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Full text of "The Entomologist"



I 




:, i. 



PROPERTY OF 

Z. p. M ETC ALP 




LIBRARY OF 






1685- IQ56 



THE 



ENTOMOLOGIST 

^n lUuatrat^tt Journal 

OF 

GENERAL ENTOMOLOGY. 

EDITED BY RICHAED SOUTH, F.E.S. 



WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF 



ROBERT ADKIN, F.E.S. 
H. ROWLAND-BROWN, M.A., F.E.S. 
W. LUCAS DISTANT, F.E.S., &c. 
EDWARD A. FITCH, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
F. W. FROHAWK, F.E.S., M.B.O.U. 



W. F. KIRBY, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

G. W. KIRKALDY, F.E.S. 

W. J. LUCAS, B.A., F.E.S. 

Dk. D. sharp, F.R.S., F.E.S., &c. 

G. H. VERRALL, F.E.S. 



"By mutual confidence and mutual aid 
Great deeds are done and great discoveries made." 



VOLUME THE FORTY-FIRST. 



LONDON: 

WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN, 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO., Limited. 

1908. 



LIST OF CONTKIBUTORS. 



Adkin, Kobert, F.E.S., 49, 145, 309 

Alderson, Miss Maude E., F.E.S., 251 

Anderson, Joseph, 249, 251 

Arkle, J., 66, 98, 131, 231, 250, 272, 273 

Baumann, R. T., 230 

Baxter, T., 310 

Bell, S. J., 23, 45, 71, 96, 207, 255 

Bellamy, Chas. J., 272 

Bentall, G. E., F.E.S., 16 

Bogue, W. a., F.E.S., 204 

Briggs, Charles A., F.E.S., 74 

Briggs, Thomas H., M.A., F.E.S., 282 

Brocklehurst, W. S., 156 

Brown, Henry H., F.E.S., 272 

Browne, H. B., M.A., 48 

Buckle, Major A. S., R.F.A., 7 

Butler, W. E., F.E.S., 62 

Cameron, P., 33, 38, 61, 82, 88, 124, 151, 

192, 234, 285, 290, 295, 299 
Campion, F. W., 252, 312 
Campion, F. W. & H., 312 
Cardew, Capt. P. A., R.A., 182, 203, 

229, 311 
Carpenter, Joseph H., F.E.S., 272 
Carter, J. S., 182, 250 
Chapman, T. A., M.D., F.Z.S., F.E.S., 97, 

153 
Cockayne, E. A., F.E.S., 17 
Cockerell, Prof. T. D. A., 34, 59, 84, 

121, 146, 262, 292 
Day, Eev. Archibald, 91 
Distant, W. L., F.E.S., 15, 36, 147 
Dixon, M. C, 309 
Dyke, F. M., B.Sc, 273 
Edelsten, H. M., F.E.S., 250, 311 
Edwards, Miss A. D., 272 
Everett, Eev. E., 252 
Earn, A. B., F.E.S., 153 
Flemyng, Rev. W. W., M.A., F.E.S., 309 
Fountaine, Miss M. E., F.E.S., 90 
Frohawk, F. W., M.B.O.U., F.E.S., 40, 

154, 161, 230, 291 
Fryer, H. F., F.E.S., 86, 110 
Galpin, Sidney H., 183 
GiBBs, A.E., F.L.S., 71, 160 
Gibson-Robertshaw, G., 89 
Goodwin, Edward, F.E.S., 311 
Grellet, R. C, 312 
Harrison, A., F.Z.S., F.E.S., 249 
Heberden, C. L., 182 
Hodge, Harold, 228, 230, 271, 272 
Holmes, D. C, 184 
Hooker, W. G., 204 



Huggins, H., 184 

Hunt, H. E., 250 

Jackson, F. W. J., 273 

Jacobs, Lieut. J. J., 62, 230 

Jacoby, Martin, F.E.S., 26 

Jarvis, W., 251 

Kaye, W. J., F.E.S., 10 

KiRBY, W. F., F.Z.S., F.E.S., 47 

KiRKALDY, G. W., F.E.S., 12, 37, 58, 123, 

188, 265 
Kitchener, Geo. P., 251 
Laddiman, R., 230 
Lawson, R., 40 

Le Chamberlain, Champion, 202 
Leigh, H. S., 113, 251 
Luc.\s, W. J., B.A., F.E.S., 16, 39, 45, 

46, 136, 142, 154, 167, 186, 202, 205, 

208, 270, 279, 280, 308 
Lyle, G. T., 233, 249 
Mannering, E., 156 
Mansbridge, Wm., F.E.S., 43, 70, 112, 

136 
Martineau, Alfred H., F.E.S., 208 
Mathew, Gervase F., Paymasterin- 

Chief, F.L.S., F.E.S., &c., 310 
Meldola, Prof. R., F.R.S., F.E.S., etc., 

229, 251, 273 
Merrifield, F., F.E.S., 271 
MooRE, F. H., 251 
Morley, Claude, F.E.S., &c., 125, 148, 

172, 189, 209, 233, 286 
Morris, J. B., 270 
Morton, Kenneth J., F.E.S., 38 
Newstead, Alh-rei), 19 
Nichols, Geo. T., 203 
Oldaker, F. a., M.A., 157 
Perkins, V. R., F.E.S., 203 
Peskett, Guy E. H., 230 
Pickard-Cambridge, Rev. 0., 156 
Pope, F., 63 

Prideaux, R. M., F.E.S., 55, 130 
Prout, Louis B., F.E.S., 52, 76, 271 
Raven, C. E., 218, 231 
Rawlings, G. F., 80 
Raynor, Rev. G. H., 308 
Raynor, Harold, 231 
Reynolds, Edward P., 204 
Richards, Percy, 19, 232, 311 
RoLLAsoN, W. A., 18, 19, 41, 102, 131, 273 
Rosa, X. F., M.D., 4 
Rothschild, Hon. L.W., Ph.D.,F.E.S., 1 
Rothschtld, Hon. N. Charles, M.A., 

F.Z.S., &c., 231, 257, 281 



IV 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



EoTHscHiLD, Hon. Walter, D Sc, M.P., 

F.L.S., Ac, 185 
Eowland-Brown, H., M.A., F.E.S., &c., 

21, 42, 68, 75, 90, 94, 133, 156, 159, 

257, 272, 277, 296 
Sharp, Edwin P., 205, 271, 310 
Sharpin, Archibald, 89 
Sheldon, W. G., F.E.S., 212, 239, 294, 

301 
Sheppabd, T., 90 
SiCH, Alfred, F.E.S., 230 
SiMiioNDs, Hubert W., F.E.S., 28 
Sooth, Eichard, F.E.S., 18, 24, 25, 39, 

48, 49, 72, 99, 160, 183, 184, 208, 228, 

229, 230, 232, 249, 250, 256, 270 
Speyer, E. E., F.E.S., 116, 168 
Standes, E. S., F.L.S., F.E.S., 90 
Stedman, Savignac B., 156 
Stonell, Bert S., 182, 183 
Sweeting, H. E., 43, 70, 136 
Tait, E., 310 
Tait, E. Jun., 308, 310 
Tarbat, Eev. J. E., 229, 251 



Tatchell. Leonard, 230 

Taylor, Campbell, 228 

Theobald, Fred. V., M.A., 106 

Thornewill, Eev. Chas. F., 16 

Thurnall, a., 308 

Tulloch, Capt. B., F.E.S., 275 

Turner, Hy. J., F.E.S., 23, 42, 68, 69, 

95, 134, 159, 207, 254, 279, 317 
ViNALL, Hugh J., 131 
Wainwright, Colbban J., F.E.S., 43, 

71,95 
Walker, .T., 310 
Walker, Commander J. J., M.A., E.N., 

F.E.S., 206 
Weddell, B., 272 
Wheeler, Eev. George, M.A., F.E.S., 

137, 177, 195, 221, 244, 267, 302 
Wightman, a. J. C, 41, 203, 204, 228, 

231, 271 
Williams, Harold B., 182 

WiNDYBANK, A. J., 312 

WiNSER, Harold E., 131 
WooDimiDGE, Francis C, F.E.S., 40 



PLATES. 

I.— The late Martin Jacoby, F.E.S. 
IL — Life History of Tortrix pronuhana 
III.— Newly-hatched Larva of Papilio homenis 
IV. — Egg-shells of Papilio homerus . 
V. — Micropyle of the egg of Papilio homerus 
VI. — 1. Leucophcea surinamensis, Linn. 

2. Decticus verrucivorus, Linn. 
VII. — 1. Abraxas grossjilariata, ab. 

2. ,, sylvata {ulmata), ab. 

3. Rapliidia notata .... 

4. Ova of „ n • 
VIII. — A new Bat-Flea {Nycteridopsylla lonpiceps, sp. n.) 



PAGE 

to face 25 
49 



97 



185 



249 
250 



233 
281 



ILLUSTEATIONS IN THE TEXT. 



Malacosovia neustria, ab. .... 
A Fossil Fly (Pliilorites joha7weui, Cockerell) 



257 

262 



INDEX 



GENERAL. 



Abraxas grossulariata, ab., 2i9 ; sylvata 

(ulmata), 250 
Aberration of Amphidasysbetularia, 153 
A Correction : Melitjea parthenie var. 

varia, 130 
Acherontia atropos at Oxford in May, 
183; at Ringwood, 272; in Hants, 
251 ; in Hertfordshire, 312 ; in Inver- 
ness, 272; in Kent, 230; in Lan- 
cashire, 310 ; in Middlesex, 272 ; in 
Norfolk, 230; in Notts, 251; in Sel- 
kirk, 272; in Sussex, 251; in Co. 
Waterford, 809 
Acidalia emutaria in Sussex, 203 
Acidalia humiliata reared from ova, 308 
Acidalia osseata, Note on the larva of, 62 
Acronycta auricoma at Dover, 311 
Addendum, 41 

^schna mixta in Sussex, 312 
A Few Notes on Breeding Experiences 

in 1907, 130 
A Fossil Fly of the Family Blepharoce- 

ridffi, 262 (fig.) 
African Bees, A new subgenus of, 146 
African Bees, New, 121 
Agrotis cinerea in Isle of Wight, 310 
Agrotis lunigera and lueernea in Sussex, 

41 
Agrotis lunigera in North Wales, 310 
Agrotis ypsilon in early July, 203 
A Guide to the Study of British Water- 
bugs (Aquatic Hemiptera), 37 
American Bees, New, 59 
Amphidasys betularia, A new variety 

of, 112, 153 
Amphidasys betularia var. doubleday- 

aria in Rutland, 231 
Andalusian Butterflies, Notes on some, 

212, 239 
Angerona prunaria in September, 278 
An Entomological Visit to North 

Queensland and Natal, 28 
A New Pseudagenia from Sikkim, 38 
A New Species of Bat-flea from Great 

Britain, 281 
A New Species of Tremex (Siricidse) from 

Borneo, 33 
A New Subgenus of African Bees, 146 
A New Variety of Amphidasys betularia, 
112, 153 



Argynnis paphia var. valesina in Glou- 
cestershire, 203 
A Small Collection of Swiss Neuroptera, 

270 
Australian ICumolpini, 26 
Basses-Alpes in August, 257, 296 
Bibliographical and Nomenclatorial 
Notes on the Hemiptera, 12 ; No. 8, 
123 ; No. 9, 188 
Bibliographical Notes, On Some Recent, 

15 
Bird chased by a Butterfly, 90 
Bombyx quercus assembling, 312 
Braconidffi, Notes on British, 125, 143, 

286 
British Sawflies, 172, 189 
British Waterbugs, A Guide to, 37 
Broadland, A Week in, 218 
Caddis-fly eating Aphides, 153, 228 
Calamia phragmitidis in Sussex, 231 
Capture of Notodonta phcebe = trilophus 

in Bedford, 156 
Captures at electric light, 19 ; of Lepi- 
doptera in West Cornwall, 273 ; at 
light at Kingston Hill, 311 
Caradrina ambigua in Devonshire, 63 ; 

in West Cornwall, 272 
Caradrina exigua at Chester, 272 
Caradrina (Laphygma) exigua, Notes 

on, 80 
Cerura bicuspis at Chester, 250 
Chalcididas from Borneo, 151 
Chrysididas from Borneo, 61 
Cirrhcedia xerampelina in Surrey, 311 
Cleora glabraria in West Cornwall, 18 
Coleoptera, On Mounting, 86, 110 
Colias edusa at Leatherhead, 272 ; at 
Swanage, 230 ; bred in October, 1908, 
291 ; in Cornwall, 271 ; in Cumber- 
land, 309 ; in Dorset, 251 ; in Essex, 
229; in Hants, 25; in Herts, 251; 
in Kent, 251; in Middlesex, 251; in 
Surrey, 230 ; in Sussex, 230, 309 ; near 
Gravesend, 183 ; near Norwich, 230 
Colias hyale in South Devon, 229 
Conversazione, Ent. Soc. Lond., 154 
Cosmia pyralina at Chester, 231 
County Corrections, 232 
Current Notes, 265 
Cynipidfe from Borneo, 299 



VI 



INDEX. 



Dasypolia templi at Chester, 272 
Deilephila euphorbiaj at Bournemouth, 

204 
Description of a New Form of Zygasna 

from Algeria, 185 
Description of a New Species of Mega- 

chila from India, 88 
Description of a New Species of Cryptinse 

from Borneo, 290 
Description of a New Species of Sawfiy 

(Selandria) from Borneo, 124 
Description of New Genus and Species 

of Braconidffi from Borneo, 295 
Description of New Genus and Two 

Species from Borneo, 299 
Description of New Species of Ceratina 

from Borneo, 285 
Description of Two New Genera and 

Species of Australian Eumolpini 

(Coleoptera Phytophaga), 26 
Description of Two New Genera and 

Species of Ichneumonidce (Xoridini) 

from Borneo, 82 
Description of Two New Species of 

ChrysididsB from Borneo, 61 
Descrii:)tion of Two New Species of 

Evania from Borneo, 237 
Dicycla oo in Richmond Park, Surrey, 

231 
Dragonflies for the Cabinet, 142 ; in 

1907, 167; in Hants, 252; on the 

Norfolk Broads, 311 
Early Stages of American Butterflies 

Wanted, 16 
Editorial, 49 
Entomological Society of Loudon, 90, 

154 
Epinephele tithonus paired with E. hy- 

peranthus, 249 
Epunda lichenea in Sussex, 310 
Eupithecia innotata not in Worcester- 
shire, 90 
Eupithecia larva on Pastinaca : A Cor- 
rection, 271 
Example of Protective Mimicry in Male 

Hepialus humuli, 89 
Field Notes on British Sawflies, 172, 189 
Foe of Dragonfly-nymphs, 16 
Food of Glow-worm, 153 ; of the Larva 

of Acidalia ochrata, 16 
Geometrid Notes, 76 
Gnophos obscurata var. mundata, 227 
Gynandrous Agrotis puta, 229 ; Bupalus 

piniaria, 182 
Hemiptera, Bibliographical and Nomen- 

clatorial Notes on the, 123, 188 
Herminia derivalis not at Barmouth or 

Chester, 131 
Heteropterous Metamorphoses, 58 
Huntingdon Dragonflies, 1908, 252 
Hybernation of Gonepteryxrhamni, 808 
Hyloicus pinastri in the Bournemouth 

District, 203 
Hymenoptera from Borneo, 242 



Ichneumon Fly opening Cocoons of 

Bryophila muralis, 16 
Ichneumonidffi from Borneo, 82 
Identity of two South African Lycffinids, 

On the, 10 
Jottings on Aphides taken during 1907 

and 1908, 209, 233 
Labia minor in the City, 273 
Larva of Cirrhoedia xerarapelina, 156 
Late Emergence of ^Eschna cyanea, 

271 : of Agrion puella, 228 
Lepidoptera captured in the Kingston 

District, Surrey, 19 
Lepidoptera from Aden and from the 

Transvaal, Notes on a Collection of, 7 
Lepidoptera in the Salisbury District, 

204 ; of East Sutherland, 131 
Leucania vitellina in Sussex, 41 ; in 

West Cornwall, 18; in S. Devon, 310 
Life-history of Lycffina acis, 161 ; of 

Hesperia paniscus (paL-emon), 102, 

154 ; of Tortrix pronubana, 49 
Lycffina arion in the Cotswolds, 201 
Lycasna zephyrus var. lycidas, 89 
Malacosoma neustria, ab., 257 (fig.)> 

308 
Macrothylacia rubi in Winter, 40 
Megachile from India, A new species, 88 
Melitsea aurinia, &c., from Barcelona, 

301 
Melitfea parthenie var. varia : A Correc- 
tion, 130 
Melitsea, The Athalia Group of the 

Genus, 137, 177, 195, 221, 244, 267 

302 
Nepticula acetoste in Surrey, 308 
Neuroptera, 205 ; from the South of 

France, 202 ; A Small Collection of, 

270 
New African Bees, 84, 121 
New American Bees, 59, 292 
New Illustrated Work on Larva; and 

Pupffi of British Macro-Lepidoptera, 

40 
New Oriental Papilionids, 1 
Note on Abraxas sylvata, ab. 271 
NoLe on the Larva of Acidalia osseata, 62 
Notes from Berisal during June, 1907, 55 
Notes from the Haslemere District for 

1906 and 1907, 157 
Notes from the North-west, 63, 91 
Notes from South-western France, 294 
Notes on British Braconidffi. — VI. 125, 

143 ; VII. 286 
Notes on Caradrina (Laphygma) exigua, 

80 
Notes on Collecting in the Aldershot 

District, 273 
Note on Eupithecia togata, 40 
Note on Metopsilus (Chcerocampa) por- 

cellus, 184 
Notes on Spanish Butterflies, 4 
Notes on Some Andalusiau Butterflies, 

212, 239 



INDEX. 



Vll 



Notes on Some Ti-ansvaal Mosquitoes, 

including Two New Species, and a 

New Variety, 106 
Obituary : — 

Auld, Henry Alfred, 48 

Carrington, John Thomas, 73 

Chitty, Arthur John, M.A., F.E.S., 48 

Dobree, Nicholas Frank, 47 

Goss, Herbert, F.L.S. F.E.S., 72, 74 

Jacoby, Martin, F.E.S., 25 

Knaggs, Henry Guard, M.D., 46 

Maddison, Thomas, F.E.S., 208 

Nicholson, George, F.L.S., 230 

Thornthwaite, W. H., 208 
Observations on the Life-histories and 

Bionomics of some Tachinidffi, 113 
Occurrence of Acherontia atropos in 

Hants, 251 ; in Notts, 251 ; in Sussex, 

251 
Odonata in Germany, 116, 168 
On Mounting Coleoptera, 86, 110 
On Rearing Melitsa aurinia (Artemis), 

182 
On Some Bornean Species of Trigona 

(Apidte), 192 
■ On Some Eecent Bibliographical Notes, 

15 
On the Interesting Nature of Hetero- 

pterous Metamorphoses, 58 
On the Variation of Pyrrhosoma tenel- 

lum and P. nymphula, 38 
On Three Undescribed Fossorial Hy- 

menoptera from Borneo, 242 
On Two New Genera of Chalcididas 

from Borneo, 242 
Orthoptera in 1907, 186 
Ova of Eaphidia notata(Neuroptera), 233 
Oviposition of aHyperparasite (Chalcid) 

of Pieris brassica3, 249 
Papilio Camilla, Linnaus (1764), 282 
Papilio homerus. On the Egg and First- 
stage Larva of, 97 
Papilionida3, New Oriental, 1 
Paliinpsestis (Cymatophora) octogesima 

in London, 156 
Paramblynotus punctulatus and rufi- 

ceps, 300 
Pieris brassicas in January, 39 ; larva in 

January, 62 
Plusia moneta at Peterborough, 203 ; in 

Northamptonshire, 231 
Poecilocampa popuU in October, 310 
Polia chi at Torquay, 250 ; in Bucks, 250 
Prevalence of Arctia caia in 1908, 186 
Prevention of Mould in Insects, 16 
Prionus coriarius, Linn., at Sugar, 250 
Pupffi of Lycffina arion, 183, 228 
Pygasra anachoreta, &o., in Essex, 250, 

272, 310 
Pyrameis cardui and the June Kainfall 

of 1906, 145 
Eaynor Collection, 18 
Eecent, Bibliographical and Nomencla 
torial Notes on the Ehynchota, 36, 147 



Eecent Literature : — 

The Moths of the British Isles, Series 

i., by E South, 23 
Accouplement des CEufs, et Amour 
Maternel des Forficulides, by H. 
Gateau de Kerville, 45 
The Annals of Scottish Natural 

History, 45 
The Little Naturalist in the Country, 

by Eev. Theodore Wood, 45 
Preliminary Eeport on the Habits, 
Life-cycle, and Breeding-places of 
the Common House-fiy (Musca do- 
mestica), as Observed in the City 
of Liverpool, by E. Newstead, 46 
The Agricultural Journal of India, 

vol. ii., 71 
Memoirs of the Department of Agri- 
culture in India, 72 
Bulletins of U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture, 72 
Proceedings of the United States Na- 
tional Museum, 72 
Papers by John B. Smith, Sc.D., 72 
Additions to the Wild Fauna and 
Flora of the Eoyal Botanic Gar- 
dens, Kew, vi., 96 
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Pa- 
rasitology, vol. 1, No. 3, 136 
Dragonflies (Odonata) collected by 
Dr. D. H. Atkinson in Newfound- 
land, with Notes on some Species 
of Somatochlora, by E. B. William- 
son, 136 
Copulation of Odonata by E. B. Wil- 
liamson, 136 
Dragonflies (Odonata) of Burma and 
Lower Siam, by E. B. Williamson, 
136 
On Some Earwigs (Forficulidae) col- 
lected in Guatemala, by Messrs. 
Schwarz & Barber, by A. N. Cau- 
dell, 136 
Notas Zoologicas, by E. P. Longinos 

Navas, S.J., 136 
Tricopteros nuevos, by E. P. Longinos 

Navas, S.J., 136 
Neuroptero nuevo de Montserrat, by 

E. P. Longinos Navas, S.J., 136 
A Guide to the Exhibited Series of 

Insects (Nat. Hist. Mus.), 160 
A Natural History of the British But- 
terflies, by J. W. Tutt, 160 
Proceedings of the South London En- 
tomological and Natural History 
Society, 1907-8, 184 
Additions to the Wild Fauna and 
Flora of the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew, 208, 230 
Nuevo Tricoptero de Espana, 208 
Transactions of the City of London 

Society for the year 1907, 232 
The Senses of Insects, 232 
Forest Entomology, 255 



Vlll 



INDEX. 



Report of the Lancashire and Cheshire 

Entomological Society, 1907, 256 
On the Mouth-parts of someBlattidae, 

by J. Mangan, B.A., 279 
Subfam. Decticinas of Fam. Locustidae, 

' Genera Insectorum,' 279 
Subfam. Nyctiborin.-e of Fam. Blat- 

tidiB, ' Genera Insectorum,' 279 
Eeport of the Entomological Society 

of Ontario for 1907, 230 
British Oak Galls, by Edward T. 

Connold, F.Z.S., F.E.S., 319 
Diptera Danica, 319 
A Preliminary List of Hertfordshire 

Diptera, by A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S., & 

Philip Barraud, 320 
The Genera of the Tortricid® and 

their Types, by G. H. Fernald, 

M.A., Ph.D., 320 
Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomo- 
logical Society, vol. i., pt. vi., 320 
Broteria, vol. vii., 320 
Rhodometra (Sterrha) sacraria in South 

Devon, 250, 270 
Sales at Stevens's, 17, 18 
Sawfly, New Species from Borneo, 124 
Senta maritima in Sussex, 204, 231 
Societies : — 
Birmingham Entomological, 43, 71, 

95, 207 
City of London Entomological, 23, 

43, 70, 95, 207, 254, 318 
Entomological Club, 39, 96, 229 
Entomological Society of London, 19, 

41, 67, 94, 131, 158, 205, 275, 314 
Herefordshire Natural History, 71, 

159 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomolo- 
gical, 42, 69, 134 

South London Entomological, 21, 

42, 68, 94, 133, 159, 2o6, 253, 277, 
317 

Some Bees collected by Dr. F. C. Well- 
man in West Africa, 34 
Spanish Butterflies, A few Notes on, 4 
Sparrows as Moth-catchers, 228 
Sphinx convolvuli in Selkirk, 272 
Spring Neuroptera at Bude, 205 
Supplemental Note on Eupithecire, 52 
Surinam Cockroaches at Kew, 39 
Sympetrum vulgatum, 39, 90 
Syrphids killed by Fungus, 308 
Tachinid;E, Observations on the Life- 
histories and Bionomics of some, 113 
Taeniocampa stabilis in November, 311 
Teratological Specimens of Melitasa 

aurinia, 182 
The Aphis-eating Caddis-fly, 228 
The Basses-Alpes in August, 2.^7, 296 
The Entomological Society of America, 
129 



The Long Life of Scoliopteryx libatrix, 

153, 182 
Tortrix pronubana, Life-history of, 49 ; 

on yet another food-plant, 309 
Trichoptilus paludum, Z., in East Devon, 

89 
Varieties : — 

Abraxas grossulariata, 18, 23, 249, 
277 ; sylvata, 22, 250; ulmata, 70 

Acronycta aceris, 96 ; psi (larva), 278 

Agriades bellargus, 95 ; corydon, 21, 
278 

Amphidasys betularia, 70, 254 

Anthrocera trifolii, 20, 22 

Aphodius scybalarius, 132 

Arctia caia, 70, 254 

Argynnis euphrosyne, 255 ; paphia, 
255, 275 ; selene, 18 

" Bombyx " quercus, 43 

Callimorpha dominula, 253, 255, 277 

Coenonympha pamphilus, 18, 255 

Dicranura vinula, 278 

Diloba cferuleocephala, 277 

Drepana falcula, 135 

Dryas paphia, 275 

Ennomos angularia, 96 

Epinephele ianira, 23 ; jurtina, 279 

Eubolia plumbaria, 23 

Eugonia polychloros, 254 

Hesperia comma, 44 

Hylophila prasinana, 95 

Lycffina arion, 202 ; bellargus, 95 

Macaria liturata, 277 

Malacosoma castrensis, 278 ; neustria, 
68, 255 

Melanargia galatea, 278 ; ines, 275 

Melanippe fluctuata, 23 ; sociata, 95 

Mellinia gilvago, 95 

Nemoria viridata, 254 

Noctua rubi, 277 

Notodonta ziczac (hybrid), 21 

Peronea hastiana, 69 

Pieris brassicte, 70 

Pyrrhosoma nymphula, 22 ; tenellum, 
22 

Rumicia phlceas, 254 

Scopelosoma satellitia, 44 

Selenia illustraria, 277 

Smerinthus populi (Gynandro.), 132 

Trichiura crat^egi, 279 

Troides haliphron (Gynandro.), 68 

Urbicola comma, 21 

Vanessa urticiE, 44 

Zonosoma linearia, 255 
West African Bees, 34 
Winter Brood of Dasychira pudibunda, 

62 
Zizera (Cupido) minima in August, 

273 
Zygffina filipendulse with light pink spots 

and hind wings, 249 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Neic Genera, Species, Sub-Species, and Varieties are marked ivith an asterisk. 



AFTER A. 
hybernica (PrsBmachilis), 45 



COLEOPTERA. 



affinis (Agabus), 43 
affinis (Pyropteras), 276 
•Agetinella, 26 
Alaocyba, 205 

angelicanus (Trogolinus), 276 
angustus(Droinius), 205 
apicarius (Tricodes), 278 
atricapillus (Demetrias), 110 
*australis (Platycolaspis), 28 
biguttatus (Agrilus), 275 
bipunctata (Coccinella), 234 
bipunctatus (Cryptocephalus), 316 
bohemanni (Osmius), 94 
boleti (Cis), 149 
cerviuus (Dascillus), 132 
children! (Trictenotoma), 132 
clathrata (Cicendela), 32 
cicatricosus (Cafius), 316 
circumcinctus (Dytiscus), 253 
coriarius (Prionus), 251 
crassiuscula (Aleochara), 277, 278 
cupreus (Harpalus), 316 
dentipes (Donacia), 277 
depressus (Pytho), 314 
desjardinsi (Cryptamorpha), 276 
Dinarda, 208 
Dioptoma, 205 
disjuncta (Cicendela), 32 
distans (Xantholinus), 158 
duboulayi (Lomaptera), 31 
fasciatus (Triehius), 278 
'flavicornis (Anistoma), 276 
flavipes (D.), 30 
formicarius (Clerus), 276 
halesis (Sermyla), 94 
hirtulus (Cryptophagus), 276 
insulare (Melittomma), 132 
Lamprigera, 205 



Ifevipenne (Lathrobium), 43 
Leptotyphlus, 205 
linearis (Corticaria), 276 
lovendali (Cryptophagus), 205 
lyonessius (Sunius), 276 
maculicornis (Phyllobius), 94 
massiliensis (Clytus), 278 
Melontha, 132 
micans (Orchesia), 148 
*minuta (Agetinella), 27 
molitor (Tenebrio), 159 
muUeri (Phalacrognathus), 31 
muralis (Sitaris), 67 
noctiluciis (Lampyris), 153 
obscurus (Barnyotus), 94 
Orchesia, 288 
perplexa (Oxypoda), 276 
'Platycolaspis, 27 
podagrariae (ffidemera), 278 
proscarabseus (Meloe), 19 
pubicollis (Atemeles), 316 
rubra (Leptura), 278 
scabriculus (Trachyphlaeus), 67 
scybalarius (Aphodius), 132 
semicincta (Cicendela), 30, 31 
simmondsi (Gahania), 33 
smithi (Endicella), 32 
soutellaris (Cicendela), 129 
strumosa (Lomechusa), 20, 205 
sulcatus (Otiorrhynchus), 94 
tenebricosus (Otiorrhynchus), 94 
Trictenotoma, 132 
unguicularis (Agabus), 43 
unistriatus (Bidessus), 253 
urtic* (R.), 94 
variabilis (Gnorimus), 314 
vulpinus (Dermestes), 43 



africanus (Mansonia), 135 
anale (Spogostylum), 129 
Apistomyia, 263 
atramentaria (Rhinophora), 276 
Bibiocephala, 263 
borussica (Hydrotiea), 45 
brassicaria (Ocyptera), 315 
Entom. Vol. xli. 1908. 



DIPTERA. 

ealopus (Stegomyia), 135 
cinereus (Pyretophorus), 107 
*circumluteola (I'anksiella), 107 
costalis (Pyretophorus), 106, 107 
defuneta (Discranomyia), 129 
dissimilis (Culex), 106, 107 
domestica (Musea), 113 



INDEX. 



fasciata (Stegomyia), IB.j 
funesta (Myzomyia), 107 
Hammatorhina, 268 
hiisutiiJalpis (Culex), 107 
*inconspicuosus ((Edes), 109 
*inornata (Ficalbia), 198 
jejuna (Ochromyia), 138 
johannseni (Philorites), 262, 264 
lavarum (Tachina), 71 
*longiceps (Mycteridopsylla), 281 
lugubris (Hydrotffia), 45 
luteolateralis (Banksiella), 107 
magius (Campsicnemus), 71 
mauritianus (Myzovhynchus), 107 
mediolineata (Etiorleptiomyia), lOG 
melanocephala (Phyto), 276 
raelanopsis (Platychirus), 71 
oleracea (Tipula), 92 



pentactenus (Nycteridopsylla), 281 

•Philorites, 262, 264 

Philorus, 263 

ribesii (Syiphus), 212_, 234 

rosii (Myzomyia), 135 

rotundatum (Gymnosoma), 315 

scabici (Epidapus), 67 

scalare (Melanostoma), 276, 308 

simpsoni (Culex), 106 

spathipalpis (Theobaldia), 107 

stabulans (Cyrtoneusa), 22 

squamosa (Cellia), 107 

sylvatica (Masicere), 115 

tenax (Eristalis), 45 

tibialis (Pelatachina), 115 

tigripes (Culex), 106 

tigrina (Caricea), 133 



HEMIPTERA. 



aeeris (Chaitophorus), 235 
reneus (Eysarcoiis), 253 
agilis (Lachnus), 236 
alacaris (Diceroprocta), 14 
albiseptus (Tynacantha), 124 
alni (Pterocallis), 236 

^-^ncilla (Hen-era), 15 

>^ augur (Leptocoris), 15 
*Austromalaya, 124 
avellanas (Siphonophora), 210 
arundinis (Hyalopt.), 235 
atriplicis (Aphis), 234 
baccarum (Dolycoris), 58 
bicoloripes (Phoneurgates), 265 
betula (Cimex), 59 
betulicola (Callipterus), 235 
bifasciata (Lamprophara), 14 
bifidus (Podisus), 124 
bimaculata (Chremistica), 14 
*Boeria, 124, 148 
boops (Nabis), 254, 277 
brassicfe (Aphis), 233 
caerulescens (ffidipoda), 278 
capito (Globiceps), 12 
capreffi (Siphocoryne), 212 
cardui (Monanthia), 59 
caricis (Cyrterrhinus), 254 
castaneffi (Callipterus), 236 
caucasica (Cicadetta), 13 
cerasi (Myzus), 211 
cervina (Orthostira), 253 
cocksii (Salda), 254 
contortuplicata (Corixa), 15 
corni (Schizoneura), 237 
coryli (Callipterus), 235 
crat;egi (Aphis), 233 
curtisii (Eulecanium), 14 
Drepanosiphum, 211, 235 
edentula (Aphis), 234 
epilobii (Aphis), 234 
fabricii (Eysarcoris), 59 
fagi (Phyllaphis), 236 



flavida (Platylomia), 14 

fceniculi (Siphocoryne), 212 

formicaria (Forda), 237 

fuliginosa (Schizoneura), 237 

galeopsidis (Phorodon), 211 

•Glaucias, 124 

granaria (Siphonophora), 210 

grisea (Elasmucha), 59 

hederfe (Aphis), 234 

hieraceii (Aphis), 234 

hieracii (Siphonophora), 210 

humuli (Phorodon), 211 

interstinctum (Acanthosoma), 59 

irrorata (Corixa), 14 

jacobffia (Aphis), 235 

■juglandicola (Pterocallis), 236 

juniperina (Pentatoma), 59 

laburni (Aphis), 235 

lanigera (Schizoneura), 93, 237 

laricis (Chermes), 2:i7 

lectularius (Clinocoris), 266 

Leptocoris v. Serinetha, 15!ri23, 147 

leucomelas (Chaitophorus), 235 

leucopterus (Blissus), 72 

ligustri (llhopalosiphum), 212 

lineolatus (Podisus), 124 

macrocephala (Lachnus), 236 

mali (Aphis), 234 

malvffi (Aphis), 234 
^ marginella (Cercopis), 15 
^marginella (Cicada), 15 
^ marginella (Herrera), 15 

melanocephalus (Eysarcoris), 59 

millifolii (Siphonophora), 210 

mmutissima (Sigara), 253 

montana (Cicadetta), 253 

*Montrouzierellus, 124 

nymphffiffi (Rhopalosiphum), 212 

ochracea (Kihana), 14 

oleracea (Eurydema), 59 

ornata (Strachia), 278 

papaveris (Aphis), 235 



INDEX. 



XI 



pastinacere (Siphocoryne), 212 
personatus (Eeduvius), 266 
*Phloeophana, 123 
pini (Lachnus), 236 
pinicollis (Lachnus), 236 
pisi (Siphonophora), 210 
plebeja (Cicada), 14 
prasina (Cicadetta), 13 
pruni (Aphis), 234 
*Psahnocharias, 124 
pteridis (Bryocoris), 254 
punctipennis (Apateticus), 124 
pygmseus (Cyrterrhinus), 254 
pyri (Aphis), 235 
quercus (Callipterus), 235 
radicum (Aphis), 236 
ribis (Myzus), 211 
ribis (Rhopalosiphum), 211 
roboris (Dryobius), 237 
ros£e (Siphonophoia), 210 
rubi (Siphonophora), 210 
rumicis (Aphis), 235 
sahcivorus (Chaitophorus), 235 
sambuci (Aphis), 235 
scabiosffi (Siphonophora), 210 



scurra (Idiocerus), 277, 278 
sonchi (Siphonophora), 211 
spinosa (Cosmopsaltria), 14 
stevensi (Cicada), 14 
stevenii (Cicada), 14 
strigipes (Mineus), 124 
subapicalis (Cicadetta), 14 
subterranea (Aphis), 234 
tanaceti (Siphonophora), 210 
theivora (Helopeltis), 72 
tiliffi (Pterocallis), 236 
Tripanda, 148 
troglodytes (Trama), 236 
tussilaginis (Siphonophora), 210 
ulmi (Schizoneura), 237 
urticfe (Siphonophora), 210 
urticarias (Aphis), 210, 234 
verbasci (Ciniex), 58 
viburni (Aphis), 235 
viciffi (Megoura), 211 
viminalis (Lachnus), 236 
viridis (Chremistica), 14 
vittipennis (I'odisus), 124 
vulgaris (Blepharidea), 113, 114 
xylostei (Siphocoryne), 212 



HYMENOPTEKA. 



abdominalis (Nematus), 176 
abdominator (Meteorus), 126, 149 
accinctus (Euphorus), 287 
acuminatus (Nematus), 176 
adunca (Osmia), 59 
asthiops (Eriocampoides), 191 
a'thiops (Perilitus), 289 
albicornis (Meteorus), 126 
albiditarsis (Meteorus), 125, 127 
albipennis (Pachj'nematus), 190 
albipes (Monophadnus), 192 
*Allostornus, 83 
alni (Hemichroa), 175 
alpina (Hyplocampa), 191 
alternipes (Blennocampa), 191 
*amabilis (Nomia), 85 
Amblynotiis, 300 
angelarum (Megachile), 292 
annulipes (Eriocampoides), 191 
apicalis (Euphorus), 288, 289 
apicalis (Pachy nematus), 190 
assimilis (Blennocampa), 192 
aterrima (Phymatoceros), 191 
atrator (Meteorus), 126, 149 
aureolus (Halictus), 35 
autumnalis (Eupeolus), 60 
balteatus (Pamphilus), 173 
berberidis (Andrena), 293 
bergmanni (Pteronus), 177 
betula? (Pristiphora), 190 
betuleti (Perilitus), 289 
bicometes (Diagozonus), 85 
*bidens (Pseudagenia), 38 
bilineatus (Meniscus), 70 
bimaculatus (Meteorus), 150 



bipartita (Pontania), 176 

borealis (Vespa), 129 

borneanum (Hedychrum), 61 

boylei (Panurginus), 293 

Bracon, 295 

brevicoUis (Perilitus), 289 

brevivalvis (Pteronus), 177 

bucconis (Ashmeadiella), 61 

Cffirulea (Anthophora), 122 

cjerulescens (Arge), 174 

cseruleus (Sirex), 174 

Cffispitum (Tetramorium), 237 

calcitrator (Collyria), 173 

caligatus (Meteorus), 125, 128 

campanula (Megachile), 292 

canifrons (Trigona), 192, 194 

capreaj (Pachynemata), 190 

carpenter! (Lygocerus), 210 

cerealium (I'erilitus), 289 

Chelonus, 295 

chiyakensis (Mesotrichia), 34 

chrysophthalmus (Meteorus), 125, 128 

cimbicis (Spilocryptus), 174 

cinctellus (Meteorus), 127, 150 

cinctipes (Kxetastes), 128 

clematidis (Sphecodes), 60 

Clepticus, 83 

clitellatus (Pachynematus), 190 

coactus (Euphorus), 287 

coarctata (Eumenes), 316 

coerulescens (Osmia), 17 

coUina (Trigona), 192 

columba (Tremex), 174 

combusta (Gronoceras), 35 

compressicornis (Lygsonematus), 190 



xu 



INDEX. 



confinis (Meteorus), 126, 148 
connata (Cimbex), 174 
consimilis (Ccelichneumon), 17 
consobrinus (Nematus), 176 
consors (Meteorus), 126 
conterminus (Microctonus), 289 
convolvuli (Anthophora), 122 
*copelandica (Osmia), oSJ 
*cosmiocephala (Ceratina), 285 
crassicornis (Pachynematus), 190 
crat£egi (Hoplocauipa), 191 
*Creightonella, 146 
creightoni (Halictus), 122 
ciocea (Hemichroa), 175 
cultus (Microctonus), 290 
curtispinus (Pteronus), 177 
cyanocrocea (Arj^e), 174 
decoloratus (Meteorus), 150 
deceptor (Meteorus), 123, 128 
denticulata (Ashmeadiella), 61 
'dentipleuris (Crabro), 243 
depressus (Paniphilus), 173 
diabolica (Vespa), 129 
*didirupa (Panurginus), 293 
*domicola (Anthophora), 121 
drewseni (Trichiocampus), 175 
dubius ( I'omostethus), 191 
duplex (Sh-ex), 174 
*Elemba, 151 
elfrona (Megachile), 89 
*ekuivensis (Anthophora), 121 
Episteuia, 151 
Epixorides, 83 

erythrocephala (Allotria), 212 
erythrogaster (Trigona), 193, 194 
*erythronuta (Peutachalcis), 152 
*erythrostoma (Trigona), 193 
Euphorus, 287 
Eustalocerus, 286 
exilis (Megachile), 292 
falciger (Perilitus), 289 
fallax (Amauronematus), 189 
fasciata (Abia), 174 
femorata (Cimbex), 174 
ferruginea (Hoplocampa), 191 
filator (Meteorus), 127, 160 
filiforniis (Calameuta), 173 
flavescens (Mesotrichia), 34 
flavistigma (Trigona), 193 
flaviventris (Neurotoma), 173 
flavus (Lasius), 236 
fortipes (Pachybracon), 295 
fragilis (Meteorus), 127, 150 
fuliginosus (Tomostethus), 191 
fulvipes (Euphorus), 288 
fulvipes (Pachynematus), 190 
*fulvopilosella (Trigona), 193, 194 
fuscipes (Arge), 174 
*fusco-balteata (Trigona), 193, 194, 195 
•geigerise (Ceratina), 35 
*geigeri8e (Halictus), 35 
geniculatus (Monophadnus), 192 
gigas (Sirex), 45, 173, 174 
glomeratus (Apanteles), 249 



granarius (Aphidius), 211 

Hawkeria, 287 

*liewittii (Chrysis), 61 

•hewittii (Crabro), 242 

•hewittii (Evania), 238 

*hitei (Epeolus), 60 

hortensis (Pteronus), 177 

hortorum (Pamphilus), 173 

hotoni (Halictus), 35 

ianthoptera (Megachile), 147 

ictericus (Meteorus), 126, 148 

illusor (Exetastes), 128 

inconstans (Mesotrichia), 34 

insularis (Tremex), 34 

intactus (Euphorus), 288 

jaculator (Meteorus), 126 

*jucundus benguellensis (Halictus), 121 

julii (Xyela), 173 

juvencus (Sirex), 21, 173, 255 

kollari (Cynips), 191 

*kuchingensis (Evania), 237 

kuchingensis (Selandria), 124 

lacteifasciata (Trigona), 193 

lacteipennis (PerJita), 294 

laetatorius (Bassus), 235 

Iffiviventris (Meteorus), 127, 150 

laricis (Lygseonematus), 190 

latibalteata (Trigona), 193 

latfpes (Croesus), 176 

latreillei (Trichiosoma), 174 

'lautipennis (Sphecodes), 60 

Lethulia, 83 

leucosticta (Pontania), 176 

leucotrochus (Pteronus), 176 

leucozonius (Halictus), 122 

*levicollis (Elemba), 151 

limacina (Eriocampoides), 191 

linearis (Macrocephus), 173 

lineola (Ceratina), 35 

lucorum (Trichiosoma), 174 

luridiventris (Leptocercus), 175 

luridus (Meteorus), 127 

liiteivenlris (Tomostethus), 191 

luteus (Nematus), 176 

maculata (Nomia), 85 

maculatus (Halictus), 122 

*maculiseutis (AUostomus), 84 

*maculiseutis (Paraxylophrurus), 83 

niandibulata (Megachile), 147 

'marginicollis (Psen), 243 

melanaspis (Pteronus), 177 

melanocephala (Periclista), 191 

melanopoda (Kaliosphinga), 192 

melanostictus (Meteorus), 126, 149 

Microctonus, 287, 289 

micropterus (Meteorus), 127 

miliaris (Pteronus), 177 

*milimia (Megachile), 146 

mitis (Euphorus), 287 

modesta (Mesotrichia), 86 

monogyniffi (Micronematus), 176 

morbillosus (Halictus), 122 

murinus (Meniscus), 128 

mysotidis (Pteronus), 177 



INDEX. 



xm 



*myroni (Colletes), 293 

nana (Scolioneui-a), 192 

nemoralis (Bassus), 234 

*n:cevillii (Megachile), 88 

niger (Lasius), 235 

*nigra (Palmerella), 291 

nigrans (Tomostethus), 191 

nigricans (Dineura), 175 

nigricans (Fenusa), 192 

nigrifrons (Colletes), 293 

nigripes (Nomia), 85 

nigripes (Pareophora), 191 

nigrita (Fenella), 192 

nigrocincta (Gronoceras), 35 

nigrocincta (Megachile), 35 

nitidulus (Formicoxenus), 207 

noctilio (Sirex), 173, 174 

obductus (Pachynematus), 190 

obfuscatus (JMeteorus), 126, 148 

Oligotropus, 292 

oligospilus (Pteronus), 177 

opacus (Halictus), 36 

opaci (Mesoneura), 191 

ornitipes (Panurginus), 293 

ornatus (Euphorus), 288 

*orthosiphonis (Mesotrichia), 86 

'Pachybracon, 295 

padi (Priophorus), 175 

pallidipes (Cephas), 173 

pallidipes (Euphorus), 287, 288 

pallidipes (Meteorus), 126, 148 

pallidipes (Pristophora), 190 

*pallidistigma (Trigona), 193, 195 

pallidiventris (i'eristiphora), 190 

pallidas (Meteorus), 126 

* Palmerella, 290 

*Paramblynotus, 299 

*Paraxylophrarus, 82 

parvidus (Pteronus), 177 

parvulus (Euphorus), 288 

pectinicornus (Cladius), 175 

pectoralis (Hyplocampa), 191 

*Pentachalcis, 152 

Perilitiis, 287, 289 

persuasoria (Khyssa), 174 

picipes (Euphorus), 287, 288 

piercei (Panurginus), 294 

pilipes (Anthophora), 67 

pilosulus (CoUyria), 173 

pini (Lophyrus), 175 

plagiator (Ephedrus), 210 

polysophilus (Pteronus), 177 

l^roductus (Halictus), 85 

productum (T.), 85 

profligator (Meteorus), 127 

prolongata (Xiphydria), 173 

proxima (Pontania), 176 

Pseudochalcis, 152 

pulchricoruis (Meteorus), 126, 149 

pumila (Entodecta), 192 

•punctulatus (Paramblynotus), 300 

punctiventris (Meteorus), 126, 149, 150 

pusilla (Blennocampa), 191 

pygmaea (Fenusa), 192 



pygmaeus (Cephus), 173 
quadrifasciata (Anthophora), 121 
quadrinotatus (Halictus), 36 
quercus (Pristophora), 190 
rosffi (Arge), 174 
ribesii (Pteronus), 176 
rufa (Osmia), 17 

rufa (Formica), 160, 207, 208, 316 
rubens (Meteorus) 127, 150 
ruficeps (Paramblynotus), 300 
ruficornis (Pristiphora), 190 
rutilicornis (Hoplocampa), 191 
rutilus (Perilitus), 289 
saliceti (Cryptocampus), 176 
salicis (Pteronus), 176 
salicis (Pontania), 176 
sanguinea (Formica), 160, 205, 208 
satyrus (Macrocephus), 173 
secalis (Perilitus), 289 
*semiexilis (Megachile), 292 
septentrionalis (Crcesus), 176 
sericea (Abia), 174 
sexdentata (Megachile), 147 
sexnotatus (Halictus), 36 
scutellaris (Nomia), 85 
scutellator (Meteorus), 127, 149 
silvatica (Trichiosoma), 174 
similis (Euphorus), 287 
solskyi (Stigmus), 234 
splendidus (Microctonus), 290 
stilata (Dineura), 176 
Streblocera, 286 
strenuus (Perilitus), 289 
subbifida (Pristiphora), 190 
*subexilis (Megachile), 292 
sucata (Ardis), 191 
sulcata (Ceratina), 35 
sylvarum (Pamphilus), 173 
tabidus (Meteorus), 126, 129 
tabidus (Trachelus), 173 
tarsatorius (Bassus), 211, 234 
tenellus (Meteorus), 127, 150 
tenuicornus (Blennocampa), 192 
testaceator (Zele), 127 
*testaceinerva (Trigona), 193, 195 
testaceus (Microctonus), 290 
trisignatus (Pachynematus), 190 
tristis (Priophorus), 175 
tuberculifer (Euphorus), 287 
turgidis (Pachynematus), 190 
ulmi (Kaliosphinga), 192 
unicolor (Meteorus), 127, 149 
ustula (Arge), 174 
vagans (Phyllotoma), 190 
vagus (Pachynematus), 190 
variipes (Eriocampoides), 191 
varus (Croesus), 176 
verna (Dineura), 191 
versicolor (Meteoris), 127, 149, 150 
vexator (Meteorus), 126 
vicini (Scolioneura), 192 
viduatus (Amauronematus), 189 
viminalis (Pontania), 176 
viminalis (Trichiocampus), 175 



XIV 



INDEX. 



violacea (Xylocopa), 21 
virescens (Halictus), 122 
virescens (Pteronus), 177 
viridiceps (Tremex), '6'd 
vitatus (Amauronematus), 189 
wellmani (Thrincliostoma), 84 



wesmaelia, 287 
westoni (Pristophora), 190 
xanthocarpus (Pachynematus), 190 
xanthocephalus (Microctonus), 290 
Xylophrurus, 83 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



abietella (Dioryctria), 256 

absinthiata (Eupithecia), 278 

acaciaj (Thecla), 259, 298 

accincta (Melacluotis), 10 

aceriana (Hedyia), 1133 

aceris (acronycta), 96 

aceris (Neptis), 206 

acetosEE (Nepticula), 254, 308, 318 

achilleas (Zygrena), 135,260 

achine (Pararge), '278 

acis (r,yc£ena), 161 

acontias (Acriea), 9 

act£ea (Satyrus), 261, 296, 299 

actffion (Thymelicus), 258, 298 

ada (Cynthia), 30 

adinensis (Hesperia), 9 

adippe (Argynnis), 5, 22, 206, 258, 274, 

297, 298 
admetus (LycEena), 6, 21 
admota (Nuranga), 10 
adrasta (Pararge), 258, 299 
adusta (Hadena), 136 
adustata (Ligdia), 157 
advenaria (Epione), 157 
adyte (Erebia), 315 
asgeus (Papilio), 28 
SBgon (Lyciena), 71. 91 
fegon (Plebius), 21, 159 
aello ((Eneis), 278 
ffiscularia (Anisopteryx), 63, 133 
ffisculi (Z.), 229 

aithiops (Erebia), 5, 258, 277, 299 
agamenanon (Papilio), 30 
agatha (Neptis), 32 
agathina (Agrotis), 93, 149, 275, 310 
agathina (Mylothris), 8, 9, 31 
agestis (Aricia), 68, 133 
agestis (Lycivna), 92 
agestis (Polyoramatus), 216 
aglaia (Argynnis), 159, 203, 206, 230 

254, 274, 277, 298, 317 
agroptera (Melitaea), 141 
alba (Colias), 206 
albescens ( I'roides), 1 
albicans (Lycaina), 6 
albicillata (Melanthia), 157 
albicincta (Junonia), 29 
albicostana (Peronea), 23 
albipuncta (Lencania), 273 
albipunctella (Tinea), 134 
albistriana (Peronea), 69 
albulata (Emmelesia), 65 
albulalis (Nola), 131, 318 
alchymista (C), 312 



alcimeda (Harma), 33 

alciphron (Chrysophanus), 56, 206, 262, 

298 
alcippoides (Danais), 9 
alcippus (Danais), 317 
alcyona (Satyrus), 7, 258, 299 
alecto (Erebia), 299 
alexanor (Papilio), 261 
alexandrffi (Troides), 67 
alexis (Lyctena), 92 
alexis (Polyommatus), 56, 258, 294, 297, 

298, 301 
alimena (Hypolimnas), 30 
allionia (Satyrus), 258, 299 
allous (Polyommatus), 56 
alniaria (Ennomos), 21, 43, 311 
alpina (Aricia), 68 
alpina (Lycasna), 68 
altbfe;B (Carcharodus), 261, 298 
alveus (Hesperia), 57, 215, 260, 261, 298 
amasis (Dionychopus), 10 
amathusia (Brenthis), 57, 259, 298 
amazoula (Alaema), 33 
ambigua (Caradrina), 18, 63, 80 
ambigualis (Scoparia), 91 
amphitrite (Heliconius), 317 
amytis (Arhopala), 29 
anacardii (Salamis), 32, 134 
anachoreta (Pygrera), 250, 272, 310 
andreniformis (.Egeria), 22, 278 
andreniformis (Sesia), 70, 158, 159 
andromache (Acrtea), 28 
angularia (Ennomos), 96, 311 
angustana (Eupfecilia), 91 
angustiorana (Batodes), 68 
annularis (Agrotis), 10 
antalus (Dendorix), 33 
antalis (Viradola), 8, 9 
*antileuca (Troides), 3 
antiopa (Euvanessa),.295, 301 
*antiopa (Troides), 2 
antiopa (Vanessa), 44, 57, 277 
antiqua (Orgyria), 159 
apennina (Lycfcna), 315 
apiciaria (Epione), 43, 274 
apollo (Parnassius), 56, 258, 278, 298 
aprilina (Agriopis), 44, 157 
arborifera (Mannas), 10 
arliorum (Baniana), 10 
arcania (Coenonympha), 57, 258, 299 
arcella (Tinea), 134 
archesia (Precis), 9 
areola (Xylocampa), 133 
arethusa (Hipparchia), 261, 299 



IKDEX. 



XV 



argentata (Carcinopodia), 10 
argiades (Everes), 132, 294, 314, 316 
argiades (Lycaena), 161 
argillacearia (Gnophos), 227 
argiolus (Celastrina), 160, 278, 316 
argiolus (Cyaniris), 157, 261, 274, 294, 

298 
argiolus (Lycaeua), 65, 274 
argus (Lycsena), 7, 157 
ai-gus (Plebius), 21, 159 
argus (Rusticus), 55, 261, 298 
argyrognomon (Rusticus), 55, 258, 298 
•ariadne (Troides), 2 
arion (Lycasna), 66, 161, 183, 201, 228, 

262, 278, 318 
*arrunus (Troides), 1 
arsilache (Brenthis), 259, 298 
artaxerxes (Lyca-na), 68 
artaxia (Precis), 133 
artemis (Melitsea), 22, 182 
arundineta (Nonagria), 204, 205, 270, 

271, 316 
*asartia (Troides), 2 
ashworthii (Agrotis), 66, 92, 159 
asiatica (Troides), 2 
asteria(Melitaea) 177, 200, 221, 222, 244, 

248, 268, 303, 304 
astorion (I'apilio), 206 
astrarche (Aricia), 68, 95, 133 
astrarche (Lycfena), 95, 274 
astrarche (Polyommatus), 56, 298 
asylas (Azygophleps), 10 
atalanta (Pyrameis), 57, 251, 295, 299 
atalanta (Vanessa), 57, 206, 230 
Stella, 20 

athalia (Melitaia), 42, 57, 138, 178, 196, 
197, 199, 222, 226, 246, 267, 268, 302, 
304 
athalia minor (Melitaea), 140 

*atlas (Troides), 1 

atomaria (Ematurga), 91 

atrata (Tanagra), 206, 318 

atrebatensis (Vanessa), 44 

atropos (Acherontia), 10, 183, 230, 251, 
272, 273, 309, 310, 312 

attenuata (Nemoria), 10 

aurantiaca (Papilio), 217 

aurata (Cidaria), 78 

aurata (Entephria), 78 

aurelia (Melitaa), 57, 94, 139, 195, 222, 
223, 227, 245, 246, 267, 302, 304 

auricoma (Acronycta), 311 

aurifodine (Rigema), 10 

aurinia (Melitsea), 22, 68, 138, 182, 227, 
294, 301, 315 

auroraria (Hyria), 21 

australis (Aporophyla), 255 

australis (Doleschallia), 29 

autumnaria (Ennoraos), 21, 42 

autumnata (Oporabia), 44 

auxo (Teracolus), 32 

bacoti (Gorgopis), 10 

bactra (Thecla), 11 

badiata (Anticlea), 65, 159, 206 



bajularia (Phorodesma), 66 

ballus (Thestor), 301 

*bandensis (Troides), 2 

Basilarchia, 20, 21 

basilinea (Aparaea), 157 

batis (Thyatira), 157 

baton (Lycsena), 7 

baton (Polyommatus), 55, 239, 258, 261, 

294, 298 
beatricella (Lozopera), 17 
belemia (Anthocharis), 213, 214, 215, 217, 

242 
belgiaria (Scodiona), 91 
belia (Anthocharis), 214, 215, 301 
bellargus (Agriades), 21, 95, 232, 253 
bellargus (Lycfcna), 95, 314, 315 
bellargus (Polyommatus), 56, 261, 298, 

317 
bellera (Thecla), 11 

bellezina (Anthocharis), 214 

bellidice (Pontia), 215 

beon (Papilio), 11 

bergmanniana (Dictyopteryx), 254 

berisalensis (Melitasa), 142, 197, 198, 
199, 200, 222, 224, 226, 246, 247, 248, 
269, 303, 304 

berisalii (Melitsea), 197, 200 

betulffi (Ruralis), 160, 318 

betuL-u (Zephyrus), 56, 160, 297 

betularia (Araphidasys), 66, 70, 112, 131, 
134, 153, 207, 231, 254 

bibulus (Lachnocema), 9 

bicolorana (Hylophila), 157, 274 

bicolorata (Melanthia), 69 

bicolorella (Coleophora), 19, 22 

bicostella (Pleurota), 91 

bicuspis (Cerura), 22, 250 

bicuspis (Dicranura), 21, 44, 254, 318 

bidentata (Odontopera), 65, 131, 254 

bifida (Cerura), 317 

bilinea (Grammesia), 318 

bilineata (Camptogramma), 69, 255, 318 

bilunaria (Selenia), 131 

bimaculata (Bapta), 157 

binaria (Drepana), 157, 274 

bipunctata (Senta), 204 

biundularia (Tephrosia), 64, 134 

boetica (Polyommatus), 9 

boetica (Zygffina), 216 

boeticus (Lampides), 6, 217, 297, 298 

boisduvali (Crenis), 32 

boisduvaliana (Terias), 9 

bolina (Hypolimnas), 28 

bombyliformis (Heniaris), 274 

bondii (Tapinostola), 23, 32, 279 

boopis (Junonia), 9 

boreata (O.), 77 

borussia (Lycaena), 315 

brachydactylus (Pterophorus), 70 

bractea (Plusia), 21 

brassicaj (Pieris), 39, 62, 70, 249, 294, 
298, 301, 317 

brasidas (Papilio), 32 
bredowi (Adelpha), 20 



XVI 



INDEX. 



brevilinea (Leucania), 219, 220, 314, 318 

brigitta (Terias), 9 

briseis (Hiijpaichia), 258, 299 

briseis (Satyrus), 7, 299 

britomartis (Melitaa), 94, 178, 180, 223, 

227, 246, 248, 267, 303, 304 
brookiana (Troides), 1 
brumata (Cheimatobia), 93 
brutus (Charaxes), 32 
bryoniffi (Pieris), 22, 56 
buceiDhala (Pyt^aeia), 66, 80 
buna (Metarctia), 10 
buoliana (lietinia), 135, 256 
buxtoni (Hypolyca3na), 33 
ca3ruleocepliala (Diloba), 277 
Cffisiata (Entephria), 77, 232 
caffa (Gorgopis), 10 
cafta (Thyreles), 10 
caia (Arctia), 64, 66, 184, 254 
Calais (Teiacolus), 19 
c-album (Grapta), 22 
c-album (Polygonia), 57, 258, 259, 299 
calceata (Gnophos), 227 
calescens (Precis), 9 
calif ornica (Acielpha), 20 
callianira (Pereute), 132 
callidice (Pontia), 298 
callinice (Pereute), 132 
callunte (Lasiocampa), 64 
camelina (Lophopteryx), 130, 157 
Camilla (Limenitis), 206, 259, 261, 282, 

295, 299 
campanulata (Eupithecia), 52 
candiope (Charaxes), 32 
canteueri (Thais), 214, 314 
capensis (Perigea), 10 
capeusis (Theretra), 10 
caprimulgella (Tinea), 134 
captiuncula (Phothedes), 18 
cardamines (Euchloe), 56, 157, 295, 318 
cardui (Pyrameis), 7, 9, 57, 145, 230, 

251, 252, 272, 294, 299 
carmelita (Lophopteryx), 157 
carmelita (Odonostia), 131 
carniolica (Zygajna), 260, 262 
carpinata (Lobophora), 43, 157 
carpini (Saturnia), 91, 92, 114, 206 
carthami (Hesiieria), 57, 261, 298 
Cassandra (Ornithoptera), 29, 30 
cassiope (Erebia), 23, 259, 299 
castigata (Eupithecia), 42 
castrensis (Bombyx), 255 
castrensis (Malacosoma), 155, 206, 255, 

278, 308, 318 
catella (Achaea), 10 
catulla (Catopsilia), 159 
caulonia (Thecla), 11 
cauta (Agrotis), 10 
cebrene (Junonia), 7, 9, 32 
Cecilia (Erebia), 23 
celerio (Chserocampa) , 9, 45 
celia (Junonia), 32 
cenea (Papilio), 32 
centrostrigaria (Coenocalpe), 77 



centrovittana (Peronea), 69 

Cerberus (Troides), 4 

ceronus (Polyomniatus), 317 

certata (Scotosia), 58 

cerri (Thecla), 278 

ceryne (Precis), 9 

cespitis (Luperina), 70 

ceto (Krebia), 57 

chalcozona (Abraxas), 18 

chaonia (Noiodonta), 22, 68, 70 

Charaxes, 275 

charithonia (Heliconius), 317 

chi (Polia), 250 

chinensis (Leptosia), 298 

chlorana (Earias), 207 

Chloroclystis, 52 

chlorodippe (Argynnis), 5 

chrysidiformis (Sesia), 23 

chrysippus (Danais), 7, 9, 30, 317 

chrysonuchellus (Crambus), 254 

chrysophila (Troides), 1 

chrysorrhcea (Porthesia), 21, 184, 254, 

316 
cinerea (Agrotis), 310 
cinnus (Polyommatus), 262 
cinxia (Mehtaa), 57, 138, 294, 298 
eirce (Satyrus), 258 
cirsii (Hesperia), 261, 298 
cleanthe (Melanargia), 5 
cleodoxa (Argynnis), 258 
Cleopatra (Gonepteryx), 7, 217, 261, 298 
climene (Pararge), 206 
cloacella (Tinea), 134 
cloanthe (Catacroptera), 9 
ccenobita ("Catuna), 134 
Coleophora, 23 
collutrix (Polydesma), 10 
columbina (Atella), 9 
combustana (Peronea), 69 
comma (Augiades), 44 
comma (Hesperia), 44, 259 
comma (Pamphila), 298 
comma (Urbicola), 21 
complana (Lithosia), 19 
confusalis (Nola), 274 
confiisella (Tinea), 134 
conformis (Xylina), 18, 21 
consignata (Eupithecia), 204 
consimilis (Neptis), 30 
consortaria (Boarmia), 274, 275 
conspicillaris (Xylomyges), 18 
conspurcatella (Bankesia), 17 
contaminana (Teras), 42 
contraria (Cerocala), 10 
conversaria (Boarmia), 134 
convolvuli (Sphinx), 203, 272, 273 
conyzfe (Hesperia), 298 
coracina (Psodos), 278 
coranus (H.), 33 

cordula (Satyrus), 6, 258, 278, 299 
coretas (Everes), 132 
corinna (Euploea), 28 
coronata (Chloroclystis), 54 
coronilla (Z.), 296 



INDEX. 



XVll 



corticella (Tinea), 134 

corydon (Agriades), 21, 23, 278 

corydon (Lycsena), 6, 274, 315, 318 

corydonius (LyciEna), 6 

corydon (Polyomraatus), 261, 298 

costaestrigalis (Hypeiiodes), 160 

costalis (Pyralis), 95 

cost£ec£erulea (Agrolis), 69 

*cotswoldensis (Lyc£ena), 202 

crabroniformis (Trochilium), 206 

crassa (Psitaleis), 10 

cratffigi (Aporia), 241, 259, 279, 298 

crat£egi (Trichiura), 279 

cresphontes (Papilio), 97 

cressida (Eurycus), 29 

crinanensis (Hydroecia), 207 

cristana (Peronea), 155 

crolus (Papilio), 12 

cthation (Charaxes), 32 

cubicularis (Caradrina), 66 

culiciformis (lEgeria), 206 

culmellus (Crarabus), 91 

cupnacellus (Nemotois), 254 

cursoria (Agrotis), 69, 317 

curtula (Pyg£era), 251, 310 

curvistrigaria (Eupoecilia), 17 

custodia (Eubolia), 77 

cydippe (Cethosia), 29 

Cynthia (Melitsea), 141 

cytisaria (Pseudoterpna), 278 

da'dalus (Hamanumida), 9, 33, 277 

damon (Lycajna), 6, 278 

damon (Polyommatus), 258, 298 

daplidice (Pontia), 215, 216, 259, 278, 

296, 298 
dardanus (Papilio), 205 
darwiniana (Coenonympha), 57 
davus (Coenonympha), 91 
decolorella (Laverna), 150 
decora (Pais), 10 
decuriella (Dioryctria), 256 
deenaria (Teplirina), 10 
defoliaria (Hybernia), 19, 93 
deione (Melitsa), 138, 141, 199, 200, 

221, 224, 226, 239,244, 261, 267, 268, 
269, 298, 303, 304 

delamerensis (Tephrosia), 134 

demoleus (Papilio), 32 

denotata (Eupithecia), 52 

derivalis (Herminia), 66, 131 

designata (Coremia), 131 

desjardinsi (Euploea), 158 

detitis (Taeda), 10 

dia (Brenthis),-294, 296, 298 

dictaea (Notodonta), 66 

dict;Teoides (Notodonta), 66 

dictfeoides (P.), 274, 275 

dictynna (Brenthis), 141 

dictynna (Melitsea), 57, 94, 139, 200, 

222, 223, 247, 2(i8, 302, 304 
didyma (Melitsea), 57, 139, 195, 200, 

258, 298 
didymata (f.arentia), 91 
dilutata (Oporabia), 21, 22, 44, 76 



diniensis (Leptosia), 261, 262 

diodes ^Deudorix), 32 

dioris (Deudorix), 31 

diparoides (E.), 316 

dipsacea (Heliothis), 204 

dispar (Tarache), 10 

dissoluta (Nonagria), 204, 270, 316 

disticta (Timora), 10 

ditrapezium (Noctua), 273 

divisana (Peronea), 69 

djelaelffi (Eretis), 9 

dockneri (Crameria), 10 

dolabraria (Euryraene), 157 

dominula (Arctia), 255 

dominula (Callimorpha), 277 

dorilis (Chrysophanus), 298 

dorilis (Polyommatus), 260, 278 

dorippus (Danais), 9, 317 

dorus (Cn'nonympha), 7, 258, 299 

doryope (Eurytela), 32 

doubledayaria (Amphidasys), 66, 70, 

134, 207, 231 
dromcdarius (Notodonta), 21 
dromus (Erebia), 23, 259, 299 
drusilla (Limenitis), 285 
dryas (Enodia), 261, 299 
dubitans (Euclidia), 10 
dujjlaris (Cymatophora), 43, 58, 131 
duponcheli (Leptosia), 261, 228 
echerioides (Papilio), 33 
echion (Papilio), 11 
edelsteni (Nonagria), 31G 
edusa (Colias), 183, 206, 216, 217, 229, 

230, 239, 251, 252, 258,260, 271,272, 

273, 291, 301, 309 
egea (Polygonia), 297, 299 
egeria (Pararge), 70, 216, 294 
egesta (Hypolimnas), 133 
eione (Teracokis), 9 
electra (Colias), 9 
eleus (Chrysophanus), 239, 298 
elinguaria (Crocallis), 23, 44 
elpenor (Chserocampa), 157 
elpenor (Eumorpha), 279 
emutaria (Acidalia), 203 
enotata (Semiothisa), 78 
epilobiella (Anybia), 206 
epiphron (Erebia), 299 
epiphron (Melampias), 22 
epiphyria (Euxoa), 10 
eris (Argynnis), 298 
erisoraa (Plusia), 10 
eros (Polyommatus), 55, 260, 298 
erosa (Cosmophila), 10 
erosaria (Ennomos), 311 
Erycides, 206 
erynnis (Erebia), 260 
erysimi (Leptosia), 298 
escheri (Polyommatus), 55, 258 
eubule (Callidryas), 155 
eucharis (Delias), 8, 159 
eumedon (Polyommatus), 55 
eupheme (Zegris), 239 
eupheno (Euchloe), 240 



XVIU 



INDEX. 



euphenoides (Euchloe), 213, 215, 240, 

241, 301 
euphon (Euplira), 158 
euphorbia (Deilephila), 70, 204, 232 
euphrosyue (Argynnis), 255, 274, 298 
euphrosyne (Bienthis), 57 
euryale (Krebia), 258, 259, 299, 315 
eui-yaloides (Krebia), 315 
eurybia (Chrysophauus), 259, 298 
evias (Erebia), 57 
exempla (Spocloptera), 10 
exigua (Caradrina), 80, 272 
exigua (Laphygma), 80 
exoleta (Calocampa), 19 
expallidata (Eupithecia), 318 
extersaria (Tephrosia), 274 
exulans (Zygaena), 278 
exulis (Crymodes), 254 
fagaria (Scodiona), 315 
fagella (Diurnea), 134 
fagi (Stanropus), 318 
falcula (Drepana), 135 
fasciana (Erastria), 157 
fascialis (Zinckania), 10 
fausta (Zygrena), 200, 262 
favicolor (Leucania), 254 
favillacearia (Scodiona), 315 
feisthamelii (Papilio), 5, 215, 217, 239, 

242, 296 
fenestrella (Endrosis), 159 
fenestrella (Thyris), 278 
fervida (.Egocera), 10 
fibrosa (Helotropha), 220, 273 
ficedula (Myrina), 9 
fidia (Satyrus), 261, 299 
filipendulffi (Zygaena), 44, 249 

firmata (I'hera), 279 

flammatra (Agrotis), 71 

flammea (Trigonopliora), 42 

flava (Adopfva), 133 

fiava (Zygffina), 278 

flavago (Xanthia), 157 

flavescens (Xanthia), 159 

flavicornis (Polyploca), 157 

florella (Catopsilia), 9 

fiuctuata (Melanippe), 23, 65, 95 

fluviata (Camptograiuma), 43, 159, 277 

tluviata (Phibalapteryx), 19 

fontis (Bomolocha), 157 

forsterana (Tortrix), 65, 68 

franconia (Malacosoma), 206 

fritillum (Hesperia), 298 

fuciformis (Hemaris), 157 

fuUonica (Mtunas), 9 

fulva (Tapinostola), 220 

fulvago (Xanthia), 157, 159 

fulvaUs (Phlychaenodes), 10 

fulvimitrella (Tinea), 134 

funebris (Nephele), 10 

furcata (Hyctriomena), 76 

fuscantaria (Ennomos), 93, 311 

fuscata (Hybernia), 63, 134 

fuscipunctePa (Tinea), 159 

luscula (Erastria), 274 



galatea (Melanargia), 203, 254, 299 

gamma (Plusia), 93, 229 

geminipuncta (Nonagria), 231 

genista; (Hadena), 157, 274 

geoffroyi (Mynes), 30 

gilvago (Mellinia), 95 

glabraria (Cleora), 18 

glaciaUs (Erebia), 206, 260, 299 

glandifera (Bryophila), 23 

glauce (Anthocharis), 214, 215, 217,242 

glaucinaus (Durgaria), 10 

glauconome (Synchloe), 9 

glyphica (Euclidia), 157 

gnaphaUi (CueuUia), 18 

goante (Erebia), 259, 297, 299 

goliath (Troides), 1 

goochi (Neptis), 32 

gordius (Chrysophanus), 56, 262, 298 

gorge (Erebia), 23, 259, 299 

goudoti (Euplcea), 67, 158 

grandis (Stenoptilia), 133 

granella (Tinea), 134 

graphodactyla (Alucita), 318 

grisealis (Zanelognatha), 131 

griseocapitella (Swammerdamia), 207 

griseola (Lithosia), 218 

grossulariata (Abraxas), 23, 70, 113, 136, 

"219, 253, 254, 277, 279, 318 
guenavadi (Pandesma), 10 
gueneeata (Ochyria), 77 
halime^e (Teracolus), 9 
haliphron (Troides), 2, 68 
halterata (liobophora), 43 
hamata (Dauais), 30 
hamula (Drepana), 275 
hanno (Troides), 2 
harmonica (Vanessa), 134 
harpagula (Drepana), 42 
hastiana (Peronea), 69, 155 
helena (Troides), 3, 4 
helice (Colias), 206, 217, 251, 252, 294 
hellica (Synchloe), 9 
heparana (Tortrix), 68, 317 
hephaestus (Troides), 3 
hera (Callimorpha), 258, 261 
hermannella (Aristotelia), 278 
hermathena (Heliconius), 317 
hermione (Satyrus), 258, 299 
Heterochroa, 20 

hethlandica (Hepialus), 279, 318 
liiarbus (Eurytela), 32 
hiera (Pararge), 57 
hippocastanaria (P.), 275 
hippocrepidis (Anthrocera), 22 
hippocrepidis (Zygjena), 69, 317 
hippothoe (Chrysophanus), 259, 298 
hirtaria (Biston), 253 
hirundo (.Ellopos), 9 
hispana (Lycaena), 6, 7 
hispula (Epinephele), 217, 299 
homerus (Papilio), 97, 132 
*honesta (Stegania), 79 
horta (Acraea), 9 
hostilis (Nephopteryx), 128 



INDEX. 



XIX 



howqua (Stichophthalma), 133 

humiliata (Acidalia), 42, 308 

luimuli (Hepialus), 89, 133, 279, 318 

hutchiusoni (Grapta), 22 

hyale (Colias), 9, 66, 229, 298, 315 

hyemana (Tortiicodes), 03 

hylas (Cephonodes), 9 

hylas (Lycajna), 6 

hylas (Polyommatus), 56, 298 

hyperborea (Pachnobia), 279 

byperantlius (Epinephele), 249 

hypeilophia (Tarache), 10 

hypolitus (Triodes), 2 

hypotaenia (Metachrotis), 10 

ianira (Epinephele), 23, 70, 91, 217, 

249, 279, 295 
iberica (Melitsea), 315 
icarus (Lyca3na), 70, 315 
icarus (Polyommatus), 22, 278 
ichnusa (Aglais), 241 
ida (Epinephele), 7, 217 
idricus (Basiothea), 9 
ilicis (Thecla), 278 
ilithyia (BybHa), 9 
illunaria (Selenia), 131 
illiistraria (Selenia), 157, 277 
imitator (P.), 32 
immanata (Cidaria), 69, 96 
imperator (Teracolus), 9 
impluviata (Ypsipetes), 131 
impura (Leucania), 218, 219 
inachis (Kallima), 29 
inconspicuella (Soienobia), 18 
indica (Glyphodes), 10 
indosa (F.ethes), 33 
ines (Melanargia), 215, 217, 239, 275 
innotata (Eupithecia), 52, 90 
ino (Brenthis), 258, 298 
ino (Melitffia), 141 
instrnmentalis (Ambia), 207 
interpunctella (Plodia), 68, 318 
inteiTuptata (Cidaria), 77 
interstriata (Migragrotis), 10 
inventaria (Entephria), 78 
io (Vanessa), 57, 70 
iole (Lachnoptera), 134 
iota (Plusia), 43, 66 
iphis (Coenonympha), 258, 259, 299 
iris (Troides), 2 
irriguata (Eupithecia), 204 
*isara (Troides), 3 
isobeon (Timoleus), 11 
japonaria (Operophtera), 76, 77 
japygia (Melanargia), 5 
jasius (Charaxes), 21 
jatropharia (Cyllopoda), 78 
Jeiiiadia, 206 
johnstoni (Peridela), 10 
jurtina (Epinephele), 158, 279, 299, 318 
jynteana (Celastrina), 316 
kershawii (Pyrameis), 133 
klugii (Danais), 9, 317 
knysna (Zizera), 9 
labanea (Gorgopis), 10 



laburnella (Cemiostoma), 318 
laisalis (Sceliodes), 10 
lampsacus (Papilio), 95 
lanceolata (Tiomora), 10 
lappona (Erebia), 23, 299 
lapponaria (Nyssia), 18 
lateritia (Metarctia), 10 
lathonia (Issoria), 57, 298 
latimargo (Cyllopoda), 78 
latirupta (Coreniia), 77 
latona (Cyligramma), 7, 9 
lavandulae (Zygasna), 185, 241 
leda (Erouia), 32 
leda (Melanites), 32 
lefebvrei (Erebia), 23, 67, 94, 206 
leilus (Urania), 23 
leporina (Acronycta), 274 
leucodrosinse (Pereuta), 132 
leuconia (Dismorphia), 314 
leucophfearia (Hybernia), 63, 95, 135 
leucophearia (I'eronea), 69 
leucosoma (Cherippa), 10 
leucostigma (Helotropha), 219, 220, 

273 
lewenhoekella (Pancalia), 207 
libatrix (Scoliopteryx), 153, 157, 182 
lichenea (Epunda), 310 
lichenella (Soienobia), 18 
lienigialis (Pyralis), 67 
ligea (Erebia), 258, 299, 315 
ligustri (Sphinx), 203 
limbatus (Celastrina), 316 
limacodes (Cochilidon), 274 
Limenitis, 20, 21 
limoniella (Coleophora), 316 
linea (Estigmera), 10 
lineola (Thymelicus), 242, 258, 298 
lineolata (Eubolia), 63, 95 
lineolata (Mesotype), 95 
lithargyria (Leucania), 219 
liturata (Macaria), 66, 91, 136, 277 
liturifera (Tarache), 10 
livornica (Deilephila), 204 
li vomica (Phryxus), 203 
locupletella (Ancylolomia), 10 
logiaua (Peronea), 69 
lorquinii (Cupido), 215, 217 
lubricipeda (Spilosoma), 64, 114 
lucens (Hydrcecia), 135, 207 
lucernea (Agrotis), 41 
lucida (Zizera), 9 
luciila (Neptis), 206 
lucina(Neraeobius), 317 
lucipara (Euplexia), 157 
lunaris (Ophiodes), 278 
lunigera (Agrotis), 41, 310 
lupulinus (Hepialus), 133 
luscinata (Cidaria), 77 
lutearia (Cleogene), 278 
luteata (Asthena), 157 
lutescens (Diacrisia), 10 
lutulenta (Aporophyla), 193 
lutulenta (Epunda), 44 
lyaeus (Papilio), 32, 90 



XX 



INDEX. 



lycaon (Epinephele), 7, 259, 299 

lycaon (P.), 30 

lychnidis (Cucullia), 159 

lycidas (LyciEiia), 89 

lycidas (Eusticus), 55 

lyllus (Coenonympha), 299 

machaon (Papilio), 56, 71, 95, 217, 242, 

261, 296 
macleayanus (P.), 30 
m;era (Pararge), 57, 258, 299 
mafa (Hesperia), 9 
malvffi (Acontia), 10 
raalva3 (Hesperia), 57, 253, 294, 298 
raanniana (Eupoecilia), 17 
margaritata (Tarache), 10] 
marginaria (Hybernia), 134 
marginata (Lomaspilis), 157 
"marginata (Lycsena), 202 
marginepuuctella (Diplodoma), 18 
maritiraa (Senta), 204, 231 
maritimella (Coleophora), 205 
marmorea (Rhodophasa), 317 
marpessa (Neptis), 32 
marshalli (Cacyreus), 9 
materna (Agadesa), 9 
mathias (Parnara), 7 
maturna (Melitaa), 138, 141 
mayrana (Peronea), 69 
medesicaste (Thais), 214, 297, 314 
medusa (Erebia), 206 
medusa (Nychitona), 68 
megsera (Pararge), 215, 299, 301 
Melanitis, 20 

melanopa (Anarta), 279, 318 
melanops (Nomiades), 216, 217, 241, 301 
melas (Erebia), 67, 206 
meleager(Polyommatus),260,261,262,298 
melpomene (Heliconius), 132 
menthastri (Spilosoma), 64, 66 
menyanthidis (Acrouycta), 65 
meridionalis (Zegris), 239, 240 
merope (Heteronympha), 31 
mesentina (Belenois), 7, 9 
meticulosa (Phlogophora), 93 
miata (Cidaria), 58, 131 
micacea (HydrcEcia), 93 
midas (Chrysophanus), 296 
miniata (Calligenia), 19, 158 
miniata (Miltochrista), 157 
minutana (Grapholitha), 133 
minima (Cupido), 56, 273, 274, 298 
minima (Zizera), 273 
miniosa (Taeniocampa), 128 
minos (Zygtena), 44, 135, 260 
minutata (Eupithecia), 129 
misippus (Hypolimnas), 9, 317 
mneme (Melimasa), 20 
mnemosyne (Parnassius), 56 
mnestra (Erebia), 299 
mohozutzo (Kedestes), 9 
moneta (Plusia), 203, 231, 274 
monosticta (Ortholitha), 10 
montana (Cupido), 298 
montanata (Melanippe), 65 



monteironis (Sphingomorpha), 10 

•mopa (Troides), 3 

morantii (Parosmodes), 9 

morpheus (Caradrina), 66 

mucronellus (Schcenobius), 218 

multiradiata (Raghura), 10 

multistrigaria (Larentia), 63, 95 

•multomaculata (Lycsena), 202 

munda (Taeniocampa), 311 

mundata (Gnophos), 227, 277 

muralis (Bryophila), 16 

murinaria (Tephrosia), 79 

muscerda (Pelosia), 219, 220 

Mycalesis, 20 

myrmeleon (Sulophonotus), 277 

myrmidione (Colias), 206 

nffivana (Grapholitha), 256 

nffivana (Rhopobota), 256 

nfeviferella (Aristotelia), 254 

napi (Pieris), 22, 42, 70, 71, 276, 277, 315 

narycia (Pseudonympha), 9 

natalensis (Crenis), 32 

natalis (Tarache), 10 

natalica (Acraea), 9 

*natunensis (Troides), 1 

neanthes (Charaxes), 32, 315 

nebulosa (Aplecta), 66, 93, 155, 314 

nebulosa (Salamis), 32 

neglecta (Noctua), 44 

nemoraUs (Agrotera), 279 

neraoralis (Zanclognatha), 131 

neobulffi (Acraea), 9 

neorides (Erebia), 258, 259, 260, 297, 299 

*neoris (Troides), 3 

nerii (Daphnis), 10 

neurica (Nonagria), 270, 271, 316 

neustria (Malacosoma), 68, 155, 257, 308 

nexifasciata (Oporabia), 76 

niavius (Amauris), 133 

nicholli (Krebia), 206 

nictitans (Hydroecia), 96, 135, 207, 317 

nigra (Aporophyla), 93, 157, 274, 275 

nigra (Megisba), 31 

nigra (Tephrosia), 158 

nigripunctella (Tinea), 134 

nigristriaria (Entephria), 77 

nigrocincta (Polia), 21, 273 

nigrofasciaria (Anticlea), 157 

nigrofulvata (Macaria), 66, 91, 136, 277 

nigrosparsata (Abraxas), 277 

niobe (Argynnis), 258, 298 

*nisseni (Zygfena), 185 

nitidula (Conchia), 10 

nivescens (Lycaena), 6, 7 

nobiHs (Euproctis), 10 

nubeculosa (Asteroscopus), 317 

nubifer (Uranothauma), 9 

numata (HeUconius), 20 

obeUsca (Agrotis), 41, 275 

oberthm-i (Lyc£ena), 23, 67 

oblongomaculatus (Troides), 2 

obscura (Anthrocera), 22 

obscura (Lycasna), 56, 202 

obscurata (Gnophos), 227 



INDEX. 



XXI 



obscuraria (Gnophos), 90 
obsoleta (Agriades), 278 
obsoleta (Chloridea), 10 
obsoleta (Epinephele), 255 
obsoleta (Erebia), 259, 299 
obsoleta (Lycaena), 318 
*occidentalis (Lycaena), 202 
occitanica (Melittea), 240 
occularis (Bombycia), 23 
ocellana (Hedya), 133 
ocellaris (Krebia), 315 
ocellaris (Mellinia), 22 
ocellata (Smerinthus), 253 
ocellatus (Smerinthus), 92, 316 
ochrata (Acidalia), 16, 279 
ochrearia (Aniphidasys), 112 
ochroleuca (Eremobia), 279 
octavia (Precis), 134 
octogesima (Cymatophora), 156 
octogesima (Palimpsestis), 156 
oedippus (Ccenonympha), 206 
ceme (Erebia), 23 
oleracea (Hadena), 128 
olivacea (Folia), 69 
olivata (Larentia), 95 
omphale (Teracolus), 8, 9 
omphaloides (Teracolus), 9 
00 (Dicycla), 231 
*oolitica (Lycnena), 202 
onosmella (Coleophora), 19, 22 
opheltes (Deilephila), 10 
ophidicephalus (Papilio), 33 
ophiogramma (Apamea), 274 
opima (Taeniocampa), 03 
opthalraicana (Pasdisca), 256 
optilete (Polyommatus), 258, 298 
orbitulus (LyciBna), 23, 67 
orbitulus (Polyommatus), 260, 298 
orbonalis (Leucinodes), 10 
orichalcea (Plusia), 21 
orion (L\cfena), 278 
ornataria (Semiothisa), 79 
osiris (Alyria), 78 
Osiris (Cyllopoda), 78 
osiris (Flavinia), 78 
osseana (Aphelia), 91 
osseata (Acidalia), 62 
othoe (Dismorphia), 314 
ovata (Cyliopoda), 78 
oxyacauthae (Miselia), 95 
palivmon (Cyclopides), 254 
palsemon (Hesperia), 102, 154, 254 
palffino (Colias), 56 
pales (Brenthis), 260, 278, 298 
pallens (Leucania), 219 
'pallida (Lycaena), 202 
pallida (Scoparia), 218 
pallidactyla (Gillmeria), 279 
pallidistria (Argysotis), 10 
paludis (Hydrcecia), 96, 135, 207 
paludum (Trichoptilus), 89 
palustris (Hydrilla), lb 
pamphilus (Ccenonympha), 18, 255,294, 
299, 301 



paniscus (Cyclopides), 254 

paniscus (Hesperia), 102, 154 

panoptes (Polyommatus), 239 

pantaria (Abraxas), 22 

paphia (Argynnis), 203, 200, 253, 254, 

255, 258, 274; (Dryas), 275, 298, 314 
paranensis (Plemyria), 77 
paradoxa (Pseudopontia), C8 
parasitella (Tinea), 134 
parthenie (Melitaa), 57, 130, 138, 140, 

195, 200, 222, 224, 226, 244, 261, 267, 

268, 269, 278, 294, 299, 302, 304 
parthenoides (Melitaea), 140 
pasiphaj (Epinephele), 7, 216, 217 
pedaria (Phigalia), 133 
peltigera (Heliothis), 23 
peletieraria (Cleogene), 23 
pennaria (Himera), 43 
perculta (Aroa), 10 
perla (Bryophila), 17 
permutana (Peronea), 317 
pelionella (Tinea), 159 
pheretes (Lycaena), 278 
phicomone (Colias), 56, 260, 298 
philea (Ccenonympha), 299 
philippus (Hypolycaena), 9, 32 
philoxenus (Papilio), 206 
phisadia (Teracolus), 9 
phheas (Chrysophanus), 71, 157, 239, 

298, 315, 318 
phlffias (Eumicia), 159, 254 
phcebe (Melitaea), 57, 240, 258, 295, 298 
phcebe (Notodonta), 156 
phorobanta (Papilio), 67 
phragmitellus (Chilo), 218 
phragmitidis (Calamia), 231 
phyllocampa (Hoplitis), 277 
picarella (Tinea), 134 
pienrari (Megalodes), 10 
pilosaria (Phigalia), 63 
pilosellffi (Melitffia), 138 
pimpinellata (Eupithecia), 54, 271 
pinastri (Hyloicus), 203, 232 
piniaria (Bupalus), 91, 157, 182 
pinicolana (Ketinia), 135, 256 
piniperda (Panolis), 206 
pisistratus (Rhapalocampa), 9 
pistacina (Anchocelis), 93 
plantaginis (Nemeopliila), 95 
pleione (Teracolus), 9 
plexippus (Anosia), 255 
plumbaria (Eubolia), 23 
plumbeolata (Melanthia), 69 
podalirius (Papilio), 5, 56, 215, 258, 261, 

294, 296 
podana (Tortrix), 68 
politus (Thecla), 10 

polychloros (Eugonia), 57, 215, 254, 295 
polyodon (Xylophasia), 44, 66 
populi (Amorpha), 69 
populi (Limenitis), 206 
populi (Pcecilocampa), 93, 157, 310 
populi (Smerinthus), 70, 92, 132, 203, 

230, 316 



XXll 



INDEX. 



poreellus (Chferocampa), 58, 184 

porima (Araschnia), 20 

porphyria (Agrotis), 91 

potatoria (Cosmotriche), 22 

prsefecta (Scirocastnia), 159 

prasinana (Halia), 95 

prasinana (Hyiophila). 95, 157 

prepiella (Ancylolomia), 10 

jDriamus (Troides), 1 

priapus (Papilio), 95 

prieura (Satyrus), 6 

progemmaria (Hybernia), 63, 133 

promineus (Leucania), 10 

promissa (Catocala), 23 

pronubana (Tortrix), 23,49, 68, 70, 159, 

184, 279, 309 
prorsa ^Araschnia), 19, 20 
prorsa (Papilio), 283 
prosope (Cupha), 30 
protea (Hadena), 157 
pro to (Hesperia), 6 
proto (Pyrgus), 215, 217, 261, 298 
pruinana (Penthina), 156 
pruinaria (Angerona), 159 
pruinata (Pseudoterpna), 62, 278 
pseudetrida (Teracolus), 8, 9 
*pseudo-alcon (Lycjsna), 202 
psi (Acronycta), 96 
psodea (Erebia), 206 
puncticostata (Migragrotis), 10 
pudibunda (Dasychira), 62 
pudicata (Ortholitha), 10 
pulchella (Deiopeia), 30 
pulchella (Utetheisa), 7, 9 
pulchrina (Plusia), 43 
pulveraria (Numeria), 65, 157 
punctella (Tinea), 134 
puta (Agrotis), 44, 229 
j^ygmasana (Asthenia), 208 
pyralina (Calymnia), 274 
pyralina (Cosmia), 231 
l^yramidea (Amphipyra), 157 
pyrenajella (Oreopsyche), 21, 23 
pyrenaica (Lycieua), 94, 318 
pyri (Saturnia), 115 
quadrifasciaria (Coremia), 274 
quadripunctata (Euproctis), 10 
quercinaria (Ennomos), 311 
quercus (Lasiocampa), 64, 71, 91, 312 
quercus (Zephyrus), 157, 274, 297 
rahira (Acrsea), 9 
ramaguebana (Teracolus), 8, 9 
rapffi (Pieris), 63, 71, 294, 298, 301, 315 
reclusa (Pyga>ra), 310 
rectangulata (Eupithecia), 204 
regulata (Semiothisa), 78 
*relegata (Operophtera), 76, 77 
remota (Idiea), 10 

repandata (Boarmia), 93, 134, 135, 159 
resinea (Retinia), 206 
reticulata (Lygris), 18 
rhamni (Gonepteryx), 157, 260, 294, 298, 

308 
rhodope (Mylothris), 134 



rhomboidaria (Boarmia), 66 
•richardsi (Semiothisa), 79 
ridens (Polyploca), 18, 157 
ripartii (Lycasna), 6 
roboraria (Boarmia), 23 
robsoni (Aplecta), 66, 314 
roxelana (Pararge), 200 
ruba (Platylesches), 9 
rubi (Bombyx), 21, 150 
rubi (Callophrys), 157 
rubi (Macrothylacia), 40, 206, 207 
rubi (Noctua), 43, 277 
rubi (Thecla), 301 
rubidata (Anticlea), 94, 130, 274 
rubiginea (Orrhodia), 274 
rufa (Ccenobia), 218, 219 
rufescens (Metarctica), 10 
ruficostana (Peronea), 23 
rumina (Thais), 214, 215, 217 
rupicapraria (Hybernia), 95 
russula (D.), 24 
russula (Nemeophila), 91 
sacraria (Rhodometra), 250, 270 
sacraria (Sterrha), 10, 270 
salicis (Leucoma), 43 
sambucaria (Uropteryx), 66 
sanio (D.), 24 
sac (Hesperia), 57 
sao (Pyrgus), 240, 258, 298 
sarpedon (Papilio), 28, 30 
satellitia (Scopelosoma), 44 
saucia (Agrotis), 160, 275 
scabiosata (Eupithecia), 271 
scabrella (Harpipteryx), 19 
scabriuscula (Dipterygia), 22, 157 
" schmidtiformis " (M.), 200 
schreibersiana (Argyrolepia), 17 
schrenki (Chaeroeampa), 9 
scipio (Erebia), 257, 258, 260, 297 
scrophulariaj (Cucullia), 159 
scutuligera (Chloridea), 10 
segetis (E.), 71 
segetum (Agrotis), 318 
selene (Argynnis), 18, 204, 274 
selene (Brenthis), 294 
semele (liipparchia), 242, 258, 299 
semele (Satyrus), 70 
semiargus (l,yc«na), 206 
semiargus (Nomiades), 50, 260, 298 
semibrunnea (Xylina), 70, 253, 274 
semisyngrapha (Agriades), 21 
sempronius (Charaxes), 28 
senex (C), 204 
senex (Nudaria), 158, 218 
serapis (Danais), 31 
seratulje (Hesperia), 57 
serena (Hecatera), 92 
sesamus (Precis), 9 
severina (Belenois), 9 
shepherdi (Neptis), 28, 30 
sibilla (Limenitis), 284, 317 
Sibylla (Limenitis), 204, 206, 274 
siccifolia (Coleophora), 253 
sidas (lolus), 32 



INDEX. 



XXIU 



sikkima (Celastrina), 316 

silaceata (Cidaria), 157 

silas (lolus), 32 

simplex (Anthena), 10 

siniplonia (Anthocharis), 50 

sinapis (Leptosia), 56, 261, 298 

siuapis (Leucophasia), 295 

sinuata (Anticlea), 22 

smaragdaria (Phorodesma), 206 

sobria (Odontocheilopteryx), 10 

soeia (Xylina), 157, 253 

sociata (Melanippe), 95 

sordidata (Hypsipetes), 22, 76 

sororcula (Lithosia), 157 

sparganii (Nonagria), 279, 318 

sparsata (Collix), 274 

sphinx (Brachionycha), 19 

*spilotia (Troides), 4 

spini (Thecla), 259, 298 

spinifera (Euxoa), 10, 71 

splendidella (Dioryctria), 256 

sijoliata (Idaea), 10 

sponsa (Catocala), 23 

spurcata (Zaria), 10 

stabilis (Tfeniocampa), 311 

statilinus (Satyrus), 258, 299 

staudingfreana (Neptis), 30 

stellatarum (Macroglossa), 157, 203, 272 

steveni (Polyommatus), 260, 298 

stevensata (Eui^ithecia), 18 

sthennyo (Erebia), 23 

stipella (Aristotelia), 254 

straminalis (Evergestis), 95 

straminea (L.), 204, 231 

stramineola (Lithosia), 218, 220 

strataria (Amphidasys), 135 

stratiotalis (Paraponyx), 66 

strigibasis (Migragrotis), 10 

strigihxria (Acidaha), 16 

strigula (Agrotis), 91 

stygne (Erebia), 23, 258, 299, 316 

siibtusa (Tethea), 207 

suasa (Hadena), 128 

suavella (Rhodophfea), 279, 317 

submacula (Tetragotona), 10 

subsequa (Triphsena), 204 

suffumata (Cidaria), 157 

sugriva (Bindahassa), 31 

superba (Xanthospilopteryx), 10 

sylvanus (Augiades), 157 

sylvauus (Pamphila), 57 

sylvata (Abraxas), 22, 250, 271 

tacuna (Leucania), 10 

tages(Nisouiades), 57, 241, 294, 298 

tagis (Authocharis), 214, 216, 241 

tamarisciata (Eupithecia), 53 

taras (Hesperia), 253 

tarquinia (Pseudacrasa), 31 

tehcanus (Lampides), 6, 217 

temerata (Bapta), 157 

templi (DasypoUa), 19, 93, 272 

tenebrata (Heliaca), 157 

Tephroclystis, 52 

Teracolus, 32 



terbulentata (Osteodes), 10 

testacea (Apaniea) 43 

thaumas (AdoiJea), 133 

thaumas (Hesperia), 157 

therapne (Pyrgus), 240 

thoas (Papilio), 20 

thompsoni (Aplecta), 60, 314 

thyodamas (Cyrestis), 68 

thysa (Pieris), 31 

tiliaria (Ennomos), 19, 93, 311 

tipuliformis (Sesia), 15 

tithonus (Epinephele), 23, 249, 274, 299 

togata (Eupithecia), 40 

transalpina (Zyga;na), 262 

trepida (Notodonta), 157 

triangulum (Noctua), 157 

trifasciata (Hypsipetes), 131 

trifolii (Anthrocera), 20, 22 

trifolii (Zygasna), 344, 17 

trilophus (Notodonta), 156 

trimaculata (Stegania), 79 

triplasia (Habrostola), 66 

trisignaria (Eupithecia), 54 

tristata (Melanippe), 16 

tritici (Agrotis), 275 

trivia (Melitfea), 143 

trochiloides (Macroglossa), 9 

tropica (Tarache), 10 

tropicalis (Pentila), 32 

truncicolella (Scojjaria), 133 

turbidalis (Phlyctjenodes), 128 

tuttodactyla (Marasmarcha), 23 

tyndarus (Erebia), 23, 57, 258, 299 

typhse (Nonagria), 274 

*typhaon (Troides), 4 

typica (Matopo), 10 

tyrrhea (Naudaurelia), 10 

uhagonis (Satyrus), 6 

ulmata (Abraxas), 70, 250, 271 

ulvfe (Senta), 204 

ulysses (Papilio), 29, 30 

umbrosa (Noctua), 220 

uncula (Hydrelia), 19 

undulosata (Epirrhoe), 10 

urtic£E (Aglais), 241, 259, 299 

urtic£e (Vanessa), 45, 57, 63 

urticata (Eurrhypara), 254 

vagans (Leucinodes), 10 

valesina (Argynnis), 203, 253 

varanes (Charaxes), 32 

varia (Melitffia), 57, 130, 140, 196, 197, 

221, 224, 244, 267, 2G8, 299, 304 
varia (Metachrotis), 10 
variata (Thera), 149 
varleyata (Abraxas), 18, 255, 277, 318 
vauaria (Halia), 43, 70 
vellida (Junonia), 30 
venustalis (Phlychtenodes), 10 
verbasci (CucuUia), 70, 159 
verhuelli (Dercas), 68 
verhuellella (Teichobia), 18 
vernaria (Geometra), 95 
vernaria (lodis), 96 
versicolor (Endromis), 114 



XXIV 



INDEX. 



vestigialis (Agrotis), 150, 274, 275 

vibulena (Thecla), 11 

vigilans (Pseudonympha), 9 

vinetalis (Tathorhynchus), 10 

vinula (Dicranura), 92, 206, 278 

virgata (Mesotype), 95 

virgaurese (Chrysophanus), 259, 298 

virgauretB (Coleophora), 277, 31b, 318 

virgularia (Acidalia), 155 

viridata (Nemoria), 254 

vitellina (Leucania), 18, 41, 273, 310, 318 

wahlbergi (Euralia), 32 

warscewiczii (Papilio), 206 

webbianus (Lampides), 205 

wisraariensis (Senta), 204 

wockii (Solenobia), 18 

woeberiana (Semasia), 133 

woodiana (Brachy.), 17 

xanthographa (Noctua), 44 

xantholopha (Leptodenista), 10 



xanthomista (Polia), 21, 273 

xanthosoma (Phiala), 10 

xerampelina (Cirrhcedia), 93, 156, 311 

xipares (Charaxes), 32 

xylostella (Ceiostoma), 253 

ypsilon (Agrotis), 71, 72, 203 

zapateri (lirebia), 5 

zavaletta (Discenna), 314 

zelica (Leucothyris), 314 

zelinia (Precis), 30 

zephyrus (Lycasna), 89 

zephyrus (Rusticus), 55 

zermattensis (Chrysophanus), 259 

ziba (Thecla), 11 

ziczac (Notodonta), 21 

zochalia (Belenois), 21 

zoilus (Tellervo), 30 

zonaria (Nyssia), 63 

zoolina (Charaxes), 32, 315 



NEUKOPTERA. 



senea (Cordulia), 22, 119, 143, 171, 276, 

311 
^schna, 172 

alpina (Dictyopteryx), 270 
Amphinemoura, 202 
Anax, 172 

annulatus (Cordulegaster), 143, 167, 202 
arctica (Somatochlora), 143 
armatum (Agrion), 168 
bidentatus (Cordulegaster), 202 
Brachy tron, 172 

caerulescens (Orthetrum), 143, 167, 276 
cancellatum (Orthetrum), 118, 143, 167, 

171, 276, 311 
centralis (Limnophilus), 205 
Chlorogomphinse, 72, 136 
Chrysopa, 228 
coccajus (Ascalaphus), 202 
communis (Panorpa), 270 
Coniopteryx, 132 
Cordulegasterinse, 72, 136 
curtisii (Oxygastra), 143, 158 
cyanea (.Eschna), 120, 143, 168, 171, 

252, 271 
cyathigerum (Enallagma), 171, 172, 252 
depressa (Libellula), 118, 143, 171, 276 
dryas (Lestes), 143, 169, 170, 171, 252 
elegans (Ischnura), 168, 170, 171, 252 
elegans var. infuscans (Ischnura), 252 
elegans var. r ufescens(Ischnura) .170, 252 
Ephemera, 207 

flaveolum (Sympetrum), 117, 118, 171 
flavomaculata (Cordulia), 172 
fonscolombii (Sympetrum), 270, 276 
forcipata (Lindenia), 120, 171 
Forficulidffi, 136 
fulva (Libellula), 143, 276, 311 
fusca (Sympycna), 169, 171 
germanica (Panorpa), 205 
Gomphinse, 72, 136 
Gomphus, 172 



grammatica (Chloroperla), 202 
grandis (iEschna), 120, 143, 171, 252 
guttulata (Kcclisopteryx), 202 
hastulatum (Agrion), 168 
hilaris (Psocus), 136 
hirtus (ftJegalomus), 202 
imperator (Anax), 118, 167, 253, 276 
isosceles (.Eschna), 120, 143, 171, 276, 

311 
juncea (^schna), 143 
latipes (Platycnemis), 202 
Lestes, 172 
Libellula, 172 
lindenii (Agrion), 171, 172 
longicornis (Ascalaphus), 202 
maxima (Perla), 202 
mercuriale (Agrion), 168, 202 
meridionalis (Panorpa), 202 
metallica (Somatochlora), 119, 143, 171, 

276 
mixta (iEschna), 143, 312 
montanus (Philopotamus), 202 
monticola (Drusus), 202 
naias (Erythromma), 117, 170, 171, 252, 

276, 311 
Nemoura, 202 
nigrescens (Drusus), 270 
notata (Raphidia), 233 
nymphula (Pyrrhosoma), 38, 143, 167, 

170, 171, 202 
nymphula var. teneatum (Pyrrhosoma), 

22, 38 
nymphula var. melanotum (Pyrrho- 
soma), 38 
Orthetrum, 172 

paedemontanum (Sericostom.a), 270 
pellucidula (Hy dropsy che), 202 
pennipes (Platycnemis), 169, 170, 171, 

276 
pennipes var. bilineata (Platycnemis), 

170 



INDEX. 



XXV 



pennipes vav. lactea (Platycnemis), 170, 

276 
pratense (Brachytron) , 276, 311 
pulchellum (Agrion), 170, 171, 252 
pumilio (Ischnura), 168, 170, 171 
puella (Agrion), 171, 172, 228 
pyrenaicum (Sericostoma), 202 
quadrimaculata (Libellula), 118, 171, 

276, 311, 314 
quadrimaculata var. pra^nubila (Libell- 
ula), 314 
rectus (Drusus), 202 
sanguineum (Sympetrum), 22, 117,118, 

167, 171, 252 
scoticum (Sympetrum), 22, 117, 118, 

171, 252 
Somatochlora, 136 
splendens (Calopteryx), 143, 168, 171, 

252 
sponsa (Lestes), 143, 167, 169, 171, 252 
striolatum (Sympetrum), 117, 167, 171, 

252, 270 



tenellum (Pyrrhosoma), 38, 143, 276 

tenellum var. feneatum (Pyrrhosoma), 
22, 38 

tenellum var. erythrogastrum (Pyrrho- 
soma), 38 

tenellum var. intermedium (Pyrrho- 
soma), 38 

tenellum var. melanogastrum (Pyrrho- 
soma), 38 

tenellum var. rubratum (Pyrrhosoma), 
22, 38 

torrentium (Isopteryx), 205 

tortricoides (Megalomus), 202 

tristis (Rhyacophila), 202 

virgo (Calopteryx), 143, 168, 171 

viridis (Lestes), 169, 171 

viridulum (Erythromma), 117, 170, 171 

vulgaris (Panorpa), 270 

vulgatissimus (Gomphus), 119, 143, 171 

vulgatum (Sympetrum), 39, 90, 117, 171 

zopateri (Leptocerus), 208 



OKTHOPTERA. 



albopunctata (Metrioptera), 279 
americana (Periplaneta), 186, 187 
aptera (Chelidura), 45 
auricularia (Forficula), 45 
australasife (Periplaneta), 187 
bicolor (Stenobothrus), 187 
bipunctata (Aneohura), 45 
Blatta, 158 
brachyptera (Metrioptera [Platycleis]), 

279 
brazzse (Nauphceta), 96 
brunnea (Nyctibora), 279 
cserulescens (CEdipoda), 278 
cinerea (Nauphoeta), 96 
cinereus (Olynthoscelis), 188 
cinereus (Thamnotrizon), 279 
crurifolium (Pulchriphyllium), 205 
decorata (Stylopyga), 187 
domesticus (Gryllus), 45 
elegans (Stenobothrus), 187 
germanica (Blatta), 275 
germanica (Phyllodromia), 186 
grisea (Platycleis), 279 
griseoaptera (Pholidoptera), 279 
grossus (Mecostethus), 187 
holosericea (Nyctibora), 187, 279 
lapponica (Ectobia), 1.58, 186 
lesnei (Forticula), 45, 186 



littorea (Anisolabis), 45 

livida (Ectobia), 186 

maculatus (Gomphocerus), 187 

maritima (Anisolabis), 45 

mauritanica (Anisolabis), 45 

media [albipennis] (Apterygida). 186 

Melaxinus, 316 

minor (Labia), 186, 273 

nivea [virescens] (Panchlora), 187 

niveus (Pandora), 158 

orientalis (Blatta), 96, 186, 187 

panzeri (Ectobia), 186 

parallelus (Stenobothrus), 187 

punctatissima (Leptophyes), 187 

pyrenaica (Chelidura), 45 

rhombifolia (Doryltea), 20 

rhombifolia (Dorylea), 187 

riparia (Labidura), 45, 186, 316 

roeselii (Chelidoptera), 22 

roesehi (Metrioptera [Platycleis]), 279 

rufus (Gomphocerus), 187 

subulatus (Tettix), 187 

surinamensis (Leucophaea), 39, 96, 187 

sylvestris (Nemobius), 188 

Tetriginae, 205 

verrucivora (Tettigonia [Decticus]), 279 

verrucivorus (Decticus), 188 

versicolor (Erianthus), 317 



z. p. 



PROPERTY CF 



l"!^ 



' 1 I 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XLL] JANUAEY, 1908. [No. 536 



NEW OEIENTAL PAPILIONID^. 
By the Hon. L. W. Eothschild, Ph.D., F.E.S. 

1. Troides goliath atlas, subsp. nov. 

$ . The cell-patch of the fore wing separated into spots ; there 
are three white spots in front of the second median vein on the under 
side of the fore wing, the females of the other forms of goliath having 
less than three spots between the two median veins. The disc of the 
hind wing is greyish white above, and densely dusted with black, 
being on the under side white proximally and yellow distally. 

Hab. Kapaur, Dutch South-west New Guinea. Two females 
collected by W. Doherty in January and February, 1897. 

2. Troides 'priamus arruanus, Feld. (1859). 

I have now a better series of Arru specimens of T. priamus 
than in 1895, when I published the Kevision of Eastern Pai)ilios, 
and am inclined to treat them as representing a separate sub- 
species, although only the majority of the individuals differ from 
New Guinean ones. Among my specimens there is a very 
remarkable variety of the male, which I think should be recorded 
under a name of its own : — 

^ ab. chrysophila, nov.— Hind wing, on upper side, without black 
spots, but instead with four brown submarginal ones, of which the 
upper three are centred with gold ; behind the costa a large golden 
spot. On under side these spots enlarged, also the fourth submarginal 
one being centred with gold ; the fore wing much more extended 
green than in ordinary specimens, the black distal band being only 
represented by a spot situated in the subcostal fork. Length of fore 
wing only 70 mm. 

3. Troides hrookiana natunensis, subsp nov. 

$ . Intermediate between albescens from the Malay Peninsula 
and brookiana from Borneo. Nearest to the latter, but the white 
markings larger. 

Hab. Burguran, Natuna Islands. 

ENTOM. JANUARY, 1908. A 



Z THK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

4. Troides hypolitus antiopa, subsp. nov. 

^ . The light stripes along the veins of the fore wing less distinct 
on the upper side than in the specimens from the Southern Moluccas. 
On the under side the second yellow spot of the hind wing is pos- 
teriorly produced, the white spot placed before the second radial 
vein is very small, the black one situated below the third radial large. 

Hab. Northern Moluccas : Morty (=Morotai) ; also Halma- 
hera (Wallace). 

5. Troides haliphron ariadne, subsp. nov. 

$ . Collar and sides of breast red, the posterior ventral segments 
of the abdomen edged with yellow. The vein-stripes of fore wing 
purer white beneath than in iris, Eob. (1888). 

? . Collar and breast as in male. The cell-spot of the liind wing 
larger than in iris, as are also the yellow spots situated before the 
first radial and behind the second median veins. 

Hah. Koma. 

6. Troides ohlongomacidatus asartia, subsp. nov. 

(? . Similar to T. o. hanno, Fruhst., from Goram. Cell-spot of 
hind wing extending close to the base ; the subcostal spot as in 
ohlongomaculatus, or smaller ; the yellow patch situated IdcIow the 
cell reaching on under side almost as far distad as the spot situated 
in front of the second median vein, the cell more thinly edged with 
black than in hanno, the lobes of the JDlack marginal band shaded with 
yellow, the last lobe mvich reduced, a small dot being separated from 
it ; this dot absent from one of our specimens. 

Hah. Ceram Laut, December, 1898 (H. Kiihn). Three 
specimens. 

7. Troides ohlongomacidatus handensis, subsp. nov. 

Both sexes smaller than T. o. ohlongomacidatus, with the 
abdomen deeper blackish brown on upper side. 

^ . Hind wing rather more rounded than in T. o. ohlongomacu- 
latus ; the yellow cell-spot large, proximally excised ; the upper tooth 
of the third golden patch not or very little more projecting than its 
lower tooth ; on the other hand, the yellow area more strongly pro- 
duced at the first median vein than usual. 

? . Fore wing above with sharply defined greyish white vein- 
streaks ; the subcostal streaks, and to a less extent also the others, 
much shaded with black distally, not extending so close to the edge 
as in striped females of ohlongomaculatus ; cell edged with greyish 
white, forming a kind of M, the cell being sharply margined with 
white also beneath ; the stripes situated at the second median and the 
submedian much shaded with black. The yellow area of the hind 
wing above deeper yellow than in ohlongomaculatus, beneath as pale 
as in that subspecies ; there is always a yellow spot before the first 
radial, and a large one below the cell ; the fringe-spots very narrow 
above and below. 

Hab. Great Banda. A series, mostly collected by H. Kiihn 
in November and December, 1898. 



NEW ORIENTAL PAPILIONID^. 3 

8. Troides helena neoris, subsp. nov. 

Abdomen much paler above than in hephcestus, being yellowish 
brown, with the sides and under surface grey. 

3^ . Fore wing with very feeble vestiges of light streaks on the 
under side ; the distal margin somewhat more incurved than in 
hephcestus. The black marginal band of the hind wing as broad as 
in extreme specimens of hephcestus, being much broader than in the 
Malayan forms of T. helena. 

? . All the veins of the fore wing, inclusive of the submedian, 
accompanied by very broad greyish white streaks, the streaks situated 
at the second median vein being remote from the cell ; the apical 
third of the cell greyish white above, with two blackish streaks, 
beneath almost pure white. Golden cell-spot of hind wing proxi- 
mally almost cut off straight ; no yellow discal spot in front of the 
subcostal vein, the black marginal band broader than in hephcestus, 
and the fringe-spots larger. Beneath the central area of the hind 
wing yellowish grey, being more distinctly yellow in the centre. 

Hah. Binongka, Joekan Bessi Islands, south-east of Celebes. 
One pair, collected by H. Kiihn in December, 1901. 

9. Troides helena mopa, subsp. nov. 

$ . Intermediate between neoris and hephcestus. Abdomen more 
yellow than in neoris, with small black spots on the under side. 
Fore wing as in strongly striped females of hepthcestus. The black 
distal margin broader than in hephcestus ; the central area on the 
vmder side as pale as in neoris at its anterior basal and posterior sides, 
the area being the same as in neoris, except that a much larger por- 
tion is yellow. 

Hah. Buton, south-east of Celebes, December, 1901 (H. 
Kiihn). Only one specimen. 

10. Troides helena antileuca, subsp. nov. 

The abdomen as black above as in sagittatus, not being so 
distinctly pale in the centre as in helena from Java. 

<y . Fore wing entirely without light stripes on both sides. Hind 
wing as in helena ; no golden discal spot before the subcostal vein. 

$ . Fore wing above without grey vein-streaks, the cell also not 
being edged with grey; beneath the light vein-streaks faintly vestigial. 
Hind wing with a discal and a submarginal golden spot in front of 
the first radial vein, both being small ; the golden spot situated behind 
the cell almost extends to the base ; the black discal spots mode- 
rately large ; the golden cell-patch cut off in the direction of the 
first radial. 

Hah. Kangean Islands. One pair (Prillwitz). 

11. Troides helena isara, subsp. nov. 
$ . Similar to Sumatran specimens of T. helena ; the differences 
not constant. The grey vein-stripes of the fore wing usually indis- 
tinct on upper side, always very distinct beneath. The yellow spot 

2 A 



4 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

situated before the subcostal vein of the hincl wing large, as is also 
the one placed below the cell. 

5 . Eesembling vereis from Engano. Fore wing with sharply 
marked whitish grey vein-streaks , the streaks at the submedian vein 
broader and purer whitish grey than in Sumatran specimens, there 
being also two thin stripes at the submedian fold ; the apex of the 
cell whitish grey as far down as the first median vein, the patch 
including two black streaks. The yellow area of the hind wing 
beneath paler than in Sumatran specimens, but deeper yellow than 
in nereis. 

Hah. Nias. A series. 

12. Troides helena typhaoji, subsp. nov. 

(? . Fore wing above without grey vein-streaks, these streaks 
beneath often distinct, in this case there being a whitish subbasal 
streak behind the median nervure. The golden subcostal patch of the 
hind wing always large, extending distally to the costa. 

5 . Apex of cell of fore wing above edged with greyish white, 
this border being wider in front than behind, not being so distinctly 
M -shaped as in cerberiis ; the vein-stripes narrower than in helena, 
generally well developed above and beneath, those which are situated 
at the subcostal and discal veins extending to the cell. The black 
discal spots of the hind wing often very large and confluent (especi- 
ally in specimens from the hills). 

Hab. North-east Sumatra. A series. 

13. Troides helena spilotia, subsp. nov. 

(? . The vein-stripes of the fore wing distinct above and below, 
especially those which accompany the median veins ; beneath there 
is a long and broad streak before the submedian vein, the streak 
situated behind the second median vein being continued basad along 
the cell, as in cerberus. Hind wing with a complete row of black 
spots, the second being 9 mm. long. 

5 . The vein-streaks of the fore wing very dark and narrow on 
upper side, but strongly developed on under side ; apex of cell with a 
dark grey M. Hind wing without a yellow discal spot before the sub- 
costal vein ; the black discal spots large, the one situated behind the 
second median vein long, being only 5 mm. distant from the cell ; the 
yellow area pale beneath, grejash behind. 

Hab. Hainan. One male and two females. 



A FEW NOTES ON SPANISH BUTTERFLIES. 

By a. F. Rosa, M.D. 

Although my visit to Albarracin in July and August, 1906, was 
rather late to begin with — and short enough in any case — I was 
successful in obtaining most of the desirable species and varieties 
occurring in the district about that time of year. I arrived at 



NOTES ON SPANISH BUTTERFLIES. O 

Teruel on the morning of July 29th, and proceeded by the dili- 
gence to Albarracin, the journey occupying the better part of 
that day, the rather primitive vehicle starting about 10.30 and 
reaching its destination a little before 3 p.m. 

I put up at the ' Posada Nueva,' and stayed till August 9th. 
The weather was continuously fine, very hot in the afternoons, 
and the wind, which was just a cool breeze in the forenoon, 
generally increased in strength as the day advanced. 

I had an outing with Seiior Narro, who pointed out some of 
the likely spots for Erebia zapateri, although none were seen on 
that day; and Dr. Gimeno Marquez, from Madrid, who was 
shooting, accompanied me once or twice. Mr. J. S. Gibson also, 
who was staying at Albarracin for the summer, gave me a lot of 
interesting information about the place, and the customs of the 
natives. 

The following are a few notes on the local and more important 
species and varieties : — 

Papilio podalirius var. feisthamelii. — Two only, taken on the 
right bank of the Guadalaviar. 

Argynnis adippe var. chlorodippe. — There was no difficulty in 
getting specimens of this variety, as it was abundant at some 
parts in the Guadalaviar district, and particularly so at the out- 
skirts of the woods at El Puerto, and mostly in good condition. 

A. pandora. — Very common on the flowery banks, and in the 
grassy hollows along the road beside the Guadalaviar. The large 
females especially were very fresh, and easily secured. 

Melanargia lachesis. — Was still good, and very abundant 
everywhere. The shading at the base of the wings, often very 
slight in French specimens, is in these more distinct, often well 
marked. 

M. iapygia var. cleanthe. — Not uncommon at El Puerto, but a 
little difficult to pick out from M. lachesis. Of iapygia, the first 
seen were worn males, but later on fairly fresh females were 
frequent. These vary somewhat, some having very little or none 
of the shaded band characteristic of the variety around the eyes, 
hind wing ; and one has the usual dark markings of upper side 
very pale brownish grey. 

