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THE object, in the following Work, is to trace the descent of English words ; their affinity 
with the different dialects of Gothic spoken in Europe ; and the connexion between our own 
and some other tongues both of Europe and Asia, without introducing any remarks where the 
general meaning is obvious. Evident derivations from the Latin and Greek are often omit- 
ted, because sufficiently understood by all literary persons. 

Gothic words from five dialects of that language are introduced as concurrent etymons ; to 
which the Russian and Irish vocabularies, in the proportion of at least one third, bear evident 
affinity, either by cognation or adoption ; although so much disguised, by a different ortho- 
graphy, that they could not be usefully added without explanations too diffuse for the present 
object. The plan, as the reader will observe, is studiously concise ; being intended rather as 
an Index than a Glossary. The cursory observer will find it sufficient for his purpose ; and 
those who are inclined to deeper research must apply to the under-mentioned sources of infor- 

The Index of Vereleus contains nearly all the Gothic roots employed in English ; and an 
improved arrangement of that valuable record, with considerable additions, has been prepared 
for publication. The Glossaries of Ihre, of Schertz and Oberlin, the Thesaurus of Hickes, and 
the Dictionary of Lye, exhibit the variations that occur in the Swedish, Teutonic, Moaso- 
Gothic and Anglo-Saxon dialects ; and to them the inquisitive reader must have reference. 
He will do well to consult also the Scottish Etymology of Dr Jarnieson. 

The contractions employed to indicate different languages are to be understood thus : 

A. Arabic. 

I. Irish. 

Russ. Russian. 

Arm. Armoric. 

Isl. Islandic. 

Sans. Sanscrit. 

B. Belgic. 

It. Italian. 

S. Saxon. 

Chald. Chaldaic. 

L. Latin. 

Scot. Scotch. 

D. Danish. 

L. B. Barbarous Latin. 

Sp. Spanish. 

F. French. 

O. E. Old English. 

Swed. Swedish. 

G. Gothic. 

P. Persian. 

T. Teutonic.* 

Heb. Hebrew. 

Pol. Polish. 

Turk. Turkish. 

Hind. Hindoostanee. 

Port. Portuguese. 

W. Welsh. 

* Teutonic words are generally written according to the orthography of the middle ages ; which is somewhat different from that now used it 
upper Germany ; but the connexion with English is more obvious. 


THE English Language is derived from the Gothic and Celtic, chiefly through the Anglo- 
Saxon and French dialects. The object now in contemplation is to trace the probable origin of 
its words, to mark their adventitious changes, and indicate their principal analogies. 

The utility of etymological inquiries has been disputed on the ground, that, a precise 
meaning being once affixed to words, it avails little to know whence they originated. This, 
abstractedly, may be true ; but, linked so intimately as they are with the Arts and Sciences, 
their variations must correspond with the progressive improvement of the human mind, and 
therefore assume some considerable importance in the History of Man. Even the puerile 
attempts of this kind which have been admitted into our dictionaries, create a national concern 
that means should be tried to avert the sneer of foreigners, and remove at least some erroneous 
ideas, which are always pernicious. The difficulty of such correction is sufficiently evident. 
Few literary men would be disposed to tread in this humble path ; and fewer still, if any, 
possess knowledge of the ancient and modern languages of Europe adequate to the pursuit. 
Many years of labour, and no small portion of fortune must be devoted, in this way, without 
any certainty of success, amidst the numerous contingencies which exclude all rational calcula- 
tion of pecuniary advantage. Fame, the aerial recompense of authors, cannot be expected. 
If the etymons be at all natural, the difficulties of selecting and compiling them will become 
less obvious. They offer, at the same time, so wide a scope to the shafts of criticism, that 
those who choose to exercise it candidly, will at least, distinguish between the cursory and 
amusing analysis of particular words, and the toil of wading through a whole vocabulary with 
no choice of evasion. 

The task, here prescribed, extends much beyond the usual practice of referring, merely to 
some cognate term, in German or French, for an English etymon, without pointing further 
toward a common source ; which is little more satisfactory than adducing some difference of 
pronunciation at York and in London. 

It is impossible to conceive, without painful experience, what obstacles must be encountered 
during the investigation, not only of corrupt expressions, but numerous omissions, mutations, 
and transpositions of letters, by which nations, as they became more refined, endeavoured to 
please the ear by euphony. This confusion has been increased, in many cases, by the intro- 
duction of a foreign alphabet unadapted to the organic sounds of particular languages ; such as 
the Sclavonian and Irish, where several consonants are put together for what might be expressed 
by a single letter. And still more provoking, if possible, is the barbarous articulation of such 



conquerors as those who have changed Constantinople, Athens, and Nicasa, into Stambul, 
Settines, and Isnic. 

The Gallic Celts were more remarkable for their variable pronunciation and mutation of 
letters than even the Welsh and Irish. The Latin verbum was with them berf, werv, which 
the Welsh converted into gwerv, geirb, and gair ; while barba, the beard, was barf, varef, 
barv, parw, warf ; the Gascons were Vascons, Wassones, Baseons and Biscayans. In many 
instances, however, imperfections of this nature were productive of some advantage, in the 
same way that the Latin flavus, fulvus, helvus, and gilvus, although originally perhaps the 
same word, served afterwards to describe different shades of colour. H, g, and c, when initial 
letters, were generally confounded among the Celts, by indistinct guttural sounds, to produce 
energy ; but k has frequently taken their place, in modern days, since they became objection- 
able for their harshness. 

The intermutations of p, q, c, h, and k, are very extraordinary. P, reversed, appears to 
have formed q, which probably was introduced into the alphabet at a later date. The Osce 
or Oscans, whom we now call Toscans, used p where the Latins had q. The Welsh and Ar- 
moricans adhere to the mode of the Osce, while the Irish incline generally toward that of the 
Latins ; and, allowing for such singularities, the affinity of European language is observable 
in the qui, quae, quod of the Latin, which takes cui in the dative case ; the Irish ci, ce, ciod ; 
the Greek -roiog, irota, iroiov; the Mo\\c xo?o?, xoiu, xolov, the Armoric and Welsh, pi, pa, piad, 
or pibeth ; the Gothic huo, hua, huad ; Saxon hwa, hwe, hwat ; Danish hwo, hwilk, hwad ; 
Belgic wie, wilk, wat. And in our ancient quho, quhich, quhilk, quhat, together with the 
modern who, which, what, seem to be included both the Celtic and Gothic pronunciations. 
The Gothic huilk, our which, is contracted from who like, forming the feminine gender ; but 
used occasionally for both the masculine and neuter. In the same way e like became our 
each, and so like, such. That the Greeks, as well as the Armorican, British and Irish Celts, 
had p in one dialect for q and k in another, may be further instanced o^og and oxxog ; while 
the Latins have changed Kifcta into linquo liqui, ICOKU.U or n'wra into coquo, \vxos into lupus ; 
and their columbus and palumbus had no original difference. Similar mutations have crept into 
French, as escume for spuma ; echine for spina ; while English cod, a husk, is pod ; and our 
term peep in all the northern dialects is keek, from the Gothic ge auga, Islandic eiga, to eye. 
The Gothic or Saxon name for a grasshopper is lopust, the leaper, from which the Latins seem 
to have formed locusta; and our lobster is their sea-locust. This perversion extended to 
other remote nations ; for the Christians of Abyssinia, or more properly Habish, say Ketros 
for St Peter. 

Among many peculiarities, the Irish, having no H in their alphabet, frequently substitute the 
letter T, as the Russians do Th, at the beginning of words ; by which it becomes difficult to 
detect their source. Thus tulla or tulloch, which is of the most common use throughout Scot- 
land and Ireland, in forming the names of places, could not readily be recognised as the Gothic 
hola and Saxon hyla, our hill or hillock ; but when we know that taip is a heap, talla a hall, 
toll a hole, teth heat, and tocsaid a hogshead, there can be no doubt of the fact. 

Some races of men discover unaccountable aversion to particular letters,. and predilection for 


others ; of which R and L are examples. The former is entirely excluded in favour of the 
latter by the Chinese, who say Fu Ian sy, and vulgarly Plance, for France. Two American 
tribes, evidently from one stock, have the same speech, except that these letters are their shib- 
boleth. The one cannot express R, nor the other L, so that they call themselves Cherakies 
and Chelakies. The Latins, as well as the ancient Goths, preferred the softer sound of L, 
which the Italians, French and English, frequently in the middle of words, pronounce like a 
vowel ; the Gothic fiol or fior is four, and teigiov is the Latin lilium. The Portuguese gene- 
rally introduce R instead of L ; but sometimes they absurdly transpose them in the same 
word, as milagre for miracle ; while the Latin lusciniola is the Italian rosignuolo, a nightingale, 
and the French orme is the Latin ulmus. This disposition militates against the opinion that, 
nations were naturally inclined to appropriate the first of these letters to express energy 
and harshness, and the other softness and liquidity. Fortuitous deviations of this sort, as well 
as mutations which are sanctioned by general use, will be noticed more properly at the head 
of each letter in the body of the work. But, in such an extensive undertaking, many things 
must be omitted ; and a claim for great indulgence toward instances of misconception and inad- 
vertence cannot be lightly rejected, where so much is to be explored among the relics of dark 
and distant ages, or unravelled from the barbarous distortions of elocution, so prevalent in 
more modern times. 

The Celtic language, including the Hellenic and Latin dialects, is supposed to have been 
general throughout Europe, prior to the irruptions of those hordes named Pelasgi, from 
nsXaoyjJ, the neighbouring country, or Pelasgeotee, perhaps OuX^oy^r*;, the Gothic tribe, who 
were called by the Asiatics the red-haired people ; and its affinity to the Arabic, Hebrew, and 
Phoenician, like that of the Gothic to the Sanscrit and the ancient Persian, has been generally 
admitted. The first establishment of those invaders was said to have been Argos, the white, 
or perhaps town of fair men ; and the name afterwards extended to the whole of Greece, al- 
though the Greeks are supposed to have been called Argives, from argeo, fire. That particu- 
lar race may still be distinguished in Sweden, Saxony, Hanover and some smaller districts, 
such as Darmstad, whose lofty stature and flaxen hair indicate a different descent from the 
cross-made, swarthy inhabitants of Hesse Cassel, Bavaria and Suabia ; while an evident mix- 
ture is observable among the English, Belgians, Danes and Prussians. 

Concerning the derivation of Celt, properly Kelt, little can be said with certainty, since His- 
tory is almost silent ; and Etymology, unless founded on some basis of that nature, is no more 
than conjecture. FaX/a, in compound words, denoted belonging to the country. The inha- 
bitants of the continent adjacent to Britain called their's Gall or Gaul, and themselves Galiods 
or Gallouets, by the addition of Hod, Welsh lyeod, Gothic lyd, Saxon leod, Greek Aw?, 
which alike signify the people or nation. The Gothic ha lyd or ghalyd, and Greek 
landsfolk, might readily be conjectured as having produced the Greek synonimes YuXuroi and 
KeX-ro;, for Celts ; but the latter term has more the appearance of being from the Doric Kshtrri, 
for TeXer7, a boundary. This meaning corresponds exactly with *ofra, the Gothic kant, a di- 
vision, side or boundary ; so that Celtiberia and Cantiberia would imply the borders of the 
Iberus, without any allusion to the Celts, who were probably never considered as a distinct 
nation any more than the Tartars. K,uXjro/, however, would correspond with the Welsh and 
Irish names Guithil, Gwylt and Gwyddel, for inhabitants of the woods. Gothic kylt, kyld, 

Saxon cild, a child, offspring, might have been applied in the sense of Gentile to the ancient 
inhabitants of any country. 

It may observed, that the Hebrew galat and galeel signify an adjacent territory, or different 
nation. Gaul, however, can- with more probability be traced to the Persian Gaw, Armoric 
Gwale, Welsh Gwal, Gothic Wall, Woll, Velle, Bala, Swedish Wall and Scotch Wala, a plain, 
low or champaign country ; by which designation the low districts on both sides of the Alps 
would have been clearly distinguished from those of the mountains ; and such was probably 
the origin of the Wallis or Valais of Switzerland. The same indefinite term might readily 
have included afterwards the different regions to the very confines of the Goths, who, at all 
times, have given the name of Wals or Walsk to the French and Italians. Val, in old French, 
was low, and avalar, to abase. The Gauls almost uniformly, at the beginning of words, used 
G where the Goths had W, as guard, ward ; guile, wile ; guise, wise ; by which Wai and Gal 
or Gwal would be the same word. Lower Brittany, in the Armoric dialect, is Gwelled, the 
low country, which equally well applies to Guelder or the Netherland, where the people were 
once called Gwalons or Walloons, Waldes and Celtes, prior to the invasion of the Gothic Bel- 
gians. Thus the Gothic Flalander, Flat landers, is Flanders ; and the inhabitants Flamen or 
Flamensk, men of the flat or plain, Flemmings. The Gothic Walsk, however, denoted also 
what was foreign, and in this sense may be the Gothic Uala for Utala, outborn or outlandish. 

The Gothic gauw or gow, a district or region, although sometimes used, like the Hebrew 
gai, Persian gaw, for a vale, had perhaps no connexion with the word Gaul. It became the 
Latin govia, in the names of many places bordering on streams of water, such as Brisgaw, 
Turgaw, in Germany ; and Glasgow, Linlithgow, in Scotland. 

Of the three distinctions, Comati, Togati, and Bracchati, applied by the Latins to the Gauls, 
the last seems to have been given to Goths, either through mistake or from their having 
fixed themselves in what was considered a Gallic territory. Brik, brok, bracca, adopted by the 
Greeks and Latins, is Gothic, and signifies the break, breach, division, or fork of the body ; 
and also the clothing called breeches : but the Gothic brek or bragd, from bregda to divide, 
change, variegate, and Danish brogges, Swedish brokug, Arabic buruk, abruk, Celtic brie or 
brek, Scotch braikit, denote what is ornamented, variegated or striped. Birkbenar, the an- 
cient name of a class of Gothic warriors, was probably corrupted from brikbenar, the soldiers 
with striped hose, the same perhaps who in Irish history were called red shanks. The tartan 
dress worn by the Highlanders of Scotland, is bryc and breacan, in Welsh and Irish : like 
them too the Galli Braccati or Helvetii may probably have followed this mode of marking 
their genealogical descent and family connexions ; and the checkered cealt of the Irish, the 
Gothic kiolt, Danish kilt, Teutonic kiolt, a lap or fold, being thus variegated and tucked 
round the thighs or loins, was readily confounded with breeches. Diodorus says that bracca? 
were sundry coloured clothes ; and the same costume is known to have obtained among the 
Scythians and Persians, who were also called Braccati by the Romans. 

Heraldry, 2>jju/a, probably originated in such disposal of colours, combined with the usage 
of the Goths in wearing on their armour the figures of beasts and birds ; although it received, 
no doubt, much improvement during the crusades, since gules, rose; sable, black; azure, blue; 

diapre, damask ; and goshu, a gusset, are terms borrowed from the Arabic and Persian. The 
Gothic brsege or brahe, gallant, noble, brave, ornamented, produced braghett, or, as we would 
express it, bravehood, which was an honorary dress, according to Ferrarius, among the ancient 
Helvetii, known still in Sweden as stendser hus, the Gothic stanid hos, stained hose. Thus, 
to wear the breeches is to possess an emblem of superior rank and authority. This parti- 
coloured clothing was also called heden by the Goths, from held, honour, splendour ; and not, 
as some have supposed, from Heathen. The plaid of the Highland Scots, which they like- 
wise call breacan, corresponds with the Gothic Hot, Swedish let, stained or spotted, and the 
Saxon bliod or gebliod, coloured, striped, variegated ; all of which seem to have the same root 
with our blow, blush, and bloom ; but plaid, a cloke, in Moeso-Gothic, was the Islandic palt ; 
perhaps corrupted fromfald, a fold or wrapper. The word tartan is the French tiretain, pro- 
bably from the Latin traho and tingo, signifying drawn or woven in colours. This invention 
was obviously an improvement on the rude staining practised in very ancient times. That 
worn by women was known among the Goths as stanidsa, stained or striped cloke. Even the 
sporan, in Erse or Irish, a purse used as a decoration in dress, has no verbal connexion in that 
language : but the briki beltis sporn, (the breeches belt sporan) of the Goths, Swedes and 
Danes, has the same root with our word spare, to save, from which the French have derived 
espargne, a treasury. 

In the time of Julius Csesar no vestiges of Celtic erudition or monuments of ancient archi- 
tecture appear to have existed either in Gaul or Britain. The bards frequented the wicker 
halls or camps of chieftains ; and the druids practised their mysterious devotions in sacred 
groves, like the idolatrous Hebrews, or among the gloomy recesses of the forests. Those rude 
fabrics of huge stones which have been considered too lightly as remains of their temples, are 
generally Gothic. Some enclosure of that kind was usually erected by the Normans arid 
Saxons, to the memory of a chief slain in battle; of which many examples are found in Spain 
and Portugal as well as England. Stonehenge, constructed exactly in the same style, but of 
greater dimensions, evidently signifies the stone circle for popular conventions, called in Swe- 
den allgemenneligit thing oc ring, " the general council and ring for the people." Our court 
of hustings is the Gothic hus thing, the aulic forum ; and the Yorkshire riding, rett or ried 
thing, a justiciary meeting. Thing contracted into hing and ing by the Saxons, corresponded 
with the Latin res, a cause at law, and may be traced in the names of many places, such as 
Reading, Lansing for landsthing ; and our lath, a district, is merely the Saxon leth contracted 
from lathing, a law court with the portion of territory within its jurisdiction. 

The Goths denominated themselves Gaut or Gautr, Got, Jot or Jotun, which they consider 
as a mere difference in pronunciation, meaning, like riess or russ, powerful men, giants or 
warriors. The formation of their name may be traced with some probability from the Gothic 
A, to have or possess, which produced and, aut, Swedish od, Saxon ead, Teutonic od and ot, 
Welsh od; all of them signifying wealth, power, happiness, riches, beatitude, lot, fortune, 
fate ; and hence were apparently derived the Gothic Gaud or God, our words God and good : 
the Latin bonus signified good, rich ; dives, divus, opulence and divinity, corresponding with 
Aw? and EuV. The Greek Hhovro?, also, was wealth and Pluto, known to the Goths as Audin 
or Odin, the Syrian Mammon. The Persian Aydun, Hebrew Adoni, the Lord, the Almighty, 
Tartar, Aidin, light, splendour, may be connected with Persian ade, ader, Saxon ade, Coptic 

Adon, Welsh odyn, fire, and the first Oflin was probably the Sun. The chief who conducted 
the Goths into Scandinavia appears by his Gothic names Odin, Oten, Wodan, and Godan, to 
have been confounded with the Deity, because his name, like the Persian Udu, the Gothic 
Aud, Welsh Udd, denoted power, and produced the Odo and Oto of more modern times. 
The Bodh, Voda or Bogd of the Indians, Tartars and Russians, the But, Bud, Wud, of the 
Persians and idolatrous Arabs, the Qud or Khoda of all the tribes from Turkey throughout 
Tartary, the Godami of the Malays and Ceylonese, appear to be merely different pronuncia- 
tions of Wodan, especially as bodh or boodh, in Sanscrit and the common dialects of Hin- 
doostan, is used for our Wednesday or Odin's day. 

Whether the Aud of the Goths produced their Auskia and As, may be doubtful : but they 
also were names for God, Jupiter and Odin. Odin and his followers were known as Asia- 
men ; Msi were Phrygian Gods of the Tyrrheni ; and according to Gothic authors, Asgard, in 
Media, the ancient capital of our forefathers, now pronounced Chasgardia, is called Aderkind, 
Azerkind, by the Persians, and Adir kerdt by the Turks ; meaning the city of fire. Kind in 
the Persian name is the Sanscrit kund, and Tartar kerd is the Gothic gard, Russian gorod, 
Wendish grad, an enclosure. Zoroaster probably had his name from this object of his adora- 
tion. Azoor, fire, in Persian, is the name of Abraham's father and of Ezra. The Dragon 
with the Scythians was the emblem of fire ; and the story of St George and the Dragon ap- 
pears to have been a metaphor of the triumph of Christianity over Magism. The Hebrew 
esh, Syrian as, the Persian atash, azish, Gothic eysa, Swedish aesa, Eu<ra, 'E?/a, signified fire, and 
hence the Gothic and our word ashes : The Auska of the Goths was the goddess of sunbeams ; 
Astar, the A?grs of the Syrians, Hebrew Ashtaroth, Venus ; whence the Persians had their 
Ashtee or Love Feast, which is our Easter : as diisa, the moon or Diana, was the sister of 
that great luminary worshipped in the east as Boodh, called Adonis in the heathen mythology 
of the west, and still consecrated by name in our Sunday. 

It is remarkable, that boars were sacrificed at the winter solstice by the Goths, whose ol, J ol 
or Jula, from ala, to parturate, is our yule, the nativity, anciently of the new year, and now of 
Christ. Those animals were before known as sunnu golt and jula golt, sun or yule boars, suf- 
ficiently indicating the time and purpose of a worship so natural to the ignorant inhabitants of 
a rude climate. 

The etymon already assigned for Odin is congenial with the Gothic synonimes for God : 
Har or hair, high, is their herr, the Lord ; ofur or over, above, having the article J prefixed as 
usual, became their Jofur, Persian Zufur, Zubur, the superior or Jove, which the Latins adopt- 
ed as more declinable than Jupiter. The Gothic negative reversed the meaning of this term, 
and na ofur is the Irish Nufur, signifying the devil, or literally the infernal, which is the op- 
posite of Jofur, the supreme. The Goths equalled the Greeks, Romans and Hindoos in the 
number of their idols. In Gothland one hundred of them were exhibited in the great temple 
dedicated to Thor. Their belief in a trinity of the Godhead had been adopted in Asia, and it 
prevented their conversion to Christianity until the introduction of the Athanasian creed, 
several centuries after the death of Christ. 

The name of Goths or powerful, may have been assumed, subsequently to their emigra- 

tion, from the pride of conquest ; but they are said to have been once known as Jaette or 
Hisette, Saxon Geatas, signifying both Getse and giants. This might be derived from their 
own word I cett, the progeny, the clan ; or more probably, their ha or gha, Greek Fa, the land, 
had been prefixed to cett; by which Haette, Hiaette or Ghaette, F^SK, would mean descendants 
of the land, giants. It was in this sense that yEschylus calls Pelasgus, who probably was a 
Goth, son of the earth-born. In sacred history the children of the land are described as giants ; 
the Greek F/ya? has both significations ; and, in Roman mythology, Terra was the mother of 
all giants. The Gytones of Tacitus may have been Tatrovt;. 

The Goths, not merely in name, but from speech, manners, country, and their own tradi- 
tion, were the Getas of ancient authors, better known to us with the article prefixed, as Sgetse, 
Scacse, or Scythians. The Massageta? were so named from their own word Massa, Sanscrit 
Maha, Mceso-Gothic Maiza, great, mighty, powerful, or perhaps from Saxon Meethas, the 
Medians ; and the Mosso-Getae were those who inhabited Mcesia. Scandinavia, the Skanisk 
or Scaniza of Jornandes, the Skagan of the Goths, signifying a shelving shore, promontory, or 
isthmus, is applied to the extremity of Jutland at the entrance into the Baltic sea ; and the 
modern Scania, the southernmost coast of Sweden, may have been Skagen idun, to which the 
Latin termination was annexed. There they distinguished themselves after their relative po- 
sitions, as Normen, Suddermen, Austrgautr, Westrgautr, Danen, and Saxen, which in our 
language would be northmen, southmen, east-Goths, west-Goths, islanders and sea borderers. 
The Goths used sun as well as sud for the south, and called the Swedes Suens or Soenski, the 
Latin Sueones. The Dae, like the Cimerii, a Scythian race, may have given name to the 
Danes and the Dacians ; but the Gothic eyna, on, Danish oen, islands, with the article de, our 
the, would be de oen, the islands, and denote the aquatic territory of the Danes, called Den- 
mark in Saxon ; the Gothic mark, Persian marz, being our march, a boundary. / on, the 
island, is Jona ; and mi on, Mona. The Islandic code is called still the lonsbok. 

The inhabitants of Germany were in speech Goths, including the Teuton, whose proper 
name was Thiuden, from the Gothic thiod or tiod, folk, subjects, people : Tha, was the land, 
and jod, a child ; and thus Suithioden, the south nation, or Sudermannia, was Sweden. 
Thiodsk, now pronounced Teudsh or Teutch, throughout Germany, Tudeschi in Italy, and 
by us Dutch, means strictly belonging to the nation. Tiod mot, a national meeting, has been 
contracted into diet, and Theodoric, rich in subjects, was a name totally different from the 
Greek Theodore. The Gothic language must therefore have been long used by the Teutons 
before the beginning of our era. 

Sigg, segr, sigsman, in Gothic and Saxon, is a warrior and a conqueror. The North Ame- 
rican savages, nearest to Europe, call their captains Sachems, and their great chieftain Saga 
more ; which is almost purely Gothic. Sax, or, as we say, Saxony, might appear to be con- 
nected with this word ; but generally, throughout the Gothic tongue, sas seg was the sea side 
or edge, the German shore, along which Saxony anciently extended. The Gothic sax, from 
ax, an edged tool, has been fancifully suggested by some who were willing to believe that 
most nations assumed names from their favourite weapon in war, particularly as sax was a 
short sword, and also the sharp beak or prow of a galley. 


Those Saxons, from whom we have obtained the name of English, inhabited Angria or 
Angermanland. The Gothic angur, or more frequently angul, from the disposition already 
noticed to change 11 into L, is the Danish angul, the Saxon enge, a hook or strait ; and al- 
though Anglia, the ancient capital of which is said to have been Hjethaby near Sleswick, ex- 
tended in latter times as far as the Weser, it consisted properly of what now is called Angelen, 
being a narrow part of the isthmus between the broad domain of Saxony and the Jutes. The 
latter were the Saxon Ytas or Eotas, Belgic Uitas, and the Gothic Utts, Jutts, or inhabitants 
of that jut of land forming the entrance into the Belt, which is the Gothic bselt, Scotch belth, 
a passage for ships, a channel, giving name to the Baltic sea. Utt in Gothic, Swedish udd, 
Saxon eot, is an isthmus, and Eotole, in Saxon, signified both Jutland and Italy. 

The English had their name from angl, and the Scottish from scot, by the addition of the 
Gothic termination sk, which is the origin of our ish, the Saxon isc, Teutonic isch, Greek ITOJ, 
signifying assimilated, identified ; and the term is used in all dialects to the very shores of 
China. Thus, in Russia and Tartary, Tobolsk, on the river Tobol, Uralsk belonging to the 
Ural, are followed by Ochotsk and Yukutsk bordering on the Pacific Ocean. 

The Saxon chiefs, who led their countrymen to the conquest of Britain, were called Hen- 
gist and Horsa from their military insignia ; for those are alike names for a stallion or horse ; 
the figure of which, emblematic of the sun, with Massagetae, is still retained in the armorial 
bearings of their relatives, the illustrious house of Hanover. The Gothic Ulp, Hulp, Hialp, 
Whialp, Teutonic Helf, Saxon Ulf, Olph, signified help, succour, protection ; and served to 
form many distinguished names besides Adolphus. It is pronounced Guelph by the Gauls 
and Italians. 

To conclude the observations relative to Anglo-Saxony, it maybe observed, that the princi- 
pal part of its territory, when most extended, is now included in the dominions of Prussia ; a 
word formed from the Gothic bo, a colony or settlement, and russe, which was the ancient 
name of the river Niemen ; and thence originated the barbarous Latin Borussia, the German 
Preussen ; unless the po of the Sclavonians, adopted by the Danes, be the prefix, by which 
the word would signify upon the russe. Pomerania is, no doubt, the Sclavonian po moeri, on 
the sea ; and in the same language Pol is an open country, a plain, Poland. 

Continual warfare with the Gauls and Romans must have attracted all the military force of 
the Goths, from the east and west, toward the frontier rivers and mountains which were their 
natural barriers. Those individuals who possessed extraordinary spirit of enterprise could in- 
dulge it there in what was deemed legitimate spoliation ; while the peaceable cultivators of 
the soil, in the more northern countries, enjoyed a state of tranquillity which could not fail to 
produce an excess of population. These military bands, who, according to Caesar and Tacitus, 
had annually a new distribution of territorial property, maintained among themselves almost 
entire independence, and were at times even hostile to each other, unless when united under 
some chief against the common enemy, or with a view to conquest. It happened frequently, 
that an aspiring military character taking the lead, was joined from every quarter by those 
who disdained a state of repose ; and this assemblage, as with the Tartars, bore the name of 


that people from whom he descended ; although far from being the most numerous of his fol- 

The Suevi or Suabians were so called from the Gothic swefia, Teutonic schwaben, to asso- 
ciate tumultuously, to swarm ; and the Almanni may have been either Allmen, or more pro- 
bably the Gothic Allmagn ; which, like Gior or Germagn, signified the entire might or main 
force, and would include all the warlike borderers of every denomination along the Dnieper, 
the Danube, and the Rhine, to the German ocean. 

Switzerland was named Schweitz, Swedsk, a Swedish colony ; and Swecia anciently denoted 
Sweden and Helvetia. 

The Ukrain, Persian kran, a limit, as in Krain and Krainth, now Carniola and Carinthia, 
had apparently the same root with our word rand and the Gothic gran or gragntz, signifying 
the border ; being probably considered as part of the Gothic Langobard, from lango, extensive, 
and bard, a border, which at one time may have comprehended Dacia and reached to the 
Black Sea. But when the Langobardi, defeated and dispersed, were forced to seek refuge for 
several centuries in the interior countries, the limits of Almagna became contracted to the 
Danube and the March. That river called Moraw and Moera, from the Gothic maer, Persian 
marz, Greek p-o7j=', our meer, a boundary, gave name to the Marcomani, men of the marches, 
and afterwards to the country called Moravia.* Next to them came the Catti, or Kanti of 
the Goths, derived from their att, jat, jad and ghatt, a border ; whence the low Latin Gades 
and Getia, now called Hesse ; and Frizeland for Fri see land, was the country of the Frisones. 
The Gothic bala, a plain or flat, and ha or gha, the Greek ya or y5?, a territory, may have been 
confounded with Wala or Guala, a plain, and corrupted into the Latin Belga?, with whom 
terminated the primary list of borderers. Alain signified the progeny, people, from Gothic 
Ala, to bear young ; but Alin in the Mogul language is a mountaineer. 

The Vandals apparently were not known till a later date. Their name originated in the 
Gothic vanda, from which we have our verbs to wend and to wander, pronounced Vandel by 
the Saxons and Teutons, to designate some hordes of emigrants, compelled by over-population 
to leave their native soil in quest of new possessions ; but these people were totally different 
from the Sclavonian Vendi, Wends or Vandals, in whose language wend is the sea coast. 
Venice was also called 'Ecsr/a by the Greeks, and Hungary, Vengaria by the Russians ; but 
Hun in several of the Tartar dialects, particularly the Sar madain or Sarmatian, signifies a 

Most of the tribes here enumerated were afterward included in the more general names of 
Burgund and Frantz. The former, probably from Gothic bor, bord, and gun, people or war- 
riors of the borders, were also called Urgundi from the Gothic ur, over, exterior or separated ; 
and their code of laws was called Gunbade or Gundebade, what the nation bade. Borgund- 
holm, in Sweden, is now Bornholm. The Rhetian Alps seem to have been named from the 
Gothic ra aetti, mountain-limit ; but this ra became the German gera, and produced the mo- 

* Our ancient Mercia was also named from being bounded by the other Saxon kingdoms. 


dern names of Grausons and Grisons for Ge-ratians. The Eth in Tirol, if formed from a.-tt, 
would mean the boundary river. No root enters more into Gothic composition than ra, 
Swedish ra, Persian rayah, Saxon rawa, Teutonic rah, Greek og/a, Latin ora, demarcation or limit. 
The name of France or Franconia, is supposed by some authors to be the Gothic frack or 
frank, fierce, which was applied to a tribe of the Alans who settled in lower Germany; 
others pretend it was from frank, free. 

The initial letters B, F, V, and G, however, were common prefixes of nearly the same pur- 
port with the Goths, who said frewa, froa, groa, to grow ; frid, grid, peace ; so that ren, from ra 
or ran a border, became their bryn and brun ; whence our word bourn, and the French borne, 
a limit or boundary. Ran, with G prefixed, is the Gothic gran, grans or grans, Danish 
granse, Teutonic gran, grantz, vran or vrantz, changing to the Moeso-Gothic fera, the Saxon 
feran, which produced Grancia and Francia in low Latin. In Scotland this etymon may be traced 
in Grantz ben or Grain pen, now pronounced Grampian, the boundary mountain ; and Grans 
dike, converted into Grams dike, the boundary rampart. The Teutonic france, French frange, 
and our fringe, a border, appertain to this general meaning ; and the Gothic brin, already no- 
ticed as a variation of the same term, was also brenk, our brink, a margin, from which the an- 
cient names of Brenks or Brensk, as well as Franks and Fransk, were given to the same people. 

It would appear from similar investigation that Pharamund, the Gothic Ramund and Fra- 
mund, signifying protector of the border, must have had that title before he led the Franks 
into Gaul. The Gothic mund, or munt God, was the war-cry of the Goths, which the French 
pronounced Mount-joye, because God, Islandic Gaud, sounded like the Latin gaudium, their 
and our joy. This mund, in the same sense, formed the termination of many Persian words, 
being apparently the Sanscrit wunt or want ; and from it are derived the names Sigismund, 
patron of victory or conquest ; Edmund, defender of power ; Gundamund, support of battle ; 
Efrimund, high warden ; Rosamund, endowed with praise, and not rosy-mouth, as some have 
supposed, which is totally inconsistent with the dignity of Gothic names, both male and fe- 
male. P. Rajes, G. Rosa, the Swedish roos, Danish roes, Scotch roose, produced rosary, divine 
worship, and beroose, praise. The Goths, and Greeks also, prefixed B to the initial R; 
and in this way the ancient racing at weddings, in the portion of Britain northward of the ri- 
ver Humber, for the bride's praise or favour, has become broose, without any connexion what- 
ever with brose, brewis, or broth. 

In the later periods of the Greek empire the predatory Goths, who called themselves Va> 
ringe or Vaeringer, which signifies in their language, military or pretorian bands, became the 
terror of friends and foes on the shores of the Mediterranean sea. It was they who under 
Hast Thegnus, the high Thane or Maire du Palais, are said to have founded the town of Hast- 
ings : and from them the Russians received their sovereign Rourick, rich in peace, whose de- 
scendants were called the Warger or Waringer dynasty. The depredators known to us as 
Normans were these Vseringi, the Beringi and Veringi of the Greeks and Latins, whose valor- 
ous achievements as Furungee, when associated with the Franks during the Crusades, arc ce- 
lebrated to this day, in eastern romance, throughout Persia and Hindoostan. They were of 
the same stock with those chiefs who had obtained the dominion of France, whom they assisted 


in defending and desolating the Greek empire. When joined to the Italians and English, with 
multitudes of other military pilgrims, their common jargon produced the modern commercial 
language called lingua franca ; and thence all Europeans are known as Furungee, by the Asia- 
tics. Among the changes arising from such corrupt pronunciation may be here instanced those 
which have occurred in the name now generally assumed by the sovereigns of France. The 
Gothic Lud wig, renowned warrior, was Hludivig or Hluwig in Saxon, and formed the low 
Latin Chlodovicus or Ludovicus, which became successively Cloud, Clovis, and Louis, with 
the French. 

Various etymons have been assigned for Britain without any advertence to the word bro, so 
universal among the Celts of our islands and of Gaul, where it is also pronounced bru or broed ; 
which, like the Persian bar, Syriac baro, Gothic byr, signifies a fruitful or populated country. 
The Armoricans now call England bro saos, the land of the Saxons ; and the Welsh and Irish 
have the term in common use, saying bro aeg, a country accent, or brogue ; bruaidh, a compa- 
triot ; and broed dyn, a countryman or Briton. Tan, in both Irish and Welsh, is an extended 
or flat territory ; so that broed tan, like Gaul, might have served to distinguish the plain from 
the mountainous country, until time had rendered the name general to the whole island. 
Other districts on the adjacent continent, besides Brittany, were known from circumstances of 
locality, which the Celts were apt to observe ; and thus Armorica is composed of ar mor, on 
the sea. The Welsh braidd, Swedish bredd, and Danish bred, the shore, correspond with the 
Armoric and Gothic bordd or bord ; but dd being usually pronounced like z or th, by the 
Gallic and Cambrian Celts, Brittany became Breiz, the maritime district, the chief port of 
which is Brest. The Welsh Prydan, for Britain, from pryd, the Gothic prydd, beautiful, 
adorned, was only used poetically. 

The modern name Wales originated with the Saxons, who, after the Goths, so pronounced 
Gaul, in which they included Italy, and considered the Britons, who took refuge in their 
mountains, as Roman subjects. The Celtic Gual, Galle in French, produced Gualbech, little 
Gaul, and hence Perkin Walbeck, the heir of Wales. The name Cimmri, inhabitants of 
Cambria, being the regular plural of cym bro, the united country, might not have been pe- 
culiar to the people of Wales. But the northern Cimbri, perhaps Kynfrei, from the Gothic 
kynfer, a kinsman, were certainly Goths inhabiting the whole of the territory now included in 
Denmark. Gothland was also called Kynaland. A powerful nation of Asiatic Sarmatia, 
however, called Cimmerii or Cimbri, became allied at one time with the Goths. 

The Hebrew pinnah, fixvo? modern Greek bouno, and Celtic pen signify a mountain or cliff; 
and the Latin pinna, in some cases, has the same meaning ; while the Portuguese penha is 
more particularly applied to a serrated ridge or hill. Albion may therefore have been the 
albas pinnae or white cliffs ; unless confounded with Albany, which, as it would seem, denoted 
exclusively the Highlands of Scotland. The Welsh al pen and Irish al ben correspond with 
the Latin alta pinna, high mountain, Alpennine, Alp. Breadalbane, from the foregoing 
etymons, is therefore the Irish bruaidh al ben, the region of lofty hills ; and Hispania may 
thus have been Hispena, a corrupt pronunciation of Cispinna, by the Latin colonists on that 
side of the Pyrennees. Cale was the ancient name of Oporto ; and the surrounding district, 
being formed into a sovereignty, was called Porto Cale, corrupted into Portugal. 



The Scots and Picts were no doubt originally the same people ; but a considerable change 
in their language and manners was afterwards effected by fortuitous circumstances and dif- 
ferent pursuits. It is well known that, ever since the earliest ages of our history, adventurers 
from the shores of Scandinavia made annual excursions into Ireland and Scotland, to plunder 
cattle for their winter subsistence. On such predatory warfare, continued after some of the 
clans had received Gothic chiefs, were founded the poems ascribed to Ossian or O'sian ; a word 
which, in Irish and Gothic, is the man of song. Homer also signified the hymner, poet or 
psalmist, Hesiod, 'Hiriodos (for 7 H<r/j and 'Ao<do?) the delightful singer ; and all three, apparently, 
were imaginary persons, to whom the genuine poetry of the times was ascribed by traditionary 
consent. These Gothic freebooters, called Scouts or Scots, from the nature of their visits, 
gave occasion to the Irish, who still understand Scuite as a wanderer or pillager, to extend 
the name to adventurers from Spain or whatever other country. Their boats were also 
known in Gothic as skiota, Islandic skuta, Swedish skiut or skuta, Belgic schuit, Saxon 
sky te, a scout boat ; and the Welsh evidently considered the Scots and Picts as the same 
race, for with them Peithas (Pictish) signified also a scout boat. 

In Ireland, which, according to Bede and the Saxon Chronicle, was first called Scotland, 
it would appear that the Scouts or Scots, by superior management and intermarriages, 
must have succeeded to many chieftainries among the Celtic inhabitants, without the sup- 
port of any great population from their own tribes. For, although much of their language 
pervades the Irish or Erse, where the very terms of family descent, such as Mac and O, 
are apparently Gothic, the people adhere to a dialect called the Celtic tongue. On the 
contrary, very extensive and numerous emigrations of Goths, for the express purpose of 
colonization, seem to have been directed to all parts of Britain northward of the river 
Humber, where the Gothic speech and character have consequently been preserved with 
much less variation than in the south. 

The Gothic bygd, bigt, Swedish bygd, Danish biggit, Scotch bigget, a cultivated district, 
are derived from bua, to inhabit or colonize ; and the Gothic construction of that verb 
into bygga is little known in the Teutonic dialects, although their bau is tillage, and bauer, 
a boor. From the Gothic abor or abauer, a cultivator, we had the Ebori, whose name 
corresponds in meaning exactly with Picts. The Boii, whencesoever they came, were pro- 
bably so denominated from the Sclavonian Bogi, boyards, or the Gothic and Swedish by, 
bau, abo, a colony ; and thence their place of settlement is Boheim or Bohemia, where 
most of the present inhabitants are undoubtedly Sclavonians. Bayern, the German for 
Bavaria, Bern, in Switzerland, and our ancient Bernicia, may be traced also from the 
Gothic baur and ber, which belong to this prolific root. 

The Picts, therefore, according to etymology, were the Gothic Bigts, Saxon Pyhtas, 
Scotch Pights, the Petes of the Orkneys, and Peithe of the Welsh, whose peu, like the 
Gothic bau or by, is a habitation. This appellation may have served to distinguish them 
from the roving Scouts or Scots, of the Baltic and of Ireland ; who afterwards, to oppose 
the common enemy, joined them with such hordes of Celts as were induced to follow 
their banners. The first establishment of the latter in Britain is said to have been Argyl, 


which signifies the land of the Gwithel or Irish, whose Gothic chiefs seem to have as- 
sumed the name of Kampoel, Saxon Campoel, good in war. Montrose was the Irish and 
Welsh, Munt ar euse, the fort on the river Euse. 

The Norwegians called their two colonies in Greenland the East and West Bygts ; and 
other circumstances are powerful in support of the opinion that the Picts were husbandmen. 
The Irish continue to call wheat cruithneachd, the corn of the Picts, or red corn ; and in the 
northern counties of England, as well as in Scotland, are still seen many ruins of ancient 
granaries known by tradition as Pictish houses. The Gothic byg, a country community, a 
cultivated district or village, converted by us into by, in Appleby, Whitby, Selby, Grimsby 
and other places, has sufficient resemblance with the Armoric paig, which is the Greek and 
Latin pagus, to indicate their common origin ; and hence Poictu, Pictavia, where a colony of 
Picts, according to Caesar, actually resided, may have obtained their names in the same sense, 
either from a Gothic or Celtic source. It is almost superfluous to observe, that the Germans 
usually pronounce b like p, which anciently did not appear in the Gothic alphabet. In Irish 
the term cruithneach, or cruinath, denoted the Picts ; and cruinath tuath, the northern or 
Pictish country. Tuath signified the left hand and the north, because the former had that 
direction when the face was turned toward the east in adoration. The Irish Cruithen or 
Cruinath, probably from cruin, red, Welsh and Armoric Gwridian, yellow or fair men, may 
therefore have been the Corotani or Coroniad, who, in Welsh tradition, are said to have settled 
in Wales long prior to the invasion of the Romans, and were really Picts according to Vege- 
tius and Sidonius Apollinaris. 

These inquiries concerning Scotland may be concluded with noticing that the Gothic Kail 
idun, district of the mountains, or Gothic Kull, Persian and Sanscrit Kool, Kul, progeny, 
Gothic Kullidon, clans of the Highlands, may be Caledonia, otherwise called Du Caledon, 
black or north Caledon, to distinguish it from countries which bore the same name ; and the 
latter portion of that word, so common to many places in the united kingdoms, is now gene- 
rally known as dun, a hill. The Gothic ida, P. Dah, a cliff, seems, indeed, to have been so 
widely applied with this sense, in ancient geography, that the mind is pleased to recognise its 
remote affinities. 

Troy had also its celebrated mount Ida, and Troja or Torja with the Goths was a fortress. 
They seem to have been intimately acquainted with the works of Homer, to whose Trojans 
they gave the name of Tyrki. The Arabic, Persian and Chaldean Tur is a high rock, mound, 
or rampart, the origin of our tower ; and likewise of Tyre, from the hill in its vicinity. The 
Hebrews, Persians and Chaldeans, frequently converting t into z, say Zur for Tyre, and their 
Zuria is Syria. The Goths are known to have extended themselves from very remote times 
along the shores of the Euxine sea, where their language partly exists at the present day : and 
St Jerome, after having resided at the German town of Treves about the middle of the fourth 
century, visited Galatia, and found at both places the same speech. It is therefore possible 
that TEneas might really have conducted a colony of fugitive Goths into Italy ; and the Etrus- 
cans, Tyrosce, Tyrrheni osce are known to have been Phrygians. 

The name Ireland probably did not obtain till the arrival there of the Goths ; because land, 


although now used by the Irish, has no connexion in their language. The Saxon Ira and 
Latin lerne may have been adopted from the Irish iar or iarain, the western island. lar sig- 
nifies the back, and figuratively the west, from the position of those who worshipped the rising 
sun ; and ler, in Belgic, is Ireland and an Irishman. The Hindoos, in the same way, distin- 
guish the four quarters of the globe : with the Arabs and Jews, yaman or iemin, is the south 
and the right hand. The remains of that once universal observance are common in every 
country, and particularly in the construction of Roman Catholic and our own churches, where 
the altar must invariably face the east to admit of consecration. The Irish iarin, to the Welsh 
would resemble their y wyrin, verdant, the Greek 'E-ugti/tj, vernal, the Erin of the Irish. Er in, 
the noble or ancient island, was used by the Irish poetically : but their ibh signifies an island ; 
and from ibh iarin, western land, the Saxons were likely to form their Ihbern and the Latins 
Hibernia. Among the Gothic invaders of that country, mentioned in Irish history, were the 
Firbolgs, from the Gothic fir or vair, Irish fir, Latin vir, man, and Bolg, Belgian. 

London, in both Welsh and Armoric, is lyn din, the lake or pool city. The word din or 
dinas, in this composition, is the Hebrew dun, Gothic tun, Irish dun, a town ; and lin in near- 
ly all the Gothic and Celtic dialects is a pool. The latter seems to have denoted, more parti- 
cularly, a place deepened by the confluence of tides or agitation of torrents, than the Celtic 
leoch or lag, and Gothic laug ; which prefixed to dun, became Lugdunum, the Latin name 
for both Leyden and Lyons. 

Edinburgh, according to the etymon already noticed for Caledonia, is evidently the Gothic 
idun, a mountain or precipice, and burgh, a city. 

Dublin, the Irish dubh linne, or black pool, corresponds exactly with its Welsh name of 
Du lyn, from dubh or du, Hebrew deio, Gothic dauk, Saxon doh, Teutonic duh, black, and 
lin, as in the formation of London, a pool. 

The history of Europe and its ancient inhabitants affords little aid to the philologist ; but 
the foregoing explanations, together with the cognate etymons in their vocabularies, tend to 
confirm what has been remarked by many intelligent writers, relative to the number of our 
Celtic and Gothic words so perfectly similar, in sound and meaning, that there is much dif- 
ficulty in ascertaining to which of the two they originally belonged. This circumstance, how- 
ever, might partly arise from the eagerness with which those who differed almost entirely in 
speech would catch, from each other, such terms as had any resemblance to their own ; al- 
though precision must have been injured, by warpings of meaning, in those rude efforts to 
produce some rays of mutual understanding. 

It may be suggested, that many apposite derivations might be obtained by the junction of 
words which have been known only as monosyllables in their original language. But the 
sober rules of etymology will not admit of much latitude, at this day, in the artificial con- 
struction of ancient elementary particles into polysyllables, however aptly their component 
parts may accord with the purpose. Scientific terms, indeed, have been so fabricated with 
advantage ; although equally barbarous with those of the monks, physicians and lawyers, of 
the lower ages, which, from long use, cannot now be conveniently rejected. But, were such 


license fully admitted into etymological research, there would be no difficulty in deducing any 
word from what is now called Celtic, on account of its extraordinary flexibility, indistinct pro- 
nunciation, and those mutations of letters which lead the imagination so readily into error. 
Resemblance, in meaning and sound, is therefore not always sufficient to constitute an ety- 
mon. On the contrary, our verbs to lease and to glean, originating from one Gothic root, dis- 
cover to the ear little' or no affinity ; and those who are conversant in the Latin, Italian and 
French languages, will admit that our words to beautify and to embellish are both derived 
from the Latin bellus. 

Occasion will be taken hereafter to explain, that Gothic and Celtic particles cannot be unit- 
ed in compound words without bearing signs of distortion. The two languages differ gener- 
ally in the construction of sentences, and particularly in giving precedence to the adjective or 
substantive noun. In the Gothic the former mode was almost invariable, while the contrary 
and more convenient arrangement prevailed with the Celts. " The horse, white, stately and 
swift," by bringing the principal object first to notice, and its relative qualities in regular suc- 
cession, produces better effect than " the white, stately and swift horse," where the mind is 
held in suspense to the end of the sentence. 

Adam Smith was not aware that, by the same course of ideas, the auxiliary verbs in Greek 
and Latin formed the terminations which constituted the mood and tense. The Gothic con- 
struction, being generally different, appeared to him more simple, because the component 
parts were more distinct and obvious. His own quotation of amavero leads to this convic- 
tion, as it was anciently written amau ero, and the French aurai aimd transposed into aim 
aurai would be nearly similar. Indeed it matters no more than to say loved, love did or did 
love. In the Arabic and its dialects, so averse to compound words, the parts of speech afford 
clearer views of origin and practice than those of the Sanscrit, Persian, Gothic, Greek and 
Latin, which admit of the most extensive composition. The Gothic, besides, in common with 
the Greek, possesses a facility of connecting substantive nouns to great advantage. Horse- 
man is much more concise than man on horseback, " homme k cheval ;" but foreigners, who 
conceive from their own idiom that an adjective must exist in such phrases, are betrayed into 
even greater blunders than those we so readily commit by mistaking the genders of their 
nouns. The stranger, who, in broken English, complains of being treated as if he were a black 
shoe, instead of a shoeblack, has acquired the vocabulary, but mistakes the phraseology of our 
language, and excites laughter among the vulgar, who also mock the Welsh for converting the 
pronoun he into her, because the former happens to be the Celtic, as well as the Arabic, femi- 
nine gender of the same pronoun. Such incongruities, although unavoidable among illiterate 
people, whose speech is fundamentally different, and abounding with inflexions unknown in 
that of the Goths, may have given cause to remark, that the descendants of the latter are more 
prone than others to ridicule foreigners who speak their language imperfectly. 

In a work founded on etymology, there can be no rational inducement to adopt any hypo- 
thesis in favour of national precedence on claims of antiquity. The crossings of the Celts and 
Goths have been too advantageous to physical and intellectual improvement to admit of the 
least regret that the two races should become blended and indistinct. Whatever therefore may 
appear like preference, among the cognate etymons, must be attributed generally to conveni- 


ence of arrangement. Many of our colloquial terms were equally in use among the Greeks, 
Latins and Goths from their former intimacy : but, excepting those peculiar to the sciences, 
they have reached us more immediately from the latter, whose construction of them we have 
also closely retained. Where they are common to the Gothic and the Welsh, Irish or Ar- 
morican Celtic, it ought to be recollected, that no record or tradition alludes to any ancient emi- 
gration from the south or west of Europe toward the north ; while history, since its earliest 
period with us, has noticed those swarms of men from the shores of the Baltic who continu- 
ally infested France and the British islands. 

It is not probable that these people would carry back to their own country, where it would 
be unintelligible, any great portion of a foreign language ; and there is still a better criterion 
that the Celts were generally the borrowers from the Gothic, in that repugnance to amalga- 
mation which is notorious in words of heterogeneous origin. To form legitimate alliance, 
they must be of the same family or caste ; and thus the terms adopted from the Goths appear 
isolated and sterile in the Celtic vocabulary, while abundantly prolific in their own. The 
numerous Arabic particles and phrases introduced into Persian, in the same manner, continue 
to preserve their extraneous rank and character. This disposition is still more remarkable in 
our own tongue ; because it possesses a sufficiency of Gothic and Celtic materials for almost 
two distinct propagations, which, contributing to the general stock without being entirely 
blended, constitute its richness and excellence. 

Instances, however, do occur where Gothic terminating particles coalesce with Latin words, 
either because the latter were deficient in expression or could not otherwise be reconciled to 
the idiom of our language. The Gothic adjunct, full, employed in converting substantives into 
adjectives, as rueful, manful, hateful, has been extended to joy, scorn, cheer, use, which belong to 
another source ; and we have substituted the Gothic adverbial termination ly, for the French 
ment, in adverbial derivations from the Latin. Gothic adjectives became substantives by the 
addition of ness, such as coldness, sadness, brightness ; and our Latin words tedious, tardy, neat, 
plain, rude, apt, have followed the same construction ; but all substantives used adjectively by 
the aid of y final, like hearty, handy, filthy, witty, are Gothic, except gaudy, balmy and rosy. 
Adjectives which end in some, as wholesome, gladsome, handsome, are generally Gothic. Sub- 
stantives ending in head or kood, from Gothic het, Teutonic heit, state, condition, like God- 
head, maidenhood or maidenhead, manhood, childhood ; which, added to adjectives, is contract- 
ed into th, as breadth, width, health, dearth, sloth ; together with verbs rendered frequentative 
by the termination er, of which, among many others, are waver, chatter, clamber, wander, from 
wave, chat, climb, wend ; and all those that admit of the prepositions, for, fore, up, y or be, 
belong assuredly to the Gothic. Substantives made adjectives by ish, as English, childish, 
are all Gothic, but the vulgarism of feverish for feverous. The Gothic an or un, being synoni- 
mous with the Latin negative in, and er with re, when used as prefixes, frequent substitu- 
tions of them have arisen, by which we say undoubtedly and indubitably, unviolated or in- 
violate, and release is the -Gothic erlaesa confounded with the Latin relaxo. 

On the Latin side must be placed all our substantives and adjectives of two or more syllables 
ending in able, ible, al, ant, ate, ent, ence, ce, cy, ment, ous, ty, including also tude, by which 
adjectives become substantives, as solitude, multitude ; and others converted into verbs by fy, 


as deify, vilify, glorify; but so inapplicable do they prove to our Gothic compositions, 
that the most ignorant person would not transgress so far as to say lonelytude, manytude ; or 
godify, foulify, praisify ; which, however intelligible, could not be endured by an English eaiv 
The prepositions ab, com, con, de, di, dis, e, ex, inter, ob, pre, pro, sub, subter, super, (French 
sur,) tra and trans, obtain alliance only with Latin or Celtic words ; nor, with the excep- 
tion of a very few terms from the Norman code which end with ance, age or ment, can any 
surer test of discrimination be applied, than that no foreign graft is ever admitted in a Gothic 

Verbal distinctions of this nature require therefore serious attention, and must not be vio- 
lated while there is any regard to chastity of style and purity of expression. 

Radical words, like all primitive faculties, are few in number and simple ; but, commensur- 
ately with the progress of human attainments, their combinations admit of unlimited exten- 
sion. It is thus in some degree with the modulations of music. The gamut contains only 
seven fundamental notes ; yet on this confined scale depend the whole powers of melody and 
harmony. Words may, therefore, possess all the charms of novelty in expression and subli- 
mity of conception by their mere reconstruction, while the component parts are so happily 
connected with impressions already familiar to the mind, that our ideas glide into the intel- 
lectual channel which superior genius has opened, for them, as if by magical influence. 

That a common natural speech could exist for all mankind, is an opinion too absurd for 
comment. Herodotus, indeed, mentions the report of a trial made with two newly born 
children who were left with a she goat, excluded from all human society, and that their word 
when hungry was bek, the Phrygian for bread. But the experiment would prove nothing 
more than the imitation of the cry of the goat to signify their want of food. The historian 
should have observed, that, in the same way, Mu^uv was the infantine expression for hunger; 
and B??;KJJ, in his own language, a she goat, has been converted by the French into biche, 
a doe. 

In speaking here of an original language, nothing more is to be understood than one which 
has been transmitted to us from such distant and rude times, that some judgment may be 
formed of its structure, progress and improvement. And it has been deemed sufficient, in ge- 
neral, to trace the etymons to that early stage, without attempting to develop entirely their 
formation ; particularly as several valuable tracts relative to the origin of Greek, Latin 
and Gothic, already exist. On the latter, however, a few additional observations may be useful 
to those who are inclined to study its history. 

The Gothic initial consonants were not subject to many intermutations, except B, M, F and 
V, which seem to have been used in some instances almost indiscriminately ; such as be and ve 
from the verb vera, to exist, mer and ver, our we, mid and vid, with, and met or mit for vit, 
knowledge, skill, wisdom. By a similar mutation the Gothic van, vank, vant, became the Teu- 
tonic mang, French manque ; and our wane and want have the same root. The vowels, how- 
ever, were substituted for each other without much regard to consistency, unless where A and 
U, being initials, maintained greater stability. 



Among the numerous prefixes, in the Saxon dialect, be and ge had the most frequent use. 
The former was evidently the verb to be, Persian bu ; and the latter also derived from E, with 
J or Y prefixed, appears to have nearly the same meaning with our yea, for identity. Thus the 
Gothic and, od or ot, produced god, got and bot ; which are our words good and boot, profit, ad- 
vantage. These terms were no doubt synonimous, since the Gothic batter and best, contract- 
ed from basttest, form the comparative and superlative of good ; and in the Persian beh, good, 
the final consonant, as usual with the Goths, has probably been omitted ; the comparative be- 
ing behtur, and the superlative behtureen. The Goths and Teutons also used bos and bus* 
for boot, and hence besser for better. In some instances G was converted into K, as appears 
particularly to have been the case in the word Kong, Kunnug, for Gung, Gunnung, Gunfan, a 
king : the root of which is Gun, Persian Jung, the people, the army, battle. In the same way 
Thiod, the people, produced Thiodan, a king ; Drot, the people, Drottin, a dread Lord or So- 
vereign. Thus also, with the Lombards, the royal line was called Gunninge. Jungis Khan, the 
warrior Prince, we pronounce Gengis kan. 

The Gothic ij or double J is the origin of our letter y, and corresponds with the Saxon ge 
as used in gedown, geclad, which we pronounce ydown, yclad. The French and Welsh have 
also adopted this article y, confounding it with the Latin ibi. In Gothic it was synonimous 
with A ; and we, like the Saxons, had formerly ydown and adown nearly in the same sense. 

The Gothic ta and ata, the Saxon to and at, seem to have been nearly the same word ; and 
we still say at dinner or to dinner ; vexed to the heart or vexed at the heart. They were both 
used as prefixes, particularly by the Saxons ; and thus are formed our frequentative verbs tat- 
ter, to tear ; twinkle, to wink ; twirl, to whirl ; tattle, to tell ; troll, to roll ; twit, to wite ; and 
from the Saxon to-assett, a set to, a dedication, we have toast, a libation. 

Sk, as a Gothic prefix, like the Greek ^, to which ? was frequently added, denoted intensity, 
and followed by E, to be, formed ske, Saxon scio, scian, to cause or effect, whence our defect- 
ive verb shall. Thus also sk uta was the Gothic skuta, to force out, to shoot ; and sk auga, 
to put before the eye, became skygga, Saxon sceawian, to show. 

The vowels, being the most simple sounds, were probably first employed in speech, as ex- 
pressive of some disposition, tendency or procedure, which the consonants served afterwards to 
accelerate, modify or arrest. The Gothic A, M, E, I, Y, very nearly resembled each other in 
meaning. Several of them were put together merely to produce greater intensity ; and thus 
y, a?, a, sa, form yea so, contracted into yes, which we sometimes endeavour to render still more 
impressive by repetition. It may be noticed here, that the Gothic sa corresponds with the 
Sanscrit as, our is or so. While the foregoing vowels, when prefixes, equally signified assent, 
conformity or procedure, the Gothic U, our un, like the Sanscrit, Persian and Greek U, was 
a direct negative, and reversed the sense of any word to which it was prefixed. The Gothic 
ra, a row or line, denoted also straightness and Tightness. But ura, out of line, is wry ; urang, 
has the same purport with our word tort, unright, crooked, wrong ; and from this source we 
have wreath, wring, wrist, wrest, wrestle, wriggle, wrench, with many others. Rik is our 
rich, possessing wealth and happiness - r uriks or urick, poor, a wretch ; god or gied, good, with 


this prefix becomes ugaed, wicked, corrupted into Belgic quad ; roi, ru, eyru, peace ; oru, ueyru, 
ueru, war ; uman, not man, feminine ; uvel, not well, evil, contracted into ill ; and ueast, the 
contrary of east, west. 

The almost invariable constructions of B, G, M and U, are apparent in numerous compound 
words, of which the three following may serve as examples. The Gothic inn is the Latin and 
our preposition in, whence inna and Saxon ginna, to enter upon ; beginna, to begin. The same 
in produced min, a mine, and bin, an enclosure. Our words meat and bait are both from Gothic 
eta, to eat. A, signifying direct procedure, became Gothic ga, to go, uga or umga, to go ob- 
liquely, circuitously, and thence buga, to curve or bend ; which is the Persian buge, our word 
bow in all its numerous acceptations. From it are derived bough, bower, bout, bound, bounce, 
bosom, buxom, book, buckle, boggle, budge, buoy, bulk, big, bay, bias, beck, bend, bight, bas- 
tard, and an endless progeny. The use of U is still more complicated in the following compo- 
sition. The Gothic Ua, like uga, already noticed, to deviate, decline or avoid, with the inten- 
sive particle sk prefixed, formed the Gothic skua, skaua, Danish skia?w ; and thence our skue, 
askew, eschew, ascaunce, sconce, squint, scowl, shail, shilly shally, scamble, sheep's eye, 
and also our naval term sheer, oblique. The Welsh osgo and French esquiver have been 
adopted exactly in the same sense, without either root or branch. Sheer, when used to express 
sheer vice, is the Gothic skir, clear, pure, evident. The term sconce, at the Universities, de- 
notes a fine for eschewance. 

The letter O partook of nothing peculiar, being sometimes substituted, very improperly, both 
for A and U ; but whatever might have been the particular nature of each vowel, all distinc- 
tions were lost on the introduction of polysyllables. The scantling they had formed for the 
original structure being no longer necessary, they became in most cases mere links to connect 
consonants, without the apparent exercise of any primitive powers. Some traces of their dis- 
tinct application are observable, however, in the tenses and moods of the Gothic verbs ; such as 
we have retained them in sing, sang, song, sung ; but as A, whether it be article, prefix, noun 
or verb, has generally preserved a character of identity, equity, conformity, continuity, pos- 
session, a few instances of its Gothic acceptations may convey, at the same time, some no- 
tion of verbal expansion and affinity. 

A, according to Gothic authors, formed anciently the present tense of the verb to be, 
of which I a, thou a, he a, for I am, thou art, he is, was the original construction ; and 
from that sense perhaps all the others originate. This verb had E for its imperative, 
which afterwards became be, the Gothic ve ; and r was added to E or A, in after ages, 
throughout the present tense, making I ar, thou ar, he ar, we ar, which we have adopted 
for the plural, and art in the second person singular, perhaps for ar tu, thou ar. Hence 
also originated the Gothic verb vera, to be, and our were, the plural of was. Var, what is, 
signified real, true, and may have produced the Latin verus. The Gothic E and Greek 
"E have no doubt a common origin. 

A was a preposition, instead of i or y, when the word following began with a vowel ; 
i Noreg, a Englandi, in Norway, in England. It produced at, ata, ta, our at and to, 
which were originally synonimous. 


A, prefixed to nouns or verbs by the Goths, is common in English ; as ado, above, 
aground ; but the Germans have converted this article into an, the Saxon on, which is 
our on when used separately. Thus, for the Gothic abordum, afotum, we say either 
aboard or on board ; afoot or on foot ; while the French adhere simply to abord. 

A, in terminations, marked, as with the Arabs and Persians, the infinitive of verbs and 
the quality or tendency of nouns ; but we now employ it only in burlesque poetry. The 
Teutonic and Arabic an is the same word; and the Saxons, from whom we inherited a 
dislike to terminating vowels, use it generally instead of a ; as glowan, for the Gothic gloa, 
to glow, and lastan, for leta, to let or concede. 

A, in the foregoing sense of continuance, was synonimous with also, or so on ; being 
the root of our conjunction and, for which the Russians and Welsh still use a. 

A, that which is, what continues or holds, was converted into Ha ; whence are derived 
hand, and our verbs to hend and to have. It is cognate with the Greek typi and French 
a in avoir. 

A, either as signifying equity, or else that has, holds or is beholden, produced also our 
verb to owe. I ought to pay, I have to pay, being synonimous with the Latin est meum, 
it is my duty, I owe ; and thus also debeo appears to be de habeo, in the same way, that 

y, to owe, is from -^S. Swedish hafwa, to have, signifies also to owe. 

A, M or E, as sameness, continuance, corresponded with the Latin JE in equalitas, to 
indicate evenness, smoothness or equity. The Saxon E and Teutonic JE, in this sense, 

express law, right, justice. 

AA, perhaps as a repetition of sameness or extension, was a body of water. Swedish se, 
the Danish aa, by which sae, like the Latin asquor, denoted any smooth expanse, a plain or 
lake ; Islandic aer, Saxon asr, Gothic masr, the sea ; and from the Gothic aar, Islandic aa, a 
river, we have got aar, air, arun, arrow ; as also with the Gothic article J prefixed, yar, yare, 
yarrow ; by which yar is the or y Aar, Persian Jar, Jarur, a river. The Elb, Elf or Mlp, is 
formed from Gothic jEleip, a water-course. Leipa, Teutonic Leifen, Lauffen, to run, pro- 
duced the names of many rivers, such as the Lippe, the Liffy and Leven. From the Gothic 
JE, Saxon Ea, the Belgic Y, Ey, Wey, Ty, Tey, signify a river, like our Tay, Tees and Tyne. 

A JE, or JE, Saxon A A A, corresponds with the preceding article ; but conveys, by in- 
creased repetition, the idea of infinite extent, endurance or continuance, and hence our aye, 
' As, eternity. To these modifications of the vowel itself may be added some of its most ob- 
vious combinations. 

Ad, aud, od, from Gothic A, to have, was wealth, power, possession ; whence odal or all od, 
Scotch udal, allodial, full possession ; fe-od,fe-odal, tenure by fee or service. The Saxons pro- 
nounced this word ead, and ne-ead became their nead, without means, our need. Alaud has 
been contracted into French leude, seignorial. 


Aith, from the Gothic A, Saxon JR, Teutonic E, law or right, produced ed, eith, Saxon 
ath, Teutonic eid, an oath, meaning strictly a legal assertion. The Latin juro, in the same 
way, was originally from jus, right, equity. Thus also the Gothic lag, what is laid down, a de- 
position, signified law and an oath. From ed the Goths formed ved or wad and the Saxons 
ewd, a formal contract or pledge ; whence the Latin vadium and our wed, wager, wages, vas- 
sal. The Saxon ge ewd, Scotch gud, we seem to have adopted in God-father. God-brothers 
were anciently contracted or sworn brothers, and gud-man in Scotch is a wedded man. The 
Gauls changing w into g, as usual, converted wage into gage, and our engagement is a con- 

Aihan, the Saxon agen, ah an, to own or possess, was either the junction of A with ha, han, 
sypiv, that has ; or Gothic eiga, formed from the pronoun eg or ey, me, and corresponding with 
the Greek s or to,, personal property. Our verb to own or confess is the Teutonic iahen or 
beyahen, literally to yea, ayan, to say ay, to acknowledge ; and the Latins possibly adopted 
the Gothic aja, or gea, to form ajo, anciently ego, to yea ; nego, to deny. The Gothic J 
being synonimous with A, identity, sameness, expressed, as in old English, both assent and 
individuality. When used, however, as a personal pronoun, it must have required to be ac- 
companied by some sign indicating self, before time had rendered the sense unequivocal. 

Am or em, the first person of the present tense in the verb to be, anciently A, probably as- 
sumed the final m for me, like the Sanscrit Asmi, I am ; although it may be connected with 
gem, a variation of aave, which is to be noticed hereafter. The word is common to many dia- 
lects; Persian am or um, Saxon am, Armoric oum, Greek E/p<; and the Latin verb sum, 
anciently eum, is probably the Gothic so am. 

Ar or aer, ag%o?, the beginning, appears to be from A or M, duration, prefixed to ra, a row, 
line, limit, division ; which is the Greek ga, and Latin hora, time. The Gothic ar is also our 
year, Swedish er, time, age, sera ; and var, first of the year, Greek "Eag and T Hg, Brie, Latin ver, 
Spring. From aer we have early, and or, (J or, yore, primitive,) soon ; ere, Saxon orer, sooner ; 
the superlative of which, erst, or of erst, is first. Or is also the root of our morrow and 
morning. The Teutonic dauren, Latin duro, for de hora, are apparently from the same source 
with A;g/a, Arabic duhr, time. 

yfi or aeve, is constructed from a a, or x, Greek 'Ait, prefixed to the Gothic ve or be, to 
be or endure ; as if we said aye be, instead of ever, which is the Saxon agfer. 

Ave has A or M, equality, sameness, identity, united to ve of the preceding article, 
and means, from its component parts, being so, or the same; and thence even or equal. 
The Gothic variations of this word are aef, asm, am, ef, emn, evn ; and with the article J 
prefixed, ieef, iafn, ibn, if, iv, while the Saxons have am, em, im, efn ; all of which concur 
in the same general meaning with our if and even ; only that those without the article 
prefixed are more particularly applied for if, Sanscrit api, Chaldean aph, Persian ehm, so, 
if, equal ; and am, perhaps the first person of our verb to be. Same in Gothic, formed from 
am, we also use with little variation of sense. The Saxons adopted iasf, isefn, as their gif, 
gifan, gifwen, which the Scotch have contracted into gin, saying also dif for the if; and 


with us yef, for yea if, and zif, so if, were common about the time of Mandeville. As 
our ideas acquire precision, such useless repetitions of particles are exploded : but even 
now, among the illiterate citizens and peasants, they are studiously strung together in the 
antique pleonasm of phraseology, " an if, so be, as how," when if, alone, would be more dis- 
tinct, at least in modern acceptance. 

Compound words for assent, similar to our ay or yea, are common to all European lan- 
guages, and, like the Latin etiam or ita, Greek Ovra>, mean in their primitive sense, even 
so or the same. The Mceso-Gothic ibn is our even, and ibe, the Teutonic eb, Sans, ib, our 
yea be or if. The Armoric and Welsh je pe, having precisely the same composition and 
meaning with the Gothic, is frequently written efe, for which pe alone was also used ; and 
the Gothic eija, ey, Mceso-Gothic Ei, Greek E/, correspond with if or so ; as we now say. 
" if he gives me the value," or " so he gives me the value." In Belgic zo niet, is the 
usual expression for if not. This construction of the word is very general; for the Greek 
Ei, has the same relation to Elpi, that the Latin si has with sum, or the Gothic and Welsh 
ef, ibe, efe, epe, to their verbs ve, be and pe. Our exclamation ay ay, is the Gothic aja, ia, 
so so. The Gothic efa, ifa, iafa, ivan, formed from if, equality, sameness, signified to doubt. 
With us ifs and ans also implied hesitation, from the real or pretended difficulty of discover- 
big a preponderance of circumstances on either side. The Greek Aoj, Latin dubium, two 
ways, and the Gothic tuifal, Teutonic zweifal, two cases, must have involved a supposition, 
that their parity of condition was such, as to produce that indecision in the mind which is 
called doubt. 

These etymons have been the more closely examined, because our conjunction if, is as- 
serted under high authority to be an oblique application of the imperative of the verb to 
give. But Home Tooke had not observed that in the Teutonic it iy ob, eb, in Belgic of, 
Danish and Swedish om, corresponding exactly with the Gothic ef, aef, asm, none of which 
can with any probability be derived from give. Their composition, however, has some affinity 
with the latter word, so far as relates to the Gothic ia or gia, Saxon gea, our yea, which, form- 
ed into a verb of assent, became gean, to own, to admit The Goths probably added to gia 
their word fa, Saxon fon, Danish fae, to possess, in forming giafa, to bestow ; especially as 
fae, without any prefix, signifies to give. 

The article an, in the obsolete phrase, an if, which signifies so even, has been supposed 
to be the imperative of the Saxan anan, to concede ; but that verb is a modification of the 
Gothic, Swedish and Saxon unna, to please, cherish, love or coax, which produced the Gothic 
ynde, and ge ynde, endearing, amiable, our word kind, and boon, a grace. The Gothic 
enn or sen, then, so being, men, indeed, as well as the Teutonic an, can, from the Gothic 
A, to be, is used exactly in the sense of the Arabic en, the Greek "Av or 'Eac, if, derived 
from "Eu. 

The sagacity of Mr Tooke, however, suggested the real meaning of our preposition for, 
although he did not find the etymon. The Gothic ar, Teutonic or, ur, Swedish ur, Saxon 
or, ord, the beginning, (which produced fore, prior) also signified the origin, first motive or 
purpose, and formed part of the Swedish orsak, Teutonic ursach, the cause or beginning 


of a thing. From or and for, predisposition, destiny, the Goths had their orlog and for- 
log, law of fate, fatality. In some of our northern districts, ur is still used instead ofjbr ; 
and in the Gothic dialects for and fore have been confounded in orthography. 

The Gothic ut, Saxon ut, ot, Belgic uit, our out, becomes but, for be out, implying 
chiefly, put out, eoccepted ; put out, excluded ; and put out, extended. We use it also as the 
French do mais, the Latin magis, and the Belgic mar, moreover. Out, in this sense, enters 
into our verbs outgo, outbid, outlive ; we also say out and out, completely ; and in all the 
Gothic dialects it is used exactly like our but. Both have the same meaning with the 
Latin e, ex, extra, extraneous; from which we have stranger, apparently translated from 
the Gothic butaner, a foreigner. Extra, beyond, additional, further, beside, corresponds with 
but, unless where it was formerly ne but, not more, only. Forth and further are contracted 
from fore out and fore outer; unless is from utan less, leave out. But has no connexion 
whatever with boot, which never denoted any thing more than good, benefit, reparation. 
The Gothic B6ta and Botra signify to better, to mend, to boot. 

Exclusively of what has been noticed, out may be traced into many words with various 
shades of meaning ; such as odd, utter, oust, joust, jut, put or butt, push, beetle, (to pro- 
ject,) bud, button, boss, bother, (to put out,) butterfly, with endless prefixes and postfixes. 
The French but is our butt, an extreme object, and bout, our butt, the outer part, the end. 

The Gothic / or In, the contrary of out, has also many derivatives. Our Inn, a house 
of reception ; mine, an entrance ; mouth, contracted from munth, an orifice ; muns, mien, a 
countenance, in the sense of Latin os ; Gothic minna, to kiss ; money, coin with a face ; mint, 
coinage ; to mean, to perceive internally ; mind, intellect ; and bin, pen, pound, an enclosure, 
have all the same root. The Scotch ben is an inner, while but is an outer apartment. Our 
by is the Gothic bej, being hi, at or beside ; and the Persian bu Khoda is our by God. 

The preposition with appears to comprehend the two foregoing etymons. The Swedish uti, 
uthi is out in, and utan, out from. The Saxon with and Belgic uit have the same meaning 
as our with and also out of, when we say out of malice, for the French par malice ; the Saxon 
with tha see is translated into Latin e regione maris. The Gothic vid and Saxon with be- 
came mid, med, mith, by the usual mutation of v into m, unless when employed as med, Mir, 
a mean or medium, to be noticed hereafter. The Gothic vid, vidur, Saxon with, wither, 
Mceso-Gothic Vi, By, Bi, signified together, opposite, against. In the first sense the Moeso- 
Gothic ga withan is to join, and gay withran, to gather ; but the Gothic vidur, against, was 
contracted into ver, vor, for, which, like our with, was an adverse prefix ; and hence Saxon 
forbeodan, Teutonic verbieten, our forbid ; Gothic vidhalta, Teutonic verhalten, vederhalten, 
Saxon forhealdan, to withhold. To meet and to moot, to assemble and to encounter, have the 
same formation. 

To these suggestions, on a very intricate subject, may be added the Gothic mi, mid, med, 
apparently from the Gothic I, at, in or between. They corresponded with the Latin me- 
dius and medium, a mean, a half; and besides denoted a division and a particle, a mite or- 
mote: whence Gothic meida, meisa, Latin meto, to cut, divide, mow, mutilate. Com- 


ixmnded with dal, dail, a share, it produced the Gothic medal, the mid deal or middle. 
Mid, Med, with the Gothic la (from laga, to lay or place) became, midla, Swedish media, 
to put between, to intervene, divide, diminish, reduce into portions, interfere ; and also to 
meddle, in the sense of Me<r6a>. Media was contracted into mella, which produced the Gothic 
mal, mel, Swedish mal, Saxon mal, mad, Teutonic mal, mahl, applied in different ways, but 
invariably denoting intervention or division. Mal was thus a portion of speech, a word, a 
harangue, a notice, a cause or action at law, a division of time or space, an interstice, a frag- 
ment, a crumb, a spot, speck, painting, delineation, writing mark, sign, a piece of ground 
set apart or enclosed, a fixed hour for eating, a moiety of the produce of the soil as rent, a 
convention, a contribution, salary, measure, boundary. Our meal, time of eating ; meal, 
grain reduced to particles, small ; mold, dust ; mole, a spot on the skin ; mall, a public walk, 
the boundary of a town ; Scotch mail, rent ; and, finally, from the Gothic mals, a fixed period 
for contribution, which has the same root with Teutonic mas, measure, we have Lammas 
and Christmas ; although the word has been generally confounded with Mass, a religious 
ceremony. Our medley, things intermingled, is the Gothic medal, which, contracted into 
mille, Swedish mellan, is our mell, a mixture ; and the Gothic imille, Swedish imellan, in the 
midst, among, Chaucer writes ymell Thus Swedish mala, mala, to measure ; Saxon mal, 
mathl, methel, speech ; Teutonic malen, Scotch mail, mait, mete, to paint, are from one com- 
mon root 

Swedish medel, Teutonic mittel, the middle, was a mean, medium, mode, remedy, and also 
a medicine which, in like manner, is derived from the Latin medium, remedium. Mtrpta, 
Latin metior, Gothic meta, Saxon moethian, Mosso-Gothic maitan, to divide, measure, mete, 
have the same origin ; and Islandic myde, Saxon myt/ie, Scotch meith, meid, a division, 
boundary, mark, portion, measure, is cognate with the Latin meta. In the same sense we 
have mite, a small coin, Belgic myte, Teutonic meit, meid, medal, a piece of money, a medal, 
and also a meed, the Saxon med, hire, reward. Our meet, fit, proper, decent, is the Gothic 
miot, meet, Saxon mate, mete, Teutonic mas, in measure, regular, orderly, becoming. Such 
were the modulations and contractions by which " winged words" . were produced in 

Three instances will serve here to show the expansion of Gothic words. Taelja, Tiala, to di- 
vide, separate, cut, produced our taille, tally, tale, deal, dole, dale, tell, talk, toll, thil, till, taylor, 
detail, retail. Klarfa, klofa, to cleave, divide, put into parts or portions, produced, cleft, cliff, 
dough, cloud, club, clover, claw, clip. Gothic Ar, jr, a division, a cut, an opening, is Scotch 
Ara wound, a cicatrice, from which we have Ear, to plough, and scar, shear, score, skirt, shread, 
shard, share, shire, and to carve. 

Had any rules for orthography existed in very ancient times, infinitely fewer thorns 
would have been encountered on the path of the weary etymologist ; but spelling was so 
arbitrary in the days of our celebrated Shakspeare, that he varied it several times in writ- 
ing his own name ; and in France, the evil was not remedied till after the middle of the 
last century. 

The exact period of the first introduction of letters into Europe cannot be ascertained ; 


but, no doubt, their progress must have been gradual and almost imperceptible. The at- 
tempt to represent things by signs of outward resemblance, so natural to the perceptions of 
an infant age, had probably long obtained among all nations. But that expedient, incapable 
from its nature of much improvement, tended so completely to mislead the mind, that the 
invention of an alphabet appears like a miracle. Although some representations by figures 
were at first simple objects of convenience, in the common intercourse of mankind, yet every 
where, as with the Egyptians and Goths, they must have been employed more extensively in 
the mystical ceremonies of superstition ; and therefore they were known as hieroglyphics or 
runes, both of which denote sacred inscriptions. 

The most ancient and general practice of divination or incantation, consisted in scatter- 
ing ritually a parcel of rods, and predicting events from the appearances they exhibited on 
the ground. Runn, in Gothic, is a bunch of twigs or branches, and the mountain ash or 
wild sorbus, which so long maintained its superstitious reputation in Scotland, was there and 
in Denmark called run or rountree. White beam, our name for that tree, has the same 
import, from the Gothic, Saxon and Danish weight, holy, sacred, in allusion to its use in 
rabdomancy ; and with us it enters into the composition of many words, such as Whitsun- 
day, Whitchurch, Whitby, and the Isle of Wight.* The Irish fiodah, shrubs, is also the 
name for letters, each of which is said to express some particular wood. The Celtic druids, 
Welsh derwiddon, may have been so called from trees, according to the original meaning of 
Sgyj, Russian dru, Welsh derw ; and Agiw&u, like the Gothic trio, deru or dreu wita, signifies 
to prophesy or enchant by trees. The Goths seem to have used rada runer and rada risur 
in the same sense, because risur was the plural of rod. But, whether from that ceremony 
or not, the Gothic run, Irish run, Welsh ryn, had the meaning of mystery, religion, sorcery ; 
and from rune we have the obsolete word aroynt, to be exorcised. The Gothic allrun, T. 
alraun, was the herb mandrake, used in sorcery. The Gothic staff was added to run, in 
forming the verb runstafa, to divine or enchant by sticks, in the same way that the Chaldeans 
and ancient Persians employed arrows, which their letters resemble ; and runa, Welsh rhon, 
was also a dart. Thence probably originated the Ephesian letters, which, as Suidas reports, 
rendered one of the athletse invincible at the Olympian games. Performers in this mystical 
art, like the priests of Egypt, would naturally be desirous of preserving the remembrance of 
their successful predictions ; and the fantastic lines, copied on a leaf or stone, were the first 
runes. When the wonderful device of signs for sounds was introduced, many of the former 
figures, familiar to the hand and eye, were probably adopted for alphabetical characters ; 
which continue to be called book staff or buchstaf, in Germany, and buch stave in Denmark. ; 

The origin of Arithmetic has been unanimously attributed to the fingers. The Gothic 
teiga, tiga, to extend, ascend, appears to have produced tiga, tein, the number ten ; al- 
though the word might be corrupted from tuig or tuea, our twain, meaning twice five, as 
the Gothic taihun, ten, taihund, tenth, approach so nearly to tua haund, two hands ; corre- 
sponding with As*a from Avo l-/ju, Persian Doh, ten, from Do, two, which would naturally 
produce decimal numeration. But the Welsh, like the Jalofs and Foulas, confined them- 
selves to one hand for five or the whole ; and, instead of sixteen, seventeen, they now sajr 

* Gothic We is holy, and Saxon Igt, old English Eight, an Island. 


fifteen one, fifteen two, although they count to ten as we do. Something similar is indicated 
in Greek, by the apparent affinity of ITawx the whole, and Him five. In Persian panja is 
the hand and panj five. 

IlaunJ, or its plural haunder, the hands, has great resemblance to hundra or hund, which 
originally signified ten ; corresponding with the Latin centum in viginti and triginti, for tri 
centi ; although it afterwards denoted a hundred or five score. The Gothic teija or tegas 
hund, ten hundred, is our thousand. Hand was from Gothic Ha or Han, -^uvlxa/u, to have 
or hold ; the Greek 'Exu-ron, was any gross quantity, as well as ten times ten ; and the Gothic 
katt or kant, corresponds with the Arabic kata, a division, the Latin centum and Greek 
Kom, as in 'Oydojjxocra, the Armoric and Welsh cant, a piece, circle, canton, kantrad or 
hundred. The two last have the addition of the Gotlu'c ra or rad, a limit, number, order 
or demarcation. 

We may suppose that a circular or quadrangular figure would naturally be used to de- 
signate what is called a round sum or square quantity. Thus, 

might be ten, one hundred, and a thousand. In our present arithmetical signs O has much 
of that effect; but, if any one of the three were described separately by such a figure, 
something must have been added to indicate its relative proportion. The Greeks had their 
great and small o. The Latins having reversed the u into , or transformed CIO into 
M, would find that letter sufficient to express one thousand without annexing the larger 
circle. The smaller o had C, for centum, Earoc or Kuvrov, as its 
distinctive sign, which in the same way denoted afterward one 
hundred. With the Greeks, however, o mega contained only 
eight hundred, like the tettrad, four score or literally eight por- 
tions, of the Goths ; because they could obtain no further regular 
subdivisions of the circle without producing great excess; and 
according to Mungo Park, with some nations in the centre of 
Africa, the hundred is only four score. When thus graduated, 
two additional lines were required to correspond with the digital 

or decimal system, and complete the true hundred and thousand ; then each X in the circle 

being a tenth part of the whole, became numerically ten ; and the 

half of X is v or five. The M or great circle, when equally 

divided, CD, was twice the letter D ; which, like the Greek 3>, is 

therefore half a thousand or five hundred. The square hundred 

seems to have been intersected diagonally, |_J, of which L, being 

one half, was of course fifty, and all the regular subdivisions of 

squares are hence denominated quadrangulars or quarters. The 

Greek %, like the Latin and Chinese X, was ten, as in %< ; and 

for %/X;a or v ifa, ten times ten numbers, the Latins substituted M, 

or mille, one thousand. The Greek B stood for two, and thus (3 sis, (3 sivog, became bis 
and binus. It may not be impertinent to observe also, that the Greek A<Vp is weight or 
measure, the Latin litera, a letter ; and, as the Osce frequently, instead of the Greek t, used p 
or b, the connexion between the Latin liber, a book, and libra, from A/rpa, is remarkable. 

Under these circumstances the learned will decide how far the suggestion be admissible, 
that, many figures, now alphabetical, may have long been employed for numeral or mathe- 
matical purposes, before they were adopted to denote vocal sounds. 



A THE first letter, perhaps, of all alphabets except the 
5 Runic, of which it was the tenth, has in English 
three different sounds; the broad, the open, and the 
slender ; as in wall, father, face. It is short, as in 
glass, and long in glaze, and other words with e final. 

1 . An indefinite article before nouns ; used also by the 
Goths as an and ain, our one. 

2. A prefix, either negative or privative, S. ce ; whence, 
with the Goths, an, ana, na, our no. 

3. A prefix, termination or separate article, signified a 
state of being, tendency or procedure, as in above, 
along, adrift, and formed the infinitive mood of G. 
verbs, which became an in M. G. and S. and en in T. 
and B. It seems to have been the G. verb A or E, 
to be, corresponding with ia, and the root of our verb, 
to be. Thus we say, a riding, a praying, a laughing ; 
and, in burlesque poetry, it serves at the end of a 
word to suit the verse. See BE. 

4. prep. As Thomas a Becket, may have been the L, a, 
but more probably a contraction of G. of, our of. See O. 

5. In forming the names of places, is frequently G. a , 
Heb. ahha ; P. alt ; L. aqua, water ; G. aa ; Swed. a , 
in composition ar, a river. See EA and DAB. 

6. An abbreviation of L. artium, as A. B. bachelor of arts, 
A. M. master of arts ; or for L. anno, as A. D. anno 
Domini, the year of our Lord. 

AAM, s. a measure of capacity. See AWME. 
ABACK, ad. backward ; in sea terms, to the mast. 
ABAFT, ad. towards the stern of the ship. See BAFT. 
ABAISANCE, 4'. a bow of respect, a courtesy. See to 

ABANDON, v. a. to forsake, desert, separate from ; F. 

abandoner ; It. abandonare ; from a, privative, and 

ABASE, v. a. to humble, depress, cast down; F. abaisser; 

It. bassare. See BASE. 

ABASH, v. a. to confound, make ashamed. See BASH. 
ABATE, v. a. to diminish, lower, reduce; F. aba/re, ra- 

batre. See to BATE. 
ABAW, v. a. to intimidate, to terrify ; from ab, G. uf, 

and awe. See ADAW. 
ABB, s. the yarn of a weaver's warp ; S. ab ; up}. See 


ABBA, .v. a scriptural word for father; A. aba; Heb. abba. 
ABBAT, ABBE, s. the superior of an abbey ; It. abate; Y.abbe. 


ABBESS, *. the governess of a nunnery ; L. B. abbatissa ; 

F. abbesse. 
ABBEY, *. the residence of an abbe or abbat ; L. B. abba- 

tia ; F. abbaye. 

ABBOT, ABBAT, s. the superior of an abbey. 
ABELE, s. a white-leaved poplar ; B. abele ; S. aeblece- 

See BLAY. 
ABER, in the names of places, signifies the mouth of a 

river, a port or harbour ; G. hafar , D. hav ar, from 

liqf, the sea, and ar, of a river or creek ; Sp. and Port. 

abra ; W. aber , F. havre, a haven ; A. and P. aber, a 

river, from ab, water ; G. amun ; Swed. itmun ; L. 

arnnis ; and W. afon, a river. See A. 

ABET, v. a. to encourage, aid, set on ; G. bceta ; S. betan, 
to assist ; S. betan, in another sense, is from G. eita, 
beita, to excite, instigate. See to BAIT- 

ABEYANCE, ABIDANCE, s. expectation, reversion ; Nor- 
man F. abbaiaunce ; Chaucer wrote able and abcgge, for 
D. able, to abide. 

ABIDE, v. to dwell, continue, support, await, expect ; 
S. abidan. See to BinE. 

ABLE, a, 1. having strength or power, robust, energetic; 
G. and Swed. afl ; S. abal ; B. abel ; I si. efla, to labour, 
to exercise strength ; S. ellen, strength, power. 

2. Having address, facility, capacity ; L. habilis , F. ha- 
bile ; It. abile ; W. abl. 

ABLE, ABELS, ABLINS, ad. perhaps, peradventure ; G. 
qfal, afal/s, from Jail, chance. See BEFAL. 

ABOARD, ad. in a ship, embarked ; F. a bord ; It. and Sp. 
bordo, from G. and Swed. bord; B. board, which signi- 
fied the part of a ship rising above the water, the edge. 

ABODE, s. a dwelling, a residence, a house ; G. and Swed. 
bod ; D. bced ; W. bod; L. B. boda, from the verb to 
bide; A. bad; P. bood ; Heb. bat, belli; Hind, abad ; 
whence Allahabad, Hyderabad, Atirungabad, the resi- 
dences of Allah, of Hyder, and Aurung ; as well as 
the scriptural names of places, Bethel, Bethesdu, Beth- 
lehem. See BOOTH. 

ABODE, v. a. to foretell, predict, announce. See to 

ABOUND, v. n. to be in plenty; L. abondo ; F. abonder, 
to flow, from L. undo. 

ABOUT,!. prep, near to, with, of, concerning; S.aJ. around 
every way ; S. utan, abutaii, on the outside, arouiul- 


A C Q 

ABRAHAM, *. the name of the Jewish patriarch ; T. Abra- 
ham, as with us Moses and B. Schtnaus, which also is 
Moses, signified a Jew. Persons of that description 
were formerly considered as the king's property, and 
could therefore, in some cases, plead immunity from 
the civil law. Whence to sham Abraham was to set up 
a false plea ; Abraham colour, tawny ; and Abraham's 
balm, hemp. In N. Britain, the gipsies seem, from 
their dark complexions, to have been included in 
what was called in Teutonic Abrahamisch, and their 
leader had the name of Abraham Brown in many a 
tale of seduction. 

ABRADE, v. a. to rub off, waste away ; L. abrado. 
ABRAID, a. broken, pounded in a mortar. See to BRAY. 

Ami AIDE, v. a. ] . to disturb, rouse from sleep ; G. and 
Swed. bregda, bregda suefni, to rouse from sleep. See 

2. To speak, explain, expostulate ; T. bereden, abreden, . 
from G. rteda, T. reden. See to REDE. 

3. To dilate, enlarge, publish, exclaim ; S. abrcedan, from 
breed, broad. 

4. To speak against, refute, disagree; T. abreden, from 
al> and redcn ; sometimes confounded with upbraid. 

5. To bereave, deprive ; S. bercedan, abredian, from 
hredan to rid. 

ABRIDGE, v. a. to shorten, contract, diminish ; F. abre- 

ger, from L. abrevialio. 
ABROACH, ad. in a posture to 'run out, properly spoken 

of vessels. See BROACH. 
ABROAD, ail. out, at a distance, in a foreign country. 

ABSTAIN, v. a. to refrain from, forbear ; from L. abt 

and triii'H. 
ABUT, t>. . to border upon, rest against, terminate ; 

F. aboutir. See BUT. 

ACCOMPT, s. a. reckoning, a bill; F. comple, from L. 

computatiu. See COUNT. 
ACCORD, s. an agreement, free will ; F. accorde, from L. 

corde, with the heart ; but sometimes denoting unison 

of musical cords. See CONCORD. 
ACCOST, . to speak to first, to salute ; F. accoster, to 

approach, come side to side, from L. costa but our 

word corresponds with S. acwet/ian, from cmothan; 

G. kuedia, kuctia, to speak. 

ACCOUNT, s. reckoning, estimation, detail, consideration, 

rank. See ACCOMPT. 
ACCOUTRE, v. a. to arrange, attire, dress, equip; F. 

accoulrer, from L. cottruo for constnto. 
ACCROACH, v. a. to draw to one as with a hook ; to draw 

away by degrees what is another's ; F. Accrocher. See 

ACCRUE, v. n. to grow out of, to arise from, to redound ; 

F. accreu, increase, from L. cresco, crew. 
ACE, s. a unit, in cards or dice ; G. as, contracted from 

ains; Eif ; F. as ; It. asm. 

ACHE, *. Parsley ; F. ache ; T. eppich, from L. opium. 
ACHE, s. continued pain. See AKE. 
ACHIEVE, v. a. to finish, perform, accomplish ; from 

chief, the head; F. achever ; Sp. acabar. See CHE- 


ACHIEVEMENT, s. from the verb, an exploit, a feat; and, 

in heraldry, denoting armorial bearings. 
ACORN, s. the fruit of an oak ; S. tecern, oak com. 
ACQUAINT, v. a. to make known, inform ; F. accoint, in- 


formed, known, from L. cognilus, cognate with G. 

kiinna ; Arm. gouna, to know. 

ACQUAINTANCE, *. from the verb, knowledge, famili- 
arity ; F. accoin/ance. 
ACQUIT, t). a. to discharge, clear ; L. B. acquito ; F- 

aquiUer. See QUIT. 
ACHE, s. a measure of land, containing 160 perches, or 

4840 square yards ; F. acre, a word introduced by the 

Normans, who confound L. ager ; S. acer, a field, with 

It.jugera ; T.juckar,jucar, signifying as much as one 

yoke will plough in a day. 
ADAGIO, ad. a term in music, signifying leisurely, at 

ease. See AGIO. 
ADAM, *. the father of all men ; Heb. Adam ; A. Adum ; 

Hind, admee, a man, a person. 

ADAW, >. a. to terrify, to daunt, from awe. See ABAW- 
ADDER, s. a venomous serpent ; Isl. nadur ; S. ncedre' 

teller , T. nailer, alter ; B. adder ; W. neidr, from G. 

eilur ; S. teller, venom. 
ADDICE, *. a cooper's ax. See ADZE. 
ADDLE, 1. a. rotten, filthy, muddy ; G. ala, to defile, 

corrupt, produced Swed. atal, atel ; S. adel ; Scot. 

addle, ordure; W. hadyl, rotten, corresponds with 

Heb. kadil. 

2. Morbid, sick, infirm ; S. adl. See AIL. 

3. Vain, frivolous, empty ; Isl. eidel, from G. aud, eyd ; 
T. oed, void, waste. See IDLE. 

4. s. ETTLB, YEDDLE, profit, wages for labour ; S. tzd- 
lean, from G. and Swed. id, idia ; S. <ed, labour, and 
lean, reward. See LOON. 

ADDRESS, v. a. to speak or write to, to prepare, arrange, 
direct ; F. addresser ; Sp. derecar ; It. dirizzare, from 
L. dirigo. 

ADELIN, ATHELING, a title given to the son of a king ; 
G. alia, father, produced #<?, tell, race, pedigree, which 
prefixed to G. al, ad, a child, progeny, became appa- 
rently G. adel, legitimate, corresponding with our 
word gentle; whence G. adli, edit; Swed. tedle ; T. 
adel, edel ; B. add ; S. cethel, of pure race, noble. From 
this word are formed many names of persons, as Athe- 
len, Alleyn, Alhelhade, Adelaide, Adalidis, contracted 
into Alice, Mathdaide, MaiUde. See ATHKLING and 

ADJOURN, v. a. to defer, postpone, fix for another day ; 
F. ajourner, from L. divrnttt ; F.jour, a day. 

ADMIRAL, s. a principal sea-officer ; It ammiraglio ; F. 
admiral, from A. amir, a commander. It was used in 
France both as a military and naval title. 

ADRIFT, ad. driving or floating at random. See DRIVE. 

ADROIT, a. dexterous, skilful, clever ; F. from droit, It. 
drillo, L. directus. 

ADVANCE, v. a. to put forward, promote, prefer, say ; 
F. avancer ; It. avanzare from abanli, avanti ; I*, ante, 
before, forward. 

ADVANTAGE, *. from advance, precedence, furtherance, 
profit ; F. avanlage. 

ADVENTURE, s. a doubtful enterprize ; F. aventwe, It. 
aiivenlura. See VENTURE. 

ADVICE, s. notice, counsel ; F. avis; It. aviso; Sp. aviso; 
D. advis ; B. advys, from G. avisan, to make known. 
See Wis. 

ADULATION, s. flattery, high compliment, sweet speech ; 
L. adulalio. 

ADZE, s. a narrow ax, an addice ; S. adesc ; Arm. ege ; 
W. note, neddy, from G. egg, an edge. See Ax. 

A I & 

AERIE, *. a nest of birds of prey. See EYBY. 
AFFAIR, s. a business., concern; F. affaire, from "L.facere. 
AFFIANCE, s. marriage-contract, trust; F.Jiance ; It. af- 

fianzu. See AFFY. 
AFFORD, v. a. to produce, supply, grant; G'. Pad, power, 

means ; S\ved.forrad ; T.forrath, supply ; G.forrada, 

to furnish, provide. 
AFFRONT, v. a. to insult, provoke, enrage ; F. cifrmter, 

from L. frons, the face, and Met. shame. Affront was 

sometimes used for confront, and denoted a friendly 

AFFY, v. a. to betroth, confide in; F.Jier, qfier; It qf- 

Jidare, from Tu.Jido, 

AFRAID, a. fearful, terrified ; F. effrayc. See AFEAHD. 
AFT, ad. behind ; G. apt, eft ; S. caftan. See AFTEB. 
AFTER, prep, later than, behind ; S. cefter ; T. after. 
AGAIN, ad. once more, besides, moreover; G. gen; S. 

agen ; Swed. igen. 
AGAINST, prep, in opposition to, close to j G. geinsla, 

from gen, gegn ; S. gean ; T. gegen, and sta, to stand ; 

S. ongeans. It implies towards and opposite, like 

L. contra. 

AGABT, ad. terrified, amazed. See AGAZE. 
AGAZE, v. a. to strike with terror or amazement ; from 

G. agis, ogis ;. S. egesa, fear, dismay. 
AGE, a termination of nouns, adopted by the F. from 

L. ado. 
AGE, . a space of time, a man's life, 100 years, maturity; 

G. eefe, oewe ; B. earn ; S. ana ; Hind, ayoo ; L. avitas, 

cetas ; F. age ; W. oes ; Arm. Oage ; I. aois. See AYE. 
AGIO, *. leisure, convenience, facility, exchange of money, 

It. agio, from L. olium, sometimes connected with ago. 
AGIST, 1. s. a forest term for taking in cattle to pasture; 

L. B. agislamentum, from G. cegia; Isl. ay a, to feed. 
2. a bank, a dam; L. B. aggistalio from L. aggero. 
AGNAIL, *. a small flaw of the skin, near the finger nail, 

occasioning sometimes a whitlow ; Swed. agg, pain. 

See AWN and NAIL. 

AGO, AGONE, ad. past, long since. See GONE. 
AGOG, ad. in a state of desire or joy. See GOG. 
AGONY, . extreme anguish, pain of death. F. agmie 

from 'Ayv/<*. 
AGQUTY, s. an animal of the Antilles about the size of a 

rabbit ; Sp. agudo , F. accouli, from L. acutus. 
AGREE, v. to consent, harmonize, please, suit ; F. agreer ; 

It. gradire ; L. B. agradire from L. gratia. 

AGUE, *. an intermittent fever, accompanied with cold 
and hot fits ; L. acuta febris is supposed to have pro- 
duced our word ; but the disorder has never been con- 
sidered acute. The vulgar call it agur, and Isl. agur, 
ogur ; S. ega, oga, terror, tremor, may have had hri, 
hrith, an attack, a fit, added to it, corresponding with 

F. acce, which is the accessus of Pliny. 

AH, inlj. a word denoting compassion or desire, and 
sometimes complaint or censure ; A. a ; P. Ook ; Heb. 
Hoi ; 'fj; L. It. F. ah; I. ach; W. and Arm. och; in all 

G. dialects ach, ak ; P. ah, a sigh. See O. 

AHA, intj. an expression of surprise, triumph or con- 
tempt ; L. ha. See HA HA. 

AHA, s. a concealed fence, ditch or enclosure. See HAW 
and HAY. 

AID, s. help, support, subsidy ; F. aide ; It. aiulo, aita, 
from L. ajutum. 

AIGULET, s. a point, a tag ; F. aigulet, from L. aculeattis. 


AIL, v. to be in pain, disordered, afflicted ; G. ilia, aitta, 
atitta; S. adilian, adlean, to have ill ; S. eglan, to have 
pain, from Swed. agg, pain ; G. oegla, a point; M. G. 
agio, affliction ; W. uell, sorrow. 

AIM, v. a. to have in view, to design; D. ceyemg) I. oigham; 
G. auga urn, from auga,"Oft.ft.x, the eye; F. emer, esater; 
It. smirar, from L. miror had nearly the same meaning. 

AIR, s. I. the element encompassing the earth ; Aj; L. 
aer ; F. air ; It. aria; Sp. are ; rin . air ; W. arvyr. 

2. Appearance, manner, sheen ; F. air, from Av^x; L. aura; 
Heb. aour, sheen, light ;. Heb. raa, 'O^aw, to see. 

3. Light music, a song; F. airi It. aria; Sp. aria, supposed 
to be from L. aer; but perhaps from A'fa. 

AISLE, s. side walk in a church, a wing; F. aile; Arm, and 
W. asgel; L. B. ascella, from L. ala, axilla ; the aisles 
being the wings of the nave. 

AJAR, ad. leaning to one side; G. ajari, adjari ; Scot. 
agee, oblique, from G.jadur,jar, a side, a limit. 

AKE, ^.continued pain; G. ecke; S. cece;"A K of, pain; Swed- 
agga, to ake, hiartagga, the heart-ake. 

ALABANDA, s. a dark-coloured ruby found at Alabanda, 
and also a damask rose. See ALMANDINE. 

ALARM, s. a cry or notice of danger ; It. alarma; F. alarme, 
generally supposed to be F. a Varme, to arms; but 
our word is probably from LARUM. 

ALAS, ALACK, intj. betokening pity ; L. ah lassus, ah 
luctus; F. helas; W. ha llaes; P. ulha. 

ALBEIT, ad. for ALBETHOUGH, although, nevertheless. 

ALBICORE, *. a fish like a tunny, which follows ships ; 
Port, albacora; A. al and bacara, a pig. 

ALBURN, a. of a brownish colour ; It alburna for a la 
bruno. See AUBURN. 

ALCAID, *. governor of a castle in Barbary ; a judge of a 
city in Spain. See CADI. 

ALCANNA, s. an Egyptian plant used for dying yellow or 
red; A. hinna, alhinna ; Turk, alkanna. See HENNA. 

AJLCHYMY, *. the highest chymistry i A. al keemiya, from 
A. and Copt. Item, khem, heat, process of heat, al /chum 
an Alembic ; but some suppose that the A. article has 
been prefixed to xfi{ ut ~ 

ALCOHOL, s. rectified spirit of wine ; A. al hhutt, or hull, 
a solvent. 

ALCOBAN, s. the book, the Mahometan bible. See CO- 

ALCOVE, *. a private recess to lie or sit in, an archexl 
building in a gardea ; A. al qoobbu, or kubah, an arch 
or dome. 

ALDER, s. the name of a tree ; S. celr ; D. elle tree ; L. al- 

ALDEBLIEVEST, a. all most beloved ; B. al der lievst. 

ALDERMAN, s. a municipal magistrate ; G. Swed. and S- 
alderman ; G. aldur, from which we have Old and El- 
der, signified precedence and priority, like 1^. primus ; 
but G. aldra, for all cedra, was a superior person, a 
right honourable. See EAHL. 

ALE, *. a fermented liquor, G. eal, ol, aul ; Swed. el ; 
S. eale ; T. ol. If from P. ala ; G. and Swed. ell, 
fire ; S- oelaa, to heat or burn, it would correspond 
with Zuiit ; but perhaps the name is from G. ala ; L 
a/o, to nourish, and in the former, to bear ; whence 
allon and afal, an apple, from (if ala, a name given to 
fruits in general ; so that ale would be synonimous 
with L. ciccra. See To BREW. 

ALECOST, *. an herb ; from ale and cost See COSTMARY. 


A M E 

ALEGAR, *. a substitute for vinegar. See ALB and 

ALEHOOF, *. an herb called ground ivy ; B. eiloof; T. 
epheii, a plant formerly used in brewing. See GILL. 

ALEMBIC, *. a still ; A. alambic, from laybec. 

ALERT, a. brisk, lively, watchful ; It. a I'erta, the con- 
trary of inert. 

ALEXANDERS, s. a plant called L. olusatrum, but proper- 
ly smyrnium. 

ALEXANDRINE, *. a verse of twelve syllables, introduced 
by one Alexandre, a French poet. 

ALEY, *. a Turkish title ; A. alee, from a/a, superiority, 

ALGEBRA, s. literal arithmetic ; A. aljebra, properly al 
jubr mooqabllu, power of equalizing by comparison or 

ALIGHT, r. a. to fall upon, descend. See To LIGHT. 

ALKAHEST, \. a universal dissolvent ; F. alkaett, from 
A. alkahdtset. 

ALKAKENGI, *. the A. name of the winter cherry ; It 

ALKALI, .v. a salt, properly that of the herb Kali. 

ALKANET, s. the herb anchusa, confounded with alcanna, 
because both are used as cosmetics. 

ALL, a. the whole ; G. all, oil; Swed. T. B. atte ; S. cell, 
eal;"0\ ( Heb. cfiol ; Arm. Ml ; W. all; I. uile. 

ALL SAINTS, the first day of November. The ancient 
Romans built a temple, called the Pantheon, where an 
annual festival was held in honour of all the Gods, 
which the Christians dedicated to all the saints. 

A i, i. AY, v. a. 1. to adulterate or mix metals; L. B. lega, 
adulteration ; F. allier ; Sp. alear. See ALLOY. 

2. To put down, suppress, appease ; S. alegan ; Ay. 
See To LAY. 

ALLEGIANCE, .v. feudal obligation, duty of subjects to 
princes, loyalty, obedience to the laws. See LIEGE. 

ALLEGRO, 1. 1. one of the six modes of music. 2. a. spright- 
ly, brisk ; It. allegro ; Sp. aligero ; L. alactr. 

ALLEY, *. a narrow passage or walk ; F. allee from aller ; 
Arm. iela, to go. See GALLERY. 

ALLELUYA, s. a kind of sorrel ; L. B. lujula ; F. foseille, 
from L. oxalit. 

ALLIGATOR, *. a kind of crocodile ; Sp. lagarto, alagarto, 
from L. lacertui. See CROCODILE. 

ALLODIAL, a. independent, free from fines, not feudal ; 
6. audal, odal ; D. odel ; Swed. odal; Scot tidal, pos- 
session ; whence G. allodal ; F. alleu, entire possession ; 
F. alcudes or leudcs were manorial lords. See FEUDAL. 

ALLODIUM, *. entire possession, free land ; L. B. from G. 
all aud ; F. alleu. See ALLODIAL. 

ALLOO, v. a. to set on, to excite a dog to attack. See 
Loo and HALLOO. 

ALLOT, v. a. 1. from LOT, to distribute by lot. 

2. To place, assign, allow ; from L. loco, locatum. 

ALLOW, v. a. 1. to admit, permit, grant; O. E. aleuin ; 
F. allouer; S. altffan from Bwed. loftva ; D. loetv ; 
Scot lew, permission, leave. 

2. To deposit, assign, make provision or abatement, to 
fix with consideration ; L. B. alloco from loco. 

ALLOY, *. a mixture or adulteration of metals ; It lega; 
F. alliage, aloy. See ALLAY. 

ALLURE, v. a. to entice, seduce, attract ; L. alicere; but 
sometimes from LURE. 

ALLY, v. a. to unite by contract, join ; F. allier ; It. 
alltgare ; L. alligo. 

ALMANAC, t. a calendar of the moon's changes, fasti, &c. 
for the year ; P. almaheen from niaha ; G. Maria ; Mifm 
the moon. 

ALMANDINE, *. a kind of ruby ; F. almandine ; properly 

Alabandine. See ALABANDA. 
ALMONER, *. a distributer of alms. 
ALOE, ALOES,*. a bitter purgative gum; A. aloe; P. o/o- 

yah ; Hind, eylnxe. 

ALOFT, ad. on high, above in the air ; G. loft ; L. ele- 

ALONE, a. solitary, single, onely ; T. allein, only. 

ALOOF, ad. at a distance ; for all off, and sometimes for 

ALPHABET, *. the letters in a language; "AAp B^n; A. 
Heb. and P. alifbe, the names of the two first letters, 
to which we add a third, making a b c. 

ALTAR, *. a place for divine offerings ; L. altare, perhaps 
for aha ara ; G. ara is fire. See HEARTH. 

ALTER, v. a. to make otherwise, to vary ; L. altero ; F. 
alterer ; It. alterare. 

ALUDEL, *. an earthen pot for sublimation ; supposed to 
be from L. a and lutum, without clay. 

ALWAY, ALWAYS, ad. in every way, continually, ever ; 
T. altveg. 

AM, t). . first person of the verb to be ; P. am, oum ; G- 
am ; S. am ; Ei/ui ; Arm. oum. 

AMAIN, ad. with vigour, violently. See MAIN. 

AMAZE, v. a. to surprise, terrify, daunt. See MAZE. 

AMAZON, *. a warlike woman, a virago ; one of an ima- 
ginary nation of female warriors called Afut^tnt from 
* ftaZff without a breast; because the right one was cut 
off that it might not impede in shooting with a bow. 

AMBASSADOR, *. a representative of a prince ; F. ambas- 
tadeur; It ambasciatore, from G. ambahtare, ambaet 
are an official legate ; M. G. ambahtu ; L. B. ambac- 
lut ; T. ambaht contracted into ampt, an office. G. 
hug, the mind, produced ahuga, amoehuga, to direct, 
superintend, from which is our Heed. EMBASSY ap- 
pears to be a different word. 

AMBER, *. a yellow resinous gum; A. ambar ; Sans. 
ambiira ; L. B. ambra ; It. ambra ; F. ambrc ; T; 

AMBERGRISE, *. a clammy, fragrant drug,- F. amber 
gris, gray amber, is probably A. aber, a perfume, con- 
founded with amber. 

AMBES ACE, a term in play when two aces are turned 

up ; F. ambesas, from L. ambo and ace. 
AMBIGU, *. a medley of viands, with various flavours, 

where nothing predominates ; F. ambigv, from L. 


AMBLE, v . a. to move between a walk and a trot ; F. 

ambler, from L. ambulo. 
AMBRY, t. a place where an almoner lives, or where cold 

victuals are kept for alms, a cupboard ; S. almeriee 

corrupted from almery. See ALMS. 
AMBURY, *. a bloody wart on any part of a horse's body. 

AMBUSH, *. a place to lie in wait; It imboscata ; F. em- 

busche, a covert. The term originated with sportsmen, 

who contrived to conceal themselves with bouehs! 

See BUSH. 
AMEL, *. 1. the matter used in works which we call 

enamelled; F. emaille ; P. ala ; G. ell; S.cel,a:lid. 

fire, produced our words melt and smelt; T. sctimal- 



e ; It. and Sp. smaltare, esmallar ; F. emailler, to melt 
or glaze. See ENAMEL and ANNEAL. 

'2. A variegated painting ; F. mailler ; T. mahlen, to spot 
or paint, are from G. mal ; T. maid, corresponding 
with L. macula. 

AMEN, ad. so it is, so be it ; Heb. reality, truth. 

AMENABLE, a. liable to be brought to account, or to ap- 
pear ; F. amenable ; Swed. mana; T. manen, signify 
to constrain, to conduct with some effort ; but F. 
mener ; Sp. menear ; L. B. manire, were perhaps from 
inn mi ire, to lead, to conduct. See DEMEAN. 

AMERCE, v. a. to inflict a fine proportionate to the of- 
fence ; F. amercier, from L. merces, mercedis, compen- 

AMNESTY, s. act of oblivion, pardon ; L. amnestia ; F. 

AMONG, AMONGST, prep, mingled with, amidst ; S. among, 
mixed, from G. mang, many. See MANY, MINGLE 
and BLEND. 

AMOMUM, s. a sort of fruit ; L. amomum. 

AMOKT, a. 1. dead, lifeless ; F. mart, from L. morluus. 

2. Afflicted, dejected ; L. B. moeritus, from L. mcereo. 

AMOUNT, v. a. to rise to, to come up. See to MOUNT. 

AMOUNT, s. from the verb, the sum total, the result. 

AMPEB, s. a tumour, a boil ; Isl. amper ; S. ampre, a 
wart or cancer ; T. empor, a tumour. 

AMPHIBIOUS, a. that partakes of two natures, so as to 
live in two elements, as in air and water ; from 'Aptpt 
and /3/oj. 

AMULET, s. a charm, a spell ; F. amulette, from L. amo- 

AMUSE, v. a. to direct the mind, to entertain, trifle with ; 
F. amuser, from a privative, and muse ; the opposite 
of muse, to meditate. 

AN, 1. the indefinite article a, which assumes n before 
words beginning with a vowel, or in derivations from 
the F., with h mute ; but it ought not to be used be- 
fore a G. initial /( , nor before eu or a, when pro- 
nounced like you, as eunuch, unicorn. Thus, a house, 
a unit, a ewe ; and an hour, an ulcer, an ell. Our y, 
S. ge, is a consonant ; and therefore we say a year, 
a yew-tree. We say a one-horse chaise, but an only one. 

2. Con/, so be, being it ; G. an, aen, enn, participle of the 
verb A or E, to be, corresponds with A. en ; Greek A A 
'E. See THEN. 

ANANAS, s. a pine-apple ; Brazil, nana ; A. annanas. 
ANANTRES, prep, in regard to ; M. G. an andrvairthis, 

being towards or against. See ANENT and WARD. 
ANBURY, s. a wart or excrescence. See AMBURY. 
ANCESTOR, s. a progenitor, one from whom we descend ; 

F. ancestre, from L. antecedo. 

ANCHOR, s. an iron instrument to hold a ship ; P. angar ; 

G. angur ; T. anchor ; L. ancora ; F. ancre ; It angor ; 
W. angor. See ANGLE. 

ANCHOVY, s. a small fish, resembling a sprat, used for 
sauce ; It. anchiova ; F. anchoye, because principally 
caught at a small island of that name near Leghorn ; 
Sardines, a larger species, are caught off Sardinia. 

ANCIENT, a. old, antique, former ; F. ancien, from L. 

ANCIENT, s. a standard, properly ENSIGN. 

AND, conj. also, moreover, likewise ; Isl. and B. an, en, 
end; D. end ; S. and ; G. endur, signified again ; but 
G, a; Russ. a; W. a; Swed. asn, cognate with G. an, 

S. an; our on, procedure, are used for and in all its 
senses. In the early Bibles, the L. el was written KT, 
which is our figure &. See END. 

2. Ad. even to, unto, as far as; Swed. cenda ; M. G. 
und ; T. unt ; S. and, as used in andlong sos, along the 
sea. This word, cognate, with the conj., is now obso- 
lete, or only found in old ballads, as, " Robin Hood 
he would and to fair Nottingham ride." See A. 

ANDIRON, s. a fire grate, or spit iron ; G. aund ; Swed. 
and, corresponding with 'ATI, opposite, and G. am or 
eyn,,the fire, may have produced F. landier, and L. B. 
andena. The resemblance of G. aund to hund, a dog, 
occasioned perhaps the name of dog iron, for what is 
S. brandiren. 

ANENT, prep, concerning, regarding; G. aund; S. and, 
opposite; Swed. an, and; T. enent, being opposite, 
correspond with 'EVT<. 

ANGEL-FISH, s. a scale or thornback ; perhaps from 
angle, or L. ungulus, a claw or hook. See CATFISH. 

ANGELICA, s. an herb ; It. angelica ; F. angelique ; G. 
huan niolka ; anciently much used in medicated beer. 

ANGER, s. irritation, rage ; G. angr ; Swed. anger ; S. 

ANGLE, s. a hook, corner or nook, a point where two 
lines meet; G.angul; P. angol; S. engel ; T.angil; 
L. angulus. 

ANGLE, v. a. from the noun, to fish with a hook and line. 

ANGUISH, s. excessive pain or grief; F. angoisse ; It. 
angoscia; L. angor, perhaps from"Ay^; Swed. angest ; 
T. angst, torture. 

ANKER, s. a vessel of nine gallons ; B. ancker ; Swed- 
ankare, from G. kier ; Swed. /car, a tub. 

ANKLE, s. the joint above the foot; S. ancleon ; D. 
anckle ; B. enckel, signifies the heel. 

ANNATES, s. first fruits ; G. ami ; Swed. ann, husbandry ; 
annat, produce of a year's labour; L. iisus fructus. 
But L. B. annales, like annona, is supposed to be from 
L. annus, because imposed on the produce of the year. 

ANNEAL, v. a. \. to temper glass or metal ; S. ancelan, 
from G. el, eld; P. a/a; Swed. ell; T. ell, fire. 

2. To anoint ; S. anaslan, from eel, oil. 

ANNOCK, s. a flat cake baked in the ashes ; Sans, agn ; 
Chald. on ; I. aghna ; G. aen, eyn, fire, ashes, to which 
cake may have been added. It has generally a round 
form in Scotland ; but fadge, It.jbccacia; Y.fouace; 
S.foca, from L. focus, is oblong. 

ANNOY, v. a. from noie, to incommode, injure, damage. 

ANON, ad. soon, in a short time ; G. nt/an ; T. non ; Nwr ; 
L. mine ; S. nu ; Scot. eenu. See NEW and Now. 

ANSWER, s. a reply, solution, response ; G. andsnier, and- 
sord ; Swed. answar ; S. andmyrd, andnar, andstvar ; 
B. antwoord, counter-speech. 

ANSWER, v. a. from the noun, to reply, succeed, suit; 
this verb has the same direct and figurative meaning 
with L. respondere ; F. repondre, to reply, to fit. But 
for habit, there would be apparent confusion in saying, 
that a small shoe does not answer for a large foot. 

ANT, *. a small insect, a pismire, properly EMMET. 

ANT, ad. 1. contracted from an it, in the sense of so it, 
or if it. See AN. 

2. A vulgar contraction of am not, is not, are not. 

ANTELOPE, *. a goat with curved horns ; Amhtfts, re- 
sembling a deer. 

ANTHEM, s. a divine song or hymn ; It. anthema, from 
f, an offering to God. 


ANTIC, a. odd, ludicrous ; from L. antiqwis ; a term first 
used in architecture to denote such ancient figures of 
satyrs, monkeys, &c. as are called grotesque. See 

ANTIMONY, s. a valuable mineral ; F. antimoine ; It. - 
timonio, said to be untimoiKichus, from having poison- 
ed a monk to whom it was first administered. STUKWI 
may have produced the A. names allimini and altimad, 
for that mineral ; but if antimony were a barbarous 
compound of An and S. man, a man, it would corre- 
spond in meaning with Arsenic. 

ANTIQUE, a. ancient, old-fashioned ; F. from L. antiques. 

ANVIL, *. an iron block for smith's work ; G. ain lit, 
one bill, marked the difference between it and the 
bigome; but S. cenfille seems to be our on fell, to 
strike upon. 

ANY, a. one, some, every, whoever, whatever, either; S. 
anig ; T. einig. See ONE. 

APE, j. a monkey without a tail ; Swed. apa ; S. apa ; 
T. affe, abe ; B. aap ; W. eppa, from G. ap, mockery, 
ridicule ; which produced gaba ; It. gabbare, to jeer. 
See GIBE. 

APE, v. a. from the noun, to imitate, to mimic, deride ; 
G. apa ; T. aben. 

APES, in the expression " to lead apes/' is apparently 
from G. leida ; T. lelden ; to suffer, to endure apes 
or gibes. See APE. 

APOTHECARY, *. a compounder of medicines; F. apothe- 
caire; L. TA.apothecanus, from Airttuctfufia, a drug shop. 

APPAL, v. a. to frighten, to strike with fear. See to PALL- 
APPAREL, *. dress, clothes, habit ; F. appareil, from L. 

APPAY, v. a. 1. to satisfy, appease ; Romance, apayer ; 
Port, apagar, from L. paco. 

2. To requite, to discharge a debt. See to PAY. 

APPEACH, v. a. to accuse, to inform against ; L. appelo. 

APPEAL, v. a. to call on for relief; F. appeUer ; It ap- 
pellare, from L. appello. 

APPEASE, v. a. to quiet, calm, pacify ; F. appetiser, from 
L. paco. 

APPEND, v. a. to hang on, to add to ; L. appendo. 

APPLE, *. 1. fruit of the apple-tree ; but, like Sans, phul, 
applied to other kinds ; G. afl, aeple ; Swed. aple ; T 
apfel ; B. appel, from G. afla, afala, to produce from, 
to bring forth ; the name was applied also to the Acorn, 
which the Goths considered a production of Paradise. 

2. The pupil of the eye ; either from its apple form, or a 
corruption of L. pupula ; It. pupilla. 

APPOSE, v. a. to question, puzzle. See to POSE. 

APPRAISE, v. a. to value, set a price on. 

APPRENTICE, *. a covenanted servant who binds himself 
to learn a trade or profession ; F. apprenti, from L. 

APPRIZE, v. a. to inform, to let know ; F. appris, in- 
formed, from L. apprehendo. 

APPROACH, v. a. to draw near, come up to ; F. approcher, 
from L. appropinquo. 

APPROVE, v. a. to like, allow of, render acceptable, shew, 
prove, justify, commend ; F. approuver ; L. approbo. 

APRICOT, s. a fruit resembling a peach ; O. E. alberge ; 
8p. albaricoque ; Port, albrico ; F. abricot, may per- 
haps be albiit persicut : but ETIJ*, plum of Epirus, 
is mentioned by Pliny ; A. kakh ; T. quetche ; Kxx, 

A R G 

might have produced Biftxmct, which was a barbarous 
name for an Armenian apple ; A. barkok. 

APRIL FQOL is a person sent on a foolish errand on the first 
day of that month. This custom is practised in France, 
anil also in Hindoostan, at the Imli ; as the Persian 
year anciently began with the first of April. 

APHON, s. a part of dress, a barm cloth ; G. brong ; W. 
and Arm. bron, the breast, may have produced F. ap- 
pronier ; W. apron; I. abran ; which is It. grembiale, 
from L. gremiwn. 

AQUA VIT.S, L. water of life, brandy; F. eau de vie, and 
I. usque buach, have the same meaning. See WHISKY. 

AR, in the names of rivers, is generally G. a, ar ; P. 
jar ; a river. See A. 

AR, s. a cut, scar, cicatrice, furrow ; G. cerr ; Isl. and 
Swed. cer ; D. and Scot, arr, from Isl. cera, to cut, 
plough, reap. See SCAR and SHEAR. 

ARABLE, a. fit for the plough, tillable ; L. arabilis, from 

iim ; 'AJ' ; G. aria; Isl. cera, to plough. See EAR. 
ARAC, s. A. vrak, a general name for distilled spirits, 

but properly with us the spirit of toddy. 
ARBALET, ARBALIST, s. a cross-bow ; F. arbalete, from 

L. areas, and BXX. 
ARBOUR, *. a shaded seat, a trellis of green branches. 

ARCH, in composition, signifies high, chief, from "A{x, 

which, like T. ertz ; B. aarts, properly means first or 

foremost in rank. See EARL. 
ARCH, ARC, s. part of a circle, a bow ; F. arc ; L. arcus ; 

A. alquos, from kaus, a bow. 

ABCH, a. witty, shrewd, waggish ; G. argrvilz, malicious 
wit ; Swed. arg ; S. and B. arg, malignant ; Arm. 
argtvez, intelligence. See Wis. 

ARCHER, *. from ARCH, one who shoots with a bow ; F. 
archer ; It. arciero. 

ARCHES COURT, the most ancient consistorial court ; L. 

B. curia de arc.ubus, or arccps, is supposed by some 
to be curia de archepiscopus ; by others from being held 
in Bow Church, which, like Bow Bridge, was called ar- 
cubus, arches ; but arceps is said to have been used, 
in law, for archives. 

ARCHITRAVE, *. F. a beam or stone serving instead of 
an arch ; It. arcotrave, from L. arcus and Irabs. 

ARCHIVE, *. ancient record ; F. archive ; L. B. archiva, 
arcibvm, from A{IOT(;. 

AHD, in forming the names of places, particularly in Ire- 
land, signifies high ; from I. ard ; Arm. arth, arz ; G. 

ARD, *. origin, condition, quality, disposition ; is used 
now only in compound words, such as coward, drunk- 
ard, dastard ; G. art ; S. ard ; T. art ; B. aarl, aard, 
from G. ar, or ; S. ord, the beginning of a thing. See 

ARE, t>. a. to plough, to till ; G. aria 'A{* ; L. aro ; S. 
cart an. See to EAR. 

ARE, plural of the present tense of the verb to be ; G. 
ar, tr ; Swed. ar ; D. ere. See to BE. 

AREAD, v. a. to advise, direct ; S. arcdan. See to REDB. 

AHGAL, *. the salt or tartar from the lees of wine ; A. 
alkali. See ORGAL. 

AROIL, *. clay ; P. al gil ; "A{yiA ; L. argilln ; . argile. 
See CLAY. 

ARGOSY, s. a large merchant ship ; Heb. argos ; L. area ; 
G. aurk, signified an ark or large vessel ; whence, It. 



aggozino ; F. argousin, from G. aurkasrvein ; the mas- 
ter of a ship. See BOATSWAIN. 

ARK, s. 1. a ship; Heb. argos ; L. area; G. aurk ; T. 
arcke, Noah's ark. 

2. A chest ; G. aurk ; L. area ; It. area ; Arm. and W. 

3. The curve of a circle. See ARCH. 

ARM, s. 1. a limb, a branch, a member; G. arm; T. 
arm ; B. arm ; S. earm ; L. armus. 

2. A weapon of war ; L. anna ; It. arma ; F. arme, per- 
haps from A^iftxr/t',. 

AROYNT, ad. a word of exprobation ; L. B. aurina, a 
mystical word used to exorcise or allay ; G. run, runn, 
raun, in different dialects ; W. ryn ; I. run, signified 
religion, sorcery ; and produced alraun, araun, a name 
for the herb mandrake. 

ARRAGII, an Irish interjection. See OHA. 

ARRAIGN, v. a. to put in order, to accuse, indict ; but 
properly to prepare for trial. See ARRANGE. 

ARRANGE, v. a. to put into line, place or order. See 

ARRAY, s. line, order of war or battle, regularity, dress, 
apparel ; L. B. arrigo was used like L. dirigo, to ar- 
ray ; but G. ra ; P. radah, rah ; T. reye ; B. root ; F. 
raye ; Sclav, rad ; Swed. rad, arad ; It. arredo; Sp. 
arreo ; F. array ; P. araish, a line, order, arrangement ; 
Isl. rada, to put in order, to dress. See RANGE. 

ARREAR, s. 1. what is behind. See REAR. 

2. What is unpaid, as being behind or in the rear ; but 

L. B. cerarium, from ass ceris, is a debt. 
ARREST, v. a. to seize, stop, apprehend, fix, decree ; F. 

arreter ; It. arrestare from L. resto. 
ARREST, AHRET, s. 1. from the verb, a decree, a writ, 

a power to arrest. 

2. A mangy humour, from its resemblance to an ear of 
corn ; F. areste ; L. arista. 

ARRIVE, v. n. to come to, to reach a place or period, to 

happen ; It. arrivare ; Sp. arribar ; F. arriver ; Arm. 

arrivant ; supposed to be from L. riva ; It. riva ; F. rive, 

a brink, a limit 
ARROW, s. a pointed missile weapon ; G. aur, arma, 

arfnta ; S. arerve ; Swed. arf ; W. arf. 
ARSE, s. the buttock, fundament ; G. rass, signifying 

also a discharge, as we use it in mill race; Swed. ras, 

ars ; T. ars ; B. aars ; D. ars. 
ARSENAL, *.a warlike magazine; Sp. arzinal; F. arcenal; 

It. arsenale, perhaps from AJJ; rvmteu. 
ARSENIC, s. a strong mineral poison; A^mniut/, mansbane ; 

corrupted into A. zernick. 
ARSON, s. a law term for house-burning ; F. arson, from 

L. ardeo, arsi. 

ART, *. 1. skill, cunning, science ; L. ars ; F. art ; It. arte. 
"2. Direction, position, place ; G. art ; Swed. and T. art ; 

S. orde, eart ; I. aird. See ARD, WARD and WARDS. 

3. Compulsion ; O. E. arten, to constrain, from L. arcto. 
ARTS LIBERAL, are arithmetic, geometry, music, astro- 
nomy, grammar, rhetoric and logic. 

ARTICHOKE, s. an esculent plant; It. carciocco, carcioffb, 
cardo ciocco, articiocco ; F. artichaut ; Sp. artichofa ; 
the three first of the Italian names are cognate with 
our chards ; and ciocco, signifying a tuft of hair, is G. 
skegg, our shag, if not KW; but G. aurtiskegg; Swed. 
orii!tkicEg,ortskocka; D. artisftok; E.artischoc/c, literally 

is beard-wort. See WORT, a general name for pot- 
herbs, and SHAG. 

ARTILLERY,*, cannon, large ordnance ; It. artilleria; F- 
artillerie; L. B. tirogrilli, denoted warlike engines; and 
F. atirail included harness and accoutrements, corre- 
sponding with our word train, which is also applied 
to artillery; and together with-it, attilare, attirare, to 
draw, tirare, to shoot, are all from L. traho. 

As, conj. so, in the same manner, because ; G. a*, asa, 
from a, to be, and so ; T. als for also ; Sans, as ; Greek 
. Our as and so seem to have been the same word. 

ASCAUNCE, ad. sidewise, scornfully. See ASKANCE. 

ASH, *. a genus of trees; G. ask ; S. asc ; T. asch ; B. eschc. 

ASH-COLOURED, the colour of ashes ; F. cendre. 

ASHES, *. the remains of what is burnt ; G. aska ; T. 
asche ; B. assche ; S. asca, from Heb. esh; G. eysa; 
P. azish, fire ; Sans, oosh, to burn. 

ASHLAR, *. an unhewn stone ; Scot, aislair, from layer 
a stratum, a quarry. 

ASK, v. a. to inquire, beg, demand ; G. and Swed. askia ; 
T. aischen; S. ascian, from seek. See BESEECH. 

ASK, s. a lizard; S. alhexe ; T. eidexe ; Isl. eth. 

ASKANCE, ASKAUNT, ad. sidewise, scornfully. See 

ASKEW, ad. sidewise, obliquely. See SKEW. 

ASLANT, ad. sloping off, obliquely, on one side. See 

ASP, *. 1 . a venomous serpent ; A. Azima; 'Anrif ; L. aspif. 

2. A tree, a species of poplar ; T. asp ; S. espe ; D. cespe ; 
B. espen ; G. as and btfa; S. bifian, to tremble. 

ASPARAGUS, s. an esculent plant, speerage; 'AoWjayas ; L. 
asparagus ; F. asperge ; It. sparago. 

Ass, *. a beast of burden, a stupid person ; S. assa ; L 
asinus, from M. G. Auso ; Out ; the hare is also 
named from ear. 

ASSART, s. ground cleared from the roots of trees ; F. 
essart ; L. B. assartum from L. exaro. See SAHT. 

ASSASSIN, s. a base secret murderer ; F. assassin ; It. as- 
sassino. It was also written Sp. asesino ; It. asessino, 
supposed to be It. assedere, assessere, from L. sedeo, 
to lie in wait, to waylay.- To be assassinated does not 
always signify, in Italy, to be slain ; but to be set upon 
with murderous intent. The supposition that the 
name originated with a banditti near mount Lebanon, 
who were descendants of the P. Arsaces, appears to be 
fabulous, but A. hassa, hasasa, signifies he slew. 

ASSAY, v. a. to try, inquire, endeavour, prove; F. essay er; 
It. assagiare, from L. sapio, sagio ; G. ascekia ; D. 
ascege ; T. versuchen, to try, examine, are cognate with 
our verb to seek. 

ASSEMBLE, v. to bring or meet together ; F. assembler ; 
It. assemblare ; L. simulo ; G. and Swed. sambla, samla; 
D. samle, to collect, are cognate with our same and 
lay ; in one position. 

ASSIZE, s. a court of justice, an ordinance or statute, a re- 
gulation of measure or size ; F. assise; L. sessio. L. 
sedeo, and G. seta, sessa, correspond in nearly all their 
significations ; to sit, to set, to remain stationary, to 
fix, to plant, to legislate ; and G. and T. selz, gesetz, 
signify precept, statute. See LAW. 

ASSWAGE, v. to abate, mitigate, ease ; F. soulager, in this 
sense, is from L. sublevo, and from sublatio; L. B. su- 
latio, diminution ; but our word appears to be Swed. 
srvaga ; T. schwachen, to enfeeble. See WEAK. 

ASTONISH, ASTOUND, v. a. to amaze, terrify ; F. estonner, 
etonner, from L. attono. 

A V A 


ASYLUM, *. a refuge, a sanctuary ; "A<n/Xo, immunity of 
the church. 

AT, prej). near to, by, with ; G. at j S. eet; Swecl. at; M. 
G. at ; W. at ; L. ad ; G. at, ata, la. Our at and to 
seem to have been the same word ; the Swedes say 
gif at mig, give to me; and scega at en, to say to 
some one. See To. 

ATABAL, *. a kind of drum; A. tabal ; F. atabale, a 
Moorish tabor. 

ATE, pret. of to eat. 

ATHANOR, s. a furnace ; A. and P. tanoor, an oven ; Heb. 
tannour, from aour, heat. 

ATHELING, s. a young noble; S. T. addling, from G. add, 
noble, and ug, our young. G. celt, pedigree, pro- 
duced also celfka a youth of rank, which was written 
overt to designate the son of Hengist. See ADELIN. 

ATLAS, *. 1. a collection of geographical maps ; the name 
of a mountain ; A. and P. atlos, heaven, the universe, 
the sky. 

2. Satin, or satin paper of a large size manufactured in the 
East. A. utlas; D. atlask ; B. atlass ; F. atlas. 

ATONE, v. to expiate, agree, answer for ; G. itna, atuna, 
to favour, to conciliate, seems to be the same with 
sauna; Swed. sona ; T. sitna, to reconcile, make com- 
pensation, redeem; whence L. B. zona, atonement. L. 
ail uno, to unite, partakes in something of the same 

ATTACH, v. a. to lay hold of, arrest, join, adhere ; G. 
takti, to hold, to arrest, has affinity to L. tango, tactum, 
which produced Sp. atacar ; It. attacare; F. attacher, 
to fix, fasten. See TACK. 

ATTACK, t>. a. to assault, to encounter ; F. attaquer; Sp. 
atacar, seem to be synonimous with the terms applied 
in the verb to attach, and to have the same origin ; P. 
takh ; G. atulk signify assault, aggression. 

ATTAIN, v. to touch, arrive at, reach, apprehend ; F. at- 

teindre from L. attingo. 
ATTAINDER, s. 1. the act of attaining or arriving at. See 


2. The act of accusing or convicting. See to ATTAINT. 
ATTAINT, v. a. 1. to accuse, reach, convict; L. attingo; 

F. attcindre; whence L. B. atlinctus ; F. atteint. 
2. To find guilty, to taint, to disgrace ; L. al lamina. See 


ATTAINTURE, s. a stain, slur, reproach. See ATTAINT. 
ATTEMPT, v. to try, endeavour, attack, invade ; L. at- 

tento; F. atletiter. 
ATTEND, . a. to wait on, listen to, stay for ; L. altendo ; 

F. altendre. 
ATTER, *. venom, puss; G. eytur; Swed. elter ; T.eler ; 

S. ater ; whence, S. alter ; D. adder, a spider. See 

ATTIRE, s. from TIRE, dress, ornament ; F. atour, signified 

dress, from alounier, to arrange. See TURN. 

ATTORNEY, s. a practitioner in the law, supposed by 
some to be L. actnaritis nolus ; butF. attournc is from 
tour, a business, action, office. See TURN. 

AVALE, r. a. to lower, let down; F. avaler, from ancient 
val ; Arm. gtral, low. 

AVANT, prep, before, forth ; F. avant ; It. avanti ; 
L ante. 

AVAST, v. cease, stop ; F. avaste ; It. Sp. Port, basta, it 
is enough. It. atsai ; F. atsez from L. satis have the 
same meaning with basta, which is perhaps corrupted 
from obtal : unless possibly A. and P. has, basast ; 

Chald. baslaii, mastan, enough, sufficient, may have 

been adopted in Spain from the Moors. 
AUBURN, a. brownish coloured. See ALBURN. 
AVENS, *. an herb ; L. B. alicnitus. See BENNETT. 
AVENUE, s. an approach, a road leading to a mansion ; 

F. avenue, from L. venio. 
AVER, r. to verify, to assert as true, to affirm; F. averer, 

from L. verus. 
AVERA, s. in law, day labour performed by a tenant for 

the lord of the manor; F. oeuvre, from L. opus, operis. 
AVERAGE, *. 1. from the verb to AVER, a medium or true 


2. In law, from AVEBA, service done for the king or 
lord; F. ouvrage, from L. operatio. 

3. In navigation, a contribution made by merchants for 
the losses of such as have their goods thrown over 
board in a storm to save the ship ; It. avaria ; F. 
avarie ; B. havery; D. havarie; T. haj'ery; perhaps from 
G. liaf, the sea; but more probably, It. averie, /in- 
vert, wares, goods, from L. habco ; G. liavo. 

4. Any duty paid for transport of wares or port rates ; 
It. haven, avert, goods, effects, from L. habere ; called 
hamn penningar, haven penny, by the Swedes; L. B. 

AVERIA, s. hi law, work cattle in general ; L. B. a/ra, 

a work-horse. See AVEHA. 
AUF, *. 1. a booby, a dolt ; B. oafs, aukward, from G. 


2. An elf; B. alf. 
AUGER, *. a carpenter's tool, a borer; G. cegger ; T. 

fgger; B. atieger ; S. hauegar, from G. ceg, a sharp 

AUGHT, pron. any thing, the smallest thing ; G. wcet, 

tvaiht ; T. tvicht, ovaiht ; S. auht, aivhit. See WHIT. 
AUGUST, s. the harvest month, from L. augeo, to increase- 
AUK, s. a kind of goose ; Isl. and T. attke ; It. occa ; G- 

aa, water. 
AUKWAHD, a. unhandy, inelegant; T. ktvar ; Scot, kar, 

crosswise, left-handed ; Scot, aivknart, and athwart. 


ACNCEL, *. an instrument for weighing. See OUNCEL 
AUNT, *. a father's or mother's sister ; F. ante, tante, 

from L. amila. 

AVOID, v. to shun, escape ; L. evilo. 
AVOUCH, v. a. to affirm, vindicate. See VOUCH. 
Avow, . a. to declare, justify ; F. avouer. See VOUCH. 
AVOWSON, *. the right of presenting to a living; F. avo- 
cation, from L. <i<l r<n-ii/ in. 

AWAKE, a. from WAKE, not sleeping ; It. avaca. 
AWARD, v. a. to adjudge, value, appraise; G. werda ; 

Swed. narda, to state the worth ; T. aneorht, merit. 

AWARE, a. attentive, vigilant, cautious; G. and Swed. 

mar ; S. ware, from G. tvera ; S. iverian. See WARE. 
AWAY, ad. at a distance ; S. arveg ; It. via. See WAT. 
AWE, *. 1. dread, fear, terror; G. ago, oga ; S. oga ; 

D. ame. 
2. Reverence, attention, consideration ; G. ahuga, from 

hug, the mind. 
AWL, s. a pointed tool to bore holes ; G. allur; T. ahle ; 

S. al; F. alene. 
AWME, *. a tierce, containing 39 gallons ; G. aom ; T. 

ame ; B. aam ; D. ahme ; L. amphora. 
AWN, s. 1. a covering or hull ; G. hauln, from hulgian ; T. 

hullen, to cover. 

A Y 

A Z U 

2. The beard growing out of corn or grass; G. agn; Swed. 

ahn ; T. aan ; Scot, arvne, from G. cegg ; tV A^i 
AWNING, . a covering, a shade. See AWN. 
Ax, s. a sharpened tool ; G. aux, ex ; Swed. yxe ; T. ax, 

akes ; S. eax ; L. ascia. 
AXEL, AXLE, s. that on which a wheel turns; L. axis, 

axilla ; F. axe ; Sp. exe , S. eax ; T. achse ; T. acA*e/ ; 

Swed. axel, signified the shoulder joint, Scot, oxter. 
AY, ad. yea, yes; A. ays G. ai, aia,ja. See YEA. 

AYE, ad. always, ever, forever ; G.ce t 'Alt ; Swed. aa ; S. 

nan ; B. iicli. 
AYGBEEN, *. an herb, evergeen; from aye and green; 

G. aegraen. 
AZIMUTH, s. the vertical point in measuring the sky; A. 

azmul, high. 
AZURE, a. blue, pale blue, sky-coloured; A. azruk ; P. 

ajuwr, al ajutvr, lajutvr ; L. B. lasulus ; Port, and 

Sp. azul; F. azure. 


B A C 

BTHE second letter of the alphabet, is pronounced by 
J pressing the whole length of the lips together, and 
forcing them open with a strong breath. The Latins, 
anciently, as the Spaniards, Russians, Gascons and 
Irish do now, used it instead of V, particularly at the 
beginning of words. The Celts substituted it for their 
Gw, V, M, F; and among the Saxons, B, F, P, V, W 
were written almost indiscriminately. It is therefore 
in English a prevailing initial ; and the more so from 
the common use of Be as a prefix. 

BAA, s. the cry of sheep ; ftrj, from the sound ; and conse- 
quently our pronunciation of the Greek word is wrong. 
BAAL, s. a. Canaanitish idol ; Heb. and Chald. bal, bel ; 
ftaxx. A. and P. bal, high, a king, the sun, apparently 
the same with Alah, Alt or Eli. 

BABBLE, v. a. to prate childishly, to tell secrets ; It. 
babillare ; F. babiller ; T. babeln ; D. bable. See 

BABE, s. an infant of either sex; Heb. babah; Syr. baba ; 
B'a/ Isl. babe; W. bab, mub; I. bob, probably from 
aba; P. baba, a father; as G.cett, offspring, from atta. 
See DAD. 

BABOON, *. a large kind of monkey with a short tail ; A. 
baaba ; HaWojjL. B.papio; T. bavian; It. babbio; F. 
babouin. Babon is said to have been the name of an 
Egyptian deity, and the ape sacred to Apis. 
BACHELOR, . 1. a man unmarried ; L. B. bacalarius, 
bascalarius, bassus cavalerius ; F. bas chevalier, the 
lowest order of knighthood. It denoted celibacy, be- 
cause on marriage the title was forfeited. 
2. One who has taken a degree at the university, and 
holds the rank of senior, contracted into Sir ; L. B. 
bacularius, batularius, from baculus, batulus, a staff, 
the emblem of authority ; whence F. bacheleur ; It. 
batalo. See BATOON and STAFF. 
BACK, s. the hinder part of a thing; G. and Swed. bak ; 

8. bac ; D. bag. 

BACKGAMMON, *. a game with dice; G. back, beck, a table 
or bench, and gaman; Scot, eamyn, a game. We 
call the board on which it is played a table ; but G. 
tajl gaman (was from fall, chance; S. tcefel ; Swed. 
tqfivcll; T. dqffcl, doppel, a die, whence Port, lafular, 
to game particularly with dice,) and also denoted the 
game of chess; from tafia; Swed. icefla, to contend, 
afia, to vie. See ABLE. 

BACON, *. hog's flesh salted and dried ; T. bache, a hog, 
is said to have produced T. bachen ; L. B. baconet ; 

B A I 

F. bacon ; W. baccwn, signifying lard ; but our word 
seems to be connected with baken, dried by fire. 
See to BAKE. 

BAD, a. wicked, vicious, defective, sick ; G. va, vad ; S. 
vea, vo, vod, corresponding with P. bad; Sclav, bieda, 
having G. vaer and vaerst, our worse and worst, for 
its degrees of comparison. It has erroneously been 
supposed to be B. quad, contracted from G. ugccd. 

BADGE, s. a mark of distinction; G. bod tyg; T. hot zeug; 
S. bod sign, token or sign of office ; G. badgia, autho- 
rity. See BEADLE. 

BADGER, *. 1. an animal called a brock ; W. baed zaear, 
and daiar htveh alike signify earth hog, corresponding 
with the Swed. name grafswin : but G. belt goor, the 
baiting gour, may have produced F. badgcur and be- 
doiie. See GOUR, BAUSEN and GRAY. 

2. A pedlar, a porter, from fittrru^tt It. bastaggio, bas- 

BADGER, v. a. to excite, to irritate; G. beit gera. See to 

BAFF, BOFF, BUFF, v. a. to refuse, evade, put off; from 

be off, like DOFF, for do off. 
BAFFLE, v. a. from BAFF, to elude, confound ; F. befler 

signifies to befool, to mock. 
BAFT, ad. after, behind ; S. bceft. See AFT. 

BAG, s. a sack, purse, pouch ; P. bag, bugh ; G. fiagge, 
balg ; D. bag ; S. beige ; W. bulga ; L. B. biilga. See 

BAGATELLE, *. a trifle, a gewgaw, a jest; Sp. vagadilla, 
bagadilla, from L. vagus, may have produced It. baga- 
tetla ; F. bagatelle ; but It. baiatella, from baia ; G. 
and Swed. hta, jest, mockery, has the same meaning. 

BAGGAGE, s. 1. luggage, army utensils; generally sup- 
posed to be from BAG ; F. bagage ; It. bagaglio ; but 
our word may be Batage or Package. See BAT. 

