murder, and gave him his daughter 
Antigone to wife, and a third of the kingdom as her dowry. 
Having accidentally killed his father-in-law at the Calydonian 
boar-hunt, Peleus was again obliged to flee, this time to lolcus, 
where he was purified by Acastus. The most famous event in 
the life of Peleus was his marriage with the sea-goddess Thetis, 
by whom he became the father of Achilles. The story ran that 
both Zeus and Poseidon had sought her hand, but, Themis 
(or Prometheus or Proteus) having warned the former that a 
son ol Thetis by Zeus would prove mightier than his father, 
the gods decided to marry her to Peleus. Thetis, to escape a 
distasteful union, changed herself into various forms, but at 
last Peleus, by the instructions of Chiron, seized and held her 
fast till she resumed her original shape, and was unable to 
offer further resistance. The wedding (described in the fine 
EpitfuJamiutn of Catullus) took place in Chiron's cave on Mt 
Pelion. Peleus survived both his son Achilles and his g^^dson 
Neoptolemus, and was carried away by Thetis to dwell for ever 
among the Nereids. 

See ADoUodorus tit. I3, 13: Ovid, Afr/am.* xi. Pindar, IsthmiOt 
viii. 70, Nemea, iv. 101 ; Catullus, Ixiv.; schol. Apoll. Rhod. iv. 816; 
Euripides, Andromache, 1242-1260. 

PELEW ISLANDS (Ger. Palauinseln, also Pdao), a group of 
twenty-sijc islands in the western Pacific Ocean, between 2** 35' 
and 9** N., and 130** 4' and 134*° 40' E., belonging to Germany. 
They lie within a corai barrier reef, and in the south the islands 
are of coral, but in the north of volcanic rocks. They are well 
wooded, the climate is healthy, and the water-supply good. 
A few rats and bats represent the indigenous mammals, but the 
sea is rich in fish and molluscs; and Dr Otto Finsch {Journ. des 
Museum Codefroy, 1875) enumerated 56 species of birds, of 
which 12 are peculiar to the group. The total area is 175 sq. m., 
the largest islands being Babcltop (Babelthuap, Baobeltaob and 
other variants), Uniktapi (Uruklhopcl), Korror, Nyaur, Peleliu 
and Eilmalk (Irakong). The popubtion is about 3100. The 
natives are Micronesians, and are darker and shorter than their 
kinsmen, the Caroline Islanders. They usually have the frizzly 
hair of the Melane»ans,and paint their bodies in brilliant colours, 
especially yellow. The men vary in height from 5 ft. to 5 ft. 5 in., 
the women from 4 ft. to 5 ft. 2 in. The skull shows a strong 
tendency to brachycephalism. Two curious customs may be 
noted — the institution of an honourable order bestowed by the 
king, called klilt\ and a species of mutual aid society, sometimes 
confined to women, and possessing considerable political influ- 
ence. There are five kinds of currency in the islands, consisting 
of beads of glass and enamel, to which a supernatural origin is 
ascribed. 

The islands were sighted in 1543 by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, 
who named them the Arrccifos. The origin of the 
name Islas Palaos is doubtful. The islands were bought by 
Germany from Spain in 1899, and are administered together 
with the western Carolines, Yap being the administrative 
centre. 

Sec K. Semper, Die Pahu-InsHn (Leipzig, 1873); I. S. Kubary, 
Die sotialen Etnricktungen der Palauer (Berlin, 1 88s); A. A. Marche, 
LufOH et Palouan (Pans, 1887). 

PELF, a term now chiefly used of money and always in a 
derogatory sense. The word originally meant plunder, pillage 
(O. Fr. pelf re, probably from Lat. pilare, to deprive of hair, pilus), 
and this significance is still kept in the related word " pilfer," to 
make petty thefts. 

PELHAM, the name of an English famfly, derived from Pelham 
in Hertfordshire, which was owned by a certain Walter de 
Pelham under Edward I., and is alleged to have been in the 
poasesuon of the same family before the Norman conquest. 
The family dignities included the barony of Pelham of Laughton 
(1706-1768), the earidom of Clare (1714-1768), the dukedom of 
Newcaitle (1715-1768), the barony of Pelham of Stanmer from 



1762, the earldom of Chichester from 1801 and the earldom of 
Yarborough from 1837. 

John de Pelham, who was one of the captors of John II. of 
France at Poitiers, acquired land at Winchelsea by his marriage 
with Joan Herbert, or Finch. His son, John de Pelham (d. 
X429), was attached to the party of John of Gaunt and his son 
Henry IV. In 1393 he received a life appointment as constable 
of Pevensey Castle, an honour subsequently extended to his 
heirs male, and he joined Henry on his invasion in 1399, if he 
did not actually land with him at Ravenspur. He was knighted 
at Henry's coronation, and represented Sussex in parliament 
repeatedly during the reign of Henry IV., and again in 1422 and 
1427. As constable of Pevensey he had at different times the 
charge of Edward, duke of York, in 1405; Edmund, earl of 
March, with his brother Roger Mortimer in 1406; James L of 
Scotland in 1414; Sir John Mortimer in 1422, and the queen 
dowager, Joan of Navarre, from 1418 to 1422. He was con- 
stantly employed in the defence of the southern ports against 
French invasion, and his powers were increased in 1407 by hii^ 
appointment as chief butler of Chichester and of the Susses 
ports, and in 141 2 by the grant of the rape of Hastings. He 
was treasurer of England in 141 2-1413, and although he was 
superseded on the accession of Henry V. he was sent in the 
next year to negotiate with the French court. He was included 
among the executors of the wills of Henry IV., of Thomas, duke 
of Clarence, and of Henry V. He died on the X2th of February 
14 29, and was succeeded by hb son John, who took part in 
Henry V.'s expedition to Normandy in 141 7. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth Sir William Pelham (c. 1530- 
1587), third son of Sir William Pelham (d. 1538) of Laughton, 
Sussex, became lord justice of Ireland. He was captain of 
pioneers at the siege of Leith in 1560, and served at the siege 
of Havre in 1562, and with Coligny at Caen in 1563. He that 
returned to Havre, at that time occupied by English troops 
and was one of the hostages for the fulfilment of its surrender 
to Charles IX. in 1564. After his return to England he fortified 
Berwick among other places, and was appointed lieutenant- 
general of ordnance. He was sent to Ireland in 1579, when he 
was knighted by Sir William Drury, the lord justice. Drury 
died in October, and Pelham was provisionally made hb 
successor, an appointment subsequently confirmed by Elizabeth. 
Alarmed by the proceedings of Gerald Fitzgerald, xsth eari of 
Desmond, and his brother John Desmond, he proclaimed the 
earl a traitor. Elizabeth protested strongly against Pelham's 
action, which was justified by the sack of Youghal by Desmond. 
Thomas Butler, loth earl of Ormonde, was entrusted with the 
campaign in Munster, but Pelham joined him in February 1580^ 
when it was believed that a Spanish descent was about to be 
made in the south-west. The English generals laid wa^ 
northern Kerry, and proceeded to besiege Carrigafoyle Castle, 
which they stormed, giving no quarter to man, woman or child. 
Other strongholds submitted on learning the fate of Carrigafoyle, 
and were garrisoned by Pelham, who hoped with the concourM 
of Admiral Winter's fl^et to limit the struggle to Kerry. He 
vainly sought help from the gentry of the county, who sym- 
pathized with Desmond, and were only brought to submisuon by 
a series of " drives." After the arrival of the new deputy. Lord 
Grey of Wilton, Pelham returned to England on the ground of 
health. He hod retained his oflice as lieutenant-general of 
ordnance, and was now made responsible for debts incurred 
during his absence. Leicester desired his services in the Nether- 
lands, but it was only after much persuasion that Elizabeth set 
him free to join the army by accepting a mortgage on his estaUet 
as security for his liabilities. The favour shown by Leicester 
to Pelham caused serious jealousies among the English ofl^cen^ 
and occasioned a camp brawl in which Sir Edward Nonit 
was injured. Pelham was wounded at Doesburg in ks86, aad 
accompanied Leicester to England in 1587. Rcturping to the 
Netherlands in the same year he died at Flushing on the S4th of 
November 1587. His half-brother. Sir Edmund Pdham (d. 
1606), chief baron of the exchequer in Ireland, was the fint 
English judge to go on circuit in Ulster. 



PELHAM, H.— PELIAS 



67 



Sir William married Eleanor, daughter of Henry NeviUe, 
earl of Westmorland, and was the ancestor of the Pelhams of 
Brocklesby, Lincolnshire. In the fourth generation Charles 
Pelham died in 1763 without heirs, leaving his estates to his 
grcat-nephcw Charies Anderson (1749-1823), who thereupon 
assumed the additional name of Pelham, and was created Baron 
Yarborough in 1794. His son Charles (i 781-1846), who was 
for many years commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron, was 
created earl of Yarborough and Baron Worsley in 1837. Charles 
Alfred Wonley, the 4th earl (b. 1859), exchanged the name of 
Anderson- Pelliam for that of Pelham in 1905. He married in 
i836 Marda Lane- Fox, eldest daughter of the lath Baron 
Conyers, who became in 1893 Baroness Conyers in her own 
rigfaL 

Sir Nicholas Pelham (1517-1560), an elder half-brother of 
Sir WiHiaiii Pelham, defended Seaford against the French in 
1545* and sat for Arundel and for Sussex in parliament. He 
was the ancestor of the earls of Chichester. His second son. 
Sir Thomas Pelham (d. i 6 24) , was created a baronet in 1 6 1 1 . H is 
descendant. Sir Thomas Pelham, 4th baronet (c. 1650-17 12), 
represented successively East Grinstead, Lewes and Sussex in 
parliament, and was raised to the House of Lords as Baron 
Pelham ol Laughton in 1706. By his second marriage with 
Grace (d. 1700), daughter of Gilbert Holies, 3rd earl of Clare, 
and sister of John Holies, duke of Newcastle, he had five daugh- 
ters, and two sons — Thomas Pelham, earl of Clare, duke of 
Newcastle-on-Tyne and ist duke of Newcastlc-undcr-Lyme (see 
Newcastle. Dukes of), and Henry Pelham (^.r.). The duke 
of Newcastle died without heirs, and the dukedom of Newcastle- 
nnder-Lyme descended to his nephew, Henry Ficnnes Clinton, 
ifttrwards known as Pelham-CUnton, and his heirs, but the 
birooy of Pelham of Laughton became extinct. In 1762 
Newcastle had been created Baron Pelham of Stanmer, with 
reversion to his cousin and heir-male, Thomas Pelham (1728- 
1S03), who became commissioner of trade (1754), lord of the 
idauialty (i 761-1 764), comptroller of the household (1765- 
1774). privy councillor (1765), surveyor-general of the customs 
of London (1773-1805), chief justice in eyre (i774-i775) and 
kerper of the wardrobe (i 775-1 782), and was created earl of 
CUdiester in 1801. His third son, George (1766-1827), was 
nccessi^iely bishop of Bristol, Exeter and Lincoln. Thomas 
Peiham, and carl of Chichester (i 756-1826), son of the ist 
earl, was surveyor-general of ordnance in Lord Rockingham's 
nioistry (1782), and chief secretary for Ireland in the coalition 
sdnistry of 1783. In 1795 he became Irish chief secretary 
aoder Pitt's government, retiring in 1798; he was home secre- 
tity from July 1801 to August 1803 under Addington, who 
C3de him chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in 1803. 
Pcflam went out of ofUce in 1804, and in the next year 
yjcaedtd to the eaiidom. He was joint postmaster-general 
from 1807 to 1823, and for the remaining three years of his 
fife postmaster-general. His son and heir, Henry Thomas 
Pelham (i 804-1 886). 3rd earl, was an ecclesiastical commissioner 
from 1850 until his death, and was greatly interested in various 
lefigioia. philanthropic and educational movements; and two 
etlier cons were well-known men — Frederick Thomas Pelham 
(1808-1861), who became a rear-admiral in 1858, and subse- 
qcenily lord-commissioner of the admiralty, and John Thomas 
Pcftam (18 II- 1894), who was bishop of Norwich from 1857 to 
1803. The third earl's son, Walter John Pelham (1838-189 2), 
nccecded his father in 1886, and his nephew Jocelyn Brudenell 
PeSam (b. 1871) became 6th earl of Chichester in 1905. 

FCLHAIf, HENRY (1696- 17 54), prime minister of England, 
yvausser brother of Thomas Holies Pelham, duke of Newcastle, 
«3S bom in 1696. He was a younger son of Thomas, ist Baron 
Pdham of Laughton (1650-1712; cr. 1706) and of Lady Grace 
HaXks, daughter of the 3rd earl of Gare (see above). He was 
etbated by a private tutor and at Christ Church, Oxford, 
vkicfa he entered in July 17 10 As a volunteer he served in 
Donner's regiment at the battle of Preston in 1715, spent some 
tisKoothe Continent, and in 1717 entered parliament for 
Seaford, Sussex Through strong family influence and the 



recommendation of Walpole he was chosen in 1721 a lord of the 
Treasury. The following year he was returned for Sussex county. 
In 1724 he entered the ministry as secretary of war, but this 
office he exchanged in 1730 for the more lucrative one of 
paymaster of the forces. He made himself conspicuous by 
his support of Walpole on the question of the excise, and in 
1743 ft union of parties resulted in the formation of an adminis- 
tration in which Pelham was prime minister, with the office of 
chancellor of the exchequer; but rank and influence made his 
brother, the duke of Newcastle, very powerful in the cabinet, 
and, in spite of a genuine attachment, there were occasional 
disputes between them, which led to difl!iculties. Being strongly 
in favour of peace, Pelham carried on the war with languor and 
indifferent success, but the country, wearied of the interminable 
struggle, was disposed to acquiesce in his foreign policy almost 
without a murmur. The king, thwarted in his favourite 
schemes, made overtures in 1746 to Lord Bath, but his purpose 
was upset by the resignation of the two Pelhams (Henry and 
Newcastle), who, however, at the king's request, resumed office. 
Pelham remained prime minister till his death on the 6th of 
March 1754, when his brother succeeded him. His very defects 
were among the chief elements of Pelham's success, for one with 
a strong personality, moderate self-respect, or high conceptions 
of statesmanship could not have restrained the discordant 
elements of the cabinet for any length of time. Moreover, he 
possessed tact and a thorough acquaintance with the forms of the 
house. Whatever quarrels or insubordination might exist 
within the cabinet, they never broke out into open revolt. Nor 
can a high degree of praise be denied to his financial policy, 
especially his plans for the reduction of the national debt and 
the simplification and consolidation of its different branches. 
He had married in 1726 Lady Catherine Manners, daughter of the 
2nd duke of Rutland; and one of his daughters married Henry 
Fiennes Clinton, 2nd duke of Newcastle. 

Sec W. Coxe, Memoirs of the Pelham Administration, (a vols., 
1829). For the family history sec Lower, Pelham Family (1873); 
also the Pelham and Newcastle MSS. in the British Museum. 

PELHAM. HENRY FRANCIS (1846-1907). English scholar 
and historian, was born at Berg Apton, Norfolk, on the 19th 
of September 1846, son of the Hon. John Thomas Pelham 
(18x1-1894), bishop of Norwich, third son of the 2nd earl of 
Chichester. He was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, 
Oxford, where he took a first class in litcrae humaniores in 
1869. He was a tutor of Exeter College from 1869 to 1890. In 
1887 he became university reader in ancient history, and two 
years later was elected to the Camden professorship. He 
became curator of the Bodleian library in 1S92, and in 1897 
president of Trinity College. He was also a fellow of Brasenose 
College, honorary fellow of Exeter, a fellow of the British 
Academy and of other learned societies, and a governor of 
Harrow School. His chief contribution to ancient history was 
his article on Roman history in the 9th edition of the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica (1886), which was republished with additions 
as the Outlines of Roman History (1890). His university lectures, 
though perhaps lacking in inspiration, were full of original 
research and learning. His death on the 13th of February 1907 
not only prevented the publication in systematic form of his own 
important researches, but also delayed the appearance of much 
that had been left in MS. by H. Fumeaux and A. H. J. Greenidge, 
and was at the time under his charge. Apart from the Outlines 
he published only The Imperial Domains and the Colonate (1890), 
The Roman Frontier System (1895), and articles in periodicals 
of which the most important was an article in the Quarterly 
Review on the early Caesars (April, 1905). He did much for the 
study of archaeology at Oxford, materially assisted the Hellenic 
Society and the British School at Athens, and was one of the 
founders of the British School at Rome. He married in 1S73 
Laura Priscilla, daughter of Sir Edward North Buxton. 

PELIAS, in Greek legend, son of Poseidon and Tyro, daughter 
of Salmoneus. Because Tyro afterwards married her father's 
brother Cretheus, king of lolcus in Thessaly, to whom she bore 
Aeson, Pheres and Amythaon, Pelias was by some thought to be 



68 



PELICAN— PfeLISSIER 



the son of Crethcus. He and his twin-brother Neleus were 
exposed by their mother, but were nurtured by a herdsman. 
When grown to manhood they were acknowledged by their 
mother. After the death of Crethcus, Pclius made himself master 
of the kingdom of lolous, having previously quarrelled with 
Neleus, who removed to Messenia, where he founded Pylos. 
In order to rid himself of Jason, Pelias sent him to Colchis in 
quest of the golden fleece, and took advantage of his absence 
to put to death his father, Aeson, his mother and brother. 
When Jason returned he sought to avenge the death of his 
parents, and Medea persuaded the daughters of Pelias to cut in 
pieces and boil their father, assuring them that he would thus 
be restored to youth. Acastus, son of Pelias, drove out Jason 
and Medea and celebrated funeral games in honour of his father, 
which were celebrated by the poet Stesichortis and represented 
on the chest of Cypselus. The death of Pelias was the subject 
of Sophocles' Rhizotomoi (Root-cutters), and in the Tyro he 
treated another portion of the legend. Peliades (the daughters 
of Pelias) was the name of Euripides' first play. 

PELICAN (Fr. Pelican; Lat. Pelccanus or PeHcanus), a large 
fish-eating water-fowl, remarkable for the enormous pouch 
formed by the extensible skin between the lower jaws of its long, 
and apparently formidable but in reality very weak, bilL The 
ordinary pelican, the Onocrotalus of the ancients, to whom it was 
well known, and the Pdecanus onocrokdus of ornithologists, 
is a very abundant bird in some districts of south-eastern 
Europe, south-western Asia and north-eastern Africa, occasionally 
straying, it b believed, into the northern parts of Germany and 
France; but the possibility of such wanderers having escaped 
from confinement is always to be regarded,* since few zoological 
gardens are without examples. Its usual haunts are the shallow 
margins of the larger lakes and rivers, where fishes are plentiful, 
since it requires for its sustenance a vast supply of them. The 
nest is formed among reeds, placed on the ground and lined with 
grass. Therein two eggs, with white, chalky shells, are com- 
monly laid. The young during the first twelvemonth are of a 
greyish-brown, but when mature almost the whole plumage, 
except the black primaries, is white, deeply suffused by a rich 
blush of rose or salmon-colour, passing into yellow on the crest 
and lower part of the neck in front. A second and somewhat 
larger species, Pelccanus crispus, also inhabits Europe, but has 
a more eastern distribution. This, when adult, is readily dis- 
tinguishable from the ordinary bird by the absence of the blush 
from its plumage, and by the curled feathers that project from 
and overhang each side of the head, which with some difference 
of coloration of the bill, pouch, bare skin round the eyes and 
irides give it a wholly distinct expression. Two specimens of the 
humerus have been found in the English fens {Ibis, 1868, p. 363; 
Proc. Zool. Society, 187 1, p. 702), thus proving the existence of 
the bird in EngUmd at no very distant period, and one of them 
being that of a young example points to its having been bred 
in this country. It is possible from their large size that they 
belonged to P. crispus. Ornithologists have been much divided 
in opinion as to the number of living species of the genus Pelc- 
canus (cf. op. cit.f 1868, p. 264; 1869, p. 571; 1871, p. 631) — the 
estimate varying from six to ten or eleven; but the former is the 
number recognized by M. Dubois {Bull. Mus. de Belgique, 1883). 
North America has one, P. erythrorhynckus, very similar to 
P. onocrotalus both in appearance and habits, but remarkable 
for a triangular, homy excrescence developed on the ridge of the 
male's bill in the breeding season, which falls off without leaving 
trace of its existence when that is over. Australia has P. 
conspicUlatus, easily distinguished by its black tail and wing- 
coverts. Of more marine habit are P. philippensis and P.fuscus, 
the former having a wide range in Southern Asia, and, it is said, 
reaching Madagascar, and the latter common on the coasts of 
the warmer parts of both North and South America. 
The genus Pdecanus as instituted by Linnaeus included the 
* This caution was not neglected by the prudent, even ao long ago 
as Sir Thomas Browne's days; for he, recording the occurrence oia 
pelican in Norfolk, was careiul to notice that about the same time one 
of the pelicans kept by the king (Charles II.) in St James's Park, 
had been lost. 



cormorant {q.t.) and gannet (9.9.) as well as the true pdicana, 
and for a long while these and some other distinct groups, as the 
snake-birds (9.9.), frigate-birds {q.v.) and tropic-birdi (9>**)t 
which have all the four toes of the foot connected by a web» were 
regarded as forming a single family, Pelecanidae\ but this name 
has now been restricted to the pelicans only, thou{^ all are 
still usually associated in the suborder Sttganopodes of Cioonii- 
form birds. It may be necessary to state that there b no founda- 
tion for the venerable legend of the pelican feeding her sroung 
with blood from her own breast, which has given it an important 
place in ecclesiastical heraldry, except that, as A. D. Bartlett 
suggested {Proc. Zo<d. Society, 1869, p. 146), the curious bloody 
secretion ejected from the mouth of the flamingo may have 
given rise to the belief, through that bird having been mistaken 
for the " Pelican of the wilderness."" (A. N.) 

PEUON, a wooded mountain in Thessaly in the district of 
Magnesia, between Volo and the east coast. Its highest point 
(mod. Plcssidi) is 5340 ft. It is famous in Greek mythdogy; 
the giants are said to have piled it on Ossa in order to scale 
Olympus, the abode of the gods; it was the home of the centaurs, 
especially of Chiron, who had a cave near its summit, and 
educated many youthful heroes; the ship " Argo " was buHt 
from its pine-woods. On its summit was an altar of Zeus 
Actaeus, in whose honour an annual festival was held in the 
dog-days, and worshippers clad themselves in skins. 

PEUSSB (through the Fr. from Lat. pdlidax sc vesUs, a 
garment made of fur, pdlis, skin), properly a name of a doak 
made of or lined with fur, hence particularly used of the fur- 
trimmed " dolman " worn slung from the shoulders by hussar 
regiments. The word is now chiefly employed as the name id. a 
long-sleeved cloak df any material worn by women and children. 

P&ISSIBR, AIMABLB JEAN JACQUES (1794-1864), duke 
of Malakoff, marshal of France, was bom on the 6th of November 
1794 at Maromme (Seine Inf6rieure), of a family of proqwrous 
artisans or yeoman, his father being employed in a powder- 
magazine. After attending the military college of La FUdie 
and the special school of St C3rr, he in 1815 entered the army as 
sub-lieutenant in an artillery regiment. A brilliant examination 
in 1819 secured his appointment to the staff. He served as 
aide-de-camp in the Spanish campaign of 1823, and in tlie 
expedition to the Morea in 1828-29. In 1830 he took part in 
the expedition to Algeria, and on his return was promoted to 
the rank of chef d'escadron. After some years' staff service in 
Paris he was again sent to Algeria as chief of staff of the province 
of Oran with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and remaiiied there 
till the Crimean War, taking a prominent part in many important 
operations. The severity of his conduct in suffocating a nHiole 
Arab tribe in the Dahra or Dahna caves, near Mustaganem, where 
they had taken refuge (June 18, 1845), awakened such incfig- 
nation in Europe that Marshal Soult, the minister of war, public^ 
expressed his regret; but Marshal Bugeaud, the govemor-genccd 
of Algeria, not only gave it his approval, but secured 
for P^lissier the rank of general of brigade, which he hdd till 
1850, when he was promoted general of division. After the 
battles of October and November 1854 before Sevastopol, 
Pelissier was sent to the Crimea, where on the i6th of May i8s$ 
he succeeded Marshal Canrobert as commander-in-chief of the 
French forces before Sevastopol (see Crimean Wae). Hii 
command was marked by relentless pressure of the enemy and 
unalterable determination to conduct the campaign withoat 
interference from Paris. His perseverance was crowned wtJk 



'The legend was commonly believed' in the middle 
Epiphanius, bishop of Constantia. in his PkysiclotHS (1588), 
that the female bird, in chcrishins her young, wounds them 
loving, and pierces their sides, and they die. After three^ days tit 



male pelican comes and finds them dead, and hi* heart is paiaM. 
He smites his own sde, and as he stands over the wounds of the dei4 
young ones the blood trickles down, and thus are they made afivt 
apain. The pelican " in his piety "—».«. in this pious act of rev i r'-* 
hts offspring — was a common subject ion 15th-century cmh 
books; It became a symbol of self-sacrifice, a type of Chrii 
redemption and of the Eucharistic doctrine. The device 
adopted by Bishop Fox in 1516 iat his new college of Coq;NM Chfiidb 
Oxford.— IH. Ch.1 



PELL— PELLETAN 



69 



in the stonniog of the Ilfalakoff on the 8th of September. 
On the i2th he was promoted to be marshaL On his return to 
Pkm he was named senator, created duke of MalakofI (July 32, 
1856), and rewarded with a grant of 100,000 francs per annum. 
From March 1858 to May 1859 he was French ambassador in 
London, whence he was recalled to take command of the army 
of observation on the Rhine. In the same year he became 
gnnd chancellor <rf the Legion of Honour. In x86o he was 
appointed govvnor-general of Algeria, and he died there on the 
asnd of May 1864. 

Sec Marbaud. Le MarSchal PHissUr (1863); Castilk;, PortraiU 
Autorf^ws. and aeries (1859). 

PELL* lOHN (z6zo-x685), English mathematician, was bom 
on the kst of March x6io at Southwick in Sussex, where his 
fuher was minister. He was educated at Steyning, and entered 
THnity CoDege, Cambridge, at the age of thirteen. During his 
anivctBty career he became an accomplished linguist, and even 
before he took his MA. degree (in 1630) corresponded with 
Henry Briggs and other mathematicians. His great reputation 
and the influence -of Sir William Boswell, the English resident, 
with the states^general procured his election in 1643 to the chair 
of mathematics in Amsterdam, whence he removed in 1646, 
on the invitation of the prince of Orange, to Breda, where he 
remuned till 1652. 

From 1654 to 1658 Pell acted as Cromwell's political agent 
to the Protestant cantons of Switzerland. On his return to 
TjH^wiA he tock orders and was appointed by Charles II. to 
the rectory <rf Fobbing in Essex, and in 1673 he was presented 
by Bohop Sheldon to the rectory of Laindon in the same county, 
lb devotion to mathematical science seems to have interfered 
ifike with h» advancement in the Church and with the proper 
■uBsfcment of his private a£fairs. For a time he was confined 
ts s debtor in the king's bench prison. He lived, on the 
ianriLation of Dr Whistler, for a short time in z68a at the College 
€f Physicians, but died on the X2th of December 1685 at the 
kooK of Mr Cothome, reader of the church of St Giles-in-the 
Fklds. Many <rf Pell's manuscripts fell into the hands of Dr 
Binby, master of Westminster School, and afterwards came into 
the possession of the Royal Society; they are still preserved in 
■oethlng like forty folio volumes, wUch contain, not only 
Fdl's own memoirs, but much of his correspondence with the 
Bathematicians of his time. 

1^ Diophantine analyss was a favourite subject with Fell; 
he lectdred on it at Amsterdam; and he is now best remembered 
far the indeterminate equation ax*+i •■y, which is known by his 
■jse. This problem was propo a cd by Pierre de Ferroat first to 
Berahard Fretude de Bessy, and in 1657 to all mathematicians. 
FdTs cooaeaon with the problem simfdy consists of the pubttcation 
flf the sotations of John Wallis and Lord Brounker in his edition of 
JwcAcr's TroHslatton ef Rhonitu's Alffsbra (1668). His chief works 
aie: AOronamical History cf Obsertnhons of Heavenly Motions and 
(1634); Eatpiua prognostica (1634): umiroversy vnth 
wmmm^ns conceming the Qitadrature of the Circle (1646?): 
of the Maikematics^ lamo (1650) ; X Table (^ Ten Thousand 
(foL; 167a). 

the capital of ancient Macedonia imder Philip IL 
(who tnwsferred the seat of government hither from Edessa) 
and Aknoder the Great, irbo was bom here. It seems to have 
Ktaned some importance up to the time of Hadrian. Scanty 
RBims exist and some springs in the neighbourhood are still 
kaowB as the baths of PeL The site (identified by Leake) is 
occnpied by the viUage of Neochori (Turk. Yeni-Keui) about 
j2 m, Borth-west of Salonika. 

PBLLAORA (ItaL pdle ajya, smarting skin), the name given, 
fmra one of its eariy symptoms, to a peculiar disease, of com- 
paativdy modem origin. For some time it was supposed to 
be (Mictically confined to the peasantry in parts of Italy (particu- 
hify Locnbardy) and France, and in the Asturias (mo/ de la 
mm), Romania and Corfu. But it has recently been identified 
k vaijoos outlying parts of the British Empire (Barbadoes, 
IaiS&) and in both Lower and Upper Egypt; also among the 
and Basutos. In the United States sporadic cases had 
(^served op to 1906, but since then numerous cases have 
n^orted. It is in Italy, however, that it has been most 



A% 



prevalent. The malady is essentially chronic in character. 
The indications usually begin in the spring of the year, declining 
towards autumn, and recurring with increasing intensity and 
permanence in the spring seasons following. A peasant who 
is acquiring the malady feels unfit for work, suffers from head- 
aches, giddiness, singing in the ears, a burning of the skin, 
especially in the hands and feet, and diarrhoea. At the same 
time a red rash appears on the skin, of the nature of erysipelas, 
the red or livid spots being tense and painful, especially where 
they are directly exposed to the sun. About July or August 
of the first season these symptoms disapptcar, the spots on the 
skin remaining rough and dry. The spring attack of the year 
following will probably be more severe and more likely to leave 
traces behind it; with each successive year the patient becomes 
more like a mummy, hb skin shrivelled and sallow, or even 
black at certain spots, as in Addison's disease, his angles pro- 
truding, his muscles wasted, his movements slow and languid, 
and his sensibiUty diminished. Meanwhile there are more special 
symptoms relating to the nervous system, including drooping 
of the eyelid, dilatation of the pupil, and other disorders of 
vision, together with symptoms rebting to the digestive sjrstem, 
such as a red and dry tongue, a burning feeling in the mouth, 
pain on swallowing, and diarrhoea. After a certain stage the 
disease passes into a. profound disorgam'zation of the nervous 
system; there b a tendency to melancholy, imbecility, and a 
curious mummified condition of body. After death a general 
tissue degeneration is observed. 

The causation of this obscure disease has recently come up 
for new investigation in coimcxion with the new work done in 
relation to sleeping-sickness and other tropical diseases. So 
long as it was supposed to be peculiar to the Italian peasantry, 
it was associated simply with their staj^e diet, and was regarded 
as due to the eating of mouldy maize. It was by his views in 
this regard that Lombroso (f.v.) first made his scientific r^uta- 
tion. But the area of maize consumption is now known to be 
wider than that of pellagra, and pellagra is found where maize 
is at least not an onlinary diet. In 1905 Dr L. W. Sambon, at 
the meeting of the British Medical Association, suggested that 
pellagra was probably protozoal in origin, and subsequently 
he announced his belief that the protozoon was communicated 
by sand-flies, just as sleeping-sickness by the tsetse fly; and this 
opinion was supported by the favourable action of arsenic in 
the treatment of the disease. His hypothesis was endorsed 
by Sir Patrick Manson,' and in January 19 10 an influential 
committee was formed, to enable Dr Sambon to pursue his 
investigations in a pellagrous area. 

PELLCTAN, CHARLES CAMILLB (1846- ), French 
politician and journalist, was bora in Paris on the 28th of June 
1846, the son of Eugene Pelletan (18x3-1884), a writer of some 
distinction and a noted opponent of the Second Empire. 
Camille Pelletan was educated in Paris, passed as licentiate 
in laws, and was qualified as an "archiviste palfographe." 
At the age of twenty he became an active contributor to 
the press, and a bitter critic of the Imperial Government. 
After the war of 1870-71 he took a leading place among 
the most mdical section of French politicians, as an opponent 
of the " opportunists " who continued the policy of Gambeita. 
In 1880 he became editor of Justice, and worked with success 
to bring about a revision of the sentences passed on the 
Communards. In 1881 he was chosen member for the tenth 
arrondisscment of Paris, and in 1885 for the Bouches du 
Rhone, being re-elected in 1889, 1893 and 1898; and he was 
repeatedly chosen as " reporter " to the various bureaus. Dur- 
ing the Nationalist and Dreyfus agitations he fought vigorously 
on behalf of the Republican government and when the coalition 
known as the "Bloc" was formed he took his place as a Radical 
leader. He was made minister of marine in the cabinet <rf 
M. Combes, June 1903 to January 1905, but his administration 
was severely criticized, notably by M. de Lanessan and other naval 
experts. During the great sailors' strike at Marseilles in 1904 
he showed pronounced S3rmpathy with the socialistic aims and 
methods of the strikers, and a strong feeling was aroused that 



^o 



PELLICANUS— PELLICO 



his Radical sympathies tended to a serious weakening of the 
navy and to destruction of discipline. A somewhat violent 
controversy resulted, in the course of which M. Pelletan's 
indiscreet speeches did him no good; and he became a common 
subject for ill-natured caricatures. On the fall of the Combes 
ministry he became less prominent in French politics. 

PBLUCANU8, CONRAD (147S-1556), German theologian, 
was bom at Ruffach in Alsace, on the 8th of January 1478. 
His German name, KUrsner, was changed to Pellicanus by his 
mother's brother Jodocus Callus, an ecclesiastic connected with 
the university of Heidelberg, who supported his nephew for sucteen 
months at the university in 1491-1493. On returning to Ruffach, 
he taught gratis in the Minorite convent school that he might 
borrow books from the library, and in his sixteenth year resolved 
to become a friar. This step helped his studies, for he was sent 
to Tubingen in 1496 and became a favourite pupil of the guardian 
of the Minorite convent there, Paulus Scriptoris, a man of 
considerable general learning. Ihere seems to have been at 
that time in south-west Germany a considerable amount of 
sturdy independent thought among the Franciscans; Pellicanus 
himself became a Protestant very gradually, and without any 
such revulsion of feeling as marked Luther's converuon.. At 
Tubingen the future " apostate in three languages " was able 
to begin the study of Hebrew. He had no teacher and no 
grammar; but Paulus Scriptoris carried him a huge codex of 
the prophets on his own shoulders all the way from Mainz. He 
learned the letters from the transcription of a few verses in the 
Star of the Masiak of Petrus Niger, and, with a subsequent hint 
or two from Rcuchlin, who also lent him the grammar of Moses 
l^limbl, made his way through the Bible for himself with the help 
of Jerome's Latin. He got on so well that he was not only 
a useful helper to ReuchUn but anticipated the manuals of the 
great Hebraist by composing in 1501 the first Hebrew grammar 
in the European tongue. It was printed in 1503, and afterwards 
included in Reysch's MargarUa philosophica. Hebrew remained 
a favourite study to the last. Pellican's autobiography de- 
scribes the gradual multiplication of accessible books on the 
subjects, and he not only studied but translated a vast mass of 
rabbini(^ and Talmudic texts, his interest in Jewish literature 
being mainly philological. The chief fruit of these studies is 
the.vast commentary on the Bible (Zurich, 7 vols., 1532-1539)1 
which shows a remarkably sound judgment on questions of the 
text, and a sense for historical as opp(»ed to typological exegesis. 

Pellicanus became priest in 1501 and continued to serve his 
order at Ruffach, Pforzheim, and Basel till 1526. At Basel 
be did much laborious work for Froben's editions, and came to 
the conclusion that the Church taught many doctrines of which 
the early doctors of Christendom knew nothing. He spoke his 
views frankly, but he disliked polemic; he found also more 
toleration than might have been expected, even after he became 
active in circulating Luther's books. Thus, supported by the 
dvic authorities, be remained gjuardian of the convent of his 
order at Basel from 15 19 till 1534, and even when he had to 
give up his {XMt, remained in the monastery for two years, 
professing theology in the university. At length, when the 
position was becoming quite untenable, he received through 
Zwingli a call to Zurich as professor of Greek and Hebrew, and 
formally throwing off his monk's habit, entered on a new life. 
Here he remained till his death on the 6th of April 1556. 

Pellicanus's scholarship, though not brilliant, was really 
extensive; his sound sense, and his smgularly pure and devoted 
character gave him a great influence. He was remarkably free 
from the pedantry of the time, as is shown by his views about 
the use of the Gennan vernacular as a vehicle of culture {Chron. 
X35> sO* As a theologian his natural aflSnitics were with 
Zwingli, with whom he shared the advantage of having grown 
up to the views of the Reformation, by the natural progress 
of his studies and religious life. Thus he never lost his sym- 
pathy with humanism and with its great German representative, 
Erasmus. 

Pdlicanus's Latin autobiography (Chronicon C.P.R.) is one of the 
most interesting documents of the period. It was first published 



by Riggenbsch in 1877, and in this volume the other sources for Im 
life are rtgistered. ^ also Emit Silberstcin. Conrad PeUicamu; 
tin BtUn^ ntr Ctuhickte des Studiums der hebr. Sprackt (BerliD, 
1900). 

PELUCIBR, QUILLAUMB (c. 1490-1568), French prelate 
and diplomatist, was educated by his uncle, the bishop of 
Maguelonne, whom he succeeded in 1529. In 1536 he bad 
the seat of hu bishopric transferred to Montpellier. Appmnted 
ambassador at Venice in 1539, he fulfilled his mission to the 
entire satisfaction of Francis I., but on the discovery <rf the 
system of espionage he had employed the king had tolWall him 
in 1542. Returning to his diocese, he was imprisoned in the 
ch&teau of Beaucaire for his tolerance of the Reformers, so he 
replaced his former indulgence by severity, and the end of his 
episcopate was disturbed by religious struggles. He was a 
man of wide learning, a humanist and a friend of humanists, 
and took a keen interest in the natural sciences. 

SteJ.7A:llet,LaDiplomatiefraHiaise . . . d'apris le eontspomdamc§ 
de G. PeUicier (Paris. 1881) ; and A. Tausscrat-Radd, CornspOHdamu 
politique de CuiHaume PeUicier (Paris, 1899). 

PELLICO. SILVIO (i 788-1854), Italian dramatist, was bom 
at Saluzzo in Piedmont on the 24th of June 1788, the earlier 
portion of his life being passed at Pincrolo and Turin under 
the tuition of a priest named Manavella. At the age of ten 
he composed a tragedy under the inspiration oi Caesarotti*s 
translation of the Ossianic poems. On the marriage of his twin 
sister Rosina with a nutemal coudn at Lyons he went to reside 
in that city, devoting himself during four years to the study <rf 
French literature. He returned in 1810 to MUan, where be 
became professor of French in the Collegio degli Orfani Militari. 
His tragedy Francesca da Rimini^ was brought out with success 
by Carlotta Marchionni at Milan in 1818. Its publication was 
followed by that of the tradcgy Eufemio da Messina^ but the 
representation of the latter was forbidden. PclUco had in the 
meantime continued his work as tutor, first to the unfortunate 
son of Count Briche, and then to the two sons of Count Porro 
Lambertenghi. He threw himself heartily into an attempt to 
weaken the hold of the Austrian despotism by indirect educ»> 
tional means. Of the powerful literary executive which gathered 
about Counts Porro and Confalonieri, PcUico was the aUe 
secretary — the management of the ConcUiatore, which appeared 
in 1818 as the organ of the association, resting largely upon him. 
But the paper, under the censorship of the Austrian officials, 
ran for a year only, and the society itself was broken up by the 
government. In October 1820 PcUico was arrested on the 
charge of carbonarism and conveyed to the Sanu Margherita 
prison. After his removal to the Piombi at Venice in Februarf 
1821, he composed several Cantiche and the tragedies EsUr d^Em^ 
gaddi and Iginia d'Asti. The sentence of death pronounced 
on him in February 1822 was finally commuted to fifteen yean 
carcere dura, and in the following April he was placed in the 
Spielberg at BrUnn. His chief work during this part of' his 
imprisonment was the tragedy Leoniero da DertonOt for the 
preservation of which he was compelled to rely on his memory. 
After his release in 1830 he commenced the publication of his 
prison compositions, of which the Ester was played at Turin 
in 183K, but immediately suppressed. In 1832 appeared hb 
Cismotida da Mendrizio, Erodiade and the Leoniero, under the 
title of Tre nuovi tragedie, and in the same year the work wUdi 
gave him his European fikme, Le Mie prigioni, an account of 
his sufferings in prison. The last gained him the friendship 
of the Marchesa di Barolo, the reformer of the Turin prisons* 
and in 1834 he accepted from her a yearly pension of 1200 francs. 
His tragedy Tommaso Moro had been published in 1833, his 
most important subsequent publication being the Optrt inedilt 
in 1837. On the decease of hb parents in 1838 he was recnved 
into the Casa Barolo, where he remained till his death, asasting 
the marchesa in her charities, and writing chiefly upon religions 
themes. Of these works the best known is the Dei DoverideglU 
uomini, a series of trite maxims which do honour to his piety 
rather than to his critical judgment. A fragmentary biography 
of the marchesa by Pcllico was published in Italian and En^lidl 
after her death. He died on the 31st of January 1854, and 



PELLISSON— PELOPONNESIAN WAR 



71 



buried IB the Campo Santo at Turin. His writings are defective 
in virility and breadth of thought, and his tragedies display 
ndtl^r the inught into character nor the constructive power 
ol a great dramatist. It is in the simple narrative and naive 
egotism of Lt Mie prigioni that he has established his strongest 
daim to remembrance, winning fame by his misfortunes rather 
than by his genius. 

See PfefD Bftaroncelfi. Adiineni atU mie prigumi (Paris, i8m): 
the biographies by Latour; Gabricle RosaeUi; Didier, Rewe des 
4tia momdes (September 1842); De Lom^nie, GaUrie des conlemp. 
iUustt. hr. (1843); Chiala (Turin. 1852): Nollet-Fabert (1854;: 
" ' ~' 10 (1854): Bourdon (1868): Rivieri (189^1901). 



U PAUL (1624-1693), French author, was bom at 

Bte'ers on the 30th of October 1634, of a distinguished Calvinist 

family. He studied law at Toulouse, and practised at the bar 

of Castzes. Going to Paris with letters of introduction to 

Valentin Coniart, who was a co-religionist, he became through 

him acquainted with the members of the academy. Pellisson 

■ttdertook to be their historian, and in 1653 published a Rdatum 

t/ oaUMMt Vkistain de racadtmU Jranqaw. This panegyric 

«u rewarded by a promise of the next vacant place and by 

permissioa to be present at their meetings. In 1657 Pellisson 

became secretary to the minister of finance, Nicolas Fouquet, 

and when in x66z the minister was arrested, his secretary was 

imprisoned in the Bastille. Pellisson had the courage to stand 

by his fallen patron, in whose defence he issued his celebrated 

Mfmeut in z66i, with the title Discours au rci, par un de ses 

ftHUs smj^ sur le proUs de M. de Fouquet, in which the facts 

is favour of Fouquet arc marshalled with great skilL Another 

paBq)hlet, Seconde difense de M. Fouquet, followed. Pellisson 

«u ideased in 1666, and from this date sought the royal favour. 

He became historiographer to the king, and in that capacity 

*n(e a fragmentary Histoue de Louis XI V., covering the yean 

1660 to 1670. In 1670 he was converted to Catholicism and 

riftaiaed rkh ecclesiastical preferment. He died on the 7th 

of February 1693. He was very intimate with Mile de 

SoMKry. in whose novels he figures as Herminius and Acante. 

His tteiiing worth of character made him many friends and 

jeitificd Btnsy-Rabutin's description of him as "encore plus 

kmsCte horaoie que bel eq>rit." 

See Sainte-Beuve, Canseries du lundi, vol. xiv. ; and F. L. Maroon, 
Etade sur la vie ei Us eeuores de PeUisson (1859). 

PBLUTORT* in botany, the common name for a small hairy 
perennial herb which grows on old walls, hedgcbanks and 
uiiar localities, and is known botanically as Parictaria offici- 
waUs (Lat. paries, a wall). It has a short woody rootstock from 
vfckh spring erect or spreading stems i to 2 ft. long, bearing 
iknder leafy branches, and axillary clusters of small green 
tovefSw It belongs to the nettle order {Urlicauac), and is 
nearly allied to the nettle, Urtica, but its hairs are not stinging. 

FILLOUZ, LUIOI (183^ ), Italian general and politician, 
«as bom on the ist of March 1839, at La Roche, in Savoy, of 
parents who retained their Italian nationality when Savoy was 
annexed to France. Entering the army as h'eu tenant of artillery 
in 1857, he gained the medal for military valour at the battle 
of Coitoaaa in 1866, and in 1870 commanded the brigade of 
wnSSof whkh, battered the breach in the wall of Rome at Porta 
PSa. He was elected to the Chamber in 1881 as deputy for 
Lq^hont, which he represented until 1895, ^^^ joined the party 
flf the Left. He had entered the war office in 1870, and in 1880 
becaaie general secretary, in which capacity he introduced many 
■aefol reforms in the army. After a succession of high military 
"'■^■Mndf he received the appointment of chief of the general 
fia5 in 1S96. He was minister of war in the Rudini and Giolitti 
cabinets of 1891-1893. In July 1896 he resumed the portfolio 
of war in the Rudini cabinet, and was appointed senator. In 
May 1897 he secured the adoption of the Army Reform Bill, 
fuBg Italian mililary expenditure at a maximum of £9,560,000 
a year, bat in December of that year he was defeated in the 
Gbmber on the question of the promotion of officers. Resigning 
«fioe, he was in May 1898 sent as royal commissioner to Ban, 
vkcR, without recourse to martial law, he succeeded in restoring 



public order. Upon the fall of Rudini in June 1898, General 
Pelloux was entrusted by King Humbert with the formation 
of a cabinet, and took for hiniself the post of minister of the 
interior. He resigned office in May 1899, but was again en- 
trusted with the formation of the ministry. He took stem 
measures against the revolutionary elements in southern Italy, 
and his new cabinet was essentially military and conservative. 
The Public Safety Bill for the reform of the police laws, taken 
over by him from the Rudini cabinet, and eventually promul- 
gated by royal decree, was fiercely obstructed by the Socialist 
party, which, with the Left and Extreme Left, succeeded in 
forcing (General Pelloux to dissolve the Chamber in May 1900, 
and to resign office after the general election in June. In the 
autumn of 190X he was appointed to the command of the Turin 
army corps. 

PBLOMTZA, so named by R. Greeff, a genus of Lobose 
Rhizopoda {q.v.), naked, multinucleate, with very blunt rounded 
pseudopodia, formed by eruption (see Amoeba), often containing 
peculiar vesicles (glycogen?), and full of a symbiotic bacterium. 
It inhabits the ooze of decomposing organic matter at the 
bottom of ponds and lakes. 

PEIX)PIDA8 (d. 364 B.C.), Theban statesman and general 
He was a member of a distinguished family, and possessed 
great wealth which he expended on his friends, while content 
to lead the life of an athlete. In 385 B.C. he served in a Theban 
contingent sent to the support of the Spartans at Mantineia, 
where he was saved, when dangerously wounded, by Epami- 
nondas iq.t.). Upon the seizure of the Theban citadel by the 
Spartans (383 or 383) he fled to Athens, and took the lead in a 
conspiracy to liberate Thebes. In 379 his party surprised and 
killed their chief political opponents, and roused the people 
against the Spartan garrison, which surrendered to an army 
gathered by Pelopidas. In this and subsequent years he was 
elected boeotarck, and about 375 he routed a much larger Spartan 
force at Tegyra (near Orchomenus). This victory he owed 
mainly to the valour of the Sacred Band, a picked body of 300 
infantry. At the battle of Leuctra (371) he contributed greatly 
to the success of Epaminondas's new tactics by the rapidity 
with which he made the Sacred Band close with the Spartans. 
In 370 he accompanied his friend Epaminondas as boeotarck 
into Peloponnesus. On their return both generals were unsuc- 
cessfully accused of having retained their command beyond 
the legal term. In 369, in response to a petition of the Thessa- 
lians, Pelopidas was sent with an army against Alexander, 
tyrant of Pherae. After driving Alexander out, he passed into 
Macedonia and arbitrated between two claimants to the throne. 
In order to secure the influence of Thebes, he brought home 
hostages, including the king's brother, afterwards Philip II., 
the conqueror of Greece. Next year Pelopidas was again 
called upon to interfere in Macedonia, but, being deserted by 
his mercenaries, was compelled to make an agreement with 
Ptolemaeus of Alorus. On his return through Thessaly he was 
seized by Alexander of Pherae, and two expeditions from 
Thebes were needed to secure his release. In 367 Pelopidas 
went on an embassy to the Persian king and induced him to 
prescribe a settlement of Greece according to the wishes of the 
Thebans. In 364 he received another appeal from the Thessalian 
towns against Alexander of Pherae. Though an eclipse of the 
sun prevented his bringing with him more than a handful of 
troops, he overthrew the tyrant's far superior force on the ridge 
of Cynoscephalae; but wishing to slay Alexander with his own 
hand, he rushed forward too eagerly and was cut down by the 
tyrant's guards. 

Plutarch and Ncpos. Pelopidas; Diodorus xv. 62-81; Xenophon, 
Heilenica. vii. 1. See also Thebes. (M. O. B. C.) 

PELOPONNESIAN WAR, in Greek history, the name given 
specially to the struggle between Athens at the head of the 
Delian League and the confederacy of which Sparta was the 
leading power.* According to Thucydides the war, which was 

* Some historians prefer to call it the Second Peloponnedan War, 
the first being that of 457, which ended with the Thuty Years' 
Peace. 



72 



PELOPONNESIAN WAR 



in his view the greatest that had ever occurred in Greece, lasted 
from 431 to the downfall of Athens in 404. The genius of 
Thucydides has given to the struggle the importance of an 
qx)ch in world history, but his view is open to two main criti- 
cisms— (i) that the war was in its ultimate bearings little 
more than a local disturbance, viewed from the standpoint 
of universal history; (3) that it cannot be called a war in the 
strict sense. The former of these criticisms is justified in the 
article on Greece: History (g.v.). Unless we are to believe 
that the Macedonian supremacy is directly traceable to the 
mutual weakening of the Greek cities in 431-4031 it is difficult 
to see what lasting importance attaches to the war. As regards 
the second, a few chief difficulties may be indicated. The very 
narrative even of Thucydides himself shows that the " war " 
was not a connected whole. It may be divided into three main 
periods— (i) from 431 to 421 (Lysias calls it the " Archldamian " 
War), when the Peace of Nicias, not merely formally, but actually 
produced a cessation of hostilities; (3) from 431 till the inter- 
vention of Sparta in the Sicilian War; during these years there 
was no " Peloponnesian War," and there were several years in 
which there was in reality no fighting at all: the Sicilian expedi- 
tion was in fact a side issue; (3) from 4x3 to 404> when fighting 
was carried on mainly in the A^ean Sea (Isoorates calls this 
the " Decelean " War). The disjointed character of the struggle 
is 80 obvious from Thucydides himself that historians have come 
to the conclusion that the idea of treating the whole struggle as 
a single unit was ex post facto (see Greece: History, $ A, 
" Ancient " ad fin.). 

The book itself affords evidence which goes far to justify this 
view. A very important problem is presented by bk. v., which is 
obviously put in as a connecting link to prove a theory. Thucy- 
dides expressly warns us not to regard the period of this book 
as one of peace, and yet the very contents of the book refute 
his argument. In 419 and 417 there is practically no fighting: 
the Mantinean War of 418 is a disconnected episode which did 
not lead to a resumption of hostilities: in 420 there are only 
obscure battles in Thrace: in 416 there is only the expedition 
to Melos; and finally from 421 to 413 there is official peace. 
Other details may be cited in corroboration. Book v. (ch. 36) 
contains a second introduction to the subject; 68t 6 r6\inot in 
i. 83 and iv. 48 is the Archidamian or Ten Years* Wj^; in v. 36 
we read of a rpuros ir6Xc/i09, a tertpot ir6\qtot and an iyanaxh' 
Some critics think on these and other grounds that Thucydides 
wrote and published bks. i.-v. 25 by itself, then bks. vi. and 
vii. (Sicilian expedition), and finally revising his view joined 
them into one whole by the somewhat unsatisfactory bk. v. 36 
and following chapters, and began to round off the story with 
the incomplete bk. viii. (on this see Greece: History, as above). 
It is perhaps most probable that he retained notes made con- 
temporarily and worked them up some time after 404, in a few 
passages failing to correct inconsistencies and dying before 
bk. viii. was completed. The general introduction in bk. 1. 
was unquestionably written shortly after 404. 

The causes of the war thus understood are complex. The 
view taken by Thucydides that Sparta was the real foe of 
Athens has been much modified by modem writers. The key 
to the situation is in fact the commercial rivalry of the Corin- 
thians, whose trade (mainly in the West) had been seriously 
limited by the naval expansion of the Delian League. This 
rivalry was roused to fever heat by the Athenian intervention 
in 434-33 on behalf of Corcyra, Corinth's rebellious colony (see 
Corfu) and from that time the Corinthians felt that the Thirty 
Years' Truce was at an end. An opportunity soon offered for 
making a counter attack. Potidaea, a Dorian town on the 
western promontory of Chalddice in Thrace, a tributary ally 
of Athens— to which however Corinth as metropolis still sent 
annual magistrates — was induced to revolt,' with the support 
of the Macedonian king Pcrdiccas, formerly an Athenian ally. 
Tlie Athenian Phormio succeeded in blockading the dty so that 

* The tmporunce of this revolt lay in the fact that it immediately 
involved danger to Athens throughout the Chalddic promontoriea, 
and her north-east possessions generally. 



its capture was merely a question of time, and this provided the 
Corinthians with an urgent reason for declaring war. 

Prior to these episodes Athens had not been in hostile contact 
with any of the Peloponnesian confederate states for more than 
ten years, and Pericles had abandoned a great part of his imperial 
policy. He now laid an embargo upon Megara by whidh the 
Megarians were forbidden on pain of death to pursue trading 
operations with any part of the Athenian Empire. The drcum- 
stances of this decree (or decrees) are not material to the present 
argument (see Grote, History of Greece, ed. 1907, p. 370 
note) except that it turned s[)edal attention to the commercial 
supremacy which Athens claimed to enjoy. In 433 a conference 
of Peloponnesian allies was summoned and the Corinthian envoys 
urged the Spartans to dedare war on the ground that the power 
of Athens was becoming so great as to constitute a danger to the 
other states. This might have been urged with justice before 
the Thirty Years' Truce (447); but by that truce Athens gave 
up all her conquests in Greece proper except Naupactus and 
Plataea, while her solitary gains in Amphipolis and Thurii 
were compensated by other losses. The fact that the Corinthian 
argument failed to impress Sparta and many of the delegates 
is shown by the course of the debate. What finally im^led 
the Spartans to agree to the war was the veiled threat by the 
Corinthians that they would be driven into another alliance 
(t.e. Argos, i. 71). We can hardly regard Sparta as the deter- 
mined enemy of Athens at this time. Only twice since 461 had 
she been at war with Athens— in 457 (Tanagra) and 447, when she 
deliberately abstained from pushing the advantage which the 
revolt in Eubo€ia provided; she had refused to hdp the oli- 
garchs of Samos in 440. Corinth however had not only strong, 
but also immediate and urgent reasons (Potidaea and Corcyra) 
for desiring war. It has been argued that the war was ulti- 
matdy a struggle between the prindplcs of oligarchy and 
democracy. This view, however, cannot be taken of the enHy 
stages of the war when there was democracy and oligarchy on 
both sides (see ad fin.); it is only in the later stages that the 
political difference is prominent. 

The Opposing Forces. — ^The permanent strength of the 
Pelopoimesian confederacy lay in the Pdopbnncsian states, aO 
of which except Argos and Achaea were united under Sparta^ 
leadership. But it induded also extra-Pdoponnesian states^ 
viz. Megara, Phods, Boeotia and Locris (which had formed 
part of the Athenian land empire), and the maritime colonics 
round the Ambradan Gulf. The organization was not elaborate. 
The federal assembly with few exceptions met only in time oC 
war, and then only when Sparta agreed to summon it. It 
met in Sparta and the ddegates, having stated thdr views 
before the Spartan Apella, withdrew till the Apella had come 
to a decision. The delegates were then invited to return and 
to confirm that decision. It is dear that the link was purely 
one of common interest, and that Sparta had little or no contid 
over, e.g. so powerful a confederate as Corinth. Sparta was 
the chief member of the confederacy (kegemon), but the states 
were autonomous. In time of war each had to provide two-thirds 
of its forces, and that state in whose territory the war was to take 
place had to equip its whole force. 

The Athenian Empire is described elsewhere (Deuan Lxacui, 
Athens). Here it must suffice to point out that there was 
among Uie real and technical allies no true bond of interest, and 
that many of the states were in fact bound by dose tics to 
members of the Pdoponnesian confederacy (e.g. Potidaea to 
Corinth). Sparta could not only rely on voluntary cooperation 
but could undermine Athem'an influence by posing as the 
champion of autonomy. Further, Thucydides is wrong on Us 
own lowing in saying that Sparta refused to tolerate deirK>cntic 
government in confederate dties: it was not till after 418 that 
this policy was adopted. Athens, on the other hand, had nn- 
doubtedly interfered in the interest of democra<7 in varioM 
alUed states (see Delian League). 

No detailed examination of the comparative miUtary aal 
naval resources of the combatants can here be attempted. Ok 
land the Pelopormesians were superior: they had at knst jo^OW 



PELOPONNESIAN WAR 



73 






fcopfitcs not fnrtwting 10,000 from CMtnl Greece and Boeotia: 

tboe nidicxt were highly trained. The Athenian army was 

mdonbtedfy smaller. There has been considerable discussion 

as to the exact figures, the evidence in Tbucydides being highly 

OBofosiiig, but it is most probable that the available fighting 

force was not more than half that of the Peloponnesian confed- 

oacy. Even of these we learn (Thuc. iii. 87) that 4400 died 

in the great plague. The only light-armed force was that of 

Boeotia at Ddium (10,000 with 500 peltasts). Of cavalry Athens 

had looOy Boeotia a nnular number. The only other cavalry 

loice was that of Thessaly, which, had it been loyal to Athens, 

would have nwant a distinct superiority. In naval power the 

Athenians xmdoubtedly had an overwhelming advantage at the 

hfginmng, both in numbers and in training. 

. FnuadaUy Athens had an enormous apparent advantage. 

She began with a revenue of xooo talents (including 600 from 

•4pm»X*)> *n^ 1^ Also, in spite <A the heavy expense which 

the bidding schemes of Pericles had involved, a reserve of 6000 

tdknts. The Pdoponnesians had no reserve and no fixed 

assessment. On the other hand the Peloponnesian 

were unpaid, while Athens had to sptud considerable 

oa the payment of crews and mercenaries. In the last 

of the war the issue was determined by the poverty of 

AtbcBsand Persian gold. 

The events of the strug^e from 43 1 to 404 may be summarized 
la the three periods distinguished above. 

I. The Ten Years' or Arckidawtian War. — The Spartans sent 
to Athens no formal declaration of war but rather sought first 
Is create some spedous casus hdli by sending requisitions to 
Atbcaa. The first, intended to inflame the existing hostilities 
I0uist Pericles {q.v.) in Athens, was that he should be expelled 
^ dty as being an Alcmaeonid (grand-nephew of Cleisthenes) 
and ao inqilicated in the curse pronounced on the murderers 
sf Cykm aeariy 300 years before. This outrageous demand 
VBS foOowed by three others — that the Athenians should (i) 
vithdnw from Potidaea, (a) restore autonomy to Aegina, and 
(3) withdraw the embai^ on Megarian commerce. Upon the 
Rftnl of aO these demands Sparta finally made the maintenance 
sf peace contingent upon the restoration by Athens of autonomy 
to all her allies. Under the guidance of Pericles Athens replied 
tibt die would do nothing on compulsion, but was prepared 
to sobmit difficulties to amicable arbitration on the b^is of 
■■taal concessions. lEtefore anything could come of this 
pnpoad. matters were precipitated (end of March 431) by the 
attack of Thebes upon Plataea (g.v.), which immediately sought 
aad obtained the aM of Athens. War was begun. The Spartan 
kisg Arrhidamus assembled his army, sent a herald to announce 
Uiapuoach, marched into Attica and besieged Oehoe. 

McanwfaJIe Pericles had decided to act on the defensive, i.e. 
to abandon Attica, cdlect all its residents in Athens and treat 
Athens as an island, retaining meanwhile command of the sea 
ad making descents on Peloponnesian shores. The policy, 
•Uch Thucydides and Grote commend, had grave defects — 
theniifar it is bjr no means easy to suggest a better; e.g. it meant 
the r«n of the landed class, it tended to spoil the moral of those 
who from the walls of Athens annually watched the wasting of 
ttor homesteads, and it involved the many perils of an over- 
c m w d e d city — a peril increased by, if not also the cause of, the 
plsgae. Moreover sea power was not everythiog, and delay 
V^TTHtH the financial reserves of the state, while financial 
rnaaikialinii^ as we have seen, were comparatively unimportant 
to the Pdoponnesians. The descents on the Peloponnese were 
te3e in the extreme. 

Atriiidamos, having wasted much territory, including Achar- 
•ae, retired at the end of July. The Athenians retaliated by 
tt^»Vw*y Methone (which was secured by Brasida8),by successes 
b the West, by expelling all A^inetans from Aegina (which was 
■ade a deruchy), and by wasting the Megarid. 
In 4JO Aichidamus again invaded Attica, systematically 
the coontry. Shortly after he entered Attica plague 
OA in Athens, borne thither by traders from Carthage 
Egjpt (Hobn, Gruk History, iL 346 note). The effect upon 



the overcrowded popuUtion of the dty was terrible. Of the 
xaoo cavalry (induding mounted archers) 300 died, together with 
4400 hoplites: altogether the estimate of Diodonis (xii. 58} that 
more than 10,000 dtizens and slaves succumbed is by no means 
excessive. None the less Pericles sailed with 100 triremes, and 
ravaged the territory near Epidaurus. Subsequently he re< 
turned and the expedition proceeded to Potidaea. But the plague 
went with them and no results were achieved. The enemies of 
Perides, who even with the aid of Spartan intrigue had hitherto 
failed to harm his prestige, now succeeded in inducing the 
desperate dtizens to fine him for alleged malversation. The 
verdict, however, shocked public feeling and Perides was 
reinstated in popular favour as strategus (r. Aug. 430). About 
a year later he died. In the autumn of 430 a Spartan attack 
on Zacynthus failed and the Ambradots were repulsed from 
Amphilochian Argos. In reply Athens sent Phormio to Nau- 
pactus to watch her interests in that quarter. In the winter 
Potidaea capitulated, recdving extremely favourable terms. 