Erebia zapateri. — In and near the woods at El Puerto. The 
first seen August 6th, two or three only, on 7th more frequent, 
and on 8th very common ; but only two females were obtained. 
On the wing it reminded me of E. cethiops when it is just making 
its appearance, the wings having such a dark, rich, velvety 
bloom, which is so readily tarnished ; but the wings are rounder, 
and the patch looks nearly orange instead of mahogany, and it is 
larger and more cuniform. There is sometimes a third spot 
besides the two apical, as in cethiops (two males and the females). 
The species is generally described as having upper side hind 
wings "uniform brown without spots or markings," or "hind 



b THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

wings without eyes " ; but this is hardly the case, because of 
thirty males only one is without markings ; the others have a 
rusty patch. In five this patch contains a black spot, and in 
eight cases a black spot with a white pupil. In one instance 
two pupilled eyes are present, and in two cases three. These 
were just the first thirty I came across. The females taken are 
similar to the last, havhig two or three on hind wing, and one 
additional towards anal angle of fore wing. 

Satyrus prieuri. — Only a short series obtained, mostly near 
Losilla, and rarely in the Guadalaviar district, where they were 
practically over. I was disappointed with the var. iihayonis, 
only getting one or two, and these were poor specimens. 

S. actcea. — Two males at El Puerto, and one other seen. They 
seem to have just emerged, and appear very small when one is 
accustomed to S. cordula. 

Lyccena hylas var. nivescens. — At Losilla, fluttered along the 
middle of the path, a few inches from the ground. Some very 
good — indeed, quite fresh — but not common. The spots forming 
the P on under side fore wings are much enlarged compared with 
Swiss and French hijlas. I saw no females, nor did 1 meet with 
any males of the type. 

L. corydon var. liispana. — ^hi^ pale variety was very abundant, 
large, and fresh. It is considerably larger than the type, and is 
a very striking form. There is a tendency in the male to the 
formation of a linear discoidal spot or streak on upper side fore 
wing. In the females the under side is paler than the type, and 
the black spots on fore wing are generally very large. In these 
features the female differs from the type. 

Var. albicans. — One specimen which has the marginal peacock 
eyes both on i)rimaries and secondaries clearly mapped out in 
brownish, and is of a decidedly whiter colour than hispana, is in 
this instance probably an aberration of hispana, although I 
suppose it occurs as a local race further south in Andalusia. It 
was taken in a hollow beside the road at Losilla, which was a 
favourite resort of many butterflies. 

Var. corydonius. — Stray specimens of this fine blue variety 
were taken at Losilla, and seen in the Guadalaviar valley. The 
difference between this and the pale var. Idspana is remarkable, 
occurring so near together. 

L. admetiis. — Three or four specimens and two or three of 
var. ripartii from both localities. The L. damon occurring along 
with these do not compare favourably with specimens from Aigle. 

Lampides boeticus. — Was not uncommon at Losilla, and occa- 
sionally newly emerged. One male measures over 40 mm. 

L. telicaiius. — Several were taken near and some in the 
woods at Losilla. 

Hesperia pt'uto. — A few were netted, amongst which several 
were very perfect. 



LEPIDOPTERA FROM ADEN AND THE TRANSVAAL. 7 

One of the "blues" which occurred rather frequently at 
Losiila, and which I took for L. baton at first, from the large 
black spots on under side, turned out on examination to be 
L. argils {agon). As they were very worn I only brought away 
one male and one female. In these the spots underneath, par- 
ticularly of fore wing, are unusually enlarged (noted also in var. 
nivescens and var. hispana) and black, and the specimens are 
pretty big, the female measuring 33 mm. 

In addition to the foregoing, Gonepteryx clcopatra was seen, 
occasionally at first, but, like many other species, became scarce 
towards the end of the period. Satyrus briseis and alci/une were 
very common on the way up to Puerto de la Losiila, especially 
the former, on the heath just before reaching the farmhouse ; 
and statilinus,Jidi(i, and circe in the Guadalaviar valley. 

Epinephele lycaon, ida, pasiphae, and Coenonympha dorus were 
all observed, as well as numerous other more generally dis- 
tributed species. 

28, Pitt Street, Edinburgh. 



NOTES ON A COLLECTION OF LEPIDOPTERA FROM 
ADEN AND FROM THE TRANSVAAL. 

By Major A. S. Buckle, R.F.A. 

I HAVE been asked to remodel, for publication in this journal, 
a list — made out three years ago — of Lepidoptera taken in 1899 
at Aden, and in 1900-2 in the Transvaal. 

In the course of my wanderings on military duty, nothing 
has been of greater interest to me, as an amateur in the study 
of entomology, than the distribution of the same species in 
localities separated by vast distances and differing widely in 
climate. It is thought, therefore, that the following preliminary 
list of those insects found both in Aden and in the Transvaal 
will be of interest also to others. 

Danaxs chrysippus, P. cardui, Junonia cebrene, H. misippiis, 
P. boeticiis, Belenois mesentina. and Utetheisa pulchella are old 
friends one meets with everywhere in or near the Tropics, at an}' 
rate east or south of Suez. Parnara mathias 1 took at Aden, 
and also at Pretoria. The beautiful " eyed " Noctua, Cyligramma 
latona, is abundant at Aden, and I believe I took it in the Trans- 
vaal, but the record is uncertain ; I certainly saw it at Mosam- 
bique and at Durban. 

All the above ubiquitous insects are common or abundant 
both in Aden and in the Transvaal. 

List A includes those taken at Aden. 

Nearly all the butterflies mentioned were taken among the 



8 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



scanty herbage growing-- somehow — in the sand and stones of 
"Goldmohur Valley," which is the widest of several dry, stony 
torrent-beds leading down from the crags of Jabal Shamsham, 
the great crater-wall, to the sea. No more unpromising spot for 
Lepidoptera could be imagined tban the barren Peninsula of 
Aden. Practically no herbage exists save in these valleys ; 
there, however, butterflies swarmed. A few were taken in the 
cultivated ground across the harbour ; but inland, even in the 
fertile district of Lahej, there were very few butterflies to be 
seen. I only remember seeing Delias eucharis, but did not 
take it. 

The few species of moths noted in List A swarmed in to light 
in the bungalows at " Steamer Point," about May and June. 

List B, those taken in the Transvaal. 

In those troublous years 1900-2, there was not, as a rule, 
much opportunity of collecting insects in the Transvaal ! At 
Pretoria, however, in the hot weather 1900-1, opportunities did 
occur. Through the kindness of Dr. Gunning and Mr. Zwierstra, 
of the Pretoria Zoological Gardens, I found myself armed with 
a net and a killing-bottle ; and numereus short forays in the 
gardens, fields, and thickets of Fountains Grove, one and a half 
miles to the south, on the stony kopjes surrounding the town, 
and in the flower-gardens of the officer's quarters at the " Staats 
Artillerie " Barracks, yielded a fair return. 

I again found chances of collecting while stationed at the 
Dynamite Factory at Modderfontein, twelve miles north of 
Johannesburg. This locality is 1000 ft. higher than Pretoria, 
being about 5800 ft. above sea-level, and is in the midst of the 
" High Veld." Here butterflies were not so numerous; such as 
were obtained were usually taken at the flowers of the eucalyptus 
trees, or amongst the tall grass. 

Nearly all my Transvaal moths, however, were taken at 
Modderfontein ; they swarmed in nightly to the electric lights 
in the factory dwellings. 

The only other locality in the Transvaal where I found it 
possible to make any attempt at collecting was Pietpotgietersrust, 
in the "Bush Veld," more than one hundred miles north of 
Pretoria,- and much lower and hotter than that place. Keturn- 
ing from a mission to General Plumer's force, which had just 
(April, 1901) opened up the Pretoria-Pietersburg Railway, and 
"moved on" the migratory Boer Government from its temporary 
seat in the Zoutpansberg, my train had to " cross," at Pietpot- 
gietersrust, no less than seven trains hurrying up with troops 
and supplies. In the two hours of delay thus enforced, I worked 
the gardens close to the station. Besides several species already 
met with at Pretoria and swarming here, in those two hours I 
took V. antalus, Teracolus omphale, ramaguehana, psendetrida, and 
ivvperator; none met with elsewhere. Mylothris agathina, too, 



LEPIDOPTERA FROM ADEN AND THE TRANSVAAL. V 

I took there first ; one specimen subsequently at Modderfontein. 
It may be imagined with what rehictance I left this happy 
hunting-ground at the end of my two hours ! The semi-tropical 
"Bush Veld" would well repay the collector who had time to 
explore it ; but it was not my good fortune to hunt there again. 

Besides those mentioned in List B, I had the good luck to 
take several undescribed moths (at Modderfontein). 

N.B. — In the following lists (a) = abundant, (c) = common, 
and (r) = rare. 

List A. — Aden. 

Danaid^. — Danais chrysippus (a), alcippoides, kliigii {c),dorippus. 

Satyrid^ and Acr^id.e. — Nil. 

Nymphalid^. — Pyravieis carclui (c), Junonia cehrene (a), Hypo- 
limnas misippus (c). 

LYC^NiDiE. — Polyonimatus boeticus. 

PiERiD^. — Terias hoisduvaliana, SyncJdoe glauconome (a), Bele- 
nois mesentina (a), Teracolus Calais (a), phisadia, halimede, pleione. 

Papilionid^. — Nil. 

Hesperid^. — Parnara mathias, Hesperia adenensis (a). 

Sphingid^, Saturniad^, Syntomid^. — Nil. 

Arctiad^. — Utetheisa piUcheUa (c). 

Agaristid^. — Nil. 

Noctuid^. — Cyligramma latona (a), Agadesa matcrna (a), Manas 
fuUonica. 

(No other families represented.) 

List B. — Pretoria, Modderfontein, and Pietpotgietersrust. 

Danaid^. — Danais chrysippus (a). 

Satyrid^. — Pseudonympha vigilans, narycia. 

AcR^iD^. — Acraa horta (c), neobule, natalica (r), acontias (r), 
rahira. 

Nymphalid^. — Atella columbina (c), Pyrameis cardui (c), Junonia 
boopis (c), cebrene (a). Precis calescens, sesamus (c), archesia, ceryne, 
Catacroptera cloantha (c), Hypolimnas misippus (c), Byhlia ilithyia, 
Hamanumida dcedalus (c). 

Lyc^nid^.^ — Lachnocema bibulus, Uranothauma nubifer, Cacyreus 
marshalli, Tarucus sybaris (c), Polyommatus bceticus, HypolyccBna 
philippus, Virachola antahis, Myrina ficedtda, Zizera knysna (c), 
lucida, AlcBtdes orthrus (c). 

Pierid^. — Terias brigitta (a), Mylothris agathina (r), Synchloe 
hellica (c), Belenois severina, mesentina (a), Golias hyale, form 
electra (a), Teracolus omphale, omphaloides, eione, ramaguebana, 
pseudetrida, halimede, pleione, imperator, Catopsilia florella (c). 

Papilionid^. — Papilio demodocus (a). 

Hesperid^. — Phapalocampa pisistratus, Parnara mathias, Paros' 
modes morantii, Platylesches ruba, Kedestes mohozutzo, Hesperia mafa, 
Eretis djelcelce. 

Sphingid^. — Macroglossa trochiloides (c), Mllopos hirundo, Basio- 
thea idricus (c), Cephonodes hylas (c), Chcerocampa celerio (c), schenki, 



10 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Deilepliila oplieltes (c), livornica (c), Theretra capensis (c), Nephelc 
funehris (a), Aclierontia atro2)os, Dajjhnis nerii. 

SATURNIAD.E. — NudauvcUa hjrrliea (.a). 

Syntomid^. — Thyretes caffa, Metarctia rufescens (c), buna, 
lateritia (c). 

Arctiad.e. — DionycJiopus amasis (c), Estigviera linea (c), Mcenas 
arhorifera (c), Diacrisia httescens, flava, Teragotona suhnacula, Car- 
cinopodia argentata, Utetheisa pulcliella (c). 

Agarihtidm. — Xantliospilopteryx superba (c), Pais decora (a), 
JEgocera fervida (c). 

NocTUiDiE. — Cyligramvia latona (a), Sphingomorplia monteironis, 
Achcea catella, Pandesvia guenavadi, Metachrotis hypotcenia (c), 
accincta, varia, Euclidia diibitans (c), Cosmophila erosa{c), Megalodes 
picnrari, Cerocala contraria, Matopo typica, Tarache dispar (c), hyper- 
iophia, tropica, margaritata, liturifera, natalis, Nioranga aclmota, 
Chloridea sciUidigera, obsoleta, Euxoa segetuvi, spinifera, epipyria, 
Migragrotis p)uncticostata, strigibasis, interstriata, Leptodenista xan- 
tJwloplia, Spodoptera exevipta, Perigea capensis, Chirippa leucosoma, 
Tathorhynchns vinetalis, Agrotis annularis, cauta, BagJmra mnlti- 
radiata, Leucaniapromineus, aiiieus, lacuna, Baniana arboruvi, Acontia 
malvcB, Plusia eriosoma, Dugaria glaucinaus, Argysotis pallidistria, 
Polydesma collutrix, Timora lanceolata (c), disticta. 

CossiD^. — Azygophleps asylas (c). 

NoTODONTiD^i. — Bigenia aurifodinai, AntJiena simplex, Zana 
spurcata. 

Hepialid^. — Gorgopis Uhanea (c), caffa, bacoti. 

Lasiocampid^. — Odontockeilopteryx ? sobria. 

LiM^ODiD^. — Tceda detitis. 

Lymantriad^. — Euproctis quadripunctata (c), nobilis (c), Aroa 
pierculta. 

EuPTEROTiD^E. — Pliiala xanthosoma (c). 

Zyg^nid^. — Crameria dochneri. 

Geometrid^. — Psilaleis crassa (c), Conchia nitidula, Tcphrina 
deenaria, Peridela johnstoni, Osteodes turbulentata, Nemoria ? at- 
tenuata, Ortliolitha mofiosticta, piulicata (c), Sterranthia sacraria, 
Idcea remotata, spoliata, Epirrlioc undulosata. 

Pyralid^. — Glyphodes indica, Leucinodes vagans, orbonalis (c), 
Pagyda sp. (c), Lygropia ? nigricorius, PhlychcBnodes fulvalis, vemis- 
talis, Zinckania fascialis (a), Sceliodes laisalis. 

GRAUBiDM.—Ancylolomia sp., prepiella, locupletella. 



ON THE IDENTITY OF TWO SOUTH AMEEICAN 

LYC^NIDS. 

By W. J. Kayb, F.E.S. 

In the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1907 ' Mr. 
H. H. Druce has described on pp. 625, 626, and figured on 
plate xxxvi. figs. 22, 23, a new species of Thecla, viz., Thecla 
politus. This is typical bean, as figured by Cramer, Pap. Ex. iv. 



THE IDENTITY OF TWO SOUTH AMERICAN LYC.i^NIDS. 11 

pl. 319, figs. B, c. The pale blue colour of the hind wings, the 
blue streak on inner margin of fore wing, and the conspicuous 
red spot at the anal angle above all show most conclusively that 
this is the insect as figured by Cramer. Whether Cramer's 
insect is a constant or variable one is difiicult to decide, but that 
Thecla -politiis = Papilio beon, Cram., in its figured form there 
can be no doubt. The synonyms given under Thecla beon in 
Mr. Druce's paper, p. 609, may or may not be synonyms of 
Papilio beon, Cram. ; it would depend on whether beon was a 
constant species or not. Mr. Druce evidently considered his 
Thecla politus (= Papilio beon) was constant, and my own opinion 
coincides with his. 

The Tmolus isobeon, Butl. & Druce, therefore would become 
another species, and the synonymy of the two insects would 
read : — 

1. Papilio beon, Cram., Pap. Ex. iv. pl. 319, figs, b, c. 

Thecla politus, Druce, P. Z. S., 1907, pp. 625, 626, pl. xxxvi. 
figs. 22, 23. 

2. Tmolus isobeon, Butl. & Druce, Cist. Ent. i. p. 108. 
Thecla bactra. Hew., 111. Diur. Lep. p. 194, pl. 77, figs. 619, 

620. 

Thecla caulonia. Hew., ibid. p. 188, pl. 75, figs. 587, 588. 

Thecla vibulena, Hew., ibid. p. 190, pl. 76, figs. 599, 600, 601, 
602, 603. 

Thecla bellera, Hew., ibid. p. 194, pl. 77, fig. 618. 

In the same paper, on pp. 626, 627, the identification of 
Papilio echion, Linn., is discussed. Mr. Druce says that Dr. 
Butler has identified Tmolus banalides, Hlibn., as T. echion, 
Linn., and, in litt., he says : " As regards echion, Linn., I accept 
the identification again of Hewitson and G. & S-, and treat crolus. 
Cram., as a synonym (of echion, Linn.). Dr. Butler's echion, 
Linn., I consider basalidfs, Hiibn." This is unfortunate. If 
Mr. Druce had gone to the root of the matter he would have 
agreed with Dr. Butler, and found that crolus. Cram., does not 
equal echion, Linn., but that basalides, Hiibn., does equal 
echion, Linn. 

Linne's description of echion in Syst. Nat. 12th ed., p. 788, 
reads: — " Alis bicaudatis supra fuscis ; subtus pallescentibus ; 
fascia rufa ocelloque rubro. Koes. add. t. 7, figs. 3, 4. Alas 
posticse ad basin caudarum macula ocellari rubra." 

Even by Linne's description it is obvious that crolus, Cram., 
cannot be the same as echion, Linn., as crolus has no sign on the 
upper side of the hind wing of " macula ocellari rubra." But as 
Linn6 refers to the figure in Roesel's addendum, there is not the 
least doubt left that what Dr. Butler identified as echion, Linn., 
is correct, and that Tmolus basalides, Hiibn., is a synonym thereof, 
as also is Thecla ziba, Hew. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

In Eoesel's figure the orange transverse band on the under 
side of the fore wing is shown most distinctly curved, while in 
crolus, Cram., it is straight. The figure shows the band too 
near the middle of the wing, but even for crolus, Cram., it is not 
correctly placed. The figure does not show the orange spot at 
the anal angle of hind wing above, but this is not always present 
in a long series of specimens. 

The synonymy thus stands : — 

Papilio echion, Linn., Syst. Nat. 12th ed., i. p. 788, n. 224. 

TmoliLs hasalides, Hiibn., Zut. Ex. Sch. figs. 977, 978 (1837). 

Thecia hasalides, Hew., 111. Diur. Lep. Lye. p. 156, pi. 61. 
figs. 412-415. 

Thecia hasalides, G. & S., B. C.-A. Lep. Rhop. vol. ii. p. 93 
(1887). 

Thecia z'lha. Hew., loc. clt., p. 153, pi. 61, figs. 404, 405. 

The Papilio crolus of Cramer remains, therefore, a distinct 
species. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL AND NOMENCLATORIAL NOTES 
ON THE HEMIPTERA.— No. 7.* 

By G. W. Kirkaldy. / ^ o ^k 

I. 

Although vol. x. of the * Encyclopedie Methodique ' is dated 
1825, Sherborn has shown that pp. 345-832 were not published 
till 1828. My entry (Entom. xxxiii. 265, 1900) must therefore 
be amended by the first citation in 1825 reading p. 1-344, and 
by removing thither " (a.) Globiceps t. capito." The rest of the 
entries in the second division of Lepelletier & Serville's entry 
should be pp. 345-832 and dated 1828. 

II. 
A Forgotten Note on Irish Heteroptera. 

In the 'Entomologist,' xi. pp. 2-8 (Jan., 1878), J. A. Power 
furnished "A Contribution to the Entomology of Ireland" with 
lists of Coleoptera and Hemiptera [Heteroptera] . As the latter, 
comprising sixty-two species, have been overlooked by Saunders 
in the " Hemiptera Heteroptera of the British Islands," they are 
called attention to here. 

III. 

Hagen (Bibl. Ent. i. 457), in citing Leach's article, "Ento- 
mology," in Brewster's 'Edinburgh Encyclopaedia' (1815), records 

- No. 1. Entom. xxxiii. 238-43 (1900) ; 2. Entom. xxxvii. 254-8 (1904) ; 
8. Entom. xxxvii. 279-83 (1904); 4. Entom. xxxviii. 76-9 (1905); 5. Entom. 
xxxviii. 304-8 (1905) ; 6. Entom. xxxix. 247-9 (1906). 



BIBLIOGEAPHICAL AND NOMENCLATORIAL NOTES ON HEMIPTERA. 13 

reimpression in 1830, of which there is a copy at the British 
Museum. It does not, I think, differ from the first edition, that 
is, as regards the Hemiptera. 

I have recently acquired an American edition in eighteen 
vohimes, pubhshed at Philadelphia, which is said to be *' cor- 
rected and improved by the addition of numerous articles 
relative to the institutions of the American Continent," but I 
cannot see that the part dealing with "Hemiptera" is altered. 
As I have not seen it previously referred to, and as it is not 
apparently in the Library of the United States Department of 
Agriculture,* it is as well to refer to it now. "Entomology" is 
discussed in vol. viii. pp. 646-758, and the Hemiptera on pp. 709- 
715. 1832 is the date of the entire publication. 

■ IV. 

In the ' Entomologist ' for 1905, p. 307, I published what 
information I had then in my possession regarding the dates of 
publication of Burmeister's 'Genera Insectorum." I now find 
further information in the ' Zeitschrift fiir die Entomologie,' i. 
298-9 (1839). 

Of the parts of the dates of which I was ignorant, it is stateci 
thnt^Byt]ioscopus;/Eury}nela,'jAcocep]ialns, a,nd"Lystr (sic!) were 
published in 1838, fascs. 1 and 2 ; so that the correct dates are 
as follows, for Hemiptera : — -^ ^ 

Hefts ^1 and 2 (1838): Bj/thoscopus (no. 10) ; Euryinela 
(no. 11) ;^Acocephalus (no. ll^Lystra (no. 20) [Ed. 2, 1840-6] ; 
probably completing heft 1 \^ Selenocephalus (no. 12) ; Coelidia 
(no. 15) i^EupelixCno. 6) -pJassu j^no. 14). ' i rv^ 

Hef^ {18d8)^'Ulopa (no. ^Yy7)orydium (no. 6Y\ Cephalelus 
(no. 4:)yLedra (no. 9). / 

Heft 4 (1838) : Gypona (no. 16) ; Xerophlcea (no. 8). o 

Heft 5 [ISm^'Pamna (no. 7). 

Heft 6 or 7 (1841) -Pryphlocyha (no. 13). V^ 

Heft 8 (184:5) iWulg or a (no. 18) [with subgenus Pyrops, 
no. 19 in Index] . 

V. 
Fam. CiCADiD^, 

(a) Distant (1906, Cat. Hom. i. 180) cites Tettigonia tibialis, 
Panzer, as a species (unseen by him) of Pauropsalta. This may 
be (I have not Panzer's work complete), but Tettigetta tibialis, 
Kolenati, given as a synonym, is certainly not, as the figure 
clearly shows six apical cells in the wing. 

(b) Distant (p. 167) has omitted Cicadetta prasina var. cau- 

* See " Catalogue of Publications relating to Entomology in the Library 
of the United States Department of Agriculture," Bull. U.S. Dep. Agr, Libr. 
55,tpp. 1-562 (1906). 



a 



14 THE ENTOMOLOGIST, 

casica (Kolen. oj). cit. pi. 6, f. 10), also (p. S8)'it!icada plebeja \SiY. 
armeviaca (Kolen. pi. 5, f. 1). 

(cX On p 124. for "Cicada stevenn (sic !), Kryn. Mus. Berol," 
iBFid^^ Cicada steveniL Krynicki, 1837, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou, 
V. 86, pi. vi. f. 1 =P Cicada {Tihicina) steveiiii, Kolen., 1857, 
op. cit. XXX. 416, pi. vi, f. 7." 1 

{d) On p. IQTCicadetta subapicalis (Walk.) =\\adusta, Hagen. 

(e) Chremistica, Stal, 1870, 0. V. A. F,^ xxvii. 714, type 
viridis (Fabr.), Stkl =4>imacidata (Oliv.) = Dicer oprocta, Stal, 
I.e., type alacris (Stul) Stkl =^ransversa (Walkei-) =^Iliha7i a, 
Distant, 1904, A. M. N. H. (7), xiv. 425, type ochracea (Walker), 
Dist. 

Distant (Cat, Horn. pp. 32 and 38) lias split the [sub-]genera 
Chrennstica a.nd^ Die eroprocta, placing i)art of each irt Cicada and 
Rihana. The type of ^iceroprocta, however, is (sec Distant) a 
'Rihana, as also the type oiJJhremistica.* " Rihana is therefore 
unnecessary. 

(/) Platylomia, Stal. Distant (p. 58) says that this was not 
described by Stal, and was only a name in 1870 ! On the con- 
trary, it was described by Stiil (in the place cited by Distant), 
who doubtingly ascribed- i^an'rfa,. Guerin, as the tvpe. As the 
"\fiavida of Guerin is a platylomia, and there is no reason to 
suppose Stal was not correct in his determinaiion, I cannot see 
howjiavida can be set aside as type, to admit spinosa (which is 
invalid in any case, as Stal places it at the head of his subgenus 
Cosmopsaltria.) 

Fam. CocciD^. 

I have received Sanders' Catalogue of recently described 
Coccidfe,t which will undoubtedly be of great use. I must, 
however, take exception to two statements. Eegarding p. 2, 
footnote, I did not (in my Catalogue of the Aphidse) consider 
Polyocellaria to be an Aphid on my own responsibility ; I noted 
that it was described as probably allied to Orihezia, on the 
authority of the ' Bericht der Entomologie,' but marked the 
genus with a f, signifying that I had not seen the descrijition. 
I placed it among the Aphidse on the authority of the ' Zoological 
Eecord,' usually a safe guide. 

My Eidecanium curtisii is noted as not valid, but I cannot 
concur. Coccus aceris, Curtis, was stillborn, and cannot be 
resuscitated. 

Fam. C1MICID.S;. 

{a) LampropJiara hifasciata := Calliphara (Scutellera ?) hi/as- 
data, A. White, 1889, Mag. Nat. Hist., n. s., iii. 541. 

'■'■• Three species are mentioned in Chremistica, the two last being com- 
pared to the first, which should therefore be considered the type. 
t Bull. U.S. Ent. Techn. Ser., 12, pp. 1-18. 



ON SOME RECENT BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 15 

{b) Coleoticlms, A. "White, I. c. (misquoted by Lethierry & 
Severin, and in Schouteden's Monographs). 

Fam. CoRixiD^. 
Corixa contortuplicata, n. n. for C. irrorata, Fieber, 1851 (or 
1852), not H.-S. 1850. 



ON SOME RECENT BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

By W. L. Distant. I ^ O J .'._ 

In the last issue of the ' Entomologist ' (p. 291), Mr. Cockerell 
writes that the species which I call Herrera 7narginella (Cat. 
Cicadidse, p. 121) is based on Cicada marginella, Walk, but is not 
the Cicada marginella, Fabr., Syst. Rhyng. p. 96, and proposes 
that the species should be known by the name of its synonym, 
Herrera ancilla, Stal. It is not often that Mr. Cockerell makes'' 
a slip. ^ 

1. The species described by Fabricius (Syst. Rhyng. p. 96) is- 
^ Cercopis marginella {costalis) , not Cicada marginella. This is a. 

well-known member of the TettigoniellidsG (Jassidre). 

2. Walker neither supposed nor intended his species to repre- 
sent that of Fabricius, which he rightly recorded in its proper 
place (List Hom. Suppl. p. 224(1858)). 

5. Fabricius did describe i^"^ Cicada marginella (Mant. Ins. ii. 
p. 271), but not where Mr. Cockerell quotes. This is also a well- 
known species of Tettigoniellidae, and recognized and recorded as 
such (1854) before Walker described his species (1858). The 
synonymy therefore now stands : — 

Herrera marginella. 
^ Cicada marginella, Walk., List Hom. Suppl. p. 21 (1858). 
^ Carineta ancilla, Stul, Stett. Ent. Zeit. xxv. p. 57 (1864). 
oCarineta marginella, Dist., Biol. Centr.-Amer. Rhynch. Hom. 
i. p. 21, t. ii. f. i6, a,h (1883). 

^^Herrera marginella, Dist., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), xv. p. 486 
(1905). 
^Herrera ancilla, Cockerell, Entom. 1907, p. 291. 

It seems a pity that Mr. Kirkaldy does not make himself 
familiar with his subject before writing as a critic thereon. In 
his note on the food-plants of some species of Oriental Rhynchota 
(1907, p. 282) he again breaks forth in strictural comment. He 
writes Leptocoris augur (= Serinetha, Dist.). Now, if Mr. Kirk- 
aldy likes to use Leptocoris for Serinetha, no one objects ; he has 
a right to write as he prefers, and no one is compelled to follow 
him. But it is inexact to write ^'Serinetha,'" Dist. ; he gives m 




16 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

too much credit. That name, as I employ it, has been previously 
used in the same sense by Dallas, Stal, Lethierry and Severin, 
and Bergroth— the last-named a purist in these matters. But 
if a name is changed, surely adhesion to the change should be 
maintained by its advocate. Mr. Kirkaldy recently pomted out, 
and correctly so, for it was on the authority of Stal, thar Za??i?7a, 
Walk. (1862), must be accepted as a synonym 6i Pyrilhx, Stal 
(1859). He now, and in this note, uses the name Zamila 
himself! Some of his other animadversions have been made 
before and replied to by myself (Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. li. p. 221), 
to which he does not refer. I therefore decline to notice them 
further, and consider such cavilling as outside serious ento- 
mology. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Early Stages op American Butterflies Wanted. — I should 
be greatly obliged if any reader of the ' Entomologist ' would give me 
information which would enable me to obtain the ova or pupae of 
i. North American Ijutterfiies, the food-plants of which are common in 
this country. — E. E. Bentall ; ■ The Towers, Heybridge, Essex, 
December I'Oth, 1907. 

Foe of Dragonfly-nymphs. — Mr. A. O. Rowden, writing from 
Exeter, on December 16th, 1907, says that the water-boatman {Noto- 
necta glmica) attacks the nymphs of dragonflies. — W. J. Lucas; 
Kingston-on-Thames. 

Prevention of Mould in Insects. — Mr. Plum's suggestion 
(Entom. xl. 290) as to the prevention of mould in relaxing-boxes 
may possibly prove useful in some cases ; but nothing could well be 
better than the plan proposed some years ago by my friend Mr. 
Woodforde, of Market Drayton, viz. a few drops of dilute carbolic 
acid mixed with the water used to damp the cork (or sand, if used). 
I have a box at the present time containing several specimens of 
M. tristata, which I took in Argyllshire early in July. The box has 
been frequently used since, and the cork repeatedly damped, but not 
a vestige of mould is perceptible on the specimens of tristata, and if 
they were worth it, I daresay I could set them to-morrow. — (Rev.) 
Chas. E. Thornewill. 

Food of the Larva of Acidalia ochrata. — With reference to 
Mr. Conquest's remarks as to the food of A. ochrata (Entom. xl. 296), 
I had some young larvae years ago, which fed freely on the flowers of 
a hawkweed, and I think that they might possibly be reared on dan- 
delion. My experience with A. strigilata corresponds very closely 
with Mr. Conquest's. — (Rev.) Chas. F. Thornewill ; Calverhall 
Vicarage, Whitchurch, Salop, December 6th, 1907. 

Ichneumon Fly opening Cocoon of Bryophila muralis. — Idling 
away a sunny morning, July 22nd, 1907, at Winscombe, in Somerset, 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 17 

I happened to be standing near an old wall inhabited by numbers of 
the Hymenoptei'a, Osmia rufa and 0. coBrulescens, and by the Lepido- 
ptera, Bryophila vmiralis and B. perla, when I noticed an ichneumon 
fly alight on the wall and begin examining it. In a minute or two 
another of the species also settled, and the first flew away. The 
second one, after running about with antennae held down and vibrat- 
ing, stopped near a cocoon of B. muralis. It bent its antennae on to 
the cocoon, appearing to press them down with some force, and at 
the same time vibrating them much more violently than before. 
After doing this for a short time it walked away, but quickly returned 
and repeated the performance from the other side. Next, it opened 
a small hole in the cocoon with its jaws, and pushed its head in. 
Apparently finding nothing, it withdrew and flew to another part of 
the w^all. I then opened the cocoon, and found that it was of the 
usual double type, namely, a thin layer of particles of earth fastened 
together with silk, making a crack between two stones flush with the 
rest of the wall, and about an eighth of an inch deeper and quite 
separate, the true cocoon similarly constructed, which in this case 
contained a living pupa of B. muralis. The ichneumon soon found 
another cocoon of muralis, and did exactly as before, except that it 
pushed its head and thorax completely inside. This cocoon was an 
empty one. It then flew off, and fearing to lose it, I captured it. 
Mr. Claude Morley has identified it as a female of Ccelichneumon con- 
sirnilis (Wesm.), and in his ' Ichneumonologia Britannica,' vol. i., 
p. 31, states that Mr. Stanley Kemp has bred several of both sexes 
together from chrysalids of Bryophila muralis (Forst.) [= glandifera, 
Hb.] at Hythe, in Kent, during September, 1901. He tells me it 
had not been bred before, and has only been recorded in Britain from 
Kent, Norfolk, Herts, and Devon, and says he has never heard of the 
parasite tearing open a lepidopterous cocoon, and that such a thing 
is unrecorded in ichneumonological annals. — E. A. Cockayne ; 16, 
Cambridge Square, W. 

The Barrett Collection. — The extensive collection of "Micro- 
Lepidoptera " amassed by the late Mr. C. G. Barrett was broken up 
at Stevens's Auction Eooms on December 3rd last. From a rough 
casting of the figures, we find that the Tortricina (nearly 10,000 
specimens) realized about £30, and the Tineina (over 14,000 speci- 
mens) something like £37. The collection was offered in 121 lots, 
and in all but 10 of these there were over 100 examples. 47 of the lots 
contained from 200 to 300 specimens ; and in 11 others there were 
over 300, the number in one lot reaching 431. The total realized 
gives an average of somewhere about 5/6 per 100. In some few cases 
the bidding per lot fell under 2/- per 100, but in others it ranged 
from 8/- up to 15/- per 100. Space will not permit of much detail, 
but it maybe mentioned that 10 specimens of BrachytcEnia woodiana, 
offered in sets of 5, realized 59/-. A lot of Sciaphila, comprising 
all the British species, and numbering 352 specimens, made 32/6. 
Lot 52, comprising 226 specimens of Eupacilia, including curvi- 
strigana (14) and vianniana (5), sold for 37/6. Sixteen Argyrolepia 
schreibersiana and twelve Lozopera hcatricella, with 133 other things, 
brought in 28/-. For a lot comprising Banhesia conspiurcatella (two 

ENTOM. — JANUARY, 1908. B 



18 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

males, two females, and two cases), Solenohia licheneUa (nine females 
and cases), S. inconsinc^iella (nine males, five females), <S'. wockii (three), 
Teichobia verhuellella (thirty-four), and Diplodoma margineimnctella 
(eleven, and two cases), 35/- were obtained. 

The W. J. Cross Collection. — This was also sold on Decem- 
ber 3rd. Among the more important item's were an aberration of 
Argynnis selene, with pale yellow gromid colour, 115/-, a cream- 
coloured example of Coeiwnyvqjha iximjiMhis , 22/-. Three lots of 
Nyssia lapj^onaria, each containing one male and three females, sold 
for 12/-, 8/-, and 8/- ; one male and two females of the same species 
made 7/-. Two examples of Lygris reticulata brought in 15/-. 
Sixty-five specimens of Eiq^ithecia, including four examples of 
stevensata, made 10/-. Nine specimens of Polyploca ridens, one a 
fine banded form, and other things, went for 45/-. Two lots of 
Xylomyges conspicillaris (type 1, var. melaleuca 2) sold for 22/- and 
23/- ; two other lots of the same species (type 2, var. 1) fetched the 
same prices per lot. One specimen of Hydrilla palustris (Wicken, 
1906), with 18 Phothedes captiuncula and other species, sold for 21/-. 
Six specimens of Xylina conformis (Evan John) made rather over 
10/- each, and two examples of CucuUia gnaphaUi (Sheldon, bred 
1901) brought in a guinea. Of Tortricina there were 2572 specimens, 
put up in 16 lots ; these sold for 56/-, or about 2/- per 100. 

Eaynor Collection. — In our report of this sale (November 5th) 
we omitted to mention var. varleyata, a specimen of which sold for 
£4 10s. This should have been included among the highest prices given 
\ for varieties of Abraxas grossnlariata, instead of var. chalcozona. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Leucania vitellina in West Cornwall. — In the 'Entomologist,' 
vol. xxxix. p. 290, I recorded the capture in 1906 of a fine specimen 
of this species in West Cornwall, asking if it was not a record for the 
county. Mr. W. Daws replied in vol. xl. p. 40, that it was the first 
recorded capture, but that he had taken one in 1899, and had others 
in his possession taken west of Penzance, although no dates were 
given. I have to record having captured two other specimens this 
season. — W. A. Rollason ; Lamorna, Truro, December 2nd, 1907. 

Caeadeina ambigua in West Cornwall.— I have this year taken 
wild about half-a-dozen beautiful specimens of this species, and from 
one of the same obtained ova which duly hatched, and are now 
slowly feeding through the winter. This is, I believe, the first 
recorded capture for the county, and seeing that the species is now 
regularly taken, though not commonly, in Devonshire, I think we 
may assume that it can no longer be considered "perhaps an 
occasional immigrant only," as suggested by Meyrick, but a per- 
manent resident. — W. A. Rollason. 

Olboea glabraria in West Cornwall. — In the 'Entomologist,' 



SOCIETIES. 19 

vol. xxxviii. p. 94, I recorded what Mr. South believed to be the 
first capture of this species for the county. I have to record the 
capture of a second specimen this season, and from another locality. — ■ 
w. a. eollason. 

Lepidoptera Captured in the Kingston District, Surrey, 
1907. — On August 3rd last I took one example of Hydrelia uncula by 
the side of the Penn Ponds, Eichmond Park. Of Phihalapteryx 
fluviata I obtained a male specimen in June, and a specimen of 
Harpipteryx scabrellav^ns found on a garden fence on September 1st. 
A fine example of Calligenia miniata was boxed in a tramcar at 
Kingston Hill. — Percy Eichards ; Wellesley, Queen's Eoad, King- 
ston Hill. 

Captures at Electric Light.— In conjunction with men em- 
ployed by the Chester Corporation Electric Lighting Company I am 
.able to record the following captures during October and November 
of this year (1907) : — Brachionycha sphinx, male (2) ; Dasypolia 
templi, male and female (2) ; Hyhernia defoliaria, male (3) ; Galo- 
campa exoleta (2) ; dark form of Ennomos tiliaria, male (1) ; Lithosia 
complana (1) ; also a considerable number of other commoner species. 
My object in recording the above is to suggest to others interested 
the adoption of a similar method, and I am confident, if the pre- 
vailing weather is suitable, that the labour involved will not be in 
vain. I may say, in addition, that all the specimens above-named 
are in good condition. — Alfred Newstead (Curator), Grosvenor 
Museum, Chester, December 5th, 1907. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — Noveuiher 20th, 1907. — 
Mr. G. H. Verrall, Vice-President, in the chair. — Mr. Leonard 
Woods Newman, of Bexley, Kent, and Dr. Ivar Trarardh, of Upsala 
University, Sweden, were elected Fellows of the Society. — Mr. H. 
St. J. Donisthorpe showed, for Mr. West, examples of Tropideres 
sepicola, F., New Forest, July, 1904; Oxylamus variolosus, Dufs., 
Darenth Wood, March 1903 ; and Apion annulipes, Wenck, Darenth 
Wood, 1905. — Mr. H. J. Turner exhibited cases to illustrate the life- 
history of Cohophora onosmella and of C. bicolovella, with photo- 
micrographs by Mr. F. N. Clark, admirably showing the surface of 
the ova and the structure of the micropylar area. — Dr. F. A. Dixey 
exhibited several species of five African genera of Pierine butterflies 
for the purpose of showing the strong mimetic parallelism that existed 
between them. — Mr. Willoughby Gardner exhibited a remarkably 
small specimen of Meloc proscarahaus, with an example of the normal 
size. — Mr. W. G. Sheldon showed a case containing many examples 
of Araschnia levana var. prorsa and intermediates, bred from larvae 
found in the Department of Aisne, France, in June last. Out of 
176 individuals that emerged from the pupa, 109 were var. prorm ; 



20 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

four approached nearly to ab. j^orima ; the rest were intermediate 
between lyrorsa and 2^orinia. — - Dr. T. A. Chapman also exhibited 
specimens of Araschnia levana, type, bred 1907, to give a fuller view 
of this form in assistance to Mr. Sheldon's report.- — Mr. G. J. Arrow 
exhibited a specimen of a handsome exotic cockroach {Dorylcea rhom- 
hifolia) found alive in the Natural History Museum, an apterous 
species inhabiting China, India, Madagascar, South Africa, &c., and 
recorded from Tropical America. — Dr. G. B. Longstaff exhibited a case 
containing thirty-five Ithomiine butterflies of eleven species, belong- 
ing to six genera, taken on March 20th, 1907, near Caracas, Venezu- 
ela, some 3600 ft. above sea-level. They afforded a striking excep- 
tion to Darwin's principle that closely allied forms are not usually 
found together. — Lieut. -Colonel N. Manders exhibited a collection of 
some two hundred specimens of tropical butterflies belonging to the 
genera Melanitis, Mycalesis, Attella, Pcqnlio, and Catopsilia, which 
had been subjected to abnormal degrees of temperature mostly in_ 
the pupal stage. The object of the experiments was to ascertain the 
effect of climate on the colours of tropical butterflies. — Mr. W. J. 
Kaye exhibited a convergent group of Heliconine butterflies, from the 
Potaro Eiver, British Guiana ; he said that hitherto there had not been 
detected any species of Danaine or Ithomiine butterfly that might 
serve as a model or mimic of these species, and if at any time the 
large Melimcea mneme, or Heliconius numata group, exerted any influ- 
ence on these red and yellow and black species, it was unlikely that it 
did so now, because they had not the same flower-frequenting 
habit, and were not found in company with them. In illustration of 
his paper, " Mimicry in North- American Butterflies of the genus 
Limenitis {Basilarchia),'" Professor E. B. Poulton, F.E.S., showed 
specimens of Adelpha {Heterochroa) hredoioi, ranging from Guatemala 
to Arizona, and its northern form, named californica by A. G. Butler, 
from California and Oregon. The mutual resemblances appeared to 
offer a notable example of Dr. F. A. Dixey's principle of reciprocal 
mimicry. — Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpe read a paper " On the Life- 
history of Lomecosus strumosa, F." 

December Uh. — Mr. C. O. Waterhouse, President, in the chair. — Mr, 
Walter Feather, of 10, Station Grove, Cross Hills, Keighley, Yorkshire, 
and the British Somaliland Fibre and Development Company, Berbera, 
Somahland, British East Africa ; and Mr. Rupert Wellstood Jack, Assist- 
ant Entomologist in the Department of Agriculture of the Cape of Good 
Hope, Cape Town, South Africa, were elected Fellows of the Society. 
— Dr. G. C. Hodgson, introduced by Dr. T. A. Chapman, exhibited a 
number of examples of Anthrocera trifolii, collected on the same 
ground in Sussex, and showing a wide range of variation, including 
three fine melanic forms, and several showing six spots on the upper 
wings. — Mr. W. J. Kaye showed a specimen of Papilio thoas thoas, with 
the central portions of both tails removed apparently by a narrow- 
billed bird. The injury appeared so symmetrical that it was thought 
likely that the specimen was an abnormality. But a careful micro- 
scopical examination showed this not to be the case. With it were 
several species of butterflies from British Guiana, with injuries to 
the wings in the region of the abdomen, such injuries to Danaine 



SOCIETIES. 21 

butterflies being quite rare. — The President showed two photographs 
of an African locust, which had apparently caught a mouse and was 
preying upon it. The specimen was found in the Congo State. — Mr. 
E. S. Bagnall exhibited and read notes on many rare species of Coleo- 
ptera, Thysanoptera, and Aptera, from Northumberland, Durham, and 
Scotland, of which ten were new to Britain. — Mr. W. L. Newman ex- 
hibited a long and varied series of Ennomos autumnaria [alniaria) ; a 
series of Polia xanthomista (nigrocincta) bred from ova and fed on 
carrot, the specimens unusually large (North Cornwall) ; three pairs 
of hybrid Notodonta ziczac male x dromedarius female = newmani 
Tutt ; three fine Xylina conformis bred by Evan John, South Wales ; 
three cocoons, in situ, of Dicranura bicuspis collected wild in Tilgate 
Forest ; and a fine melanic male Oporabia dilutata from Bexley 
Woods — the first melanic specimen of the species reported from 
Kent. — Dr. F. A. Dixey exhibited male and female specimens of a 
new Belenois allied to B. zochaUa, Boisd., but quite distinct from 
the zochaUa group. These were captured by Mr. Wiggins in the 
Tiriki Hills, north-east of the Victoria Nyanza. — Professor E. B. 
Poulton, F.E.S., made a communication on the natural enemies of 
Bombijx riibi in Scotland, and read a note in further illustration of 
his remarks at the last meeting on the convergence of Limenitis 
(Basilarchia) in America. — Mr. J. C. Moulton read a note on " The 
Eest Attitude of Hyria auroraria." — Mr. A. H. Swinton communi- 
cated a paper on " The Family Tree of Moths and Butterflies, traced 
in their Organs of Sense."— Mr. E. Meyrick, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 
communicated a paper on " Notes and Descriptions of PterophoridcB 
and Orneodidar—Ux. E. Shelford, M.A., C.M.Z.S., F.L.S., read a 
paper entitled " Studies on the Blattidce." — The Eev. K. St. A. Eogers, 
introduced by Professor E. B. Poulton, F.E.S., read a paper entitled 
" Notes on the Bionomics of British East African Butterflies," and 
exhibited many examples collected by him and from the Hope 
Museum, Oxford, to illustrate his remarks. — H. Eowland-Brown, 
M.A., Hon. Secretary. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society. — November lith, 1907. — Mr. E. Adkin, President, in the 
chair. — -Mr. Hugh Main exhibited imagines of Charaxes jasius bred 
from ova sent him fi-om the Continent. — Mr. Newman, series of (1) 
Plusia bractea captured in Aberdeenshire ; (2) P. chryson (orichalcea) 
bred from Cambridgeshire larvae. — Dr. Hodgson, a series of varied 
Spilodes palealis from Dover ; specimens of Plebeius argus (cegon) 
destitute of orange markings on the upper sides ; several aberrations 
of Agriades corydon, including ab. semisyngraplia and instances with 
no orange markings; A. bellargus forms without orange on the hind 
wings ; and a series of Urbicola comma from Clandon, including pale 
and dark forms and a beautiful cream-coloured aberration. — Mr. H. 
Moore, a specimen of Xylocopa violacea, captured alive in the London 
Docks. — Mr. E. Adkin, for Mr. C. E. Young, a Si7'ex juvencus found 
at Eotherham. — Dr. Chapman, specimens of Oreopsyche pyrenceella 
bred from cases collected at Gavarnie, July, 1907. — Mr. E. Adkin read 
a paper, " Notes on Porthesia chrysorrhcea," and exhibited a selection 
of those bred by him from Eastbourne. 



22 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

November 28th. — The President in tlie chair. — The Annual Exhibi- 
tion of Varieties. — Mr. Austin, of Highbury, was elected a member. 
— Mr. E. C. Goulton exhibited a very varied bred series of Hypsijjetes 
sordidata from Surrey localities, and two male Cosviotrichc ■potutoria 
of the pale female colour, captured at Wicken. — Messrs. Harrison and 
Main, (1) series of Odontopera hidentata bred from black Yorkshire 
parents, from dark Yorkshire parents, and from a very light Wisley 
female, with numerous collected specimens from many localities, 
and compared the variations shown ; (2) four broods of Pieris 
napi bred from females from the Klein Scheidegg Pass, Switzerland, 
and remarked on the var. hryonice. forms obtained. — Mr. Tonge, (1) a 
bred series of Grapta c-nlbum, from ova laid l)y a female taken by Mr. 
Barraud in the Wye Valley, and gave notes on the variation produced, 
including var. hutchinsoni ; (2) a series of Dipterygia scabriuscula, 
taken in his garden at Eeigate ; and (3) a series of very good stereo- 
graphs of entomological subjects by himself. — Dr. Hodgson, a series 
of Anthrocera trifolii from Sussex (one locality), including var. 
hippocrepidis and ab. obscura '?, typical of the results of four days' 
collecting by Mr. Grosvenor and himself, and gave notes on the 
selective processes used and the results of their observations. — Mr. 
Scollick, varieties of Abraxas sylvata, including a broad dark-banded 
form, a smoky form almost devoid of markings, forms approaching var. 
pantaria, and one with an entire absence of ochreous — all from 
Bucks. — Mr. Newman, (1) a fine melanic Oporabia dUiUata from 
Kent ; (2) long series of Melitcea artemis from various English and 
Irish localities ; (3) very varied series of Notodonta chaonia from 
Irish and Scotch localities ; (4) hand-paintings of sundry forms bred 
by him during the season ; and (5) three wild cocoons of Ceriira bicuspis 
from Tilgate Forest. — Mr. Grosvenor, picked series of Polyoiiimatus 
icarus from various localities, chiefly North Downs, and gave notes 
on the aberrations. — Mr. W. J. Lucas showed the following varieties 
of dragonflies from the New Forest : Pyrhosovia nymplmla var. ceneattim 
female, P. tenellmii var. ceneatumieva'aXe, and P. tenellum vay. riiber- 
atiim. — Mr. Turner, the life-histories of Coleophora onosmella and G. 
bicolorella from Surrey and Kent localities. — Mr. Pratt, a short series 
of MelUnia occllaris captured in Surrey on sugared leaves of black 
poplar. — Mr. Edelsten, specimens of ^^geria, andreniforviis, bred 
from collected pupae, with the ichneumon Meniscus bilineatus. — 
Messrs. F. and H. Campion, (1) the rare grasshopper, GlieUdoptera 
roeselii, from Heme Bay ; and (2) the dragonflies Sympetriim san- 
guineum from Epping Forest, September 15th, S. scoticum from 
Esher, September 3rd and 20th, the last small, and the female of 
CorduUa cenea from Epping Forest. — Mr. J. Alderson, (1) short series 
of Melitcea aurinia, bred from Cumberland, much undersized and 
darker than usual ; and (2) Melampias epiphron, three second-brood 
specimens bred from ova laid by a Honister female ; the remainder of 
the brood hybernated. — Mr. Garrett, Argynnis adippe from Arundel, 
and Anticlea sinuata from the same place. — Mr. Andrews, varieties of 
Diptera, (1) Gyrtoneura stabulans with an extra cell in each wing ; 
and (2) specimens of Syrphus and Platychirus lacking the usual 
yellow abdominal markings. — Mr. South, for Mr. Pope of Exeter, (1) 



RECENT LITERATURE. 23 

male Epinephele ianira measuring only 38 mm. : (2) a pale ochreous 
brown female of the same species ; (3) a male with a symmetrical pale 
ochreous blotch on each wing and with white fringes ; and (4) a 
Euholia 'plumharia with dark purplish slate-coloured fore wings with 
ochreous edged transverse lines ; and, for Mr. Haynes, an aberrant 
example of E. tithonus with the usual fulvous markings, but with the 
marginal areas whitish instead of dark brown. The last was from 
Salisbury, the first four from Devonshire. — Mr. Edwards, Urania 
leilus, with a coloured plate, showing the life-history of this gorgeous 
Jamaican moth. — Mr. F. Noad Clark, with the microscope, ova of 
several species of Goleopliora and preparations of the ova to show 
the structure of the micropylar area. — Dr. Chapman, Lepidoptera 
collected in the Pyrenees, including Lyccena orhitulus var. oberthuri, 
Erehia lappona var. sthennyo, E. lefebvrei, E. gorge, E. stygne, 
E. ame, E. cecilia, E. tyndarus var. dromus, Oreopsyche pyrenceella, 
and Marasviarcha tuttodactyla. — Mr. E. Adkin, (1) specimens of 
Tortrix pronubana, bred from spring larvae ; (2) Melanippe fluctuata, 
with the transverse band reduced to a mere speck ; (3) Agriades 
corydon, females from Eastbourne, with more or less well-defined 
blue scaling ; (4) a dark-suffused Boarmia roboraria ; and (5) forms 
of Abraxas grossulariata with yellow-shaded ground. — Mr. Schoon, 
Aporia cratcegi, Tapiinostola bondil, Bryopihila glandifera, and Sesia 
chrysidiformis, from East Kent. — Mr. Willsdon, numerous species of 
Lepidoptera, including gynandromorphous Crocallis elinguaria from 
Manor Park, Heliothis peltigera, dark and light Catocala sponsa, and 
C. promissa, &c. — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Report. Sec. 

City of London Entomological Society. — November 5th. — 
Dr. T. A. Chapman exhibited a living male Gleogene pieletieraria bred 
from ova laid in August, a species occurring only in the Pyrenees and 
the Cantabrian Mountains. Dr. Chapman pointed out that the un- 
expected throwing of a second brood by a single-brooded Alpine 
species had been paralleled in Erebia cassiope. — Mr. J. A. Clark, 
Peronea cristana vars. ruficostana and albicostana. — ^Mr. H. M. Edel- 
sten. Abraxas grossulariata ex Raynor collection, with fasciated hind 
wings. — Mr. W. Bloomfield, various Lepidoptera taken at Finchley 
during 1907, including Bombycia ocularis. — S. J. Bell, Hon. Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



The Moths of the British Isles. By R. South, F.E.S., Ac. (Series I.— 
Wayside and Woodland Series.) Pp. 343, pi. 159 (96 coloured, 
with 671 figures). London and New York : F. Warne & Co. 
1907. 7s. 6d. net. 
This book is uniform with 'The Butterflies,' noticed in 'Ento- 
mologist,' 1906, p. 166, and is even more marvellous in so far that 
for an increase of one quarter in cost it gives half as many more 
coloured plates, and more than a corresponding increase in text. It 



24 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

includes the Sphingidae, Arctiadae, LymantriadaB, Nolidae, Chloe- 
phoridae, Notodontidte, Lasiocampidae, Cymatophoridae, Saturnidae, 
Endromidae, Drepanulidae, and a large part of the Noctuidae. 

The coloured figures are by three-colour process, the majority from 
the insects themselves ; with some inequalities these are all of a very 
satisfactory character, so that the tyro ouglit to have no difficulty in 
naming his captures. They are certainly more true to nature than 
most of the plates in " Barrett," costing about ten times the pi'ice, 
and though the specimens are not so perfect or so well set as Mr. 
Horace Knight shows them in the fifteen plates from his drawings, 
nor so pleasing to an artist, they are equally good as illustrations 
of the species ; everyone knows the excellence of Mr. Knight's 
drawings. 

The " Butterflies " gave us an outline of the earlier stages in 
nearly every instance ; this is carried out here only with the earlier 
families, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, &c., only a few species being 
selected for illustration in the Noctuffi, &c. On the whole, these 
black-and-white illustrations are good, but some eggs (as Arctiads, 
with too flat a base) are open to criticism, and the larva of A. caja 
(which even Buckler refrained from attempting) is no better than 
some other figures of it we have seen. Where nearly all are excel- 
lent, it is perhaps merely personal taste that suggests pi. 33 (with 
cucullina and carmelita) or pi. 86 [batis, ocularis, &c.) as especially 
pleasing and good. 

The book cannot but be useful to any lepidopterist, but is especi- 
ally addressed to nature lovers in general ; for either, we think, it 
would have been better to have given the Latin names on the plates, 
and to have added the reference to the page where it is described, 
this being often at some distance from the plate, introducing a diffi- 
culty that did not arise in the " Butterflies," where only sixty-eiglit 
species were ti'eated of, whilst here are three hundred and thirty-five. 
As to the Latin names, it is extremely desirable these should come 
first, since their scientific character has a quality that must appeal to 
the most British neophyte, viz. it affords a key to immense stores of 
recorded facts, any one of which he may wish to ascertain. We 
much doubt the general prevalence of a preference for English over 
Latin names, and whether there exists one individual who knows the 
English names in this volume for fifty who know the Latin ones. 
Unfortunately the book is so excellent and so cheap that this state 
of affairs may be altered, and unquestionably to the discomfort of 
those who continue the study and find they have to learn the Latin 
names also. On p. 158 Mr. South tells us that D. russula has now 
to be called sanio, a fact he regrets. Though we are sure it is un- 
founded, a suspicion arises that, in exhibiting an occasional weakness 
of the Latin names, he desires to recommend the name under which 
he describes the species, " the Clouded Buff." 

We can find no other than very trivial points that are open to 
criticism, unless we may include some dissatisfaction that, for our 
individual benefit, so trustworthy and, within its limits, so complete 
a work, with such excellent figures and so small a price, did not 
appear some forty years ago. 




I'hdto hij ('ai-son ,(■ Ci, 



MAETIN JACOBY, F.E.S. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XLL] FEBKUAEY, 1908. [No. 537 



MAETIN JACOBY, F.E.S. 

With the greatest regret we have to record the death of our 
valued colleague Martin Jacoby, who passed away on December 
24th, 1907. When the late Mr. John Henry Leech acquired the 
* Entomologist' in 1889, Mr. Jacoby was one of the six specialists 
who promised their support and consented to act on the Eeference 
Committee of this Journal. Since that time papers on new species 
of Phytophaga described by him from many parts of the globe 
have appeared in almost every volume of the publication. Among 
quite his latest work on this group of the Coleoptera are the 
descriptions of novelties in the present number, the proof of 
which he had read and marked for press a few days only before 
he died. 

Mr. Jacoby was born on April 12th, 1842, in Altona, near 
Hamburg. His boyhood was spent amid poor surroundings in the 
vicinity of the port of Hamburg. Later on he entered the office 
of a leather merchant, but the occupation and associations were 
not in the least adapted to his temperament. In those early 
days, even as they continued to the end, a love of music and a 
yearning for the study of Natural History were dominant notes 
in his life. Advantage was taken of every opportunity that 
occurred of setting out on a collecting foray, or of attending 
wherever military or other bands might be heard. Having 
studied the violin for a number of years he, when about twenty 
years of age, relinquished the leather business and came to 
England, when he became a member of Sir Charles Halle's 
orchestra then in Manchester. Subsequently he came to London, 
and joined the orchestra of the Eoyal Italian Opera. Whilst 
holding this position he formed a connection as a teacher of his 
favourite instrument, the violin, and he decided to make London 
his home. 

Before leaving Germany he had commenced to form a collec- 
tion of birds and insects, but on the advice of the late Edward 
Hargitt, an authority on woodpeckers, to confine his attention to 

ENTOM. FEBRUAKY, 1908. C 



26 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

some particular group or family of insects, he decided that he 
would study only the phytophagous beetles. Thus it was that 
he formed an extensive collection of, and became the acknow- 
ledged authority on, this group of the Coleoptera. It would be 
difficult to estimate, even ajDproximately, the large number of 
species, procured from all parts of the world, that he has made 
known to science. 

Besides numerous papers published in the * Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society,' ' Transactions of the Entomological 
Society of London,' and in the organs of various learned societies 
abroad, he was the author of two volumes on Phytophaga in 
' Biologia Centrali Americana,' and had just completed a volume 
on the same group of insects for the * Fauna of India.' The 
latter work he had seen through the press, but unhappily was 
fated not to see it published. 

Ever willing and eager to assist in the identification of those 
insects he understood so well, and of which he had such expert 
knowledge, he had determined, and where needful described, the 
phytophagous material in the principal museums and private 
collections of the world. 

Mr. Jacoby was elected a Fellow of the Entomological Society 
of London in 1886, and he was also a member of several Zoological 
and Entomological Societies on the Continent. For many years 
past he was a welcome guest of the Entomological Club, at the 
annual supper given by Mr. Verrall, and on these occasions he 
contributed greatly to the pleasure of the evening by his beauti- 
ful violin solos. His many amiable qualities endeared him to 
those with whom he came in contact, in the scientific as well as 
in musical spheres, and his departure will be deeply regretted 
by many who have lost a good friend. He leaves a widow, two 
daughters, and a son. 



DESCRIPTIONS of TWO NEW GENERA and SPECIES 
OF AUSTRALIAN EUMOLPINI (COLEOPTERA PHY- 
TOPHAGA). 

By Martin Jacoby, F.E.S. 

Agetinella, gen. nov. (Eumolpini). 
Shape oblong ; head perpendicular, forming a plain surface with- 
out depressions, clypeus not separated from the face, eyes oblong, 
entire ; antennae short, the basal two joints thickened, the second 
one-half shorter than the first, third to sixth joint thinner, equal, the 
others thicker and more elongate. Thorax transverse, short, sides 
feebly rounded, posterior margin concave at the sides, median lobe 
rather pointed, the angles obtuse. Scutellum broader than long, 
small. Elytra narrowly oblong, lateral lobes absent, surface punctate- 



DESCRIPTIONS OF AUSTRALIAN EUMOLPINI. 27 

striate. Legs rather short and stout, femora unarmed, tibige widened 
posteriorly, entire, first joint of posterior tarsi about as long as the 
following two together ; claws feebly appendiculate. First abdo- 
minal segment as long, or nearly so, as the other segments together. 
Prosternum very narrowly elongate, mesosternum oblong, slightly 
broader. Anterior margin of thoracic episternum concave. 

This genus, proposed for another very minute Eumolpid, 
presents another of those transitionary forms so frequently found 
in the Australian Continent, and almost impossible to place satis- 
factorily in or near any other group. The structure of the head 
and the long abdominal first segment are almost unique amongst 
the Eumolpini, where the species is, moreover, one of the 
smallest of this subfamily. 

Agetinella minuta, sp. nov. 

Fuscous, with pale elytral apex, or elytra entirely pale. Head 
and thorax nearly black, antennae and legs fulvous. 

Head minutely granulate and impunctate ; antennae scarcely 
extending to base of thorax, fulvous. Thorax nearly three times 
broader than long, sculptured like the head, opaque, with some 
extremely minute punctures at sides and base. Elytra not wider at 
base than the thorax, finely and closely punctate-striate, the inter- 
stices narrowly longitudinally costate and shining. Body beneath 
nearly black ; legs fulvous, as well as apex of last abdominal segment. 
Length, Ih mm. 

Hab. Swan River (Lea). 

Of the two specimens kindly sent by Mr. Lea, one has 
the elytra testaceous, the other dark fuscous, with the apex 
gradually getting paler. 

Platycolaspis, gen. nov. (Eumolpini). 

Body elongate, glabrous ; eyes entire ; antennae short, first and 
second joints thickened, the following three joints thinner and longer, 
the rest subtriangularly thickened, very short. Thorax nearly twice 
as broad as long, with narrow flattened lateral margins, these sub- 
angulately produced at the middle, the surface with a transverse 
median sulcus ; scutellum narrowly oblong. Elytra not wider at the 
base than the thorax, the sides very strongly deflexed, surface irregu- 
larly punctured. Legs slender and elongate, femora unarmed, tibise 
not emarginate at apex, tarsi short, nearly equal, subtriangular ; 
claws appendiculate. Prosternum and mesosternum very narrow and 
elongate ; the anterior margin of the thoracic episternum slightly 
concave. 

This genus is proposed for the reception of a very small 
species, which would enter the Eumolpid group of Colaspini of 
Chapuis' s arrangement ; from any of the genera placed in that 
group the Australian genus is at once distinguished by the 
short, submoniliform antennae, and the extremely narrow pro- 
sternum and mesosternum. 

c 2 



28 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Platycolaspis australis, sp. n. 

Pale testaceous ; head obscure fulvous ; the apical joints of the 
antennae and the tarsi more or less fuscous ; thorax opaque, finely 
granulose-punctate ; elytra strongly and very closely punctured, 
interstices finely, transversely wrinkled, the sides with a narrow 
longitudinal ridge. Length, 2 mm. 

Head very finely rugose, dark fulvous, opaque, sometimes with a 
central dark spot or stripe ; maxillary palpi slender, apical joint 
pointed ; antennjB extending beyond the base of the elytra in the 
male, shorter in the female, lower five or six joints pale, rest fuscous. 
Thorax short and transverse, the surface finely granulate or rugose, 
opaque, distinctly sulcate at the sides, interior of the sulcus often 
darkened. Elytra more shining than the thorax, very closely and 
strongly punctured, the punctures more I'egularly arranged in rows 
from the middle downwards, the interstices anteriorly transversely 
wrinkled ; a more or less distinct narrow ridge runs downwards from 
the shoulders to near the apex. Legs rather darker ; metasternum 
often stained with piceous, shining and impunctate. 

Hah. Hobavt, Tasmania (Lea). 



AN ENTOMOLOGICAL VISIT TO NOETH QUEENS- 
LAND AND TO NATAL. 

By Hubert W. Simmonds, F.E.S. 

I LEFT Wellington on Christmas Day, 1906, by the turbine 
steamer ' Maheno ' for Sydney, where I caught the Howard 
Smith boat (steamship ' Bombala ') for Townsville. Brisbane 
was reached on the 30th, where we had a couple of days. I 
spent some time in the Botanical Gardens, where I found the 
beautiful larvae of Euploea corinna. This larva is very con- 
spicuous, having three pairs of long black protuberances on the 
first three segments, and also another pair on the next to the 
last segment. The pupa of this insect is one of the most lovely 
objects I have ever seen ; the first day it is all pale green, but it 
quickly changes into a delicate mother-of-pearl, striped with 
three rows of burnished gold on each side, and also having five 
small brown dots on either side. Other butterflies noticed here 
were Papilio sarpedon, Charaxes sempronius, Hypolimnas holina, 
AcrcBa andromache, Danis taygetus, and a species of Delias 
which I did not get close to ; also Neptis shepherdi and worn 
Papilio cegeus. 

From Brisbane we had a pleasant run north to Townsville, 
passing several schools of porpoises, and threading our way 
through the beautiful green islands which line the coast inside 
the great Barrier Reef. Townsville was reached on January 4th, 
1907. Here it was very hot and dry, and my results during the 



ENTOMOLOGICAL VISIT TO NORTH QUEENSLAND AND NATAL. 29 

few hours I was there were very disappointing. Several species 
of Catopsilia were very abundant, but most difficult to catch. 
Eurijcus cressida was fairly numerous, as also was Hypolimnas 
missippus, the males far exceeding the females. The females 
seemed much slower in their flight, and had a habit of settling 
in the long grass, which made them easier to catch when found, 
but more difficult to discover unless trodden up. Acraa andro- 
macha and Danais petilia were fairly common, whilst I noticed 
single examples of Hypolimnas holina and Junonia alhicincta. 

At Townsville I transhipped into the little coastal steamer 
* Lass o' Gowie ' for Cairns. She was very small and slow, and 
had very little shelter from the sun and rain, whilst she carried 
far more passengers than she had cabin accommodation for. As 
a result most of us had to sleep on deck. It was a night I shall 
not easily forget — men, women and children, Chinamen and 
whites, all huddled up together, whilst forward were crowds of 
cane-cutters, black, white, and yellow ; and when towards mid- 
night a tropical deluge descended our misery was complete. 
Cairns was reached on Sunday the 6th, and in the afternoon I 
went out after insects. The heat was intense, it being just 
before the rains ; but everything was new. On a dead tree on 
the sea-front I found many pretty little red and white striped 
Brenthids. At a spot where a marsh ran through the^ bush 
butterflies were fairly numerous. Here I took many specimens 
of that lovely Lycsenid, Arhopala amytis. 

The next four days were spent in the dense scrub lying be- 
tween Cairns and the Barron Kiver. Mosquitoes were very trouble- 
some wherever there was any stagnant water, but at Freshwater, 
where there is a pretty little running stream, they gave no 
trouble. Here the magnificent Papilio idysses was quite com- 
mon, and on one day I took fourteen perfect examples. It is a 
grand sight to see this insect, a mass of black as it descends to 
the decoy from the tops of the highest trees, then suddenly 
turning and flashing all its dazzling blue in the sun, and after 
hovering for a moment returning whence it came. That grand 
butterfly Ornithoptera cassandra was to be seen constantly, lazily 
flopping in and out of the shady scrub. This butterfly has a 
habit of flying in the rain, and is generally to be seen at dusk, 
looking almost like a bird, and long after all other butterflies 
have retired for the night. Another beautiful insect in these 
low-lying scrubs was Cethosia cydippe, which is one of the most 
conspicuous butterflies I know, but this was far less common 
than the former insects. Doleschallia australis was very com- 
mon, but difficult to get in good condition. The resemblance of 
the under side of this insect to a dead leaf is almost equal to the 
well-known Kallima inachis. D. australis has a habit of fre- 
quently settling amongst the dead leaves and twigs which cover 
the ground, but it also very often settles on leaves high up on the 



30 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

lower trees. Papilio sarpedon was frequently taken at mud- 
holes, as P. ulysses was also once or twice. P. lycaon was noticed 
and stopped once as it flew swiftly overhead, following the course 
of a swamp. Cynthia ada was quite common, the males far 
outnumbering the females. Here also I obtained Neptis shep- 
herdi, Precis zelima, Neptis consimilis, Cupha prosope, and Tel- 
lervo zoilus. 

Amongst the beetles, Cicendela semicincta was very common 
on the paths, whilst there were two or three arboreal species on 
the tree-trunks, but of these I only managed to capture a few of 
one species (D.Jiavipes). They have a liabit of moving round 
the tree as one approaches, and are most difficult to take. I was 
late for Buprestidse, and only took one or two species. There are 
still a few black fellows about in this district — poor little under- 
sized specimens of humanity. One day I met one armed with a 
spear and boomerang, and on another occasion one had a 
boomerang and a throwing-stick of some kind. Their huts are 
the roughest shelters I ever saw, and far too low for one to stand 
upright in. They simply consist of three long wands bent over 
in half circles, and crossing at a point at the top, and then loose 
thatch is roughly thrown over them. 

At the end of the week I went up to Kuranda, above the 
Barron Falls, which lies nearly two thousand feet above sea- 
level. Here the bush takes a very different character, the dense 
undergrowth giving way, and one also misses the graceful 
Australian palm {Livistona austraUs) ; still the lawyer palm 
{Calamus austraUs), a climbing species armed with long tentacles 
studded with hooks, is as numerous and troublesome as ever. 
Ornithoptera cassandra was common here in all stages as below, 
but at this season Papilio tdysses seemed less numerous. I also 
took P. agamemnon, and one afternoon a large number of P. 
macleayanus. Tellervo zoilus was also very common, and, like 
Ornithoytera cassandra, does not seem to mind the rain. It is 
mimicked by the very rare little Neptis standing freana and one 
afternoon I was fortunate enough to capture three examples. 

The rain was now descending daily, rendering collecting very 
difficult. A fresh source of annoyance appeared in the shape of 
small pencil leeches, which are very common in some parts of 
the bush. They fix themselves on to the clothing of passers-by, 
and one is not aware of their presence till one notices the blood- 
soaked garments. It is curious here to hear the chorus of frogs, 
which commences of an evening or just before rain sets in. 
Wasps are numerous up here, making their nests underneath 
the stairs (which are outside) and under the roofs of the balconies. 
They do not seem to cause any annoyance to the inmates. In 
the garden I met our old friend Deiopeia pulchella. 

Other butterflies captured included Hypolimnas alimena, 
Junonia vellida, Mynes geoffroyi, Danais hamata, D. chrysippus. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL VISIT TO NORTH QUEENSLAND AND NATAL. 31 

Deudorix diovis, Bindahassa sugriva, Megisha nigra, whilst Danis 
serapis was very abundant. Many other Lycaenidse and also 
Hesperidse were taken, but I have not yet identified them. Small 
ants were very troublesome here, attacking larvae, pupae, and 
perfect insects at every opportunity. Beetles did not seem so 
much in evidence as I had expected, but I took a beautiful pair 
of the magnificent Phalacrogtiathus muelleri. Eound a large tree 
with a lilac-coloured flower were many green Lomaptera duhou- 
layi, and I also obtained a few Longicorns. Whilst at Kuranda, 
Mr. Dodd kindly showed me some of the magnificent insects 
which he collects in this district. 

On my return southwards I again called at Townsville, where 
I found things very different. Heavy rains were falling, and on 
the paths were swarms of Cicendela semicincta (both forms), 
where previously not one was to be seen. Birds, too, seemed 
more numerous, and I was particularly interested in some 
bee-eaters which were numerous along a watercourse which I 
followed. 

I arrived at Sydney on February 1st, and paid a visit to the 
National Park. Although the wild flowers are extremely varied 
and beautiful here, there were very few butterflies and practically 
no beetles at this season to be found. The only butterflies noticed 
were species of Xenica and Heteronympha {H. mei'ope), and one 
or two dull Lycaenidae. From February 4th to 9th I was in 
Melbourne, but only two species of Xenica were taken, although 
I visited one of the best localities in South Victoria. Perhaps I 
should have done better here but for the rain, which interfered 
with outdoor work very considerably. During my whole stay in 
Australia constant rain handicapped me severely in outdoor 
work, whilst it rendered it very difficult to dry specimens and to 
prevent mould. 

I left Melbourne (February 9th) by the steamship ' Salamis ' 
for Durban, where we arrived on March 5th after a rough and 
dreary passage. Here I was particularly anxious to obtain 
some of the beautiful instances of mimicry which occur in this 
locality, and on the whole was very successful. On the first 
afternoon I went up the Berea, and into the Stella Bush, where 
I found insect-life apparently far more abundant than in any 
part of Australia, although one missed the gorgeous beauty of 
Papilio idysses or Ornithoptera cassandra. Flowers are also far 
more conspicuous than in the Queensland scrubs, but the country 
seemed dustier, and lacked the fresh green of the palms, lawyers, 
&c., so familiar in the tropical jungles of Northern Australia. 
One of the commonest butterflies here was Pieris thysa, but, 
strange to say, its model, Mylothris agathina, was quite scarce 
here, although I subsequently found it abundant enough up 
country. Another interesting butterfly which was unusually 
common was Pseudacrcea tarquinia. This was to be taken daily 



32 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

both here and later at Eshowe (Zululand). I obtained a beautiful 
example of P. imitator at Eshowe, where I also found Eronia 
argia not uncommon. Pajnlio cenea was very abundant, and I 
obtained all three forms of its female at Durban. Another fine 
mimic of which I obtained a few examjoles was Euralia tcaldhergi, 
but I was evidently late for this insect, as most of my specimens 
were worn. 

At Pietermaritzburg I found Hypolimnas missippus fairly com- 
mon, and also took a very fine female at Amanzinitoti. In the 
South African bush are many grassy clearings, where the beauti- 
ful purple- or orange-tipped butterflies of the genus Teracolus 
swarm amongst the flowers, whilst such lovely Lycsenids as lolus 
Silas, I. sidas, and Deudorix diodes are to be found amongst the 
stunted bushes which edge such clearings. The curious flat- 
topped acacias which so largely constitute the larger vegetation 
of South Africa were the haunt of many fine Charaxes, attracted 
by the gummy sap so frequently exuded from wounds on the 
branches. In such places I captured Charaxes zoolina, C. 
neauthes, C. varaiies, C. hrutus, C. cthation; whilst at Eshowe 
I also obtained C. candiope and C, xipares. Other butterflies 
which swarmed in such localities were Crenis hoisduvali and 
C. natalensis, and I also found amongst them a few Coleoptera, 
with which was Endicella sinithi. A feature of the South African 
bush is the numerous paths going in all directions, and here 
were to be obtained the two Gicendelidse, C. dathrata and C. 
disjuncta, the latter haunting the more shady spots. 

In the darker portions of the bush Melanitis ledaw&s common, 
whilst once or twice M. diversa was also taken. Towards the 
end of March Salamis anacardii became quite common, and I 
also obtained two S. nehidosa — the one at Durban (March 15th), 
and the other at Eshowe (April Ist). Quite a feature of the 
bush here were the beautiful fruits — scarlet, yellow, or purple, 
some smooth and others covered with spines — which grew on the 
creepers which trailed over every bush ; whilst a newcomer 
could not help but be attracted by the monkeys, families of which 
were to be met with daily, anywhere where there are any trees 
left. Amongst the many butterflies haunting the native paths 
in the Stella Bush I noticed Neptis agatha, N. goodii, N. mar- 
pessa, Eurytela hiarbus, E. dryope, Hypolyccena phillipus, Pentila 
tropicalis, and many species of Acrcea ; whilst on the lantana 
bushes which grow round the edge of the bush were swarms of 
Papilio demoleus, P. lyceiis, P. hrasidas, and Junonia delia. Up 
country J. cehreiie was very common, and I took one specimen 
of J. hoopis at Aooca. At this latter place I found Teracolus 
auxo extremely common along the roadside, together with a few 
Eronia leda* 

■•'• In one garden on the Berea I took a nice series of Myrina demaptera 
which were quite abundant in one tree, frequently settling on the under sides 
of the leaves. 



A NEW SPECIES OF TREMEX FROM BORNEO. 33 

On March 24th I went up to Eshowe, in Zululand. The 
country here lies high, and is well-watered. One particular 
stream was very beautiful, flowing in a series of falls and rapids, 
the falls sometimes being sixty feet to eighty feet high. Here I 
saw several times but failed to capture Papilio ophidicephalus. 
On one occasion I actually broke the tails off one, and then it 
escaped. Up here, and also on the South Coast, Harma aid- 
meda was abundant, and amongst them I took several male 
H. coranus. Another nice insect, which I only took here, was 
Hypolyccena huxtoni, of which I took several examples along the 
paths. Probably the commonest butterfly here was Lethe indosa, 
which haunted the more shady portions of the bush. In the 
open, on the grass veldt, were many examples of the genus 
Precis. 

I then returned to Durban, where I found things getting 
much scarcer. On the sand just above high-watermark I took a 
nice series of a Cicendela, which absolutely matched the colour 
of the sand on which it was in the habit of running. A big 
electric light in the Musgrave Eoad yielded many moths and a 
few beetles, amongst which I obtained a new Longicorn (Gahania 
simmondsi, Dist.). A visit to Pietermaritzburg and Howick 
yielded a nice series of Alana amazoula, and I also saw Papilio 
echerioides on one of the hill-tops, but failed to effect a capture. 
The last two or three days were spent at Amanzinitoti, on 
the South Coast, but the only fresh things obtained here were 
Deudorix antakis and a single specimen of Hanianuniida dcedalus. 
This ended my collecting in South Africa, except for a few hours 
at Cape Town, on the Lion's Head, where I only obtained a few 
Lycaenidse. 

I have by no means given a full list of the species taken, but 
only of the more interesting ones. I left Durban on April 19th 
by the turbine steamship * Miltiades,' and after a very pleasant 
trip reached London on May 13th. 



A NEW SPECIES OF TREMEX (SIEICID^) FROM 

BORNEO. 

By p. Cameron. 

Tremex viridiceps, sp. nov. 
Black ; the head dark green, densely covered with long white 
pubescence, the thorax largely tinged with a darker green, a large 
triangular mark on the sides of prothorax, metanotum, the first 
abdominal segment, except narrowly in the middle, and broad bauds 
on the sides of the second to fourth abdominal segments, pale yellow ; 
the tibiae and tarsi dark testaceous, the posterior darker coloured than 
the four anterior. Wings hyaline, the radial cellules and the apex 



34 THE ENTOMOLOaiST. 

smoky, the stigma dark testaceous, the costa and other nervures 
black. 2 . Length 11 mm. 

Kuching. October (J. Hewitt). 

Head and thorax closely strongly punctured, the head more 
strongly than the latter. Antennae from the third joint flattened, the 
third narrowed, of equal width. Pubescence longer and denser on 
the front than on the rest of the head. Antennae 14-jointed, the 
joints towards the apex bearing short stiff black hairs. Ovipositor 
short, narrow. 

T. insularis, Sm. from Sarawak I do not know, but from the 
description I would separate it from the present species thus : — 
Apical joints of antennae yellow, only the first two and 
the last abdominal fasciae interrupted, the others 
continuous ........ insularis. 

Antennae entirely black, the abdominal marks all widely 

separated . ....... viridiceps. 



SOME BEES COLLECTED BY DE. F. C. WELLMAN IN 
WEST AFEICA. 

By T. D. a. Cockerell. 

Mesotrichia chiyakensis, sp. nov. 
5 . Length, 30 mm. or a fraction less ; anterior wing about 
26 mm. ; width of head, 10|^ mm. Black, with bright lemon-yellow 
hair on the mesopleura, the hind margin of thorax, and the first 
abdominal segment ; hair of face and anterior part of thorax, and 
also of legs and abdomen except first dorsal segment, coarse and 
black. Vertex broad, shining, with very sparse but strong punc- 
tures ; frontal keel low, grooved, not nearly reaching clypeus ; third 
antennal joint longer than 4 + 5 ; mesothorax densely punctured at 
the sides, the disc smooth and impunctate ; wings exceedingly dark. 
Hah. Chiyaka, Benguella, West Africa, September 1st, 1907 ; 
at flowers of mint (F. C. Wellman, 1239). 

A very fine species, of the general type of Mesotrichia caffra 
(L.), but larger, and with yellow hair on the pleura. It belongs 
to a little group typified by M. inconstans (Smith), separable 
thus : — 

Length, 26-26 mm. ; anterior wing, 21-23 mm. . 1. 

Length, 30 mm. ; anterior wing, 26 mm. ; scutellum 
with yellow hair . . . . .31. chiyakensis, Ckll. 
1. Scutellum and first abdominal segment with white 

hair (Abyssinia, White Nile, Tanganyika) M. inconstans (Sm.). 

Scutellum with yellow hair (Senegal) . M. flavescens (Vaclial). 

In 1881 Radoszkowski recorded M. inconstans from Humbe, 

to the south of Benguella. That this was the genuine inconstans 

I cannot believe ; it may possibly have been chiyakensis. 



SOME BEES COLLECTED IN WEST AFRICA. 35 

Ceratina geigerice, sp. nov. 

$ . Length about Ih mm. (8 with liead thrust forward) ; black ; 
strongly and very densely punctured, including the disc of the meso- 
thorax ; wings strongly darkened ; clypeus with a broad dull yellow 
band ; tubercles yellow ; a cream-coloured stripe on anterior femora 
beneath, and the basal half of their tibiae above, and a very small spot 
at base of hind tibiae ; no distinct keel on apical segment of abdo- 
men ; hind margins of segments punctured ; apex a broad triangle. 

In Friese's table of African Ceratina it runs to C. sulcata, 
which I have from Dr. Brauns. It is, indeed, very close to 
sulcata, but differs from the South African species by the clypeal 
mark being rounded above, not expanded laterally, the absence 
of a shining space just above the sides of the clypeus, the darker 
flagellum, and the smaller size. The middle of the clypeus is 
not distinctly sulcate, as it is in sulcata, 

C. lineola, Vachal, from Delagoa Bay, must also be very 
similar, but its wings are scarcely infumated. It is also a little 
smaller. 

Hab. Chiyaka, Benguella, West Africa ; at flowers of 
Geigeria, September 1st, 1907 (F. C. Wellman, 1241, part). 
Geigeria is a genus of GompositaB. 

Gronoceras nigrocincta (Bits.). 
Chiyaka, Benguella, September 1st, 1907 ; one female found 
dead in a spider's web (F. C. Wellman). This fine species 
agrees well with Ritsema's coloured figure of Megachile nigro- 
cincta. It is evidently a Gronoceras ; indeed, Ritsema remarks 
that it is close to G. combusta. The mandibles have two apical 
teeth, and a long inner cutting edge ; clypeus with a little 
broadly truncate process on middle of apical margin ; claws 
simple ; hair of head, thorax, legs, and first abdominal segment 
black ; of rest of abdomen bright red ; scopa red, black at 
extreme base ; wings strongly smoky. Length 21 mm. or a 
little more. 

Halictus hotoni, Vachal. ( ? ). 

Chiyaka, Benguella, September 1st, 1907 ; at flowers of 
Geigeria sp. (F. C. Wellman). Previously known from a single 
female from Delagoa Bay. The specimen agrees with Vachal's 
description, except that the anterior tibiae have a suffused dark 
patch. The general appearance is just like that of H. aureolus, 
Perez, but the arrangement of the hair on the abdomen is 
different. 

Halictus geigerice, sp. nov. 

2 . Between 6 and 6| mm. long ; black ; with short greyish- 
white hair ; head rather large, dull, and finely roughened ; clypeus 
produced ; flagellum short, only faintly brownish beneath ; meso- 
thorax dull, with close minute punctures, except on each side of the 
middle, where they are sparse, though the surface still remains dull 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the middle line of the mesothorax is quite strongly sulcate, and the 
punctures are dense along this depression ; sides of thorax with rather 
copious white hair ; tegulse black or very nearly so ; area of meta- 
thorax well defined, minutely but very strongly cancellate ; scutellum 
obtusely bigibbous ; heart-shaped posterior face of metathorax with 
sharp borders ; legs black, with coarse white hair ; last tarsal joint 
rufous ; hind spur of hind tibia serrate, the teeth evident ; wings 
dusky hyaline, not yellowish ; stigma and nervures piceous ; third 
t. c. and second r. n. weakened ; first r. n. joining second s. m. 
at its extreme apex, but not quite meeting the second t. c. ; abdo- 
men moderately shining, the punctures very minute ; triangular 
patches of wdiite pubescence at lateral bases of segments 2 to 4, 
very conspicuous ; no apical bands, and the apical margins black 
like the rest. 

Hab. Chiyaka, Benguella, September 1st, 1907 ; flying with 
Ceratina geigerice at flowers of Geigeria sp. (F. C. Wellman). 

General appearance like that of H. opacns, Perez, but opacus 
has the mesothorax shining, with very much larger and stronger 
punctures. H. geigerice belongs to the group of H. quadrinotatus 
(Kirby) and H. sextiotatus (Kirby) — a group characteristic of the 
Northern Hemisphere. 

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado: 
November, 1907. 



EECENT BIBLIOGRAPHICAL AND NOMENCLATOEIAL 
NOTES ON THE BHYNCHOTA. 

By W. L. Distant. 

Mr. Kirkaldy {aiite, p. 14), in reference to the genus Platy- 
lomia, Stal, writes : — " Distant says that this was not described 
by Stal, and was only a name in 1870. On the contrary, it was 
described by Stal (in the place cited by Distant), who doubtingly 
ascribed ^anc^a, Gu6rin, as the type." The plain interpretation 
of such a statement is that I overlooked the description, and 
made an erroneous report thereon. So far from this being the 
case, I had previously (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), xv. p. 65 
(1905) ) fully explained my reasons for considering Stal's short 
description as inadmissible, though retaining bis name for the 
genus. Reference to this opinion is under the genus in my Cata- 
logue, which Mr. Kirkaldy has ignored. I also referred as to the 
description of the genus to Faun. B. I. Rhynch. iii. p. 100 
(1906), a book which Mr. Kirkaldy possessed, as he has elsewhere 
made several references thereto, and there I repeated the course 
I had pursued. The character given by Stal, " ramo vense 
ulnaris interioris recto vel leviter curvato," was evidently taken 
from Guerin's figure, a character, as I stated, " given by the 
artist and not found in the species." Therefore, ^aric^a, Guer., 



A GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF BRITISH WATERBUGS. 37 

as thus described, could not be taken as the type, and I selected 
spinosa, Fabr., as available. Mr. Kirkaldy asserts that this 
" is invalid in any case, as Stal places it at the head of his sub- 
genus Cosmopsaltria." Of the latter genus Stal had (Berl. Ent. 
Zeitschr. x. p. 170 (1866) ) previously fixed the type as C. doryca, 
Boisd., including in it both spinosa, Fabr., and flavida, Guer. 
These species cannot, however, be regarded as congeneric with 
Boisduval's doryca, and Mr. Kirkaldy's contention is untenable, 
while he has placed a forced interpretation on my sentence 
(" nom. nee descript."). 

With the other opinions of Mr. Kirkaldy I am not concerned ; 
I merely wish to correct his statements, and to desire accuracy 
in criticism. 



A GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF BRITISH WATERBUGS 
(AQUATIC HEMIPTERA). 

By G. W. Kirkaldy. 

(Concluded from vol. xxxix. p. 157.) 

I COMMENCED this " Guide " in August, 1898, in the thirty- 
first volume of the * Entomologist,' and certainly never antici- 
pated that ten years would pass before it was completed. This 
slowness has been due to causes beyond my control, primarily to 
my removal to the Hawaiian Islands, and secondly to a severe 
accident which has sadly delayed all my work ; but I trust that 
the irregular appearance of these hints on the study of, perhaps, 
the most fascinating, morphologically and biologically, of all 
the Hemiptera — that is to say, of all animals — has not dis- 
couraged any of my readers who may have felt some inclination 
to study them. 

I proposed to provide a list of all the British species, with 
their county distribution, but the publication, mostly since I 
left England, of the 'Victoria Natural History' series, none 
of the volumes of which I have seen, has compelled me to omit 
this part of my plan. 

Later on I hope to revert to this subject, but I think that it 
is better to close the "Guide" at this point, hoping that the 
Editor will allow me to make further observations at some 
future time. 

The following corrections should be made : — 

Vol. xxxii. p. 296, line 1 of the table, read " First segment of 
middle tarsi not more than 2^ times as long as the second," . . . 
and the corresponding entry, "First segment of middle tibiae 
rarely (if ever) less than three times as long as the second 
segment." 

Vol. xxxiii. p. 160, for "figs. 31-4" read "31, 32, 34"; for 
"figs. 35-9" read "35-6"; delete "40-." 



38 • THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ON THE VARIETIES OF PYRRHOSOMA TENELLUM 
AND P. NYMPHULA. 

. By Kenneth J. Morton, F.E.S. 

As is well known, the female of Pijrrhosoma teneUum, De 
Villers, assumes two strongly marked deviations from the 
normal form, namely, one which has the abdomen black-bronze, 
and the other which has the abdomen crimson like that of the 
male. Mr. Lucas (Entom. 1901, p. 68) names these forms 
ceneatam and rubratum respectively. He remarks that Dale took 
the former in Dorset, and he mentions De Selys' references in 
the 'Revue,' p. 181, to both forms. De Selys there gave no 
names. Subsequently, however, in the ' Synopsis des Agrionines,' 
5me legion : Agrion, pp. 185-6 (separate), the bronzed female is 
named melanogastrum (from Dorset, Syracuse, and Algeria), 
while the crimson female is named erytkrogastrum. The inter- 
mediate form to which Mr. Lucas also alludes is called by 
De Selys intermedium. 

And so, too, with Pyrrhosomn nymphula, Sulzer. The dark 
form {(sneatum, Lucas) with yellow instead of crimson markings 
is named by De Selys {I. c. p. 188) melanotam, the localities 
stated being Madrid, Dorset, and Corfu. I possess it from the 
Sierra Albarracin, Spain (Miss Fountaine). 

The Selysian names must naturally have priority. 
13, Blackford Road, Edinburgh : January, 1908. 



A NEW PSEUDAGENIA FROM SIKKIM. 
By p. Cameron. 

Pseudagenia hidens, sp. nov. 

Black ; pruinose, wings hyaline, a cloud along the transverse 
median and transverse basal nervures, the cloud narrow in front, 
becoming gradually widened behind ; a wider cloud commencing 
shortly behind the first transverse cubital nervure and extending to 
the second recurrent nervure ; the nervures and stigma black. Apex 
of clypeus rounded, its middle with two distinctly separated, stout 
teeth, bluntly rounded at the apex. 5 . Length, 9 mm. 

Eyes converging above ; the ocelli in a triangle, the hinder 
separated from each other by a less distance than they are from the 
eyes. Apex of mandibles brown ; the palpi black, tinged with fuscous 
and covered with white pubescence. Tliorax long ; the apex of pro- 
notum broadly rounded. Post-scutellum finely, irregularly striated in 
the middle. Apical slope of metanotum with a shallow finely irregu- 
larly striated furrow down the middle. The upper part of metapleurae 
is separated from the lower by a distinct furrow, which has a few 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 39 

striae. The long spur of the hind tibi« reaches to the middle of the 
metatarsus ; there is a distinct tooth on the base of the claw. The 
first transverse cubital nervure is broadly roundly sloped ; the third 
has the front half obliquely sloped towards the stigma. 

Belongs to Bingham's Section E, a, a. Characteristic are 
the two distinct teeth on the apex of the clypeus. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The Entomological Club. — A meeting was held on January 
14th, 1908, at the Entomological Salon of the Holborn Restaurant, 
Mr. G. H. Verrall in the chair. Other members present were Mr. R. 
Adkin and Mr. H. St. John Donisthorpe. Between half-past six 
o'clock and 8.30 p.m., when supper was served, over seventy guests 
had assembled. In his speech after the repast Mr. Verrall made 
sympathetic reference to the death of Mr. A. J. Chitty (a member of 
the Club), and of Mr. M. Jacoby, who had on so many meetings of the 
Club in that room contributed to the harmony of the evening by his 
brilliant performance on the violin. The Honorary Secretary sub- 
mitted a list of the names of past and present memlaers of the Club, 
dating from its foundation by George Samouelle in 1826 ; this showed 
a total of fifty during the eighty-two years. In addition to the mem- 
bership roll a set of forms had been prepared, which, when filled up 
with the requisite particulars of their respective entomological careers 
and achievements, would furnish material for a biographical sketch of 
each member. Such records would then be inscribed in an elabo- 
rately bound and suitably ruled volume presented to the Club by Mr. 
Robert Adkin on Jan. 22nd, 1907. Mr. Henry Rowland-Brown and 
Mr. Alfred Sich were elected honorary members of the Club. 

Sympetrum vulgatum. — Some doubt has been raised as to the Hull 
specimen of this rare British dragonfly in the " Dale " collection, now 
located in the Hope Department of the Natural History Museum in 
Oxford. I have lately examined the cabinet containing the dragon- 
flies and find a female specimen with a label, apparently in J. C. 
Dale's handwriting, stating that it came " from Mr. Harrison of 
Hull, 1837." There are also three other specimens — two males and 
a female — but these bear neither date nor locality. — W. J. Lucas; 
Kingston-on-Thames. 

Surinam Cockroaches at Kew. — Of late years Leucophcea 
surinamensis has been noticed on one or two occasions in England. 
Apparently it has taken up its abode and intends to stay in Kew^ 
Gardens. " Handsome is as handsome does," I suppose ; but, much 
as the authorities there would prefer its room to its presence, it is, 
nevertheless, an interesting little " beast," of very elegant propor- 
tions, and will not disgrace the orthopterist's cabinet.— W. J. Lucas ; 
Kingston-on-Thames. 

PiERis BRAssic^ Larv^ IN JANUARY. — On January 4th, at 
Rayleigh, Essex, I found three larvae of Pieris hrassiccB, which had 



40 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

apparently just crawled up a timber-built building for pupation ; two 
had already begun spinning themselves up. The temperature at the 
time (midday) was cold but sunny ; the thermometer registered four 
degrees of frost ; since the 1st it had continued freezing. It is 
remarkable for these larvae to survive for three months, as must have 
been the case ; undoubtedly the eggs were deposited in September, 
1907, and most likely early in that month, which would extend their 
larval duration to nearly four months, and to find them full-fed in 
January during frost is, I should imagine, unprecedented. They 
have since pupated : one on the 10th, the remaining two on the 11th 
and 14th, the transformation, as will be seen, occupying several days. 
F. W. Frohawk. 

Notes on Eupithecia togata. — Last autumn I fixed a day for 
collecting larvae of this fine " pug." Owing to the backward season 
I made the date a few days later than usual. It is advisable to 
obtain the larvae full-grown, as there is then greater certainty that 
they will pupate successfully, and one may chance to find a few of 
the larvae spun up in the cones. When I arrived at the district and 
had a look round, very few new cones were to be seen ; but after 
further search I found a tree which bore many of the desired cones. 
They were situated near the top of the tree, and rather difficult to 
get at. I am a fairly good climber, however, and up the tree I went. 
To my delight every cone was infested with the larvae ; in fact, some 
of the cones had three or four larvae in them. Never before had I 
observed so many larvae in a single cone. It appeared to me all 
the female E. togata in the district had visited this tree to deposit 
their ova on the new cones. E. togata is not always to be found 
where spruce fir grows, even although the trees may bear numerous 
cones. The moths do not always emerge the following June, a good 
number of them lying over till the second year. The perfect insect 
is seldom seen on the wing, and is difficult to find on tree-trunks. 
From 1899 to 1904, although constantly on the look-out, I failed to 
see any cones which bore traces of the larvae; I began to think the 
cold, wet seasons had swept them completely away. If June proves 
warm and there is then a fair amount of sunshine, the chance of 
larvae of this species in the autumn is good. — E. Lawson ; Croft 
Park, Craigie, Perth, N.B. 

Macrothylacia rubi in Winter. — On the 13th January, 1908, 
I took some hybernating larvae of M. rubi from a turf in the open on 
which I had been keeping them (eighteen in all). They were then 
frozen so much that they could be snapped in pieces like pieces of 
stick ; I then put them in a greenhouse about twelve o'clock ; by 
three o'clock they had thawed and were beginning to move about, 
and on the following Wednesday the greater number had begun to 
spin cocoons. All except five have now spun up, and these five have 
produced pupae of some parasite. — Francis C. Woodbridge ; North- 
croft, Uxbridge, January 22nd, 1908. 

New and completely Illustrated Work on the Labv^ and 
PuPiE OP the British Macro-Lepidoptera. — May I earnestly 
solicit the help of entomologists for this work. Loans or gifts of 



SOCIHTIKS. 



41 



larvae or pupae would be greatly valued, and I should have much 
pleasure in forwarding a list of my requirements to anyone willing to 
help. Many eminent workers have given, and are still giving, 
valuable assistance. Drawings and descriptions of the larvae and 
pupge of three-fifths of the species are completed ; forty-five species 
are partly completed, and at least fifty of the rarer species, or occa- 
sional immigrants, will require to be drawn from continental larvae 
and pupae.-^W. A. Kollason ; Lamorna, Truro, Cornwall, January 
20th, 1908. 

Addendum. — Page 24, last line add T. A. C. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Agrotis lunigera and lucerna in Sussex. — Mr. Sharp, of 
Eastbourne, while collecting Noctuse at sugar, upon the coast not far 
from Seaford, captured specimens of both these species, but only in 
small numbers. On a subsequent occasion I accompanied him to the 
locality and we then obtained ohelisca, in addition to the above- 
named. I think this very interesting, for, as far as I can find, this is 
the first record of either A. lunigera or A. lucerna for Sussex. — 
A. J . C. WiGHTMAN ; Ailsa Craig, Lewes. 

L. YiTELLiNA IN SussEX. — While Collecting at ivy bloom in the 
Lewes district on October 19fch, I had the good fortune to take a 
male specimen of L. vitelUna which, however, was rather worn. My 
friend Mr. Sharp, of Eastbourne, also took a female specimen in the 
neighbourhood of Polegate about a week previously ; his specimen 
was also somewhat worn. — A. J. C. Wightman ; Ailsa Craig, Lewes. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society op London. — The Annual Meeting of 
this Society was held on Wednesday, January 15th, at their rooms in 
Chandos Street, Cavendish Square, Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, President, 
in the chair, when the following Fellows were elected as officers and 
to serve on the Council for the session 1908-9 : — President, Mr. C. O. 
Waterhouse ; Treasurer, Mr. A. H. Jones ; Secretaries, Mr. H. Row- 
land-Brown, M.A., and Commander J. J. Walker, M.A., R.N., F.L.S. ; 
Librarian, Mr. G. C. Champion, F.Z.S. ; other members of the 
Council, Dr. T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S., Mr. A. Harrison, F.L.S., 
F.C.S., Mr. W. J. Kaye, F.L.S., Dr. G. B. Longstaff, M.D., Mr. H. Main, 
B. Sc, Mr. G. A. K. Marshall, Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S., F.C.S., 
Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S., Prof. E. B. Poulton, D.Sc, M.A., 
F.R.S., Mr. R. Shelford, M.A., C.M.Z.S., Mr. G. H. Verrall.— The 
Report for the session 1907-8 showed that the Society had 
increased considerably, and that the number of Ordinary Fellows 
exceeded that of any previous year in the Society's history since its 

ENTOM. — FEBRUARY, 1908. D 



42 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

foundation in 1833. The President then read his address, which 
dealt chiefly with the present unsatisfactory state of nomenclature m 
entomological science. He also advocated the estabhshment of a 
central " type " museum, on the lines of an experimental collection 
now formed at South Kensington, for the purpose of loaning speci- 
mens to institutions, whereby it was suggested that the existmg 
confusion might be avoided, and the general work of identification 
made easier. — Mr. F. Merrifield proposed a vote of thanks to _ the 
President for his address, and Professor R. Meldola proposed a simi- 
lar vote for the Officers of the Society, to which the President, the 
Treasurer, and the Secretaries replied. — H. Rowland-Brown, M.A., 
Hon. Secretary. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society.— Thursday, December 12th, 1907.— Mr. R. Adkin, F.E.S., 
President, in the chair.— Mr. H. W. Andrews, F.E.S., of Welhng, 
was elected a member.— Mr. Newman exhibited (1) a large number 
of pupge of Pieris napi spun up on the top of the cage, showing a large 
range of colour variation ; (2) an example of Ennomos antumnana 
devoid of speckled markings and with red tips of wings ; (3) a very 
dark Melitcea athalia from Devon; and (4) examples of DreiMna 
harpagula and Trigonophora flammea taken some years ago. — Mr. 
Tonge, a number of stereographs of entomological subjects, which 
were exhibited in the stereoscope kindly presented to the Society by 
Mr. Fremlin.— Mr. Kaye, a series of Acidalia hmniUata from the Isle 
of Wight, and noted that they were smaller and less strongly 
coloured than continental specimens. — Mr. South, a bred series of 
Eupithecia castigata, showing none of the brown suffusion usual m 
captured specimens.— Mr. Adkin, a series of Teras contaniinana from 
Polegate, and pointed out the extreme variation shown in the short 
series.— The following members exhibited selected specimens, series, 
and broods of Pieris napi and its various forms from Enghsh, Scotch, 
Irish, and continental localities : Messrs. Harrison, Main, Mont- 
gomery, Ray ward, Newman, Joy, Turner, Grosvenor, Garrett, Sich, 
Adkin, Dr. Chapman, and Dr. Hodgson.— Mr. Main then read a short 
paper, " Some Notes on Pieris napi," and a considerable discussion 
ensued. — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Report. Sec. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — Annual 
Meeting held at the Royal Institution, Liverpool, on December 16th, 
1907._Mr. Wm. Mansbridge, Vice-President, in the chair.— The 
following members were elected officers of the Society for the ensuing 
year, -yi^.- President, Samuel J. Capper, F.E.S. ; Vice-Presidents, 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. (Oxford), J. R. Charnley, F.Z.S., H. H. 
Dorbett, M.R.C.S. (Doncaster), Wm. Mansbridge, F.E.S., Eustace 
R. Bankes, M.A., F.E.S. (Corfe Castle), Robert Newstead, A.L.S. ; 
Hon. Treasurer, J. Cotton, M.R.C.S., F.E.S. ; Hon. Secretaries, H. R. 
Sweeting, M.A., Wm. Mansbridge ; Hon. Editor, J. R. le B. Tomlin, 
M.A., F.E.S. ; Hon. Librarian, F. N. Pierce, F.E.S. ; Council, the 
Rev. T. B. Eddrup, M.A. (Wakefield), C. E. Stott, Robert Tait, Jr., 
P. Edwards, M.R.C.S., J. Collins (Oxford), R. Wilding, 0. Whittaker, 
Wm. Bell, J.P., M.R.C.S., E. G. Bayford (Barnsley), P. F. Tmne, 



SOCIETIES. 43 

M.A., W. D. Harrison, and W. A. Tyerman. — The Vice-Presidential 
address was then dehvered by Dr. J. Harold Bailey, of Port Erin, 
Isle of Man, and was entitled " The Coleoptera of the Isle of Man." 
Dr. Bailey dealt with his subject in a most illuminating and scientific 
manner; he described the climate and topography of the island 
exhaustively, showing the influence of the ocean currents and pre- 
vailing winds upon the flora and fauna. The geological structure of 
the island was also considered, so far as related to the beetles and 
their distribution in this interesting area. Dr. Bailey discussed the 
probable date when there must have existed a land connection between 
the coast of Ireland on the west and that of Lancashire on the east, 
as evidenced by the numbers of various classes of Coleoptera and 
plants belonging to different periods of migration. Lengthy com- 
parisons were made in this connection between the numbers and 
species of the different migrations, as now existing on the adjacent 
coasts, as well as in the case of the Alpine forms found on the Manx 
mountains and in the highlands of Scotland and Ireland. As this 
paper will be bound up with the new list of the Coleoptera of Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire shortly to be published by the Society, it is hoped 
that it will be read by all students of the distribution of insects. A 
vote of thanks to Dr. Bailey having been proposed and suitably re- 
plied to, the following exhibitions were made, viz. — Mr. C. B. 
Williams, a fine female example of the olive-banded form of Bovihyx 
(juercus, bred, 1907, from a Wallasey larva ; Mr. Eobert Newstead, a 
case showing the complete life-history of the common house-fly, 
which he had worked out, in his usual painstaking and thorough 
manner, during the past summer ; Mr. J. J. Kichardson, about seventy 
species of Lepidoptera taken from the lamps round Sefton Park, 
Liverpool, during 1907. These included a variety of Halia vauaria, 
Noctua rubi, Plusia iota, P. pulchrina, Epione apiciaria, Eugonia 
alniaria, Himera pennaria, Leucoma salicis, and Cymatophora 
cliiplaris. — H. K. Sweeting and Wm. Mansbeidge, Hon. Sees. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — November 18th, 1907. — • 
Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, President, in the chair. — Mr. Leslie 
Frederick Burt, Edgbaston, was elected a member. — Mr. J. T. Fountain 
exhibited a long and variable series of Apamea testacea, Hb. — Mr. 
H. W. Elhs showed various Coleoptera: Lathrobium Icevipeiine, Heer, 
a species not long known as British, of which he found six specimens 
in the Blatch collection from Knowle, Bewdley, and Cannock ; and 
he had also taken it at Knowle ; Agabits affinis, Pk., from Sutton. 
He said that he had previously also recorded A. unguicularis. Thorns., 
from thence, but that on sending the specimens to Mr. Balfour 
Brown they all proved to be affinis ; Dermestes vulpinus, F., from 
Fareham, wdiere the larvae were eating the wooden beams in a 
manure factory. — Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker showed butterflies of the 
genus Epinephele, chiefly from Turkestan. — Mr. Hubert Langley, 
Lobophora ca)pinata, Bkh., from Princethorpe Wood, and said that 
he had also taken L. halterata, Hufn. there. — Colbran J. Wain- 
WRiGHT, Hon. Sec. 

City of London Entomological Society. — November I'dth 
1907. — Rev. C. R. N. Burrows exhibited Camptogramma Jiuviata 



44 THK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

male, taken at sugar at Mucking, October 2nd, 1907. — Mr. A. 
Harrison, Zygcena viinos, Carnarvon, 1905 and 1907. The 1907 speci- 
mens were smaller and more thinly scaled than those taken in 1905, 
difference possibly due to the inclement season in 1907. — Mr. G. G. 
C. Hodgson, Zygcena trifoUi, Sussex, early July, 1907, including six 
spotted specimens and three extreme examples of melanism with 
black hind wings and only a trace of the spots on fore wings. — Mr. 
L. W. Newman, a dark brown, almost black, specimen of Oporabia 
dilutata, Bexley, October, 1907. — Mr. A. J. Willsdon, a gynandrous 
Crocallis elinguaria from Manor Park ; also specimens taken in 1907 
in this district, being heavily specked with brown, and altogether 
much darker than a specimen taken in the same district twenty-five 
years ago. Another example from Torquay showed a very dark 
central band and strongly marked marginal spots. 

December Srd. — Mr. J. A. Clark exhibited Va7iessa antiopa, Waltham- 
stow, 1872. — Dr. G. G. C. Hodgson, Hesperia comma, from Surrey, in- 
cluding a male with cream ground colour and another male with under 
side as dark as in normal female. — Mr. L. W. Newman, three cocoons 
oiDicraniLva bicuspis, containing living pupae, found on birch-trunks in 
Tilgate Forest. — Mr. J. Eiches, on beh'alf of Mr. Dewey, of Eastbourne, 
very dark specimens of Epiinda lutnlenta and Scopelosovia satellitia, 
and a uniformly brick-red example of the latter species. — Mr. L. A. E. 
Sabine, Oporabia autumnata, from Tilgate Forest, including a pale 
grey specimen with slightly darker broad central band on fore wings. 
— Mr. A. J. Willsdon, dark Agrotis puta, from Torquay. The follow- 
ing gentlemen were elected as Council for 1908 : President, Mr. 
A. W. Mera ; Vice-Presidents, Dr. T. A. Chapman and Messrs. J. A. 
Clark, F. J. Hanbury and L. B. Prout ; Treasurer, Mr. P. H. Tautz ; 
Librarians, Messrs. G. H. Heath and V. E. Shaw ; Curators, Messrs. 
G. G. C. Hodgson and A. J. Willsdon ; Secretaries, Messrs. S. J. Bell 
and T. H. L. Grosvenor ; Non-official members, Eev. C. E. N. Burrows 
and Messrs. H. M. Edelsten, E. Harris, J. Eiches, and A. Sich. 

December llth. — Dr. T. A. Chapman exhibited Vanessa iirtica 
from North Lapland larvifi ; the specimens were slightly smaller, 
darker, and brighter than normal British V. nrticce, and the brood in- 
cluded some examples of ab. polaris said to be common in these 
latitudes. — Mr. E. A. Cockayne, various Lepidoptera from East Aber- 
deen, 1907, including very dark Xylophasia polyodon and Noctua 
xanthographa, a red form of Noctua neglecta, dingy yellow-brown 
Crocallis elinguaria, and a single Agriopis aprilina with usual bright 
green ground colour replaced by pale grey-green. — Mr. E. Harris, fine 
male and female Augosoma centaurusivora Gold Coast. — Dr. G. G. C. 
Hodgson, V. urticiB, from Aberdeen, with a slight trace of_a third 
spot above the two usual central black spots on fore wings ; also a 
specimen from Surrey with these spots almost obsolete. — Mr. L. W. 
Newman, for Mr. G. B. Oliver, Zygcena minos and Z. filipendulcs, 
from North Argyle, and a six-spotted Zygcena with fluffy body, from 
the same district, suggesting that the two species hybridize there. 
— Dr. H. C. Phillips, a specimen of V. urticce with pale yellowish 
ground colour, from Birchington. — Mr. V. E. Shaw, V. urticce ab. 
atrebatcnsis (Bdv.), Bexley, August, 1905 ; also, from same district, 



RECKNT LITERATURE. 45 

specimens of V. urtica with upper and two central spots on fore 
wings almost obsolete, and the lower much smaller than usual. — 
S. J. Bell, Hon. Sec. 



KECENT LITEKATUKE. 



Accouplement des CEufs, et Amour Maternel des Forficulides. By H. 

Gateau de Kerville. Pp. 31. Three figures in text. Rouen. 

1907. 
In this most interesting paper the author has collected published 
information, and added observations of his own, concerning three 
points in the life-story of the Earwigs. The last and most interest- 
ing, first noticed by De Geer (1773), is the one to which most space 
is given. A large field, however, is still open to entomologists in 
this connection, for but nine species have thus far come under 
observation. These are : — 1. Forficula auricularia, L. 2. F. lesnei, 
Fin. 3. Glielidura aptera, Charp. 4. C. pyrenaica, Gene. 5. Ane- 
chura bipunctata, F. 6. Anisolahis maritima, Gene. 7. A. mauri- 
tanica, H. Luc. 8. A. littorea, White. 9. Lahidura riparia, Pall. 
Of these, 1, 2, and 9 are British species, while 6 has been taken 
casually in this country. 

W. J. L. 



The Annals of Scottish Natural History. Edinburgh. 1907. 

Once more the editors have provided us with an interesting 
volume, and although again it is mainly concerned with things non- 
entomological, still there are a number of articles which it will be 
necessary for entomologists to consult. W. Evans has notes on 
" Tabanidae at Aberfoyle " ; " Prcemachilis hibernica in Scotland"; 
"Some Pezomachi and other Cryptinae from Forth"; "A New 
Louse {Hcematopinus ovillus) from the Sheep," with a figure ; and 
" Gryllus domesticics in an old quarry near Edinburgh." P. H. 
Grimshaw treats of " Ghcerocampa celerio at Galashiels " ; " Hydrotcea 
borussica," a fly new to the British list ; and " The Diptera of St. 
Kilda." P. Cameron has articles on " Scottish species of Oxyura 
(Proctotrypidse)," " Scottish Cryptinae (Ichneumonidae)," and " Noc- 
turnal and Alpine Hymenoptera." In addition we find " Lepido- 
ptera from West Ross-shire, &c.," by D. Jackson ; " Sirex gigas in 
South- West Scotland," by H. Maxwell ; " Some Lepidoptera from 
St. Kilda," by C. G. Hewitt ; and " A Note on Eristalis te^iax," by 
R. D. R. Troup. 

W. J. L. 

The Little Naturalist in the Country (The "Little Naturalist " Series). 
By Rev. Theodore Wood, F.E.S. London : Ernest Nister. 1907. 

At once the dainty appearance of this little book creates a favour- 
able impression, which is enhanced as we look one by one at the 
numerous good illustrations, which appear to be quite original. The 
text describing four walks " across the fields, down the lane, thi-ough 



46 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the wood, and back along the banks of the stream " — one walk for 
each of the four seasons — is very suggestive to the budding naturalist. 
One little grumble we must be allowed — instead of " animals and 
birds and insects," we feel bound to ask for "birds, insects, and other 
animals," especially as the book is intended for beginners. Every- 
one separates living things into two groups — animals and plants. If 
birds and insects are not animals, what are they ? W J L 



Preliminarij Report on the Habits, Life-cycle and Breeding -ijlaces 
of the Common House-flij {Musca domestica), as Observed in the 
City of Liverpool. By E. Newstead, A.L.S., F.E.S. Liver- 
pool. 1907. 
We have here a report of more than ordinary importance, and it 
is unfortunate that copies can be obtained apparently only at the 
Town Clerk's Office in Liverpool. We have always looked upon the 
House-fly as a nuisance at the best ; after reading this report, 
especially that part relating to its breeding-places, we scarcely like 
to think what it might become at its worst. Various means of 
reducing the numbers of the House-fiy are suggested, and apparently 
it has one very effective enemy in the domestic fowl. The parasitic 
fungus, Evipusa muscce, that kills so many House-flies in the autumn, 
is not mentioned — perhaps no use can be made of it. Apparently 
there still appears to be not much known about the winter condition 
of this insect. 

W. J. L. 



OBITUAEY. 
Heney Guard Knaggs, M.D. 



Henry Guard Knaggs, M.D., was born in High Street, Camden 
Town, on March 21st, 1832, and was educated at University College 
School. His father, a medical man himself, had him trained up in 
his own profession at University College Hospital, after which he 
married, and started in practice in Kentish Town, afterwards re- 
moving to Camden Town. As a young man he interested himself 
greatly in entomology, and formed one of the finest collections of 
British Lepidoptera in England. He also became a member of the 
Entomological Society of London. During the sixties, the numerous 
entomologists who then lived in the north of London constantly used 
to meet at his house, or to walk home in parties together after the 
meetings of the Entomological Society. Among them were H. W. 
Bates, F. Moore, H. Vaughan, E. W. Robinson, H. Jekel, W. F. Kirby, 
and others ; and entomologists and botanists from other parts of 
England (of whom F. Bond and J. Boswell Syme may be especially 
mentioned) were occasionally to be met at his house. 

The ' Entomologist's Monthly Magazine ' was started in 1864 
with a staff of five editors — T. Blackburn, H. G. Knaggs, M.D., 
R. McLachlan, F.L.S., E. C. Rye, and H. T. Stainton, F.L.S. Black- 



OIUTUARY. 47 

burn's name disappeared from the title-page after the second vokime ; 
but no further alteration in the staff occurred till 1874, when Dr. 
Knaggs found it necessary, owing to the increasing requirements of 
his profession, to retire from the active pursuit of entomology, and 
to resign his post as editor of the magazine, although he outlived all 
the other founders. His most important published entomological 
woi'k is his ' Lepidopterist's Guide,' which has gone through several 
editions, and originally appeared in the form of papers in the early 
volumes of the 'Entomologist's Monthly Magazine.' However, Dr. 
Knaggs still retained his interest in entomology, and continued to 
write occasional notes, the last of which appeared as recently as 
July, 1906. Dr. Knaggs was very fond of Folkestone, where several 
of his most important captures had been made, and he bought a 
house there as an occasional seaside residence ; and on retiring from 
his practice in North London (in which he was succeeded by his son, 
Dr. H. Valentine Knaggs) he settled there for the remainder of his 
life. His death supervened on a long and painful illness on 
January 16th, 1908, and he was buried at Highgate Cemetery on 
January 20th. His widow, one son, and five daughters survive 
him. For some years Dr. Knaggs was a Fellow of the Linnean as 
well as the Entomological Society, but he had retired from both 
before his death. 

W. F. KiRBY. 

Nicholas Frank Dobree. 

The death of Mr. N. F. Dobree, of Beverley, East Yorkshire, 
occurred on January 8th, 1908, at the age of seventy-seven. A native 
of Guernsey, and belonging to an ancient and distinguished family, 
Mr. Dobree first came to Hull under the charge of Sir William 
Wright, and about 1850 started in business as a grain and seed 
merchant, his business offices being situate in the fine old Elizabethan 
house in High Street, Hull, which was the birthplace of William 
Wilberforce. There he remained till towards the close of 1906, when 
" Wilberforce House " was acquired by the Corporation for use as a 
mvTseum of local antiquities. 

Mr. Dobree travelled largely on the Continent, and was a perfect 
linguist in German, French, Swedish, and Italian. On these travels 
he made the acquaintance of many of the leading continental ento- 
mologists, including Dr. Staudinger and Herr Louis Graeser. Mr. 
Dobree's inclinations had always lain in the direction of natural 
history pursuits, and about 1871 his attention became directed to 
the wide field open for observation among the European Noctuaj. 
With his friend, the late Mr. George Norman, he therefore set about 
forming such a collection of this group of the lepidopterous fauna as 
would show the geographical distribution of the various forms. This 
he continued for many years, and the collection he formed became 
generally recognized as the best private collection of Noctuae in this 
country. 

As a keen student Mr. Dobree gained a correspondingly wide 
knowledge of the group, and he was a frequent contributor to the 
pages of this Journal between the years 1875 and 1893, his most 



48 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

valuable papers being those on " Melanism " and on " Agrotisfeiinica," 
appearing in two of the issues for 1887. These were epoch-making 
contributions, and Mr. J. W. Tutt, in his papers on Melanism pub- 
lished a few years later, spoke eulogistically of their author as " our 
greatest authority on continental Noctuae." 

Mr. Dobr^e also contributed largely to the local records published 
in the 'Naturalist ' from 1881 to 1901, and was President of the Hull 
Field Naturahsts' Society during the years 1884-86. 

In 1904 Mr. Dobr^e presented his collection of European Noctuae 
to the Hull Museum. It consists of nearly one thousand geographical 
forms, and of more than six hundred examples of preserved larvae. 
In the preservation of larvae Mr. Dobr^e was a pioneer, and by his 
universal kindness helped many other students to take an interest in 
this branch of knowledge. His collection has for some months been 
undergoing the process of cataloguing, and a fully descriptive cata- 
logue will shortly be issued by the Museums Committee of the 
Hull Corporation, thus rendering the unique collection more widely 
known and more useful — it is hoped — to students in other parts 
of the country, as well as to those living in the remote corner of 

Holderness. 