2. A worthless woman ; A. baghaza ; It. bagasia ; F. 

BAGNIO, .v. a bath, a stew, a house of ill fame; It. bagno; 
F. bain ; Arm. bagen ; L. balneum ; favttf, a stove. 
See STEW. 

BAIL, s. security, pledge, accommodation ; L. B. baila, 
signifies, in law, the responsibility of those persons to 
whom a prisoner is delivered in charge, on condition 
that he shall be forthcoming when required for trial ; 

B A L 


It. balio, a guardian,, from L. bajulor, is supposed to 
have been used in this sense ; but F. bail, a farm, 
battler, to let a farm ; T. belehen, to pledge, lend, con- 
cede, seem to be derived from G. lea, Ha ; S. lihan, 
which produced our LEASE, LET, LEND, and G. Ian, a 
feudal tenure. See BAILLIE. 

BAILLIE, BAILV, s. 1. a person who exercises jurisdic- 
tion for a superior ; L. B. balius, bajulus ; Arm. beli, 
bailli; F. baillie ; It. balio ; Scot, baity, a sheriff; T. 
baley ; Sp. bayle, a legate. See BAIL. 

2. Jurisdiction, the inclosure round a court of justice; T. 
baley ; F. bailie ; L. B. bajula, ballia. 

BAILIFF, s. the servant of a judiciary or manorial court; 
L. balivus. See BAILLIE. 

BAIRN, s. a child, male or female; G. and S. barn; P. 
birna ; Heb. bara ; P. and Sans, bar ; M. G. baura, a 
child, being all cognates of the verb to bear. See 

BAIT, v. a. 1. from EAT, to feed, to put food to tempt ani- 
mals, to take refreshment on a journey; G. and Swed. 
beta ; S. batan ; /3t$a, from L. edo, G. eta, to eat. See 

2. To excite, rouse, irritate, contend ; G. beita ; Swed. 
beta ; T. beizen ; G. beita Horn, to bear-bait, from G. 
etia, eita. 

BAIT, *. from the verb, refreshment, temptation, an al- 
lure; Swed. bete; T.baitze; P. pud ; ftvrts ; W.bwyd; 

F. appas is from na, and L. esca corresponded with 
our word. See MEAT and LURE. 

BAIZE, s. a kind of rough, open woollen cloth ; B. baije; 
T. boy. See BAY YARN. 

BAKE, v. to cook, to harden at the fire ; G. baka ; Swed. 
baga ; D. bage ; B. bakken ; S. bcecan. ; P. pakhtan, 
pukhtan, are perhaps cognate with Sans, agn ; P. va, 
vag, bag, baks, fire, heat ; fta, to warm ; whence Phry- 
gian bek ; Scot, bake, a cake. See BASK. 

BAKER SHIN, a round projecting shin ; T. bauch ; B. 
buik, a belly, a protuberance. 

BALANCE, s. a pair of scales, the difference of an account ; 
L. bilanx ; It. bilancia ; F. balance. 

BALAS RUBY, F. balais from Balaheia or Balassia, now 
Badahshan, where it is found. 

BALCONY, s. a small gallery placed on the outside of a 
house; It. balco, balcone ; F. balcon. P. bala khanu, 
is an upper story, bal kanah, a lattice window ; but 

G. balk is a platform, and kunna, to observe. 

BALD, s. 1. without hair, naked, defective ; Sp. pelado ; 

F. pelade ; Scot, peild, from L. pilatus. G. blot, how- 
ever signified bare. See BLOT. 

2. White, light-coloured ; /Ja/ioj ; Arm. baill; I. ball. 
BALDEKYN, BAWDEKYN, *. a rich stuff brought from 

Baldach, now Bagdad. 
BALDERDASH, BLADERISH, *. unnatural mixture; G. 

bladur, blandur; Scot, bladder, a mish mash, a medley. 

BALDMONEY, BLITHEMONEY, *. an herb ; from Bold or 

Blithe prefixed to meum, the botanical name, vulgarly 

men, common spignel. 
BALDRICK, *. a girdle, belt, the Zodiac ; T. balderich ; 

Swed. balte ; L. baltea. See BELT. 
BALE, v. a. to throw out water from a ship; from F. baile; 

Swed. balja ; B. baalie ; L. pala, a shovel or flat pail. 
BALE, s. 1. a round package of goods ; B. baal; T. ballen; 

F. Italic ; Sp. balon. See BALL and BOWL. 
2. Evil, misery ; G. bal, bol; B. bal ; S. beal, evil ; A. bala, 

biila, misfortune. 

BALEFUL, a. from the noun, hurtful, direful ; S. bealo- 

BALK, s. a division, separation, intermission, interval ; 
and thence a beam or rafter in a building ; G. Swed. 
T. B. balk ; S. and W. bah .- Swed. balk is a section 
or chapter in a book, the shore, a ridge separating 
fields, or furrows ; and bielk, T. belck, a chain of hills. 
It is probable that in these different significations G. 
bil, an interstice, and bol, a beam, have been con- 

BALK, v. a. to disappoint, frustrate, intervene , from the 

BALKER, BALCONNEH, *. a person placed on an eminence 
of the shore to observe the movements of the shoals of 
fish ; from G. balk, a ridge or bank, and kunna to ob- 
serve. See CONDEH. 

BALL, *. 1. any thing of a round form; G. haul; Swed. 
loll B.ball; T. ball; F. balle ; n*';a ; L. pila ; It. 

2. The hollow of the foot or hand; G. haul, signified ro- 
tundity, either concave or convex. See BOWL. 

3. A dance; F. bal; It. balio; B. bal, fromftaMa for /3 
aAAoftai ; L. B. balio, to skip, to dance. 

BALLAD, s. a trifling song, either from ball, a dance, or 
G. Hod ; T. lied ; I. laoidh, a song. See LAY. 

BALLAST, *. the loading necessary to keep a boat steady; 
Swed. ballast ; S. bathlcest ; Arm. balastr, from bat, a 
boat, and G. ladst ; S. Mast ; F. lest ; T. last, a load. 
See LAST. 

BALLOON, s. from BALL, a term chiefly applied to a globu- 
lar silken apparatus for containing air, a chymical ves- 
sel ; F. ballon t It. ballone. 

BALLOT, s. a little ball, a paper folded in that form, par- 
ticularly for drawing lots, a chance. 
BALLOT, v . a. from the noun to choose by ballot. 

BALM, *. a plant, a lenient ointment; F. baume, contract- 
ed from BALSAM. 

BALUSTER, s. a small column ; F. balustre; It. balaustro, 
from L. palus. See PILASTER. 

BALUSTRADE, s. the railings of a staircase; F. balustrade. 

BAM, s. a cheat, a deception ; S. bam, from ba both, 
signifies duplicity, equivoque; G. vam is a defect, 

BAMBOO, s. the longest kind of reed; Sans, ban mihr; P. 
baghamdoo ; F. bambon. 

BAMBOOZLE, v. a. to deceive, to impose on; from 6am, a 
cheat, and G. suiga, suigla ; S. besuigan, to swindle. 

BAN, *. authority, public decree or notice, 'proscription, 
interdict, excommunication; L. B. bannus; Sclav, ban, 
a governor; G.far ; Sp. banar, a lord; F. ban, banal, 
feudal, public. In Hungary and Croatia the govern- 
ments are still called bannats. T. bann includes, with 
the other meanings, ecclesiastical jurisdiction, excom- 
munication. G. banna ; S. bannan, signified also to 
denounce, proscribe, reject, execrate. The princes of 
Germany, when delinquents, are placed under the ban 
of the Empire. 

BAND, s. a tie, a fascia, restriction, obligation, associa- 
tion, point of union, a banner, brigade ; G. bound, 
band; P. Sans. T. Swed. S. band; D. F. B. bande ; 
It. Sp. Port, banda. See to BIND. 

BANDITTI, s. pi. 1. men outlawed, banished; plur. of It. 
banditto; Sp. bandido ; F. bandit, an outlaw. See 

, s. pi. 
>; Sp. 



2. An association of persons for illegal purposes, robbers. 
See BAND. 

BANDOG, s. from BAND ; a dog kept chained during the 
day on account of his ferocity ; D. hind hand. 

BANDOLEER, *. a belt with small cases for holding cart- 
ridges ; B. bandelftr, from band, and leer, a leathern 
case; F. Itandouilere ; Sp. bandelera. 

BANDON, s. from BAND, a tie, connexion, obligation, re- 
striction, reserve; F. bandon ; It. bandone ; L. B. ban- 
dum ; Scot bandoun. In French it signified feudal 
devotion, and was so used by Chaucer. See LIBOE. 

BANDOBK, *. a corded instrument of music, called vul- 
garly Banjour; nJ{ ; L. pandvra ; Sp. bandura. 

BANDY, *. a crooked bat for striking a ball, the game so 
played. See BEND. 

BANDY, v. a. to beat to and fro, as a ball with a bandy, 
to agitate. 

BANE, *. poison, mischief, destruction; G. bane; S. bana ; 
T. bana ; Arm. gtvana, death. 

BANG, v. a. to beat, stamp, strike, treat with violence ; 
G.banga; T. bengen; D. banke ; Scot, bang; Ii.pango; 
Hotiu. See PENNY. 

BANGLE, . a. to be pendulous, to hang loosely, to trifle; 
T. behenglen ; S. behangan, from G. hanga. See 

BANISH, v. a. to drive away, to exile, to proscribe, out- 
law ; F. bannir ; B. banncn ; S. abannan. See BAN. 

BANISTER, s. the railing of a stair, properly BALUSTER. 

BANK, *. a ridge of earth, an elevation, mound, mass, 
heap, store of money ; G. bvnke, banke, bake, backa ; 
Swed. backe, bank; S. bane; T. bank ; F. banque; It. 
banco; L. B. bancus ; Iluytf. See MOUNT. 

BANNER, s. a standard, flag, streamer, a military en- 
sign; A. bend, band; G. bending; S. handier, banslgn; 
Swed. and D. banner; T. ban, baner, banner; B. former,- 
It. bandiera; F. handier, banniere; Sp. bandera; Arm. 
banier; W. baner, are supposed to be from band ; but 
may have been confounded -with fan, ban, a sovereign, 
as noticed above. Thus G. banding, composed of ban, 
and ding or thing from thinga, to assemble, would 
signify a gonfanon ; G. fanon ; Swed. fana ; T. 
fahne; M. G. fana; F.fanion; Scot, fannoun, seem 
to have partaken of L. pannus, which has been trans- 
lated into F. drapeau. See FANE, GONFANON, PEN- 

BANNERET, s. a knight made in the field, under the 
dominion of the banner. 

BANNOCK, s. a thick cake baked before the fire. See 

BANQUET, s. a formal repast ; T. and B. banket ; F. 
banquet ; It. banchetto ; from Bank or Bench, a table, 
and perhaps Eat ; signifying a formal repast 

BANS. *. public annunciations of intended marriage ; F. 
bans. See BAN. 

BANSTICLE, *. a small prickly fish ; Swed. hen stickel. 

BANTER, v. a. to rally, to ridicule ; It. bnion dire, dar la 
baia ; F. donner de bales. See BAGATELLE and BOORD. 

BANTLING, *. a little child, a bastard ; G. haugant ; S. 
bugund, signify deviating, bending from the right 
course ; T. banckllng, however, denoted a by-blow, 
a child begotten on a bank, and not in the marriage 
bed. See BASTARD. 

BAR, *. a rail, a bolt, an impediment, inclosure, a place 
for arraigning criminals ; Arm. W. I. barr; F. barre; 
It. barra; Sp. barra; B. han't, a bolt, a rail; in which 


sense L. vara was used, by Vitruvius, and is still 
vara, bara, in Port, and Sp ; T. barre is an inclosure, 
and, like Sp. barra, an impediment; Arm, \V. and I. 
barre, barn, beara ; F. harreau, jurisprudence, in the 
sense of L. canceling. See CHANCERY. 

BARB, s. 1. a beard, the beard of a hook or arrow ; F. 
barbc, from L. barba. 

2. A horse from Barbary. 

BARBACAN, s. a fortified gate, a tower, an outwork ; S. 
harbacen; F. barbacan; fip. barbacano ; but It. baba- 
can is supposed to be A. bob baka, a gate house. 

BARBARY, s. a country in Africa; A. Barbary h; P. Ba- 
rabur, from Ber Ber, the name of the people of Mo- 
rocco and Nubia, with whom heri- signifies a terri- 

BARBECUE, . a wooden frame placed over a fire for 
baking by the inhabitants of South America ; bi(iri/>i. 
in their language signifying roasted. See BUC- 

BARBERRY, *. a kind of sour berry ; P. barbari ; L. B. 
berberis. See BERRY. 

BARD, s. the ancient name for a poet in Britain ; Swed. 
D. T. bard; Arm. W. I. bardd ; L. B. bardut ; G. 
radd ; Swed. rddd; I. rhaidd; B. rey; O. E. raye, was 
song : T. rehen, berehen, to dance, to sing ; bar, song. 
The scald, or poet of the Goths, is supposed to be 
from gala, skala, to sing, cognate with our gall, as in 
nightingale. The Bards had great influence with the 
people ; and, aware that it could not subsist under a 
foreign domination, they became obnoxious to the 
Romans, who persecuted them and misrepresented 
their religion for political purposes. The men of 
song soon disappeared, and with them the ancient 
strains of their national melody. See DRUID. 

BARE, a. naked, smooth, plain, evident; G. bar; P. 
bahur ; T. bar; S. bare; B. bar. 

BARGAIN, s. a contract, stipulation, exchange, purchase ; 
F. barguigne; It. bargagno; Arm. bargagn; W. haryen, 
from G. beorga ; S. borgean ; T. borgen, to accommo- 
date. See to BORROW. 

BARGE, *. a large row-boat ; B. barjie; F. barge, berge, 
the diminutive of Bark. 

BARILLA, s. a species of sea-weed or kali, burnt into 
ashes ; Sp. barilla ; A. bar is the sea. 

BARK, v . a. to make a noise like a dog ; G. berka ; S. 
beorcan, from G. rakka. See RACK and BRACK. 

BARK, s. 1. the rind of a tree ; G. and Swed. bark, sup- 
posed to be from G. berga, to cover, to protect. 

2. A ship ; A. bark; B. bark; F. barque; It. barca. See 

BARKEN, s. a small farm-yard ; diminutive of G. b<er, a 
dwelling. See BARTON. 

BARLEY, *. a grain of which malt is made ; M. G. bar ; 
T. here, beer; S. here ; Scot, bar, beer: barlig, barlike, 
signifies being like bar ; and Heb. Syr. P. bar, grain, 
are all cognate with our verb to BEAR. 

BARM, s. 1 . the scum arising from beer in fermentation, 
yeast; T. bier rahm,beer cream; Swed. berm ; S. 
beorm ; B. barm. 

2. The bosom, the breast ; G. Swed. and S. barm. 

BARMCLOTH, s. an apron. See BARM and CLOTH. 

BARN, *. a storehouse for grain ; Swed. S. T. barn. 

BARNACLE, s. 1. a kind of shell that adheres to the bot- 
tom of ships ; I. barneach, signifying also a clam and 
a limpet. 

B A S 

2. A kind of wild goose supposed to be produced from 
the barnacle shell ; but this bird called brant gagl, 
and barn gagl, the sea goose in Norway, probably 
gave name to the shell fish and the bird ; F. bernache. 

3. A kind of grappling or holding iron ; F. bar tenaille. 
See BAH. 

BARON, s. 1. a man by excellence, and, in law, a hus- 
band ; Sans, bur, vur ; G. vair ; L. B. varo, baro ; 
Sp. varon, baron ; T. baro ; S. baron , W. barmn. 

2. A title of nobility, next below a viscount. The fore- 
going word is supposed to have been applied in this 
sense to a feudal tenant or vassal, one who performed 
homage. In Germany, free lord and baron are syno- 
nimous ; S. beorn is also a noble. See BRIGHT. 

BARONET, s. diminutive of baron, a title having rank 
above a knight. 

BARRACAN, s. a coarse cloth made of goats' hair ; A. 
barkan; P. barak ; Swed. barkan; T. barchant ; F. 
bouracan ; It. baracano. 

BARRACK, s. a building to lodge soldiers; Sp. barrack ; 

F. baroque; L. B. burica, baurica, a hovel, was 
cognate with bower, from G. beorga ; S. beorgan. 
See HARBOUR. A. balak, was a coarse kind of tent. 

BARREL, s. a wooden cask, a cylinder; G. beril ; It. 

barile ; F. baril; Sp. barriga ; W. and Arm. baril. 
BARREN, o. unfruitful, scanty ; G. obairan, signified un- 

bearing, sterile ; Arm. brehan ; F. brehaigne ; but D. 

and B. bar, bare, desert, unfruitful, is also barren. 
BAHHETER, s. a defrauder ; F. barateur ; It. barattiera ; 

G. bragdur, corruptly, prettur, from bragd; S. brcegd, 
brede ; Arm. barad ; W. brad ; L. B. baratrum, guile, 
fraud, deceit. See BARTER. 

BARRICADO, s. what is shut with a bar; S. barricado ; 

F. barricade, apparently from bar, and It. chiudo ; 

L. claudo, to close. 
BARRIER, s. a defence, boundary, limit; P. barryar ; 

F. barriere ; It. barriera. See BAR. 
BARROW, s. 1. a hand carriage; G. bar; Swed. beer ; S. 

bererve ; It. bara ; P. bar; Sans, bhar, a burden. 

See BIER and to BEAR. 

2. A tumulus, a tomb ; Sans, barah ; G. biarghaugur ; 
S. beorg, beorh ; I. brugh ; G. biarg ; T. berg, signify 
a hill, a place of security and a concealment. See 
to BURY. 

3. A cell, a grove, a retreat, a place of repose ; S. bearo, 
beru, bertve; T. beruhe ; Swed. bero, from G. roi ; 
Swed. roa; T. ruhe, rest, tranquillity. See BIRTH, a 

4. A male pig ; S. berga ; B. barge ; T. barg ; L. ver- 
res ; F. verrat ; Sp. berra. See BOAR. 

BARTER, v. a. to traffic, to exchange commodities ; G. 
bregda, breita, brcetan, to change, produced F. bara- 
ter ; It. barattare ; Sp. barrator, which, admitting the 
interpretation of to alter, signify to deal fraudulently, 
by substitution and altercation. See BARRETER and 
to BREAK. 

BARTON, s. a manor, farm-house, a court-yard ; G. 
barton ; S. bereton from G. bar, byr, a dwelling, and 
ton, an inclosure. See BURTON and BERRY. 

BARTRAM, *. the herb pellitory ; L. pyrethrum, parie- 
taria ; F. pyrethre ; T. bertram, pertram. 

BASE, s. 1. a foundation, a pedestal ; B<*V< { ; A. base; It. 
base; F. base. 

2. A game, properly BARS. See PRISON BARS. 

BASE, a. low, mean, worthless ; L. B. bassus ; It. basso ; 
F. bus ; W. and Arm. has. 

BASH, v. a. to lower, deject, humiliate, intimidate ; 


Chaucer uses abaw both for abash and abase. See 

BASHAW, s. a title of honour in the east ; Turk, and P. 
bash, the head, produced basha ; Heb. pacha, a chief, 
a prince ; G. vasa, a king ; SmrMiif, chief of the people, 
have the same origin ; G. and S. basu signify royal 
and purple. The tail of a horse, being the military 
standard of the Turks, a Bashaw of three tails is one 
who commands three standards or divisions of the 

BASHFUL, a. timid, humble, modest, shy. See BASH. 
BASIL, s. 1. a plant ; L. basilicum. 

2. The angle of a joiner's tool. See BIAS and BEVEL. 

3. BASEN, a kind of brown leather ; F. basane ; T. bat- 
zan ; It. Sp. and Port, zaino. See TAN. 

BASIN, *. a flat vessel, a pond, a dock for ships ; A. 
bascia ; Chald. bazun ; Sans, badun ; F. bassin ; It. 
bacino. .r* 

BASK, v. a. to lie exposed to the sun ; G. and Swed. 
basa, bada, to heat, seem to be cognate with our verb 
to bake ; and B. baeken, baekeren ; Scot, beek, signify 
to bask. G. cesa ; Heb. esh ; P. azish, fire, produced 
G. ask, ashes ; and sitna i asku, to be indolent ; the 
common P. and G. prefix be would make baska. See 

BASKET, s. a coffer made of wicker work used by the 
Picts; L. bascauda ; W. basged ; I. bascaid. See 

BASS, s. a rush mat ; Arm. behesq ; B. hies, a rush, per- 
haps from being used as a ligature. See BASTE and 

BASS, s. grave, deep in sound; It. basso; F. basse. 
See BASE. 

BASSOON, *. a wind instrument for playing bass in 
music ; F. basson ; Sp. baxon. See BASS. 

BASSO RELIEVO, It. that kind of sculpture which projects 
out but little ; from base, low, and L. relevo. 

BASTARD, s. an illegitimate child ; T. bastard ; F. bas- 
tard, bdtard ; It. bastardo ; Arm. and W. bastard ; 
supposed to be bassus orlus, low origin ; but bastards 
may be high born ; and William the Conqueror, with- 
out any sense of dishonor, stiled himself William the 
Bastard. G. baugst ard, from baug, T. bay, bending, 
deviation, and ard nature, condition. G. baug signi- 
fies declinans a vero ; and in heraldry, illegitimacy 
is marked by the bend sinister. 

BASTE, v. a. 1. to sew slightly, to draw together, to 
bind ; G. basta ; P. besten ; Swed. basta ; D. baste ; It. 
bastire ; L. B. baceo, to tie together. Bast anciently 
included all pliant fibres. The inner bark of the 
linden tree, as well as flax, were so called in Germany ; 
and hence S. bast ; F. bastiste, batiste, linen. See 

2. To beat, to fustigate ; G. beysla ; Swed. basa ; Arm. 
bazata. See BAT and BATOON. 

3. To besuet, to anoint, to grease. See SUET. 
BASTING THREAD, thread used in slight sewing ; from 

the verb BASTE. 

BASTING, s. a cudgelling, from the verb. See BATOON. 

BASTION, *. a part of the enceinte in modern fortifica- 
tion ; F. bastion ; It. bastione, from G. bua ; T. bauen ; 
F. bastir, batir, to build. 

BAT, s. 1. a mallet, a club, a stick ; Arm. baz ; S. bat, 
from G. bata, basta, to beat, to baste. See BATOON. 

2. A small winged animal resembling a mouse; but 
generally called a bird, vespertilio ; Swed. natt baka ; 

B A W 

D. bake ; Scot, bale, from G. vanka, to wake. It was 
called NT. SJ. See BIVOUAC. 

BAT and FORAGE, in military language, signifies an al- 
lowance for the transport of baggage during a cam- 
paign ; Arm. bats; It. basto; F. bast, bat; G. bast, bat; 
P. basta ; Sans, bust, signify a package or bundle, 
being cognate with our verb to baste, from G. beita, 
basta, to bind ; but they may in some cases be con- 
founded with Bafts, a load. 

BATCH, s. 1. contracted from BAKKAOK ; a baking of 
bread. See to BAKE. 

2. A bundle, parcel or cluster ; G. batz. See BAT and 

BATE, s. contention, strife ; S. bale, from G. beita, to 
contend. See to BAIT. 

BATE, v. a. to lower, diminish, to take less in price ; F. 
abattre, to beat down, from L. batuo, is used like 
F. baisser; It. bassare, to lower, to abase. 

BATH, s. a place for people to wash themselves ; but ori- 
ginally signifying, like stew and L. balneum, hot 
water; Swed. T. B. bad; S. bath; I. baidh. G. and 
Swed. bada ; T. buhen, to heat, were perhaps cognate 
with P. adur, azur ; Heb. adour ; S. ade, fire. See to 

BATOON, *. a stick, a staff, a truncheon, a marshal's staff; 
B. Greek B*r<>s ; F. baton ; It. bastone ; W. bastnn, 
pastmn. See STAFF and BATT. 

BATTALIA, BATTALION, s. a band of soldiers in array or 
order of battle ; It. battaglia, battaglione; F. bataillon. 

BATTEL, *. food, provisions. See BATTEN. 

BATTEN, v. a. to feed, to fatten ; S. baton ; Swed. beta. 
See BAIT, food. 

BATTEN, s. a thin piece of wood, a scantling ; F. bos 
tenant, an under tenon. 

BATTER, *. a mixture of flour and water ; Scot, batter, 
paste, perhaps from being beaten together; but Swed. 
lii-ta signifies to macerate. 

BATTER, v. a. to beat down ; frequentative of the verb 
to BEAT. 

BATTLE, *. a fight, a combat ; Scyth. nr, adopted in 
Greek, like S. beado, signified a fight, and was cog- 
nate probably with our word to beat, and L. batuo, 
which, prefixed to L. duellum, produced F. bataille ; It. 
bataglia ; Sp. batalla. 

BATTLE, v. a. from the noun ; to contend in fight, to 

BATTLEDORE, s. a bat to strike a ball or shuttlecock; Sp. 

BATTLEMENT,*, an indented or turretted wall; F.baslUle- 

menl from bastille, a fortification. See BASTION. 
BATTLER, BATTELER, *. 1. from BATTEL ; a sizer at an 


2. From BATTLE ; a fighter, a contender. 
BAUBLE, s. a gewgaw, a trifling thing; S. bullabulla; F. 
babiole ; D. boblc ; L. B. baubellum, from L. bulla. 

BAVIN, /. the branches of trees made into faggots ; F. 
frttine is faggot, from L. focus, and boisfeune, a wood 
faggot See BAWN. 

BAWCOCK, s. a complaisant fellow, a pimp ; either for 
baird cock, or from D. bukhe ; G. bauga, to bend. 

BAWD, s. a female pimp, a vile procuress ; B. baad, a 
bath, a stew, a bagnio. At Bern there is still a super- 
intendent of prostitutes who attends the public baths, 

B E A 

called at Geneva the Queen of Bordels. B. and T. 

balde ; F. baude, bold, wanton, lascivious, may have 

been used in the same sense. See BATH and RIBALD. 
BAWDY, a. obscene, unchaste, vile ; from the noun. But 

old writers used the word in the sense of ragged, from 

B. vodig, bodig. See WAD. 
BAWL, v. a. to call very loud; Swed. bala; G. haul. See 


BAWN, *. a faggot made of branches of trees. See 

BAWSIN, s. a badger, a gray ; from O. E. bause; p*t{*. 

See to BAY. 

BAXTER, *. a baker, properly a female ; G. and B. bakster. 

See to BAKE. 
BAY, v. a. formerly BAUCH, to bark, to howl ; G. geya, 

bigeya ; ft*itji ; Arm. batch ; F. aboyer. 
BAY, .v. 1. a portion of the sea, around which the shore 

forms a bow or curve ; Swed. bay ; S. bige ; B. baai ; 

D. bugt ; F. baie ; It baja ; W. bach ; I. bagh ; L. B. 

fief. See Bow, BOSOM, BIGHT. 

2. In architecture, a beam, stay, platform, dam; F. bau, 
baux. See BALK. 

3. The state of holding an enemy in check ; F. aboy, cog* 
nate with our bay or bauch, signified the sobbing of a 
deer, at the close of the chase, when incapable of 
further exertion ; but our ancient poets used beigh or 
abeigh either as S. beah ; T. bag, indecision, or rather 
as It bada, tener a bada, which is our ABEYANCE. 

BAY SALT, *. salt unrefined, but less dark in colour than 
the black salt 

BAY YARN, s. coarse rough woollen ; Swed. boj; D. bay ; 
B. baai; F. baie, boie; perhaps from G. baug, a curl, 
a buckle. See BUDGE. 

BAYONET, s. a kind of dagger to fix on the muzzle of a 
musket ; F. bayonette, from being first used at a siege 
of Bayonne. 

BDELLIUM, .v. the gum of a tree used in medicine ; Syr. 
badleyoon; /8?iAA. 

BE, v. n. to exist ; S. beon, bio ; T. bin ; Sclav, bit ; W. 
bod, bid, from G. be or ve, the imperative of vera. This 
was originally E or A, corresponding with "En, and 
successively became ar, era, vera, nrera ; in other dia- 
lects the K had the G. pronoun sa or se, which 
produced our so, added to it in forming esa, corre- 
sponding with L. esse, and this again became mesa. 

BE, a frequent prefix in composition, signifies a state of 
being, and corresponds with A. be ; P. hi, bu; Sans. 
bhoo; G. be; D. bie ; S. be, bis; Swed. T. B. be; W. 
and I. hi ; '). See A. 

BEACH, *. a shore or strand ; G. baech ; D. bekkenus, a 
beach way. See BECK. 

BEACON, *. a public signal ; but, apparently, at first a 
fire signal ; Swed. bak ; S. beacen ; B. baak; D. bakn ; 
Scot, bekin, from G. bak, fire, and ken to know, cor- 
responding with ?*{. See to BAKE. 

BRAD, s. a small globe of glass, stone or metal; a string 
of which forms a necklace, used in Roman catholic 
countries at prayer; G. bede ; D. and B. bede; S. Ixed; 
T. bet; Arm. ped; W. ped, prayer ; L. peto. The use 
of beads in devotion was known to the Hindoos long 
prior to our era. Brahma is represented, by very 
ancient monuments, as counting a bead of amber at 
each recitation of the name of God. 

BEADLE, .v. a parish officer, a messenger ; G. and Swed. 
bod; D. boode, a message; whence Swed. bodel; T. be- 


dell; S. baedel; L. B. bedillvs ; F. bedeau ; It. bidello. 
See BID. 

BEAGLE, s. a small hound ; F. bigle, from bigler, cog- 
nate with our BAY and BAUCH. 

BEAK, s. the bill of a bird, the rostrum of a ship, a 
promontory; Arm. bee,- T. 6c,- S. becca; B. 6e; F. 
bee ; It. iecco y Sp. p'co. See PECK. 
BEAKER, s. a cup that has a spout ; perhaps from BEAK; 
but G. blkar; T. becher; Swed. begare; It. boccia, bo- 
chiere, bichiere; L. B. bauca, are from pviuf, Romance 
bee is a drink. 
BEAU, * . a pimple, a whelk, a tumor ; T. beule ; S. byl. 

See BOIL. 

BEAM, *. a large piece of timber, a stock, a pole, a ray, 
a tree, the norn of a deer ; M. G. bagm ; G. holm ; 
Swed. bom; S. beim; T.baum; B. boom; Scot, holme; 
G. 6oJ signifies the trunk or stem, and bang, a bough 
or limb. 

BEAM-TREE, s. the spindle-tree, apparently from G. 
bein ; S. bune, a spool ; but confounded with horn- 
BEAN, s. garden pulse; Huctnt ; Isl. baun ; Swed. bdne ; 

S. bean ; T. bohne ; B. boon ; W. bonar. 
BEAR, v. a. to carry, press upon, endure, produce, bring 
forth; G. bcera; Sans, bahr; P. bar ; fayta, fifa; Swed. 
bara; T. baren, baeren; S. beoran; B. baaren; Heb. and 
A. bara, to create, signifies also to bring forth, to 
BEAR, s. a savage animal, a rude man ; G. biarn; Swed. 

bidrn ; T. bar ; S. bera ; B. beer. 
BEARSBREECH, BEARSPAWS, s. a plant ; from bear and 

L. brachla, an arm. See BHANK-UHSIN. 
BEARD, s. hair on the chin, a point ; P. baroot; B. baard; 
T. 6ar< , perhaps from G. vairhatt; T. barheit, man- 
hood, virility, with which in Arabic the beard was 
synonimous. With the Goths to swear by the beard 
was to pledge all the manly virtues. The word, how- 
ever, may be derived from L. barba. See SHAO. 

BEAST, *. an irrational animal; L. bestia; It. bestia; F. 

bete, from B/o?. 
BEAT, v. a. I. to strike, throb, conquer; G. beyta, bata; 

Swed. beta; S. beatan; L. baluo; It. batlere ; F. battre; 

W. baedden. 
2. To strive against the wind, to tack, a sea phrase ; 

G. beita, to exert, contend. See to BAIT. 
BEAU, s. a man of dress, a fop ; It. bei for begli; F. beau, 

from L. bellus. 
BEAVER, s. 1. an amphibious animal so called ; G. bior; 

Swed. beftver; T. biber; S. beofer; B. bever; F. bievre; 

2. The part of a helmet that covers the face ; It. bavera ; 

F. baviere. 
BEAUTY, s. fine appearance ; F. beaute ; It. bella, from 

L. bellus. 

BECAUSE, con/, for this reason. See BY and CAUSE. 
BECK, J. 1. a rivulet ; S. becc; Swed. and D. bcek; T. bach, 

from G. aa ; T. ach, a stream of water ; or perhaps 

from G. baek, a bank, corresponding with L. ripa. 

2. A courtesy, a nod, a bending of the head or body ; 

D. bask ; G. beig, from buga, to bow. 
BECKON, v. a. from the noun ; to make a sign with the 

head or hand, to nod ; S. becnian. 
BECOME, v. a. 1. from COME ; to enter into some state or 

condition ; S. becomman. 
2. To come opportunely, to be convenient, suitable; 


Swed. bequema ; T. bequemen, in the sense of L. con- 
verno ; S. ctveman, to please. 

BED, s. a place to sleep on, a platform, a plot in a garden, 
the channel of a river; G. bed; Swed. bcedd ; M. G. 
badi; S. bed; B. bedde; T. bette. Chald. belt signified a 
place of repose, a dwelling, and the Gothic word is 
apparently from bida to stay, to dwell. 

BEDLEM, BEDLAM, s. an hospital for lunatics, a mad- 
house ; was formerly called Bethlehem, Heb. and A. 
beth el ham, the house of bread. 

BEDRID, a. confined to bed by sickness ; S. bedreda, 
from bed and raedan; G. and Swed. rdda, to subdue, 

BEE, s. the insect that makes honey ; G. bij; Swed. bi; 
B. bye; T. byhe; S. beo; L. apis; F. abeille; Sp. abeia. 

BEECH TREE, s. Swed. bage; S. bece; T. buche; B. beuke; 

I. beahag ; <J>*yo;. 
BEEF, s. the flesh of black cattle slaughtered for food ; 

A. bu; St/pf, Btuf, L. bos bovis; Arm. bove; F. bceuf; It. 
bove ; G. bu signified an ox, but properly bufie in- 
cluded animals used in husbandry, from bua, to cul- 
tivate, andjle, an animal. 

BEER, s. malt liquor ; G. bior ; Swed. birr; T. bier; S. 
bior ; F. biere ; It. hire; W. bir. See BARLEY, BREW 
and ALE. 

BEETLE, s. 1. a mallet; G. batil, baestil; S. bytl, diminu- 
tive of BAT. 

2. An insect ; It. biatilla, from L. blatta, is a small fly ; 
but S. bitel, from bite, is synonimous with our CHA- 

BEETLE, v. a. to project, jut out; G. beyta from be and 

out. See BUT. 

BEETLE BROWED, a. prominent, full browed. 
BEFAL, v. n. to happen, to fall out ; S. befeallen, from 

Q.fall, chance. 
BEFORE, 1. prep, in front, further on. 2. ad. sooner, earlier 

in time. See FORE. 
BEO, v. n. to pray, to petition ; G. bidga ; Swed. bedja ; 

S. bidgan. See BEAD. 
BEGET, v. a. to generate, to produce. See GET. 

BEGIN, v. to enter upon, commence ; G. in corresponds 

with L. in ; whence inna, ginna, for ga inna ; S. 

gynna, to go in; Swed. begynna ; S. and T. beginnan, 

to commence. 
BEHALF, s. favour, support, account; on behalf is literally 

on the side or on the part of; from G. half; S. half ; 

B. halve, a part, a side. See HALF. 

BEHAVE, v. a. to act, to conduct one's self; G. hava ; T. 
behaben, to possess, to hold, to maintain ; correspond- 
ing with L. habeo. 

BEHEN, s. an herb, formerly written PECHEM ; A. and 
P. bechnen, excellent. 

BEHEST, *. command, mandate, order. See HEST. 

BEHOLD, v. a. to observe, retain, attend, regard; S. 
behealdan. See to HOLD. 

BEHOVE, v. a. to be fit, meet, proper ; Swed. behtifrea ; 
S. behofian; B. behoeven: G. hcef; Swed. hof, propriety, 
decency, fitness, from the verb to HAVE. 

BELABOUR, v. a. to beat with force and continuance. 

BELAY, v. a. I. to place in ambush, waylay. See BE- 

2. To lay down, leave quiet. See to LAY. 

BELCH, v. a. to throw wind from the stomach, to eruc- 
tate ; S. bealcian. 


BELDAM, *. an old lady, a scolding woman ; Port, velha 
dama ; Sp. belha dama ; L. vetnla dotnina. 

BELEAGUER, v. a. to besiege, blockade, invest, restrict; 
Swi-d. Ix-ltrgra. See LEAGUER. 

BF.I.FRY, i- originally a tower ; but now applied to the 
steeple of a church, and supposed to be named from 
the bell ; F. belfroi, befroi ; L. B. belfragium ; O. E. 
hawfrey, from G. balk, a platform, tmAfnd, peace, se- 
curity, a tower ; belfrid, berfrid ; L. B. berfridus, was 
a moveable tower used by the Franks at the siege of 
Constantinople, which, as well as balcony, signified a 
place of watch or alarm ; and in many places, on the 
continent, the steeples of churches still serve for that 

BELIEF, *. creed, credit, assent. See to BELIEVE. 

BELIEVE, r. to trust in, credit, have faith ; G. Ufa ; S. 
Iffan ; T. lauben, to concede, to admit, produced S. 
gclyfan ; T. gelauben, glauben ; Swed. bekfiva, to con- 
sent, to believe. In Scotland lief, like S. leafe, is used 

in the same sense. See LEAVE. 

BELIFE, BLIVE, ad. presently, in the mean time ; from 
Swed. bleftva ; B. blyven ; S. belifan ; T. bleiben, to re- 
main, to be waiting as the French say en attendant. 

BELL, *. a hollow sounding vessel of metal; G. biol ; 
Swed. bicel ; S. and B. bell ; from G. hliom, sound, beloa, 
to toll. Apparently, long before known in Europe, 
bells were used in Hindoo temples, to frighten away 
evil spirits. See LAY. 

BELLOW, v. a. to roar like a bull, to bawl ; Swed. bdla ; 
S. bellan, from G. haul, to. which we have added our 
word Low. 

BELLOWS, *. an instrument used to blow the fire ; S. 
bilig, blast belg; T. blast balg, a blowing bag or belly. 

BELLY, s. the lower part of the body, the bowels ; G. 
baelg ; S. bylg ; T. balg; W. boly. 

BELONG, v. n. to continue with, to be the property of, 
to pertain ; T. bel-angen. See LONG. 

BELSW AGGER, *. a whore's associate ; from Swed. bol ; B. 
boel; T. biihle, a concubine, and B. swoaker ; T. schtva- 
ger, a brother-in-law. 

BELT, *. a leathern girdle, a sash ; G. and S. belt ; T. 
baltz ; L. balteut. 

BENCH, *. a scat, a judge's seat; G. beck; Swed. bank ; 
S. benc ; T. bant ; F. bane ; It. banco ; L. B. bancus ; G. 
back, a bank, seems to have been the same word, cor- 
responding with n'yf. from which A */{ was a 
senate. See FORM. 

BEND. v. a. 1. to crook, curve, subdue; G. benda ; S. 
bendan, from G. bingend ; S. bygand, the participle of 
buga, to bow, corresponding with pando. 

2. To incline, to direct one's way ; from BEND, to curve ; 
Swed. boja, to bend, produced bog, a course, a bow. 

I'.Kxo, in heraldry, an oblique band or bar ; F. bendt, 

BENEATH, prep, below, under. See NEATH and NETHER. 

BKNISON, s. a blessing ; F. benitton, contracted from 

BKNNOT, *. the nut of the benzoin tree ; P. ban. See 

HUNT, *. a kind of grass or reed; B. binlz ; T. bintrr, 
like bass, bast, baste, bat, are derived from the verb to 
bind. All tough grasses, as well as rushes, hops, 
tares, convolvuli, were called bents, bindweeds or 
windles, from their nature, corresponding with ^:. 

BKST, part, crooked, inclined, determined. See to BEND. 

B E V 

BENZOIN, *. a resinous tree, and its gum, vulgarly call- 
ed benjamin ; P. ban suhujna. See BENNUT. 

BEQUEATH, . a. to declare, devise, to leave or give by 
will ; S. beijwethan, from G. kuedia. See QUOTH. 

BEQUEST, *. a legacy, a gift by will ; from BEQUEATH. 

BEREAVE, v. a. to despoil, to rob; Swed. ber6ftva, S. 
bereafian ; M. G. birauban. See REAVE. 

BERGAMOT, s. a kind of pear ; It. bergamotto, from P. 
beg armod, the prince pear ; Turk, begmot. See BEY. 

BERGANDER, s. or burrow duck ; S. berg ander, from 
berg, a cliff, and ander, a duck. It breeds in holes of 

BKRRY, in forming the names of places, is generally S. 
berig, beorg, a town, a burgh ; but sometimes con- 
founded with G. beer, byr, bur, which, from G. bua, 
to cultivate, designated a village or farm ; and as 
prefixes, are written bar, bare, beer, her, here, bear, 
bur. See BURY. 

BERRY, *. 1. a den or hole. See BURROW. 

2. Any small pulpy fruit; G. her; T. beer ; S. berig; A. 
Chald. Syr. bar, bari, peri, a general name for fruit 
as well as grain. See to BEAR. 

BERT, in forming the names of persons or places, signi- 
fies bright, illustrious; as BERTHA, ALBERT. See 

BESANT, s. an ancient golden coin of Byzantium* 

BESEECH, v. a. to supplicate, entreat, request ; S. besecan, 
gesecan ; from SEEK, as request from quest. 

BESHREW, v. to call out against, curse, let mischief be- 
fall ; T. beschreien. See SHREW. 

BESOM, *. an instrument to sweep with, a broom ; S. 
besem, besm ; B. bezem ; T. and B. bies, a rush; Arm. 
beso, the birch tree. 

BEST, a. good in the highest degree; G. best, contracted 
from batezt, betst ; T. best ; B. beste ; D. bedest ; S. belst, 
best. See BETTER. 

BESTOW, v. a. to place, apply, give, dispose of gratuit* 
ously. See to STOW. 

BET, *. a wager, stake, deposit ; G. vad ; T. rvetle; Swed. 
mad ; S. tved, wad, bad, bate, a pledge. See WAGER. 

BETRAY, v. a. to draw on deceitfully, to reveal or discover 
treacherously; G. draga andL. trahoure cognates, with 
exactly the same principal meaning ; from the first, 
Swed. bedrilga; T. betrugen ; B. bedriegen, betrekkan, 
and from the latter, F. Irahir, are synonimous. G. 
drag; T. trug, signify fraud. See THICK and 

BETTER, a. good in a greater degree ; G. betr ; P. behtrr, 
beshter ; T. besser ; S. betera ; Swed. batter; B. beter, 
the comparative degree of G. bat, beet; P. beh ; D. 
boot ; S. bet ; from which we have boot, good, advant- 
age, profit. See BEST. 

BETTER, j *. a large wooden mallet, sometimes strength- 

BEATER, V ened with iron rings ; T. bate ; S. bat. See 

BETTY, J BAT, and to BEAT. 

BETWEEN, prep, from TWEKN, ) . , .,,, , 

> in the middle of two. 
BETWIXT, prep, from TWIXT, / 

BEVBL, *. an instrument for measuring the sweep of 
an arch or angle ; Sp. baivel ; F. beuveau ; It. bieca li- 
vella ; L. obliqua libtlla. 

BEVERAGE, *. drink in general; It. beveraggio from bevere; 
I . bibcre. 

BEVY, s. a flock of birds ; but sometimes signifying a 
brood ; It. beva ; T. betve, from G. bua, to dwell, to as- 
sociate. See COVEY. 

I L 

B I S 

BEWBAY, v. a. to betray, disclose maliciously, accuse; S. 

beteregan, bervroes;an, mregen; T. rvrogan, from G. 

rceigia, to calumniate. 
BEY, s. a Turkish title, a lord," a prince ; Turk, begh ; 

Tartar beg, a lord ; begum, a lady ; begiler beg, a lord 

of lords. 

BEYOND, prep, further off, above ; S. begeond. See YOND. 
BEZEL, BESII/, *. the cup of a ring ; T. beseau ; fida-nt. 
BEZOAH, s. a medicinal stone; P. pazahar, counterpoison. 
BIAS, s. inclination to one side, obliquity; F. biais ; It. 

bieco; L. obliquus. 
BIB, s. a cloth under the chin of infants ; F. bave, ba- 

vette ; It. bava, bavaglio, from F. bave ; It. bava ; Sp. 

baba ; Arm. babous, slaver. 
BIB, v. a. to drink, to tipple ; L. bibo. 

BIBLE, s. the book containing the holy Scriptures, a 

volume or roll ; but properly the Egyptian papyrus ; 

/3/Sxe{. See BOOK and PAPEB. 
BICE, BISE, s. a colour used in painting, formerly a gray, 

but now partaking of a light blue ; F. bis; It. bigio ; L. 

B. bisius. 
BICKEB, v. a. to skirmish, to fight off and on, to vibrate; 

T. bicken, bickeren ; It. beccare ; F. bequer, bcqueter, to 

peck, to contend with the beak ; W. Mere ; P. bikar, 

pikar, a conflict, a skirmish. 
BID, v. a. 1. to command; G. and Swed. biuda; S. beodan ; 

T. bieten, perhaps cognate with P. bid, bud, be it, let 

it be. 
2. To invite, propose, offer, request; G. bidga; S. biddan; 

T. bitten ; B. bidden, corresponding with L. peto. 

BIDE, v. to endure, remain, wait, expect ; G. and Swed. 
bida ; S. bidan ; D. hie. It may perhaps be derived 
from the verb, to be; for let be, in Scotland, signi- 
fies to let remain ; P. bu, repose. 

BIEB, s. a hand carriage for the dead ; G. bar ; Swed. 
beer ; T. behre ; F. biere ; It bara. See to BEAB and 

BIESTINGS, s. the first milk a cow gives after calving ; 
G. and Swed. ysta, signifies to coagulate, ferment; 
heist ; S. beost, had ung, new, young, affixed to pro- 
duce S. by stun g ; T. biestung ; F. beton. See CHEESE. 

Bio, a. bulky, large, great, pregnant ; G. bolg, bulk ; D. 
bug; Isl. buk, which in our northern counties is pro- 
nounced booke and bugg. 

BIGG, s. a kind of barley ; Isl. bygg ; Swed. biugg ; D. 
byg; P. big, bij, is a grain resembling rice. 

BIGGIN, s. a cap or coif worn by an order of nuns ; F. 
beguin ; B. begyn, from being, as some pretend, dedi- 
cated to St Bega ; but perhaps the name was cognate 
with beg, or bead quean, a praying woman ; L. B. 
begardus, a monk. 

BIGHT, *. one turn of a cable ; Swed. bdgt ; S. byht, from 
Isl. beiga ; S. bygan, to curve. 

BIGOBNE, BICOHN, 1. a. having two horns. 2. s. a kind 
of anvil ; F. bigorne ; It. bicorne. 

BIGOT, s. a zealot, one devoted to a party ; F. bigot ; It. 
bigotto, from God in the sense of pledged, wedded. 
See GOD. 

BILANDEB, JT. a kind of hoy, a coasting vessel; B. 
by lander, 

BILBEBRY, s. a whortleberry, a blue berry; G. bla her; 
Swed. bla bar ; Scot, blaeberry ; L. vaccinium. 

BILBOES, s. G. bol boija ; Arm. bilbyt, log fetters ; Swed. 
boye ; T. boye ; L. boice. 

BILE, s. I. a tumor, a pustule; G. belg ; S. bile ; T. 

beule ; B. buile. See BEAL and BOIL. 
2. Gall, choler ; F. bile ; L. bilis. 
BILGE, s. the breadth of a ship's hull ; G. belg ; T. builg, 

from G. bulga, to swell. 

BILGE-WATER, s. water collected in the hull of a ship. 
BILK, v. a. to play upon, overreach, dupe ; bileika ; M. G. 

bilaikan ; T. belaichan,to play, and signifying like L. 

ludere, to chouse ; B. bilk, a gaming table. See PLAY. 

BILL, A. 1. a beak, a pointed instrument; G. bill; P. bil ; 

S. bille; T. beil; B. byl ; Swed. bill; T. bigel, bevel; 

W. brviall, signify a coulter or crooked adze, from 

G. beygia, to curve. 

2. A written list of articles, a draft for money, a pre- 
scription, a case in law ; L. bulla, a seal attached to a 

writing, produced F. bulls, bille ; It. bolla, a written 

document. See BILLET. 
BILLET,*. 1. a diminutive of BILL; a small letter, a ticket; 

L. B. bolleta ; F. billet ; It. biglietto. 
2. A small piece of wood, a stick ; L. B. billus; F. bille, 

billot, perhaps the diminutive of G. bol, a log; but 

Scot, bale, a faggot is contracted from handle, a 

BILLIARDS, s. a game played with balls on a table ; F. 

billard ; but formerly in E. ball yards. 
BILLOW, s. a large rolling wave ; Isl. bylgia ; G. bol tvcega, 

a swell wave ; Swed. boija ; T. bulge ; G. bbla, bulga, 

to swell. 

BILLY, s. diminutive of William; S. villy ; W. billy. 
BIN, *. a heap of grain, an inclosure ; S. binn ; T. binne ; 

D. bing, from G. and Swed. inna, to inclose. See 


BIND, v. a. to hold together, to inclose, to constipate ; G. 
binda; S. bindan; T. binden; Swed. binda; P. and Hind. 
bend, bund; M. G. vithan; JEo\. fttn ; L. vieo, are sup- 
posed to be cognates of G. binda, which, in some tenses, 
varied into bat and bit, signifying restraint, security. 

BIRCH-TREE, *. supposed to be named from its bark, 
which, with the savages of America, is still employed, 
particularly in ornaments; G. birk ; Swed. biork ; S. 
hire; T. bircke ; B. berke. 

BIRD, s. a fowl, a feathered animal ; S. bird, bridd, ori- 
ginally like li.pullus; G. byrd; P. perid, berid, denoted 
the young of animals in general, from the verb to 
BEAR. Bird formerly was used as a term of endear- 
ment in the sense of BAIRN. See BREED and BRING. 

BIRLET, s. a band for the head ; F. bourlet, ourlet, from 
L. ora. 

BIRT, s. a fish. See BRET. 

BIBTH, s. 1. being born, the act of coming into life ; G. 
burd; Swed. bdrd ; S. hearth. See to BEAR. 

2. A place of rest or security, a sleeping place in a ship; 
T. bemht, from beruhen ; Swed. hero, to repose; G. 
roi, rest. See BARBOW. 

BIBTHWOBT, s. an herb so named from its use to pro- 
mote untimely birth. 

BISHOP, *. 1. the head of a diocese ; 'E?nW5r{ ; L. episco- 
pus ; T. bischoff ; F. evesque, eveque. 

2. For bishop pot, a posset or warm drink with a toast ; 
supposed to be F. bis chauffe ; but perhaps contracted 
from boisson chauffe, drink warmed. F. bis, however, 
was toasted or scorched bread ; and the jingle of pot 
and foot may have been the origin of calling a burnt 
taste, a bishop's foot. 

BISON, *. a kind of wild bull, with a mane, anda hump on 

B L A 

B L I 

his back ; some animal of that kind was known to the 

Goths, as visuadur. See URCS. 
BISON, a. blind, dull-sighted ; S. biten, from G. otien, 

without seeing. 
BIT, s. 1. a morsel, a small piece, a fragment ; G. bite ; 

Swed. bit; S. bill; B. beet; T. bitz; D. bitte, very little, 

from BITE : and F. morfeau, from L. morsus, is syno- 

2. The iron of a bridle that enters a horse's mouth; G. 

bit; B. hit ; G. tiitol, a bridle, from bit, and ol, a rein, 

a strap ; F. mord, a bit, is from mordre. See BITE. 

BITCH, *. the female of a dog; G. bickea; Swed. byckja; 
S. byce ; T. betze ; G. greg baka, seems to have been 
the right word, cognate with greedy, and bak, heat. 
The word was a term of the greatest reproach among 
the Goths ; and to call any person byckia hrvalp (son 
of a bitch) was punishable by law. Through all the 
G. dialects hundsfud, hunsfot, has the same significa- 
tion ; and F. Jean foulre is corrupted from L. canis 

BITTACLE, *. a frame of timber where the compass is 
placed in a ship ; F. boile d"aiguille; L. pyxis aciilei, 
the needle box. 

BITTEK, a. having a biting taste, harsh, severe; G. bittr; 
Swed. T. B. bitter; S. biter. See to BITB. 

BITTERN, BITTOUR, *. a water fowl ; ftttrrtf ; F. butor; B. 
butoor ; L. B. botaurus, avis taurina. See BUTTER 

BITTS, *. a sea term for two square beams serving as 
stays; F. bitten, from G. bit; Swed. beting. See to 

BIVOUAC, .v. in military language signifies that the whole 
corps remains on guard during the night ; G. vauk, 
our wake or watch, a guard, produced, T. betvach; 
Swed. betvak, being awake, which the French corrupted 
into bivouac. 

BLAB, v. a. to let out, to tattle ; like blurt and Scot. 
bladder, blab is from blow ; the vulgar say don't blow, 
for don't blab. 

BLACK, a. 1. dark, without colour or light, cloudy, vile, 
dismal ; G. and T. black; S. blac; AX-AVK*. Met. infernal, 
without ecclesiastical sanction. See BLUE. 

2. Confinement, prison ; G. and Swed. black, an iron fet- 
ter. See BLOCK. 

BLACKGUARD, *. from BLACK and GUARD ; a mean dirty 

BLACK-BOLE, s. from BLACK and HOLE for HOLD, con- 

BLADDER, *. the urinal vessel, a blister; G. bladder; S. 
blxddre ; Swed. blddra ; T. blase, from to BLOW ; L. 
verica, and *;;<* have the same meaning. 

BLADE, t. 1. the leaf of herbs, the laminous part of a 
sword ; G. blad; Swed. Dan.B. blad; T. blatte; S.blced; 
corresponding with nAa'roc. 

2. A young man, a stripling ; from LAD, corresponding 
with BA*}. 

BLAIN, *. 1. a pustule, blister, blotch; D. bleyne ; S. 

blegene; T. blegen, from blehen, to swell. See BLISTER. 
2. A wound or chop; G. bUen; Swed. blan. See BLOW. 
BLAME, *. censure, offence, reproach; Port, blasma; It. 

biatmo; F. blame, infamy, have the same origin with 

BLASPHEME. But A. and P. luom ; G. Horn ; S. hlem ; 

T. lewn, laum, sound, fame, produced T. beleum, belaitm; 

B. blaam, evil report, censure, in the sense of L. 


BLANCH, . to whiten ; F. blanchir. See BLEACH and 

BLANK, a. white, having no mark or colour, indefinite, 

vacant; G. bleik; /SwAvxii; S. blase; B. bleek, blank; Swed. 

D. T. blank; F. blanc. See BLEACH. 
BLANKET, *. a white woollen cover for a bed ; F. blan- 

chet ; It. bianchetta. See BLANK. 
BLARE, v. a. 1. to bellow ; T. blaeren ; L. halo. 
2. To blow, blaze abroad ; G. blaera. 
BLASPHEME, v. a. to speak impiously, to defame, to 

curse ; /3A(r<piyj. 
BLAST, s. 1. a gust of wind, explosion ; Swed. T. S. 

blast, from G. blasa, blasta; S. bltestan. 
2. Foul vapour, blight ; T. blast. See to BLOW. 
BLAST, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to blight, vitiate, injure, 


2. From BLAZE ; to burn, to scorch, to destroy by heat ; 
Scot, blezzen. 

3. From the noun; to blow, to proclaim, to trumpet. 

BLAY, s. a small white fish ; B. bly; F. able. See BLEAK. 
BLAZE, s.\.& white mark ; G. blisa; Swed. bices; D. and 

B. blis ; T. blaesse, blesse, from G. liot, white. 
2. A flame, conflagration; S. blase; D. bluss; Swed. blots; 

*A{; B. blix; T. blitz, a flame, torch, lightning. See 


BLAZE, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to rise in a flame. 
2. To proclaim, promulgate, to trumpet; G. blasa; Swed. 

blasa ; S. bla:sen, to blow, to trumpet. 
BLAZON, .v. a trumpet, proclamation, display ; G. blazun, 

blason, from blasa. See BLAZE, to proclaim. 
BLAZON, v. a. from the noun ; to display, or proclaim 

armorial honours, to make public. See HERALD. 
BLEACH, v. to whiten, grow white ; Swed. blcku ; S. 

blaecan, from G. bleik ; T. bleich ; B. bleek ; Aivx. See 

BLEAK, s. a small white fish ; S. bUege ; B. bly. See 

BLEAK, a. dark, gloomy, dull, cold; G. bleek ; Swed. 

blek ; S. bleac. See BLACK. 
BLEAR-EYED, a. dim with rheum, watery, raw ; G. blar 

forbladr; D. blare; B. blaar; T.blar; Swed. blir. See 

BLEAT, v. a. to cry like a sheep ; S. bleetan; B. bladen; 

L. halo ; It. belare, from /8?. 
BLEB, *. a small blister ; cognate with blab, bladder, 

blister, from to BLOW. 
BLEIT, BLATE, a. timid, heartless ; Isl. blaud; G. bleide; 

T. bloede; Swed. blMe. 
BLEMISH, s. deformity, spot, scar ; ft^fuc is a wound, 

Swed. bleme, an ulcer ; but F. bleme, discoloured, livid, 

is from L. plumbeus. 
BLENCH, v. a. 1. to cede, shrink, start back; T. blencken. 

See LIN and FLINCH. 

2. To render obscure, or difficult. See to BLINK. 
BLEND, v. a. to mix, confuse, spoil, adulterate; G. blenda; 

D. blonde; Swed. blanda; S. blendan: G. bland, signi- 
fied many, and ibland, among. 
BLESS, v. a. to wish, or make, happy, to praise; G. blessa; 

S. blissian, for blilhsian, to make blithe. See BLITHK. 
BLIGHT, *. 1. mildew, foulness, smut; G. and Swed. 


2. Destruction by heat. See to BLOW and BLAST. 
BLIGHT, v. a. from the noun ; to corrupt, destroy. 

B L O 

BLIND, a. deprived of sight, obscure ; G. Swed. S. T. B. 

blind ; G. blya, to shine, to appear, probably with the 

negative adjunct, became blyna, to obscure. See 

BLINK, v. n. 1. to see obscurely, to wink; G. blindka; 

Swed. blinka ; B. belonken. See BLIND. 
2. To give a ray of light, to shine transiently ; B. blin- 

ken; D. blinke; S. blican from G. blya, to shine. See 

BLISS, s. felicity, happiness, blessedness ; G. bliss; S. 

blis. See to BLESS. 
BLISSOM, v. to be in heat; G. blism, for blithsam; S. blithe, 

lascivious ; W. blysian, to seek the male. 
BLISTER, s. a watery pustule, a plaster to draw serous 

matter from the skin ; G. bladr; T. blazer; Swed. blad- 
der, blister ; S. bladdre, from to BLAST or BLOW. See 

BLITHE, a. gay, sprightly, glad ; G. blide ; B. blyd; Swed. 

blijd; S. blithe; L. Iwtus. See LAUGH and GLAD. 
BLOAT, v. a. 1. to swell, become turgid ; to blow out, to 

be puffy. 

2. To smoke, to blacken. See BLOTE. 
BLOBBER, a. swelled, blown out. See BLUFF. 
BLOCK, s. a heavy piece of wood, stone, or metal ; G. 

and E.blok; Swed. T. Arm. block ; F. bloqtie. See 


BLOCK, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to frame with logs. 
2. To shut up, inclose, confine; S. locen, blocen; B. be- 

loken ; It. blocare; F. bloquer. See to LOCK. 
BLOOD, s. a red nourishing fluid; G. Swed. S. blod ; B. 

bloed; T. blut ; M. G. bloth. See BLOW, to colour. 
BLOOM, *. 1. a bright colour, the flower of herbs and 

trees; G. and Swed. blom; T. blum; B. bloem; S. bleo. 

See BLOW, to colour. 

2. A bluish tinge on grapes and plums. See BLUE. 

3. A mass of purified metal ; S. bloma, translated from 

BLOSSOM, s. flowers of trees and plants; G. bio sum; S. 

blosm ; B. bloessem ; Arm. bleuzen ; W. blodeuyn ; I. 

blatham. See to BLOW and BLOOM. 
BLOT, s. 1. blackness, discolour, soot, disgrace; G. blat; 

B. bloat. See BLOTE. 
2. A vacant place in an escutcheon, an open point at 

backgammon, G. blott; Swed. blott ; B. bloot; T. bloss; 

Scot, ; It. biotto. 
BLOTCH, s. 1. a pustule, an eruption of the skin ; G. and 

Swed. blodscer; B. bluts, a blood sore ; It. bozza. 
2. A slur or stain ; as if blotage. See BLOT. 
BLOTE, v. a. 1. to smoke, blacken by hanging in the 

chimney; B. blaakt, smoked. See BLOT. 
2. To swell, become turgid. See BEOAT. 
BLOW, s. a stroke, a lick ; G. blegwa; T. bluite, blum ; B. 

bloutve; nxy^. See LICK. 
BLOW, v. a. 1. to puff out with wind, to ventilate, to 

swell ; G. blcea, blasa; T. blahen; S. blotvian; L.Jlo. 

2. To blacken, smut, discolour; G. blaa; T. blanen; D. 
blae ; from G. bla, black. 

3. To colour, to blossom, bloom ; G. bloa, bloma ; B. 
bloyen; T. bluihen; S. blotvan, from G. liu, liur, litur ; 
Arm. liu; W. Him; S. bleo; B. bloei; T. bluihe, colour. 

4. To scorch, to burn, to blast ; T. belohen, from lohen. 
See Low, flame. 

BLOWZE, s. redness, a flushing of the blood to the face; 
B. blooz; Arm. blouz. See BLOOD. 


BLUBBER, *. liquid drawn off, whale oil unrefined G. 

blaupr ; T. lab ; D. laeb. See LOPPEH. 
BLUBBER, v. a. from the noun ; to shed tears, to run at 

the nose. 

BLUBBER-CHEEKED, a. puffy-cheeked. See BLOBBEH, 

BLUDGEON, s. a short thick stick, a bat; G. blyervan 
mny*. See BLOW. 

BLUE, a. sky-coloured ; G. bla; P. heel; T. blan; S. bla- 
htetvan; B. blaaro ; Swed. blao; D. blue; Sp. bloo ; F 
bleu; Met. dismal, dark, dissatisfied. 

BLUE, s. colour of dry raisins and plums when well pre- 
served. See BLOOM. 

BLUFF, a. swelled out, puffed up, bulky; from BLOW 
and Up, T. uf; Scot, buffy ; F. boufi. 

BLUFF, s. a round protuberance/ G. and B. bd, is round, 
large. See PLUMP. 

BLUNDER, s. a mistake, a mixture, confusion ; G. blan- 
der; Swed. blandar; S. blender. In is applied 
to ridicule silly people who would use a sieve for a 
pitcher. See BLEND. 

BLUNDERBUSS, *. a short wide gun ; from BLUNDER, a 
mixture of shot, and Bus, a tube or barrel ; B. dander- 
boss, a thundering gun. 

BLUNT, a. round, obtuse, dull ; G. ballot, bollont; B. bolle, 
whence, Swed. blump, plump ; B. plomp. See PLUMP. 

BLUR,U. a. to sully, blot, efface; contracted from blotter, 
frequentative of blot. 

BLURT, v. a. to blab out inconsiderately ; G. blcera ut. 

BLUSH, s. redness, colouring of the face, glow, appear- 
ance ; B. bloose; S. blose ; but D. bluis, binds, it shames, 
is from G. bleid. See BLEIT. 

BLUSH, v. a. from the noun; to assume colour, to suffuse 
the cheeks from emotion or shame ; B. blosen ; S. 
ablisian. See to BLOW. 

BLUSTER, v. a. to blow rudely, to storm, to bully, to 
swagger, G. blmtra, frequentative of BLAST. 

BLUSTERER, s. a vapouring noisy fellow. 

BLUSTEROUS, a. from the verb ; stormy, noisy, tumul- 

Bo, inlj. a word of terror to children ; A. ban; Sans. 

bhuo ; Arm. bare ; W. bn ; B. bautv. See BUG. 
Bo, s. a shout ; It. ban, from L. 600. 
BOAR, s. 1. a male of swine; Sans, bura/i; S. bar; B. 

beer ; L. aper. See BARROW. 
2. A violent tide ; G. bara ; B. boar. 
BOARD, s. a plank, table, deck, bench ; G. bord; Swed. 

T. D. B. W. F. bord; S. breed. See BROAD. 
BOAST, v. a. to brag, to vaunt; W. bostio ; I. bost, are 

adopted from the English word; B. boogen; S. bogan, 

to use a bow, has the exact meaning of L. jactare ; 

boog, boogst, a bow, a boast, as we use the phrase "to 

draw a long bow," to magnify. 

BOAT, 3. a vessel of conveyance on water, a small ship ; 
G. and S. bat; Swed. bat; T. and B. boot; Sans, pot ; 
Hind, bohit ; F. bot, bateau ; W. bad ; It. batello ; Sp. 

BOB, *. 1. cut off, short, quick ; bojf for be off, as doff 
for do off. 

2. A trick or deception. See BAFF. 

3. From the verb ; a shake, a touch, a motion. 

BOB, v. a. 1. to touch or pull by way of signal, to play 
backward and forward, to move, to shake; G. bifa ; 
S. beofian ; D. bieve ; B. baven; T. beben. 

H L 


2. From the noun ; to put oft', dodge, or cheat. 
BOBBIN, *. a small spool for weaving lace, a cord so wo- 
ven ; B. bobyn ; F. bobine, from bob, to move, anil S. 
bune, a spool. See BONE LACE. 

BOBTAIL, *. from BOB ; a short tail ; TAG, RAO and BOB- 
TAIL, were three denominations of ignoble dogs. 
See TIKE and RACK. 

BOCASSIN, *. a kind of open fustian used like buckram ; 
It. bocassino ; F. boncasrin ; Sp. bocassi, from It. and 
Sp. boca, a hole. See BUCKRAM. 

BODE, v. a. to portend, presage, announce ; G. boda ; 
Swed. boda ; S. bodian ; T. boten ; G. bod, was a message, 
an order, from the verb to bid ; and bode, S. boda, a 
messenger or announcer. See BEADLE. 

BODE, s. a dwelling, habitation; G. bud; S. bude ; Swed. 
bod; D. boed; W. bod. See ABODE and BOOTH. 

BODKIN, *. 1. an iron pin or needle ; formerly brodkin. 

2. A name given to one who has a small seat; bumkin, 
a small bum. 

BODY, s. the human stature or person, a corporation, 
the trunk of a tree, the bulk of any matter; S. bodig; 
T. potih, signified the human person or stature only ; 
and there does not appear to be any cognate term, un- 
less bode might have been considered as the residence 
of life, which in all G. dialects is synonimous with 
what we call body. P. body ; Sans, bodaun, a being, 
may possibly have a common origin with our verbs 
to be and to bide. See LIFE and BOLE. 

Boo, s. a morass, a fen, soft ground ; Arm. botie ; I. bog, 
a quagmire ; B. bagger, is mud ; but Swed. bog signi- 
fies pliant, flexible, cognate with our budge. 

BOOBEAN, BUCKBEAN, *. an aquatic plant ; B. boekboon, 
eoatsbean, menyanthes trifoliate; T. bachebohn ; B. 
beckeboon, would be in E. beckbean, which produced 
the botanical name becabunga for brooklime. 

BOGGLE, *. a fright, diminutive of BUG. 

BOGGLE, v. n. 1. to be alarmed, to shy. See the noun. 

2. To waver, to hesitate. See BUDGE. 

BOHEA TEA *. so named from the province of Vou yee 
or Bou yee, in China. 

BOIL, *. a pustule; G. bnil, from Ma to swell. See 

BOIL, v. a. to bubble through heat ; L. bullio ; F. bouiller. 

BOISTER, t'. a. to talk loud, to swagger, to vaunt. See 

BOISTEROUS, a. blusterous, noisy, violent. 

BOLD, a. daring, stout, impudent ; G. bald, vald ; Swed. 
bald; S. bald, beald ; Swed. ballet corresponds with 
L. valeo. See WIELD. 

BOLK, ,1. 1. the trunk of a tree, the body in contradis- 
tinction to the limbs; G. and Swed. bol ; Swed. /mo/, 
large, massive, together with bulk, Isl. buk, bulg, our 
lute or big, seem to be derived from G. and Swed. 
lutlit, liii/gia, to swell, to enlarge; whence also Isl. and 
Swed. bulil, thick, gross, corpulent. 

2. A measure for corn of six bushels ; L. bulga ; Scot. 
bow ; G. bolle ; T. bolle, was a measure for liquids. 

15. A kind of earth used in medicine; F. bole, from BAo*. 

BOLL, *. the round capsule containing the seeds of 
plants, such as flax ; T. bolle ; B. hot; W. bvl ; Scot. 
fiow ; from G. holla round ; and thence signifying a 
bud, a bulb, and the head. See BOWL and POLE. 

BULSTBB, . a large pillow, a pad ; G. Swed. and S. bol- 
tler ; T. pfultter ; P. balith. See BOLK and PILLOW. 

BOLT, . a bar, an arrow, lightning ; Swed. bull ; S. bolt ; 
T. boltz; B. boult; VV. bollt; I. boladh, correspond with 
BAiV, an arrow ; but Swed. bolt or bull, signifies a bar, 
a beam, from G. bol, and also, like L. cipput, a block 
for confinement. A notion may have existed that 
something like an arrow might be discharged with 
lightning ; but T. blitz, lightning is cognate with 
our blink. 

BOLT, v. a. 1. to sift flour by turning it round in a cy- 
lindrical sieve; B. builen; T. beutelen, from bail, beutel, 
a bag ; F. bluter. 

2. From the noun ; to fasten with a bolt. 

3. To sally out, to dart forth ; from BOLT in the sense of 
dart ; or sometimes in the sense of Sp. buelto, from L. 
volito, to turn suddenly. 

BOMB, s. a large ordnance shell ; F. bombe, from &*}*. 
BOMBASIN, s. slight stuff for mourning ; L. bombycinit*. 
BOMBAST, *. 1. high-sounding words. See BOMB. 

2. A kind of coarse fustian ; P. bumbo busta is cotton 

cloth ; but T. baum is a tree, and bast, a kind of tissue 

remarkably flimsy; Swed. bast, any thing light or 

trivial. See BEAM and BASTE. 
BOMBEK, s. the drone bee. See HUMBLE BEE. 
BOND, . a tie, an obligation, a band; G. bound; Swed. 

band; S. bond; P. bund; Hind. bind. See to BIND. 
BONDAGE, s. captivity, slavery; G. bandgia; P. bundugee. 

See BOND. 
BONE, s. the most solid part of the body ; G. bein, bun ; 

Swed. ben ; B. been ; S. ban; T. bein ; all of which, like 

L. tibia, signify a leg and pipe or tube. 
BONE-LACE, s. bobbin-lace ; S. bune, a bone spool. See 

BONEFIRE, *. a great fire for public rejoicing ; supposed 

to be from L. bonus; but probably for ban Jire. 

See BAN, public. 
BONITO-FISH, s. A. boonitta, beini/h; Sp. Port, and It. 

bonito, the latter apparently from L. bonus. 
BONNET, s . 1 . a head-dress ; Swed. bonad; D. bonnet; Arm. 

bonnet ; F. bonnet ; G. and Swed. buan or ban, signifies 

attire, and hat is high. 
2. A small topsail in a ship; D. bonet ; F. bonnette; Sp. 

BONNV, a. pretty, gay ; Sp. and Port, bonito, from L. 

bonus. See BOON. 
BOOBY, *. 1. a clownish, dull fellow; B. babok, a country 

lad ; perhaps from G. bo, T. bau, tillage, and boy. See 

2. A sea bird remarkable for its gestures ; Port. 6060, a 

buffoon ; it is called fou in F. See BUFFOON. 

BOOK, s. a volume to write or read in ; G. and Swed. 
bok ; S. hoc ; T. buck, apparently from G. Swed. S. bog, 
bok; B. boek, a roll, a quire ; O. E. born of paper wa 
also a quire or roll. It has been supposed to be de- 
rived from S. hoc, the beech tree ; but as the Goths 
were late in acquiring the use of letters, it is not pro- 
bable that they ever used the beech as paper. See 

BOOM, *. a beam, a bar, a pole, used in a ship to keep 
the sail extended ; B. boom ; D. bom. See BEAM. 

BOOM, v. a. 1. from the noun, to sail very fast, with all 
sails set. 

2. To rise in billows ; G. hodm ; B. boom, the bottom, sig- 
nified in Gothic a ground swell or surf, an estuary ; 
but our word was apparently from G. boga um. See 

B R 

B U 

BOON, *. 1. a favour, a prayer; G. ban, bon; S. bene; 

Swed. bon, from G. una, to favour, to cherish. 
2. The stalk of herbs like hemp or flax ; G. bein ; S. bttne, 
like L. tibia, signified a shank and a pipe ; Scot. btme. 
See BONE. 

BOON, a. jovial, jolly ; supposed to be F. bon, from L. 
bonus ; out G. buan, bon; Isl. boin; Swed. boen, signified 
prepared, provided, adorned ; and G. bitai to entertain 
as a guest, beini, hospitable, were from G. bua, boa, to 
prepare ; Scot, bene, comfortable, wealthy, happy. 
BOOR, s. a country fellow, a elown ; G. baur, buer ; T. 
batter ; B. boer ; S. beorman, a cultivator. 

BOORD, s. a jest, a sham, a fib ; B. boert ; F. bourde ; L. B. 
burda; It. bugiardo, from bugia, a fiction. See BANTER. 

BOOSE, s. a stall for oxen or cows ; G. bua hus ; S. bosig, 
cattle house ; 0ois- 

BOOT, *. 1. profit, advantage; G. b6t, hot; Swed. and S. 
bol ; B. boat ; W. budd. It was originally hot or bat, 
good, from which we have BETTER and BEST. 

2. A covering for the leg ; G. botar ;, botschuhe ; F. 
botte ; Sp. bota; Arm. hot ; W. bolas; Isl. and Swed. hot, 
supposed to be from G. bog, bogt, signified a leg or 
limb, corresponding with L. cms. They varied in 
shape at different times ; but particularly when those 
worn by the Tartars and Chinese, with long peaks, 
were introduced from Poland into France, and called 

BOOTH, s. A shed for retailing liquors, a stall in a market, 
a rustic house ; G. bo, bud, abo, abud ; S. and T. bude, a 
dwelling ; W. biith ; Scot, buith, a shed or rude hut, 
from G. bua, to build ; but sometimes confounded 
with L. B. botha ; It. potheca, from L. apotheca, a shop. 
The same G. root produced S. bytlean, to build; whence 
botl, which, with us, is bottle, German buttcl, in form- 
ing the names of places. See BODE and ABODE. 

BOOTY, s. pillage, warlike spoil ; G. and Swed. byte ; T. 
beute; It botino; F. butin. It seems to be cognate with 
our Boot, and,to have signified originallyprofit; whence 
Swed. byta, to exchange, to buy. 

BORACHO, s. a leathern bottle, a drunkard; Sp.borracha, 
a bottle, borrachon, a drunkard. 

BORAMES, *. a plant called the Scythian lamb ; P. Sans, 
and Hind, baramesh, fruit lamb. See BREAD and 

BORAX, A-. an artificial salt; A. buortiq; L. B. borax. 

l!oi! DEL, s. a bawdy house, a brothel ; Sp. bordel; F. 
bordel; It. bordello, apparently from G. bord ; F. horde, 
an extremity, a side. It was usual in fortified towns 
to prohibit the building of hovels within the walls ; 
and particularly such as were considered nuisances. 
Swed. bord; L. B. bordillum, however, signified merely 
a shed made with boards, such as would be erected 
by the sutlers of a garrison. Sp. bordion^ a whore. 

BORDER, * edge, boundary, limit ; G. bord, bard; Swed. 
S. T. bord; F. bord, bordure ; Sp. horde. 

BORE, v. a. to make a hole, perforate ; G. bora, Chald. 
her a ; Swed. bora; D. bore; S. borian ; nj; li.foro. 

BOREL, a. clownish, rustic. See BOOR. 

BOROUGH, *. a corporation, association ; G. and S. borg, 
signified a mutual pledge or accommodation ; S. borg- 
hoe, borhoe, a person pledged, a fidejussor ; S. buruh, 
/jiirug, a community. This word, now used as syno- 
nimous with burg, is cognate with BORROW; the 
members being bound by a reciprocal pledge. 

BORROW, v. a. to require or take as an accommodation, 
or on credit; G. biorga; D. barge; Swed. borga; T. bor- 


gen; S. borgian, to trust, pledge, interchange. It 
seems to have signified originally security, from G. 
berga, to secure, defend. 

BOSCAGE, s. a thicket, a wood, a grove, an arbour ; F. 
boscage, bocage ; It. boscaglia ; B. boschooge. See 

BOSOM, s. the hollow of the breast; S. bosum; B. boezum ; 

T. bitsen, the bending. See Bow, BAY, and BUXOM. 
Boss, s. protuberance, knob, stud ; T. butz, boss ; Arm, 

boss ; F. bosse ; from G. boga ut, boga us, to bow out. 

See BUT and BUD. 

BOSVEL, s. a kind of ranunculus ; F. bois belle, beauty 
of the wood. 

BOTARGO, s. the roe of the mullet potted ; O. F. bota 

' rogue, now botargue ; It. botarga, potarga. See to 

POT and ROE. 

BOTCH, s. 1. from the verb ; a patch, clumsy work. 
2. For BLOTCH ; a boil, a swelling ; It. 6020. 
BOTCH, v. a. to patch, to mend clumsily ; T. bietzen ; B. 

boetsen, from G. bota, to mend, bota skoe, a cobbler. 

BOTH, a. of two ; P. bado, ba, with or by, and do, two ; 

S. battva ; Swed. bada ; G. bade; T. beide. G. and S. 

nit was the dual of me, signifying we two. 

BOTHER, v. a. to put out, to confuse ; from be out, I. 
buaidrceadh, confusion, trouble. 

BOTS, s. worms in the entrails of horses ; L. podices. 

BOTTLE, s. 1. a vessel to contain liquid; G. byttel, dimi- 
nutive of butt, a cask; F. bouteiUe ; It. botticella. 

2. A bundle or truss of hay or straw ; G. bat, bott ; F. 
bolte; Arm. boctel. See BAT. 

3. In forming the names of places ; S. botl; T. b-dttel, a 
village. See BOOTH. 

BOTTOM, s. lowest part, foundation ; G. botn, bond ; P. 

bon ; Swed. batten, bun ; T. boden ; B. bodene ; S. botn ; 

D. bund; W. bon ; fivSftoi, /3v6tt li.jiindum. 
BOUD-WORM, *. a meal worm ; It. biotto, from L. blatta. 
BOVE, prep, higher than, superior to, beyond ; S. bofan ; 

B. boven, from G. be of an, over. 
BOUGE, v. a. to swell out. See BULGE. 
BOUGH, s. arm or branch of a tree ; G. bos ; Swed. bog ; 

BOUGHT, pret. and part. pass, of the verb to BUY ; M. G. 


BOULDER, a. round, bullet-formed ; G. bollotur. 
BOUNCE, .v. a bound, a sudden noise, a boast ; B. bans. 

BOUNCING-GIRL, a buxom girl ; G. bogansom, obedient, 

jolly. See BUXOM. 
BOUND, s. 1. a limit; P. bund; G. baund; T. buind ; O. 

F. bonne, an inclosure or boundary. See POUND and 

to BIND. 
2. A vault or spring, an elastic movement partaking of 

a curve ; G. bugand from bog, a bow or arch ; VAULT 

and CURVET have the same meaning. See the verb. 
BOUND, r. a. 1. from the noun ; to jump, to spring, to 

move in a curve; F.bondir; W. poatiaw is also to 

bound, from resembling the arch of a bridge. 
2. From the noun ; to limit. 
BOUND, pret. and part. pass, of the verb to BIND ; as I am 

bound by law, or by charter. 
BOUNTY, s. generosity, munificence, kindness ; F. bonte 

from L. bonitas. 



B 11 A 

BOUHG. s. a corporation town; See BURG and BOROUGH. 
BOURGEON, v. a, to bud or shoot ; F. bourgeoner, from L. 

BOURN, *. 1. a limit, a boundary ; G. brun ren ; F. borne ; 

Oftt. See BROW. 
_'. A brook, a rivulet; G. brunna from the verb to RUN ; 

S. liritn; Swed. brun; B. bron ; T. born ; Scot burn. 

BOUSE, w. a. to drink lavishly ; B. buizen ; F. boisson, 

drink, from L. B. bibatio, bibax. 
BOUT, s. a turn, trial, a round ; G. bogt ; S. bngt ; M. G. 

bin/it; corresponding with It. volla, from L. volvo. 
BOUTK, *. a match, a candle ; G. bula ; F. boute, a match; 

Swed. bdta, to kindle, should properly be bdla eld. 
BOUTEFEU, f. a firebrand, an incendiary ; F. boutefeu, 

from boute, a match, and/<?, L. focus ; Swed. fyrbv- 

tare. See BOUTE. 
BOUTISALS, *. a sale by setting up a lighted match or 

small piece of candle, during the burning of which 

any person may bid. See BOUTE and SALE. 
Bow, v. a. to bend, stoop, curve, submit; G. buga; Swed. 

boya ; S. bugen ; T. biegen ; B. biiigen; P. huge. 
Bow, s. 1. from the verb ; a reverence, abaisance, bending 

of the body. 

2. An instrument to shoot arrows ; G. boge ; Swed. bog ; 
D. hue ; S. bog ; T. bogen ; B. boog ; I. boge; W. btva. 

3. The round stem of a ship ; Swed. bog, signifying also 
a shoulder. 

4. A roll, a quire of paper, a volume. See BOOK. 

5. The arch of a bridge, a fiddlestick, the double string 
of a slip knot, a net fixed on hoops. See to Bow. 

BOWEL, s. a gut, an entrail ; G. bcelg; T. bauchlein ; B. 
beuling, from belly ; fti^tf ; L. botillus ; It budeUo ; 
Arm. bouzel; F. boyel, a gut, a pudding. 

BOWKB, s. in the present acceptation of the word, signi- 
fies a seat shaded with boughs, an arbour ; D. buur 
signifying a cage, is G. and Swed. bur ; S. bur ; T. 
bauer, a dwelling, an apartment, from G. bua. 

BOWER-ANCHOR, s. with us, appears to be named from 
the bow of the ship ; but in B. from having a buoy 
attached to it. 

BOWL, s. the hollow of a cup, a wooden ball, a round 
mass ; G. D. S. holla ; Arm. bed. The G. word signi- 
fied rotundity, either concave or convex. 

BOWLINE, s . a cord fastening the sails in a ship ; Swed. 
boglina, bolin ; B. boelyn ; F. boline. See BUNT and 

BOWSPRIT, *. the mast projecting from the bow of a 
ship. See SPRIT. 

Box, s.l. a case of wood ; S. box, bosg ; B. bus ; T. buckse ; 
Arm. boest ; F. boete, signify a box or tube, and are 
supposed to be from L. buxus ; Ruse, and Scot boss, 
means hollow, void. 

2. A shrub ; L. buxus. 

BOX-HOSE, *. folding breeches, trunk hose; G. and Swed. 
byx, probably from boga, to fold ; D. buxtir ; B. boksen, 
supposed by some to be merely corrupted from G. 
broke), breeches. 

Box, . a. to fight with fists ; Swed. bocka ; T. bocken ; 
B. beuleen ; F. buquer, signify to strike, or probably to 
butt like a buck goat ; and it is possible that this may 
have been the origin of our word ; for in America, 
butting was more used than what is now called box- 
ing. n{; L. pugio ; Romance pots, however, signify 
the fist. 

Boy, s. a male child, a lad ; P. buck ; G. bung, buict, 

puik ; D. pog ; Swed. bagge ; I. buai. The root of 

this word, of Jock, Jack and IVggy, seems to be G. 

tig ; I. og, young. Arm. buchil, and F. puceau, arc 

from L. puellux. 
BRABBLE, v. a. to clamour, to brawl ; G. ropa, to call 

out, produced B. bcroep, altercation, and its frequen- 

tative brabbeL 
BRACE, *. 1. a support, stay, energy ; Arm. breech; W. 

braich ; It. braccio ; F. bras, from L. brachium Un- 

arm, strength. 
2. A clasp, a bracket, a couple, a pair ; from L. brackia; 

a LEASH required a string. 
BRACE, v. a. from the noun; to hold together, to 

strengthen, tighten. 
BRACELET, . an ornament for the arm ; L. brachialis ; 

F. bracelet. 
BRACK, s. a kind of dog used in the chase ; G. braklc ; 

T. brak; F. braque ; It bracco; apparently the same 

with RACK, but supposed to be from raucfc, smell. See 


BRACK, s. a breach, a rupture. See to BREAK. 
BRACKET, *. a cramp, a stay. It. bracietlo. See BRACK. 
BRACKISH, a. saltish; G. bar, a tide; A. bara, the sea. 

BRAD, s. a point, a nail without a head ; G. brodde; Swed. 

and D. brad ; W. bruyd. 
BRAG, v. a. to affect bravery, to vaunt; G, braga, brahu 

(from which we have our word brave- ; I si. brag ; 

Swed. brage, a hero ; bragur, an extoller, a heroic 

poet, a bard,) D. bragska ; Arm. braga ; F. braque i. 

to extol. See BRAVADO. 
BRAGGET, s. a liquor made by mixing honey with water 

and aromatic herbs ; W, bragod ; Scot, bragwort. See 

BRAID, v. a. to plait, to knit, to wreath ; Isl. bregda ; 8. 

bredan ; T. briden, from G. bry, a point, a knitting 

needle. See BROIDEH. 
BRAID, *. 1. from the verb ; a tress, a plait. 
2. A sudden movement, a turn, a nod, a wink ; G. brad; 

Swed. bragd, from G. and Swed. bregda, to change, 

auga bragli, a turn of the eye. 
BRAIL, s. a brace line in a ship ; F. bresle, brele, breuiller, 

to reef. See BRACE. 
BRAIN, *. the soft substance within the scull, sense, un- 

derstanding ; G. huarn ; Swed. hierna ; O. E. harne ; 

B. breins S. bragin ; T. pregin, corresponding with 

BRAIT, a. unpolished, rude ; F. brute; L. rudus. 

BRAKE, s. 1. a thicket of brambles or fern ; D. bregne ; 
Scot, bracken; Krm.bruhag; Swed. braecka, signifies 
to burn or heat ; for which purpose fern is still used. 
See LING and FEBN. 

2. Brushwood ; D. brcek ; B. bruig ; Swed. braek, from 
the verb to BREAK. 

3. A machine to crush flax ; Swed. brack ; T. breche ; B. 
braecke. See to BREAK. 

4. A bit for young horses ; and also the body of a carri- 
age to train them ; S. breac ; T. branch. See BRKAK, 
to tame, to accustom. 

5. The handle of a pump. L. brachium. 

BRAMBLE, s. the blackberry bush ; G. hrambcr ; Swed. 
brombasr ; T. brombeer ; S. brcembel, brier berry ; T. 
bram, a prickle. 


BRAN, J. the husks of corn when ground; F. bran ; It. 
bruno ; Arm. and W. brann. See BRAY, to grind. 

BRANCH, s. the limb of a tree, an arm of the sea; F. 
branche ; Arm. brank ; /3{^i , L. brachium. 

BRAND, s. 1. a burning coal, lighted stick, mark of burn- 
ing ; met. infamy. G. Swed. S. D. T. B. brand, from 
G. brina. See to BURN. 

2. A burnished sword ; G.brandur; It. brando ; from 

bruna. See BURNISH. 
BRAND NEW, a. newly polished ; from G. bruna. 

BRANDISH, v. a. to flourish or wave like a sword ; Sp. 

brandear ; It. brandire ; F. brander, brandiller. See 

BRANDLING, s. a worm so named from its brindled 

BRANDY, s. a spirit distilled from wine ; T. brande tvein, 

burnt wine. 
BRANGLE, v. a. to squabble, to bewrangle. See 

BHANK, s. buck wheat; Arm. brank, brae, barac, said 

anciently to have been the general Celtic name for 

grain. See BARLEY and BREAD. 

BRANK URSINE, s. an herb called acanthus ; L. B. 

branca ursina. See BEARS BREECH. 
BRANT GOOSE, *. so named from its burnt colour ; B. 

brand gans ; Scot, brannit. 

BRASIER, s. 1. a pan for holding fire ; F. brasier ; Sp- 
brasero, from G. and Swed. brasa ;- /}(xE,a, to burn. 

2. One who works in brass. 

BRASS,*.!, a hard yellow metal ; P. braj, burinj ; S. 
bras ; Swed. brent ces, purified copper. See BRONZE. 

2. Impudence, effrontery; G. braz, assumed countenance, 

from bregda, to deceive. See FACE. 
BRASS, a. made of brass, brasen, impudent. 

BRAT, s. 1. A child; G. berat ; Heb. bera, bur, berat ; 

W. bragat, a birth, what is brought forth. See BAIRN, 

to BEAR and BRING. 
2. A rag, a tatter, fragment, refuse ; G. brat, what is 

broken. See BRITTLE. 

#. A covering, a coarse apron, a smock frock, mean 
clothing ; and in Scot, signifying scum or cream 
rising on milk; G. and Swed. bregda, breita ; S. brce- 
tan, gebrcedan, to assume a different form, to change 
or dress, produced brat ; S. bratt ; W. brath ; cor- 
responding with our words SHIFT and SHAM. See to 

BRAVADO, *. affected courage ; It. bravado, bravazso, a 
pretender to bravery ; Scot, bravery. See to BRAG. 

BRAVE, a. bold, generous, excellent ; G. brage, excellent ; 
Isl. brage, a hero ; G. brake ; Swed. brqf ; B. braaf; 
D. and^T. brav ; F. brave ; It. Sp. Port, bravo; Arm. 
brao; I. bra; Scot, braw, gallant, courageous, ex- 
cellent, fine, adorned, and courageous, in the same 
sense that L. probus produced prowess. The word 
has not been introduced into M. G. or S. except as 
brege, a chief. 

BRAVERY, *. courage, magnanimity ; and formerly gal- 
lantry, finery. See BRAVE. 

BRAWL, v. a. to riot, to bully ; F. bravellir, to affect 
bravery, to bravado, has been confounded with brail- 
ler ; B. brallen, to roar. See BRAY. 

BRAWL, *. 1. from the verb ; a squabble, a great noise. 

B R E 

2. A kind of dance ; F. branle ; Sp. brando; It. brando, 

branla ; Scot, brangel, from L. vibrando. 
BRAWN, s. 1. boar's flesh ; L. apnigna ; T. ebern. See 


2. Muscular flesh; /Sfx^'ar L. brachium, strength, nerve. 
BRAWNY, a. from BRAWN; muscular, nervous, fleshy, 

BRAY, s. in fortification, called also bas enceinte, is from 

F. braye. See BREECHES. 
BRAY, v. a 1. to beat in a mortar, to pound, to grind ; 

F. broyer ; Arm. brewo ; W. britvo. See to BREAK. 

2. To roar, to cry like an ass ; G. brceka ; Swed. brcega, 
correspond with P(<t%a ; but Sp. borricare ; F. brain; 
are from borrico, a jack ass. See BROCK. 

BHAYL, s. the tail of a hawk ; T. brayer, from braye, 
the breech. See BREECHES. 

BRAZEN, v. a. to be impudent or bold, to face a story 
out. See BRASS. 

BREACH, *. a gap, a rupture, a fracas ; Swed. brack ; F. 
breche. See to BREAK. 

BREAD, s. food in general, victuals ; but particularly, 
now, what is made of ground corn ; Isl. brand ; Swed. 
brod; S. bread, brod ; D. breed; T. brod, brot ; B. 
brood; Heb. barout ; /3 ? {. Heb. Syr. Sans. P. bar]; 
T. here; Arm. bara ; W. bara ; I. bar, appear to 
have the same origin with our bear, to bring forth, 
and signify, like Ii.fruges, edible produce. Thus also 
L. Jar is from fero ; S. pic brod, pig's bread, was an 
acorn, and T. sow bread denotes, as with us, the root 
of the Cyclamen. G. brigga was a modification of 
the verb to bear; and brae, barac, is said to have 
been anciently the general name among Europeans 
for corn. See BARLEY, BERRY, BRANK, BREW, 

BREAK, v. a. 1. to fracture, to part by force, crush, ruin ; 

G. breka ; Heb. berek ; A. and P. bruqa ; Eolian 

Ppyva ; T. brechen ; B. breeken ; S. brecan; Swed. 

braka ; Isl. braka ; I. bracam ; W. brigu ; Arm. brica, 

frica ; L. frago, frango. 

2. To change, to assume a different form or appearance, 
to falsify; G. brega, bregda; S. brcegdan ; Swed. 
bregda tru, to break faith ; Scot, break, to deceive. 
With the Goths break of day, signified either the 
dawn or close of day; Isl. bregda lit, to change 
colour or countenance. See BARTER. 

3. To accustom, to manage, to habituate, to tame ; G. 
breuka ; S. brucan ; T. brauchen, brechen. See to 

BREAM, s. a fish of the carp kind ; Swed. bressem ; B. 
braessm ; T. brachsem, bresm ; F. breme ; L. B. bra- 
ma, abramis ; bright or brightsome, seems to have 
been the meaning of the G. name ; but some suppose 
Abramis to be from Auramen, See BRESSE. 

BREAST, s. part of the body, the thorax, the heart ; G. 
brwst; Swed. brdst ; T. bruste ; B. borst ; S. breost ; 
P. bar. 

BREATH, s. air drawn in and thrown out of the lungs; 
An* ; G. and T. athem, air of life ; S. orath, brath ; T. 
brodem. See the verb. 

BREATHE, t>. a. 1. from the noun ; to draw breath, to 
rest ; S. eethian, brtsthian. 

2. To pierce, to open a vein ; G. brydda ; Swed. brada ; . 
W. brathu, to puncture. See BRAD and BROIDEK. 

BRED, pret. and part. pass, of the verb to BREED. 

B R I 


BRP.E, .?. a kind of gad fly ; G. bry ; Hii( ; D. brems. See 

BREECH, *. the division of the legs, the backside, the 
hinder part ; G. brek, a. division, a fork ; Swed. brcek ; 
T. bruche; S. brae ; W. breg ; I. bristig. See 

BREECHES, s. clothing for the breech or backside ; G. 
brtekur, broke. i ; S. broc, bratc, brteccce ; Arm. braghis ; 
I. brigis; W. bryccan ; It. braccce ; L. bracca: ; F. 
lirai/es ; but perhaps in another sense from G. breg, 
hrok ; W. brych; Arm. brech ; I. breac, party colour- 
ed ; I. brtecan, tartan cloth. The Galli Braccati 
perhaps derived their name from that kind of clothing ; 
for coloured hose among the Helvetii was said to have 
been a dress of honour. 

BREED, v. a. to produce, generate, bring up, educate ; 
S. brytian, bredan ; T. baeren, from G. bera. See 

BREEZE, s. 1. a gentle gale, a light wind ; G. byr ; D. 
bter; B. breeze ; F. brise ; It. brezza ; Port, brizo, a 
wafting air, from the verb to BEAR. See GALE. 

2. The gad fly, the BHEE ; S. briose ; B. brems ; It. brissio ; 
W. bruth, from G. bry, brodde, a point or sting. See 

3. cinders, burnt coals; F. braise; It. bragia. See 

BREME, a. furious, fierce, stormy ; G. brim ; S. brent. 

BRESSE, BRESM, .v. a fish ; See BREAM. 

BRET, *.a kind of flat fish; T. brelt ; F. bertonneau, 
either from broad or G. breit ; W. brith, spotted. See 

BREVET, s. from BRIEF, a letter patent ; F. brevet. 

BREW, v. a. to infuse grain in water ; but now princi- 
pally for the purpose of making fermented liquor; 
G. brigga ; D. brtgge ; Swed. brigga ; S. britvan; T. 
and B. bran-en ; Russ. barm ; W. braga. The word 
appears to be cognate with S. brug ; Scot, and I. 
brochan ; W. brwchan, a farinaceous mixture. F. 
brasser ; L. B. bracho, brcuco, may be from brae, barac, 

BREWIB, ,r. bread soaked in fat potage ; S. briu ; T. 
brosam ; W. brytves ; Scot, brose. See BROTH. 

BRIBE, s. a gift to pervert honesty ; G. bry fa ; S. bred 
fee, a perverting fee. See BREAK, to change, to falsi- 

BRICK, *. a piece of burnt clay ; F. brique ; Arm. brick ; 
It. bruchia, terra abruchiata, from G. and Swed. brteka, 
brasa ; It. bruggio, to burn. 

BRIDE, s. a new married woman ; G. brud ; Swed. and 
D. brud; B. bruid ; T. brant ; S. bryd ; Arm. bried ; 
W. priod ; from G. reda, bereda ; S. beredian ; T. be- 
raten, to betrothe, to solemnize legally. G. rod ; T. 
heyrath, signified marriage ceremony, and S. bryd, 
was applied to any married woman. 

BRIDEWELL, s. a house of correction ; formerly St. 
BRIDE'S hospital. 

BRIDGE, *. a platform or arch over water ; G. bro, brigg ; 
Swed. bryggia ; T. bracket S. brieg ; D. brl ; Russ. 
brod, borod; P. barah, from the verb to BEAR. 

BRIDLE, s. a bit with reins, for governing a horse ; G. 
bridal from ride, and ol, a strap or rein ; bitol, a bit 
rein ; Swed. bitul; T. brittel ; B. brydel ; F. bride; It. 

BRIEF, a. concise ; short ; L. brevii ; F. bref ; It. brieve. 

BRIEF, *. a short extract, a letter patent ; G. bref; T. 
brief; S. braue ; F. brevet ; It. breve ; all from L. bre- 

BRIER, t, a prickly bush, a bramble, a wild rose tree ; 

G. bry ; S. brter ; I. brier ; W. bralh ; a prickle. 
BRIG, *. a ship with two masts. See BRIGANTINE. 

BRIGADE, s. a party or division of soldiers ; F. brigade ; 
It.brigata; Sp. brigada. See BRICK. 

BRIGAND, s. an associated robber, a freebooter, a smug- 
gler; F. brigand ; It. briganle. -See BRIOE. 

BRIGANTINE, *. a ship with two masts ; F. brigantine ; 
It. brigantino, a pirate, a smuggler, either from brig- 
ante or G. berga to protect. See BRIGAND. 

BRIGE, BRIGUE, *. contention, controversy, a faction, 
combination; L. B. briga ; F. brigue ; It. briga ; Sp. 
brega ; supposed to be from G. and Swed. brigda. 

BRIGHT, a. clear, shining, splendid ; G. biart, bart ; M. 
G. bairt; S. beort, breaht, bryht ; T. bert, brecht ; W. 
berth; Swed. bar; G. her, bart, our bare, signified 
not only naked, but manifest, clear, conspicuous, illus- 

BRILL, s. a kind of flat fish ; W. brythyl ; Arm. brezel, 
a general name for spotted fishes. See PRILL and 

BRILLIANT, s . a fine diamond ; F. brilliant ; It. brillante ; 
T. and D. brille, a magnifying glass ; supposed to be 
from beryl, which anciently was greatly esteemed, and 
used in sorcery. 

BRILLIANT, a. shining, sparkling, resplendent. 

BRIM, s. the upper edge, the top ; G. brim, brin ; T. 

brdm; S.brymm; Swed. bresm. See RIM and BRINK. 
BRIM, v. a. to become salacious or in heat; G. brimtt. 

BRIMSTONE, BRINSTONE, s. sulphur ; from G. brinnu. 

See to BURN. 
BRINDLE, v. a. frequentative of brand, to variegate bv 

fire, to produce different shades of singed colour. See 

BRINE, s. the sea, melted salt ; S. brein, bryn, brym ; G. 

bara, the tide, the sea. 

BRING, v. a. to bear, fetch, conduct, produce, breed ; 
G. brigga ; M. G. briggan ; Swed. bringa ; D. bringe; 
S. brytian, brycean, bringan ; T. baeren, bringen ; B. 
brengen. In the pret. and perf. tenses it became, in 
different dialects, brigt, brtgd, brid, brat, brat, brogt, 
broht. See to BEAR and BREED. 

BRINK, s. the edge of any place ; G. bryn ; Swed. 
brink ; T. and D. brink. See BROW and BRIM. 

BRISK, a. lively, gay, sprightly, vigorous ; G. roetk ; 

T. risch, vrysg, breisk ; B. fresch, brask ; F. brusque. 


BRISKET, *. the breast of an animal ; F. brichet. 
BRISTLE, s. hair on the back of swine ; G. byst, borst ; 

B. borstel ; S. brustk. See BUR and BRUSH. 
BRITTLE, a. frangible, easily broken; G. brita ; Isl. 

briota; Swed. bryla ; S. brytan, to break, to divide. 

BROACH, *. a spit, a tap, a point, pin, breast buckle ; 

G. brodde ; Swed. brodd ; W. brrvyd ; F. broche. See 

BROAD, a. wide, extended, open ; G. braid; Swed. bred; 

S. brad; T. breit ; B. breed ; P. burdur. 
BROCADE, t. a silk or stuff, variegated with gold or 

B R O 

Silver, embroidery ; F. brocade ; It- broccata, from 

BROCCOLI, s. a species of cabbage ; plur. of It. broccolo, 
sprout of cole. See CAULIFLOWER. 

BROCK, s. a badger; D. broak ; S. broc ; F. broc ; It. 
burco, apparently from G. br&k, brofc, a scream, a 
yell. The imitation of bearbaiting is known to be 
a favourite amusement with the Laplanders. In the 
same manner, the brock was represented by the de- 
scendants of the Picts, in Britain, during the long 
nights. The actor began by imitating the first cry 
of the animal and of the dogs, which he varied with 
great humour, in the different movements of attack 
and defence, till the scene closed with the triumphant 
shout of the hunters. See GRAY. 

BROCKET, *. a young deer, whose horns appear point- 
ed; F.brocart, from BROACH. See PKICKBT, SPITTER, 
and BUR. 

BROGE, v. a. to strike eels with a spit; Scot, brog, a 
prong. See BROACH. 

BROGUE, *. 1. a country accent, particularly of the Irish; 
I. brog, bruac ; W. bro aeg, from bro, country, and 
aeg, speech. 

2. A shoe made of raw leather ; I. bro given, a country 
shoe ; W. gtvintas, shoes. 

BROIDER, v. a. to adorn with figures in needle work ; 

G. broda ; D. brode ; W. brodio ; F. brodir, from G. 

brodde, a point. See BROCADE. 
BROIL, v. a. to roast on the fire, to grill ; F. bruler, brus- 

ler ; It. brustolare, from fyoZja ; G. brasa, brasta. See 

BROKER, s. one who acts as agent, a factor ; B. bruiker ; 

T. braucher ; G. brakunar, brukunar, an accustomed 

person, one who understands affairs and languages ; 

S. broce, knowledge. See to BROOK and to BREAK. 

BRONZE, s. brass, copper colour; It. bronzo ; F. bronze; 
P. burinj, perhaps from G. bruna ; F. brunir, to 
burnish, and L. CBS. See BRASS. 

BROOCH, s. a ring, a clasp ; G. and Swed. bratz, braz ; 
T. bratze ; L. bractea, a clasp. See BROACH. 

BROOD, *. the young of animals, particularly of birds ; 

Swed. burd; T. brut; S. brod, byrd. See BIRD, 

BROOD, v. from the noun ; to produce young, to hatch, 

to sit on eggs ; to meditate, in the sense of L. incubo ; 

B. broedan. See to BREED. 

BROOK, v. to accustom, endure, habituate, use ; G. bruka; 
S. brucan ; T. brauchen ; D, bruge ; B. bruiken. See to 

BROOK, s. a small stream, a rivulet ; G. broka ; S. bntck ; 
B. broek ; P. birku. 

BROOKLIME, s. a plant found near brooks. See BOG- 

BROOM, s. a shrub, a species of genista ; T. broem ; S. 
brom ; B. brem ; G. bry ; W. her, a point, a prickle. 

BROTH, s. the liquor flesh is boiled in, but originally 
any liquid preparation of sodden herbs or meal ; S. 
broth ; T. bruhe ; B. brume ; It. brodo ; Arm. bertvad. 
See to BREW. 

BROTHEL, s. a bawdy house. See BORDEL. 

BROTHER, s. a male of children born of the same par- 
ents; G. broder; M. G. brothor; T. bruder; S. brothur; 
Swed. broder; D. broder; B. broeder; P. brader, birader; 
Heb. berith ; *{*'TII{ ; Sclav. Russ. Pol. Bohem. bradr, 

B U C 

brath,-Arm. braud; W. brodor; l.brather; L. j rater; It. 
Sp. Port/rate; F.frere; G.bryd,byrd: Bj, a foetus ; 
W. bru, the womb ; Chal. Heb. P. Syr. bar, a child, 
are all cognates of our verb to BEAR. See BRAT, 

BROUGHT, part. pass, of the verb to BRING ; Sv/ed.brost; 

D. brogt ; S. brohte. 
BROW, *. the edge of a place, the forehead ; G. bru, brun; 

Swed. bryn ; S. bran ; T. bran. See BRINK. 
BROWBEAT, v. a. to depress, bear down, dismay; to 

make the countenance fall. But perhaps G. and S. 

brog ; W. brarv, terror, may be the word. 
BROWN, a. a dark reddish colour; G. brune ; Swed. 

brun, braun; T. brown; S. brun; B. bruin; F. brun; It. 

bruno, from G. brina, to burn, corresponding with 


BROWN BILL, s. a polished battle ax ; from G. bruna ; 
Swed. bryna, to polish ; It. bruni, bright, and bill, an 

BROWSE, v. a. to feed on young shoots or branches of 
trees; It. broscare ; F. brouter, from L. abrodo, or 
; but see BRUSHWOOD. 

BRUISE, v. a. to crush, beat, mangle; S. brysan; T. 
brisen; R.bryzin; Arm. brisa;F. briser. See to BRAY. 

BRUIT, s. noise, report, rumour; Arm. bruit; F. bruit ,- 

Sp. ruido. See ROUT. 
BRUNT, s. shock, act of violence; Swed. branad; B. brand, 

ardour, vehemence, from G. brenna, to burn. 
BBUSH, s. 1. an instrument made of bristles or hair; 

Swed. borst; D. bcerst ; F. brosse. See BRISTLE. 
2. A sudden effort, a strenuous act, an assault; G. 

brash, bradska; Swed. braedska; Scot, brash; B. brusk; 

F. brusque; It. brosco, impetuous. 

BRUSHWOOD, s. young trees or branches that are stunted 

by cattle ; T. brusch ; F. brusc, brosse, brossaitte ; It. 

brosca. See BROWSE and RISEWOOD. 
BRUSTLE, v. a. 1. to crackle like the burning of sticks ; 

S. brastlian; T. brasteln, from G. brasa; Swed. brasta, 

to burn. 

2. To raise the bristles like a boar or hedgehog. See 

3. To make a noise like the rubbing of silk. See RUS- 

BRUTE, *. an irrational animal ; from L. brutus ; F. 

brute; It. bruto. 
BUBBLE, *. a small bladder of air in water; L. bullabula; 

Sp. bubulla; Swed. bubla ; B. bobble; Sans, boolboola. 
BUBBY, s. a woman's breast ; It. poppa, boppa. See PAP. 
BUBO, s. a swelling in the groin ; pvSam. 
BUCCANEERS, s. a name assumed by pirates on the coast 

of America, from boucan, a kind of wooden frame us- 

ed by the savages of Cayenne for drying flesh or fish. 

BUCK, *. 1. the male of deer and goats ; G. Swed. T. B. 

bock; S. bucc ; Sans, bok ; P. booz ; ft^n', W. bwch i 

Arm. bouc ; F. bouc ; It. becco. 

2. A tub or cask ; G. bank ; S. hue ; B. bak. 

3. A lie for washing, urine ; T. bauch, lauch, laug, 
which seem to be formed from ach, auch, aug, water. 
See LIE. 

BUCK, v. a. to wash with lie ; T. bauchen ; Swed. byka , 
F. buquer; Arm. buga ; It. bucata ; Sp. bugada, a wash- 
ing. See the noun. 

BUCKBEAN, s. marsh trefoil. See OGBEAN. 

B U F 

HI-CKET, .v. diminutive of BUCK ; a small tub; Arm. 

bullet ; F. baqvet. 
BUCKLE, s. a circle, a link, a small ring for fastening a 

-lior a ringlet, an ornamental curl of hair; IT. hang ; 

T ftmigfeM / Swed. bukkel, bnckla; W. and. Arm. 6owc/; 

I. bucta; F. Aouc/e, from G. boga, to bow, or curve; 

whence F. bague. 
KrrKLER, s. a shield, a target ; supposed to be cognate 

with BUCKLE, in the sense of circular; as O. round 

w;is also a shield; but G. bog; Swed. bog, signified 

the shoulder ; and leder, a skin, leather, was contract- 
ed into Icr ; B. leer. See Bow. 
BUCKRAM, s. a kind of cloth stiffened with gum ; but 

formerly called trellis from its lattice-like texture; 

It. bucherame, from bncaro, buchero, to make a hole ; 

buca, an aperture ; F. boucran. See BOCASSIN. 
BUCKRAMS, .v. wild garlic ; from buck a goat, and rams. 

BUCKTHORN, s. a kind of prickly bush ; D. bukketorn. 

Its botanical name Tragacantha has the same mean- 
BUCKWHEAT,*. a grain calledSaracen andTurkish wheat. 

S. hoc hveetle, boeckweyt, from its resemblance to beech 

mast. See BEECH and WHEAT. 
BUD, s. the first shoot of a plant ; S. buta ; T. bate; B. 

hot ; W. hot ; F. bouton. See Boss and BUT. 
Bui), v. a. to put forth the germ of leaves ; B. batten ; 

T. baussen ; F. boutontier. See the noun. 
BUDGE, v. n. to cede, to stir, to move off; G buga ; S. 

bugan ; Swed. botja ; D. boge; F. bouger. 
BUDOK, a. bluff, surly, formal ; G. bolg ; S. bcelg, bolg; 

W. batch, puffed up, arrogant, angry. See BOUQK. 
BUDGE, s. lambskin prepared like fur ; from G. baug ; 

Swed. bey, a curl. See BUCKLE and BAY YARN. 
BUDGET, i. a wallet, a sack ; F. bougette ; D.btigei, from 

G. Itcelg; T. balg ; L. B. bulga ; It. bolgia, volgia, bol- 

BUFF, *. 1. a put off, a refusal ; from Be off, as DOFF for 

Do off; he would neither buff nor stay ; he was un- 
2. A blow, a stroke ; Swed. boff ; B. boff; D. puff; F. 

bouffe ; L. B. buffo ; n. ; L. pavio. 
:i. leather made from buffalo skin, any thing of that 

colour, the human skin. 
BUFF, v. a. from the noun ; to beat, to cuff. 
BUFFALO, s. a kind of wild bull ; L. bubulus ; It. buffalo ; 

F. boffie. 
BUFFET, *. 1. diminutive of BUFF ; a blow with the hand, 

a box on the ear ; It. boffetto. 

2. A cupboard for plate, glass or china used in drink- 
ing ; F. bouvelte; It. buffetto, bivioto, a drink-stand, 
from bivo, L. bibo. 

3. A low footstool with two pieces of board instead of 
feet ; S. bufet, both feet, bipedal. 

BUFFI.E, a. thick-headed, dull, stupid ; from buffalo, as 
German ochsig, oxlike, signifies bull-headed, dull ; 
but F. bouffi; Scot, buffer, thick-chop, jolter-head, 
seem to be derived from L. bucca, which in Lombar- 
dy is bufo. 

BUFFLE, i . . to be puzzled, at a loss, stupid. See the 

BUFFOON, .v. a merry andrew ; It. buffone ; F. bouffbn ; 
It. baffa, beffa, seem to be T. off en, beaffen, to ape, to 
mimic ; but Sp. maino,fofu, gojo, bofo, are all perhaps 
from MM< ; /Eolian ,, which signified indecency. 

B U L 

scandal, obloquy, obscenity, and all such mirth as de- 
lighted the gods of the Greeks. In Lombard v, however, 
bufo, from L. bucca, signified the mouth, and was ap- 
plied to those who made comic jfrimaces to excite 
laughter. The Italians believe it to be from L. bufu, 
a toad, which, in anger, is said to puff and swell. 

BUG, *. 1. a stinking insect ; It. bozza, pozza ; Arm. pug; 
F. punaise, from L. putco. 

2. Fear, terror, fright; G. bugg, from ugg ; S. oga, ter- 
ror ; 1'. bnk ; A. bau ; W. bin, Lao" ; I. iiigha. ^Ogre, :- 
term in heraldry, signifying a monster, a bully, a 
giant, is also from Oga. See to Cow. 

3. Bulky, large, great. See Bio. 

BtTGBEAn, *. a frightful object ; from bug, terror, and 
be ogre, a frightener. See BULL-BEGGAR. 

BUGGER, *. a sodomite ; F. botigre, is said to be a cor- 
rupt pronunciation of Bulgaria, whence the Albigenses 
received their religious tenets ; and in the cry against 
heresy, every crime was imputed to heretics. Ketzer, 
in German, signified a heretic and a sodomite. 

BUGGY, *. a small wheeled carriage ; G. and D. bugge, 
a cradle, a large basket. 

BUGLOSS, s. the herb ox-tongue ; L. buglostut. 

BUILD, r. a. to erect an edifice ; G. bua, btilada ; Swed. 
bua, bylja, to construct a dwelling ; S. boll, an edifice. 

BULGE, v. a. 1. to spread out as a ship does when frac- 
tured by striking on the ground ; G. bulga ; Swed. 
bulgja, to swell out, protuberate. 

2. To take in water, to leak. See BILGE-WATER. 

BULK, *. magnitude, quantity ; G. bulke ; Swed. bolt; B. 
bulke, buike ; Sp. bitque, from G. bol; Swed. b I, large, 

BULL, in composition, signifies great, large. See BULK. 

BULL, *. 1. the male of black cattle ; Sans, biial ; Hind. 
biiel; P. bahal; A. bu, buJcal, bakar; fin; L. bubalus; S. 
and B. bull; W. bual ; G. bu, heel ; Swed. bdl, signified 
properly farming cattle, including oxen. 

2. A sealed letter, a short written document, authorised ; 
L. bulla ; It. holla ; F. bulle, signifying originally a seal ; 
but when applied to a mandate of the Pope, supposed 
to be /3Ai}, counsel. 

3. An equivocal expression, a blunder; I. but, phrase or 
fashion, may be cognate with VV. biau, peculiar. 

4. A fright, contracted from BOGGLE ; B. bulle. See BUG. 

BULL-BEGGAB, *. a bully, a frightener ; supposed to de- 
note the insolence of those who begged on authority 
of the Pope's bull or mandate ; but the word was pro- 
bably Bull, a fright, and be ogre, a terrifier, as in bug- 
bear. See BULLY BACK and BUG. 

BULLFINCH, *. a bird called in L. rubicilla ; T. blod,finke, 
bloodfinch. It is also known as the Alp, Olp, Ouph, 
Nolp, Nope, from G. olpa, a priest's hood. 

BULLACE, s. a wild plum; Arm. bolos ; I. bulos. Round 
fruits, or capsules of herbs, were called bul or boll, 
both by the Celts and Goths. 

BULLET, s. a round ball of lead or iron; G. boll; Arm. 
bolot ; F. boulet. See BALL and Bowi.. 

BULLION, *. gold or silver either in mass or of uncer- 
tain standard ; F. billon ; Sp. billon. It. bolloni, from 
L. bulla, signified every kind of metal ornament worn 
by the people, which was collected by agents for the 
use of the mint. Something of the same kind seems 
to have occurred in Spain, where it was called veUan. 

BULLOCK, f. a young ox or bull ; S. bulloca ; L. bubtil- 
cut. See BULL. 



BULLY., s. a noisy blustering fellow, one who endea- 
vours to inspire others with fear ; B. bulleman. See 
BULL and BUG. 

BULLYBACK, BULLYBUG, s. a frightening bully; B. 
bullcbak. See BULLY and BUG. 

BULWARK, s. a fortification, security ; G. bolwerk ; 
Swed. and B. bolwerk ; either from bol, great, or G. 
bol, the trunk of a tree ; F. boulevard ; It. bolvardo, 
have G. ward, defence, instead of work, labour. 

BUM, s. the backside; contracted from bottom ; B. bom ; 
P. Swed. W. and I. ban. See BOTTOM. 

Bust BAILIFF, *. a beadle bailiff, a messenger who arrests ; 
G. bodum ; S. bode ; B. boo, a message ; but some sup- 
pose the word to be properly Bound Bailiff, from his 
giving security to the sheriff. See BEADLE. 

BUM BOAT, *. a message or errand boat ; from G. bodum. 

BUMP, s. a blow, or the lump raised on the skin by a 

blow ; Isl. bomp ; neptipif. 
BUMP, v. a. from the noun ; to strike to sound like a 

thump; Isl. bompa. 

BUMPEK, s. a glass filled to the brim ; B. bov board, 
above the border or edge. See BRIM. 

BUMPKIN, *. a clown, a country lad ; perhaps for 
boobykin ; Swed. bondkin, a husbandman. See BOO- 

BUN, s. a sweet cake ; It. bugna ; F. bignet ; Sp. bunela ; 
favi was a honey cake offered to the gods, and S. beon 
bread, honeycomb. 

BUNCH,*. 1. a cluster, a knot; G. bunds ; D. bundt; 
Swed. bunt, tied together, a bundle, stopper. 

2. A hump, a boss ; Swed bunke, from Isl. bunga, to 

BUNDLE, s. various things tied together, a package ; G. 

bindel; Swed. byndel ; B. bondel. See to BIND. 
BUNG, s. a bunch, a plug, a stopper ; D. bundt ; F. bon- 

don. See BUNCH. 
BUNGHOLE, *. the hole in a cask to receive the bung ; 

but with the vulgar bung is supposed to mean the 

BUNGLE, v. to botch, to stop up clumsily ; T. bunglen. 

BUNGLER, *. from the verb ; a patcher, a clumsy piecer. 

BUNNION, s. a wart, a round tumor ; It. bugno ; /8of. 

BUNT, s. a swelling, the middle part of a sail when fill- 
ed with the wind ; G. bogt ; S. bugunt ; D. bug, bugt ; 
B. bogt, what bows out. See to BEND. 

BUNT, v. n. to swell out like the sail of a ship when fill- 
ed with wind. See the noun. 
BUNTER, . a ragged wench, a slut ; B. voden Jiaer, 

from vod, a rag, a wad; but S. butan hure was a 

hedge whore, an outlier. 
BUNTING, s. 1. a kind of lark ; W. bontinaug, fat rump ; 

B. bunting, however, signifies speckled. 
2. A kind of thin open stuff used for ship's colours ; 

corrupted from bolting cloth. 
BUOY, *. a float set in the water, a kind of tub fastened 

to the anchor of a ship to mark where it lies ; B. boei; 

F. boye ; It. boya ; D. bceje. 

BUOY, v. a. to float, to elevate ; B. boeijen ; opboeijen. 
BUR, s. 1. a prickle, the head of the Burdock ; G. bor, 

brodd, a point ; T. borr ; S. bor ; D. and Swed. bor re ; 

Scot, bur, a thistle. 
2. The point of a deer's horn when piercing the skin. 

BURBOT, s. an eel pout ; F. barbol, from its prickles or 

BURDEN, *. ] . a load ; P. burdon ; S. byrden ; G. burd ; 

Swed. borda ; S. heart ; from BEAR, to carry, as <bt%uo* 

from ipiga. 
2. The purport or bearing of a song ; but perhaps It. 

bordone ; F. bourdon ; W. byrdon, the bass or drone 

in music ; G. bijar dyn, the sound of bees. 
BURDOCK, s. the thistle dock ; L. B. bordacan ; F. bar- 

done. See BUR. 

BUREAU, s. a cabinet, a desk, an office ; F. bureau, ap- 
parently from G. bur, an apartment ; S. bur, a cabinet. 
BURG, BURGH, s. a place of strength, a fortress, a walled 

town ; A. boorj , Chald. burgadh ; nvpytf ; Swed. borg, 

a tower; G. berg, biarg; S. bcorg, a mount, a hill; 

G. borg ; S. T. B. burg ; Arm. and I. burg ; W. bwrg ; 

F. bourg; It. borga, a walled town; sometimes con- 
founded with Borough, which apparently has the 
same root in G. berga, to defend. See HARBOUR and 

BUHGANET, *. armour for the head; F. bourgenole, 
from G. berga ; S. beorgian, to defend, and hat, the 
head. See HABERGEON. 

BOURGEOIS, 1 , , ., ,. , c 

BUR s y ' one freedom of a town or 

BURGHER, J bur S> F " bourgeois; T. burger. 

BURGLARY, s. housebreaking ; G. and S. bur, a dwell- 
ing,' and G. lerka, to break ; but Norman F. lary is 
from L. latrocinium. 

BURINE, s. a graving tool ; It. burino ; F. burine, from 

G. bor, a point. See to BORE. 

BURL, v. a. to raise the nap on cloth with a bur or thistle ; 

F. courier. 
BURLESQUE, *. ridicule, lampoonery ; It. burlesco ; F. 

burlesque, from It. burlare ; Swed. borla, to jest, to 

BURLY, a. 1. turbulent, boisterous; Swed. orolig, be 

orolig, the contrary of ro, hero, repose, quietness. 
2. Big, rustic, rude, properly Boorly. See BOOR and 

BURN, v. to consume by fire, to be hot; G. brenna, 

brina, perhaps from arin, fire, P. buryan ; T. bren- 

nan ; S. birnan, bernan ; L. buro ; Heb. buur, from 

Chald. and Heb. ur ; n5 ? ; L. pruina. 
BURN, *. a small stream of water, a rivulet ; G. brun ; 

Swed. brunn ; T. brun, burn ; from G. rinna ; Isl. 

brynna, to run. 
BURNISH, v. a. to polish, make bright, G. bruna ; 

Swed. brynea; B. bruinas ; F. bruner, brunisser ; 

Port, bruncer; It. brunire. 
BURR, s. a rim, the lobe of the ear ; contracted from 


BURREL PEAK, *. F. bettre, buttery. 
BURREL FLY, s. the gad fly. See BREE and BUR. 
BURREL SHOT, *. case shot ; It. borra ; F. bourre, bour- 

rele, from $v{a. 

BURROW, *. 1. properly BOROUGH, a corporation town. 
2. A hole in the ground, a den, a concealment. See to 


BURROW, v. a. to make holes in the ground for conceal- 
ment ; from the noun. 



BURSAR, s. 1 . the treasurer of a college ; L. B. bursarius ; 
F. bourse, a purse. 

2. A scholar who has a pension from the college ; F. 

BURSE, s. an exchange house, or guildhall; G. biorghus, 
:<u exchange house; Swed. bars ; B.beurs; F. bourse; 
It. borsa ; T. bunch, a guild, a fellow craft. See 

BUBST, v. a. to break, fly open, rupture ; G. brtitla, 
borsta ; Swed. brista ; B. borsten ; S. burstan ; T. 

BURTHEN, s. a load ; S. byrlhen. See BURDEN. 

BURTON, *. a farm yard ; G. and S. bur, a dwelling, and 
Ion, an inclosure. See BARTON. 

BURY, as a termination in the names of places, is gene- 
rally Burg or Burrow ; but B. boutvery from G. bur, 
byr, beer, a dwelling, signifies a village or farm ; and 
in some instances the word may be derived from the 
verb to Bury. See BERRY and BARROW. 

BURY, v. a. to hide, conceal, put into a grave; G. burja, 
byrgia ; S. burgian ; T. bergan, to conceal, to inter. 
Tfhe hopes of a resurrection prevented the Jews and 
Egyptians from burning the bodies of the dead ; but 
among other nations they were committed to fire, 
which was the emblem of the deity. See BARROW. 

BUSH, s. a thick shrub, a thicket; Swed. buske; B. bosch ; 
D. buske ; T. bnsch ; It. bosco ; F. bois. See BOSCAGE 
and SHAW. 

BUSHEL, s. a measure of eight gallons ; F. boitseau ; L. 
B. bischejila, schefila, from Zxa/Pi ; bischeJUa, a modus. 

BUSK, *. a strengthener for women's stays; F. buis, 

buisque, a slip of boxwood. 
BUSKIN, s. a half boot worn on the stage ; It. borzachino; 

F. brodequin, from L. pero. 
Buss, .v. 1. a kiss; P. bosti. from boos, poos, the lip ; L. 

basium; F. baiser ; It. bacia, which may all have 

the same root with kiss, by the frequent intermu- 

tation of K and P. See PEEP. 

2. A fishing boat ; G. busa ; Swed. buz ; B. buis ; T. 

3. Used only in composition, as in blunderbuss, but 
common in all G. dialects, as boss, bus, busche, a barrel, 
a tube, supposed to be from L. bums. 

BUST, s. a half statue ; It. busto ; F. buste ; L. bustum, 
uxtum, from urn, buro, to burn, because such statues 
were placed over the ashes of the dead. 

BUSTARD, t. a bird resembling a turkey ; L. B. and It. 
larda, avis tarda ; It. avatarda ; F. outardf. L. tarda, 
slow, does not apply to this bird, unless in the sense 
of late in taking wing ; and tarda may be adopted 
from B. trout, traat gaas, the trotting goose, from its 
running, '(ir'n denoted its quickness of hearing. 

BUSTLE, v. a. frequentative of BUSY ; to hurry, to stir, 
to have much to do. 

BUSY, a. employed, active, officious, industrious ; S. 
bysig ; B. biztg, from G. bua, to arrange, prepare. 

BUSY, t. a. to intermeddle, to engage actively, to be 

BUT, COM. 1. except, besides, moreover, further, with- 
out ; P.budur; S. bute ; Swed. but, ittan, butan ; B. 
liuilan, from G. at, be vt ; we also use out as con- 
tinuance in owfliye, outda. 

2. Only, no further, not more. It was formerly f 
but, the negative article being now culpably omitted. 

BUT, *. for Be out ; what is out or outermost, a pro- 

jection, an extent, a boundary, a limit; Swed. but ; T. 
butt ; F. bout, bute, an extreme end or object. 

BUT, a. thick, round, large ; G. butt ; T. butt ; Swed. 
butt ; B. hot. It seems to mean Be out, extending ; and 
was applied to denote several kinds of flat fishes ; B. 
hot, a flounder. See TURBOT. 

BUTCHER, *. one who kills animals to sell ; L. B. bucec- 

dor, from L. bates ccfdere, was an ox-killer; F. boticher; 

but It. beccaro seems to be from becco, a goat, the 

flesh of which was probably most common in ancient 

BUTLKK, *. a house steward ; T. beulelcr, from beuleii, 

Swed. byta, to buy, beulel, a purse, signified a purser ; 

but F. bauteiUer is one who has charge of the bottles 

or cellar. 
BUTMENT, *. from BUT ; an outer support, the pier o 

which the end of an arch rests ; F. arc boutant. Set- 

BUTT, s. 1. an object of ridicule, a mark to shoot at; 

F. bute. See BUT. 

2. A large cask; G. bytta; Swed. bytt ; S. butt; T. 
buitte; F. botte, boute ; It. botle. 

3. From the verb ; a stroke or thrust in fencing ; It. 
botta ; F. botte. 

BUTT, v. a. to push, to thrust, to strike with the head ; 
T. bull ten, to push out ; but Swed. bockta, is from 

G. bocka, to strike like a buck goat. 

BUTTER, *. an oily substance procured from milk, pro- 
perly of cows ; fiirvrn ; L. buttirum ; S. bultere ; B. 

a m i jj 

hotter ; T. butter. 
BUTTER, a. greater, larger ; comparative of BUT, large. 

BUTTER BUMP. s. the bittern, and bump from its cry. 

See BUMP. 
BUTTERFLY, s. a beautiful, large winged insect; S. 

butter-Jtege ; B. boter-jliese, from butter, large, and 


BUTTER BUR, s. the large burdock, from butter, large. 

See BUR. 
BUTTERIS, s. a farrier's paring tool ; G. bolar itar; T. 

better eisen ; S. beter isen, a dressing iron ; F. boutoir. 

BUTTER TOOTH, *. one of the two broad fore teeth ; 
either from butter, large, or be outer. 

BUTTERY, s. repository for provisions, the pantry ; pro- 
bably from bait, food, corresponding with ftiiru W. 
bmytta. See BATTEN. 

BUTTOCK, *. the thick of the hip, the rump ; fro 
but, thick, round, and hock, a joint. 

BUTTON, s. a knob, a bud, a stud used in dress; It. 

/iot tune ; F. bouton. See Boss and BUT. 
BUTTRESS, *. a prop, support ; S. butereis, from but, 

external, and G. reisa, to raise. 
BUT-WINK, *. a lapwing, from but, large, and wing. 

BUXOM, a. jolly, obedient, good humoured, wanton ; 

G. bugsam ; S. bugsttm. See to Bow. 
BUY, t). a. to purchase, procure by giving a price ; M. 

G. buggan; S. byggan; Swed. bygga, byta; T. beaten; 

P. biulan ; O. F. biguer ; Sans, and A. biccu ; S. 

bige, traffic. 
Buz, *. a humming noise, a whisper; from Bees, as 

L. musso from mu'sca ; and F. bourdon, a drone bee, 

a murmur. 
BUZZARD, s. a kind of hawk ; P. buz, baz ; F. butard ; 

L. bnUu. 

B Y 

B Y W 

By, prep, at, near to, in, on, with ; M. G. hi ; Swed. S. 
lit ; B. by ; T. bei ; A. and P. bi, ba ; ba Khooda, by 
God. G. /, ij, signified in or at, and was formerly 
used with us for by, as y God, y faith, to which B 
was merely a prefix. G. and Swed. hia was used 
like By and '. 

BY, s. 1. repose, tranquillity, sleep; P. bu, repose; G. 
bia, bida ; D. bie ; Scot. be. Chaucer wrote able, to 
wait, to remain, to repose ; By by, used by nurses 
to children, corresponds with ftav&iia. 

2. A hamlet, township, dwelling ; P. bay ; G. and 
Swed. by ; S. and D. bye. It enters with us into 

the names of many places, as Apleby, Thorby, Ash- 
by, Beding, G. bything ; D. byeting, a civil court, 

3. A deviation, bending, cessation ; G. baug ; D. bie ; 
T. bay ; S. beak, from G. beiga ; S. bugan. 

BYE, s. contracted from be with ye; as Good bye, 
Good be with ye. 

BY-LAW, *. a law made for a society; G. bylag; S. 
bilage ; L. B. bilagium, from by, a hamlet or society, 
and law. 

BYWAY, *. a sideway, private way ; D. bivey, afvey. 


CTHB third letter of the alphabet, has two sounds ; 
j one like k, before a, o, u, and all consonants, as 
call, cord, cut : the other like s, before e, i, y ; as 
cede, cinder, cylinder. In Saxon and Irish it is in- 
variably pronounced like k. 

CABAL, *. 1. Jewish tradition concerning the Old Testa- 
ment; Heb. cabala. 

2. Something mysterious, a private consultation, an in- 
trigue ; It. cabala; F. cabals; from Heb. cabala. 

CABAL, v. a. to unite mysteriously, to intrigue, plot ; F. 
cabaler ; It. cabalare. 

CABBAGE, *. cole cabbage, headed cole ; F. choux cabus ; 
It. cauli capucci, capitati, from L. caput. 

CABBAGE, j. what is taken or purloined in cutting out 
clothes ; It. capezza, roba caputa, from L. capio. 

CABIN, f. a cottage, a room in a ship ; A. qoobbu ; Heb. 

kaba ; P. khtvab ; Chald. khuba ; It. capanna ; F. 

cabane; W. caban ; T. koben ; all cognate with L. 

cavus. See CHAPEL and ALCOVE. 
CABINET, J. a small chamber, a repository, a chest of 

drawers ; F. cabinet ; It. cabinetlo, dimin. of CABIN. 
CABLE, s. a thick rope for an anchor ; A. kabl ; Heb. 

khebel; K^iA*; G. kadel ; Swed. and B. kabel ; F. 

CACAO, *. an American pod containing small nuts, of 

which chocolate is made. 

CACKEREL, 3. a fish which voids excrement when pur- 
sued ; from L. cacare. 
CACKLE, v. a. to cry like a cock or hen, to giggle; 

Swed. kackla ; T. kicheln ; B. kaeckelen. See 

CAD, CADIS, CADEW, *. a water insect called the case 

worm. See CADE. 
CADDY, s. a tea case ; P. and Hind, cltada ; B. kathi. 

See TEA. 
CADE, *. a small cask or barrel ; Ka'Jej ; L. cud us ; It. 

<tido. See ('AC; and KIT. 

CADE, t>. a. to follow, attend, cherish, to breed up ten- 
derly; O. F. coder, cadeler; It. caudeare, codeare, 

C A I 

from L. cauda, to go after; and like L. sequor, to 
cherish. F. cadeler, to make ornamental tails to 
capital letters, signified afterwards to ornament ; and 
thus cadeau was a tail, a flourish, a treat, and a suite. 

CADE LAMB, *. a pet lamb. 

CADET, s. a volunteer in the army without a commission, 
a follower, a younger brother ; F. cadet ; It. caudato, 
coda/o, cardeto, from L. cauda ; F. queue, retinue, suite, 
may have had the same origin with L. sequor and 

CADGER. *. a higgler, a carrier ; T. kautser and kauptter, 
a dealer, are cognate with chapman ; but T. ketscher 
is a carrier. See to HEDGE. 

CADI, s. a Turkish civil magistrate; A. kazee, codec. 

CADOW, s. a bird, a daw. See JACK DAW. 

CAESAR, s. the name of a Roman family which produc- 
ed several emperors ; Chald. and P. kasr, signified a 
royal house ; Icasra, kesra, kosra, a prince, which be- 
came Cosroes and Cyrus. From the same root wt- 
have caste, a pedigree. It will be seen that the Rus- 
sian czar is a different word ; and although the G. 
kayser, may have been afterwards blended with ctssar, 
it appears to have signified an elected chief, from 
kiosa, kesa; S. ceosan, to choose; from which also 
kur, kurtirst ; T. kieser, signified an elector. Kisa 
or Cissa, the South Saxon king, was the elected. 

CAFRE, s. a name given to some of the African savages ; 
A. koofr, kafr, paganism. 

CAG, *. a small cask or barrel ; Swed. kagge ; B. kag ; S. 
ceac ; L. B. caucus ; F. cague. See CADE and CASK. 

CAGE, *. a place of confinement, a prison, a coop for 
birds ; F. cage ; It. guggia, gabbia ; B. kovi ; L. 

CAJOLE, . a. to flatter, sooth, deceive; F. cajoler ; G. 
goela, gagoela, to entice. See to GULL. 

CAITIF, a. mean, miserable, dastardly, knavish ; It. cat- 
two, a captive, a slave, a wretch ; F. chelif; Romance 
caitin, from L. captivus. 



CAKE, s. a small flat bread, a sweet biscuit ; P. kak ; A. 
kaak; Swed. kaka ; T. kack ; B. koek ; W. caccen. 

CALABASH, s. the shell of a gourd used in hot countries 
for water pots and basons ; KAa- ; Sp. calabaza ; F. 

CALAMANCHO, s. a. sort of woollen stuff; L. caida monicha, 
from being used by monks. See COWL. 

CALAMINE, *. ore of tin ; F. calamine ; L. lapis calamin- 

CALASH, s. a kind of light carriage ; P. kulas ; T. and 
D. kalesch ; F. caleche. 

CALCULATE, v. a. to compute, to reckon ; from L. calcu- 
li, pebbles, with which accounts were kept on a table 
resembling a chess board. 

CALDRON, *. a large pot or boiler; L. caldarium ; F. 

CALENDAR, *. an almanac, yearly register ; L. calenda- 

CALENDER, s. a hot press, an iron cylinder filled with 

hot coals ; L. cylindrus. 
CALF, *. 1. the young of a cow ; T. kable, kalbe ; S. cealf; 

Swed. kalf; Arm. kelve ; apparently from G. ko, a cow, 

and alf, progeny ; ala, qfla, to bring forth. 

2. The thick part of the leg; G. kalf; B. kalf; 
Swed. kalfiva, kafte ; G. and Swed. kafle is a round 

CALIBER, s. the bore of fire arms ; F. calibre, from L. 
cava libra, measure of a tube ; but #/ was an in- 
strument for measuring. 

CALICO, *. a kind of cotton cloth brought from Calicut 
in Malabar; F.calicut. 

CALIFF, CALIPH, s. a vicar, a lieutenant, one who holds 

the place of Mahomet. 
CALK, v. a. to stop the seams of a ship ; supposed to be 

from keel, which originally signified the hull : but 

Swed. kalfatra ; D. kalfatre ; B. kalfaten ; F. calfaler ; 

Hind, kalaputta ; A. kalafa, kilafat ; KAnpri);, are 

used in the sense of our word. 

CALL, v. a. to name, to speak aloud, to invite ; KaJisa; L. 

calo ; W. and Arm. gain ; G. kalla ; Swed. kala ; 

T. -and B. kallen ; Heb. kol ; A. qal, the voice. See 

CALLOW, a. unfledged, naked; S. calu ; Swed. kahl, 

skallig, from L. calvus. 
CALM, a. quiet, still, easy; F.calme; It. Sp. Port, calma; 

A'i ; It. calo, signify to lower, allay, abate ; but pos- 
sibly L. quielum, quietillum, quillum, tranquillum may 

have produced calm. 
CALOTTE, s. a coif worn by ecclesiastics ; F. calole, said to 

have been escalate, from G. scalle, the skull. See CAUL. 
CALOYEH, s. a Greek monk ; from *A; ytfai, a good 

old man. 

CALTROP, s. a thistle, a tribulus or iron spike with point- 
ed branches for impeding a charge of cavalry ; S. 

coltrteppe ; It. calcatreppolo, from L. calcare and Iribu- 

CAMBER, s. an arch or curve; from L. camurus ; F. 

cambre ; P. Miami. 
CAMEL, s. a large animal common in Asia and Africa ; 

A. qumel, boogumelon, gimel, gibel; Heb. gamal ; 

Ka'.wijAa; ; L. camelus. 
CAMELOT, s. a kind of stuff, supposed to be originally 

of camels hair. 
CAMEO, s. a name originally given to an onyx, in sculp- 

ture, when one colour was found to serve for the 
figure in relief, and another for the ground ; it is now 
applied to a painting of one colour ; P. kamachuia ; F. 

CAMISADO, s. an attack made by night with troops 
disguised in shirts ; It. camisado ; F. camisade, from 
KMfurta ; A. kamis ; It. camisa ; F. chemise; S. cames. 

CAMOCK, *. the herb restharrow ; S. cammoc ; G. hama ; 
Swed. haemma, to stop, to impede; ham ok would 
therefore correspond with F. arrest boeuf. 

CAMOMILE, s. an herb ; x, a f""f i t^"> L. chamcemelum. 
CAMOS, CAMOYS, s. flat nosed ; F. camus ; L. simus. 

CAMP, s. 1. the place and order of tents for soldiers in 
the field ; S. camp corresponds with L. castrum, from 
G. kiamp, a soldier; Swed. kdmp ; S. camp; Arm. 
kimp ; W. camp ; I. campa ; It. campo ; F. camp, a 
contest or place of arms, a military station in the field. 
The root of the G. word is kapp, a contest, from which 
we have our verb cope, to contend ; but L. campu.t 
has been blended, no doubt, with our application of 
the word. 

2. A field, plain or open country ; L. campus ; It. cam- 
po; F. champ. 

CAMPAIGN, s. an extensive plain country, the season 
that armies keep the field ; F. campagne. 

CAMPHIRE, *. a white resinous gum ; xMQvyt ; A. Heb. 
P. kafoor ; Sans, kvpoor ; F. camphre; L. camphora. 

CAMUS, s. a kind of shift. See CAMISADO. 

CAN, s. a drinking vessel, a cup ; Swed. kann ; T. kanna ; 
S. canne ; Arm. can ; F. canette ; L. cantharus. 

CAN, v. n. to be able, to have power ; G. kaun ; S. can ; 
T. kan, present tense of G. and Swed. kunna ; T. and 
B. konnen ; S. cunnan. 

CANAILLE, s. a pack of dogs, rabble ; It. canaglia ; F. 
canaille. See KENNEL. 

CANAL or CANNEL COAL, a kind of coal remarkable for 
vivacity in burning. See KINDLE. 

CANCEL, v. a. to erase, make void, annul ; from L. can- 
cetti, lattices, the mode of obliteration. 

CANARY BIRD, s. a kind of linnet brought from Canary 
or Candelaria ; where, in its wild state, the colour is 
nearly that of the green linnet. Each flock continues 
quite distinct, and will not pair with another. The 
varieties are all produced in domesticity. 

CANDLE, *. a light made of tallow or wax ; L. candela ; 
A. qundel; P. candel ; F. chandelle, supposed from 
candidus, white ; but G. kyndel, from kynda el, is a fire 
match, and kl/ndil, S. candel, a torch, a light ; Ktciu, to 
burn. See KINDLE. 

CANDLESTICK, s. what holds a candle ; S. candelsticca, 
candeltreotv , a stock or tree for a candle. 

CANDY, v. a. to conserve with sugar, to incrust with 

congelations ; from Sans, khand ; P. kandi ; A. alkende, 

CANDY, s. a plant called lion's foot ; brought from Can- 

CANE, s. a reed, a tube, a walking stick ; *; L. canna; 

Heb. kauneh ; It. canna ; F. canne. 
CANISTER, s. a small basket, a case for tea ; L. canis- 

CANNON, s. a tube, apiece of ordnance ; It. cannone; F. 

cannon, from CANE. 
CANKER, *. a corroding humour, a gangrene. See 



CANOE, *. a small boat formed from a single tree, said 

to be so named by the natives of St Salvador, when 

Columbus arrived there ; but L. canna also signified 

a small boat ; Sp. canoa ; F. canot. 

CANON, *. a rule of the church, a dignitary ; L. canonicux, 

from tutiin. 
CANOPY, *. a cloth of state, a tester; Kuwxiiti ; L. B. 

canopium ; F. canopee. 

CANT, s. 1. a peculiar form of speaking with some classes 
of men, a whining pretension to goodness, a dialect 
and tone assumed by jugglers and vagabonds; L. 
canto signified to repeat often the same thing, and 
also, as adopted in It. to juggle, to deceive ; whence 
I'liiilimbanco, a mountebank, egli canta, he fibs. 
2. A piece, section, square or angle. See CANTO. 
H. A side, an edge ; G. and Swed. kant ; It. canto. 
4. A sale by auction, from L. quanta ; It. incanlo ; F. 

CANT, v. 1. to flatter, wheedle, to preach in an affected 

manner. See the noun. 

2. To set on the edge, or on one side. See the noun. 
CANTEEN, s. a place or vessel for containing liquor ; It. 

cavina, cavettna, cantina ; F. confine. 
CANTER, *. the gallop of an ambling horse, in which 
one side moves before the other ; called ludicrously a 
Canterbury gallop, because Kent and Canterbury are 
also from cant, a side. 
CANTILIVEKS, *. pieces of wood to support the eaves 

of a house ; from cantle and eaverx. 
CANTLB, *. 1. a small piece, a fragment ; from CANT ; 

F. chantelle, chanteau. See SCANTLING. 
2. From CANT; a small angle. 
CANTLE, v. a. 1. to cut into pieces ; from the noun. 
2. To project in small angles ; from the noun. 
CANTO, *. 1. a section, division, part, portion, piece ; A. 

kata ; *.T, XKITU, turrt ; L. cento; It. canto. 
2. A poem, a song ; L. cantus ; It. canto. 
CANTON, s. a district, division of a country ; F. canton ; 

L. centena. See CANTO. 
CANTY, a. gay, joyful, wanton ; G. hat, Mat ; Swed. 

katja ; whence F. catin, a woman of pleasure. 
CANVASS, *. coarse hempen cloth, sail cloth, sifting cloth ; 

P. kanu ; L. cannabis ; F. canevas ; It. canavaccio. 
CANVASS, v. a. from the noun ; to pass through canvass, 

to sift, examine, solicit votes. 
CANZONET, *. a little song or air; It. canzonelta; F. 

chanson, from L. canlio. 

CAP, is. a covering for the head ; Swed. kappa; S. caeppe; 
T. kapfe; B. kappe; P.kab; Arm. cab; W. cap; xairira ; 
L. B. capa; apparently cognate with L. caput ; It. and 
Sp. capo ; F. chef, the head. See COIF. 
CAP, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to cover the head. 
2. To contend ; from G. and Swed. kapp ; S. camp, con- 
test. See to COPE. 
CAPABLE, a. having ability, sufficient, qualified; F. 

capable, from L. rapio and habilis. 
CAP A PIE, from head to foot; cap, the head, and F.pie; 

L. pet, the foot. 
CAPARISON, s. dress, accoutrement ; F. caparafon. Sp. 

capitrti-iin, from L. capio and paro. 
CAPE, .v. 1 a headland ; F. cape ; It. capo, from L. caput. 
2. The neck-piece of a garment ; S. cteppe. See COP. 
CAPER, s. a skip, jump, frolic; It. capricola ; F. capriole, 
from L. caper, a frisk like that of the goat. 


CAPOUCH, 3. a monk's hood; L. ca/ritiitm ; F. capuce ; It. 

CAPRICE, *. a frisk of the mind, a freak, a fancy ; F. 

caprice; It. capriccio. See CAPER. 
CAPSTAN, s . a windlass ; B. kaapttand ; F. cabcxlan ; It. 

cabcstninte, from x*Zet and ?'. 
CAPTAIN, s. the head or chief of a military company or 

corps, the commander of a ship ; F. capitaine ; It. capi- 

tano, from L. caput. 
CAPTIOUS, a. given to cavil, peevish ; L. captiosus ; F- 

CAPUCHIN, *. an order of monks so called from wearing 

a capouch. 
CAR, s. a cart or chariot; L. carrus ; It. carro; W. Arm. 

I. carr ; T. karre ; Swed. kdrra, awheel carriage, 

are supposed to be from G. kcera ; T. keren ; S. cyrrt'ii. 

to turn, go round. See QUERN and CHURN. 