In 420 the Peloponnedans were deterred by the plague from 
invading Attica and laid siege to Plataea in the interests of 
Thebes. The Athenians failed in an expedition to Chalddice 
under Xenophon, while the Spartan Cnemus with Chaom'an 
and Epirot allies was repulsed from Stratus, capital of Acamania, 
and Phormio with only 30 ships defeated the Corinthian fleet 
of 47 sail in the Gulf of Corinth. Orders were at once sent from 
Sparta to repair this disaster and 77 ships were equipped. Help 
sent from Athens was diverted to Crete, and after much 
manoeuvring Phormio was compelled to fight off Naupactus. 
Nine of his ships were driven a^ore, but with the other 1 1 he 
subsequently defeated the enemy and recovered the lost nine. 
With the reinforcement which arrived afterwards he established 
complete control of the western seas. A scheme for operating 
with Sitalces against the Cbalddians of Thrace fell through, 
and Sitalces joined Perdiccas. 

The year 438 was marked by a third invasion of Attica and 
by the revolt of Lesbos from Athens. After delay in fruitless 
negotiations the Athenian Clcippides, and afterwards Pacbes, 
besieged Mytilene, which appealed to Sparta. The Pelopon- 
nesian confederacy resolved to aid the rebels both directly and 
by a counter demonstration against Athens. The Athenians, 
though their reserve of 6000 talents was by now almost exhausted 
(except for 1000 talents in a ^)edal reserve), made a tremendous 
effort (raising 200 talents by a special property tax), and not 
only prevented an invasion by a demonstration of 100 triremes 
at the Isthmus, but sent Asopius, son of Phormio, to take his 
place in the western seas. In spring 427 the Spartans again 
invaded Attica without result. The winter of 428-427 was 
marked by the daring escape of half the Plataean garrison under 
cover of a stormy night, and by the capitulation of Mytilene, which 
was forced upon the oligarchic rulers by the democracy. The 
Spartan fleet arrived too late and departed without attempting 
to recover the town. Paches cleared the Asiatic seas of the 
enemy, reduced the other towns of Mytilene and returned to 
Athens with upwards of 1000 prisoners. An assembly was 
held and under the invective of Geon {q.v.) it was decided to kill 
all male Mytileneans of military age and to sell the women and 
children as slaves. This decree, though in accordance with the 
rigorous customs of ancient warfare as exemplified by the treat- 
ment which Sparta shortly afterwards meted out to the Plataeans, 
shocked the feelings of Athens, and on the next day it was 
(illegally) rescinded just in time to prevent Paches carrying it 
out. The thousand^ ob'garchic prisoners were however executed, 
and Lesbos was made a deruchy. 

Meanwhile there occurred dvil war in Corcyra, in which 
ultimately, with the aid of the Athenian admiral Eurymedon, 
the democracy triumphed amid scenes of the wildest savagery. 
In the autumn of the year Nidas fortified Minoa at the mouth 
of the harbour of Megara. Shortly aften^ards the Spartans 

* So Thuc. iii. 50. It is suggested that this number is an error 
for 30 or 50 ((.«., A or N for a). It seems incredible that 1000 
could be described as " ringleaders " out of a population of perhaps 
5000. 



74 



PELOPONNESIAN WAR 



planted an unsucceasful colony at Heradea in the Ttachinian 
territory north-west of Thermopylae. 

In the summer of 426 Nidas led a predatory expedition along 
the north-west coast without achieving any positive victory. 
More important, though equally ineffective, was the scheme of 
Demosthenes to march from Naupactua through Aetolia, sub- 
duing the wild hill tribes, to Cytinium in Doiii (in the upper 
valleys of the Cephissus) and thence into Boeotia, which was 
to be attacked simultaneously from Attica. The scheme was 
crushed by the courage and sidll of the Aetolians, who thereupon 
summoned Spartan and G>rinthian aid for a counter attack on 
Naupactus. Demosthenes averted this, and immediately after- 
wards by superior tactics inflicted a complete defeat at Olpae 
in Acamania on Eurylochus at the head of a Spartan and 
Ambracian force. An Ambracian reinforcement was annihilated 
atone of the peaks called Idomene,and a disgraceful truce was 
accepted by the surviving Spartan leader Menedaeus. This 
was not only the worst disaster which befell any powerful state 
up to the peace of Nidas (as Thucydides says), but was a serious 
blow to Corinth, whose trade on the West was, as we have seen, 
one of the chief causes of the war. 

The year 425 is remarkable for the Spartan disaster of Pylos 
iq.t.). The Athenians had de^;>atched 40 triremes under 
Eurymedon and Prodes to Sicily with orders to call first at 
Corcyra to prevent an expected Spartan attack. Meantime 
Demosthenes had formed the pkn of planting the Messenians of 
Naupactus in Messenia — now Spartan territory — and obtained 
permission to accompany the expedition. The fleet was, as it 
chanced, delayed by a storm in the Bay of Navarino, and rough 
fortifications were put up by the sailors on the promontory of 
Pylos. Demosthenes was left behind in this fort, and the 
Spartans promptly withdrew from their annual raid upon 
Attica and their projected attack on Corcyra to dislodge him. 
After a naval engagement (see Pylos) a body of Spartan hoplites 
were cut off on Sphacteria. So acutdy did Sparta feel their 
position that an offer of peace was made on condition that the 
hoplites should go free. The eloquence of Cleon frustrated the 
peace party's desire to accept these terms, and ultimately to the 
astonishment of the Greek world the Spartan hoplites to the 
number of 293 surrendered imconditionally (see Cleon). 

Thu4 in 424 the Athenians had seriously damaged the prestige 
of Sparta, and broken Corinthian supremacy in the north-west, 
and the Pdoponnesians had no fleet. This was the zenith of 
their success, and it was unfortunate for them that they declined 
the various offers of peace which Sparta made. The next 
two years changed the whole position. The doubling of the 
tributeiii 425 pressed hardly on the allies (see Deuan League): 
Nidas failed in a plot with the democratic party in Megara to 
seize that town; and the brilliant campaigns of Braudas {q.v.) 
in the north-east, culminating in the capture of Amphipolis (422), 
finally destroyed the Athenian hopes of recovering their land 
empire, and entirely restored the balance of success and Spartan 
prestige. Moreover, the admirably concaved scheme for a 
simultaneous triple attack upon Boeotia at Chaeronea in the 
north, Delium in the south-east, and Siphae in the south-west 
had fallen through owing to the ineffidency of the generals. 
The scheme, which probably originated with the atticizing party 
in Thebes, resulted in the severe defeat of Hippocrates at Delium 
by the Boeotians under Pagondas, and was a final blow to the 
poUcy of an Athenian land empire. 

These disasters at Megara, Amphipolis and Delium left Athens 
with only one trump card — ^the possession of the Spartan hoplites 
captured in Sphacteria. This solitary success had already in 
the spring of 423 induced Sparta in spite of the successes which 
Brasidas was achieving in Thrace to accept the " truce of 
Laches " — which, however, was rendered abortive by the rdusal 
of Braddas to surrender Sdone. The final success of Brasidas 
at Amphipolis, where both he and Cleon were killed, paved 
the way for a more permanent agreement, the peace parties at 
Athens and Sparta being in the ascendant. 

9. Prom 421 <o 413. — Peace was signed In March 421 on the 
basis <^ each side's surrendering what had been acquired by 



the war, not induding those dties wluch had been acquired bf 
capitulation. It was to last foj fifty years. Its weak points, 
however, were numerous. Whereas Sparu had been lost ol 
all the aUies interested in the war, and apart from the campaign! 
of Brasidas had on the whole taken little part in it, her alliea 
benefited least by the terms of the Peace. Corinth did not 
regain SoUium and Anactorium, -while Megara and ThAtt 
respectivdy were indignant that Athens should retain Nisaea 
and recdve Panactum. These and other reasons rapidly led 
to the isolation of Sparta, and there was a general refueul to 
carry out the tenns of agreement. The history of the nest 
three years is therefore one of complex- inter-state intrigoet 
combined with internal political convulsions. In 421 Sparta 
and Athens concluded a ddensive alliance; the S^hacterim 
captives were released and Athens promised to abandon Pyios. 
Such a peace, giving Sparta everything and Athens noUdng 
but Sparta's bare alliance, was due to the fact that Nidas and 
Aldbiades were both seeking Sparta's friendship. At this 
time the Fifty Years' Truce between Sparta and Argot was 
expiring. The Peloponnesian malcontents turned to Arfos 
as a new leader, and an alliance was formed between Argos, 
Corinth, Elis, Mantinea and the Thraceward towns (410). 
This coalition between two different dements— «n anti-oligarduc 
party and a war party — had no chance of permanent eziatenoe. 
The war party in Sparta regained its strength imder new cphors 
and negotiations began for an alliance between Sparta, Aifos 
and Boeotia. The details cannot here be. discussed. The result 
was a re-shu£9ing of the cards. The democratic states of the 
Petoponnese were*^driven, partly by the intrigues of AldUadcs* 
now anti-Laconian, into aUiance with Athens, with the object ol 
establishing a democratic Pdoponnese under the leadership of 
Argos. These unstable combinations were soon after upset 
by Aldbiades himself, who, having succeeded in - **^T^fTiy 
Nidas as slrategus in 419, allowed Athenian troops to hd^ is 
attacking Epidaurus. For a cause not easy to determins 
.Mcibiades was defeated by Nicias in the dection to the post ol 
strategus in the next year, and the suH>idons of the Pdopon- 
ncsian coalition were roused by the inadequate assistance sent 
by Athens, which arrived too late to assist Argos when the 
Spartan king Agis marched against it. Ultimately the Spsrtaas 
were successful over the coalition at Mantinea, and sooB 
afterwards an oligarchic revolution at Argos led to an aUiance 
between that city and Sparta (c. Feb. 417). This oUgardqr 
was overthrown again in June, and the new democracy having 
vainly sought an agreement with Sparta rejoined Athoas. 
It was thus Idt to Athens to expend men and money oa 
protecting a democracy by the aid of which she had hoped 
practically to control the Pdoponnesus. All this time, however, 
the alliance between her and Sparta was not officially broken. 

The unsatisfactory character of the Athenian Pek>p«uieaiaB 
coalition was one of the negative causes which led up to Iht 
Sicilian Expedition of 415. Another negative cause may ht 
found in the failure of an attempt or attempts to subdue the 
Thraceward towns. By combining the evidence of Plutarch ^ 
]as comparison of Nicias and Crassus), Thuc. v. 83, and the in- 
scription which gives the treasury payments for 418-415 (IQcto 
and Hill, Gr. Hist. Jnscr. 70), we can scarcdy doubt that thos 
were expeditions in 418 (Euthydemus) and the sununer of 417 
(Nidas), and that in the winter of 417 a blockading squadroa 
under Chaeremon was despatched. This policy — whkb wst 
presumably that of Nicias in opposition to Aldbiades — Shaving 
failed, the way was deared for a reassertion of that policy of 
western conquest which hod always had advocates fnsi 
Themistodes onward in Athens,^ and .was psit of ths 
democraUc programme. 

The tragic fiasco of the SidUan expedition, involving the desth 

^ In 451 Athens made a treaty with SegesU ^nacr. Hides and 
Hilt, Gruk Hist. Inscr. 34): in 433 with Rbegium and I^conttsi 
(Hicks and Hill. 51 and 52: d. Thuc iii. 86. vSiuiA «vmmx<« «itk 
Chalddic towns in Sidly) : in 444 the colony of Thurii was foondsd: 
in 427 (see above) fy> ships were sent to Sidly; and if we aMy 
bdieve Aristophanes iJEq. 1302) Hyperbdus asked for 100 
for Carthage. 



PELOPONNESIAN WAR 



75 



of I6dM and the loM ol thonsiiidfl of men and hundreds of ships, 
«M a blow from iriiidi Athens never recovered (see nnder 
SfBACUSB and Sicily). Even before the final catastrophe 
Ihr Spartans had reopened hostilities. On the advice of 
Aldbiades (f a), exiled from Athens in 415, they had fortified 
Decekn in Attica within fifteen mUes of Athens. This place 
not only senned as a permanent headquarters for predatory 
cqicditioas, but cut off the revenue from the Laurium mines, 
fiiiaiihfil a ready asylum for runaway slaves, and rendered the 
Hainference of supplies from Euboea considerably more difficult 
(ix. by the sea round Cape Sunium). Athens thus entered 
the third tUf/s of the conflict with exceedingly poor 



5. Tkf lomian ar DeceUat IFar.— From the Athenian stand- 
peiBt this war may be broken up into three periods: (i) period of 
levolt of allies (4x3-4x1), (a) the rally (4x0-408), (3) the relapse 
(407-404). As contrasted with the Archidamian War, this 
was fooght ahnoat exclusively in the Aegean Sea, the enemy 
primarily Sparta, and the deciding factor was Persian gold. 
Fvthcrmofe, apart from the gradual disintegration of the 
CBfire, Athens was disturbed by political strife. 

in 412 many Ionian towns routed, and appealed either to 
Agii at Decdca or to Sparta direct. Euboea, Lesbos, (Hiios, 
Erjrthrac led the way in negotiation and revolt, and simul- 
laacoosly the court of Susa instructed the satraps Phamabazus 
lad Tissaphcmes to renew the collection (tf tribute from the 
Qmk dties of Asia Minor. The satraps likewise made over- 
twB to Sparta. The revolt of the Imiian allies was due in part 
to Aldbiades also, whose prompt action in co-operation with his 
fnad tbe ephor Endius finally confirmed the Chian oligarchs 
k their purpose. In 4x1 a treaty was signed by Sparta and 
ThMplMiim; against Athens: the treaty formally surrendered 
to the Persian king all territory which he or his predecessors 
hid held. It was subsequently renewed in a form somewhat 
hn (fisgraccf ul to Greek patriotism by the Spartans Astyochus 
and Theramenes. On the other hand, a democratic rising in 
SiBos pievented the rebellion of that island, which for the 
tnwindrr of the war was invaluable to Athens as a stronghold 
bnsg between the two great centres of the struggle. 

After the news of the SicQian disaster Athens was compelled 
It hst to draw on the reserve of 1000 talents which had lain 
nconched in the treasury.* The revolt of the Ionian allies, 
sad (In 4x1) the loss of tl^ Helle^wntine, Tbradan and Island 
tribetcs (see Deuan League), vef>' seriously crii^>led her 
fiaaaoes. On the other hand, Tissaphemes undertcdi to pay 
the Pdoponnesian sailors a daily wage of one Attic drachma 
Uftcrwards reduced to | drachma). In Attica itself Athens 
lost Oenoe and Oropus, and by the end of 41 1 only one quarter 
of (he empire remained. In the meanwhile Ussaphemes began 
10 play a double game with the object of wasting the strength 
tt the combatants. Moreover Aldbiades lost the confidence 
rf the Spartans and passed over to Tissaphemes, at whose 
Aposal he placed his great powers of diplomacy, at the same 
for his restoration to Athens. He opened 
with the Athenian leaders in Samos and urged 
to upset the democracy and establish a philo-Persian 
After daborate intrigues, in the course of which 
AMHarirt played false to the conspirators by forcing them to 
■*^~fir the idea of friendship with Tissaphemes owing to the 
CHifaitant terms proposed, the new govemraent by the Four 
was set up in Athens (see Theramenes). This 
It (which recdved no support from the armament in 
1) had a brid life^ and on the final revolt of Euboea was 
by the old democratic system. Aldbiades {q.v.) was 
Ma afterwards invited to return to Athens. 
He war, which, probably because of financial trouble, the 
had nc^ected to pursue when Athens was thus in the 
of political convulsion, was now resumed. After much 
ivring and intrigues a naval battle was fought at Cynos- 

*She had already aboItBhed the system of tribute in favour of 
a 5% mi taUrtm tax on all imports and exports carried by tea 
*^ , bcr poru and those of the allies. 




senut in the Hellespont In which victory on the whole rested 
with the Athenians (Aug. 4x1), though the net result was 
inconsiderable. About this time the duplidty of Tissaphemea^ 
who having again and again promised a Phooiidan fleet and 
having actually brought it to the Aegean finally rtUmUfo^ {t 
on the excuse of trouUe in the Levant— 4nd tho vigorous honesty 
of Phamabazus definitdy transferred the Peloponnesian forces 
to the north-west coast of Asia Manor and the HellesponL 
There they were regulariy finanred by PhanuUiaxus, while the 
Athenians were compelled to rely on forced levies. Inspite of this 
handicap Aldbiades, who had been seised and imprisoned by 
Tissaphemes at Sardis but effected his escape, achieved a remark- 
able victory over the Spartan Minduus at Cyxicus (about April 
410). So complete was the destruction of the Pdoponnesian 
fleet that, according to Diodorus, peace was offered by Sparta 
(see ad /fi.)and would have been accepted but for the warlike 
speeches of the "demagogue" Cleophon representing the 
extreme democrats.* Another result was the return to aUi^iance 
(409) of a number of the north-east dties of the empire. Great 
attempts were made by the Athenians to hold the Hellespont 
and then to protect the com-supply from the Black Sea. In 
Greece these gains were compensated by the loss of Pylos and 
Nisaea. 

In 408 Aldbiades effectivdy invested Chalcedon, which 
surrendered by agreement with Phamabazus, and subsequently 
Byzantium also fell into his hands with the aid of some of its 
inhabitants. 

Phamabazus, weary of bearing the whole cost of the war for 
the Peloponncsians, agreed to a period of tmce so that envoys 
might visit Susa, but at this stage the whole position was changed 
by the appointment of Cyrus the Younger as satrap of Lydia, 
Greater Phrygia and Cappadoda. His arrival coindded with 
the appointment of Lysander (c. Dec. 408) as Spartan admiral — 
the third of the three great commanders (Brasidas and Gylippus 
being the others) whom Sparta produced during the war. Cyrus 
promptly agreed on the special request of Lysander (9.9.) to pay 
slightly increased wages to the sailors, while Lysander establishMl 
a system of anti-Athenian dubs and oligarchic goveraments 
in various dties. Meanwhile Aldbiades (May 407), having 
exacted levies in Caria, returned at length to Athens and was 
elected strategus with full powers (see Steatecus). He raised 
a large force of men and ships and endeavoured to draw Lysander 
(then at Ephesus) into an engagement. But Cyrus and Lysander 
were resolved not to fight till they had a dear advantage, and 
Aldbiades took a small squadron to Phocaea. In spite of his 
express orders his captain Antiochus in his absence provoked a 
battle and was ddeated and killed at Notium. This failure and 
the rdusal of Lysander to fight again destroyed the confidence 
which Aldbiades had so recently regained. Ten strategi were 
appointed to supersede him and he retired to fortified ports in 
the Chersonese which he had prepared for such an emergency 
{f. Jan. 406). At the same time Lysander's year of office expired 
and he was superseded by C^llicratidas, to the disgust of all those 
whom he had so carefully organized in his service. Callicratidas, 
an honourable man of pan-Hellenic patriotism, was heavily 
handicapped in the fact that Cyrus declined to afTord him the 
help which had made Lysander powerful, and had recourse to 
the Milesians and Chians, with whose aid he fitted out a fleet of 
140 triremes (only xo Spartan). With these he pursued (^non 
(chid of the ten new Athenian strategi), captured 30 of his 70 
ships and besieged him in Mytilene. Faced with inevitable 
destruction, Conon succeeded in sending the news to Athens, 
where by extraordinary efforts a fleet of 1 10 ships was at once 
equipped. Callicratidas, hearing of this fleet's approach, with- 
drew from Mytilene, leaving Eteonicus in charge of the blockade. 
Forty more ships were collected by the Athenians, who met 
and defeated Callicratidas at Arginusae with a loss of more than 
half his fleet. The immediate result was that Eteonicus left 
Mytilene and Conon found himself free. Unfortunately the 
victorious generals at Arginusae, through negligence or owing 

'Xenophon. Bdl. does not mention it: Thucydides*s history 
had by this rime come to an end. 



76 



PELOPONNESUS— PELOTA 



to a stonn, failed to recover the bodies of those of their crews from its resemblance to a mulberry-leaf in shape, and thb name 

who were drowned or killed in the action. They were therefore is still current in popular speech. 

recalled, tried and condemned to death, except two who had PBL0P8, in Greek legend, the grandson of Zeus, son ol Tantalus 

disobeyed the order to return to Athens. and Dione, and brother of Niobe. His father's home was oa 

At this point Lysander was again sent out, nominally as Mt Sipylus in Asia Minor, whence Pelops is spoken of as a 

secretary to the official admiral Aracus. Cyrus, recalled to Lydian or a Phrygian. Tantidus one day served up to the 

Susa by the iUness of Darius, left him in entire control of his gods his own son Pelops, boiled and cut In pieces. The gods 

satrapy. Thus strengthened he sailed to Lampsacus on the detected the crime, and none of them would touch the foiod 

Hellespont and laid siege to it. Conon, now in charge of the except Demeter (according to others, Thetis), who, distracted by 

Athenian fleet, sailed against him, but the fleet was entirely the loss of her daughter Persephone, ate ol the shoulder. The 

destroyed while at anchor at Aegospotami (Sept. 405), Conon gods restored Pelops to life, and the shoulder consumed by 

escaping with only i a out of 180 sail to Cyprus. In April 404 Demeter was repUced by one of ivoiy. Wherefore the dcsces- 

Lysander sailed into the Peiraeus, took possession of Athens, dants of Pelops had a white mark on their shoulder ever after 

anddestroyed the Long Walls and the fortifications of Peiraeus. (Ovid, Metam. vi. 404; Virgil, Ctcrgics, m. 7). This tale h 

An oligarchical government was set up (see Ckitias), and perhaps reminiscent of human sacrifice amongst the Greeks. 

Lysander having compelled the capitulation of Samos, the last Poseidon carried Pelops off to Olympus, vrhtxt he dwelt with the 

Athenian stronghold, sailed in triumph to Sparta. gods, till, for his father's sins,^ he was cast out from heaven. 

Two questions of considerable importance for the full understand- '^^^* ^**^« ""^ ^^'5. "^^ 5!5' ^ crowed oy«r from Asia 

ine of the Peloponncsian War may be selected for special notice: to Greece. He went to Pisa m Ehs as smtor of Hippodameta, 

(1) how far was it a war between two antagonistic theories of govern- daughter of king Oenomaus, who had already vanquished in 

ment, oligarchic and democratic ? and (2) how far w« Athenian i^e chariot-race and ilain many suitors for his daughter's band. 

•ta^«manship at fault m dechmng the o&er. of peace which Sparta p^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^j Poseidon, who lent hfan winged steeds, ot 

1. A common theory is that Sparta fought throughout the war of Oenomaus's charioteer MyrtOus, whom he or Hippodameia 
as an advocate of oligarchy, while Athens did not seek to interfere bribed, Pelops wa^ victorious in the race, wedded Hippodameia, 
with the constitutional preferences of her allies. The view is based and became king of Pisa (Hyginus, Fab. 84). The race of 
partly on Thuc. 1. 19, according to which the SparUns took care that i>.i«„ *„ uu m^T*. m«» k. • ^^i,*:m^rx^^t »k.M*i» «.*.^:«.«« 
their allies should adhere to a Jolicy convenient to themselves. This P^^^P* '^^ *»» ^'« "^^ °f * reminiscenceof the wriy practice ti 
idea is disproved by Thucydidcs' own narraUve, which shows that mamage by capture. When Myrtilus dauned his promued 
down to 418 ^the battle 01 Mantinea) Sparta tolerated democratic reward, Pelops flung him into the sea near Geraestus in Eubocs, 
governments in Peloponnesus itself-«.£. Elis, ManUnea. Sicyon. and from his dying curse sprang those crimes and sorrows of the 

democratic. In point of fact, it was only when Lysander became fruitful themes (Sophocles, Eledra, $0$, with Jebb's note). 

the representative of Spartan forei^ policy — 1.«. in the last years Among the sons of Pelops by Hippodameia were Atreus, Thyestcs 

^ A** J!*'~^^\ Sparu was identified with the oligarchic policy, and Chrysippus. From Pisa Pelops extended his sway over the 

E,S« « r™ct'^ii«'r«^S'S2Ld*::^n"?«'i3iriJ'd.1±S; nei^bo«n„g01ympj., where he cdeb».«i the OlympUn t^ 

type of government (of. Thuc i. 19. vui. 64; Xen. Pol. i. 14, IleU. with a splendour unknown before. His power and fame were SO 

ill. 47; Arist. Pol. viii. 60). It is true that we find oligarchic govern- great that henceforward the whole peninsula was known to the 

ment in Chios and L«bos (up to 428) and in Samos (up to 440), ancients as Peloponnesus, " island of Pelops " (i^ffot. island). 

but this IS discounted bv the fact that all three were autonomous' j ^^ ^j p^j honoured at Olympia above aU other 

allies. Moreover, in the case of Samos there was a democracy in * «"*«» *«wf» «« hvhwuh^m «. y^ijui^im, '^^^ «" wmt 

439. though in 412 the government was again oligarchic. The heroes; a temple was built for him by Heracles, his descendant 

case of Selymbria (see Hicks and Hill, op. cit. 77) is of little account, in the fourth generation, in which the annual magistrates sacn- 

because at that time (409) the Empire was iff «x/remti. In general ficed to him a black ram. 
we find that Athenian orators take special crcdit>on the ground that 

the Athenian had given to her allies the constitutional advantages From the reference to Asia in the tales of Tantalus, Niobe and 

which they themselves enjoyed. Pelops it has been conjectured that Asia was the original seat cf 

2. In view of the disastrous issue of the war. it is important to these legends, and that it was only after emigration to Greeoe ^at 
notice that on three occasions— (a) after Pvlos, (6) after Cyzicus, the people localized a part of the ule of Pelops in their new boas. 
(c) after Arginusae — ^Athens refused formal peace proposals from In the time of Pausanias the throne of Pelops was still shown ea 
Sparta, (a) Though Cleon was probably wise in opposing peace the top of Mt Sipylus. The story of Pelops is told in the fint 
negotiations before the capture of the Sparuns in Sphactena. it Olympian ode of Pindar and in prose by Nicolaus Damascenus. 
seems in the light of subsequent events that he was wrong to refuse 

the ternw which were offered after the hoplites had been captured. PBLOTA (Sp. " little baU," from Lat. pQa), a baU game whicL 

No doubt, however, the temper in Athens was at that time pre- «„--;«ai;««» #.««»iir,-e a»^ ;n *i»* Ra./i.t* nvMv'n/.^ t.mV..,ir..iTl 

dominantly warlike, and the surrender of the hoplites was a umVe ?"8»»^aling centuries a^ m the B^ue province*, has developed 

triumph. Possibly, too, Qeon foresaw that peace would have into several forms of the sport. Epigrams of Martial show thtt 

meant a triumph for the philo-Laconian party (h) The peace there were at least three kinds of pelota played in his timBi 

proposals of 410 are given by Diodorus. who says that the ephor Blatd, practically hand fives against the back wall of a cooftil 

Si,X.r2^ IhJj A»?S^iZH*.^r??i*p"iJL*1 ^ ?l ^ stiU played on both sides of the Pyrenees. It is so popular thU 

possuutts, except that Athens should evacuate Pylos and Cythera, .^. ^u •»• l j .^ * u-j •. 1- • 1 .. j .•;"\T^ ^1 

and Sparta, Decclea. Cleophoft, howver. perhaps doubting **>« authonties had to forbid its being pUyed against Ihe w-"- 

whether the offer was sincere (cf. Philochorus in Schol ap Eunp. of the cathedral at Barcelona. In uncovered courts of laife 1 

Orest. 371: Fra^w. ed. Didot, 117, 118). demanded the status auo there are two varieties of pelota. One, the favourite pastil 

Vi^Jiii^^ ?^i':oil^;Iif l^^i^l f^v: r"^*J™^ ^'y/j^b. , the Basque, is pUyed against a front waU (JranUm), either «,«•. 

34. were on toe same hnes, except that Athens no longer had Pylos ,. . T^ -.l 1 .u j 11 i-i J^T^ 

andCythera.andhadlostpracticallyhalf her empire. At this time handed, with a leather or wooden long glove-hke protector 

peace must therefore have been advantageous to Athens as showing (cesta), or with a chistera strapped to the wrist, a sicUc-shaped 

the worid that in spite of her losses she was still one of the great wicker-work implement three feet long, much like a hansom-wlMl 

Ef*!!^. .i!i!f^" P- ^'^P^'i" »"»*»«. ^>«h SMrta would have basket mud-guard, in the narrow groove of which the bal b 
meant a check to Persian intenerence. It is probable, again, that . ^ j * i.« l .1. 1 . fi. ■ « j j •. 

party interest was a leading motive in Qeophon's minrsince a ?»?ht and from which, thanks to the leverage afforded, it Ctt 

peace would have meant the return of the oligarchic exiles and the be huned with tremendous force. There are several playcn tot' 

establishment of a moderate oligarchy. side, frequently an uneven number to allow a handicap. Thi 

•• Ki7pS™5!:"^u ^^^^^' .-**^*' ^^-^h' ^i S- '^^^ "; S^"^^' score is announced by a cantara, whose melodious vocal dtatt 

Uv Peloponnesische Krieg is essential. AU histories o( Greece ^,. . ... ^^. ,.. i^.» «,^,^«.«-«.!^ «y.r«.'.^».»» ;« •!.• ^^^ t« 

may be consulted (sec Gsebcb: History, Ancient, section mate lum not the least appreciated partiapant in the pme. !• 

" Authorities "). Q, M. M.) the other form of the game, played neany exclusively by pf ofci 

sionals (pdoiaris), there are usually three players on eadi tfdib 

PELOPONNESUS ("Island of Pelops"), the andent and two forwards and a back, distingiushed by a coloured sash or cap^ 

modern Greek, official name for the part of Greece south of the The server (buUeur) slips off his chistera to serve, boundng tht 

Isthmus of Corinth. In medieval times it was called the Morea, ball on the but, a kind of stool, about 30 ft. from the waU, sad 



PELOTAS— PEMBA 



77 



stxiklng it low against the walL The side that wins the toss has 
the first service. The ball must be replayed by the opposing 
ade at the wall, which it must hit over a line 3 ft. from the 
base of the wall and under the net fixed at the top of the wall. 
The game is counted 15, 30, 40, game, reckoned by the number 
of faults made by the opposing side. A fault is scored (a) when 
after the service the bail is not caught on the voUcy or first 
boanGe, (6) when it does not on the return strike the wall within 
the pccscribed limits, (c) when it goes out of the prescribed limits 
of the court, (d) when it strikes the net fixed at the top of the 
court. The side making the fault loses the service. A game like 
this has been played in England by Spanish professionals on a 
oouit 250 ft. long, against a wall 30 ft. high and 55 ft. wide. The 
ball used, a trifle smaller than a base-ball, is hard rubber wound 
with yam and leather-covered, weighing 5 ounces. The server 
bottoces the ball on the concrete Boor quite near the fronton, and 
hits it with his ckisUra against the wall with a force to make it 
ffrixMuid beyond a line 80 ft. back. It usually goes treble that 



PBLOTAS* a dty <A the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 
OS the left bank ol the SSo Con^alo river near its entrance into 
die LagAft dos Patos, about 30 m. N.W. of the dty of Rio 
Grande. Pop. (xgoo), dty, about 24,000; municipio (commune, 
1037 sq. iB.),43/>9X. The Rio Grande Bag£ railway communi- 
cates with the dty of Rio Grande, and with the railways extend- 
ing to Bafl£, Cacequy, Santa l^Iaria, Passo Fundo and Porto 
Akpe. The Sic Gongib river is the outlet of Lagfta Mirim, 
aad Pdotas is therefore connected with the inland water routes. 
Ik dty is built on an open grassy plain {campo) little above the 
kvd of the lake (28 ft. above sea-level). The public buildings 
adnde the church of SAo Francisco, dating from the early part 
of the xgth century, the munidpal hall, a fine theatre, the 
I C Krioot di a hospital, a public library containing about 25,000 
fohmcs and a great central market. Pdotas is the centre of the 
arfM or canu Mcea~(jerked beeQ industry of Rio Grande do Sul. 
h its outskirts and the surrounding couniiy are an immense 
iBBber of xarqmeadas (slaughter-houses), with large open yards 
«hae the dressed beef, lightly salted, is exposed to the sun and 
■r. There are many factories or packing houses where the by- 
pndocts aie |»epared ior market. Pdotas was only a small 
lettkment at the beginning of the XQth century and had no 
parochial organization until x8x3. It became a vUla in 1830 and 
a dty in 1835. 

FBU>UZB» THiOPHILB JULES (1807-1867), French chemist, 
ns bom at Valognea, in Normandy, on the 26th (or 13th) of 
Fcfaraaxy 1807. His father, Edmond Pelouze (d. 1847), was an 
■idaRrial rhr'wn^ and the author of several technical handbooks. 
Ihe son, after ^pending some time in a pharmacy at La Fire, 
acted as laboratory assistant to Gay-Lussac and J. L. Lassaigne 
(i8oo-t8s9) at Puis from X827 to X829. In 1830 he was ap- 
pointed associate professor of chemistry at Lille, but returning 
to Puis next year became rep^titeur, and subsequently professor, 
at the tccAt Poljrtechnique. He also held the chair of chemistry 
s yw CoOige de France, and in 1833 became assayer to the mint 
aad ia 1848 praident of the G>mmission des Monnaies. After 
the €9mp fiUU in X85X he resigned his appointments, but con- 
lined to oooduct a laboratory-school he had started in 1846. 
Be died in Faxis on the xst of June 1867. Though Pdouze made 
ao dac ovtr y of outstanding importance, he was a busy investi- 
ptor, his work induding researches on salidn, on beetroot sugar, 
•B variooB organic adds— gallic, malic, tartaric, butyric, lactic, 

oenanthic ether (with Liebig), on the nitrosulphates, on 
and on the composition and manufacture of glass. 

carried out determinations of the atomic weights of 
dements, and with £. Fr6my, published TraiU de chimie 

(1847-1850); Abrigfi de ckimie (1848); and Notions 

de ckimie (1853). 

JEAH CHARLES ATHANASB (1785-1845), French 

bom at Ham (Somme) on the 22nd of February 

He was originally a watchmaker, but retired from 

about the age of thirty and devoted himself to experi- 

and observational sdence. His papers, which are 



1785. 



numerous, are devoted in great part to atmospheric elect naty, 
waterspouts, cyanometry and polarization of skylight, the 
temperature of wa(er in the spheroidal state, and the boiling- 
point at great elevations. There are also a few devoted to curious 
points of natural history. But his name will always be associ- 
ated with the thermal effects at junctions in a voltaic arcuit 
His great experimental discovery, known as the " Peltier effect," 
was that if a current pass from an external source through a 
circuit of two metals it co<As the junction through which it passes 
in the same direction as the thermo-electric current which uould 
be caused by directly heating that junction, while it heats the 
other junction (sec THERMO-ELECTRiaTY). Pdtier died in Paris 
on the 27th of October 1845. 

PELTUINUM [mod. Civiu Ansidonia], a town of the Vcstini, 
on the Via Claudia Nova, 12 m. E.S.E. of Aquila. It was 
apparently the chief town of that portion of the Vcstini who 
dwelt west of the main Apennine chain. Remains of the town 
walk, of an amphitheatre, and of other buildings still exist. 

PELUSIUM, an andcnt city and port of Egypt, now repre- 
sented by two large mounds dose to the coast and the edge of 
the desert, 30 m. £. of Port Said. It lay in the marshes at the 
mouth of the most easterly (Pclustac) branch of the Nile, which 
has long since been silted up, and was the key of the land towards 
Syria and a strong fortress, which, from the Persian invasion at 
least, played a great part in all wars between Egypt and the East. 
Its name has not been found on Egyptian monuments, but it may 
be the Sin of the Bible and of Assur-bani-pal's inscription. 
Pdusium (" the muddy ") is the FaramA of the Arabs, Pere- 
moun in Coptic; the name Tina which clings to the locality seems 
etymologically connected with the Arabic word for clay or mud. 
The site, crowned with extensive ruins of burnt brick of the 
Byzantine or Arab period, has not yidded anv important 
remains. (F. Li.. G.) 

PELVIS (Lat. for " basin," cf. Gr. irSXXtf), in anatomy, the 
bony cavity at the lower port of the abdomen in which much of 
the genito-urinary apparatus and the lower part of the bowels are 
contained (see Skeleton, { Appendicular). 

PEMBA, an island in the Indian Ocean off the east coast of 
Africa, forming part of the sultanate of Zandbar. Pemba lies 
30 m. N.N.E. of Zanzibar island between 4*^ 80' and 5** 30' S., 
and 39** 35' and 39^ 50' E. It is some 40 m. long and 10 across 
at its broadest part, and has an area of 380 sq. m. It is of coral- 
line formation. On the side facing the mainland the coast is 
much indented. From its luxuriant vegetation it gets its Arabic 
name of Al-huthera — " The Green." The interior is diversified 
by hills, some of which exceed 600 ft. The land is chiefly owned 
by great Arab proprietors, who work thdr plantations with 
Swahili labour, and with negroes from the mainland. Prior to 
1897 the labourers were all slaves. Their gradual manumission 
was accomplished without injury to the prosperity of the island. 
The population is estimated at between 50,000 and 60,000, of 
whom 20QP to 3000 are Arabs. Most of the inhabitants are of 
Bantu stock, and are known as Wapemba. In the ports there 
are many Hindu traders and a few Europeans. The plantations 
are nearly all devoted to cloves (the annual average output being 
10,000,000 lb) and coco-nut palms (for the preparation of 
copra). The number of coco-nut plantations is very small 
compared with those devoted to doves. Yet doves need much 
care and attention, and yidd small profit, while the coco-nut 
palm yidds a fairly uniform crop of nuts and will grow almost 
anywhere. Hie preponderance of dove plantarions dates from 
a cyclone which in 1872 destroyed nearly all the dove-trees in 
the island of Zanzibar. Thereupon, to benefit from the great 
rise in the price of cloves, the Pemba planters cut down their 
palms and planted cloves. The value of the doves exported in 
1907 was £339,000, or 92 % of the total exports. India, Germany 
and Great Britain are, in the order named, the chief purchasers. 
Other exports include fire-wood, skins and hides, mother-of-pearl, 
wax and small quantities of rubber, cowries, tortoisesheU and 
so-called tortoise-nail. The " tortoise-nail " is the valve with 
which a shell-fish closes its shell. The Llandolphia rubber-vine 
is indigenous, and since 1906 Ceara rubber-trees have been 



78 



PEMBROKE, EARLS OF 



extensively planted. Rice, the chief of Pemba's imports, could 
easily be grown on the island. Cotton cloths (Kangas) form the 
next most considerable item in the imports. 

Pcmba has three ports, all on the west side of the island. 
Shaki-Shalu, the capital and the centre of trade, is centrally 
situated at the head of a shallow tidal creek partly blocked by 
dense growths of mangroves. Mkoani is on the south-west 
coast, Kishi-Kashi on the north-west coast; at the last-named 
port there is a deep and well-sheltered harbour, approached 
however by a narrow and dangerous channeL 

Pemba is administered as an integral part of the Zanzibar 
dominions, and yields a considerable surplus to the exchequer, 
mainly from a 25% duty imposed on cloves exported. There is 
a weekly steamship service to Zanzibar, and in IQ07 the two 
islands were connected by wireless telegraphy (sec Zanzibar). 

PEMBROKE, EARLS OF. The title of earl of Pembroke 
has been held successively by several English fanulies, the 
jurisdiction and dignity of a palatine earldom being originally 
attached to it. The first creation dates from 1138, when the 
earldom of Pembroke was conferred by King Stephen on Gilbert 
de Clare (d. 1148), son of Gilbert Fitz-Richard, who possessed 
the lordship of Strigul (Estrighoiel, in Domesday Bock), the 
modem Chepstow. After the battle of Lincoln (1141), in which 
he took part, the earl joined the party of the empress Matilda, 
and he married Henry I.'s mistress, Isabel, daughter of Robert 
de Beaumont, earl of Leicester. 

Richard de Clare, 3nd earl of Pembroke (d. 11 76), commonly 
known as " Strongbow," son of the first earl, succeeded to his 
father's estates in 1148, but had forfeited or lost them by 1168. 
In that year Dermot, king of Leinster, xlriven out of his kingdom 
by Roderick, king of Coimaught, came to solicit help from 
Henry IL He secured the services of Earl Richard, promising 
him the hand of his daughter Eva and the succession to Leinster. 
The carl crossed over in person (11 70), took both Waterford and 
Dublin, and was married to Eva. But Henry II., jealous of 
this success, ordered all the troops to return by Easter 11 71. 
In May Dermot died; this was the signal of a general rising, and 
Richard barely managed to keep Roderick of Connaught out of 
Dublin. Immediately afterwards he hurried to England to 
solicit help from Henry U., and surrendered to him all his lands 
and castles. Henry crossed over in October 11 72; he stayed in 
Ireland six months, and put his own men into nearly all the 
important places, Richard keeping only Kildarc. In 1173 he 
went in person to France to help Henry II., and was present at 
Vemeuil, being reinstated in Leinster as a reward. In 11 74 he 
advanced into Connaught and was severely defeated, but for- 
tunately Raymond le Gros re-established his supremacy in 
Leinster. Early in 11 76 Richard died, just as Raymond had 
taken Limerick for him. Strongbow was the statesman, as the 
Fitzgeralds were the soldiers, of the conquest. He is vividly 
described by Giraldus Cambrensis as a tall and fair man, of 
pleasing appearance, modest in his bearing, delicate in features, 
of a low voice, but sage in council and the idol of his soldiers. 
He was buried in the cathedral church of Dublin, where his 
efiigy and that of his wife are still preserved. 

See Giraldus Cambrensis. Expunnatio hibcmiai; and the Song of 
Dermot, edited by G. H. Orpen (1892). 

Strongbow having died without male issue, his daughter 
Isabel became countess of Pembroke in her own right, and the 
title was borne by her husband, Sir WauAM Marshal, or 
Le Mar^chal, second son of John le Mar6chal, by Sibylle, the 
sister of Patrick, earl of Salisbury. John le Marichal was a 
partisan of the empress Matilda, and died about 1164. 
. The date of Sir William Marshal's birth is uncertain, but his 
parents were married not earlier than 1141, and he was a mere 
child in 11 53, when he attracted the notice of King Stephen. 
In 1 1 70 he was selected for a position in the household of Prince 
Henry, the heir-apparent, and remained there until the death 
of his young patron (1183). He undertook a pilgrimage to the 
Holy Land, where he served as a crusader with distinction for 
two years. Although he had abetted the prince in rebellion he 
was pardoned by Henry II. and admitted to the royal service 



about 1 188. In 1189 he covered the flight of Henry II. from 
Le Mans to Chinon, and, in a skirmish, unhorsed the undutiful 
Richard Coeur de Lion. None the less Richard, on his accessioiiy 
promoted Marshal and confirmed the old king's licence for his 
marriage with the heiress of Strigul and Pembroke. This match 
gave Marshal the rank of an earl, with great estates in Wales 
and Ireland, and he was included in the council of regency iriiidi 
the king appointed on his departure for the third -crusade (1x90). 
He took the side of Prince John when the latter expelled the 
justiciar, William Longchamp, from the kingdom, but he soon 
discovered that the interests of John were different from those 
of Richard. Hence in 1193 he joined with the loyalists in 
making war upon the prince. Richard forgave Marshal his first 
error of judgment, allowed him to succeed his brother, John 
Marshal, in the hereditary marshalship, and on his death-bed 
designated him as custodian of Rouen and of the royal treasure 
during the interregnum. Though he quarrelled more than once 
with John, Marshal was one of the few English laymen who dung 
to the royal side through the Barons' War. He was one of John's 
executors, and was subsequently el^ed regent of the king and 
kingdom by the royalist barons in 1 3 16. In spite of his advanced 
age he prosecuted the war against Prince Louis and the rebels 
with remarkable energy. In the battle of Lincoln (May 12x7) 
he charged and fought at the head of the young king's army, and 
he was preparing to besiege Louis in London when the war was 
terminated by the naval victory of Hubert de Burgh in the 
straits of Dover. He was criticized for the generosity of the 
terms he accorded to Louis and the rebels (September 12x7); 
but his desire for an expeditious settlement was dictated by 
sound statesmanship. Self-restraint and compromise were the 
key-notes of Marshal's policy. Both before and after the peace 
of 1217 he reissued Magna Carta. He fell ill early in the year 
1 3 19, and died on the 14th of May at his manor of Caversham 
near Reading. He was succeeded in the regency by Hubert de 
Burgh, in his earldom by his five sons in succession. 

See the metrical French life. Ilistoire de GuiUauwu le MarkJiai 
(ed. P. Meyer, 3 vols.. Paris, 1891-1901) ; the Mincriiy of Henry III^ 
by G. J. Turner {Trans, Royal Hist. Soc., new aeries, voL xviS. 
pp. 245-295) ; and W. Stubbs, Constitutionid History, das. ziL and' 
XIV. (Chdord, 1896-1897}. 

Marshal's ddest son, William Marshal (d. 1231), snd eail of 
Pembroke of this line, passed some years in warfare in Wales and 
in Ireland, where he was justidar from 1234 to 1226; he also 
served Henry lU. in France. His second wife was the king's 
sbter, Eleanor, afterwards the wife of Simon de Montfort, but 
he left no children. His brother Richard Marshal (d. X234), 
3rd earl, came to the front as the leader of the baronial party* 
and the chief antagonist of the foreign friends of Henry IQ.. 
Rearing treachery he refused to visit the king at Gloucester is 
August 1333, and Henry declared him a traitor. He crossed to 
Ireland, where Peter des Roches had instigated his enemws to 
attack him, andlD April 1 334 he was overpowered and wounded, 
and died a prisoner. His brother Gilbert (d. 1241), idio 
became the 4lh eari, was a friend and ally of Richard, etil of 
Cornwall. When another brother, Anselm, the 6th nrl, died 
in December 1 245, the male descendants of the great earl minhsl 
became extinct. The extensive family possessions were now 
divided among Anselm's five sisters and their descendants, the 
earldom of Pembroke reverting to the Crown. 

The next holder of the lands of the earldom of Pembroke was 
William de Valence (d. x 396), a younger son of Hugh de Lusignan, 
count of La Marche, by his marriage with Isabella of AngouMne 
(d. 1346), widow of the English king John, and was bwn st 
Valence, near Lusignan. In 1347 William and his'brothen» 
Guy and Aymer, crossed over to England at the invitation of thdr 
half-brother, Henry III. In 1350 Aymer (d. 1360) was dectcd 
bishop of Winchester, and in 1347 Henry arranged a toaniafi 
between William and Joan de Munchensi (d. 1307) a grsnd* 
daughter of William Marshal, ist earl of Pembroke. The 
custody of Joan's propehy, which induded the castle and kndsUp 
of Pembroke, was entrusted to her husband, who in 1295 vtl 
summoned to parliament as eari of Pembroke. In Sooth Waki 



PEMBROKE, EARLS OF 



79 



Valence tried to rcfain the pftUtine rights wluch bad been 

attadied to the earidom of Pembroke. But his energies were 

not <^9f*<«"^ to South Wales. Henry IIL heaped lands and 

boooon upon him, and he was soon thoroughly hated as one of 

the most prominent of the rapacious foreigners. Moreover, some 

troobie in Wales kd to a quarrel between him and Simon de 

Uootfort, and this soon grew more violent. He would not 

comply with tlie provisions of Oxford, and took refuge in Wolvesey 

Castle at Wincbester, where he was besieged and compelled to 

surrcrder and leave the country. In 1259 he and EarlJSimon 

were formally reconciled in Paris, and in 1261 he was again in 

England and once more enjoying the royal favour. He fought 

for Henry at the battle of Lewes, and then, after a stay in France, 

he landed in Pembrokeshire, aiKl took part in 1265 in the siege 

of Gloucester and the battle of Evesham. After the royalist 

victory he was restored to his estates and acoynpanied l^ince 

Edmrd, afterwards Edward I., to Palestine. He went several 

times to France on public business; he assisted in the conquest of 

North Wales; and he was one of Edward's representatives in 

the famous suit over the succession to the crown of Scotland in 

1291 and 1293. He died at Bayonne on the 13th of June 1296, 

Ik body being buried in Westminster Abbey. His eldest 

nrviving xm, Aymes (c. i 265-1324), succeeded to his father's 

ettstes, but was not formally recognized as earl of Pembroke 

omil after the death of his mother Joan about 1307. He was 

appointed guardian of Scotland in 1306, but with the accession 

of E;dward II. to the throne and the consequent rise of Piers 

Gsveston to power, his influence sensibly declined; he became 

pvominent among the discontented nobles and was one of those 

vbo were appointed to select the lord ordainers in 131 1. In 

1312 he captured Gaveston at Scarborough, giving the favourite 

a promise that his Ufe should be q>ared. Ignoring this under- 

takii^ however, Guy Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, put Gaveston 

to death, and consequently Pembroke left the allied lords and 

attadied himself to Edward II. Valence was present at Bannock- 

bnn; in 13 17, when returning to England from Rome, he was 

taken prisoner and was kept in Germany until a large ransom was 

paid. In 13 18 he again took a conspicuous part in making peace 

between Edward and his nobles, and in 1322 assisted at the 

fomal condemnation of Earl Thomas of Lancaster, and received 

some of his lands. His wife, Mary de Chatillon, a descendant 

of King Henry III., was the founder of Pembroke G>llege, 

Caaabridge. 

In 1339 LADRescE, Lokd Hastings (d. i348)> a great-grand- 
son of William de Valence, having inherited through the female 
iae a portion of the estates of the Valence earls of Pembroke 
•as created, or recognized as, earl of Pembroke. His son John 
(d. i$j6) married Margaret Plantagenct, daughter of King 
Edward III., and on the death without issue of his grandson 
ia 1389 the earldom of Pembroke reverted again to the Crown, 
whSe the barony of Hastings became dormant and so remained 
tifl 1840. 

In X414 Humphrey Plantagenet, fourth son of King Henry 
IV^ was created duke of Gloucester and earl of Pembroke for 
fife, these titles being subsequently made hereditary, with a 
sevowm as regards the earldom of Pembroke, in default of 
kms to Humphrey, to William de la Pole, earl of Suffolk. 
AomtKngly, on the death of Humphrey, without issue, in 1447 
this m^M^Twa" became earl of Pembroke. He was beheaded in 
I4SD Aod his titles were forfeited. In 1453 the title was given to 
Sir Jasper Tudor, half-brother of King Henry VI. Sir Jasper 
a Lancastrian, his title was forfeited during the pre- 
of the house of York, but was restored on the 
of Henry VII. On his death without heirs in 1495, 
bii title became extinct. 

DoTDif his attainder Sir Jasper was taken prisoner by SiK 
WuiAM Herbert (d. 1469), a zealous Yorkist, who had been 
ailed to the peerage as Baron Herbert by Edward IV., and for 
this flenrice Lord Herbert was created earl of Pembroke in 1468. 
Ks aoo William (d. 1491) received the earldom of Huntingdon 
m Ecu of that of Pembroke, which he surrendered to Edward IV., 
nho thereupon conferred it (1479) on his son Edward, prince 



of Wales; and when this prince succeeded to the thrbne as 
Edward V., the earldom <k Pembroke merged in the crown. 
Anne Boleym, a few months previous to her marriage with 
Henry VIII., was created marchioness of Pembroke in 1532. 
It is doubted by authorities on peerage law whether the title 
merged in the royal dignity on the marriage of the marchionesa 
to the king, or became extinct on her death in 1536. 

The title of eari of Pembroke was next revived in favour of 
Sir Wiluam Herbert (c. i 501-1570), whose father, Richard, 
was an illegitimate son of the ist earl of Pembroke of the house 
of Herbert. He had married Anne Parr, sister of Henry VIU.'s 
sixth wife, and was created eari in 1 55 1 . The title has since been 
hel<Lby his descendants. 

An executor of Henry VIII.'s will and the recipient of valuable 
grants of land, Herbert was a prominent and powerful personage 
during the reign of Edward VI., both the protector Somerset and 
his rival, John Dudley, afterwards duke of Northumberland, 
angling for his support. He threw in his lot with Dudley, and 
after Somerset's fall obtained some of his lands in Wiltshire and 
a peerage. It has been asserted that he devised the scheme for 
settling the English crown on Lady Jane Grey; at all events he 
was one of her advisers during her short reign, but he declared for 
Mary when he saw that Lady Jane's cause was lost. By Mary 
and her friends Pembroke's loyalty was at times suspected, but 
he was employed as governor of Calais, as president of Wales 
and in other ways. He was also to some extent in the confidence 
of Philip II. of Spain. The earl retained his place at court under 
Elizabeth until 1569, when he was suspected of favouring the 
projected marriage between Mary, queen of Scots, and the duke 
of Norfolk. Among the monastic lands granted to Herbert was 
the estate of Wilton, near Salisbury, still the residenqe of the 
earls of Pembroke. 

His elder son Henry {e. 1534-1601), who succeeded as 2nd earl, 

was president of Wales from 1586 until his death. He married 

in 1577 Mary Sidney, the famous countess of Pembroke (c. 1561- 

162 1), third daughter of Sir Henry Sidney and his wife Mary 

Dudley. Sir Philip Sidney to whom she was deeply attached 

through life, was her eldest brother. Sir Philip Sidney spent the 

summer of 1580 with her at Wilton, or at Ivychurch, a favourite 

retreat of hers in the neighbourhood. Here at her request he 

began the Countess of Pembroke* s Arcadia^ which was intended 

for her pleasure alone, not for publication. The two also worked 

at a metrical edition of the Psalms. When the great sorrow of 

her brother's death came upon her she niade herself his literary 

executor, correcting the unauthorized editions of the Arcadia 

and of his poems, which appeared in 1590 and 1591. She also 

took under her patronage the poets who had looked to her brother 

for protection. Spenser dedicated his Ruines of Time to her, 

and refers to her as Urania in Colin Clout's come home againe; in 

Spenser's Astrophd she is " Clorinda." In 1 599 Queen Elizabeth 

was her guest at Wilton, and the countess composed for the 

occasion a pastoral dialogue in praise of Astraea. After her 

husband's death she lived chiefly in London at Crosby Hall, 

where she died. 

The Countess's other works include: A Discourse of Life and 
Death, translated from the French of Plessis du Momay (lS93)i and 
Antoine (1592), a version of a tragedy of Robert Garnier. 

Wiluam Herbert, 3rd earl of Pembroke (1580-1630), son of 
the 2nd earl and his famous countess, was a conspicuous figure 
in the society of his time and at the court of James I. Several 
times he found himself opposed to the schemes of the duke of 
Buckingham, and he was keenly interested in the colonization 
of America. He was lord chamberlain of the royal household 
from i6i5toi625 and lord steward from 1626 to 1630. He was 
chancellor of the university of Oxford in 1624 when Thomas 
Tesdale and Richard Wightwick refounded Broadgates Hall and 
named it Pembroke College in his honour. By some Shake- 
spearian commentators Pembroke has been identified with the 
" Mr W. H. " referred to as " the onlic begetter "of Shakespeare's 
sonnets in the dedication by Thomas Thorpe, the owner of the 
published manuscript, while his mistress, Mary Fitton (q.v.), has 
been identified with the " dark lady " of the sonnets. In both 



8o 



PEMBROKE 



cases the identification rests on very questionable evidence (see 
Shakespeare, William). He and his brother Philip are the 
"incomparable pair of brethren" to whom the first folio of 
Shakespeare is inscribed. The earl left no sons when he died in 
London on the loth of April 163a Clarendon gives a very 
eulogistic account of Pembroke, who appears, however, to have 
been a man of weak character and dissolute life. Gardiner 
describes him as the Hamlet of the English court. He had 
literary tastes and wrote poems; one of his closest friends 
was the poet Donne, and he was generous to Ben Jonson, 
Massinger and others. 

His brother, Philip Herbekt, the 4th earl (1584-1650), was 
for some years the chief favourite of James I., owing this position 
to his comely person and his passion for hunting and for field 
sports generally. In 1 605 the king created him earl of Montgomery 
and Baron Herbert of Shurland, and since 1630, when he succeeded 
to the earldom of Pembroke, the head of the Herbert family has 
carried the double title of earl of Pembroke and Montgomery. 
Although Philip's quarrelsome disposition often led him into 
trouble he did not forfeit the esteem of James I., who heaped 
lands and offices upon him, and he was also trusted by Charles I., 
who made him lord chamberlain in 1626 and frequently vi^ted 
him at Wilton. He worked to bring about peace between the 
king and the Scots in 1639 and 1640, but when in the latter year 
the quarrel between Charles and the English parliament was 
renewed, he deserted the king who soon deprived him of his office 
of chamberlain. Trusted by the popular party, Pembroke was 
made governor of the Isle of Wight, and he was one of the repre- 
sentatives of the parliament on several occasions, notably during 
the negotiations at Uxbridgc in 1645 and at Newport in 1648, and 
when the Scots surrendered Charles in 1647. From 1641 to 1643, 
and again from 1647 to 1650, he was chancellor of the university 
of Oxford; in 1648 he removed some of the heads of houses from 
their positions because they would not take the solemn league 
and covenant, and his foul language led to the remark that he was 
more fitted " by his eloquence in swearing to preside over Bedlam 
than a learned academy." In 1649, although a peer, he was 
elected and took his scat in the House of Commons as member for 
Berkshire, this " ascent downwards " calling forth many satirical 
writings from the royalist wits. The earl was a great collector 
of pictures and had some txiste for architecture. His eldest 
surviving son, Philip (1621-1669), became 5th earl of Pembroke, 
and 3nd earl of Montgomery; he was twice married, and was 
succeedcdjn turn by three of his sons, of whom Thomas, the 8th 
earl (c. 1656-1733), was a person of note during the reigns of 
William III. and Anne. From 1690 to 1692 he was first lord 
of the admiralty; then he served as lord privy seal until 1699, 
being in 1697 the first plenipotentiary of Great Britain at the 
congress of Ryswick. On two occasions he was lord high admiral 
for a short period; he was also lord president of the council and 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland, while he acted as one of the lords 
justices seven times; and he was president of the Royal Soaety 
in 1689-1690. His son Henry, the 9th earl (c. 1689-1750), was a 
soldier, but was better known as the " architect earl." He was 
largely responsible for the erection of Westminster Bridge. The 
title descended directly to Henry,ioth earl (i 734-1 794), a soldier, 
who wrote the Method of Bracing Horses (1762); George 
Augustus, I ith earl (i 759-1827), an ambassador extraordinary to 
Vienna in 1807; and Robert Henry, 12th earl (i 791-1862), who 
died without issue. George Robert Charles, the 13th earl 
(1850- 1895), was a grandson of the nth earl and a son of Baron 
Herbert of Lea (q.v.), whose second son Sidney (b. 1853) inherited 
all the family titles at his brother's death. 

See G. T. Clark. The Earls, Earldom and Castle of Pembroke (Tenby. 
1880); J. R. Planch6. "The Earls of Strigul'^ in vol. x. of the 
Proceedings of the British Archaecioncal Association (1855); and 
G. E. CCokayne), Complete Peerage, vol. vi. (London, 1895). 

PEMBROKE, a town of Ontario, Canada, capital of Renfrew 
county, 74 m. W.N.W., of OtUwa by rail on the south shore of 
Allumette Lake, an expansion of the Ottawa river, and on the 
Canadian Pacific and Canada Atlantic railways. Pop. (1901), 
5156. It is the s^t of a Roman Catholic bishopric, an 



important centre in the lumber trade, and contaaB saw, grist 
and woollen mills, axe factory, &c. The Muskntt river affonb 
excellent water-power. 

PEMBROKE {Penfro), an ancient municipal borou^ a 
contributory parliamentary borough and county-town of Pem- 
brokeshire, Wales, situated on a narrow peninsula at the bead of 
the Pennar tidal inlet or " pill " of Milford Haven. Pop. (1901), 
4487; together with Pembroke Dock 15,853. Pembroke is a 
station on the South Wales system of the Great Western railway. 
The old-fashioned town, consisting chiefly of one long broad 
street, retains portions of its ancient walls. A large mill-dam is 
a conspicuous feature on the north oi the town. St Mary's 
church in the centre of the town possesses a massive tower of the 
1 2th century. Near the ruined West Gate is the entrance to 
Pembroke Castle, a q^lendid specimen of medieval fortified 
architecture. The circular vaulted keep erected by Eari William 
Marshal (c. 1200), remains almost intact. Close to the keep 
stands the ruined chamber wherein, according to local tradition, 
Henry VII. was bom in 1457. Beneath the fine banqueting haU, 
a flight of steps descends into " the Wogan," a vast subterranean 
chamber giving access to the harbour. Facing the castle, on the 
western side of the pill, stand the considerable remains ol 
Monkton Priory, a Benediction house founded by Eari William 
Marshal as a cell to the abbey of S6cz or Sayes in Nonxumdjr, 
but under Henry VI. transferred to the abbey of St Albans. 
Hie priory church, now the parish church of the suburb ol 
Monkton, contains monuments of the families of Meyrick of 
Bush and Owen of Orielton. St Daniel's chapd forms a 
prominent landmark on the ridge south of the town. 

Pembroke Dock (formerly known as Pater, or Paterchurch), a 
naval dockyard and garrison town, is situated dose to Hobb's 
Point, at the eastern extremity of Milford Haven, It forms the 
Pater Ward of Pembroke, from which it is distant a m. to the 
north-west. The place owes its origin to the decision of the 
government in 1814 to form a naval d6p6t on Milford Haven. 
The dockyard, enclosed by high walls and covering 80 acres, is 
protected by a powerful fort — the construction and repairing of 
ironclads arc extensively carried on here. There is a submarine 
d£p6t at Pennar Gut, and also accommodation for artillery and 
infantry. Ferry boats ply frequently between Pembroke Dodt 
and Neyland on the opposite shore of the Haven. 

Pembroke b probably an Anglo-Norman fonn^ of the Cymric 
Penfro, the territory lying between Milford Haven and the 
Bristol Channel, now known as the Htmdred of Castlemartin. 
During the invasion of South Wales under William Rufus, 
Arnulf de Montgomeri, fifth son of Roger earl of Shrewsbuiy, 
seems to have erected a fortress of stone {c. 1090) on the site of 
the castle. The first castellan of this new stron^(4d was 
Giraldus de Windsor, husband of the Princess Nest of South 
Wales and grandfather of Giraldus Cambrensis. Thxoog^ioiit 
the 1 2th and i3ih centuries the castle was strengthened and 
enlarged under successive carb palatine of Pembroke, who mads 
this fortress their chief seat. As the capital of the pslstinstf 
and as the nearest port for Ireland, Pembroke was in Plantagenet 
times one of the most important fortified cities in the kingdom. 
The town, which had grown up under the shadow of the almost 
impregnable castle, was first incorporated by Henry L in 1109 
and again by Earl Richard de Clare in 11 54 (who also encircled 
the town with walls), and these privileges were confirmed and 
extended under succeeding earls palatine and kings of F-ngl^iML 
In 1835 ^be corporation was remodelled under the MuniripsI 
Corporations Act. Henry II. occasionally visited Pemtnoke^ 
notably in 11 72, and until the close of the Wars of the Roteii 
both town and castle played a prominent part in the hist<»y of 
Britain. With the passing of the Act of Union of Wales and 
England in 1536 however, the jura regalia of the county pslatfaw 
of Pembroke were abolished, and the prosperity of the town 
began to decline. Although acknowledged as the county tofm 
of Pembrokeshire, Pembroke was superseded by Haverfordwdt 
as the judicial and administrative centre of the shire on acconal 
of the more convenient position of the latter place. By the act 
of 1536 Pembroke was declared the leading borough in tht 



PEMBROKESHIRE 8i 

Ptakbroke parliamentary district, yet the town continued to Jhe Umcitwic appears again farther south at Pembroke. Caldy 

dwindle until the selllenient of the government dockyard and ISftP^^^tJi^T^V^^^' CTJiw illS ST*!**;'"* ^'^^w^fe! 

i_ «>•!# -J u A^.u .Z I- «.u /^' •!»»/ .u Miliord Haven being occupied by Old Red Sandstone With infolded 

•orkaooMilford Haven. At the outbreak of the CivU Wars the strips of Silurian. A faiVly Ufge tract of blownsand occurs in 

town and castle were garrisoned for parliament by the mayor, Frr^hwater Bav south of Milford Haven. Silver-bearing lead has 

John Poyer, a leading Presbyterian, who was later appointed been mined at LUnfymach. 

governor, with Rowland Laughame of St Brides for his lieu- Climate and Industries.— The climate is everywhere mfld, and 

tenant. But at the lime of the Presbyterian defection in 1647. in the sheltered valleys near the coast subtropical vegetation 

Poyer and his lieutenant-governors, Uughamc and Powell, flourishes in the open air. In the south the rainfall is small, and 

decUrcd for Charies and held the castle in the king's name. In the districts round Pembroke suffer from occasional droughts. 