H. B. B. 



Arthur John Chitty, who died on January 6th last, aged forty- 
eight years, was a barrister with a large practice as a company 
lawyer. During his University career at Oxford he on several 
occasions kept wicket for the University eleven, and played in the 
Association football team ; he also rowed for his college eight, but 
failed to get in the trial eights. He obtained a first class in Classical 
Moderations and a second class in the Final School of Litterae 
Humaniores. His entomological interest was chiefly centred in the 
Coleoptera, in the investigation of the habits of which he was 
especially successful. Other orders also received his attention, and 
recently he had commenced to study the Proctotrypidae, a family 
of parasitic Hymenoptera, including some of the smallest winged 
insects. He was elected a Fellow of the Entomological Society of 
London in 1891, and had served on the Council since 1906. He was 
also a member of the Entomological Club, into whicli he was elected 
in 1904. 



Henry Alfred Auld died on December 28th, 1907, at the age 
of fifty-three. He was for many years in the Bank of England. As 
a collector of Lepidoptera he was most persevering, and never spared 
himself any trouble in endeavouring to attain his object. Unfortu- 
nately he did not consider his field observations of sufficient interest 
to place on record, and consequently he rarely contributed anything 
to entomological litex'ature. He was a member of the South London 
Entomological Societv from 1888 to 1897. 



The Entomologist, March, 1908. 



Plate 11. 







LIFE-HISTORY OF TORTRIX PRONUBANA. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XLL] * MAECH, 1908. [No. 538 



EDITORIAL. 

We have very great pleasure in stating that Mr. Henry 
Rowland-Brown has most kindly consented to join the Reference 
Committee of this Journal. His interest in the ' Entomologist ' 
has been shown in the past by frequent contributions to its 
pages, and in various other ways he has been exceedingly helpful 
to us. We feel assured that the able assistance he will give in 
the future, particularly in connection with European Rhopa- 
locera, of which he has special knowledge, will be as highly 
appreciated by our readers as by ourselves. 



LIFE-HISTORY OF TORTRIX PRONUBANA. 

By Robert Adkin, F.E.S. 

(Plate II.) 

From larvas collected at Eastbourne during the last week in 
May two male and one female imagines of Tortrix projiubana 
were reared on the morning of June 28th. During the whole of 
that day they remained quiescent, probably on account of their 
being effectually screened from any little sunshine there may 
have been. In the evening one of the males was placed with the 
female on a freshly cut sprig of Euonymus enclosed in a glass 
cylinder, which was placed where it would receive the early 
morning sunshine. On looking at them later in the evening the 
moths were still resting apart, just in the positions where they 
had been placed ; but on visiting them between seven and eight 
o'clock on the following morning they were found to be paired, 
and the female deposited ova the same evening. 

The eggs are laid in batches after the usual Tortrix manner, 

ENTOM. — MARCH, 1908. E 



50 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

one row overlapping another, very like the scales of a fish. They 
are deposited on the upper side of the leaves of the food-plant, 
and when quite fresh are brilliant green in colour, but gradually 
change to a dull greenish yellow, and finally to a dark purplish grey 
just before hatching, this last change in colour being caused by 
the black heads and dull yellowish bodies of the fully formed 
larvae being seen through the parchment- like skins of the eggs. 
The larva within the egg is curled up horseshoe-wise, and when 
ready to come forth it repeatedly opens and shuts its mouth, 
pressing it the while against the egg-skin until it is pierced ; it 
then seizes the fractured skin in its jaws and tears the hole 
large enough to admit of its head being forced through, and its 
escape is thus permitted. 

On July 19th the first laid batch of eggs, being evidently on 
the point of hatching, was placed on a growing plant of Euony- 
tmis japonicus that had been potted up for the purpose, and an 
inspection later in the day showed that the larvje had come 
forth and had disappeared ; no trace of them whatever could be 
found. On the following day two other batches of eggs that had 
assumed the final colour were put into a breeding-cage on cut 
shoots of the food-plant, but with little better success, as when 
next looked at, young larvae were seen to be swarming through 
even the smallest crevices and running away at a great pace, and 
the majority of this lot also was lost. Evidently the newly- 
hatched larvae had a roaming instinct that had to be reckoned 
with. Only two very small batches of the eggs were now left, 
and these were put into a glass cylinder with freshly cut shoots 
of Euonymus, and so secured that escape was impossible ; and 
within a few days it was found that the larvae had emerged from 
the eggs, and settled themselves between the leaves to feed. 

The larva on leaving the egg measures just under 2 mm. in 
length, is dirty yellow in colour, with numerous stiff whitish 
hairs disposed over its body, and has a shining jet-black head. 
It is exceedingly active, travelling rapidly, and for a long dis- 
tance before settling down to feed. This wandering propensity, 
which I assume is common to the majority of the Tortrices, 
appears to be a necessary habit. The eggs are laid in masses, 
but the larvae are solitary feeders, more than one seldom being 
found on the same shoot of the food-plant. A rapid dispersal 
over a considerable area, in order that they may find suitable 
positions in which to commence their isolated existence, is there- 
fore essential to their well being, and this, the power they possess 
of rapid and sustained movement immediately after leaving the 
egg, enables them to effect. So soon as a larva finds a suitable 
position, such as two leaves in close proximity, it spins a few 
threads of silk between them, thus securing itself, and com- 
mences to feed. One of the larvae that I had in the glass cylinder 
very obligingly fixed itself up between the back of a leaf of the 



LIFE-HISTORY OF TORTRIX PRONUBANA. 51 

food-plant and the glass, and was thus under observation during 
the first two or three weeks of its existence ; it fed upon the 
fleshy part of the back of the leaf, but did not penetrate to 
the front. The first moult took place on August 7th, when the 
larva became a yellowish-green colour, the head assumed a 
browner appearance, and the length had increased to 4^ mm. 
By the 18th it had moulted again, measured 7 mm. in length, 
and had become pale green in colour, the head still maintaining 
the brownish appearance. 

Soon after this it became necessary to change the food, and 
as the larvsB all spun themselves in between leaves it was im- 
possible to keep so close a watch upon them as formerly, but on 
turning them out some two to three weeks later it was found that 
they varied very considerably both in size and colour, some two 
or three being in their last skins, while a larger number appeared 
to be about half-grown, and the chief difference noticeable in them 
since their second moult was that the colour of their bodies had 
become a more decided green. 

The full-fed larva measures 15 mm. to 20 mm. in length. 
The head is smaller than the second segment, glabrous, horn- 
colour, and has two or more dark brown or black patches at its 
base, and sundry dark brown or black markings about the mouth- 
parts ; the intensity and number of these dark markings varying 
in individuals. The thoracic plate is glabrous green, with four 
(more or less) blackish -brown, irregularly angulated patches 
along its posterior margin. The body tapers towards each end, 
is olive-green on the back to the lateral skin-fold, which, as well 
as the ventral surface, is paler ; the anal segment also is paler. 
On the back of each segment are four slightly raised paler tubercles 
and below them on each side another, each emitting a stiff 
whitish bristle, and on the skin-fold is yet another, from which 
two bristles spring, the whole giving the larva a somewhat hairy 
appearance. 

The first moth emerged on September 18th, and was followed 
by others at somewhat lengthy intervals until December 13th, 
this last having been in pupa for some five or six weeks, during 
the latter part of which it was kept in a cool greenhouse to pro- 
tect it from any actual frost. The remainder of the larvte are 
hybernating (?), approximately full-fed, and as those from the 
September-October moths pass the winter quite small, there 
appears to be good reason for supposing that the imagines are 
on the wing throughout the summer and autumn months. 



Explanation of Plate II. — 1. Tortrix pronubana, 3-. 2. Ditto, $• 
3. Larva, dorsal view, slightly enlarged. 4. Larva, lateral view, slightly 
enlarged. 5. Segment of larva, enlarged, dorsal view. 6. Enlarged sectional 
view of larva. 7. Mass of ova x 100. 

Lewisham : February, 1908. 

E 2 



52 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SUPPLEMENTAL NOTES ON EUFITHECIA. 
By Louis B. Prout, F.E.S. 

I DO not propose, on the present occasion, to enter upon a 
discussion of any fresh questions, but merely to make some 
additions which have been placed at my disposal by some kind 
correspondents, at the same time thanking all those who have 
been good enough to intimate their appreciation of my previous 
articles (Entom. xl. 169, 206, 220), and expressing anew the 
hope that an increasing number of workers will devote themselves 
to the study of the genus. 

I exceedingly regret that two inexcusable blunders found 
their way into my introduction, which was prepared in a some- 
what more hasty and perfunctory way than the rest of the notes, 
the fact being that I was rather tired of the warfare against 
" Tephroclystia,'' yet felt that I must not mias so good an oppor- 
tunity for a final onslaught. Of course, on p. 169, second para- 
graph, I ought to have written TepJiroclijstia, not Tephroclystis, 
the former being Hiibner's spelling, the latter Meyrick's (copied 
by Hulst), and due merely to an inadvertence, probably origi- 
nating in the instinct to make the name " homoeoteleutan " with 
Chloroclystis, Hb. In the same paragraph I wrote, by a lapsus 
memoricB, " Eupithecia (with type linariata) " ; whereas, as I 
perfectly well knew, Curtis chose absinthiata, CI., as the type of 
his genus, though he figured, and drew his structural details 
from, linariata. The eagle eye of my valued friend and co- 
worker. Rev. G. W. Taylor, at once detected these errors, he 
having had correspondence with me earlier on the self-same 
points. 

Piegarding the Phyteuma larvas of Eupithecia denotata^ cam- 
panulata, mentioned on p. 209 (middle paragraphs), Dr. Draudt 
writes me that the imagines obtained from them show no differ- 
ence from other denotata bred from Campamda. 

I learn from Mr. Eustace R. Bankes that he has already 
interested himself in the curious record of E.fraxinata larvae on 
"scabious " at Hartlepool {vide p. 208), and he has kindly given 
me free permission to use the correspondence which he had with 
Messrs. Piobson and Gardner on the subject. Barrett's record, 
as Mr. Bankes points out, is based on a fuller one in Robson's 
" Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Northumberland, Durham, 
and Newcastle-upon-Tyne " (Nat. Hist. Trans. North., Durh., x. 
1902), which reads as follows (p. 267) : — 

"In August, 1899, I took some *pug' larvae on the sand- 
banks between Black Hall Rocks and Castle Eden, which pro- 
duced three melanic imagines, for which the same name" [inno- 
tata] " is suggested. I made no notes of the larva, thinking 
them some common species, and writing now from memory I 



SUPPLEMENTAL NOTES ON EUPITHECIA. 53 

thiuk they more resembled fraxinaia than innotata. They were 
feeding on scabious, and I do not remember any Artemisia near, 
but certainly there was no ash. Up to the present time I 
believe innotata has only been found on Artemisia. Mr. Gardner 
says, 'I find all the "pugs" I have bred will feed upon the 
flowers of plants, particularly of scabious and Centaiirea.' " On 
inquiry, INlr. Bankes learned that there was much that was hazy 
concerning this record. In the first place, Mr. Eobson acknow- 
ledged {in litt., 20th April, 1904) that the plant referred to as a 
" scabious " seemed to be really a knapweed, probably Centaur ea 
nigra, his botanical knowledge having "rusted for some forty 
years " ; Mr. Gardner, on the contrary, who was with Mr. Rob- 
son when the larvae were taken, asserts positively {in litt., 13th 
June, 1904) that they were found " on various plants." Further, 
there was a discrepancy as to the exact number found, each 
being " fully persuaded in his own mind " ; the exact details, as 
furnished by each, are not relevant to the present question. 
Both, however, were in the main agreed that the larvae agreed 
rather with Buckler's figures of E. fraxinata than of E. innotata ; 
for Mr. Gardner wrote much more definitely than Mr. Eobson, 
his words being : "I can assure you that the larvae we got were 
the gaily coloured larvae of fraxinata, and not that of the miser- 
able-looking example figured for innotata." But I have shown 
(Entom. xl. 206-8 ; Ent. Rec. xvi. 336 *) that E. innotata is far 
more variable in markings and habits (even apart from the 
fraxinata race) than Mr. Gardner was aware, and this of course 
weakens his evidence. Mr. Bankes, who very carefully examined 
the disputed specimens, inclined to call them innotata, but he 
confesses that (like all the rest of us !) he " cannot separate the 
moths with any certainty." 

The above shows that no such definiteness exists about the 
" scabious " record for "fraxinata " as I assumed when I wrote ; 
but I fear it proves little or nothing else. I ho[)e our northern 
friends will work their coasts thoroughly and systematically for 
" pug" larvae, and clear up some of our dark places. 

As to the " E. tamarisciata" (?) bred by Mr. E. M. Holmes, 
F.L.S., from North Cornwall (Ent. Rec. xviii. 158), Mr. Holmes 
tells me he was unaware that Mr. Tutt intended to publish a 
reference to it, and it was perhaps a little premature, as Mr. 
Tutt had not seen the larvae, and evidently only determined the 
species by the food-plant. Mr. Holmes has very kindly sub- 
mitted his material to my inspection, but as he will no doubt 
write upon it when further elucidation has been obtainable, I 
shall not forestall him further than to say that I quite agree 
with him that his larvae did not tally with the only definitely 

■•■= " Mr. J. Gardner," in this latter reference, is a printer's or editor's 
error for " Mr. J. E. Gardner," and refers to Mr. Gardner, of Clapton, not 
to Mr. Gardner, of Hartlepool. 



54 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

known form of tamarisciata, but much rather with fraxinata, and 
that for the present I would not venture to locate the imagmes ; 
of course they belong to this group (or species, if Staudinger is 
right). 

Kegarding the question of food-plants and larval habits of 
the " pugs," I have had further interesting notes from Mr. Perc}' 
C. Eeid. He has discovered that in his district hawthorn — 
which I gave as a quite exceptional food-plant for the species 
(Entom. xl. 322) — is regularly favoured by the larva of Chloro- 
clystis coronata, and that in both broods. Mr. Eeid has made a 
partial reference to this in some recent notes on the season 1907 
(Ent. Eec. xx. 13), but I think it worth while to quote from a 
letter which he sent me while my former papers were in the 
press. He writes {in lift., 27th July, 1907): "In May last 
I bred some specimens of this insect" [C. coronata] "in a 
cage containing a number of pupse, beaten as larvae from 
hawthorn in the preceding August. As hawthorn is not 
mentioned as a food-plant in any work of reference in my 
possession, I concluded that by some accident these coronata 
had found their way as larvae or pupae into this cage, and 
thought no more of it. But in June last (on the 21st, I 
think*) I beat a number of Eupitheciid larvae from hawthorn, 
and wondering what they could be I made a note of the fact. 
Now they are beginning to emerge as E. coronata." To this 
should be added — from the article in the 'Entomologists' Eecord' 
already alluded to — that these were succeeded by a further brood 
of larvae at the end of August on bramble, one of which produced 
the imago on September 29th, a member of the very partial third 
brood which this species occasionally throws. I can also amplify, 
from the information he has supplied me in correspondence, Mr. 
Eeid's note on the occurrence on Pastinaca of the larvae of 
Eupithecia p)iinpinellata and trisignaria. He writes {in litt., 
21st September, 1907) : " It does not do to generalise from one 
observation, but I noticed that the pimp)inellata occurred on the 
smaller and more scattered plants on the open down, wdiile the 
trisignaria were on the larger and more rampant plants along 
the edges of and just inside a copse. 

I had hoped, ere now, to be in a position to say something 
about the differentiation, or otherwise, of Eupithecia innotata and 
fraxinata by the genitalia, but the illness of my friend Mr. Pierce 
has hindered work in this direction, and if any definite result be 
arrived at, it must be published in a separate note. 

''•• Mr. Eeid has now fixed the exact date as Juue 20th. 



55 



A FEW NOTES FEOM BERISAL DURING JUNE, 1907. 
By R. M. Prideaux. 

Having read Mr. Rowland-Brown's recent interesting article 
(Entom. vol. xl. pp. 241-248), it occurred to me that a few 
observations from the same district, made prior to his sojourn 
there, may be worth jotting down, 

Mr. G. C. Griffiths and myself, after a short experience in the 
Lower Rhone Valley, arrived at Berisal for an eleven days' stay 
on June 13th last. As elsewhere, the season was a decidedly 
backward one, and far too early at this period for the more 
essentially alpine species to put in an appearance. Nevertheless, 
we did not do badly, being able to secure many species freshly 
emerged, and also to find a considerable number of interesting 
larvae and pupse from the rocks and stones, &c., in the neighbour- 
hood, a fair proportion of which were subsequently reared to 
maturity at home. 

Mr. Rowland-Brown's tragic account of the condition of the 
locality for Rusticus zephyriis var. lycidas above Refuge II. empha- 
sizes our good fortune in having had an earlier experience of it. 
Normally, it would appear that this species might first be looked 
for at the end of May, judging from its abundance this year by 
June 15th, on which date even a few slightly ragged specimens 
were to be seen. No doubt a very prolonged period of emergence 
enables this species to hold its own in a much hackneyed locality. 
Having on previous occasions obtained specimens of R. lycidas, 
I was content with boxing a few perfect ones. They are best 
obtained, in my opinion, on a dull, windless day, or towards 
sundown, by scanning the grassy downs and slopes where the 
food-plant occurs, when they may readily be discovered at rest. 
The females lay pretty freely in captivity on Astragalus exocarpus, 
but it is difficult to obtain a satisfactory root of this plant for 
transplantation, and a trial of the young larvse on various other 
Leguminosse, and also on Erica and Calluna, proved a failure. I 
possess one male of this species which exhibits a few of the 
silvery-blue scales on the eye,-spots of the under side hind wings 
placed where they normally occur in the type R. zephyrus, also in 
R, argus and R. argyrognomon. 

The latter two " blues," though later abounding in company 
with lycidas, had not emerged on June 15th, nor were seen there 
until several days later. Polyommatus escheri did not turn up 
until the 18th, when the males began to appear in superb con- 
dition. A pleasant surprise was the sight of P. baton between 
the Ganter Bridge and Refuge II., several specimens in fair 
condition turning up on and after the 17th. Another un- 
expectedly early visitor was a male P. eros, attracted by a puddle 
close to the Ganter Bridge, on the 18th, but not subsequently 



56 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

seen again. Single specimens of Lyccena avion var. ohscura were 
obtainable in rare perfection on and after June 18tli. Polyom- 
matus hylas first appeared in this district on June 21st (males 
only), though commonly met with at lower elevations — near 
Montreux, &c. — earlier in the month. The following additional 
"blues "were all more or less abundant round Berisal during 
our stay : — P. alexis, P. hellargus, P. astrarche (with one ab. 
allous), P. eumedon, Cupido minima and Nomiades seiniargiLS. 

It was a pleasure to record the first male Chj-ysophanus alciphron 
ya.i\gordius on June 20th. A small race of this species was abundant 
just below Berisal in July last year, but specimens reared there- 
from and emerging this season are but little below the average 
size of specimens taken near Vernayaz in 1905. The species 
hybernates invariably as a larva, never as an ovum, in my 
experience, and when once the young larvae can be induced to 
recommence feeding in the spring there is little difficulty in 
bringing them to maturity. 

Parnassitis apollo was fairly common by June 17th about the 
road and cliffs towards Eefuge II., and Mr. Griffiths and myself 
were both fortunate in finding one or two full-grown larvge of the 
species. My own, taken on the bare ground on June 20th, spun 
up at once, and produced a male butterfly on August 11th. 
P. mnemosyne was already out on the steep slopes below the 
hotel on June 17th, and on every subsequent day in increasing 
numbers ; also in the Steinenthal on June 20th. On this day, 
too, the first Colias phicomone were met with — three specimens — 
and Mr. Griffiths also obtained one much lower down, near 
Refuge II. C. palceno was neither expected nor seen up to the 
time of our leaving ; C. hyale was generally common. 

Papilio machaon was common from June 16th, especially 
round Eefuge II. On the next day it was tantalizing to find 
three (presumably plum- or sloe-fed) P. podalirius feeding in 
puddles near the Ganter Bridge, while the writer found it needful 
to plod his way down to one of the outlying settlements near 
Brigue to obtain the plum-leaves required by a brood of Zepliyrus 
hetula larvae previously obtained near Glion. On this same day 
Aporia cratcegi was flying, larvae and pupae of which were abun- 
dant on the mountain-ash trees round the hotel. Leptosia 
sinapis and Euchloe cardamines were common, with Pieris napi 
var. hryonice (females) in very fine condition. On June 15th, in 
one spot just above Berisal, Anthocharis simplonia was so abun- 
dant that about twenty specimens were netted in as many 
minutes, and it continued common but far less local and easily 
obtainable during the remainder of our visit. 

June 16th, a superb brilliant day, spent on the beautiful 
stretches of road up to the Hospice, convinced us that our better 
ground for the time being lay below rather than above Berisal. 
Nevertheless, a fair number and variety of larvae and pupae from 



A PEW NOTES FROM BERISAL DURING JUNE. 57 

the stones and rocks prevented the day from being (even entomo- 
logically) wasted. 

Of the Argynnids, only Brenthis euphrosytie was abundant ; 
one pupa, found on June i6th, produced a butterfly in ten days. 
Mr. Griffiths also found a pupa of B. amathnsia. Issoria lathonia 
was pretty common near Eefuge 11. , but not in very good con- 
dition. Among the Melitseids, M. plioehe was found in abundance 
as a larva and pupa, the first imago appearing on June 17th, 
and a female being bred in captivity as late as August 22nd. 
The cold summer in England seemed to have a very retarding 
effect on these and other larvae, they ceasing altogether to feed 
during dull chilly weather, and always exposing themselves on 
their thistle-tops to such sunshine as was to be had._ The com- 
monest pupa of the genus above and below Berisal was M. 
dictynna, the butterflies emerging in the following July. The 
pupse hang, regardless of aspect, on perpendicular rocks and 
stones, frequently on such as afford no very obvious projection 
or irregularity for convenience of pupation. Many developed 
parasites, and some freshly turned examples were found being 
devoured by large ants. The butterfly was scarcely out before 
our departure on June 22nd, but I believe Mr. Griffiths secured 
one specimen. M. parthenie var. varia, also M. athalia, were 
met with, and M. cinxia had been out some time, judging from 
its condition. A few M. aurelia were taken near the Ganter 
Bridge, and a specimen bred from a stone-hung pupa on July 
26th. Males of M. diclyma were out in superb condition by 
June 18th, soon becoming commoner, and females were taken 
half-way down to Brigue on 17th and 22nd. One pupa was 
found which yielded a male imago on July 19th. 

Barely has one the pleasure of recording seven species of 
Vanessidse on a single occasion, but on June IQthAglais urtica (fine 
and fresh), one Eugonia polychloros (also fresh), and hybernated 
examples of Pyrameis atalanta and cardui, Euvanessa antiopa, 
Vanessa io, and Polygonia c-alhum were all to be seen between 
Berisal and Eefuge II. 

Species of the genus Erebia naturally were not out in full 
force during our stay. E. evias was, however, abundant both 
above and below Berisal, E. ceto began to appear on June 18th, 
and Mr. Griffiths netted the first E. tyndarus in the Ganterthal 
on the same day. Pararge hiera was abundant, especially above 
Berisal, and P. mcera began to appear below on June 18th. A 
few larvse were found on grass, and pupse suspended from stones, 
of this species. Coenonympha arcania var. dariviniana was re- 
corded first on June 19th. 

The "skippers" were represented by Hesperia carthami, H. 
alveus, H. serratula, H. malvce and H. sao, Nisoniades tages, and 
Pamphila sylvanus. 

Several species of Noctuae and Geometry were found at rest 



58 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

on the rocks, many of which still require naming. Amongst the 
latter were hybernated specimens of Cidaria miata and Scotosia 
certata ; I netted a Cymatophora duplaris, and a specimen of 
Cluerocampa porcellus was also taken at rest. 

The above notes will, I think, show that an earlier visit than 
is customarily paid to this beautiful region by entomologists is 
by no means profitless ; special points being the superb condition 
of most of such imagines as were recorded, and also the abun- 
dance of larval and pupal life, the list of which, had our weather 
proved less favourable for net-work, could no doubt have been 
largely extended. 

Brasted Chart, near Sevenoaks : December, 1907. 



ON THE INTERESTING NATURE OF HETEROPTEROUS 
METAMORPHOSES. 

By G. W. Kirkaldy. 

The statement in most entomological text-books that the 
Hemiptera undergo only a very slight metamorphosis throughout 
their postembryonic life, has probably led to the almost total 
neglect of this fascinating branch of entomology. 

In a broad sense, as indicating their homomorphous nature, 
this is true, but as regarding actual details, it is very misleading. 
From ovum to adult many of the Hemiptera undergo very 
remarkable changes of form, much more interesting in reality 
than the ecdyses of Lepidoptera or other Heteromorpha ; for 
while these latter have three well-marked post-oval stages, in 
the Hemiptera there is, as a rule, the gradual evolution of a 
single form. 

Entomologists will open up almost virgin soil in a fascinating 
field who will rear up Hemiptera through all their stages, 
describe and draw these, record their food-plants and habits, &c. 
In the October number I briefly alluded to the Homoptera ; now 
I offer a few words on the Heteroptera. 

The Cimicidffi (= Pentatomidae) are especially worthy of 
study. The eggs are among the most remarkable in form, 
sculpture, &c., of any insects, and are known in less than a 
dozen species all over the world. 

De Geer (' Memoires,' vol. iii. pis. 13 and 14), 1773, has 
roughly figured some of the stages in Dolycoris baccarum (or 
Cimex verhasci, as he calls it). The eggs are laid on the flower- 
heads of avens, Geum urhanum (pi. 13, fs. 19-22, &c.). They 
are oval, with a little lid. The first nymphal instar has a short 
rounded head, forming almost one curve with the pronotum at 
the sides (pi. 14, fs. 1-2), but in a later stage the anterior 



NEW AMERICAN BEES. 59 

margin of the pronotum is straight and very wide, the head 
narrow (figs. 3-4). 

Elasmucha grisea ( = Acanthosoma inter stinctum, Saunders = 
Cimex hetidce De Geer) is celebrated for its parental affection {cf. 
'Entomologist,' 1903, p. 114). An early nymphal instar has a 
remarkably produced head, the central lobe being twice as long 
as the lateral ones. The species of Euri/dema (Stracliia) have 
strongly coloured, cylindric eggs, with truncate ends. 

The nymphs of Tingidse are usually curiously spined, while 
those of many Reduviids are sticky and so become covered with 
dust, pollen, cast skins of their prey, &c. The eggs of Reduviids 
are deposited, like those of Cimicids, on the surfaces of leaves, 
and have ornamented caps of noteworthy form. The eggs of 
Nabidae are inserted in plant-tissue, almost to their very end. 

Among specially interesting British Heteroptera, of which 
the life-histories are only partially, or not at all, known, I would 
suggest : Eysarcoris fabricii ( =: melanocephalus) on Stachys syl- 
vatica ; Rhytidolomia ( = Pentatoma) junipei'ina on Juniperus 
communis ; Eurydema oleracea on Cruciferae ; Elasmucha grisea 
on Betula alba ; and MonantJiia cardiii on Carduus crispus. 
These five are all common, at least locally, and should be easy 
to observe and rear up. I may perhaps be allowed to refer to 
two of my own papers which may be of interest in this connec- 
tion, viz. : — " Upon Maternal Solicitude in Hemiptera, &c." 
Entom. 1903, pp. 113-20. " Biological Notes on the Hemiptera 
of the Hawaiian Isles. No. 1." P. Haw. E. S. i. 135-61 ; 
4 text figs. 

My friend Mr. de la Torre Bueno has recently described the 
stages of several waterbugs very fully in the ' Canadian Ento- 
mologist.' 



NEW AMERICAN BEES.— VI. 

By T. D. a. Cockerell. 

Osniia copelandica, sp. nov. 
2 . Length 7 mm. ; black, with a very faint Ijrassy tint on the 
front, and the abdomen with an obscure purplish lustre, and the hind 
margins of the segments very narrowly ferruginous ; ventral scopa 
pure lohite ; conspicuous white hair at sides of face, sides of meta- 
thorax, and to a less degree about tubercles ; first and second 
abdominal segments with conspicuous white marginal hair-bands, on 
the sides only ; hair on inner side of hind tarsi white tinged with 
golden ; head and thorax densely punctured ; head large, cheeks 
broad ; flagellum faintly reddish beneath ; mandibles tridentate ; 
clypeus prominent, rather produced, the lower margin gently con- 
cave ; tegulsB dark reddish ; wings a little infuscated ; abdomen 
shining, finely punctured ; spurs yellowish-ferruginous, not dark ; 
pulvillus large. A very distinct species, apparently related to the 
European 0. adunca (Panzer), but much smaller. 



60 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Hah. Copeland Park, Boulder County, Colorado. Sept. 4th, 
1907 (S.A.Eohwer). 

Ejjeolus hitei, sp. nov. 

? . Length 7^ mm. ; black, with the usual markings ; head and 
thorax densely rugoso-punctate ; head broad, eyes strongly converging 
below ; labrum, mandibles, and first three antennal joints ferruginous ; 
tegulae, tubercles, tibias, tarsi and femora at apex and narrowly be- 
neath, all lively ferruginous ; anterior middle of mesothorax with a 
rather V-shaped mark of light pubescence ; scutellum bigibbous, 
extending l^eyond the short lateral teeth ; pleura with a very broad 
and conspicuous transverse band of light hair, below which it is nude 
or almost, very densely rugoso-punctate ; spurs reddish-white ; wings 
with a distinct dusky shade beyond the marginal cell ; stigma ferru- 
ginous ; abdomen with broad yellowish-white hair-bands ; first seg- 
ment with a long transverse dark area, and the marginal band inter- 
rupted in the middle. In Eobertson's table (Canad. Entom. October, 
1903) this runs to the neighbourhood of E. autumnalis Eob., but is 
very distinct from that by the markings of the thorax, larger punc- 
tures of scutellum, &c. The resemblance is closer to E. beulahensis, 
CklL, but the thorax is much less hairy than in that species, and the 
lateral oval spots on second abdominal segment are wholly wanting, 
while the dark area on the first is not pure black, but is covered with 
fine golden-brown pubescence. 

Hah. Copeland Park, Boulder County, Colorado. Septem- 
ber 6th, 1907 (G. M. Hite). 

Sphecodes lautipennis, sp. nov. 
(? . Length 8 to 9 mm. ; black, with the abdomen red except at 
base and apex ; face covered with white hair ; vertex with erect 
white hair ; mandibles with the apical three-fifths ferruginous ; an- 
tennae black, flagellum thick, submoniliform ; thorax with white 
hair, the mesothorax quite hairy, and with strong close punctures, 
the posterior middle shining and with the punctures widely 
separated ; middle of scutellum flattened, shining and sparsely 
punctured ; area of metathorax sharp-edged, and with very strong 
vermiform plications ; legs black, the small joints of tarsi ferrugi- 
nous ; tegulae testaceous, subhyaline and punctured in front ; wings 
ample, very clear, almost milky, nervures very pale ferruginous, 
stigma more infuscated ; abdomen parallel-sided but not especially 
narrow, shining ; first segment very sparsely punctured, second with 
the apical two-thirds very sparsely punctured, the basal with fine 
close punctures ; third with the fine punctures extending practically to 
the subapical groove ; fifth and sixth segments, except apical margin 
of fifth, black, and a little blackish on the one before ; black on first 
segment occupying the basal part, except a more or less evident 
median red patch, the hind margin of this black having two small 
projections. Fourth antennal joint as long as fifth, and not so long 
as 2 -f 3 ; flagellum without facets beneath. Allied to S. clcmatidis 
Eob. ; peculiar for the clear white wings. 

Hah. North Four-mile Canon, Boulder County, Colorado 



TWO NEW SPECIES OF CHRYSIDID.T: FROM BORNEO. fil 

(type locality). September 3rd, 1907 (S. A. Rohwer) ; Jim 
Creek, September 7th, 1907 (G. M. Hite). 

Ash77ieadiella denticulata (Cresson). 
The species of Colorado and New Mexico, generally known 
as Ashmeadiella hucconis (Say), should apparently be called 
denticulata. The latter has been considered a synonym of 
hucconis, but the ventral scopa of the female is white, whereas it 
is yellowish in hucconis. A. denticulata was collected at Boulder, 
Colorado, August 28th, 1907, by Mr. S. A. Eohwer. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF CHRYSI- 
DIDiE FROM BORNEO. 

By p. Cameron, 

Hedychrum horneanum, sp. nov. 
Green, with brassy tints, the centre of mesonotum blue, ocellar 
region and the apical segment of abdomen tinged with purple ; 
antennal scape and pedicle green, the fiagellum black ; wings hyaline, 
tinged with violaceous, the nervures black ; tarsi rufo-testaceous. ? . 
Length, 6 mm. 

Kuching, Borneo (John Hewitt). 

Vertex with fine widely, irregularly separated punctures ; the 
front with much larger punctures, more closely pressed, below, 
laterally, almost forming reticulations ; the space below the antennae 
smooth. Mandibles green, brownish at the apex. Outer orbits for 
the greater part finely, closely, longitudinally striated. Pronotum 
smooth, impunctate, as is also the mesonotum, except for a row of 
large deep punctures along the outer edge. Scutellum smooth, with 
two large round punctures on the outer edge. Basal part of meta- 
notum covered with large round deep punctures ; the aj)ical slope 
with an area in the centre above, transverse above, the apex ol^liquely 
narrowed to a point below. Propleuree strongly punctured above, 
smooth below, the smooth part dilated upwards at the base. Meso- 
pleurae wdth large clearly separated punctures, the lowest of which 
form a regular longitudinal row ; below is a row of six larger squarish 
foveae, in a depression, bordered above and below by a keel. In the 
centre of the metanotum are two large areae, the basal squarish, the 
apical smaller and oval. Abdomen smooth and shining, the lower 
edge white and membranous. As usual, the frontal depression is 
finely transversely striated. 

Chrysis (Heptachrysis) hewittii, sp. nov. 
Green ; the head, thorax, and basal segment of abdomen with a 
brassy tint ; the ocellar region, the basal half of middle lobe of meso- 
notum, and the base of second abdominal segment narrowly, indigo- 
blue. Antennal scape and the basal two joints of fiagellum dark 



62 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



green, the rest of flagellum black. Legs green, the coxae and four 
anterior femora behind brassy, the tarsi black. Wings hyaline, 
slightly suffused with violaceous, the nervures black. $ . Length, 
7-8 mm. 

Kuching, Borneo (John Hewitt). 

Front and vertex above the keel closely covered with round punc- 
tures, with sharp borders ; immediately below the keel is a raised 
border of similar punctures ; the depressed part below the latter is 
closely, somewhat obliquely striated, there being a narrow, shallow 
furrow down the centre. Outer edges of face punctured. Apex of 
clypeus smooth, broadly rounded. Mandibles dark purple, the 
extreme base green, followed by a brassy band. Thorax closely 
covered with round deep punctures, those on the pronotum finer, 
those on the metanotum coarser than those on the mesonotum. 
There is a smooth depression in the centre of propleurge, bordered 
below by a broad roundly curved margin. Metapleurse smooth above, 
below irregularly, finely striated. The lateral angles of metanotum 
project into stout triangular teeth. The scutellum is bordered later- 
ally by a wide furrow. The first abdominal segment is more strongly 
and more widely punctured than the second and third. The four 
teeth on the latter are wide and short ; it is more finely and closely 
punctured than the second ; there "are four foveae on either side ; they 
are deep and longer than wide ; outside the outer tooth are two 
smaller and more indistinct foveae or depressions. There is a fine 
but distinct narrow keel down the centre of the ventral surface. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

PiEBis BRASsic^ LARViB IN JANUARY. — On reading Mr. Fro- 
hawk's note (antea, p. 39), I thought the following note from my 
diary would be interesting to your readers: — "Very mild winter; 
found several larvae of Pieris hrassicce. in my garden, January 10th, 
1884." — W. E. Butler ; Hayling House, Oxford Road, Reading, 
February 13th, 1908. 

Winter Brood op Dasychira pudibunda. — It may possibly inte- 
rest some readers to know that I have had a winter brood of D. pudi- 
hunda out in one of my breeding-cages. They were not "forced" in 
any way beyond being kept indoors in a cold greenhouse. The larvae 
spun up in August last, and the first imago (a female) appeared on 
September 29th, then four females in October, eleven females and six 
males in November, two females and six males in December, and two 
males in January, 1908. The last came out on January 17th. — 
J. J. Jacobs ; St. Clair House, Gillingham, Kent, Feb. 8th, 1908. 

Note on the Larva of Acidalia osseata — I am writing to you 
in reference to larvte of Acidalia osseata. I find that they will eat 
the moss Hylocomium triqnetrum. I took a female last August, 
which laid a few ova ; these hatched in about three weeks, and the 
larvae fed on knotgrass. They continued to feed until the end of 



CAPTURES AND FIEF.D REPORTS. 63 

Septeml^er, when they started to hybernate, and were put into a 
metal box with dried moss of the species mentioned above. I did 
not look at them again until mid- January, 1908, when I found that 
they had grown very considerably. I should be interested to know 
if any other readers of the ' Entomologist ' have had any similar 
experiences. — F. Pope ; 11, Portland Street, Newtown, Exeter. 



CAPTUEES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Caradrina abibigua in Devonshire. — Last year I took five speci- 
mens of this species, and Mr. Blanchford captured three others. — 
F. Pope ; 11, Portland Street, Newtown, Exeter. 

Notes from the North-West. — The year 1907 will probably be 
remembered for some time by collectors in the British Isles, and 
indeed in Southern and Western Europe, as a year with a bad 
general character. Gloom, rain, wind, and cold were too often the 
temper of the sullen year. On January 23rd the whole of Europe 
was in an icy grip, and the rare spectacle of snow was witnessed in 
Naples and Athens. February was little less severe than January, and 
it was March 16th before a friend and I could pay our first visit of 
the season to Delamere Forest. Nothing entomological rewarded us 
except six Phigalia jyi'losarm, and a solitary Hyhernia leucophcearia, 
taken at rest on tree trunks. Two inlosaria, the same number of 
le^icophcBaria,i\vcee H. progemmaria (one a yqx. fuscata), a couple of 
Anisopteryx (Bscularia, one Larentia multistrigaria and a Tortricodes 
hyemana were the list for another day (the 23rd) in the same locality. 
In fact, Delamere Forest seems to be not worth working for imagines 
now until the end of April. 

It was interesting to note that our March captures had not 
got rid of the cyanide until the third day after killing, a difference 
of, say, two days after geometers were relaxed and fit to set when 
killed in June — that is, geometers killed in June are, as a rule, relaxed 
and fit to set the day after death by cyanide. The cyanogen natur- 
ally escapes quicker in a warm than in a cold temperature. 

In solemn state the Holy Week went by. And Easter Sunday 
gleamed upon the sky. And it was positively fine, sunny, dry and 
warm. On April 1st (Easter Monday) I saw my first butterfly of 
the season — a Pieris rapce, fresh from the chrysalis. Next day my 
eyes were gladdened by a Vanessa urtica, hybernated of course, 
busily seeking for nettles whereon to lay its eggs — and then came a 
frost, "a chilling frost," and it was months before we had another 
really fine day (July 5th). In fact, the April of 1907 was one of the 
three wettest for forty-one years — the sunshine was five hours short 
of the average, and the temperature was exceedingly fickle. 

May came in with snow in Westmorland, on the Pennine Chain, 
in Shropshire and North Devon. On the 8th Mr. J. Thompson, of 
Chester, and I went to the Wallassey sandhills. We were too late for 
Nyssia zonaria, and too early for Euholia lineolata; but we got two 
batches of Tceoiiocampa opima eggs by searching dead plants, twenty- 



64 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

one hybernated larvae of Lasiocampa quercus (? var. callnncB) and three 
hybernated larvae of Arctia caia. 

The eggs of T. opima hatched a few days after, and the larvae were 
full-fed on the 16th of July. In spite of giving them plenty of air and 
room in large flowerpots nearly filled with soil, and with net over the 
top and a piece of glass almost covering it to keep the food (sallow) 
fresh, I lost exactly fifty per cent., chiefly in the last stage, through 
diarrhoea. 

My share of the L. querciis larvae was eleven. They were all 
nearly full grown, and soon spun up. Five moths (two males and 
three females) emerged between July 20th and July 26th — the rest 
(six) are lying over the winter. Mr. South, in his welcome book, 
' The Moths of the British Isles,' p. 116, refers to " the outward 
turn of the lower ends of the yellow bands " in the northern variety 
calluncB. Four of my five moths have this feature strongly marked ; 
a female is referable to the pale southern form (the true quercus) and 
is without this outward turn of the lower ends of the yellow bands ; 
one male possesses the buff-yellow basal patch ; and the other male 
has the right upper wing and the outer third of the right lower wing 
coloured as in the female. The left upper wing has also a costal 
suffusion of this feminine tint. 

On the 15th of May half a dozen Chester pupae of Spilosoma 
menthastri I had kept out of doors through the winter began to 
turn out images. Two of the latter are worth special notice as 
follows: — No. 1. Upper wings buff — a broad, uniform streak of white 
from the base of the wing to very near the outer margin. The 
streak is situated above the inner margin, and runs parallel to it. 
The black spots are well developed on the upper wangs, and especially 
large on the lower wings. No. 2. The left lower wing is two-thirds 
smoky-black from the outer angle inwards towards the base. One or 
two streaks of this smoky-black appear on the right lower wing. The 
upper wings are fairly normal, but inclined to buff, and well spotted. 
A result of the advent of these interesting specimens is that I have a 
large number of Chester pupae lying, naturally, through the winter, 
in the hope that further developments in melanism will show in the 
species next May. 

On May 18th I took off tree trunks nine male and three female 
Tephrosia hiwulularia, in Delamere Forest. They were all typical 
specimens of the Delamere dark form. From eggs laid by these 
females, and resultant pupae now lying over the winter, I have little 
doubt about getting two or three, or more, of black examples wdth 
the white zigzag line near the wing margins. There can be no ques- 
tion that the species is single-brooded at Delamere. 

Throughout May and continued into x\ugust I made many 
excursions among the romantic DenlDighshire hills and valleys — some- 
times alone and sometimes witli pleasant companions, all with Nature 
hobbies. The only drawback was the unseasonable weather. On 
May 19th (Whit-Monday) there were cold northern airs, and a cloudy 
sky occasionally lit up by gleams of weak, wintry sunshine. There 
were six degrees of frost at Hampton Court, four degrees at Oxford, 
and it w^as ten degrees warmer in Iceland than at Folkestone, doubt- 
less through the influence of the Gulf Stream. In fact, we had 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 65 

December weather. Whit-Monday, however, occurred very early in 
1907 — a fortnight earlier than in 1906 — so some allowance should be 
made. And if the May visits into Denbighshire were almost entomo- 
logical blanks, they were worth taking if only to admire the wealth 
of wild flowers on the hedge banks — primroses in profusion, the red- 
dest of red campions, hyacinths, yellow as well as white dead nettles, 
violets, wood sorrel, stitchwort, &c. Three Lycana argiolus were 
taken at rest off a holly hedge on the base of Minerva Mountain on 
the 19th. This butterfly is single-brooded here. Second broods, it is 
reported, have either failed to occur or have been poorly represented, 
in 1907, in localities north of Warwickshire, probably owing to the 
unfavourable season. The butterfly was unusually scarce in Denbigh- 
shire. Four males and a couple of females were taken, June 1st. 
Two of these were found resting on a holly hedge, and the remaining 
four were beaten out of it. A male and female were netted on the 
wing, June 8th — all in the same locality — and these were the last 
seen. It is hardly possible to examine these "blues " without calling 
to mind Darwin's theory in his ' Origin of Species.' The Creator 
evidently bequeathed such a liberty of development — new insect 
colour-forms arising even in a lifetime — that it is possible all the 
" blues " were evolved from one original type through exterior causes 
which are lumped together under the head of "environment." And 
Charles Kingsley saw nothing in the acceptance of this possibility 
which militated against the Bible story of creation. (See ' Life and 
Letters of Charles Darwin.') 

From Wrexham to Llangollen Numeria pulveraria is a common 
geometer. Here the dark bar on the upper wings is wider than in 
my series from Kent, and the ground colour in both sexes is paler. 
In beating the hedges we netted four on the 1st of June, together 
with Melanippe fluctuata, Coremia unidentaria, a solitary Anticlea 
hadiata (a late specimen, but perfect), and Eiqnthecia vulgata. 
Flying over the grass were numerous Emmelesia albulata, and a 
typical female Odontopera hidentata was discovered resting at the foot 
of a hedge. Euholia p)cdumbaria, M. montanata, and a female 
S. mendica (the latter very rarely met with in the Chester district) 
were added to the list on the 8th — together with larvae of V. urticcB 
oil" nettles. One of the pulveraria females is a pale buff, almost uni- 
colorous and with faint markings. She laid a few eggs, and the 
larvse pupated during August. We found Acronycta menyanthidis 
commonly enough on the heather tops in June. The form here has 
a pale, bright ground colour, with clearly defined dark markings. 
One I found at rest on a tree in the lowland — a mile away from the 
heather — on the 15th, evidently driven off by the previous day's 
stormy weather. 

About the middle of the month a friend called me into his garden 
to look at his hollyhocks, the leaves of which were spun together 
and well riddled by tortrix larvae. They turned out to be Tortrix 
forsterana. The plants were saved from further mischief by picking 
off the larvae, many of which I reared as imagos. At Burton Point, 
on the Dee estuary, I found larvas of Aspiis udmanniana plentiful in 
spun-together bramble shoots, June 19th. 

ENTOM. MARCH, 1908. F 



06 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Midsummer Day (June 24th). In the last forty years theliighest 
temperature has not reached sixty degrees on five occasions — in the 
years 1871, 1877, 1885, 1894 and 1901. The lowest maximum 
temperature recorded on Midsummer Day in these years is fifty-five 
degrees, in 1885. The reading for Midsummer Day, 1907, was fifty- 
three degrees ! The maximum recorded is seventy-eight, in 1887. 
Altogether, the June of 1907 fully deserved the character of "a 
doleful June." The skies were generally clouded, and the weather 
cold and wet. Snow fell in Scotland, in Westmorland, and North 
Yorkshire on the 25th. The climatic conditions were probahly 
unique to the present generation. 

%Iacaria litnrata — quite fifty per cent, of which were the variety 
nigro-fulvata (Collins) — began to emerge on the 11th from Delamere 
Forest larvae ; and Agrotis ashworthii, from Denbighshire larvae col- 
lected in April, came out well from June 28th to July 18th. The 
month (June) ended with a thunderstorm. 

Aplecta nebiilosa, reared from Delamere Forest caterpillars, 
appeared during the latter part of June and beginning of July. The 
percentage of the variety robsoni ranged from four to eight, but we 
failed to get tliompsoni. Both these forms are faithfully figured in 
" The Moths of the British Isles," p. 241, with the aid of photography 
and colour printing — robsoni with its grey fringes, and thompsoni 
with its white fringes. 

With the exception of the 5th and 12th, July ran on to the 14th 
before we had a week of warmth. The chilly weather extended from 
the British Isles to the Azores. The coldest places on the 2nd were 
Belfast, Clacton and Nottingham, which all shivered in a temperature 
of forty-one degrees. It was colder in London than in the middle of 
November, 1906, when the thermometer rose comfortably to sixty-one 
degrees. Snow fell at Zermatt and was lying upon the hills within 
a few feet of newly cut hay ! 

On the 16th the electric lamps became worth working. The 
following is a list for that date— all taken about midnight, or after, 
and resting on the walls or pavement within a dozen yards of the 
lamps : — Notodonta dictcea (including the first female I ever took at the 
lamps and she obliged me with two hundred and fifty white eggs which 
began hatching on the 24th), S. liibricipeda ^nd. S. vienthastri, Miana 
strigilis (all dark), Caradrina viorphem, C. ciibicidaris, A. exclama- 
tionis, Xylophasia polyodon, Habrostola triplasia, Plusia iota, 
Uropteryx sambucaria, Amphidasys betularia var. doubledayaria, 
Rumia cratcegata, Boarmia rhomboid aria and Paraponyxstratiotalis. 
On the 17th this list was varied by the appearance of N. dictcEoides, 
Herminia derivalis and a black X. piolyodon. On July 18th further 
additions were A. caia, Phalerabucephala, P.festiiccBa.ndPhorodesma 
bajularia. — J. Arkle ; Chester. 

(To be continued.) 



67 



SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society op London. — Wednesday, February 5th, 
1908.— Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, President, in the chair.— The President 
announced that he had nominated Dr. Thomas Algernon Chapman, 
M.D., F.Z.S., Professor Eaphael Meldola, P.R.S., F.C.S., and Mr. 
Henry Rowland-Brown, M.A., as Vice-Presidents for the Session 
1908-9. — The President announced that the Council had elected Mr. 
James William Tutt to serve as a member of the Council in the place 
of the late Mr. Arthur John Chitty, deceased. — Mr. C. Gordon Hewitt, 
M.Sc, of the University, Manchester, was elected a Fellow of the 
Society. — Dr. T. A. Chapman exhibited a collection of butterflies 
made last summer at Gavarnie, in the Pyrenees, including a number 
of specimens of Erehia lefehvrei, with E. melas from South-east 
Hungary, for comparison. He pointed out, and illustrated by means 
of enlarged photographs, the superficial differences in the wing- 
markings between the two species, and also drew attention to the 
fact that specimens of Lyccena orbitulus taken on the Simplon, Swit- 
zerland, are identical with L. orbitulus var. oberthuri of the Pyrenees. 
— Mr. H. St. -John Donisthorpe showed eleven species of ants taken 
in the hothouses in Kew Gardens in December, 1907, and January, 
1908, eight being new to the published Kew list, and six species not 
before recorded as introduced in Britain. — Mr. J. E. Collin brought 
for exhibition microscopically mounted specimens of Eiridapus scabiei, 
Hopk., a potato pest in the United States, and recently discovered in 
England attacking narcissus-bulbs by Mr. H. J. Charbonnier, of 
Bristol. — Commander J. J. Walker showed, on behalf of Mr. A. H. 
Hamm, very young larvae of Bitaris muralis, hatched at end of 
October and beginning of November from ova laid by females in 
captivity (the natural place of deposit of these eggs being at the 
entrance to the burrow of the bee, Anthopliora pilipes, in stone walls 
near Oxford). He also exhibited two specimens of the rare Py rails 
lienigialis, ZelL, female, taken at light in his house at Summertown 
August, 1906 and 1907. — Mr. Rowland E. Turner brought for exhibi- 
tion a box of Thynnidae from S. America, mostly from Chile, and 
several new species from Mendoza and the Peruvian Andes. — Prof. 
T. Hudson Beare exhibited a specimen of Trachyphlmus scabriculus, 
taken at St. Margaret's Bay in August, 1907, with the two decidu- 
ous mandibles still in place. — Lieut. -Colonel Manders exhibited the 
female of Papilio phorbanta from Bourbon, an aberrant member of 
the Nireus group of PapiHos, and compared it with the other mem- 
bers of the same group from the African mainland, Madagascar, and 
Mauritius, kindly lent for the purpose by Professor Poulton. He 
pointed out that, whereas in all the other species the females were 
some shade of green similar to the males, the Bourbon insect was 
more or less uniformly brown. He suggested that this was due to 
mimicry, Euplcea goudoti, a species strictly confined to Bourbon, 
being the model. — Dr. K. Jordan exhibited, on behalf of the Hon. 
Walter Rothschild, some interesting Papilionids, including Troides 
alexandrce, Rothsch., remarkable for the beauty of the male, and the 



68 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

gigantic size of the female, a new discovery by A. S. Meek, who found 
this line insect in the north-eastern portion of British New Guinea, 
at some distance inland from the coast ; and a gynandromorphic 
specimen of Troides, the only one known of this genus, obtained by 
Dr. L. Martin in South Celebes. It belongs to T. halvphron, the left 
side being female and the right side male. — Mr. E. Adkin exhibited 
specimens of Tortrix pronuhana, Hb., reared in June and July from 
larvae collected in May, also others reared in autumn from ova de- 
posited by moths of the June emergence. He concluded that when 
the habits of the species came to be better understood, it would be 
found to be practically continuously brooded in this country, as had 
been shown to be the case in Guernsey. — Mr. L. W. Newman showed 
long series of MelUcea aurinia, from many localities in the United 
Kingdom, and Notodonta chaonia, to illustrate the wide superficial 
variation of the respective species. — Dr. F. A. Dixey exhibited speci- 
mens of Nycliitona medusa, Cram., and Pseudopontia paradoxa, Feld., 
observing that a former suggestion of his as to a mimetic relation 
between them had been confirmed by a letter lately received from 
Mr. S. A. Neave, at present in the Congo State, w^ho wrote that the 
two forms " inhabit exactly the same localities, and are barely distin- 
guisliable from each other on the wing." — Mr. Eowland E. Turner 
communicated a paper " On Tw^o Diplopterous Hymenoptera from 
Queensland," and " Notes on ThynnidaB, with remarks on some 
Aberrant Genera of the Scoliidae." — Mr. Guy A. K. Marshall read a 
paper " On Diaposematism, wnth reference to some Limitations of 
the Mlillerian Hypothesis of Mimicry." In this he pointed out the 
difficulty of accepting the idea of a mutual simultaneous mimicry 
between two unpalatable species, such as is postulated by the hypo- 
thesis of Diaposematism. A discussion was begun by Dr. F. A. 
Dixey and Professor E. B. Poulton, and adjourned to the next 
meeting. — The General Meeting which followed was adjourned to 
March 4th. — H. Eowland-Beown, M.A., Hon. Secretary. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History 
^ocmiY.— January 9th, 1908.— Mr. E. Adkin, F.E.S., President, in 
the chair. — Mr. Sich exhibited a specimen of Plodia interpunctella, 
captured in the Society's rooms. — Mr. Gadge, specimens of Malaco- 
soma neustria, from Chingford larvae ; one without a rudiment of the 
right hind wing, and the other with an extremely small left fore 
wing. — Mr. Turner, Dercas verhuelli, a Pierid near G. rhamni ; and 
the " map " butterfly, Cyrestis thyodamas, both from the Khasia 
Hills, India. — Dr. Hodgson and Mr. Grosvenor, series and specimens 
of Aricia agestis (astrarche), including var. saknacis, ah. obsoleta. ab. 
alpina, var. artaxerxes, ab. allous, &c., from Eeigate, Sussex, Nortli 
England, and Aberdeen. — Mr. Adkin, series of Tortrix pronuhana, T. 
podana, T. heparana, T. rosana, T. forsterana, Si,nd Batodes angustio- 
rana, reared from larvae taken on Euonymus japonicus at Eastbourne, 
in May and June, 1907 ; and read a paper entitled, " Further Notes 
on Tortrix pronubana, including its Life-history in Britain." — Eeports 
of the various field-meetings held during 1907 were submitted and 
read. — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Bep. Secretary. 

Annual Meeting, January 2Srd, 1908.— Mr. E. Adkin, F.E.S., 



SOCIETIES. 69 

President, in the chair. — The Balance Sheet and Council's Report 
were read, and showed that the Society had closed another year of 
usefulness. The retiring President, Mr. R. Adkin, then read the 
Annual Address, in which, after dealing with recent entomological 
discoveries, observations, &c., he reviewed the past history of the 
Society at some length. The following is a list of the Officers and 
Council for the ensuing year : — President, A. Sich, F.E.S. ; Vice- 
Presidents, R. Adkin, F.E.S., and W. J. Kaye, F.E.S. ; Treasurer, 
T. W. Hall, F.E.S.; Librarian, A. W. Dods ; Curator, W. West 
(Greenwich) ; Hon. Corresponding Secretary, Stanley Edwards, 
F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Hon. Report Secretary, Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. ; 
Council, S. R. Ashby, F.E.S. ; T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S., F.E.S. ; 
H. Main, B.Sc, F.E.S. ; A. L. Rayward, F.E.S. ; E. Step, F.L.S. ; 
and A. B. Tonge, F.E.S. In taking the chair Mr. Alfred Sich pro- 
posed and Mr. Step seconded a vote of thanks to Mr. Adkin, and Mr. 
Tutt, at some length, paid a warm tribute to the appreciation of 
Mr. Adkin's services in the Society for so many years. — Mr. B. 
Smith, of Upper Norwood, and Mr. E. R. Goffe, of Wandsworth 
Common, were elected members. — Mr. Rayward exhibited the hyber- 
nating larvae of Pseudoteiyna pruinata, on the stems of Genista 
anglica. — Mr. Newman, a large and varied series of AmorpJia populi, 
mostly from captured larvae. — Hy. J. Tuener, Hon. Bep. Secretary. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — Meeting 
held at the Royal Institution, Colquitt Street, Liverpool, on the 20th 
January, 1908, Mr. Wm. Mansbridge, Vice-President, in the chair. — 
Mr. Robert iVdkin, F.E.S., of Lewisham, was elected a member of the 
Society. — Mr. Oulton Harrison read a paper descriptive of recent 
photographs by Messrs. Harrison and Main, of London, illustrated 
by lantern slides of many interesting species and varieties of Lepido- 
ptera in their various stages. — Dr. J. Cotton exhibited lantern-slides 
of Lepidoptera photographed in their natural colours by Lumiere's 
process. The stereoscopic effect of the objects represented was 
especially noticed in this exhibit. — The Hon. Sec. exhibited, on behalf 
of Mr. T. Baxter, of St. Anne's-on-Sea, a case containing some of the 
most interesting varieties captured in 1907 ; they were as follows, viz., 
(1) A long series of Peronea hastiana, comprising vars. logiana, Hiib., 
divisana, Stt., leucopheana, Bent., albistriana, Haw., mayrana, Hiib., 
comhustana, Hiib., centrovittana, Steph., and other forms combining 
distinctly two of these, viz., logiana-centrovittana, leucopheana-may- 
rana, and albistriana-mayrana ; further, a water-colour drawing 
of other named variations captured or bred in previous years at 
St. Anne's. (2) Agrotis cursoria var. costceccerulea, Tutt, and var. 
obscura, Tutt, the latter being exceptionally dark. (3) A varied series 
of Gidaria immanata, taken at Forres. (4) A series of Melanthia 
bicolorata, showing transition from the type to var. plumbata. also 
from Forres. (5) Series of Polia var. olivacea, including a dark speci- 
men, all from Co. Durham. (6) A fine variety of Acronycta rumieis, 
taken at St. Anne's in 1905 ; the basal, submarginal, and marginal 
areas black, otherwise as the type. (7) A short series of GavqHo- 
gravima bilineata, banded form from Forres. (8) Zygcena filipendida 
var. hippocrepidis, and one with the outer spots only confluent, 



70 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

St. Anne's. (9) Sati/nis semele, from St. Anne's and Fifeshire coast, 
the latter bearing much stronger markings on the under side; this 
form also occurs on the Crosby sandhills, but not at St. Anne's. 
(10) EinnepJiele ianira, from Fifeshire. (11) Series of Lyccena icarus, 
from coast of Fife, including a var. of the female with the spots of 
the under side showing through the wing as whitish blotches, and 
under side vars. of the male with many of the spots obsolete, or 
nearly so ; all the females were exceptionally bright. (12) An ochreous 
var. of Amphiclasys betularia female, captured wild at St. Anne's, 
June, 1891 ; also a fine intermediate, bred from typical male x 
doiihledayaria female. — Mr. Eobert Adkin showed a series of Tortrix 
pronuhana, bred from Eastbourne larvaB in 1907. — Mr. J. J. Eichard- 
son, an aberration of Halia vauaria, taken at light, Sefton Park, 
Liverpool. — H. R. Sweeting and Wm. Mansbridge, Hon. Sees. 

City op London Entomological Society. — January nth, 1908. 
Rev. C. R. N. Burrows exhibited Cucullia verbasei, bred by Mr. Norgate 
from larv£e taken end of July, 1906, the imagines emerging in early 
May, 1907 ; some of the specimens were typical, but others were so 
light, and others again so dark, as to make them hardly recognizable as 
C. verbasei. — Mr. S. J. Bell, Abraxas ulmata, ranging from specimens 
with black markings almost obsolete to others in which these formed 
almost continuous fascias, Chalfont Road, July, 1906 and 1907. — Dr. 
S. A. Chapman, Pteropliorus braehydaetylus, a third generation bred 
at Reigate from Swiss stock. — Mr. J. A. Clark, two fine Aretia caia 
abs., one with yellow hind wings, from Leyton, the other with fore 
wings almost entirely deep brown with mere traces of the usual cream 
ground colour, and hind wings of an orange shade with black 
nervures and the black spots forming two wide bands. — Mr. H. M. 
Edelsten, Sesia andreniformis, bred in 1907, from Kent and Bedford- 
shire ; also its rare parasite Meniseus bilineatus. — Mr. T. H. L. 
Grosvenor, very yellow Pieris napi, from Aberdeen ; also P. brassiece, 
from same locality, with fore wings heavily speckled with black at 
the base, and under side of hind wings similarly powdered. — Mr. A. 
Hemming, Deilephila eupJiorbice, taken at Eastbourne, 1907. — Mr. 
A. W. Mera, Abraxas grossulariata abs., from London and Aberdeen ; 
in the London specimens the increase of black marking was usually 
most noticeable at the base of the wings, while the Scotch aberra- 
tions were usually blackest on the marginal areas. — Mr. L. W. 
Newman, Notodonta ehaonia, bred from Perth and New Forest, those 
from the former district being much darker than the Hampshire 
broods. — Mr. P. H. Tautz, Xylina semibrunnea, from Brighton, and 
Luperina eespitis from Richmond Park. 

January 21st. — Mr. L. W. Newman, Smerinthus populi, from 
Bexley, females varying from very light to very dark specimens. — Mr. 
P. H. Tautz, two series of Vanessa io, bred in 1905 and 1906 from 
larvaB taken at Chalfont Road and Chorley Wood respectively ; the 
1905 brood were normal, but those bred in 1906 had a transparent 
greasy appearance, while the ground colour of the wings was a pale 
dingy brown. — Mr. A. J. Willsdon, Pararge egeria, bred January 
20th, from ova laid by females taken at Torquay, end of September, 
1907. The first imago appeared on December 25th, and it was 



SOCIETIES. 71 

noticed that, althougli the pupae remained in the warm room in 
which the larvae were reared, emergence ceased whenever frost set 
in, and was not resumed until milder weather returned. — Dr. G. G. C. 
Hodgson read a paper in which he advanced the tlieory that varia- 
tions in climatic conditions tended to increase or decrease sexual 
dimorphism ; from observations made and matei'ial collected during 
a number of years he deduced the apparent facts that in hot sunny 
years sexual dimorphism was increased, while in cold rainy years this 
dimorphism was lessened. — S. T. Bell, Hon. Sec. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — January 20th, 1908. — 
Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, President, in the chair. — Mr. J. T. 
Fountain showed larva of Lasiocavipa quercus L. from near Bar- 
mouth, together under the Tacliinid parasites Tachina larvarmn, L., 
which he had bred from it. — Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, a fine collec- 
tion of African Papilionidae in three boxes. — Mr. C. J. Wainwright, 
Platycheirus melanopsis Lw., female from Eiffelalp, Valais, Switzer- 
land ; also Campsicnemus magius, Lw., and called attention to the 
extraordinary tarsi in the male sex. — Colbran J. Wainwright, 
Hon. Sec. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society. — At the December 
meeting of this Society, held at the County Museum, St. Albans, 
Dr. John Morison, Vice-President, in the chair, Mr. A. E. Gibbs, the 
Hon. Secretary, exhibited a small collection of butterflies received 
from a correspondent in Japan, and compared the forms of the same 
species found at the extreme eastern and western limits of the 
Palaearctic Eegion. He pointed out that the Japanese insects were, 
as a rule, larger in size and darker in colour than the British forms, 
and exhibited specimens of Papilio machaon, Pieris rapce, P. napi, 
Chrysophanus pihlmas, and others in illustration of this fact. At the 
meeting of the same Society held on January 28th, Mr. Gibbs 
exhibited a small collection of Diptera in four drawers, which Mr. 
P. J. Barraud, Mr. T. P. Furnival and he had collected for and pre- 
sented to the County Museum. The families which contained the 
smaller species were very poorly represented, and Mr. Gibbs ex- 
pressed the hope that some member of the Society would undertake 
the study of them. — A. E. Gibbs, St. Albans. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



TJie Agricultural Journal of India. Vol. ii., parts i.-iv. (January, 
April, July, October, 1907). 
The entomological articles are by Mr. H. Maxwell Lefroy, and 
comprise "Surface Caterpillars," pp. 42-46 ; "Insect Pests of India," 
pp. 109-115 ; " Locusts in India," pp. 238-245, plates xiv.-xx. ; 
"Practical Remedies for Insect Pests," pp 355-363; and "The 
Tse-Tse Fly in India," pp. 374-376. On the coloured plates illus- 
trating the first-named articles are figures of Agrotis ypsilon, Rott., 
and its early stages; also figures of A. flammatra, Schiff., E. spini- 
fera, Schiff., and E. segetis, Hiibn. 



72 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Memoirs of the Department of Af/riculture in India. 
Numbers 1-5, published during 1907, have been received. In 
these Mr. H. Maxwell Lefroy, the Imperial Entomologist, treats of 
" The Bombay Locust " (No. 1), and "The More Important Insects 
Injurious to Indian Agriculture" (No. 2), pp. 1-252. In No. 3, "The 
Indian Surface Caterpillars of the Genus Agrotis" are dealt with by 
Mr. Lefroy (pp. 253-259) ; and Mr. C. C. Ghosh contributes " The 
Life-history of Agrotis ypsilon" (pp. 260-274). Dr. Harold H. Mann 
discusses " Individual and Seasonal Variation in Helopeltis theivora, 
Waterhouse" (No. 4), and adds a description of a new species of the 
genus (pp. 275-337). No. 5 contains a paper by Mr. E. E. Green 
and Dr. Mann, entitled " The Coccidae attacking the Tea-plant in 
India and Ceylon " (pp. 338-355). There are a number of plates, 
mostly coloured, and many illustrations in the text. 

United States Department of Agriculture : — 

Bulletin No. 68, parts i.-v. — Papers by A. A. Girault and A. L. 
Quaintance on Deciduous Fruit Insects and Insecticides. 

Bulletin No. 69. — The Chinch Bug [BUssus leucopterus, Say). By 
F. W. Webster. 

Bulletin No. 70. — Eeport of the. Meeting of Inspectors of Apiaries, 
San Antonio, Texas, November 12th, 1906. 

Bulletin No. 72. — Information concerning the North American 
Fever Tick, with Notes on other Species. By W. D. Hunter and 
W. A. Hooker. 

Bulletin No. 74. — Some Factors in the Natural Control of the 
Mexican Cotton Boll Weevils. By W. E. Hinds, Ph.D. 

Bu^lletin No. 75. — Miscellaneous Papers on Agriculture. Part i. : 
Production and Care of Extracted Honey. By E. F. Phillips, Ph.D. 
Methods of Honey-testing for Bee Keepers. By C. A. Browne, Ph.D. 
Part ii. : Wax Moths and American Foul Brood. By E. F. Phillips. 

From the ' Proceedings of the United States National Museum,' 
vol. xxxiii. : — 

Descriptions of New North American Tineid Moths, with a Generic 
Table of the Family Blastobasidae. By Lord Walsingham (October 
29th, 1907). 

The Dragonflies (Odonata) of Burma and Lower Siam. ii. Sub- 
families Cordulegasterinae, Chlorogomphinae, and Gomphinse. By 
Edward Bruce Williamson (December 13th, 1907). 

Papers by John B. Smith, Sc.D. : — 

Notes on the Species of Amatlies, Hiibn. Pp. 345-379, plates ix. x. 
(Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxiii., November, 1907). 

Notes of the Brephidae. Pp. 369-371 (' Canadian Entomologist,' 
November, 1907). 

New Species and Genera of the Lepidopterous Family Noctuidae 
for 1907. Pp. 91-127 (Annals New York Acad. Sci. vol. xviii. pt. ii. 
January 22nd, 1908). 

Obituary. — We have heard with very great regret of the death of 
Mr. Herbert Goss. A further notice will appear in our next issue. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XLL] * APRIL, 1908. [No. 539 



JOHN THOMAS CARRINGTON. 

We regret to announce a further gap in the rapidly thinning 
ranks of the older entomologists. 

Born on March 2l8t, 1846, John Thomas Carrington was the 
second son of Charles Carrington, of Crofts Bank House, Lanca- 
shire, and was educated at a private school at Mottram, Cheshire, 
and afterwards in Dublin. He originally studied for the medical 
profession, but after extensive travels in North and South 
America, and also in Africa, he finally adopted journalism as 
his profession. 

In 1876, on the death of Edward Newman, he was appointed 
editor of this magazine, a position he occupied with conspicuous 
ability and tact until its purchase by the late Mr. John Henry 
Leech in 1890. 

In 1878 he took a leading part in organizing and managing 
the National Entomological Exhibition at the Westminster 
Aquarium, at which the finest representative collection of 
British Entomology ever brought together was exhibited to the 
public. In 1893 he bought ' Science Gossip,' which he edited 
until it finally ceased in 1902. For many years he was one of 
the departmental (Natural History) editors of the ' Field.' 

But it was not on the literary side alone that his energies 
showed themselves. An all-round naturalist, he delighted in 
getting away from business cares and carefully exploring the 
lesser known districts around London and Brighton. In the 
course of one of these excursions (September, 1896) he captured 
the unique British specimen of Calophasia vlatijptera, Esp. 
Those who had the good fortune to accompany him at any of 
these times will never forget the pleasure they gave. His know- 
ledge of British Conchology, Botany, and Ornithology, so freely 
afforded, his carefully arranged routes, and above all his genial 
manner and the genuine pleasure he showed in pointing out 
some new feature or rare specimen, rendered them ever to be 
remembered. 

ENTOM. APRIL, 1908. G 



74 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

He married (in 1869) Annette, youngest daughter of John 
Crawford, Esq., solicitor, of Holly Mount, Co. Meath, by whom 
he had three sons, two of whom, now resident in America, 
survive him. 

He recently retired to Combe Martin, North Devon, where he 
took a great interest in the proposed reopening of the famous 
silver mines, but shortly before Christmas he contracted a severe 
chill, from the effects of which he never recovered, and after 
many weeks of acute suffering, patiently endured, pneumonia set 
in, and he died on March 5th, aged sixty-two. 

C. A. B. 



HERBERT GOSS, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Hekbert Goss died on February 14th last at his house in 
The Avenue, Surbiton Hill, after a somewhat lingering illness. 
Born in " the fifties " in Brompton, he early evinced a decided 
love for natural history, and there is a story in his family that 
he started butterfly hunting at the age of six with the top of a 
hat-box covered with muslin for a net ! Educated by private 
tutors, he finally entered the Solicitors' Department of the 
General Post Office in May, 1871, retiring in June, 1906. 

From his earliest boyhood he took a keen interest in the 
British Lepidoptera, and later specialized as an authority on 
fossil insects, his papers on the subject, contributed to the ' Ento- 
mologist's Monthly Magazine,'* being afterwards reprinted, and 
in this form they were widely read and appreciated both at home 
and abroad, and commented upon with favour by such authorities 
as Bargagli in the ' Bulletin of the Entomological Society of 
Italy' (Florence, 1886). As a Fellow of the Geological Society 
of London, he had already contributed to the ' Proceedings ' the 
Insect Fauna of the Recent and Tertiary Periods (1877), of the 
Secondary or Mesozoic Period (1878), of the Primary or Palaeo- 
zoic Period (1879), and lastly a paper "On some Recently Dis- 
covered Insects from Carboniferous and Silurian Rocks," while 
his " Geological Antiquity of Insects " appeared in 1880. Mean- 
while many notices in the ' Entomologist's Monthly ' and the 
' Entomologist ' testify to his keen interest and powers of observa- 
tion in field-work, while presently as one of the first Secretaries 
in co-operation with the Rev. Canon W. N. Fowler, his experience 
in the General Post Office was destined to be of the greatest value 
to the then newly chartered Entomological Society of London. 
Elected a member in 1874, he joined the Council ten years later, 
and when Mr. E. A. Fitch and Mr. W. R. Kirby relinquished the 

* See also " Notes on a Fossil Wing of a Dragonfly from the Bourne- 
mouth Leaf Beds," by H. Goss (Entom. vol. xi. p. 192), and " Fossil Insects " 
{ibid., vol. xviii. p. 196). 



HERBERT GOSS. 75 

secretaryship in the following year (1885) he stepped into one of 
the vacant places. Here he continued in office until the long 
partnership was dissolved at the close of 1896, when ill-health 
for a time compelled him to withdraw. But in 1901 he resumed 
his post until his final resignation at the end of 1904 of those 
duties which he had performed with such conspicuous ability and 
zeal. To his punctuality and precise habit of mind, charac- 
teristic alike of his entomological and official life, we owe much 
of the improved methods introduced into our * Transactions ' 
and ' Proceedings.' In the Council his advice was constantly 
sought, and willingly given, while he was equally ready to 
assist his brothers of the net with technical information, and 
as an incisive speaker and writer to champion their rights when 
the Government of the day was minded to enclose vast tracts of 
the wild and beautiful country in the New Forest, his particular 
and happy hunting-ground.* The results of some at least of 
his observations have been preserved in the laborious local cata- 
logues of insects published in the * Victoria County Histories.' 
The lists of Lepidoptera enumerated in the volumes for Hamp- 
shire, Sussex, Surre3% Devon, and Northamptonshire are largely 
his work ; in the four first-mentioned counties they display a 
close intimacy with the insect fauna under review. Indeed, he 
had by his own personal field-work got together one of the most 
complete collections of British Butterflies in the country. 

Gross's interests, however, were by no means confined to 
entomological and geological science. He was a first-rate 
musician — a brilliant pianist in his earlier days — and quite 
recently delivered a lecture at the Surbiton Institute on the 
" Band of Nebuchadnezzar," which was as full of archaeological 
lore as of genuine humour. He also did good work on the 
Council of the National Trust for the Preservation of Places of 
Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, and possessed a consider- 
able knowledge of botany, in pursuit of which he formed a 
herbarium containing many rare and valuable specimens. 

In 1906 he was nominated one of the Vice-Presidents of the 
Entomological Society, and in this capacity he attended the last 
meeting at which he was present. His genial presence will be 
missed by many friends, and by none more than the writer of 
this notice, who was also his colleague for the whole of his 
second term of office as Secretary. 

H. Eowland-Brown. 

''■• New Forest: "Trespassers will be Prosecuted," by Herbert Goss, 
F.L.S. (Entom. vol. xviii. p. 313). 



G "-: 



76 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

GEOMETRID NOTES. 

By Louis B. Prout, F.E.S. 

1. Operophtera relegata, mibi, n. nom.=NEXiFASCiATA, Leech, 

nee Butl. 

I find that the Japanese species of Operojjhtera catalogued by 
Mr. Leech (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), xix. 671) as Oporahia nexi- 
fasciata has never been named. The true 0. nexifasciata of 
Butler (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1881, 420) was, as his descrip- 
tion and type-specimen show, synonymous with, or at least 
extremely close to, H}/driomena /areata, Thnhg.:=sordidata, Fb., 
and the transference of the name evidently came about through 
Butler having placed it in Oporahia, and compared it with dilu- 
tata, which gives, at the outset, an entirely erroneous impression. 
I have measured the type-specimen, and find it barely 1 inch 
5 lines, not "1 inch 6 lines," as Butler gives. The new species 
{relegata) is clearly an Operophtera, showing all the structural 
characters given by Meyrick for that genus.* Leech's descrip- 
tion — "very closely allied to Oporahia dilutata, Bork., but the 
antennse are more strongly fasciculated, and the first transverse 
band of primaries is straight " — evidently overlooks the neura- 
tion, and may be emended and amplified as follows : — 

Operophtera relegata, mihi. — Male, 35-40 mm. Whitish 
grey, speckled with fuscous, more sparsely behind second band. 
Basal line angulated, followed by some very ill-defined dark lines 
or shadings; inner line at a little beyond one-third, accompanied 
behind by another line, the interspace usually filled in with 
fuscous so as to form a narrow bar which runs nearly straight 
from costa to inner margin, or slightly oblique inwards ; outer 
line at beyond one-half, formed much as in Epirrita dilutata, 
followed by a rather broad diffuse fuscous shade, which is 
traversed by other indistinct Hues, and forms a vague band ; 
subterminal slightly nearer margin than in E. dilutata ; margi- 
nal area more or less marked with fuscous, a short oblique dash 
just below apex ; a very fine inconspicuous dark marginal line ; 
fringes nearly concolorous, inner half slightly darker than outer, 
inconspicuously fuscous spotted at vein ends. Hind wings paler, 
traversed by a few indistinct pale fuscous lines, the most definite 
being near to and parallel with the hind margin. Under side 
weakly marked, otherwise similar to upper. A somewhat 
variable species in the distinctness and exact position of the 
transverse lines, but uniform in colour and general aspect. 
Female unknown. The male resembles E. dilutata, but with 
fore wings slightly narrower, and more acute at the apex. 

'•' Vein 6 of the fore wings is shorter-stalked with 7-9 than in 0. bruniata 
and horeata, but this is liable to some individual variation in the genus ; see 
infra on O.jafonaria. 



GEOMETKID NOTES. 77 

Japan (Pryer coll., &c.). Type (male) and six others in coll. 
Brit. Mus. One male in coll. L. B. Prout. 

2. Operophtera japonaria (Leech). 
This species, described in Ent. Supp. 1891, 48, as Oporahia 
japonaria, must also, on account of the single long areole, be 
transferred to Operophtera, Vein 6, as in 0. relegata, is normally 
short- stalked with 7-9, but in one aberrant specimen out of 
eight examined it arises separately from the angle of the cell. 
The female, like those of its true congeners, so far as they are 
known, is semiapterous. Leech merely says {loc. cit.) that it has 
" all the characteristic markings of the male " ; the sole example 
from his collection shows the fore wings about the length of 
abdomen, narrower and more acute at the produced inner angle 
than in 0. boreata, Huh., the hind wings very short and ex- 
tremely narrow, apparently somewhat crippled. 

3. CCENOCALPE CENTROSTRIGARIA (Woll.). 

This species, though not quite such a cosmopolitan as its 
cousin Jiuviata, has an even wider distribution than Staudiuger 
ascribes to it. I have it from Jamaica and Buenos Ayres, and 
believe it occurs very generally in Atlantic America, both North 
and South. It has been suggested, though I think the suggestion 
is unpublished, that it is the Eubolia custodiata of Guenee (Spec. 
Gen. X. 490), in which case that would be the oldest name; but 
I hold the union to be impossible. Hulst's determination of 
custodiata as = 0chy7'ia gueneeata, Pack., is much more satis- 
factory. At any rate, custodiata was a larger insect than centro- 
strigaria, and was described from California ; whereas my friend 
Mr. E. F. Pearsall writes me that he does not know centro- 
strigaria from west of the Alleghany and Appalachian Mountains 
— at any rate, certainly not from the far west. The correct 
synonymy seems to be : — 

Coremia centrostrigaria, Woll., Ann. Mag. (3), i. 119. 

Phihalapteryx latirupta, Walk., xxxv. 1684. 

Cidaria luscinata, Zell., Verh. Wien. xxiii. 205. 

C. interruptata, Ebl., Ann. Hofmus. ix. 76. 

Plemyria paranensis, Schs., Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. xxvii. 
273. 

The last synonym is new, but is certain, according to examples 
named by Schaus himself. 

4. Entephria cjssiata (Schiff.). 

Scarcely had the final proofs of my paper on the variation of 
this species (Trans. City Lond. Ent. Soc. pt. xvii. 1907) left my 
hands before I came across two references which I should have 
liked to include there. A synonym to ab. annosata, Zett., is var. 
(ab.) nigristiaria, Gregs. (Ent. v. 75), described as having "deep 



78 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

blackish brown central band." \Cidaria] Entephria auvata, 
Pack., for which no reference is given in Dyar's list, was pub- 
lished in Proc. Bost. Soc. xi. 51 (1866), and is, as Grossbeck has 
just shown in some interesting Geometrid notes (Trans. Amer. 
Ent. Soc. xxxiii. 338) the oldest name for the eastern American 
species which has been passing for ccesiata, Schiff. Grote's 
inventaraia will possibly prove a synonym of Entephria aurata. 

5. Cyllopoda jatropharia (Linn.). 

This common species is frequently recorded as Cyllopoda (or 
Atyria or Flavinia) osiris, Cram., and until recently stood under 
that name in the British Museum collection. As a result, when 
the rare form (or close ally) with the broad marginal band to the 
hind wings turned up in British Guiana, Mr. Warren (Nov. Zool. 
iv. 420) named it Cyllopoda latimargo, sp. nov. ; whereas a refer- 
ence to Cramer's figure shows that that is precisely the form 
which he named osiris, while Clerck's figure (no doubt from the 
Queen of Sweden's collection) shows with equal clearness that the 
common form is the PhaUena Geometra jatropharia of Linnaeus. I 
only know the true osiris from British and Dutch Guiana. The 
corrected synonymy of the two forms is : — 

(a) Cyllopoda jatropharia (Linn.). 

Phalcena Geometra jatropharia, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 523 

(1758) ; Clerek, Ic. ii. tab. 55, 3 (1764). 
Atyria osiris, auctt., nee Cram. 
? Cyllopoda ovata, Warr., Nov. Zool. xiv. 198 (1907), syn. 

nov. 

(b) Cyllopoda osiris (Cram.). 

Phalcena osiris, Cram., Pap. Exot. ii. 28, tab. 115 e (1777). 
Cyllopoda latimargo, Warr., Nov. Zool. iv. 420 (1897). 
Cramer himself was the first to start the confusion, for on 
p. 151 he sinks his own species to that of Linnseus. 

6. Semiothisa regulata (Fabr.). 

Guenee (Spec. G6n. x. 68) readily recognized the Phakena 
regulata of Fabricius as " certainement de ce genre " {Macai-ia= 
Semiothisa), but was unable to decide to which of the many 
American species it should be referred. I have examined the 
type in the Banksian collection, and find it is the common 
species which Guenee himself named c«o<a<a. The following will 
be a suflicient synonymy : — 

Phalcena regulata, Fb., Syst. Ent. 629 (1775). 

P. notata, Stoll, in Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. 160, tab. 371, g, h 
(1781), nee Linn. 

Macaria enotata, Guen., Spec. Gen. x. 69 (1858). 



GEOMETBID NOTES. 79 

7. Semiothisa richardsi, mihi, sp. nov.* 

Male, 25 or 26 mm. Pale fawn-colour, with extremely faint indi- 
cations of somewhat darker, more ochreous transverse lines or shades. 
Fore wings with a pale outer hne at just beyond two-thirds, nearly 
parallel to hind margin, but curving very slightly outwards at inner 
marginal end. In the region of this line and bisected by it are some 
blackish marks, namely: between veins 2-3, 3-4, 4-5 rather large 
wedges, the one between veins 4-5 the smallest, that between 3-4 the 
largest, further interrupted (as is also that between 2-3) near its outer 
extremity by another very fine pale line ; between veins 5 and 8-9 
smaller and more irregular dark spots, inclining to form a row of 
three each longitudinally. Hind wings also with pale post-medial 
line (which is here very indistinct), and with small irregular blackish 
markings on either side of it between veins 2 and 4. Fringes con- 
colorous, fuscous-spotted. Under side bright golden brown, vaguely 
spotted with whitish, the whitish markings somewhat inclined to 
dispose themselves in transverse lines. Margins of wings almost 
even throughout, hind wings very slightly produced at vein 4. 

Female unknown. 

Tientsin ; one male, in my collection. 

In its ground colour and the general pose of the markings this 
species reminds somewhat of the least strongly-marked examples 
of Semiothisa oniataria, Leech (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, xix. 
310) from Moupin, but besides the absence of the spot on costa 
towards apex and other slight differences of arrangement the 
shape of the wings and the scheme of the under side are quite 
different, agreeing with those of Tephrina murinaria, Schiff., in 
its brightest coloured forms. The antennal ciliations are normal 
for Semiothisa. 

8. Stegania honesta, mihi, sp. nov. 

Sexes similar. 26 mm. Fore wings reddish buff or pale testa- 
ceous, somewhat variable in different individuals, rather thickly but 
smoothly scaled, glossy. Two indistinctly darker transverse lines 
following practically the same course as in Stegania triviaculata, Vill., 
and starting from dark costal spots (deep red-brown or blackish), as 
in that species, but rather larger on the average. No third costal 
spot. The second line accompanied distally by a narrow paler line, 
which renders it more conspicuous. Outer margin very slightly 
darkened. Fringes concolorous with wing internally, grey externally, 
intersected with whitish at vein-ends. Hind wings much paler, 
especially interiorly, and traversed by a single darker line (sometimes 
very indistinct), following the same course as in S. triviaculata. 
Under side almost without markings, or (in some individuals) with 
the outer line of all wings more or less well expressed. Face deep 
buff, vertex white. Antennae of male with rather long pectinations, 

^= Dedicated to my friend Mr. Percy Richards, to wliose kindness I am 
indebted for this pretty little species, as well as for the one next to be 
described. 



80 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

rapidly decreasing in length towards apex, which is simple ; of female 
shortly ciliated. 

Tientsin. Types (male and female) in coll. L. B. Prout ; one 
male, one female in coll. Brit. Mus. 

I refer this species provisionally to Stegania, with which it so 
well agrees in its general facies, but it is aberrant in having 
veins 10 and 11 long-stalked instead of coincident throughout 
(or " 10 absent," as it is generally expressed). It is also slightly 
more robust, abdomen somewhat longer, palpi stronger. 



NOTES ON CARADRINA {LAPHYGMA) EXIGUA. 
By G. F. Kawlings. 

My first meeting with this beautiful little moth was on May 
30th, 1906, when I took a very fine male in perfect condition. 
I saw no more until August 9th, after which date I took some 
practically every night for a month, taking the last specimen on 
September 9th. 

My best night was fourteen, total captures fifty-two ; but I 
saw several others during the month, which escaped. 

They were very strong on the wing and very lively. Even on 
roughish nights when other insects were few, they soared about 
as though revelling in the wind. I have also noticed this with 
amhigua. 

The moths were fairly regular in their arrival, the first 
generally arriving about 11 p.m., then at 12.30 and at 2 a.m., 
the last lot, as a rule, the largest in numbers. Nearly all the 
males have a beautiful process composed of very fine hairs 
radiating from a stalk attached to the thorax just between the 
front pair of legs and protruding forward, sometimes beyond the 
head ; it looks like very fine thistle-down. 

Though I had about a dozen batches of ova, and must have 
hatched over a thousand larvas, I did not succeed in pupating 
any. Most of them died off when apparently full-grown, though 
some died at an earlier stage. 

The disease started with some larvae of Phalera {Pygcera) 
hiicephala I was trying to rear for experimental purposes, and 
though my larvas were divided up very much, I lost all that I had. 

The first ova were deposited on August 11th by a female 
captured on the 9th. They were deposited in small batches with 
here and there a few odd ones. In shape they reminded me of 
a sea urchin with longitudinal lines. 

When fresh they look like small pearls, having the beautiful 
pearly lustre so conspicuous on the hind wings of the imago. 
About the fifth day they were grey, black on the sixth, and the 
larvae hatched on the seventh. 



NOTES ON CAKADKINA (LAPHYGMA) EXIGUA. 81 

The young larvae in most cases ate their egg-shells, but some 
were left undamaged save for the hole made by the larva to 
escape from the shell. 

The ova were attached to the box and covered with a downy 
mass of fine hairs, varying in colour from greyish-brown to 
white ; the latter probably being the fringes of the hind wings, 
and the former from the body and thorax. In some cases the 
hairs were missing, the ova being quite exposed. I was unable 
to determine if these had been deposited by a female who had 
lost or used all her hairs or not, but from the very much greater 
proportion of covered ones, I am inclined to think that the 
covering is usual. 

For a fuller description of the ova I cannot do better than 
refer the reader to the excellent article on the subject by Mr. 
Alfred Sich, F.E.S., on page 267 of the 'Entomologist' for 
December, 1906. 

When first hatched the young larvae were dark grey with 
black head and plate. They took readily to dock, plantain, 
Calystigia sepiuin, and Convolvulus arvensis. After feeding, they 
turned a pale greenish colour ; spots appeared on the fifth day, 
and on the sixth, when they had apparently moulted, lines were 
discernible. Five days later these markings were much more 
brilliant and distinct. They varied in colour from pale apple- 
green to very dark sage, while others were pale brown with a 
slight pinkish tinge ; others were darker brown, and some nearly 
black. All these varieties were of a pale ground colour, but the 
upper half was so lined and streaked with various shades and 
thicknesses of darker colour as to give it a shagreen-like appear- 
ance, the bands being formed by the different density and thick- 
ness of these lines and streaks. There is a gloss over all which 
gives the larvae a most beautiful velvety appearance. Head, 
plate, and legs are black. The largest, apparently full-grown, 
larvae measured slightly under an inch and a quarter when fully 
extended, of uniform and moderate thickness, tapering slightly 
at the first, second, and thirteenth segments. Spiracles very 
delicately outlined in dark green, brown, or black. Spiracular 
Ime white. The subdorsal band darker than the dorsal area, 
and equaling about half its width, and extending the whole 
length of the back ; this band is bordered at its outside edge by 
a very much darker line, which divides it from the spiracular 
line. This darker line is broken up into a series of short lines 
extending in a forward direction from each spiracle to a small 
white spot, which is situated slightly behind and above the next 
spiracle. These short lines are broadest and most pronounced 
on the hinder portion of each segment, from where they touch 
the white spot, to the fold. 

The space between each spiracle and its accompanying white 
spot is paler than the surrounding area, breaking up both the 



82 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

dark and spiracular lines, the white spot looking as though it 
were a piece of the spiracular line, which it equals in width, 
placed slightly above but touching the interrupted end of the 
dark line. These markings are most pronounced on the spiracle- 
bearing segments, the dark lines being scarcely discernible 
on the second, third, and thirteenth. The white spots bear 
an exceedingly fine hair, are one-sixty-fourth of an inch in 
diameter, and are placed on the segment just midway between 
the folds. 

The dorsal area is marked with a short, thick, dark dash, 
situated on the anterior edge of each segment, and extending 
down the centre of each about a quarter of its depth. A thin 
light-coloured line extends in a similar manner from the 
posterior edge of the segment towards the dark dash. The 
combined length of these two lines equals half the depth of the 
segment, the intervening space being the colour of the rest of 
the dorsal area. On each side of the dark dash, level with its 
hindmost point and midway between the centre of the back and 
the subdorsal band, there is a white spot about half the size of 
the spots near the spiracles. 

The under surface is very pale and faintly marbled with the 
darker markings and whitish spots. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW GENERA AND SPECIES 
OF ICHNEUMONIDiE (XORIDINI) FROM BORNEO. 

By p. Cameron. 

Paraxylophrurus, gen. nov. 

Areolet small, four-angled, the transverse cubital nervures almost 
united in front ; transverse median nervure interstitial ; disco-cubital 
nervure unbroken ; transverse median nervure in hind wings broken 
near the top. Head cubital, the temples of moderate size, roundly 
dilated ; the occiput roundly incised, finely margined. Eyes large, 
converging below, reaching almost to the base of the mandibles. 
Mouth with a semicircular emargination. Mesonotum distinctly tri- 
lobate. Abdomen smooth, the first segment as long as the following 
two united, its under side toothed near the base, the narrowed basal 
part behind the prominent spiracles of equal width ; the rest becomes 
gradually widened towards the apex. Legs (and particularly the 
hinder) long, the hind coxae about four times longer than wide ; claws 
with a tooth at the base. Tibiae spinose, the anterior not contracted 
at the base. Ovipositor long. Mandibles of equal length. The 
middle lobe of mesonotum does not project above the lateral. Meta- 
notum and metapleurae closely reticulated ; its spiracles rather small, 
twice longer than wide. 

In Dr. Ashmead's classification this genus of Xoridini runs 



NEW ICHNEUMONID^ FROM BORNEO. 83 

close to Xylophrnrus, which may be known from it by the trans- 
verse median nervure being broken beloiv the middle. 

In size, form, and coloration this genus resembles Allostomus 
here described, but may readily be separated from it by the semi- 
circular oral opening, and by the presence of an areolet in the 
fore wings. In Ashmead's tables the genus runs near to Gabimia 
and Xylophrurus, with neither of which has it any close relation- 
ship. 

Paraxylophruriis maculiseutis, sp. nov. 

Black ; face, under side of antennal scape, the lower side of pro- 
pleurae, the line dilated at the base, the apex gradually narrowed, 
tegulge, the scutellum except the basal slope, the mark rounded at the 
base, a semicircular mark on apex of post-scutellum, tubercles, a 
small mark below the hind wings, the first abdominal segment behind 
the spiracles, and lines on the apices of all of them, lemon-yellow. 
Legs of a brighter lemon-yellow ; the apical two-thirds of the hind 
coxge above, the basal three-fourths of the lower side, the apical joint 
of their trochanters and a band between the middle and apex of the 
hind tibiae, black. Wings hyaline, the stigma and nervures black. ? . 
Length, 13 mm. ; terebra, 7 mm. 

Kuching (John Hewitt). 

The antennae have a broad white band in the middle. Head, 
pro- and mesothorax smooth and shining, the metathorax closely 
reticulated all over. Abdomen smooth and shining. The four 
anterior tarsi and the apex of posterior fuscous. Tarsi closely 
spinose. 

Allostomus, gen. nov. 

Wings without an areolet ; neither the disco-cubital nor the 
second recurrent nervure broken by a stump ; transverse median 
nervure received very shortly beyond the transverse basal ; transverse 
median nervure in hind wings broken distinctly above the middle. 
Eyes large, converging below, reaching close to the base of the 
mandibles. Clypeus separated from the face, bounded at the sides 
and below by furrows, the lateral furrows the wider and ending above 
in a fovea. Mandibles unequal, edentate, bluntly pointed. There is 
a tubercle above and between the antennae ; the latter are as long as 
the body. Temples well developed, roundly dilated ; occiput mar- 
gined, roundly incised. Mesonotum trilobate. Metanotum longish, 
closely reticulated, the spiracles placed behind the middle, longish 
oval, about three times longer than wide. First abdominal segment 
longer than the second, its base half the length of the apex. Legs 
(including the four hinder coxae) long, slender ; the base of the tibiae 
not contracted. The antennae are broadly ringed with white. There 
is a long ovipositor. The prothorax broadly projects laterally, and 
is thus clearly separated from the mesothorax. Calcaria short. Claws 
conspicuous, curved. There are eight abdominal segments. 

A distinct genus. In Ashmead's arrangement it comes in 
near Clepticus and Epixorides, with neither of which can it be 
confounded. Lethulia, Cam. (from Borneo) has three areae on 
the metanotum, the abdominal petiole is longer than the follow- 



84 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ing three segments united, the four anterior claws are bifid, and 
the mandibles have a short subapical tooth. 

Allostomus macnlueutis, sp. nov. 
Black ; the face, base of prothorax, a large mark on either side of 
the presternum, tegulge, tubercles, a line down the apex of meso- 
pleurae, the base of the first abdominal segment, and a line on the 
apices of all the segments, bright lemon-yellow. Legs yellow, tinged 
with fulvous ; the apical half of all the coxse above, more than the 
apical half of tlie posterior trochanters, the four anterior femora, the 
apex of the posterior all round, the four anterior tibiae above, their 
tarsi, a mark near the base of the posterior tibiae, their apex all round, 
and the apical joint of the hind tarsi, black. The apex of the sixth 
antennal joint and the following to the nineteenth white ; the basal 
five joints (including the scape) are white below. Wings hyaline, the 
stigma and nervures black. ? . Length, 14 mm. ; terebra, 10 mm. 

Kuching, November (John Hewitt). 

Front almost smooth, the vertex sparsely punctured ; the face 
sparsely but more strongly punctured. Pro- and mesothorax closely 
punctured, the outer side of the middle lobe of the latter striated ; 
the propleurae, except at the top and bottom, smooth. Metathorax 
closely reticulated ; there is a keel over the metasternum. Basal two 
segments of abdomen distinctly, closely, the third weakly punctured ; 
the otbers almost smooth. The metathorax and coxae are thickly 
covered with short white pubescence. 



NEW AFEICAN BEES. 
By T. D. a. Cockeeell. 



The bees described below were collected in tbe interior of 
Portuguese West Africa, in the same general locality as those 
previously reported. 

Thrinchostoma tvellmani, sp. nov. 

$ . Length about 12 mm. ; anterior wing 9 mm. ; black, with 
,short greyish-white pubescence ; antennae dark, ordinary ; ocelli close 
together ; front finely punctured ; sides of face with silvery hair ; 
malar space longer than broad ; clypeus produced as usual, with 
sparse strong punctures ; maxillary palpi six-jointed, third joint short 
and thick, last long and slender ; labial palpi four- jointed, the first 
longest ; tongue long and slender, as is usual in the genus ; meso- 
thorax and scutellum dull, densely and minutely rugosopunctate ; 
area of metathorax coarsely granular ; sides of metathorax with white 
tomentum ; pleura with coarse white hair ; wings ample, dusky, the 
apical margin broadly fuscous; stigma and nervures dark sepia; b. n. 
falling short of t. m. ; first s. m. longer than third ; second large and 
nearly square ; first r. n. reaching extreme base of third s. m. ; third 
t. c. with a double curve ; t. m. bent ; tegulae shining piceous, with a 



NEW AFRICAN BEES. 85 

large pallid spot in front ; legs black, including the tarsi ; abdomen 
black, the hind margins of segments 2 to 4 broadly whitish, and with 
fine silvery hair on third and fourth. 

Hah. Benguella, "found dead" (Wellman, 1474). The 
genus Thrinchostoma was founded on a species from Madagascar ; 
but a second species, T. 'productum {Halictus productus, Smith), 
is known from Sierra Leone and the French Congo. T. pro- 
ductum is readily known from T. wellmani by its smaller size ; 
the female (according to Vachal) being 81 mm. long, with the 
anterior wing 6h mm. Diagozonus hicometes, Enderlein, from 
the Cameroons, is also closely related, and it is a question 
whether the genus Diagozonus should be maintained. Enderlein 
himself states that Halictus productus appears to belong to his 
genus, apparently overlooking Thrinchostoma ; but, nevertheless, 
there are some characters in the wing of Diagozonus which may 
perhaps entitle it to recognition as a valid genus. 

Nomia amahilis, sp. nov. 

$ . Length nearly 14 mm., anterior wing a little over 10; black, 
rolDust, with the pubescence partly dull white and partly black ; 
abdomen with broad but very widely interrupted (the middle third 
missing) light sky-blue tegumentary bands on the first four segments ; 
scutellum prolonged into a backwardly-directed lobe on each side ; 
postscutellum W-like, with two prominent but obtuse angular projec- 
tions. Head broad, with much white hair ; clypeus dull, striatulate- 
granular, with a faint rather shining median ridge ; antennae dark, 
but the fifth joint orange-ferruginous beneath ; fiagellum rather 
thick ; mesothorax dull and densely punctured, with black hair, 
except at the sides ; pleura, tubercles and sides of metathorax with 
copious white hair ; tegulae large, black ; wings very dark, nervures 
and stigma black ; legs black, with the hair partly Ijlack and partly 
white, but orange-ferruginous on inner side of laasitarsi, especially 
the last ; hind tibiae with the hair black on outer and yellowish-white 
on posterior face ; middle tibise with the hair of basal half of outer 
face mostly white, and of apical half mostly black ; anterior tibiae 
with the black confined to the apical fourth ; abdomen above with 
scanty black hair ; fifth segment covered with orange-ferruginous 
hair, with some black bristles overlapping ; apex with black hair. 

Hah. Benguella, "flying near a house" (Wellman, 1469). 
This agrees in the structure of the scutellum and postscutellum 
with N. scutellaris, Sauss., from Madagascar; but differs by the 
very dark wings, and the beautiful blue markings of the abdomen. 
Friese has described two forms of the scutellaris-gYon-p from the 
African mainland: N. maculata (Friese) and iV. nigripes (Friese). 
These differ from N. amahdis in having the abdominal markings 
reduced to quadrate spots on each side, of a bluish-white colour ; 
while the wings are only moderately dark, as in scutellaris. From 
the blue markings on the abdomen, N. amahilis looks at first 
sight like a Crocisa. 



86 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Mesotrichia orthosiphonis, sp. nov. 

?. Length about 16 mm.; anterior wing about 14; width of 
abdomen about 8^ ; face between the eyes about 4 mm. wide. Black; 
the thorax above, the upper third or less of pleura, the first abdo- 
minal segment above, and a patch in the middle of the second, all 
covered with canary-yellow hair ; face with dull white hair, with 
black intermixed ; cheeks with white ; vertex with black and whitish 
mixed ; fiagellum clear red beneath, except at base ; frontal keel 
between the antennas distinct but not high ; clypeus with strong 
punctures, and a median smooth line ; pleura, except the upper part, 
with dark fuscous hair ; tegulae ferruginous ; wings with the basal 
half hyaline, the apical strongly reddened, with a purple (not at all 
green) lustre ; legs with black or brown-black hair ; sides of abdomen 
fringed with black hair ; extreme apex with a little tuft of ferruginous 
hair. A species of the group of M. modesta, Smith, distinguished by 
its very broad form, the mixed light and dark hair on face, and the 
yellow patch on the second abdominal segment. From M. anicuia, 
Vachal (which I have from Dr. Brauns), it is easily known by its 
broader form, and paler, strongly reddish wings. 

Hah. Benguella ; at flowers of a species of mint of the genus 
Orthosiphon (Wellman, 1473). 



ON MOUNTING COLEOPTERA. 
By H. F. Fryer, F.E.S. 

It is with some hesitation I submit the following notes on 
mounting. To the old coleopterist there is probably nothing in 
them he does not know, and the practised hand will produce 
good work by many different methods ; still, when I remember 
my early difficulties, and the awful objects I produced — some of 
which, species I have not met with again, still stare me in the 
face — and contrast this former state of things with the com- 
parative ease with which a beetle is set up now, I am tempted 
to hope that some beginner may have his labours lightened by 
the hints given below, possibly some waverer confirmed in his 
faith, and, maybe, some collector induced to take up the study 
of this most fascinating order, members of which occur nearly 
everywhere, even in the most unlikely places, and which can be 
collected throughout the whole year. 

Killing. — As far as my experience goes, the best method of 
killing specimens for mounting is by plunging them for a few 
seconds in water which is near the boiling point. An ordinary 
ringed stand, used in chemical work, a small spirit-lamp, and 
porcelain dish or crucible, is the most convenient apparatus, 
and is ready for use five minutes after the lamp is lighted. 

The great advantage of this method is that the extinction of 



ON MOUNTING COLEOPTERA. 87 

vitality is immediate, so that species with retractile tendencies, 
such as Saprmus, ByrrJms, the Rhynclwphora, and many others, 
which, when killed with laurel-leaves, cyanide, or ether, take 
some days to relax, and are never easy to set, when plunged in 
hot water die with their legs more or less extended, and if set at 
once do not present any great difficulties. If not set at once, 
rigor mortis sets in, and they must then be left from thirty-six 
to forty-eight hours until this has passed off. In this case they 
are best kept in a box, which also answers the purpose of a 
relaxing-box ; at the bottom of one of the ordinary tin tobacco- 
boxes, which have a habit of accumulating in some houses, place 
a piece of the entomological peat, supplied by dealers in entomo- 
logical apparatus ; on this j)lace two or three thicknesses of 
white blotting-paper, and saturate the whole with a weak solution 
of carbolic acid (1 in 40) to prevent the growth of mould ; after- 
wards it can be simply damped with water when necessary. The 
specimens can be laid directly on the blotting-paper, but I find 
it more convenient to place them between the folds of an old 
pocket-handkerchief folded in book form and stitched at the 
back ; the captures of different days and divers localities can 
then be more easily kept separate, and, moreover, can be succes- 
sively dealt with as they become in a proper state of relaxation 
for setting. 

Unfortunately the hot water method cannot be easily used in 
the field on a long day's excursion, when many species are taken, 
and as it is troublesome to keep separate the rapacious species, 
the insects must be killed on the spot, and the collector has his 
choice between laurel-leaves, cyanide of potassium, and possibly 
ether. After trying each, I have returned to the first-named, 
but the laurel-leaves must be finely shredded and renewed fairly 
often, though when stale they can be freshened up with a few 
drops of ether, the effect of which will last for a day. Laurel- 
leaves have the great advantage of keeping the insects relaxed 
for almost any length of time, and by using several bottles those 
from different localities can be kept separate without trouble. 
One disadvantage of laurel-leaves must be mentioned, and that 
is if the specimens are left for a lengthened period there is some 
danger of grease; but I have found that if the leaves are per- 
fectly dry before they are used, this rarely occurs. It is hardly 
necessary to describe the well-known "beetle-bottle." I use the 
bottles in which the tabloids of Cascara sagrada are sold, and 
through the cork bore a hole with a cork-borer to take a piece of 
glass-tubing about 9 mm. in diameter — the larger the tube the 
cork will bear the better ; the tube should project about If inches 
above and one inch below the cork, and should itself be fitted 
with a small cork made from the core from the boring, this 
small cork should be tied with fine twine to an elastic band round 
the neck of the bottle to prevent loss ; it is only necessary then 



88 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

to transfer this tubed cork from one bottle to another as occasion 
requires. 

The Support. — Never stick a pin into any beetle if you can 
avoid it is a good maxim — in other words, mount all except the 
very largest species on cards ; Carabus, Dytiscus, and Lucanus 
may, I suppose, be pinned, but I would rather have them on 
cards. Choose a thick card, as it does not buckle, and is firmer 
on the pin. Decide on about four standard sizes, and do not 
vary from them ; a series well mounted on cards of the same 
size and at the same height on the pins is a thing of beauty, but 
on cards of different sizes and at different heights is a disgusting 
sight — I have many of them, I regret to say, put up in my in- 
experienced days. 

Following the plan adopted in many museums, I have 
punches made of the four standard sizes, but these are not 
really necessary, as with a pair of compasses, a flat ruler, and a 
pencil, the cards can to all intents and purposes be cut the 
same size, but it is necessary to keep a card accurately ruled as 
a gauge. 

One has now to decide whether to join the long card or short 
card brigade. A long card placed at the top of a long pin has, I 
think, the best appearance, but the extra room required is a 
great drawback, and unless one's cabinet is a forty-drawer one, 
I should advise the adoption of a short card placed at the top of 
a " point," i. e. a pin without a head, there is nothing then to 
interfere with the use of a powerful short focus lens. I use a 
Steinheil magnifying eight times, and one magnifying twelve, 
but with the former the characters of nearly all species except 
the smallest can be made out, and it is seldom necessary to 
employ a compound microscope. 

(To be continued.) 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF MEGACHILE 

FROM INDIA. 

By p. Camekon. 

Megachile nicevillii, sp. nov. 
Black ; the head and thorax covered with snow-white pubescence, 
the dorsal abdominal segments with similar pubescence, the scopa 
snow-white ; wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma black ; the first 
recurrent nervure received two-thirds of the length of the first trans- 
verse cubital nervure from the latter, the second clearly separated 
from the second transverse cubital. Mandibles bidentate, the apical 
tooth longer than it is wide at the base, gradually narrowed towards 
the apex, which is rounded ; the second broad, bluntly rounded. 5 . 
Length, 7 mm. ; breadth, 2 mm. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 89 

" India " is the only locality I have for this species. 

Head, pro- and mesothorax closely, somewhat strongly, punctured ; 
the post-scutellum and metanotum smooth, shining, bare. Head a 
little wider than the thorax ; the clypeus wider than long, its apex 
transverse. The pubescence on the face and front is long and dense. 
Abdomen not quite so long as the head and thorax united, the basal 
four segments shining, distinctly but not very closely punctured, the 
last opaque, much more closely punctured, its apex with a broad 
white hair-band. Except on the under side of the tarsi, where it is 
tinged with rufous, the hair on the legs is white ; the calcaria white, 
the posterior darker coloured than the others. The second abscissa 
of the radius is not much longer than the first. 

Of the Indian species known to me the present comes nearest 
to M. elfrona, Cam., which may be known from it by the opaque, 
aciculated, almost punctured metanotum, by the first recurrent 
nervure being received nearer the transverse cubital, and by the 
rufous tarsi. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Trichoptilus paludum Z. in East Devon. — Whilst collecting 
last September in East Devon, I took several specimens of a small 
plume-moth, which subsequent investigation proved to be T. pallidum. 
It was flying in the afternoon over a boggy piece of ground, and its 
short flight of about a yard, from tuft to tuft of stunted heather, made 
it difficult to see. The most westerly record given in Barrett's ' Lepi- 
doptera ' is Dorset, but the species evidently exists over the borders 
of this county. — Archibald Sharpin ; Bedford, March 14th, 1908. 

Example of Protective Mimicry in male Hepialus humuli. — 
On July 16th, 1907, whilst walking in one of the lanes near here, I 
was struck by the large quantity of " Cuckoo spit " on the grass which 
was growing on the lane side, and was led to make a closer exami- 
nation. To my surprise, I found that several of the white lumps that 
I had thought in the first instance to be " Cuckoo spit " were in 
reality males of Hepialus hwmili, which were clinging to the grass 
stems with the wings folded along the body. This appears to me to 
be clearly a method of protection, and the idea is emphasized by the 
fact that the moth was only to be found where the " Cuckoo spit " 
was. This example of the protection of H. humuli was entirely new 
to me. — G. Gibson-Robertshaw ; Gordon Bank House, Luddenden 
Foot S.O., Yorkshire. 

Lyc^na zephyrus var. lycidas. — Referring to Mr. Prideaux' 
article in the March number of the ' Entomologist,' I note that the 
above butterfly was taken in a " slightly ragged " condition at 
Berisal as early as June 15th. It may be interesting to mention that 
in 1886, about August 15th, I took two perfect specimens of the 
female on a high grassy plateau of the Gemmi just before commencing 
the ascent of the Pass. The altitude would be about the same as 
that of B6risal ; this capture therefore may be considered a striking 

ENTOM. — APRIL, 1908. H 



90 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

confirmation of the *' very prolonged period of emergence" to which 
Mr. Prideaux refers. I was living at the time in Dresden, and on my 
retm^n I took the two specimens out to Blasewitz for Dr. Staudinger's 
inspection. He pronounced them to be undoubted Lycidas, and 
said that the locality was to him a new one. I had taken a rather 
worn specimen of the male in the valley between Stalden and Brigue 
at the end of July the year before. — E. S. Standen, F.E.S.; Lindfield, 
Sussex, March 7th, 1908. 

Bird Chased by a Butterfly. — One day while I was collecting 
in the Bered Woods at Durban I was much interested to see a speci- 
men of Papilio lyceus in liot pursuit of a bird ; he was chasing it in 
exactly the same manner that many of these big Papilios will 
sometimes chase away other butterflies from their own immediate 
neighbourhood, and the bird, which was about the size of a large 
blackbird, was flying rapidly before his pursuer, showing every 
symptom of fear and trepidation, while the butterfly continued to 
pursue the intruder for some distance, before returning to his former 
perch. Most collectors will doubtless have occasionally seen a bird 
pursuing a butterfly (though generally without effecting its capture), 
but I should be interested to know if anyone has ever before observed 
the relative positions reversed. -^(Miss) M. E. Fountaine, F.E.S. ; 
Durban, Natal, December, 1907. 

Sympetrum vulgatum. — Referring to the inquiry (antea, p. 39) 
relating to Sympetrum vulgatum : whilst I cannot, of course, give any 
information as to the locality from which Mr. Harrison obtained the 
specimen referred to, I can report that he was a most reliable man, 
and accomplished some good natural history work in this district. 
In 1835 he took an active part in connection with the British Asso- 
ciation Meeting at Hull, and we have many evidences in this museum 
of his reliability. — T. Sheppaed; the Municipal Museum, Hull, 
March 24th, 1908. 

Entomological Society op London. — The First Commissioner 
of H. M. "Works having kindly placed the Theatre, Great Hall, and 
other rooms of the Civil Service Commission at Burlington Gardens 
at the disposal of the Society, the Conversazione will be held there 
on the evening of Friday, May 15th, and not as previously announced 
to Fellows. Full particulars will be published during the current 
month, and intending exhibitors are requested to cominunicate with 
the Honorary Secretary, H. Eowland-Brown, 11, Chandos Street, 
Cavendish Square, W. 



CAPTUEES AND FIELD EEPOETS. 

EUPITHECIA INNOTATA NOT IN WORCESTERSHIRE. — My note 

(Entom. xl. p. 40) on the above insect having been taken by me here 
having been questioned by Mr. Eustace Bankes, I submitted the 
insect to his kind inspection. He tells me that although my speci- 
men might be referred equally well either to innotata or fraxinata 
(assuming that these are distinct species, which is open to argument). 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 91 

the occurence of the former so far inland is decidedly improbable, 
and the proximity of an ash tree to my house further justifies tlie 
assumption that the individual is fraxinata. I have therefore placed 
it accordingly. — Archibald Day ; The Vicarage, Malvern Links, 
March 22nd, 1908. 

Notes prom the North- West (continued from p. 66). — On the 
davus locality in the Delamere district we counted eight rather 
worn specimens of this butterfly on the 20th. The ground is now 
protected by gamekeepers, but whether or not their advent will 
restore the butterfly to its former numbers remains to be seen. 
Other heath and fir insects were observed as L. cegon (not so plenti- 
ful as in 1906), NevieopJiila russula, Ematurga atomaria, Bicpalus 
'piniaria, Aspilates strigillaria, Macaria liturata (with the dark form 
nigrofulvata), Grambus margaritellus, and Pleurota hicostella. V. urticce 
and Epinepliele ianira were numerous and fresh, and many L. quer- 
cus males were dashing about. For the first time in my experience 
of the Delamere district I found a larva of Saturnia carpini. 

On July 21st seven males and one female of Scocliona helgiaria 
were taken on the Denbighshire hills. The remainder of the month 
was made up of cool, unsettled weather, and " the coldest July on 
record" ended on the 31st. 

August 1st was a fine day in Denbighshire, and fairly warm and 
sunny. Starting in the morning with Mr. J. Thompson, we had an 
enjoyable ramble of some twenty miles over the mountains from 
Wrexham to Llangollen. A male L. quercus was seen — attracted by 
a perforated zinc box which had contained a virgin female. A very 
dilapidated female, which had laid its eggs, was picked off the 
heather and then set at liberty. Some specimens of a dull form of 
Agrotis piorphyrea [strigula) were netted. Other Lepidoptera were 
pale and type forms of Larentia didymata, Crambus culmellus, 
Aphelia osseana, and the pretty little tortrix Eupacilia angustana. 
A Scoparia was also common on the heather, and as I had taken 
the same species in Delamere Forest in July, and on Arnside 
Knott, North Lancashire, in August, 1906, I sent specimens to Mr. 
Eustace R. Bankes, who kindly identified them as S. ambigualis. A 
large grey spider [Epeira diademata) with brown, blotched markings 
was taken from its geometrical mesh. I kept it alive on a piece of 
heath for three months in a glass jar, where it at once constructed 
another mesh regardless of the fact that no flies could enter through 
the net covering. It was supplied daily with house flies, and it was 
interesting to note that it only seized its prey when the latter strug- 
gled in the mesh. Other flies often brushed close past, and even 
touched the spider, but were never seized. In fact, the whole was an 
exhibition of how instinct ends and reason never begins. Its power 
of sight did not appear to extend beyond an inch or two, and the 
sense of hearing seemed supplanted by a keen sense of vibration. At the 
end of the three months I handed it over to a member of our " Society 
of Natural Science, Literature and Art," which, by the way, was 
founded by Charles Kingsley, and now numbers over a thousand 
members. 

As we sat eating our lunch on the top of Minera Mountain it was 



92 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

interesting to watch " Daddy Long Leg " females {Tijxula oleracea) 
depositing their eggs at the roots of the short, carpet-like grass. 
Their bodies, with their ovipositors, were kept vertically bobbing up 
and down, and the long legs were useful in keeping the wings clear of 
the grass. 

A few larvaB of S. carpim were boxed, and three unknown 
others, apple-green, with a silvery-white spiracular line, a thinner 
silvery- white dorsal line, segment divisions white-yellow — altogether 
very suggestive of the genus Polia. Some nettles which a fortnight 
ago had feasted swarms of 7. io caterpillars were found deserted, but 
as usual not a chrysalis was to be seen anywhere. 

Descending into the lovely Vale of Llangollen at dusk, and past 
the Eglwysig Eocks, viz. the ecclesiastical rocks, because belonging to 
the dismantled Abbey of the Vale of the Cross (Abbey Crucis) hard 
by — these rocks are famous in the history of A. ashworthii as the 
place of discovery in 1853, by Mr. Joseph Ash worth — we netted 
Gidaria aversata, including the dark-banded form C. fulvata, 
Gaviptogramvia bilineata ; and Hypena prohoscidalis was such a 
nuisance that darkness was almost welcomed as putting an end to the 
annoyance. 

On the hills in Denbighshire, where the carboniferous limestone 
crops out, L. agestis was just appearing on August 10th. Two 
L. alexis were netted, and numbers of worn E. ianira and C. pavi- 
philus were observed. Anaitis plagiata and E. mensitraria were 
plentiful among the short furze and heather. A specimen of Hecatera 
serena was taken at rest on a stone wall. The usual breakdown in 
August weather took place on the 12th, and from that date to the end 
of the month the time at my disposal was chiefly spent in looking for 
larvae. What I take to be caterpillars of H. serena were common 
locally near Chester, on flowers of hawkweed and cats'-ear; and 
numerous Dicranura vlnnla, Smerinthus populi, and S. ocellatus were 
observed on poplars or sallows. Since a great deal of the ground on 
which the sallows grew is underwater throughout the winter, the pupaj 
of the last-mentioned species must consequently be drowned — another 
case of instinct versus reason. From the 19th to the 24th, the mean 
daily maximum temperature in London was only sixty-three degrees — 
nine degrees short of what is normally due in August. The low 
general temperature of the month, with frequent rains, sent thousands 
home from the seaside. 

Autumn opened on September 1st, with a fine, calm, sunny day, 
but the remainder of the week was one of winter and rain-storms 
from the north-west. Two degrees of frost were registered near 
Chester on the 4th, instead of the temperature of last year which 
approached ninety degrees. Snow fell in North Wales and in Scot- 
land. The Snowdonian Eange was snow-capped, and Ben Nevis was 
white to a distance below the summit of 2000 feet. Entomology 
seemed at an end for the season, when, contrary to expectation, the 
remaining three weeks of the month were, for the British Isles, an 
Indian summer. But, in a favoured haunt, where there had been 
scores of L. alexis in 1906, there were only four males and one female 
observed of the autumn brood. At ten o'clock on the night of the 
8th, I came upon a small caddis-fly clearing a bud of aGloire de Dijon 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 93 

rose of aphides. In a few minutes every aphis was devoured except 
a male, which, upon being attacked, took to flight, as also did the 
caddis. 

Moths appeared again at the electric lamps, and on the 16th I 
got a male and female A. agathina. Curiously enough this was one of 
the few unrepresented species in my collection of Macro-Lepidoptera, 
and I was uncertain of my captures until they were confirmed by Mr. 
South. 

The 25th was the warmest day of the season since May 11th, the 
thermometer registering eighty degrees in the shade and one hundred 
and eighteen degrees in the sun. The month closed with a falling 
barometer. It was interesting to note that while the United Kingdom 
was enjoying an Indian summer, Newfoundland, Spain, Portugal, 
and France were smitten by storms of terrific violence. The 
tornado with its downpour reached as far south as Casa Blanca 
on the Moorish coast of Africa, the French camp being wrecked on 
the 26th. 