CARABINE, .9. a small musket ; F. carabine; It. carabino, 

dim. of L. B. carrabalistan, a field bow mounted on a 

carriage, attached formerly to cavalry. 
CARACK, s. a Spanish galleon ; Sp. carracca ; F. car- 

raque; T. kraclee. See CARGO. 
CARAT, s. a weight of four grains; xigaViw; L. ceratinm; 

A. keerat; P. char at ; F. carat; It. caratto. 

CARAVAN, s. a convoy of merchants or pilgrims, a large 
carriage ; A. and P. kertvan ; Turk, kervan ; F. cara- 
vanne; It. caravana. 
CARA VANCE, *. a kind of kidney bean ; Sp. garbanzu. 

CARAVANSARY, s. a halting place for a caravan, an in- 

closure to lodge travellers ; A. and P. kertvansura. 

CARAVEL, *. a small ship; G. karfe ; A. karab; L. cara- 

bus ; It. caravella ; F. caravelle. 
CARAWAY, s. a plant with warm seed ; L. careum ; It. 

carvino ; F. carvi, from %ai(t>, to make glad. 
CARBONADE, v. a. to broil on coals, to cut across as meat 

for broiling, to hack ; from L. carbo. 
CARBUNCLE, s. a precious stone, a pimple of that colour; 

L. carbunculus. 
CARCANET, s. a kind of pillory with a chain, a necklace; 

F.carcan; B.karkant; Scot.carcat; Id.kuerk; Swed. 

quark, the neck. 
CARCASS, s. 1. a dead body, the shell of a building ; F. 

carcasse ; It. casso, carcasso, from L. euro cassa. 
2. In gunnery, a bomb filled with various missiles and 

combustibles ; K.*f (' ; L. carchesium ; It. carcasso ; 

F. carquois, carcasse, a quiver, the whole contents of 

which are discharged at once. 
CARD, v. a. to comb wool ; F. carder ; T. karden, from 

L. carduus, teazle, which was originally used for this 


CARD, *. 1. from the verb ; an instrument to break wool. 
2. A paper, a written note, painted paste-board, a map ; 

F. carte, from L. charta. 
CARE, s. solicitude of mind, attention, charge, caution . 

L. cura; M. G. kar ; S. care, cear. 
CAREER, *. course, race ; F. carriere; It. carriera, from 

L. currere. 
CARESS, v. a. to treat with fondness ; F. caresicr ; It. 

carezzare, from x*{<^ ^- cants. 
CARGO, *. a load, the burthen of a ship ; It. carca, carica ; 

Sp. cargo; F. cargaison. See CHARGE. 
CARK, t. anxiety ; S. care ; T. karg. See CAIIK. 



CARL, CABLE, s. 1. a rustic, a rude man, a churl; G. 

karl, kail ; S. ceorl ; B. kaerlc ; W. carl; Scot, kerl, a 

2. T. kerl; Swed. fozri; B. kaerel, from G. <zr ; S. cear; 

Scyth. aer, a man. 
CARLINGS, s. square pieces of timber in a ship ; F car- 

lingues, from L. quadri lignei. 
CARMINE, s. a beautiful red colour ; F. carmin, from P. 

kerm. See CRIMSON. 
CARNIVAL, *. shrove tide, a time of feasting before lent, 

when animal food is forbidden ; F. carnival ; It. car- 

nivale ; said to be L. carne vale. 

CAROB, s. a tree bearing large pods called St John's 

bread, or locust ; A. karob, garoba ; Syr. charouba ; 

Mod. Greek KsjoA{ ; Sp. carobo ; It. carruba ; F. 

carroube, signifying originally a pod. 
CAROBANCE, CAHAVANCE, *. a kind of kidney bean with 

pods like the carob ; Sp. garovanza. 
CAROCHE, s. a coach, a chariot ; K{^(o> ; L. caruca ; 

F. carosse ; It. carozza. See CARRIAGE. 
CAROL, s. a song of joy or devotion ; L. choraula ; F. 

carolle ; It. carolc, from Xj<. 
CAROUSAL, s. 1. a chariot race, a tournament; It. carro- 

sello, carosello ; F. carrousel, from L. currus lusus and 

curls lusus. 
2. From CAROUSE ; a bout of drinking. 

CAROUSE, v. a. to drink copiously, to quaff; F. carrousse, 

from G. hareisa, harausa ; T. rauschen, gerauschen ; 

Swed. krausa, from rus ; O. E. rang, drink, de- 

CARP, s. a fish brought from Cyprus ; F. carpe ; It. car- 

pione ; L. cyprio, cyprinus. 
CARPENTER, s. one who works in wood ; F. charpentier, 

from L. carpentum. 
CARPET, *. a covering for a floor ; It. carpeita, properly 

a kind of embroidered stuff with figures, from 

CARRIAGE, *. 1. a vehicle, a conveyance; F. carriage; 
It. carriaggio. See CAROCHE. 

2. Comportment, conduct, behaviour. See to CARRY. 

3. A load, what is carried or contained. See CHARGE. 

CARRION, s. the dead body of a beast ; bad meat ; G. 

hras ; S. hrerva ; B. kreng, a dead carcass, seem to 

have been confounded with L. caro, in forming Sp. 

carotia ; It. carogna ; F. charogne. 
CARROT, s. an esculent garden root ; L. B. carota ; F. 

carottc, from K^i^, for K<pp pY, the yellow root. 

CARRY, v. a. to contain, bear, convey, go on with, be- 

have ; Sp. acarrear, from car, a vehicle, is used in 

the sense of our word ; F. charier ; T. karren, also 

from car, signify to convey ; but properly in a car- 

riage. See CAR, CHARGE and CARGO. 
CART, *. dim. of CAR; a carriage with low wheels; F. 

charette ; It. carrette; S. crcet. 
CARTEL, s. a paper of agreement between enemies for 

the exchange of prisoners ; F. cartel ; It. cartello, 

from L. chartula. 
CAHTHAMUS, *. a plant, bastard saffron ; L. B. cartha- 

inus ; It. cartamo ; F. cartame ; A. kortam. 
CARTON, CARTOON, s. a painting on large paper; It. 

cartone ; F. carton, from L. charta. 
CARTOUCH, *. a charge of gunpowder and ball put up 

in paper, vulgarly called cartridge ; It. cartoccio ; F. 

cartouche, from L. charta. 

CARVE, v. a. to cut, to sculpture; G. kerf a ; Swed. 
karftva; S. ceorffan ; T. kerben ; B. kerven. See 

CASCADE, s . a waterfall ; It. cascata ; F. cascade, from 
L. caso and cado. 

CASE, *. 1. a box, sheath, cover ; F. caisse ; It. cassa ; 
Sp. coxa, from Ka'^a ; L. capsa ; M. G. kas, a ves- 
sel ; Swed. kasse ; Hung, kass ; I. cash ; Scot, cassie, 
signify a basket. See CHEST. 

2. An event, condition, contingence : F. cas ; It. caso ; 
L. casus. 

CASEMATE, *. a fortified platform, a vault or arch in a 

bastion; It. casa armala, casa mat la ; F. casemate, 

from L. casa armata. 
CASEMENT, s. a sash window, one with hinges. See 

CHASE, a frame. 
CASE WORM, *. the cadis, so named from its sheath or 

CASH, s. money in coffer or case, coin, ready money ; 

F. caisse ; It. cassa ; Sp. caxa, a money-chest. 

CASHIER, s. a cash keeper in a banking house ; F. cas- 

sier ; It. cassiere. 
CASHIER, v. a. to discard, break, disqualify.; L. B. 

cassare ; Sp. casar ; It. cassare ; F. casser, from L. 

cassus. See CASSATE. 
CASK, s. 1. a helmet, a headpiece ; F. casque, from L. 


2. A wooden vessel, a barrel; F. casque, from L. cadus ; 
M. G. kas. 

CASKET, CASSETTE, s. a small box, a jewel case ; Sp. cax- 
eta ; It. cassetta ; dim. of CASE. 

CASSATE, v. a. to vacate, invalidate, annul ; from L. cas- 
sus. See CASHIER. 

CASSIA, s. a name given to the wild cinnamon, and also 
to a species of senna ; KoW* ; L. cassia. 

CASSAVA, s. 1. the root of the manioc made into paste 
and dried in the sun ; called casabi by the S. Ameri- 
cans ; F. cassave. See YUCCA. 

2. A kind of brown sugar, now confounded with casada 
or cask sugar ; Coptic cassab, a reed, denoted the sugar 
cane, which appears to have been originally from the 
Nile. The Hindoos call it missree, from Missir, the 
ancient name of Egypt. 

CASSIDONY, *. the name of a plant. See STICKADORE. 

CASSOCK, *. a clergyman's garment ; G. kausak ; D. 

kasjack ; Swed. kasika, kasjacka ; S. kassitc ; Arm, 

keseg ; W. casog ; F. casaque ; It. casaco ; Sp. ca- 

saca ; L. sagum. See JACK. 
CAST, v. a. throw, shed, bring forth immaturely, to 

form in a mould ; G. kasta ; D. kaste ; Swed. kasta. 

2. To defeat in law. See CASSATE. 

CASTANET, *. a small piece of wood or ivory resembling 

in shape a chesnut, two of which are struck together 

to mark the time in music ; Sp. caslaneta, from L. 

CASTE, s. a family, a tribe ; A. kazah ; L. casa, a house, 

produced A. kazda ; Sp. casta ; It. casata, a family or 

race; which was applied to the different classes of 

CASTLE, s. a fortified house; G. kastali ; Arm. kestell ; 

W. castell ; It. castello, from L. castellum ; dim. of 

CASTREL, s. a kind of hawk; F. crccerelle ; L. celer 

crepitula. See KESTREL. 
CAT, s. 1. a domestic animal ; A. kith ; P. katt ; Heb- 

C A U 

C H A 

kat ; Turk, kady ; Russ. kote ; Pol. hot; Armen. 

citlo ; Lap. goto; L. cittux ; W. cath ; I. cat; Arm. 

caz; iLgatto; F. chat ; Sp. and Port. goto ; taidkal 

or katze in all the G. dialects. 
2. A ship of burthen ; B. kat ; Sp. chata, from G. akat, 

;{. A whip, an instrument of castigation, from F. chatter ; 

L. castigate. 
CAT and BALL, a kind of game ; B. kaalsbal, from It. 

cacchia, what we call the chase at tennis. 
CAT FISH, s. so called, in the West Indies, from having 

a head like a cat ; but our cat fish is B. kat, so named 

from having prickles like the claws of a cat. See 

CAT o' NINE TAILS, s. a whip with nine lashes. See 

CAT'S FOOT, *. a plant so called from its resemblance to 

the foot of a cat. 
CATCH, v. a. to seize, ensnare ; L. capio ; G. hafla ; S. 

gehceftan, have exactly the same meaning; and Caught, 

in the pret. tense, is a G. construction. 
CATCIIPOLE, *. a sergeant, a bailiff; L. captor publicus. 
CATB, *. provision, food. See GATES. 
CATEPAN, *. one who changes from one party to ano- 

ther, a mercenary chief, a turncoat ; L. B. catapamis ; 

K*Tixtt>t>, corrupted from capilaneus. 
CATER, v. a. 1. to provide provisions by begging or 

buying ; a word introduced at the convents ; Sp. ca- 

tar ; It. accatare, from L. captare ; F. queter, from 

L. qucero, quesilo, to seek, examine, taste. 
2. To purchase delicacies for the table ; F. acheter ; O. 

F. achapter, from G. kaupa ; S. ceapan ; T. kauten, to 

buy ; whence also, S. ceapt ; T. kaut ; F. achapt, 

achat, table expence, called achats, and by Jonson, 

CATERPILLAR, s. a worm produced from the egg of a 

butterfly or moth ; F. chatepeliie, the palmer worm, 

from its resemblance to a cat; while others were called 

chenille, from being liker a dog. 
CATERWAUL, t>. a. to cry like a cat ; B. katerhullen, to 

cat howl. 
GATES, ACATES, *. pi. delicacies bought for the table. 

CATKINS, .*. the male blossoms of the willow and some 

other trees, which resemble kittens ; B. kattekins ; F. 

CATTLE, *. beasts of pasture ; properly the stock of a 

farm ; L. capitalia. 
CAVALCADE, .v. a procession on horseback ; It. cavalcata ; 

F. cavalcade, from KAAn5 ; L. cavallus ; It. cavallo ; 

F. cheval ; T. gaul ; Arm. capal ; I. capul, a horse. 

CAUDLE, s. warm gruel, with wine hd other ingre- 

dients, given to women in childbed ; F. caudeau, 

chaudelle, from L. callidus. 
CAVE, *. a hollow place, a cavern, a den ; F. cave ; L. 

cat'K* ; A. kahf, a grotto. 
CAVESSON, s. a kind of halter ; It. and Sp. cabesson ; 

L. capittrum. 
CAVIARE, *. the roe of fish pickled ; It. cavlaro, called 

ikari by the Russians. 
CAVIL, t>. a. to raise frivolous objections; L. cavillvr ; 

F. caviller. 
CAUL, *. 1. a woman's cap, the inside of a wig; Isl. 

kull; P.kulah: P. kulla ; G. kulle, the head. See 


2. The omentum ; S. cille ; G. ki/l ; KA/, the belly, a 

CAULIFLOWER, *. the flower of cabbage; F. choux 

Jieurs. See COLE. 
CAUSEY, s. a raised or paved way ; F. chassee ; Scot. 

calsay ; It. calzata, from L. B. calceata ; L. calcata. 
CAW, v. a. to cry as a rook or a raven ; G. kaia, a crow. 

CECISBEO, *. a male friend permitted by a husband to 

attend his wife ; It cicisbeo ; P. chuxptidgee, attach- 

CELANDINE, *. an herb frequented by swallows ; L. 

chelidonium, from XiAi3<i. 
CELERY, s. a winter salad-herb ; F. celeri ; T. zellery ; 

It. seline, from 2iA>. 
CELIBACY, *. an unmarried state, a single life; L. cce- 

lebs, from KaiiAu^* for xim Au-J'*. 
CELL, *. a cave or hut, a close dark room, a partition in 

plants ; Heb. cele ; K>ie{ ; L. cella ; F. celle ; T. zell ; 

W. cell. 

CENSE, v. a. to perfume. 
CENTINEL, *. a soldier on guard ; Sp. centinella. See 

CERECLOTH, *. cloth smeared with wax ; A. kir ; Chald. 

kera ; Kiifof ; L. cera, wax. 
CEREMONY, s. form of an external right; L. ceremonia ; 

F. ceremonie, from {* (ivm, religious observance, 

confounded in L. with the rites of Ceres. 

CESARIAN, a. a chirurgical operation in midwifery ; from 
L. ceesare. 

CHAFE, v. a. to warm, to heat by rubbing, to fret, to 
fume/ F. echaiifer, from L. calefacio. 

CHAFER, j. a May bug, a kind of beetle that feeds on 
the leaves of trees ; S. ceafor ; T. kiever, literally the 
chewer ; called also cockchafer, for clockchafer : and 
chietu, can, com, with the peasants, have the same 
meaning : as lady cow, or lady bug, the holy virgin's 

CHAFERY, s. a forge in an iron mill. See to CHAFE. 

CHAFF, *. husks of corn ; P. khah ; S. ceaf; T. leaf; 

Arm. scoff. 
CHAFFER, v. a. to higgle, to bargain ; from Heb. co- 

pher ; G. kaupr ; T. kauffer ; Arm. gtvobr; L. caupo; 

a buyer or seller. See CHEAP. 
CHAFFINCH, s. a small bird, the male of which, during 

winter, frequents barn-doors, when the female emi- 

grates ; but its name may be from Scot, chepc, to 

chirp, andjlnch. 
CHAGRIN, .?. displeasure, vexation, discontent, peevish- 

ness ; F. chagrin ; perhaps from It. sgradire, the con- 

trary of gratiare, to please, from L. grains. 
CHAIN, s. a line of links, a fetter ; Y.chaine; L. catena. 
CHAIR, s. a moveable seat, a sedan; Chald. gahar ; 

K0e3{* ; F. chaire ; Arm. and W. cadair. 
CHAISE, *. a carriage with one bench, a seat; F. chaise ; 

It. teggia ; W. ez / from L. sedes. 
CHALDRON, s. thirty-six bushels of coals, being four 

measures or baskets at the pit. See CHAUDRON. 
CHALLENGE, s. a demand, an appeal, a call to fight ; L. 

B. calagium, calanuium, a calling on, corresponding 

with appeal. See CALL. 
CHALOT, s. a small onion. See ESCHALOT. 
CHAMADE, s. the beat of a drum for a parley ; It 

mata ; F. chamade ; from L. clamo. 

C H A 


CHAMBER, s. a cavity, a room, an apartment ; 

L. camera ; It. camera ; F. chambre ; Swed. kammar. 
CHAMBER LIB, *. urine used for washing. See LIE. 
CHAMBLET, v. a. to give the appearance of watered 

camelot, to variegate. 
CHAMOIS, s. a wild sheep ; Sans, and P. mesh ; Swed. 

gumse ; G. gems, perhaps for gemesh ; T. gemse ; 

Sp. gamuza ; L. B. comes ; It. camozza ; F. chamois ; 

Kifius. See SHAMMY. 
CHAMP, v. a. to bite the bit as a horse does, to mash 

with the teeth. See to CHAW. 
CHAMPAIGN, s. a flat open country, a province of France ; 

F. champaigne ; It. campagna, from L. campus. 
CHAMPIGNON, *. a species of mushroom ; L. campi 

fungus ; F. champignon. 
CHAMPION, s. a warrior ; F. champion ; It. campione ; 

, G. kiampur ; T. kaempe; S. cempa. See CAMP. 
CHANCE, *. an event, accident, hazard ; F. chance, from 

L. cams, cadentia. 
CHANCEL, s. a place inclosed with cross bars or lattice 

work, the eastern part of a church ; L. cancellus ; F. 

chancel; It. cancetto. 
CHANCERY, CHANCELLERY, *. the high court of equity; 

F. chancelerie. See CHANCEL and BAB. 
CHANCRE, s. a. malignant ulcer; F. chancre; It. can- 

chero ; L. cancer. 
CHANDLER, * a dealer, one who deals in coals or can- 

dles; Swed. handlare; T.gehandler. See to HANDLE. 
CHANGE, v. a. to alter, commute, barter ; L. B. cambire ; 

perhaps from ttfaiZv, %x(tt&u ; It. cambiarc, cangiare ; 

F. changer; Arm. kimmen ; L. commute. 
CHANNEL, s. the course of a stream of water, a course 

of procedure, a longitudinal cavity ; L. canalis ; F. 

CHAP, s. 1. an opening, aperture; B. gap. See CHOP 

and GAP. 
2. In vulgar language, a lad ; G. skapiir, a boy, from 

skapa, to beget. 
CHAPE, s. 1. the tip of a scabbard, a cover ; F. chape ; 

2. The catch of a buckle ; F. echope ; S. schappe, from 

L. capio. 
CHAPEL, s. a place of worship ; Heb. kaba eli ; A. 

kaaba eli ; Coptic, caph el ; KaVu EA<, the house of 

God ; G. kapell ; It. capella ; F. chapelle. 
CHAPERON, s. a hood, the cap of a knight of the garter, 

a hood worn by duennas who had the charge of young 

females ; F. chaperon ; B. kaproen. See CAP and 


CHAPITER, *. the head of a column. See CHAPTER. 
CHAPMAN, s. a dealer in goods; S. ceapman. See 

CHAPTER, s. the head or top, the head of a discourse, 

division of a book, convocation of the clergy ; F. cha- 

pitre ; It. capitello ; L. capitulum. 
CHAR, *. 1. a kind of trout; L. scarus ; I. cear, red, 

from Kippof. 

2. A turn, a job, a day's work; T. kar ; S. cerre, from 
Swed. kdra ; S. cerren ; T. kerren, to go about, to 

3. Wood burnt to cinders; L. B. carbo ; F. charbon, 
from K.UIU. 

CHARD, *. a kind of thistle, an artichoke ; F. charde ; 

L. carduus. 
CHAREY, a. careful, attentive, saving ; T. cherig, kareg, 

karg. See CARK. 

CHARGE, s. 1. care, trust; L. curatio. 

2. A load, weight, pressure, attack, imposition, expence. 

command ; F. charge ; It. carica, carca ; Sp. carga. 


CHARGE, v. a. to load, press upon, attack, onerate, im- 
pose, command ; F. charger ; Sp. carar ; It. caricare. 

See the noun. 
CHARITY, s. love, kindness, alms ; L. caritas ; F. cha- 

rite ; %*%*.. 

CHARK, v. a. to make charcoal. See CHAR. 
CHARLATAN, s. a mountebank ; F. charlatan ; It. ciar- 

latano, a market crier, a quack ; from ciarlare ; L. 

CHARLES'S WAIN, *. the northern constellation called the 

Bear ,- karl tvagn, in the G. dialects, is supposed by 

some to be named after Thor, who was called Karl; by 

others from Charlemagne. 
CHARLOCK, s. a kind of wild mustard ; S. cerlice ; W. 

chwerwlys, bitter-weed. 
CHARM, s. a spell or enchantment ; F. charme, from L. 

carmen. See SPELL. 
CHARNEL HOUSE, s. a vault in which dead bodies are 

deposited ; F. charnier ; L. carnarium ; but supposed 

to have been originally cranarium, a place of skulls. 

CHARVEL, *. a pot-herb; F. cerfeuille ; L. chcerephilum. 
CHASE, s. pursuit after game, hunting-ground ; Isl. and 

Swed. kas ; F. chace ; It. caccia ; G. aga, jaga,jagsa, 

kagsa ; Scot, ca ; M. G. kesen ; T. jeichen, jagen, to 

drive, pursue, hunt. 
CHAT, v. a. to converse at ease, prate ; G. kueda ; S- 

chedan ; B. kouten ; T. chiten, to speak ; gakueda ; 

F. caqueter, to chatter. 

CHAT, s. 1. from the verb ; familiar conversation. 
2. A twig, a young shoot. See CHIT. 
CHATTER, v. a. 1. frequentative of CHAT ; to talk idly. 
2. To twitter, to make a noise like birds, to sound like 

the teeth when shivering with cold ; Isl. kuttra ; D. 

jaddere. See TWITTER. 
CHATWOOD, *. small wood. See CHAT. 
CHAVENDEH, s. a small fish ; F. chavesne. See CHUB 

and CHEVEN. 
CHAUDRON, *. 1. the entrails of a beast ; G. kuidron, 

kuithron, a paunch ; S. cwith ; Swed. qued ; Scot. 

kite, the stomach. 
2. A measure of four baskets of coals ; L. quaternus ; 

L. B. caternia ; O. F. chatlern ; T. chotern. See 

CHAW, v. a. to champ, to masticate; T. kauen ; B. 

kaawen ; S. ceowan. See CHEW. 
CHEAP, a. at a low rate or price, at small expence ; 

Swed. kop ; T. kauff; B. koop ; S. ceap, a bargain ; 

Swed. godt kop ; F. a bonne marche. ; O. F. achapt, 

achat, aceapt, a purchase ; from G. kaiipa. 
CHEAPING, CHIPPING, in the names of places signified 

a market; Swed. WSping ; S. cyping. See CHEAP. 
CHEAT, *. a deception, fraud, an imposture ; S. ceat ; 

from Isl. and Swed. kyta, to change ; L. captio, captus. 
CHECK, *. 1. account or reckoning, a note of sums. See 


2. A restriction, restraint, a warning to the king at chess. 

3. What is variegated by cross lines like a chess-table ; 
T. schaek ; Swed. skcek ; Sans, chuok. See EXCHE- 


C H I 

CHECK, v. a. from the noun ; to restrain, impede ; F. 

Iciiir en echec. 
CHECKER, t>. a. frequentative of CHECK ; to variegate, di- 

CHECKMATK, x. the termination of the game at chess ; 

A. shekh vial; P. shah mat, the king deader confound- 
ed ; F. echec ct mat. See CHESS. 
CHEEK, *. the side of the face ; D. kietve ; Swed. kaek ; 

S. ceac ; B. kaak ; Arm. chic. See JAW. 
CHEEB, *. 1. provisions in an entertainment ; It. ciera , 

F. chere ; Sp. xira ; L. charts ; x*'?'- 
2. Gaiety, good spirits, animation ; #<*{<*, gladness ; *KJ, 

heart, courage. 
CHEESE, s. food made from milk curds ; L. caseus ; 

It. catcio ; S. cyse ; T. kdse ; Swed. kes ; W. caws ; 

Tartar and Turk, aaus, coagulated milk, produced G. 

and Swed ost, curds. See BIESTINGS. 

CHERISH, v. a. to cheer, nourish, shelter; F. cherir, 
from L. charuf. 

CHERRY, s. a fruit said to have been brought from Ce- 
rasus to Rome by Lucullus ; Hearts ; L. cerasvs ; F. 

CHERT, s. a kind of flint; F. T. Swed. quartz ; L. silex 
quadrat us. 

CHERUB, *. an angel of the second order ; Heb. cerub, 
plur. cerubim. See SERAPH. 

CHERUP, t. the note of a bird. See CHIRP. 

CHESLIP, *. the hog louse ; G. seeslip ; Swed. sugga 
loppe, sow louse ; T. schmein laus ; It. porcelletto, from 
its shape. 

CHESS, s. an intricate game; Sans, and Hind, chaturanga, 
the four bodies ; A. and P. shatranj ; G. skack ; Swed. 
skak, schak ; T. schach ; B. skaak ; It. scacco ; F. 
echecs. In Europe it seems to have been confounded 
with A. shekh ; P. shah ; Sp. xeque, a king, a chief, 
because the issue of the game depends on a piece 
so called in the east. The expression Check to the 
king, in this sense, is tautology, as shekh alone suffi- 
ciently intimates that he is in jeopardy ; and, if he 
cannot be rescued, A. shekh mat, the king dead ; P. 
shah mat, the king confounded, terminates the contest. 
Sans, and Hind, chuok is a square or check, from chuo, 
four; chuok pourna, to make squares. As four with 
them is used like our decimal, it would seem that this 
game may have originated in numerical calculations 
on the Abacus, which, according to the Lord Chancel- 
lor's arms and the brewers' signs, contained similar 
squares, connected evidently with our words exche- 
quer and check in most of their significations. 

CHESSOM, jr. loam, fertile mould ; G. gitesam, for giced- 

sam ; Swed. gadsam. 
CHEST, *. a large box or coffer, the cavity of the breast; 

K/oi ; L. cista ; G. kist ; P. kisti ; T. kasten ; S. cyst ; 

Swed. kist ; B. kist ; Arm. W. I. cist. See CASE. 

CHESTER, CASTER, in the names of places, are S. coaster, 

from L. castrum, a fortification. See CASTLE. 
CHEVALIER, *. a horseman, a knight, a person entitled 

by rank to appear mounted in the field. 
CHEVAUX DE FRISE, *. a military fence, which would 

signify in F. Friezland horses ; but perhaps the real 

word is cchafaud de f raises, a scaffold with spikes ; 

Arm.freiiz is a barrier of the same kind ; but It. ca- 

vallieri is the same machine. 
CHEVEN, *. a small fish ; F. chevesne, from chef, the 

head. See CHUB. 

CHEW, v. a. to masticate ; T. kicuwen, kiefen ; S. ceona* ; 

F.chiquer. See CHAW. 
CHICANE, *. 1. legal disputation, sophistry; F. chicane, 

from AIK<( ; L. dica, law -pleading. 
2. A trifling petty quibble; A. dig; Sp. and Port. 

chico ; F. chic, petty, subtile, small ; F. chicoler, to 

CHICHE, *. a vetch, an eruption on the skin with that 

appearance ; F. chiche ; L. cicer. 
CHICKEN, *. a pullet in its early state ; S. ciccen, cucian ; 

T. kuicken , Isl. Icicka, to quicken, to hatch, signified 

generally the animation of any foetus ; and its resem- 
blance to Cock may have made it be considered as the 

dim. of that word. Scot, chuckie ; Jt. chioccia, from 

clock, to hatch, is a hen. L. pipio, however, by the 

usual intermutation of P and K would become kikio. 

See PEBP. 
CHICKEN POX, *. an eruptive disease appearing like small 

freckles ; properly chicken pox. See CHICHE. 
CHIDE, t>. a. to reprove, blame, scold ; G. kuida ; S. 

CHIEF, *. the head, principal person, a leader ; F. chef; 

It. capo, from L. caput. 
CHIEVANCE, s. a tax on the real value of any property ; 

from chief, capital. 
CHILBLAIN, *. an ulcerous sore produced by cold. See 

CHILD, *. an infant ; G. kyld, kulld, from eld, a foetus ; 

S. did : G. kylla, to beget. Kyld signified particularly 

legitimate offspring; but bairn was applied to any 

condition ; Scot, chiel; Sp. chula, a youtn. 
CHILL, s. shivering with cold ;; Swed. kyla ; 

S. cele. See COOL. 
CHIME, J. 1. harmony, musical ringing of bells ; L. ca- 

mena, from concino ; Swed. kimma ; ZuftJ>tni'. 
2. The top or end of a cask ; L. cima ; F. cime ; B. kirn. 
CHIMINAGE, *. a toll for passage; from V.chemin; It. 

and Port, camino, a road ; P. gam; W. cam, a pace or 

step ; xaux-ii. See JAMB. 
CHIMNEY, s. a fireplace, a passage for smoke ; tutfuw 

from iuu'tt, to burn ; L. caminus ; F. cheminee ; A. 

CHIN, s. the lowest part of the face ; G. kian ; Swed. 

kinna ; S. cinne ; T. kinn ; r'n ; Arm. gin ; W. gen. 
CHINCOUGH, *. a convulsive cough ; T. kink host ; Swed. 

kikhosta; F. quinte; Scot, kink, is applied to a violent 

fit of laughing or coughing, from G. kaugian, kikna ; 

B. kichen ; S. aceocan. See CHOKE. 
CHINCH, *. a bug; Sp. chinche ; It. cimice; L. cimex. 
CHINE, s . the backbone ; F. echine ; It. schienna, from 

L. spina, by the usual mutation of P into K. 
CHINK, *. 1. a small opening, a crevice; S. cyna ; G. 

ginca, from gia, gina ; S. cinan ; %tiiiu. 
2. A slang word for money ; from chink, chinklt, to 

sound. See JINGLE. 
CHINTS, s. printed calico ; Sans, cheet ; Hind, cheent ; 

P. chinz, spotted, stained. 
CHIOPPINE, *. a kind of shoe worn by women ; Sp. cha- 

pin ; It. tcarpino, screpino, from L. crepis. 
CHIP, CHIPPING, in the names of places signifies a 

market. See CHEAPING. 
CHIP, . a. to cut in small pieces ; Swed. kippa ; T. 

kippen ; dim. of CHOP. 
CHIRP, *. the note of birds ; anciently chirm ; S. cyrm ; 

Sp. chiar. See CHIRBK. 


C H U 

C L A 

< HIKRE, v. a- to murmur, to coo; G. fcura ; P. koor ; S. 

ceorian, kirren. 
CHIHURGEON, s. a medical operator, a surgeon ; F. 

chirurgien ; Xn^ycs- 
CHISEL, *. a carpenter's paring tool ; Sp. sincel ; P. ci- 

seau, ciselle ; L. B. scissula, from L. scindo. 

CHIT, s. 1. a child, formerly kit. See KITTEN. 

2. A germ or shoot ; G. kigt ; S. cett ; M. G. Icigan, to 

3. A vetch, a freckle of that appearance. See CHICHE 

CHITCHAT, *. trifling talk ; T. chit, a saying ; dim. of 

CHITTERLINGS, s. the small guts, dim. of G. kuider ; S. 

wither ; T. knitter, the paunch. Sec CHAUDROX. 

CHIVALRY, *. knighthood, exploit, adventure ; F. che- 
valerie ; It. cavalleria. See CHEVALIER. 

CHIVES, *. 1. the threads rising in flowers with seeds at 
the ends ; from It. cima ; L. cyrna. 

2. Very small onions ; F. cives ; L. cepe. See CIBOL. 

CHOCOLATE, s. a small nut, and a liquor made from it ; 

F. chocolat ; It. cioccolata. See CACAO. 
CHOICE, a. select, of great value. See to CHOOSE. 

CHOKE, v. a. to suffocate, to kill by stopping the breath, 
to shut up, to stifle ; G. kuaugian ; S. accocan ; "Ay#ai, 

CHOOSE, v. a. to select, pick out ; G. kiosa ; T. kiesen ; 

Swed. kesa ; S. ceosan ; F. choisir. 
CHOP, *. 1. a piece cut off, a slice of meat, the mark of 

a cut, a scar ; from xMa ; Swed. kappa ; B. happen ; 

D. kappe; F. couper. 

2. A bargain, an exchange ; G. kiop ; T. kaup ; S. ceap. 

3. The jaw ; Isl. kiaft ; Swed. kwft ; Scot, c/iaft, from 
chaw. See JAW. 

CHOPIN, s. a wine measure ; F. chopine ; S. sciop ; T. 

schopfen ; L. scaphium. 
CHOPPING, a. 1. large, healthy, stout; G. skapung ; S. 

scop geong, a shapely child. See SHAPE and ING. 
2. Cutting, hacking ; part, of to CHOP. 
CHOUGH, s. a kind of daw, a sea bird frequenting rocks; 

A. ghak ; P. kurva, ; Sans, kak ; Hind, kaga ; G. kaia ; 

D. kaje ;,kayke; B. karve ; T.kauch; W.gawci; 

I. caag ; F. choucas ; Sp. chova. See JACK DAW. 

CHOUSE, v. a. to impose upon, to trick ; G. gasrvika ; S. 
gestvican ; Isl. kouska. See SWINDLE. 

the anointed ; Xjiros, synonimous with 

s. the festival of Christ. See YULE and 



CHRISTMAS-BOX, *. now a small box, but formerly an 

earthen pot into which spare money was hoarded till 

Christmas, and could not be got at without breaking 

the vessel ; B. spaar pot. 
CHRIST'S THORN, s. a species of buckthorn, very com- 

mon in Palestine, with which Christ is supposed to 

have been crowned. 
CHUB, *. a small fish with a large head ; F. chabot ; L. 

capita ; D. quabe. See CHEVEN. 
CHUCK, v. a. 1. to throw ; L.jacto. 
2. To call as a hen ; It. chioccia ; Scot, chuckie, a hen. 
CHUCKLE, v. a. frequentative of CHUCK, to call as a hen ; 

to laugh convulsively. See GIGGLE. 
CHUFF, a. fat headed, clownish, surly ; G. kuuf ; Swed. 

kuf; Scot, cufe, signify a mean fellow, a churl ; and 
are apparently confounded with Chub. 

CHUM, s. a fellow lodger ; S. cuma is a guest ; but our 
word is perhaps contracted from Comrade. 

CHUMP, s. a thick heavy piece of wood ; T. kumpf. See 

CHURCH, s. a place of divine worship, a body of Christ- 
ians, the clergy. See KIRK. 

CHURL, *. a rustic man, a surly fellow, a niggard ; G. 
karl ; Swed. karl ; T. kerl ; B. kaerl ; S. ceorl ; W. 
carl, a boor: S. eorl and ceorl, noble and plebeian, 
high and low. 

CHURM, *. a confused murmur or noise; S. cyrme. See 

CHURN, s. a vessel to make butter in; G. kern; D. 
kierne ; B. karn; S. cyrn ; Swed. kerna ; from G. 
Tcaera ; S. cyrran ; T. keren, to turn. See QUERN. 

CHURR-WORM, s. an insect called a fan cricket; from 

CHYMISTRY, s. the art of separating the different sub- 
stances in mixed bodies by fire. See ALCHYMY. 

CIBOL, s. a small kind of onion ; L. cepula ; Scot, set- 
bow. See CHIVES. 

CICELY, s. an herb, dwarf hemlock, myrrh ; L. cicutela. 
CICISBEO, *. a gallant, an attendant on a lady. See 

CID, *. a chieftain, a prince ; A. said, syd ; Sp. cid. 

CIDER, s. the fermented juice of apples ; F. cidre ; It. 

sidro : L. sicera was a general name for liquor made 

of grain or any fruit except the grape. 
CIEHGE, s. a wax candle ; F. from L. cera. 
CIMETER, s. a Turkish hanger; Turk, shimeter ; P. 

shimshir ; A. self ; %Q(, corresponding with G. skio- 

mer ; whence F. cimelerre ; It. scimitario. See SABRE. 
CINDER, *. hot coal that has ceased to flame ; L. citiis ; 

It. cinere; F. cendre ; G. sinder ; D. siunder ; W. 

sinidr. See TINDER. 

CINNABAR, s. a red mineral ; L. cinnabaris ; F. cinnabre. 
CINNAMON, *. a spice, the bark of a tree resembling the 

laurel ; Malabar, kannema, signifying sweet wood ; 

Heb. kanam ; P. kinnamon ; F. cinnamonc : Kmciftapey, 

seems to have been Km* a/tufuti. 
CION, s. a sprout, a young shoot. See SCION. 
CIPHER, *. the figure O in arithmetic, a secret cha- 
racter for writing ; It. ctfra ; F. chifre, from A. sifr ; 

Heb. sepher, numeration. 
CIPHER, v. a. from the noun ; to write in numerical 

CITHERN, *. a kind of guitar ; P. kitar ; Ki6a.%a ; L. ci- 

thera ; Sans, chatar, four : P. sitar, is something of 

the same kind of instrument, from, sih, six, and tar, 

a string. 
CITADEL, *. a small fortress, a castle; It. citadella ; F. 

citadelle, the small town. 
CITRINE, a. yellow, citron-coloured. 
CITRON, *. a large kind of lemon ; L. citrea mala from 

P. citt ; Heb. caut, the name for Media. 
CIVET, *. a kind of perfume; A. xibethi ; P. zibed ; It. 

zibetlo ; F. civette. 
CLACK, *. continued noise, a mill clapper; G. klak ; 

S. dec ; F. claque ; W. dace ; xA*fy. 
CLAIM, v. a. to require, to demand of right ; F. clamer, 

from L. clamo. 


C L E 

C L O 

CLAMBER, v. a. to climb with difficulty ; Isl. klifra ; T. 

klimberen ; D. klavre. See CLAMP. 
CLAMM, v. a. to clog, to stop up ; D. klame, to stick ; 

S. clam; B. klem, wet clay ; T. Urn, gelim, glue. See 

CLAMP, *. a claw, a grapple, a brace; G. klaufs D. 

klampe; B. klamf ; T. klammer ; S. clamm ; F. clamp. 
CLAN,*, family, race, breed; I. clan; W. llan ; Scot. 

clachan, signify a village with a church, an area or 

place, a community ; I. clain ; Scot, calan, a boy, a 

youth, as well as clan, seem to be from G. kylla, to 

procreate. See CHILD. 

CLAP, *. 1. a sudden motion, a blow or sound of colli- 
sion, the noise of thunder ; Isl. klapp ; D. /clap ; Swed. 

klapp ; S. clapp ; B. klap ; T. klopp ; W. clap. 
2. A gleet, a venereal infection, a dripping ; G. hlaup ; 

T. geluppe, gelauf; B. geloop, a running ; T. gelippe, 

venom, infection. 
CLARET. *. red wine, principally from Bourdeaux in 

France ; the name seems to have been applied origi- 
nally to a light coloured wine, F. clairet, from L. 

clarus ; G. klar, signified wine, and riod, red. 
CLARION, s. 1. a trumpet; It. clarino ; F. clairon ; T. 

klarin, perhaps from L. clarus ; but S. hlyrian, to 

trumpet, is from G. and Swed. ludr, luur, a trumpet. 

See LOUD. 

2. A small bell ; F. clarine ; L. clarisonus. 
CLARY, *. a vulnerary herb ; L. salvia sclarea, from G. 

skarlauk ; T. scharlach ; B. skarley ; It. schiarea. See 

CLASH, *. opposition, collision or the sound proceeding 

from it ; T. klatt ; B. klits, from L. collido. 
CLASP, s. a holdfast, an embrace; G. Mas, klops ; S. 

clypps, from clyppan, to embrace ; Scot, clips. See 

to CLIP. 
CLATTER, .v. a tumultuous confused noise ; G. klutr ; 

Swed. Mutter ; B. klater ; S. hleother, cleadur. 
CLAW, *. the toe of a beast or bird armed with sharp 

nails; properly a division of the foot; G. klo, kite; 

Swed. klo ; S. claw ; B. klaautv. See to CLEAVE. 

CLAY, .?. a tenacious sort of earth ; T. kley ; B. kleg ; 
S. clteg ; Pol. kley ; W. clai ; P. gil ; L. glis. 

CLEAN, a. free from dirt, pure, elegant; S. clem, which 
does not appear to have any cognate, unless it be 
hleen ; T. Swed. and B. klem, thin, slender, small ; 
whence B. kleinzen, to purify liquor, to make it thin, 
not thick. Our word fine is also thin, small, pure, 
bright ; but the S. word may have been confounded 
witn giant ; Swed. glan ; W. glan, bright, fair, pure, 
neat, corresponding with CLEAR. 

CLEAR, a. bright, manifest, pure, free; F. claire ; 
Swed. klar ; T. klar, from L. clarus, seem to be cog- 
nate with G. gler. See GLAIRE. 

CLEAVE, v. a. 1. to adhere, to cling ; G. klofia, klafa ; 
Swed. klebba ; B. kleeven ; D. klebe ; S. clyppian ; W. 

2. To divide, separate, split ; G. klwfa ; Swed. klyfroa ; 
S. cleqfan ; T. klieben , B. klieven ,- T. kloeben ; KA. 
Hence cliff, a division of a rock ; claw, a division of 
the foot ; club, an apportioning of expenditure ; and 
clipping, a fragment. 

CLEAVER, *. 1. a plant, aperine or goose grass ; T. kleb 
kraut, from its adhering quality. 

2. A chopping knife ; from CLEAVE, to divide. 

CLEF, *. a key ; F. clef ; L. davit. 

CLKPT, *. a crack, crevice, opening ; from to CLEAVE. 
CLEPE, v. a. to call, to name ; S. clypian ; L. clueo. 
CLERGY, s. the whole order of divines ; F. clerge from 

KAif(; ; L. clerus, which signified the inheritance, via. 

of God or the church. 

CLERK, *. 1. one of the clergy, a priest j F. clerc, from 

L. clericut. 
2. A scribe, a man of letters ; because the clergy at 

one time were almost the only persons who could 

CLEVER, a. dextrous, skilful, smart, intelligent ; G. 

glogr ; Swed. glugar ; S. gleantra ; T. klugger ; yA- 

<pj{ is a different word, although used in nearly the 

same sense. 

CLEW, *. a ball of thread; B. kletvin; S. clieiv ; T. klowe; 

P. kulabu. 
CLICK, v . a. to make a sharp successive noise ; S. kitchen ; 

F. cliquer ; dim. of CLACK. 
CLIFF, *. a precipice, a rock, a steep hill ; G. and Swed. 

klif, klippa; T. klippe; B. klif; S. clif; L. clivus. See 

to CLEAVE and CRAG. 

CLIMATE, s. air, tract of country, space; F. climat. See 

CLIMB, v. a. to ascend, to get up a cliff; G. klipa ; Swed. 

klifna ; T. and B. klimmen ; S. climan ; from cliff, as 

to mount, from mount, a hill. 

CLIME, t. a circular segment on the globe dividing re- 
gions ; Kbifio. ; L. clima ; A. iglum. 

CLINCH, *. a hold, a catch, a pun, a crotchet, a fold of 
a cable ; B. klink ; D. klinke ; Swed. Minka ; S. klincke, 
for gelincke. See LINK and CRANK. 

CLING, v. a. 1. to adhere, to stick together, to shrivel, 
grow flaccid ; S. clingan ; D. klinge ; Swed klena. 

CLINK, v. a. to sound like metal ; Swed. klinga ; T. and 

B. klincken. 
CLINQUANT. *. glitter, embroidery; F. clinquant; B. 

klenkant ; Swed. Win* ; S. glasnge, from G. gloa, to 

shine ; glan, bright. 
CLIP, v. a. 1. to embrace, confine; S. clyppan; Scot. 

clip. See CLASP. 
2. To cut, shear, divide ; G. klippa ; D. klippe ; Swed. 

klippa ; S. clepan. See to CLEAVE. 
CLIVER, s. stone clover, the plant melilot ; T. and B. 

stein clover. 

CLOAK, *. an outer garment, a cover ; L. B. cloca, sup- 
posed to be from T. and S. lack ; Swed. laken, cloth 

or a garment, in which sense Chaucer uses lake ; A. 

khaluk is a loose robe. 
CLOCK, *. 1. an instrument to show time, a bell ; G. klok ; 

Swed. klocka; B. klok; T. glocke ; Arm. clock ; W. 

clocc ; F. cloche, from G. kloka ,\ S. cleccian, to strike, 

to sound. 

2. The gusset of a stocking ; B. kliuk, from G. galuka ; 
S. galukan, to close. See LOCK. 

3. A kind of dirty beetle ; D. kakalak, kalak ; O. E. ka- 
kerla, a dungroller, from L. cacaloco. 

CLOCK, v. a. to hatch chickens; G. klteka ; Swed. kite- 
ka ; S. cloccan ; T. klocken, like L. glocito, from the 
call of the brooding hen. 

CLOD, j. a lump ef earth; G. Mode; Swed. klot, jord 
klot ; B. kluit, aerd klot ; T. Wo**. See CLAY. 

CLOG, *. 1. from LOO ; a hindrance, an inconvenience, im- 
pediment, a wooden shoe. 

C L U 

2. To stick, close, obstruct; Scot, dag; KoAA*'*; S. 

clog; D. klarg, glue. See CLOY and CLOOM. 
CLOISTER, s. an inclosure where religious devotees are 

confined; F. doistre ; S. clauster ; T. klosler ; L. 

daustrum. See CLOSE. 
CLOOM, CLEAM, v. a. to close or stop up with glutinous 

matter ; S. desman. See CLOG. 
CLOSE, s. an inclosed place, a field, a termination ; F. 

clos ; T. klose, from L. dausus. 
CLOSE, v. a. from the noun ; to shut, terminate. 
CLOSH, s. lameness, the founder in a horse ; F. doche, 

from L. daudus. 

CLOT, s. what is curdled, concretion ; B. kloot ; F. call- 
let, from L. coagulatum ; sometimes confounded with 

CLOT BUB, *. the burdock; S. date; T. klelte; F- 

glouteron, from G. kloat ; T. Mat, a claw. 
CLOTH, s. what is woven, a web, originally of wool ; 

G. klcede; T. kkid ; B. kleed ; S. dad, dath, from 

Swed. lo ; Isl. lod, Mod, wool. 

CLOUD, s. 1. a body of vapours in the air, obscurity, a 
spot or stain ; S. lyft, geluft, the air, the sky, a cloud. 
See LIFT. 

2. A multitude of people, an host ; G. lyd ; S. lead ; T. 
Hut, the people, the multitude ; S. hloth, a crowd, a 

3. A dell in the mountains, a rock, a cliff ; G. Melt ; S 
dud, hleoth, hlith. See CLOUGH. 

CLOVE, s. a kind of spice ; F. clou ; P. kalafur ; A. ka- 

roph ; garyophyllon of Pliny. 
2. A head or portion of the bulb of garlick ; S. clufe ; 

T. klovelauch, garlick. See to CLEAVE. 
CLOVER, s. a species of trefoil ; T. klee ; B. klaver ; 

Swed. klofwer ; D. kliver ; S. clcefer, from its cloven 

CLOUGH, *. 1. a vale between cliffs ; S. dough ; Scot. 

done. See CLIFF and CLOUD. 
2. Allowance made for reweighing goods in retail ; 

sometimes written Cloff ; G. klafrv&g; Swed. klowagh. 

See CLEAVE, to divide, CLUB and WEIGH. 
CLOUT, *. 1. a rag, a piece, a patch ; P. lutta ; G. klut ; 

B. kluis ; S. dut ; Swed. klut ; D. Hud. 

2. A clown, a booby ; Swed. klut ; B. kloet, a mean rag- 
ged fellow. See LOUT. 

3. A cuff, a blow with the loof or hand ; B. kloutv, a 
blow with the hand. 

CLOWN, *. a boor, a peasant ; either from L. colonus, or 

our loon, a hired servant. 
CLOY, v. a,\. to satiate, surfeit ; G. kligia, kleij, nausea. 

See CLOG. 
2. To spike guns, to drive a nail into the touch hole; 

F. clouer, from clou ; L. clavis. 
CLUB, s. 1. a heavy stick, a mace, a suit of cards marked 

with a club, or rather with a clover leaf; Swed. 

klubba; D. klub ; T. klopfe; W. dwppa ; L. clava. 
2. A portion or apportioning, a division, a society pay- 
ing equally ; G. kluff ; Swed. klubb ; B. kloof; T. 

klub ; T. cluiben, kloeben, signified to apportionate 

church-rates and assessments. See CLEAVE and SCOT. 
CLUCK, t). a. to cry like a hen to her brood ; S. doccian ; 

W. daucan ; L. glocito. See to CLOCK. 
CLUE, v. a. to tie, close, bundle ; KAs/w ; L. clattdo ; F. 

CLUELINES, *. lines that clue up the corners of the sails 

in a ship. See CLUE. 

C O C 

CLUMP, *. a tuft of trees ; G. klimpa ; Swed. ktmp, 

klump ; B. klomp ; W. clump, a mass, a lump. 
CLUMSY, a. heavy, thick, unhandy ; formerly CLUMPSY, 

from Clump. 

CLUNG, v. n. to dry or shrink as wood. See to CLING. 
CLUSTER, s. a bunch like grapes; Swed. klaster ; S. 

duster ; D. dees ; T. klos, from G. klaur. 
CLUTCH, *. a talon, a grasp, a gripe; G. kloast ; T. 

klatz. See CLAW. 
CLUTTER, s. a noise, a bustle, a jangle ; G. klulr ; 

Swed. klulter. 
COACH, s. a large covered carriage; F. cache; It. cocchio ; 

T. kotsche, kutsche ; Swed. kutk ; D. kiidsk : F. cache, 

signifies also a passage-boat on a river ; B. koetze is a 

couch and a coach. Kao tche is said to signify with 

the Huns a high waggon. 
COAL, s. ignited wood, fossil fuel; G. kol ; Heb. gehol ; 

Swed. kol; S. col; T. kohle ; B. kool ; G. kol, FikeL. 

color, signified fire or heat, apparently from G. ala ; 

S. celan, to burn. 

COARSE, a. gross, rude, rough ; L. crassus. See GROSS. 
COAST, s. a side, land next the sea, the shore ; L. costa ; 

F. coste; It. costa; B. kust ; Swed. kust. 
COAT, s. a man's upper garment, the hairy covering of 

animals; Heb. cutton ; Chald. kiton ; %ir^t ; T. kutte; 

F. cotte ; It. cotta. Our word, however, is supposed 

to be cognate with It. and Sp. cappotto ; F. capote ; 

Swed. kafta, a mantle, from L. capitium. 
COAX, v. a. to wheedle, to flatter, fawn ; G. kuska ; B. 

keozen; T. kosen. See COCKER. 
COB, s. 1. a head, a round knob ; K.1&*. See COP. 

2. A sea-fowl; T. kepf; K.iir$s ; L. cepphus, from its 
levity. See GULL. 

3. A spider; G. eiter koppo; S. copp, alter coppe ; G. 
eititr; S. alter, venom, and koppa, a cup, a honey- 

COBALT, s. a mineral found in Bohemia ; T. kobalt ; F. 
cobalt ; Sclav, cob, cov, metal. 

COBBLE, v. a. to mend coarsely, to botch, to put toge- 
ther ; F. cobler ; Swed. kobla, from L. cupolo. Rabe- 
lais uses cobler, to botch. P. kubal is a shoemaker. 

COBLE, s. a small boat; S. cuople ; T. kubel; W. ceu- 
bd ; K.vft&v. 

COBRA CAPELLO, *. the hooded snake ; Port, cobra ; 
L. colubra, and capello ; F. chapeau, a hat or hood. 

COBWEB, *. a spider's web. See COB. 

COCHINEAL, s. an insect used for dying scarlet ; Sp. 
cochinello, a cheslip or sow bug, was applied to an 
insect of that kind which feeds on a dwarf oak, in 
Spain, and may have been coccina ilicis, from **5, 
red ; but the name is now given to another insect 
found on the Opuntia in South America. 

COCK, *. 1. the male to the hen, a domestic fowl, and 
generally applied to the male of birds; M. G. kok ; 
S. coce ; F. coq ; Arm. coc ; Sclav, kokos ; Hung. 
kakas ; Sans, kukkut ; KHMCOJ ; from the call of that 
bird, as L. gallus, from G. gala ; S. galan, to crow;. 
The L. name, however, may be cognate with P. khayu ; 
Heb. kilioh; G. gicel ; Swed. gall; S. gal; B. geile ; 
T.geil; L. coleus ; W. caill ; Arm. call; I. caolah ; F. 
couille ; It. coglio, a testicle; whence Arm. and W. 
keilloc, ceiliog, ceilliau, signifying also a cock. 

2. A vane, screw, pivot, spiggot, style of a dial, appa- 
rently from having the figure of the bird to indicate 
the position ; It. gattetto ; han or hen in the G. dialects, 
and Celt, ceiliog are used in the same sense. 

c o c 

^- The notch in which an arrow was placed on the bow, 
the hammer which holds the flint in fire-arms ; It. 
cocca; F. <</, from L. ccesio, which the Germans, 
however, call lian, from the form, when applied to a 

-1. Little, diminutive ; G. kog; P. kak. 

it. A master, one who domineers or triumphs as a cock ; 
F. coq is used in the same sense ; but G. and Swed. 
keek; T. keck, animated, bold. 

0'. Submission ; Scot, to cry cock, O. E. to cry cockles, 
to be vanquished ; G. kug. See to Cow. 

7- A red colour ; Kxo ; L. coccus. 

8. The head, the top or upper part, a round heap, an 
elevation; Isl. kock ; Arm. coak, are probably like 
our own word from cop, by the usual intermutation 
of P and K ; Sp. coca ; Scot, cock, a hat or head. See 

COCKADE, s. a mark of distinction, a ribbon worn on 
the hat ; F. coquard. See COCK, the head or hat, 
and AKD. 

COCKAHOOP, ad. in high mirth or joy ; perhaps from 
cock, triumphant. See Goo and HOOP. 

COCKAIGN, s. abundance, jollity, pleasure, joy ; F. cau- 
cagne, cocagne ; It. cocagna, from Romance gang, 
caug ; F.gogo; li.gaudium; O. E. to cogge, signified 
to please, to rejoice, to flatter. See COCKEB. 

COCKAL, s. a game with boys ; formerly HOCKLE, be- 
cause made of a sheep's joint or hock ; F. osselet. 

COCK APPAREL, *. a gay dress ; Romance caug, gaiety. 

COCK BOAT, *. a small boat ; G. kugge ; Swed. kogg ; 
T. kogge, kocke ; B. kogge ; W. ctvch ; It. cocca ; F. 
coquet; Chaucer wrote cogge. See COCK, little. 

COCKEB, v. a. to pamper, fondle, indulge ; Romance, 
cauger. See COCKAIGN and COG. 

COCKET, *. an official seal, a custom-house certificate ; 
F. cachet ; It. costo, ascosto, from L. conditus. 

COCKET BBEAD, *. the finest wheaten bread. See 

COCKLE, s. 1. a name given to the corn rose and wild 
poppy; F.coqulicot; W.cocklys; L. coccus lolium ; 
but S. coccel is supposed to be from ceocan, to choke. 
See GITH. 

2. A shell fish ; F. coquille ; L. cochlea ; K>/. 

COCKLOFT, s. the room over the garret, the top. See 

COCKNEY, s. 1. a citizen of London ; G. kauptona, an 
emporium; T. kaulney, kotheney, an exchange; Arm. 
couchine; L. cocio, cocionis, a merchant. The nobility 
and their vassals, despising the citizens for their igno- 
rance of country life, may have connected the word 
cockney with gatvken, a coxcomb, a jack sprat, as 
bandet was applied to a Parisian by the gentry of 
France ; but cockagney may have denoted the good 
fare of the city. See COCKAIGN. 

2. A child reared delicately. See to COCKER. 

COCKWEED, s. scurvy grass ; L. cochlearium. 

COCOA, s. the tree and small nut of which chocolate is 
made. See CACAO. 

COCOA NUT, s. the very large nut of a palm tree ; Sp. 
coco; F. coco, from Koyjen > L- concha, a bowl or shell, 
for which it is used. See COCOA TREE. 
COCOA TREE, s. a palm tree of most extraordinary uti- 
lity. It serves tor timber ; the fibres of the bark for 
oakum ; the roots for coarse mats ; the leaves for 


baskets, hats, umbrellas, fine mats, thatch, ceiling', 
walls, curtains, and instead of writing paper ; the 
young shoots are used as cabbages or pickles, and 
the pith for sago ; the husk of the nut serves to make 
cables, coarse cloth, stuffing for mattresses, scrubbing 
brushes ; the shell for bottles, bowls, dishes ; and its 
contents for drink, bread, oil, soap, sugar, and distil- 
ling into spirits. See COCOA NUT. 

COD, s. the bag or husk of seeds; G. kodde ; K3uc ; 
W. corf; Swed. kudde ; Scot, cod, a bag or pillow; 
Swed. tod; T. kod ; S. codd, the scrotum. See POD. 

CODFISH, s. a sea-fish with a large head; L. capita ; It. 
cavallau ; B. kabiljaurv, from KtipwAii ; Scot, headock, 
which is a species of it, from head. 

CODWOBM, *. a dew-worm, named from being kept in a 
cod with moss, to become transparent before used as 
a bait. 

COFFEE, *. an Arabian tree, berry and fruit; A. qulutm ; 
P. katveh ; F. cafe. 

COFFEE-HOUSE, *. a house of public entertainment, now 
understood as a room where people drink coffee ; but 
perhaps originally from G. kaup ; T. kauf; L. caupo ; 
Scot, coffe, a merchant ; Arm. cow, a tavern or sub- 
scription meeting, where refreshments are sold; which 
words were apparently in use before coffee was known 
in Europe. 

COFFEB, *. a chest, a receptacle; Isl. kqfe ; S. cafe; T. 
koffer ; Swed. kofferl ; B. koffer ; Sp. cofre ; F. cqf- 
fre ; Arm. coffaur ; W. cojfr ; I. cofra. See COVE. 

COFFIN, *. a chest for dead bodies; F. cqfin; W. caf- 
fyu, a chest, a trough, from cove ; L. caws : A. kujun 
is a shroud. 

Coo, s. a wedge, a wooden tooth ; T. kog ; Swed. kugg ; 
B. kegge ; L. B. coga. See COIGNE. 

COG, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to wedge, give a r k bias to 
dice, to play unfairly, to deceive. 

2. To please, flatter, wheedle, coax. See COCKER. 

COIF, *. a cap, a head-dress; F. coife ; Sp. cofia ; It. 
a, cognate with COP ; A. kuehf, the head. See 

COIGNE, s. an angle, a wedge, a die, an instrument to 
stamp money ; rW* ; L. cuneus ; Sans, konu ; F. 
coigne : L. B. cuneus, the mint. See COIN. 

COIL, v. a. to roll up a rope in circular folds ; It. cog- 
Here; F. cueiller, from L. colligere ; perhaps from 

COIN, s. money stamped legally. See COIGNE. 
COISTREL, s. a mean fellow, a dastard : G. tost thral 

was one who served for his foo<J; but see CUSTREL. 
COIT, s. a flat stone or iron to pitch at a mark ; B.gooid, 

gegooid, what is thrown or cast ; T. kote ; B. koot, a 

throw at dice or cockal ; Ko'rwj. 
COKE, *. charcoal ; L. lignum coctum. 
COLD, *. without heat, frigid ; G. kald ; Swed. k6ld ; T. 

kalte ; S. cold. 
COLE, COLEWORT, s. a kind of cabbage; G. kal ; Swed. 

kaal; T. kohl; B. kool ; S. col; KwAi$; L. caulis ; 

W. caivl; Arm. caul; I. cola; F. chou ; It. cavo/o : 

P. kulla is cabbage, from kull, a head. See KALE and 

COLLAR. *. 1. something round the neck; Heb. kollar ; 

L. cottare ; F. colier. 
2. Meat tied together to be cooked; F. Her, colier; L. 

COLLOP, *. 1. a small chop of meat made tender by 


beating; Swed. kollop ; T. kolps i Swed. klappa ; T. 

klopfen, to beat. In early times the Scandinavian 

monks are said to have adopted their culinary terms 

from the English ; but afterwards from the French. 
2. A child; G. kutt, progeny; kylla, to beget. See 

COLONEL, *. the chief regimental officer; O. F. coronel; 

T. coronet, from L. corona, the summit or top ; It. 

colmmello ; F. colonelle, are supposed to signify the 

leader of a column, from L. columna. 
COLT, *. a young horse ; S. colt, Swed. kult, like L. 

pullus, signify the young of any animal, from G. kylla, 

to beget. 
COLT, v. a. to play like young animals ; but apparently 

partaking of G. gailta, kailla, to wanton, to be lasci- 
vious. See COCK. 
COMB, *. 1. an instrument for dressing the hair ; Swed. 

T. B. kam; S. camb ; Kofti); L. coma, hair of the 


2. The crest of a cock; Swed. learn ; T. kamm, from 
being pectinated. 

3. The small cells in which bees deposit their honey ; 
G. koppa ; D. kube; B. kom, koomb ; T. kutnp ; S. 
camb ; K.vfitf ; S. cumb ; Scot, cap, a bowl or dish ; 
all of which seem to be cognate with cup. 

4. a valley, a hollow place ; S. comb ; F. combe ; W. 
cumm. See COVE. 

COMBAT, v. a. to fight, to contest, oppose ; F. combat- 
tre ; It. combattere, from L. com and latuo. 

COMBOOSB, COMBHOUSE, s. the cooking place or dish 
house in a ship ; B. koombius ; Swed. kqbysa. See 
COMB, a dish, and HOUSE. 

COME, v. a. to draw near, arrive, happen ; G. koma ; 
Swed. komma ; T. kommen ; B. komen ; S. coman. 

COMELY, a. decent, pleasing, graceful, handsome ; G. 
kuaemlig; S. qucemlig ; D. quamlig ; T. kuumvdich ; 
S. ctveman, to please. 

COMFORT, s. support, consolation, joy ; F. confort ; It. 
conforlo, from L. conforto, to make strong. But with 
us it is associated with an idea of warmth ; a cold din- 
ner in summer may be delightful, yet is not called 
comfortable. In the same way, to live warmly, signi- 
fies to be comfortable. 

COMFREY, *. an herb now called Consolida ; L. conjir- 
ma, from its strengthening quality. 

COMMAND, v. a. to mandate, order, direct, govern ; F. 
commander ; It. commandare, from L. com and mando. 

COMMONWEALTH, *. government of the people, repub- 
lic; from common, public, general, and G. ivald ; S. 
n'tilil ; T. wait, dominion. See to WIELD. 

COMPANION, *. an associate ; F. compagnon ; It. com- 
pagno ; G. Swed. B. kompan ; T. kumpan. Although 
so general in the G. dialects, it has no connection with 
that language. See COMPANY. 

COMPANY, s. an assembly of persons, an association in 
trade, a band of soldiers ; Sp. campana ; F. compag- 
nie ; It. compagnia, from L. compago, compango, com- 
pingo, to join together. 

COMPASS, *. a circle, a limit, an instrument to measure 
circles; F. compos; It. compasso ; Sp. compas ; L. 
B. compassus, from L. circum and passus. 

COMPASS, v. a. to encircle, include, contain ; F. compass- 
er ; It. compassare. 

COMPLEMENT, s. fulness, perfection, completion; F. 
complement; L. complementum. 


COMPLIMENT, s. an act or expression of civility ; P. 
compliment ; It. complirnento. See to COMPLY. 

COMPLY, v. n. to yield, suit, accord ; F. plier, compiler, 
from L. plicare. 

COMRADE, s. an associate, an intimate ; T. chambrade, 
comerade ; F. camarade ; Sp. camarado : It. camerala 
was a chamber in a college, for conversation, a club 
room, the members of which were associates. P. hum- 
raft, a companion, a fellow traveller, is from hum ( L. 
cum,) and rah, a way, a road. 

CON, v. a. to know, observe, notice, acknowledge, fix in 
the memory, learn; G. kunna ; S. connan. See to 

CONCH, s. a shell, a shell fish ; L. concha ; It. conca ; F. 

COND, v. a. to give notice ; G. kunde. See to CON. 

CONDER, s. from COND ; an observer, one who stands on 
the shore and makes signs to the fishermen of the 
course the herrings are taking, which is known by the 
rippling of the water. He was also called a ewer or 
herver, from S. eawan, to show. See BALKER. 

CONGE, CONGEE, s. leave, concession, permission, a bow 
in taking leave ; F. conge ; It. cotigedo, from L. con- 

CONGER EEL, s. F. congre ; L. congrius. 

CONSTABLE, s. a military chief, a peace officer ; F. con- 
nestable ; It. contcstabile : L. B. comes stabuli was 
master of the horse, corresponding with Mareschal ; 
but comestabulus, a peace officer, seems to have been 
L. comes, to which G. stab, office, had been added ; 
as with us it is the badge of a peace officer. See 

CONTRIVE, v. a. to find out, invent, plan ; F. controuver. 

CONTROL, s. restraint, check, authority; F. controle, 

from L. contra rotula, a counter roll, or check book. 
CONVOY, s. a protection on the way, an escort; F. con- 

voi from L. B. conviare, the root of which is L. via. 


CONY, s. a rabbit ; L. cuniculus, from TmU, a hole ; It. 

cotiiglio; F. connin, connil, and common to nearly all 

European languages. 
Coo, CHOO, s. the sound made by doves ; P. koor ; G. 

kur ; W. coo. 
COOL, a. tending to cold ; G. kula ; S. col; B. koel ; 

T. kuhle. See COLD. 
COOM, s. 1. soot of an oven; G. kam, black; Swed. kirn, 

2. Filth, refuse, black grease that works out of the 

wheels of carriages ; G. kam ; M. G. gawam ; F. cam- 

bouis. See GOME. 
COOMB, s. a corn measure of four bushels; S. cumb,jild- 

cumb ; T. kump, signify a large vessel, corresponding 

with TUvftZog 
COOP, s. 1. a barrel, a cask; KtxpJf ; F. cuve ; T. kufe; 

S. cyf; B. kuip. See KIEVE. 

2. A cage, a wooden inclosure for poultry ; B. kovi ; 

It. gabbia ; L. cavea. 
COOT, s. a small black water fowl ; B. koet ; F. cotee ; 

from its chatter. See CHAT. 

COP, s. the head, the top, a tuft on the head of birds, 
a round heap ; S. cop ; B. kop ; T. kopf; W. coppa, 
correspond with L. caput ; It. capo, and with G. 
hofd; Tartar hoef, the head. 


COPB, s. from COP ; a priest's hood, a canopy, a concave 

COPE, r. a. 1. to put on a top or cover. 

2. To contend, strive against; G. and Swed. kapp ; S. 
camp, a contest. See to CAP. 

COPBSMATR, s. a plighted mate; Isl. kaup ; Swed. k6p, 
a covenant, a bargain. 

COPPEL, *. a small cup for trying metals, a crucible ; It- 
coppella ; F. coupelle ; T. kapel. 

COPPER, s. a red metal ; L. cuprum ; F. cuivre. 
COPPBRAS, *. a kind of vitriol ; from copper. 

COPPICE, COPSE, s. a low wood where poles and faggots 
are cut ; F. coupois, from couper ; K.tflt>, to cut. See 

COPY, *. a transcript from an original, any imitation, ex- 
ample to write after, a picture drawn from another 
picture ; It. and Sp. copia ; F. copie. L. copia, appa- 
rently from co opes, was plenty ; but from co opus it 
signified assistance, additional resource, and a tran- 

COPYHOLD, s. land held by possessing a copy of the roll 
of register in the lord's court. 

COQUET, v. a. to court attentions, to encourage several 
lovers at the same time ; F. coqueter, queter, from L. 
(/ucexi/o, to seek after, to affect ; corresponding with F. 

COHAN, *. the Mahometan Bible ; A. qoran. See AL- 

CORANT, *. a kind of sprightly dance ; F. courant ; It. 
corrente, from L. currere. 

COHBAN, s. an alms basket ; It. corbanne, from L. corbis. 

CORDWAIN, *. fine Spanish leather ; G. korduna ; Swed. 
kardewan; T. kurdetven, korduan ; F. cordouan ; It. 
cordoano; supposed to be from Cordova in Spain, where 
sheep or goats' skins might have been dressed like 
what is called Morocco leather ; but Sp. corio d'ovino 
signifies sheep's leather. A. karta, a city, Phoenician 
Cartheia, Punic Cartheja, the new city, was Carthage, 
corresponding with A. kartaba and Cordova. 

CORE, *. the heart, the inner part of a thing ; L. cor ; 
F. coeur. 

CORK, s. the bark of a tree made into stoppers for bot- 
tles; Sp. corcho; T.kork; B. kurk, supposed to be L. 

CORKING-PIN, s. a large pin anciently worn in the hair 
by Irish women, and still used in Switzerland and 
part of Italy ; I. curcois pion, from cuaire, the hair, 
and pin. 

CORMORANT, s. the sea crow; L. corvus marinut; F. 

CORN, *. 1. grain; G. karn ; D. Swed. T. korn ; B. 
koorn ; S. corn ; L. granum ; It. grano ; F. grain. 

2. A horny excrescence in the flesh ; F. cor ; L. cornu. 
CORN, CORB, t>. a. from the noun ; to granulate, to sprin- 
kle with salt in grain, to powder ; Scot. kern. 

CORNEL, *. a tree, the cornelian cherry ; F. cornouille ; 
L. cornut. 

CORNEMUSE, *. a bagpipe; It. cornemusa ; F. conic- 
muse, from I,, cornu and fttm ; It. miisa, music. This 
instrument is used by the Tartars, Malays, the moun- 
taineers of Spain, Portugal, Savoy, Scotland, and 

CORNER, *. an angle ; F. corniere, from L. cornu ; A. 


korn ; Heb. kerav, corresponding with G. horn in all 

CORNET, *. 1. a kind of trumpet; F. cornel, from L. 

2. An ensign of cavalry; F. comet te ; It. cornetto ; L. 

cornicularius, a military standard. 
CORNICB, *. the ornament at the top of a wall or column 

It. cornice ; F. comiche; L. coronis. 
COHNUTE, v. a. to give horns, to cuckold ; from L. cor- 

nutus; It. cornuto. See HORN and FORNICATION. 
CORONER, s. an officer to ascertain on the part of the 

crown ; from L. corona ; but as some suppose, from Isl. 

krof; W. corf, a corpse ; and S. cunner, an inspector. 
CORPORAL, . an inferior military officer ; It. caporale ; 

F. caporal; T. korporal, the head of a file, from capo, 

the head. 

CORPORAL, CORPOREAL, a. belonging to the body mate- 
rial ; L. corporalis ; F. corporal; It. corporate. 
CORPS, CORE, s. a body of soldiers, a regiment; F. 

corps; It. corpus. 
CORPSE, s. a dead body, a carcase; G. krof; Swed. 

krop; L. corpus. 
CORRIDOR, s. a gallery round a building ; F. corridor ; 

It. corridore, from L. cursitare. 
CORSAIR, s. a pirate, a rover; It. corscro; F. corsair; 

L. cursor. 
COSIBR, s. a patcher, a botcher; F. couseur, from L. 


COSSACK, *. a kind of Tartar; Mogul, Sans. Tartar 
quzzak, a robber. 

COSSET, . house fed; O. E. cothset ; S. cotsteta ; F. 
cosset, housed, cotted ; It. casiccio, from L. casa. 

COST, s. 1. expence, price, value; Arm. coust ; W.cost; 
F. const e; It. costo, from L. costo, consto. 

2. An aromatic herb ; A. kost ; K.r* ; L. costus. 

COSTARD, a. costard apple, fruit for the table ; T. and B. 
least, cognate with our cost, expence, signified provi- 
sion for the table, in the sense of cates. See COST 
and ARD. 

COSTARD-MONGER, s. a fruiterer. See COSTARD and 

COSTER, s. the head ; supposed to be copster. See Cop. 

COSTIVE, a. bound in the body, constipated ; F. con- 
stive ; L. constipatus. 

COSTMARY, s. a kind of mint imagined to have the odour 
of cost, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. 

COSTREL, s. 1. a flaggon, apparently for canistrel, from 
L. canistrum ; A. kosta is a flask. 

2. A mean fellow ; F. costerel, a cottager, from Cot. 

COT, *, 1. a peasant's dwelling; G. kot ; P. feud; T. and 
B. kot ; S. cot. See HUT. 

2. A hanging bed used by sailors ; KV< ; L. cubitus ; 
Swed. koite; W. cot. 

COTERIE, *. a society, assembly; F. coterie; It. cosiiera, 
side by side, from L. cosla. 

COTILLION, *. a kind of dance ; F. cotillon, side by side, 
from cole ; L. cosla ; the contre dance had two oppo- 
site lines. 

COTQUEAN, *. a man who busies himself about women's 
affairs ; T. koiten, to chat ; B. tout keuchen, a kitchen- 
talker; but Swed. kotte, signifies a friend. See 

COTTON, *. a plant, and the fine down it produces : A. 
qotn ; F. cotton ; It. cotlone, supposed to be from 

C U 

C R A 

COUCH, *. a sofa, a bed ; F. couclie, from L. cubitus. 

COUCH, v. 1. to squat or lie down, to recline. 

2. . a. To lay, place horizontally, depress ; P. cmtcher, 
from L. cubito. 

COVE, s. a small creek, a hollow place, a shelter, an 
arch; Isl. kofe ; S. cafe; T. Icove ; Arm. cauf ; 
Kv(ptt ; A. kuhf, qoobbu. See COMB, CAVE and AL- 

COVER, n. a. to overspread, hide, protect ; F. couvrir ; 
It. cuoprere, from L. cooperior. 

COVERLET, s. the upper bed covering ; F. couvrelit, from 
cover, and L. lectus. 

COVET, v. a. to desire beyond proper bounds, to lust 
after; F. convoiter, covoiter, from L. con and voveo. 

COVEY, s. a brood of birds ; F. couvee ; It. coma, from 
It. covo; L. cubo, to hatch. 

COUGH, *. a convulsion of the lungs ; A. qubhu ; Hind. 
kuf; G. kuef ; B. kuch ; the G. word signifies suffo- 
cation. See HOUST. 

COVIN, *. fraudulent agreement, collusion; from L. con- 
ventum. L. B. conventarium was a compact for exclu- 
sion, called Coventry. 

COULD, imp. tense of the verb can ; Swed. kond ; S. cond ; 
T. konte ; the / has been introduced, instead of n, 
from our use of should and would. See CAN. 

COULTER, s. the sharp iron of a plough, the share ; L. 
culler ; F. coutre. 

COUNT, v. a. to compute, number, tell; It. contare ; F, 
compter ; L. computo. 

COUNT, *. 1. from the verb; reckoning, number ; F. 

2 A title of nobility ; F. comte ; It. conde ; L. comes. 

COUNTENANCE, s. behaviour, appearance, face ; F. con- 
tenance ; It. contigno, from L. contineo, corresponding 
with Behold. 

COUNTER, in composition, signifies opposite, against ; 

L. contra ; F. contre. 
COUNTER, s. 1. a table for reckoning upon ; F. comp- 

toir. See to COUNT. 
2. Something to count the game with at play. 

COUNTEHBAND, s. prohibited, unlawful; It. contrabanda; 
F. contrebande. See COUNTER, and BAN or BAND, re- 

COUNTERFEIT, s. imitated, forged, spurious. F. contre- 
fait ; It. contrqfatto ; L. B. contrafactus. 

COUNTERMAND, v. a. to reverse an order ; F. contreman- 
der, from L. contra and mando. 

COUNTRY, *. a tract of land, a native place; F. conlree ; 

It. contrada; L. B. comiterra, comitaria. See COUNTY. 
COUNTY, s. a district, a rustic community ; It. contea ; 

F. comte ; L. comitatus ; K.tiftv, K^DTD. 
COUPEE, s. a step in dancing ; F. coupee; K*-, a cut. 

COUPLE, s. a pair, a brace, two rafters joined together ; 
F. couple ; L. copula. 

COURAGE, *. heart, spirit, bravery, fortitude; F. courage; 
It. cuoraggio, from L. cor. 

COURSE, s. a race, career, progress, method, procedure ; 
L. cursus ; F. course. 

COURT, *. 1. a seat of government, hall of justice, resi- 
dence of a prince ; F. cour ; L. curia. 

2. Civility, obsequiousness, flattery, insinuating man- 
ners of a court. 

3. An inclosure round a house, a cattle yard ; F. court ; 

It. corte; L. cohors. See YARD. 
COURTESAN, *. a woman of the town, one who practises 

general courtesy for money, a harlot ; F. courtisane ; 

L. B. cortisana. 
COURTESY, s. civility, complaisance, kindness ; F. cour- 

toisee ; It. cortesia. See COURT. 
COUSIN, s. a distant relation, the child of an uncle or 

aunt ; F. cousin ; It. cugino, from L. consanguineus. 
COUTH, a. known, intimate, familiar; S. couth from 

Cow, s. 1. the female of a bull ; P. gam ; Sans, gau ; 

G. ku; Swed. koo ; B. koe ; T. kuhe ; S. CM. 
2. A kind of beetle, a may fly, a lady cow. See 

Cow, . a. to depress with fear, intimidate ; G. kuga ; 

D. kue; Swed. kuf ma, to depress, subdue, seem to 

have been confounded with G. kuga from vgga ; S. 

oga, fear, terror. See BUG and QUAID. 
COWARD, s. from to Cow ; a dastard, a poltron ; F. cou- 

ard ; Sp. cobardo ; It. codardo. See ARD. 
COWER, v. a. to crouch down, to nestle, stoop, lurk ; 

F. couver; It. covare ; W. ctvrrian, from L. cubare. 
COWITCH, COUHAGE, s. an herb with a very stinging 

pod ; Sans, ketvanch. 

COWL, s. 1. a monk's hood; S. cul, cugle ; Swed. kufl ; 
W.cwl; L. cucullus; P. koolah, a cap, from kulla ; 

G. and Swed. kulle, the head. 

2. A vessel for water, usually carried on a pole between 
two persons; S.courvel; Arm. cauel. See KIEVE. 

COWSLIP, *. a kind of primrose, a paigle ; S. cuslippe, 
oxa slippa ; Swed. ox Idgga ; D. koe blom ; Swed. 
Idgga signifies to lie, to repose, and S. slippa is ap- 
parently from slepan, to sleep. 

COXCOMB, *. a fop, a conceited fool, a vain pretender ; 
Isl. giek ; S. coeg ; T. gauch, signify a fool, a buffoon, 
and comb or cop, a crest or helmet ; licensed fools 
were formerly obliged to wear a particular kind of 
cap or head-dress. See COP. 

COY, a. 1. wary, reserved, shy; L. cautus ; It. cheto ; 
F. cot. 

2. Modest, decent, timid ; L. quietus ; It. queto ; F. 

COZEN, v. a. to flatter, trick, defraud ; T. kosen, lieb- 
kosen, to wheedle, supposed to be cognate with F. 
gauser, from L. gaviso. 

CRAB, *. a shell fish ; K<l;aCo; ; L. carabus ; T. krabbe ; 

Swed. krabb ; S. crabba ; F. crabe ; Arm. crab. 
CRAB, a. sour, harsh, wild ; It. garbo ; Arm. crab ; L. 


CRACK, s. 1. a fissure, a flaw, the noise of something 
breaking, a blow ; T. krack, krach ; B. kraak ; F. 
crac ; 'fctycif. 

2. A story, a boast ; Scot, crack ; from the verb. 

CRACK, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to split, burst, craze, 
make a sharp noise ; JHyxa 

2. To speak, relate, story, boast; G. reka ; 8. racen, 

gerecan ; Scot, crack, 
CRADLE, s . a wicker crib, a child's bed ; S. cradel, from 

L. craticula. 

CRAFT, *. efficacy, art, cunning, skill ; G. kraft; D. 
Swed. T. kraft; S. craft; B. kracht ; W. creft. The 
original meaning seems to have been power ; but, 
like art and cunning, used in a bad sense. 

C R A 

C R I 

CRAFT, *. sea vessels ; either from the noun as signify- 
ing naval means, or G. karfi, shipping. 

CRAG, *. 1. a rock, a declivity, a precipice; G. hraug, 
hraun; T. krag ; W. carreg, craig ; S. ereag, a rock ; 
P. ragh, a declivity. The word is apparently from 
crack, to split, as cliff from the verb to cleave. See 

2. The neck ; G. Icuer k ; Swed. kuark, krage ; S. crage, 
krage; Scot craig ; I. kraeghe. See CRAW. 

CRAM, v. a. to press into, to stuff; G. krama ; S. cram- 
man ; D. krame ; Swed. krama. 

CRAMBO, *. a play with scholars, where one gives a word 
to which another finds a rhyme ; from cramp, diffi- 

CRAMP, *. 1. a contraction of the muscles, a spasm ; G. 
kram, kropu ; D. krampe ; Swed. kramp ; T. kramp ; 
F. crampe ; It. granfo. 

2. A piece of crooked iron, to hold things together, a 
crook ; Swed. krampe ; F. crampon, from G. kram, 
krum ; T. krum, crooked. 

CHAMP, a. difficult, crooked, knotty. See CRAMP, a 
crook, a catch. 

CRANBERRY, *. a hindberry ; S. hran, a hind. See 

CRANE, *. 1. a bird with a long beak ; ri{*>; ; L. gmt ; 
F.grue; lt.grua; T. kranech ; S. cran ; B. kraan ; 
Swed. kran ; W. gar an, 

2. An instrument resembling the neck and beak of the 
bird, with hooks and pulleys for weighing. 

3. A crooked pipe for drawing liquors out of a cask, 
called a crane's neck ; B. kraan ; K;'r is a fountain. 

CRANK, s. a circle, a hook, a turn, a winding passage, 
a crotchet, a whim, a lively conceit ; G. and Swed. 
kring ; T. krang ; 'B.krink; 8. hrinc ; from RING. It 
is translated into L. ambage, and signifies subtilty, 
and sinuosity. 

CRANK, CRANKY, a. 1. gay, lively, nimble, brisk ; from 
the noun in the sense of L. versutus. 

2. Sick, unhealthy, crazy, unsteady; G. Swed. T. B. 

CRANKLE, v. a. to run in and out, to form windings or 

sinuosities ; Swed. krengla ; T. krengkn ; B. kron- 

kelen, krinkelen ; from CRANK. 
CRANNY, *. a chink, sinuosity, corner ; from CRANK, a 

turn, corresponding with L. crena. 
CRAPE, s. thin stuff used in mourning; from L. crispus; 

It. crespo ; F. crepu. 
GRAPNEL, *. a drag, a hook to draw up with ; T. krapp, 

a hook. See GRAPNEL. 
CRASH, v. a. to break with great violence, to make a 

noise like breaking ; Isl. krasa ; B. krassen ; Swed. 

krasu ; 3M- G. kriustan ; K.{i'. See CRUSH. 
CRATCH, s. a frame to hold hay or straw ; F. creche; L. 

CRAVAT, x. a neckcloth; G. kravad ; Swed. krage wadd ; 

F. cravate ; It cravata. See CHAW, CHAO and WAD. 

CRAVE, v. to ask earnestly, beg, desire; G. krefa ; S- 
crefian ; D. krceve ; Swed. krdfwa ; W. crcfit. 

CRAVEN, s. a person vanquished in fight, a coward ; 
supposed to have been from crave, to beg mercy ; 
but F. creant, anciently craant , cravant ; It. credent? ; 
was an acknowledgment of homage to a superior, 
and signified submission ; from L. credo, to put into 
one's hands. 

CRAW, s. the throat, the crop of a bird ; G. kram ; 

Swed. krdftve; B. kroppa ; D. kroe. See CRAG and 

CRAW-FISH, CRAY-FISH, *. the river lobster; F. ecrevitte; 

for crab-fish. 
CRAWL, ti. a. to creep, to move slowly ; G. krafla ; T. 

kraelen ; B. kriemelen ; D. kranle ; Swed. krd'la. See 

to CREKP. 
CRAYON, s. a lead pencil, a pastil, or painting in chalk ; 

F. crayon, from crate ; L. creta, chalk. 

CRAZE, v. a. to break, crack, impair the intellects ; T. 
krachen, krachsen, seems to have been confounded 
with crash, in forming our word ; crack-brained and 
crazy-headed having the same signification. 

CRKAK, v. a. to make a harsh protracted noise as a door 
on its hinges ; T. krachen ; S, cearcian ; K$U*. See 

CREAM, *. the oily part of milk, the best part ; xyrft* ; 

G. krism ; It. cresima ; F. creme, corrupted into G. 
riom ; S. ream; T. rahm; I. raimhe ; Scot. ream. 

CREANCE, <s. belief, credit; F. creance ; L. B. credentia, 

from L. credo. 
CREASE, v. a. to mark by folding or pressing; G. 

kreista ; Swed. krysta ; Arm. crisa, to compress, to 

leave marks of compression. See CRUSH. 
CREATURE, s. what is created, a word of contempt and 

tenderness; F. creature; L. creatura. 
CREEK, *. a nook, a hook, a small inlet from the sea, a 

turn; anciently crook, from S. crecca; B. kreek. 
CREEP, v. a. to move softly and crouchingly, to move 

on hands and feet ; G. kriupa ; Swed. krypa ; S. 

krypan ; B. kruipan ; T.krupen; D.krybbe; Arm. 

cropa ; W. croppian ; "Efrti ; L. repo. See CRAWL 

CRESS, s. a warm salad herb ; Swed. krasse ; B. kerten ; 

S. cers e ; T. kresse ; F. cresson. 

CREVICE, s. a crack or fissure; F. crevice, {romli.crepo. 
CREW, *. a gang, a ship's company, a set of men ; G. 

srua; P. guruh, kuruh ; S. cread ; Arm. and Vf.gre ; 

It cricca ; L. grey. See CROWD. 
CHEWEL, *. a kind of worsted ; F. erne, ecrue, from L. 

CRIB, s. a manger, stall, rack, a small couch, a cottage ; 

S. crybbe ; Swed. krubba ; B. krcbbe ; T. krippe. 
CRIB, v. a. to finger, snatch, purloin, steal; T. krippen; 

F. gripper. See GRIPE and GRAB. 
CRICK, .v. 1. the noise of a door on its hinges ; dim. of 


2. A painful stiffness in the neck ; G. krike, a contrac- 
tion; dim. of CROOK. 
CRICKET, s. 1. a game formerly played with a crooked 

bat ; dim. of CROOK. 
2. An insect that chirps about fire places ; P. churghid ; 

B. krekel; W. cricciad. See CHURRWOBX. 

CHIMP, v. a. to take unfairly, snatch, kidnap. See CRIB. 
CHIMP, a. brittle, friable ; from S. cruman. See CRUMB 

CRIMSON, s. a deep red colour ; P. kermesy, kurmesy ; F. 

cramoifie ; It cremesino. See KERMES. 
CHINCUM, *. a crotchet, a whim, a conceit; dim. of 

CRINGE, f . a. to bend, crouch, bow, fawn ; G. kringa, 

from ring, to curve. 
CRINCKLE, v. a. to form into sinuosities or wrinkles; B. 

krinkelen. See CRANKLE. 

C R 

CRIPPLE, s. one who cannot walk upright, a lame per- 

son; G. krypil; T. kriupel; S. crypel; from CREEP. 
CROAK, v. a. to cry like a crow or frog ; Swed. kraka, a 

crow ; S. cracettan, to crow-chat, corresponding with 

L. crocilo ; *{i/yi>, the noise of a frog. 
CROCK, s. an earthen pot; Isl. kro; T. kruge ; Swed. 

krog, kruka ; S. croccaj; B. rtc ; F. cruche ; W. cro- 

chan. See CRUISE. 

CROCODILE, s. a voracious amphibious animal ; Kjoxo- 
; L. crocodilus ; F. crocodile ; It. crocodrillo. The 

name was originally given by the lonians to a large 
yellow lizard, either from feeding on saffron, or from 
its saffron colour. See ALLIGATOR. 
CROFT, s. an inclosure round a house ; Swed. krqft ; S. 
croft, cruft ; L. B. crofta : apparently from G. graup, 
a ditch, corresponding with Kjturl*. 
CROISADE, *. an army devoted to the holy cross. See 

CROISE, *. a pilgrim, a Christian soldier devoted to the 

cross ; F. croise, from L. crux. 
CRONE, s. 1. a toothless old ewe; Scot, crokkan : B. 

krukken is to languish, to be helpless. 
2. An old and intimate acquaintance, a confidant ; from 

T. kronen, to whisper, to tell secrets ; G. and Swed. 

runa ; T. raunen ; S. runian, gerunian. See to ROUND. 
CRONET, s. the short hair projecting over the hoof of a 

horse ; F. couronne ; L. corona ; B. kroon ; T. krone. 
CRONEY, s. a confidential friend, an intimate. See 

CROOK, *. a hooked stick, any thing curved ; G. and 

Swed. krok ; B. kruk ; T. kmcke ; S. cruce ; W. 

crtvcca ; F. croc. 
CHOP, s. 1. the throat, the craw of a bird; Swed. kropp; 

S. cropa ; B. krop ; T. kreppe. See CRAW. 
2. The top of a tree, an ear of grain, a cluster of grapes, 

what is gathered or reaped, shorn or cut ; S. crop, 

gerop, from ripan, gerypan, to reap, corresponding 

with!ria ; L. carpo. See to REAP. 
CROSS, 1. s. one straight body laid at right angles over 

another, the gibbet on which Christ suffered death, 

adversity, misfortune; G. kross ; Swed. kors ; S. 

cors ; T. kreuz ; F. croix ; It. croce ; W.croes, from 

L. crux. 
2. a. Athwart, adverse, difficult, untoward, peevish ; 

from the noun. 
CROSS, v. a. from the noun ; to pass or lay over, to place 

athwart, to thwart, impede, vex. 
CROTCH, *. a hook, the fork of a tree ; F. croche. See 

CROTCHET, *. a small crotch, a mark used in music 

and printing, a clinch, an odd fancy, a whimsical 

conceit ; F. crochet ; D. kroget. 
CROTELS, s. the dung of a hare ; F. crote. 
CROUCH, v. a. to stoop low, to bend, cringe; Isl. kreika; 

T. krcechen ; from crook. 
CROUP, *. the buttock of a horse; F. crouppe; It. 

groppa ; G. kropp; Swed. krump ; S. crump; 1. 

kropf, krump, the curve of the hip. See RUMP. 
CROW, s. a ravenous bird ; Swed. kraka ; D. krage ; B. 

kraai ; S. crane ; P. kro ; Kogag ; L. conns ; Hind. 

CROW, t). a. to make the noise of a cock, to boast ; M. G. 

hrukjan; T. krdhen; B. kraijen; S. cranian. 
CROWBAR, s. a claw bar, an iron lever with a cloven 

end ; Isl. krao ; D. kroe, a crook. 


CROWBERRY, s. a bilberry; Swed. krakbezr; D. kra- 

CROWD, s. 1. a multitude, a throng; P. gorooh ; G. 
grua ; Swed. krota ; S. cruth ; W. rhaud. 

2. A corded instrument, a fiddle ; W. crwth ; I. emit ; 
L. chorda. 

CROWN, s. the top of the head, a diadem, money stamp- 
ed with a crown ; Heb. keren ; Km ; L. corona ; 
F. couronne. 

CROWN-SCAB, s. a sore about the hoof of a horse. See 

CRUCIBLE, s. a chymist's melting-pot ; L. B. crucibu- 
lum ; It. crosola ; perhaps from cruise and G. afla, a 
furnace. It is said, however, that these pots were so 
named from being marked with a cross, to prevent 
the devil from marring the chemical operation. See 

CRUD, s. coagulated milk. See CURD. 

CRUEL, a. fierce, savage, hard-hearted; F. cruel; It. 

crudele; L. crudelis. 
CRUET, *. a phial for vinegar or wine; perhaps gruet. 

CRUISE, *. 1. a cup ; K ? (nrj ; T. knis ; B. kroes ; Swed. 

krus ; F. cruche. See CHOCK. 
2. From the verb ; a roving voyage. 
CRUISE, v. a. to cross, to pass backward and forward, 

to sail in quest of an enemy ; F. croiser. See to CROSS. 
CHUM, CRUMB, *. a small piece, the soft part of a loaf; 

G. krome; Swed. kram; S. cruma ; T. krume ; B. 


CRUMBLE, v. a. from CKUM ; to break into small pieces, 

to moulder; Swed. kramla. 
CRUMP, a. crooked, hump-backed, bent; G. and Swed. 

krum; S. crump; T. krumm ; B. kram; W. crtvmm ; 

L. curvus. 
CRUMPLE, v. a. to ruffle, corrugate ; either from crump, 

or S. gerumple. See RUMPLE. 

CRUNKLE, v. a. to cry like a crane ; T. kranechen. See 

CRUPPER, s. a leather to hold the saddle to the croup of 

a horse ; F. croupier ; It. groppiera. 
CRUSADE, s. a holy war. See CROISADE. 
CRUSET, s. a goldsmith's melting-pot. See CRUCIBLE. 
CRUSH, w. a. to bruise, squeeze, press down, subdue ; 

Isl. hreisa; G. krista ; S. hrysan; Swed. kross a ; 

Arm. eras ; F. ecraser. See CRASH. 
CRUST, *. the hard part of a loaf, an outer covering of 

that nature ; L. crusta ; It. crosta ; F. croute. 
CRUSTY, a. 1. from the noun ; covered with a crust. 
2. From CROSS ; surly, snappish. See CURST. 
CRUTCH, s. a support used by cripples, a crook ; G. 

krok ; Swed. kruka, kryek ..- S. cricc ; T. krucke ; B. 

kruk ; It. croccia. 
CRY, *. a voice, a call, a shout, a proclamation ; K(ttvy>i ; 

Y.crie; Arm. crei ; Vf.cri; It. crida, grida ; Sp. 

and Port, grita, all of which, like G. greita ; Scot. 

greet, signify also to wail, to weep. See GREET. 
CRYAL, CRYER, *. a heron ,- F. gruyeUe, from grne, a 

crane ; Arm. crechel ; W. cregyr. See CRANE. 
CRYER, s. the heron falcon, or falcon gentle ; F. gruyer. 


CUB, s. the young of a beast ; F. cheau, from L. catettus. 
CUBE, *. a regular solid body with six square and equal 

sides, a die ; KvC; ; L. cubus ; It. cubo ; F. cube ; A. 


C U L 


CUBKB, *. a kind of pepper; A. kubabu. 

CUBIT, s. a measure, which was originally the length 

from the point of the middle finger to the elbow ; L. 

cubitum. See ELBOW. 

CUCKING-STOOL, * a machine used for punishing scold- 
ing women, a tumbril, called a ducking-stool ; M. G. 

iihaujan, to suffocate; Isl. kafna, to dive; G. kua-f, 

kueg, immersion, suffocation; Swed. kuf, kug. See 

CUCKOLD, *. the husband of a woman whose children 

by another man he rears as his own ; F. cocu ; Sp. 

cuclillo, a person mocked by the taunting note of the 

cuckoo, which lays its eggs in the nest of another bird 

to be hatched and reared. 
CUCKOO, s. a bird of passage, which in most languages 

has been named from its note ; Ko'xxvj; ; L. cvculus ; 

F. cocu, coitcou ; It. cocco ; D. kog ; T. kokok ; Scot. 

nowk. A vulgar tradition prevailed that a white frothy 

Tiquid containing a small insect, which is found on 

some plants at the season when that bird appears, 

was its spittle ; whence cuckoo sorrel, cuckoo bread, 

cuckoo flower. 
CUD, *. food brought from the stomach to the mouth 

and rechewed by ruminating animals ; T. koder, from 

katten, to chew. See QUID. 
CUDDEN, CUDDY, s. a dolt, a clown, a low cottager. See 


CUDDLE, v. to lie low or close, to hug ; It. covado signi- 
fies nestled, couched, concealed, from L. eubito ,- but 

our word is confounded with F. chaudiler, from L. 

callidut, to warm. 
CUDDY, *. the antechamber in a ship ; P. kudu, an 

apartment, a lodge; Swed. kajula ; D. kahytte ; T. 

kajute; B. kajuyte ; F. cahuete. 
CUDGEL, * a club, a truncheon ; B. kudsel for knitdsel ; 

T. knuttel, from G. knut. 
CUDLE-FISJI, s. the ink-fish, the sepia ; S. cudele. Sae 

CUDWEED, *. the cotton weed ; gnaphalium. See 

CUE, *. 1. a tail, a mace of that shape, the last word in a 

page as an indication to the' next, a hint ; F. queue, 

from L. cauda. 
2. Mind, disposition, humour ; G. hug ; S. hige ; D. 

hu, the mind, gehu. 
CUFF, *. 1. the end of a sleeve ; A. and P. kuff, the 

hand ; G. and Swed. knu/ ; T. ku/, gauf, the fist. 
2. A blow with the hand ; Swed. kuf; P. kob ; Scot. 

goaf: from Isl. knfftva ; T. kuffen ; P. kuf tan, to beat 

with the hand. 
CUIRASS, *. a breast-plate of steel, formerly of leather ; 

F. cnirasse ; It corazxo, from L. corium ; but some 

suppose from L. cor, as a covering for the heart. 
CUISH, s. armour for the thigh; F. cuisse ; It, coacia ; 

L. coxa, the thigh. 
CUJLUKES, i. formerly' a kind of monks in Scotland and 

Ireland; supppsetl to be from I*- colere iln/m : I. 

c.allc, howevor> is a servant, and Dei, of God. Caile 

y ban, a servant of all work, a drudge. 
CULEBAGE, ,v. the herb called arseemart ; I*, culuf ; K. 

cut and rage. 
CULL, v. a. to select, choose, pick out ; F. cucilU-r ; It- 

cogliere ; L. co eligere. 
CULLENDER, COLANDER, *. a draining vessel ; F. cqn- 

loir ; Sp. cdadero, from L. colum. 

CULLION, s. a testicle, a mean fellow ; It. wglivnc; F. 
cottillon. from L. cola. 

CULLY, *. a man befooled by a woman ; either from 

cull, to pick up, or gull. 
CULPRIT, t. a criminal ; but, according to the spirit of 

English law, a person arraigned for a crime; L. culpa: 


CULVER, *. a wood.pigeon ; S. ctilfre, from L. columba. 
CULVERIN, s. a species of ordnance ; F. colouvrine ; It. 

colubrino ; L. coluber. 
CULVERTAIL, s. a kind of joinery; from cvttei , a 

C't-i.\ EH-KKV, s. the flower columbine. See CULTER 

and KEY. 
CUMBER, *. 1. care, anxiety, trouble ; T. /comber ; Swed. 

kyrnber ; D. kummer, from G. gauntbera. 
2. Obstruction, inconvenience, burthen ; F. combre, en- 

combre ; L. B. cumeratio ; L. cumeratvu. See IN- 


CUMMIN, s. a plant resembling fennel ; A. kamoam ; 
lHv/ttm ; L. i-Hiniiutni ; F. cumin. 

CUN, v. a. to direct the person at the helm how to steer. 
See CON and COND. 

CUNNING, s. science, skill, artifice, craft ; from S. can- 
non. See to KNOW. 

CUP, *. a drinking vessel, the calix of a flower; A. 
quub ; P. cub ; Heb. cap, caba ; Chald. cnba ; Syr. 
kophu ; KtC ; Sans, knpee ; Hind, kup ; L. cuppa ; 
G. topp ; Swed. kopn ; B. kop ; T. kopf ; Sclav. 
kuppa ; Russ. kub; Hun. Itup ; It. coppa ; Sp.copa; 
Port, copo ; F. coupe ; Arm. cup ; W. crvpan ; I. cu- 
pan ; all corresponding to and apparently cognate 
with Heb. caph ; L. cavus, 

CUPOLA, s. an arched roof, a dome ; It. cvpeefa : A. 
i/nii/ia, like It. cuppeo, signifies a beehive, to which 
this kind of dome has re semblance. 

CUR, *. a vulgar dog ; L. B. citrlis, cuslos curth, a cattle 
dog ; but our name is apparently an abbreviation of 
curtail. Such dogs as did not belong to the lord of 
the manor were mutilated ; and G. hawghali, from 
hogwa, gehogivtt ; Scot, cow, to cut, and hall, a tail, 
may have produced Scot, coley, a peasant's dog ; W 
i-i/'/ti, signifies cropped. ear. See BOBTAIL. 

CURB, *. part of a bridle, a restraint ; F. gourme. See 

to CURB. 
CURB, t>. a. to restrain, to check ; L. curvo ; F. comber. 

to bend, subdue. 
CUHD, s. coagulation of milk; F. caillard, from cailler ; 

L. coagiilare. 
r ^ ' \\ 
CURL, *. a ringlet of hair, undulation of water ; forrser- 

ly crul; T.krolle; B. krul ; D. krcel ; Swed. krol, 
from Isl. kra, a crook, a turn ; but It. ciurlo, zur- 
lo, from rvfta ; L. circulo, signified a circle and ;t 

CUBLEW, i. a kind of water fowl ; F. coriu-u, cvrlis, 
perhaps from L. ciirro and littus ; but supposed by 
Buffon to be so named from its cry. 

CURSIUDGKON, *. a miser, a churl ; S. car mwlig, from 
rare; T. kars, chary, avaricious; and G. mod; S. 
mod, the mind. See CABK and MOOD. 

CURRANT, *. the n.-ime of a berry and a shrub ; crand, 
t -ranberry, and hindberry, seem to have included this 
fruit ; which was afterwards confounded with the 
small raisins brought from Corinth. 

CURIUER, s. a dresser of leather; L. (.vriarivt ; F. 

coitrroyenr. , ,,, > , , 

c u s 

C Z A 

CURRY, v. a. 1. to dress tanned leather. See CURRIER. 

2. To rub, scrape ; F. couroyer, from L. corrado. 

3. To seek, to be solicitous after, to flatter ; Sp. querer; 
F. querir ; L. quaero. 

CURRY POWDER, s. a mixture of turmeric used in cook- 
ery ; from Hind, qoormu, to stew. 

CURSE, v. a. to imprecate evil in the name of the cross, 
to afflict ; Swed. korsa ; S. cursian ; T. korsen ; It. 
crociare. See to CROSS. 

CURSE, s. from the verb ; a malediction, a cross, a vexa- 
tion ; Swed. and D. /cars ; It. croce. 
CURST, part, of the verb to curse ; deserving evil, wick- 
ed, hateful. 

CURST, a. peevish, malignant, cross. See CRUSTY. 
CURT, a. short, diminutive ; L. curtus ; F. court ; It. 
corto; W. cor; P. kor, kord ; Swed. kort ; D.kurt; 
B. kort ; T. kurtz ; S. sceort. See SHORT. 
CURTAIL, s. a dog mutilated according to the forest 

laws; from curt and tail. See BOBTAIL. 
CURTAIL, v. a. to cut off, to shorten, diminish ; from 

curt and F. tailler, to cut. See TALLY. 
CURTAIN, s. a screen, a protection, a covering, a part of 
a fortification, of a bed or window ; F. courtine, cou- 
vertine ; It. copertino ; L. B. cortina. See to COVER. 
CUSHION, .v. a pad to sit on, a pillow for a seat ; It. 
coscino ; F. coussin, from L. coxa ; It. coscia ; F. 
cuissc, the thigh, the hip : But G. kodde ; Swed. cud- 
da ; Scot, cod ; T. kutzen, kussen ; F. coussin, a bag, 
a pillow, have apparently a common origin. 
CUSTARD, *. a sweet food made of milk and eggs ; W. 
raivstard ; It. cuscila, cacita, from L. cascus. See 

CUSTOM, s. usage, fashion, habit, usual duty on goods 

exported or imported ; F. costume ; It. costume, from 

L. cosuetum, consuetum. 
CUSTHEL, *. a shield-bearer to a man-at-arms ; F. ecous- 

tillier, coustillier; Scot. custrorvn,from'L.B.scutellarius. 
CUT, v. a. to divide, separate, carve, hew ; Swed. kolta, 

quatte ; Kdsrla ; F. couper ; Sans, kutan ; F. couteau, 

a knife. 
CUT, s. from the verb ; a piece cut off, a wound, a slice, 

a particle, a portion, a lot; and also a shape or form, 

in the sense of F. I tulle, from tailler, to cut. 
CUT, a. slightly intoxicated, affected by wine or love ; 

It. cotto, from L. coqm>. 
CUTH, a. known, familiar, related ; S. cuth, cyth ; M. 

G. kunths, cognate with known ; whence Scot, kith 

and kin, intimates and relatives. 
CUTLASS, *. a short broad sword ; L. cultettus, dim. of 

culler, produced It. cultellaccio, a large knife, a 

CUTLER, *. one who makes knives, swords, and other 

steel instruments ; F. coutelier ; It. coltelaris, from L. 

CUTLET, *. a rib of veal or mutton, a chop ; It. costala; 

F. costelete, c6telete, from L. costa, a rib. 
CUTTLE FISH, s. the coal or ink fish, which ejects a 

black fluid when pursued ; T. kutlel ; S. cudele. 

CYPRUS, CYPRES, s. a thin stuff, a kind of gauze ; either 
from being made at Cyprus, or from L. critpus. See 

CZAR, .v. title of the Emperor of Russia ; Sclav, czar, tzar, 
from P. lujur, a crown; taijzar, a monarch. See 



DTHE fourth letter of the alphabet, unknown to the 
) Goths for many ages, was latterly used instead of 
their T, Th, and Z. In words derived from the Latin, 
when D is followed by the vowel I, they conjointly 
assume the power of G or I ; as Journal for Diurnal, 
Gizzard for Digeria. In English its sound never 
varies, nor is it ever mute. 

DAB, s. 1. wet, moisture, mud; G. Isl. D. aa ; Swed. ao; 
T. an, ach, ag ; S. cage; Heb. aha ; M. G. aqha ; L. 
aqua; P. ab ; A. tab; Chald. dub; W.dtvfr; Arm. 
douv, signified water ; and are supposed to be cognate 
with Aiv*>, AirVI* ; G. dogma, doggtva, duka, dceftva, 
d6pa ; S. dapan, dippan, to wet, to immerse in water. 
G. dah, day ; Swed. dy, deef; Scot, dub, signify mois- 
ture, a pool, a morass, mire, mud. See DAG, DAUB, 

2. A plunge in water or mire ; S. dap. 

3. A small lump, a concrete of dough or mortar. 

4. A blow with something smooth, moist, or soft ; B. 

5. A splash of mud or lime. 

6. A small flat fish resembling a plaice, but destitute of 
red spots, which buries itself in the sand. 

7- In low language, an artist, one who has dipped into 

science, or dexterity. 
DABBLE, e. a. frequentative of DAB ; to play in water, to 

spatter, daub, smear. 
DABCHICK, s. a water hen ; S. dapfugel; D. dykker hten. 

See DUCK. 

DACE, . a small river fish ; B. dags, daas ; the Goths 
used sol and sun for white or bright ; and S. dagian, 
from day, to shine, corresponded with L. luciscit, 
from which this fish is called luciscus. See DAZE 
and DAR. 

DAD, DADDA, DADDY. *. father ; P. ata; Hind, ata ;"Arl ; 
G.atta; Heb. dod ; Turk.Jerfe; Sans, tata; Sp.tayla; 
D. dnda ; B. taat ; Arm. dat ; W. tad ; I. daid. 'The 
word is said to have been found in use among the South 
Americans and the Africans of Angola : abba, papa. 


pater, father, atta, tat a, may be the same word vary- 
ing in pronunciation by the Celtic interrautations of 

T and P. 
DADE, v. a. to move to and fro, to dandle ; Isl. dnda ; B. 

doudeti, from G. dya. 
DADO, s. a cubical base to a column ; It. dado, in which 

sense A. dad is used also. See DIE. 
DAFFODIL, s. the yellow narcissus ; B. affodille, a name 

given through ignorance to this flower, confounding 

it with 'AnpJiA. 
DAG, s. 1. a small sword, a dirk ; P. tegha ; T. degen ; 

B. dagge ; Sp. and It. daga ; F. dague ; Arm. dag. 

See TAG and DAGGER. 
2. A provincial word for wet ; G. dogma ; Swed. dagg, 

dugg ; S. dag. See DAB and DEW. 
DAG, v. a. from the noun ; to bedew, to wet, to spatter ; 

S. daag, a sprinkle. 
DAGGER, s. a short sword, a poniard ; Heb. dakar ; D. 

daggert ; Arm. and W. dager. See DAG. 
DAGGLE, v. a. frequentative of DAG ; to wet, to spatter : 

confounded with draggle. 
DAINTY, a. delicate as to food, nice; F. dain, good 

cheer, from L. dapinus, dapinatus. 
DAIRY, DEYERY, *. a dey house, a milk house ; from 

G. dy; Sans, duh ; A. dhyudh ; Heb. dad; M. G. 

daad; Hind, dood, milk: G. deggia ; D. dagge; 

Swed. ddggia, dia ; Pol. dote; (**, It*, to afford 

milk. P. daie ; Swed. deya ; O. E. dey ; Scot, dee, 

a milk woman. See Duo, TEAT, DUCK, DAUGHTER, 

DAISY, *. a small spring flower ; S. dceges ege, day's eye ; 

but perhaps originally dahs ege, doe's eye, as ox eye 

and pheasant's eye still denote flowers of that kind. 
DALILAH, *. a woman's name; A. dalil, a whore, a 

DALE, s. a valley between two hills; G. dale; Swed. S. 

B. dal; T. thai; W. dot; I. dal ; Swed and B. dalen, 

to descend. See DELL and to VAIL. 
DALLIANCE, *. acts of fondness, delay for pleasure. See 



DALLOP, *. a deal heap, a division or small heap, refuse 
of straw, corn or grass, raked together into parcels 
called Dalleps. 

DALLY, v. 1. to delay, put off, tarry; G. dualia; Swed. 

dnala. See DWELL. 
2. To indulge in idleness, to trifle ; G. dadla, used in 

this sense, is perhaps connected with duala ; S. 

dnollan, to dote, talk sillily. See DWAULE. 
DAM, s. 1. a mother, generally used of beasts ; Chald. 

ama ; Heb. am ; A. amm ; Sans, iimma ; T. ama ; 

Swed. amma, a mother ; to which P. dae ; Sans, dak, 

a nurse, may have been prefixed. See DAIRY. 

2. An embanked pond, a pool ; T. dam ; S. domm ; B. 
datum ; Swed. dam, anciently dampn. See DAB, and 

3. A crowned man at the game of draughts ; F. dame ; 
It. dama ; T. and B. dam, supposed to be from do- 
minus ; but if so, the F. and It. would not have the 
feminine termination. Dam or dauma is used by the 
Arabs, from Heb. dama, to overcome, to triumph, to 

DAMAGE, s. injury, mischief, hurt ; F. dmnage, from L. 

DAMASCENE, DAMSON, s. a small plum from Damascus. 
DAME, *. a lady, the mistress of a family, a woman in 

general ; F. dame, from L. doinina. 
DAMP, a. moist, foggy, wet; T. dampf; B. and D. 

damp. See DAB. 
DAMSEL, s. 1. a young lady; L. dominacella ; F. damoi- 

selle, demoiselle ; It. donzella. 
2. A country lass, a house maid ; L. B. domicella. 

DANCE, *. a motion of one or more regulated by music ; 
G. Swed. B. dans ; D. dands ; T. tans ; It. danza ; 
F. danse; Arm. W. I. dans; G. sla dans, to strike up 
the dance ; Chald. and A. tanz is said to signify sport, 
mirth ; but Isl. dansar is an indecent satirical panto- 
mime or song, supposed to be from G. and Swed. 
danla, to mock, to ridicule, to reproach. See TAUNT. 

DANDIPRAT, s. a silly little fellow, an urchin, a doodle ; 
Sp. and Port, tonto ; It. dondolone ; F. dandin. See 

DANDLE, v. a. to fondle a child by moving it to and 
fro, to dance it on the knee ; T. tandelen ; F. dandi- 
ner ; B. doudellen, frequentative of douden, to dade ; 
but It. dondolo is supposed to be from L. undulo. 

DANDRIFF, s. scurf on the head ; S. tan ; It. tigna ; F. 
telgne ; L. tinea, prefixed to driff. 

DANDY, *. a beau, an elegant accomplished man, a pink 
of fashion ; G. dugandi ; Swed. dogande, dande ; 
Scot, dandle, from G. duga ; T. taugen, to avail, to 

DANEWORT, s. the dwarf elder, used to keep away in- 
sects ; either from dan ; S. tan, an insect ; or G. and 
Swed. dana, to stupify. 

DANGER, *. peril, hazard, risk ; F. danger, from L. 
damnum agere. 

DANGLE, v. a. to hang loose, to hang on, to follow ; 

Swed. dlngla; D. hlngle ; T. hinglen. See HANG 

and BANGLE. 
DANK, a. damp, moist; Swed. dugg, dunk; T. tunck. 

See DAG. 

DAP, ti. a. to dive or dip under water ; S. dap, a plunge. 

See DAB. 
DAPPER, a. brave, trim, proper ; G dugber, dagber, 


tapur ; T. tapper ; S. deafer ; B. dapper. See DEFT, 

DAPPLE, a. variegated with large coloured spots; F. 

pomele, appled. 
DAR, DARE, s. a fish ; Swed. dagar, dar ; It. dardo ; F. 

dard. See DACE. 

DARE, v. to defy, to have courage, to brave, to look de- 
fiance, to stare ; G. diara, thora ; txffii, ; S. dearran ; 

Swed. dlarfa; B. durven, darren , T. darren, theureu ; 

L. audere. 
DARK, a. without light, obscure, blind; A. dajur ; 

Heb. deio ; Arm. duaug ; W. du ; I. dubh, dorch ; G. 

dauck; T. duh; P. tareck ; S. deork ; B. danker. 
DARLING, s. a dearling, a favourite, a beloved ; S. 

DARN, v. a. to mend holes or rents in clothes ; B. dwar 

naljen ; T. twernahen, corresponding with L. traneu, 

to cross sew; but darne in F. Arm. and W. signifies 

a piece or patch. 
DARNEL, s. a weed hurtful to corn; S. derian,to injure. 

See DERE. 
DAHRAIGN, v. a. to array or range troops for battle. 

DART, s. a missive weapon, a short lance; A. tar, 

Ao'jw ; Swed. dart ; Arm. F. T. dard ; It. dardo ; W. 


DASH, v. a. 1. to strike against, break by collision, to 
shock ; G. and Swed. daska ; D. dleske ; T. dosen ; 
Scot, dusch, from G. dya. 

2. To lose courage, to be abashed ; G. dasa ; B. deesen, 
bedeesen ; Aits, fear. See DAZE. 

3. To throw out, execute rapidly, to flourish ; It. da 
schizzare. See SKETCH. 

DASTARD, s . a faint-heart, a poltron. See DAZE, DASH, 
and AHD. 

DATE, *. 1. a point of time stated, duration ; L. dalus ; 
It. data ; F. dale ; literally the period when a notifi- 
cation was made ; as, Given at London by royal au- 

2. The fruit of a palm tree ; F. date, from L. dactulus. 

DAUB, v. a. to cover with wet clay or mortar, to plas- 
ter, to smear ; B. dabben ; W. drvb ; I. diob, mortar. 
See DAB and DABBLE. 

DAUGHTER, s. a female child, a son's wife; A dokh ; P. 
doohttir ; Sans, duohitre ; Hind, dohkler ; M. G. 
dauchlar ; G. dauchter ; Swed. doter ; D.datter; S. 
dohter ; B. dochter ; T. tochter ; Qvyei-mf, all of 
which, together with Sclav, defka ; Sans, dhiya ; 
Swed. deghla, delja, a female, are cognate with our 
words dug, teat, diddy. See DUCK, DOLL, DAIRY 

DAUNT, v. a. to intimidate, discourage ; supposed to be 
from ADAW ; but G. and Swed. dana, signifies to ren- 
der faint or confused. See DAZE. 

DAUPHIN, *. the title of the heir to the French throne ; 
L. B. delphinus, from L. de alpina, the country bor- 
dering on the Alps, now called Dauphine, of which 
he is hereditary count. 

DAW, *. a bird called the chough or jackdaw ; T. dohle, 
from duh ; G. dank ; W. du, black. 

DAWK, v. a. to divide, to separate, break ; G. dalgian ; 
Scot, dalk ; A/w. See DEAL and DOCK. 

DAWN, v. to become day, to grow light, to shine ; G. 
dagan ; B. dagen ; S. dagian ; T. tagen. See DAY. 

DAWN, s . the daying or first appearance of morn ; S. 
dagung ; F, diane ; It. dlana. 


HAY, s. the time that the sun is above the horizon ; G. 
and Swed. dag; T. tag ; S. dceg ; B. dag; Sou. 
dix, from diga ; A', light; L. dies; Arm. dio ; 1. 
de; W. dian; the Dagon of Scripture was possibly 
the God of day, the sun. 

DAZE, v. a. to be bright, to shine, to overpower with 
light, to glare ; M. G. dagsian ; S. dtegian ; from DAY ; 
but G. and Swed. data ; T. daesen ; Scot, dase, sig- 
nify to stupify, to overpower with faintness ; whence 
da, das, dan, a swoon ; and Plutarch says that A'oj 
was death with the Macedonians. See DASH and 

DAZZLB, v. a. to confuse with excess of light ; frequenta- 
tive of DAZE. 

DEACON, s. a church officer ; Aia; ; L. B. diaconus. 

DEAD, a. 1. deprived of life, inanimate, dull ; from G. 
daud; T. tod; S. dead, death. See to DIE. 

2. Actual, real; G. dad; E.daad; S. deed, fact, reality ; 
from the verb to Do. See INDEED. 

DEAD LIFT, *. real aid ; from dead, real, and G. hlift, 
protection, help. 

DEAD RECKONING, s. the real or actual calculation in a 
ship. See DEAD. 

DEAF, a. wanting the sense of hearing ; G. deif; B. 
doqf ; S. deaf; Swed. dSf ; D. dcev. 

DEAL, *. 1. a division, part, portion, distribution ; G. 
dull; Swed. del; T. deil; B. deel ; S. dcel ; T. 
thai; I. deil; W. delt. See TAILLE. 

2. What is divided, wood cut or split lengthwise, par- 
ticularly of fir or pine ; B. deel. 

DEAN, *. 1. an order of priesthood; P. doyen; L. de- 

2. In the names of places signifies a narrow shrubby 
valley ; S. dame, dena ; Swed. dunge is supposed to 
be L. dumetum. See DINGLE. 

DEAR, a. costly, precious, valued, beloved; G. and 
Swed. dyr; S. dear; B. dier ; T. teur ; I. door. 

DEARN, a. 1. lonely, secret; S. dearn ; Scot, darn, from 
G. eirn; S. cern. 

2. Hurtful, injurious. See DERN. 

DEARTH, f. scarcity, dearhood; B. dierte ; dyrtid, as 
used with the Goths, was dear tide, time of dearness ; 
F. cherete, scarcity, is L. cariias. 

DEATH, s. extinction of life, destruction; G. daud; 
Swed. did; T. tod; B. dood; S. death; as if Die- 
hood. See to DIE. 

DEBAR, D. a. to exclude, deprive, hinder; F.barrer; 
It. barrare. See BAH. 

DEBATE, D. a. to contend, discuss, argue ; F. debatre ; 
It. debattire, to beat down by argument, from L. 
i'liiuu. See BATE. 

DEBAUCH, *. 1. excess, lewdness, drunkenness ; F. de- 
bauch, from L. debacchor, to sacrifice to Bacchus. 

2 Pollution, stain, defilement; O. E. debait. See 

DEBONAIR, o. elegant, well-bred, gay ; F. from L. de 
bona aria. 

DECANTER, *. a glass vessel for holding liquor ; L. B. 
cantus, a bottle, decantare ; F. decanter, to pour from 
one bottle into another. See CANTEEN. 

DECAY, v. to decline, wither, consume ; F. dechoir ; L. 

DECK, *. I. a cover, arrangement, dress ; D. and B. dele ; 
T. decke; G. and Swed. tack; L. tectum. 

2. The platform that covers the hold of a ship ; Swed. 
ddck ; F. deck. 


DECK, v. a. from the noun ; to cover, dress ; S. decait ; 
B. deken, dekken. 

DECKER-HEN, s . a dabchick, a water-hen. See DUCK and 

DECOY, s. a duck-c.ige, and also the duck which is 
taught to lead the wild ones into the cage or inclosure 
prepared to entrap them ; from duck and G. kui ; B. 
kovi ; L. cavett, a cage. 

DEED, *. an act, a feat, a fact, what is done ; G. dad ; 
Swed. dad; B. daad ; S. deed; T. that. See DEAD 
and INDEED. 

DEEM, v. a. to judge, suppose, determine ; G. doma ; 
Swed. doma ; S. demon. See DOOM. 

DEEP, a. profound, gloomy; G. and Swed. diup; D. 
dub ; B. diep ; S. deon ; T. diet, signifying originally, 
like L. altus, both high and low. See DOWN, UP, 
and STEEP. 

DEER, s. a wild animal, but now denoting one of the 
cervine class; G. dyr; Swed. ditir ; T. thier; B. dier; 
S. dear ; 0}{. 

DEFACE, v. a. to destroy, disfigure, erase; from L. 

DEFILE, v. a. 1. to taint, corrupt, violate chastity ; from 
G.fyla ; S. afilan. See FOUL. 

2. To go file by file; F. dejiler, from L.Jtlum. 

DEFLOUR, v. a. to ravish, spoil beauty; F. deflorer; 
It, dejlorare, from L. de mdjloreo. 

DEFRAY, v. a. to bear charges, to pay expense ; F. tU- 
frayer, from fraiz, expense ; L. jrago, like frango, 
signified to expend, diminish, waste. 

DEFT, a. efficient, proper, decent ; Swed. dxgt ; 9. 
dazft ; B. deft. See DOUGHTY and DAPPEB. 

DEFY, v. a. to dare, challenge, despise ; F. dfffier, from 
Q.Jiga,Jui; M. G. Jian ; S.Jigan; T.Jeigan, to pro- 
voke, to hold in enmity ; whence faida, foehood, de- 
fiance, signified, with the Lombards, a declaration of 
war. T. defier, to distrust, is from L. diffido. 

DEIGN, v. a. to think worthy, vouchsafe, grant, permit; 
F. daigner ; L. dignor. 

DEISM, t. the belief in one God; F. deif me, tram L,deus. 
See ISM. 

DEIST, . a person who professes deism ; L. deista; F. 

DEITY, *. the divinity, the godhead ; L. deitai; F. deilf, 
from L. dfii.f ; A< ; Sans, duee, deva, dew; Hind. 
deo; A. dahia ; It. deo; F. dieu ; W. dux ; Arm. dei ; 
I. di. The Sans, names seem to concur with P. dyrv, 
deru ; Heb. HI, a giant, a powerful being, a demon. 

DELAY, s. a stop, hinderance ; F. delai ; L. delatio. 

DELF, s. 1. a kind of earthen ware made at Delft in 

2. A trench. See to DELVE. 

DELIVER, v. a. to free, rescue, give up, set forth; F. 
delivrer, from L. libero. 

DELL, .v. a hollow, a vale; B. del, dcelg. See DALJtand 

DELVE, v. a. to dig, penetrate, comprehend ; B. delven ; 
T. delben ; S. ddfan. See DEAL. 

DELUGE, s. a flood, a general inundation; F. deluge; L. 

DEMAIN, DEMESNE, . from MESNE ; manorial territory, 
held in immediate possession by the proprietor; some- 
times confounded with domain. 

D KM KAN, v. a. 1. to conduct one's self, behave; F. 
mener ; It. menare, to conduct. See AMENABLB. 

D E V 

D I K 

2. From MEAN, to degrade, undervalue. 

DEMESNE, *. manorial land. See DEMAIN. 

DEMISE, s. decease, lease, legacy ; F. demis ; L. de- 

DEMON, s. an evil spirit, the devil ; L. daemon ; Aaipui, 
originally signifying a divinity. 

DEMUR, v. a. to retard, delay, hesitate ; L. demoror ; F. 

DEMURE, a. affecting gravity and correctness of man- 
ners ; F. des mantrs, from L. mores. 

DEN, *. a hollow, a vale, an inclosure, a lurking place 
for wild beasts ; T. den ; S. denn ; L. B. dena ; It. tana. 

DER, DAB, DOB, DUB, in the names of places may some- 
times signify a chase, from deer ; G. dlur ; S. dear, a 
wild beast ; but generally, when new a river, from P. 
durya ; Sans, dhar ; "r3>{ ; Swed. dura ; T. dur ; 
Arm. dour ; W. dtvr ; I. deur, water ; whence the L. 
termination durum, so common to towns in Gaul and 
Britain. The Liffy in Ireland was formerly the Dor ; 
and the present name, as well as the Leven, is cog- 
nate with G. celeip ; Swed. elf, elb, a stream of water ; 
T. laufen ; S. lippe, a torrent. 

DEBAY, DISARRAY, s. disorder, tumult ; F. deray, from 
desrainer. See DEBANGE. 

DERE, v. a. to injure, to vex ; S. derian ; B. deeren ; G- 

DERN, a. 1. from DERE; hurtful, injurious. 

2. From DEAHN ; desolate, solitary. 

DEEVISE, s. a holy beggar, a fakir ; P. dervish. 

DESCANT, *. a strain of encomium; It. discanto, decanta, 
from L. canto. 

DESCRY, v. a. to discover, spy out ; F. descrier ; L. de- 
cerno. See DISCERN. 

DESABT, *. 1. a wilderness; L. desertum ; F. desert; 
It. deserto ; Sp. desierto. 

2. Merit, a claim to recompense. See to DESERVE. 

DESERT, v. a. to forsake, run off; L. desero; It. deser- 
tare ; F. deserter. 

DESIBE, v. a. to long for, entreat, ask ; F. desirer ; I*. 

DESK, *. a table, an inclined bench to write at ; Swed. 
disk ; T. tisch ; B. disch ; It. desco, a table. It would 
seem that the eating-table of the Goths was formerly 
a large bowl or trough set on a stand. See DISH. 

DESPITE,*, ill-will, malice, defiance; It. dispetto ; F. 
despit, depit ; Sp. dispecho ; L. dispectus, from L. dis, 
and pectus, the breast or heart. 

DKSSEBT, s. removal of the dinner service, to place con- 
fectionary and fruit on the table ; F. dessert, from L. 
dis and servo. 

DETACH, v. a. to separate, send off a part ; F. detacher, 
from dis and attach. 

DETAIL, v. a. to particularize, to divide, to relate mi- 
nutely ; F. detailler ; Sp. detallar. See TAILLE, TBLL, 

DEUCE, s. the devil ; G. diis ; P. dew ; L. dusius ; Arm., seem, like demon, to have been once used in a 
good sense. 

DEVELOPS, v. a. to unfold, lay open ; It. villnpo ; F. de- 
veloper ; L. devolvo. 

DKVBST, v. a. to unrobe, to free from, deprive ; L. de- 
vestio ; F. devestir. 

DEVICE, s. an invention, contrivance, project, scheme ; 
F. device. See to DEVISE. 

DEVIL, s. a fallen angel, wickedness, mischief; P. den ; 
Syr. divo ; Turk, diofs ; Tartar, diqf ; G. diqfi ; S. 

diofnl; T.teuffel; B. dtiivel ; Ai?*< ; L. diabolus ; 
W. diafl ; I. dioul. P. and Sans, dive denoted demi- 
gods who inhabited the earth before man was created, 
and were expelled by the Gods for their crimes. The 
teule of the Mexicans was a divinity. See DEUCE. 

DEVISE, v. a. to contrive, to plan, make known, be- 
queath ; F. deviser, from G. visa, vita ; Swed. wisa ; 
T. rvissen, to know or make known. See WIT. 

DEVOID, a. empty, wanting. See VOID. 

DEVOIR, *. duty, civility ; F. devoir; It. devore, from L. 

DEW, s. a thin cold vapour ; G. doggtva ; Isl. diog ; 
Swed. dagg, dcefwa; S. dean; B. dautv ; T. tau ; 

DEWBERRY, *. a bramble fruit, a delicate sort of black- 
berry ; G. dawk ; T. duh ; A. daju ; Arm. W. I. </, 
black, and berry ; T. dubere, a mulberry. 

DEW-WORM, s. a rain-worm, a lob ; T. than norm. See 

DEWLAP, *. the skin and flesh hanging from an ox's 
throat; from JAW, F.joue, the cheek, and lap. 

DEY, *. 1. the title given to the sovereign of Algiers ; 
Turk, deh, the female side, a nurse, a maternal uncle, 
literally brother to the mother, which is the state ; 
the Grand Signior being the father. 

2. A milkmaid ; Scot. dee. See DAIRY and DAUGHTER. 

DIAL, s. a plate where a hand marks the hours of the 
day ; L. diale. 

DIAPER, s. linen cloth woven in flowers or figures ; 
L. B. diasperus ; F. diapre ; P. dlbdh ; A. dibaj, em- 
broidery, damask. 

DIBBLE, *. a dig-bill, a gardener's tool. 

DIBSTONE, s. a chuckstone, a pebble used by little girls 
at play ; from G. dya, to strike or toss, and stone. 

DICE, *. pi. more than one die. 

DICKENS, s. dim. of DEUCE, the devil ; B. dicker. 

DIDDER, v. a. to quake with cold, to shiver; T. diddern. 

DIDDY, *. a provincial word for the female breast; F. 

dulte, from M. G. daad ; Heb. dad ; Hind, dood ; T. 

dutte ; Swed. didd, suck, milk ; P. duda, a nurse. 

See TEAT and DAIRY. 
DIB, v. 1. to expire, leave life; G. deia ; Swed. do ; S. 

deadian ; D. dxe. 

2. To tinge, taint, colour ; S. deagan ; ny[n L. tingo. 
DIE, *. 1. from the verb ; a tinge, colour; S. deah. 
2. A small cube to game with, a stamp used in coining, 

chance ; O. F. del ; It. dado ; L. tessera ; Scot, dait, 

destiny, seems to be from G. dett, fall or chance ; A. 

det is a cube. See DADO. 

DIET, s. 1. an assembly of princes; P. dihol ; G. th'wl ; 
T. diet ; Arm. tud ; W. tud ; I. duth, the nation ; the 
proper word being G. thiot mot ; T. diet mot, the na- 
tional meeting. The Teutons and Dutch have their 
names from G. thiot. 

2. Regular order of eating, food ; A/<Tas ; L. diceta. 

DIG, v. a. to trench, to break or turn up the soil ; Swed. 
dilca ; B. dyken ; S. dican. See DIKE. 

DIGHT, v. a. to arrange, adorn, dress ; S. dihten, from 

G. and Swed. duga, to prepare, set in order. See 

DIKE, s. a ditch, mound, water channel ; G. Swed. 

dike ; S. die, a ditch ; Heb. dock ; Tii%>s ; F. digue, a 


D I S 

DILL, s. an herb called anise; Swed. T. and B. dill; 

S. dil ; P. ililee, a cordial, from dil, the heart. 
DIM, a. dull of sight or apprehension ; G. dimma ; Swed. 

tlhnm ; S. dim; Sclav, tma. 
DisiiTY, s. a kind of fine fustian ; B. diemet. 
DIMPLE, s. a small cavity in the cheek or chin. See 

DIN, s. a loud and violent noise; G. dyn ; Swed. d6n ; 

S. dyn. 
DINE, v. a. to take what was called the day meal ; S. 

dynan, daegnan, from day : F. diner, disner ; It. desi- 

nare, are from L. dies, and probably L. B. esino, from 

edo. T. middags essen ; G. dagurd. 
DING, v. a. to beat, knock with violence ; G. dcenga; 8. 

denegan; Swed. ddnga. 
DING DONG, s. noise and knocking, the tolling of a bell, 

a fray ; Swed. dSng, a blow. See DIN and DING. 
DINGLE, x. a hollow between hills, a dell ; dim. of DEN, 

or Swed. dunge, supposed to be L. dumetum. 
DINGY, a. dark, sullied, dirty; dim. of DUN, confound- 
ed with Swed. dyngig, colour of dung. See DRAB. 
DINT, s. a blow or mark of a blow, violence ; G. dunt ; 

S. dynt. See to DING. 
DINTLE, s. dim. of DINT ; the impression made by the 

blow of an obtuse instrument ; a small depression of 

any kind ; Scot, dinge. 
DIP, v. a. to immerse, to put slightly below the surface; 

AWT!* ; Swed. dupa ; B. doopen ; S. dippen ; T. tauf- 

fen; It. toffb; I. duban ; Hind, dolia. See DIVE. 

DIRGE, *. a funeral service, a mournful ditty ; supposed 
by some to be L. dirige, which begins the psalm sung 
at funerals ; but Isl. and Swed. dyrga, dyrka, to hold 
dear, signified also to extol, to honour, to celebrate. 

DIRK, *. a dagger ; G. dorg ; Swed. dork, dolk ; I. 

DIRT, s. filth, mud, excrement; G. drit i T. drectt ; 
Scot. drit. See DREG, DRAFF, DRAUGHT. 

Die, a negative prefix adopted from the Latin. 

DISARD, DIZZARD, *. a silly person, a fool ; S. dwtes ; 
B. (hraas. See DAZE and ARD. 

DISASTER, *. misfortune, calamity; F. desastre ; It. dis- 
astro, from L. dis, and aster, a star, which was sup- 
posed to have the protection of individuals born under 
its influence. Hence the exclamation My stars ! 

DISCARD, v. a. 1. from Dis and CARD ; to throw out of the 
pack such cards as are useless ; from F. ecarter ; Sp. 

2. To remove, dismiss, discharge ; F. equartier, to dis- 
place, seems to have become ecartier, and was con- 
founded at length with ecarter, to throw out cards. 

DISCERN, v. a. to distinguish ; L. decerno ; F. discerner. 

DISCHARGE, v. a. from Dis and CHARGE; to unload, dis- 
burden, exonerate, remove from a charge or employ- 
ment, dismiss ; F. decharger ; It. discarricare. 

DISCOMFIT, v. a. to defeat, to vanquish ; F. disconfire ; 
It. disconfigere, from L. disconficto. 

DISDAIN, v. a. to scorn, hate, despise ; F. dedaigner, 
from L. dis, dignor. 

DISEMBOGUE, v. a. to gain vent, to discharge into the 
sea ; It. disimboccare, to go out of the mouth, from 
bocca ; L. bucca, the mouth. 

DISGUISE, *. an unusual appearance, a dress to deceive ; 
F. degvise. See Dis and GUISE. 


DISGUST, s. distaste, offence, aversion ; It. disgosio ; F. 

degout, from L. dis and gust us. 
DISH, *. a vessel to serve up meat in, a mess of food ; 

A. dushd ; P. tusht ; Chald. dusk; AiVn< ; L. discus ; 

G. disk ; T. tisch ; S. disc ; W. dysgl, a broad round 

vessel or board, a table. See DESK. 
DISH, v.a.l. from the noun ; to put into a dish. 
2. To discomfit, undo ; L. disjicio, apparently a school- 
boy's word. 
DISHABILLE, *. a loose robe, an undress ; F. deshabill*'. 

undressed, from L. dis, and kahilis. 
DISHEVEL, v. a. to put the hair in disorder, to entangle ; 

from dis and F. cheveleur ; L. capillus, hair. 
DISK, s. a round flat surface, a quoit, the face of the 

sun or moon ; Airxn;. See DISH. 
DISMAY, v. a. to terrify, deject ; Sp. detmayar ; F. en- 

mayer, emayer, from L. metuere. 
DISPARAGE, v. a. to make unequal or inferior, to debase, 

to treat with contempt ; from L. dispar agere. 
DISPENSE, v. a. to distribute, deal out, expend, give 

away, exempt; L. dispense ; F. dispenser. 
DISPLAY, >. a. to spread wide, unfold, exhibit; L. dis- 

plico ; F. deployer. 
DISPORT, v. to divert, to play, to wanton ; It. disporto, 

deporto, sporto, from L. dis and porlo, which signified 

to bear, to labour. See SPORT. 
DISTAFF, s. a staff for spinning ; S. distaff. 
DISTEMPER, v. a. 1. to disorder, disturb ; from L. dit, 

and tempera. 
2. To mix colouring substance with water ; It. dis- 

temperare ; F. detrempcr. 
DISTRESS, *. a state of pressure, of difficulty, calamity ; 

F. destresse, detresse. See to DISTRAIN and STRESS. 
DITCH, *. a long trench, a moat; ls\.diki; T. deich, 

teich. See DIKE. 

DITTY, DIT, s. a musical poem, a sonnet; Swed. dicltt ; 
T. and B. dicht ; S. diht, teht, from G. tia, to show, to 
relate, corresponding with Tjgw. See DIGHT. 

DIVAN, *. the Ottoman council; A. and P. dewan, a 
tribunal ; Heb. and Turk, dovan, a judge or superin- 

DIVE, v. a. to sink or plunge under water, to go deep ; 
S. dyfan ; T. tufan. See DIP and DAB. 

DIVEST, i'. a. to unclothe, disrobe, dispossess. See 

DIZEN, v. a. to trim, ornament. See DECK and DIGHT. 

DIZZY, a. light-headed, thoughtless; S. disig; S.duisig; 
T. diisiir. See DAZE. 

Do, v. a. to act, perform, practise, finish; G. doga ; M. 

G. taujan ; T. t linen ; B. doen ; S. dim ; Amy* ; L. 

DOBBIN, s. a peasant's riding-horse ; contracted from 
the or die Hobbin ; F. hobyn. See HOBBY. 

DOCK, s. 1. a thick herb ; S. docce; B. dokke, signifying 
t fiick and the dock plant. 

2. The stump left when the tail is cut off; L. cauda, 
coda, a tail, produced F. ecouer, decouer, to cut off the 
tail. See DAWK. 

3. A place to build ships in ; G. and B. dok ; D. dokke; 
Swed. docka, a ditch or dike for the construction of 

DOCKET, s. a summary of some larger writing, a direc- 
tion put upon goods, supposed to be AXIIT; but 
apparently the dim. of DOCK, as L. cauda produced 




DODDER, *. a weed that kills corn ; G. daudr; T. todter, 

the slayer ; L. cuscuta epithymum. 
DODGK, v. a. to follow artfully, to crouch, to shift ; our 

word to Dog has been confounded with T. ducken, 

dougen, tougen, to duck, to conceal. 
DODKIN, s. a small coin ; dim. of DOIT. 
DODMAN, s. a shell-fish, a sea-snail, the hodman. See 


DOE, s. the female of a buck ; Swed. daa, daf; S. da ; 

L. dama ; F. daine. 
DOG, *. a domestic animal, a hound ; T. dagghe, dock, 

zack; B. dog; Swed. doga; D. dogge; F. dogue ; P. 

diodge : S. doc is a mongrel. See TIKE. 
DOG, v. a. to hunt like a dog, to follow slily ; our word 

to Hunt is from hound. 
DOGE, *. the chief magistrate of Venice; It. duco, dugo, 

from L. dux, which corresponds with G. tog, a leader, 

a chief; T. hertzog, head of an army, a duke, fromG. 

toga, to tow or lead. 
DOGGED, a. morose, sullen ; from DOG, as Cynic is from 


DOGGER- BOAT, a flat boat, a hooker ; B. dogger boot ; 
D. huhker. 

DOGGEREL, a. vile, mean, grovelling, snarling, cynical; 
from DOG. 

DOG-LOUSE, *. a louse found on dogs. See TICK. 

DOIT, * a small coin, half a farthing ; G. ott signified 
eight, and also a penny, which became B. duil, the 
eighth of a penny ; but in Scotland the Doit was one- 
third of a farthing, or one penny Scots, and the boddle 
both, or double doit, was twopence. 

DOLE, v. 1. to grieve, to lament, to mourn ; L. doleo. 

2. To distribute alms, to deliver out in portions ; Scot. 
doil. See to DEAL. 

DOLE, *. a boundary, a limit, an extreme object, a mark; 
Scot, dool, dule. See DEAL and TOLL. 

DOLL, s. a little girl, a puppet, a dim. applied to Do- 
rothea; D. dokkele; T. doxle ; Scot, dole, cognate 
with duck and doxy ; Q&M, from t*u, which is our 
poetical name Delia, has the same origin. See DAUGH- 
TER and DUCK. 

DOLLAR, *. a foreign silver coin, nearly the value of four 
shillings and sixpence ; B. daler ; T. thaler ; Swed. 
daler, from the town of Dale or Dakberg, where it 
was coined. 

DOLPHIN, *. a sea-fish, a constellation ; AiAp< ; L. del- 
phinus; P. dolfun. 

DOLT, *. a heavy stupid person, a dunce ; G. dolhaet ; 
T. dold, stupidity. See DULL. 

DOM, used as a termination, signifies judgment, estima- 
tion, condition, quality; as Wisdom, Kingdom, Thral- 
dom. See DOOM. 

DOMAIN, s. possession, estate, dominion ; L. dominium ; 
F. domains ; sometimes confounded with demesne. 

DOME, s. 1. a house, a dwelling ; A*^*; L. domus. 

2. A cupola, a vaulted roof; Coptic thorn, the tholum 
of Vitruvius; F. dome ; It. duomo. 

DON, s. A Spanish title for a gentleman ; contracted 
from L. duminus. 

DONE, part. pass, of the verb to Do; decided, concluded, 
agreed upon. 

DONJON, *. the highest turret in a fort, the chief place 
of strength ; L. B. donjio, domnio ; F. donjon, domi- 

DONNA, s. a lady, the feminine of DON ; L. domina. 

DOODLE, *. a trifler, a simpleton; G. dul, dadul ; T. 

dol. See DULL. 
DOOM, *. judgment, sentence, fate ; G. Swed. S. dom ; 

B. doem ; T. thum ; QifUf. 
DOOR, s. gate of a house, an entrance ; P. dur ; Sang. 

divar; Chald. tara ; Heb. terah ; &vyt ; G. daur ; 

Swed. ddr ; S. dore ; D. doer ; T. th,' t re. 
DOQUET, s. a paper containing a warrant. See DOCKET. 

DOR, in the names of places, generally signifies water- 
See DER. 

DORMER WINDOW, s. a dormitory window; from L. 

DORR, v. a. to stupify with noise, todeaver; Scot, dauer, 
from G. daufr, deaf, stupid. 

DORY, DOREE, s. a fish known classically as zeus faber ; 

F. doree, gilded or golden ; but vulgarly called jaune, 
or yellow. It is frequently called jaune doree, and 
corruptly John Dory. In some parts of Italy it is 
said to be named by the monks janltore, from L. ja- 
nitor ; supposing the two spots on its sides to be the 
marks of St Peter's fingers. The haddock also claims 
that honour ; but is not found in the Mediterranean 

DOT, s, a point, a round spot. See JOT. 

DOTE, v. n. to grow silly, to be infatuated with love ; 

G. dolta ; B. doten, dutten ; F. dotter, radotter : it has 
the same root with doze, signifying originally to dream, 
to be delirious. 

DOTTEREL, s. from DOTE; a silly bird. 

DOUBLE, a. twofold, deceitful ; F. double; L. duplex. 

DOUBLET, s. 1. a pair, two ; from DOUBLE. 

2. A kind of waistcoat ; F. doublet ; It. dobletto ; from 

DOUBLON, s. F. a double pistole. 

DOUBT, v. to hesitate, suspect, distrust; F. douter, hym. 
L. dubilo. 

DOUCET, *. a custard, a deer's testicle ; F. doucet, dul- 

DOVE, s. a turtle, a pigeon ; G. dufa, dub ; M. G. duba ; 
D. due ; S. duu ; Swed. dufiva , T. taube ; B. duive ; 
Arm. dube ; all of which are apparently from Aiv* ; 
Hind, duba, to wash, to purify, cognate with our 
word Dip; B. doopen ; T. tanben, laujfen ; AVTT*, to 
baptize, to give ablution. Ana and fta produced, it 
is believed, KoAufsSa* ; L. columba. With the Greeks 
and Latins this bird, dedicated to Venus Urania, was 
the emblem of pure love; in the Christian religion it 
is the symbol of divine affection. The chaste Daphne 
was purity personified. 

DOUGH, *. unbaked paste for bread ; G. deig ; Swed. 
deg; T. leig ; B. deegh ; S. dah ; Scot, deigh ; Arm. 
toas; W.toes; I. taos. See DAB. 

DOUGHTY, a. eminent, brave, noble; Swed. dugtig; S. 
dohtig ; T. tuchtig, from G. ditgt, valour. See DEFT 
and STOUT. 

DOUSE, s. 1. a splash, a plunge into water. See SOUSE. 

2. A blow, a push, a shock ; B. duuw, dons ; Swed. 
duns ; Scot, dunch, doyce, from G. dya. 

DOUSE, v.a.l. from the noun; toplunge,to push, to strike. 

2. To remove, put out, extinguish ; T. dussen, to do 
out, as we say Doff for do off ; but F. dehausser sig- 
nifies to lower or put down. See to HOIST. 

DOWAGER, s. a widow with a dowry. See DOWER. 


D R A 

D R I 

Down, *. a Deyhood, a. nurse's coif, a loose cap. See 

DOWDIE, *. from DOWD ; a slovenly-dressed woman. 

DOWER, DOWERY, s. a jointure, a widow's portion ; F- 
douaire, from L. dotare. 

DOWLAS, *. a kind of linen used originally for towels ; 
T. dtvelelach. See TOWEL. 

DOWN, .1- 1. fine plumage on the belly of water-fowls; 
D. duun ; Swed. dun ; B. dons ; F. duvet. 

2. A sand hill, a barren shore ; B. duin i F. dune. See 

DOWN, a. on or towards the ground, low ; Arm. domn ; 
W. dntfn : G. qfar, our over, signified above, and 
qfan, otvan ; Swed. ofman, from above, was a descent 
as well as an ascent. This word, the particle d being 
prefixed, became S. dun, an ascent, a hill ; adun, a 
descent. M. G. uf, ufar, the Greek 'Tu-i, '?**(, sig- 
nified below and above. In this sense also G. diup, 
deep, like L. altus, was both profound and high. See 

DOXY, *. a girl, a dolly, a wench, a loose girl ; dim. of 

DOZE, f. to be half asleep, to slumber; T.dosen; D. 
dtese ; Swed. dasa, to slumber, seem to be from da, 
which signifies to wander in mind. See DOTE. 

DRAB, *. refuse, ejectment, dirt, the thick sediment of 
beer in cask, cloth of that colour ; G. dreib ; B. 
drabbe ; S. drabbe. See DRAFF. 

DRACHM, s. the eighth part of an ounce, a Roman coin ; 
&t"XP' 1 > L- drachma ; A. drahm. 

DRAFF, *. refuse, ejectment, husks, wash for hogs. See 

DRAG, v. a. to draw, pull by force, trail ; G. and Swed. 
rlraga ; S. dragan ; T. dragen, tragen, trachen ; B. 
trek ken. 

DKAGOLE, n. a. frequentative of DRAG ; to trail along ; 
T. dregelen ; but sometimes used in the sense of dag- 
gle, to wet. 