Jane 1648 CromweU himself proceeded to invest Pembroke The chief industry is agriculture, wherein stock-raising is 

Castle, which resisted with great obstinacy. But after the preferred to the growing of cereals. Of cattle the long-horned, 

water^upply of the garrison had been cut off, the besieged were jet-black Castlemartin breed is everywhere conspicuous. South 

forced to capitulate, on the i ith of July 1648, on the condition of Pembroke has long been celebrated for its horses, which are bred 

wrrendenng up the three chief defenders of the castle. Poyer, !„ great numbers by the farmers. The deep-sea fisheries of 

Laugfajime and Powell were accordingly brought to London, jenby and MiUord are valuable; and fresh fish of good quality 

bat finaUy only Poyer was executed. The magnificent ruin of i, exported by raU to the Urge towns. Oysters are found at 

Pembroke Castle b the nominal property of the Crown, but has Ungwm and near Tenby; lobsters and crabs abound on the 

been held on lease since the reign of James II. by the family of western coast. The South Wales coalfield extends into south 

Pryse of Gogerddan in Cardiganshire. Pembroke, and coal is worked at Saundersfoot, Begelly, Temple- 

PBHBBOKESHIRB (Sir Benfro, Dyfed), the most westeriy ton, Kilgetty and other pUces. There are sUle quarries at 

county of South Wales, bounded N.E. by Cardigan, E.by Carmar- Glogue, Cilgerran and elsewhere; copper has been worked near St 

then. S. by the Bristol Channel and W. and N.W. by St Bride's Davids, and lead at Uanfymach. 

Bay and Cardigan Bay of St George's Channel. Area 615 sq.m. Communications.— The South Wales branch of the Great 

The whole coast is extremely indented, extending over 140 m. in Western railway enters Pembrokeshire from the east near 

kagth. The principal inlets are Milford Haven, St Bride's Bay, Clynderwen Junction, whence the main line leads to Fishguard 

Freshwater Bay, Fishguard Bay and Newport Bay. The chief Harbour with its important Irish traffic. Other lines proceed 

promontories are Cemmaes, Dinas, Strumble, St David's, St to Neyland and Milford Haven by way of Haverfordwest, and 

Ann's and St Cowan's Heads. Five islands of moderate size lie a branch bne from Clynderwen to Goodwick joins the main line 

off the coast, via. Ramsey, Grassholm, Skomer and Skokholm at Utterston. The Whitland-Cardigan branch traverses the 

a St Bride's Bay, and Caldy Island ( Ynys Pyr) opposite Tenby; north-east by way of Crymmych and CUgerran. Another line 

the last named having a population of about 70 persons. Rare running south-west from Whftland proceeds by way of Narberth 

birds, such as peregrine falcons, ravens and choughs are not and Tenby to Pembroke Dock. 

uacommon, whUe guiUemots, puffins and other sea-fowl breed in Population and Administration.— The area of Pembrokeshire 

immense numbers on the Stack Rocks, on Ramsey Island and at is 395,151 acres with a population in 1891 of 89,138 and 1901 

various points of the coast. Seals are plentiful in the caves of of 88.732, showing a slight decrease. The municipal boroughs 

St Bride's Bay and Cardigan Bay. The county is undulating, are Pembroke (pop. 15,853); Haverfordwest (6007); and 

aod large tracts are bare, but the valleys of the Cleddau, the Tenby (4400). The hamlet of Bridgend and a part of St 

Nevem, the Teifi and the Gwaun are weU-wooded. The DogmcU's parish are included within the municipal limits of 

PreseUey Mountains stretch from Fishguard to the border of Cardigan. Newport (TrCfdracth) (1222), the chief town of 

Carmanhen. the principal heights being Presclley Top (1760 ft.) the barony of Kemes, or Cemmaes, stiU possesses a mayor and 

and Cam Englyn (1022 ft.). Trcffgam Rock in the Plumstone corporation under a charter granted in 121 5 by Sir Nicholas 

Mountains is popubrly supposed to mark the northern limit of Marteine, lord of Kemes, whose hereditary representative 

the ancient settlement of the Flemings. The principal rivets are still nominates the mayor and aldermen, but its surviving 

the Teifi, forming the northern boundary of the county from municipal privileges are practically honorary. Milford Haven 

\hefcych to Cardigan Bay; the Nevem and the Gwaun, both (5,02), Narberth (1070) and Fishguard (2002) are urban districts, 

falliag into Cardigan Bay; and the Eastern and Western Cleddau, Other towns are St Davids (1710), St Dogmells (Llandudoch) 

fonaing the Daugleddau after their junction below Haverford- (1^86); and Cilgerran (1038). Pembrokeshire Ues in the South 

west AU these streams contain trout and salmon. There are Wales circuit, and assizes are held at Haverfordwest. Two 

■0 lakes, but the broad tidal estuaries of the Daugleddau and members are returned to parliament; one for the county, and 

other rivers, which faU into MUford Haven and arc locally called one for the united boroughs of Pembroke, Haverfordwest, 

'•pais.'' consUtute a peculiar feature of south Pembrokeshire Tenby. Fishguard, Narberth, Neyland. MUford and Wiston 

*'"*9^' «._.,.. J. .... . . (Caslell Gwys). Ecclesiastically, the county contains 153 

-.SSF'T-'V^terS^.-," ^'T^^^^' '"*^ *. """J^TS P°?'°" parishes and lies wholly in the diocese of St Davids. 

ouHUKd mainly by Ordovician and Silunan strata, which have been *^ „ . . t> l i u- • -1 1 . .■_ «tf • 1. 

•objected to pressures from the north, the ktrikc of the beds being //u/^ry.— Pembrokeshire, anciently known to the Welsh 

«iiJi-«c9t-north-ea»t: and a southern portion, the westerly con- as Dyfed, was originally comprised in the territory of the 

of the South Wales coalfield, with associated Lower Dimetae. conquered by the Romans. During the 6lh century 



^S^^'t^ ^^ Sandrtone and narrow Wis cf Silurian gj p^vid, or Dewi Sant. moved the chief seat of South Welsh 

neks, the whole havmg i)een considerably folded and faulted by .• j 1 • >• 1 I'r r r* 1 f 1 . l- 

—— from the »outh, which has produced a ccneral north-west- monastic and ecclesiastical hfe from Caerleon-on-Lsk to his 



strike. In the neighbourhood of St Lhivids are the Pre- native place Menevia, which, known in consequence as Tyddewi. 

ran granitk rocks (Dimetian) and volcanic rocks (Pebedian). or St Davids, continued a centre of religious and educational 

T^ne are surrounded by belts of unconf^^ activity until the Reformation, a period of 1000 years. On 

l!S3S,?n5"B^5"SSr) ':t^i'l^ti%^^r^L'^?;:Si the death of Rhodri Mawr in 877. Dyfed fell nominally under the 

coBipriae gabbros and diabases of Strumble Head. Fishguard. »way of the pnnces of Deheubarth, or South Wales; but their 

Lknvada. Prrscelly; diontes north-west of St Davids. tx>stonites hold was never very secure, nor were they able to protect Che 

V^ P???T"*" ***"^ Abercastle and the basaltic Uccolite of Pen coast towns from the Scandinavian pirates. In 1081 William 

Caer, bri kk s vanous contemporaneous acid lavas and tuff*. The .u/- ..j . r-c. r\-..;j- »i.^.^ u^ :- 

Onkrncun and Silurian rock, extend southward to the neighbour- the Conqueror penetrated west as far as St Davids, where he is 

*ood of Narberth and Haverfordwest, where Arenig. Llandeilo and *aid to have visited St David's shnne as a devout pilgrim. 

Bib beds (Slade and Red Hill beds; Sholeshook and Robcston In log J Arnulfde Montgomeri. son of Roger, earl of Shrewsbury, 

W«Wie« Umestone) and Llandovery beds are recorded. The Coal did homage to the king for the Welsh lands of Dyfed. With 

oSSle«''Ctori:;"Sir:"<3 SrterBa?:Th^e'y a^bSri;^ the building of Pembroke Castle, of which Gerald de Windsor 

es t\m north and sooth-east by the Millstone Grits. Carboniferous was appointed castellan, the Normans began to spread over 

Linescooe series and Old Red Sandstone. On account of the folding southern Dyfed; whilst Martin de Tours, landing In Fishguard 
XXI 3* la 



d2 



PEMBROKESHIRE 



Bay and building the castle of Newport at Tr^draeth, won for 
himself the extensive lordship of Kemes (Cemmaes) between 
the river Teifi and the Preseiley Mountains. The systematic 
planting of Flemish settlers in the hundred of Rhds, or Roose, 
in or about the years 1106, 1108 and 11 11 with the approval 
of Henry I., and again in X156 under Henry IL, nutrks an 
all-important episode in the history of Pembrokeshire. The 
castles of Haverfordwest and Tenby were now erected to protect 
these aliens, and despite the fierce attacks of the Webh princes 
their domain grew to be known as ** Little England beyond 
Wales," a district whereof the language, customs and people 
still remain characteristic. In 11 38 Gilbert de Clare, having 
previously obtained Henry I.'s permission to enjoy all lands 
he might win for himself in Wales, was created earl of Pembroke 
in Stephen's reign with the full powers of an earl palatine in 
Dyfed. The devolution of this earldom is dealt With in a 
separate article. 

In 1536, by the Act of Union (27 Heniy Vin.)t the king 
abolished all special jurisdiction in Pembrokeshire, which he 
placed on an equal footing with the remaining shires of Wales, 
while its borders were enlarged by the addition of Kemes, 
Dewisland and other outlying lordships. By the act of 1536 
the county returned to parliament one knight for the shire 
and two burgesses; one for the Pembroke boroughs and one 
for the town and cotmty of Haverfordwest, both of which since 
1885 have been merged in the Pembroke-and-Haverfordwest 
parliamentary division. The Reformation deprived the county 
of the presence of the bishops of St Davids, who on the partial 
dismantling of the old episcopal palace at St Davids removed 
their chief seat of residence to Abergwiliy, near Carmarthen. 
Meanwhile the manor of Lamphey was granted to the family 
of Devereuz, earls of Essex, and other episcopal estates were 
alienated to court favourites, notably to Sir John Perrot of 
Haroldstone (151 7-1592), afterwards lord-deputy of Ireland. 
During the Civil Wars the forces of the parliament, commanded 
by Cobnel Laugharne and Captain SMranley, reduced the royal 
forts at Tenby, Milford and Haverfordwest. In February 
1797 some French frigates appeared off Fishguard Bay and 
landed about 1400 Frenchmen at Llanwnda. The invaders 
soon capitulated to the local militia, practically without striking 
a bbw. The 19th century saw the establishment of the naval 
dockyard at Paterchurch and the building of docks and quays 
at Neyland and Milford. In 1906 extensive works for cross- 
traffic with Ireland were opened at Fishguard Harbour. 

Many of the old Pembrokeshire families, whose names appear 
prominent in the cotmty annals, are extinct in the county itself. 
Amongst these may be mentioned Perrot of Haroldstone, 
Devereux of Lamphey, Barlow of Slebech, Barrett of GilUswick, 
Wogan of Wiston, Elliot of Amroth and Owen of Hcnllys. 
Amongst ancient families still existing are Philipps of Lydstep 
and Amroth (descendants of the old Webh lords of Cilsant); 
Philipps of Picton Castle (a branch of the same house in the 
female line); Lort of Stackpole Court, now represented by Earl 
Cawdor; Scourfield of Moate; Bowen of Llwyngwair; Edwardcs, 
Lords Kensington, of St Brides; Meyrickof Bush; Lort-PhiUpps 
of Lawrcnny; Colby of Ffynone; Stokes of Cuffem; Lloyd of 
Newport Castle (in which family is vested the hereditary lord- 
ship of the barony of Kemes); Saunders-Davies of Pentre; ami 
Cower of Castle Malgwyn. 

AnliquUies. — Hiere are few remaining traces in the county 
of the Roman occupation of Dimetia, but in British encamp- 
ments, tumuli, cromlechs and monumental stones Pembrokeshire 
is singularly rich. Of the cromlechs the best preserved are those 
at Longhouse, near Mathry; at Pentre Evan in the Nevem 
Valley; and at Llech-y-dribedd, near Moylgrove; whilst of the 
many stone circles and ah'gnments, that known as Pare-y-Marw, 
or " The Field of the Dead," near Fishguard, is the least injured. 
Stones inscribed in Ogam characters are not tmcommon, and 
good examples exist at Caldy Island, Bridell, St Dogmells 
and Cilgerran. There are good specimens of Celtic floriated 
churchyard crosses at Carew, Penally and Nevem. Interesting 
examples of medieval domestic architecture are the ruins 



of the former episcopal mansions at Uawhaden, St Davidf 
and Lamphey, the two latter of which were erected by Bishop 
Cower between the years 1328-1347. With the exception A 
the cathedral at St Davids and the principal churches of Haver- 
fordwest and Tenby, the pari^ churches of Pembrokeshire 
are for the most part small, but many are ancient and possess 
fine monuments or other objects of interest, especially in 
" Little England beyond Wales." Amongst the more note- 
worthy are the churches at Stackpole Elidur, Carew, Burton. 
Gumfreston, Nevem, St Petrox and Rudbaxton, the last-named 
containing a fine Jacobean monument of the Hay ward family. 
Pembrokeshire has long been famous for its castles, of which the 
finest examples are to be observed at Pembroke; Manorbier, 
built in the 12th century and interesting as the birthplace and 
home of Giraldus Cambrensis; Carew, exhibiting many interest- 
ing features both of Norman and Tudor architecture; and 
Picton, owned and inhabited by a branch of the Philipps family. 
Other castles are the keep of Haverfordwest and the mined for- 
tresses at Narberth, Tenby, Newport, Wiston, Benton, Upton and 
Cilgerran. There are some remains of monastic houses at Tenby 
and Pembroke, but the most important religious communities 
were the priory of the Augustinian friars at Haverfordwest 
and the abbey of the Benedictines at St DogmeUs. Of tlus 
latter house, which was founded by Martin de Tours, first lord 
of Kemes, at the close of the nth century, and who owned the 
priories of Pill and Caldy, considerable mins exist near the left 
bank of the Teifi about i m. below Cardigan. Of the ancient 
preceptory of the Knights of St John at Slebech scarcely a trace 
remains, but of the college of St Mary at St Davids founded by 
Bishop Houghton in 1377, the shell of the chapel survives in 
fair preservation. Pembrokeshire contains an unusually large 
number of county seats, particularly in the south, which indwks 
Stackpole Court, the residence of Earl Cawdor, a fine mansioB 
erected in the i8th century; Picton Castle; Slebech, once the 
seat of the Barlows; Orielton, formerly belonging to the Owens; 
and Ffynone, the residence of the Colby family. 

CtuUoms, (re. — The division of Pembrokeshire ever since the 
1 2th century into well-defined Englishry and Welshry has 
produced two distinct sets of languages and customs within the 
county. Roughly speaking, the English division, the AngjU^ 
TranswaUiana of Camden, occupies the south-eastern half and 
comprises the hundreds of Roose, Castlemartin, Narberth and 
Dungleddy. In the Welshry, which includes the hundreds of 
Dewisland and Cilgerran together with the old barony of Keniet» 
the language, customs, manners and folk-lore of the inhabitants 
are almost identical with those of Cardigan and Cammrthen. 
The old Celtic game of Knappan, a pastime partaking of the 
nature both of football and hockey, in which whole paridwi 
and even hundreds were wont to take an active part, was pre* 
valent in the barony of Kemes so late as the i6th centuiy, 
as George Owen of Henllys, the historian and antiquary, records; 
and the playing of knappan lingered on after Owen's day. 
Amongst the settlers of the Englishry, who are of minted Angto- 
Saxon, Flemish, Welsh and perhaps Scandinavian dcaceot, 
many interesting superstitions and customs survive. TIm 
English spoken by these dwellers In " Little England beyond 
Wales " contains many curious idioms and words and the promw- 
elation of some of the vowels is peculiar. Certain pictureM^ 
customs, many of them dating from pre-Reformation tineii 
are still observed, notably in the neighbourhood of Tenby. 
Such are the sprinkling of persons with dewy e verg re ens os 
New Year's morning; the procession of the Cutty Wren on 9l 
Stephen's day, and the constmcting of little huts at Lammastidi 
by the farm boys and giris. As early as the opening ytan el 
the 19th century, cripples and ophthalmic patients were in tht 
habit of visiting the ancient hermitage at St Gowan*s Head fee 
bathe in its sacred well; and Richard Fenton, the county histOfiMi 
alludes (c. 1808) to the many cmtches left at St Gowan's diapri 
by grateful devotees. Belief in ghosts, fairies, witches, IPC* 
is still prevalent in the more remote places, and the drcia ol 
t he fishwives of Langwm near Haverfordwest is highly pJctmciqpM 
with its short skirt, scarlet shawl and buckled shoes. 



; 
^ 



\ 



PEMMICAN— PEN 



Fattr^cakin ILandan. IJ 



IITID.— Ridunf FnilDn. A Hiltarial Taia ltm|' 
' - ■ - ■ -■ |L»M.Hutorjrrfi.iHJ,a,, 

. ILjjiHun, 1900,; uul jHnandE. A. Fimur 
f*M«>/ SI Dirv}4i ILoDdiiD. I8}6), ftc. 
1 Noilh An»iic»o Indian (Ctw) worf (ot 
meat prepared in uich a wty u to conlaia Lhe greatest junom 
of fiourLtfaaiCDt 1b the mat compact JorrrL Ai made by tb 
Indiana il was composed oE the lean parts of the meat, dried ii 
the tun. and pounded or sHltddcd and miied into a pule will 
mrlleil [al. II n Savoured with add brnies. If kept dry i 
■ill keep Sot an indffiniie time, and is thus paniculatty service 



83 



CCr. 



>le).a! 



whkl 



' other 



Cefman {Fedtr], oriciDalTy m 
' 1 Ibe il ' 



ant a wing- 



leal her. 



h IpiMm 



mc not quflls. The cirliHt wiiling implemeal was probably 
ike iiiliu (Ct. 7>>a^i), a pointed bodkin of tnelsl. bone or ivory, 
vcd foe produdng incised or engraved lellers on bojrwood 
ttbtea corered with wax. 'niecalamiisfCr.riXafiot)or anirtdo, 
Ibe hoOBV tubular tUlk of grasia growing in manhy lands, 
■as ite true andenl reptctenlativeor the modern pen; hoUow 
jointi of bunboo were similarly employed. 

ABcarlyspeciGcaUutiontDthe quill pen occurs in the wiitingi 
a(S< Isidore of Seville (eariy pan ot the 7tb ceoiuryt.' buUhete 

iRute date. The quiUs st 

Imn ibe wings of the goo 

Bnnah devised and patented a machine 

qiS iDlo separate aibi by dividing the bart 

ku patls, and cutting these transversel) 

fani aad some into five lengths." Bram 

bmfllariied the public wi£h the appcannc 

^iped into a holder. In i«i8 Charles Wa 

tor tikliag and preparing quills and pens, wh 

St Ike precursor of the (cJd pen. But s more oisimct aavance 

n( tftttedia iSii, when J. I. Hawkins >nd S. Mordan patented 

[ke appliotion of horn and torlDise-sbell 10 the EOTQialion of 

p^hfliba. the points ol which were rendrred durable by small 

pieces of diamond, ruby or other very hard sulsTaiice, or by 

Ivping a small piece of thin sheet gold over the end of Ihc 



large 


y employed 


mong Western 






ned principally 


(see 


FcniEi), 


n >9og Joseph 



Bryan Donkin In 180S was made of two sepa 
nearly so, with the flat sides placed opposite c 
the sUl, or all email vely of one piece. Bat and i> 
the usual form, bent to the proper angle fo 
lube which conililulcd the holder. To Joh 
ably belongs I he ctedii ol introducing ma 



rings, saw Perry's I 
ot making thrm. 



, and when they burs 
>e it principally knowi 



kave rmw ulcerated lurfaca. 
■ nnbcallby 01 neglected cl 
fns^'fmr faliactml, aHecta the whole body, and gniduali] 
psove* fataL Peniphigut of an acute septicaemic type ocnir 
m bulcben or iboee who handle bides, and a diplococcus ha: 
beea isolated by William Bullock. The Irestment is mainl] 
tiHBtitulioiud, by mean* of good nourishment, warm balhs 
local sedatives and tonica. In chronic pemphigus, ilreplococc 
kive been found in the blebs, and the opsonic index was Ion 
tfi streptococci. Improvement has been known to lake place 
a the injection ol a vuxioe of streptococci, 
m (Lil. ftnua, a feather, pen), an iostr 



lo popularize the 1 



himself in communication 
t he begin lo make barrel 
81Q. Petiy, who did much 



'hidi consistol in loraiing ekHigaied poinii 
The metal used consists of rolled sheets of 



1. Th( 



a bath of dilute sulphuHc 1 
d scale, are mlled between sl< 
)bonsol an even Ihickness.a 



1 with tl 



Uperfon 






fleidbility is obtained. After another 
innealing, the blanks, which up to this point are flat, are 
' T3iscd " or rounded between diem into Ihe familiar semi- 
cylindrical shape. The neil process is lo baidea aod temper 
ibem by healing them in inn boifs in a mufBe-fumace, plunging 
:hem in oil, and iben healing them over a gre in a rotating 
:ylindrical vessel till iheir surfaces attain the dull blue lini 
:baracl eristic of spring^leel elaslidty. Subsequently they 
ire " scoured " in a bath of dilute add, and polished in a 
evolving cylinder. The grinding ol the points with emery 
ollows. and then the ceninl slit is cut by the aid ol two 
tne^dged cutters. Finally Ihe pens are again polished. 



■ylind 



J by b 



eing healed c 

ie cases art coated with a varnish of shellac 



iuslry, sad continues its principal centre, 
on a large scale was begun in the United Si 
It Camden. N.J,, where the Esterbrook Steel Fen 



11 incorporated in 1866. 



ly be regarded 



Dr W. H. WoUaiton 





lurable, but Ihe metal is too toft lor tb 
uickly unless protected by some hard 


hnue pen found at Pompeii is in the Naples Museum-were 


^.-_ liitte used until the igth cenmry and did noi 
^^ become common tiU near the middle of that cen. 


urpose iridium is widely employed, by 
. with a blowpipe. 




Various devices have been adopted ia 


SsMid HaiTBoa. msde a steel pen for Dr Joseph Pnestley 


ime for which a pen can be used wilhoul 


■ 17&1 Sled pens made ind sold in London by a certain 


liese fall inio two main classes. In 


Woe in i8oj were in ihe form of a tube or barrel. Ihe edges of 






1 added, lo enlarge ihe ink capacily; 1 


IkeaeolanoidiuryquliL Theirprice wasaboul fiveshillings 


'hicb is by far the more important, lb 






Ikey wete not in great demand. A metallic pen patented by 
'"luraoenla WTibae obmui et penna; ei hii rnim vert™ 


D the nib. Pens of the second class, a 
dvanlage of being portable, are heard 


ggi^^Mcur: sed calamus arboris «. peen. .vis. cujii. acumen 


eginning of the iSlh cenluiy, but il « 



ilhoul s tresh supply ot in 



PENALTY— PENANG 

PBHAHQ IPyltu Pinant. it. Anu-nui Iiluuf), ttie tows 
and iiluid which, fl[icr Singapore, form (be mou imfioffUAt 

Employ a lu'bf of lilvcr or oihcr mclal so lUo thiLi it could portioo ol ihc crown colony ol the Stnilt Scttleineiiu. Tbt 

tie rculiJy tqueued out o[ ibape, (he ink Mithin it being thui iiland iiiitiuied in 5° 14' N.snd too* 11' E..ind diXaalaboiU 

forced out to the nib, and another wu to Bt the tube with a i\ m. From the west coast o[ the Malay Peninsula. 'Tie idaad il 

piston that could llide dawn the interior and thui eject inlc. about ij) m, long by io| m. wide at its bnadeit point. Itima 

In modeiD fountain pens a feed bacconveyi. by clpUlacy iclioo, is tsraething ovei 107 tq. m. The town, which is built oaapio- 

a fieth supply ol ink to replace that which has been Icli on the montoiy at a point ncami 10 the munUnd,b largely occupied bjr 

paper in the act ol writing, mfua being also provided by which Chinneand Tamils, though the Malays are also well repitMDIcd. 

air can pass into the r«ervoir and fill the space lelt empty by Behind ihe town, Penang Hill rises to a height o[ some 1700 (l., 

tbe outflowing ink. In another Eorm of reservoir pen, which and upon it are built several govcmment and private bungalowi. 

ia usually distinguislied by the name stylograph, there b no The town possesses a fine European club, a racecourse, and good 

nib, but the ink flows out Ihiough a minute hole at the end goli links. Coco-nui> ate grown in coiuiderable quantilica 

of the holder, which terminates in a conical point. An iridium along the seashore, and rice is cultivated *t Bllck Fdlau and in 

needle, held in place by a fine spring, projects slightly Ibion^ the interior, but the jungle still spreads over wide areas. Pentni 

(he hole and normally keeps the aperture closed; but when hai an eiceilenl harbour, but has suffered from ill prorimiljr 

tbe pen is pressed on the paper, the needle is pushed back and to Singapore. There are a Church of England and a Roman 

allows a thin stream o[ ink to flow out. Catholic church in the town, and a training college under the 

See J. P. Maginnii. " Rnervoli. Stylscisphic and Fountain Roman Catholic miuionaiies of the SociHf des Miuou 

Pens," CtMsr uaxni, Society of Arts (1903). EitangfH* it PDIau TIkus, a (e« miles outside tbe town. 

PENALTY (Lat, /him, punishment), in its original meaning. ^ if miniiiroi^n.— Since 18^7 Penang has been under Ibe 

ol mtlduct. Although still Ircely used In ita original sense in to the governor of the Straits. He is aided in his duties bl 

luchphTases,lore]iample, as "tbe death penalty." "the penalty officers ol tbe Straits Civil Service. Two unoSdal mcmbcn 

of rashness," &c.. the more usual meaning attached to the word of Ihe legisUlive council ol the colony, which holds it* aittinp 

is that of ■ pecuninty mulct. Penalty is used speciflcally tor in Singapore, art nominated by the governor, with tbe sasclloB 

a sum ol money recovered by virtue o( a penal statute, or re- ' ' ...... 

covetable in a court of sumtnary jurisdiction for infringement 
of a statute. A sum of moi»y agreed upon to be paid in case 
of non-performance of a condition in a bond or in breach of a 
coninct or any stipulation of il u also termed a penalty (see 
DaiuoEs). 

PENAIICE (Old Ft. fnama, fr. Lat. fmUnlia, penitence), 
strictly, repentance of sins. Thus in the Douai version of the 
New Testament the Greek word fierdwiia is rendered " penance." 

where the Authoriaed Version has " repentance." The two census of igoi was uS.Sjo, o^whom Sjjiyo were males (69,110 

words, similar in their derivation and orifpnal sense, have over and 15,860 under 15 yearsof age), andjj, 160 were ietnalB 

however come to be symbolical of conflicting views of the essence (18,715 over and 15,035 under ij years ol age). Tbe populaliOB 

of repenunce. arising out of the controversy as to the respective was composed of 71,461 Chinese, u,iit Malays, 18,740 Tamib 

merits ol " faith " and " good works." The Reformen, ufJkold- and other natives ol India, i6ao Eurasians, 093 Europeans ant 

ing the doctrine of justification by faith, held that repentance Ameriuns, and 1699 penoos ol other nalionaliiics. As in othi^ 

and sold ((iii7T|iti*«9ai, Matt. liii. tj^Luke aaii. ji), and that than the women. The total population of the settlement ot 
the Divine foi^veness ioUowcd true repentance and confession Penang. which includes not only the island but FrsviDC* 
to Cod without any (epilation of " works." This il the view Wellcsley and the Duidinp, was 118,107 in 1901. 
generally held by Protestants. In the Roman Cathdic Church SAififiig.— The number of ships which enteied and left tbe pen 
tbe sacrament ol penance consists of three parts; timlrilia. of Penang duting 1906 was »i^ with an igiiiTiatc tonnage^ 
,.C«Uri/« is in fact repentance as Protesti '■"■" "'■••—" b^...i. —i. r 



of the secrelar 


^Of St 


itefo 


r the colo. 


lies, to repre: 


lent Penang. 


Their term of . 


office is for t 


ive years. 


Theoflkial 


name of tk 


island is Prince 


ofWi 


lesM 


indandlhi 


U ol the tow 


n it Ceoige- 


lown;neilher of these 






is in geneial ' 


use. A=^ 


the Malays Pe 


nang ii 




lUy spokei 


of as Ti-ji 


«1«-Tbe 


Cape," on sect 


lunt of 


ther 


iromontory 


upon which 


the town it 


situated. The 








hy a munii 


ripal couDdl 




o^c«. 




ialed,and. 


elected membeii 


fo^Blim.- 


-The popula 


lion ol Pe 




timeof Iba 






Ting4fl during tba 



theologians gnoerstana 11, i.e. sonow lor sin arising iiom mve p,-„ .jj^jj,, ,|„ „„mber of vessels entering and leaving the B«t 

of God. and long before the Reloraiation the schoolmen debated g ji,. with an agjiegale tonnage of VtCiaiM. This 

ition whether complete " oonttilion " was or was not c to the construction oi the railway which runs lto« a 

■,,ffiri^ni In Alu4m ilv nivinp ruiivlnn Tbr rcHinril ' mainland oppoHie to Peiung. ihmiHh the Fedfntcd 

sulhcienl to obtain tn* uivineparooiL 1 lie council .of P*rah,Selin|wa«lihe NWMmSlan to Malaria, 

t, however, decided that " reconciliation could not .„^ ,0 ^j,„ pj,,, jbJ eventuaMy to *^-~~-— — -2 



It tbe other parts ot tbt saci 
I of it (si'itc lacrinenf j kIb, 9*od in ilia iacfu^Iir 



.bed from -itlrilion " (aUriti.). U^ '^''l^'' .\t K^'rl'^.S'n'i? "'"SKi;:; 









th< 


; benefits of the sacn 


imcnt:thispoi 


nt was 


aisoseti 




■Com 


icil of Trent, » 


hich decided tl 


lat am 




in 




capable of obtaining the justi 


ficition 


1 of the ! 


also inspin.-d by God ai 


Id thus disposes the : 


loultob 




r grace 


; of the sacrami 








The . 




■■ appUed to 1 


Ihe wh 


ole sacrs 


als 








mposed by the 


th( 




ilent. U- the 






t {p««a 










icssol 


theoflen 




[led. 


In the middl, 


■ ages "doing 


penan 








a terrible and 




. the p 


enilcnt i 


possibly 


edifying to the 


Church. Pot 


lUc pen 


lances ha 




■r. lonK been ibolis 


hed in aU branches 


ol the 


Ch 


urcb. 


(SeeCOHFissi 


OS.) 







Ashmen., it was questioned 7^^ee;i'„''of&^St.;^"o."^Tm.'S";:.'a':^'.^, 

, , ij ...o:^ . — .. ^ I ^ ,, i9,s8s Immlaod Rvenue:»i)9.i9 ■ 

1. The espendiiure for 1006 amounted 10 (sj>7*4M, i 

'3<^>97 was spent on adminiitiative cslabiiihiMalh -; 

the uplieep o« existing public works; f4IS.<7S o n O* ; 

The imports in Iw6 wen valued at tu.546,ii*< • 

the cipotis at (90,709^)3, Ol the imports t57,88o.U9 weaA r 

came from Ihe United Kingdom or from British ppaaeMJOBa K ^ 

and 13,906,141 fioiii the Dindines, Malacca and Singapore. Of da ': 

exporifh. Si3,iii.947 went to the United Kingdom, or to Beilia i 

pmvfMtonsoT pTDUCIoiatcs: I3? .671. 031 went 10 foreign coualitel ^ 
and ti.7j4.:3B weni to the Dindinga. Klalacai or Singapore. 

Hijiory— Penang was founded on the i7tb of July iM "J. 



o the East India Company by the 
1 i;Ss by an acreement with Capt ' ' ' ' 



tSvkta n 

Mr — f 



PENARTH— PENATES 



H 



daagod to $6000^ in perpetuity; for some yean Uter this was 
laised to $xo,ooo, and is still annually paid. This final addition 
was made wlien Province Wellealey was purchased by the East 
Imfia Company for $2000 in 1798. At the time of the cession 
Penang was almost uninhabited. In 1796 it was made a penal 
aettleineiit, and 700 convicts were traiuferred thither from the 
Andaman Islands. In 1805 Penang was made a separate 
picsidency» ranking with Bombay and Madras; and when in 
1826 Sing^wre and Malacca were incorporated with it, Penang 
f9fi^^f»tifirl to be the seat of government. In 1829 Penang was 
feduced from the rank of a presidency, and eight years later 
the town of Singapore was made the capital of the Settlements. 
In 1867 the Straits Settlements were created a Crown colony, 
In which Penang was included. 

See Siraits SdtUmenls Blue Book 1906 (Singapore. 1907); The 
Straits Dinclory (Singapore, 1907) ; Sir Frank Swettenham. British 
Malaya (London. 1906). (H. Cl.) 

fniARTH* an urban district and seaport in the southern 
pariiamentary division of Glamorganshire, Wales, 166 m. by rail 
from London, |ucturesquely situated on rising ground on the 
tooth side of the mouth of the Ely opposite Cardiff, from which 
It B 4 m. distant by rail and a m. by steamer. Pop. (1901), 14,228. 
The place derives its name from two Welsh words, " pen," a head, 
and ** garth," an enclosure. Penarth was a small and imimpor- 
tint village until a tidal harbour at the mouth of the Ely was 
opened in 1859, and a railway, 6 m. long, was made about the 
saaK time, connecting the harbour with the Taff Vale railway 
at Radyr. A dock, authorized in 1857, was opened in 1865, 
iriicn an three undertakings, which had cost £775,000, were 
leased in perpetuity to the Taff Vale Railway Company. The 
aooopoly which the Biite Docks at Cardiff had previously 
enjoyed in shipping coal from the valleys of the Taff and Rhondda 
VIS thus terminated. The town is frequented in summer as a 
bathing-place, and the Rhaetic beds at the head are of special 
nterest to geolo^ts. On this head there stood an old church, 
pfobably Norman, which served as a landmark for sailors. 
The remains of an old chantry have been converted into a barn. 
Besides two Established and one Roman Catholic church, the 
principal buildings of Penarth are its various Nonconformist 
chapeb. intermediate and techm'cal school (1894), custom house, 
dock offices, and Turner House with a private art gallery which 
k thrown <^>en on certain days to the public. Three miles to 
Uk west is Dinas Powis Castle. In 1880-1883 gardens were 
laid out along the cliff, in 1894 a promenade and landing-pier 
vith a length of 630 ft. were constructed, and in 1900 a marine 
Mbvay open at all times for foot passengers was made under 
the rhrer Ely. The dock, as first constructed, comprised 17 J 
aocs, was extended in 1884 at a cost of £250,000, and now 
covets 23 acres with a basin of 3 acres. It is 2900 ft. in length, 
has a minimum depth of 26 ft., and is furnished with every 
Boikm appliance for the export of coal, of which from 20,000 
to 3fo^ooo tons can be stored in the sidings near by. The 
PlEurth-Ely tidal harbour has a water area of 55 acres with 
a Biairaum depth of 20 ft., and a considerable import trade is 
cuzied 00 here mainly by coasting vessels; but as only one of 
itsfidcs has wharves (about 3000 ft. along) scarcely more than 5 % 
el the total shipping of the port is done here. It has commo- 
warehouses, also tanks to hold about 6000 tons of oil. 

(from Lat. penus, eatables, food), Roman gods of the 

and kitchen. The store-room over which they 

was, in old times, beside the atriumf the room which 

as kitchen, parlour, and bedroom in one; but in later 

the store-room, was in the back part of the house. It was 

by the presence of the Penates, and none but pure 

sad chaste persons might enter it, just as with the Hindus 

tke kitdien is sacred and inviolable. They had no individual 

■OKS, but were always known under the general designation, 

hstes. Closely associated with the Penates were the Lares 

(m) another spedes of domestic deity, who seem to have 

tm the deified spirits of deceased ancestors. But while each 

^bd^ had two Penates it had but one Lar. In the household 

Me the image of the Lar (dressed in a toga) was placed 



between the two images of the Pen&tes, "wHch werr represented 
as dancing and elevating a drinking-horn in token of joy and 
plenty. The three images together were sometimes called 
Penates, sometimes Lares, and either name was used metaphori- 
cally for" home." The shrine stood originally in the atrium, 
but when the hearth and the kitchen were separated from the 
atrium and removed to the back of the house, and meals were 
taken in an upper storey, the position of the shrine was also 
shifted. In the houses at Pompeii it is sometimes in the kitchen, 
sometimes in the rooms. In the later empire it was placed 
behind the house-door, and a taper or lamp was kept burning 
before IL But the worship in the interior of the house was also 
kept up even into Christian times; it was forbidden by an 
ordinance of Theodosius (a.d. 392). The old Roman used, in 
company with his children and slaves, to offer a morning sacrifice 
and prayer to his household gods. Before meals the blessing 
of the gods was asked, and after the meal, but before dessert, 
there was a short silence, and a portion of food was placed on 
the hearth and burned. If the hearth and the images were not 
in the eating-room, either the images were brought and put 
on the table, or before the shrine was placed a table on which 
were set a salt-cellar, food and a burning lamp. Three days 
in the month, viz. the Calends, Nones and Ides (i.e. the first, 
the fifth or seventh, and the thirteenth or fifteenth), were set 
apart for special family worship, as were also the Carutia 
(Feb. 22) and the Saturnalia in December. On these days as 
well as on such occasions as birthdays, marriages, and safe 
returns from journeys, the images were crowned and offerings 
made to them of cakes, honey, wine, incense, and sometimes a 
pig. As each family had its own Penates, so the state, as a 
collection of families, had its public Penates. Intermediate 
between the worship of the public and private Penates were 
probably' the rites (sacra) observed by each clan (gens) or collec- 
tion of families supposed to be descended from a common 
ancestor. Tht other towns of Latium had their public Penates as 
well as Rome. The sanctuary of the whole Latin league was at 
Lavinium. To these Penates at Lavinium the Roman priests 
brought yearly offerings, and the Roman consuls, praetors 
and dictators sacrificed both when they entered on and when 
they laid down their office. To them, too, the generals sacrificed 
before departing for their province. Alba Longa, the real 
mother-city of Latium, had also its ancient Penates, and the 
Romans maintained the worship on the Alban mount long after 
the destruction of Alba Longa. The Penates had a temple of 
their own at Rome. It was on the Vclia near the Forum, and 
has by some been identified with the round vestibule of the 
church of SS. Cosma e Damiano. In this and many other temples 
the Penates were represented by two images of youths seated 
holding spears. The Penates were also worshipped in the neigh- 
bouring temple at Vesta. To distinguish the two worships 
it has been supposed that the Penates in the former temple 
were those of Latium, while those in the temple of Vesta were 
the Penates proper of Rome. Certainly the worship of the 
Penates, whose altar was the hearth and to whom the kitchen 
was sacred, was closely connected with that of Vesta, goddess 
of the domestic hearth. 

The origin and nature of the Penates was a subject of much 
discussion to the Romans themselves. They were traced to the 
mysterious worship of Samothrace; Dardanus, it was said, took 
the Penates from Samothrace to Troy, and after the destruction 
of Troy, Aeneas brought them to Italy and established them at 
Lavinium. From Lavinium Ascanius carried the worship to 
Alba Longa, and from Alba Longa it was brought to Rome. 
Equally unsatisfactory with this attempt to connect Roman 
religion with Greek legend are the vague and mystic speculations 
in which the later Romans indulged respecting the nature of 
the Penates. Some said they were the great gods to whom we 
owe breath, body and reason, viz. Jupiter representing the 
middle ether, Juno the lowest air and the earth, and Minerva 
the highest ether, to whom some added Mercury as the god 
of speech (Scrvius, on Acn. ii. 296; Macrobius, Sat. in. 4, 8; 
Amobius, Adv. Nat. iii. 40). Others identified them with Apollo 



86 



PENCIL— PENDA 



and Neptune (Macrob. Hi. 4, 6; Arnob. loc. cit.; Servius, on 
Aen. iiL 1 1 y). The Etruscans held the Penates to be Ceres, Pales 
and Fortuna, to whom others added Genius Jovialis (Servius on 
Aen. ii. 325; Arnob. loc. <U.). The late writer Martianus Capella 
records the view that heaven was divided into sixteen regions, in 
the first of which were placed the Penates, along with Jupiter, 
the Lares, &c. More fruitful than these misty speculations is 
the suggestion, made by the ancients themselves, that the 
worship of these family gods sprang from the ancient Roman 
custom (common to many savage tribes) of burying the dead 
in the house. But this would account for the worship of the 
Lares rather than of the Penates. A comparison with other 
primitive religious beliefs suggests the conjecture that the 
Penates may be a remnant of fetishism or animism. The Roman 
genii seem certainly to have been fetishes and the Penates were 
perhaps originally a ^)ecie8 of geniL Thus the Penates, as 
simple gods of food, are probably much more ancient than 
deities like Jupiter, Neptune, Apollo and Minerva. 

With the Penates we may compare the kindly household gods 
of old Germany; they too had their home on the kitchen hearth 
and received offerings of food and clothing. In the castle of 
Hudemiihlen (Hanover) there was a kobold for whom a cover 
was always set on the table. In Lapland each house had one 
or more spirits. The souls of the dead are regarded as house- 
spirits by the Russians; they are represented as dwarfs, and are 
served with food and drink. Each house in Servia has its 
patron-saint. In the mountains of Mysore every house has its 
bhuta or guardian deity, to whom prayer and sacrifices arc 
offered. Hie Chinese god of the kitchen presents some curious 
analogies to the Penates: incense and candles are burnt before 
him on the first and fifteenth of the month; some families bum 
incense and candles before him daily; and on great festivals, 
one of which is at the winter solstice (nearly corresponding to 
the Saturnalia), he is served with cakes, pork, wine, incense, 
&c., which arc placed on a table before him. 

Sec Roman Religion. (J. G. Fr.;X.) 

PENCIL (Lat. penkillus, brush, literally little tail), a name 
originally applied to a small fine-pointed brush used in painting, 
and still employed to denote the finer camel's-hair and sable 
brushes used by artists, but now commonly signifying solid 
cones or rods of various materials used for writing and drawing. 
It has been asserted that a manuscript of Theophilus, attributed 
to the 13th century, shows signs of having been ruled with a 
black-lead pencil; but the first distinct allusion occurs in the 
treatise on fossils by Conrad Gesner of Zurich (1565), who 
describes an article for writing formed of wood and a piece of 
lead, or, as he believed, an artificial composition called by some 
stimmi annlicanum (English antimony). The famous Borrowdate 
mine in Cumberland having been discovered about that time, 
it is probable that we have here the first allusion to that great 
^d of graphite. While the supply of the Cumberland mine 
lasted, the material for English pencils consisted simply of the 
native graphite as taken from the mine. The pieces were 
sawn into thin sheets, which again were cut into the slender 
square rods forming the " lead " of the pencil. 

Strenuous efforts were made on the continent of Europe and 
in England to enable manufacturers to become independent 
of the product of the Cumberland mine. In Nuremberg, where 
the great pencil factory of the Fabcr family iq.v.) was established 
in 1760, pencils were made from pulverized graphite cemented 
into solid blocks by means of gums, resins, glue, sulphur and 
other such substances, but none of these preparations yielded 
useful pencils. In the year 1795 N. J. Cont6 (9.V.), of Paris, 
devised the process by which now all black-lead pendls, and 
indeed pencils of all sorts, are manufactured. In 1843 William 
Brockedon patented a process for compressing pure black-lead 
powder into solid compact blocks by which he was enabled to 
use the dust, fragments, and cuttings of fine Cumberland lead. 
Brockedon's process would have proved successful but the 
exhaustion of the Borrowdale supplies and the excellence of 
Conti's process rendered it more of scientific interest than of 
commercial value. 



The pencil leads prepared by the Cont^ process consbt of s 
mixture of graphite and clay. The graphite, having been pulver- 
ized and subjected to any necessary purifying processes, is 
** floated " through a series of settling tanks, in each of which 
the comparatively heavy particles sink, and only the still finer 
particles are carried over. That which sinks in the last of the 
series is in a condition of extremely fine division, and is used 
for pencils of the highest quality. The day, which must be free 
from sand and iron, is treated in the same manner. Clay and 
graphite so prepared are mixed together in varying propor- 
tions with water to a paste, passed repeatedly throu^ a 
grinding mill, then placed in bags and squeezed in a 
hydraulic press till they have the conustency of stiff dougli, 
in which condition they are ready for forming pencil rods. For 
this purpose the plastic mass is placed in a strong iipri^ 
Cylinder, from which a plunger or piston, moved by a tacw, 
forces it out through a perforated base-plate in a continuous 
thread. This thread is finally divided into suitable lengthii 
which are heated in a closed crucible for some hours. Tlie two 
factors which determine the comparative hardncsaand bladmess 
of pencils are the proportions of graphite and clay in the leads 
and the heat to which they are raised in the crucible. According 
as the proportion of graphite is greater and the heat lover the 
pencil is softer and of deeper black streak. 

The wood in which the leads are cased is pencil cedar from 
Juniperus wrginiana for the best qualities, and pine for the 
cheaper ones. A board of the selected wood, having a thickness 
about equal to half the diameter of the finished pencil and at 
wide as four or six pencik, is passed through a machine whidi 
smooths the surface and cuts round or square grooves to receive 
the leads. The leads being placed in the grooves the board is 
covered with another ^milarly grooved board, and the two 
are fastened together with glue. When dry they are taken 
to rapidly revolving cutters which remove the wood between 
the leads. Hie individual pencils thus formed only need to 
be finished by bdng dyed and varnished and stamped with 
name, grade, &c. Instead of wood, paper has been tried for 
the casings, rolled on in narrow strips which are torn, off to 
expose fresh lead as the point becomes worn down by use. 

Black pendls of an inferior quality are made from the dust oi 
graphite melted up with sulphur and run into moulds. Such, with 
a little tallow added to give them softness, are the pencils commonly 
used by carpenters. Coloured pencils consist of a mixture of day, 
with appropriate mineral colounng matter, wax, and tallow, treated 
by the Conti method, as in making lead pencils. In indelible aad 
copving pencils the oolouring matter is an aniline preparation mind 
with day and gum. The mixture not onl^ malres a streak which 
adheres to the paper, but. when the writing is moistened with water, 
it dissolves ana assumes the appearance and properties of an ink. 

PENDA, king of Mercia (d. 654 or 655), son of Pybba, probably 
came to the throne in 626, but it is doubtful whether he actnaOy 
became king of Mercia until 633, the year of the ddeat and deatk 
of Edwin of Norihumbria. According to the An^o-Sami 
Chronide he was eighty years old at his death, but the 
of his administration and the evidence with regard to the 
of his children and relatives render it almost impossible. la 
628 the Chronicle records a battle between him and the Weil 
Saxons at Cirencester in that year. In 633 Penda and CeadwaOn 
ovci threw Edwin at Hatfield Chase; but after the defeat of 
the WcUh king at Oswald at " Hefenfdth " in 634, Meida 
seems to have been for a time subject to Northumbria. la 
642 Penda slew Oswald at a place called Maerfeld. He was ' 
continually raiding Northumbria and once almost succeeded ' 
in reducing Bam borough. He drove Cenwalh of Wessex, who 
had divorced his sister, from his throne. In 654 he attacked tht * 
East Angles, and slew their king Anna (see East Anolu). 
In 654 or 655 he invaded Northumbria in spite of the attempts 
of Oswio to buy him off, and was defeated and slain on tht" 
banks of the " Winwaed." In the reign of Penda the distridi 
corresponding to Cheshire, Shropshire and Herefordshire wot 
probably acquired, and he established his son Peadm at a 
dependent prince in Middle Anglia. Although a pagan, ha; 
allowed his daughter Cyneburg to marry Alchfrith. the MB dl. 



PENDANT— PENDLETON, E. 



87 



Oivio, and it was in his reign that Christianity was introduced 
into Middle Anglia by his son Peada. 

See Bede. Hist. Bed. (cd. C. Plammer. Oxford. 1896) ; Ang^Saxon 
C kmi c i* (ed. Earle and Plummcr. Oxford, 1899). 

FBmAlfT (throtigh Fr. from Lat. penderc, to hang), any hang- 
iog object, such as a jewel or other ornament hanging from 
I broodi, bracelet, &c., or the loose end of a knight's bell left 
banging after passing through the buckle, and terminating in 
in omamental end. In architecture the word b applied to an 
doogated boss, either moulded or foliated, such as hangs down 
hom the intersection of ribs, especially in fan tracery, or at the 
end of hammer beams. Sometimes long corbels, under the wall 
pieces, have been so called. The name has also been given to 
ihe bxse masses depending from enriched ceilings, in the later 
■orks of the Pointed style. " Pendants " or *' Pendent posts " 
ue those timbers which are carried down t^ side of the wall 
tr oin the i^te, and receive the hammer braces. 

FBmniTIVI^ the term given in architecture to the bridging 
icraas tlw angles of a square haU, so as to obtain a circular base 
br a dcmie or drain. This may be done by corbelling out in 
ihe an^es, in which case the pendent ive may be a portion of a 
heini^>here of which the half diagonal of the square hall is the 
nufius; or by throwing a series of arches across the angle, each 
ring as it rises advandng in front of the one below and being 
carried by it during its construction; in this case the base 
obtained is octagonal, so that corbels or small pendentives 
aie nequired for each angle of the octagon, unless as in the church 
of SS. Sergius and Bacchus at Constantinople a portion of the 
ioott is set back; or again, by a third method, by sinking a 
Kfflidrcular niche in the angle. The first system was that 
employed in St Sophia at Constantinople, and in Byzantine 
chardies generally, also in the domed churches of Perigord and 
Aqidtaliie. The second is found in the Sassanian palaces of 
Serfaistan and Firuaabad, and in medieval architecture in 
Ea^and, France and Germany, where the arches are termed 
** squinchcs." The third system is found in the mosque at 
Damascus, and was often adopted in the churches in Asia 
Ifiaor. There b still another method in which the pendentivc 
sad cupola arc part of the same hemispherical dome, and in 
this case the ring courses lie in vertical instead of horizontal 
phnes, examples of which may be found in the vault of Magnesia 
OB Macandcr in Asia Minor, and in the tomb at Valence known 
as k pemdeiUif de Valence. The problem is one which has taxed 
the ingenuity of many builders in ancient times; the bas-reliefs 
foaod at Nimnid show that in the 9th century B.C. domes were 
evidently built over square halls, and must have been carried 
OB poidentives of some kind. 

PDRIEB. SIR JOHN (1816-1896), British cable pioneer, was 
ham in the Vale of Leven, Scotland, on the loth of September 
xSi6, and after attending school in Glasgow became a successful 
■ecdhant in textile fabrics in that city and in Manchester. 
IEs name is chiefly known in connexion with submarine cables, 
of wUch on the commercial side he was an important promoter. 
Hr WIS one of the 345 contributors who each risked a thousand 
ponds in the Transatlantic Cable in 1857, and when the Atlantic 
Tdegraph Company was ruined by the loss of the 1865 cable he 
foned the Anglo-American Telegraph Company to continue 
^wotl, but it was not till he had given his personal guarantee 
ht a qaarttr of a milb'on pounds that the makers would undcr- 
tale the noanufacture of a new cable. But in the end he was 
jorti&ed, and telegraphic communication with America became 
a eoBanerrial success. Subsequently he fostered cable enter- 
priK in all parts of the world, and at the time of his death, 
vfckh occurred at Footscray Place, Kent, on the 7th of July 
1I96, he controlled companies having a capital of is millions 
■ofog and owning 73,640 nautical miles of cables. He repre- 
taud Wick Burghs in parliament from 1872 to 1885 and from 
^ to 1896. He was made a K.C.M.G. in 1888 and was pro- 
iMiad ia 1S92 to be G.C.M.G. His eldest son James (b. 1841), 
^ vas M.P. for Mid Northamptonshire in 1895-1900, was 
Qtafcd a baronet in 1897; and his third son, John Denison 
^ 1S55), ^"^^ created a K.C.M.G. in 1901. 



PBNDLESIDE SERIES, in geology, a series of shales between 
the upper division of the Carboniferous Limestone and the 
Millstone Grits occurring in the Midlands between Stoke-on- 
Trent and Settle. It consists of black limestones at the base, 
followed by black shales with calcareous nodules, which pass 
into sandy shales with ganister-Uke sandstones. In places 
the series attains a thickness of 1 500-1000 ft., and where it is 
thickest the Millstone Grits also attain their maximum thickness. 
The peculiarities of the series, which is characterized by a rich 
fauna with Producius giganteus, P, striatus, Dibunopkyilum, 
Cyathaxonia cornu and Lomdalcia fioriformis, can be best 
studied on the western slope of Pendle Hill, Lancashire, in the 
valley of the Hodder, dividing the counties of Lancashire and 
Yorkshire, at Mam Tor and the Edale valley in Derbyshire, and 
Morredge, the Dane valley in north Staffordshire, Bagillt and 
Teilia in North Wales, and Scarlett and Poolvash, Isle of Man. 
The limestones at the base are hard, compact and fissile, often 
cherty, and vary much in the amount of calcium carbonate which 
they contain, at times passing into calcareous shales. 

These limestones and shales contain a distinct fauna which 
appears for the first time in the Midlands, characterized by 
PterinopecUn papyraceus^ PosidonicUa iaevis, Posidonomya 
Bechcri, Posidonomya membranaceat Nomismoceras rotiforme 
and Gyphioceras striatus. Immediately below beds with this 
fauna are thin limestones with Prolecanites eompressus, Strobo- 
ceras .HsMlcaius, many trilobites, and corals referable to the 
genera Cyathaxonia^ Zaphrentis and Amplexizaphrentis. The 
fauna characteristic of the Carboniferous Limestone becomes 
largely extinct and is replaced by a shale fauna, but the 
oncoming of the age of Goniatitcs is shown by the presence 
in the upper part of the Carboniferous Limestone of numerous 
species and genera of this group, Glyphioccras crencstria being 
the most common and having the wider horizontal range. 
The whole Pendleside series can be divided into zones by the 
different species of Goniatites. At the base ProlecanUes eom- 
pressus characterizes the passage beds between the Carboniferous 
Limestone and the Pendlcsidcs; Nomismoceras rotiforme and 
Gyphioceras striatus are found in a narrow zone immediately 
above. Then Gyphioceras retictdatum appears and reaches 
its maximum, and is succeeded by Gyphioceras diadema 
and Gyphioceras spiralCf while immediately below the 
Millstone Grits Gyphioceras hUingue appears and passes up in 
that series. The Millstone Grits are characterized by the 
presence of Gaslrioceras Listcri. The Pendleside scries is 
therefore characterized by an Upper Carboniferous fauna, 
Pterinopecten papyraceus, PosidonicUa iaevis and some other 
species which pass up right ihiough the Coal Measures appearing 
for the first time, and the base of the series marks the division 
between Upper and Lower Carboniferous times. 

The scries passes eastward into Belgium and thence into 
Germany, when the same fossil zones are found in the basin of 
Namur and the valley of the Dill. Traced westward the series is 
well developed in Co. Dublin and on the west coast of Cos. Clare 
and Limerick. There can be no doubt that the Pendleside series 
of the Midlands represents the Lower Culm of Codden Hill, 
north Devon, and the Lower Culm of the continent of Europe. 
The faunas in these localities have the same biological succession 
as in the midlands. 

See Whcclton Hind and J. Allen Howe, Quart. Joum. Ceog. 
Soc. vol. Ivii. (1901), and numerous other papers by the first-named 
author. (W. Hi.) 

PENDLETON, EDMUND (i 721-1805), American lawyer and 
statesman, was bom, of English Royalist descent, in Caroline 
county, Virginia, on the 9th of September 1721. He was 
self-educated, but after reading law and being admitted to the 
bar (1744) his success was immediate. He served in the 
Virginia House of Burgesses from 1752 until the organization 
of the state government in 1776, was the recognized leader of 
the conservative Whigs, and took a leading part in opposing 
the Britbh government. He was a member of the Virginia 
committee of correspondence in 1773, in 1774 was president 
of the Virginia provincial convention, and a member of the first 



PENDLETON, G. H.— PENGUIN 



a pRddcM oC the pioviiKuI the iludy. Id 1B17 he wu inMruncMal in .._..._ ._.. 

It coiutituliaii [or Viigiaii, ol Ibe Tocquiy Mcchinics' Iruiitutc, in 1844 tuidy owini to 

at arew up \ne inairuciiDni to xar Vicginii mcaibcn o[ Congrcn bii enei(y the Totquiy Nitunl History Soricty wu fMudnl, 

ditccllng ifaeiii la lulvacaie ihf indrpcndcncc of the Amcricui and in ifkSi he uiiated in lounding the Devonihire AnocUtioa 

R>1oni«. In the ume year he became proident o[ the Virginii for the Advincemem o[ Literature. Science ud Ail. Meano'liite 

comnitlce of safety, and in October wu clioien the £nl he had been occupied in collecting louili fnni many parll 

(pealier of the [loux ol Delegates. With JeHenon and Chan- of Devon and Comwafl, and in i860 the Binmeii Buidetl- 

cellor George Wythe he drew up a new law code tor Virginia. CouIIs acquired and presented then to the OiTord Museum, 

He was picsdent o( the court of chancery in I7j7-i)afl, and where they lorm " The Pengeily Collection." Through the 

froni 1770 unlU bis dsith wu pre^denl oi the Viijinia court ol genercoily of the same lady be was called upon to cxaoilM 

appeals. He wu an enthusiaatic advocate ol the Federal consti' the lignites and days of Bony Trwrey, in conjunctioa with 

tution. and in 1788 eierted strong influence to secure its nti£- Dc Cbwald Hetr. who undertook the delenninBtion of the 

cation by his native Hale. He was a leader of the FedcnllM planl-remoins. Their report was published by the Royal 

party In VirginU until bis death at Richmond, Va., od tbe Society (tWi), and Pengeily was elected F.R.S. in iStj. He 

jjrd of October iSoj. aided in the inv«li(alioni ol the Britham bone-cavern ItoB 

PEMDLETOH. GBOROB BOMT (i8]j~i98g), Americui lawyer the dale of Its discovery in 185S. the luU report being inutd 

and legislator, was bom in Cinciniiati, Ohio, on the >5th ol in 1873; and he was the maineiplorer of Kent's Hole, Torquay. 