Very little entomology could be done in October. As predicted 
by the barometer the 1st was a day of rain, but, from that date to 
the 6th, the weather improved and it was fine, warm and sunny on 
the whole. A propos of spiders it was interesting to read that the 
airship "Nulli Secundus " met with "cobwebs, high up" in its ascent 
on the 5th, and that the balloon was afterwards found to be covered 
with them. I am not aware that the appeal to scientists for an 
explanation met with a response, but the cobwebs were doubtless 
gossamers or spider's threads, which float in the air and, especially 
in a dry atmosphere, rise to a considerable height, travel long 
distances on the breeze and distribute the spiders' young. A similar 
case of insect distribution is seen in the Woolly Aphis {Schizoneura 
lanigera) on apple trees, with its white cottony secretion enabling 
the young Aphides to travel with the winds from tree to tree. The 
lowest London temperature on October 8th was forty- six degrees — ■ 
only one degree warmer than Lapland, and the remainder of the 
month was unusually cold and wet. The usual autumn moths — 
Hydroacia viicacea, Anchocelis pistacina, Phlogophora meticulosa, 
Aporopkyla lutulenta, A. nigra, P. gamma, Ennomos tiliaria, E. 
fuscantaria, Hyhernia defoliaria, Cheimatobia brumata, with an 
occasional Poecilocampa populi, Cirrhoedia xerampelina, and Dasy- 
polia templi — appeared at the electric lamps, but in diminished 
numbers. 

November is often an enjoyable month, but calm, sunny days 
were absent in 1907. On the 25th snow fell in Cumberland, North 
Wales, Shropshire, and Lincolnshire. LarvEe of Boarmia repandata 
began hybernating as early as the 20th of October; They do not 
move from the position taken up under dead leaves, &c., until early 
spring. Larvae of A. nebulosa, on the contrary, often woke up in 
the inclement December, and indeed throughout the winter, wan- 
dered about their cages, and even ate a little dock. — J. Arkle ; 
Chester. 



94 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of London. — Wednesday, March Atli, 
1908.— Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, President, in the chair.— Major B. F. 
Beecher, of 2, Berkeley Villas, Pittsville, Cheltenham ; the Eev. K. 
St. Aubyn Rogers, M.A., of Eabai, Mombasa, British East Africa; 
and Mr. Claude Rippon, M.A., of 28, Walton Street, Oxford, were 
elected Fellows of the Society. — The decease of Mr. Herbert Goss, 
F.L.S., for many years a Secretary of the Society, was annomiced in a 
sympathetic speech by the President. — Mr. F. B. Jennings exhibited 
a specimen of the weevil Phyllobius maciiUcornis, Germ., retaining 
both the " false " mandibles, and another in which one of them is 
intact, both from Enfield ; also a single example of P. urticce, De G., 
from Cheshunt, retaining one of these appendages, the particular point 
of interest in connection w'ith these examples being that the "false 
mandibles " were toothed in the centre ; also a remarkalDle specimen 
of the common Chrysomelid beetle, Sennyla halensis, L., from Deal, 
sliowing unusual coloration of the elytra, which were blue and coppery- 
red, instead of bright green ; and on behalf of Mr. C. J. Pool, a speci- 
men of Otiorrliynclius tenebricosus, Herbst, from Newport, Isle of 
Wight, and of Barynotus obscurus, F., from Gal way, Ireland ; in the first 
of which both the pupal mandibles were toothed, and not in the second. 
— Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpe brought for exhibition OtiorrJiynchus 
sulcatus, Polydrusus sericeus, and Osmius boliemanni with pupal man- 
dibles. The OtiorrJiynchus was dug up in its pupal cell at Oakham in 
1905. — The Rev. G. Wheeler showed a case containing specimens of 
Melitfeid l^utterflies taken by him at Reazzino in Tessin, near Bellin- 
zona, wdiich he had identified with Assmann's Melitcea aurelia var. 
britoviartis, they being absolutely identical with the specimens so 
labelled in the Swiss national collections at Berne. The close affinity 
with M. dictynna made separation superficially very difficult, and 
until all forms were reared from the ovum it would be impossible to 
determine whether britomartis constituted a separate species or not. — 
The following papers were communicated : — " Descriptions of New 
Species of Lepidoptera-Heterocera from South-East of Brazil," 
by H. Dukinfield Jones, F.E.S. ; " Erebia lefebvrei and Lycmia 
'pyrenaica," by Dr. T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S. ; " A Contribution 
to the Classification of the Coleopterous Family Dynastidae," by 
Gilbert J. Arrow, F.E.S. ; " Hymenoptera-Aculeata Collected in 
Algeria by the Eev. A. E. Eaton, M.A., F.Z.S. , and the Rev. 
F. D. Morice, M.A. Part III., Anthropila," by Edward Saunders, 
F.R.S. 

At the Special General Meeting adjourned from February 5th, the 
proposal to raise the Life Composition from £15 15s. to £21 was 
rejected by a majority of three votes. — H. Rowland-Brown, M.A., 
Hon. Secretary. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society. -^February ISth, 1908.— Mr. A. Sich, F.E.S., President, in 
the chair. — Mr. R. Adkin exhibited a bred series of Anticlea rubklata 
from Devonshire, and called attention to the pale olive-brown forms 



SOCIETIES. 95 

as not occurring elsewhere. — Mr. South, a bred series of Larentia 
olivata from Torquay, two of which emerged on June 4th, 1907. — '■ 
Mr. Tonge, a female example of Melanijype fluctuata taken on 
February 12th at Portsmouth, and a female Hyhernia ruinccq^raria, 
and called attention to the peculiar droop of the wings in its resting 
attitude. — Mr. Step, a butterfly set up between two pieces of glass, 
for use by students of art schools. — Mr. Eayward, the hybernating 
larva of Aricia agestis (Lyccena astrarche). — Mr. Newman, a varied 
series of Nem&ophila plantaginis from Aberdeen, an extremely light 
Mellinia gilvago, two Hylophila prasinana ^ith very indistinct lines, 
a rayed variety of Melanippe sociata, and a broad-banded form of 
Mesotype virgata {lineolata). — Mr. Colthrup, species taken at ivy in 
the New Forest in 1907. — Mr. Turner, eight species of Pyralidae 
taken in Canada last year by Mr. L. B. Prout, including Evergestis 
straminalis, and read notes on the forms and the distribution of each. 
He also showed examples of several British species of Pyralidse 
from Syria, including Pyralis costalis. — Dr. Hodgson, a long series 
of Agriades {Lyccena) bellargus, showing the colour variation obtainable 
in the species. They were selected from 1904 to 1907 in various 
parts of the North and South Downs. He pointed out the five distinct 
shades of blue, and gave notes on the markings and on the aberrations 
obtained. — Mr. Fremlin read a paper entitled "The Effect of Physical 
and Chemical Agencies on Lepidoptera, being the Kesults of Experi- 
ments made in 1906-7," and a discussion took place. 

February 27th, 1908. — Mr. A. Sich, F.E.S., President, in the 
chair. — Mr. Edwards exhibited specimens of Papilio lampsaciis 
and the rare P. priapus from Java. — Mr. Eayward, the ova of 
Miselia oxyacanthcB in situ on twigs of hawthorn. All were 
solitary, except in one instance of two ova. — Mr. Pratt, a larva 
of Geometra vernaria which had passed two winters in that stage. — 
Mr. Newman, living melanic females of Hyhernia leucojjhceana from 
Bexley, and a bred melanic form of Larentia miiltistrigaria from 
Huddersfield. — Mr. Sich, a transparent m.m. and cm. measure for 
obtaining the alar expanse of insects. — The rest of the evening was 
spent in the exhibition of lantern slides, among which were the 
following entomological subjects : — Mr. Tonge, slides of lepidopterous 
ova, larvae, cocoons, pupae, and imagines ; Mr. Main, slides showing 
the osmateria of P. machaon, and various larvae and pupee. — Hy. J. 
TuENER, Hon. Bep. Secretary. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — February 18th, 1908. — 
Annual Meeting. — At the nineteenth Annual Meeting of this Society 
it was resolved to dissolve the Birmingham Entomological Society, 
and to hand over its assets, &c., to the Birmingham Natural History 
and Philosophical Society, with the idea of forming an entomological 
section of that Society. — Colbran J. Wainwright, Ho7i. Sec. 

City op London Entomological Society. — February 4:t]t, 1908. 
Mr. L. W. Newman exhibited Halias prasinana, with inner line on 
fore wings obsolete, and outer nearly so ; also Euholia lineolata, with 
white band very broad and much accentuated and extended round 
hind wings. 



96 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

March Srd. — Mr. S. J. Bell, Gnophos obscurata from various 
localities, including examples from North Cornwall (near Bude), as 
dark as the New Forest form. — Dr. T. A. Chapman, microscope 
slides of ova of lodis vernaria, showing that the surface consisted of 
a collection of hexagonal cells each with a central knoh. A proi^os of 
this exhibit Mr. L. W. Newman stated that he had frequently noticed 
a sweet scent when opening boxes containing ova of this species. — 
Mr. A. W. Mera, G. obscurata, a pale speckled form from Fresh- 
water. — Mr. V. E. Shaw, G. obscurata from many localities, including 
sandy-coloured specimens from Babbicombe. 

March 17th. — Dr. H. C. Phillips, a specimen of Acronycta aceris, 
darker than the London form of ^.^^st, from Kensington Gardens ; 
also from same locality a series of Ennomos angularia, including 
female with the two lines on fore wings accentuated and close 
together ; long series of Cidaria imvianata and C. russata were shown 
by many members, these species being the subject of the paper to be 
read by Mr. L. B. Prout ; the latter's series included melanic G. russata, 
from Wolverhampton, and specimens from America attributed to this 
species but proved by the genitalia to be distinct. — Hydracianictitans 
and imludis. Eev. C. R. N. Burrows exhibited drawings of the 
genitalia of nictitans and of paludis, generally known as the marsh 
form of nictitans. The exhibitor claimed that these showed differ- 
ences in structure which entitled paludis to specific rank. — S. J. 
Bell, Ho7i. Sec. 

The Entomological Club. — A meeting was held at Wellfield, 
Lingards Road, Lewisham, on March 19th, 1908, Mr. Robert Adkin 
in the chair. Other members present were Messrs. H. St. J. K. 
Donisthorpe, T. W. Hall, and G. T. Porritt. There were also eleven 
other guests, among whom were 'three hon. members ^ — ^ Messrs. H. 
Rowland-Brown, A. Sich, and E. A. Smith. The chairman announced 
that, in consequence of the regrettable death of Mr. A. Chitty, a 
vacancy occurred in the membership, and that this should be filled 
up at the next meeting. Mr. Donisthorpe proposed Mr. Rowland- 
Brown as a member of the Club, and this was seconded by Mr. Porritt. 
The nomination to be brought forward at the next meeting. — Richard 
South, Hon. Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew : VI. (Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, 
No. 10, 1907). 
The present short list comprises the Orthoptera and Neuroptera, 
and a few Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, submitted to Mr. W. J. 
Lucas, B.A., since the publication of ' Bulletin, Additional Series V.' 
The list is illustrated by a plate of cockroaches — Nauphoeta brazzce, 
N. cinera, Blatta orientalis, and Leucophcsa surinamensis. The list 
is followed by a note by Mr. Watson on the harm done by cock- 
roaches at Kew. 



The Entomologist, May, 1908. 



Plate 111. 







Photo. A. E. TonjJe. 



The Entomologist. May. 1908 



Plate IV. 




Photo A. E. TontSe. 



The Entomologist, May, 1908. 



Plate V. 




Photo. F. N. Clark. 



MiCROPYLE OF THE EGG OF PAPILIO HOMERUS, 

X 250. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XLL] MAY, 1908. [No. 540 



ON THE EGG AND FIEST-STAGE LARVA OF 
PAPILIO HOMERUS, Fabr. 

By T. a. Chapman, F.E.S. 

(Plates IIL-V.) 

The egg and young larva of this butterfly are described by 
Gosse in the Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. for 1879, p. Iv, and the full- 
grown larva and pupa in the ' Transactions ' for 1894, p. 409, 
but no figures at any larval stage are, so far as I know, 
available. 

It is, therefore, with some satisfaction that I am able to give 
a figure of the newly-hatched larva from stereoscopic photo- 
graphs by Mr. A. E. Tonge, F.E.S. This larva is not so 
eccentric as a young Papilio as it was regarded by Gosse. The 
full-grown larva, like that of most Papilios, is without hairs or 
spines ; Gosse's remarks were no doubt due to expecting the 
newly-hatched and full-grown larva to be similar. 

This young larva would be very remarkable were it that of a 
Papilio larva in the last stage. Though it is, so far as I know, 
very unusual in the high pillars on which the bristles are 
mounted, it is not essentially very different from the first-stage 
larva of, say, crespJiontes, as figured by Scudder. 

Mr. G. E. Baldock, F.E.S., handed me some eggs of Papilio 
homerus ; they were found in the envelope with a female 
P. homerus in paper, attached to the end of the abdomen. The 
datum on the envelope was June 7th, Mooretown, Jamaica. 
Several of the eggs contained dead larvae, which had eaten holes 
in the shells, but had not succeeded in escaping. There was one 
larva dead and shrivelled that was free. 

The eggs were more or less fastened together and smeared 
with a glutinous substance, most abundant about the base of the 
egg. I imagine that if the eggs had been laid naturally it would 

ENTOM. — may, 1908. I 



98 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

have been confined to the base of the egg, and was, in fact, the 
cement for fastening the egg to a leaf, or whatever is the proper 
place on which the butterfly fixes it. The eggs being laid in a 
bunch in a confined space, the result is the general dissemination 
of the cement. The eggs are almost exactly spherical, except 
for a flat basal area, diminishing the height of the egg by about 
one-sixth ; an egg 1*8 mm. across is 1'5 in. high. The egg- 
shells are whitish and slightly rough, with no special structure ; 
this is, however, probably due to the cement smeared over them. 
When damp they are transparent, and the larva inside, when 
alive and filling the shell, was no doubt quite visible inside 
it, coiled up. The egg is a very large one, the diameter being 
1'8 to 1*9 mm. 

In a mounted portion of the shell the micropyle is a little 
patch of very small cells, with centrally eight black dots (pores). 
The blackness of the dots is merely a refractive effect, as the 
focus can be altered so as to make them brilliant points. In the 
immediate neighbourhood of the dots the cells are approxi- 
mately hexagonal and 0*01 mm. in diameter ; at O'l from the 
centre they are about 0*015; at 0*15 they are radially elongated, 
about 0'015 across and 0'03 long ; at "25 from the centre they 
are about 0*04 long. One or two can be barely made out at 
0.3 mm. from centre, about 0*03 mm. wide and 0'06 long ; 
beyond this no traces of cellular structure can be seen. The 
shell generally is finely granular. The appearance conveys to 
me— I cannot quite say how — a suspicion that these granules 
belong to an adventitious coat (of cement ?), but this can hardly 
be the case regarding their very uniform size and general distri- 
bution ; each granule occupies a space of about 0'0025 mm. 
across. The result of certain scratchings and scrapings of 
another portion of egg-shell leads me to conclude that these 
granules are adventitious, but not from misplaced cement ; pos- 
sibly they are some portion of embryonic membrane, as they 
appear to be rather on the inner surface of the shell. 

P. homerus larva at hatching is 5*0 mm. long, head 1*2 mm. 
wide; head dark brown, dorsum fuscous-brown to seventh abdo- 
minal segment ; sides of thorax pale, with slight fuscous shades, 
second to seventh abdominal segments rather lighter than first 
and thoracic dorsum ; these segments are all similarly coloured 
and marked. The eighth, ninth, and tenth segments are colour- 
less, and notwithstanding the other colourless areas stand out 
as conspicuously white. The most notable feature of the larva, 
however, is the groups of hairs raised on great bosses — almost 
horns on the prothorax — and less ones on the three] following 
segments, and on the eighth and ninth abdominal. 

The dark dorsum results from a series of dark lozenges 
towards posterior border of segments, especially large on second 
thoracic, and of arched marks on each side of these, and on 



EGG AND FIRST-STAGE LARVA OF PAPILIO HOMERUS. 99 

some segments meeting in front of them. There is a rather 
paler stripe just below these (subdorsal) containing one dark 
mark. Laterally the dark area from subdorsal to low sub- 
spiracular is partially broken by light markings into three 
parallel stripes, and these a little broken on each segment. 

The brown head has four ocelli in a curve, with convexity 
forwards, and one (making five) about the centre of the curve 
behind. The base of antenna is pale, as well as the soft portions 
of the mouth-parts. There is a paler area at the vertex laterally. 
The first antennal joint is an extremely narrow line of brown 
chitin, easily overlooked. The second is conical, flat at each 
end, nearly half as long again as broad at the base, more than 
twice that of apex. It carries on front side a short thick hair, 
and close to or on the end what must be called a hair, but is a 
broad thick process, little longer than broad ; at end is a third 
joint, a short process as broad as long, with several hairs or 
sensitive papillee at end ; also on second joint, and beside this, 
are two conical (jointed at base) papillae, and one minute hair. 
The labrum is 05 mm. wide, deeply notched so as to be 0'22 mm. 
long (antero-posteriorly) at ends, 0*17 in the middle. It carries 
outside five bristles (on each side), longest nearly 0"1 mm. long ; 
inside it has on each side one long median hair and a row of six 
very thick bristles (0'05 mm. long) round the margin of the 
lateral rounded flap. The inner surface and membrane behind 
is clothed with abundant, minute, sharp, hair-like skin-points, 
their apices directed backwards, i. e. away from the margin. 

The jaws are of rather square outline, about 0*35 mm., with 
three large rounded teeth, three or four minute internal and six 
nearly as small external to them. All these teeth have finely 
crenated margins. On the external margin is a short but rather 
sharp tooth. The maxilla has a general resemblance to a larval 
leg. The first joint narrow externally, broader internally, with 
one long and one short bristle. Basal to this first joint is a plate 
with two or three hairs. The second joint is broad externally, 
narrowing (at least its chitinous covering) to a point internally, 
with a long bristle here. Beside the terminal joint is a rounded 
chitinous boss carrying three strong bristles and two small mam- 
millae, each with a terminal mammillula. The third joint is a 
little smaller than, of much the same shape and proportions as, 
the second antennal joint. It carries, again, a fourth joint (but 
no hairs), of about half its own length, and this has at end 
several mammillse, one at least with a mammillula. The visible 
portion of the labium is triangular (nearly equilateral), with 
sides 0"2 mm. long ; two-thirds of this (in length) seems to be 
in one piece. The apical third is formed of two side and one 
central piece. Each side-piece has a palp, the first joint about 
0'05 mm. long and a quarter of this width ; at end of this there 
is a long (0'02) conical sharp-ended piece, apparently jointed 

i2 



100 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



centrally. The middle portion is a spinneret with broad base, 
the details of structure not easy to see. There are on the head 
a number of bristles, seventeen or eighteen on each side, and 
eight or so on the clypeus, besides a number of transparent 
points that might be called lenticles; all these have their 
definite positions impossible to describe even with unlimited 
prolixity. The osmateria are well-developed, two eversible pro- 
cesses apparently usually directed forwards, about 0*6 mm. long 
(possibly more if fully stretched). 

The arrangement of the great prominences armed with hairs 
will be best appreciated by the aid of Mr. Tonge's excellent 
stereoscopic portrait of the larva. These prominences are a very 
large pair on the prothorax, which appear to represent the pre- 
spiracular group of tubercles, but may belong to the prothoracic 
plate, the spiracles being behind them and the prothoracic plate 
between. They have about fourteen hairs radiating in all direc- 
tions on the rounded summit, and eight or ten smaller on the 
somewhat narrower neck. The hairs are about 0'35 mm. long, 
broad at the base, and tapering in a regular conical manner to 
the fairly sharp tip ; they are quite smooth and have a slight 
curvature ; some of those on posterior segments are a good deal 
curved. The prothoracic plate carries smaller hairs ; on each 
side is a hair, rather behind the middle and near the dorsal line, 
another further out near the anterior margin, and a group of 
three behind and a little further out than this. At the lower 
front margin of the great column is a boss with five or six hairs. 
This may be the prespiracular group; if so, the large wart 
belongs to the prothoracic plate. The specimens are not very 
mature, and an appearance of the plate being continuous with 
the chitinous base of the wart is noticed, but may be deceptive. 

On the second thoracic is a single hair on each side of the 
middle line, then a large wart, pillar, or horn of brown chitin 
carrying seven hairs, followed by another almost identical with 
six hairs ; then a small wart with two hairs, and a separate hair 
just behind it ; then two more slender hairs close together, 
those apparently so often present just above the legs. On meta- 
thorax the dorsal hair is larger than on second thoracic, the first 
chitinous wart is very large with nine hairs, the next rather 
smaller with eight, then a low wart with four hairs, and then two 
at base of legs. The legs carry a number of small hairs on their 
bases, and several on each joint. The claw is sharply bent, and 
has a very sharp point. 

On the first abdominal segment the dorsal hair (i. ?) is still 
single, but the base is prolonged into a conical stem, from the 
end of which the hair arises. Then follows a large globular 
wart on a narrower neck, with nine or ten hairs, then a single 
hair (iii.) above spiracle. On a subspiracular flange two hairs 
(IV. and v.), the anterior the lower ; on a lower flange four fine 



EGG AND FIRST-STAGE LARVA OF PAPILIO HOMBRUS. 101 

hairs ; a little group of three below this, and one ventral hair 
(viii. ?) ; the hairs below are all much smaller and finer than 
those on the bosses. On the second abdominal i. is a small 
sessile hair, ii. a low wart with five or six hairs (of which two or 
three are large but less than those on the great warts), iii. single, 
IV. and V. as on first abdominal ; but in place of the little group 
of three hairs vii. and the ventral hair is an oval area, with about 
a dozen fine hairs, and looking as regards size and position much 
like a proleg. Third, fourth, fifth, and sixth abdominal are 
much the same; the hairs of wart ii., however, rather smaller 
and finer, and prolegs in place of the ventral patch. On seventh 
wart II. is a little larger ; on eighth it is larger (though less than 
the large ones in four), and carries six rather long curved hairs, 
III. IV. and V. single hairs ; i. is present on ninth abdominal, but 
II. is again a very high large wart, with some fourteen hairs ; on 
tenth are again two warts, lower and with shorter hairs to the 
number of about a dozen on each ; they are two warts, not 
merely a terminal fringe. There is a group of five hairs further 
out on tenth (or on ninth ?) ; there are also five or six hairs near 
eighth spiracle, but their homology not easy to determine. The 
prolegs are very large, nearly 0'2 mm. across, on short thick 
pedicels, the outer front of which is armed with about twenty-five 
short thick hairs, with one on inner posterior margin. The 
crochets are arranged in an oval, the long axis of which is 
directed outwards and backwards. The oval is, however, broken 
at each end, so that there is an inner posterior set of hooks of 
about twenty-four in number, and an outer anterior numbering 
about nineteen or twenty ; the inner are the larger as well as the 
more numerous. Each set dwindles in size of hooks at each 
end ; when collapsed the two sides meet along the axis of the 
oval. The claspers are in one row of fifty to sixty hooks, forming 
about three-fourths of a complete circle or ellipse. The spiracles 
are small brown circles, with lines radiating to the centre ; the 
prothoracic one is slightly oval ; longest axis about 0*04 mm. 
The general surface has an extremely fine dotted texture. 



Descriptions of Plates IIT.-V. 

Plate III. — A stereoscopic picture of the newly-hatched larva, x 12J. 
Photo by A. E. Tonge, F.E.S. 

Plate IV. — Egg-shells of P. homerus, x 10. Photo by A. E. Tonge. 

Plate V. — Micropyle of the egg of P. Iwmerus, x 250. Photo by 
F.N.Clark. 

The eggs are only empty shells, and with holes in them made by the 
larvse; one or two are, however, but little deformed. The upper one is 
placed on its side to show the flattening of the lower surface. The stereo- 
scopic pictures may be readily examined by means of any of the stereoscopes 
that are open below, of which there are several forms to be had very cheaply. 



102 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

LIFE-HISTOEY OF HESPERIA PANISCUS, F., = 
PALMMON, Pallas ; Stand. Cat. 

By W. a. Eollason. 

In preparation for a new and completely illustrated work on 
the larvse and pupae of the British Macro-lepidoptera the 
following life-history has been prepared, and as but few entomo- 
logists have had the opportunity of rearing the species and at 
the same time drawing and describing both larva and pupa, I 
have thought that it would interest many students in the science 
to read the descriptions I have been enabled to draw up. 
Through the kindness of fellow-workers opportunity has since 
been afforded me of comparing the previously written and 
excellent descriptions of Messrs. Buckler, Hellins, and Frohawk, 
and I find my description of the larva in various stages is of 
much fuller detail in nearly all respects, and especially in that 
of the larva after hybernation. Again, also with the pupa I 
have a much more detailed description of its form and colour, 
notably in the transitional stages of colour from day to day for 
four or five days before emergence of imago, and which latter 
process, including dehiscence, I had the gratification of witness- 
ing and describing in detail. The following is my complete 
record : — On June 15th, 1906, my esteemed and valued corre- 
spondent, the Rev. Gilbert H. Eaynor, sent me ova from a wild 
Wansford female. The ovum is shining, pearly, and of a warm 
whitish-grey colour, inclining in some instances to bluish or 
yellowish. They were laid singly on fine grass stems. These 
hatched on June 21st, 1906, the young larvae emerging by eating 
away the crown. They were white, with dull surface, and 
having a very large perfectly black shining head, the anterior 
margin of dorsal plate on second segment being also shining 
black. The young larvae were supplied with tender leaves of 
Brachypodium sylvaticum, and kept indoors for four days, after 
which they were sleeved out in my garden on a growing plant of 
same. At this early stage they commenced to spin edges of 
leaves together. Until August 13th they were not disturbed, 
when on opening the sleeve I found five larvae about five-eighths 
of an inch long, and they, having eaten nearly all the leaves of 
the food-plant, were walking about the muslin sleeve. They 
rest in tubular retreats formed by spinning together, though not 
closely, the edges of the leaves for about an inch. Their method 
of feeding is to practically remain in their retreat, eating away 
the leaf above and below to a very thin strip, and only so far as 
they can reach. When eaten below, this naturally causes the 
retreat to fall and hang. When food is again required the larva 
timidly leaves the retreat and hastens to make a similar one on 
another leaf ; feeding again as before described. The larvse were 



LIFE-HISTORY OF HESPERIA PANISCUS. 103 

now of a greyish-blue-green ground-colour, some being yellowish- 
green ; pale brownish heads, reticulated with very dark brown on 
top, and appearing roughened ; ocelli black, as also posterior 
edges of cheeks; a dark spot on top of second segment, and a 
dark dot immediately above spiracle on this segment. These 
dark markings appear to have taken the place of the shining 
black plate on anterior margin of second segment which were on 
the larvse when they emerged from the egg. There is also a 
dark brown longitudinal blotch on top of anal flap. A dark 
medio-dorsal greenish stripe is continuous throughout to blotch 
on anal flap, and this stripe is edged on either side with lighter. 
There is a conspicuous sub-dorsal pale whitish-green band, 
edged above and below with dark green ; spiracles roundish and 
of a pale rust-colour ; legs brownish and semi-transparent ; clas- 
pers and ventral area of uniform ground-colour. Larvfe cylin- 
drical, with a little taper to both extremities, and the second 
segment is remarkably small ; head oval and full ; segmental 
divisions clearly defined ; larva bears numerous minute hairs 
generally distributed. Immediately above spiracles is a band of 
darker green than ground; anal flap rather pointed and rounded ; 
claspers fairly large ; legs moderate size. When out of retreat 
and disturbed larvse fall to the ground and curl into a ring, 
sometimes remaining a considerable time in this position with- 
out any movement. Having been transferred to a freshly 
potted food-plant, they were not disturbed again until September 
7th, when the sleeve was again opened, and the larvse being 
found to be full-fed, a careful drawing was made. They were 
about one inch long and in many ways quite different to the 
stage last described, the most notable being the absence of the 
brown head with its darker markings, and the absence of any 
dark on the anal flap or anterior margin of second segment. 
Head oval and full ; general form cylindrical, with taper to both 
extremities; second segment remarkably small; segmental 
divisions clearly defined; spiracles roundish; legs and claspers 
rather small ; anal flap pointed and rounded, and a little concave 
on dorsal area ; segments three and four are transversely wrink- 
led, and segments five to eleven are each transversely wrinkled 
in Jive rings, the anterior being much the widest, the second 
smaller, and the last three smaller and of uniform width ; segment 
twelve is transversely wrinkled in four rings. Markings : Sur- 
face dull and of a uniform greyish-blue-green ground-colour, 
sometimes the tinge inclining to yellowish-green. They have a 
somewhat velvety-looking appearance, probably due to being 
clothed with very short and minute hair. Head pale brownish 
or pinkish-green with black ocelli, and a thin dark line down 
centre ; clypeus of ground-colour ; labrum and mandibles pale 
brownish or pinkish, the mandibles being dark brown at centre. 
There is a pulsating medio-dorsal stripe of darker green than 



104 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ground, and this is edged on either side with a paler line than 
ground. A conspicuous sub-dorsal stripe of pale greenish-white, 
sometimes appearing yellowish, is continuous throughout, and 
terminates on anal flap. This stripe is edged above and below 
with a band of darker green than ground, and this darker green 
is again edged with lighter than ground. The spiracular line 
is light yellowish -green, but not conspicuous. On it are situated 
the spiracles, which are of a rusty tinge edged with lighter. 
The spiracular line is edged above with a green band of darker 
colour than ground. There is a subspiracular skinfold, and this 
with ventral area is of uniform ground-colour ; legs and clas- 
pers of uniform ground-colour. There are a few very in- 
conspicuous greyish-brown dots in region of spiracles, and 
very fine short hairs generally distributed over larva. When 
walking, larva has that trembling movement of anterior segments 
so characteristic of geometer larvae, and is very lethargic in its 
movements. Larv^ were fed up throughout outdoors on a 
growing plant of Brachypodium sylvaticum. They were brought 
indoors early in November, when five larvse had formed hyber- 
nacula, about an inch long, by binding together edges of a leaf 
with silken threads, one having attached itself to both a leaf and 
the muslin. They were kept in a cold room all the winter. On 
Feb. 10th, 1907, they were removed, together with their hyber- 
nacula, into a smaller pot, which was covered by a glass cylinder 
with muslin across top. This disturbance caused one larva to 
come out of its hybernaculum ; this was the one attached to the 
muslin — it wandered about in a lethargic manner and finally 
rested on the muslin covering top of cylinder, where it remained 
three or four days, and afterwards was found on the surface of 
the earth in a very comatose condition. At this period the larva 
was a little reduced in length from the time when drawn, name- 
ly, September 7th, 1906. The ground-colour was pale creamy- 
white ; medio-dorsal stripe rather pale chestnut-brown, but 
darker than ground-colour ; the subdorsal stripe paler than 
ground-colour, inclining to a yellowish tinge, and edged on either 
side with pale chestnut-brown ; the spiracular band is of simi- 
lar colour, but only a very little darker than ground, the spiracles 
showing dark against it. There is a row of dots above spiracles, 
in size and colour resembling them, and two similar longitudinal 
rows on dorsal area. Head dull ochreous-grey, inclining to a 
greenish tinge as compared with body, with a dark brown line 
across top ; ocelli black ; mandibles dark brown. Surface dull 
throughout, including head, and densely clothed with very short 
hairs. This larva, after wandering about restlessly for several 
days, finally fixed itself to muslin covering top of cylinder on 
March 10th, 1907. It changed to a pupa on March 20th, 
attached at anal end to a silken pad, and with a silken thread 
around waist. Two more larvae emerged from their hybernacula 



LIFE-HISTORY OF HESPERIA PANISCUS. 105 

on March 13th. Their hybernacula were pinned to bits of muslin 
attached to a stick in the centre of a flower-pot. To these bits 
of muslin they attached themselves the same day, near by their 
hybernacula, and both changed to a pupa, head upwards, on 
March 23rd. Another larva emerged from hybernaculum on 
March 18th, attached itself the same day in the manner before- 
mentioned, head upwards, and changed to a pupa on March 24th. 

Although these larvse were in a flower-pot with a growing plant 
of Brachypodium sylvaticum, they never attempted to eat the 
leaves, neither did they crawl over them, always crawling on the 
dead leaves which formed their hybernacula, or up the dead stick 
in the centre of flower-pot, thus proving that they do not eat 
on emergence from their winter sleep, but proceed almost at 
once to prepare for changing to pupa. 

I made three careful drawings of the pupa on March 24th, 
1907, together with the following description: — 

Pupa. Form cylindrical, slender, both dorsally and ventrally 
curved, with a little taper to both extremities. Head rather 
blunt, but with a fairly long spike-like projection directed forward 
and upward ; eyes large and prominent. Pupa widest across 
base of wing cases, the latter being fairly ample ; segmental 
divisions very clearly defined ; spiracles oval ; wing cases extend 
to anterior margin of segment five ; maxillae uncovered and 
extending rather more than five-sixths length of wing cases ; first 
legs about half-length of maxillse ; second legs about three- 
quarters length of maxillse ; antennae scarcely as long as second 
legs ; wing cases rather ridged at sides; labial palpi showing; 
labrum very prominent ; mandibles showing ; both dorsal head- 
piece and prothoracic segment very distinct ; abdominal seg- 
ments have a few slight depressions. 

Anal appendages. A flattened projection, dorsally curved, 
with about a couple of dozen curved spines, hooked at tips, at 
end, on under side. 

Markings. Surface dull, excepting eyes which are a little 
glazed. Head, wing cases, cases of antenna, legs, &c., dull 
yellowish-grey inclining to ochreous-green, with edges of wing 
cases and antennae edged with dark brown, whilst the maxillae 
are very conspicuous by being dark purplish-grey brown. Abdo- 
minal segments and also first, second, and third thoracic segments 
are of a pale creamy ground-colour. Commencing on dorsal 
headpiece and terminating on anal appendage is an irregular 
dark brown band, becoming pinkish towards anal end. On either 
side of this are two irregular bands, darker than ground-colour 
and of a pale crimson hue, becoming paler and thinner on 
second thoracic segment where they commence, as also on ninth 
segment where they terminate. The area between these two 
stripes is rather more creamy than general ground-colour. On 
either side of spiracles is an irregular band of similar hue, but 



106 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

much paler ; ventral area dull greyish-yellow with some pale 
greyish blotches on segments five to seven ; spiracles duUish- 
yellow ; hooks of anal appendage reddish-brown. On two of the 
four pup8e I had the mandibles were conspicuously black and 
shining. 

On April 16th, 1907, the eyes turned pink and wing cases 
darkened a little. On April 17th, eyes became dark purplish- 
grey, and wing cases darker and of a brownish hue. On April 
18t*h, the bodies went dark, and the whole pupa became dusky 
purplish-grey. On April 21st, three imagines emerged between 
12.80 and 1.15 p.m. I first noticed one male fully emerged and 
drying his wings, which were not quite fully developed. About 
fifteen minutes later I saw another partly emerged and watched 
its completion ; this proved to be a male also. At 1.15 p.m. my 
last pupa, which I had been constantly watching with a power- 
ful lens for about half-an-hour, I saw burst first the dorsal line 
down second thoracic plate ; then transversely the division 
between first and second thoracic plates, and finally the complete 
emergence. This proved to be a female. One pupa died, the 
first I had obtained on March 20.th. It will therefore be seen that 
the dates of pupation of the three others were March 23rd (two) 
and March 24th (one), but they all emerged on the same date, 
namely, April 21st, 1907, between 12.30 and 1.15 p.m. I 
therefore have had the gratification of rearing, and recording 
the complete metamorphosis of, this very local insect. 

Lamorna, Truro, Cornwall : March, 1908. 



NOTES ON SOME TEANSVAAL MOSQUITOES, INCLUDING 
TWO NEW SPECIES AND A NEW VAKIETY. 

By Fred. V. Theobald, M.A. 

A LARGE consignment of mosquitoes from the Transvaal, 
collected by the late Government entomologist, Mr. Simpson, 
whose untimely death has been so felt and regretted by all in 
South Africa, has been recently examined, and has proved of 
considerable interest. Firstly, because two new species were 
found in it which are described here ; secondly, because the 
rare Etiorleptiomyia mediolineata , Theob., described from a single 
specimen from the Sudan, occurs in it ; and, thirdly, the 
enormous variation in size shown in some of the common Vaal 
species. Three particularly need notice in connection with the 
latter, namely, Culex tigripes, Grandpre, C. simpsoni, Theob., 
and C. dissimilis, Theob. The first vary in size from 6*8 to 5 mm., 
the second from 8 to 4 mm., the latter from 5'5 to 4 mm. The 
last-named insect is of particular interest, for, as far as I can see 



NOTES ON SOME TRANSVAAL MOSQUITOES. 107 

after examining the numerous specimens, the smallest and the 
narrow pale-banded proboscis forms are my C. dissimilis ; the 
large, broad, pale-banded proboscis forms are my C. hirsutlpalpis. 
I cannot detect any differences except in size and general appear- 
ance, but in the large Transvaal series every gradation from one 
to the other could be found. I therefore propose to sink C. liir- 
sutipalpis as a large variety of C. dissimilis. The same is seen in 
the Pyretophoriis costalis ; some specimens measure 5 mm., one 
only 3'4 mm., and in the smaller forms the leg markings are 
less conspicuous. 

This collection of some hundreds of specimens is poor in 
Anophelines, which seem to be only abundant in certain areas of 
the Transvaal and not uniformly spread over it as in some warm 
countries. 

Besides P. costalis the following also occur : — CelUa squamosa, 
Theob., Pyretophoriis cinereus, Theob., Myzorliynchusmauritianus, 
Grandpr6, and Myzomyia fanesta, Giles. 

The large Theohaldia spathipalpis of Kondani also occurs in 
the collection, so we now have it known in Africa at the Cape, 
Transvaal, Sudan, Egypt, and Algeria, as well as in Southern 
Europe, the Mediterranean Islands, Canaries, and the Azores. 

Baiiksiella luteolateralis, Theobald, var. circumluteola, nov. var. 

Head like the type, also proboscis and antennse ; palpi of female 
all black. Thorax with creamy lateral areas, which unite in front, 
forming a continuous mass behind the head, the dark median area 
having only bronzy-brown scales, and being narrowed in front. 

The wings liave more brown-scaled areas than the type, the only 
creamy-scaled veins being the basal half of the first long vein and 
the fifth, except its upper branch ; there are also pale lateral scales 
on the apical half of the subcostal, and a few indistinct ones on the 
basal part of the second and fourth veins. The stem of the first 
fork-cell is half the length of the cell, and that of the second about 
two- thirds the length of the cell. Abdomen as in type, also legs. 
Length 5 mm. 

Habitat. Transvaal (Mr. Simpson). 

Observations. — Differs from the type and other varieties in 
the pale lateral thoracic area extending around the front of the 
thorax, and by the less pale scaled areas on the wings. 

Etiorleptiomyia mediolineata, Theob. 
(1st Eept. Wellcome Ees. Labs. p. 71) (1904). 
The single specimen (a female) in the collection shows some 
slight variations from the type. 

The palpi are white-tipped instead of being all black. The 
thorax is more ornate, having an area of bronzy scales on each side 
in front and behind, and a small area on each side between them, 
these areas separated by the golden scales. The scutellum has some 



108 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

creamy flat scales with the black ones, which latter only occurred in 
the type. 

The pleurae have some flat white scales which could not be seen 
in the type, owing to its being somewhat damaged. 

All other characters agree with the specimen from the Pibor. 

Ficalbia inornata, no v. sp. 

Thorax and abdomen uniform deep brown ; proboscis moderately 
long, deep brown ; pleuraa pale brown. Legs uniform brown. The 
whole insect with bronzy reflections in bright light. 

? . Head brown, with dull flat scales and paler upright forked 
scales ; clypeus pale ; proboscis uniform in colour, brown in some 
lights, violet in others, swollen apically where it is testaceous ; 
antennae brown ; basal segment pale. 

Thorax deep brown, with traces of a paler line in the middle and 
in front at the edges, clothed with scanty narrow-curved bronzy 
scales and long black backwardly-projecting chsetse, especially poste- 
riorly and over the roots of the wings ; pleurte pale brown with some 
grey reflections ; scutellum with small flat brown scales showing 
violet reflections, forming a large mass on the mid lobe, small areas 
on the lateral lobes, mid lobe with two long median border-bristles, 
then two shorter ones and a few still smaller ; metanotum nude, deep 
brown. Abdomen brown, unhanded, with metallic violet and traces 
of green reflections ; pale ventrally. 

Legs uniform brown, with bronzy and violet metallic reflections, 
paler basally ; ungues small, equal and simple ; wings with typical 
brown Ficalbian scales, a somewhat dense patch of them above the 
cross-veins ; outer costal border spinose and dark ; subcostal vein- 
scales dark, also the single-rowed median vein-scales, lateral ones 
pale ; fork-cells of nearly equal length, the first submarginal slightly 
the narrower, its base slightly nearer the apex of the wing, its stem 
not quite twice the length of the cell ; stem of the second posterior 
cell about one and a third the length of the cell ; posterior cross-vein 
wider than the mid, a little more than its own length distant from 
it ; halteres with pale stem and fuscous knob. Length 3 mm. 

<? . Head with flat, rather loose violet-brown scales, some show- 
ing an ochreous tinge ; upright forked-scales dark, showing ochreous 
reflections in some lights, especially behind ; apparently a single 
large curved median black chaeta projecting forwards between the 
eyes ; antennae plumose, dark brown, basal segment pale ; palpi very 
short ; proboscis dark. 

Thorax as in female, but two median bare lines, very distinct. 
Abdomen as in female, but with traces of indistinct pale basal lateral 
spots on the three more basal segments. Fore and mid ungues 
unequal and simple ; hind equal and simple. 

Wings very similar to the female, but the fork-cells relatively 
shorter. Length 3 mm. 

Habitat. Transvaal (Mr. Simpson). 

Observations. — Described from a perfect female and two 
males. 

This is the first female recorded, the three previously known 



NOTES ON SOME TRANSVAAL MOSQUITOES. 109 

species all being founded on males. The only other African 
member of this genus known is F. nigripes, Theobald, from 
Sierra Leone (Mono. Culicid. vol. iv. p. 578, 1906), which differs 
from the Transvaal species in having a banded abdomen, the 
basal white bands being very prominent in the Sierra Leone 
insect. The female wing-scales agree with those of the male in 
this genus, and the discovery of the female does not necessitate 
adding anything to the definition of the genus. 

' JEdes inconspicuosus , nov. sp. 

Head dull ochreous-brown, paler than the brown thorax ; abdo- 
men, legs, and proboscis, all dark brown. 

5 . Head deep brown, with small, rather loose, flat scales over 
most of the area, some dull ochreous, others brown, and others with 
a dull violet tinge, the ochreous hue prevailing, behind a large patch 
of narrow-curved ochreous scales, thin ochreous upright forked- 
scales behind, brown in front ; chsetae long, deep brown ; palpi rather 
small, proboscis and clypeus deep brown ; antennse deep brown. 
Thorax deep brown, with narrow-curved pale brown scales, showing 
some ochreous reflections ; chaetae deep brown ; scutellum pale 
brown, with narrow-curved pale scales and five deep brown border- 
bristles ; metanotum deep shining brown ; pleurae grey. 

Abdomen deep brown, with dull violet reflections ; on the venter 
the segments are pale at their bases ; border-bristles pale brown. 

Legs deep brown, unhanded ; the tarsi showing dull ochreous 
hues ; ungues small, equal, much curved and simple. 

Wings with long thin brown lateral vein-scales ; fork-cells long, 
the first submarginal cell much longer but only slightly narrower 
than the second posterior cell, its base considerably nearer the base 
of the wing than that of the latter, its stem about one-fourth the 
length of the cell ; stem of the second posterior nearly as long as the 
cell ; posterior cross-vein nearly three times its own length distant 
from the mid. Length 3 mm. 

S" . Antennffi plumose, plume-hairs brown, internodes grey ; 
palpi very small, brown. Head, thorax, and abdomen as in the 
female, but the abdominal segments are deeply constricted at the base 
and the scales at the apical edges show dull ochreous reflections (not 
banding). Wings much as in the female, but the stem of the first 
submarginal cell only one-third the length of the cell, and the 
posterior cross-vein only about one and a-half times its own length 
distant from the mid. Ungues of fore and mid legs unequal, uni- 
serrate ; hind small, equal, and simple. Length 3 mm. 

Habitat. Transvaal (Mr. Simpson). 

Observations. — Described from a single female and male. A 
small, brown, inconspicuous mosquito, the only species of this 
genus as yet recorded from Africa. 



110 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ON MOUNTING COLEOPTEEA. 
By H. F. Fryer, F.E.S. 

5(Concluded from p. 88.) 

Mountant. — Gum tragacanth dissolved in water to the con- 
sistency of a thin jelly, with the addition of a little carbolic acid, 
is generally recommended, and is perhaps the best mountant for 
beginners, as it is easy to work with and easily made. For 
larger species I use a formula containing gum Arabic, sugar 
water, and alcohol ; but with small species, unless very skilfully 
manipulated, it tends to gum up the antennae and tarsi, rendering 
species which depend on these characters very difficult to deter- 
mine ; moreover, the finished efiect is "shiny," and not " dead " 
as with tragacanth. 

Instruments. — Two moderately soft hog's-hair brushes, for 
brushing out the legs of refractory species. 

Two camel's-hair, or preferably soft sable, for use with more 
fragile species. 

A very finely-pointed sable for setting. 

Two of the finest needles procurable. These should be run 
into cylindrical corks for holders. I find the core bored from 
any ordinary cork of good quality with a large-sized cork-borer 
will do. The needle is run for about one-third of its length, and 
the cork handle then filed down to a fusiform shape. 

A finely-pointed pair of tweezers is almost a necessity for 
picking up small species and placing them correctly on the card. 
I am assuming, of course, the possession of the ordinary ento- 
mological "nippers," and that nothing — either beetle, card, or 
pin— is ever touched with the fingers. 

A piece of the entomological peat about three inches by eight 
glued to a piece of soft deal three-fourths of an inch thick for 
holding the specimens as they are set, and for regulating the 
height of the card on the point. 

A turntable, although not absolutely necessary, is an immense 
convenience, as a touch of the finger brings the insect to be 
mounted into any desired position. I use one of those with 
which microscopists make their cells, and on the brass stage are 
glued two thicknesses of cabinet cork ; at the other end of the 
wooden support is fixed the handle of a carpenter's gouge, and 
on this is slipped, at the proper focus, a lens of about two inches 
diameter and four inches focus. It is a " home-made " arrange- 
ment, but with it there is no difficulty in setting up the smallest 
species. 

Method. — I must presume the specimens are in the right 
state of relaxation ; many are perfectly impossible to set unless 
this is so. Now, taking as an example a very easy species, 
Demetrias atricapillus, the beetle is lifted by a leg with the fine 



ON MOUNTING COLEOPTERA. 



Ill 



tweezers, placed on white blotting-paper, and its legs, antennae, 
and palpi brushed out with the soft camel's-hair or sable brushes, 
using one in each hand. I must here insist on the advisability 
of cultivating the use of both hands in nearly every operation 
in setting. The proper sized card is then selected, and the 
locality and date having been written underneath with an etching 
pen and Indian ink, it is pinned in the centre of the stage of the 
turntable, and the gum spread evenly over it with a small brush 
kept solely for this purpose. The beetle is lifted as before, and 
placed as nearly as possible in its correct position on the card, 
then with a needle in the left hand to steady it, if need be, its 
legs, antennae, and palpi are brushed into position with the 
finely-pointed sable, which should always be used when possible 
in preference to a needle. It is well to have a little water at 
hand in which to dip brushes and needles when they become 
gummy ; the porcelain crucible before mentioned, used for killing, 
will answer this purpose as well. The legs and antennae should 
be symmetrically arranged, the latter pointing towards the 
corners of the card ; after this is done the specimen is placed on 
the peat- covered board, and the pin pushed down as far as it 
will go, and when dry the beetle is ready for the cabinet. 

The Rhynchophora are not quite so easy, and care must be 
taken to brush out the rostrum and antennse before placing the 
beetle on the card. With this section it is generally necessary 
to work at first with two needles, drawing out a leg on each 
side at the same time, and avoiding all jerky and ill-regulated 
movements. 

In the more difficult genera still, Onthophagus, Hister, 
Byrrhus, &c., it is sometimes necessary to hold the insect firmly 
in position while the legs are drawn out with the fine tweezers. 
This I do with a bristle similar to that used by lepidopterists. 
A hole is made with a pin in a small piece of cork the size of a 
barley corn, a stiff bristle is then inserted, and the pin stuck 
through at right angles to it. One of these on either side will 
hold a beetle securely in position while the various manipulations 
are going on. 

I have said nothing as to the advisability of mounting one 
of a series to show the under side, as it is not every one who 
recognizes a species at sight, and it is quite possible, where the 
species are near together, to get the under side of one species 
mixed up in the series of another. Should, however, it be 
necessary to mount a specimen in any but the usual way, it 
should be mounted on its side, as then the characters of both 
upper and under side can be more or less seen ; but I prefer, 
when one wants to examine the under side, to float off the insect 
with hot water. 

In conclusion, it is as easy, with a little care and patience, 
to make a perfect specimen as a badly set one, and when a 



112 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

series is placed in the cabinet, the effect is worth the slight extra 
trouble. 

With regard to recording one's captures I have a Beare^ & 
Donisthorpe's ' Catalogue,' interleaved, in which every species 
taken is set down, with locality and any other note of interest. 
After a few years a record of this kind becomes very valuable 
when studying the geographical distribution of species ; and 
though, of course, a collector will conscientiously label each 
insect he sets, a well written-up catalogue is very convenient for 
reference. 

The Priory, Chatteris : February, 1908. 



A NEW VAEIETY OF AMPHIDASYS BETULARIA. 
By Wm. Mansbridge, F.E.S. 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Ento- 
mological Society Mr. T. Baxter, of St. Anne's-on-Sea, sent for 
exhibition, among other things, a female specimen of a buff 
form of A. hetularia captured by himself at St. Anne's in June, 
1891. The specimen was kept for five days, but unfortunately 
no ova were obtained. 

A description of Mr. Baxter's insect is as follows : — 

Antennae pale ochreous, banded with black ; thorax and abdomen 
pale ochreous mixed with black ; fore wings with costa brownish 
ochreous, the remainder of the wings ochreous with typical black 
markings ; hind wings with ground-colour somewhat paler ochreous, 
especially on the costa ; black markings typical. The black is some- 
what dull, doubtless owing to the presence of a few reddish brown 
scales, which can be seen in a good light with the help of a strong 
lens. Expanse 60 mm. ( = 2f in.) 

From the above it will be seen that this moth is typical as to 
the black markings, but that the white ground-colour is replaced 
by ochreous ; and that the normal ochreous suffusion on the 
costa of the fore wings of the typical female is brownish 
ochreous. 

I have had an opportunity of comparing this specimen with 
an example of the so-called buff form obtained by the Middleton 
collectors about 1875 (Entom. xxii. 113, 162 ; xxxiv. 180, 203, 
228, 252, 324), in which the ground-colour is pure white, and 
the black markings totally pale reddish brown, so that Mr. 
Baxter's insect is quite distinct from the Middleton varieties. 

As this is a natural variation being due to an extension of 
colour normally present, and likely at any time to recur, I 
propose the varietal name ochrearia to distinguish it. 



113 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE LIFE-HISTORIES AND 
BIONOMICS OF SOME TACHINIDZE. 

By H. S. Leigh. 

DiPTERA — although not generally a favourite group with 
entomologists — forms one of the largest and most important 
orders of insects. Their economic significance is very great, 
some of them being capable of conveying the most serious 
diseases, whilst others act as scavengers by devouring all kinds 
of waste products. 

Many species live parasitically on various lepidopterous 
larvffi, and thus, together with the ichneumons, help to keep the 
numbers of certain Lepidoptera within bounds. This is of great 
importance to man, for some species of caterpillars are very 
troublesome pests, and at times occur in such countless numbers 
on cultivated plants as to strip them of all foliage. 

In several districts around Manchester the larvse of Abraxas 
gross idariata, Linn., have been very common during the last few 
years ; I have on one occasion collected 1500 from one garden, 
and taken about 3000 altogether during 1906 and 1907. This 
shows how very prevalent the species frequently becomes in 
some localities, and anything that can help to lessen its numbers 
will be extremely beneficial. 

The Tachinidse, one of the families comprising the Muscidse 
Calyptratas, contains very many species of flies which are 
parasitic on Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. These flies look — 
at first sight — so like the ordinary house fly, Miisca domestica, 
Linn., that they are no doubt often mistaken for such. 

One species of Tachinid, Blepharidea vulgaris, Fin , which 
attacks the larvas of A. grossulariata, is often very abundant 
during the latter part of June and beginning of July. I have 
bred many of these flies from caterpillars collected in May, and 
Mr. Wainwright says it is "one of our commonest species, with 
many known hosts." The proportion of parasites to hosts was 
about eighty-five of the former to one thousand of the latter, so 
that rather more than eight per cent, of the caterpillars were 
parasitised. 

Mr. Hewitt* has found that the infected A. grossulariata 
larvse contain newly-hatched Tachinid larvae during early May, 
when the former are about half-grown. About the middle of 
June both are matured, and the parasite breaks through the 
body-wall of the host just prior to pupation. The Tachinid 
larva pupates a few hours after leaving the body of the host, 
and under natural conditions the pupge are probably formed on 
or just below the surface of the soil. 

* "Bionomics of certain Calyptrate Musoidse and their Economic Signi- 
ficance," Journ. Econ. Biol., vol. 2, No. 3. 

ENTOM. — MAY, 1908. K 



114 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

It appears that not more than one Tachinid larva is ever 
present in one caterpillar of A. grossulariata, although I have 
found two or three individuals of another species of Tachinid 
parasitic on one larva of Saturnia carpini, W. V., Endromis 
versicolor, &c. 

The pupal stage lasts approximately a fortnight, the flies 
beginning to emerge about the end of June, and continuing for a 
week or more. The flies differ greatly in size, some being half 
as large again as others ; a fact which is no doubt accounted for 
by the quantity of nourishment acquired during the larval 
period. The flies live for about a week or ten days in confine- 
ment, but seem to take no heed of any lepidopterous larvae when 
l^laced in a cage with them. How these flies exist between this 
date, June, to the beginning of May in the following year is not 
definitely known, but Mr. Hewitt suggests that the Tachinid has 
another brood, and that this brood lives in another species of 
lepidopterous larva. This view is strengthened by the fact that 
many records exist of one species of Tachinid infecting different 
species of lepidopterous larvae,. and it is even suggested that one 
species of Tachinid might parasitise not only insects belonging to 
a different species or genus, but of a different order. 

A. grossulariata has only one brood* in the year, and if 
Blepharidea vulgaris is confined to it, the flies must survive much 
longer in the perfect state than they do in confinement. 

The young larvae of A.grossidariata do not appear until about 
the first or second week in August, which would mean the flies 
living for six weeks at least before being able to deposit any ova. 
Even then the A. grossulariata larvae are extremely small, and I 
think it very improbable these Tachinids would infect them. I 
think that B. vulgaris selects a species of lepidopterous larva 
which is about half grown in early July on which to deposit its 
eggs. In this case the resulting larvae would probably be full- 
grown about the same time as the host, and pupation take place 
some time in August. These pupae would then remain unhatched 
until the following April, when there would be A. grossulariata 
larvae available for infection. 

During September, 1 907, I collected about one hundred larvae 
of Spilosoma luhricipeda, Linn., from which I bred twelve 
Tachinid larvae. These appear, from the pupae, to be a much 
larger species than Blepharidea vidgaris. About the second week 
in September the Tachinids pupated, and this agreed exactly 
with the time of pupation of S. lubricipeda. I attempted to force 
these pupae by placing them on October 18th in a stove, the 
temperature of which varied from 70° to 85° F. The result was 
that they absolutely refused to be influenced by the abnormal 
heat, which was allowed to act for six weeks. Afterwards they 

■= A partial second generation occasionally arises. 



LIFE-HISTORIES AND BIONOMICS OF SOME TACHINIDiE. 115 

were taken out of the stove and kept under normal conditions, 
and none have shown any signs of emergence up to the present 
date (April 6th). This persistence to remain over a lengthened 
period in the pupal stage — in spite of such great heat — seems 
rather curious, particularly as the Tachinidse belong to a group 
of insects whose development is often completed in a few weeks, 
and frequently much influenced by temperature. 

The TachinidsB have, I think, a certain number (perhaps two, 
three, or four) of broods* in the year, and cannot be induced to 
give rise to an additional one by artificial means. This at any 
rate appears to be the case in the autumn, but if extra heat be 
applied throughout the summer months some effect would pro- 
bably be witnessed. No doubt the Tachinids obtained from the 
S. lubricipeda larvae had lived during the earlier part of the 
season in another species of lepidopterous larva, and those 
individuals bred in September represented the second or third 
brood. 

I have also obtained several species of Tachinidse from En- 
dromis versicolor, Linn., Saturnia carpini, W. V., and S. pyri, 
W. V.t; in these instances one caterpillar supported three or 
four parasites instead of one only, as in A. grossulariata and 
S. lubricipeda. The winter was passed in the pupal stage, and 
my observations contribute to the belief that most, if not all, of 
the Tachinidae probably remain in this state throughout the 
winter. 

In most cases the emergence of the Tachinids from winter 
pupae takes place about the same time as the emergence of the 
hosts, i. e. those obtained from E. versicolor emerged in April ; 
the species parasitic on S. carpini in late May and June ; those 
from S. pyri in July; and I expect the pupae bred from S. lubri- 
cipeda will produce the flies in June. It seems impossible, 
therefore, that one species of Tachinid can ever be confined to 
one host or even to hosts belonging to one genus. 

About the beginning of June, 1907, I received a few speci- 
mens of a Tachinid from Mr. L. W. Newman which had been ob- 
tained from the larvae of Sesia tipuliformis, Linn. This species, 
Pelatachina tibialis, Fin., is of economic importance, the "cur- 
rant clearwing," which it parasitises, being one of the commonest 
of the Sesiidae, and often very destructive to our currant-bushes. 
How the S. tipuliformis larva becomes parasitised I do not know, 
as it lives in the pith of the stems of currant-bushes, and it is 
difficult to conceive how the fly is able to deposit its ova in a 
suitable position for the resulting larvae to infect their host. 
Mr. Wainwright informs me that Pelatachina tibialis, Fin., has 

* This number of broods will vary according to the species, but most 
probably two or three will be the usual number. 

f Masicera silvatica, Fin., a species which is parasitic on S. pyri, and 
other hosts; it is a Continental species, and very little known as British. 

K 2 



116 THE ENTOMOLOGIiST. 

been bred from other hosts, but that its occurrence as a parasite 
of one of the Sesiidse is new. This Tachinid probably attacks 
another species of lepidopterous larva in June or July, the re- 
sulting brood reaching the pupal stage in the autumn, and 
remaining as pupse until the following spring. The life-histories 
of the Tachinidfe are, however, scarcely known ; the number of 
broods in a season, the various hosts infected by a particular 
species, and the proportion of caterpillars they destroy is still a 
very uncertain question. The fact of many Tachinidse being 
parasitic on certain Lepidoptera, and thus helping to keep some 
of the ravages of the latter under control, compensates in a great 
measure for the pernicious habits of other members of the 
Muscidae ; so that really some of the creatures many persons 
often condemn as an unmitigated nuisance are, in various ways, 
of the greatest service to man, and their bionomics of great 
economic importance. 

I wish to express my thanks to Mr. C. J. Wainwright for help 
received in connection with one or two of the species mentioned 



ODONATA IN GEEMANY.--I. 
By E. E. Speyer, F.E.S. 

Last year (1907) I had the opportunity of making some 
observations on Odonata in Germany. I spent the summer 
from April till the end of September at Marburg-on-the-Lahu, a 
University town lying just north of Frankfurt-on-the-Maine. In 
April I had found two or three stagnant ponds, which seemed 
suitable for Odonata collecting, and of course there was also the 
river Lahn. 

On the outskirts of the town there is a large pond, lying 
parallel with the river, and separated from it by a bank only. 
At one end of it is a reed-bed, and all along it, on the opposite 
side to the river, runs a high bank covered with grass and small 
bushes. 

At the other end of the town, near the Southern Eailway 
Station, is another large sheet of water some distance from the 
river. This pond is surrounded by high and steep banks, 
covered with trees and bushes on one side of the water, and with 
high grass on the other. The water is ornamented with yellow 
water-lilies and high reeds, the whole forming an ideal spot for 
insect life. 

In the immediate neighbourhood there is no other stagnant 
water, with the exception of two small ponds in a brickyard on 
the road to Giessen. 



ODONATA IN GERMANY. 



117 



About five miles from Marburg itself towards Giessen is a 
marsh, which proved very productive for certain species of 
dragonflies not found elsewhere in the district. 

Almost all the species mentioned below were identified by the 
help of Mr. Lucas's excellent book on ' British Dragonflies,' and 
Dr. Selys's * Monographic des Libellulid^es d'Europe.' 

My thanks are especially due to Mr. K. J. Morton, of Edin- 
burgh, who so kindly identified and distinguished the species 
of the genus Sympetrum for me. For the identification of 
Erythromma viridulum I am indebted to the editor of the Ent. 
Mo. Mag., and Mr. H. Campion supplied me with information 
about the Acari on the body of Erythromma naias. 

In this part of my paper the Anisopterid Odonata only are 
dealt with. The second part will treat of the Zygopterides. 

The following Anisopterides were observed during the summer 
of 1907 at Marburg-on-the-Lahn :— 

Sympetrum striolatum, Charp. — Owing to my having mistaken 
this species for S. vulgatum, I am not quite clear as to how 
common the former really is. At any rate, I took very few 
specimens, and never saw the female. Its distribution seemed 
also limited, for I have no specimens from the brickyard, the 
river, or the marsh. 

The first specimen was taken on August 27th, and I have no 
record of it after September 9th. 

S. vulgatum, Linn. — This interesting dragonfly was well dis- 
tributed, but not very plentiful ; in the brickyard and along the 
river, however, I did not observe it. 

A male and female made their appearance on August 25th, 
and on September 23rd the species was still obtainable. 

A female taken in the marsh on September 8th had the lines 
on the sides of the abdominal segments broadly and distinctly 
marked, and males observed after this date had very brown 
wings. 

S. sanguineum, Miill. — The insect occurred in plenty from 
July to September in all the localities except in the brickyard. 
There was little variety in the size and colour of the specimens, 
but they were smaller than most British examples. On July 8th 
I took the first specimen, an immature female, and the species 
must last well into October. 

S. Jlaveohun, Linn. — The marsh was the only place where I 
found this species. There it was very plentiful in September, 
and exhibited great variety in size and in the amount of saffron 
suffusion on the wings. The smallest specimens measured 
28'5 mm. only. At first I took the latter to be hybrids of this 
species with either S. scoticum or S. sanguineum, especially as I 
had found the different species united per. coll. on several 
occasions ; but Mr. Morton, to whom I sent specimens, concludes 
that they are varieties only. 



118 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



S. scoticum, Don. — Like the last species, this one was also 
obtained in the marsh in September, but it was less plentiful, 
and the female was scarce. 

It was the habit of the male to hover just over the tops of 
the reeds, and to settle very seldom, making its capture a very 
difficult matter, as it was always remarkably shy. 

As alluded to above, I took a male of this species united 
per. coll. with a female S. flaveolum, and on another occasion I 
captured a male S. sanguineum united per. coll. with a female 
S. scoticum. 

Libellula depressa, Linn. — This insect appeared in the brick- 
yard only, and in June it was sometimes plentiful there. On 
May 23rd I took an immature female, and on July 21st a very 
much worn female fell to my net. 

One hot day in June I saw a male and female flying on 
intimate terms, and in trying to catch them I knocked the 
female into the water. Several males immediately came and 
hovered over her, and I could have taken quite a number if I had 
wished. This would perhaps be a good method of catching males 
of Anax imperator or of any other species difficult to net. 

L. quadrimaculata, Linn. — A single male of this dragonfly 
turned up at the pond adjoining the Lahn on July 8th. I did 
not observe the species again. 

The specimen in question has very little saffron suffusion on 
the wings, and there is no brown suffusion at their extremities 
at all. At the nodal points the black cloud is but slightly 
marked. This is curious, considering that South of England 
specimens as a rule have more suffusion on the wings than those 
from the north. 

Orthetrum cancellatum, Linn. — This was certainly an abun- 
dant dragonfly. 

On June 10th, as I was walking along the bank of the pond 
adjoining the Lahn, scores of immature females flew out of the 
long grass when they were disturbed. But their chance of 
escaping with their lives was small, for they were slow of flight, 
and many of those which did not enter the collector's net made 
dainty morsels for the flocks of sparrows which apparently 
awaited them at the top of the bank. 

When mature the habits of this dragonfly are very different. 
To see a mature male, fully invested with his blue colour, and 
flying at full speed over the surface of the water, is indeed a 
wonderful sight ; suddenly the insect sweeps round, and the 
next moment is quietly resting on a piece of bare ground on the 
bank; here he remains with wings bent over. Now is the 
collector's only chance; he must approach carefully from be- 
hind, but not too slowly, or the dragonfly darts off, only to settle 
some distance further on, or once more to embark on its reckless 
flight over the water. 



ODONATA IN GERMANY. 119 

The habits of the female when ovipositing are also interesting. 
At about a yard from the bank she may be seen dipping the tip 
of her abdomen quickly and at random into the water, flying 
onwards all the while. After a time she will fly out over the 
water, probably followed by several males, one of which will 
copulate with her, and both will fly back to settle on the bank ; 
having rested there awhile, both fly over the water, and the 
female breaking loose again begins ovipositing. I watched the 
same female do this repeatedly, and the process of oviposition 
seems to point to the fact that, in this dragonfly, different 
batches of eggs are fertilized separately. The female emerges 
about a week before the male. The females which I took in 
August perhaps had a trace of blue powder on the abdomen. 

I observed the insect for the last time on August 27th. In 
July there were a few specimens in the brickyard, but the species 
was most plentiful at the pond adjoining the Lahn. 

Cordulia cenea, Linn. — The first dragonfly I came across in 
Marburg was an immature female of this species ; it was picked 
up in the town on May 12th and brought to me. On May 23rd 
it was out in some numbers along the banks of the Lahn towards 
Giessen, but on May 25th there were none to be seen in this 
locality. I next observed the species on June 9th at the pond 
adjoining the Lahn, and after this it was plentiful until August 
3rd, after which date I did not observe it. From the brickyard 
and the marsh I did not record it. It was also plentiful along 
the banks of the Lahn in June, and at a small pond in the 
Marburg botanical gardens, which, by the way, are situated in 
the heart of the town. The habit of this species is to fly back- 
wards and forwards along the edges of ponds, seldom settling 
under the banks. It is very wary and difficult to net. Once or 
twice I saw specimens settle in the grass; and on one occasion I 
found a male resting on a dead twig. 

The female oviposits in the shallow water among reeds by 
dropping the eggs quite at random. When thus engaged the 
insect is by no means shy. 

Somatochlora metallica, Van der L. — On August 3rd I noticed 
a dragonfly ovipositing in the thick reeds by the side of the pond 
near the Southern Eailway Station. At first I thought it was 
Cordulia anea, but when I tried to net it, it at once flew up and 
settled among the branches of a plum-tree close by. Thinking 
this very peculiar for a female C. cenea to do, I followed and 
drove the insect back to the water, where I captured it, and 
found it to be a fine female of S. metallica. 

Ovipositing is much the same as that of the last species. 

I did not come across the dragonfly again. 

Gomphus vulgatissimim, Linn. — While boating on the river 
Lahn on May 15th, I found an empty nymph-case clinging to a 
leaf on the bank. 



120 THE ENTOMOLOGIST, 

On May 23rd the insect was out in large numbers along the 
river towards Giessen ; it was then immature. On May 25th I 
expected to find it plentiful again, but the result of a morning's 
search revealed a single female only, and I never saw the 
dragonfly again. 

Evidently most of the life of this species is spent far from 
water, but when and where ovipositing takes place remains a 
mystery to me. 

Lindenia forcipata, Linn. — I took two males of this remark- 
able species ; one rather immature one on June 27th on the 
banks of the Lahn, and another mature one on September 19th 
near the Southern Eailway Station. In addition to these, I 
believe I saw another male at the pond by the Lahn on July 8th. 

The habit of the male is to settle repeatedly on the bare 
ground. Its flight is rapid, but it is not shy, and can easily be 
taken in the net. The species is quite unique with regard to its 
anal appendages, which are turned in at right angles to each 
other. 

Mschia cyanea, Miill. — To my surprise this species was most 
uncommon, but in hotter summers it is no doubt very plentiful. 
I took the first male on August 26th ; on September 9th the 
males were plentiful at the pond near the Southern Eailway 
Station. In the marsh I took two males. On September 19th 
the species was by no means over, and it probably lasts till the 
beginning of November in favourable weather. 

A^. grandis, Linn. — Undoubtedly common and well distri- 
buted in Europe, yE. grandis was also extremely plentiful at 
Marburg. On August 3rd the first specimen (a female) turned 
up, and on the same date I found an empty nymph-case. 

When ovipositing, it was no difficult matter to catch the 
female, but the male would always fly rapidly backwards and 
forwards in the centre of the pond, very seldom settling on the 
banks ; and here it was impossible to net, for if the least attempt 
was made to approach it, it would fly off at once. While on the 
wing it would occasionally give a large swoop over terra firma, 
and then it was tbe collector's only chance. 

j^. isosceles, Miill. — I hardly expected to find this magnificent 
dragonfly ; but one hot afternoon in June (the exact date was 
June 28th) I saw a fine male hovering and circling over the pond 
near the Southern Eailway Station. With the small net I had 
with me, it was no easy matter to catch it, although I repeatedly 
got nearly within striking distance. After flying lazily over the 
water, the insect would settle on a reed and remain there some 
time. When approached from in front it was very shy, but from 
behind I once got within easy striking distance — but my stroke 
was a bungling one, and off soared the beautiful creature over the 
trees, leaving me with the impression that I was not going to 
see it again. But within five minutes it was again hovering 



NEW AFEICAN BEES. 121 

over exactly the same spot, and in another thirty seconds was in 
my possession, for this time my net struck true. 

On July 21st I found a nymph-case clinging to the reeds 
in the same locality ; and on July 16th I saw a dragonfly 
which appeared to be another male of this species, but I was 
unable to capture it. 

(To be continued.) 



NEW AFEICAN BEES. 

By T. D. A. COCKERELL. 



Anthophora domicola, sp. nov. 
? . Length about 13 mm. ; anterior wing about 10 ; black, with 
hair of head and thorax above, apical margin of second abdominal 
segment, and the segments following entirely (except a few black 
hairs at base of second and third) rufo-fulvous ; hairs of scutellum 
(except at extreme sides anteriorly), of metathorax, of first abdominal 
segment and of second except apical margin, black or brown-black ; 
hair of cheeks and pleura and anterior legs white ; of middle and 
hind legs black. Closely allied in all respects to A. atrocincta, Lep., 
but considerably smaller, with the wings pallid, suffused with brown 
along the veins, the reddish hair not so bright ; and the lateral black 
areas of the clypeus indented below, the whole shaped like a boot with 
a sharp toe and a large heavy heel. The black areas of the clypeus 
are dull and granular, with rather sparse shallow punctures. The 
pygidial plate has dark hairs at its sides, but there is no black patch 
on the fifth segment, such as there is in A. atrocincta. 

Hah. Benguella hinterland. West Africa, January, 1908 ; 
"from hole in side of mud house" (P. C. Wellman) ; Ekuiva 
Valley, West Africa, 1907 (F. C. Wellman). The latter speci- 
men was at flowers of mint, together with A. quadrifasciata, Vill. 

Anthophora ekuivensis, sp. nov. 

? . Length about 12 mm. ; superficially just like A. quadri- 
fasciata, but evidently distinct, by the following characters : man- 
dibles stouter, only the basal third or less yellow ; labrum with a 
central yellow lobiform area surrounded by black, and here rather 
elevated ; median stripe of clypeus thorn-like, not reaching upper 
border ; no light supraclypeal mark ; tegulge more shining ; hind 
basitarsus entirely covered with white hair on outer side ; ventral 
abdominal segments with long hair-fringes, which are fuscous in the 
middle and white laterally. The wings are dusky and subviolaceous. 

Hah. Ekuiva Valley, West Africa, 1907 (P. C. WeUman). 

Halictus jucundus benguellensis, subsp. nov. 
$ . Agreeing with H. jucundus, Smith, from Willowmore, Cape 
Colony (Brauns), except that the wings are strongly dusky, and the 



122 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

nervures and stigma are darker. The insect is larger than H. vire- 
scens, Lep., from Bozen, Tirol (Friese), and differs, as Vachal has 
indicated, in the teeth of the hind spur. The metathoracic cliaracter 
mentioned by Vachal is scarcely distinctive for the Benguella form. 
Smith described H. jucundus from tlie Cape and Sierra Leone, but 
the former must be taken as the type locality, as it is given first, and 
the wings are described as hyaline, with the nervures and tegulae pale 
testaceous. The measurement given by Smith for the female is at 
least 2 mm. too small for the Benguella insect. 

Hah. Benguella hinterland, at flowers of an orchid, January, 
1908 (Wellman) ; Ekuiva Valley, at flowers of Geigeria, 1907 
(Wellman). 

Halictus creightoni, sp. nov. 

$ . Length about 8 mm. ; anterior wing about 6^ ; black, with 
dull white hair ; abdomen black, with the hind margins of the seg- 
ments concolorous ; bases of segments 2 to 4 with bands of dense 
pure white tomentum, these all broad laterally, but narrowing medi- 
ally, and failing dorsally on 2 and 3 ; tegulae shining black ; wings 
strongly dusky, nervures and stigma black ; legs black, except claw- 
joints, which are reddish ; hair of" legs white, faintly yellowish on 
inner side of tarsi, brush at end of hind basitarsus dark fusco-ferru- 
ginous ; spurs ferruginous ; hind spur long, its apical half simple, the 
basal half with a row of minute nodules ; apical region of abdomen 
with scattered coarse black bristles, the rima not distinguished by 
any colour. Hair at sides of face silvery ; antennge entirely black ; 
face rather narrow ; clypeus produced, with an irregular sculpture ; 
front dull and granular ; mesothorax with very little hair, dull, with 
scattered punctures ; scutellum more shining, and quite closely punc- 
tured, the punctures of various sizes ; area of metathorax with strong 
longitudinal wavy plications, its margin well-defined and sharp ; 
abdomen moderately shining. Post-scutellum with greyish-white 
tomentum. 

Hah. Benguella hinterland, West Africa, January 3rd, 1908 
(F. Creighton Wellman). Taken, with numerous other bees 
{Antkophora ccerulea, Friese, A. convolvuli, CklL, &c.), from a 
small patch of flowering Compositse, species of Othonua and Gei- 
geria. This has a general resemblance to several European 
species ; they are separable by the following table : — 

Area of metathorax with a fine grooving or 

lineolation ; face very broad . . . maculakis, Smith. 
Area of metathorax plicate or ridged . . 1. 

1. Mesothorax very shiny, smooth, with sparse 

punctures ...... morhillostis, Kriechb. 

Mesothorax not thus shiny and smooth . 2. 

2. Hair on post-scutellum long and fuscous ; 

wings clear leucozonius (Schrank). 

Hair on post-scutellum short and greyish 
white ; wings darkened .... creightoni, Ckll. 



123 



BIBLIOGKAPHICAL AND NOMENCLATORIAL NOTES 
ON THE HEMIPTEEA.— No. 8. 

By G. W. Kirkaldy. \ Cx ^<^ ^ 

/ A. ^ 

I DO not propose to reply in detail to Mr. Distant's recent 
criticisms (Entom. 1907, pp. 15 and 36), as the matter is not of 
interest to entomologists in general, and the facts and opinions 
are cited on both sides for hemipterists to choose from. Mr. 
Distant, however, implies that I employ a nomenclature of my 
own, and that my style of citation is incorrect. 

In using " Leptocoris " I have simply selected the name which 
is proper under the rules followed by every living hemipterist 
but Mr. Distant, viz. priority. This name was proposed in 
1833* by Hahn for a single species rufiis (= ahdominalis). 
Spinola in 1837 erected Serinetha, with type ahdominalis, alleging 
at the time that Leptocoris was preoccupied by Leptocoryza (sic!). 
As a matter of fact Leptocorixa was founded by Berthold in 1827 
(from the French form Leptocorise of 1825), altered by Latreille 
in 1829 to Leptocorisa. According to recognized rules, Leptocoris 
is not preoccupied by Leptocorixa or Leptocorisa. With regard 
to Mr. Distant's appeal to "authority," Dallas's work is nearly 
sixty years old, while Stiil and Lethierry and Severin are notori- 
ously indifferent to the principle of priority. It is because 
Bergroth is so " strict an observer of the law " that I feel sure he 
would now use Leptocoris. 

Mr. Distant further says, " but it is inexact to write ' Seri- 
netha, Dist.' ; he gives me too much credit." On looking at the 
context (Ent. xl. pp. 282-3), it will be seen that my note referred 
to omissions from the ' Fauna of India,' and the generic name in 
square brackets obviously was that under which the species would 
be found in Mr. Distant's index. 

Another small point I may now refer to is that on p. 87 of 
vol. xl. (1907). Colonel Bingham states that the date 1830 for 
the text of the * Coquille ' was not corrected in print to 1838 till 
1906, after the third volume of Mr. Distant's 'Fauna of India — 
Hemiptera ' was in print. This is inaccurate, for the correction 
was published /oM-r 2/ears previously, r^i^;. in the 'Entomologist' 
for 1902 (pp. 316-7), under a special heading. 

II. 

Family Cimicid^. 

Phloeophana, gen. nov. 

Allied to Phlcpa, Lap. & Serv., but differing by the juga being 

non-contiguous apically ; the much longer la))ium ; the much 

* Not 1831, as Mr. Distant persists in citing. 



124 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

longer scutellum, differently formed corium and membrane. 
Type, Phlcea longirostris, Spin. 

In the ' Fauna of India — Hem. I.' Mr. Distant cites lineolatus 
as the type of Podisus, and in this he has unfortunately been 
followed hj Schouteden (Gen. Ins.). 

Podisus was founded by Herrich-Schaffer in the ' Wanzen- 
artigen Insecten,' ix. 296, without mention of species. On p. 338 
he describes five species, viz. punctipennis, strigipes, vittipe.nnis, 
pallipes, and albiseptus. The first general treatment was appa- 
rently that of Stal in 1870. In that punctipennis is placed uuder 
Apateticus ; vittipennis under Podisus ; pallipes as uncertain ; 
albiseptus under Tynacantha ; strigipes under Mineus. I think, 
therefore, that the type of Podisus is vittipennis {=bijidiis). 

Montr ouzierellus, n. n. = Platynopus, subgen. || Acanthomera, 
Montr, (type, melacanthus) . 

Austromalaya, n. n.= || spudcsns, Stal. 
Glaucias, n. n.= |i Zangis, Stal. 
Boeria, n. n.= |! Panda, Distant. 

^"^amily Cicadid^. 
^Psalmocharias, n. n. = W^^ena, Distant. 

There are several points of nomenclature on which I have 
not answered criticisms as yet. These will be dealt with in 
detail in the Introduction to the first volume of the ' Catalogue 
of the Hemiptera ' now in the press. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF SAWFLY 
(SELANDBIA) FROM BORNEO. 

By p. Camekon. 

Selandria kucJiingensis, sp. nov. 

Black, shining ; the apex of the femora narrowly, the basal three- 
fourths of the tibige, and the tarsi white ; wings iridescent, hyaline, 
distinctly suffused with fuscous ; the costa, stigma, and nervures 
black, the costa thicker than usual ; the first transverse cubital ner- 
vure very faint, almost obliterated ; the transverse radial nervure has 
the lower half bullated ; the second recurrent nervure is received at 
the apex of the basal fourth of the cellule. Head and thorax bearing 
a short white pile. S • Length, 4 mm. 

Kuching, Borneo ; May (John Hewitt). 

Basal joints of antennge fuscous, the third as long as the fourth 
and half of the fifth, the fifth, sixth, and seventh dilated, thicker than 
the apical pair. Frontal area large, raised, widened towards the 
apex, the top enclosing the lower ocellus. A stout keel between the 
antennae. Clypeus opaque, shagreened, its apex broadly transverse. 



NOTES ON BRITISH BRACONID^. 125 

Palpi clear white. Mesonotum distinctly trilobate, the middle lobe 
with a deep furrow down the centre. Cenchri large, clear white. 
The dorsal middle segments of the abdomen are fuscous. Calcaria 
short, testaceous. The first joint of the hind tarsi is blackish-fuscous, 
narrowly white at the base and apex, the second is testaceous, blackish 
above, the third and fourth black, the fifth black, white at the base. 



NOTES ON BRITISH BEACONID^.— VI. 
By Claude Morlby, F.E.S., &c. 

(Continued from vol. xl. p. 254.) 
METEORIDiE. 

This small subfamily consists of some thirty species, which 
so closely resemble the ichneumonidous Hemiteles in the structure 
of their pefciolated abdomen, &c., that I found an individual of 
the latter genus among them, while working on this paper, in 
my collection ; it also is related to the Euphoridse, among 
Braconids, though its possession of three cubital cells will at 
once distinguish it therefrom. Its species are mainly parasitic 
on Lepidoptera, sometimes socially but usually solitarily : one, 
I shall show, has been bred from a sawfly, and several are 
reputed to prey upon beetles ; while M. ohfmcator is constantly 
being bred by coleopterists from the heteromerous Orchesia 
micans in Boleti on elm trees. The following table will 
sufficiently distinguish our species, many of which appear at 
first sight very obscure, but become easily recognized with a 
little practice ; and the last four or five are, perhaps, but 
varieties of the same. There is but one genus : — 

Meteoeus, Hal. 
(44) 1. Post-petiole discally bisulcate at the 
base. 

(5) 2. Radial cell of lower wing divided by 

a transverse nervure . . . (Zemiotes, Forst.). 
(4) 3. Costal and median cells of upper wing 

of subequal length . . . .1. albiditarsis, Curt. 
(3) 4. Costal cell distinctly shorter than the 

median . . . . . .2. caligatus, Hal. 

(2) 5. Radial cell of lower wing not divided. 
(7) 6. Costal cell as long or longer than 

median (Protelus, Forst.). . 3. chrysophthalmus, Nees. 

(6) 7. Costal cell shorter than the median. 
(33) 8. Recurrent nervure emitted before apex 

of first cubital cell. 
(12) 9. Antenna with at least thirty-five joints. 
(11) 10. Post-petiole twice longer than apically 

broad : abdomen longer. . . 4. deceptor, Wesm. 



126 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

(10) 11. Post-petiole decidedly shorter ; abdo- 
men also shorter . . . .5. pallidus, Nees. 

12. Antennae with at most thirty joints. 

13. Stigma unicolorous, fiavidous or tes- 
taceous. 

14. Face piceous or black ; legs often in- 
fuscate ...... 6. tabidus, Wesm. 

15. Face testaceous or rufescent. 

16. Sternauli deep ; antennae of female 
thirty-two jointed. 

17. Antennas infuscate or piceous . . 7. pallidipes, Wesm. 

18. Antennge flavidous or testaceous . 8. ictericus, Nees. 

19. Sternauli shallow ; antennae of female 
twenty-seven jointed . . .9. confinis, Ruthe. 

20. Stigma piceous or infuscate, usually 
paler basally. 

21. Legs broadly infuscate . . .6. tabidus, supra. 

22. Legs testaceous. 

23. Wings not clouded ; second cubital 
cell not contracted towards radial 
nervure. 

24. Wings not lacteous ; abdomen usually 
pale-marked. 

25. Metathorax smooth . . . .10. vexator, Hal. 

26. Metathorax rugulose (not punctate). 

27. Head broader than thorax ; stigma 
larger and darker . . . .11. obfiiscatus, Nees. 

28. Head not broader than thorax; stigma 
smaller and paler . . .12. punctiventris, Euthe. 

29. Wings lacteous ; abdomen nearly to- 
tally black 13. atrator, Curt. 

30. Wings clouded ; second cubital cell 
distinctly contracted above. 

31. Second cubital cell strongly con- 
tracted, subtriangular . . .14. albicornis, Ruthe. 

32. Second cubital cell less contracted, 
trapeziform . . . . 15. abdominator, Nees. 

3 3 . Recurrent nervure emitted at or beyond 
apex of first cubital cell. 

34. Length, 2f mm. ; terebra longer than 
abdomen . . . . .16. jaculator, Hal. 

35. Larger ; terebra not longer than ab- 
domen. 

36. Stigma piceous, sometimes externally 
pale. 

37. Stigma unicolorous piceous . 17. mdanostictus, Cap. 

38. Stigma paler, with the outer border 
stramineous . . . .18. pulchricornis, Wesm. 

39. Stigma pale, with the border some- 
times darker. 

40. Terebra as long as the abdomen ; male 
unknown . . . . .19. consors, Ruthe. 



NOTES ON BRITISH BRAOONID.E. 127 

(40) 41. Terebra shorter than the abdomen. 

(43) 42. Body broadly marked with black, 

especially the metathorax . . 20. scutellator, Nees. 

(42) 43. Body entirely testaceous, basal seg- 
ment at most infuscate . . .21. unicolor, Wesm. 
(1) 44. Post-petiole not discally bisulcate, 
though often aciculate. 

(46) 45. Wings short, narrow and clouded, 

white below stigma . . . 22. micropterus, Hal. 
(45) 46. Wings normally developed and hyaline. 

(48) 47. Petiole white or paler than post- 

petiole 23. versicolor, Wesm. 

(47) 48. Petiole not pale, usually black. 

(56) 49. Stigma piceous and internally pale. 

(53) 50. Head broader than thorax ; terebra 

as long as abdomen. 
(52) 51. First abscissa of radial nervure much 

shorter than the second . . .24. profligator, Hal. 
(51) 52. First abscissa of radial nervure as long 

as second . . . . .25. filator, Hal. 
(50) 63. Head narrower than thorax ; terebra 

shorter than abdomen. 
(55) 54. Petiole shorter than post-petiole . 26. cinctellus, Nees. 

(54) 55. Petiole as long as the post-petiole . 27. tenellus, Marsh. 

(49) 56. Stigma entirely pale. 

(60) 57. Antennge at most twenty-eight jointed, 

of female filiform. 

(59) 58. Body testaceous, with only the abdo- 
men basally infuscate . . .28. rubens, Nees. 

(58) 59. Body mainly black, centre of abdomen 

pale 29. Iceviventris, Wesm. 

(57) 60. Antennae at least thirty-jointed, of 

male and female setaceous. 
(62) 61. Abdomen black, with at most second 

segment pale-marked . . . 30. fragilis, Wesm. 

(61) 62. Abdomen mainly, or body entirely, 

testaceous . . . . .31. luridus, Euthe. 

1. albiditarsis. — An abundant species. I have it from In- 
veruglas, Scotland (Dalglish) ; New Forest (Miss Chawner) ; 
Bentley Woods, near Ipswich (Elliott) ; Guestling, near Hast- 
ings, in 1876 and 1889 — the females misnamed Zele testaceator 
by Bridgman — (Bloomfield). I have several times taken the 
females flying round young trees about Ipswich, and beaten the 
males both there and at Wilverley, in the New Forest. It is on 
the wing from May 16th till July 1st. Marshall gives no 
authority for his statement that the cocoon — which he correctly 
describes as woolly, spindle-shaped, dirty yellow, with a very 
tough leathery lining — is attached to leaves. On the contrary, 
Wigin sent me, on November 18th, 1899, thirteen which he had 
dug up from beneath the surface of his garden at Methley, 



128 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Leeds, with those of Exetastes cinctipes and E. illusor ; he said 
that in all probability they had emanated from Mamestra 
brassicce or Iladena oleracea. Of the thirteen I can only find 
that six (all males) emerged between May 28th, 1900, when one 
was out at 10 a.m. since midnight, and June 18th, 1900, when 
three had emerged since 6th. The last emerged between 2 p.m. 
on June 3rd and 11 p.m. the preceding night. On October 31st, 

1900, he sent me twenty more cocoons similarly obtained, and 
from these but five imagines emerged ; both sexes on May 26th, 

1901, between midnight and 11 a.m., a male on 29th, and both 
sexes on June 2nd between midnight and 10 a.m. Clutten has 
bred it at Burnley ; Blair as early as May 10th ; and Bignell in 
Devon from Hadena suasa. On May 13th, 1904, Blair bred a 
single female from a " whole batch" of New Forest Tceniocampa 
miniosa, among a number of Meniscus murinus {cf. my ' Ichneu- 
mons of Britain,' vol. iii.). He particularly informs me that the 
cocoon is spun underground. Marshall could cite no specified 
hosts. 

2. caligatus. — This appears to me to differ from M. deceptor 
only in the faintly defined dividing nervure. It is restricted to 
Britain. I have only three males, taken by Miss Chawner in 
the New Forest ; Dr. Capron about Shere, in Surrey ; and myself 
by beating Prunus spinosa at Barham Green (William Kirby's 
parish) on May 27th, 1899. 

3. chrysophthalmus. — Both sexes bred on May 20th, 1903, 
from Nephopteryx hostilis, taken in South Essex during the pre- 
ceding autumn (Thurnall) ; one female bred from Phlyetenodes 
turhidalis at La Granja, in Spain (Chapman). In the latter 
case the parasite had emerged from the larva after the latter had 
constructed its cocoon and spun its own within that of the host ; 
the former is pure white, dull, subcylindrical, and not very 
rough ; from it the imago emerged at the smaller apex, which 
was entirely cut round, but held i7i situ by the wool. Unlike the 
foregoing species, this is abroad in the autumn as well as the 
spring, since I swept a female at Freston, in Suffolk, on Septem- 
ber 7th, 1896. It has also occurred to me at Bentley and 
Brandon in the same county in late May and early June, to 
Miss Chawner in the New Forest, and to Charbonnier at Bristol 
in July. 

4. deceptor. — A common species, whose larva spins its cocoon 
within that of its host ; the former is pure white and similar in 
consistency to that of the last species, but a great deal more 
attenuate at one end. Tonge, however, tells me that he found a 
cocoon free on Scotch fir in a Reigate garden in October, from 
which this species emerged on 5th of the following July. It has 
also been bred by Porritt in Yorkshire, and Clutten at Burnley ; 
Felden, in Herts (Piffard) ; Tuddenham Fen, in Suffolk (E. G. J. 
Sparke) ; New Forest, at the end of May (Adams) ; and Guestling 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 129 

(Bloomfield). I took a female at Ringsteatl, in Norfolk, as late 
as August 23rd, 1906. 

6. tabidus. — I have five specimens appearing to belong to 
nothing but this species, which is said to prey upon Longicorn 
beetles. Three were bred by Mrs. Holmes at Sevenoaks in 1906 
from Eiipithecia minutata, and had spun white or pale ochreous 
cottony, cylindrical cocoons of 5 mm. in length, from which one 
failed to emerge, and had, as the Parasitica often do in such 
cases, died with its head inwards ; one female was captured by 
Wilson Saunders at Reigate in July, 1872 ; and I took the last 
on bracken at the Wilverley Enclosure, near Brockenhurst, June 
14th, 1907. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The Entomological Society of America. — The third meeting 
of the Entomological Society of America was held at the University 
of Chicago, December 30th and 31st, 1907, in affiliation with the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, and other 
societies. About one hundred were in attendance, coming from as 
widely remote localities as Maine and California, Ottawa and 
Louisiana. On Monday sessions were held for the reading of papers, 
among which were the following : — • 

"Notes on the Geographical Affinities of the Isle Eoyale, Lake 
Superior " (an outline of the relations of the Isle Royale fauna (beetle 
fauna) to that of Northern North America. General remarks on the 
major faunal centres based on beetles), by Charles C. Adams. " Some 
Problems in Nomenclature" (a brief discussion of the validity of 
names, particularly those bestowed on insect galls and larvas), by Dr. 
E. P. Felt. " Stereoscopic Photography iVpplied to Entomological 
Subjects " (exhibition of excellent stereoscopic effects brought about 
by an ingenious but simple apparatus), by Professor F. L. Washburn. 
" Is Mutation a Factor in the Production of Vestigial Wings among 
Insects?" (a summary of some observations among insects belonging 
to various groups, where the evolution of wingless or subapterous 
species can be traced within a genus or small group), by Charles T. 
Brues. " The Mouth-parts and Phylogeny of Siricidas," by J. Chester 
Bradley. " On Certain Structural Characters of the Genus Catocala," 
by W. Beutenmuller. " Is Vespa borealis an Inquiline?" (an account 
of finding males and females of Ves^ja borealis living in the nest of V. 
diaboUca on several occasions, apparently on perfectly friendly terms), 
by Dr. James Fletcher. " The Entomological Society of America and 
its Work," by Henry H. Lyman. " The Habits of the Crane-Fly, 
Dicranomyia defiincta, 0. S.," by James G. Needham. " The Life- 
History of a Bee-Fly {Spogostylum anale, Say) ; the Larvae Parasitic 
on the Larvae of a Tiger Beetle {Gicindela soiUellaris, Say)" (the eggs 
are laid in July and August ; larvae on the last larval stage of the 

ENTOM. MAY, 1908. L 



130 . THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

host in the spring ; when the host makes its pupal cell and the 
internal parts become semi-fluid, the parasite moults and grows very 
rapidly, completely destroying the host (July). The pupa digs toward 
the surface by wriggling movements of the body, and the adult 
emerges when the surface is reached. Title only), by Victor E. 
Shelf ord. " Ancestral Ephemeridae from the American Permian 
Formation " (a group of true Ephemeridae obtained from the Permian 
of Kansas. The earliest known true Ephemerids, and, with the 
exception of a few Russian specimens, all that are known from the 
Permian. They present a distinct early stage in the evolution of the 
Ephemerid line), by Dr. E. H. Sellards. "Observations on the Life- 
History and Adaptation of a New Semi-aquatic Aphid " (habits, life- 
history, and specialization of Aphis aquaticus, novus, found on the 
water-thyme ; many remarkable adaptations to its semi-aquatic 
life), by C. F. Jackson. " Habits of the Larvae of Lycaena," by 
J. H. Cook. 

On Monday evening the Annual Address was given before the 
Society by Professor Herbert Osborn, of the Ohio State University, 
his subject being " The Habits of Insects as a Factor in Classifica- 
tion." The address was followed by a most enjoyable smoker, at 
which the members of the Society and their friends were the guests 
of the Entomological Section of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. 

Melit^a paethenie var. varia : a Correction. — The statement 
on p. 57 of the current volume by me that M. ixirthenie var. varia was 
met with is a mistake, the specimen referred to being only a slightly 
under-sized dusky form of M. jmrthenie. Mr. Wheeler tells me that 
the true "varia" does not occur in the immediate vicinity of B6risal. 
E. M. Peideaux ; "Woodlands," Brasted Chart, near Sevenoaks. 

A Few Notes on Breeding Experiences in 1907. — Before 
writing my notes a short description of my breeding apparatus will 
make them more readily understood. I have for ova and newly- 
hatched larvae three-inch glass-lidded metal boxes ; for small broods 
and intermediate stages glass candle-chimneys (such as are used to 
protect candles from the wind) stuck into a perforated zinc rim, 
which in turn is embedded in a four-inch flower-pot filled with a mix- 
ture of peat and sand, and in the centre a small phial for food-plant. 
For larger broods and larger larvae, two horticultural bell-glasses in- 
serced in their stands, three or four small bread-pans or pork-crocks 
filled with peat and sand to the depth of the glass phials, and three 
or four large-sized deep flower-pots ; besides sleeves innumerable. 
All above except metal boxes are covered with tiffany. 

Anticlea rubidata. — Female, captured July, 1906 ; ova laid freely, 
and hatching produced healthy larvae, which fed on bedstraw ; were 
only moved once, from box to bell-glass, and were no trouble at all. 
Bedstraw being difficult to put in water and also to remove, I con- 
tented myself with just putting fresh food on the top of the old every 
other day. Very successful, and a fine emergence in July, 1907. This 
nsect must be bred to get it at its best. 

LopJiopteryx camelina. — A very early female, taken at rest April, 
1907, deposited about thirty ova ; the larvae were sleeved when about 



CAPTURES AND FIKLD REPORTS. 131 

a fortnight old on birch, and fed up fairly well. Several died, but 
twelve to eighteen pupated in cocoa-nut fibre placed in box in sleeve, 
and the moths successfully emerged in August. 

Odontosia carmelita. — Having obtained three pupae from Mr. 
Newman, of Bexley, I was agreeably surprised to find both a male and 
female emerge together one fine morning in April. When placed in 
a candle-chimney cage covered with tiffany they paired at about sun- 
set, and some fifty ova were subsequently obtained. Having been 
advised to sleeve the larvse, I did so about ten days after hatching, 
but all gradually sickened and died, the last succumbing when about 
half-grown in late July. Three friends had some of these larv^, and 
all were equally unsuccessful. It has been suggested to me that the 
reason for failure was the honeydew on the leaves caused by aphides, 
which were very numerous. This seems feasible, as other species fed 
and sleeved on same birch likewise sickened, though some did fairly 
well, as falcula and camelina. Can any reader throw out a sugges- 
tion ? — Harold E. Winser ; Kent House, Cranleigh, Surrey. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

NoLA ALBULALis IN SussEX. — About the end of July, 1906, a 
specimen of Nola albulalis was taken by my brother Geoifrey at the 
foot of the Downs near Lewes. Owing to his having done very little 
entomology since that time the insect has only just been identified. — 
Hugh J. Vinall ; Torbay, Park Road, Lewes, April 23rd, 1908. 

Herminia derivalis not at Barmouth or Chester. — For Her- 
minia derivalis at Barmouth (Entom. xxxviii. p. 292), and at Chester 
(xli. p. 66), read Zanclognatha grisealis = ne7noralis. — J. Arkle ; 
Chester. 

Lepidoptera of East Sutherland. — The following list is supple- 
mentary to that published (Entom. xl. p. 40) : — Selenia bilunaria 
(Ulimaria), sparingly; Odontoptera bidentata, sparingly (very dark 
forms) ; A7}i,2Jhidasys betularia, fairly common (normal forms), out of 
many larvae bred no black forms occurred ; Demas coryli, fairly com- 
mon; Gidaria ?7imto, sparingly ; Hyijsipetes trifasciata (impliiviata), 
common ; Hadena thalassma, sparingly ; CymatopJiora duplaris, 
fairly common ; Coremia designata, sparingly. Total of previous list 
of species 98, new additions as above 9 = 107 species. — M. A. Rolla- 
soN ; Jan. 1st, 1908. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society op London. — Wednesday, March 18th, 
1908.— Mr. C. O. Waterhouse, President, in the chair.— Mr. Edwin 
Goldthorp Bayford, of 2, Rockingham Street, Barnsley ; Mr. Edgar 
L. Clark, of Congella, Natal ; Mr. G. W. Jeffrey, of the Alpine Gold 
Mining Company, Barberton, Transvaal Colony; Mr. G. W. Lawn, 
of Tudor House, Wealdstone, HaiTow ; and Mr. D. Langsdon, of 20, 



132 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Holland Park, W., were elected Fellows of the Society. — Dr. T. A. 
Chapman exhibited photographs of the empty egg-shells and young 
larvae of Pajnlio homerus. — Mr. C. J. Gahan, a larva of the genus 
Trictenotoma. This larva belonged undoubtedly to the Heteromera, 
and bore most resemblance to the larvae of Pyrochroidae and Pythidas. 
He also showed a larva of Dascillus cervmus from Ireland, which had 
been received at the Natural History Museum by Mr. Waterhouse, a 
species little known in this stage. The President said that the larva 
in question was just now the subject of experiment, it being reported 
as doing much damage to grass-land. It was important, therefore, 
to determine whether it was really destructive or parasitic on some 
other pest like Melolontha. — The President exhibited a photograph 
drawing of the larvaB of Goniopteryx, a small neuropteron common 
enough in its perfect state, but rarely found as a larva, when it may 
be beaten out of fir-trees. — Mr. W. J. Kaye, three species of Pereute 
from the Chanchamayo district of Peru, viz., P. leucodrosime, P. cal- 
linice, and P. callianira, together with specimens of the Nymphaline 
Adclpha lata. He called attention to the fact that these Pierines and 
Nymphaline occurred together at an elevation of from 2500 to 3000 ft. 
It was wrong to suppose that any Heliconius viel])oviene-\\ke species 
entered the association, as Heliconius species of this pattern did not 
ascend to such an elevation, or. if they ever did, it was only as a rare 
exception. — Mr. L. W. Newman, a long and varied series of Smerin- 
thus poinili, bred from wild Bexley parents in June, 1907, the series 
ranging from extreme dark specimens (about six per cent.) to very 
light (about ten per cent.), and pink-shaded or tinged (about twenty 
per cent.), the remainder being intermediate forms. They included 
three gynandromorphic specimens. — Mr. J. W. Tutt asked for infor- 
mation from any Fellows who had collected abroad, relative to a 
suggested distinction of species in Everes argiades, Pall. He said 
that the question had been raised by M. Oberthiir whether we have 
under ab. coretas, 0., and argiades two separate and distinct species. 
A discussion followed, in which the Rev. G. Wheeler, Dr. T. A. 
Chapman, Mr. H. Rowland-Brown and other Fellows took part. 
Fellows having specimens in their collections were asked to bring 
series for comparison and discussion. — Mr. C. J. Gahan communi- 
cated a paper " On the Larvas of Trictenotoma childreni, Gray, and 
Melittomma insulare, Fairmaire." 

A2)ril 1st. — Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, President, in the chair. — Mr. 
F. B. Ackerley, P.O. Box, 459, Port Ehzabeth, South Africa ; Mr. 
Charles G. Clutterbuck, Heathside, Heathville Road, Gloucester; 
Mr. P. A. Clutterbuck, Indian Forest Department, Naini Tal, United 
Provinces, India; Mr. Walter W. Froggatt, F.L.S., Government 
Entomologist, New South Wales ; Mr. H. A. Nurse, Botanical De- 
partment, Trinidad, B.W.I. ; Mr. WiUiam Boulton Pratt, 10, Lion 
Gate Gardens, Richmond, Surrey ; Mr. Edward Richard Speyer, 
Ridgehurst, Shenley, Herts, and New College, Oxford ; Mr. G. Talbot, 
Vine Cottage, Raleigh Road, Enfield, N. ; and Dr. F. Creighton- 
Wellman, Cuidado de Senhores Silva & Lopes, Benguella, Africa 
Occidental, were elected Fellows of the Society. — Mr. F. B. Jennings 
exhibited, on behalf of Mr. R. A. R. Priske, a melaiiic aberration of 
the stercorarious beetle ApJiodiiis scybalarius, Fabr., taken at Deal in 



SOCIETIES. 133 

June, 1907.— Professor B. B. Poulton, F.R.S., for Mr. E. B. Green, a 
preparation for the microscope of the tongue of Ochromyia jejuna. — 
Mr. B. R. Bankes sent, for exhibition, four specimens of Hepiahis 
liwnidi, L., more or less covered by a sprouting fungoid growtli, 
wliich was said by the editor of tlie ' Field ' newspaper, in 1880, to be 
possibly an early stage of a species of Glavaria, and to have attacked 
the moths after death. Mr. Bankes had only met with eight lepi- 
dopterous imagines thus affected, all of which appeared to be referable 
to H. huvmli. (2) Many dead larvae of Hejnalus lupuUnus, L., 
infested with the fungus Gordiceps entomorhiza, and received from 
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, in whose flower-garden at Bognor they had 
been found. The larvae of this species prove destructive there, 
feeding on the roots of Hellebonis, Iris, Pceonia, but the infested 
larvae were only obtained from clumps of Pceonia officinalis. The 
larvae were of two classes, some showing anteriorly much fibrous net- 
like mycelium growth, accompanied by a drumstick-like process often 
more than half the length of the larva ; others showing no fungoid 
growth externally, and these work completely out of the soil and lie 
about on the surface. — Mr. J. E. Collin communicated " The Sys- 
tematic Affinities of the Phoridae and of several Brachycerous 
Pamihes in the Diptera," by Mr. W. Wesche, P.R.M.S.— Dr. T. A. 
Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S., read a paper on " Stenoptilia grandis, n. sp." 
— H. Rowland-Beown, Ho7i. Secretary. 

The South London Bntomological and Natural History 
Society.— Marc/i 12th, 1908.— Mr. A. Sich, F.B.S., President, in the 
chair. — Mr. R. Adkin exhibited the Tortrices, Hedya aceriana, 
H. ocellana, Grapholitha minutaiia, and Semasia tooeheriana, as 
common Metropolitan species, taken by him from fences on his way 
to and from the station. — Mr. Hy. J. Turner, four specimens of 
SticJwphthalma lioioqua, a large species of Morphinae from Southern 
China, and specimens of the West African Precis artaxia. — Mr. Hugh 
Main, females of several species obtainable at the present time, with 
their ova, viz., Hyhernia progemmaria, Anisopteryx cescularia, and 
Phigalia pedaria. — Mr. Andrews, the Diptera, Pipiza hujubris, a 
scarce Syrphid, and four examples of Garicia tigrina with its prey. — 
Mr. Joy, a collection of butterflies made by him near Calcutta during 
the last two seasons, and read notes. — Mr. Stanley Edwards, two 
species of scorpion, Heterometrus sivammerdami, from India, and 
Tityus insignis, from the West Indies. 

March 26^/i.— Mr. A. Sich, F.E.S., President, in the chair.— Mr. 
Browne exhibited a large store-box of British Lepidoptera which he 
was presenting to the Society. — Mr. Tonge, some Lepidoptera 
recently received from Australia, including Pyrameis kershaivii, and 
also a living specimen of Xylocampa areola (lithorhiza) taken that 
day. — Mr. R. Adkin, a series of Scoparia truncicolella, taken at 
Oxshott on pine-trunks. — Dr. Chapman, a living, nearly full-fed 
larva of Aricia agestis (astrarche), which had fed up indoors. Dr. 
Hodgson, sketches of the resting attitude of Adopaa flava (thaumas), 
and read notes.— Mr. Turner, some two dozen species of butterflies 
characteristic of Sierra Leone and West Africa, including several 
species of Euphacedra, Aterica, and Acrcea, Hypolimnas egesta, Ainauris 



134 THE BNTOMOLOQIS'I. 

niavius, Mylothris rhodope, Lachnoptera, iole, Salamis anacardii, 
Precis octavia, Catuna canohita, Vanessa harmonica, &c. — Mr. Sich 
exhibited and read notes on the section of the genus Tinea, contain- 
ing T. fulvimitrella, T. arcella, T. corticella, T. parasitella, T. jncarella, 
T. granella, T. cloacella, T. albipunctella, T. caprimulgella, T. nigri- 
pimctella, and T. confusella. — ^Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Bep. Secretary. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — Meeting 
held February 11th, 1908, at the Royal Institution, Colquitt Street, 
Liverpool. — R. Wilding, Esq., in the chair. — Mr. W. Mansbridge, 
F.E.S., read a paper entitled "Variation in Lepidoptera," in which 
he enumerated the different classes of variation as generally under- 
stood by lepidopterists, and referred especially to a phase of variation 
which has not evoked the amount of interest its importance warrants, 
viz. colour changes from yellow or ochreous to red or brown and 
modifications of these. — The author considered these variations as 
proceeding upon parallel lines to melanism and probably arising in a 
similar way ; first by variation from a commonly occuring form in 
tlie Darwinian sense, and secondly by mutations or sudden leaps in 
the sense enunciated by De Vries. — Putting on one side the first as 
more or less affecting all species, the author showed how practically 
all definite melanic forms falling in the second class (of which we 
have records) have, when first noticed, been of very local occurrence — 
as the majority still are — a few only having spread in comparatively 
recent times over large areas, and noted when this had been the case 
that the particular species, e. g. Tephrosia bi^indularia var. delamer- 
ensis, Amphidasys betularia var. doubledayaria, Hybernia marginaria 
var. fuscata, and Diwnea fagella, black forms, are common and 
generally distributed, so that transported specimens could easily 
continue their race wherever they might be carried. — The author 
broadly classes all instances of melanochroism and leucochroism as 
Darwinian modifications, and all cases of melanism and albinism as 
well as yellow to red, or red to yellow, and similar changes where the 
break is sudden, as mutations or De Vriesian variations, and concludes 
that they have arisen in this way and then increased and spread, or 
vice versa, accordingly as local conditions were favourable or the 
reverse. — A capital exhibition of varieties of local forms of Lepid- 
optera was made by the members in illustration, and a discussion 
ensued, in the course of which Messrs. F. N. Pierce, Dr. J. Cotton, 
Dr. Tinne, Robert Tait, junr.. Dr. Wm. Bell, and R. Wilding con- 
curred generally in the views set forth in the paper. 

March 15th, 1908.— Mr. R. Newstead, A.L.S., Vice-President, in the 
chair. — -The evening was devoted to an exhibition of Boarmia repandata 
and its varieties. Long series of the moth from various localities, 
chiefly from the North of England and from Wales, were shown by 
Mr. Robert Tait, junr., Mr. C. F. Johnson, and Mr. Wm. Mansbridge. 
The rich dark mottled forms from Delamere Forest ; the greyish- 
white blotched race with the locally rare melanic aberration, also with 
white blotches, from Penmaenmawr ; melanic varieties from Mansfield 
and Huddersfield ; as well as absolutely black aberrations from 
Knowsley, Lancashire ; the common London forms from Epping Forest 
and Wimbledon ; var. conversaria from North Cornwall and New 



SOCIETIES. 135 

Forest ; besides series of pale-coloured moths from various localities 
were all represented in the above exhibits. A discussion ensued in 
which the members gave their experiences with B. repandata. — Mr. 
Tait stated that in breeding from extreme forms about seventy-five 
per cent, followed the parents, but pointed out that he had found it 
difficult to get black varieties to pair. He also remarked how closely 
the predominating pale form from North Wales resembled the bare 
rocks upon which it rested in the daytime. — Mr. Johnson, in his 
series from Maer Wood and Burnt Wood, Staffs, remarked on the 
great difference shown by the species in these two localities, only 
four miles apart ; those from the former locality being chiefly very 
dark greyish-black, while the latter place gave a lighter and much 
browner form. — Mr. Charles Capper, London, sent a series of B. repan- 
data from Wimbledon, and a series of iJ. leucophcBaria from Eichmond 
Park for exhibition. — Mr. Newstead brought four drawers showing 
the life-history of the Tsetse Flies (Glossiniae), being the unique 
series of these flies from the museum of the Liverpool School of 
Tropical Medicine. This very interesting exhibit attracted a large 
amount of attention, and, in answer to questions, Mr. Newstead 
alluded to the chief points in the economy of these flies. 

April Idth. — Mr. E. Newstead, A.L.S., in the chair. — The chairman 
delivered a lecture entitled " The Bionomics of Mosquitoes," in which 
he dealt with the subfamilies Anophelin^ and Culicinse ; he described 
the Anopheline genera Anopheles and Pyretopliorus, contrasting them 
with the Culicine genera Culex and Stegomyia in a very clear and 
thorough manner. Mr. Newstead illustrated the lecture by blackboard 
drawings and by the following exhibits : — Living larvae and pupae of 
Corethra and Culex : a case showing the complete life-history and dis- 
tribution of Stegomyia calopus, the mosquito which transmits yellow 
fever ; and the following species concerned in carrying filariae, which 
not uncommonly cause the condition known as elephantiasis, viz. 
Ciilex fatigans, PyretopJiorus costalis, Myzomyia rossi, Mansonia afri- 
canus, and Stegomyia fasciata. The remainder of the evening was 
devoted to an exhibition of Hydrcecia nictitans, H. lucens, and H. 
paludis, most of the members present having brought their series of 
these moths. The discussion was opened by Mr. F. N. Pierce, who 
showed preparations of the genitalia of the three species named 
above under the microscope, as well as of the new species brought 
forward by the Eev. C. E. N. Burrows, of Mucking, at a recent meeting 
of the City of London Entomological Society. Mr. Pierce demon- 
strated that the genital ancillaries are markedly different, and fully 
support the view that we really have four distinct species confused 
under the name nictitans. Mr. Pierce also showed photographs of 
genialia of Betinia buoliana and B. pinicolana, clearly proving these 
two insects to be distinct. — Other exhibits were: — Mr. W. Mansbridge, 
a series of Zygcena achillece from Argyll, with Z. minos, from Wales, 
for comparison. Mr. F. N. Pierce also showed Z. acliillece, from the 
Continent, with many other species of the genus. — Mr. W. A. Tyer- 
man, a bred series of Amjihidasys strataria, from Delamere, the 
females especially being very dark and heavily banded. — Mr. Moun- 
field, of Warrington, in addition to his very fine series of H. nictitans, 
lucens, and pahidis, a very dark brown form of Drepana falcttla, pale 



136 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

and dark forms of Hadena adusta and Macaria liturata var. nigro- 
fulvata, all from Delamere ; also varieties of Abraxas grossulariata 
from Warrington. — H. E. Sweeting & William Mansbbidge, 
Ho7i. Sees. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



1. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology (Series T. M. vol. i. 

No. 3). University of Liverpool. November, 1907. This is 
an excellent number, containing twenty-three beautiful plates 
(sixteen coloured), and illustrations in the text. Though no 
paper deals with insects directly, some of their parasites 
(Trypanosomes, for instance) are treated of. 

2. Dragonflies (Odonata) collected by Dr. D. H. Atkinson in Neio- 

foimdland, ivith Notes on some Species of Somatochlora. By 
E. B. Williamson (' Entomological News,' April, 1906). Two 
good plates accompany the paper. 

3. Copidation of Odonata. By E. B. Williamson (' Entomological 

News,' May, 1906). This paper contains an excellent plate. 

4. Dragonflies (Odonata) of Burma and Lower Siam. — II. Sub- 

families Gordulegasterince, -ChlorogompihincB, and Gomphince. 
By E. B. Williamson (Proc. of U. S. Nat. Museum, December 
13th, 1907). This is not a mere list ; it contains good notes, 
especial attention being given to wings and wing-venation. 
Part I., on the Galopterygince, was published in 1904. 

5. On some Eanuigs {ForficulidcB) collected in Guatemala by Messrs. 

Schwarz and Barber. By A. N. Caudell (Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Museum, October 23rd, 1907). 

6. Notas Zoologicas. By R. P. Longinos Navds, S.J. (Boletin de la 

Sociedad Aragonesa de Ciencias Naturales), November and 
December, 1907. An illustrated paper on eight new Spanish 
insects or varieties. The descriptions are in Latin. 

7. Tricopteros nuevos. By R. P. Longinos Navd.s, S.J. (Boletin de 

la Real Sociedad espanola de Historia Natural), December, 
1907. Illustrated Latin descriptions of three new caddis-flies 
(not Spanish). 

8. Neuroptero nuevo de Montserrat. By R. P. Longinos Navds, S.J. 

(' Revista Montserratina'), December, 1907. An illustrated 
Latin description, with notes in Spanish, of Psocus hilaris, 
Nav. 

9. Neuropteros nuevos. By R. P. Longinos NavAs, S.J. (' Memorias 

de la Real Academia de Ciencias y Artes de Barcelona) ; Barce- 
lona, 1908. A copiously illustrated paper of twenty-five pages. 
Though the notes are in Spanish, the author has again favoured 
us with Latin descriptions of the twenty-nine new species 
treated in the paper. Nearly all belong to the Planipennia. 

W. J. Lucas. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XLL] " JUNE, 1908. [No. 541 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELIT^A. 

By George Wheeler, M.A., F.E.S. 

With the possible exception of the black-and-white "skippers," 
there is probably no group of European butterflies which causes 
more difficulty than those species of the genus Melitaa which 
are usually grouped round athalia. No doubt it is, as a rule, 
easy enough for any one with a slight acquaintance with the 
various species to separate them, when the individuals are few 
in number and the localities restricted ; but when long series 
from many and widely separated localities are examined (and 
frequently with only fragmentary data, or none at all, attached 
to them), the difficulty of separating the species and of naming 
all specimens correctly becomes almost insuperable. For this 
difficulty two principal causes are responsible : first, the close 
resemblance intei' se of the different species, and, secondly, the 
very great range of variation in each species, though always 
within certain definite limits. But it is the combination of 
these two difficulties which makes this group of almost un- 
equalled biological interest amongst European butterflies; for 
we have here exactly the condition of things which was long ago 
laid down by Darwin (' Origin of Species,' chap ii.) as that in 
which it is easiest to see species as it were in the making. If 
species have been evolved from previously existing ones, it would 
be a most remarkable circumstance if we could find no examples 
of the process taking place under our eyes ; yet the majority of 
collectors (if not even of naturalists) who give an unhesitating 
assent to some theory of evolution, seem to expect to find it 
possible in all cases to say with certainty to what species any 
given insect belongs ; disregarding in practice the possibility, 
nay, the extreme probability, that amongst the number of the 
European butterflies, many of which are very variable, some few 
may be expected to exhibit the process of species-making, or, in 
other words, to afford instances of species not yet absolutely 
differentiated from each other, and to certain individuals of which 
it is therefore impossible to assign with certainty the correct 

ENTOM. JUNE, 1908. M 



138 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

name. I believe this to be the case with the genus Melitcea, and 
pre-eminently so with that group of it associated with athalia, 
so that there will remain for generations to come a difficulty, 
no ddubt in time a decreasing one, in finding differentiating 
characters between the species which will hold good in every in- 
stance ; nor must we even be surprised if we find individual 
members of one species (when circumstances, such as rearing 
from one batch of ova, leave no room for doubt as to their 
identity) occasionally exhibiting one or more of the very cha- 
racters which we are accustomed to regard as distinctive of 
another species, the whole genus being still in a condition of 
flux sufficient to lead to frequent instances of atavism. It is not 
then with any expectation of finding unerring rules by which it 
can be decided in all cases : " this is parthenie ; that is athalia ; 
this dcione," and so forth, that I venture to publish the results of 
my studies in this group — studies extending over many years 
in the field and amongst collections, and over months among 
books — for I believe this to be in the nature of things impossible ; 
all that I can hope for is to show by what distinguishing marks 
the various species may, as a rule, be recognized, and by 
adducing as large a number of these as I can find for each 
species, to make it more unlikely that all will be found, even in 
the most aberrant examples of another species than that to which 
they normally belong. Incidentally I hope to rouse an interest in 
the great biological question involved, in some collectors whose 
attention has not been attracted previously in that direction. 

To make our enquiry as exhaustive as may be, it seems 
necessary to go back to the original descriptions and to trace the 
way in which the various species have gradually been recognized 
as distinct. Linnaeus, in the tenth edition of his ' Systema 
Naturae,' published in 1758, includes all the Melitfeid forms 
known to him, with the exception of maturna in his description 
of cinxia, which reads as follows: " Papilio alls dentatis fulvis, 
nigro variegatis, subtus fasciis tribus flavis." Four j^ears later 
Geoffroy, in his * Histoire abreg^e des Insectes qui se trouvent aux 
environs de Paris,' 1762, first separated them into "varieties," 
which he thus characterizes : — 

1. "Papilio alls dentatis fulvis, nigro maculatis, subtus 
fasciis tribus flavis." 