DRAGNET, s, a net drawn along the bottom ; S. drcege- 
net ; F. dranet. 

DRAGON, s. a winged serpent, said to have been an em- 
blem of the sun or of fire ; G. drake ; T. drache ; L. 
draco ; It. drago ; F. dragon ; W. draig. P. adr was 
the angel of fire ; I. and W. draig, lightning ; and 
the story of St George and the dragon seems to have 
been an allegory of the triumph of Christianity over 

DRAGOON, s. a horse soldier ; F. dragon , It. dragone ; 
supposed to be derived from the dragon, which is 
said to have been the standard of the Scythian cavalry. 

DRAIN, v. a. to draw off, to empty, to make dry ; T. 
dranen; S. drehnigean. 

DRAKE, *. 1. the male of a duck, properly duck-rake ; 
Swed. andrake, from L. anas and G. reke ; Swed. 
drake, a male, and also a warrior ; O. E. rink. 

2. A small piece of artillery, a squib ; from L. draco. 

DRAM, *. 1. the eighth part of an ounce. See DRACHM. 

2. A small quantity of spirits ; I. dram ; Scot. drap. 
See DROP. 

DRAMA, Jf. the action of a play, a poem; A{^, a scene; 
Jj. drama ; F. drame. 

DRAPE, *. cloth ; L. B. drnppa, ilrappitt; It. drappo; 
F. drap; Sp. and Port. Irapo, from L. tramu. 

DRAPE, v. a. from the noun ; to make cloth. 

DRAPER, *. a person who sells cloth ; F. tlrapier. 

DRAUGHT, *. 1. excrement, refuse; G. and Scot, drit ; 
S. droge; T. dreck ; Scot, dreik. See DRAFF. 

2. A drink, the act of drinking ; G. dragi ; S. droht, 
from DRAW. See TUG and PULL. 

3. A bill of exchange, a sketch ; from to DRAW, as Trait 
from L. traho. 

4. The act of pulling carriages, fishes taken at one 
haul, soldiers drawn from the main body. See to 

DRAUGHTS, s. a game ; supposed to be from Drarv, to 
move ; but G. drot ; S. dright ; T. druht, a sovereign, 
a king, was a crowned man. See DREAD and DAM. 

DRAW, v. a. to pull along, raise up, inhale, attract, un- 
sheathe, embowel, produce, delineate, describe, allure. 
See DRAG cognate with L. traho. 

DRAWL, v. a. from DRAW ; to speak in a slow drivelling 
manner ; B. draelen. 

DRAY, s. a kind of low- wheeled cart ; Swed. drdg, from 
to dram or drag ; L. traga, from trako. 

DRAZEL, *. a mean dirty woman, a drab ; T. drcchsel. 

DREAD, s. 1. terror, fear; S. draed, drad, from G. rted- 
dur ; Swed. rteda ; D. r<zd ; Scot, red, terror. 

2. A sovereign, a lord, a chief; G. drott ; S. dright; T. 
dnthl ; Scot, drote. 

DREAM, v. a. to rove in sleep, to wander in mind ; G. 
drauma ; Swed. drama ; L. dormio, to sleep : B. droom; 
T. trim in, a dream. 

DREAR, DREARY, a. sorrowful, dismal; T. trauer ; B. 

treur ; S. dreorig, from ryggr. See RUE. 
DREDGE, v. a. to draw out leisurely, to drag slowly ; S. 

dragan ; F. dreger. See to DRAG. 
DREG, *. sediment of liquor, the lees at the bottom of a 

vessel; G. dregg ; Swed. drag; S. droge. See 

DRENCH, v. a. to steep, to force down liquor; S. drain. 

can. See to DRINK. 

DRETCH, a. idle, lazy ; Scot dratch, from droja, to drag 

slowly, to delay. 
DRESS, v. a. to prepare, put right, arrange, direct, adorn, 

clothe, trim ; T. dresser ; It. drizzare, dirizzare, from 

L. dirigo. 

DRIBBLE, v. a. to fall slowly, to slaver. See DRIPPLE. 
DRILL, s. 1. from the verb; a borer; B. dril ; T. drill, 

trill; S. thirl; It. drillo; Swed. drill. 

2. Grain sown in straight furrows, from a box drilled 
with small holes. 

3. From the verb ; exercise of arms, T. and B. drills F. 
drille, a companion at arms. 

4. A baboon, an ape ; either from drille, a comrade, or 
G. troll, a wizzard. 

5. A small brook. See RILL. 

DRILL, t>. a. to pierce by a turning borer, to thrill, shake, 
brandish, exercise military arms ; T. and B. drillen ; 
Swed. drilla, from T. drehen ; B. draijen ; S. thregiau, 
to turn. 

DRINK, v. a. to draw in, to swallow liquid, to suck up ; 
G. drecka ; Swed. dricka ; T. drincken, trincken ; S. 
drinken, drican. See DRAUGHT. 

DRIP, DRIPPLE, v. a. to fall or let fall in drops, to dri- 
vel; T. dripele 11 ; Isl. dralla ; Swed. dralla ; Scot. 
drigle. See TRICKLE. 

DRIVE, v. a. to force, impel, urge, rush ; G. drifiva ; 
Swed. drifwa ; S. drifan ; B. ilryven ; D. drive ; T. 
ireiben ; T(<. 


D R U 


DRIVEL, v. a. to dribble, to slaver, to dote. 

2. To drawl, to trifle ; G. drcefla ; D. drove ; T. drawn. 

DRIZZLE, t>. a. to shed, or fall in small drops; T. drisekn, 

rieselen, from L. ros ; Aj-, dew, tears. 
DROIL, *. a sluggard, a drone. See DRAWL and DRIVEL. 
DROLL, a. gay, sportive, ludicrous ; Arm. drew, dreo ; 

F. dru, drole. 
DROMEDARY, s. a swift sort of camel with only one 

hump; Aj^tft; L. dromcda L. B. dromedarius ; It. 

dromedario ; F. dromedaire, 
DRONE, s. \. the hum or bass in music; G. dryn; Swed. 

drdn ; B. dreun. 
2. A sluggard, the drone bee; Swed. drbn, from G. 

drana, to drawl, to loiter ; but perhaps from the hum 

of the drone bee. See HUMBLE BEE. 
DROOP, v. n. to languish, sink, faint, pine ; M. G. drob- 

gan ; Swed. drofrva ; T. truben ; S. drepen, to depress 

the mind ; B. drcef, sorrow. 
DROP, w. a. to pour or let fall in drops, to fall, descend, 

quit; G.droppa; Swed. drypa; D.dryppe; S.droppan; 

B. druipen ; T. tropfen. 
DROSS, s. the scum or faeces of metals ; G. drits ; S. droge, 

dros. See DREG. 

DHOTCHEL, s. an idle wench, a sluggard. See DRETCH. 
DROVE, s. what is driven, a troop, a herd of animals : 

S. draf. 
DROUGHT, s. dryness, thirst ; contracted from dry hood ; 

B. droogheid. 

DROWN, v. a. to absorb liquid, to be saturated or suffo- 
cated with water ; Swed. drdnka ; T. tranken ; B. ver- 

dronken ; S. druncan ; M. G. draggkian, supposed to 

be cognate with Drink. 
DROWSE, v. to make heavy with sleep, to slumber ; 

from G. dur, light sleep. See DOZE. 
DRUB, v. a. to strike, beat; Isl. drybba ; Swed. drabba; 

A. drub, darub. See DUB. 
DRUDGE, v. a. 1. to labour unremittingly in mean offices, 

to toil ; S. dreogan, gedreogan, from drag or dredge. 
2. To press or oppress; G. threikan ; S. drecan ; T.dntc- 

ken; B. drukken. 
DRUG, s. 1. a medicinal simple, an ingredient used in 

physic; F. drogue; Sp. and It. droga ; B. droog; T. 

druick. Dry-grocer was formerly in use as well as 

green-grocer ; and S. drug ; B. droog, signify a dry 

herb or aroma, Tjuyji, as we use it in drysalter, a 

dealer in spice or drugs. See DRY and TROY weight. 

2. A thing of no value, refuse, draff; S. droge; B. droge. 
See DREG and DROSS. 

3. What is pressed ; T. drug, druck. See to DRUDGE. 
DRUGGET, *. cloth pressed so as to be water-marked 

like camelot ; F. droguet ; from B. druget, druckt ; T. 
gedruckt. See DRUG. 

DRUID, *. an ancient British priest ; W. derwydd ; Arm. 
derud ; I. druadh ; T. druid ; L. B. druida ; supposed 
to be derived from W. derm, dar; Arm. deru; I. dair ; 
Ajus, an oak. W. daro, like G. thor, was the thun- 
derer or Jupiter ; daron, taran, was thunder, and da- 
rogan, prophecy or divination. The diar who accom- 
panied Odin presided over religion ; and S. dry, dresh, 
was an augur or magician. Diar appears to be the 
Gothic plural of A/*, and AiW was divine. M. G. rod- 
gan, diar rodgan, to speak divinity ; G. rodd, voice, 
song. The British priests, however, are said to have 
been selected from the order of Bards. 

DBUM, *. a military instrument, the tympanum of the ear; 

A. drub and dub correspond with our words drub and 

dub, producing T. trumb ; B.trom; D. tromme : but 

F. tambour is cognate with tabor. 
DRY, a. having no moisture, thirsty ; G. thar, thur ; 

Swed. torr ; S. thyrre; T. track, treuge, darre; B. dor, 

droog ; S. drug; Tjvyij. 
DRY, v. a. to free from moisture, drain; Tjwyiv; G. 

thcerra ; T. trocken ; B. droogen ; S. drugian ; F. tarir. 
DUB, s. a blow, the mode of conferring knighthood ; G. 

dubba ; T. dubben ; S. dubban ; F. dauber, to strike ; 

A. dub, duf, a blow. 

DUCK,*. 1. a water-fowl, a diver; Swed. duk, dykare, 
from dyka, to dive ; G. doggtva, water ; B. duike ; T. 
tuck, a dive, a dip. See AUK. 

2. A doll, a darling, a term of kindness ; P. daokh ; A. 
dokh; G. doke; D. dukke; T.dokke; S. docca ; Swed. 
dceka ; Sclav, deffca, a little girl. See DAUGHTER and 

3. A kind of hempen cloth ; G. duk ; T. doeck ; B. dock. 
See TICK. 

DUCK, v. a. 1. to dip under water, to dive; Swed. duku, 

dyka; B duyken. 
2. From the noun ; to lower the head like a diver, to 

bob ; Swed. duka ; T. ducken. See DIVE. 
DUCKLING, s. 1. a young duck. 

2. A little girl, a dolly, a darling. See DUCK, a doll. 
DUD, *. a rag, a tatter; G. dude; B. todde ; I. dud; 

Scot. dud. 
DUDGEON, *. dim. of DAG; a point, a pique, an offence ; 

F. dagueton. See PIQUE. 
DUE, v. a. to pay as a debt, to pay off; Ae*> ; L. debeo ; 

F. devoir ; It. dovere. 
DUE, a. what is owing or owed, right, proper, exact ; 

F. du. 

DUE, s. a debt, a claim, right, title, custom, tribute ; 

L. debitum. 
DUEL, *. a fight between two persons; L. B. duellum, 

for dui helium ; It. duello ; F. duel. 
DUENNA, s. a governante to a lady ; the Sp. pronuncia- 
tion of It. donna ; L. domina. 
DUG, s. a pap, the teat of a beast; Swed. ddggc ; I. 

dighe, from Sans, duk ; G. dy, milk ; G. deggia, to 

give suck. See TEAT and DAIRY. 
DUKE, *. the next dignity below a prince ; L. dux ; It. 

duco; F. due, from L. duco. See DOGE. 
DULCET, a. sweet, luscious, melodious; F. doucet ; L. 

DULCIMER, s. a musical instrument ; It. dolcimela, dol- 

cin, a hautboy. 
DULL, a. stupid, blunt, gloomy, sad; G. and Swed. 

dul; W. drvl, stupid. 
DUMB, a. deprived of speech, silent, sullen ; G. dumb ; 

T. lumb ; S. dumbe ; Swed. and D. dum ; Heb. 

doum, silent. 

DUMP, s. a reverie, melancholy, silence, sorrow. See 


DUMPLING, s. a small boiled pudding ; from dough, and 

G. holla, a round loaf; whence F. boulanger, a baker; 
D. dcig base, baked dough, produced our vulgar 
word Doughby for a soft loaf. 

DUN, a. dark, between brown and black ; G. dauckn ; 

B. dunker ; S. dun ; W. drvnn ; I. dun. See DUSK. 
DUN, in forming the names of places, signifies a hill or 

D U S 

D W I 

ascent ; P. dah ; Sans, dun, dund ; G. idun, a cliff; 

S. T. Arm. dun ; I. dionn, a hill ; A*; is said to have 

been used by the Eolians for /3f. See DAWN. 
DUN, D. a. to ask often for a debt ; G. thinga ; Swed. 

tinga ; T. dingan, signify to claim at law ; but S. 

dunan is from din, noise. 
DUNCE, s. a dolt, a stupid person ; D. dumtvys ; Swed. 

dumwiits, dull understanding. See DUMB and WIT. 
DUNO, *. excrement, compost ; G. dung ; Swed. dynger; 

S. dineg, dunge ; T. dung ; P. dam. 

DUPE, v. a. to cheat, deceive, trick, circumvent, gull ; 

F. duper ; It. doppio, from L. duplex, to act a double 

DUB, in names of places, signifies water; V.durya, a 

river. See DKR. 

DUBE, v. n. to last, continue, endure ; L. duro ; F. du. 
rer ; T. dauren, from A. dhur ; Ai ''{, time. 

DURESSE, s. hardness, cruelty ; It. dnrczza ; F. duresse; 
L. duritia. 

DUBITY, t. hardness, harshness, cruelty ; F. durett ; L. 

DUSK, a. tending to darkness, obscure ; G. daucks ; T. 
dus ; P. dutch ; W. and I. du, black. 

DUST, *. earth in small particles, any substance pulve- 
rized, the grave ; G. T. S. dutt ; D. dytt. 

DUTCHEBS, *. the lady of a duke ; F. duchesse ; It. ditch. 

DUTY, s. what is due, a legal obligation, a tax, custom- 
See DUB. 

DWALE, s. a noxious plant, a species of solarium ; G. 
dualas T. toll; B. doll; Swed. and D. divala, deli, 
rium, folly, insanity, swooning, trance ; all which ef- 
fects are produced by the deadly nightshade, which 
was formerly used in witchcraft. 

DWABP, s. a person below the usual size, a pigmy ; G. 
duerg, ducerf; Swed. duarg ; B. dtverg ; S. dtveorh ; 
Scot, dwergh ; I. droich. 

DWAULE, v. a. to rave, to be delirious, to talk idly. 

DWELL, v. u. to inhabit, live in a place, remain, tarry ; 
G. (India ; Swed. dmcela, dwalja ; T. twetten, dualen ; 
said to be cognate, and also used in the sense of to 

DWINDLE, t>. n. to grow less, fall away, diminish ; B. 
dwindlen, frequentative of dnine. 

DWINE, v. n. to diminish, waste away, to pine; G. 
dwyna ; T. dtvynen ; Scot, dwine. See WANE. 




HAS two sounds ; short, as men, net, sell, ten, wed ; 
and long, as mean, neat, seal, teen, weed. When 
placed at the end of a word it possesses the power of 
lengthening the foregoing vowel ; as ban bane, gap 
gape, star stare, tun tune. In ancient poetry E final 
seems to have been either mute or vocal as the verse 
required ; but now it is never pronounced. 

EA, EY, particularly as a termination in the names of 
places situated near rivers or marshes, signify water, 
from G. aa ; S. ea ; but sometimes confounded with 
G. ey, an island ; as Ports-ea, Cherts-ea. See EY. 

EACH, pron. either of two, one of many, every one ; G. 
e, a, ain ; Scot, ae, one, is also our article a before 
nouns of the singular number ; whence G. eilik, one 
like or as one ; O. E. aelk ; S. celk ; Scot, ilk, corre- 
sponding with UK*. 

EAD, ED, in forming the names of persons, signify 
wealth, fortune, power, happiness ; from G. aud, S. 
ead, which produced Audiger, Eadiger, most opulent, 
prosperous ; Eadivin, a powerful friend ; which names 
we pronounce Edgar and Edwin. 

EAGER, a. sharp, sour, keen, earnest, zealous ; S. cagor; 
F. aigre ; It. agro ; W. egr ; L. acer. 

EAGLE, s. a large bird of prey ; F. a igle ; L. aquila. 

EAGRE, s. one tide swelling above another ; G. cegur, 
-teir; S. egur, corresponding with ir/fic ; L. cequor. 
See BOAR. 

EAME, s. an uncle ; S. earn ; B. own ; T. oheim ; L. 
avum, avuncuhif. 

EAR, *. 1. the organ of hearing; G. eyr ; D. ere; Swed. 
are; T. ohr, ahr ; S. ear ; B. oor ; L. auris. See 

2. A spike of grain ; G. ahr ; D. ar ; T. aehre ; S. 
eher ; Swed. ar ; B. aar ; Arm. egaur ; L. arista. 

EAR, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to shoot out in grain. 

2. To plough; Isl. (era; S. erian; T. eren. See to 

EARL, s. a nobleman who ranks between a Marquis and 
a Viscount; G.jarl,jarll; Svted.jarl; S.eorl; W. 

E A S 

jarll, a right honourable, a prince, a noble, a hero. 
It was the opposite of Carle and Churl ; S. eorl and 
ceorl, noble and plebeian : G. cedra, cera ; S. are ; D. 
cere ; T. ehre, signified precedence, honour, exaltation : 
T. er, noble, cognate with a. y/p, af^'s ; G. ar, eer ; S. ere, 
our ere, prior, produced erst, saiAjlrst, which in several 
G. dialects signifies a prince, in the sense of a fore- 
most person, a primate. The G. article j being pre- 
fixed to ar, with the addition of all, entire, the word 
became jartt. See ALDERMAN 

EARLY, a. soon, precocious; G. aria; S. esrlice, from 
G. and S. cer, soon. See ERE. 

EARN, v. a. to gain by labour, to acquire ; Swed. arna ; 
S. earnan ; T. arnen, from G. and Swed. ara, to expe- 
dite, to negotiate. See ERRAND. 

EARNEST, s. payment in advance of wages ; called an- 
ciently early penny ; G. arnuts, prior use, from ar, S. 
cer, soon, and nuts ; T. n&ts, utility ; W. ernes ; It. ar- 
rha ; F. arrhe ; L. arrha. 

EARNEST, a. eager, ardent, intent ; G. wrnast, gernasl ; 
T. and B. ernst ; S. earnest. See to YEARN. 

EARSCH, s. a ploughed field. See to EAR 

EARTH, s. land, soil, one of the elements ; A. aradh, ard ; 
Heb. arali, aarets ;. Chalcl. erah ; Tartar jer ; G.jord; 
S. eord, earth; T. erde ; B. aarde; I. urah; \; 
L. terra. 

EARWIG, *. an insect; S. ear wicga, from its destroying 
ears of grain and fruit ; for it never willingly enters 
the organ of hearing. Sometimes, however, in fright, 
such a thing may happen ; and F. pierce oreille means 
the human ear, unless it be a mistaken translation of 
our word. 

EASE, s. 1. quiet, rest, freedom from pain or labour; F. 
aise ; It. agio ; from L. otium. 

2. Facility, lightness, freedom of action; G.aud, oze; M 
G. auth, azets ; S. ceth ; T. ase ; P. asaish ; W. hauz, 
hauth ; Arm. aes ; I. ahais, facile, light, not difficult 
or oppressive. 

EAST, s. the quarter where the sun rises; G. aiist, eyst ; 
Swed. oest; T.eatt; S. east; B. oost ; G. austa, to 

E G L 

put forth, to oust ; M. G. vxloth, that rises ; *;, the 
morning, the dawn. 

EASTKB, s. the feast of the passover ; G. aslar ; Syr. at- 
tarte ; Heb. ashlaroth, was Venus, after whom Mor- 
decai's daughter was named. T. aster; S. casire ; P. 
nshtee; Sans, isht, the festival of Love. The Heath- 
ens, when first converted to Christianity, could not 
be restrained from their former observances ; to ob- 
viate which Catholic policy assigned this season to the 
feast of the Passover ; but the original name was re- 
tained by the Goths. 

EAT, v. a. to take food, to feed upon, to gnaw ; G. aela ; 
Swed. itta ; S. eatan ; B. eelen ; T. essen; P. ash ; 
iriv ; L. edo; I. ilham ; W. ^*. 

EATH, a. not difficult, facile. See EASE. 

EAVES, s. pi. the edges of a roof projecting over the wall ; 

G. of as, of as, opse ; S. epese, the descents. See EVE 

and EBB. 
EBB, *. flowing off, decline, lowering of the tide ; Swed. 

ebb ; T. and B. cbbe ; S. ebba ; F. ebe, descent, from 

G. of; Isl. ab, corresponding with L. ab, our off. 

EBEN, EBON, EBONY, s. a hard black wood ; P. abnoos ; 
Sans, ubnoos ; Heb. heben ; i'Siws ; L. ebenus ; T. eben; 

F. ebcne. 

K< < I.KSI A, s. a temple, a church ; Heb. hecal ; txAW, 
from A?5-<{, xx>fs ; Heb. kal, hoi, the voice, prayer, 
song. See To CALL. 

EcuniE, *. F. a stall for horses ; L. cqitaria. 

ED, termination of the pret. of verbs, apparently from 

G. fd, it/id ; Isl. o<l, ed ; S. eod, pret. of the verb ga, 
ago, to go, to proceed, to effect. 

EDDER, j. the top row of withes in forming a stake 
hedge ; S. eder ; T. edder ; Swed. eitur, a border, 
from G. att, adur,jadur, a limit. 

EDDER, v. a. to bind the top of a stake fence with withes; 

from the noun. 
EDDISH, s. stubble fields opened for pasture ; G. adisk, 

disk ; S. edisc ; T. esch, from cela, esscn, to eat. 

EDDY, s. a circular motion of water or wind ; G. Ida ; 
Swed. ida, perhaps from G. idga, to agitate. See ED. 

EDEN, s. the dwelling of Adam and Eve ; Heb. etlen t A- 

aden, a safe and permanent abode. 
EDER DOWN, s. the down of a sea duck called the Eder; 

D. eder diiun ; Swed. cider dun. 
EDGE, .v. the sharp part of a blade, a border, :i side, a 

brink; G. egg, a-g ; T. ecte ; Swed. egg; ix'n ; L. 

EEL, s. a serpentine slimy fish ; 17x1*1*; Swed. eel; D. 

B. T. tMl;S. eel. 
EEL-POWT, s. a freshwater fish, a burbot ; B. aal pull, 

from Isl. podda, a frog, to which its head has some re- 
semblance. See PADDOCK. 
EFFACE, v. a. to destroy, blot out ; F. effacer ; L. ex- 

EFFRONTERY, s. assurance, boldness, impudence ; F. 

ejf'ranterie, from L..frons. 
EFT, *. a kind of lizard. See EVKT. 
EFT, ad. coming after, in succession, soon. See AFT. 
Eoo, *. ths production or seed of fowls; G. and Swed. 

egg; 8. <eg;'t. ei ; B. ey. 
EGG, r. a. to instigate, incite, provoke to action ; G. 

cggia ; 1). egge ; Swed. teggia, eegga. 
KGLANTJNF., *. sweetbriar, a wild rose; G. eglatcin, 

eglanla ; D. heglentrcr ; B. eglantifr ; F. eglantine, 


from G. eg/an, a prickle, and tein a shrub, a branch. 

EGRET, s. a kind of plume or jewel of that form, an or- 

nament for a lady's head ; F. aigrette ; It. agrotlo, from 

grue/ta, the crested heron, L. gru*. 
EIGHT, a. containing twice four; G. attha, ath, otto; S. 

eahla, cehta ; B. agt ; T. acht ; D. otte ; r* ; L. octo ; 

I. ochif W. tviht; F. huit. See NUMBER. 
EIGHTY, a. eight times ten ; G. atha tijo ; S. eahla lie 

T. achtzig. 

EIGNE, *. possession in right, unalienable inheritance, 
an heir on whom the land is entailed ; G. eign ; B. 
eigne ; T. eigen ; S. agen. See to OWN. 

EISEL, *. verjuice, vinegar, acid ; 8. mil; L. acidula. 
Eirusn,pron. one of two ; G. aithivar, eitt ttvar, one of 

two ; et thera, one of them ; G. and Swed. thera, being 

the genitive case of they. 
EKE, v. a. to add, increase, join, lengthen ; G. auka ; 

Swed. oka ; S. eacan ; L. augeo. 
EKE, ad. moreover, also, likewise ; G. auk; Swed. och ; 

T. auch; S. eac ; L. ac. 
EL, in the composition of Hebrew names, signifies God; 

as Elisha, Elias, Gabriel, Israel, Bethel, Chapel. 
ELBOW, s. joint of the arm, an angle ; S. elbogen, from 

ella, an ell, and bogen, a bending ; Cubit has the same 


ELD, a. ancient, preceding ; G. celd ; S. eald. See OLD. 

ELDER, . more advanced in years, prior in rank, 

ELDERS, *. pi. seniors, chief persons, prior in rank. See 

ELDER-TREE, *. a tree formerly used for pipes, from be- 
ing hollow; G. hoi tree; T. holder; S. elletreo, ellar ; 
D. hyld tree ; Swed. hyll. See HOLLOW. 

ELECAMPANE, *. the herb starwort ; L. enula campana. 

ELEPHANT, s. the largest of beasts ; A.Jil, alfil ; Sans. 
ulfeel; G.fd, ulfival, alphant ; IA^J; L. clephas ; F. 

ELEVEN, . ten and one added together ; G. ettif, eleip, 
one over, ten being understood ; S. enlyf; B. elf; T. 
einlif, cilf; D. elleve ; Isl. ellefn. See ONK, TWELVK, 

ELF, *. the male of a fairy, a goblin, a wandering spirit ; 
G. alf; T. alf; Swed. alfwar; S. eelf, was one of those 
demons or genii distinguished as white and black by 
the Goths. The domestic Brownie of the Scots is 
supposed, from the name, to have been dark com- 
plexioned, and belonging to the latter class ; but the 
name was perhaps fromG. bur, a dwelling, as bit ragu 
corresponded with L. lar. See FAIRY. 

ELIXIR, s. a chymical quintessence; A. alitkscer; nkseer, 

ELK. *. a large beast of the stag kind; G. alg ; Swed. 

elg ; S. aslc ; Isl. Uigur; L. B. alee. 
ELL, s. the measure of a yard and a quarter ; G. aul, 

alin ; Swed. aln ; S. eln ; T. elle ; B. el; */iwi ; L. ulna ; 

W. elin ; F. aune. 
ELM, *. a tall timber tree; Heb. clah; L. ulmus ; T. itl- 

mcn ; B. aline; S. elm ; It. olmo ; F. orme. 
ELOPK, v. a. to run away, escape privately ; G. leipa ; 

AuW* ; Swed. /Jyw / B. loopen ; S. hUvpiui, to run. 

ELSE, prun. other, otherwise, another, one besides; G. 
t-lla, elcgar ; D. cllers , Swed. eller, i/ljal, a-llas ; S. 
rk-or, ellicor, dies, have all the same meaning with I . 

E N C 

E N T 

alias : G. eda, elha ; M. G. authai, from which we 
have other, produced aleder ; Scot, older ; T. aid; G. 
all eda, contracted into ella, which corresponds with 
L. alius. See OTHER. 

KM BAR, v. a. to shut in, block up, hinder. See BAB. 

EMBARGO, v. a. to prohibit, to prevent, to detain a ship 
or cargo; Sp. embargar. See EMBAR. 

EMBARK, v. a. to go on board, to put into a ship ; from 
BARK, a ship. 

EMBARRASS, v. a. to perplex, impede, clog ; F. embar- 
rasser. See EMBAR. 

EMBASSADOR, s. an ambassador ; but apparently con- 
founded with Sp. embiato ; It. invialo. See ENVOY. 

EMBASSY, EMBASSAGE, s. the office of an ambassador. 

EMBAY, v. a. 1 . to bathe ; a word used by Spenser, from 
F. baigner. 

2. To inclose in a bay, to land lock. 

EMBER, s. a hot cinder ; G. elmyria, emmyria ; T. am- 
mer ; D. emmer ; S. amyr, from el, eld, fire, and myria, 
ashes, cinders. 

EMBEZZLE, v. a. to conceal fraudulently, to take fur- 
tively ; Swed. besliaela, ombesticela ; T. bestehlen. See 
to STEAL. 

EMBLAZE, v. a. to describe ensigns armorial ; F. blazoner. 

EMBOSS, v. a. 1. from Boss; to sculpture with rising 
work, or protuberances. 

2. To inclose as in a box or case; F. cmboistcr. See 

3. To inclose in a thicket ; It. emboscare. See BOSCAGE. 
EMBRACE, v. a. to squeeze in the arms with kindness ; 

F. embrasser ; It. abbracciare, from L. brachia, the 

EMBRASURE, s. aperture in a wall to point cannon 
through ; F. embrasure. See BRAY, in fortification. 

EMBROIDER, v. a. to adorn with needle work ; F. broiler, 
from G. brydda ; Swed. brceda, to puncture, to stitch: 

G. brodd ; W. brwyd, a stitch. 

EMERALD, s. a green precious stone; A. and P. usmurud ; 

ffta^aydes ; It. smeraldo ; F. emcraude. 
EMERY, s. a kind of iron ore ; G. isamyria, iron ashes ; 

T. elmeril; L. B. smyris. 
EMMET, s. a pismire, an ant; S. emct, cemcette; B. eemple; 

T. ameise. 
EMPANNEL, v. a. to swear in a jury. See PANEL, a list, 

a schedule. 
EMPARLANCE, s. a petition for time to deliberate, the 

conference of a jury on the cause in question. See 

EMPLOY, v. a. to keep at work, to implicate, intrust; F. 

employer, from L. implico. 

EMPTY, v. void, vacant, unoccupied ; S. templig, cmetig. 
EMROSE, s. the wind flower, the ember rose. See 


EN, 1. as a plural termination; G. en; S. en; Sans. un. 
2. As a prefix ; L. in ; F. en ; but G. and Swed. en was 

a prefix signifying firmness. 
ENAMEL, s. 1. colours produced from vitrified minerals 

reduced into powder, and used in smelt painting. 

See AMEL. 
2. Painting, something variegated or stained with 

ENCHASE, v, a. to set a precious stone; F. enchasser ; 

Sp. cngaster ; It. incassare. 

ENCHEASON, s. cause, occasion ; L. incasio, occasio ; F. 

ENCORE, ad. yet again, once more ; F. encore ; Port. 
agora ; It. anche ora, from ora, L. horn, now, a time. 

ENCOUNTER, v. a. to go against, to meet face to face, to 
attack, to oppose ; It. incontrare, from L. in contraire. 

ENCROACH, v. a. to invade partially, to infringe by de- 
grees the right of another person. See ACCROACH. 

ENCUMBER, v. a. to burden, clog, impede. See CUMBER. 

END, s. the extremity of a thing, the ultimate object or 
design; G. ende; M. G. andei; Hind, anta ; Swed. 
cende; T. ende; B. ende ; S. ende. We say, an end, 
for endways, because the G. a, signifying procedure, 
as in afoot, aboard, required the n before a word be- 
ginning with a vowel: Swed. cenda, cendalongs ; S. 
andlong, in continuation. And, end, from a or e, to 
go, both signified procedure ; but the G. e was a ne- 
gative, the root of ne, which, added to those words, 
made them mean no further. 

ENDEAVOUR, v. a. to take due means, to attempt, strive, 
labour ; F. endevoir ; It. dovere ; L. debere. 

ENDICT, INDICT, v. a. to charge with a crime, to bring 
to justice ; from J/x>i ; L. dica. 

ENDIVE, s. the herb succory ; P. hindeba, the Hindoo 
herb; L. intybum; F. endive. 

ENDORSE, v. a. to insert on the back of a written paper; 
L. B. indorsare ; F. endosser, from L. dorsum. 

ENDOW, v. a. to enrich with a portion, to provide for ; 
F. endoter. See DOWER. 

ENGAGE, v. a. from GAGE ; to undertake, employ, enter 
upon, enlist, encounter, combat; F. engager. Bar- 
gains were anciently concluded by offering a small 
coin or trifling article, which, if accepted by the other 
party, was decisive. The person who challenged 
another to combat, threw down a glove, as a gage or 
pledge ; and, if it was accepted, the engagement 
might be fulfilled either then or at another time; and 
hence the name was given to any military encounter. 
See WAGE. 

ENGINE, s. a contrivance, a machine, instrument ; 
iffcinux.; L. ingenium. 

ENGLISH, a. belonging to England, the language of 
that country ; G. English ; T. Englisch, from S. En- 
gles, the Anglo-Saxons, who came originally from the 
Gothic Anger or Angel, the name of a narrow part of 

ENGRAIL, v. a. to cover with small spots, to variegate ; 
in heraldry it signifies to indent with curved lines; 
from F. grele, hail. 

ENHANCE, v. a. to raise the price ; F. enhausser ; It. 
inalzare ; L. B. inallionare, from L. altus. 

ENJOIN, v. a. to prescribe, command; li.injungo; F. 

ENJOY, v. a. to have, to possess with pleasure; F. enjmdr, 
from L. gaudeo. 

ENLUMINE, v. a. to enlighten ; F. enluminer, from L. 
lumen. See ILLUMINE. 

ENOUGH, ad. in sufficient degree ; G. gnog, nog ; Swed. 
nog ; M. G. ganoh ; S. genoh ; T. genug. 

ENSIGN, s. a signal, the standard of a regiment, the of- 
ficer who carries it; F. enseigne ; L. insignis. 

ENSUE, v. to follow, pursue, arise ; F. ensuivre ; L. in- 

ENTAIL, s. the rule of descent settled for an estate. It 
signified a legal convention or covenant ; because the 

E R K 

E T 

written document being cut or torn in a zigzag man- 

ner, one portion kept as a record served to ascertain 

the authenticity of the other. See TALLY, T.u i. I.K, 

ENTANGLE, v. a. to intwist, complicate, perplex ; G. in- 

dntikle, indningul ; T. intnickelen, from G. mingul ; 

D. mickle ; T. nickel, a fold, a coil. 
ENTER, . to go or come in, to engage in, to introduce, 

insert ; F. entrer ; L. intro. 
ENTER, as a prefix, is F. entre, from L. inter. 
ENTERPRISE, *. an undertaking, a hazardous attempt ; 

F. entrepris ; It. intrapresa, from L. inlerprendo. 
ENTERTAIN, v. a. to occupy, treat, keep in discourse, 

amuse ; F. entretenir ; L. intertenio. 
ENTICE, v. a. to allure, to draw on by fair promises ; 

G. teya, tegia ; Swed. tagia ; T. tucken ; S. teogan, 
lihtan, to draw on, allure. 

ENTIRE, a. complete, whole, undivided ; L. integer ; It. 

integro; F. entier. 
ENTRAILS, *. pi. the intestines, bowels ; F. entrailles ; It. 

intraglie; L. inlernalia. 
ENTREAT, v. a. to induce, solicit, try earnestly ; L. in- 

tracto ; F. trailer. 
ENTREMETS, *. pi. several plates set between the main 

dishes on a table ; F. from enlremetlre ; L. inlro me- 

lor, to place between. 
ENTRY, s. a place of entrance, passage into, insertion. 

See to ENTER. 
ENVELOPE, v. a. to wrap up, cover, surround; L. involvo; 

It. inmlupo ; F. envelopper. 
ENVIRON, v. a. to surround, to invest; L. B. gironare ; 

F. environer, from L. gyro. 
ENVOY, s. a public minister sent to foreign states ; F. 

envoye, a missionary, from It. inviare ; F. envoyer, to 

put on the way, from L. via, 

ENVY, s. pain at another's prosperity, rivalsliip ; F. en- 
vie; L. itividia. 
EPAULET, s. a shoulder-knot worn by military officers ; 

from F. epaule ; It. spalla ; L. scapula, the shoulder. 

EQUERRY, s. a superintendent of horses, a groom to a 
prince; F. ecuyer; L. equaiius, from equus. 

EQUIP, v. a. to prepare, arrange, fit out ; F. equiper ; 
O. F. esclupper ; L. B. eschipo, from G. and Swed. 
skipa ; S. sceapian. See SHAPE. 

ER, 1. the termination of the comparative degree; G. 
er, aur ; S. er, or ; the same with over, more ; cor- 
responding with L. or in minor, prior. 

2. A termination of nouns signifying agency ; from G. 
are, ere ; S. ere, agency, which produced our word 
errand ; as, keeper from keep, lover from love ; but 
as a masculine termination it appears to have been 
formed from Scyth. aij; Tartar, are; G. air,vait, 
a man. 

En A, it. the epoch or date of time; L. B. (era ; F. cere, 
from G. ar, a year; Swe</. cer, time, duration. The 
word was introduced in the sixth century, when 
Uionysius the little fixed the notation of time, begin- 
ning from the first of January after the birth of 

ERASE, v. a. to rub out, to expunge; "L.erado; F. rasa, 

ERB, ad. before, sooner ; T. er ; S. (er, terer, from G. 
ar. See OR and ERST. 

KI.KK, a. slothful, idle, spiritless; G. arg ; S. earc. 

ERMINE, *. a small furry animal ; F. ermine; L. rme- 

nite mus. 

ERRAND, . a message, business, commission ; G. crendi ; 
Swed. aretid ; S. cerend ; D. cercnda, from G. ara, to 
employ, to send. See ER. 

ERST, 1. ad. at first, formerly, till now ; 2. a. superlative 
degree of ERB, and signifying soonest, first ; S. erett ; 
T. erst. See FIRST. 
ESCALADE, s. the act of scaling the walls of a town ; It. 

scalata ; F. escalade, from L. scula, a ladder. 
ESCALOP, s. a kind of oyster. See SCALLOP. 
ESCAPE, v. a. to get out of danger, to get free, to flee 
from ; F. echapper ; It. scappare ; Sp. scapar ; from 
L. ex and capio. 
ESCARGATOIRE, s. a. place where snails are fattened ; F. 

escargot, from y{* *<>vxfl> a shell-snail. 
ESCHALOT, s. a small onion ; F. eschalot ; It. cepalelto, 
from L. cepula ; but perhaps for eschalonet. See 

ESCHEAT, *. a forfeiture to the lord of the manor, casual 
revenue; F. echet ; L. B. escaeta, from F. echoir ; L, 
ESCHEW, v. a. to avoid, flee from ; F. esquiver ; It. schi- 

vare ; from SKEW. See SHY and SHUN. 
ESCORT, *. a convoy, a guard to a place; F. escorts ; It. 

scoria, cohorta ; L. cohors. 
ESCOT, *. charge, expence, tax ; F. pronunciation of 

ESCOUT, *. a listener, a spy, a secret enemy ; F. escoute, 

ecoule, from escouter ; It. ascoltare; L. auscullo. 
ESCRITOIR, *. a kind of desk. See SCRUTOIR. 
ESCUAGE, *. feudal service for possessing a shield ; F. 

escuage, ecuage, from escu ; L. scutum. 
ESPALIER, *. a row of trees planted in rails to touch 
each other, a tree extended in that manner ; Swed. 
spalier ; T. spalier ; It spalliera ; F. espalier : G. 
spala ; Swed. spiale ; Scot, spale, signifies a lath ; but 
the word seems to be derived from It. spalla ; F. es- 
paule; L. scapula, from which It. spalliera signified 
the back of a garden-bench. 
ESPLANADE, *. a clear space beyond the glacis of a 

counterscarpe ; F. esplanade; L. planilia. 
ESPY, t). a. to see at a distance, discover ; F. cspier. See 

ESQUIRE, s. a title below a knight, a shield-bearer ; L. 

scutigerus ; It. scudiero ; F. escuyer, ecuyer. 
Ess, a feminine termination, as in empress, mistress, 
laundress ; apparently from G. and Swed. su ; M. G. 
so; S. seo, our pronoun she. 

ESSAY, v. a. to inquire into, try the value of, attempt; 
F. essaycr ; Arm. essai ; Scot, sey, from L. sagio, sa- 
pio; but corresponding with G. soika, to inquire, to 
examine. See ASSAY. 

ESSOINE, s. an excuse for non-appearance on a sum- 
mons; F. exoine, from exonier, to exonerate; L. ex 
and oncro. 

ESTAFET, *. a special messenger, a staff courier; F. 
slaffier ; lt.slaj'elta; Sp. cstafeta; from Staff, a badge 
of office. 
ESTRADE, *. an even level place, a public road ; It. 

strada; F.eslrade; L. stratum. See STREET. 
ESTRAPADE, s. in horsemanship, is the yerking of a 
horse with his hind feet, when his fore feet are in the 
air ; It. strappata ; F. estrapade, from L. extripudio. 
ET, as a diminutive termination, in F. and It. seems to 

E X C 

E Y R 

be G. eitt ; B. iet ; T. iht, our whit, signifying some- 
thing, somewhat little. 
ETCH, v. a. to mark out prints with aquafortis ; T. et- 

zen ; B. etsen, from eat, to corrode. 
ETIQUETTE, s. regulation of court ceremonies in France; 

originally written on a card and delivered to each 

person. See TICKET. 
ETWY, *. a small case of instruments; F. etui ; B. tuigie, 

diminutive of trvyg ; Swed. tyg ; T. zeug, an instru- 
EVE, s. name of the first woman; A. aw, hwa ; ila; 

Heb. Eva, Heva, which appears to be the same with 

Heva, Hava, the pronoun she, the female ; but amma, 

ava, is mother. 
EVEN, a. equal, level, parallel, just; G. efn, iafn ; M. G. 

ibn ; T. eben ; S. efen ; B. even. 
EVER, ad. at any time, always, perpetually ; G. ceve ; 

S. eefre, from G. <e, perpetual, and ve, vera, to be. 

See AYE. 
EVERY, a. each ; from G. e, one, and vera to be. See 


EVET, s. a water-lizard ; from G. vote, humidity, water. 
EVIL, *. calamity, wickedness ; G. utvel, ubel ; T. ubel; 

B euvel; S. yfel, from u negative, and wel, our well, 

EUNUCH, *. one emasculated, a gelt person ; P. oohoon 

khain, deprived of testicles ; lutS^s ; L. eunuchus. 
EWE, s. a female sheep ; G. a ; B. ooi ; S. eawe ; L. ova. 
EWER, *. a vessel to hold water, a bason ; F. aiguiere ; 

L. aquarium. 

EXCHANGE, v. a. to barter, to truck. See to CHANGE. 
EXCHEQUER, s. the place of receipt for all the king's 

rnoney ; A. sikka ; It. zecca, a mint ; P. shik ; 

a treasury : but G. skat ; Swed. skat ; T. schalz, cog- 
nate with our word Scot, tribute, signified treasure, 
and may have produced It. scacclere ; F. echiquier. 
A. seyac, however, is arithmetic; and the ancient 
Abacus, a bank, a counter, F. comploir, seems to have 
been formed with squares like a chess-board, on which 
the operation of calculation was performed with cal- 
culi or pebbles. The check-table, treasure and ac- 
counts, would readily become synonimous; and to 
check was to recalculate. See CONTROL and CHESS. 

EXIGENCE, s . a demand, ne,ed, want, urgency ; F. exi- 
gence, from L. exigo. 

EY, in forming the names of places, signifies an isle ; 
but is sometimes used for water or a marsh. See EA. 

EYAS, s. a young hawk ; F. niais ; Norman F. nye, from 
L. nidus ; with us a niais was understood to be an iais, 
which we called also a jashawk. 

EYE, *. the organ of vision, view, sight, a hole, a noose, 
a bud ; Isl. eiga ; G. auga ; Swed. 6ga ; B. oog ; T. 
aug ; S. eog , A. uc ; yyi, *o ; L. oculus ; It. oc- 
chio ; Sp. oj'o; F. oeil. 

EYEBROW, s. the arch of hair above the eye ; P. ubroo ; 
Sans, bhroo; T. augbravne ; D. oienbryn ; S. eagen 
bregh. See EYE and BROW. 

EYELASH, *. the rim of hair on the eyelid; Swed. ugne- 
las, from eye and G. las ; Swed. las, a fastening, a 
lock. See LATCH. 

EYLET, *. dim. of EYE ; a small aperture, a perforation 
like the eye of a needle. 

EYRE, s. a court of itinerant justices; F. eyre ; L. iter. 

EYRY, s. a place where birds of prey build their 
nests; G. egwer ; S. cegru ; B. eijery ; F. aire, depo- 
sitory of eggs. See EGG. 


FTHE first letter of the Runic alphabet, has in Eng- 
> lish an invariable sound, formed by the compres- 
sion of the under lip against the upper teeth and a 
forcible breath. F, V, and P are frequently con- 
founded in all languages. Among the Greeks, the 
Eolians used <J>, the F of the Pelasgi for ; and the 
Gothic Th has become F with particular tribes, who 
perhaps had no corresponding sound in their dialect. 
This may be remarked at the words File, Fine, Fill, 
Fir, Fog, and M. G. Fliuhan, Thliuhan, to fly. Hence 
also Thule, sometimes supposed to be Iceland ; but 
more generally the most western of the Shetland 
islands, is now called Fula. F changes into H in 
Spanish, as Hilo for Latin Filum ; Latin Horda and 
Forda had the same meaning, French Hors is the 
Latin Foras, and Teutonic Hurst is Forest. F was 
frequently prefixed to the initial L, which in both 
Gothic and Celtic had a guttural sound resembling 
the LI of the Welsh ; and the Gothic gh, as a termi- 
nation, in Cough, Laugh, Rough, Tough, we pro- 
nounce Coff, Laff, Ruff, Tuff. 

FACR, *. the visage, countenance, front, confidence ; L. 
fades; F.face; It.faccia. 

FADDLE, v. n. to trifle, play the fool ; G.fa dela ; S.fea 
dcelan, from fa, little, and dela, to deal. See FETTLE. 

FADE, v. to diminish in strength or colour, to languish, 
pass away, wither ; Isl. and Swed. fata ; G. fteda, 
foecka; Scot.faid,faik, to diminish, consume. A. faut 
signifies to pass away, vanish. F. fade, insipid, is 
from L. I 'nt mix. 

FADOE, v. a. to suit, agree, fit, succeed ; O.fag ; M. G. 
fagks, apposite, accommodating. See FAY and FIT. 

FAG, v. a. to grow weary, to toil, labour ; li.faligo seems 
to be confounded with G. foectca, to diminish, grow 
weak or fatigued. 

FAO-END, J. the joining end, the end which is generally 
last or innermost of the folded web, but first in the 
operation of weaving ; S.feg, gefeg ; T.fttge ; B. voeg, 
from Swed. fogan ; S.fegan, to join. See FIT and 

F A L 

FAGOT, *. a bundle of firewood ; It.fagolla; F. fagot ; 
Arm. fagot ; W.fagod; L.fascis. 

FAIL, v. to be deficient, to miss, neglect, to be unsuc- 
cessful in business ; G-fela ; "D.fetle ; 4>*.'ui ; L.fallo ; 
F.faillir; T.fehlen; E.faalen. The G. word signified 
originally to err. 

FAIN, a. glad, merry, fond, desirous ; G. fagn ; Swed. 
faegn,fean. See to FAWN. 

FAINT, v. n. to swoon, to grow feeble, decay ; F.faner, 
evanouir ; It. vanire, svanire, from L. vanesco: 

FAINT, a. from the verb ; feeble, weak, timorous ; L. B. 

FAIR, a. beautiful, white, clear, pure, just ; G. fceigr ; 
Swed.fager; S.fceger; D.famer. See to FEY. 

FAIR, s. a free market, a holiday ; It.Jlera; F. foire ; 
W. ffair, from li.feria, a festival, called Feyer by the 
Teutons ; Swed.J?r. In the same way the anniver- 
sary of the consecration of the parish church has be- 
come an annual market in Catholic countries. 

FAIRY, s. a fay, a female elf, a small phantom ; li.fa- 
taria ; F. faerie, signify properly the faculty of a fay, 
from L. fala, which gave name to Fatua the wife of 
Faunus, a sylvan deity. Peri or Puree are also 
genii of the Persians. 

FAITOH, FAITOUR, *. an idler, a vagrant; F. faitard , 
faitarder, to idle, from larder; L. tardo. Faitor lane 
is now Fetter lane. 

FAKE, s. a turn, bout, fold, coil of a rope ; G. and Swed. 
feck; S. face; T.fach; Scot.failc, from G./a,totake. 

FALCHION, *. a short, crooked sword; lt.falcatus,falx. 

FALCON, s. a hawk ; li.falco; F.faulcon; It.falcone. 

FALDING, *. a kind of coarse cloth, a wrapper, a cover- 
ing ; G. and Swed. falda, from fela, to cover, to in- 

FALL, v. n. to tumble down, drop, chance, perish ; G. 
and Swed./a//a / T. fallen ; B. vallcn ; R.fellen. 

FALLOW, v. n. to prepare ground by reploughing ; T. 

falgen, from felge ; S. fealga, a kind of plough or 

harrow. A. fulaha is ploughing, tillage; and the 

Falahs or Foulahs of Africa are boors. See FELLOE. 


F A U 

FALLOW, s. ground ploughed but not sown. 

FALLOW, a. pale yellow; Isl. faulur ; T.fal,falb; S- 

Jaime; B. vaal; Swed. fal ; L,.fulms; It.falbo; F- 

FALSK, a. untrue, unjust, dishonest ; G.fals, supposed 

to be fromfela, to cover, to conceal ; S\ved.falsk ; T. 

falsch ; B. valsch ; S. false; li.falsus; F.faux; It. 

falso; Arm. and W.fals, from Ii.fallo. 
FALTER, v. n. to hesitate in speech, to be embarrassed, 

to err ; Sp.f altar : frequentative of FAIL. See FAULT. 
FAMBLE, t>. n. to be defective in speech ;-G. fanuela; D. 

famle; B.famelen, from G.fa, deficiency, paucity, and 

mal, speech. 

FAN, s. an instrument used by the ladies to cool them- 
selves, a machine to winnow grain. S. fann; Swed. 

vann ; L. vannus. 

FANCY, *. imagination, vagary, whim. See FANTASY. 
FANE, 1. a temple, a religious place; L. fanum; F. 


2. A weathercock, a flag ; S.fana. See VANE. 
FANFARON, s. a boaster, a blusterer; Sp.fanfaron ; F. 

fanfaron : fanfare, a trumpet, from A.fanfar, sound. 
FANG, v a. to seize, to gripe, to clutch ; G. fanga ; T. 

and S.fangen, from G.fa, to get hold. 
FANGLE, s. captivation with some conceit ; from FANG, 

to seize, take, or fain desire. 
FANGOT, s. a load or pack of wares ; from FANG. 
FANNEL, s. a scarf worn on a priest's arm ; G. and Swed. 

fana ; F.fanon; W. panel. See PENNANT. 
FANNY, used as a diminutive of Frances, a woman's 

name ; It. fantesia, fanciola ; F. fanchon, from L. 

fans, infans. 
FANTASY, s. fancy, inclination, humour, imagination ; 

q>!\*<rU ; L. phantasia ; It. fantasia ; F.fantasie. 
FAB, a. a great way off, distant; G.Jlar; Isl. far; Swed. 

fear; T.fer; B. ver ; S.feor; a-ofpv. 
FARCE, v. a. to stuff, puff up ; L.farcio ; F.farcir; It. 

FARCE, s. a mock comedy, grimace ; F. farce, corrupted 

from L.facetia ; It.facezia. 
FARCY, s. a kind of leprosy in horses ; It. farcina ; F. 

farcin; L. varix. 
FARD, v. a. to colour the skin ; F. farder, from Swed. 

farg; T.farbe; S.fah-rod, red colour. 
FARDEL, s. a bundle or burthen; F.fardeau; It.far- 
dello ; Sp. fardel ; ft.fardeel, supposed by some to be 

L. E.fartellum, fromfartum; but G.fara; S.ferian, 

to go, to carry, produced fard ; T. faehrt, vert, what 
is carried. 

FARE, v. a. to go, proceed, succeed, do, live; G. and 

Svred.fara; T.faren; B. vaaren ; S.faran. 
FARE, s. 1. from the verb ; sustenance, living, cheer. 
2. From the verb ; passage, passage-money ; S.fare. 

FAHEWEL, s. a parting compliment, a taking leave; D. 
farivel ; B. vaartvel. 

FARM, s. land cultivated ; G. and Swed. fara, to pro- 
ceed, conduct, cultivate, produced faraman, a land- 
steward ; f&rma signified to feed, to pasture ; and S. 
feorm, a farm, a feeding. But It.ferma, from I^.fir- 
mus, is a compact or lease ; and F.ferme denotes a 
stipulation for the management of land or any other 

FARM, v. a. I. to cultivate land, to render it productive ; 

2. To occupy land or let it out for rent, to assign the 
collection of revenue on stipulation ; L. B. fermio. 
See the Noun. 

FARKIER, s. one who shoes horses, a blacksmith ; L. 
ferrarius ; F.ferrier; It.ferraro. 

FARROW, v. a. to bring forth as a sow, to pig ; S.fear/t 
a litter of pigs. See BARROW. 

FART, v. n. to break wind backwards ; jrej? ; Swed. 
farta ; T.ferlen; S.fertan. 

FARTHER, a. more remote, at a greater distance ; G. 
Jiardur ; B. verder, the comparative degree of FAR, 
which is S.feor, feorre,feorrest, in the three degrees. 
Farther, with us, has been ignorantly confounded with 
Further, which is derived from Fore, in advance. To 
further is to put forward, promote ; but if Farther 
were used properly as a verb, which it is not, the 
meaning would be to put off, to make more distant. 
The absurdity of confounding the two words is 
obvious. See FURTHER. 

FARTHER, ad. more remotely. 

FARTHING, *. a fourthing, the fourth part of a pennv ; 

S/.,. * * j * 


FARTHINGALE, VEHDINGALA, *. a kind of hoop to ex- 
tend the petticoat, worn first by women with child ; 
B verdegarde, vaardegarde ; Sp. verdugado ; F. ver- 
tugade : G. fara ; S.ferian ; B. vaaren signified to 
carry, to go with child ; T. vert, faehrt, what is car- 
ried ; and in It. and Sp. it was called guardinfante. 

FASCINE, s. a fagot, a gabion used in fortification ; It. 
fascina; F. fascine; W.jf'asgyn, from L.fascis. 

FASHION, *. 1. make, form, mode, custom, quality, rank ; 
F.fafon; I\,.fazo,fattione, from Ii.facio. 

2. A disorder in horses, the farcy ; F. farcin. See 

FAST, a. firm, steady, fixed, persisting, quick, speedy ; 
G. and Swed. fast ; S. fcest ; T. fest ; B. vast, firm, 
close, tenacious :, vast, near, diligent, power- 
ful, and, like Swed. fast, corresponding with our 
vastly or very. To these meanings in S. was added 
Speedy, in the sense that the Goths and English used 
Hard for Swift, without relaxation or intermission. 

FAST, *. abstinence from all food, literally a fast or close 
observance of the religious injunction of abstinence 
from eating. 

FAST, v. n. from the noun ; to abstain from food ; G. 
fasta; S.fcestan; T. fasten. 

FAT, s. I. the oily flesh of animals ; G. fait ; Swed. 
fett; S.fcet; B. vet; T. felt, from to FEED ; corres- 
ponding with P. pad ; ira-r/a. 

2. A large vessel, a brewer's tub ; Swed. and S. fat, 
from G. fa ; Swed. falta ; S. fettan ; B. vallen ; T 
fassen, to hold, contain. 

FATE, s. destiny, death; L. fatum; It. fata; P.fdf, 
death ; A.faut, vanishing. 

FATHER, s. one who begets a child, the first ancestor, 
an old man ; P. puedar, the begetter ; G. and Swed. 
fader; B. vader ; T. vater ; S. feeder ; Sans, patara ; 
?rx7ii ; L. pater ; It. padre ; F. pere. 

FATHOM, *. as far as the extended arms can reach, a 
measure of six feet ; G. fatm, fadm ; S.fcethm ; B. 
vadem. See FAT. 

FAUCET, s. a small orifice, a kind of tap for a barrel ; F. 
fausset, from It. faux. 

FAUFEL, s. the fruit of a species of palm tree; Sans. 
phulfeel, from phid, fruit, and feel, an elephant. 

F E L 

FAULT, *. a failing, offence, defect; It.falta; B.faal; 

F. fau/e, from the verb to FAIL. 
FAVOUR, *. kindness, grace, countenance, features, re- 

semblance ; It. favure ; F. faveur ; L. favor, from 


FAUSSE BRAYE, it. a term in fortification: See BRAY. 
FAWN, *. a young deer ; F.faon,fauvon, from its colour. 


FAWN, v. n. to soothe, caress, flatter ; G.fagina ; M. G. 
faigean; Svted.fdgna; S.fcegenian. See FAIN. 

FAX, f. hair of the head ; G. fax ; S.fazx ; T. fahs, hair, 
fibres of flax ; whence Halifax, Fairfax. 

FAY, v . a. to join, to fit two pieces of wood together, to 
unite, suit; Swed./^a ; S. fegan, gefegan T.fugen; 
B. voegen,focken. See FADGB and FIT. 

FAY, *. a female elf; F.fee. Sc FAIKY. 

FAYENCB, i. a kind of crockery ware made at Faenza, 
in Tuscany. 

FEALTY, s. fidelity, homage, loyalty ; F. feaulte ; L. 

FEAB, j. 1. a fellow traveller, a companion; G.far; 8. 
foera. See to FARE. 

2. Terror, apprehension, dismay ; Swed-^ara; B.fcer; 
B. vaer , P. purwa ; F. effroi, corresponding with 
L. favor ; It. pauro ; F. peiir. See FRIGHT. 

FEAST, *. a sumptuous treat, a pompous religious anni- 
versary ; L. festum, perhaps from <-[/; ; It. festa ; 

Aim.fett; Y.fete; S.fcest; B. west; G. and S. 

rial signified food and a feast ; eV9, to eat. 
FEAT, *. an act, deed, an exploit; li.factttm ; It.fatto; 

FEATHER, s. the plume of birds, any thing light or vain ; 

G.feader; Swed. feder; T.feder; B. feer; S. fe- 

ther ; perhaps G.jliader. See FLEDGE. 

FEATURE, s. fashion, form, make of the face ; Ii.fac- 
tura ; O. F.facture ; It.fattura. 

FEAZE, v. a. to untwist the end of a rope, to reduce into 
fibres, to beat or switch with a rope's end ; T. fesen. 
See FAX. 

FEBRUARY, ,?. the second month of the year ; L. Febru- 
arius, from <pat<ca, to purify ; whence Februa, the 
feast of purification after the Lupercalia. 

FEDARY, s. a confederate, an accomplice, from 'L.foedus. 

FEE, *. money, reward, perquisite, perpetual right ; G. 
fe; Swed.fcee; D.fee; S.feoh; Ti.Jleh, from G. a, 
to have ; fa, to acquire, signified property of any 
kind ; but gangandefe, moveable property, consisted 
of flocks, and afterwards of money, corresponding 
with L. pecus and pecunia, from * and t%t>. 

FEEBLE, a. weak, infirm, sick ; It. Jievole ; F. foible, 

from L,.Jlexibilis. 
FEED, v. to nourish, eat, supply with food, make fat ; 

G.foden; S.fedan; 'D.fede; B. veoden. 

FEEL, v. to perceive by the touch, to have sensation, to 

sympathize ; G. falwa ; T. fuhlen ; B. voelen ; S. 
FEIGN, v. a. to dissemble, to invent; L. Jingo ; It. Jig- 

nere ; F.feindre. 

FEINT, s. from the verb ; a false show, a mock assault. 
FELANDERS, *. small worms in hawks ; L. Jilamentaria ; 

FELL, a. cruel, atrocious, savage ; T. fel ; B. fel ; S. 

felle ; O. F.fel. 


FELL, v. a. to knock or hew down ; G. fella ; Swed. 

fcella; T.fellen; S.fyllan. 
FELL, s. a skin, a hide ; Swed./e//,- S. and T.fell; B. 

vel; L. pellis, vellus ; G.fela, to cover. 
FELLOE, FELLY, s. the circumference of a wheel ; B. 

velge; D. and T. felge ; S.falge; It. Volga, from G. 

valugia ; It. volgere ; L. volvere. 
FELLOW, *. an associate, an equal ; S. felan ; G. felag, 

from fe, goods, and lag, society, partnership; Swed. 

f&lage, a companion. 

FELO DE SE, *. one who commits suicide ; It.felo; L. 
B.felo. See FELON. 

FELON, s. a capital offender ; G. and Swed. fel, a fault, 
a crime; F. felon ; It.fellone: L. B.felo, a defaulter, 
cognate with the verb to fail, signified a feudal cri- 
minal, an unpardonable offender. 

FELONY, s. from FELON ; a capital crime, a heinous of- 
fence ; It.fellottia; F.felonie. 

FELT, s. stuff used in making hats, cloth made of wool 
without weaving ; D. and Swed. Jilt ; 8. fell ; B. 
vilt ; It. feltro, are apparently from fell, and corre- 
spond with Pelt ; but our meaning of the word seems 
connected with ii.fullo. 

FELUCCA, s. a vessel with sails and oars; A..falak,folk; 
It. felucca ; F.felouque. 

FEME COVERT, *. a woman protected by a husband ; F. 
femme convert e, from Li.femina cooperta. 

FEN, *. a marsh, a bog, flat moist land ; G. fen ; T. and 
S.fenn; B. veen; Arm.fenn; W. feus F.fange; It. 
fango ; Jj.foenum. 

FENCE, s. a guard, security, mound, hedge. 

FEND, v. to shut out, keep off. 

FENNEL, s. a garden herb ; F.fenouil; L.fceniculum. 

FENUGREEK, s. a plant; L.B.fcenum Gracum ; It.Jieno 


FEOD, *. fee tenure, possession held of a superior ; L. B. 

feodum, from G.fe aud, fee property. See FEOOAL. 

FEODAL, a. held of some lord on condition of payment 

or service; Y.feodal, from fee and G. audal, odal ; 

Swed. and D. odal; Scot, iidal, full possession ; G.fe 

odal, possession by fee ; \.Jiach eudal; L. B.feodalis. 


FEOFF, *. feodal possession, acquisition by fee; G. 
feafa ; L. B. feoffa ; F. fief, from G. fa, to acquire, 

added tofe. 
FERN, *. a plant, brake used for heating ovens; T.farn ; 

B. varen ; S.fearn; F.fougere: Swed. fore ; T.fore, 

kindling for fire. See BRAKE. 
FERRET, s. 1. a small quadruped ; F.furet; W.fured; 

L. viverra. 
2. A kind of silk tape used for trimming or ornament ; 

F.Jleurette; B.Jlorel; lt.Jwretto,fromL.Jloreo. 

FERRULE, s. a circle, a ring at the end of a staff; L. B. 

v irola ; F. verole ; Scot, virl, from yvfo*. 
FERRY, *. a passage over a river, a ferry-boat ; G.far ; 

Swed. fdrja, a boat; T.ferg; D. fcerge ; 8. fere ; 

B. veer, a passage by water. See FARE. 

FESCUE, *. a small straw, a kind of grass, a pointer for 
a horn book; Y.festu; It.festuca; L.festuca. 

FESELS, *. a kind of pulse ; L. phaseolus ; It. fagiulo ; 


FESS, s. in heraldry, a band, a girdle; L. fascia. 
FESTBB, t>. a. to canker, corrupt, rankle; from T. eitfr; 

G. eiter; S. etter, venom, an ulcer. 


FESTOON, s. a wreath, a border of flowers ; It.feslone; 
F. feston, from being worn at festivals, or perhaps 
from <px.n and T<'. 

FBT, J. a piece, bit, portion, splinter ; It. fella, from L. 
findo. See FID. 

FETCH, v. a. to bring a thing; G.fa ,- Svfed.fa, to take, 
to fang, produced Swed.fatla]- D.fatle; B. vatten ; 
T.facken ; S.fatan,fetian,feccan. 

FETCH, .?. from the verb ; a catch, stratagem, trick, arti- 
fice; G.fa, like L. capio, signifies to circumvent, de- 

FETLOCK, *. a footlock, the hair growing behind the pas- 
tern of a horse. 

FETTER, .*. a chain to fasten the feet of malefactors ; G. 
Jicetra; Swed. fiattra ; S.fettere; from FOOT. 

FETTLE, v. n. to trifle; dim. of feat, or from fet. See 

FEUD, *. enmity, hatred, quarrel ; G. feed, fcehth ; S. 
fahad; T. fehde ; B. veyde ; L. B. faida, literally 
Foehood, fromjia, to hate, provoke. See DEFY. 

FEUDAL, a. held by fee or service. See FEODAL. 

FEUILLAGE, s. F. a bunch or row of leaves. FOLIAGE. 

FEUILLE MORTE, a. F. the colour of a dead leaf. See 

FEW, a. small in number ; G. fatvi, fa ; Swed. fee, 
fdga; D.faae; S.feu; L. paucus ; F.peti. All the 
etymons signified smallness of number; but sometimes 
little in size, like L. pausillus, from paucus. 

FEWEL, s. firewood, coal ; L.foculus, from focus. See 

FEY, v. a. to cleanse, to purify, to remove the mud from 
a ditch ; G. fcegia ; Swed. feija ; B. when ; T. fee- 
hen, fegen. See FAIR. 

FIB, s. a lie, a falsehood ; contracted from FABLE. 

FICKLE, a. changeable, unsteady ; S. ficol ; G. huikul. 
See to FIDGE. 

Fico, s. a sign of contempt made by placing the point 
of the thumb between the two forefingers. The 
Greeks and Latins had obscene allusions to the Fig, 
which is also supposed to have given rise to sycophant, 
a kiss-breech ; and the sign called fica, fiche, figa, 
Jico, by the low people in Spain, Portugal and Italy, 
are not equivocal. See FIG. 

FID, *. a pointed iron used by seamen to untwist their 
cords; lt.fetta, from L. Jindo, fidi. 

FIDDLE, s. a musical instrument, a violin ; Ij.fidicula ; 
G.fidla; S. fidele ; Swed. fedla ; B. vedel. See 

FIDDLE, v. 1. to play on the fiddle. 

2. To trifle; S.feadelan. See FADDLE and FETTLE. 

FIDGE, v. n. to move by fits and starts ; G.feyka, fikia, 
fika; D.fikke; Swed.fjdka; Arm.Jicka; Scot.jike. 

FIEF, s. a tenure in fee. See FEOFF. 

FIELD, s. champaign ground, a meadow ; G.fala, bala, 
vollur, vella, valla, are supposed to be derived from 
G.fia, level, flat, and produced G. field; Swed. felt ; 
T.feld ; S.feld; B. velt, corresponding with L. cam- 
pus; and hence to take the field and open the campaign 
are synonimous. 

FIELDFARE, *. a bird of passage of the thrush kind ; G. 
Jioldfar ; B. veeltefar ; S.fealafar:Jiol,feald, sig- 
nify many, and fare to go. 

FIEND, s. an enemy, a foe, a devil ; G. fiend ; S.Jlond; 
D.jiende ; T.Jiend, like Foe, is from G. and Swed.jfoz ; 
S.jKan, to hate. 


FIERCE, a. furious, savage, outrageous; L.ferox; F. 

feroce, farouche ; It.feroce. 
FIFE, s. a military pipe blown to a drum ; T. pfeiffc 

See PIPE. 

FIFTEEN, a. five and ten ; S.Jiftyn. 
FIFTY, a. five tens, five taken ten times; S.jiftig. 
FIG, *. 1. a tree, the fruit of that tree; L.jicus; It.ffco; 

F.Jigue; T.feig. 

2. An insult, a sign of contempt. See Fico. 
FIG, v. n. 1. to insult, to show contempt; F. ficher ; 
Port.Jigar. See Fico. 

2. To suit, dispose, dress ; S. figan, afcegd, adorned, 
bee FIT. 

3. To excite, stimulate, set agog; T.feygen. See FAIN. 
FIGARY, s. from the verb ; a desire, whim, fancy ; con- 
founded with Vagary. 

FIGHT, v. a. to contend in battle ; G. viean, vista, figta 
Swed./ecto; V.fegte; T. fechten ; B. vechten; S. 
jeohtan, from G. eiga, to contend, corresponding with 

FIGMENT, *. an invention, a fiction ; L.Jigmentum. 

FILACEH, s. an officer in the common pleas ; from FILE, a 

FILBERT, s. a fine kind of hazel nut ; L. avellana ; It. 

avela barbata, the bearded hazel nut. 
FILCH, v. a. to cheat, steal, pilfer, rob ; G. fela, filgia ; 

Svfe&.fdska; Y.filouter. 
FILE, s. 1. a thread to string papers on, a line, a row of 

soldiers; L.jilum; Y.Jile. 
2. An instrument of steel with a rough surface to rub 

down eminences on metal or wood ; G.thil; Swed 
fil; T.feil; V.Jiel; S.feol; B. vyle. 
FILE, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to march in file. 
2. From the noun ; to cut with a file, to polish. 
FILEMOT, s. the colour of a dead leaf; F. feuille morte. 

FILIGREE, s. curious gold or silver work ; F.jlligranne, 

wrought with threads and grains. 
FILL, v. a. to make full, to glut ; G. and Swed. Ma ; 

S.fyllan; T.fMlen; B. vullen. 
FILL, s. 1. fulness, completion ; from the verb. 
2. The place between the shafts of a carriage. See 

FILLET, *. 1. a head band, the astragal or moulding of 

the head of a pillar; Y.Jilet. See FILE. 

2. A buttock of veal trussed with a Jtttet or bandage, 
but now generally with skewers. 

FILLIP, *. a tap with the finger; T. fl ; Swed. JU, a 
tap ; B.Jlip, a flap. 

FILLY, s. 1. a young mare, the feminine of foal ; Swed. 
fola; T. fallen. 

2. A young girl; TF.Jilk; ~L.fdia. 

FILM, s. a thin skin; S.felm. See FEIL. 

FILTER, *. a strainer made of felt or brown paper ; F. 
filtre; It.feltro. 

FILTH, s. dirt, uncleanness ; S.Jilth; T.faulheit, from 
G.fyla; S.fylan, to defile. See FOUL. 

FIN, s. 1. the wing of a fish; G.faun; Swed. fena ; S. 
fin ; B. vin ; L. pinna. 

2. The closing note in music ; F.Jin; L. finis. 

FINANCE, s. revenue, income, treasure ; It. faianza ; 
O. F.Jinjance, from G. feing, our fine, payment, re- 
venue, taxation ; T. finanz, deception in pecuniary 



matters, is from fine, subtle, corresponding with 
finesse. See FUND. 

FINCH, *. a small bird ; Svred.finke ; T.finke; S.finc ; 
B. vink. It was a general name for small birds, and 
our Henery, the bird-catcher, was also called Henery 
Vinkeler in O. E. 

FIND, v. a. to discover, meet with, feel ; G. and Swed. 
finna ; M. G. findan ; T. finden ; S. Jyndan ; B. 

FINK, a. not coarse, delicate, thin, keen, subtle, pure, 
nice, pellucid, gay, handsome ; G. tfiyn, Jin ; Swed. 
Jin; B.fyn; D. and T. fein ; Arm. Jin ; l.jien; F. 
fin ; It. fino. See THIN. 

FINE, s. 1. a payment, a forfeit, a fee, a mulct; L. B. 
finum, from G.fe inna. 

2. The end; F.Jin; It.Jino; L.Jlnis. 

FINGEB, s. a flexible member of the hand ; G.Jingr ; 

Swed. finger ; T. and S. Jinger ; B. vinger. See 


FINOCHIO, *. a kind of fennel ; It. from li.feeniculum. 
FIPPLB, *. a button, a clasp, a stopper ; L.Jlbula. 

FIR, s. the name of a tree ; D. firr ; S\ved.Jiir ; T. 
fork; S.fnr/i; either, like Furze, from Fire, owing 
to its inflammable nature; or perhaps G. thar ; S. 
leer, a drop, which also signified gum or tar. G. th 
mutates into f, as noticed at that letter ; and if so, 
fur would correspond with L. thitr, from tin, to flow. 
L. abies was apparently arbor picis. 

FIRE, s. what burns, flame, heat, light; Chinese ho,fo; 
G. and M. G.fon; P. pha, va; Coptic apha; $Z; ; L. 
focus ; F.feu ; Arm. fo : and as Chald. ur ; P. ur ; 
A. irr ; Coptic or; Heb. aur, had the same significa- 
tion, perhaps fo and ur were united ; but, supposing 
the Coptic article pi or ph to have been prefixed to ur, 
pur or phttr, may have produced Phrygian fur ; irv^, 
ftvf ; Swed. and S. fyr ; B. fair ; T. feuer ; I. breo. 
nvf, according to Plato, was a Scythian word ; and L. 
uro seems to have had the same root. See HEARTH. 

FIRE-DRAKE, s. a meteor, a squib, a fire-dragon. See 

FIHK, ;. 1. to beat, whip, punish; L. B.ferico, frequen- 
tative of li.ferio. 

2. To cohabit with, to live together, to support; S.fer- 
cian. See FEAR. 

FIRKIN, s. from FOUR ; the quarter of a barrel, a vessel 
containing nine gallons. 

FIRM, .v. a compact, an establishment, a fixed signature 
for a mercantile house ; F. firm ; It. ferma, from L. 

FIRMAN, s. a Turkish precept, licence, passport, from 
P. purivanu. 

FIRST, a. foremost, chief, earliest ; G. first ; Swed. 
first ; S.forst, superlative of FORE. 

FISH, *. 1. an animal living in water ; G.fisk; Swed. 
fislc ; T. Jisch ; S. fitc ; B. visch ; L. piscis ; Arm. 
Py s S * ~W- PU*g !' P escf ! F- peche. 

2. A deposit or stake at play, a counter ; F. Jiche ; It. 
flea, from L.Jixus. 

3. A fastening ; F. Jiche, from li.fixus. 

FIST, s. the hand in a clenched state; G. t fast; T. 

faust; S.Jist, the hand fast. 
FISTINOT, J. the pistachio nut. 
FIT, *. a sudden motion, the paroxysm of a disease, a 

swoon, a convulsion ; S. fat, fuse : Swed. fet ; T. 

fach ; B. vat ; It.Jtata, from G.fa ; Swed. fata ; S. 

f<etian,f(eccian. See FAKE. 

FIT, a. meet, proper, suited ; IA. JU ; T. fuigt ; B 
voegti S.fegt, forth, gefeed, gefegd, from gefegan,fe- 
gan, to adapt. See to FAY and r A DOE. 

FITCHAT, FITCHEW, *. a stinking little animal ; L. fa:- 
tida; F. chat puant. See POLE CAT. 

FITZ, in forming the names of persons, is the Norman 
pronunciation ofF.Jils; li.jilius. 

FIVES, s. an ulcer which appears on horses. See VIVES 
and ARREST. 

FIZGIG, *. 1. a fish-gig, a harpoon to strike fish with. 
See GIG. 

2. A whiz-gig, a whirling top or toy. 

FIZZLE, v. n. to let out air frequently, to cause a dis- 
agreeable smell ; L. visio. See Fuzz. 

FLABBY, a. soft, limber, loose; It. fiappo, Jiappa ; B. 

fiaaum, from li.Jiaccus. 
FLAG, v. 1. to grow feeble, to relax, hang loose; L.^/Zac- 

ceo; W.Jlaggio. 

2. To lay with flat stones; from the noun. 
FLAG, *. 1. a kind of broad stone ; G.fia; Swed.Jlake ; 

T.Jlache; E.Jlach, flat, smooth. 

2. A plant with broad smooth leaves, sedge. 

3. A ship's colours, a broad pennant; Isl. flagg ; D. 
Jlag ; Swed. fiagga , T. flagge ; B. vlag ; W. Jlatv. 

See FLY. 
FI.AUKI.ET, *. a small flute; F. fiageole, flageolet ; L- 

FLAGON, s. a two quart measure ; F. Jlagon ; Aoyii$ ; 

L. lagena. 
FLAIL, s. an instrument for threshing ; L. flagellum ; F. 

Jkau; S.fiegel. 
FLAKE, s. 1. a flock of snow or wool ; G. jloka ; S. 

flace ; T. flac ; L. floccus. 
2. Something laminated, a scale of iron, a thin piece of ice, 

a stratum; T.Jleck; Swed.Jldck, from G.fla; Swed. 

flak. See FLAG and FLECK. 
FLAM, v. a. to lie, to deceive, to jest ; G. jlinima. See 

FLAME, s . light emitted from fire, a blaze, ardour ; L. 

flamma ; F.jlamme; Arm. and W.jlam; Swed.Jtam- 

ma ; T. flamme : G. liomm ; S. leom, with the same 

meaning, are from logo. See Low. 
FLANK, *. the side; G.lang; T. lanck, flank; B. flank , 

Swed. flank; D.fluenc ; F. and Arm. flanc ; It.ftanco. 

FLANNEL, s. a soft woollen cloth or stuff; L. lanula ; W. 

gmlanen; F. flanelle ; Swed. flanell; B. flanel; D. 

FLAP, *. 1. any thing that hangs broad and loose : O. 

laf; D. lap; Swed. lapp ; S. foppc. 
2. A slap; B.flap. 
FLARE, v. n. to glare unsteadily, to cast a transient light ; 

B.flakkeren, corresponding with ~L.flagro. 
FLASH, v. to blaze suddenly ; ip/iy* ; li.fulgeo ; but B. 

vlengie, a flash, is from G. logo ; S. aflorv. See Low, 

FLASK, s. a flat bottle, a powder horn ; G. and Swed. 

flaska; D. flaske ; S. flaxa ; T. flaschc ; W. flasg ; 

Sp. fiasco; It. fiasco; o\.flasha; Hung, palazk. 
FLAT, a. horizontal, level, plain, smooth, low, insipid, 

dull; G. fla, flat; Swed. flat; D.flade; 

plat ; B. plat ; F. plat. 

F L I 

FLATTER, v. a. to soothe, fawn, praise falsely ; Swed. 
flat, smooth, is also indulgent; T.flechen; B. vleyen, 
'to stroke with the hand, and Scot, stroke is to flatter. 
I. hladairan seems to be the same word contracted in- 
to blarney. Sp. and Port, lisonear, to flatter, polish, 
from liso ; L. Ifevis, smooth. 

FLAUNT, v. n. to wave up and down, fly about loosely 
and gaudily ; G. fliod, signified the gaudy and loose 
dress of women ; but G. flugant, corresponded with 
L. volitans, proudly fluttering. 

FLAVOUR, s. odour, fragrance, relish ; F. flair ; W. 
flaer ; Arm. fleir, odour ; It. Jio, breath, smell, from 

FLAW, s. a crack, fragment, defect, spot ; G. flah ; S. 
floh, a breach or fragment ; Swed. flack, a spot, a 
defect ; S.jleah, a pearl in the ey. See FLAKE. 
FLAWN, *. a sort of custard, thin batter ; F. flan ; S. 

flena, from FLOW. 
FLAX, *. the plant from which linen is made; G.flceks ; 

S.fleax; T.flachs; B.flas. 
FLAY, v. a. to strip off the skin ; Isl. flaa ; Swed. flit ; 

T.flehen; S.flean; B. vlaen ; <p*.u'a. 
FLEA, s. an insect; G.flo; S.flea; T.floh; B. vloo. 
FLEAK, s. a small lock of any thing. See FLAKE. 
FLEAM, s. an instrument for bleeding cattle; G.flein; 
S.flcene; Arm. flem ; T.fleym; F. flame ; B. vlym ; 
a lancet. See PHLEME. 
FLECK, s. 1. a spot, a dapple ; G. fink; Swed. flcek ; 

T. fleck; B. vlek. 

2. A crate ; G. flaka ; Swed. flake. 
FLEDGE, v. a. to furnish with feathers ; G. flieg, fliegder, 

fliader, plumage, wings. See FEATHER. 
FLEE, v n. to run from danger, to avoid, escape ; G. 

fleia ; S. flean ; T. fliehen. See to FLY. 
FLEECE, *. the wool that grows on one sheep; L. vellus; 

S.flys; T. vices. 
FLEECE, v. a. from the noun ; to clip or shear sheep, to 

strip a person of his substance. 
FLEER, v. n. to mock at, grin with scorn ; G. flykra ; 

Isl.Jlyre, to joke. 

FLEET, s. 1. a creek where the tide flows, is used in 
forming the names of several places in London ; G. 
flod; S.Jleot. See FLOW. 

2. A company of ships, a navy ; S. flola ; Swed. flotta ; 
F.flotte; from fliota ; Swed. flota, to float, to swim, 
as Navy from L. no. 
FLEET, . 1. Swift, nimble, active, quick; G.fliot; Swed. 

fly. See to FLY. 

2. Superficial, light; Swed. Icetja, flcetja, light, slight. 
FLEET, v. 1. to fly or pass swiftly, vanish ; G. fliota. 
2. To pass superficially, to take off the surface, skim- 
See FLET. 

FLESH, s. the muscular part of the body, animal food ; 

S. flcecs, flcesc ; T. fleisch ; Swed flcesch ; B. vleesch, 

from G. lijk ; M. G. leiks ; T. leich ; S. lie, a carcass. 

FI.ESH, v. a. to feed with flesh, to initiate young dogs 

or hawks to prey. 

FLET, v. a. to skim, to take off scum ; G. flella ; S. 
afleotan ; whence S.flel ; D.flcede ; Swed.jldt, cream, 
scum, froth. 

FLETCHER, s. a maker of arrows ; T. flechier, from G. 
fla,flej ; S.fla; B. and T.flitz ; It. fleccia, freccia ; 
F.fleche, an arrow. See to FLY. 

FLICKER, v. 1. to flutter, play the wings; G. flygra, 
flokra ; Swed. fleckra ; S. fliccerian ; B, fliggheren ; 
D. flaggre, frequentative of to FLY. 
2. to laugh to scorn, to mock. See FLEER. 


FLIGHT, s. a running away, a flock of birds, a volley 
Swed. flygt ; S. flyht. See to FLY. 

FLIM, s. a jest; Ia].JKm, laughter; Svred.jlim, a grin, 
scorn. See FLAM. 

FLIMSY, FLIMPSY, a. limber, weak, spiritless. See 

FLINCH, v. n. to shrink under pain, recede; M. G. 

aJUnjian, from G. and Swed. linna ; S. blinnan. See 

to LIN and BLENCH. 
FLING, v. to throw, cast, dart, toss ; Swed. flenga, from 

G.fleja; Swed.ftya, wheiw. e G.flein; S.flan; T. 

fliegn, a dart. 

FLING, *. 1. from the verb ; a cast, a throw, a bound ; 
Swed. fl&ng. 

2. A jeer, a gibe, derision ; G.fleining ; Swed.flina. See 

FLINT, s. a hard stone ; Swed.flynt ; S. T. B. flint, from 

S. ligent, fire stone. See Low. 
FLIPPANT, a. nimble, running; from G. hleipan. See 

FLIRT, v. 1. to run about idly, to move quickly, to 

flutter; G. fleira, flygra. See FLICKER. 

2. To jeer, to mock. See FLEER. 

3. To coquet, to play at courtship ; F. fleuretter, to 
make flowery or love speeches, to cajole, from L. 

FLIT, v. n. to pass away; remove, deviate ; G. flytja ; 

Svred. flytta ; D.flytte ; M. G. afleithan, from leithan; 

S. lithan, to deviate. 
FLITCH, s. the flat part, a side of bacon ; F.fliche; Isl. 

flycke ; D.flicke; Swed. flake; B. vlicke ; S.flicce. 
FLITTER MOUSE, s. the bat; Swed. Jlcedermus ; T.fled- 

ermauss ; D. flagermus ; S. fliccermus. See FLEDGE 


FLITTING, s. deviation, transgression. See to FLIT. 
FLIX, s. fine hair down; S.Jlis. See FLUE. 

FLOAT, v. 1. to swim on the surface; G. flota; Swed. 

flyta ; S- fleotan ; L. fluctuo ; F. flutter. 
2. To deluge, to cover with water. See FLOOD. 
FLOCK, s. 1. a multitude, a company of sheep ; G. flock; 

S.flocc; D.flok; T. flock, a multitude: G. lock; 

Swed. loka ; *o%t;, a troop. 
2. A lock of wool ; G.floka; B. vlok ; T. flock ; L.floc- 

cus ; F flocon. See LOCK. 

FLOG, v. a. To lash, to beat ; from G. log. See BLOW. 
FLOOD, *. an inundation, a flowing of the tide ; G.flod; 

Swed. flod; S.flod; T.fluth; B. vloed ; ~L.fluctus. 

See to FLOW. 
FLOOR, s. 1. the broad claw of an anchor; D. fluig ; 


2. A broad fish ; S.flook. See FLOUNDER. 
FLOOR, s. the bottom of a room ; G. flor, from fla, flao, 

flat, low; M.floar; S.flor,fler; B. vloer ; T.flur; 

FLOTSON, *. goods swimming on the sea ; G. flotsian ; 

D.flodscen. See JETSON. 
FLOTTEN, a, skimmed. See FLET. 
FLOUNCE, D. 1. to move with violence in the water or 

mire, to be agitated ; Svred.flunsa. See PLUNGE. 
2. To decorate with flounces ; from G. falin, a hanging 

border, a veil. See VALANCE and FURBELOW. 
FLOUNDER, s. a small flat fish; Swed. flundra ; D.flyn- 

der; Isl. flidra, fladra, from fla, flat; f.flach; Scot. 
fleuk. See FLOOR and PLAICE. 


FLOUNDER, v. n. to move with violence, to plunge; fre- 

quentative of to FLOUNCE. 

FLOUT, i 1 . a. to mock, to insult, to sneer, ; supposed 
to be from S. flitaii ; Scot, fate, to scold ; but Isl. 
/(//, S. hlcoht, ridicule, from LAUGH. 
FLOW. w. to run as water, to move as the tide, to become 

liquid; G.floa; S.Jlotvan; L.Jluo; F.Jluer. 
FLOWER,*, blossom of a plant, bloom; G.flur; F.Jlcur, 

from L.^/Zo.v. 
FLOWER DB LUCE, *. a kind of lily or iris; F.fleur de Us, 

from Asi'o? ; L. /ilium. 
FLUE, *. 1. the pipe, vent or draught of a chimney ; 

from Ii.Jlaltu. 

2. Soft fur, down, the hair of a rabbit; L.Jloccus. 
FLUGEL MAN, *. a soldier on the wing of a battalion who 
marks time for the motions; G.fluge; T. and S.Jltt- 
gel, a wing. See to FLY. 
FLUMMERY, *. 1. spoon meat made of milk and flour; 

lt.frumentaria ; W. llymery. See FRUMENTY. 
2. Flattery, wheedling ; B. fleemery, from fleemen, to 

fawn, to coax. 
FLURRY, s. agitation, commotion, flutter of spirits ; G. 

flokkra. See FLUTTER. 

FLUSH, v. to flow with violence, to abound, to produce 
colour by the afflux of blood to the face, to elate; T. 
fliessen ; B. fluyssen ; L. B. fiuxo, from ftuo. See 

FLUSH, *. a sequence at cards; Y.fiux, from L.fluxus. 
FLUTE, s. 1. a musical pipe; lt.Jlauto; F. flute; B. 

fluitte, from L.Jlo. 

2. A channel or furrow in a pillar, called also a reed. 
FLUTE, v. in architecture, to cut channels in columns 

like flutes or reeds. 

FLUTTER, v. to take short flights, to flap the wings, to 
be agitated; S.Jioteram Swed. fladdra ; B. flodderen ; 
frequentative of to FLY. 

FLY, v. to move with wings, to flee, break away, burst 

suddenly; G.Jleigai Swed. Jly^ga, fly ; f.fliegeni B. 

vliegen; S.jleogan; L. volo ; F. voter. 

FLY, *. an insect, the balance wheel of an engine ; G. 

fluga; T.Jliege; S. fleoge,flie ; B. vliege, from to FLY. 

FLY-BLOW, v. a. to taint, fill with maggots or eggs of 

flies. See BLOW, discolour. 

FOAL, *. the offspring of a mare; G.ful; Swed. fate; 
T. foil S.fola 
ebeulf W. ebol. 

la; B. 

T. foil S.fola; B. veule : **; L. pullus ; Arm. 

FOAM, *. spume, froth ; G. hiom ; S.feem ; T.faum; L. 

FOB, *. a small breeches pocket; T.fuppe sack, from It. 

Jioppo, breeches, flap hose. 
FOB, v. a. to cheat, to put off; perhaps for bob, or cor- 

rupted fromfotirb. 
FODDER, s. 1. a cask capable of containing 250 gallons, 

amounting in weight to 2000 pounds, and therefore 

called a ton or tun ; T. fuder, from G. Jiuder ; S. 

Jtther, father ; M. G. Jlduor, four, meaning vats or 

2. Dry food for cattle; G.fodvr; S. fader; D.foder; I. 

fodar ; W. bwyder. See FOOD. 
FOE, *. an enemy, an opponent ; G. fega ; Isl. fae; S. 

j'ah. See FEUD and PIBND. 
FOG, *. 1. a thick mist; G. thok ; Swed. tiok ; D. taag ; 

S. fog, Jig, thick, obscure. 
2. Aftergrass; L. B.fogagium, from G.fulga, following 




FOH, inter}, expressing dislike or disdain ; B.foey. See 

FOIBLE, *. F. a weak or blind side, a failing. See FEEBLE. 

FOIL, *. a blunt sword used in fencing, a leaf in gilding; 
from L. folium ; F. feuille, a leaf. The knob at the 
end of a fencing sword, or at the handle of a gpoon, 
was called the feuille, or feuille arret, in F, and cor- 
rupted inlojleuret, a foil. 

FOIL, v. from the noun ; to parry, arrest, check, defeat ; 
It. smarrire, to baffle, to foil, is from smarra, a fen- 
cing sword. 

FOISON, *. plenty, abundance; F.foison, from L. ftuio, 

FOIST, v. a. to insert by forgery, to cram in furtively ; 
F.fausseter ; li.falsito. 

FOISTY, a. smelling mouldy or offensively. See FUSTY. 

FOLD, s. 1. an inclosure, a pen for sheep ; G. falld, fee 
lasd, flock station ; S. fated; T.fald; W. ffald; L.B. 

2. A ply, a double, a plait; G.fald; Swed. f did; S.feald; 
T.falte; D.fold; H.falda. 

FOLIO, s. a full sized leaf of paper, a book of that size ; 
It. folio; L. folium. 

FOLIO MORT, .v. a dead leaf, or something of that colour ; 
It. folio morlo. 

FOLK, *. people, nation, mankind ; G. Swed. T. folk ; 
S.folc; B. volk ; from G.folgia; Swed. folia, to fol- 
low to associate ; or from IsT. folia ; Swed.^/iW ; F. 
foule, the multitude ; G.Jiolga, to multiply. 

FOLLOW, f. to go or come after, to adhere, accompany, 
imitate ; G.fylga, folgia ; Svted.folja ; S. folgian ; 
T.fulgen ; B. volgen ; D.folge ; L. B.folgio. 

FOLLY, . want of understanding, depravity of mind, 

imprudence; F.folie, from FOOL. 
FON, *. a fool, an ideot ; O. E. foniie ; Svred.faone ; I. 

faoin ; Scot, fan, from G. fana ; fa, little, and na, 

nema, to apprehend. 

FOND, a. 1. from FON; foolish, silly, indiscreet. 
2. Pleased, affectionate, tender ; G.fagond ; Swed. fag. 

nad. See FAIN. 
FOOD, *. victuals, meat, provisions ; G. foed ; Swed. 

foda; T.foede; S.fod; B. voed ; l.fuidfi; W. bytvyd. 
FOOL, s. an idiot, buffoon, oaf; G.fol,Jifl; Svred.fioll 

Arm.fol; Vf.ffol; F.fou,folle; lt.foUe;L.H.f o l- 

lus ; G.fdla, to wanton, to lust. 

FOOLSCAP, s. folio sized paper. See FOLIO and SHAPE. 
FOOR, a. good, eminent, rich, powerful, magnificent ; 

G.faer ; Swed. fur ; Isl.forr ; W. ffer, supposed to be 

cognate with our Ere and Fore, signifying precedence. 

See EABL. 
FOOT, s. what any thing stands upon, the lowest part, 

the length of a man's foot, twelve inches, foot soldiers, 

infantry; G. Swed. S. fot ; T.fuss; B. wet; D.fod; 

P. puod ; Sans. mid,pada; *i{ ; li.pes; Sp.pede; It. 

piede ; F. pit ; Port, pi: 
FOOTPAD, *. one who robs, in paths or lanes, on foot ; 

B. voelpad. 
FOP, s. a coxcomb, one fond of dress, a vain person ; B. 

fop ; T.fop, a jest, a mocker, a buffoon ; It. Jioppe, a 

vaunter, a vain fellow, seems to signify one who wears 

flap hose or wide breeches. See FOB. 

FOR, a negative prefix, as in forbid, forget, forsake, for- 
swear; G.for; Swed. t /or,- S.for; T. vor ; B. ver ; 
sometimes cognate with our fro; Q.fra, fro, from; 
but in T. and B. it seems to be a contraction of G. 
vidur ; T. rvider, which is our negative prefix with. 


FOB, prep, the cause, purpose, or motive; G.for; Isl. 
fyrri ; Swed. far ; T. fur ; B. voor ; S. for, cognate 
with fore, and signifying the primary purpose or 
cause, corresponding in use with { ; L. pro ; F. 

FORAGE, FODDEBAGE, *. provision, dry food for cattle ; 
G.fodur,fur; T.fur, produced L. B. fodderagium ; 
F. four age. 
FOBBID, v. to order not to do, to prohibit, interdict ; 

G.forbuda ; S.forbeodan. 
FORCE, *. strength, violence, vigour, armed power ; F. 

force ; It.forza ; L. B.forlessa, from L.fortis. 
FORCED MEAT, s. farced meat. See to FABCE. 
FORD, *. a passage, a shallow part of a river ; G. Jiard ; 
Swed./ord;; T.fuhrt; W.fford. See FARE. 
FORE, a. anterior, coming first ; G. for ; T. vor ; B. 

voor ; S. fore. See OR. 
FOREBODE, v. n. to announce previously, to foretell, 

prophesy ; S.forbodian : Swed.fdrbvda. 
FOREDO, FOBDO, v. a. to ruin, destroy, undo ; from neg. 

FOB and Do. 
FOBEFEND, v. a. to provide for, to take previous means 

of defence. See FEND. 

FOREST, s. a wild woody tract of land ; T.forst; Arm. 
forest; W. forest; T. forest, for et ; It.foresta, from 
L.foras. See HUBST. 

FOBFEIT, *. a fine, a penalty for breach or transgres- 
sion ; F.forfait, from L. forisfactum ; L. TL.fori.ifac- 
tura, a forfeiture; It. fuorfare, forfare, to transgress. 
FORFEND, v. a. to fend off, provide against, forbid ; 

from neg. FOB and FEND. 
FORGE, s. a smith's hearth ; F. forge ; It. forgia ; L. B. 

forica,favrica, from li.fabrica. 

FOBGE, v. a. to form by hammering, to frame, fabri- 
cate, counterfeit, falsify ; F. forger ; from the noun. 
FOBGET, v . a. to disremember, neglect ; S. forgytan ; 
Swed. forgdta, from neg. For and G. ga, geta, to 
heed, to mind. 
FOBGIVE, v. a. to pardon, remit ; Swed. forgifrva ; S. 

forgifan; T. vergeben. 

FOBK, *. an instrument with prongs, a division ; A. 
furq; L.furca; Arm. forc/i ; W.Jforch; I. fore ; F. 
'fourche ; It.forca; S.forc. 

FORLORN, a. lost, destitute ; from G. forlora ; S. for- 
loren ; T. verlohren ; B. verlooren ; Swed. forlora. See 
FORM, s, 1. shape, method, ceremony ; L. forma ; It. 

forma; F. forme; Swed. and D.form. 
2. A long seat, a bench ; L. B. forma ; F. forme, sup- 
posed to be from Swed. form; S. feorm, a repast, and 
thence a table, a bench ; but Arm. fourm seems to 
signify a seat of justice, from L. forum. 
FORMEB, a. prior in time or place ; the comparative of 

fore, as it, fore more. 

FORNICATION, s. whoredom; L. fornicatio ; A. faijr ; 
Tragnj ; L. fornicaria, a prostitute, meaning a seller of 
favours, corresponding with Heb. zonah ; Hi^ida, to 
sell or hire. Harlot, whore, horning (cuckoldom,) 
appear to be cognates of Hire, varied however by the 
intermutations of P. F. and H. See letter F. 
FORSAKE, v. a. to seek no more, to quit, relinquish, dis- 
regard ; S.forsacan ; B. verzaaken ; S-wed.forsaka. 
FOBSOOTH, ad. for certain, in truth ; S. forsoth. See 

F R A 

FOBSOOTH, j. a title, signifying Madam or Ladyship ; 

G.fraushat; T.frausheit. See FBOW. 
FOBSWEAB, v. a. to swear falsely, to abjure ; from neg. 

FORT, s. a fortified place, a castle ; It. fort ; F.fort ; T. 

fort, from Ii.fortts. 
FORTH, ad. fore out, forward, onward; G.forut,fort; S- 

forth; T.furt; B. voort. 
FOBTIFY, v. a. to strengthen, secure, confirm; F.forti- 

Jier; It.fortificare, from L. fortifico. 
FORTNIGHT, *. the space of two weeks, fourteen nights : 
G. fiurtan natta. Caesar observed that the Gallic 
Celts counted by nights, as the Armoricans and 
Welsh do now ; but the Irish count by days like the 

FORTUNE, s. chance of life, good or ill luck, riches, a 
marriage portion ; L. fors, fortuna ; F. fortune ; G. 
Ju)r,forlu, signified fate, fortune, life, death. 
FORTY, a. twice twenty, four tens; G.Jiurtio; S. feour- 

tig; T.Jiertzig. 
FORWARD, a. onward, early, bold, ardent. See FORE 

and WARD. 

Foss, s. a ditch, moat, intrenchment ; 'L. fossa ; F. fosse. 
FOSTER, v. a. to feed, nourish, pamper ; G. and Swed. 

fostra ; S.fostrian. See FEED. 

FOUL, a. impure, filthy, unfair, unjust, unright, wicked 

G. and S.ful; Swed. fuul; T. faul; B. vuil, fetid, 

impure; but the S. and T. words correspond with 

ipat/Aof, vile, wicked. 

FOUND, v. a. 1. to lay a foundation, build, establish; L. 

fundo ; F. fonder, from L. fundus. 
2. To melt or cast metal ; L. fundo, fuso; F.fondre. 
FOUNDER, v. a. to grow or make lame, to fall down, 

sink as a ship ; L.fttndere ; F.fondre. 
FOUR, a. twice two; G.fior; Swed. fyra ; S.feower ; 

T. viere ; B. vier. 
FOURB, s. a cheat ; A.furyb, a sharper; It. furbo; F. 

fourbe. See to FOB. 

FOURIER, *. a provider of forage, a quarter-master ; F- 
fourrier; Swed.furare, from G.fodur are, a commis- 
sioner of forage or provision. See ER. 
FOUTRA, s. a word of contempt, a scoff, a fico ; F.foutre, 
in this sense, is from <fua, tfanua ; L. B. futuo, foleo, 
fteto, which, like G./oerfa ; S.folhan, signify to beget, 
procreate, engender. The G. synonymes, such as B. 
voegen, focken ; T. fit gen, ftigelen, are cognate with 
Fay. From the habitual use of the obscene word, 
the French have confounded with it the derivatives 
from li.fitgllare, such asfuite, fuiteur, a runaway, a 
coward, which we formerly wrote falter, a vagabond. 
F.fuilre le camp, is now written^z're le camp, to de- 
sert ; but is generally pronounceciyb/re. 

FOUTY, a. mean, defective, despicable; lt.fautivo,fau- 
tive. See FAULT. 

FOWL, s. a feathered animal, a bird ; G. fugl; Swed. 
fugel; T.fugal; B.vogal; S.fitga; from the S. word, 
the name appears to be derived from to Fly. 

Fox, s. a wild animal remarkable for it.-i wiles, a sly 
fellow ; Swed. and ; T. fucks ; B. vox, from G. 
fox ; W.Jfi/g, deceit, guile. 

FOXGLOVE, s. a plant ; S. foxes glifa, apparently from 
G. vox ; T. afivachs, vegetable, and glove. 

FRACA, s. a quarrel, rupture, breach, the ncfise of some- 
thing breaking; F. fracas; It.fraca, from L.fracta. 
See FRAY. 

F R E 

FRAIL, s. a rush basket ; L. B. friigellum, fmcellum, 

frulicellum, from L.fruges. 
FRAIL, a. fragile, weak, liable to seduction ; F.frclc ; 

It.frale, from L.fragilis. 
FBAISE, t;. to fry a pancake with bacon ; F.fraisir, from 


FHAJIIK, .v. a fabric, disposition, scheme, shape; Arm. 
from, supposed to be a corruption of L. forma ; F. 
form, a model. See the verb. 
FRAME, v. a. to fabricate, plan, form ; G. fram, our 

from, produced f retain ; Swed.framja; T.frommen; 

S.fremman, to deduce, produce, effect, and somewhat 

corresponding with ~L.formo; F. former. See FORM. 
FRANCHISE, s. freedom ; F. franchise, from FRANK. 
FRANION, *. a paramour ; G.frigion ; S.freon, a lover. 
FRANK, a. free, liberal, generous, sincere, open; F. 

franc. See FREE. 
FRANK, s. 1. from the adj. ; a letter free of postage, an 

exemption from expence. 

2. From FARROW ; a place to keep pigs ; B. varken, a sty. 

3. A French pound, equal to tenpence, a Frankish coin ; 

F. franc. 

FRANKINCENSE, s. an odoriferous gum, holy perfume ; 
A. and P. raichu, perfume ; Heb. reach ; G. rauck ; T. 
much, our reek, signified smoke and odour ; G. ve, 
holy, being prefixed, verauckn ; D. virak ; T. tvey- 
rauch ; B. wierooken ; S. tveoh rec, sacred perfume, 
had incense added to it superfluously. The burning 
of such drugs was general in ancient religious rites, 
for the purposes of mystical illusion. 

FRANTIC, a. mad, crazy, transported by passion ; L. 
phrenelicus ; F.frenelique. 

FRAUD, *. deceit, artifice, illicit dealing; It. f rode; F. 
fraude; li.fraus. 

FRAUGHT, part, of the verb to FREIGHT ; freighted, 

FRAY, *. a fight, a quarrel ; F. fracas; L. fragor. See 

FRAY, t>. a. 1. to frighten, to terrify; F.frayer, effrayer. 

2. To rub; F.frayer; lt.fragare, from L.frico. 

FREAK, s. 1. a speck, a spot ; G.frcek; IsH.frek ; Swed. 
fraekn;; W.jf'rech. 

2. A desire, letch, whim, fancy ; M. G. frik, from fri- 
gon ; S.freon, to love. 

FREAK, v. a. to spot, to variegate ; from the noun. 

FREAM, v. n. to grunt as a boar ; S. Itream, a grunt, and 
fterh, a boar. See FARROW. 

FRECKLE, s. a spot on the skin from the sun's heat ; 
dim. of FREAK. 

FRED, in the names of persons, is from free ; G.frid ; 
Svred.fred ; S.frede; T. fried, freedom, peace, se- 
curity, protection ; Fred rik, rich in security ; Wine 
fred, friend of peace. See FREE and GREKT. 

FREE, a. at liberty, independent, exempt, open, gene- 
rous ; G.fri; Swed. fry; T.frey; B. vry ; S.freo; 

G. rot ; bwed. ro ; 1 . rude, signify exemption from 
toil or pain, repose, tranquillity, peace, pastime. 

FREE MASON, s. a member of a society of architects, si- 
milar to one anciently formed in Ionia for building 
temples ; among whom the rule.*, called Esoteri, were 
communicated to their pupils under solemn injunc- 
tions of secrecy. Our free masons also claimed par- 
ticular privileges, and practised similar mysteries of 
initiation, connecting therewith a system of morality, 

F H I 

among themselves, conformable to the mathematical 

principles of their art. 
FREEZE, v. to be congealed with cold; G. and Swed. 

Jrysa ; D.fryse ; T. friesen ; B. vriesen ; . fnisan 

corresponding with p<ys ; L.frigeu. 
FREIGHT, s. from FARE ; carriage, the lading of a ship 

cargo; Swed./ra*/; B.fragle; T.fracht; B.vrachl ; 

"fragtc ; F.f re/it, fardcau. 
FRESCO, *. a painting in water colours on new plaster or 

stucco. See FRESH. 
FRESH, a. 1. cool, healthy, blooming, florid; It. fresco ; 

F.frais,fraicfie, supposed to be from L.J'rigesco and 


2. New, recent, sweet, not salted ; It. fresco; F.frais. 
fraiche; T.frisch; D.fJrsk; Swed. and S. jers/.- ; 

Arm. f res k. 

3. Strong, healthy, vigorous, active ; G. /tress ; 8. 
hryse,fresc; T. risch, f risch ; Swed. and D. frisk ; 
B.fresc/i. See BRISK. 

FRESH, *. a fall of fresh or land water into the sea, a 
land flood. 

FRET, s. 1. a strait of the sea; p*< ; L. f return. See 

2. From the verb ; fermentation, agitation of liquor or 
of the mind. 

3. A small lath, the stop of a musical instrument ; F. 
frette; It.ferza; L. B.ferulclla ; Is. ferula. 

4. Work rising in protuberances, variegated, orna- 
mented; F.fraite; It. frigialo. See FRIEZE. 

FRET, t>. 1. to ferment, agitate, vex ; L.fervio,fervilo. 

2. To rub or wear away by rubbing : L. Jrico, fricto ; 
F.frayer,f roller. 

3. To corrode, etch, ornament ; G. frelan ; S.frelan ; 
S\ved.frdta ; T.fressen, to eat, to corrode, to etch ; 
but S. freten, from G.frid, signifies ornament. See 

4. To form into raised work, to variegate, ornament ; 
from the noun. 

FRIABLE, a. pulverable, easily crumbled ; F. friable ; 

FRIDAY, *. the sixth day of the week ; G. fryija dug ; 
Swed. freij'e dag, fredag ; s.friga dag ; T. frei/ig, 
corresponding with L. dies veneris : G. frcijon ; S. 
freon, to love. 

FRIEND, s. 1. a relation, kinsman, one of the same fa- 
mily; G.frcetid; Swed.frdnde; D.frende, from G. 
fra,fr(en, seed, breed ; Scot. fiend. 

FRIEZE, .v. 1. a rough kind of woollen cloth, supposed 
to be from Friseland ; F. drop defrise ; Swed. frix ; 
T. fries; B. frees ; Bp.ORdlt.Jnta, 

2. The entablature of columns between the :irchitravf 
and cornice, called in Greek zoophorus ; from being 
ornamented after the manner of Phrygia, it obtained 
the name of lt.fregio ; F.frise; T. fries. 

FRIGATE, *. a ship of war ; G.fargod, fargiantl, a row 
galley; Svted.ferja ; T.faerge; Turk, farpelta ; F. 
f regale. See FERRY. 

FRIGHT, .v. sudden terror, fearhood ; S. fehrt, frifit ; 
Swed. fru/il ; 'i'.fiirchl; D.frt/ght. See FEAR. 

l'iii<;iiTE?J, r. a. to terrify, to daunt; S.frililan. 

FRILL, v. n. to shake, shiver with cold ; F.Jril/er; It. 
fredolo, from li.frigilltis. 

F R U 


FRINGE, s. a border, an ornamental edging ; F.frange ; 

It. frangia ; B. f range ; T. frantze, frame ; Swed. 
frans; G. rens, rans. See RAND. 
FRIPPERY, s. old clothes, patch work ; F. fripperie ; 

It.frapperie, from Jraporre, contraction of L. infra 

ponere, to piece. 
FRISK, v . n. to skip joyfully, dance, frolic; Swed.friska, 

from fni ; Isl. fro ; T. froh ; D. fry, joy. See 

FRIT, *. ashes and sand baked together to be melted 

into glass ; F.frit ; li.f rictus. 

FRITH, *. 1. a kind of net, a hedge made of withs ; G. 
frith, vreit, a wreath ; but O. E. frith was a wood, 
and also brushwood; G. hrijs, bushes, a wood; Swed. 
hrissja, a wicker net. 

2. A strait of the sea ; li.f return ; It.freto.} 

FRITILLARY, *. a plant, the crown- imperial ; L. fri- 

FRITTER, *. 1. a small pancake; F.friturc, from L. 
frigo, to fry. 

2. A small bit, a scrap ; L. ~B.frictura, from L. f rictus. 

FRITTER, v. a. from the noun ; to reduce into small par- 
ticles, to crumble away. 

FRIZZLE, v. a. to make the hair rough or curled like 
frieze cloth ; F.friser. 

Fno, ad. regressively, untowardly, from ward ; G. D. S. 
fra ; Scot.frx. See FROM. 

FROCK,*, a short kind of coat; F.frac, from ROCK. See 

FROG, s. 1. an amphibious animal; S.frogga; Swed. 
frdd ; T.frosch, from G.freja. See FRY. 

2. FURSH, FRUSH, the tender horny substance that grows 
in the interior of a horse's hoof; li.furca; F.fourche; 

FROLIC, *. a merry prank or whim, a flight of fancy ; 
T. frolich, from G. and Swed. fro ; T. froh, joy, 
mirth ; G.froleika. See to PLAY. 

FROM, prep, out of, because of, since ; G. Swed. T. 
fram ; S. from, admit of very many applications, 
but generally corresponding with L. ab. It is diffi- 
cult to decide whether it be connected with S. frum 
and form, which are both modifications of Fore and 
For. See FRO. 

FHORE, a. congealed, frozen ; T.frore, from, part, of 
the verbfriesen, to freeze ; in the same way that our 
Lorn is from G. losa, to lose. 

FROST, s. congelation, the last effect of cold ; Swed. D. 

S. T. frost. See to FREEZE. 
FROTH, s. foam, spume; G. vaur ; atptfif ; Svred.fradga; 

Isl.fradua ; D.fradh. 

FROUNCE, *. a disorder in hawks ; Arm.froeni, snivel, 
i'romfroen ; W.ffroen ; fin, the nose. 

FROW, *. a German woman, a lady ; G. and T. frau ; 

S.frea : G.frauga, a lord, fru, freija, a lady, from 

Free. See BARON. 
FROWER, s. a cleaving tool ; T. hauer, verhauer. See to 

FROWN, 11. n. to knit the brow, to look sour, to show 

dislike ; O. F. frongner is said to be the word ; F. 
froncer ; 'B.fronsen, are from T. rum, a wrinkle. 

FRUIT, s. offspring, the produce of the earth, trees and 
plants; L. fructus ; T.fruht; F. fruit ; It. frutto, 
from li.fero, corresponding with to Bear. See BAIRN, 

FRUMENTY, s. food made of boiled wheat ; L. fni- 

FRY, s. 1. the young of fish, spawn, and originally the 
seedlings of any thing ; G. frai ; Swed. froe ; D. 
free; T.froge; F.fraye; It.friga. 

2. A dish of any thing fried. See to FRY. 

FRY, v. to dress in a pan on the fire; L. frigo; It. J 'rig- 
ger e ; F.frire. 

FUB, v. a. to put off, to cheat. See FOB. 

FUDDLE, v. to get drunk ; frequentative of Swed. full ; 
Scot, full, fmt, drunk. 

FUDGE, s. fiction, invention, imposition, deception; L. 

FUEL, *. firewood, coal ; from F.feu ; ^. focus. 

FUGH, inlerj. expressing dislike. See FOH. 

FULIMART, s. foul marten, a pole cat ; T.faul marder. 

FULL, v. a. to clean cloth from grease, to thicken it by 
milling; Ii.fullo;irtkoa;Sv/ed.fulla; S.fullian;F. 
fouler. See to WALK. 

FULL, a. entire, replete, without vacuity; G.full; T. 
ful; S. fulle; B. vol ; Sclav, pol; Qhitf, a-Aw ; L. 

FULSOME, a. impure, gross, obscene ; G fulsam ; T. 
faulsam. See FOUL. 

FUMBLE, v. to do awkwardly, to feel about impotently ; 
G.falma,famla,fipla; Swed.famla,fumla ; D.famle; 
'B.jommeleti ; Scot.fuffle. 

FUME, s. smoke, vapour, odour; L. fumus; F.fumee; 

FUMETTE, s. from FUME ; slight smell, odour ; F.fumel. 

FUN, s. merriment, joke, frolic; T. tvonne, vonne ; S. 
ivynn ; Swed. vunna from G. unna, to please ; but S. 
fean, joy, pleasure, is from fain. 

FUND, s. what is established, founded, a stock or bank 
of money, capital; It.fondo; F.fond, from Jj.fundo; 
but G.fnihn,fcean;; S.feoh, denote riches or 
possessions of any kind, income, interest, correspond- 
ing with li.foenus. See FINE and FINANCE. 

FUNK, *. a stink, an unpleasant smell; G. fuin,Jinik ; 
S.fynig; B. veins; F.faguenas. 

FUNNEL, s. a tundish, a vent ; L. B. fundiculus, from 
fundo; Arm.founil. 

FUR, s. the soft hair of beasts, a dry sediment adhering 
to the side of a vessel ; It. feltro, fodro ; T. fatter ; 
F. feulre, fourrure ; D, foer, from G. fela. See 

FURBELOW, s. an appendage of stuff, plaited or pucker- 
ed, on a woman's dress ; G. forfall, farfalla, a veil 
or fold of a garment ; Sp.farfala; F.falbala; Port. 
falbalas : G. and It. farfalla, like L. papilio, is a but- 
terfly, curtain, pavilion. 

FURBISH, v. a. to burnish, polish, make bright ; F.four- 
bir ; It.forbire; T.furben, from G.forbiara,forbiar- 
ta. See BRIGHT. 

FURL, v. a. to draw up, contract ; F.freler forfardeler, 
to bundle up. See FARDEL. 

FURLONG, *. the eighth of a mile ; S.furlang ; L. B.for- 
longum. S. fur, a furrow, is said to have been a mea- 
sure of land, like L. porca. 

FURLOUGH, s. leave of absence from duty ; G.furleif, 
orlofi Swed. orlof, forlaf; T. urlaub ; D.forlow ; as 
if For leave. See LEAVE. 

FURNACE, *. an inclosed fire place ; L. furnus ; S. fyra 
hits is a fire house. 

F U S 

FURNISH, u. a. to supply, provide, equip; It.fournire; 

Y.fournir ; L. B. vuarnire ; Scot, warnys ; T. war- 

nen, from G. varne, varnadur; Isl. narnung, wares, 

utensils. See GARNISH and FURNITURE. 
FUKNITURB, s. goods, moveables, utensils ; F. fourni- 

ture ; G. varnadur. See FURNISH. 
FURROW, v, the trench made by a plough, the rut of a 

carriage; D.fure; T.furche; B. voore ; S.fur. 
FURTHER, a. more in advance, longer, additional ; the 

comparative of Fore and Forth, superlative Furthest ; 

frequently confounded with Far, Farther, Farthest. 

FURTHER, v. a. to advance, promote, assist ; Swed.for- 

dra; T.forderen; B. vorderen. 
FURZE, *. a prickly shrub, gorse; S. fyres, apparently 

from fyr, fire, a name given to various shrubs and 

plants used for heating ovens. See BRAKE, LING, 

FUSES, *. 1. the cone round which is wound the chain 

of a watch or clock ; L. fusus ; V.fuseau, ftiste ; It. 


2. A small musquet. See FUSIL. 

3. FUSE, the match inclosed in a tube which makes a 
shell or bomb explode; F. fusee, from L. focus. 

4. The track or mark of the foot. T./WM; F. piste. 

F Y 

FUSIL,*. 1- a little spindle, a term in heraldry ; li.fa*il- 
lus ; Y. fusil,: 

2. A small musquet, a fusee ; F. fusil, It. futile, a guH 
flint, from L. focus: a firelock, so distinguised from a 

Fuss, . stir, bustle, agitation, tumult ; G. and S. fuif ; 
Svred.Jiask ; Scot. fash. 

FUSTIAN, s. coarse cotton cloth, bombast ; A. fusion ; 
P. vusta, busta; Sp. fustan ; It. fustagno ; F. fu- 
taine. Some pretend that the stuff made by the Ger- 
mans from the flexible bark of trees, such as the lime 
and philyra, which was called Barket and Bast, 
was translated into L. B. fustanum, from L. futtix. 
The fibres of nettles and mallows were used for simi- 
lar purposes ; and even now muslin is called nettle 
cloth in Germany. See BOMBAST. 

FUSTY, a. musty, smelling like a foul cask ; L. futtix, 
like our Staff, signified a Stave, and thence F. fust, 
fustaille, fut, futaille, was a vessel made of wood ; 
fust ; Scot. fast, foul, fusty. 

Fuzz, v. n. to puff, fly out in small particles ; Qwiut ; L. 
visio; F.vessir; Swed.^a; T.Jisten; B. veeslen. 

FUZZBALL, s . a kind of fungus, a puff. 

FY, interj, expressing hate or dislike; P. uf, tvut ; A. 
foh; <f A; G.fue; Sved.fy; L. phy ; T.fey; B./y ; 
Axm.fouy; W.JW; F./. 



GIN English, has two sounds ; that of the Greek r, 
9 as in Gag, Goar, Grocer, is called hard or harsh, 
and liable to be confounded with K. The other, soft, 
has the sound of J, and mostly occurs before E or I 
in our words derived from the Latin and French ; 
such as Gem, Gin, Gentle ; and in like manner the 
Greek r sometimes changed into I. The pronuncia- 
tion of Di and Ti in polysyllables, approaches so 
nearly to G soft, and J, that the latter were occasionally 
placed in their stead. Thus the Latin Diurnal be- 
came Journal ; Digeria, Gigeria, the Gizzard ; and 
the Gothic Tiul, Thial, T. Ziel, a limit, a boundary, 
are cognate with our Thill, Toll, Dole and Goal. G 
before N is generally silent, as well as when followed 
by H in the middle of a word. Gnat, Benign, Deign, 
Night, Caught, Brought, are pronounced, Nat, Be- 
nine, Dane, Nite, Caut, Braut. It did not belong to 
the Runic alphabet ; but, adopted for convenience, it 
was modulated into the power of the Greek X or 
Spanish G soft ; became afterwards confounded with 
J, and melted into double I or IJ, which produced 
our Y, called erroneously the T of the Greeks. G 
when followed by H obtained a guttural sound, which 
is preserved in Scotland ; but Cough, Laugh, Rough, 
we pronounce Cof, Laf, Ruff. The Gothic article J, 
IJ, Ge or Gea, became in many cases integral with 
the word to which it was prefixed, and occasioned 
formerly a redundancy of our initial Y, as in Y down, 
Yclad, Yclepd. The Celts, including the Latins, 
having nothing that corresponded with the Gothic 
W, substituted G for it ; by which William, Wile, 
Wise, Ward, are Guillim, Guile, Guise, Guard ; and 
Warranty is Guaranty. 

GAB, J. the mouth; D. and Scot, gab; Swed. gap; Russ. 
gyba ; I. gob ; W. gwep. 

GAB, v. n. from the noun ; to prate, to chatter, to tell 
lies ; S. gab ; Scot, gab, loquacity. 

CABARDINE, *. a coarse watchcoat; Sp. gabandino; It. 
gavardino. The gaban of the F. It. Sp. and Port, was 
A. caban, a kind of cloak made of thatch, and worn 
by shepherds. 


GABBLE, v. n. frequentative of GAB ; to prate loud or 

fast ; B. gabberen. See JABBER. 
GABEL, GABELLE, . an excise, contribution, tribute ; 

S. gafel, giofol; T. gabel ; F. gabelle ; It. gabella, 

from Give. See GULE. 
GABION, s. a kind of basket used in fortification ; It. 

gabbia, gabbione ; F. gabion, from L. cavea. 
GABLE, s. the pointed roof of a house ; G. gqfvel; Swed- 

gafrvel; D. gavl ; B. gavel; T. gabel, gibel, which, 

like L. B. gabala, signified a fork. 
GAD, s. a point, a wedge, a bar; G. and Swed. gadd ; S. 

gad ; D. gedde. 
GAD, v. n. 1. to run about as animals do when bitten by 

the gad fly. 
2. To form connexions, to gossip, to rove idly ; Swed. 

gadda; D. gade ; T. gaden, from G. gad, for gamid. 


GADFLY, *. a stinging fly, a breese ; from GAD, a sting. 
GADSO, interj. an exclamation used in our old plays ; It. 

cadzo, cazzo, from L. cauda, which, like xs^Kt;, had an 

obscene signification. 
GAFF, s. a fork, a large hook, a harpoon ; F. gaffe. See 

GAFFER, s. a reputable term for a country neighbour ; 

S. gcetvfceder, gefasder ; B. gevaar, corresponding with 

Scot, gudman ; but sometimes confounded with God- 
father. S. eerve, the law, produced aem, and geetv, 

geeetv, legal, woithy, reputable, married. See GAM- 
GAFFLE, s. an artificial spur for a cock ; G. gafla ; S. 

gqfla, geafia ; T. gabel; B. gaffel ; W. gaflack. 
GAG, s. something put into the mouth to hinder speech ; 

B. kau rvegge, a jaw- wedge. 
GAGE, *. 1. a pledge, a stake ; F. gage, from G. need, 

mad; Swed. rvdd ; B. wedde; S. wed ; L. vas, vadis. 

See WAGE. 

2. A mason's rule, a rod to measure casks. See GAUGE. 
GAGGLE, t>. n. to make a noise like a goose ; B. gagalen. 



GAIN. ad. used as a prefix, signifies opposite, towards ; 

G. gen. gegn > S. gcan ; T. gegen, corresponding with 

L. contra, iterum, re. See AGAIN. 
GAIN, s. 1. advantage, convenience, profit, interest; G. 

yi'ign, gag" ; Swed. gagn ; S. geagn ; F. gagne ; ap- 
parently from G. eiga ; S. agan, to obtain, possess. 
2. Success from exertion, earning, profitable labour ; 

G. gamin ; T. gewinn ; S. getvin ; It. gavagna ; F. 

gagne. See WIN. 

( l AINI/V a. useful, convenient, handy ; Swed. gagnlig. 
(>.\iiu*ij, a. gaudy, showy, glittering; from the noun. 
GAIRY, GAIEBY, *. finery, show, glitter ; O. F. gaierie. 

See GAY and GAUDRY. 

GAIT, s. 1. a way, a road, a street. See GATE. 
2. Manner of walking, march ; G. gahatt, going, go- 
hood ; from to Go. 
GAITER, s. aspatterdash ; F. gitelre, guestre ; It. uoselta. 

See HOSE. 
GAL, f. song; G. T. Swed. gal; S. D. gale ; 

P. goal ; Heb. kol, the voice, song ; Sans, ga ; G. 

gala, to sing. See NIOHTINOAL. 
GALA, *. grand festivity, ornament, splendour ; A. ga- 

lah, iala ; P. gela ; Swed. gotta ; Arm. Sp. F. It. 

GALE, *. 1. water myrtle, sweet willow; G. and B. ga- 

gel; F.gale. 
2. A strong steady wind ; G. gol ; B. koele ; T. kuhle, 

a fresh cool wind. 
GALIOT, s. a small galley, a kind of brigantine ; F. ga- 

liote ; It. galeolto. 
GALL, s. 1. bile, malignity, rancour; Isl. gall; Swed. 

galla ; D. gold ; S. gealla ; B. gal ; %*.* : S. geal is 


2. Excoriation, a sore occasioned by friction; S. gealla ; 
Arm. gall; F. gale. 

3. A nucleus or excrescence on trees, arising from a de- 
posit of the eggs of insects; G. gall; S. gealla ; D. 
gal ; L. galla. 

GALLANT, a. 1. from GALA; gay, fine, splendid; F. ga- 
lant ; It. galante ; Sp. galano. 

2. Brave, valiant, noble; the foregoing word is sup- 
posed to have been confounded with L. valens, from 
valeo ; Arm. and W. gallu. 

GALLEON, . from GALLEY; a large Spanish ship ; F. ga- 

GALLERY, s. a long narrow floor, a balcony ; G. gceilar, 
galeidr, from leid, galeid, a way, a leading, a gang- 
way; B. galderie ; Swed. gallerie ; F. gallerie. O. 
F. galler was used instead of oiler, to go ; and galle- 
rie, in this sense, would be a passage. See to WALK. 

GALLKY, *. a vessel impelled by sails and oars ; Swed. 
galeja; G. galeidr; F. galere ; It. saleria , appa- 
rently signifying a passage-boat, and cognate with 
gallery, but supposed to be from /&*(. 

GALLIARD, 1. a. gay, lively. 2. s. A sprightly dance, a 
lively fellow ; F. gaillarde. See GAY and ARD. 

GALLIGASKINS, s. large open hose ; perhaps of L. B. ca- 
ligce coxiones; but said to be Gallicte coxiones. See 

GALLIMATIA, *. nonsense ; a word said to be used by 
the French in ridicule of the Armoricans, with whom 
gall mat signifies good French. 

GALLIMAUFRY, *. a medley, a hotch potch ; F. galima- 
free, said to be Arm. gall matfrya, a good French ra- 
gout, a fricassee of scraps. 

G A N 

GALLIPOT, s. a glazed pot used by druggists; G. glepot, 

glerpot ; B. gleye pot. See GLAIR. 
GALLOCHE, *. a kind of wooden shoe, a sock ; F. ga- 

loche ; It. galloccia. 

GALLON, * a measure of four quarts ; F. gallon ; L. cu- 
ligna ; xt/AiJ. 

GALLOON, *. a kind of lace ; F. and B. galon ; L. ga- 
lena ; yt\a.j. 

GALLOP, v. n. to ride fast, to move by leaps ; D. galope ; 

Swed. galopa ; S. gehleapan ; T. gelaupen ; B. gelou- 

pen ; F. galoper ; It. gallopare, from G. laupa, to 

leap, to run. 
GALLOW, v, a. to terrify; S. agceltvan, from G. oga, fear. 

GALLOWAY, *. a horse under fourteen hands in height ; 

Bohem. galowa ; Pol. and T. galmach, tvalach ; Swed. 

gall, galling, a nag, a gelding. 
GALLOWGLASSES, s. Irish soldiers; I. ealoglach, from 

gal, war, and oglach, a servant or soldier. 
GALLOWS, *. a gibbet, a tree of execution, a suspender ; 

G. and Swed. galea ; Isl. galg ; S. and Belg. gatg, 

confounded with L. gabalus. See GABLE. 
GALLOWS, a. careless, dissolute; G. galaus ; Swed. 

g&los, from ga, cure, attention, and laus, free, loose. 
GAMBADO, *. a spatterdash for riding ; from It. gamba. 

See JAMB. 

GAMBAGE, *. a yellow pigment ; from Cambodia, where 

it is found. 
GAMBOL, e. n. to skip, to frisk, to frolic; F. gambiller ; 

It. gambezziare, from gamba, a leg. See JAMB. 
GAME, s. play, pleasure, mirth, the sport of the field ; 

G. gaman ; T. gamen ; S. gaman, from G. gamma, to 

play, to make merry. 

GAMMER, s. a respectful term, among peasants, for an 
elderly woman ; Swed. gudmoder, gumor ; B. gemoer, 
gemoder ; Scot, gimmer, the feminine of Gaffer. 

GAMMON, s. 1. a buttock of hog salted and dried ; It. 
jambone ; F.jambon. See HAM and JAMB. 

2. The complete game at backgammon. See GAME. 

GAMUT, *. the scale of music ; It. gama ; F. gamme. The 
scale is said to have consisted of only six notes, be- 
ginning with ut, until Guido Aretino prefixed ano- 
ther called gamma, after the Greek rotation gamma ut. 

GANCH, v. a. to torture by dropping the person from a 
high place upon hooks; F. gancher ; It. ganciare, 
fromgancio; L. nncus. 

GANDER, #. the male of a goose ; G. gans ; T. gamer ; 
Swed. gandra ; F. jar, jars ; Hind, hans ; %. 

GANG, v. n. to go ; G. and Swed. ganga ; S. gangan ; 
T. and B. gangen, from G. ga. 

GANG, s. from the verb ; a number of persons who go or 
work together, a crew. 

GANGLION, *. a flower called poligala ; the name seems 
to have been given to different flowers worn in Gang- 

GANGWAY, s. a way or passage from one part of a ship 
to another ; Swed. gdngmdg ; S. gangtveg. 

GANGWEEK, *. the time when processions were made to 
lustrate the bounds of parishes. See ROGATION. 

GANNET, *-. a kind of wild goose; S. ganot. See 

GANTELOPE, vulgarly GANTLET, s. a military punish- 
ment ; G. wandleop ; Scot rvand loup, from ivand, a 
rod, and loup, to leap or run ; but pronounced gante- 
lope by the Celts. 


G A U 

GANTLET, *. an armorial glove. See GAUNTLET. 
GANZA, s. a species of wild goose; Sp. gansa '; Sans. 

hansa. See GANDER. 
GAOL, s. a place of confinement, a prison ; F. geole ; B. 

gaol ; W. geol ; Sp. jaula ; It. gaiola, caiola, from 

L. caveola, a cage. See JAIL. 

GAP, s. a hole, opening, breach, the hiatus in pronun- 
ciation ; G. gap ; S. gapa, apparently formed from 

the same root with our ope, open. 
GAPE, v. n. to open the mouth or eyes, to stare, to 

yawn; G. and Swed. gapa; S. geapan, to yawn, 

gasp, stare. 
GAB, v. to prepare, arrange, to make, to cause ; G. gera ; 

Isl. giora ; Swed. guru, gieera ; D. gicere ; S. gear- 

rvian ; Scot, gar ; T. gerben. 
GAB, *. a point, a spear, a lance, a fish called acus in L. 

The Girrock, Gave or Gaff fish. 
GABANCE, s. an herb used for dying red; Sp. garanza ; 

F. garance > xipp'o;. 
GAEB, s. dress, arrangement, outward appearance ; G. 

giorva ; S. gearva, equipment ; T. garb ; It. garbo ; 

F. garb. See to GAB. 
GABBAGE, *. 1. offal, guts, excrement ; G. giorb. See 

2. Unripe fruit, sour trash ; It. garbezza, from garbo, 

L. acerbus. See CBAB. 
GABBLE, v. a. to sift, separate, pick; A. gharbala ; It. 

garbellare ; Sp. garbeuar : but F. cribler is from L. 

GABBOIL, s. tumult, uproar, disorder; F. garbouille ; 

It. garboglio. See TURMOIL. 
GABDEN, s. inclosed ground, cultivated with plants ; G. 

gard; S. garda ; Swed. gard; W. gardd ; T. gar- 

len ; It. giardino ; F. jardin ; P. gard in the Pahlavi 

dialect. See YABD and ORCHARD. 
GABE, s. coarse wool growing on the legs of sheep ; W. 

garr ; Arm. gar; L. B. crea, from L. crus. See 

GARGLE, v. a. to wash the throat; F. gargouiller, from 

L. gurgitlio. 
GABLAND, s. a wreath of flowers; F. guirlande ; It. 

ghirlanda; Sp. girlanda, supposed to be from L. 

iriro ; but gardland and garland, as used by the Scan- 
dinavians, is said to have been from gird, to bind, and 

lada or linda, a fillet. 
GARLICK, s. a species of leek ; S. garlic from geir, a 

clove, a spike, and lauk, a leek. See GAU. 
GARLICKS, s. a cloth made at Gorlitz in Germany. 
GARMENT, s. any covering for the body ; from GARB, 

but apparently confounded with Raiment. 
GABNEB, s. a granary, repository for corn ; L. grana- 

rium; F. grenier ; It. grenario. 
GABNET, *. a red gem ; It. grenato, from resembling 

the seed of a pomegranate. 
GABNISH, v. a. to arrange, decorate, set off dishes for 

table ; F. garnir ; It. guarnire ; L. B. vuarnire. See 
GARRAN, s. a Highland poney ; Sans, ghora ; P. geer ; 

G.jor; T.gorr; I. gar ran; W. gorivez. 
GARRET, s. the upper story of a house ; but formerly 
a watch-tower ; F. guerite, from G. and Swed. ivara ; 
S. werian, to guard. 

GARRISON, s. a fortified place, soldiers in a fortress ; 
Swed. grvarnison ; It. garnigionc ; F. garnison, from 

G. ivceria, ivcerna ; Swed. nxlrna ; T. narnen, gemar* 

nen, to defend. 
GAETER, *. a band to tie up the stockings ; It. garet- 

liera ; F. jarrettiere, literally a hough band. It. ga* 

retto ; F. Jarret. from L. crus ; L. B. crea. See 

GABTH, s. an inclosure round a farm-house, a yard ; G. 

gard ; Swed. gcerd ; S. geard. See YARD. 

GAS, s. subtle spirit, inflammable vapour ; G. and Swed. 

geesa, to ferment, from asa, to burn, to heat. See 

GASH, s. a cut, a wide deep wound ; B. geliack, gehash. 

See HASH. 
GASKINS, s. pi. wide hose or breeches ; L. B. coxiones, 

from L. coxa. 
GASP, v. to open the mouth, to catch breath ; G. geispa; 

Swed. gdspa for gapsa. See GAPE. 
GASSOON, s. an Irish footboy ; Swed. gusse ; W. gtvas, 

from G.jos,jod, god. 

GAST, v. a. to frighten, to terrify. See AGAST. 
GAT, pret. of to GET. 
GATE, s. 1. the door of a city, a frame of wood on 

hinges ; G. gat, gcett ; S. gait, jate, from gala ; S. 

gcetan, to hold ; whence our ancient word Gatehouse 

for a prison. Phaenician gadir, an inclosure, was the 

origin of Cadiz, and Cape de Gat in Spain. 
2, A way, a street, a road ; G. gala ; Swed. gceta ; D. 

gade, from G. ga, to go. See GAIT. 
GATHEB, v. to bring or draw together, assemble, col- 

lect ; G. gadra, contracted from ga rvidra ; M. G. 

fiivithra ; B. gaderen ; T. gadern; S. gaderian ; 
cot. gadur ; being the frequentative of G. gavida ; 
Swed. gadda ; M. G. garvithan ; T. gatlen, from with 
a conjunction. See to GAD. 

GAUDE, *. a jewel, any gay trinket ; L. gaudium. 

GAUDRY, s. from GAUDE ; finery, glaring colours, osten- 
tation in dress. 

GAVE, pret. of to GIVE. 

GAVEL KIND, s. an equal distribution of land among 
children; G. and Swed. kajle ; B. kavel; S. geajle ; 
Scot, cavel, was literally a stick ; but signified a lot, 
and G. kund ; Swed. kind; S. kind; B. kind; T. 
kind, a child. The father of a family had the differ- 
ent portions of his estate inscribed on bits of wood 
which he inclosed in a box. At his decease his heirs 
drew their lots, and inherited accordingly. This 
practice was known to the Greeks under the name of 

GAUGE, s. a measure, a standard ; F. gauge, anciently 

jaulge, gaulage, from gaule, a rod. See GAUL and 

GAUL, s. a staff, a rod, a pole; Isl. gagl; S. geajle, 

geaule; G. and Swed. wal ; F. gaule; W. gmial ; 

Arm. giiial ; L. vallus. 
GAUNT, a. thin, meagre, spare; S. getvaned, wanting, 

diminished. See WANE. 
GAUNTLET, s. an iron glovs used as defence, and thrown 

down in challenge; F. gauntelet ; It. guanlo ; G. 

vanta ; Swed. wanle ; B. want, supposed to be cor- 

rupted from L. manica. 
GAVOT, s. a kind of dance, a gay tune or air ; It. gaio 

vol/o, a gay turn, gavotlo ; F. gavotte. 
GAUZE, s. a very thin silk or linen ; F. gaze ; B. gaas, 

perhaps from the town of Gaza, but said to be named 

from the isle of Ceos, where silk was brought from 


the eat in webs ; and, after being reduced to threads 

and untwisted, it was manufactured into such stuffs ; 

L. B. gazalum. 
GAWK, s. 1. a cuckoo; xo'oewj ; G. gaukur ; S. geac ; 

Swed. kuckuck. See CUCKOO. 
2. A silly fellow, a buffoon; G. gick ; T. gauch ; B. 

givych; Swed. gack ; Scot. gan>K, from gdka ; Scot. 

geek, to fool, to dupe. See JACK. 
GAWN, *. a cask, a lading vessel ; F. gonne, from L. 

congiut ; %MM%. 
GAWNTREE, s. a wooden frame on which beer casks are 

set ; Scot, gantra. 
GAY, a. airy, cheerful, showy, fine ; It. galo ; F. gai ; 

W. goyn> ; Arm. gae ; from L. gaw. See GAUDRY. 
GAZE, D. n. to look earnestly ; G. sia, asia, gasia ; S. 

gesean, to see. 
GAZEHOUND, *. a dog that hunts from the sight ; L. B. 

agasaeus, supposed to be from gaze, to see ; but G. 

and Swed. gasa, signifies to course. 
GAZEL, GAZELLA, s. an Arabian deer, an antelope; A. 

ghizal ; P. and Heb. gazel, from gaz, a goat, and al, a 

deer. See GOAT and ANTELOPE. 
GAZETTE, *. a newspaper published by authority ; from 

the Gaza at Venice, which contained the government 

printing office ; A. gaza ; y** ; a treasury. 
GAZON, s. smooth grass, turf; from G. meisa ; T. wasen; 

Hind, gause ; F. gazon. See GRASS. 
GEAR, s. apparatus, effects, goods, riches ; S. geara. 

See GEER, GARB, and to GAR. 
GECK, s. one easily imposed upon, a simpleton, foolery, 

whim, trick ; G. geik ; Swed. geek ; T. and Scot. geek. 

See GAWK and JACK. 
GEE, a word used by waggoners to horses;; 

Scot, jee ; G. ga ; It, to go. 
GEER, s. apparatus, accoutrement, tackle ; G. giora ; 

T. gerath ; Scot, graith. See to GAR. 
GEIR, *. a large bird of prey ; G. geir ; T. geier, a vul- 
ture, an eagle ; { ; P. geer, a hawk ; mosh geer, a 

mouse or sparrow hawk. 
GELD, v. a. to castrate, to emasculate ; Swed. galla ; T. 

gelden ; from G. gall; yAAo, sterile, infecund. 
GELDF.R HOSE, s. the marshelder rose ; said to have been 

brought from Guelderland ; but S. holder, geholder, 

is probably the right name. See ELDER. 
GELDING, s. from GELD ; a castrated horse ; F. gullledin. 
GELLY, s. a coagulated fluid; F. gelee ; It. gelo, from 

L. gelalus. 
GEM,*. 1. a jewel, a precious stone; L. and It. gemma; 

G. gimstein ; S. gim ; T. gimme. 

2. The first bud of a tree ; L. gemma, apparently for 


GEMMY, a. from GEM ; bright, sparkling, glittering. 
GEMOTE, s. a meeting, the court of the hundred ; G. 

mot ; Swed. mole ; T. and S. gemot. See to MEET. 
GENERAL, s. one who has the command of an army, who 

directs generally ; F. general ; It. generate, from L. 


GKNKVA, s. spirit of juniper ; F. genevre ; It. ghicpro ; 
L. juniperut. 

GKNTEEL, a. polite, civil, graceful ; L. gejitilix ; F. gen- 
til ; It. gentile. 

GENTIAN, .*. a plant with a blue flower ; A. juuleyana ; 
It. gentinna ; F. gentiane ; L. cyaneus ; xvw,, blue. 
A, t. from GENTIAN; a blue colour. 

G I F 

GENTILE, *. one of the nation, a native, a heathen ; L. 
gentilif ; F. gentil. 

GENTLE, a. mild, tractable, pacific ; F. gentil; L. gen- 
ti/ix, ingenuus. 

GENTLEMAN, *. a term of complaisance ; B. It. gentil- 
huomo; F. gentilhomme, a man of birth or quality, 
corresponding with G. and T. edelman, from G. aede, 
at, nature, progeny, race. See to GET. 

GEORGE, *. 1. a man's name, the name of several kings ; 
some suppose from the Greek word which signifies a 
tiller of the ground ; but G. cer signified pre-emi- 
nence, honour, and rik, rich, powerful; whence 
JErik; D. JErig; T. JErik ; S. Eorrick, Jeoriclc, 
Jorge, George. 

2. A figure of St George worn by the knights of the 

3. An ammunition loaf, King George's allowance to a 

GERFALCON, s. a large hawk ; F. gerfaut ; It. gerfal- 
cone. See GEIR. 

GERMANDER, s. a plant ; F. germandree, from L. cha- 

GET, v. 1. to attain, acquire, possess, obtain ; G. gela , 
S. getan. 

2. To procreate, beget, engender; G. gieta; Swed. 
gala, apparently from eed, ade ; Swed. cett, elt, nature, 
progeny, descent, offspring. 

3. To remember, to learn, consider, conjecture; G. 
gieta ; Swed. gala, supposed to be from G. ged, the 
mind. See FORGET. 

GEWGAW, s. a showy trifle, a toy; L. gau. SeeGAUDE. 
GHASTLY, a. pale, frightful, dismal. See GHOST. 
GHERKIN, s. a pickled cucumber ; Swed. gurka ; T. 

gurcke, a cucumber, a corruption and misapplication 

of L. cucurbita ; F. courge. 
GHOST, *. spirit, breath, the soul of a man deceased 

Swed. east; S. gast ; T. geist ; B. geesl ; G. ahma '; 

anfut, a<r$fut, spirit, breath, are from ', ' ; and G. 

ami signifies to ferment. 
GIANT, *. a man above the or.dinary rate of men in size 

F. geant; It. gigante ; from y/y f ; L. gigas, earth 

GIB, GIBBE, GLIB, s. a poor, spiritless, worn-out animal, 

one emasculated. See GLIB. 
GIBBER, v. n. to talk inarticulately. See JABBER. 
GIBBERISH, s. cant words used by rogues, nonsense. 
GIBBET, s. a gallows ; F. gibet, supposed to be gabelus ; 

gabeletus, cognate with our Gable ; but Heb. ghiboth ; 

Arm. gaft, have a similar meaning. 
GIBBIER, *. wild fowl, game; F. gibbier, from L. an. 


GIB CAT, *. a gelt cat. See GIB. 
GIBE, v. 1. to sneer, taunt, reproach ; O. E. goali ; 

8cot.jaip, from G. gabba, geipa ; Swed.^a66a, geepa; 

F. gaber ; It. gabbare, to ridicule, mock. See APE. 
2. To turn round, to fly about suddenly ; B. gypen, 

from gyp, an eddy. 
GIBLETS, s. pi. small parts of a goose ; from M. G. glbla ; 

S. glblai ; T. giebef, a wing. 
GIDDY, a. having a sensation of going round, whirling 

inconstant, heedless ; S. gidig. See EDDY. 
GIEH EAGLE, s. an eagle of a particular kind. See 

GIFT, s. a donation, favour, acquirement ; G. giofi; T. 

and S. gift. See to GIVK. 

G I R 

GIG, *. 1. a quick motion, something whirled round; 
from G. ga, gega, to go. See JACK. 

2. A fiddle; G. and Swed. giga ; T. geig. 

GIGGLE, v. n. to laugh sillily, to titter ; S. geagl, a sup- 
pressed laugh; T. gachelen, to grin; x.i K ^a. See 

GIGOT, *. a hip, a haunch ; Port, cochado ; F. cuissot, 
gigot, from L. coxa. 

GILD, v. a. to wash over with gold ; G. gilda ; S. gildan, 
from GOLD. 

GILL, s. 1. a stream within high banks; G. gils. See 

2. A measure containing the fourth part of a pint ; L. B. 
gillo, gello ; S. wcegel ; *t>A<|- 

3. A girl, a wench ; G. jugge, dim. juggele, feminine of 
Jock or Jack. See JACK. 

4. An herb called ground ivy ; B. gyl, gcil ; Scot, gyle, 
. from B. geilen, to ferment, signified wort, into which 

this plant was infused. See ALEHOOF. 

GILLS, s. pi, the openings at the neck of a fish for res- 
piration ; G. giels ; Swed. gel ; D. getter ; T. gille ; 
Sp. agallas. G- giel, gil, a fissure. 

GILLY FLOWEK, JULY FLOWER, *. a kind of wall flower; 
F. girqftier ; L. caryophyllum. 

GUI, GISIMY, a. neat, spruce, fine, gay ; Scot, gim, 
gimp, supposed to be W. cn>ymp ; but probably cor- 
rupted from gemmy, as resembling a jewel, in the 
same way that F. bijou is applied. 

GIMLET, s. a borer for nails ; F. gimblet. See WIMBLE. 

ring, a circle or link, a device of connexion ; from G. 
maiden, gemahlen, gemaelen, to betroth, to join ; Swed. 
gemcel ; B. gemaal, a spouse, from G. mal, a con- 

GIMP, *. a binding, a border ; B. gimp ; F. guipe. See 
to WHIP.U'>{ fi 

GIN, s. 1. a* machine; contracted from ENGINE. 

2. A snare, a trap ; corrupted from S. and Scot. girn. 
See GRIN. 

8. A contraction of GENEVA; juniper spirit. 

GINGER, s. a warm spicy root ; P. zingebut ; L. zingi- 
ber ; yify/Ssgi. 

GINGERLY, ad. nicely, cautiously, softly ; from Swed. 
gaengare, a smooth pace, an amble. See to GANG. 

GINGLE, v. to make or cause a sharp reverberating 
sound. See TINKLE. 

GINNET, t. a small Spanish horse ; ntos ; L. hinnus, 

GIPSEY, s. 1. a vagabond, a fortune-teller ; meaning an 
Egyptian, an< l applied to a race of wanderers, who 
first appeared in Europe, by Hungary and Bohemia, 
about the beginning of the fourteenth century, under 
the name of Tatars, Tartars, Zygeuners, Cingare and 
Babylonians. L. B. Zigareus signified both Saracen 
and Gipsey ; P. Zangi were apparently the same peo- 
ple ; and there is said to be a tribe called Zingane 
near the Indus. Their countenance, complexion and 
manners indicate eastern origin, and resemble parti- 
cularly the low castes of the Hindoos, some part of 
whose" language they are said to retain. 

2. A loose wench, a saucy girl; G. kieps; S. cyfese, a 

GIRAFFA, *. an African animal ; A, sera/a, the stately. 

GIRASOLE, *. a sunflower ; L. gyro sole ; F. girasol ; It 


GIRD, D. 1. to bind round, to clothe; P. gird, a circle; 
girid, what go^rpund ; G. gyrda ; Swed. giorda ; S. 
gyrdan ; T. glWfc ; B. garden. 

2. To sneer, taunt. See to JEER. 

GIRD, *. 1. a pang, twitch, acute pain ; G. gcir. 