July iSij. He was educated at the university ol Heidelberg, and from 1864 lor mote than fifteen yean he laboured with 

studied law, wu ndnilited to the bar, and began (o practise unflagging energy in examining and lecoiding the eiocl positioB 

at Cincinnati. He was a membtir of the Ohio Senate In 1S54 ol the numeroua organic remains thai were disinlerttd during 

and liss. "^ '"in '^SJ to 186; was a Democratic member ol a lyitemalic investigation ol [his cave, carried on with the aid 

the national House of Representatives, in which he oppcoed of grants from the British Auocialioo. He £nt attended the 

■he war policy of Lincoln. In 1864 be was tbe Democratic British Association at the Cbtltenhlm meeting in 1S56, and was 

one of the earliest champions of the "Ohio idea" (which 1884) until 18B9. His observations aasltltd in eslablishini 

he is said 10 have originated), demanding that the government the Importun fact ol the contcmporandty of Palaeolithic man 

should pay the principal of 111 s-»-y« 6% Imnds in the with various Pleiwoctne mammalia, aucb as the mammoth, 

"greenback" currency instead ol in coin. Tbe agricultural cave-bear, cave-lion, ftc. He was awarded the Lyell medal 

classes ol the West regarded this as a means of relief, and by the Geological Society of London in 1886. He died al 

Fendlclon became their rccogniced leader and a candidate lor the Tortiuay on the i6lh of March 1S94- 

Deniocntic nomination to Ihc presidency in 1868, but he failed See Mtmnr tj WiUiam Pnrdlf. edited by hu danthler Heua 

10 receive the requisite two-third, majofily. In i86g he was Ihe r'"''7-/^n •J!:'"!"?^, "^ ^^ •™>'ti*i: wfl= by i6e Rev. Pi» 

Democratic candidate for governor of Ohio, but was defeated _' l-t-- "oaocy UWJ- 

by Rulherlord B. Hayes. For the ne.t ten year, he devoted ""OmM. tbe name of a flightless sea-bird,' but. u farai 
himself to the practice of bw and 10 the supervision of Ihe '» "o""- ""' P*"" "> °'" ■°h»biling the seas ol Newfound- 
Kentucky Railroiul Company, ol which he had become president '"'■ ",'" ""•* Voyage to Cape Breton, isj6 (Hohluyt, 
in 1865. From 18,9 10 1885 he was a Democratic member of "<«"'«"■ ■"■ "M-tJo). "hicb subsequently becune knows 
the United States Scnale, and introduced the ionralled Pendleton " "le great aul or garelowl (,.».); though the French equivl- 
Act ol 1883 for reforming Ibe civil service, hostility to which !«"' "'^"•"' P"™™ "» <>" application, the word pengvia 
lost him his scat in iSSs- He was minister 10 Germany Irom " *'>' £'«"«' omithdogists always used for certain luda 
188; to the summer ol 18B0, and died at Brutselj on Ihe I4lh inl"*!"''"! •he Southern Ocean, called by Ibe French Uaackti, 
of November 1889. '*" Sfkaticidat of omithologiiti. For a long while their 
PBHBLOPE, ill Greek legend, wife of Odysseus, daughter of P™''™ ™ "fy ""ch misundetslood, some lyMeiDatisIS 
Icarius and the nvraph Fcriboea. During the long absence °*™« ,P'»™ ""™ '""' «« ''«M« " A"^ "■ "lucl" iW 
ol her husband alter the fall ol Troy many chidtainsof Ilhaca w" only a relationship of analogy, m indeed had been petttivtd 
and the islands round about bcfame her suilors; and, to rid *" » f«" orailhologisis, who recogni«d in Ihe penguin* a vey 
herself ol the importunities of the wooert. the bade Ihem wail ''■>'"'." "j""' '"f""'- L. Slejneger (Sb.mi^ Hal. HiM. 
lill she had woi-en a winding-sheet for old LaWes. Ihe lalber *"*•■. ■'• ^oiton, i88sJ «ive the /k^mi independent rank 
ol Odysseus. But every night she undid the piece which she "I"""'"' » "« «>' of Cannale birds; M. A. Mendiia 
hail woven by day. This ihc did forlhree years, till her maids ''^"'l- ""^^ ''■ ''"•ft". Moscow, 1887) took a licnibr 
revealed the secret. She was relieved by the arrival of Od)-sseua, '""'■ "■ FUrnring" *» *f»l W show their relalioD U 
who returned alter an absence ol twenty yean, and slew the P'tKcUanliirma, and this view b now generally acdptii. 
KODCTS. The character ol Penelope is less Cavourable in late 'Of Ihe Ihirr .dcHviIions assigned to this nme. the fini ta br ' 
wriicrs than in Ihe Homeric story. During her husband's absence S?*"!!:" '*' J '^<:'»^'""'.SiM.g9), where 

she is Sai'l fo hnvi. hwwme Ihp mnlliiT nr P.n Kv H,.m-. ....t P^.'Pr'vP' wluW. llMd_ JlbtiCCOnd 



his return, repudiated her as unfaithful (Herodotus which idea haagivtn origin to iheC 
nd schol.). She thereupon withdrew to Sputa and birds; ihc ihirdiuppeaHii tobet 



thence 10 Maiitincia. where she died and where her tomb was "«'■ W.'Ury, 4ih ki , ,. 

shown. According to another «counl ri« married Telegonu. ?" ™mr3r«"^"^i-.5irni''""^ 

Ihc ion ol Od>'sseus and Circe, otur he had killed his lather, bctntuppaitedonihegrBUDdtkail^onsai 

and dn-eli with him in the island ol Acala or in the Islands of cloKly allied to Welsh were afquainted i 

thcmcjt(Hyginus,Frf. 117). that the conHwoojiswhiw pitthn 00 

PBHOmV, WILUAH (,S,t-.Bm). English geologist and te^li5'p"^)oW«SilSfli"l3i« 

anthropoiogist, was bom at East Looe in Cornwall on Ihe l.th and it theSfci^in™! besides which Ihe ' 

ol January iHii, thesonof the captain oTa small coasting vessel. >wcr<ed to be the aullnrsof Ibe name| lui 

He began life as a sailor, »(let an demenlaiy education in Drake" and hit mm. Jn supfurl of the il 

h" r'J", '"t'^S!:. '"' ™ -""l \*^^'^''>^ ; """"" 'i'"- ro'u'^f'i,^"? :iS''.^i:''Efii"'Si'f 

He had developed a pawjn tor learning, and about 1836 he " pin wing." Sktafi inquiry (Ik. nK.), wh 

temoved to Torquay and started a school; in 1846 he became alter all be South American, Is 10 heanmen 

a private tulor in mathematics and nalutal science. Geology T^j'" t ^"''J^ '°^' " ""T™" '<> Jt' 

had in early year, atlraclcd his attention, bul il was not uMil ^CW/™^, ^fiTb^i^ bT^ 1 

U was about 30 years dI age ihat he began seriously to cultivate corruption el Ctirfui/ or GarclowV 



PENHALLOW— PENINGTON 89 

Tlcn i> ■ total mm of quilli [n their wingi, which ■reincipib)! ihm can be well djiiinpiiihed, u poinird oul by E. Ceuei la 
el Inun, Iboueh Ibey move fredy it Ihe iboutdcr-ioinl, and fix. Aea4. ef Hal. Sii. if PhUadilfkia, lijt (pp. 1 



It kut ol Ihc tpma occuioiully mlkc uM ol IhFB 
t thty tn mow efficii 



, Tliepluniafc, which dorfaea thft whale body, geaenlly decurvcd, from which Pygourtit, 



t mM\ icak-Jike (eathen, many of Lhen 
edy of JL lUinple shaft without the developmeat of \ 
MV«fal of tbe apeaea have the head decorated with lor 
tuft!, and in sunc the tail-quiils, which are vtry 
■R atu long.' In standing iheie birdi prtwcve an upright 

■alkint or lufuiing ihii 'a Icept neariy 



Aplctudyla.raiAy iccofnixed by ili long and ihtn bill, ilighlly 



a hardly dfilmguiahable ; {1) Endyplri, in which the bill is 

le shortish bill is compresaed and the mjuilla ends in a conspi- 
JOus hook- Aplenodyki contains the largest species, among 
lem ihoM known as Ihe " Empetot " and " King " penguins 
.. palcitniia and A. lontirtilrii. Thm others belong also 
''"■" """ "", if Pyiouttii be not rccogniud, h " '" 



k so pfmngd by the toes alone. not to require any particutar renark. Eiidyptct, containing 

iSe own northerly limit of the penguini' range in the the crested penguins, known to lailors as " Rock-bopper^ " 

AthnliciiTristand'Acunha.and in the Indian Ocean Amslerdim or" MaurDnb,"woulclappetrlo have Gvelficcies, and Spktnit- 

bland.but theyalsooccuroRlbeCapeoECoodHoprandalong eta four, among which S. mtnUcalKt, which occurs in the 

the csut of Aanralii, is well ta on the south and east of New Galapagos, and therefore hu the moil northerly tinge of the 

Ztahnd, wbile in tbc Pacific one spedes at least extends whole group, alone need* notice here. (A.N.) 

■knc ibe wcit coast of South America and to the Galapagos: The jenrric amt .pedfic distribution of thepenguins is the subject 

wason tbev Rsort Id the most desolate lands in higherioutheiB Uti kUvis nalirtUa for 1^ (vd i<..ii. 9, pp. 2j-8i): we also 

Uliltule.. and indeed have been met with is far to the south- "« R«o"l>o( ihe Anurciic E.pedll,oo. >90i-iw 

wanl u nivigalon have penetrated. Possibly the Falkland pKHHAUOW, SAMUEL (i66s-i)i6), American colonist 

Uaod* m itehcM in ^ledes, though, as individuals, they ,nd historian, wax born at St Mabon. Cornwall, Entfand, 

on the ind of July 1665. From i6Sj 10 16S6 he attended a 

schod at N'ewington Creen (near London) conducted by Ihe 

Rev. Charics Morton (1617-7698), a dissenting clergyman, 

with whom he emigrated to Massachusells in 16S6. He was 

commissioned hy the Society for Ihe Propagation of thcGospel 

in New England 10 study the Indian bnguages and to preach 

Removing to rotlsmoulh. New Hampshi 

daughter o( John -- 

of New Ifampshi 

IE present site of Portsmoui 
in 170a he w.u speaker of tbe AsMinbly and in 1701 became > 
member of Ihe Provincial Council, hut was suspended by 
Lieut.-Covemor George Vaugban (1676-1714)- Fenhillow, 
however, was sustained by Governor Samuel Shule (1661-1741), 
and Vtughan was removed from oBice in 1716. In 1714 
Penhillow was appointed a justice of the superior court oi 

i;i6, and assccKlaiy of the province in 1714-17 16. Kc died at 

Portsmouth on the iiid of December 1716. lie wrote a valuable 

Hillary of Ou Wat ef Km Entload wilk Ua Ecslna /mfiuni, 

Ku^-Ptn^mn{Apltm!iilylapauujilii. tr a NarratiK tf Iteir Cenliimid Pttfidy and CnuUy (1716; 

, L ; i- _i -n., reprinted in the Csllatioia of tbe New Hampshire Historical 

: Society, vol I., 1814, and again at Cincinnati in iSsq), which 



1613 

679- 


t6a 

6go 


), president oi the prov 
a successful merehanl 






posaeaswn 


ol c. 





fish and vegclahle 

ig colonies, known as " tookeries." Tht 



■phalopods and other >«'«)'. "■'^ ";> '"4, »no aga 
matter The birds '"*"* ''" !»'"" i™'" 'JOJ t" 

PEHIHGTOH, SIR ISAAC (c. 1587-1661}, lord mayor of London, 



iri S3' 1 .T™ 3':;'?; h-.i-'Cs •»». «..i «^» f. 

•robably in isS). His 



■Uu M greenish eggs are laid. The young penguins, 

h thick down, are bom blind and an led by the parent 

B iwwially long lime before taking to tht water. PenL „,„„„.„, ,„ ,„,. ,.,,, -„,„ 

to »wgely when molested, but art easily trained and ^l^i^iiJ^iJ^^i^^l, ETw™ 



Norfolk and SuRolk, whii 
iroperty in Buckinghamshire 
i6jg Isaac ' 



The Sp^tmucidat have been divided into at least eight geni 



cr for the city of London, and immediately 



DicivkKniDh' I ha I of ih n are well "" "*" '"^'■'™ """ '""VOr of LomJon, 



■■dett ha* »l»rved IFiK, Zatl.Str., i,B79..,PP;, 6-9) that! elected lord mayor 






mtmn, to " the shedding of the skin in a serpent.- lieutenant of the Tower in which capacity nc was pre! 

"TtthwrnetatarsabinthepenguiiMarenot, asinotlierbinti. Ihe eaeculion of Laud; hut. though one of the commiJ 

■ind tv tbc whole of their kngih, but onlji at the eitiemiiies,ihui (or the trial of Charles L, he did not sign the death w 

!S^ a .portion of tWr oririnallydmLnct niiienw^ a (act ^,^„ ,],„ yng., j,,,), Peningion scrN'cd on Cromwell's ■ 

latii>i)Hba«> in an independent eondiiion. iervices were rewarded hy considerable grants of land. 



go 



PENINSULA— PENINSULAR WAR 



knighthood conferred in 1649. lie was tried and convicted 
of treason at the Restoration, and died while a prisoner in the 
Tower on the 17th of December 1661. He was twice married, 
and had six children by his first wife, several of whom became 
Quakers. 

Isaac Penincton (1616-1679), Sir Isaac's eldest son, was 
one of the most notable of the 17th-century Quakers. He 
was early troubled by religious perplexities, which found expres- 
sion in many voluminous writings. No less than eleven religious 
works, besides a political treatise in defence of democratic 
principles, were published by him in eight years. He belonged 
for a time to the sect of the Independents; but about 1657, 
influenced probably by the preaching of George Fox, whom he 
heard in Bedfordshire, Penington and his wife joined the Sodety 
of Friends. His wife was daughter and heiress of Sir John 
Proude, and widow of Sir William Springett, so that the worldly 
position of the couple made them a valuable acquisition to the 
Quakers. Isaac Penington was himself a man of very consider- 
able gifts and sweetness of character. In x66i he was imprisoned 
for refusing to take the oath of allegiance, and on several subse- 
quent occasions he passed long periods in Reading and Aylesbury 
gaols. He died on the 8th of October 1679; his wife, who wrote 
an account of his imprisonments, survived till 1682. In 168 1 
Penington's writings were published in a collected edition, 
and several later editions were issued before the end of the i8ih 
century. His son John Penington (1655-17 10) defended his 
father's memory against attack, and published some con- 
troversial tracts against George Keith. Edward Penington 
(1667-1711), another of Isaac Penington's sons, emigrated to 
Pennsylvania, where he founded a family. Isaac Penington's 
stepdaughter, Gulielma Springett, married William Penn. 

See Maria Webb, Tlie Penns and Peningtons of the tytk Century 
(London, 1867); Lord Clarendon, HUtory of the Kebdlion and Civtl 
Wars in England (7 vols.. Oxford, 1839); Bulstrodc Whitdocke. 
Memorials of English Affairs: Charles I. to the Restoration (London, 
1733): J- Gumev Sevan, Life of Isaac Penington (London, 1784); 
Thomas Ellwooa. History oj the Life of Elhvood by his own hand 
(London, 1765); Willem Sewel, History of the Quahers (6th ed., 2 
vols., London, 1834). 

PENINSULA (Lat. paeninsula, from paette, almost, and itisula, 
an island), in physical geography, a piece of land nearly sur- 
rounded by water. In its original sense it connotes attachment 
to a larger land-mass by a neck of land (isthmus) narrower than 
the peninsula itself, but it is often extended to apply to any 
long promontory, the coast-line of which is markedly longer than 
the landward boundary. 

PENINSULAR WAR (1808-14). This imporUnt war, the 
conduct and result of which greatly enhanced the prestige of 
British arms, had for its main object the freedom of the Peninsula 
of Spain and Portugal from the domination of Napoleon; and 
hence it derives its name, though it terminated upon the soil 
of France. 

Nelson having destroyed the French fleet at Trafalgar, 
Napoleon feared the possibility of a British army being landed 
on the Peninsular coasts, whence in conjunction with Portuguese 
and Spanish forces it might attack France from the south. He 
therefore called upon Portugal, in August 1807, to comply with 
his Berlin decree of the 21st of November 1806, under which 
continental nations were to close their ports to British subjects, 
and have no communication with Great Britain. At the same 
time he persuaded the weak king of Spain (Charles IV.) and 
his corrupt minister Godoy to permit a French army to pass 
through Spain towards Portugal; while under a secret treaty 
signed at Fontainebleau on the 27th of October 1807 Spanish 
troops were to support the French. Portugal was to be sub- 
sequently divided between Spain and France, and a new princi- 
pality of the Algarve was to be carved out for Godoy. Portugal 
remonstrated against Napoleon's demands, and a French corps 
{30,000) under General Junot was instantly despatched to 
Lisbon. Upon its approach the prince regent fled, and the 
country was occupied by Junot, most of the Portuguese troops 
being disbanded or sent abroad. Napoleon induced the king 
of Spain to allow French troops to occupy the country and to 



send the flower of the Spanish forces (15,000) under the marquis 
of Romana * to assist the French on the Baltic Then Dupont 
de I'Eung (25,000) was ordered to cross the Bidasaoa on the 
32nd of November 1807; and by the 8th of January x8o8 he had 
reached Burgos and Valladolid. Marshal Moncey with a corps 
occupied Biscay and Navarre; Duhesme with a division entered 
Catalom'a; and a little later Bessidres with another corps had 
been brought up. There were now about 100,000 French 
soldiers in Spain, and Murat, grand duke of Berg, as "lieutenant 
for the emperor," entered Madrid. During February and 
March 1808 the frontier fortresses of Pampcluna, St Sebastian, 
Barcelona and Figueras were treacherously occupHed and Spain 
lay at the feet of Napoleon. The Spanish people, in an outburtt 
of fury against the king and Godoy, forced the former to abdicate 
in favour of his son Ferdinand; but the inhabitants of Madrid 
having (May 2, 1808) risen against the French, Napoleon refused 
to recognize Ferdinand; both he and the king were compdled 
to renounce their rights to the throne, and a mercenary councfl 
of regency having been induced to desire the French emperor to 
make his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, king, he acceded to their 
request.* 

The mask was now completely thrown off, and Spain and 
Portugal rose against the French. Provincial '* juntas " (com- 
mittees of govemmcni) were organized; appeals for assistance 
made to the British government, which granted arms, money 
and supplies, and it was resolved to despatch a British force 
to the Peninsula. Before it landed, the French under Dupont, 
Moncey and Marshal Bcssicres (75,000) had occupied parts 
of Biscay, Navarre, Aragon and the Castilcs, holding Madrid 
and Toledo, while General Duhesme (14.000) was in Catalonia. 
Moncey (7000) had marched towards the city of Valencia, but 
been repulsed in attempting to storm it (June 28); Bessifres 
had defeated the Spanish general Joachim Blake at Medina 
de Rio Seco (June 14, 1808) and Dupont (13,000) had bees 
detached (May 24) from Madrid to reduce Seville and Cadiz in 
Andalusia. Spanish levies, numbering nearly 100,000 regulars 
and militia, brave and enthusiastic, but without organization, 
sufficient training, or a commander-in-chief, had collected 
together; 30,000 being in Andalusia, a similar number in Galida, 
and others in Valencia and Estremadura. but few in the centra^ 
portion of Spain. 

At this juncture Dupont, moving upon Cadiz, met with arevene 
which greatly influenced the course of the Peninsular War. On 
the 7th of June 1808 he had sacked Cordova; but while he was 
laden with its spoils the Spanish general Castafios with the army 
of Andalusia (30,000), and also a large body of armed peasantry, 
approached. Falling back to And u jar, where he was reinforced 
to 22,000 strong, Dupont detached a force to hold the mountaia 
passes in his rear, whereupon the Spaniards interposed betwcca 
the detachment and the main body and seized Baylen. FaiUim 
to dislodge them, and surrounded by hostile troops and as 
infuriated peasantry, Dupont capitulated with overi 
20,000 men. This victory, together with the in- 
trepid defence of Saragossa by the Spanish general'*'' 
Jos6 Palafox (June 15 to August 13, 180S) tempoiarily 
paralysed the French and created unbounded enthusiasm fa 
Spain. Duhesme, having failed to take Gerona, was Uockadsd 
in Barcelona, Joseph fled from Madrid (Aug. i, 1808), and ibt 
French forces closed to their rear to defend their communicaUons 
with France. The British troops were directed towards Lisbon 
and Cadiz, in order to secure these harbours, to prevent tlie 
subjugation of Andalusia, and to operate up the bauns of the 
Guadtana, Tagus and Douro into Spain. The British force 
consisted of 9000 men from Cork, under Sir Arthur Welleslqf— 
at first in chief command; 5000 from Gibraltar, under Gcncial 
(Sir Brent) Spencer; and 10,000 under Sir John Moore oomiog 
from Sweden: Wcllesley and Moore being directed towsrdi 
Portugal, and Spencer to Cadiz. On the ist of August il 

' They subsequently escaped from Jutland, on British 
and reached Santandcr in October 1808. 

• The king, the queen and Godoy were eventually 
Rome, and Ferdinand to Valcn^ay in France. 



PENINSULAR WAR 



9« 



Weflcdey began to land his troops, unopposed, near Figueira da 
Fn at the mouth of the Mondego; and the Spanish victory of 
Baylen having relieved Cadiz from danger, Spencer now joined 
hiiDr, and, without waiting for Moore the army, under 15,000 in 
sO (which included some Portuguese)* with z8 gims, advanced 
towards Lisbon. 

Cmmpaipt in Portugal, 1808.— Tht first skirmish took place 
at Obkloa on the xsth of August 1808, against Delaborde's 
(fivHum (5000 men with 5 guns), which fell back to Rolcia 
(Rxwiga or Roh'ca). A battle took place here (Aug. 17) in which 
Sir Arthur WeUesley attacked and drove him from two successive 
poBtions. The allied loss was about 500: the French 600 and 
three guns.' On the 20th of August the Allies, strengthened 
by the arrival of two more brigades (4000 men), occupied some 
kdgfats north of >^miera (Vimeira or Vimeiro) where the roads 
bonch <^ to Torres Vedras and Mafra. WeUesley meant to 
turn the defile dt Torres Vedras by Mafra at once if possible; 
bat on this ni^t Sir Harry Burrard, his senior, arrived off 
Vimiera, and though he did not land, gave instructions to wait 
for Sir John Moore. On the 21st of August the Allies were 
sttacked by Junot at Vimiera, who, leaving a force at Lisbon, 
had come up to reinforce Delaborde. In this battle the Allies 
numbered about 18,000 with 18 guns, French nearly 
14,000, with 30 guns. Junot, believing the allied 
"'• left to be weakly held, attacked it without recon- 
^* noitring, but Wellesley's regiments, marched thither 

behind the heights, sprang up in line; and under their volleys 
tod bayonet charge, suj^rarted by artillery fire, Junot 's deep 
columns were driven off the direct road to Lisbon. The losses 
were: Allies about 800, French 2000 and 13 guns. It was now 
again Wellesley's wish to advance and seize Torres Vedras; but 
Sir Hew Dalrymple, having at this moment assumed command, 
deckled otherwise. On the 2nd of Augrist Junot, knowing 
of the approach of Moore with reinforcements, and afraid of 
a revolt in Lisbon, opened negotiations, which resulted in the 
Convention of Gntra' (Aug. 30, 1808), under which the French 
evacuated Portugal, on condition that they were sent with 
their artillery and arms to France. Thus this campaign had been 
rapidly brought to a satisfactory conclusion; and Sir Arthur 
WeOesley had already given proof of his exceptional gifts as 
a leader. In Eng^d however a cry was raised that Junot 
dxmid have been forced to an absolutely unconditional surrender; 
and Sir Arthur WeUesley, Sir Hew Dalrymple and Sir Harry 
Burrard' were brought before a court of inquiry in London. 
This acquitted them of blame, and Sir John Moore in the mean- 
time after the departure of Dalrymple (Oct. 6, 1808) had assumed 
ol the allied army in Portugal, now about 32,000 



M9§t^s Campaign in Spain, t8o8-g.— The British govem- 
Bcst notified to Sir John Moore that some 10,000 men were 
to be sent to Corunna under Sir David Baird; that he, with 
sojooo. was to join him, and then both act in concert with the 
Spanish armies. As the conduct of this campaign was largely 
iaflucnced by the operations of the Spanish forces, it is necessary 
t» BKotion their positions, and also the faa that greater reliance 
had been placed, both in England and Spain, upon them than 
fotve events justified. On the 26th of October 1808, when 
Moore's troops, had left Lisbon to join Baird, the French still 
leM a defensive position behind the Ebro; Bessi^res being in the 
banof Vitoria, Marshal Key north-west of LogroiVo, and Moncey 
covering Pampeluna, and near Sanguessa. With the garrisons 
of Biscay. Navarre, and a reserVb at Bayonne, their strength 
VIS about 7S*ooo men. Palafox (20,000) was near Saragossa and 
Sanguessa; CasUfios with the victors of Baylen 



' la this account of the war the losses and numbers engaged in 
Merest battles are given approximately only; and the former 
ivMe killed, wounded and missing. Historians differ much on 
ibese Bsatters. 
! ' it was not. however, signed at Cintra. but at Lisbon, and was 
i aatiiy negotiated near Torres Vedras. . o. . t. 

•The two latter were recalled from the Penmsula; Sir Arthur 
Wrikaley had pnxxeded to London upon leave, and had only signed 
dbeanaiccice with Junot, not the convention itself. 



(34,000) west and south of Tudela and near Logrofto; Blake 
(32,000) east of Reynosa, having captured Bilbao; Count de 
Belvedere (11,000) near Burgos; reserves (57,000) were assem- 
bUng about Segovia, Talavera and Cordova; Catalonia was held 
by 23,000, and Madrid had been reoccupied. 

Moore had to decide whether to join Baird by sea or land. 
To do so by sea at this season was to risk delay, while in moving 
by land he would have the Spanish armies between him and the 
French. For these reasons he marched by land; and as the 
roads north of the Tagus were deemed impassable for guns, while 
transport and supplies for a large force were also difficult to 
procure, he sent Sir John Hope, with the artillery, cavalry and 
reserve ammunition column, south of the river, through Badajoz 
to Almaraz, to move thence through Talavera, Madrid and the 
Escurial Pass, involving a considerable ddtour; while he himself 
with the infantry, marching by successive divisions, took the 
shorter roads north of the Tagus through Coimbra and Almeida, 
and also by Alcantara and Coria to Ciudad Rodrigo and Sala- 
manca. Baird was to move south through Galicia to meet him, 
and the army was to concentrate at Valladolid, Burgos, or 
whatever point might seem later on to be best. But as Moore 
was moving forward, the whole situation in Spain changed. 
Napoleon's forces, now increased to some 200,000 men present 
and more following, were assuming the offensive, and he himself 
on the 30th of October — had left Paris to place himself at 
their head. Before them the Spaniards were routed in every 
direction: Castaftos was defeated near LogroAo (Oct. 27); 
Castaflos and Palafox at Tudela (Nov. 23); Blake at 2U>moza 
(Oct. 20), Espinosa (Nov. 11) and Reynosa (Nov. 13); and 
Belvedere at Gamonal, near Burgos (Nov. 10). Thus when 
Moore reached Salamanca (Nov. 28) Baird was at Astorga; 
Hope at the Escurial Pass; Napoleon himself at Aranda; and 
French troops at Valladolid, Arevalo and Segovia; so that the 
French were nearer than either Baird or Hope to Moore at 
Salamanca. Moore was ignorant of their exact position and 
strength, but he knew that Valladolid had been occupied, and 
so. his first orders were that Baird should fall back to Galicia 
and Hope to Portugal. But these were soon changed, and he 
now took the important resolution of striking a blow for Spain, 
and for the defenders of Madrid, by attacking Napoleon's 
communications with France. Hope having joined him through 
Avila, and magazines having been formed at Benaventc, Astorga 
and Lugo, in case of retreat in that direction, he moved 
forward, and on the 13th of December approached the Douro, 
at and near Rueda east of Toro. Here he learnt that Madrid 
had fallen to Napoleon (Dec. 3) after he had by a brilliant 
charge of the Polish lancers and chasseurs of the Guard forced 
the Somosierra Pass (Nov. 30) and in another action stormed 
the Retiro commanding Madrid itself (Dec. 3) ; that the French 
were pressing on towards Lisbon and Andalusia; that Napoleon 
was unaware of his vicinity, and that Souk's corps, isolated on 
the Carrion River, had been ordered towards Benavente. He 
then finally decided to attack Souk (intending subsequently to 
fall back through Galicia) and ordered up transports from 
Lisbon to Corunna and Vigo; thus changing his base from 
Portugal to the north-west of Spain; Blake's Spanish army, 
now rallying under the marquis de la Romafia near Leon, was 
to co-operate, but was able to give little effective aid. 

On the 20lh of December Baird joined Moore near Mayorga, 
and a brilliant cavalry combat now took place at Sahagun, in 
which the British hussar brigade distinguished itself. But on 
the 23rd of December, when Moore was at Sahagun and about 
to attack Soult, he learnt that overwhelming French forces 
were hastening towards him, so withdrew across the Esla, near 
Benevente (Dec. 28), destroying the bridge there. Napoleon, 
directly he realized Moore's proximity, had ordered Soult to 
Astorga to cut him off from Galicia; redaUcd his other troops 
from their march towards Lisbon and Andalusia, and. with 
50,000 men and 1 50 guns, had left Madrid himself (Dec. 22). He 
traversed over 100 m. in less than five days across the snow- 
covered Escurial Pass, reaching Tordcsillas on the Douro on the 
26th of December. Hence he wrote to Soult, " If the English 



92 



PENINSULAR WAR 



pass to-day in their position (which he believed to be Sahagun) 
they are lost." But Moore had passed Astorga by the 31st of 
December, where Napoleon arrived on the ist of January iSog. 
Thence he turned back, with a large portion of his army towards 
France, leaving Soult with over 40,000 men to follow Moore. 

On the " Retreat to Corunna " fatigue, wet and bitter cold, 
comtnned with the sense of an enforced retreat, shook the 
discipline iif Moore's army; but he reached Corunna on the nth 
of January 1809, where he took up a position across the road 
from Lugo, with his left on the river Mero. On the X4th of 
January the transports arrived; and on the i6th Soult attacked. 
Bstthot In this battle the French numbered about 20,000 with 
Conmam, 40 guns; the British 15,000 with 9 very light guns. 
^M»|j«0''*» Soult failed to dislodge the British, and Moore was 
'^^ about to deliver a counter-attack when he himself 

fell mortally wounded. Baird was also wounded, and as night 
was approaching, Hope suspended the advance, and sul^ 
quently embarked the army, with scarcely any further loss. The 
British casualties were about 1000, the French 200a When the 
troops landed in England, half clothed and half shod, their 
leader's conduct of the campaign was at first blamed, but his 
reputation as a general rests solidly upon these facts, that 
when Napoleon in person, having nearly 300,000 men in Spain, 
had stretched forth his hand to seize Portugal and Andalusia, 
•Moore with 30,000, forced him to withdraw it, and follow him to 
Corunna, escaping at the same time from his grasp. Certainly a 
notable achievement. 

Campaign in Portugal and Spain^ j8og. — On the 22nd of April 
180Q Sir Arthur Wcllcslcy reached Lisbon. By this time, 
French armies, to a great extent controlled by Napoleon from a 
distance, had advanced — Soult from Galicia to capture Oporto 
and Lisbon (with General Lapisse from Salamanca moving on 
his left towards Abrantcs) and Marshal Victor, still farther 
to the left, with a siege train to take Badajoz, Merida and subse- 
quently Cadiz. Soult (over 20,000), leaving Ney in Galicia, had 
taken and sacked Oporto (March 29, 1809); but the Portuguese 
having closed upon his rear and occupied Vigo, he halted, 
detaching a force to Amarante to keep open the road to Braganza 
and asked for reinforcements. Victor had crossed the Tagus, and 
defeated Cucsta at Mcdcllin (March 28, 1809); but, surrounded 
by insurgents, he also had halted; Lapisse had joined him, and 
together they were near Merida, 30,000 strong. On the allied 
side the British (25,000), including some German auxiliaries, 
were about Lciria: the Portuguese regular troops (16,000) near 
Thomar; and some thousands of Portuguese militia were observ- 
ing Soult in the north of Portugal, a body imder Silveira being 
at Amarante, which Soult was now approaching. Much progress 
had been made in the organization and training of the Portuguese 
levies; Major-Gcncral William Carr Beresford, with the raijk of 
marshal, was placed at their head. Of the Spaniards, Palafox, 
after his defeat at Tudcia had most gallantly defended Saragossa 
a second time (Dec. 20, 1808-Fcb. 20, 1809); the Catolonians, 
after reverses at Molins de Rey (Dec. 21, 1808) and at Vails 
(Feb. 25, 1809) had taken refuge in Tarragona; and Rosas had 
fallen (Dec. 5, 1808) to the French general Gouvion St Cyr who, 
having relieved Barcelona, was besieging Gcrona. Romafia's 
force was now near Orcnsc in Galicia. A supreme junta had been 
formed which could nominally assemble about 100,000 men, 
but jealousy among its members was rife, and they still declined 
to appoint any commander-in-chief. 

On the 5th of May 1809, Wellesley moved towards the 
river Douro, having detached Beresford to seize Amarante, 
from which the French had now driven Silveira. Soult 
Pasutgtoi expected the passage of the Douro to be attempted 
ih9 Douro, near its mouth, with fishing craft; but Wellesley, by 
May 12,1809. j^^ daring surprise, crossed (May 12) close above 
Oporto, and also by a ford higher up. After some fighting 
Oporto was taken, and Soult driven back. The Portuguese 
being in his rear, and Wellesley closing with him, the only good 
road of retreat available lay through Amarante, but he now 
learned that Beresford had taken this important point from 
Silveira; so he was then compelled, abandoning his guns and 



much baggage, to escape, with a 4o5s of some 5000 men, over the 
mountains of the Sierra Catalina to Salamonde, and thence to 
Orense. 

During the above operations, Victor, with Lapisse, had forced 
the passage of the Tagus at Alcantara but, on Wellesley return- 
ing to Abrantes, he retired. News having been received that 
Napoleon had suffered a serious check at the battle of Aq>em, 
near Vienna (May 32, 1809), Wellesley next determined — leaving 
Beresford (20,000) near Ciudad Rodrigo— to moVe with 23,000 
men, in conjunction with Cuesta's Spanish army (40,000) 
towards Madrid against Victor, who, with 35,000 supported 
by King Joseph (50,000) covering the capital, was near Talavera. 
Sir Robert Wilson with 4000 Portuguese from Salamanca, and 
a Spanish force under Venegas (25,000) from Carolina, were to 
co-operate and occupy Joseph, by closing upon Madrid. Cuesta, 
during the advance up the valley of the Tagus, was to occupy 
the pass of Baftos on the left flank; the Spanish authorities were 
to supply provisions, and Venegas was to be at Arganda, near 
Madrid, by the 22nd or 33rd of July; but none of these arrange- 
ments were duly carried out, and it was on this that the remain- 
der of the campaign turned. Writing to Soult from Austria, 
Napoleon had placed the corps of Ney and Mortier under his 
orders, and said: " Wellesley will most likely advance by the 
Tagus against Madrid; in that case, pass the mountains, fall on 
his flank and rear, and crush him." 

By the 20th of July Cuesta had joined Wellesley at Oropesa; 
and both then moved forward to Talavera, Victor falling back 
before them: but Cuesta, irritable and jealous, -,^ ^ . . 
would not work cordially with Wellesley; Venegas — Takntn, 
counter-ordered it is said by the Spanish junta — did Jmly2r,it, 
not go to Arganda, and Wilson, though he advanced '"*' 
close to Madrid, was forced to retire, so that Joseph joined 
Victor, and the united force attacked the Allies at Talaven 
de la Reina on the Tagus. The battle lasted for two days, 
and ended in the defeat of the French, who fell back towards 
Madrid.* Owing to want of supplies, the British had fought 
in a half-starved condition; and Wellesley now learnt to his sur- 
prise that Soult had passed the mountains and was in his rear. 
Having turned about, he was on the march to attack him, when 
he heard (Aug. 23) that not Soult's corps alone, but three Frendi 
corps, had come through the pass of Bafios without opposition; 
that Soult himself was at Naval Moral, between him and the 
bridge of Almaraz on the Tagus, and that Cuesta was retreating 
from Talavera. Wellesley's force was now in a dangerous 
position: but by withdrawing at once across the Tagus at 
Arzobispo, he reached Jaraicejo and Almaraz (by the south 
bank) blowing up the bridge at Almaraz, and thence moved, 
through Merida, northwards to the banks of the Agueda, 
commendng to fortify the country around Lisbon. 

Elsewhere in the Peninsula during this year, Blake, now 
in Catalonia, after routing Suchet at Alcaniz (May 23, i8oq), 
was defeated by him at Maria (June 1 5) and at Belchite (June 
18); Venegas, by King Joseph and S^basliani, at Almonadd 
on the nth of August; Del Parque (20,000), after a previoiis 
victory near Salamanca (Oct. 18), was overthrown at Alba de 
Tormes by General Marchand (Nov. 28) : the old forces of Vencgtt 
and Cuesta (50,000), now united under Areizaga, were dcdsiv^ 
routed, by King Joseph at Ocafia (Nov.19); and Gerona after 
a gallant defence, had surrendered to Augereau (Dec xo). 

Sir Arthur Wellesley was for this campaign created BaroQ 
Douro and Viscount Wellington. He was made captain-geneial 
by Spain, and marshal-general by Portugal. But his experience 
after Talavera had been akin to that of Moore; his exp^ctatiooi 
from the Spaniards had not been realized; he had bom alnKMt 
intercepted by the French, and he had narrowly escaped fron a 
critical position. Henceforth he resisted all proposals for Joiaft 
operations, on any large scale, with Spanish armies not under 
his own direct command. 

* After the battle the Lii^ht Di>nsion, under Robert CianfiwdL- 

t'oincd Wellesley. In the endeavour to reach the field in ttae k 
lad covered, in heavy marching order, over 50 m. in as boon, it 
hot July weather. 



PENINSULAR WAR 



93 



Campaiim in Pcftugdt j8io. — Napoleon, having avenged 
Aspern by the victory of Wagram (July 6, 1809), despatched to 
Spain Urge rdnforcements destined to increase his army there 
to about 370,000 men. Alarshal Mass^na with 1 20,000, including 
the corps of Nqt, Junot, Rcynier and some of the Imperial 
Guard, was to operate from Salamanca against Portugal; but 
first Soult, appointed major-general of the army in Spain 
(equivalent to chief of the staff), was, with the corps of Victor, 
Morticr and S^basliani (70,000), to reduce Andalusia. Soult 
(Jan. 31, 1810) occupied Seville and escaping thence to Cadiz, 
the Supreme Jimta resigned its powers to a regency of five 
BMmbers (Feb. a, 1810). Cadiz was invested by Victor's corps 
(Feb. 4), and then Soult halted, waiting for Mass^na, who arrived 
tt ValladoUd on the 15 th of May. 

In England a party in parliament were urging the withdrawal 
of the Britli^ troops, and any reverse to the allied arms would 
kave strengthened its hands. Wellington's policy was thus 
cautious ami defensive, and he had already commenced the since 
famous lines of Torres Vedras round Lisbon. In June 1810 his 
headquarters were at Celorico. With about 35,000 British, 
jo.ooo Portuguese regular troops and 30,000 Portuguese militia, 
be watched the roads leading into Portugal past Ciudad Rodrigo 
to the north, and Badajoz to the south of the Tagus, as also the line 
of the Douro and the country between the Elga and the Ponsul. 

Soult having been instructed to co-operate by taking Badajoz 
and Eivos, Mass^na, early in June 18 10, moved forward, and 
Ciudad Rodrigo surrendered to him (June 10). Next pushing 
back a British force under Craufurd, he invested Almeida, 
tiLing it on the a7th of August. Then calling up Reynier, 
«ho during this had moved on his left towards Alcantara, 
he marchnl down the right bank of the Mondcgo, and 
entered Viseu (Sept. ai). Wellington fell back before him 
down the left bank, ordering up Rowland Hill's force from 
the Badajoz road, the peasantry having been previously 
calkd upon to destroy their crops and retire within the lines of 
Torres Vedns. A Uttle north of Coimbra, the road which 
Massina followed crossed the Sierra de Bussaco (Busaco), a very 
strong position where Wellington resolved to offer him battle. 
Mass^na, superior in numbers and over-confident, made a direct 
attack upon the heights on the ayth of September 1810: hu 
^ strength bdng about 60,000, while that of the Allies 
was about 50,000, of whom nearly half were Portu- 
guese. After a stem conflict the French were 
repulsod, the loss being five generals and nearly 5000 
men, wlule the Allies lost about 1300. The next day Mass^na 
tweed the Sierra by the Boyalva Pass and Sardao, which latter 
place, owing to an error, had not been occupied by the Portu- 
guese, and Wellington then retreated by Coimbra and Leiria 
to the lines, which he entered on the nth of October, having 
within them fiilly 100,000 able-bodied men. 

The celebrated " Lines of Torres Vedras " were defensive 
works designed to resist any army which Napoleon could send 
against them. They consisted of three great lines, 
strengthened by about 150 redoubts, and earthworks 
of various descriptions, mounting some 600 cannon; 
the outer line, nearly 30 m. bng, stretching over 
heists north of Lisbon, from the Tagus to the sea. As Moss^na 
advanced, the Portuguese closing upon his rear retook Coimbra 
(Oct. 7), and when he neared the lines, astounded at their strength, 
he sent General Foy to the emperor to ask for reinforcements. 
After an effort, defeated by Hill, to cross the Tagus, he withdrew 
(Nov. 15) to Santarcm. This practically dosed Wellington's 
operations for the year 1810, his policy now being not to lose 
Ben in battle, but to reduce MasUna by hunger and distress. 
In other parts of Spain, Augereau had taken Hostalrich (May 
»); captured Lerida (May 14); Mequinenza (June 8); and 
invested Tortosa (Dec 15). The Spanish levies had been imable 
to contribute much aid to the Allies; the French having subdued 
•Imoit all Spain, and being now in possession of Ciudad Rodrigo 
ud Almeida. On the other hand Welb'ngton still held Lisbon 
•ith parts of Portugal, Elvas and Badajoz, for Soult had not 
Mt disposed to attempt the capture of the last two fortresses. 



jr.aMfL 



Campaign of tSir.—'Szpcliton, whose attention was now 
directed towards Russia, refused to reinforce Mass^na, but 
enjoined Soult to aid him by moving against Badajoz. Soult, 
therefore, leaving Victor before Cadiz, invested Badajoz (Jan. 
26, 181 1) and took it from the Spaniards (March 10). With the 
hope of raising the blockade of Cadiz, a force under Sir Thomas 
Graham (aften^ards Lord Lynedoch [g.v.\) left that harbour by 
sea, and joining with Spanish troops near Tarifa, advanced by 
land against Victor's blockading force, a Spamsh general. La 
PeAa, being in chief command. As they neared Barrosa, Victor 
attacked them, the Allies numbering in the battle about 13,000 
with 3 1 guns, 4000 being British; the French 9000, actually 
engaged, with 14 guns; but with 5000 more a few miles off and 
others in the French lines. Hard fighting, chiefly 
between the French and British, now ensued, and 
at one time the Barrosa ridge, the key of the position 
left by La Pefta's orders, practically undefended, ''"* 
fell into the French hands: but Graham by a resolute 
counter-attack regained it, and Victor was in the end driven 
back. La Pefia, who had in the battle itself failed to give 
proper support to Graham, would not pursue, and Graham 
declining to carry on further operations with him, re-entered 
Cadiz. The French afterwards resumed the blockade, so that 
although Barrosa was an allied victory, its object was not 
attained. The British loss was about laoo; the French aooo, 
6 guns and an eagle. 

On the day of the above battle Mass6na, having destroyed 
what guns he could not horse, and skilfully gained time by a 
feint against Abrantes, began his retreat from before ^ ,,^,^ 
the lines, through Coimbra and EspinhaL His jt^^Mt ' 
army was in serious distress; he was in want of food 
and supplies; most of his horses were dead, and his men were 
deserting. Wellington followed, directing the Portuguese to 
remove all boats from the Mondego and Douro, and to break 
up roads north of the former river. Beresford was detached 
to succour Badajoz, but was soon recalled, as it had fallen to 
Soult. Ney, commanding Mass6na's rearguard, conducted 
the retreat with great ability. In the pursuit, Wellington 
adhered to his policy of husbanding his troops for future offensive 
operations, and let sickness and hunger do the work of the sword. 
This they effectually did. Nothing could well exceed the horrors 
of Mass6na's retreat. Rearguard actions were fought at Pombal 
(March 10), Rcdinha (March 1 2) and Condeixa (March 13). Here 
Ney was directed to moke a firm stand; but, ascertaining that the 
Portuguese were at Coimbra and the bridge there broken, and 
fearing to be cut off also from Murcclla, he burnt Condeixa, 
and marched to Cazal Nova. An action took place here (March 
14) and at Foz d'Arouce (March 15). Wellington now sent off 
Beresford with a force to retake Badajoz; and Mass^na, sacri- 
ficing much of his baggage and ammunition, reached Celorico 
and Guarda (March 21). Here he was attacked by Wellington 
(March 39) and, after a further engagement at Sabugal (April 3, 
181 1), he fell back through Ciudad to Salamanca, having lost 
in Portugal nearly 30,000 men, chiefly from want and disease, 
and 6000 in the retreat alone. 

The key to the remaining operations of 181 1 Ues in the import 
tance attached by both Allies and French to the possession of 
the fortresses which guarded the two great roads from Portugal 
into Spain — Almeida and Ciudad Rodrigo on the northern, and 
Badajoz and Elvas on the southern road; all these except Elvas 
were in French hands. Wellington, on the 9th of April 181 1, 
directed General Spencer to invest Almeida; he then set off 
himself to join Beresford before Badajoz, but after reconnoitring 
the fortress with his lieutenant he had at once to return north 
on the news that Mass£na was moving to relieve Almeida. On 
the 3rd of May Loison attacked him at Fucntes d'Onor near 
Almeida, and Mass^na coming up himself made a more serious 
attack on the sth of May. The Allies numbered g^^^i^ ^ 
about 33,000, with 43 guns; the French 4S»ooo with Pifat— 
30 guns. The battle is chiefly notable for the steadi- ^^.^'^'f, 
ness with which the allied right, covered by the Light ^V'""" 
Division in squares, changed position in presence of the French 



94 



PENINSULAR WAR 



cavalry; and for the cxtraoidiiiary feat of arms of Ci^taiii 
Norman Ramsay, R.I1.A., in charging through the French cavalry 
with his guns. Massina failed to dislodge the Allies, and on 
the 8th of May withdrew to Salamanca, Almeida falling to 
Wellington on the nth of May i8ix. The allied loss in the 
fighting on both days at Fuentes d'Onor was about 1500: the 
French 3000. 

In the meantime Soult (with 23,000 men and $<> Suns)» ad- 
vancing to relieve Badajoa, compdled Beresford to 8uq;)end 
the siege, and to take up a position with about 30,000 
men (of whom 7000 were British) and 38 guns 
behind the river Albuhera (or Albuera). Here 
Soult attacked him on the x6th of May. An unusu- 
ally bloody battle ensued, in which the French efforts were 
chiefly directed against the allied right, held by the Spaniards. 
At one time the right appeared to be broken, and 6 guns were 



mi. 



lost, when a gallant advance of Sir Lowry Cole's division^ "gallantry of the troops made i^ successful, thou{^ with 



restored the day, Soult then falling back towards Seville. The 
allied loss was about 7000 (including about half the British 
force); the French about 8000. 

After this Wellington from Almeida rejoined Beresford and 
the siege of Badajoa was continued: but now Marshal Marmont, 
having succeeded Mass^na, was marching southwards to join 
Soult, and, two allied assaults of Badajoz having failed, Welling- 
ton withdrew. Subsequently, leaving Hill in the Alemtejo, he 
returned towards Almeida, and with 40,000 men commenced 
a blockade of Ciudad Rodrigo, his headquarters being at Fuente 
Guinaldo. Soult and Marmont now fell back, the former to 
Seville, the lattor to the valley of the Tagus, south of the pass of 
Bafios. 

. In September, Marmont joined with the army of the north 
under General Dorsenne, coming from Salamanca— their total 
force being 60,000, with 100 guns — and succeeded (Sept. 35) in 
introducing a convoy of provisions into Ciudad Rodrigo. Before 
so superior a force, Wellington had not attempted to maintain 
the blockade; but on Inlarmont afterwards advancing towards 
him, he fought a reaiguard action with him at El Bodon (Sept. 
25), notable, as was Fuentes d'Onor, for the coolness with which 
the allied squares retired amidst the enemy's horsemen; and 
again at Fuente Guinaldo (Sept. 25 and 36) he maintained for 
30 hours, with 15,000 men, a bold front against Marmont's 
army of 60,000, in order to save the Light Division from being 
cut off. At Aldea de Ponte there was a further sharp engage- 
ment (Sept. 27), but Wellington taking up a strong position near 
Sabu^, Marmont and Dorsenne withdrew once more to the 
valley of the Tagus and Salamanca respectively, and Wellington 
again blockaded Ciudad Rodrigo. 

Thus terminated the main operations of this year. On the 
38th of October 181 1, Hill, by a very skilful surprise, captured 
Arroyo de bs Molinos (between Badajoz and TrujiUo), almost 
Annihilating a French corps under Gfrard; and in December 181 1 
the French were repulsed in their efforts to capture Tarifa near 
Cadiz. In the east of Spain Suchet took Tortosa (Jan. i, 181 1) ; 
Tarragona (June 38); and Murviedro (Oct. 26), defeating Blake's 
relieving force, which then took refuge in Valencia. Macdonald 
also retook Figueras which the Spaniards had taken on the 9th 
of April 181 1 (Aug. 19). Portugal had now been freed from the 
French, but they still held Qudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, the 
two main gates into Spain. 

Campaign in Spain^ t8i2\ — ^The campaign of 181 3 marks an 
important stage in the war. Napoleon, with the Russian War in 
prospect, had early in the year withdrawn 30,000 men from 
Spain; and Wellington had begun to carry on what he termed a 
war of " magazines." Based on rivers (the navigation of which 
greatly improved) and the sea, he formed d£p6ts or magazines 
pf provisions at many points, which enabled him always to take 
and keep the field. Tlie French, on the other hand, had great 
difficulty in establishing any such reserves of food, owing to 
their practice of depending for sustenance entirely upon the 
country in which they were quartered. Wellington assumed 
the offensive, and by various movements and feints, aided the 
guerrilU bands by iordng the French coips to assemble in their 



districts, which not only greatly harassed them but also materi- 
ally hindered the combination of their corps for concerted action. 
Having secretly got a battering train into Almeida and directed 
Hill, as a blind, to engage Soult by threatening Badajos, be 
suddenly (Jan. 8, 181 3) besieged Ciudad Rodrigo. 

The French, still nimibering neariy 300,000, now hdd the 
following positions: the Army of the North — Dorsenne (48,000)— 
was about the Pisuerga, in the Asturias, and along the northern 
coast; the Army of Portugal — Marmont (50,000) — mainly in 
the valley of the Tagus, but ordered to Salamanca; the Army <rf 
the South — ^Soult (55,000) — in Andalusia; the Army of the Centre 
— ^Joseph (19,000) — about Madrid. 

The siege of Ciudad Rodrigo was calculated in the ordinary 
course to require twenty-four days: but on it becoming known that 
Marmont was moving northward, the assault was 
delivered after twelve days only (Jan. 19). The 



19, laa. 



the loss of Generals Craufuc4 and McKinnon,and 1300 
men, and Marmont's battering train of 150 guns here 
fell into the allied hands. Then, -after a fdnt of passing on into 
Spain, Wellington rapidly marched south and, with 32,000 men, 
laid siege to Badajoz (March 17, 181 3), Hill with 30,000 covering 
the si^e near Merida. Wellington was hampered by want of 
time, and had to assault prcmaturdy. Soult and Marmont 
having begun to move to xelieve the garrison, the assault 
delivered on the night of the 7th of April, and 
though the assailants failed at the breaches, the 
carnage at which was terrible, a very daring escalade Mantirf 
of one of the bastions and of the castle succeeded, '**'*''• **^ 
and Badajoz fdl, Soult's pontoon train being taken in it. After 
the assault, some deplorable excesses were committed by the 
victorious troops. The allied loss was 3600 in the assault alone 
and 5000 in the entire siege. 

The Allies had now got possession of the two great gates into 
Spain: and Hill, by an enterprise most skilfully carried out, 
destroyed (May 19) the Tagus bridge at Almaraz, by which 
Soult to the south of the river chiefly conunimicated with Mar- 
mont to the north. Wellington then, ostentatiously making 
preparations to enter Spain by the Badajoz line, once more 
turned northward, crossed the Tonnes (June 17, 1812), and 
advanced to the Douro, behind which the French were drawn 
up. Marmont had erected at Salamanca some strong forts, 
the reduction of which occupied Wellington ten days, and cost 
him 600 men. The Allies and French now faced each other along 
the Douro to the Pisuerga. The river was high, and Wellingt<Hi 
hoped that want of supplies would compel Marmont to retire 
but in this he was disappointed. 

On the 15th of July 181 2, Marmont, after a feint against 
Wellington's left, suddenly, by a forced march, turned ha 
right, and made rapidly towards the fords of Huerta and Alba 
on the Tormes. Some interesting manoeuvres now took place, 
Wdlington moving parallel and close to Marmont, but more 
to the north, making for the fords of Aldea Lengua and 
Santa Marta on the Tormes nearer to Salamanca, and bdng 
under the belief that the Spaniards held the castle and ford at 
Alba on tliat river. But Marmont's manoeuvring and marching 
power had been underestimated, and on the 21st of July while 
Wellington's position covered Salamanca, and but indirectly 
his line of communications through Qudad Rodrigo, MarmoM 
had reached a point from which he hoped to inteipose between 
Wellington and Portugal, on the Ciudad Rodrigo road. Th» 
he endeavoured to do on the 22nd of July 18 12, whidi brou^it 
on the important battle of Salamanca {q,v.) in which 
Wellington gained a decisive victory, the French 
falling back to Valladolid and thence to Burgos, f^^* 
Wellington entered Valladolid (July 30), and thence ^^ 
marched against Joseph, who (July 21) had reached Blasoo 
Sancho with reinforcements for Marmont. Joseph retired 
before him, and Wellington entered Madrid (Aug. 12, iSxa), 
where, in the Retiro, 1700 men, 180 cannon, two eagles, and a 
quantity of stores were captured. Soult now raised the siege 
of Cadiz (Aug. 26), and evacuating Andalusia joined Sucbet 



PENINSULAR WAR 



95 



00.21. 



with some ssjooo men. Wellington then brought up Hill to 
Madrid. 

On the ist of September 1812, the French armies having begun 
«nce more to collect together, Welh'ngton marched against the 
^Army of the North, now under General Clausel, and 
laid siege to the castle of Burgos (Sept. 19) to secure 
the road towards Santander on the coast. But the 
strength of the castle had been underrated; 
Wellington had insufficient siege equipment and 
transport for heavy guns; five assaults failed, and Soult (having 
left Suchet in Valencia) and also the Army of Portugal were 
both am>foacliing, so Wellington withdrew on the night of the 
aist of October, and, directing the evacuation of 
Madrid, conunenccd the " Retreat from Burgos." 
In this retreat, although military operations were 
ikilfttlly conducted, the Allies lost 7000 men, and discipline, "as 
in that to Corunna, became much relaxed. 

By November 181 2, Hill having joined him at Salamanca, 
Wellington once more had gone into cantonments near Ciudad 
Rodrigo, and the French armies had again scattered for con- 
fcnieoce of supply. In spite of the failure before Burgos, the 
successes of the campaign had been brilliant. In addition to 
the decisive victory of Salamanca, Madrid had been occupied, 
the si^e of Cadiz raised, Andalusia freed, and Ciudad Rodrigo 
and Badajoz stormed. Early in January also the French had 
abandoned the siege of Tarifa, though Valencia had surrendered 
to tl^m (Jan. 9). One important result of the campaign was 
that the Spanish Cortes nominated Wellington (Sept. 7i, 181 a) 
to the unfettered command of the Spanish armies. For the 
operatKms of this campaign Wellington was created earl, and 
subsequently marquess of Wellington; duke of Ciudad Rodrigo 
by Spain, and marquis of Torres Vedras by Portugal. 

Campaign in Spain and the South of France, i8jj. — ^At the 
opening of 1813, Suchet, with 63,000 men, had been left to hold 
Valencia, Aragon and Catalonia; and the remainder of the 
Fnmcfa (about 137,000) occupied Leon, the central provinces and 
Biscay, giiarding also the communications with France. Of 
these about 60,000 under Joseph were more immediately 
opposed to Wellington, and posted, in scattered detachments, 
from Toledo and Madrid behind the Tonnes to the Douro, and 
along that river to the Esla. Wellington had further organized 
the Spanish forces — Castafios (40,000), with the guerrilla bands 
of Mina, Longa and others, was in Galicia, the Asturias and 
northern Spain; Copons (10,000) in Catalonia; Elio (30,000) in 
Morcia; Del Parque (ia,ooo) in the Sierra Morena, and O'Donell 
(x5/}oo) in Andalusia. More Portuguese troops had been 
raised, and reinforcements received from England, so that the 
Allies, without the Spaniards above alluded to, now numbered 
some 75,000 men, and from near the Coa watched the Douro and 
ToniMS, their line stretching from their left near Lamego to the 
pass oi Ba&os, Hill being on the right. The district of the Tras- 
os-Montes, north of the Douro, about the Tamega, Tua and 
SaboTt was so rugged that Wellington was convinced that 
Joseph would expect him to advance by the south of the river. 
He therefore, moving by the south bank himself with Hill, to 
confirm Joseph in this expectation, crossed the Tormes near and 
above Salamanca, having previously — which was to be the 
deceive movement — detached Graham, with 40,000 men, to 
make his way, through the difficult district above mentioned, 
towards Braganza, and then, joining with the Spaniards, to turn 
Joseph's right. Graham, crossing the Douro near Lamego, 
cirried out his laborious march with great energy, and Joseph 
letired precipitately from the Douro, behind the Pisucrga. The 
aSied army, raised by the junction of the Spanish troops in 
Galida to 90,000, now concentrated near Toro, and moved to- 
wards the Ksueiga, when Joseph, blowing up the castle of 
Burgos, fell back behind the Ebro. Once more Wellington 
tnroed his right, by a sweeping movement through Rocamunde 
sad Poente Arenas near the source of the Ebro, when he retreated 
hduod the Zadorra near the town of Vitoria. 

Santander was now evacuated by the French, and the allied 
inc of communications was changed to that port. On the 20th 



of June Welh'ngton encamped along the river Bayas, and the 
next day attacked Joseph. For a description of the decisive 
battle of Vitoria (June 21, 1813), see Vitowa. In it Baai»0i 
King Joseph met with a crushing defeat, and, after vifrtt, 
it, the wreck of his army, cut off from the Vitoria- Jmmtli, 
Bayonne road, escaped towards Pampeluna. Within '*"' 
a few days Madrid was evacuated, and all the French forces, 
with the exception of the garrisons of San Sebastian (3000), 
Pampeluna (3000), Santona (1500), and the troops under Suchet 
holding posts in Catalonia and Valencia, had retired across the 
Pyrenees into France. The Spanish peninsula was, to all 
intents and purposes, free from foreign domination, although 
the war was yet far from concluded. The Fiendi struggled 
gallantly to the dose: but now a long succession of their leaders 
— ^Junot, Soult, Victor, Mass6na, Marmont, Joseph — had been 
in turn forced to recoil before Wellington; and while their troopa 
fought henceforward under the depressing memory of many 
defeats, the Allies did so under the inspiriting influence of great 
successes, and with that absolute confidence in their chief 
which doubled their fighting power. 

For this decisive campaign, Wellington was made a field 
marshal in the British army, and created duke of Victory' 
by the Portuguese government in Brazil. He now, with about 
80,000 men, took up a position with his left (the Spaniards) on 
the Bidassoa near San Sebastian. Thence his line stretched 
along the Pyrenees by the passes of Vera, Echallar, Maya and 
Roncesvalles, to Altobiscar; his immediate object now being 
to reduce the fortresses of San Sebastian and Pampeluna. Not 
having sufficient matfnel for two sieges, he laid siege to Sah 
Sebastian only, and blockaded Pampeluna. Sir Thomas Graham 
commenced the active siege of San Sebastian on the loth of 
July 1 813, but as Soult was approaching to its relief, the assault 
was ordered for daylight on the 24th. Unfortunately 
a conflagration breaking out near the breaches 
caused it to be postponed until nightfall, when, the •'■6''^^^ 
breaches in the interval having been strengthened, *"* 
it was delivered unsuccessfully and with heavy loss. Wellington 
then suspended the siege in order to meet Soult, who endeavoured 
(July 25) to turn the alh'ed right, and reach Pampeluna: 
Attacking the passes of Maya and Roncesvalles, he obliged their 

defenders to retire, after sharp fighting, to a position 

close to Sorauren, which, with 25,000 men, he th»i 
attempted to carry (July 28). By this lime Welhng- m09M,Jufy*9 
ton had reached it from the allied left; reinforcements Sii*'**'* 
were pressing up on both sides, and about 1 2,000 allied 
troops faced the French. A struggle, described by Wellington as 
" bludgeon work," now ensued, but all efforts to dislodge the 
Allies having failed, Soult, withdrawing, manoeuvred to his right 
towards San Sebastian. Wellington now assumed the offensive, 
and, in a scries of engagements, drove the French back (Atig. 2) 
beyond the Pyrenees. These included Roncesvalles and Maya 
(July 25); Sorauren (July 28 and 30); Yanzi (Aug. i); and 
Echallar and Ivantelly (Aug. 2), the total losses in them being 
about — Allies under 7000, French 10,000. After this, Wellington 
renewing the siege of San Sebastian carried the pUce, excepting 
the castle, after a heavy expenditure of life (Aug. 31). Ufwn 
the day of its fall Soult attempted to relieve it, but siorm9tSam 
in the combats of Vera and St Mardal was repulsed. SebaMtiaa, 
The castle surrendered on the 9th of September, ^^^^'* 
the losses in the entire siege having been about — 
Allies 4000, French 2000. Wellington next determined to throw 
his left across the river Bidassoa to strengthen his own position, 
and secure the port of Fuenterrabia. 

Now commenced a series of celebrated river passages, which 
had to be effected prior to the further invasion of France. At 
daylight on the 7th of October 18x3 he crossed the Bidassoa in 
seven columns, and attacked the entire French position, 
which stretched in two heavily entrenched lines from north 

^ Duque da Victoria, often incorrectly duke of Vitoria. The 
cmncioence of the title with the place-name of the battle which had 
not yet been fought when the title was conferred, is curious, but 
accidental 



I 



96 



PENINSULAR WAR 



of the Irun-Bayonne road, along mountain spurs to the Great 
Rhune, aSoo ft. high. The decisive movement was a passage in 
f^^gggg strength near Fuenterrabia, to the astonishment of 
otau the enemy, who in view of the width of the river 
BUatBoa, and the shifting sands, had thought the crossing 
Octobtrf, impossible at that point. The French right was 
'^'^ then rolled back, and Soult was unable to reinforce his 

right in time to retrieve the day. His works fcU in succession 
after hard fighting, and he withdrew towards the river Nivelle. 
The loss was about — Allies, 1600; French, 140a The passage 
of the Bidassoa " was a general's not a soldiers' battle " 
(Napier). 

On the 31st of October Pampduna surrendered, and Welling- 
ton was now anxious to drive Suchet from Catalom'a before 
further invading France. The British government, however, 
in the interests of the continental powers, urged an immediate 
advance, so on the night of the 9th of November 181 3 he 
brought up his right from the Pyrenean passes to the northward 
of Maya and towards the Nivelle. Soult's army (about 79,000), 
in three entrenched lines, stretched from the sea in front of St 
Jean de Luz along commanding ground to Amotx and thence, 
behind the river, to Mont Mondarin near the Nive. Each army 
had with it about 100 guns; and, during a heavy cannonade, 
Wellington on the loth of November 1813 attacked this extended 
Am«m* ^ position of x6 m. in five columns, these being so 
thaWvdht directed that after carrying Soult's advanced works 
Nov. 10, 4 mass of about 50,000 men converged towards the 
"^ French centre near Amotz, where, after hard fighting, 

it swept away the 18,000 of the second line there opposed to it, 
cutting Soult's army in two. The French right then fell back to 
St Jean de Luz, the left towards points on the Nive. It was now 
late and the Allies, after moving a few miles down both banks 
of the NiveUe, bivouacked, while Soult, taking advantage of the 
respite, withdrew in the night to Bayonne. The allied loss was 
about 2700; that of the French 4000, 51 guns, and all their 
magazines. The next day Wellington closed in upon Bayonne 
from the sea to the left bank of the Nive. 