2. The same, except " nigro reticulatis " instead of maculatis. 

3. The same, except "nigro reticulatis et punctatis." 

4. " Papilio alis dentatis fulvis, nigro reticulatis et punctatis, 
utrinque fasciis tribus flavis." 

The next step was taken by Rottemburg (* Naturforscher,' 
vol. vi. p. 5, 1775), who named these " varieties," and recognized 
them as distinct species, and from him we get the names athalia 
as applied to the second, and aurinia as applied to the fourth. 
The first and third he calls respectively cinxia and pilosellce. For 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELIT^A. 139 

the first he refers to an illustration in Eosel, vol. iv. plate xiii., 
figs. 6 and 7, which does not however represent what we under- 
stand by cinxia, but didyma. It is certainly a very dull didyma, 
but all doubt as to its identity is set at rest by the fact that 
Eosel also illustrates the larva (natural size and enlarged) and 
the pupa, the former of which, at any rate, is unmistakably 
didyma. On the same plate he also illustrates the larva and 
pupa of aurinia, but a reference to the text shows that the 
butterfly represented was produced by the upper larva, certainly 
didyma. Kosel, however, was not incapable of making a mistake 
in such a matter, as we shall see. He was a keen and enthusi- 
astic naturalist (arid I should judge a delightful personality), 
but not in any sense a systematist, and he makes no attempt to 
name the insects he has figured. At the time when he pub- 
lished plate xiii. and its accompanying text, the butterfly had 
not yet emerged from his second pupa, but he could not wait for 
its emergence to illustrate the earlier stages ; and, besides, it 
might never emerge at all ! However, it did, and he illustrated 
it on plate xviii. and it turned out to be cinxia in our sense of 
the name, i. e., the pilosellce of Rottemburg ! Later on he 
obtained some genuine cinxia larvEe, which he illustrates on 
plate xxix. These, to his surprise, produced butterflies identical 
with that illustrated on plate xviii. One can only suppose that 
he had failed to notice the red head and legs of the caterpillar 
which he has so painted as to make it look like aurinia, though 
this seems unlikely, as he draws attention to the difference. 
This serves to illustrate the difficulties to be encountered in 
tracing the history of these names, but as we are now only con- 
sidering the atlialia group, we are not at all concerned with 
Rosel, fascinating as he is, and only with Rottemburg in so far 
as he was the first to give a specific name to any member of this 
group, and this being athalia, we must regard the other species 
as having (for the most part, at any rate) been gradually separ- 
ated off from it. The original description might include any of 
the group, even dictynna, when we come to the form of the 
Pyrenees, and probably aurelia is the species which most com- 
pletely answers to the expression " reticulata " ; but Geoffrey's 
book was on the insects taken in the neighbourhood of Paris, 
where aurelia* does not occur, so that he no doubt refers to the 

-■= Mr. Wheeler is apparently incorrect in stating that aurelia, Nickerl, 
does not occur near Paris. For in a MS. list, kindly lent me by Mr. W. G. 
Sheldon for my researches in the distribution of French Rhopalocera, 
Mr. Henry Brown states that this butterfly occurs in the Department of 
Seine-et-Oise at Lardy, and Seine-et-Marne at Fontainebleau. The late 
M. Th. Goossens, in his " Iconographie des Chenilles " (Ann. Assoc, des 
Naturalistes de Levallois-Perret, 1900, p. 9) also gives Lardy as a locality for 
the species. But it would be useful to compare the northern French speci- 
mens with examples from the Alps before pronouncing authoritatively 
whether they are identical with the aurelia, Nickerl, we know in Switzerland, 
and in other Central European habitats. — H. R.-B. 

M 2 



140 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

insect which we still — rightly — call by Rottemburg's name, 
athalia. 

The next species to be separated off was parthenie, by Bork- 
hausen, in 1789. He perceived the nearness of this species to 
athalia, though he actually separated it off from trivia (a member 
of the cinxia group), under which name he had received it from 
Vienna. The original description of Borkhausen reads as 
follows : — " Papilio alls subdentatis fulvis, nigro fasciatim macu- 
latis ; anticis ad marginem superiorem nigro annulatis, posticis 
prope apicem lunatis ; subtus fasciis tribus flavescentibus nigro 
inductis, media divisa." (He also gives it in German.) He 
remarks that he bred a specimen from a caterpillar found near 
Darmstadt, and afterwards found more specimens of the butter- 
fly. The size of these presents great difficulties. He states 
that some were no larger than argus, and the largest — all females 
— only as large as lucina. He found them late in the autumn, 
so, obviously, they were a second brood ; and though the second 
brood in Switzerland barely differs at all in size from the first, 
it does not follow that this would be the case so much further 
north.* His account of his specimens certainly tallies with 
ordinary parthenie in other respects. Borkhausen remarks that 
he gave his caterpillar (which he very inadequately describes) 
no food, which might account for the size of his bred specimen, 
but hardly for that of his captured examples. Parthenie is 
illustrated by Godart (1823), much in accordance with the 
original description ; it is very small. Indeed both description 
and illustration seem to refer rather to varia in size, which, 
however, can hardly have been taken near Darmstadt. There is 
an excellent illustration in Herrich-Schaffer (1843), to the palpi 
of which Riihl objects, though they are only very slightly too 
dark in either of the copies with which I am acquainted. To 
this illustration Keferstein refers in the Stettin 'Entomologische 
Zeitung,' 1851, p. 244 (not p. 224 as given by Piiihl), in giving a 
description of parthenoides as he calls it, the name being thus 
synonymous with Borkhausen's parthenie. The figure of " athalia 
oninor" given by Esper, pi. 89, fig. 2 (1829), and referred by 
Pilihl to parthenie but by Staudinger to aurelia, is pretty bad, 
but less unlike varia, I think, than any other. Hiibner's athalia 
minor, pi. iv. figs. 19 and 20 (1805), is indubitably aurelia. 

Dictynna was first described by Esper in the first volume of 
his ' European Butterflies,' p. 382, in 1777, as follows :— Alis 
dentatis fuscis, fulvo maculatis, subtus fasciis tribus albis, media 
bis dissecta." He also gives (pi. xlviii. fig. 2, a and h) figures 
both of the male and female. The upper side of the male is 
fairly good ; on the under side the black lines of the fore wing 
are much too straight, and the other markings unrecognizable, 

* It is significant that when athalia occasionally produces a partial 
second brood the specimens are extremely small. 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELIT^EA. 141 

the bind wing is tolerably good, but the black spots in the dark band 
are much too near the top of the lunules. The female, though 
it could not represent any other species, is distinctly bad. It is 
unfortunate that the description " media bis dissecta " must have 
been taken from an unusually light specimen, in which what is 
really the upper division of the outer dark band was so lightly 
coloured as to appear to belong to the central light band, giving 
it the appearance of being divided into three parts transversely. 
Out of hundreds of specimens which I have examined, there are 
certainly not a dozen in which this is the case. Bergstrasser 
depicts it under the name maturna in 1779, in his ' Nomen- 
klatur,' vol. iii. p. 78, and makes objections to the original 
description of maturna on the ground of the absence of red ! 
(which is presumably what is meant by " purpurascens ") ; real 
maturna he figures on pi. 75 under the name agroptera, and as a 
form of cynthia on pi. 80 ; indeed, I find it very difficult to take 
Bergstrasser seriously, in spite of the reverence with which some 
modern entomologists appear to regard him. The names, by the 
way, can only be found by reference to the text ; they are not 
given on the plates. Hiibner's corythalia apparently also repre- 
sents dictynna ; it is illustrated in vol. i. pi. 3, figs. 15 and 16, 
and the under side is passably good. Hiibner's " dictynna,'" 
pi. 14, fig. 10, is called by him '' Brenthis dictyjina,^' and repre- 
sents ino. Esper, in giving his original description, speaks of 
dictynna as having been up to that time included with other 
species in cinxia. He expresses some doubt whether Geoffroy's 
fourth variety, named aurinia by Kottemburg, may not have 
represented this insect, but decides, undoubtedly rightly, against 
it. The name dictynna had, as he says, been given by Schiffer- 
miiller in his ' Verzeichniss,' p. 179 (1776), to some Melitfeid 
form, but without any description, and he adopts it for the 
insect that he figures and describes. There has never since been 
any question (except apparently in the mind of Bergstrasser, 
who in his other book seems to have regarded it as a variety of 
athalia) as to its specific value. 

Deione is first mentioned by Hiibner at the foot of an 
excellent illustration in 1805, figs. 947-950, but the unfinished 
letterpress does not arrive at a description of it. The first 
description, with another good illustration, is by Duponchel in 
1832, in his ' Papillons de France.' This is what he says about 
it : " Cette Melitee fait le passage de la Phcebe a I'Athalie. En 
dessus elle offre le meme dessin que celle-ci, avec cette difference 
que la bande du milieu et les lunules terminales des quatre 
ailes sont d'un fauve plus clair que le fond. En dessous elle ue 
differe de la premiere que parceque les lignes noires qui cernent 
les taches et les bandes des ailes inferieures sont plus fines, en 
meme temps que le fond de ces memos ailes est d'un jaune plus 
pale et que les nervures en sont noires, tandis qu'elles sont 



142 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

jaunes dans la Phcebe"* (Dup. ' Papillons de France,' p. 276). 
Herrich-Schaffer, judging from Hiibner's illustration, considered 
it a variety of parthenie, a much more possible suggestion than 
Staudinger's connection of it with athalia. The under side at 
once separates it from both, and connects it, as Duponchel says, 
with the cinxia group, and both larva and pupa are abundantly 
different from either, a fact which settles its specific value, a 
matter to which we shall have to refer later ; the Spanish speci- 
mens and the Swiss form, the misnamed herisalensis, have 
greatly added to the difficulties connected with this species. 



DRAGONFLIES FOR THE CABINET. 
By W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 

By the beginning of June the dragonfly season has com- 
menced in earnest, and it may be that some entomologists who 
would like to collect and study the Odonata are deterred by the 
idea that they cannot keep specimens of these insects in as 
unchanged a condition as they can those of beetles or Lepido- 
ptera. Nor is this wish to secure a presentable set of specimens 
of necessity a sign of the " mere collector," for every naturalist 
who desires that his statements may bear the stamp of accuracy 
must possess a sufficiency of good specimens for continual refer- 
ence and comparison. 

To a certain extent this widespread idea, that the colours of 
dragonflies are evanescent, is correct, the colouring matter being 
situated in a part of the insect quite different from that in which 
the colours of Lepidoptera reside. But this evanescence is not 
by any means so general as is usually supposed, when a few 
simple precautions have been taken. There are, in fact, many 
dragonflies in which the colours remain practically as fine as 
they were when the insects were alive. 

It will be found too that in some individuals the colours 
remain after death much more true than in others of the same 
species, and in cases where the insect is a common one, a selec- 
tion will enable the one interested to gradually obtain a good 
series. This as a matter of fact is practically all that can be 
done in the case of the very small species which are too delicate 
to be eviscerated. 

* This Melitcea forms a transition between phcebe and athalia. On the 
upper &ide it shows the same design as the latter, with this difference that 
the central band and the terminal lunules of the fom* wings are of a lighter 
fulvous than the ground colour. On the under side it only differs from the 
former in that the black lines which bound the spots and bands of the lower 
wings are finer, and also that the ground colour of these wings is of a paler 
yellow, and the nervures black, while they are yellow in 2'/'o?ie. 

\ 



DRAGONFLIES FOR THE CABINET. 143 

What had best be done in the case of all the larger species — 
large enough, that is, for easy manipulation — is to eviscerate 
them and then dry the shell, having stuffed it with cotton-wool, 
or not, according to the fancy of the operator. The insect 
should first be fastened down on its back on a sheet of cork, 
with very fine pins at the thorax and last abdominal segment 
near the appendages. Then with a pair of sharp-pointed scissors 
a slit must be made from the second (third in the male) segment 
to the eighth, thus leaving intact those bearing the genitalia. 
Now with a pair of fine-pointed forceps the contents of thorax 
and abdomem must be carefully removed. Usually most of this 
comes away at once, at any rate from the thorax. If not, while 
the rest is being removed, great care must be exercised lest the 
inner surface of the shell should be damaged, for on this in many 
cases is to be found the pigment to which the colouring is due. 
This is all. The abdomen may now be filled with a very little 
cotton-wool, or it may be dried as it is. The markings will now 
remain, and the colours to a greater or less extent, sometimes 
almost perfectly, and, of course, there are other elements of 
beauty besides colour. At any rate, a cabinet of dragonflies 
which have been so treated makes as fine a show as a cabinet of 
butterflies and moths. 

If the preservation of colour is sought for scientific purposes 
only, the dragonflies should be put in good spirit, where their 
colour usually keeps excellently, except perhaps that of the 
blue-powdered species such as Lihellula depressa. Indeed, it 
has been suggested that the small species which cannot be 
eviscerated should be put in spirit for some time, and then be 
relaxed and set. It is doubtful, however, if this is so successful 
a method as was supposed, and specimens dried in spirit are 
often very difficult to relax, especially if they are not thoroughly 
mature. 

Just as with Lepidoptera, dragonflies that have not been 
eviscerated are liable to grease, with the same dire effect upon 
their colours, and this grease it does not seem so easy to remove 
with solvents such as benzine, or at any rate its effects are 
more permanent. Mould, mites, moths, and beetles must be 
guarded against by the use of naphthaline and by the other 
ordinary methods. 

Usually the colours of the following British species keep 
excellently, often even without eviscerating : — males of L. 
depressa, L. fulva, Orthetrum cancellatum, and 0. ccerulescens ; 
both sexes of Cordulia anea, Somatochlora metallica, S. arctica, 
Oxygastra curtisii, Cordulegaster annulatus, Gomphus vulgatis- 
simus ; many examples of Mschna mixta, ^fC. juncea, M. cyanea, 
M. grandis, and M. isosceles. But individuals in this last 
genus vary in this respect, and those seem to keep much better 
which are caught late in the season. The two beautiful species 



144 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Calopteryx virgo and C. splende^is retain their colours excel- 
lently — and luckily, for they could scarcely be eviscerated. 
The same may be said of Lestes sponsa and L. dryas, and 
to a great extent of Pijrrhosoma nymplmla and P. tenellum. One 
important point to notice is that as time goes by the speci- 
mens in the cabinet tend to regain their colours rather than 
the reverse. There is little doubt that dragonflies keep their 
colours better if they have had no food for some time before 
being killed. 

Setting is an important matter in the case of dragonflies, for 
there are the legs and abdomen to attend to as well as the 
wings. After having been killed in the cyanide- bottle, they 
should be pinned through the thorax, care being taken that the 
pin does not bring away a leg when it comes through the under 
surface. For uniformity's sake the costal margin of the two 
hind wings had better form one straight line at right angles to 
the main axis of the insect, and the hind margin of the fore wings 
should just not meet the hind wings. In the Anisopterids the anal 
angle of the hind wings should be supported while drying. Flat 
setting-boards must be used. Also there must be a groove wide 
enough to allow of the legs being properly arranged, and deep 
enough to keep all parts of the set insect from the paper in the 
cabinet-drawer. In life all six legs are turned forward, but 
most collectors, not only for appearance sake but also for 
facility of observation, will not arrange them so. Usually the 
fore legs will be put forward, the hind ones backwards, and the 
mid ones more or less at right angles to the thorax. Perhaps 
the legs look better, and they certainly take up less room, if 
they are bent at the joints — not stretched out straight. "While 
drying, legs and abdomen must be kept in position with pins 
and braces ; and the head, if not controlled, will usually tend to 
look over one shoulder or the other in a very idiotic fashion. 
Labelling must be done carefully, as the ticket shows when 
placed beneath the insect. The drying process is rather slow, 
two or three weeks at least being required for the larger 
species. 

When obtainable empty nymph -skins should accompany 
the perfect insects. These are very ethereal and will seldom bear 
a pin ; a good method of mounting them 
is near the end of a very thin strip of 
card, c d, at right angles to the length of 
the nymph-skin, a b. The whole is se- 
cured in the cabinet-drawer by a pin 

passing through the card at c, the pin ^ 
also bearing the label. It is quite easy 
to gum the skin at d without hiding any 
important structures. 



145 

PYRAMEIS CARDUI AND THE JUNE RAINFALL 

OF 1906. 

By Robert Adkin, F.E.S. 

The influence of meteorological conditions upon our alien 
lepidopterous fauna is a subject of deep interest, but it is an 
exceedingly complex question, and so beset with side issues, each 
capable of exerting an influence for good or evil, that one is in 
the majority of instances reluctant to assign cause to effect. 
Occasionally, however, some special circumstance appears to 
stand out so clearly that whatever possible explanations might 
be given, we may, with some measure of certainty, fix upon it 
as a well-defined cause for some particular phenomenon. The 
failure of the multitudes of Pyrameis cardui that appeared on 
our southern and south-western coasts in the spring of 1906 to 
produce a corresponding abundance of the species in autumn 
appears to be a case in point, the assumption being that the 
exceptional weather conditions prevailing at a critical time in the 
species development was the cause of the failure. 

The available records show that the species was met with 
sparingly in many places near the south-east and south-west 
coasts during the last week in May. There can be little doubt 
that the individuals then seen were the early arrivals of a great 
immigration which struck the Kent and Sussex and the Cornish 
and Devon coasts on June 2nd and 3rd and spread inland, distri- 
buting themselves over the southern portions of the country ; those 
arriving on the Cornish and Devon coasts apparently taking a 
north-easterly course along the Bristol Channel and were trace- 
able as far as the southern parts of Monmouthshire, while those 
which reached the Kentish and Sussex coasts appear to have 
spread themselves out over the south-eastern counties and the 
London district. 

The weather over the southern portions of England during 
the greater part of the month of June was fine and suitable for 
the butterflies' egg-laying, the range of temperature being fairly 
high, with a full amount of sunshine and small rainfall. But 
on the night of the 28th practically the whole of England south 
of a line drawn from the Bristol Channel to the Wash was 
visited by a cyclonic rain of exceptional violence, an area of 
approximately twenty-two thousand square miles receiving from 
one to two inches of rain, while within this a roughly triangular 
patch having its apex near Wisbeach (Cambs) and its base ex- 
tending from near Croydon (Surrey) to Wallingford (Berks), an 
area of some two thousand six hundred square miles, received 
from two to upwards of two and a half inches of rain, practically 
the whole of which fell within twelve consecutive hours. To 
put the matter briefly : the southern half of England received in 
the space of a single night an amount of rain equal to that 



146 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

which falls on an average throughout the whole month of June. 
The fall was accompanied by an easterly or north-easterly wind, 
and the reduction in temperature was scarcely less remarkable 
than the heavy rainfall. 

It is practically certain that the butterflies which were 
observed on the coasts at the end of May and during the first 
two or three days of June, would have deposited their eggs as 
they passed inland, and that the heavy rainfall came just at the 
most critical time in the insects' existence, namely, when the 
young larvae were just leaving or had just left the eggs, and 
when they would be least able to withstand its severity ; the 
inference being that a very large proportion of them were over- 
come by the phenomenal rainfall and perished. 



A NEW SUBGENUS OP AFEICAN BEES. 

By T. D. a. Cockebell. 

The leaf-cutting bees, forming the genus Megachile, exist in 
practically every part of the world where there is vegetation, 
with the exception of New Zealand. More than seven hundred 
species have been described, and new ones are added every 
few months. This enormous group, as might be expected, is far 
from uniform, and various attemps have been made to divide it 
up. The segregates Chalicodoma and Gronoceras, distinguished 
both by their structure and their nest-building habits, seem to me 
to be very good genera. Others, especially some of the genera 
proposed by Eobertson, are not so satisfactory, and it is not yet 
clear how many should be given full generic standing. It seems 
both justifiable and desirable, however, to distinguish the more 
striking groups as subgenera, leaving it for the future to decide 
how many of these deserve the rank of genera. 

Creightonella, n. subg. 

^ . Mandibles with the usual large tooth beneath ; antennas 
slender, normal ; anterior coxae spineless or with an indistinct 
rudiment ; anterior tarsi rather thick but normal ; claws deeply bifid ; 
sixth abdominal segment produced, quadrate, keeled down the middle, 
with the projecting edge six-spined ; seventh segment with a large 
thorn-like projection, the sides of which have three sharp edges, two 
lateral and one (on which are two little tubercles) posterior ; hind 
margin of fourth ventral segment with a broad shallow emargination, 
on each side of which is a strong spine, directed posteriorly ; in the 
interval between these spines, and a little posterior to them, are seen 
two other spines, slender and clear ferruginous in colour. Type, 
M. mitimia, n. sp. 

Megachile mitimia, n. sp. 

(J . Length about 15 mm. ; black, rough with very dense minute 
punctures ; legs entirely black, except that the claw joint is obscurely 



NOMENCLATORIAL NOTES ON THE RHYNCHOTA. 147 

reddish, and the claws have the basal half red ; hind margins of 
abdominal segments, and the teeth on sixth segment, red ; mandibles 
bidentate, the inner tooth rounded ; clypetis not at all keeled, the 
punctures larger in the middle than at the sides, the anterior margin 
a little produced and truncate in the middle ; hair of head and thorax 
dull white, not abundant, on posterior part of pleura it is reddish ; 
tegulse ferruginous, fuscous basally ; wings yellowish hyaline, apical 
margin a little darkened, nervures ferruginous ; the scanty hair of 
legs mainly black or fuscous, but the tarsi fringed with bright fox- 
red hair ; first two abdominal segments with much bright fox-red hair ; 
hind margin of fifth segment and upper surface of sixth, rather 
thinly clothed with red hair ; first two ventral segments with scattered 
reddish hair. 

Hab. — Ekuiva Valley, W. Africa, at flowers of a native species 
of mint, collected (1907) by Dr. F. Creigbton Wellman. The 
specific name means black and red in the language of the Sula 
Islands. 

Another species of Creightonella, differing by the colour of the 
hair on the tarsi and ventral abdominal segments, &c., has been 
described by Friese (Zeits. f. Hym. Dipt. 1903, p. 273) as 
M. sexdentata. Unfortunately this name was used by Eobertson 
in 1895 for an American species, so it will have to be changed. 
j\l. mandibulata. Smith, is also perhaps a Creifihtonella, but this 
cannot be definitely determined without an examination of the 
types. 

It may be as well to record here that Dr. Wellman also took 
Megachile ianthoptera, Smith, in the Ekuiva Valley. 



BIBLIOGEAPHICAL AND NOMENCLATORIAL NOTES 
ON THE EHYNCHOTA. 

By W. L. Distant. 

Mr. Kirkaldy's last disputation on names and words {ante, 
p. 123) has quite bewildered me. He writes : " In using Lepto- 
coris I have simply selected the name which is proper under the 
rules followed by every living hemipterist but Mr. Distant." As 
Dr. Bergroth is still living (and we all hope will live for many 
years to come), that statement seems inaccurate. If he is not 
living, as I absolutely disbelieve and have proof in a recent letter 
to the contrary, what is the meaning of the sentence: "It is 
because Bergroth is so strict an observer of the law that I feel 
sure he would now use Leptocoris " ? Dallas's work may be 
" nearly sixty years old." but if Mr. Kirkaldy bad referred to it 
and studied the genus rather than the name which represents it, 
he might have avoided redescribing the form Serinethataproban- 
ensis, Dall., as Leptocoris bahraiiiy Kirk. However, we all make 
mistakes. 



148 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



In proposing new names for preoccupied generic ones, Mr. 
Kirkaldy seems to be unfamiliar with his subject. Thus he 
proposes the name Bceria for Panda. It is quite true that in 
1898 I used the preoccupied name Panda. But it is equally 
well known to most serious students that in 1899 the late Dr. 
C. Berg substituted for it the name Tripanda. Mr. Kirkaldy's 
Boeria is thus an unnecessary synonym. As he writes that he 
has a "Catalogue of the Hemiptera now in the press," it may 
perhaps be too late for him to accept an anticipatory correction, 
but the following is the synonymy : — 

Genus Tripanda. 

Panda, Dist. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (vii). ii. p. 299 (1898) 

nom. praeocc. 
Tripanda, Berg, Comun. Mus. Buenos Aires, i. p. 78 (1899), 

nom. n. 
Boeria, Kirk. ' Entomologist,' 1908, p. 124. 



NOTES ON BRITISH BRACONID^.— VI. 
By Claude Morley, F.E.S., &c. 

(Concluded from p. 129.) 

7. pallidipes. — This species has occurred to me on bushes in 
woods at Wherstead and Assington in the middle of July, and at 
Monks Soham, on a willow-leaf, in the middle of August, in 
Suffolk; Shere (Capron) and Greenings (W. Saunders), in 
Surrey ; bred during the same year from a larva of some micro- 
lepidopteron collected on oak at Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, on 
June 10th, 1905 (Bankes). The cocoon is not described. It is 
cylindrical, white, quite transparent, 5^ mm. long, and appa- 
rently pendent. Miss Chawner has given it me from the New 
Forest, together with the female, which had entirely removed 
one end in emerging. 

8. ictericus. — This abundant species has never occurred to 
me in Suffolk, though I have found it in June at Carisbrooke, 
Isle of Wight ; and possess many captured by Piffard at Felden, 
in Herts, and W. Saunders at Greenings and Eeigate, in Surrey, 
from June to August. 

9. confinis. — As I understand it, this differs very little from 
the last species. My four females were taken by Beaumont at 
Kilmore, in Ireland, in August, and Capron at Shere. 

11. obfuscatus. — There is little to add to the summary of 
what is known of this species' economy given in Trans. Ent. Soc. 
1907, p. 38. Since writing it I have taken many females walking 
over a large Boletus, doubtless tenanted by Orchesia micans, and 



NOTES ON BRITISH BRACONIDiE, 149 

tapping it assiduously with their antennae at Hulver Bridge, in 
Suffolk. 

12. punctiventris. — Apparently uncommon. Bignell has given 
it me from Devon, and I have found it on reeds at Southwold late 
in September, and at Tuddenham Fen on June 12th. 

13. atrator. — One female of this very distinct species was 
running on my bedroom window here at 6 p.m. on August 31st, 
1907. It is said to prey on moths, and not Cis holeti. 

15. ahdominator.—k male was swept by me "at Queens' Bower, 
Brockenhurst, in August, 1901. I also have a couple of females 
taken at Felden, in Herts, by Piffard, and at Golspie, in Scotland, 
on August 26th, 1900. 

17. melanostictus. — Not hitherto bred. On May 29th, 1899, 
Haggart sent me its cocoon, which is nearly 6 mm. in length, 
elongate-ovate, somewhat shining, transparent, pale piceous, 
with darker reticulating strands, and exactly identical with that 
of M. versicolor, from Galashiels ; he said it had emerged from 
the pupa of Thera variata. A female had emerged on 11th of 
the following month between midnight and 10 a.m., and had 
entirely removed the smaller end of the cocoon, which does not 
appear to be pendent. 

18. pulchricornis. — This common species occurred to me in 
the Bentley Woods in 1894, and at Brockenhurst in May, 1895 ; 
Beaumont has taken it at Oxshott in July, and Harting in August. 
On May 23rd, 1900, a female emerged from its cocoon, which is 
smaller, paler, and much narrower than that of the last species, 
and has a " swing-rope " of 13 mm. This was sent me from 
Eeigate by Prideaux on 11th inst., with the dead and shrivelled 
host — a larva of " what I could, with fair certainty, identify as 
Agrotis agathina, found on heather a week ago, and which de- 
veloped the enclosed solitary cocoon. The larval host lived some 
days after its extrusion, apparently in great discomfort — in- 
cessantly writhing — but no further parasites were disclosed " 
(R. M. P. m iiL). When it came to me the host-larva was no 
longer than the Braconid's cocoon. Chapman also bred a female 
at Locarno or Cannes in April, 1900 ; and Miss Chawner has 
given me both sexes, bred in July at Burley, in the New Forest, 
from "hazel-leaves." 

20. scutellator. — Both sexes given me by Piffard from Felden, 
in Herts, and by Beaumont from Kilmore, in Ireland, in August. 
I took a female on my study-window here in the middle of last 
August. 

21. unicolor. — I have one male, probably referable to this 
species, from the New Forest. 

23. versicolor. — On May 29th, 1899, Haggart sent me a cocoon 
and the larva-host, whence it had emerged, found on heather at 
Galashiels on 27th. This larva I sent to Barrett for determina- 
tion, and he pronounced it, on June 5th, to be that of some 



150 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Tenthredinid. A female of the present species -var. himaculatus, 
Wesm. — emerged between midnight and 10.30 a.m. on June 10th. 
A second female of the same variety emerged on Oct. 11th, 1899, 
from its cocoon. The latter had emerged from the body of a 
larva of Bombijx riibi when I received it on 21st of the preceding 
month from Rev. C. D. Ash, who took it at Selby, in Yorks. In 
both these cases the cocoon had no " swing-rope," but were, as 
in Wesmael's case, in confined quarters, which may, as suggested 
by Marshall, have accounted for the omission. 

25. filator. — Tostock, in Suffolk, in late September (Tuck) ; 
Shere (Capron) ; New Forest (Miss Chawner). I have only met 
with females in quite late autumn, by beating Picea excelsa at 
the end of October, and once (November 2nd, 1902) I took two 
from quite inside a dead rabbit. It is said to affect fungi, which 
is known to often attract carrion beetles. In June, 1907, 1 swept 
a very large male of this species at Matley Bog, in the New 
Forest. 

26. cinctellus. — Three ferruginous males in my collection 
can, I think, be nothing but this species or M. decoloratus, of 
which a unique German female is alone known ; they were taken 
by Thornley at Scotton Common, in Lincolnshire ; bred by Miss 
Chawner in the New Forest, from a cocoon like, but smaller 
than, that of M. versicolor ; and swept by myself from rough 
grass in Wicken Fen, June 11th, 1902. They are, however, very 
untypical. 

27. tenellus. — I swept a single female of this distinct species 
at Shalfleet, in the Isle of Wight, at the end of last June. 

28. ruhens. — Piffard has given me specimens of both sexes 
from the coast sandhills at Felixstowe, in Suffolk, and Beaumont 
took a male in a similar situation at Kilmore, in Ireland, in 
August, 1898. It is a gregarious parasite of Agrotis vestigi- 
alis, &c. 

29. IcBviventris. — Females of this small species have been 
bred by Miss Chawner in the New Forest. The cocoon is 
cylindrical, dirty white, much more woolly at the anal half, and 
only 3^ mm. in length. 

30. fragilis. — This species, as I understand it, almost exactly 
resembles M. punctiventris, but with no tracheal grooves on the 
post-petiole. It is not uncommon. I have found it at Tudden- 
ham Fen, Halesworth, Needham, Ipswich, and Moultou, in 
Suffolk, from May 15th to September 26th ; and W. Saunders 
also took it at Greenings, in Surrey. 

I shall at all times be most grateful for bred hymenopterous 
parasites, which I fear lepidopterists do not by any means value 
at their true scientific worth ; this is quite as great as that of the 
hosts whence they emerge. 

Monks Soham House, Suffolk : March 25th, 1908. 



151 

ON TWO NEW GENERA OF CHALCIDIDiE FROM 

BORNEO. 

By p. Cameron. 

Elemba, gen. nov. 

Pronotum quadrate, of equal width, narrower than the meso- 
notum, wider than long. Mesonotum without parapsidal furrows, 
the mesosternum bordered by a distinct lateral furrow. Scutellum 
large, longer than wide, its sides bordered by a distinct crenulated 
furrow ; it is not narrowed at the base ; its apex rounded, only 
slightly narrowed, and witli an oblique rounded slope. Head as wide 
as the thorax ; the temples distinct, roundly narrowed. Head longer 
than wide ; the malar space not quite half the length of the eyes, and 
with a narrow but distinct furrow above. There are two longish deep 
foveae on the lower part of the face in the centre. Mandibles large, 
broad, short, furrowed in the middle at the apex, probably bidentate. 
Antennae apparently twelve-jointed ; the apical joint flattened, longer 
than the preceding ; the front is excavated to receive the scape, and 
has a stout keel on its lower part. Abdomen distinctly narrower than 
the thorax, flat above, the basal two segments incised at the apex, of 
nearly equal length ; the sheaths of the ovipositor broad, covered 
with stiff hairs, half the length of the abdomen. Legs moderate, the 
femora not dilated to any extent ; the middle calcaria long, stout, 
the posterior short, slender. Marginal branch in fore wing elongate, 
gradually narrowed to near the apex of the wing; stigmal branch 
moderately long, curved, almost bifid at the apex. The antennge are 
slender, the flagellum is of equal width; the first joint of theflagellum 
is more than twice longer than wide, twice the length of the following, 
which is shorter than the next. The basal joints of the flagellum are 
covered with short, stiff", black hair. On the apex of the mesopleurse, 
above the middle coxae, is a triangular space bounded by deep furrows. 
Tegulae large, conchiform. Abdomen (not counting the ovipositor) is 
long, narrow, narrowed towards the apex, the sides not keeled. Eyes 
liare. Labrum hidden. The first abdominal segment is much longer 
than the others. The metanotum is not keeled ; the centre is bounded 
by two furrows. The head is not narrowed in front. 

This genus comes close to Epistenia, which may be known 
from it by the presence of parapsidal furrows, and by the basal 
abdominal segments being transverse, not incised. 

Elemba levicollis, sp. nov. 
Head and thorax dark blue, the apex of mesopleurae and the 
metanotum green, abdomen dark purple above, the sides blue, the 
apices of the apical segments more or less coppery ; antennjB black ; 
legs black, the fore legs tinged with violaceous, the fore coxae dark 
blue, the four hinder green, thickly covered with short white pube- 
scence. Wings hyaline, broadly, slightly tinged with fuscous at the 
apex ; the nervures black. ?. Length, 11 mm. ; ovipositor, 4 mm. 

Kuching, October (John Hewitt). 



152 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Face strongly, deeply punctured, the part in the centre below 
between the furrows finely, closely punctured ; the lower part of the 
sides of the front is smooth, with two or three large punctures in the 
centre ; the upper is closely, transversely punctured ; the central de- 
pression smooth, its upper part coppery tinted ; the ocellar region is 
sparsely, weakly punctured and coppery tinted, tlie rest of the vertex 
is more strongly punctured. Upper orbits above weakly, below 
strongly punctured. Prothorax smooth. Mesonotum covered strongly 
with round deep punctures, the edges of the punctures sharply raised ; 
down its centre is a dark violaceous band which becomes narrowed 
towards the apex. The punctuation on the scutellum is closer and 
runs into longitudinal striae, the apex is closely, transversely striated. 
Metanotu.m in the narrowed centre with some striee, the dilated sides 
depressed, smooth. Mesopleurge strongly punctured above, more 
weakly below ; the furrow at the base is widened and curves obliquely 
downwards ; this down branch is wider than the longitudinal one and 
is smooth ; on the apex the punctuation is finer and closer, and runs 
into striae, this posterior part being separated from the rest by a 
shallow furrow. Back of abdomen smooth, the sides finely acicu- 
lated. 

Pentachalcis, gen. nov. 

Hind femora with three large and two small teeth. Middle tibiae 
without spurs. Antennae (including the ring-joint) twelve-jointed. 
Apex of scutellum with a distinct bluntly rounded projection, of 
which the sides and apex are clearly raised above tlie basal part. 
Metanotum untoothed, but with a small rounded projection on the 
lower part of the sides. Malar space long, nearly as long as the 
eyes. Abdomen sessile, not truncated at the base. Hind coxae 
almost as long as the femora, which are longish oval ; the penulti- 
mate joint of the hind tarsi is as long as the preceding two united, 
and is thicker than tliem ; the femora extend beyond the apex of the 
abdomen. The antennae are placed distinctly above the lower part of 
the eyes ; the scape extends above the vertex. Marginal and post- 
marginal veins long, the latter much thickened ; the stigmal branch 
short, thick. 

Comes near to Pseudochalcis, Kirby. Pentachrysis is the 
sole described genus in the group with only five teeth on hind 
femora. 

Pentachalcis erythronota, sp. nov. 

Black ; the mesonotum and scutellum bright red ; the four 
anterior knees, the base and apex of the four front tibiae, and all the 
tarsi of a duller, more testaceous red. Hind femora with three 
longish, clearly separated teeth on the base, and two short stumpy 
ones on the apex, the apical of which is broader than the j)enultimate. 
Wings almost hyaline, the apex broadly fuscous violaceous ; the ner- 
vures black. Basal three antennal joints bare, shining ; the others 
opaque, thicker, covered with a microscopic down, the fourth slightly 
but distinctly longer than the fifth. Face strongly, deeply punc- 
tured, more or less reticulated ; in the centre of the face is a longi- 
tudinal keel, equally distant from the top and bottom ; the vertex 
and sides of the front are similarly punctured-reticulated, as is also 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 153 

the occiput. The outer edge of the outer orbits and the lower edge 
of the malar space are stoutly keeled, the latter being transverse. 
Pro-, mesonotum, and scutellum punctured-reticulated closely, but 
not quite so strongly as the face. Apex of scutellum ending in a 
projection, wider than long, depressed, its sides and apex stoutly 
keeled, the sides oblique, the apex transverse. Metanotum coarsely 
reticulated ; the sides below end in a short rounded tooth. Pleurae 
coarsely punctured, the mesopleurae with a wide, smooth, oblique 
depression commencing below the tegulae ; its upper part is smooth ; 
the base with a row of foveae, the apex with a broken keel ; the lower 
part is stoutly striated, the striae being clearly separated. Abdomen 
smooth, the apical three segments strongly punctured at the base. 
The tibiae and tarsi are thickly covered with a stiff white pubescence. 
(? . Length, 6 mm. 

Kuching (John Hewitt). 

The ocelli prominent, in a curve. Mesonotum trilobate. Tlie hind 
wings are faintly clouded at the apex. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Caddis-fly eating Aphides. — Mr. Arkle would confer a favour on 
entomologists if he would secure a specimen of tlie caddis-fly that 
eats aphides (antea, p. 92), get it named, and describe the mouth- 
parts by which it performs this feat. — T. A. Chapman ; Betula, 
Eeigate. 

Abeeration of Amphidasys betularia. — Eeferring to Mr. Mans- 
bridge's remark (antea, p. 112) that in the buff form of A. betularia 
obtained by the Middleton collectors the ground-colour of the wings 
is white, I may state that I have eight of those specimens, and 
that in no case is the ground-colour white but ochreous, like the 
variety he describes. — A. B. Farn ; Breinton Lodge, Hereford, 
May 16th, 1908. 

The Long Life of Scoliopteryx libatrix. — On May 1st I took 
a specimen of Scoliopteryx libatrix at rest. It was in excellent con- 
dition, as, owing to its torpid habits, seems to be usual with this 
species whenever captured. But the date leads me to inquire if some 
of your correspondents will give the latest dates on which they have 
taken libatrix, in order to estimate the average length of life of the 
imago. My only note of breeding the insect is the emergence on 
August 9th, 1886, of a specimen from a pupa found by chance in 
collecting other things. This, however, suggests the possibility of 
ten months' hybernation in the perfect state for this species. — -Frank 
E. Lowe ; St. Stephen's Vicarage, Guernsey. 

Pood of Glow-worm. — On May 4th not far from Oxshott Station 
I picked up a specimen of the mollusk Helix cantiana, and on 
examining it noticed a glow-worm without wings (probably a larva) 

ENTOM. — JUNE, 1908. N 



154 THE KNTOMOLOGIST. 

inside the shell. To make certain that the insect was preying on the 
mollusk, I broke away carefully the large whorls of the shell in pieces 
till I found the remains of the snail towards the apex of the shell. 
I had always understood, though I had no definite knowledge, that 
snails were the food of the glow-worm, and was therefore pleased to 
catch one at its meal. — W. J. Lucas ; 28, Knight's Park, Kingston- 
on-Thames, May 10th, 1908. 

Life-History of Hesperia paniscus (pal^mon). — I think Mr. 
Eollason's account of the life-history of H. iMniscus [antea, p. 102) 
calls for some correction, as he claims to have given a much more 
complete life-history than those published by Messrs. Buckler, Hel- 
lins, and myself ; whereas Mr. Eollason's history of the species is 
very incomplete, as he altogether omits the life of the larva during its 
earlier stages (excepting a very vague description of it after emerging 
from the egg). He also even does not refer to the number of moults, 
or anything relating to the larvae from soon after hatching on June 
21st until August 13th, dui'ing which period of time they were not 
examined, although he must have been aware of the fact that they 
would pass through different stages. He alludes to giving much 
fuller detailed descriptions of the fully-grown larva, as well as the 
pupa, and actually states : "I find my description of the larva in 
various stages is of much fuller detail in nearly all respects." These, 
however, seem to me to be unnecessarily lengthy, and I think the de- 
scriptions given by me of every stage to be full enough for all practical 
purposes. I refer to the complete life-history of this species I pub- 
lished in the ' Entomologist,' xxv. 1892, pp. 225, 254 (I may here 
take the opportunity of correcting a printer's error in line 16 from 
bottom, p. 226; the word "seventeen" should read "seven"). This 
was the first complete life-history published of H. jjcoiiiscus {palce- 
mon), and I believe I am correct in saying it remains so. Certainly 
Mr. Eollason's history of this species is very incomplete. — F. W. 
Frohawk. 

Entomological Society of London — Conversazione. — What 
we believe to be the first reception of its kind by the Entomological 
Society of London was held in the rooms of the Civil Service Com- 
mission — formerly the London University Buildings — on the evening 
of Friday, May 15th. The somewhat chilly atmosphere of officialism 
which pervades the great examination schools had, however, been 
dispelled by the joint efforts of furnisher and exhibitors, and Fellows 
who only know the great hall, the vestibule, and the western wing 
generally under its customary aspect were agreeably surprised at the 
transformation effected. The former was reserved as a refreshment 
and conversation room. Miss Eosabel Watson's Ladies' ^olian Band 
performing selections of pleasant music during the evening, especial 
care being taken that the sounds should not penetrate to the 
theatre in which the several addresses kindly given by Mr. Donis- 
thorpe, Colonel D. Bruce, C.B., F.E.S. and Professor E. B. Poulton, 
F.E.S., were to be delivered. The guests who numbered about two 
hundred and fifty were received by the President, Mr. C. O. Water- 
house, Miss Waterhouse, Prof. Poulton, and one of the Secretaries, 
and it is only to be regretted that many more had not accepted the 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 155 

invitation of the Society, it being a matter of some congratulation, 
however, to those who did, that there was no undue crowding, either 
at the exhibition stands, or at the tables where the microscopes were 
installed. 

Among the more important exhibitions we noticed the following : — 
Professor E. B. Poulton, F.E.S., Mimicry in American Papilios. 
Lt.-Col. N. Manders, E.A.M.C, Series of Melanitis leda taken at 
different seasons. Dr. G. B. Longstaff, Plants of Bryophyllum caly- 
cinuvi, a favourite resting-place of GalUdryas eubule : Rest attitudes 
of Butterflies ; Flies mimicking Wasps ; Water-Grasshoppers. Dr. 
F. A. Dixey and Dr. G. B. Longstaff, Scents in Butterflies. The 
President, Illustrations of Tsetse and other biting Flies. Mr. E. A. 
Butler, Dimorphism in Hemiptera, and recent additions to the 
British List. Mr. R. Shelford, Insects preserved in Amber. Lt.-Col. 
C. T. Bingham, Nest of Wasp from Assam, with occupant attacking 
Spider. Mr. H. J. Elwes, F.R.S., Variation and Dimorphism in Indo- 
Chinese and Indo-Malayan Butterflies. Mr. W. J. Kaye, Heliconine 
Butterflies from British Guiana. Mr. W. F. Rosenberg, Rare Hete- 
rocera from South America. Mr. H. Eltringham, Mimicry in African 
Butterflies. Mr. O. E. Janson, Gohath Beetles. Dr. H. C. Phillips, 
Parasites on Lepidoptera. Mr. G. T. Porritt, Melanism in West 
Yorkshire Lepidoptera. Mr. C. P. Pickett, British Lepidoptera. 
Mr. L. W. Newman, Living British Larvae and Pupae. Mr. A. E. 
Sich, Lepidoptera of South London. Mr. Selwyn Image, Lepido- 
ptera observed within six miles of Charing Cross. Mr. R. Adkin, 
Local Variation in a common British species. Mr. A. H. Jones, The 
Genus AntJiocharis. Miss M. E. Fountaine, Spring Butterflies of the 
Mediterranean Region. The Rev. G. Wheeler, Rare and variable 
species of Swiss Butterflies. Dr. T. A. Chapman, Homoeochromatism 
in French Butterflies. Mr. A. W. Bacot, Malacosoma neustria and 
M. castrensis, and their hybrid forms. Mr. L. B. Prout and Mr. 
A. W. Bacot, Experiments in Mendelian Heredity with Acidalia 
virgularia. Mr. A. Hall and Mr. C. J. Grist, Mimetic Nymphaline 
Butterflies and their Models. Mr. S. Edwards, Morphos. Mr. J. A. 
Clark, Varieties of Peronea cristana. Mr. R. South, Aberrations of 
Peronea cristana and P. hastiana. Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpe, 
Insects and other Forms associated with British Ants ; The British 
Ants ; Observation Nests of Formica rufa and F. sanguinea. Mr. A. 
Harrison and Mr. H. Main, Local Forms and Varieties of Pieris najn 
and Aplecta nehulosa. Mr. A. E. Tonge, Stereoscopic Photographs 
from Nature. Mr. H. J. Turner, Life-Histories of the Genus Goleo- 
phora. Mr. E. B. Nevinson, British Aculeate Hymenoptera. Mr. H. 
Main, Photographs of Lepidoptera ; and the Obligation Book of the 
Society, with the signatures of the Duchess of Kent and the Princess 
Victoria, afterwards Queen Victoria. 

A special word of praise is also due to Miss Garnet for her 
exquisitely minute and faithful water-colour drawings of Coleophorids, 
exhibited by Mr. Selwyn Image for Mr. Christopher Whall ; while 
the whole of two sides of the room were decorated with the drawings 
of varieties of British Lepidoptera in the collection of Mr. S. J. 
Capper by Mr. S. L. Mosley — a unique and instructive series. 

The Smaller Room was entirely devoted to microscopic demon- 



156 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

strations by Fellows, and others including Messrs. E. & J. Beck, 
Limited; Messrs. Koss, Limited; and Mr. Charles Baker; the 
demonstrations on the lantern-screen proving especially attractive, 
w^hile Mr. F. Enoch in the Large Eoom was also surrounded at his 
microscopes throughout the evening by appreciative audiences, as 
well as Col. D. Bruce, F.E.S. who, with Capt. Hamerton, had a table 
covered with microscopic preparations to illustrate the chief entomo- 
logical features of the Sleeping Sickness as demonstrated in the 
theatre.— H. E.-B. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Capture of Notodonta phcebe = teitophus in Bedfobd. — On 
May 13th, 1907, whilst collecting round the electric lights of Bedford, 
I took a specimen of Notodonta i)h(x.he = tritopJms. From Mr. South's 
latest book on the ' Moths of the British Isles ' there appear to be 
only six other records of this moth or caterpillar having been taken 
in England.— W. S. Beocklehurst ; Bedford, May 8th, 1908. 

[I have seen the specimen noted above and find it correctly identi- 
fied.— E. S.] 

Laverna decorella at Bloxworth, Dorset. — The record of 
Laverna decorella, Steph., noted in the ' Entomologist,' vol. xxxi. 
p. 104, was found subsequently to be erroneous. The moth mistaken 
for it at the time was L. hellerella, Dup. I may mention that 
L. decorella, Steph., occurs here regularly but rarely. — (Eev.) 0. 
PiCKARD- Cambridge ; Bloxworth Eectory, Dorset. 

Larva of Cirrhcedia xerampelina. — Having been very successful 
in obtaining larvae of G. xerampelina, my method may be of interest. 
Briefly, the method is trapping them. I prop pieces of bark or wood 
against the trunk of the tree, or against neighbouring fences, &c., 
about two or three feet above the ground. Then whenever I happen 
to be in the vicinity I look under them, and if the tree harbours 
C. xerampelina my trap probably contains a few. This method has 
the advantage of enabling a large area to be worked for these larvae 
with little trouble, as the traps can be set and examined at any time 
during the day. Incidentally, I find a good many squeezed in 
crevices in the bark of the tree, and also in natural hiding places such 
as under loose bark on neighbouring fences. The larvae travel con- 
siderable distances, as I have found them concealed as much as twenty 
feet from the trunk of the tree. — Savignac B. Stedman ; Binbrook, 
Market Easen, Lincoln, May 22nd, 1908. 

Palimpsestis (Cymatophora) octogesima in London. — Might I 
record in the 'Entomologist' the capture of Palimpsestis {Cymato- 
2)hora) octogesima on two different occasions last July at arc-lamps at 
West Hampstead, by Mr. P. Layman ? Has it been recorded so near 
London before ? — -E. Mannering ; Trinity Clergy House, 74, Bolsover 
Street, W., May 25th, 1908. 

[See also Entom. xxxix. 257. — Ed.] 



captures and fikld reports. 157 

Notes from the Haslemere District for 1906 and 1907. — 
Having now been in Haslemere for two seasons, I am beginning to 
find tliat, even with my limited leisure for collecting, it is a locality 
full of possibilities for the entomologist, and a short record of my 
experiences may be of some interest. I have at present discovered 
twenty-four species of Ehopalocera. Larvae of Zejjhynis quercus are 
very abundant, and any numl^er of Gonepteryx rhamni can be bred 
from the alder-buckthorns, which are to be found plentifully; but the 
most interesting thing to me has been the breeding of an exceedingly 
varied series of Ghrysophanits phlceas. Some were fed on dock, 
others on sorrel, but the proportion of specimens with blue spots on 
the lower wings was very great in each case. The variation in other 
respects was less marked. Enchloe cardammes is plentiful, and so is 
Callophrys rubi, and I have observed Argiades sylvanus ovipositing 
freely in a field where Hesperia thaumas, Lycana argus, and many 
other insects are common. Cyaniris argiolus was seen in some 
numbers during the spring of 1907, and from a batch of larv£e which 
began to pupate on Sept. 17th a forward male emerged on Oct. 15th, 
though the rest of the brood have stood over. Among interesting 
captures by day may be mentioned CharocainiKt elpenor, Macroglossa 
stellatarurn, Miltochristaminiata, Litliosia sororcula, Drepana binaria, 
Heliaca tenehrata, Erastria fasciana, Bomoloclia fontis, Epione 
advenaria, Eurymene dolahraria, Asthena luteata, Bapta temerata, 
B. himaculata, Numeria pulveraria, Bupalus piniaria, Lomaspilis 
marginata, and Melanthia alhicillata ; L. marginata being very varied, 
and E. advenaria being in the greatest profusion. 

hnvYse oi Heviaris fiicifonnis and Anarta myrtilli have been dis- 
covered, and the following larvae have been beaten : Hylophila prasi- 
nana, H. bicolorana, Lophopteryx camelina, Amphipyra pyramidea, 
Hadena protea, Gonoptera lihatrix, and many others. Ova have been 
obtained of Pcecilocampa populi, Arctia villica, Dicranura vinula, 
Eiiplexia lucipara, EucUdia glyphica, Epione advenaria, Eurymene 
dolahraria, &c. ; and a very remarkable variety of E. advenaria 
emerged on April 8th, 1907. It is very much smaller than usual, 
and is of a uniform dull brown colour, with no markings to speak of. 
A more or less spasmodic examination of the street-lamps has pro- 
duced several good things, including Pcecilocampa populi, Lophopteryx 
carmelita, Notodonta trepida, Polyploca flavicornis, P. ridens, Panolis 
piniperda, Erastria fasciana, Eurymene dolahraria, Selenia illustraria, 
Numeria pulveraria, Ligclia adustata, LohopJiora carpinata, Anticlea 
nigrofasciaria, Cidaria sujfumata, and C. silaceata. The results from 
sugaring about thirty young fruit trees in my garden have been good, 
among other insects taken being Thyatira hatis, Dipterygia scahri- 
uscula (very abundant), Apamea hasilinea, Noctua triangulum, Xanthia 
fulvago, X. flavago, Aporophyla nigra, Agriopis aprilina, Euplexia 
lucip)ara, Hadena genistce, and Xylina socia. — F. A. Oldaker, M.A. ; 
The Red House, Haslemere, March 2nd, 1908. 



158 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society op London. — Wednesday, May 6th, 
1908.— Mr. C. O. Waterhouse, President, in the chair.— Mr. Thomas 
Godfrey Andros, Ph.D., F.Z.S., of Wilton House, 31, St. Saviour's 
Eoad, Jersey ; Mr. Chourappa Clietti, Assistant Curator of the 
Government Museum at Bangalore, India ; Mr. Frederick Charles 
Eraser, I.M.S., M.D., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., of Trichinopoly, India; 
Mr. Walter M. Giffard, of Keeaunoki Street, Honolulu, Hawaiian 
Islands ; and Mr. Alfred Vander Hedges, of 42, Kensington Park 
Gardens, W., were elected Eellows of the Society. — Mr. A. H. Jones 
exhibited an example of the melanic ah. nigra of Tephrosia consonaria 
bred from a wild female taken near Maidstone, by Mr. W. Goodwin ; 
and a living larva of Sesia andreiiiformis feeding in the stem of 
Vibitrnum lantana. — Mr. R. Shelford bi'ought for exhibition a number 
of specimens of insects in amber. They showed several forms closely 
allied to those of existing insects : one orthopteron being very near 
to Ectobia lapponica. — The President, a living example of Blatta 
found among bananas from Mexico. Mr. Shelford said he thought 
the species to be Pandora niveus, Lin. — Mr. H. M. Edelsten, a living 
larva of Niidaria senex, and living larva and pupa of Calligema 
7mniata. He drew special attention to the clubbed bristles on the 
former as being incurved and most curious. — Mr. O. E. Janson, a 
white aberration of Epinephele jurtina, taken in Holme Park, Sussex, 
in June, 1904. — Professor E. B. Poulton read a letter from Mr. S. A. 
Neave giving an account of the bulbul feeding its young with various 
" unpalatable " species. He also exhibited a collection of Asilids and 
their prey from the Tring Museum, and a series of Neptis from Mada- 
gascar to illustrate the specialization of this butterfly in its island 
form. A discussion on the developments of coloration in insular 
forms of this and other Lepidoptera follow^ed, in which Dr. T. A. 
Chapman, Mr. G. A. K. Marshall, the Rev. G. Wheeler, Lt.-Col. N. 
Manders, and other Fellows participated. — Lieut. -Col. Manders, a 
collection of butterflies from Bourbon demonstrating examples of 
mimicry and the effects of the interaction of species. He concluded 
by describing the physical characteristics of the island, and said that 
the area favourable for the existence of Euploeas was extremely small, 
and as the larvae of goudoti and euphon fed on the same plants there 
was in all probability a struggle for existence set up in which the 
invader proved the stronger and eventually exterminated its rival. 
In the discussion which followed Professor Poulton remarked that in 
the neighbouring island of Rodriques there was a species of Euploia 
(desjardhisi) greatly resembling euphon, and no doubt a geographical 
race of that species, and this would also suggest that euphon formerly 
existed in Bourbon. — Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpe showed an example of 
the beetle Xantholinus distans, Kr., taken at Helton, near Dumfries, 
on May 1, a species new to the British list. — Mr. W. J. Lucas 
showed a glow-worm found at Oxshott on May 4, inside the shell of 
the snail Helix cantiana. There was no doubt that the larva was 
feeding on the snail, for on breaking away parts of the shell he found the 
moist remains of it near the apex. He also brought for exhibition the 
male, female, and nymph of the dragonfly Oxygastra curtisii, first de- 



SOCIETIES. 159 

scribed by the late J. C. Dale, and read a paper on "The British Dragon- 
flies of the 'Dale Collection.' "—Dr. T. A. Chapman, M.D., P.Z.S., read 
a paper on " The Distinction of Several Species of Everes, determined by 
their Genitalia," and exhibited photographs to illustrate his remarks. 
He announced that as the result of his investigations Everes argiades, 
Pall., and the so-called var. coretas, were separate, though very nearly 
allied species. — H. Rowland-Brown, Hon. Secretary. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society— April 9th, 1908.— Mr. Alfred Sich, F.E.S., President in the 
chair. — Mr. Kaye exhibited an Agaristid moth, Scirocastnia prcefecta, 
from Peru, which by its antennae and general superficial characters 
closely resembled an Erycinid. — Mr. R. Adkin, a drawer of the vari- 
ous forms of Angerona prunaria, and another of Boarmia rejMndata. 
A discussion arose as to labelling insects geographically. It was 
suggested that a label of locality might be placed at the side below 
each set of a species from one locality. This would be impossible in a 
collection where the idea was merely to group the varieties. — Mr. 
South exhibited several species of Cucullia, with a view to gain some 
definite idea as to what the species C. scropimlarice really was. 
Considerable discussion took place, but no definite result was arrived 
at. — Mr. Sich exhibited a number of "house moths," some eleven 
species, including Endrosis fenestrella, Borkhansenia p)se^idosp)Tetella, 
Tinea pellionella, T. piallescentella, T. fuscipunctella, Tineola biselli- 
ella, &c., and read a short paper on his exhibit. A discussion took 
place as to the ravages of these pests. 

A2^ril 2drd, 1908.— The President in the chair.— Mr. R. Adkin 
exhibited a specimen of Argijnnis aglaia with the left fore wing only 
about half-size, but otherwise perfect. It was taken at Eastbourne. He 
also showed a larva of Tortrix pronuhayia with a parasitic larva 
attached to its under surface. — Mr. Gadge, light forms of Orgyia 
antiqua and Bumicia phlceas. — -Mr. Kaye, an asymmetrical form of 
Anticlea hadiata. — Dr. Chapman, living larvae of Polyommatus icarus 
and Plebius argus [agon), the former quite and the latter nearly full 
grown. — Mr. Newman, stems of Viburnum containing larvae of Sesia 
andreniformis, larvae of Camptogramma fluviata and Agrotis ash- 
worthii, and imagines of Gncullia scrophularice, and G. verbasci. — - 
Mr. Moore, two Indian Pierids, Gatopsilia catulla and Delias 
eucharis, with bleached wings. — ^Mr. R. Adkin, specimens of G. 
scrophularicB, G. verbasci, &c., G. lychnitis, for comparison. — Mr. Step, 
photographs of Helleborus foetidus, and read notes on its fertilisation, 
&c. — Mr. Main, larva, pupa, and imago of the meal-worm Tenebrio 
molitor. — Mr. Sich, specimens of Xanthia fulvago (cerago) var. 
flavescens from Eorres. — Mr. Rayward made some remarks on the 
life-history of S. andreniformis. — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Bep). Sec. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society. — Mr. A. E. Gibbs, 
F.L.S.,recorderof Lepidoptera, presented his annual report at ameeting 
held at the County Museum, St. Albans, on May 12th, and referred 
to the fact that very few insects which needed more than a passing 
mention were met with during the year. His local correspondents, 
who, he regretted to say, were a decreasing band, united in describing 
the season as a disappointing one. It was sunless, cold and damp — 



160 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

conditions which were unfavourable to insect life. The only species 
which had been added to the county list of Lepidoptera was Hyjienodes 
costcBstrigalis, taken at Ashridge on July 24th and August 22nd by 
Mr. A. T. Goodson, of Tring. Mr. Gibbs referred to the comparative 
abundance in his garden of Agrotis saucia, an insect of which he had not 
previously taken more than one or two specimens in a season. He ob- 
tained ova and fed up fifty-one larvae in a warm kitchen, forty-four moths 
emerging between March 4th and 11th of the present year. These in turn 
gave a few ova, which were successfully photographed by Mr. A. E. 
Tonge, F.E.S., of Eeigate. Eeports of work done and observations 
made during the season were received from Miss Alice Dickinson, 
New Green's Farm, St. Albans, Mr. P. J. Barraud, F.E.S., of Bushey 
Heath, Mr. A. H. Foster, of Hitchin, Mr. J. E. Perrott, of Watford, 
and Mr. A. T. Goodson, of Tring. — A. E. Gibbs, Hon. Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

A Guide to the Exhibited Series of Insects. 

Apart from the huge collection of insects housed in the basement 
of the Nation's Natural History Museum at South Kensington, there 
is, in one of the galleries on the main floor, a series of twenty-eight 
table cases arranged over the central area, three or four cabinets 
along the borders, and an assortment of cases on the walls. Two of 
the table cases contain material illustrative of Structure and Classifi- 
cation of Insects, and in the others are shown specimens belonging 
to the nine Orders of Insects, here arranged in the following se- 
quence: — Aptera, Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, 
Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Rhynchota. In two of the 
cabinets are perfect insects and caterpillars of British Lepidoptera, 
and British and Foreign insects are in the others. 

Furnished with a copy of this excellent illustrated guide of some 
sixty pages, the visitor will find examination of the various objects 
invested with an interest which might be lacking without such a 
handy instructor. 

A Natural History of the British Butterflies. 

In the last volume of the 'Entomologist,' p. 256, the first eleven 
parts of volume ii. of this elaborate work by Mr. J. W. Tutt were 
referred to. Parts xii.-xxi. of the same volume are now to hand. 
There are one hundred and fifty-three pages of text, of which thirty-two 
are introductory, twenty plates, and explanations thereof on separate 
pages. The subject-matter comprises Buralis [Zephyrus) betulcB, pp. 
296-320; Tribe Lampididi, Genus Lampides, Hiibn., pp. 329-331 ; 
Tribe Celastrinidi, Genus Celastrina, Tutt, pp. 332-386; G. argiolus, 
L., pp. 387-416 (part). One of the plates gives photographic figures 
of the butterflies L. hceticus and G. argiolus, and the others show life- 
histories and structural details of larvae and pupae ; all the latter are 
greatly enlarged. The parts, which are issued monthly, are published 
by Elliot Stock, Paternoster Row, E.C. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XLL] JULY, 1908. [No. 542 

LIFE-HISTORY OF LYCMNA ACIS. 
By F. W. Frohawk, M.B.O.U., F.E.S. 

On July 1st, 1907, I received from Prof. Rebel, at Vienna, 
four living females of Lyca-na acis, who kindly sent them to me 
at the request of the Hon. N. Charles Rothschild. I am, there- 
fore, indebted to both these gentlemen for their kind assistance 
in procuring me living examples of this extremely rare British 
species. 

I at once placed all four females on growing plants of 
Anthyllis vulneraria. On July 5th I noticed a few eggs were 
deposited, and several more on the following day ; in all from 
thirty to thirty-six ova were laid on the calyces of the flowers, 
mostly near the base, and often hidden between them. 

The egg is very similar to that of L. arion, being of the same 
size — e. g. ^^j in. wide — but slightly higher (-^q in.) and of 
similar structure ; the micropyle, however, is much smaller, 
and but slightly sunken, resembling in this respect the egg of 
L. argiades. The whole surface is covered with a beautiful 
reticulated network pattern ; the reticulations surrounding the 
micropyle are simple, but gradually develop at each juncture 
into raised knobs, which are prominent elsewhere over the 
surface. All the reticulations resemble white-frosted glass, 
reflecting the beautiful pale blue-green ground colour of the egg. 
Shortly before hatching it assumes a greyish tinge. The egg- 
state lasts ten days. The eggs laid on the 5th hatched on the 
15th. The young larva makes its exit by eating a small hole in 
the side of the egg just large enough to allow of its escape. 

Directly after emergence the larva is very small, being 
only 3^(3 in. long, but stout in proportion. It is almost exactly 
similar in all respects to L. arion, except that the hairs of acis 
are longer and the general colouring of the body is of a greener 
tinge. It has a shallow dorsal longitudinal furrow ; on the 
first segment, which is the widest, there is a large dorsal disc 
and a smaller one on the anal segment ; both are some- 

ENTOM. — JULY, 1908. O 



162 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

what glazed and grey in colour. The body is a pale greenish 
blue-grey, with citrine-yellow shadows ; along the dorsal surface 
are longitudinal rows of very long and also short glassy white, 
finely serrated hairs, placed in pairs on each segment bordering 
the furrow, the first one very long, the second short ; both curve 
backwards, and have dark olive-brown pedestal bases ; below 
are two very small hairs projecting laterally; the spiracles are 
large and dusky. On each segment are three subspiracular hairs, 
which are long and project laterally also ; the central one is 
very long. Below on the lateral lobe are two other similar but 
shorter hairs, and others on the claspers ; they all have dark 
bulbous bases. The head is shining brownish black. The 
entire surface* is sprinkled with blackish points. The eggs and 
claspers are the same colour as the body. 

On July 19th I carefully examined the flowers, and found the 
young larvae had eaten through the base of the calyces, and were 
feeding on the green seed-pod within. 

One of the butterflies lived until July 20th. 

On July 23rd I again examined some of the flowers, and 
found two larvae in the second, stage ; another undergoing the 
first moult, and others in the first stage feeding on the seed- 
pods. 

Shortly before first moult it measures only ^\ in. long, and 
is pale ochreous yellow. 

After first moult it is a good deal similar to the previous 
stage, but has additional hairs and three subdorsal spiracular- 
like discs on either side of each segment, and one sublateral ; 
the surface is covered with greyish raised points. On the first 
segment is a dorsal shield-like disc, slightly sunken, and of a 
dull olive-colour, beset with little circular discs varying in size. 
The colour is pale ochreous, with faint longitudinal medio-dorsal 
and lateral lines and oblique side-stripes of a slightly darker 
ochreous. 

Before second moult it is J in. long. The colouring is paler 
and markings more indistinct. In some specimens the colour 
is almost uniformly of a pale ochreous yellow. They still feed 
on the seeds. 

Before third moult it is -f^ in. long, the segmental divisions 
are deeply cut, the body is thickly studded with white serrated 
hairs, each with an ochreous-brown tubular base and black 
spiracular-like discs. On the tenth segment is a dorsal trans- 
verse gland, very similar to that of L. arion ; at the edge are a 
few minute white hairs with branching tips. I noticed a tiny 
bead of liquid exuding from it. The dorsal disc on first segment 
is fan-shaped, with a glazed surface beset with minute discs, as 
in previous stage, but has in addition three hairs. The whole 
colouring of the body is pale ochreous yellow, with medio-dorsal, 
subdorsal, and subspiracular pale rust-red stripes, which are 



LIFE-HISTORY OF LYC.ENA ACIS. 163 

broken up on each segment, being composed of a series of short 
bands, and those forming the subdorsal series are sHghtly 
oblique ; the lateral stripe is continuous round the broad, rounded, 
and somewhat flattened anal extremity ; the head is black and 
shining. Some specimens are paler than others, and some are 
distinctly yellow after feeding on the yellow petals of the flowers. 
They feed on all parts of the bloom. In general appearance and 
structure they are very like L. avion larvae, but less pink in 
colour. 

Besides the flowers of Anthyllis vuhieraria the larvae of acis 
feed readily on clover-blossoms both white and pink, but for 
choice prefer the pink, which they greedily devour, eating all 
parts of the blossom. 

During the second week of August most of the larvae entered 
into hybernation ; some I found concealed within the calyces of 
the Anthijllis, and others under the leaf-like bracts and also be- 
tween the calyces. Although several were kept in a warm 
temperature, with early morning sunshine, and during the 
warmest days of the summer, they all remained motionless. 

During the first week in September I placed a few of the 
larvae out of doors (these were hybernating on flower-heads of 
clover and Anthyllis) ; the pots containing the plants were only 
protected by gauze covers, so they were subjected to all con- 
ditions of weather throughout the autumn and winter — therefore, 
were practically kept in a natural state. On January 20th, 
1908, I examined a pot kept out of doors, and found on a brown 
dead clover-bloom one larva apparently perfectly healthy, which 
had not moved since the middle of August ; also, on a dead 
flower-head of Anthyllis there was another in a similar con- 
dition. 

Again, on February 22nd, I carefully examined the plants 
kept both out of doors and in a cold conservatory, and found 
altogether nine larvae, all apparently very healthy and hyber- 
nating. These had not moved at all since entering into hyber- 
nation ; some were between the calyces of the dead Anthyllis, and 
very difficult to detect, while others were hidden within them ; 
some on the leaf-bracts, and one on a dead AntJiyllis-stem at the 
base of a withered leaf, and two on dead clover flower-heads 
between the petals. In all cases the larvae were resting with 
their heads pointing inwards, towards the base of the flowers. 

On March 20th three larvae moved from their hybernaculums, 
the others remained motionless. Having no other likely food- 
plant for these larvae, I placed them on three separate blossoms 
of furze {Ulex eiwopceus), upon which they remained without 
feeding for a time. On the morning of March 24th I noticed 
one had been feeding on the inside cuticle of the calyx, and 
another I saw feeding on the petal of another blossom. This 

o2 



164 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

day being warm with considerable sunshine, three more left 
their hybernaculums. I therefore gave them young shoots of 
clover, on which they fed, perforating the leaves, and also bored 
into the swollen shoots enveloping the young leaves, feeding 
on the interior in the same way as L. argiolus larvae feed on 
young holly-berries. The following days they continued feeding 
at times. 

On April 1st another left its hybernaculum. 

Third moult : on April 8th the first one moulted the third 
time, followed by one moulting on the 9th, another on the 10th, 
and others fixed for moulting on the 11th. 

Before third moult, two hundred and thirty-nine days old, it 
measures J in. long when fixed for moulting. Of a very pale 
yellowish flesh-colour ; all the markings dull pale pinkish, giving 
the larva a pale flesh-coloured appearance. 

One of those which left its hybernaculum on March 20th 
was kept solely on furze-bloom, and moulted the third time on 
April 15th. They remain some days fixed for moulting. 

After third moult, two hundred and forty-five days old, it 
measures ^ in. long. The ground colour is now of a pale ochreous 
green, with the dorsal, subdorsal, and lateral stripes dull pinkish 
drab ; otherwise it is very similar to the previous stage, excepting 
it is more densely studded with hairs of varying lengths ; each 
with a darker green truncated swollen base encircled with a 
series of black points ; there are also numerous spiracular-like 
discs ; a gland on the tenth segment, and on the eleventh seg- 
ment below and behind each spiracle is a retractile tubercle. 
They continued feeding on the tender shoots of clover, preferring 
the young expanding heads of the plant, and feed at all times 
during the day. 

Fourth moult, April 26th. After this moult the larva is 
wholly of a clear green colour. 

After fourth and shortly before moulting the fifth time it 
measures -^^ in. long. Similar to previous stage, excepting the 
hairs are longer, and the ground colouring is a clear light green, 
with darker green but somewhat indistinct markings. 

On May 2nd two fixed for fifth moult ; one moulted late 
afternoon of the 4th, the other early on the following morning ; 
while on this day four others were fixed for the fourth moult, and 
one feeding in the same stage ; also one larva still in the third 
stage, which remained in partial hybernation, as it shifted its 
position on May 3rd, but not then left the dead part of the plant 
which formed its hybernaculum. This one again moved on 
May 17th, when I placed it on a clover-blossom, upon which it 
rested for a week, and died on May 25th, having lived for about 
two hundred and eighty days without feeding. 

The one that moulted on May 4th for the fifth and last time 
became fully grown and spun up for pupation on May 17th, and 



LIFE-HISTORY OF LYCjENA ACIS. 165 

pupated ten a.m. on the 19th, the last stage occupying fifteen 
days. 

After fifth and last moult fully grown, about two hundred and 
seventy-five days old, it measures ^^ in. long. In shape and 
size it greatly resembles L. arion larva. The small shining black 
head is set on a moderately long retractile neck, which is fre- 
quently protruded beyond the first segment while it is crawling 
and feeding, which, when at rest, is completely withdrawn and 
hidden in the segment. Although the head is disproportionately 
small for the size of the larva, it is more than twice the size of 
the minute head of L. arion larva. 

Dorsal view : The anterior and posterior segments are over- 
lapping and rounded ; the body narrowest anteriorly, widening 
to the eighth segment. The segmental divisions are deeply cut, 
each segment boldly convexed. Side view : First anterior and 
last three posterior segments flattened and projecting laterally ; 
second to ninth segments are humped dorsally ; a slight medio- 
dorsal furrow ; the sides sloping and lateral ridge dilated, ventral 
surface bulbous and ample. The whole body is rather densely 
sprinkled with finely serrated spinous hairs ; the longest are 
along the dorsal surface and lateral ridge, where they form 
a projecting fringe all round the larva, and the first two seg- 
ments are also covered with longish hairs, and a few are scattered 
along the subdorsal region ; all these longer hairs are pale 
brownish, becoming whitish towards the base, which is in the 
form of a pedestal, and of a greenish white colour ; the other 
hairs are very minute, white, and glassy. On the first segment 
is a fan-shaped whitish dorsal disc, studded with shining black 
raised processes and tiny white hairs ; scattered over the body 
are shining black spiracular-like discs, very small, common to 
the Lycaenidse larvfe. On the tenth segment is a transverse 
gland, very like that on the same segment of nrion larva, but in 
acis it is not fringed with the extremely minute branching hairs, 
but is instead surrounded by numerous little circular discs and 
tiny white simple hairs ; and on each side of the eleventh seg- 
ment is a retractile whitish tubercle ; the claspers and ventral 
surface are glaucous ; the legs whitish, ringed with dark olive. 

The larva which entirely fed on furze- blossoms since hyber- 
nation pupated on May 22nd, and produced a fine male imago 
on June 7th. This larva remained a much paler colour, being 
a pale greenish yellow-ochreous, and the pupa was likewise pale 
in colour. 

The larvae spun themselves up on different parts of the 
plants, both on the stems, leaves, and flowers ; in each case a 
very slight cocoon was formed by a few strands of silk, and also 
attached by the hind claspers to a pad of silk and a cincture 
round the middle. 

The pupa averages in length ^^ ^^' 



166 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Dorsal view : The head is obtuse, from the base to raiddle of 
wing the outhne is straight, then swelling to second and third 
abdominal segments ; abdomen attenuated to the rounded anal 
segment. Side view : The head rounded, with slight swellings 
at base of antennae ; thorax convex ; division between first and 
second segments forming an obtuse angle ; abdomen slightly 
swollen and curving to rounded anal segment ; ventral surface 
forms almost a straight line, in which respect it mainly differs 
from L. arion pupa. The cremastral hooks number in all twenty- 
four, and are placed in two distinct patches of twelve each. 

The entire surface (like arion) is covered with very fine 
brown reticulations, and, excepting the wing, is sprinkled also 
with minute circular discs; these are especially numerous on the 
head and prothorax ; also sprinkled over the surface are finely 
serrated whitish bristles. On each side of the prothorax is a 
small patch of bristles with their ends finely ciliated. The 
dorsal gland of the larva is modified into a slight suture, marked 
in the centre by a brown spot. 

When first pupated it is a clear transparent green, showing 
the nervures of both the primaries and secondaries and the 
general internal structure ; it gradually assumes an ochreous 
tinge at both ends, and the darker dorsal line (dorsal vessel) can 
be seen pulsating as in the larva. 

When four days old it is mostly of a dull ochreous green ; 
thorax whitish green ; head and anal segment pale pinkish buff; 
neuration of both wings still showing. 

When nine days old and normal the colour is a pale ochreous 
green ; wings palest, inclining to whitish ; head, prothorax, and 
anal extremity tinged with rust-red, caused by the density of the 
reticulations and discs ; spiracles whitish ; nervures still showing 
under the thin pupal skin. 

On the twelfth day the maturing of the imago commences by 
the eyes becoming a pale reddish drab and the wings opaque 
cream-colour; the eyes daily deepen, and wings become paler 
and more opaque. On the fifteenth day the eyes are dark 
brown ; wings, thorax, and head light tawny buff ; abdomen 
greenish ochreous. On the following day the whole colouring is 
quickly transformed into black, blue, and grey. In the males 
the wings are then rich deep metallic-blue at the base, blending 
into light greenish blue, forming the median area ; the rest of 
the wing black, and black nervures crossing the blue ; outer 
border creamy white ; the eyes, thorax, and dorsal half of 
abdomen steel-black ; ventral surface olive. A few hours before 
emerging the blue of the wings assume a silvery grey, and all 
the hair-scales of the body show clearly through the thin delicate 
texture of the pupal skin, giving the whole a silvery-grey 
appearance. 

The pupa is attached to the food-plant by the cremastral 



DRAGONFLIES IN 1907. 167 

hooks and a cincture round the waist, and a few strands of silk 
spun around it, forming a slight cocoon. 

The first imago (a male) emerged on June 5th ; it pupated 
on May 19th, making the pupal period seventeen days. Others 
emerged at intervals during the first half of June, in all five 
males and one female — all fine specimens. 

Hitherto the life-history of L. acis has remained a blank to 
British entomologists, and by the meagre descriptions given by 
the various authors concerning the larva and pupa, obviously 
copied from Eiihl, very little appears to be known to the Con- 
tinental authors. Certainly Kiihl's description is confusing 
and misleading, as he states the larva is full-fed in August, 
changes to a pupa in September, and passes the winter in that 
stage. 



DEAGONFLIES IN 1907. 
By W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 



In 1907 I seem to have met with little that was worthy of 
record in connection with the British Odonata. The season was 
not an early one, the first dragonfly observed being a male 
Pyrrhosoma nymphula at the Black Pond, Surrey, on May 5th. 
In my experience, however, there was no dearth of specimens of 
the various species as time went on, whatever may have been 
the case with insects of other orders. 

At the beginning of September Sympetrum striolatum was 
very common in the New Forest, and no doubt it continued on 
the wing as usual till well towards the end of the year, but 
the last specimen noted by myself was on Bookham Common, 
Surrey, on September 22nd. Sympetrum sangidneum was pre- 
sent on Ockham Common, Surrey, on September 8th, and on 
the following day I captured the species at the Black Pond, 
where I had not previously met with it. 

Mr. A. 0. Bowden tells me that on July 21st he took 
Orthetrum ccerulescens at Tavy Cleave on Dartmoor, and Mr. 
G. Nicholson gave me a female example of its congener, 0. can- 
cellatum, taken at Wroxham, in Norfolk, in August, which had 
caught a Vanessa urticce. On July 31st Cordulegaster annulatus, 
which was common in one of the rides in Dames Slough En- 
closure in the New Forest, seemed in some cases to be pursuing 
the butterflies which were also numerous there. On August 2nd, 
also in the Forest, I saw an A^iax imperator hovering over a 
boggy pool near Beaulieu River, and found a bodyless Pieris napi 
on the surface of the pool, which I concluded had been captured 
and mutilated by the dragonfly. The same day Lestes sponsa, a 
common species, but one I have not often met with in the New 



168 THE BNTOMOIiOGIST. 

Forest, was taken near Beaulieu Eiver. Ischtiura elegans was 
received from Bedford, having been captured on August 22nd. 

As regards the two New Forest species, Ischnura immilio and 
Agrion mercuriale, the former was met with on August 5th at a 
new spot, though not a great way from one of its known haunts, 
while the latter also was discovered on August 24th some mile 
or two from any spot at which it had previously been noted. A 
few years since, in a so much examined place as the New 
Forest, the former was quite unknown, and the latter almost so ; 
now both are found to be common. It is therefore quite likely 
that here and elsewhere new dragonflies of the smaller species 
will reward the searcher, just as did Agrion hastidatum in Scot- 
land and Agrion armatum in the Broads. These last did not 
receive attention during 1907, but Mr. J. J. F. X. King tells me 
that when last he visited the home of A. hastidatum on the River 
Spey he took only a few specimens after very hard work. 

On October 27th, a very dull but moderately mild day, I 
caught a brightly marked female .Eschiia cyanea on the wing 
about mid-day on Esher Common, Surrey. Not only was this 
the last dragonjfly noted for the season, but this date was the 
latest on which I have myself met with the species, though I 
have a record of one being found alive in Gloucestershire on 
November 12th. 



ODONATA IN GERMANY.— 11. 
By E. R. Speyer, F.E.S. 

In the first part of this paper (ante, p. 116), fifteen species of 
the larger dragonflies were recorded. In the present one there is 
an account of the smaller ones which were observed at Marburg- 
on-the-Lahn in the summer of 1907. 

Calopteryx virgo, Linn. — This beautiful species was out in a 
very immature state on May 23rd, and was then difficult to dis- 
tinguish from C. splendens at first sight. On June 27th mature 
males were not uncommon along the river towards Biirgeln, but 
females were absent. A male and female (the latter with a 
deformed abdomen) taken on August 3rd were the last observed 
specimens. 

C. virgo must spend a great deal of its time far from water, 
but it is not nearly so plentiful as C. splendens. 

C. splendens, Harris. — The dragonfly was plentiful every- 
where except in the brickyard. The first specimen, an immature 
male, appeared on the bank of the river towards Giessen on 
May 25th, and from June 2nd till August 3rd the species was 
exceedingly plentiful ; after the latter date it began to die off, 
and it was not observed after August 29th. There were actual 



ODONATA IN GERMANY. 169 

swarms of the species for miles along the river on June 27th, but 
I did not find any variety in size or colour, although I was on 
the look-out for abnormalities. 

Lestes viridift, Lind. — The species is evidently found in 
localities where the surroundings are suitable, for I took it at 
the pond near the Southern Railway Station only, and even 
there it was uncommon. In August and September the male 
was sometimes more or less plentiful, but only four females 
made their appearance to me during the whole summer. 

It was the habit of the male to fly rather rapidly and jerkily, 
and to settle on the highest reed-tops with half-expanded wings ; 
the whitish pterostigma and anal appendages were then very 
conspicuous, but the insect was hard to see while flying, as its 
colour harmonized perfectly with the surroundings. I repeatedly 
watched males at the top of a poplar-tree ; occasionally they 
would fly down into the reeds, where they could be netted. 

The flight of the female is slower. Of oviposition I saw 
nothing, but possibly it is the same as in L. sponsa, for the two 
mature females which were taken were put up by beating the 
reeds. On August 3rd the species made its first appearance, 
and as it was still fairly plentiful on September 23rd, I conclude 
that it lasts into October, 

L. dryas, Kirby. — The insect was found in the marsh, and 
there it was plentiful in September. A single female was taken 
at the pond near the Southern Railway Station on August 27th, 
but this must have been a stray specimen, as I did not take 
another there. 

This dragonfly is distinguishable from L. sponsa, even on the 
wing, by its larger size and darker colour. 

L. sponsa, Hans. — On July 7tli this species was out, and was 
very plentiful in all the localities, except in the brickyard, until 
the end of September. 

Sympycna fiisca, Charp. — This most interesting species 
appeared first in a perfectly mature condition on June 9th at the 
pond adjoining the Lahn. On June 13th I again took mature 
specimens at the pond near the Southern Railway Station ; on 
June 16th I took a single male only at the former locality. 

Not until August 25th did the dragonfly appear again, and 
then it was very plentiful in both the localities mentioned, but 
in a very immature state. After this I did not observe it again. 
This surely points to the hybernation of the species, which dies 
off in June, the new generation emerging from the nymph in 
August, as De Selys points out in his ' Monographia ' (1840, 
p. 146). When immature, the dragonfly no doubt spends its 
time far from water. I never observed the female ovipositing ; 
perhaps oviposition takes place in October. The species flies 
close to the water, where it is difficult to see. 

Platycnemis pennipes. Pall. — Of the Zygopterides observed 



170 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

this was one of the most plentiful. It was out on the banks of 
the Lahn towards Giessen on June 2nd in large numbers, and on 
September 2ud I still took specimens. In June and July it was 
plentiful in fields, and I took several specimens on bushes on the 
sides of the mountains on June 18th. 

"When immature I took var. lactea only, but later var. bilineata 
and the normal form were also abundant. 

Erythromma naias, Hans. — On May 25th the dragonfly was 
out along the river. In June it was plentiful at all the localities 
with the exception of the brickyard and marsh ; but in July it 
became scarce, and on July 8th I thought I had seen the last of 
it. But on August 3rd I took a single male at the pond near the 
Southern Eailway Station. 

On the under side of the bodies of males there were often 
large numbers of red Acari. 

E. viridulum, Charp. — I found this minute dragonfly at the 
pond near the Soutbern Eailway Station. On July 22nd it was 
not very plentiful, and all the specimens taken were very imma- 
ture ; in this state they were difficult to distinguish from Ischnura 
painiiio. The female was at this time the more plentiful. On 
August 3rd both sexes were very abundant, and they continued 
to be so till August 31st. On September 9th I took two speci- 
mens only, and on September 23rd again two ; the latter were 
worn. 

The habits of this species are rather similar to those of its 
larger congener, but it is less shy and does not fly over the 
water so much. The dragonfly does not go far from water when 
immature, but flies slowly about bushes close to its native pond. 

On August 27th a male of this species was found in the 
jaws of the female L. dryas taken at the pond near the Southern 
Eailway Station. 

Pyrrhosoma nymphula, Sulz. — Although more or less well 
distributed, the dragonfly was never at all plentiful, and the 
time of flight was short, unless it was spent far from water. On 
June 9th I took the first specimen, and on June 13th it was not 
uncommon, but after June 27th I did not notice it again until 
August 3rd, when I took a single male. The brickyard and the 
marsh were the only two places where I did not find it. Perhaps 
the species is more abundant in favourable summers. 

Ischnura piimilio, Charp. — On May 23rd a single immature 
male was taken in the brickyard. I did not record it again, and 
cannot account for its appearance. 

I. elegans, Van der Linn. — Was as common as P. pennipes. 
As early as May 25th I took specimens in the brickyard, and it 
was abundant everywhere until August 31st, after which date I 
did not observe it. The female var. riifescens was plentiful, but 
the normal forms were more numerous. 

Agrion pidchellum, Lind. — On May 25th several females 



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172 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

were out along the banks of the Lahn towards Giessen. I did 
not observe the species again until June 10th, when I took males 
only at the pond adjoining the Lahn. After this it was some- 
times plentiful in all the localities except in the brickyard. On 
July 19th the last sj^ecimens were observed. 

The dragonfly was subject to great variation in size, and in 
some males the blue markings on the abdominal segments were 
considerably reduced. 

A. puella, Linn. — The dragonfly was common everywhere 
during May, June, and July. In August it became scarce, but it 
lasted till September 8th, when I took the last specimen observed, 
a male. 

A. lindenii, Selys. — This interesting species appeared once 
only. On September 19th, while walking along the edge of the 
pond near the Southern Eailway Station, I drove a mature male 
out of the grass. 

This dragonfly is at once distinguishable from other Agrionids 
by the anal appendages, which are semicircular, rather remind- 
ing one of the genus Lestes. The abdomen is also curiously 
thickened towards its extremity. A separate genus will no doubt 
be allotted to this dragonfly. 

Enallagma cyathigeram, Charp.— This dragonfly was plentiful 
from June 9th till August 31st. I took one specimen of the blue 
variety of the female on July 19th. 

Owing to the wet weather experienced during the summer, it 
is probable that several species did not appear. Representatives 
of the genera Anax, Brachytron, ^schna, Libellula, GompJms, 
and Orthetrum, not observed, no doubt occur at Marburg, and Mr. 
Morton suggests Cordidia Jiavomaculata also. 



FIELD NOTES ON BRITISH SAWFLIES. 

By Claude Morley, F.E.S., &c. 

The Rev. F. D. Morice's invaluable " Help-Notes towards the 
Determination of British Tenthredinidae," which have been ap- 
pearing in the Ent. Mo. Mag. since 1903, and are still far from 
completion, have so stimulated hymenopterists in the study of 
our indigenous sawflies that an account of those with which I 
have personally met during the course of the last twelve or 
thirteen years may not be without some slight, though, I fear, 
more or less local, interest. Mr. Morice has not pretended to 
treat of the distribution, comparative frequency, habits, or 
economy of these insects, concerning which little or nothing has 
been published (as far as I am aware) since the completion of 
Cameron's Monograph in 1892. I will at once state that I have 
no especial knowledge of this group of insects, that my acquaint- 



FIELD NOTES ON BKITISH SAWFLIES. 173 

ance with it is confined to the field, and that it is to Mr. Morice's 
kindness and to that of Rev. E. N. Bloomfield and Miss Chawner 
that I owe the identification of all my specimens. 

The Lydidae are divided into three subfamilies — the Lydini, 
Cephini, and Xyelini (for which the suffices -ides, as in the 
Tenfchredinidffi s.s., would be more uniform) — and all the species 
of the first division appear to be of uncommon occurrence. The 
late Mr. Alfred Beaumont has given me a single Neurotoma Jlavi- 
ventris, labelled "York, Hawkins, 1893," and on June 3rd, 1898, 
I beat from white poplar in Bentley Woods, near Ipswich, the 
only two females of Pamphilus sylvarum I have ever seen, though 
the same spot was constantly worked from 1892 to late in 1904. 
Beaumont also gave me P. balteatus and P. hortorum, both of 
which he captured at Gosfield, in Essex, in June, 1902 ; and the 
late Mr. A. J. Chitty took P. depressus at Pamber Forest at the 
beginning of June, 1904. I have, in like manner, once in 1894 
taken two P. sylvaticus in the Bentley Woods, but never seen it 
there again. The Cephini, as a whole, are much commoner, and 
I have them all. Macrocephus linearis has thrice occurred to me 
at Eockland and Surlingham Broads, in Norfolk, by sweeping 
the marsh herbage in very boggy places, and in a high dry pas- 
ture on an oxeye daisy to the east of Yarmouth, in the Isle of 
Wight, in June ; my single M. satyrus was captured by Beaumont 
at Lyndhurst, in the New Forest, June 5th, 1897. Of Cephus, 
C. pallidipes is, perhaps, the rarest, or at least most local ; in 
Suffolk it has only occurred to me from June 17th to July 5th, 
at Barnby Broad, Henstead, Tuddenham Fen, and Moulton, but 
in the middle of last June I found it in countless multitudes on 
the Eed Cliff at Sandown, as well as at Yarmouth, Parkhurst ; 
and, in the New Forest, at Matley Bog. C. pygmmis, with its 
curious parasite Collyria calcitrator, Grav., is abundant about 
cornfields everywhere from the end of May to September 24th, 
though C. pilosulus, which is much mixed with it, is confined, in 
my experience, to June, and is much less common. Janus 
cynosbati was captured at Brandon, in Suffolk, by Chitty early in 
June, 1903, and Beaumont took Calavieuta filiformis at Oxshott 
on May 23rd, 1897. The distinct Tracheitis tahidiis I have 
always found on the flowers of Heracleum sphondylium in June 
and July ; it was especially common at Moulton in 1899, and 
has also turned up at Boxford, Claydon, and Bentley Woods, 
where I have thrice beaten the rare Xyela julii from the branches 
of Pinus sylvestris between April 9th and May 11th. Beaumont 
records it from Oxshott on May 3rd (Ent. Mo. Mag. 1897, 
p. 257). 

Of our five species of Siricidse — or should I say six ? [cf. Ent. 
Record, 1908, p. 63) — Xiphydria prolongata has once occurred to 
me in plenty at Mildenhall, in Suffolk {cf. Ent. Mo. Mag. 1899, 
p. 190), and both Sirex gigas and S. noctilio {juvencus, Brit. Cat.) 



174 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

are not uncommon, especially in 1898 {cf. Ent. Mo. Mag. 1898, 
p, 213). Both the latter species are now known to be indubit- 
ably indigenous, and both are preyed upon by the handsome 
ichneumon Rhyssa persnasoria, Linn., several females of which 
were flying round holes whence I cut both sexes of S. gigas in 
fir-poles at Horning Ferry, in the Norfolk Broads, in June, 1901. 
Several species of this family are, however, introduced. Leonard 
Jenyns took Sirex duplex, Shuck, {cceruleiis, Fab.) commonly 
among spruce-firs at Fulbourne in June and July, 1837, and 
Mr. Eobert Godfrey sent me on June 22nd, 1907, a live male of 
Tremex coliimba, Linn., three of which had just emerged from a 
several -year-used maple beam in Glengowan Print Works, which 
had constantly been in boiling starch at a temperature of 
70° Fahr. I possess S. noctilio from Leamington and Westgate- 
on-Sea. 

I have met with but a small percentage of the Cimbicidse, 
and have given a detailed account of Cimbex connata, with a 
mention of the subterranean pupation of C.femorata (Ent. Mo. 
Mag. 1905, p. 214). I possess three species of the involved genus 
Trichiosoma, of which one — the common hawthorn species, T. 
liLcorum, Linn., I believe it to be — has the abdomen quite dull 
throughout, with distinctly brown pilosity, and the other two 
somewhat metallic abdomens, with distinctly grey pilosity, with 
or without rufescent markings. Those with the upper margins 
and whole under side of the abdomen red are T. silvatica of 
Mr. Morice's table, and that without such markings is un- 
doubtedly T. latreillei. Both of these seem rare ; I have but a 
pair of the former from " larvae on birch in Scotland " (Peachell) 
and "New Forest, 1892" (Gulliver), and only one of the latter, 
which I beat from white poplar in the Bentley Woods, June 10th, 
1895. I have given a long account of the parasitism of Spilo- 
cryptus cimhicis on T. "oxyacanth(B," with a figure of the latter's 
pupa ('British Ichneumons,' ii. 273), and pointed out that the 
colour of the tibiae is purely sexual {cf. Ent. Mo. Mag. 1904, 
p. 127). I first bred them from their powdery larvae at Epsom 
College in 1889. The glorious Ahia sericea occurs in August at 
Tuddenham Fen, Barnby Broad, and Henstead Marsh, in Suffolk, 
and not rarely on flowers of Angelica sylvestris in Matley Bog, in 
the New Forest, where A. fas data is then abundant; I have 
found the latter also at Bentley Woods, and first took it at Help- 
ston Heath, near Peterborough, in August, 1889. Arge seems 
to be an uncommon genus ; I have only met with A. ustulata in 
Suffolk and A. ccerulescens in the New Forest in any quantity. 
Even A. cyanocrocea has occurred to me but twice — in 1894, and 
on Chcerophyllum flower early in June, 1904 ; while a single 
A.fuscipes was beaten from birch bushes in Assington Thicks, in 
Suffolk, in the middle of May, 1902. A. rosce was not met with 
till the end of August, 1905, when I found many larvae feeding 



FIELD NOTES ON BRITISH SAWFLIES. 175 

on cultivated rose in the garden of Tuddenham Hall, which pro- 
duced imagines from semi-transparent, pale yellow, ovate cocoons 
during the following spring. Lopliyrus (probably) pini is said to 
have been found on pine at Easton, in Suffolk, but I have never 
seen it here. Miss Chawner has, however, kindly given me both 
sexes from the New Forest, and I have also received its flesh- 
coloured cocoon for identification from Ushaw Moor, near Durham 
(it was mistaken for that of a moth!). 

Following Mr. Morice's nomenclature, the Nematides is the 
first subfamily of the restricted Tenthredinidae, and many of its 
species are very abundant. Cladius pectinicornis is by no means 
uncommon here from the middle of May to the end of September, 
when Mr. W. H. Tuck has taken it plentifully about Bury St. 
Edmunds, but in the Isle of Wight, where it is even commoner, 
it is abroad quite by the beginning of May. Imagines of 
Trichiocampus viminaUs have never occurred to me in the field, 
but their cocoons, composed of gnawed particles of wood and 
enclosing a transparent pale brown inner layer, are common be- 
neath willow-bark during the winter ; from three such, found on 
March 3rd (and still containing larvae), on the under side of a 
piece of fallen bark at Tattingstone, in Suffolk, there emerged a 
pair between the 6th and 18th of the following June, and a 
female on July 14th. From a similar though much flatter 
cocoon (its shape is doubtless largely regulated by the " elbow- 
room " at its grub's disposal), composed by a ** larva beaten from 
oak " on October 20th, 1894, there emerged a female of this 
species — which invariably feeds on willow — on 28th of the 
following June! T. ulmi has only occurred to me singly at 
Leiston, Tuddenham, Lowestoft, and Monks Soham ; while a 
single T. dreivseni was found in a greenhouse at Ryde, Isle of 
Wight, on August 11th, 1902. Priophorus padi is one of our 
commonest species, and may be swept from herbage everywhere 
from the end of May to that of September ; I have it from 
Hants, Norfolk, and all parts of Suffolk; but P. tristis is much 
rarer, and I have only two specimens, both taken early in 
1895 at Bramford, near Ipswich, and the Bentley Woods, by 
sweeping. 

Both species of Hemichroa are handsome insects, and neither 
is common ; H. alni has occurred to me on birch in the Bentley 
Woods on May 25th ; in a marsh at Rookley, in the Isle of Wight, 
at the end of June ; and on flowers of Angelica sylvestris among 
alders at Lackford Bridge, Suffolk, on August 26th. H. crocea 
is not more abundant at Brandon on June 9th, 1903, and by 
sweeping in a wood at Freston, near Ipswich, on July 22nd, 
1904. At Matley Bog, in the New Forest, on June 13th, 1907, I 
took a single female Leptocercus luridiventris. Dineura nigricans 
is one of the commonest and prettiest sawflies of the Bentley 
Woods and Assington Thicks in May and June, when it is 



176 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

frequently beaten from birch-bushes ; but D. stilata is certainly 
rarer, since I have only swept it during the first half of June 
from hazel, &c., at Monks Soham, Brandon, and Wroxham 
Broad. Nor is the little Micronematus monogynies more plentiful 
in the Bentley Woods and Matley Bog from the middle of May 
to that of June ; and only one Cri/jytocamjms, which Mr. Morice 
thinks is C. saliceti, has occurred to me at Barton Mills, Bentley 
Woods, and Needham in Suffolk, and Calbourne in the Isle of 
Wight, in May and June. Both Crosms septentrionaUs and 
C. varus were not uncommon among alder at Matley Bog in 
August, 1901, and the former is found at Brandon during the 
same month. Stephens (Illus. vii. 39) records it somewhat 
doubtfully from Bungay, apparently on Curtis's authority, and 
Westwood exhibited a specimen "one of the hind legs of which, 
although perfect, was considerably smaller than the other. From 
the collection of Ptev. W. Kirby, F.R.S." (Proc. Ent. Soc. 1840, 
p. v.). In August, 1898, I found a lot of larvae near Lowestoft, 
which Mr. Bloomfield thought referable to this species ; C latipes 
appears to be rarer, and I have only one, found at Oxshott by 
Beamont, May 25th, 1901. Pontania bipartita is represented in 
my collection by a single pair, swept in the salt-marshes at 
Walberswick and Dunwich, on the Suffolk coast, at the end of 
May, 1905 ; but P. leucosticta is sometimes in the utmost pro- 
fusion on willow trees both in Suffolk and the New Forest often 
as early as April 24th. P. viminalis is also very common, espe- 
cially in marshes about Southwold, in June and July, and from 
an old willow-stump I had brought indoors here on 10th of last 
April a female had emerged, and was sitting on the bare wood at 
11 a.m. on May 21st ; P. salicis and P. proxima are common in 
similar situations in May and June, the latter extending to the 
first week in August. 

The British Nemati, as now restricted, consist of but four, or 
perhaps five, species, concerning whose appearance there seems 
to be something peculiar, since I have taken both sexes of 
N. abdominalis upon but one occasion in the Norfolk Broads ; 
two A^. acuminatus on only May 29th, 1902, in the oft-worked 
Bentley Woods by beating birch ; and three N. luteus together 
on June 7th, 1903, on oft-beaten alders at Brandon. Pteronus 
is a long genus of twenty-three species, of which I find only 
fourteen represented ; the first, P. salicis, is very common on 
osiers, and I watched a female laying her eggs in a leaf of this 
tree on June 18th, 1903 — three or four are inserted in very 
oblique rows on either side of the midrib in the apical half only. 
P. ribesii has very uncommonly turned up, though of course 
abundant in every garden. There is a capital account of it in 
one of the old Entomological Magazines. In 1893 I took a single 
Nematus consobrinus, Cam. (female), which Morice doubtfully 
synonymises with P. leucotrochus, Htg., and in May and June, 



THE ATHALIA GKOUP OF THE GENUS MELIT^A. 177 

1895, a single pair of P, jjavidus was beaten from birch in the 
Bentley Woods. P. myosotidis is very common in May and 
August ; it has turned up at Lavenham, Oulton Broad, Barnby 
Broad, and Ipswich in Suffolk, and about Lyndhurst in Hants ; 
but P. hortensis appears to be rare — at all events, I have only 
one female, which was beaten from low bushes in Bentley Woods 
in the middle of June, 1896. P. virescens occurs in the same 
locality, as well as at Barton Mills and Tuddenham Fen, some- 
times as early as April 26th, the latest date of capture being 
August 28th ; it is probably common. At Henstead in August, 
Bentley in May, and at Merston in Isle of Wight in June, I have 
found a species referred with comparative certainty to P. melan- 
aspis ; and P. curtispinis has turned up at Tuddenham Fen in 
June, Bentley Woods on birch in early May, and on very late 
Heracleum flowers on the cliffs at Southwold on September 4th, 
1907. P. oligospilus is probably common, though I have only 
met with three females at Brandon, Tuddenham, and on the 
banks of the Orwell at Ipswich, by beating sallow-bushes, and 
along with it at the first town is found P. piolyspilus, not in- 
frequently in the middle of August. Only one P. hrevivalvis has 
fallen to my lot ; she was beaten from an alder at Foxhall, near 
Ipswich, on September 10th, 1904, and P. bergmanni has not 
been seen there since 1894. The handsome P. miliaris, Panz., 
was taken at Ipswich during the same season, and a second 
specimen bred from a somewhat irregularly shaped, dull, smooth, 
jet-black cocoon found by Mr. G. W. Clutten at Burnley ; when 
I received it on August 23rd, 1899, the imago had entirely 
removed its operculum, but would not emerge, though quite per- 
fect, without assistance. 

(To be continued.) 



THE ATHALIA GEOUP OF THE GENUS MELITJEA. 
By George W^heeler, M.A., F.ES. 

(Continued from p, 142.) 

We come now to the smallest and one of the most interesting 
of the group, probably the most ancestral of the whole genus — 
older, 1 think, than varia, older even than nierope — the high- 
mountain species, asteria. This was first named by Freyer in 
1828, the jear in which his first volume was published. He 
illustrates it quite unmistakably, and writes one of his little 
square pages about it, but does not give anything that lends 
itself to quotation by way of a description. He says it is only 
half the size of dyctinna (sic) — a name he attributes to Ochsen- 

ENTOM. JULY, 1908. P 



178 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

heimer — or of athalia, or of " con/thalia" ; that it approaches 
nearer to the first on the upper side and to the second on the 
under side, and gives as the best distinctive mark the absence 
of the inner edging line of the border, of course — though he does 
not say so — on the under side. There has never been any doubt 
as to the identity of this spe3ies, and the under side always 
serves for the determination of specimens, though the inner 
edging line is occasionally indicated, and the upper side is 
sometimes astonishingly close to merope. It has also escaped 
s^aionyms, except that Herrich-SchJiffer spells the name asterie. 
With regard to its ancestral position more must be said later. 

Britomartis, which is usually, and I have no doubt wrongly, 
given as a variety of aurelia, was in point of fact described and 
separated from athalia before what is now regarded as its type- 
form. It was first named and described in the first number 
of the Breslau ' Zeitschrift fiir Entomologie,' p. 2 (1847), by 
Assmann, the first editor of the magazine. His description runs 
as follows : — " Melitaea alls integris,* ferrugineis nigro-reticulatis ; 
posticis subtus flavidis, fasciis tribus cinnamoneis, maculisque 
duabus subalbicantibus, linea nigra ante marginem exteriorem 
flavum vel cinnamoneum." He then proceeds to give a more 
detailed description, in which he says that the ground colour is 
generally rather darker than athalia on the upper side, and that 
the nervures and bands are more or less suffused, in particular 
the basal half of the hind wing shows only the one light spot of 
the ground colour. The same darker ground colour obtains on 
the under side of the fore wing, but there is often a second row 
of lighter spots (i. e. nearer the base than the lunules) as in 
dictynna. The black spots are also larger. The most distinctive 
marks are, he says, afforded by the under side hind wing, as in 
the other species. The lighter bands (which he treats as the 
ground colour) are light yellow, the darker vary from a very 

='- Assmann very properly objected to the expression "alls dentatis,'" 
used in previous descriptions of Melitaeas; even Boikhausen's " subdentatis" 
was only a partial correction. Principally from this point of view he gives 
the following amended definitions of the related species {aurelia not having 
at that time been described) : — 

^' M. parthenie. Melitasa alis integris subferrugineis fusco reticulatis; 
posticis subtus flavidis ; fasciis tribus cinnamoneis unaque albidula ; linea 
nigra ante marginem exteriorem ferrugineum. 

" M . dictynna, Melitaea alis integris saturate ferrugineis nigro reticu- 
latis ; posticis subtus flavis ; fasciis tribus badiis, tertia nigropunctata ; linea 
nigra ante marginem exteriorem badium. 

"ili". athalia. Melitaea alis integris ferrugineis nigro reticulatis; posticis 
subtus flavidis ; margine exteriore concolore post lineam nigram ; fasciis 
tribus fulvis. 

" M. asteria, Melitaea alis integris sordide ferrugineis, fusco reticulatis ; 
posticis subtus flavidis; fasciis duabus cinnamoneis; absque linea nigra ante 
marginem exteriorem tlavidum." 

This last is the first regular description of asteria, though it is merely a 
condensation of Freyer's more diffuse account of the species. 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MBLIT^A. 179 

dark yellow to a cinnamon or even chestnut-brown. The outer 
one is lighter in the part towards the costa, and in the lower 
part has the black spots which we are accustomed to associate 
with dicti/nna, or at any rate traces of them. In the outer band 
of this wing the border is always darker than the lunules ; the 
lowest spot of each of the other two light bands, which are often 
joined together by a narrow yellow line, he describes as being 
lighter than the others, and with a certain glassy appearance. 
This, however, he afterwards found not to be characteristic or 
constant (Breslau, ' Zeitschrift,' No. 15, p. 39, 1850). He treats 
the triangular spot at the anal angle as belonging to the outer 
dark band instead of the lunular light one, and remarks on its 
being light, instead of calling attention to the fact, mentioned 
incidentally, that the apex is often filled in with brown. He 
describes the size as being between athalia and parthenie. Its 
locality was Klarenkranst Wood, about three miles east of 
Breslau ; as he speaks of taking it on a " flowery common," he 
apparently uses " Wald " rather to mean a forest or wooded 
district than what we mean by a "wood." The latter half of 
June was the time of capture, the males appearing first ; in a 
fortnight's time only females could be found. A more helpful 
indication of time is given in his statement that it appears 
about eight days before athalia. He adds that it does not 
seem to care for settling on the moist spots of the road like the 
latter. 

I have considered it necessary to enter thus fully into Ass- 
mann's description, as this species seems to be so absolutely 
unknown and confused with all sorts of other species and 
varieties. The only other authentic descriptions are by Riihl — 
one in the ' Societas Entomologica,' fifth year. No. 14, p. 106, 
and the other in his ' Palsearctic Butterflies.' The former is 
the more important and interesting. In it he regrets the 
inadequacy of the material from which he had to make his 
description, but such as it was it was invaluable. There 
was in Frey's collection a specimen purporting to be brito- 
martis, which, however, the owner would not allow him to 
examine ; but in Zeller's was one, placed unreservedly at his 
disposal, which was sent to Zeller by Assmann himself, and 
from this, and two in his own possession which he compared 
with it, his description was drawn up. Now of course the im- 
portant question to-day is, What did Assmann mean to describe? 
and therefore, Where can any of his specimens be seen ? Both 
Zeller's and Frey's collections passed into the hands of the 
British Museum authorities, and therefore are naturally to be 
looked for in the Natural History Museum at South Kensington ; 
but alas ! they have long ago been broken up, and their con- 
tents scattered about amongst the remnants of other collections 
equally disintegrated, in order to make one general collection. 



180 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I am assured that it would have been impossible to keep these 
great historic collections separate and entire, and while my 
whole entomological soul cries out against their absorption into 
this Nirvana, where all their individuality is lost, I realize that 
it is too late for any remedy to be possible. Even granting the 
necessity for their disruption, and gratefully admitting that the 
original labels are never removed, one might still have hoped 
that no specimen would be omitted from the general collection 
which might possibly have any special historic interest or value, 
and that to those, whether excluded or included, whose correct 
place was doubtful (as in the case, for example, of unusual 
aberrations), an extra label might have been attached, stating 
under what species the previous owner had placed it. Whilst 
regretting that neither of these hopes is justified by facts, I must 
emphatically repudiate any suggestion that I am casting any 
reflection whatever on the present Curator of the Ehopalocera, 
whose kindness to me during my long hours of work at the 
Museum has been unfailing, and who, I know, regrets these 
omissions, for which he is no way responsible, as much as I do. 
Frey's specimen, which is not hritomartis at all according to 
Assmann's description, was in the general collection, but Zeller's 
I could not find. Mr. Heron, however, kindly produced the 
drawers of excluded specimens, and there I instantly found it, 
so that this, in all probability the only co-type of the species 
to be found in England (or, for aught I know, elsewhere), is now 
restored to a place in the general collection, with the outlines of 
its history attached to it, as well as Zeller's own label, and its 
date and locality (Klarenkranst) pencilled probably by Assmann 
himself. The specimen is unfortunately a female, and therefore, 
as is usual in this group, less definitely marked than the average 
male would be ; still, it serves as a standard of comparison, and 
cannot, in my opinion, be included, in the face of Assmann's 
and Eiihl's descriptions, either under the head of aurelia or of 
dictijnna. 

In the latter part of July, 1904, I was hunting at Reazzino, 
between Bellinzona and Locarno, for Heteropterus morpheus, 
in consequence of Mr. Fison's re-discovery of that insect in 
this locality the previous year (after a lapse of nearly fifty 
years since it had been recorded in Switzerland), when on the 
'25th of the month I came across a Melitcea flying in some 
numbers in the marshy ground just beyond the quarries, which 
differed from any others with which I had a personal acquaint- 
ance. Most of the specimens were very small, ranging from the 
size of the aurelia of the Rhone Valley to that of asteria ; the 
under sides resembled dictynna, but were more heavily marked on 
the fore wing ; the upper sides varied greatly, some approaching 
aurelia, others athalia, whilst two specimens, a male and a 
female, were not more heavily marked than parthenie. At the 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELITjEA. 181 

same time I took one specimen of clictynna, rather lighter than 
the average, and sKghtly smaller in size, but considerably larger 
than the largest of my other captures ; moreover, this specimen 
was quite worn out, whereas the others were very fresh. The 
under side precluded the possibility of any other species than 
dictynna or hritomartis ; the upper side appeared to me to put 
the former out of the question. July, 1906, found me again at 
the same spot, and again this Melitcea appeared, a few males on 
the 14th, l3otli sexes commonly on the 23rd, not only on its 
former ground but also on both sides of the main road. On 
comparing my specimens with the Silesian examples labelled 
hritomartis in the Berne Museum, they appeared to be identical. 
At the end of June, 1907 — a very late season — I again visited 
the spot, and found the remains of an earlier brood ; a few males 
and a fair number of females were, however, in very passable 
condition. These were much larger than the specimens taken 
in the two former years, and mostly approached closely to athalia 
on the upper side, the under side again being close to dictynna, 
and presenting the black spots in the outer dark band which we 
usually regard as characteristic of the latter species. Unfortu- 
nately all the females which I kept with a view to eggs failed to 
oblige, and in fact proved to have laid all their eggs already ; 
whilst others of the later brood which I had kept the previous 
year refused to lay in captivity, probably because I had not hit 
upon their proper food-plant, though I provided them with 
scabious and plantain, on the latter of which aurelia lays freely. 
Eggs which I obtained by dissection after the death of these 
second-brood specimens were unfortunately so shrivelled by the 
time they arrived in England that even Mr. Tonge was unable 
to produce very intelligible photographs of them. 

Judging from the imago, I feel sure that the Eeazzino speci- 
mens are, as I originally supposed, hritomartis, the only alterna- 
tives being that they are a form of dictynna or a new species. 
The upper sides and certain other peculiarities appear to me to 
preclude the former, and there is as yet no reason to imagine 
the latter. They are certainly much closer to Assmann's speci- 
men than to any other species. One very general, though not 
absolutely constant, peculiarity is the somewhat conspicuous 
angulation of the fore wing about a third of the way down the 
outer margin ; this is very conspicuous in Assmann's example. 
Another objection to the dictynna theory is the fact that the 
Eeazzino Melitcea is undoubtedly double-brooded. This is not 
the case with dictynna even much further south. It may of 
course be urged that Assmann only mentions one brood of hrito- 
martis, but this is north instead of south of the Alps, and he 
never suggests that he had even looked for a second brood ; his 
mention of its appearance being earlier than that of athalia 
points at any rate to the possibility of a second brood, and his 



182 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

date is scarcely later than that of the first brood at Eeazzino. 
It may also be urged that Eiihl speaks of dictynna as being 
double-brooded at Salzburg, but from what we know of this 
species elsewhere it is far more probable that the Salzburg 
insect is hritomartis than that there is really a second brood of 
dictynna at so northern a point. Furthermore, even the lightest 
form of dictynna from the eastern Pyrenees (var. vernetensis, 
Oberthiir) is still unmistakably dictynna, and would hardly be 
liable to be taken for hritomartis. In subsequent observations on 
the distinctive marks of this species I shall on these grounds 
include the Reazzino specimens under this head. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The Long Life of Scoliopteryx libateix. — In answer to the 
Rev. F. E. Lowe, a specimen of S. lihatrix came to sugar on 
June 10th, 1908, near Peterborough. The colouring was rather dull, 
though it was otherwise in good condition. — C. L. Heberden ; 
72, Adam's Avenue, Northampton, June 12th, 1908. 

Your correspondent. Rev. F. E. Lowe, would probably be in- 
terested to hear that there were about a dozen specimens of this 
insect on my sugar-patches on June 1st of this year. One or two of 
them seemed in excellent condition. — J. S. Carter ; Radley College, 
Abingdon, June 16th, 1908. 

With reference to the query this month regarding Scoliopteryx 
lihatrix, it may interest your correspondent to know that I saw some 
half-dozen specimens of this insect at sugar on June 2nd this year 
near Hailsham, in Sussex. Beyond the natural fading of colours 
they were not by any means in bad condition. I see Barrett says, 
" After hybernation till May."— P. A. Cardew (Capt. R.A.) ; St. Ald- 
wyn's, Park Avenue, Dover, June 18th, 1908. 

Gynandrous specimen of Bupalus piniaria. — While collecting 
at Oxshott yesterday afternoon, I had the good fortune to secure a 
gynandrous specimen of B. piniaria in very good condition. The 
left side is female, and the right male. The right hind wing is some- 
what crumpled, and the left very slightly rubbed ; otherwise, except 
that three legs are missing, it is practically perfect. — Harold B. 
Williams ; 82, Filey Avenue, Stoke Newington, N., June 7th, 1908. 

Teratologigal specimen of Melit^a aurinia (artemis). — On 
June 5th, from Kent pupae, I bred a specimen of M. aurinia with 
three wings, the right hind wing being absent. The specimen, an 
average-sized male, is otherwise quite perfect. — Beet. S. Stonell ; 
25, Studley Road, London, S.W. 

On Rearing Melit^ea aurinia (artemis). — During the past five 
years I have received from correspondents in Dover, Ireland, and 
Devon large numbers of the larvae of this insect. Each year they 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 183 

have taken readily to the honeysuckle I substituted for their natural 
food-plant ; practically all turned to fine healthy pupae, and then 
died. In answer to my inquiries of the senders as to their success 
with the larvae, some find them easy to rear, and others experience 
difficulties in getting them through. Mr. Stockwell, of Dover, says 
he has never got many through, but a friend of his does well with 
them by spraying the pupae daily. Previous to this year I have kept 
the larvae in a cage with wooden top and bottom and gauze sides, 
and as they spin up on the ceiling of the cage, of course no sun could 
get at them. This season I put them in an all-gauze cage with a 
wooden floor, and kept them in a sunny conservatory, and each 
morning sprayed them with water. Not having a fine sprayer, I 
adopted the rough and ready method practised by seconds in the 
boxing-ring when their principals want refreshing, i. e. I took a 
mouthful of water and blew it through my compressed lips over 
them. For the encouragement of beginners in this art, I may add 
that a little practice enables one to produce a very fine spray, so fine 
that the larvae show no sign of being disturbed. The first larva 
changed to pupa on May 18th, and the first butterfly emerged on 
June 1st. The record up to date (June 9th) is as follows. Out of 
about ninety-eight larvae three died, and from the ninety-five pupae I 
obtained ninety-two perfect insects, and two cripples. A few pupae 
got detached and fell on the floor of the cage, but with no bad result, 
the imagines crawling up the sides and then expanding. — Bert. S. 
Stonell. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

AcHERONTiA ATROPOS AT OxFORD IN May. — I thought you might 
be interested to know that a specimen of A. atropos was taken on 
May 21st last at Headington Workhouse, near Oxford, by the master's 
wife. I heard of this yesterday afternoon, and cycled up and pro- 
cured the moth, which I regret to say was rather damaged, as it had 
been pinned through the wings and put in a very small box. I 
should be interested to hear of any other report of the capture of this 
insect this year. — Sydney H. Galpin; " Glenfield," Foxcombe Hill, 
near Oxford, May 29th, 1908. 

Pup^ OF Lyc^na arion. — Mr. Percy Richards has been good 
enough to send me a pupa of L. arion. This is one of four that he 
found on June 16th at Bude by searching in ant's nests under stones. 
" The pupae," he writes, " appear to be carefully ensconced in earthen 
cells, which are possibly made by the ants, but which are of the 
exact size of the pupa." Three were found under one stone, and the 
fourth under another stone, and was the result of three hours spent 
in the somewhat tedious business of stone turning. — Richard South ; 
96, Drakefield Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

CoLiAs EDUSA NEAR Gravesend. — On June 13th, as my son and 
I were setting out on an entomological expedition, we saw a specimen 
of Colias edusa in a lane near the town. Unfortunately' we both had 



184 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

folding-nets, and though my son pursued the insect, fitting up his 
net as he did so, just as he was prepared to strike at it, it flew over 
the hedge and across a field of wheat, where of course he was unable 
to follow it. We were thus unable to judge of its condition. No 
doubt the prevalence of strong south-westerly winds lately has blown 
some C. edusa over from abroad, and if conditions continue favour- 
able we may look for this species later. — H. Huggins ; 13, Clarence 
Place, Gravesend. 

Prevalence of Arctia caia Larv^ this Year. — Last season 
Mr. L. W. Newman remarked on the scarcity of these larvae in Kent, 
and I was able to confirm his remarks as far as this district is con- 
cerned. Mr. Newman suggested that the scarcity last season was 
probably caused by the fact that the hot autumn of 1906 had carried 
the larvae past their usual stadium, and the majority had died during 
the winter in consequence. I do not think that this theory is correct, 
for last autumn was quite as hot as that of 1906, and this season 
A. caia larvae have been quite as plentiful as they ever were about 
here. — H. Huggins. 

Note on Metopsilus (Ch^rocampa) porcellus. — From the 
17th till the 21st of June, Ghcerocampa loorcellus has been hovering 
over and feeding from delphiniums in the garden here, and of them 
I took three specimens. As I have not heard before of 'porcellus 
visiting these flowers, I thought the capture worth recording. — 
D. C. Holmes ; The Briars, Manor Road, Thames Ditton, June 
26th, 1908. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Proceedings of the South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society, 1907-8. With Five Plates. Pp. i-xvi, 1-114. The 
Society's Rooms, Hibernia Chambers, London Bridge. 

From the "Report of the Council," which by the, way is the 
Thirty-sixth, we learn that the present membership of this flourishing 
Society totals 166. That excellent work is being done by the mem- 
bers, in the various departments of natural history study and research, 
the literary contents of the publication present convincing evidence. 
Among the papers are — " Our Authorities : an Introduction to the 
Early Literature of Entomology," by Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. ; " Rho- 
palocera of the Taunus Hills," by Alfred Sich, F.E.S. ; " Notes on 
Porthesia chrysorrhma " and " Further Notes on Tortrix 2)ro7iubana," 
by R. Adkin, F.E.S. In the President's Address there is considerable 
reference to local Natural History Societies, their objects, &c. ; also 
interesting remarks on the advantages of associating local societies 
in the form of a federation or union. 