2. A sarcasm, a sneer ; G. garraed. See to JEER. 

GIRDLE, *. a cincture, a belt, what girds; G. gyrdil ; S- 
gyrdle; T.gurtel. 

GIRL, *. a female child, a young woman ; G. Idrla, dim. 
of karla, a woman, which is fern, of karl, our Carl, a 
man, a boor ; whence Isl. kyrla ; S. cyrle, which cor- 
respond with T. swenth, the fern, of Swain. 

GIRROCK, t. the gar-fish, gave, or gaff-fish. See GAR. 

GIRT, 's. a bandage for a saddle. See to GIRD. 

GISE GROUND, s. land hired out for pasture. See AGIST. 

GisL, s. an hostage, a pledge; T. gissel ; S. gisl; D. 

GITH, s. an herb called cockle ; S. gith ; L. agrostema 

GIVE, v. to grant, bestow, impart, concede ; G. giafa, 
giva ; Swed. gifwa ; S.gifan ; T. geben ; B. geeven ; 
from G. gia; S. ge ; T. gehe ; yt, our yea, assent, 
prefixed to G.fa ; Swed./a ; S.fon, to possess. 

GIZZARD, s. the musculous stomach of a fowl ; F. gesier, 
from L. gigeria for digeria. 

'GLACIS, s. a sloping smooth bank in fortification ; G. 
lid, Mid; S. Mithe ; Swed. gldtt ; T. gldtte ; B. 
gladlje ; F. glacis. See GLADE. 

GLAD, a. joyful, gay ; G. and Swed. glad ; S. glaed ; 

T. glatte, from lat, Mat, part, of the verb to Laugh ; 

L. Icetus. See GLEE, BLITHE and LAUGH. 
GLADE, *. a lawn, an opening in a wood ; S. glade ; B. 

glad. See GLACIS. 
GLAIR, s. the white of an egg ; Arm. glaur ; F. glaire, 

from G. gler ; S. glcere, any thing clear or shining 

like glass ; Arm. glaiir, spittle. See GLARE. 
GLANCE, s. a sudden shoot of light, a quick short view ; 

G. glans, glyms ; Swed. glans ; T. glanz ; B. giants, 

from to GLOW, corresponding with yXn'm. , w 

GLANCE, v. 1. from the noun ; to shoot a sudden ray of 

light, to view abruptly. 
2. To move or view obliquely, to squint, to censure in 

ah indirect way ; G. glinta ; Isl. glena, glea ; whence 

Swed. glint ; Scot, glent, gley ; O. E. glea, oblique. 
GLARE, s. 1. from GLOW ; an overpowering light, great 

brightness, splendour ; G. gloer ; S. glcere ; B. gleor. 

2. A sharp piercing look, a fixed regard. See GLOAR. 

GLASS, s. vitrified matter, a transparent substance ; G. 

glass, from gloa, to shine ; S. glees ; Swed. glas ; T. 

B. and D. glas. Amber found near the Baltic, was 

named glasum in the time of Tacitus; W. gloyrv, 

splendid, bright. 
GLAVE, GLAVIE, s. a broadsword; G. glavel ; Swed. 

glave ; T.glarve; F. glaive; W. glaif, gleddif; Arm. 

clezefj I. claidham, from L. gladium : G. lia is a 

GLAVER, *. wheedling discourse, palaver ; G. glaumur ; 

Scot, clover ; T. klaejfer : W . llafer ; Arm. lavr, 

GLAZE, v. a. to furnish or cover with glass, to overlay 

with something smooth ; Swed. glasera, from GLASS. 
GLEAM, s. a coruscation, light, brightness ; S. glaxn ; 

T. glaim. See LOOM. 


G L O 


GLEAN, v. a. to gather what is left of the harvest, to se- 
lect; F. gl&ner, glasner, from G. galisan. See to 

GLEDE, GLEDGE, *. a kite or buzzard ; Swed. glada ; 

S. glida ; D. glced, glente. 
GLEE, *. 1. mirth, joy, gaiety; G. hleija ; Swed. Ice ; 

S. glic. See LAUGH. 
2. A song, a musical air ; S. glig, music, glio word, a 

gong. See GLEEK. 
GLEED, s. from GLOW ; a hot glowing coal ; Swed. glvd; 

S.gled; T.glut. 
GLEEK, *. music, a musician, sport, a game; G.leik; 

Swed. lek ; D. leeg ; S. gligg. See PLAY. 
GLKEN, *. from GLOW ; brightness ; T. glien ; Arm. 

GLEET, *. a flux from the urethra ; supposed to be from 

Glide ; but S. geleht, what drips, is from gelecan, to 

leak. See CLAP. 
GLEN, * a narrow valley, a depression between hills ; 

G. gil; S. glen; I. gleann ; W. glyn: G. gll is an 

opening, a fissure. 
GLIB, a. smooth, slippery, voluble ; B. glipp, from G. 

hleipa, to run. 
GLIB, s. a kind of bushy wig worn by the Irish ; I. 

glib, hair. 
GLIB, v. a. to cut, to emasculate, to geld ; T. geluben; 

B. gelubbe. See to LIB. 
GLIDE, v. n. to slide, to go gently and silently ; Swed. 

f\ida ; T. gleiten ; B. glyden ; S. glidan ; D. glide; 
. glisser : G. hlid, a slope. See GLACIS. 
GLIKE, s. a sneer, a flout. See GLEBK. 
GLIM, *. a small light, a candle ; Swed. glimma ; B. 

glim ; S. geleom. See GLEAM and to LOOM. 
GLIMMER, .v. from GLIM ; a faint light, a coruscation ; 

G. glymr ; Isl. glimber. 
GLIMPSE, *. a faint quick light, a short view; G. glymt; 

B. glimp. See GLANCE. 
GLISTEN, GLISTER, v. n. to shine, sparkle, glitter; G. 

glysa ; Swed. glista ; B. glisteren, gliusteren ; T. 

GLITTER, v. n. to shine bright, to glare ; G. and Swed. 

glittra ; S. glitenan ; D. glittere. 
GLOAR, v. n. to look earnestly, to stare; Swed. glo; T. 

glauren ; B. gluuren ; Scot, glour. 

GLOAT, v. n. to look wistfully, to cast amorous glances ; 
G. lita, galita ; Swed. glo, glota ; A*. 

GLOOM, s. cloudiness, heaviness of mind, a frown ; T. 

flum, turbid, not serene ; S. glomung, twilight ; 
wed. glammig, appearance of ill health ; Isl. gleyma'; 
Swed. gloma, uncertain recollection, were all cognate 
with our words loom, gleam, glimmer, signifying at 
first an unsteady light, and afterwards obscurity, 

GLORY, *. lustre, brightness, fame, honour, a circle of 
light surrounding the head ; L. gloria ; F. gloire ; B. 
gloor. See GLARE. 

GLOSS, *. 1 . a comment, a scholium ; -/xirra ; F. glote. 

2. Lustre, brightness; G. glys ; Isl. gloss; D. glise. 

See GLOW. 
GLOVE, *. a cover for the hand ; G. glovar ; Swed. glof; 

Isl. klofe ; from klof, a finger. See CLAW. 
GLOW, v. to shine, to burn, to grow hot; G. gloa; S. 

gloan ; T. glden ; W. glo; Arm. gloy, corresponding 

with yAu. See Low. 

GLOZE, v. n. to explain, wheedle, flatter, give a bright 

colouring ; G. glosa ; S. glesan. 
GLUE, *. a strong cement used to join wood ; yX/ ; L. 

gluten ; F. glue. 
GLUM, a. sullen, sour, grave, stubborn; G. gliupr, glup; 

Swed. glam, troubled in countenance. 
GLUT, v. a. to devour, sate, cloy, disgust ; from L. glu- 

tio; W. glnth. 
GLUTTON, s. one who eats to excess ; F. glouton. See 

to GLUT. 
GNAR, GNARL, v. n. to growl, to draw up the nose like 

a dog in anger, to snarl ; S. gnyrran ; Swed. knorra; 

T. knarren. See SNARL. 
GNAR, GNARL, s. a knot in wood ; T. knorr ; D. knorr, 

dim. knorrle, from G. knutr. See KNOT. 
GNASH, v. to grind the teeth, to exhibit rage or anguish; 

G. gnata ; Swed. gnissu ; T. knaschen ; S. cnysan ; 

D. knathen. 
GNAT, .v. a small winged biting insect; , *.jr]>; S. 

gntel, from GNAW. 

GNAW, v. a. to bite, grind with the teeth, eat by de- 
grees, corrode ; G. gnata ; Isl. naga ; Swed. gnaga ; 

D. gname ; B. knaogen ; T. gnagen ; S. gnagan ; W. 

cnoi ; . 
Go, v. n. to walk, move, proceed ; u. In, >/ ; L. eo ; 

Hind.ja; G. and Swed. ga ; S. gan ; B. gaan ; T. 

gehen ; Arm. ya. It was a regular verb with the 

Goths ; the Danes and Scots still use Gaed for Went. 

Gig, gait, jack, are some of its derivatives. 
GOAD, *. a stick with a sharp point ; G. gadd ; S. gad : 

W. got, a spur. See GAD. 
GOAL, s. a barrier, a limit, a starting post, a final object 

or purpose; G. iiule ; Swed. tjal, thial; S. Ihil ; T. 

theil, ziel ; B. doel; I. dial ; Scot, dale, our Dole and 

Toll, are all cognate with our words deal and faille, 

meaning division, separation. Hence also S. thi/le, 

the ultima Thule, which is now called Fula from the 

usual mutation of G. t/i into /', like t into <p. 
GOAR, s. a triangular piece of cloth inserted in a robe or 

sail, a stripe or piece of patch- work ; Isl. geir ; T. 

gdre, geren ; B. geer ; Scot, gair ; L. B. gero s It. 

gheronc de la camisa, the goar of a shift. 
GOAT, s. an animal of a middle species between a deer 

and a sheep ; G. geit ; Swed. set ; B. geit ; T. geiss; 

A. gadoo ; Heb. ghede, gez ; W. gilt. See GAZEL. 
GOB, s. a heap, a quantity. See GOVE. 
GOBBET, .v. a mouthful ; F. gobc. See GAB. 
GOBBLE, s. a hasty swallow, a gulp ; L. B. guvela, gu- 

bela. See GOBBET and GULP. 
GOBLET, f . a kind of large cup ; F. gobelet, said to be 

from It. coppella, and first known as a juggler's cup. 
GOBLIN, *. an elf or fairy, an apparition ; F. gobelin ; 

T. gobold, kobolt ; B. kabouler ; L. B. covalis, cobali- 

nus, gobalinuf, were used nearly in the same sense, 

although perhaps of different origin. G. gumme ; 

Swed. gubbe was an old man or elf, and Tumple 

Gubbe, our Hob or Hope Goblin ; for with us hope 

and tump signify a field. Cur, cob, signifies metal, 

with the miners of Bohemia, and Cobal is an elf fre- 
quenting mines. 
GOD, *. the supreme being, an idol ; G. god; Isl. gaud ; 

Swed. gud; S. god ; T. got ; B. god; P. khoda. See 


GODHEAD, GODHOOD, *. the divine nature. See HOOD. 
GOD YBLD, s. protection of God; G. god hylld ; hylli 

gudanna, favour of the gods. 

G R 

G R A 

GOEL, a. orange-coloured ; S. goelew. See YELLOW, 

GOFF, s. a play with a stick and ball ; Scot, golf, gouf, 

from G. kilfa ; Swed. and B. kolfa, a club. 
Goo, s. joy, delight ; Romaunce gang ; F. gogo, gogue ; 

T. gau ; L. gaudium. 
GOGGLE, v. n. to look asquint; from G. auga, geauga, 

to eye, and glea, to squint. See KEEK and GLANCE. 
GOLD, s. the most perfect of metals ; G. gull, guld ; Swed. 

gulid; T. and S. gold; B. guide. It seems to be 

named from its colour. See GOEL. 
GOLD HAMMER, s. a small bird ; T. gold hammer. YEL- 

GOLDY LOCKS, *. butter cups; from gold, yellow, and G. 
lyk, a cup, a concavity. 

GOLL, *. a hand; used in contempt; G. kougl, contracted 
from knuckle. See HOT COCKLES. 

GOME, *. black grease of cart wheels ; M. G. gatvamm. 
See COOM. 

GONDOLA, *. a long flat Venetian boat ; It. gondola ; F. 

GONFALON, GONFANON, *. a royal standard, a military 
ensign ; G. gunfana, gunfaila ; It. gonfalone ; P. 
gonfanon ; T. gunfannen : P. Jung ; Hind, ghung ; 
G. gun, an army, battle. See KING, FANE and 

GOOD, a. having desireable qualities ; G. Swed. S. B. 
god ; T. got ; A. qudr. It is the adjective of God, the 
Deity ; from G. and ; P. ud ; W. od ; S. ead ; T. od, 
ot, signifying riches, wealth, power, happiness. Odin, 
Woden, Goden, was also the powerful, the mighty ; 
and the Gauts or Goths called themselves Giants. 
From this root, G. Audward ; S. Eadward is our Ed- 
ward ; Aud-hialp, powerful help, Adolphus. See 

GOODMAN, *. neighbour, master, gaffer ; from GOOD in 
the sense of substantial, or a free man; but sometimes 
like Scot, gudman, from S.cetvd, gecervd; B. gehuutod, 
plighted, betrothed, it signified the head of a family, 
a feudal tenant, and a married man. See YEOMAN. 

GOODS, *. furniture, effects, merchandise, wares ; corre- 
sponding with L. bona ; It. bent ; F. biens. 

GOODY, s. a term of civility used towards an elderly 
woman, corresponding with Gammer. See GOODMAN. 

GOOL, s. a pig, a hog ; G. golt ; D. gylt ; S. gilt ; T. 
galz, apparently from G. gall, sterile, gelt. 

GOOLE, s. a gutter, a gulley, a puddle; Isl. gaul; Swed. 

g'ol; B. guile. 
GOOSE, *. 1. a large water fowl ; P. and Turk, kazz ; G. 

gas ; Swed. gas ; B. goes ; S. gos ; T. gaas, hus ; A. 

ooz ; W. guyz ; Arm. goas ; I. geh. See GANDER. 

2. A taylor's pressing iron ; B. yzer, geizer, from G. 
tsar ; S. eisag, ge eisag, iron. 

3. A simpleton, a gawky. F. oison signified a gosling, 
and also a young bird or simpleton. T. gauchs was 
a fool. See PIGEON and GAWKY. 

GOOSEBERRY, *. a bush and its fruit; apparently from 
T. and S. hos, gehos, rough, hairy, and berry : Swed. 
krusbcer, grusbar ; B. kruisber ; T. kraus, frizzled, 
was apparently the origin of L. grossula ; F.fgros- 

GOOSE CAP, s. a silly person, a goose. See COXCOMB. 

GORE, s. 1. filth, excrement; G. gor ; Swed. gorr ; S. 
gor. See GARBAGE. 

2. Clotted blood ; S. gore; Swed. gor; W. gor; Arm. 
gore; fc{. 

3. A slanting piece of cloth. See GOAR. 

4. A point, a prickle, a pike, the top of a horn ; G. geir ; 
S. gaire ; I. geitr. 

GORGE, s. the swallow, the throat ; L. gurgulio ; F. 

gorge; It. gorga. 
GORGEOUS, a. splendid, showy, glittering ; F. gorgias ; 

Arm. giorgua, from O. F. gorier ; It. gioire ; L. gau- 

dere. See GAUDRY. 
GORGET, *. throat armour ; It. gorgietta, gorgiera. See 

GORMAND, *. a great eater ; F. gourmand, perhaps from 

L. voro and mando, the former being pronounced goro 

by the Gauls. 
GORSE, s. a prickly shrub ; S. gors, gorst denoted also 

the juniper and restharrow. See GORE. 
GOSHAWK, s. a large falcon, a goose hawk; S. gos hqfoc. 
GOSPEL, s. the word or record of God ; G. godspial, gud- 

spial ; S. godspel, from spidla, which, like Tell, sig- 
nifies originally to detail. See to SPELL. 
GOSSAMER, s. a fine spider's web, the light down of 

plants ; properly cob's hammer, a spider's veil. See 

COB and HEAM. 
GOSSIP, *. a sponsor in baptism, a tatler ; G. gudsip, 

gussiv, from god, gud, religious, and sib ; S. syp ; A. - 

sihab, a relation. 
COSTING, GOELSTAIN, *. an herb for staining yellow, ga- 

rance. See GOEL. 
GOTHAM, s. the town of fools ; L. B. gotticus, with the 

Romans, was a Goth and a simpleton. 
GOUD, s. a plant for dyeing blue ; F. guede ; It. gaude ; 

L. glasltim, from glaucus ; W. glas ; Arm. glaz, blue. 

See WOAD. 
GOVE, s. a mow, a mass; T. gehauf ; B. gehoop ; S. ge- 

heaps. See HEAP. 
GOVERN, v. a. to steer, direct, rule, manage ; xvtp*a ; 

L. guberno ; Sp. gobernar ; F. gouverner. 
GOUGE, s. a kind of chisel for grooving ; F. gouge ; Sp. 

gttvia, from L. cavo. 
GOUR, s. a growler, a badger ; G. goor, from gey a, to 

bark or yell. See GRAY. 
GOURD, *. a plant resembling a melon ; L. cucurbiia ; 

F. courge, gourde. 
GOURDY, a. swelled and stiff in the legs ; F. gourd, en- 

gourdi ; Arm. gourd, from L. corigidus. 
GOUHNET, *. a fish. See GURNARD. 
GOUT, *. 1. the arthritis, a periodical disease attended 

with great pain ; F. goute ; It. and Sp. gotta, gota, 

from L. gittta, on the supposition that it was occa- 
sioned by the distillation of catarrhal humours in the 

joints ; Swed. gickt ; T. gicht ; S. gectha, are also 

names for the gout ; but, like B. jeukt ; Scot, youk, 

signify itching. 

2. A drop ; L. gutta ; F. goulte. 

3. Taste, liking ; F. gout, from L. guttus. 

GOWN, s. an upper garment, loose habit ; It. gonna ; F. 

gonnelle ; T. gotvne ; W. grvn ; L. B. gunna, gauna- 

cum, supposed to be from y><;, reaching to the knee, 

as talaris to the heel. 
GRAB, v. a. to seize, snatch ; Swed. grabba ; T. grapp, a 

claw, the hand. See GRIPE. 

GRAFF, s. a ditch. See GRAVE and GRIP. 

GRAFF, GRAFT, s. a small branch inserted into the stock 

G R A 

of another tree ; P. greffe ; B. greffie ; S. graft, from 

G. graaf; S. grafan ; y{'<p*. 

GRAIL, s.'hail; L. B. granula ; F. grele, from L. granrfo. 
GRAIN, s. 1. a single seed of corn, a small weight, a 

particle; L. granum ; It. Kruno; F. grain; T.gran; 

W. grown; seemingly allied to corn. See GRY. 

2. A substance for dying stuffs ; F. graine ; It. grana, 
signified kcrmcs, which was supposed formerly to be 
the grain of a plant ; and what we call dying in 
grain, is called by others dying in kennes. 

3. The fibres of wood or cloth ; F. grain ; L. B. greno ; 
G. graun, green ; T. gran ; B. grein, hair, fibres; sig- 
nifying also the beard. 

GRAINS, *. pi. 1. from GRAIN; the particles of malt ex- 
hausted in brewing. 

2. Prongs, points, forks ; D. greens ; G. grinds, from 
G. greina, to divide. 

GRAMPUS, s. a kind of whale ; S. hranfisc, from G. 
hrina, to grunt. 

GRAND, a. 1. great, illustrious; L. grandis; F. grand; 
It. grande. 

2. Very ancient ; L. grandcevus. 

GRANGE, s. a farm-house, a barn, a grainage ; It. gran- 
gia ; F. grange, from GRAIN. 

GRANT, v. a. to admit kindly, to bestow, allow ; L. B. 
grationare, from L. gratia. 

GRAPE, *. 1. the fruit of the vine ; but originally signi- 
fying what grew in clusters ; F. grappe; It. grappa, 
graspo, grappolo ; T. traube. See RAPE. 

2. A fork with several claws or prongs; G. graf '; 
Swed. grepe ; T. grappen, rappen ; It. grappa. See 

GRAPNEL, *. a grappling iron, a small anchor ; F. gra- 
pin. See GRAPNEL. 

GRAPPLE, v. to lay fast hold of, to fight close; T. grap- 
pen, from G. graff, kraff, the hand. See GRIPE. 

GRASP, v. a. to hold in the hand, seize; T. grapsen. 

GRASS, *. herbage of the field ; G. gras ; Swed. grdt ; S. 
gran ; T. grass ; B. eras ; ygV 15. Our word is from 
the verb to GROW : T. mate has the same meaning, 
from wasen ; G. maxa, to grow. 

GRATE, v. a. to rub small, to offend by any thing harsh ; 
F. gratter ; It. grattare, from L. rado, corrado. 

GRATE, *. a range of bars, a fire-place ; It. grata ; L. 

GRATER, s. an instrument to grate with ; F. gratoir. 

GRAVE, *. a place for the dead ; G. gratif, grav ; Swed. 
and B. graf; S. graf. 

GRAVE, v. to dig, carve, engrave ; G. grafa ; Swed. gra- 
va ; S. grafan ; B. graaven ; yjwpw. 

GRAVEL, Jt. hard coarse sand; G. grio ; W. gro ; B. gra- 
ved ; F. gravier ; It. gravella. 

GRAVY, *. drippings from flesh in coction; Q.gruajail, 
pan fat, from S. greofa ; T. grape, a pan. 

GRAY, *. a brock, a gour ; D. grevling ; Swed. greef- 
swine, from grave to burrow ; but It. graio seems to 
denote its gray colour. See BADGER. 

GRAY, a. hoary, white mixed with black ; G. gry ; Swed. 
gra ; T. grau ; S. grteg ; F. grit ; It. grigio, graio. 

GRAYBEARD, *. a stone jar, an earthen jug ; from It. 
ghiara brocca, from L. glis and brocca ; F. broc, a 
burnt jug. See JAR and BRICK. 

GRAYBEARD, *. one whose beard is white with age, an 
old man. 

G R I 

GRAYLING, *. a gray-coloured fish ; L. umbra. 

GRAZE, v. n. 1. to touch slightly; F. raser. See RASE. 

2. To eat grass, to pasture cattle. 

GREASE, *. 1. the soft part of fat, smear ; xt< T '( > ^ l - 

grassa ; F. graisse. 
2. A disease in horses ; L. crassus ; It. grosso ; F. pros. 

See Gnoss and GOUHDY. 
GREAT, a. large, thick, grand, noble, intimate ; S. great; 

B. groot ; Swed. grott. See GROSS. 
GREAVES, s. pi. ancient armour for the legs ; fromL.cnw,- 

L. B. crea ; W. gar ; F. greve. 
G REE, s. grace, favour ; L. gratia ; F. gr(. 
GREECE, GREEZE, s. a flight of steps ; F. gres, from L. 

GREEDY, a. voracious, avaricious ; G. gradag ; S. gric- 

dig ; B. gretig. 
GREEN, a. verdant, new, fresh, unripe ; G. and Swed. 

green ; S. grene ; T. grun. 
GREET, v. a. 1. to congratulate, salute; B. greetan ; T. 

frussen ; S. grithan, from G. and Swed. grid, grud ; 
cot. gryth, peace, tranquillity. See FRED. 

2. To accost, to address, consult ; G. rceda ; S. geriedan ; 
T. gereden. 

3. To cry, to weep ; G. greiia ; Swed. grcela ; M. G. 
greitan ; S. grceaan ; O. E. grede ; B. kriten ; Tartar 
criden ; It. gridare ; Sp. grtdar, critar ; Scot, greet ; 
F. crier ; P. giryah. See CRY. 

GRENADE, * . a small bomb, a fire ball ; F. grenade ; L. 

granatum, resembling a pomegranate. 
GREVE, *. 1. the register or recorder of a court ; L. B. 

gravior ; F. greffier, from ~/f<fu. 

2. A steward, a superintendent ; S. gerefa ; Swed. grrf- 

*>e ; T. grafme. See REEVE. 
GREYHOUND, *. a fleet kind of hound ; S. grighund ; 

Scot, greto ; G. grey, a dog. 
GHIOE, *. 1. a pig ; G. grijs ; D. and Swed. gris, a pig ; 

<ijf ; F. gore, a sow. 
2. A flight of steps. See GREECE. 
GRIDE, v. n. to creak, to make a sharp noise ; It. gridare. 


GRIDELIN, a. flaxen gray ; F. gris de lin. 
GRIDIRON, *. a grate to broil meat upon ; It. gradella ; 

F. grille ; W. gradell ; Scot, griddle, from L. crates, 

craticula. See GRATE. 
GRIEF, *. sorrow, pain, trouble, harm ; F. grief; It. 

grave, from L. gravis. 

GRIEVE, v. to afflict, hurt, mourn ; F. grever. 
GRIO, s. a sand eel remarkable for its vivacity, a merry 

creature; B. kriekie, which signifies also a cricket. 
GRILL, s. 1. a gridiron; F. grille; L. craticula. 
2. An iron cage with bars like a grate ; F. grille. 
GRILLY, v. a. from GRILL ; to broil, to roast. 
GRIM, a. horrible, ill-looking, fierce ; G. grim ; Swed. 

grym ; S. grim. 
GRIMACE, s. a distortion of the countenance, an air of 

affectation ; It. gimmacia ; F. grimace, from G. grima, 

a mask ; S. egis grima, grima egi.t, a frightful mask. 

GRIMALKIN, s. a tabby cat; from gray and T. mal; L. 

macula, a spot. 
GRIME, *. dirt, soot; G. grim; B. gricm ; S. hryme, 

GRIN, v. n. to set the teeth together, to smile affectedly 



and with displeasure; G. grina ; S. grinnan ; B. grii- 

nen ; T. greinen, to show the teeth, to laugh. 
GRIN, * 1. from the verb ; a sneer, an affected smile. 
2. A snare, a net ; S. grin, girn ; B. garen ; Scot, girn, 

signifying originally yarn ; like F.Jllet, from Ii.Jilum. 

GRIND, v. a. to reduce to powder, to rub, to sharpen 

by friction ; G. grindja ; S. grindan, from G. grunn, 

a stone. See GRIT. 
GRIP, s. a small ditch ; G. grep ; S. grtep ; T . grttbe, 

from GRAVE, to dig. See GRAFF. 

GRIPE, s. a grasp, a squeeze, a pinch 5 S. gripe ; Swed. 
grip; B.grijp; T. greijf ; F. gripe, from G. greip, 
hreif; T. kraff ; Swed. grip ; Heb. garaph ; P. girift ; 
F. griffe, a finger, a claw, the hand. 

GRISKIN, s. a pork chop, the back bones of a hog broil- 
ed. See GRICB. 

GRISLY, a. horrible, frightful, grim; G. griselig; Swed. 
grdselig ; S. grislig ; D. grcesselig : S. grcesan, agry- 
san, to have dread ; T. graus, horror. 

GRIST, s. corn to be ground, profit to the miller for 
grinding; S. grist for grindst. 

GRISTLE, s. a cartilage; T. croestel; S. gristle ; L. car- 

GRIT, s. ]. the coarse part of meal; G. grit, from grind; 

S. gritta ; Swed. grdt ; B. grut ; T. grutze ; Scot. 

groats ; F. gruatt, from egrugger to grind. 

2. Sand, a small stone, a kind of fossil ; G. griol ; B. 

gruiz ; Swed. gryt, grus ; S. great ; T. gries ; W. 

grut; Scot, grete ; It. greto : F. gres ; Scot, greek, 

GRIZELIN, GRIZZLE, a. gray, roan, flaxen-gray. See 

GROAN, *. a hoarse, dead, mournful sound ; G. hryn ; S. 

grane ; B. kreun. 
GROAT, s. 1. hulled oaten grain ; G. graut ; Swed. grot; 

B. grtitte. See GRIT and GROUT. 

2. A fourpenny piece ; B. groot, great. 

GROCER, *. one who deals in spices, tea and sugar. G. 
and Swed. gras, signified aromatics ; and, from the 
same root, G. grod, kntl ; T. kraut ; Swed. krydd ; D. 
kryda, were vegetables, aromatics, spicery; also G. 
aurt ; D. urt ; Swed. art ; B. wort ; S. wyrt ; T. ivurtz, 
were used in the same sense ; so that grosser, grodser, 
krautzer, were cognate with T. gewMzer, a dealer in 
spicery or dry herbs, in contradistinction to a green 
grocer. See DRUG and DRYSALTER. 

GROG, s. spirits and water ; from A. uruk, which signi- 
fies ardent spirit. 

GROGHAM, s. a kind of stuff; F. gros grain, from gross 
and grain. See LOCKRAM. 

GROIN, *. the part next above the thigh ; F. giron ; L. 

GROOM, s. 1. a man, a master, a chief; G. gum; Swed. 
gumme ; S. guma ; T. gaum ; B. gom. 

2. An attendant, an overseer, one who tends and cleans 
horses ; Swed. gom ; S. gyme, from G. gaum, care, at- 
tention ; ga huga, to mind. 

GROOVE, s. a hollow cut with a tool ; G. grtmf. See 

GROPE, s. to feel for in the dark; S. gropian. See 

GROSS, a. coarse, thick, bulky, unrefined; G. grit,- 
Swed. gross ; T. grooz, gross ; F. gros ; It. grosso ; 

L. B. grossus, from L. crassus, signifying also in G. 
generally great. 

GROT, GROTTO, s. a cavern, a cave of pleasure ; *^viflt t : 
G. graft; Swed. gruft ; D. grotte ; It. grotta ; F. 
grotte ; Sp. gruta. See GRAVE and GROOVE. 

GROTESQUE, a. distorted, caricatured, ridiculous; Sp. 
grulesque; It. grotesco, from GROTTO. The lower 
story of a Roman house contained the hall, baths 
and studies, decorated with mythological representa- 
tions ; and apartments of this kind being called 
grottos, the figures obtained the name of Grotesque. 

GROVE, *. a walk shaded by trees, a small -wood ; G. 
grqf ; S. grove, apparently from gro hof, a growing 
cover, as G. and S. hof, signified a cover and a court. 

GROVEL, v. n. to lie prone, to crawl, to be mean ; G. 
grufla ; F. grouiller. See CRAWL. 

GROUND, jr. the earth, soil, floor, foundation ; G. Swed. 
T. D. S. grund ; B. grond. 

GROUNDLING, *. a loach, a small fish that keeps near the 
ground ; D. grundling ; but Swed. grdnling denotes 
its green colour. 

GROUNDSEL, * .a plant called simson; F. senefon; S. 
grunde smelge; Swed. slentvort : G. grunn, grunt ; T. 
grien, stone, sand, corresponds with the Swed. name ; 
and S. swelge is a potion, apparently used for the gra- 

GHOUNDSIL, *. the beam that is next the ground. See 

GROUP, s. a cluster, a crowd ; It. gruppo, groppo ; F. 

groupe, a bunch, a knot, a clump of figures in paint- 
ing. See GRAPE. 
GROUSE, *. a heath cock; W. grugjar, from grug ; L. 

GROUT, *. coarse meal, pollard ; S. grut. See GROAT. 

and GRIT. 
GROW, v. to vegetate, increase ; G. groa ; Swed. gro ; 

B. groyen ; S. grawan. 

GROWL, v. . to snarl, to mutter. See GRUMBLE. 
GRUB, v. a. to dig up, to root out, to destroy ; G. gran- 
pa ; S. groban. See GRAVE. 
GRUBBLE, v. a. to feel about in the dark ; frequentative 

of to GROPE. 
GRUB STREET, a. mean, low, drudging in literature; from 

F- greff'e, greffier, a registry, which was held there. 

GRUDGE, s. ill will, animosity, a quarrel ; S. getorcec ; 

B. gemrok ; F. gruge, grouche ; Scot, grutch. See 

GRUEL, *. oatmeal boiled in water ; F. gruelle, gruau. 

GRUFF, GBOUGH, GHUM, a. coarse, rude, rough, surly, 

sour ; Swed. grof ; T. grobe ; B. groff. See ROUGH. 
GRUMBLE, v. n. to mutter, snarl, growl ; B. grommelan, 

to speak angrily, appears to be G. grum, anger, and 

mela, to speak ; Swed. grummla, to trouble, to vex ; F. 

GRUNT, *. the common cry of a pig ; L. grunitus : G. 

runte; Swed. runte, a boar. 

GRUTCH, v. to have ill will, to envy. See GRUDGE. 
GRY, s. the tenth part of a line, an atom, any thing of 

little account ; yji. See GRAIN. 
GUANA, s. a large lizard ; called iguana in America. 
GUARANTEE, s. a security ; It. guarantia ; F. garanlie. 


G U L 

GUARD, *. a defence, protection ; It. guardia ; F. garde; 

W. gtvard. See WARD. 
GUASCH, *. painting in water colours ; It. guazzo. See 

GUDGEON, *. a small fish with a large head ; F. gotijon ; 

It. ghiova, ghiozza ; Sp. gadoze, from L. gobius. 
GUEBDON, s. a recompense, reward ; F. guerdon, from 

G. nterd, value, worth ; S. getveorthian, to recompense. 

GUESS, ti. a. to conjecture ; G. gieta, giesa ; Isl. glska ; 

Swed. gissa. See GET. 
GUEST, s. a visitor, a person receiving hospitality ; G. 

eiest, gast ; Swed. gdst ; T. gast ; D. giest ; S. gest ; 

W. gtvest : Isl. gista > to eat. 

GUGGLE, v. n. to sound as water running from a narrow- 
mouthed vessel. See GURGLE. 
GUIDE, v. a. to direct, rule, instruct; F. guider, from G. 

jvita ; Swed. tveta; D. wide; S. tvitan, to know, 

to teach, show, demonstrate. See Wis. 
GUIDE, s . a director, a conductor ; from the verb ; S. 

tvcelha, tvisa ; F. guide ; It. guida ; Arm. ghida ; Sp. 

guia, supposed by some to be from L. via. 
GUIDON, *. from GUIDE ; a standard bearer ; F. guidon. 
GUILD, s. a society, a corporation ; G. gield; Swed. 

gild; S. gild; T. gilde ; B. gild, contribution, tribute, 

signified also a club, either religious, mercantile or 

social, maintained by individual contribution. See 

GUILE, s. artifice, subtlety, cunning ; O. F. gtiille. See 

GUILT, *. offence, crime, wickedness ; G. and Swed. 

gilde ; S. gylte, signified value, worth, a debt, com. 

pensation for a crime; and thence came to denote 

GUILTY, a. from the noun ; criminal, liable to fine or 

GUINEA, *. a gold coin worth twenty one shillings ; 

first coined from Guinea gold. 
GUISE, *. manner, mien, habit ; G. tvijs ; Swed. tvijs ; 

T. wise ; Arm. ghis ; F. guise ; It. guisa. See WISE. 
GUITAR, *. a stringed musical instrument ; P. ketar, per- 
haps chutara, four strings ; It. ghitara. See CITHERN. 
GUIVRE, a figure in heraldry ; F. guivre ; L. viper. 
GULCH, s. a swallowing, a glutton ; L. gulo. 
GULE, s, lammas ; S. gauel; L. B. gulo, a contribution. 

GULES, a. red, in heraldry or a coat of arms; f.gueuks, 

from A. gul ; P. goal, a rose, bright red. 
GULF, *. 1. a whirlpool, an abyss; G. gialfur ; F. golfre, 

goufre ; Swed. gdl ; Isl. gaul. See GOOLE. 
2. A deep bay in the sea ; K'A*-< ; It. golfo ; F. golfe. 
GULL, *. 1. a sea mew; G. kuail ; It. giiaglio; Arm. 
goll ; W. gtvylan, the wailer. It is fabled to be the 
ghost of some person lost at sea. 

G Y V 

2. From the verb ; a dupe, a silly fellow. 

GULL, v. a. to trick, defraud, dupe ; G. goela, gaula ; 
Swed. gylla ; T. gillen ; P. got, fraud. See CAJOLE. 

GULLYHOLE, s. the hole where gutters empty themselves 
into the sewer. See GOOLE. 

GULP, v. a. to swallow down at once ; G. glcepa ; Isl. 
gleypa ; Swed. glupa ; D. glube ; B. gulpen, to swal- 
low. See GULCH. 

GUM, *. 1. a vegetable adhesive substance ; *.ift(ti ; L. 
gumma ; F. gomme. 

2. The fleshy substance that contains the teeth; G. 
Swed. S. goma ; B. gomme ; T. gaum. 

GUN, s. a cannon, a firelock ; Scot, gyn, from gin, en- 
gine ; anciently crack gynys. 

GUNNEL, GUNWALE, *. a rim of thick plank that rises 
higher than the deck on a ship ; G. and Swed. mat 
signifies a cylindrical ledge or perch ; but as gun is a 
modern word, perhaps the term was taken from the 
ledge of a cask. See GAWN. 

GURGLE, v. n. to gush out with noise as water from a 
bottle; It. gorgoliare. See GARGLE and GUGGLE. 

GURNARD, s. a fish ; L. cornuta ; F. cornard, gornarl. 

GUSH, s. a sudden emission of liquor ; Isl. gusa ; T. 

gusse ; B. gudse; Arm. gtvaz; %vtr; G. geysa, to 

pour out. See JET. 
GUSSET, *. an angular figure in heraldry, a goar ; P. 

gousset, supposed to be cousset, a sewing together, 

from L. consuo ; but P. goshu is a corner, and gosh an 

ear. Gules, Sable and Azure, are eastern words. 
GUST, s. 1. a liking, a taste ; L. gustus ; F. gout ; It. 

gusto. See GOUT. 
2. A sudden blast; G. gust; D. gust; S. yst ; Isl. 

GUT, *. the intestine, gluttony ; G. kuid ; Swed. qued ; 

S. ctvyih ; T. kutteln ; Scot, kite, a bowel or 


GUTTER, *. a channel for water, a sewer ; F. egoutoir, 
- from L. gutta. 

GUTTLE, v. to feed luxuriously, to gormandize ; fre- 
quentative of It. ghiotto, from L. gluto. See also 

GUTWORT, s. an herb ; aAvxn ; L. alypum, white tur- 

GUY, s. a ship's rope, serving to direct the moving 

any heavy weight, and prevent it from swinging 

GUZZLE, v. a. to drink immoderately ; It. gozzovigliar 

from F. gozier ; W. gosle ; L. guttur, the throat. 
GYPS, *. a species of limestone, plaster of Paris ; L. gyp- 
sum ; A. gulps ; F. gypse. 
GYVES, s. pi. fetters, shackles for the legs ; T. gefesser, 

fromjesser, a fetter. 

GYVE, t>. a. from the noun ; to fetter, to shackle, hold 


H A A 

HIN all languages, is a note of respiration, sounded 
' only by a strong emission of the breath, without 
any conformation of the organs of speech, and there- 
fore by many grammarians accounted no letter. The 
desire of producing energy, apparently, occasioned the 
use of some guttural sound before vowels at the be- 
ginning of words ; and this uncertain expression was 
varied occasionally into others more distinct, or en- 
tirely omitted. 'f.n-rix, Venetia, "{*, Terra, ', 
Vespera, 'Ea-1, Septa, are instances of this in the an- 
cient classics. H was also substituted for F both in 
the Latin and French ; as Horda for Forda ; Foras is 
the French Hors ; and Forest is Hurst, in Teutonic 
as well as in English. The Gothic and our own pro- 
nunciation of H appears to have been unknown to 
the Celts of Britain and Ireland, who had abundance 
of other gutturals. The Welsh say Onest or Gonest 
for Honest ; and the Irish Talla, Taip, Toll, Tocsaid, 
for Hall, Heap, Hole, Hogshead. By the French it 
is seldom pronounced, although retained in their or- 
thography ; and therefore when initial to any of our 
words, derived from the Latin through the French, it 
has no power : otherwise it is never mute, except 
when following a consonant in the middle of a word, 
as in Bought, Right, which anciently had a guttural 
-omul. Nothing can be more absurd, than the pro- 
nunciation of Wo, Wich, Wat, Wen, for Who, Which, 
What, When, except the barbarous practice of the 
Dalecarlians, who omit this sound in words where it 
ought to be retained, and prefix it to others contrary 
to general custom. From them, perhaps, the illite- 
rate people in and near London have learnt to speak 
of the hair, instead of the air they breathe ; and say 
Air of the Ed, for Hair of the Head. 

HA, interj. of surprise and sorrow ; A. and Sans, ha ; L. 
and F. ha. See AH. 

HA HA, an expression of laughter ; A. and Heb. ha ha, 
common to all languages. 

HAAK, s. the sea pike ; G. hackel ; S. haccod ; T. heckle ; 
L. B. hakedis ; W. haig, morhaig ; L. lucius marinus. 
See HAKE and JACK. 

H A C 

HABERDASHER, s. a retailer of goods, a dealer in small 
wares ; T. haabvertauscher, from haab ; B. have ; It. 
haveri, haberi, goods, wares, and tauscher, vertauscher, 
a dealer, an exchanger; G. tuiskar ; D. tusker; B. 

HABEBDINE, s. dried cod or stock fish ; F. habordine ; 
B. aberdaan, done or cured on board. 

HABERGION, s. a gown of mail descending from a gor- 
get, or breast plate ; G. halsberge ; S. hahbeorg ; T. 
hahberg ; F. hauberg, from G. hals, the neck, and 
berga, to cover, to defend. See HAUBERK. 

HABILMENT, s. attire, clothes, apparel, dress ; F. habile* 
ment, from L. kahilis. 

HABILITY, *. faculty, power. See ABLE. 

HABIT, s. usage, dress, custom, condition, state ; F. ha- 
bit ; It. habtto, from L. habitus. 

HABNAB, a. at random, come what may, happen or not, 
Hap ne hap, from Hap, chance ; but as applied to the 
practice of touching glasses in drinking, it may be 
connected with G. B. and S. Nap ; It. nappo, a cup. 

HACK, v. a. 1. to chop, to mince, to cut irregularly ; G. 
hauga ; Swed. hacka ; D. hakke ; T. hacken ; S. hoc- 
can ; B. hakken ; F. hacher ; Scot. hag. See te HEW. 

2. To speak with hesitation, to stammer ; Swed. hacka- 
See to HAW. 

3. To vend small wares in the streets. See to HAWK. 
HACK, s. 1. a horse let out for hire, any thing commonly 

used, a prostitute; Sp. haca, a small pad horse. See 

2. A rack, a crib, a railed inclosure ; G. haeker ; D. 
hakke ; Swed. h die, h&ck ; B. hek. 

3. From the verb ; a cut, a gash. 

4. A hook or claw, a sharp point ; G. and Swed. hake; 
B. haak ; T. haeck. 

HACKLE, s. 1, from HACK; an instrument with iron points 
to dress flax ; G.hakel; D.hegle; Swed. hakla ; T. 

2. Flimsy dressings of flax that come from the hackle, 
raw silk. 


HACKNEY, *. a pacing horse let out for hire, a hireling 
of any kind, a prostitute ; It. chinea, achtnea ; Sp. 
hacam-a ; F. hauitfuce ; W. Itachiai, supposed to be 
from L. hinmix; but apparently from L. clino, uchno; 
It. chino, to kneel, to bend, to be submissive. The 
palfrey, heretofore sent annually by the king of 
Naples in homage to the Pope, was of this descrip- 
tion. He was taught to kneel to his Holiness. 

HAD, prct. and part, of the verb to HAVE ; contracted 
from haved. 

HADDOCK, *. a sea fish ; F. hadot, named like the cod- 
fish from its head. 

HAFT, *. the handle of an instrument; G. heft; Swed. 
h,i}te; D. hefte; S. heft. See HAVE, to hold. 

HAG, *. 1. a witch, an enchantress, a fury; Swed. hexa ; 
T. hex, hecse ; B. hecks; S. hcegis, haegsche ; Sp. he- 
chissera. See HICKHOI/T. 

2. Withered, shriveled, dried, meagre ; T. haeg, linger ; 
W. hagr. 

HAGGARD, a. 1. from HAG ; lean, meagre, shriveled. 

2. Wild, savage ; F. hagard, a term in heraldry, from L- 

HAGGESS, s. a sheep's head and pluck minced. See to 

HAGGLE, v. 1. to mangle, to mince. See to HACK. 

2. To bargain tediously, to deal in small matters; I. 
haechlen, haeglen. See to HACK. 

HAHA, *. a sunk fence ; G. haija, an inclosure ; S. hteh, 
a ditch. See HAW. 

HAIL, s. drops of rain frozen in falling; G. hragel; Swed. 
Itagl; T. hagd; S. hagal. 

HAIL, interj. all health, prosperity ; G. hail, heU ; S. htel ; 
Swed. hel; T. hull See HALE. 

HAIL, v. 1. to poitr down hail. ; 

2. To wish health, to salute. 

3. To speak, to inquire ; a sea term, from G. hiala ; 
Swed, hialla ; B- heelen ; W, han-li, Itoli. See t 

HAIR, *. one of the coverings of the botry, the course or 
grain of any thing ; G. liter, hoar ; T. liar ; L>. haar ; 
S. hcer ; Swed. har ; B. hnuir ; F. hnire. 

HAKE, s. a fish called poor Jack, when fresh ; but stock- 
fish when salted. See HAAK. 

HAL, when form ng part of local names, signifies a hall. 

HALBERD, s. a battle ax ; G. hildbard ; S. helkbard ; D. 
hellebard ; F. halebarde ; It. nlabarda, from G. Mid, 
battle, and ourd, an ax. 

HALE, a. healthy, robust, sound ; G. and T. hed ; 8. fuel; 
Swed. hel. See WHOLE. 

HALE, e. a. 1. to drag by force ; F. holer. See HAUL. 

2. To call to. See to HAIL. 

HALF. *, a moiety, one part of two ; G. Swed. and S. 
half; D. ; T. halb. Q. alf, half, signified gewau 
logical line or descent ; and when a woman was su- 
perior in birth to her husband, she was called btlter 
;//, and her children partook of her rank. : 

HALF-SEAS-OVER, in liquor, -hall' falling from the seat; 
G. sess ; T. sez ; F. chaise ; L. seiles, a seat, a chair. 

HALIBUT, . a fish called St. Peter's ; P. keilltot ; D. 'hel? 
lebyt. See HoLV and BUT. 

HALL, . a court, a public room, die lir.-t larj-e room of 
i IIOUM: ; (.. hall; Isl. liavli ; S. lical/ ; T. /tali; avfa ; 
L. an/a : (. and Swed. snl ; F. xullt; appear to be 
the same word, from G. lua-Ui, to cover ; whence G. 
T'psul, the upper or high court. 

H A N 

HALLOO, v. 1. to call after dogs, to excite them to the 
chase, from ha or ho, and loo ; F. haler used in nearly 
the same sense, is our Hail or Hale, to call. 
2. To shout or call to. See HOLLA. 
HALLOW, v. a. to consecrate, make holy. See HOLY. 
HALM, *. stubble, straw ; G. Swed. D. T. halm ; S. 

HALO, s. a reddish circle round the sun or moon ; L. 

halo ; P. holu. 
HALSER, *. a small cable, a hawser ; B. hah, a towing 

rope. See to HAUL. 
HALT, v. n. to stop, to limp, to hesitate ; G. and Swed. 

halt a ; T. halten ; S. healtian. 

HALT, s. a temporary stop, a stage on a march; F. 
alte ; It. alto ; T. halt ; properly the imperative of the 
verb to Halt. See to HOLD. 

HALTER, s. a rope, a headstall ; B. halter, halfter ; T. 
halfier, from G. halda, to hold, to which hafud, the 
head, seems to be added. 

HAM, whether initial or terminating, in the name of a 
place, is G. haim ; Swed. hem ; T. heim ; S. ham, a 
home, a house, a village ; from hema, to cover. 
HAM, s. the hind leg of a hog cured ; Swed. S. T. and 

B. ham. See JAMB. 

HAMES, s. pi. a pair of wooden "bows or jambs placed over 
the collar, to which the hooks of the traces are fried-; 
B. haam; G. thamb ; T. hamm, a bow, an arch. 
HAMLET, *. a small village ; from ham, and G. lit, small, 


HAMMER, *. an instrument to drive nails or forge me- 
tal ; G. and D. hammar ; Swed. hammar ; T. and B. 
hammer; S. fanner* :; ,, ,; 
HAMMKKWOHT, *. house-leek ; S. ham tvyrt. See HAM 

and WOBT.- . 

HAMMOCK, s. a swinging bed in a ship ; Swed. hdnge- 
tnalta; D. liangeniatt ; B. hangmatt ; but Sp. hamaca ; 
Port, amaca ; F. ha mac is said to have been an Ame- 
rican bed slung between two trees. 
HAMPER, s. a basket used for carriage ; supposed to be 

liaiid pannier. See II ANAFKR. 

HAMPER, v. a. to shackle, to perplex ; G. hamla, from 
hiinimi ; Swed. hamma, hcemma, a modification of the 
verb to Have. See HOBBLE. 

HANAPBR, *. a receptacle for tribute, a treasury, an ex- 
chequer ; anaf, hanap, was a measure used for seigno- 
Tial revenue in Britanny, whether in grain or other 
produce, supposed to be from L. a-nnona, to which 
pacr, punier, was added in forming L. B. anaperiiiin. 
hanaperium ; in the same way that Jiscal is derived 
from li.Jisc>ii, a basket. See PANWIKB. 
HANCES, .v. ;;/. 1. falls of the fife rails in a ship, placed as 
banisters in the poop, and down to the gangway ; 
from L. ansa ; F. anxc. 

2. In architecture, are the ends of elliptical arches which 
are arcs of smaller circles than the scheme or middle 
part of the arch ; F. hanc/ie, anclie ; It. ansa ; B. 
Greek ec>rg. See HAUNCH. 

HAND, *. a part of the body, an act, a peculiar mode of 
writing, cards held at play, an index, a workman, a 
measure, rate or price, superiority, care ; G. Swed. D. 
S. T. B. hand ; Sans, hath : G. ha, haii, had ; S. ha, 
a bold, corresponding with x>&c, from xti*r* ; L. 
hendo, to have, to hold. 

1 1 ANUKi:n<;im:K, *. a kerchief used occaaionally in the 
hand for wiping ; in the same way that F. cliapeuu <lr 
bras is a hat for the arm. 

H A R 

H A R 

HANDLE, v. n. to touch, feel, manage, treat ; G. and 

Swed. handla ; D. handle; T. hendelen ; S. handlean: 

signifying also to manage, traffic, deal. 
HANDLE, s. the part of a thing that is held, a hold, an 

HANDSEL, s. the first sale, the first use; G. handsal ; 

Swed. handsul ; B. hensel, a sale or transfer off hand. 
HANDMAID, s. a waiting maid ; from HAND, to serve, 

HANDSOME, a. 1. handy, dexterous ; G. handsam ; B. 

2. Beautiful, elegant, liberal; G. hasntsame, hatsame, 

from hcent, hatt ; O. E. heynd, as used by Chaucer ; 

Scot, hanty, hende, courteous, graceful. 
HANG, v. to suspend, to suffocate by suspension, depend, 

adhere, linger ; G. hanga ; D. tuenge ; Swed. heenga; 

S. kfingan ; T. and B. hangen. 

HANGER, s. a short broadsword; G. hoegin hior, a cut- 
ting sword ; T. hauenger ; B. hanger, homer. See to 

HANK, *. a skein, a twig, a wreath ; G. D. and Swed. 

hank, a ligature. 
HANKER, v. a. to long after, to desire ardently ; G. agi- 

arna ; T. angeren ; B. hunkeren. See to YEARN. 
HANS TOWNS, certain associated towns of Germany, of 

which Lubeck was the chief; Swed. hanse ; B. hang ; 

T. hanse, an associate, a companion. 
HAP, s. a casual event, accident, chance, luck ; G. and 

Swed. happ ; T. happe. 

HAPPY, a. lucky, fortunate, at ease ; from the noun. 
HAQUETON, s. a cloak of mail ; A. haik ; S. hcecce ; T. 

hoicke ; F. hoquelon. See HUKE. 

HAH, HARE, in the names of persons or places, is gene- 
rally G. liar, high, eminent, chief; as Hare, Harley, 

Harrow, Harwood, Harrington, Harborough. 
HARA, x. a shed, a place for keeping brood mares ; F. 

haras, from A. and Heb. hara, to breed. 
HARAM, *. an enclosure where the Mahometans confine 

their wives ; A. haram, precluded, inviolable, sacred. 

HARANGUE, *. a speech, a popular oration; F. harangue; 

It. aringa, from G. and Swed. ring, a circle, a popu- 
lar assembly. 
HARASS, v. a. to fatigue, weary ; F. harasser, harceler : 

G. her ska ; Arm. hars, military endurance. See to 

HARBINGER, *. a forerunner, a messenger ; G. herbeor- 

ginger, a quarter-master to an army, from her, an 

army, and berga, to lodge. See HARBOUR. 
HARBOUR, s. 1. a lodging, a place of repose or security ; 

G. herberg ; Swed. D. and T. herberg ; S. herbeorg ; 

It. arbergo, albergo; F. auberge, written Herborow 

by Chaucer, from G. berga, to preserve, shelter. 
2. A haven, a port : from the foregoing word, as a place 

of security, or perhaps from hafr berg. See HAVEN. 

HARD, a. firm, solid, close, near, fast, difficult, severe, 
harsh; G. and B. hard ; Swed. hard; S. heard; T. 

HARDOCK, *. hairdock, hurbur. See BURDOCK. 

HARDS, *. the refuse of flax ; S. heordas, tow, from G. 
heard; D. hcer ; Swed. hdr ; T. har, fibres, flax, 
hemp ; whence Scot, harn, coarse linen ; F. hardes, 

s. a small quadruped ; G. hara, hera ; Isl. 

hiere; D. and Swed. hare; S. hara, from ear, hear ; 

Aseyiif from Sf. 

HARE, v. a. to vex, agitate, fright; G. aera ; Swed. 
arga; S. eargian. See to HAZE and HARRY. 

HAREBELL, s. the wild hyacinth ; S. hceur ; Scot, ham, 
blue, and bell. The Gothic tribe called Heruli are 
known to have affected a blue colour. 

HAREBRAINED, a. giddy, volatile, roving; G. hyra, 
hivera, to turn round, make giddy, and brain. 

HARICOT, *. a kind of bean ; F. haricot ; *jxof. 

HARLEQUIN, *. a buffoon in a play ; G. harleiken, gar- 
leiken, from gar, a jeer, and leika, to play ; F. harle- 
qiiin ; It. arlequino. See PICKLE HERRING and 

HARLOT, s. a prostitute, a whore ; G. hor, a whore, was 
from hire; and Harlot, like Hireling, Chaucer applied 
to men as well as women. The mother of William 
the Conqueror was named Arlota, apparently from 
her submissive manner. See to LOUT. 

HARM. *. detriment, injury, mischief; G. Swed. D. T, 
harm; S. hearm, sorrow. 

HARNESS, *. armour, gear, trappings for horses; G. 
harneskia ; Swed. harnesk ; D. and T. harnisk ; B. 
harnas ; Arm. arnes ; W. arnais, military accoutre- 
ments ; from G. her, an army. See HERE. 

HARP, s. a musical instrument; G. harpa ; D. harpe; 
S. hearp ; T. harfe ; F. harpe ; It. arpa. 

HARPOON, s . a dart to strike fish with ; L. harpago ; F. 

HARPSICHORD, s. a musical instrument with strings like 
a harp. 

HARRIDAN, s. an old hag, a strumpet, a jade ; F. hari- 
dele, worn out, sterile, an old mare, from L. arida. 

HARRIER, HEN-HARRIER, s. a kind of hawk ; from 
HARRY, to destroy. 

HARROW, s. an agricultural instrument for breaking 
clods; G. harf; D. harree ; Swed. half; B. hark; 

F. herse : A. harth is a plough. 

HARROW, int. well now ; "ij<* ; L. hora : F. heure ; It. 
ora ; Port, ora ; W. ora ; I. urragh ; time, the pre- 
sent time, now ; and also a good time, luck, fortune, 
as F. heure, heureux, bonheur. 

HARROW, v. a. 1. to break clods with a harrow. 

2. To ravage, harass, disturb. See HARE and HARRY. 

HARRY, v. a. 1. to invade, devastate, ravage ; G. heria; 
Swed. harja ; S. hergian ; Scot, herry. 

2. To disturb, worry, irritate, vex. See to HARE. 

HARSH, a. rough, sour, austere, grating ; Swed. hxrsk ; 
T. harsch; D. harsk. 

HARSLET, s. a roast made of the inmeats of a pig. See 

HART, s. a male deer, a roebuck ; G. Mart ; D. hiort ; 
T. hirtz; S. heart; B. hert. 

HARTBERRY, HARTLEBERRY, *. a bilberry; from HART 

HARVEST, s. the season for reaping ; S. herfest, harfest ; 
T. herbst ; B. herfst, contracted into haust in several 

G. dialects; Scot, haist. G. ar ; Swed. ur ; S. gear, 
signified a year, and also the produce of a year (as 
annona, from L. annuf) to which G. and S. vist, vege- 
table food, was added. 

HARUM SCAHUM, a. giddy, thoughtless, volatile; G. hyra 
urn, signified to turn round, make giddy; and Scarum 
is merely the same word with the intensive particle 
prefixed ; such jingles of words as Mish mash, Helter 


H A V 

H A Z 

skelter, Hurly burly, are common to all languages ; 

but most in use with the Hindoos. See HARE- 
HASH, v. a. to mince, cut small ; F. hacker ; Swed. 

hacka. See to HACK. 
HABLBT, *. the neck, throat, lights ; Scot, hazel, from 

G. T. S. hals, the throat. 

HASP, s. a clasp folded over a staple, a hook for fasten- 
ing ; G. hespa ; Swed. haspa ; D. haspe ; S. keeps, 

from Isl. luesa, haefsa, to hold. 
HASSOCK, 1 1 ASK, s. a rough mat to kneel on ; G. koer ; 

T. har, refuse of flax or hemp, was also written hos 

and has. See HABDS. 
HAST, second person singular of the present tense of the 

verb to HAVE, contracted from hurrst. 
HASTE, *. speed, precipitation, hurry ; G. huast, hast ; 

Swed. D. T. hasl ; B. haast ; F. haste, hate; Arm. 

HAT, s. a cover for the head; G. halt; D. hat; T. hut; 

8. hart. 
HATCH, *. a half-door, the trap-door on a ship's deck ; 

Swed. halcte ; S. koeca ; B. hechte, from Swed. hcefta, 

to contain. See to HITCH. 
HATCH, v. a. 1. to produce young; D. hekke ; T. 

hecken ; S. (Bean, eacnian, from G. auka. 
2. To shade in engraving by hacking cross lines; F. 

hacher. See to HACK. 
HATCHEL, x. an instrument with iron points to dress 

flax. See HACKLE. 
HATCHET, *. a small kind of ax; F. hachette ; It. ac- 

celta ; T. haetze; Swed. hacka. See ADZE and to 

HATCHET FACE, a. hatched face, deformed by scars. 

See to HATCH. 
HATCHMENT, s. an escutcheon for the dead. See 

HATE, s. detestation, malice ; G. hata ; Swed. hat ; S. 

hate ; T. hass ; F. haine. 
HATH, third person singular of the present tense of the 

verb to HAVE ; for Haveth. 
HAUBERK, s. a gorget, armour for the throat ; G. hals- 

beorge ; F. hauberg. See HABERGION. 
HAVE, v. a. to possess, hold, catch, keep, contain, main- 
tain, manage; G. hava ; Swed. hafma ; D. have; M. 

G. haban ; S. habban ; T. haben ; B. hebben ; L. ha- 

beo ; %, 'i-)(.ti : G. a, ago, aha, ha, hava, seems to have 

been the progress of the Gothic word. 

M.G. haha ; L. habeo ; M. G. habaith ; Ii.habetis; 

habats ; habes ; haband ; habent ; 

habailh; habet ; hit hands ; habens ; 

habam; habemus; habandln; habenti. 

HAVEN, *. a harbour, a port ; G. hafn ; Swed. hamn ; 

D. havn ; T. hafen ; S hcefen ; B. haven ; Heb. hoph ; 

Vi.hafn; Arm. hqfr; F. havre ; Sp. and Port. abra. 

See ABER. 

HAVER, *. 1. from the verb ; a possessor. 
2. Oats ; D. havre ; T. haber ; B. haver ; L. avenaria. 
HAUGHT, HIOHT, *. loftiness ; M. G. hahilha ; T. hoch- 

heil; D. hoyed, from G. Aa,high ; but F. haul is (torn 

L. altus. 

HAUGHTY, a. lofty, proud, insolent ; F. hautain. See 

HAVIOUR, *. from HAVE ; countenance, conduct, man- 
ners. See BEIIAVK. 

HAUL, r. a. to pull, to drag by violence; G. halla, 
haldza, haha ; Swed. liala ; 1). hale; B. haalen ; F. 
hater ; Sp. halar. 

HAUM, *. stubble, straw. See HALM. 

HAUNCH, HANCH, *. the thigh and hip; F. hanche ; It. 
anca; Scot, hunker, the bending of the hip, the 
croup, apparently from G. /mica. See HOCK and 


HAUNT, v. to frequent ; F. hanler. See to WONT. 

HAVOCK, *. devastation, destruction ; W. hafog is appa- 
rently the English word, from G. havega, mega ; 
Swed. tviiga, to destroy, manna n>uk, manslaughter. 

HAUTBOY, *. an instrument of music ; Chald. and Syr. 
abouba, a pipe, a flute ; F. oboe, hautbois. 

HAUTBOY STRAWBERRY, s. a wood strawberry ; G. holt 
her ; B. haul by. 

HAW, . 1. an inclosure, a hedge, the fruit of the haw- 
thorn ; G. hag, haija ; Swed. haga ; S. hag, heorv ; 
T. huge; F. haie. 

2. An excrescence in the eve ; G. and Swed. hake ; D. 

hage ; B. haak; L. unguts. 
HAW, v. n. to hesitate, to stutter. See to HACK. 
HAWK, s. a bird of prey ; G. haukur ; Swed. huk ; T. 

habech; B. havik ; S. harvc ; D. hceg ; Ann. hak ; \\ . 

HAWK, v. a. 1. from the sound ; to force up phlegm from 

the throat. 

2. To chase with hawks. 

3. To vend small wares, to carry them from door to 
door ; Swed. hoka ; D. hatkre ; T. hoecken, to truck . 
from G. auka; Swed. oka, cognate with L. aucl to. 

HAWKER, s. from the verb ; a retailer of small wares ; 
Swed. hbkare ; T. hoker ; B. hoeker, heuker, from G. 
olcur ; B. oeker, moeker ; Swed. oker ; S. rvocer ; W. 
occr, transaction for gain, usury. 

HAWSE HOLES, HAWSES, s. the holes in the bow of a 

ship for a hawser. 

HAWSER, s. a small cable, a towing rope. See HALSKH. 
HAWTHORN, s. a thorn used to make haws or hedges ; 

G. hagthorn ; Swed. hagtorn. 
HAY, s. 1. a fence, an inclosure, a park ; S. heon> ; G. 

haija; F. haie. See HAW. 

2. An inclosure for the purpose of catching wild ani- 
mals, a large net. 

3. A line or row, a ring formed by joining hands in 
dancing round the maypole at festivals. 

4. Grass cut and dried ; G. hau ; Isl. hei ; Swed. ho ; 
D. hce ; B. hooi ; S. heg ; M. G. haui. Isl. hio is the 
imp. tense of G. hauga ; S. heatvian ; T. haven. See 
to HEW. 

HAZARD, *. 1. a game with dice; It. and Sp. azar, from 
as, an ace, which was a critical number. 

2. Chance, peril, risk; F. hazard; It. azzardo; B. 
hachsaard, from hack ; G. haski ; Swed. haste, dan- 
ger, peril, difficulty ; whence perhaps the vulgar 
phrase to settle the hash. 

HAZE, . a fog, a mist ; S. hasme, hare: Arm. aez, from 
G. hcera, hasa, hoar frost, in which sense the Danes 
and Swede* use rime to denote haze. See RIME. 

HAZE, v. a. to fright, intimidate, vex ; Swed. hasa. See 

to HARE. 
HAZEL, *. the corylus or nut-tree; G. hesle ; Swed 

hassel; S. hasl; T. hasel ; B. hazel. 

H E A 

H E L 

HAZEL HEN, *. the heath fowl or francolin ; common to 
all G. dialects. 

HE, pron. a male, a man that was named before ; A. 
Heb. Chald. hit, hou ; G. ha, ho; B. hy ; S. he; T. 

HEAD, *. the top, the chief; O. E. heved, heud ; G. 
haufd ; D. hoved ; S. heqfd, hceued ; T. haupt ; B. 
hoof'd ; L. caput. Robin Hood or Heud was Robin 
the chief. 

HEAD, HOOD, as a termination to nouns, signifies state, 
condition, quality ; as Godhead, Priesthood, Man- 
hood, Womanhood, Maidenhood or Maidenhead ; G. 
halt, het ; Swed. het, had ; T. heit ; S. had. It was 
used like L. las, to change an adj. into a subst. as 
true, truehood, truth ; wide, widehead, width ; broad, 
broadhead, breadth, in the same way that L. verus, 
probus, vanus, became veritas, probilas, vanilas. 

HEAL, v . to cure, grow well, make whole ; G. haila ; 
M. G. hailgian ; Swed. hela ; S. hcelan ; T. heilen ; 
B. heelen. See HALE. 

HEAM, s. a cover, a veil, the afterbirth of beasts ; G. 
ham, hamur ; S. hama ; Swed. hamn. See SHAM. 

HEAP, s. an accumulation, a pile, a cluster ; G. cefa ; T. 
hauff ; S. heap; Swed. hop ; D. hob ; B. hoop. 

HEAR, v. to perceive by the ear, to listen ; G. heyra ; 
D. hcere ; T. hoeran ; S. hieran, heoran ; Swed. hdra; 
B. hooran. See EAK. 

HEARKEN, v. n. to listen, to attend to ; S. heorcnian. 
See to HEAR. 

HEARSE, *. a wheel- carriage for the dead. See HERSE. 

HEART, s. the chief or vital part ; Sans, hirda ; G. 
hiarta ; Swed. hierta ; D. Merle ; S. heart ; B. hart ; 
T. hertz ; K*$IX. 

HEARTH, *. a fireplace ; S. hearth ; Swed. hcerd ; T. 
herd ; B. heert, hoard, apparently cognate with horg; 
A. erat, harak ; G. haurg ; M. G. haurga, a fire, an 
altar, from A. ar ; Heb. aour ; Chald. ur ; Arme- 
nian, our, hour: Isl. hyr, ar ; G. am, fire. L. ara ; 
< ; and Heb. jure, jam, may possibly have the same 
origin, for Jerusalem was the altar of safety. The re- 
semblance in sound of Hearth and Earth may have 
led to a supposition that the Goths worshipped the 
Earth; but G. haurge ; S. hearge, hearch, signified 
not only an altar, but also the idol of fire, correspond- 
ing with Vesta, '-<*, fire ; and argeo, anciently a 
temple, supposed to be of the Argives, may have 
been cognate both with haurge and L. rogus. See 

HEAT, s. warmth, hotness ; G. heit ; T. heilze ; D. 
heede ; B. hell ; S. heal ; Swed. hella : Chald. and 
Heb. hit, fire, the sun. 

HEATH, s. 1. uncultivated ground, covered with low 
shrubs and perennial plants; G. heide ; Swed. held, 
hed; T. heide; B. heide. 

2. A plant growing on heaths ; T. heida ; S. hceth, in- 
cluded the L. erica, and wild thyme, with furze and 
other shrubs. 

HEATHEN, s. a Pagan ; ttiixos, I0j, natives, gentiles : 
but G. heiden, haithen ; Swed. heden ; T. heyden ; D. 
heden, seem to be from G. heid, haith, which signified 
a forest ; M. G. haithi, the fields or country, and 
haitlm, a heathen. See PAGAN. 

HEAVE, v. to lift, exalt, raise, elevate, throw up ; G. 
hefa ; Swed. hdfnia ; B. heffen, heeven ; S. heafan ; 
T. heifen, heben : G. ha is high, and of a, yja, to 
raise up. 

HEAVE OFFERING, s. the first fruits given to the Jewish 
priests ; B. hef offer. See to HEAVE. 

HEAVEN, s. the habitation of God, the sky ; G. havom ; 
S. heafen, heofun, from G. hau, high ; hefa ; M. G. 
hafjan, to exalt. But G. himen ; Isl. himin ; Swed. 
and T. himmel ; B kernel, were more generally used 
for the sky or heaven, from G. hema, to cover ; as 
L. caelum from celo ; and the Goths used himmel, as 
the French do del, for heaven and the ceiling of a 
room or canopy. The heathen Goths, like the Greeks 
and Romans, seem to have considered heaven as the 
residence of Thor, Jupiter, and other celestial divi- 
nities, with whom souls had little or no concern ; but 
the abode of Odin or Pluto, who had power over 
their future state, was believed to be subterraneous. 
See HELL. 

HEAVY, a. weighty, important, grievous, dull ; G. 
haufgi; S. heajig ; T. kevig. 

HECK, s. a salmon caught in a machine called a hek or 
hatch. See HACK. 

HEDGR, s. a growing fence; G. haga ; S hegge ; B. 
haag, heg. See HAY. 

HEDGE prefixed to any trade denotes its meanness and 
poverty, as being practised by the way-side. 

HEDGE, v. 1. to make a hedge, to inclose. 

2. For EDGE ; to sidle, to put in edgewise, to make a 

HEED, s. attention, care, caution ; Swed. heed ; B. 
hoede ; S. hygad; D. agt ; T. acht ; G. hugad, ahu- 
gad, from hug, the mind. 

HEED, v. a. to mind, observe, notice ; S. hedan, hyg- 
dan ; from the noun. 

HEEL, s. the hinder part of the foot, the latter part; G. 
heel; Swed.hdl; S. hel; D. heel; B. hiel: G. hale 
signified also the tail. 

HEEL, v. to lean or sink on one side ; G. hceUa ; Swed. 
hdlla ; B. heilen : S. hele, depression. 

HEFT, *. 1. from HEAVE ; a heaving effort. 

2. Weight, heaviness ; heavihood. 

HEGIRA, s. in chronology, the date of Mahomet's flight 
from Mecca ; A. hagirah, flight. 

HEIFER, s. a young cow ; S. heafre, hiah feare ; Heb. 
phara ; S.fear ; B. vaer, a cow : P. and Heb. phar ; 
S.farr, a bull; G. and Swed.yara, to engender. 

HEIGH HO, int. signifying uneasiness of mind ; L. hei, 
ehu ; W.haiha; but we sometimes use the word as 
encouragement, from Hie, to hasten. See HEY. 

HEIGHT, *. space upwards, tallness; S. Irihth. See 

HEINOUS, a. hateful, odious ; F. haineux ; haine, ha- 
tred, from G. hatgian ; S. halian. See to HATE. 

HEIR, s. one who inherits by law after the death of the 
present possessor; L. hceres ; F. hair, heretier : G. 
erf, arf; S. cerf, signify inheritance, but properly of 
land. See YARROW. 

HEIR LOOM, s. what descends with a freehold to an heir ; 
G. Km ; S. loma, an article or member. 

HELE, v. a. to cover, to conceal, to hyll; G. hylia, hice- 
la ; Isl. hela; Swed. holja ; D. hcele ; T. helen ; 
S. helan ; L. celo. 

HELL,. v.aplace of torment after death; G.hel; Swed. heel; 
S. hell; B. hel ; T. helle, signified originally death, the 
grave ; supposed by some ancient authors to be a Scy- 
thian word the origin of which is lost ; but others de- 
duce it from G. hyla, our hele, to cover, to conceal, to 
bury. " Hyl hrce min," bury my carcase; " Blar 
sem hel," as pale as death ; " Middle heim oc heliar," 


H I H 

between this world and the next. Prior to the Chris- 
tian era, M G. halga, like the Greek and Latin names 
tor hell, signified merely the invisible or lower regions, 
the general residence of the dead. The hall of Odin 
or Pluto was the heaven of warriors. Odin's field was 
Elysium, which is the infernal paradise ; and the 
Goths must have believed in a corporeal resurrection 
when they deemed it meritorious to hasten their de- 
parture to Halatvai, Hell me the Hell god, Odin, be- 
fore their bodies had suffered through age or infirmi- 
ties. See HEAVEN. 

HELLEBORE, s. a plant called Christmas flower; tXXsCojo* ; 
L. ketteborus. 

HELM, 1. in the names of men or places signifies a cover, 
defence, protection, government; G. hilm, hialm; 
Isl. helm ; S. helm, as Wilhelm, William, Anshelm, 
Anselm. See to HELE. 

2. A covering for the head in war, a helmet ; G. hialm ; 
Swed. hieelm ; T. helm ; S. and W. helm ; It. elmo ; F. 
heaume. See to HELE. 

3. The rudder of a ship, the seat of government ; T. and 
B. helm; G. hialm, protection, government, produced 
helm, a crown, and hilmer, a governor, a ruler, a 

HELP, s. aid, relief, cure, remedy; G. hialp ; Swed. 
hielp ; S. hcelp ; T. helpe, hulfe ; B. heul, hielp ; W. 
help ; apparently cognate with hale and heal. 

HELVE, *. a haft; S. helf, from Swed. ha/la, to hold. 

See HILT. 
HEM, s. 1. the edge of a garment, an inclosure ; G. 

heemn ; Swed. ham; D. hemme ; B. hamey ; S. hem, a 

border, an inclosure, a prevention. 
2. A noise by a sudden expulsion of the breath ; B. 

hem, from the sound. 
HEMLOCK, s. a poisonous herb ; S. hemleac. 

HEMP, s. a fibrous plant ; D. hamp ; Swed. hampa ; B. 
kennel ; T. hanf; S. haenep ; F. chenevi ; L. cannabis. 

HEN, *. the female of birds and fowls ; G. hten ; B. and 

S. hen ; Swed. hdnti, a hen ; G. liana ; S. han ; T. 

han, a cock. 
HENCE, ad. from this place or time; G. hingat ; Swed. 

hdn ; B. keen ; T. hintz ; S. heona ; L. hinc ; O. E. 

hennes : G. kin signifies here. 

HENCHMAN, *. a household servant, a page; G. hions- 

man ; S. hinesman. See HIND. 
HEND, t>. a. to seize, to catch, to hold ; G. henda ; S. 

and T. henden ; L. kendo. See HAND. 

HENNA. *. an herb used in the east by women for stain- 
ing the nails of their fingers and toes of a red or 
orange colour ; A. hena. 

HEPS, . n/.the fruit of the wild rose; G. hagabtBs,haga- 
bcers ; B. hagebes ; D. hybes ; S. heaps, literally hedge 

HER, pron. belonging to a female ; G. haar ; Swed. 
ha-r ; S. her, the genitive and accusative cases of G. 
hy ; A. he ; Heb. ki ; Arm. and W. hi, she. 

HERALD, *. an officer who announces the titles or de- 
mands of a prince; Swed. fiterold; D. herald; T. 
herald; B. and F. heraut , It. araldo. Her is an 
army and a lord; T. hold; Langobard. old, a trusty 
servant: but heren, signifies to extol, to glorify, to 
proclaim ; and in the east an officer of this kind al- 
ways precedes a man of rank, announcing aloud his 
honours, titles and dignity. See to HERV. 

HERD, *. a guard, a keeper, and also what is guarded, 

a flock, a drove ; G. herd ; Swed. herde ; D. hiorde ; 

S. heard; T hert. 
HERE, *. a multitude, an assembly, an army ; G. her, 

herja ; Swed. D. hcer ; T. her ; S. here : M. G. har- 

gis; S. herge, herige, have the same meaning. Sec 

to HARRY. 
HERE, ad. in this place, or state ; G. D. and. S. her ; 

Swed. ha:r ; T. hter ; L. hie. 
HERIOT, *. a fine paid to the lord on the death of a ten- 

ant ; G. hergiasd, a seignorial fine. See HERE. 
HEHNSHAW, s. a heronry. See HERON and SHAW. 

HERON, *. a large bird ; !{, Iftdaf ; F. heron ; It. air- 

one ; Sp. agrone ; D. haire ; Swed. hJger. 
HERRING, *. a fish wonderfully productive, which mi- 
grates in large shoals ; S. hcering ; T. hering ; B. her- 
ink ; Arm. harink ; F. hareng ; It. arenga. See 
HERE, a multitude. 

HERSE, *. 1. an inclosure for a corpse, a carriage in 
which it is conveyed to the grave ; L. B. hernia ; 
G. hirdz ; S. heard; T. huirt, huirste, a door, a fence, 
a frame of laths, from G. hirda, to inclose. See HUR- 
2. A term used in fortification ; F. herse. See HAR- 


HERY, v. a. to extol, to praise, 
hceria ; S. herian ; T. heren, from 
HEST, *. a command, a precept; G. licit; S. hasst ; T. 

heiss, geheiss. See HIGHT. 
HEW, v. a. to cut, sever, chop with an ax or sword ; G. 

huga, houga ; Swed. huga ; T. hauen ; S. heawian. 
HEY, int. an expression of joy or encouragement; quick, 

brisk ; D. and Swed. hui. See HIE. 
HEYDAY, *. a high day, a time of joy ; G. hatid ; Swed. 
hogtid ; B. hoogtid ; S. heah lid ; O. E. hocktide, the 
high time, was a name given to festivals; but parti- 
cularly to those of Christmas and Easter. It after- 
wards became hey day tide, hockday tide, hoity toity, 
and highly tigkty, to denote rural pastime. Hock mu- 
ney, or Christmas, is literally the festival of the length- 
ening day, from G. muna, to increase. The term con- 
tinues to be used in Britanny and Scotland. See 
HEYDAY GIVES, s. holiday sports, frolics ; gaives, from L. 

HEYDUKE, .v. a Hungarian messenger, an armed foot- 


HICCIUS Doccius, a juggler, a cheat ; a cant word used- 
at cups and balls, to take off the attention of spec- 
tators from the trick ; possibly L. hicce de hocce, this 
here, that there. 

HICCOUGH, HICKUP, *. a convulsion of the stomach ; P. 
hukkak ; Swed. hicka ; G. hixt ; T. hix ; B. hik, hickse; 

glorify, proclaim ; G. 
from G. har ; T. her ; 


hie ; W. ig ; L. B. hoqueta ; F. hoquet. See 



Hi HO, 

s. a woodpecker ; S. hice, higar ; T. hei- 

fer, haeger, hecse, signified a bird of this 
ind, and also sorcery ; apparently from 
G. hyg ; S. higc, mind, intelligence ; hic- 
gian, to perceive; and holt, wood, may 
have been added to correspond with wood- 
pecker : but S. tvigol, meohl, from G. vcg ; 
S. wig, sacred, holy, denoted a bird used 
for divination. See MODWALL, \Vrr- 

H I R 

HIDE, v. to cover, conceal, keep out of sight ; Swed. 
hydda ; S. hydan ; B. hoeden ; T. hilten. 

HIDE, s. 1. the skin of a beast ;_ G. hud; B. huid ; T. 
Aaa/ / . hy 

2. A portion of land usually allotted to a hut or cottage; 
Swed. hydda; S. hyd ; T.huitte; L. B. hida. See 

HIDEOUS, a. horrible, frightful, shocking ; F. hideux : 
G. otti, uggad; 3. uadh, fright, from G. oga, ugga, 
fear. See AGAZE. 

HIE, v. n. to move quickly, to hasten, to proceed brisk- 
ly j G. heya ; S. higian ; #*. See to Go. 

HIGH, a. lofty, loud, eminent, noble, proud, dear ; G. 
ha ; Swed. ha, hog ; T. ha, hoch ; D. hay ; S. heah, 
hig; Arm. huch; W.uch: F. haul, from L. alttis, 
has partaken of the Gothic word. 

HIGHT, called, named, styled ; an imperfect verb used 
only in the pret. tense ; from G. heita ; Swed. hela ; 
S. hatan; T. heissen. 

HIGHTY TIGHTY, a. frolicsome, thoughtless, giddy. 


HIGHWAY, s. the main way, the public road. 
HILL, s. an elevation of ground, an eminence ; G. hoi, 

haugel; Swed. hygel ; Isl. hialla ; S. hyl, hill; T. 

hugel ; B. heuvel. See HIGH. 

HILT, s. what is held, the handle of a sword; S. hilt, 
holt. See HELVE. 

HIM, pron. the objective case of HE ; Heb. G. S. him ; 
B. hem ; M. G. imma ; T. ihm. 

HIND, a. situate backward, the after part ; G. hind; T. 
hinten ; S. hyndan ; comp. Hinder, superlative Hind- 

HIND, A. 1. a house servant; G. hion ; S. hine, hirveit. 

2. A labourer, a clown ; from Swed. hinna, to toil. See 
to WIN. 

3. A female deer, the she to a stag ; G. hedna ; Swed. 
and D. hind ; S. hinde ; B. kinde ; T. hint. 

HINDBERRY, s. the raspberry ; D. hind beer. See HART 

HINDER, v. a. from HIND; to keep back, to impede, ob- 
struct; Swed. hindra ; S. hindrian ; B. hinderen ; T. 

HINGE, s. the joint on which a door turns ; G. gang, 
from ang ; T. ang, a hook ; whence D. hceng ; B. 
kengel; It.ghangero; F. gond. 

HINT, s. an allusion, slight indication, remote suggestion ; 

F. indice ; L. indicium, initium, or perhaps innutum. 
HIP, s. the upper part of the thigh; G. haup ; M. G. 

hup; S. hype, hup; T. hutffe ; B. heup. 

To HAVE ON THE HIP, to have the advantage of an anta- 
gonist ; a term taken from wrestling. 

HIP, s. the fruit of the wild rose. See HEPS. 

HIP, inlj. used in calling to one ; G. cepa, 6pa ; wu, to 
call. See Hoop. 

HIPWORT, s. a plant ; L. cotyledon. 

HIRE, s. wages paid for service ; Swed. hyra ; S. hyre 
D. hyre; T. hure ; B. huur ; W. hur. The origin o f 
the word is not known; but G.'eyr; Swed. ore, er ; 
S. cer, yre, produced our ore ; and were either cognate 
or became confounded with L. B. cere; L. ces, value, 
payment. The Saxons had yres of gold, of silver 


and of copper. The price of a slave was an are of 

His, pron. belonging to him ; G. hit, ha s'ma ; O. E. 

hisen ; S. hys ; %t ; L. ejus. 
Hiss, s. 1. a sound of censure or dislike; D. huase ; S. 

hyse, from hysian, to contemn, shame, may be cognate 

with F. huer. See to HOOT. 
2. From the sound; the voice of a serpent; B. hisse. 

HIST, int. commanding silence; B. st ; W. ust. See 

HIT, w. to attain, to strike, succeed; G. hitta; Swed. 
hitta ; D. hitte, in their first sense, signify to attain, 
find, agree, from which is apparently S. hyth, conve- 
nience. According to Festus, the Latin had a verb, 
htttire, with the same meaning. Our signification of 
to strike is conformable to the use of similar words ; 
for T. and B. treffen, which produced F. Ironver, to 
find, signify to attain and to strike. 

HITCH, s a hold, a catch, a haft, a noose, a halt ; Swed. 
katkta, hcefta ; S. hceftan ; B. heckten, hegten, hinken ; 
T. hechten, heften, from Have, to hold, to retain. See 

HITHE, s. a wharf for landing goods : G. hiit ; S. hyth, 
seem to have signified an excavation to admit boats, a 
small dock ; but B. hoofd, a landing place, is proper- 
ly the end or head of a wharf; whence Maidenhead 
or Maidenhithe bridge. 

HITHER, adv. to this place, to this end; G. hither; D. 
hid her; S. hither, hider ; T. hieher : M. G. hidre : 
G. hit, corresponds with L. hue, and her with hie. 

HIVE, s. a company, a dome for bees; G. heiva ; S. 
hyfe, from G. hius S, him, hiwisce, a family, a society ; 
whence T. husche ; F. niche. See HOUSE. 

Ho, HOA, intj. expressive of a call ; A. and P. aya ; G. 
hoa; S. oho, o, eho; T. to, yo; W. ho; F. ho. 

HOAR, a. whitish gray; G. haera ; Isl. har ; S. har. 
See HAZE. 

HOARD, s. a private stock, a treasure ; G. hord; S. hord ; 
T. hort, hord, a treasure, but properly any valuable 
accumulation ; from G. hirda, to guard. 

HOARHUND, s. a plant, white marrubium ; S. hun, sig- 
nified wasting of strength, consumption, for which 
this plant was esteemed a remedy. 

HOARSE, a. having the voice rough, harsh ; G. hces ; S. 
has ; Swed. hes ; T. heischer ; B. haarsch. 

HOB, s. a field, a clown; G. hap; L. B. hobo. See 

HOBBLE, v. n. 1. frequentative of HOP ; to walk unstead- 
ily, to limp ; T. hoppelen ; B. hobbelen ; W. hobelu. 

2. To impede, obstruct, embarrass ; G. hamla ; Swed. 
happla ; B. haperen. See HAMPER. 

HOBBY, s. a kind of hawk ; T. habech ; F. hobereau ; 
W. hebog. See HAWK. 

2. A pad, a pacing horse ; *$, a horse ; but G. hoppe ; 
Swed. hoppa; F. hobin, are said to be cognate with 
hobble, and signify a pad horse. 

3. A clown, a booby, a dolt. See HOB. 
HOBGOBLIN, *. a bugbear, an elf, an apparition ; from 

hob, a field, and goblin; Swed. tumte gubbe, which 
signifies a tump goblin; but G. ham, fiamn, is an ap- 
parition, a ghost. See TUMP. 

HOBIT, s. a small kind of bomb; the F. corruption of 

HOBNAIL, s. a nail with a broad head to put in shoes ; 

H O L 

H O O 

perhaps for cob, the head, which may have been con- 
founded with O. E. hoved. 

Hocus Pocus, *. jugglery ; P. hokkah baz, a cup-juggler ; 
Swed. hokus pokus. The word is generally not known ; 
but S. hogian, behogian, signify to know, to attend, to 
perform with intelligence, from G. hug, the mind. 

HOCK, s. 1. a bending, a joint, the small end of a gam- 
mon ; G. huka ; S. hoh ; T. hock, hacks. See HOUGH 

2. The herb mallows ; S. hoce ; W. hoccys. 

3. Rhenish wine, formerly called Hockamore ; T. hoch- 
heitner, produced at Hochheim. 

' s. the second Tuesday after Easter; 
from Swed. hdg ; T. hoch, a religious 
festival, as explained at HEYDAY. 
The Goths had their joyful and silent 
fasts ; and the Germans at this day 


call a wedding feast, hochzeit, hock- 

tide ; G. hdknalt was the great nightly 
sacrifice of hawks to Odin, at Yule, 
according to the rites of the Egyptians, 
and appears to have been a silent cere- 

Hoo, *. a bricklayer's trough for carrying mortar on the 
shoulder. Isl. hud appears to be from hurd ; L. B. 
hurda, a shield ; T. hurd, hurt, hotte, a wicker basket. 

HODGE, s. a clown, a peasant ; perhaps contracted from 

HODGE PODGE, *. a confused mixture, a medley of 
mixed meat. See HOTCH POTCH. 

HODMAN, s. one who carries a hod, a bricklayer's la- 

HODMANDOD, *. a species of crab, which carries a large 
claw on its back like a hodman. See DODMAN. 

HOE, f. an instrument for opening the ground, or cutt- 
ing the roots of weeds; G. hog; T. home; B. houtv. 
See to HOG and to HEW. 

HOG, v. a. to cut ; G. hoggtva ; Swed. hngga ; S. hea- 
rvian ; T. haven. 

HOG, t. a pig, sheep, or ox of a year old, supposed to be 

HOGERAL, s. a young sheep. See Hoo. 

HOGH, HOUGH, How, Ho, in the names of places, sig- 
nify a small hill or tumulus ; G. hang ; Swed. hug ; 
S. hou, from G. ha ; B. lioog ; T. hoch, high. 

HOGO, Hoooo, *. a high taste, a relish, a putrid smell ; 
F. haul gout. 

HOGSHEAD, s. a liquid measure; Swed. oxlnifiid ; D. oxe- 
hoved ; B. ojcluxifd, signify anoxhead, but apparently 
corrupted from G. ask, askr, a liquid measure which 
contained four bolls; : Swed. ask, is an ash tree, 
a boat, and a box. 

HOIDEN, *. a peasant girl, a romp ; apparently contract- 
ed from HOLDING ; W. hoeden, signifies a female of 
loose conduct. 

HOISE, HOIST, v. a. to raise, lift up; Swed. hvja, hissa ; 
F. hitter, from G. ha ; S. heah, high : F. hdusser ; It. 
alzare, are from L. altus. 

HOITY TOITY, *. giddy thoughtless sport, Christmas 
gambols ; contracted from Heyday tide, in which 
sense the French say jour de Dieu. See HOCKTIDE. 

HOLD, r. to keep, contain, detain, retain; G. halda ; 

Swed. hidla ; S. halden ; T. halten. 
HOLD, f. a support, custody, place. 
HOLDER, *. one who holds, a tenant. 

HOLDING, .9. a farm, a tenure, a cottager bound to the 

soil, a clown, a serf; T. holden. 
HOLE, . an opening, a cavity, a cell ; G. S. and B. hoi ; 

Swed. h<",t ; T. hohl. 
HOLLA, HOLLO, w. to call loudly; D. holla; T. holen, 

from G. hial ; T. hoi, voice. 
HOLLOW, a. 1. from HOLE; concave, excavated, empty, 


2. From WHOLE; complete, entire. 3. ad. wholly, entirely. 
HOLLOW, v. 1 . from the noun ; to make hollow, scoop 

out, excavate. 
2. To shout. See HOLLA. 
HOLLY, *. an evergreen tree ; S. holegn ; B. halt ; F. 

houx ; L. ilex. 

HOLLYHOCK, *. the rose mallow. See HOLY HOCK. 
HOLLY- OAK, HOLM-OAK, .v. a species of ever-green oak, 

the ilex. . 
HOLM, s. an ascent, a rising ground ; G. and Swed. hoi ; 

S. holm. 
H I..M K, s. a low inclosed spot of ground near a river, a 

small island ; G. holm ; S. holm ; Swed. holme. 
HOLSTER, *. a covering, decking, furnishing, a pistol 

case; Swed. and B. holster ; D. hyltler. See to HKLE. 
HOLT, s. a wood, grove, thicket; G. and S. holt ; Swed. 

hull ; T. holtz ; B. hout ; v*.ti, apparently cognate with 


HOLY, a. sacred, pious, immaculate ; G. holg, 

Swed. helig; D. hellig ; S. halig; T. heilig ; P. aKol. 

HOLY HOCK, *. the rose mallow ; brought from Palestine ; 
S. holihoc. See HOLY and HOCK. 

HOLY ROSE, s. a kind of cistus. 

HOMAGE, *. vassalage, obedience to a superior ; L. B. 
homagium ; F. homage, from L. homo, which, like G. 
man, denoted a vassal or dependent. 

HOME, s. 1. one's own house, residence, country or pro- 
per place; G. haim ; Swed. heim, hem ; D. hiem ; T. 
haim ; S. ham ; Arm. chcem. See HAM. 

2. A low meadow. See HOLME. 

HOMELY, a. ordinary, plain, unadorned, every day fare. 

HOMMOC, *. a hillock, a tumulus. See HOLM. 

HON, s. shame, contempt, derision ; Swed. hdn ; T. 
hohn ; D. haan ; B. hoon; S. hone; F. hon, ignominy; 
from Isl. hia ; T. huoen ; S. henan ; F. honir, to con- 
temn, deride, despise; whence F. haute ; It. onto, 
shame. Hon y soil, Shame be there. 

HONE, *. a stone to whet razors upon ; G. hein; Swed. 

/It'll ; axoir,. 

HONE, v. n. to pine after, long for ; G. hiigna ; Swed. 
hogen , S. hogian, from G. hug, the mind. 

HONEY, *. the sweet substance of bees, sweetness; Heb. 

oneg ; A. and P. ungubeen ; Scythian, honna ; Swed. 

honing, hanog ; D. honning ; B. honig, honning ; T. 

honig, honec ; S. hunig. 
HONOUR, *. dignity, reputation, glory ; L. honor ; F. 

honneur : P. hoonur, virtue. 
HOOD, in composition, signifies state, quality, condition. 

See HEAD. 
HOOD, s. a covering for the head ; O. E. home, from G. 

hufa, hod; Swed. hmif, huftva ; D. hue; T. hut ; W. 

holt. See HKAD. 
HOOF, *. the horny substance of a horse's foot ; G. and 

S. hof; T. hiif; B. haef, a covering ; but particularly 

of a horse's foot. 

H O R 


HOOK, s. a piece of iron bent, a crook, a clasp ; Isl. and 

Swed. hake ; T. haeke ; B. haak, hoeck ; S. hoc, hooc ; 

D. hage. 
HOOP, s. a circle, a band for a cask, a farthingale ; G. 

hiupr ; Swed. and S. hop ; T. hup ; B. hoep. 
HOOP, v. I. to bind with a hoop.. 
2. To shout, to hollo; G. opa ; Swed. 6pa, a?pa ; iurvu. 

See WHOOP and ROUP. 
HOOT, v. n. to shout in contempt ; Swed. hut is a word 

of aversion ; G. and Swed. hceda ; Isl. haada; D. huje ; 

F. huer, signify to call out in detestation or scorn. 
HOP, v. 1. to leap on one leg, to bounce, to walk un- 
steadily ; G. huppa ; Swed. hoppa ; T. happen; S. 

2. To cut, to notch ; to lop signifies to cut in a leaping 
manner ; and Hop may have been used in the same 
sense; but B. houwen, hoitven, is to hew. 

HOP, *. 1. from the verb ; a light leap, a rebound. 

2. A plant that winds round trees ; S. hopu ; B. hop ; 

T. hopfen ; F. houblon : L. lupulus is said to have been 

anciently upulus ; but our word may be formed from 

Hoop, to bind. 
HOPE. v. to live in expectation ; G. hapa ; Swed. kappa; 

S. hopian ; T. hoffen ; B. hoopen, hopen ; D. haabe. 

G. ha, signified to hold, to possess, and ve was the 
origin of our verb to Be and Bide, which in our an- 
cient able and abidance was expectation. There was 
no p originally in the Gothic alphabet. See WON. 

HOPE, s, 1. from the verb; expectation, confidence. 

2. A detached piece of ground, a small field ; G. hap, 
hump ; T. hump ; L. B. hoba. See HUMP. 

HOPPER, *. 1. one who hops, something that rebounds ; 
S. hoppere. 

2. The receiver in which the grain is placed to be con- 
veyed between the millstones in grinding ; T. hup, a 
receptacle, from heben, to receive produce; habe, a 

HORDE, *. a multitude, a tribe, a clan, a troop ; A. and 
Turk, oordoo ; Tartar horda; G. hiord ; S. hiord ; 
F. horde. 

HORN, s. 1. a hard substance growing on the heads of 
some animals, instrument of music made originally 
of that substance ; G. Swed. S. D. horn; T. horn, hor- 
ren ; B. /worn. 

2. A term for cuckoldom ; G. horen ; S. hornung ; B. 
hoeren; T. huren, adultery, fornication, whoredom : 
T. huirn, signified a horn and whoring, owing to con- 
fusion of orthography ; whence apparently the origin 
of wearing horns. See WHORE. 

HORN-MAD, a. brain mad ; G. huarn; D. hierne ; Swed. 
hiern ; T. him ; S. hcernas ; Scot, hern, the brain. 

HORNET, s. a large kind of wasp ; S. hornisse ; T. 

HORSE, s. a generous animal ; G. ors, hross, hyrsa ; 
Swed. oers ; T. hors ; S. horse; F. ross ; S. rosin. 
This animal had names denoting his different quali- 
fications. Ors was from ras, speed r : heest, from haste, 
of which the stallion heng hcest, is Isl. hceng haesl ; S. 
hengist : rinner, a runner : gangare, a goer : skeut, a 
scout, had all nearly the same meaning : but fard, 
pferd, from fara, to go, to carry, was apparently a 
beast of burthen. 

HORSE-CHESNUT, s. the harsh chesnut ; but the F. and 
the Swedes have translated it as horse. 

HORSE-FACED, a. harsh faced, hard featured. 

HORSE-RADISH, .v. harsh radish. 

HORSE-MATCH, HORSE-MATE, *. a kind of wild goose, 
onanthe, which follows horses for their dung. 

HOSE, *. stockings ; G. hosur ; T. hosen ; Swed. hosor ; 

8. hosen ; B. kous ; Arm. heus ; W. hosan ; I. ossan ; 

F. houseaux ; It. uosa. 
HOST, *. 1. a landlord, one who entertains a stranger, 

the master of an inn ; F. hoste, hdle ; It. otte, ospite, 

from L. hospiior. 

2. A multitude, an army; Sp. hueste ; O. T. hoste, from 
L. hostis, corrupted into ost, and osloyer, to assemble 
in warlike array, to encamp. A. hujsat ; P. hustu; a 
multitude, have a different source. 

3. The consecrated wafer ; 6v<ri ; L. hostia, a sacrifice. 

HOSTAGE, s. one given in pledge for performance of 

conditions; L. B. obstatio ; It. ostaggio; F. ottage, 

otage, from L. obses. 
HOSTEL, HOSTELRY, s. an inn, a tavern, a place of 

grand entertainment ; F. hostel, hostelerie, hdtel, from 

L. hospitalium. See HOST. 

HOSTLER, s. one who attends horses at an inn. F. hos- 
teller is the master of a hostel, and supposed to be 
the same for the stable ; but G. hcest ; Swed. hest is a 
horse, and slaller, a stabler. 

HOT, a. ardent, fiery ; S. hat ; Swed. het ; Chald. hit, 

HOTCH-POTCH, s. a confused mixture of food boiled to- 
gether ; B huts pots; F. hoche pot; Isl. hossa ; T. 
hotsen ; B. hutsen ; F. hocher, to shake, to jumble. 

HOT-COCKLES, s. hot fingers, a game with children ; F. 
main chaude ; G. knukels seems to have been some- 
times pronounced without the n, and signified fingers; 
in the same way Swed. knota, a knot, is also written 
kota. See GOLLS. 

HOTEL, s. a tavern, a place of grand entertainment. 

HOVE, raised, pret. of to HEAVE. 

HOVEL, *. a shed, a mean hut ; G. hufie, dim. of hufii ; 
Swed. hiifroa ; S. hiife, a cover. See HUT. 

HOVER, v. n. to hang in the air like birds of prey, with- 
out advancing, to wander about ; M. G. hahan, to 
hold in counterpoise, hah ufar, what is suspended 
over ; T. hie ofer. 

HOUGH, s. the lower part of the thigh; S. hoh. See 

HOUND, s. a dog for chase; G. Swed. D. S. T. hund ; B. 
hand; W.huad; Sans, ka ; X.VHI; Arm.coun; L.canis; 
It. cane; F. chien. 

HOUND, v. to pursue with dogs. See to HUNT. 

HOUND TREE, *. the dog or cornel tree. 

HOUSE, s. an edifice, mansion, family ; G. hus, from hiu; 

S. him, a family ; Swed. and S. hus ; D. huus ; T. 

T. hause ; B. huys. 
HOUSEL, HUSTEL, s. the holy sacrament; ivtrSka,; G. 

husl; S. husel; Scot, ouzel. See HOST. 
Houss, *. a skin thrown over the saddle to keep off 

dirt ; G. kaus ; T. hose ; F. housse ; L. B. housia. 
HOUST, *. a cough ; Swed. hosla ; B. hoest ; T. huste ; 

S. hweost. 
How, ad. in what manner, for what reason ; G. hu tvege; 

S. hu ; T. wie ; B. hoe. 
HOWITZER, s. a small mortar for throwing shells, named 

after the inventor. See HOBIT. 


H U R 

HOWL, *. the cry of a clog, a cry of horror, a yell ; G. 

gaule ; T. heule ; D. and B. huil ; Scot. goul. See 


Hox, v. a. to hamstring. See HOUGH and HOCK. 
Hoy, *. a coasting vessel, a hooker ; G. okga ; Swed. 

hukare ; B. hotter ; F. heti : G. aka, to carry. 
HUBUB, *. a tumult, uproar, riot; W. htvbub ; I. ubub : 

G. opa up, is to call out. See HOOP. 
HUCKABACK, *. a coarse kind of linen for tablecloths or 

towels; Hochebach, the place in Germany where it was 

HUCKLE, *. a curvature, the joint of the hip ; dim. of 

G. and Swed. huka. See HOCK and HUNCH. 
HUCKLEBACK, s. a hump-back ; T. hooker, a curve, a 


HUCKLE-BONE, *. hip-bone. See HAUNCH. 
HUCKSTER, s, a low trifling dealer ; properly the female 

of Hanker. 
HUDDLE, v. to jumble, to throw together in confusion ; 

B. hutselen ; T. kotzen ; Isl. kos.ta. 
HUE, *. 1. colour, die, complexion; Swed. hy ; S. him, 

from hirvian, to form, give appearance, iwan, to show, 

to meet the eye. 
2. A general cry of indignation, a clamour against some 

disturber of the peace ; F. huee. See HOOT. 
HUE AND CRY, *. an alarm, a call to pursue an offender ; 

from hue, perhaps from huant cry. 
HUPP, *. a sudden swell of pride, a pet; Swed. huf, 

pride, swelling. See to HEAVE. 
Huo, . a. 1. to clasp in the arms ; S. hycgan signifies 

to press against, to strain convulsively ; but in wrest- 
ling, to hug is to force the joint of the hough. 
2. To think with satisfaction ; S. hosan, to meditate ; 

T. hugen, to rejoice, from G. hug, the mind. 
HUGE, a. high, great, vast, enormous; B. hooge ; Swed. 

hoeg, high, vast. 
HUGGER MUGGER, s. close mindedness, reserve, secrecy ; 

Swed. hug miiig, from G. hvgur, mind, humour, and 

miug, concealed. See MUGGER. 

HUGUENOT, s. a prolestant, a sectary ; F. from T. eidge- 

nosz ; ei, eid, an oath, and genosz ; G. naute ; Swed. 

note, genoie, an associate. 
HUKE, J. a cloak, a gown ; G. haukul ; T. hoecke ; B. 

hulk; F. huque ; A. huke. 
HULK, *. the body of a ship, a large vessel to fit men of 

war with masts ; G. hulg ; T. and Swed. hoik ; S. 

hulc ; B. hulcke ; F. hulqiie ; It. liiilcn ; oAxa f . See 

HULK, v. a. to take out the bowels of a hare ; G. and 

Swed. luilkn ; S. holian, to make hollow or empty. 
HULL, *. 1. the husk, outer tegument, the shell ; G. 

and B. hul, from G. hylia, hulga ; Swed. holja, to 

hele, to cover. See SHELL. 
2. The body of a ship, the concavity ; G. holur ; S. and 

B. hoi. 

HULL, v. 1. to take off the hull or husk. 
2. To hit the hull or body of a ship. 

HUM, *. 1- the noise of bees, abuzz, an indistinct sound, 

uncertain rumour ; G. and Swed. hum. 
2. A deception ; G. hum signifies a fictitious report ; 

but ham is a pretext, a concealed motive. See SHAM. 
HUM, HUMBLE BEE, *. called also Bumble Bee from its 

buzzing; Isl. humle ; Swed. humla ; D. and T. /</- 

mel ; B. humble ; S. humbel. 

HUMBLES *. of a deer, the entrails; from T. huamb ; S. 
iiuamb; Scot, name, the belly. See UMBLES and 


HUMBUG, *. a deception, a falsehood; It. bugia, a lie. 
See HUM and BUG. 

HUMMUM, *. a bath, a bathing house; A. humum. 
HUMP, *. 1. a protuberance, a lump ; B. homp ; G. and 
Swed. hump, a lump, a fragment. 

2. A detached piece of ground, a small field ; G. and 
Swed. hump ; T. humpe. See HOPE and TUMP. 

HUNCH, *. a shove with the elbow or fist, a protube- 
rance ; the joints seem to have been generally im- 
plied in G. huka, which signified more particularly 
the hough and haunch, and apparently produced 
hunch as well as T. hucker, a bump. See to HUNCH. 

HUNCH, v. a. to shove or strike with the fist, knee or 
elbow ; from the noun ; in the same sense that Scot. 
gnidge and nodge signify a blow with the knee or 

HUNCKS, s. a covetous miserly person ; G. huinskur has 
been supposed to be the same word ; but it means a 
pilferer ; Scot, hain, to save, to spare, to hoard, is 
from G. hcegna ; Swed. hugna, to keep close. 

HUNDRED, .v. 1 . ten times ten ; G. hund, hundra, hun- 
drad, hundred ; Swed. hundra ; D. hundride ; S. 
hund, hundryd ; B. hondred ; T. hundert. G. hund 
signified originally ten, perhaps from haund, haunder, 
the hands or ten fingers ; and ra, rad, was a line, 
score, division, numeration. The Goths, besides the 
hundred of ten times ten, had one of ten times twelve, 
which we call the long hundred. 

2. A district, a division of country ; as containing so 
many hamlets, or in the sense of L. decuria, from its 
number of justices, or, as with the Goths, from being 
rated to furnish so many soldiers in war; G. and 
Swed. hundari ; S. hundred ; L. B. hundredum. 

HUNGER, *. a want of food, an earnest desire ; G. 

hungr ; Swed. hunger; T. S. hunger; B. hanger; 

M. G. hugrus. 
HUNT, v. a. to chase, pursue, seek after; S. huntian. 

See to HOUND. 
KURD, *. a texture of sticks, a door, a case ; G. hurd ; 

T. hurde ; B. horde. 
HURDLE, *. from HURD; a kind of gate made of laths, a 

wicker cradle, a basket ; S. hyrdel. 

HURL, v. a. to throw as with a sling, to whirl ,- G. 
httira, yra, hyra, to whirl, to throw with violence. 

HURL, s. from the verb ; a commotion, tumult, stir, 

HURLY BURLY, s. tumult, confusion ; F. hurlu berlu ; 
Swed. huller buller ; Sans, hurburee, are used like our 

HURRAY, s. a shout of encouragement ; T. hurri ; Tar- 
tar and Hind, hurra. 

HURRICANE, *. a dreadful tempest; Sp. liuracan ; F. 

ouragan, from A. huruj ; F. orage, a storm. 
HURRY, v. to proceed hastily, to move impetuously ; 

G. hyra; Swed. and D. hurra; T. hurschen. 

HURST, in the names of persons or places, signifies a 
forest ; T. hurst, hont ; apparently by the usual mu- 
tation of f into h, from Forest. 

HURT, .v. injury, harm, a wound, a shock ; S. hyrt ; T. 
hurt en ; B. hort ; F. heart ; It. urto ; G. yrta. 

H U S 

H Y S 

HURTLBBBRRY, *. a bilberry ; D. hiort beer. See HART 


HUSBAND, *. master of a family, a married man, a farmer, 
an economist ; G. husbonde, from huis, a family, and 
bua, to inhabit, conduct ; S. husbonda ; D. and Swed. 
husbonde ; bonde, a conductor, signified generally a 
male ; kubonde was a bull, duf 'bonde, a male dove. 

HUSH, int. silence; G. thus; D. hys ; W. ust. See 

HUSK, s. the integument of fruits, the refuse of grain ; 
G. hulsack ; Swed. hulsa, hylsa ; B. hulsch, gehulsch ; 
F. gousse. See HULL. 

HUSKY, a. 1. from the noun ; full of husks. 

2. Dry, hoarse ; S. hasig. See HOARSE. 

HUSSAR, *. a light-horseman ; P. and Tartar, usrvar, ca- 
valry ; Sans, usrvu, a horse. 

HUSSY, *. 1. for Huswife or Housewife ; a frugal wo- 
man, a case containing needles and thread. 

2. A girl, a wench, a loose woman ; S. he is our pron. 
he, and heo, she ; se corresponds with L. i*, and si 
with ea ; whence S. hise, hysse, a lad ; and by the 

same composition, heosi, heossi, a girl ; M. G. izai ; 
Scot, hizzic. 

HUST, HUSTLE, v. a. to shake together ; B. hutsen, hut. 
selen ; F. hocher ; T. hutzcn ; Isl. hossu. 

HUSTINGS, *. pi. a council, a court, the place where the 
court is holden, the aulic forum; G. hits thing ; S. 
hustinge, from hus, a house, and thing, a public affair, 
a cause, L. res. 

HUT, *. a shed, a hovel ; G. hydd ; D. hytte ; T. huitte; 
S. hutte ; F. hutte. See HIDB. 

HUTCH, *. a corn measure, an ark for holding grain ; S. 
huecca ; F. huche; G. and Swed. wacka, written 
wiche by Chaucer. See WICH. 

HUZZA, s. a shout of joy and triumph ; G. hudsa ; 
Swed. hetsa, hissa ; T. hetzen, were used in the chase 
to excite hounds ; jji-Va was used in the sense of call- 
ing out ; B. hocsa seems to be adopted from our word. 

HYH, s, a house-dog ; from G. haim, a house, a dwell- 
ing. See HOME. 

HYRST, *. a wood. See HUHST. 

HYSSOP, s . an herb supposed to improve sight ; A. zof; 
Heb. esof, esob ; vfruim ; L. hyssopus. 

'; .L'oovr 

I D L 

JIN English, as a vowel, has the sound long in a 
J syllable terminated by e, &&Jire, thine, mite; other- 
wise it is short, as Jin, thin, sin. Prefixed to e it 
makes a diphthong resembling ee; so that field, yield, 
are pronounced feeld, yeeld. Subjoined to a or e it 
makes them long, as jail, neigh. The sound of t be- 
fore another f, or at the end of a word, is always ex- 
pressed by y, which is really the double i or y of the 
Goths. In the Gothic dialects, as with the Greeks, t 
in the middle of words was a diminutive, particularly 
when substituted for a, e, or o ; as stock, stick ; top, 
tip ; lop, lib ; nock, nick ; neb, nib ; jabber, jibber : 
and in Scotland it has the same effect as a termination, 
in lad, ladie ; bairn, bairnie ; as well as with the 

I was used by the Goths as an article like a ; and our 
the was written _y, or y when a prefix. The Swedes 
and Danes say / morgen, the morrow, to-morrow. As 
a prep, it signified in, with, by, of which it seems to 
have been the root. The Goths said IfoL, with foal, 
Ikalf, with calf. 

I, pron. personal; G. t, eij, eg, iag, ik ; S. i, ic ; T. ich; 
D. teg; y, <*; L. ego; It. io;; W. i, signify- 
ing the same, the self-same individual. I was used 
by the Goths and English instead of their in, our yea, 
which have nearly the same formation, and was writ- 
ten y by Shakespear. The Arabs say // for me. 

ICE, *. water frozen, sugar that is concreted resembling 
ice; G. ise ; Swed. and S. it; T. eis ; B. eyse ; W. 
jaeth : P. yukk ; G. jok, signified also ice. 

ICH DIEN, signifying in Teutonic / serve, was the motto 
of John, King of Bohemia, who was taken prisoner 
by a Prince of Wales. G. thy, a servant, is said to be 
from <>, 4ii'nu, to perform, to do ; Isl. thiena. 

ICICLE, *. dripping water frozen into a spike of ice; G. 
isitikr, is'wkla ; Swed. itlcal ; S. i* icel ; T. ichel, eis 
ichel ; D. ij* lap : G.jokla,jokul; P. yekhkull, icy top 
or hill, Mount Hecla. 

IDLE, a. 1. unemployed; G. idelig, from id, labour, sig- 
nified industrious ; but with the negative prefix it 


would be oidelig, without work ; G. dcell, however, is 
industrious, useful ; and oda-II, careless, useless. 

2. Empty, vain, frivolous, waste, fruitless; S. idel ; T. 

itel; a.ydel; Swed. idel; G. eyde, audur ; D. oede ; 

T. cede, void. 
IDOL, *. an image worshipped as a god ; I}*>A<> ; L. ido- 

lum ; F. idole. 
IDYL, s . a small ode, a short eclogue ; b)vAA, dim. of 

IF, conj. so be, supposing that, whether ; G. ef ; B. of; 

S. yf, gif; Sans, ib ; M. G. ei, ibe, so be. See I or 

YEA, and BE. 
ILAND, s. land surrounded by water ; G. eyland ; S. ea~ 

land, from ea, water, and land. Generally written 

Island, as from Isle, which has a different origin. 
ILE, s. 1. a walk in a church. See AISLE. 
2. A bud or eye of grain ; F. oeil, from L. oculus. 

ILK, s. the same, the like ; G. ilik ; S. He, ealc, signify 
one like. See EACH. 

ILL, s. injury, evil, misfortune, harm, wickedness ; G. 
and Swed. ill, contracted from yvel. See EVIL. 

ILLUME, j v. a. to enlighten, adorn, to supply 

ILLUMINATE, > with light, to inform the mind ; F. i//- 
ILLUMINE, J miner; It. illuminare, from L. lumen. 

IMBRUE, v. a. to soak, to steep, to wet much ; L. im- 

IMP, s. 1. an offspring, a puny devil; some suppose 

from L. impius, others from the verb ; perhaps ifiipviif. 

2. From the verb ; a graft. 

IMP, v. a. to join, extend, graft ; G. imfa ; Swed. ytnpa ; 
S. impan ; T. imgfen ; D. ympe ; W. impio. 

IMPAIR, v. a. to injure, make worse ; F. empirer, from 

L. pejor. 
IMPEACH, v. a. to accuse judicially ; L. impeto. See 

IMPLEMENT, *. what is employed, a utensil, tool, in- 

strumen . See to EMPLOY. 



IN, prep, within, not out ; G. in ; L. in ; It ; Arm. en ; 

INCH, *. a measure of length, the twelfth part of a foot ; 
S. ince ; L. uncia. 

INCHIPIN, s . the lowest gut of a deer, an entrail ; in. 
skipan, internal form. 

INDEED, ad. in fact, in reality, in truth. See DEED. 

INDENT, v. a. to mark with inequalities like a row of 
teeth ; from L. dens. 

INDENTURE, *. a deed or covenant; from the verb; 
because the written document was cut asunder in a 
zigzag ; each party keeping a portion to prove, by 
fitting them together, their identity. See ENTAIL. 

INDIGO, INDICO, *. a plant brought from India, named 
anil, used in dying blue. 

INDULT, INDULTATO, *. exemption, privilege; F. and 
It. from L. indulgatus. 

INFANTRY, s. foot soldiery of an army ; F. infanterie ; 
It. infanteria. It. fante, a footman, a messenger, is 
supposed to be from L. infans; but the Goths pre- 
tend that their fante, fantock, fatock, signifying the 
lowest class of servants, came to denote a foot soldier, 
because too mean and poor to be a horseman. G. 
fotner ; S.fethner, an fethner, a foot soldier, corre- 
sponded with L. peditatus. 

ING, 1. as a termination of participles, is G. ing, end ; 
T. ing, ende ; S. ing ; L. ens. 

2. A diminutive termination, like It. ini ; I. yn ; G. 
ung ; Swed. yng ; T. ing, properly young, is meta- 
phorically little. It seems, however, to have been 
sometimes confounded with ling. 

3. Annexed to names of places, is generally from G. 
teng; Swed. eeng ; Isl. enge ; S. ing; Scot, inch, a 
meadow. See WONG. 

INGANNATIGN, *. deception, delusion ; from It. inganno, 

to deceive ; G. gan, deception. 
INGOT, s. a mass of metal, gold or silver uncoined ; Sp. 

ingotte, to which the F. article was prefixed, making 

lingot : M. G. giutan, ingiutan ; B. ingieten, signify 

to cast or found metal ; and Chaucer uses ingot as a 

INK, *. coloured liquid to write with ; F. encre ; It. in- 

chiostro, seem to be what Pliny describes as encaus- 

tum ; but T. tint, tinct, from L. tinctus, produced B. 


INKLE, s. a sort of linen tape or fillet ; B. lint, Untie, tape. 
INKLING, s. a hint, intimation ; supposed to be from 

hint ; but G. inga ; S. ingan, signify to enter upon, 

introduce, and ling is small, diminutive. See BEGIN 

and LING. 
INN, s. a house to entertain travellers ; G. inne ; S. inn, 

from G. inna ; S. innan, to go in. 
INNOCENT, s. an idiot, a natural, a fool ; L. innocens- 

INROAD, *. incursion, sudden invasion; may signify a 

road into another territory ; but Tartar, Turk. Scot. 

raid, denotes a military enterprise, particularly of 


INTAGLIO, *. a stone or jewel with a figure engraved 

upon it. See TAILLE. 
INTERLARD, v. a. to mix fat with lean, to diversify by 

mixture; F. entrelarder. 

INTERLOPE, v. n. to run between two parties, to intrude ; 

B. enterloopen. See ELOPE. 
INTO, prep, denoting entrance ; the contrary of Out of; 

S. into. 
INTOXICATE, v. a. to inebriate; L. B. intoxico; It. intos- 

sico, to poison, from T|IX ; L. toxicum, venom. 
INTRIGUE, v. n. to form plots, carry on private designs ; 

F. intriguer ; L. intricor. 

INVEIGLE, v. a. to seduce, allure ; It. invogliare, volere ; 
L. /<///-. 

INVOICE, s. a bill of particulars of goods sent, an ac- 
count of wares in general ; L. B. inviatio, from L. in- 

viare, to send. See ENVOY. 

INURE, v. a. to habituate, bring into use. See UHE. 
INWARD, a. internal, domestic ; G. inmart ; S. inweard. 

See IN and WARD. 
IPECACUANHA, s. from Paquoquanha, the Brasilian name 

of an emetic root. 
IRK, v. a. to give pain ; T. eergeren, to vex ; G. arg ; S. 

earg ; T. terg, erk, vexation. 
IRON, *. a metal, a chain or shackle of iron ; G. iarn ; 

Swed. icern ; D. iern ; S. iren ; W. hiarn ; Arm. hoarn. 
Is, third person singular of the verb to BE ; M. G. S. 

and B. is, cognate with / ; L. est ; T. ut, from G. a 

or e ; ui, which became be or ve in some G. dialects, 

and in others se, seyn, ise ; L. esse. 
ISH, a termination by which nouns become adjectives, 

as English, roguish, girlish ; G. sk, in all dialects. 
ISINGLASS, s. 1. a kind of fish glue ; T. husenblas ; Swed. 

husblas, from huse, a sturgeon found in the Danube. 
2. A kind of talc used for windows ; so named from its 

resembling fish glue. 
ISLAND, *. properly Hand ; but erroneously supposed to 

be from isle ; L. insula, which also signifies a place 

surrounded by water. See ILAND. 
ISSUE, v. to come out, send out, proceed from, arise, 

terminate ; F. issuer ; It. uscire, from L. exeo. 
Ii,pron. the neutral demonstrative in speaking of things ; 

G. hit; S. it, hit ; B. het ; L. id. 

ITCH, . a disease attended with a desire of scratching, 
a teazing desire ; G. ikt ; Isl. eicht ; Swed. gickt ; S. 
gichta , 'B.jiochte ; T.jucke; Scot. yuke. It denoted 
with the Goths any disorder of the skin, including 
leprosy, and afterwards also the gout. But the origin 
of our word is apparently from eat, in the same way 
that we use mange, from F. manger, to eat, to itch. 

IVORY, s. the tusk of an elephant ; F. ivoire, from L. 

IVY, s. a plant ; S. ijig ; T. ephen, apparently from G. 
uppa, yffa, to climb up, as the B. name is dim op. 
Arm. el ; 'i^tf, signify entwining and ivy ; while F. 
lierre is from L. ligare. 

J A C 

JOB I CONSONANT, has been adopted from the Latin, 
j and has invariably the game sound with that 
of G in Giant. When the Goths used J as a conso- 
nant, it had the sound of Y. In English it is some- 
times substituted to express ti, thi, and di, for which 
the Teutons use Z ; and, like the French, we write 
journal, for Latin diurnal. 

JABBER, v. a. to talk unintelligibly ; Russ. gabar, gavar; 
B. gabberan ; Scot, gabber, from gab, the mouth ; 
Sans, and P.jeeb, is the tongue. See GABBLE. 

JACK, *. 1. used us a diminutive of John ; G. jog ; M. 
G.jvgg; S. geog; Scot Jock, from G. vg; I. og, 
young, meaning, like "L.iuvencus, a young male or lad ; 
O. E. yoke, a young girl. Bob and Peggy, a boy and 
girl, had originally no affinity with Robert and Mar- 
garet. See JOHN and GILL. 

2. A mechanical instrument; G. gack, from ga, to go, to 
move; D. gick ; ls\.jack; T. jack, gach ; S. geoc, a 
quick motion. 

3. A coat of leather or mail ; Swed. jaka ; D.jakke ; B. 
jakke, kajakke, tkeke ; T. jacke, schacke ; It. giacco ; 
F.jaaue de maille : Isl. skickia, from G. sky a, to cover, 
to defend, was used in the sense of L. sagum. See 

4. Leather thickened by boiling, and used for flasks or 
water-proof boots ; Sp. zaque ; Syriac zac, zica. 

5. A young pike. See HAAK and poor JACK. 

6. An ensign, a signal, a mark at bowls ; G. tiag ; T. 
zeige ; Arm. jack; W.jaccntn, from G. tia ; T.zeigen, 
to show. See TOKEN. 

JACK-A-DANDY, .v. a silly conceited fellow. See DAN- 


JACK-ADAMS, t. a blockhead, a stupid fellow ; T. hans 
dumrn, Jack a dunce. 

JACKANAPES, *. an impertinent troublesome fellow, a 

monkey, an ape. 
JACK-A-LBNT, *. a starved helpless fellow ; Jack of Lent. 

J A I 

JACK-KETCH, *. a hangman, for Jack Hitch; or perhaps- 
S. ceocs, that strangles. See to CIIOKK. 

JACK-PATCH, s. a paltry knave. See PATCH. 

JACK-PUDDING, s. a merry andrew, a buffoon ; B. t'an 
potazie ; T. hans tvursl, signifying a fellow with a 
pudding or sausage. During the Saturnalia it was 
usual to exhibit emblems of an obscene worship in- 
troduced from Egypt. In Germany they were made 
of leather ; but those who continue to amuse the vul- 
gur, under that name, are no longer permitted to 
exhibit them. The Phallic dance is supposed to have 
been the origin of Greek comedy ; 'B.jan ; It. zanni ; 
L. xaimio, are generally confounded with John. See 

JACK-SAUCE, v. a conceited impudent fellow ; saucy. 

JACK-SPRAT, *. a conceited fellow, a coxcomb. Set- 

JACK-BOOT, a large hunting boot. See JACK. 

JACK-DAW, *. a bird, formerly called cadaw. See 

JACKAL, s. a kind of wild dog; Turk, chekal ; P. 

JACKET, s. a short coat, a waistcoat ; dim. of JACK, a 
military coat ; F.jaquette. 

JADE, v. a. to weary, tire, fatigue ; apparently from G. 
sa, to go, to drudge, or S. geiheotvian ; gethorriade, 
hacked about, done up, subdued ; G. thy, service ; 
tin, to do. 

JADE, *. 1. from the verb ; a horse or mare worn out by- 
labour ; anciently yaid, ycoud ; Scot. yad. 

2. An idle wench, a saucy girl/ Scot, jute ; Isl.jode, ap- 
parently the feminine ufjod; Swed.gosse; I. gossahi ; 
utof, a boy. 

3. For agate. See JET. 

JAGG, *. a denticulation, a point, the head of an arrow ; 

G. tegga ; Swed. lagg ; Isl. taggar ; D. tagge ; T. 

zacke. See TACK, TAG, DAG anil ZIGZAG. 
JAIL, *. a place of confinement ; F. geole ; Sp. jaula, a 

prison, a cage. S;>e GAOL. 



JAKES, s . a house of office, a sink; L. B.jactio ; L. ejectio. 
JALAP, s. a purgative root, found at Xelapa in S. 

JAM, v. a. to confine, wedge in ; G. hama, hava ; Swed. 
hamma, gahamma ; T. gehaben. 

JAM, *. 1. a conserve of fruit, jelly; A., jama. 

2. A child's frock ; P. jamu, a gown worn by the Ma- 
hometans in India. 

JAMB, *. the upright post of a door; Sp. Jamba; F. 
jamb ; It. gamba ; T. gampe, corresponding with 
KMftirli ; W. gommack, commach ; Arm. camba ; I. 
gambeen, a limb, a leg. See HAM. 

JANGLE, v. n. to bicker, to snarl, to show the teeth in 
anger ; T. zankelen ; B. jangelen ; F. jangler : B. 
jank ; T. zank, a grin, grimace, dispute, quarrel ; G. 
tan ; T. zan, zahn, a tooth. 

JANIZARY, s. a Turkish soldier ; P. and Turk, jengi 
cheri, new soldier. Jengi, yenge, is our young or 
new ; and yenge doon, the new world, is the P. name 
for America. 

JANNOCK, s. a cake of oatmeal or barley baked before 
the fire. See ANNOCK. 

JANTY, a. gay, showy; F. gentil. 

JANUARY, s. the first month of the year; from Jj.janus, 
supposed to be G. ion ; Trojan, iona, the sun. 

JAPAN, *. fine varnish, varnish work ; resembling what 
is made in the island of Japan. 

JAR, v. n. to disagree, snarl, sound harshly, rage; Isl. 
jarga ; Swed.jdrga,kcerga, to contend, to scold; sup- 
posed by some to have affinity with li.jurgo or ojyi. 

JAR, s. 1. from the verb ; harsh sound, discord, strife. 

2. To one side, oblique. See AJAR. 

3. An earthen or stone vessel ; It. ghiara, giarra, from 
L. glaria ; Sp. jarro ; F. Jarre ; A. ziarr. See 

JAHDBS, s. a swelling on the hind leg of a horse ; F. 
jardes, (romjarret, the hough. See GARTER. 

JARGON, s. gibberish, unintelligible talk; F. jargon; 
Sp. gerigonza ; It. zergo, gergo, gergone ; perhaps 
from yxfvu. 


JASMIN, JESSAMINE, s. a very fragrant flower ; P. and 
Hind, jasmun ; li.jasminum; F. jasmin. 

JASPER, *. a beautiful dark green stone ; A. and P. 
jushul yasb ; Heb.jasaph; Icurieis; li.jaspis. 

JAVEL, *. a mean fellow, a hireling, a varlet ; Scot, je- 
vel, gavel: G.fal, falur, venal, produced T.feil; B. 
veil, geveil, sale or hire ; T.feile, veile doechler, a har- 
lot, a hireling. 

JAVEL, v. a. to bemire, to jable, to wet. See DABBLE. 

JAVELIN, .5. a kind of spear, a half-pike ; G. gaflack, 
javliin ; F.javelot; Sp.javalin See GAFF. 

JAUNDICE, s. a distemper of the liver, accompanied by a 
yellowness of the skin; F. jaunisse ; jaunc, jaulne, 
yellow, from G. gul ; S. geolew ; It. giallo. 

JAUNT, *. 1. an excursion, a short journey ; apparently 
from ancient Yend ; S. gan, to go. See to WEND. 

2. The felly of a wheel ; Y.jante. 

JAW, *. a bone inclosing the teeth, the chawbone ; P. 
jaivah ; T. kau ; F.joue. See CHEEK and JOLE. 

JAW, v. . from the noun ; to talk saucily ; a vulgar ex- 
pression formed from thejaw, like Gabble, from gab, 
the mouth. 

JAY, s. a bird called a hickholt; F. geai; L. B. gaja ; 
It. gazzttolo ; Sp. graia ; L. graculus. 

JAZEL, s. a precious stone of a blue colour ; from azul, 
blue. See AZURE. 

JEALOUS, a. emulous, suspicious in love; F.jaloux; It. 
geloso, from L. zelus. 

JEAR, s. an assemblage of tackle. See GBER. 
JEAT, s. a fossil of a fine black colour. See JET. 
JEER, *. a scoff", a jest ; G. gar ; B. scheer, correspond 

with L. scurra ; but our word is perhaps It. giuocare, 

from IL.jocus. 

JELLY, s. a coagulated fluid. See GELLY. 

JENETING APPLE, s. F. janeton, from its being ripe at 
St Jean or midsummer. See JOHN APPLE. 

JENNET, s. a small Spanisli horse. See GINNET. 

JEOPARD, v. a. to put in danger ; from T. gefarde ; B. 
gevaard, gefahrde ; Scot, jepart : G. Jiaur ; Swed. 
far a ; S.Jeorh, fatality. 

JERK, *. 1. a rod, a switch ; perhaps from the verb ; 
but Scot, gert, a switch, is T. gerte, for geruthe, a 

2. From the verb ; a sudden spring, a shock, a blow, 

JERK, v. a. 1. to strike with a quick sharp blow ; S. ge- 
rcecan, from rcecan, to reach, signified, like L. tango, 
to touch and to strike ; Swed. ryck ; D. ryk ; S. re- 
cen, a jerk, a blow, any thing sudden. See YEHK. 

2. To define, examine, correct ; S. gerecan, from recati, 
to reckon. 

3. To accost, to address ; S. gereccean, from reccean, to 

JERKER, JERGUER, s. a person who examines and checks 
accounts. See to JERK. 

JERKIN, s. a short coat, a jacket ; B. jurke, apparently 
for gerolce. See ROCKET and FROCK. 

JERKIN, GEHKIN, s. a small hawk ; dim. of ger or gier. 

JERSEY, s. fine wool combed by an instrument so called. 

The word was formerly gearnsey. See YARN. 
JERUSALEM, s. the city of refuge ; Heb. Jaresalam ; 

'ltv<ra*>ip, from A. and Heb. salam, safety, salute. 

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE, s. the sunflower artichoke, 
from S. America ; It. girasole. 

JESS, s. the leather slip by which a hawk is held and 

tossed off into flight; It. getto ; F.jet, geckte, gecies, 

from Ij.jacto. 
JEST, s. any thing ludicrous, a joke, a sarcasm ; Sp. 

and Port, chiste ; It. cioco, gioco, giuoco, from L. 

JESUS, s. the Redeemer ; Heb. Jeshu ; 'liris ; L. Jesus, 

the Saviour. 
JET, i'. n. to shoot out, to jut forward, intrude, strut ; 

F. jetter ; It. gcttare, from L. jacto. 

JET, *. 1. from the verb; a spout or shoot of water. 
2. A black fossil ; y<*ySn; ; F.jayet; so named from a 
river in Lycia, where it was found. 

JETSON, *. goods thrown from a shipwreck ; from jet 
and G. sion ; 1). seen, of the sea. See FLOTSON. 

J O U 

J U N 

JEWEL, *. a gem, a name of fondness ; F. joyav, joy. 
elle; It. gtoiello; B. juneel, from L. gaudialis. See 

JEWS' HARP, *. a very simple musical instrument, com- 
mon throughout Asia, and supposed to be brought 
into Europe by the Jews. It is called by the Goths 
the mouth harp. 

JIBBER, t>. n. to talk unintelligibly; dim. of JABBER. 

Jio, *. a light dance ; It. giga, from G. gigia ; T. geige, 

a violin. 
JIOUMBOB, t. a trinket, a knickknack. See GIG and 

JILT, *. a woman who deceives a man in love ; G. gilia ; 

T. gellen, to seduce. See to GULL. 
JINGLE, t. to clink, to correspond in sound. See 

JOB, t). 1. to strike, to drive in ; E. chop, like Scot. 

chap, chope, was used in this sense, as well as to cut 

witli a blow. 
2. To exchange, buy and sell, transfer, turn over. See 

CHOP, an exchange. 
JOB, *. from the verb; 1. a bargain, a business under- 

taken for selfish ends. 
2. A stroke of work, a blow, a stab. 

JOBBERNOWL, ,v. a blockhead, a numskull ; G. get;; ; T. 
gauf, guffe ; B. jobbe, nonsense, and not for noddle, 
the head. 

JOCKEY, *. who rides or deals in horses ; John Hostler 
seems to have been a name generally given to one 
who had the charge of stables ; and Jackie or jockey, 
a lad who gave the horses exercise, signified after- 
wards a dealer in them. See JACK. 

JOG, JOGGLE, v. a. to push, to shake. See SHOG. 

JOHN, *. a man's name ; Heb. Johanna ; L. Johannes, is 
our scriptural name ; but Sans, and P. juwan corre- 
spond with li.juvenis, signifying a young man. See 

JOHN DORY, x. a fish. See DOREE. 

JOHN APPLE, *. an apple ripe at St John's day. See 

JOIST, *. a beam or rafter; from It.junclus. 

JOLE, JOWL, *. the cheek, the face ; G. kial ; S. ceol ; 
Scot, chol ; Arm. javeellt. See JAW. 

JOLLY, a. cheerful, social, plump, fat; It. giolivo ; L. 
gaudialis, jovialis. 

JOLLY BOAT, *. a yawl ; D. and Swed. juUe ; Phrygian, 
, lvA ; L. gattlut. See YAWL. 

JOLT, *. a violent shock ; F. joule. See JOSTLE. 
JOLTHEAD, A. a dolthead ; B.jool, dool, dull. 

JONQUIL, JONQUILLE, *. a species of daffodil ; F. jon- 
quitte ; It. gionco giglio ; L. junci lilium. 

JORDEN, JURDEN, *. a chamberpot ; W. dur dyn, pro- 
perly Hester a zurdyn ; Arm. dourden, human water ; 
O. F.jar, urine. See DER. 

JOSTLE, v. a. to push or run against ; frequentative of 

JOT, *. a point, a tittle ; iin* ; M. G. gota ; S. tola. See 


JOURNAL, t. a diary, n daily paper; F. journal; It. 
giornale ; L. diurnalit. 

JOURNEY, *. what belongs to a day, travel by land for 
one or more days ; F.journe ; L. diurnus. 

JOUST, v. to run in the tilt, to attack with the lance at 
full speed, to shock ; L. B. dishastiare ; T. diusteren, 
from Ii. hast u, which produced L. B.josta; F.joutt ; 
T.jast,juttch ; It. giostra, a blunt spear used at this 

JOWLER, *. a name for a hound ; G. gaular ; F. gehev- 
ler. See HOWL. 

JOY, s. gladness, exultation, pleasure ; F.joie ; It gioia ; 
Romance, gang, from L. gaudium. 

JUBILEE, *. 1. a shout of exultation, joy ; L. jubilum, 
from Heb. Jehovah eli ; A. and P. Alah Alah, is the 
war cry or appeal to God ; *AA>I. 

2. A festival of rejoicing at certain prescribed periods ; 
Jj.jultiliPiis, from Heb.jobil, remission of debts. 

JUG, .v. a drinking vessel with a gibbous belly; S. 
ceac ; T. /touch ; XMUIUK ; L. B. caucus, cyathus ; Scot, 

JUG, v. a. to stew, to cook with spices ; P. jucha ; Pol. 

JUGGLE, v. n. to play tricks by slight of hand; T.gauc/c, 
magic, y, produced gaucklen ; B. guigelen, goche- 
len, to enchant, and also to fool in the sense of our 
Gawk ; but F. jongler ; It. g'wocolare, from li.jocus, 
to play mountebank tricks, apparently produced our 

JUGGLER, *. from the verb ; one who juggles, a player 
of tricks, a cheat; It. giocolere; F. jongleur ; T. 
gauclceler ; Swed. gycklare ; B. gitycheler. 

JUICE, A. the sap of plants and fruits, the fluid in ani- 
mal bodies; Sans.joos; F. jus; S.jugo; It. succo ; 

L. xin; n\. 

JUKE, v. n. to perch, roost, settle ; L. jugor ; F. 

JUKE, *. the neck of any bird ; L. jugum. 

JULAP, JULEP, *. a liquid form of medicine; P.. 
gulab, from gitl, a rose, and ab, water ; L. B. ju- 

JUMART, A. an animal absurdly supposed to be produced 
from a male ass and a cow ; F.jumart, from A. hum- 
mar, a red ass, which is held in disrepute as dege- 

JUMBLE, v. a. to mix confusedly ; B. schommelen, ntom- 
melen, wemmelen ; Scot, tvamble, from Isl. rvamla, to 
move about, to stir round. 

JUMP, t). a. 1. to leap, skip, jolt; Swed. gvmpa ; T. 
and B. gumpen ; M. G. jupan : G. skumpa, to skip ; 
Isl. and Swed. gump, the hip. 

2. To join, to tally, to fit ; G. ymfa ; Swed. ympa ; S. 
ymbfon. See GIMP and to IMP. 

JUMP, s. 1. from the verb; a leap, a bound. 

2. A pair of stays ; formerly jub and gippo ; F.jupe ; 
T. and B. Juppe ; It. giubba ; A.joobu. See JUPPON. 

JUMP, ad. from the verb ; properly, fitly, nicely. 

JUNCATE, *. a cheesecake, delicacies made of cream ; 
L. B.juncate was a rush basket, in which cheesecakes, 
curds and fruits were brought to Rome from the 
country, and called gioncata ; F.jonchee. 

JUNK, *. a kind of ship used in the East ; supposed to 
be Chinese yoiig, the sea, and shuen, a boat ; P. and 
Malay, chong. 

J U R 

JUNK, $. an old rope ; It. gionco ; F.jonche; L.juncus, 

apparently from being made of rushes in former 

JUNTO, *. a cabal, a faction, a party; It. junto; L- 

JUPPON, *. a short close coat, a petticoat ; F. jupon- 

See JUMP. 
JUPITEB, *. L. ; P. deu puedar ; Sans, derva patara ; 

JURY, s. a set of men sworn to declare the truth on such 


evidence as shall be given before them; P. Juree, 
from Jj.juro. 

JURY MAST, *. a temporary mast ; F. joure, temporary, 

dejour en jour, or from L..juvare. 
JUST, *. a mock fight on horseback. See JOCST. 
JUSTLE, v. a. to push, drive against, shock ; from JOUST. 
JUT, JUTTY, v. n. to shoot out, to project; F.jetter; 

It. gettare, from L. jacto ; butla\.juta,yta; S. utian, 

to put forth, extend, are from G. uta. See OUT and 




K E 

K BELONGED to the Greek as well as to the Gothic 
alphabet ; and has before all the vowels one in- 

variable sound; as Kaw, Ken, Kill. In our pre- 

sent pronunciation K is silent before N ; we say, 

nee, nife, nob, for knee, knife, knob. K is some- 

times substituted for G hard in words derived from 

the Gothic ; and the Saxons, like ourselves, frequent- 

ly use the Latin C in its stead; as Cling, Cloth, 

KALE, s. a potherb, a kind of cabbage, a soup made 

with greens ; G. leal ; P. kal ; Scot, kail ; W. catvl ; 

Arm. caul. See COLE. 
KALI, x. a marine plant, soda, barilla; A. kali. See 

KAM, a. cruoked, awry, bent; P. khami ; Arm. and 

W. cumin i 1. cam ; kirn cam, like zig zag, is merely 

a repetition of the word. See CAMBER. 
KAW, *. a bird called a daw ; T. kam ; B. kauuir. See 


KAW, v. a. from the noun ; to cry like a daw. 
KAYLE, KEALE, KITTLE, .. a nine pin ; Swed. kcegla ; 

D. kegle; T. kegel ; F. quille. 
KECK, v. n. to heave the stomach ; T. kecken ; B. km- li- 

en, a different pronunciation of Cough, signified also 

to spit or spue. 
KECKS, KECKSBY, s. hemlock, dried stalks of plants. 

See K KX. 
KECKV, KKXV, a. resembling kex. 

KEDOE, v. a. to drag, to pull ; B. getoogen. See to 


KEDGEB, *. from the verb ; a towing anchor. 
KEDLACK, *. the herb called mercury, but sometimes 

charlock ; S. cedeleleak. 

eye, bad luck. See to PEEP. 

KEEL, *. the lowest timber of a ship; G. kiol ; Swed 
kdl; D. kitel; T. keot ; S. cale ; B. kiel ; F. quille. 

KEELHALE, v. n. to draw under the keel. See to 

K E R 

KEELSON, ,v. the wood next the keel. 

KEEN, a. sharp, eager, severe ; G. kane ; S. kene ; B. 
koen ; Swed. kun ; T. kuhn. 

KEEP, v. a to preserve, protect, maintain, retain, hold ; 
S. cepan, apparently for gehaben, from have, to hold. 

KEG, s . a small vessel, a cag ; Swed. kagge ; S. ceac ; L. 

KELL, s. 1. pottage. See KALE. 

2. The omentum. See CAUL. 

KELP, .v. a salt extracted from kali or other sea weed. 

KELTER, s. provision, preparation, outfit ; T. kelter for 
gehaelter, bekoeller, maintenance. 

KEN, v. a. to know, to perceive ; G. kenna ; Swed. 
kcenna ; T. kennen ; S. cennan ; B. kcnncn ; M. G. 
kunnan. See to KNOW. 

KENNEL, *. 1. a house for dogs; F. chenil ; It. canile, 

from L. cutiix. 
2. The water course of a street ; T. kenel ; F. chenal ; 

KENNEL, v. from the noun ; to be housed miserably, to 

lie like a dog. 
KERCHIEF, *. a part of head dress, written coverchief 

by Chaucer ; F. couvre chef. 

KERF, .v. the crevice made by the passing of a saw. See 

to CARVE. 

KBRL, *. a man, a boor ; G. tar/; T. kerl. See CHURL. 
KERMES, *. a drug, a worm found on the dwarf ilex, 

supposed formerly to be a grain, and used for dying ; 

P. kermez, from kerm, a worm. See CRIMSON. 

KERN, s. 1. an Irish foot soldier, a boor; I. cearn, con- 
tracted from ceatharn ; W. cadarn ; Arm. cadiron ; 
Scot, caterane. 

2. A hand mill ; G. kuern ; Swed. quarn ; D. qutern ; 
T. quern. 

KERN, v. 1. to form into grains as corn, to granulate ; 
Isl. kierna ; T. kernen. See CORN. 

2. To use salt in kern or unbroken. See to CORN. 

KERNEL, *. the edible substance of fruit within a shell, 


K I L 

a glandular node in the neck ; S. cyrnel ; Isl. kierne ; 

F. cerneau. See to KERN. 
KERNEL WORT, s. an herb called scrofularia. See WAX 

KERSEY, s. a kind of woollen cloth ; Swed. kersing ; B. 

karsaye; T. kerschey ; It. carisea; Sp. cariza ; F. 


KESTREL, s. 1. a flaggon, a flask. See COSTREL. 
2. A kind of hawk ; L. celer crepitula ; F. cresserelle, 

crecerelle, creceUe ; Sp. cernicalo appears to be from 

cerno, to hover like the motion of shifting, from L. 

cerno. See CASTREL. 
KETCH, *. 1. a decked boat, a kind of ship ; D. kagskib; 

F. caiche, quaiche, caique ; B. kaag ; Swed. kag : B. 

kits appears to be English ; G. kuggr is a kind of 


2. A hangman. See JACK KETCH. 
KETTLE, s. a kitchen vessel to boil in ; G. ketil, a copper 

boiler; M. G. katila ; Swed. kettel ; B. ketel ; S. cez- 

el ; T. kessel, kettel; L. catillum, dim. of catinum. 
KEX, KECKS, *. hemlock, any plant with a hollow stalk 

of that kind ; W. cecys ; F. cigue ; L. cicuta. 

KEY, s. 1. an instrument to open a lock ; S. ago, ; It. 

chiave; F. clef; L. clavis. 
2. A wharf, a landing place ; G. kui ; Swed. kya; T. kay; 

B. kaai; F. quai. 
KEYS, s. pi. flowers or fruit, such as the cowslip or ash 

pods, which hang like bunches of keys ; T. schlussel, 

A key, is also applied to them. 
KHAN, s. a chief, a lord or prince ; Tartar kahan ; P. ka- 

KIBE, s. a chilblain, a chap in the heel ; B. keep hiel. 

KICK, v. a. to strike with the foot ; T. kauchen ; Sp. 
caucear ; L. calcare. 

KICKSHAW, s. 1. a gay sight, a novelty, a trifling exhi- 
bition ; B. kykschourv ; Scot. kick. 

2. A something, a fantastical dish. See QUELQUE CHOSE. 

KID, *. the young of the goat ; G. and D. kid ; A. gide ; 
W. gitten ; L. htedus. See GOAT. 

KIODER, *. a huckster, an engrosser; G. and Swed. 
kyta ; T. kauten, cuyden, to deal. 

KIDNAP, v. a. to steal children, to decoy ; T. and B. 
kind, a child, and nab. 

KIDNEY, s. 1. a gland in the reins ; G. kuid, the belly, 
and nare ; D. nyre ; T. nier ; S. ncer, the reins. 

2. Breed, race, alliance ; G. kuidun ; Swed. quiden ; S. 
cwithen, the womb ; which, like F. venire, signifies a 

KILDERKIN, KIDDERKIN, *. a small barrel, the fourth 
part of a hogshead. Chalder and Chauder, from L. 
quatuor, signified four, as in Chaldron ; and in the 
same way firkin is the fourth of a barrel. 

KILL, in the name of places, is generally from Cell, L. 
cella ; I. cyl, a convent, a monastery ; but sometimes 
from Isl. kyl; B. kill ; D. keil ; Scot, kyle, a creek or 

KILL, v. a. to deprive of life; Isl. krvella, quelia ; S. 
cuellan, to stifle, to quell, signified to deprive of 
breath, to occasion death; but G. hel ; Swed. heel, 
ihcel; D. hiel; Sans, kal ; I. cial, was death, the 
tomb. G. kilia, to hurt, to injure, may have been 
adopted by the Irish, who distinguish between killed, 
hurt, and killed, dead. 

KILLOW, .v. a black mineral substance. 


KILN, s. a stove for drying or burning ; S. cyln, cylene ; 

W. cylyn ; Swed. kdlna, from COAL ; L. culina, an 

oven, a fire place. 
KIMBO, a. crooked, arched, bent ; It. ghembo ; tatfiirti. 

See KAM and CAMBER. 
KIN, s. kindred, relationship, the same general class : 

P. kun ; G. kyn ; Swed. kun, kyn ; S. cynn ; I. cine ; 

ytrtd ; from G. kinna ; S. cennan ; yucca, seems to 

have been used as a dim. termination. 
KIND, *. generation, race, nature, species, class ; Swed. 

kynd ; S. cynd. 
KIND, a. benevolent, indulgent, tender ; supposed to be 

from KIND, generation, species, as Gentle, from Gens; 

butG. ynde; Swed. ynde, gynde ; T. gunadig, gnadig, 

signify gracious, benevolent, from G. unna ; Swed. 

gynna ; S. geunnan, to indulge, concede. 

KINDLE, s. 1. to set on fire, inflame ; G. kynda el, 
I i inida elld ; S. cyndelan ; W. cynne : L. cendo and G. 
kynda seem to be cognate. 

2. To engender, to bring forth as rabbits. See KIN. 

KINDRED, s. relationship, affinity, class ; G. kyndrad ; 
rod, line, order. See KIND. 

KINE, *. cows ; S. cuna, plural of cu, a cow. 