After this there was a period of comparative inaction, though 
during it the French were driven from the bridges at Urdains 
and Cambo. The weather had become bad, and the Nive 
unfordablc; but there were additional and serious causes of 
delay. The Portuguese and Spanish authorities were neglecting 
the payment and supply of their troops. Wellington had also 
difficulties of a similar kind with his own government, and also 
the Spanish soldiers, in revenge for many French outrages, had 
become guilty of grave excesses in France, so that Wellington 
took the extreme step of sending 25,000 of them back to Spain 
and resigning the command of their army, though his resignation 
was subsequently withdrawn. So great was the tension at 
this crisis that a rupture with Spain seemed possible. These 
matters, however, having been at length adjusted, Wellington, 
who in his cramped position between the sea and the Nive could 
not use his cavalry or artillery eflectivcly, or interfere with the 
French supplies coming through St Jean Pied de Port, deter- 
mined to occupy the right as well as the left bank of the Nive. 
He could not pass to that bank with his whole force while Soult 
held Bayonne, without exposing his own communications 
through Irun. Therefore, on the 9th of December 1813, after 
making a demonstration elsewhere, he effected the passage with 
PmasMgtot ^ portion of his force only under Hill and Beresford, 
tb0NJv», near Ustaritz and Cambo, his loss being slight, and 
Dtc9, thence pushed down the river towards ViUcfranquc, 
'**'• where Soult barred his way across the road to 

Bayonne. The allied army was now divided into two portions 
by the Nive; and Soult from Bayonne at once took advantage 
of his central position to attack it with all his available force, 
first on the left bank and then on the right. On the morning 
of the loth of December be fell, with 60,000 men and 40 guns, 
upon Hope, who with 30,000 men and 34 guns held a position 
from the sea, 3 m. south of Biarritz on a ridge behind two lakes 
(or tanks) through Arcangues towards the Nive. Desperate 
fighting now ensued, but fortunately, owing to the intersected 



ground, Soult was compelled to advance slowly, and in the end, 
Wellington coming up with Beresford from the right bank, the 
French retired baffled. On the nth and 12th of BatUga 
December there were engagements of a less severe ^^^_ 

character, and finally on the 13th of December Soult 

with 35,000 men made a vehement attack up the oun^Z" 
right bank of the Nive against Hill, who with about Dw. W'MM, 
14,000 men occupied some heights from Villefranque ''Al. 
past St Pierre (Lostenia) to Vieux Moguerre. The conflict about 
St Pierre (Lostenia) was one of the most bloody of the war; but 
for hours Hill maintained his ground, and finally repulsed the 
French before Wellington, delayed by his pontoon bridge over 
the Nive having been swept away, arrived to his aid. The losses 
in the four days' fighting in the battles before Bayonne (or battlei 
of the Nive) were — ^Allies about 5000, French about 7000. Both 
the British and Portuguese artillery, as well as infantxy, greatly 
distinguished themselves in these battles. 

In eastern Spain Suchet (April 11, 1813) had defeated Elio*s 
Murdans at Yccla and Villcna, but was subsequently routed 
by Sir John Murray* near Castalla (April 13), who then besieged 
Tarragona. The siege was abandoned after a time, but was 
later on renewed by Lord W. Bentinck. Suchet, after the 
battle of Vitoria, evacuated Tarragona (Aug. 17) but defeated 
Bentinck in the combat of Ordal (Sept. 13). 

Campaign in the South of France, 1814. — When operations re- 
commenced in February 1814 the French line extended from 
Bayonne up the north bank of the Adour to the Pau, thence 
bending south along the Bidouze to St Palais, with advanced 
posts on the Joyeuse and at St Jean Pied de Port. Wellington's 
left, imder Hope, watched Bayonne, while Beresford, with Hill, 
observed the Adour and the Joyeuse, the right trending back 
till it reached Urcuray on the St Jean Pied de Port road. Exclu- 
sive of the garrison of Bayonne and other places, the available 
field force of Soult numbered about 41,000, while that of the 
Allies, deducting Hope's force observing Bayonne, was of much 
the same strength. It had now become Wellington's object 
to draw Soult away from Bayonne, in order that the allied army 
might, with less loss, cross the Adour and lay siege to the place 
on both banks of the river. 

At its mouth the Adour was about 500 yds. wide, and its 
entrance from the sea by small vessels, except in the finest 
weather, was a perilous undertaking, owing to the shifting sands 
and a dangerous bar. On the other hand, the deep sandy soil 
near its banks made the transport of bridging matirid by land 
laborious, and almost certain of discovery. Wellington, con- 
vinced that no effort to bridge below Bayonne would be expected, 
decided to attempt it there, and collected at St Jean Pied de 
Port and Passages a large number of country vessels (termed 
chasse-marUs). Then, leaving Hope with 30,000 men to watch 
Bayonh^, he began an enveloping movement round Soult's 
left. Hill on the 14th and 15th of February, after a combat 
at Garris, drove the French posts beyond the Joyeuse; and 
Wellington then pressed these troops back over the Bidouze 
and Gave* de Maulcon to the Gave d'Oleron. Wellington's 
object in this was at once attained, for Soult, leaving only xo,ooo 
men in Bayonne, came out and concentrated at Orthes on the 
Pau. Then Wellington (Feb. 19) proceeded to St Jean de Lus 
to superintend the despatch of ix)ats to the Adour. Unfavour- 
able weather, however, compelled him to leave this. to Sir 
John Hope and Admiral Penrose, so returning to the Gave 
d'Oleron he crossed it, and faced Soult on the Pau (Feb. 35). 
Hope in the meantime, after feints higher up the Adour, suc- 
ceeded (Feb. 22 and 23) in passing 600 men across Pmrttgff 
the river in boats. The nature of the ground, tbaA^mmn 
and there being no suspicion of an attempt at this ^tk.2iim 
point, led to the French coming out very tardily to ^fc**'^ 
oppjose them; and when they did, some Congreve rockets 
(then a novelty) threw them into confusion, so that the right 
bank was held until, on the morning of the 24th, the flotilla of 

* Commander of a British expedition from the Mediterranean 
islands. 

* "Cave" in the Pyrenees means a mountain stream or toncat* 



PENINSULAR WAR 97 

itiiw mnhi ^ipeind (roirt St Jon it Lui, preceded by mea- tbc i6lh of Januu?, iiucktd Suclict it Molini de Rcy and 

Dl-nr boau. Scvcnl men and vcucls -nm l»t ia ciussing Ibe blofkided Bircclani (Ffb. ^)■, Ihc French po5t> ol Lciidi, 

W^ but by HOOD on tbc i6lb of Fcbruiiy Ili« bridgs of nb Mcquiacnu and Monzon had alio been yielded up, and Sucbet, 

iBSdt had bttn ihroini and iwiitcd; batioirs and a boom on ihe md ol March, had rmsidd the Pyrgnrrj into France 

[licrd 10 protect it, 8000 troops pused aver, aod the eneitiy's Figueru surrendered 10 Cucslaberaic the end of May; and peace 

pmbcBta driven up the river. Bayoone vaa then invesled on wtl lomially signed al Paris on the joth o[ May. 
both banka aa a preliminary lo the ucge. Thus lerminaled the long and sanguinary ilrxiggle of the 

Ob Uk i;tli of February WeUinglon, having with lillle Ion PeouuuLicWar. TheBrlLishlroopi were partly tent to England, 

drcted the pauage of the Pau below OnhD, attacked Soull. and partly embarked at Bordeaui for America, with which 

blhahaltlE the AUiesand French were ol about equal strenglh country war bid broken out (see AUEalcaM Wai 01 iSiI-ts); 

Ijifloo): the former having ^S guni, the lallcr 40. Soult held Ihe Portuguese and Spanish rccrosjed the Pyrenees; the French 

■— >. ^ a tlTOng position behind Orthes on heights fommand- army was dispersed throughout France: Louis XVIII was 

Hk ing the mads to Dai and St Sever. Bcresford wai restored to the French throne; and Napoleon was permitted 

f^tr, directed to turn his right. If possible cutting bim off to reside in the island of Elba, Ihe sovereignly of which had been 

*^ from Dai, and Hill his left towards the St Sever road, conceded to him by the allied powers. For the operatuni 

Bertjfori's aHack, after hard fighting over difficult ground, was of this campaign Welhngton was created marquess of Doura 

Ionised, when Wellington, perceiving that the pursuing French and duke of Wellington, and peerages were conferred upon 

bid kit a central part of the heights unoccupied, tbnist up the Bercslord, Graham and Hill, 

light Diviuon into it, between Soult's right and centre. At Ihe The evcnls of the Peninsular War, especially as namled 

tiat lime Hitl, having found a ford above Oilhes, was turning in Ihe Wellington Despatches, are replete with Instruction not 

lie French led, when Soull retreated just in time lo save bong only for Ihe soldier, but also for Ihe civil administrator. Even 

est oS. withdrawing towards St Sever, which he readied on the in > brief summary of Ihe war one salient fact is itoticeable, 

ilih of February. The allied loss WIS about leooj Ihe French that all Wellington's reverses were in conneiion with his sieges, 

isoD icd 6 moa. lor which his means were never adequate. In his nuuy battles 

Hwards to Aire, "here he he was always victorious, his tltalcgy emincniiy successlul, 

Toulouse, Bercslord. with his organizing and »dministrative power exceptionally great, 

Ij.ocD mm, was now sent to Bordeaux, which opened its gates as his practical resource unlimited, his soldiers most courageous; 

pnniiei 10 the Allies. Driven by Hill from Aire on the 3nd of hut he never had an army fully complete in its departmenU 

hUrth [B14, SouJt retired by Vic Bigorte, where then was a and warlike equipment. He had no adequate cori>s ol sappen 

Ctfnbal (March rg), and Tatbes, where there was a severe action and miners, or tran^wrt train. In 1813 tools and material 

(March 10), to Toulouse behind the Garonne. He endeavoured of war lor his sieges were often insufficient. In 1813, when he 

aba lo rouse the French peasantry against the Allies, but In was before San Sebastian, the ammunition ran shorti a batlering 

Tain, foe Wcllinglon's justice and moderation afforded them no train, long demanded, reached him not ordy some time after 

. , . . J i^ji^ Garonne above it was needed, hut even then with only one day's provision of 

the south — iti weakest shot and shell. For the siege of Burgos heavy guns were avail- 

Soult and Suchet. But finding it able In store on the coast; but he neither had, nor could procure, 

operate in that direction, he left HOI on the the transport to bring them up. By resource and dogged 

•mrst Side and creased at Grenade below Toulouse (April 3). determination Wellington rose superior to almost every di& 

WbcB BcRsford, who had now rejoined Wellington, had passed cully, but he could not overcome all; and the main leaching of 

me, the bridge was swept away, which left him isolated on the the Peninsular War turns upon tbc value ol an army that u 

i^^ btnk. But Soult did not attack; the bridge (April 8) comptelcly organized in ils various branches before hostilities 

wti nstcired; Wellington crossed Ihe Garonne and the Ers, and break out. (C. W. R.) 

Iltacked Soalt on the lolh of April. In ihe battle of Toulouse 
t^ French numbered about 40,000 (eiclusive ol the local 
Naluoal Guards] with £0 guns; the AHies under 57,000 with 64 
gnus, Soult's position to the north and east of the 
dly was eiceedin^y strong, consisting of the canal 
of iHaogucdoc, some lartified suburbs, And (to the 

oewBld with redoubts and earthworks, Wellington's columns, 
Bftte Beresfofd, were now called upon to make a flank mareh 
(i amt two miles, under artillery, and occauonally musketry, 
in, being threatened also by cavalry, and then, while the 
Spaaidi troops aiaaulted the north of the ridge, to wheel up, 

BdtBl the exstem slope, and cany the works. .The Sparuards 

■BE Rpobed, but Beresford gallantly took Mont Rave and 

Seofc fell back behind the canal. On the t ilh of April Welling- 

!■ Hhuced to invest Toulouse from Ihe loulh, but Soull on 

tie Bi^ of Ibe ttth had retreated towards Villelranque, and 

Vdlington then entered the city. The allied loss was about 

foa. the FiEoch >cdo. Thus, in Ihe last great battle of the 

nr, the coinage and resolution of the soldiets ol the Pcninsubr 

ifaiy were conspicuously illustrated. 
On Ibe ijlh ol April 1814 officers arrived with Ihe announce- 

■cnt to both armies ol the capture ol Paris, Ihe abdication of 

iSth 1 cooventbn, which included Suchct's locce." was entered 
■to bnwteo Wellinglon and Soult. Unfortunalely, alter 
Tgdcme had fallen, Ihe Allies and French, in a sortie Inm 
Wymoe oa Ihe 14th of April, each lost about rooo men; so 
■kii noie 10,000 men fell alter peace had virtually been made, 
ii Ihe east, duriw Ihli yeu (1814), Sir W. Clmlon had, on 



r 



98 



PENISCOLA— PENITENTIARY 



Censral Craufurd and his Li^ Divisum (London, 1891) ; ^1 
Larpcnt, Private Journal of F. S. Larpenl durine the Peninsular War 



Sr Geoive 
. during the Peninsular V^r 
(London, 1853); Major-oeneral H. D. Hutchinson, Orations in 
the Peninsula, 1808-9 (London, 1905); The Dickson MSS., betnt 
Journals of Major-Ceneral Sir Alexander Dickson during the Penin- 
sular War (Woolwich, 1907). 

PEAISCOLA, a town of eastern Spain, in the province of Cas- 
teU6n de la Plana, and on the Mediterranean Sea, 5 m. by road 
S. of Benicarl6. Pop. (1900), 3142. Pefiiscola, often called the 
Gibraltar of Valencia, is a fortified seaport, with a lighthouse, 
built on a rocky headland about 220 ft. high, and only joined 
to the mainland by a narrow strip of sand. Originally a 
Moorish stronghold, it was captured in 1233 by James 1. of 
Aragon, who entrusted it to the Knights Templar. In the 
14th century it was garrisoned by the knights of Montesa, and 
in 1420 it reverted to the Crown. From 141 5 it was the home 
of the schismatic pope Benedict XIII. (Pedro de Luna), whose 
name is commemorated in the Bufador de Papa Luna, a curious 
cavern with a landward entrance through which the sea-water 
escapes in clouds of- spray. 

PENITENTIAL (Lat. poenitenlide, lihdlus poenitentialis, 
&c.), a manual used by priests of the Catholic Church for 
guidance in assigning the penance due to sins. Such manuals 
played a large r61e in the early middle ages, particularly in 
Ireland, England and Frankland, and their iniSuence in the 
moral education of the barbarian races has not received 
sufficient attention from historians. They were mainly com- 
posed of canons drawn from various councils and of dicta from 
writings of some of the fathers. Disciplinary regulations in 
Christian communities are referred to from the very borders of the 
apostolic age, and a system of careful oversight of those admitted 
to the mysteries developed steadily as the membership grew 
and dangers of contamination with the outside world increased. 
These were the elaborate precautions of the catechumenate, and 
— as a bidwark against the persecutions — ^the rigid system known 
as the Discipline of the Secret (disci fdina or cant). The treat- 
ment of the lapsed, which produced the Novatian heresy, was 
also responsible for what has frequently been referred to as 
the first penitential. This is the lihdlus in which, according 
to Cyprian {Ep. 51), the decrees of the African synods of 251 
and 255 were embodied for the guidance of the clergy in dealing 
with their repentant and returning flocks. This manual, 
which has been lost, was evidently not like the code-like com- 
pilations of the 8th century, and it is somewhat misleading to 
speak of it as a penitential. Jurisdiction in penance was still 
too closely limited to the upper ranks of the clergy to call forth 
such literature. Besides the bishop an official well versed 
in the penitential regulations of the Church, called the poeni- 
tentiarius, assigned due penalties for sins. For their guidance 
there was considerable condliar legislation {e.g. Ancyra, Nicaea, 
Neocaesarea, &c.)> ftnd certain patristic letters which had 
acquired almost the force of decretals. Of the latter the 
most important were the three letters of St Basil of Cacsarea 
((i- 379) to Bishop Amphilochus of Iconium containing over 
eighty headings. 

Three things tended to develop these rules into something 
like a system of penitential law. These were the development 
of auricular confession and private penance; the extension of 
the penitential jurisdiction among the clergy owing to the 
growth of a parochial priesthood; and the necessity of adapting 
the penance to the primitive ideas of law prevailing among the 
newly converted barbarians, especially the idea of compensation 
by the wergild. In Ireland in the middle of the 5th century 
ipp^Lied the " canons of St Patrick." In the first half of the 
next century these were followed by others, notably those of 
St Finian (d. 552). At the same time the Celtic British Church 
produced the penitentials of St Davjd of Menevia (d. 544) and 
of Gildas (d. 583) in addition to synodal legislation. These 
furnished the material to Columban (d. 615) for his Liber de 
poenitentia and his monastic rule, which had a great influence 
upon the continent of Europe. The Anglo-Saxon Church 
was later than the Irish, but under Theodore of Tarsus (d.690), 
archbishop of Canterbury, the practice then in force was made 



the basis of the most important of all penitentials. The 
Poenitenliale Tkeodort became the authority in the Church's 
treatment of sinners for the next four centuries, both in Kngbn^ 
and elsewhere in Europe. The original text, as prepared by 
a disdple of Theodore, and embodying his decisions, is given 
in Haddan and Stubbs's Councils and Ecclesiastical DocumenU 
rdating to Great Britain and Irdand (iii. 173 seq.). A 
Penitentiale Commeani (St Cumian), dating apparently from 
the early 8th century, was the third main source of Prankish 
pem'tentials. The extent and variety of this literature led the 
Gallican Church to exercise a sort of censorship in order to 
secure uniformity. After numerous synods. Bishop Haltigar 
of Cambrai was commissioned by Ebo of Reims in 829 to prepare 
a definitive edition. Haltigar used, among his other materials, 
a so-called poenitenliale romanum, which was really of Prankish 
origin. The canons printed by David Wilkins in his ConcSi* 
(1737) as being by Ecgbcrt of York (d. 767) are largely a transla* 
tion into Anglo-Saxon of three books of Haltigar*s penitentials. 
In 841 Hrabanus Maurus imdertook a new Liber poeniterUittm 
and wrote a long letter on the subject to Heribald of Auxerre 
about 853. Then followed the treatise of Reginon of Pnim 
in 906, and finally the collection made by Burchard, bishop of 
Worms, between 1012 and 1023. The codification of the canon 
law by Gratian and the change in the sacramental position <tf 
penance in the Z2th century closed the history of penitentials. 

Much* controversy has arisen over the question whether 
there was an official papal penitential It is claimed that 
(quite apart from Haltigar's poenitenliale romanum) sudi a 
set of canons existed early in Rome, and the attempt has been 
made by H. J. Schmitz in his learned treatise on penitentiab 
{BuszbiUker und das kanonische Buszverfahreny 1883 and 1898) 
to establish their pontifical character. The matter is still in 
dispute, Schmitz's thesis not having met with univetial 
acceptance. 

In addition to the works mentioned above the one important woilc 
on the penitentials was L. W. H. Wasserachleben's epoch-makiag 
studv and collection of texts. Die Bustordnungen der abendldndi$ckem 
Kirche nebst einer rechtsgeschuhtlichen Einlettung (Halle, 1851). 
Se«t articles in Wctzer and Welte's Kirchenlexikon, Hauck's Ail- 
encyklopadie, and Haddan and Stubbs's Councils. See also Seehw 
in Zettschrift fUr Ktrchengeschuhte, xviii. 58. On the canoos of 
St Patrick see the Life of Sir Patrick by J. B. Bury (pp. 233-275). 

PENITENTIARY (med. Lat. poenitenttarius, from poenitmik, 
penance, poena, punishment, a term used both as adjective ai4 
substantive, referring either to the means of repentance or 
that of punishment. In its ecclesiastical use the word is uaad 
as the equivalent both of the Latin poenitenliarius, " pmitmtiMy 
priest," and pomitentiaria, the dignity or office of a ^mmVirf 
arius. By an extension of the latter sense the name is appfiei 
to the department of the Roman Curia knOwn as the apostoMc 
penitentiary {sacra poenilentiaria aposlolica), presided over 
Dy the cardinal grand penitentiary {major poenUentiarim, 
Ital. penitetaiere maggiore) and having jurisdiction more paitict* 
larly in all questions in Jforo interna reserved for the Holy Sm 
(see CuKiA Romana). In general, the poenitenttarius , or pdfr 
tentiary priest, is in each diocese what the grand penitcnliuy 
is at Rome, i.e. he is appointed to deal with all cases of c o na ci caBi 
reserved for the bishop. In the Eastern Church there are vof 
early notices of such appointments; so far as the West is 
cerned, Hinschius {Kirckenrecht, i. 428, note a) quotes frat-j 
the chronicle of Bemold, the monk of St Blase (c xo54-zxos||^/ 
as the earliest record of such appointment, that made hr^ 
the papal legate Odo of Ostia in X054. In 1215 the fonitt^ 
Laterata Council, by its zoth canon, ordered suitable mca 
be ordained in all cathedral and conventual chozdies, to 
as coadjutors and assistants to the bishops in hearing confc 
and imposing penances. The rule was not immediately 
universally obeyed, the bishops being slow to delegate 
special powers. Finally, however, the council off l^w&t 
xxiv. cap. viiL de reform.) ordered that, " wherever it 
convem'ently be done," the bishop.should appoint in his « 
a poenitentiarius, who should be a doctor or licentiate in 
or canon law and at least forty years of age. 



PENKRIDGE— PENN, WILLIAM 



99 



See P. Hinflduus, Kirckenreckt, I 4^, &c. (Beriin. 1869); Du 
Canae. Glossariitm i.». " Poenitentiarius " ; Henog-Hauckt Real- 
€mcjU0pid$0 (ed. 1904), sj9. " POnitentiarius." 



a town in the western parliamentary division 
of Staffordshire, England; 134 m. N.W. from London by the 
London & North-Westem railway, on the small river Penk. 
Pop. (1901), 2347. . Trade is chiefly agricultural and there are 
stone-qaanies in the vicinity. The church of St Michael and 
An Angds, formerly collegiate and dedicated to St Mary, is a 
fine building principally Perpendicular, but with earlier portions. 
The Roman Watling Street passes from east to west 3 m. south 
of Penkridge. In the neighbourhood is Pillaton Hall, retaining 
m psctnresque chapel of th6 15th century. 

PIBLETp WOUAM SYDNEY (1852- ), En^Ush actor, 
was bom at Broadstairs, and educated in London, where his 
father had a schooL He first made his mark as a comedian 
by his ezceedin^y amusing performance as the curate in The 
Prifole Secretary, a part in which he succeeded Beerbohm 
Tree; but he is even more associated with the title r61e in 
Braadon Thomas's ChcrUyi's Aunt (1892), a farce which had 
u onprecedcntedly long nm and was acted all over the world. 
raniARC'H, a village of western France in the department 
oC Finist^, x8 m. S.W. of Quimper by road. Pop. (1906), of 
tke village, 387; of the conunune, 5702. On the extremity of 
tke pminwla on which it is situated are fortified remains of a 
town which was of considerable importance from the 14th to 
the i6th centuries and included, besides Penmarc'h, St Gu6nol6 
and Kerity. It owed its proq>erity to its cod-banks, the dis- 
appearance of which together with the discovery of the New- 
iMudlasd cod-banks and the pillage of the place by the bandit 
La Fmxtendle in 1595 contributed to its decadence. The 
dnirch of St Nouna, a Gothic building of the early i6th century 
at Pcnmarc "h, and the church of St Gu6nol6, an unfinished 
tower ol the xsth century and the church of Kerity (15th 
tatniy) are of interest. The coast is very dangerous. On 
the Point de Penmarc 'h stands the Phare d'Eckmxihl, with a 
Ight visble for 60 miles.' There are numerous megalithic 
Manments in the vicinity. 

PBDI, WILLIAM (162X-1670), British admiral, was the 

m of Giles Penn, merchant and seaman of BristoL He served 

Us apprenticeship at sea with lus father. In the first Civil 

War be fought on the side of the parliament, and was in com- 

■tad <tf a ship in the squadron maintained against the king 

B the Irish seas. The service was arduous and called for both 

and good seamanship. In 1648 he was arrested and 

to London, but was soon released, and sent back as rear 

•dnixal in the " Assurance " (33). The exact cause of the 

arrest is unknown, but it may be presumed to have been that 

he was suspected of being in correspondence with the king's 

nppocters. It is highly probable that he was, for until the 

Kesoration he was regularly in communication with the Royal- 

ktM, wbSie serving the parliament, or Cromwell, so long as their 

was profitable, and making no scruple of applying for 

of the confiscated lands of the king's Irish friends. 

IW character of " mean fellow " given him by Pcpys is borne 

•^ by nxiach that is otherwise known of bim. But it is no less 

CBtate that he was an excellent seaman and a good fighter. 

Aflcr 1650 be was employed in the Ocean, and in the Mediter- 

ttMaa in pursuit of the Royalists under Prince Rupert. He 

vas so active on this service that when he returned home on 

the 18th of March 1651 he could boast that he had not put foot 

for more than a year. When the first Dutch War 

oat Penn was appointed vice-admiral to Blake, and was 

at the battle of the 28th of September off the Kentish 

Ik the three days' battle off Portland, February 

lifj, he omimanded the Blue squadron, and he also served 

«ilh <Srtinction in the final battles of the war in June and July. 

Ii December he was included in the commission of admirals 

aai feoerals at sea, who exercised the military command of 

he ieet, as well as " one of the commissioners for ordering and 

the affairs of the admiralty and navy." In 1654 he 

to cany the fleet over to the king, but in October i>f 



the same year he had no scruple in accepting the naval command 

in the expedition to the West Indies sent out by Cromwell, 

which conquered Jamaica. He was not responsible for the 

shameful repulse at San Domingo, which was due to a panic 

among the troops. On their return he and his military colleague 

Venables were sent to the Tower. He made himiblc submission, 

and when released retired to the estate he had received from 

confiscated land in Ireland. He continued in communication 

with the Royalists, and in 1660 had a rather obscure share in 

the Restoration. He was reappointed commissioner of the 

navy by • the king, and in the second Dutch War served as 

*' great captain commander" or captain of the fleet, with 

the duke of York (afterwards Ring James II.) at the battle 

of Lowestoft (June 3, 1665). When the duke withdrew from 

the command, Penn's active service ceased. He continued 

however to be a commissioner of the navy. His death occurred 

on the i6th of September 1670, and be was buried in the church 

of St Mary Reddiffe, Bristol. His portrait by Lely is in the 

Painted HaU at Greenwich. By his wife Margaret Jasper, he 

was the father of William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania. 

Though Sir William Penn was not a high-minded man, he is 

a figure of considerable importance in British naval hi&tory. 

As admiral and general for the parliament he helped in 1653 

to draw up the'first code of tactics provided for the navy. It 

was the base of the " Duke of York's Sailing and Fighting 

Instructions," which continued for long to supply the orthodox 

tactical creed of the navy. 

See the Memorials of the Professional Life and Times of SirWiUiam 
Penn, by Granville Penn. (D. H.) 

PENN. WILLIAM (1644-1718), English Quaker and founder 
of Pennsylvania, son of Admiral Sir William Penn (162 1-1670) 
and Margaret Jasper, a Dutch lady, was bom at Tower Hill, 
London, on the i4tb of October 1644. During his father's 
absence at sea he lived at Wanstead in Essex, and went to schodi 
at Chigwell close by, iji which places he was brought under 
strong Puritan influences. Like many children of sensitive 
temperament, he had times of spiritual excitement; when about 
twelve he was " suddenly surprised with an inward comfort, 
and, as he thought, an external glory in the room, which gave 
rise to religious emotions, during which he had the strongest 
conviction of the being of a God, and that the soul of man was 
capable of enjoying communication with Him." Up>on the 
death of Cromwell, Penn's father, who had served the Protector 
because there was no other career open, remained with his family 
on the Irish estates which Cromwell had given him, of the value 
of £300 a year. On the resignation of Richard Cromwell he 
at once declared for the king and went to the court in Holland, 
where he was received into favour and knighted; and at the 
elections for the convention parliament he was returned for 
Weymouth. Meanwhile young Penn studied under a private 
tutor on Tower Hill until, in October 1660, he was entered as a 
gentleman commoner at Christ Church. He appears in the 
same year to. have contributed to the Threnodia, a collection 
of elegies on the death of the young duke of Gloucester. 

The rigour with which the Anglican statutes were revived, 
and the Puritan heads of colleges supplanted, roused the spirit 
of resistance at Oxford to the uttermost. With this spirit Penn, 
who was on familiar terms with John Owen (1616-1683), and 
who had already fallen under the influence of Thomas Loe 
the Quaker, then at Oxford, actively sympathized. He and 
others refused to attend chapel and church service, and were 
fined in consequence. How far his leaving the university 
resulted from this cannot be dearly ascertained. Anthony 
Wood has nothing regarding the catise of his leaving, but says' 
that he stayed at Oxford for two years, and that he was noted 
for proficiency in manly sports. There is no doubt that in 
January 1662 his father was anxious to remove him to Cambridge, 
and consulted Pepys on the subject; and in later years he speaks 
of being " banished " the college, and of being whipped, beaten 
and turned out of doors on his return to his father, in the 
anger of the latter at his avowed Quakerism. A reconciliation, 
however, was effected; and Penn was sent to France to forget this 



lOO 



PENN, WILLIAM 



folly. TbeplanwasforatimesuccessfuL Penn appears to have 
entered more or less into the gaieties of the court of Louis XIV., 
and while there to have become acquainted with Robert Spencer, 
afterwards earl of Sunderland, and with Dorothy, sister to 
Algernon Sidney. What, however, is more certain is that he 
somewhat later placed himself imder the tuition of Moses 
Amyraut, the celebrated president of the Protestant college 
of Saumur, and at that time the exponent of liberal Calvinism, 
from whom he gained the patristic knowledge which is so 
prominent in his controversial writings. He afterwards travelled 
in Italy, returning to England in Augrist 1664, with " a great 
deal, if not too much, of the vanity of the French garb and 
affected manner of speech and gait."' 

Until the outbreak of the plague Penn was a student of 
Lincoln's Inn. For a few days also he served on the staff of 
his father — now great captain commander — ^and was by him 
sent back in April 1665 to Charles with despatches. Returning 
after the naval victory off Lowestoft in June, Admiral Penn 
found that his son had again become settled in seriousness and 
Quakerism. To bring him once more to views of life not incon- 
sistent with court preferment, the admiral sent him in February 
1666 with introductions to Ormonde's pure but brilliant court 
in Ireland, and to manage. his estate in Cork round Shannan- 
garry Castle, his title to which was disputed. Penn appears 
also later in the year to have been " clerk of the cheque " 
at Kinsale, of the castle and fort of which his father had the 
command. When the mutiny broke out in Carrickfergus Penn 
volunteered for service, and acted imder Arran so as to gain 
considerable reputation. The result was that in May 1666 
Ormonde offered him his father's company of foot, but, for 
some imexplained reason, the admiral demurred to this arrange- 
ment. It was at this time that the well-known portrait was 
painted of the great Quaker in a suit of armour; and it was at 
this time, too, that the conversion, begun when he was a boy 
by Thomas Loe in Ireland, was completed at the same place 
by the same agency.' 

' On the 3rd of September 1667 Penn attended a meeting of 
Quakers in Cork, at which he assisted to expel a soldier who 
had disturbed the meeting. He was in consequence, with 
others present, sent to prison by the magistrates. From prison 
he wrote to Lord Orrery, the president of Munster, a letter, 
in which he first publicly makes a claim for perfect fre^om of 
conscience. He was immediately released, and at once returned 
to his father in London, with the distinctive marks of Quakerism 
strong upon him. Penn now became a minister of the denomi- 
nation, and at once entered upon controversy and authorship. 
His first book, Truth Exalted^ was violent and aggressive in the 
extreme. The same offensive personality is shown in The Guide 
Mistaken^ a tract written in answer to John Clapham's Guide 
to the True Religion. It was at this time, too, that he appealed, 
not unsuccessfully, to Buckingham, who on Clarendon's fall 
was posing as the protector of the Dissenters, to use his efforts 
to procure parliamentary toleration. 

Penn's first public discussion was with Thomas Vincent, a 
London Presbyterian minister, who had reflected on the 
" damnable " doctrines of the Quakers. The discussion, which 
had turned chiefly upon the doctrine of the Trinity, ended 
uselessly, and Penn at once published The Sandy Foundation 
Shaken, a tract of ability sufficient to excite Pepys's astonish- 
ment, in which orthodox views were so offensively attacked 
that Penn was placed in the Tower, where he remained for nearly 
nine months. The imputations upon his opinions and good 
citizenship, made as well by Dissenters as by the Church, he 
repelled in Innocency vnth her Open Face, in which he asserts 
his full belief in the divinity of Christ, the atonement, and 
justification through faith, though insisting on the necessity 
of good works. It was now, too, that he published the most 
important of his books. No Cross, No Crown, which contained 
an able defence of the Quaker doctrines and practices, and a 

ithing attack on the loose and unchristian lives of the clergy. 

* Pcpys, August 30, 1664. 

* Webb. The Penns and Penningtons (1867). p. 174. 



While completely refusing to recant Penn addressed a letter 
to Arlington in July 1669, in which, on grounds of religious 
freedom, he asked him to interfere. It is noteworthy, as 
showing the views then predominant, that he was almost at 
once set at liberty. 

An informal reconciliation now took place with his father, 
who had been impeached through the jealousy of Rupert and 
Monk (in April 1668), and whose conduct in the operations of 
1665 he had publicly vindicated; and Penn was again sent on 
family business to Ireland. At the desire of his father, whose 
health was fast failing, Penn returned to London in x67a 
Having found the usual place of meeting in Gracechurch Street 
closed by soldiers, Penn, as a protest, preached to the peofde 
in the open street. With William Mead he was at once arrested 
and' indicted at the Old Bailey on the zst of September for 
preaching to an unlawful, seditious and riotous assembly, 
which had met together with force and arms. The Conventicle 
Act not touching their case, the trial which followed, and which 
may be read at length in Penn's People's Ancient and Just 
Liberties Asserted, was a notable one in the history of trial by 
jury. With extreme courage and skill Penn exposed the 
illegality of the prosecution, while the jury, for the first time, 
asserted the right of juries to deckle in opposition to the ruling 
of the court. They brought in a verdict declaring Penn and 
Mead " guilty of speaking in Gracechurch Street," but refused 
to add " to an unlawful assembly "; then, as the pressure upon 
them increased, they first acquitted Mead, while returning 
their original verdict upon Penn, and then, when that verdict 
was not admitted, returned their final answer " not guilty * 
for both. The court fined the jurymen 40 marks each for their 
contumacy, and, in default of payment, imprisoned them, 
whereupon they vindicated and established for ever the right 
they had claimed in an action (known as Bushell's case from the 
name of one of the jurymen) before the court of common pleit, 
when all twelve judges imanimously declared their imprisonmait 
illegal. 

Penn himself had been fined for not removing his hat in court, 
had been imprisoned on his refusal to pay, and had eamestJ[f 
requested his family not to pay for him. The fine, however, 
was settled anonymously, and he was released in time to be 
present at his father's death on the i6th of September 1670^ 
at the early age of forty-nine. Penn now found himsdf ia 
possession of a fortune of £1500 a year, and a claim on the 
Crown for £16,000, lent to Charles II. by his father. Upon his 
release Penn at once plunged into controversy, challenging a 
Baptist minister named Jeremiah Ives, at High Wycombe, to 
a public dispute and, according to the C^ker accoimt, tuSfy 
defeating him. No account is forthcoming from the otbcr 
side. Hearing at Oxford that students who attended Friendif 
meeting were rigorously used, he wrote a vehement and abuiivt - 
remonstrance to the vice-chancellor in defence of reUgiooi 
freedom. This found still more remarkable expression in tkt - 
Seasonable Caveat against Popery (Jan. 167 1). 

In the beginning of 167 1 Penn was again arrested for imndtaag 
in Wheeler Street meeting-house by Sir J. Robinson, tkt 
lieutenant of the Tower, formerly lord mayor, and known as a 
brutal and bigoted churchman. Legal proof being wantiag - 
of any breach of the Conventicle Act, and the Oxford or Hvt 
Mile Act also proving inapplicable, Robinson, who had soas 
special cause of enmity agamst Penn, urged upon him the oatk 
of allegiance. This, of course, the Quaker would not tdt% 
and consequently was imprisoned for six months. During thllk 
imprisonment Penn wrote several works, the most impMtai^r! 
being Tlte Great Case of Liberty oj Conscience (Feb. xftjij^j 
a noble defence of complete toleration. Upon his release 
started upon a missionary journey through Holland 
Germany; at Emdcn he founded a (^aker sodety, 
established an intimate friendship with the princess 
Elizabeth. 

Upon his return home in the spring of 1672 Penn 

IGulielma Springett, daughter of Mary Pennington by Iwr 
husband. Sir William Springett; she appears to iMve 



PENN, WILLIAM 



lOI 



equaOy remarkable for beauty, devotion to her husband, and 
firmness to the religious principles which she bad adopted when 
Ettle more than a child.^ He now settled at Ricknuns worth 
in Hertfordshire, and gave himself up to controversial writing. 
To this year, 1672, belong the Treatise on Oaths and England's 
Present Interest Considered. In the year 1673 Pcnn was still 
inore active. He secured the release of George Fox, addressed 
the Quakers in Holland and Germany, carried on public 
controversies with Thomas Hicks, a Baptist, and John Faldo, an 
Independent, and published his treatise on the Christian Quaker 
ad his Divime Testimony Vindicated, the Discourse of the General 
Ride ^ Faith and Practice* Reasons against Railing (in answer 
to Hicks), Counterfeit Christianity Detected, and a J ist Rebuke 
to One-amd-twenty Learned Divines (an answer to Faldo and to 
Quakerism no Christiarnty). His last public controversy was 
in 1675 ^tl> Richard Baxter, in which, of course, each party 
daimed the victory. 

At this point Penn's connexion with America begins. The 

province of New Jersey, comprising the country between the 

Hudson and Debware rivers on the east and west, had been 

granted in March 1663- 1664 by Charles H to his brother, James 

in turn had in June of the same year leased it to Lord Berkeley 

and Sir G. Carteret in equal shares. By a deed, dated iSth 

of March 1673-1674, John Fenwick, a (^aker, bought one of 

the shares, that of Lord Berkeley (Stoughton erroneously says 

Carteret's) in trust for Edward Byllingc, also a Fncnd, for 

£ioool This sale was confirmed by James, afler the second 

Dutch War, on the 6th of Augxist i68a Disputes having arisen 

between Fenwick and Byllinge, Penn acted as arbitrator; and 

then. Byllinge being in money difficulties, and being compelled 

to sell his interest in order to satisfy his creditors, Pcnn v>iis 

added, at their request, to two of themselves, as trustee. The 

deputes were settled by Fenwick receiving ten out of the hundred 

parts into which the province was divided,' with a considerable 

sun of money, the remaining ninety parts being afterwards 

pot op for sale. Fenwick sold his ten parts to two other Friends, 

Ehiridge and Warner, who thus, with Penn and the other tii^'O, 

became masters of West Jersey, West New Jersey, or New West 

Jeney, as it was indifferently called.* The five proprietors 

appointed three commissioners, with instructions dated from 

London the 6th of August 1676, to settle disputes with Fenwick 

(who had bought fresh land from the Indians, upon which Salcm 

was built, Penn being himself one of the settlers there) and to 

parchase new territories, and to build a town — New Beverley, 

or Burlington, being the result. For the new colony Penn drew 

q> a constitution, under the title of " Concessions." The 

greatest care b taken to make this constitution "as near as 

may be conveniently to the primitive, ancient and fundamental 

lavs of the nation of Enghnd." But a democratic clement 

is introduced, and the new principle of perfect religious freedom 

stands in the first place (ch. xvi.). With regard to the liberty 

of the subject, no one might be condemned in life, liberty or 

estate, except by a jury of twelve, and the right of challenging 

vas granted to the uttermost (ch. xvii.). Imprisonment for 

dd)C was not abolished (as Dixon states), but was reduced to a 

■ammum (ch. xviii.), while theft was punished by twofold 

icMitution either in value or in labour to that amount (ch. 

xxviii.). The provisions of ch. xix. deserve special notice. 

AB causes were to go before three justices, with a jury. " They, 

the said justices, shall pronounce such judgment as they shall 

nceive from, and be directed by the said twelve men, in whom 

oafy the judgment resides, and not otherwise. And in case of 

tkcir neglect and refusal, that then one of the twelve, by consent 

flf the rest, pronounce their own judgment as the justices should 

have done." The justices and consubles, moreover, were 

^ For a very charmins account of her, and the whole Pennington 

coanexioo. see Maria \Vcbb's The Penns and Penningtons, 

■Sec on this Stoughton *> Penn, p. 1 13. 

' The deed by which Fenwick and Byllinge conveyed West New 
hnty to Penn, L^wry and Nicholas Lucas is dated the loth of 
February 1674-1675. 

* The Hne of partition was " from the east side of Little Egg 
KarbottT, straight north, through the country, to the utmost branch 
of Delaware River." 



elected by the people, the former for two years only (ch. xli ) 
Suitors might plead in person, and the courts were public 
(ch. xxii.). (^estions between Indians and settlers were to be 
arranged by a mixed jury (ch. xxv) An assembly was to 
meet yearly, consisting of a hundred persons, rhosen by the 
inhabitants, freeholders and proprietors, one for each division 
of the province. The election was to be by ballot, and each 
member was to receive a shilling a day from his division, " that 
thereby he may be known to be the ser\'ant of the people " 
The executive power was to be in the hands of ten commissioners* 
chosen by the assembly Such a constitution soon attracted 
large numbers of Quakers to West Jersey. 

It was shortly before these occurrences that Penn inherited 
through his wife the estate of Worminghurst in Sussex, whither 
he removed from Rickmansworth He now (July 25, 1677) 
undertook a second missionary journey to the continent along 
with George Fox, Robert Barclay and George Keith. He 
visited particularly Rotterdam and all the Holland towns, 
renewed his intimacy ^ith the princess Elizabeth at Herwerden, 
and, under considerable pnvations. travelled through Hanover, 
Germany, the lower Rhine and the electorate of Brandenburg, 
returT\ing by Bremen and the Hague It is worthy of recollec- 
tion that the Germantown (Philadelphia) settlers from Kirch- 
heim, one of the places which responded in an especial degree 
to Penn's teaching, are noted as the first who declared it wrong 
for Christians to hold slaves. Pcnn reached England again on 
the 34th of October He tried to gain the insertion in the bill 
for the relief of Protestant Dissenters of a clause enabling Friends 
to affirm instead of taking the oath, and twice addressed the 
House of Commons' committee with considerable eloquence 
and effect. The bill, however, fell to the ground at the sudden 
prorogation. 

In 1678 the popish terror came to a head, and to calm and 
guide Friends in the prevailing excitement Penn wrote his 
Epistle to the Children of Light in this Generation. A far more 
important publication was An Address to Protestants of all 
Persuasions, by William Penn, Protestant, in 167Q; a powerful 
exposition of the doctrine of pure tolerance and a protest against 
the enforcement of opim'ons as articles of faith. This was 
succeeded, at the general election which followed the dissolution 
of the pensionary parliament, by an important political manifesto, 
England's Great Interest in the Choice of this New Parliament, in 
which he insisted on the following points, the discovery and 
punishment of the plot, the impeachment of corrupt ministers 
and councillors, the punishment of " pensioners," the enactment 
of frequent parliaments, security from popery and slavery, and 
ease for Protestant Dissenters. Next came One Project for the 
Good of England, perhaps the most pungent of all his political 
writings. But he was not merely active with his pen. He was 
at this time in close intimacy with Algernon Sidney, wh(^ stood 
successively for Guildford and Bramber. In each case, owing 
in a great degree to Penn's eager advocacy, Sidney was elected, 
only to have his elections annulled by court influence. Toleration 
for Dissenters seemed as far off as ever. Encouraged by his suc- 
cess in the West Jersey province, Penn again turned his thoughts 
to America. In repayment of the debt mentioned above he 
now asked from the Crown, at a council held on the 34th of June 
1680, for •' a tract of land in America north of Mar>'land, bounded 
on the east by the Delaware, on the west limited as Maryland 
[i.e. by New Jersey], northward as far as plantable "; this 
latter limit Penn explained to be " three degrees northwards." 
This formed a tract of 300 m. by 160, of extreme fertility, mineral 
wealth and richness of all kinds. Disputes with James, duke 
of York, and with Lord Baltimore, who had rights over 
Maryland, delayed the matter until the 14th of March 1681, 
when the grant received the royal signature, and Pcnn was made 
master of the province of Pennsylvania. His own account of 
the name is that he suggested " Sylvania," that the king added 
the " Penn " in honour of his father, and that, although he 

» Penn*» letter of the 26th of August 1676 says twelve, and Clark- 
son has followed this; but the Concessions, which were not assented 
to by the inhabitanu until the 3rd of March 1676-1677, say ten. 



I02 



PENN, WILLIAM 



Strenuously objected and even tried to bribe the secretaries, he 
could not get the name altered. It should be added that cariy 
in 16S2 Carteret, grandson of the original proprietor, transferred 
his rights in E^st Jersey to Pcnn and eleven associates, who 
soon afterwards conveyed one-half of their interest to the carl 
of Perth and eleven others. It is uncertain to what extent 
Pcnn retained his interest in West and East Jersey, and when 
It ceased. The two provinces were united under one governor 
in 1699, and Pcnn was a proprietor in 1700. In 1702 the 
government of New Jersey was surrendered to the Crown. 

By the charter for Pennsylvania Pcnn was made proprietary 
of the province. He was supreme governor; he had the power 
of making laws with the advice, assent and approbation of the 
freemen, of appointing ofhcers, and of granting pardons. The 
laws were to contain nothing contrary to English law, with a 
saving to the Crown and the privy council in the case of 
appeals. Parliament was to be supreme in all questions of 
trade and commerce; the right to levy taxes and customs was 
reserved to England; an agent to represent Pcnn was to reside 
in London; neglect on the part of Penn was to lead to the passing 
of the government to the Crown (which event actually took place 
in 1692); no correspondence might be carried on with countries 
at war with Great Britain. The importunity of the bishop of 
London extorted the right to appoint Anglican ministers, 
should twenty members of the colony desire it, thus securing 
the very thing which Penn was anxious to avoid — the 
recognition of the principle of an establishment. 

Having appointed Colonel (Sir William) Markham, his cousin, 
as deputy, and having in October sent out three commissioners 
to manage his affairs until his arrival, Pcnn proceeded to draw 
up proposals to adventurers, with an account of the resources of 
the colony. He negotiated, too, with James and Lord Balti- 
more with the view, ultimately successful, of freeing the mouth 
of the Delaware, wrote to the Indians in conciliatory terms, 
and encouraged the formation of companies to work the infant 
colony both in England and Germany, especially the " Free 
Society of Traders in Pennsylvania," to whom he sold 20,000 
acres, absolutely refusing, however, to grant any monopolies. 
In July he drew up a body of " conditions and concessions." 
This constitution, savouring strongly of Harrington's Oceana^ 
was framed, it is said, in consultation with Sidney, but the 
statement is doubtful. Until the council of seventy-two (chosen 
by universal suffrage every three years, twenty-four retiring 
each year), and the assembly (chosen aimually) were duly elected, 
a body of provisional laws was added. 

It was in the midst of this extreme activity that Penn was 
made a Fellow of the Royal Society. Leaving his family 
behind him, Penn sailed with a hundred comrades from Deal 
in the " Welcome " on the ist of September 1682. His Last 
Farewdl to England and his letter to his wife and children contain 
a beautiful expression of his pious and manly nature. He 
landed at New Castle on the Delaware on the 27th of October, 
his company having lost one-third of their number by small-pox 
during the voyage. After receiving formal possession, and 
having visited New York, Penn ascended the Delaware to the 
Swedish settlement of Upland, to which he gave the name of 
Chester. The assembly at once met, and on the 7lh of December 
passed the " Great Law of Pennsylvania." The idea which 
informs this law is that Pennsylvania was to be a Christian state 
on a Quaker model. Philadelphia was now founded, and within 
two years contained 300 houses and a population of 2500. At 
the same time an act was passed, uniting under the same govern- 
ment the territories which had been granted by feofifment by 
James in 1682. Realistic and entirely imaginative accounts (cf. 
Dixon, p. 270), inspired chiefly by Benjamin West's picture, 
have been given of the treaty which there seems no doubt Penn 
actually made in November 1683 with the Indians. His con- 
nexion with them was one of the most successful parts of his 
management, and he gained at once and retained through life 
their intense affection. 

Penn now wrote an account of Pennsylvania from his own 
observation for the " Free Society of Traders," in which he 



shows considerable power of artistic description. Tales of 
violent persecution of the Quakers, and the necessity of settling 
disputes, which had arisen with Lord Baltimore, his neighbour 
in Maryland, brought Pcnn back to England (Oct. 2, 1684) 
after an absence of two years. In the spnng of 1683 he had 
modified the original charter at the desire of the assembly, but 
without at all altering its democratic character.^ He was, in 
reference to this alteration, charged with selfish and deceitful 
dealing by the assembly. Within five months after his arrival 
in England Charles II. died, and Penn found himself at once in 
a position of great influence. Penn now took up his abode 
at Kensington in Holland House, so as to be near the court 
His influence there was great enough to secure the pardon of 
John Locke, who had been dismissed from Oxford by Charles, 
and of 1200 Quakers who were in prison. At this time, too, 
he was busy with his pen once more, writing a further account 
of Pennsylvania, a pamphlet in defence of Buckingham's essay 
in favour of toleration, in which he is supposed to have had some 
share, and his Persuasive to Moderation to Dissenting Christians^ 
very similar in tone to the One Project for tiie Good of England. 
When Monmouth's rebellion was suppressed he appears to have 
done his best to mitigate the horrors of the western commission, 
opposing Jeffreys fo the uttermost.' Macaulay has accused 
Penn of being concerned in some of the worst actions of the court 
at this time. His complete refutation by Forster, Paget, 
Dixon and others renders it unnecessar>' to do more than allude 
to the cases of the Maids of Taunton, Alderman Kiffin, and 
Magdalen College (Oxford). 

In 1686, when making a third missionary journey to Holland 
and Germany, Penn was charged by James with an informal 
mission to the prince of Orange to endeavour to gain his assent 
to the removal of religious tests. Here he met Burnet, from 
whom, as from the prince, he gained no satisfaction, and wIm> 
greatly disliked him. On his return he went on a preaching 
mission through Engbnd. His position with James was 
undoubtedly a compromising one, and it is not strange that, 
wishing to tolerate Papists, he should, in the prevailing temper of 
England, be once more accused of being a Jesuit, while he was 
in constant antagonbm to their body. Even Tillotson took up. 
this view strongly, though he at once accepted Penn's vehement 
disavowal. In 1687 James published the Declaration of Indul- 
gence, and Pcnn probably drew up the address of thanks 00 
the part of the Quakers. It fully reflects his views, which are 
further ably put in the pamphlet Good Advice to the Church 
of England, Roman Catholics, and Protestant Dissenters, in 
which he showed the wisdom and duty of repealing the Test 
Acts and Penal Laws. At the Revolution he behaved iirith 
courage. He was one of the few friends of the king who remained 
in London, and, when twice summoned before the council, ipokt 
boldly in his behalf. He admitted that James had asked Urn 
to come to him in France; but at the same time he asserted bis 
perfect loyalty. During the absence of William in 1690 he was 
proclaimed by Mary as a dangerous person, but no evidence ol 
treason was forthcoming. It was now that he lost by death 
two of his dearest friends, Robert Barclay and George Fox. 
It was at the fimeral of the latter that, upon the information 
of the notorious informer William Fuller (1670-1717?), an 
attempt was made to arrest him, but he had just left the ground; 
the fact that no further steps were then taken shows bow litUe 
the government believed in hb guilt. He now Ijved in retire* 
ment in London, though his address was perfectly wdl known 
to his friends in the council. In 1691, again on Fuller's evidence^ 
a proclamation was issued for the arrest of Penn and two otbcn 
as being concerned in Preston's plot. In 1692 he began to write 
again, both on questions of Quaker discipline and in defence ol 
the sect. Just Measures in an Epistle of Peace and Love, Tht 
New Athenians (in reply to the attacks of the Athenian Mercmry), 
and A Key opening the Way to every Capacity are the prindpil 
publications of this year. 

Meantime matters had been going badly in Pennsyhraiuau 

* Dixon, p. 276. 

' Burnet, iii. 66 ; Dalrymple, i. 282. 



PENN, WILLIAM 



103 



Feim had, in 1686, been obliged to make changes in the com« 
posation of the executive body, though in 1689 it reverted to 
the original constitution; the legislative bodies had quarrelled; 
and Penn could not gain his rents. The chief difficulty in 
Fexuisylvama was the dispute between the province — i.e. the 
country given to Penn by the charter — and the " territories," 
or the lands granted to him by the duke of York by feoffment in 
Augn^ 1682, which were under the same government but had 
differing interests. The difficulties which Quaker principles 
placed in the way of arming the colony — a matter of grave 
importance in the existing European complications — ^fought 
most hardly against Penn's power. On the 21st of October 
169J an order of council was issued depriving Penn of the 
govemoiship of Pennsylvania and giving it to Colonel Benjamin 
Fletcher, the governor of New York. To this blow were added 
the illness of his wife and a fresh accusation of treasonable 
correspondence with James. In his enforced retirement he 
wrote the most devotional and most charming of his works — 
the oiUection of maxims of conduct and religion entitled The 
Fniis o§ SUUudt. In December, thanks to the efforts of his 
frioids at court, among whom were Buckingham, Somers, 
Rochester, and Henry Sidney, he received an intimation that 
DO further steps would be taken against him. The accusation, 
however, had been public, and he insisted on the withdrawal 
being equally public. He was therefore heard in full council 
before the king, and honourably acquitted of all charges of trea- 
son. It was now that he wrote an Essay Unoards Ike Prcsatt 
emd Future Peace oj Europe, in which he puts forth the idea of 
I great court of arbitration, a principle which he had already 
axried out in Pennsylvania. 

In 1694 (Feb. 23) his wife Gulielma died, leaving two 
sons, Springett and William, and a daughter Lctitia, afterwards 
Dunied to William Aubrey. Two other daughters, Mary and 
Hannah, died in infancy. He consoled himself by writing his 
Acuumt of ike Rise and Progress of tke People called Quakers. 
The coldness and suspicion with which he had been regarded by 
his own denomination had now ceased, and he was once more 
Rgarded by the Quaker body as their leader. About the same 
time (Aug. 20) he was restored to the governorship of 
Pbrnsylvania; and he promised to supply money and men for 
the defence of the frontiers. In 1695 he went on another 
proching mission in the west, and in March 1696 he formed 
1 second marriage, with Hannah Callowhill, his son Springett 
djrijig five weeks later. In this year he wrote his work On Primi- 
theCkristianity, in which he argues that the faith and practice of 
tbe Friends were those of the early Church. In 1 697 Penn removed 
to Bristol, and during the greater part of 1698 was preaching 
with great success against oppression in Ireland, whither he 
had gone to look after the property at Shannangarry. 

la 1699 he was back in Pennsylvania, bnding near Chester 
on the jolh of November, where the success of Colonel Robert 
Qoary, judge of the admiralty in Pennsylvania — who was in the 
interests of those who wished to make the province an imperial 
colony — and the high-handed aaion of the deputy Markham in 
opposition to the Crown, were causing great difficulties. Penn 
anicd with htm particular instructions to put down piracy, 
»luch the objections of the Quakers to the use of force had 
icodered audacious and concerning which (^uary had made 
strong representations to the home government, while Markham 
aad the inhabitants apparently encouraged it. Penn and 
Qoary. however came at once to a satisfactory understanding 
00 this niatter, and the illegal traffic was vigorously and success- 
fully attacked. In 1696 the Philadelphian Yearly Meeting 
had passed a resolution declaring slavery contrary to the first 
priaciplcs of the go^>eL Penn, however, did not venture upon 
cmaadpation; but he insisted on the instruction of negroes, 
penntaoon for them to marry, repression of polygamy and 
adoitery, and proposed regulations for their trial and punishment. 
The assembly, however, a very mixed body of all nations, now 
Rfnsed to accept any ojf these proposals except the last-named. 
His great succesa was with the Indians; by their treaty with 
m 1700 they promised not to help any enemy of England, 



to traffic only with those approved by the governor, and to sell 
furs or skins to none but inhabitants of the province. At the 
same time he showed his capacity for legislation by the share 
he took with Lord Bellomont at New York in the consolidation 
of the laws in use in the various parts of America. 

Affairs now again demanded his presence in England. The king 
had in 1701 written to urge upon the Pennsylvania government 
a union with other private colonics for defence, and had asked 
for money for fortifications. The difl culty felt by the Crown 
in this matter was a natural one. A bill was brought into the 
lords to convert private into Crown colonies. Penn's son 
appeared before the committee of the house and managed to 
delay the matter until his father's return. On the 15th of 
September Penn called the assembly together, in which the 
differences between the province and the territories again broke 
out. He succeeded, however, in caUning them, appointed a 
council of ten to manage the province in his absence, and gave 
a borough charter to Philadelphia. In May 1700, experience 
having shown that alterations in the charter were advisable, 
the assembly had, almost unanimously, requested Penn to revise 
it. On the 28th of October 1701 he handed it back to them in 
the form in which it afterwards remained. An assembly was 
to be chosen yearly, of four persons from each county, with all 
the self-governing privileges of the English House of Commons. 
Two-thirds were to form a quorum. The nomination of sheriffs, 
coroners, and magistrates for each county was given to the 
governor, who was to select from names handed in by the free- 
men. Moreover, the council was no longer elected by the 
people, but nominated by the governor, who was thus practically 
left single in the executive. The assembly, however, who, by 
the first charter, had not the right to propound laws, but might 
only amend or reject them, now acquired that privilege. In 
other respects the original charter remained, and the inviol- 
ability of conscience was again emphatically asserted. Penn 
reached England in December 1701. He once more assumed 
the position of leader of the Dissenters and himself read the 
address of thanks for the promise from the Throne to maintain 
the Act of Toleration. He now took up his abode again at 
Kensington, and published while here his More Fruits of 
Solitude. 

In 1703 he went to Knightsbridge, where he remained until 
1706, when he removed to Brentford, his final residence being 
taken up in 1710 at Field Ruscombe, near Twyford. In i /04 
he wrote his Life of Bulstrode Whitclocke. He had now much 
trouble from America. The territorialists were openly reject ing 
his authority, and doing their best to obstruct all business in the 
assembly; and matters were further embarrassed by the inju- 
dicious conduct of Governor John Evans in 1706. Moreover, 
pecuniary troubles came heavily upon him, while the conduct of 
his son William, who became the ringleader of all the dissolute 
characters in Philadelphia, was another and still more severe 
trial. This son was married, and had a son and daughter, but 
appears to have been left entirely out of account in the settle- 
ment of Penn's proprietary rights on his death. 

Whatever were Penn's great qualities, he was deficient in 
judgment of character. This was especially shown in the choice 
of his steward Ford, from whom he had borrowed money, and 
who, by dexterous swindling, had managed, at the time of his 
death, to establish, and hand down to his widow and son, a 
claim for £14,000 against Penn. Penn, however, refused to pay, 
and spent nine months in the Fleet rather than give way. He 
was released at length by his friends, who paid £7500 in composi- 
tion of all claims. Difficulties with his government of Penn- 
sylvania continued to harass him. Fresh disputes took place 
with Lord Baltimore, the owner of Maryland, and Penn also felt 
deeply what seemed to him the ungrateful treatment which 
he met with at the hands of the assembly. He therefore in 
1 7 10 wrote, in earnest and affectionate language, an address 
to his " old friends," setting forth his wrongs. So great was the 
effect which this produced that the assembly which met in 
October of that year was entirely in his interests; revenues were 
properly paid; the disaffected were silenced and complaints 



I04 



PENNANT—PENNINE CHAIN 



were hushed; while an advance in moral sense was shown by 
the fact that a bill was passed prohibiting the importation of 
negroes. This, however, when submitted to the British parlia- 
ment, was cancelled. Penn now, in Februaxy 1712, bdng in 
failing health, proposed to surrender his powers to the Crown. 
The commission of plantations recommended that Penn should 
receive £12,000 in four years from the time of surrender, Penn 
stipulating only that the queen should take the Quakers imder 
her protection; and £xooo was given him in part payment. 
Before, however, the matter could go further he was seized with 
apoplectic fits, which shattered his understanding and memory. 
A second attack occurred in 17 13. He died on the 30th of May 
17 18, leaving three sons by his second wife, John, Thomas and 
Richard, and was buried along with his first and second wives at 
Jourdans meeting-house, near Chalfont St Giles in Buckingham- 
shire. In 1790 the proprietaxy rights of Penn's descendants 
were bought up for a pension of £4000 a year to the eldest male 
descendant by his second wife, and this pennon was commuted 
in 1884 for the sum of £67,000. 

Penn's Life was written by Joseph Besae, and prefixed to the 
collected edition of Penn's Works (1726) ; see also the bibliographical 
note to the article in DicL Nat. Btog. W. Hepworth Dixon s bio- 
mphy, refuting Macaulay's charges, appearea in 1851. In 1907 
Mrs Colquhoun Grant, one of Penn's descendants, brought out a 
book, Quaker and Courtier: the Life and Work of William Penn. 

(O.A.) 

PENNANT, THOMAS (1726-1798), British naturalist and 
antiquary, was descended from an old Welsh family, for many 
generations resident at Downing, Flintshire, where he was bom 
on the 14th of June 1726. He received his early education at 
Wrexham, and afterwards entered Queen's College, Oxford, 
but did not take a degree. At twelve years* of age he was 
inspired with a passion for natural history through being 
presented with Francis Willughby's Ornithology; and a tour in 
Cornwall in 1 746-1 747 awakened his strong interest in minerals 
and fossils. In 1750 his account of an earthquake at Downing 
was inserted in the Philosophical Transactions, where there also 
appeared in 1756 a paper on several coralloid bodies he had 
collected at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire. In the foUowing year, 
at the instance of Linnactis, he was elected a member of the 
Royal Society of Upsala. In 1766 he published the first part 
of his British Zoology, a work meritorious rather as a laborious 
compilation than as an original contribution to science. During 
its progress he visited the continent of Europe and made the 
acquaintance of Buffon, Voltaire, Haller and Pallas. In 1767 
he was elected F.R.S. In 1771 was published his Synopsis 
0/ Quadrupeds, afterwards extended into a History of Quadrupeds. 
At the end of the same year he published A Tour in Scotland in 
17 6g, which proving remarkably popular was followed in 1774 
by an account of another journey in Scotland, in two volumes. 
These works have proved invaluable as preserving the record 
of important antiquarian relics which have now perished. 
In 1778 he brought out a similar Tour in Wales, which was 
followed by a Journey to Snawdon (pi. L 1781; pt. ii. 1783), 
afterwards forming the second voliune of the Tour. In 1782 
he published a Jovmey from Chester to Loruion. He brought 
out Arctic Zoology in 1 785-1 787. In 1790 appeared his Auount 
of Jjmdon, which went through a large number of editions, and 
three years later he published the Literary Life of the late T. 
Pennant, written by himself. In his later years he was engaged 
on a work entitled Outlines of the Globe, vols. i. and ii. of which 
appeared in 1798, and vols. iii. and iv., edited by his son David 
Pennant, in 1800. He was also the author of a number of 
minor works, some of which were published posthimiously. 
He died at Downing on the i6th of December 1798. 

PENNAR, or Penner, two rivers of southern India, distin- 
guished as North and South. The native name is Pinakini. 
Both rise near the hill of Nandidrug in Mysore state, and flow 
eastward into the Bay of Bengal. The northern is the more 
important and has a total length of 355 m., that of the southern 
being 245 m. This latter bears the alternative name of the 
Ponniar. The Pennar (northern) river canal system comprises 
more than 30 m. of canals, irrigating 155,500 acres 



PENNB, a town and episcopal see of Italy, in the province 

of Teramo, 26 m. S.E. of Teramo, and 16 m. inland from the 

Adriatic, 1437 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901), 10,394. The 

cathedral has been much altered; in its treasury is some fine 

13th (?) century silversmiths' work; the church of S. Giovanni 

has a fine cross by Nicola di Guardiagrele, and that of S. Maria 

in CoUeromano, outside the town, a Romanesque portaL Many 

of the houses have fine terra-cotta friezes. It occupies the site 

of the ancient Pinna, the chief dty of the Vestini, who entered 

into alliance with Rome in 301 B.C. and remained faithful to 

her through the Hannibalic wars and even during the revolt 

of the Italian allies in 90 b.c No remains of the Roman period 

exist, even the dty waUs bdng entirdy medieval. 