Three of the plates illustrate the life-history of Tortrix pro- 
nuhana, largely reproductions of photographs by Mr. A. E. Tonge ; 
two others show photos of the larvae and pupae of Charaxes jasius, 
by Mr. H. Main. 



The Entomologist, August, 1908. 



Plate VI. 




J 




TJ ^ CM 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XLL] AUGUST, 1908. 



[No. 543 



DESCEIPTION OF A NEW FORM OF ZYG^NA 
FROM ALGERIA. 

By the Hon. Waltee Rothschild, Ph.D. 

Zygtena lavandulce nisseni, subspec. nov. 
I HAVE much pleasure in naming this new form after the 
genial Danish Consul in Algiers, Dr. Nissen, who first suggested 
our visit to Hammam R'Irha. 

Differs from Z. lavandulce lavandulcB at first sight by the much 
broader and rounder fore wing, and by the total absence of any red 
on the upper side of the hind wing. The metallic gloss of the fore 
wnig above in the male has much less blue, and in the female appears 
more silky. Z. I. mssenl also differs strongly from Z. I. lavandulce 
m the spots on the upper side of the fore wing. The two basal 
spots are much larger, the discal spot nearest the costa is as large or 
larger, while the lower discal spot is reduced to a black dot with a 
tmy red centre in most specimens, but entirely black in some The 
apical spot is enlarged to quite double the size of that in the nymo- 
typical form, and is concave on its inner side. On the under side the 
fore wmgs have the base largely red, but the lower discal spot is 
entirely absent ; the bind wmgs in most cases have a basal red streak 
along the costa, and a minute red dot towards the apex, though in 
one male the red is absent below as weh as above. 

Hab. Hammam R'Irha, North Algeria. 

This fine new form was discovered by Dr. Karl Jordan on 
May 26th of this year, numerous specimens sitting on thistle- 
blooms along the edge of a wood. 



BNTOM. AUGUST, 1908. 



186 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ORTHOPTERA IN 1907. 

By W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 

(Plate VI.) 

Looked at from the point of view of the student of the 
British Orthoptera, 1907 presented few features of special im- 
portance, though matters of minor interest were not altogether 
absent. The weather, at any rate in the South of England, 
seemed not to affect adversely this order of insects in the same 
way as it did the Lepidoptera. 

FoRFicuLODEA. — Labia minor, though considered a common 
insect, does not, in my own experience, make itself at all con- 
spicuous. I met with but one, a female, seen on the wing in 
Surbiton Station on July 14th, and caught on an umbrella. 
While it was moving the pale joints at the tip of the antennae 
were very noticeable, though perhaps the black background of 
the umbrella made them more conspicuous than they would 
otherwise have been. Mr. E. J. B. Sopp tells me he found it 
flying over manure on Rusthall Common, Tunbridge Wells, on 
April 1st, and that he met with it at Broadstairs (June) and 
Eastbourne (September). On August 1st I sought for and found 
Lahidura riparia near Christchurch, in Hants. Males and 
females were present, though but two of the former were taken. 
Of several immature specimens found one was very small. The 
developing wings, when examined with a lens, are interesting 
objects of observation in the nj'mphs. From Mr. Burr I received 
in the autumn Forjicula lesnei from Folkestone, and also, which 
is much more interesting, Apterygida media {albipennis) , taken 
September 24th, a few miles from Dover. This, following the 
late Mr. Chitty's rediscovery of the species in another part of 
Kent, is most satisfactory. 

Blattodea. — On August 24th an Ectohia lapponica was cap- 
tured in the New Forest on vegetation close to the ground, and 
on August 8th Ectohia panzeri was taken on a pathway in the 
New Forest. This latter species seems to be well distributed 
over the southern parts of the Forest at least, although perhaps 
it is usually a coast insect with us. Mr. E. C. Bedwell gave me 
two specimens of Ectohia livida taken at Boxhill, Surrey, on 
August 11th (and one from Mickleham Downs, taken on August 
19th of the previous year). Mr. E. J. B. Sopp reports Phyllo- 
dromia germanica from Dover, Ramsgate, and Hastings, and Mr. 
W. Daws tells me of his having found Blatta orientalis in a 
garden on March 29th {vide Entom. xl. 110). On May 22nd, in 
the so-called insect-house at the Zoological Gardens, Periplaneta 
americana was quite at home in a wild state, and apparently its 
presence there was well-known to the sparrows, for while we 



ORTHOPTEIIA IN 1907. 187 

were watching a sparrow carried a specimen away from before 
us. Possibly the same thing had occurred before, as several 
wings and other remains were noticed near, the feast having 
apparently taken place on the spot when the house was free of 
visitors. Mr. W. Daws reports a male Periplaneta australasice 
from Mansfield on February 14th, and in the afternoon of 
September 14tb a mature specimen was taken alive in one of the 
lily-houses in Kew Gardens, where, however, this species has for 
years been established under shelter. Another species which 
bids fair to become equally well established in the houses there 
is the neat little Surinam cockroach {Leucophaa surinamensis) . 
Writing on April 20th Mr. G. Nicholson says it "is, or was, 
abundant in the tropical houses. It is extremely active, and 
disappears with a diving-like motion under the fibre. So far we 
have not noticed that it does any harm, and it is not trapped 
like B. orientalis, P. americana, or P. australasics. Hand-catching 
seems to be the only way of dealing with it." Some casual 
visitors belonging to this group of the Orthoptera have, as usual, 
put in an appearance. Mr. W. Daws obtained a male Nyctibora 
holosericea on February 28th at Mansfield (vide Entom. xl. 88). 
Mr. W. F. Kirby received Stylopyqa decorata, Br. {Dorylea rliomhi- 
folia, Stoll.), which was found alive in the Western Tower, 
Natural History Museum, on November 16th, damaged through 
falling into lime. Mr. E. J. B. Sopp reports Panchlora nivea, L. 
{virescens, Thunb.), from Warrington in November. No doubt 
this list of "casuals" might be largely increased if captures were 
systematically reported. 

AcRiDioDEA. — Mecostethus grossus was captured in several 
bogs in the New Forest, but the species seemed to be rather late 
in appearing, for I did not meet with it till August 17th. Mr. 
Sopp took Stenohothrus elegans at Willingdon (Sussex) and at 
Aldershot (Hants), and Gomphocerus macidatus at Frensham and 
Faruham in Surrey, and at Eastbourne in Sussex. In Kew 
Gardens Mr. G. Nicholson secured Stenohothrus bicolor and 
S. parallelus on September 18th. Gomphocerus rufus, one of our 
less common grasshoppers, was found in one of its known 
localities, Bookham Common (Surrey), on September 22nd. 
The most interesting point, however, in connection with this 
division of the Orthoptera was the capture by Mr. B. Piffard, of 
Brockenhurst, of a Tettix suhulatus in the New Forest about the 
end of September. This specimen, which he was kind enough 
to give to me, is the first of which I have had personal acquain- 
tance, with the exception of some taken by myself on the Hamp- 
shire coast a year or two since. 

LocusTODEA. — Of Leptophyes punctatissima, a very pretty 
wingless grasshopper whose colours fade very rapidly, I took a 
male in Brockenhurst on August 31st, and Mr. Sopp reports it 
from Farnham. (Surrey) in the first week of September. Olyn- 

q2 



i THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

loscelis cinereus seemed to be particularly common and of large 
size in the New Forest at the end of the summer, and Mr. Sopp 
took it at Farnham (Surrej') and at Aldershot. By the discovery 
this season of the wart-biter {Deeticus verrucivorus) a few miles 
from Dover, Mr. Burr has been able to place this handsome 
species in a much more secure position on our list. The wart- 
biter is one of the largest and most powerful of our Orthoptera ; 
but authentic British records are few in number. 

Gryllodea. — At last the little wood cricket {Nemohnis sylves- 
tris) has come to light outside the boundaries of the New Forest. 
Mr. F. Morey, of Newport (Isle of Wight), tells me that it has 
been found by himself in Parkhurst Forest, and by Mr. H. F. 
Poole in Bordwood, also in the island. It should be added, 
however, that Piev. F. C. E. Jourdain once told me that it had 
been taken at Willington, in Derbyshire, by Mr. G. Pullen. 



BIBLIOGEAPHICAL AND NOMENCLATOEIAL NOTES 
ON THE HEMIPTEEA— No. 9. 

By G. W. Kirkaldy. 

In my earlier papers in the ' Entomologist ' I invariably 
employed the term " Ehynchota " as the scientific appellation of 
my favourite order. As I have in later years substituted for 
this " Hemiptera," and as I fell into error in No. 2 of these notes, 
and as a number of entomologists still use "Ehynchota," it 
will, I think, be well to see what is the correct term to employ, 
and why. 

The Hemiptera were one of the original orders (1758) of 
Linnaeus, and embraced eight genera, viz. : Cicada, Notonecta, 
Nepa, Cimex, Aphis, Chermes, Coccus, and Thri'ps ; thus, except 
for Thri'ps, a form of doubtful affinity, corresponding exactly to 
modern conceptions of Hemiptera.* 

In 1775 Fabricius altered all the ordinal names of Linnfeus, 
Hemiptera becoming Eyngota. The genera were increased to 
seventeen, but except that Pidex appears now in this order, the 
latter is coterminous with the Linnean order 

In 1788 Eetzius, professing to make a summary of De Geer's 
" Memoires," split the order into three, as follows: — 

Class 5. Siphonata {Thrips, Aphis, Chermes, and Cicada). 

Class 6. Dermaptera {Cimex and Nepa). 

Class 10. Proboscidea (Coccus). 

In 1802 Latreille founded Homoptera and Heteroptera. 

In advocating the retention of "Hemiptera," it is not 

•''• PefZicw^MS, placed by Linnsbus in "Aptera," is referred by some modern 
authors to Hemiptera, but this does not affect the argument. 



FIELD NOTES ON BRITISH SAWFLIES. 189 

altogether on the grounds of "priority." In orders and suborders, 
it is almost, if not quite impossible, to achieve this, but if it must 
be enforced, then, unless it be used to supersede " Physapoda," 
" Siphonata " must be used for " Homoptera." It must be noted, 
however, that Siphonata and Proboscidea are equivalent together 
to Homoptera. I think that when two names, such as Hemiptera 
and Kyngota (now usually spelt Rhynchota) are practically 
coterminous, the earlier should have the preference. 

The synonymy I propose is therefore : — 

Order Hemiptera, 1758 (type Cimex) = Ryugota, Fabricius, 
1775. 

Suborder 1. Heteroptera, Latreille, 1802 (type Cimex) = 
Dermaptera, Retzius, 1783 = Hemiptera, Westwood, 1838. 

Suborder 2. Homoptera, Latreille, 1802 {type' Cicada) =■ 
Siphonata and Proboscidea, Retzius, 1783 (type Aphis and 
Coccus, respectively). 

Hemipterists have almost always cited the date of publication 
of Fieber's ' Europaischen Hemiptera' as 1861, for the whole of 
the volume, though Hagen, indeed, mentions three hefts as 
follows :— Heft i., pp. 16 and 108 (1860) ; heft ii., pp. 109 to 
304 (1861) : heft iii., pp. 305 to 444 (1861). 

Unless there were two different editions, which is hardly 
likely, Hagen has made a mistake. When visiting my friend 
Mr. J. R. de la Torre Bueno, in New York, in 1903, my 
attention was drawn to a copy of this work in the original covers, 
the first one I had seen. Mr. Bueno has now refreshed my 
memory, and I find that the proper dates are : — Heft i., pp. 1 
and 112, and two Plates (1860). The " 16 pp." are part of the 
" 108" (or rather 112). Hefts ii. and iii. (in one), pp. 113 to 
304 (1861); heft iv., pp. 305 to 444, and iii. to vi. (the 
"Vorrede") (1861). No further details are to hand, but it is 
probable that heft i. was published early in 1860, as the 
" Vorrede " is dated October, 1859. One hundred and seventy- 
eight Fieberian genera and thirty-two species are thus to be dated 
1860, instead of 1861, as regards this book. 



FIELD NOTES ON BRITISH SAWFLIES. 
By Claude Morley, F.E.S., &c. 

(Continued from p. 177.) 

The species of Amauronematus do not appear so common, 
and I have only found A. fallax at Ipswich and Tuddenham Fen 
on birch in May; A. viduatus at Wicken, Tuddenham, and 
Brandon in June and July, by sweeping low plants ; and A. vit- 
tatas, which I believe Dr. Cassal has also found at Ballaugh, in 



190 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the Isle of Man, once on Salix repens, in the middle of May, in 
Tuddenham Fen. Nearly all our thirteen Pachynemati are 
common, but especially so is P. trisignatus, Fst. {caprea, Cam.), 
which turns up everywhere from April 18th to August 27th in 
Norfolk, Essex, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, Hants, and Kent on 
sallow, though the similar P. turgidus has only occurred to me 
once, in a very marshy alder-carr near Southwold, at the begin- 
ning of June, 1905. P. clitellatus is probably much mixed with 
the preceding ; I have found it only in the wettest parts of 
Tuddenham Fen and Barnby Broad in early May and mid- 
August, whereas P. xanthocarpus has alone appeared in Bentley 
Woods in the end of June, 1903, and a somewhat doubtful 
P. apicalis on birch in the same locality at the end of May, 1902. 
P. albipennis is abroad in August ; I took a female at the begin- 
ning of the month at Ipswich in 1895, and a male at the end at 
Metton, near Cromer, in 1903. P. vagus is common in April, 
May, and June throughout Suffolk, but I have only twice found 
P. obductus in Tuddenham Fen in May and August on Salix 
repens; P. rumicis did not appear to me till 1905, but I have 
taken it each subsequent year in June at Dunwich, Eeydon, and 
Monks Soham, in Suffolk, and in Norton Wood, in Isle of Wight. 
If one except P.fidvipes and P. crassicornis, the species of Pi-isti- 
phora are by no means common, at least in the eastern counties ; 
the former, however, is abundant in boggy places in Norfolk, 
Suffolk, and the Isle of Wight from the middle of June to the end 
of August, and the latter, which is hardly less prevalent, has 
occurred to me in Burwell Fen in Cambridgeshire, at Felixstowe, 
Brandon, Tuddenham, Bentley, and Sudbury in Suffolk, as well 
as at Kyde and Eookley in Isle of Wight. P. palUdiventris is 
almost confined with us to Tuddenham Fen, where both sexes 
are not infrequent throughout the summer on the dwarf sallow ; 
and in August, 1901, I took a couple of P. hchda on flowers of 
Angelica at Matley Bog and Bank, in the New Forest, but of the 
rest I possess but single specimens. A male P. ruficornis was 
swept from reeds early in May, 1901, at Bramford, near Ipswich ; 
a somewhat doubtful female P. suhUfida was captured at Alde- 
burgh by Mr. Tuck early in the following September ; I secured 
a female P. pallidipcs in the marshes near Southwold on June 
4th, 1905, and a male P. ivestoni, Bridg., which I do not find 
synonymised by Morice, in Tuddenham Fen on June 19th, 1901 ; 
and, lastly, P. quercus is instanced by a male from Southampton, 
given me by the Eev. H. S. Gorham. Lygceonematus, the last 
genus of the Nematides, is very poorly represented in Suffolk 
(and I have taken none elsewhere) by one male L. comprcssicornis 
on alder in Barnby Broad, on August 11th, 1898, and a single 
female L. laricis in Bentley Woods on May 19th, 1903. 

The second subfamily, the Hoplocampides, consists of eighteen 
species, among which Phyllotoma vagans was swept from herbage 



FIELD NOTES ON BRITISH SAWFLIES. 191 

at Brandon at the end of August, 1905, where also, as well as at 
Winterton in Norfolk, I have swept Eriocampoides annulipes in 
June. E. variipes, Klug, is not uncommon in June and July at 
Walberswick, and in the Bentley Woods. The two interesting 
species, E. cethiops and E. limacina, are not at all common with 
us ; the former was, however, not rare on May 31st, 1900, 
examining the leaves of Rosa canina in the Bawdsey Marshes, 
near Felixstowe, and I noticed several on those of cultivated 
roses in the garden of our lodgings in Wicken early in June, 1902. 
Of the latter, I have given some account in the first volume of 
' The Countryside ' from a number of cherry-tree leaves sent me, 
from which this " slugworm " had quite devoured the epidermis ; 
it rarely turns up in the Suffolk Bentley Woods and the Kent 
Blean Woods, though essentially a garden insect. Hoplocampa 
pectoralis and H. rutilicornis must, I think, be rare, since I have 
found but one of each, the former in a very marshy place among 
osiers at Barton Mills on June 12th, 1889, and the latter (female) 
on some bushes in Dodnash Woods, near Ipswich, on April 27th, 
1897. But both H. cratcEgi and H./crru^ri/iea are abundant in 
hedges throughout the spring, and in June, 1899, I bred one of 
the former, referred by Mr. Morice to the doubtfully distinct form 
H. aZpi?ia, Thoms., which I am strongly of the opinion (though 
my notes fail me) emerged from a gall of Cynips kollari, where it 
had perhaps hybernated. 

Several of the Blennocampides are among our commonest 
sawflies, and all have a particularly svelte appearance, claiming 
particular attention in the net. Mesoneura opaca {Dineura 
verna, olim) appears pretty regularly in the Bentley Woods 
about May 20th, but I have not seen Phymatoceros aterrima there 
since 1894 ; and both sexes of Pareophora nigripes are rare at 
the same time of year at Foxhall and Lavenham, in Suffolk. 
All my Periclista melanocephala were taken at Bentley or Assing- 
ton in woods in May, except one pair, which the late Mr. J. W'. 
Cross sent me during the same month from Brockenhurst, in 
the New Forest, where, in Matley Bog, I found Ardis sulcata not 
rarely in the middle of last June. Tomostethus fidiginosus is 
common throughout Suffolk and in the Isle of Wight from the 
end of May to that of August, usually by sweeping low herbage, 
and both T. duhius and 2\ luteiventris are among the commonest 
British species, being constantly swept from low herbage in damp 
situations ; the former I have from Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cam- 
bridgeshire, while its black-thoraced variety nigrans, Knw., was 
very abundant in Matley Bog, among alders, last June, and with 
it occurred the latter species in the greatest profusion, as, 
indeed, it also does in Suffolk, Norfolk, and the Isle of Wight. 
Of the genus Blennocampa, as now restricted to six species, none 
can be called really common, though B. pusilla and B. alternipes 
are perhaps most frequently met with, the former in May and 



192 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



June in Assington Thicks and the Isle of Wight, as well as at 
Bungay, where Mr. Tuck has captured it ; the latter extends to 
August, and has occurred to me on the banks of the Gipping 
above Ipswich in two or three places, and in the New Forest. 
B. tenuicornis I have only found at the beginning of June at 
Barton Mills, and twice at Foxhall, in the marshes by sweeping 
reeds, &c. ; and B. assimilis is found in both East and West 
Suffolk quite by the beginning of May by general sweeping. I 
have all but three of the remaining species of this subfamily, 
which is strange, since most of them are but singly represented, 
and they must all be uncommon. Scolioneura nana occurs in 
the Bentley Woods in May and June, where it is accompanied in 
the former month by S. hetideti ; but S. vicina has only once 
been found at Dodnash Woods, and then on September 16th. 
The single Entodecta piimila I have seen is a female swept in 
Eookley Wilderness, in the Isle of Wight, on June 27th, 1907, 
but Monophadnus albipes is not uncommon from April to June in 
Norfolk and Suffolk ; where M. geniculatus has sparingly turned 
up in the Bentley Woods, and at Brockenhurst and Wilverley, in 
the New Forest, in May and June. My only Kaliosphinga ulmi 
was swept at the end of last May in a lane at Foxhall, and I 
have but twice met with K. melanopoda, once in Barnby Broad 
(c/. Ent. Mo. Mag. 1899, p. 209), and once at Diss, in Norfolk, 
in June. My single Fenusa pygmcea was taken during my " Day 
in Kirby's Country," June lOth, 1897 (c/. Ent. Mo. Mag. 1897, 
p. 265), and my only F. nigricans swept in a very boggy spot, 
among osiers, at Barton Mills, on June 12th, 1899. Of Fenella 
nigrita I also have but one example, which was taken by quite 
casual sweeping along the roadside where I have frequently 
swept before, and since at Belstead, in Suffolk, on May 29th, 
1902. 

The next subfamily is the Selandriades. 

(To be continued.) 



ON SOME BOKNEAN SPECIES OF TEIGONA 

(APID^). 

By p. Cameron. 

The species of Trigona I have in my collection from Sarawak, 
Borneo, may be separated by means of the following table : — 

1 (6). Entirely black species. 

2 (3). Base of wings blackish, the apex with 

white ...... collina, Sm. 

3 (2). Wings hyaline. 

4 (5). Apex of clypeus, mandibles, antennal 

scape, and tarsi black . . . canifrons, Sm. 



ON SOME BORNEAN SPECIES OF TRIGONA (aPID^). 193 

5 (4). Apex of clypeus, mandibles, antennal 

scape testaceous, apical joints of tarsi 

rufous ...... erythrostoma, Cam. 

6 (1). Body not all black. 

7 (17). Head black. 

8 (14). Thorax black. 

9 (12). Abdomen dark rufous. 

10 (11). Thorax densely covered with fulvous 

pubescence ; base of cubitus straight, 

oblique ...... fulvoijilosella, Cam. 

11 (10). Thorax covered sparsely with short 

black pubescence ; the base of cubi- 
tus roundly curved .... erythrogaster, Cam. 

12 (13). Abdomen black in the middle, the base 

and apex pale yellow ; the femora 

testaceous ..... latihalteata, Cam. 

13 (12). Abdomen pallid yellow, with pale fus- 

cous bands ; legs black . . . fitsco-balteata, Cam. 

14 (8). Thorax testaceous. 

15 (16). Apex of wings lacteous, legs for the 

greater part black ; the thorax densely 

covered with fulvous pubescence . lacteifasciata, Cam. 

16 (15). Wings clear hyaline, legs testaceous, 

thorax with pale pubescence . . testaccinerva, Cam. 

17 (7). Head testaceous. 

18 (19). Large ; hind tibiae and tarsi black ; 

wings yellow in front ; stigma yellow flavistigma, Cam. 

19 (18). Small; legs pale yellow ; stigma pale pallid istigina, Gi^m. 

Trigona erythrostoma, sp. no v. 

Black ; the apex of clypeus, the apex of mandibles broadly, and 
the apical four joints of the tarsi rufous ; wings hyaline, slightly 
suffused with fuscous, the nervures and stigma black ; the sides of 
front, apex of mesonotum, scutellum, mesopleurge, mesosternum, 
metapleurse, and the metanotum covered with white pubescence ; the 
rest of the head, thorax, and abdomen with longer, stiffer black 
pubescence ; the pubescence on the coxae and trochanters white, on 
the femora and tibiae black, on the tarsi white mixed with black ; the 
four front trochanters and the basal joint of the anterior tarsi are 
rufous ; the fore spurs of a paler rufous colour. Tegulae black. 
^ or ? . Length, 4 mm. 

Kuching, Borneo (John Hewitt). 

Smooth and shining. Basal abscissa of cubitus very little bent 
or angled ; beyond the recurrent nervure (which is also very faint) it 
is almost obliterated. The scutellum rises obliquely from the base to 
the apex ; the apical slope is oblique, projecting at the top over the 
lower part. The hind tibiffi become gradually dilated from the base 
to the apex, The under side of the antennal flagellum is brownish. 
The stump of the cubitus issues from the middle of the cul^ital 
abscissa. 



194 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Allied to T. canifrons, Sm., winch is a larger species, and 
has the oral region, mandibles, and tarsi black. 

Trigona fulvopilosella, sp. nov. 

Black ; the extreme base of antennal scape, the coxae, trochanters, 
the greater part of the four anterior femora, the base of the posterior, 
tegulae, and the abdomen, brownish red ; the apical abdominal seg- 
ments more or less black ; the thorax densely covered with fulvous 
pubescence ; wings hyaline, distinctly tinged w^ith fulvous, the ner- 
vures and stigma pale fulvous, the posterior nervures paler than the 
anterior. ? . Length, 7 mm. 

Kuching, May and October (John Hewitt). 

The centre of the mesonotum and metanotum are bare of pube- 
scence, probably, however, through the hair having been rubbed off. 
The hair on the legs is black and stiff. The head has a white sericeous 
pile. The stump of the transverse cubital nervure is placed shortly 
below the middle of the first abscissa of the cubitus ; the recurrent 
nervure is reaping-hook-shaped, i. e. the anterior half is roundly 
curved towards the apex of the wing, the posterior part being straight 
and oblique. The base of the hind tibise is distinctly narrowed, the 
latter not becoming gradually widened from the base towards the 
apex ; the apical joint of the tarsi and the claws are rufo-testaceous. 

This species comes nearest to T. erythrog aster, Cam. ; the 
latter may be known from it by the thorax not being covered 
with fulvous pubescence, by the hind tibiae becoming gradually 
narrowed from the base to the apex, the base not being distinctly 
narrowed, by the stump of the recurrent nervure being received 
above the middle of the basal abscissa of the cubitus, and by 
the recurrent nervure not being hook-shaped but straight. 

'rrigona fasco-halteata, sp. nov. 

Black, smooth, shining ; the antennal scape, apex of clypeus, 
labrum, mandibles, except at base, and more or less of the coxae and 
trochanters, rufo-testaceous ; the under side of fiagellum of a darker 
rufous colour ; abdomen pallid testaceous, the base of the segments 
broadly banded with fuscous ; wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma 
dark testaceous ; the basal abscissa of cubitus straight, oblique, un- 
broken. The head anteriorly from the lower half of the front densely 
covered with depressed white pubescence ; the thorax with longer 
white pubescence, which is longer and denser on the pleurae and 
sternum, especially on the latter ; the sides and apex of the scutellum 
are fringed above with long pale hair. ? . Length, 3 mm. 

Medang, Sarawak (Hewitt). 

The knees and apex of tibiae may be testaceous, as may be also 
the base of the legs. The pubescence on the mesonotum is thicker 
round the edges, and it may appear as longitudinal stripes down the 
centre. The fuscous bands on the back of the abdomen are more dis- 
tinct — ^darker — -in some specimens than in others. 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELIT^A. 195 

Trigona testaceinerva, sp. nov. 

Rufo-testaceous ; the head black, except the clypeus, labrum, 
centre of face broadly, and a triangular mark (the narrowed end 
above) between and above the antennse ; the base of mesonotum 
suffused with fuscous ; wings clear hyaline, the stigma and nervures 
testaceous ; the basal abscissa of cubitus straight, oblique, broken by 
the stump of the recurrent nervure shortly below the middle ; the 
cubitus obliterated beyond tlie recurrent nervure. Antennal scape 
rufo-testaceous ; the under side of the flagellum of a darker rufo- 
testaceous colour. The pubescence on the mesonotum and top of 
scutellum fuscous, on the rest of the thorax it is denser and white ; 
the hair on the legs white. ? . Length, 4 mm. 

Kucbing, Borneo (John Hewitt). A broad, ovate species. 

'Trigona pallidistigma, sp. nov. 

Testaceous ; the head above the antennae and the occiput fuscous, 
the face and clypeus paler, the front more rufous in tint ; the legs 
pallid yellow ; the scape of antennse rufo-testaceous, the flagellum 
black ; wings hyaline, iridescent, the stigma and nervures pale testa- 
ceous. ? . Length, 3 mm. 

Sarawak, Borneo (R. Shelford). 

Smooth and shining ; the hair on the head, body, and legs short 
and white. The hind tibite become gradually widened from the base 
to the apex, which is roundly curved ; the top closely fringed with 
white hair. Hinder metatarsus wide, becoming gradually but not very 
much wider towards the apex, which is rounded. 

Is allied to T. fmco-halteata, Cam., which may be known by 
the black head and legs, and by the fuscous bands on the 
abdomen. 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELIT^A. 
By George Wheeler, M.A., F.E.S. 

(Continued from p. 182.) 

Aurelia* was first definitely separated from athalia, and the 
name given, by Nickerl in his ' Synopsis der Lepidopteren-fauna 
Bohmens,' published in 1850. He does not, however, give any 
concise description of it, but contents himself with mentioning 

-''• My argument that we apply the name athalia correctly is in no way 
influenced by Mr. Eowland-Brown's criticism that aurelia is found at Fon- 
tainebleau and Lardy, since Geoffroy distinctly asserts in liis preface that he 
confines his remarks to insects taken within a walk of two or three leagues 
of Paris, and in this sense of the word neighbourhood aurelia is, as I con- 
tended, absent from the neighbourhood of Paris. I may here also remark in 
passing that the paragraph on dictynna should obviously have preceded that 
on partJienie. 



196 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

its points of difference from athalia as follows : — " Aurelia* ist 
urn I in Ausmass kleiner als athalia, die Flugelform ist langer 
gestrecht, und in der Farbung herrscht ein dunkleres Braun 
vor. Die Unterseite ahnelt mehr der von dictynna, obgleich der 
Silberschimmer der Flecken an den Unterfliigeln mangelt." 
(This last peculiarity, by the way, is very far from being constant 
in dictynna.) Nickerl also insists very rightly on the fact that 
the two species do not fly at the same time as a reason for their 
being distinct, and though his actual statements as to the times 
of appearance show that he was under a misapprehension, still 
the fact itself is conclusive. He speaks of aurelia as flying in 
the second half of June, when the " first brood " of athalia was 
worn out, and says that it did not occur again in his neighbour- 
hood at the end of July and in August when athalia (obviously 
implying a second brood) was again very common. Now in 
point of fact athalia is never regularly double-brooded, though in 
very hot seasons a very partial and very stunted second brood 
does occasionally occur. On referring back to Nickerl's account 
of athalia, it is seen that he speaks of it as being very common 
from May to August, and as he ignores parthenie altogether, 
except for mentioning incidentally that it is not identical with 
his aurelia, I think there can be little doubt that under the name 
athalia he included not only the one brood of that species, but 
the two regular broods of 'parthenie which precede and follow it. 
This would correspond to the order of appearance in the Ehone 
Valley, where the first brood of parthenie is followed shortly by 
aurelia, then by athalia, which again is succeeded by the second 
brood of parthenie. In the mountains, for instance at Berisal, 
at about 5000 ft., aurelia flies at the end of June and the 
beginning of July, but athalia again succeeds it ; I have also 
taken one specimen above Zinal at an altitude of about 6500 ft. 
as late as mid- August, but I have never found athalia at so high 
an elevation, though if it occurred it would there probably be 
contemporary with aurelia. It is quite certain, moreover, that 
Nickerl was a little "shaky" on this group, for he refers his 
species both to Borkhausen's prtri/?6?iie, which he afterwards says 
is not the same, and to Hubner's athalia, tab. 4, figs. 19, 20, 
which certainly represents aurelia, as well as to Esper's athalia 
minor, tab. 89, which, so far as it can be said to represent any- 
thing definite, approaches nearest to varia, though the letterpress 
would seem to point to parthenie.^ North of the Alps this species 
seems to be single-brooded even in the plains, except in ihe 

* Aurelia is a third smaller in size than athalia, the shape of the wings 
is longer, and in colour they are of a darker brown. The under side shows 
more resemblance to dictynna, though the silvery shine of the spots on the 
hind wing is wanting. 

f Borkhausen, in 1788, when he first iwentions parthenie, a year before 
he published his Latin description of it, distinctly states that he is speaking 
of the insect here depicted by Esper. 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GEKUS MELITiEA. 197 

neighbourhood of Coh-e, but further south it must be regularly 
double-brooded, as it occurs in late July at Eoveredo, and in 
August near Locarno. Except as above cited, aurelia appears 
to have no synonyms. Herbst's parthenie, * Atlas,' pi. 283, 
figs. 1-4, referred here by Staudinger, appears to represent this 
species on the upper side, and varia on the under ; while the 
text in vol. x. p. 238 (1800) seems to refer to the second brood 
of parthenie. 

Varia, hitherto regarded as a mountain form of partlienie, 
but which I shall treat, at present at any rate, as a separate 
species, owes its name to Bischoff (to whom it was correctly 
assigned by the succeeding generation of entomologists), though 
it is first found in print, but referred to its real author, in Meyer- 
Dur's ' Schmetterlinge,' in 1851. He describes it as differing 
from parthenie only in its small size, but his illustration flatly 
contradicts his description. The male is by no means identical 
with parthenie, and the female does not resemble any form of 
that insect whatever. They are in fact good illustrations of the 
mountain species known to us as varia to-day. Although this 
was the first appearance of the name, the insect had been 
excellently illustrated by Herrich-Schiiffer in 1843 as a variety 
of athalia on pi. 57, figs. 270-274, though both females are con- 
siderably less suft'used than is usual, as much so, however, as 
specimens I have seen from Campfer in the Engadine. The fol- 
lowing may serve as a concise description : " Melitaea parva, 
summas Alpes habitans, alis fulvis nigro fasciatis, plerumque 
apud foeminam nigro viridi-tincto obfuscatis ; subtus, anticis 
parte exteriore paullum, parte interiore multum, praecipue apud 
marem, nigro signatis, posticis fasciis duabus fulvis et tribus 
flavis vel albicantibus, centrali et basali sfepe albis." This 
species (or variety) is without synonyms. 

Lastly, it seems necessary to deal separately with herisalensis, 
as it was treated in Favre's ' Macro-lepidopteres du Valais ' as a 
distinct species, especially as its history has been complicated 
by its unfortunate name, and by the consequent passing off by 
dealers (and others) of B6risal specimens of athalia, which in 
no way resemble it, as veritable specimens of this insect. 
Special facilities which have come in my way for making myself 
acquainted with the ins and outs of this history, as well as a 
long and somewhat intimate knowledge of the insect itself in its 
Khone Valley haunts, seem to me to make it the more necessary 
to deal with the matter in some detail. The insect was first 
described by Kiihl in the * Societas Entomologica,' v. p. 149, 
under the name berisalii, as a variety of athalia (!). His descrip- 
tion reads as follows : '* Alis anterioribus porrectis, alarum 
posticarum margine late diffuso, fere toto nigro, maculis lunatis 
in linea circum currente vix apertis ; alis anticis subtus multis 
maculis nigris magnisque ; alis posticis subtus margine lunato 



198 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

fortiter nigre cincto." He further draws attention, in a short 
German comment on this description, to the depth of the ground 
colour, the elongated wings, the characteristic broad border of 
the hind wing nearly filling up the lunules, the strongly-marked 
fore wing on the under side, and the brightness and broad black 
border of the hind wing on the under side. After all this it is 
not surprising that he should add that the specimens he had 
examined were quite different from any other Athalias he had 
ever seen. These specimens were five in number, sent to him 
by their captor M. de Biiren, of Berne, and purported to come 
from Berisal. In my ' Butterflies of Switzerland,' &c., p. 87 
(1903), I made the following observation : " The name herisal- 
ensis is a complete misnomer, it being an open secret that the 
original type-specimens came from Martigny, whence their 
captor went direct to B6risal, his captures from the two places 
becoming mixed." This information was supplied to me by my 
friend the late Chanoine Favre, of Martigny ; and though I was 
perfectly satisfied of the truth of this statement, I did not at 
that time feel at liberty to explain the matter more fully ; later 
I had the pleasure of making the acquaintance of M. de Biiren 
himself, the captor, as we have seen, of the type- specimens de- 
scribed by Eiihl, who himself definitely assured me that my 
observation was correct, and that his specimens had actually 
been taken, as I had stated, at Martigny. Is it too much to 
hope that this definite declaration on M. de Biiren's own 
authority will once for all clear up the confusion which the 
unfortunate name has caused ? I further observed that : " It has 
never been taken at Berisal, and it may be safely predicted that 
it never will be." I ought perhaps to have given my reason for 
such an assertion, which is that neither of the food-plants grows 
at anything like such an elevation ; it would probably be quite 
impossible to find a single plant, either of Linaria officinalis or 
L. minor, within 2000 ft. at any rate, of Berisal ; the only 
Linaria that grows in that neighbourhood, and that principally 
at a considerably greater elevation, is the beautiful " dragon' s- 
tongue," L. aljjiiia, a plant found most commonly on the 
moraines of glaciers, and at far too great an altitude for the heat- 
loving berisalensis. In the summer of 1899 a short pamphlet was 
given to me by its author, Chanoine Favre, which I translated 
and published in the December number of the ' Entomologists' 
Eecord ' for that year, vol. xi. p. 315, which was intended to be 
supplementary to Eiihl's descriptions in the ' Societas Entomo- 
logica ' and the ' Schmetterlinge,' in which Favre comes, after pro- 
longed study of the insect in all stages, to the conclusion that it 
is not a variety of athalia but a distinct species ; because it is 
double-brooded, the two broods appearing one before the other 
after the single brood of athalia ; because it is specialized to 
certain food-plants, i.e., Linaria officinalis, on which the eggs 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELIT^A. 199 

are invariably laid, and L. minor, on which the caterpillar feeds 
in preference after it is half grown ; and because it has the fol- 
lowing constant characters : (1) an elongated form of wing ; 

(2) the two basal black lines on the fore wing straight and parallel ; 

(3) the border of the hind wing upper side so broad as almost to 
cover the lunules ; (4) the median light band of the hind wing 
under side very narrow and the general arrangement of that 
wing like that of deione. He then continues thus : " To these 
characteristics may be added the following, which are equally 
constant : on the under side of the fore wing, in the space 
corresponding with the lower portion of the median band, this 
species has always and invariably a black mark like a Y placed 
horizontally and opening outwards >- thus, a mark which is not 
met with in any other species, not even in deione, which, as we 
have said, resembles it the most closely ; this mark is also visible 
on the upper side of the same wings. On the under side of the 
hind wing, between the basal and median rows of spots, is a tri- 
angular spot, whose lower acute angle rests on the last spot of 
the basal band, which gives a slight resemblance to M. deione 
but to no other species. Its flight also is more sustained and 
less jerky." While fully concurring in the two latter distinc- 
tions, especially in his observation on the triangular spot which 
is conspicuously characteristic, I must observe that his remarks 
on the Y-mark go somewhat beyond what is warranted by more 
recently ascertained facts. In the first place, it is by no means 
so invariable in berisalensis as is here stated, the mark often 
becomes an italic x placed sideways, especially on the upper 
side, and occasionally like parentheses placed horizontally and 
back to back thus 'x. ; sometimes it even becomes an oblong black 
patch, with mere indications of the fork of the Y at the outer 
corners. Secondly, the mark does frequently occur in deione, 
and the elements of it are, so far as I have seen, almost always 
present in that species, which we now regard as the type-form 
of berisalensis. Thirdly, it is not confined even to the different 
forms of this species ; Mr. Prideaux has a male athalia from 
Wiesbaden in which it is very distinct, and it is also frequent in 
hritomartis, either as a light mark enclosed in a black patch, or 
more rarely as the shape of the black mark itself. Although I 
am treating this insect separately, I still adhere to my previously 
expressed opinion that it is a local race of deione ; of this I was 
at one time uncertain, but a comparison with Spanish forms 
seems to add great weight to this probability. They mostly 
agree more closely with this form than with the typical French 
races. Those specimens which I previously (' Butterflies of 
Switzerland ') described as being lighter than the French prove 
not to have been Spanish at all, though Pyrenean, my informant 
apparently having taken it for granted that the latter implied 
the former ! One further point occurs in Chanoine Favre's 



200 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

pamphlet with regard to the name herisalii given by Riihl. This 
termination should of course refer to a person not to a place, 
and the Chanoine's Latinity being shocked by this, he used the 
correct form herisalensis, by which name it is almost universally 
known. Possibly those who make a fetish of priority will wish 
to return to the original barbarism ; for myself I shall continue 
to use the form I have always employed. Are the rigorists pre- 
pared to return to " schmidtiformis " ? I was not personally 
acquainted with Schmidt ; still I hardly think that a7iy butterfly 
can have mimicked his shape. 

In order to compare the different species of the group with 
one another, it is necessary to summarize the general charac- 
teristics common to them all and to adopt a common terminology. 
For this purpose the following may be considered as the normal 
characters of the whole athalia-gr onp. 

Ground colour fulvous or orange-brown with black nervures 
and other markings. A comparison with the Argynnids and 
Brenthids, not to mention the didyma-grou-p and such species as 
parthenie and deione, shows the fallacy of regarding the black part 
as the ground colour ; indeed, dictynna is the only species that 
gives any excuse for this basis of description employed by some 
of the early entomologists, and unfortunately adopted by Kirby. 
This was pointed out long ago by Assmann in the Breslau * Zeit- 
schrift fur Entomologie,' vol. i. p. 2 (1847). Fore wing, upper 
side. Black border. Two black lines of varying width and con- 
spicuousness, nearly parallel to the border; these we will call the 
" outer and inner subterminal lines.''' Between the border and the 
outer subterminal line, the ground colour shows more or less in 
the form of lunules, the third of which, counting upwards from 
the anal angle, projects further towards the disc of the wing than 
the others, conspicuously so except in the case of parthenie, where 
this character is slightly marked, and of varia and astcria, where 
it rarely exists at all ; the direction and curve of the inner sub- 
terminal line is a somewhat valuable character in determining the 
different species. Further towards the base is a sharply elbowed, 
almost sickle-shaped black line of very variable breadth, curving 
sharply out from the costa towards the outer margin, then 
inwards towards the base, and again somewhat outwards, 
spreading out and often dividing towards the inner margin ; this 
we will refer to as the " elhoived line,'' and to the spread-out 
portion as the '^marginal blotch." Beyond the elbowed line, 
nearer to the base, and starting from the first nervure below the 
costa, is a black spot, normally only outlined and filled in with 
the ground colour; this we will call the "stigma"; this fre- 
quently joins the elbowed line at its last bend, in such a way as 
to make it appear to form one line with the lower part of the 
elbowed line. Still nearer to the base are two narrow black 
lines, the "basal lines," slightly inclining outwards from the 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 201 

costa, in a generally parallel direction to each other, but 
nowhere actually parallel, as both are irregularly curved and the 
curves are not parallel. Finally, there is a dark " basal suffu- 
sion " of varying extent. 

Upper side, hind wing. The normal markings may be 
regarded as a black border, two black lines rather broken and 
nearly parallel to the border, which we will call the " outer and 
inner lines," a black " discal spot,'' and often a third or " extra 
line," and a black " basal suffusion " containing a spot of the 
ground colour. When this is not surrounded by the suffusion it 
is outlined in black ; it may be called the " basal spot." 

The under side fore wing has an orange-brown ground colour, 
and may be considered as reproducing the markings of the upper 
side. The black border is never present, but is represented by 
a fine, double, dark (usually black) line. The outer subterminal 
line appears as an inner edging to the lunules, which are lighter 
than the ground colour ; the inner subterminal line is usually 
faintly visible ; the elbowed line is generally represented by 
three conspicuous black spots near the costa (or four if there be 
one on the costa itself) and a black patch on the inner margin — 
the marginal blotch ; the outlines of the stigma and the basal 
lines are narrow but conspicuous, and there is a black " basal 
dash " representing the basal suffusion. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Lyc^na arion in the Cotswolds. — As the result of explora- 
tion during the last two years I have been able to discover the 
existence of this fine species in a number of out-of-the-way spots 
in the Cotswold Hills, which have never been recorded in any 
book or periodical. Its existence in some, however, is very in- 
secure from the extremely circumscribed extent of the area which 
certain of the stations embrace. In some which have been re- 
corded in the past it is now probably extinct. One such consists 
of the deserted quarries on the north-east side of Painswick Hill, 
although it is found sparingly in one or two other places not far 
away. It is here, however, much harassed by the Gloucester 
collectors, so that it will not be long before its final extirpation 
takes place in the neighbourhood of Painswick. In the vicinity of 
Cheltenham also it is persecuted a good deal by tyros. Some of the 
other stations discovered by me for the species are situated on private 
ground, and there is reason to believe that several more may be 
added to the list in the more remote "combs" well off the beaten 
track. In only one of these it occurs in any abundance according to 
my experience. As a consequence of the examination of a consider- 
able number of specimens I am able to define the following aberra- 

KNTOM. — AUGUST, 1908. R 



202 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

tions of the species in the Cotswolds, for which I propose names 
as follows : — 

(1) Ab. pseudo-alcon. — Aberration of male with the wings dn the 
upper surface unspotted, and formerly erroneously considered to be 
the true alcon of Continental Europe. Eare. 

(2) Ab. imperialis. — Aberration of female. An exceedingly fine 
form, generally of a brilliant blue, with the black spots on the upper 
surface of the anterior wings elongated into pearl-shaped streaks, 
giving them the appearance of a diadem or crown. Not uncommon 
here. This is of frequent occurrence in the South of France. 

(3) Ab. muUo-maculata. — Aberration of male and female with the 
posterior wings on the upper side possessing a corresponding series 
of spots as on the anterior wings, though much smaller and more or 
less indistinct. This is almost as plentiful as the typical form, which 
is without them. 

(4) Ab. marginata. — Aberration of male and female with all the 
wings possessing very broad black margins. Not uncommon. 

(5) Ah. cotswoldensis. — Ahevva.tior). of male and female with all 
the wings more or less thickly sprinkled with black scales, giving it 
a very dusky or melanic appearance, constituting an approach to the 
alpine var. obsciira of Professor Christ. Scarce. 

(6) Ab. pallida. — Aberration of male and female of a pale washed- 
out appearance. Not uncommon. • 

(7) Ab. occidentalis. — Aberration of male and female. Very dwarf 
undersized specimens, some not larger than L. agon. Of fairly 
frequent occurrence. 

(8) Ab. oolitica. — Aberration of male and female of under side 
exhibiting fewer spots than in the typical form, some of them 
coalescing. Eare. — Champion le Chamberlain ; Cheltenham. 

Neuropteea from the South op Feance.^ — In January last Dr. 
T. A. Chapman gave me a small collection of Neuroptera taken by 
him at Gavarnie from the 9th till the 30th of July, 1907, whose names 
appear below. Mr. K. J. Morton was good enough to assist me with 
the identification of some of the specimens : — 

Odonata. — Gordulegaster annulatus, -"C bidentatus, '''-Platycnemis 
latipes, PyrrJiosoma nympJmla, Agrion mercuriale. 

Perlidia. — Perla maxima, Ghloroperla grammatica, Nemoura sp., 
Amphinevioura sp. With the last three there must be unfortunately 
a little doubt as regards identification when males are not present. 

Planipennia. — ■■'■Ascalaphus longicornis, *^. coccajus (a consider- 
able number, all but one being females), -'^Panorpa mcridionalis, 
■■'Megalomus tortricoides , M. hirtus. 

Trichoptera. — Ecclisopteryx guttulata, -''-Drusus monticola (or 
nearly allied to it), '"D. rectus, "^Sericostoma pyrenaicum, Hydropsyche 
pelkicidula, Philopotamus viontanus, ■•'Rhyacophila tristis. 

With these were also two insects taken at Cauterets from the 1st 
till the 8th of July — one Ghloroperla grammatica, which is subject to 
the same doubt as the specimen above ; and one female Ascalaphus 
coccajus. The insects with which an asterisk ('•') is placed are non- 
British species. — W. J. Lucas ; Kingston-on-Thames. 



203 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Agkotis ypsilon in early July. — While sugaring on the sand- 
hills at Deal on Saturday last, July 4th, I found a very worn Agrotis 
ypsilon, male, on one of the patches. I took it to make quite sure of 
its identity. Surely tliis is a very late date for a hybernated specimen, 
more particularly a male ? I see in South's ' Moths of the British 
Isles ' a suggestion that this species migrates, so possibly this record 
may be of interest if the question of its migration is not yet esta- 
blished. — P. A. Cardew (Capt. R.A.) ; St. Aldwyns, Park Avenue, 
Dover, July 6th, 1908. 

Plusia moneta at Peterborough. — The following item may be 
of interest in your " Field Captures " column : — Plusia moneta. I 
was fortunate enough to take a good specimen of this on July 5th, 
1908, about 11.30 p.m., on a mixed herbaceous border in my garden, 
Broadway, Peterborough. I have not heard of its being taken in 
this district before, and should be glad to hear if there is any record 
of its capture so far north or in this neighbourhood. — Geo. T. 
Nichols ; Peterborough, July 7th, 1908. 

AciDALiA EMUTARiA IN SussEX. — This insect, which has only 
once before been recorded as taken in East Sussex, was found by 
myself and Mr. W. Jarvis in some numbers while searching for Senta 
maritima in the valley of the Cuckmere ; we also found the species, 
but in lesser numbers, on the Ouse, while trying to turn up S. mari- 
tima on that river. The only other record, as referred to above, is 
nearly thirty years old, a single specimen having been taken in the 
Lewes Marshes (Ouse) by Mr. J. H. H. Jenner, F.E.S., of this town 
in 1880. — A. J. Wightman ; Lewes. 

Argynnis paphia var. valesina in Gloucestershire. — I sent a 
note to this journal in 1906 stating that Argynnis paphia var. valesina 
occurred in woods near the town. Yesterday I was strolling through 
the same woods, and again had the pleasure of viewing it at the 
bramble-l^lossoms amongst a number of the ordinary type, all in fine 
condition. A. aglaia was also fairly abundant, but appeared to be 
rather worn. Melanargia galatea has been, and still is, the commonest 
butterfly on the hill-sides this season. — V. R. Perkins ; Wotton- 
under-Edge, July 21st, 1908. 

Hyloicus pinastri in the Bournemouth District. — It may 
interest you to know that while dusking in my garden last night, 
I captured at honeysuckle a fine specimen of Hyloicus pinastri. 
I have not heard of any previous records of this insect in this 
neighbourhood, and it will be interesting to observe if other captures 
follow this one. Branksome Park would seem to be favoured 
by Sphingidse, for within the last four years my garden has yielded 
me no fewer than seven species, viz. : — SpJiinx ligustri, S. con- 
volvuli (eight), Svierinthus populi, S. ocellatus, Phryxus livornica 
(one), H. pinastri (one), and Macroglossa stellatarwn. — Edward P. 



204 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Eeynolds ; Headinglea, Branksome Park, Bournemouth, July 12th, 
1908. 

Senta mabitima in Sussex. — During the present season, together 
with my friend Mr. W. Jarvis, of this town, I have been successful 
in finding S. viaritima and its vars. hipunctata and loismariensis in 
Sussex. The species is very local, and not by any means plentiful 
among the thick reed-beds in the valley of the Cuckmere. It may 
also be interesting to note that G. senex and L. straminea also occur 
in the same locality. I think I am correct in saying that S. maritima 
has never before been recorded from this county, and both senex and 
straminea are considered very rare on our East Sussex list. — A. J. C. 
VViGHTMAN ; Lewes. 

Lepidoptera in the Salisbury District. — Possibly the follow- 
ing captures which I have made up to now this season may be of 
some interest to your readers. In April last I captured one specimen 
each of two "pugs," Eiipithecia consignata and E. irriguata. Both 
were taken at street-lamps in the town. Three weeks ago I captured 
a remarkable aberration of Eiipithecia rectangulata. It was black 
on all four wings, with the veins strongly marked with silver-grey 
metallic scales. Had it not been for the shape of the insect I could 
not have identified it. On June 29th and 30th and July 1st I cap- 
tured TriphcBna subsequa at dusk on the heath at Whaddon, Wilts. 
I took altogether ten specimens, and saw several more which I could 
not capture. I fancy this insect has not previously been recorded 
for this county, although I took four specimens two years ago at 
Clarendon Wood near here, which I did not record at the time. But 
what struck me as remarkable was the fact that I had previously 
worked the heath very assiduously for three years without seeing a 
single specimen, and now they crop up in such large numbers. And 
again, last Sunday I captured a specimen of Limenitis sibylla at the 
side of the same heath, and saw others flying around the tops of the 
oak-trees. Is not the date, July 5th, somewhat early for this insect? 
I also took several specimens at this same locality last year, but did 
not see the first specimen until July 19th last year ! Another fact 
seemed to me remarkable. On July 14th this year Argyimis selene 
was out in swarms on the heath, and A. euphrosyne was over. On 
July 5th only two specimens of A. selene were seen there all day, and 
they were both very badly worn. And yet last year they were only 
just emei'ging about the middle of July ! — W. A. Bogue ; Salisbury, 
July 7th, 1908. 

Deilephila euphorbia at Bournemouth. — On July 12th, 1908, 
whilst taking Heliothis dipsacea at Canford Cliffs, Bournemouth, I 
disturbed from privet (in flower) a female Deilephila euphorbia. This 
was near the edge of cliff where I took D. livornica two seasons ago. 
It is in good condition. — W. G. Hooker ; 125, Old Christ Church 
Eoad, Bournemouth. 

Nonagria dissoluta var. arundineta, etc., in Sussex. — On the 
22nd inst., when collecting Senta viaritima (uIvce) in the Cuckmere 
Valley with my friend Mr. A. J. Wightman, of Lewes, I also took 



SOCIETIES. 205 

N. anmdineta. I believe the latter has not been recorded for Sussex 
before. — Edwin P. Sharp ; 1, Bedford Well Eoad, Eastbourne. 

Spring Neuropteea at Bude. — I received from Dr. T. A. Chap- 
man six insects taken at Bude in Cornwall on May 28th, 1908. They 
were Isoptenjx torrentium, one ; Panorpa germanica, one male ; and 
Limnophilus centralis, four. — W. J. Lucas ; Kingston-on-Thames 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — Wednesday, June Srd, 
1908. — Mr. H. Eowland-Brown, M.A., Vice-President, in the chair. 
— Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpe brought for exhibition pseudogynes of 
Formica sanguinea, caused by the presence of the beetle Loviecliusa 
strumosa in the nest, from the New Forest. — Mr. H. J. Turner showed 
living larvae of Coleophora maritimella on Arteviisia, and also a 
species of Asilidae and its prey. — Mr. C. J. Gahan exhibited living 
specimens of a " leaf-insect " from the Seychelles, bred in England 
by Mr. St. Quentin, probably Pulchriphy Ilium critrifoliwn, Serville ; 
and Lampyridse of considerable interest collected by Mr. E. E. Green 
in Ceylon, including both sexes of the genera Lamprigera and 
Dioptoma, the larviform females of which had hitherto been unknown. 
He called attention to the existence in China, Ceylon, and the Malay 
Peninsula of remarkable larviform females greatly resembling in form 
the females of the American group Phengodini, and being somewhat 
similarly provided with rows of luminous points. Mr. E. Shelf ord 
remarked that in several of the Malacoderm Coleoptera from the 
Malay Archipelago, regarded as larval or apterous forms, the males 
and females were indistinguishable, and underwent practically no 
metamorphosis. — Mr. G. C. Champion, specimens of Dromius angustus, 
Brulle, and Cryptophagus lovendali, Ganglb., recently recorded by 
him from Woking and the New Forest respectively ; also two species 
of the Staphylinid genus Leptotyplilus and one of the Curculionid genus 
Alaocyba, minute blind South European insects, much smaller than 
any known British representatives of the groups in question. — Col. C. 
Swinhoe, several boxes of butterflies taken by him during the present 
year (1908) in the Canary Islands, chiefly from Grand Canary and 
Teneriffe. He drew attention to the fact that with the exception of 
Lampides loehhianus, all the species met with suggest a foreign 
origin. — Mr. J. E. Collin communicated " Notes on the Value of the 
Genitalia of Insects as Guides in Phylogeny," by Mr. W. Wesche, 
F.E.M.S.— Dr. D. Sharp, M.A., P.E.S., communicated a paper " On 
certain Nycteribiidae, with Descriptions of Two New Species from 
Formosa," by Mr. Hugh Scott, B.A. (Cantab.). — Dr. J. L. Hancock, 
M.D., communicated a paper on " Further Studies of the Tetriginte 
(Orthoptera) in the Oxford University Museum." — Mr. J. C. Moulton 
read a paper on " Mimicry in Tropical American Butterflies." — Pro- 
fessor E. B. Poulton, F.E.S., read a paper on "Heredity in Papilio 
dardanus from Natal, bred by Mr. G. F. Leigh, F.E.S., of Durban," 
and exhibited, in illustration, a large series of the forms of P. dar- 



206 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

dames from Natal and Chirinda. — Mr. Hamilton H. Druce, F.L.S., 
read a paper on " New Species of Hesperiidae from Central and South 
America," and exhibited the specimens described; also a series of the 
subfamily Pyrrhopyginie, together with the genus Erycides of the 
subfamily Hesperiinse, showing the great similarity of some of the 
species with those of the Pyrrhopygine genus Jemadia, and also 
pointed out that the subfamily Pamphilinae contained genera with 
species again almost exact copies of those shown in the two pre- 
viously mentioned subfamilies. — Mr. F. Merrifield proposed a vote of 
thanks to the Fellows who had been instrumental in the organization 
of the Conversazione, and the Vice-President begged to be allowed to 
mention in particular the services rendered by Mr. E. Adkin and Mr. 
Stanley Edwards, who had undertaken the whole work of arrange- 
ment in connection with the exhibitions. The vote of thanks was 
unanimously given. — J. J. Walker, M.A., E.N., Hon. Secretary. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society.— ilia?/ Uth, 1908.— Mr. Alfred Sich, F.E.S., President in the 
chair. — -Dr. Chapman exhibited a larva of Lyccena semiargus from a 
Pyrenean ovum, nearly full grown, and he called attention to the 
curious fine brown scaling in a bred Pyrenean example of Tanacjra 
atrata. — Mr. Adkin, from Mr. McArthur, from Aviemore, nodules of 
resin on twigs attacked by Iletinia Tesinana larvee, a curious " mop" 
of twigs on a branch of fir, no doubt caused by a gall, and cocoons of 
Dicranura vinula, opened by birds? — Mr. Harrison, a living larva of 
Phorodesvia smaragdaria. — Mr. Newman, larvae of Dryas jpapJiia, 
Argynnis aglaia, and A. adiype ; one set had been wintered outdoors 
and were very small, the others kept in a cool house were in their 
last instar. He showed ova of Vanessa atalanta just hatching.— Mr. 
Edwards, specimens of Pajnlio astorion a,nd P.philoxenus from North 
India, and P. warscewiczii from Bolivia. — Mr. Eayward, a considerable 
niuiiber of Lepidoptera, which he was placing in the Society's 
cabinets. — Mr. A. H. Jones, a number of butterflies taken in Hungary 
to illustrate his paper, "Notes on Hungarian Butterflies," including 
Neptis lucilla, N. aceris, Limenitis populi, L. Camilla, and L. sihylla, 
taken together in one forest opening ; Chrysophanus alciphron, 
extremely large and boldly marked ; Colias viyrviidione ab. alba, a 
parallel form to var. helice of G. edusa ; the local Erebia melas (with 
which he had placed E. lefebvrei from the Pyrenees and E. glacialis 
V. nicholli from Campiglio for comparison) ; E. medusa var. psoclea, 
G. tliersamon, Pararge climene, P. roxelana, Goeyionympha oedippus, &c. 

May 28i/t.— The President in the chair.— M. J. St. Aubyn, of 
Balham, and Mr. N. D. Eiley, of Upper Tooting, were elected mem- 
l^ers. — Mr. Main exhibited living larvae of a species of "Stick" 
insect. — Mr. West (Ashtead), a series of Anticlea bad lata bred from 
larvae taken on his rose trees. — Mr. Tonge, stereoscopic views of the 
ova of Saturnia carpini and Macrothylacia rubi ; of the ova of 
Malacosoma castrensis and M. franconica; and of fertile and infertile 
ova of Panolis piniperda. — Mr. Newman, pupae of Dryas paphia, 
Argynnis adippe, and A. aglaia. — Mr. Eayward, pupa in sitil of 
Trochilium crabroniforniis, and pupa case of ^geria cuUciformis. 
The former emerged downwards and the latter upwards. — Mr. Carr, 



SOCIETIES. 207 

an imago and cocoons of Earias chlorana. — Mr. Turner, a long series 
of Pancalia lewenhoekella from Box Hill ; a short bred series of 
Swammerdavimia griseo-caintata from Oxshott ; and the very beautiful 
Hydrocampid, Ambia instrumentalis, from North India. — Mr. Gilbert 
Arrow gave an address, with lantern slides and numerous specimens, 
on "The Origin and use of Horns in Coleoptera." 

June 25fh, 1908.— Mr. Alfred Sich, F.E.S., President in the chair. 
• — Mr. Tonge exhibited a large species of mayfly (Ephemera) in the 
penultimate stage. — Mr. Goulton, living larvae of Tethea subtusa 
taken in Surrey. — Mr. Eayward, batches of ova of Macrotliylacia rubi 
found on heather tops at night, when they were very conspicuous. — • 
Mr. Edwards reported the capture at Blackheath of a male and 
female AmpJiidasijs betularia var. doubledayaria in cop. — Various 
members gave notes on this season's captures and observations. — 
Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Bep. Sec. 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society. 
3Iay 19th, 1908.— Eev. 0. E. N. Burrows and Mr. F. N. Pierce 
exhibited about one hundred imagines of the Hydroscia nictitans 
group, including eighty-seven specimens, the genitalia of wdiich had 
been mounted for the microscope and were also exhibited. As a 
result of the examination of male genitalia the specimens had been 
separated into four groups : — (a) H. nictitans (the woodland form), 
(b) H. imhulis (marsh form), (c) H. lucens (Lancashire m_oss form), 
(dj an apparently new species, at any rate as regards Great Britain, 
taken by Messrs. Bacot and Simes on the banks of the Crinan Canal, 
N.B., and provisionally named crinanensis. A single specimen 
received from Dr. Chapman, labelled " Turkestan," also belonged to 
this latter species. Eev. Burrows stated that a less extensive exami- 
nation of female genitalia indicated the probability of their being 
equally easy to differentiate ; he also pointed out that with the aid of 
wood naphtha it was possible to examine the genitalia in sitil, and 
thus avoid mutilating the specimen. — S. J. Bell, Ho7i. Sec. 

Birmingham Natural History and Philosophical Society. — 
The newly constituted Entomological Section (the old Birmingham 
Entomological Society) held its first meeting after the amalgamation 
on April 13th, the President, Mr. Geo. Betlnme-Baker, E.L.S., F.Z.S., 
F.E.S., in the chair. — The resignation of Mr. Colbran J. Wainwright, 
F.E.S., from the hon. secretaryship, after nineteen years' service, was 
received with great regret, and Mr. A. H. Martineau was elected to 
fill the office for the present year. — The President exhibited and 
described some Lycaenidse from Australia, all of which are associated 
with ants during some portion of their life-history. — Mr. H. Wil- 
loughby Ellis, F.Z.S., P.E.S., gave an account of the present know- 
ledge of British Myrmecophilous Lycaenid larvae, and gave a list of 
records to date with remarks on the methods employed by the ants in 
obtaining the juices from them. He also gave an account of the 
British Myrmecophilous Coleoptera, wath special mention of the work 
he and Mr. A. H. Martineau had carried out in the Midlands during 
the past year — Mr. A. H. Martineau showed specimens of Formi- 
coxenus nitidulus, Nyl., from the nests of Formica rufa, L., at Knowle 
(Warwickshire). — Mr. Herbert Stone, F.L.S., showed a piece of 



208 THR ENTOMOLOGIST. 

marble-ebony sap wood, showing ebony around the galleries of insects, 
also lancewood similarly ebonized. — Mr. Hubert Langley, specimens 
of Asthenia pTjgmcBana, Hb., and Aiiyhia epilohiella, Eoem., both from 
Princethorpe, both being additions to the Warwickshire list. — Mr. H. 
Willoughby Ellis read a short paper on the present knowledge of the 
genus Dinarda, Grav., embodying the work of Donisthorpe and 
Wasman ; also his own observations of the species collected from tlie 
nests of Formica rufa, L., and F. sanguinea, Latr., and from a number 
of specimens received from friends. — Alfred H. Martineau, Hon. Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic 

Gardens, Keiv. VII. (Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, 

No. 3, 1908.) 

Entomologists will be interested in this number, which contains 

a list of Coleoptera and ants contributed by Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpe, 

and one of Aphidae and Coccidae by Mr. R. Newstead. Of the four 

lists, that of the ants seems of greatest interest, owing to the number 

of non-British species it contains. 



Nuevo Tricoptero de Espana. (Boletin de la Real Sociedad espanola 
de Historia natural.) By R. P. Linginos Navas, S.J. Illus- 
trated. April, 1908. 
Leptocerus zapiateri, the new species, is described in Latin, and 
named after B. Zapater, lately dead, a friend of Navas. 

W. J. L. 



OBITUARY. 



With very great regret we have to record the death of Mr. 
W. H. Thoenthwaite, on June 27th last, aged fifty-eight years. 
Only a fortnight previously he conducted a party of the members of 
the South London Entomological and Natural History Society to 
some private ground at Box Hill ; and he himself was then keenly 
engaged in collecting Tortrices, &c., and seemed in no way distressed 
by his labours on the rough hillside. On the evening of June 25th, 
when dining at the Savoy Hotel, he was suddenly attacked by his 
fatal illness. Although he rarely contributed to the literature of his 
study, Mr. Thornthwaite had amassed a considerable collection of 
British Lepidoptera, both "Micro" and "Macro"; and quite recently 
he was busy in rearranging the PterophoridjB and other groups in 
accordance with the most recent classification. For a number of 
years he had been Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Gresham 
Life Assurance Society, and this position he held at the time of his 
decease. By all who knew him he will be greatly missed. 

We are also very sorry to hear that Mr. Thomas Maddison, 
F.E.S., died suddenly on July 16th last while on a visit to Scar- 
borough. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XLL] SEPTEMBEE, 1908. [No. 544 

JOTTINGS ON APHIDES TAKEN DURING 1907 and 1908. 

By Claude Morley, F.E.S., &c. 

Some notes upon the results of a few months collecting 
Aphididas may not be entirely without interest, since the family 
is so generally shunned by the " pure entomologist " that one 
never sees anything respecting it in current literature. Last year 
I was anxious to add to the six thousand species which constitute 
the known insect fauna of Suffolk, and began to name such 
Aphides as I saw with the aid of the four volumes of Buckton's 
* Monograph of the British Aphides,' published by the Ray 
Society, 1876-1883. This I have followed with slavish exactness, 
and have succeeded, by examining the insects while hardly dead, 
in naming every specimen whose food-plant was known to me with 
conscientious certainty, which reflects high credit upon the Mono- 
graph, though one could sometimes wish the figures were less 
artistic and more scientifically drawn, and the descriptions fuller. 
It is, however, often impossible to determine single-winged speci- 
mens found on, very probably accidental, plants. I had no 
previous knowledge of the subject, which I approached from the 
point of view of the species' pabulum ; I drew up a list of every 
food-plant indicated by Buckton — one hundred and ninety-eight 
indigenous kinds — and found it an invaluable guide in the absence 
of specific tables. Several, usually many, individuals of a species 
occur together, so that it may be carded in various advantageous 
positions in its larval, pupal, and dimorphic perfect states (I have 
taken no males, which are rare and always autumnal) ; but the 
examination must be immediate, since the colours are evanescent 
and the form shrivels. Except where stated, the following were 
taken during these two years in the garden at Monks Soham 
House, Suffolk. Aphides were abundant everywhere in 1907, 
but during 1908 their scarcity is very remarkable. 

ENTOM. SEPTEMBER, 1908. S 



210 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The first of the Aphidides group of the subfamily Aphidinae, 
and one of the most prevalent, was Siphonophora roscB, Linn., 
which was seen upon the young shoots of both wild and cultivated 
roses throughout the summer, as well as upon the under side of 
the leaves of adjacent Aquilegia vulgaris at the end of July ; from 
these latter I bred several parasitic Aphidii. S. scabiosce, Schr., 
I have not found here, but I took many apterous females and 
larvae on the stems of an unrecorded food-plant, Dipsacus sylves- 
tris, at the Haven Street Woods, in the Isle of Wight, at the end 
of June, 1907. It was August 22nd last year before I looked for 
S. granaria, Kirby, but harvest had hardly begun, and I at once 
found both imaginal forms commonly on some adventitious ears 
of wheat in the garden, though all these were dead (fourteen of 
them on one ear had been " stung," and will doubtless produce 
Buckton's Ephedrus ylagiator or Lygocerus carpenteri, cf. Mar- 
shall, Bracon. d'Europ. ii. 544), and one or two live apterous 
females on barley-ears in adjacent fields. Apterous S. hieracii, 
Kalt., were very rare beneath the flower-heads of Hieracium in 
early August, associating with a few females and pupae of A2)his 
rumicis. As early as June 1st larvae of S. milUfolii, Fab., ap- 
peared on the flower-stalks of Chrysanthemum segetum, and in 
early August both winged and apterous imagines have been 
fairly common on the stem of both this plant and Achillea milli- 
folium, becoming abundant by the middle of the month. No 
Aphid has been specified as the victim of Diodontus tristis ; on 
17th last year I saw a female of this Fossor alight on a flower- 
head of C. segetum, about 2 p.m. in dull and windy weather, walk 
below the flower, down the stem, over three or four larvae of the 
Siphonophora, of which she seized the following one in her 
mandibles with a sudden snap ; she immediately rose in the air, 
and, after one or two circlings, made off with it ; the larva was 
about one-third grown {cf. Buckton, ii. 167). At the end of July 
I have found S. pisi, Kalt., in all its stages, not very commonly 
on garden peas and the leaves of Bursa bursa-pastoris ; it is not 
common enough to have been a pest either year. In 1903 I took 
it near Ipswich on Urtica dioica as late as October 27th. S. rubi, 
Kalt., has not been observed till the first week in August, when 
both imaginal forms and quite young larvae occur on the under 
side of leaves of Eubus fruticosa, with Aphis urticaria. S. urticce, 
Kalt., has been scarce ; I have taken only one apterous female, 
still attached to the pupal skin, on Urtica dioica, on August 2nd. 
The distinct S. avellance, Schr., also appears rare, since of this 
I have only found an apterous female beneath a leaf of Corylns 
avellana early in June. Larvae, pupae, and apterous forms of 
S. tanaceti, Linn., abounded in the heart of a constantly-mown 
dandelion on a lawn on August 13th, 1907. Beneath leaves of 
Tussilago farfara numerous dead S. tussilaginis, Walk., both 
winged and apterous, with a few larvae, were found early in the 



JOTTINGS ON APHIDES. 211 

same month, and a diligent search revealed but two live alate 
forms. S. sojichi, Linn., in its apterous form, is one of our com- 
monest species on Centaiirea nigra in May ; on the 31st I have 
taken several " stung " females, from which the Braconid, 
Aphidius (jranarius, Marsh., emerged on June 1st, and sub- 
sequently several Cynipids ; the same form was found on Cnicus 
arvensis in August. This species does not attack Sonchus 
oleraceus, which was abundant in this vicinity till quite the end 
of July, when the apterous and alate forms, together with their 
pink (not black, as on knapweed) larvae, are abundant in the 
heads and on the stems, and have continued so to the present 
time ; on August 13th last year I observed a female Bassus 
tarsatoriusy Panz., investigating, without apparently attacking, a 
brood of these Aphids. There is no Cichorium intybus here, but 
I have found larvae, pupae, and apterous imagines (a few of which 
latter were "stung") of S. cichorii, Koch, upon the stem, just 
below the flower, of this plant near Easton Park, Suffolk, on 
August 17th ; no winged specimens were seen there nor on the 
same plant at Dunwich, in Suffolk, where it occurred sparingly 
in September. Five S. olivata, Buck., were taken on Cnicus 
palustris in the Bentley Woods, near Ipswich, August 11th, 1904. 
I have searched in vain (fortunately) for S. lactucce, Kalt., and 
(unfortunately) for S. convolvuli, Kalt., in my garden. 

The small Phorodon humidi, Schr., was abundant, though I 
could detect no winged forms and but few apterous imagines 
covering the under side of leaves of Ilumulus lupulus, near Easton 
Park on August 17th last ; ■•and a protracted examination of 
Lamium album in my garden revealed a solitary winged and 
active P. galeopsidis, Kalt., on the under side of a leaf, on the 
2nd of the same month. On June 7th, 1907, twenty-three Myzus 
cerasi, Fab., in all its stages though only two winged, were given 
me from Prunus cerasus in this parish, where it is doubtless but 
too common ; and early in August I have found M. ribis, Linn., 
rarely on the under side, near the midrib, of leaves of Ribes 
rubrum in my garden — larvae were then the commonest form, and 
only one alate specimen was seen. Quite suddenly, on August 
4th last, Drepanosiphum acerina, Walk., appeared commonly be- 
neath maple-leaves and the adjacent hazel and Cornus sauguinea ; 
the winged form is always much the commoner, though I have seen 
three apterous ones beneath a leaf with it and many more singly. 
It is the most active Aphid I know, and takes flight at once, in 
sun or shade, upon being disturbed, though more sluggish towards 
dusk ; it also possesses a feeble power of leaping. Apterous 
females, larvae, and pupae of the distinct and presumably rare 
Megoura vicice, Buck., were found very commonly feeding upon 
the pods and stems of one plant of Lathyrus pratensis in a meadow 
near Easton Park on August 17th last. Early in June Rhopalo- 
siphum ribis, Linn., has been found in hundreds in all its stages 

s2 



212 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

in leaves of Ribes nigrum in my garden ; these they curl, and the 
habitation so formed also gives protection to Syrphid larvae, which 
work great havoc among these Aphids. Three of the latter pupated 
on the 8th, and became perfect Syrphiis ribesii, Linn., towards 
the end of the month.* R. nyjjiphcece, Linn., was abundant on 
the stalks of Alisma plantago in July, and also on Nymphcea alba 
in August in the moat which surrounds my house, both this and 
last year, but among thousands of the apterous forms I could find 
but a single winged specimen ; I omitted to breed the parasitic 
Cynipid (not Braconid, cf. Buckton, ii. 153), Allotria erythro- 
cephala, said to so extensively and beneficially prey upon it. A 
very few winged females and pupseonly of jR. ligustri, Kalt., were 
taken on August 2nd, 1907, on the under side of leaves, just 
below the flowers, of Lignstrum vulgare. Exclusively winged 
forms of Siphocoryne pastinacea, Linn., have been found on the 
flower-stalks of wild Daucus carota, both here and in the adjacent 
parish of Bedfield, in early August ; also on broad beans in my 
garden in early June. S. xylostei, Schr., is a curse on Lonicera 
periclyvienum over the house-windows, though, curiously enough, 
honeysuckle in the garden and orchard a hundred yards away 
appears exempt ; in such numbers are they that in 1906 the 
flowers were all distorted and aborted. S. caprea, Fabr., occurs 
commonly at the apex of the shoots and sparingly in the centre 
of the under side of young leaves of Salix alba, like S. xylostei, 
throughout the summer. The only S.foeniculi I have seen are 
three examples, one of which was " stung," on fennel at Dun- 
wich, by the roadside, in the middle of last September. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES ON SOME ANDALUSIAN BUTTEKFLIES. 
By W. G. Sheldon, F.E.S. 

That most delightful experience, a spring holiday on the 
Mediterranean, has become an annual necessity to those of us 
whose pursuits are entomological or otherwise, and who have 
once tasted its joys. 

We all, of course, first make for the Riviera, and revel in the 
sunshine and in the clouds of butterflies there to be found from 

-''■ William Kirby wrote Letter IX. of the ' Introduction to Entomology,' 
and it must be Barbam Parsonage, Suffolk, to which he refers when he says 
(7th ed. p. 152): — "It was but last week that I observed the top of every 
young shoot of the currant-trees in my garden curled up by myriads of these 
insects. On examining them this day, not an individual remained, but 
beneath each leaf are three or four full-fed larvae of aphidivorous flies, sur- 
rounded with heaps of the skins of the slain, the trophies of their successful 
warfare." Evolution seems slow in these matters. Perhaps their government 
is not "progressive " ! 



NOTES ON SOME ANDALUSIAN BUTTERFLIES. 213 

March to May; but a very few holidays so spent exhaust the 
novelty of even the numerous species of this favoured clime, and 
we sigh for new worlds to conquer. 

After the " cote d'azur " one's thoughts naturally fly to 
Andalusia, for one gathers from ' Baedeker ' that the cHmate is 
at least as enjoyable, and favourable to the production of spring 
butterflies, as the shores of the French Mediterranean; at 
Granada, Cordova, and elsewhere, exist magnificent remains of 
a civilization which a thousand years ago was the most advanced 
in the world ; the peerless Sierra Nevada, rising some 12,000 ft. 
out of the sea, is there; and there Europe makes its nearest 
approach to the tropical in climate, producing sugar-cane, 
custard-apples, and other fruits and plants in profusion, whilst, 
most important of all from one point of view, certain charming 
Diurni are in Europe only found there, and of those occurring 
which are found in Europe outside Spain several have forms 
peculiar only to that country. 

Andalusia all the winter had been the subject of my medita- 
tions, and arrrangements being made, I left England accom- 
panied by my wife and daughter on April 2nd last, travelling by 
the long overland journey via Barcelona and Madrid. 

Stoppages at these and other places made it the 12th of 
April before we reached Andalusia, at Cordova, where we stayed 
a couple of days to see the mosque and other sights. I did not 
do any actual collecting at Cordova, but found the environs very 
pretty and, incidentally, saw a good many butterflies, including 
Euchloe eiiphenoides, and something that looked liked Anthocharis 
belemia ; no doubt good work could be done by devoting a little 
time there. On the 14th we journeyed on to Ronda, some six 
hours ride by rail, where we contemplated staying a week. 

Eonda is very beautifully situated in the midst of a grand 
amphitheatre of mountains, at a height above the sea of about 
2500 ft. ; the town is cut in two by a fine gorge, formed by the 
river Guadalevin, 850 ft. deep, and spanned by a bridge of a 
single arch. Eonda has other features not so inviting ; the 
usual adjuncts of sanitation are practically non-existent, and it 
is certainly the most malodorous town I have ever stayed in ; 
the occupation of a large portion of the adults, and practically 
of all the children, consists of mendicity, and they are most 
pertinacious and annoying in the exercise of their profession. 
Vultures abound, and it is a grand sight to watch these immense 
birds come sailing up the huge gulf in the mountains below the 
town, to see if any horses have been thrown out of the bull-ring 
for them to feed upon. The weather, which had been magni- 
ficent for weeks previous to our arrival, broke up on the day we 
came, and for four days I did not see an insect fly ; on the 19th, 
however, the sun rose in a cloudless sky, and having well 
explored the ground previously, I started betimes ; it was well I 



214 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

did so, for the sky gradually clouded over, and in the early after- 
noon the sun was hidden for the day. The best, and probably 
the only good collecting ground at Eonda, is to be found on the 
right bank of the Guadalevin, some mile and a half below the 
town, immediately where the river leaves the meadows and 
enters a gorge ; this ground extends down the bank of the river 
a mile or more, and is especially good on the top of the cliffs 
just before the river enters the gorge ; it is best reached by 
walking along the top of the cliffs, past the Hotel ' Eeina 
Victoria,' and the new cemetery. On this spot butterflies were 
very numerous, the most abundant species being easily the very 
local Anthocharis tagis, which of course in its type form is in 
Europe peculiar to Southern Spain. A. tagis has much the 
habits and flight of the Provence form of the species, var. hellezina, 
like it floating slowly along the edge and upper portions of the 
precipices it haunts, though one meets with it more sparingly on 
the lower slopes and down by the river. It is said by Lang and 
Kane to feed upon Iberis pinnata ; I do not know this plant, but 
an Iberis, white, about sis inches in height, and not very far 
from the old garden candytuft, was growing, wherever I saw the 
butterfly at Eonda and elsewhere. The female settled upon it 
repeatedly, but though searching carefully I could not find any 
ova ; I did, however, find a larva, which fed up and pupated ; 
this larva and pupa closely resembled the description of A. tagis 
given in Lang, though it might have been A. belemia. Unfortu- 
nately it has since died, so the question of its identity will not be 
solved. I have, however, little doubt but that this Iberis is the 
food-plant of A. tagis in Spain; the specimens captured, some 
thirty in number, were in very good condition. With this 
species, flew, in less numbers, another Andalusian speciality, 
A. belemia, the only typical specimens I saw in Spain, and its 
var. glauce. I think A. belemia is the swiftest winged butterfly 
I have ever viewed flying; those who have seen A. belia on the 
wing will appreciate what I mean when I say that in my judg- 
ment A. belemia could give the other species twenty yards in a 
hundred ; it is of course quite useless to attempt to run it down, 
but this butterfly becomes an easy victim once its habits are 
known. Like other Diurni, it has a weakness for flying along 
the edge of a ridge, or, better still, round and round a knoll ; one 
can stand there and intercept it in flight quite comfortably, and 
one may strike again and again without in the least alarming it. 
Thais rmnina was common, but most of the specimens were in 
bad condition ; I saw but missed a fine deep yellow form, which 
could not be far from ab. canteneri, and was certainly the best 
form I saw in Andalusia. Most of the T. rumina one sees in 
collections have the ground colour of the wings very little, if at 
all, more richly coloured than those of the French form var. 
medesiaste, and very few of them are of so strong a yellow tint as 



NOTES ON SOME ANDALUSIAN BUTTERFLIES. 



215 



the figure in Lang's book ; of the specimens I obtained in 
Andalusia, not more than twenty per cent, would resemble the 
example figured in depth of colour. A species tha,t I did not 
expect to meet with here was Melanargia ines, of which I netted 
a few males. Anthocharis belia was common, examples both of 
the first and of the second broods were captured in some 
numbers. Euchloe euphenoides occurred not infrequently down 
by the river in the gorge, and two or three battered specimens of 
Papilio podaiirius var. feisthamelii flew wildly on the top of the 
cliffs. Of other species I noted Pontia daplidice var. bellidice 
common, and Pararge megcera and a skipper I have not yet been 
able to name ; it is of the Hesperia alveus group, but is not 
H. alveus. 

The following morning, April 20th, looked equally promising, 
early, and this being my last day at Konda, I decided to devote 
it to a search for Cupido lorquinii, which my friend Mr. E. F. S. 
Tylecote met with some years ago not infrequently in the 
mountains some four or five miles east of the town ; this proved 
a fatal error of judgment on my part, for, although_ the valley 
round Eonda basked in the sunshine all the morning, clouds 
soon gathered, and persistently hung round the summits I was 
amongst, and consequently my attempt resulted in a failure : 
this turned out to be even more disastrous than I then realized, 
for I did not succeed in meeting with C. lorquinii elsewhere in 
Andalusia. 

On April 21st we went on to Algeciras, where we stayed until 
the 29th. I did not find Algeciras a very fruitful locality for 
-Lepidoptera ; there were a few Anthocharis belemia var. glance, 
Thais rumina, Euchloe euphenoides, and some other species of 
general distribution, flying in the vicinity of the well-known 
waterfall, two miles back in the mountains ; and I netted a fine 
specimen of Pyrgus proto, and saw a very large hybernated 
example of Eugonia polychloros. The best ground for butterflies 
in the district is, undoubtedly, the very beautiful cork-woods of 
Almoraima, some nine miles inland ; these woods are many 
miles in extent, and are intersected in places with impassable 
swamps ; the ground containing many specimens is very 
limited in extent, and almost impossible to find unless you have 
a guide. I was, however, fortunate in meeting, on my first 
journey there, with Colonel Willoughby Verner, who resides at 
Algeciras during a portion of the year, and whose researches in 
Andalusian ornithology are so well known. Colonel Verner was 
out on an expedition after birds, and seeing I was a stranger 
most kindly took me in hand and piloted me to the best locality 
in the woods, which is some three or four miles east of the rail- 
way station, and consists of a group of kopjes, about 200 ft. 
high, and the valleys or depressions between them. Here I 
found Thais riimina abundant and in fine condition; Euchloe 



216 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



euphenoides also was common, and amongst the white Iberis 
noticed at Eonda Anthocharis tagis flew in some numbers ; these 
A. tagis were, however, a remarkable race, much larger than the 
Eonda specimens, and having an average wing expanse of 
45 mm., whereas the majority of the specimens taken at Eonda 
and Granada — the only other places I met with the species in 
Spain — did not average more than 38 mm. in expanse ; this 
large form had also a much more powerful and swift flight, and 
was, on the wing, not distinguishable from A. belia. Other 
species observed were Nomiades melanops, Pararge egeria, Poly- 
ommatus agestis, and Pontia daplidice. Colias edusa was common. 
Ep'mephele pasiphae was just emerging, and females were found 
on April 27th. Apart from the Lepidoptera, the cork-woods are 
well worth a visit for their wonderful avifauna. Thanks to 
Colonel Verner, I saw or recognized the notes of a great number 
of most interesting birds, including bee-eater, hoopoe, golden 
oriole, kite, and Egyptian vulture (on nest), and was informed 
that pairs of goshawk, Bonelli's eagle, marsh harrier, and other 
Eaptores were then nesting in the woods. 

In the Alameda gardens, at Gibraltar, the larvae and curious 
pupse of Zygcena batica were not infrequent on Coronilla glauca. 

The weather during my stay was very delightful, with a good 
deal of sun each day and a minimum shade temperature of about 
seventy-five degrees. 

On the morning of April 29th we travelled on to Malaga, a 
ten hours journey ; this route is a very attractive one, travers- 
ing some fine gorges, and with splendid mountain views most of 
the distance. As we approached Malaga the train passed for 
many miles through orange orchards, which loaded the air with 
the perfume of their blossom. Large birds of prey were seen 
at intervals, and a xDair of magnificent eagles hovered quite close 
to the train in a gorge a little to the south of Eonda, where they 
were evidently breeding. 

Malaga enjoys the highest mean temperature of any locality 
in Europe, and consequently produces certain tropical plants 
that are not grown elsewhere, including the sugar-cane, large 
plantations of which exist ; custard-apples and bananas are also 
extensively grown. The weather was cloudless during our stay, 
but abnormally hot for the time of the year, the shade tempera- 
ture each day running well up to ninety degrees, and on one day 
it reached ninety six degrees. 

The town is very dusty and insanitary, but the surroundings 
are picturesque ; it is better, therefore, to stay in the suburbs, 
and we found charming quarters at an English pension, the 
* Hacienda de Giro,' an old Spanish mansion situated in the 
midst of a beautiful tropical garden in the suburb of Caletas, 
about a mile and a half east of the town, and on the shore of 
the Mediterranean. I found butterflies in great abundance on 



NOTES ON SOME ANDALUSIAN BUTTERFLIES. 217 

all the hills that fringe the coast east of Malaga ; perhaps the 
best spot is reached by taking the electric tram towards the 
village of Palo, and getting off where the road crosses the bed 
of a torrent — dried up at this period of the year — about half a 
mile before Palo is reached, along the east side of this torrent, is 
a path leading to the foot-hills, which extend to within a few 
hundred yards of the coast ; the highest of these eminences has 
an altitude of about 1500 ft., and is a prominent object from all 
points of view in the neighbourhood. Working up the small 
hills until you come to this mountain, and then traversing its 
lower slopes, keeping a little to the west of the main peak, you 
find butterflies in swarms. Most prominent perhaps in point 
of numbers was Melanargia ines, both sexes of which were in the 
finest condition, and my captures included a remarkable aberra- 
tion with the under side of the right inferior clouded with black 
almost to its base. Closely following this species in point of 
numbers was Anthocharis belemia var. glance. Colias edusa was 
also in great abundance, and I saw or captured about a dozen of 
the var. helice. Wherever there was an outcrop of calcareous 
rock Thais riimina was an abundant species, including some 
richly coloured examples ; larvae were also plentiful on Aristo- 
lochia. On the bushy slopes, flying slowly, were Epinephele 
pasiphae and E. ida in profusion. On the summit of one of the 
lower slopes here I came across my first good specimen of Papilio 
\a,v. feisthamelii, which I should say is a rare species in Anda- 
lusia ; at any rate I did not see more than twenty examples 
altogether ; with one exception they were found flying round the 
summits of isolated knolls, after the habit of Papilio machaon ,- 
two specimens only were netted at Malaga, and a third was 
seen. Epinephele ianira var. hispidla was well out, and in some 
numbers. Odd examples of Pyrgus proto were taken. Newly 
emerged Gonopteryx cleopatra were flying on May 4th. Papilio 
machaon flew here and there, the examples being very typical, 
and showing no approach to var. aurantiaca. A few each of 
Lampides boetica, L. telicanus, and Nomiades melanops were 
taken. On one occasion, in the hope of finding Cupido lorqumii, 
I climbed to the top of the mountain, but did not observe it 
there, and only came across, in smaller numbers, the species 
found on the lower slopes. 

May 7th found us training on to classic Granada. 

Granada is situated at the foot of the Sierra Nevada, at a 
height of about 2200 ft. ; outside the town, to the south and west, 
stretches the celebrated vega, a level plain irrigated throughout, 
and producing wonderful crops of corn, forage, and fruit. The 
Alhambra Palace and Fortress occupy the end of the aforesaid 
spur, which at its extremity is almost 500 ft. high, and occupies 
the angle between the rivers Darro and Genii. As the best, and 
practically only collecting-ground within easy walking distance 



218 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

is this spur, it is best to stay at one of the pensions within the 
grounds of the Alhambra, or at the hotel * Washington Irving,' 
just outside. The weather whilst we were at Granada was very 
fine, with practically cloudless skies, but, to us, abnormally hot 
for the time of the year, for several days the shade temperature 
running up to ninety degrees, though for the remainder of our 
stay it was normal — say seventy-five degrees. 

(To be continued.) 



A WEEK IN BROADLAND. 
By C. E. Eaven. 

One of the greatest charms of insect-hunting is its uncer- 
tainty. If only we could pre-arrange the weather, our handbooks 
and lists of localities would be an accurate enough guide to rob 
the pursuit of its fascination. As it is, though one can be confi- 
dent of success in some few cases, most of us have to look back 
upon night after night of cold dismal nothingness — a striking 
foil to the few " purple patches " of the lepidopterist's career. 

It is such a purple patch that my week's holiday in the 
Norfolk Broads will always be. 

We started, three of us, on August 1st, after a journey notable 
only for its abundance of infants and scarcity of porters, in a 
wherry from Wroxham. My friends were not entomological, 
and, though I had secured such information as I could from a 
kindred spirit who had worked a part of the district, I had 
brought few hopes of collecting and little apparatus — nothing 
more in fact than a couple of dozen boxes, a cyanide bottle, net 
and setting-case — the latter half full of captures taken or bred 
in the preceding week — and an acetylene cycle lamp, which has 
helped to catch many things. 

On Saturday night (August 1st) we got down below Wroxham 
Bridge, and moored on the left bank alongside of a rough field. 
Here about six o'clock I found Coenohia rufa and Scoparia pallida, 
neither of them abundantly. As I had only once previously 
taken C. rufa— a.i Chatteris — I netted some half-dozen. After 
supper, about eight o'clock, we sculled down to the reedy thicket 
between the River Bure and Wroxham Broad. Here I landed, 
and though the herbage was almost over my head I managed 
to capture eight or ten Lithosia griseola and var. stramineola — 
the latter somewhat more common — and five N. senex. The 
few Wainscots seen were all worn Leucania impura. Schoenohius 
mucronellus and Chilo phragmitcllns were the only other cap- 
tures. 

On the 2nd we sailed to Horning and down to the mouth of 



A WEEK IN BROADLAND. 219 

the Ant. I looked longinglj' at the good land we were leaving ; 
but my friends were eager to be at Barton regatta next day, and 
we passed through Ludham Bridge before mooring — in a hope- 
less locality which yielded nothing but a wonderful sunset over 
a land veiled in snowy drifts of mist. 

An entomological friend had written saying that he had done 
well on the banks of Stalham Dyke : so to Stalham we went next 
day (August 3rd). Again we passed what looked ideal country, 
to moor in a poorer place. But on the left hand side of the 
dyke at its mouth there is a ragged piece of swamp, bordered 
with reeds and studded with a few alders and sallows. Here I 
landed and found the whole place alive with C. rufa. They were 
fluttering up the grass and rushes in thousands. The place was 
very wet, and about ten o'clock a thick white mist made further 
collecting useless. About nine o'clock, however, I had secured a 
single Pelosia muscerda, and besides had boxed all the Noctuse I 
could not at once call Leucania impura or L. pallens. On 
examining these I found a fine typical Helotropha leucostigma, 
but of Wainscots there were only very abraded specimens of 
the two commonest species and L. lithargyria. 

Up to this point the days had been cloudless and gloriously 
hot, the nights misty and decidedly cold. On Tuesday, August 
4th, the weather looked like breaking: there was, as there had 
been, a good breeze : but the sky was overcast and there was 
thunder about. We moored at St. Benet's Abbey, just beyond 
the mouth of the Ant. On the right bank of the river the reeds 
had been cut to some distance from the water ; but on working 
inland I found an isolated patch certainly not more than twenty 
yards by five, uncut, but of small reeds. I reached this at about 
8.15, and netted a Noctua which whirled past me ; on boxing it 
in a glass-topped pill-box, I saw that it was L. hrevilinea. 
Several more followed ; I lit my lamp, and as dusk came on the 
sight was wonderful. Brevilinea swarmed, flying low over the 
rushes. Standing still, I caught six in two sweeps of my net, 
as they hovered over some attraction — probably a newly hatched 
female. I soon filled the miserable two-dozen boxes, and was 
reduced to bottling them. Unfortunately my bottle was weak, 
and took some time to act. So I determined to return to the 
boat, empty my boxes and sally out again. I did so, and came 
out with as many as I had been able to empty, with an addition 
of empty match-boxes, small bottles and cigarette tins. By now, 
at ten o'clock, the first flight had quieted down, though many 
were still on the wing. I examined the sallow and alder to see 
if the insects resorted to them, as Mr. South in his ' Moths of 
the British Isles ' reports. Probably there was an absence of 
honeydew — certainly there were no brevilhiea. Among the reeds 
they were easy to see, sitting about half-way up on the flat 
blades ; I noticed none at the reed-flowers, or at any other 



220 THIS ENTOMOLOGIST. 

blossoms — sitting thus, I secured three pairs, and filled my 
boxes, taking also a few very white Tapinostola fulva. This 
insect at first surprised me. Previously near Crowborough, in 
Sussex, I have taken only the red form and that in late September. 
Here I saw no red ones, though the insects were obviously fresh. 
The night, which had been good for moths, had been equally good 
for mosquitoes (I had been too busy to care for them), but after 
my second excursion I felt that enough had been done and suffered. 
I turned in, the proud possessor of forty-four L. hrevilinea, five 
white T. fulva, and a typical H. leucostigma. 

The next day I could hardly see or walk — the mosquitoes had 
feasted royally — and setting occupied much of my time. Wind 
and rain detained us at Potter Heigham Bridge, and the night 
was too stormy for mothing. 

On August 6th we went down to Acle and then beat back to 
St. Benet's. The night was very windy ; but I meant having 
another try at hrevilinea. To my disgust I found my tiny reed- 
patch laid in swathes, and from its stubble I got nothing at alh 
There was a howling gale, but among the uncut beds I managed 
to net some dozen specimens during their dusk flight, under the 
lee of such bushes as there were. ' Then commenced the search. 
It is extraordinary how a small acetylene lamp brings out moths. 
I have not got a good eye for spotting them by day, but that 
night I fancy very few that came within the five-yard circle of 
my lamp escaped me. The reeds were waving furiously — boxing 
was no easy matter. But by leisurely searching between nine 
and ten o'clock I brought up my total for the night to twenty- 
five hrevilinea and one H. leucostigma v^r.fihrosa. After that my 
eyes were so dazzled with the constant flicker of the reeds that 
I gave up the search —in fact I could not have seen a moth had 
one been sitting in front of me. Neither on August 6th nor on 
the 4th did I see any P. muscerda. Lithosia var. stramineola and 
a few common Geometers were all else that I noticed. 

The next day we returned to Wroxham, having long journey- 
ings before us for Saturday. I turned out at dusk to try the 
rough field opposite the mooring-place above the bridge, fell 
headlong through a screen of cut rushes into two feet of mud, 
and returned with nothing better than two L. stramineola and one 
Noctua umhrosa. Just as we were turning in a moth flew to our 
lamp and sat on the cabin wall. It was a last L. hrevilinea, but 
whether an escape from the previous night's boxes or a genuine 
Wroxham specimen, I do not know. It was our farewell to 
Broadland, 



221 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELITMA. 
By George Wheeler, M.A., F.E.S. 

(Continued from p. 201.) 

The under side hind wing, speaking generally, consists of 
five bands,* three lighter and two darker, all narrowly edged 
with black, but each of these bands has its own characteristics, 
which often help in determining the different species. The ter- 
minal light band consists of two parts, a narrow edging, bordered 
on each side, as in the fore wing, by a still narrower black line, 
and a row of light lunules, the edging being usually darker than 
the lunules. This band turns the corner, as it were, of the anal 
angle, and appears as a triangular light spot, the inner line of 
the border being sometimes absent. The outer dark band is also 
divided into two parts, consisting of a row of lunules and of the 
small irregular spaces between these and the black outer edging 
of the central light band. This latter again consists of two 
portions divided irregularly by a narrow dark line and broken 
up into spots by the nervures, the inner division, except in deione 
and asteria, being of a somewhat darker shade than the outer. 
The third and fourth spots of the outer portion, counting from the 
costa, stand out further from the base than the rest, conspicu- 
ously so except in varia, and to an exaggerated degree in hrito- 
martis. The inner dark band is much widened out in the centre, 
where it contains a spot of the colour (or of one of the shades) 
of the lighter bands. This we will refer to as the " light spot." 
The basal light band consists of five spots, of which the lowest, 
that on the inner margin, is frequently absent, the central one 
being the smallest (usually much the smallest), the diminution 
in size corresponding with the swelling in the centre of the 
inner dark band, the light spot in which has a tendency in all 
the species to break occasionally into the small central spot of 
the basal band. The actual base of the wing is again behind 
this band, and is cut up by the nervures into four spots, of 
which, as a rule, only the third (which is roughly triangular, the 
base resting on the fourth spot of the basal band) is at all con- 
spicuous; sometimes, however, when the central spot of the basal 
band is unusually small, the second spot is easily distinguish- 
able ; the fourth, though much the largest and frequently invading 
the whole area of the fifth spot of the basal band, is incon- 
spicuous, as it has the appearance, especially when this fifth 
spot is absent, of being a continuation along the inner margin 
of the inner dark band. The light bands will be referred to as 
the " terminal," " central" and " basal" the dark bands as the 

* It is confusing to speak of either the dark or light bands as the ground 
colour as many authors do. If either be so, it must be the light part, as seen 
in the didyma-group. 



222 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

" outer " and " inner.'" The fringes on both sides of both wings 
are yellowish white, chequered with black or blackish. 

Beyond the passages already quoted there seems to be little 
help towards finding distinguishing marks between these species 
in the earlier lepidopterists. Ochsenheimer distinguishes j)ar- 
thenie from athalia by (1) its smaller size ; (2) its longer wing- 
form and finer markings ; (3) its later emergence, and absence 
from many of the localities of athalia. Like most, if not all, of 
his predecessors and contemporaries, he ignores the fact that it 
is double-brooded, and emerges before as well as after athalia. 
Berce, Bergstrasse, Boisduval, Borkhausen, Duponchel, Esper, 
Freyer, Godart, Herbst, Herrich-Schaffer, Hiibner, Knoch, 
Latreille, Schiffermiiller, Schneider, Wallengren, and others 
have been tried in vain ; but Meyer-Dur's illustrations show 
that in his time (1851) the terms athalia, parthenie, and aurelia 
were used — in Switzerland, at any rate — in precisely the sense 
in which they are used to-day. Modern authors, too, are but of 
little assistance in this matter. Neither Frey nor Favre give 
descriptions ; I have found nothing to elucidate the matter in 
Oberthiir ; and, turning to English authors, matters are even 
worse. Lang's descriptions are slight and his distinctions not 
reliable ; Kirby's are somewhat fuller, but unfortunately are not 
consistent with facts ; and even Kane is neither so clear nor so 
correct as one always expects to find him, a fact of which he 
himself makes full acknowledgment. A fairly exhaustive (and 
wholly exhausting) search through the entomological journals 
has revealed little but regrets and complaints at the difticulty of 
the group, the most valuable remarks in the English journals 
being contained in Kane's note in the * Entomologist ' for 1886, 
p. 145, on the instability of the species of this group, though I 
cannot concur in his theory as to the relationship of the plain 
and mountain forms, which, however, has strong advocates. To 
all this one grand exception stands out in the person of Piiihl, 
who, in the ' Societas Entomologica,' has a monumental work 
on the subject, extending through six numbers in its fourth year 
and ten in its fifth. Of course he also deals at length with 
these species in his Palsearctic Butterflies, but for our present 
purpose his work in the ' Societas Entomologica ' is the more 
valuable. This paper deals nominally with three species only — 
athalia, parthenie, and aurelia ; but, as it includes herisalensis 
under the first, varia under the second, and britomartis under 
the last, we are left with only three forms — asteria, dictynna, 
and the typical deione — untouched, and these, generally speak- 
ing, the most easily distinguished. Parts of this paper I have 
embodied in the following descriptions of the various species, to 
much more I shall have to refer when speaking of the variation 
of the group ; at present I must content myself with certain 
definite acknowledgments, and a few criticisms of the points on 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELIT^A. 223 

which I cannot follow his lead. First, then, it was this paper 
which first drew my attention to the value of the shape of the 
second line (the inner subterminal) on the fore wings as a dis- 
tinguishing mark. Secondly, Kuhl's remarks on the shape of 
the lunules in the outer dark band on the under side hind wing 
of aurelia were most valuable to me, as confirming the opinion I 
had already formed on this subject. He compares them thus 
with those of parthenie (which are practically identical in shape 
with those of athalia) : — " The second row of lunules — i. e. the 
inner one — in parthenie consists of clear highly-arched bows, 
which, with the exception of that nearest to the anal angle, 
exhibit a continuous band, even, large, and completely formed. 
This band is also present in athalia and aurelia, but in the latter 
the form of the arches is essentially different. Amongst all my 
aurelias I did not find one which had all the arches of this band 
fully developed as in _pari/je?iie. . . . The well-arched lunules of 
parthenie reach a maximum height of 2 mm., and are not less 
than 1 mm. ; in aurelia, even in the female, they do not reach a 
maximum of more than 1 mm. Instead of the even, rounded 
half moons of parthenie, they appear in aurelia more or less 
levelled, and with the corners taken off." Whilst on this subject 
I may add that Birkman says that the markings on the under 
side hind wing of aurelia are fainter than those of parthenie ; 
this Kiihl says he fails to see, but it is certainly true of the 
female, at any rate. Perhaps my greatest debt to Kiihl is in the 
matter of hritomartis. His description first set me on the track 
of this species in the case of the Eeazzino specimens, and it is 
to him that we owe the recovery of Assmann's example to the 
National Collection, as previously mentioned. To come to a 
few details : he quotes from Meyer-Dur, as a distinctive mark of 
the female parthenie, a light yellow spot near the apex of the 
fore wing ; this, he says, also occurs sometimes in athalia, and 
even in aurelia. This is certainly the case, and I may add that 
its presence is by no means universal in the case of parthenie. 
He gives as a good distinction between the males of athalia and 
dictynna that in the former the aborted fore legs are long and 
strongly hirsute, in the latter short and ill- clothed. It must, 
indeed, be a rare case in which it is necessary to resort to this 
distinction. When he speaks of the resemblance between these 
two species he is apparently alluding to the shape of the mark- 
ings, and is doubtless, in this case, correct ; but the under side 
of the hind wing would at once dispel any doubt as between these 
two species. He says that the colour of the palpi, the hair of 
the under side of the body, and the colour of the aborted fore 
legs have all been taken as distinguishing features ; but he dis- 
trusts them all. Yet he speaks of the palpi as being a good 
distinction between athalia on the one hand, and aurelia and 
parthenie on the other. Here I am quite unable to follow him, 



224 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

as the palpi of aurelia, though they have their own distinctions, 
approach much nearer to athalia than to parthenie. He also 
states that parthenie, as a rule, has not less suffusion than 
athalia ; but, taking the latter species from all its localities, in 
some of which the suffusion is slight, j^et thirty per cent, would 
still be more heavily marked than jmrthenie, unless in the latter 
varia is included, an inclusion which would also throw light on 
the question of the palpi, those of varia approaching more closely 
to aurelia than to j^^^^'thenie . His comparison of the markings 
from the base of the fore wings of aurelia outwards, on the under 
side, to the letters G, U, R is certainly fanciful — I have rarely 
been able to force my imagination into seeing the resemblance — 
and on his own showing it breaks down as a test, since it occurs 
also in athalia and parthenie. It cannot, however, be too strongly 
insisted upon that no single test will hold good every time, and 
that it is only by the multiplication of small tests that we can 
arrive in all cases at tolerable certainty as to the parentage of a 
given specimen. It is for this reason that I offer no apology for 
the frequent use of the words " generally," "usually," *' often," 
" sometimes," &c., which will be found in the following descrip- 
tions with somewhat wearisome iteration. 

We will now proceed to these individual descriptions, in which 
I have employed the terms previously explained, confining myself, 
by way of abljreviations, to the very intelligible " up. s., un. s." 
for upper and under side, and " f.w., h.w." for fore and hind 
wing. 

Deione,''' — Up. s. f. w. : Border sometimes divided, showing a line 
of the ground colour. All the black markings are generally narrow. 
The inner subterminal line is almost straight in its lower two-thirds. 
Elbowed line continuous, and generally not very much bowed in- 
wards. Marginal blotch often reduced to two small V marks placed 
thus > <:, often, however, joined by a black line, or even making a 
small italic x placed horizontally, sometimes, however, merely a l:)lack 
patch. Stigma more or less oval, and filled in with the ground colour, 
which is a bright lightish golden brown ; basal lines distinct on both 
sides of the median nervure. In the female the upper lunules are 
generally, and tlie ground colour between the inner subterminal and 
elbowed lines frequently, conspicuously lighter than the rest of the 
ground colour. 

Up. s. h. w. : Border rather broad. Black markings generally 
narrow, the inner line being the thickest, the outer often very fine. 
Extra line complete and generally double, the discal spot being often 
continued above, or below, or both, into a band or part of a band. 
Very little basal suffusion, the basal spot being therefore incon- 
spicuous ; it has often another single or double spot of the ground 
colour on its inner and a band of the same on its outer side. 

* These remarks refer to the French specimens ; the Spanish are often 
nearer to var. berisalensis. 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELIT^A. 225 

Un. s. f. w. : The inner edging line of the border often forms part 
of a series of very flattened, narrow, black or brown triangular spots. 
Lunules very narrow and inconspicuous. All the black markings 
generally narrow. Outer subterminal line inconspicuous on account 
of its narrowness, but broadest near the anal angle ; inner only con- 
spicuous near the costa. Elbowed line generally represented by four 
costal spots (the uppermost being sometimes prolonged into a dash), 
though sometimes distinct throughout. Marginal blotch generally 
only a small black streak, though sometimes V, Y, or cc-shaped. 
Stigma and basal lines faint. 

Un. s. h. w. : Inner edging line of border generally slightly angu- 
lated, often brown, and sometimes very faint. Lunules of terminal 
band narrow and inconspicuous ; orange lunules of outer band sur- 
rounded, except towards the outer margin, more or less broadly with 
lighter shade. Costal part rarely less distinct than the rest. Both 
parts of central band of the same shade. The light spot is roughly 
triangular, the point resting on the fourth spot of the basal band, the 
central spot of which is generally small in the male, and the fifth 
absent. 

Var. BERisALENSis. — Up. s. f. w. : Lunules small ; two light costal 
spots between the two subterminal lines, the inner of which is almost 
straight in its lower two-thirds. Elbowed line not very thick, but 
continuous, and not much bowed inwards ; marginal blotch shaped 
something like a small italic x placed sideways^ thus b , or a Y placed 
in the same manner and opening outwards. Stigma oval and filled 
in with ground colour, which is much darker than in the type. Basal 
lines distinct on both sides of the median nervure. In the female the 
upper lunules are generally, and the ground colour between the inner 
subterminal and elbowed lines occasionally, lighter than the rest of 
the wing. 

Up. s. h. w. : Border very broad, often nearly filling in the lunules 
and joining the outer line. Inner line clearly defined and rather 
thick. Extra line complete and clearly defined on the outside, 
making two distinct row^s of spots of the ground colour. Basal 
suffusion almost confined to the lower half of the wing, so that the 
basal spot is not conspicuous, and often has another single or doulile 
spot of the ground colour on its inner, and the upper half of a band 
of the same on its outer side. The discal spot occasionally coalesces 
with the extra line, but usually gives the appearance of a division of 
this line, making an "island" of the ground colour. 

Un. s. f. w. : The inner edging line of the border forms a series of 
eight black lunules, of which the second, third, and sixth are the most, 
and the seventh and eighth the least conspicuous." Outer subterminal 
broadest and most conspicuous towards the anal angle ; inner only 
conspicu.ous on the costa. Elbowed line represented by four costal 
spots, of which the uppermost is sometimes prolonged into a dash. 
Marginal blotch generally shaped like a Y placed horizontally. Stigma 
and basal lines generally faint. 

Un. s. h. w. : Inner edging line of border carries a row of black 
lunules, sometimes very small, oftener large and conspicuous. The 
second and generally the first spots of the outer band are only slightly 

ENTOM. SEPTEMBER, 1908. T 



226 THE BNTOMOLOQIST. 

less distinct than the rest. Both parts of the central hand are of the 
same shade. The light spot is distinctly triangvilar, with its point 
resting on the fourth spot of the basal band. The central spot of this 
band is generally very small, and the fifth absent. 

Athalia. — Up. s. f. w. : Exceedingly variable in the breadth of the 
black lines, but the subterminals are usually rather thick and much 
less clearly defined than in deione. The inner subterminal is bowed 
inwards and again outwards in its lower two-thirds. This is yet 
more markedly the case with the elbowed line. The marginal blotch 
is frequently large and thick, but occasionally almost wanting. The 
stigma is long and narrow, and usually more or less completely filled 
up with black. The basal lines are usually only conspicuous above 
the median nervure, and the space between them is often filled more 
or less with black. The basal suffusion is generally of considerable 
extent. 

Up. s. h. w. : Most of the row of lunules are generally clearly 
defined ; when otherwise, it is due to the encroachment of the outer 
line rather than the border. Breadth of black lines very variable. The 
extra line is frequently, and the discal spot sometimes, absent, or very 
shghtly indicated ; both are often included in the basal suffusion. 
The basal spot is more or less circular, generally very conspicuous, 
and most rarely invaded by the basal suffusion. 

Un. s. f. w. : Lunules normally light, but sometimes almost of the 
ground colour except at the costa ; the two lowest spots generally 
approach the ground colour ; sometimes one or two, sometimes a 
whole row of lighter spots appear inside the outer subterminal line. 
The inner edging line of the border is generally arched between the 
nervures, but has not the black lunules of berisalensis. The outer 
subterminal line is very conspicuous at the anal angle, the inner is 
rarely indicated except by a few dots near the costa. The elbowed 
line is generally represented by three, sometimes by four, or even a 
whole row of spots, and by a very variable marginal blotch. The 
narrow stigma and upper half of basal lines are distinct. 

Un. s. h. w. : Both edging lines of the border are more or less 
bowed between the nervures. The second and sometimes the first 
spot of the outer band are conspicuously less dark than the others. 
The inner part of the central band is always darker than the outer. 
The light spot is very variable in shape and size, but is rarely, if ever, 
of the shape of that of deione. The size of the central spot of the 
basal band is also very variable. The colour of the light bands 
varies in the male from silvery white to rich yellow, but in the female 
is always whitish. 

Parthenie. — The fringes are rather longer and more con- 
spicuously chequered than in athalia. 

Up. s. f. w. : The border is sometimes divided into two very 
narrow dark lines, with the ground colour showing between 
them, as on the under side. The third lunule does not project 
noticeably towards the base. The inner subterminal line is some- 
times only indicated, but when present, as is normally the case, 
it is further from the outer and nearer to the elbowed line than 
in any other species ; it is nearly straight in its lower two-thirds. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 227 

The elbowed line, though often distinct and sometimes very broad, 
is occasionally only represented by its costal third, and runs into 
the inner subterminal ; this I have never seen in atlialia, though 
it occurs occasionally in cmrelia and hritomartis. The marginal 
blotch is generally small, sometimes absent. The stigma is broader 
than in athalia, circular, oval, or reniform, most rarely filled in 
with black, but occasionally reduced to a streak. The basal lines are 
fairly conspicuous above the median nervure, having often the ap- 
pearance of a reniform stigma. 

Up. s. h. w. : The border is sometimes divided as in the fore wing ; 
the inner line usually further from the outer than in other species ; 
when this appears not to be the case it is because the outer is 
unusually broad. Extra line and discal spot rarely indicated, except 
by a central portion of the former, which forms the outer edging of 
a spot attached to the exterior of the inconspicuous basal spot. Basal 
suffusion almost confined to the lower half of the wing, and some- 
times wholly wanting. In the female, especially of the second brood, 
the ground colour of both wings often shows indications of the lighter 
and darker bands so conspicuous in the aurinia group. 

Un. s. f. w. : Inner edge of the border scarcely arched. Most of 
the lunules generally pale, the upper ones always so, and the ground 
colour between the subterminal lines generally paler than the basal 
portion, with at least one pale spot near the costa. Outer sub- 
terminal scarcely, if at all, more conspicuous towards the anal angle ; 
inner almost always visible, and often very clearly marked through- 
out its entire length. Elbowed line generally represented by three 
spots, but sometimes, especially in the second brood, traceable 
throughout. Marginal blotch small and pointing towards the apex. 
Stigma rarely well defined except in its lowest portion, and the basal 
lines do not extend beyond the median nervure. The basal dash 
often conspicuous in the male. 

Un. s. h. w. : Both edging lines more or less arched, but the degree 
varies greatly. The two upper spots of the outer band, especially the 
second, are generally of more undecided pattern than the others. The 
inner division of the central band is darker than the outer. Inner 
band often ill-defined, though the light spot is generally small and 
narrow. The central spot of the basal band is also small. There is, 
generally speaking, less contrast between the bands than in the other 
species. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSEEVATIONS. 

Gnophos obscueata var. mundata. — I have always understood 
that the fine white variety, with all the markings obsolete, except the 
transverse lines and lunules, which Mr. Prout has named ab. mun- 
data, was confined to the neighbourhood of Lewes, where it occurs 
rarely with the ordinary chalk form argillacearia. I was, however, 
informed last year that the form calccata (which is the name under 



228 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

which mundata has been sent out for years, although Staudinger 
gives the ground colour of his calceata as pale gray, while mundata 
is pure white) had been taken at Folkestone, but I cannot get any 
confirmation of this. It would be very interesting to hear if ab. 
mundata does occur elsewhere, and if so, in what proportion to the 
chalk type (argillacearia). — A. J. Wightman ; Ailsa Craig, Lewes. 

Lyc^na arion Pup^. — Mr. Percy Eichards, in a note dated 
July 24th, mentions that he found three other pupge under one stone, 
and in exactly the same position as those previously reported (antea, 
p. 204) ; that is, in little earthen cells. He adds that only one 
butterfly emerged, and that this was slightly deformed. 

Late Emergence of Agrion puella. — On my return from a 
week-end last Tuesday, I found that a female Agrion jniella had 
emerged in the interim. I was away from August 15th to 18th. 
This date seems to be a very late one for emergence of this 
dragonfly. — Harold Hodge ; Chapel Place Mansion, 322, Oxford 
Street, W. 

The Aphis-eating Caddis-fly. — I have waited with consider- 
able interest, not to say curiosity, for Mr. Arkle to respond to the 
invitation of Dr. Chapman to tell us the name of this aphis-eating 
caddis-fly, and to give us a description of its mouth-parts by which 
it performs this extraordinary feat ; for it would be an extraordinary 
feat for a caddis-fly, as it is well known that the Trichoptera take no 
solid food in the adult state, their mandibles being obsolete. In 
some genera the proboscis is well developed, and may quite likely be 
used for sucking sweet fluids. The probability is that Mr. Arkle 
mistook a Neuropteron, or possibly one of the Mecoptera (Panospidse), 
for a caddis-fly — most probably the former, as it is to this order that 
the aphis-lion belongs. This aphis-lion is the larva of Ghrysopa ; it 
destroys large quantities of aphides, and as the mouth-parts of the 
imago are free, with mandibles well developed, it is quite likely 
that they may also have a penchant for those enemies of the rose- 
grower. — -Campbell-Taylor; 7, Wellesley Eoad, Gt. Yarmouth, 
August 24th, 1908. 

Sparrows as Moth Catchers. — In view of the special interest 
which attaches to actual records of the observation of attacks on 
Lepidoptera by birds, I am induced to put together these few notes 
relating to a period covering some thirty-seven or thirty-eight years. 
In 1870 or 1871 the leopard moth was extremely common on the 
tree-trunks in the squares and parks of London. My mother, who 
was always keenly interested in collecting for me, boxed numerous 
specimens from Gordon, Euston, and other squares. She reported 
more than once that she had seen detached wings of the moth lying 
on the ground at the foot of the trees, but had never been able to 
ascertain what had attacked the insect. This observation was 
published by me about the date mentioned, with the conjecture that 
the enemy would most probably be found to be the sparrow. This 
has since been confirmed by my cousin, Mr. J. A. Einzi, who informs 
me that he has repeatedly seen the sparrow at work in Regent's Park, 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 229 

the birds actually climbing the trunk and devouring the body of the 
moth while the wings were allowed to fall to the ground. So far as 
concerns the sparrow, it is evident that Z. asculi is not a "protected" 
species, although the type of pattern and the leathery texture of the 
wings of this moth would suggest that, as regards insect foes as a 
whole, it enjoys more or less immunity from attack. The latest 
observation is due to my colleague. Professor E. G. Coker, who 
informed me last spring that, sitting in his study at Chingford, he 
heard one morning a fluttering on the window, and a greater com- 
motion outside. Thinking a moth was in the room, and wishing to 
secure the specimen for me, he went to the window and found a moth 
flying up and down on the window-pane between the glass and the 
inside blind, which was drawn down at the time. The commotion 
outside was caused by sparrows, a number of which were flying at 
the window, and trying to get at the moth protected from them by 
the glass. Prof. Coker boxed the moth and brought it to me, and it 
proved to be Plusia gavima. Had the moth Jieen outside the window 
instead of within its fate can be imagined. — R. Meldola; Craig View, 
Portpatrick, Galloway, N.B., August 21st, 1908. 

Gynandeous Agrotis puta. — It may interest some of your 
readers to record that I took a singularly perfect gynandromorphous 
specimen of Agrotis puta at sugar on the Deal sandhills last night — 
left side male, right side female. The antennae correspond with the 
wings, that on the left side being pectinated as in the normal male. 
From a superficial examination with an ordinary hand-lens, I should 
say that the genitalia of both sexes are present. The anal extremity 
presents a curious appearance, as there is a distinct trace of the male 
anal tuft on the left side, while the female ovipositor protrudes to 
the right. The female side is very dark, and this gives the insect 
a striking appearance, contrasting very strongly with the light 
male side. — P. A. Caedew (Capt. E.A.) ; St. Aldwyns, Park Avenue, 
Dover, August 25th, 1908. 

The Entomological Club. — A meeting was held, on May 12th, 
1908, at Stanhope, The Crescent, Croydon, Mr. T. W. Hall, F.E.S., 
in the chair. Mr. H. Rowland-Brown, M.A., F.E.S., nominated at 
the previous meeting, was elected a member of the Club. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

CoLiAs hyalb in South Devon. — On August 4th I saw a speci- 
men of C. hyale on the coast near Dawlish. — (Rev.) J. E. Tarbat ; 
Fareham, Hants. 