KING, s. a monarch, chief of the people ; G. kong, kun- 
nung; Swed. kung ; S. cyng, cyning ; D. conge; T. 
koening ; B. koning. The origin of the word has 
been sought for in P. kahan, khan ; W. cun, a chief ; 
in keen, eager, active, severe ; in hun, chun, a hun- 
dred, because supposed to be chosen by so many can- 
tons. No notice seems to have been taken of G. and 
Swed. gun ; P. Jung, the people, the army, battle, as 
the etymon. The term is now disused except in gon- 
falon, a military standard. It appears to be merely a 
different pronunciation of G. kun, kyn ; S. cynn, the 
tribe, the nation, and cyne, royal. Observe also that 
G. thiod, the people, produced thiodan, a king; drot, 
the people, drotlin, a dread lord, a sovereign ; and in 
the same way, G. gunan, gunfan, was a king or chief 
of the people. Among the Lombards gunninge signi- 
fied the royal line. Jungez kahan, Gengis khan, means 
the warrior prince. 

KINGDOM, *. the dominion of a king ; G. kongdom ; S. 
cynedom. See DOM. 

KINGFISHER, s. a bird; F. aucyon pecheur ; L. alcyon 

KIRK, *. the church of Scotland ; KIJIXO, belonging to 
the Lord; G. kyrk ; D. kirke ; Slav, cerkien ; T. 
kirche ; Scot. kirk. See CHURCH. 

KIRTLE, s. a gown, an upper garment ; G. kyrtel ; 
Swed. kiortel ; S. cyrtel ; P. koorte. 

Kiss, v. a. to salute with the lips ; G. kyssa ; D. kysse ; 
T. kussen ; S. cossan ; B. kussen ; Heb. kushan ; P. 
kusitum ; nva xwa ; W. cusan. See Buss. 

KIT, *. 1. a small cask, a pail, a large bottle ; M. G. 
kitte ; B. kit; S. citte. 

2. A small fiddle, contracted from P. kitar. See CITH- 

KITCHEN, *. a room used for cookery ; L. coquina ; It. 
cucina ; F. cuisine ; T. kuche. 

KITE, s. a bird of prey, a paper bird ; S. cyte, guth ha- 
foe ; W. cud. 

KITH, a. known, acquainted, part, of the verb to KEN; 
M. G. kyth; S. cuth, cythe. 

KITTEN, *. 1. a child ; dim. of Kid. See KIDNAP and 


K N I 

2. A young cat ; T. ktetgin. dim. of CAT. 

KIVB, *. alarge tub; P. cure; T. Icufe; S. eyfti W. 

ceuva. See COOP. 
KLICK, *. a small sharp noise, a glib use of the tongue ; 

dim. of CLACK. 

KNAB, i>. a. to bite with noise. See KNAP. 
K VACK, *. 1. from the verb to KNOW ; knowledge, arti- 
fice, ingenuity, contrivance. 
2. A sharp quick noise; D. knage ; T. knache ; Swed. 

knake ; tutmx/i. 
KNAO, t. a hard knot in wood, a knob, an antler or point 

of a horn; Isl. Icnuk ; Swed. kno ; D. knast, knag. 

See SNAO. 
KNAP, *, fleeciness of cloth produced by fulling; 8. 

hnappa. See NAP. 
KNAP, v. to bite, snap, break with noise; O. gnya ; 

Swed. Imasppa ; B. knappen ; S. gnyppan, gnafati. 

See to GNAW. 
KNAPSACK, *. a soldier's bag, originally a provision sack. 

See to KNAP. 
KNARK, *. a knot in wood. See KNOB. 

KNAVE, s. a petty rascal ; G. gnape ; Swed. and T. 
knape ; S. cnapa, a court page, an armour bearer, and 
as such possessing a degree of rank ; but like Thane, 
a king's servant, and Thane, a common servant, it was 
used in a twofold sense. Minister, although now a 
title of eminence, signified originally an attendant, a 
waiter at table, a bond servant. Knave and Knight 
had nearly the same meaning ; G. kncebbeija ; Swed. 
knuboja and knteja, knaska signified to bend the knee, 
to obey. Thus T. knob, knapp, denoted an abject fel- 
low, a pimp, a rascal. A card with the picture of a 
soldier, which we call the knave, is in German, Icnecht, 
or underling, and in French valet; Scot, jack, which is 
G. skulk, a servant. See KNIGHT. 

KNEAD, r. a. to mix dough with the fist; G knudd, 

from knya ; S. cnaedan ; Swed. knada ; B. kneeden ; 

T. knelen, from G. kno, the fist. See NBAF. 
K NEK, *. the joint between the leg and thigh ; G. Swed. 

and D. knee ; T. knie ; B. knee ; S. cneotv ; P. zanu ; 

ynv ; L. genu ; F. genou. 
KNEI.I., .v. the bell rung at a funeral ; Swed. knall, 

gnJll, from G. gny, kny, murmur ; S. cnyll; W. cnil; 

L. nola, a bell. 

KNEW, pret. of the verb to KNOW. 
KNICK, s. a sharp sound ; D. kuick, dim. of KNACK. 
KNICK KNACK, ,v. a contrivance, a gewgaw ; a jingle on 

KNACK, artifice. 
KNIFE, *. an instrument to cut with ; G. knifa ; Swed. 

K N U 

knif; D. knev ; S. cnif; T. guippe, kneif ; F. canif: 
*.nit>, to carve. 

KNIGHT, s. an inferior title of honour between a squire 
and a baronet ; D. knegl ; Swed. kneckt ; T. Icnecht ; 
S. cnigfit ; I. gniacht ; F. naquel ; P. nuokum, a boy, a 
servant, a soldier, an armour bearer. In the latter 
sense it became a title of honour, although derived 
from G. kneka ; Swed. knecta, to submit, knuckle, 
obey. Whence T. knecht, a labourer, a stable boy. 

KNIT, v. to make stocking work, to knot, contract, join ; 
G. knitta ; Swed. knyta ; S. cnylan ; D. knylte. See 

KNOB, #. a protuberance, a globe, a head, a button 
Swed. knubb ; T. knob, knopfe ; B. knob ; W. cnub. 

KNOCK, >. to hit, strike, clash ; G. and Swed. gnya, 
knacka ; S. cnucian ; W. cnoccio. 

KNOLL, s. a rising ground, a hillock; Swed. knot, knula ; 

T. knoll; S.cnol; W.cnoll; Scot. know. See KNOB 

and NOLL. 
KNOLL, *. to ring or sound as a bell. See KNELL. 

KNOP, *. a tufted top, a knob ; Swed. knapp ; D. knap ; 

S. cncep. See KNAP and KNOB. 
KNOT, *. a complication, a cluster, a hard knob in wood, 

a difficulty ; G. knutt ; Swed. knut ; D. kniide ; S. 

kiinttii ; T. knote ; B. knot ; L. nodus. 
KNOW, v. a. 1. to understand, recognise; y; G. kun- 

na ; Swed. kcenna ; S. cnauan; Arm. gnau ; L. not- 

co, novi. 
2. To converse with another sex, to possess, enjoy ; G. 

na ; Swed. na, to approach, attain, have power over ;, 

G. kuenna, carnal knowledge of a woman ; but 

the word being anciently written gn a , it possibly may 

be connected with S. cnauan ; G. kunna, to under 

stand, and also to have power. 
KNUB, KNUBBLE, v. a. 1. to beat with the fist or 

knuckles ; from G. kno. See NEAP. 
2. To cudgel ; Swed. knubba ; T. knuppelen, from Swed. 

knubb ; T. knuipel ; B. knuppel, a cudgel. 

KNUCKLE, s. \. a joint of the fingers; D. knokkel ; K. 
knuckle ; S. cnucle ; T. knuchel : It. nocolo. 

2. From KNEE ; the knee joint of veal ; G. knuka ; D. 
knoge ; T. knoche ; W. cnuch, a joint. 

KNUCKLE, r. n. from the noun ; to bend the knee, sub- 
mit, obey. 

KNUR, .v. a knot in wood; G. kiiulr ; D. and T. knot'. 
See KNOT. 

KNURL, f. a small knot in wood ; Swed. knorl, dim. of 


Lis a liquid consonant which preserves the same 
sound in English. It is always doubled at the end 
of a monosyllable ; as fall, still, well ; except after a 
diphthong, as fail, steal, nail : But in terminating a 
word of more syllables, it is written single ; as chan- 
nel, tendril, cabal. L, when preceding e final, is 
sounded faintly after it ; as bible, title, cable. In se- 
veral of the Gothic dialects, particularly in Saxon, at 
the beginning of words, when strongly aspirated, it 
became hi, sounding like the Welsh 11 in the same si- 
tuation. There is a disposition in most languages to 
suppress 1 in the middle of words, or pronounce it as 
a vowel. The French have fauve, maudit, for ful- 
vus, maledictus ; the Italians fiamma, chiaro, piano, 
for flamma, clarus, planus; and in English, balk 
walk, talk, are pronounced bauk, wauk, tauk ; while 
the Belgians write oud for old, and hout for holt. 
The French sometimes change it into r, as orme for 
ulmus, titre for titulus. Latin puera, on the contrary, 
became puella, agerus, agellus ; and the Goths used 
fior as well as fiol to express the number four ; but 
the Portuguese almost confound the two letters, for 
they write branco for bianco, and milagre for mi- 

L is used to denote a pound sterling ; from L. libra ; F. 
livre ; in the same way that S. is a shilling, and D. 
L. denarium, a penny. 

LA, int. an expression of assent corresponding with So, 
So indeed ; of surprise, O dear ! and also an excla- 
mation to excite attention. See Lo. 

LA, LA, ad. so so ; S. la la. 

L'ABEL, *. a narrow strip of writing fixed to any thing, 
a tape or riband ; F. lambel, lambeau ; Swed. lapp ; 
T. lappe. See LAP. 

LAC, s. a kind of varnish, a wax formed by the coccus 
lacca ; Sans, and Hind, lakh ; A. look ; F. laque. 
See LAKE. 

LACE, s. a string, a fine thread curiously wrought, a 
texture of gold, silver, or tinsel, a gin, a snare ; F. 
/ace, lacet ; Sp. lazo ; It. laccio, from L. laqueus. 


LACE, v. a. 1. to furnish with lace, to fasten with a 


2. To beat with a lace or cord. See LASH. 
LACED MUTTON, s. a whore j an attempt to pun on L. 

LACK, *. want, need ; Swed. lack ; D. lake ; T. laecke ; 

B. laak ; W. ling. 
LACK, v. n. to suffer want ; G. lacka, laka ; Isl. laa ; 

Swed. lacka ; S. lecan, to diminish, deprive of means, 

leave destitute. 

LACKER, *. a kind of varnish, made from turmeric, re- 
sembling lac. 
LACKEY, *. a footboy ; Swed. lackej ; D. lackei ; B. 

lakkey ; F. laquais ; It. lache. Swed. lacka ; T. 

lacken, to run, are supposed to be from Leg ; but G. 

lega, laka, signified to hire. See LOON. 
LAD, s. a boy, a youth, stripling ; M. G. laud, lauth ; S. 

leode, a rustic, are apparently from lead, the people ; 

but T. laed, laet, led, ledig ; Swed. ledig, single, un- 
married, are supposed to be from G. lausa, lata, leisa ; 

S. letan, lesan ; T. lassen, to loose, free, manumit ; 

and our Lads and Lasses are invariably understood to 

be young unmarried persons. T. laten, lassen ; L. B. 

lati, lidi, lassi, lazzi, latones, were freed servants, not 

engaged either to a feudal lord or in marriage ; and G. 

Icetingi, leisinghi, corresponded with AwOw, Xt/, from 

A>, to free. See LASS. 
LADDER, s. a frame made of steps ; S. hlxdder, Icedra ; 

T. letter ; B. ladder, from G. leid, led, a way, and 

ra ; Swed. ra, rod ; Scot, rung, a range, a step. 
LADE, *. a conduit, a watercourse; G. liduwag ; S.lade; 

T. leyde. See LODE. 
LADE, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to throw out water ; S. 


2. To freight, to burden ; S. hladan. See LOAD. 
LADLE, *. a large spoon, a small bucket ; S. hlcedle, from 

the verb. 

LADRONE, s. a thief ; It. and Sp. ladrone ; L. latro. 
LADY, *. a title of respect, a woman of rank ; from G. 

lof; S. leaf, hlcef, eminent, exalted, and dia, diga, a 



female; G. lafda; Isl. lofde ; S. hl&fdiga, hlafdig, 
hltrfdia. See LORD and DAUGHTER. 
LADY, applied to any noun, alludes to the holy virgin ; 
as Lady day, Lady's slipper, Lady cow or chafer. 

LAO, a. coming behind, slow, sluggish. See SLUG. 

LAG, v. n. to move tardily, to stay behind ; M. G. lal- 
gan, laggan ; S. latigan. See LATE. 

LAG, .. the lowest class, the fag end, he who comes last. 
LAID, pret. and part. pass, of the verb to LAY ; G. lagd. 

LAIR, * a dwelling, a residence, the couch of a boar or 
wild beast, a shelter for cattle ; G. ligr ; B. legger ; 
Swed. lager; T. lager; D. lejer. See LEAGUER. 

LAIRD, *. a possessor of land or manor ; the Scot, pro- 
nunciation of Lord in its G. sense. 

LAKE, .v. a large inland water, a plash ; Xante* ; L. locus; 
F. lac ; S. lac, lagu ; It. logo : G. aa, ach ; S. each ; 
It. aqua, water. See LOUGH. 

LAKE, * a middle colour between ultramarine and ver- 
milion ; Sans, lakhee. See LAC. 

LAM, v. a. to beat, bang, strike ; G. laga urn, to lay 
about, to beat; M. G. liggtvan. See BLOW. 

LAMB, *. a young sheep; G. Swed. S. lamb ; T. and B. 
la in in ; D. lam. 

LAMB'S LETTUCE, x. a species of valerian, corn salad ; 
Sp. lampsa, lampana, from L. lapsana. 

LAMB'S WOOL, *. a name given to beer flavoured with 
fruit ; S. lempe ol, soft ale. 

LAME, a. crippled, imperfect, weak ; G. lam ; Swed. 
Item, lam ; S. lam ; B. lam ; P. leng ; whence Timur 
leng, lame Timur, Tamerlane. 

LAMENTINE, j. a kind of fish. See MANATEE. 

LAMMAS, s. the first of August, St Peter's day, when 
offerings were made to the church ; S. hlafmasse, 
hlammesse ; G. and Swed. lama signified a contribu- 
tion ; L. laf, a residue. See GULE. 

LAMP, s . a light made of oil or spirits ; Syr. lampid ; 
>.xuta.', ; L. lampas : G. Horn ; S. leoma, flame. 

LAM PASS, s. a lump of diseased flesh in the roof of a 
horse's mouth, which rises above the teeth ; F. lam- 
passe, lampas, a tongue, and also a swelling of that 
appearance, from L. lambo. 

LAMPOON, .v. personal slander ; L. B. lamba, from L. 
lambo, signified the tongue, and, like lingua, calumny : 
F. lampon was a drunken song ; Swed kip is slander, 
Idpgeld, a fine for defamation. See to LAP. 

LAMPREY, *. a kind of eel ; F. lamproie, from L. lam- 

LANCE, t. a long spear, a lancet ; L. lancea ; Arm. lance; 
F. lance ; It. lancia ; Isl. Swed. B. lans ; Ay^ii. G. 
langskiept, long-shaft, was also a spear. 
LANCE, v. a. from the noun ; to pierce, to cut open, to 

bleed with a lancet ; F. lancer. 

LANCEPESADK, .v. an assistant corporal ; F. lance pes- 
fade, ans-pesade, from T. lans spitzer. See LANS 


I -AMU , v. a. to cast as a lance, to dart forward, to shoot 
a vessel from the stocks into the water ; F. elancer. 

LAND, *. 1. earth, ground, a country, a region; G. land 
in all dialects. 

2. A castle, a house, a feudal possession ; G. Ian ; Swed. 
Ian ; Scot. land. 

3. Urine, lie ; S. hland, hlond, from leak, loh, water. 
See LUNT and LIB. 

LANDOHAVE, *. a German title. See GREVK. 

LANDLADY, .v. the mistress of an inn. See LANIU.OH i. 
LANDLOPER, .s. a landsman, a clodhopper, a name given 

by sailors to a person who lives on shore ; G. land- 

laupr ; B. landlooper. See to ELOPE. 

LANDLORD, *. 1. the lord of a manor, the owner of land. 

2. From LAND, a house ; the master of an inn ; Swed. 
landward and hustvdrd are synonimous. 

LANDSCAPE, s. a prospect of a country, the shape of the 
land ; G. landskapa ; B. landschape. 

LANE, s. a narrow way through fields, an alley ; Swed. 
lana ; B. loan, laen ; Scot, loan, signifying, appa- 
rently, at first a passage for cattle from the fields to 
the stable. 

LANK RET, *. the male of the lanner hawk. 

LANIARD, *. a small cord for fastening the shrouds and 
stays in a ship ; F. laniere, supposed to have been ori- 
ginally of hair or wool, from L. lana. 

LANK, a. slender, languid, meagre ; S. hlanc, laenig ; 
B. lentc, slenk. See LEAN. 

LANNER, *. the female of the laneret, which is a small 
hawk for quails or other birds averse to rise on the 
wing ; L. B. lannarius ; F. lanier, supposed to be 
from L. laniena ; or from lana, because its feathers 
have a woolly appearance. 

LANS CORPORAL, *. a soldier acting for a corporal ; G. 
laens, of accommodation or loan, was applied also to a 
temporary service in the church ; G. lans prtesler. 
Corporals formerly carried a pike, called spitz by the 
Goths ; whence T. lans spitzer corrupted into It. lan- 
cia spezzada ; F. lanspefade or anspesade. 

LANSQUENET, .v. 1. a country fellow, a militia man ; F. 
from T. lands knecht ; but sometimes used for lanse 
knecht, one armed with a lance. See KNIGHT. 

2. A game at cards among the peasantry of Tyrol. 

LANT, v. to urine as a horse, to stale. See LAND. 

LANTERN, a. long, thin, lank ; from lean or lank. 

LAP, s. a fold, flap, strip, a garment that covers thr 
thighs ; G. T. D. B. lap ; -Isl. laf; S. teppa ; Swed. 

LAP, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to become double, to wrap 

2. To lick up; A'sr1>; L. lambo, F. lamper, taper 
Arm. lapa, to use the tongue; but Isl. lepia ; Swed. 
Idppja ; D. labe ; S. lappian, seem to be from Up. 

LAPIS LAZULI, *. blue marble. See AZURE. 

LARBOARD, .v. the left hand side of a ship ; bakbord is 
the word used in the G. dialects, which, pronounced 
Babord, in French, seems to have been understood ;;* 
basbord, the low bord, and hence B. laager ; T. ///-. 
the left and the lower side. See STARBOARD. 

LARCENY, s. a petty theft ; F. larcin ; L. lalrocinium. 

LARGESS, *. a bounty, girt, a present; F. largesse; L. 

LARK, *. a small singing bird ; S. laferce, latverk ,- B. 
leunrik, larck ; T. lerckc ; D. lerke ; Swed. tirka ; 
Scot, lavrock. Isl. lava is also a lark, apparently from 
lofa ; S. hlijian, to rise; and cernack is the early 

LARUM, s. alarm, a piece of clockwork to rouse one from 
sleep at a certain hour; Swed. and D. larm ; T. 
farm, apparently from G. luidr, lur ; Swed. litr, ;, 
loud sound, a trumpet ; O. F. loure. See ALARM. 
LASCAR, t. a term for an Indian sailor; A. askar. ul 
askar ; Hind, lascar, properly a gunner. 

L A U 

LASH, s. 1. the thong of a whip, a cord, a scourge, a 

satire ; L. laqueus ; It. laccio ; F. lacs. See LACE. 
2. A tie, a binding, a knot; It. lascio ; F. leases B. 

lasch ; L. ligatio. 
LASS, s. a girl, a young unmarried woman ; G. lothska, 

a girl ; Swed. loska ; S. leas, free, single. See LAO. 
LAST, a. hindmost, utmost, latest ; T. letzt ; S. last ; B. 

laast ; Ao?<r0$. 
LAST, v. a. to continue, endure, to be late in procedure ; 

M. G. latjan ; S. lastan. 
LAST, s. 1. the mould on which shoes are formed; G. 

and T. leist ; Swed. last ; S. Iceste, from M. G. last, 

the foot. 

2. A load, a weight, a dry measure ; G. lads, ladst, last ; 
Swed. last ; T. last ; S. Mast ; F. lest, leth ; Sp. las- 
Ire. See LOAD. 

3. The latest, the end ; T. letzt. See LATE. 
LASTEKY, s. tinge, hue, a red colour ; G. litur ; Swed. 

let, colour ; Isl. lita, to colour ; Scot. Ulster, a dyer. 

LATCH, *. a moveable catch for a door, a lock ; G. las ; 
Swed. las ; B. las. 

LATCH, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to fasten with a latch. 

2. To smear, to anoint ; from L. litus. See LECH. 

LATCHES, LASKETS, s. lines in a ship to brace the bon- 
nets to the courses. See LASH. 

LATCHET, s. a fastening, a shoe-string; It. leagaccia ; F. 
lacet. See LACE. 

LATE, a. 1. contrary to early, tardy, slaw, long delayed, 
far in the day, night or year ; G. lat ; Swed. later ; 
S. lat, l(Et ; B. laet. 

2. Latest in any place, office, or character. See LAST. 

;{. Deceased, defunct ; S. lete : G. lata, to die. 

LATH, s. 1. a long thin piece of wood ; L. lata ; F. late ; 
S. latta; T. latte ; B. lat ; W. Hath. 

2. The portion of country subject to a particular court. 
S. lath is a congregation ; but S. leth, apparently 
contracted from G. lagthing, lathing, a judicial convo- 

LATHE, s. a machine for turning by a pole or lath. 

LATHER, s. the froth of soap and water; G. laudr ; 
Swed. loder ; S. lather : laver was anciently used in 
the same sense ; F. laveure, from L. lavare. 

LATTEN, *. iron tinned over, brass ; A. latun ; Isl. laa- 
tun ; B. latoen : It. ottone is a composition of copper, 
zinc and calamine. 

LATTER, a. the last of two, modern ; for later, the com- 
parative of Late. 

LATTICE, s. a window of lath or grate-work ; F. latlis. 
See LATH. 

LAVEER, v. a. to change the direction frequently in a 
course. See to VEER. 

LAVER, *. 1. a sea plant, a species of alga ; L. laver. 

2. A washing vessel ; F. lavoir, from L. lavare. 

LAUGH, v. to make that noise which sudden mirth ex- 
cites ; G. hlceja ; Swed. le ; S. hlahen ; T. and B. la- 
chen ; Scot. lack. G. hlasa signified originally to re- 

LAUGHTER, s. the act of laughing ; G. hlatur ; D. latter. 

LAVISH, a. profuse, prodigal, wasteful ; from Lave, L. 


LAUNCE, s. a sea term when the pump sucks; G. luens ; 

Swed. Kins ; D. liens, lens, exhausted. 
LAUNCH, x. a ship's boat, a pinnace ; Sp. and Port. 

lanclia. See LANCH. 


LAUNDRESS, s. a woman who washes, irons or gets up 
linen; It. lavandera ; F. lavandiere, from L. lavo. 

LAVOLTA, *. an old Italian dance ; F. la volte, from L. 
volutatio. See WALTZ. 

LAW, s. statute, decree, edict; G. la, lag, log; Swed- 
lag ; D. low ; what is laid down, a statute, pact, cor- 
responding with T. geselz, our Assize and Set ; but 
F. lot is from L. lex. G. bilaga, however, produced 

F. bel, beau, legal; so that beau pere is literally 

LAWN, LAWND, s. open, smooth ground between woods; 
Scot, land, supposed by some to be Isl. and Swed. 
lund, a grove ; but L. B. landa signified an unculti- 
vated spot, and like F. lande; It. landa, appears to be 

G. landeida, bare or waste land. 

LAX, s. a salmon, properly when ascending rivers; 
Swed. and S. lax ; T. lacks ; B. lass ; It. laccia, from 
G. leika ; Swed. leka ; S. lacan ; T. laichan, to spawn, 
to brim. 

LAY, v. a. to deposite, place, apply, impute, put down, 
allay, calm ; G. latga, leggia, la ; Swed. laga, lagga ; 
D. legge ; S. lecgan, legan, logian ; T. legen. 

LAY, pret. of the verb to LIE. 

LAY, s. 1. from the vecb ; what is laid down, a deposit, 
a wager. 

2. A bed, a row, a stratum. See LAYER. 

3. Ground laid clown in grass or left for pasture ; S. leag. 

4. A song; G. Hod; S. lioth, lej ; T. lied, leich ; B. lied; 
Scot, leid; F. lay ; It. lai ; W. llais ; I. laoidh : G. lio, 
hliod ; A. luh, luhja ; Sans, lue, the voice. Scandi- 
navian authors suppose that there was formerly a G. 
verb loa, to sound, which produced our words Loud, 
Larum, Lay, and also Lug, the organ of perceiving 
sound, the ear. 

LAY, a. not clerical, belonging to the laity or people ; F. 

lai ; AaiVw; ; L. laicus, from Ao; . 
LAYER, s. a bed, a stratum ; from LAY, to place ; Swed. 

lager ; T. lager ; S. leger. 
LAYSTALL, s. a dunghill, from lay, to place, and stall, a 


LAZAH, s. a leper ; A. and P. al azar, sick, afflicted witli 

sores, Lazarus. 
LAZY, . unwilling to work, sluggish; G.losk; Swed. 

loski, lase ; T. lassig ; B. losigh, luyje, apparently 

from G. leisa, to loose, relax ; or sometimes from lata ; 

M. G. latjan ; Swed. latja, to be slow, sluggish. See 

LE, a G. diminutive termination, apparently for Lille ; 

Swed. lille contracted from little. G. barnillo, a little 

child ; S. meoule, a little maid. 

LEA, LEE, LAYLAND, s. land belonging to different pro- 
prietors, lying in contiguous ridges without being in- 
closed ; L. B. lee, from L. latus, latitudo. 

LEA, s. unploughed land, meadow; S. ley ; T. lee ; Scot. 

lea. See LAY. 
LEAD, s. \. a soft heavy metal; G.lad; Isl. lod ; D. lode; 

S. laid ; T. lot ; B. loot. See LOAD. 
2. Guidance, direction; G. leid ; Swed. led; S. lade, a 

way, from the verb. See LODE. 
LEAD, v. to guide, conduct, entice; G. leida ; Swed. 

leda ; S. Icedan ; D. lede ; B. leiden ; T. leiten. 
LEAF, s. the foliage of a tree or plant, the petal of a 

flower, the folding part of a table, a part of a book 

consisting of two pages ; G. lauf ; Swed. Ittfs D. lev; 

T. laub ; S. leaf. 


LEAGUE, . 1. a distance of nearly three English miles ; 
L. B. Ituga, leuca ; It. lega ; F. lieue. The origin of 
the word is doubtful. G. rast ; Russ. tvrest, signify a 
league, or literally a place of rest ; and *.*y, to rest, 
may have produced league. S. leag, from G. laga, to 
lay, is also a place, a station, corresponding with F. 

2. A combination, confederacy, alliance ; F. ligve, from 
L. ligo. 

LEAOUER, *. 1. a confederate, an ally ; from LEAGUE. 

2. A military position, a camp, a siege ; Swed. lager ; T. 
lager ; D. leyr, from G. laga, to lay. See SIEGE. 

LEAK, *. a fissure which lets in and out water, a dripp- 

ing ; G. lack ; Swed. lake ; S. hlece ; D. leek ; B. lelc ; 

It. lecca, from lag, lak, water. See LAKE. 
LEAN, v. incline, rest against; D. laene; Swed. luna ; 

S. Union, klingian ; T. leinen ; B. lenen, lehnen, leunen, 

from G. liggia, ligan, to lie, recline. 

LEAN, a. meagre, weak, frail ; S. Icene : G. lin ; Swed. 

leu ; T. lin, ling, correspond with L. lenit, and are 

supposed to be from G. hlcena ; Swed. leena, to dis- 

solve; L. macer, dissolved, melted away, produced 

our word meagre. 
LEAP, *. a jump, a bound ; G. laup ; Swed. lopp ; S. 

hleap ; B. loop ; T. lauf. 
LEAP, v. to jump, bound, rush, run ; G. leipa ; Swed. 

lupa ; S. hleapan ; B. loopen ; T. lauffen. 
LEAP-YEAR, s. bissextile, every fourth year, when Fe- 

bruary has an additional day, from LEAP, to exceed. 

LEARN, v. to get knowledge, to improve; G. and Swed- 

leera ; D. leere S. leorntan, laeran ; T. lernen. 

LEAS, LESOWES, s. pasture land; S. Icestve ; L. B. lesua, 
cognate with our Lea, to which was added ; G. celts ; 
S. ces, feed, pasture ; whence S. Iti-xiun, to graze. 

LEASE, v. a. 1. to let out by lease ; G. lea, lia, leysa, 

lata ; D. leye ; S. Iceta ; T. lassen ; F. laisser, to cede, 

permit. See to LET. 
2. To glean ; G. lesan ; S. lisan ; T. lesen ; B. lesen ; AjJ", 

to collect. See to GLEAN. 
LEASE, s. 1. from the verb : a deed of tenure. 
2. Falsehood, treachery; G. Ice, lets; T. Ids ; S. leas, 

leasunge ; whence Lese Majesty, rather than from L. 

LEASH, *. 1. a thong, a cord, a tie; L. ligatio ; F. liasse, 

lesse, laisse ; It. lascio ; Scot, letch. See LASH. 

2. A sportsman's term for three, which require a leash 

or tie to keep them together; but brace signified a 

clasp or two. 
LEASING, *. falsehood, deceit, treachery ; G. hsung, from 

LEAST, a. smallest ; G. litest, litset ; S. best, the superla- 

tive of lit , S. lyt, small, little, corresponding with 

LEASY, a. loose of texture, flimsy, slight; S. leaf, deficient, 

loose, seems to have been confounded with L. laxus ; 

F. lafchf, lache. See SLKASY. 
LEATHER, *. the dressed hide of an animal ; G. leder ; 

Swed. Idder ; S. lelher ; D. Icedur ; B. leder, leer ; T. 

leder, louer ; L. lora : G. lid is a cover. See HIDE. 

LEAVE, *. permission, consent, liberty ; G. leifi ; Swed. 

/J/; D. lav; S. lefe, leaf; T. laub, from Q.lia ; Swed. 

lea, to concede, grant. 
LEAVE, v a. to forsake, quit, depart, relinquish, suffer 


to remain, concede, bequeath; G. leifa; Swed. lefiva; 
S. Uefan ; AI/XW. 

LEAVEN, *. dough fermented, yeast for raising bread ; 
F. levain, from L. leva. 

LECH, LETCH, v. a. to smear over, anoint; fromL. litus ; 
but sometimes confounded with F. lecher, to lick. 

LECHER, *. a whoremaster ; T. lecker corresponded with 
L. ligurius, a lover of dainties, and signified also a li- 
bidinous person ; B. lack ; Arm. lie, lust, lewdness, 
are from G. leika, Icega. See LAX, a spawning fish 

LEDGE, v. to lay, place, lodge, deposit ; G. leggia: M. G. 
laggan ; S. lecgan, Itgian. 

LEDGE, *. from the verb ; a layer or stratum, a ridge, 
shelf, moulding or coping. 

LEDGER, *. a book that lies on a merchant's counter. 

LEE, s. 1. pasture ground. See LEA. 

2. Dreg, sediment ; F. lie ; Arm. li ; Port, lia ; L. liquia, 
reliquia. See LEES. 

3. The side opposite to the wind ; G. ly ; Isl. hie; Swed. 
Id; D. lee; S. hleo; B. ly ; T. lee ; Isl. hlifa, to cover, 
to shelter. Lee shore, denotes that the wind blows 
on a vessel from the sea towards the land. 

LEECH, LEACH, *. a medical man, a surgeon ; M. G. lek, 
leilceis ; T. leek ; S. tec, lece ; G. and Swed. Icekare, 
laeknare; Sclav, likaer, apparently from G. laka, to 
diminish, and called in L. B. minutor, a blood-letter ; 
S. lecan, to diminish, make small ; laecejinger, the lit- 
tle finger. See to LACK. 

LEECH, .v. a kind of small water serpent, a blood-sucker ; 
S. lace, lyce, from its use in benefiting health, by 
drawing blood. 

LEEK, *. a potherb ; G. lauk ; Swed. ttk ; D. laeg ; S. 
leac; T.lauch; B. loock ; Heb. leach, signifying an 
herb generally, as Hemlock, Charlock, Garlick. 

LEER, v. n. to look obliquely or insidiously ; Isl. hlera ; 
Swed. lura ; T. luren. 

LEES, *. dregs, sediment ; pi. of LEE; Sp. lias; but in 
Northumberland, Lays, Laggs, are used in this sense, 
from Lay, to deposit. 

LEESE, v. to lose, an old word, from G. liuta ; B. liesen ; 
Swed. lisa. 

LEET, COURT-LEBT, *. a manorial court. The origin 
of the word is disputed ; but, G. lia ; S. lihan, pro- 
duced T. lechen, lehen, to invest with feudal authority ; 
of which lecht, leht, is the third person of the present 

LEEWARD, s. the direction to which the wind blows; B- 
lytvard. See LEE. 

LEFT, pret. and part, of the verb to LEAVE. 

LEFT, a. that is opposite to the right ; A ; L. ln-r,i, is 
the left hand ; but B. lefts ; T. links, seem to be cog- 
nate with Au*-, and linquo, our verb to leave or set 
apart ; what is left for unclean purposes. In the East, 
to touch food, or salute with the left hand, is an abo- 
mination. The Goths and Danes call it vanster, ven- 
ster, defective, offensive, sinister. 

LEG, *. the limb between the knee and the foot ; G. legg ; 
Swed. lag ; M. G. lilhgus ; It. lacca : G. litka, signi- 
fies to bend. See LIMB. 

LEGACY, s. a bequest ; L. B. legatio, from L. lego. 

LEGEND, . an inscription on coins or medals, a memo- 
randum, an incredible story ; L. B. legenda, from L. 



LEGER, s. what remains in a place ; as a leger ambas- 
sador, a resident, a book placed in a merchant's count- 
ing house ; T. leger ; B. legger, from G. leggia ; S. 
lecgan ; T. legen. 

LEGERDEMAIN, s. slight of hand ; O. F. legier de main ; 
It. leggiero de mono. 

LEISURE, *. convenience of time, freedom from busi- 
ness ; F. loisir, from L. otior ; but Swed. lisa; D. Use, 
loose, unemployed, free, are used in the same sense. 

LEMAN, LEVEMAN, *. a gallant, a mistress, a sweetheart ; 
S. Lervemon, a loved person ; from Lieve and Man, a 
person, male or female. 

LEMON, *. an acid fruit, a citron ; Sans, limit ; A. It. Sp. 
Port. F. T. Union. 

LEND, v. to grant, let out to use ; G. and Swed. Icena ; 
S. Icenan ; T. lehen ; B. leenen ; M. G. leihwan. See 

LENGTH, *. full extent ; T. langheit, longhood. 

LENT. pret. and p. pass, of to LEND. 

LENT, *. forty days of abstinence in spring ; S. leneien, 
tenet fast, Icentg lid ; B. lent ; T. lentz, glent. G. 
hlana ; Swed. lena, to mitigate, to dissolve, denoted 
spring, and the season of lent or lean tide, which 
corresponds with F. terns maigre. See LEAN. 

LEOD, in the names of persons or places signifies the 
people ; G. lyl ; Swed. lyde ; T. lent, Hut ; S. lead. 

LEOPARD, s. a spotted beast of prey ; P. pars ; L. par- 
dus, to which Pliny prefixed, leo, a lion. The Latins 
supposed it to be the female panther. 

LERE, s. learning, doctrine, a lesson; G. leer; Swed. 

Idr ; S. Icere ; B. leer. See LORE. 
LERRY, s. from LERE ; a lesson, a rebuke. 
LESOWES, *. pasture land. See LEAS. 

LESS, as a termination, signifies void, empty ; G. laus ; 
Swed. 16s; B. loos; S. leas: G. endelaus, endless; 
M. G. lauscuithrans, empty guts, from G. leisa, lata ; 
S. lesan, letan, to loose, free, dismiss. 

LESS, a. smaller, in a lower degree ; S. Ices, contracted 
from G. lilser, the comparative degree of G.lit; Swed. 
lite ; S. lyt, little. 

LESBES, *. the dung of beasts left on the ground, leav- 
ings ; F. laissees, from G. lata ; T. lassen ; F. hisser, 
to leave, let go. 

LEST, con;, that not, for fear that ; S. les the ; S. Ices, les, 
our less, corresponded with L. minus ; and L. quo mi- 
nus ; F. a moins que, is our lest that. See UNLESS. 

LET, v. to permit, leave, relinquish, hire out; G. lia, leta; 

Swed. lata; S. Itetan; B. laaten; T. lassen; F. laisser: 

G. blodlata, to let blood. 

LET, a diminutive termination, as Hamlet, Cutlet, Pul- 
let, from G. lit. See LITTLE. 
LBT, LETT, s. a hindrance, impediment ; from the verb ; 

apparently cognate with Late, as hinder, to impede, 

is from Hind. 
LET, v. a. to hinder, to impede ; G. letta ; S. lettan ; B. 

LETTER, *. a written message, an alphabetical character, 

a printing type ; L. litera ; It. lettera ; F. lettre : G. 

letur was used nearly in the same sense, from lesa, to 

say, to read ; whence Scot, leit, speech. 
LEVANT, s. the East, the Mediterranean coast; F. levant, 

the sunrising, from L. leva. 
LEVEE, *. a morning visit, a meeting at court, a lady's 

toilet ; F. lever, the time of rising, from L. levo. 

LEVEL, s. a gtate of equality, a plain, an instrument 
used in building; O. F. level; S. Icefel ; L. libella, dim. 
of libra. 

LEVER, *. a mechanical power, a balance ; F. levier ; 
L. levator. 

LEVERET, *. a young hare ; It. lepretta ; F. lievret, from 
L. lepus. 

LEVY, s. the act of raising men and money for the pub- 
lic service ; F. levee, from L. levo. 

LEWD, a. 1. popular, vulgar, lay, not noble or clerical ; 
S. lewd, from lead ; G. lyt, lyd, the people. 

2. Lustful, libidinous, obscene ; G. Icegt ; hross alcegt, 
equa pruril : L. libidus ; W. llarvd, have the same 
meaning. See LECHER. 

LEY, as a termination in the names of places generally 
S. lega, a place, a field ; but sometimes a burial ground, 
from G. leij ; Swed. lege. See LEA and Low. 

LIABLE, a. subject to ; O. F. liable, from Her ; L. ligare, 
to bind, oblige. 

LIAHD, a. roan, hoary, gray ; F. Hard ; It. leardo ; Scot. 
liart ; L. B. liardus, a roan horse, from G. lios, white, 
and reed, red. 

LIB, v. a. to cut off, to geld ; G. leipa ; T. luppen ; B. 
lubben ; Scot. lib. See GLIB, LUB and LOP. 

LIBEL, s. 1. a defamatory publication, a lampoon ; L. 
libella famosa ; F. libelle. 

2. A declaration or charge in writing against a person 
exhibited in court ; L. libellus. 

LICH, *. a corpse, a carcass ; G. lijk : Swed. Klc ; S. lice ; 
T. leiche ; P. lash. See FLESH. 

LICK, v. a. 1. to take up with the tongue, to lap ; W;g ; 
L. lingo ; M. G. laigwan ; D. licke ; S. liccan ; B. lie- 
ken ; T. lecken ; F. lecher ; It. leccare : P. luhja ; Heb. 
lahac ; L. lingua, the tongue. 

2. To beat, to strike, to wound ; G. leggia ; M. G. tigg- 
nian, bliggman ; S. lecgan. See LAM and BLOW. 

LICKERISH, LICKEROUS, a. greedy, tempting the appe- 
tite, luxurious, lecherous ; S. licera ; T. lecker ; Swed. 
lecker ; It. leccardo ; F. lichard. See LECHEB. 

LICORICE, s. a sweet root ; L. B. liquiritia ; It. ligoritia ; 

LID, *. a cover, membrane of the eye; G. lid; Swed. 
led; T. lied; S. hlid. 

LIE, s. water impregnated with soap or alkali for wash- 
ing ; G. and T. laug ; B. loos ; S. leak ; Swed. lut ; 
Sclav, lug; L. lixivium; It. hscia ; F. lessive. 

LIE, s. a falsehood, fiction, deception ; G. lygi ; Swed. 
logn ; D. Icegn ; T. liege ; S. hga : G. la, fraud. 

LIE, v. n. 1. to tell a lie; G. linga ; B. liegen ; T. /- 

gen ; S. ligan. 
2. To rest, remain, recline, consist; G. liggia ; Swed. 

ligga ; S. ligan ; T. liegen ; B. leggen. 
LIEF, ad. willingly ; B. lief. See LIEVE. 
LIEGE, *. a lord, a sovereign, a subject, feudal con- 
nexion or obligation ; F. liege ; It. ligio ; L. B. ligius, 

from L. ligo, to bind. 

LIEGER, *. a resident ambassador. See LEGER. 
LIEO, *. a place, station, stead ; L. locus; G. lage ; S. 

lege, loh ; F. lieu; Arm. leu; W. lie. 
LIEVE, a. loving, willing, affectionate; B. lieve, from 

leeven, to love. 
LIEUTENANT, s. a second in rank, a deputy, one who 

acts for another ; F. lieutenant ; It. locotenente ; L. 

locum tenens. 

L I M 

L I N 

LIEUTENANCY, *. the office of a lieutenant ; Lieutenant- 
ship is a barbarous word. 
I.IFB, *. animated existence, the state of being alive, the 

human body ; G. lif, lib ; M. G. loibos, supposed to be 

cognate with A*{ ; Swed. lif; S. lyf ; D. liv ; T. 

leben ; B. leven. See to LIVE and BODY. 
LIFT, v. 1. to heave, raise up, elevate, exalt ; G. lopta, 

anciently lofa, from uf, up ; S. hlifian ; Swed. lyfta ; 

D. Icefte ; T. liften ; L. leva ; F. lever. 
2. To steal; xAsal* ; L. clepo ; M. G. hliflus, theft, 

from hlifian; G. hlifa ; Swed. Ufa, to cover, conceal, 

LIFT, *. 1. a roof, a cover, a cloud, the sky ; supposed to 

be from Lift, the air ; but G. lobt, loft ; Swed. loft ; 

S. lyfl, may be from G. hlifa ; Swed. Ufa, to cover. 

2. The air, wind, breath; Swed. luft ; S. lyft; T. 
lufft ; B. lucht ; Scot, lift : G. /agw, air. See LUFF, 

3. The act of lifting, an effort. See to LIFT. 

LIGHT, *. the medium of sight, a luminous body, bright- 
ness ; M. G. luihad ; S. liht, leoht ; T. licht ; Hind. 
loch ; >.VX,-IH ; L. lux ; Arm. lemeick ; W. lltvych ; I. 
loichead. See Low. 

LIGHT, a. 1. bright, clear, luminous ; S. liht. 

2. Active, nimble, airy, trifling, not heavy; G. left ; 
Swed. let, Idll ; S. liht ; T. leicht ; B. leiht ; L. levis. 

LIGHT, v. 1. to descend, meet with, hit upon ; G. ligta ; 
T. leigten ; S. lihtan, to descend : Isl. liola ; Swed. 
ljuta, to fall upon, seem to be from lot, chance. 

2. To ignite, kindle, direct by a light. See Low. 

LIGHTER, s. a kind of large boat used to lighten ships ; 
Swed. liktare ; F. alleger. 

LIGHTS, f. the lungs, the organs of respiration ; Isl. 
li/ktu, to inhale air, to breathe, to smell ; Swed. lucht ; 
D. lugte, breath, apparently cognate with Lift, the air. 

LIKE, a. resembling, even, equal, smooth, agreeable, 
pleasing; G. lyk ; Swed. like; B. lyk ; T. lich ; S. 
lie, signify, in the first two dialects particularly, si- 
milar, equal, pleasing, just, good, proper, fitting ; G. 
e, tin ; Swed. en, one, simple, similar, may have pro- 
duced rikii and ulihti, corresponding with utut, from 
!(. See LIKING. 

LIKE, v. to approve, find agreeable, to be pleased with ; 
G. and Swed. lika ; M. G. leikan ; S. licean ; B. ly- 
ken ; Isl. lika, to prove, make good. 

LIKELY, a. well favoured, good looking, probable. 

LIKING, s. a state of probation, a trial, inclination, good 
condition, plumpness. 

LILACH, s. a flowering shrub ; F. lilas ; Sp. lila, from 
P. and Sans, leelal, for neel lal, blue red. 

LIMB, *. a member of the body, a branch; G. lima, 
plur. limber ; Swed. lent ; S. lim : G. litha, to bend ; 
lith, a joint or limb. 

LIMB, s. an edge, a border; L. limbux. 

LIMBER, a. from LIMB ; flexible, easily bent, pliant. 

LIMBO, *. a word used by the Romish church to denote 
a place where the souls of some persons, particularly 
unchristened children, are supposed to be confined 
until the day of judgment ; It. limbo ; L. B. limbus, 
from limes. 

LIMB, *. 1. calx of stone; G.' Km-; Swed. lijm ; T. 
I rim ; S. lime ; L. limits. 

2. The line or linden tree. See LINDEN. 

.'J. A small lemon ; Sans, lemoo ; Hind, limu ; F. lime ; 
Sp. lima. 

LIMMER, *. 1. a large kind of hound ; F. limier ; L. B. 

levinarius, from L. lepux and venare. Chaucer used 

the term for a bloodhound. 
2. A scoundrel, a deceiver, a whore ; G. Icemadr, from 

he, fraud ; Scot, limmer, a strumpet. 
LIMN, v. a. to colour, to paint, to take a likeness ; L. 

lumino ; F. eiiluminer. 
LIMP, <i. limber, vapid, pliant, weak ; S. lempe ; T. 

LIMP, v. n. to walk lame, to halt ; S. lempan. See 

LIMPET, *. a sea shell; Arf ; L. lepas ; F. lepas. 

LIN, v. n. to desist, cease, leave off; Isl. and Swed. 
I'm n 11 ; S. alinnan, blinnan, apparently from G. lia, 
letna ; S. leslan, to relinquish. 

LINCHPIN, s. iron pin of an axletree ; G. luns ; Swed. 
lunta ; D. lunds ; B. lins ; S. lynis ; Scot, lint, an 
axle, a roller. 

LINDEN, *. the lime tree; Swed. D. S. lind ; T. linde, 
from G. Undo, to bind. The inner bark was used for 
thread or cordage called Bast, which also signified to 
bind. The shade of this tree is said to have been an- 
ciently preferred for the seat of rule and justice. 

LINE, s. a slender string, a cord extended, extension in 
length, a limit, a verse, a rule, order, pedigree, pro- 
geny, the 12th of an inch ; L. linea ; "F. line. 

LINE, v. a. 1. to form in line. 

2. To cover the inside, to place inwardly ; Isl. and Swed. 
linna, from G. inni ; Swed. inne, the interior; Isl. 
linnung, the lining of a robe. 

LINEAGE, *. from line, progeny, race, pedigree; F. 

LINEN, .v. cloth made of flax or hemp ; S. linen, from A. 
lain ; A/FM ; L. liiiurn ; G. lin ; T. lein, flax. 

LING, a diminutive termination formed by joining our 
two diminutives le and ing. 

LING, *. 1. heath, brake; G. ling ; D. lyne ; B. leng ; 
Swed. ljung, from ljunga, to flame. See Low. 

2. Salted haak, poor Jack ; Swed. langa ; B. leng. 
See LEAN. 

LINGAM, .v. the phallus ; Sans, ling, the emblem of Ma- 

LINGER, v. to remain, to hesitate; from Isl. leingi ; S. 
ling. See LONG and LODNGE. 

LINGER, LINGET, .v. the ling or heath finch. 

LINGET, .v. a small mass of metal. See INGOT. 

LINGO, s. language, speech, tongue ; Port, lingoa, from 

L. lingua. 
LINING, s. the inner covering ; Isl. linung. See to 

LINK, s. 1. a thing connected, part of a chain ; G.fyck; 

Isl. Icenk ; Swed. lank; D. Icenke ; T. gelenk. See 


2. A torch of pitch ; G. lugn, lunt ; *.(>%>*. See LUNT. 
LINN, *. a pool, a torrent ; G. lind ; Isl. lin ; S. hlynna ; 

Scot. lyn. 
LINNET, a small singing bird ; L. linaria ; F. linol ; S. 

linettvige, from its feeding on flax seed. 
LINSTOCK, *. a staffer stick with a match at the end, to 

fire cannon. See LUNT. 
LINT, *. flaxen substance, linen scraped ; S. linet ; Scot. 

liit! ; L. linteum. 
LINTEL, *. the headpiece of a door frame ; F- lintial ; 

L. limentalit. 


L O A 

L O I 

LION, s. a fierce animal; Heb. lani ; L. lea; tiui ; It. 

Icone i F. lion ; Isl. lean ; Swed. leion ; T. lone ; W. 

LIP, *. the outer part of the mouth, the edge of a wound 

or aperture ; P. lub, lib ; Hind, lub ; D. Icebe ; S. 

lippe ; Swed. T. B. lip ; L. labia ; F. lippe. 

LIRICONFANCY, s. lily of the valley ; L. liriconallis. 
LISP, v. n. to speak imperfectly ; Swed. lespa ; D. Itzs- 

pe ; B. lespen ; T. lispen ; S. rvlispen. 
LIST, s. 1. a roll, a catalogue ; G. lest, list, from lesa, to 

speak, to read ; AE|<; ; D. liste ; F. lisle, and common 

to all European languages. 

2. The border of a web, a strip of cloth, a fillet ; L. B. 
lista ; Sp. and It. lista ; F. 2tee, lisiere ; Swed. list ; 
B. lisse ; L. licium. 

3. A place for athletic exercise ; It. lizza ; F. lice ; Sp. 
/zza, a field of battle, a plain or smooth place, arena ; 
Sp. lixar, alizar, to make smooth or even, from L. 

4. Desire, anxiety, eagerness ; G. lyst ; Swed. list ; S. 
lyst. See LUST. 

LIST, v. 1. to desire, to choose ; G. lysta ; S. lystan, cor- 
responding with /nV. 

2. To enter on a list or roll, to engage soldiers. 

3. To give attention, to hearken. See LISTEN. 
LISTEN, v. to hearken, give attention; S. hlistan ; D. 

lyste : G. hlaust ; W. dust, the ear ; xhiia, to hear. 
LIT, pret. of the verb to Light. 
LITHE, LITHESOME, a. flexible, limber, pliant, smooth ; 

G. and S. lith ; T. lit, tide ; M. G. lithus, from G. li- 

da, litha, to bend. 
LITTER, s. 1. a sedan, a bed of straw for animals, things 

strewed about ; L. lectica ; F. liliere. 
2. The young of one litter or bed. 
LITTLE, a. diminutive, small, not much; G. litill ; S. 

lytel ; B. luttel, contracted sometimes into G. and 

Swed. lille : from G. lilt ; Swed. lite ; S. lyt ; Sans. 

les, small, few. G. lit, litser, litst, little, lesser, least, 

corresponding with 'i\a.T\ut, I^UO-TUH, &a%irf. 

LIVE, v. n. to be in life, to exist, remain ; G. liva, liba ; 
S. lifian, libban; Swed. lefnia ; D. leve ; B. leven ; 
T. leben, supposed by some to be cognate with G. Ufa, 
to remain, to endure, to be left ; but G. lia, to grant, 
to give, may have been prefixed to /3i' ; L. vivo. See 

LIVELONG, a. tedious, durable, lasting out; Scot, lee 
long, from G. Ufa; Swed. lefiva ; B. blyven, to re- 
main, continue. 

LIVER, s. one of the entrails; Isl. lifer ; Swerf. lefrver 
D. lever; T. leben S. lifer ; *;. 

LIVERY, s. 1. the act of giving or taking possession ; F. 
livree, from L. libero. 

2. The freemen of London, a dress for servants of dis- 
tinguished persons. 

LIVHE, s. a French pound, about tenpence sterling. 
From L. libra. 

LIZARD, s. a kind of legged serpent; F. lezard ; L. la- 

L. L. D. a doctor of laws ; L. legis legum doctor. 

Lo, interj. see, behold ; S. lo, la ; T. lo, la, the impera- 
tive of the verb to look, was used to call attention, 
corresponding with Hind, loo ; P. loong. 

LOACH, s. a fish called groundling ; F. loche ; L. lotus, 
from frequenting streams. 

LOAD, s. 1. weight, burden, freight, lading; G. and 
Swed. lada; S. Mad; T. laden; Hind, lad: I. lade ; 
W. llrvith. 

2. A measure of grain. See LAST. 

3. The leading vein in a mine. See LODE. 
LOADSMAN, s. a pilot. See LODE. 

LOADSTAR, *. the north star, a guide for mariners. See 

LOADSTONE, *. the magnet, a compass to steer by. See 

LOAF, s. a mass of bread ; G. lef, Iceif, hlaif; Isl. leif; 
Swed. lef, lof; M. G. hlaibs ; T. laib ; S. hlaf; L. 
B. leiba : G. hlef; Swed. lempa, a mass of dough, ap- 
parently from G. lofa, lopta ; S. hlifian, to raise up, 
corresponding with L. levo, which produced our word 
leaven. Some however suppose it to be cognate with 
our Lop, Lopper, to concrete. G. and Swed. bulla 
signified a round loaf; and hence F. boulanger, a 

LOAM, s. a fat tenacious earth ; S. laam ; T. leim ; L. 

LOAN, s. any thing lent ; G. Ian ; Swed. Ian ; S. hlcen, 

mutual accommodation or security, a feudal tenure, a 

pledge ; from G. lea, lia ; Swed. lega, to transfer, in- 
terchange. See BAIL. 
LOATHE, v. a. to abhor, dislike, detest ; G. liota ; Swed. 

lijda ; T. leidan ; B. lyden ; S. lathian. 
LOB, s. a sluggard, an earthworm. B. lug, loom ; Swed. 

16m : Isl. hloma, to slow. 
LOBBY, *. an opening before a room, an arbour, a shed ; 

T. laube; S. leafe, foliage, a shade. See LEAP. 
LOBSTER, s. a well known shellfish ; S. lopuster, from 

loppe, a locust, a grasshopper, literally a leaper ; Port. 

locusta ; L. locusta marina. 
LOCH, s. a lake, and, in Scotland, an arm of the sea. 

See LAKE and LOUGH. 
LOCK, s. a fastening for a door, a clasp, a link, catch, 

buckle, ring, ringlet ; Sans, uluq ; G. lok ; Swed. 


LOCK, v. to fasten by a lock, to clasp, grapple ; G. and 
Swed. luka ; S. lucan. 

LOCKRAM, *. a kind of coarse linen ; L. laxum granum. 

LODE, *. 1. a way, direction, course; G. lod, leid; D. 

load ; T. lade ; S. lade. See to LEAD. 
2. For LADE ; a conduit. 
LODGE, v. to place, reside, inhabit ; F. loger, from L. 

locare, which corresponds with S. logian; M. G. lag. 

gan, to lay, to place. 
LOFT, s. what is high or elevated, the upper floor of a 

building ; G. loft ; Swed. loft ; B. luij. See to LIFT. 
LOFTY, a. high, sublime, elevated, haughty, proud ; 

from the noun. 
Loo, s. 1. a knot, a link, a computation ; Isl. G. lik, 

lock, a knot, a link ; D. lokke ; Swed. lycka, logg, and 

thence logga, to estimate. 
2. A piece of wood, a block, a blockhead ; G. log, lag, 

what is laid or placed, like Post from L. positus, pro- 
duced B. logge, heavy, lumpish. See to LAY. 
LOGLINE, *. a line with knots fastened to a piece of 

board for measuring a ship's way ; Swed. logglina ; 

D. lokkelin ; F. ligne de loch. 
LOGWOOD, s. a wood used in dyeing ; from Logo or La- 

guna, a town on the bay of Campeachy. 
LOIN, *. the back of an animal ; L. famous ; It. longia ; 

F. longe; W. llrvyn ; Hind, lung ; S. lend. 



LOITER, v. n. to linger, to idle away time ; B. leutereti, 

from G. latur ; S wed. later ; T. latter, tardiness. See 

LOLL, v. 1. to lean idly upon, rest against; B. luylige*, 

from lay, lazy, and ligen, to lie ; luylak, a sluggard. 
2. To hang out the tongue; T. loeUen ; B. lullen, to 

suck with the tongue. 
LONE, a. private, solitary, single. 
LONG, a. having length, slow, tedious; G. long ; S. 

long ; L. longus ; F. long ; It. longo. 
LONG, ad. in length, continuation, proximation, con- 
junction, side by side; G. lang ; T. lange ; whence 

T. latigen ; S. gelangen, to belong. See ALONG. 
LONG, v. n. to think the time long, to desire earnestly ; 

Swed. langa ; S. langian. 

Loo, f. a game at cards introduced at the palace of Loo. 
LOOBY, s. an awkward soft fellow, a clown ; Isl. lubbe ; 

B. lobbes, a low idle fellow ; W. Hale, a clown. 
LOOP, v. to bring near the wind ; B. loeven ; Swed. lof ; 

B. loef; F. lof, aulof. See LUFF. 
LOOF, *. the hand, the palm ; Hind, lup ; G. lof; M. G. 

lofa ; Swed. lofwe, anciently laf, labbe, loge, luca ; 

Scot, luff ; W. Haw ; I. lamh. See GLOVE. 
LOOK, *. sight, appearance, air of the face ; G. aug ; T. 

lug ; S. loc ; Arm. lug ; W. llygad, lug ; L. lux ; 

Sans, loch ; Hind, luk, the eye. 
LOOK, v. from the noun ; to see, view, examine, watch, 

appear ; S. locian, alucan ; B. lonken ; T. lugen ; P. 

loong ; Hind, loo ; *aa. 
Loou, t. 1. a weaver's frame, a member, an article ; G. 

loin ; S. lama, cognate with Limb. 
2. A sea fowl ; Swed. lorn ; D. htm, loom ; F. lumme, 

from Isl. hloma, to be stupid or torpid. 

LOOM, v. a. to exhibit a distant view, to appear like a 
ship far off at sea ; Isl. lioma ; S. lioman, from G. 
Horn ; A. lam, sheen, glimpse ; geleoma, to gleam. 

LOON, s. 1. a country servant, a hireling; G. launur ; 
Swed. loner ; S. lun, lean ; Scot, loun, from G. lawn ; 
T. lahn, wages, hire. G. legohion was a hired house 
servant, a lackey ; from lega, hire. 

2. A scoundrel, a skulker, a filcher; G. launur ; Swed. 
l&n. See PURLOIN. 

3. Humour, disposition; G. lun ; Swed. luna ; J).lune; 
T. laune. 

LOOP, *. 1. a window, a hole in a tower to look through; 

G. luff, lugg, glugg. See LOOK. 
2. A loop knot, a running knot, a noose, a small ring ; 

G. laup ; B. loop, running. 
LOOPHOLE, .v. an opening to run through, a hole to look 

through. See LOOP and HOLE. 
LOORD, a. heavy, stupid, sluggish ; G. latur, laur ; B. 

herd, luyart ; T. loerd, loerman; Sp. lerdoi F. lourd; 

Arm. lourt, heavy, stupid, sluggish. The quartan 

ague was formerly called the lourd or lurdane. 
LOORT, s. a beautiful species of small parrot ; Malay, 

noory ; Sp. loro. 
LOOSE, a. unbound, detached, lax, free, wanton, wild ; 

G. laus ; Swed. lot; T. lot; S. leaf; B. lot; D. 

Iocs ; Avwif ; but sometimes confounded with L. laxut: 

F. lache. 
LOOSE, v. to unbind, relax, set free; G. leisa ; M. G. 

lavsjan^; S.^lysan, lesans Swed. Ifaa, corresponding 

with >.vu, Avr*. 
LOP, v. a. to cut off, amputate ; G. leipa ; Swed. tipa ; 


S. lupa, to leap, denoted also a sudden manner of cut- 
ting, " leipa berk af triam," to lop the bark from 
trees ; G. ha, however, was a falchion. See LIB. 

LOP, *. ] . what is lopped from trees ; T. lup. 
2. A flea, a leaper ; Swed. lojipa ; S. loppe. See LOB- 

LOP, LOPPER, v. n. to run together, to coagulate, to 
concrete, to clot ; G. laupa ; Swed. !6pa, to run toge- 
ther; whence Isl. hlaup ; D.lvbe; T.luip; B. lebbe, 
curds ; and Runnet is from Run, to coagulate. See 

LORD, *. a title applied to the Almighty and to a noble- 
man ; S. hlaford, laueord, apparently from G. lofa ; 
S. hlifian, lofian, to elevate, exalt, extol, and G. vard ; 
S. ward, neorth, dignity, honour, estimation. S. leaf, 
a lord, seems to have been confounded with Itifian, 
leojian, to love, to be faithful. S. tcip hlaford was the 
master or chief of a ship. G. lavard ; Isl. latvard, 
however, had a different origin as supposed ; G. to, 
lad, signified land, and vard, a possessor or warden ; 
which produced our Lord of a manor, and Scot. 
laird, a land-owner. F. leude, a seigniory, was a cor- 
ruption of Allodium. See LADY. 

LORDANE, s. a worthless stupid person; F. lourdin ; 
Scot, lurdane. See LOORD. 

LORDSHIP, s. title of a nobleman, a domain, a manor. 
See SHIP, quality. 

LORE, s. 1. doctrine, learning, a lesson ; G. leer ; Swed. 
lara ; S. leer. See LERE. 

2. Loss, distress; Swed. lora ; S. lore; B. loor. See 

LOREL, *. a sluggish dull fellow, a losel. See LOORD. 

LORIHER, LOKINER, *. a bridle cutter ; F. larmier, from 
L. /urn in. 

LORIOT, s. a yellow bird ; F. loriot, from L. auratut , 
L. B. galgulus. 

LORN, a. deserted, forsaken, lost. See LORE, LOSE 

LOSE, v. to suffer loss, to miss, to fail ; M. G. liusun ; 
S. leosan, lotion ; D. lijse ; Swed. lisa ; G. lora. See 

LOSEL, s. a dull sluggish fellow ; from loose or lazy. 

LOT, *. chance, fortune, portion, quota; G. lut; Swed. 
lilt ; S. hloti T. loos; B. and F. lot ; Arm. laol : It. 
lotto, a game of chance. See to LIGHT. 

LOTE, LOTOS, *. a kind of tree ; L. lotus. 

LOUD, a. noisy, sounding ; G. and S. lud ; D. lyd ; 
Swed. liuds T. lout : G. hlyda, to hear. 

LOVEAGE, s . water parsley ; F. leveshe ; B. lams ; L. B. 
levisticum, ligustica* 

LOVE, s. 1. the passion between the sexes, courtship, af- 
fection ; G. Hub, love ; S. luva ; Swed. htif ; T. liebe ; 
B. lief; P. loob ; Hind, lou ; L. lube, libido. 

2. At play, counting nothing in the game ; S. laua, 
lafe, void, destitute. 

3. A kind of mourning ribbon ; from being worn by 
widows, as S. lafe, void, desolate, signifies a widow, 
a relict. See to LEAVE. 

LOVE APPLE, *. a tomata ; L. solatium pomum amoris. 
LOUGH, *. a lake, a body of water ; G. laug ; Swed. log ; 

T. luch ; S. lagu, luh ; W. llivch. Isl. lauga, loga ; S. 

lygece, a river ; and the original meaning of the won! 

seems to be water. See LAKE. 


L Y 

Louis D'OR, a F. gold coin, value twenty shillings ster- 
ling, with the head of Louis. 

LOUNGE, v. n. to idle, to linger ; Swed. lunsa, lunka ; T. 
luntchen, lungeren. 

LOUK, v. n. to frown, to appear dark or gloomy, supposed 
to be Swed. lura ; B, looreu ; T. lanren, to look insi- 
diously ; but there seems to have been a L. verb, luro, 
as luror is discolour. See LURID. 

LOUSE, *. a small body animal ; G. and Swed. lus, luus ; 
T. laus ; B. luys ; S. lus ; Arm. louese ; W. ttau. 

LOUT, s. a clown, a serf; D. lotvt, subjected, enthralled; 
T. loete ; B. loet, a clown. 

LOUT, v. n. to stoop, to bow awkwardly, to submit, 
bend, obey ; G. and Swed. luia ; S. hlutan. 

Low, a. near the surface, deep, abject, poor, mean, 
cheap ; G. Swed. T. B. lag ; S. legh ; D. Ian. See 
to LAY. 

Low, v. to bellow like an ox ; S. hlotvan ; B. loeyen. See 
to LAY. 

Low, *. flame, light, blaze ; M. G. lauh ; G. log ; Swed. 
laga; D. lue ; T. loh ; B. laeye; A. luhub ; Sans, luo, 
lookh, of which Light, Link, - Lunt, Loom, Blow, 
Blight, Blaze, Blast, Blink, Flame, Flash, Flare, 
Glow, Gloss, Glass, Glaze, Glare, Glance, Gleam, 
Glimpse, Glisten, seem to be cognates. The loge or 
lake of the Goths, Sans. Lookh, was the God of flame. 

Low, LOE, 1. in the names of places, signifies a bury- 
ing ground, a barrow or smooth sloping mound ; G. 
hlaiu, hlef; S. htarv, lorve ; Scot. lam. 

2. A station, a residence, a farm ; D. loe ; S. log, loh ; B. 
loo. See LAIH. 

3. A grove ; G. 16 ; Sclav, log ; T. to, loh ; B. loo ; L. 

LOWBB, v. 1. to lessen, bring low. 

2. To frown, to appear dark or gloomy. See LOUR. 

LOYAL, a. faithful to the sovereign, submissive to the 

law, legal ; F. loyal ; Sp. leal ; It. leale, from F. tot ; 

It. and Sp. le ; L. lex. 
LOZENGE, * a figure in heraldry, a medicinal cake of 

that form, a rhomb, from A|s and yuria. 
LUB, v. a. to geld, emasculate ; B. lubben. See to LIB. 
LUBBABD, LUBBER, s. a stout lazy fellow ; B. luyaard. 

See LOB. 
LUCK, s. chance, accident, fortune ; G. lucka ; Swed. 

lycka ; D. lykke ; B. Ink ; T. gluch ; *#!, Aoy^i) ; Sans. 

la, lik. 
LUFF, s. the air, the wind ; G. lugu ; Swed. loge, luft ; 

B. loef, logt, lucht ; D. luft ; S. lyft. See LOOF and 

LUG, v. to drag, pull with violence ; Swed. lugga ; D. 

luge ; S. Iceccan, luggian, geluggian. See to PLUCK. 
LUG, *. I- a small fish, a kind of worm ; B. log ; D. loey ; 

Scot. lug. 
2. The ear; Scot. lug. See to LISTEN. 

4. From the verb; a pull. 

LUGGAGE, s. any cumbrous package, from lug, to draw, 

or perhaps for loadage. 
LUKEWARM, a. moderately warm, indifferent, wanting 

zeal ; S. rvloec ; B. loauivig ; T. Ian ; Scot, lew ; D. 

lunk ; perhaps breathwarm. See LUNGS and LIGHTS. 
LULL, v. a. to compose to sleep, allure ; Swed. lulla ; D. 

lulle ; L. lallo : It. cantar lalla, to sing lullaby. 
LUMBER, s. gross unassorted stuff, useless furniture ; T. 

lump ; B. lamp, any thing ugly or tattered, a rag, a 

good for nothing fellow. 
LUMP, *. a small mass, the whole piece ; B. lamp, klomp; 

D. and Swed. klump, are apparently cognate with our 

Lopper, from Swed. Idpa, concrete. See LOAF. 
LUNCH, LUNCHEON, s. a piece, a morsel ; B. lutje. See 

LUNGS, s. the organs of respiration ; Swed. lunga ; D. 

lunge ; T. lunge ; S. lungen ; B. long : G. lugu, air. 

LUNT, s. 1. a match cord to fire great guns ; Swed. T. 

and B. hint. See Low. 

2. Urine, lie; Swed. Int. See LAND and LANT. 
LUPINE, s. a kind of pulse with a variety of flowers ; A. 

loubye ; L. lupina ; F. lupin. 
LURCH, s. a forlorn state or condition ; B. loor ; T. lo- 

ertsch, a losing throw at dice. See LOBE. 
LURCH, v. to shift, play wily tricks, act insidiously ; B. 

loeren. See to LURK. 

LURCHEB, s. from the verb ; a poacher, a kind of dog. 
LURE, s. an enticement, a bait; the figure of a bird to 

entice hawks ; Swed. and T, luder ; B. loore ; T. 

leurre ; It. lodro ; Sp. lura, flesh. F. appas, a charm, 

a bait, was from L. pasco. See BAIT. 
LURID, a. gloomy, dismal ; L. luridus. 
LURK, v. n. to lie in wait, to watch, act insidiously ; 

Swed. lura ; T. lauern ; Scot. lure. See to LURCH. 
Luscious, . immoderately sweet ; supposed to be from 

yXwxti} ; A. luzeez, is used precisely like our word. 
LUSH, a. having a deep colour ; It. liscio signifies co- 
lour ; but properly smoothing of the skin. G. litsk is 

coloured. See LASTERY. 
LUSK, a. slothful ; G. losk. See LAZY. 
LUST, *. carnal desire, unlawful or exorbitant inclina- 
tion ; G. lost ; Swed. lust ; T. and S. lust, from G. ust, 

ast, love. 
LUSTY, a. hearty, jovial, jolly, of good cheer, vigorous ; 

G. lostog ; Swed. B. and T. lustig. 
LUTE, *. a stringed musical instrument; A. alaud ; Sp. 

laud; T. lut. 
LY, 1. as a termination in the names of places, is Lea 

or Lee, a field, a pasture ; or S. leag ; L. B. lega, a place. 
2. A termination by which a substantive becomes an ad- 
jective, is contracted from like; as beastly for beast 

like, manly for manlike ; G. thalik corresponds with 

THA/XOS ; L. tails, the like, such. 



MHAS in English an unvaried sound by the com- 
pression of the lips, as mine, tame, camp ; and it 
is never mute. In the Celtic dialects, M, B, F, V, 
were subject to general intermutations. The Goths 
also substituted M for V frequently ; and thus the 
Latin vents and merus appear to have been originally 
the same word. M, or Me, appears to have had nearly 
the same formation, meaning and use, in Gothic, with 
the prefixes be, ve and ge, to denote adaptation or 
intensity. Thus from eat we have meat and bait, food ; 
the Gothic auk, ey/c, increase, our eke, seems in this 
way to have produced our much and mickle ; and the 
Gothic inna, to enter, served to form the word mine, 
a subterraneous entrance, mien, a mouth, a counte- 
nance, and mint, money. Malt was from ealoth, ale. 
MAB, *. a name given to the Queen of the Fairies ; Heb. 
W. and Arm. mab, a child or any small animal ; I. 
baeib', badhbh, maeib, a fairy. G. vif, t>e6, a woman, 
may have been pronounced meib, by the usual muta- 
tion of a into m ; and alf veib, a female elf, was a 

MAC, *. a son ; G. maug ; T. mag, mac ; S. mag ; I. mac ; 
W. macctvy ; Malabar magttn, a son, a male child ; G. 
may, maga, a daughter, a maid ; mag, a relation. G. 
magi, was also an embryo ; whence S. mcegth, a pro- 
geny, race, tribe. The Medes, S. mcetlias, mwgethas, 
the Matliaci of Germany and England, appear to have 
had their names from this extensive root. See MAN. 

MACARONI, *. 1. a kind of pastry ; futyu^utt, a bakery ; 
It. maccarone; Heb. mahlia ; Arm. macha, dough, 

2. An affected illiterate person, who speaks a vulgar dia- 
lect, such as was used by Mertino Cocca, in a bur- 
lesque poem on pastry called Macaronia. 

MACAROON, s. F. macaron, a kind of biscuit made of 
flour, almonds, eggs and butter. See MACARONI. 

MACAW, *. the name of a species of cockatoon, and also 
of a tree brought to the West Indies from Macao. 

MACE, *. 1. a heavy blunt weapon, a club of metal, borne 
before magistrates as an ensign of authority. 


L. 11111.1x11 : Sp. maza ; It. mazza ; F. massue ; S. mace. 

2. The inner rind that covers the nutmeg ; Sans, and 

P. bank ; L. mads ; F. mads ; It. mads. 
MACERATE, r. a. to steep, to soak, infuse, make lean ; 

L. macero. 
MACHINE, ,v. an engine, coach, vehicle ; fut^,an ; L. ma. 

china; F. machine. 
MACKAREL, or MACKEREL, x. 1. a sea fish flaked with 

different colours ; L. macularia, from macula, a spot ; 

F. maquereau ; T. mackarell. 
2. A bawd ; F. maquerelle, from L. moechor, to commit 

MACKAREL-GALK, *. a brisk wind during which mackarel 

are readily taken ; a term with fishermen. 
MACROCOSM, s. the world, the universe; F. macrocosmc, 

from ftccxfa and xog>ce;. 
MACTATION, s. the killing of beasts for sacrifice; L. mac- 

talio, from fiagi and 6vu. 

MACULA, MACULATION, .9. spot, stain, pollution ; L. ma- 
cula : G. mal ; T. mahl, makl, a speck, a stain, appears 

to be the original word. 
MAD, s. a worm ; G. madka, maaka ; D. madike ; B. 

made; T. made; M. G. matha. This name, as well 

as moth, seems to be formed from G. meida, to divide, 

cut, and signifies an insect. It was applied to an 

earthworm, and to a mite. 
MAD, a. disordered in mind, enraged, furious ; M. G. 

mod ; S. maad, gemaad, angry, enraged, confounded 

with G. oed; S. vod. See WOOD. 
MADAM, *. an address paid to a gentlewoman, a title; F. 

madame ; It. madonna, from L. mea domino. 
MADCAP, s. a wild thoughtless person, from mad, and 

cap, the head. See CAP. 
MADDER, s. a plant much used in dying; Arm. madre ; 

T. maddar; S. maddre ; B. meed, meadow red. See 


MADE, pret. and part, of the verb to MAKE ; it is con- 
tracted from maked. 



M A L 

MADEFY, MADIDATE, v. a. to wet, to moisten ; L. ma- 


MADGE-HOWLET, *. the white owl ; Sp. maido ; T. mitz, 
mints ; It. micio, a cat; Scot, mervt ; F. machette, from 
its mewing cry, called also the cat owl. 
MADRIGAL, *. a kind of pastoral song ; F. madrigal ; It. 
mandriale, from paniifx ; L. mandra, a stall for cattle, 
a fold ; to which gal, a song, has been added to form 
our word. See GAL. 

MAEKB, a. famous, renowned, celebrated, noble ; Sans. 
ma/in ; P. mih ; Chald. mar ; G. meir, mcer ; T. mere; 
S. mer, mare ; Swed. masr ; W. maur ; I. mor, great. 
It formed a part of many celebrated names, such as 
Chlodomer, Marcomer, Merovicus. The Gothic masr ; 
S. mcer, may sometimes be formed from cedra, cera ; S. 
are, honour ; whence alcedra, honourable, worshipful. 
MAFFLE, v. n. to stammer, stutter, hesitate ; F. maufler, 

from moue, the mouth. See MUFFLE. 
MAGAZINE, *. a storehouse, armory, repository ; A. 

makhzan ; F. magazin. 

MAGE, *. a magician, one of the Magi ; P. majus, mugh ; 
fiaytf, L. magus, a follower of Zoroaster, a worshipper 
of fire. See MITRE. 

MAGGOT, *. a small worm, grub, embryo, fancy ; G. 

madka, maaka ; Swed. maik ; D.madike; B. maai ; 

S. mogthe ; W. mageod , Scot, matvk ; O. E. mough, a 

worm. The B. bolworm, and F. ver coquin, are both 

used metaphorically, like maggot with us, to denote 

whim or caprice. See MOTH and MAD. 

MAGI, *. pL wise men, Persian philosophers. See MAGE. 

MAGISTRATE, *. one vested with public authority ; L. 

magistrates ; It. magistrate; F. magistral. 
MAGNESIA, s. a white powder, very gentle purgative.- 
MyW, the name of the country where it was 

MAGNET, s. a stone that attracts iron, iron ore, steel ; 
(uiynlttf ; L. magnes, from Magnesia, where it was first 

MAGNIFY, v. to make great, extol, praise ; L. magnified. 
MAGPIE, *. a black and white bird, easily taught to pro- 
nounce words ; met. a talkative person ; L. maculosa 
pica. It was formerly magat pie ; L. maculata pica. 
MAHOMET, a man's name ; A. Muhammad, the praised. 
MAID, *. a virgin, a female servant ; Sans, moogdha ; P. 
made, madeen ; Heb. amath ; G. may, maey, mcer, 
meijd ; S. mai, mcegd ; B. mcegd, meid ; T. magd, a 
daughter, the feminine of mac or mag, a son. From 
the same root we have Meg, Madge, Margery, Molly, 
women's names. Maiden, like lady, signified the 
holy virgin, when forming the names of plants and 
MAIDENHEAD, MAIDENHOOD, s. virginity, from maid, 

and head or hood, state, condition. 

MAIDMARIAN, s. a name given originally to a female 
who represented the Queen of May, perhaps a cor- 
ruption of F. Mai reine ; but it now signifies a man 
dressed like a woman, who plays tricks at morris 
dances, and may be payii ; L. morion, a buffoon. 
MAJESTY, s. grandeur, dignity, power, sovereignty, 
elevation, a royal title ; L. majestas, from fiiys, great. 
MAIL, *. 1. armour, properly of iron network; L. ma- 
cula; f.maille; It. maglia, corresponding with G. 
mal ; T. mahl ; Swed. malja, a division, a link. See 
2. A letter-bag; B. maal; T. mal 'he ; F. male; Sp. 

mala, perhaps from fwAyos, or G. male, a knapsack. 

MAIM, *. a privation of some essential part, lameness, a. 
hurt, a defect ; G. mai, from maitan, to mutilate, and 
vam, defect, may have been used to form our word. 
Arm. mehaina ; I. maidham, have the same significa- 
tion ; G. vam was also pronounced mam, which in O. 
F. was maimis. 

MAIN, a. 1. great, chief, principal; F. magnes L. mag- 
nus ; fttyas. 

2. Powerful, mighty, forcible ; G. megin ; S. mage, me- 

fende, from G. meiga, to have power, to be able. See 

MAIN, s. 1. the gross, the chief part, sum total. Seethe 

2. Power, might, strength, force, continuity, the ocean, 
the continent ; G. megn, magn, manne ; S. megne> 
mcegn ; T. megin : G. megin land, the main land ; me- 
gin see, the ocean. 

3. The chief point on which a game or match depends. 
The player at hazard names the main or point against 
the chances. 

4. A channel, duct or conduit ; from Swed. mana ; T. 
menen ; F. mener, to conduct, lead. 

MAINPEHNABLE, a. bailable; for mainprenable, from Main- 

MAINPRIZE, s. a deliverance on bail; F. main prise, 
from L. manu prehensio. It means the delivery of a 
person arrested inte the hands of a friend, who is se- 
curity for his reappearance when required for trial. 

MAINTAIN, v. to support, uphold, keep ; F. maintenir ; 
It. mantenare ; Sp. mantener, from L. manu tenere. 

MAJOR, a. greater, elder, senior, chief; L. major. See 

MAJOR, s. a senior officer in the army, a term in logic- 
signifying the chief proposition ; from the adjective. 

MAIZE, *. Indian wheat. The name by which it is 

known to the natives of Brazil and Cuba, whence it 

was brought into Europe. 

MAKE, *. form, structure, disposition ; from the verb. 
MAKE, v. to form, create, produce, conduce, force ; 

Swed. maka ; T. machen ; S. macian ; B. maken, from 

G. meiga, to have power or efficiency. 
MAKE, s. a companion, husband, wife, a fellow, a second 

in command; G. make; Swed. make; S. maca, ge- 

maca : D. mage, from G. mceg, a relation, a connexion. 

See MATE. 
MAL or MALE, as a prefix, signifies evil ; L. male ; F. 


MAL, in forming the names of towns, signifies a con- 
vention of the people for judiciary or other purposes ; 

as Maldon, Moling, Melton ; G. mal, mel ; Swed. 

mal, a regular fixed time or place ; W. mael, a market. 

See MEAL. 
MALADY, s. a disease, distemper, sickness ; F. maladie, 

from L. male. See BALE. 
MALAPERT, a. saucy, impudent; probably from mal 

and pert. 

MALAXATE, v. a. to knead to softness ; ftaxdr/ra 
MALE, a. of the sex that begets young ; L. masculus ; 

F. masle, male. 

MALE, s. a he, the he of any species. See the adjective. 
MALKIN, MAULKIN, s. a mop, a scarecrow ; G. moll, 

moal ; S. mal ; Swed. mull; B. mul, cinders, ashes, 

Malkin, perhaps from mal quen, a cinder wench. 



MALL, t. a. to beat, to strike with a mall; from the 

MALI., s. 1. a wooden hammer ; L. malleus ; F. mail. 

2. A level ground for playing bat and ball. See PALL 

3. A public walk or promenade ; G. mal ; Swed. m&l, 
a limit, a place set apart or inclosed, the boundary of 
a town. 

MALLARD, s. the male of the wild duck ; F. malarl, 
from male. 

MALLEABLE, a. extensible by hammering; F. malleable, 
from L. malleus, a hammer. 

MALLET, *. a little hammer, diminutive of mall. 

MALLOWS, *. an herb ; (ut*ux,i> ; L. malva. 

MALMSEY, s. a kind of sweet wine ; from the Greek, 
now Turkish, island Malvasia ; It. malvoisia. The 
name is given to other sweet wines. 

MALT, s. barley prepared for brewing ; Swed. malt ; S. 
mealt ; T. maltz ; B. moid ; S. aleoth, from ALE. 

MALT HORSE, s. a term of reproach, a mean fellow. L. 
mutilus was corrupted into F. moult; W. mollt, cas- 
trated, from which we have our word mutton ; and 
horse, consistently with the other terms used, at the 
same time, by Shakespear, might have been pro- 
nounced broadly without the aspirate. O. E. moylt, 
a gelding. 

MAM, MAMMA, *. a fond word for mother ; A. mam ; 
Heb. mam ; P. mama ; ficift.^ ; L. mamma. , 

MAMMET, s. a puppet, a dressed-up figure ; Arm. and 
W. mob, maeth, a nursling. See MOPPET and MAB. 

MAMMOC, s. a shapeless piece ; Sp. machemiga, a frag- 
ment, from machar ; It. maccare, to pound or mash. 

MAN, s. a human being, male of the human species, one 
arrived at manhood, an individual ; Sans, manus ; G. 
man ; S. man ; Arm. man, a person, a human being, 
male or female ; G. man ; Swed. man ; S. man ; T. 
niann ; B. man ; M. G. manna ; I. mo, a male person. 
G. madr, magdr ; S. meeth, mceg, had the same signi- 
fication ; and all seem to be derived from G. maga, to 
acquire, beget, effect ; S. mahn ; D. maa ; Swed. 
forma, power, ability, efficiency ; Chald. hou, G. ho, 
is the masculine pronoun, our He, which, prefixed to 
ma or mo, may have formed the L. homo. Our may, 
might, main, make, mac, maid, are all cognates ; and 
G. manne, magn, strength, was the S. and Isl. mun, 
mund, efficiency ; which also signified the hand, in 
the same way that L. manus implied power and ma- 
nagement. The L. munio, to fortify, appears to have 
had the same origin ; and our Man of War is an armed 
machine, which is also of the feminine gender. 'Aj 
and vir denote efficiency. In German and Scot, it ap- 
pears, however, to have signified also a person, as 
formed from the G. an, one. Man sagt, one says, it 
is said ; F. on dit. 

MAN, D. a. 1 . to furnish with men. 

2. To fortify or strengthen ; from the noun. 

MANAGE, v. a. to conduct, govern, train ; M. G. mann- 
gan ; S. mangian, signify to conduct business, to ne- 
gotiate, to enter into details. But our word is from 
L. manu agere ; F. menager ; Sp. manejar ; It. ma- 
neggiare, to handle, to take in hand. 

MANATEE, *. a fish called the sea cow ; Sp. manato ; 
L. B. manalus, from its having fins like hands. See 

MANATION, *. distillation, a gentle flow ; L. mono, to 

MANCHE, *. a sleeve ; L. manica ; F. manche. 

MANCHET, s. a small loaf of fine bread ; F. michet, from 
L. mica. 

MANCHINEEL, *. a tree in the West Indies which bears 
a poisonous fruit ; Sp. manzanilla, the little apple. 

MANCIPATE, v. a. to bind, tie, enslave ; L. mancipo. 

MANDAMUS, *. a kind of writ ; L. we give orders. 

MANDARIN, *. a name given by the Portuguese to a Chi- 
nese commander or magistrate ; from L. mandare. 

MANDATE, *. a command, order, charge, commission . 
L. mandatum. 

MANDIBLE, s. the jaw ; L. mandibula. 

MANDILION, s. a loose coat ; F. mandille ; It. mandig- 
lione, diminutive of MANTLE. 

MANDRAKE, s. a somniferous plant ; pouSgayo'f ;. It 
was used by the Goths in exorcism, and thence named 
alrun. See AHOYNT. 

MANDUCATE, v. a. to chew, to eat ; L. manduco. 

MANE, s. the hair on a horse's neck ; G. nucn ; Swed. 
mahn ; D. man ; T. mahne ; B. maen ; W. mtvng ; I. 
mong. It appears to be derived from G. men, a chain, 
clasp or collar, which, like ftanumif, may have ob- 
tained its name from resembling the moon. G. man 
signified also the vertebrae of the back. 

MANES, *. ghosts, shades ; L. manes. 

MANGCOHN, MUNGCOBN, s. corn of several kinds mixed ; 
G. mainga ; Swed. muenga ; S. mangian, to mis.. See 

MANGE, s. the scab or itch in cattle; L. B. menligo; F. 
mangeaison, itching, from L. mando ; F. manger ; It. 
mangiare, to eat. Itch seems also to be derived from 

MANGER, s. a trough to feed horses ; F. mangeoir, from 
L. mando ; F. manger ; It. mangiare, to eat. 

MANGLE, v. a. 1. to press, to smooth linen ; from the 

2. To mutilate, to lacerate ; G. manga ; B. manken ; 
T. mangen, mangeln ; Swed. mangla, to divide, lace- 
rate; Swed. kotmanglar, a retail butcher. 

MANGLE, s. 1. a machine to smooth linen ; G. manga ; 
T. mang ; Swed. mangel ; W. mangul; L. 
nale; ftdyy*>"> originally a powerful warlike ma- 
chine, but now signifying a calander or wooden 

MANGO, *. an Indian pickle ; Coromandel, manga ; Ma- 
labar, inana ; Java, manga ; perhaps from Sp. and 
Port, manzana, an apple. This, like other fruit, does 
not retain its flavour when pickled. 

MANGOSTEEN, .v. a delicious fruit called mangus tangas 
at Java, and mangastan by the Malays. See MANGO. 

MANIAC, s. a person raging mad ; fuin'a, madness, fury, 

from ftiit, the moon. 
MANIFEST, a. plain, evident ; L. manifeslus, from fti>a 

and <p'os, to remain clear. 
MANIGLIONS, *. handles in gunnery ; It. maniglioni, from 

L. maniccE. 
MANILLE, s. a bracelet ; F. manille ; It. maniglia, from 

L. manica. G. men signified a chain or collar. See 

MANIOC, *. an American root, called by the Brasilians 

mandioca. See TAPIOCA, CASSAVA and YUCCA. 

MANIPLE, s. a handful ; L. manipulits. 

MANNA, *. a sweet drug ; Arab, mann ; Heb. manna, 
prepared bread. It is found on a species of tamarisk. 



MANNER, *. method, mode, custom, habit, sort, kind ; 

It. maniera ; F. maniere ; Sp. manera : F. mener ; 

Sp. maneira, menear, to have in hand, to conduct, 

from L. mantis. 

MANOEUVRE, v. to manage, to conduct with skill ; F. 

manceuvrer ; L. manu operor. 

.MANOR or MANOUH, s. the residence of a lord, over 
which he holds jurisdictions ; F. manoir ; L. B. ma- 
nerium, from L. maneo. 
MANSE, s. a parsonage house; L. mansio. 
MANSLAUGHTER, *. the act of killing a man with- 
out previous malice; G. van; Swed. wan; S.van; 
Scotch, mank, signify properly deficiency ; but seem 
to have produced G. mcen ; Swed. men ; S. man, evil. 
G. vanhalt is applied to any injury or lameness hap- 
pening to cattle through the carelessness of those who 
had charge of them. Our word, however, may be 
the simple expression for homicide without malice 
MANTEL, s. a cloak, blind or mask, a board to cover 

part of the fire-place. See MANTLE. 
MANTLE, s. a kind of cloak; G. mattul ; S. mcentil ; 
S%ved. mantel; T. mantel; L. B. mantellum ; Arm. 
and W. mantell ; P. mandyas ; fta^vn. 
MANTLE, v. 1. to cover, cloak ; from the noun. 
2. To spread the wings as a hawk in pleasure, to revel, 
to expand luxuriantly ; a word taken from falconry ; 
Sp. man/ones, manteles, denotes the feathers of a 
hawk's wings ; It. manto, mantello, the coat of a horse, 
or plumage of a bird. 
MANTUA, s. 1. a woman's gown ; F. manteau ; Sp. 

manto, a mantle. 
2. A silk made at Mantua. 
MANUAL, a. performed by the hand ; L. manualis ; F. 


MANUBIAL, s. taken as spoils in war ; L. manubialis. 
MANURE, v. a. to dung, to enrich ; but properly to cul- 
tivate ; F. manoeuvrer, from L. manu operor, to labour 
or practise with skill. It signifies improvement of 
land in general. 

MANY, a. several, numerous, divers ; G. mang, meing ; 
Swed. mang ; T. manage, manch ; D. mange, and 
written in Saxon with very numerous variations. 
The root is G. ma, much, and eenig, some or any ; 
and hence also F. maint ; Romance and W. mank, 
with the same signification. The G. and S. manga, 
mangen, to mix, are derived from mang, many. 
MAP, *. a delineation of a country ; L. mappa, a table- 
cloth, and thence a table of contents, an index. The 
word is now common to all European languages for a 
geographical picture. 
MAPLE, s. a tree called the sycamore maple ; S. mapel, 

mapul, contracted from masboU. See MAZER. 
MAR, v. a. to foil, defeat, derange; Sp. marrar ; It. 
smarrire, are derived from B. marren ; S. merran, 
myrran, amirren, to deviate, turn away, hinder. The 
root seems to be G. ra, right, straight, which, with 
the negative prefix, becomes ura, wry, wrong : yrra, 
Swed. irra ; T. irren ; L. erro, to err, to go wrong, 
to hinder. 
MARBLE, s. a fine hard stone, a little ball made of that 

stone; F. marbre, from L. marmor ; pa^i**^. 
MARCASSITE, s. a bright fossil, mundic; Sp. marque- 
sito ; F. marcassite. The defences of the wild boar 
are called marques in venery ; from which, in matu- 
rity, the animal is called marcassin in French; S. 

means stvin : and this fossil has its name from resemb- 
ling a boar's tusk. 

MARCESCENT, a. fading, withering ; L. marcescens. 

MARCH, s. 1. the third month ; L. Martins ; F. Mars ; 
T. Merlz, and common to all European languages. 
"Angoras, the ploughing season, from JA> ; G. aria ; S. 
eerian ; L. aro, to plough, seems to have had M pre- 
fixed in forming this name. 

2. The limit of a field or country ; P. marz ; G. mark ; 
T. march; F. marche ; W. mars, a boundary, of 
which L. margo is cognate ; whence our ancient Mer- 
cia. See MERE. 

3. A military movement, a regular solemn gait, a jour- 
ney of soldiers ; P. marz ; G. mark ; Swed. merle ; 
T. mark ; S. mearc ; F. marche; W. mars, a degree, 
measure, boundary ; G. markga, to go regularly ; 
merkga ; I. meirgham, to follow a standard or signal. 
See MARK. 

MARCHIONESS, *. the wife of a marquis; It. marchesa. 

MARCH-PANE, *. a kind of sweet bread ; T. marzipan ; 

F. masse pain, corrupted from L. massa panis. 

MARCID, a. withered, lean, clung, pining ; L. marcidus. 
MARE, s, an oppression in sleep, called the night-mare 

or incubus ; G. nicer ; Swed. mara ; D. mare ; T. 

mare, a nymph or female elf, was a phantom supposed 

to inhabit the air and excite the fancy. Thus S. 

rvindu masr, the wind-mare, was echo. 

MARE, *. the female of a horse; Chald. meri; G. mer ; 
S. nuere; D. mter; B. merrie, have the same signifi- 
cation with our word; but G. mare; T.mar; Arm. 
march ; W. march ; I. marc, mean a horse. 

MARESCHAL, *. the chief of an army. The etymology of 
our mcere, great, or of mare, a horse, prefixed to G. 
skalk, a superintendant, signified either chief of the 
household, or master of the horse ; D. mar skalk ; T. 
marschalk; Swed. marskalk ; It. marescalco ; F. ma- 
rechal : in the two last languages, the name is applied 
both to a field-marshal and a farrier. 

MAHGARITE, *. a pearl, a daisy ; P. marouaryd ; S. me- 
regrot ; futpyityrK ; L. B. margarita, sea grain. 

MARGRAVE, s. a German title ; T. margrqf, warden of 
the marches. See MARCH and REEVE or GHEVE. 

MARINE, a. belonging to the sea; L. marinus ; F. 

MARISH, s. a bog, a fen ; G. mcer, moisture ; S. merse ; 

B. maersche ; T. marsch ; F. morals. See MARSH 

and MOOR. 
MARISH, a. boggy, swampy ; for moorish. 

MARK, *. a token, sign, assignation, impression, proof, 
standard, the sum of 13s. 4d., a foreign weight of 
eight ounces \ G. mark ; Swed. mark ; S. mearce ; 
T. mark ; B. mercke ; D. mtsrke ; Arm. marc ; W. 
marc ; I. marg ; F. marque ; It. marca. See MERE. 

MARKET, *. from mark, an assignation; a marked place 
or time for ale or purchase ; G. markad ; Swed. 
markuad ; S. market ; D. market ; T. markt ; L. mer- 
catus ; F. marche ; It. mercato. 

MARL, s. a kind of fat clay for manure. Marg or mer- 
gel, in this sense, is common to all the Gothic dia- 
lects; L. marga ; W. marl; I. marla ; F. marl and 
marn. Marrow and smear are from the same root. 

MARLINE, *. small cords of hemp dipped in pitch, used 
for fastening the sails to the ropes ; B. marling ; D. 



tnerlinger ; F. merlin ; Sp. merlin, perhaps from G. 
wiior, slender, and line ; or moer, grease. See SMEAR. 
MARMALADE, s. a conserve of quinces; P. marmelo ; 
1'ort. ituirmt'lo. a quince; Port, ma rmclada ; Sp. mer- 
nifhidu ; L- tar/imclum, quinces boiled up with sugar 
and spices ; but the name is given by us to a conserve 
of bitter oranges. 

MARMOSET, s. a small animal resembling a monkey ; 
Arm. mormousa, the sleeping mouse ; F. marmotue : 
it sleeps during the cold season. See MARMOTT. 
MAHMOTT, *. L. B. mura mantis ; L. mus alpina ; Sp. 

marmota ; F. marmott. See MARMOSET. 
MARQUE, s . a license of reprisals at sea ; from mark, a 


MARQUEE, *. an officer's tent; A. marqud, a couch or 

MARQUETRY, s. inlaid work in wood ; F. marqueterie, 

marked, variegated. 

MARQUIS, *. a title next below a duke ; F. marquis ; It. 
marchese ; L. B. marchio ; from marches, the borders. 

MARRIAGE, s. the act of joining man and woman for 
life ; L. B. maritati, maritagium ; F. marriage ; It. 
maritaggio, from L. marilo. 

MARROW, s. 1. an oily substance in bones, the quintes- 
sence ; Heb. mara, beria ; Isl. moer ; W. mer, fat ; 
Swed. mcerg ; T. marcfc ; S.mereme; D. martv, grease. 

2. A mate, an associate ; G. magur. See MAKE. 

MARS, *. iron, the God of War, and a planet named after 
him. 'An signified iron and war, to which the La- 
tins prefixed M in forming this name. Armenian, 
are*, virility, energy. 

MARSH, s. a bog or fen. In forming the names of places 
it is written sometimes mars and mas. See MORASS. 

MARSHAL, s. the chief officer at arms, one who regu- 
lates rank ; O. F. marscale. See MARESCRAL. 

MART, s. 1. a place of public traffic ; contracted from 

2. A letter of reprisal ; corrupted from markt, signed. 

MARTEN, *. 1. a species of swallow; F. martinet or mar- 
telet, the St Martin or March bird. 

2. A large kind of weasel; Swed. mard ; S. mearlh ; 
L. marles ; F. marte, martre, apparently G. morud, 
dark brown. 

MARTIAL, a. warlike, military, like iron ; L. martialis. 
See MARS. 

MARTINET, MARTLET, s. a species of swallow. See 

MARTINOAL, s. a strap used to curb a horse. Sp. mar- 
tingala; F. martingale, from G. mar, a horse, and 
thtveing ; S. Ihwang ; T. Ining, ttvingle, a constraint, 
stricture, pinch. See MARE and THONG. 

MARTYR, *. one who suffers death for the sake of reli- 
gion or truth, a sacrifice ; ^{1{, a witness. 

MARVEL, t. a wonder ; F. merveille ; li.^nirabtilum, from 
miro, to admire. 

MARY, *. a woman's name ; A. and Chald. mara, a wo- 
man ; G. mar, a maid. 

MAS, a periodical termination, appears to have been 
contracted from G. Swed. T. S. mal, mals, the time 
fixed for paying wages, rent or other contribution. 
It afterwards became confounded with mass, a reli- 
gious ceremony ; whence Lammas, Martinmas. 

M ASCUI.INB, a. male, virile, like a man ; L. mascvlut ; F. 

MASH, *. 1. a mixture, a drench for a horse; (u\it ; L- 

mist'w ; S. miscung ; T. mischung ; D. mask; Swed. 

mask, a mixture of grain or malt, either for brewing 

or medicine. 

2. Maceration, bruising, kneading ; Arm. macha ; F. 
machcr, to break with the teeth ; Sp. machacar, ma- 
jtir, to pound in a mortar, from L. macero. 

3. The space between the threads of a net. See MESH- 
MASK, s. a disguise, a subterfuge, a festive entertain- 
ment where people are disguised ; Sp. mascara ; It. 
mascara ; F. masque, from A. maskh, transforming, 
changing ; maslchara, a person disguised, a player, a 

MASLIN, *. a mixture; from MASH. See also MISCEL- 

MASON, s. a builder, particularly in stone. M'x<, 
*>%/*> produced L. B. machio, machionis, a house- 
builder ; F. macon. Mexico is said to have been so 
named, by Spanish sailors, from having stone houses. 

MASS, s. 1. the Romish service ; G. messa ; L. B. messa ; 
Sp. tnisa, and common to all Christian languages. See 

2. A lump of dough, something bulky or solid ; f**a ; 
L. massa ; F. masse. See MACE. 

MASSACRE, v. a. to butcher indiscriminately, to slaugh- 
ter ; F. massacrer, from L. mactus and sacrare. T. 
melzger is a butcher, from G. meila, meissa, to cut. 

MASSICOT, *. calcined ceruss ; It. massa cotta, baked 
dough ; F. massicot. 

MAST, s. 1. the upright post in a ship which supports 
the sail ; G. maest tree, the biggest tree ; Swed. mas- 
trae, mast ; D. mast ; B. mast ; S. mast ; T. mast ; 
F. mast, mat, maestre ; Sp. mastil. See MOST. 

2. T. mast ; S. mceste; Arm. mess ; W. mess ; I. mass, 
the fruit of glandiferous plants. The word is formed, 
like meat, from G. eta ; T. essen ; L. edo, to eat. 

MASTER, s. the chief of any place or thing ; G. maestur, 
meistitr, meslur, from mast ; S. nuest, greatest, chief. 
T. meister ; Swed. mcestare ; J3- meester ; D. mester ; 
W. meister ; I. maisder ; It. mastro ; F. maistre. L. 
mngister is cognate in sense and formation with our 
word, being derived from piyirts, greatest, most. 

MASTICATE, v. a. to chew ; fuin%*. 

MASTICH, *. a gum, and the plant producing it, a ce- 
ment ; futn'Ki ', L. mastiche ; It. maslico ; F. mastic. 

MASTIFF, s. a large dog; F. mestif; Scot, mastiche, 
from G. maest, greatest, and tame ; T. tiffe, a dog. 
F. matin, muslin, is also contracted from G. maest 
Inind, the great dog. See TIKE. 

MASTLIN, MESSLIN, s. mixed corn. See MASLIN. 

MAT, *. a texture of sedge, rushes, straw or cords ; L., 
mtil tn ; S. meatta; T. matte; D. matte ; W. matt ; I. 
mala ; F. nalte ; apparently from G. meit, meis, in- 
terwoven, reticulated; mailan, to intersect. See 

MATACHIN, s. a buffoon dance; It. matachino ; Sp. ma- 
tachin ; It. matto, a fool. See to MATE. 

MATADOHE, s. a slayer, a murderer, the name of a chief 
card at the game of hombre ; Sp. matador. See 
MATE, to kill. 

MATCH, s. 1. a splinter that catches fire, the wick of a 
candle ; HVKK ; L. myxa ; It. micria ; F. mecfie, dried 
fungus used for tinder. 

M A U 

M E A 

2. A pair, a marriage,an exertion between two equal par- 
ties, a mateage ; G. magdsk. See MATE and MAKE. 

MATH, s. a companion, fellow, husband, wife, partner in 
command, a second ; G. mcegd, maegt ; B. maat ; Isl. 
meet, are from G. mcega, a connection, a relation. 

MATE, v. a. 1. to match ; from the noun. 

2. To confound, astonish, confuse, overcome ; P. mat, 
confused, astonished, is used at the game of chess, 
when the piece called the shah or king is unable to 
move ; and it resembles Sans, mat, mud, drunk. G. 
mceda ; Isl. maat ; Swed. moed, matt ; T. mat ; Sp. 
mate; F. mat, are also used like the P. word, 
though they signify languid, fatigued, exhausted; 
but Sp. matar, to kill, from A. maia, dead, is a word 
common among the Malay and South Sea islanders ; 
and F. mat, applied to colour, is a dead colour. 

MATERIAL, a. corporeal, essential, important, momen- 
tous ; L. materialis ; It. materiale ; F. materiel. See 

MATERIALS, s. pi. constituent parts, substances. 

MATERNAL, a. motherly, kind, fond; L. malernalis ; F. 

MAT-FELON, s. an herb called by botanists centaurea ni- 
gra ; W. madefelon, from S. mcelh veilon, meadow violet. 

MATH, s. a mowing, a meadow ; S. masth. See MEAD. 

MATHEMATICS, s. pi. the science of numbers and magni- 
tude ; fiafaftetTixts ; L. mathematicus, a man of learn- 
ing, from ftaStifut, discipline. 

MATHES, s. camomile ; S. magethe. We give the name 
now to the adonis aulumnalis. See MAYWEED. 

MATHMULLEN, *. the herb verbascum ; from math, a 
meadow, and mullen. 

MATHON, s. a meadow crop ; from MATH. 

MATIN, a. morning ; F. matin ; L. matutinum, from ftfret 
ta^mr, aurora. 

MATINS, *. pi. morning prayers ; from MATIN. 

MATRASS, s. a chemical glass vessel ; F. matras, from 
being shaped like an ancient javelin ; L. matara, and 
therefore called a bolt head. 

MATHICE, *. the womb, a mould to cast in ; L. matrix, 
from mater, a mother. 

MATRON, *. a married woman, a mother ; L. malrona. 

MATROSS, s. an artillery soldier ; from L. matara, a kind 
of javelin. See MATRASS. 

MATTER, s. 1. body, substance, dimension, business ; G. 
mattur, strength, substance, might ; L. materia ; W. 
mater; It. maleria ; F. matiere. 

2. Pus, sordes, corruption ; F. matiere ; It. materia ; W. 
madra ; I. malhair, appear to originate in the fore- 
going etymon; but they may be confounded with 
maturation for suppuration, or perhaps formed from 
G. eitur ; S. oiler, venom. See ATTER. 

MATTOCK, *. a pickaxe, a kind of hoe ; S. mattuc ; W. 
matog, from G. matt, strength, might, and hoga, a hoe. 

MATTRESS, s. a kind of quilt to lie on ; L. matta rasa ; It. 
matrazzo ; F. materas, matelas ; W. maltras, a smooth 

MATURE, a. ripe, digested ; L. maturus ; It. maturo. 

MAUDLIN TANSY, *. an herb employed as a vermifuge. 
See MAD, a worm, and TANSY. 

MAUDLING, a. half drunk ; from muddle, to drink. See 

MAUGRE, prep, in defiance or spite of; F. malgre, from 
L. mala gratia. 

MAUL, *. a heavy wooden hammer. See MALL. 

MAUND, s. a basket ; Arm. man ; W. maned ; F. manne ; 

T. maun ; S. mand ; B. mand, a basket, a measure for 
grain ; possibly from G. annat, rustic contribution. 

MAUNDER, v. a. to grumble, mouth, murmur ; from G. 
/innid ; T. mund, the mouth. See MUNS. 

MAUNDAY THURSDAY, s. the Thursday next before Eas- 
ter ; L. mandati, dies mandati ; Sp. jueves de mandato. 
On that day the King of France was wont to wash the 
feet of some poor men, in obedience to the mandate 
that we should love one another. A kind of gift on 
that occasion was called a Maunday. 

MAUSOLEUM, s. a pompous funeral monument. Coptic 
mhau is a monument, and solsel, to ornament ; A. 
mazal for mazar, a tomb ; L. mausoleum, is supposed 
to be the tomb of Mausoleus. 

MAUTHUR, *. a maid; S. math ; M. G. maethur ; B. 
modur, a different pronunciation of maid. 

MAVIS, *. a kind of thrush ; F. mauvis, from L. maculosti 
avis, the speckled bird, called also in F. grive, gray 
bird ; It. malviscio, from L. viscus. 

MAW, *. the stomach, particularly of animals ; P. magh- 
deh ; G. maga ; S. maga ; Swed. mage ; T. magen ; 
B. meghe ; D. marve. 

MAWKISH, a. squeamish, sickish at the stomach; G. 
magve ; D. mane, nausea ; from MAW and WOE. 

MAWMISH, a. 1. foolish, lumpish, deformed. See MOME- 

2. Nauseous ; from mam, the stomach ; wawmish. 

MAXIM, s. a general principle, a leading truth, an axiom ; 
L. maximum ; F. maxime, the greatest or chief. 

MAY, aux. verb ; pret. might ; G. ma, from meiga, to 
have power ; Swed. ma ; S. mage ; T. rnoge. 

MAY, s. the fifth month, the gay season ; L. mains, ac- 
cording to Ovid, had its name from being dedicated 
to the majores or ancestors of the Romans. But as 
used among the Goths and Celts, it is probably G. 
mah, power, vigour, from meiga, to have power, de- 
noting the month when vegetation was most active. 
T. may signifies the opening buds of plants. 

MAYOR, *. the chief magistrate; L. major,- F. maire ; 
Arm. maer ; W. maer ; I. maor. See MAERE. 

MAYWEED, s. wild camomile ; S. maime. See MATHES. 

MAZAHD, s. the jaw ; L. maxillaris ; F. mac/wire, the jaw. 

MAZE, s. a labyrinth, perplexity ; perhaps from L. meo 
and sinuo ; S. mase, a whirlpool ; but more probably 
from the verb. 

To MAZE, v. to confound, confuse, astonish. It was for- 
merly written mate; which see. ButB. missen is used 
to denote fluctuation, error, perplexity. See to Miss. 

MAZER, s. a drinking cup; G. mausur ; Swed. masar ; 
B. maescr ; T. maser ; Scot, maser ; W. masarn, the 
birch or maple tree, and a cup made thereof. This 
kind of cup was called maser bol, and the tree mas 
boiler, which was corrupted into mapul. See MAPLE. 

ME, pron. the oblique case of I ; G. meij or mik ; T. mich ; 
D. mij ; Sans, me ; Hind, mugh; pi; L. me; Arm. 
me ; W. mi ; I. me. The P. am and mera have the 
same signification with me, and men is mine. 

MEACOCK, *. a timid or uxorious man ; G. mygia, to humi- 
liate; Swed. mek, silly; D. myg, submissive. SeeMEEK 
and GAWK. 

MEAD, *. 1. a kind of wine ; Sans, mud ; A. and Heb. 
moodum; piiv ; G. miod ; Swed. mioed ; D. miod; S. 
medo; B. meede ; T. meth ; W. medd ; I. meadh ; 
Russ. miodh ; Polish miod ; Dalmatian meod ; hydro- 
mel, or any fermented liquor. The Sans, word seems 
to be formed from muo, honey. See METHEGLIN. 




The G. honigtar, honey tears, was the drink of the 
Gods, which may have been the nectar of the Greeks. 

2. A meadow ; S. meed, math ; T. mad ; what is mowed. 
MEADOW, *. a field of natural grass kept for cutting ; 
S. nuedtve, from T. mad; S. mcathe, mowed. See 
MATH and Mow. 

MEAGER, a. lean ; G. megur, mior ; T. mager ; Swed. 
mager ; S. monger ; B. mager ; L. macer ; F. maigre ; 
It. magro. 
MEAK, s. a hook for cutting peas ; Isl. maa, to mow, to 

reap, and ficek, a hook. 

MEAL, j. 1. corn flour ; S. mela, mcelame ; Swed. mjoel ; 
B. meel ; D. meet ; T. mehl ; Arm. mal, from G. mal, 
a division ; mala, to reduce into small particles ; L. 
molo ; W. main, to grind ; P. maliden. 
2. A regular repast; G. mal; Swed. mal; S. mail, mal; 
T. mal ; B. maal, a division of time or space, a parti- 
cular period, the regular hour of eating. 
MKAN, s. a medium, any thing used in order to produce 
some end ; P. miyanu ; G. midan ; T. mitten ; fiirtt ; 
L. medium ; Sp. mediano ; F. moyen. It signifies 
something brought between to effect the purpose; 
and G. medal, the middle, is also a mean. 
MEAN, a. 1. middle, middling, indifferent, ordinary ; 

from the noun. 

2. Low, vulgar, plebeian, common, vile; S. mcene ; T. 
mein, gemein, from the same root with meng, the 
crowd, populace, multitude. See MANY. 
MEAN, v. a. to intend, design ; A. muune ; Hind, viana ; 
fusi'vti; Arm. menna, to signify, indicate; but our 
word more probably is G. minna ; Swed. minna ; S. 
mcenan; T. meinen ; B. meenen ; D. meene, to have 
in mind ; from G. inna, to intend. 

MEASE, *. a quantity, particularly of herrings, signify- 
ing 600; T. mase, maass ; I. maois ; T. miot ; S. 
mete; B. maat ; L. modius. See to METE and MEA- 

MEASLES, s. an eruptive disease; T.masel; B. maze- 
len; D. meisling ; Arm. mezell ; F. mezel, leprosy. 
T. mase ; L. maculosus, signify spotted ; but G. missli, 
mislitur, discolour, may be the etymon. 
MEASURE, s. a dimension, proportion, standard of quan- 
tity, a mean, an expedient, cadence in verse, time in 
music, degree, limit ; H. mesurah ; L. mensura ; F. 
mesure; It. misura; W. mesur, medur; Arm. musur; T. 
mase ; I. meas. L. modus is a mean, manner, medium, 
and a measure, corresponding with the F. W. and 
our own word. It. mesura is also mediocrity. See 

MEAT, s. food, flesh to be eaten ; G. mat ; Swed. mat ; 
D. mad ; S. mete ; Arm. and W. maeth ; from G.ata, 
etia, to eat. See BAIT. 
MEATHE, s. drink, beverage. See MEAD. 
MECHANIC, *. an artificer; ^ii^nxo; ; L. mechanicvs ; 

It. meccanico. 

MEDAL, s. a piece struck on some extraordinary occa- 
sion, an ancient coin; T. medel ; It. medagtia ; F. 
medaillc ; L. B. metallia ; W. mall. It seems to have 
the same root with our mile, a piece of money, and 
meed, a reward. 

MEDDLE, r. . to interpose ; G. medal, the middle or 

medium, produced D. meddele ; Swed. meddela ; B. 

middelcn, to use a mean or interference, corresponding 

with the verb to mediate. 

MEDIATE, t>. tc intercede, interpose; L. B. media, to 

place in the middle, from L. medium. See MEDIA- 

MEDIATION, s. intercession ; L. mediator. See MEDIATE. 
MEDICAL, a. medicinal ; L. medicabilit. See MEDICINE. 
MEDICINE, *. a remedy, physic ; L. medicina; F. mede- 
cine ; L. medeor, to heal, is from medium, a mean ; 
and M. G. midga ; Swed. medel ; T. millet, signify a 
mean, middle, remedy and medicine. 
MEDIN, s. a measure ; ftiiiftnf ; L. medimntu. 
MEDITATE, v. a. to muse, plan, contrive, contemplate ; 

L. medito ; F. mediter. 

MEDIUM, s. a mean, middle state or place; L. medium. 
MEDLAR, s. the name of a species of hawthorn and its 
fruit ; S. meed, from being used to make mead, a kind 
of liquor; fttnfi'^ti. 

MEDLEY, *. a mixture, miscellany; G. medal; Swed. 

medel, among, mingled ; confounded with L. B. mis. 

cello, mistello; F. melser, melcr, meteler, from ftiyvu ; 

L. miscco, to mix. See MELL. 

MEDULLA, s. pith, marrow, the heart of a plant; /uvtAt; ; 

L. medulla. 

MEED, s. reward, gift, recompense; G. met, metur, 
mceti ; S med ; T. myde, value, consideration, estima- 
tion, reward ; I. miadh, honour ; ftirSoj, wages, com- 

MEEK, a. soft, gentle, placid, submissive ; P. meklca ; 
G. miuk ; Swed. mink ; D. myge, submissive, humble, 
soft, mild. 

MEER, *. a lake, a boundary. See MERE. 
MEET, t>. to encounter, to come face to face, to join ; 
G. mota ; Swed. mot a ; S. metan ; B. moetan ; T. 
moten ; D. mocde, to assemble, to come together from 
opposite directions, to encounter, oppose. 
MEET, a. fit, proper, suitable ; G. mceti ; Swed. matt ; 
S. mcete, in measure, in estimation, proper, regular, 
estimable. See METE. 

MEORIN, ,s. a disorder in the head; iifmtfctniti F. mi- 
M i INK, v. to mingle, to mix ; (U<yi> ; S. mcngen. See 

MEINY, *. family, retinue, servants ; F. mesgnie, from 

L. iiianxio, a dwelling. See MESNE. 
MELANCHOLY, s. a kind of insanity, a gloomy temper ; 
pii*.ai, black, and xAii, bile ; L. melancholia ; F. me- 
MELIORATE, v. a. to improve, better ; from L. melior, 


MELL, t>. a. to mix, mingle. Chaucer uses ymell; Swed. 
imcllan, in this sense, meaning among, from G. media, 
the middle, contracted intomille; Swed.mella; but 
our word seems to partake of F. meler, meselr, from 
L. misceo ; L. B. miscello, to mix. See MEDLEY. 
MELLIFEROUS, a. producing honey ; from fti\i ; L. mel. 
MELLOW, a. 1. soft, full, ripe, mature ; pvt*.iu< ; L. me- 
dullosits ; F. moellevx. F. mol, from L. mollis, is also 
used in the sense of mellow ; Swed. mjall. 
2. Drunk. See MUDDLE. 
MELODY, *. music, harmony of sound ; fu^ueia, element 

of song ; L. melodia ; F. melodic. 
MELON, *. a fruit and plant ; ;/ ; L. malum F. 

MELT, v. to make or become liquid ; G. mella ; Swed. 

mi'itii ; S. mellan ; fti^u. See SMELT. 
MEMBER, .v. a limb, a clause, a person belonging to a 

society ; L. memlrum ; F. membre. 
MEMBRANE, *. a kind of web or skin to cover some 



parts of the body, a pliable texture of fibres ; L. 

MESIOIR, s. a record, a short account of any transac- 

tion; L. memoria ; F. memoirs, recollection, memory. 
MEN, *. plural of MAN. 

MENACE, s. a threat; L. minatio ; F. menace. 
MENAGE, s. a collection of animals; F. mesnage, me- 

nage ; Arm. mesna, a dwelling, the live stock of a 

farm ; from L. mansio. 
MEND, v. to repair, grow better j L. emendo, from menda, 

a fault. 

MENDACITY, s. falsehood, lying ; L. mendacium. 
MENDICATE, v. a. to solicit charity ; L. mendico. 
MENIAL, a. servile, mean, low, domestic ; from MEINY. 
MENOLOGY, s. a register of months; from pirn, the 

moon, and Aoyo?, speech. 
MENSAL, a. belonging to the table; from L. mensa, a 


MENSTRUAL, a. monthly, every month ; L. menstrualis. 
MENSURABLE, a. measurable ; L. mcnsura, measure. 
MENT, a termination first used by Latin authors about 

the beginning of our era, and generally adopted in It. 

F. and Sp. It has been supposed to be L. mens, men- 

tis ; and in sentiment, judgment, that sense might 

seem natural : but excrementum and sepimentum can- 

not in any way imply mind. Our etymon is L. ens, 

entis, being ; to which ra was prefixed to avoid the 

hiatus which would be produced by the junction of 

two vowels. 
MENTAL, a. intellectual, of the mind; from L. mens, 

mentis, the mind. 
MENTION, *. a recollection, a recital, memorandum ; L. 

mentio; F. mention. 
MEPHITES, *. noxious exhalations; L. mephitis, from 

MERACIOUS, a. neat, strong, pure, clear; L. meracus, 

from merus. 
MERCAT, s. a market, trade, commerce ; L. B. mcrcatus. 

MERCENARY, s. one retained for pay ; L. mercenarius ; 

F. mercinaire. 
MERCER, *. a dealer in silks and stuffs ; L. merx ; F. 

mercier ; It. merciaro. 
MERCHANT, *. a person who trades ; L. mercator ; It. 

mercanter ; F. marchand, from the same root with 

MERCURY, s. the messenger of the gods ; met. spright- 

liness, quicksilver. 
MERCY, s. clemency, compassion, unwillingness to pu- 

nish ; L. misericordia ; F. merci. 
MERE, a. simple, pure, neat, true, very ; L. merus. 
MERE, MEER, MER, in the beginning, middle or ends 

of words, signifies 1. a lake or river, from G. mcer, 

water ; S. mere ; T. mer ; B. meer, a lake. 
2. A boundary or limit ; from G. mer a, mcer ; S. mcera ; 

Swed. mae: e, from G. ra, a row, a line. See MARCH. 
MERETRICIOUS, a. alluring, whorish ; L. meretricius. 
MERIT, MEHITORIOUSNESS, s. desert, claim, right; L. 

meritum, a reward, a recompense ; F. merit. 
MERLIN, s. a kind of hawk ; L. B. merillus ; T. mer- 

ling ; F. emerillon ; It. smeriglion, the female musket 

hawk, supposed to be from L. merula : but Isl. 

maer and maes are applied to denote a small bird or 

sparrow. See TITMOUSE. 

MERLING, s. a kind of fish ; L. merula ; F. merlan. 

MERMAID, s. a fabulous sea-woman ; from G. mar; L. 
mare, the sea, and maid. 

MERRY, a. 1. laughing, gay, jovial ; T. mere, mer, jo- 
cund, sensual, wanton ; S. myreg ; I. mearh. The 
origin is obscure ; but S. mcere, great, celebrated, pro- 
duced mersian, to celebrate, to rejoice ; mersung, 
gladness, mirth, fame, celebrity. The Saxons applied 
this word in the sense of gay, pleasing; and Eden 
was called the inerry garden. See M.TOKK. 

2. Great, brave, celebrated, gallant. See M.SUIE. 

MERRY ANDREW, s. a buffoon, a droll ; from merry and 
G.ganter; Swed. gante ; D.ganter; Scot, gend, a 
mocker or jester. 

MERRYTHOUGHT, s. a forked bone of a fowl ; from 
merry, great, chief, and G. that, a couple or transom ; 
L. clavicula. 

MERSION, s. the act of plunging in water ; L. mersio. 

MESEEMS, v. imperf. It seems to me. 

MESH, s. the space between the threads of a net ; G. 
meis ; D. masks ; S. max ; T. maschen ; B. maesch ; 
W. masg, from G. midla, meida, meisa, to divide. See 

MESNE, or MESN, the tenure of one who holds a manor 
from a superior, and has tenants of his own ; F. mesg- 
nie, from L. mansio. See MEINY. 

MESPRISE, s. contempt; perhaps for misprise, if not 
from miss and L. specio, to behold amiss, to despise. 

MESS, *. 1. a dish, food, or society eating together; P. 
meza ; G. mesa ; S. mese ; F. mess ; L. mensa, a table, 
a dish. M. G. mats; T.mas; Sclav, meszo ; Russ. 
masso ; Sp. mueso, food, were derived, like meal, from 
eat : S. metsian, to feed. 

2. A mash, a mixture ; met. a confusion, perplexity. 
See MASH. 

MESSAGE, *. advice sent, an errand ; L. missus ; F. 

MESSIAH, s. the Christ; A. Mesiah; Heb. Messia, the 

MESSIEURS, *. my sirs ; F. plural of Monsieur. 

MESSUAGE, *. a house or tenement; L. B. messuagium, 
from L. mansio. 

MET, pret. and part, of the verb to MEET. 

METAL, *. minerals, such as gold, silver, and iron ; 
Heb. metil; ftelaAAon; L. metallum ; It. metallo ; F. 
metaille ; W. metel. The four principal ores seem to 
have derived their names, among the Goths, from 
their different colours. Gold, gull, yellow; silver, 
lios, Hover, white, synonymous with i'jyvjot ; blije or 
bley, lead, from 6te, blue, livid ; iron, G. iarn, from 
iar, black : G. blacka ; Swed. blaek, also signified 
iron fetters ; but perhaps from belaga, blacka, to lay 
up, to confine. See BLACK HOLE. 

METE, v. to measure ; Heb. middah ; fttlpa ; L. metior ; 
G. mceta ; Swed. mceta ; S. meethian ; B. meeten ; T. 
messen. The Gothic word signifies also to estimate. 

METHEGLIN, s. honey and water mixed ; ftiiv yAtWy, 
sweet drink. See MEAD. 

METHINKS, v. imperf. It appears to me. See to 

METHOD, *. order, way, manner; ftila'itf ; L. methodus ; 
F. methods. 

METRE, s. measure, verse; ftir^ot L. metrum. See 

METTLE, *. courage, sprightliness ; T. muthtville, mat- 

M I L 

ii-ill ; B. mocdn'ill, animation, frowardness, from G. 

mad ; T. mulk, the mind. See MOODY. 
MKW, s. 1. a coop, a cage; but properly a receptacle 

for hawks changing their feathers, and a place for 

changing carriages, horses and whatever belonged to 

the chase. L. B. muta ; It. muta ; F. mue, from L. 

muto. See MUE. 
2. A sea fowl ; S. mcetv ; T. mowe ; B. meeuw ; W. 

merv ; F. mouelle, from its cry. See to MEW. 

MEW, v. to cry like a cat; Isl. miaua ; D. mane; T. 
mauen ; W. mervian ; F. miauler. 

MICHE, ti. n. to be idle, hid, concealed ; S. meeclan, to 
neglect, to be careless, mitkan, to skulk : but the 
word appears to be T. mauchen, to conceal. See 

MICKLE, a. much, great; G. mickel j Swed. mickel; S. 
micel. See MUCH. 

MID, MIDDLE, MIDST, a. between, among, the half; 
Sans, muddh ; G. mid ; Swed. mid ; S. midd ; L. me- 
dius ; film 

MIDDLE AGES, s. the decline of the Roman empire ; be- 
ginning with the fourth, and ending with the thir- 
teenth century. 

MIDGE, s. a gnat, a fly ; P. mije ; Sans, mukkhee ; 
pvi* ; L. musca ; D. myg ; S.myge; B.mug; Swed. 
mygg ; T.mucke; F.mouche; Sp.moschett. 

MIDRIFF, J. the diaphragm ; G. midrif; S. medhrife ; 
from mid and hrife, the belly, a wrapper. 

MIDWIFE, s. a person who delivers women ; G. mil ; 
D. mid, for vit, knowledge, wisdom, corresponding 
with F. sage Jemme, and Scot, cannie wife. G. met 
signifies skill, art ; but B. maia is the Greek name for 
a midwife ; A. qabila, skilful. 

MIEN, s. countenance, look, air, manner; G. mynd ; 
Swed. mynd, mine; D. mine; F. mine; Isl. menu. 

MIGHT, prel. of MAY. 

MIGHT, *. power, force ; G. maht, magi ; S. maght ; D. 
magt ; Swed. makl, from G. meiga, to have power. 
See MAY. 

MILD, a. gentle, soft, lenitive ; G. mild; Swed. milder ; 
S.mild; T.mild. 

MILDEW, s. blight, a disease in plants, mouldiness; L. 
melligo; F. mielot, a kind of sweetish gum produced 
on plants by defective vegetation, has been confound- 
ed in English with meal and mould. S. mildeam ; D. 
meeldug ; T. mehlthau, millatv, dusty dew or moisture. 

MILE, *. a measure of 1760 yards ; but with the Ro- 
mans 1000 paces ; F. mile ; It. miglio, from L. mille, 
a thousand. 

MILK, *. a white nutritious fluid by which females nou- 
rish their young ; G. miolk ; Swed. mjeolk ; D. melt ; 
T. milch ; B. melk ; S. mile ; I. meilg. 

MILL, *. a machine for grinding ; fiiikn ; L. mola ; D. 
nuzlle ; T. muhhle ; S. myln ; Arm. meill ; W. melen ; 
I. muilion ; F. moulin, from G. mala ; L. mulo, to 
grind. See MEAL. 

MILLET, s. a plant and its seed; A. mileb ; F. millet s 
It. milgio. 

MILLINER, *. one who makes women's caps and sells 
ribbands, &c. O. E. milloner, supposed to have been 
originally a dress maker from Milan ; but probably 
from G. milla; Swed. mella, to meddle, to divide, in- 
terfere, deal ; venders of housings were called horse 
milliners. See MELL and MONGER. 

M I N 

MILT,*, l.the spleen; Isl. millte ; Swed. mjcelte s D. 

mill ; S. milt ; T. miltz ; Arm. melch ; It. millza. 
2. The soft roe of fish, from its milky appearance ; D. 

melken ; T. milch. F. laile du poisson. 

MIME, *. a mimic, a buffoon ; pip* L. mimut ; It. mi- 

mo ; F. mime. 
MINARET, *. a turret, pillar or spire ; A. meenar ; P. 

minor ; F. minaret. 
MINCE, v. to cut into small pieces, to relate with cau- 

tion, to speak small and imperfectly; F. mincer ; S. 

minsian. See MINISH. 
MIND, *. intellectual power, opinion, sentiment, re- 

membrance, attention, recollection ; G. mod ; Swed. 

mod, correspond with L. animus ; and minne ; Swed. 

minne ; D.minde; S. gemind ; Sans, mun ; L. metis, 

signify properly memory ; G. inna ; T. innen, to hold 

MINE, pron. pass, belonging to me, my own ; P. mine ; 

G. tnin ; Swed. min ; S. myn ; T. mein ; F. mien ; 

L. metis ; It. mio. 
MINE, s. a place where minerals are dug, a hole, a 

cavern ; D. mine ; T. mine ; B. myn ; Swed. mina ; 

Arm. mwyn ; W. mmn ; I. mein ; Sp. mina ; F. mine ; 

It. mina. See MOUTH, MINT and MUNS. 
MINERAL, s. a hard fossil substance; F. mineral, from 

mine, as fossil from I,, fossa. 

MINGLE, v. a. to mix, to compound ; G. meinga ; S. 
mengen ; B. mengen, mengelen ; T. mengen, manegen ; 
. See MANY. 

MINIATURE, *. a painting, a small picture in water co- 

lours ; F. miniature ; Sp. miniattira, from L. minio, 

to paint with minium. We have confounded this 

word with L. minus. 
MINIKIN, a. small, diminutive, a very small pin ; G. 

min, minna ; B. min ; T. min ; W. main ; pum L. 


MINIM, s. a dwarf, a small type, a short note in music ; 

L. minimus. 
MINION, s. a favourite, a creature of affection ; T. mi- 

nion, minn ; B. minnen, min ; F. mignon ; Arm. mig- 

non, a darling ; from G. vin, min, affection, friendship, 

love. The root appears to be G. una, to love. See 

MINISH, v. a. to make less, impair, cut off, hash ; Swed. 

minska, from G. minn; L. minus, small ; F. mincer; 

fiinvSu ; L. minuo. 
MINISTER, s. a person employed in the government or 

church, an agent ; L. minister ; F. ministre, an attend- 

ant, servitor, waiter, assistant. 
MINIUM, s. red lead, a mineral ; L. B. minium ; D. mi- 

nie, from mine. 
MINNOCK, *. an elf, an urchin, a mischievous child, a 

saucy girl ; perhaps from G. mein ; S. man, myn ; 

Swed. mehn, perverse, wrong, and G. vg; I. og, a 

young person. See MINX. 

MINNOW, or MENNOW, s. a very small fish ; Sp. mena, 

from L. minus. 
MINOR, s. one under age, the second proposition of a 

syllogism; L. minor. 
MINSTER, *. a monastery, cathedral church ; L. mona- 

sterium; T. munster ; S. minstre. 
MINSTREL, s. a musician. AI/AOJ, a pipe, was added to 

minister in forming L. B. ministrolus, menestnalus ; 

Sp. menestrel, a performer of music. Aulos was after- 

wards omitted, and L. B. meneslrum, menetrum, signi- 



fying a pipe, produced P. menestner, a piper. AiAii- 
T had the same signification. 

MINT, s. 1. a place where money is coined. L. moneta, 
money, seems to be derived from G. and Swed. mynd, a 
mien, face or image; whence S.mynetian; B.munten; 
T. muntzen, to coin. The Eastern ruppee, known in 
Russia as ruble, is from Sans, roop ; P. roo, a face; al- 
though now, through Mahometan superstition, that 
coin bears only an inscription. See MINK, MIEN, 

2. A heap, a multitude. See MOUNT. 

MINUET, s. a stately regular dance ; F. minuet ; It. mi- 
nuto, from L. minute, nice, accurate, graceful. 

MINX, s. a saucy perverse girl. See MINNOCK. 

MIRACLE, s. a sight, wonder, some act that is contrary 
to human nature ; L. miraculum, from L. miror ; P. 
milira, to see, to behold. 

MIRADOR, *. a seeing place, a balcony ; Sp. from L. 
miror ; P. mihra, from raa, to see. 

MIRK, *. 1. mud, wet dirt, filth ; G. myra ; Swed. 
myru ; B. moer ; T. moder, wet, dirt, mud. 

2. An emmet; P. mur ; G. maur ; S. miru ; Swed. 
myra ; B. mier ; W. myr ; ftv^ftt;. See PISMIRE. 

MIRROUR or MIRROR, s. a looking glass, a show, a pat- 
tern ; A. mirut ; L. miror. See MIRADOR. 

MIRTH, s. laughter, joy, gladness ; S. myrthe, merry- 
hood. See MERRY. 

Mis, a prefix denoting failure or deviation in all the G. 
dialects ; F. mes. See Miss. 

MISANTHROPE, s. a hater of mankind ; ftm-a.^^uif^. 

MISCELLANY, s. a mixture, a composition of various 
things; L. miscellanea. 

MISCHIEF, s. injury, damage, harm; contracted from 
mis achieveance, a misdeed. 

MISCIBLE, a. mixible ; from L. misceo. 

MISCREANT, s. an unbeliever, a term of the greatest re- 
probation among Christians and Mahometans, a vile 
wretch ; F. mescreant. The word is formed by pre- 
fixing the negative mis to L. credens, believing. 

MISER, s. a sordid covetous wretch, who suffers from 
privations ; L. miser. 

MISLE, v. n. to rain in very small drops ; properly to 
mistle, from mist. 

Miss, 1. a contraction of Mistress applied to a young 
lady. Mistress is still pronounced Misses by the 
vulgar, who, to avoid the sound of our plural, con- 
tracted the word into Miss ; but the original term is 
generally considered more respectful ; B. meisje, a 
little girl or servant, is the diminutive of G. maij, 
meidje, a maid. 

2. A failure ; from the verb. 

Miss, v. to go beside the mark, fail, escape, omit; G. 
missa ; Swed. missa ; T. missen ; S. mission ; B. mis- 
sen, to deviate, to pervert, confuse; pret. G. miste ; 
D. mist, our mist for missed. The root of this verb 
is G. urn, ym, around, about ; whence yms, ims, ymis, 
vacillation, deviation, change ; ymisa, and missa, to go 
hither and thither, to err, to fail. 

MISSAL, s. the mass book. See MASS. 

MIST, *. a low thin cloud, fog, dimness ; S. mist ; B. 
mist ; T. mist. 

MISTLETOE, s. a plant that grows on trees, particularly 
the apple and ash ; but perhaps never found on the 
oak naturally. The Druids, however, had probably 
contrived to cultivate it on that tree, and practised 

much religious mystery in gathering it. G. mistel 
tein ; S. mystelta ; Swed. mistelten ; T. mislel ; G. mis- 
lit ; S. mist I, discolour, and G. tein, la, a branch, was 
evidently the origin of the name. The Gauls called 
it guy, their corrupt pronunciation of L. viscus. 

MISTRESS, s. a woman who governs, a sweetheart, a 
concubine. The feminine of Master. 

MISY, s. a kind of mineral : fu'ro. 

MITE, s. 1. a small coin or particle ; T. meit, meid, me- 
del ; B. myle; G.milh, small, minute, from meida ; M. 
G. maitan, to divide, cut. 

2. A small insect; D. mide ; T. made; B. migt ; F. mite, 
from its smallness, as the preceding word. It was 
also called mal in Gothic, which signifies, like insect, 
ft particle or animalcula. See MAD. 

MITIGATE, v. a. to alleviate, mollify ; L. mitigo. 

MITRE., s. 1. an episcopal crown; pir^a; G. mitur ; L. 
mitra ; F. mitre. It was apparently a tiara worn by 
the priests of Mithras ; from P. mikr, the sun ; Sans. 
Mahadeva, the great God, the divinity of fire ; Mith- 
ridates, from Chald. Heb. and P. dot, dad, justice. 

2. The joining of boards by acute angles, resembling 
those of a mitre ; a term used by carpenters. 

MITTENS, s. pi. gloves without fingers ; L.manitia; F 
milane, a glove. 

Mix, v. a. to mingle, unite, join; pirya ; L. misceo; T. 

MIXEN, s. a dung heap, a compost ; S. mixen, meoxen, 
from muck; sometimes confounded with mixing, a com- 
post. Scotch midding is from mow, a heap, and dung ; 
D. moegding. 

MIZZEN, s. the mast in the stern of a ship ; Swed. me- 
san ; D. mesan, besan ; B. bizaan ; F. basenne , It. 
mizzana ; Sp. mezana. 

MIZZY, s. a bog, quagmire, swamp ; Arm. mouis ; W. 
mize. See Moss and MOIST. 

MOAN, v. n. to grieve, to lament ; S. mcenan, to express 
grief. It is probable that our word may be cognate 
with woe ; as the Gothic transmutations of v and m 
were frequent. 

MOAT, s. a canal or ditch made round a castle; Sp. mola; 
F. motte ; L. B. mota, apparently from A. ma, mao ; 
ftau ; G. moda, moa, water ; Swed. ma, mad, a marsh 
or fen. 

MOB, *. 1. the populace; contracted from MOBILE. 

2. A woman's cap ; B. mop, moff ; Scot, mablie. See 

MOBILE, s. cause of motion, sphere, mob, rout; L. mo- 
bile ; F. mobile. 

MOCHA, a. a stone containing figures of trees ; It. pielra 
mosca, from L. musconts, the moss stone. 

MOCK, v. a. to imitate, mimic, deride, deceive ; ftaxda ; 
F. moqiier ; W. moccio. 

MODE, s. a form, fashion, way, state, appearance ; L. 'mo- 
dus ; It. modo ; F. mode ; Sans. mut. 

MODEL, s. a copy, pattern, representation, mould. From 

MODERATE, a. temperate, sober, mild, reasonable; L. 
moderatus ; It. moderate. 

MODIFY, v. a. to shape, change the form or mode ; F. 
modifier, from L. modojacere. 

MODWALL, s. a kind of woodpecker ; G. meid is wood, 
and S. wigol, from G. ve, veg, holy, consecrated ; ap- 
parently a name given to birds of divination. See 

M O N 


MOHAIR, s. a. thread or stuff made of silky hair ; F. mou- 

aire, moire ; T. moor ; B. moor, from P. moo, fine hair ; 

A. mojacar, mushir, hairy. 
MOIDER, v. a. to make crazy, to madden ; M. G. moda, 

crazy. See MAO. 
MOIDORE, ,v. a Portugal gold coin in value 27 shillings ; 

L. moneta de auro. 
MOIETY, *. the half, the one of two equal parts ; F. 

moitie ; It. mela, from L. medietas. 
MOIL, t). 1. to drudge, toil, labour; G. modila, from 

moed,mod; Swed. mod, matt; S. moethe ; T. mude ; 

Scot, muddle, fatigue, trouble. See MUDDLE. 

2. To daub, to sprinkle; to muddle, from mud, confound- 
ed with F. mouillcr, to wet. 

3. To stain, spot, paint ; T. mallen, from G. mal ; S. 
mat, a spot. 

MOIST, a. wet in a small degree, juicy ; F. moist ; Arm. 

moues, from L. madidus. 
MOKY, a. dark, foggy, perhaps corrupted from murky. 

MOLE, *. 1. a natural spot on the skin ; T. mahl ; Swed. 

mal: S. mal ; L. macula. 

2. A false conception ; L. mola ; F. mole ; Sp. mala. 

3. A small animal ; B. mol, contracted from Moleivarp. 

4. A round pier or dike ; L. moles ; F. mole ; Sp. muelle. 
MOLEST, v. a. to trouble, disturb, vex ; L. molesto ; F. 

MOLEWARP, s. a small animal called a mole. See 


MOLLIFY, v. a. to soften, assuage, quiet, from L. mollis 

MOLLY, s. a girl's name, generally used for Mary ; M. 
G. mantilo ; S. meoule; Scot, mull, dim. of G. mey, a 
maid. The Goths used illo as a diminutive ; barnillo, 
was a little child. Maids of honour were anciently 
called the Queen's meys. Mary, however, may have 
become Maly, from the usual intermutation of r and 
/. See SALLY. 

MOLOSSES, or MOLASSES, s. treacle, dregs of sugar ; 
Heb. malalz ; f^Ktrtt ; It. melazzo ; F. melasse ; f<,i\i, 
honey, and fK\trrtt, a bee. 

MOLY, *. a kind of rue or wild garlick ; (t*.v ; L. moly ; 
but Tartar mola ; Swed. mala ; T. melde, is our orach. 

MOME, x. a dull, stupid fellow, a mis-shapen cub, a 
blockhead. The word was anciently maivn ; B. moon. 

MONDAY, *. the second day of the week ; Mondag in all 
the Gothic dialects ; from MOON and DAY. 

MONEY, *. metal coined for public use ; S. mynet ; T. 
mitinlze ; Swed. mi/iit ; Sclav, mince ; L. moneta ; It. 
moneta ; F. monnoie ; W. mtvnai ; from G. mynd, mint, 
a countenance, face, image. See MINT. 

MONEYWORT, *. an herb called in botany nummulariu. 

MONGER, *. a dealer; G. man gar e ; Swed. mangere; 

from manga. ; S. mangian, to deal in many articles ; 

L. mango, a regrater. See MANY. 
MONOREL, a. any thing of a mixed breed ; from the 

same root with mang and monger. See MANY. 

MONK, *. a religious recluse ; ftx,i(, a solitary person ; 

L. monachus ; G. munk, and adopted in all Christian 

MONKEY, *. an ape, baboon, a silly fellow ; supposed to 

be dim. of S. man, a man, a manikin ; P. maimoon, 

mono ; Port, mono, a name perhaps adopted from the 

Moors, to which cao, a dog, may have been added to 
form our word. 

MONSOON, s. a shifting trade wind ; A. monsom, a sea- 
son. The year in Asia is divided into two monsoons, 
the summer and the winter. 

MONTERO, s. Sp. a horseman's cap, or mounting cap ; 
from montar, to ride. 

MONTH, s. the space of four weeks; P. maheena ; G. 
manad; T. monat ; S. monath ; L. mensis, from P. 
mah ; G. man ; ftai S. man, the moon. 

MONTHSMIND, s. an earnest desire; G. ma, our mo, much, 

great, seems to have been prefixed to G. unath, in 

forming Isl. munad, desire, affection ; munalhs mind, 

a mind of affection. 
MOOD, s. 1. temper of mind, disposition; G. mod ; Swed. 

mod; S. mod ; B. moed; T. mutt, mind, will, spirit, 


2. A term in grammar ; L. modus. 
MOODY, a. 1. wayward, passionate, spirited ; S. modig ; 

B. moedig ; T. muthig, from mood. See METTLE. 
2. Mental, intellectual ; from mood, the mind. 
MOON, s. the nocturnal luminary ; P. mah / pw ; G. 

inn an ; Swed. mana ; S. mona ; Isl. mono ; B. maan ; 

T. mond. 
MOONCALF, s. a monster, a false conception, an ideot, 

a term of abuse ; T. monkalb, from G. mcein ; S. 

man, false, spurious ; B. moon, an evil spirit, and G. 

alf, a conception, a foetus, corrupted into calf, which 

is G. ku alf, the offspring of a cow. 

MOOR, *. 1. a marsh or fen ; G. mcer ; T. mor ; B. moer. 

2. A heath, black earth covered with ling ; G. moar ; S. 
mor ; Scot, mure ; Isl. moor ; S. more, which, from its 
dark heathy appearance, is also a mountain. 

3. A cable; A. marra, a cable; Port, amarra ; Sp. 

4. A negro, an African ; L. maurus ; It. moro ; Sp. moro. 

5. A term in venery, when the deer is slain ; L. mors ; 
F. mor. 

MOOR, v. a. to fasten with a cable. From moor, a cable ; 
Port, marrar ; F. amarrer ; Sp. amarrar. 

MOOSE, s. a large American deer, called by the natives 

poose and mampoose. 
MOOT, v. to argue, to plead a mock cause; G. mola, 

motgian ; Swed. mota ; S. motion, to encounter, to run 

against, to dispute. See to MEET. 
MOP, *. 1. a flocky utensil to clean houses. Named 

perhaps from its resemblance to a muff or mob. 
2. A wry mouth ; F. moue, from mouth. See MUFFLE. 
MOFK, v. to be drowsy or stupid ; ftvit Siraf, to close the 


MOPE, MOPUS, s. a drone, a stupid person ; ftvu^ ; L. 

MOPPET, MOPSY, *. a puppet made of rags. See 

MORAL, a. belonging to manners; L. moralis ; F. 

MORASS, *. a fen, bog, marsh ; from MOOR ; Swed. mo- 
rass ; T. morast. 

MORE or MOB, a. greater in number, quality, quan- 
tity or size, the comparative of much; G. meir ; 
Swed, mer ; T. mehr ; S. mare. It is contracted from 
marer, as G. mar, mer, signified much or great, and 
corresponds with P. mihlar, from mlh ; Suns, maha, 
great. See MUCH. 

M O S 

M O U 

MOREL, s. an acid cherry ; but properly the alkakengi ; 

L. morilla solanum ; F. rnorell. 
MOBELAND, s. a mountainous or waste country ; Isl. 

mdtir; S. mor, and morland, whence Westmoreland, 

and Morne in Ireland. See MOOK. 
MORGLAY, *. a great sword ; W. and Arm. maur clez ; I. 

claidham mor ; L. gladius major. 
MOBIL, s. a kind of mushroom ; F. morille ; T. morcheln; 

Sp. morel, from its dark colour. It is called in Swed. 

murkla, perhaps G. morkulle, black cap. See MURBEY. 
MORION, MUHRION, s. armour for the head, a Moorish 

helmet, any thing Moorish ; F. morione. 
MOBKIN, s. a wild beast found dead ; a term with hun- 
ters; L. morticinus. 
MOBLING, *. the wool taken from a dead sheep ; F. 

mortelane, from L. mortui lana. 
MORNING, s. the first part of the day ; G. morni, mor- 

gan ; S. marne ; D. mor gen ; T. morgen. See OR, 

soon, early. 
MORPHEW, *. a disorder of the skin, appearing in tawny 

spots ; L. B. morphea ; Port, morphea ; It. morfea. 
MORBIS-DANCE, s. a Moorish dance. 
MORBOW, s. the day after the present ; T. morgen. See 

MOBNING. The morrow, or to-morrow, corresponds 

with the F. demain, from L. de mane. 
MOBSE, s. the river horse ; G. mar, the sea, and ors, a 

horse. It appears to be confounded sometimes with 

marox, the sea ox. The F. marsouin, a porpoise, is G. 

marsuin, the sea swine. 
MORSEL, s. a mouthful, a bit, a small quantity ; F. mor. 

ceatt, morcelle, from L. morsus, a bite. 
MOBT, s. 1. a tune at the death of game, called also a 

moor ; L. mors ; F. mort. 
2. A great quantity, a heap; G. margt, murth ; S. mcerlh ; 

T. merheit. G. morgtal, a great number, vulgarly a 

mortal deal. See MORE and TALE. 
MORTAB, *. 1. a strong vessel wherein materials are 

pounded to pieces ; L. mortarium ; F. morlier. 

2. What is beaten in a mortar, a mixture of lime and 
sand with water, to cement stones or bricks; F. 

3. a short wide cannon, out of which bombs are thrown ; 
F. mortier, from its resembling the vessel used in 
pounding materials. 

MOBTGAGE, *. a dead pledge, a security ; F. mortgage, 
from L. mortuus, and Gage. 

MOBTISE, s. a joint in wood, a term in joinery ; F. mor- 
tals ; Arm. murtase ; W. mortals ; I. molrtls, from L. 

MOBTLING, s. the wool of a dead sheep. See MOBLING. 