See G. Colasanti. Pinna (Rome, 1907); V* Bindi, MonwnemH 
degli Abrutn (Naples. 1889, pp. 565 sqq.). 

PENNELL, JOSEPH (i860- ), American artist and author, 
was bom in Philadelphia on the 4th of July i860, and first 
studied there, but like his compatriot and friend, J. M. Whistkr, 
he afterwards went to Europe and made his home in London. 
He produced niunerous books (many of them in collaboration 
with his wife, Elizabeth kobins Pennell), but his chief distinction 
is as an original etcher and lithographer, and notably as an 
illustrator. Their dose acquaintance with Whistler led to 
Mr and Mrs Pennell undertaking a biography of that artist in 
1906, and, after some litigation with his executrix on the right 
to use his letters, the book was published in 1908. 

PENNI, OIANFRANCESCO (1488-1538), Italian painter, 
sumamed "H Fattore," from the relation in which he stood 
to Raphad, whose favourite disdple he was after Giulio Romano, 
was a native of Florence, but spent the latter years of his life; 
in Naples. He painted in oil as well as in fresco, but is chiefly 
known for his work in the Loggie of the Vatican. 

PENNINE CHAIN, an extensive system of hills in the north of 
England. The name is probably derived from the Cdtic pen, 
high, appearing in the Apennines of Italy and the Pennine Alps. 
The English system is comprised within the following physical 
boundaries. On the N. a weU-marked depression, falling below 
500 ft. in height, between the upper valleys of the Irthing and 
the south Tyne, from which it is known as the Tyne Gap, 
separates the Pennines from the system of the Cheviots. On 
the N.E., in Northumberland, the foothills extend to the North 
Sea. On the N.W. the Eden valley forms part of the boundary 
between the Pennines and the hills of the Lake District, and the 
division is continued by the upper valley of the Lune. For the 
rest the physical boimdaries consist of extensive lowlands — 
on the E. the vale of York, on the W. the coastal bdt of Lan- 
cashire and the plain of Cheshire, and on the S. and S.E. the 
valley of the river Trent. The Pennines thus cover parts of 
Cumberland, Westmorland and Northumberland, Lancashire 
and Yorkshire, Cheshire and Derbyshire, while the southern 
foothills extend into StaHordshire and Nottinghamshire. 

The Pennine system is hardly a range, but the hills are in 
effect broken up into numerous short ranges by valleys cut badt 
into them in every direction, for the Pennines form a north and 
south watershed which determines the course of all the larger 
rivers in the north of England. The chain is divided into two 
sections by a gap formed by the river Aire flowing east, a member 
of the Humber basin, and the Ribble flowing west and entering 
the Irish Sea through a wide estuary south of Morecambe Bay. 

The northern section of the Pennine system is broader and 
generally higher than the southern. Its western slope is generally 
short and steep, the eastern long and gradual; this distinction apply- 
ing to the system at large. In the north-west a sharp escarpment 
overlooks th^ Eden valley. This is the nearest approach to a true 
mountain range in the Pennine system and indeed in England. 
It is known as the Cross Fell Edge from its highest point, Cross Fell 
(2930 ft.), to the south-east of which a height of 2780 ft. is reached 
in Milburn Forest, and of 2591 ft. in Mickle Fell. This range u 
marked off eastward by the upper valleys of the south Tyne and the 
Tees, and, from the divide between these two, branch ranses spriM 
eastward, separated by the valley of the Wear*, at the head of wbidi 
are Bumhope Scat (2452 ft.) and Dead Stones (2326 ft.). . In the . 
northern range the highest point is Middlehope Moor (2206 ft.), and 
in the southern^ Chapel Fell Top (2294 ft.). It is thus seen>that tkl < 



PENNSYLVANIA 105 

kMcr dmdocK. Ilk* dB •MfpiT iloeo. Ha tinnnli tbc vat. Radiof, Tbt Buth-wcit pan i> ■ nonh^tuum pralonntlon o< 

Cn»FtDE(9|rt(nmiiUB>intliniitU(hi|!ipM(>boiiti4<»it.) tbt Virfini* Piedmont, li Eoown u Iht Cumberland Prone, and 

bMwm tbi brvl erf the BcUh, a Iribuu/y ol [be Edm, and Ibe CKtndl N.N.E. thnugh Ibc BUIh part al Cumberland caunty, 

Cru, ■ eribataiy itf Ibe TcB. Tbk paia k foUowcd-by U» Tebay In tb« Reading Prone meat c4 Ibc bilti rile 9<iD-iaoa li abi>vc iht 

Uld Barnaid Caatla line of [be Ndctb Eaiuni laihny. The billa aea and about one-hali thai hFl|h[ above the lunoundini caun[[y: 

i)n[Ll. on tbe Maryland bwderj [bey riie aioa It. above [be lea 

known at the Trentcm Pmng. emendi liwn [be northmi luburba 

Delavare. Lancailer and Yurk coun[iea. bu[ [brae rin'only 4CO-6OO 
1[. above the us and have Tew Heep ilopea. Both at tbeae nniee 
al billi arr comniKd at bard uyiialline roclu, and between Ibem 
liH tbe Lowlancf emled on ibe -reaker landMODCa and aedimenti. 
la Bucki and Monioomery countiea is a lane aandilanc area: 
■ - - ■ Valley with a 

The Kntlieni eectiDa of the iyiCem aOt [or len detailed DMicc. le younitr Ap- 



Ihr wefl-ltmn nak <§a.\ nl Dstiyiliiic B«li ben and thiDueh- 
e« thr lymni tbe HauBiti of the hiUi aic bl(b upbnda. (Danded 
fir aearly flat. eflUHtiiw of heatbeiyepeaty Bocnud or hiO pi 
Tbc pnSle of IbePeiiBlMa b thu not nrikbif ■• a rale, but 



HdknPo 



iryini hardneiBt 

n ingleboraiKh itadf an ibe InilebuRHiah avc, near [be ioldioi the 

k 1 rTI^ GbvU, over 3S0 tt. deep: Helln or (onninf a low 

lie 3S9 '■- ^tp- <uly Biceeded by Row ic nl the entin 



M (^5lt.)iiEai WberapdeiaiKluayDtben. MaUumTun, 
^UH^nb i^iuflM«malilM7«t^~thedin>af~ 



jT the Aire, li dnlaed by a ttnun whicb quickly 

^appean below aRvikd. and the Mn ittetf la fed by a brook 



mpiein Derbyibinjilhediiippearvicvof (beWye[n[o '400 ft. or more 

._^ afier which it liavenet Pooled Caw. cicitc lo Builan. KHM (I. above 

CaKWoa (f.*.). Lalvi arv few and amall in the Pennine diitrkt, cmt linca are olten ol nearly qnilonn height lor imlea and aencfaliy 

but in lonK d tbe uplind vall>7a. audi as [base at [he Nidd and (h* tn Utite broken ctcept by an ooaaloaal V-ihaped wind gap. a 

Ethiniw. natf voita have been fonned for [be sipply of the populoui lumw water np or a minded knob. Tbe valleyi nrely eicccd 

^uuEKtuiiru district! al l.ancuhire and [he Weit Riding of York- ntore (ban a lew milea in widlh, an usully •[eep-iided. and (ic- 

^MK, which M on either flank of the syilcn] between the Ain gap quently are travened by iDnBitadinal rangea cd hilla and ctchb ridgea; 

and the PqJl (For geology aee Ekclahd and attidea on tlw but the Pennaylvania poition of the Appalachian or Gr«a[ Valley. 

■evBal DDuntiea.) which forma a diRiact division of the central prDviace and lie* 

nuaTLVAKIA. a Nortb Allaniic ilate ol the United beiw«n the Son[h M«iB[aiu and the lonj rarnoan of BIm 

S|«» of Anie™ «id »ne of Ihe ori^d^ .hirteen. lying for M^nuin^.^abo^t^.n^Ja^^ .0 

lie moil pan between lati[udcs 39 « 16] and « N. and ot it ii a slate belt ihai h»» been much dii 

belwtcn longitudel T4 4<i andSo ji 36 W. The itale la in but Ihe souib^eait part it a gently mllini 

Ik form of a lectanik, except in the Donb-wcit where a occa»onally a steep hDI detcendi [ron t.- . 

r.^»Hi*..«»«:^iT.t-i *«i*nH!nDin j^^Ti^'V lir mir.4it • ah.^rj- pUieau. into which the centra] province merHes ai lu nDnii.eBBi 

lniiWilarproiecliDn,«teiidingl0 4i is N.Uil-.Bve* t aiiore- P, / ;, , ^tUma.ion of (he CattkiirpUteau louthwaid 

line oi tlmoit 40 m. on Lake Ene, on Ihe eait while the Dela- ,,^ ,g^ y^ ,nj ^o^^ Wayne, Pike and Monroe lountie. and 

nniivetwilhlwolargcbcndiKpanlait from New York and the east portion ol Carbon county, ttt tuiface it underlaid by a 

New Jersey, and in [he louth-east where Ibe arc ol a circle which hard tandstone and conglonierate which erode slowly, and Ihe general 

•n iWrihi^ with a II m ladius liom New Caille Delaware upland level, which it 14<»->8oo ft. above tbe lea, is l.i[le broken 

, '™'^''"™ """ * _ "■■ ., J i , Tu r' J .J eicept by shallow valleys and occasional knobs. Tbe Alleghany 

fciniB Ibe botmdary between It and Delaware. The tort y.second |„4„ '.^^h entendt from the crest of [be Alleghany Front 10 

pitilld of N. latitude foimi the boundary between it and New ^^j beyorid [he west and north bonien of Pennsylvania and 

it ind Maryland and Wesl Virginia on Ibe wiutb and a norlb In Tioga and Pottercountinon^n^h middle bord« ilriin 

and Moth line marka the boundary belween il and West lii-1300 l[ in [he south-wesl and^o- 

Virpnia and Ohio on the weit. The total ares u iS,"^ iq- °i- det. and in Erie county [here it a Hidden 

' --' " - •rewatersurlace. le Erie plain. In [he iwnhcrn. middle 

cp and occasionally eoo-iooo ft. deep. 

the uplands are bruder anrT [he viille^ 
Hi of the Pennsylvania ibore ot Lake 
saBdandclay50-1aaft.il ' ' '^- 
hly a narrow beach, hi*' '- 




tr anrflhe valley 
lia shore ot Uk 
ft. in height am 

ut in tronr of th, 

formed a ipit. known as Pretqu* 

plateau, nearly aU of the central and •Hith.east 
;Ce nor[h4ai[ portion of the AUeghany plateau are 

,.. in e.<.«K.u I..I »~ ™- jw ... ■. . , _£eairf DSi"waie"Biys: the grea[er part ol [he Alleghany 

i lowland of [he lSedmDr[ region, or. a> the Pennsylvania platHU il_draiDnl by the Allegheny and, Monongnhela nvcrs inio 

Mati~ plain which haa been produced by [he wearing away ol and the eHreme weiteni portion of the »uth*ast province ar* 
weak ■rSnone*. 4c. On the north anJ »H[ bordrn ol [his drained by tributanet ot the Potomac: the Erie plain is drained by 



The Poconr 



I. bui bolh Ihe Susqudunni uia iV Dcliwiir. logiihcc 
with Ibtif principal tiibguriM, flow ioi" iKe moil part Iraninnr 
(a Ihe itologkBl itnictuir. and in the jorin and walcr-Bipi Ihiouih 



PENNSYLVANIA 

TT BubJHt to CMMsivc 



■s: 




■ pmieelio 




comminion ' 






























































, and .k. 







n Ihc Unittd S 



^S 



» the iialc iHiaLitufT paiHd ar 
■ lownihip if Ihr '— ^ 



louth-cail pcDViDCe H about u* F.; 

ml pnvinH tai to <7' — >— 5^ — — 

]f tKe Alkvliany plal«d 

e. At Phi&delplifithc 
idber. lamuiv ind Ffbnuryl i 
mtf OuV July a»d Augu.) i 






?fr'g.?.'V^ 






Sr,«^.i' 



itaic lanscd Imm lOT^^ai Yorit. 

uly T90I. ID -41' al Smilhpon. McKcan counly. 
July i) the warmcit monih in all puti o( tit 

ii ihe ojldtn in lomc and February in olbm. 

ral rainlall it 44 in^ It it 50 in. or morr in tooK 

■ (wilh-caR border oT ibe irououin dinrict 01 

, r ,- whrmhrrainiareoccajiorully heavy, audit it 

in tiir tpanely tcltled rwioni. The avifauna inrlude— among thr inUL during (he tummer it aboul ( in. more than 

bird) (4 prey— (he jvd-^ouldcred hawk, rrd-railcd faawk, marth auTumnorwinterandj in. morethaAlbuduring 

hawk, Cooper'i hawk, tbarp-ehinned bawk and wnTTowhawk;(be lOunlaJn Tfgion and in the vidniEy of Lake Erie 

arenot uneominon in the moLintaLnoutrTgianialontllwbrgcT riven. "'^ "' -■-^■ 

Tnl^Sj'lli'iSrrnJlS'™ rJfr^lJSiK. quaittS'EwliJrphe^; 
<wbiehhavoincreaied rapidly under protection), betiaet woockock. 
mipe. many spccinulduckBand a few Canada geeae. The song and 



a^"«dtiai-^"th 


ii-^^£»i:'«Tt, 


,. DeU. 






IS^CSCS 


tlheyartfrwiueMlyinu 


S'C 








.^and .n CheHeT VjJIey^where .1 u denv-e<j 


•isi'/. 


















s« 






























alued ai 8s4.*JJ.ooo) »a) greater than Ihal of any 
I Union tucept New York. Hiy ii grown in lai-geu 

e ihaiT oric-hall of the crop acreage in 1^ wa* 



ptiviie'fore.n, ' It eicrtded only in New York. The number of 

Ormaa.— The lemperalurr it quite mild and "I"'*'' '" ^^' flgcloatcd iomewhal. but then »er* 917.000 in 

n'^'ttSon from tb^rMa windt. The creiti of ihc higher ridgei 1509 and lO'o vr from Ihe Yar Bati of the 

ha (catnl previnM an dellglitfully cool in Kiiamer, but tht tpattmnil of Agnculture. 



le 



PENNSYLVANIA 


107 








."iitr.irs'i.'i'S 














)t OU CfmI. at Tiiuivillc; it 




IS taiTcl. nn pgmped fmm 








1 which moo K) JOOO barrdi 








3W b«n (oini dry, iiid whfn. 




Hodilvlo 9.«*^S in 1908. 
I, Tout and Ohio. rTdnS^ 




caped, and in ■ [ew buuncn 




ig «am in lh« boikn at <bc 




loo. wdl> which HR dtilkd 




later, about 1S6S •ucohCuI 




■ ■Danulacluri.w iur\. and in 




eU aubliahed ^r Titu.vilk 








nillHit incnaKd fn>m appioii- 




imanly $l9.Mi/m la i8Sa. 




. ri.».!™,.nd,h.in.«v.,H?g 



luilry vaj p«tly promrted in 



■oon atter the ducovery, in iB^t. of deposiLi 
kVillinnuport. Lycoming county, and the in- 



overed and l3r« quanlitia of 
ing or the Uhigb Canal. Com- 
y the hnt tuccnaful Portland 
1 in 1870. Tha autput of the 



e1> (valued al 
oT thai ot the 

ItSsJ.iM) Id 



iihi ^rcy or mollled- Tlowever 
t brouDht more deilrabfe nonet 
iHdHvcly ia Philadelphia and 
^rard CollegE and the United 



bsllaw and for road making. The toial value o( the KmeHoue 
oulpul in ijoS amounted 10 tl.057.47'. and the - ' ' 
atone quarried «• I6J7I.IS>. In Dauphin wl 
, of blniih-btswn Triuac landKoK ihat baa btn 



for building and f* 






:i"i4% JS'ih 

Lie'found in ci>» 
1 one of tiK oioil 

ind NonhamplDr 



Atlintic •obo*: 



for iliii product ii 
dance of coldiu c 
in the Mpply tM I 



PENNSYLVANIA 



(be uite and of Readint. Harrufauii 
Pottitovn, LtbanoD. PlweniiviJIr ai 



Ion, Soath Betfakboi^ 
villr in (be mtt pan. 

pc-^t'L, and picldira 

, , „ JuUeriS 

Philadelphia. 

Tnmipon and Conmrrcf.— The new road cut ihrouEh the Juniau 
retion in the nrnich of the army of Btindicr-Gcnerarji^n ForbcL 
aninK Fort Duqueue in I7}8, wai a mult of the influenoe d 
nniuylvaria, for it wa> conbdared even thm a matter of treat 
imponance to the firtuR profperity of the prDviace that iti tapoft, 
Philadelphia, be connected with na^eation on thr Ohio by (Ik 
eaiiett bne o( conoiunication (bat could be bad wholly within iu 
lijniia. Aa early ai (76> David Rittenbouie and otheiT inadc a 
■irvey for a canal to connect (be Schnylliill and the Suiquchanni 
liven, and in 1791 a comnlttee of the ilaH leiulacure lepincd 
in favour of a pR>jecE for eatablithing conmunioKbn by canab 
and river inprovement fnui Philadelphia to UikJe Erie by way 
ol the Suqacbanu river. Before anythin| wai done, the need cf 
Impraved meana of InuponukM between PhilaiHphia and Ibe 
nnthiarite coal-6e1di became the more pceaauig. The Schuylkill 
Canal Conpany, chartered in iSis^bNan (he conatTuction of a 
cuiatahini the SchuylUII river from Philadelphia la Mount Caibon. 
Scbuylliill cwinly. In 1816. and complMed it in 1816. In iSiS the 
Lehigh NavigatuHi Company wat formed to improve ihe navifa- 




mouth a the Lehifh 



the Suiquchinru to Readiai 

, ...-> itatc legislature authoriaed 

minion to explore route! from tbc Schuvl' 

im the Wnt Branch ol the Sumuehaaai 

r four uccceding van the 

KicEUive eyAtem of internal 



toCotumbia 



Jobnitownon 
Kblmninetat, 



, ..40. when (be compleleil er 

portioni enbnced a nilway fnin Philadelphia 

'(^iDmbia to*kol»(b^uii. a p«we n^way 
' nigb BUir'i Cap in (be Allegbany Front to 

—■^ -■- ™l down the Concmauth. 

Iltibtirg. a canal up (be 



York banter, 



branch from Ihemi 
n Noflh^uint 
ith of (be Lehigh : comideiable 



onnect (be Ohio - —. - „ 

iCopped. in 1(140. before the ^^em wai completed becauK of the 

Intcnte popular diicontent anting from """" "" "■""" "' "'"'■" -*■"-'- 

had been atsumed and became the taa 

wat then fully aauted. In (845 the ttale begin to 

and lailwayi (0 private corporationi and ihr ulp 

in iSjt. THte weitera divuion of the >) 

Ibe new ownen In ISCJ and the worked pc 



burden of rkbt whidi 






^p product!, coi 
iron, |l07.45S-'6: 






(he,D 



tbeDelawa 
ion of IHB 
:be Federal 



er below Philadelphia which abw 



in 1^ the Fed 

tV -™'*- 

All^i 



^nt htn much improved the navlnlion of ihe MonontaheLi and 
lezhenr rtven and ii commiltrd 10 a piojni lor uack-water 
IZ-.i .1- n..;- ..i.:.v : 1 .„ .:„. pimburg com- 

.«., «« ,«.-., ... ..-V -....^ JJ by ihe Lehigh 

COil A Naviutnn Company tram Mavth ChunV to i» miiH, 
a n. (fiuanc but (hie wu only a gravity road down which an 
loaiied wi(h coal deicended by their own gravity and up which the 
n PhlladcfphiT'io cXmlria'. but 

rheTwi"^ 



If further was done ui 



..__ _, ...-'lined pLinei, fi^-e on each iide of ih. ._ 

•I Blair'a Cap and cari were drawn up iheie by niiionary enginer. 
Bolh the Philadelphia ft Columbia and the Aileghenv Piinage 
railwiyi were completed ia tin- From Iheie and other befin- 
ningi the Mate'a railway mileage gradually inereaied to 1140 ■■ 
In 1(50, to 4fise m. ia 1B7D, to 8639 m. in 189a and (0 11.J73B.M 



PENNSYLVANIA 109 

•be have beco dtbeni o( the UnilBl Sulci foe ode moath, 
oidcDti of Ihc itMt tot ODc yeu and of the diction dulrict 
0[ two monllu Irniotiliilely pcccedisg the electioD, have the 
igbt of luSnge, providrd they have paid withia two yean a 
itale or county lai, which ahali have been aneSKd at Icail 
wo moDthi and paid at leut one month btten the election. 
rhe Auitnlian or " ManachuietU " baHot. adf^ted in 1891 
indei a law which laila 10 require personal legiilratiaii, by a 
)rovi>ion like thai in Ncbruka maket it eaiy lo vote a iliaifbt 
icket; paity name) are airan^ on the ballot acconilng to 

ri, oporti chiefly pMmlnini. coal, grain and tlour, tod J>e number of votei tecureU by each pany at the laM pnceding 

efly iron on. Hilar, dnigi and cbemkati. nunLifactured dectioo, 

I, Jure aod fUi. [a t?09 the value of iu npoiti. Eimdat. — Tlwoffice of pjyeinor, wperaeded in iTTfibyaptm- 

r Yixk. and ihe value of iu impnni, lr8,00]4&4, wu nnttilulion the zovemor eervei for four ynn and ii inelinble Cor 
D Oat of any euepi New York and Boilon. Pillibulf the nen lucnedinc tenn. The Bcvernnr and Lieuteiun|.KOveiiw 
■nong the "«>rBr pprtt of the rauniy in fonign |bu,i be ,, tan 30 yean old, ciiiieni of the United, Statea. and 

ha domeMic cominerce. Erie i> quile unimportaDt no member of Conireia or penon boldinj any office under (he 

lake pon> in Coieicn comiTKice, but hii a laiie dDiacatlc United Sutei or l^nuiylvania may be govenmr nc lieutenant- 

II on. copper, wheat and flour. govemor. The govemot coninili a lirsE anuninl of palnmaae.' 

-.-Tie P^l™ of Pe^Bylvania "« 4MJ7J :P£r«.'i."*i^ ^^t «,iS^n™hh^Sd ^."^^ 

01.365 in iSoo. 810,091 in 1810, i/Mfl,4J» in >"•>, ^^^ plajure. and a wperintendcnt of publk iutfuctios fir fow 

aiS3Oii,7i4.0JJuiiS4o;i.3ii,7S«ui 1S50; 3,906,115 ytara. and nay EU vacanda in varioua officei whicb occur durinf 

tiS"-9Si >» 1S70: 4>>S>,S9i in iSSe; 5,138,014 in tbe nxca of the renate. He hai a right of veto, oRcnding to Iteiu 

j.iIS in 1000; 7,661,111 ioioia Ofthctolalln 1000, 'o appropriatiMi Kilt whkh may be overriddca by a Iwo-thirda 

' _ --y ' t Zli !„.__ hjc D , «»^ ....».« vote in each houie. Hia oower of pardon la hmited. being ubHct 

I^ T ^C^ iJd ™ W^^ " "" F™"™"-!*'™ <^'"« n-mbe™ of a bowd whi^ani^ 

% of the fareien-bom IRU composed of nalivei ol general and Kcieiaiy of inlemiJ aflain. The other' eieculivc 

[iiirtSj), I-eland (Jos,oofl), Great Brilain (180,670), "EfS'*'' •" 't", li™"enan|.govnT»r and the aecretary of inttfoal 

1. . . ■ /I VVTi iiii \o ■ I .1 aHai™, elecled lor four yea™, the aadilor^eneril. elecled for ihiee 

,,3S81. Austna (6;,49i). Italy (6MS5), Ruaa (50,959), yan.\i,t lreuu«r. ele«3 Sr two yean. Md (all appointed by the' 

47,Mj) and Sweden (14,130). 01 the native popula. governor) the Kcrelary of the tommonweallh. the atlomey-gcBeral 

S.fl*S) 90-7% were bom within the state and a little and a Biperinlendcnt of public instniclion. All tbs« cfwn by 

I two-fifths of the iimainder were natives ol New e>Ktion are ineligible lor a tecond conjtcutive term empt the 

lylaad. Ohio. New JetKy, ViiginU, New England, ^„Ti"?'o?'i"'b^;/!X W ^^^t^l' ^t^JSITUf^ 

aiid Weit Virginia. Almut two-thiidsof ihelndtani icrvice, u«Hmenu, indunrial lUtiKics, and nilnvdh caula, 

-DVbeiiand county where, at Carlisle, is a United telegraphs and telcphonra. There are alio many ilatutor^ admini- 

tian Indusirial School. In 1906 the lota] number ol •iratiwofficialiard bMtd^ >ucliMtheadjutani.grneral^™ran« 

II of fUflerenl reliidous denominations in the s1at< commissioner, board of health, hoard of agnculture, board of pubbc 

e PioTeslanla and 1,314,734 mining Inspeclorm. 



an CaiboUci. There is a large number of the imailei Lipiiature. — During the cohinial period and the eady yean 

•ecu in the itaie; the principal denominaiiona, Kai^ood the legiiUmie wai comixBed of one bouse, tui tl 

i^nbei of communion., ol each in 1,06, are: Metho. ^STt^'^T.^.TeeSS^S? /Sir'^rd'ToiZ^tely^ 

.Mj), Lutheran (335,64^). Presbytenan _(3)i,S4I), hundred representatives, elected for two yean. _&aatan mint I 



i;o). Baptist (i4i,£94). Prolntant at lean 15 years aid. dliiens and inhabiunu of the stale for four 

lurch (45.430). Disciples of Chrul (16,498), Germui niptaenlativa must be at Icait 11 yean old and muu have lived 

relhrcn (13,176), Eastern Orthodoi Churches (u,l)3), in the state three yean and in the ditt rid from which elected one 

ea (16,517), Congregational (14,811), Evangelical Asao- yearneit before election. To avoid the pombility of metropolitan 

i,i94). Friends (1J.4S7), Church ol Cod or "Wmae- ^"''^'™^'™''%'^''^V^^'^%i^^"^ "^^g^^ 

at '■ Cii,iS;), and Moravian (5311). ireTi^niat." Tlw^wen of the iwS''i«us^ ai?^ same eacipt 

j.lnmiit.iloninl900.).llJJ37,orsi-l*/.,wewurtan{i.r. that ihe senate exercises the usual right of conlinnlngappoinlmeDtl 

ationolioooor marc), 761,846, or II'I5%, indaf ullin^asa court of impeachment, while the House of Re^' 

,nied places) .^Fioin 189a ia'1900 the urban populatioF by the voters of the stale al bree. Minority repieseniation is 

iiafimrtued only 55,195. or 1-4 */o- The poputaiions oi ihc number ol judgci to be chosen at each election. The state is 

' " > follows: Philadelphia. 1,193,697 divided into Ihret uiprcme judicial districts, the eastern, the middle 

t6 (lubsKiuently anncied it and the western. This court was formerly very much overworked, 

ding. 7S,96t; Erie. 51.73] but it srat relieved by an act of Ihc 34th ol June 1895 establishing 

w>.i67! Lancaster, 41459 a superior court (now of seven iudgei} irilh appellate jurisdiction. 

f. .. ......,!, ^ There were in toio fiftv-iia district courts of common pleas, one lot 



taVji^!'" 



i:'1g^» 






J^iil 



Ii WUliari 



on. i5,i3B:'^oniwown. 11,165: Sheaaodoah counries in a district. The judees of the common pleas are also 

— Peniuyivaoia has beeii governed undo R?"" '"'' ■'"™' ^"'^'^''^'^'l'' f^.'^jL^'P'""'' "^^^ Jl^^^ 

776, 1790 and l8j8 ; the present gOvemmem having a po^lalion o? more than one hundird and fitly ihou™ 

..:..,.: — t( [[,5 iSth ol Dece™!— .a,, ^'il r — 1.^ Ji ."i. 1 1 : .. j: — :_.. i_; L. .. 



s adopted on the slh of November 1901. Al townships. In the colonial period nil judges were appoi ., ... 

,., .K,mfi.liiMili.n mhf. Aimed must be anomvcf Eovcmor durinjt good behaviour. The conslitnlKm of t776 provided 
,„ ,h, mn.i,iMi,™ in he aimptcQ must De approvw p ,,nn,o( -v^S venn. ihnt of 170O rastoicd the life tena.and that 



ily of the members elected 10 each house of Ibi 
mibly io two successive legisl! 



inteJbylb 
./76provide- 

[79orBtorcd the life tend, and that 



of the gCDCra memof iSsoprovidedthalallJudResihouldbcclcctedby thepnple.^ 
an the adoptioi 1 jj,, tonstilution of 1673 made provision for minority lepresen- 
yean of age, ution as follows: " Whenever two judgeaol Ibe supreme court ve 



no PENNSYLVANIA 

At pment aupRme nurt Judnt Ki 
iiKl«ibk for tHlKtioB. Superior 
•erve For ten ytun, mud juRico of tl 
Lmpeadwd for miidenicmiHnir in oft 

gtrmX mBCDibtv, for any eubodj 

BilBcitnl injanil lof iqmichi 

Laul ammmtnL— The Idc— . 

tlic county nWnn of the South uid the I 
Ensbiid. The coiuitv olGcen ue iherile. 



. EleUed Eoc Ihiee ytm. The thi 



% ID each county are choaen by the u 
t •upieme<ouTt jjdflc*, thus allowing 
ity part);. Pcnna^Ivania hii ■uflere 




the people rt PhiUdclphii hit &Trri \o contribule nore thin 
tMiooiifaa lor the coiutniction of > ciiy-hilL To giunt ifunit 

— u 1. :- .^ (utuie the comtituiion -SI 1873 mffntd 

tlooe upon ipcdal le^iUtBin. The object 

T, hiu been in ■ lane meuure nulUficd by 

-' - idet which Phlladelphii it the 

EC of the " Rlppei BiU " of 1901 




■choot-boDld iB~uie» n exempt from levy and leJe on execution oj 
by dittreu for mt ; and the exemption exlendi ta the widow uu 
cdildren unles there la ■ Ben on the property for purchate money 
The child-labour law of lim fortndi the emphiyment of chadrn 
under eighteen yeari of age in bUiC fumaco, ta—*-^— — — »— 



Bremen, engineer!, motonnen and in other poiition oi iunilar 
character. Tlie tame law piacfibo condllioni usdcf which 
children between fourteen and^eighleen yean uf age may be on- 
ploycd in the manufacture of white-lad. rn1-lead| |iainta. phn- 
phonii, pcnnnoui acidt. tobacco or ciian, in meitanlile eetabbih- 
mcnti, >tom. botelt. oRica or in other place* requiring protection 
to ih«r linlrh or ulely; and it forbidt the employment of boye 
under liiteen yeart of aEc or of eItIi under eiEhteen ycart of age in 

tl be iQ prepare lor a ahort day| or for moie than lilty-eialit houra 



PENNSYLVANIA iii 

lovei viUey of the Delanre River Id ifiij-i6Si. Btlw«n 
1650 And 1660 George Fox uid a fcvr other prominent memben 
of the Society oF Fiiendi had begun to urge the estahliAhineiit 

luSering peneculion under the " Clarendon Code." William 
Penn Ig.t.) became interested in the plan at least ai early u 
l«66. For hii cbanen of 16S0-1681 and the growth of the 
colony under him lee Penh, Wiluau. 

During Penn 't life the colony nu involved in Knoiu boundary 
diiputea with Maryland, Virginia and Ncn Vock, A decree ol 
Lord Chancellor HaidwicLe, in ijso, lellleddhe Maryland. 
Delawan dispute and led to Ihe survey in i;6]-i767 ol Ihe 
boundary between Fenniylvanii and Maryland (lat. ]9° 43' 
ifi'j' N.), called the Mason and Diion line in honour of the 

ing the Iree and the slave stales. In 1784 Virginia agreed to 

limit (the present boundary between Pennsylvania and Ohio) 
u the meridlui liom a paint on the Mason and Diion line five 
degrees of longitude west of the Delaware river. The 4ind 
parallel wu Simlly )decled as the norlbem boundary in 1784, 
in 17^1 the Federal govenunent told to Pennsylvania Ihe 
■Dull triangular strip' of territory north of it on Lake Erie. A 
territorial dispute with Connecticut over the Wyoming Valley 
waa leiUed in favour of Pennsylvania in 1781 by a court of 

Upon William Penn^a death, his widow became proprietary- 
Sir WiUiam Keilh, her deputy, waa hostile to the council, which 
he practically abolished, and waa popular with the asHmbly, 
which be assiduously courted, hut waa discharged by MrsPenn 
after he had quarrelhxl with James Logan, secretary of the 
province. His successors, Patrick Gordon and George Thomas, 



during the Seven Years' War Ihe assembly wilhslood the gov. 
emor, Robert Hunter Morris, in the malterof grants lor Diililary 
eipcnses. But the assembly did its part in assisting Gener^ 
Biaddock to outfit; and after Braddock't defeat all wcslem 
Pennsylvania suffered terribly (rom Indian attaclis. After the 
proprietors subscribed fjcoo for the protection of the colony 
the assembly momentarily gave up it) contest for a tai on the 
proprietary estates and consented to pass a money bill, without 
this provision, fo( Ihe expenses of the war. But in 1760 the 
assembly, *ith the help of Benjamin Franklio as agent in 
England, won the great victory of forcing the proprietor! to 
pay a lai (£566) to Ihe colony; and Iheieaflei the siwrnbly 
had little Is contest for, and the degree of civil liberty atliined 
in the province waa very high. But the growing power ol the 
Scotch-Irish, the resentment of the Quakers againal the pro- 
prietors for having gone hack to tbe Church of England and 
many other circumstances strengthened the ^ti-proprietaty 

the able 
id Joseph 



t^ the absence aft' 


er December 1764 ol 


! Franklin 


in England 


OS itl agent. The 


queition tost impor 


tance as independence 










In i7SS> volume 


er militia had been a 


eated and 


wasted with 




in .756 a 


line of forla 


was begun to hold 


the Indiana in check. 


. In the same year a 




nder John Armatron 


g of Carii! 


lie surprised 


and destroyed the 


Indian village of K 


.itlanning 


(or AtiquO 


on Ihe Allegheny river. But the Iron 




istutbed by 


Indian kttachl unti 




Ponliac's 


conspiracy. 


In December 176J 


__•!» Christian India 


ns, Cones 


togas, were 


massacred by the 




om Paito 


n near Ihe 


pre«nt Haniibuig; 


the ladiau who had CKaped 


were lakea 



112 



PENNSYLVANIA 



to Lancaster for safe keeping bat were seized and killed by the 
" Paxton boys," who with other backwoodsmen marched upon 
Philadelphia early^ in 1764, but Quakers and Germans gathered 
quickly to protect it and civil war was averted, largely by the 
diplomacy of Franklin. The Paxton massacre marked the close 
of Quaker supremacy and the beginning of the predominance of 
the Scotch-Irish pioneers. 

Owing to its central position, its liberal government, and its 
policy of ^ligious toleration, Pennsylvania had become during 
the 1 8th century a refuge for European immigrants, especially 
persecuted sectaries. In no other colony were so many dififerent 
races and religions represented. There were Dutch, Swedes, 
English, Germans, Wcbh, Irish and Scotch-Irish; Quakers, 
Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Catholics, Lutherans (Reformed), 
Mennonites, Dunkers, Schwenkfelders, and Moravians. Most 
of these elements have now become merged in the general type, 
but there are still many communities in which the popiilar 
language is a corrupt German dialect, largely Rheno-Franconian 
in its origin, known as " Pennsylvania Dutch." Before the 
Seven Years' War the Quakers dominated the government, 
but from that time untU the failure of the Whisky Insurrection 
(1794) the more belligerent Scotch-Irish (mostly Presbyterians) 
were usually in the ascendancy, the reasons being the growing 
numerical strength of the Sicotch-Irish and the increasing 
dissatisfaction with Quaker neglect of means of defending the 
province. 

As the central colony, Pennsylvania's attitude in the struggle 
with the mother country was of vast importance. The British 
party was strong because of the loyalty of the large Church of 
England element, the neutrality of many Quakers, Dunkers, 
and Mennonites, and a general satisfaction with the liberal and 
free government of the province, which had been won gradually 
and had not suffered such catastrophic reverses as had em- 
bittered the people of Massachusetts, for instance. But the 
Whig party under the lead of John Dickinson, Thomas Mi£9in 
and Joseph Reed was successful in the state, and Pennsylvania 
contributed greatly to the success of the War of Independence, 
by the important services rendered by her statesmen, by 
providing troops and by the finandal aid given by Robert 
Morris iq.v.). The two Continental Congresses (1774, and 
X775~i78i) met in Philadelphia, except for the months when 
Philadelphia was occupied by the British army and Congress 
met in Lancaster and York, Pennsylvania, and then in Prince- 
ton, New Jersey. In Philadelphia the second Congress adopted 
the Declaration of Independence, which the Pennsylvania 
delegation, excepting Franklin, thought prematura at the time, 
but which was well supported by Pennsylvania afterwards. 
During the War of Independence battles were fought at Brandy- 
wine (1777), Paoli (1777), Fort Mifflin (1777) and Gcrmantown 
(1777), and Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778 
at Valley Forge; and Philadelphia was occupied by the British 
from the 26th of September 1777 to the i8th of June 1778. 
The Penns lost their governmental rights in 1776, and three 
years later their territorial interests were vested in the common- 
wealth in return for a grant of £120,000 and the guarantee of 
titles to private estates held in severalty. They sUll own con- 
siderable property in and around Wilkcs-Barr6, in Luzerne 
county, and in Philadelphia. The first state constitution of 
September 1776 was the work of the Radical party. It deprived 
the Quakers of their part in the control of the government 
and forced many Conservatives into the Loyalist party. This 
first state constitution was never submitted to popular vote. 
It continued the unicameral legislative system, abolished the 
office of governor, and provided for an executive council of 
twelve members. It also created a curious body, known as the 
council of censors, whose duty it was to assemble once in seven 
years to decide whether there had been any infringements of 
the fundamental law. The party which had carried this con- 
stitution through attacked its opponents by withdrawing the 
charter of the college of Philadelphia (now the university of 
Pennsylvania) because its trustees were anti-Constitutionalists 
and creating in its place a university of the state of Pennsyl- 



vania. The Constitutional party in 1785 secured the annulmfnt 
by the state assembly of the charter of the Bank of North 
America, which still retained a congressional charter; and the 
cause of this action also seems to have been party feeling against 
the anti-Constitutionalists, among whom Robert Morris oi the 
bank was a leader, and who, eiH>ecially Morris, had opposed the 
paper money i>olicy of the Constitutionalists. These actions 
of the state assembly against the college and the bank probablty 
were immediate causes for the insertion in the Federal Constitu- 
tion (adopted by the convention in Philadelphia in 1787) of the 
clause (proposed by James Wilson of Pennsylvania, a friend 
of the college and of the bank) forbidding any state to past a 
law impairing the obligation of contracts. The state ratified the 
Federal Constitution, in spite of a powerful opposition — ^largdy 
the old (state) Constitutional party — on the 22nd of Decembv 
1787, and three years later revised its own constitution to make 
it conform to that document. Under the constitution of 1790 
the office of governor was restored, the executive council and 
the council of censors were abolished, and the bicameral Init- 
iative system was adopted. Philadelphia was the seat oi the 
Federal government, except for a brief period in 1789-1790^ 
untU the removal to Washington in 1800. The state capital 
was removed from Philadelphia to Lancaster in 1799 and from 
Lancaster to Harrisburg in 181 2. 

The state was the scene of the Scotch-Irish revolt of 1794 
against the Federal exdse tax, known as the Whisky Insurrection 
{q.v.)&nd of the German protest (1799) against the house tax, 
known as the Fries RebeUion from its leader John Fries (q.f.). 
In 1838 as the result of a disputed election to the state house of 
representatives two houses were organized, one Whig and the 
other Democratic, and there was open violence in Harrisburg. 
The conflict has been called the " Buckshot War." The Whig 
House of Representatives gradually broke up, many membeit 
going over to the Democratic house, which had possession ol 
the records and the chamber and was recognized by the state 
Senate. Pennsylvania was usually Democratic before the 
Civil War owing to the democratic character of its country 
population and to the close commercial relations between 
Philadelphia and the South. The growth of the protectionist 
movement and the development of anti-slavery sentiment, 
however, drew it in the opposite direction, and it voted the 
Whig national ticket in 1840 and in 1848, and the Republicas 
ticket for Lincoln in i860. A split among the Democrats ia 
1835, due to the opposition of the Germans to internal improve- 
ments and to the establishment of a public school system, 
resulted in the election as governor of Joseph Ritner, the anti- 
Masonic candidate. The anti-Masonic excitement subsided 
as quickly as it had risen, and under the leadership of Thaddeui 
Stevens the party soon became merged with the Whigs. During 
the CivU War (1861-65) ^he state gave to the Union 336,000 
soldiers; and Generals McClcllan, Hancock, Meade and Resmoldt 
and Admirals Porter and Dahlgren were natives of the state. 
Its nearness to the field of war made its position dangerous. 
Chambersburg was burned in 1862; and the battle of Gettys- 
burg Quly 1863), a defeat of Lee's attempt to invade the North 
in force was a turning point in the war. 

The development of the material resources of the state unce 
1865 has been accompanied by several serious industrial dit- 
turbances. The railway riots of 1877, which centred at Pittsburg 
and Reading, resulted in the destruction of about two thousand 
freight cars and a considerable amount of other property. An 
organized association, known as the Molly Maguires (q.v.), 
terrorized the mining regions for many years, but was finall^ 
suppressed through the courageous cfTorts of President Franklla 
Benjamin Gowen (1863-1889) of the Philadelphia & Reading rail- 
road with the assistance of Allan Pinkcrton and his detectives. 
There have been mining strikes at Scranton (1871), in the Ldu^ 
and Schuylkill regions (1875), at Hazlcton (1897), and one in the 
anthracite fields (1902) which was settled by a board of arintrt- 
tors appointed by President Roosevelt; and there were ttred 
railway strikes at Chester in 1908 and in Philadelphia in 191a 
The calling in of Pinkerton detectives from Chicago and Ncv 



PENNSYLVANIA 



MlettbaitrikeiaUKCuae^itcelinickiit Homalod 
t prvdpitAted m. lenoui riot» in which about twenty pcnonft 
kflkd. It wu DMcuuy to call out (wo bcigadcs of 
c milicia bdCn the diwnlei wu Giully lupprenel 



othntt 



L took AdvuitB^ of this trouble 
ku, JUJDois. Uinnaoti, Colondo ud MVdtl 
I uiti'FmkenoD lUtutu iwHtJj it illtgiJ to 
qudi lool 
On tht politicjj .ude the duef feiiures in the 
Uuot7 ol the itite lince iM; have b«n the idoption of the 
' " ■' .*.-.- >o-Quay-Pcnro« 



William MuUuD 

BcnUmin Fictchf 
WilCuiMuUun 

Under the 



le growth ol tic Cimi 



. The a 



I of the nion 



i'lSjS, which 



uper- 



Bded that of lygo, atcndcfl the fuoctioiu of the Icgialilun, 
fimiled the govcfoor't power of appointment, and deprived 
■*!■■*■■ cl the light of auCfrage. The provialoo last Olentioned 

the OHtniiutian of the United States. The chief object of the 

III mil im [iCiiCiiiii filtjj) mil tn [iinlill ic Im n] and spedil 

kgialaiion. It indiaied the number of senatora «nd represea- 
latns, tmted the office of lieuleDini-govertiot, subtiliuied 
lieiiiiiallHaiuiaalMuiouofthelegiilaiure, introduced miiiority 

e higher Judiciary and of the 

r oomotfviooen and auditon and provided (aa had an Bedjam 



. PRiidcnl ol the Co 

. Pinuient of Ihe Co 

Dcputy-Govtmoi 



1 iSjo) for 



eelcclioii 



fall jud 



i;t7->7»« 

„ i7»-';36 

•ol l73*-'73« 

K3l 1747-174* 

r .746-1754 
I754-I7S6 

I75A-I7W 

'.'■ ^ '•'^->It 

of ihc Council 1771 

nl'GDvenuir 1771-1773 

Period of Sutehood (1776- 
din. Chairman ol the Coninittee 



I Donald Wllluir 
(b. i8«o), ^hn^D 



upon the ability of 



Cunoa (f.>0 and itrengthened by hit 

Ctnemo, Hatlbew Stanley Quay and Boil 

> bucd upon the ccntiol of pationage, the 

Inda anKHig favoured banha, the luppotl 

n]w«)> md other great coiponlioni, on ' 

lU kadcr* to penuade the electon that 11 a ncceaauy to vote 

be ttnitbt RejnibLican ticket to aave the protective ayitem. 

lotcR E. Patliion (iSjo-1901), * Democrat, waa elected 

picnni in 1SS3 and agiin in 1S91, but he waa handicapped by 

'T-IJi"" Irgialatnre*. In 1905 a Democratic ilate Ireaiurer 

*u elected. 

l>Ein«TI.VAI«A C0V«aH0K«. 

Under Dutch Rule (1634-1664)'' 
ComEi laeobaen Mey. ... - Director 



imon Snyder 
filli^™ Finley 
Heph KciHer 



David fSetenea de Vi 
Water na TviUa 



jpmh Ritner . 
b. R. Porter . 
F. R. Shunk 
W. P. jDhnnoni 
William Bigkr . 

I6l4-l6]< tamei Pollock . 

i6js-i6j6 Vv. p. Packer . 

161S-1631 A. G. Cunio . 

1631-16J3 John W. Geary . 

I6ji-i6iS John P. Hanranft 

i6jS-l6i7 henry M. Hoyt 



3- Swediih Rule (l6]8-l6j 



"3 

he Council 1690-1691 



Crown {1695-1695). 



nur nouenaer ni4i-nnj Wiliiam A. Stooe 

ISK;^- :■.:;::::::: !^!SS ^X's!sSn""'" 

JSaOaiiSltrwnEb l6S4-'«SS Si™^%™"- " ' 

Under the Duke ol York (1664-1673). 

lidHdNicalla 1664-1667 

UenCarr f^pu't ■ ■ 1664-1667 

UnNeedhas . . Commaodet on Ihe Dtliwai* 1664-1668 

TMuLoidaa 1667-167I 

fiteCwT .... CommanderonllK Delawaie 166S-167] 
Uofct Dutch l$tile {1673-1674). 

XidiSTCi4*e 1673-T674 

(BBAlikha Deputy on the Delaware 1671-1674 

Under the Duke of York (i674-'6«i). 

bEfannd Audio* 1674-1681 

Under the Propiietora {1681-1693). 
1^ MaAbam .... Deputy-Govemor . 1661-1681 



Rcpublicao . 



ItelTarw 1 
MsCook L . 
kliaSiiica± f 
MaEcUer' •> 



mnU of A[riiyllve. 

For the adminirtration of th 
CsmnmiKilM at Pnuynini 
imended November ;, I901 (I 

of YarfsLawi. 1676-16S1 {Hit 
taw of Pmnsytrania. ITOQ- 
1797-lfeil); Laici if Ikl C 



I77*-I777 

Pnaident of the Council 1777 

Pieiidenl o( the Council I77&-17«I 

I78'-I7aj 

','. 17SS-17W 

^ .. . I7BS-1790 

r-j — 1— 1790-1799 



1SJ9-183S 
1S35-1839 
1839- 184s 
ie4|-l84i 

1SSI-18M 
l8ss-l«ii 



1 873-' 879 
1879- '68j 
1883-1887 
1887-1891 
1891-189S 
189S-1899 
I899-1903 



te lee: Tin ConiiaiMnt of llu 
, 1 n ^^ .A_ ,gj, 

.I870S:A. J, Dalli»(e 



S^jf'hiliJd^hl 



■eoive tl eH 
and Lana 



l/rkl^o?'ih 



d of the Dutch leltlen 



PENNSYLVANIA, UNIVERSITY OF 



of tbcH buildiDgt I> ibe law Khoal. betveen cbcMml 
■nd SuiMia Streets, on J4tb Strttt. In * gnat (riuicuUi 
block boundfd by Woodland Avenue, Spruce Street, ud J4lb 
Street »re: the univeniiy libraiy, which but in 1909 ibont 
J7i,ooo bound volumes snd so.ooo pamphlets, including the 
Biddle Memorial lav libiscy (1XS6) of tojm volumo, the 
Colwell and Heniy C. Carey collections in finance and eCDDomici, 
the Francis C. Macauley Uhxry o! Italian, Spanish and Portn- 
guese aulhois, wilb an occllent Danic collection, the claiakil 
library of Ernst von Lcuitcb of Geiiingen, the philological 
library of F. A. Pott of Halle, the Germanic Ubtary ol B. Bech- 
ilein of Rostock, the Semitic libraiy of C. P. Cajpari of Copt^ 
hagen, the (Hebrew and Rabbinical) Marcus Jastrow Klenwrkl 
library, the ethnological library of D. G, firinton, aiu] several 
special medical collections: College Hall, vilh Ibe uiuversily 
offices; Konard Houston Hall (iS^) the students' dubi Logan 
HaU; the Robert Hare chemical laboratory; and {aciDss j6th 
S'lecl) the Wiital institute of anatomy and biology. Imme- 
diately east of this ttiingulai block are: BetiDeCl House; the 
Ratidal Morgan laboratory of physics; the engineering building 
(igoA): the laboratory of hygiene (iSigi); dental ball; and the 
John Hirriun bbontory of chemistry. Fsnher etM art the 
gymnasium, training quarters and Franklin (athlelk) field, vilb 
brick grand-stands. South of Spruce Street are: the free 
museum of science and art (iSgg), the □onh-weslem part al 

tian, Semitic and Cretan collections, the last two being lb* 
resulu in part of uaivcrsily eicavalions at Nippur (iBgS-igM) 
and at Courrda (igot-ttKu); befaeeo ]4ib and 36th Strtcu 
the large and well.equipped university hospital (1(174); laigB 
dormitories, consisting in igog, of 19 distinct but cooDtcted 
houses; medical laboratories; a biobgical haU and vivariuM; 
and across Woodland Avenue, a veterinary hall and hoipilaL 

college (giving degrees in arts, icicucc, biology, music, architec- 
ture, &c.}, the graduate school (1S81], a department ol lav 
(founded In 1790 and re-established is iSjo) and a depanmox 
of medicine (first professor, 1756; first degrees giantni, ijM), 
(he oldest and probably the most famous medical school ^ 
America. Graduation from the school of arts u ' 



this may be done in three, four or five yean;al the 60 co 
11 must be required in studies (chemistry, ) units; English, 6; 
foreign languages, 6; bisiory, logic and ctbica, mathematin, and 
physics, 1 each); tS must be equally distributed in twootlliR* 
" groups " — the 19 groups include astronomy, botiiny, cbcmisUT, 
economics, English, fine arts, French, geology, German, Cntk, 
history, Latin, mathematics, philosophy, physics, poUtkal 
science, psychology, sociology and loology; and in tbeTemainla) 
10 uniu the student's election is practically free. Spedal work 
in the senior year ol the college counts S uniu lor the fiiii 
year's work in Ibe department of Dtedicioe. College acboUi> 
ships are largely local, two being in the gift of the govtmoc <f 
the slate, fifty being for graduates of the public schiMlk ol ibi 
city of Philadelphia, and five being for graduates ol Pennq^ 
vania public schools outside Philadelphia; In IQ09 there wen 
twenty-eight scholarships in the college not locaL In it* 
graduate school there are five fellowships lor research, oA 
with an annual stipend of tSoo, twenty-one lellowabipi vahiMl 
at tsoi each, for men ordy, and five feUowships lo^ tod^ 
besides special fellowships and 39 scholarships. 
The corporation of the university is composed of a boanl (i 

is a-efficio president. The directing head of the univerAA 
and ihe head of Ibe university (acuity and of tbe faculty oi cad J 

universities; the provost is president f" ttotp"' ol the h«ul 

of iruslees. pf 

In 1908-1909 the uidversity had 4J4 officers of [aalnicUN^ |r 

o( whom >M were in the cr^ege arid 1^7 la tbc iic|iUtBa> k 



"S 



■oenlific Kbocd; 471 in the Whanon ichool, uul 15J m tfai become tecluiu 

evcEiBs ■cbool of acrousu ind Gnuce; JS4 Id couna for ud the Inulea I 

t«ub«i; ukd 4S I in the tummu school), ]J3 in the gndiute eadavoun ihit . 

•chool. 317 in the drptnment of law, SS9 in the dcptitment tha memben ol 

ol DBficiiie, jB; in the deputtoent ol dcDiiitiy, ud ijain Ibe {lomthcm . . 

dcputmcnl ol vtlaioAxy medidne. thui Ibey were at 

In Aojuit 1007 the em of the univenlty'* awti anr la Seplembn 1777 

EihOitie* wu (13^39408 and the dauliom ror Ihe year were became rhilndeli: 

•30S^'4. A ""jr li^r proportion of ilicunivenity". involmentt the lUle kgislati 

■ in leal cKUe. eipedally in Ptaibdclphia. la 1907 Ibc total ^„„ :„ ,,<. ^„ 
nluc of real ouie {includlut the univmiiy buildinf >) wit . ri_i,[/l_j 



The Penns and olhcn dcptculed Ihlt 
lund Ihcnudva (i;&4} to " uie Iheit ulmost 
. . (the original plan) be not tmnowcd.noi 
ic Church ol England, nof rhOK diuenting 

be put on any worse looting io thia leninaiy 
lie lime of receiving the royal brief." Frotn 
I June 177S college eiercisa were not held 
la wai occupied by Biiliah tiuopa. In 1779 



Lt the 11 






caled 



illege and cbattered a 
of the UnivcTsily ol tbe Stale ol 
Fenniylvanui "; in 1784 the college wu resloctd 10 ill rights 
and ptopctty and Smith again became irs pnh'osi; ia 1791 tbe 
college and the univenily of the Stale ol Peniuylvtnia were 
united under the title, " the Univetiity ol Penniylvania." 
whcae Inutcel were elected from Iheir own mcmbcra by the 
board of trustees of the college and that ol the univenily. In 
1801 the university purchased new grounds on Ninth Street, 
between Market and Chcslnut, where Ihe post office building 
now is; there until 1B19 the univenily occLpied Ihe building 
erected for the administrative mansion of the president ol the 
United Slatea; Iheie Hex buildings were erected after [819; 
and from these the university removed to its present site In 
1872. 



rtfi-'rii^ 



toLii:a"daii"y7Tlii>™ujhmiTrife5);"he wrrk^OUpi 
(ivnl; a camE nnnlhly, fto i^ici Brwt; a liteniv nantli 
rhl M ami Bliti; a quaiteily ol the departmenl ol dcntiU 
rW ram Drmtal /butikJ; u annual. Tht Riari; and Tin Aim 
IqiOir (iS9«). a moatUy. 



The provosU have been 
William Smilh; in 17I9-1; 
ol Pennsylvania, John Ewii 



Franklin in 1J49 published a pamphlet; cntitted 
iiiatiH[ Is li€ Edtualum il YeuUi in Ptniiltama, 
1 tbe formation of a board of iweniy-lout trusted, 
whom, on the 13th ol Novembet J7<9, met for 
I and to promote " the Publick Academy in the 
Cly of PhOadetphia," and elected Benjimin Fcanlclin president 
d the bsud, an office which he hdd until 1756. So dosely 
ns Franklin identified with the plan ihai Matthew Arnold 
ollid the institulioo " the University of Franklm." On tbe 
IK of February ijjo there wet conveyed to this board ol 
tnata ihe " New Building " on Fourth Street, near Arch, 
(Udi had been erected in 1 740 for a charity tchool— a use to 
■faichitbadDot bernput — andaaa" houseof Publick Worship," 
iaiUch Ceorge WhSttfield had preached in November 1740; 
llKoriginal truslea (including Franlilin) ol the " New Building " 
" ■ 'is projected charity school date Irom 1740, and therefore 

b-niity attache* 10 its seal the words " lounded 1740." ^^ 
Is the " New Building " the academy wi* opened on the ;th jj, 



5-r779 and In 1789-1803, 
he university of Ihe Mate 
-i8oi)i in 1807-1810. John 
juci/oweu v(7S?~i^'o';in lAio-iaij.John Andrews (1746-1813); 
in i8i3>i8)S, Frederick Bcasley (1777-1S45]; in 1818-1833, 
William Heilhcote De Lnnccy (1797-1865); in 1834-1813, 
John Ludlow (1793-18:7); in 1854-1859. Henry VeLhake 
(i79>-i866);ini86c>-i8«8, Daniel Raynes Goodwin (iSii-i8t)o); 
in 1868-1880, Chailcs Janeway Slillf (1819-1S99); in iSSi-1894. 
Waiiam Pepper (1S43-1898): in 1894-191°. Charlei Custis Har^ 
rison (b. 1844), and in 1911 sqq, Edgar Faht Smith (b, 185&). 

SeeT. H.Monlfonwry.AHiitoryoflU* Vnatriilf if Pmuyltaiaa 
frBM ill Faunialion Is A. a. IJ7D (Philadelphia. 1900); CmrBC B. 
Wood. Early Wijtory of IJu I/urn—'- -' " -■ '- '-- ' -' 



)0d. Early Wijtory of IJu Onmriily 0/ PtniiylnMia (ir 
i.. |SJ6) ; J. B. McMailer. Tki Vniueriily 0/ PMajVpMTa 
(7)i C- E. NitzKhe. Ofirial GnUt U Ae I'>.n«>,iy 0/ 



(jnl ed. 



he. Ofri 
r and E 



rijumary 1751, the city having voted £ioa in the pi 

A^ut fcv the CDDipletion of the building. On the i6lh 01 

IiTlaibeT i7}i a charitable school "lor the instruction ol poor 

CUdiea palii in Rttiint, Wiilint. and Arithmclkk " was 

Voed in Ihe " New Building." The proprietaries, Thomai 

MRicbardPenn. incoiporated "The Trusleesoflhc Academy 

nd Charitable School in the Piwince ol Pennsylvania " in 

UiJland in 1755 i™e<l « confirmatory charier, changing tbe ^,7^^ a"dopt^ ins'llJIid '"Th*e"li^nV"rcmiin 

lainrale o«ne to " Tht Trustees of the College. Academy and °,„ptions the only coin issued inEnRland g. 

Q«itable School," ftc. whereupon William SmitMm7;j8e3) ^ 'Sg^d florin V EdwaM Til. in ^. _, - 

" "" " ' " reign of Edward I. that halfpence and fcirthings bri 



lyXoniolihid..' 1906): >nJ Edward P. Cheyney, " Umvtr>riy'ol 
Pcimiylvania," in voL i. id Unatriiliet aid litir Soni (Boston, 
1901). 

PEHHT (Mid. Eng. ftni or piay, from O. Eng. form penit, 
earlier ttnnini and padinf, the word appears in Cer. Fjcnnii 
and Do. ptnninf; it has been connected with Du. tent. Cer. 
Pftni, and Eng. " pawn." the word meaning a little pledge 
or token, or with Cer. Pfaant, a pan), an English coin, equal 
in value to the one-iwclfih ol a shilling. It b one of the oldest 
if English ciuns. superseding Ihe iceatta or sccal (sec 
iJtnnsu.Ticsi and Butaln; Ang/o Saxm, { " Cmns "). It was 
ntioduccd into England by Ofla. king of Merci;i, who took as a 
model a coin first (truck by Pippin, father of Chaclcm.igne, 
about 735, which was known in Europe as Horuj dfBjriiii. Olla's 
penny was made ol ^iver and weiglied 11} grains, 340 pennies 
wrighing one Saaon pound (or Tower pound, as it was aderwarda 
called), hence the term pennyweight (dwt.). 



r pound of 5760 
the introiluciion 



n he bec^ 



'53. became provost ol the colli 
Hsfacd a complete and bbccal curr 
^ Bishop Jamei Madison in 1777 w 
•I Iht College of William and Maiy. 
Ete gndoated. Under Smilh'i control the Lali 
■ imporUDce at the expense of tbe English ■ 
IWijiiiii at FnaUin. Id 1761-1764 Dr Si 



[756 Or 




af tbe value of (wenly tUvo 

uid Vitus of U>e (ilvcr pa 
onwaidi, u inll be Mfn from 







VilueindlvET 


RcigQ. 


Wtight. 


SU^-', 








Cniiu. 


Ptnn/. 


waiiaro I.. 1066 . . . . 


"i 


309 






3™ 


T'iji'S : : 


H" 


378 
»-73 


He^V.ili»^'- ■ 


It 


;s 






•63 


Mary Vn '■■'■!' J '■ 


I? 








■3T 


Ed«rd Vl.,"issi '. '. 




■10 


EliiabHh, i6ai .... 


7l 


■06 



PENN YAN— PENRHYN, 2nd BARON 

itruck. Tbc weight S«Ltiri»C.Aldridi,Hull»fjtf FafciCHBily. Jftw?»>BiHffc 

dectmcd fram ijoo " »''■ 

ublei— FDnmOTU, in bauoy, ■ betb lanutly mndi Ued ia 

medidne, the nunc beins a comption of tlia old bebaliM^ 
nnme " PulioU-royall/' FiJe^uav rtgiuau II £1 ■ mcnbcr 
of the mint ffenus, and hai been knoim to bdtaniiti aiacc the 
time of Liimaeui as MemtAa puUiiitm, It la a peromial bertl 
with a ilcnder blanched item, aquaic In KCtioa, up tO'a foot 
in length and rooting at the lower node*, miall oppoaitc aUUied 

leddiih-puiple Qowen in the leal axU*, forming almoat globolu 
wboils. It grows in damp gtavelly plica, afodtUy atti pooli, 
on heithi and commons. It has > Mrong amell lomeirtiU tik* 
that of Bpcaiminl, due to a volatile oD wUcb it reuliiy ofatanMd 
by diitiUalion with wiler, and is iinown in pbarmagr at Oitw 
pultpi. The specific name recalls Its lui^iouil pnpeitr ol 
driving away Seas Iftdica). Like the other tninti it bM 
canninative and itimulant pnpeitit*. 

PEMOBSCOT, a tribe ol Moilh American Indians of Algooquiaa 
Btock. Tbdr old range was the country around tlw livci 
Penobscot in Maine. They aided with the French in Che cokmial 
wars, but made a treaty oI peace with the Eoslith In 1749. 
They fought against tlie Eogluli in ibe War of Independmcc, 
and were nibsequestly settled on u iilaod in the Ptnohant 

PEMOLOOT (Lat. petHO, punlahment), the modem namt 
given to peiuiecUiry tdeoce, that conctrned with the pinirf 
devised and adopted (or the lepreasIoD and pitvealiaa ol tAat, 
(See Cuke; CihonOLOOi; Pumn; JmrEimx Onuoiu; 
RzcniiviSK, &C.) 

PEXKHTM, OBOBGE IHOITO OORDOX WVeUAm- 
NAMT, ind BuoH (1836-1907), was the wn ol Caload Edward 
GordoD Douglas (iSoo-iSSfi), brother of the igth earlof Mottoa, 
who, through hii wife. Juliana, elder daughter and cebeir it 
George Hay Dawklna-Pennant, of Fenrhyn Castle, Cunarvoi, 
had large csutea in Wales and cUcwhere, and wii mated 
Baron Fenrhyn In 1866. Dawltin* had Inherited tbe cMata* 
from Richard Penryn, who was trealed Baron Peoryn fai 17CJ, 
the title becoming eninct on his death In iSoi. 