CoLiAs EDUSA IN EssEX. — On August 7th I saw about a dozen 
Colias ed'usa flying over lucerne fields at Wallasea, Essex. I captured 
one male, and one female which has the marginal spots almost absent. 
She laid a few ova on the 9th, but none during the following week, 
although fine sunny weather continued ; but on the 16th she again 



230 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

laid about three dozen, and about six dozen on the 17th; the two 
following days being sunless she has not moved. — F. W. Fkohawk 
August I9th, 1908. 

CoLiAS EDUSA IN SuEREY. — I captured a fine male specimen at 
Box Hill on August 8th last. — E. South. 

CoLiAs EDUSA, &c., AT SwANAGE. — At Kingston (four miles from 
here) Colias edusa seems fairly plentiful this year ; after fifteen 
minutes' sprinting, two weeks back, I secured a splendid specimen, 
but the others evaded me, and I find that if you miss once, they 
don't give one a chance for a second shot. Took two specimens of 
SmerintJms populi, which came to light ; this is the first time I have 
seen this insect here. Pyrameis carclui is in abundance here this 
year, as also are Vanessa atalanta and Argynnis aglaia. — Leonard 
Tatchell ; Karenza, King's Eoad, Swanage, August 27th, 1908. 

Colias edusa in Sussex. — As this insect has not been common 
in this neighbourhood for some years, I thought it might be interest- 
ing to record that about twenty specimens have been taken by myself 
and friends this season, of which the first was obtained on July 15th 
last. Surely rather an unusual date for this species ? — Guy E. H. 
Peskett ; Simla, Preston, Brighton, August 25th, 1608. 

I noticed on Monday, August 3rd, on the Willingdon Golf Links, 
near Eastbourne, a male Colias edusa. It was fiying low, and seemed 
to be in perfect condition. — Harold Hodge; Chapel Place Mansion, 
322, Oxford Street, W., August 20th, 1908. 

This has not been what might be termed a " Colias year," but I 
found Colias edusa more plentiful this year on the Sussex Downs 
than either last year or the year before. August 16th and 17th were 
brilliant days, and the collecting-ground chosen was a sheltered hill- 
side facing south, where the full heat of the sun could be felt, and 
with a clover field in immediate proximity. On August 16th I netted 
six specimens between 1 p.m. and 2.30 p.m., and on August 17th I 
added four more specimens, taken between 11 a.m. and 12.30 p.m. 
Of the ten specimens, eight were males and two females, and they 
appear all to be newly emerged, but three are slightly chipped. 
Perhaps other readers will be good enough to relate their this year's 
experience with Colias edusa. — R. T. Baumann ; " Normanhurst," 
Chingford, Essex, August 27th, 1908. 

Colias edusa near Norwich. — To-day, whilst out collecting, I 
saw a specimen of C. edusa fiying along a field which had just been 
cleared of wheat. — R. Laddiman ; 25, Drayton Road, Norwich, 
August 26th, 1908. 

Acherontia atropos in Norfolk. — Whilst at Ranworth on the 
20th of this month I had the good fortune to obtain a larva of 
A. atropos, which had been dug up in a potato field. This changed 
to a fine pupa on the 26th. — R. Laddiman. 

Acherontia atropos in Kent. — I have heard of several larvae of 
this species in the Isle of Sheppy, and an imago was taken last week 
on board the battleship ' Magnificent ' off Margate. — J. J. Jacobs ; 
Gillingham, Kent, August loth, 1908. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 231 

Plusia moneta in the Peterborough District.- — In answer to 
Mr. G. T. Nichol's query, it may interest him to know that on 
July 29th, 1904, I captured one specimen of P. moneta at light at 
Uppingham, Rutland. In North Cambridgeshire Mr. J. C. F. Fryer, 
of Chatteris, has never found it, but on July 27th of this year I took 
a specimen at Little Shelford, and I believe the species has been 
previously recorded not infrequently in South Cambridgeshire. — C. E. 
Raven ; 7, Durham Terrace, London, W. 

Plusia moneta in Northamptonshire.^ — Referring to Mr. G. T. 
Nichols's note in the August ' Entomologist ' on the occurrence of 
Phisia vioneta in Peterborough, it may interest your readers to know 
that the species was fairly common this year in my garden, where I 
secured both larvae and imagines. The cocoons were also fairly 
numerous this year in the garden at Tring Park. — N. Charles 
Rothschild ; Ashton Wold, Oundle, Northants, August 11th, 1908. 

Senta maritima, &c., in Sussex. — In reference to Mr. Wight- 
man's note in the August ' Entomologist,' I should like to say that I 
captured two fine specimens of S. maritima in a small reed-bed near 
Rye on August 3rd, 1907, and noted their capture in the Annual 
Report of the Hastings and St. Leonards Natural History Society. 
The species had not been previously recorded from the district. From 
the same reed-bed— some ten yards wide and forty yards long, and 
quite isolated — I have also taken L. straminea, C. phragmitidis, and 
N. geminiinincta. — C. E. Raven; 7, Durham Terrace, London, W. 

CosMiA pyralina AT CHESTER. — On the night of August 3rd I 
captured, at one of the Chester electric lamps, a fine fresh specimen 
of Cosmia j^yralina. This is the second record of the moth for the 
district, and it is curious that I should have been favoured with the 
first just twenty years ago (see Entom. vol. xxi. p. 318). — J. Arkle ; 
Chester. 

Calamia phragmitidis in Sussex. — I find that this species has 
not been previously recorded as occurring in Sussex. It may be of 
interest therefore to say that it was found by Messrs. Jarvis, Sharp, 
and myself to be quite plentiful in the valley of the Cuckmere and on 
the Pevensey Marshes, while a few specimens were taken on the 
Ouse near Barcombe. — A. J. Wightman ; Ailsa Craig, Lewes. 

Amphidasys betularia var. doubledayaria in Rutland. — Those 
of your readers who study the distribution of this melanic form in 
Britain will be interested to hear that this summer I took a female 
in this truly rural district of Rutland. I also bred a specimen last 
May from a larva found on black poplar the previous September. So 
far I have not come across the type. — -Harold Raynor ; Stoke Dry 
Rectory, Uppingham, August 13th, 1908. 

DiCYCLA GO in Richmond Park, Surrey. — I took two fine speci- 
mens of D. 00 in the park on July 11th, and saw two more examples, 
which I failed to capture. I understand that others have also 
obtained this species in the same locality. I may add that, with the 
exception of one specimen at light four years ago, D. oo has not been 



232 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

met with by myself in this neighbourhood since 1896. — Percy 
Richards ; 11, Queen's Road, Kingston Hill. 

County Corrections. — There are two records in the August 
' Entomologist ' from Bournemouth, neither of .which are geographi- 
cally correct, viz. Hyloicus liinastri, by Mr. Reynolds, at Branksome 
Park, Bournemouth, and Deilephila eupJiorhia, by Mr. W. G. Hooker, 
at Canford Cliffs, Bournemouth. Bournemouth is in Hants, whilst 
Branksome Park and Canfoid CHffs are both in Poole, and geographi- 
cally in Dorset ; the capture of the D. euphorhice having taken place 
at least one and a half miles inside the Dorset border. — W. Parkin- 
son Curtis ; Aysgarth, Poole, August 12th, 1908. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Transactions of the City of London Entomological and Natural His- 
tory Society for the year 1907. Published by the Society at the 
London Institution, Finsbury Circus, E.C. 

As we have noted in previous years when referring to this publi- 
cation, the items appearing under !' Reports of Meetings " (pp. 4-12) 
are interesting and instructive. The papers comprised in the volume, 
four in number, will be found most helpful to all who are in any way 
studying the subjects upon which they respectively treat. " The 
Variation of Entephria ccesiata" (pp. 21-32), by Mr. Prout, is ex- 
ceedingly valuable. Dr. Hodgson, in " Notes on A. bellargus, with 
references to Allied Species " (pp. 42-47), presents some interesting 
statistics. " Notes on the Wainscots " (pp. 32-40), by Mr. Edelsten, 
deals chiefly with the life-history of some of the fen species in the 
group. Accompanying Mr. Cockayne's " Notes from North Suther- 
land " (pp. 33-39) is a plate of photos of some varieties of moths he 
obtained in that remote corner of Scotland. In the Presidential 
Address, Mr. Mera remarks, among other matters, upon the varying 
effect of cold and dull weather on Lepidoptera reared in confinement. 



The Senses of Insects. By Auguste Forel. Translated by Macleod 
Yearsley, F.R.C.S. Pp. i-xvi and 1-324. With two Plates. 
London : Methuen & Co. 
Those who have been unable to acquire or to study Forel's ad- 
mirable work in the original will be grateful to the translator and 
publisher for the opportunity of adding this inexpensive and handy 
volume to their library. The subject-matter, originally published 
in five parts, at intervals of time, is here arranged in twelve chapters, 
in the eleventh of which is included experiments made by Dr. 
Forel on memory of time and association of memories in Bees 
(' Comptes rendus de I'Association Fran9aise pour I'avancement des 
Sciences ; Congr6s de Lyon,' 1906). 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XLL] OCTOBEE, 1908. [No. 545 

OVA OF KAPHIDIA NOT AT A (NEUROPTEEA). 

By G. T. Lyle. 

(Plate VII.) 

In the summer of 1907 I found a female of this, the largest 
of the four British species of the Eaphidiidte (snake-flies), one of 
the families of the Planipennia. The insect was crawling on 
the trunk of a tree {Pinus sylvestris) in Perry Wood, in the New 
Forest. I placed the specimen in a pill-box, and took it home 
with the intention of photographing it. On opening the box the 
next day I discovered that it had deposited six eggs in the 
crevice between the box and the lid, thus leading one to suppose 
that they are normally laid in the chinks of the bark. The eggs 
were conical in shape, and had a very short pedestal at the 
thicker end. They stood erect on this, and were in contact one 
with another, as is the case with the eggs of Sialis lutaria (the 
alder -fly). They were white in colour, and were covered with 
faint reticulations. The photograph of the imago is natural 
size ; that of the ova is magnified twenty diameters. 

Brockenliurst. 



JOTTINGS ON APHIDES TAKEN DURING 1907 and 1908. 
By Claude Mobley, F.E.S., &c. 

(Concluded from p. 212.) 

The genus Aphis is a long one, and many of its species are 
common. A. hrassicce, Linn., was forming large powdery masses 
on the flowers of Brassica oleracea on June 9th, and is still abun- 
dant there ; but I have seen no winged forms. At the same time 
last year I found a little cluster of four apterous A. cratagi, Kalt., 
on a leaf of Cratcegus oxyacantha in Framlingham Castle moat, 

BNTOM. — OCTOBER, 1908. U 



234 " THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

and on the same leaf a winged specimen, which however must, I 
think, be referred to A. pruni. On the same plant at Bedfield, 
early in August, A. edentula, Buck., was fairly common in all its 
forms on the terminal shoots. About one hundred A. suhterranea, 
Walk., were found on the root of a carrot on August 24th ; the 
root was distorted by them just below the surface. No winged 
forms were seen. Mallow has failed to produce.!, malvte, Fabr., 
but it occurred last year abundantly in my garden below the 
flower-heads of Achillea millifolium early in August, and among 
them was walking a remarkable black female Chalcid with 
flavous antennae and hind femora, contrasting strangely with 
dark tibiae ; its entire length is f mm. On June 1st, 1907, 
winged A. mali, Fabr., were somewhat common, with a few 
evacuated pupal skms, sitting on the under side of fully grown 
leaves of Pyrus mains, and on the 3rd the apterous females and 
larvae were found to be abundant in their curled apple-leaves, 
which they discolour ; larvae of Syrplius rihesii (which I bred), 
and, later, of Coccinella hipunctata, appeared to have entirely 
demolished the whole of this species by the end of July. A. urti- 
caria, Ivalt., was abundant in all its forms on stems of Urtica 
dioica on June 2nd, and what appears to be the same species 
occurred commonly on the new shoots of Riibusfruticosus, though 
only two winged specimens were seen on the latter food-plant. 
In rolled leaves of Primus spinosa, A. pruni, De G., occurred com- 
monly early in June, with a proportion of one winged to every 
score of apterous females. A. atriplicis was abundant in the 
salt-marshes at Southwold last September on Statice limonium 
and Aster tripoUum. A. hieracii (sic), Kalt., was last year first 
seen very rarely on leaves of Heradeum sphondylium on June 9th; 
by the middle of July it was common, and at the beginning of 
August excessively abundant in all its stages on the stems, just 
below the flower, of hogweed ; on July 26th, 1904, I observed a 
specimen of Bassus nemoralis investigating a brood of this Aphid 
in Ipswich ; it walked over the flowers without being attracted 
by them, and closely investigated the Apliids, but did not attack 
them in any way ;* I am able to assert that Stigmus solskyi 
certainly preys upon this Aphid, since I have seen this Fossor 
attack them upon the stem of a seedling plant in Ipswich on July 
28th and 29th {cf. Saunders, 'Aculeata,' p. 90; Prof. Poulton 
tells me he has further confirmation of the fact). A single plant 
of Epilohiiim hirsutum, among many, produced a dozen larvae and 
one of both forms of the female of A. epilohii, Kalt., in the middle 
of August. A. hederce, Kalt., first called my attention to this 
group of insects by crowding the shoots of Iledera helix cluster- 

* We have yet much to learn concerning the parasitism of the Scliizo- 
dontes upon aphiciivorov;s Syrphid flies, for which no doubt botli tliis specimen 
and the Bassus tarsatorius mentioned above searched among the Aphids 
{ef. Trans. Ent. Soc, Lond. 1905, pp. 419-438). 



JOTTINGS ON APHIDES. 235 

ing round the house-windows ; it is quite indifferent to light, and 
attacks with equal voracity sickly ivy-shoots in dark places ; 
Lasius niger is much attracted by it. Local guelder rose appears 
exempt from A. viburni, Schr., which was abundant on V. ojmlus 
in Mr. Morey's garden at Newport, Isle of Wight, at the end of 
June, 1907. A. rumicis, Linn., is one of our commonest kinds 
here, and bewilderingly omnivorous ; I first took the winged form 
singly in only half-uncurled apical leaves of Rumex acetosa ; all 
its forms were a pest to broad beans throughout last summer, 
and flew abundantly into one's eyes during the flowering season. 
Early in August it was common on Cniciis arvensis, formed black 
masses on some of the stalks of Petasites officinalis, swarmed on 
beet-plants, and a few females and pupae occurred on Hieracium ; 
I also took it at Norton Wood, Isle of Wight, on June 20tb, and 
received it from Fulham (London) in September. Thirteen of 
the distinct larvae of A. papaveris, Fabr., were clustered together 
on the under side of a leaf of Papaver rhoeas on July 30th, 1907, 
and three winged forms found on the same plant on June 8th 
may be identical. All the forms of A. pyri, Fonsc, were abun- 
dant in the curled leaves of Pijrus communis early in June. I 
have been quite unable to discover the common A. jacohcece, 
Schr., A. laburni, Kalt., and A samhuci, Linn., upon their respec- 
tive food-plants, though diligently searched ; nor have I detected 
any of the half-dozen Hyalopteri, except H. ariindinis, which 
was so abundant on all the reeds in salt-marshes about South- 
wold as to render the sweep-net quite heavy ; among them I de- 
tected Coccinella 11-punctata and great numbers of Bassus IcBta- 
torius, both apparently ovipositing. 

At the end of May Chaitophonts aceris, Linn., is abundant 
beneath the leaves of Acer campestris, in all its forms, mingling 
later with Drepanosiphum. Buckton says the alate C. salicivorus, 
Walk., is unknown in Britain, but on August 2nd last I suc- 
ceeded in securing three examples of it among myriads of the 
apterous form scattered all over the under side of leaves of Salix 
caprea ; one of the winged specimens was dead when found, 
though not parasitized. The common form was also seen at 
Southwold in September. In the middle of August C. leucomelas, 
Koch, is not uncommon in its curious flavous dome-shaped 
blisters both on the upper and lower sides of the leaves of 
Populus tremula at Monks Soham and Easton Park. The winged 
form of Calllpterus betulicola, Kalt., was excessively abundant on 
small birch-bushes in Tuddenham Fen, Suffolk, on May 6th. 
C. coryli, Goet., occurred commonly, though singly and sparsely 
scattered over the under side of hazel-leaves here early in last 
August ; the apterous form was then much the rarer. Two 
winged females and four pupae only had been previously taken on 
June 4th. It was also common at Easton Park in the middle of 
August, together with C. quercus, which I first found on oak- 

u 2 



236 THIfi ENTOMOLOGIST. 

leaves in my garden on June 4th, 1907, since which time it has 
been common singly, but much scarcer in the apterous condition. 
On August 27th, 1906, I swept the distinct C. castanece, Buck., 
from rough heath-grass in Tuddenham Fen ; it was quite com- 
mon there, and I brought home seven winged and nine apterous 
females. On the under side of (usually young) leaves of Alnus 
glutinosus near Easton Park, on August 17th last, winged Ptero- 
callis alni, Fabr.,were not rare, though only one apterous imago 
and but few larvae were seen.* P. tilia, Linn., I have twice cap- 
tured flying in July in Suffolk, at Ipswich and Kessingland. 
Here the winged form is solitarily abundant on the under side 
leaves of Tilia platyphyllos ; comparatively few appear to be 
** stung," and all the apterous forms are very scarce. The only 
P. j'uglandicola I have met with was on the leaf of a walnut-tree 
at Sibton Abbey, Suffolk, last September. Phyllaphis fagi, Linn., 
was in both years abundant in all its forms beneath the leaves of 
both old and young Fagus sylvatica at the beginning of June ; in 
late July I could find none, though I had noticed no foes of any 
kind. 

It appears conjectural whether the Lachnides group of the 
Aphidinae should include the two last-named genera, as ranged 
by Buckton, since the apical antennal joint is almost identical in 
CallijJterus, and the elongate legs of Lachnus are not represented. 
Of this genus, the presumably rare L. agilis, Kalt., is commonly 
beaten from Pinus sylvestris in the middle of August here, though 
but three winged forms have been seen. Many winged L. macro- 
cephalus, Buck., were beaten from Picea excelsa at Foxhall, near 
Ipswich, on July 4th, 1904 ; and Kirby and Spence say (Introd. 
7th ed. p. 185) that L. pini, Linn., used to be common in Mr. 
Sheppard's garden (he was curate at Nacton in the same neigh- 
bourhood, 1804-7). I have captured winged L. pinicolus, Kalt, 
in Bentley Woods, July 26th, 1897, and Easton Broad, Suffolk, 
June 3rd, 1905 ; at Wilverley, in the New Forest, and Parkhurst 
Forest, Isle of Wight, in June, 1907 ; and in the middle of 
August I have beaten the apterous form abundantly from Scotch 
fir in my garden, where were no winged individuals. Three 
hybernating females of L. viminalis, Fonsc, were found beneath 
the bark of Salix alba by the Gipping at Ipswich during the 
winter of 1894-5. Kirby says (Introd. 7th ed. p. 336) that he 
has taken Trama troglodytes, Heyd.= Aphis radicum, in the nest 
of Lasius flaviis — most probably at Barham. What I believe to 
be the undescribed (by Buckton) winged female of Dryohius 

* Buckton did not describe from living specimens. When alive vpinged 
P. alni are pale yellow, with the apex of the scutellum and two indeterminate 
transverse abdominal bands distinctly green ; the nectaries are entirely, and 
the tarsi apically, black ; the stigma of the wing is transparent, with its base 
and apex clouded ; and the basal trausverse nervure of the upper wing is 
much darker and more conspicuous than the remaining veins. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO SPECIKS OF EVANIA. 237 

roboris, Linn., was swept by Mr. Elliott and me in Parkhurst 
Forest and the Haven Street Woods, in the Isle of Wight, in 
June, beneath oaks in 1907 ; it is a beautiful insect, with black 
wings bearing an interrupted oblique apical line, a central band 
extending transversely across the disc, and the whole basal area, 
transparent ; the apterous form occurred with it. 

Of the Schizoneuringe, Schizoneura lanigera, Hausm., is only 
too common here and at Brandon, in North-west Suffolk, on the 
bark of Pyrus mains ; I have, however, seen none winged. 
Apterous S. fuliginosa, Buck., are equally abundant in downy 
masses, one behind the other, on the pinnules of Pinus sijlvestris, 
last August ; the earliest winged ones were seen on the 22nd. 
At the end of June, 1907, I took S. idmi, Linn., in all its forms 
in rolled and blighted leaves of elm in Mr. Morey's paddock at 
Newport, Isle of Wight, though a diligent search has failed to 
reveal it here. Perhaps the ubiquitous S. corni, Fabr., was the 
species said by Kirby to have occurred in incredible numbers in 
Ipswich in 1814 ; it is, at all events, often abundant there at 
Wherstead (October 29fch, 1903), and Barren Heath (September 
15th, 1901) ; the first one last year was noticed on August 22nd, 
and it occurred at Reydon, Suffolk, in September. I have seen 
no apterous forms, nor have I observed it upon Cornus sanguinca. 
I hope to do more with the three remaining small subfamilies 
anon. At present I can only mention Chermes laricis, Htg., of 
which I found eggs, larva3, and winged females abundantly on 
young Pinus larix, together with a large dead oviparous female 
and a Coccinellid larva, at Foxhall Plateau at the end of May, 
1907 ; it also is common on old larches in my garden here. Of 
the rest, I believe that the apterous pale Aphid taken by 
Mr. Chitty and me at Brandon, in the nest of Tetramorium 
ccespitum early in May last year, is Forda formicaria, Heyd. 

Monks Soham House, Suffolk: August 1st, 1908. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO SPECIES OF EVANIA FROM 

BORNEO. 

By p. Cameron. 

Evaiiia kucldngensis, sp. nov. 
Entirely black ; the wings almost hyaline, the nervures black, the 
head, pro- and mesothorax covered with silvery pubescence. _ Face 
closely, finely, distinctly punctured, the front and vertex shining, 
finely punctured, but not so closely as the face; there is a shallow 
furrow outside the raised inner orbits. Eyes with a distinct greenish 
colour, very slightly converging above ; the malar space long, half 
their length. Ocelli in a curve, the hinder separated from each other 



238 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



by a distinctly greater distance than they are from the eyes. Palpi 
black. Scape and pedicle of antennas as long as the fourth joint, 
which is about one-fourth shorter than the third. Prothorax finely, 
closely punctured, the lower half of the propleuraB irregularly striated, 
the striae almost forming reticulation. Middle lobe of mesonotum 
irregularly, somewhat strongly punctured, the punctures clearly sepa- 
rated and more numerous on the sides than on the centre ; the lateral 
lobes very minutely punctured, the base on the outer side with two 
outer and four inner foveas, the apical half along the sides furrowed. 
Scutellum, except in the centre, more strongly and closely punctured 
than the mesonotum. Upper basal half of mesopleurae smooth ; the 
rest with round clearly separated punctures ; the apex with a row of 
oblique stout strias. Metathorax closely reticulated. Hind tibiae and 
tarsi finely spinose ; the long spur of hind tibiae about one-fourth of 
the length 6i metatarsus. Metasternal forks strongly diverging, 
longish, stout. Apex of claws cleft ; the lower branch thicker than 
upper. 3" . Length, 7 mm. 

Kuching, Borneo (John Hewitt). 

The coxae and trochanters are covered vfith a silvery pile. The 
recurrent nervure is received beyond the transverse cubital. Abdo- 
minal petiole smooth and shining, . the sides pubescent ; the rest of 
the abdomen very smooth, bare, and shining. 

Evania Heivittii, sp. nov. 
Black ; the antennal scape and the basal joints of the fiagellum 
below and the fore tibise testaceous, the wings hyaline, the nervures 
black, the face and malar space somewhat strongly, closely striated, 
metasternal fork stout, straight, obliquely diverging ; hinder tibiae 
not spined ; the long spur of the hinder tibiae about one-fourth of the 
length of the metatarsus. Abdominal petiole in the middle closely 
but not strongly striated. <? . Length, 3-5 mm. 

Quop, October (John Hewitt). 

Apex of mandibles rufo-testaceous, the palpi testaceous, third 
antennal joint as long as the scape and as long as the fourth. 
Temples smooth and shining. Malar space about two-thirds of the 
length of the eyes. Mesonotum sparsely, the scutellum more closely 
and strongly punctured. Metanotum at the base with round, mode- 
rately deep punctures, and moderately close together ; the rest of the 
metathorax closely reticulated, except for a smooth triangular space 
below the wings. Mesopleurae smooth and shining above, the lower 
part slightly dilated and sparsely punctured. Abdominal petiole 
two-thirds of the length of the rest of the abdomen. Eadial cellule 
wide, the apical and basal absciss® of the radius curved ; the trans- 
verse basal and the recurrent nervures interstitial. The sides of the 
front are striated, its centre and the vertex smooth. Hinder ocelli 
separated from each other by a distinctly greater distance than they 
are from the eyes. Parapsidal furrows deep, curved. Head and 
thorax sparsely covered with short white pubescence, as are also the 
legs. Hinder coxae smooth, depressed and shining at the base, the 
rest opaque, somewhat strongly, irregularly punctured. 



239 



NOTES ON SOME ANDALUSIAN BUTTERFLIES. 
By W. G. Sheldon, F.E.S. 

(Concluded from p. 218.) 

There are several walks one can take on the Alhambra hill 
that afford good collecting ; perhaps the best is reached by pro- 
ceeding along the road past the ' Washington Irving ' as far as 
the cemetery ; skirting round this, taking the left-hand side, until 
you come to the far end, then taking a diagonal course down the 
slopes towards the river Genii until you get to the upper edge 
of the cultivated ground, and then walk up its valley for a mile or 
more, at the junction of the cultivated with the uncultivated 
ground. Another good locality is reached by taking the road to 
the left, about half-way between the * "Washington Irving ' and 
the cemetery, and following it for some two miles until you come 
to a plateau overlooking the gorge of the Darro ; no one should 
miss reaching this spot for the sake of the view alone, which is 
truly superb : the plateau, which is thickly overgrown with 
Cistus, Ilex, Cytisus, Dorycnium, and other kindred plants, 
extends for several miles, the whole of which is very good 
ground. This plateau can also be reached by taking the road 
last described and diverging from it a few hundred yards after 
you enter it from the ' Washington Irving ' road, at the first 
gorge that passes alongside it on the left. By crossing this 
gorge, and bearing up the hillside at the back of the Generalife 
Gardens and Palace, you come to the ridge of the Darro gorge, 
and by following this until you get to the plateau you find not 
infrequently Papilio var. feisthamelii, the only locality I could 
meet with it at Granada. 

The morning of May 8th broke fine and cloudless, and when 
I reached the far end of the cemetery, soon after 8 o'clock, 
I was evidently not too early, for things were flying briskly. As 
I dropped down the slope Polyommatiis baton var. panoptes was 
the first insect netted ; it was in numbers and good condition. 
Swift-winged Colias edusa and the whites flew wildly to and fro ; 
one did not stand much chance on these slopes of catching any ! 
Chrysophaims phloeas, evidently reared under cold conditions, 
and showing no approach to ab. eleus, was in swarms. Me- 
lanargia ines again, not in such numbers as at Malaga, but 
in the pink of condition, took up my time till after 9 o'clock, 
but to my surprise there were no signs of Zegris eupheme 
var. meridionalis, which was the chief entomological reason 
for my visit to Granada, and which I had been led to expect 
on these slopes. I decided therefore to move on further up the 
Genii valley ; in doing so I crossed several small ravines, 
down the bottom of which in winter evidently ran a stream ; in 
these the fine Spanish form of Melitaa deione was in some 



240 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

numbers, the females measuring over 50 mm. across the wings ; 
with them were M. jihcehe var. occitanica, easily recognized on 
the wing by its more powerful flight. Eventually, coming in 
my direction, I saw, about 10 o'clock, a yellowish white butterfly, 
which I knew could only be the much-desired Granada speciality; 
this I managed to net, but to my great disappointment it was 
worn to rags. Mr. Tylecote had found Z. var. meridionaUs just 
coming out at the end of April, 1904, and yet only ten days' 
later in the year I now found that I was too late for it at its best. 
However, having found one specimen I soon came across more, 
and by noon had netted seventeen, of which only nine were cabinet 
specimens. The next day I tried the Genii valley again, taking 
much the same species as on my first visit, and netting sixteen 
Z. var. meridionaUs, of which only seven were of any use May 
10th I tried higher ground on the way to the before-mentioned 
plateau, and here I found a spot which contained some good Z. 
var. meridioncdis and captured ten good specimens. On the 11th 
I again visited this spot, but only obtained three, and, except for 
single females on the 13th and 15th May, I did not again see 
the species. It seems evident, from my experience, that the 
best time at Granada for this elusive insect is the first week in 
May, and that it is only a very short time on the wing. 

Z. var. meridionaUs at Granada chiefly haunts patches that 
have not been cultivated for a year or so, thus allowing a luxu- 
riant growth of a yellow crucifer which is very like Sijiajns 
arvensis. I saw females depositing ova on this plant, and fed a 
larva on it for several days until I left Granada. After this I 
found it would eat the flowers of any yellow crucifer I could find. 
This larva survived until it reached the third stage, and was 
then light pea-green in colour with a black head, and the seg- 
ments thickly covered with small black spots. The ovum is of 
the usual Pierid shape ; when first deposited amongst the flower- 
buds of its food-plant it is light green, changing in a day or so 
to orange. 

The males have a swift steady flight, and are not particularly 
difficult to capture. They are easily distinguished from the 
numerous Pierids amongst which they fly by their yellowish 
tint ; the females, which fly much more slowly, in consequence 
of the less amount of yellow are much more difficult to dis- 
tinguish. 

On the first occasion I visited the plateau overlooking the 
Darro gorge I found, on the way up, in addition to Z. var. 
meridionaUs, Pyrgus sao frequently, apparently the Central 
European form, and showing no approach to the var. therapne, 
which is said to be the form occurring in Andalusia, and which 
I had taken in Corsica in 1906. In the small gorge to the left 
of the road Euchloe euphonides was abundant and in fine con- 
dition. The Andalusian E. euphonides interested me greatly ; 



NOTES ON SOME ANDALUSIAN BUTTERFLIES. 241 

it will be remembered that, until lately, E. eiiphojiides was con- 
sidered to be a form of E. eupheno, the nearly allied species 
found on the African side of the Mediterranean. Considering 
that the known distribution of E. euphonides is, according to 
Staudinger, Spain and Portugal, Southern France and Italy, 
and that E. eupheno occurs all along the African shores of the 
Mediterranean, it would seem a fair inference that either Africa 
received its species from across the Straits of Gibraltar, or vice 
versa ; and, bearing in mind the similar climate on both sides 
of the Straits, that the form found in Andalusia would be inter- 
mediate between those occurring in France and Morocco. This 
is, however, not the case. I cannot see in any Andalusian 
examples collected at Algeciras, Konda, and Granada, the 
slightest tendency towards E. eupheno ,- the males are practically 
identical with my French specimens ; the females, however, 
differ considerably, but not in the direction of E. euphe)io. The 
French females have the tips of the superiors of a brilliant 
orange colour, through which the greyish black suffusion of the 
veins shows prominently. In the Andalusian females this 
orange is much less pronounced in quantity and brightness, and 
in one of my specimens it is almost entirely absent, con- 
sequently the suffused veins show up much more and give the 
impression of a grey tip. 

The Andalusian seems also a much smaller insect than the 
French, my largest examples measuring only 41 mm., whereas 
some of those from France exceed 48 mm. in expanse. 

Another insect that did not turn out in accordance with my 
anticipations was Aglais urticce ; I had observed one or two 
specimens a few years ago in Arragon, which appeared to me to 
resemble in depth of ground colour the Corsican var. ichnusa. 
The Granada A. urticce, which were not uncommon on the 
plateau, sucking the flowers of a white cistus, did not show any 
approach to these, and, apart from the somewhat wider tawny 
margin to the hind wings, might have been typical British speci- 
mens. 

On the plateau itself I came across several species I had not 
previously seen in Spain, amongst which was Melanargia sylliiis, 
with somewhat stronger black markings than my Hyeres speci- 
mens ; the fine black Spanish form of Nisoniades tages var. 
Cervantes was abundant, leaking like a small Erebia whilst 
flying ; Anthocharis tagis was also taken at the edge of the 
Darro gorge, and was in very fine condition considering the late 
date ; a single female of Aporia cratagi, the only one I saw in 
Spain, had doubtless been blown up from the lower slopes of the 
gorge. Zygoma lavaiidulce, a very distinct form, with only a small 
round red spot on the inferiors, boomed along in the sun in fair 
numbers; fine large Nomiades vielanops, some of wbich exceeded 
35 mm. in wing expanse, flitted round the Dorycnium plants. 



242 THK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Just where the rocad enters the plateau is a rather prominent 
knoll, around which each day about noon would be found flying 
one or more Papilio feisthamelii and several P. machaon ; these 
latter were, however, quite safe from my best efforts. Here also 
I netted the only Anthocliaris belemia var. glauce I saw at 
Granada, some three or four in number. 

On May 13th I saw several dark Satyrid-looking butterflies 
on the slopes by the Genii, and after some trouble succeeded in 
netting one. My surprise was great to find that I had captured 
a male Hipparchia senicle, considering that H. semele is not 
found until well on in July in such hot places as Cort6 in 
Corsica, and that it is found in England at the same date; it 
was unexpected to find it in Andalusia two months earlier, and 
at a height of more than 2000 ft. above sea-level ; one wonders 
if it manages to get in a second brood there. Almost an equal 
surprise on May 15th was to net a fine example of Thymelicus 
llneola. 

I had intended making certain excursions in the Sierra 
Nevada whilst staying at Granada, but the abnormal heat had 
so aft'ected the ladies of the party I could not manage to do so, 
and unfortunately we had for this reason to shorten our stay at 
Granada and move to cooler quarters on the Bay of Biscay ; 
accordingly we left Andalusia on the 18th of May. This was a 
disappointment, because not only are certain local species said 
to appear at Granada during the last few days of May, but it 
was most tantalizing to see the slojDes of the Sierra Nevada so 
near and yet not be able to explore them. No doubt very good 
work could be done in them in June and July, but I understand 
accommodation of any kind is very difficult to get, and probably 
for a successful expedition tents and servants would be a 
necessity. 

Youlgreave, South Croydon : July 10th, 1908. 



ON THREE UNDESCRIBED FOSSOBIAL HYMENO- 
PTERA [CRABRO and PSEN) FROM BORNEO. 

By p. Cameron. 

Grahro hewittii, sp. nov. 

Black ; antennal scape, clypeus, mandibles, palpi, the entire head 
below the eyes, the collar broadly, a slightly narrower band on the 
lower part of the propleurae, presternum, scutellum, a narrow line on 
the post-scutellum, and the legs, except the hind coxae and almost 
the apical half of the hind tibiae, bright lemon-yellow ; the sides of 
the basal abdominal segments brownish. Wings hyaline, the stigma 
fuscous, the nervures blackish. Antennal flagellum fulvous. ? . 
Length. 4 mm. 

Kuching (John Hewitt). 



THREE UNDESCRIBED FOSSORIAL HYMENOPTERA. 243 

Clypeus densely covered with silvery pubescence, its centre keeled, 
tlie apex of the keel projecting into a blunt tooth. Front minutely 
punctured, the vertex almost smooth ; the ocelli in a triangle, the 
hinder separated from each other by about the same distance as they 
are from the eyes. Mesothorax very minutely punctured. Base of 
metanotum irregularly striated, its centre furrowed. First abdominal 
segment longer than the second, longish, its base not half the width 
of the apex. 

Crabro dentipleui'is, sp. nov. 

Black ; antennal scape, a line on apex of pronotum, tubercles, 
and scutellum yellow, the fore tibiae and tarsi testaceous, the base of 
the hind tibiae narrowly, and the calcaria and the hind metatarsus to 
near the apex pale yellow. Wings hyaline, the nervures black. The 
centre of the lower edge of the propleurae with a stout triangular 
tooth, behind which is a rounded tubercle. ? . Length, 5 mm. 

Kuching (John Hewitt). 

Eyes distinctly converging below. Apex of clypeus broadly 
rounded, its centre keeled. Apical half of mandibles rufous. Front 
closely, distinctly punctured, the vertex almost smooth. Ocelli in a 
triangle, the hinder separated from each other by about the same 
distance as they are from the eyes. Mesonotum and scutellum 
closely, minutely punctured. The whole metathorax smooth and 
shining, the base with a short distinct furrow ; the apical slope with 
a wide depression. Propleurae almost smooth, the mesopleurae closely 
punctured. First abdominal segment clearly longer than it is wide at 
the apex, the base not quite half the width of the apex. Palpi fuscous. 
The body is covered with a short silvery pubescence. 

Should be known by the stout, triangular, pleural tooth. 

Psen marginlcollis, sp. nov. 
Black ; the antennal scape, the four anterior tibige and tarsi, and 
the tubercles dark testaceous ; the wings hyaline, the stigma and 
nervures black. Head smooth and shining, the eye orbits with a 
crenulated border, bounded on the outer side by a distinct keel. Front 
furrowed down the centre. Ocelli in a triangle, placed behind the 
eyes, the hinder separated from each other by a less distance than 
they are from the eyes. Temples broad. Occiput transverse, dis- 
tinctly margined. Apical half of pronotum raised, the base of the 
raised part margined, projecting laterally into teeth. Mesonotum 
almost smooth, its apex with a distinct crenulated furrow, behind the 
centre of which is a triangular depression. The entire metathorax is 
coarsely reticulated. Pro- and mesopleurae opaque. The narrowed 
basal part of the first abdominal segment is opaque, curved, fully 
one-half longer than the dilated apex. The central part of the pro- 
pleurae is raised, and it is surrounded above, below and at the apex by 
a striated furrow ; the central part of the mesopleurae is also sur- 
rounded by a striated furrow, the lower and upper of which unite 
at the apex. Length, 4 mm. ? . 

Kuching (Hewitt). 



244 THK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

THE ATI! ALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS' il/ELZT.^/l. 
By George Wheeler, M.A., F.E.S. 

(Continued from p. 227.) 

Varia. — The two sexes differ so completely that it will be 
necessary to treat them separately. 

(? . Up. s. f. w. : Lunules for the most part replaced by quadrate 
spots, the third from the bottom not usually projecting at all beyond 
the rest towards the base. Ground colour of both wings decidedly 
darker than the average parthenie. Outer subterminal line generally 
very distinct throughout its length, but sometimes only indicated by 
dots ; the inner rarely present. Elbowed line varying greatly in 
distinctness, being sometimes thick throughout, sometimes only in- 
dicated by a few spots, dark or faint, at the costa, and by the marginal 
blotch ; it is much less bent than in any other species. Stigma large 
for the size of the insect, and clear, not filled with black. Upper half 
of basal lines fairly, sometimes very, distinct. There is a considerable 
basal suffusion. 

Up. s. h. w. : Outer line clearly defined, inner sometimes as clear, 
but oftener indistinct. At least the lower half of the extra line is 
usually indicated, unless enclosed in the large basal suffusion, which 
generally obliterates the basal spot. Discal spot rarely present unless 
embodied in the extra line. 

Un. s. f. w. : Ground colour rather lighter than in the male of 
other species, but only the upper lunules and two spots within the 
outer subterminal line are lighter than the ground colour. Inner 
subterminal line rarely distinguishable, and outer subterminal and 
even inner edging line of border often obsolescent. Spots indicating the 
elbowed line usually very black and distinct, as are also the marginal 
blotch, stigma, and upper part of basal lines, which form a reniform 
stigma. Basal dash large and black, sometimes joining the marginal 
blotch. 

Un. s. h. w. : Edging lines of border scarcely, if at all, arched. 
Bands very distinct. Terminal band brightish yellow, outer band almost 
of the ground colour of f. w. The outer portion of the central band 
is yellowish white, the inner portion of the same shade as the ter- 
minal band. In all the other species (except deione and asteria) the 
obiter portion of this band is of the same shade as the terminal 
lunules. The third and fourth spots of the outer portion of the 
central band barely project beyond the others. Inner band variable 
in width, the light spot being generally very small or almost absent. 
The second spot of the basal band generally conspicuously large, and 
in a less degree the fourth. This band is of the colour of the outer 
portion of the central band. 

? . Up. s. f. w. : Ground colour of both wings somewhat lighter 
than that of the male, where it can be seen, but it is nearly always 
much suffused, and sometimes almost entirely covered with a blackish 
suffusion, which in fresh specimens has a marked greenish tinge. 
Both subterminal lines broad and distinct unless too much suffused ; 
the inner is only slightly bowed out near the costa, and thence almost 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THK GKNUS MELITiEA. 245 

straight. Lunules, when visible, as in the male, but sometimes 
reduced to tiny dots. Elbowed line generally very slightly marked, 
except at the costa, and by the marginal blotch. Stigma and space 
between the basal lines usually filled with dark scales. 

Up. s. h. w. : Border and the two lines thick and suffused, and the 
basal suffusion often reaches the inner line, leaving only one or two 
rows of spots of the ground colour. No discal spot or extra line, and 
the basal spot is rarely visible. 

Un. s. f. w. : The whole row of lunules and two costal spots within 
them are light. Both edging lines of the border and the outer sub- 
terminal distinct, and inner subterminal generally distinguishable. 
The other mai'kings, including the costal spots of the elbowed line, 
generally slight or even absent, except the marginal blotch, though 
all are sometimes distinct. 

Un. s. h. w. : As in the male, but the central and basal bands 
rather lighter, and sometimes silvery white. Terminal band some- 
times darker, as in the male, but often of the same shade as the oiUer 
portion of the central band. The light spot is of the same shade, and 
not, as a rule, very small. The lunules of the outer band are gener- 
ally small, as in aurelia, leaving a considerable part of the band to be 
filled in with dusky scales. 

AuEELiA. — Up. s. f. w. : The border and the two subterminal lines 
generally broad but sharply defined in the male, but often less broad, 
though more suffused in the female; the inner one is rather less 
bowled below the costa than in the other species, except varia, and 
generally bends slightly outwards at the inner margin. The nervures, 
especially the lower ones on both wings, are more broadly edged 
with black than in the other species, and in the male are sharply 
defined, giving a neat lattice-work appearance, which is blurred in the 
female. Elbowed line generally clear, but often consists of a series 
of large or small spots, the middle portion being sometimes wanting. 
Stigma and upper half of basal lines clearly defined, and generally 
enclose scales of a darker shade than the ground colour. Basal 
suffusion specially noticeable along the inner margin. 

Up. s. h. w. : Inner line usually much broader than outer. Discal 
spot and extra line present, but frequently in the male and almost 
always in the female swallowed up in the basal suffusion. Basal spot 
generally visible in the male, and sometimes in the female ; a second 
spot of the ground colour edged with black, but inside the extra line, 
accompanies it. Nervures broadly black, as in the fore wing. On 
both wings the border is often split up, especially in the female, into 
two narrow dark lines containing a line of the ground colour. 

Un. s. f. w. : Lunules light at the costa, and sometimes down to 
the anal angle ; outer subterminal clearly defined and generally quite 
dark, often with a whole row of light spots indicated within it, those 
near the costa being very conspicuous. The spots near the costa 
representing the elbowed line are not infrequently rmgs. Outlines of 
the stigma and the basal lines generally distinct, as are the marginal 
blotch and basal dash, but less so in the female than in the male. 

Un. s. h. w. : Inner edging line of the border only very slightly 
arched ; the border itself darker than the lunules. The separation of 



246 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the terminal and outer bands in the female is often very indistinct, 
and the latter is much lighter than is usual in other species. In both 
sexes the lunular portion of the outer band is very narrow, not occupy- 
ing much more than half the band. The inner part of the central 
band is darker than the outer ; the proportion between tliese divisions 
varies greatly. Fifth spot of basal band usually present ; light spot 
generally rather small. 

Britomartis. — The two broods differ greatly in size, the second 
being very much the smaller, though a large specimen of the second 
may closely approach in size a small specimen of the same sex of the 
first. Both broods are very variable in the breadth and distinctness 
of the markings of the upper side. The outer margin of the fore 
wing is generally conspicuously angular about a third of the way 
down. 

Up. s. f. w. : The black border has a tendency to divide and show 
a line or a series of spots or dashes of the ground colour. Lunules 
generally distinct but narrow, the lowest, especially in males of the 
first brood, being sometimes suppressed. The tendency of the first 
brood seems to be to have the outer subterminal line broader, of the 
second narrower than the inner ; both are generally distinct and 
fairly broad, though sometimes the inner one especially is blurred. 
This latter approaches most nearly in shape to that of aurelia, but it 
is on the whole the straightest of the group, owing to the slightness 
of its costal bend. Elbowed line, except in specimens where the 
whole surface is blurred, generally broad and distinct, with a broad 
thick marginal blotch, which in the female sometimes contains a 
double line thus ^C , almost of the shape of the characteristic blotch 
of berisalensis, but of the ground colour instead of black. Sometimes 
the whole black marginal blotch is of this form, e.g. in the co-type in 
the South Kensington Museum. The stigma is much like that of 
athalia, but not filled up with black except in males of the first brood, 
though in the females of this brood, and occasionally in both sexes of 
the second, it contains a number of dark scales. The basal lines are 
strongly marked, the space between them being sometimes filled in 
with black, especially in first-brood males. 

Up. s. h. w. : The border has less tendency to divide than that of 
the fore wing. The lunules are generally distinct, but often very 
narrow. The outer and inner lines vary much in breadth. The 
discal spot and the upper part of the extra line are generally clear of 
the suffusion, and sometimes the whole of the line is visible. In 
Zeller's example, however, the extra line is involved in the suffusion. 
The basal spot is clear and generally as conspicuous as in athalia. 

Un. s. f. w. : Generally speaking, by far the most heavily and dis- 
tinctly marked of the group, especially in the male. The inner edging 
line of the border is more or less arched or angled ; the lunules are 
often narrow, but light and clearly marked, except in dark specimens 
of the first-brood males. The outer subterminal line shows as a dark 
inner edging to the lunules, and is generally rather suffused, especially 
towards the anal angle. The inner subterminal is only indicated in 
the female, but generally clear and pronounced in the male, and is less 
straight than on the upper side. Between the two is a row, or part 
of a row, of light spots, which often recurs between the inner one and 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELIT.EA. 247 

the elbowed line. The latter is nearly always distinct and pro- 
nounced throughout its entire length, a character very rare in any 
other species. The marginal blotch is not large, but has a tendency 
to reproduce at least the inner half of the characteristic mark of 
herisalensis, in consequence of its frequent junction with another 
dark mark nearer to the base, which usually takes more or less the 
shape of a V, or of the symbol of Aries Y, placed sideways, and open- 
ing inwards instead of outwards, as in herisalensis. Sometimes the 
whole X is shown thus h . The outlines of the stigma, and three 
basal lines, with a basal dash, are also strongly marked. 

Un. s. h. w. : The inner edge of the border is arched or angled 
(slightly angled in Zeller's specimen). The lunules vary much in 
size, being generally large, but occasionally very narrow. The outer 
band is interrupted towards the costa, as in dictynna, and contains, 
like dictynna, a dark spot, or at least indications of one, on or near 
the outer edge in each interneural space below the light patch or 
patches interrupting the band. This character, to which Riihl draws 
attention, is more pronounced in most of the Reazzino specimens, 
though quite distinguishable in Zeller's, and clear in the second 
lunule. The inner division of the central band is darker than the 
outer, and projects so far outwards in the third and fourth interneural 
spaces below the costa as often to push the two corresponding spots 
of the outer division right outside the rest of the band. In Zeller's 
specimen they are not outside, though pushed far outwards. The 
inner band is often noticeably broad in the centre, and the light spot 
large. The central spot of the basal band is rarely conspicuously 
small. 

Dictynna. — The ground colour of the upper side, especially in the 
male, is often much obliterated by the black suffusion. 

Up. s. f. w. : The lunules, except the third from the anal angle, and 
occasionally even this, are generally reduced to a series of narrow 
streaks or small spots (though sometimes all are distinct and of 
moderate size in the female) in consequence of the outer subterminal 
line more or less coalescing with the border. Inner subterminal 
broad and only slightly straighter than in athalia. Elbowed line 
often obliterated by the suffusion, but when visible not generally very 
broad. Stigma rather narrow, and almost always filled in with black, 
or at any rate with dark scales, as is also the space between the basal 
lines. In the female the ground colour is often lighter between the 
inner subterminal and elbowe'd lines. 

Up. s. h. w. : The black suffusion, especially in the male, nearly 
always extends almost to the inner line, and occasionally over the 
whole wing. Lunules usually distinct and light in the female, but 
rarely distinct and never light in the male. The ground colour 
usually shows in spots between the outer and inner lines, and often, 
especially in the female, inside the inner line. Basal spot rarely 
visible, though sometimes distinct in the female. 

Un. s. f. w. : Both edging lines of the border very distinct, the 
inner one being much angled between the nervures. Lunules gener- 
ally distinct and lighter (usually much lighter) than the border. 
Outer subterminal shows as a dark suffusion, sometimes more con- 



248 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



spicuous towards the anal angle, and within it is a row, or part of a 
x*ow, of lighter spots, followed by the inner subterminal line slightly 
indicated as a darker shade, but occasionally showing as a row, or 
part of a row, of dark spots, and sometimes quite wanting. Elbowed 
line generally indicated in the usual way, but sometimes traceable 
throughout, and sometimes wholly wanting except for the marginal 
blotch in the female. Outlines of stigma and basal lines generally 
distinct, and always visible, even when the other markings are almost 
absent ; there is also a third short line near the base. 

Un. s. h. w. : Inner edge of the border arched, especially near the 
costa. In the outer band the dark edging of the lunules is suffused, 
and each contains a dark spot in or near the outer edge. This band 
is nearly always interrupted by lighter patches in the last two or 
sometimes three interneural spaces before the costa, but much less 
markedly than is usual in hritomartis. The three light bands vary 
from silvery white to bright yellow, but are always light, particularly 
the central one, in the female. Central spot of basal band seldom 
noticeably small. 

AsTERiA. — Up. s. f. w. : Lunules generally appear as quadrate 
spots, lighter — sometimes much lighter — than the ground colour, the 
third rarely projecting much inwards, and often smaller than some 
near the costa. Outer subterminal line rather sharply angled out- 
wards nearly half-way down ; both are very variable in thickness, 
the inner not greatly bowed outwards. Elbowed line thickish and 
strongly bent, sometimes appearing to run into the lower half of the 
inner subterminal. Marginal blotch very variable, sometimes even 
showing the a;-mark of berisalensis. Stigma also very variable, 
ranging from a mere line to a round outline, filled or not filled with 
black. Basal suffusion of variable extent often including the basal 
lines and sometimes the lower half of the elbowed line. Space be- 
tween the basal lines, when visible, generally filled with black. The 
ground colour of the upper side often shows indications of lighter 
and darker alternate bands, sometimes so strongly as to suggest 
merope. 

Up. s. h. w. : Border occasionally shows signs of dividing. Both 
lines generally thick ; extra line and discal spot covered by the suf- 
fusion ; basal spot sometimes conspicuous, but generally coyered. 

Un. s. f. w. ; Only one edging line to the border. Lunules rather 
quadrate and very light ; a second and often a third row of light spots 
are visible, but generally slightly darker than the lunules. The outer 
subterminal shows as an edging to the lunules, the inner as at least 
a darker shade. The elbowed line shows sometimes only on the 
costa and inner margin, but is sometimes distinct throughout ; the 
costal spots representing this line are sometimes ringed. The mar- 
ginal blotch is as variable as on the upper side. Outlines of stigma 
and basal lines clear. 

Un. s. h. w. : Only one edging line to border. This is the outer, 
for there are indications of the inner on a Tyrolean specimen in the 
Leach collection. Terminal band broad. Outer band very variable 
in the form of the lunules, proportion of the two parts, and depth of 
colour. Central band generally almost unicolorous, and the dividing 



The Entomologist, October, 1908. 



Plate VII. 




O 





O H J 



< < 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 249 

black line generally very slightly represented, or even absent. Inner 
band dark, not usually very broad in the centre. Light spot of 
varying size and shape. Basal band has the second spot con- 
spicuously the largest. The light bands vary in shade from white 
to pale buff. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Zyg^na filipendul^ with Light Pink Spots and Hind 
Wings. — On July 23rd I was walking on the hill at Lewes when a 
very large Z. filipendulce settled on the grass just in front of me. Un- 
fortunately I had neither net nor box available. It remained, how- 
ever, long enough for me to see that the spots on fore wings and the 
hind wings were of light pink instead of the usual carmine. — Joseph 
Anderson ; September 23rd, 1908. 

Epinephele tithonus paired with E. hyperanthus. — The 
above species were observed paired in North Cornwall on July 27th 
by Mr. k. L. Rayward and myself. The male was E. tithonus. There 
is a record in the 'Entomologist,' vol. xix. p. 230, by Mr. Percy 
Rendall, of E. ianira being found paired with E. hyperanthus at 
Brockenhurst. So far as I am aware, the pairing of E. tithonus with 
E. hyperanthus has not previously been recorded. — A. Harrison ; 
Delamere, Grove Road, South Woodford. 

OviPosiTioN OP a Hyperparasite (Chalcid) of Pieris brassic^. 
— x\t the end of June, 1908, some larvae of P. brassicce were sent to 
me from Yeovil, and on July 1st large numbers of the larvae of the 
Braconid {Apanteles glomeratus) emerged from some of them. "Whilst 
watching this process I chanced to notice that a small hymenopteron 
was paying particular attention to an apparently healthy Pierid larva, 
and seemed to be ovipositing therein. I isolated the larva and its 
tormentor, and the ovipositing still continued. Two days later the 
usual batch of Apanteles larvae left this caterpillar and spun their 
cocoons. On July 13th several imagines emerged from these cocoons, 
about half producing the parasite. On July 29th the expected hyper- 
parasite emerged from the remaining cocoons. The point of this 
note is to show that the hyperparasite oviposits in the larva of 
Apanteles while the latter is still within the body of its host, and 
not, as is often supposed, either in the Braconid larva soon after 
emergence from the Pierid, or after it has spun its cocoon. — G. T. 
Lyle ; Brockenhurst. 

Abraxas grossulariata, ab. — The pretty variety of this species 
figured on Plate vii., fig. 1, was taken with three others at Saltaire, 
Yorkshire, July 3rd, 1908, by Mr. J. A. Beck. The base, and outer 
border of post median band on the fore wings is yellow; and there 
is a tinge of the same colour about the middle of the band on the 
hind wings. The specimen is rather larger than shown in the 
photograph. — R. S. 

ENTOM. — OCTOBER, 1908. X 



•250 THK BNTOMOLOGI8T. 

Abraxas sylvata (ulmata). — The curiously blotched and irregu- 
larly banded aberration of this species shown on Plate vii., fig. 2, 
was taken by Mr. Arthur J. Scollick in a wood near Chalfont, Bucks, 
during the summer of 1907. I may mention that in July of the 
present year, when collecting in the same wood, I picked up, among 
other interesting forms, a specimen with lead-coloured hind wings, 
but normal fore wings. — E. S. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

PoLiA CHI AT Torquay. — While bicycling along a road in the 
neighbourhood of Torquay on August 27th I found several specimens 
of Polia chi at rest on the tree-trunks. Is it usual to find this species 
so far south ? — J. S. Carter ; Radley College, Abingdon. 

[Other Devonshire localities from which this species have been 
recorded are — Dartmouth (common), Plymouth, Dartmoor, and Avon- 
wick. — Ed.] 

Polia chi in Berkshire. — Mr. W. H. Warner of Fyfield, Berk- 
shire, recently sent me a moth that he thought must be a specimen 
of P. chi. I was very pleased to confirm his identification. — Richard 
South. 

Ehodometra (Sterrha) sacraria in Devonshire. — On Septem- 
ber 12th last, I took a beautiful female specimen of Bhodovictra 
sacraria sitting on a dock-stem in South Devon about 10 p.m. — 
H. M. Edelsten ; Forty Hill, Enfield, Middlesex, September 25th, 
1908. 

Prionus coriarius, Linn., at Sugar. — Whilst "sugaring" in 
Epping Forest on July 23rd, I took a large female of this species 
upon the sugar patch. I know of two other specimens taken last 
season in the same way. I should like to know if any other ento- 
mologists have had this experience.— H. E. Hunt ; Walthamstow, 
Essex, September 7th, 1908. 

Cerura bicuspis at Chester. — At midnight. May 29th, I found 
a nice specimen of this rare moth at rest on the city wall just under 
an electric lamp. This is the first record for Chester. Other records 
for Cheshire are two larva3 by Mr. F. C. Woodforde at Wybunbury 
Moss, and two fine imagines at the White Hall electric light, near 
Tarporley, by Mr. J. H. Stock. — J. Arkle ; Chester. 

Pyg^ra anachoreta, &c., in Essex. — I have pleasure in record- 
ing the capture on August 8th of a specimen of P. anachoreta at 
Clacton-on-Sea at electric light. This proved to be a female, and ova 
were deposited on August 9th, 10th, and 11th to the number of one 
hundred and sixty-three. They commenced hatching on August 20th, 
and are now feeding up on poplar. This appears to be a new locality 
for this species, tlie only records that I can find having previously 



CAPTURES AND FIELD KEPOKTS. 261 

been on the Kentish coast, and then chiefly in the larval stage. I 
also obtained by the same means a specimen of Pygara curtula on 
August 14th, which was also a female, and from which I obtained 
only twenty-six ova. No others of these species were seen, and it 
is curious to note that they should both be females, thus proving 
that it is not always safe to assume that moths caught at light are 
necessarily males. — Geo. P. Kitchener ; 13, Birchington Eoad, 
Crouch End, N. 

Occurrence of Acherontia atropos in Hants. — This is evi- 
dently another atropos year. I have already had three pupae brought 
me dug up among potatoes in three different gardens. Two years 
ago no fewer than twenty-seven larvae were found in a kitchen garden 
in the neighbourhood, but they were all destroyed by the gardener's 
spade as "venomous beasts" before I heard of them. — (Kev.) J. E. 
Tarbat ; Fareham, Hants. 

Acherontia atropos in Sussex.— Three larvae of this species 
were brought to me the latter end of August ; two of them pupated 
all right, but the third was unfortunately injured, and died in the 
larval stage. This is the third year in succession in which I have 
obtained either larvae or imagines of this species. A friend of mine at 
Eastbourne has also obtained a specimen of the moth this week. — • 
W. Jarvis ; 22, Leicester Eoad, Lewes, Sussex. 

Acherontia atropos in Notts. — On September 22nd a good 
specimen of this species was brought to me, having been taken at 
rest on an electric light standard in this town. I have no previous 
record of the imago for this district. — E. Maude Alderson, F.E.S. ; 
Worksop, Notts. 

CoLiAs EDUSA IN DoRSET. — On August 8th, when sitting in a 
train which had drawn up for a few minutes outside Upwey Station, 
between Dorchester and Weymouth, I saw a male G. edusa on the 
flowers of the railway-bank just under the windows of the carriage. — 
Frank E. Lowe ; Guernsey. 

This butterfly is about here this month, but very sparingly. I 
have only seen one specimen inland ; the usual haunt of the species 
is the under cliff", which for miles along this coast represents the 
result of former landslips. — R. Meldola ; Lyme Regis, September 
15th, 1908. 

CoLiAS EDUSA IN Hants. — This butterfly occurred sparingly 
around Chichester during July and August. — Joseph Anderson ; 
September 23rd, 1908. 

CoLiAs edusa in Kent and Middlesex. — I had the pleasure of 
capturing, after a stern chase, a somewhat ragged female of Colias 
edusa ab. helice on 8th inst. near Deal, a clover patch being quite 
near. I may add that C. edusa, Pyrameis cardui, and P. atalanta 
were fairly abundant here. — F. H. Moore ; Barnet, September 
25th, 1908. 



252 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

CoLiAs EDUSA, &c., IN Herts. — Oil September 2ncl I saw a 
specimen of Colias cdusa caught by two boys near Roman Camp, 
Letchworth. I was collecting, and was sorry to see evidence that 
these juveniles had no knowledge of entomology, as they had this 
species and "whites," as well as others, mixed up in a match-box. 
Such wanton destruction is to be regretted. The variety helice was 
seen by a friend a few days after ; it flew past him, when he had a 
good view of it. This occurred in the same place. A specimen of 
P. carclui was caught in Garden City on September 2nd. — (Rev.) E. 
Everett ; Ashleigh, Fix Road, Letchworth, Hitchin, September 25tli, 
1908. 

Huntingdonshire Dragonflies, 1908. — In the course of a visit 
to Huntingdonshire during the second half of last month, I was able 
to add several fresh species to my list of Odonata (known locally as 
"needles") occurring in that county ('Entom.,' 1907, p. 257). The 
most interesting addition was Lestes dryas, of which a few males 
and females were secured, on July 27th and 31st, in deep ditches 
well furnished with vegetation, at two localities near Ramsey. The 
specimens taken were in fully adult condition, and some of them 
were paired. It will be remembered that in 1893 and 1897 Mr. 
K. J. Morton obtained this scarce insect in the adjoining county of 
Cambridge. 

Other additions to my list were : — Sympetrum striolatum, newly- 
emerged females, Hartford (July 29th) and Ramsey (July 31st) ; 
S. sangmimmn, adult males and females, Ramsey (July 27th and 
31st); Lestes sponsa, occurring with L. dryas; Ischniira elegans var. 
rufescens ; and Enallagma cyathigermn, flying in great swarms over 
the Forty Foot Drain. Of the last-named species, both forms of the 
female were taken. The exceptionally favourable opportunities for 
observation afforded by the Forty Foot Drain enabled me to satisfy 
myself beyond question that males, at all events, of E. cyathigerum 
frequently fly backward as well as forward. The insect is seen to 
hover on the wing for a few seconds, and then the backward flight 
begins, which is sometimes sustained for a foot or more, altliough 
more often the forward movement is resumed when a retrograde 
journey of a few inches only has been accomplished. The following 
species and variety, previously recorded * from Hartford, were iiiet 
with again at that place: — Calopteryx splcndcns, one pair (July 21st); 
Erythromvm naias, scarce (July 29th) ; Ischmtra elegans, with its 
dark var. infuscans ; and Agrion pulchellum, scarce (July 21st). 
Teneral individuals of I. elegans occurred abundantly where the 
species was present, and it was plain that the second emergence was 
taking place. Sympetrum scoticum was seen in the county, but not 
taken, as were also A^schna grandis and, probably, ^. cyanea, but 
the scarcity of larger dragonflies, both as to species and numbers, was 
quite remarkable. — F. W. Campion ; 33, Maude Terrace, Waltham- 
stow, Essex, August 31st, 1908. 



253 



SOCIETIES. 

The South London Entomological and Natural Histoey 
Society.— /«;;e25^/i, 1908.— Mr. A. Sich,F.E.S., President, in the chair. 
— Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited a female specimen of /l(//7'af/c.s bellargus, 
caught at Eanmore, measuring only 22 mm. in expanse, and an ex- 
ample of Hesperia malvce. from Eastbourne, with hind wings normal, 
but having coalesced blotches on the fore wings as in ab. taras. — Mr. 
Newman, living larvae of Xylina semibrunnea, with that of X. socia 
for comparison, pointing out the peculiar green ground tint and the 
more distinct lateral line of the former. — Mr. Adkin, light and dark 
forms of Biston liirtaria, pointing out that the difference was perma- 
nent through each moult, and that the depth of colour did not seem 
to depend upon environment. — Mr. West (Greenwich), the following 
Hemiptera taken by him in June in New Forest : — Cicadetta montana, 
Sigara minutissima, Eysarcoris aneus, and Orthostira cervina. — Mr. 
Carr, the nymph-skin of the large dragonfly Anax imperator, found at 
Oxshott. — Mr. Sich, a larva and pupa of Parnassius apollo ?, sent by 
Mr. Egbert Sich from the Engadine, Switzerland, and stated that 
when irritated the larva protruded an osmaterium. Mr. Tutt called 
attention to the waxy secretion covering the surface of the pupa, 
which effectually secured it from the damp of the marshy ground 
upon which it pupated. 

July 9th. — The President in the chair. — Mr. Newman exhibited a 
rayed variety of Abraxas grossulariata. — Mr. West (Greenwich), a 
short series of the local coleopteron Dytiscus circumcinctus, from 
Great Yarmouth, and specimens of the rare Bidessus unistriatus 
from the same place. — Mr. E. x'Vdkin read a short account of 
the various meetings held during the Congress of the South 
Eastern Union of Scientific Societies at Hastings. Messrs. Sich 
and Step made a few remarks on the excursions made during the 
Congress. 

July 23;t/. — The President in the chair. — Mr. Sich exhibited 
Cerostoma xylostella (female), and said that it was bred from a larva 
without the broad reddish stripes down the back, which form he said 
might be sexual. — Mr. Turner, living larvae in their curiously con- 
torted cases of the very rare Coleophora siccifolia, taken by Mr. Sich 
and himself at Chiswick. He also showed a large number of Pyralidae 
from North America. — Mr. Newman, a living hybrid larva, Smerinthics 
ocellata-populi, and noted its distinctive characters. He also showed 
bred specimens of Argynnis iMphia var. valesina, Boarmia repandata 
var. conversaria (produced in the third generation), and the yellow 
form of Gallimorpha domimda (also of the third generation). — Mr. 
Adkin exhibited series of Xylina semibrunnea and X. socia, and read 
notes on the differentiation of the two species, calling attention to 
the wing form, the black blotch in the anal angle of the former, and 
the absence of any distinct l)and in the same species. Mr. South, in 
addition, noted the inner marginal line in X. semibrunnea, the brown. 



254 THR ENTOMOLOGIST. 

not black, abdominal tufts in X. socia, and the much darker thorax of 
the form. 

August ISth. — The President in tlie chair. — Mr. C. W. Spurring, 
of Blackheath, was elected a member. — Mr. R. Adkin exhibited a 
series of Odontopera bidentata, bred from melanic parents from York- 
shire, and read notes on the forms. All but three followed the 
parents. — Mr. Newman, bred specimens of xirgynnis paphia n,x).di A. 
aglaia. — Mr. Edward, a female Nemotois cupriacellus, taken at By- 
fieet. He also showed a large number of Diptera, Hemiptera, and 
Hymenoptera taken by him at Cannes, Fontainebleau, and Granda- 
neza. — Mr. Sich, the larva of Aristotelia stipella var. ncBviferella, a 
miner in Ghenopodium leaves and the rare alien yellow knapweed 
{Gentaurea solstitialis), found at Chiswick. — Mr. West (Greenwich), 
the following Hemiptera from Esher : — Salda cocksii, Cyrterrhinus 
p)ygmaus, G. caricis, and Nabis boops, with Bryocoris pteridis, from 
Carlisle. — Mr. B. H. Smith, ova of Porthesia chrysorrJwea, laid on 
sea-buckthorn at Deal. — -Mr. Step, on behalf of Mr. Carr, a variegated 
form of Senecio jacobcea from Box Hill. 

August Tltli. — The President in the chair. — M. R. Adkin exhibited 
two series of Dictyopteryx bergmanniana, one bred from garden rose 
and the other from wild burnet rose, and read notes on the different 
habits of the two broods of larvae. — Mr. Turner, a light form of 
Grambus chrysonuchellus, characteristic of Eastbourne, and two forms 
of Eurrhypara urticata, one having the marginal spots small and 
well separated, the other having them coalesced into a wide band. — 
Mr. Brown, a specimen of Leucania flavicolor from Benfleet. — Mr. 
Newman, examples of the hybrid Smerinthus ocellata-iwpuli, just 
bred ; Gnjmodes exults from Shetland, including females ; living larvas 
oi Dicranura bicuspis from Tilgate Forest; an Abraxas grossulariata 
with the hind wings with only rayed marginal spots and the discoidal ; 
a Melanargia galathea, the left hind wing of which was var. procida. 
— Mr. Joy, a living larva of Cyclopides palcemon [paniscus). — Mr. 
Cowham, two Amphidasys betularia, one having the basal spot absent 
on the fore wing, but with white discoidal spots, and other having a 
large whitish costal blotch on the lower wing. — Mr. B. H. Smith, a 
bred series of Eugonia p)olyc}iloros from the New Forest, including a 
dark smoky form. — Mr. Goff', a liumicia phlceas, showing a complete 
absence of copper on the lower wings. — Mr. Sich, mines of Nepticula 
acetosa from Surrey, and gave notes on the life-history of the species. 
— Mr. Fremlin read a short paper entitled " Insects as Carriers of 
Disease." — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Bep. Sec. 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society. 
— September 1st, 1908. — A resolution was passed in support of The 
Public Rights of Way Bill and the Access to Mountains Bill. — Mr. 
J. A. Clark exhibited Arctia caia ab., Hailsham, June, 1908, the upper 
wings being deep chocolate-brown with only slight traces of usual 
cream ground colour, and under wings smoky black with intense 
black spots and pinkish margin. — Dr. G. G. C. Hodgson exhibited 
Nenioria viridata, Surrey, May and June, 1908, including female with 
usual white lines very faintly marked, and another female with two 



RECENT LITERATURE. 255 

white striie, one on costa of secondaries, and another just above centre 
of primaries ; also larvae of this species found feeding on Genista an- 
glica and heather blossoms. — Mr. A. W. Mera, Malacosovia [Bovihyx) 
castrensis from Essex, including a unicolorous buff aberration. — Mr. 
J. Eiches, a series of Plusia moncta from Hornsey. 

September 15th. — Mr. J. A. Clark exhibited Sirex juvencus, female, 
two and a quarter inches across, taken in his garden at Crouch End. 
— Mr. T. H. L. Grosvenor, variable series of Coenonympha piawphilus , 
including specimen with ocelli on under side of fore wings obsolete. 
— Dr. G. G. C. Hodgson, pupas of Lycana bellargus in lightly-spun 
cocoons of silk and leaves ; also a bleached Argynnis euphrosyne, 
Sussex, May, 1908. — Mr. G. H. Heath, Anosia plexiptpus found dead 
in the grass at Sandown, Isle of Wight, September 13th, 1908, while 
searching at night for Aporopliyla australis. — Mr. L. W. Newman, 
Crimodes exulis, from Shetlands, including a specimen of female, 
which is rarely met with ; a variable lot of Abraxas grossulariata, 
including var. varleyata, from Yorks ; Argynnis papliia ab., with 
upper wings suffused with black, save for small area at base ; and a 
yellow Arctia dominula — in connection with the latter exhibit, Mr. 
Newman stated that the imagines raised from a pairing of same with 
type proved to be all typical, but the progeny of these typical speci- 
mens included twenty-live per cent, of the yellow form. — Mr. C. P. 
Pickett, Epinephele hyperanthus var. obsoleta, Dawlish, July, 1908 ; 
also Gamptogramma bilineata, with inner line on upper wings much 
accentuated, so as to form a black blotch. — Mr. L. B. Prout, Zonosoma 
linearia, from Ashford, showing a somewhat similar exaggeration of 
central line on fore wings. — Several members mentioned having re- 
ceived advice from friends, entomological and otherwise, on the south 
coast of large immigrations of Pieridae. — S. J. Bell, Hon. Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Forest Entomology. By A. T. Gillanders, F.E.S., Woods Manager 
to His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G. Pp. i-xxii 
and 1-422 ; with 351 illustrations in the text. Edinburgh and 
London : William Blackwood & Sons. 1908. Price 15s. net. 

This well-illustrated volume opens with some general remarks 
on classification, life-history, and structure of insects. Then we 
have ten chapters as follows: — 1. Eriophyidae (Gall-mites); 2 and 
3. Coleoptera ; 4 and 5. Hymenoptera (oak-galls, sawfiies, &c.) ; 
6. Coccidae ; 7. Lepidoptera ; 8. Aphididae ; 9. Diptera. Chapter 10 
is divided into Part 1. Psyllidae, and Part 2. Cicadidae. Chapters 
11-13 deal with Collecting, Preparation and Mounting, Insecticides, 
&c., and Beneficial Insects. A list of trees and their injurious insects 
comprises Chapter 14. There is also an index of six pages. 

Perhaps the best chapters are those on the Coleoptera, especially 
that in which the Scolytidae are considered, and the Hymenoptera. 
The order Lepidoptera is not treated at any great length, and the 



256 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

only Noctuid moth referred to is Trachea jnnijjerda, which, although 
it devours the needles of Scots pine, is not regarded as a serious pest. 
We should add here that the author dec%ls with his suhject mainly 
from the economic point of view. 

The author expressly states that he has not exhausted the sub- 
ject, and we agree with him in this ; but as first aid in the study of 
forest entomology the book has considerable merit, and will be 
exceedingly helpful. 

In remarks on Dioryctria abietella (p. 258), the larvae of the 
species are stated to be injurious to the cones of spruce fir (Picea 
excelsa) and silver fir {Abies i^ectinata). There is presumably some 
confusion here, as it is the larva of D. splendidella that feeds in 
cones ; that of D. decuriella {abietella) attacks the shoots of Pinus 
sylvestris. The last-named species is well known to occur in the 
North of England, but only one example of D. sijlendidella has 
hitherto been recorded from the north (Hartlepool, 1891). 

Among observations upon members of the Tortricid group of moths, 
v^e note that the larva of Pcsdisca ophthalmicana is blamed for 
doing damage to holly. We should say that moths reared from 
larvae living in packets of terminal leaves of the holly, as depicted 
on page 266, fig. 253, would be referable to Bhopobota {Grapholitha) 
ncevana. 

The species represented on page 269, fig. 256, is certainly Betinia 
buoliana, but moths bred from larvae feeding in the leading shoots of 
Scots pine, as illustrated (fig. 255), are usually B. pinicolana, a very 
closely allied but clearly distinct species. 

These possible errors in identification are referred to more parti- 
cularly to emphasize the author's caution in the preface, where he 
remarks: ". . . I trust that the student will take up the subject with 
the object of making a study of it on his own account, and verify 
each point by observation and rearing." 



Thirty-first Annual Beport and Proceedings of the Lancashire and 
Cheshire Entomological Society. Session 1907. 

In addition to the reports of meetings, this excellent little 
volume comprises among its contents the Vice-President's Address, 
by J. Harold Bailey, M.B., Ch.B. (pp. 18-40), which deals with the 
Coleoptera of the Isle of Man, and is a valuable contribution. The 
Coleoptera of Lancashire and Cheshire, by W. E. Sharp, F.E.S., an 
important annotated list of species (numbering 1486) found in the 
two counties, is also included, but this is paged separately, 1-75. A 
portrait of J. E. le B. Tomlin, M.A., F.E.S., is finely printed on plate 
paper. 



''n 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XLL] NOVEMBEE, 1908. [No. 546. 

MALACOSOMA NEU STRIA Ab. 
By the Hon. N. Charles Rothschild, F.E.S. 






The above curious aberration of M. neustria was reared on 
August 26th, 1907, by Mr. Frederick Palin, of Ashton Mill, near 
Oundle, from a cocoon collected in the village of Ashton. 



THE BASSES-ALPES IN AUGUST. 
By H. Eowland-Brown, M.A., F.E.S. 

Circumstances conspired to keep me in London until the 
end of July, and to shorten the days which each year I endeavour 
to devote to the study of the butterflies of the Continent. I 
thought, however, that there might be compensations in a visit 
to the Basses-Alpes, even thus late, and Erehia scipio was the 
particular objective of my journey. My records for this in- 
teresting species show that it affects the Dauphiny Alps as 
well as the Dourbes at Digne. M. Chretien, an authority on 
the mountain butterflies of France, has taken it at Monetier-les- 
Bains : Mrs. NichoU informs me that it occurred not uncommonly 
some years back at Vallouise — both places within easy access of 
the Brian9on railway. But never having tried Barcelonnette, 
and finding that the French collectors of an earlier day had met 
with it in this region, I detrained — most unluckily as it turned 
out — at Prunieres, and the same evening (August Istj found 

ENTOM. NOVISMJJER, 1908. Y 



258 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

myself in this pleasant little Alpine town. Here I spent three 
days. But though twice I ascended to the higher Erebia zone 
on the path (?) to the Pain de Sucre, on both occasions cloud 
and heavy rain, succeeding bright mornings, destroyed any 
chance I may have had of netting scijno there, and I was com- 
pelled to defer my hopes elsewhere. While the sun shone, how- 
ever, there were many butterflies on the wing, though for the 
most part decidedly passes. Just outside Grenoble, from the train 
window, I had noted fine fresh examples of Pajnlio yodaUrius of 
the second brood, and Satijrus circe. On the mountain-paths 
round Barcelonnette the commonest insects were unquestionably 
Poli/ommatus damon, and the same splendid Satyrid, with 
battered Argynnids and Melitaeids — D.imphia, A. adippe {none, 
seen of the cleodoxa form, generally common in the South of 
France), A. n'lohe, M. j)h(xhe, females; while of the fresher 
order, fine, brightly-coloured M. didi/ma, with typical females, 
and Brenthis ino among the wild raspberry were abundant. 
Following some distance up the valley the rivulet which de- 
scends from the Pain de Sucre, and falls into the Ubaye at the 
iron town-bridge, I found Erebia neoridas, males, in fine condi- 
tion, single Polygonia c-album, and representatives of all the 
August Satyrids — S. hermione, S. alcyone, S. statilinus var. 
allionia, S. cordida (worn) , Hipparchia briseis, fine and large, and 
H. semele, of course, with brilliant Pararge mcera var. adrasta on 
the warm stone walls which separate the little plots of cultivated 
land. Most of the lower Erebias, however, had obviously seen 
their best days. E. stygne was in rags ; E. {BtJuops not much 
better, and a few E. ligea. But at about 5000 ft. the condition 
of most things showed an improvement. E. eiiryale, a quite un- 
distinguished form, was swarming, and scattered E. tyndarus 
disclosed the form dromus. On a marshy patch Coenonympha 
iphis put in an appearance ; and I should add that faded females 
of C. doriis and C. arcania were also to be seen on the lower 
paths, wath Thymelicus acUeon, T. lineola, and occasional Pyrgiis 
sao. "Blues" were conspicuous by their absence, except damon. 
P. corydon was quite rare : one or two P. escheri, and P. alexis, 
a single P. baton, and a worn male P. optilete high up, with 
Rusticus argyrognomon constituted a meagre bag. 

Noting in Mr. Wheeler's ' Butterflies of the Central Alps ' 
that Alios is given by Mr. Powell as a locality for E. scipio I 
transferred my attentions thither on the 5th. The drive over 
the Col d'Allos in the "Cars Alpins " is pleasant enough, the 
road gradually rising from the valley by lavender-covered slopes 
alive with Colias edusa, Satyrus cordiUa, and Callimorpha liera to 
the regular zone inhabited by Parnassius apollo, and I daresay 
many other Alpine species. JBut as the sun now disappeared for 
something like forty-eight hours, and the rain descended during 
the whole of my first day at Alios without a moment's inter- 



THE BASSES-ALPES IN AUGUST. 259 

mission, the Col, entomologically speaking, is to me a blank. 
Nor do I fancy that the Alios side would be iDi'oductive, as it is 
wholly devoid of forest and grazed apparently to the summit, 
which commands but a moderate view of the surrounding moun- 
tains. The 7th and the 8th of August as well as the 10th 
I devoted entirely to the neighbourhood of the beautiful Lac 
d'Allos, with the intention of tracking down the elusive scipio. 
But my evil star was in the ascendant, and though I penetrated 
high up beyond the lake itself, which lies at over 7000 ft. — an 
expanse of lapis -lazuli in a setting of sombre peaks, not in shape 
unlike the Dolomites — again clouds and rain disappointed my 
search. 

Except on the 8th, when I was soaked to the skin in a terrific 
thunderstorm which found me with no better shelter than a 
willow-tree, the lower stages of the mule-path that leads first to 
the forester's house — round which the reafi"orestation of the bare 
hills is in full swing — were warm and sunny. About a quarter 
of an hour from the village the track is shaded by a wealth of 
wild fruit trees — pears, apples, cherries, and sloes, and here- 
abouts worn males of Thecla acacia were drinking in the honey 
of the white stone-crop, while the females might be seen ovi- 
positing on the sloe-bushes— always favouring the meanest 
specimens : Thecla spini, a little less disreputable, was also in 
evidence, with worn Limenitis Camilla. In the open, fresh Poutia 
dapliclice and Erebia neoriclas males were again in profusion, with 
Epinephele lycaon, males of Clirysophanus virgaurece, a,i[id Hesperia 
comma, the uncut meadows revealing occasional ApoTia cratcegi, 
and by the woodsides innumerable Erebia eunjale. Curiously 
enough, with the exception of a single brilliant Aglais iirticce on 
the shore of the Lac, I do not remember to have seen a single 
Vanessid on the Basses-Alpes in the first fortnight of the month 
except P. c-album. 

The mountains round Alios, as the inhabitants are proud 
to inform us, partake much more of the character of the Swiss 
Alps than of the Basses-Alpes. But this season, at all events, 
butterflies did not appear in anything like the profusion to 
which those who collect in Switzerland are accustomed. Except 
Coenonympha iphis, which occurred wherever its food-plants grew, 
I cannot say that any single species was really common. At 
5500-6000 ft. males of Chrysophanus hippotlioe var. eurybia were 
in evidence, and I took a female of C. virgaurece which stands 
midway between the type, and the var. zermattensis'in the distri- 
bution of colour. Brenthis amathusia was rare, as also B. pales 
var. arsilache, their condition showing that it was not a result of 
my coming too late upon the ground. Small E. goante, a form 
of E. var. cassiope (= obsoleta, Tutt) and E. var. dromus, made 
up the Erebia record of this part of the walk ; and it was not 
until I arrived at the mountain-wall which encloses the Lac that 

y2 



260 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I first encountered E. mnestra, E. (jorge, mostly ab. erynnis, and 
what I take to be a small form of E. glacialis. The flowery banks 
that slope towards the water were haunted by Colias phicomone, 
Nomiades semiargiis, and B. pales, and just when the sun went 
in I took a couple of female P. eros, and a male with nicely 
confluent spots on the under side ; while somewhat lower a few 
fresh Zygcena achiUece flickered among the tall grasses. This 
was on my first visit. The next day, crossing over the grassy 
intervening hills golden with hawkweed and arrayed with many 
bright Alpine flowers besides, I found butterflies scarcer than 
ever, though I met with a nice form of //. alveiis, and a single 
P. orhitidus, noting further a fine male Gonepteryx rliamni at 
about 7300 ft. Proceeding on to the rocks in the direction of 
the Col de St. Martin, and working well up to the snow, nothing 
better than a battered E. gorge or two turned up, and a few 
Zygcena minos. Evidently I had not found the haunts of E. 
scijno, and the locality included under the rather comprehensive 
style of "Alios." 

On the 11th I walked down through picturesque Colmars, 
with its quaint walled town and mediaeval fortifications, to 
Beauvezer, where I found myself in the Basses -Alpes proper, 
and after a halt of two days in the admirably arranged Hotel 
Alp— in lovely weather which produced nothing novel except 
females of E. neoridas, and exquisite examples of Zygcena fausta 
and Z. carniolica, with P. dorilis and a stray P. meleager var. 
steveni from the lavender-covered hills — I found myself once 
more at the familiar railway-station of St. Andre-de-Meouelles. 
From that day onward, with one black exception, the weather 
proved all that could be desired, and, though I had intended to 
pass no more than a few hours at Digne, so agreeable did I find 
the air of that— in August- usually stuffy town that I remained 
at the Hotel Boyer-Mistre for an entire week, still buoyed up 
with visions of E. scipio on the Dourbes, an expedition in the 
height of summer not to be undertaken lightly, and hitherto 
shirked completely by me. 

My notes for August 14th commence: ** In the wonderful 
' Eaux Thermales ' valley, and wonderful it certainly is to the 
collector who has the good fortune to be there any time from the 
first week in April onwards to the autumn, for I have seen it 
even in October full of insect life, and I suspect that there are few 
fine days in the year when it would not afford one or other of the 
continuous brooded edusa, or of the butterflies which we regard 
as hibernators. On this fresh summer morning, throughout 
that part of the valley from the sudden source of the clear brook 
to its junction with the Torrent des Eaux-Chaudes — now shrunk to 
a mere thread of silver water— the whole air is alive with the music 
of bird and insect, for I have noticed that in the South of Europe 
the summer silence characteristic of Enghshwoodis broken long 



THE BASSES-ALPES IN AUGUST. 



261 



after the spring is over, and the nightingales make music in the 
willows of the Bl6one even to the end of June. Bound the tall up- 
standing thistles there is a battle royal for the purple flower-heads, 
and it is amusing to see how the pugnacious ' skippers ' will put 
to flight even the monster Argyunids and the heavy lumping 
Enodia dryas, which I have found nowhere in the Basses-Alpes 
but here. On the warm mud of the riverside a single Pyrgiis 
proto, Garcharodus althcece, Hesperia carthami, and H. alveus var. 
cirsii with the bright rusty-red under side dispute with clouds of 
the beautiful silky- white P. corydon of the region. Males of 
P. mdeager are also not uncommon ; and it must have a pro- 
longed emergence, as I have taken it at Digne in former years 
as early as June 14th. P. bellargus is over for the time being, 
but P. hylas of the second generation is emerging, and tiny 
males of P. baton, no larger than smallest C. minima. Some 
day I fancy the ' forms ' of this little butterfly, too, will be 
separated into species ; superficially, at least, the fine mountain 
baton and the baton of the Mediterranean coast in March and 
Digne in August are widely different. Round the willows flit 
the second brood of Cyaniris argiolus, with lovely lilac-winged 
females, strongly suffused with black ; Rusticus argiis is also in 
prime condition, with Chrysophanus virgaurece females of sur- 
passing brilliancy and size. Leptosia sinapis var. dinieiisis and 
single L. duponcheli represent the autumn emergences, and the 
second brood of Melitcea deione — here unmistakably distinct 
from all its congeners — is not uncommon, though the males are 
showing signs of wear already. A fine red M. parthenie is also 
easily identified ; but in point of numbers E. neoridas is an easy 
first, with Epinephele tithonus crowding the dull pink blossoms 
of Eupatorium, where C. hera is also in strong force. What a 
rainbow cloud of colour streams upward when, in striking at 
some more than usually attractive specimen, the whole array of 
banqueters rises in the air ! Limenitis Camilla is in such splendid 
condition that there can be no doubt of its constituting a second 
brood ; on the opposite bank, in the full glare of the sun, when 
the white thyme and the gennifer fill the air with sweet perfume, 
Gonepteryx cleojxitra is sailing lazily, and the rocks are alive 
with the warmth -loving Satyrids. Commonest of them are now 
Satyrus statilinus var. allionia and Tlipparchia arcthusa — the 
latter in myriads ; S. actaa is on the wane, but before the day 
is over I meet with, for the first time in my experience, the 
female of S. fidia—oi all the Satyrids most fair on the under 
side, and in its protective colouring also the most deceptive. 
Of Papilio alexanor, to whom the valley is consecrated in the 
memories of many others besides myself, there is no vestige, aiid 
that is the one disappointment of the day, though P. podalirius 
and huge P. machaon complete the picture. P. admetus var. 
ripertii is also looked for in vain, though higher up the valley 



262 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

on tlie way to the Coussons the lavender is by no means flowered 
out, and the spikes are studded with the ruddy orange-red of 
Zi/g(ena fausta, Z. carniolica var. diniensis, and occasional Z. 
transalpina. P. meleager, males, are also flying, and from a 
flower-head of Eupatorinm I am presently fortunate enough to 
take what, at a distance, looks like a female of C. virgaurete, but 
in the net discloses a female C. alciphron var. gordius with a 
somewhat remarkable under side, with the exception of the 
discoidal spot on the fore wings, the usual maculations being 
almost entirely absent, as one sometimes sees them in L. avion ; 
and in the scheme of marking not altogether unlike the aberrant 
cinniis of P. bellargus." 

(To be continued.) 



A FOSSIL FLY OF THE FAMILY BLEPHAROCEPJD^. 
By T. D. a. Cockerell, 




Pliilorites johamiseni, n. g., n. sp. 

In his ' Western Diptera ' (1877) Osten Sacken described the 
Blepharoceridse as a " remarkable family — remarkable for its 
exceptional characters ; for the paucity of the species, scattered 
through the most distant parts of the world ; and for the variety 
of generic modifications which these species show in preserving 
at the same time with wonderful uniformity the very striking 
family characters, some of which are unique in the whole order 
of Diptera." These words are equally true to-day, although the 
number of known species has been somewhat increased. Accord- 
ing to Handlirsch (' Die Fossilen Insekten ') there are about 
thirty living forms described, but not a single fossil species. Of 
the thirteen families of Nematocerous Diptera recognized by 
Handlirsch, only two, the Blepharoceridae and the Orphnephilidse, 
are without fossil representatives. 



FOSSIL FLY OF THE FAMILY BLEPHAROCERID^. 263 

That the Blephavoceridse are not of recent origin is suffi- 
ciently manifest from their characters and distribution ; hypo- 
thetically, Handlirsch supposes them to have arisen as long 
ago as the Lias. However this may be, it is of much 
interest to find a representative in the earlier Tertiaries of 
Colorado, throwing the first actual light on the early history of 
the group. 

The fossil now described is one of a small series of fossil 
insects kindly loaned to me by Dr. S. M. Bradbury, of Grand 
Junction, Colorado. The specimens were found a few miles 
north of Rifle, Colorado, an entirely new locality for fossil 
insects. They consist of Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera 
(but no Hymenoptera), and occur in a sort of close-grained sand- 
stone, varying in colour from dull grey to pale ochraceous or 
creamy. It is probable that they belong to the Green River 
Series, but they may be referable to the Wasatch. My colleague 
Professor R. D. George thinks that the rock looks like Wasatch, 
but the general facies of the insect-fauna recalls that usually 
ascribed to the Green River. The age is considered to be 
Eocene. 

When I first examined the specimen, I thought it must 
belong to the Simuliidse ; but a closer scrutiny indicated that 
this was impossible. It did not seem to agree well with any 
described family ; and being altogether perplexed, I sent a rough 
sketch to Professor 0. A. Johannsen, of Cornell University. 
Professor Johannsen replied, suggesting that it might be referred 
to the Blepharoceridae, and advising comparison with Apistomyia 
and Hainmatorhina. With this clue I re-examined the fossil, 
and had little difficulty in determining that it was indeed a 
Blepharocerid. I found, also, that my original sketch was faulty 
in several respects, and, so far as I could ascertain, the affinities 
of the insect were with Bibiocephala and Philorus, although it 
evidently represented a very distinct genus. Kellogg (Proc. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., 1903) has divided the Blepharoceridae into two 
series, one with, the other without, an incomplete vein (branch 
of the media) near the posterior margin of the wing. The in- 
complete vein is present in all of the living North American 
forms, and is absent principally in the tropical genera. Owing 
to the conditions of preservation I am not able to quite clearly 
demonstrate this vein in the fossil, but I believe I can see it, 
and the probability of its existence is increased by the wide 
interval between the media and the cubitus, apparently needing 
such a support. 

From all of the genera in the section having the incomplete 
vein the fossil is distinguished by the large costal cell, the 
position of the radiomedial cross-nervure, the long proboscis, 
and the short legs. 



264 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



P]iilorltes johannseni, n. g., n. sp. 

Length, without proboscis, about 4 mm. ; expanse about 9 mm. ; 
head and thorax black ; legs brown ; wings ample, strongly fuliginous, 
the basal tliird of the costal region pale ; proboscis stout, about 2 mm. 
long ; palpi large, as usual, the apical portion slender, the tips falling 
nearly 850 /x short of tip of proboscis {Apistomijia has a long pro- 
boscis ; Paltostovia, which has an exceedingly long proboscis, has 
rudimentary palpi) ; antennte filiform, apparently normal, not especi- 
ally short (full length uncertain, but over 1360 /x) ; eyes apparently 
prominent, but ill-preserved; a distinct dark V at base of hypo- 
pharynx (compare Kellogg's figure of Bibioccj^hala eleijantida) ; thorax 
arched ; abdomen short and broad (width about 1020 /x), approxi- 
mately parallel-sided ; hind femora shoi't, failing by more than 510 /x 
to reach level of apex of abdomen ; tibi® and tarsi slender, fairly 
long. 

Eadius, except of course apically, distant from costa, leaving a 
large costal cell, which is about 238 /x deep (this is much more like 
Bibiocephala thun Philorus); vein Rg + s (following the nomenclature 
used by Kellogg) very weak, arising from R^ + s (which is strong) 
about 460 /x beyond origin of latter fromRj^, and branching about 
646 /x from its origin, the branches running approximately parallel, 
to end about the apex of the wing, the branching being at least 
2200 fx from tlie latter point; R4-1-5 ending (as in Bihiocepiiala com- 
stocki) below tlie apex of the wing ; radiomedial cross-nervure weak, 
but apparently at right angles to radius and media, and about 780 /x 
beyond mediocubital cross-nervure, and 1462 /x from margin of wing, 
measuring along media ; cubitus with two branches, as usual, the 
lower branch conspicuously bent at the cross-nervure ; anal weak, 
only partly visible. The vein R4 + 5 is not bent at the origin of 
R2-1-3, or at the radiomedial cross-nervure. 

In the table of Blepharocerid?e, Philorites will come in as 
follows : — 

No incomplete branch of media . Apistomyia, Hammatorhina, 
Paltostovia, SackcnicUa, Curnpira, and Hapalothrix. 
With an incomplete branch of media . . 1. 

1. Radius 2 wholly fused with radius., Pliilorus and Blepharocera. 
Radius 2 at least partly distinct ... 2. 

2. Proboscis shorter than palpi .... Bibiocephala. 
Proboscis longer than palpi .... Philorites. 

In the venation, Philorites represents a more primitive con- 
dition of the branches of the radius than is seen in Bibiocephala 
grandis, the most primitive member (so far as the radius goes) 
of the living American species. The arrangement is, in fact, 
not very unlike that of Dixa and the Culicidfe.* 

A few species of Blepharoceridje exist to-day in the Rocky 

*■ It is of interest to note that the Blepharoceridie aud Culicicl;i> agree in 
possessing the peculiar nnmber of five (instead of four) Malpighian-tubes. 



CURRENT NOTES, 265 

Mountains region. I have taken Bihiocejjhala grandis, Osten 
Sacken, flying over the Eiver Pecos at Pecos, New Mexico. 

The accompanying figure of Philorites is from a photograph 
kindly made by Mr. W. W. Bobbins, sHghtly touched up with 
India ink. 



CURRENT NOTES. 
By G. W. Kirkaldy. 



1. Hendel, F. : " Diptera — Fam. Muscaridae, Subfam. Lauxa- 
ninae," ' Genera Insectorum,' fasc. 68, pp. 1-66, pis. 1-3 
(1908). 

2. HoRVATH, G. : "Les relations entre les faunes hemipt^ro- 
logiques de I'Europe et de I'Am^rique du Nord," Ann. Mus. 
Hung. vi. 1-14 (1908). 

3. Kertesz, C. : ''Catalogus Dipterorum hucusque descrip- 
torum," iii. 1-367 + i (1908). 

4. LoNGSTAFF, G. B. : " Notes on some Butterflies taken in 
Jamaica," T. E. S. London for 1908, pp. 37-51, with map 
(June 5th, 1908). 

5. Martklli, G. : " Contribuzioni alia biologi della Pieris 
brassicce, L.," Boll. Lab. Zool. Portici, i. 170-224, figs. 1-12 
(May 30th, 1907 ; Lepidoptera). 

6. Martelli, Silvestri, and others : " Contribuzioni alia 
conoscenza degli insetti dannosi all'olivo e di quelli che 
con essi hanno rapporti," op. cit., ii. 1-358, 187 figures 
(1907-8). 

7. Massi, L. : " Contribuzioni alia conoscenza dei Calcididi 
italiaui," op. cit., i. 231-95, figs. 1-47 (Nov. 29th, 1907; 
Hymenoptera). 

8. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, vol. i. 
pp. 1-210, pis. 1-4, with 11 text-figs. (1906-8). 

9. Rocci, U. : " Contribuzione alio studio dei Lepidotteri del 
Piemonte," Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital. xxxviii. 52-79 (June 1st, 
1907). 

10. Theobald, F. V. : "A Monograph of the Culicidae," vol. iv. 
pp. i-xix and 1-639, text-figs. 1-297, pis. i-xvi (1907 ; 
Diptera). 

11. Verity, R. : " Elenco dei Lepidotteri della Vallombrosa 
(Appenino Toscano) (800-900 metri)," Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital. 
xxxviii. 20-51 (June Ist, 1907). 

12. Vickery, R. a.: "A Comparative Study of the External 
Anatomy of Plant Lice," Rep. Ent. Minnesota, xii. 1-16, 
figs. 1-5 (May, 1908; Hemiptera). 

13. Wellman, Cr. : " Bionomische Beobachtungen an Phoner- 
gates hicoloripes, Stal" (July 1st, 1907; Hemiptera). 



266 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

14. Horn, W. : "Brulle's ' Odontochila ans dem baltischen Bern- 
stein ' und die Pbylogenie der Cicindeliden " (Sept. 1st, 1907; 
Coleoptera). 

Horn (14) divides the subfam. CicindeliniB (of the fam. 
Carabidse) into two phyla, viz., Alocosternalife (with tribes 
Ctenostomini and Collyrini) and PlatysternaHae (with tribes 
Cicindelini, Megacephalini, and Mantichorini). 

Martelli (5) gives a very full account of the biology of the 
" large cabbage white," with that of its parasites, hyperparasites, 
&c. Verity (11) enumerates 456 species of Lepidoptera from 
Vallombrosa in the Tuscan Apennines, viz. : 77 Rhopalocera, 
255 Macro-Heterocera, and 124 Micros. The list is annotated. 
Rocci (9) deals only with the butterflies of Piedmont, of which 
he enumerates 117 ; this list is also annotated, and is preceded 
by observations on the country. Longstatf (4) precedes his 
notes on Jamaican butterflies by topographical remarks and a 
map of the island. 

Massi (7) presents an extensive and well illustrated contribu- 
tion to the study of the chalcid flies. 

Horvath (2) has summarized the interesting relations between 
the Hemiptera of Europe and North America. Thirty-three 
species — lieduvius jpersonatus, Citnocoris lectularius, two Cher- 
midse, twelve Aphidae, and seventeen Coccidse — are common to 
both. The summary is as follows : — There exist a certain 
number of species and genera of Hemiptera common to Europe 
and North America. The great majority of these Hemiptera 
has originated in the palaearctic fauna, and belongs to the 
temperate zone. Their migration has mostly taken place by the 
Behring Strait. The few southern types common to the two 
continents have originated from intertropical regions, whence 
they have independently come to enrich the palaearctic and 
nearctic faunas. Artificial importation plays only a secondary 
rule in the propagation of Europeo- American Hemiptera, but 
Europe has, by means of its cultivated plants, added more 
species to the American fauna than vice versa. 

Vickery's notes (12) on the external anatomy of Aphidse may 
be interesting to British workers. Wellman (13) furnishes some 
biologic notes on an African Pieduviid bug, which preys on a 
hut-infesting tick {Ornithodorus) . 

Silvestri and his assistants (6) have issued a very important 
work on the insects injurious to the olive. All orders are dis- 
cussed very fully as regards their biology and anatomy. 

Theobald (10) has issued a fourth volume on Mosquitoes, 
extending to over six hundred pages ; he describes seventy-three 
new species. Hendel's "Genera" of the Lauxaninae (better 
known as Sapromyzidae) is somewhat extensive, and will doubt- 
less be very valuable to dipterists. The three coloured plates 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELIT^A. 267 

are well executed (1). The third volume of Kertesz's general 
catalogue of Diptera will be very welcome (3). It lists the species 
described up to the end of 1905, and embraces the Stratio- 
myiidse, ErinnidsG, Ccenomyiidae, Tabanidae, Pantophthalmidae, 
and Khagionidse. 

The Hawaiian Entomological Society (8) have completed 
their first volume of Proceedings, in which all orders are dis- 
cussed. This is the only entomological society outside Europe 
and North America to publish proceedings. 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELITMA. 
By George Wheeler, M.A., F.E.S. 

(Continued from p. 249.) 
Palpi. 

Deione. — From above : Tip black, bare, and claw-like ; orange- 
brown hairs on top and sides to two-thirds of length ; pale hairs 
showing below the orange-brown. 

From below : Black, nearly covered with pale hairs to two-thirds 
or three-quarters of the length ; orange-brown hairs almost to 
the tip. 

Athalia. — From above : Black, so sparingly clothed in the upper 
portion wath orange-brown hairs as to leave the general appearance 
quite dark. 

From below : Black, but thickly covered with pale hairs till near 
the tip, where they become orange brown. The shade of the pale 
hairs varies greatly, from almost white to a light orange-brown. 

Parthenie. — From above : Black, but so densely covered with 
orange-brown hairs that the general effect is orange-brown. 

From below : Black, with pale hairs to about half the length, not 
very dense, and thence orange-brown to the tip. 

Varia. — From above : Very densely clothed, as in imrthenie, but 
with hair so much darker that they appear almost as dark as in 
athalia, though from an opposite cause. 

From below : Black, clothed throughout in the male with orange- 
brown hair, but in the female the hair near the base is pale. 

Aurelia. — From above : Black, less thickly clothed than in par- 
thenie, with hair of a darker shade, as in varia. The general effect is 
considerably darker than in parthenie. 

From below : Black, with darkish orange-brown hair, and some 
pale hairs at the base in the female, but not in the male. The palpi 
of aurelia and varia have the closest resemblance of any. 

Britomartis. — From above : Black, very sparingly clothed, even in 
the freshest examples, with very dark orange-brown hair. The palpi 
are short. 

From below : Black, clothed to the tip with short pale hairs, 
giving the effect of a black streak between two nearly white lines. 



268 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Dictynna. — From above : Black, fairly well clothed with darkish 
orange-brown hairs. 

From below : Black or nearly black, with orange-brown hairs up 
the centre, and lighter, sometimes quite light, ones at the sides ; the 
light hairs not reaching to the tip. 

Asteria. — Short. From above : Black, very thickly clothed with 
dark brown hair. 

From below : The same, with a few pale hairs on the inner side 
of the base in the male, and on both sides of the base and further up 
the inner side in the female. 

Antennje. 

Deione. — Black above, orange below, the orange being extended 
over the tip on to the upper side. Each joint is edged with white, 
which sometimes makes a white line between the black and the 
orange. The depth of the orange colour varies greatly. 

Athalia. — -Black above, the joints barely outlined in white ; whitish 
below, becoming yellow-brown towards the tip, this colour only very 
slightly turning over on to the upper side. The whitish coloured 
portion is much narrower than the orange in deione. Occasionally 
the yellow-brown extends almost to the base of the antennae. 

Parthenie. — Brownish black above, the joints as conspicuously 
edged with white as in deione, making the dark line narrow ; orange- 
brown below, much darker than in athalia or deione, this colour 
only very slightly, often not at all, turning over the dark side of 
the tip. 

Varia. — Much less conspicuously edged with white than in 'par- 
thenie, especially in the male, and even darker below ; a small white 
patch at one side of the tip. 

Aurelia. — Dark brown above, with white edge ; a large white 
patch at the side of the tip. Darker even than varia below, but 
lighter orange-brown, though still dark, towards the tip. This colour, 
even when showing on the upper side, does not look as if it were 
folded over from below. 

Britomartis. — Very like athalia, but the under surface lighter, 
frequently white, and the white runs right up into the tip, whicli is 
edged with orange-brown. 

Dictynna. — Black above, distinctly ringed with white; pale yellow 
or nearly white below, the white sometimes running up almost to the 
end of the tip, which is red-brown or orange-brown, this colour show- 
ing also on the upper side of the tip. 

Asteria. — Black throughout above, the joints slightly and occa- 
sionally strongly indicated with white at the edge ; below, black or 
very dark lirown, occasionally with white near the base and at the 
side of the tip, rarely showing any orange-brown at the tip. 

There are still three other considerations to be taken into 
account with regard to the perfect insect, even apart from neura- 
tion and the male armature, namely, size, locality, and date. 
Of these the first, though of some slight general value, is quite 
useless in any doubtful case apart from the other two. In the 
cases especially of athalia and dictynna, the variation in size, 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MEr,IT^.A. 269 

though both may be regarded as single- brooded, is very great. 
In deione the difference between the two broods is often con- 
siderable, and in britomartis—at least as represented at Reazzino 
— it is most striking. In imrthenie (apart from varia, which, so 
far as I see at present, there is no reason for connecting with it) 
the difference in size between the two broods is not, in my 
experience, considerable, but I have seen no specimens that are 
undoubtedly North German of the second brood (the mere label 
"Germania" being almost worse than useless) ; so that, in the 
face of Borkhausen's description and Godart's illustration, it 
would be unreasonable to make a general statement to this 
effect. Speaking somewhat loosely, it may be said that asteria 
is the smallest species, then varia, and that aurclia, hritomartis, 
parthenie, athalia, deione, and dictyniia follow in this order ; but 
this must in no sense be taken as a rule, except in so far as that 
if hundreds of examples of all the species were measured, the 
average would probably come out in that order ; but in individual 
cases the exceptions would be so multitudinous that size alone is 
most untrustworthy as a guide. Speaking generally, it may be 
said that in any given species the longer the feeding-time of the 
larva the larger the resulting imago (though even this must be 
qualified by taking into consideration the nutritive qualities of 
the food attainable), and hence it follows that in double-brooded 
species of this genus, the spring brood, whose larvae feed both in 
autumn and spring, is generally larger than the autumn brood, 
which has to get through all its phases in two or three months, 
or even less. This is strikingly illustrated by the cases of 
parthenie, berisalensis, and hritomartis in Switzerland. There is 
little difference between the two broods of the first-named 
species, the second brood of which begins to feed when the 
plantains are still fairly young and juicy, and which has about 
ten weeks of larval life ; the difference is greater in berisalensis, 
the first brood of which does not generally appear till two or 
sometimes even three weeks later than parthenie, the second 
broods being nearly contemporary; whilst in britoinartis, the 
larval life of whose second brood cannot extend beyond five 
weeks at most, the difference is very great, the first brood being 
generally as large as the average parthenie, and the second 
sometimes as small as the smallest asteria. When aurelia is 
partially double- brooded, south of the Alps, as at Roveredo, the 
few second-brood specimens that I have found have been no 
larger than asteria, and the small size of September athalia, 
when that species ventures on a partial second brood, is a 
matter of common knowledge. It follows also from this that 
the higher the altitude to which a single-brooded species mounts, 
the smaller will the specimens become, whereas, if a double- 
brooded species mounts high enough to become single-brooded, 
the tendency of the specimens will be towards increase in size, 



270 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

until it arriveg at an elevation which, by giving a shortened time 
for the growth of the larva by the late melting of the snows, or 
by decreasing its nourishment by stunting the food-plant, again 
dwarfs the species down to, or below, the average of the plains. 

(To be continued.) 



A SMALL COLLECTION OF SWISS NEUROPTERA. 
By W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 

With his usual kindness Dr. Chapman handed over to me 
the Neuroptera he took in Switzerland in July and August of 
the past summer. Though few in number there were amongst 
them representatives of four of the neuropterous suborders. 

TerijIdi A. — Dictyopteryx alpiim, two specimens, Saas-F6e, 
19th to Slst July. 

Odonata. — Sympetrum striolatum, one female, Zermatt, 9th 
to 16th August. S. fonscolomhii, three males, Zermatt, 9th to 
16th August. 

Planipennia. — Panorpa vulgaris, one female, Glion, 2nd to 
5th July ; also one male and three females, Vissoye, 7th to 17th 
July ; P. vulgaris, which is common in Switzerland, is struc- 
turally only a form of our P. communis. Ascalaphus coccajus, 
two females, Saas-Fee, 19th to 31st July. 

Tkichoptera. — Drusus nigrescens, one, Saas-Fee, 19th to 
31st July. Sericostoma pcedemontanum, one, Saas-Fee, 19th to 
31st July. 

Mr. K. J. Morton kindly assisted with some of the identifi- 
cations. But one species, Sympetrum striolatum, is represented 
in Britain. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Rhodometea (Sterrha) sacraria in South Devon. — The speci- 
men recorded by Mr. H. M. Edelsten {antea p. 250) is a male and not 
a female, as there stated. The mistake arose in the press. 

Angerona prunaria in September. — One individual of a brood 
of eighty larvae, reared from eggs laid by a bred female in early June 
last, became full grown and spun up about September 15th. A 
female moth emerged on September 28th. All the other larvae 
remain of the normal size for the time of year, and will no doubt hyber- 
nate in due course. — J. B. Morris ; 14, Ranelagh Avenue, Barnes. 

NoNAGRiA NEURICA IN BRITAIN. — During July we captured in 
Sussex a Nonagria which we at first believed to be arundineta and 
recorded as such in August ' Entomologist,' but upon a closer 
exainination, not finding the specimens to agree with those from 
Kent, Cambs, and Norfolk, we sent them to Mr. Edelsten, who replies 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 271 

"that the specimens agree with the insect known on the Continent as 
N. neurica, Hb., a species which is quite distinct from A'', dissoluta 
and its var. arimdineta. N. neurica, Hb., occurs in parts of Germany, 
&c., but this is apparently the first occurrence of this insect in 
Britain." — E. P. Sharp & A. J. Wightman ; Lewes. 

Late Emergence of ^Eschna cyanea. — I have to record another 
late emergence of a dragonfly. An ^schna cyanea emerged early in 
the morning of September 7th. Of many bred this summer the 
earliest came out on June 13th ; there was then an interval of a fort- 
night. After that they appeared in rapid succession until al)out the 
end of the first week in August. No more came out after then till 
that late lingerer on September 7th, born entirely out of due season. 
Harold Hodge ; 322, Oxford Street, W., October, 1908. 

Note on Abraxas sylvata, ab. — -I was struck with the general 
resemblance of the aberration of A. sylvata (ulmata) figured in the 
last number of the ' Entomologist,' its blurring and suffusion, to the 
appearance presented by some geometrid moths whose pupae have 
been exposed to abnormally low temperatures. This led me to find 
what temperature the specimen taken hj Mr. Scollick, as you inform 
me, on the 22nd June, 1907, must have been subjected to while in the 
latter part of its pupal stage. I have access to the Brighton official 
temperatures and find that the June of 1907 was the coldest certainly 
for thirteen years. May was also considerably below the average, 
especially the last half of it. In Buckinghamshire, where the speci- 
men figured w^as taken, the temperature was probably lower, that 
being an inland county. Different species vary greatly in their sensi- 
tiveness, so far as it is exemplified by their facies, to pupal cold; I do 
not know how sylvata ranks in this respect, and a species which, like 
this, has a winter pupa, is usually less sensitive than one which has 
come from a summer pupa, so that I by no means put forward the 
theory that the cold May and June of 1907 were the cause of the 
abnormal appearance figured — -only there seems a possibility of it. 
F. Merrifield ; 14, Clifton Terrace, Brighton. 

EupiTHECiA Larvae on Pastinaca : a Correction. — Mr. Percy 
C. Keid informs me that the larvae which he found on Pastinaca 
sativa, and took to be those of Eapithecia pivipinellata (Ent. Rec. xx. 
13 ; Entom. xli. 54) proved to be E. scabiosata, well known to be a 
pretty general feeder, though I do not at the moment remember that 
parsnip has hitherto been recorded as one of its food-plants. — Louis 
B. Prout ; 246, Richmond Road, N.E., October 26th, 1908. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

CoLiAs EDUSA IN CORNWALL. — I have not seen so many Colias 
eclusa for very many years as I saw during the first ten or twelve days 
of this month flying over the to wans, both on the Lelant and the 
Hayle side of the estuary of the Hayle river. I was in this part, on 
and off, from September 8th until October 12th, but I did not see a 
single G. eclusa until October. Generally, I noticed more insects, in* 



272 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



eluding Macroglossa stellatarum and Pyrameis cardui for the first 
time this season, in the first weeks of October, than in the whole 
summer previously. In fact this seemed to be the true summer. 
Harold Hodge ; October 19th, 1908. 

CoLL4.s EDUSA AT Leatheehead, Surrey. — A neighbour of mine 
brought me yesterday a male G. edusa he had caught with his hat 
in a field here. Needless to say it was very worn. — Joseph H. 
Carpenter ; Eedcot, Belmont Eoad, Leatherhead, October 4th, 1908. 

AcHERONTiA ATROPos AT EiNGWOOD. — A fine perfect male speci- 
men of this hawk-moth was brought to me on the 10th inst. by a lad 
who had found it in his father's garden. — Chas. J. Bellamy ; Broad- 
shard Cottage, Eingwood, October 11th, 1908. 

Acherontia ATROPOS IN Inverness-shiee. — Mr. Grant, Drumalan, 
Drumnadrochit, has sent me a specimen of Acherontia atropos, 
which was picked up on the road in the village of Milton, near 
Drumnadrochit, on September 28th. It was dead when found. The 
specimen is a large one. — Henry H. Brown ; Cupar-Fife. 

Acherontia atropos in Middlesex. — Mr. Broughton Edge, the 
Eevising Barrister for the Hammersmith district, informs me that 
a specimen of this moth, taken in the neighbourhood, was brought 
into his Court during the September sittings, and shown him by the 
captor. — H. Eowland-Beown ; Harrow- Weald, October 24:th, 1908. 

Sphinx convolvuli and Acheeontia ateopos in Selkiek. — A 
specimen of each of these noteworthy moths was brought to me 
yesterday, both having been caught in the town. S. convolvuli was 
found behind a rain-pipe on the ground. It had lost a fore-leg, but 
was otherwise in good condition and lively. A. atropos was found 
creeping up a chimney-stack. It had been handled a good deal 
before I got it, and was somewhat worn. — B. Weddell ; Selkirk, 
October 23rd, 1908. 

Pyg^ra anachoreta, &c., in Essex. — Eeferring to Mr. George P. 
Kitchener's note in last month's ' Entomologist,' on capturing a 
female P. anachoreta in Essex, I would like to call attention to an 
error on his part in saying the only records he can find of former 
captures have been on the Kentish coast, as my find of wild ova of 
this species at St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex, in August, 1893, was 
duly recorded in the ' Entomologist ' after the larvaj had pupated. I 
may mention that this brood was kept up by myself and friends for 
nine years, when it became exhausted. — Miss A. D. Edwards; 
The Homestead, Coombe Hill, East Grinstead, October 17th, 1908. 

Caradeina exigua at Chesteb. — A specimen of C. exigna, in 
fine condition, rewarded my search at the foot of the electric lamps 
on the night of October 12th. This species was first recorded at 
Chester by Dr. Herbert Dobie, who took a specimen at the electric 
lamps in 1900. The second record fell to my share, September 25th, 
1903.— J. Abkle ; Chester. 

Dasypolia templi at Chestee. — I took a fine male" at rest on 
the city wall near an electric lamp, October 6th, 11 p.m. This makes 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 273 

my third capture of the species at the Chester electric lights. 
J. Arkle ; Chester. 

Labia minor in the City. — A male example of this earwig 
settled on my hand in London as I was walking along Southwark 
Street near Blackfriars Bridge on Wednesday, September 30th last. 
Mr. W. J. Lucas was good enough to name it for me and I have 
added it to his collection, the interest attaching to it being the 
locality in which it was taken. — F. M. Dyke, B.Sc, Kingston-on- 
Thames. 

Captures op Lepidoptera in West Cornwall, 1908. — Of 
Leucania albipuncta I have this season taken three specimens, two 
in grand condition and one slightly worn ; and of AjMviea leiicostigma 
(fibrosa) a single specimen in very good condition. I believe these 
to be the first published records for this county. Half a dozen very 
fine Leucania vitellina and several fine Folia xanthomista = nigro- 
cincta have also been secured. Colias edusa has been scarce, but I 
have captured five or six specimens, and have seen about two dozen 
others. Two other insects perhaps worth mentioning are Sphinx 
convolvuli and Acherontia atropos, of each of which I have obtained 
one example. — W. A. Eollason ; Lamorna, Truro, Cornwall, October 
17th, 1908. 

Zizera (Cupido) minima in August. — During the first week in 
August the second brood of Z. minivia was locally common on Salis- 
bury Plain. — F. W. J. Jackson ; Woodcote End House, Epsom. 

NocTUA ditrapezium a Scotch species. — A very fine specimen 
of this moth was taken at sugar at Fortrose, in the Black Isle, in 
August, 1903. I was not aware until a few days ago that this species 
has not hitherto been regarded as extending its range so far north. 
I certainly have never taken it in Scotland since, nor can I learn 
from friends north of the Tweed of any other Scotch record. The 
only books of reference that I have at hand limit its distribution to 
England. — K. Meldola ; Lyme Kegis, September 15th, 1908. 

[Since writing the above I find that Barrett gives Moncrieff Hill, 
Perthshire, among the localities for this species. Its occurrence at 
Fortrose on the shore of the Moray Firth is, however, worthy of 
record.— E. M.] 

Notes on Collecting in the Aldershot District. — To most 
people the word Aldershot conjures up visions of soldiers and field 
days over the Long Valley rather than of entomological expeditions. 
The Long Valley truly is a terrible place, where not even a cabbage 
white nor a meadow brown can keep up the struggle for existence. 
On that desolate sandy waste I would be more surprised to see a 
butterfly than a vulture, for on a broiling hot day the valley reminds 
one of a tropical desert, and it would only require the vulture to 
complete the resemblance. Luckily, however, the Long Valley is of 
limited extent, and all around it lie districts that are more favoured 
entomologicaliy than any others that I know of, except perhaps 
Dover. Taking Aldershot as a centre, and using a bicycle as a means 
of conveyance, five distinct types of country can be reached in an 

ENTOM. — NOVEMBER, 1908. Z 



2T4 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

easy day's excursion, viz., miles of fir woods, acres of heather land, 
extensive oak woods, chalk hills, and the ordinary field and hedgerow 
country. All these districts produce their own pecuHar fauna in 
abundance. I have only been one year in Aldershot, and during that 
time I have really had very little leisure for entomological expedi- 
tions. Modern soldiering at Aldershot requires that one shall devote 
all one's time and energy to it. On the other hand, when carrying 
out military training one traverses a large expanse of country, and 
lines of troops in extended order will make almost any insect move 
out of heather and woods. My experience, therefore, of the lepido- 
pterous fauna of the Aldershot district has been more that of observing 
than collecting. I cannot collect numbers of any insect, as it would 
not be possible for me to carry cabinets all over the world, and also 
I am very much against the practice of collecting " series." I often 
read with dismay in the ' Entomologist ' how So-and-so caught " a 
nice series " of some dozens of a rare insect. Soon half the butterflies 
and moths of the British Isles will become extinct if collectors go on 
amassing "series." One wonders why the various entomological 
societies do not protest against this type of wholesale slaughter. But 
I must return to the butterflies and moths that I have come across 
whilst riding about, and which have come to the sugar patches which 
I always keep going in my garden. 

Of butterflies I have met .with thirty-six species. Six other 
species, including Apatura iris, occur occasionally, I have heard, 
and I hope to obtain them next season. Of those species that I 
myself saw, Argynnis pa^j/im swarmed in some woods, A. selene and 
A. euphrosynev^&re fairly common, and A. aglaia, also A. adippe, were 
met with. Limenitis sibylla w^as very numerous. One day whilst 
riding through a wood I counted four white admirals on one small 
blackberry bush. I also came across this insect, quite close to Aider- 
shot town, engaged in the rather peculiar pursuit, for it, of sailing 
about in glaring sunshine over a small pond, occasionally resting on 
the water-lily leaves. The pond was of course in a wood. Satyrus 
semele swarms everywhere, and Epinephele tithonus is equally common. 
Zephyrus querais was plentiful in all oak woods, and Lycana astrarche, 
L. corydon, Gujndo minima, and Cyaniris argiolus all occurred freely 
in the right spots. 