MORTMAIN, s. an inalienable estate ; F. main morie ; L. 
mantis mortua. An estate in dead hand ; that is made 
over to a guild or corporation, whence it cannot be 

MOSAIC, *. variegated work with jewels, glass or shells ; 
F. mosaique ; It. \nosaico, supposed to be from ptsrixaf, 
skilful, beautiful; but G. moskue ; D. maske; T. 
moesch ; W. masg ; Arm. malsk, all signify, like L. 
macula, reticulated or spotted work. See MESH. 

MOSCHETTO, s. a gnat; Port, moschetto, from mosca ; 
L. musca. 

MOSK, MOSQUE, s. a Mahometan temple ; A. musjid ; F. 

mosque ; It. moschla. 
Moss, *. 1. a substance growing on trees and stones ; 

Isl. moss; B. mosch ; Swed. mossa ; T. moos; F. 
mousse; L. muscus. 

2. A bog, the substance of which peat is made; Swed. 
mossa ; T. mosz ; I. maoth, have the same purport, 
and appear to be morass, with the r omitted. See 

MOST, s. greatest in size, number, quality or quantity ; G. 
mest, maust; S. moist ; Swed. mest ; T. melst ; B. meest, 
the superlative of much, and of M. G. malza, more, 
corresponding with ftiyinf. The T. merest, used as 
most, is probably the right word. See MOBE and 

MOT, for MOUGHT or MIGHT; S. mot; B. moet. See 

MOTE, s. 1. a small particle ; G. mlo, mlth ; S. mot ; 
Swed. mot ; I. miot. See MITE. 

2. Used in composition, as an assembly or meeting ; G. 
mot ; Swed. mole ; S. mot. See to MEET. 

3. A ditch. See MOAT. 

MOTH,*, a small insect that eats cloth; S. moth; T. 

motte ; B. mot ; Swed. maett. See MAD. 
MOTHEB, s. 1. she who has borne a child ; P. madur ; 

Sans, mata, main; Hind, mattara ; G. moder; D. mo- 

der ; Swed. moder; 1. mutter ; B. moeder, moer; (it- 

T| ; L. mater ; It. Sp. madre ; I. mathawr. 
2. Scum, lees of liquors ; B. madder ; Swed. mudder ; 

T. moder. See MUD. 
MOTION, *. the act of moving, a proposal ; L. molio ; F 

motion ; It. mozione. 
MOTIVE, s. the cause of action ; L. molus ; It. motivo ; 

F. motif. 

MOTLEY or MOTLY, a. mixed, speckled. See MEDLEY. 
MOTTO, s. a short sentence prefixed ; putts ; L. mulus ; 

It. motto ; F. mot, a word. 
MOVE, v. to put in motion, to walk, to propose ; L. moveo; 

F. mouvoir. 

MOULD, s. 1. a kind of fur or discolour, fustiness ; M. 

G. malo ; D. mull, rust, smut, foulness in corn ; G. 
mal; S. mal; Swed. mal, a spot, a stain. 

2. Earth, soil, loam ; G. moal, mold; Swed. mould; S. 
mold, dust, ashes, small cinders. 

3. A kind of ulcer, a kibe; Swed. moegel; D. mud ; 
F. mule. 

4. A form, a cast, a model ; F. moule ; Sp. molde, from 
L. modulus. 

MOULDWABP, *. a mole ; G. moldwarp ; S. mold neorp, 
that throws up mould. See WHARF. 

MOULT, v. a. to shed the feathers; anciently written 
morvt, from mite. 

MOUND, s. a fence, a bank of earth ; G. mtind, defence, 
protection ; Swed. mynda ; S. mundian, to defend ; L. 
munilus, fortified. The word is confounded with 

MOUNT, s. a hill, a small eminence ; L. mons ; F. mont ; 
It. Sp. and Port, monte, have not only our significa- 
tion, but also a heap, store, hoard or bank of money. 
The vulgar expression of " a mint of money," pro- 
perly signifies a mount of money. 

MOUNTEBANK, s. a quack, a stage doctor ; literally one 
who mounts a bench to sell medicines ; F. montabanc. 

MOURN, v. a. to grieve, bewail, wear black ; Sans, ma- 
ran, to die, M. G. mournan ; T. mornen ; S. murnan ; 
L. moeror, to grieve ; F. morne, melancholy. 

MOUSE, s. 1 . a small quadruped ; Sans, mushi, moosa ; 
P. mush; (*vf ', L. mus ; D. muus ; B.muis; Swed. 

M U F 

M U N 

nius; S.mus; T. mans, a species of small rat. Sans. 
mush, signifies steal ; (tvt>, to conceal. 

2. A small bird, a finch, a titmouse; P. mush; Swed. 
me* ; !) muse ; B. munch, mus; S. mate ; F. mesange ; 
a general name for small birds. See MUSKET a hawk. 

MOUTH, s. the aperture in the head where food is re- 
ceived, a distortion of that feature, a grimace, an en- 
trance ; Sans, moonh ; Hind, munh ; G. mun, munth ; 
Swed. mun; T. mund ; B. mond ; M. G. munths ; S. 
muth ; Arm, muzz ; Scot mom ; F. moue. The word 
appears to originate from G. tit, int, an entrance; 
whence G. minn; Swed. mynne, myning, an orifice, 
an opening inward ; and G. mund, mynd, like L. of, 
signified the countenance. See MIEN, MINE and 

Mow, t. a heap of hay or corn ; S. motve, muha, muga, 
muega ; Scot, mock ; It. mucchio, apparently the same 
with our much; Isl. mocka, to heap, is from G. aulca, 
to increase. 

Mow, v. a. to cut down or reap ; G. mait/ia, meida ; D. 
meye ; Isl. maa ; B. maayen ; T. mahen ; S. manan ; 

dftaa ; L. metu. 

2. To raise in mows ; from the noun. 

MUCH, a. large, long in time, many ; P. mih ; Sans. 
maka, and ftiyttf, signified great ; G. mile, miulc, mug ; 
Isl. mioc ; Swed. mike; T.mich; S. mycell; Polish 
moc ; Sclav, moech ; Arm. myg, many, great. The G. 
auk, eyk, signified increase, augmentation, to which 
ma, more, may have been prefixed. See Mow. The 
resemblance of Sp. mucho, to our word, arises from 
the corrupt pronunciation of L. multut. 

Muciu, a. slimy, mouldy, musty ; L. mucidus. 

MUCK, *. 1. dung for manure, dirt ; G. myk ; Swed. 
mole ; S. moec, meox ; D. moeg. G. eyk; Swed. ok, 
whence our ox, signified beasts of labour in general ; 
to which mow, a heap, seems to have been prefixed, 
to express a heap of dung made by cattle. See MIX- 

2. The vulgar pronunciation of amok, a Malay word, 
which signifies slaughter. It denotes a state of des- 
peration, where the person wishes to kill or be killed. 
See MATE. 

MUCKENDER, MUCKADOR, .t. a dirty handkerchief; Sp. 
mocadero ; F. mouchoir, from L. mucus, snot. 

MUCKER, a. 1. dark, obscure ; Swed. morkur. See 

2. Concealed, clandestine, hidden ; Swed. mjugg ; T. 
mauger, from mattchen, to conceal ; G. smuga, to smug- 
gle. See MICHE. 

3. Usurious, penurious, hoarding, sordid ; Scot, muker ; 
O. E. muckre ; Isl. mocka, to heap, as well as our 
word mem, a heap, and much, is formed from G. au- 
ka, to increase; whence also Swed. ocker ; T. nucher, 
interest, usury. 

MUD, s. wet dirt, mire ; G. mod ; Swed. modd, mudder ; 
B. maed, madder ; T. moder, mire, filth, scum ; cog- 
nate with pvaav ; L. madeo, and W. mwydo. See 

MCDDLE, v. a. I. to make half drunk ; fulvu. See 

2. To toil, fatigue, drudge; G. mudila, from mod, maed ; 
Swed. matt. See MOIL. 

MruwALL, *. a bird. See MODWALL. 

.\It-K, v. to cart feather, to moult, to shed, to dung; a 
term in venery. See MEW. 

MUFF, *. a warm cover for the hands; D. muffe ; Swed. 
ma (f; T. muff; B. moff; F. mouffle ; supposed to be 
from mouth, but probably from G. hufa ; Swed. huf, 

a veil, hood or covering; Swed. hufa; Scot, hap, to 

cover or conceal. See MOB. 
MUFFIN, *. a small loaf of fine flower ; F. miche, fine. 

MUFFLE, *. 1. a mouth, a cheek; G. mangle; Swed. 

mule; T. muff', maule; D. muule ; B. muile ; F. nmufte, 

the mouth. 

2. A mouth cover in chemistry ; F. moiifle. 
MUFTI, s . the Turkish high priest ; A. moft, wise, sa- 

Muo, *. a cup to drink out of ; G. miots ; Swed. mod ; 

B. mutsie, a measure, a quart ; Scot, mutchkin. See to 


MUGGER, a. clandestine. See MUCKER and SMUGGLE. 
MUGGY, a. misty, damp, moist ; P. migh, a cloud ; Isl. 

mugga ; Scot, mochy, foggy. 
MUGWORT, *. a species of wormwood ; from T. and Scot. 

mach, maul:, a worm, and wort, corrupted into wood 

in wormwood. See MAD. 
MULATTO, s. one begotten between a black and a white ; 

from MULE. 
MULBERRY, s. a tree and its fruit ; properly murberry, 

from L. morus ; F. meure ; T. maulbeere. 
MULCT, *. a fine of money ; L. mulcta. 
MULE, v. an animal generated between a horse and an 

ass ; L. miilux ; F. mulct ; ijfu ovAtf 
MULL, t). a. to warm liquor with sugar and spice ; L. 

MULLAR, .v. a stone to grind colours; T. muhler, a 

grinder. See MILL. 
MULLEN, s. a plant ; T. tvullcn ; F. molene, from its 

MULLET, .v. 1. the name of a fish, a barbel ; fiux^tf ; L. 

mulliix ; F. mulct. 
2. In heraldry, a star denoting a fourth son ; F. moletle, 

a little mill, which it resembles ; from L. mola. 
MULTI, a Latin prefix signifying many. 
MULTURE, s. a toll for grinding corn ; L. molitura. 
MUM, interj. Hush ; a word used by people when mask- 

ed ; B. mom ; F. momon. See MUMM. 
MUM, s. wheat ale ; D. mumme; T. mumme; B. mon; F. mum. 
MUMBLE, v. 1. to speak inwardly or indistinctly ; from 


2. To grumble or mutter ; G. maugla ; Swed. mumla, 
to mouth. See MUFFLE. 

3. To mouth, to turn about with the tongue or lips. See 

MUMM, v. n. to frolic in disguise, to wear a mask : 
from which is derived Momus the god of 

MUMMY, s. an embalmed corpse ; A. and P. momlya, 

from mom, wax ; L. mitmia ; F. momie. 
MUMP, v. a. to nibble, bite quick, speak low and quick, 

to repeat over and over like a beggar, to beg; from 

iinnr, the mouth. See MUMBLE and MOUTH. 
MUMPS, *. pi. 1. a swelling in the jaws, throat and 

mouth ; from Mow and Muffle, the mouth. 
2. Sullenness, the projection of the mouth in ill hu- 

MUNCH, MAUNCH, MOUNCH, v. n. to chew quickly, to 

eat fast ; F. manger, from I/, mando. 
MUND, *. protection, safety, peace, law ; G. mund, pro- 

tection ; S. mundian, to defend. 
MUNDANE, a. belonging to the world ; L. mundanus ; F. 



M U S 

MUNDIC, *. a kind of marcasite ; W. mrvndig, from mtvn, 

a mine. 
MUNDIFY, v. a. to cleanse, to purify ; from L. mundus, 

clean, andfacere, to make. 
MUNERARY, a. relating to a gift ; L. munerarius. 

MUNS, s. the face ; G. mun, mund, the mouth, mynd, the 
countenance ; Sans, moonh. See MOUTH and MIEN. 

MURDER, s. the act of killing unlawfully; P. moorg ; 
Sans, murt; G. mord; Swed. mord; T. mord; pips; 
L. mors ; F. mart ; It. morto ; W. marwaidd, death : 
Sclav, murha ; Sans, mara, slain ; P. murda, a corpse ; 
G. morder, maurther ; Swed. mordare; S. morder; B. 
moorder ; I. mortair ; F. meurtre, slaughter, homicide. 

MURE, v. a. to wall, to inclose with walls ; F. murer ; 

It. murare, from L. murus. 

MURIATIC, a. briny, salt like brine ; from L. muria. 
MURRAIN, *. a plague among cattle ; A. murz ; p^ttm;, 

a distemper ; S. morrina ; F. marrane, a pining or 


MUHRE, *. a cormorant ; W. morvran, the sea crow. 
MURREY or MUHHEL, a. darkly red, a dark brown 

colour ; It. morello, from L. morus, a mulberry ; G. 

mor, red brown. 

MURTH OP CORN, *. See MORT, a great quantity. 

MUSCADINE, *. a kind of sweet grape, a sweet wine, a 

kind of pear, a confection ; F. muscadin ; It. musca- 

tello, from L. moschatus, a nutmeg, any thing of that 

MUSCLE, *. 1. a shell fish; L. musculus; F. mousle, 


2. A fleshy fibre; L. musculus; It. musculo; F. mus- 
MUSE, v. n. to ponder, think closely ; F. muser ; B. 

muysen. MSret, from ftaa, to inquire, approaches our 

word in meaning. 
MUSHROOM, s. a spongy plant; met. an upstart; F. 

muusscrun, from ftiacnf and ai^ufut. 
Music, *. the science of melody and harmony ; (tvo-M* ; 

L. musica ; It. musica ; F. musique. 
MUSK, s. a strong perfume; A. mooshk ; P. mushk ; 

l-<i"xts ', L. muscus ; It. musco ; F. muse. 
MUSKET, s. 1. a soldier's hand gun ; It. moschetto ; F. 

mechette, a matchlock, from ftinctif ; L. myxa, a match. 
2. A male sparrow hawk ; from mouse, a sparrow. See 

MUSKIN, s. a titmouse. See MOUSE. 
MUSLIN, s. a kind of cotton cloth; L. B. muscolinum ; 

F. mousselin ; Sp. musolino, said to have been brought 

from India to Mousoul ; but it may however be L. 

muscilinum, moss linen, as it is still called in Germany, 

nettle cloth. 

M Y T 

MUSSULMAN, s. a Mahometan believer; A. muslimon, 

from eslam, salvation. 
MUST, *. wine unfermented, wort; L. mustum; S 

must ; F. mout, moust. See MUM. 
MUST, v. to make or grow mouldy ; L. muscito, muces- 

co; F. moisir. 
MUST, v. imperf. to be obliged; S. most, mot; T. 

mussen, from the same root with our may ; and the 

Danes use maae for our may, and also for must. The 

G. muna, and Scot, man, are cognates. 
MUSTACHES or MUSTACHOES, *. pi. whiskers, hair on 

the upper lip; ftvra%; Sp.mustacho; F. moustache. 
MUSTARD, s. a seed, plant and flower; It. mostardo ; 

F. moustarde; W. mwstard ; Sp. mostaza; supposed 

to be L. mustum ardens. 
MUSTER, v. a. to review, to assemble ; It. mostrare ; Sp. 

mostrar, from L. monstrare. 
MUSTY, a. mouldy, spoiled with dampness ; L. mucidus ; 

It. mucido. 
MUTE, a. dumb, silent, speechless ; L. mutus ; F. muet ; 

MUTE, v. n. to change, to shed, to dung as birds ; L. 

mutare ; It. mutare; F. muter. See MEW. 
MUTILATE, v. a. to deprive of some essential part ; L. 

MUTINOUS, a. opposing lawful authority, seditious ; F. 

mutin, from L. mutio ; ftvitf. 
MUTTER, v. to murmur, to grumble ; L. muttio, from 

mutus ; fttiSef ; F. mot, a word ; sometimes perhaps the 

frequentative of to MOUTH. 
MUTTON, s. the flesh of a sheep, but properly of a wether; 

F. mouton ; Arm. mout ; W. molt ; I. moltin, from L. 

mutilatus, castrated. 
MUTUAL, a. acting in return, reciprocal ; L. mutually ; 

F. mn/iic/. 
MUZZLE, *. the mouth, a fastening for the mouth ; Arm. 

muzzel; F. museau ; It. muso ; Sp.bozal; I. busial ; 

the intermutations of m and 6 were frequent. See 


MYOLOGY, s. the doctrine of the muscles, from ft v a and 


MYRIAD, *. the number of ten thousand ; 
MYRMIDON, *. a constable, a soldier ; 
MYRRH, *. a strong aromatic gum ; A. moor ; pipp* L. 

myrrha; F. myrrhe. 
MYRTLE, s. a fragrant evergreen shrub ; pvpes ; L. myr- 

lus; F. myrte. 
MYSTERY, s. something sacredly obscure, a secret, a 

trade ; ftvnfiti ; L. mysterium ; F. mystere. It pro- 

perly signified a trade or art, the secrets of which 

were revealed only to the initiated. 
MYTHOLOGY, *. a system of heathen worship ; pt,v6t>.tyi*. 

tint . 


NIGHT, s. the time of darkness ; G. naht ; D. not ; S. 
niht; T. nacht ; i{ ; L. nox ; F. nuit ; It. nolle; W. 
nor , Sans, nu . 

XIOHTINGAL, J. a bird that sings by night ; S. nighte- 
gale ; T. nachtegal, from Night and P. gaol, music ; S. 
solan ; G. gala, to sing ; Sans, gulgul ; P. bulbul 
See GAL. 

NIGHTMARE, *. a morbid oppression in sleep called in- 
cubus ; from Night and G. mcer, a maid or nymph, 
which, like fiaur, was one of the fates ; T. maer, 
mare; S. mara ; F. couchemar. See MARE. 
NIGHTRAIL, *. a loose nightgown. See RAIL. 
NIGHTSHADE, s. a poisonous plant ; T. nacht schaUen, 
night shadow ; perhaps G. naulskade ; D. natskade ; 
T. natschade ; S. nyt scada. See NEAT and SCATH. 
NILE, s. the name of a river ; A. P. and Sans. Nuel, 
Neel, blue. The name seems to have been given to 
the Indus, and to a branch of the Egyptian river, 
from their colour. 
NILL, s. the glowing ashes of melted brass. See to 


NIM, v. a. to filch, steal, pilfer ; G. nema ; Swed. nim- 

ma ; S. niman ; B. neemen ; T. nemen. See to NAB. 

NIMBLE, a. speedy, quick, active; Isl. nimlig ; S. nu- 

mul, apt, quick of apprehension. 

NINCOMPOOP, NICK-AM-POOP, s. a novice, a fool, a silly 
person ; S. nicum, new, raw, inexperienced, and ouphe. 
See OAF and NINNY. 
NINE, a. five and four; G. niun ; Isl. niu ; Swed. nio ; 

P. nit ; S. nigan ; T. neune. 

NINETEEN, a. nine and ten ; S. nignalytie ; T. neunrehen. 
NINETY, a. nine times ten ; G. niuntig ; T. neunzig. 
NINNY, s. a novice, a simpleton, a child ; n, a novice ; 

Sp. ninno, a baby, perhaps from *><. 
NIP, t>. a. to pinch, vex, satirize ; G. niupa ; Swed. nypa ; 

B. nipen ; T. kneipen. 
NIPPLE, *. part of the breast, a teat, a dug ; S. nypele ; 

B. knopje ; It. nepilello. See KNOB. 
NIT, *. the egg of a louse ; *', x<3 ; Isl. hnit ; Swed. 
gnet ; D. gnide ; S. hnitu ; B. neet ; T. nusse ; Arm. 
niz ; W. nedd 

NITHING, *. a coward, a dastard, vile, contemptible ; 
Isl. nithing ; G. niding ; Swed. nidingcr ; S. nithing. 

NIZY, *. a simpleton, a dunce. See NJAS. 
No, 1 . ad. a word of denial. 2. a. none ; G. nea ; M. G. 
ni; Swed. net; T. ni ; S. no; Pol. ne ; P. and Sans. 
na ; L. non; It. no; F. non. 

NOBLE, *. a Spanish ducat ; six shillings and eightpence. 

NOCK, *. a notch, a slit, the anus ; Isl. hnocka ; Swed. 

nock ; T. nocke ; Scot, nok ; It. nocchia. See NOTCH 

and NICK. 

NOD, v. n. to lower the head with a quick motion, to be 

drowsy ; L. nulo. 

NODDLE, *. the head, used in contempt. See NOLL. 
NODDY, t. a silly person, a simpleton ; F. naudin. See 

NOGOEN-SHIRT, s. a coarse shirt; G. hnauke, labour, 


NOGGIN, . a small mug, a gill ; I. noiggin, a wooden can. 
NOIANCE, * mischief, inconvenience ; from NOIE. 
NOIE, v. a. to injure, disturb, annoy ; F. nuir ; It. no- 
care ; L. nocere. 


Noious, a. hurtful, mischievous, troublesome ; It nioto, 

from the verb. 
NOISE, *. sound, disturbance, clamour; F. noise; Arm. 

noas ; L. 

NOISOME, a. offensive, noxious, filthy ; from Noious. 
NOLL, *. a hillock, a top, the head ; S. hnol. See 

NOMBLES, s. the entrails of a deer ; F. nombles. See 


NONCB, s. a purpose, a design, intent ; Swed. ntennas, 
from G. nenna ; D. nenne, to attempt. Chaucer wrote 

NONE, a. no other, not any ; G. nein, ne ein, not one. 
NOODLE, *. a simpleton, a fool ; G. nadul ; S. nih dol, 

nearly stupid. See DULL and DOODLE. 
NOOK, *. a corner, an angle, a covert ; B. ein hoek, an 


NOON, s. the middle of the day ; L. nona hora was adopt- 
ed by the Christian Goths to denote a particular time 
of church service ; whence G. non, mid day. 
NOOSE, *. a running knot, a gin, a snare ; Swed. knusse ; 

L. nodus. 

NOPE, *. an ouphe, a bullfinch. See OUPHE. 
NOB, con/, not either, neither. 

NORE, *. a canal, a channel, a river, a lake ; G. Swed. 
and Tartar nor. Nuhr is still applied to the great 
canal at Babylon. 
NORTH, *. the part of the earth opposite the south ; G. 

Swed. D. T. and F. nord : S. north. 
NOSH, *. the prominence on the face ; Sans, nasa ; G. 
itaus, nef; Isl. nos, nauf, ner ; S. nos a ; Swed. not ; 
D. ncese ; T. nase ; L. nastis, naris ; F. nez ; It. naso. 
From this root are derived our words, Nozle, Snaffle, 
Snarl, Snast, Snart, Sneeze, Sneer, Snipe, Shite, Sniff, 
Snivel, Snore, Snort, Snot, Snout, Snuff, Snuffle. 
NOSTRIL, *. the cavity of the nose ; S. nos thyrl, nose 

NOT, ad. on no terms, in no wise ; G. neit ; B. niel ; T. 

nicht ; S. nate ; W. nad. 
NOTCH, s. a cut, a nick, a cavity ; Swed. nocku ; B. nocke ; 

It. nocchia, an incision. See NOCK and NICK. 
NOUGHT, *. nothing. See NAUGHT. 
NOUN, *. a name, a part of speech ; L. notnen ; Sans, and 

P. nanrv, from namna, to say, to tell. See NAME. 
Nous, s. knowledge, intelligence ; tit ; P. noos. 
NOUSEL, v. a. 1. from NOOSE ; to ensnare, to bind with a 


2. To nurse, to cherish. See NUZZLE. 
Now, ad. at this time ; P. mi ; G. Swed. D. and S. nu ; 

T. nun; tut; L. mine. 
NOWES, *. a running knot, a noose ; L. nodus ,- O. F. 

neau, nou. 

NOZLE, *. a small snout ; dim. of NOSE. 
NUBBLE, v. a. to pound with the fist, to beat, to bang; 

Scot, nevel, neffle ; from NEAF. 
NUDGE, v. a. to jog with the elbow or knee ; G. hmida ; 

Swed. nudda. See KNUCKLE. 
NUISANCE, *. something offensive ; F. nuisance. See to 


NUMB, a. torpid, senseless ; G. num, nam ; S. benitm, de- 
ficient, stupified ; Arm. num ; W. nam, a defect, pri- 

NUMBER, *. an aggregate, a series, verse, harmony ; 
Heb. niphrad ; L. nvmcrits ; F. nombre. 

N U S 

N U Z 
















Urbu ut, 




Sumaneeut, Tisut, 




Shenayein, Sheloshah, 

Arban tth, 

Chamishal, Shishat, 








Sih, \ 
Tre, f 






























Zingari or 











**** f J* 













Ein, \ 
Elt, / 
































































NUN, s. a religious recluse woman ; S. nun ; D. nonne ; 
T. nonn ; F. nonne ; said by St Jerome to be an Egyp- 
tian word signifying holy and chaste. Matt, however, 
was a female monk, written Navi? by Palladius. 

NUNCHION, *. a piece of victuals eaten between meals ; 
from Noon, and T. essen, food. 

NURSE, s. one who suckles a child, an attendant on the 
sick ; F. nourrice ; L. nutrix. 

NURTURE, *. diet, food, education ; F. nourrilure ; L. 

NUSTLE, v. a- to fondle, to cherish. See NESTLE. 

NUT, *. a gland, fruit of a tree ; Swed. not ; S. hnut ; B. 

noot ; T. nusse ; W. cnau ; F. noix ; It. noce ; L. nux. 
NUTMEG, NUTMUO, *. the musked nut, a spice ; L. nux 

muschata ; F. muguette. 
NUTS, *. a gratification, an advantage; G. nuts; T. 

nutze, use, pleasure, from G. niota ; Swed. niuta ; S. 

nyltian, to enjoy. 
NUZZLE, v. a. 1 . to cherish, to foster. See NUSTLE. 

2. To ensnare, attach ; dim. of to NOOSE. 

3. To go with the nose downwards ; from NOSE. 



OHAS, in English, a long sound, as drone, groan, 
stone ; or short, as in got, knot, shot. It is usually 
denoted long by a servile a or a subjoined, as moan, 
soul ; or by e at the end of a syllable, as tone, cloke, 
sole. When these vowels are not appended, it is ge- 
nerally short, as in loll, doll ; but droll and scroll are 
exceptions. In the Gothic dialects, a, o, and u have 
been used almost indiscriminately. The pronuncia- 
tion of the negative Na and No, however, seems to 
indicate the counties in Britain where the Scandina- 
vian or Anglo-Saxon predominated. 

O, in Irish, a descendant ; I. o, ogha, perhaps from og, 
young ; but, as a possessive, it appears to be the 
English of, as formerly used in William of Cloudesly, 
Clem o' Cleugh, John o' Groat ; Isl. of; G. of; L. ab, 
anciently of ; W. ap, corresponding with T. von ; B. 
van ; F. de, as a title. 

O, interj. 1. an expression of surprise, joy or grief; G. 
and S. o ; Q. See AH. 

2. Sign of the vocative case ; L. and Isl. o; Sans, uhe ; 
P. ue. 

3. Used as a termination in burlesque poetry, to suit 
the verse. See A. 

OAF, *. 1. an elf, a changeling. See OUPHB. 

2. An idiot, a stupid person ; Swed. odftve, inept ; ofor, 
silly, imbecile, weak ; o being a negative prefix. See 

OAK, *. a tree remarkable for its durability; G. ek ; 
Swed. 6k ; D. ac ; T. eiche ; B. eike ; S. ac, which, 
like L. robur, signified this tree and strength. G. 
auka ; Swed. Ma ; S. ecan, to increase, produce, aug- 
ment, may perhaps have had reference to the acorns 
so highly esteemed by the Goths as food, correspond- 
ing with i%>i. 

OAKUM, . tow, old rope untwisted and reduced to tow 
for caulking vessels ; S. aecumbe, cecemb, cemb, comb- 
ings, refuse of hemp. 

OAR, .5. an instrument to row with; G. ar ; Isl. are; 
Swed. ar ; 8. are ; D. aare. See to Row. 

O F 

OAST, O8T, OUST, *. a kiln to dry hops or malt upon ; 
B. ast is from G. <esa, to burn ; but G. elsto ; Swed. 
elldsto, alsto ; S. celd sto, are from G. ell ; S. celd, fire, 
and sto, a place. 

OAT, s. a well known grain ; S. ate, supposed to be from 
G. ett, at ; Swed. at, food ; Heb. h Utah, was a kind of 

OATH, *. a solemn attestation ; G. ed, eid, aith ; S. ath ; 
T. eid ; B. eed, from G. and Swed e; S. ce, law, jus- 

OBKLISK, ,v. a quadrangular pillar of stone, approaching 
the form of a pyramid, and called CiAf by Herodo- 

OCEAN, *. the main sea ; *x*j ; L. oceanus ; G. eegi ; 
W. eigion. 

OCHIMY, *. a mixed metal. See ALCHYMY. 

OCHRE, *. a coarse kind of earth ; "lixj* ; L. ochra. 

ODD, a. singular, particular, uneven ; Swed. udda ; D. 
ude, singular, appear to be from G. eilt ; A. nhud, one. 
See ONE. 

ODE, s. a poem to be sung to music : P. adda ; 3 ; 
L. ode, a song ; G. odd, verse ; odda, to versify ; Isl. 
edda, a heroic poem. The Goths had fifteen kinds of 
verse, and seem to have been the inventors of that 
species where the lines terminate by similar sounds, 
generally called metre and rhyme ; which, both mean- 
ing measure or number, are equally applicable to 
blank verse. 

ODIN, *. a divinity worshipped by the Goths, corres- 
ponding with Pluto; and also a divine personage, 
who conducted a colony of Goths from Iran into 
Scandinavia; and, like Mercury, introduced magic 
and the use of letters ; G. and Swed. Odin ; S. Woden ; 
T. Wodan, Godan. 

OE ILIAD, *. a wink with the eye, a glance ; F. oeiliade ; 
L. <it n/ ni KI. 

OF, prep, concerning, among, on the part, according to ; 
G. a ; Swed. ; Isl. and S. of; G. and Swed. om. 

o o z 

OFF, ad. from, out of, separated ; G. Isl. M.G. D. T. B. 

of; S. of; if ; L. ab, anciently of; W. ap. 

OFFAL, *. waste meat, refuse, tripe; from off and. fall; 
B. qfval. 

OFFER, v. to present, propose, exhibit, attempt, sacri- 
fice; L. offero; F. offrir ; Isl. fara and boera cor- 
responded with li.fero, and are supposed to have pro- 
duced T. opfern, and Swed. offer, a sacrifice. 

OFT, OFTEN, ad.'frequently, many times ; G. opt ; Swed. 
offla ; S. oft ; T. offt, often. 

OG, OGEE, s. a kind of moulding ; P. ogive. 

OGLE, v. a. to view in fondness, to cast a wistful look; 
from L. oculnx. 

OHO, inter y. of surprise. See O and Ho. 

OIL, s. the juice of olives, fat ; AM ; L. oleum ; It. og- 
lio ; F. huile ; S. ocel. 

OINT, t). a. to smear with oil or fat ; L. ungo, undo ; F. 
ointer ; It. untare. 

OINTMENT, *. a salve ; It. untume. 

OLD, a. 1. ancient, begun long ago; G. alda; Swed. 
alder; S.eald; D. aside; 1. alt. 

2. Complete, excellent, pre-eminent ; G. aid, adlr, alt ; 
B. alder ; T. alut, alt, apparently from all, whole, en- 
tire. Old England means pre-eminent ; and the 
British Americans use Old fellow as a complimen- 
tary title. Old is still applied in Yorkshire, like pre- 
eminent, complete ; and signifies also on the whole, 

OLIBANUM, s. white incense; A. and Heb. looban; 

OLID, OLIDOUS, a. smelling strong, rank ; L. olidus. 
OLIO, s. a medley of food, a notch potch ; Sp. olla ; 

Port, olha, stewed meat; L. and It. olla, a cooking 

OLIVE, *. 1. a tree, a fruit producing oil, the emblem 

of peace ; L. oliva ; F. olive\; It. uliva. 
2. Meat farced and stewed. See OLIO. 
OMBRE, s. 1. a game at cards supposed most suitable to 

men ; L. homo, and A. imra have the same significa- 

tion, and produced Sp. hombre, a man. 
2. A kind of fish, a halibut ; L. umbra. 
OMEGA, *. the last, the ending ; literally the greatO which 

terminates the Greek alphabet. 
OMELET, *. a kind of pancake made with eggs, milk and 

herbs; F. omolette ; Arm. oumlaeth, from oum ; L. 

ovum, and laeth ; L. lac. 
ON, prep, upon ; G. on, ofan ; M. G. ana ; S. on ; D. and 

T. an; B. aan. 
ON, ad. forward, in progression ; G. an ; T. an. See 

ONCE, ad. at one time ; G. ains, corresponding with 

Arm. unities ; Port, una vez, from L. una vicis. 
ONE, a. 1. single, some, any, different; G. en, cen ; 

Swed. en, an ; M. G. ain ; S. oene ; T. ein. 
2. A person, some one, every one ; F. on, formerly ong, 

contracted from L. untisque, umisquisque, has nearly 

the same meaning with S. ceng, any or some ; but the 

Goths used an or en, our one, for a person, which ap- 

pears to have produced German man, for man sagt 

corresponds with F. on dit. 
ONION, s. a bulbous plant, a scallion ; L. wiio ; G. uni- 

on ; F. oignon. 
OOZE, s. humidity, soft mud, a gentle flow, a spring of 

water, the liquor of a tanner's vat; P. aw, ab ; G. 

aa ; S. ea ; F. eau ; L. aqua, water, cognate with vu, 


produced G. was, was, and S. eas, ise, tvces, ose, use, 
a stream ; whence S. asc, esc, isc, osc, use, corrupted 
into our ax, esk, ex, ox, ouse and us, which give 
names to so many of our rivers, and to the Yssel in 
Holland. From G. was, nos ; S. muse; Swed. 
nxBtska, we have woof, wych, wash, a flow of liquid, a 
swamp, a pool : and Port, osga ; Arm. usque ; I. uisge, 
vulgarly called whiskey, signify water or wash for 
spirits. See USQUE BAUGH. 

OOZE, v. n. from the noun ; to drop or flow gently. 

OPAL, s. a kind of precious stone ; L. opalus ; F. opal. 

OPEN, a. unclosed, uncovered ; G. open ; Swed. oppen ; 
S. and B. open ; T. ojfen. 

OPERA, s. a musical performance with scenery ; It. and 
F. from L. opera. 

OPIUM, s. the inspissated juice of poppies ; mm, sup- 
posed from ojrof, sap ; L. opium ; but the A. name 
tifyoon, signifies affecting the senses, depriving of 

OB, a masculine termination denoting agency ; adopted 
from the L., and supposed to be Scythian aor, a man, 
a male. See ER. 

OR, a. contracted from either or other; G. odr ; 6 

OR, s. 1. the first, the beginning ; G. and S. ar, soon ; 
S. ord, beginning. See FORE. 

2. In heraldry, gold ; F. or ; It. oro, from L. aurum. 

ORA, interj. now, well now; L hora; Port, ora ; W. 
orah, used in the same way, signify time, and also 
luck ; as in F. heur, which produced heureux and 
bonheur. See ARRAH. 

ORATORIO, s. It. a brotherhood at Rome, a sacred drama, 
religious music; at first was the name of a choir 
where prayers were sung ; from L. oro. 

ORANGE, *. the name of a golden-coloured fruit; L. au- 
rantium ; F. orange. 

ORCHAL, ARCHIL, properly ROCCELLA, s. a moss gather- 
ed from rocks on the shores of the Mediterranean, 
and used for a blue colour. 

OHCHANET, *. the herb anchusa ; F. orcanete ; It. area- 
net. See ALKANBT. 

ORCHARD, s. an inclosure for fruit trees ; from G. aurt, 
a plant, and gard, a garden ; Swed. drtegard ; D. ur- 
tegard ; S. ortegard : G. aurt corresponds with x'( ri >s 
and L. hortus. See WORT. 

ORCHIS, *. a plant and its root from which salep is 
made, satyrion ; o(%ts, a testicle. 

ORDEAL, *. a trial of innocence by fire ; G. urdeil, or- 
deil ; L. B. ordalium ; F. ordalie, called God's judg- 
ment by the Goths, was also used in Persia and India 
to prove female chastity. Swed. ordela ; S. ordeel ; 
T. urtheil, signified any judicial decision ; the prefix 
to dela being, in this case, the Swed. ur, final ; but 
in our word, the prefix is believed to be Chald. ur ; 
G. ar, arn, fire. 

ORDINANCE, s. a law, a rule, holy rite ; from L. ordino. 

ORDNANCE, s. cannon, artillery ; formerly ordinance, 
from L. ordo. 

ORDURE, *. filth, excrement ; F. ord, ordure ; It. ordu- 
ra ; T. ord, schord ; L. sordes. 

ORE, *. metal in its mineral state ; Swed. ore signified 
both metal and money ; T. oer ; S. ore ; B. oor, cor- 
responded with L. ees, wris. 

ORE WEED, s. shoreweed, wrack; G. eyr; Isl. eyre; S. 
ora ; Swed. or ; L. ora, the shore, the strand. 

O V E 

O Y S 

OHOAL, s. tartar or lees of wine concreted and used by 
dyers ; A. and P. khall, alkhal. See AROAL. 

ORGAN, *. a musical instrument ; t^mn ; P. arghun. 

OHOANY, s. a plant. See ORIGAN. 

ORGIES, *. drunken feasts, frantic revels ; from *{y/, 
{/<*, a festival. 

ORIENT, s. rising of the sun, the east ; L. orient. 

ORIGAN, t. an herb ; L. origanum. 

ORISON, s. a prayer, a supplication ; F. oraison, from L. 

ORK, s. a kind of fish ; L. area ; F. ourque. 

ORLK, s. in heraldry, a kind of border ; F. orle ; It. 

orlo ; L. ora, ontla. 
ORLOP, *. the deck of a ship ; Swed. oefiverlopp ; B. 

overloop ; T. overloff : B. toop, a run, walk or course. 

OHPIMENT, s. a mineral, yellow arsenic ; F. orpiment ; 

L. auripigmentum. 
ORRIS, s. 1. a plant and its flower; corrupted from L. 

irij , but sometimes from L. acorus. 
2. A kind of gold lace ; F. orris, from L. aureits. 
ORT, p/. ORTS, *. leavings, refuse of fodder ; S. over 

cets, over feedings. In Scotland the word is used for 

refuse of any kind. 

ORTOLAN, *. a small delicious bird that frequents gar- 
dens ; It. hortolano ; F. ortolan, from L. hortus. 
OSIER, OZIER, *. a kind of willow ; iri> ; but Arm. 

ausil ; F. osier, seem to be cognate with our ooze, 

near which the willow thrives. 

OSPRAV, t. the sea eagle ; corrupted from OSSIFRAOE. 
OSSELET, *. a little bone ; F. osselet, from L. ossis. 
OSSIFRAGE, s. a bird called the sea eagle ; L. ossifraga ; 

F. ossefrague. 
OSTLER, *. who takes care of the horses at inns. See 

OSTRICH, s. a large bird of the desert ; A. and P. s hoo- 

toor churz, ooshtoor churz, the camel bustard ; L. 

struthio camelus ; F. autriche ; T. strausse ; It. struzzo. 
OTAR OF ROSES, s. a perfume of roses ; A. alar, perfume, 

odour, fragrance. 
OTHER, a. different, not the same ; G. audr, adr, odr ; 

M. G. authai ; S. anther, other ; T. oder ; which in 

Swed. D. T. and B. is under, being all apparently 

from G. eda, eder, corresponding with irtftf ; F. autre, 

used in nearly the same sense, is from L. alter. See 


OTHEHGATES, ad. otherwise ; G. odrugatas. See OTHER, 

and GATE, a way. 
OTHERWISE, ad. in a different way, by other causes, in 

other respects ; G. odrunijs. See OTHER and WISE. 
OTOMAN, a. belonging to the Turks ; A. utttmm, su- 
blime, perfect. 
OTTER, *. an amphibious animal; Sans, ood ; G.otr; 

D. odder ; T. otter ; L. lutra. 
OVEN, *. an arched place for baking ; G. ofon ; Isl. ofn ; 

S. ofen ; Sclav, ogne ; Swed. ugn, ofn ; M. G. oun ; 

T. oun, ofen ; D. onn ; G.fon, and Sans, ugn, signify 


OVER, prep. above, upon, across ; G.ofar; Swed. oftver ; 

8. ofre; T. uber ; P. ubar ; Hind, upar ; ijn$; I. 

obair ; Arm. oar ; L. super. 
OVERCOME, v. a. to subdue, vanquish ; from over and 

come, corresponding with L. supero, tupereo. 

OVERT, a. open, apparent, public ; L. apertus ; It. 
uperto ; F. ouvert. 

OVERTURE, *. an opening, a disclosure, proposal, a 
flourish of music before a play begins ; L. aperlura ; 
It. tipertura ; F. ouverture. 

OUGHT, s. any thing. See AUOHT. 

OUGHT, pret. of the verb to OWE ; owed, obliged. 

OUNCE, *. 1. a beast of prey ; L. lynx ; It. lynce ; Sp. 
lince, lonce, onza ; F. once, by mistaking lance for 
fonce ; but the onca of Buffon seems to be a different 

2. A small weight ; L. uncia ; F. once. 

OUPHE, s. 1. an elf, a fairy, a sprite ; G. alf; T. auf. 

2. A name given to the bullfincn, which is also called a 
pope ; G. olpa, a priest's hood. 

OUR, pron. pass, belonging to us ; G. uar ; Isl. war ; D. 
n>or ; Swed. mar ; S. ure, the possessive of toe. T. 
unser, user, is the possessive of *. 

OUBE, OWSE, s. tanner's bark beaten small for infusion. 

See OOZE. 
OUSEL, s. the blackbird, the water starling ; S. osle ; 

T. amsel, waster amsel, a water ousel, and also a water 

rail. S. ose, water ; Swed. sdl, black. 

OUST, *. a frame to dry hops upon ; G. elsto, a fire- 
place, from eld, fire, and sto, a place. 

OUST, v. a. to cast out, vacate, take away ; G. austa, 
from G. us, ut ; T. aits ; S. uzu ; Arm. ouz. See to 

OUT, ad. abroad, not in, away from home; G. ut ; 
Swed. utt ; S. ut ; B. uyl. 

OCT, t). to expel, put forth, extend. See to OUST. 

OUTLAW, .v. a man excluded from the benefit of the law, 

an exile ; G. ullag. 
OUTRAGE, *. extreme violence, commotion ; F. oultrage; 

It. oltraggio; L. B. ultragium, from L. ultra agere. 

OWE, v. a. to be indebted to, to have to pay ; G. a, aga , 
Isl. aa ; S. ahan ; Swed. haftva ; Scot, aigh, all sig- 
nifying to own or possess, and also to be indebted 

OWL, OWLET, s. a bird that flies by night ; Sans. ooUoo; 
L. ulula ; S. vie ; D. ugle ; F. hulotte. 

OWLER, ,v. a contraband dealer in wool, a smuggler, 
from G. ull; S. uloh, wool. 

OWN, pron. poss. belonging to, possessing by right ; as 

my own, their own ; G. eegn, aihn, property, from a, 

to have, to possess; S. eegan; D. eijen ; T. eigen, 

corresponding with i. 
OWN, v. a. 1. from the pronoun ; to possess, to claim as 

one's own. 
2. To admit, assent, acknowledge; from G. ia ; T.ja- 

hen, bejahen, to say yes, to yea ; ayan, to say ay, to 

OWRE, a. wild, savage ; G. aur ; Swed. T. otter ; B. 

atver, wild. See UHE ox. 
Ox, pi. OXEN, *. a castrated bull ; G. and Swed. oxe ; Isl. 

and D. uxe ; S. oxa ; T. ochs ; M. G. auhs; Sans. 

aksha ; Arm. ouch ; W. ych ; I. agh. 

OVER, v. n. to hear, a law court for hearing appeals ; F. 

ouir ; It. udire ; L. audire. 
OYBS, v. hear ye ; F. oyez. See OVER. 
OYSTER, .v. a well known shell fish ; 'r(ir ; L. ostrea ; 

B. oester ; F. huitre. 

erf} V 


Pis a labial consonant formed by a slight compression 
of the anterior part of the lips. The Goths, like the 
Arabs, had formerly no P, although it is now com- 
mon in all their dialects ; but liable still to be con- 
founded with B, V and F. The JSolians and Osce 
transmuted the Greek T into P, as will appear at the 
former letter. The Armoricans and Welch intermute 
P, B, F, M and V, continually ; and like the Osce, 
frequently substitute P, where the Latins and Irish 
use Q, K, or C hard. KO{ and Titus were synonimous ; 
and occasionally the Latins seem to have adopted the 
Greek variation to form a slight distinction, as Coqui- 
na and Popina, a kitchen, a cook's shop. In English 
Peep seems to have been substituted for Keek, and 
Pod for Cod ; otherwise the pronunciation of it is uni- 
form, except that Ph or Greek <I> has the sound of F, 
as in Physic, Phenix. It is however mute in Receipt 
and Accompt ; but, according to modern orthography, 
in those cases it is usually omitted. 

PACE, *. a step, gait, a measure sometimes of two feet 
and a half or of three feet ; but the greater or geome- 
trical is five feet ; L. passus ; It passo ; F. pas. 

PACHA, PASHA, *. a Turkish title of honour. See BA- 

PACK, *. a bundle, a bale, a band, a set ; P. pagcha, 
bagcha ; Isl. piokur ; Swed. pack ; D. pakke ; B. 
pack ; Arm. pak ; F. pacquel ; It. pacchetto. 

PACK, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to bind up for carriage, to 
unite in bad designs, to sort cards or place them for 
unfair purposes. 

2. To dismiss in a hurry, to send away bodily, to bun- 
dle off; Swed. packa ; D. pakke ; T. packen. 

PACKWAX, s. a tendon of the neck. See WAX. 

PAD, s. 1. a path, a footway; iroirat ; B. pad; T. pfad; 
S. paath, from P. pa ; Sans, pad ; irtvf ; L. pes ; W. 
jied ; Arm. pan ; It. pede ; F. pied. 

2. An easy pace, an ambling horse. 

3. A pack saddle ; D. pude ; F. bat. See BAT. 

PAD, v. 1 . from the noun ; to pace, to go on foot, to tra- 
vel gently. 

P A I 

2. To smooth by treading with the foot. 

3. To rob on foot. 

PADAR, *. the refuse of oats; L. B. paleataru. 

PADDLE, s. a kind of short broad oar ; L. palulus, liatu- 

PADDOC, s. 1. a large frog; Isl. podda ; Swed. padda ; 
D.padde; S.pada; B. padde ; It. botta ; whence F. 
crapaud, a toad. 

2. An inclosed pasture ground ; Y.patis, from L.pastus; 
but sometimes written parrok for Park. 

PADLOCK, *. a lock with a staple and hasp ; a lock for a 
pad gate. 

PAGAN, s. a countryman, a gentile, a heathen ; L. paga- 
nus, from pagus, a village. Heathen and Gentile sig- 
nified a native inhabitant, and denoted, with the early 
Christians, one who adhered to ancient religious ob- 
servances of the country. 

PAGE, *. 1. one side of the leaf of a book ; L. pagina ; 
F. page. 

2. An attendant on a great person ; Sp. and F. page ; 
It. paggio ; L. B.puseus, either from irais, or G. poik ; 
Swed. poike, poig, a boy ; P. puegh, puek, a messenger. 
See BOY. 

PAGEANT, t>. a show, a spectacle; xtjyfuc ; L. pegma. 
Iltiya or <r%i>tt7r>)yi'ei, was the Jewish grand ceremony at 
the feast of the tabernacle ; and signified literally 
scenic ornaments and devices. 

PAGODA, PAGOD, *. an Indian temple, a coin which for- 
merly had that representation ; P. boot khoda ; Hind. 
boot kuda, the abode of God. 

PAIGLES, s. cowslips, palsy wort ; L. paralisis. 

PAIL, s. a wooden vessel open at top ; Sp. payla ; It. 
paeol; Arm. pel; L. patella. 

PAIL MAIL, a. violent, furious, in confusion. See PBL.L 

PAIN, s. a sensation of uneasiness, toil, trouble ; irwti ; 
L. pcena ; F. peine; S. pin ; Arm. poan ; W. poen ; I. 

PAINAM, s. an infidel ; F. payen. See PAGAN. 



PAINT, v. a. to colour, represent, adorn ; Sp. pintar ; F. 
peindre, from L. pingo. 

PAIR, t. two things of a sort, a couple ; F. pair; from 
L. par. 

PALACE, *. a royal or splendid house ; F. palais, fromL. 
jialalium, the residence of the Csesars on the mount 

PALANQUIN, s. a kind of covered litter carried by a class 
of people in India like chairmen ; Hind, palkee, appa- 
rently from Sans, paluk, a couch ; but perhaps con- 
founded with Sp. and Port, palanca ; L. and Greek, 
phalanga, a pole for carrying. 

PALATE, *. the roof of the mouth ; L. palatum; F. pa- 

PALAVER, *. a word, a speech, idle talk ; Sp. palabra, 
supposed to be n(CA ; but Sp. labia, labra, elo- 
quence ; Arm. laver ; W. llafar ; I. labhair, speech, 
are apparently from L. labrum, a lip. 

PALE, a. wan, colourless, faint, dim ; L. pallidtis ; F. 

PALE, *. a stake, a fence, inclosure, district, territory ; 
L.palus; F.pal; It.palio; T. pfal. 

PALETTE, *. a painter's board ; F. palette ; It. paletta, 
dim. of L. pala. 

PALFREY, PALFRY, *. a small riding horse ; F. palefroy ; 
Sp. palafren ; L. B. palafredus, palfredus : It. para- 
veredo; L. veredus ; QifiT, Qi(*>, <p*(*s, signifying a 
horse, from tp'ifu, to carry. Thus also G. fara, to go, 
produced far, German pferd, a riding horse. 

PALL, *. a cloak or mantle of state, a covering for the 
dead; L. pallium; Hind, pal; Sp. palio ; F. pocle. 

PALL, v. 1. from the noun; to cloak, to invest. 

2. To dispirit, to daunt, to make vapid or pale ; L. pal- 
leo ; It. pallido, impallido. 

PALLET, *. 1. a small mean bed ; F. pailette ; L. palea- 

2 In heraldry, a palet, a small pale or stake. 

3. A painter's board. See PALETTE. 

PALL MALL, *. a kind of game, bat and ball ; It. pala- 
maglio ; Y.palle maille, from sre'AA ; L. pila, and mal- 

PALLIARDISE, *. whoredom, fornication ; from L. pel- 

PALLIATE, v. a. to cover, to excuse, extenuate, cure im- 
perfectly ; L. B. and It. paltiare ; Sp. paliar ; F. pal- 
lier, from L. pallium. 

PALM, t. 1. the inner part of the hand, a measure of 
three inches ; L. and It. palma ; F. palme ; rakdpai. 

2. A tree having leaves expanding, like the open hand, 
which were exhibited as the emblem of victory ; L. 

PALMER, . 1. a pilgrim; perhaps for Pilgrimer ; but 
supposed to denote one who returned triumphant 
from a journey to the Holy-land, bearing a branch of 
palm-tree, which sanctioned mendicity 

2. A hairy caterpillar; from its roving like a palmer. 

PALSY, *. a privation of motion ; L. paralysis. 

PALTER, v. to err, deceive, trifle, dodge, shuffle, play 
tricks ; Sp.faltar, buldar, from L. folio : L. B. pati- 
tare, to deviate, wander, err. 

PALTRY, a. 1 . from the verb ; shuffling, tricky, despi- 

2. Ragged, shabby, mean ; T. pallrig ; F. pietre, appa- 
rently from 8. pall ; D. pialt ; Swed. pall, pallor, a 
shred, a tatter. 

PAMPER, v. a. to feed luxuriously, to glut; It pambere, 

for panbere, to eat and drink, is from L. pants and bi- 

bere ; but It. pnmpeare, pampenare, spampanare, to 

flourish, shoot out luxuriously, revel, vaunt, are from 

L. pampinus ; F. pampre, an overgrown shoot of a 

PAMPHLET, *. a printed sheet of paper stitched with 

thread, a small book; written paunflet by Caxton, 

from L. paginaJUata. 
PAN, *. a kitchen vessel, the small bone on the knee, the 

part of a gun-lock which contains the priming; Swed. 

panna ; B. panne; T. pfanne; S. ponne, panna ; 

5rTm ; L. patina. 
PANACEA, .v. a universal medicine, a kind of violet called 

heart's ease; irxi<ix,ti* ; L. panacea; F. panacee. See 

FANCY, s. a kind of violet called heart's ease ; L. pa- 

nax ; F. pensee. 
PANDER, v. a. to discover, find out, provide, pimp ; L. 

and It. pandere. 
PANDOUH, s. an Austrian irregular soldier ; Turk, pan- 

daur; Hind, pindara. 
PANE, s. a square of glass, wood or paper; L. and 

It. pagina ; F. paneau. 
PANEL, s. from PANE ; a square of wood or paper, a jury 

roll delivered in. 
PANG, t>. a. to torment, put to great pain ; S. pinion. 

See PAIN. 
PANG, s. from the verb ; extreme pain, a sudden throe : 

S. pang, venom. 
PANIC, s. a violent fright without cause ; F. panique ; 

xiiiiKtf <peZt{. 

PANNAOB, v. a. to curvet, to strut, to affect a proud 

gait ; F. paonader, panader. See PA VAN. 
PANNEL, *. a kind of rustic saddle ; It. panello, panetlo ; 

F. paneau ; B. paneel; W. panal, from L. pannus. 
PANNICK, PANNICKLE, *. a species of millet ; Coptic, 

pe n oik ; L. B. panicum ; F. panic, pants ; It. panico, 

supposed to be cognate with L. panis. 
PANNIER, s. a kind of wicker basket ; L. panarium ; 

F. punier ; It. paniere. 
PANSY, *. a kind of violet called, heart's ease ; L. pa- 

nax ; F. pensee. 
PANT, v. n. to beat at the heart, to breathe quick, to 

long ; L. B. panthelo ; F. panteler, corresponding with 

L. anhelo. See PITAPAT. 
PANTALON, *. a buffoon, the tutelar saint of harlequins, 

and a kind of breeches worn by rope-dancers ; It. 

pantalonc ; Sp. and F. pantalon. 

PANTILE, s. a large tile; from pan and tile. See PEN- 
PANTLEB, s. the officer of a great family who keeps the 

bread. See PANTRY. 
PANTOFLE, *. a slipper ; P. paonlabul, patabul, from pa, 

paon ; Sans, pann, the foot ; F. pantoufle ; Swed. and 

D. tojfel ; S. tuefie, a sock. 
PANTRY, *. a closet used for provisions ; L. B. panata- 

rium ; It. panateria ; F. paneterie, from L. pants. 
PAP, *. 1. a nipple, a teat, a dug ; L. papa, papilla ; It. 

poppa ; B. pappe ; P and T were liable to frequent 

inter-mutations. See TEAT. 
2. Food of bread boiled in water for infants, the pulp 

of fruit ; L. papo, from w*o/4tu ; S. papa ; It. pappa ; 

F. papin ; Arm. papa. 
PAPA, *. a common name for father with very young 


children ; ir<Lmc*s ; P. baba ; A. baaba ; Sans, bop ; 

L. B. papa. See ABBA. 
PAPAW, *. an Indian tree and its fruit ; Hind, pupueya ; 

F. papayer. 
PAPER, *. a substance made of rags for writing upon ; 

L. papyrus, a. rush known to the Egyptians also as 

PAPILIO, *, a butterfly ; L. papilio ; F. papillon. It is 

the same word with pavilion ; as G. and It. forfalla, 
farfalla, signify a curtain and a butterfly. 

PAPPOSE, PAPPOUS, a. downy, soft; L. B. papposus, 

from Wriro ; L. pappus. 
PARADE, s. order, ornament, pomp, show, military ar- 

ray ; F. parade ; It. parada, from L. paro. 
PARADISE, s. the garden of Eden ; Heb. and P. pardes, 

Jardes, a garden ; vagdduetf ; L. paradisus ; F. para- 

dis ; Eden, Aden, is an abode. 
PARAGON, *. a model, a pattern ; s-gy>> ; F. parangon ; 

It. paragons. 
PARAMOUNT, a. superior in rank, chief; F. paramont, 

from amonter, to ascend. 
PARAMOUR, s. a lover, a wooer ; F. par amour, per 

PARAPET, s. in fortification, a mound breast high ; F. 

parapet ; It. parapetto, from petto ; L. pectus. 
PARAPLUY, *. an umbrella to defend from rain ; F.para- 

pluie, from pluie ; L. pluvia. 
PARASOL, s. an umbrella ; It. parasole ; F. parasol, 

from L. sol. See to PARRY. 

PARBOIL, v. a. to half boil, to part boil ; F. parbouiller. 
PARBREAK, s. a vomit, a retching ; T. verbreche. See 

PARCEL, *. a small bundle, a part, a lot, a set ; L. B. 

particella ; F. parcelle. 
PARCENER, *. in common law, a joint-possession ; F. 

parsonier, parsunier, from L. pars and unire. 
PARCH, v. to scorch, dry, grow dry ; L. peraresco ; pe- 

rusing, scorched. 
PARCHMENT, *. sheepskin dressed for writing ; Perga- 

mena charta, being first used at Pergamus. 

PARDON, v. a. to forgive, pass by, remit ; F. pardonner ; 

L. perdono. 
PARE, v. a. to trim, dress, cut off the surface ; F. parer ; 

L. paro. 
PARGET, s. a kind of plaster, stucco ; F. pargette, per- 

haps from L. gypsata. 
PARISH, s. a particular district of land ; F. paroisse ; 

L. B. parochia ; TrttgtiKi'tt. 
PARK, s. an inclosed ground for deer, a sheep-fold, a 

kind of net for game ; G. park, from berga, to inclose, 

preserve ; Swed. park ; S. pearruk ; F. pare ; Sp. 

parque; L. B. parcus ; Arm. pare; W. pare ; I. 

pairc, perhaps from L. parco. 

PARK LEAVES, s. an herb called St John's wort ; L. hy- 

pericon, and leaves, 
PARLE, PARLEY, s. an oral treaty ; F. parle ; from the 

PARLEY, v. n. to treat by words, to speak; F. parler ; 

It. parlare, supposed by some to be L. Jabttlari, or 

PARLIAMENT, *. an assembly of the three estates, king, 
lords and commons, a meeting to discuss public af- 
fairs ; L. B. parliamentum ; F. parlement. 

PARLOUR, s. a room on the first floor where matters of 


business were discussed; F. parloir; It. parlatorio. 

PARLOUS, a. adventurous, keen, subtle ; mfixivris. See 

PAROLE, *. a verbal promise; F. parole; It. parola. 


PAROQUET, s. a small kind of parrot; F. paroquet; 

PARROT, *. a talking bird ; B. Greek *- ? {*x a , from 
ttfiita. The Sans, name hura, hurewa, signifies green. 

PARRY, v. a. to ward off a thrust, to guard ; F. parer ; 
It. parare ; Sp. parar. 

PARSE, v. a. to resolve a sentence by the rules of gram- 
mar ; from L. pars. 

PARSLEY, s. a well known herb ; B. petersely ; Sp. pe- 
rexil ; F.persil; L. pelroselinon. 

PARSNIP, s. a plant and its root ; L. paslinaca napus. 
PARSON, s. a clergyman, one who has the charge of a 

parish ; L. parochianus ; but P. paras signifies pure, 

holy, upright. 
PART, s. a portion, share, space ; Heb. paras; L. pars; 

Y.part; It. parle. 

PART, v. a. from the noun ; to separate, divide, share. 
PARTAGE, s. a division, a share, the act of parting or di- 

viding ; F. portage. 
PARTAKE, v. to participate, to have a share with ; origi- 

nally perhaps from portage; but confounded with 

our G. word take, of which it follows the construction. 

PARTERRE, s. even ground, a plot in a garden ; F. par- 

terre ; L. par terra. 
PARTISAN, *. 1. an adherent to a party, the head of a 

party ; F. partisan ; It. partisano. 
2. A quarterstaff; G. bardshane,a halbert; T. partisan; 

F. pertuisan ; It. partiggiana. 

PARTLET, s. 1. a ruff to the neck, a loose doublet ; It. 

parata, dress, seems to have been prefixed to lattucca, 

lattughe, a dress worn by women who gave suck. 


2. A hen with a ruff of feathers on the neck. 
PARTRIDGE, s. a bird of game ; iri$i% L. perdix ; F. 


PARTY, s. from PART ; a select assembly, one of two liti- 
gants, a detachment of soldiers ; F. partie. 

PAS, s. a step, precedence ; P. pa; F. pas ; L. passus ; 

It. passo, accord in both senses. 
PASCHAL, a. relating to the passover ; Heb. pasach ; L. 

paschalis ; F. pascal. 

PASH, s. the head, pate or skull ; P. pasch ; Scot. pash. 
PASH, v. a. to kiss, lay on, strike ; */ ; L. pango, pago; 

Swed. pussa, to buss. 

PASQUE FLOWER, s. a kind of anemone worn at Easter ; 

It. passaflora. 
PASQUIL, PASQUIN, s. a mutilated statue, near the place 

Navonna at Rome, which was famous for being co- 

vered with lampoons called pasquinades. 
PASS, v. to go, proceed, exceed, excel, surpass, termi- 

nate, vanish ; Heb. pasah ; F. passer ; It. passare ; 

Sp. pasar. 

PASS, s. from the verb ; a narrow entrance, a passage, a 
thrust through, a license to proceed, state of proce- 
dure, condition. 

PASSABLE, a. that may be passed over, tolerable ; F. 
passable ; It. passabile. 


PASSADE, PASSADO, s. in fencing, a pass, a thrust ; Sp. 

pasado; It. passata. 
PASSENGER, *. a passer, a traveller; F.passager; It. 

PASSDICE, *. a frame with dice ; It. passa, as used in 

pastime, signifies play, amusement ; but Sans, and 

Hind, pate is dice. 
PASSION, *. suffering of the mind, anger, ardour, zeal, 

lust, love ; F. passion ; It. passione ; L. passio. 
PASSION FLOWER, s. a species of clematis which has a 

flower with a cross, the mark of Christ's passion; Sp. 

pensioner a. 
PASSOVER, s. a sacrifice in commemoration of the time 

when God, smiting the Egyptians, passed over the 

habitations of the Hebrews ; Heb. pasah, pascah ; 

*'; ; L. pascha ; It. pasqua ; F. pasque, pdque. 
PASSPORT, *. a permission to pass a boundary ; F. passe- 

port ; It. passa porto, from pass and L. portus. 
PASTE, *. dough, cement ; F. paste, pate ; It. pasta ; 

L. B. pastum; L. pislum, from pinso, to knead; 

whence pistor, a baker, pastillus, a loaf. 
PASTEL, s. a colouring substance, woad ; Sp. pastel; 

F. pastel ; O. F. guasdel ; L. glaslum, frequently con- 

founded with pastil. 
PASTERN, *. the joint of a horse's foot ; F. pasturon ; 

It. pastoia, passatoia, supposed to be from L. passus. 
PASTIL, s. small pastry, perfumes or colours made up 

into small rolls of paste ; F. pastille ; It. pastiglia ; 

L. pastillus. 

PASTIME, *. sport, diversion ; It. passa tempo. 
PASTORAL, a. rural, rustic, belonging to shepherds; 

relating to the cure of souls from the spiritual pastor ; 

F. pastorale ; L. pastoralis. 
PASTY, s. a pie raised in paste ; It. pasticcio ; F. paste, 

PAT, a. fit, convenient, exact ; B. pas is used like our 

word, which seems, however, to be from It. a/to , L. 

PAT, s. a tap, a quick light blow ; F. pattee is from 

patte, a paw. 
PATACHE, *. a Phoenician vessel, a pinnace ; irtcrtutctf ; 

F. patache; Sp. patache. 
PATACOON, s. a Spanish coin, a piece of eight ; Sp. pa- 

tacon ; It. patacone ; said to have borne formerly the 

figure of a patache. 
PATCH, *. 1. a piece sewed on, a spot ; It. pezza ; Sp. 

pieza, pedazo. See PIECE. 
2. A paltry fellow, a ninny ; It. pazzo. 
PATE, *. the head, the skull ; L. patina, patella ; Sp. 

and It. patena, a skull. 

PATEN, x. a plate used at the altar ; L. patina. 
PATH, *. a footway ; ' ; S. path ; W. paith. See 


PATIENCE, s. 1. calmness under suffering, endurance, 
power of suffering; L. patienlia ', ; F. patience; It. 

2. An herb called burdock ; F. la patience ; It. lapa- 
zio ; L. lappacea. 

PATRIARCH, *. the head of a family, a bishop; **- 

T <'CXi > L- patriarcha. 

PATRIOT, *. one who professes a regard for his country ; 
; F. patriote. 

PATROL, *. a guard going the rounds ; Sp. patrula ; 
F. patroville. See PAD and ROLL. 


PATTEN, s. the foot, the base of a column, a clog shod 
with iron for women ; F. pattin ; It. pattino ; B. pa- 
tyn. See PAD. 

PATTER, v. n. frequentative of to PAT ; to drum with the 
fingers, to make a noise like hail. 

PATTERN, *. a model ; F. and Sp. patron, from L. patro. 

PA VAN, .v. a grave, stately dance ; It. pavana ; F. pa- 
vane, from L. piini. See PANNABK. 

PAVILION, s. a magnificent tent; F. pavilion ; L.papi/io. 

PAUNCH, *. the belly, the stomach of a beast ; Sp, pan$a; 
F. panse ; It. pancio ; L. pantex. 

PAW, *. the foot of a beast ; Pers. and Hind, pa ; Arm. 
and W. pare ; Sp. pata ; F. patte. See PAD. 

PAWN, *. 1. a footman, a piece at chess ; P. paan, pa 
adagan ; F. pion, pieton ; It. pedone ; Sp. peon, from 
L. pes. 

2. A pledge, a security ; L. pignus ; It. pegno ; F. pan ; 
B. pand ; Swed. pan ; F. pfand. 

PAY, v. a. 1. to discharge a debt, reward, atone; L. pa- 
care ; It. pagare ; F. payer, to satisfy. 

2. To beat, to strike ; wniu ; W. ptvyo ; L. pango, pago. 

3. To daub the seams of a vessel with pitch ; from F. 
poix ; L. pix. 

PEA, *. a well known pulse ; F. pois ; Arm. pis ; 
TTi'irot ; L. pisuin. 

PEACE, s. quiet, rest, respite from war ; F. paix ; It. 
pace ; L. pax. 

PEACH, s. a tree and its fruit ; F. pesclie ; It. pertico ; 
L. malum Persicum. 

PEACOCK, *. a fowl remarkable for the beauty of its fea- 
thers ; L. pavo. 

PEAK, *. a pointed top, the foretop of a head-dress ; S. 
peak. See BEAK. 

PEAK, v. n. to look meagre, to pine, to sneak ; L. B- 
and F. pica, loss of appetite, languor, supposed to be 
from <p0<*>. 

PEAL, *. a succession of loud sounds; D. bicel, a ring- 
ing ; B. belui, gelui, the noise of bells, from luijen, to 
ring ; G. hlio, sound. 

PEARL, s. a gem found in a shell fish, a scale on the eye ; 
A. para looloo, sea jewel ; F. perle ; Sp. and It. perla; 
T. berlein, supposed by some to be from G. her, a 
berry, synonymous with L. bacca. See MAROARITE. 

PEARMAIN, *. the name of an apple grafted on a pear. 
PEASANT, .v. a rustic, a husbandman ; F. paisan ; It. 

paesano, from paese ; L. pagus, a country, a village. 
PEAT, *. a kind of turf used for fuel ; T. pfiitze, a bog ; 

Isl pytt. 
PEBBLE, *. a hard small stone ; S. papal, apparently from 

G. and Swed. boll ; Scot, boule, a round stone. 
PECCADILLO, *. a petty fault ; Sp. peccadillo, from L. 

PECK, s. the fourth part of a bushel ; Arm. peck ; F- 

picotin, a fourth, from Arm. pezrvar, pechtvar, four. 
PECK, . a. to pick up food as a bird, to strike with the 

beak ; Sp. picar ; F. becquer ; B. bicken. See BEAK. 
PED, *. a small pack-saddle. See PAD. 
PEDANT, *. one vainly ostentatious of learning ; F. pe- 
dant, from irttibtvu. 
PEDDLE, v. n. to be busy about trifles, to pettle ; from 

PEDERERO, PEDEKETO, PATEHEHO, s. a swivel gun ; 

Sp. pedrcro, a gun to shoot stones ; from piedra ; 

L. petra. See PETRARY. 



PEDESTAL, j. the basis of a statue ; F. piedestal ; It. pe- 

destalo, from Was and rv*!. 

PEDIGREE, s. genealogy, lineage, race ; F. pied degre, 
from pied ; L. pes, a stem, a stalk, a root, a founda- 
tion, and degree. 

PEDLAR, *. one who carries a pack, a dealer in small 
wares ; Scot, pedder, from L. pes ; F. pied aller, to go 

on foot. 
PEEK, 4, the upper part of a sail extended by a gaff or 

yard. See PEAK. 
PEEL, *. 1. the rind of fruit, a membrane ; F. pelure ; 

Arm. pel; W. pill, from L. pel lit. 
2. A baker's board with a long handle to put bread into 

the oven ; F. pelle ; L. pala. 
PEEL, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to take off the rind, to 

flay; Y.peler. 

2. To rob, to plunder. See to PILL. 
PEELING, s. a kind of soft silk ; Chinese, peelam, satin ; 

B. pelang. 
PEEP, v. n. to view slily, to make the first appearance ; 

apparently the same with to keek, by changing k or c 

into p ; as pod for cod. 

PEEPER, s. 1. a young pigeon, a chicken ; L. pipio. 
2. From the verb ; an observer, a keeker. 
PEER, s. an equal, a nobleman as equal in the highest 

degree ; F. pair ; L. par. 
PEER, v. n. to come into sight, to peep, to appear ; L. 

pareo ; It. parere ; F. paroitre. 
PEERLESS, a. having no equal, matchless. 
PEEVISH, a. petulant, waspish ; It. pecchioso, pefioso, 

from pecchia ; L. apicula, a bee. See WASP. 
PEG, *. a wooden pin, a pointed stick Isl. piackur ; 

Swed. pak, pik, pigg ; D. j>ege ; a mark in liquid 

measure. See PIN. 
PEGGY, s. the dim. of Margaret, but properly a little 

girl; G. poige ; Isl. pika ; Swed. and S. piga ; D. 

pige, the feminine of G. pnik, s> hay ; from G. vg ; I. 

og, young. See POLLY and MOLLY. 
PELF, s. riches, used in contempt ; L. B. pelfra ; Norman 

F. peuffe ; Isl. pula ; Swed. pala, signify to toil, to 

slave, and G.far ; S.feo, wealth. 
PELISSE, s. a fur robe ; F. pelisse, from L. pellis, fur. 
PELL, s. a skin, hide, roll of parchment, a record ; L. 

PELL MELL, ad. jumbled together, in confusion ; F. 

pesle mesle, from L. pello and miscello. 
PELLET, *. a little ball, a bullet ; F. pelote ; dim. of L. 

PELLS, s. pi. an office in the exchequer ; from PELL, 

a record. 
PELT, s. the skin, a hide; T. pellze ; I*, pellis. See 

PELT, v. a. to hit with some missile, to strike ; F. pelo- 

ter. See PELLET. 

PEN, *. 1. a fold for cattle, a coop ; G. pind. See BIN. 
2. An instrument to write with, a quill ; L. penna. 
PEN, v. a. 1. from the noun; to coop up, inclose; G. 

pynda ; S. pyndan. 
2. To use a pen, to write, to compose. 
PENCIL, s. a small hair brush, an instrument for writ- 

ing without ink ; L. penicillus ; T. pinsel ; F. pin- 

ceau ; It. penello. 
PENDANT, s. 1. a jewel hanging in the ear, a pendulum ; 

F. pendant. 

2. A small flag in ships. See PENNANT. 

PENGUIN, *. a bird like a goose ; from L. penna: It. 
pennachio ; F. penache ; Sp. penacho, penachino, sig- 
nify the crest of a bird, or that tuft of feathers which 
is remarkable in the Magellanic goose. Pen gtvyn, 
white head, is the Welsh name for the bald eagle, 
which is quite a different bird. 

PENNANT, s. a small flag at the mast-head. See PENNON. 

PENNON, s. a long narrow flag distinguishing command; 
F. pennon, j anon, fanion; It pennone ; Sp.pendon ; W. 
pentvn : Sclav, pan ; G. fan, dominion, authority, 
produced fanon ; M. G. and Swed. fana, fania ; S. 
Jana ; T.jfannon ; B. van, an ensign. The standard of 
William the Conqueror, consecrated by the Pope, 
was called phanon. See FANE, GONFANON and 

PENNY, s. the twelfth part of a shilling, seems to have 
signified originally coin, stamped money; G. peninga ; 
D. pcenge ; T. pfening ; S. penig, apparently from G. 
p&na, pcenga ; L. pango, to bang, to coin. The Goths 
had a great and a small penny ; five of the former, 
and twelve of the latter, to a shilling ; but some sup- 
pose it to be fromjine. See FEB. 

PENNY ROYAL, *. fleawort, poley royal. See POLEY and 

PENSILE, a. hanging, suspended ; L. pensilis. 

PENSIVE, a. thoughtful, meditative, melancholy; F. 
pensif; It. pensivo, from L. penso. 

PENT, part. pass, of the verb to pen; shut up, inclosed. 

PENTHOUSE, PENTICE, *. a sloping shed ; It. pendice ; 
F. appentis, from L. pendo. 

PENTILE, s. a sloping roof; It. pendicilla ; but fre- 
quently used instead of pantile. 

PEPPER, *. a pungent aromatic, spice ; Sans, and P. 

pilpil ; ic'wfty, ; L. piper ; F. poivre ; It. pevere. 
PEPPER, v. a. to sprinkle with pepper, to make hot, to 

hit with small shot. 
PERADVENTURE, ad. perhaps, by chance; from L. per, 

and adventure. 
PERCH, *. 1. a rod, a bird's roost, a measure of five yards 

and a half; L. and It. pertica ; F. perche. 
2. A fresh water fish ; ififxn, from its dark coloured 

flakes ; L. B. perca ; F. perche. 
PERFORM, v. to execute, achieve, act a part in a play ; 

It. performare, from L. per saadformo. 
PERFUME, s. a sweet scent, a strong odour ; F. par- 
fume ; It. profumo, from I/, fumus. See FRANKIN- 

PERHAPS, ad. perchance, peradventure ; from L. per 

and hap, as mayhap, maybe. 
PERIL, s. danger, hazard, jeopardy; F. peril; It. pe- 

riglio ; L. periculum. 
PERIWIG, s. a wig. See PERUKE. 
PERIWINKLE, PERWINKLE, s. herb; F. pervenclie ; 

L. B. pervinca ; L. vinca, from its winding nature. 
2. A winkle, a wilk, a small shell fish. See WINKLE. 
PERK, v. to assume airs of consequence, to affect dis- 

play of dress, to prank. See to PRICK. 
PERK, a. from the verb ; conceited, pompous, proud. 
PERRY, s. a. liquor made from pears ; F. poire. 
PERT, a. petulant, saucy, lively, brisk ; supposed to be 

F. pret ; L. parate, ready. W. pert, spruce, neat, 

smart, is properly berth ; G. bert, fair, shining, bright. 
PERUKE, s. a wig, a periwig ; F. perrufce; It perucca ; 

P I A 

Sp. peluca : F. pelu; It. pelo ; Sp. pdo, hair, from L. 

pilus. L. B. rica, a headdress, appeal's to be from S. 

rug, rye; M. G. rih, hairy, and produced It. ricciaia, 

f'alsi- li.'iir. The two etymons may have been con- 

PERUSE, v. a. to look through, to read, to study ; L. 

PKSADE, s. an appearance of stepping, the action of a 

horse in the manege when he raises his fore feet with- 
out moving those behind ; F. passadc ; It. passata, 

from L. passus, a step. 
PESSARY, *. a tentlike form of medicine ; mav*yn ; F. 


PEST, *. the plague, pestilence ; F. peste ; L. pestis. 
PESTEB, v. a. from PEST ; to plague, disturb, perplex. 
PESTLE, *. a tool to beat with in a mortar ; It. pislello ; 

pisteau ; L. pistillum. 
PET, s. what is taken to heart, a slight fit of passion, a 

favourite; It. petto; L. pectus. 
PETAR, PETARD, *. a piece of ordnance used to force 

open a barrier, a cracker; F. petard; It. petardo, 

from F. peter ; L. pedo. 

PETIT, a. small, inconsiderable ; F. See PETTY. 
PETRARY, *. an engine to throw stones ; from L. petra. 


PETREL, s, 1. a bird called Pewetrel from its cry; L. 


2. A kind of breastplate ; It. pettorale ; L. pectoralis. 
PETROL, PETHOLIUM, *. a liquid bitumen ; L. petree 

PETRONEL, s. a small gun, a carabine ; F. petrinel, from 

L. and It. petra, a stone, a flint, distinguished from a 


PETTICOAT, s. a garment worn by women, small cloth- 
ing ; from petty and coat. 
PETTIFOGGER, s. one who litigates in trifles; from petty 

and T. fuiger, f tiger ; S. Jogere, nn arrangpr, fitter, 

suitor. See to FIT. 
PETTITOES, s. pi. the feet of a sucking pig ; D. patte is a 

PETTO, *. the breast, something reserved in the breast, 

privacy ; It. petto ; L. pectus. 
PETTY, a. small, trifling, unimportant ; It. piccietto., 

picciolello, pocheto ; Sp. pequeto, pequeno ; F. petit, 

from L. paucus. 

PEW, *. an inclosed seat in a church ; B. puy ; It, pog- 

gio ; L. podium. 
PEWET, s. a plover, a lapwing ; T. piemit ; B. kietvit ; 

Swed. kotvipe, called in the northern counties pee 

weep ; Scot, tvhape ; D. ivibe, from its cry. See 

PEWTER, *. an artificial metal; F. epeutre; It. and Sp. 

pellre ; B. piauler, speauter. See SPELTER. 
PHIAL, *. a small glass bottle ; Heb. pial; P. pyala ; 

Chald. phial ; <fi^ ; L. phiala ; F. pfiiole. 

PHILIBEO, s. a short petticoat worn by the highlanders; 

I. and Ersejiliah beg. 

PHILOMEL, *. a nightingal, a lover of song; ipA.^'A*. 
PHILOMOT, a. brownish. See FILEMOT. 
PHIZ, s. physiognomy, countenance, face. 
PHLKMK, *. a farrier's instrument to bleed cattle ; some 

suppose from phlebotomy ; but see FLEAM. 
PIANNET, *. a magpie, the lesser woodpecker ; dim. of 


PIANO, a. a mode in music, smooth, even, soft ; It piano; 
L. planus. 

PIASTER, *. a silver coin weighing an ounce; F. piastre; 
It. piaslra ; a plate of metal. 

PIAZZA, *. a portico, a covered walk ; It. piazza. See 

PICA, s. 1. the green sickness; L. B. and F. pica. See' 

to PEAK. 

2. A pie, a magpie ; L. pica. 

3. A small printing type. 

PICAROON, s. a freebooter, a robber; Sp. picaron ; F. 
picareur. See to PICKEER. 

PICCAGB, *. compensation for picking holes in the ground, 
when erecting booths at a country fair ; L. B. picca- 
gium. See PICK. 

PICK, *. a sharp pointed iron tool ; It. pico ; F. pique, 
pioche. See PIKE. 

PICK, . 1. to take, pluck, gather, pilfer; M. G.Jfgg, a 
fang, Jigger, a finger, from G.Ja, to take ; S. Jacan, 
fceccean, pceccean, to take, fetch, defraud. 

2. To prick, point out, indicate or select ; Sp. picar ; F. 
piquer ; Swed. pecka ; S. pycan ; T. pikken ; D. pege ; 
W.pi/ro, supposed to be xiy*; L. pugo, pun go ; whence 
B. puik, choice. 

3. To apply the beak, as birds. See to PECK. 
PICKBACK, a. on the top or peak of the back. 

PICKEER, v. a. to skirmish, vex, harass, pillage, rob ; P. 
pikdr ; Sp. picar ; F. picorer. See BICKER. 

PICKLE, s. 1. salt liquor, brine ; T. peckel; B. pekel, sup- 
posed to be cognate with piquant, pungent, sharp ; 
but Swed. spicke ; B. spickel, appear to be from spice. 

2. A small place, a patch of ground, situation, position ; 
L. B. pictellum, called also a pigtel. See PIECE. 

3. A tricky fellow ; Low S. pickel ; Scot, paik, from S. 
pcEcan, to trick. 

PICKLEHEKHINO, *. a buffoon ; Swed. pickflhJring ; T. 
pickelherring, from pickle, and G. garung, a buffoon. 

PICKT, a. speckled, variegated ; L. pictus. 

PIDDLE, v. n. 1. to make water, a term with children ; 
dim of puddle, as Scot, to make a dam. 

2. To triffle, to deal in small matters. See PETTY. 

3. To pick at table, to eat daintily ; B. peuzzeln, from S. 
bitel, morsel. 

PIE, . 1. a paste baked with something in it ; F. pale. 

2. A magpie ; F. pie ; L. pica. 

3. A book of devotion, a rubrick, vulgarly cock and pie ; 
S. pie ; F. pie ; L. coccus et plus. 

PIEBALD, a. spotted like a magpie ; F. pii. See BALD. 

PIECE, s. a part, patch, fragment, portion, performance, 
coin, a gun ; Heb. pax, pat, pissa ; It. pecia, pezza ; 
F. piece ; Sp. pieza, pedazo ; Arm. pess ; W. peth ; I. 
piosa ; L. B. petia, pilacium, pictatium, pedacium. 

PIED, a. parti-coloured, speckled, spotted ; F. pie, pie- 

PIELED, a. tonsured, bald ; It. pilado ; Scot, peild ; L. 

PIEPOWDER, *. a court held at country fairs for the pur- 
pose of deciding between petty dealers ; F. pie pul- 
dreau ; L. pes pulveralus, a pedlar. 

PIER, *. the column of an arch, a stone dam ; F. pierre; 
L. B. petraria, from L. petra. 

P I M 

PIERCE, v. a. to penetrate, enter by force, affect the 

heart ; F. percer ; L. perico, percieo; irii^u. 
PIG, s. I. a young sow or boar ; S. pic ; B. big; T. pitg- 

gen : G. ug ; I. og, young. 

2. A mass of metal, from the furnace. See Sow. 
PIG. v. a. 1. to bundle, go to bed ; Swed. pick is the dim. 

of pack ; but It. piegare, from L. plico, signifies to 

fold together, to bundle. 
2. To produce pigs, to farrow. 
PIGEON,*. 1. a dove, a fowl; It. piccione ; F. pigeon, 

from L. pipio, pronounced pitio, by the Osce. 
2. A dupe, a novice ; F. bejaune, becjaune, yellow beak, 

a young bird. 
PIGGIN, s. a pail with a handle ; perhaps from peak ; 

PIKE, *. 1. a sharp point, a lance; Heb. pi; P. puck; 
G. pike ; Swed. pijk ; D. pik ; T. picke ; S. piic ; B. 
piek ; F. pique ; It. pica ; Arm. pic ; W. pigg. The 
G. word signifies properly a pointed stick or pole, a 

2. A freshwater haak ; named from its pointed head. 

PILASTER, s . a small square column ; F. pilastre ; It. 
pilaslro. See PILLAR. 

PILCH, PILCHER, s. a child's robe ; S. pykhe ; T. pelts. 

PILCHARD, s. a fish like a herring ; Sp. piel ; It. pelo, 
the skin, signify also the colour, and sarda is a pil- 
chard ; F. pelamide. See SARDA. 

PILE, s. 1. a stake or piece of wood ; F. pilotis ; It. palo ; 
L. palus. 

2. A heap, a mole, an edifice, a fort ; irT^t; ; L. pila ; S. 
pil ; F. pile. 

3. Hair, the nap of cloth ; It. pelo ; F. poil ; L. pilus. 

4. A wedge or coin used to mark the escutcheon of re- 
verse on a medal ; L. pila ; F. pile. 

5. A dart, the head of an arrow ; L. pilum. 

PILES, *. pi. small protuberances called haemorrhoids ; 

L. pilulce. 

PILEWORT, s. a plant used for the piles. See WORT. 
PILFER, v. n. to steal trifling matters ; F. pilfier. See 

to PILL. 
PILGARLICK, s. a wanderer, a person without a home ; 

T. pilgarlike, from pilgar, a pilgrim. 
PILL, v. a. to take away, to rob, to plunder ; F. pilier ; 

Sp. pilar, from L. pilo. 
PILL, s. a small ball of physic; L. pilula ; It. pillola ; 

F. pillule. 
PILLAR, s. from PILE ; a column, a support; F. pilier ; 

Sp. pilar. 

PILLION, *. a woman's soft saddle ; L. pulvinus. 
PILLORY, s. a place of punishment for perjury ; F. pilier, 

pilori. See PILLAR. 

PILLOW, s. a bag of feathers to lay the head upon ; S. 
pyle; Swed. pol; ~B.peulen> ; T. pole, pool, pfulbe ; L. 
pulvillus. See BOLSTER. 

PILOT, s. one who steers a ship, a loadsman ; D. and B. 
loots, piloots ; F. pilote ; Sp. piloto ; It. piloto. See 

PIMENTA, PIMENTO, *. allspice, Jamaica pepper ; Sp. pi- 
mento ; F. piment, from L. piamentum, a remedy. 
PIMP, * a pander, a procurer, a bawd ; B. poppen, to 
fornicate, from L. pupa ; T. buib, puip, a blackguard, 
a pimp. 


PIMPING, a. little, petty, mean ; F. pimpant ; B. pimp. 

See PINK. 

PIN, s. a pointed short wire ; F. epingle, from L. pin- 
na, spinula. 
PIN, *. a peg, a point, a pinnacle, a knob ; S. pinn ; B. 

pin ; and with the Danes, like Swed. p'ag, it signifies 

a mark in liquid measures, denoting the divisions ; 

whence a peg too high, and a merry pin. 
PINCERS, s. plur. from pinch ; nippers, an instrument 

to draw nails, points. See PINCH. 
PINCH, s. a nip, a squeeze, a difficulty ; F. pince, poince ; 

Sp. pinza ; L. punches. 
PINCH, ai- tn squeeze, gripe, straiten, oppress ; Sp. pin- 

zar ; F. pincer. 
PINE, s. a tree, a kind of fir ; L. pinus, pixinus ; F. pin; 

S. pin ; Sp. pino. 

PINE, v. n. to languish with desire, waste away, con- 
sume ; G. pina ; S. pinion ; B. pijnen ; T. peinen ; 

if ilia. 
PINFOLD, s. a place in which cattle are confined. See 

PEN and FOLD. 
PINGLE, s. dim. of PEN ; a small enclosure, sometimes 

confounded with pickle. 
PINION, s. 1. a wing, first joint of the wing, a quill, a 

feather, a shackle for wings or hands ; from L. penna. 
2. A small pin, the tooth of a wheel; F. pignion ; L. 

PINK, *. 1. a flower, the colour of a pink; F. pinces, 

from pince, a point, because of its pointed leaves. 

2. From the verb; an eyelet hole. 

3. A fish, a minnow, any thing smaller young; B. pink; 
Sp. pequeno ; It. piccino, from L. paucus. 

4. A fishing vessel with a narrow stern ; D. pink ; B. 
pink ; Sp. and F. pingue ; It. pinca. See PINNACE. 

5. The summit, the point, the pinnacle. 

PINK, v. 1. to puncture, to pierce with small holes; S. 
pyngan ; L. pungo. 

2. To wink, to look with the eyes half closed ; B. pinken, 
either for beminken, or from pink, small. 

PINNACE, s. a man of war's boat; It. pinaccia ; F. 
pinasse, from L. pinus. 

PINNOCK, s. a small bird, a titmouse ; F. penache, the 
crested wren, from L. penna, a plume. 

PINT, *. a measure containing a pound of water; L. B. 
pinta ; F. pinte ; Sp. and It. pinta ; T. and B. pint ; 
S. pint; supposed to be from traa ; but wine was an- 
ciently measured by the pound in Germany. 

PINTLE, s. dim. of PIN; the rudder hook of a boat; T. 

PIONEER, s. a military man employed to sink mines or 
to clear roads; F. pionier ; It. sappionero. See to 

PIONY, s. a plant and flower formerly esteemed in me- 
dicine ; L. paeonia ; It. peonia ; F. pivoine. Minerva 
had that name from her medical power. 

PIP, s. 1. a disease among fowls ; D. pip ; Swed. pipp ; 
T. pipps, pjifs ; F. pepie ; Sp. and It. pepita, supposed 
to be L. pituita ; but apparently confounded with pip, 
a scale or wart produced on the tongue by that ma- 

2. The seed of an apple, grape or cucumber, a spot on 
cards, a dot or mark ; F. pepin ; Sp. pepita, from L. 
pepo. See PIPPIN. 

PIP, v. 1. to chirp or cry like a bird, to pule, to whine ; 
L. pipio, from w<Wf. 


2. To dot, to mark with pips. 

PIPB, s. 1. a tube, a musical instrument; Heb. bib; 

Svr. a hub ; L. ambubaia ; Arm. and W. pili ; G.pipa ; 

T. ;,/;//'; B. pype; Sp. and It. pipa ; F. pipe. L. <- 

but, twm, tibia, may be cognate with buba, biba, pi- 
pa ; for G. pipa and L. tibia alike signify a shank or 

bone of the leg. 
2. A cask of two hogsheads ; G. and Swed. pipa, nin- 

pipa ; T. pippe ; F. pipe ; It. pippa. 
3- A receptacle for papers in the exchequer, distinguish- 
ed from that of the Hanaper. 
PIPING, a. 1. the act of sounding a pipe, bubbling with 

heat. Shakespear uses hissing hot. 
2. Crying like a young bird, whining, plaintive, feeble, 

weak. See to PIP. 

PIPKIN, *. a small earthen boiler; pitkin, dim. of pot. 
PIPPIN, s. a seedling, the name of an apple ; F. pepin ; 

Sp. pepita ; D. piping ; B. pippling, from L. pepo. 
PIQUANT, a. severe, piercing, stimulating ; F. piquant- 

PIQUE, s. a point, any thing sharp or stimulating, a 

grudge, ill will ; F. pique, from L. pungo. See PIKE. 
PIQUET, *. a well known game at cards ; F. piquet, from 

pique, a point, which is the chief object in the play. 
PIRACY, s. from PIRATE ; the act of robbing on the high 


PIRATE, *. a sea robber ; iniyiriif ; L. pirata ; F. pirate. 
PJSH, interj. an expression of contempt ; T. pfech ; $iv. 

See FY and PSHAW. 
PISMIRE, s. an ant, an emmet ; P. mar ; G. maur ; Swed. 

myra ; D. mire ; B. mier, to which G. fys, bustle, 

may have been prefixed. 

Piss, v. n. to urine, to make water; F. pisser ; It. pis- 
dare ; T. pisscn ; Swed. pissa. See PIZZLB. 
PISTACHIO, s. an aromatic nut ; P. pistu ; Punic Jistaq ; 

irirtiia* ; L. pistachio ; F. pistache. See MASTIC. 
PISTE, s. the track of a foot ; Sp. pitta ; F. piste, from 

L. pes. 
PISTOL, s. a small hand gun ; F. pistole ; It. and Sp. 

pistola, supposed to be L. Jistula ; but Pistoia was 

formerly celebrated for fire arms. 
PISTOLE, *. a coin of Pistoia, an ancient republic of 

Italy ; F. pistole ; T. pistol. 
PISTBKEN, .v. a West India coin, the fourth part of a 

PIT, *. a well or ditch, a hole, a profundity ; F. puit ; It. 

pozzo; B.put ; T.puitg ; S. andD.pi*,- L.puteuf ; Wo;. 
PITAPAT, *. a palpitation, a flutter ; frequentative of PAT ; 

but formerly pintle pantle, pintledy pantledy, seem to 

have been a jingle on panl. 
PITCH, *. 1. a resin ; iri-f\, mnra ; L. pix ; G. bik ; 

Swed. beck; D. beeg ; 8. pic; T. pech ; B. pik ; 

Arm. pig ; W. pyg ; F. poix ; It. pece. 
2 A fixture, position, degree, height ; L. positio. See 

the verb. 

PITCH, v. 1. from the noun; to imbue with pitch. 
2. To fix, place, fix a choice ; F. poser, from L. ponere, 
corresponds with our word, which however may be 
formed from L. paiigo, pegi. 
.3. To toss, to throw headlong. See to PUT. 
PITCHBB, *. 1. a large earthen vessel ; F. pichier ; Sp. 

picket, puchero ; It. pittaro ; *-n'. 
'2. A large iron bar for pitching stakes. 
PITH, *. marrow, the medulla in plants, strength ; S. 
pith ; B. pitte, supposed to be from 

P L A 

PITTANCE, *. a small portion ; F. pitance; It. pittanza ; 

Sp. pitanca ; L. B. pitacium, which, according to Sal- 
masius, was the daily allowance of food to each soldier. 

PITY, s. compassion, pious sympathy ; F. pitie ; It. 

pieta ; L. pietas. 
PIVOT, *. a pin upon which a wheel turns round ; F. 

pivot ; It. pie volla ; L. pes volutus. 
FIZZLE, *. the urinary member of a bull ; S. pisel ; T. 
Jisel, from G. pios ; Swed. pes ; B. pees ; in* ; L. penis,. 
PLACARD, PLACAHT, s. an edict, manifesto, public order ; 

F. placard ; B. plakaat ; Sp. placarte : placero is a pub- 
lic place, a market, and placear, to publish. 
PLACE, t. space, locality, situation, rank ; L. B. placea ; 

F. place ; Sp. plaza ; It. piazza ; T. platz ; S. plteca ; 

L. platea ; a-A*Ti<. 
PLAGUE, s. pestilence, a state of misery ; D. T. and B. 

plage ; L. plaga. 
PLAICE, *. a flat sea fish ; L. platissa ; B. plate ; F. 

PLAID, s. an outer garment worn in Scotland ; I. plaide, 

said to correspond with T. platt ; F. plat ; nXx-rui ; but 

perhaps the same with plight, a garment. G. bliat ; 

T. plyat; F. bliant, was a kind of shawl worn by 

PLAIN, a. smooth, even, flat, open, without ornament ; 

F. plain ; L. planus. 

PLAINT, s. lamentation ; F. plainte, from L. plango. 
PLAIT, v. a. to fold, braid, weave ; L. plecto. 
PLAN, s. a plot, form, model, scheme ; Sp. and F. plan, 

from L. planus, signifies a smooth surface on which a 

design was traced. See PLOT. 
PLANE, *. a level surface, an instrument for smoothing 

wood ; Sp. plana is also a mason's trowel, from L. pla- 
PLANK, *. a strong thick beard ; F. plain-he , It. pala/i- 

ca ; Arm. plank ; W. plang ; Swed. planka ; D. and 

T. plan lit- ; L. planca. 
PLANT, s. a vegetable production, an herb ; L. planta ; 

F. plante ; T. pjlanlz. 
PLANTAIN, s. an Indian plant with broad leaves, and its 

fruit ; a medicinal plant, ribwort ; F. plantaine ; L. 

PLASH, *. 1. a marshy place ; B. plus, plasch, from L. 

2. The tender branches of trees partly cut and interwoven 

to form a fence ; F. plisse ; L. plicalio. See PLEACH. 
PLASTER, s. a substance to cover walls, a salve for a 

wound; F. piastre, plat re ; K.plaesler; T. pflaster ; 

L. emplastrum. 
PLASTRON, s. a plate or thin piece of metal, for which 

stuffed leather is now used, in fencing ; F. plastron ; 

It. piastrone, from srAafc. 
PLAT, s. a smooth surface, a small piece of ground; T. 

platt ; F. plat ; -Aarv;. 
PLATE, *. a piece of metal beat into breadth, wrought 

silver, a shallow vessel to eat off; F. plat ; It. piatla ; 

S. plat ; B. plate, from a-AetTw. 
PLATFORM, *. from PLAT ; an horizontal plain, a frame of 

timber ; F. plaleforme. 
PLATOON, *. a ball, a small division of musqueteers ; F. 

peloton, from L. pila. 

PLATTER, s. from PLATE ; a large shallow dish. 
PLAY, w. to frolic, wanton, game, sport, to act a part, 

gesticulate, practise delusion; T. belaichen ; M. G. 

liilaikan ; S. plcgan ; from G. leika ; Swed. leka ; D. 

leege; S. lacan ; T. laic hen ; O. E. lake. See BILK. 

P L U 


PLEA, *. an allegation, the act or form of pleading ; O. 

F. plaid ; B. pleit. See to PLEAD. 
PLEACH, s. a fence made of interwoven branches ; L. 

plicatio ; F. plisse. See PLASH. 
PLEAD, v. a. to discuss, argue ; B. pleiten ; F. plaider ; 

It. piatire, from L. placet, it is decreed, which pro- 
duced L. B. placito, to quote decrees or precedents, to 

moot, to discuss legally. 

PLEASE, v. to delight, give satisfaction ; Sp. placer ; It. 
" piacere ; F. plaire, from L. placeo. 
PLEDGE, *. a security, pawn, hostage; L. B. plegium; 

F. pleige, perhaps for plightage. 
PLEDGE, v. a. from the noun ; to pawn, to give security, 

engage to drink ; F. pleiger. See to PLIGHT. 
PLEDGET, *. a piece of lint for a wound ; B. pluisje ; L. 

B. plumatio, from L. pluma. 
PLENTY, s. abundance, fulness, fruitfulness ; L. plenitas, 

from itbiti. 
PLEVIN, s. an assurance, a security ; F. pleuvlne, from 

plever, pleger ; L. B. plegiare, to pledge. 
PLIERS, s. pi. a small kind of pincers used to ply or bend 

thin metal. 
PLIGHT, v. a. to engage, condition, pawn, pledge ; Swed. 

pligta, plickta ; S. plihtan. See to PLEDGE. 
PLIGHT, *. 1. from the verb ; condition, position, state, 

case, pledge, sacred engagement. This word has been 

erroneously confounded with B. pligt, plicht, an office, 

a duty, from pleegen, to ply, to exercise. 

2. A braid, a fold ; L. plicatio. 

3. A cloth, a loose outer garment called a placket ; G. 
and Swed. plagg ; B. plagghe ; Scot, plaik. 

PLINTH, *. the square base of a column , o-A/rfo. 
PLOD, v. n. to drudge, to study laboriously ; B. ploegen, 
to.plough, to labour, signifies also to pore over a book 
or plan. 

PLOT, *. a plat or smooth surface, a spot of ground, a 
bed in a garden, a design, scheme, stratagem, conspi- 
racy. From this word, which seems to be properly 
plat, the F. complot has been formed. See PLAN. 
PLOVER, s. the lapwing, a bird; F. pluvier ; It. pivieu, 

from L. pluvialis. 

PLOUGH, v. a. to turn up the ground, to furrow ; A. 
Julah ; Heb.falafi ; G. jHya, floja, ploja ; Swed. ploy a ; 
B. ploegen. 

PLUCK, v. a. to pull with violence, snatch, take off fea- 
thers; Swed. luka ; S. lyccan, aluccan, pluccian j T. 
pflucken ; B. plocken ; D. plukke ; Swed. ploeka ; F. 
phicher ; It. piluccare. See to LUG. 
PLUCK, *. 1. from the verb; a sudden pull, a snatch. 
2. The lights, liver, and heart of an animal ; G. lugu. 


PLUG,*, a stopple to drive in, a bung ; G.fieyg; Isl. 
fligur; Swed. pligg, plugg ; D. plyg ; E.plugge; T. 

PLUM, s. a fruit with a stone ; D. blomme ; S. plume ; 
T. pjlaume, perhaps from what we call its bloom or 
blue colour ; but B. pruim, from L. prunum, is pro- 
bably our word. 
PLUM PUDDING, *. a pudding with plums, for which 

dried raisins are now substituted. 
PLUMB, s. a leaden weight, a plummet ; F. plomb ; L. 


PLUMB, v. a. to sound, to search for the bottom with 
line and plumb, to regulate or adjust by the plum- 

PLUMP, ad. with a sudden fall, perpendicular like a 
mason's plummet. 

PLUMP, a. round, fat, sleek, smooth : some suppose 
from the noun ; but B. vol op is fulness, rotundity. 

PLUMP, v. a. to fatten, swell, become sleek ; from the 

PLUMP, *. a lump, cluster, tuft, ball ; Swed. plump ; B. 
plomp. See CLUMP. 

PLUNDER, v. a. to pillage, rob hostilely ; Swed. plundra; 
D. plyndre ; T. and B. plunderen. 

PLUNGE, v. to dive, to immerse, to flounce, to hurry in- 
to distress ; F. plonger, in which sense the Germans 
use plump. See PLUMB. 

PLUNGEON, s. from the verb ; a diver, a kind of water 
fowl ; L. mergus. 

PLUNKET, s . a bluish colour ; blunket, from blue. 

PLUSH, *. shag, a rough cloth ; L. pilosus : It. peloso ; 
F. peluche ; D. plys. 

PLY, v. 1. to bend, fold, plait; Heb. palac ; L. plico ; 
Sp. pliego ; Arm. pliga ; W. plyga ; F. plier. 

2. To work assiduously, to exercise strenuously, to soli- 
cit with importunity ; Isl. plaga ; Swed. plcega ; D. 
pleje ; B. pleegen ; T. pjlegen ; S. plegan, apparently 
from G. lag, a custom, usage, habit, or regular occu- 

POACH, v. 1. to boil eggs by throwing them out of the 
shell into hot water, by which they are formed into 
globules or pouches ; F. packer. 

2. To stab, to stick. See to POTCH. 

3. To catch game furtively, to bag hares ; F. packer, 
from pocke, a pouch. 

4. To become sloppy or miry. See PODGK. 

POCK, *. the pustule of the small pox, a boil, a bubo, a 
poke or pouch of matter; S. poc, a disease called 
bladder in Germany. 

POCKET, s. a small bag in clothes ; S. pocca ; F. pochette. 
See POKE and POUCH. 

POD, s. a seed vessel, capsule, husk. See COD. 

PODGE, *. a puddle, a mire, a plash, a bog ; T. pfulze ; 
It. pozetto, paude, palude, from L. palus, paludis. 

POIGNANT, a. stimulating the palate, sharp, severe ; F. 

POINT, s. a sharp end, indivisible part of time, punctilio, 
preciseness, a stop in writing; L. punclum ; It. punto; 
F. point ; W. pwynt. 

POISON, *. venom, what destroys life ; L. potio, potiona- 
tum were used in this sense ; but L. B. piso, poscio, 
seem to have been, like It. tosco ; Sp. tosigo, from 
! ; L. toxicum, venom. The Osce substituted P 
for the Greek T, as Paous for Txu ( , Petor for Tewp. 

POIZE, *. weight, balance, equipoise ; It. and Sp. peso ; 
F. poids, from L. pondus. 

POKE, s. 1. a small bag, a pouch ; B. poke. See POUCH. 

2. A projecting point, a stake ; Swed. pak ; Isl. pieck. 

POKE, v. a. to thrust, to feel about with some long point- 
ed instrument ; D. pake ; Isl. piecka. See to POTCH. 

POKEB, *. a poking iron for stirring the fire. 

POLE, s. 1. a rod, a perch, a long staff, a measure of five 
yards and a half; S. pole ; Arm. paol ; W. pawl ; It. 
palo ; F. pal ; L. palus. 

2. The extremity of the axis of any spherical body ; 
a-A{ ; L. polus ; F. pole. 

3. A native of Poland; Sclav, and Tartar Pol, a country, 
a pfitin. 


p o s 

POLECAT, s. the foul cat, the fitchet; P. pul, pulan; 

<?*$*<. See FITCHET. 
POLEY, *. the herb fleawort ; L.pulegium ; F. pouliot ; T. 

POLICK, s. regulation, laws or government of a com- 

munity ; F. police. See POLICY. 
POLICY, s. the act of government, mode of regulation, 

art, stratagem, a written document for some public 

institution ; L. politia ; F. police ; a-AiT<*. 
POLISH, v. a. to smooth, refine ; L. polio ; F. polir. 
POLITURE, *. polish, gloss, lustri- ; F. polititre, from 

POLITY, s. civil constitution, form of government. See 

POLL, t. the head, a register of heads or voters at an 

election ; S. poll ; B. bol, pol. Bol is said to have been 

a Scythian word, synonymous with P. hill ; G. kvl ; 

S. coll, the head; and by the usual intermutation of 

k and p, may have become pol. From G. Icul, T. 

kulter, kolter, kolster, a bolster, seems to have been 

produced, L. culcitra. 
POLL, v. I. to lop the heads or upper part of trees, to cut 

short, to shear or trim the poll. 
2. To insert on the poll as a voter. 
POLLARD, *. 1. a tree polled or lopped. 

2. A fish ; from its poll or head. See CHUB. 

3. The finer bran of wheat ; L. pollen. 
POLLENGER, *. an old pollard, the brushwood lopped 

from it. 

POLLEB, s. one who votes at a poll. 
POLLOCK, *. a fish, a pollard ; L. asellus niger. 
POLLY, t. a girl's name, used as a dim. of Mary ; L. 

puelia or pauxilla, a small female ; but G. pigele, poik- 

ele, a little girl, is the fern, of poik, a boy. See PEG- 

POLTBON, s. an idle lazy fellow, a coward ; It. poltone, 

poltrone ; F. poltron ; Sp. poltron. Dante used poltro 

for a couch, and Sp. silla poltrona is a stuffed chair ; 

poltrona, in Sp. and It. an idle wench. The name 

seems to have been cognate with Pillow or Bolster, 

T. polster ; and not, as Ferrarius supposes, from L. 

poltex truncatus. T. polster ritter was a poltron. 
POMATUM, s. ointment for the hair, a fragrant unguent ; 

It. jwrnala ; F. pomade : Sp. pomada ; L. B. pomvm 

medtcatum, a perfume ball. 
POMMEL, s. a round knob, a ball ; F. pommette, pom- 

meau ; It. potnolo, from L. pomum. 
POMMEL, v. a. to pound with the knuckles, to beat, to 

bruise ; F. poigneler, from L. pugnus, the fist. 
POMP, s . ostentation, splendour, pride ; xtpurii, a divine 

spectacle ; L. pompa ; F. pompe. 
POMPION, s. a large kind of melon, a pumpkin ; F. pom- 

pon ; inittn. 
POND, s. a pool, a small lake, a dam ; like pound, it sig- 

nifies an inclosure ; Sans, bundh, an embankment. 

In the same way D. park is synoynmous with our 

pond, as a reservoir for water. 
PONDEB, v. a. to weigh maturely, consider ; L pondero : 

P. pundar, is thought, but has a different source. 
PONENT, a. western, the setting sun ; It. ponente, from 

L. pono. 

PONIARD, s. a dagger ; F. poignant ; L. pugiu. 
PONTON, *. a floating bridge, a raft of boats ; F. ponton, 

from L. pans. 
PONT, . a small horse ; Arm. and W. paun, little, and 

each, a horse ; L. B. paulinus equus. 

POOL, *. 1. a small lake ; III. poll ; Swed. pul ; S. pul ; 

B.poel; T.pfuhl; Arm.pouU; W.ptvl; L. palus. 
2. Several stakes at cards put together ; F. poule, a sit- 

ting hen. 

Poop, *. the stem of a ship ; L. puppis ; F. pouppe. 
POOR, a. indigent, mean, lean ; F. pauvre ; It. povero ; 

L. pauper. 

POOB JACK, POOR JOHN, *. salted haak or jack. 
POP, s. a small quick motion, a sudden sound ; D. nuf; 

F/* f 

Paf, pauf. 

POPINJAY, *. a parrot, a woodpecker, a kind of jay ; 

Sp. papagoy ; It. papagallo ; T. papagay ; B. pape- 

gay .- A. babagha ; Hind, pope, a parrot. 
PORCELAIN, *. 1. a fine stone ware, china ; L. B. por- 

cellus ; F. porcelaine, was a name given to the insect 

called the lady bird, and afterwards to a coloured 

shell resembling china ware. See POZZOLANO. 
2. Purslain, a pot herb; F. porcelane; It. porcelano ; 

L. portulaca. 
POBCUPINK, *. a kind of large hedgehog ; L. porous 

spinosus ; It. porcospino ; F. pore epic. 
PORE, v. n. to look with great intenseness ; Sp. ojar, 

perojar, from L. B. oculare : vctyiu, i^tga*, to observe. 
PORE, s. a small spiracle or hole ; L. poms ; F. pore. 
PORPOISE, PORPUS, *. a sea hog ; L. porcus piscit ; F. 

pore poisson. 

POBBET, *. a small leek ; L. porrum ; F. porreau. 
POBBINGEB, POTINGEB, *. a vessel for pottage or spoon 

POBT, *. 1. a harbour, a haven ; L. portus ; F. port. 

2. A gate, a door ; L. porta ; F. porte. 

3. Carriage, mien, countenance ; F. port, from L. porto. 

4. Wine from Oporto. 

POSTAGE, s. the price of carriage ; F. portage, from L. 

POBTAL, s. the door of a castle, a gateway ; It. portella ; 

F. portail. 

POBTANCE, 3. carriage, demeanour ; from POBT. 
PORTASS, POBTESSE, PoBTHUis, s. & breviary, a prayer 

book ; from L porto, and tv^Hf, prayer. 
POBTCULLIS, .v. a sliding gate at the entrance of a castle ; 

F. port coulisse. 

POBTGLAVE, s. a sword-bearer. See GLAVE. 
POBTBAIT, PORTRAITURE, s. a picture, a drawing from 

real life ; F. portrait. See to PORTRAY. 
PORTRAY, v. a. to draw, delineate, paint ; F. portraire, 

from L. Iraho, to draw ; traclus, a feature, lineament. 

POSE, v. a. to put to a stand, to oppose, examine, puz- 

zle ; F. poser, from L. pono, posui. The word de- 

noted the putting of questions at schools. See to 

POSSET, s. the serous part of warm milk when curdled 

with wine or acid ; from F. poser, to settle ; L. po- 

POST, A. 1. a station, situation, place, stage; It. posto ; 

F. paste ; L. positus. 

2. A courier, a person travelling from stage to stage 
with fresh horses ; It. posta ; F. paste, a fixed stage. 

3. A piece of timber set erect ; L. postis ; F. posleau ; 
T. pfoste. 

POSTERN, *. a back gate, a small door ; F. poster ne, p6- 

terne ; L. poslerinus. 
POSTIL, *. a marginal note, a gloss ; F. postille, apot- 

tille ; It. appostula ; L. apponta. 

P O U 

P R I 

POSTILION, s. the driver of a post-chaise who rides one 

of the horses ; F. postillion ; It. postiglione. 
POSY, POESY, s. the motto on a ring or a nosegay ; L. 


POT, s. a vessel for boiling meat, a crock, a drinking 
can ; G. pott ; Swed. potta ; D. potte ; B. F. and Arm. 
pot. Boat, Butt and Pot are supposed to have a com- 
mon origin, signifying, like Sans, pot, a hollow vessel. 
POT, v. a. 1. to put in a pot. 
2. To preserve in pickle ; O. F. boter, supposed to be 

from L. buo. See POTASH. 
POTARGO, *. a West India pickle prepared with caviare 

and fruits. See BOTAKGO. 

POTASH, s. a lixivium of vegetable ashes boiled till it 
becomes solid ; T. bod asche ; B. potasch ; F. potasse. 
O. F. boter, to wash, to soak, is supposed to be from 
L. buo, imbuo. See to BUCK and ASHES. 
POTATION, s. a draught, a drinking bout ; L. pot at M ; 
but sometimes denoting malt liquor as taken from a 
POTATO, *. a well known esculent root ; called batata in 

South America. 

POTCH, v. a. 1. to thrust, to stir with a pointed instru- 
ment; Swed. pala, potta ; Scot. pole. See to POKE. 
2. To boil eggs in a particular manner. See to POACH. 
POTHER, s. a bustle, tumult, flurry ; D. bolder ; T. pol- 
der, poder, turmoil, uproar ; I. bodhram, to disturb, 
perplex. See BOTHER. 
POTTAGE, s. from POT; any thing boiled, decocted food ; 

F. potage. 
POTTER, s. who makes pots or earthen vessels; F. 


POUCH, *. a small bag, a pocket, a belly, a paunch ; G. 
posk ; T. putske ; S. pusa ; D. pose ; F. poche. See 
POVERTY, *. indigence, want, meanness ; F.pauvrete; 

L. paupertas. 
POULT, s. a young chicken, a chick ; F. poulet, from L. 

POULTERER, s. from POULT ; one who sells fowls ready 

for dressing ; F. poultier. 
POULTICE, *. a cataplasm of pulse ; 7eXrs ; L. puls ; F. 


POULTRY, s. from POULT ; all sort of domestic fowls. 
POUNCE, s. 1. the talon of a bird of prey; It. ponzo; 

Sp.punzon; L. punctus. 
2. A gum powdered for smoothing paper, for which 

pumice was originally used ; F. ponce ; L. pumex. 
POUNCE, v. a. 1. to seize with the pounces or talons, to 

pierce or puncture the skin. 
2. To sprinkle with pounce. 

POUND, s. 1. a weight, a denomination of money weigh- 
ing originally so much in silver ; P. bund ; G. Swed. 
D. and S. pund ; T. pfund ; B. pond ; W. punt ; L. 
and It. pondo. 
2. An inclosure, a pinfold, a prison ; G. pynd ; S. 

pund; T. peunt. See PEN. 

POUND, v.a. 1. to shut up, to inclose in a pound. 
2. To beat with a pestle, to bruise by weight ; S. punan, 

from L. pondo. 

POUR, v. to flow, to stream, run out forcibly as water, 
fall heavily as rain ; W. burrw, apparently from L. 
rtto; uiroffva. 

POUT, *. a young pheasant or heath fowl ; from its re- 
semblance to a poult. 

POUT, v. n. to look sullen, to push out the lips in ill hu- 
mour ; F. bouder, bouter ; S. butan, to project or swell 

POWDEII, s. fine dust, dust of starch for the hair, gun- 
powder ; It. pulvere ; F. poudre ; L. B. pulvitura, 
from L. pulvis. 

POWER, s. might, strength, ability, authority, influence, 
command, military force, a potentate ; F. pouvoir ; 
Sp. poder, from L. pote, potestas. 
Pox, s. pi. of POCK ; pustules, the venereal disease. 
POY, s. a rope-dancer's pole ; Sp. appoyo ; F. appuy ; 

It. appogio, poggio, from L. podium. 
POZZOLANA, s. a kind of earthen ware, a stone cement 
found at Pozzuoli, anciently Puteoli, a town in Italy. 
PRACTICE, s. habit, custom, use, method, art ; F. pra- 
tique ; L. practica. 

PRAISE, *. commendation, fame, renown ; Swed. D. B. 

and T. prys, apparently from G. hrose ; Isl. hrois ; 

Swed. roos; D. roes ; Scot, roose, berose, laud, fame; 

but confounded with prize, from L. pretium. 

FRAME, s. a flat-bottomed boat; G. pram, a raft; B. 

praam ; F. prame. 

PRANCE, v. n. to move in parade pompously, to caper as 
a war-horse, to take airs of pretension ; D. prange ; 
T. prangen ; B. pronken. 
PRANK, v. a. from PRANCE ; to frolic, decorate, adorn, to 


PRATE, v. n. to chatter, to talk carelessly ; Swed. prata ; 
D. prate ; B. praaten, apparently from G. rceda ; T. 
reden, bereden. 

PRATIQUE, *. a license for the master of a vessel to trade 
in the ports of Italy and Spain; F. pratique; It. 
practica, from x^d-fla. 

PRAWN, *. a large kind of shrimp, n^ttia, according to 
Hesychius, was synonymous with {/?, a locust or 
lobster, and may have produced It. parnocche. 
PRAY, v. to offer up prayer, to intreat ; F. prier ; It. 

pregare ; L. precor. 
PREAMBLE, *. a preface, introduction ; F. preambule, 

from L. preambulo. 
PREBEND, s. a stipend in a cathedral church ; F. pre- 

bende, from L. prebeo. 
PREMIER, *. the chief person, the prime minister ; F. 

premier , L. primior. 
PREROGATIVE, s. an exclusive privilege ; L. B. preroga- 

tiva ; F. prerogative, from L. pre and rogo. 
PRESS, v. a. to squeeze, crush, urge; L. presso ; F. 

PHEST, s. a loan or advance, a duty paid by the sherifT; 

F. prest, pret, from L. prassto. 
PRESTO, ad. quickly, at once, soon; It. presto; F. 

preste, from L. prwslo. 

PRETTY, a. neat, proper, pleasing, elegant; G.frida, 
pryda ; S.prcete ; B. fraitje ; W. prydus. G. frida 
srveina ocjagrar meyar, pretty swains and fair maids. 
PREY, s. spoil, plunder, depredation; F. proie ; L. 


PRICK, v. 1. to pjerce, spur, pain, puncture, make acrid, 
note down with a style ; G. brydga ; Swed. pricka ; 
D. prikke ; S. prician ; B. priken. See to PRINK. 
2. To affect fine airs, to dress smartly, look priggish ; 

D. praegte ; T. prycken ; B. pryken. See PRIG. 
PRICKET, s. a buck in his second year, whose horns re- 
semble a prick or point. See BROCKET and SPIT- 


PniCKWDOD, s. a tree used for skewers, the spindle tree ; 
L. mi >n i/ m us. 

PRIDE, s. inordinate self-esteem, ostentation, insolence, 
dignity, a state of tumidity ; G.prud; Swed. pryd; 
S. prude. See PROUD. 

PRIEST, s. one who officiates in sacred ceremonies ; 
rfifGirrifoi is an elder or senator ; whence L. presbi- 
Icr ; F. prebstre, prestre, prctre ; B. priester ; S. 
preost. P. perest was a minister of Perez, the wor- 
ship of fire, from which the Persians had their name. 

PRIG, v. to take unfairly, to steal cloth as a taylor ; G. 

PRIG, s. a pert saucy little fellow. See to PRICK. 

PRILL, PEARL, s. a flat fish; T. pfreille. See BRILL. 

"PRIM, a. formal, precise, affectedly nice ; O. E. frim ; 
G.frem,prim; D.frum; T.frdmm; S.freme, cor- 
rect, devout, demure. 

PRIMAGE, s. the freight of a ship; from L. and It. 
premo, to press, to load. 

PRIME, a. first, best, excellent; L. primus. 

PRIME, v. a. to prepare, to put powder in the pan of a 
gun, to lay the ground on a canvass to be painted ; 
F. primer, imprinter, in this case, signifies also to pre- 
pare cloth for receiving colour. 

PHINCOCK, PRINCOX, *. a young coxcomb ; from prink, 
affected, and cox, a fool. 

PRINK, . to dress for show, to prank. See to PRICK 
and PRANK. 

PRINT, s. a mark made by a stamp, a picture from an 
engraving by impression ; B. printe ; Sp. prenta ; 
It. imprenta ; F. empreinte, from L. premo. 

PRISON, s. a gaol, a place of confinement ; F. prison ; 
It. prigione ; Sp. prlsion : G. prisund ; S. prisun ; T. 
prisun ; F. prise ; It. presa, capture, from L. prendo. 

PRISON BARS, s. a game with boys in which they strive 

to touch each other before they reach the goal. See 

PRIVET, s. an early shrub ; F. primvert ; L. primus 

PRIVY, a. clandestine, secret, private; F. prive ; L. 

PRIZE, s. 1. value, reward, estimation, price, premium ; 

L. pretium ; F. prix ; T. preiss. 
2. Acquisition, booty ; F. prise ; It. presa, preda ; L. 

PROFILE, s. the edge, the side face, an outline ; It. pro- 

Jilo ; F. prqfil, from "L.Jilum. 
PROFIT, *. gain, advantage, proficiency ; F. profit ; It. 

prqfitto j L. prefect us. 

PROG, v. n. to steal, shift for provisions. See to PREY 

and to PRIG. 
PRONG, *. a point, the branch of a fork ; G. prionn ; 

Swed. pren, a point. 
PROTOCOL, *. the first copy of a deed, the title at the 

top of a leaf; F. protocole ; -JTXXX. 

PROP, *. a support, a stay, a rest ; F. pour appui ; Sp. 
par apoyo, from L. pro and podium. 

PROUD, a. arrogant, haughty, splendid, ostentatious, 
tumid, exuberant ; G. and Swed. prud; S. prul ; B. 
firutz. See PRIDE. 

PROVE, r. to evidence, show, try ; L. probare ; Sp. pro- 
bar ; It. provare ; F.preuver; G. prof a ; Swed. 
profna ; D. prone; T. prujj'en ; B. proeven ; S. 

P U L 

PROVENDER, s. dry food for brutes, hay and corn ; P. 

provende ; It. provenda, from L. proventtts. 
PIIOVOST, *. a chief magistrate, the head of a college, 

the inflicter of punishments in an army ; F. provoit, 

prevot ; It. provosta ; Sp. prebotte ; T. proost ; 8. 

profust ; L. prcepositus. 
PHOW, s. the head of a ship ; Sp. proa ; F. proue ; L. 

PROWESS, s. bravery, military valour ; Sp. jproeza ; F. 

prouesse, from Sp. and It. pro ; V. pru ; L. probus. 
PROWL, v. to rove in quest of prey, to plunder; F. 

proioler. See PREY. 
PRUDE, s. a woman affectedly nice ; F. prude, feminine 

of pru ; L. probus. 
PRUNE, *. 1. a dried plum ; F. prune ; It. prugno ; L. 

prunus ; icejmi. 
2. An exuberant shoot of a tree ; O. E. proyne ; F. 

provin, from L. propago. 
PRUNE, v. a. from the noun ; to lop off useless shoots or 

PRUNELLO, *. 1. a kind of brown stuff worn by the 

clergy; L. B. brunella. 

2. A large kind of plum ; Sp. brugnola ; F. prune de 

3. A wild plum ; F. prunelle, from prune. 

PHY, v. n. to peep narrowly, inspect closely; Sp. ojeo, 

from L. oculus, signifies among sportsmen the act of 

looking out sharp for game, perojar, to observe ; as if 

per eye. 

PSALTER, s. a book of psalms ; 4>**>i{'- 
PSALTERY, s. a harp used for psalms, from ^aXA*. 
PSHAW, interj. expressing dislike ; Sp. psha. See PISH. 
PUCELAGE, *. the state of virginity, maidenhood ; F- 

pucelage from pucelle ; It. pnlcella ; L. B. paulicilla ; 

L. puella, a virgin. 
PUCK, s. a supposed spirit, a fairy, an imp ; G. puke ; 

Swed. puken ; T. puk ; Scot, puck, pucken. 
PUCKER, v. a. to bag out, to corrugate, to fold loosely ; 

from poke, a bag. 

PUDDER, s. a pother, a tumult, a stir. 
PUDDING, s. 1. a gut or intestine, a coil of cordage ; A. 

baton ; Heb. beten ; F. boudin ; Sp. pudin ; W. polten ; 

L. botlellus : It. budello. 

2. Compound food boiled up in a gut or tegument. 
PUDDLE, s. a dirty splash of water ; It. padule, palude ; 

L. palus. 

PUET, s. a bird. See PEWIT. 
PUFF, *. a quick blast of wind, any thing blown up or 

porous, ostentatious praise ; P. puf, breath, blast ; 

Sans, pu, wind; B. pof; Sp. bufo; F. bouffe ; F. 

bauffee ; Scot, biiffie, inflated. 
PUFFIN, *. a water fowl which makes a pttffing noise 

when caught. 

Puo, *. a Dutch dog, a monkey; so named from its sup- 
posed resemblance to a puck or imp. 
PUGH, interj. expressing contempt. See Fon. 
PUISNE, a. younger, inferior, after-born ; F. puts ne ; 

L. postque nut us. 
PUISSANCE, *. valour, power, strength ; F. puissance; It. 

potenza ; L. potentia. 
PUKE, v. n. to vomit, cast up ; T. spucken ; B. spugen. 

See to SPEW. 
PULE, v. n. to cry like a chicken, to whine ; F. fooler, 

piauler ; It. pipolare, pigolare ; L. pipilo. 


PULICK, s. an herb ; fleawort ; L. pulegium. 

PULL, v. a. to draw forcibly, extirpate, eradicate ; S. 

pullian ; B. op haulm. See to HAUL. 
PULLET, *. a young hen ; F. poulet ; L. pullus. 
PULLEY, *. a wheel for a running cord ; F. poulie ; It. 

polea, from tra>.iu. 
PULSE, *. 1. the beating of an artery; L. pulsus , Sp. 

pulso ; F. pouls. 

2. Legumes, beans, peas ; L. puls. 

PUMICE, s. a spungy fossile stone ; L. pumex ; F. ponce. 
PUMP, s. an engine to draw up water ; ropx-ai ; F. pompe ; 

Sp. bomba ; B. and T. pompe ; D. pomp. 
PUN, s. a quibble, equivocation, a ludicrous turn of 

words ; L. punctum ; F. pointe ; met. subtility. 
PUNCH, *. 1. a pointed instrument. See PUNCHEON. 

2. A puppet, a person representing a peasant of Apulia 
It. pulichino, polichinello, ponchinello. 

3. A short thick person or horse; supposed to be paunch; 
but perhaps from ponchinello. 

4. A liquor composed of spirit and water, sugar and le- 
mon ; supposed to be L. potus nauticus ; but as Toddy 
and Grog appear to be Eastern words, this may be 
Sans, and Hind, puncheene, from pun, punna, beve- 
rage, and cheene, which signifies both Chinese and 

PUNCHEON, s. 1 . a pointed instrument for making holes ; 

F. poitifon ; Sp. punzon, from L. pungo. 
2. A cask used in the Morea for wine or spirits, holding 

eighty gallons ; F. poison, from Wfloj and $ ; vittan, 

a wine cask. 

PUNDLE, *. a little squab woman ; It. pinguedilla. 
PUNGAH, s. a sort of sea fish ; F. pagne ; L. pagurus. 
PUNICE, *. a bug ; F. punaise, from L. puteo. 
PUNK, s. a whore, a strumpet ; L. B. putanica ; It. put- 

tanaccia. See PUTAGE. 
PUNT, v. n. to play at basset or ombre ; It. punto, to 


PUNY, a. young, petty, tender, weak. See PUISNE. 
PUP, *. a whelp, supposed to be L. pupus ; but perhaps 

for cub, from the usual intermutation of c and p. 
PUPIL, s. 1. the apple of the eye; L. pupula ; It. pu- 

2. A ward, a scholar ; L. pupillus ; F. pupille ; It pu- 

PUPPET, s. a small wooden image, a doll ; F. poupee ; 

It. puppa ; L. pupa. 

PUPPY, s. 1. from PUP ; a whelp, a young dog. 
2. A saucy fop ; F. poupin, foppish ; T. puppen, to as- 
sume the airs of a puppet, to dress finically. 
PURCHASE, v. a. to buy, procure for a price; F. pour- 

chaster ; L. B. proquceso, from L. qucero. 
PURFILE, PUBFLE, PuHFLEW, s. an edging, a border of 

lace or fur ; It. profilo. See PROFILE. 
PURL, *. 1. a sort of lace for edging, an embroidered 

border. See PURFILE. 

P Y G 

2. A bitter malt liquor, perhaps contracted from bitter 
ale, or from Arm.fertvl, perwel ; W. chwerml, worm- 

PURL, t;. n. to flow with a gentle noise ; T. porlen ; B. 
opborrelen ; S. byrlian ; G. byrla, to pour out liquor, 
to gurgle. 

PURLIEU, s. a piece of ground detached from a royal 
chase, a common on the border of a forest ; F. pur 
lieu ; L. purus locus, free from the forest laws. 

PURLINS, side pieces, inside braces to support raf- 
ters ; L. perligationes. 
PURLOIN, v. a. to steal, remove clandestinely ; supposed 

to be F. pour loigner, as eloigner, to place at a distance ; 

but G. leina ; Isl. lena, hlauna ; Swed. lona ; Scot. 

lean, signify to conceal. 
PURPARTY, *. a share, part in a division ; F. pourparti, 

from L. pro and pars. 
PURPORT, *. influence, design, tendency of a discourse ; 

F. pourporte, from L. pro and porto. See IMPORT. 
PURPRISE, s. a manor, close, inclosure; F. pourpris, 

from L. prensus. 
PURR, v. n. to murmur like a cat when pleased ; from 

the sound ; T. murren. 
PURSE, *. a small bag to hold money ; G. pus ; S. pusa ; 

Swed. posse ; L. B. bursa ; xyn ; It. bars a ; F. bourse ; 

W. purs. 

PURSUE, v. to follow, chase, prosecute, continue ; L- 

prosequor ; F. poursuwre. 

PURSY, a. short breathed, puffy, fat ; F. poussif; It- 

polsivo, beating at the heart or lungs, from L. pulsus. 

PURTENANCE, s. the pluck of animals, the giblets of 

fowls; L. pertinens ; F. appurtenance, appendage. 
PURVEY, v. to provide, to procure provisions ; Sp. pro- 
veer ; F. pourvoir ; L. providere. 
PURVIEW, *. a proviso, a providing clause ; F. pourveu ; 

L. provisus. 

PUSH, v. to thrust, press forward, make an effort, im- 
portune ; F. pousser, from L. B. pulso ; L. pello. 
Puss, *. a cat, a hare; B. poes, poesje, a cat and a fur 

PUT, v. 1. to place, lay in any situation; L. B. posito; 

T. poser ; It. postare, apposlare. 
2. To pitch, to toss ; Isl. putla. See to PITCH. 
PUTAGE, *. whoredom, prostitution ; xa.^x. ; L. puta, a 

girl ; Sp. Port, and G. puta, a prostitute. 
PDTTINGSTONE, s. a stone thrown bv the hand. See to 


PUTTOC, s. a kite; L. buteo. 
PUTTY, s. cement used by glaziers ; F. polee ; Sp. potea, 

from oTToJoj. 
PUZZLE, v. to perplex, confuse ; formerly upposail. See 

to POSE, to APPOSE. 

PYGARG, s. a kind of falcon; L. pygargnx,- a 
PYGMY, s. a dwarf; F. pigmee ; L. pygtmnus ; 



Qis a consonant adopted in Latin from the Arabic 
and Hebrew, ana substituted for the ku of the 

Goths. The Greeks had no letter to express this 

sound, for which the Osce, Eolians, Armoricans and 

Welsh sometimes used p. 
QUAB, s. a barbot, an eel-pout ; B. ktvab ; D. quabbe ; 

T. quappe, hope, any thing with a large head or jole. 

See CHUB. 
QUACK, v. n. 1. to cry like a duck or frog, to chatter ; 

Isl. kuaka, quteka ; T. kuacken ; B. ktvaaken ; L. 

2. From the noun ; to deal in nostrums. 

QUACK, QUACKSALVER, s. an empiric, a bold ignorant 
pretender to physic ; Swed. qualcsalmare ; T. quack- 
salber, a crier of salves, a mountebank. 

QUAFF, v. a. to drink deep ; Isl. kafa ; Swed. quaefa, to 
immerse, to suffocate ; from G. leaf, deep. 

QUAFFER, v. n. frequentative of QUAFF; to make a noise 
like ducks dabbling for food. 

QUAG, QUAGMIRE, *. a shaking bog, a marsh overgrown 
with vegetation ; from M. G. garvaggian ; S. rvaglun ; 
Swed. wagga. See to WAG and to QUAKE. 

QUAGGY, a. from the noun ; swampy, boggy, shaking. 
QUAID, a. cowed, dismayed ; from G. kuga. See to 

QUAIL, t. 1. a bird of passage ; L. B. quaquila ; It. 

quaglia ; F.caille; G. niakl, magi; Swed. tvacktel ; 

T. foachtel, from its watching or calling. 
2. Sickness, oppression, languor, affliction of body or 

mind, distress ; G. kuett ; Swed. qual ; Isl. kuul, quul ; 

B. krvaal; T. qual. 
QUAINT, a. neat, subtile, affectedly nice ; F. coin/, from 

L. complut. 
QUAKE, v. n. to shake, move to and fro, shiver with 

cold ; S. cwacian, corresponding with L. quatio. See 

QUALIFY, v. a. to make fit for, to soften : F. qualifier, 

from L. quote facere. 


QUALM, s. a sudden fit of sickness, a nausea; D. qualm; 

S. quealm ; T. qualm. See QUAIL. 
QUANDARY, *. a doubt, a difficulty ; apparently from S. 

hrrnii draga, the agitation of doubt, from Ineon ; 

Scot, ttvyn, doubt, perplexity. 
QUARANTAIN, QUARANTINE, f. the space of forty days, 

during which vessels or persons, from ports infected 

with the plague, are prohibited from intercourse n ith 

the shore ; F. quaranlain ; It. quaranlana ; L. qua- 

QUARREL, *. 1. a disposition to mutual complaint, a 

dispute, contest; F. querelle ; L. querela. 

2. A square-headed arrow ; F. quadreau, carreau, ca- 

relle ; It. quadrella ; L. quadrangula. 
QUARRY, s. 1. a square, a pane of glass; F. qnarrf, 

from L. qttadratus. 

2. A kind of square-headed arrow. See QUARREL. 

3. A mine where stone is cut in squared masses ; L. B. 
quarcria, quadreria ; F. quarriere, carriere. 

4. The prey, or portion of its entrails, given to a 
hawk for encouragement ; F. cured, from L. euro to 

QUART, s. the fourth part of a gallon, two pints, a se- 
quence of four cards ; F. quart, from L. qua r lux. 

QUARTAN, s. an ague which returns every fourth day ; 
L. quartana ; F. quartaine. 

QUARTER, .v. 1. a fourth part, a measure of eight 
bushels ; F. quartier, from L. quartiis. 

2. A geometrical square figure denoting the four sides 
of the world; a direction, district, region; a regular 
division of a square ; F. quartier ; L. quadratura. 

3. In war, signifies sparing the life of a prisoner by 
sending him to the captor's quarter, either for sale or 

QUARTERS, s. pi. are the divisions of a town, or of regu- 
lar barracks, distinguished from cantonments, which 
signify the neighbouring villages or temporary huts. 

QUARTERSTAFF, *. a staff of authority among foresters, 

Q U I 

which was used also as a weapon ; from quarter, 
district, and staff. 
QUASH, v. a. 1. to squeeze, to crush; L. quasso; It. 

quassare, squacciare ; B. quassen ; T. quetchen ; S. 

crvysan ; Arm. guascu ; W. grvasgu. 
2. To annul, make void, break, cashier ; Sp. casar ; F. 

casser ; L. B. cassare, from L. cassus, 
QUASH, *. 1. a species of pompion ; It. cocuzza; L. cu- 

curbila. See SQUASH. 
2. The husk of a legume ; It. guscia ; F. cosse, from L. 

QUAVER, v. n. to shake the voice, vibrate; Sp. quie- 

brar, from L. vibro. 
QUAVER, * . from the verb ; a shake of the voice, a short 

note in music, the half of a crotchet. 
QUAY, *. an artificial bank, a wharf; F. quai. See 

QUEA, s. dim. of Cow ; a heifer ; G. and Swed. kuega, 

kuiga ; S. quean. 
QUEAN, *. a woman, a jade, a slut, a strumpet; Sans. 

kuniya, a daughter ; G. kuenna ; Swed. quinna ; S. 

erven ; Armenian, keen ; -yvn ; P. zun, a woman. G. 

and Swed. hona, the feminine pronoun, signifies, like 

kona, a female in general. See HEN and SHE. 
QUEASY, a. sick, squeamish, fastidious; G. kuesa, to 

sicken ; Swed. quesa ; Isl. kueisa, a fever. 
QUECK, v. n. 1. to shrink at, show pain ; Swed. rveka ; 

S. nican, gervican, to wince. 
2. To cry out, to scream ; W. gwichio; Isl. quoska, dim. 

of G. kuaka. See to QUACK and SQUEAK. 
QUEEN, *. the wife of a king, a reigning woman; T. 

konigen ; B. koningen, a queen, is merely the feminine 

termination added to konig, a king, and has no other 

connexion with quean, a woman. 
QUEER, a. cross-grained, perverse, odd ; T. kuerh, from 

G. tiver ; S. thwyr. See THWART. 
QUEEST, s. a wood pigeon ; S. cusceote ; Scot, cuschette, 

from G. and Swed. quist, a branch ; F. ramier, from 

L. ramus. 
QUELL, v. to subdue, stifle, suffocate, deprive of life ; 

Isl. kuelia ; Swed. qudlja ; D. qucele ; S. crvellan. 
QUELQUECHOSE, s. F. something, a trifle; It. qualche 

causa ; L. qualisque, qualiscunque causa. 
QUEME, v. n. to please, to agree ; Swed. qudma ; S. 

ctveman, from the verb to come, and corresponding 

with L. convenio. See COMELY. 

QUENCH, v. a. to extinguish, cool, destroy ; S. quencan ; 

G. kuaugian; M. G. quaugian. 
QUERN, *. a hand-mill ; G. kuern ; M. G. quairn ; 

Swed. quarn ; D. quern ; S. cueorn ; T. quirn. See 

QUERPO, *. a dress close to the body, a waistcoat; Sp. 

cuerpo, from L. corpus. 
QUESE, v . a. to search for, look after, seek ; L. qtuero, 

QUEST, s. search, seeking, inquest, request ; F. queste, 

quete; It. chieste; L. quoesilus. 

QUIB, s. a sarcasm, a bitter jest. See QUIP and WIPE. 
QUIBBLE, *. a pun, a quirk, a play on words ; L. quili- 

bet, quodlibet. See QUILLET. 

QUICK, QUICK, QUITCH, COUCH GRASS, s. a grass exceed- 
ingly vivacious ; S. crvice gee ; Swed. quick rot, 

quick root, from quick, vivaciou . 

QUICK, a. living, vivacious, active, lively, living; G. 

Q U I 

kuik ; Swed. quick; D. quik; S. cwic ; T. queck ; B. 
quik : A. hucy, chuey, alive. 

QUICK BEAM, s. a tree called the service or sorbus ; T. 
geweych, from G. weg ; S. wig, holy, consecrated. 
See WHIT and BEAM. 

QUICKEN, v. to make or become alive ; S. ctviccan ; B- 
quiken ; from the noun. 

QUID, s. a morsel held in the mouth to be chewed. See 

QUIDDIT, QUIDDITY, s. an essence, a cavil, a captious 
question ; L. B. quidilas ; It. quiddita, from L. quid. 

QUILL, s. the hard strong feathers used for pens, the 
prick of a porcupine ; xd^aftof ; P. culm ; L. culmus, 
calimus ; G. koyle, a reed used for writing, a pen. 

QUILLET, s. subtilty, nicety, a play on words ; L. 
quidlibet. See QUIBBLE. 

QUILT, s. a stitched covering for a bed, a counterpane ; 
It. coltre ; Sp. colcha ; F. couette, from L. aculeatus. 

QUILT, v. a. from the noun ; to stitch cloth double. 

QUINCE, s. a tree and its fruit ; L. cydonium ; It. co- 
togno ; F. coin ; T. quidden, from Cydon in Crete. 

QUINSY, s. a disease in the throat. See SQUINANCY. 

QUINT, s. a sequence of five at piquet ; F. quint ; L. 

QUINTAL, s. five score, a weight of an hundred pounds ; 
F. quintal ; It. quintale, from L. quintus. 

QUINTESSENCE, s. the virtue of any thing extracted or 
concentred ; It. quintessenza ; F. quintessence ; L. 
quinta essentia, a mysterious term in alchemy, signi- 
fying the fifth or purest essence. 

QUINTIN, s. a kind of military exercise; supposed to be 
from Syriac and Heb. chanit ; xttns ; L. conto, a 
spear, which produced L. B. quintana; F. quintaine. 
An upright post fixed in the ground supported a 
cross beam, turning horizontally on a pivot ; at one 
end of which was a board, resembling the bust of a 
man, and at the other a heavy sand-bag. The feat 
consisted in tilting at the bust, and escaping from 
the swing of the sand-bag. The French called it 
running at the Faquin ; but in Italy the figure 
of a Saracen or Turk being the object of attack, 
may have introduced the frequent sign of the Sara- 
cen's head. 

QUIP, QUIB, *. a sarcasm or smart jest. See WIPE. 
QUIRE, *. 1. a body of singers. See CHOIR. 

2. Twenty-four sheets of paper ; F. quayer, cayer, ca- 
hir ; It. and Sp. quaderno ; L. quaternio ; from which 
seems to be derived G. kuer, a book. 

QUIRK, s. a subtilty, artful distinction ; supposed to be 
from T. kuerh. See QUEER. 

QUIT, v. a. to discharge, free, forsake, relinquish ; L. 
B. quittare ; It. quet.are, quietare; Sp. quitar ; F. 
quitter; Swed.quitta; T. quiltiren, from L. quies. 

QUITE, ad. from the verb ; entirely, completely ; F. 

QUITTANCE, s. from the verb ; a discharge from debt ; 
F. quittance; It. quitanza. 

QUITTER, *. from the verb ; a relinquisher, a deliverer, 
the dross which discharges itself from metal in smelt- 
ing, matter from a sore. 

QUIVER, s. a case for arrows ; Isl. kogur ; Swed. 
koger ; B. koker ; S. cocur ; T. cohhar ; Sp. cuchar, 
apparently from G. koja, kofe ; L. cavea. See COF- 


QI-IVEH, ./. niinblp, active, lively ; perhaps from quick ; 

but W. chtryjttvr is from chnryf, motion. 
Q 17IVKR, c. a. to vibrate, to tremble, to shake, to shiver ; 

Sp. ijurhrur, from L. ribro. 

QCOIF, .v. cap of a Serjeant at law, a hood, a head- 
dress. See COIF. 

QUOIL, i'. a. to lay a rope in circles. See to COIL. 
QUOIN, *. a wedge, a corner, an angle. See COIN. 


QOOIT, 3. a flat stone or horse shoe to pitch at a mark. 

See COIT. 
QUOTS, . . to cite the opinion or words of another ; 

F. i/uoter, coter, from cote ; It. caita ; L. costa, a side> 

a marginal note ; but Sp. citar, to quote, is from L. 

QUOTH, v. imperf. said ; P. kooad ; Isl. kuat/i, quath, 

pret. of P. koidan; 31. G. i/uitlian ; S. civothian ; G. 

kueda ; T. queden, to say. 


R A C 

Ris called the canine letter, from being uttered with 
9 some resemblance to the growl or snarl of a dog. 
It has one constant sound, and is never mute. In 
words derived from the Greek the initial R is fol- 
lowed by H after the manner of the Welsh ; although 
with the Greeks and Goths the aspirate precedes it. 
The Chinese have no R in their alphabet, and sub- 
stitute for it the letter L. The Greeks sometimes, 
and the Spaniards, Portuguese and Italians frequently, 
use L for R ; which is also observable with the Ger- 
mans and English, in such words as Turtle for Tur- 
tur, Pilgrim for Peregrinus. 

RABATE, v. n. from ABATE ; to bring down, to lower, to 
recover a hawk to the fist ; F. rabattre. 

RABATO, s. from the verb ; the folding or turn down col- 
lar of a shirt or shift, which afterwards became a ruff; 
It. rabato ; F. rabat. 

RABBET, v. a. to groove, to plain down the edges of 
boards, that they may wrap over each other; F. 

RABBIT, s. an animal that burrows in the ground ; B. 
robbe, from G. rauf '; Swed. rof, a perforation, a hole 
or opening. 

RABBLE, s. an assembly of low people ; B. rapalje ; F. 
racaille, rapaille, scrapings, refuse, riffraff, rubbish. 
It. rasare, rassare, rasciare, rascare, raspare, raspel- 
lare ; S. rasar, rascar, raspar ; F. raser, racier, ras- 
per, raper ; T. rapsen, raspelen, are all supposed to 
be derived from L. rado, corresponding with Swed. 
raka, to scrape. See RASCAL. 

RACE, s. 1. a running match, a current, progress, course; 
S. rats ; G. and Swed. ras, contraction of runs, from 
renna. See to RUN. 

2. A root, particular breed, progeny, family ; F. race ; 
Sp. raza ; It. razza ; L. radix. 

3. A root of ginger, spicy or aromatic flavour, strength ; 
Sp. raiza ; p/ ; L. radix. 

RACK, s. 1. an engine to torture ; B. rakke, from G. rec- 
kia ; Swed. rcecka ; B. rekken, to stretch, to extend. 


2. Action of the wind on vapour or clouds ; G. raka ; 
Swed. reka. See to RAKE. 

3. A kind of dog ; G. rakke ; Swed. racka ; D. rage ; S. 
race ; B. rekel ; L. B. racha, from its raking dis- 

4. A row, range or railing to support fire arms, a frame 
for bottles or hay, a kitchen range ; Isl. hrag ; B. 
rak ; D. roskke ; Swed. racka. See to RANGE. 

5. A stack of hay or grain, a reak ; S. hreac. See RICK- 

6. A distaff. See ROCK. 

7- A neck or chine of meat ; S. hracca, hricg ; T. nick ; 
G. rygg, the back or back bone, corresponding with 

8. The utmost stretch, rack rent, cognate with Rack, 

9. Ruin, destruction. See WRACK. 

10. An Indian spirituous liquor. See ARRACK. 
RACK, v. a. 1. from the noun; to stretch, screw, torture. 
2. To draw off liquor from the lees ; supposed to be G- 

rcelcia ; S. reccan, to treat carefully ; but B. rekken, 
from G. reekia, to extend, signifies to draw out slowly. 
RACKET, *. 1. the instrument with which a ball is struck 
at tennis ; It. racchetta ; F. raquette ; Sp. raqueta ; T. 
racket ; L. reticulum. 

2. From the noise made at a racket court ; a confused 

3. An herb and its flower; F. raquette. See ROCKET] 

4. A kind of artificial firework; It raggietto. See 

RACY, a. from RACE ; strong, flavorous, tasting of the root 

or soil. 
RAD, in forming the names of great men, signifies rule, 

sway, counsel, power, dominion; G. rod; Swed. rad, 

reed ; S. red, rad, rod ; B. road ; T. rod, rat, rath ; 

Tartar rud ; Sans. reel. See RATH. 
RADISH, s. an esculent root ; It. radice ; B. radyt ; S. 

rcedex ; L. radix. 

K A K 


RAFF, ..!. to scrape, to rake, to collect rubbish. See 

2. To snatch, sweep away, rob, pillage ; Isl. rafa, rifa ; 

Swed. riftva, rofiva ; S. reafian; L. B. reffare; corre- 
sponding with L. rapio, eripio. 
RAFFLE, *. a casting of dice for a prize; F. rafle; B. 

ryffel; Sp. rifa. See to RAFF and RIFLE. 
RAFT, s. a float of timber; Swed rafl; D. rafle ; Isl. 

raftur; L. rails. 
RAFTER, s. the secondary timber in forming the floors 

of a house ; G. rcefr, rafirae, roof tree ; S. reefler ; B. 