George Douglas-Pennant was conservative U.P. for Cai> 
nirvonshire in iS66-iS6g and 1S74-1SS0, and iDCcecdcd Ui 
lather in the title in 1&86, A keen iporUmao, a b mnukM 
landlord, a kind and considerate employer. Lord Peni^m 
came of a proud race, and was.himuU of an imperioui di^iodtka. 
He came proDiiaentty befon the public in iSip; and lubacqotM 
yon in connetiDii with the lamoui strike at hEiWdifadal» 
quarries. During his Fathcr'i lifetime the management of tht 
Penrhyn quarry had been left practically to an dcetlve [>a> 
rnittee of the operatives, and it was on the verge of bauhnqktcj 
when in iSS; he took matters in hand: he abolislked tbe caa> 
mittee, and with the help of Mr E. A. Young, whom he bm^lt 
hi from London as msnager, he so reorganised the Imfaan 
that this slste-quarry yielded a profit of something like £ijo,aoa 



Hie last coinage of silver pence for general drculstion was 
in the reign of Charles II. (i6tir-i66r), since which time they 
have only been cmned for issue ss royal alms on Haundy Thura- 
days. Copper halfpence were hist issued in Charles II, '1 reign,' 
but it was not until 1797, in the reign ol George 111., that copper 
pence were struck. This copper penny weighed 1 as. avoir- 
dupois. In the same year copper Cwopeoces were issued weighing 
( to., but they were found too cumbenome and were discon- 
tinued. In i860 bronze was substituted for the copper cnioige, 
the alloy containing ii; parts ol copper, 4 ol tin, and 1 of line. 
The wdght was also reduced, i lb ol bronxe being coined into 
48 pennies, OS against 34 pennies into whidi i lb ol copper 



PENH TAN, a village and the county-ieat of Yates county, 
New York, U.S.A., situated N. of Keuka Lake, on the outlet 
citending to Lake Seneca, about 170 m. W. ol Albany, and 
■boat 9S m. E. byS. of Buffalo. Pop. (iqoj), 4504; (iQic) 
4597. It is served by the New York Central & Hudson River 
■nd the Northern Central railways and by electric railway to 
Branchport, and hat steamboat mnnerions with Hammonds- 
port at the head of Keuka Lake. The lake, one of the most 
beautiful of the iMalled " finger lakes " ol central New York, 
■bounds in lake and rambow trout, black bast, pickerel and 
pike, and there are many summer cottages along its shorts. At 
Keuka Park, on the west shore ol the lake, i* Keuka College 
<iS9o), and at Egglesion'i Point is held a aummer "natural 
■dence camp " lor boys. The village is the scat ol the Fenn 
Yan Academy (1859). The lake lumishes water-power, and 
■mong the manufactures are paper, lumber, carriage*, thoet, 
&c Much ice it ihipped Irom the village. Fenn Yan it an 
Important shipping point in the apple and grape-growing retpon 
of central New York, and winemaking is an important industry. 
The first fume dwelling at Penn Yan was built in 1799; the 
village became the county-scat in 181], when Yatel county was 
ciealed, snd wat bicorporated in 1833. Tbe fint settlers 
were chiefly followers of Jemims Wilkinson (i7S3-iS"9). « 
teliglout enthusiast, bom in Cumberland township. Providence 
county. Khode Island, who asserted that she had received a 
divine commission. She preached in Rhode Island, Connec- 
ticut, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Obtaining a huge 
tract (which was called Jerusalem in 17S4) in the present Yates 
county, she founded in 1 7S8 the village of Hopeton on the outlet 
of Keuka Lake shout a mile from Seneca Lake. Many followers 
settled Ibeie, and the hersell hved tlicre after 179a. Some of 
her followers lelt her beion iSoo, and then the community 
gradually broke up. The name of the village ii said to have 
been derived from the first ayUablea ol " Fenniylvania " and 
" Yankee," as most'ol the early scttleis were Penntylvaniani 
■nd New Englinders. 

' The figure of Britannia finr appeared on this issue of copper 
colnL The oritinil of BriUnni. 11 uid to have been Fran™ 
Stewart, afterwatdi duchen ot Hiehniond (fVpys. Dtaty. Feb. ij, 
1667). It wu in Charles II, 't leisn, too. that the practice wii 
ein^liihed of placing the eaveTeign t bust in a direction coniivy 



The n. 

.0 the taste of the trade unionist 
ind in 1897, when the " new u 
abour questions throughout Englai 
omcnted. Lord Fenrhyn refused I 
lE&cials. though he ^ 



leaders of the 



™ggle 



leiminalion was int^cible. He becante the objetk 
est political hostility, and trade unionlnn excitaf 
utmott, but vainly, to bring about •ome iam rf 
Fenrhyn striken pennbolud 
and collecting contributions to tbeit ftmJii 




ir South Northamptonshire fitm) 1B95 to IfOa. 



PENRITH^PENRYN 



117 



a municipality of Cumberland couiity, New South 
Wales» Australia, on the Nepean River, 34 m. by rail W. by N. 
of Sydney. Penrith and the adjoining township of St Mary's 
■re diife^ remarkable for their connexion with the railway. 
The iron tubular bridge which carries the line over the Nepean 
Is the best of iu kind in the colony, while the viaduct over 
Knapsadc Gulley is the most remarkable erection of its kind 
in Australia. There are large engineering works and railway 
itting shops at Penrith, which is also the junction for all the 
western goods traffic The inhabitants of both towns are mainly 
lailway emptoy^ Pbp. (1901), of Penrith 3539, of St Mary's 

POBITH, a market town in the Penrith parliamentary 
divisMm of Cumberland, En^and, in a valley near the river 
Eamont, on the Cockermouth, Keswick & Penrith, London 
ft North Western and North Eastern railways. Pop. of urban 
district (1901), 9x82. It .contains some interesting brasses. 
A 14th-century grammar school was refounded by Queen 
Efisabeth; and there are two mansions dating from the same 
feign, whidi have been converted into inns. Though there are 
breweries, tanneries and saw-mills, the town depends mainly 
on agriculture. There are qome ruins of a castle erected as a 
pratection against the Scots. Near Penrith on the south, above 
the precipitous bank of the Eamont, stands a small but beau- 
tiful old castellated house, Yanwath Hall. To the north-east 
of the town is Eden Ilall, rebuilt in 1824. Among many fine 
pk>twig»^ it contains portraits by Hoppner, Knellcr, Lcly, Opie 
sad Reynolds. The "Luck of Eden Hall," which has been 
frifbratH in a ballad by the duke of Wharton, and in a second 
baBsd written by Uhland, the German poet, and translated 
by Longfellow, is an enamelled goblet, kept in a leathern case 
dsting from the times of Henry IV. or Henry V. It was long 
mpposed to be Venetian, but has been identified as of rare 
Orintal worfcman^ip. The legend tells how a seneschal of 
Edca Han one day came upon a company of fairies dancing at 
Si Cathbert*s Well in the park. These flew away, leaving their 
cup at the water's edge, and singing '* If that glass either break 
«r fdl. Farewell to the luck of Eden Hall." Its true history 
iumknown. 

Penrith, otherwise Penreth, Perith, Perath, was founded by 
Ike Cambro-Celts, but on a site farther north than the present 
town. In 1223 Henry III. granted a yearly fair extending from 
the eve of Whilsun to the Monday after Trinity and a weekly 
oarfcet en Wednesday, but some time before 1787 the market 
dqr was changed to Tuesday. The manor in 1242 was handed 
over to the Scottish king who held it till 1295, when Edward I. 
loed it. In 1397 Richard H. granted it to Ralph Neville, 
list earl of We^morland; it then passed to Warwick the king- 
■aker and on his death to the crown. In 1694 William IU. 
muted the honour of Penrith to the earl of Portland, by whose 
descendant it was sold in 1787 to the duke of Devonshire. A 
oovt leet and view of frankpledge have been held here from 
tine immeraoriaL In the x8th and early part of the 19th century 
harith manufactured checks, linen cloth and ginghams, but 
tke introduction of machinery put an end to this industiy, only 
Ike staking of rag carpets surviving. Clock and watch-making 
ttBS to have been an important trade here in the i8th century. 
Tk town suffered much from the incursions of the Scots, and 
Ka^, eari of Westmorland, who died 1426, built the castle, 
kat a tower called the Bishop's Tower had been previously 
meted on the same site. In 1 597-1 598 a terrible visitation of 
|ih|Be attadied the town, in which, according to an old inscrip- 
tios on the diorch, 2260 persons perished in Penrith, by which 
poksps is meant the rural deanery. During the Civil War the 
CHtle was dismantled by the Royalist commandant. In 1745 
Nkc Charles Edward twice marehed through Penrith, and a 
^nuah took place at Clifton. The church of St Andrew 
b ef anknowB foundation, but the list of vicars is complete 



1233. 



(15S9-1593). Welsh Puritan, was bom in 
1559; tradition points to Cefn Brith, a farm 
as his birthplace. He matriculated at 



Peterhouse, Cambridge, in December 1580, beiiig then almost 
certainly a Roman Catholic; but soon became a convinced 
Protestant, with strong Puritan leanings. Having graduated 
B.A., he migrated to St Alban's Hall, Oxford, and proceeded 
M.A. in July 1586. He did not seek episcopal ordination, but 
was licensed as University Preacher. The tradition of his 
preaching tours in Wales is slenderly supported; they could 
only have been made during a few months of 1586 or the autumn 
of 1587. At this time ignorance and immorality abounded in 
Wales. In 1562 an act of parliament had made provision for 
translating the Bible into Welsh, and the New Testament was 
issued in 1567; but the nimiber printed would barely supply 
a copy for each parish church. Indignant at this negligence, 
Peniy published, early in 1587, The jEquity of an Humble 
Supplication — in the behalf of the country of Wales, that some 
order may be taken for the preaching of the Gospel among those 
people. Archbishop Whitgift, angry at the implied rebuke, caused 
him to be brought before the High Commission and imprisoned 
for about a month. On his release Pcnry married a lady of 
Northampton, which town was his home for some years. With 
the assistance of Sir Richard Knightlcy and others, he set up 
a printing press, which for nearly a year from Michaelmas 1588 
was in active operation. It was successively located at East 
Moulsey (Surrey), Fawsley (Northampton), Coventry and other 
places in Warwickshire, and finally at Manchester, where it was 
seized in August 1589. On it were printed Penry's Exhortation 
to the govemours and people of Wales, and View of . . . suck 
publike varUs and disorders as are in the service of God . . . in 
Wales; as well as the celebrated Martin Marprelate tracts. 
In January 1590 his house at Northampton was searched and his 
papers seized, but he succeeded in escaping to Scotland. There 
he published several tracts, as well as a translation of a learned 
theological work known as Theses Genevenses. Returning 
to England in September 1592, he joined the Separatist Church 
in London, in which he declined to take office, though after the 
arrest of the ministers, Francis Johnson and John Greenwood, 
he seems to have been the regular preacher. He was arrested 
m March 1593, and efforts were made to find some pretext for 
a capital charge. Failing this a charge of sedition was based 
on the rough draft of a petition to the queen that had been found 
among his private papers; the language of which was indeed 
harsh and offensive, but had been neither presented nor published. 
He was convicted by the (^een's Bench on the 21st of May 
1593, and hanged on the 29th at the unusual hour of 4 p.m., 
the signature of his old enemy Whitgift being the first of those 
afl&xed to the warrant. 

See the Lt/e, by John Waddington (1854). 

PENRTN, a market town and port, and municipal and 
contributary parliamentary borough of Cornwall, England, 
2 m. N.W. of Falmouth, on a branch of the Great Western 
railway. Pop. (1901), 3190. It lies at the head of the estuary 
of the Penryn River, which opens from the main estuary of the 
Fal at Falmouth. Granite, which is extensively quarried in 
the neighbourhood, is dressed and polished at Penryn, and there 
are also chemical and bone manure works, engineering, iron 
and gunpowder works, timber-yards, brewing, tanning and 
paper-maJdng. The harbour dries at low tide, but at high 
tide has from 9 to 12} ft. of water. Area, 291 acres. 

Penryn owed its development to the fostering care of the 
bishops of Exeter within whose demesne lands it stood. These 
lands appear in Domesday Book under the name of Trelivel. 
In 1230 Bishop Briwere granted to his burgesses of Penryn 
that they should hold their burgages freely at a yearly rent of 
1 2d. by the acre for all service. Bishop Walter de 
Stapeldon secured a market on Thursdays and a fair at the 
Feast of St Thomas. The return to the bishop in 1307 was 
£7, 13s. 2)d. from the borough and £26, 7s. sd. from the forum. 
In 131 1 Bishop Stapeldon procured a three days' fair at the 
Feast of St Vitalis. Philip and Mary gave the parliamentary 
franchise to the burgesses in 1553. James I. granted and 
renewed the charter of incorporation, providing a mayor, eleven 



Ii8 



PENSACOLA— PENSION 



aldermen and twelve councillors, markets on Wednesdays and 

Saturdays, and fairs on the ist of May, the 7th of July and the 

aist of December. The charter having been surrendered, 

James II. by a new charter inter alia confined the parliamentary 

franchise to members of the corporation. This proviso however 

was soon disregarded, the franchise being freely exercised by all 

the inhabitants paying scot and lot. An attempt to deprive 

the borough of its members, owing to corrupt practices, was 

defeated by the House of Lords in 1827. The act of 183a 

extended the franchise to Falmouth in spite of the rivalry 

existing between the two boroughs, which one of the sitting 

members asserted was so great that no Penryn man was ever 

known to marry a Falmouth woman. In 1885 the united 

borough was deprived of one of its members. The corporation 

of Penryn was remodelled in 1835, the aldermen being reduced 

to four. Its foreign trade, which dates from the 14th century, 

is considerable. The extra-parochial collegiate church of 

Glasney, founded by Bishop Bronescombe in 1265, had a revenue 

at the time of its suppression under the act of 1 545 of £221, 18s. 4d. 

See Victoria County History^ Cornwall', T. C. Peter, Clasney 
Collegiate Church. 

PENSACOLA, a dty, port of entry, and the county-seat of 
Escambia county, Florida, U.S.A., in the N.W. part of the 
state, on Pensacola Bay, about 6 m. (11 m. by channel) N. of the 
Gulf of Mexico. Pop. (1900) 17,747; (1910) 23,982. It ranks 
second in size among the cities of Florida. The dty is served 
by the Louisville & Nashville and the Pensacola, Alabama & 
Tennessee railways, and by steamers to West Indian, European 
and United States ports. The harBour* is the most important 
deep-water harbour south of Hampton Roads. The narrow 
entrance is easily navigable and is defended by Fort Pickens on 
the west end of Santa Rosa Island, with a great sea-wall on the 
Gulf side (completed in 1909), Fort McRee on a small peninsula 
directly opposite, and Fort Barrancas on the mainland imme- 
diately north-east of Fort McRee. On the mainland i m. east of 
Fort Barrancas are a United States Naval Station, consisting of a 
yard (84 acres enclosed) with shops, a steel floating dry dock and 
marine barracks; and a reservation (1800 acres) on which are a 
naval hospital, a naval magazine, two timber ponds, a national 
cemetery, and the two villages of Warrington andWoolsey, 
with a population of about 1500, mostly employes of the yard. 
The city's principal public buildings are the state armoury, 
the Federal building, and the city hall. The mean annual 
temperature is about 72° F., and breezes from the Gulf temper 
the heat. Pensacola is a shipping point for lumber, naval 
stores, tobacco, phosphate rock, fish, cotton and cotton-seed 
oil, meal and cake, and is one of the principal markets in the 
United States for naval stores. In 1895 '^c foreign exports 
were valued at $3,196,609, in 1897 at $8,436,679, and in 1909 
at $30,971,670; the imports in 1909 were valued at $1,479,017. 
The important factor in this vast devdopment has been the 
Louisville & Nashville railway, which after 1895 built extensive 
warehouses and docks at Pensacola. There are excellent coaling 
docks — good coal is brought hither from Alabama — and a grain 
elevator. Among the manufactures are sashes, doors and 
blinds, whiting, fertilizers, rosin and turpentine, and drugs. 

Pensacola Bay may have been visited by Ponce de Leon in 
1 513 and by Panfilo de Narvaez in 1528. In 1540 Maldonado, 
the commander of the fleet that brought De Soto to the Florida 
coast, entered the harbour, which he named Puerta d'Auchusi, 
and on his recommendation De Soto designated it as a basis 
of supplies for his expedition into the interior. In 15 59 a perma- 
nent settlement was attempted by Tristan de Luna, who renamed 
the harbour Santa Maria, but two years later this settlement 
was abandoned. In 1696 another settlement was made by 
Don Andres d'ArrioIa, who built Fort San Carlos near the site 
of the present Fort Barrancas, and seems to have named the 
place Pensacola. In 17 19, Spain and France, being at war, 
Pensacola was captured by Sieur de Bienville, the French 

* In 1881 the United States government began to improve the 
harbour by drcd^ng, and in June 1909 the depth of the channel, 
for a minimum width of about 300 ft., was 30 ft. at mean low water. 



governor of Louisiana. Later in the same year it was 
sivdy re-taken by a Spanish force from Havana and rscaptared 
by Bienville, who burned the town and destroyed the fort. 
In 1723, three years after the dose of hostilities, Bieaville 
rdinquished possession. The Spanish then transferred their 
settlement to the west end of Santa Rosa Island, but after a 
destructive hurricane in 1754 they returned to the mainland. 
In 1763, when the Floridas were cnled to Great Britain, Pensa> 
cola became the seat of administration for West Florida and 
most of the Spanish inhabitants removed to Mexico and Cuba. 
During the War of American Independence the town was a 
place of refuge for many Loyalists from the northern colonies. 
On the 9th of May 1781 it was captured by Don Bernardo de 
Galvez, the Spanish governor at New Orleans. Most of tbr 
English inhabitants left, but trade remained in the han<b of 
English merchants. During the War of 181 2 the British made 
Pensacola the centre of expeditions against the Americans, and 
in 1814 a British fleet entered the harbour to take formal posses- 
sion. In retaliation General Andrew Jackson attacked the town, 
driving back the British. In 1818, on the ground that the 
Spanish encouraged the Seminole Indians in their attadcs 
upon the American settlements in the vicinity, Jackson again 
captured Pensacola, and in 1821 Florida was finally transferred 
to the United States. On the 12th of Januaiy 1861 the Navy 
Yard was seized by order of the state government, but Fort 
Pickens, defended first by an insignificant force under licut. 
Adam J. Slemmer (1828-68) and afterwards by a lacger force 
under Licut.-Colonel Harvey Brown (i 796-1874), remained 
in the hands of the Union forces, and on the 8th of May i86a 
the Confederates abandoned Pensacola. Pensacola was chartered 
as a city in 1895. 

PENSHUR^, a village in the south-western parliamentary 
division of Kent, England, at the confluence of the Eden and 
Medway,4)m.S.W.ofTonbridge. Pop. (1901), 1678. The village 
is remarkable for some old houses, including a timbered house 
of the 1 5th century, and for a noted factory of cricket implements. 
The church, chiefly late Perpendicular, contains a large number 
of monuments of the Sidney family and an efllgy of Sir Stephen 
de Pcnchcster, Warden of the Cinque Ports in the time of 
Edward I. Pcnshurst Place is celebrated as the honae of the 
Sidney family. Anciently the residence of Sir Stephen de Pen- 
chcstcr, Pcnshurst was granted to Henry VIII. 's chamberlain. Sir 
William Sidney, whose grandson. Sir Philip Sidney, was bora 
here in 1554. It passed to Sir PhiUp's younger brother Robert, 
who in 1618 was created carl of Leicester. On the death 
of the seventh earl in 1743 the estates devolved upon his niece 
Elizabeth, whose only child married Sir Bysshe SheUey of Castle 
Goring. Thdr son was created a baronet in 1818 as Sir John 
Shelley-Sidney, and his son was created Baron de LTsIe and 
Dudley in 1835. The mansion is quadrangular, and has a fine 
court, chapel and hall (c. 1341) with open timber roof and a 
minstrels' gallery. The various rooms contain an interesting 
collection of portraits, armour and other family relics. The 
praises of the park and the house have been sung in Sir Philip 
Sidney's Arcaiia^ and by Ben Jonson, Edmund Waller and 
Robert Southey. 

PENSION (Lat. ^ensio, a payment, from pendertt to wn^ 
to pay), a regular or periodical payment made by |NrivBte 
employers, corporations or governments, in consideration dtber 
of past services or of the abolition of a post or office. Such 
a pension takes effect on retirement or when the period of tenrioe 
is over. The word is also used in the sense of the pajrmcBt 
by members of a sodcty in respect of dues. 

United Kingdom. 

In the United Kingdom the majority of persons in the empkj 
of the government are entitled to pensions on reaching a certain 
age and after having served the state for a certain minimua 
number of years. That such is the case, and moreover thai 
it is usual to define such pensions as being given in considctatfee 
of past services, has led to the putting forward very generaQf 
the argument that pensions, whether given by a government or 



PENSION 119 

(■.■KintbeuIUKDfdfrtTTtdpay, uidihu f''*',*?*' A iwum it puNbhsd •imiully amuiniiif » eomplf.i 

__ . _ i_tt «Uch any pewioBj muit thncforc be reimded ''*' " '*" vinout pinHo™. , 

5.™™««i.i-u,...i»M™.i»,«.,b,,i«j^™K^ ,^;'SSJdSrS7.ZS"S-£TSJTr%.S 

fli the nlH of the puUHIB. Thu new u hudly CBmcl, lot Krvra lr«a the lime of Clurit. II. onwitdi. Such Staiiiat 

iIk abject of atUcUng a peuIiHi 101 post iinot merely 10 rcwird wtn very Imjuemly attuhcd u "»lan«" 10 ptaeo >hk:li wen 

«( the «nt>Iay« wilbout hardship 10 him ihoultl ige ot infirmily "„J .„nuit^ 'i^n cha^'cd al^'fht''hmd\riry'"n^<^'''^l'"tt^ 

Rulcr biiD leas cffidcnl- DiuatisFiction had been cxprcued uverriEn aad isere htld ta be binding on tlie wvem^n't iuccvmdti 

Icom time to Ume by memben oi the Engliih tivil lenfice «ilh iTIu Ailiri* Com, itai ; 5IaJ. Tri^s, <iv. 3-^3). By 1 Anne 

u,^«„ » ,m ™. ...... b^i, .t b., ■,™.. .., -iV"K.'^S,?Sir.S'.i' £ s.-K.ss 

COBfiflcd only to mivivoti, «nd that no ulvantige accnied 10 M^reiin. Tliu ■« diifnM aSect the hcrediuty revenoM of 

the repeoentativel o( thoM who died in letvice. Thii waiallered lrflind»iid Scoiland. and nuny prnoni were quanercd, ei they 

by u act ol 1909. See Koyal Comniijiim eH Suft"""!^'" 1""! bun betorc the aci, on ihc frith and Scoiiiih revenuei »ho 

iili.CmlSimB:«tfertfl«J£r«™«(i903)- For the general ^S^. ^l£!S1^^ ™ 13 rJJTli^T? h.rt".n'MA ™Snn S 

■ a givo. by uTrtate to the aged poor «« Ou, AcL ^i„;'^'S4X'^«^^,''S!:l^'oi jt^lirSaH? wS! 

— (xniiDn of £5000 1 year; the ducheii of Kendall and the counleiH 

vice Ihe (rant of pendoni ol Dariinrion, raiitreMct of Ceorae I., had penjiont tl tlie united 

ISU, iis9. IMJ and 1909. To Ccwjie []., had a pcniian ol ijum (Licby, HisUry aj Irdand in 

'wiii ■ ™ii£«e'l^the dtil concnvable rono-^oiing Ihe ^mn'iA the Cro«i? [or'th«"iX 

an oAke tpecially exempled from ci the lovereign. lot lermt of year^ Eor the liEe of the sranlee, and 

eT~(ii'~i>i^t be itiauld dra* the emolunienti of hit Hultty ef Emrinfi. On (he acRiaioo of Ccone' Itl. and hit 




nl* ; (4) thai be ihould have served lunender of the hereditaiy g 

1 thai If under the axe of 60 yean lin, thii dvil litt became the 

. _ . rmiiieiilly incapable. Irom infirmity paid. The tubtequent hinor> 

rf body or niod, ol diaehai(inf hk oOicial duliet. or havr been that heading (Civil, L»I), but ii may I 
. ._ — i!. -« .i„ pound ol hit inabHily to diachaiie three pennion llitt of England, Seollai 



be cenilied to be perminenlly incapable. Irom infirmity paid. The lubtequent hinory of the cii 
- ---* -• -•■-'■ — •— *■- official dul' ■■ — ' -"- •^— ■--- "-— - ■ ■— >. - ' 

1 ol hit iu 

en OB ih 

n calenlate* 
i>ea,of h)i 
thiK yeara) lor och complete year of lervice. u: 

mm ol fony-eightieih*. Civil leiunu retiring 



dnlio efficienlty. On relireiaen on IheK eandiiioni a Kilidaled in iBjo. and the eivil peniion ii« reduced to ijyc 
temai ia qualified lor a penaion calcnbled at nne-e^tiRh ihe remainder of the peniiont being chaijed on the Conioiida 

Chirlet Bradlau 

.. _. , --,- _ tlw payment of perpetual pci ..,_..._ 

iD hnllh after lev than ten yeart' aeivice qualify lor the Houv of Commou inquired into ihe wbjnt {RrpsrI >/ Sriril 



a quaiified for a penaion calculated at nne-enhtieth the r 

■Oaty (or, in tnlain caiea, of hit average aalary for Fund. 

yeara) lor arh complete year ol lervice. ubiecl to In 1BS7, Chitlet Bradlaugh, M.P.. prMcNed ftrongly afnint 



ig the age ol uity^ve yean, tb 



niDc supmnnuHiivn jict ol iQOf the penaion waa calculated al fuport coniaint a detailed litt ol all heredilarv ptniiont, paj- 

)« il lervice. lubject to a mudmum ol foRy-ainielht. Thii ia ol the origin in each caic and the ground of the original pant; 

■il Ibe rate hx ihotc who entered Ibc KTvic* pfevioui lo Ihe paaa- there arc alio thown the pentioni. Ac, ncdcemcd from lime >o 

i« el Ihe act ISepieiabec 10, 1909) unleia they availed thenuelvct time, and ihe Icrmi upon which the rcdempliun tooli place. The 

<< the ijiniiniriii in the act to uke advaniaie ol iu provitioni, nature ol acHne ol these pcntiont may be gathered from the (ollov- 

•tich were more than a compenaation lor the loweTing ol the rale, ing eiampha: To the duke ol MarlWout^h and hit heirt in per- 

Tkeact ^ve power to the treaaury 10 pant by way of additional petuity, £4000 per annum; this annuity waa redeemed in Augutt 

lOo^are fo a <ivi] lervant who rrtired alter not lc« than two ]Afl4 for a turn of £i07.7Sri. by the crcarion of a ten ycart' annuity 

;o hit Buperannuation, a lump turn eoual of £i>.7<)6. 17a. per annum. By an an of iSc6 an annuity of £5000 

nual aalary and emolumem* multiplied pcrannumwuconfeircd on Lord Nelson and hiahcirfinperpeluity. 

"■ a he haa lerved. to however, that In 1703 an annuity ol £tooo wat conferred on Lord Rodrwy and 

and a half timet hit aalary. while if hitbeira. All Ihese pentian^ were for servicer rendered, and although 

'' --->'-^ ian. there niuat ba jntiliable from tbai pwnt nf view, a preferable policy it purtued 

r every completed in the xMh century, by parli^mcnl voting a lump sum, at in Ihe 

attaining that tft. In the caie of caaet ol Lord Kiltbcner in 1901 (tjo,ooo) and Lord Cromer in 1907 

.. . . before the pamng ol the act, and fjo/wo). Charles II. ftfanrcd the office of rceciver'general and 

take advantate of Ihe act, thia additional allowance it incrca&cd by controller of the bcali of Ihe ccriirt ol king't bench and common 

ihcact. Tbeact alto provided that where a civil vrvant died after the dultp for an annuity of £843. which in turn wai commuted in 

wrving five yeart or upwanla. a gratuity equal to hit annual aalary tSBj for a mm ol £32,714, m, Bd. To Ihe tame duke wat given 

■ad eoolunienlt might be granted 10 ha legal personal rcpre- the oflkr of Ihe pipe or rememlirancer ol firtl-fruila and tentht of 

wuirvei. Where the civil wrvani atuini tbe age ol ti«y-tive the clergy. Thi> oFRce wat uU by the duke in 176$. and oflcr 

(ktrratuiry B reduced by one-twentieth lor each conpicted year patting IhiouBh vaiioua handt waa purehaied by one R. Harrison 

bmd ihat ace. On Ihe other hand, wheie the civil aervant in i'}^. fn i8]s on Ihe ton, of certain tcei the hoMer was com- 

Wieiiied from tbe tervkc and all Ihe tuiit teoeived by him al peniated by a perpetual pension ol £6], 91. 8d. The duke of Crallon 

b drath on aceouni of tdperannuation are leia than hit annual alto pot.wiv.'d an annuity of £6670 in retpecl d the commutaliim 

■brjr hit reprevenialivea may receive the dilfeRnct aa a-gratuity. of (he duet of buik-rage and priiiage- To the duke ol S( Albant 

lUition d office, provided Ihat luch compensation does not Branicd by the oneirml patent were: master of hawki. talaTv, 

W«d on the ground r>( ill tieailh. Pcntiont are alto tomclimel rf hawlct, £600; provision ol pigenna. hcnt andolher menit, 

vifieotaiion lor injury in certain catet, or to holders trf pro- office fees aod nlhcr dcductiant to £965,_ai whkh amount it stootf, 

n ue eteceding that al which 1 . . . - .^. . 

I of £875,010. £6jj.Mi. The duke of Hamilton, as herediury keeper ol the 

nt ofpenaont palate. Holyrood House, reccivwl a perpetual pension ol £45, io»., 

Iher services, and the descendant t ol the heritnble ukbcrol Scotland drew a salary 

'!°War"bffiw! allDwinces^wl faymenu'thouhl no! in future be granted in per^ 

t- £4ia.lsS: pciuity, on Ihe ground Ihat wKh pants shoukl be limited to the 

Royal frith person, actually tendering Ihe aervicct. and thai luch rewards 

ice. £13,646. should be defrayed by the genemtion benefited; that oflicet wiih 

il pewHU ol ailariea and wilhool duiiet. or wiih merely nominal duties, oughi 






PENSION 



' Ua peiiloiu al Clio an lonam 
y bt held by vkx^ilBlnk ud mi 
> Cor apuinii two of /KB ■ ynr 
■eroaicniillincdiiooatar foe 
. of IMO ■ rnr (or iBKnl sfficcn 
' f HO ■ ytsr foe ootow U — d UniL- 
icb Hrxpiul pnuiou nnfe ttom 

Ennpktcd twtmy-two ynn' Krvir* 
' from lod. ■ day to a madnnu of 
r number of sood-conduct badtb, 
iiKdal. po Mc i Kd . Petty oAcbk 

in the capacity of wpedor petty 
lie capacily oT inferior petty oAccf 

m 6d. ■ Aty to 3l ■ day. Pentiona 



IraiAingi during thai 
id lictilf nantn, beuinuniiu captnina 
in (or u yciii in tbe Wen India 
fat e; nin jmn.afte T»jye» ta'eerviec. 

age, {yao: lieutenanl-olnDcl*, after 



cnant-colonel cavalry aad infuliy. 
wiaecn aad army lervia carpi, 
calond» cavalry and ialantxy. £4*& 
a and army aervln coeiia. Gjo, 
minaiid of a retioeatal dittnct or 
laployed In any othci capacin lor 
I to agei Brevn-CDlondi, (ritt iha 
ofcncl. receive, cavalry oi iafaatry. 



with a iralulty in Ui 






inploynlpe 
• witfijd. , 



total KivKX. and sitb Ibe letlnntaf 
above daiie*, the raica of p^hvh 



1^ 


6y~v 


!S£ 


1 


a d. 


ad. 

j 





Fen well canpleie ytu in DE« of 9 1 y«n. 


a!Z^iv.*I!^v. 


Id. pa diem id gd. per dirm. 
W.?Sdien.»5d.pe.di™. 



PENSION isi 

■diM cMiUined the niBiM of 4/1 wlilinn o( thu wir. the taX onk nrvlm 

were wovided lor thae who lerved in tie Black Hawk wmr, Cmk 
wst, CbetDkcc diiturtMiHH and Ilie ScninDlc war (iSji la 1S41). 
DB the i;ih oC July 1891, fitly yon aim i)if period Finbtunf in 

.1 ( m thoKwho had lenTd [or thirty dayi 

:harjtd, and to their widows. In 190* 



u tan Ji. |W diem,' provided thai he haa coraplelHl JJ ye«r»' 1M7, Chirty-nint yeara ailet the Giiadrkupe-Hildalgo treaty. The 
fervicc ■■ aU. An addiliona] peniioa of 6d. per dien la awaided peiuloru were ^nnltd to thoae who were honouiably diicharied 
fa»- -■■»■» >.^«A.>* — ;w*fc*.*«.*Kjw*Tanf nffir^rm jod [q ^ widowi, EoT Bervicc o( iiaty day*, if nxty-two yeari of 

N.CXX'a and iDca dinfeled tbiouih military lervice are mnled age, or ditabled m dependent. Thii li» wu llbetaliied by the 
aetaanwim pCBBOna:— acuof cbe Jih of January i^}> ijid of April 1900. 6th oC February 

tbue who have leached the age ot •evenly yeari, and to (io lor 

contained the namea of j^ja lurvivon and 6914 widowt on accounl 
cl lervice in the Meaiun war. To give title to bD<"<lr bnd, Krvice 

jrd Mairh 1*55; and if in the Mvy or regular army, mutt have 
beea in aome war in which (he United Sut» waa engaged. Bounty 
land warraDia are iaaucd lor lAo acrva, and over jajxiojaoo acm 
have been granted under the different Bounty Land Acta. 

For icTvicej rendered in the Civil War [lg6t-6j) in the army 

. . . ,, ^ „ , . , ,- L, , provided two dlltinct eyttcma of penaioning — (1) the general lawa, 

UniUd Statoi. ^" t™''?''""''^: "^M^ Ihi%call<S™/i?od™j,'^n2'p" 

V »um JMKJ. f^ j^ amending acta, gianiing peuumt lor peimaoenl dlaal 

In the onUnaiy lenie of the word, peoaicmi m the United regardlen of ibe tinie ani cunner of their 01 



i» the penaiou nn^iw f ron 
m mi the gencnl lav for dii 



uiingulii »6 ton. per month. What iakBO-n at -- -, -- 

-- , , ■ , , . i . . . J . ... ~"^'"~ ibilitieaincurred ineervieeudinthecsuneofdutywiacoaHUuled 

ItMuraol the national hudgel, thai It udesitiblelogive an in the act ot the utb of July 1861, aa wnendid by the act ot the 

■const of the difierent daiaa ol illowancn which arcgiuted. jrd ol March iBi]. Under ita proviwu Ibe following ill ma of 

Is iIk United SUIel allowuccs for Krvico in wan prior to tbe pcraoni are eniiiled to benefit, via. any oOccr ol Ibe army, navy 

4th ol M»rch iMi tn called " old war " penuom, and may be "■' """"^ ""* or any enliMed man in the military or naval leevice 

finded Into tlntt danei, vit.d) Invalid peniioM, baaed upon 

■ouda 01 injoiki received, ot diicate contracted in the coune 

rf dot;, (1) " MTvice " pcniion), and (3) land bountlei, both 

lantcd tar tnwt iireqicctive of injuiit*. 
nairMpnTinoBBkailehy Congreiafor pen^onawaa a Teaolution 

Mdoa the *>^ ^ Aiiguil .1776, promMng Jnv^ penaioruiU) 

ate dwhkd in (he War i^ [ndeixndence. at a rate equal lo half 
g( ikriT miMtUy pa]> uofficen or toldiefi during hie or continuance 

I ite diialiiiitr. thoae not lolally duabled to reizive an adequate 

naUy pemion not to exceol ball o( their pay. Then lolhiwed 

it»ioaAa»iilCod(te«ienUtii«theprDviiioni for invalid peniioni 

■d to theariSova aid cbildren of thoae who died in tbe war or from 
' d la the war. Tbe act a< the ]id o 



[TthHC vduniecn woandad or olherwiie diaablai 
Oair KU woe lobaeiiaently iiuied maliiog funber 
■^gaoaaccauotodtrvicaiDtheMeiicuinr. Tbi 
bgBiitn|*'aeTvic»" penahiaa ma not pu«d unti 
Hn^ 1(1 C thitly-five ycara after tbe termuiation o 
irtnnilim Ita bcncSciariea were requited 10 bi 

jan lattf C miam a became alarmed 1^ rcaaon of the ' 

rf daiBa fikd^twt Aooo), and ena^ed what waa 1 eifltera arul biodien under 

*Ahna Act," nqyiring each applicant lor penile aioned jointly. In 190S tli 

■arisKI ea tbe rJOm tolumiih a Khtdule of hia who tbe general law waa 141.044 

wes^ ftmhhn and V-^^'T eacepceeL Many pcnmnera were dent telativea waa Bi.i6fi. 

diudwteacnpoaiBiaedoIumuchaatlwwonfaof property. Tbe lo-cnlled Dependent 

Hmmuii Kti wen. however, piiiiJ from time to timeliberalii- of Congrcu ap 

te tte h« or deling more fenerouilr with the aatvivora of the 9tb May 1900. li ucjjeiiucul 

tcmlviiaa. Service peiuioika were noc granted to wtdowa of the only ai regarda unditioiu u to 

■tipa of tUa war until f Ajfi. and then only lor ■ period of five the uldicr or an honourable 

Kaad OB cosdition that tbe iairrla(eaf the aoldler wu prior to diicharge. and : « or otbcTwiie. 

■ ^ricc and that the aoldier'i aervice waa not leu than ilx not the reault i: in eilenl aa to 

uha. la itsi; Kventy yean alter the cIok ot tbe war, the lini- render him una J latHiur. The 

aoiiwd Bine and in loog twn peniiona ban) upon letvica in tbe Widowi Wame rritd the Kldier 

Va id liApEBdence, The kit urvivnr waa Daniel F. Bakenun. or tailor prior r were without 

Tke fine kv VBotinff leTvici penikmi on account ol the war of net inccmie not not recnamed. 

111! waa ^mrait 1871, filty.|ia yeara after the close ol the war. Claims ol children under lixteen yean ol a^ were governed by tbe 

Tlii act leniiml aillv tlayi Krvice. Widowa were not pennon- lame conditioni aa applied ID claim! of widowt, except that Ibeir 

Mt anlw the marriage to the aoklier had taken place prior to the dependerve waa prejumed. and need not be ihoam by evidence. 

tBty of paan of ijlh February tBij. On 9th March 1870. Ha minor child waa iniane. idiotic arolberwiiephyiically or ment- 

<By-dm yiwa after the war. an act wai pawd reducing tbe ally helploa. the peniion continued during the hie ol Bid child 

aaiidle pariad of aeivn to fourteen daya and lemovinc the or dui>i« thepetiod of diabiliiy. Furtheracu made more Ubml 

Wliiiiiei M to dele of Batiiaga. In 1908 the pcuion lolla pnniwHia. _Tlial of the 6th of February 1907, glanced peniiBOI 



122 



PENSIONARY— PENTASTOMroA 



to persons who had served ninety days or more in the mDttary or 
naval service in the civil war, or sixty days in the Mexican war, 
and were honourably discharged, no other conditions being attached. 
The rate of pension was foutd at Ii2 per month when sixty*two 
years of age, I15 per month when seventy years of age and I20 
per month when seventy-five years of age. The act of April 
1908, fixed the rate of pension for widows, minor children under the 
age of sixteen and helpless minors on the roll or afterwards to be 
placed on it at 1 12 ptr month, and granted pensions at the same 
rate to the widows of persons who served ninety days or more 
during the civil war, without re^rd to their pecuniary condition. 
In IQ08 there were 140,600 invalids on the roll, and 4394 minor and 
helpless children. In the same year under the act of 1907 there 
were 338,341 dependants, while under the act of 1908, 188,445 
widows were put on the roll. All women employed by competent 
authority as nurses during the Civil War for six- months or more, 
who are unable to earn a support, are granted a pension cf lia 
per month by an act of tne 5th of August 189a. In 1908 
the pension roUs contained the names of 31 10 pensioners under 
this act. 

There were on the roll in 1908 on account of the Spanish war, 
11,786 invalids and 3722 dependants. The total amount paid in 
pensions in 1908 on account of that war and the insurrection in 
the Philippine Islands was 13,654,122. The grand total of pen- 
sioners on the roll for all wars was, in IQ08. 951,687. 

In addition to pensions, the United States government jjants 
the following gratuities: First: If a soldier lost a limb m the 
service, or as a result of hu service in line of duty, he u furnished 
with an artificial limb free of cost every three years, or commuta- 
tion therefor, and transportation to' and from a place where be 
shall select the artificial limb. Second: An honourably discharged 
soldier or sailor is given preference for apipointment to places of 
trust and profit, and preference for retention in all civu service 
positions. Third: There are ten National Soldiers' Homes situ- 
ated at convenient and healthy points in different parts of the 
country, where comfortable quarters, clothing, medical attendance, 
library and amusements of difTcrent kinds are provided free of all 
expense; government providing the soldiers free transportation to 
the home, continuing^ payments of pension while they are members 
of the home, and mcreasing the same as disabilities increase. 
Fourth: There are thirty homes maintained by the different 
states, which are similar m their purpose to the National Homes, 
the sum oi I too per year being paid by the general government for 
each inmate. Many of these state homes also provide for the wives 
and children of the inmates, so that they need not be separated 
while they are members of such home. ft/fA: Schools are estab- 
lished by the different states for the maintenance and education 
of soldiers' orphans until they attain the age of sixteen years. 

From the close of the Civil War in 1865 to 1908, the government of 
the United States paid to its pensioners for that war the sum of 
I3,533>593i035- The payments on account of all wars for the 
fiscal vear ended on the 30th of June 1908 were 8153.093,086. 
Over 117,000.000 has been paid to surgeons for making medical 
examinations of pensioners and applicants for pensions. The 
total disbursement for pensions from 1790 to VjM amounted to 
l3t75(,iQ8,8o9. No other nation or government in all time has 
dealt so liberally with its defenders. 

The money appropriated by Congress for the payment of penaons 
is disbursed by eighteen pension agents established in different 
parts of the country. Pensions are paid quarterly, and the agencies 
are divided into three classes, one 01 which pays on the 4th of every 
month. 

PENSIONARY, a name given to the leading functionary and 
legal adviser of the principal town corporations of Holland, 
because they received a salary, or pension. At first this official 
was known by the name of " clerk " or " advocate." The 
office originated in Flanders. The earliest "pensionaries" 
in Holland were those of Dort (1468) and of Haarlem (1478). 
The pensionary conducted the legal business of the town, and 
was the secretary of the town council and its representative 
and spokesman at the meetings of the Provincial States. The post 
of pensionary was permanent and his influence was great. 

In the States of the province of Holland pensionary of the 
order of nobles (Ridderschap) was the foremost official of that 
assembly and he was named — until the death of Oldenbameveldt 
in 1619 — the land's advocate, or more shortly, the advocate. 
The importance of the advocate was much increased after the 
outbreak of the revolt in 1572, and still more so during the long 
period 1 586-1619 when John van Oldenbameveldt held the 
office.. The advocate drew up and introduced all resolutions, 
concluded debates and coimted the votes in the Provincial 
Assembly. When it was not in session he was a permanent 
member of the college of deputed councillors who carried on 
the adiT'nistraiion. He was minister of justice and of finance. 



All cortespondence passed througli his hands, and he «st the 

head and the spokesman of the deputatton, who rep r esen ted the 

province in the States GeneraL The conduct of foreign aflain 

in particular was entrusted almost entirely to him. 

After the downfall of Oldenbameveldt the office of lands*- 

advocate was abolished, and a new post, tenable for five ytu% 

only, was erected in its place with the title of Raad-Pmsi^nariS; 

or Pensionary of the Council, usually called by Enj^isb writes 

Grand Pensionary. The first holder of this office was Anthoi^ 

Duyck. Jacob Cats and Adrian Pauw, in the days of the 

stadtholders Frederick Henry and William of Orange II. had 

to be content with lessened powers, but in the stadtholderkss 

regime 1650-1672 the grand pensionary became even more 

influential than Oldenbameveldt himself, since there was no 

prince of Orange filling the offices of stadtholder, and of adim'ral 

and captain-general of the Union. From 1653-167 a John de Witt, 

re-elected twice, made the name of grand pensionary of Holland 

for ever famous during the time of the wars with England. 

The best known of his successors was Anthony Hdnsius, who 

held the office from 1688 to his death in 1720. He was the 

intimate friend of William III., and after the decease of the king 

continued to carry out his policy dtiring the stadtholderless 

period that followed. The office was abolished after the conquest 

of Holland by the French in 1795. 

See Robert Fruin, Geukiedenis der Staats-IustdlingeH iu Neder- 
land. The Hague, 1901 ; G W. Vreede, InUidini tot tene Gesck. der 
Nederlandsch* DipUmatic (Utrecht. 1858}. (G. E.) 

PENTAMETER, the name given to the second and shorter 
line of the classical elegaic verse. It is composed of five (vbrc) 
feet or measures (/ulrpa), and is divided into two equal parts 
of two and a half feet each: the second of these parts must be 
dactylic, and the first may be either dactylic or qwndaic The 
first part must never overlap into the second, but there must 
be a brea]^ between them. Thus: 



u V 



■wu 



-u w 



■wu 



In the best Latin poets, the first foot of each part of the penta> 
meter is a dactyl. The pentameter scarcely exists except in 
conjunction with the hexameter, to which it always succeeds 
in elegaic verse. The invention of the rigidly dactylic form 
was attributed by the Greeks to Archilochus. Schiller described 
the sound and method of the elegaic couplet in two very skilful 
verses, which have been copied in many languages: 

Im Hexameter steigt des Springquells flOssige S&ule, 
Im Pentameter drauf f&llt sie melodisch herab. 

The pentameter was always considered to add a melancholy 
air to verse, and it was especially beloved by the Greeks in those 
recitations (^i^qiScircu) to the sound of the flute, which 
formed the earliest melodic performances at Delphi snd dse* 
where. 

PBNTASTOMIDA, or Lxnguatulina, vermiform entoparasitic 
animals, of which the exact zoological position is unknown, 
although they are usually regarded as highly modified degenente 
Arachnida of the order Acari. 

The. body is sub-cylindrical or somewhat convex above, 6att«r 
below, broad and ovsu in front and narrowed and elongate bflii«Mi, 
Its interment is marked by a large number of transverse giuu f wts 
simulating the segmentation of Annelidsj and near the anterior 
extremity close to the mouth are two pairs of recurved dtitinoos 
hooks. The alimentary canal u a simple tube traversing the body 
from end to end, the anus opening at the extremity of its narrowed 
tail-like termination. The nervous system is r ep res e nted by aa 
oesophageal collar and a suboesophageal ganglion, whence paimd 
nerves pass outwards to innervate the anterior extremity and 
backwards towards its posterior end. No respiratory or drcuiatory 
organs are known. The sexes are distinct out dissimilar is mm» 
the female being usually much larger than the male. The senccithff 
organs occupy a large part of the body cavity. In the lonaie thi 
ovary is a large unpaired organ from the anterior end of wMdl 
arise two ovioucts, and connected with the latter are a pidr dl 
large so-called copulatory pouches, which perhaps act as reoepiacsil 
seminis. These and the oviducts lie on the anterior half of tin 
body; but the oviducts themselves soon unite to form a sisih 
tube of great leng^th, which runs backwards to its iw i li e H if 
extremity, terminating in^the genital orifice dose (o the MSii 



PENTATEUCH— PENTECOST 

wnnry, tUt miSnt b litiiated tn the utrrinc 1 
U luWind tl ...... 



haS al Ike body, u la> ^^dund'the DBUIh. Tiie cribs 
iiCB ■ lai|e pnaeh lodcixc ^Jf" '>' "^Tf 'oxE peiB. whkn an 
cnOed up vbea ant in lac Tbe two teatidei, wUch enend far 
■ — '- ' — •'- paKtfior JMI1 ol tbe body, me long aad lubular. 
ir T*^ deiBcnlia ■-'- -""^ 




fc utm . what bave'beni npuded oi remaaou oi Umbi nuy be 

In lbs minuE Mage Pentailomida live in the leqiintor; 

tcOB^sble Efe-hiXoiy of one spedes, LiKpalula laexwida, 
haa been miked out in detail and presents a close analogy to 
that of fooe CtModet. The adults live in the no« ol dots, 
wboc tbcy have been known to lurvive over fifteen months. 
Eadi fcsaak lays a vist number ol eggs, about joo.ooo being 
the Klmaied amouDt. Thew ut opelled along witb mucus 
by the oweziaf of ihe host. If they liU on pasture land or 
toddo' of any kind and are eaten by a;iy herbivorous animal, 
toA la a hare, rabbit, horse, sheep or oa, the active embryos 
In the alimentary canal of (he new heat. 




peritoneal cavities of dogs 
PENTATEUCH, the n* 
Origen corre^ionding 
£ve-hfths of the Torah. 
books of the Old Teslam 
ben, Deuteronomy). T 
Jews from their initia 
Numbers, and Deuteron 



In tbe pleunl ud 



efoui 



si etacB In tbe pleunl 

rn-i. 



pj 



in Eus., H. B. vi 
Logether with Joshua, 
united in Greek MSS. 
and Joshua together I 



rly as in TertuDian and 
the Jewish inm -wan mo (the 
Law), and applied to the Erst five 
uneni (Genesis, Eiodus, Leviticus, Num- 
The aeveral books were named by the 
tial words, though at least Leviticus, 
onomy had also titles resembling thoae 
Tn, o-njw nn (A/iiiw^eraiw/i, Oligen, 
as), and irmima. The Pentateuch, 
Judges aj'" 



ently b< 



le Ociati 



used II 



Heu 



" harvest ieu 

(e™ 



m the Penuteuch oi 
articles on the several books, 
li the Jews, [n its original mei 
sisting of the first-frui 



I the I 



:h fairly 
Hence 



'respond with the dunt 
it was the dosing feast of I 

The agricultural chatai 
Canaaniteotigin(seeHrB>iwR;uciOH). Itdoei 
Tank equal b importance with Ihe other two agricultural festivals 
ol prc-eiilian Israel, vii. the Uaffilk or least of unleavened 
rakes (which marked the beginning of the corn-harvest), and 
the A,\pk ("ingathering," titer called stucM. "booths") 
which marked the ckoeof all the year's Ingathering ol vegetable 
products. This is clear in the ideal scheme of E«kiel (alv. >i 
seq.) in which accordingio the original ten, Pentecost is omitted 
(see ComiU's revised text and his note od/fc.). It is a later hsnd 
Lhal has inscribed a reference to the " feast ol weeks " which 
islound inourMassorclicHebrewleit. Neverthcleis occasional 
illusions to this feast, though secondary, are to be found la 
Hebrew literature, «.f. Isa. Ix. 3 (i Heb.)and Ps. iv. 7 (SHeb.). 

tn both Ihe early codes, vii. in Eiod. uiii. 16 [E] and in 
Eiod. iiaiv )) (J, in which the bar^'cst festival is called " feast 
>f weeks ") we have only a bare statement that the harvest 
teslival look place aotoe weeks afler the opening spring festival 
railed Va)iMl. It is in Deut. ivi. 9 <hat we find It eiplicltly 
itated that ukh weeks ebpted between the beginning of the 
ann-haivcst (" when Ibou puttest the sickle 10 the rotn ") 
ind Ihe celebration of the harvest ieslival (^dilr). We alio 







leri«s the autumnal festival of " Booths." 




thefirX 


But when we pass to the post-exilian legislation {Lev. uiii. 


tepn 




lo-ii; d. Num. uviii. 36 seq.) we enter upon a far more detailed 
and spedfic series ol ritual instructions, (i) A special ceremonial 
il described as taking pUce on " the morrow alter the Sabbath," 

harvest here take the form ol a sheaf which is waved by tbe 
priest before Yihweh. <,) There is the olTcring of a male 
lamb of the first year without blemish and also a meal offering 
ol fine flour and oU miicd in defined proportions as weU as a 
drink-oflcring of wine ol a certain measure. After this " morrow 
alter the Sabbath " seven weeks are to be reckoned, and when 
we reach the moKOW alter the seventh Sabbath fifty days have 
been enumerated. Here we must bear in mind that Hebrew 
numeration always includes the day which is the Icrminus a iptr 
as wdl as that which is term, ad qtun. On ihb fiftieth day 
two wave-loaves made from [he produce of the hclds occupied 


,c 


oush the 
an only 




young buUo^k a™ two rams m a buret ofl^^.* We°*h™ 



^1 ite vKcra ct tbe boat aiv devoured by ■ 



The wMt le^Je of L. latmtUa measures about 4 in. h 
-- • • ■ ■ k ^ Q^i_ 7)^ (ijull j„d \„ 

1 la^uu confined mob:tively 

peda of mammals. The adu! _. . .. 

d in the paial iwges of iheep. goiu, and Whi 



[Bering and the peact 

offerings which were also presented." This elaborate ceremonial 

connected with the wave-offeriiig (developed in the posl-eiile 

period) look place on tbe morrow of the seventh Sabbath called 

'On the critical quntlons involved in these ritual details ol 

■" " ■ " t7-J0 d. Dtivef 



in 5. B. O. f 



124 



PENTELICUS— PENZA 



a " day of holy convocation " on which no servile work was to 
be done. It was called a " fiftieth-day feast." Pentecost 
or " Fiftieth " day is only a Greek equivsdent of the last name 
{xGnJinxrHi) in the Apocrypha and New Testament. The orthodox 
Later Jews reckoned the fifty days from the i6Lh of Nisan, 
but on this there has been considerable controversy among 
Jews themselves. The orthodox later Jews assumed that 
the Sabbath in Lev. zxiii. ii, 15 is the 15th Nisan, or the 
first day of the feast of Ma$^th. Hitzig maintained that in 
the Hebrew calendar 14th and 21st Nisan were always Sabbaths, 
and that ist Nisan was always a Sunday, which was the opening 
day of the year. " The morrow after the Sabbath " means, 
according to Hitzig, the day after the weekly Sabbath, viz. 
2and Nisan. Knobel (Comment, on Lmikus) and Kurtz agree 
with Hitzig's premises but differ from his identification of the 
Sabbath. They identify it with the 14th Nisan. Accordingly 
the " day after " falls on the isth. (See Purves's article, " Pente- 
cost,"in Hastings's Diet, of Ike Bible, and also Ginsburg's article in 
Kitto's Cyclopaedia). Like the other great feasts, it came to be 
celebrated by fixed special sacrifices. The amount of these is 
differently expressed in the earlier and later priestly law (Lev. 
zxiii. 18 seq.-. Num. xxviii. 26 seq.); the discrepancy was met 
by adding the two lists. The later Jews also extended the 
one day of the feast to two. Further, in accordance with the 
tendency to substitute historical for economic explanations 
of the great feasts, Pentecost came to be regarded as the feast 
commemorative of the Sinaitic legislation. 

To the Christian Church Pentecost acquired a new significance 
through the outpouring of the Spirit (Acts ii.). (See Whit- 
sunday.) 

It is not easy to find definite parallels to this festival in other 
ancient religious cults. The Akitu festival to Marduk was a 
spring festival at the beginning of the Babylonian year (Nisan). 
It therefore comes near in time to the feast of unleavened cakes 
rather than to the later harvest festival in the month Sivan 
called " feast of weeks." Zimmem indeed connects the Akitu 
festival with that of Purim on the xsth Adar (March); see 
K.A.T.* p. 514 seq. Also the Roman Cerealia of April 12th- 
xgth rather correspond to Maffdth than to S^iir. (O. C. W.) 

PENTELICUS (Bp<Xi7<ra6t, or UatrtKucdy 6pos from the 
dem' UwrHKn; mod. Mendcli), a mountain to the N.E. of the 
Athenian plain, height 3640 ft. Its quarries of white marble 
were not regularly worked until after the Persian wars; of this 
material all the chief buildings of Athens were constructed, as 
well as the sculpture wiih which they were ornamented. . The 
ancient quarries are mostly on the south side of the mountain. 
The best modem quarries are on the north side. The top 
of Pentelicus commands a view over the plain of Marathon, 
and from it the Athenian traitors gave the signal to the 
Persians by a flashing shield on the day of the battle. There 
was a statue of Athena on the mountain. 

PENTHEUS, in Greek legend, successor of Cadmus as king 
of Thebes. When Dionysus, with his band of frenzied women 
(Maenads) arrived at Thebes (his native place and the first city 
visited by him in Greece), Pentheus denied his divinity and 
Violently opposed the introduction of his rites. His mother 
Agive having joined the revellers on Mount Cithaeron, Pentheus 
followed and climbed a lofty pine to watch the proceedings. 
Being discovered he was torn to pieces by Agave and others, 
who mistook him for some wild beast. His head was carried 
back to Thebes in triumph by his mother. Labdacus and 
Lycurgus, who offered a similar resistance, met with a like 
fearful end. Some identify Pentheus with Dionysus himself 
in his character as the god of the vine, torn to pieces by the 
violence of winter. The fate of Pentheus was the subject of 
lost tragedies by Thespis and Pacuvius. 

See Euripides, Bauhae, pasnm; Ovid, Metam. Hi. 511 ; Theocritus 
xxvi; Apollodorus iii. 5, 2; Nonnus, Dionysiaca, xliv-xlvi; oif 
representations in art see 0. Jahn, Pentheus una die Mainaden (1841). 

PENTHliVRE, COUNTS OF. In the nth and 12th centuries 
the countship of Penthidvrein Brittany (dep. of Cdtea-du-Nord) 



belonged to a branch of the sovereign house of Brittany. Heniy 
d'Avaugour, heir of this d)masty, was dispossessed of the count- 
ship in 1235 by the duke of Brittany, Pierre Mauclerc, who gave 
it as dowry to his daughter, Yolande, on her marriage in 1238 
to Hugh of Lusignan, count of La Marche. Duke John I. 
of Brittany, Yolande's brother, seized the countship on her 
death in 1272. In 1337 Joan of Brittany brought Penthiivre 
to her husband, Charles de ChAtillon-BIois. In 1437 Nicole de 
Blois, a descendant of this family, married Jean de Broaae, and 
was deprived of Penthidvre by the duke of Brittany, FVands II., 
in Z465. The countship, ^hich was restored to Sebastian of 
Luxemburg, heir of the Brosses through his mother, was erected 
for him into a duchy in the peerage of France (ducki-pame) 
in 1569, and was afterwards held by the duchess of Mercoenr, 
dau^ter of the first duke of Penthi^vre, and then by her duugliter, 
the duchess of Vend6me. The duchess of Venddme's grandson, 
Louis Joseph, inherited Penthi^vre in 1669, but it was taken 
from him by decree in 1687 and adjudged to Anne Marie de 
Bourbon, princess of ContL In 1696 it was sold to the count 
of Toulouse, whose son bore the title of duke of Penthiiviee 
This title passed by inheritance to the house of Orieans. 

PENTHOUSE, a sloping roof attached to a building either 
to serve as a porch or a covering for an arcade, or, if suppovtcd 
by walls, as a shed, a " lean-to." In the history of ucgecnf^ 
the word is particularly apph'ed to the fixed or movable oomtnio- 
tions used to protect the besiegers when mining, working batter- 
ing-rams, catapults, &c, and is thus used to translate Lat. 
vinea and ^uteus, and also testudo, the shelter of locked shidds 
of the Romans. The Mid. Eng. form of the word is penHt, an 
adaptation of O. Fr. apentis, Med. Lat. appenditium or cppe*- 
dictum, a small structure attached to, or dependent on, another 
building, from appendere, to hang on to. The form "pent* 
house " is due to a supposed connexion with " house " and Fk. 
pente, sloping roof. "Die niore correct form ** pentice " is nov 
frequ ently u sed. 

PENTSTEMON, in botany, a genus of plants (nat. order 
Scrophulariaccae), chiefly natives of North America, vith 
showy open-tubular flowers. The pentstemon of the Hoite 
has, however, sprung from P. Hartwegii and P. Cobata, and 
possibly some others. The plants endure English wintcn 
unharmed in favoured situations. They are freely muIt^pBed 
by cuttings, selected from the young side shoots, {Wanted ea^F 
in September, and kept in a dose cold frame till rooted. They 
winter safely in cold frames, protected by mats or litter during 
frost. They produce seed freely, new kinds being obt^oM 
by that means. When special varieties are not required true 
from cuttings, the simplest way to raise pentstemons is to warn 
seed in heat (65^ F.) early in February, afterwards piicfcing 
the seedlings out and hardening them off, so as to be Ttadj 
for the open air by the end of May. Plants formerly known 
under the name of Chelone (e.g. C. barbalOf C. eaiN^emilafi) 
sre now classed with the pentstemons. 

PENUMBRA (LaL paene, almost, umbra, a shadow), fai 8Stn>- 
nomy, the partial shadow of a heavenly body as cast by Uie son. 
It is defined by the region in which the light of the sun b paitiaDy 
but not wholly cut off through the interception of a daikbodbr. 
(See EcupSE.) 