The list of moths noticed would be too long to enumerate. All 
the commoner species seem to abound, and no doubt, had I the time 
available in wdiich to work the district systematically and breed 
larvae, I could obtain all the Macro- Lepidoptera, except those species 
which are peculiar to the north, the fens, or the coast. Of local or 
rare species I have come across the following : — Hemaris homhyli- 
formis, Hylophila hicolorana, Nola confusalis, Gochilidon Umacodes, 
Drepana binaria, P. dictceoides, Acronycta leporina, Nonagria typhce, 
Apamea unaniynis, A. op)hiogramma, Plusia morieta, Erastia fuscula, 
Hadena genista, Calymnia pyralina, Aporophila nigra, Agrotis vesti- 
gialis, Orrhodia rubiginea, Xylina semibrunnea, Epione apiciaria, 
M. unangidata, Anticlea riibidata, Coremia quadrifasciaria, Boarmia 
consortaria, Tejjhrosia extersaria, and Collix sparsata. Of these G. 
pyralina seems to have its headquarters in my orchard. If I were 
a "series" collector, I could have taken a couple of dozen this 



SOCIETIES. 275 

summer. I bred one from a caterpillar I found on a pear-tree. 
Aporopliila nigra and Agrotis smicia have been very common. 
B. consortaria and D. hamula came to sugar in the garden. 
P. dictceoides I have found on tree-trunks. Agrotis vestigialis is really 
a coast insect, but I found a tine dark specimen one day inside a tent 
on one of the heather districts. 

During the latter part of August, searchlight operations were 
carried on on the Chobham Eidge. Now this ridge is a heather 
and fir-tree clad hill some three miles long, whence a view can be 
obtained from Sunningdale on the north to Guildford on the south, 
and beyond Weybridge towards Croydon on the east. No light was 
turned on until 9.30 p.m. My duties happened to bring me alongside 
one of the searchlights, one using a fixed beam. The sight was so 
extraordinary that even the men working the lights made remarks 
upon it. From every side dozens of moths came sailing into the 
light area. At a short distance off they all appeared white, just like 
a number of swiftly moving snowflakes. Few, however, came directly 
towards the light, and fewer still gave me any opportunity to dis- 
cover the species they belonged to. Of those, however, that I could 
identify, the majority of the Geometers were P. hippocastanaria ; 
whilst the Noctuas were either ^4. tritici, A. obelisca, or A. agathina, 
but which I could not be certain about, as I had no means of 
capturing or killing any to enable me to examine them closely. It 
was decidedly a night of lost opportunities. Once before in my life 
have I experienced a similar disappointment, and that was during 
the South African war when I found myself after a night march at 
the outlying portions of the N'Gome Forest on the Zululand border, 
w^here the sir seemed to be alive with various species of Papilio and 
Charaxes, none of which I could catch, as a butterfly-net and a large 
killing-bottle are not part of the outfit of an officer in the Mounted 
Infantry ! — B. Tulloch (Captain, King's Own Yorkshire Light In- 
fantry) : Aldershot, October 12th, 1908. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — Wednesday, October 7th, 
1908. — Mr. C. O. Waterhouse, President, in the chair. Mr. James J. 
Joicey, of 62, Finchley Eoad, London, N.W., and Mr. Eobt. M. Prideaux, 
of Woodlands, Brasted Chart, Seyenoaks, were elected Fellows of the 
Society. — Mr. W. G. Sheldon brought for exhibition a case containing 
butterflies from Andalusia taken in the spring of this year, as 
described in the ' Entomologist, with the striking aberration of 
Melanargia iyies, showing a strong melanic tendency. — Dr. Herbert 
Charles showed a remarkable aberration of Dryas paphia taken by 
him in the New Forest in July last. With the exception of the 
borders and the bars all the wings were suffused with deep velvety 
brown triangular patches, the maculations being entirely absorbed 
therein.— Mr. Hugh Main showed living larvae of Blatta germanica 
to illustrate their colourless condition on first emergence. — Mr. H. 
St. J. Donisthorpe exhibited examples of {a) Agrilus higuttatus, F., 



276 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

taken in Sherwood Forest, July, 1908, being the first record- for the 
Midlands ; (b) Pyropterus affinis, not uncommon in Sherwood Forest, 
July, 1908 ; (c) a species of Phora, with pupoQ bred from larvae which 
came out of the body of a Clerus formicarius taken alive in Sherwood 
Forest, July, 1908, with the Agrilus, and probably parasitic on it ; 
{d) Trogolinus anglicanus, Shp., a specimen taken at Bembridge, 
August 3rd, 1908, with a specimen from Plymouth, and only known 
before to occur in New Zealand, and at Plymouth where it was dis- 
covered by Mr. Keys ; (e) Phyto melanocephala, Mg., bred from wood- 
lice taken at Bembridge, Isle of Wight, August, 1908, with pupa, and 
a wood-louse with dipterous pupa in siUc. The life-history of the 
fly was hitherto unknown, though the larvae of Bhinophora atramen- 
taria, Mg., a nearly related species, have been recorded as parasitic 
on Oniscus aselkis. — Mr. A. H. Harrison, a gynandromorphous example 
of Pieris napi, bred from parents taken in North Cornwall this year. 
— Mr. E. E. Speyer, a case of rare and interesting dragonflies taken 
in the British Isles in 1908, including (a) Sympetrum fonscolomhii, 
Selys. A male and female, taken in Hertfordshire on June 24:th and 
July 27th respectively, the last specimens of this dragonfly re- 
corded from the British Isles being those taken by Mr. Briggs in 
Surrey in 1892; [h) Somatochlora metallica, Lind., a male captured 
in Sussex on August 4th, being the first authentic record of this insect 
in England ; (c) Anax impjerator, Leach, a male caught in Hertford- 
shire with Lihellula depressa, male, in its jaws ; [d) Libellula dep)ressa, 
Linn., two females taken late in the season, showing the appearance 
of blue powder on the abdomen ; (e) Libellula qiiadrimaculata, 
Linn., four specimens, showing the remarkable difference in the 
amount of suffusion on the wings in individuals from the same 
locality, together with the following insects : — Orthetrimi cancel- 
latum, McLach., male and female, from Herts ; Gordulia cenea, Linn., 
male, from Burnham Beeches, Bucks; Brachytron pratense, Miill., 
male and female, from Oxford; Platycnemis pennipes, Pall., male and 
female var. lactea, from Oxford ; Erythromma naias, Hansem ; speci- 
mens from Herts, Bucks, Sussex ; and Pyrrhosoma temllum, McLach., 
male and female, from Sussex. — Mr. H. M. Edelsten showed speci- 
mens of ^EscJma isosceles and Libellula fulva ivom Norfolk Broads, 
taken in June last, and Orthetrum ccerulescens from Chagford, taken 
in July. — Mr. Norman Joy exhibited a number of examples of Coleo- 
ptera new to the British list, including Oxypoda jyeiplexa, Muls., from 
Cornwall; Sunius lyonessius, Joy, and Gryptopliagus hirtulus, Kr., 
from the Scilly Isles; Anisotoma flavicornis Bris., and Corticaria 
linearis, Payk., from Bradfield. — Mr. W. J. Lucas exhibited a spike 
of the grass Molinia carulea with dead Syrphids, Melanostoma 
scalare, Fabr., attacked by the parasitic fungus Empusa musccs, found 
on Esher Common, October 3rd, 1908. Most were attached by the 
point of the head only in a very peculiar manner, and apparently all 
were females. — Mr. 0. E. Janson exhibited a specimen of Crypta- 
morpha desjardinsi, Guer., found by Mr. F. C. Selous in his house at 
Barton-on-Sea, Hants, on June 26th. This beetle is recorded as 
living on banana-plants in Mauritius and Madeira, and may have 
been introduced here with the banana-fruit. — Mr. G. C. Champion, on 
behalf of Mr. W. West, who was present as a visitor, exhibited 



SOCIETIES. 277 

specimens of the following insects: — Aleochara crassiuscula, Sahib., 
taken at Great Yarmouth in May, 1908 ; varieties of Donacia 
dentipes and D. simplex, from Caistor Marshes ; Nabis hoops, 
Schioclte, taken at Esher, in August, 1908 ; and Idiocerus scurra. 
Germ., taken at Blackheath, Kent, in September, 1908. — Mr. L. W. 
Newman brouglit for exhibition specimens of (a) Grymodes exuhs 
from the Shetlands, including the rare female ; (b) Callimorpha 
dominula, two yellow aberrations bred from East Kent ova. In 
1906 a yellow female was bred. This was paired with a typical red 
male, and the result in 1907 was that the whole brood were typical 
Beds. These Beds were paired, and in 1908 the brood (a small one) 
produced 25 per cent, of the yellow form ; (c) a varied series of 
Camptograinma fluviata from Eastbourne ; and (d) a yellow aberra- 
tion of Noctiia rubi, from Yorkshire. — Dr. F. A. Dixey exhibited a 
number of Central and South American butterflies belonging to six 
different subfamilies, but all showing the same obvious character of a 
diagonal reddish band on a general dark surface. He stated, in 
reference to sorae remarks made by Mr. W. J. Kaye on a previous 
occasion, that although there was no direct geographical continuity 
between the areas of distribution of several of the species shown, 
there appeared to be sufficient connection of an indirect kind to 
warrant the supposition that the whole constituted an assemblage of 
mimetic character. The following papers were read or communi- 
cated: — "Bionomics of Butterflies," by Dr. G. B. Longstaff, D.M. 
" Some Additions to the Perhdae, Neuroptera-Planipennia and Tricho- 
ptera of New Zealand," by L. J. Hare, F.E.S. " On the Larv^ of 
Hamanumida dadalus. Fab., HopUtis phyllocanqja, n. sp., and Sulo- 
phonotus myrmeleon, Feld, with Descriptions of the Imagines of the 
two Heterocera," by Eoland Trimen, F.E.S. " k. Eevision of the 
Australian and Tasmanian Malacodermidee," by A. M. Lea, F.E.S., 
Government Entomologist, Tasmania. — H. Eowland-Brown, M.A., 
IIo7i. Secretary. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History 
^ocii&TY. —September 10th, 1908.— Mr. Alfred Sich, F.E.S., President, 
in the chair. — Messrs. Harrison and Main exhibited a series of bred 
Macaria liturata var. nigrofulvata from Delamere ova. Of the four- 
teen specimens bred, thirteen were of the dark form. — Mr. Newman, 
varieties of Abraxas grossulariata, including ab. varleyata, ab. nigro- 
sparsata, dark forms, and a rayed specimen ; a very darkly powdered 
Selenia illustraria; two Gnophos ohscuratavox. mundata iromJuev^e^; 
a rayed form of Pieris napi; a yellow aberration of Noctua rubi; and 
a long bred series of Argynnis aglaia with much variation. — Mr. 
Turner, a fine female of Euvanessa antiopa taken at Vitznau on 
August 10th, and a well-marked and brilliant female under side of 
Erebia czthiops taken at Gersau on July 27th. — Mr. Hall, an abnormal 
flower of the sweet pea, having six parts and all separate, without a 
"keel." — Mr. Noad Clark, photomicrographs of the ova of Coleophora 
virgaurecB laid on the pappus hairs of Solidago virgaurea. They 
were upright eggs, and the young larvas emerged from the micropyle. 
— Mr. Step, a Diloba cceruleocephala bred by his son, in which the 
"80" mark was blurred and extended. — Mr. West (Greenwich), 



278 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

specimens of Aleochara crassiuscula, a Coleopteron new to Britain, 
discovered by him at Great Yarmouth ; and also the rare and local 
Homopteron Ideocenis scurra from Blackheath on poplars. — Mr. 
Moore, a larva of Acronycta ])si having an unusual development of 
the fleshy "horn." — Mr. Step, photographs of fungi recently obtained 
near Ashstead, including Glavaria cristata, Polyporus acanthoides, 
&c. — Mr. Sich, larvae of Aristotelia hermannella mining a leaf of 
Chenopodium album, and referred to its colour changes. 

September 24:th. — The President in the chair. — Dr. Chapman ex- 
hibited a dark suffused specimen of Brenthis pales from Saas-Fee, 
and an example of Anthrocera exulans var. flava from the same 
locahty. — Mr. Step, a number of photographs of fungi taken during 
the Society's Field Meeting at Claygate. — Mr. Lucas, the two rare 
fungi, Trametes ruhescens and Arviillaria mellea, from the New 
Forest ; and also a specimen of Chirocephalns diaphanus, a very 
beautiful crustacean, found in water in a pool at Claygate during the 
Field Meeting. — Mr. Cowham, an example of Ophiodes lunar is bred 
in July, 1907, from an ovum sent him from South France by Dr. 
Chapman. — Messrs. Harrison and Main, a long series of Eupithecia 
absinthiata bred from larvae collected on ragwort near Cork. — Mr. 
Newman, long series of Agriades corydon taken near Dover, in- 
cluding var. obsoleta and many blue females ; many blue females of 
Polyommatus icarus from North -Kent ; and two striking forms of 
Dicranura vinula, one very dark, almost chocolate, suffused, the other 
having the zigzag lines unusually cleanly cut and dark, the middle 
area being very light. — Mr. Ashdown, a large number of Lepidoptera 
met with during a trip to Switzerland in July, 1908, including Pieris 
daplidice, Thecla lu-albuvi, T. ilicis ab. cetri, Polyommatus dorilis, 
Lyccena arion, L. orion, L. pheretes, L. damon, Melitcea parthenie, 
QHneis aello, Satyrtis cordula, Pararge achine, Thyris fenestrella, 
Gleogene lutearia, Psodos coracina, &c. — Mr. Moore, Lepidoptera from 
Northern Nigeria. — Mr. West (Ashtead), a fine specimen of the rare 
Hydroid Zoophyte, Thuiaria thuja, from Scarborough. — Mr. Coote, 
living larvae of Gelastrina argiolus, including one example which had 
been of an obscure red colour through all its instars. — Mr. Sich, 
Parnassius apollo, the imago bred from the larva exhibited at a 
previous meeting, and made remarks on the diiferentiation of the 
larva from that of P. delius. 

October 8th. — The President in the chair. — Mr. Ashdown ex- 
hibited about seventy species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, &c., taken by 
him in July, 1908, in Central Switzerland, including Trichius fasciatus, 
Tricodes apricarms, QiJdemera podagraria, Leptura rubra, Clytus 
massiliensis, Strachia ornata, (Edipoda ca^rulescens, &c. — Mr. Tonge, 
two bred specimens of Aphantopus hyperanthus ab. ccBca from Surrey ; 
and a bred specimen of Melanargia galathea var. procida from Hamp- 
shire. — Messrs. Harrison and Main, a bred series of Pseudoterpna 
pruinata [cytisaria) from Epping Forest, showing great variation in 
the size, distinctness, and presence of the usual submarginal light- 
coloured line. — Mr. Newman, a bred series of Malacosoma castrensis 
from Essex, including the rare yellow unicolorous female, and the 
dark chocolate male ; a bred series of ^Egeria andreniformis from 



RECENT LITERATURE. 279 

North Kent, where it was much subject to the attacks of ichneumons ; 
a series of Hepialus huviuli var. hethlandica and a few Pachnobia 
hyperborea from Slietland ; some Anarta melanopa from Eannoch ; a 
second brood bred, Abraxas cjrossulariata October 8th, the first to 
emerge from over one hundred pupae ; a hving Thera finnata, second 
brood ; and a Hving second brood specimen of Emnorpha elpenor.— 
Mr. R. Adkin, recently deposited ova of Tortrix pronubana. — Mr. 
J. P. Barrett made a comparison of the lepidopterous fauna of North 
Kent thirty years ago and that of to-day, illustrating his remarks by 
series of Aporia cratcegi, Nonagria sparganii, Acidalia ochrata, Agro- 
tera nevwralis, Tapinstola bondii, Erevwbia ochroleuca, &c. — Mr. 
South, on behalf of Mr. Waller, a female Trichiura cratagi with one 
antenna male. He also showed an Epinephelejurtina (ianthina) from 
Box Hill with symmetrical, pallid, internervular spaces ; and a short 
series of Rliodophcea suavella reared from larvae collected from sloe at 
Eastbourne. — Mr. Main, a living "stick" insect bred from the ovum 
shown in the spring. — Mr. Sich, bred Gilhneria 2)allidactyla from 
Byfleet. — H. J. Turner, Hon. Hep. Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



071 the Mouth-parts of some Blattida. By J. Mangan, B.A. ' Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Irish Academy,' vol. xxvii. Sect. B,- 
No. 1. 1908. 

No one interested in the cockroaches in general, and the British 
species in particular, can well be without this most useful paper, 
which is illustrated by three excellent plates. It is published separ- 
ately by Hodge, Figgis and Co., Dublin. — W. J. L. 



S'ubfam. Decticina of Fam. LocustidcB of the Orthoptera. Fascicle 72 
of the ' Genera Insectorum,' published under the direction of 
P. Wytsman, Brussels. 1908. 

This part, with two fine plates, is from the pen of the well-known 
American orthopterist, A. N. Caudell. In the long list of species 
enumerated occur five British species, some of which are, however, 
rather difficult to find under their new names :: — Tettigonia (Decticus) 
verrucivora, Pholidoptera griseoaptera ( = Thamnotrizon cinereus), 
Metrioptera albopunctata (= Platycleis grisea), M. (P.) brachyptera, 
and M. (P.) roeselii. — W. J. L. 



Subfam. Nyctiborince of Fam. Blattida of the Orthoptera. Fascicle 74 
of the 'Genera Insectorum.' 1908. 

This small part (with one beautiful coloured plate), written by 
Mr. R. Shelford, M.A., deals with a subfamily of cockroaches which 
contains no genuinely British species, though one, Nyctibora brunnea 
{=N. holosericea), has occurred here once or twice casually. — W. J. L. 



280 THK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Boyal Gardens, Kexo. 

VIII. ' Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information,' No. 7. 1908. 

In this Bulletin Mr. A. L. Simmons has added a considerable 
number of species to the Macro-Lepidoptera (with Tortricina) of the 
fauna of the Gardens, while Mr. A. Sich has been equally successful 
with the Micro-Lepidoptera. The list is of general interest, as notes 
accompany the insects referred to. The repeated occurrence of the 
name of the late Mr. G. Nicholson reminds us of a place that will 
not easily be filled in this labour of love in connection with the 
Gardens. — W. J. L. 

Twenty -eighth Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario 

for 1907. Published by the Ontario Department of Agriculture, 

Toronto. 1908. 

This Eeport evidently fulfils the double purpose of giving an 

account of the doings of the Entomological Society and furnishing a 

report on entomology as practically connected with agriculture in 

the province. In some one hundred and forty pages will be found a 

mass of most useful information. The paper on which it is printed 

is rather poor ; and the illustrations are somewhat crude, though 

they are not necessarily less useful on that account. — W. J. L. 



OBITUARY. 



The ' Times ' for September 24th last contained an obituary 
notice of the late Mr. Geoege Nicholson, F.L.S., who passed away 
in September at Richmond, to the great regret of all botanists, and 
also of those entomologists who have been associated with him in 
investigating the insect fauna of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. 
Mr. Nicholson was known universally as a botanist and horticulturist, 
and most lovers of gardens will be acquainted with his large work, the 
' Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening.' He had studied in France, 
travelled much on the Continent and in America, and knew most of 
the great gardens of England, as his advice was frequently asked 
concerning them. For some fifteen years he was Curator of Kew 
Gardens, and after his resignation of that appointment, owing to 
failing health, he still took a very keen interest in the Gardens, and 
busied himself especially with working out the wild fauna and flora 
of the Gardens. As the lists, published from time to time in the 
Kew ' Bulletin,' will show, he was not only successful himself, but 
also infused great enthusiasm into those whose aid he sought in 
determining the species of the fauna with which he was not specially 
acquainted. 

Mr. Nicholson's genial manner and his knowledge of things in 
general, besides his special knowledge of botany, made his con- 
versation delightful, and the writer will never forget the charming 
afternoon walks in the beautiful gardens at Kew in his company, and 
the delight he always expressed when any additions to the fauna or 
flora were discovered. 

A. S. 



The Entomologist, December, 1908. 



Plate VII 




West. Newman proc. 



A NEW BAT-FLEA (Nycteridopsylla longiceps, sp.n.) 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XLL] DECEMBEE, 1908. " [No. 547 



A NEW SPECIES OF BAT-FLEA FEOM GEEAT 

BEITAIN. 

By the Hon. N. Chables Eothschild, F.E.S. 
(Plate VIII.) 

Nycteridopsi/lla longiceps, spec. nov. 

There are two five-combed bat-fleas in Great Britain, the 
one being apparently identical with KolenatV a pentacte^ius, while 
the other is new to science. This new species can easily be dis- 
tinguished by the following characters : — 

Head. — The head is very long and narrov^, the frontal portion 
being about as long as the occipital portion (PI. VIII. fig. 1). The 
two bristles placed on the sides of the frontal portion are consequently 
farther apart than in pentactenus. 

Thorax. — The epimerum of the metathorax bears four or five 
bristles (1 or 2, 2, 1). 

Abdomen. — The comb of the seventh tergite contains seventeen or 
eighteen bristles. The seventh sternite is sinuate in the female, but 
the lobe above the sinus is much shorter than the one below the 
sinus (PI. VIII. fig. 2), while in pentactentcs the upper lobe projects 
as far as the lower one. 

Legs. — The hind femur bears posteriorly near the apex but one 
ventral bristle on each side. The bristles of the tibiae are distinctly 
longer than in pentactenus, the longest apical one of the mid-tibia 
reaching almost to the apex of the first tarsal segment. 

Modified Segments. — ^ . The eighth tergite bears at the dorsal 
edge five long bristles, and close to this row one or two smaller lateral 
ones, there being also one or two lateral bristles behind, and some 
distance from, the stigma. The eighth sternite, which is sinuate 
ventrally in the centre, bears on each side an apical row of five long 
bristles, proximally to which there are five or six shorter bristles. The 
process (p) of the clasper is broad, being rounded on the proximal 

BNTOM. DECBMJiER, 1908. 2 A 



282 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

side and incurved on the distal side (PI. VIII. fig. 2). The movable 
process (f) is very slightly rounded on both sides, and obliquely 
truncate at the apex, as shown in the figure. There are four long 
bristles on this process besides a number of small ones, three long 
bristles being placed on the apical third, while the fourth is placed 
half-way between the most ventral one of these and the long bristle 
of the clasper. The bristles near the apex of the finger are not quite 
constant in length. The ninth sternite of each side consists, as in 
the allied species, of a proximal and a distal portion separated from 
each other by a large sinus. At the proximal corner of this sinus, up 
to which point the right and left halves of the segment are fused, 
thei'e are two long bristles, one on each side. A short distance beyond 
this angle there is a short conical process which projects downwards, 
and bears a thin bristle at the apex. The distal portion of the ninth 
sternite is broad with an obtuse apex, the ventral and dorsal edges 
being slightly rounded with the apex feebly curved upwards (PI. VIII. 
fig. 3). There are on this portion of the segment three bristles 
along the ventral edge and five near the dorsal edge. 

? . The eighth tergite has one or two bristles above the stigma, 
three below it, and four or five ventrally on the lateral surface, there 
being nine to eleven along the apical edge, of which three or four are 
longer than the other apical bristles. The stylet is very slender, 
being four times as long as it is broad at its base. 

We have a series of both . sexes of this interesting species 
taken from Plecotus auritus and ScotopJiilus pipistrellus at Hen- 
ley-on-Thames, Tring, Wells (Somerset), Harrow, Welwyn, and 
Tonbridge. 



PAPILIO CAMILLA, Linn^us (1764). 
By T. H. Briggs, M.A., F.E.S. 

Although it is now thirty-six years since Mr. Kirby, in ' The 
Zoologist ' for 1872, p. 2952, stated that the Camilla of Linnaeus 
was the butterfly found in this country, and not the continental 
species now so named, his statements seem never to have been 
recognized or adopted since that time, except by Mr. South in 
his * The Butterflies of the British Isles,' published in 1906. 

The first mention of " Camilla " was by Linnaeus in his Mus. 
Ludov. Ulr. No. 122, p. 304 (1764), of which the following is the 
whole description there given. I must preface this by observing 
that all the descriptions in this work have a short " definition " 
at the commencement, and then a detailed description at a much 
greater length than those in any of the different editions of his 
* Systema Naturae' or his 'Fauna Suecica,' and that just pre- 
viously to this description of " cajnilla" is that of prorsa, of 
which I only need give the short definition at the commencement, 
as the long one which follows is not material to this paper : — 



PAPILIO CAMILLA. 283 

tt Prorsa, Papilio. 

" Mus. Ludov. Ulr. No. 121, p. 303 (1764). 

** Alis dentatis concoloribus fuscis fascia alba, subtus lute- 
seentibus. Habitat in Germania"; and a note at the end: 
" Obs. hfec descriptio facta est ad Papilionem. Eoes. 3, t. 70, 
j5gs. 1, 2, 3, quam credit meram varietatem Camillse ; Eoeselii 
vero pag. 1, 8, figs. 6, 7, alia omnino ab. base proposita est 
species." 

Desceiption of Camilla. 

" Camilla, Papilio. 

"Ludov. Mus. Ulr. No. 122, p. 304 (1764). 

" Alis dentatis fuscis subcoloribus alba fasciatis macula- 
tisque ; angulo ani rubro. Habitat in Lonicera caerulea Ger- 
manise." 

This is the short " definition " ; the long description is as 
follows : — 

" AlcB supra omnes nigricantes. 

** Primores. Fascia arcuata, alba, in medio interrupta in 
maculas, quarum media? minores. Puncta aliquot, alba, versus 
apicem. 

" Postica. Fascia cuneiformi alba solum nervis dissecta. 
Macula ad angulum ani rubra cum Punctis duobus nigris 
majusculis. 

"Subtus omnes flavescentes. Fascia cserulescenti-albida, extra 
quam puncta angulata duplici serie. 

" Differt imprimis a praecedenti macula rubra alarum posti- 
carum ad angulum ani, quam in quibusdam deesse observavit 
EoBselius." 

I think that the description here given — " fascia arcuata " on 
the fore wings, " fascia cuneiformi alba solum nervis dissecta, 
macula ad angulum ani rubra cum Punctis duobus nigris majus- 
culis " on the hind wings, and the ground colour of the under 
side, " flavescentes," would convince anyone that the insect 
Linnaeus was here describing as "carnilla" was our insect, and 
not the continental allied species, which, so far as I know, has 
never yet been observed in this country. 

There is no reference here to the blue-black colour of the 
upper surface of all the wings, the row of dark marginal spots 
on each wing, the white discoidal spot on the fore wings, where 
the other white spots do not form a fascia ; and on the under 
side the nearly straight, not wedge-shaped, white fascia, and the 
much darker almost coffee-coloured ground colour of the conti- 
nental species, which are some of the differences in the markings 
of the two insects which serve to distinguish them. 

2a2 



284 THR ENTOMOLOGIST. 

In ' The Zoologist ' for 1872, p. 2952, Mr. Kirby states :— 

" Limenitis Camilla, L. — In 1764 Linnaeus described the sexes 
of our English ' White Admiral,' calling the male prorsa and the 
female Camilla. But as he had previously described another 
species under the name " prorsa," he properly changed the 
name of his second species into sibilla in 1767. This, therefore, 
establishes the name of our species to be correctly Camilla, L." 

The description of sibilla, Linn., Syst. Nat. xii. No. 186, 
p. 781 (1768), is identical with that of the first paragraph of 
"prorsa" in the Mus. Ludov. Ulr., with the addition of 
" Mus. Ludov. Ulr. 303, sub prorsa. Habitat in Germania, similis 
camillse." That of Camilla, No. 187, in the same work is also 
identical with that of the first paragraph of the description of 
Camilla in the Mus. Ludov. Ulr., with the addition of " Mus. 
Ludov. Ulr. 304. Habitat in Lonicera cserulea Europe." So 
Camilla seemed to have had a more extended range than sibilla. 

The description of the ^r&t prorsa (Linn. Syst. Nat. x. No. 134, 
p. 480 (1758) (which was the cause of his changing the name of 
the " prorsa " of 1764 to sibilla) is — 

«< Prorsa. 

" Alls dentatis subfuscis : fascia utrinque alba : primoribus 
interrupta. Eces, Ins. i. pag. 1 to 8, f. 6, 7. Habitat in Urtica 
Germanise." 

A very different description from that of the prorsa of Mus. 
Ludov. Ulr., and a different food-plant. 

Mr. Kirby also states his reasons more fully in his * Hand- 
book of the Order Lepidoptera,' vol. i. pp. 142-6 (1894), where 
he also gives a reference to Aurivillius, Eecens. Grit. Lep. Mus. 
Ulr. pp. 101-2 (1882), and, as this work is perhaps not very 
generally known, I will give the extract in full : — 

** Nymphalis Camilla (L.). 

** Dubium esse non potest quin sic haec species P. Camilla, 
L. et eo nomine appellari debeat. Fuit enim P. Prorsa editionis 
decimse systematis alia species, et est ergo Camilla nomen 
vetustissimum, quod huic formsG conservari potest, qua sententia 
etiam auctores nonnulli et ii celeberrimi jam antea fuerunt." 

It has been agreed that the prorsa and Camilla of the Mus. 
Ludov. Ulr. and the sibilla and Camilla of Linn. Syst. Nat. xii. 
are sexes of the same insect, but from Linnaeus's descriptions 
alone one would be inclined to consider them separate species, 
or else he would not have given them distinct names. There 
does not seem to have been any uniformity, when in the case of 
an author describing an insect under two names but separately 
numbered in the same work, which are afterwards found to be 
sexes of the same insect, whether the name given to the male or 



NEW SPECIES OF CEKATINA FROM BORNEO. 285 

female should be preferred; but the recent usage seems to be 
that the name which has the prior number in the work should be 
applied to both sexes, although both names were published at the 
same time. For instance, " Jurtina" ? (Linn. Syst. Nat. x. 
No. 104, p. 475 (1758) ), has superseded jajiira <? , No. 106, in the 
same work, and " Samiio " g' (Linn. Syst. Nat. x. No. 48, p. 506) 
has given place to russula ? , No. 78, p. 510, in the same work. 
So the name chosen does not depend upon sex. 

In this country all the old authors called our insect " Camilla" 
—Harris (1766), Lewin (1795), Donovan (1798), Haworth (1803), 
Curtis (1824), Stephens (1828), Wood (1833), and Westwood 
(1841)— and the first record I can find of the name " sibilla " 
being applied to our insect in this country is in Doubleday's first 
Synonymic List in 1850. 

As Linnseus, in 1768, referred " Camilla " to the insect of that 
name in his previous work of 1764, the name sibilla ought, there- 
fore, to be abandoned, and that of Camilla given to both sexes of 
our insect, and the continental species, as Mr. Kirby has already 
stated, will take the name of " drusilla," Bergstrasser, Nomencl. 
iii. pi. 69, figs. 5, 6 (1779), as it is impossible to have two closely 
allied species under the same name in the same genus. 

Lynmouth. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF CERATINA 
FROM BORNEO. 

By p. Cameron. 

Ceratina cosniiocephala, sp. nov. 
Fulvous ; the vertex, laterally extending to the end of the top of 
the eyes, obliquely widened below ; the occiput, the front broadly, a 
broad line running down from each antenna to opposite the end of 
the eyes, where it turns outwardly along a furrow, a line on the sides 
of the base of the mesonotum, broadening outwardly, a transverse 
one on the apex, an irregular broad line on the sides of _ the apex of 
the second aladominal segment, a regular one, not occupying quite the 
half of the base of the third, a broader one on the fourth and the fifth 
except for an irregular longitudinal mark in the middle, black ; the 
following spots are bright lemon-yellow : two oval spots in the centre 
of the front, a transverse spot below the antenna, rounded and nar- 
rowed above, the sides also rounded but not narrowed, below it is a 
large mark, wide but narrowed below, its top bluntly rounded, its 
apex prolonged laterally, but not so widely, to near the eyes, a line 
along the inner orbits gradually widened from the top to the bottom, 
and with an irregular inner edge, the labrum except for a fuscous 
spot on either side near the top, the basal, widened half of the man- 
dibles, almost the inner half of the outer orbits, almost the whole of 
the prothorax, a line along the outer edge of the mesonotum, two 
narrower lines in the centre, on the apical two-thirds, scutellums. 



286 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

tubercles, an irregular mark dilated on the top, at the apex, down the 
basal half of the mesopleurae, and the metanotum broadly laterally. 
Legs coloured like the body, but with the four anterior femora and 
tibiae largely yellow, and the hinder tibige blackish behind. Wings 
hyaline, the costa and stigma dark, the nervures of a Hghter fuscous 
colour. Antennae black, the flagellum fuscous, the scape lined wdth 
yellow below. ? . Length, 7 mm. 

Kuching, Borneo (John Hewitt, B.A.). 

Smooth, shining, the labrum strongly, the mesopleurae less strongly 
punctured; the apical abdominal segments roughened. Except on 
the apical abdominal segments, on which it is shorter, closer, and 
black, the pubescence is white. 



NOTES ON BKITISH BEACONID^.— VIL 
By Claude Morley, F.E.S., &c. 

EUPHORID^. 

As I stated in my last paper (Entom. 1908, p. 125), this 
family is distinguished from the Meteoridse, there treated of, 
solely by its lack of a dividing hervure between the second and 
third cubital cells ; but, in my opinion, this is but a poor 
character, since all the subcubital cells are often obsolete or 
entirely wanting in many of the smaller and more weakly deve- 
loped species of the present family ; and, in the genus Perilitus, 
we get the first cubital and discoidal cells confluent, as well as a 
partially wanting radial nervure, which indicate how inconclusive 
must be characters drawn from pellucid or interstitial neuration 
in this group. A very few species of the Euphoridae are extremely 
abundant with us in the spring, but the great majority are of 
rare occurrence, and I have met with but a very limited number 
during the past fifteen years, a neglect for which the small size 
of so many is doubtless responsible. Most, probably all, of them 
are coleopterous parasites, two have been bred from Orchesia 
minor, Walk., and species of Timarcha; and there is a great field 
open here for the Coleopterist, who takes the trouble to breed his 
Phytophaga, to prove their association with these pretty little 
Braconids. 

We have all the European genera but the curious Cosmo- 
phoi'us, Katz. : — 



Eustaloceeus. 
Steebloceea. 



(4) 


1. 


Antennae curiously modified. 


(3) 


2. 


First cubital cell discreted from first dis- 
coidal 


(2) 


3. 


First cubital cell confluent with firsc dis- 
coidal ....... 


(1) 


4. 


Antennae normal. 



NOTES ON BRITISH BRACONID^E. 



287 



(6) 
(5) 
(10) 
(9) 8 
(8) 9 
(7) 10 



5. Basal segment longer than all the follow- 
ing ; head broad Wesmaelia. 

6. Basal segment not longer than following 
together ; head of normal breadth. 

7. Eadial cell very short, strongly arcuate 
apically. 

8. Metathorax neither vertically truncate nor 
apically excavate Euphorus. 

9. Metathorax vertically truncate and api- 
cally excavate ..... Peeilitus. 

Eadial cell longer, narrower, reaching 

nearer apex of wing .... Microctonus. 



The first three genera are very rare ; of the single species, 
clavicornis, Wesm., of the first, only two specimens (from Belgium 
and England) are known. Strehlocera ipossesses tvfo, S . falvicejjs, 
Westw., and S. macroscapa , Eutlie, which is distinguished from 
the former by the female having the antennae once elbowed, 
and the male not at all, in place of twice in both sexes ; some 
three examples of the first and five of the second are known. 
Wesmaelia cremasta, Marsh., has been found only at Bielsa 
in the Pyrenees, in Devonshire, and Germany; but several 
American species are known. 



(2) 


1. 


(1) 


2. 


(14) 

(5) 
(4) 


3. 

4. 
5. 


(11) 

(8) 


6. 

7. 


(7) 


8. 


(10) 


9. 


(9) 


10. 


(6) 
(13) 


11. 
12. 



(12) 13. 



Euphorus, Nees. 

Basal abdominal segment hardly longer 
than broad ...... 

Basal abdominal segment fully thrice 
longer than broad. 

Notauli punctate and entire. 

Antennae 16-jointed; male unknown 

Antennae of female more than 16-jointed 
(except rarely in E. picipes). 

Mesonotum punctate. 

Antennae of female 16- to 18-jointed, of 
male 19- to 21-jointed .... 

Antennae more than 18-jointed, of male 
23- to 27-jointed. 

Spiracular tubercles of basal segment in- 
distinct ...... 

Spiracular tubercles of basal segment pro- 
minent ...... 

Mesonotum glabrous. 

Basal abscissa of radius short and puncti- 
form ....... 

Basal abscissa of radius wanting {Har- 
keria, Cam.*) ..... 



mitis, Hal. 
similis, Curt. 

picipes, Hal. 

pallidipes, Curt. 
tuherculifer, Msh. 

coactus, Marsh. 
accinctus, Hal. 



* Cameron's new genus, Harheria (Ann. Nat. Hist. 1900, p. 537), is 
certainly not distinct from Eujyhorus, Nees, and the only differential point 
I can trace is the shape of the alar stigma, which is said to be linear, elon- 
gate, and narrow; whereas in the latter it is large and triangular. But the 



288 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

(3) 14. Notauli smooth and not entire. 

(16) 15. Notauli not entirely wanting, distinct in 

front ....... intactiis, Hal. 

(15) 16. Notauli entirely wanting. 

(20) 17. Body testaceous, anus infuscate. 

(19) 18. Wings clouded ; basal segment linear . ajncalis, Curt. 
(18) 19. Wings hyaline ; basal segment distinctly 

dilated apically ornatus, Marsh. 

(17) 20. Body piceous or black. 

(22) 21. Antennae of female filiform, and longer 

than head and thorax .... imrvulus, Euthe. 

(21) 22. Antennae of female incrassate apically, and 

much shorter fulviiies, Curt. 

E. picipes. — A common species from May 14th to June 12th 
only. I have a single very small male, taken on the sand-hills 
at Kilmore, in Ireland, on August 14th, 1898, by the late Alfred 
Beaumont ; but I fancy this must belong to some distinct and 
undescribed species. Females are the commoner sex, and may 
frequently be beaten from bushes and swept from herbage in 
woods ; but no host has yet been suggested for it. I have taken 
it at Haven Street and Norton Woods, in the Isle of Wight, at 
Gosfield, in Essex, and at Tuddenham Fen, Stanstead, and 
Barnby Broad, in Suffolk, as well as in Matley Bog, in the New 
Forest. 

E. pallidipes. — An abundant species from May 10th to July 
3rd, and usually taken by sweeping low herbage ; it is said by 
Curtis (B. E. fol. 476) to have been once bred in England from 
the pupa of Orchesia, a common heteromerous beetle living in 
Boleti. Piffard has found it at Felden, in Herts ; I have seen it 
at Calbourne, in the Isle of Wight, Brockdish, in Norfolk, 
Belstead, Stanstead, Barton Mills, Bentley, Brandon, Foxhall, 
and Henstead, in Suffolk. Its variety, with the head mainly 
red, is rarer, though not uncommon in marshes in the same 
county at Tuddenham, Keydon, and Brandon from the middle of 
June to July 2nd ; and Wilson Saunders took it at Greenings, 
in Surrey, in June, 1871. The second variety, with the body 
also mainly red, has not hitherto been noted in Britain ; but I 
possess an example, captured recently at Felden, in Herts, by 
Mr. Albert Piffard, F.E.S. 

E. intactus. — I have a single female, which I believe referable 

especial point, upon which his genus is founded, is the basally wanting radial 
nervure, and this is described exactly as it was by Haliday in the case of his 
E. (Leiophron) accinctus, male, in the old ' Entomological Magazine ' of 
1835, p. 465 : " Stigmate . . . areolam cubitalem secundam contingente." I 
am strongly inclined to regard Harkeria rufa (loc. cit., p. 538), from Glou- 
cester, as the hitherto unknown female of Euphorus accinctus, Hal., which 
no one has taken for seventy years, and for which no locality more exact 
than England or Ireland has yet been given. 



NOTKS ON BRITISH BRACONID^. 289 

to this species ; it was beaten from an old oak in the Wilverley 
Inclosare, in the New Forest, June 14th, 1907. 

E. apicalis. — Two females of this beautiful species (figured by 
Curtis, B. E., pi. 476) were beaten from oak on July 2nd, 1904, 
and the same date in 1906 in Cutlers Wood, Freston, and an 
alder carr at Eeydon, both in Suffolk. 

Peeilitus, Nees. 

(10) 1. First cubital and discoidal cells not separated 

by a nervure. 
(9) 2. Eadial nervure apically strongly arcuate. 
(8) 3. Abdomen entirely or apically black. 
(7) 4. Stigma infuscate or nigrescent. 

(6) 5. Metanotum with distinct areae. . . cerecclium, Hal. 
(5) 6. Metanotum rugulose throughout, with no 

areae ....... athiops, Nees. 

(4) 7. Stigma pale testaceous .... bicolor, Wesm. 

(3) 8. Abdomen mainly or, at least, apically 

testaceous ...... secalis, Hal. 

(2) 9. Radial nervure apically hardly arcuate . brevicolUs, Hal. 
(1) 10. First cubital and discoidal cells separated 

by a nervure. 

(12) 11. Radial nervure ending exactly half-way 

between stigma and apex . . . falciger, Ruthe. 

(11) 12. Radial nervure ending much nearer apex 

of wing than that of stigma. 
(14) 13. Hind femora and tibiae testaceous throughout rutiliis,'Nees. 

(13) 14. Hind femora or tibioB more or less nigrescent strenuus, Marsh. 

P. cethiops. — This is said to be a common species, but I 
possess only a single male, swept from a hedge-bottom at Laken- 
heath, Suffolk, July 13th, 1899. 

P. bicolor.— Besiumoni has given me several females of this 
species, which he found commonly on the sand-hills at Kilmore, 
in Ireland, on August 10th and 23rd, 1898. 

P. secalis. — I possess a female captured at Felden, Herts, by 
Piffard. 

P. riitilus. — Also taken at Felden by Mr. Piffard. Several 
females occurred to me by sweeping beans in a field at Wicken, 
Cambs., June 7th, 1902. I swept a male at Ipswich on July 3rd, 
1895 ; and took a female on my study window at Monk Soham 
as late as October 10th, 1906. It is doubtless an abundant 
species, and I suspect it of preying upon species of Sitones. 

P. strenuus. — The only male I have seen was captured on a 
flower of Foeniculum vulgare on the coast at Alderton, in Suffolk, 
September 3rd, 1899. 

MiCROCTONus, Wesm. 
(6) 1. Metanotum finely carinate centrally. 
(3) 2. Median nervure of anterior wings obsolete conterminus, Nees. 



290 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

(2) 3. Median nervure of anterior wings always 

visible. 
(5) 4. Metanotum with five areas .... testacetis, Cs.'pvon. 
(4) 5. Metanotum with three areas . . . cultus, Marsh. 
(1) 6. Metanotum not centrally carinate. 
(8) 7. Basal abdominal segment aciculate ; body 

mainly pale ..... si^lendidus, Marsh. 

(7) 8. Basal abdominal segment glabrous ; body, 

except head, black . . xantJiocephalus, Marsh. 

M. splendidus. — One female was swept from reeds at South- 
wold in a salt-marsh, August 1st, 1900. Bignell was sceptical of 
this determination, but the insect agrees in every particular with 
Eev. T. A. Marshall's description. 

M. xcmtJiocephalus. — Donisthorpe has given me a female 
which he took in Co. Kerry, June, 1902. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF 
CRYPTIN^ (ICHNEUMONID^) FROM BORNEO. 

By p. Cameron. 

Palmerella, gen. nov. 
Areolet minute, punctiform, the recurrent nervure received at its 
apex ; the transverse median nervure received shortly behind the 
transverse basal ; transverse median nervure in hind wings broken near 
the bottom ; radial cellule elongate ; disco-cubital nervure unbroken. 
Metanotum with one transverse keel, and with a square area in the 
middle of the base, behind the keel ; the sides at the apex armed with 
long spines ; the spiracles ovate, of moderate size. Abdominal petiole 
rather stout, broad, curved, longer than the second segment. The 
third antennal joint not much longer than the fourth. Hind legs very 
long. Palpi long, the maxillary reaching to the middle coxae. Scu- 
tellum roundly, iDroadly conical ; the apex has a long, steep slope. 
Eyes large, parallel. Thorax fully three times longer than wide ; the 
head is wider than it ; its front is depressed and is keeled down the 
middle ; there is a complete metapleural keel. The parapsidal fur- 
rows extend from the base to the apex of the mesonotum. 

The type of this genus differs from the other Mesostenini 
(the group to which it belongs) in having the body and legs 
black : the scutellum is much more prominent than it is with 
Mesostenoideus or Biiodias, and, more particularly, in being 
steeply declivous behind ; the hind legs are longer and more 
slender, and the abdomen shorter and narrower, its j)etiole 
stouter and of more equal width, as well as being longer com- 
pared with the second segment. Looked at from the sides the 
base of the metanotum is seen to be depressed, the post-scutellum 
appearing behind the depression as a small tubercle. 

The type of the genus has hardly the appearance of a 



C0LIA8 EDUSA BRED IN OCTOBER, 1908. 291 

Cryptid ; it looks, in fact, like one of the Acoeuitini. I unfortu- 
nately only know the male. 

Palmerella nigra, sp. nov. 

Black ; a small squarish white spot immediately below the antennae 
and the palpi white, the fore legs brownish testaceous in front ; wings 
clear hyaline, the nervures and stigma black. <? . Length, 8 mm. 

Kuching, Borneo (John Hewitt, B.A.). 

Face and clypeus closely, rugosely punctured, the former almost 
reticulated ; the front and vertex more closely and finely reticulated- 
punctured. Flagellum of antennae fuscous, black above. Thorax, 
except the lower part of the propleurae, closely, distinctly punctured ; 
the scutellum more strongly than the mesonotum, the metanotum 
still more strongly and more clearly reticulated ; the depression on 
the propleuree striated below the middle. First abdominal segment 
distinctly but not closely punctured ; the second closely and regularly 
punctured ; the punctuation on the others becomes gradually weaker. 
Legs shortly, thickly haired ; the coxae and femora rather strongly, 
closely punctured ; the long spur of the hind tibiae reaches to the 
middle of the metatarsus ; the apex of the third joint of the hind tarsi 
and the fourth yellowish white. 



COLIAS EDUSA BRED IN OCTOBER, 1908. 
By F. W. Frohawk, M.B.O.U., F.E.S. 

It may interest some of the readers of this Journal to know I 
have succeeded in rearing a nice series of C. edusa this autumn 
from a female captured August 7th at Wallasea, Essex (recorded 
in the September issue, p. 229). I find, on going over the set 
specimens, which number sixty, just thirty are males and thirty 
females. A few others of both sexes emerged, which I did not 
set ; therefore the sexes produced were of about equal propor- 
tion. Most of the females resemble the parent in having the 
marginal spots reduced in both number and size, which are 
almost absent in some. The central spots on the primaries are 
larger than usual, and a few have the central blotch of the 
secondaries exceptionally large, forming in two or three speci- 
mens conspicuous variation. 

The eggs hatched at the end of August. The parent died 
August 30th. The first larva spun up for pupation September 
21st, and pupated on 23rd, followed by others daily. The first 
imago (a male) emerged October 8th, followed by others of both 
sexes daily during the following fortnight. 

All the specimens (excepting two or three not set) are of full 
average size, owing to the fine warm weather during the feeding 
up of the larvae and the emergence of the butterflies ; usually 
late autumnal specimens are reduced in size by cold weather. 



292 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

NEW AMERICAN BEES.— VII. 
By T. D. a. Cockerell. 

Oligotropus, Robertson. 
Robertson (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxix.) has segregated from 
Megachile, under the name Oligotropus, a species which he 
names 0. cainpanidce, but which is evidently the same as that 
formerly reported as Megachile exilis. I possess a specimen of 
this from Robertson, but I have not seen the true M. exilis, 
Cresson, described from Texas. The group is a distinct one, 
and possibly deserves generic rank ; in addition to the characters 
reported by Robertson, it has some peculiarities of the galea and 
maxillary palpi, as indicated in Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., March, 
1902, p. 232. Upon comparing the available materials, I am 
able to discriminate several closely allied species or races, occu- 
pying different regions. These may be separated as follows : — 

Anterior tarsi of male pale ferruginous (Humid lower 

austral zone of Texas) . . . Megachile exilis, Cresson. 
Anterior tarsi black or brownish black , . . 1. 

1. The two middle nodules on lower edge of female cly- 

peus much closer together than the distance from 
either to the lateral nodule ; female about 10 mm. 
long ; abdominal bands in both sexes very narrow, 
but distinct, and pure white (Boulder, Colorado, 
July 24th to Aug. 4th, 1908, S. H. Rohwer) 

Megachile subexilis, n. sp. or subsp. 

The nodules nearly equally spaced, but the interval be- 
tween the lateral and median ones large ; insect a 
little larger and more robust than the last, with the 
abdominal bands very distinct, and yellowish (West 
Fork of Gila River, New Mexico, July 16th, C.H. T. 
Townsend ; Rio Ruidoso, New Mexico, on flowers 
of Vicia aff. pulchella, alt. 6700 ft., July 27th, male, 
C. H. T. Townsend) 

Megachile semiexilis, n. sp. or subsp. 

The small lateral nodules very close to the median 

ones ; abdominal bands only moderately distinct . 2. 

2. Last ventral segment of female with black hair ; lower 

margin of clypeus strongly arched or concave 
(Southern California) . . Megachile angelarnm, Ckll. 

Last ventral segment of female with light hair ; lower 
margin of clypeus scarcely arched (Southern IlHnois, 
Robertson ; Indiana, from Lovell) 

Megachile campanulce (Rob.). 

M. semiexilis is the species of New Mexico hitherto recorded 
as exilis ; the mouth-characters recorded in Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist, (as cited above) under exilis were derived from semiexilis. 
I have a series of each of the Rocky Mountain forms, and there 



NEW AMERICAN BEES. 



293 



is no doubt that they are distinct. In the male it is hard to 
distinguish campanulas from subexilis, but campanula has the 
wings evidently darker. The male of M. angelarum is not 
known. The Gila Eiver is the type locality for M. semiexilis. 

Colletes myroni, n. sp. 
? . Length, 9 mm. or a little over, rather robust ; thorax above 
loith bright orange-fulvous hair {with no black) ; hair of head entirely, 
and of lileura, black ; that of sides of metathorax thin and pale 
yellowish ; hair of legs black, except on inner side of tarsi, where it is 
orange-fulvous ; abdomen oval, rather small, very shiny, with scat- 
tered extremely minute punctures (close at extreme base of second 
segment) ; first segment with long pale yellowish hair (some black at 
extreme sides) ; remaining segments with rather inconspicuous black 
hair, but second with some scattered pale yellowish hair on disc, and 
a feeble apical band of short whitish hair. Clypeus densely, coarsely, 
more or less confluently punctured ; labrum shining, with a central 
pit, the edges of which are raised ; antennae entirely dark ; facial 
depressions large and broad ; vertex shining ; mesothorax shining, 
with distinct, rather close punctures ; no visible prothoracic spines ; 
tegulae shining black ; base of metathorax with the pits irregular, 
more or less transversely ridged, and less distinctly bounded behind 
than is usual ; wings dusky, with piceous nervures ; first r. n. joining 
second s. ni. before its middle ; second r. n. with a strong double 
curve ; hind spurs simple. Malar space short, more than twice as 
broad as long. A remarkable species, looking like some forms of 
Andrena, as A. berberidis. The shining black abdomen suggests 
G. nigrifrons, Titus, but that species is narrower, has quite differently 
coloured hair on thorax above, and small narrow facial depressions. 
I do not know of any species which can be said to be closely allied. 

Hab. Boulder, Colorado, May 2Gth, 1908 (S. A. Eohwer). 
Named after Mr. Myron H. Swenk, in recognition of his very 
valuable work on the genus Colletes. 

Panurginus didirupa, n. sp. 

^ . Length about 7 mm. ; in the table in Ent. News, 1907, p. 184, 
runs to P. ornatipes, to which it is very closely allied. It differs from 
P. ornatipes by the longer antennae, the entirely black scape, the 
supraclypeal mark (which is almost exactly square) extending half its 
area above the general level of the lemon-yellow of the face, and the 
hind tibiae black except at extreme apex. Clypeus very strongly 
punctured, without any median groove (in P. boylei there is a very 
distinct groove) ; flagellum entirely black ; dog-ear marks small, 
cuneiform ; front densely punctured ; mesothorax shining ; wings 
strongly dusky ; second and third abdominal segments broadly de- 
pressed basally, this area covered with fine silky brownish-grey hair ; 
hind tarsi with first two joints yellow, the others brown. 

? . Almost exactly like P. ornatipes, but the shining apical de- 
pressions of the abdominal segments are minutely granular (smooth 
in ornatipes), and the area of the metathorax is better defined. Wings 



294 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

strongly smoky ; nervures and stigma dark fuscous ; mesothorax 
very shiny, with sparse but strong punctures ; hind tarsi black. 

Hab. North Boulder Creek, Boulder County, Colorado, in 
the Canadian Zone (S. H. Eohwer, 1907). The type is a male, 
Aug. 21st. The female was taken Aug. 22nd. The specific 
name refers to the yellow face of the male, in the language of 
Celebes. 

At Livermore, Colorado, Aug. 12th, 1908, Mr. Eohwer took 
Perdita lacteipennis, Swenk & Ckll, and Panurginus piercei, 
Crawf., at flowers of Helianthus. These species are new to 
Colorado. 

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado : 
October 25tb, 1908. 



NOTES FEOM SOUTH-WESTEEN FEANCE. 

By W. G. Sheldon, F.E.S. 

Eeturning from Andalusia last spring, I stopped at Gu^thary, 
near Biarritz, from 23rd to the 29th of May. Gu6thary is at all 
times a very charming spot for a short sojourn, and in July and 
August on a previous occasion, when passing through, eii route 
for Spain, quite a number of interesting Diurni were observed. 
On this occasion, however, I cannot report that the butterflies 
seen were either numerous in species or examples, and those that 
did occur were few of them of special interest. Amongst them, 
on most days, I came across several specimens of Everes argiades 
in good condition ; these were presumably a first brood, and the 
brood I observed in the middle of July, 1905. just going off, and 
a brood coming on during the second week in August the same 
year, would, no doubt, represent the second and third broods. 
Assuming that there would be another brood in September, it 
seems probable that in this district E. argiades gets in at least 
four broods each summer. A few Melitaa cinxia were observed 
in one small locality; and on a marsh, M. aurinia of the typical 
Central European form were abundant. I observed a single 
example of Papilio podalirius, but failed to effect its capture. 
Brenthis seZenewas not infrequent, and was generally distributed; 
I had on my previous visit taken the second brood of this species 
in August. A worn CoUas edusa var. helice afforded me a few 
ova, from which, on my return home, I bred seven examples — 
two typical males and females, and three var. helice. An in- 
teresting capture was four examples of undoubted Melitaa 
parthenie. Other species observed were : Coeiionympha pamphiliis, 
Pieris hrassicce, P. rapce, Cyaniris argiolus, Pararge egeria (typi- 
cal), Nisoniades tages, Hesperia malvce, Pyrameis cardui, Brenthis 
dia, Gonepteryx rhamni, Polyommatus baton, P. alexis, Melitcea 



NEW BRACONIDiE FROM BORNEO. 295 

phoehe, Eiivanessa antiopa, Leucophasia sinapis, Pyrameis atalanta, 
Limenitis cainilla, Euchloe cardamines, and Epinephele ianira. 
Larvae of Euvanessa antiopa and Eugonia polychloros were ex- 
ceedingly abundant on the sallows, and I brought away a batch 
of ova of the former species, from which a fine series of imagos 
was reared in August ; a large number of these I turned out in 
the garden here. 

Youlgreave, South Croydon : Oct. 30th, 1908. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF 
BRACONID^ FROM BORNEO. 

By p. Cameron. 

Pachybracon, gen. nov. 

Eyes large, pubescent ; there is a distinct malar space ; temples 
wide, obliquely narrowed ; the occiput transverse, not margined. 
Palpi long, stout, the maxillary six-jointed. Four front legs normal, 
the hinder long, thickened, densely haired, especially the tibise, on 
which the hair is long, dense, thick, as it is also on the metatarsus. 
Calcaria moderately long ; the claws small, simple. Otherwise as in 
Bracon. The antenna are placed on the top of the head ; the meso- 
notum is trilobate ; the abdomen is broader than the thorax and is 
ovate ; the basal segment is broad at the base ; the apex is as broad 
as the length ; there is no keel on the second segment ; there is a long 
ovipositor ; the basal joint of the hinder tarsi is shorter than the 
others united ; the third and fourth are smaller than the second or 
fifth. The antennae are longer than the body, are stout, and of equal 
width. There is a distinct, crenulated, suturiform articulation. 

This genus may be described as a Bracon with hairy eyes, 
and with the hind legs greatly thickened and densely covered with 
long stiff hair. No species of Braconinae with pubescent eyes 
has hitherto been described, although hairy eyes are known with 
some of the other groups, e. g. with Chelonus. 

Pachybracon fortipes, sp. nov. 
Black ; the basal two-thirds of the antennal flagellum rufo- 
testaceous ; the wings blackish to the base of the stigma (including 
the first cubital cellule), milky hyahne beyond ; the hind wings 
blackish to near the apex ; the stigma, except in front, the radius, 
and the cubitus from the first transverse cubital nervure are pale 
yellow, almost white ; the recurrent nervure is almost interstitial. 
Head and thorax smooth and shining, sparsely covered with short 
black hair, the pubescence on the face paler, on the palpi white. 
Abdomen opaque, closely, rugosely punctured, the apical two seg- 
ments smooth and shining. The apical abscissa of the radius is as 
long as the basal two united. Length, 7 mm. ; terebra, 2 mm. ? . 

Kuching, Borneo (John Hewitt, B.A.). 



296 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The radius issues from the basal third of the stigma. The sculp- 
ture is stronger on the second abdominal segment than on the others ; 
it runs on it into reticulations. 

The coloration of this species seems to be common in Borneo ; 
it is found in Iphiaidax, Cremnops, and Disophyrs. 



THE BASSES-ALPES IN AUGUST. 
By H. Rowland-Brown, M.A., F.E.S. 

(Concluded from p. 262.) 

This aberration appears in every respect to correspond with 
ab. female midas, Lowe, which occurs also on the high cliffs of 
Vernayaz in the Rhone Valley, 

A morning in the gully that leads up to the high rocks over- 
looking the Dourbes road may generally be counted well spent. 
This year, however, much of the shrubbery and undergrowth 
has been cut down, and in August also the garrigues — the 
successive steps of long deserted vineyards, in which the wild 
flowers run riot — are more or less burnt up. A large white 
scabious proves the most attractive bait for such butterflies as 
are about — worn examples of a third (?) brood of A. dia, S. actcea, 
in all stages of dilapidation, fresh P. daplidice, and some monster 
P. podalirius ab. feisthamelii, while not a few semi-transparent 
Z. epJiialtes var. coronilla testify to earlier abundance. On the 
summit there is the usual concourse of Papilionidse, but not 
much else ; the P. machaon of normal size, and in colour for all 
the world as though they had just been introduced from the 
Cambridgeshire Fens ! 

Meanwhile, I had not forgotten the quest for E. scipio, and 
on the 18th left Digne at half-past five upon the tramp which 
was before me. But the north precipices of the long range of 
cliffs that seem to shut in the valley so completely are out of 
the sun until close upon noon, and though it is not easy to find 
the one point of approach when actually past Villars, the kindly 
offices of a farmer assisted me through the fir plantations which 
are rapidly converting the barren hill- sides into useful and 
agreeable forests, while upon the rough footpath, constructed for 
the use of the verderers, have sprung up innumerable raspberry- 
canes — now laden with svveet fruit — and plots of scented straw- 
berries. When I finally mounted "the breach," about eleven 
o'clock, I was in a state of pleasurable excitement. In the dewy 
shadows of the forest I had encountered scarcely a butterfly, but 
the sun was shining full upon the cleft which was surely to be 
the desired terminus, and now I thought I was likely to be 
rewarded. The further range of the Dourbes at this point slopes 



THE BASSES-ALPES IN AUGUST. 297 

abruptly away to another valley, bare of trees, the sides well 
clothed with dwarf conifers and flowering sweet-scented herbs, 
among which Erebias certainly were to be seen. But, after all, 
it was only neoridas again, and the sky suddenly hazing in with 
a light misty rain — was ever such ill-fortune ?— I reluctantly 
abandoned the ascent of the Cheval Blanc, which would have 
taken me perhajDS a thousand feet higher. Of course I ought to 
have ascertained beforehand at what altitude and where scipio 
actually occurs. The small goante which I presently encountered 
on the way back under the cliffs momentarily deceived me, for 
no sooner had I quitted the tops than out came the sun again. 
But it was now too late in the day to retrace my steps, and as it 
was I did not get back to Digne much before six o'clock, stopping 
to gossip with an old friend on the road, and afterwards, just as 
I was entering the octroi, noticing a fine male Polygonia egea 
seated on a sun-baked rock. This I secured, and another on 
the wing, though I am bound to say that I struck at a G. cleo- 
patra, without seeing the pursuer, which was landed in my net 
minus the pursued ! 

The undercliff of the Dourbes also gave me several fair 
typical females of C. virgaurece, and some magnificent A. adippe 
females. Finally, I spent the 19th in the vineyards and on the 
hills above the cemetery, where the many plants of aristolochia 
with perforated leaves led me to hope that the professional 
collectors have not yet succeeded in exterminating the dainty 
Thais runiina var. medesicaste, which usually I have found here 
in the spring of the year, but in ever- decreasing numbers. A 
few broken Zephyrus quercus zigzagged among the dwarf oaks, 
but Z. hetulcB was not in its former haunt at the top of the path, 
where I took the only specimen seen this year of Lampides 
boeticus, a male. Indeed, I failed to turn up hetulcB at all, even in 
the Eaux Thermales locality, where Mr. Tutt mentions it as 
having occurred in profusion last year. The August brood of 
P. alexis, moreover, showed little or no local peculiarity, save in 
the matter of diminished size, and this was the only really 
common butterfly still on the wing in this locality. So next day 
I bade adieu to -Digne, and returning home leisurely by degrees, 
and Dijon — round which charming old Burgundian city there 
is a most likely looking entomological country — I reached 
London and the end of the summer holidays in the beginnings 
of the tempests of the 26th. 

Since writing the above I have heard from Mr. H. Powell, of 
Hjeres, who has kindly given me permission to publish the 
following interesting account of the habitats of Erebia scipio, 
from which it may be gathered that although, in one case at 
least, I was on the right ground for the species, I arrived, gener- 
ally speaking, too late in the season. He says : — " Scipio in the 

ENTOM. — DECEMBER, 1908. 2 B 



298 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Basses-Alpes appears about the middle of July, but one can still 
get good specimens at the beginning of August, and I took one 
fresh female as late as August 31st on the Dormillouse Mountain 
above Seyne at a height of 2300 metres in 1901. In 1899 I 
found it on a barren mountain close to Alios— between that 
village and the Cheval de Bois about July 18th, and also on the 
rocky slojDes on the right-hand side of the Verdon, between Alios 
and Colmars. On July 19th, 1901, I took some males in the 
Gorge de St. Pierre, Beauvezer, on the stony slope on the left- 
hand side going up, just before reaching the precipitous part, and 
on July 22nd it was fairly plentiful there. Another Beauv6zer 
locality for it is on the range to the west and north-west, on the 
steep stony slopes with a little grass, which run up above the 
forest limit to the precipices supporting the top of the mountains. 
Here I took several specimens on August 3rd, some of the females 
being very fresh still, but the males, although abundant, were 
mostly worn. In 1906 I met with scipio on the eastern slopes 
of the Lausson, between the Lac d'Allos and Entrevaux. The 
date was July 30th, but I took more specimens there on August 
4th. The ground was very bad ; masses of loose rock and 
stones, and very steep. I think this is the only record of Erebia 
scipio in the Alpes-Maritimes." 

The following list includes all butterflies taken or observed in 
the Basses-Alpes between August 1st and the 20th : — 

Hesperiide^. — Carcharodus althace ; Hesperia carthami ; H. 
alveus vsiY.fritillum, var. cirsii, Rmbr., and var. conyzce, Gu6nee ; 
H. malv(B (Alios) ; Pyrgus proto ; P. sao ; Nisoniades tages (Alios) ; 
Pamphila comma ; Thymelicus actcson ; T. lineola. 

Lyczenid^. — Ckrysophanus virgaurece ; C. hippothoe var. 
euryhia ; C. alcipliron var. gordius ; C. dorilis ; C. phlceas, and ab. 
eleus ; Cupido minima var. montana ; Nomiades semiargus ; 
Polyommatus damon ; P. meleager, and ab. steveni ; P. corydon ; 
P. bellargus] P. hylas ; P. escheri; P. alexis ; P. eros ; P. orbi- 
tulus{l); P. astrarche ; P. baton; P. optilete{l); Rusticus argus, 
L. ; R. argyrognomon ; Cyaniris argiolus ; Lampides boeticus (1) ; 
Zephyrus quercus : Thecla spini ; T. acacice. 

Papilionid.e. — P. podalirius ; P. machaon ; Parnassius 
apollo. 

PiEEiD^. — Aporia cratagi ; Pieris brassicce ; P. rapcB ; P. 
napi ; Pontia callidice (Alios) ; P. daplidice ; Leptosia sinapis 
var. chinensis, and ab. erysimi; L. duponcheli? ; Colias phicomone ; 
C. hyale ; C. ediisa ; Goneptcryx rhamni ; G. cleopatra. 

Nymphalid^. — Dryas ptaphia', Argynnls aglaia; A. adippe ; 

A. niobe var. eris ; Issoria lathonia (Alios) ; Brenthis euphrosyne ; 

B. ino ; B. amathusia; B. dia ; B. pales, and var. arsilache; 
Melitcea phoebe ; M. cinxia ; M. didyma ; M. deione ; M. par- 



PARASITIC CYNIPID.E FROM BORNEO. 299 

theme, and var. varia ; Pyrameis cardui (Digne) ; P. atalanta ; 
Aglais urticce ; Polygonia egea ; P. c-alhum ; Limenitis cam- 
ilia ; Pararge mcera, and var. adrasta ; P, megara ; Satyrus 
hermione; S. alcyone ; S. statilinus var. allionia', S. fidia; 
S. actcea ; S. cordtda ; Enodia dryas ; Hipparchia briseis ; H. 
semele ; H. arethusa ; Epiiiepliele jurtina var. hispulla (Digne) ; 
E. lycaon ; E. tithonus ; Coenonympha iphis ; C. arcania, and ab. 
philea (Alios) ; C. dorus ; C. pamphilus, and ab. lyllus ; Erebia 
epiphron var. cassiope (ab. obsoleta) ; E. mnestra ; E. alecto var. 
glacialis ? ; E. stygne ; E. eiiryale ; E. ligea ; E. cethiops ; 
E. neoridas ; E. goante ; E. gorge ; E. tyndarus var. dromus ; 
E. lappona (1) ; Melanargia galatea. 

Being representative of one hundred and six species. 



DESCEIPTIONS OF A NEW GENUS AND TWO NEW 
SPECIES OF PARASITIC CYNIPID^ FROM BORNEO. 

By p. Cameron. 

Paramblynotus, gen. nov. 

Antennae stout, thirteen-jointed, the third joint almost as long as 
the following two united, the last as long as the preceding two 
united ; the intermediate joints more than twice longer than wide. 
Radial cellule closed on fore margin, more than twice longer than its 
greatest width ; the first cubital cellule closed, the second obsolete, 
but the nervure is thickened where it ought to be ; the cubitus 
extends to the apex of the wing ; the nervures are thickened. Eyes 
bare, placed on the upper part of the head, the malar space being 
somewhat longer than them. Cheeks margined. Ocelli prominent. 
Scutellum large, not much raised over the mesonotum, broadly- 
rounded at the apex. Metanotum irregularly reticulated. Abdomen 
lenticular, sessile, the second segment is a little longer than the third, 
which is of about the same length as the fourth, the fifth is as long, 
dorsally, as the basal segments united ; the sixth about one-third of 
its length. Legs stout, the hind coxae and femora greatly thickened, 
the coxae almost twice the thickness of the femora. Calcaria short, 
as long as the width of the apex of the tibiae ; the claws long, thin, 
curved. There are indistinct parapsidal furrows. The temples are 
short ; the occiput is margined and is rounded inwardly. The male 
has the antennae as long as the body (in the female it is as long as the 
head and thorax united) and fourteen-jointed ; the third joint is 
straight, and is distinctly shorter than the fourth ; the last is not 
much longer than the penultimate. The head and thorax are strongly 
punctured ; the punctures on the latter are deep, round. There is a 
wide crenulated furrow below the middle of the mesopleurae ; tbe 
mesosternum is bordered by a ridge, the collar is also bordered by a 
stout ridge. The hind legs are stouter and their coxae longer than 
usual. 

2b 2 



300 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The relationship of this genus is with Amhlynotus, Htg. ; that 
genus has the antennse filiform in the female, and in the male 
they have the third joint incised : the basal two abdominal seg- 
ments are equal in length ; the thorax is only finely granulated, 
the thorax is not rugosely punctured, the abdominal petiole is 
smooth, and there is a distinct areolet. 

Paramhlynotus punetidatus, sp. nov. 

BLack ; the mandibles, the four anterior knees, the tibiae except 
behind, and the tarsi testaceous, the wings hyaline, the first cubital 
and the radial cellule clouded, the nervures black ; the face, cheeks, 
and the mesopleurae behind covered with white pubescence ; there is 
a patch of depressed white pubescence on the base of the mesopleurae 
above ; the apical segments of the abdomen are fringed with long 
white hair ; legs densely covered with white pubescence ; face closely, 
rugosely punctured, the front and vertex are more strongly punc- 
tured ; the punctures deep and sharply margined. Except on the 
mesopleurae the thorax is strongly, deeply, thimble-mark-like punc- 
tured ; the mesopleurae smooth and shining, except behind ; there 
are a few irregular punctures on the apex. Metapleurae densely 
covered with white pubescence, rugosely punctured, and with an 
oblique squarish area in the centre of the base. The eyes are sur- 
rounded by a crenulated border. Antennal scape shining, the flagel- 
lum bare, opaque. ? . Length, 5 nim. 

Kuching, Borneo (John Hewitt, B.A.). A stoutly built 
species. 

The foveas at the base of the scutellum are large, square, smooth, 
shining, roundly depressed and separated by a narrow but distinct 
keel. The basal abscissa of the radius is straight, oblique, about one- 
third of the length of the apical and distinctly thicker than it. The 
apical slope of the metanotum is smooth above and belo\v, and with 
two rows of large foveae in the middle. 

Paramhlynotus ruficeps, sp. nov. 

Black ; the head and pronotum red, the tegulae of a darker red ; 
the tarsi and the four anterior tibiae rufo-testaceous, the posterior 
tarsi darker than the others ; antennae as long as the body, the scape 
rufous, the flagellum black ; wings hyaline, the nervures black, the 
radial cellule clouded along the edges ; the nervures black. ^ . 
Length, 3 mm. 

Kuching, Borneo (John Hewitt, B.A.). 

The sculpture of the head and thorax is pretty much as in 
P. punctulatus described above, but the apical slope of the metanotum 
is very different ; it is surrounded by a stout keel, rounded above ; the 
upper half of the area formed by it is opaque, and is bordered below 
by a stout transverse keel ; the lower part is shining and has a few 
longitudinal striae. The first segment of the abdomen is clearly sepa- 
rated, and is stoutly, longitudinally striated. 



301 



MELITMA AURINIA, &c., AT BARCELONA. 
By W. G. Sheldon, F.E.S. 

JouKNEYiNG down to Andalusia last spring, I rested for a few 
days at Barcelona, and whilst there put in two mornings, April 
6th and 7th, on the slopes of the suburb of Tibadabo amongst 
the butterflies. 

The climate of Barcelona in the spring resembles that of the 
French Eiviera, and the majority of butterflies found are common 
to both ; my observations, however, would seem to show that at 
Barcelona the emergence is a week or two earlier than on the 
" c6t6 d'azur," such species as Thestor ballus and Nomiades 
melanops being practically over at the time of my visit. 

The number of species observed in the imago stage was only 
twelve, and consisted of Polyommatus alexis, Colias ediisa, Euchloe 
euphonides, Pararge megara, Anthocharis belia, Pieris rapcB, 
P. brassicce, Cceiwnympha pamphilus, Thestor ballus, Thecla rubi, 
Nomiades melanops, and Euvanessa antiopa. 

My chief object, however, at Tibadabo was to make a search 
for the larvse of the fine Spanish form of Melitcsa aiirinia var. 
iberica, the imago of which, a few years ago, Messrs. Jones and 
Standen had found there later on in the season. 

After prospecting the neighbourhood, I came to the conclusion 
that the waste ground round the foot of the inclined railway which 
takes one up to the summit, and which has an altitude of per- 
haps 1000 ft., was a likely spot ; but a search of two hours or so 
on the first morning of all the likely food-plants I could discover, 
including various species of Centaiirea and Scabiosa, one of which 
closely resembles the favourite pabulum of the species at Hyeres, 
if not actually it, was a total failure ; and except for an odd 
pupa found under an overhanging rock I did not see any signs 
of my quest on that day. The next morning, immediately on 
commencing to search on the same ground, I found a full-grown 
larva at rest on a Centaurea plant, which, however, did not show 
signs of having been eaten. For a long time this was my only 
success, and I was on the point of giving up when my attention 
was directed to a trailing climber covering a large hazel bush 
eaten wholly bare of leaves by some larva. _ But an adjoining 
bush was overgrown by the same climber, which I then saw was 
a species of Lonicera, very like, and probably identical with, the 
Lonicera which is the usual pabulum of Limenitis Camilla. ^ This 
at once called to my recollection that Canon Zapater, in his 
• Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of the Province of Teruel,' speaks 
of a small race of M. aurinia found near Albarracin, the larva 
of which feeds upon Lonicera, one species of which is of course 
often used as a captivity food-plant of this species in Britain. 
This hint very soon led to my finding a batch of larvae of un- 



302 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



doubted M. aurinia on a Lonicera bush, and further search on 
adjoining bushes revealed the fact that the larvae were in 
enormous numbers, and I suppose I must have seen on a space 
of one acre several thousand examples of all sizes, from half- 
grown to those ready to pupate. I contented myself with some 
five dozen of the largest; and these emerged whilst I was at 
Granada in the middle of May. 

From the above observation, with Zapater's note, it would 
appear that the natural food-plant of M. var. iberica is Lonicera 
sp., and not the more usual plants frequented elsewhere than in 
Sjjain. 

The resultant imagos are the most brilliant terra-cotta forms 
I have seen of M. aurinia, the intensity of the terra-cotta in 
some of the examples being quite startling and most beautiful. 
Judging from the extensive series in the British Museum, which 
does not contain anything so brilliant in colour as my Barce- 
lona specimens, I should call them an extreme form of M. var. 
iberica. 

Youlgreave, South Croydon : Oct. 28tb, 1908. 



THE ATHALIA GEOUP OF THE GENUS MELITMA. 
By George Wheeler, M.A., F.E.S. 

(Concluded from p. 270.) 

Thus in the Ehone Valley, at some 1500 ft. above the ^e^.,par- 
thenie is of average size (about 36 mm.), and there is little differ- 
ence between the two broods ; above Caux, at some 3500 ft., where 
it has become single-brooded, it is very noticeably larger ; whilst 
round B6risal, at a little over 5000 ft., the specimens are smaller 
than in the Valley. {Varia, by the way, does not begin to appear 
till some 1200 or 1500 ft. higher still.) In accordance with the 
same rule, in the lower parts of the Jura, where 'parthenie is 
still double-brooded, both broods are decidedly smaller than in 
the Ehone Valley, On the other hand, as one would expect, the 
mountain forms of athalia and dictynna are, as a rule, pro- 
gressively smaller than those of the plain. The difference in 
the size of aurclia in the Ehone Valley and in the mountains is 
not noticeable, and the advantage is, if anything, on the side of 
the mountain specimens, but this apparent exception is in reality 
merely a confirmation of the rule, for the feeding-time of the 
larva is made as long or longer in the mountains by the great 
difference between the times of emergence at different altitudes, 
this species appearing late in May at Sion, at the end of June 
below Berisal, and not until late July at Zinal — a much greater 



THE ATHALIA GROUP OF THE GENUS MELIT^EA. 303 

difference than is usually caused by altitude in other species. 
What has been said of altitude is also true, in a general way, of 
latitude, but in both cases there are various further points to be 
taken into consideration, such as the suitability of the environ- 
ment to the food-plant, the length of time which the snow 
generally remains, the amount of possible daily sunshine, the 
chilling effect of the near neighbourhood of glacier-torrents, &c. 
It is possibly in connection with the first of these considerations 
that athalia, in the neighbourhood of the Italian Lakes, is smaller 
than the usual mountain form, those from Cadenabbia, for in- 
stance, being smaller than specimens from Faido far up the 
Leventina. It seems hardly possible that my specimens from 
the former locality, taken towards the end of July and not very 
fresh, could belong to a second brood ; and, indeed, Riihl has 
remarked on the smallness of the Tessin and Lombardy speci- 
mens as compared with those from further north. With very 
few exceptions it is useless to give definite rules for the times of 
appearance of the different species, in consequence of the great 
extent of the habitat of many of them both in altitude and 
latitude. Such rules as can be laid down must be vague and 
comparative. It may, however, be said that asteria and vai-ia 
never descend low, probably not below 6000 ft. at most, while 
britomartis and deione never mount high, nor does the latter go 
far north, the Rhone Valley being quite its limit. Asteria is to 
be found from the beginning of July till at least the middle of 
August, and varia from the middle of July for about a month. 
Parthenie emerges before athalia, and in the plains is generally 
over when the latter appears, but the higher or the further north 
one goes, the more they may be expected to overlap, though, in 
my experience, parthenie is always the earlier, even where it is 
single-brooded. In the Rhone Valley it may be expected about 
the middle of May, and again about the middle of August. In 
the same district aurelia appears a few days later, berisaleiisis 
and cUctynna at the beginning, and athalia in the middle of June, 
the first-named appearing again about the third week in August 
or a little later. Britomartis at Reazzino appears fairly early in 
June and at the end of July. From these dates it can be more 
or less calculated at what time the emergence of a species may 
be expected as we rise higher or advance further north, though, 
as previously stated, many local circumstances, as well as the 
forwardness or otherwise of the season, must be considered. It 
may also be added that, with the exception that deione appears 
in South France in May, none of the species can be expected to 
appear further south much earlier than their Rhone Valley 
dates ; altitude has, moreover, in general a more retarding effect 
than latitude. 



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308 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Malacosoma neustria ab. — As the process block, reproducing 
the photograph of this interesting aberration of M. neustria, did not 
print clearly in the text {antea, p. 257), Messrs. West, Newman & Co. 
have very kindly reprinted the figure on plate paper. The curious 
way in which the central lines of the fore wings run together below 
the middle can now be plainly seen. It may be mentioned that 
somewhat similar aberration in the transverse lines has been noted 
in M. castrensis. 

AciDALiA humiliata Reared FROM OvA. — I think it is perhaps 
worth recording that I have recently bred A. humiliata from ova to 
the perfect insect, two lovely specimens emerging about a fortnight 
ago. I took the insect during my stay at Freshwater in June, and 
succeeded in getting some fifty or sixty ova. They fed up well until 
about half-grown, and then appeared to be undecided whether to feed 
up or hybernate ; a few chose the former, and I sent a couple of full- 
grown larvae to be figured, and two imagines emerged as before 
stated. I am afraid the remainder will not survive the winter. — 
R. Tait, Jun. ; Roseneath, Ashton-on-Mersey, Cheshire. 

The Hybernation of Gonepteryx rhamni. — In 1904 I sent you 
a note on this subject (see Entom. xxxvii. 141), in which I surmised 
that a female specimen I found sitting exposed on Jasminuni nudi- 
florum on the morning of January 17th had crept out from some 
neighbouring ivy to which she had retired for her winter sleep. The 
truth of this hypothesis was curiously confirmed on October 29th, 
1908. At 11.0 a.m. in brilliant sunshine I noticed a very fine and 
perfect female G. rhamni fluttering around some ivy on the south side 
of my house. I sat down on a garden-seat close by and watched her 
carefully. She spent ten minutes in basking on the ivy-leaves, or on 
those of Vinca major growing in a bed beneath, flying occasionally 
round the sunless eastern corner, evidently examining the ivy with 
which it is covered. Into a fairly large gap in this ivy she finally 
retired at 11.10 a.m. ; there no doubt to pass through a period of 
torpidity not likely to be broken by the feeble wintry heat of eastern 
suns. — Rev. G. H. Raynor ; Hazeleigh Rectory, Maldon. 

Nepticula acetos^ in Surrey. — Reading in last month's 
' Entomologist ' (p. 254) that at a meeting of the South London 
Entomological Society Mr. Sich exhibited mines of Nepticula acetosa 
from Surrey, I walked over to the nearest station for its food-plant, 
about a mile from here, and, after a short search, found the unmis- 
takable circular blotch-like mines of this most diminutive creature ; 
they were, however, by no means common. I found seven or eight 
after half-an-hour's search. How often is one tempted to go a long 
railway journey in search of some desirable species when it may 
sometimes be found close to one's door ! — A. Thurnall ; Thornton 
Heath, November 5th, 1908. 

Syrphids Killed by Fungus. — Once or twice at the end of Sep- 
tember and beginning of October last on Esher Common, Surrey, I 
met with several dead Syrphid-flies, Melanostoma scalare, Fabr., on the 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 309 

flower-heads of the tall grass, Molinia ccerulea, Monck. Apparently 
all that were brought away were females. They were found to have 
fallen victims to a fungus-parasite, Empusa imiscce, Cohn. It was 
rather curious that the flies were often attached to the grass by the 
anterior point of the head only. — W. J. Lucas ; 28, Knight's Park, 
Kingston-on-Thames. 

TORTEIX PEONUBANA ON YET ANOTHER FoOD-PLANT. — In a garden 

where I had previously taken Tortrix promcbana on Euonymus, I 
found, in September last, three Tortrix larvae feeding in rolled leaves 
of Chrysanthemum, on which plant they readily fed up, and ultimately 
produced T. p)ronicbana. Although the species is known to affect a 
wide range of food-plants on the Continent, it appears to have been 
previously found only on Euonymus in this countiy, and so " far as I 
am aware this is the first instance of it having been found wild on 
any of the Compositae. — Egbert Aitkin; Lewisham, November, 1908. 

CoLiAs EDUSA, &c., NEAR Eastbourne. — It was not until August 
30th that I had the chance of looking after the butterflies on the 
south-east corner of the South Downs. By this time the " season " 
was practically over in that neighbourhood, the stormy weather of the 
latter half of the month having put the finishing touches to a some- 
what early summer. However, that day happened to be a very fine 
one, and in the course of a ramble of a couple of hours' duration some 
six examples of Colias edusa came under my notice ; all of them, with 
the exception of one that evaded both capture and examination, 
proved to be males in more or less battered condition. One youngster 
that I met confessed to having taken nearly a score on one day earlier 
in the month, and during my subsequent peregrinations one or two 
specimens were seen almost daily until September 19th. The only 
one that I definitely ascertained to be a female was taken on 
September 11th, and was in an equally dilapidated condition as the 
males. Among the other " alien " species, Vanessa atalanta was 
fairly frequent ; anything from one to four or five individuals were to 
be seen on any day up to September 7th, when I left the neighbour- 
hood ; but during the whole of my stay I saw only some half-dozen 
examples of Cyyithia cardui. Plusia gamma was always common but 
never abundant, and only one example of Nomophila noctuella was 
met with. — Egbert Adkin ; Lewisham, November, 1908. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD EEPORTS. 

CoLiAS EDUSA IN CUMBERLAND. — A male Specimen of C. edusa 
was captured on October 13th last, near this city. — M. C. Dixon ; 
208, Warwick Eoad, Carhsle. 

AcHERONTiA ATRGPGS IN THE Co. Waterfgrd. — A fine Specimen 
of the Death's-head hawk-moth was taken about two miles from 
here, on the 9th October last, and given to me. It was alive when I 
received it, but although I listened attentively for its cry or squeak, 
it never uttered one. It must have only just emerged from the pupa 
when captured, as the wings were quite fresh and perfect. — (Eev.) 
William W. Flemyng ; Coolfin, Portlaw, Co. Waterford. 



310 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

AcHERONTiA ATROPOs IN LANCASHIRE. — A female specimen of 
A. atropos was captured here on October 9th last, and another 
example of the same sex on the 16th of that month. — T. Baxter ; 
Min-y-don, St. Anne's-on-Sea. 

PcECiLOCAMPA poPULi IN OcTOBER. — I took a Specimen of P. 
pojnili from off a street-lamp here, on October 23rd last. Is not this a 
very early date ? — Edwin P. Sharp ; 1, Bedford WellEoad, Eastbom-ne. 

[This species is perhaps more frequent in November and December, 
but it has been met with by others in the month of October.— Ed.] 

Pyg^ra anachoreta in Essex. — I see in ' Entomologist ' for 
October, p. 250, that Mr. George P. Kitchener records the occurrence 
of this species at Clacton, and observes that it appears to be a new 
locality for the species, so he and other readers of your magazine 
may be interested to hear of a previous capture in this county. On 
September 26th last year, when beating for larvse in a wood in this 
neighbourhood, I found half a dozen larvse of what I thought were 
P. curtula, spun up between leaves of aspen. They were rather 
small, and I did not examine them very carefully. When I got 
home they were sleeved on a branch of a poplar- tree in my garden, 
and left there until they had become full-grown and had spun up, 
when the cocoons were removed and placed in one of my breeding- 
cages. From these, the following May, I bred two P. anachoreta, 
both males; one P. ciirtula ; and three P. reclusa. — Gervase F. 
Mathew; Dovercourt, Essex, November 3rd, 1908. 

Leucania vitellina in South Devon. — This species was taken 
rather freely here during September. My brother has captured 
some, and a Paignton collector informs us that several were secured 
in his neighbourhood. This is the first year we have seen more than 
one specimen during the season. — J. Walker ; 3, Goodwin Terrace, 
Carlton Eoad, Torquay. 

Agrotis lunigera in North Wales. — I have to record the 
capture, at sugar, of two specimens of A. lunigera, at Penmaenmawr. 
This I believe to be the first record for the species in that locality, 
although I have taken it before at Abersoch. — R. Tait ; Ashton-on- 
Mersey, Cheshire. 

Agrotis cinerea in Isle of Wight. — A. cinerea was taken in 
larger numbers than usual at Freshwater this year, though they 
were already showing signs of wear when I arrived on June 11th. 
I have also had some success in breeding A. agathina this year, 
finding that the larvse reared in a frame exposed to sun and with 
plenty of side ventilation did much better than those reared in partial 
shade and with top ventilation only ; many of these went mouldy 
whilst in pupa. — R. Tait, Jun. 

Epunda lichenea in Sussex. — This species has occurred sparingly 
in the neighbourhood of Eastbourne this season ; one at light on 
October 1st, and a female at ivy on the 14th. I obtained about one 
hundred ova from the latter. A previous occurrence at Abbots 
Wood, some years ago, is recorded, but with no further data, and I 
have heard of none since. — Edwin P. Sharp ; 1, Bedford Well Road, 
Eastbourne, Sussex, October 24th, 1908. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 311 

T^NiocAMPA STABiLis IN NOVEMBER. — On the evening of Nov. 5th 
I was much surprised to come across a specimen of T. stahilis on ivy 
bloom. I do not recollect ever having previously taken this species 
in the autumn. — Edward Goodwin; Canon Court, Wateringbury. 

[Barrett mentions a specimen of T. mimcla that had been taken 
at ivy in October, at Chesham in Bucks; he adds, "it is the size of 
T. stahilis but well marked." — Ed.] 

Cirrhgedia xerampelina in Surrey. — As this species has rarely 
been recorded from Surrey, I may mention that I captured three fine 
specimens at light, on Kingston Hill, September 14th and 16th last. 
One female I sleeved on ash in the garden here, and she deposited 
a number of eggs, several on the gauze of the sleeve in which she 
was enclosed. During the last three years I have taken altogether 
about eight specimens of G. xerampelina, and I have heard of others 
captured in the neighbourhood, both this year and in 1907.— Percy 
Bichards ; Wellesley, Queen's Eoad, Kingston Hill. 

Captures at Light, Kingston Hill, Surrey. — Many species 
have been plentiful this autumn, among which may be mentioned, 
Ennomos fuscantaria, E. alniaria [tiliaria), and E. quercinaria (angu- 
laria). Of E. erosaria 1 have only seen two specimens. — Percy 
Eichards ; Wellesley, Queen's Eoad, Kingston Hill. 

Dragonflies on the Norfolk Broads. — I was on the Broads 
for a few days about May 30th this year. Orthetrum cancellatum 
was well out and in good numbers along the dykes, on the plank 
bridges over which it is very fond of basking. Cordulia cenea, 
Libellula quadrimaculata (very variable in this district), Brachytron 
pratense, and Erythromma naias w^ere also observed. jEschna 
isosceles was just appearing, as also was Libellula fiilva. 1 visited 
the Broads again from June 18th to 21th. The weather was very 
bright and sunny, though rather windy. Dragonflies were abundant. 
0. cancellatuvi were swarming, and where the fen had been cut along 
the dyke-sides were to be found basking on the dry grass, &c. 
L. fulva and JS. isosceles were in good numbers, but appeared to 
keep more to the main streams, hawking along the edge of the reed- 
and typha-beds. They are very wary and difficult to approacli, and 
it is not an easy matter to net them from a boat. Late one after- 
noon we found several ^. isosceles hawking about the sunny side of 
a large alder carr standing back from the river, which was sheltered 
from the wind, where also some females of L. fulva were observed. 
Females of L. fulva when first out seem to be partial to the open fen, 
often a long way from the main stream. They hawk round the small 
clumps of sallow and alder and are easy to catch, but if one is seen 
along the river it is generally rather battered, and is busy laying 
eggs, which are dropped at random into the water. 0. cancellatum 
also flies when laying, and just touches the surface with the end of 
its abdomen. ^. isosceles rests on some floating rubbish, and 
thrusting its abdomen beneath the water appears to place its eggs 
carefully.— H. M. Edelsten ; October 20th, 1908. 

Acronycta auricoma at Dover. — On the principle of " better 
late than never," I wish to record that I took two wasted specimens 
of A. auricoma in a wood near Dover on the same tree at sugar on 



312 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

June 13th, 1907. I did not think the capture worth recording at the 
time, but when I mentioned it to a correspondent he proved sceptical, 
saying that very few A. auricoma had been taken in the last twenty 
years, and suggesting that they might be a form of A. rmnicis. This 
insinuation sent me with the specimens to Mr. Sidney Webb, who re- 
assured me as to their identity. I gathered from him that Dover might 
be a new locality for the species. Curiously enough, the wood in ques- 
tion is that in which the specimen of C. alchyviista recorded in ' Barrett ' 
(vi. 232) was taken, and it was Mr. Webb's kindness in telling me of 
the locality that induced me to sugar regularly there. Needless to 
say, I have not found C. alchyviista yet, nor have I seen anything 
more of A. auricoma, although I worked hard for a second brood in 
1907, and for both broods this year. — (Capt.) P. A. Caedew ; St. 
Aldwyns, Park Avenue, Dover, November 18th, 1908. 

AcHERONTiA ATEOPOS IN Heetfoedshiee. — I had a larva of A. 
atropos brought me in August by some children who found it in Grove 
Eoad, Hitchin. This duly pupated, and a perfect insect emerged on 
November 1st. Another larva dug up in a potato-field was unfortu- 
nately injured and died. — E. C. Geellet ; Orford Lodge, Hitchin, 
Herts, November 18th, 1908. 

-^SGHNA MIXTA IN SussEX. — Our friend Mr. H. J. Watts, of West- 
minster, has been kind enough to show us a pair of JEschna mixta 
which he took at Pulborough on October 4th last. Both the speci- 
mens were very fully matured, and the wings of the female were 
somewhat frayed. Mr. Watts tells us that they alighted on a grassy 
spot, and were secured together by placing the net over them. — 
F. W. & H. Campion ; Walthamstow, November 17th, 1908. 

BoMBYX QUERCus ASSEMBLING. — I had a somewhat curious expe- 
rience with this moth during a fortnight's holiday spent at Treburrick, 
a small Cornish village lying about midway between Padstow and 
St. Columb, in the middle of August last year. Accompanied by my 
family and relatives, we set out for a walk, one dull, damp afternoon, 
to a small neighbouring village known as " Shop," and situated some 
three miles away. Our route lay along picturesque lanes, the high 
rocky banks of which were clothed with ferns, wild flowers, bramble, 
&c., and offering from time to time, through the gaps and gateways 
in the hedges, glorious views of the sea. My youngest son, ever on 
the look-out for captures, was fortunate enough to espy a freshly 
emerged " oak eggar," its wings not yet grown, crawling up a lichen- 
covered rocky bank. This he quickly secured and placed in a two- 
inch glass-bottomed box, and, to allow the wings to properly develop, 
the box was kept uncovered. Carried in this way the moth's wings 
gradually expanded to their full size, but owing perhaps to the pre- 
vailing moist air, or the motion caused by travelling, they remained 
weak and flaccid for a considerable time. On reaching " Shop " I had 
occasion to leave my people for a few minutes while I obtained some 
stamps at the village post-office, and on returning I found them in a 
great state of commotion. Their excitement was caused by the 
antics of a bright-coloured moth which persisted in flying at and 
settling upon my sister, who at this time was carrying the female 
"eggar" in the open box. I quickly took in the situation and 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 313 

realized that the visitor was a male of the same species attracted by 
the female, and without loss of time I proceeded to box him as he 
sat upon my sister's waterproof cloak. Before I had time to do so, 
however, another male came up and then another and another, each 
flying with rapid gyrations around the object of their visit and 
eventually settling upon the aforesaid cloak. These were boxed in 
the same way as the first. To avoid the villagers, whose curiosity 
our proceedings had aroused, we passed farther along the road and 
quickly rigged up a net ready for fresh arrivals. For the next half- 
hour or so, slowly walking along the lanes with occasional stoppages, 
we had, at intervals of every few minutes, fresh visitants who came 
flying up against the wind and making for the person at the time 
holding the boxed female ; most of these we were able to net, but 
some were too active for us. The afternoon drawing to a close, and 
the moths getting scarcer, we turned homewards, full of our adven- 
ture. On reaching our lodgings I placed the female in a cardboard 
box having a gauze-covered top, and as evening closed in I set out 
with her, accompanied by my two boys, and anticipating a renewal of 
our recent experiences ; in this, however, I was disappointed, for not 
a single qiiercus put in an appearance. The next morning was too 
wet for walking, but in the afternoon the weather improved, and 
replacing the female in a glass-bottomed box, we made another 
excursion in quest of males. To our delight we had a renewal of our 
previous afternoon's experience, the males soon appearing, but in 
greater numbers than before, and furnishing us with plenty of sport 
as they came flying up against the wnnd and careered wildly around 
the boxed female ; at times we had five or six to deal with at once. 
We soon netted a considerable number, but as the novelty wore off 
we became less enthusiastic in their pursuit. On returning to our 
lodgings we found our landlady full of excitement, for in our absence 
our living room had been invaded, by way of the open window, by a 
small swarm of male " eggars," attracted by the gauze-covered box 
in which the female quercus had passed the previous night. Although 
inexperienced at the game our landlady had managed to make more 
than a dozen captures. 

During the remainder of our holiday — a further ten days or so — 
the female " eggar " accompanied us on most of our excursions, and 
our previous experiences with her were each time repeated, except 
that from day to day her attractive powers became gradually but per- 
ceptibly weaker. The males therefore came in lessened numbers and 
were more difficult to net. A few days before the end of our stay she 
was accidentally crushed to death, but even then still retained a limited 
power of attracting the males, and this power was also shared by any 
empty box in which she had been placed. The scent given out by the 
female is of a musty foxy description and quite apparent to me, and 
with hardly a doubt is the means by which the males are attracted. 
I had previously been under the impression that quercus flew during 
the evening, but our experience was to the contrary ; we never saw a 
single male fly except during the afternoon, although we occasionally 
saw a female flying in the evening. We had the good fortune to find 
another freshly emerged female on another rocky bank, but this was 

ENl'OM. — DECEMBER, 1908 2 



314 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

killed as soon as developed, to occupy a place in the cabinet later. — 
A. J. WiNDYBANK ; Latclimere, Richmond Eoad, Kingston-on-Thames, 
October 14th, 1908. 



SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of ho^DOi^ .—Wednesday , October 21st, 
1908. — Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, President, in the chair. — Monsieur 
Charles Oberthur, of Eennes, France, was elected an Honorary Fellow 
of the Society. — Mr. Charles B. Autram, of the Insectarium, Kanny 
Koory, Silchar, P.O., Cachar, Entomologist to the Indian Tea 
Association ; and Mr. Richard Beck, Sanderhayes, Bitterne Road, 
Southampton, were elected Fellows of the Society. — Mr. E. C. Bed- 
well exhibited examples of the rare Lamellicorn beetle, Gnorimus 
variabilis, L., found by him in thick frass under the bark of oaks 
near Purley, Surrey. — Mr. G. C. Champion showed a specimen of 
Pytho depressus, L., with two tarsi to the right hind leg ; it was 
bred from a larva or pupa found under pine-bark at Binn, Switzer- 
land. — Mr. W. G. Sheldon exhibited a case to illustrate several 
forms of Thais rumina, the var. medesicaste, and the ab. canteneri. 
Hey., from South Spain, and from France. — Mr. W. J. Lucas brought 
for exhibition a set of eight examples of Libellula qiiadriviaculata 
from Scotland, and the South of England, to illustrate the range from 
the type form to the yox-prcBnubila of Newman. — Mr. H. M. Edelsten 
also showed a varied series of the same dragontlies from the Norfolk 
Broads. — Mr. L. W. Newman exhibited paintings of two forms of 
Dryas paphia bred by him this season from ova of parents taken at 
Brockenhurst, resembling the aberration of this buttei'fly shown by 
Dr. Herbert Charles at the last meeting. — Mr. W. J. Kaye showed 
a synaposematic series of specimens from Ecuador, comprising 
Ithomiinse and Pierinae. Of the former there were Discenna zava- 
letta, five males and two females, and Leucothyris zelica, fourteen 
males and no females. Of the latter there were Dismorphia othoe, 
fifteen males and six females, Disviorpliia leuconia, seven males and 
one female, and Dismorphia sp. ?, four females. He pointed out that 
the usual coloration of Leucothyris species was black and transparent, 
but here was one, L. zelica, which was yellow, and the significant 
fact illustrated by the exhibit was that there were in the aggregate 
more Pierines than Ithomiines, and, taking L. zelica alone, there 
were only fourteen specimens to the thirty-three of the associated 
Dismorphias. It appeared therefore to be quite possible that the 
L. zelica obtained its yellow colouring by the association with the 
Pierines, and played the part of mimic instead of model. — Mr. H. M. 
Edelsten exhibited a tube containing ova of Leucania brevilinea, in 
sitil, laid within the sheathing-leaf of a dead reed-stem found in 
Norfolk in July, 1908. — Mr. A. Harrison showed numerous exaixiples 
of Aplecta nebulosa, of the form robsoni, bred from parents taken in 
Delamere Forest, the proportion in breeding being as follows : grey 
form, 25 % ; var. robsoni, 51 % ; and var. thompsoni, 24 %. — Mr. A. E. 
Gibbs brought for exhibition a case containing a series of Everes 
argiades, taken this year at various altitudes in the Vosges region, 
showing a fine large form ; Lyccena bellargus, a female, from South 



SOCIETIES. 316 

Devon, with the wings on the left side, especially the secondary, 
splashed and streaked with male coloration ; L. icarus, male, also taken 
in South Devon, measuring only 19 mm. in expanse ; and an example 
of Glirysoijhanus ■phlcBcts, approaching on the right side ab. schmidtii, 
from Harpenden, the ground colour of the primary being silvery- white, 
with the exception of a broad streak of copper colour extending from 
the base of the wing. — Mr. E. M. Dadd exhibited specimens of Erehia 
ligea from various German localities ; a small series of E. eicryale ; 
examples of var. adyte taken at Zermatt and Pontresina ; and of 
ab. ocellaris and ab. extrema from the Stilfser Joch. Among the 
Pontresina adyte was a single specimen which might be placed 
amongst the ocellaris without the slightest hesitation ; although not 
quite so dark as any of these. The exhibit also included one speci- 
men of the form euryaloides which is accredited to euryale, occurring 
with the adyte at Pontresina. — Mr. Dadd also exhibited examples 
of Lycana corydon : a typical from England, and the Thuringer 
Wald ; var. apenyiina from the Sabine Mountains ; the form from 
the South of France ; and a form from Berlin, for which he sug- 
gested the name borussia, as being distinct from all other forms — 
first, in the male, by its greater size; secondly, in the extreme width 
of the black border of the fore wings. He also exhibited a pair of 
Scodiona fagaria var. favillacearia, and a typical male for compari- 
son, this being the only form of the species occurring on the heather 
around Berlin ; and four examples of butterflies which he suggested 
as hybrids, viz. : L. corydon x bellargus, from Airolo ; Gcenonympha 
satyrion x paviphilus, from Wengen ; Colias hyale x yalceno, from 
Oberstdorf ; and Pieris nain x rajJCB, from Berlin, apparently exactly 
intermediate between the two species. — Professor E. B. Poulton 
showed a family of eight butterflies bred by Mr. G. F. Leigh, F.E.S., 
from ova of Charaxes neanthes. Seven of the offspring w^ere C. 
neanthes, and one C. zoolina ; thus proving, so far as such numbers 
constitute sufficient evidence, wdnat has long been suspected, viz., that 
these superficially dissimilar butterflies are forms of the same species. 
— Dr. F. A. Dixey, M.A., M.D., read a paper, illustrated by lantern- 
slides, "On Miillerian Mimicry, and Diaposematism. A Reply to Mr. 
G. A. K. Marshall." 

Novejnber Ath, 1908. — Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, President, in the 
chair. — Mr. N. P. Fenwick, Junior, of the Gabies, Esher ; Mr. John 
Spedan Lewis, of Spedan Tower, Hampstead, and 278-288, Oxford 
Street, W. ; Mr. W. K. Lister, of Street End House, Ash, near 
Dover; Mr. Ivan E. Middleton, of 14, High Street, Serampore, 
Bengal ; Mr. F. E. West, of Peradeniya, Ceylon ; and Mr. J. 
Swierstray, First Assistant of the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, 
were elected Fellows of the Society. — Mr. W. G. Sheldon ex- 
hibited examples of Melitcea aurinia var. iberica, from Barcelona, 
taken last May, and examples from various British and continental 
localities for comparison. Taking into consideration their different 
appearance and habits, he suggested that eventually this Catalan 
form of aurinia might prove to be distinct, or at all events a 
subspecies. — Mr. H. W. Andrews showed a short series of Gymno- 
soma rotundatum, L., and a specimen of Ocyptera brassicaria, F., 
two uncommon Tachinids from Glengarriff, co. Cork. — Mr. P. J. 



316 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Barraud exhibited a series of Erehia stygne from the French Vosges, 
taken in June and July this year, at 4000 ft., showing a generally 
brighter facies and markings than Swiss forms, and a large brightly 
coloured series of Erehia ligea from the same region, taken at 2000- 
2400 ft. in July. — Mr. H. M Edelsten exhibited, on behalf of Mr. 
E. P. Sharpe, and Mr. A. J. Wightman, a series of Nonagria edelsteni, 
Tutt, from Sussex, taken by him in August this year, this being the 
first time that the species, which is quite distinct from N. dissohita 
and the variety arundineta, had been observed. He also showed, for 
comparison, long series of dissoluta and var. arundineta from various 
British localities, with N. ne^irica from Germany. In pointing 
out the series of errors as to the identity of these Nonagrias, 
Mr. Tutt said it was necessary to rename the species that Schmidt 
had erroneously referred to neurica, Hb., and in doing so he had 
called it edelsteni (Ent. Eec, xx. pp. 164 et seq.), in honour of Mr. 
H. M. Edelsten, who had done so much towards making the differ- 
ences of Schmidt's two species known to us. — Mr. H. St. J. Donis- 
thorpe brought for exhibition Pseudogynes captured alive at Nethy 
Bridge in September last, where they occurred in some numbers in 
two nests of Formica rufa, thus indicating that Atemeles puhicollis, 
Bris., a beetle new to Britain, is to be found in Scotland. He also 
exhibited (a) examples of Harpalus cupreus, Dej., from Sandown, 
I.W., October, 1908; and one specimen with red legs discovered by 
Mr. J. Taylor at Atherstone, I.W.-; {b) Gafius cicatricosus, Er., from 
Southsea ; and (c) Gryptocephalus hipunctatus, L., taken in July by 
him at Niton, I.W., in July ; this form being new to Britain until 
discovered by Mr. R. S. Mitford at Niton last year.— Mr. E. Shelford 
showed a "stick" insect — apparently a new species of the genus 
Melaxinus—hYedi parthenogenetically by Mr. H. Main. — Mr. L. W. 
Newman exhibited a case containing a long series of hybrids, ocel- 
latics X populi. — Mr. H. J, Turner exhibited a long series of imagines 
of Coleopliora virgaurece ; flowers of golden-rod among the pappus 
hairs of which were ova (infertile) ; photomicrographs by Mr. F, 
Noad Clark of the ova in sitil; photomicrographs of three varieties of 
the micropyle of the ovum; and larval cases in sitA among the florets, 
to illustrate the life-history of the species. He also showed "nests " 
of the gregarious hybernating larvae of Porthesia ckrysorrkcea from 
Wakering Marshes, Essex, and stated that on several parts of the 
coast this species had now become very abundant again, plenty of 
nests being everywhere apparent ; and dead flower-stems of Statice 
livionium, collected on Nov. 1st, containing the full-fed hybernating 
larvae of Coleophora limoniella. — Mr. W. J. Lucas exhibited an ex- 
ample of Lahidura riparia, Pall, (shore earwig), a large male taken 
near Bournemouth, Aug. 10th, 1908, and kept alive since that date ; 
and two cells of the solitary wasp, Eumeyies coarctata, found in New 
Forest on Oct. 81st, 1908, having never found two together previously. 
■ — Dr. T. A. Chapman exhibited a case containing specimens of the 
genera Celastrina [Cyaniris) and Everes to demonstrate the racial 
identity of C. sikkima and C. argiolus, C. jynteana and C. limbatus, 
E. diparoides and E. argiades. All these species occur together, and 
appear to form a mimetic'group, but it would be impossible at present 
to determine which is the model, and what may be the object of the 



SOCIETIES. 317 

mimicry. — Professor E. B. Poulton, F.E.S., exhibited the male and 
female imago, the preserved larva, and the cocoon of an interesting 
new Lasiocampid discovered by Mr. E. L. Clark near Durban ; a set 
of butterflies captured on a patch of zinnias on February 21st, 1906, 
at Jinga, on the north of the Victoria Nyanza, by Mr. C. A. Wiggins, 
showing seventeen specimens of Danais clirysipi^us, L., of the type, 
and alcipims forms together with the intermediate examples, but no 
single specimen of don2)2)US [klugii), although of three females of 
Hypolimnas misippus, L., two were of the inaria, Cr., form mimicking 
dorippus.- — Professor Poulton also read a letter from Mr. S. A. Neave, 
describing the habits of a mimetic species of EuphcBdra. — Dr. F. A. 
Dixey exhibited specimens of Heliconius ainpkitrite, Eiif., and H. 
charithonia, Linn. ; also a coloured drawing of H. hermathena, Hew. 
He remarked that each of the first two species showed a distinct and 
well-marked aposeme or warning character ; each of them, and 
especially the first, belonging to an extensive mimetic assemblage. 
In the third species these two distinct aposemes were combined. The 
specimens showed how a conspicuous and distasteful form might 
acquire a new aposeme without relinquishing its old one, such an 
intermediate form presumably sharing in the protection afforded by 
the aposematic forms on each side of it, while the separate aposemes 
which it exhibited were not mutually protective. — Dr. G. G. Hodgson 
exhibited a series of Polyovimatus hellargiis from Surrey localities, 
including a partially gynandromorphous female, two-thirds of the 
hind wings with the typical male coloration and markings ; a series 
of var. ceroniLs taken in 1907, and specimens showing a variant under 
side recurrent in the same locality. He also exhibited a series of 
ZygcBua trifolii and Z. hippocrep)idis from one locality, including 
twelve melanic examples of the former, with other common forms 
and aberrations, probably of the latter, the sixth spot being obsolete, 
or represented by a mere dot. — Mr. J. C. Kershaw communicated a 
paper on "The Life History of Erianthus versicolor," Brunner, an 
orthopteron of the family Mastacidae. — H. Eowland-Brow^n, M.A., 
Hon. Secretary. 

The South London Entomologicajj and Natural History 
Society.— Octo&er 227id, 1908.— Mr. Alfred Sich, F.E.S., President, 
in the chair. — Mr. Mc Arthur exhibited a long series of Argynnis 
aglaia and fine specimens of Asteroscopus nubeciUosa, from Aviemore. 
— Mr. Tonge, bred specimens of Pieris brassiccB with partial black 
margin to hind wings, Cerura bifida bred from a Eeigate female, a 
very varied series of Agrotis cursoria from Lowestoft, and a long 
series of Hydrcecia nictitans from the same place. — Messrs. Harrison 
and Main, a bred series of Ne^neobius lucina from ova, Horsley ; and 
two larvae of Limenitis sibylla in their curious hybernacula, on 
sallow, from the New Forest. — Mr. Hodgson, a large number oi Pieris 
rapcB, illustrative of the experiments he was making on the species. — 
Mr. E. Adkin, series of BJiodophcEa suavella and B. marmorea, with 
branches of blackthorn, showing their larval webs, from Eastbourne, 
and read notes on the species ; a specimen of Peronea permutana 
bred from a larva taken on BosOj spinosissivia at Beachy Head ; and 
unusually light and dark forms of Tortrix heparana from the same 



318 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

locality and Lewisham. — Mr. Newman, a series of Dicranura 
bicuspis bred from Tilgate Forest, and an example of Abraxas 
grossidariata ab. varlcyata, female, just bred as a second brood. — Mr. 
Main, sprays of blackthorn on which were ova of Ruralis betulcB. — ■ 
Mr. Smith, Plodia interpunctella, found in the Society's Library just 
previous to the meeting. — Mr. Kayward, a specimen of Epinephele 
jurtina, with considerable pallid areas, and male and female speci- 
mens of E. titlioniis, with additional spots on the fore wings. — Mr. F. 
Noad Clark, under the microscope, the early instars of Nola albulalis 
larvas, and the ova of Coleophora virgaurece in sitii among the pappus 
hairs of golden-rod. — Hy. J. Tuener, Hon. Bep. Sec. 

City of London Entomological Society. — October 6th.- — -Mr. 
J. A. Clark exhibited Camptograyrima bilineata, Margate, July, 1908, 
including a specimen with broad black band on fore wings. — Mr. 
H. M. Edelsten, Sterrha sacraria, South Devon, September, 1908. — 
Mr. G. H. Heath, six Grammesia trigrammica var. bilinea, Kent, June, 
1908, taken on two evenings, on two sugar patches close to one 
another, while the rest of a somewhat extensive " round " yielded 
no examples of this form. — Mr. L. W. Newman, LyccBna corydon var. 
obsoleta, Dover, 1908 ; also a long series of Bombyx castrensis, 
including unicolorous yellow males and females. — Mr. L. B. Prout, a 
large, dark, strongly marked ab. of Eiipithecia expallidata, Tunbridge 
Wells, and a strongly black-marked ab. of Nonagria sparganii, East 
Kent ; also, on behalf of Mr. J. Taylor, an extraordinary Agrotid, 
apparently an ab. of Agrotis segeticm female, with dark clouding 
round the pale stigmata, October 3rd, 1907. — Mr. A. Sich, cocoons of 
Gemiostoma laburnella, showing strength of silk in bending materials 
on which the cocoons were spun ; also mines in leaves of Bumex 
acetosa from Kichmond, containing larvae of Nepticula acetosce. — 
Mr. P. H. Tautz, series of Leucania vitellina, August 15th to 30th, 
Dorsetshire coast, 1908. — Mr. A. J. Willsdon, ovum, pupse, imagines, 
and ichneumon of Aliicita graphodactyla ; also its food-plant, Gen- 
tiana premnonanthe. 

October 20th. — Messrs. H. Leach, of Rickmansworth, and F. Pen- 
nington, of Cranleigh, were elected members of the Society. — Mr. A. 
Bacot exhibited pupae of Euchloe cardamines attached to twigs and 
cards of various shades ; these pupae showed distinct gradations in 
depth of colour, corresponding to the lightness or darkness of the 
substance on which they had pupated. — Dr. T. A. Chapman, Tanagra 
atrata var. p)y^'&naica, bred from Gavarnie ova. — Mr. H. M. Edelsten, 
ova of Leucania brevilinea, laid within sheathing leaf of dead reed- 
stem, Norfolk, July, 1908. — Mr. W. J. Kaye, dead pupa of Lyccena 
arioyi, one of several found by Mr. Percy Richards under stones near 
Bude. — Mr. L. W. Newman, Hepialus humuli var. hetlandica from 
Shetlands, showing considerable variation ; Anarta melanopa, from 
the same locality ; and abs. of Ghrysophanus phlceas, Bexley, October, 
1908, including a specimen with greyish black under side and female 
with usual bands on hind wings obsolete. — Mr. P. H. Tautz, bred 
series of Stauropus fagi, from Chalfont Road ova, including dark 
female. — S. J. Bell, Hon. Sec. 



319 



RECENT LITEEATUPtE. 

British Oak Galls. By Edward T. Connold, F.Z.S., E.E.S. Author 
of ' British Vegetable Galls,' &c. Illustrated with 68 full-page 
plates, 21 insets, and 17 small drawings. Pp. i-xviii and 
1-169. London : Adlard & Son. 1908. 

The subject-matter in this very excellent book is arranged in six 
chapters, the first five of which are respectively headed " The Prin- 
ciples of Oak Gall Formation" (pp. 1-8), "Some Features of Oak 
Gall Growth" (pp. 9-19), "The Numerical Aspect of Oak Galls" 
(pp. 20-25), "The Cynipidas Affecting the Oak" (pp. 26-32), and 
" The British Oak " (pp. 33-39). 

Chapter vi. commences with some useful hints on collecting and 
mounting oak galls (pp. 40-48). The softer galls unfortunately soon 
lose both form and colour. In such cases the author recommends 
carefully coloured drawings, or photographs, showing the objects in 
their actual size, as affording the best permanent records of their 
appearance in nature. On p. 49 a table of British Cynipidseus gall- 
producers and, where known, their alternate generations, is given. 
Of six species the sexual generation only seems to have been detected, 
and of seven others the agamous form alone appears to be known. 
We observe that Neuroterns schlechtendali, Mayr, is cited as a synonym 
of SjKithegaster apriUnus, Giraud. Schlechtendal and F. Loew, how- 
ever, consider N. schlechtendali to be the agamous form of S. apri- 
Unus, and we believe that evidence has been published tending to 
show that the former is the summer gall. Anyway, our author 
inclines to the opinion held by Adler that the alternate generation is 
most probably Neuroterns ostreus, Hartig. Descriptions of the fifty-four 
British Oak Galls and remarks thereon occupy ninety-one pages, and 
in the case of each gall there is a synoptical table in which a great 
deal of information is presented in a handy form. The illustrations 
are admirable, and, with one or two exceptions, are from photographs 
of specimens obtained around Hastings. 

Galls are of interest not only to the specialist who studies the 
insects producing them, the inquilines and the parasites, but also to 
Nature students generally. Their various forms and curious manner 
of growth always attract attention. Pictorial aid in the identification 
of the oak species and trustworthy information concerning them are 
now at the service of all who furnish themselves with a copy of 
Connold's ' British Oak Galls.' 



Diptera Danica. Genera and Species of Flies hitherto found in Den- 
mark. By William Lundbeck. Part II. Asilidae, Bombyliidge, 
Therevidse, Scenopinidae. With 48 figures. Pp. 1-160. Copen- 
hagen : G. E. C. Gad. London : Wesley & Son. 1908. 
The first part of this capital work (published at the expense of 
the Carlsberg Fund) was referred to in the ' Entomologist ' for 1907, 
p. 264. There are synoptical tables of the subfamilies, genera, and 
species, and the sequence of the families and of the species embraced 
therein is very similar to that in Verrall's ' List of British Diptera,' 



320 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the second edition of which was puhhshed in 1901. Genera are dis- 
cussed at some length, and the descriptions of species are ample. 
The dipterous fauna of Denmark appears to he closely identical with 
that of our islands, and, as the work under notice is printed in 
English, it should secure the attention of British students of this 
Order of the Insecta. 

A Preliminary List of Hertfordshire Diptera. By A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S., 
F.E.S., and Philip Barraud, F.E.S. 
We are indebted to the authors for a reprint of this very useful 
list. It was published during the year in the ' Transactions ' of the 
Hertfordshire Natural History Society (vol. xiii. pt. iv. pp. 249-276). 
Except as regards the Pulicidse, a list of which is contributed by the 
Hon. N. Charles Rothschild, a very large proportion of the species 
mentioned were obtained by Mr. Albert Piffard, who presented 
his collection of Diptera to the British Museum. In the matter of 
identification of the species the authors acknowledge much assistance 
from the Rev. E. N. Bloomfield and Mr. E. E. Austen. 



The Genera of the TortricidcB and their Types. By C. H. Fernald, 
A.M., Ph.D. Pp. 1-68. Amherst, Mass. : Press of Carpenter 
and Morehouse. 1908. 

An exceedingly interesting and highly valuable compilation, com- 
menced some twenty years ago and added to from time to time up to 
present date. The author, however, does not consider it yet com- 
plete, but he publishes it in the hope that any errors or omissions 
may be made known to him. Even as it is it will most certainly be 
of very great utility to everyone interested in this intricate subject. 



Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Vol. i. pt. 5, 

with plate and text figures, pp. 163-210 (April, 1908) ; vol. ii. 

pt. 1, pp. 1-35 (October, 1908). 

Among other matters of interest in pt. 5 are the following : — 

Presidential Address by W. M. Giffard, in the course of which he 

gives an account of the island of Lanai and its entomological fauna 

(pp. 176-184). " A List of the Described Hemiptera (excluding 

Aleyrodidae and Coccidse) of the Hawaiian Islands," by G. W. 

Kirkaldy (pp. 185-208, plate 4). 



Broteria : Revista de Sciencias Naturaes do Collegio de S. Fiel. 
Vol. vii. Serie Zoologica. Leipzig. Theodor Oswald Weigel. 
1908. 

Contents : — " Neuropteros de Espana y Portugal," por Longinos 
Navas (pp. 1-131). " Description d'un Aphidien nouveau de Portugal," 
par le Dr. G. HorvAth (p. 132). " Contributio prima ad cognitionem 
Cecidologiae Regionis Zambezice (Mogambique, Africa Orientalis)," 
auctore Prof. J. S. Tavares. Plates ii.-xvi. 



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