RAO, *. 1. a worn-out piece of cloth, a tatter, a fragment ; 

S. hrac, hracod, ragged, from racian ; Swed. raka ; F. 

racier, to scrape, fritter, tear ; F. raque ; Arm. rag, 

old worn-out ropes. 
2. A herd of colts. See RAKE. 

RAGAMUFFIN, *. a ragged paltry fellow, a tatterde- 
RAGE, *. fury, violent passion, madness; Y.rage; B. 

raaz, from L. rabies. 
RAGOUT, s. high seasoned stewed meat ; F. ragout, ra- 

gouft, from L. gustus. 

RAGWORT, RAGWEED, *. an herb with ragged leaves. 
RAIL, *. 1. a cross bar, a pole, a rack, a range, a fence ; 

T. riegel ; Swed. regel; B. richgel, dim. of Isl. hrike, 

a pole. 

2. A bird ; L. B. rallus ; F. rale; It. rallo ; B. rayle; L. 

3. A woman's upper garment ; G. hraegle ; S. rcegle ; L. 
B. rallunt. See KOCKKT. 

RAIL, v. n. 1. from the noun ; to enclose with rails. 

2. To use opprobrious language, to scold ; Swed. ralla ; 

B. rallen, frequentative of G. reegia ; Swed. rfy'a ; S. 

wregan, to accuse. 

RAILLERY, s. jesting, slight satire ; F. raillerie. See to 

RAIMENT, *. vesture, dress, arrayment; from ARRAY. 

RAIN, *. water falling from the clouds ; G. rign ; Swed. 
T. B. regen ; S. rcegn, ren, supposed to be cognate 
with L. rigo. 

RAINDEER, *. a northern large deer ; G. rein ; Igl. 
reindyr ; S. hranas ; B. reen ; F. renne. In the lan- 
guage of Lapland rango is said to signify an animal. 

RAINWORM, s. a worm that comes out of the earth du- 
ring rain ; S. rentvyrm. See DEW- WORM. 

RAISE, v. a. to lift, exalt, erect, levy, excite ; G. reisa ; 
Swed. resa ; A. rasiu. See to REAR. 

RAISIN, *. a dried grape ; F. raitin ; A rasa ; P. raz, a 
grape, vine ; '{ijj ; L. racemus, a cluster of berries. 

RAKK, *. ] . a tool with teeth, a scraper ; S. race ; T. 
rechen ; Swed. raka, to scrape. 

2. From the verb ; a roving dissolute fellow. 

3. From the verb ; a course, a run, the track of a ship, a 
flock of cattle running at large. 

4. The extent from one point to another, the whole 
length or distance. See REACH. 

RAKE, v. 1. to gather, scrape up, collect with a rake, to 

2. To run about dissolutely, to play the rake ; G. raka, 
reika ; Isl. rekia ; T. rechen. 

3. From the noun ; to fire on a ship, in the direction of 
the whole extent, from stem to stern. 

RAKE HELL, s. a disorderly dissolute fellow, apparently 


from Swed. rtskel; T. reclcel; B. rekel, a rake, a va- 
gabond ; but some would derive the word from G. 

rakke, a dog, signifying, like F. racaille, the canaille. 
RALLY, v. 1. to satirize facetiously, banter ; F. railler, 

rialler ; L. B. ridiculare, from L. ridiculus. 
2. To reunite disordered troops, put again into order ; 

F. rattier, to re-ally. 
RAM, s. a tup, a male sheep ; S. T. and B. ram, from 

Swed. ram ; G. ramur, robust, strong. 
RAM, v. a. from the noun ; to drive with violence, to 

beat against, to use a battering ram ; D. ramme ; B. 

rumen, ramejen ; T. raineln. 
RAMBLE, v. n. to rove about, to wander ; supposed to 

be L. reambulo; but perhaps frequentative of to 

RAMBOOZE, s. a drink made of milk, wine, sugar and 

rose-water; B. roombuize. See CREAM and HOUSE. 
RAMEKIN, *. a small slice of bread covered with a farce 

of cream cheese and egg; T. rahmekin ; F. ramequin. 


RAMMER, s. an instrument to ram a charge into a gun. 
RAMMISH, a. from RAM; rank, smelling strong; I. 

RAMP, v. n. to climb as a plant, to rise up, to gambol 

It. rampart; F. Tamper, from L. repo, properly to 

creep, to climb ; but in heraldry, ferocious animals 

so depicted appear to be erect ; and hence the word 

is used with the idea of salient or erect. 
RAMPART, *. a wall round a fortified place ; F. rem- 

part ; It. riparo, from L. ripa, a bank, and paries. 
RAMS, RAMSONS, s. wild garlic; S. hramsa ; D. rams- 
lock, from its rammish odour. See BUCKRAMS. 
RAN, pret. of the verb to RUN. 
RAND, *. the border of a shoe ; G. D. Swed. T. and B. 

RANDOM, s. precipitation, hazard, chance ; S. randun ; 

F. randon, running without control ; D. renden, to 

run. See RASH. 
RANG, pret. of the verb to RING. 
RANGB, f . 1 . a rank, order, line, excursion, the course 

of a bullet from the mouth of a gun to where it 

lodges ; G. ra ; Isl. and Swed. ran, rand, a row ; T. 

reihen ; D. range ; F. rang ; W.rheng. See ARRAY 

and RANK. 

2. A kitchen grate. See RACK and RANK. 
RANGE, v. from the noun; to place in order, to put in 

ranks, to go from one place to another, to rove ; F. 

RANK, *. a row or order, a line of men, a degree of 

rank, high station ; F. rang; Arm. renk ; W.rhenc; 

O. F. regue, perhaps from Swed. raecka. See RACK 

and RANGE. 
RANK, a. 1. tall, luxuriant; S. ranc ; Swed. D. and B. 

rank : G. rakia, to extend. 
2. Strong scented, ill flavoured, rancid, festering ; F. 

ranee ; L. rancid us. 

RANKLE, a. from RANK ; to fester, to produce inflam- 
mation of body or mind. 
RANNY, *. the shrew-mouse ; L. araneus. 
RANSACK, v. a. to search narrowly and rudely as if for 

plunder, to violate : G. and Swed. ransaka ; D. ran- 

sage, from ran, rapine, and soekia, to seek. 
RANSOM, s. a price paid for liberty ; It. ramon; F.ran- 

fon ; Swed. ranson, from L. redemplio. 
RANT, s. pompous jargon, noisy cant ; O. E. rayt ; B. 


rev ; T. reiken ; I. ran, a song ; I. ranteach ; Scot. 
ranter, a musician, a poet ; the letter n being fre- 
quently inserted and omitted in the middle of words, 
perhaps the word may be derived from G. radd, rodd, 
hrod, voice, poetry, song ; M. G. rodgan, to speak. 

RANUNCULUS, s. a kind of flower called frog's foot, crow- 
foot ; F. ranuncule ; L. ranunculus, perhaps ranx 

RAP, *. a quick short blow, a sudden noise ; Swed. and 
D. rapp, rap ; F.frape. 

RAP, v. n. 1. from the noun ; to strike smartly, to utter 

2. To snatch away, seize by violence, enrapture; L. 

RAPE, *. 1. violation of chastity ; from L. rapio. 

2. A bunch of grapes; T. rebe ; D. rips ; L. B. ribes ; 
F. raffle, a cluster of any fruit, from G. and Swed. 
rep, ref; S. rape, a rope, a string, a bunch, a rope of 

3. A district, a division of country or land ; G. rep, 
hrepp, from rifa, to divide, to separate. Iceland is 
divided into rapes, corresponding with our shires, 
from shear, to cut, to divide. 

4. A kind of turnip, the seed of which produces oil ; 
ftixvf ; L. rapa ; F. raves T. rube. 

RAPIER, *. a small sword ; F. rapiere ; T. rapier ; 

Swed. rapper ; fepQ*. 
RAPPORT, s. proportion, connexion ; F. rapport. See 


RAPT, s. from the verb ; a trance, ecstacy, rapture. 
RARE, a. 1. scarce, uncommon, excellent; F. rare; L. 

2. Underdone by the fire ; G. rar ; S. hrere, from RAW ; 

but the word seems to be confounded with rear, 

quickly done. 

RASBERRY, RASPBERRY, s. a bush and its fruit ; sup- 
posed to be from rasp, but perhaps from rasberry, 

the roe-berry. See HINDBERRY. 
RASCAL, *. 1. a rascalion, rapscalion, one of the lowest 

class, a villain ; It. raschello, raschellone ; F. racaille. 


2. A lean deer; S. rascal; Isl. and Swed. ras, decre- 
RASE, v. a. to rub slightly, to graze, to cancel, erase, 

demolish ; F. raser, from L. rado, raso. 
RASH, a. precipitate, violent, hasty, hazardous ; G. ras ; 

Swed. and D. rask ; T. rasch; P. resch. 
RASH, s. 1. satin ; F. ras ; It. rascia, velvet, satin, 

serge, from L. rasus, as it was formerly shorn smooth. 
2. An efflorescence of the skin ; B. roos. See ROSE and 


RASHER, s. a thin slice of bacon ; L. rasura. 
RASP, v. a. to rub, grate, clean off ;' It. raspare ; F. 

rasper, raper ; Sp. raspar ; T. raspen. See RABBLE. 
RASP, s, 1. from the verb; a rough file. 
2. The rasberry bush and its fruit ; It. raspo. 
RAT, s. 1. an animal of the mouse kind; G. raita ; 

Swed. ratta; D. rotte ; T. raize; S. reel; B. rot; 

F. rat ; It. ratio ; Sp. raton. 
2. A bad design, a trick ; D. uraad, merke uraad, to 

mark or smell a rat ; S. unrad, treachery. 
RAT, v. to seek safety, to join the strongest party; 

from an opinion that rats leave a ship that is not sea- 

R E A 

RATAFIA, *. a cordial liquor prepared from spirits, the 
kernels of apricots and sugar ; Sp. ratafia. 

RATAN, s. a small Indian cane; Malay, rotan, called 
rottang in Java ; B. rotting. 

RATCH, *. a wheel in a clock ; F. rateau ; L. radula. 

RATE, s. a price fixed, a tax, a standard. 

RATE, v. a.\. from the noun; to tax, value. 

2. To correct, chide, reprove ; G. and Swed. rcetta ; S. 

3. To provoke, to irritate ; G. reita ; Swed. reta. See 

RATH, in the names of places, particularly in Ireland, 

signifies a seat of jurisdiction or government, a fort; 

I. rath; T. rath; G. rod; Swed. rod. See RAD. 
RATH, a. soon, early, precocious, premature ; S. rath, 

cerath ; B. eer. See ERE. 
RATHER, a. comparative of RATH ; sooner, in preference, 

especially ; S. rcethor ; T. rathttr ; B. eerder ; cor- 
responding with F. pluldt. 
RATION, s. daily allowance of victuals ; F. ration. See 

RATTEEN, *. a kind of shorn frize ; F. ratine ; Sp. ra- 

tina ; B. ratyn, from L. rado. 
RATTLE, ti. 1. to make a clattering noise, to speak 

noisily ; B. ratelen ; D. ralle, frequentative of S. 


2. To chide, to scold ; frequentative of RATE. 
RATTOON, RACOON, s. a kind of American fox. 
RAVAGE, v. a. to plunder, pillage, lay waste ; F. rava- 

ger ; L. B. rapiare, from L. rapio. 

RAVE, v. n. 1. to talk incoherently, to be mad or deli- 
rious ; F. rever ; L. rabo. 
2. To brawl like a fool ; L. ravio. 
RAVEL, v. a. to entangle, perplex, undo knit-work ; B. 

ravelen ; Low S. rebbelen. 

RAVELIN, *. a small detached angular work in fortifica- 
tion ; F. ravelin ; It. rivellino ; L. B. revattum, from 

L. vallum. 
RAVEN, s. a large black carnivorous bird ; G. and Swed. 

rafn ; S. hrcefn ; D. ravn ; B. raven ; T. rabe. 
RAVIN, *. prey, plunder. See RAP and REAVE. 
RAVISH, v. a. to violate chastity, to obtain by violence, 

to overcome the senses, to transport with delight ; F. 

ravir ; It. rapire ; L. rapio. 
RAW, a. not cooked, unwrought, immature, unripe, 

having the skin stripped off, crude, chill, bleak ; G. 

ra ; Swed. ra ; D. raa ; T. raw ; S. hreau ; B. 

RAWBONED, a. having large bones, cross-made, strong ; 

G. ra ; Swed. wra, angular. 
RAWHEAD, s. a supposed spectre, a word to frighten 

children ; Swed. rtt hiette, from G. ragn ; Isl. ragr ; 

Swed. ra ; f.rakus, a demon, andG.jatte; Swed. 

hiette; S. elen, a giant. 
RAY, s. \. a beam of light ; F. rate; Sp. rayo ; It. rag- 

gio; L. radius. 

2. A fish ; L. raia ; F. raye ; Sp. roya. 

3. An herb; F. yvraie ; L. elria ; tuyt. See TARE. 
RAYE, s. a song, a ballad ; T. ray, reihen ; B. rey. 
RAZOR, * a knife to shave with ; F. rasoir ; L. rasor. 
REACH, v. 1. to extend, to arrive at; G. rcckia ; Isl. 

reikia ; M. G. rakjan ; Swed. raska ; B. rekken ; T. 
reichen ; S. rcecan. See STRETCH. 
2. To spue; G. reka ; Isl. hrceka ; S. hrcecan ; B. braa- 

R E C 

ken; T. brechen: Q. rake; F. crache, spittle. See 

REACH,*- from the verb; extent, power, ability, exer- 
tion, fetch, scheme, the distance between two points 
of land. 

READ, v. to peruse written or printed characters, learn 
fully, discover ; G. rada, reda ; Swed. rada ; S. rce- 
dan ; T. reden, to explain, divine, understand. 

READY, a. prepared, quick, prompt, willing; Swed. 
reda; D. rede; S. reed, from G. rad, hrad, direct, 
prompt, radan, prepared. 

REALM, *. a kingdom, a royalty ; F. roialme, roiaume. 

REALTY, *. adherence to kings, sometimes signifying 
loyalty, which is adherence to the law ; It. realta ; L. 
B. regalitas. See ROYAL. 

REAM, *. the quantity of twenty quires of paper ; B. 
riem; S. ream, from G. reif, reim, a ligature, a 

REAP, v. a. to cut down corn, to obtain ; M. G. raup- 
jan ; Swed. repa ; S. ripan ; B. reepen. 

REAR, *. the hinder part, the last class, the hinder-most 
division of an army or fleet ; F. arriere, from L. retro. 

REAR, a. half-roasted, quickly done, early ; contracted 
from rather, but perhaps confounded with rare, 
crude. See RATH. 

REAR, v. a. 1. to raise up, elevate, educate, bring to ma- 
turity ; Isl. reira; Swed. rora ; S. raran, apparently 
a different pronunciation of raise, in the same way 
that lore and lose are synonymous. 

2. To stir up, flutter, excite, rouse ; G. roera ; Swed. 
rora ; T. ruiren ; S. hreran, apparently the same with 

REARMOUSE, RAREMOUS, *. the flying mouse, a bat; S. 
hreremus. See to REAR. 

RKAVE, v. a. to take away by violence ; G. and Swed. 
rijftva ; D. reeve; S. rafian. 

REBATE, v. a. 1. to lower, diminish, make an abate- 
ment, deprive of keenness, to put a mark of degrada- 
tion ; F. rabalre, to re-abate. 

2. To chamfer, to chancel, to groove. See RABBET. 

REBECK, s. a three-stringed fiddle ; P. rubeeb ; F. rebec ; 
It. ribecca; Sp. rebel; A. rahab. 

REBUFF, s. a sudden resistance, repercussion, denial ; 
It. rebuffo; F. rebujfade. See BUFF. 

REBUKE, v. a. to reprehend, to chide ; L. repungo, re- 

REBUT, v. n. to repel, drive back ; It. ribullare ; F. re- 

buter. See to BUT. 
RECK, v. to care for, to heed, regard, consider, value 

highly ; G. raekia ; Swed. reka ; S. reccan. 
RECKON, t;. a. to count, recount, narrate, estimate, con- 
sider ; G. rekia ; T. rechen ; B. reckenan ; S. recan : 
P. rekem, to compute, rakh, conjecture. 
RECOIL, w. . to fly back, to shrink, to fail; F. reader; 
Sp.rccular; It. rinculare, to go backside foremost, 
from L. culus. 

RECOVER, v. to regain, to regain health, to restore from 

sickness ; F. recouvrer ; L. recupero. 
RECOUNT, v. a. to relate in detail ; F. reconter ; Sp. re- 

contar. See to COUNT. 
RECREANT, a. apostate, false, cowardly ; F. recreant, 

from L. recredent. See MISCREANT. 
RECRUIT, v. a. to repair, to supply with new materials, 


to raise soldiers ; F. recroitre, recroittre, from L. re- 

RED, a. having the colour of blood; A. ired; Sans. 
rudher, rata ; 'fox, ipi/itf ; G. nod ; Swed. r6d ; D. 
rad; S. red ; T. roth; B. rood; L. nililus. 
REDDLE, s. red marl or chalk used in colouring ; from 

REDE, *. counsel, advice; G. rad ; Swed. rud ; S. reed; 

T. rath ; B. raad. 

REDE, v. 1. from the noun ; to advise, counsel, direct. 
2. To speak, accost ; G. rceda, ruda ; B. reden ; M. G. 

rodjan, from G. rodd, voice. 
REDOUBT, v. to apprehend, to fear ; F. redoubler, from 

L. re and dubito. 
REDOUBTABLE, a. from the verb ; formidable, terrible to 

REDRESS, s. relief, reformation, amends ; F. redresser. 

See to DRESS. 

REDSHANKS, s. 1. Irish soldiers with red hose. 
2. A bird with red legs; hsrmatopiis. 
REDSTART, s. a bird with a red tail ; G. styrt ; B. start ; 

D. sliert, the tail, the rudder. 

REE, *. 1. a kind of sieve ; B. rede, ree. See RIDDLE. 
2. A small coin ; Sp. and Port, re, real. See ROYAL. 
REED, *. a plant or small cane, a pipe made of reed, an 
arrow; G. raus, reer ; Swed. rfr ; S. read; T. riet ; 
B. ried. 

REEF, REFF, . 1. in sea language, the binding together 

of a part of the sail, that the wind may have less 

effect upon it; G. retf '; Swed. ref ; D. reeve; B. reef, 

what is tied together, a bunch. See ROPE. 

2. A chain of rocks near the surface of the water ; Isl. 

rif; Swed. ref. See RIFT. 
REEK, s. 1. smoke, steam, vapour, odour; P. raihu; G. 

rceik, reik ; Swed. rok ; T. ranch; B. rook ; S. rec. 
2. A mow, a heap. See RICK. 

REEL, v. to go round, to move irregularly, to stagger, 
to wind yarn; Isl. raga, rafa, rugla, rala ; Swed. 
ragla; D.rave; Scot, reavel, rele. See ROLL. 
REEL, *. from the verb ; a frame to wind yarn on ; S. 


REEVE, REVE, s. 1. a steward or bailiff; Isl. reidja, 
reif a ; D. reve ; Frisic redieva ; from Isl. reida ; 
Swed. reda ; S. rcedan, to prepare, arrange, regulate. 

2. A bird, female of the Ruff. 
REFINE, v. a. to purify, make elegant ; F. raffiner. See 


REFIT, v. a. to restore after damage, to repair; F. Jit, 

pret. of the verb faire, seems to have produced our 

verb to fit out, and thence refit ; F. refairc ; L. re- 


REFUSE, v. a. to reject, not to accept, deny ; F. refuser; 

Sp. rehusar ; It. recusare ; L. recuso. 
REGAL, *. 1. a royal feast, a sumptuous entertainment ; 

It. regalo; F. regal; L. regalis. 
2. A royal instrument of music, a kind of organ ; It. 

regalo ; F. regal ; L. regalis. 
REGALE, . a. from the noun ; to entertain sumptuously, 

to refresh. 
REGARD, *. attention, respect, look, reference; F. egard, 

regard; It. riguardo. See GUARD. 
REGIMENT, s. a body of soldiers under regular discipline ; 
F. regiment ; It. regimenio, from L. rego. 



REGISTER, *. a record, list, registrar; It. and Sp. regis* 
tro ; F. regeslre ; L. B. regesttim, from L. res gestas. 

REGLET, s. a narrow moulding, a thin ledge used by 
printers; F. reglet, from L. regula. 

REGRATE, v . a. 1. to grate, to shock the ear. See to 

2. To scrape together, to forestall, to engross in order to 
retail at a high price ; F. regrater : regrat ; It. regral- 
teria, a huckster's shop ; F. grater, from L. corrado, 
became regrater, to profit by retail. 

REGRET, v. a. to grieve at, repent ; F. regretter ; It. 
rigrettare; L. B. regravito, from L. gravito. See to 

REGUERDON, s. a reward, a recompense. See GUER- 

REHEARSE, v. a. to repeat, relate aloud, recite previous- 
ly, apparently to hearsay. 

REIN, s. part of a bridle, an instrument of government ; 
F. rene ; It. redine, from L. retineo, retinaculum. 

REINS, s. pi. the kidneys, the loins; L. renes ; F. reins; 
It. reni. 

REJOICE, v. to have joy, to gladden, to exult ; F. rejouis- 
ser, rejouir; Sp. regoujar ; L. B. regaviso ; L. gaw- 
deo, gaviso. 

RELAY, s. horses or dogs placed on the road to relieve 
others; F.relais; L. relaxatio. 

RELEASE, v. a. to set free, quit ; F. relascher, relacker, 
from L. relaxo ; but our word seems to partake more 
of G. erleesa ; T. erlasen, to set loose. 

RELENT, v. n. to soften, feel compassion; F. ralentir ; 
It. rallantare, from L. lenio. 

RELIC, s. a remnant, a remaining portion of a dead 
body; F. relique; L. reliquia. 

RELICT, *. a widow ; L. relicta. 

RELIEVE, v. a. to raise up, succour, ease pain or sorrow, 
free from endurance, change a guard of soldiers ; L. 
relevo ; F. relever ; Sp. relevar. 

RELIEVO, *. from the verb; the prominence of a picture 
or figure ; It. relievo. 

RELISH, *. a taste, flavour, smack, liking; F. leche, re- 
leche. See LICK and LICKERISH. 

RELL, s. the dormouse ; B. relmuis, the fieldmouse. 

RELY, v. n. to rest upon, to depend on, to confide in, 
from re and lie, to repose. 

REMEMBER, v . a. to retain in the memory, call to mind, 
recollect ; O. F. remembrer ; L. rememoror. 

REMORSE, *. sorrow for sin, pity ; L. remorsus ; F. re- 

RENAHD, *. the fox, a sly person ; Isl. reinike, from G. 
reink ; P. renk ; Swed. rcen/c ; B. ranke ; S. vrenc, 
fraud ; but G. ref; Swed. reef; P. rubah, a fox, are 
supposed to be from reave, to rob. See REAVE. 

REND, v. to tear with violence ; G. renna, remna, rif- 
na ; Swed. remna ; S. rendan ; Arm. ranna. See to 

RENDER, v. a. to restore, repay, translate ; F. rendre ; 
Sp. rendir ; It. renders; L. redder e. 

RENEGADE, RENEGADO, s. an apostate, one who de- 
nies his religion ; Sp. renegado ; F. renegat, from L. 

RENNET, s. 1. a beautiful small frog, of a gold and green 
colour, found on trees in France and Italy ; F. rain- 
ette, from L. rana. 

2. A renneting apple; F. rennette, from the town of 

3. The juice of a calf's maw, used to coagulate milk ; 
Isl. renna miolk, to coagulate milk. See RUNNET. 

RENOWN, s. a name much known, fame, praise ; L. re- 

RENT, s. 1. money for house or land let to another, are- 
venue, yearly payment ; F. rente ; It. rendita ; L. B. 
redendum. See to RENDER. 

2. A laceration, break, slit. See to REND. 

REPAIR, v. 1. to restore after injury, to mend; F. repar- 
er ; It. reparare; L. reparo. 

2. To appear at, revisit, resort to ; F. repairer ; L. re- 

REPAST, s. a meal, refreshment ; F. repay ; It paslo, ri- 
pasto, from L. pasco. 

REPEAL, v. a. to revoke, recall, annul, abrogate; F. 
rappeUer, from L. re and appello. 

REPENT, v. to have sorrow for sin, to grieve ; F. repen- 
tir ; It. pentir, from L. pcenito. 

REPLEVIN, REPLEVY, *. a pledge, release of goods dis- 
trained; L. B. replegium, from replegio ; F. pleger, 
plevir, to pledge. See PLEVIN. 

REPLY, v. a. to return an answer, to respond ; R. repli- 
co ; F. repliquer ; It. replicare. 

REPORT, v. a. to bring back, to echo, to sound, to spread 
a rumour ; L. reporto ; F. rapporter. 

REPOSE, v. to lie down, to take rest, place securely, 
confide in ; F. reposer ; Sp. reposar ; It. reposare ; 
L. repono. 

REPRIEVE, v . a. to give a respite ; L. B. reprivo, from 
L. privo. 

REPRIMAND, v. a. to check, chide, reprove; F. repri- 
mander ; L. reprimo. 

REPRISAL, REPRISE, s. seizure by way of recompense, 
taking back ; F. reprise ; It. and Sp. represa ; L. B. 
reprensa, from L. prenso. 

REPROACH, *. censure, scandal, shame; F. reproche ; 
Sp. reproche; L. reprobatio ; L. B. reprobrum, from 
L. probrum. 

REPROVE, v. a. to blame, check, chide ; F. reprouver ; 
L. reprobo. 

REQUEST, s. petition, entreaty, demand ; F. requests, 
requete; It. richiesta, from L. requisites. 

REQUITE, ^. a. to recompense, to pay, to quittance ; F. 
racquittef. See QUITTANCE. 

RESCUE, *. a shaking off, a deliverance ; It. riscossa ; F. 
recausse, recous, from L. re excussus. 

RESEMBLE, v. to be like, to give the likeness of, to com- 
pare ; F. ressembler. See to SEMBLE. 

RESENT, v. a. to take ill, to consider as an affront ; F. 
ressentir ; Sp. resentir ; It. risentir, from L. re and 

RESORT, s. an assembly, concourse, recourse, motive of 
action, a spring ; F. ressort ; L. sortior, to decide by 
lot, produced F. sortir, signifying in law, to issue sen- 
tence, put forth, go out ; and F. ressortir, to have re- 
course, to appeal, to go out again. From L. sors, an 
issue or offspring, are derived sort, an assembly, re- 
sort, a resource. 

RESOURCE, *. a resort, an expedient, means, a further 
chance ; F. ressource, from L. re, and sors. See RE- 

RESPITE, s. a reprieve, suspension, delay ; F. respit, re- 
pit, from L. respicio, in the sense of expecto ; It. as- 
pettare, to wait. 

REST, *. 1. quiet, a cessation from toil, repose, sleep ; G. 
roi; Swed. ro ; T. ruhe; B. rust ; D. rast ; S. rest. 


2. a stay, support, remainder ; F. reste ; It. reslo, from 
L. reslo. 

BESTHARBOW, * a small shrub, with very tough roots ; 
from rest, to stay, and harrotv; F. arrct boef; L. 

RBSTIF, RESTV, a. from REST ; disposed to stay, unwill- 
ing to move, stubborn; F. restif, retif ; It. rettiv, 
from L. restu. 

RESTORE, v. a. to give or bring back, to recover, to re- 
trieve ; F. restorer; It. risl orare; L. restauro. 

RESULT, *. resilience, flying back, an effect, conse- 
quence, conclusion ; F. resullal ; It. retultato, from L. 

RETAIL, RETALE, s. a redivision, sale by small quanti- 
ties; F. retaille; It. retaglio; Sp. retal. See DE- 

RETINUE, *. a train of kept servants, an attendance, a 
meiny ; F. retenu ; It. ritenuti, from L. retineo. 

RETIBE, v. to withdraw, retreat ; F. retirer ; It. retir- 
are ; L. retraho. 

RETREAT, s. a place of retirement, the act of drawing 
back from a superior force ; F. relraile ; Sp. retirada, 
from L. retracto, retraho. See to RETIRE. 

RETRENCH, v. a. to cut off, to lessen, diminish ; F. re- 
trancher ; It. rilrinciare, from L. re and trunco. 

RETRIEVE, v. a. to regain, to recover, refind; F. retrou- 
vrer ; It. rilrovare ; Sp. retrovar. See TROVER. 

RETURN, v. to come or go back, to retort, repay, send 
back, transmit; F. retourner ; It. rilornare ; Sp. re- 
tornar, from re and turn. 

REVEIL, REVELLY, *. a waking from sleep, a watch 
constructed to awaken, a drum beating at dawn to 
rouse' the soldiers ; F. reveille, from L. re and vigilia. 

REVEL, s. nocturnal carousing, ft noisy feast ; F. reveillee, 
veillee ; It. veglia, from L. vigilia. 

REVEL, v. n. 1. from the noun ; to carouse. 

2. To retract, draw back ; from L. revello. 

REVENGE, v. a. to return an injury; F. revenger, reven- 
cher ; It vendicare, from L. vindico. See VENOE. 

REVENUE, *. yearly return of profit, income, tax ; F. 
revenu ; It. rivenuto, from L. revenio. 

REVERIE, REVERY, s. irregular thought, a dreaming or 
musing ; F. reverie, from rever, to have visions or 
dreams ; Sp. and Port, rever, to see again ; L. revi- 
dere, to reflect, review. 

REVILE, v. a. to calumniate, to vilify; L. B. revilio, 
from L. re and tilix. 

REVOLT, . n. to fall off from one to another, to turn 
against, to swerve from duty, to rebel, desert ; F. re- 
voltare ; It. rivoltare, from L. re, and valuta. 

REVY, v. n. in gaming, to raise the bet, to add by spite 
to the former stake ; F. render, from L. re and invi- 
dco. See to VY. 

REWARD, *. a recompence, a requital, a return of the 
worth or value; G. er , T. er, corresponded with L. 
re; and G. and Swed. nerd, ward, was worth, value, 
compensation. See AWARD and REOUERDON. 

RIB, s. a bone in the side of an animal, a piece of timber 
in the belly of a ship ; G. rif; Swed. reef; D. S. and 
B. rib ; T. ribbe. 

RIBALD, *. a loose mean fellow ; It. ribaldo ; F. ribald, 
ribavd : G. ribalder signified the followers of a camp 
of the vilest class ; perhaps in the sense of L. cactdtE, 
from G. rceip, ordure, excrement. 

RIBAND, RIBBON, s. a fillet of silk, a sash : Swed. rub- 
mid ; F. ruban; T. band. 

R I G 

RIBBLE, RABBLE, *. the refuse or scrapings, mean stuff. 

Ric, in the names of persons or places, signifies rich, 
powerful, illustrious; Alaric, all powerful; G. Hial- 
prik ; S. Gehcelpric, help rich, corrupted into F. 
Chilpric : Frideric, peace rich ; G. Harik, Hanrik, 
Harry, Henry, are from G. ha, han, possession, pro- 
perty, and rile. 

RICE, s. a foreign esculent grain ; Sans, riz , A. urooz ; 
<>{t/ ; L. oryza ; Sp. arm ; It. riso ; F. tit ; T, 

RICK, *. a heap of hay, of flax or of grain in the sheaf ; 
G. roek ; Swed. rbic, roga ; B. role ; S. hreac, ricg, 
from G. hreika, to heap up. 

RICKETS, *. weakness of the joints; L. B. rachitis, from 
f >;, the spine. 

RID, t. a. to set free, clear, extricate, separate, destroy ; 
G. rida ; D. redde ; Swed. reda ; S. hredan ; B. red- 
den; T. retten. 

RIDDLE, .v. 1. senigma, a puzzling question ; S. roedels ; 
B. raadsel; T. ratzel, from G. reda, rida ; Swed. rada ; 
S. rcedan, araedan, to explain, to divine. 

2. A kind of coarse sieve, a clearer ; S. hriddle ; Swed. 
rissel ; T. reder, renter ; B. rede, ree, from S. hredan, 
to rid : but Arm. ridell ; W. rhidell, seem to be used 
as L. reticula. 

RIDE, v. 1. to be carried on horseback or in carriage ; G. 
reida ; Swed. rida ; D. ride ; T. reiten ; B. rijden ; 
S. ridan. 

2. To be ready, to be afloat; from G. reda. See ROAD. 

RIDOE, .v. the rising part of the back, a steep protube- 
rance, ground thrown up by the plough, the upper 
part of a slope ; G. rygg ; D. ryg ; S. hrigg ; T. rticl, 
rugge ; Scot. rigg. 

RIDGEL, BIDGLING, s. & male beast imperfectly castrated, 
and therefore very troublesome to the female ; Scot. 
riglan. See RIG. 

RIDING, .v. 1. the act of travelling on horseback or in 
carriage ; from ride. 

2. A judiciary superintendance, a division of a country ; 
from G. ried, rtelt ; Swed. rud ; D. ret ; 8. reed, rihl, 
justice, and G. thing i S. and Swed. thing, a convo- 
cation of the people, contracted into hing. See THID- 

RIDOTTO, s. an assembly of music and singing, an opera ; 
It. ridotto ; F. reduit, from L. reduco. 

RIFE, a. prevalent, abounding, plentiful ; G. rifur ; 
Swed. rif; B. rijff ; S. ryfe. 

RIFFRAFF, *. the scrapings, rakings, refuse, the rabble ; 
It. riijfa raffa ; G. rtfwa ; D. rice / Arm. riria, to 
scrape, to rub. See RIBBLE RABBLE. 

RIFLE, v. a. to rob, to pillage, to plunder ; Swed. rifla , 
T. riffeln; B. ryfelen, frequentative of to REAVE. 

RIFLE GUN, *. a musket grooved within the barrel ; B. 
ruyfel ; Swed. reef el bossa, from reefla, to groove. 

RIFT, *. an aperture, breach, cleft; G. rift. See to 

RIFT, v. 1. from the noun ; to cleave, split, burst. 

2. To belch, eructate ; P. rugh ; G. and Swed. ropa ; L. 

Rio, s. a ridge, a ridgel, a wanton lascivious trick, a 

romp ; apparently from Ridge or Rig, the back, and 

denoting the leaping of cattle. 

RIG, v. a. to dress, make trim, fit out a ship with tackle ; 
S. rvrigan, to cover, to clothe ; but L. B. arrigo was 

R I V 


used like L. dirigo, which produced our word to dress, 
to put in order; B. ryg, however, is a cord or rope; 
and F.funer, to rig a vessel, is from L.funis. 

RIGGISH, a. wanton, romping ; from RIG. 

RIGHT, a. just, true, proper, equitable, legal, straight ; 
G. rett; D. relte ; Swed. rdt ; S. right; B. regt ; T. 
recht ; L. rectus ; It. ritto, rizzo ; F. droit, from L. 

RIGLET, s. a thin flat strip of wood. See REGLET. 

RILL, RILLET, *. a small stream, a rivulet; L. rivula. 

RIM, s. a border, edge, margin ; T. rem, ram, rain ; Pol- 
and Russ. rama ; Isl. ran. See RAND. 

RIME, *. 1. hoar frost; G. hrim ; S. hrim ; Swed. rim ; 
D. rim ; F. reif. 

2. A chink, cleft, small aperture ; G. rimna ; L. rima. 

RIND, s. bark, a husk or pellicle ; S. and T. rinde, sup- 
posed to be from G. hrina, to adhere ; but G. rend, 
the exterior part, is cognate with our word Rand. 

RINDLE, s. a small water course ; S. rynele, from rinnan, 
to run. 

RING, *. 1. any circle; G. Swed. D. T. B. ring; S. firing. 

2. From the verb ; the sound of metals, a set of bells. 

RING, v. to strike bells, to sound, to tinkle ; Isl. hringa ; 
D. ringe ; S. hringan ; Swed. ringa ; B. ringen ; W. 

RING-DOVB, s. a kind of pigeon with a ring of white 
feathers on the neck ; D. ringeldu ; T. ringletaube ; B. 

RINGTAIL, s. a kind of kite with white feathers round 
the tail, a pygarg. 

RINSE, v. a. to wash, to cleanse ; Arm. rinsa ; F. rinser, 
from G. hrein ; Swed. ren ; D. reen ; T. rein, clean, 

RIOT, *. tumult, sedition, loose mirth, debauchery ; L. 
B. riotum ; F. riote. G. rota, hriota ; Swed. ruta, sig- 
nify to run about mutinously, to indulge in debau- 
chery ; Swed. and G. rutare, a sot, a glutton. See 

RIP, v. a. to cut open, unsew, disclose, lacerate ; G. rifa ; 
Swed. ripa ; S. hrypan. 

RIPE, a. mature, fit for use, complete ; S. ripe; B. ryp; 
T. reif: S. rip, riep, harvest. See to REAP. 

RIPPLE, RIMPLE, v. n. 1. to fret on the surface, to flow 
in broken waves ; B. rimpelen ; S. hrympelle, a wrinkle. 
See to RUMPLE. 

2. To clean flax by drawing it through a kind of rake 
for taking the grain from the stalk ; T. riffelen ; G. 
rifa, riva ; T. repe ; Isl. ripell, a harrow, a rake. 

RISE, v. to get up, grow, ascend, swell ; G. risa ; Swed. 

resa ; S. risan, arisan ; B. r'usen. 
RTSEWOOD, *. brushwood, frith, branches of trees ; G. 

hris, ris ; S. hris ; T. rise ; B. rys. A fence made with 

stakes and branches interwoven, is called stake and 

rice in Scotland. See FRITH. 
RISK, *. danger, hazard, chance ; It. rischio ; F. risque ; 

Sp. riesgo : G. htzski ; Swed. haske, peril, from haetta ; 

Swed. hdta, to menace, endanger. See HAZAED. 
RIVE, v. to part asunder, cleave, split ; Swed. riftva, 

from rif, rimna ; G. rifa ; L. rima. 
RIVEL, v. a. to contract into wrinkles ; S. riflan, geri- 

flan; B. ruyfelen, rimpelen. See RUFF and RUMPLE. 
RIVER, s. a large stream running into the sea; It. riviera ; 

F. riviere j Sp. rio, from L. r ivus. 

RIVET, *. a pin clenched at both ends to keep fast ; F. 

rivet ; It. ribato ; Port, ribilo, from L. rebatuo. 
RIX-DOLLAR, s. an imperial dollar; Swed. riksdaler ; F. 

rixdaler, from G. riki ; Swed. rijke ; S. ryce ; B. ryk ; 

T. retch, an empire. See DOLLAR. 
ROACH, s. a small river-fish ; S. hreoce ; F. rosse, rouget ; 

L. B. rossus. 
ROAD, *. 1. a path, a way, a journey ; S. rod; Arm. red, 

supposed to be from the verb to ride, and meaning 

properly a horse or carriage way. Corresponding with 


2. A place of anchorage for ships ; Swed. redd ; D. reed ; 
B. reede ; T. reide ; F. rade ; Sp. rada : G. rada, to 
be ready. 

3. A wharf, a landing place for vessels ; G. rod ; Swed. 
rod ; S. rothra ; whence Rotterdam, Rotherhithe. See 
to Row. 

ROAM, v. n. to rove, to go from place to place ; G. ruma ; 

Isl. ryma ; T. raumen ; P. rumna. See to ROVE and 

ROAN, a. bay sorrel, sorrel grey ; P. uroon ; S. roon ; Isl. 

raudn, rusty red; It. roano ; Sp.ruano; F. rouan, 

are from L. ravus. 
ROAN-TREE, *. the mountain ash or wild service tree ; 

Swed. and D. runtras ; Scot, rountere, from G. Swed. 

S. T. run ; W. rhin, mystery, sorcery, religion, and 

apparently used in the Runic ceremonies. 
ROAR, v. n. to make a loud noise, to bellow ; S. rarian ; 

F. rugir ; It. ruggire ; L. rugire ; G. rautr, is a bel- 

ROARY, a. dewy, moist with dew ; from L. roro. 
ROAST, v. a. to dress meat before the fire, to vex, to 

tease ; F. rostir, rotir ; It. rostire ; Swed. roila ; D. 

riste ; S. rostan ; B. roosten ; T. rosten : L. ustits, 

tostus, rostus, are all from L. uro, to burn, parch, 

ROB, s. inspissated juice of fruit ; P. roob ; Hind, rab ; 

Sp. robe, arope ; F. rob ; S. rope. See SIROP. 
ROB, v. a. to take by violence, plunder ; P. roobu ; G. 

rtipa, rauba ; Swed. rofnia ; D. reeve ; T. rauben ; S. 

refan ; B. rooven ; L. rapio; F. rober ; It. robare ; 

Sp. robar. See to REAVE. 
ROBE, s. a long vest, a garment ; G. rauba, rofa ; S. 

reof, reorva ; Swed. ref; Sp. ropa ; F. robe ; It. rob- 

ba ; L. B. raupa, rauba. See to WRAP. 
ROBINS, *. of a sail, reef bands; D. reefbaands. 
ROCAMBOLE, *. a species of garlic ; Sp. rocambole. 
ROCHET, s. \. a bishop's surplice; F. rochet; It. ro- 

chetto; Arm. rocket ; L. B. rochelum, from Swed. and 

T. rock : S. race ; B. rok ; L. B. roccus. 
2. A fish ; dim. of ROACH ; F. rouget ; 
ROCK, s. 1. a vast mass of stone, a place of strength, a 

fort; Arm. roch ; F. roc, roc he ; It. rocca ; Sp. roca; 

jcixrtf ; L. rupes ; P. and K. intermutate. 
2. The roll of flax or wool from which the thread is 

drawn, a distaff; G. and Swed. rock, rick; T. spin 

rochan ; It. rocca ; Sp; rucca. 
ROCK, v. to shake, to agitate, to move like a cradle, to 

lull ; Isl. hrocka, ruga ; D. rokke ; Swed. ruka, run- 

ka ; F. rocquer. 
ROCKET, *. 1- a kind of artificial firework ; It. raggio, 

raggielo ; A. racket, from L. radius. 

2. A plant and its flower ; It. ruchetta ; F. raquelte ; 
L. eruca. 

3. A kind of garment. See ROCHET. 

R O O 

ROD, s. a pole, a twig, a rood, a perch ; O. rudda ; 

Swed. rodila ; T. rut he ; B. roed ; L. rudis ; ft&x, 

corresponding with L. virga ; whence G. rudgera, to 

use a rod, to stuprate. See YARD. 

ROE, s. 1. a kind of deer ; G. ra ; D. raa ; Swed. and 

6. ra; T. rehe ; B. ree. 
2. RONE, ROAN, the eggs of fish ; G. rogn ; D. rann ; 

T. rogen ; F. rogne ; Arm. rog. 

ROGATION, J. a desire, prayer, the litany ; F. rogation ; 
L. rogatio. 

ROGATION-WEEK, s. the week before Whitsunday, the 
time of a religious parochial procession, supposed to 
be adopted from the Terminalia of the Romans, who 
at that season visited their fields, and, as at the feast 
of Rubigo, prayed that the fruits of the earth might 
be preserved from blight. 

ROGUE, *. a vagrant, a knave, a sturdy beggar ; F. co- 
quin was used to signify a knave, and also a wag, as 
a term of slight tenderness ; but coquin rogue was an 
insolent knave, from L. arrogo. In E. rogue alone 
came to signify either or both terms. 

ROIST, ROUST, v. n. to swagger, domineer, vociferate, 
boast, bluster ; G. rosta ; Swed. rusta : G. raust ; 
Swed. roust, vociferation, from G. rodd ; Isl. rautt, 

ROLL, * what is circular or rotatory, a round body, 
paper or any thing rolled up, a record or writing, a 
catalogue, a register ; F. rouleau, rolle ; T. rdle ; 
Arm. roll; W. rhol; Sp. rodilla, from L. rotula. 

ROLL, v. from the noun; to move in a circle, to go 
round, enwrap; F. roller; T. rollen. 

ROLLY POLLY, ROWLY POWLY, s. a sort of childish 
game, a turning dance ; F. router poulie, to turn a 
pulley ; It. ruollo, a waltz. 

HOMAGE, s. noise, bustle, tumult; G. romur ; Swed. 
rom, clamour. 

ROMANCE, *. a fiction, fable, tale ; Sp. romance ; It. ro- 
manza; F. roman, a Roman or Romanish dialect 
spoken in the south of France, part of Spain and 
Italy, into which the Troubadours translated the wild 
adventures and romantic tales of the Moors. 

ROMP, *. a rude wanton girl, rough violent play. See 

RONDEAU, s. a kind of ancient poetry, beginning and 
ending with the same measure or strain ; F. rondeau. 

RON ION, *. 1. the kidney ; F. rognion, from L. ren. 

2. A gross, vulgar, scurvy woman ; from F. rogne ; It. 
rogna ; Sp. rona, the scab, the itch. See to ROYNE. 

ROOBLE, s. a Russian silver coin. See ROOPEE. 

ROOD, #. 1. a pole or perch of 16 feet long, a quarter 
of an acre. See ROD. 

2. The cross of Christ; G. roda; S. and Swed. rod; T. 
rode, an image, was afterwards applied to the figure 
of crucifixion ; A. rayont ; Heb. reout, countenance, 
appearance, visage, from raa, to see. 

ROOF, *. the top or cover of a house, or of the mouth, 
the palate ; G. reef; S. hrqf; T. raffen. 

ROOK, *. 1. a gregarious frugivorous bird; confounded, 
vulgarly, in most languages, with the crow and ra- 
ven, which, being birds of prey, are never seen in 
flocks ; G. raek ; Swed. raak ; S. hroc. 

2. A sharper, a rapacious fellow, a cheat ; T. robe and 
It. CO/TO are used in this sense. See RAVBN. 

3. The castle at chess ; P. rukh ; A. roch, a dromedary ; 
G. rog ; It. rocco ; F. roque. 

R O U 

ROOM, *. extent, space, place, stead ; G. Swed. S. rum ; 

D. rom ; B. ruim. 
ROOPEB, *. a silver Indian coin ; Sans, ropya, from 

roop ; P. roo, a face, a countenance ; S. roopuhla, a 

rooble ; but, from the aversion of the Mussulmans to 

images, it now bears only a superscription. 
ROOST, s. a place whereon a bird sits to sleep, repose ; 

S. hrost ; B. roest. See REST. 
ROOT, *. the part of a plant in the ground, from which 

vegetables spring, the first cause, an ancestor; G. 

rot; Swed. rot; D. roed; pi'; Arm. rizia ; W. 

raidd; L. radix. 
ROPE, *. a thick cord, a row of things strung together, 

a cluster, a bunch; G. rep; Swed. reep ; S. rape; 

B. reep, roop ; It. refe; T. repe. See REEF. 
ROQUELAURE, *. a sort of man's cloak ; F. roquelaure ; 

Sp. roclo. See ROCKET. 
ROSARY, s. a form of devotion, the mass, a string of 

beads for prayer ; L. B. rosarium ; Sp. and It. rosa. 

rio; F. rosaire, from G. and Swed. rosa, roose, wor- 

ROSE, pret. of the verb to RISE. 
ROSE, *. I. a fragrant flower, the emblem of love and 

secrecy ; L. It. and Sp. rosa ; F. D. S. T. and B. 

rose. It was dedicated to Venus and Isis. 

2. An erysipelas ; from its rosy colour. 

3. Water, used only in the expression, to gather a rose ; 
a play on W. rhos, which signifies a rose and also ir- 

ROSE NOBLE, *. an ancient gold coin, stamped with a 

rose, and worth sixteen shillings. 
ROSEMARY, *. a medicinal herb ; L. rot marina ; It. 

rosmarino ; F. romarin. 

ROSIN, s . turpentine inspissated ; L. resina ; F. resine. 
ROT, *. putridity, decay, a distemper in sheep ; Isl. S 

and B. rot ; Swed. rot. 

ROTE, s. 1. a harp, a lyre; T. rotte; F. rote; L. B. 

rotta, rodda. 
2. Words uttered from memory ; F. routine ; L. ro- 


ROTHBR BEASTS, s. blaek cattle ; S. hrother, oxen, kine. 
ROVE, v. n. 1. to range, ramble, wander. See to ROAM. 
2. To pirate, to plunder; D. rove; B. rooven. See to 


ROVER, *. 1. from the verb; a rambler, a wanderer. 
2. From the verb ; a pirate ; B. zee rower, a sea robber. 
ROUGE, s. red paint for the face ; F. rouge ; It. rosto ; 

L. russus. 
ROUGH, a. rugged, indelicate, coarse, harsh, austere, 

rude, stormy; G. hroch ; S. hruhge ; Swed. ruse ' 

B. route ; T. rauh. 
ROUND, a. circular, without angles, plain, candid, brisk 

Y.rond'; It. rondo; Sp. redondo; T.runde; Swed! 

and D. rund, from L. rotundus. 
ROUND, v. 1. to make round, to surround, go round. 
2. To whisper, torown; G. runa ; S. runian; Chald. 


ROUNDELAY, *. a kind of ancient poetry, a song ; from 

round and lay. See RONDEAU. 
Roup, *. a call, an auction by outcry, a disease in poultry 

attended with a hooping ; from G. and Swed. ropa ; 

S. hreopau ; B. roepen. 
ROUSE, v. a. to stir up to action, to excite, to wake from 

rest, to haul in a cable; G. reisa; reisa diur, to rouse 

the deer ; Swed. resa. See to RAISE. 

R U F 


ROUSE, .RousEH, *. a dose of liquor too large ; Swed. 
rus ; T. rausch ; O. E. runs, noise, intoxication. 

ROUT, *. 1. a mixed assembly, a clamorous multitude, 
the common people; It. ruota ; F. rotnre: G. and 
Swed. role ; B. rot ; T. rotte ; L. B. ruta, routa, rot- 
ta, signify an assembly of soldiers, a conflux of peo- 
ple, from G. rota, which nearly corresponds with L. 
roto. See CROWD. 

2. The defeat of an army ; F. route ; It. rolta, from L. 

3. Noise, clamour ; either for riot, or from Isl. rauta, S. 
reotan, to roar. 

ROUTE, *. a road, a journey ; F. route ; It. rotta ; Sp. 
rauta, ruta, from L. via rula. See Row. 

Row, s. a rank , a file, a number of things ranged in line ; 
P. rah, radah, rayha ; G. and Swed. ra, rad ; S. ra, 
rcewa ; T. rah, reifte ; B. ry ; whence apparently F. 
rue ; Sp. rua ; It. ruha, ruga, a row of houses, a 

Row, v. to impel with oars ; G. roa ; Swed. ro ; D. roe ; 
S. rowan; B. roeijen. 

ROWEL, s. a little wheel, the points of a spur turning on 
an axis, a seton ; F. rouelle ; S. rodajuela ; L. rotula. 

ROWEN, s. after grass, roughings ; T. rauhe grass. See 

ROYAL, a. regal, kingly, noble ; L. regalis ; F. royal ; 

It. reale ; Sp. real, from L. rex, corresponding with 

Sans, raja ; Heb. raah ; Coptic, ro ; Arm. roue ; W. 

rhtvy, rhi ; I. riogh ; It. re ; Sp. rey ; F. roi, a king ; 

connected with G. riki ; Swed. rike ; S. rice; T. 

retch; Sans, raj, government; Coptic, pha ro, the 

ROYNE, v. a. to bite, to gnaw, to itch ; F. rogner, ron- 

ger ; Sp. ronzar ; L. rodo, 

RUB, v. to make a friction, to fret, scour, smooth, get 
through difficulties ; G. riufa ; Swed. rifrva, rubba ; 
T. reiben, reipen ; W. rhubio. See to SCRUB. 

RUBBISH, RUBBLE, s. ruins of buildings, what is rub- 
bed or broken off, refuse. 

RUBRIC, *. the contents or title of a law-book, formerly 
written with red ink ; L. rubrica ; F. rubrique. 

RUBY, *. a red gem ; F. rubis ; Sp. rub i ; T. rubin ; 

from L. rubeus, rubens. 
RUD, v. to make red ; G. ruda ; S. rudian, reodian. 

See RED. 
RUDDER, s. the machine that steers the ship ; Swed. 

roder ; S. rather ; B. roeder ; T. ruder ; D. roer. See 

to Row. 
RUDDLE, *. from RUD ; red earth, oker ; G. rudul. See 


RUDDY, a. from RUD ; approaching to redness ; S. rudu. 
RUDE, a. rough, harsh, ignorant, savage; F. rude; It. 

rudo ; L. rudis. 
RUE, v. to grieve, lament, regret ; G. rygga ; S. reotvian ; 

T. reuen. 
RUE, *. an herb ; F. rue ; L. ruta. 

RUELLE, *. a small private circle or assembly, a small 

street. See Row. 
RUFF, s. a state of roughness, a linen rugose ornament 

for the neck, a bird with feathers resembling a ruff, 

the female of which is called reeve. 
RUFF, v. to trump at cards ; a vulgar word formed on 

the supposition that triumph was the riumph. 

RUFFIAN, s. a robber, a murderer, a brutal fellow ; 
Swed. rof; S. reqf, spoliation, violation, may have 
produced our word; but It. ruffiano ; T. ruffian; Sp. 
nifian; F. ruffien, signify a whore-keeper, a pimp, a 
bully to a bawdy-house, and ntfiana is a bawd ; ap- 
parently from L. rufus, because prostitutes at Rome 
wore false hair of a golden colour. 

RUFFLE, v. a. 1. to ornament with something like a 
ruff, to wrinkle, to plait. 

2. From rough ; to make rugged, to irritate, fret, dis- 
turb, storm. 

RUG, *. a rough woollen cloth for beds. 
RUM, s. the American name for spirit distilled from su- 
gar. It was called kill-devil by sailors, and thence, in 

cant, signified a parson. 
RUMBLE, v. n. to make a hoarse low noise ; G. rymbla ; 

Swed. rambla; D.rvmle; T. rummelen ; D. romme- 

RUMMAGE, s. a turning over things, a close search ; F. 

remuage ; L. removatio. 
RUMMER, s. a large glass cup; D roemer , B. roemer ; 

S. rumor, from rum, large, wide. 
RUMP, s. the buttocks, the end of the back bone, the 

tail of a fowl ; S. ropp ; B. romp ; Swed. rumpa ; 

D. rumpe; T. rumpf. See CROUP. 
RUMPLE, v. a. to press out of shape, to corrugate, to 

wrinkle; B. rimpel; S. hyrmpelle ; T. rumpf el, a 

wrinkle. See RUFFLE and CRUMPLE. 
RUN, v. n. to move swiftly, flow, become liquid, emit 

liquor, smuggle; G. renna ; M. G. rinnan ; Swed. 

renna ; S. rinnan ; T. and B. rennen. 

RUNDLET, RUNLET, s. a small round cask. 

RUNG, pret. of the verb to RING. 

RUNNET, s. the juice of a calfs maw used to make milk 
coagulate; Isl. renna miolk ; S. rynning ; corres- 
ponding with lopper, to run together. 

RUNT,*, a dwarf ox or cow; G. rian naut, small cat- 
tle. See NEAT. 

RUSH, s. 1. a plant; G. raus, ris ; Swed. rusk; S. rise ; 
T. rusch; Arm. raous. 

2. From the verb ; a run, a violent course. 

RUSH, v. n. to enter or move on with violence, tumul- 
tuous rapidity ; H. rutz ; Swed. rusa ; T. ruschen ; 
S. hrysan, hrusan ; Arm. rusa ; L. ruo. 

RUSK, s. a kind of biscuit ; A. ruzg. 

Russ, s. a native of Russia ; A. rais ; Heb. rishai ; W. 
rhys ; G. hrese ; T. reise ; B. retis, a warrior, a giant. 

RUSSET, a. reddish brown, rustic, coarse; F. rousset ; 
It. rossalo, from L. russus. 

RUSSETING, *. an apple of a russet colour. 

RUST, * . a crust grown over iron ; G. rid ; Swed. rost ; 
D. rust ; T. rost ; B. roest ; S. rust, from its reddish 

RUSTLE, v. n. to make a noise like silks rubbed against 
each other ; S. hristlan ; B. ryselen, frequentative of 
Isl. hrista ; Swed. rysta. 

RUT, v. n. to copulate like deer ; B. rytan ; F. ruter, 
perhaps from G. rutur, a ram. Sans, ruti is venery. 

RUT, s. 1. The copulation of deer; from the verb; F. 

rut ; Arm. rut ; W. rhewydd. 
2. The track of a wheel ; Sp. rodada ; It. ruotaia, from 

L. rota. 

RUTH, *. pity, mercy, tenderness. See to RUE. 
RYE, *. a coarse kind of bread corn ; Swed. ryg, rog ; 

S. ryge ; T. rogken ; B. rogge, from its rough beard. 

2 A 



SIIAS in English the same hissing sound as in other 
languages, and unhappily prevails in so many of our 
words, that it produces in the ear of a foreigner a 
continued sibilation. To this frequency several causes 
contribute. We have adopted it from the Gothic, as 
the sign of the genitive case, and, from the Latin and 
French, to form the plural number of nouns. We 
sometimes change the Latin ex into s at the begin- 
ning of words ; as Sample for Example, Spend for 
Expend. The Goths, Greeks and Celts, in general, 
were accustomed to prefix S to their nouns and verbs 
in the sense of our S or Is, the Welsh Ys, either to 
vary the meaning, in some sort, or produce greater 
intensity. Thus we have Bar Spar, Deep Steep, 
Heel Seel, Leazy Sleazy, Light Slight, Lough 
Slough, Melt Smelt, Neese Sneese, Piece Spice, Pike 
Spike, Plash Splash, Pleach Splice, Quarry Square, 
Quash Squash, Rivel Shrivel, Tumble Stumble. In 
the beginning of words S has invariably its natural 
sound ; in the middle it is sometimes uttered with a 
stronger appulse of the tongue to the palate, like Z ; 
as Rose, Osier, Busy ; but again the natural sound is 
retained in Loose, Rush, Desolate, for which there 
appears to be no rule. At the end of monosyllables 
it is simply S, as in This ; sometimes Z, as in Was, 
and generally where substituted in the termination 
of verbs for eth, as Gives, Has, Blows, for Giveth, 
Hath, Haveth, Bloweth. No noun singular termi- 
nates now with S single. Therefore in words written 
with diphthongs, and naturally long, an E is added 
at the end, as House, Goose ; and where the syllable 
is short, the S is doubled, as Wilderness, Distress, 
anciently Wildemesse, Distresse. 

SABBATH, . the day of rest, Sunday ; Heb. fhabath, he 

SAIII.K. 1. A. an animal, a black fur. 

'2. n. A black colour in heraldry ; A. sumool ; G. safali ; 
Swed. saM ; T. :W7 ; D. sobel ; L. B. zibella ; It. 
.ilirllini ; Sp ccbellina ; F. table, sebeline. 

SABRK, *. a cimeter, a broad crooked word ; A. teif; 


Heb. saipha ; Swed. D. and T. tabel; Sp. table ; F. 

SACCADE, s. a shake or violent check given by the rider 
to his horse, by drawing both reins suddenly when 
he bears heavily on the bit ; F. saccade ; Port, sacado ; 
Sp. sacudida ; L. succutio. 

SACK, s.l. a large bag or pouch; A. saq ; H. tak ; 
rtixxtf ; L. saccus ; Arm. and I. sac , W. sach ; F. sac ; 
It. s acco ; Sp. saco ; G. sakk ; Swed. tack; D. seek; 
T. sack ; B. zak ; S. .vr. Sakus is also used in Ma- 
lay, which is the lingua franca of the East. 

2. A loose robe, a woman's gown ; /( ; L. sagwn ; 
Arm. sake ; F. say ; Sp. tayo. 

3. From the verb ; plunder. 

4. A sweet wine now called Canary, but formerly pro. 
duced at Xeque in Morocco. A sweet wine was 
formerly made in England from a raisin or dried 
grape, called seco in Spain, and thence named sack. 

SACK, v. a. 1. to put into a sack. 

2. To pillage, to ravage ; F. saccager ; It. sacchegiare ; 
Sp. saquear. 

SACKBUT, s. a musical instrument; F. saqueboule ; It 
sacabuche, from sack, a bag, and A. boog ; P. book ; 
Heb. bvk, a trumpet. 

SACKCLOTH, *. haircloth used for sacks ; Heb. sak, be- 
cause made of hair. 

SACRISTY, *. the vestry room of a church ; L. sacritta. 

SAD, a. 1. sorrowful, afflictive, melancholy; G. sat, tut, 
grief, wail, from M. G. sytan ; S. sicetan ; Scot, tit, 
to grieve, to sigh. 

2. Cohesive, fixed, staid ; G. seda, seta, corresponding 
with L. sedeo; Scot, to sad in the faith, to fix in tin- 

SADDLE, *. a seat on a horse's back, two loins of mutton 
not separated ; G. sadul ; D. sadel ; S. sadl ; B. sadel ; 
T. satlel; W.sadcll; L. srlla, xedile : G. teda, sc/u. 
and L. sedeo, signified to sit. 

SAFB, a. free from danger ; F. tavf; L. talvut. 


S A S 

SAFFLOWER, *. bastard saffron; A.oosfoor; B. saffloert; 

L. carthamus. 
SAFFRON, s. a yellow flower used medicinally ; A. zuu- 

furan, zufran, yellow ; F. safran ; Sp. azafran. 
SAG, v. to depress, hang heavy, load ; G. and Swed. 

siga ; S. sigan ; Scot. seg. See SWAG. 
SAO, s. a plant that grows in watery places. See SEDGE. 
SAGE, s. 1. a wise man ; It. saggio ; F. sage ; L. sagax. 
2. An herb ; F. gauge ; L. salvia. 

SAGO, s. the pith of a species of palm tree ; Hind, sagoo. 
SAIL, s. 1. a canvas sheet, a vessel that carries sail; G. 

sigl; Swed. segel ; D. seyl ; S. *eg; B. seyhel. 
2. A rope, a cord; G.sail; Swed. sele; S.seel; T. sell; 

B. zee/. 
SAIM, s, hogs lard, the fat of swine ; A. saman, butter ; 

L. sevum ; F. sain ; W. fai/, suet, grease. 
SAINFOIN, s. an herb used for feeding cattle ; F. sain- 
foin : L. sanctum foenum. 
SAKE, *. cause, account, regard ; P. sakht ; G. sak ; S. 

sac ; T. sack ; B. zaak ; L. B. seca. 
SAKER, *. a kind of hawk, a small piece of cannon ; F. 

sacre ; T. sacker ; L. accipiter sacer. 
SALAD, s. raw herbs for food ; F. salade ; Sp. ensalada ; 

It. in salata, from I/, salitus. 
SALAMANDER, * a fabulous animal supposed to live in 

fire ; F. salamandre ; L. salamandra ; A. and P. su- 

SALARY, *. a periodical payment; F. salaire; L. B. sa- 

lidarium, from L. solidus, a piece of money. 

SALE, *. act of selling, vent, market ; G. sala ; B. saal. 
See to SELL. 

SALEP, *. the root of the male orchis dried ; Turkish 

SALIENT, a. in heraldry, leaping, springing; F. salient; 
L. saliens. 

SALIQUE LAW, s. a charter of rights introduced by the 
Franks under Clovis, and supposed to be named from 
a small community inhabiting the banks of the river 
Saal. But G. and F. sal signified a court of govern- 
ment ; T. salgut, seignorial property ; and this code 
was apparently a court regulation. G. scelia, from 
which we have our word to sell, signified properly 
to transfer, to deliver over : Whence G. sali ; T. sal, 
transfer, produced G. arfsal, hereditary succession; 
T. salmon, an executor ; salbuch, a register book or 
record of territorial inheritance, contracts or privi- 
leges. See SALOON. 

SALLOW, *. the willow tree; F. saule ; Swed. salg; S. 
seal; L. salix. 

SALLOW, a. yellow, sickly ; B. zallotv ; Isl. suaelig, tawny. 

SALLY, v. n. to rush out, make an eruption ; F. saillir ; 
L. sulio. 

SALLY, *. dim. of Sarah ; a woman's name ; in the same 
way that L. puera produced puella. 

SALMAGUNDI, s. a mixture of salad and pickled meats ; 
It. salami condi ; F. salmagondi, from L. sal, and 

SALOON, j. a long spacious hall ; F. salon ; It. salane, 
from G. T. and S. sal; F. salle, a hall, a court ; Upsal, 
the high court. 

SALPICON, *. cold beef cut in slices, and eaten with salt, 
oil and vinegar ; Sp. salpicon. 

SALT, *. a well known seasoning; G. Swed. and D. salt; 
S. sealt ; T. sallz; B. tout; L. sal; A; It. sale; Sp. 

sal; F. sel ; W. hal; Arm. halt. '\iUs ; G. salt; L. 

salum, signified also the sea. 
SALT CELLAR, s. a small vessel to hold salt ; F. saliere ; 

It. saliera. 
SALTIER, s. in heraldry, a figure in form of St Andrew's 

cross, said to represent an engine for taking wild 

beasts ; L. saltuarius ; F. sautoir, belonging to a forest. 
SALTPETRE, s. nitre ; F. salpetre ; L. sal petra. 
SALVE, s. an emplaster, remedy, cure ; S. sealf; T. satbe ; 

D. salve, from L. salvo. 

SALVER, *. a large plate on which any thing is present- 
ed ; Sp. salva, salvilla, from L. salvo. 
SALVO, s. a reservation, exception, plea ; It. salvo ; F. 

sauf. See SAVE. 
SAME, a. being of the like kind ; Sans, tarn ; G. same ; 

Swed. and D. samme ; S. and T. sam, from P. and 

G. sa, so. See SOME. 
SAMPHIRE, *. an herb used for pickling ; F. Saint Pierre* 

St Peter's wort. 
SAMPLE, s. a pattern, specimen, example, part of the 

whole ; L. exemplum. 
SAND, s. gravelly earth, stone reduced to small particles; 

G. Swed. D. S. T. and B. sand. See SUNDER. 
SANDAL, s. a loose shoe, a kind of clog ; *?<*'/(> ; L. 

SANDARAK, s. the gum of a tree ; A. sundaros ; P. san- 

darack ; L. sandaraca. 
SANDEL-WOOD, SANDERS, s. a valuable Indian wood ; 

Sans, and A. sundul. 
SANDEVER, s. the sulphureous salts cast up in making 

glass; F. sain de verre ; L. sevum de vitro. 

SAP, *. 1. vital juice of plants; G. sofa; Swed. sqftva ; 
D. soft ; T. sapf; S. scepe ; B. tap ; L. sapa ; Sp. 
saba ; F. seve, supposed to be from oirtf. A. saab is 

2. A spade or mattock ; r**<p!n ; L. B. sappa ; F. sape ; 

It. zappa. 
SAP, v. a. from the noun ; to undermine, to subvert by 

SAPPHIRE, s. a blue precious stone; Heb. saphir ; A.. 

safeir; L. sapphirus ; F. saphir ; It. saffiro. 
SARABAND, *. a Moorish dance ; A. zaraband ; Sp. za- 

rabando; F. sarabande. 
SARACEN, s. a disciple of Mahomet ; It. Saraceno ; F. 

Sarazin ; T. Saracen, from A. Sharken, an inhabitant 

of Sahara or the desert, but particularly applied now 

to that part between the Nile and the Red Sea ; 

whence, A. sharaka, a robber. 

SARAH, s . a woman's name, a princess ; the feminine of 

Heb. sar, a lord or sovereign. See TOR. 
SARCENET, s. a fine woven silk formerly brought from 

Syria when possessed by the Saracens ; L. B. Sa- 


SARCLE, v. to weed corn ; F. sarcler ; L. sarculo. 
SARDA, SARDIN, s. a small fish, a pilchard caught near 

Sardinia ; F. sardine ; It. sardella. See ANCHOVY. 
SARDINE STONE, s. a sardonyx, found in Sardinia. 
SARPLER, SARPLIER, s. a packing cloth, a coarse sack ; 

F. serpillere; L. B. sarplera ; Sp. harpil/era, tow, from 

L. carpo. 
SARSE, *. a fine sieve ; F. sas ; Sp. sedazo ; It. setaccio, 

from L. seta. 

SART, *. woodland turned into tillage. See ASSART. 
SASH, s. 1. a silk belt or ribband. It. sessa, is said to 

have been used in this sense, although not now to be 

S C A 

found ; but it corresponds exactly with the P. and 
Turk, cummerbund, and was no doubt adopted dur- 
ing the Crusades. 

2. The sliding frame of a window; F. chassis. 

SASSAFRAS, *. an American medical shrub ; Sp. salsafras. 

SATAN, s. the devil ; A. Sheitan ; Heb. Satan, the ad- 
versary, the accuser. 

SATIN, *. a soft close shining silk, said to have been 
made at Sidon ; Heb. saden ; Sp. sedeno ; T. seiden ; 
F. satin. 

SATRAP, s. a peer, a chief governor ; P. satrab ; L. sa- 

SATURDAY, *. the last day of the week, the Jewish sab- 
bath ; S. Sceterdag ; B. Saterdagh. T. Samslag ; F. 
Samedi, seem to be G. Siaum, the seventh or sabbath ; 
but Swed. Lvgerdag ; D. Laverdag, correspond with 
the G. name Thuatrdag, the day of ablution. Our 
word seems to be L. Salurni dies. 

SAVAGE, a. wild, uncultivated, cruel ; F. sauvage ; It. 
selvaggio ; Sp. salvage, from L. silva. 

SAVANNA, s. an open meadow ; Sp. sabanna, a sheet, a 
plot, from A. saff, suff', a mat or carpet. 

SAUCE, *. something eaten with food to improve the 
taste ; F. sauce ; It. salsa ; L. salsus. 

SAUCER, *. a small plate for a tea cup; F. saucier; 
Swed. saUser, a cup for holding sauce ; but P. cha ser 
is a tea bowl. 

SAUCY, a. insolent, pert, impudent ; L. salax ; It. and 
F. salace. 

SAVE, t). to preserve from danger or ruin, keep frugally, 
lay up, rescue ; F. sauver ; L. salvo. 

SAUNTER, t>. n. to loiter, to wander about idly ; L. B. 
segnitare, from L. segnitas. 

SAVOUR, s. a taste, scent, odour; F. saveur ; Sp. sabor ; 
It. sapore ; L. sapor. 

SAUSAGE, s. a kind of meat pudding; F. saucisse; It. 
salsiccia; L. salsicium. 

SAW, *. a dentated instrument ; It. sega ; F. scie ; T. 
sage ; S. sige ; D. saug ; Swed. sng ; B. zaog : L. seco 
and G. sega, signified to cut. 

SAY, v. a. to speak, tell, utter ; G. saga ; T. sagen ; D. 
sige ; S. stcgan ; B. zeggen ; Swed. seija ; Coptic saji. 

SCAB, x. an incrustation over a sore, a disease incident 

to sheep; L. scabies. 
SCABBARD, *. the sheath of a sword ; G. skalpur ; Swed. 

scalp, from G. skyla, to cover, defend. 

SCAFFOLD, *. a temporary stage ; L. scamnum, scamillum, 

scabcllttm ; L. B. scabellatum ; F. escabeau, echafaud ; 

B. schavot ; D. skaffol ; T. schaffot. 
SCALD, v. a. to burn with hot liquor ; Sp. escaldar ; It. 

scaldare, from L. callidus. 
SCALD, a. scabby, paltry, scurvy, coming off in scabs or 

tcules. See SCALL. 
SCALE, .. 1. a balance, properly the dish of a balance; 

G.fkal; Swed. skiil ; S. scale ; D. skaal ; T. schaalc ; 

B. school, literally a shell ; wag schaal, a weigh shell. 

2. Part of the covering of a fish ; G. skal ; Swed. skaal; 
It. tcaglia ; F. ecaille. 

3. A ladder, any thing divided like steps, a line of dis- 
tances, degrees of a circle, ganimut; L. and It. scala ; 
F echelle. 

SCALE, v. a. 1. To climb by ladders, to mount. 

S C A 

2. To discharge the useless content* of cannon ; G. 

sk'dia ; S. scylan ; B. sheelen, to separate, disperse ; 

Scot, skailing of the kirk, the emptying of the church. 
SCALL, *. scabbiness, the scald head ; L. B. and It. scab- 

biola ; Scot, skaiv ; O. F. esgale, gale, from L. sca- 

SCALLD, *. a Gothic poet, priest or bard; from gala, to 

sing, guild, enchantment ; whence sgalld, skalld and 

enchanter, which originated in song. See BARD. 
SCALLION, *. a small green onion; Sp. ascalonia ; It. 

scalogna ; L. B. asca, from the town of Ascalon, still 

famous for onions. 
SCALLOP, *. a pectinated shell fish ; B. schulp, schelp, 

from shell. 
SCALP, *. the skin and flesh on the scull ; B. schelp; It. 

SCAMBLE, v. to shuffle along, to move awkwardly ; D. 

skiavole, from skue, oblique ; It. scambilare, from L. 

SCAMPER, v. n. to run with speed, to decamp ; G. skam- 

pa ; Swed. skimpa, skumpa ; T. schumpfen ; B. 

schampen ; It. sgambare, to run quickly and irregu- 

larly : but It. scampare ; F. escamper, ecamper, sig- 

nify properly to decamp, escape, from L. ex campo. 
SCAN, v. a. to count the feet of a verse, to examine nice- 

ly ; L. scando. 
SCANDAL, *. calumny, infamy ; (rx'3aA ; L. scanda- 

lum; F. scandale. 
SCANT, a. sparing, scarce, short ; P. kaml ; G. skamt ; 

Scot, skimpet. 
SCANTLING, *. timber cut into a small size, a sample, 

model, frame-work, proportion in building ; Sp. - 

cantillon; F. eschantillon, echanlillon, fromL. scindula. 
SCAR, s. 1. the mark of a burn or sore; F. escarre ; 

2. An opening, a cut or gash, a division of the skin, the 

mark of a cut or wound; G. skar, skard ; Swed. 

skarra ; S. SCOT, scorn ; D. and B. skaar, signifying 

also a cleft or division in rocks, and apparently pro- 

ducing the names of Scarborough, Scarsdale, Schorn- 

cliff, &c. See AR, CARVE, SCARP, SHARD, SHRED, 

SCARCE, a. rare, uncommon, not plenty ; It. scarso ; F. 

echars ; Arm. scars, fromL. cnreo : but B. schaars 

is apparently from kors. See SHORT. 
SCARE, v. a. to strike with sudden fear ; from G. skiar, 

fright. See SHY. 
SCARF, s. a loose covering for the shoulders ; Swed. 

skarf, skcerp ; T. scherfe ; F. echarpe: S. sceorp, a 

SCARIFY, v. a. to lance the skin, to cup ; L. scarifico ; 

F. scarifier, from oWjipej, a lancet. 
SCARLET, *. a deep red colour ; A. yxquerlat ; G. skar- 

latz; Swed. skarlakan; B. scharlaken ; T. scharlach; 

It. scarlatto ; Sp. escarlata ; Y. ecarlate ; Sclav, csar- 

ly, cxcarlac, kingly red, from czar and lac. G. basn ; 

S. basu, sovereign, imperial, was also purple. See 

SCARP, s. a breach, talus or slope in fortification ; ap- 

parently from It. scarpo ; L. discerpo, or perhaps from 

SCATCH, *. a check bit for a bridle; F. escache. 

SCATCHB, *. a stilt, a prop, a pole; F. echasse; T. 
scheit ; S. scide. See SKID. 

SCATB, *. 1. a prickly fish; Vf.ys cath, morgath ; I. 



tgath, scat, the cat fish ; but D. shade ; S. tcadda, 

denote the scath of its prickles ; L. B. squatina. See 

2. An iron to slide with ; G. and Swed. skid ; D. skceite; 

B. schaat. 
SCATH, s. damage, injury, harm, waste; Swed. skad ; 

S. scead ; T. schade ; D. skade ; I. sgath. 
SCATTER, v. a. to spread thinly, to disperse, to sprinkle ; 

Swed. squdltra ; S. scateran ; B. schelleren. See to 

SCAVAGE, SCAVINAGE, is. a municipal office ; F. echevi- 

nage, from echevin ; T. schaff'ner, schoff: schajfen ; 

G. skapa, to arrange. 
SCAVENGER, s. a person employed to clean streets ; Sp. 

escobonero ; It. scopatore, from L/. scopa ; L. B. sca- 

phanarius, from L. scapha. 
SCENT, v. a. to perfume, imbue with odour ; F. sentir ; 

It. sentire, to discern by the senses, to smell. 
SCEPTER, s. the staff of royalty carried in the hand ; 

TO)5r]go ; L. sceplrum ; F. sceptre. 
SCHOOL, s. a place for education ; o^o*} ; L. schola ; 

Arm. scol ; W. ysgol ; I. scoil ; F. ecole ; It. scola ; 

Sp. escuela ; G. skola ; Swed. skole ; D. scale; 8. 

scol; T. schide ; B. school. 
SCHREIGHT, SHRIKE, s. the mistle thrush ; S. scric, 

from its cry. 
SCIATIC, s. the hip gout ; L. B. ischiatica, from i<r%i'oi, 

the hip. 
SCION, J. a small twig, a graft ; F. don, scion, from L. - 

turn, insilum. 
SCISSORS, *. pi. a small pair of shears ; F. ciseaux, from 

L. scindo. 

SCOAT, SCOTCH, v. n. to prop, to stop the wheel of a car- 
riage. See SCATCHE. 

SCOBS, the dross of metal, potashes, refuse ; L. scobs. 
SCOFF, *. an expression of scorn; G. skimp; Swed. 

skiemp ; T. schimpf; B. sclnmp ; L. scomma. 
SCOLD, v. to blame, accuse, reproach rndely ; D. skylde ; 

B. schelden ; T. schelten, beschuldigen, from G. 

skulld ; S. scyld ; B. schuld, blame. 
SCONCE, s. 1. a wall, screen, protection, bulwark ; Isl. 

and Swed. skans ; T. schanz ; B. schans, from G. 

skya, to cover. 

2. A candlestick for a wall. 

3. A scull, the head ; L. concha, like testa, signified a 

4. A fine for eschewance. 

SCONCE, v. a. from the noun ; to mulct for neglect. 

SCOOP, s. a kind of large ladle ; Swed. skop ; T. schuppe; 
B. schop ; Arm. scob ; F. escape, ecope. See SHOVEL. 

SCORCH, v. to burn superficially ; B. schrooken ; S. scor- 
cian. See to SEAR. 

SCORE, s. a notch, a long incision, a line drawn, an ac- 
count of debt, the number twenty ; G. skor, a mark ; 
S. scor, twenty. See to SHEAR and SHARE. 

SCORN, v. a. to revile, despise, treat with contempt ; It. 
scornare ; Sp. escarnir; F. escorner, ecorner; T. scher- 
nen, from i*g<5, j^y, with It. negative s for L. dis. 

SCORPION, s. a venomous reptile, one of the signs of the 
zodiac, a scourge ; A. uqrub ; L. Scorpio ; F. scorpion. 

SCOT, *. 1. a native of Scotland; S. sceott; T. schot, 
an invader ; I. senile, a wanderer. See SCOUT. 

2. A share, contribution, payment, a parish rate, tri- 
bute; G. skat, shut ; Swed. skott ; B. schot; S. scol; 

F. es- 
; F. es- 


F. escot, ecot ; Sp. wco<e ; It. scollo ; I. isgot ; L. B. 
scoltum : Isl. skaul ; Swed. scatl ; S. sceat, a por- 
tion, division, collection, treasure, are apparently from 

G. and Swed. skeda ; S. sceadan ; T. scheiden, to 

SCOTCH, v. a. to cut superficially, to bruise, to break ; 

It. schiacciare ; F. escacher, ecacher ; T. quetschen ; 

B. quetsen ; Scot, scutch ; L. quatio. 
SCOVEL, s. a mop to sweep an oven, a malkin ; !'. 

escouvillon, ecouvillon ; It. scopilla ; L. scopa. 
SCOUNDREL, . a dastardly fellow, a petty villain ; It. 

sconderruola, a skulker from the roll or muster, a 

poltron, from L. abscondere. 
SCOUR, v. 1. to clean by rubbing, to cleanse, to purify, 

purge ; G. and Swed. skura ; D. skure ; T. schauren ; 

B. scheuren ; S. scuran ; F. escurer, ecurer. See 

2. To run swiftly, to scamper, drive away ; It. scorrere ; 

Sp. escurir ; L. excurro. 
SCOURGE, *. a whip, a punisher ; It. scoriggia 

courgee, from L. corrigia. 
SCOUT, v. n. 1. to listen, reconnoitre privately 

couter, ecouter ; It. ascoltare ; L. auscullo. 

2. To make an excursion, to fly, move quickly, 
carry off, transfer ; G. skiota ; Isl. skuta ; S. 

3. To reject, eject, throw out, expel, repel ; G. skiota ; 
Swed. skiuta. See to SHOOT. 

SCOUT BOAT, *. an advice or fly boat ; Isl. and Swed. 
skuta; D. skude ; B. sciut ; T. schuite ; S. skyte ; I. 
scud, sgoth, from G. skiot ; Swed. skut, swift. 

SCOWL, v. n. to look askant or sullen, to frown ; G. 
skcela ; Swed. skcla ; S. sceolan ; Scot, sketvl, corre- 
sponding with <rxA(o'#. See SKEW. 

SCRABLE, v. n. to paw with the hands; D. skrabble; B. 
krabbcn, krabbelen. See to GRAB. 

SCRAG, s. 1. what is thin, lean, cadaverous; B. skrag ; 
Swed. scrtif; S. scrx ; G. June, carrion. 

2. Rough, uneven, craggy. See CRAG. 

SCRAMBLE, v. n. to grapple, to catch eagerly, to climb 
by the hands ; frequentative of G. hrama ; D. grame ; 
F. grimper, from G. hram, a hand. 

SCRANCH, v. a. to grind between the teeth, to gnaw like 
a dog, to eat greedily ; G. iskra ; B. schransen ; Scot. 

SCRANNY, SCRANNEL, a. grating to the ear, disagree- 
able ; from Swed. skreena ; T. schreyen. See to 

SCRAP, s. a little piece, a fragment, a scraping ; Swed. 

SCRAPE, v. to take off the surface, to pare, erase, rub, 
scratch; Isl. skra ; D. skrabe ; Swed. skrapa; S. 
screopan ; B. schrapen ; Arm. scrapa : It. sgraffo, 
to scratch, is apparently from yg|>i. 

SCRAPE, s. from the verb ; a rub, a mishap ; Swed. 

SCRAT, s. the devil, a hermaphrodite, a monster; G. 
skralte, old scratch; S. scritla, a hermaphrodite, a 

SCRATCH, v. a. to tear with the nails, to write or draw 
badly; Norman F. escrater, gratter ; It. grattare; T. 
kratzen; D. kradse ; Isl. skra, to scrape; L. rado, 
to grate. 

SCRATCHES, s. pi. a disease in horses; Sp. grielas ; F. 
arrettes. See ARREST. 

s c u 

SCHAW, s. the surface of turf, a thin sod; I. scraiv, 

tcnil/i. St-c SCRUF. 
SCRAWL, . 1. to write or draw badly; frequentative of 

(1. skra ; Swed. sera, to write. 
"2. To creep like a reptile ; from CRAWL. 
fSrnAY, s. the sea swallow ; from its cry ; Swed. skria, to 

Si KKABLK, a. capable of being discharged by spitting; 

from L. screo. 

SCREAK, v. n. to make a shrill noise ; G. skrcekia ; Swed. 
skrijka ; D. skrige ; Arm. scrigia. See to SCREECH 
and SCREAM. 

SCREAM, . a. to cry out shrilly, to affright; Swed. 
skraiH ; S. hreman ; Swed. skria ; T. schreyen, to 

SCREECH, v. n. to cry out as in fright or anguish ; G. 
skrcskia ; Swed. skrijka ; It. tcricciare, to scream ; 
T. schrecken, to terrify. See SCREAK. 
SCREEN, s. 1. a shade or cover, a protection; T. 
schrann ; Swed. shrank, signified a chancel, from G. 
skur ; T. schur ; but L. B. tcranna ; It. scrana ; F. 
etcran, ecran, correspond with /{. 
2. A sieve or riddle ; L. B. secerniculum, from L. cerno. 
SCREW, s. a mechanical power with a spiral edge, op- 
pression, extortion: Swed. tkruf; D. skrue ; B. 
xchroeve, schroef; T. schraube ; f.escrone, ecroue, ap- 
parently from yvfiu ; but if denoting the female screw, 
perhaps from groove. See WORM and VICE. 
SCRIBBLE, v. to write carelessly ; B. schribbelen, fre- 
quentative of L. scribo ; G. tkra ; Swed. skriftva ; T. 
tchreilien ; B. xchryven. 
SCRIM KR, s. a gladiator, fencing master ; F. escrimeur ; 

It tchrcmitore ; T. tchirmer. See to SKIRMISH. 
SCRINE, s. a chest or case, a cabinet for holding wri- 
tings, reliques or the figures of saints ; Isl. skrijn ; 
Swed. skrtn; B. tkryn ; T. schrein ; S. serin; It 
tcrigno ; Sp. escrinno; Arm. tcrin ; W. ysgrin ; L. 
B. scrinium. 
SCRIP, .9. 1. a small bag or basket, a purse ; G. skrcepa ; 

Swed. skrcppa. 

2. A small writing or scrap ; L. scriptum. 
SCRIVENER, *. a copyist, a clerk, a money broker; It 

scrivano; F. ecrivain, cscrivain, from L. scribo. 
SCROLL, s. a written roll, a catalogue, a roll of parch- 
ment ; It. scriva ruolo, from scrivare, to write ; F. 
etcrol, ecrou See ROLL. 
SCROUGE, SCRUZE, *. a press, a squeeze, a screwage ; 

from SCREW. 
SCBOYLE, *. a scurvy fellow ; from F. escrouelle, ecrou- 

elle ; L. scrofula. 
SCRUB, v. a. to rub hard ; Swed. skrubba ; B. schriben ; 

D. xkriibbc. See RUB and SCRAPB. 
SCHUP, s. a rough scaly surface, a scab ; Scot, scroofe. 

SCRUTOIHE, *. a writing-desk, a case of drawers ; F. 

escritoir, ecritoir ; L. scriptoria. 

SCUD, v. n. to shoot along, to pass quickly, to fly as a 
hip before a tempest; D. skude ; G. skiota. See 

SCUFFLK, f. a confused kind of fight ; B. tchuivelen, 
frequentative of G. skiufa; Swed. skvffa. See to 

SCULK, t). n. to lurk secretly, to lie idlv, to conceal, to 
feign ; Swed. xkulka ; D. tkulke ; B. tchuiltn, from 
G. tkiula ; Swed. tkyla, a covert. See SKY. 


SCULL, t, 1. the bone of the head, the cranium; G. 

skol, skal ; Swt'il. skalle, a shell or scull ; D. halved 
skal, the head shell ; T. liirntchaU, the brain shell. 

2. A multitude of fishes ; S. sceol. See SHOAL. 

3. A kind of paddle or oar, a boat rowed by one per- 
son ; S. schul, an oar like a shovel. 

SCULLERY, *. a place where culinary vessels are wash- 
ed and kept ; F. ecuelleric, escuellerie, from etcuelle ; 
L. scutella, a platter. 

SCULLION, *. a cook's servant, a drudge, a dish cleaner. 

SCUM, *. spume, froth, dregs of the people ; G. skum ; 
Swed. skumm; T.schaum; B. schium ; It schiuma ; 

F. ecume, from G. skia, skauma, to cover. 
SCUPPER, SCOPPER, *. a channel cut through the side of 

a ship to carry water off the deck ; F. escubier, ecu- 
bier ; Port, escouve, from cova ; L. cavus. 
SCURF, s. a kind of dry scab, a soil, a stain ; G. skorp ; 
Swed. skorf; S. sceorfa; D. skun ; B. schorft, from 

G. ruf; S. hreof; B. roof, a scab. 
SCURRILOUS, a. grossly opprobrious ; from L. scurra. 
SCUT, s . the tail of a hare or rabbit ; G. skol ; L. cattda. 
SCUTCHEON, s. a shield. 

SCUTTLE, *. a tray, a basket, a grating before a window ; 

Isl. and Swed. skutul ; S. scuttel ; It. scudella; Arm. 

tcutol; Scot, scull ; L. scutula: F. escoutille, a hatch- 
hole in a ship. 
SCUTTLE, v. n. 1. to run about hastily ; frequent, of to 

2. From the noun ; to make openings in the side of a 


SCYTHB, *. an instrument for mowing. See SITHE. 
SEA, s. the ocean, an inundation; G. see, sio ; Swed. 

6; S. see; D. sae; B. zee; T. see; Tartar seu; G. 

as, water. 
SEA CUNNBE, .v. a steersman in Eastern ships; A. 

sukunee, from tukun, the helm. 
SEAFARER, *. a mariner, a sailor ; from G. sesfara. See 

to FARE. 
SEAL, *. 1. the sea calf; G. selur ; Swed. sjdl; D. seel; 

S. sele, seolf. 
2. A mark, a stamp, an impression ; Sp. sello ; F. seau ; 

S. sigil, from L. sigillum. 
SEAM, *. 1. the suture of two pieces of cloth joined, a 

scar, a cicatrice ; G. seym ; S. seam ; Swed. tdm ; 

T. saum ; from to SEW. 

2. A load, a measure ; It. soma ; F. somme ; S. seam ; 
L. B. xiiii ma; rti-yfut. 

3. Suet, grease, tallow. See SAIM. 

SHAN, SEINE, *. a large fishing net ; F. seine ; S. segne; 

L. sagina. 
SEAPOY, *. an Indian soldier ; P. sipahee ; Hind, sepa- 

hai ; Turk, si [HI hi. 
SEAR, r. a. to cauterize; niy; Sp. seroijo, seem to 

have been confounded with L. suburo, and S- searian ; 

B. sooren, schroijen, to dry, to scorch. 
SEARBE, s. a fine sieve. See SARSE. 
SEARCH, v. a. to seek, look for, try, prove ; F. chercher ; 

It cercare, from L. circo, confounded with qiuerito. 
SEARCLOTH, *. a kind of wax plaster. See CERECLOTH. 
SEASON, . a fixed or proper time, one of the quarters of 

the year; L. slatio; It. slagione ; Sp. estacion, etta- 

gion, sazon; F. taison ; L. B. satio. 

S E I 

S E R 

SEASON, v. a. 1. to make fit for the season, to inure, har- 
den by keeping. 

2. To salt or pickle, give a relish to ; L. B. salsino, 
sasino; Sp. sazonar ; F. assaisoner, from L. salsus. 

SEAT, s. 1. a chair, a bench, mansion, residence, the sit- 
ing part ; G. set ; Swed. stele ; D. seede ; S. seot ; T. 
sett ; B. zet ; L. sedes ; Sp. sitio ; It. f ede ; F. Jt'ege. 
See to SIT. 

2. A situation, position. See SITE; 

SECOND, a. next after the first ; L. secundus ; F. second. 
The Goths had no ordinal of two, nor the Latins of 
duo. Secundus from sequor, was other or after, in Go- 
thic, corresponding with vngos. 

SECRETARY, *. one entrusted with the management of 
business, a confidential scribe ; It. secretario ; F. se- 
cretaire, from L. secretus ; but confounded with It.. 
scritario; L. scriptarius. 

SEDAN, s. 1. a close chair for carriage; It. sedina, from 
sede ; L. sedes. 

2. Silk stuff; Heb. sadin ; T. seiden ; Sp. sedeno. See 

SEDGE, *. large water grass, narrow flag; iris pseudaco- 
rus ; S. scEcg ; B. segge ; D. siv ; Swed. say; sea or 
water weed. 

SEE, s. seat or diocese of a bishop ; F. siege; L. sedes. 

SEE, v. a. to perceive with the eye, to descry, observe, 

attend; G.sia; Swed. se, sea; D.see; S.seon; B. 

sien ; T. sehen, from Isl. eya, and corresponding with 

haa, Doric nttu- 
SEED, s. what produces plants and animals, what is 

sown, offspring ; P. scet ; G. seed ; Swed. sad ; T. 

saat ; S. seed ; B. zaad ; D. said. 
SEEK, v. to search, look for, desire, solicit ; <*> ; G. 

saskia ; Swed. s'oka ; B. soecken ; T. suchen ; S. se- 

can ; I. seicham. 

SEEL, v. 1. to lean on one side ; supposed to be from S. 

syllan, or heel. See to SHAIL. 
2. To close the eyes of a hawk ; F. ciller, from L. cilia. 

SEELY, a. 1. lucky, happy, blessed; G. sceli ; Swed. 
stele ; S. sceli ; T. selig ; B. zalig. 

2. Foolish, simple. See SILLY. 

SEEM, v. n. 1. to appear, to have resemblance, to pre- 
tend ; S. seiman, seinan ; T. scheinen, from G. syna. 

2. To become, befit, be decent, comely; G. and Swed. 
scema ; D. stemme ; T. ziemen. 

SEEMLY, a. 1. from the verb ; apparent, semblant- 
2. Comely, decent, proper. 

SEEN, a. circumspect, vigilant, observing, skilled ; from 
to SEE. 

SEER, *. a foreseer, a prophet ; D. seer ; B. ziender; T. 

seher ; F. voyant : A. sihur ; P. sayer, a magician, 

appear to be cognate with G. and Swed. seid, magic. 
SEESAW, s. a reciprocating motion, a swing, alternate run 

at cards ; F. ci fa. 
SEETHE, v. to boil, make hot, be hot ; iu ; G. siu ; Isl. 

sioda ; D. syde ; T. seiden ; S. seolhan ; B. zieden ; P. 


SEJANT, a. in heraldry, sitting ; F. siegeant ; L. sedens. 
SEIGNIOR, s. a superior, a lord; It. signore ; Sp. segnor ; 

F. seigneur ; L. senior. 
SEINE, s. a large fishing net ; F. seine ; S. segne ; L. 

SEIZE, v. a. to lay hold of, grasp, take possession ; F. sais- 

ir ; Arm. saesa ; L. B. sasire, from L. sedio ; Q. seta ; 
T. sessen, to possess. 
SEIZEN, s. the act of seizing, taking possession. 

SELDOM, ad. not often, rarely ; G. sialdn ; D. sielden ; 
Swed. stellan ; S. seldan ; T. selten ; B. zelden. 

SELF, prow, the individual, the same person or tiling ; 

G. sialf; Swed. sielf; D. selv ; T. selbe ; B. zelf; 

S. sylf ; I. solf : G. and S. sa, se, correspond with L. 

is, ea, and G. alf is a part. 
SELION, s. a ridge of land lying between two furrows ; 

F. sillon ; It. solcone, from L. sulcus. 
SELL, v. to vend, transfer, alienate, deal ; G. sela, saslia ; 

Swed. xff/lin ; D. scelge ; S. syllan. 
SELLANDER, s. a dry scab in the joint of a horse's leg ; 

F. soulandres, malandres. 
SELVAGE, *. the edge of cloth, a hank of rope yarn tied 

together ; B. zelfegg, zeelvoeg, from zeel, a cord, and 

voege, a joining. See SAIL. 
SEMBLE, v. to appear like, to resemble ; F. sembler : L. 


SEND, v. a. to dispatch from one place to another, com- 
mission, produce, propagate ; G. senda ; Swed. saen- 

da ; D. sende ; S. sendan ; B. zenden ; T. senden. 

SENESCHAL, s. a steward, a head bailiff, chief officer of 
the household; F. senechal; It. senescallo ; T. senes- 
chalk, from G. sen, and skalk, a minister, superintend- 
ent. See MARESCHAL. 

SENNA, s. a medical tree and drug ; A. suna, gold col- 
our; ; L. sena. 

SENTINEL, s. a soldier on guard, a watch ; It. sentin- 
ella; F. sentinette. See SENTRY. 

SENTRY, s. a guard stationed, a soldier placed to watch ; 

from It. sentare ; Sp. senior; L. B. sedentare, sedere, 

to fix or place ; as distinct from a patrole. 
SEPT, s. a stock, stem, clan or caste, generation, race ; 

F. cep. Cippo is said by Julius Cassar to have been a 

Gaulish term for a tree with branches. 

SEQUIN, s. a gold coin worth nine shillings ; F. sequin. 

SERAGLIO, *. a royal palace including the apartments of 
the Turkish monarch's wives and concubines ; Turk. 
serai aulah, from A. and P. sura ; Heb. sara, a man- 
sion, inclosure. See CARAVANSARY. 

SERAPH, s. one of an order of angels ; Heb. saraph, tar- 
aph, burning, brilliant ; pi. seraphim, teraphim. 

SERE, s. a talon, a claw ; It. serri ; F. serre, from L. se- 

SERE, SEER, a. withered, scorched, dry ; faa. See to 

SERENADE, s. a love song by a gallant at night; F. ser- 
enade ; It. serenata, from sera ; L. sero, the evening. 

SERGE, s. a thin cloth worn in the Levant; A. seraj ; 
It. sargia ; F. serge ; Sp. sarga ; B. sergie : It. ras- 
cia ; T. rasch, from L. rasus, the contrary of shag. 

SERJEANT, s. a petty officer in the army, a peace officer, 
a lawyer of rank next to a judge ; O. F. serviceant, 
serjent ; It. serjenle ; L. B. servitiens, from L. serviens. 
Ssergent was anciently used by the Goths to denote a 
pretorian soldier. 

SERPENT, s. a venomous reptile; F. serpent ; It. serpen- 
te ; L. serpens. 

SEHPET, *. a small basket ; L. scirpea. 

SERRATE, SEBEATED, a. jagged like a saw ; from L. 

S H A 

SESSION, * a sitting, time of sitting, a meeting of magi- 
>trates ; F. session ; L. sessio. 

SET, v. to place, fix, plant, put in order, settle, termin- 
ate ; G. sata ; M. G. satgan ; Swed. scetia ; D. scetle ; 
S. set an ; B. sctlen ; T. sessen ; L. sedeo ; L. B. situo. 

SET, *. a number of things suited to each other, a party 
joined in some design, a living plant put in the ground, 
a wager or stake put down, a deposit. 

SETFOIL, *. a plant, tormentilla; L. septifolia ; F. sept 

SETTEE, SETTER, *. a long seat with a back, a settle ; 

from to SET. 
SETTER, *. one who sets, a person placed to spy, a 

pimp, a setting dog. 

SETTEHWOHT, <s. black hellebore, Christmas flower ; G. 
saettur, atonement. 

SETTING DOG, *. a dog taught to set game ; It. cane 
tentaccione, from sentare, to fix or place. See SENTRY. 

SETTLE, s. a seat, a bench with a back ; S. setol, a settee. 

SETTLE, . to fix, establish, confirm, subside, rest upon, 
repose ; frequentative of to SET. 

SETWAI,, s. a species of valerian that grows on old walls ; 
S. sydewale. 

SEVEN, a. six and one ; G. siaum; Swed. siu ; D. son ; 
S. seqfan ; T. siben ; B. seven ; A. subu. See NUM- 

SEVER, f . a. to part by force, to separate, disjoin ; L. 
B. severe ; F. sevrer ; It. separo. 

SEW, v. a. 1. to join by a needle and thread, to stitch ; 
P. su ; M. G. suian ; Swed. sy ; S. sin an ; L. suo : 
Sans, sooee, a needle. 

2. To drain off, percolate ; G. sya ; Swed. siga ; M. 
G. siguan; S. seon. 

3. To perform, to execute, arrange, serve ; supposed to 
be from L. exscquor, but anciently serve was written 

SEWER, s. 1. from the verb; one who uses a needle. 

2. A passage for water, a drain, a sink. See SHORE. 

3. An arranger, performer, a carver ; said to be O. T. 

Si i MI , v. a. to make bare, to scrape, scratch ; B. schaben. 

See to SHAVE. 

SHAB, *. from the verb ; a disease incident to sheep. 
SHABBY, a. bare, threadbare, mean, paltry ; B. schabbig. 
SHACKBOLT, *. a bolt for fetters; P. shaku ; G. skak ; 

S. sceac, seem to have signified the shank or leg as 

well as a fetter. 
SHACKLE, *. from SHACK ; a fetter, a chain for the legs 

or arms; P.shakal; A.shikal; G. skakheld ; Swed. 

skakel; S. sceacol ; B. schakal. 
SHAD, SHEAT, *. a fish ; T. scheiden ; W. ysgadan ; I. 

fgadan, a kind of herring. See SHOTE. 

SHADE, *. a shadow in painting, obscurity, a cover, shel- 
ter, protection, an appearance, a ghost ; P. sayah, 
ihadman ; Sans, sayud ; x4 ; G. sky, skugga ; Isl. 
skygd; S. tcadu ; T. schalten ; B. schade ; Arm. 
skcut ; I. scath ; W. ysgod. See SKY and SHAW. 

SHADOW, j. from SHADE ; a faint representation, dark 
part of a picture, a ghost, inseparable companion. 

SHAFT, *. 1. a handle, a haft, stalk, reed, pole, batoon, 
spear; G. skapt ; Swed. skaft; B. schaft; S. sceaft. 
See HAFT. 

2. The pit of a mine, the flue of a chimney ; Swed. 

S H A 

skacht ; D. skakt ; T. schacht ; L. B. schachta. 8e 

3. An arrow, a dart, a missile weapon ; Swed. skceckt ; 

B. schicht, from G. skicka ; T. schicken, to send ; but 

apparently confounded with shaft, a spear. 
SHAG, *. coarse hair, a kind of rough cloth; Swed. 

schagg ; S. sceaga ; Sans. Ishigura : G. and Swed. 

skeggur, the beard; D. skiceg, a water spaniel. G. 

skteg, the beard, signified also power, dominion. See 


SHAG, s . the lesser sea crow ; contracted from sea chough 
SHAGREEN, s. a preparation of shark's skin, resembling 

a file, and used to polish wood; A. sagry ; Turk. 

segrin; B. segryn ; It. segrino; F. chagrain. 
SHAIL, a. oblique, crooked, indirect ; Swed. skxlg ; B. 

scheil ; T. schiel; mAAo;. See SKUK. 

SHAKE, v . to agitate, brandish, tremble, trill, totter ; G. 
skatka ; Swed. skaka ; S. sceacan ; B. schoken. 

SHALE, *. a husk, a pod, a capsule ; G. skal ; S. scala, a 
husk ; D. skatte ; T. schellen, to shell, to peel. See 

SHALL, v. defect. G. and D.tkal; Swed. skall ; S. 
sceal; T.soll; B. zal, the present and future tense 
of .\L-iilii ; Swed. sktda ; D. skulle ; S. scealan ; T. 
zollen, to owe, to be obliged or constrained ; from G. 
ske ; S. scio, modifications of G. a or e, to be, to 
have, to owe. Chaucer uses " the faithe I shall to 
God," the faith I owe to God. It has, in English, no 
other tense, but should in the subj. mood ; P. siuden. 

SHALLOON, *. a slight woollen stuff, from Chalon in 

SHALLOP. *. a fast sailing vessel ; F. chaloupe, tcaloupe ; 

S. chalupa; D. skaluppe; T. schalvppe, from skau, 

skuta, a boat, and laupa, to run ; Swed. lopa skutor. 

SHALLOT, *. a small kind of onion ; F. echalote. See 

SHALLOW, a. not deep, drained off, low, empty, silly ; 

T. seich, low water, from G. sya, siga, to drain off, 

siga la, to sink low. Macbeth says his heart shall 

never seg. See to SEW. 

SHALH, s. a musical pipe, a cornet ; D. skalmeye ; T. 
schalmeye; B. schalmei, from G. skal; T. schal, 

SHAM, *. a cover, pretext, concealment, veil, counter- 
feit, fraud ; G. skiamm ; T. schemme, from G. skya ; S. 
scutva, and G, and Swed. hama, skyma, to cover. A 
sham for the neck formerly signified a cravat. See 

SHAMBLES, s. pi. the benches where butchers kill or ell 
their meat ; L. scamni macelli. 

SHAMBLING, a. moving awkwardly. See SCAMBLE. 

SHAME, s. pudicity, ignominy, disgrace ; G. Swed. and 
D. skam ; S. sceam ; T. scham ; B. schaem ; A. sham, 

SHAMMY, SHAMOIS, *. a kind of goat's skin ; F. chamois ; 
It. camozza ; T. gems, a wild goat. 

SHANDY, a. wild, shy. See SHY. 

SHAMRACK, SHAMROCK, s. three-leaved grass, wild clo- 
ver ; I. seam rag. 

SHANK, *. the handle of a tool, the bone of the leg, a 
tube, a shaft ; S. sceanca ; Swed. skunk; T.schink; 
B. schenk ; It. schinca. See SHACKLE and SHIN. 

SHANKER, *. a virulent ulcer ; F. chancre ; It. canchero. 



SHAPE, v. a. to form, create, mould, cast ; G. and Swed. 
skapa ; D. skabe ; B. scheppen ; S. sceapian ; T. 
scajfen, schaffen. 

SHARD, SHEARD, *. 1. a rupture, a gap, an opening be- 
tween rocks, a fragment ; G. skard ; S. sceard ; Arm. 
and W. ysgar. See SCAR and SHRED. 

2. An esculent plant. See CHARD. 

3. A species of red trout ; L. scarus, See CHAR. 

4. Filth, dung, excrement ; G. skaurd. See SHARN. 
SHARE, v. to divide, separate, appropriate, partake of; 

G. skasra; S. scearan. See to SHEAR. 
SHARE, s. from the verb; a portion, division, cut; Swed. 

skcer ; S. sceare. See SHIRE. 
SHARK, *. 1. a voracious sea fish ; L. charcharias, from 

2. A trick, a fraud, a cheat; G. skrok ; Isl. skurka ; 

Swed. skurk ; T. schurke, perfidy : A. shark ; F. 

escroc, a knave. See SHIRK. 
SHARN, s. dung of cattle; Swed. 'and D. skarn ; S. 

scern ; B. schern ; Scot, scarn, from G. skaur, filth. 
SHARP, a. acute, cutting, keen, witty; D. skarp ; T. 

scharff '; S. scearp ; B. scherp. See to CARVE. 
SHATTER, v. to break, disunite, fall to pieces ; B. schet- 

teren; , T. scheidern, scheitern, frequentative of 

scheiden ; S. sceadan, to separate. 
SHAVE, v. a. to plane close, to pare with a razor, to take 

off the beard ; Isl. skafa ; Swed. skafwa ; S. scea- 
fan ; B. schaaven ; D. shave. 
SHAVEGRASS, *. an herb used for polishing wood ; L. 

SHAW, *. a shady place, a grove, a wood ; G. and Swed. 

skog ; D. skov ; S. scwva : Scot, schatv. See SHADE. 
SHAWL, *. a cloth made in Cashmir of goat's hair; Sans. 

sal, shal ; P. shal. 
SHE, pron. pers. a female ; G. *a ; S. see, seo ; T. sie ; B. 

zy ; Swed. su ; O. E. sche; corresponding with Heb. 

and Arm. hi ; W. hi. 
SHEAR, v. a. to divide, separate, cut, clip, reap ; G. and 

Swed. skcera ; Isl. skora, skera ; S. scearan ; B. schee- 

ren ; T. scheren ; L. secure ; Kil^a. 
SHEAR, pi. SHEARS, *. large kind of scissors ; B. scheer ; 

S. scear. 
SHEATH, s. a scabbard, a cover, a case for any thing ; 

Swed. skida ; D. skaede ; S. secede, scatha ; T. scheide ; 

B. scheyde. 
SHED, v. a. to separate, divide, scatter, spill, pour out ; 

G. and Isl. skeda, skida ; D. skede ; M. G. skaidan ; 

S. sceadan ; T. scheiden, schutten ; Scot, sched. 

SHED, s. 1. a slight temporary covering; Isl. skygd, 
skyd, from skya, skydda ; cx.ida, to cover. See SHADE. 

2. From the verb ; the interstice between the different 
parts of the warp in a loom, through which the shut- 
tle passes ; Swed. sked. 

SHEEN, s. brightness, splendour ; Swed. sken ; T. 
schein. See to SHINE. 

SHEEP, s a well known domestic animal ; S. sceap ; B. 
schcep ; T. schaf, supposed to be from G. sky fa ; 
Swed. skifma ; B. schyfen, to cut. See MUTTON. 

SHEEP' S-EYE, s . a side-glance, a loving look ; Swed. 
skef ; D. skicev ; B. scheef; T. scheif, oblique, squint- 
ing. See SKUE. 

SHEER, a. 1. clear, pure, unmingled ; G. and Swed. 
skir ; D. skier ; S. scir ; T. schier. 

2. Oblique, slanting off; G. skcer, skar. See SKUE. 


SHEET, s. ]. a large linen cloth for a bed, a whole piece 

of paper, any thing broad and thin ; P. chada ; G. 

skaut ; Isl. skeyt ; Swed. sk o t ; D. skiced ; S. sceta. 
2. A rope bent to the clew of a sail; Swed. skot; B- 

schoot ; D. Meed torn ; F. escoute, ecoule. 
SHELDRAKE, SKAILDKAKE, *. a water-fowl; from G. 

skwlla ; T. schallen, to scream ; L. strepera calaracla. 
SHELF, s. a board to lay things on, a bank in the sea, a 

rock in shallow water ; S. scelf; T. schelffe ; Scot. 

skelve, from G. skelia, to separate in laminous pieces. 
SHELL, *. a hard covering; G. skals Swed. skaal, skol ; 

S. sceala ; B. schele ; T. schehl, from G. skiola; Swed. 

sleyla. See SKY. 

SHELL, v. to take out of the shell or husk; D. skalle ; 
T. schellen. 

SHELTER, s. a cover, shed, protection ; Isl. skilder, from 
G. skiul, which produced also F. chalet, a cattle-yard. 

SHELVE, v. to slope off, to break into declivities. See 

SHEND, v. a. to ruin, spoil, cast away, reject, disperse, 

contemn ; from Swed. skcenda ; S. scendan ; T. schan- 

den ; D. skande. See HON. 
SHEPHERD, s. a herder of sheep ; S. sceaphyrd. 
SHERBET, s. sugar, water and acid mixed ; A. shiirbel ; 

Hind, shurbut. See SHRUB. 
SHERE THURSDAY, s. maundy Thursday ; D. skier Tors- 

dag, pure Thursday. See SHEER. 
SHERIFF, s. a chief county officer ; contracted from 

shire reeve, and vulgarly shrieve. 
SHERRY, s. a Spanish white wine from Xeres in Anda- 

SHIDE, s. a board, lath, segment of wood, a shingle ; G. 

skid ; S. scide ; T. scheide ; 

SHIELD, s. a buckler, protection, cover, defence; G. 

skiald; Swed. skiold, skold ; S.scyld; T. schiU. See 

SHIFT, v. to change, alter, evade; G. skipta ; Swed, 

skifta ; D. stifle ; S. scyptan. 

SHIFT, s. 1. from the verb ; a change, device, evasion. 
2. A woman's under dress ; S. hamod ; T. hemd, from 

G. hamur ; S. ham, a veil, a shirt. See SHAM. 

SHILLING, s. the twentieth part of a pound sterling, 

twelve pence ; G. skilling ; Swed. and D. skiUing ; S. 

scylling ; B. schelling ; f . schilling ; F. c/ielin, sig- 

nified contribution, "payment, money ; G. skilia ; S. 

scylan, to divide, apportion, share. See SHOT and 

SHILLY SHALLY, a. wavering, hesitating, undecided, 

oblique ; G. skialg, skcelg, corresponding with <TKAIS. 

SHIN, s. the fore part of the leg ; G. skinn ; Swed. sken ; 

S. scina ; B. scheen ; T. schien, 
SHINE, v. n. to send forth brightness, appear brilliant, 

glitter ; S. skeina ; Swed. skina ; S. scinan ; T. schei- 

nan ; B. schijnen ; Chald. and Heb. sin. Isl. skinu 

signified also to show, to make appear. 
SHIP, a termination of nouns, signifies quality, form, 

condition, shape; G. skap ; S. scyp ; B. schap. See 

SHIP, * a vessel for sailing on the sea ; G.skip ; Swed. 

skepp ; D. skib ; S. scip ; B. schip ; T. schiff '; miifr 

L. scapha. 
SHIRE, s. a division of a country, a county; S. scir, from 

sciran, to divide. See SHARE. 


S H O 

S H R 

SHIRK, s. a rogue, a cheat ; G. skirk, skrok ; F. etcroc. 

SHIRT, . a man's undergarment; G. skirt a ; Swed. 

xkiorta ; D. skiorle ; S. scyrd, tcyrric, syrc ; Scot. 

sark, from G. and Swed. skur ; T. schaur, a cover- 
ing. See SKY. 
SHIT, v. to void excrement, to throw out, eject, shoot 

forth,- G. skiota, skuetta ; Swed. skita ; D. skide ; S. 

scylan ; B. schyten ; T. scheissen ; W. ysgythu ; %> ; 

F. chler. 
SHITTLECOCK, SHUTTLECORK, *. a boy's plaything, a 

cork stuck with feathers, and driven from one to the 

other with battledores. See SHUTTLE and CORK. 
SHIVE, v. a slice, a cutting, a piece, a splinter ; Is!. 

sky fa; D. skive; B. schyf, from G. skyja, to divide. 
SHIVER, v. 1. from SHIVE ; to splinter, shatter ; T. scltie- 

feren ; B. scheweren. 
2. To tremble, to shake; B. huiveren ; T. schaueren. 

See to SHUDDER. 
SHOAL, *. 1. a multitude, a flock, a swarm; S. scale ; 

B. school ; G. ktill Jiske, a shoal of fishes, from kylia, 

to beget, produce young. 

2. Shelving rocks ; Swed. skoll ; Isl. skola ; T. scholle ; 
F. escueil, ecuell. See SHELF. 

3. Showl, shallow. 

SHOCK, s. 1. a concussion, conflict, offence; S. scaeoc ; 
B. schock ; F. choc. See to SHAKE. 

2. A pile of corn sheaves ; Isl. skokr ; Swed. stock ; T. 
schock; D. skok, sixty sheaves. See STUCK. 

3. A rough dog. See SHAG. 

SHOCK, v. a. 1. to shake violently, agitate, offend ; from 

the noun. 

2. From the noun ; to put in piles of sixty sheaves. 
SHOE, *. the cover of the foot ; P. shum; G. sko; S. 

sceo, scoe ; D. skoe ; T. schuh, a cover, handschuh, a 

glove. See SKY. 

SHOO, s. a shock, jolt, concussion, jog. See SHOCK. 
SHOOT, v. to put forth, emit, eject, sprout, discharge 

from a gun or bow ; G. skiota ; Swed. skiuta ; S. 

sceotan ; B. schieten ; T. schiessen. 
SHOOT, s. from the verb ; a scion, a young plant or stalk 

of grain ; D. skud ' ; B. scheut, corresponding with F. 

jetton, rejetton ; L. sagitta. 
SHOP, *. a place used for sale of wares, a room to work 

in, a fabric ; G. skap ; Swed. skap ; S. sceop ; F. 

echoppe, eschoppe ; L. B. shopa. See to SHAPE. 
SHORE, *. 1 . the sea strand ; G. skier ; Swed. skicer, sk&r ; 

S. score, from G. eyr ; Swed. oer ; '{ ; L. ora. 

2. A drain, a gutter ; Swed. skbr, from sorja ; G. saur. 

3. A prop, buttress, stay; G. skord ; D. skor ; B. 

SHORT, a. not long, scanty, inadequate, defective, brit- 
tle ; G. and Swed. skort ; S. sceort, apparently from 
shear, to cut ; but confounded with L. curtus. See 

SHOT, *. 1. the act of shooting, a ball, a dart or arrow; 
G. tkot ; S. scota ; B. schot. See to SHOOT. 

2. A contribution, reckoning, tribute, portion. See 

SHOTE, *. 1. a spawning fish ; B. schot, spawn ; S. sceo- 
la, a trout at spawning time. Shedder and Shotten 
formerly denoted salmon and herring at the time of 
ascending rivers and creeks. See to SHED. 

2. A shed, a sty, a hog shut up to be fatted ; B. schot. 

SHOVE, v. a. to push, drive forward; G. skiufa ; Swed. 
skufma ; S. scufan ; T. schieban ; B. schuyven. 

SHOVEL, *. a kind of broad spade ; Isl. skupla ; Swed. 
skufmel; D. shool ; 8. scofl ; T. schoeffel. See 

SHOULD, subj. mood of the verb shall ; ought to be. 

SHOULDER, *. the joint which connects the arm to the 
body, the upper part of the fore leg of beasts; Swed. 
skuldra ; D. skulder ; S. sculdr ; B. schouder ; T. 

SHOUT, s. a cry, a burst of triumph; A. sovt, taut, 
sound, voice ; G. laula ; Swed. iiula ; S. thutan, to 

SHOW, . to exhibit, to make appear, prove by demon- 
stration ; G. skyga ; D. skue ; S. scearvian ; T. schau- 
en ; B. schouwen, from ske and auga, to eye. 

SHOWER, s. a fall or flight of rain, a liberal distribu- 
tion ; G. skura ; Swed. skur ; S. scvr ; B. scheure : 
G. skura windis, a flaw of wind ; regenskur, a shower 
of rain. 

SHRED, s. a small piece of stuff, a cutting, a fragment ; 
G. skrida : Swed. skrad ; S. screade; T. schriet ; T. 
schraden, to cut. 

SHRKW, s. a peevish clamorous woman ; G. raig ; D. 
skrig, clamour ; B. schreuiv ; T. schrey, accusation, 
scolding, cursing. See BEBHRBW. 

SHREWD, a. 1. having the qualities of a shrew. 

2. Adorned, accomplished ; G. skryd ; S. scrydde. 

3. Clear, keen, arch, discerning ; G. skierd, from skyra ; 
Swed. skira ; S. scirian ; M. G. skairan, to discern. ., 

SHREWMOUSE, s. the dormouse; S. screamamus ; L. 

sciurus mus. 
SHRIEK, v. n. to scream with horror ; G. skreekia ; Swed. 

skrika ; B. shrikkcn ; T. schrecken, to terrify. 
SHRIFT, s. confession to a priest ; Swed. s krift ; S. scrift. 

SHRILL, a. giving a piercing sound, sharp ; from Swed. 

skreella ; Scot, skirl ; G. skria. See to SCREAM. 
SHRIMP, *. 1. something shrivelled, contracted, a dwarf; 

Swed. skrump; T. schrumpf. See CRUMP. 
2. A small shell fish ; F. escrevise, ecrevise. See CRAB. 
SHRINE, s. a case of relics of the dead, a small kind of 
temple; Swed. and D. skrin; S. serin; T. schrein ; 
B. schryn ; Arm. serin ; L. scrinium ; It. scrigno ; 
W. ysgrin. 

SHRINK, v. a. to contract, draw together, withdraw, 
flinch, express fear ; G. and Swed. rynka, skrynka ; 
S. crincan, scrincan, to wrinkle, shrivel. 
SHRIVE, v. to confess to a priest, to hear confession, to 
purify ; S. serif a, from G. skyra, to explain, to purify. 
SHRIVEL, s. a contraction, a wrinkle ; G. skrifle. See 

SHROUD, s. 1. a cover, shelter, robe, winding sheet; G. 

and Swed. skrud ; S. scrud. 
2. A support, a stay rope in a ship ; G. skord. See 

SHRUB, s. 1. a bush, a woody stunted plant; S. scrob ; 

B. skrobbe, a scrubbed tree. 

2. A kind of spirit; A. shurab, shurb, any medicated li- 
quor, but particularly lemon juice and sugar mixed 
with water, for which the English have substituted 
rum. See SHERBET. 

SHRUFF, *. the dress of metals. See SCRCF. 
SHRUC, *. a contracted motion, a raising of the shoulders ; 

S I L 


G. and Swed. ryka, from ryg, the back. See to 

SHUDDER, v. n. to quake from fear or aversion; T. 

schauderen, frequent, of schaueren, to shiver with fear ; 

Scot, schor, fright. But B. sidderen, sitteren ; T. 

zittern, tsittern ; Scot, chitter, are from Isl. litra, to 

SHUN, v. a. to avoid, endeavour to escape ; S. scunian ; 

T. scheuen ; B. schuwen. See SHY and ESCHEW. 
SHUT, v. to close, bar, stop, contract ; S. skyllan ; B. 

schutten, from G. skut ; B. scut, a bolt, a bar : L. 

obsero, to close, was from sera, a bolt. 
SHUTTLE, s. a weaver's instrument for throwing the 

weft, what is shot ; G. skut tul, a shot tool ; B. sUhiet 

SHY, a. timid, reserved, suspicious, jealous ; G. slci, 

skiar ; Swed. and D. sky ; B. schoun ; T. scheu, fear. 
SIB, *. a relative, connection, cognate ; A. sihab ; G. 

and Swed. sif; B. sibbe ; S. sib ; whence Gossip, Si- 
bald, Sibley. 
SICK, a. afflicted with disease, ailing, ill ; G. siuk; Swed. 

sjuk ; S. seoc ; D. sige ; T. such ; B. sieck ; A. sukiem. 
SKKER, ad. surely, certainly; D. sikker ; B. zeker ; T. 

sicher; L. secure. 
SICKLE, s. a hook to cut corn ; y**>i ; L. secale, sicula ; 

S. sicol ; T. sichel ; B. sickel ; D. segel. 
SIDE, *. the rib part of animals, an edge, margin, party, 

faction; P. suy ; G. sijde ; Swed. and D. side; T. 

seide, seite ; B. sijde ; S. side. 

SIEGE, s. a military position, a leaguer, the act of besett- 
ing a place ; F. siege ; Sp. sitio ; It. assedio ; L. sedes. 
SIESTA, *. an evening nap, a short sleep ; It. and Sp. 

siesta ; G. suesta, from suefa ; Swed. stvefa ; S. swefjan, 

to sleep. 
SIEVE, s. a bolter, a scarce ; S. sife; T).sie; T. siebe ; 

B. zeef, supposed to be from m'a, <r*6a. 
SIFT, v. a. to separate by a sieve, to examine, scruti- 
nize ; Swed. sickta ; D. sigte ; T. sichten ; S. siftan ; 

B. zeeften. 
SIG, in forming the names of great warriors, is G sig, 

sigur ; Swed. segur ; D. seier ; B. zeger ; T. sieg ; S. 

sig, victory, a victorious man ; as Sigismund, pro- 
tector of victory ; Sigward, warden of conquest ; Sig- 

ard, victorious disposition. 
SIGH, v. n. to emit breath audibly, as in grief or sadness, 

to lament ; G. sucka ; Swed. s&ka ; D. sukke ; S. sican, 

seqfian ; B. suchten ; T. seufzen : Isl. sighe, su ; Scot. 

sough ; Heb. saph, denote respiration. 
SIGHT, s. the sense of seeing, perception by the eye or 

mind, an open view, a show, spectacle ; Swed. sigte ; 

B. sicht ; T. gesicht, from to SEE. 
SIGN, *. 1. a token, symbol, device; F. signe ; L. sig- 

2. Thing seen, a sight, appearance ; Isl. sion ; Swed. 

syn, from to SEE. 
SIGNORY, s. a lordship, dominion; It. signoria. See 

SILK, *. the produce of the bombyx, the stuff made 

thereof; G. silk ; D. silke ; S. seolc, from L. serica, 

by the usual mutation of r into /. 
SILL, s. the foot of a door case ; Swed. syll ; S. sylle ; 

B. suile ; T. schrvelle ; F. seuil ; L. solum. 
SILLABUB, *. a posset ; B. azil bub, acid drink ; bub, a 

cant term for drink, from L. bibo. See EISEL. 
SILLY, SELY, a. harmless, foolish, witless; Isl. seel, 

salug ; Swed. salig ; T. selig, a good creature, an in- 
nocent, a simpleton, a term of compassion ; B. ziel, a 

poor soul, is also a silly person. 
SILLYHOW, s. the membrane that covers the brain of 

the foetus ; G. scela ; S. scelig ; T. selig, good, benefi- 
cent, and G. huva ; Swed. httftva, a cowl or hood. 
SILVER, s. a white hard metal, current coin ; G. silfur; 

Swed. silfwer ; D. salver ; S. seolfer ; T. silber ; B. 

SIMAH, SIMARE, CHIMMAR, s. a woman's loose robe, a 

sleeveless gown worn by bishops; P. zimara ; Sp. 

zamarra ; It. zimarra ; F. simarre ; A. sommor ; Turk. 

samour, a fur robe, sable. 
SIMMER, v. to boil gently or slowly ; B. smaoren, to 

stew ; but literally to smother, suppress. 
SIMNEL, s. a kind of sweet cake ; Swed. simla ; T. sem- 

melbrod ; L. simila. 
SIMONY, *. the buying or selling church preferment ; 

the example of Simon the magician, who offered 

money for the gift of the Holy Ghost. 
SIMPER, v. n. to laugh sillily, to smile affectedly ; S. 

smearan, smercian ; T. smieren, to smile, to coax. 
SIN, s. a transgression of God's law; G. and Swed. 

synd ; T. sund; B. zonde ; S. syn, from G. synia ; A. 

isyan, to oppose, refuse ; <r<W, harm. 
SINCE, 1. prep, after ; G. seinna ; Swed. sedan, sen ; T. 

2. ad. because that, from that time, ago; Isl. sinn ; T. 

seit; B. syd ; Scot. syne. See SITHENCE. 
SINEW, *. a tendon, ligament ; G. sina ; Swed. sena ; 

D. seene ; T. senne ; B. zenutv ; S. sentve, a fibre, a 

SING, v. to form the voice to melody, te relate in song, 

celebrate; G. singa; Swed. siunga ; T. singen ; D. 

synge ; B. zingen ; S. singan ; I. seinnam. 

SINGE, v. a. to scorch, burn slightly ; S. scengan ; T. 

sengen ; B. zengen : G. eyn, fire. 
SINK, v. to descend, fall gradually to the bottom, settle, 

decline, depress, diminish ; Isl. socktva ; M. G. sig- 

quan ; Swed. siunka, signa ; T. sigen, sinken ; D. 

senke ; S. sencan. 
SINNETS, s. pi. untwisted cords ; G. sina, a fibre. See 

SIP, *. a small drop, a taste ; from D. sippe ; S. sipan ; 

B. sippen, frequent, of to SUP. 

SIR, s. the title of a knight or baronet, a title of respect 

to a man; G. syr ; Swed. sir; W. syr ; F. seur ; It. 

sire, supposed to be contracted from L. senior ; but 

P. stir, sir ; Tartar sir ; Sans sire ; Heb. sar ; Hind. 

sir ; G. saer, signify the head or chief, a prince. See 

SIRE, s. a title of kings, a father, an elder or ancestor ; 

It. and F. sire; L. senior, formerly applied chiefly 

to dignitaries of the church. 
SIREN, s. a sea goddess, enchantress, enticer ; L. siren ; 

F. sirene ; G. siorcegn ; Swed. sidra ; from sio the 

sea, and ra, ragn, a genius, divinity. 
SIRLOIN, s. a piece of beef, consisting of the loin and 

part of the rump ; F. surlonge, above the loin. 
SIRNAME, SURNAME, *. the family name ; some suppose 

from sire, the father; but apparently from F. sur 

nom ; L. super nomen. 
SIROC, SIROCCO, *. the south-east wind; It. serocco; Sp. 

xaloque, xaroque, from A. shurqu, eastern ; Heb. zar~ 

ach, the east. 

3 K I 

SIROP, *. juice boiled with sugar; A. shirb, shrob ; F. 

nirojt; T. syrup; L. 15. si/rupus. See ROB. 
SIRRAH, s. a. name of reproach or insult ; I. sareah, from 

S|>. iftrra/i ; {*, an imprecation. 

Sni IIKVKKKNCE, s. .1 term of deference in using an in- 
delicate expression, ordure; F. sous reverence; L. 

tub reverentia, under respect be it said. 
SISKIN, .v. the greenfinch; D. siskin ; Swed. siska ; T. 

zrixig; B.cysje; Sclav, cityzyk, izig. 
SISTER, s. a woman born of the same parents, a woman 

of the same community ; G. and Swed. syster ; D. 

wester; T. schivesler ; S. stveoster ; B. zuster ; Sclav. 

sester ; Sans, stvasara. 
SIT, v. to rest on the buttocks, perch, brood, incubate ; 

G. sita, sitan ; Swed. sitta ; D. silte, sidde ; T. sitzen ; 

B. ziUen ; S. sitian ; L. sedeo ; It. seder ; Sp. siliar. 
SITE, s. local position, situation ; L. situs. 
SITH, ad. seeing, since, after ; Swed. and S. silh, slthe. 

SITHE, *. an instrument for mowing ; S. sithe ; G. sigd. 

SITHENCE, ad. after that, since ; G. sithan ; Isl. tythan, 

sidan ; M. G. thane seiths, from that time ; S. sithian, 

to proceed, go on ; sith than, after then. 
SIXTY, a. ten added six times; G. sextije ; S. sixleg ; T. 

SIZE, #. 1. an assize, a standard, regulation, rate, stated 

quality, bulk. 
2. A viscous or glutinous substance that fixes or sets, a 

paste used by shoemakers, a mixture of lime and glue 

to indue walls ; It. slsa, from L. sedeo. 
SIZER, * a student of the lowest rank, who marks the 

assize of provisions at the university. 
SKAIN, SKEIN, *. a hank of thread, a knot ; German 

schien ; F. escaigne, escheveau, echeveau. 
SKAINSMATE, s. a pot companion, skinksmate. See 

SKEAN, *. a dagger or knife ; S. scegen ; I. scian ; W. 

ysgien ; A. sikkin, a sword, a cutlass. 
SKEGFRUIT, s. wood fruit, nuts, mast, acorns, wilding 

apples ; from G. skog, a wood. See SHAW. 
SKELETON, *. the bones of an animal preserved and put 

together by wires, a very thin person ; XAIT ; L 

sceleton ; F. squelette. 
SKELLUM, s. a knave, a criminal, a scoundrel ; G. skelm ; 

T. schelm ; Pol. szelma. 
SKEP, s. a basket, a measure for grain ; Swed. skdppa ; 

T. schajf, scejff'e ; Scot, skep ; L. B. scapha ; mtptf. 
SKETCH, *. a dash of the pen, an outline, a rough 

draught; F. esquisse ; Sp. esquicio; It. schizzo; B. 

schets, from B. schieten ; It. schizzare ; T. schiessen ; 

G. skijta, to shoot, to throw out. 
SKEW, a. oblique, sidewise, squinting ; D. skiatv ; Swed. 

skef ; T. scheich. See SKUE. 
SKEWER, *. a split or shaving of wood, a sharp peg; G. 

and Swed. skief; D. skeve. 
SKID, *. apiece of wood on which heavy bales or casks 

are made to slide in loading or unloading, a sliding 

wedge to stop the wheel of a carriage ; G. and Swed. 

skid ; S. scide ; T. scheil ; r^in. 
SKIFF, *. a small light boat; F. and Sp. esqtiif ; It. 

schifo ; W. ysgyf; T. schiff. See SHIP. 
SKILL,*, discernment, knowledge, experience, intellect; 

G. skil; Swed. skal, skial ; D. sktel ; I. sgeil ; from 

the verb. 
SKILL, v. n. to separate, discriminate, distinguish, have 

knowledge, judge ; G. \L-dia ; Swed. skilja ; S. scy- 

lan ; from G. ska, a division. 


SKILLET, *. a small boiler with feet; F. etcuelle, ecuetle, 
escuellet ; L. scutula. 

SKILLINO, s. a shed for cattle ; Swiss schaleg ; F. chal- 
et. See SHELTER. 

SKIM, v. 1. to take off the scum. 

2. To glide along lightly, to flit ; G. skyma ; Isl. skima. 

SKIN, *. a hide, pelt, the natural tegument of the body ; 
G. and Swed. skin ; S. scin, from G. skya, to cover. 
See SKY. 

SKINK, s. 1. drink, liquor; G. stink ; Swed. skeitks D. 
skienke ; S. scene ; T, schenke, a mug or decanter. 

2. A stinking animal, a kind of pole cat. See SKUNK. 

SKINK, v. n. from the noun ; to decant, to pour out 
liquor; G. skenkia ; S.scencan; T. schenken. 

SKIP, j). to move by quick leaps, to pass over without 
touching, to miss ; Swed. skimpa. See SCAMPER. 

SKIPPER, s. the master of a ship; B. schipper. 

SKIRMISH, v. n. to engage an enemy at long shot, taking 
advantage of every cover on the ground, without at- 
tempting any decisive action ; D. skiermydse ; T. 
scharmutzen ; F. escaramoucher ; It. scaramucciare : 
Swed. skirma ; T. schirmen ; B. schermen ; F. escri- 
mer ; It. scrimare ; Sp. escrimar, to fence, parry, de- 
fend; Swed. skerm ; D. skierm ; T. scherm; It. scher- 
mo, scrimia, defence, protection, shield, from G. skya, 
to cover. See SKY. 

SKI KH, SKIRRE, v. to run in haste; frequent, of scour, 
or Swed. sky, skyra, to run away, be skittish. 

SKIRRET, s. a plant, sugarwort; T. zuckerwort; D. 
sukkerroed, sugar root ; L. sisaron. 

SKIRT, *. a lap, a border, edge, corner ; G. skaut, skior. 
to.; Swed. skiot, skdrle ; S. sceat. 

SKIT, s. a jest, lampoon, whim, fancy. See SQUIT. 

SKITTISH, a. easily frightened, volatile, wanton, fickle ; 
from shy, anciently sky ; B. schigtig. 

SKUE, a. oblique, indirect, sidelong; G. ska, skar ; 
Swed. skef; D. skiafv ; T. schief, scheich ; B. scheef; 
Scot, skew ; W. osgo ; whence. Askew, Ascaunce, 
Squint, Scowl, Shail, Shilly, Scamble, Sheeps-eye, and 
our naval word to Sheer off. 

SKUNK, s. a pole cat, a stinking animal ; A. sugunkoor, 

SKY, s. the heavens, clouds, weather ; G. Swed. and D. 
sky ; S. scutva ; niH ', P. sya, a shade, canopy, cover- 
ing, from G. skya ; nu* ; whence Shaw, Shade, Sham, 
Scale, Shell, Shed, Shelter, Shield, Shrine, Screen, 
Shirt, Skirmish, Scull, Scalp, Sculk, Skin and Shoe ; 
T. handshoe, a glove. 

SLAB, s. 1. a board or flat stone, smooth on one side; 
T. schlable. See SLIVE. 

2. A puddle, a splash, a wet floody place ; It. lavacci, 

SLABBER, .*-. water flowing from the mouth, drivel ; B. 
slabber. See SLAVER. 

SLACK, a. loose, relaxed, slow, remiss, weak ; Swed. 
slak ; S. sleac ; B. slaak ; W. yslac, corresponding 
with F. lache ; L. laxus. See SLUG and SLOW. 

SLAG, *. the recrement of metals, scoria of coals ; Swed. 
slagg ; T. sclilacke ; B. schlacke. 

SLAIE, *. a weaver's reed. See SLAY. 

SLAKE, v. 1. to quench, to extinguish, prepare quick- 
lime with water ; G. slokna ; Isl. slocka ; Swed. 
sldcka, from G. laka ; S. leccian, to water. 

SLAM, v. to beat, knock with violence, discomfit, win all 
the tricks at cards ; M. G. slahan ; B. xluuit ; S. slan. 
See to SLAY and LAM. 

S L E 

SLANDER, v. a. to censure falsely, to calumniate, belie; 
F. esclandrer ; Scot, sclander, supposed to be cor- 
rupted from scandal ; but G. sroik ; S. stvic, perfidy, 
fraud, may have been prefixed to S. lean, to defame. ' 

SLANG, s. corrupt or obsolete language ; F. langue ; L. 
lingua, speech. See LINGO. 

SLANK, a. flexible, weak, slender; Swed. slank ; T. 
sclank ; D. slank, from LANK. 

SLANT, v. a. to slope, form obliquely ; Swed. slanta, to 
slide off; but Scot, sclent ; W. ysglent, appear to be 
from giant, oblique. See to GLANCE. 

SLAP, s. a blow with the open hand or any thing loose ; 
T. schlappe, from schlapp ; G. and B. slap, loose, lax! 

SLASH, s. a blow, a wound, a cut in cloth ; M. G. slahs. 
See to SLAY. 

SLATE, s. a grey schistous stone ; G. slaiht ; Swed. 
fleet ; S. slilh, signified flat, smooth, even : but B. 
schalie, schaley, a slate, appears to be from skia, to 
cover, and B. and T. ley ; W. lech, a flat stone ; Arm. 
maen sclid. 

SLATTERN, *. a woman negligent in dress ; T. schlau- 
der, schlotter. See SLUT. 

SLAVE, s. a bondman, one in servitude. The Teutons 
are said to have made at one time so many prisoners 
of the Sclavonians or Slovaki, that Sclav and captive 
became synonymous, and produced F. esclave ; 
clavo ; T. sclav ; B. slaaf, skebe. It would seem that 
Sclavonia, Servia and Dalmatia, had the same mean- 
ing, if the latter be from Svhoofiai. 

SLAVER, v. to drivel, smear with spittle ; G. slcefa ; Isl. 

slceya, to wet ; but our word appears to be from L. 

SLAUGHTER, s. massacre, destruction; G. slatr; Swed. 

slaglar ; D. slagter ; T. schlachter, from to SLAY. 
SLAY, v. to strike, beat, wound, kill ; G. slaga ; Swed. 

slit ; S. slean ; T. slacten, schlagen, apparently from 

G. laga ; S. lecgan. See to LICK. 
SLAY, SLEY, s. from the verb ; a weaver's reed fastened 

in a frame which beats the woof close in the web ; G. 

sla ; Swed. sld ; S. sice. 

SLEAVE, s. silk or thread untwisted. See to SLEY. 
SLEAZY, a. weak, thin, slight, flimsy. See LEASY. 
SLED, s. a sledge, a low carriage ; G. and D. slced, slcede; 
Swed. sldda ; T. schletten ; B. sleede. See to SLIDE. 
SLEDGE, s. a smith's heavy hammer, a beater ; G. sle"- 

gia ; Swed. slagga ; S. slecg. See to SLAY. 
SLEEK, a. even, smooth, soft, glossy ; G. silk ; Swed. 
sallk, slik; D. slig ; B. lekke, from G. Ilk, alike, 

SLEEP, v. n. to rest, to suspend the mental powers by 
repose, to be inattentive, to die ; M. G. slepan ; S. 
sleepan ; T. schlafen ; B. slaapen. The G. word so- 
fa ; D. save, to sleep, appears to have been cognate 
with L. sopio. 
SLEET, *. snow intermixed with rain; D. slud, sledur ; 

Swed. slagg; T. schlosse. 

SLEEVE, s. the covering of the arm ; Swed. sltf; S. slef, 
slyf; T. schlippe ; G. sieve, a garment ; S. slef an, to 
cover. See SLIP. 
SLEIGHT, *. cunning, artifice, trick ; Isl. slcegt ; 

Swed. *fogrf, as if slyhood. 

SLENDER, a. thin, slight, weak, sparing ; B. slender, 
sklender, from G. and Swed. Men ; T. klein, small, 
little, thin. 

SLEY, SLEAVE, v. a. to untwist thread for placing it in 
the slay or reed. 

S L O 

SLICE ,. a cut, a slive, a broad piece ; T. schlitz, from 
schhtzen, to slit. 

to slip ' to glide; s> slidan; B- slijden ' T- 

S r nde % Wea , k / ""substantial, mean, worth- 
vial' g schlecht > *kcht t from LIGHT, tri- 

SLIM, a slender, thin of shape; Isl. slam, weak, feeble; 

Swed. slem; B. slim; f. schlim, worthless, mean 

schliem, a membrane. 
SLIME, j. viscous matter, mud, mire; G. slim; Swed. 

stem; D. slym ; S. slim; B. slym ; T. schleim. 
SLING, s. a missive weapon, made by a strap and two 


SLING, v. a to throw from a sling, to move by a rope 

to hang by cords; Isl. slunga; Swed. stenga; D. 

slynge; T. shngen ; S. slingan. 
SLINK, v. to sneak, to steal or slip out of the way to 

miscarry as beasts, cast young; Swed. sllnka ; S. 

sltncan ; T. schleichen. 

SLINK, *. from the verb; an abortive animal, a pre- 
mature calf. 

SLIP v '.to move out of place, to glide, slide acci- 
dentally, fall into error ; G. skppa , Swed. slippa 
U.shppe; S. slipan ; B. slippen, slulpen; T. sclupfen, 
schletfen, to escape, let loose, take off a twig, dislocate. 

SLIPPER, *. a loose shoe without a buckle ; S. slipper. 

SLIPPERY, SLIPRY, a. glib, smooth, uncertain ; Swed- 

SLIT v.a. to cut or rend lengthwise; G. and Swed. 
sltta ; S. shtan ; T. schlllzen. 

to divide > to slice, to cut into slabs ; S. 
slijan ; T. schlippen, schlelfen. 

SLOAT s. the under timber of a cart, the board that 
holds the bottom together; from Swed. slut a ; D. 
slutte ; B, slmten, to fasten with a bolt. 

SLOBBER, v. to spill upon, to wet, to drivel. See 

SLOE, s . the fruit of the black thorn ; Swed. sla D 
slaa; S. sla; T. schlehe ; B. slee, slee prulm, the 
sour plum. 

SLOOP, *. a vessel with one mast; Swed. slup; D 

sluppe ; B. sloep, contracted from shallop. 
SLOP, v. a. 1. to make a puddle, spill, dash water ; B. 

slob, sleb, mire, wet. See SLOBBER and SLOUGH. 
2. To live on weak liquor and spoon meat; Swed. 

sUppa ; T. schlupfen, schlucken, signified to swallow ; 

but B. slappe is weak food, slappe thee, tea slops 

Swed. slapp ; S. slop, lax. 

SLOP, s. 1. from the verb; a puddle, bad liquor, spoon 

2. Overalls, trowsers, loose canvass to slip over clothes; 

Isl. slop, slip; S. slop ; B. sloop; T. schlupf. 
SLOPE, *. a slanting form, declivity, a smooth descent, 

a lapse ; S. slipe, slope. See to SLIP. 
SLOT, s. 1. the track or beat of a deer; G. slod ; S. 

slced, slat; Scot, sleuth; I. sliocht ; B. slag, slagt; T. 

hufsc/ilag, mark of the hoof. G. slod was also a 

beaten way for carriages on the snow, from slaea, 

to beat. 
2. A bolt or fastening for a door, the broad step or 

brace of a ladder or gate. See SLOAT. 
SLOTH, s. slowness, idleness, a sluggish animal Isl. 

sliod ; Swed. sldtt ; S. slcewth, as if slowhood. 

S M A 

S M O 

SLOUCH, *. a downcast manner, hanging gait, a clown ; 

Swell, slutt, from Isl. sluta. See LOUT. 
SLOVEN, t. one carelessly dressed, negligent, sluggish, 

dirty ; B. slof; Isl. sllof. See SLOW. 
SLOUOH, *. 1. a wet miry place, a plash; S. slog; I. 

stock. See LOUGH. 
2. The cast skin of a snake, the part that separates 

from an ulcerous sore, a pellicle ; T. schlauche, 

schlaube ; B. slutve. 
SLOUGHT, SLOUTH, s. a company of wild beasts, a troop 

of bears or wolves ; Swed. slcegt s B. slacht i T. ge- 

schlecht, progeny, race, family 

SLOW, a. dull, inactive, tardy, negligent, heavy in wit; 

G. slia ; Swed. do, sliu D- sloev ; S. slearv ; Isl. sliof. 
SLUBBER, v. a. to sully, perform carelessly ; B. slobberen. 

SLUDGE, s. dirt mixed with water, mire. See SLOUGH. 

SLUE, v. a. in sea language, to turn, bring round ; G. 

snua, to turn. 
SLUG, *. 1. a slothful person, a delay, a snail; Isl. slioga; 

B. slak, from SLOW. 
2. A kind of leaden shot, hammered and cut instead 

of being cast into balls ; B. sloeg, beaten. See SLEDGE. 
SLUGGARD, * a slothful person, a drone ; from slug and 

SLUICE, *. a floodgate, a lock on a river; D. sluset Swed. 

sluts } B. sluys i T. schleuss, from G. and Swed. sluta ; 

T. schliessen, to shut, corresponding with L. B. clusa ; 

It. chiusa ; F. escluse, ecluse, from L. clausus. 
SLUMBER, to dose, repose, dream, stupify ; Swed. 

slumra ; S. slumeran , B. sluymeren , T. schlummeren ; 

frequent, of schlumen D. slumme, to sleep. 
SLUR, s. a stain, a blot, a foul trick ; D. slor ; Swed. 

slodder, foul, sordid ; supposed to be from G. leidur, 

SLUT, *. a slovenly dirty woman ; B. skt, sloote, slodde ; 

Swed. slodder, a slattern, a slur. 
SLY, a. artful, cunning,' crafty ; G. slazgi Swed. slug, 

slug t D. slu ; T. schlau. * 

SMACK, *. 1. taste, flavour, the noise made by the mouth 

in tasting or kissing, the sound of a whip ; G. smalc ; 

D. smack ; S. smcec ; T. smag, schmack ; B. smaak. 

2. A small ship ; D. smakke ; T. smacke ;'& smak ; Port. 
sumaca ; F. semaque, from G. sma, small, and ceka, a 

3. A small portion, a little bit ; Swed. snuek, from sma, 
small. See SMATTKR. 

SMALL, a. little, slender, weak, puny ; G. sma, smal ; 

Swed. sma, smal ; S. small; T. schmal : G. mat, mol, 

a particle. 
SMALLAGE, *. wild celery, loveage ; from small and F. 

SMALT, *. enamel blue ; T. schmeltz ; It. smalto, enamel, 

cobalt. See to SMELT. 
SMART, v. n. to feel acute pain of body or mind ; Swed. 

smdrla ; D. smerte ; T. schmertsen ; S. smeorlan ; B. 

SMART, a. sharp, trim, spruce, active, witty ; Swed. 

smart, smerl,'snert ; G. snirt, spruce, trim, slender. 

SMASH, . to break, crush, beat ; a vulgar word formed 
from mash, or T. schmeissen, to beat, strike. 

SMATCH, *. taste, tincture, twang, small quantity. See 

SHATTER, *. a small quantity, slight knowledge; Isl. 

and Swed. smat ; D. smaat, smahet, from G. sma, 

SMEAR, s. grease, fat, oil, a mixture for the wheels of 

carriages, smut ; G. smior ; Swed. smor ; D. smart ; 

T. schmier ; S. sincere ; B. ttmeer. See MARROW. 
SMEAT, SMETCH, t>. a. to blacken, soil, pollute, infect, 

smear ; G. and Swed. xmeta ; D. smetle ; S. smiUan ; 

B. smetten ; T. schmutzen. See SMUT. 
SMELL, v. a. to inhale, to perceive by odour, to emit 

vapour ; B. smeulen is to smoke or reek, which in all 

the G. dialects signified to smell, in the same way 

that perfume is from L. fumo ; but S. smegan ; T. 

schmachcn, to smell, as well as Smack, taste, seem