PENZA, a government of eastern Russia, bounded N. 1^ the 
government of Nizhniy-Novgorod, E. by Simbirsk, and & 
and W. by Saratov and Tambov; area 14,993 sq. m.; popt 
(est. 1906) 1,699,000. The surface is undulating, with dc^ 
valleys and ravines, but does not exceed 900 ft. above lea-levcL 
It is principally made up of Cretaceous sandstones, sandb, naili 
and chalk, covered in the east by Eocene deposits. Chalk, 
potter's clay, peat and iron are the chief mineral products b 
the north. The soil is a black earth, more or less mixed wU 
clay and sand; marshes occur in the Krasnoslobodsk districi; 
and expanses of sand in the river valleys. There are ezttMivi 
forests in the north, but the south exhibits the chaiactcririie 
features of a steppeland. The government is drained by thi 
Moksha, the Sura (both navigable), and the KJK^>er, Mr i' tHl 
to the Oka, Volga and Don systeftis. Timber is iknted 



PENZA— PEONAGE 



125 



levcnl snttOer sticanM^ while the Moksha and Sura are important 
BwaBS of conveyaoct. The climate is harsh, the average tern- 
pcraiure aC the city of Penza being only 38*. The popula- 
tkm consists priodpaily oC Russians, together with Mordvinians, 
Ucsbciietyaks and Tatars. The Russians profess the Ortho- 
dox Greek faith, and very many, espedaSly in the north, are 
Raakolniks or Nonconformists. The chief occupation is agri- 
culture. The principal crops are rye, oats, buckwheat, hemp, 
potatoes and beetroot. Grain and 6our are con^derable 
exports. The local authorities have established d6p6ts for the 
sale of modem agricultural machinery. There are several 
agricultural and horticultural schools, and two model dairy* 
farma. Cattle breeding and especially horse-breeding are 
comparatively flourishing. Market-gardening is successfully 
carrkd on, and Improved varieties of fruit-trees have been 
introduced through the imperial botanical garden at Penza 
and a private school of gardening in the Gorodishche district. 
Sheep-breeding is especially developed in Chembar and Insir. 
The Mordvinians devote much attention to bee-keeping. The 
forests (22 % of the total area) are a considerable source of wealth, 
e^KciaUy in Krasnosloboddc and Gorodishche. The manufac- 
tures are few. Distilleries come first, followed by beet sugar 
and oil mills, with woollen cloth and paper milb, tanneries, 
nap, glass, machinery and iron-works. Trade is limited to 
Ike export of com, spirits, timber, hempseed-oil, tallow, hides, 
honey, wax, woolloi doth, potash and cattle, the chief centres 
(or trade being Penza, Nizhni-Lomov, Mokshany, Saransk and 



The government is divided into ten districts, the chief towns 
ofwkichare Penza,Gorodishche, Insar, Kerensk, Krasnoslobodsk, 
Mbkihany, Narovchat, Nizhni-Lomov, Saransk and Chembar. 
The present government of Penza was formerly inhabited by 
Monlnnians, who had the Mescheryaks on the W. and the Bulgars 
M the N. In the X3th century these populations fell under 
tbe dooinioo of the Tatars, with whom they fought sgainst 
MoKow. The Russians founded the town of Mokshany in 
t53S> Penza was founded in the beginning of the 17th century, 
tke permanent Russian settlement dating as far back as 1666. 
la 1776 it was taken by the rebel Pugashev. The town was 
« boit to tally destroyed by conflagrations in 1836, 1839 and 1858. 

fOnUL, a town of Rusua, capital of the government of the 
ane name, 492 m. by rail S.E. from Moscow. It stands on a 
phtean 567 ft. above the sea, at the confluence of the Penza with 
tke navigable Sura. Pop. (1897), 61,851. The older parts of 
tke town are constructed of wood, but the newer parts are well 
bdt. The cathedral was erected in 1820-1821. Penza has 
tahucal schools, public libraries, a museum of antiquities, and 
I theatre whkh has played some part in the history of the 
Koaian stage. The bulk of the inhabitants support themselves 
bjr agriculture or fishing in the Sura. An imperial botanical 
iuden is situated within two miles of the town. Apart from 
paper-miUs and steam flour-mUls, the manufacturing establish- 
■cnts are smalL There n a trade in com, oil, tallow, timber and 
^> mts.a nd two fairs where cattle and horses are sold. 

mZAMCBL a municipal borough, market town and seaport 
is the St Ives parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, the 
tmnaus of the Great Western railway, 325) m. W.S.W. of 
Lssdoo. Pop. (1901), 13,136. It is findy situated on the 
vcttere shore of Mount's Bay, opposite St Michael's Mount, 
hdog the westernmost port in England. The site of the old 
to«B slopes sharfdy upward from the harbour, to the west of 
vUdb there extends an esplanade and modem residential 
qiHiter; lor Penzance, with its mild climate, is in considerable 
fmmr as a health resort. The town has no buildings of great 
aaliqaity, but the public buildings (1867), in ItaUan style, are 
huteme. By the market house is a statue of Sir Humphry 
Oftvy, who was bora here in 1778. Among institutions there are 
t ipedaOy fine public library, museums of geology and natural 
hiiUiiy and antiquities, mining and science schoob, the West 
Csmwall Infirmary and a meteorological station. The harbour, 
nrlnicd within a breakwater, has an area of 24 acres, with 12 to 
4 fc. depth of water, and floating and graving docks. There is a 



large export trade in fish, including that of pilchards to Italy. 
Other exports are tin and copper, granite, serpentine, vegetables 
and china clay. Imports are principally coal, iron and timber. 
Great quantities of early potatoes and vegetables, together with 
flowers and fish, are sent to London and elsewhere. The 
borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. 
Area, 355 acres. 

Nearly two miles bland to the north-west is Madron (an 
urban dbtrict with a population of 3486). The church of St 
Maddem b principally Perpendicular, with earlier portions and 
a Norman front. Near the village a " wbhing well " of ancient 
fame b seen, and close to it the ruins of a baptbtery of extreme 
antiquity. Monoliths and cromlechs are not uncommon in the 
neighbourhood. Three miles north-east b the urban dbtrict of 
LuDGVAN (pop. 2274), and to the south b Paul (6332), which 
includes the village of Newlyn {q.v.), 

Penzance (Pensans) was not recognized as a port until the 
days of the Tudors, but its importance as a fishing village dates 
from the 14th century. In 1327 thirty burgesses in Penzance 
and thirteen boats paying 13s. yearly are found among the pos- 
sessions of the lords of Alverton, of which manor it formed a 
portion of the demesne lands. The year 151 2 marks the begin- 
ning of a new era. Until then St Michael's Mount had been 
regarded as the port of Mounts Bay; but in that year Henry 
VIII. granted the tenants of Penzance whatever profits might 
accrue from the " ankerage, kylage and busselage " of ships 
resorting thither, so long as they should repair and maintain 
the quay and bulwarks for the safeguard of the ships and town. 
Nevertheless thirty years later it b described by Leland as the 
westernmost market town in Cornwall " with no socur for Botes 
or shippes but a forsed Pere or Key." During the war with 
Spain the town was devastated in 1595. The charter of incor- 
poration granted in 16x4 states that by the invasion of the 
Spaniards it had been treacherously spoiled and burnt but that 
its strength, prosperity and usefulness for navigation, and the 
acceptable and laudable services of the inhabitants in rebuilding 
and fortifying it, and their enterprise in erecting a pier, have 
moved the king to grant the petition for its incorporation. Thb 
charter provides for a mayor, eight aldermen and twelve assbt- 
antsto constitute the common council, the mayor to be chosen 
by the council from tbe aldermen, the aldermen to be chosen from 
the assbtants, and the assbtants from the most sufiident 
and discreet of the inhabitants. It also ratified Henry's grant 
of anchorage, keelage and busselage. In 1663 Penzance was 
constituted a coinage town for tin. It has never enjoyed 
independent parliamentary representation. In 1332 a market 
on Wednesdays and a fair at the Feast of St Peter ad 
Vincula were granted to Alice de Lisle and in 1405 thb market 
was ratified and three additional fairs added, viz. at the feasts 
of St Peter in Cathedra and the Conception and Nativity of the 
Blessed Virgin; The charter of 1614 substituted markets on 
Tuesdays and Thursdays for the Wednesday market and added 
two fairs one at Corpus Chrbti and the other on the Thursday 
before St Andrew. Of the fairs only Corpus Christ! remains; 
markets are now held on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. 
Apart from fishing and shipping, Penzance has never been an 
industrial centre. 

PEONAGE (Span, pieon; M. Lat. pedo (pes), primarily a foot- 
soldier, then a day-labourer), a system of agricultural servitude 
common in Spanbh America, particularly in Mexico. In the 
early days the Spanbh government, with the idea of protecting 
the Indians, exempted them from compulsory military service, 
the payment of tithes and other taxes, and regulated the system 
of labour; but left them practically at the mercy of the Spanbh 
govemors. The peons, as the Indian labourers were called, 
were of two kinds: (i) the agricultural workman who was free 
to contract himself, and (2) the criminal labourers who, often for 
slight offences, or more usually for debt, were condemned to 
practical slavery. Though legally peonage is abolished, the 
unfortunate peon b often lured into debt by his employer and 
then kept a slave, the law permitting hb forcible detention till he 
has paid his debt to hb master. 



126 



PEOPLE— PEPE 



PEOPLE, a collective term for persons in general, espedally 
as forming the body of persons in a community or nation, the 
" folk " (the O.E. and Teut. word, cf. Ger. Volk). The earlier 
forms of the word were pepUi poeple^ puple, &c.; the present form 
is found as early as the 15th century, but was not established till 
the beginning of the i6th. Old French, from which it was 
adapted, had many of these forms as well as the mod. Fr. peupU. 
The Lat. poptdus is generally taken to be a reduplication from 
the root pie, — fill, seen in ptenus, full; pMs, the commons; 
Gr. wXfjfios, multitude. 

I PEORIA, a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Peoria 
county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the north central part of the state, on 
the lower end of Lake Peoria, an expansion of the Illinois river, 
and about 150 m. S.W. of Chicago. Pop. (1900) 56,100; 
(19 10) 66,950. It is served by 13 railways, of which the most 
important are the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, the Chicago & Alton, the lUinois Central, 
the Cleveland, Qndnnati, Chicago & St Louis, and the Chicago 
& North- Western. The Illinois river is navigable to its mouth, 
and at La Salle, above Peoria, connects with the lUinois & 
Michigan Canal extending to Chicago. The river is spanned at 
Peoria by two railway bridges and a wagon bridge. The 
residential portion of the dty is situated on bluffs overlooking 
Lake Peoria, and the business streets lie on the plain between 
these elevations and the water front. The park system includes 
more than 400 acres; Bradley Park (140 acres), the largest, was 
given to the city by Mrs Lydia Moss Bradley (1816-1908) and 
was named in her honour. On a bluff north-east of the city is 
Glen Oak Park (103 acres), modelled after Forest Park, St Lotiis, 
Missouri; in the south-western part of the dty is Madison Park 
(88 acres); and in the bwer part of the dty is South Park (10 
acres). In the Court House Square there are two monuments in 
honour of the Federal soldiers and sailors of Peoria county who 
perished in the Civil War; in Springdale Cemetery there are two 
similar memorials, one of which (a large granite boulder) is in 
memory of the unknown dead; and in the same cemetery there 
is a monument erected by the state (1906) to mark the grave of 
Thomas Foid (d. 185 1), governor of Illinois in 1842-1846. 
Among the principal public buildings and institutions are the 
Peoria Public Library founded in 1855, the City Hall, the Court 
House, the Federal building, St Mary's Cathedral, the Bradley 
Polytechnic Institute (affiliated with the university of Chicago), 
founded in 1896 by Mrs Lydia Moss Bradley, who gave it an 
endowment of $2,000,000; Spalding Institute, founded through 
the efforts of John L. Spalding (b. 1840), who was Bishop of the 
Roman Catholic diocese of Peoria in 1877-1908; an Evangdical 
Lutheran Orphans' Home (1902), an Industrial School for girls 
(1892), Cottage Hospital (1876), St Frands Hospital. (1875), a 
Florence Crittenton Home (1902), a Home for the Friendless 
(1876), and a House of the Good Shepherd (1891), and the Guyer 
Memorial (1889), St Joseph's (1892), and John C. Proctor homes 
for the aged and infirm (1907). At Bartonville, a suburb, there 
is a state hospital for the incurable insane. 

In 1900 and in 1905 Peoria ranked second among the dties 
of Illinois in the value of its manufactures. The invited capital 
amounted in 1905 to $22,243,821, and the factory products were 
valued at $60,920,411. The principal industry is the manufac- 
ture of distilled liquors, which were valued in 1905 at $42,170,815. 
Other important manufactures are agricultural implements 
($2,309,962), slaughter-house and meat-packing products 
($1,480,398). glucose, cooperage ($1,287,742), malt liquors 
($887,570), foundry and machine-shop products, strawboard, 
automobiles, brick and stone, and flour and grist mill products. 
Peoria is also an important shipping point for grain and coal. 

Peoria was named from one of the five tribes of the Illinois 
Indians. In 1680 La Salle, the explorer, built Fort Cr^ecoeur, 
on the lake shore bluffs, opposite the present dty; this fort, 
however, was destroyed and deserted in the same year by La 
Salle's followers after he had set out to return to Fort Frontenac. 
There is evidence that a French mission was established on or 
near the site of Peoria as early as 171 1; and certainly by 1725 a 
settlement, known as Peoria, and composed of French and 



" breed " traders, trappers and farmers, had been established 

about i) m. above the foot of the lake, on its west shore. This 

village was practically deserted during the later years (1781- 

1783) of the War of Independence, and when its inhabitants 

returned after the peace they settled in a village which had been 

established about 1778, on the present site of Peoria, by Jean 

Baptiste Maillet (d. 1801), and was at first called La Ville de 

Maillet. It is probable that Jean Baptiste Point de Saible, 

believed to have been a Santo Domingan negro, and jocularly 

spoken of "as the first white settler in Chicago," lived in the 

** old village " of Peoria as early as 1773 — or six years before be 

settled on the present site of Chicago — and again about 1785. 

In November 1812 about half of the town was burned by a 

company of Illinois militia who had been sent thither to build a 

fort, and whose captain asserted that his boats had been fired 

upon at night by the villagers. In the following year a fort, 

named Fort Clark in honour of George Rogers Clark, was erected 

on the site of the old village; it was evacuated in 1818, and toon 

afterwards was burned by the Indians. After the town was 

burned there was no serious attempt to rebuild until 1819. 

Peoria was incorporated as a town in 1835 and was chartered 

as a dty in 1845. In 1900 North Peoria was annexed. 

See David McCulIoch, Early Days of Peoria and Chicaio, an addiCM 
read before the Chicaeo Historical bociety in 1904, and pubtbhed 
by that sodetv, (n.d.), and "Old Peoria." by the nme author, 
in publication Na 6 ol the Illinois State Historical Society rmts- 
actums ^Springfield, III. 1901): also Historiad Emeydcpaeiia o§ 
Illinois (Chicago, 1900), ed. by Newton Bateman and Paul Settiy; 
History of Peoria County,* lU. (Chkago, 1880); and C. BallattW. 
History of Peoria (Peoria, 1870). 

PEPE, GUGUELMO (1783-1855), Neapolitan general, was 
bom at Squillace in Calabria. He entered the army at an earily 
age, but in 1799 he took part in the republican movement at 
Naples inspired by the French Revolution; he fought against 
the Bourbon troops under Cardinal Ruffo, was captured and 
exiled to France. He entered Napoleon's army and served with 
distinction in several campaigns, induding those in the Nea- 
politan kingdom, first under Joseph Bonaparte and later under 
Jfoachim Murat. After commanding a Neapolitan brigade in the 
Peninsular campaign, Pepe returned to Italy in 1813, with the 
rank of general, to help to reorganize the Neapolitan amy. 
When the news of the fall of Napoleon (1814) reached Ita^ 
Pepe and several other generals tried without success to force 
Murat to grant a constitution as the only means of saving the 
kingdom from foreign invasion and the return of the BourfaoM. 
On Napoleon's escape from Elba (18 15) Murat, after some 
hesitation, placed himself on the emperor's side and waged war 
against the Austrians, with Pe|>e on his staff. After several 
engagements the Neapolitans were forced to retire, and eventually 
agreed to the treaty of Casalanza by which Murat was to abandoa 
the kingdom; but the Neapolitan oflficers retained thrir rank 
under Ferdinand IV. who now regained the throne of Naples. 
While engaged in suppressing brigandage in the Capitanata, 
Pe|>e organized the carbonari (q.v.) into a national militia, and 
was preparing to use them for poUtical purposes. He had hoped 
that the king would end by granting a constitution, but iriwa 
that ho|>e failed he meditated seizing Ferdinand, the e mp c iu r 
of Austria, and Mettemich, who were expected at Avellino, and 
thus compelling them to liberate Italy (1819). The scheme brakt 
down through an accident, but in the following year a militaiy 
rising broke out, the mutineers cheering for the king and the 
constitution. Pepe himself was sent against them, but wUe 
he was hesitating as to what course he should follow Ferdioaid 
promised a constitution (July 1820). A revolt in Sidly havim 
been repressed, Pepe was appointed inspector-general of tk 
army. In the meanwhile the king, who had no intcntioB d 
respecting the constitution, went to Laibach to confer with tk 
sovereigns of the holy alliance assembled there, leaving his W 
as regent. He obtained the loan of an Austrian army wilk 
which to restore absolute power, while the regent dallied wfth tk 
Liberals. Pepe, who in parliament had declared in lavoor d 
deposing the king, now took command of the army and nardM^ 
against the Austrians. He attacked them at Rieti (March I; 



PEPERINO— PEPPER 127 

itii), bu Ui nw ktki ««e Kpubed. Tbc vrajr ms ■nduilljr m-ronle 10 India. The dlKOVcry of the pustgc nnud [be 

diib>aded,udP9eipntMvenl)«nloEnsluiil, FiUKxand Cape of Good Hope led (u^S) 101 uniidenbLe [lU in [he price, 

other covMriei, pobCihiiic ■ Dumber of boolu and pampblett and aboul [he »amc tine ibe cvl[Lva[ioTi of [he p1a]i[ waa ex- 

ef * political cbancler and kee^anf up bii coanulon wiih tbe tended lothewenernitlaadtoflhe Malay Archipelago. Pepper. 

Caibooari. When in 1S4S RTOlutioo and war broke out aH however, remained a Dionopoly of (he pDnugucK crown aa lile 

aver Ilalj, Pcpe MutDed to Naple*, where a conatilulion had al [he iSlh cen[ury. In Great Britain it wu formerly (aied 

a^in bccfl pnicUmed. He wai (iven command (4 tbe Nea- verybeavi]r,theimpoalin i62jamoun[inglo si.,a[idatUteai 

pnlitin arrtty which waa toco-opeTatewiih Piedmool agaiut the 1815ton.Od.Ib. 

AvU^BB.butwbea be nacbcd Bologna t)Kkiii|,whobadalready Tbe larfot qutntide* ol pepper are produced in Penang. tbe 

Tt-ir^ bii mind, tccallcd him und hia troopa. Fepe, after laland of RIodh, and Johore near Singapore— Pen ang aHording 

fc— ftMtiTi£ between bii deaire to fifht for Italy, and hia oath [o on an average abou[ half of the ei^re crop. Sing^wie ii [be 

Ibe bing. lOigDed hie comraiiiion in the Neapolitan Krvice and great emporiom for tbii ipice in tbe £ait, the targeit proportion 

III— ill ill Til iiiil Iiiiiri III I lilii ] ill ill 1I r 'II |i' bciiig (hipped tbencc to Great Britain. The varieties of black 

' Alter * good deal ol Bghling b Vcnclia, he joined Uanin in pepper me[ with In commerce are known a) Malabar, Aleppy 

Veaicc and look command of the defending army. When tbe or TdUcbeny, Cochin, Peiung, Suigapore and Siaro. 
cily waa farad by btinget to nirrendcr to tbe Auitiiana, Pepe and 
Hania ven among (bOM excluded from tbe amneilyi be again 
went Into cdlE and died in Turin in iBj j. 
Tte Kary of npe't life down <o 1S46 i> laid In hli own lotereMlsc 

If 11 (Lacano. I>47), ud hii Ntmlit if lit BtniU.,,al 

'--■a im itn tmd ihi (London. iSii): for the later period ol 
tbe (leml hiHoriee of the Riiar^nieiito^nd the bio- 



3L H. of I- CaqM't Filer 



no. and the t 
* (Milan. iSSI 



, uaialning f ragmenti of baialt and UneiloDe, with 
1 cryalab of avgite, mica, magnetite, leudte, &c 
Ihi (ypical pepciioo otcora ia the Alban HiUi, near Rone, and 
■ai BKd by tbe ancienli, under tbe name of lajria albanui, a> a 
bdding itoDe and for the baiina of fountains. Other tufla and 
OBfloBientta la Auvergneanddaewbere are aho called peperino. 
TW name origbialTy referred to (be dark raloured induaiou, 

■Vitl** of pepper-conts. In En^ilh the word has aometines 

bia written pcperinc. 
RTPn. WILUAN (tSu-rSgl), American phyiidan,wai 

hn in Fhilade^bis, on the list of August 1S43. He wu 

iteaud at Ibe mivenity ol Pennsylvania, graduatiag bom 

ikKadcakdcpartaieBt in iS6i and fiom tbe medical deparl- 

■B( ia 1)64. In lUS be became lecturer on morbid anatomy 

■ Ike ttne inatUntloo, and [n rS70 lecturer on cBakal medicine. ^^ aifmi. 

Fna 1876 to ilSf be mi proleeMir o( clinical mcdiclDe, and bi ^ -^^ ^,h ,„j, (,^^, , „, ^. j_ longiiudind lection of 

ilhiBcceeikdDrAlfredSlUKaspnifeHorottheoryaadpractin flower such eolaiicd; c. wxtwnoi fruit. 

il >edicioe. He was elected provost of tbe unlvenity in " 



« pimoii m inc um.Bw.y u> .™,, „ „,^ |„ p„n_ocy „ , ,^^ j^ it, fliyour to a volatile oil, 

L iS«4. For ht> tervjcea ai medicil ol which it yiekli froin i-6 to >.>%. The <AI SEreet with oil oi 

inhibition in iSj6hewasmadeknigh[ lurpenii i.. ..- ..•.- .. ... 

„ ., ibe king of Sweden. He founded Ihe poi"'- 

taOd^la Uidkat Tima, and was cdilor of that journal in ^^'^y 



nnial Eibibillon in iS;6hewasmadeknigh[ lurpeniine in compmiioa a* well at in apedfic iraviiy and boiling 
of bv the kin* of Sweden He founded the I™"'. '" polariwd light il deviatee the ray, In a column jo niid. 
._? ^ ... , .. . . ,. lone, i.j' to V*" to the left. Peoner al» n 



. Pepper aleo o>-..-.,- _ j,..,- ,.j — 

. , , ,. - ., . .ii~ ~i-.i.i.j. — — " i-.^.ine. to the enent of 3 (0 8%, Thlt 

il7S-il7>. He was known particularly for his contnbutionl tubauncc bae tbe un>e empiriaJ fonnula u nurphinc. Cn Ha NOh 

■ [be Hibiect of the theory and practice of medidne, and tbe but diffen in conHltution and propertiee. It ii inioluble in water 

Spum If VeJictue which be edited in i88s-iSM became one "I*," P"."' ". ■'T™' .'>' ^^^'- ''""'•" ^°?'"^' 'S" ^^-.i? 

r~- •! — —-■ . ^ rewlvcd into pipenc acul, CHuO,, and pipeiidine. CiHnN. The 

I* Ibe Bandard tertbooks in America. Among hu conlnbu- i.„„i,aiLqJir™loLrie»ykaloid. boilinaii io6'C.,h..nnodDur 

lie« to tbe medical and sdeDtISc joumali of tbe day, were of pepper and amniDnia, and yieidi crysiUiuble lalti. A latty 

"T(ephininginCenbialDi»ea»e"(i87i);"LocalTrealmen[in oil i> lound In Ihe pencarp ^ pepper, and the heme, yield on 

Namary Cavities " (1874); " Catarrhal Irrigation " (.881); j?^',^ ™ *"hu'? ft ™v hi e^n Thm«n?L^^lT^ 

■Epilepay " (.883); «rf " Higer MedicJ EduaUon: tbe Tr« 5 ^w\?;SEr'ltX- th^SL^Tfyi*^^ 

buren of tbe Public and [be Prof ciaian. " He died on tbe i8[b aiC ^^ 

#Jily itpS at Pkasanton, California. In Ihe louth'Wett of India, where Ibe pepper-plint grows wild, 

rvm. a name implied to seveial poageal iplcei known !' (■ louod in rich. moiM. leafy bU. in oarnw valleys piopagaiiog 

__" .^_ ^T^jnif. 1 1 . . • 1.. .1 >t»e I by ninidng along the ground and nvmg oB moti mlo the 

WecUvdy at Watk. white, long. ted. or cayenne. Ashanti, ^., ^ ^^ ^boJof euGviition adoptedliy Ihe naUves is 10 

JoMica. and Dtelegueta pepper, but derived from at katltbiee tie up (he e^ of the vines 10 the neighbouring trees at distances 

Dt natoral orders of plsnta. of ai leiH 6 ft., especially 10 those having a fanb ba 

- ■ - ■ ■ ■ -■--- -■- " ■- •■- Sw to tlie K 



a^k pttttr is tbe dried fndl of ^>er nitmm, a perennial ihatjhe™|n nay wflyattadi ihemd™. to J»™^-J^ 

j._i. _'^.;1.». r_j-_^^..- ,« ,K, f--_-„ -f 'Tv*u*..*.r.« mw,A underwood la then cleared away, leavinE wily sumoent trees to 

-1 to Ihe loreali of TYnvancore and ,^ ,,„j^ ^^ ,j ,„ v^tiUit 

enintroducedinto Java, Sumatra, vith a heap of lm>«s. and the sbooii a 

■ " s, and the 1 



provide ihade and permit free ventilatioiL The reots are m 



Bneo, the Malay Penimola, Siam, the Philippines, and the kxaliiiet where the pepper does not grow wild, ground selected 

W«t Isdiea. Il dimbs OD tree-trunks by roots in the same way which ormili of free drainage, but wTijch is not too dry nor liable 

- ivy. ^ from iUclltnUng habit i. k.own a. the ^per vine. T^^^^, ^ X^t^ tV^V^^^ '^' ^STn' iJ 

It Booeo* tbe earbeatipices known to mankind, and for many February. Sonetlmei several cuttiogi. about 18 in. long, are 



1^ formed a staple ankle of commerce between India and placed in a batlul ai 
Eniie. Ttame baa been levied in pepper; one of Ibe article* «i"L'??^-!?-!!??l 



rbnjary. Sonetiotei several cuttiogi. a 
-■ in a batkel and burled at -^ 

ing plants are manured w 



i_ ■ L_ ki.^.. .. ^^w4 «( .Cr »»».. «* D».». _*• the young plants are manured with a minure of leaves and cow. 

h 408 by AUric u part ol Ihe ransom ol Rome wat ^ >;" ^ S^Krfl, ihe young plants require watering every othei 

jaeaft olpdiper. lu eaorbitant pnce during the middle sgea day during the dry season for the BrM three year*. The plsnli 

na II tt Uk iaduccmenta which led the Poitugueae to seek a bear in tha fouith or fifth year, and il niied fnnn cuttings an 



ij8 PEPPER-CORN— peppermint 

fniillur For tma y«n, if fmn vd far fnirtnn yian. The pep^ u ijO^ ind wu nporud fnnn Benin hy tkt TliiCinw !■ 

^ "^P™ "^ 'k™ ""I'il!*— "''' ^ ^*™^ 1,2?"".?' '*H: Inii.Kcordingto Qusiui, iu imporutioB m lotiddcB 

IdopSi %.m th^ i?n7i™'ih. ^crf ™m*^«m^ by Iht king ol Portugd (or Itu it .bould deprttUu the niai 

Bod encloKd by ■ mud mil, *nd bnnchn oi EnilJirna tn^ic* of tbe pepper fiam Indii. In tropual Africa it h enemiTdr 

•n put into the (round in the niny kiikh and in Ihe cauns of > used u a csodiment, and it could eadljr ix ciilleHed ia torae 

yor m capable o( lU [o Ibe Qm„,itiej " ' " 

mtantime manga li mfened ai i"-"""^ 






fepptr a the 
tret of llie MytUe family. 

or"allS|acc,"a«itiiB«iairuepepper. 
^pol tbe V -JST^ Udiv" fft«: known al» as " Guinea paint," " toSm d 

l>«p«iS«^ G^'SS p««lbe" {«...) or "aUigator pepper." i.. be «d of ^««. 

entirely buried, emp F new ifaoou JfeJ^ewfa, a plant of Ibc tf nget lamilr; the Kcds aie eiceadinfljr 

ariK, three or lotii ie tree neat puncent. and nreUKd u aipicctluouclniil ceolnland QDithem 

which (hey are plant ootverrand Africa. 

Eruita the neat year. Twi crop* are collected every year, the -. - . . ■. . ^. i 

principal one boat in December^nd January and the other in Fv Cnyn ni ptff. «e thai artKle. 

July and Aupin. iTie latler yietdinj pepper of infeiior quality and PBPPBB-CORH. the fruit or Ktd of the pepper plant ; bOKC 
'"■fe'or'thles'varietie. are met with In cultivation' that ideldine "»^°* ™'y *"»^ " inKgnificarl. Pttftr-cani ml h t 

■ ■ bjid. l«.^brcoJy ovate leavefc fi« to •ev;n in number, ;^^''^^_™lj^7^^'"jj;, ^^JJi;;, °1 ^^11^ Jlf 

PEPPEBMINT, an iiidigenoui perennial herb of the natunl 

' Labiatii, and genui UnUa (see Kan), the qiedSc naow 



d itilked. The flower-tMlai ate oppowte (he leaveii touuicy aiinowledgtd by the tenant. Building li 

•uHttd and from 3 to 6 in. long; tht (ruiu are aenlle and BeJiy. qaeally reserve a pepper-corn as tent lot Ihe fint lew 
A single Item will near from twenty (o thirty oJ theae apikea. The c^ Rvtfr 



i'"^7.- 



aod ultimalely tall off and an km. The ipikea are collected in being UeMila fiptrila, is dislinguisheil fr ,~^». „, ,_< 

big. ot ^iket. and dried in the Rin. When dry the pepper ii „, by ;„ „,]iio] [^^ya and oblong-oblia* spike-like beads ol 
5:'«i™t^«'^tTfl{,™r^nV4.Vm.^rM?lab:^'«h f^-^ Iti,metwi,h,«.r,.«.msandlnwetpUc..,fai 
■ _. p (oihe hlieeoih or twentieth year, or about Mveral paclt of England and on the Eunpean continenl, and it 



of (Sot^eo in iu beil condili 



also extenilveiy cullivaled lot the lake of iU etaentlal oS la 

™^ EngUnd,' in aevertl parti ol '' " "- — " '" ■*- 



Wliilc pepptr di 
These, alter colla 

braised and wished in a basket with Ihe band until the stalks 
and pulpy matter ait removed, alter which the teeda are dried. 
It is, however, sometimes prepared from the dried black peppet 
by removing the dark outer layer. It is lea pungetil (him the 
black but possesses & finer ftavour. It is chieRy prepared at the 
island of Biouw, but (he £riea[ come* from Tellicherry. 

While pepper iflordi on an average not more than 1^9^ of 
eaaeniial oU i but, according to Caieneuve. at much at 9 %of lupcrine, 
and ofaih not more than 11%. 

Long p€pptr it the frait-splkc of Fiptr ffjicinanm and P. 
longiwi, gathered ihortly before it reaches maturity and dried. 
The (oimer ia a native of the Indian Archipelago, and hu oblong- 
ovate, acuminate leaves, which are pinnately veined. The latter 
is indigenous in the holler provinces of India, Ceylon, Malacca 
and the Malay Islands; it is distinguished Emm P. offiaaantM by 



Long pepper 









ceolury mcDtkin ia made ol long pepper, or mocrDpiper. In conjunc- 
tion wi(h black and while pcpperv. The nice eonsiiu of a denie 
apAe of minute baccale fruits dotely packed around the cenlral 

aiit. Ih* ifidke bei« about ij In. long and (in. thick 1 a. met United Stale*. Yet it was only ncogniad a* > dittind qiedet 

with in coflUMTce they have (he appearance of having been luned- i,,^ u -1.- ..,1. , . _ _i, f^. r 1— j'.».»...j :■ ;„ tt^tA—t. 

In Benail the planar, cuhlvateff^ wicfcert, whicfi are planted "eta the .71bcm(ury, wbm DlEaltsdiKOiwrfilmltotJ^ 

about J t(. ipait on dry rich toU on high ground. An Engllih "ure and poinled 11 0«t to Ray, who published it ia tbe MtMd 

•ere win yield about 3 msundt (So Ih) ihelim year, 13 the tecond, edilion of his Synofi'u ilirpium brilanmiamm (t6v6). Jit 

and iB the third year : ^ter thii time the yield decreatct. and th« medicinal properties ol the plant were ipeedily RCognlaBd aad 

«^g''aregcr2'"p«|,§«'^nj^^ H,,"^ ol'it.^f^^iT^™*™^'^ '" ""'"*' 

down to (he ground. Long pepper eootaina piperine. reain and Two varieties are recognized by growers, tbe vhilA tad tkv 

votadlf oil and yield<abou(S% clash. Pcnang and Sngapon aie black mint. Thefottnet hat purplish and the Ialletfr»M«a»»! 

the pnncipal cenlres u> (be Ea« loe i(a tale. ,^, 1^,^^, „, „,q„ coarsely serrated In (he white. TT«t bhd 

AsMaiai or Ifcif AJritaii ftpftr is the dried fruil of Piper is more generally cullivaled, probably because it ia loinid to 

Cluii, a plant widely distributed in (ropicsl Africa, occurring yield more oil, but that of ibe while variety it coniklafd M 

most abundantly in the counliy ol the Niim-niim. Il dilTen hive a more delicate odour, and obtains a higher prices "O* 

from black pepper in being rather imaller, less wrinkled, and in white is tbe kind chieRy dried for herbalists. Tlie fiavoBiimia 

being attenuated inio a s[alk, like cabcbs (the dried unripe fniilB to a slight extent even wiih particular plots of laod. bady ■ 

of P. CubAa). to which it beats oonsidcrable resemblance drained ground being known to give unbvounble mulii bolb j 

eitemilly. The taste, however, is pungent, eiactly like that of a} 10 tbe quaniiiy and quality of the oil. Tlial ol tbe JapUMM ] 

pepper, and Ihe Irait conliins piperine. It was imported Irom i x„r )t 

tbe Graia Cout by the mettbanlt of Rouen and Dieppe as early Deeping in 



PEPPERRELL 



loaitiodUtenili^ljrfreiilllieEDgihh, uxib tbin >>» pbMnueopeiU nune— by cuvone. C«HiiO, (ouixl in canny 

k™ bT^mUk weBl. which BTO. («^y .»,« „^„S!°JSS,r^ ricb"'^"l"^r',£'^^S' ^^.^t 
lamttmMaomeolXhaebtiasEriittmauuJtrui, lekcud, md l& ground it well liilid S in lo in. d«p. The 



ttecnipithciiiisttrvubkloincoItheKbciiig £r>{i»iici]iuiJnui, lelected, >ndl& inutd ia 

■Hi ErttUUlB titradfBlia. Wben puie Ibc oil ii nculy colour- p^anti an prnpigv-' - •>- 

is ud bu u icncable odour <md powcttul uonulic Uil«, ^^''''^L^ ^P;^ '^ 

(oOownl by ■ nwioii ot cold when ilr it dnwn into lhen»uth. pi^'i^i^io'^ ,1 

It bu ■ ved&c gravity of 0-84 to oi)i, tad baUi at 36;° F. ihmw mi nuiDemi 

Hiidum oil, when muuDsl by poEariud light in tt colunm 50 tlw crop Iub been r 

iMn. lone, devuta fimn u-a' to loj" to the leti, the Ametion '^"'iij'V' "^ '»' 

4-J-. When oQ of peppemiLiil ii cooled to 4* C. il umctimo SSCind^™!' 

4<TKHts colouriea heaigonaL priimi of menthol, CitHigO, which liwet ihey ue Lia] 



■oluble fn alcohol and ether, almost iniolubLe in water, and ' 

* ■ J'F. The ml coniilU chicSy oi menthol and a lerpme '," "" t'™"" ""c vm.^. lu"" in,""t. ,ii.;<iu--i™i.ii tua 01 ihtr 

,tbe«. CJl* OU 0( peppermint 1. olten adultei. h^ ^^h^";^*^- t.'^p"l^ur[Ke"w^«^»'"d™°Sff 

a thinl pan of rectified ipiril, which may be detected SSlea™ ite «e™^l™i Sit Tn "he. rirc" m.S™ f^ 



by the m . 

Oil of mcmary and rcctifiedoUof tuipcnllTieaieaometiniesiued 
■et tbc ume purpoM. If the oil roniiini turpentine it will 
apLMk with iodine. If quite pure it dimlvei in iu own weight 

of rectified ipiriti of wine. Pep- 

peiminl oil ii largely distilled at . , - .„ , 

being HJit to Bombay, al» a ■ ■ ■ ~'^- "^ 

bourhood of Canton, a Umiia 
anauii, var. tfabraia. Vtppa- 
mint il chiefly cultivated in the 
province of Kiang-ii; and accord- 

ai 40 picut* al oil 
are Kol annually 

the coait. In Japan alio the luU hoiin. 

I diuillation of oil of peppomint ,0 , hook on the r.l« hotlon which u weU utl^rt 

form a coniidCTable induitty, the ratiaw on it, it [mi«d bodily by a wi'ndla- and the peppermint 

< plant cultivated bang U. OFwam, carried away in the empty carti on their return journey to the ficlda, 

var. pifrrasaia. The oil, under where it ii placed in heapa and allowed to rot, being Hibaeqiiently 

the name of hakka la abun, la ""d "i'l".'!" ™!1"« VV*M in the autumn at above «ai^ 

^_^A t It. J rt_ L The UKiai yield of oil, il the aeaaon be warm and dry, it lald 10 be 

Hpwled from Hiogo and Oi^, , „^ [„„ J j, „f rte fnah flowering herb, but. H ww'and unfavour- 

but la md to be frequently adul- able, the _pr<iduct Uharely lialtihatquaniily. The yield of a charge 

Fk. I.— Ifnib arwiuir, lerated. The mcniholl) obtained of thettill iienimaicdatfrom i Ih 1101.105 lb. The oil improve* 

«r. pipniant. by auhjectin* the oil la a low '" nieUownett evea if kept a* long ■• ten or louneen vcart. The 

T^ii^b^r ^ out and u leparaled. The two aiBiluJon; on the ntfier hand, if the herb be lift in the Mill from 

*^ varietiea ol U. oncniu Just Saturday to Monday, the oil asumea a brownlim. 

■Bed yield much nure menthol than U. fiptrila. It ia . In France peppemiinii.ediivatedoBdampriehpoui«l at Sent. 

mi.ri.hu k/.__»f- <h.> <k. u .-__■. ™ .■ ;. m the department o( ibe Yonne. la Ormany it to giswn in the 

MurtaWe, however, that the «. orwnni, var. jbwsim, .^ighbouSood of Leiprig, where the little town ofCMlSda prodgcM 

Ftwingm Ceylon, hai not the flavour of peppermint but that annually at much at 40.000 cwt. of the herb. In the UaliedSuiea 

Gnat Britain hal an odoui 10 diRerenl frotn peppermint that w« Michisan. the weHdittrictt of New York Bate, and OWo. The 

e c-tefuUy removed from the field lest it should q»il r;^. '■^^'^'^'^.H " 3" * P" "^ '" Michigan the plant 

. J ,i_ _ !.. ^1 ^hen the herb is distilled. "" 

as a herb, also possesses PEPPESRSLI, SIR WILUAI (1606-1754). American soldier, 

form in which menthol is was ham in Kittery, Maine, then a part oF Mastschusells. on 

9 Epsom salts, with which the i;th of June i6g6. He studied tutveying and navigation. 

and joined his father b his ship-building, fiihing and general 

i widely uerd "*^ business, quickly becoming one ol the wenlihiett and 

captain (171;), major, lieutenant-colond, and in 1716 colonel of 

— — -. -w- - -.-,.7- ------ . . — mUitia. Peppetrell served in the Massachusetts general court 

_i< fcBenUt. The oil faai the characlen , _ , ., j .. ,k. ■. 1 r... \ ,j 

-^•^SSfliture.. li>kx>lanae«het>eaci ''"^V"''. ""^ ^ the govemoi a councJ ( 7»7->7Sg), of 

mmg. ti ■> al» powiafully aatiiepiie. Tb "hich lor eighteen years he was president. Although not a 

■ab it valuable in the leUef uf toouiache an [rained lawyer, he was chief justice of the court of common pleaa 

^caiiQiia jviiie iinibe teeth. They aim cendc [„„, ,jjo until his death. In 1745 he was lommandet.in-chirf 

E.^ £:;.'lm5E&."^"^re: ^ the N*. England force of about .«», which, with the assiu- 

■SeZof dilinlaiik oil. is perhaps more mar unce of a Bnlish squadron under Commodore Peter Wairen. 

say other eD, asd fieitly addi to iu power of rel besieged and raptured the French fortress of Louisburg. the 

;. .._ _.T . ■^. ......... ... ., [arrijon luirendeting on the l6tb of June and Peppertell and 

sn uD lor UK •Mi.c punnei a> oil n peppmniiii. It '^»"™ '"ting posaeMion On the following day. For bis lervicea 

■ gibe vilw aedidDBlly, not mnulnini any appnulble'quantity Peppenetl, b November 1746, was created a baronet— the only 

ifMalhnl fhiplarenfntiirhittilrrninlhr nfrtninriiftiiirrriiti; New Englaoda lo bonoured. He wa* active [n taiung troopa 




I30 



PEPPER TREE— PEPYS, SAMUEL 



during the " French and Indian War," and received the rank oi 
lieutenant-general in February 1 759. He died in Kittery, Maine, 
on the 6tb of July in the same year. 

See Usher Parsons. Lift of Sir WiUiam Pepperrdl, Bart. (Cam- 
bridge. Mass., 1^55). based on the family papers. 

PEPPER TREE, a tree which has no proper connexion with 
the true pepper {Piper)^ and is really a member of the natural 
order Anacardiaceae, being known botanically as Sckinus MoUe, 
from the Peruvian name MuUi. It is a native of tropical South 
America and is grown in the open air in the south of Europe. It 
is a small tree with unequally pinnate leaves, the segments 
linear, entire or finely saw-toothed, the terminal one longer than 
the rest, and all filled with Volatile oil stored in large cells or 
cysts, which are visible to the naked eye and appear like holes 
when the leaf is held up to the light. When the leaves are thrown 
upon the surface of water the resinous or oily fluid escapes with 
such force as violently to agitate them. The flowers are small, 
whitish, arranged in terminal dusters and polygamous or uni- 
sexual, with five sepals, as many petals, ten stamens (as large as 
the petals in the case of the male flower, very small in the female 
flower, but in both fringing from a cushion-like disk surrounding 
the base of the thr^-celled ovary). The style is simple or three- 
deft, and the fruit a small, globose, pea-like drupe with a bony 
kernel enclosing a single seed. The fleshy portion of the fruit 
has a hot aromatic flavour from the abundance of the resin it 
contains. The resin is used for medicinal purposes by the 
Peruvians, and has similar properties to mastic. The Japan 
pepper tree is Xantkoxylum piperitum the fruits of which have 
also a hot taste. Along the Riviera the tree known as Melia 
Azedarack, or the " Pride of India," is also incorrectly called the 
pepper tree by visitors. 

PEPSIN, an enzyme or ferment obtained by drying the mucous 

lining of the fresh and healthy stomach of a pig, sheep or calf. 

As used in medicine it consists of a light yellow-brown or white 

powder or of pale yellow translucent grains or scales. It is only 

slightly soluble in water and alcohoL Pepsin is used to help 

gastric digestion in old people and in those in whom there is a 

deficient secretion of the gastric juice. It is useful in chronic 

catarrhal conditions of the stomach, the dyspepsia of alcoholism, 

and in gastric ulcer and cancer of the stomach. 

Pep«n digests the albumens but is useless in the digestion of 
fats or carbohydrates. It may also be used to predtgest albumtnous 
foods. The following is a method of peptonizing beef. Take | lb 
of minced raw lean beef, ^ pint of water containing 0*2 % of 
hydrochloric acid, place in a jar with 30 grs. of pepsin, set in a warm 

elace at 110^ F. for 3 hours, stirring occauonaUy. Then quickly 
oil it. It is usually unnecessary to strain it. as the meat is reduced 
to a fine almost impalpable powder which is readily assimilated. 
Many varieties of proprietary peptonizing tablets are on the market 
and are convenient for the preparation of peptonized milk. The 
following is a method of preparing it. Talce a clean glass quart 
bottle, pour in a pint of perfectly fr^ cold milk, then add a teacup- 
ful of cold water in which a peptonizing tablet has been dissolved. 
Submerge the bottle in a can ol water at 100* F. for from 5 to 10 
minutes, take out the bottle and place on ice to prevent the further 
action of the pepsin. If no ice is convenient brin^ the milk to a 
boil for the same purpose. If the action of the pepsin be continued 
for a much longer period the milk becomes bitter to the taste from 
the development of excess of peptones. Prcdigested foods should 
not be used over a long period or the digestive functions of the 
stomach may atrophy from disuse. 

Pancreatic solution, derived from the pancreas of a pig digested 
in alcohol, has the power of converting starch into sugar, and 
albumen and fibrin into peptones^ It only acts in an alkaline 
medium and at a temperature under 140* F. If used to peptonize 
milk sodium bicarbonate should be added. Many commercbl 
preparations are on the market. Trypsin, the prindpal ferment 
of the pancreas, also changes proteids into peptones. 

PEPUSCH, JOHN CHRISTOPHER (1667-1752), English 
musician, of German parentage, was bom in Berlin. He began 
his study of music at an early age, and about 1700 left Berlin 
and went to England, where he had various engagements, and 
where be went on with his researches into ancient music. He 
composed a number of church services and instrumental pieces, 
besides music for masques and plays, but he is best known in 
connexion with the founding In 17 10 of the Academy of Ancient 
Music. In 1713 he was made a Mus.D. of Oxford, and in 1746 



F.R.S. In 1 718 he married Margarita de rfipine (d. 1746), who^ 
as the first Italian to sing in England, was described fai 169a in 
the London CauUe simply as ** the Italian woman." Pepusdi 
died in London on the aoth of July 1752. His Treaiiu m 
Harmony (anonymous ist ed. 1730) is beUeved to have been an 
embodiment of his rules drafted by bis pupil Viscotuit Paisley, 
afterwards earl of Abercora. 

PEPT8, SAMUEL (1633-1703), English diarist, was bom on 
the 23rd of February 1633. The place of hb birth is not known. 
The name was pronounced in the 17th century, and has always 
been pronounced by the family, " Peeps." The family can be 
traced in Cambridgeshire as far back as the rdgn of Edward I. 
They rose by slow degrees from the class of small copybcrfdeis 
and yeoman farmers to the position of gentry. In x 563 they had 
a recogm'zed right to use a coat of arms. John Pepys, Samuers 
father, was a younger son, who, h'ke other gentlemen in his 
position in that age, went into trade. He was for a time estab- 
lished as a tailor in London, but in x66i he inherited a small 
estate at Brampton near Huntingdon, where he lived during the 
last years of his life. 

Samuel was fifth child and second son of a large family, all 
of whom he survived. His first school was in Huntingdon, but 
be was afterwards sent to St Paul's in London, where he retnained 
till 1650. While at St Paul's he was an eye-witness of the execu- 
tion of King Charles I. On the 21st of June in that year his 
name was entered as a siaar on the books of Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge, but it was transferred to Magdalene on the ist of 
October. On the 5th of March he entered into residence, and 
he remained there till 1654 or 1655. He obtained a Spendlufie 
scholarship a month after entering, and one on Dr John Smith's 
foundation on the 14th of October 1653. Nothing is known of 
his university career except that on the 21st of October 1653 be 
was publidy admonished with another tmdergraduate for having 
been " .scandalously overserved with drink." At Cambridge be 
wrote a romance. Love is a Cheats which he afterwards destroyed. 
On the ist of December 1655 he was married at St Margaret's 
church. Westminster, to EUxabeth, daughter of Alexander 
Marchant, Sieur de St Michd, a French Huguenot exile from 
Anjou who had married an English lady named KingsmiU. 
Pepys had at this time no independent means, and probably 
relied on his cousins, the Montagues, to provide for him. On the 
26th of March 1658 he was cut for the stone, an event which 
he always kept in memory by a solemn anniversary. In 1659 
he went as secretary with his cousin, Edward Montagu, after- 
wards earl of Sandwich, on a voyage to the Sound. On his 
return he was engaged as a clerk under Mr (afterwards Sir) 
Edward Downing, one of the four tellers of the exchequer. la 
x66o he accompanied his cousin, who commanded the fleet which 
brought King Charles II. back from exile. In that year, by the 
interest of his cousin, he was named " clerk of the acts " in the 
navy office, but was compelled to buy off a competitor, one 
Barlow, by an annuity of £100. 

Pepys was now fairly established in the official career which led 
him to honour. On the ist of January 1660 he had begun his 
second and hidden life as a diarist. It is in that capacity that 
he is of such unique interest, fiut if his diary had never bees 
written, or had been lost, he would still be a notable man, as an 
able offidal, the author of valuable Memoirs of the Naty (1690), 
an amateur musician and protector of musidans, a gentleman 
who took an enlightened interest in sdence, and was elected 
president of the Royal Sodety. To his contemporary diarist, 
John Evdyn, he appeared as " a worthy, industrious and curioui 
peiBOQ." It is true that Andrew Marvel accused him of having 
accumulated a fortune of £40,000 by " illegal wages." But this 
charge, made in a pamphlet called A List of Ike principd 
Labourers in the great design of Popery and Arbitrary Pemtr, 
was attributed to political animosity. To the world he appeared 
as an honourable and religious man, and so he would seem to have 
been to us if be had not recorded in his diary all those weaknessn 
of character and sins of the flesh which other men are most 
careful to conceal. 

His place of cierk to the Navy Board was e<^uivalent 10 the 



J 



PEPYS, SAMUEL 



131 



poit of pennanent under secreUiy in modern times. It made 
him chief of the secretariat and a member of the administrating 
body of the navy. Though he was so ignorant of business that 
he did not even luiow the multiplication table when he first took 
office, be soon mastered the needful mechanical details by work- 
ing euiy and late. He had other posts and honours, which 
came to him either as consequential on his clerkship or because 
he was a useful official. On the 23rd of July 1660 he was ap- 
potnied one of the clerks of the privy seal, an office which returned 
him £3 A day in fees. He was made a justice of the peace. In 
166a he was appointed a younger brother of the Trinity House, 
and was named a commissioner for managing the affairs of 
Tangier, then occupied by an English garrison. In 1664 he 
became a member of tlw corporation of the Royal Fishery, to 
whicfa body he was named treasurer when another official had 
brou^t the accounts into confusion. In that year he also 
jcnoed the Royal Society. During the naval war with Holland 
(1664-67) he proved himself an indefatigable worker. As sur- 
vcycv of the victualling, the whole burden of a most important 
department was thrown on him in addition to his regular duties. 
He in fact organized the department. While the plague was 
riging in London in 1666 he remained at his post when many of 
l^s colteagues ran away, and he manfully avowed his readiness 
to take the risk of disease, as others of the king's servants faced 
the dangers of war. He had now gained t he full confidence of t he 
lord high admiral, the duke of York, afterwards King James II. 
Wlien, on the termination of the war, the navy office was violently 
illicked in pariiament, he was entrusted with its defence. The 
speech which he delivered at the bar of the House of Commons 
OQ the 5th of March 1668 passed for a complete vindication. In 
sober fact the charges of mismanagement were well founded, but 
the fault was not in the officials of the navy office only, and Pepys, 
who was master of the details, had no difficulty in throwing dust 
in the eyes of tlw House of Commons, which was ignorant. 
Nobody indeed was better acquainted with the defects of the 
office, for in 1668 he drew up for the duke of York two papers of 
ioqairy and rebuke, ** The Duke's Reflections on the severall 
Mtmberi of the Navy Board's Duty " and " The Duke's answer 
to their sev«aU excuses " (Harleian MS. 6003). In 1669 he 
invdled abroad. His success in addressing parliament gave him 
ihe ambition to become a member of the House of Commons. 
He stood iof Aldborough, but the death of his wife, on the loth 
of November 1669, prevented him from conducting his canvass 
iapcfson, and he was not elected. In 1673 he was returned for 
Ctttk Rising. The vaUdity of his electk>n was questioned by his 
opponent, Mr Offley, and the committee of privilege decided 
a|unst him, but the prorogation of the house prevented further 
action. Tlie no-popery agitation was now growing in strength. 
The duke of York was driven from office by the Test Act, and 
Pepys was accused of " popsry," partly on the ground that he 
*u said to keep a crucifix and altar in his house, partly because 
he was accused of having converted his wife to Roman Catholi- 
dsoL The crucifix story broke down on examination, but there 
h some reason to believe that Mrs Pepys did become a Roman 
Citbdic. Pepys was transferred by the king from the navy 
<^ce to the secretaryship of the admiralty in 1673. In 1679 he 
VIS member for Harwich, and in the height of the popish plot 
Buaia he was accused, manifestly because he was a trusted 
servant of the duke of York, of betraying naval secrets to the 
Frroch, but the charges were finally dropped. Pepys was released 
00 bafl on the 12th of February 1680. In that year he accom- 
paaied the king to Newmarket, and took down the narrative of 
his escape after the battle of Worcester. A proposal to make him 
head of King's College, Cambridge, in 1681, came to nothing. 
In 1682 hr accompam'ed the duke of York to Scotland, where the 
eadeanly habits of the people caused him great offence. In 
1M3-1684 he was engaged in arranging for the evacuation of 
Tangier. He visited the place and kept a diary of his voyage. 
la 1684 he was elected president of the Royal Society. On the 
accession of King James II. in 1685 he retained his place as 
secretary to the admiralty, to which he had been appointed by 
pucnt when James resumed the lord high admiralship (June 10, 



1684), and Pepys was in effect minister for the navy. The 
revolution of 1688 ended his official career. He was dismissed 
on the 9th of March 1689, and spent the rest of his life in retire- 
ment, and, except for a brief imprisonment on the charge of 
Jacobite intrigue in 1690, in peace. He died at his house in 
Clapham on the 35th of May 1703. His last years were passed 
in correspondence with his friends, who included Evelyn and 
Dryden, or in arranging his valuable library. It was left on his 
death to his nephew, John Jackson, son of his sister Pauline, and 
in 1724, by the terms of his will, was transferred to Magdalene 
College, Cambridge, where it is still preserved. 

Such was the outward and visible life of Samuel Pepys, the 
public servant whose diligence was rewarded by success. The 
other Pepys, whom Sir Walter Scott called " that curious 
fellow," was revealed in 1825, when his secret diary was partly 
published. Hie first entry was made on the ist of January 1660, 
the last on the 31st of May 1669, when the increasing weakness 
of his eyes, which had given him trouble since 1664, compelled 
him to cease writing in the conditions he imposed upon himself. 
If there is in all the literature of the world a book which can be 
called " um'que " with strict propriety it is this. Confessions, 
diaries, journal^, autobiographies abound, but such a revelation 
of a man's self has not yet been discovered. The diary is a thing 
apart by virtue of three quah'ties which are rarely found in per- 
fection when separate and nowhere else in combination. It was 
secret; it was full; and it was honest. That Pepys meant it for 
his own eye alone is clear. He wrote it in Shelton's system of 
tachygraphy published in 1641, which he complicated by using 
foreign languages or by varieties of his own invention whenever 
he had to record the passages least fit to be seen by his servants 
or by " all the world." Relying on his cypher he put down what- 
ever he saw, heard, felt or imagined, every motion of his mind, 
every action of his body. And he noted all this, not as he desired 
it to appear to others, but as it was to his seeing. The result is 
" a human document " of amazing vitality. The man who displays 
himself to himself in the diary is often odious, greedy, cowardly, 
casuistical, brutal. He tells how he kicked his cook, and blacked 
his wife's eye, and was annoyed when others saw what he had 
done. He notes how he compelled the wives of unfortunate 
men who came to draw their husband's pay at the navy office to 
prostitute themselves; how he took " compliments," that is to 
say gifts, from all who had business to do with the navy office; 
how he got tipsy and suffered from sick headache; how he 
repented, made vows of sobriety, and found casuistical excuses 
for breaking them. The style is as peculiar as the matter — 
colloquial, garrulous, racy from simplicity of language, and full 
of the unconscious humour which is never absent from a truthful 
account of the workings of nature in the average sensual man. 
His position enabled him to see much. His complete harmony 
with the animalism and vulgarity of the Restoration makes him 
a valuable witness for his time. To his credit must be put the 
facts that he knew the animalism and vulgarity to be what they 
were; that he had a real love of music and gave help to musicians, 
Cesare Morelli for instance; that though he made money out of 
his places he never allowed bad work to be done for the navy if 
he could help it; that he was a hard worker; and that he had a 
capacity for such acts of kindness and generosity as are com- 
patible with a gross temperament and a pedestrian ambition. 

The diary, written in a very small hand in six volumes, was 
included among his books at Magdalene. On the publication of 
Evelyn's diary in 1818. the then head of Magdalene, the Hon. 
and Rev. George Neville, decided to publish Pcpys's. Part of the 
MS. was deciphered by his cousin Lord Grenville. The library 
contained both the short and the long-hand copies of Pepys's 
account of King Charles's adventures, but its books were so lit lie 
known by the curators that this key was overlooked. The MS. 
was deciphered by John Smith, afterwards rector of Baldock 
in Hertfordshire, between 1819 and 1822. The first and partial 
edition, edited by Richard Neville Griffin, 3rd Lord Braybrooke, 
appeared in 1825 in two volumes quarto (London). It attracted 
great attention and was reviewed by Sir Walter Scott in the 
Quarterly for January 1826. A second edition in two octavo 



132 



PEQUOT— PERCEVAL 



volumes followed !n 1828 (London). A third and enlarged edition 
in five volumes octavo appeared in 1848-1849, and a fourth in 
four in 1854 (London) . In 1875-1879 Dr Minors Bright published 
a still fuller ediUon in six volumes octavo (London). Many 
portraits of Pepys are known to have been taken and several can 
be traced. One was taken by SaviU (1661), another by John 
Hales (1666), now in the National Portrait Gallery. A portrait 
by Sir Peter Lely is in the Pepysian library, Magdalene College, 
Cambridge. Three portraiu were taken by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 
of which one belongs to the Royal Society, and another is in the 
Hall of Magdalene. Pepys's only known publication in hb life 
was the Memoirs of the Navy, but other writings have been 
attributed to him. 

Authorities.— The sUndard edition of Pe^s*s Diary b that 
by H. B. Wheatley. in niae volumes octavo, with a supplementary 
volume of Pepysiana (London, 1893-1890). See also wheatley s 
S<uttuel Pepys, and Ike world he lited in (London, 1880); The Ltfe, 
Journals and Correspondence of PePys, by J. Smith (London, 1841); 
E. H. Moorhousc. Samuel Pepys, Administrator, Observer, Gossip 
(1909) ; and P. Lubbock. Samud Pepys (1909). (D. H.) 

PEQUOT, an Algonquian tribe of North-American Indians, a 
branch of the Mohicans. They occupied the coast of Connecticut 
from Niantic river to the Rhode Island boundary. Together 
with their kinsmen, the Mohegans, they formed a powerful and 
warlike people, bitterly hostile to the early settlers. In 1637 the 
Pequots were surprised by the whites at their fort on the Mystic 
river, and suffered so completely a defeat that the tribe was broken 
up, and its remnants took refuge with neighbouring tribes. The 
Pequot country passed under the control of the Mohegans. At 
the height of their power the Pequots numbered, it is estimated, 
some 3000. 

PERCEPTION (from Lat. percipere, to perceive), in psychology, 
the term specially applied to the mental process by which the 
mind becomes conscious of an external object; it is the mental 
completion of a sensation, which would otherwise have nothing 
but a momentary existence coextensive with the duration of the 
stimulus, and is intermediate between sensation and the " ideal 
revival," which can reinstate a perceptual consciousness when 
the object is no longer present. This narrow and precise usage 
of the term " perception " is due to Thomas Reid, whose view has 
been generally adopted in principle by modem psychologists. 
On the other hand some psychologists decline to accept the view 
that the three processes are delimited by sharp lines of cleavage. 
It is held on the one hand that sensation is in fact impossible as a 
purely subjective state without cognition; on the other that 
sensation and perception differ only in degree, perception being 
the more complex. The former view admits, which the latter 
practically denies, the distinction in principle. Among those 
who adopt the second view are E. B. Titchener and William 
James. James {Principles of Psychology, ii. 76) compares 
sensation and perception as " the barer and the richer conscious- 
ness," and says that " beyond the first crude sensation all our 
consciousness is a matter of suggestion, and the various sugges- 
tions shade graduxdly into each other, being one and all products 
of the same psychological machinery of associalion.'ii Similarly 
Wundt and Titchener incline to obliterate the distinction between 
perception and ideal revival. Prior to Reid, the word perception 
had a long history in the wider sense of cognition in general. 
Locke and Hume both use it in this sense, and regard thinking as 
that special kind of perception which implies deliberate attention. 
(See PsYCHOLOCV.) 

PERCEVAL, or Percyvelle (Ger. Panival, Fr. Perlesvaus, 
Welsh, Pcredur), the hero of a comparatively small, but highly 
important, group of romances, forming part of the Arthurian 
cycle. Originally, the story of Perceval was of the character of a 
folk-tale, and that one of remarkable importance and worid-wide 
difI\ision. He is represented as the son of a widow, " la dame 
veuve," his father having been slain in tourney, battle or by 
treachery, either immediately before, or shortly after his birth. 
The mother, fearful lest her son should share his father's fate, 
flies to the woods, either alone with one attendant, or with a small 
body of faithful retainers, and there brings up her son in ignorance 
of bis name, his parentage and all km'ghtly accomplishmenU. 



The youth grows up strong, swift-footed and of grett penood 
beauty, but, luiturally enough, of very limited inteUifnioe. TUl 
last is one of the most characteristic traits of the Pieroeval stoiy, 
connecting it alike with the Irish Lay of the Creal Foot, and the 
Teutonic DkmmUng tales. He spendi his days chasiDg the 
beasts of the forest, running them down by sheer ^wed, or kiUiof 
them with darts (javelots) or bow and arrows, the on^ weapooi 
he knows. 

One day, however, he meets a party of kni^ts in armoiir; he 
first adores the leader as God, and then takes them to be loaM 
new and wondrous kind of animal, asking the most naive 
questions as to their armour and equipment. Bring told that 
they are knights he determines that he too will be one, and 
returns to his mother announcing his intention of at once aetlbv 
forth into the world to seek for knighthood. Dressed as a 
peasant (or a fool), he departs (his mother, in some vefaioa% 
dying of grief), and comes to the king's court. Of ooune in the 
romance it is the court of Arthur; probably in the original tali 
it was simply " the king." Here his uncouth bdiaviour and great 
personal beauty attract general attention, and be is alike mocked 
by Kay, and his future distinction mysteriously focetold. He 
slays a foe of Arthur's, the Red Knight, who has insulted the 
king, and challenged the knights of the court, wbo, for sooe 
mysterious reason, are unable to respond to tbe '•^■H^tiy- 
Dressing himself in the armour of the slain knight, which be has 
great difficulty in handling and eventually puts on over Ui 
peasant's garb, he sets out on a series of adventures which <UEcr 
greatly in the various versions, but the outcome of whidi is that 
he becomes a skilful and valiant knight and regains tbe herila|a 
of his father. 

This, the Perceval story proper, has been recognised hf 
scholars as a variant of a widespread folk-tale theme, designated 
by J. C. von Hahn as the Aryan Expulsion and Return formula, 
which counts among its representatives such heroes as PerseOi 
Cyrus, Romulus and Remus, Siegfried, and, as Alfred Nutt has 
pointed out, Arthur himself. This particular variant appears to 
be of British-Celtic origin, and the most faithful representative 
of the original tale b now very generally held to be tbe En^ih 
Syr Percy9dU of Calles, a poem preserved in tiie TlionitM 
manuscript. Here the hero is nephew to Arthur on tiie niMber^ 
side, and his father, of the same name as himself, is a vaUaat 
knight of the court. A noticeable feature of the stoiy is the 
uncertainty as to the hero's parentage; the mother b ^ways t 
lady of rank, a queen in her own right, or sbter of kings (as t 
rule of the Grail kings) ; but the father's rank varies, be b never 
a king, more often merely a valiant knight, and in no instance 
cloes he appear to be of equal rank with hb wife. TUi 
distinguishes